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Full text of "The last voyage. [By] Annie Brassey, 1887"

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THE LAST VOYAGE, 

TO INDIA AND AUSTRALIA, 

IN THE 'SUNBEAM.' 

BY THE LATE 

LADY BRASSEY. 

ILLUSTRATED BY K. T. PHITCHETT AXD FROM PHOTOGRAPHS. 



The full-page plates and the headings to the chapters are printed 
in monotone by E. NISTER, of Nuremberg. 

The wood engravings in the text are executed by EDWARD 
WHYMPER, J. D. COOPER, and G. PEARSON. 



miXTED BY 

SPOTTISWOODE AND CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE 
LONDON' 



OCEAN 



CHART SHOWING 
TRACKoF THE YACHT"STTNBEAM" 

PROM NOV. 1886 TO DEC. 1887. 



4O West Longitude 2O 





"SUNBEAM" R.Y S. CHRISTMAS DAY.1886 





LONDON : LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO. 

NEW YORK : 15 EAST 16"' STREET 



G 







3 



All rights 



IN giving to the reading world these pages of the last Journal 
of one of the most popular writers of our day, no apology can 
be needed, and but little explanation. 

A word had better perhaps be said, and said here, as to 
my share in its composition. It is now twelve years ago since 
my friend then Mrs. Brassey asked my advice and assistance 
in arranging the Diary she had kept during the eleven months' 

cruise of the ' Sunbeam.' This assistance I gladly gave, and 

& 
she and I worked together, chiefly at reducing the mass of 

information gathered during the voyage. I often felt it hard 
to have to do away with interesting and amusing matter in 
order to reduce the book even to the size in which it appeared. 
It was a very pleasant and easy task, and I think the only 
difference of opinion which ever arose between us was as to 
the intrinsic merit of the manuscript. No one could have 
been more diffident than the writer of those charming pages ; 
and it needed all the encouragement which both I and her 
friend and publisher, Mr. T. Norton Longman, could offer, to 
induce her to use many of the simple little details of her life, 
literally ' on the ocean wave.' 

The success of the ' Voyage of the " Sunbeam " ' need not 



iv PREFACE 

be dwelt on here ; it fully justified our opinion, surprising its 
writer more than any one else by its sudden and yet lasting 
popularity. Other works, also well received and well known 
to the public, followed during the next few years, with which 
I had nothing to do. This last Journal now comes before 
Lady Brassey's world-wide public, invested with a pathos and 
sadness all its own. 

I venture to think that no one can read these pages with- 
out admiration and regret ; admiration for the courage which 
sustained the writer amid the weakness of failing health, and 
regret that the story of a life so unselfish and so devoted to 
the welfare of others should have ended so soon. 

On his return home, in December 1887, from this last 
cruise, Lord Brassey placed in my hands his wife's journals 
and manuscript notes, knowing that they would be reverently 
and tenderly dealt with, and believing that, on account of my 
previous experience with the 'Voyage of the " Sunbeam," ' I 
should understand better than any one else the writer's wishes. 

My task has been a sad and in some respects a difficult 
one. Not only do I keenly miss the bright intelligence 
which on a former occasion made every obscure point clear 
to me directly, but the notes themselves are necessarily very 
fragmentary in places. It astonishes me that any diary at all 
should have been kept amid the enthusiasm which greeted 
the arrival and departure of the ' Sunbeam ' at every port, 
the hurry and confusion of constant travelling, and, saddest 
of all, the evidences of daily increasing weakness. Great also 
has been my admiration for the indomitable spirit which lifted 
the frail body above and beyond all considerations of self. 
I need not here call attention to Lady Brassey's devotion 
to the cause of suffering shown in her unceasing efforts to 
establish branches of the St. John Ambulance Association all 



PREFACE v 

over the world. It will be seen that the last words of the 
Journal refer to this subject, so near the writer's heart. 

I have thought it best to allow the mere rough outline diary 
of the first part of the Indian journey to appear exactly as 
it stands, instead of attempting to enlarge it, which could have 
been done from Lord Brassey's notes. But, unhappily, the 
chief interest now of every word of this volume will consist, 
not in any information conveyed for that could easily be 
supplied from other sources but in the fact of its being Lady 
Brassey's own impression jotted hastily down at the moment. 
After reaching Hyderabad there was more leisure and an 
interval of better health ; consequently each day's record 
is fuller. After August 2Qth the brief jottings of the first 
Indian days are resumed, but I have not felt able to lay these 
notes before the public, for they are simple records of suffering 
and helpless weakness, too private and sacred for publication. 
They extend up to September loth, only four days before the 
end. 

No one but Lord Brassey could take up the story after that 
date, and it is therefore to his pen that we owe the succeeding 
pages. All through the Journal I found constant references to 
what are called in the family the ' Sunbeam Papers,' a journal 
kept by Lord Brassey and printed for private circulation. With 
his permission, I have availed myself of these notes wherever 
I could do so, and I believe that this is what Lady Brassey would 
have wished. There were also, with the MSS., many interest- 
ing newspaper extracts referring to public utterances of Lord 
Brassey, but of these want of space compels me only to give 
three, specially alluded to by his wife, which will be found in the 
Appendix. 

Lady Brassey had created an extraordinarily intimate and 
friendly feeling between herself and her readers all over the 



vi PREFACE 

world. It has been felt in accordance with this mutual and 
affectionate understanding to give little personal details, and 
even a memoir compiled by Lord Brassey for his children 
during the sad days following the I4th of September, to the 
friendly eyes which will read with regret the last Journal of 
one who has been their pleasant chronicler and chatty fellow- 
traveller for so long. It must always seem as if Lady Brassey 
wrote specially for those who did not enjoy her facilities for 
going about and seeing everything. 

I must express my thanks to Lady Brassey's secretaries 
for the kind help they have afforded me, not only hi decipher- 
ing MSS., but in verifying dates and names of places. 

M. A. BROOME. 

LONDON : March 1888. 



Contents. 



CHAPTER PAGE 

MEMOIR ....... xiii 

INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER . . . . . 1 

I. BOMBAY TO JUBBULPORE . . . . .9 

II. HYDERABAD AND POONA . . . 34 

III. BOMBAY ... ... 56 

IV. BOMBAY TO GOA . . . . 73 

V. COLOMBO .... 97 

VI. RANGOON ........ 120 

VII. LABUAN . ..... 155 

VIII. ELEOPURA . . . . . . . 175 

IX. CELEBES ....... 203 

X. WESTERN AUSTRALIA . . . . . 229 

XI. ALBANY TO ADELAIDE . . . 251 

XII. ADELAIDE . . . . . . 2G9 

XIII. VICTORIA . . . . . . .287 

XIV. NEW SOUTH WALES . . . . . 309 
XV. NEW SOUTH WALES (continued] .... 325 

XVI. QUEENSLAND .... . 339 

XVII. THE EAST COAST . . . . . .367 

XVIII. EAST COAST (continued) . . . . 391 

XIX. PRINCE OF WALES' ISLAND ..... 409 

APPENDIX . ... 427 

INDEX .... 479 



%ist of Jllustvattons. 



FULL-PA GE ILL VSTEA TIOXS. 

' SUNBEAM,' H.Y.S., CHRISTMAS DAY, 1886 . . . . Fruntispicce 

PORT SAID COALING-PARTY ..... To face page i 

ELEPHANTA CAVES . . . . . . . ,, 18 

PESHAWUE COAL-DEPOT . . . . . . ,,26 

EN ROUTE TO HUNT BLACK-BUCK WITH CHEETAH . . . ,,40 

PATIALA ELEPHANTS : THE DIUVE ....,, 62 

RELIGIOUS FESTIVAL, MALABAR POINT . . . . ,,70 

BEXAKES AND THE SACRED GANGES ....,, 84 

MOULMEIN, FROM THE ElVER . . . . . ,132 

SINGAPORE, ENTRANCE TO HAKBOUK ....,, 140 

SARAWAK, BORNEO : OPPOSITE THE RAJAH'S FORT . . . ,, 148 

FISHING-STAKES, SARAWAK RIVER ....,, 162 

ENTRANCE TO BIRD'S-NEST CAVES, MADAI . . . . ,,184 

FORDING THE STREAM FOE MADAI . . . . ,,196 

KINA BALU, 13,700 FEET . . . . . . ,, 210 

BAD WEATHER, WEST COAST OF AUSTRALIA 226 

TREE-FERNS, AUSTRALIA . . . . . ,, 244 

NORTH HEAD, SYDNEY HARBOUR . . . . . ,, 306 

ABORIGINES IN CAMP . . . . . . . ,, 370 

ANT-HILLS, QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA ....,, 422 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT. 



PAGE 

TITLE-PAGE 

EVENTIDE . . xiii 

EVENING PRAYER . . . . i 
PORTSMOUTH, H.M.S. ' HER- 
CULES ' . . -2 
TANKS AT ADEN . . 3 
KURRACHEE HARBOUR . . 5 
THE MIRS FALCONER . . . 5 
BOKHARA MAN .... 6 
GOING TO DINNER . . . . 6 
OUR HOME ON WHEELS . . 7 
JUBILEE ILLUMINATIONS, BOMBAY 9 
CROSSING THE INDUS . . . 10 
SHIKARPUR BAZAAR . . .11 
SUKHUR BRIDGE, INDUS . . 12 
OLD SUKHUR . . . 13 
TEMPLE OF THE SUN, MOOLTAN. 14 
EUNJEET SINGH'S TOMB, LAHORE 1 5 
CANON, MURREE . . .16 
AFGHANS AT JAMRUD . . . 17 
JAMRUD FORT . . . .18 
CAMEL-GUNS AND STANDARD . . 18 
CABUL NATIVE, LAHORE . 19 

LAHORE 19 

CAMEL TEAM . . . .20 

AMRITSAR 20 

PATIALA ELEPHANTS . . .21 
'CROSS-COUNTRY . . . . 22 
ELEPHANTS DRINKING . . 22 
MOUNTING . . . 22 

THE KUTUB MINAR . . -23 
BASE OF KUTUB MINAR . . . 24 
OLD DELHI AND WEAPONS . . 25 

ULWAR 26 

PALACE IN THE ULWAR FORT . 27 



PAGE 

SAR-BAHR, GWALIOR . . . 28 
GROUP OF NATIVES . . .29 
WATER-CARRIER, BENARES . . 30 
NERBUDDA RIVER MARBLE 

EOCKS 31 

MEARI, THE LAST OF THE THUGS . 31 
TEMPLE AT ELLORA . . 32 

THE FORT, POONAH . . . 34 

GUN EOCK 36 

ONE -TREE HILL . . 37 
MIR ALAM, HYDERABAD . . 38 
CHEETAH-CART . . . . 40 

DEATH or THE BUCK . . -41 
MOSQUE ENTRANCE . . . 44 
THE HAMYAN JUMP, DELHI . 48 
No COAL . . . . . 51 

INTERIOR, DELHI . . -53 
BENGAL LANCER EAWUL PINDI . 56 
THE GHAUTS, BOMBAY . . 58 
BODYGUARD AND PEON, MALABAR 
POINT. . . . . . 60 

THE APOLLO BUNDER . . 65 
BOMBAY HARBOUR . . . . 67 

OMNIBUS-HORSE TOPE . . 68 
HINDOO GIRL . . . . 69 

AT THE CHILDREN'S BALL . . 70 
THE ARCH OF THE VICEROYS, 

GOA 73 

JINJEERA FORT . . . -75 
OFF EATNAGIRI . . . . 77 
YINGORA EOCKS . . . -79 
VINGORA LIGHTHOUSE . . . 81 
PORTUGUESE EOWLOCK . . 82 
CAPE GOA ENTRANCE . . . 83 
ST. XAVIER, GOA . . -87 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



INQUISITION STAKE, GOA . . 89 

VIEW IN CEYLON . . -97 

BUDDHIST PRIEST . . . . 99 

TALIPOT PALM . . . . 101 

SEYCHELLES PALM . . . 103 

GOVERNOR'S PEON, KANDY . . 104 

CINGALESE WEAPONS . . . 105 

POINT DE GALLE . . .106 

TlUNCOMALEE HARBOUR . . . Io8 

JUMPING FISH (Pcrioplitlialmus 
Kolreuteri) . . . . no 

SAMI BOCK 1 14 

Coco ISLAND LIGHT . . .116 
ENTRANCE TO CAVES AT MOUL- 

MEIN 119 

MERCHANT DHOWS, INDIAN OCEAN 120 
GREAT PAGODA COURT . .122 
ENTRANCE TO TEMPLE . . . 123 
DAGON . . . . -125 
RANGOON BOAT, STERN . . . 126 
DITTO STEM? . .127 

MOULMEIN 129 

ELEPHANTS AT WORK . -130 
DITTO . . .131 

MOULMEIN RIVER BOAT . -132 
ON THE IRRAWADDY . . 133 

ENTRANCE TO MOULMEIN CAVES. 135 
FERRY AT MORCENATIN . . . 136 
POINT AMHERST, WATER TEMPLE. 138 
BOUND SOUTH . . . . 139 
TRAVELLER'S PALM, SINGAPORE . 142 
JUNKS, SINGAPORE . . . 144 
NAVIGATION BOARDS, RIVER 
KUCHING . . . .146 

FIRE -TUBE 148 

DYAK 149 

KUCHING 152 

THE FORT 153 

LABUAN 155 

MALAY VILLAGE, LABUAN . .158 
BRUNEI HATS . .161 



PANGERAN'S ARRIVAL . . . 
PITCHER PLANTS AND KINA BALU . 
KUDAT . 
ON THE FORE -YARD, MAKING THE 

LAND ..... 
IN THE BIRD'S-NEST CAVES, 

MADAI 

MR. FLINT'S BUNGALOW 
KAPUAN TIMBER-STATION . . 
DYAK DANCE .... 
BORNEO WEAPONS . . . . 
SANDAKAN, BEARING N. 
ENTERING RIVER, MADAI . . 
COMMISSARIAT DEPARTMENT 
RETURN OF THE HEAD-HUNTER . 

SULUS AT SlLAM 

RETURNING AT Low WATER . . 
DUTCH FORT, MACASSAR 
THE SHOOTING PARTY . . . 
UNDER THE SUN 
OUR COACHMAN, MACASSAR . . 
DUTCH (NATIVE) SOLDIERS 
MACASSAR POLICEMAN 
FISHING -BOAT, ALLAS STRAIT 
OUR WIND-BOB . . . . 
MORE BAD WEATHER . 
TOPMAST STUNSAILS 
EFFECT OF A SQUALL . 
FAUNA, W. AUSTRALIA . 
KINGLY . . . . . 

BLACK BOYS 

A BREAKDOWN IN THE BUSH 

BOOMERANGS OR KYLIES . . 

GETTING UNDER WAY . 

AN ABORIGINAL . . . 

THE PORT WATCH 

RUNNING DOWN -EASTING . , 

CRACKING ON 

PROCLAMATION-TREE, GLENELG , 

' PROTECTOR ' GUNBOAT 

SUNSET 



164 
169 



173 

175 
177 
'79 
181 
184 

185 
187 
189 
192 
198 
199 
203 
207 
209 

21 I 
212 
213 
2l6 

218 

22O 
223 
225 
229 

233 
2 3 6 
243 
249 
251 
254 
257 
260 
26l 
264 
267 
269 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 
272 

275 
2 7 8 
280 
282 
284 



ADELAIDE 

SrrPAirDRA UMUKLLATA . 

ON THE MUBBAY RIVER 

A BUCKBOABD . . . . 

BALLARAT 

MINERS' CAMP . . . . 
EXHIBITION BUILDINGS, MEL- 
BOURNE ..... 287 
VICTORIA DEFENCE FLEET . . 289 
LANCERS AND SOUDAN CONTIN- 
GENT 292 

SELECTORS 296 

FERNS 302 

A FOREST BRIDGE . . . 304 

SYDNEY HARBOUR . . . 307 
BANKSIAS, &c., NEW SOUTH 

WALES . . . . 309 

SUMMER HILL CREEK . -313 
WATERFALL GULLY . . .318 

KATOOMBA 320 

COOK'S MONUMENT, BOTANY BAY 323 
SIGNAL STATION, NEWCASTLE . 325 
KANGAROO-FOOT (Arrigozanthus) 327 
CATTLE CROSSING THE DARLING 
RIVER 



SHEEP CROSSING RIVER . 
OFF THE TRACK 
ROCKHAMPTON LlLIES 
FERN FOREST 
GERMAN WAGGON . 
TURPENTINE-TREE 
CKINUM ASIATIC UM 



335 
337 
339 
341 
346 
348 
349 



TI-TREES 355 

MOUNT MORGAN . . . 357 
THE FORD ..... 363 



PAGE 

NATIVE WEAPONS, QUEENSLAND . 366 
BALLOON CANVAS . . . . 367 
STOWING FORETOPSAIL . . 371 
QUEENSLAND NATIVES . . . 373 
CARDWELL SCHOOL HOUSE . . 375 
DEAD CROCODILE ON SNAG . .378 
THE TRAIN IN THE BUSH . . 382 

ZAMOA TREE 384 

ON THE JOHNSTONE RlVER . 387 
NAVIGATORS . . ... 389 
THURSDAY ISLAND . . .391 

COOKTOWN 393 

CORAL ON PEARL-OYSTER . . 396 
DRUM FBOM MURRAY ISLAND . . 402 
HAMMER-HEADED OYSTER . . 404 
CLAREMONT ISL\ND LIGHT- 
SHIP 406 

THE LAST MILL IN AUS- 
TRALIA 408 

PORT DARWIN .... 409 
DARNLEY ISLAND; THE SHORE .413 

DITTO 416 

CURIOS FROM MURRAY ISLAND . . 420 
IN THE TORRES STRAITS . . 423 
CHURCH ON DARNLEY ISLAND. . 425 
ST. Louis, MAURITIUS . . 429 
OFF THE CAPE . . . . 432 
ST. HELENA .... 435 
LOXGWOOD, ST. HELENA . . 437 
ASCENSION. GREEN MOUNTAIN . 439 
SIERRA LEONE . . . . 441 
BARQUE HOVE-TO . . . 443 

Pico 444 

BEARING UP FOR SHELTER . . 445 
TAILPIECE. 



TRACK CHART 
MAP OF INDIA 



Tn fMtnv Half -title 
To face page 72 




FOR MY CHILDREN. 

A BRIEF MEMOIR OF THEIR DEAR MOTHER. 

' The greatest benefit which one friend can confer upon another is to guard, 
and excite, and elevate his virtues. This your mother will still perform if you 
diligently preserve the memory of her life and of her death. 

' There is something pleasing in the belief that our separation from those 
whom ice lore is only corporeal. 

' Here is one expedient by which you may, in some degree, continue her 
presence. If you write down minutely what you remember of her from your 
earliest years, you will read it ivith great pleasure, and receive from it many 
hints of soothing recollections, when time shall remove her yet further from 
you, and your grief shall be matured to veneration.' 

DR. JOHNSOX. 

MY DEAR CHILDREN, In sorrow and grief I have prepared a 
sketch of the life and character of your dearly loved mother, 
whom it has pleased God to call to Himself. Slight and im- 
perfect as it is, it ma}' hereafter help to preserve some tender 
recollections, which you would not willingly let die. 

I shall begin with her childhood. Her mother having 



MEMOIR 



died hi her infancy, for some years your dear mother lived, 
a solitary child, at her grandfather's house at Clapham. 
Here she acquired that love of the country, the farm, and the 
garden which she retained so keenly to the last. Here she 
learned to ride ; and here, with little guidance from teachers, 
she had access to a large library, and picked up in a desultory 
way an extensive knowledge of the best English, French, 
German, and Italian literature. 

After a few years' residence at Clapham, your grandfather 
moved to Chapel Street, Grosvenor Place, and later to the 
house which you remember in Charles Street. At this period 
your mother's education was conducted by her attached and 
faithful governess, Miss Newton, whcni you all know. She 
attended classes, but otherwise her life must have been even 
more solitary in London than at Clapham. Her evenings 
were much devoted to Botany, and by assiduous application 
she acquired that thorough knowledge of the science which 
she found so useful later, in describing the profuse and varied 
vegetation of the tropics. 

And now I come to my engagement to your mother. How 
sweet it is to remember her as she was in those } T oung da}'s ; 
in manners so frank and unaffected, and full of that buoyant 
spirit which to the end of her life never nagged. She enjoyed 
with a glad heart every pleasure. She was happy at a ball, 
happy on her horse, happy on the grouse-moor, devoted to 
her father, a favourite with all her relatives, and very, very 
sweet to me. Gladness of heart, thankfulness for every 
pleasure, a happy disposition to make the best of what 
Providence has ordered, were her characteristics. 

"\Ve were married in October 1860. After our marriage 
we had everything to create our home, our society, our 
occupations. We began life at Beauport ; and wonderfully 
did your dear mother adapt herself to wholly unanticipated 
circumstances. Beauport became a country home for our 



MEMOIR xv 

nearest relations on both sides. As a girl, your mother had 
been a most loving daughter to her own father. After her 
marriage she was good and kind to my parents. To my 
brothers, until they were old enough to form happy homes of 
their own, she was an affectionate sister. 

At the date of our marriage, no definite career had 
opened out for me. To follow my father's business was not 
considered expedient, and I had no commanding political in- 
fluence. In the endeavour to help me to obtain a seat in 
Parliament, your dear mother displayed a true wife-like 
devotion. She worked with an energy and earnestness all 
her own, first at Birkenhead in 1861, and later at Devonport 
and Sandwich constituencies which I fought unsuccessfully 
and my return for Hastings in 1868 afforded her the more 
gratification. It had been the custom in the last-named con- 
stituency to invite the active assistance of ladies, and especially 
the wives of the candidates, in canvassing the electors. Your 
mother readily responded to the call. She soon became popular 
among the supporters of the Liberal party, and throughout 
my connection with Hastings she retained the golden opinions 
which she had so early won. Her nerve, high spirit, and ability, 
under the fierce ordeal of the petition against my return, have 
been described in his memoirs by Serjeant Ballantine, who con- 
ducted my case. He called your mother as his first witness 
for the defence, put one or two questions, and then handed 
her wholly unprepared to the counsel for the petitioners 
the present Lord Chancellor. With unflinching fortitude 
your mother endured a cross-examination lasting for upwards 
of an hour. Her admirable bearing made a great impression 
upon the eminent judge (Mr. Justice Blackburn) who tried the 
case, and won the sympathies of the dense crowd of spectators. I 
remember how gratefully your mother acknowledged the mercy 
of Heaven in that crisis of her life. ' I could not have done 
it unless I had been helped,' were her simple words to me. 



xviii MEMOIR 

dockyard towns at home and abroad, attended naval reviews, 
and was present at the manoeuvres on the coast of Ireland 
in 1885, and in Milford Haven in 1886. At home and abroad 
she always aided most cordially my desire to establish kindly 
relations with the naval profession, among whom she num- 
bered, I am sure, not a few sincere friends. The same spirit of 
sympathy carried your mother with me on dreary and arduous 
journeys to Ireland, where she paid several visits to the Lough 
Swilly estates. She called personally on every tenant, asked 
them to visit the ' Sunbeam,' treated them most kindly, and 
won their hearts. 

Her reception of the Colonial visitors to England last 
year, when suffering from severe illness, and the visits to the 
Colonies, which were the last acts of her life, are the most 
recent proofs which your dear mother was permitted to give 
of her genuine sympathy with everything that was intended for 
the public good. The reception which she met with in Australia 
afforded gratifying assurances of the wide appreciation of her 
high-minded exertions on the part of our Colonial friends. 

The last day of comparative ease in your mother's life 
was spent at Darnley Island. You remember the scene : the 
English missionaries, the native teacher with his congregation 
assembled around him, the waving cocoa-nuts, the picturesque 
huts on the beach, the deep blue sea, the glorious sunshine, 
the beauty and the peace. It was a combination after your 
mother's heart, which she greatly enjoyed, resting tranquilly 
under the trees, fanned by the refreshing trade-wind. You 
will remember her marked kindness of manner in giving en- 
couragement to the missionaries in their work. It was another 
instance of her broad sympathies. 

In attempting to give a description of your dear mother's 
fine character, I cannot omit her splendid courage. I have re- 
ferred to it as shown on the sea. You who have followed her 
with the hounds, as long as she had strength to sit in the saddle, 



MEMOIR 



will never forget her pluck and skill. Her courage never 
failed her. It upheld her undaunted through many illnesses. 

And now I turn to that part of the work of her life by 
which your dear mother is best known to the outer world. 
Her books were widely read by English-speaking people, and 
have been translated into the language of nearly every civilised 
nation. The books grew out of a habit, early adopted when 
on her travels, of sitting up in bed as soon as she awoke in the 
morning, in her dressing-jacket, and writing with pencil and 
paper an unpretending narrative of the previous day's pro- 
ceedings, to be sent home to her father. The written letter 
grew into the lithographed journal, and the latter into the 
printed book, at first prepared for private circulation, and 
finally, on completion of our voyage round the world, for 
publication. The favourable reception of the first book was 
wholly unexpected \)j the writer. She awoke and found her- 
self famous. 

Her popularity as a writer has been won by means the 
simplest, the purest, and most natural which can be con- 
ceived. Not a single unkind or ungenerous thought is to be 
found in any book of hers. The instruction and knowledge 
conveyed, if not profound, are useful and interesting to readers 
of all classes. The choice of topics is always judicious. A 
bright and happy spirit glows in her pages, and it is this which 
makes the books attractive to all classes. They were read 
with pleasure by Prince Bismarck, as he smoked his evening 
pipe, as well as by girls at school. Letters of acknowledgment 
used to reach your mother from the bedside of the aged and 
the sick, from the prairies of America, the backwoods of 
Canada, and the lonely sheep-stations of Australia. Those 
grateful letters were the most valued which were received from 
the cottages of the poor. As old George Herbert sings, 

Scorn no man's love, though of a mean degree ; 
Love is a present for a mighty King. 



xx MEMOIR 

It was natural that your mother, with her eager nature, 
should be spurred on to renewed efforts by success. She set 
out on her last journey full of hope and enterprise. In 
India, in Borneo, in Australia, she was resolved to leave no 
place unvisited which could by any possibility be reached, 
and where she was led to believe that objects of interest 
could be found, to be described to readers who could not 
share her opportunities of travel. The enlargement of our 
programme of journeys within the tropics threw a heavy 
strain on her constitution. In Northern India her health was 
better than it had been for years, but she fell away after 
leaving Bombay. Rangoon and Borneo told upon her. She 
did not become really ill until the day after leaving Borneo, 
when she was attacked by the malarial fever which infests the 
river up which she had travelled to the famous bird's-nest caves. 
She suffered much until we reached the temperate climate of 
South Australia. 

On leaving Brisbane we found ourselves once more in 
the tropics. Enfeebled by an attack of bronchitis caught at 
Brisbane, your mother was again seized with malarial fever. 
On the northern coast of Australia such fevers are prevalent, 
and our visits to Rockhampton, the Herbert River, Mourilyan, 
and Thursday Island, where we were detained ten days, were 
probably far from beneficial. No evil consequence was, how- 
ever, anticipated ; and without undue self-reproach we must 
bow with submission to the heavy blow which, in the ordering 
of Providence, has befallen us. 

Your dear mother died on the morning of September 14, 
1887, and her remains were committed to the deep at 
sunset on the same day (Lat. 15 50' S., Long. 110 35' E.) 
Every member of the ship's company was present to pay the 
last tribute of love and respect on that sad occasion. Your 
dear mother died in an effort to carry forward the work which, 
as she believed, it had pleased God to assign to her. 



MEMOIR 



From your mother's books let us turn to her charities ; 
and first her public charities. You know how she has laboured 
in the cause of the St. John Ambulance Association, how 
she has taken every opportunity of urging forward the work 
in every place which we visited, in the West Indies, in the 
Shetlands, in London, at Middlesbrough, in Sussex. At all 
the ports at which we touched on our last cruise she spared 
no pains to interest people in the work. You heard her 
deliver her last appeal in the cause at Rockhampton. She 
spoke under extreme physical difficulty, but with melting 
pathos. As it was her last speech, so, perhaps, it was her best. 

Your mother took up ambulance work at a time when it 
was little in fashion, because she believed it to be a good cause. 
By years of hard work, in speech, in letter, by interview, by 
pamphlet, by personal example and devotion, she spread to 
multitudes the knowledge of the art of ministering first-aid to 
the injured. We may rest assured that her exertions have 
been, under Providence, the means of saving many precious 
lives. In her last cruise you have seen how, when painful 
injuries have been received, she has been the first to staunch 
the bleeding wound, facing trying scenes with a courage which 
never faltered while there was need for it, but which, as the 
reaction which followed too surely told, put a severe strain 
upon her feeble frame. 

Many could tell, in terms of deepest gratitude, what a true 
angel from heaven your dear mother had been to them in their 
hours of sickness. You will readily recall some of the most 
striking occasions. 

That your mother accomplished what she did is the more 
to be admired when account is taken of the feeble condition of 
her health and of her many serious illnesses. She inherited 
weakness of the chest from her mother, who died of decline in 
early life. When on the point of first going out into society, 
she w T as fearfully burned, and lay for six months wrapped in 






xxii MEMOIR 

cotton-wool, unable to feed herself. In the early years of our 
married life we were frequently driven away in the winter to 
seek a cure for severe attacks of bronchitis. In 1869 your 
mother caught a malarial fever while passing through the 
Suez Canal. She rode through Syria in terrible suffering. 
There was a temporary rally, followed by a relapse, at Alexan- 
dria. From Alexandria we went to Malta, where she remained 
for weeks in imminent danger. She never fully recovered 
from this, the first of her severe illnesses, and in 1880 she 
had a recurrence of fever at Algiers. It was followed by 
other similar attacks at C owes in 1882, in the West Indies 
in 1883, at Gibraltar in 1886, and on her last voyage, first 
at Borneo, and finally, and with the results we so bitterly 
lament, on the coast of Northern Queensland. Only in- 
domitable courage could have carried your mother through so 
much illness and left her mental energies wholly unimpaired, 
long after her physical frame had become permanently en- 
feebled. Loss of health compelled her to withdraw in great 
measure from general society. She was unequal to the 
demands of London life, and from the same cause was unable 
to remain in England during the winter. Thus she gradually 
lost touch of relatives and friends of former years, for whom 
she had a genuine regard. In such society as she was able to 
see at the close of her too short life, she never failed to win 
regard and sympathy. There will be many sad hearts in 
Australia when the tidings of your mother's death reaches the 
latest friends whom she was privileged to win. 

The truest testimony to your mother's worth is to be found 
in the painful void created in the home circle by her death. 
For me the loss must be irreparable. It would, indeed, be 
more than we could bear, if we had no hope for the future. 
We cling to that hope ; and whatever our hand findeth to do, 
we must, like her, try to do it with all our might. 

Such then was your dear mother : a constant worker, 



MEMOIR 



working it may be beyond her strength, yet according to the 
light which God had given her, and in the noblest causes. 
Your mother was always doing good to those from whom she 
had no hope to receive. She did not do her alms before men : 
not those at least which cost her most in time and in thought. 
When she prayed, she entered into her closet and shut the 
door, and, without vain repetition, presented her heart's desire 
in language most simple before the Father in Heaven. Her 
life was passed in the spirit of the Apostle's exhortation : 'Be 
ye kind one to another, tender-hearted, forgiving one another.' 

In the last prayer which she was able to articulate with 
me, your mother besought the blessing of Heaven upon us 
both, praying that she might yet be spared to be a comfort to 
me and all around her. In that prayer was embodied the 
central aim of her existence. Her praise to God was sung in 
her work of practical good. Her psalm was the generous 
sacrifice of self to works which she believed would be for the 
advantage of others. This thoughtfulness was shown in the 
most beautiful way, when the last sad call had come. When, 
m reply to her touching inquiry, ' Is it quite hopeless ? ' the 
answer gave no encouragement to hope, you will not forget 
the tenderness, the unfaltering fortitude, with which she 
bestowed her blessing, and then proceeded, until articulation 
was denied, to distribute to each some token of her tender 
love. She died in perfect charity with all, sweetly submissive 
to the Divine Will, and consoling her afflicted husband and 
children to the very last. 

Your mother's heart was as large as it was tender. She 
was devoted, as a wife, to her husband ; as a mother, to her 
children. She was kind to dependents, ever thoughtful for 
the poor, and there was a large place in her heart for her 
dumb companions. Her presence will, I am sure, never fade 
from your recollection ; and in all my remembrance of her I 
can recall no period of her life when her face was so dear to 



MEMOIR 



look upon as in the days after leaving Port Darwin. As she 
lay back on her pillows, a veil of white lace thrown round her 
head, her eyes so bright, her smiles so loving, not a murmur 
from her lips nor a shade of unrest on her serene countenance, 
the peculiar sweetness of her expression seemed a foretaste of 
the peace of heaven. 

I do not recall these things solely as a tribute to the dear 
one who has passed away from among us, but for your profit 
and for mine. We have seen how your mother used her 
opportunities to make the world a little better than she found 
it. We may each do the same service in our own sphere, and 
so may best be followers of her good example. In tenderest 
love may we ever cherish and bless and revere her memory. 

My dear children, I might write more. I could never tell 
you what your mother was to me. 

Your very affectionate father, 

BKASSEY. 

' SCXBEAM,' K.Y.S. : September 1887. 




INTRODUCTORY CHAPTER. 



WHEN the arrangements for a contemplated cruise to the 
East were being considered, towards the end of 1886, 
it was thought best for Lady Brassey and her daughters 
to make the voyage to Bombay in a P. & 0. steamer. The 
' Sunbeam ' herself was to sail from Portsmouth by the 
middle of November. Lord Brassey, in the first paragraph 
of his ' Sunbeam Papers,' thus acknowledges the help he 
derived at starting, in what may be called the domestic de- 
partment of the yacht, from Lady Brassey's presence on 
board for even a few hours. 

' We embarked at Portsmouth on Monday, November i6th. 
The " Sunbeam " was in hopeless confusion, and it required 
no ordinary effort of determination and organisation to clear 
out of harbour on the following day. A few hours at South- 



INTRODUCTORY 



ampton did wonders in evolving order out of chaos. On the 
afternoon of November i8th, my wife and eldest daughter, 
who had come down to help in preparing for sea, returned to 
the shore, and the " Sunbeam" proceeded immediately down 
Channel.' 

At Plymouth Lord Brassey was joined by the late Lord 
Dalhousie and by Mr. Arnold Morley, M.P. The former landed 
at Gibraltar, and the latter at Algiers. Through the long 
voyage to Bombay the gallant little yacht held stoutly on her 
course, meeting first a mistral in the Mediterranean, then 
strong head- winds in the Bed Sea, and having the N.E. mon- 
soon in her teeth after leaving Aden. 

In the meantime Lady Brassey, her three daughters, and 
some friends left England a few days after the yacht had 
sailed, travelling slowly, with many interesting stopping- 




Portsmouth. H.M.S. 'Hercules' 



places, and not finally reaching Brindisi until December i ith. 
Thence to Egypt was but a brief voyage, and the one day's 



INTRODUCTORY 





Tanks at 
Aden 



rest (!) at Alexandria 
was devoted, as usual, 
by Lady Brassey to 
visits so minute in 
their careful examina- 
tion into existing condi- 
tions as to be more an 
inspection than the cursory 
call of a passing traveller 
to the Soldiers and Sailors' 
Institute, and also to the 
Military Hospital at Ramleh. 
Arrangements had next to be 
made for the disposal of stores 
sent out by the Princess of Wales' 
branch of the National Aid Society ; 
and all this constituted what may 
fairly be considered a hard day's work. 
Then came a well-occupied week in 



INTRODUCTORY 



Cairo, where much hospital- visiting was again got through, 
and many interviews respecting the site for the new hospital 
at Port Said were held with the Egyptian authorities. This 
pleasant but by no means idle dawdling brought the party 
to Suez on December 23rd, where they embarked at once 
on board the P. & 0. steamer ' Thames,' Captain Seaton, and 
started at midnight for Bombay. 

Carefully and well had the plans for both voyages been 
laid, and successfully by grace of wind and weather had 
they been carried out. On January 3rd, 1 887, Lord Brassey 
in the ' Sunbeam ' and Lady Brassey in the ' Thames ' ex- 
changed cordial signals of greeting off the harbour of Bombay. 
The incident must be briefly described from the earlier ' Sun- 
beam Papers ' (for of this first portion of the cruise Lady 
Brassey has unhappily left no notes) . ' As we were becalmed 
off Bombay, waiting for the sea breeze which invariably 
freshens towards noon, the Peninsular and Oriental Com- 
pany's steamship " Thames," with my wife and children on 
board, passed ahead of us into the harbour. We had a 
delightful meeting in the afternoon at Government House, 
Malabar Point, where we were greeted with a most cordial 
welcome from our dear friends Lord and Lady Reay.' 

We are so accustomed nowadays to the punctual keeping 
of appointments made months before, with half the width of the 
world between the meeting-places, that this happy and fortu- 
nate coincidence will scarcely excite remark, even when the 
home journal dwells on the added joy of the arrival, that very 
same evening, as planned beforehand, of Lord Brassey 's son, 
who had started earliest, and had been spending some weeks 
of travel, sight-seeing, and sport, pleasantly combined, in 
Ceylon and Southern India. 

The punctuality of the P. & 0. steamers might be a 
proverb, if in these hurried days anyone ever paused to make 
a proverb; and therefore it is not the rapid run of the 



INTRODUCTORY 



5 




Kurrachee Harbour 



' Thames ' which excites our admiration. It is rather the 
capital sailing qualities, well tried and proven as the}^ are, 
of the ' Sunbeam.' Though essentially a sailing vessel and 

carrying very little coal, 
the yacht had made her 
way through the intricate 
navigation of the Eed Sea 
and against the strong 
contrary winds of the 
which 



N.E. monsoon, 

blew with <l uite 6XC6p- 

tional force off the 

southern shores of Arabia, and had finally dropped anchor 
at the appointed day, and almost hour, in Bombay Harbour. 

On this, her first visit, the ' Sunbeam ' remained only 
three days at Bombay. She sailed again for Kurrachee on 
January 6th, 1887, and reached her destination early on 
Tuesday, the i ith. The stay in Bombay was cut short by the 
desire of the travellers to join 
Lord and Lady Eeay, and 
journey with them for the 
first few days of an official 
tour in Sindh, on which the 
Governor of Bombay was 
about to start. There are 
exceptional opportunities in 
such an excursion for seeing 
great concourses of natives, 
and gaining knowledge of the 
condition of the country from 




The Miro Falconer 



the officials engaged in its 

administration. The first point of interest noted is a native 
horse-fair held at Shikarpur, where ' in the immense con- 
course gathered together, all the races of these wild districts 



INTRODUCTORY 




were represented. The most 
characteristic people were the 
Beloochees men of sturdy 
build, who carry themselves 
with a hold and manly air. 
They formerly lived by raids 
and cattle-lifting, swooping 
down from the Suleiman 
Mountains upon the people of 
the plains, who were seldom 
able to offer any effectual re- 
sistance. We have established 
order in these once lawless 
regions by our military force, 
posted at Jacobabad.' 

From the brief notes of 
this earlier part of the jour- 
ney, which follow, it is evident 

that the travellers had semi-official receptions of their own at 
nearly every large station. Addresses of cordial welcome were 
presented ; replies had to be made ; and it is perhaps from 
these causes of added fatigue 
and excitement that Lady Bras- 
sey was unable to do more than 
jot down the events of each 
day. 

Lord and Lady Brassey and 
their family travelled together 
through Sindh, along the north- 
west frontier of India to Lahore, 
Peshawur, and the Khyber 
Pass ; and Lord Brassey grate- 
fully notes in the first number 
of ' Sunbeam Papers ' that his 



Bokhara Man 




INTROD UCTOR Y 



wife's health in Northern India was better than it had heen 
for years. 

A fresh start on the return journey to Bombay was made 
from Lahore on January 2ist, via Patiala, whose Maharajah, 
young as he is, carries on the practice of sumptuous welcome 
and entertainment of English travellers which forms part of the 
historic traditions of the loyal rulers of the state. Agra was 




Our Home on Wheels 

reached on January 3oth, and at this point, after a brief delay, 
the party separated, Lord Brassey retracing his steps to Kurra- 
chee to take the yacht back to Bombay. The rest came round 
by Cawnpore and Lucknow, Benares, Jubbulpore, and Poonah, 
and so on to Hyderabad, their farthest inland point, where 
Lady Brassey's more elaborated diary commences. 

The whole of this long journey of 4,500 miles was made 



INTRODUCTORY 



in thirty-six days, and with the exception of the two nights 
at the Maharajah's palace at Patiala, the railway train was 
the only sleeping-place of the travellers, who were eleven 
in number. Halts and stoppages were made in the day- 
time to admit of local sight-seeing and excursions. Lady 
Brassey, in a private letter, declared this plan of travel to be 
delightful and thoroughly comfortable ; and it will be seen 
that Hyderabad was reached not only with comfort but with 
renovated health, and with the full enthusiasm of travel and 
ardour of enjoyment strong in the breast of the well-known 
diarist, whose last journals, faithfully kept when once com- 
menced, are now before us. 




JOURNAL. 



CHAPTER I. 



BOMBAY TO JUBBULPOBE. 

Thursday, January 6th. Left Bombay harbour at 2 A.M. 
and proceeded to sea under steam. Rather roily. Very busy 
all day unpacking and arranging things. As nearly eveiybody 
was more or less overcome, I felt that I must make an effort. 
Small party at meals. State of things improved towards 
evening. 

Friday, January jtJi. On deck at 5 A.M. Shifty breeze. 



10 



KURRACHEE 



Tacking all day. Busy unpacking and repacking, and trying 
to get things straight. Towards evening the invalids began 
to pick up a little and to appear on deck. 

At noon we were off Yerawal, having run 1 3 5 miles since 
yesterday. Distance from Kurrachee, 310 miles. 

Saturday, January 8th. On deck at 5 A.M. Pleasant 
breeze, but not favourable. Several dhows in sight near the 
land. At eight o'clock a dead calm and very hot. At noon a 
sea-breeze, fair ; at five o'clock a land-breeze, foul. Steam 
up at 1 1 P.M. 

Sunday, January gtlt. A flat calm at 4.30 A.M. The 
' Southern Cross ' and ' Great Bear ' bright in the heavens. 
The moon set with curious ' horse' s-tail ' effects. At noon we 
were off Kori, or Lakhpat. At 10 P.M. heavy squall from N.E. 
came on, accompanied by a downpour of rain. 

Monday, January lotli. Made Kurrachee Light soon after 
midnight. Entered the harbour at daybreak. Very cold on 
deck. Soon after we had anchored, Mr. Dashtar, one of the 
Parsee cricketers, came on board with bouquets of flowers for 
all of us. After much settling, and packing, and engaging new 




servants, we breakfasted ; and then, having landed, proceeded 
to see something of Kurrachee City, the alligator-tank, and 
the cantonment. Engaged additional horses for a longer 



JOURNEY COMMENCED 



i i 




Shikarpur .Bazaar 



expe- 
dition, in 
the course 
of which our 
carriage stuck 
in the sand as we 
tried to cross one of 
the many shallow mouths of 
the Indus. Muriel and I refused 
to quit the carriage, and managed 
to get over. The rest of the party 
waded across. Eeturned on board 
yacht, and later on proceeded in 
the steam-launch with Captain 
Parker to the lighthouse. Landed 
again at the pier in the evening, 
and started on our long inland 
journey in the special train which 
had been provided for us. Excel- 
lent dinner in train. Comfortable 
night. 

c 



SHIKARPUR 



Tuesday, January nth. Blue glass in carriage windows 
made the landscape look as if covered with snow. Stopped 
for baths and refreshments at one of the stations en route. 
Breakfasted later in train. Passed through a dreary country, a 
saltpetre desert, relieved by occasional scrubby trees. 
Interesting people at wayside stations Sindhis, 
Beloochees, Afghans, Persians, and others. 

Beached Shikarpur at two o'clock. 
Met by Colonel Mayhew, Mr. Balli, 
and Colonel Lyttelton. Drove 
to Commissioner's resi- 
dence. Colonel May- 
hew took us to 
the fair, 
and 





to see 
the wrest- 
ling ; then 
to the bazaars. 
Wonderful concourse 
of people. Bought car- 
pets and silks. Entertained 
friends at tea ' on board ' train. 
Dined with Mr. Erskine. 
Wednesday, January \2tli. Very wet night. 
Breakfasted early. Drove to the Residency, where 
the fires were most acceptable. Lady Beay's room partly 
washed away in night, being in what is appropriately called 
a melting-house. To the camp of the Amu-, a courteous 
old man with five sons. A scene to be remembered. Saw 



SUKHUR 



fighting-rams, cocks, and partridges. Lunched at station, 
where we met Tom and children. Afterwards to the great 
Shikarpur horse-fair and prize-giving. Interesting sight, but 
bitterly cold air. 

Thursday, January i^th. Amir sent seven camels, beau- 
tifully caparisoned, to take us to his camp. Drove through 
bazaars. Most graciously received at camp, but luckily 
escaped refreshment. Thence to the Commissioner's house. 
Deputation of judges of show and principal Sindhi, Hindoo, 
Mahomedan, and other inhabitants, bringing fruit, flowers, 
and sweetmeats. Left at twelve o'clock in Governor's train 
for Sukhur Bridge. Proceeded in steamer up the Indus past 
Eohri. Town gaily decorated. Saw canal and irrigation 
works. Hard work going up stream, easy coming down 
again, as is often the case. It is said that a voyage of ten 
days in one direction often occupies three weeks in the other. 
Strolled through town of Sukhur. Picturesque illuminations 
in the evening. Eeturned to our 
yacht on wheels at ten o'clock, 
thoroughly tired. 

Friday, January i^tli. Called 
at seven. Very cold. Breakfasted 
with the Brackenburys. Good-bye 
to our dear Bombay friends. 
Drove round the town, and then 
with Tom and Tab to Old Sukhur 
and the bazaars. The Governor 
and Lady Eeay left at noon for 
Sindh. We proceeded by water 
to Eohri. Train crosses the river 

in boats ; picturesque scene camels, boats, train, volunteers, 
and natives. Much plagued by flies. Telegraphed for dinner 
at the station at Eitti. Very cold night indeed. Could not 
sleep after two o'clock. Water froze in bottles. 




Saturday, January i$th. Crossed Empress Bridge over 
Sutlej. Beached Mooltan at 6 A.M. Breakfasted at nine. 



V 




Temple of the Sun, 
Mooltan 



Mohamed Hyat Khan, district judge, very kindly offered us his 
services as guide. He had been much with Lord Lawrence, 
carried Nicholson from field of battle when the latter was 
wounded, and killed the man who slew him. Called on 
Colonel Barnes. Old fort, dark blue and light green tiles. 
To the bazaars. Enamelled jewellery and brass foot-pans. 
Eeturned to the train, wrote letters, and settled plans. 
Visited the church with Mr. Bridge (cousin of our old friend 
Captain Cyprian Bridge, E.N.), the chaplain here. Tea at the 
club, which resembles other clubs all the world over. Back to 
station, where deputation of chiefs came to see Maude Lawrence. 
Left Mooltan at 7.50 P.M. 

Sunday, January \6t1i. Shortly before eight o'clock we 
passed a large cantonment, and soon afterwards caught sight 
of the tombs and temples of Lahore. Train shunted into 
siding. Pound letters innumerable awaiting us. Went to 



LAHORE 15 

Mr. K.'s church, and afterwards in camel- carriage to Sultan 
Serai. Polo ponies, horses, and wild-looking people. Negro 
ponies with curly hair. 

Monday, January ijtli. Called early. Breakfast at eight. 
In gharries and camel-carriage to Government House. Thence 
to the jail, where we saw the process of carpetmaking ; and 
afterwards to the School of Art. ' Sir Roger ' suddenly dis- 
appeared, to my consternation, but was discovered, after much 
search, wandering about near the jail. To the Zoological 
Gardens ; nothing specially worthy of notice except a fierce 
tiger. Then to the Lawrence Hall, where balls and concerts 
take place. 

In the afternoon we rode on elephants, guided by mahouts 
in red and yellow uniforms, and attended by servants in 
liveries of the same colour, to the bazaars. Contents most 




Runjeet Singh s Tomb, Lahore 



interesting, especially the carved woodwork, copper-work, and 
Persian armour. Went to Golden Mosque and Fort, the 



i6 



PESHA WUR 




Canon, 

Murree, 

Northern India 



palace, elephant-pool, and Eunjeet Singh's tomb. Wonderful 
sight. Great fun bargaining. Shops each more curious than 
the others. Returned to station and resumed journey for 
Peshawur. 

Tuesday, January 1 8th. Reached Rawul Pincli, where there 
is a large cantonment. The views of the Indus are fine in 
places, but the railway on the whole passes through a barren 
desolate country until Peshawur is approached, when the soil 
becomes more cultivated. 

On arrival at Peshawur Station we procured gharries 
and drove rapidly to the house of the Commissioner, Colonel 
Waterfield, who was most kind. Then in a dog-cart and three 
gharries to the bazaar ; very quaint and picturesque. Fine 
view of the Khyber Pass and the Himalayas from top of 
police office. Drove to the King's Garden, which is well laid 
out and contains many fine trees. The Christian church at 



KHYBER PASS 



Peshawur contains many memorial tablets to missionaries. 
Colonel Waterfield dined with us in the train, and told us 




much that was deeply interesting 
about this part of India. 

Wednesday, January igth. 
Visited by traders of all kinds. 
Colonel Waterfield and Major War- 
burton called for us, and we pro- 
ceeded in gharries and char-a-banc 
to the Jamrud Fort and entrance 
to Khyber Pass. Saw ist Bengal 
Cavalry and Skinner's Horse ex- 
ercising under Colonel Chapman. Inspected portion of the 
force of 650 infantry and 50 cavalry maintained for the 



18 



RAWUL PINDI 



protection of travellers through the Khyber. Tuesday and 
Friday are the caravan days each week. Strong escort for 




Jamrud Fort 



caravans necessary, owing to intermittent fighting between 
tribes on either side of pass. 

Thursday, January 2Oth. Arrived before daylight at Eawul 




Camel Guns 



Pindi. Woke very early and wrote letters. General Dillon 
came to greet us. Drove out to the parade-ground. Passed 



A REVIEW 



'9 




troops on way to be reviewed. The 

strength on parade included 1 5th Bengal 

(Mooltan) Cavalry, 1 8th Bengal Lancers 

(Punjaub), Mountain Battery, and the 

1 4th Bengal Infantry (Sikhs). The 

whole force marched past in splendid 

style, quite equal to any but the Guards, 

and then the cavalry went by at a 

gallop. Mounted gun, carried on five 

mules, unlimbered in sixty, limbered 

in sixty-five seconds. Thukkar quoit- 
throwing extraordinary, the quoits 

looking like flying-fish darting hither and thither. Also 

tent-pegging, with and without saddles shaking rupee off 

without touching peg, digging peg out of the ground, changing 

horses at full gallop, 
and hanging on in 
every conceivable atti- 
tude. Lunched at the 
residence of the Gene- 
ral. Inspected native 
and British hospitals, 
huts, tents, and re- 
creation-rooms. Then 
back to station, where 
we entertained friends 
to tea. Resumed jour- 
ney at 8.20 P.M. All 
very tired. 

Friday, January 
2 1 st. Saw minarets 
of the Shah Dura. 
Arrived at Lahore 
two hours and forty 




LAHORE AGAL\ 




minutes late. Drove to Shah Dura in camel-carriage, over 

Eavee River by bridge of boats. Stream nearly dry. Inlaid 

marble tomb very beautiful, 

but surroundings disap- ^w* 

pointing and much dam- | 

aged. Saw the elephants 

being washed in the river. 

It was most amusing to 

see how wonderfully 

they were managed by 

quite tiny boys. After 

lunch we went to the 



Museum, which has 



"i* 1 

. : J . . 




Amritsar 



AMRITSAR 



only recently been opened. Thence to the bazaar and the 
Lawrence and Montgomery Halls, and afterwards to Mr. 
Elsmie's native party, where we met many interesting people. 
Dined with the Elsmies, and met Colonel Wolseley, Lord 
Wolseley's brother. 

Saturday, January 22nd. Left Lahore at 5 A.M., and 
reached Amritsar at seven. Noticed encampment and cara- 




Patiala 



van of camels just before arriving. Drove with Mr. Mitchell 
through the picturesque city to the Golden Temple, with its 
gilded domes, minarets, and lamps, its marble terraces, and 
its fine garden. This temple is the headquarters of the Sikh 
religion. Beautiful view of the Himalayas from roof. In 
the public garden, called the Eambagh, people were playing 
lawn-tennis. Left Amritsar at 8 P.M. 



22 



PA T1ALA 



Sunday, January 2yd 
At 5 A.M. reached Eajpura, 
and were received by a de- 
putation of officials. Tea 
and fruit awaited us in 
the dak bungalow, not 
a hundred yards from 
the station, to enable us 
to reach which five 





in readiness for us. At one 
o'clock we drove to the Bari 
Durri, or Palace of the Ma- 
harajah of Patiala, a dig- 
nified boy of fourteen, who 
received us most courte- 
ously. Drove through the 
city to another palace called 
Moti Bagh, which had been 
placed at our disposal, and 
where the Maharajah re- 
turned our visit. 



carriages had 
j 

been provided. 

At 8 A.M. we reached 
Patiala, where car- 
riages and four, 
twenty elephants with 
howdahs, and an es- 
cort of thirty horse- 
men, were drawn up 




A SHOOTING PARTY 23 

Monday, January 24th. The gentlemen went out shooting 
early. Started at 11.30 in carriages drawn by four horses, 
and drove through scrub-like jungle to meet the shooting party. 
Rode on elephants, in rather tumble-to-pieces howdahs. Saw 




The Kutub Minar 

many black and grey partridges, quail, deer, and jungle-fowl, 
but could not shoot any on account of the unsteadiness of the 
howdahs. Grand durbar at the Maharajah's palace in the 
evening. Four thousand candles in glass chandeliers. 

Tuesday, January 2$th. We were honoured early this 



577? DEVA SING 



morning with a visit from the three members of the council of 
regency. Sir Deva Sing, the president, is a man of distin- 
guished presence and graceful manners. In the course of 
conversation we endeavoured to elicit his views on several 
points. Tom questioned him as to the relations between the 
Government of India and the native states, and told me that 




ise of the Ivutub Minar 



he said, speaking for Patiala, and indeed for the native states 
generally, there were no grievances of which they could com- 
plain. Patiala sent a contingent to the last Afghan cam- 
paign. Sir Deva Sing, referring to our policy in Afghanistan, 
thought it would be wise to advance the frontier to the further 
limits of Afghanistan. He advocated this step solely on the 
grounds of prestige. Turning to the condition of the native 



POLITICAL VIEWS 




. 



army, he thought it desirable to im- 
prove the position of native officers in 
the British service. They are not dis- 
satisfied with the actual conditions ; they 
are prepared to fight to the last in sup- 
port of England ; but they would appreci- 
ate any step which could be taken to put 
them on a level with British officers. 

h. visit to Patiala suggests some general 
reflections. Under native rule, roads, 
sanitation, education, everything which be- 
longs to the higher civilisation, is neglected, 
while money is lavishly spent on ele- 
phants, equipages, menageries, jewellery, 
palaces, and barbaric splendours of every 
kind. It is a great abuse, much needing 
correction, that the native states, though 
they have received from the British com- 
plete guarantees against foreign invasion 
and internal rebellion, maintain armed 
men, for the vanity of military display, to 
the number of 315,000. 



26 



ME E RUT 



It would have lightened our burdens greatly if the internal 
government of India could have been left under native princes. 
Such an alternative, unfortunately, was not open to us. The 
native rulers would have proved for the most part incapable 
of the task. They would have been led on by internecine 

warfare to mutual destruction. 
The trade with England depends 
on the peace which we have been 
instrumental in preserving. 

The gentlemen went out shoot- 
ing, and we joined them at lunch 
as before. Paid some visits in 
the afternoon, and played lawn- 
tennis at the Bari Durri with 
the Maharajah. Left Patiala at 
8 P.M. 

Wednesday, January 26th. 
Arrived at Meerut at 5 A.M., and 
thence continued our journey to 
Delhi. Drove to dak bungalow, 
and thence to the palace, now 
being partially restored. Public 
audience-hall, Pearl Mosque, and 
the entire group of buildings 
within the fort at Delhi, are noble 
examples of Indian architecture. 
Lunched at United Service Hotel, 
in the garden of which is the tomb 
of the Emperor Hamayun. 

Thursday, January 2?th. Drove out early to the Eidge, 
the flag- staff battery, and the big durbar tent. Saw the 
troops march by, and at rifle practice. After breakfast went 
with Mr. Cannon to the Kutub Minar, the grandest column 
in the world ; climbed to the top, whence there is a splendid 




ULWAR 



27 




Palace in the Ill-war 
Fort 



view. Spent the rest of the day in seeing the sights of this 
"wonderful city. Dined at dak bungalow, and returned to train. 
Started at 10.48 for Ulwar. 

Friday, January 2%th. Arrived at Ulwar at 7 A.M. 
Messenger from Maharajah to act as our guide. Most lovely 
palace, not generally shown. Exquisite lace-like marble tra- 
cery, especially in Zenana rooms. Both the Maharajah and 
the Maharanee are at present away. Schinnahal Tank at 
back, with cupolas, too beautiful for words. We also went to 
the summer palace and the gardens attached to it, in which, 
among other things, we saw some schoolboys playing cricket. 
Both at Ulwar and at Jeypore there are hospitals and medical 
schools for male and female students. 

Saturday, January 2C)tJt. Beached Jeypore at 6 A.M. The. 
Maharajah's secretary and his assistant, both dressed in 

E 



28 



JE YPORE 



black, came to meet us at seven o'clock. Drove to Amber, the 
ancient city of the Rajpoots, now almost uninhabited, except 
by Fakirs. Lovely drive in the cool morning air. Elephants 
at foot of hill, and alligators in tank. At the temple a kid 
is sacrificed every morning, of which fact we saw traces. 
Visited the palace an extensive and gorgeous building, with 
fine specimens of carved marble. Magnificent view from 
roof. Drove back to Jeypore to breakfast, and found men 
with specimens of arms, and curiosities of all kinds, await- 
ing us. Visited School of Art and Museum. Lunched at 
excellent Kaisar-i-Hind hotel. Then to the palace, which 
contains endless courts and halls-of-audience, including 
the celebrated Dewani Khas, of white marble. Ascended to 
seventh story, by special permission. Extensive view over 
city. Interview with Maharajah. Saw his stables, trained 




Sar-Bahr, Gwalior 



AGRA 



29 




horses, and fighting animals, and the beautiful Earn Xewas 
Gardens. 

Sunday, January $oth. Arrived at Agra. Went to church 
and heard a good sermon. Drove to the Taj, ' the glory of the 
world,' which was not in the least disappointing, high as were 
our expectations. Dined with Colonel Smith. 

Monday, January ^ist. Drove out to Futtehpore Sikri, 
the favourite residence of the Emperor Akbar, about twenty- 
five miles from Agra, where there is a lovely tomb, finer than 
any we have yet seen. German photographer taking views of 
it. Lunched near the Jain Temple, which contains most 
curious carvings. Tom says it is remarkable how well some 
British regiments stand the climate of India. At Agra we 
saw the Manchester Regiment. After three years at Mooltan, 
perhaps the hottest station in India, the men were in rude 
health. They marched the whole distance to Agra. At the 
time of our visit the men were playing football and cricket, 
as vigorously as if they were in England. They subscribe for 
newspapers ; they amuse themselves with frequent theatricals. 
They are fit to go anywhere and do anything. 



G IV A LI OR 



The prison at Agra is admirably administered. Under the 
direction of Dr. Tyler, the men are being instructed in trades, 
by which, when released from confinement, they will be able 
to earn an honest living. The manufacture of carpets in the 
prison has been brought to perfection. A similar progress 
has been made in wood-carving in the prison at Lahore. 
Throughout India the prisons have been converted, with a 
wise humanity, into busy workshops. 

Tuesday, February ist. Left Agra by special train at 3 A.M. 
and reached Gwalior at seven. Colonel Bannerman, with 
carriages, kindly met us. After breakfast drove out to the 
fort, to reach which we had to ride on very shaky elephants 
up a steep road. Barracks deserted now that the English 
soldiers are gone. Saw the Jain Temple, restored by Captain 
Keith. Eeturned to Gwalior, and lunched at the Residency. 

Proceeded by i .45 
train to Dhole- 
pore. Maharajah 
received us at 
station and enter- 
tained us with 
coffee. Reached 
Agra again at six 
o'clock. 

Wednesday, Fe- 
bruary 2nd. Ar- 
rived at Cawnpore 
at 2 A.M. Drove at 
6.45 through the 
streets to the Me- 
morial Gardens, 
where a monu- 
ment is erected over the well into which so many victims of the 
Mutiny were cast. Visited the site of the Assembly Rooms, 




Water Carrier, Benares 



CA WNPORE 



where women and children were hacked to death. Then to 
General Wheeler's entrenchment, St. John's Church, and the 
present Memorial Church, which contains many interesting 
tablets with touching inscrip- 
tions. Proceeded by train to 
Lucknow. Went with General 
Palmer to the Residency. 



f 



Lovely gardens, full of purple 
bougainvillea, orange bignonia, 




JSTerbudda River, Marble Rocks 

and scarlet poinsettias. It was 
difficult to realise that this 
spot had once been the scene 
of so much horror and blood- 
shed. It was in the gardens 
of the Secundra Bagh that two 
thousand mutineers were killed 

within two hours by the 93rd Regiment and the 4th Punjaub 
Rifles, under Sir Colin Campbell. Lunched at the Imperial 
Hotel, and afterwards went to the soldiers' coffee- tavern. 




32 BENARES 

Thursday, Felii'iiary yd. Beached Cawnpore at midnight, 
and Allahabad at 7.20 A.M. Met by Mr. Adam with the 
Maharajah's carriages, in which we drove to the principal 
places of interest, including the fort, the arsenal, and the 
Sultan's serai and gardens. Returned to station and went 
on by train to Benares. Drove through the narrow and dirty 




Temple at Ellora 

streets to the Golden Temple. Not much to be seen in the 
shops except London brass work and Hindoo gods. The 
Temple was chiefly remarkable for the dirt which abounded. 
The Cow Temple was dirtier still, with cows and bulls tied up 
all round it. Monkey Temple very curious. Drove out to 
the cantonments, several miles from the city. Dined at 
Clarke's Hotel, and returned to the train very tired. 



JUBBULPORE 33 



Friday, February tfli. Called at 6 A.M. Started at half- 
past seven for the Eanagar Palace, where we found chairs in 
readiness to carry us up the ascent. Received by the old 
Maharajah, his son, and grandson. Embarked in a boat pro- 
pelled by a treadmill, and proceeded down the river, past all 
the ghauts and palaces belonging to various kings and princes 
or to their descendants. The bathing-ghaut was a wonderful 
sight. Women in brilliant colours ; red palanquins and pil- 
grims. Carriages met us at the bridge. 

During the succeeding days the journey included visits to 
the Marble Bocks, near Jubbulpore, and to the Caves of 
Ellora, rid Aurungabad. 




CHAPTER II. 



HYDERABAD AND POONA. 



WE arrived at Hyderabad at half-past eleven on Febru- 
ary 9th, and found Major Gilchrist (military secretary 
to the Eesident, Mr. Cordery) waiting with the Nizam's car- 
riages to take us to the Residency. It is an imposing build- 
ing with a flight of twenty-two granite steps, a colossal sphinx 
standing on either hand, leading to the portico through which 
you reach the spacious reception and dining rooms, whilst the 
comfortably furnished sleeping- apartments lie beyond. An 



THE 7V MBS OF THE KINGS 35 

entire wing had been appropriated to the ladies of our party ; 
and, luxurious as our railway-cars had been, the increased 
space and size of our new quarters appeared thoroughly de- 
lightful. 

In the afternoon we went for a drive through the populous 
Hindoo suburb of Chadar Ghat to the celebrated ' Tombs of the 
Kings ' at Golkonda, which, however, must not be confounded 
with the celebrated diamond mines of the same name, for 
they are nearly one hundred miles apart. The road to the 
Tombs passes over a stony belt or plain, on which gigantic 
masses of dark granite lie on all sides in picturesque con- 
fusion. The natives have a legend that they are the frag- 
ments left over at the completion of the Creation. About 
seven miles from the city, a solitary gloomy-looking hill rises, 
crowned by a fort, at the foot of which stand the Tombs. 
They are magnificent buildings with grand kubbabs or domes 
rising above the terraces, arcades, and minarets of the main 
edifice. One of the finest of the Tombs, dedicated to the 
memory of a Kootub Shahi king, has unfortunately been white- 
washed within and without. The Tombs are mainly built of 
grey granite. They are nearly all covered with beautiful mo- 
saics and enamelled tiles, mutilated, however, in too many in- 
stances by the hands of modern relic-hunters. The buildings 
are surrounded by gardens fragrant with champa and orange- 
blossom, and gay with many other flowers. One can see that 
formerly the gardens must have been much more lovely and 
luxuriant than they now are. The decay and ruin were 
caused by the great siege in the days of Aurangzib. Extensive 
repairs have been carried out by Sir Salar Jung. He has 
restored the gardens, and saved the Tombs from the destruc- 
tion which had gradually been creeping over them. 

We drove back, as we had come, in one of the Nizam's 
carriages a drag drawn by four horses, cleverly managed 
by the chief coachman (an Englishman, named Ulett), who 



36 A CURIOUS ROCK 



twisted his steeds about in the most marvellous way, especially 
in the garden before starting, where they might have been 
said to have ' turned on a sixpence.' I occupied the box- 
seat coming home, and enjoyed the delicious freshness of the 
evening air, among the picturesque rocks which rose up on 
either side. One of these, called 'One Gun Bock,' looks 
exactly like a cannon without its carriage, resting on an 
elevation and pointed towards the city. There is another 
rock with a similar name near Secunderabad ; but the re- 
semblance in that case is not so striking. 

In the evening we dined with a native gentleman, who 
spoke English fairly well, and gave us a sumptuous repast 
in European fashion. Besides a multitude of chandeliers in 
his house, he had a billiard-table with glass legs, and splendid 
red satin chairs also with glass arms and legs. The view from 
the roof, to which we ascended after dinner, over the city, 
bathed in the light of the full moon, was really beautiful and 
quite romantic. On leaving, our host handed each of us a 
little flacon of most delicious attar of roses. 




Gun Rock 



The following morning we were called at five o'clock, and 
by seven were driving towards Secunderabad, five or six miles 
distant, On leaving the Kesidency, which stands in the suburb 
of Chadar Ghat, about a mile to the north-west of the city ^ 



37 



we drove through the city of Hyderabad, where the popu- 
lation is mainly Mahomedan, and afterwards through the 




One -tree Hill 

outlying suburbs and villages, chiefly inhabited by Hindoos. 
Two miles north of Secunderabad is Trimulgherry, the head- 
quarters of the Hyderabad Subsidiary Force, and a very im- 
portant military station for European troops, the city of 
Secunderabad itself being garrisoned by native troops. One- 
tree Hill is not very far from here, called after the solitary 
palm-tree standing in the midst of a mass of rocks. Passing 
the city, we came to the barracks of the /th Hussars, and 
then to Bolarum, where the Resident lives during the rainy 
season. His house is quite charming with its handsome ball- 
room, numerous lawn-tennis grounds, and well-kept gardens, 
in which we gathered violets and roses. The breeze was quite 
invigorating, the difference between the air here and at 
Hyderabad being very remarkable, considering that this is 
only 200 feet higher. The view from the top of the house, 



MIR A LAM TANK 



towards Byharn's Monument and the quarters of the Hydera- 
bad Contingent, was also interesting, the landscape resembling 
burnt-up, brown, breezy ' down ' country, and reminding us 
all of Sussex. . 

We drove back to the Residency to breakfast and there sat 
quietly and read all the morning in our pleasant rooms. Late 
in the afternoon we drove to the tank of Mir Alani, where 
a brother of Sir Salar Jung was waiting for us in a steam- 
launch, in which we made little voyages up and down the so- 
called ' tank,' which was in fact an artificial lake twenty miles in 
circumference, and covering an area of 10,000 acres. Every- 
body went into raptures over the scenery, which was not 
unlike the tamer parts of Loch Duich 




A HUNTING EXPEDITION 39 

or Loch Carron, in Scotland, with the addition of an occa- 
sional mosque or tomb perched on the rocky heights. It 
was extremely pleasant, steaming slowly about ; and, as the 
sun went down, gorgeous effects were produced behind the 
rocks and hills. Prettier still when it became dark and the 
lights began to twinkle on the hill-sides, and in the tents, 
pitched in readiness for a dinner party to be given by Sir 
Salar Jung this evening. The drive home through the 
densely crowded tortuous streets was most amusing ; though 
one never ceased wondering how the drivers, even with the aid 
of the active syces, managed to avoid running over somebody, 
so thoroughly careless did the throng of people appear of their 
own safety. 

The next day, February nth, we were again awakened at 
a very early hour, and drove off to a spot in the Nizam's pre- 
serves, about six miles distant, where we were met by elephants, 
bullock and horse-tongas, and two cheetahs in carts, in readi- 
ness for the projected black-buck hunting expedition. Our 
guides strongly recommended us to select tongas instead of 
elephants as the mode of conveyance, saying that the 
black-buck have been so frequently hunted of late that they 
are alarmed at the sight of elephants. This advice proved 
good, for we soon afterwards found ourselves close to four fine 
animals. The cheetah which was to be first let loose, and 
which was carried on one of the tongas, became much ex- 
cited, though he was blindfolded by a leathern mask and not 
allowed to see his prey until quite close to it. He stood up 
in the cart lashing his tail, and now and then curling it 
round the neck of the driver like a huge boa. When at last 
he was set free he darted forward and, after crouching behind 
a hillock waiting his opportunity, made a tremendous spring 
right on to the back of a buck, striking the poor animal such 
a blow on the side of the head that it must have been paralysed 
before the cruel teeth of the cheetah seized its throat. It was 



THE- CHEETAH 



a splendid exhibition of brute strength and agility ; but I 
carefully kept far enough away not to see any of the painful 




details which are inseparable from such sport, and which must, 
to me, always mar the pleasures of the chase. 

Proceeding in another direction, we soon came across 
a large herd of black-buck ; but the elephants had by this 
time caught us up, and the moment the deer perceived the 
huge creatures they bounded away. The elephants were 
therefore left behind with the horses, and we all seated our- 
selves on the tongas, creeping in this way quite near a herd 
of forty or fifty does, with six or eight fine bucks feeding 
with them. At one of these bucks the second and smaller 








;:v , 



THE VICTIM 41 



cheetah was let go ; but he could not make up his mind 
which buck to try for, whereby he lost both his opportunity 
and his temper, and went off sulkily into the jungle, from 
which his keeper had considerable difficulty in recapturing 
him. 

We had in the meantime gone on with the first cheetah 
till we came to a herd of about eighty black-buck, and 
they allowed us to approach pretty close to them before 
starting off at a good round trot. The largest buck took 
alarm, and was out of sight in a moment ; but by making a 
detour we managed to get near the others, and the cheetah 
was once more set free. After a moment's hesitation he 
fixed his attention upon the finest of the bucks in sight, and 
after a short gallop in pursuit made a tremendous spring 
upon his prey. This time, however, the cheetah missed his 
mark, and, falling short, rolled over ignominiously in the 




dust. Recovering himself in an instant, he made another 
and more successful spring, and despatched the poor buck 
with the usual quick, lightning-like stroke of the paw. The 



42 A PLEASANT BREAKFAST 



force with which the cheetah strikes his victim is marvellous. 
I have heard that a tiger can in the same way crush the head 
of a water-buffalo like an egg-shell ; and the power of the 
cheetah's paw must be little less in proportion. It is, of 
course, well known that the tiger's retractile claws are like 
those of a cat, whereas the cheetah has toe-nails similar to 
those of a dog. 

The drive back to the Residency seemed long and hot, and 
I was glad to rest awhile after our early excursion. Later in 
the forenoon we drove through the city, this time behind a 
team of Austrian greys, on our way to breakfast with Sir Salar 
Jung at the Barah Dari Palace. Sir Salar is Prime Minister 
to the present Nizam, and is the son of the eminent Indian 
statesman whose spare figure, clever face, well-cut clothes, 
and snowy turban were seen often during his visit to London 
twelve years ago. He received us very pleasantly, and 
showed us over his palace, built around a fine courtyard, 
with elaborately carved marble seats at intervals. The 
palace itself contains quantities of European chandeliers, 
musical boxes, portraits in oil of past Nizams, Maharajahs, 
and Governors-General. Sir Salar has also a fine collection 
of Indian arms, and we were shown the skin of an enormous 
tiger killed by himself only last week. 

Breakfast was served in a most delightful verandah over- 
looking a courtyard with flashing fountains and green and 
shady trees, the table being prettily decorated, and the meal 
arranged in the most approved European fashion. 

Afterwards we returned to the Piesidency, and the hottest 
hours of the day were spent in reading and writing. At four 
o'clock I again drove out with Mr. Furdonji Jamsetjee, the 
Minister's private secretary, passing through the picturesque 
and interesting native bazaars. The narrow whitewashed 
streets lined with little shops, gaily decorated with gold and 
bright colours, form a fitting background to the smartly 



PROCESSIONS 43 



dressed groups moving about among them. We did not 
pause to make any purchases, but stopped the carriage at 
many points to admire the motley crowd and the curious 
and beautiful mosques and temples. 

We were fortunate enough to meet two processions, one 
literally a 'wedding march,' and the other a numerous com- 
pany of Hindoo worshippers. First came a noisy, turbulent 
crowd of native soldiery, escorting a young man mounted on 
a very fat horse, dressed in gorgeous Idiicob, with eight people 
holding an enormous umbrella over him. This proved to be 
the bridegroom, and he was followed by many elephants and 
camels. As for the unfortunate bride, she was immured in a 
closely covered palanquin decorated with red velvet and gold. 
How she could live and breathe and have her being in such an 
airless box will always be a mystery to me, for we were gasp- 
ing for breath in our open carriage. The second procession 
consisted of many more elephants and camels, with the addi- 
tion of bands of brass and other noisy instruments. The 
central figure of this cavalcade seemed to be an old priest 
carrying on his head a bulky package wrapped in green cloth, 
which, I heard, was an offering to be made in an adjacent 
temple. 

Hyderabad is unlike any other city I have yet seen in 
India, and, indeed, is said to resemble no other Eastern 
town. Nowhere, not even in the seaports, is there so mixed 
a population. As Mr. Edwin Arnold says, ' You see the 
Arab, short and square, with his silver-bound matchlock and 
daggers ; the black-faced Sidi ; the Eobilla, with blue caftan 
and blunderbuss ; the Pathan ; the Afghan, dirty and long- 
haired ; the Eajput, with his shield of oiled and polished 
hide ; Persians, Bokhara men, Turks, Mahrattas, Madrasses, 
Parsees, and others/ The people are all allowed to carry 
arms a privilege of which they fully avail themselves, evi- 
dently regarding daggers, knives, matchlocks, and a sword 



44 



HYDERABAD 



or two, as fit finery for festivities and merry-makings of every 
kind. 

Notwithstanding their ferocious appearance, the people of 
Hyderabad are not more quarrelsome or turbulent than those 
of other cities, and recourse is very seldom had to these 
swords, daggers, or guns. The inlaying of arms and the sale 




of so-called ancient weapons to curiosity-collectors is, natu- 
rally, one of the specialities of Hyderabad. An immense 
quantity were brought to the Eesidency this morning for our 
inspection, and they made a glittering display in the marble 
portico. Among them were swords with watered blades, 



THE ELEPHANTS' BATH 45 



called johurdas, and worth several hundreds of pounds ; be- 
sides innumerable scimitars of every shape, rapiers, blunder- 
busses, and exquisitely ornamented but treacherous-looking 
daggers and other stabbing instruments. 

It has amused us much during our stay here to watch the 
elephants taking their baths. The Nizam owns three hundred 
of these big beasts, and all the nobles possess elephants in 
proportion to their rank and wealth. The huge creatures are 
driven down to the river night and morning, and it was most 
curious to see the unwieldy animals lay themselves flat down 
on their sides in the shallow water, so that nothing but a 
small island of body, so to speak, was visible, while an occa- 
sional lazy switch of tail or wave of trunk indicated the 
languid feeling of pleasure and contentment enjoyed by the 
bathers. Their keepers, helped by a small boy who clam- 
bered up their steep sides, assisted the cleansing process by 
scrubbing them vigorously with a sort of stable-broom. As 
soon as one side was thoroughly cleaned the boy jumped off, 
and at the word of command, with a tremendous upheaval, 
and amid a great displacement of water, the huge beast 
flopped down again on its cleansed side, uttering a prodigious 
grunt of satisfaction, and quite ready for the same process to 
be repeated. Such a splashing was never seen ; especially 
when, as chanced to be the case whilst we were driving 
past, fifteen elephants were taking their baths at the same 
time. I felt quite afraid that one little baby elephant, who 
had timidly followed its mother, would be overwhelmed and 
drowned by the wallowing and flounderings of the older 
animals. 

Saturday, February I2tlt. Our early expeditions of the 
last two mornings have been so tiring, that I determined to 
remain quietly at home to-day until it was time to go to 
breakfast with the Nizam at eleven o'clock. At half-past 
ten his Highness's beautiful coaches came for us ; and Mr. 

G 



46 PALACE OF THE NIZAM 

Cordery and I leading the way we drove through the 
Chowk, one of the broadest streets of the city, to the palace. 
This is reached through the stables ; and the horses, evi- 
dently waiting inspection, were standing with their heads out 
of the doors of their boxes ; their grooms, in yellow tunics, 
blue trousers, and red w r aist-bands much trimmed with silver, 
being stationed at the animals' heads. At one corner of the 
quadrangle in which the stables are built is a passage leading 
to a second and larger square, crowded by numbers of the 
Nizam's retainers. We passed through this to a third court- 
yard (said to cover as much ground as Lincoln's Inn Fields), 
and there alighted, at the bottom of a fine flight of marble 
steps, overlooking a charming garden with the usual tank 
in the centre. The effect was, however, rather spoilt to 
European eyes by a very ill-cast bronze figure, holding in its 
hand a large coloured air-ball, such as are sold in the streets 
of London for a penny each. The Nizam (now about twenty- 
one years of age) is so delighted with these balls that he has 
ordered two hundred of them, so that when one explodes it 
may be replaced immediately. 

From the entrance-hall, marble corridors, from which hung 
handsome glass chandeliers, led into the centre room of a 
fine suite of apartments, where the Nizam shortly afterwards 
joined us. At breakfast I sat between his Highness and his 
chief aide-de-camp, neither of whom touched anything, except 
a glass of iced water and a cup of tea, during the whole of a 
very long meal. Subsequently the Nizam kindly caused all 
his best horses and ponies to be brought to the foot of the 
marble steps for us to see. There were Arabs of high degree, 
thoroughbred English horses, and very good-looking Walers 
among them, besides some tiny ponies, four of which, when 
harnessed together, drew a real Cinderella coach of solid silver. 
Although I delighted in looking at these beautiful animals, I 
became so tired that I had to make my escape. Some of 



AN INTERESTING VISIT 47 



the party stayed and went through the stables, harness-rooms, 
and coach-houses, which must, from their account, have been 
well worth seeing. They were especially struck by the perfect 
training of the horses, who seemed as docile as kittens, and 
would jump in and out of their stalls, take a straw out of their 
groom's mouth, and when told to ' go ' would dash off wildly 
round the garden (to the great detriment of the flowers and 
plants), returning instantly to their stables at the word of 
command. 

From the Nizam's palace I drove to see the wife of the 
Finance Minister, Mehdi Ali an intelligent lady, who speaks 
English wonderfully well ; in fact, she expressed herself so per- 
fectly that it was difficult to believe she had scarcely spoken 
a word of our language for more than a year and a half. It 
seemed sad to hear that she never went out, because she did 
not care to go \ covered up,' and that such had been the 
seclusion of her existence, that she scarcely knew any ani- 
mals by sight, except from pictures, and had no pets, except, 
as she said, ' pet books.' She showed me the books gained 
as prizes at college by her two nephews, with evident appre- 
ciation of their contents, one being Prescott's ' History of 
America,' and the other a translation of Homer's ' Iliad.' I 
parted with her after receiving the usual garland of honour 
on leaving, feeling grateful that Providence had not placed 
me behind a purdah, but had allowed me to go about and see the 
world for myself instead of having to look at it through other 
people's eyes. 

The midday heat was so great that we gladly rested at the 
Eesidency until it became time to go to tea with Khurseed Jah, 
whose house is only a little distance off. We were received at 
the entrance to the garden by our host and his son, who led 
us to a marble platform by the side of a tank on which three 
boats were floating. One of these had the name of ' Sun- 
beam ' painted upon it ; but the compliment must have been 



4 8 



AQUATICS 



paid some time ago, for both boat and paint looked decidedly 
shabby. On a marble platform in the centre of the tank a 
band was playing. My little girls embarked for a row in the 
boat, discarding the services of the four boatmen who, ap- 
parently disliking, like Othello, 
"1 to find ' their occupation gone,' 

jumped into the water and swam 
after them. Their black heads 





and copper - coloured 
shoulders looked so 
funny following the er- 
ratic movements of the 
boat! 

We were offered ices, tea, coffee, and other good things, 
whilst the band played its liveliest airs. Presently old- 
fashioned bath-chairs arrived to take us up by an avenue of 
palms to the house, where the Nawab showed us photographs 



S7X SALAR JUNG 49 



and portraits of various distinguished people, and with 
natural pride the preparations he is making for a Jubilee 
dinner on the i6th, when he will entertain 300 guests in a 
spacious marquee. The whole place is now encumbered with 
bullock-carts, bringing up stores, provisions, and wines for 
this great occasion. 

The Nawab earnestly pressed us to fix a day on which he 
might be allowed to entertain us ; but want of time made this 
hospitable plan impossible. On parting he presented us each 
with a bouquet, as well as with the usual bottles of scent, the 
number of which varies, I observe, according to the position 
of the recipient. On these occasions I find my number is 
generally eight, but occasionally only six ; while some of the 
party get four, and others the still more modest allotment of 
two bottles apiece. The drive home, through the cool air 
beneath the bright stars, amid the twinkling lights, and the 
cries and ' chatterification ' of birds going to bed, as well as 
the flutter of flying-foxes skimming overhead as they hurried 
forth on their nocturnal predatory expeditions, was really the 
pleasantest part of the day. 

In the evening there was a dinner party at the Residency, 
which included Sir Salar Jung, his brother Mooner-ul-Mulk, 
and several European guests. Sir Salar is of gigantic physical 
proportions, and well merits his sobriquet of ' mountain- 
man.' He has been a great deal in England, and is well 
acquainted with European manners and customs. Colonel 
Marshall, another of the guests, who since the retirement of 
the Nizam's former tutor has acted as his Highness's private 
political adviser, will be a great addition to the English element 
in Hyderabad. He has already occupied a similar position 
with the Rajah of Chumba, and has thus gained much expe- 
rience to fit him for his delicate task here. There are many 
private cabals and intrigues among the nobles, as well as 
among the relatives of the Nizam, and little interest is taken 



50 DEPARTURE FROM HYDERABAD 



in the administration of public affairs. Many amusing stories 
are related of the inevitable rivalry between the nobles, and I 
was told that, one of them having assumed the title of ' Glory 
of the Sun,' his nearest relative and rival immediately capped 
it by taking upon himself the transcendent appellation of 
' Glory of the Heavens.' 

On the morning of February 1 3th we had to get up very 
early in order to start for Bombay via Poonah, all our luggage 
having been sent to the station overnight. Unfortunately 
our little party now comprises two invalids, for Mr. McLean 
has been ill for some days past, while Mr. des Graz is suffer- 
ing from a touch of sunstroke. Before starting, Mr. Cordery 
took us round the beautiful garden of the Residency to see 
the preparations to celebrate the Jubilee. The outline of 
the house is to be illuminated with butties, little earthen- 
ware or glass pots filled with wicks floating in cocoa-nut 
oil, like those used at South Kensington. The grounds 
are also to be lighted up with pretty arcades formed of 
palms, and hung with lanterns ; while beyond the garden is 
a large open space, where quantities of fireworks are to be 
let off. 

By Colonel Marshall's desire, Ulett brought the Nizam's 
state coach a huge canary-coloured, boat-shaped vehicle, hung 
on the most elastic of Gee springs, with solid silver railings, 
trimmings, and canopy supports to convey us to the station. 
The coachman wore a canary-coloured livery (the royal colour 
of Hyderabad) stiff with silver brocade ; and the eight attend- 
ants were dressed in yellow, blue, and red costumes. There 
were several other state carriages, so that we formed quite a 
little procession ; and just as we reached the station Afsur 
Jung, the Nizam's aide-de-camp, drove up to bid us farewell, 
in a pretty little dog-cart drawn by four Pegu ponies. At 8.45 
precisely the train steamed off, after much hand-shaking and 
many good wishes from a large group of kind friends, w r ho 



POONAH 



5' 



had each and all brought nosegays, so that the saloon was 
turned for that day into a perfect garden. 

We breakfasted comfortably in the train ; but later the sun 
began to blaze down so fiercely upon us, that I fear our two in- 
valids must have found the heat and the shaking of the car- 
riages rather trying. We reached Wadi at three o'clock, and 
Hingoli about seven in the evening very tired. This is the 
junction for Bijapur, one of the most ancient cities of India, 
and once the capital of the Deccan. Its walls are of immense 
extent, and it is guarded by a fort six miles in circumference. 
In fact, what is now 
called the city is only 
the ruins of that por- 
tion of it which used 
to be enclosed within 
the fort. The mosques 
and tombs are of great 
interest, and I am 
sorry there was not 
time to visit them. 
The mosque and tomb 
of Ibrahim Rozah are 
said to be unsurpassed 
by anything of the 
kind in India. They are, however, carefully described by 
Mr. Fergusson in his ' History of Architecture ; ' and he also 
gives full details about the many fine ruins of Bijapur, 
including the Gol Gumbaz, or Bound Dome a mausoleum 
built in honour of Sultan Muhammad VII. the Cathedral 
Mosque, and the Ark, or Citadel. 

On Monday, February I4th, at 5 A.M., we reached Poonah, 
the capital of the Mahratta country, 1 20 miles distant from 
Bombay. Here we were shunted into a siding, where Dr. 
Hoffmeister soon joined us, bringing good news of all on board 




No Coal 



52 GANESH KHIND 



the ' Sunbeam,' which had had a splendid passage of fifty-two 
hours down from Kurrachee to Bombay, making the shortest 
run on record entirely under sail. He also eased our minds 
by his favourable opinion of our invalids, though his exami- 
nation could be but superficial. 

Mr. Crawford, the Commissioner, appeared about eight 
o'clock, with several carriages, and kindly insisted upon our 
spending the day at his house, which, I need scarcely say, was 
a very pleasant plan. He first took us for a drive round the 
city to the Government House, called Ganesh Khind, where 
the Governor of Bombay lives for several months in the year. 
It was delicious to stroll about the charming grounds, but it 
was equally pleasant to return to breakfast at the Commis- 
sioner's bungalow, which stands on the banks of the Mula 
Biver. Mr. Crawford is a great horticulturist, and has sur- 
rounded his dwelling with a beautiful garden, filled with a 
profusion of all sorts of acclimatised plants, flowers, trees, 
and fruits. The crotons, dracsenas, and ferns seemed 
particularly fine, and two arcades of bamboo trellis leading 
from the house to the river-bank made very pretty features in 
the sylvan scene. 

A poultry-yard stands next to the garden, filled at this 
moment by a great many fowls, all ready for the Poultry Show 
next week. I had heard of this Show a few weeks ago, and 
was much pleased to see some of my own birds, which I 
had sent for from the yacht, holding their own against fine 
specimens from all parts of the world. They had, of course, 
originally been brought from England for the prosaic purpose 
of forming an addition to our larder, a fate from which they 
have happily escaped, as they will not now return to the 
' Sunbeam.' There was also a miniature zoological-garden, 
containing a numerous collection of deer and smaller animals, 
including a sweet little monkey, with which the children, of 
course, immediately fell in love. 




At breakfast we 
had the unexpected 
pleasure of meeting 
our old friends Major 
and Mrs. Hannay. He 
is now aide-de-camp 
to the Duke of Con- 
naught, and, directly 
our meal was over, 



54 ' THE BALL AT POONAH 

he had to hurry off to look after the preparations for the ball 
which is to be given by H.E.H. to-night in honour of the 
Jubilee. The date of this ball was only fixed twenty-four 
hours ago, and there is naturally a great deal to be done, 
though people in India seem to take these sudden arrange- 
ments quite as a matter of course. The Duke and Duchess 
of Connaught had graciously telegraphed to Hyderabad to 
ask us to stay at Poonah for the ball ; so, though difficult 
to manage, we have decided to remain for the earlier part at 
any rate, and to leave by the 1 1 P.M. train, which will bring us 
to Bombay early to-morrow morning. 

After the usual siesta and five o'clock tea, I went with 
the Commissioner to attend a meeting of the ladies' com- 
mittee of the Poultry Show, held in a tent on the spot 
where the Show is to take place. All the arrangements 
seemed excellent, and there was nothing for me to do but 
to express warm approval. We then went for a short 
drive through the principal streets of Poonah, which in- 
cludes a picturesque native town, besides charming suburbs 
where the bungalows are half buried in gardens. The well- 
known Bund Boad, surrounded by hills, has been so often 
and so well described that it would be absurd for me to 
attempt to say anything about it after the hasty glimpse 
caught during the pleasant drives of this morning and after- 
noon. 

Directly after dinner we went in an open carriage to the 
ball at the Gymkhana. The bright lights and lamps of a long 
row of carriages waiting outside made a pretty and animated 
scene as we drove up. The guests were received at the 
entrance to the ball-room by the Duke and Duchess of Con- 
naught. H.B.H. danced the first quadrille with me, and 
the next two with Mabelle and Maude Laurence. We were 
pressed to prolong our stay until to-morrow ; this was, unfor- 
tunately, impossible, for we are already overdue in Bombay, 



RETURN TO BOMBAY 55 

At a quarter to eleven I left the ball-room, and the young 
ladies followed shortly afterwards. We went straight to the 
station, and, re-entering the train, were again shunted on to 
the main line, starting at last on the final stage of our journey 
to Bombay, 




CHAPTEE III. 
BOMBAY. 

I LOOKED out of the carriage window for some time 
upon the distant ghauts, and the nearer and fantastically 
shaped rocks with their tropical vegetation, now bathed 
in moonlight, until at last I happily dropped off to sleep, 
and remember nothing more until we reached Bombay at 
7 A.M. 

There we found Mr. Kindred and the men from the yacht 
w r aiting to meet us. Leaving them to look after the luggage, 



THE TOWERS OF SILENCE 57 

the Doctor and I got our two invalids into gharries, and 
drove at once to Malabar Point to stay with the Governor 
and Lady Keay. Tom shortly afterwards appeared and sur- 
prised us by his description of the unprecedentedly quick run 
of the ' Sunbeam ' from Kurrachee. Then Lady Eeay and 
Captain Hamilton came to welcome us, having just returned 
from their morning ride. Breakfast over, the rest of the 
morning was busily spent in writing and in getting things into 
order. 

In the afternoon we drove with Captain Hamilton along 
the Breach Candy road to the famous Towers of Silence, or 
Parsee cemetery, where we were met by Sir Jamsetjee 
Jejeebhoy's secretary, who conducted us over this most 
interesting place and explained fully the Parsee method of 
disposing of their dead and the religious motives which led 
to its adoption. Much as the explanation interested me, I 
will not repeat it here ; but I must notice the beauty of the 
view from the Prayer-rooms, and the solemn stillness of the 
garden below, where the relatives of the departed come to 
talk peacefully over their memories. However admirable the 
arrangement may be from a sanitary point of view, I never 
could get reconciled to the presence of the vultures, though 
they were not at all unpicturesque, for their unwieldy 
copper- coloured bodies contrasted well with the massive and 
brilliant foliage. 

From the Tow r ers of Silence we drove in a kind of quad- 
ruple dog-cart, with four seats facing alternately outwards, 
forwards, and backwards, and drawn by a fiery pair of horses, 
through the native town to the yacht. The view from the 
road, cut, as it is, in the side of the Malabar hill, was both 
beautiful and striking. It looks down upon a perfect sea of 
palm-leaves, gently waving in the breeze, which conceal, save 
where the tower of some tall building peeps forth, a city of 
more than 800,000 inhabitants. 



JUBILEE CELEBRATION 



Four o'clock of the morning of February i6th found me 
in the verandah outside our bungalow, listening to the roar- 
ing of the cannon, which ushered in the day on which 
was to be 
celebrated 
in India 
the Jubi- 
lee of Vic- 
toria, its 
Queen and 

Empress. 

The hours 

are early here, and at a 

quarter to eight Lady Eeay, 

Captain Gordon, Tom, and 

I started to ' assist ' at the 

grand ceremony at the Town 

Hall, fol- 
lowed la- . __. __.._ 

ter by the 

Governor 

and his 

aides - de - 

camp. As 

we neared 

the city 

the crowd 
became 

dressed in 

all appa- 

of enthu- 




greater, everyone being 
holiday attire, and 
rently in a great state 
siasm and excitement. 



It looked like a many-tinted bed of flowers ; for the Parsee 
ladies, unlike their Mahomedan and Hindoo sisters, have no 
dislike to display their toilettes in public, and are always 



AT THE TOWN HALL 59 

clad in the gayest colours, arranged with perfect taste. The 
only specially distinctive mark in their costume is a rather 
unbecoming white band drawn tightly over the brow. In 
many cases, however, this had been judiciously pushed back 
so far as nearly to disappear under the bright -coloured silk 
sari which only partly concealed their jet-black and glossy 
tresses. Every Parsee has to wear the sacred shirt of 
cotton gauze, and the Kusti, or cord of seventy-two woollen 
threads, representing, like the divisions of the Towers of 
Silence, the numbers of the chapters of one of the sacred 
books. 

Near the Town Hall the scene became still more ani- 
mated, and the applause of the multitude, though much more 
subdued in tone than the roar of an English crowd, was quite 
as enthusiastic. The men from H.M.S. 'Bacchante' lined 
the approaches to the building, and the Bombay Volunteers 
acted as a guard-of-honour. We were ushered into the 
gallery, where chairs were placed for Lady Eeay and myself 
close to the Governor's throne. The sight from this ' coign 
of vantage ' was indeed imposing. Immediately in front 
stretched a fine flight of steps, covered with red cloth, and 
crowded with European and native officials in every variety 
of costume. The approach to the steps was through a pretty 
garden, where the wealth of tropical vegetation was set off by 
flags and gaily coloured banners. A dense crowd of natives 
ringed this enclosure round, whilst lofty houses, their gaily 
draped balconies and windows filled with bright and happy 
faces, made a brilliant background. Presently the Governor 
was seen approaching, escorted by his own bodyguard and 
a company of mounted volunteers (now called the Bombay 
Light Horse), who looked very picturesque and soldierlike as 
they dashed through the crowd. All dismounted at the west 
entrance to the garden, where a procession was formed, at 
the head of which the Governor advanced and, amid a 



6o 



TELEGRAMS AND ADDRESSES 



flourish of trumpets, took his stand in front of the throne to 
receive the addresses and telegrams presented by, or on 
behalf of, various classes of the community in the Bombay 
Presidency. No less than fifty-eight congratulatory telegrams 
from public bodies in the Mofussil had been received, and, 
after leave asked and granted, a number of deputations were 
introduced, who presented their documents enclosed in hand- 
some caskets or in kincob bags. Almost the first telegram 
came from his Highness Aga Sultan Mahomed Shah, a 




AN IMPRESSIVE SCENE 61 

potentate who is regarded by his followers with great awe 
and reverence. Then followed a message from the Rao of 
Cutch, enclosed in a beautifully embroidered bag, succeeded 
by many others. Fortunately all save two were ' taken as 
read,' the exceptions being the address presented by the 
inhabitants of Bombay and by the Senate of the University. 
The presentation of the caskets, some of which were quite 
works of art, occupied a long, long time. One casket seemed 
to be covered with a sort of lacework of ivory and ebony, 
and was still further ornamented by wreaths studded with 
gold and exquisitely modelled figures of elephants and wild 
beasts. Others, again, were of ebony profusely inlaid with 
silver. 

The Governor's replies to the addresses were most happy, 
and evidently touched the feelings of his hearers. As he 
uttered his final words two young middies, perched on a 
dangerous-looking corner of the parapet, scrambled on to the 
roof, and, at a given signal, smartly unfurled an immense 
Royal Standard, amid the thunder of an imperial salute of 
101 guns. The effect of the whole scene was deeply im- 
pressive, as well as suggestive. I have seen many ceremonies 
both at home and abroad, but never one more picturesque or 
of more thrilling interest. 

From the town hall we went, still in procession, to the 
cathedral, which stands close to the Elphinstone Garden, 
where a musical service was held. ' God save the Queen ' was 
magnificently rendered, arid the two specially written verses 
which were added to the National Anthem were most effective. 

After service the Governor and Lady Reay, with their 
aides-de-camp, in one carriage, and we in another, returned 
to Malabar Point, where we were only too glad to put off our 
finery and rest quietly indoors until half-past four, precisely at 
which hour we had to resume our war-paint and go, again in 
procession, to Parel, to meet their Royal Highnesses, the Duke 



62 PAREL 

and Duchess of Connaught. The road lay through the poorer 
part of the city, but was made gay and interesting by the 
crowd of people through which we passed, and by the pre- 
parations which all were busily making to take part in the 
Jubilee. 

Parel is the official residence of the Governor of Bombay ; 
much larger than, but not nearly so agreeable as, the house at 
Malabar Point ; however, each successive Governor appears to 
entertain a different opinion on this subject, and Lord Reay's 
predecessor preferred Parel. The garden, with its fine trees 
and luxuriant vegetation, is pretty, but not very private ; for a 
Hindoo house, much used for marriages, stands on one side of 
the tank which borders it, while the tramway almost touches 
it on the other. The house itself, originally a Portuguese 
chapel and monastery, is three-storeyed, and contains some 
fine spacious rooms. The present Governor intends to give 
up Parel for the use of the Victoria Technical Institute till a 
more suitable building can be found. 

In the adjoining bungalow a substantial tea, with all sorts 
of cooling drinks, was temptingly arranged among masses 
of flowers and greenery. The servants from Malabar Point 
seemed to have arrived by magic, and their picturesque 
liveries added much to the brilliancy of the scene. The re- 
freshments proved not to be by any means useless, for the 
Duke and Duchess of Connaught had commenced the day at 
Poonah by inspecting the troops on horseback at 7 A.M. ; and 
this was closely followed by the opening of the Poultry Show 
and several other functions, to say nothing of a railway 
journey of six hours in the heat of the day from Poonah to 
Bombay. 

In a pleasant, informal way, we were then told off to 
carriages from which to see the illuminations, an escort of 
cavalry and of the bodyguard being provided to prevent, as 
far as possible, our small procession being broken up by the 




PATTIALA ELEPHANTS. THE DRIVE 



THE ILLUMINATIONS 63 



crowd. In the suburbs the illuminations were general but 
simple in design. There was a more pretentious display in 
front of the Veterinary Hospital, consisting of transparent 
pictures of horses and cows. This hospital was established 
by Sir Dinshaw Manockjee Petit, one of the largest mill- 
owners of Bombay, who has received the honour of knighthood 
as a Jubilee gift. 

Presently the crowd became more numerous, and began to 
run alongside the carriages, shouting, and carrying blue lights, 
a compliment with which we could well have dispensed ; for 
the smoke, the clouds of powder which they occasionally threw 
into the air, the dust raised as they rushed along, and the 
general heat and want of air in the narrow streets, had a 
stifling effect. The illuminations were not only artistically 
beautiful, but afforded a proof that members of every religion 
and class had united to do honour to their Sovereign. Among 
the most striking buildings were a Mahomedan Mosque, the 
lines of which were clearly defined against the starlit sky by rows 
of pure white lanterns ; a Hindoo temple, where court within 
court was lighted in a simple and effective manner by butties 
filled with cocoa-nut oil ; and several Jain temples brightly 
illuminated with coloured lights. In the native quarter the 
houses were lighted up in the peculiar Indian fashion by 
chandeliers suspended from the windows or across the streets 
perhaps the most wonderful part of the scene. 

After driving through the crowded streets we proceeded 
to the Apollo Bunder now officially called the Wellington 
Pier to witness the illumination of the harbour and the grand 
display of fireworks. The harbour, with its thousands and 
thousands of twinkling lights, was a sight to be remembered. 
Even the little ' Sunbeam,' though somewhat overshadowed by 
the huge ' Bacchante,' displayed with good effect a row of 
coloured lights from stem to stern. 

As we drove home we much admired the illumination of 

i 



64 SHOPPING A L ORIENT ALE 

the public gardens on the Malabar Hill. The name ' Victoria ' 
was written in lines of fire on its steep slopes, and was re- 
flected with beautiful effect in the still waters of the bay. 

Just before reaching home the horses in our carriage took 
to jibbing, and after nearly being precipitated over a wall and 
down an embankment we thought it better to get out and 
walk, which made us rather late for dinner. We were not 
alone in misfortune, however, for another of the carriages had 
collided with a tramcar ; and a horse in yet another vehicle, 
in which the A.D.C.'s were driving, severely injured itself. 

The next morning (Thursday, February i/th) we were 
all rather late that is to say, for this part of the world. 
Personally, I began to work between seven and eight o'clock, 
and consequently got through a good deal before breakfast. 
Afterwards a succession of visitors arrived, friendly, compli- 
mentary, and on business, among the latter being many 
tradesmen, anxious to press their wares upon us. The 
verandah was soon crowded by box-wallahs, who squatted in 
the midst of their piles of brilliantly coloured silks, gauze, and 
muslins, or arrived laden with specimens of heavy lacquered- 
work, carved ivory, sandal-wood, Poonah inlaid work, arms, 
and jewels. A verandah at the back of the chief bungalow, 
containing the reception-rooms, had meanwhile been completely 
filled by a long table, on which was displayed a magnificent 
collection of jewels belonging to a well-known jeweller and 
diamond merchant. Brilliants of the size of walnuts were 
there by the dozen, side by side with huge emeralds ; 
bracelets composed of hundreds of shining gems ; a tiara of 
diamonds formerly belonging to the Empress of the French ; 
rings with precious stones of such dimensions that none but 
a large finger could wear them ; and altogether such a mix- 
ture of Oriental and European splendour, and ancient and 
modern fashions, as one would scarcely have imagined it 
possible to collect together. We made no purchases, but the 



THE STATE BALL 



wealthy jeweller was quite pleased to have the opportunity 
of displaying his splendid wares. A compliment from the 
Governor seemed to satisfy him completely ; and before we 
had been five minutes at lunch the whole of his valuable 
stock was stowed away in two or three common-looking little 
boxes, tied up 
in cloth, and so 
transported back 
to his strong 
box. I do not 
profess to be a 
judge of jewels, 
but those who 
knew more of 
such things than 
I did estimated 
the value of the 
collection at over 
a million ster- 
ling. 

Early in the 
afternoon I had 
to hurry off to 
the yacht to 
receive a large 
party on board. 
In the evening 
a ball was given 

by the Governor at Malabar Hill. It was a brilliant enter- 
tainment in celebration of the Jubilee. 

Everything had been well arranged : the drawing-room with 
its perfect floor formed a beautiful ball-room, whilst in both 
verandahs stood plenty of sofas and lounges. On each side of 
the house the garden paths leading to the water's edge were 




66 'SIR ROGER'S' REPRIEVE 

illuminated, fireworks being discharged from boats at inter- 
vals. The ships in the hjirbour were also dressed with fire 
instead of bunting. Abofe all, the air felt deliciously cool. 
On one side of the house bountiful supper-tables, decorated 
with large baskets of flowers, had been laid out under awnings 
spread beneath the trees. The band was perfect, and though 
the ball was by no means over at that hour, it must have 
been quite three o'clock before we all retired. 

On Friday, February 1 8th, we had another busy morning, 
making various arrangements for sea. Mr. McLean had been 
pronounced well enough to go home by to-day's P. & 0. 
steamer, which he was anxious to do, for he is to row in 
the Oxford Eight. Pratt, the steward, who has been with us 
during our journey through India, has been unwell for some 
time past, and is therefore recommended by the Doctor to re- 
turn at the same *rtime. We had always intended to send 
home my dear and clever poodle ' Sir Eoger ' from Bombay ; 
his place on the steamer had been secured, and all his little 
belongings sent on board. Mabelle and I went off to the yacht 
in the morning. About three o'clock Tom arrived, and at once 
went off with Mr. McLean and Pratt. They found ' Sir Eoger ' 
already established on board the steamer, but looking so utterly 
miserable that, knowing well how sorry we were to part with 
him, Tom insisted on bringing him back again. The poor dog 
has seemed quite crestfallen for some days past, and yesterday, 
instead of remaining quietly in my room at Government 
House, as he always does when I go out without him, he 
escaped and hid himself under the Governor's chair, only giving 
occasional notice of his presence by a short, nervous bark. 

After the departure of the steamer Mabelle and I had 
only just sufficient time to reach Government House to be 
present at Lady Reay's purdah party, to which only ladies 
are admitted. The entertainment derives its name from 
the purdah, or curtain, behind which Mahomedan and Hindoo 



THE PURDAH PARTY 



ladies are supposed to live, veiled from the sight of men. 
Lady Reay's visitors were all dressed in their best, and 
seemed full of delight at this pleasant incident in their mono- 
tonous life ; but their ways of showing enjoyment were various 
and amusing. Some wanted only to look on ; others were glad 
to talk to any English lady who could converse with them, 
while others again were much taken up with the sweetmeats 
and ices. The behaviour of two ladies amused me immensely. 
Their servant having awkwardly upset and broken a glass, 
spilling the contents 011 the floor, they immediately flew at 
her and slapped her so hard that the sound of the blows could 
be plainly heard all over the room. The woman did not seem 
to resent this treatment in the least, for she only laughed 
and proceeded to pick up the pieces. 

Several of these ladies asked me to allow them to go on 
board the yacht ; and when the others found that I had 




Bombay Harbour 

promised to try to make arrangements to preserve the purdah 
properly, they all wanted to come. I found, therefore, there 
was nothing for it but to give a large party on the only vacant 
day left to us before our departure from Bombay. Mrs. H. 
Ali was specially interested in the matter when she found 



68 




that we intended to call, if possible, at Jinjeera on our way 
to Ceylon, and to see the Nawab, who has married her 

} T oungest daughter as 
his second wife. 

Some of the dresses 
were quite gorgeous, 
and would take long 
to describe. The Par- 
sees looked slim and 
graceful as Greek girls, 

Omnibus Horse Tope their SdHs of bright 

satin or silk hanging 

in light folds and showing the strips of delicate narrow 
embroidery with which they were ornamented. The Hindoo 
ladies draped their saris around them ; while the Maho- 
medans, with their bright-coloured trousers, skirts, and 
yashmaks, made a vivid contrast to the other guests. The 
skirts of some of the ladies were so full that they stuck 
out further than an}- crinoline ever seen, and must, I am 
sure, have had more than a hundred yards of satin in them. 
When it was time to leave, it was curious to see how 
closely all the ladies veiled. Some of the attendants were 
provided with bundles which proved to be immense veils. 
These they threw over their mistresses, shrouding completely 
both face and figure. 

When this reception was over I had to dress and hurry 
down to the yacht to receive a party of my own friends, after 
which we all returned to Malabar Point to dinner. 

The Byculla Club Ball, at which their Royal Highnesses 
the Duke and Duchess of Connaught were present, took place 
in the evening ; a splendid affair, held in spacious well- 
arranged rooms. 

Next morning early the children went for a ride with their 
father and Captain Hamilton, and after breakfast there arrived 



THE GUICOWAR OF B A ROD A 



69 




a continuous stream of box-wallahs and visitors until midday. 
The Guicowar of Baroda called to see the Governor, while 
Lady Eeay and I sat in the verandah chatting with Captain 
Elliot, who has been till recently the Prince's tutor. The 
Guicowar speaks English well, not only correctly and fluently, 
but idiomatically. He is loyal to British rule, and the object 
of the present visit was to obtain a further supply of arms 
for his soldiers ; it having been considered desirable policy 
to encourage him to form a large force of cavalry, which 
might be found valuable as auxiliaries. His adopted mother, 



A SCHOOL-TREAT 



too, is a remarkable woman. During the last Eussian scare 
she offered to equip a band of Amazons for service in the field. 
After this visit many preparations had to be made for 
resuming our voyage ; but they were finished in time to allow 
Tom and me, accompanied by Mrs. Keating, Captain Hamilton, 
and the children, to drive down early in the afternoon to see 
the annual race-meeting at B}"culla. The races are almost 
entirely in the hands of Arabs, and are as a rule well worth 
seeing. 

One of the most interesting sights to me was a group of 
horse-dealers from Arabia and the Persian Gulf. They have 
handsome faces and clear olive complexions, soft silky hair 
and moustache, and beautifully trimmed beards. These pic- 
turesquely attired men import large quantities of horses into 
India, and easily sell them, either singly or in batches, to 
other dealers. 

From the racecourse we drove to the Oval, where 15,000 
schoolchildren were to be feasted in celebration of the Jubilee. 
Being rather late, we met many of them coming away singing 

hymns and songs. 

After this short glimpse 
of the children's festival we 
hurried on board to receive 
the Duke and Duchess of 
Connaught at dinner, and 
the Governor and Lady 
Eeay. Captain Moore kindly 
sent the band of the ' Bac- 
chante ' to play to us, and 
after dinner several middies 
from the flagship joined our 
little party. It was truly 

delightful to sit on deck in the cool evening breeze and listen 
to the sweet strains of the music. At half-past ten we 




AMBULANCE MEETING 71 

embarked in the steam-launch to look at the fireworks and 
the illumination of the shipping. 

February 2Otk. Attended the beautiful evening service in 
the cathedral. The crew of the ' Sunbeam ' accompanied us. 
The cool drive back to charming Malabar Point was most re- 
freshing, and we enjoyed our quiet dinner and pleasant chat 
afterwards in the verandah, notwithstanding the sad reflection 
that it was our last evening with our dear and kind friends. 

February 2ist. This morning the children went out early 
with a large riding party. After breakfast I had to hurry 
on board to make the final arrangements for the visit of the 
purdah ladies, and for our start this evening. It was rather 
a difficult matter to get our visitors on board the big steam- 
launch and other boats without visible masculine assistance ; 
but all was accomplished safety and satisfactorily, and they 
mustered in great force. I think they all enjoyed this little 
expedition, with its novel experiences, greatly. 

As soon as the last lady had departed we hurried off to 
attend the St. John's Ambulance Meeting at the Secretariate, 
at which the Governor kindly presided. I earnestly hope it 
may be the means of reviving in Bombay some interest in the 
rather languishing local branch of a very useful institution. 
Many influential people were present, including doctors, large 
millowners, railway and police officials, and employers of 
labour generally, all of whom appeared warmly disposed to 
support the movement. 

Directly after this meeting, Tom, who had intended to 
go on board the yacht with Lord Reay, was carried off by 
the bishop to see the Sailors' Institute. I therefore re- 
turned to the ' Sunbeam ' alone, to see to various matters, 
and, later on, went back to Government House, where, as 
is nearly always the case, we had to dress for dinner in a 
desperate hurry. There was a large party assembled, among 
others being Sir Lepel Griffin. 

K 



All too soon came the last parting ; and, in a long procession 
of barouches, phaetons, tandems, and dog-carts, we drove 
down to the Bunder, descending the steps for the last time 
with Maude Laurence (who is shortly returning to England), 
Captain Hamilton, Mr. Herbert, Major Gilchrist, and several 
other friends who had come to see us off. It was a sad 
business. 



Scale at English Miles 
o joo too 300 400 500 





CHAPTEK IV. 

BOMBAY TO GO A. 

February 22nd. We had 
been told that Jinjeera was 
seventy miles distant from 
Bombay. Our rate of progress 
being rather slow, we did not 
consult the chart until late in 
the afternoon, when we found 
great difficulty in making out the place at all. At last we 
discovered it, marked in the smallest of letters, close to the 
mouth of the Rajpoori River ; Khassia, now in ruins, being 
on the opposite or north side. Instead of seventy, it proved 
to be only thirty-five miles from Bombay; so that we had 
actually overrun it. Knowing that we were expected, 
there was nothing to be done except to beat our way back 
against the wind during the night. It would have been a 



74 JINJEERA 

pleasant sail had it not been for the annoying loss of time 
which it involved. 

Just before daybreak we saw the Bajpoori light, and the 
one at Kennery, twelve miles south of Bombay. About 9.30 
A.M. the Nawab's brother came on board, and soon afterwards 
we proceeded to land. After rowing more than half round 
a curious island-fort, we arrived at the gateway, a small 
opening in the thick walls, where we were met by the 
Nawab himself, dressed in European costume, but wearing 
a red and gold turban, and surrounded by his native body- 
guard. 

The landing was rather difficult, for, owing to want of 
space, the boat had to be pushed in stern foremost. When 
this feat had been accomplished, some of the Nawab's followers 
brought chairs, and hoisted us with great dexterity to the 
top of the steps, where it was no easy matter to alight 
with the dignity proper to the occasion. Having received 
the salaams of the Nawab and returned his hearty wel- 
come, we took a long walk all round the curious old fort of 
Jinjeera, built five hundred years ago. It contains many 
narrow passages designed for security, for they are entirely 
independent of the bastions, each of which is provided with 
its own little water-gate for the admission of supplies or the 
escape of the garrison in case of necessity. I found the 
walk very fatiguing owing to the heat, and so did many of 
the others. 

The temperature would indeed have been unbearable but 
for an occasional puff of cooler air which reached us through 
the embrasures. Some of the guns were of Spanish manu- 
facture, dated 1665, but most of them were lying useless 
on the ground. In no case would they avail much against 
modern ordnance ; but the fort, owing to its natural advan- 
tages, would be difficult to attack. The present Nawab is of 
ancient descent, and one of his ancestors was an Admiral in 



THE NAWAB 



75 







the service of the Grand Mogul. At the time 

of the disruption of the Kingdom of Delhi the 

Nawab's State became independent, and has 

remained so ever since. He has about 70,000 

subjects, in whose welfare he appears to take great interest. 

He has a shrewd face, is very English in appearance, and 

seems quite capable of looking after his own interests. 1 

It was delightfully refreshing to be able to rest in a 

1 The Nawab of Jinjeera is of Abyssinian descent, and is popularly called 
the Seedee or Hubshee, generic terms applied by natives of India to Africans. 
One of the Nawab's ancestors laid siege to Bombay Castle in 1688-9, and the 
English, being unable to dislodge him, were compelled to seek the intervention 
of the Emperor Aurungzebe to secure the withdrawal of his forces. 



76 RATNAGIRI 



spacious bungalow after our tour of the fort was over ; and 
still more delicious was a curious sort of punkah, peculiar to 
the district, which fanned us pleasantly. The Nawab accom- 
panied us on our return to the yacht, and afterwards sent us 
a most acceptable Nazir, or present, of two huge bunches of 
bananas, as well as other fruits and vegetables, besides milk 
and ghee. 

The Nawab's second wife, whose mother we had met at 
Bombay, is a pretty little girl of about thirteen. She came on 
board to see us, but many precautions to preserve the purdah 
had to be taken. It was necessary to observe this custom in 
deference to the prejudices of her people rather than to those 
of her husband. She had never been on board a yacht before, 
and was naturally much interested in all she saw. 

Soon after tw r elve we resumed our voyage to the southward 
before a deliciously cool breeze, which lasted for a consider- 
able time. Further on, the coast seems to consist of a series of 
plateaux, varying in height from 200 to 600 feet, occasionally 
interrupted by a peak or a narrow strip of white beach, with 
here and there a small straggling town. At sunset we were off 
Ratnagiri, an ancient Mahratta fort connected with the main- 
land only by a narrow sandy neck. Its southern extremity is 
nearly 300 feet above the sea level, thus forming a headland, 
surmounted by a line of fortifications and bastions of great 
strength. The complete isolation of its position has doubtless 
caused it to be chosen as the place of detention of King Theebaw, 
who can have but little chance of escape. The entrance to 
the river lies to the eastward of the fort, and the intermediate 
space is covered with a luxuriant growth of cocoa-nut palms. 
The European station is to the northward, for the southern 
shore is rugged, and ends abruptly in cliffs and huge boulders. 
Small coasting steamers maintain as well as they can com- 
munication with the fort ; but the approach is always difficult, 
and is almost impracticable during the south-west monsoon. 



RA TNA GIRT 



77 




Mr. Crawford, 
who was formerly Com- 
missioner here, had kindly 
given notice of our probable 
visit ; for we had been anxious 
to land if possible to see some- 
thing of King Theebaw, and to in- 
spect the excellent industrial school esta- 
blished here. The district used formerly 
to be the great recruiting-ground for the 
Bombay army ; but the young men now 
prefer entering the school, which, from one 
point of view, seems a pity. It was with 
much regret that, after having made 
preparations for landing, we were 
obliged to abandon the idea of 






78 A SAD INCIDENT 

doing so ; for it became both late and dark, thus adding too 
much to the difficulties, and even dangers, of the proposed 
expedition. "We therefore sailed slowly past, throwing up 
rockets at long intervals, to indicate that we were proceeding 
on our course. 

As the evening wore on the breeze dropped, and during the 
night we made but little progress. 

February 2$th. A calm and somewhat sultry night. 
Daylight brought a delicious and welcome sea-breeze, before 
which we sailed rapidly on our southward course. The 
morning was devoted to a general tidying up, preparatory 
to settling down for our long voyage. 

Over the memory of the latter portion of this day I wish 
that I could draw a veil ; but, sad as is the story, and little 
as I desire to dwell upon it, it must be told. 

Travelling, visiting, and sightseeing had so completely 
occupied our time in India, that I had found upon my return 
to Bombay a vast accumulation of letters from England and 
elsewhere requiring attention ; and as it was far beyond my 
strength to deal with them without assistance, I considered 
myself fortunate in securing the services, as temporary sec- 
retary, of a gentleman whom we had met at Bombay, and 
who had been strongly recommended to us. Mr. Frank 
White was at that time engaged on the staff of the ' Bombay 
Gazette,' and, as Special Correspondent, had accompanied 
the present as well as the former Governor of Bombay upon 
their official tours. Now, however, he was about to leave 
India in order to take up an appointment on the staff of 
the ' Melbourne Argus,' and we, as a matter of mutual 
convenience, offered him a passage to Australia in the 
' Sunbeam,' which he accepted, apparently, with delight. 
These brief facts will account for his presence on board the 
' Sunbeam.' 

At luncheon to-day Mr. White was cheerful and full of 



A SAD INCIDENT 



79 



conversation, giving us an interesting description of the annual 
migration of the members of the Bombay Government to 
Poona during the season of rains and monsoons. We had, as 
usual, coffee, cigarettes, and a little gossip on deck before re- 
commencing our quiet occupations of reading or writing. Mr. 
White strolled aft, and I soon became immersed in my book. 
Suddenly I perceived a change in the vessel's movement, as 
if the helmsman were neglecting his duties, and directly after- 
wards heard the thrilling cry of ' Man overboard ! ' Of course 
a great commotion ensued, the men rushing up from below, 
all eager to render assistance. I ran aft, whence the cry had 
proceeded, seizing a life-buoy as I passed, but found that 




one had already been thrown over by the man at the helm, 
who exclaimed, ' That gentleman,' meaning poor Mr. White, 
' has jumped overboard.' A boat was lowered, a man was sent 
up to the cross-trees, another on to the deck-house to keep a 
look-out, and the ship was put about in an incredibly short 
space of time. In the meanwhile hasty preparation of hot 
bottles, blankets, and other remedies was made on board, in 
case the boat should happily be successful in her search. 
But although she rowed over the exact spot many times, and 
picked up Mr. White's helmet and the life-buoy, nothing more 
could be discovered. 

The agonised interest with which that little boat was watched 



80 A SAD INCIDENT 

by all on board will alwaj^s live in my memory. Two men 
had jumped into her just as they had rushed on deck, with- 
out shirts or hats to protect them from the burning sun. 
Another was preparing to spring overboard when he was 
forcibly restrained by Tom, who saw that it would by this 
time be utterly useless. All on board worked with a will to 
get the vessel round and to lower every stitch of sail; no 
easy matter with every kite set, and the yacht running from 
ten to twelve knots before the wind. 

From letters left behind it was painfully clear that a deter- 
mination of many days past had just been accomplished. It 
appeared that Mr. White had questioned the doctor who 
little suspected his object as to how long it would take to stop 
the vessel when running with studdingsails set before a strong 
breeze. The unhappy man had constantly complained of in- 
ability to sleep, and he had been seen on deck the previous 
night long after everyone else had gone to bed. Of the 
motive for the rash act it is impossible to form an opinion. 
Borne down by physical and mental suffering, he must have 
been overcome by a temporary aberration of intellect, which 
rendered him for the moment irresponsible for his actions. 
I need not dwell on the terrible shock which the dreadful cata- 
strophe caused to our hitherto happy little party. The evening 
was a sad one, and not even the excitement of making the lights 
off Goa, bringing the ship up, and anchoring for the night, 
or the prospect of an interesting excursion to-morrow, could 
raise our spirits or dissipate the depression caused by the sad 
event of the afternoon. 

February 26th. Orders had been given for steam to be 
ready in the launch by six o'clock, so that we might get 
ashore soon after daybreak, and thus avoid the heat of the 
mid-day sun, which is now becoming quite a serious matter. 
But the painful duty of collecting and packing up all poor 
Mr. White's things to be sent back to Bombay had first to be 



GOA 



Si 




performed, and it was nearly half-past seven before we were 
ready to land. 

Just as we were starting, Mr. Norman Oliver, the Assis- 
tant Delegate at Goa, arrived alongside in his pretty little 
schooner yacht, of native de- 
sign and build, but of English 
rig. He brought with him a 
very kind letter from Mr. H. D. 
Donaldson, the assistant en- 
gineer of the new Portuguese 
Railway, now in course of con- 
struction, to connect Goa with 
the English lines northward 
to Bombay and eastward to 
Madras. If only the inhabi- 
tants of Goa will make use of 
the new railway, it ought to be 
of the greatest value to them. 

Such, however, is their conservative disposition and so great 
is their pleasure in obstinately creating and maintaining, in 
the form of customs-duties, obstacles to commerce and free 
circulation, that it is considered probable that the railway 
will have to be continued some fifty miles to the southward, 
as far as the British port of Carwar, before any perceptible 
increase in the export of produce can be looked for. The 
line to Goa is now nearly completed, and will, it is hoped, 
be opened after the rains. Mr. Donaldson kindly proposed 
a tempting trip over it to the summit of the Sahyadri 
Mountains, or Ghats, which form the eastern boundary of 
the Portuguese territory. Unfortunately we are already so 
much behind our time that we shall have to press forward 
as quickly as wind and waves will allow, if we mean to adhere 
to the original plan of our voyage with anything like punc- 
tuality. 



82 GQA 

So many difficulties are thrown in the way of would-be 
visitors to the churches of Goa, that although Mr. Oliver had 
kindly sent his sepoy on to announce our arrival, and had 
written to the Adrninistrador to ask leave, we were recom- 
mended to wait for an hour or two on board, to allow time for 
the necessary forms to be complied with. A refreshing sea- 
breeze was blowing, and at ten o'clock we decided to brave 
the sun and to proceed under the double awnings of the gig 
(towed by the steam-launch) across the bar and up the river 
towards Old Goa. 

From the sea, the Portuguese settlement looks like a series 
of promontories, each crowned by a fort, with the river 
Mandovi in the centre, running up into the interior between 
richly wooded banks. Its coast-line is some sixty or seventy 
miles long from north to south, and its greatest breadth 
about thirty miles. The entire territory is hilly, and inter- 
sected by numerous rivers, of which the Mandovi is the 

most important. Both the 
ancient and modern cities 
of Goa have been built on 
its banks. The promon- 
tories of Bardez and Sal- 
sette protect a fine harbour, 
capable of accommodating 
vessels of the largest ton- 
nage during the greater 
part of the year. The cli- 

Portuguese Kowiock mate of Goa is generally 

healthy, though smallpox 

and cholera have from time to time broken out there with 
great virulence. 

Never was any place so totally unlike what I had expected 
in fact, it did not in the least correspond to the idea which 
any of us had formed about it. The palace of the Governor 




(who was for over three centuries called the Viceroy) stands in 
the city of Pangim, or New Goa, which, as I have already said, 
has been built on the river Mandovi, about five miles from 




Cape Goa Entrance 

its mouth. Curiously enough, the present Governor of Goa 
is our old friend Captain da Carvalho, who commanded the 
corvette ' Affonso Albuquerque ' \vhen she brought the King of 
Portugal to Plymouth last year, and lay alongside us for a 
fortnight in lovely Barn Pool, under the shadow of the Mount 
Edgcumbe trees. As we steamed over the bar and, aided by 
a strong flood-tide, quickly ascended the river, we next came 
to the pretty village of Eaibandar, passing between low reedy 
banks fringed with cocoa-nut palms and other vegetation. 
The distant Ghats formed a fine background to the picture, 
which included several white-spired English-looking churches, 
perched here and there on convenient knolls. The inhabitants 
of the district, however, composed as they are of descendants 
of the original natives found here by the Portuguese con- 
querors at the beginning of the sixteenth century, with a 



84 THE ARCH OF THE VICEROYS 

subsequent slight admixture of European blood, bore no re- 
semblance to the British type. Those whom we saw on the 
river wore scarcely any clothing, and paddled about in little 
canoes somewhat similar to those used in the South Sea 
Islands and Ceylon. These boats are extremely narrow, and 
are provided with an outrigger in the shape of an enormous 
rough block of wood, connected with the canoes by bent spars 
some four feet long. 

After a pleasant voyage of about eleven miles in tow of 
the steam-launch, we were suddenly cast off at some steps 
leading to a small pier, in the midst of a large grove of palm- 
trees, and were told that we had reached our destination. But 
where was Goa ? We were all expecting to see ruined palaces, 
churches, and houses ; whereas all that was visible was one 
massive arch and gateway about a hundred yards distant, stand- 
ing, like the Irishman's ' main gate,' in the centre of a field, 
with no wall on either side of it. Meaningless as it now looked, 
this was the celebrated Arco dos Vicereys, or Arch of the Vice- 
roys, originally built in 1 599, and composed of blocks of black 
granite, now partially whitewashed. Through this gateway 
each successive ruler of Goa passed on his way to the ancient 
capital ; on which occasions it was always splendidly decorated. 
A statue of St. Catherine, patroness of the city of Goa, occu- 
pies an upper niche, while beneath her is a figure of Yasco 
de Gama, with features somewhat defaced by time. The 
facade used to be adorned with paintings representing inci- 
dents of the Portuguese war in the Indies ; but they are now 
effaced by whitewash. The portico bears an inscription dedi- 
cating it to the Immaculate Conception, and commemorating 
the emancipation of Portugal from Spain in 1656. 

By this time the heat had become so great that, finding 
no carriage was forthcoming, I had almost resolved to give up 
the idea of visiting the wonderful old palaces and churches 
which we had taken so much trouble to come and see ; but 



CHURCHES AND RUINS 85 



Tom and the Doctor encouraged me to make an effort, and 
improvised a sort of carrying-chair for me. We accordingly 
proceeded up a steep hot road, through the aforesaid arch, to 
the Eua Direita, so called because it once led direct from the 
Palace of the Viceroys to the Church of Misericordia. The 
name has lost its meaning, for all that now remains of the 
splendid palace is a portion of the chief gateway, so small in 
extent that when we tried to take a photograph of it, the helmet 
of one of the gentlemen who chanced to stand some distance in 
front of the camera completely concealed it. Only 250 years 
ago the palace must have been the most conspicuous building in 
the city. At that time a large square stood in front of it to 
the south, surrounded by fine houses. A noble staircase led 
from this square to the principal hall of the palace, in which 
were hung pictures of most of the Portuguese ships which had 
come to India since the time of Vasco de Gama. In an inner 
hall the Viceroy, who then lived in a style of regal splendour, 
received ambassadors from the Indian princes, and transacted 
important business. Da Fonseca, in his historical and 
archaeological description of the City of Goa, states that the 
Viceroy rarely stirred out of his palace, except to make a 
royal progress through the city. ' A day previous to his 
appearance in public, drums were beaten and trumpets 
sounded, as a signal to the noblesse and gentry to accompany 
him on the following day. Accordingly, early in the morning 
about three or four hundred hidalgos and courtiers appeared 
in the Terriero do Pac f o, clad in rich attire, mounted on noble 
steeds with gold and silver trappings glittering with pearls 
and precious stones, and followed by European pages in rich 
livery.' The palace began to fall into decay when the city 
was abandoned ; and although from time to time there was 
an idea of repairing it, the work was never seriously un- 
dertaken. In 1820 a considerable portion of the splendid 
building was ordered to be knocked down; and though the 



86 S. CAJETAN 

remainder stood for some time, even so lately as up to fifty 
or sixty years ago, it has gradually fallen to pieces, and its 
ruins are now covered with vegetation. 

The small Church of S. Cajetan was the first place we 
visited after passing the entrance to the palace. It was built 
by some Italian friars in 1640, and so closely adjoins the 
palace that some travellers have referred to it as the Viceregal 
Chapel. The fa9ade, with its Corinthian columns, and the 
fine cupola rising behind them, reminds one of St. Peter's at 
Rome in miniature. Outside the church, exposed to the full 
heat of the burning sun, a party of half-clad natives were 
scrubbing with soap and water some fine full-length oil por- 
traits of past viceroys, governors, and archbishops, which had 
been removed from the sacristy for this purpose. Among 
them were those of Yasco de Gama, and of Affonso Albu- 
querque, the first European conqueror of Goa. The church 
had not yet been opened, so we waited in a long room in 
the adjacent convent, through which the sea-breeze blew with 
delicious coolness. After a short rest we went out into a 
balcony and looked with delight over a forest of tropical vege- 
tation, to the blue river running swiftly through the trees, 
with the paler grey of the distant ghats beyond. When at 
last we gained admittance to the church, we much admired its 
graceful dome and the fine altar-piece in the principal chapel. 
Close to and in striking contrast with this grand painting 
stood a little group of scantily clothed natives, who had 
evidently taken advantage of the opportunity of inspecting the 
sacred edifice which our visit afforded. The windows of the 
church are made of small panes of the thin, semi-transparent 
inner scale of the pearl oyster, used in place of glass a fashion 
still followed in many of the private houses of Goa. These 
shell windows, the materials for which must formerly have 
been very plentiful in the neighbourhood, admit a peculiarly 
soft and tender light. 



S. CATERINA 



From S. Cajetan we proceeded to the Cathedral of S. 
Caterina, one of the oldest buildings of Goa, and the only 
church in which daily religious service on a grand scale is now 
held. Albuquerque was the founder of this sacred edifice, 
which took seventy-five years to build, and has been well 
described as ' worthy of one of the principal cities of Europe.' 




St. Xavier, Goa 



Dr. Eussell, visiting it with H.E.H. the Prince of Wales, 
speaks of its ' vast and noble proportions.' We were amazed 
by the richness of the materials, and the artistic beauty 
of the elaborate carving which met the eye in every direction. 
The vaulted ceiling, the mosaic covered side-chapels, and the 
high altar, near which stands the Archbishop's chair, are the 



88 THE INQUISITION 

features most worthy of attention. The cathedral is, indeed, a 
stately pile, the nave being over 70 feet high and 140 feet long, 
and the total length of the building more than 270 feet. The 
vestries and sacristies are full of rich vestments and valuable 
plate, now seldom seen except by a few priests, or an occasional 
foreign visitor like ourselves, or, at still rarer intervals, by the 
general public when a grand exhibition is held, to which the 
faithful flock in crowds. Even the exhibitions have been discon- 
tinued of late years, for it was found that the gathering together 
of a large concourse of people in so unhealthy a locality led to 
the spread of infectious disorders. The site of Old Goa is, 
indeed, terribly malarious. The Government having aban- 
doned the city, it was deserted by everybody else, the finest 
houses, after standing empty for years, gradually falling to 
pieces, so that literally not one stone remains above another. 
Old Goa was one of the headquarters of the terrible Inquisi- 
tion, and until comparatively recent days its most cruel 
decrees were there executed with stern and heartless rigour. 
The tower of the Cathedral of S. Caterina contains five bells, 
the largest of which, still in daily use, is the same which was 
formerly tolled on the occasion of the auto-da-fe. It was quite 
thrilling to listen to its deep knell, and to think that those 
same tones must have fallen upon the agonised ears of the 
poor victims of an odious tyranny. 

Close to the cathedral once stood the Palace of the Inqui- 
sition, a vast and magnificent building, the space occupied by 
which is now filled with dense jungle. It is the home of veno- 
mous snakes, not to be met with in any other part of the 
island. Probably some special shrub or herb which they like 
grows there and nowhere else. From the cathedral we passed 
across an open space to visit the Church of Bom Jesus, con- 
taining the chapel and tomb of St. Francis Xavier, and a fine 
altar, in the centre of which stands a colossal image of St. 
Ignatius of Loyola. St. Francis (who died at Sanchan, in 



THE STAKE 



89 



Malacca) rests 
in a crystal and 
silver coffin 
within a mag- 
nificent sarco- 
phagus. The 
body, clad in 
the richest vest- 
ments, is said 
to be still, after 
the lapse of 
three centuries, 




Inquisition Stake, Goa 



M 



90 PANG A UM 



in a wonderful state of preservation a fact testified to 
by the chief surgeon of Goa in an official report made in 
1859. 

Never was there a city so unlike a city, or even the remains 
of one, as Old Goa, unless it were Palmyra. Goa is now, in 
fact, only a forest of palm-trees with patches of jungle here 
and there, made gay by tropical flowers, such as the scarlet 
coral-tree, the pimelia with its bright golden convolvulus-like 
flowers, and scarlet and apricot-yellow euphorbias. From this 
mass of vegetation the spire of a church rises or the tower 
of some ancient building occasionally peeps forth. No other 
traces of its bygone splendour could be seen, whether one 
looked upward from the level of the earth or downward from 
the roof of one of the few buildings which still remain. 

On our return to the landing-place we found that the 
railway officials had kindly lent us their large steam-launch, 
in the cosy little cabin of which, sheltered by Venetian blinds, 
we enjoyed our well-earned lunch, for it was now past three 
o'clock, and we had breakfasted soon after six. The sea- 
breeze blew refreshingly as we steamed down the river, and 
once clear of the land the heat was not at all oppressive. 

Pangauni, or Nova Goa, is a nice clean-looking little town, 
of some 15,000 inhabitants, at the foot of a hill covered with 
palm-trees. It is of comparatively recent growth ; for although 
the viceregal residence was transferred here from Old Goa in 
1759, when a terrible epidemic broke out in that place, it was 
not until 1 827 that any vigorous steps were taken to reclaim 
the land on which it now stands. In 1843 it was formally 
declared to be the capital of Portuguese India, and the 
Governor, the Archbishop, and other authorities and digni- 
taries now live there. The Causeway of Eibandar, which 
connects Pangauni with the city of that name, is a wonderful 
construction, nearly two miles in length, built in 1633 by 
order of the then Viceroy. 



THE VOYAGE RESUMED 91 

Only the gentlemen landed during our brief stay ; and 
they soon returned from their stroll, having seen most of the 
objects of interest in the place. I had in the meantime occu- 
pied myself in taking some photographs under somewhat 
difficult conditions, for the breeze was stiff and strong, and 
the steam-launch was by no means steady. As soon as we 
returned on board the ' Sunbeam ' we were met by an extor- 
tionate demand on the part of the Portuguese officials which, 
I am glad to say, was successfully resisted for the payment of 
eighty rupees, in return for the privilege of anchoring in the 
roads without the aid of a pilot. Then we had to bid adieu 
to kind Mr. Norman Oliver, regretting much that time would 
not admit of our seeing more of him and making the 
acquaintance of his wife. The anchor was soon weighed, and 
the ' Sunbeam ' once more spread her wings to the favouring 
breeze, before which we sailed so quickly, and at such an angle, 
that the more sensitive members of the party began to fancy 
it was rough, and would not come down to dinner. Later in 
the evening it was delightful to sit on deck and watch, by the 
light of the young crescent moon and the brilliant stars, the 
vessel racing along through the cool evening air. 

In the course of the next day we passed Carwar, about fifty 
miles south of Goa, and one of the most interesting ports 
in India. Adjoining it is a backwater, such as are often 
met with on the south-west coast of India, along which it 
is possible to sail for many miles in a native boat with great 
comfort and ease. Further south is Honahwar, whence the 
famous Falls of Gairsoppa, in Mysore, can easily be reached. 
Just now the waters of the river Kauri are rather low ; else, 
I think, we should have made an effort to visit the falls 
(which have a drop of r,ooo feet in one place) notwithstand- 
ing the shortness of the time and the difficulties of the 
journey, which can only be performed in rough country 
carts. 



92 LIFE AT SEA 



The wind was light all day ; but the old ' Sunbeam ' glided 
gracefully along, and made good progress through the hot air. 

February 28th. The sun becomes perceptibly more power- 
ful each day. At noon we were off Mangalore, formerly a 
place of considerable importance, where the British forces 
have stood more than one siege. Like the rest of the ports 
on this coast, it has been deserted by trade, and has now fallen 
more or less into a state of decay and ruin. 

We have now resumed our usual life-at-sea habits. In 
the morning we go on deck at a very early hour, to enjoy 
the exquisite freshness of the dawn of the tropical day. Tom 
and the Doctor help to man the pumps, sometimes assisted 
by the children, who appear to like the work of scrubbing 
decks as much as they did in the old days of our first long 
voyage round the world. Then we are most of us hosed. 
An open-air salt-water bath is a luxury not to be appreciated 
anywhere so thoroughly as in these tropical climates. After 
an early breakfast we settle down to our several occupations 
the children to lessons, till it is time for sights to be 
taken and calculations made ; Mr. Pritchett elaborates the 
sketches which he has made on shore during our recent 
wanderings ; the Doctor makes himself generally useful, and 
has plenty of time to devote to this benevolent work, for at 
present he has hardly any patients. Later on he kindly 
gives the children a lesson in arithmetic, while Mr. des 
Graz,- assisted by Prior, spends a considerable time in de- 
veloping, printing, and toning the photographs which we 
have taken. I have always plenty to do in the way of 
writing, reading and general supervision. Often do I look 
wistfully at the many books which I long to read, and think 
regretfully of the letters and journal that ought to be written ; 
but a good deal of time has to be spent in less interesting, 
and certainly more prosaic, work. In the afternoon there is 
more reading, writing, and lessons ; and after tea there is a 



EVENING IN THE TROPICS 93 

general taking off of coats by the gentlemen, a putting on of 
suitable costumes by the children, and a grand game of hide- 
and-seek and romps during the short twilights until the 
dressing-bell gives warning to prepare for dinner. 

Landsmen can never know how delightful it is to be able 
to sit quietly on deck late in the evening, in the open air, 
without any tiresome wraps, and to enjoy the soft silvery 
light of the stars, scarcely dimmed by the brighter rays of the 
young moon. It is indeed a period of tranquil happiness. 
One is only agreeably fatigued by the exertions of the day ; 
and one feels so soothed by the beauty and peacefulness of 
the scene as to be quite content to do absolutely nothing, 
and to rest satisfied with the mere pleasure of existence. 
Indeed it is only the recollection of the charms of early rising 
which induces any of us to leave the deck at last. 

February 2gt1i. By noon to-day we had only run seventy- 
five miles. The air is still occasionally hot and oppressive. 
About 3 P.M. a large steamer was seen coming up astern, and 
with a glass we made her out, by the white band round her 
funnel, to be one of the British India Line. For some time 
we seemed to hold our own with her, even after the breeze fell 
light, almost to a calm ; and it was 9 P.M. before she actually 
passed us, steaming ahead full speed. The ' Sunbeam ' sails 
like a witch in her new suit of light canvas, and we pass 
the little native craft as if they were standing still, even in 
the lightest of breezes, for which they are specially built. 

March 1st. However it may mean to go out, March has 
come in like the quietest of lambs, and we could well do 
with a little more wind to help us on our course. 

At noon we were off Calicut, a curious old town of nearly 
50,000 inhabitants, to which belong many ancient stories and 
traditions. As we all know, it gives its name to that useful 
and familiar material calico. This was the first point of 
India touched at by Vasco de Gama nearly 400 years ago, 



94 THE MALABAR COAST 



after his long voyage from Portugal. Not far from Calicut, 
near Mahe, a high rock rises one of the few places in India 
where sea-swallows build their edible nests. Further south 
is Tellicherry, whence the highly appreciated cardamoms of 
Waiina are exported. The plant (Amomum repens) which pro- 
duces them is not unlike the ginger shrub in appearance, 
bearing small lilac-coloured flowers. Cardamoms are so in- 
dispensable in all Indian cookery that great pains are taken in 
their cultivation. 

On the other side of the river lies Beypoor, one of the ter- 
minal stations of the Southern Indian Railway, whence it is 
possible to proceed by rail in almost any direction. Mysore, 
Bangalore, and Seringapatam can be easily reached from 
here ; and last, though not by any means least, one can 
travel via Pothanore and Metapalliam to Ootacamund, that 
loveliest and healthiest of Southern hill stations in the Neil- 
gherry Mountains, familiarly called ' Ooty.' This delightful 
place of refuge restores the enfeebled health of the European, 
and makes it possible for husband and wife, parents and 
children, to be spared the terrible separations incidental to a 
career in India ; for the climate of Ootacamund is as cool and 
invigorating as that of England. 

March 2nd. The distance run at noon was 106 knots, 
the wind during the previous twenty-four hours having been 
stronger and more favourable. 

We passed Cochin in the course of the day, but not near 
enough to see much of it. It must be an interesting old place, 
dating, like Calicut, from the ninth century, or even earlier, 
with inland waterways to Quilon and other ports on the 
Malabar coast, by delightfully smooth and sheltered back- 
waters, always navigable for the native boats, even in the 
full strength of the monsoon. Trivandaram, the capital of 
Travancore, is near this. The Rajah of Travancore on the 
occasion of the Great Exhibition of 1851 sent our Queen 



SUNSTROKE 95 



a most beautifully carved ivory chair, made in his own 
dominions, which her Majesty now uses whenever she holds 
a Chapter of the Order of the Garter at Windsor. 

One of the bedroom stewards got a touch of sunstroke 
this morning, and suffered a good deal. I was, of course, very 
sorry for him, but could not help feeling rather annoyed, for 
it was entirely his own fault. The men are just like children, 
and will not or cannot understand the power of the sun and 
the danger of exposure to it. They will run up on deck bare- 
headed to look at some passing object, and then are surprised 
that they at once get a bad headache. They are all well pro- 
vided with pith hats, and awnings are spread everywhere, so 
that one cannot feel quite as much sympathy for them as if 
they were sufferers in the cause of duty. 

Marcli $rd. An absolutely calm and uneventful day. 

We are now getting towards Tuticorin, whence it is a 
short journey by rail to the splendid temples of Madura, or 
to Tinnevelly, the great missionary station of Southern India. 
Tanjore with its famous rock and its wonderful history, and 
Trichinopoly, with its temples and caves, are also easy of 
access. 

We had hoped to have been able to pay a visit to the great 
temples on Kameshuwaran and Manaar, two of the islands 
forming what is known as Adam's Bridge, which partially 
connect Ceylon with the mainland ; but, to our disappoint- 
ment, we find that they are unapproachable from the west- 
ward, and we cannot get through the Pamban Passage, as 
its depth is but ten feet of water, whereas we draw thirteen. 
In order to reach the temples it would consequently be 
necessary for us to make the circuit of Ceylon, which would 
take far too much time. We shaped, therefore, as direct a 
course for Colombo as the light and variable breezes would 
admit of. 

March 4th. To-day was calmer and hotter than ever. At 



96 MA LADES IMAGINAIRES 

noon we had run eighty-eight knots, from which time until 
8 P.M. we were in the midst of a flat oily calm, beneath a 
burning sun. We were, consequently, all much relieved when, 
in the course of the evening, fires were lighted, awnings spread, 
wind-sails set, and we began to make a little air for ourselves. 
Sailors are amazingly like sheep in one respect ; for if 
one does anything at all out of the ordinary course, it is ten 
to one that his shipmates feel bound to follow his example. 
Yesterday morning, for instance, after the cases of sunstroke 
of the day before, several of the crew reported themselves 
to the Doctor as sick, though, upon examination, he found 
that they were only suffering from the effects of a too-vivid 
imagination. Some medicine of a nauseous but otherwise 
innocent character was accordingly prescribed, with the satis- 
factory result that all the maladcs imayinaires are ' Quite 
well, thank you, sir,' this morning. 



, _, 




COLOMBO. 

March 5?/<. At 9.30 A.M. we dropped an- 
chor in the harbour of Colombo, having come 
twelve miles under sail between noon and 
1 1 P.M. yesterday, and ninety-eight since we 
began steaming. 

Colombo seems to have grown and improved since we were 
here ten years ago. We were soon comfortably established in 
the new and splendid Oriental Hotel, and busy with letters 
and newspapers. 

In the afternoon we did some necessary shopping beneath 
the welcome shade of the hotel arcades. Later, as soon as 
the air had become a little cooler, we drove along the sea- 
front, called Galle Face, and enjoyed the delicious sea-breeze. 



98 COLOMBO 



Everybody seemed to be out, driving, riding, or walking. 
In one spot officers and soldiers were playing cricket and 
football as energetically as if they had been on Woolwich 
Common. 

We passed a horse-dealer's establishment, containing, be- 
neath a long row r of red shanties, a very decent-looking lot of 
ponies of various kinds, some of which were being trotted out 
for the inspection of a circle of possible purchasers. Every 
bungalow seemed to be provided with one or two tennis- 
grounds, and all had players on them. When at last, by a 
charming drive, we reached the formerly forsaken-looking 
Cinnamon Gardens, we found some lawn-tennis grounds 
established in their midst, as well as a fine museum sur- 
rounded by a well-kept garden. In fact, the appearance of 
the w r hole place has been completely changed since we last 
saw it. 

On our way back we were overtaken by a funeral proces- 
sion. First came two of the quaint little bullock-carts pecu- 
liar to Ceylon, drawn by the small oxen of the country, both 
carts being literally crammed full of .people, apparently in 
the highest spirits. Then followed a long, low, open vehicle, 
rather like a greengrocer's van painted black. In the rear of 
the procession was another bullock-cart, fuller than ever of 
joyous mourners, and drawn by such a tiny animal that he 
seemed to be quite unable to keep up with his larger rivals, 
though urged to his utmost speed by the cries and shouts of 
the occupants of the cart. Altogether, anything more cheerful 
and less like one's ordinary conception of a funeral procession 
I never saw. 

Our homeward road lay partly through jungle, the track 
crossing various small streams fringed with vegetation so 
tropical in character that each little river might have been a 
miniature Amazon. Presently we came to the Lotus Tank, 
full of handsome white double water-lilies on erect stems, 



TO If ANDY 



99 




with 

lotus- 
like cen- 
tres, though 
they are not 
the real lotus 
flower. A hundred 
people sat down to 

dinner at the hotel, among whom were one or two old friends. 
When dinner w r as over we all adjourned on board the ' Sun- 
beam,' and later Tom took them back to their steamer, the 
' Sirocco,' the largest vessel of the Messageries Maritimes 
fleet. 

March 6th. We were called at 4.30 A.M., to enable us to 
start by the seven o'clock train for Kandy. After a great 
bustle, we found ourselves at the station, only to be told that 
the time of the departure of the train had been changed to 
7.35. The beauty of the journey by rail up to Kandy in the 
cool air of the early morning quite compensated us for the 
inconvenience of so early a start. A comfortable saloon 
carriage, with luxurious armchairs, had been attached to the 

N 



ioo PADDY-FIELDS 



train for our use, besides a well -arranged refreshment car, in 
which civil waiters served an excellently prepared meal. 

After leaving Colombo we passed through vast fields of 
paddy, some covered with the stubble of the recently cut rice, 
while others were being prepared for a new crop by such 
profuse irrigation that the buffaloes seemed to be ploughing 
knee-deep through the thick, oozy soil. It was easy to under- 
stand how unhealthy must be the task of cultivating a rice- 
field, and what swampy and pestiferous odours must arise 
from the brilliant vegetation. ' Green as grass ' is a feeble 
expression to those familiar with the dazzling verdure of a 
paddy-field. Grain cultivation in Ceylon does not, however, 
appear to be a very profitable occupation, and seems to be 
pursued by the natives for sentimental rather than for prac- 
tical reasons. Sir C. P. Layard, who was for many years 
Governor of the Western Province, has stated that ' the culti- 
vation of paddy is the least profitable pursuit to which a native 
can apply himself. It is persevered in from habit, and because 
the value of time and labour never enters into his calcula- 
tion. Besides this, agriculture is, in the opinion of a Cinga- 
lese, the most honourable of callings.' All the grain grown 
in Ceylon is consumed in the island, and the supply has to be 
largely supplemented by imports from India and elsewhere. 

After our train had ascended, almost imperceptibly, to a 
considerable height, we came to the Valley of Death, so called 
because of the enormous mortality among the workmen em- 
ployed upon this portion of the railway. Thence we passed 
through scenes of wondrous beauty to Rambukkana, where 
the train really begins to climb, and has to be drawn and 
pushed by two engines one in front and one behind. It 
would be wearisome even to name the various types of tropical 
vegetation which we passed ; but we thought ourselves fortu- 
nate in seeing a talipot palm in full bloom, with its magnifi- 
cent spike of yellowish flowers rising some twenty feet above 



PLANTING IN CEYLON 



101 



a noble crown of dark green fan-shaped leaves. This sight 
is uncommon, for the trees never bloom till they are seventy 
or eighty years old, and then die directly. 

Just before arriving at Peradeniya, the new line branches 
off to Nanu-oya, 128 miles from Colombo, and 5,300 feet 
above the sea-level. Nuwarra-Ellia is reached in about four 
hours from this, the line passing through some of the richest 



and best of the tea- 
estates formerly co- 
tations. The 
leaf fungus, 
tatrix the 
lent of the 
of the Colo- 
has ruined 
ters in Cey- 
there seems 
prospect of 
this year, not 
but of every - 
There are 
dred thou- 
ground under 
tion in Cey- 
pared with 
of coffee, 
of tea, 650,000 




Talipot Palm 



and quinine - growing 
vered with coffee plan- 
horrid coffee- 
Heinileia ras- 
local equiva- 
phylloxera, or 
rado beetle 
half the plan- 
Ion, although 
to be a fair 
a good crop 
only of coffee 
thing else, 
over six hun- 
sand acres of 
rice cultiva- 
lon, as com- 
130,000 acres 
1 7 5,000 acres 
acres of palms, 
of cinchona. Cin- 
spices, besides to- 



and 35,000 acres 

namon and other 

bacco, cacao, and other trees and plants, are also more or less 

extensively grown. Sugar-cultivation has proved a failure, 

probably owing to the too great dampness of the climate. 

The Satinwood Bridge at Peradeniya, across the Mahaweli- 
ganga, seemed quite a familiar friend ; though the old English- 



THE BOTAXICAL GARDEXS 



man who for so many years washed the sand of the river in 
search of gems is dead and gone. 

In the afternoon I went to keep my appointment with Dr. 
Trimen, the present curator of the gardens, and successor 
to our friend Dr. Thwaites. The group of india-rubber trees 
outside the gate, and the palms just within the enclosure, were 
old acquaintances, and looked as graceful as ever. Close by 
stood a magnificent Amherstia nolrilis in full bloom, its great 
tresses of vermilion flowers spotted with yellow, hanging in 
gorgeous profusion among its bright glossy leaves. In 
Burmah these flowers are laid upon the altars in front of the 
images of Buddha as a sacred offering. Dr. Trimen appears 
to feel the greatest pride in the management of the garden, 
and he took much trouble to show us all there was time 
to see. The principal trees, shrubs, and plants have been 
labelled, so that he who runs may read. A good deal of vege- 
tation has also been cut down and cleared away, and the more 
valuable specimens of trees stand boldly out on the grassy 
lawns. The present curator has erected a charming little 
summer-house, in the form of a Kandyan temple, in memory 
of Dr. Thwaites and his thirty successful years of office. It 
stands on a small knoll, surrounded by the fragrant bushes 
of the jessamine-like Plumieria, which is also known as the 
temple-flower, and is regarded as sacred. 

We scarcely got back in time to dress for dinner at the 
Pavilion, as they call the Governor's residence here. The 
children were tired, and went to bed. Tom, Mabelle, Mr. des 
Graz, and I therefore started without them, and arrived punctu- 
ally at eight o'clock. Lord and Lady Aberdeen were of the 
part}*, which included a good many interesting people. The 
table was decorated with lovely ferns, and no less than seventy- 
two vases of sunflowers ! The effect of the servants' liveries was 
quaint and decidedly picturesque, and I believe the fashion 
in which they are made is very old. The smartly cut, long 



LIVERIES 



103 




swallow-tail black coat, profusely braided with red and yellow, 
is worn over a snowy white cloth wrapped round the waist 
and reaching to the feet, and the smooth hair is kept in its 
place by a large circular comb at the top of the head. Out 
of doors, a gracefully carried umbrella is the sole protection 
from the sun. 



104 



THE JIKRIKISHA 



j\Larcli Jth. The morning broke misty, foggy, and deci- 
dedly cold for our early start back to Colombo. We found 
this change rather trying after the heat through which we 
have been voyaging. We left at eight, relying upon break- 
fast in the train ; but in this hope we were disappointed, and 
had to content ourselves with biscuits and some rather un- 
ripe fruit ; for the breakfast-car is only attached to upward 
trains, to suit travellers from Colombo who want to make 
the trip to Nuwarra-Ellia or to Kandy and back in one day. 
The scenery was so lovely, however, that there was plenty to 
occupy and distract our minds, and we were able to do all 
the more justice to our good lunch when we reached the 
comfortable Galle Face Hotel. 

There was a great deal of business still to be done at 
Colombo, including the engagement of a new under-cook, the 
purchase of additional cool clothing for the crew, and the lay- 
ing in of fresh stores and pro- 
visions. It was therefore not 
until the evening that we were 
able to start upon a little expe- 
dition, I in a jinrikisha, Tom 
on foot, followed by another 
jinrikisha, into which, to the 
great amusement of the group 
of lookers-on, he insisted on 
putting our interpreter, or 
' English-speak-man,' as he 
calls himself. 

There is always, to my 
mind, something supremely 
ludicrous in the sight of a 
half-naked individual trudg- 
ing gaily along under an umbrella in pouring rain. His 
clothes cannot be spoiled, for he wears none ; and one 




Governor's Peon, Kandy 



CALADIUM LEAVES 



105 




Cingalese Weapons 



would think that 
his body must long 
ago have been acclima- 
tised to every degree of 
moisture. The natives of Ceylon 
get over the difficulty very well by 
gathering one of the many beauti- 
fully spotted large caladium leaves 
which abound in the roadside ditches. 
For a time it serves its purpose, 
combining utility with elegance, and 
when the shower is over it is thrown 

away. I have also seen these leaves used as sunshades, but 
they do not answer so well in this capacity, for they wither 
directly and become limp and drooping. We had a pleasant 
stroll through the town and outskirts, exploring some lovely 
little nooks and corners full of tropical foliage. Colombo seems 
to be progressing, and to have benefited greatly by the railway 
We went to the station to meet the train from Nuwarra- 
Ellia, by which the children were expected to arrive, but, as the 
time-tables have just been altered, we found ourselves too early. 
The interval was pleasantly filled, however, by an instructive 
and interesting little chat with the traffic-manager. At last 
the train appeared, and with it the children, who expressed 
great delight at the procession of six real Japanese jinrikishas 
which we had organised to convey them and the rest of the 
party from the station to the hotel. 



io6 



DEPARTURE FROM COLOMBO 



During the day we had heard that several old friends hap- 
pened to be at Colombo, so we convened them all to dinner. 
Their number included Mr. Macbean and Captain Middleton, 
of the old 93rd, both of whom had been married since we last 
met them, and Colonel Carey, a Rugby friend of Tom's, now 
commanding the Engineers here. 

We have had great difficulty to-day in obtaining possession 
of a box sent on to us from Bombay. I left orders yesterday 
that it was to be obtained from the shipping-agents this 
morning, but it was only after an infinity of trouble to our- 
selves and to the people on shore, who had locked up their 
offices and gone home, that we were able to get hold of it this 
evening. At last everything and everybody were collected on 
board ; our usual parting gifts of books and newspapers to 
barracks, hospitals, and schools were sent ashore, and we 
steamed slowly out of the harbour and round the breakwater. 
Then ' Full speed ahead ' was the order given, and once more 




Point de Galle 



we left the lights and luxuries of land behind us and sailed 
forth into the soft tropic twilight. 

Tuesday, March 8th, It was i.io A.M. as we passed the 



FIRST VIE IV OF TRINCOMALEE 107 

lighthouse. I stayed on deck until the land seemed to be 
swallowed up in the darkness ; hut when I canie up again 
at 6 A.M. we were still running along the coast, near enough 
to see some of its beauties, though not so close as to make 
it possible to appreciate the exquisite loveliness of the Bay 
of Galle. Once the principal port of call for all the most impor- 
tant lines of steamers, the town of Galle is now comparatively 
deserted, and the charms of the neighbouring country are 
unknown to the modern traveller. The difficulties of landing 
there were always great during the monsoon period, and more 
facilities having been afforded at Colombo by the construction 
of Sir John Coode's great breakwater, all the steamers now 
make use of that port to take in water, coal, and provisions. 

At noon we had run 95 miles, and Trincomalee was 244 
miles distant. At 10 P.M. we passed inside the Great Bass 
Rock, and afterwards the smaller Bass Rock. 

Wednesday, March gtJt. At noon to-day 184 miles had 
been made, and Trincomalee is only now twenty miles ahead. 
We had passed Batticaloa, the capital of one of the divisions 
of the island, and early in the morning saw the celebrated 
rock called ' Westminster Abbey,' which is curiously like that 
grand old pile, especially when the two pinnacles are seen 
from a distance. As you pass it to the northward the resem- 
blance gradually becomes lost. 

The sun was sinking fast when we shaped our course for 
the entrance to the harbour of Trincomalee. I w 7 as on the 
topgallant forecastle with Tom, and most delightful it w r as in 
that airy position. A fisherman in a curious little catamaran 
boat offered his services as pilot ; and though they were not 
required we stopped, intending to ask him to come on board 
and have a chat ; but he w^as lazy with the oars, and before 
he had come alongside our patience w ? as exhausted. The moon 
now began to show her light, while the stars twinkled over- 
head ; and the two lighthouses one on either hand sent 

o 



io8 



THE HARBOUR 



forth rays which glistened on the calm surface of the 
water. I half regretted the departure of the daylight, for 
I should have liked to have seen more plainly the entrance 
to this wonderful harbour, pronounced by Nelson to be one 
of the finest in the world; but, on the other hand, the ex- 
quisite beauty of the scene made up for its want of distinct- 
ness. The glorious full moon, gaining power, shone into every 




creek and cranny, and beamed brilliantly over the water 
as we steamed ahead, until at last we dropped anchor off 
the dockyard of Trincomalee. Just previously, from the little 
fort above, had come loud shouts of ' Sunbeam, ahoy ! ' and 
then many hearty cheers burst from the throats of the 
artillerymen and engineers who are quartered there. 

After dinner Tom and I went for a row in the ' Flash,' 



A HEA VY MAIL 109 



and explored the harbour by moonlight. There was a good 
deal of singing at a row of cottages ashore, where, I suppose, 
the dockyard labourers live. Even the workshops looked 
quite romantic, covered as their rough walls were by palms, 
creepers, and other tropical vegetation. We went on towards 
the Admiral's house, passing through the submarine mining 
flotilla, which looked singularly out of place among these 
picturesque surroundings. The night was absolutely perfect ; 
the moonlight on the water, the distant mountains, the near 
forts, and the white sandy beach, all making up an ideal 
picture of tropical beauty and repose. 

Shortly after we had come to an anchor, Mr. Black, the 
assistant naval storekeeper, arrived on board, bringing with 
him kind letters from Sir Frederick Richards, the Commander- 
in-chief of the East India station, offering us his house and 
garden whilst we remain here. The ' Jumna,' which brought 
these letters, left four days ago ; and the ' Bacchante,' Sir 
Frederick's flagship, is not expected for a week ; so that we 
have just missed both, greatly to our disappointment. Mr. 
Black kindly promises to meet us again to-morrow, and to 
pilot us to the famous hot springs at Kanniya and to the 
alligator tank. 

March loth, At 6 A.M. we all went on shore, and were 
met by Mr. Black with sundry little gharries and turn-turns, 
into which we soon packed all except Tom, who remained 
behind to inspect the dockyard. The harbour looked finer 
in some ways, though perhaps not so poetic as by moon- 
light. We could see more of the landscape ; and as we 
drove along a good road skirting the bay the peeps through 
the foliage were lovely. After passing the Admiral's house 
we drove, through a straggling village embosomed in trees, 
to the post-office, where we deposited a mail which, to judge 
from the astonished looks of the officials, must have been 
much larger than they usually receive. It certainly was 

* o 2 



I 10 



AN ECCENTRIC PONY 



somewhat voluminous, consisting as it did of letters, books, 
manuscripts, legal documents, and newspapers. It would 
have to be carried some eighty miles by runners to reach the 
mail-coach, and then travel another hundred miles before 
being deposited in the train ; so that I fear it will give some 
trouble. The poor letter-carriers are bound to take any parcel 
weighing eleven pounds. I suppose an extra man will have 
to be employed for our mail, but this cannot be a serious 

matter where wages are so cheap. 




Jumping Fish 

From the post-office our way lay through a dense 
jungle, but still along a good road, where many birds 
of brilliant plumage and sweet song flew gaily before us or 
perched on the telegraph wires alongside. Jungle-cock ran in 
and out across the road. They are rather good-looking birds, 
something like a very ' gamey ' domestic fowl, with a fine up- 
standing tail. 

Our progress was greatly delayed by the eccentricities 



ELEPHANTS in 



of Mr. Black's pony. Ho always stood still when we met 
anything, stopping so abruptly as almost to shoot us out 
of the gharry. Then, having once halted, he refused to 
move on again without much urging and coaxing. Before 
going down hill he planted his feet obstinately on the ground, 
declining to proceed ; and at the bottom of an ascent he 
turned short round. If a bird flew suddenly out of the jungle 
he jumped over into the opposite ditch, and many times 
nearly, though never quite, upset us. After these perform- 
ances, I was not surprised to hear that this pony had never 
been in harness before. 

At last we reached the hot springs, seven in number, 
where we found a temple and other little buildings close by. 
The water bubbles up through square and round holes, and 
was so hot (i 15) that it was almost impossible to bear one's 
hand in it ; but we caught two little turtles swimming gaily 
about. The curious ' sea-horses,' which carry their young in 
their mouths, are said to live in the streams running from the 
springs. 

While waiting for the rest of the party to arrive I took 
several photographs. We sent a native up a tree for fresh 
cocoa-nuts, and, having climbed in the orthodox manner, 
with feet tied together, he threw us down nuts, green and 
smooth, full of deliciously cool clear milk, with a thick creamy 
coating inside, most grateful to the palate. 

After taking more photographs, some of the party set out 
for the alligator tank, where the probability of seeing any 
alligators seemed so doubtful, that, as a long and fatiguing 
walk was much more certain, I thought it better to under- 
take, instead of accompanying them, to drive a pair of jibbing 
ponies back to Trincomalee. 

On the way back we saw an opening made in the dense jungle 
by the passage of an elephant, which had evidently crushed 
through into the road since we had passed. Wild elephants 



112 THE ALLIGATOR TANK 



are very numerous hereabouts, and a hundred were killed not 
long since by one sportsman in a comparatively short time. 
Another hunter made great preparations for sport, and spent 
a considerable time in the neighbourhood waiting his oppor- 
tunity, but, after failing to get a single shot, determined to 
return by bullock-cart and coach to Kandy. At one of the 
rest-houses he was cleaning and putting away his rifle, when 
some excited coolies rushed in and begged him to kill a rogue- 
elephant which they had caught sight of quietly walking down 
the road. The sportsman accordingly took up his position 
behind a tree, and killed the huge beast quite easily. The 
carcase remained in the road for several weeks, poisoning the 
atmosphere and rendering the rest-house almost uninhabit- 
able, until at last an official of rank, passing that way, gave 
orders for it to be burnt, which was promptly done by the 
inhabitants of the neighbourhood, who had nearly arrived at 
the conclusion that the possible attacks of a live elephant 
W 7 ere a less serious matter than the certain ill-effects of the 
proximity of a dead animal. To me, independently of the 
sanitary aspect of the case, it appears a sad pity and an 
altogether wasteful proceeding to massacre so powerful a 
beast, with such capabilities of usefulness, as an elephant, 
simply for the sake of amusement ; for neither hide, feet, 
tail, nor bones are of much, if of any, value, and it would 
surely be better to catch and tame the poor creatures if 
possible. 

Arrived on board the yacht, 1 found Tom just returned 
from a long examination of the dockyard and naval establish- 
ment. The remainder of the party appeared later on, all rather 
exhausted, and disappointed at not having seen any alligators. 
They were, however, laden with lovely lotus-like water-lilies, 
collected during a pleasant little paddle on the tank in a very 
leaky canoe. 

During the morning we had many visitors on board, all 



CROCODILES 113 



profuse in kind offers of hospitality, and desirous of doing 
everything to make our brief stay agreeable. The children 
went back with the ladies to spend the afternoon at the fort, 
while Tom and Mabelle landed to play lawn-tennis. 

About five o'clock Major Nash called and took us for a 
drive on the heights, from which there was a fine view across 
the bay and harbour beneath us. This island originally 
belonged to the Dutch, by whom it was ceded to us ; and it 
has since been used as a club and recreation-ground for 
the officers. Several pleasant bungalows have been estab- 
lished, and a good breakfast, lunch, or even dinner, can be 
obtained at a moment's notice. The old account-books kept 
by those in charge of the mess bungalow are still preserved, 
and many a now celebrated name may be seen entered therein. 

We went to Mr. Millett's house to see what he called a 
tame cheetah, but which was really a wild panther a hand- 
some little beast, who became greatly excited when the dogs 
appeared on the scene. We also saw a tiny crocodile, only 
a month old, in an earthenware pan, which snapped and 
hissed and napped his tail, and was altogether as angry as 
any creature of his diminutive size could well be, making 
it quite clear that only the power not the will to eat us all 
up was wanting. There are many crocodiles in these lakes 
and streams, and they occasionally carry incautious people off, 
especially the women who go to the tanks to fill their water -jars. 

Mr. Millett had also quite a large collection of elephants' 
heads, tails, and feet the spoils of a recent shooting expedi- 
tion. These trophies seemed to give one a better idea of the 
immense size of the elephant than the sight of the animal 
itself. It was most interesting to be able to handle and to 
examine closely their great bones, though I felt sad to see the 
remains of so many huge beasts sacrificed just for the love of 
killing something. They had not even been tuskers, so that, 
unless their heads and feet were used for mere decorations, I 



H4 



SAMI ROCK 



do not see that their slaughter could have answered any useful 
end. 

We next drove to the Admiral's house a charmingly-placed 
dwelling, with one end for each monsoon (south-west from 
April to September, north-east from November to February). 
A well-cared-for garden encircles it, full of valuable plants 
and flowers ; and the view over the bay is wide 

and lovely. We went through the bar- 

racks, and then ^/tjj^^, walked, or rather 

climbed, up to the signal 

station, below $ which a 

new fort is / ^x being 

/ ffljjjVV:, _y5S"i.. _ ' ' -C 1 - , 

made 




which 
will carry 
heavy guns. 
Close by is a 
curious old Dutch 
graveyard, with a few 
quaint English monu- 
ments in it, dating from 
the beginning of the century. 
The way was long and the road 
rough ; but still we climbed on 

and on to reach the famous Sami Eock, which rises sheer from 
the sea, and is a sacred spot for Hindoos, who have come 
here by thousands to worship for many centuries. Behind 
the rock stands a small monument, erected in memory of a 
young Portuguese lady, who, having seen her lover's ship 



DEPARTURE FROM TRINCOMALEE 115 



leave the harbour and disappear below the horizon, threw 
herself in despair from the cliff. 

The sun had now set, and the night was calm and bril- 
liant ; but so powerful had been the sun's rays that the rocks 
burnt our feet as we walked, and made it impossible to sit 
down. We returned to lower levels much more quickly than 
we had ascended ; but I felt very tired before we got back 
to the gharries, and was only too glad to ' rest and be 
thankful ' until the others arrived and were ready to start. 
They had had a delightful afternoon, and had caught several 
walking-fish (a kind of perch), after seeing them both walk 
and swim ; besides gathering more lotus-flowers, and enjoying 
several good games at lawn-tennis. 

The drive to the boats, behind Major Nash's fast-trotting 
pony, was all too short, and the time for the inevitable fare- 
wells came but too quickly. Steam was up when we got on 
board, and in a few minutes we were leaving this beautiful 
harbour behind us, exactly twenty-four hours after we had 
entered it, and under almost precisely the same conditions of 
wind and weather. Trincomalee is certainly a noble harbour, 
but Tom is strongly of opinion that it would be more valu- 
able in the hands of the Indian Government than under the 
Admiralty. 

Friday, March i ith. We had intended to go south of the 
Andaman Islands, so as to be able to call at Port Blair, the 
convict station wiiere poor Lord Mayo was assassinated by 
the convict Shere Ali during his official visit in 1872. The 
sailing-directions, however, gave such a terrible account of the 
malarious climate of the whole group of islands, the savage 
character of the inhabitants, and the size and number of the 
many venomous reptiles, that we reluctantly decided to con- 
tinue our voyage straight to Burmah without stopping. We 
accordingly passed to the northward of the Andaman group, 
making what is called ' The Cocos ' our first land-fall. 



At noon we had steamed 140 miles, and were in lat. 
9 44' N. and long. 83 3' E., Great Coco being 607 miles 
distant. 

Saturday, March 1 2th. Another calm day, busily occupied 
in reading and writing. At noon we had steamed 1 84 miles, 
and were 471 miles distant from Great Coco, in lat. 10 49' N. 
and long. 87 i' E. 

Sunday, March i^th. We had the Litany at 11.30, and 
evening service later, with most successful Chants, the result 
of much practising yesterday and on Friday. At noon we had 




Coco Island Light 

steamed 195 miles, and were in lat. 12 16' N. and long. 88 
55' E. Great Coco distant 278 miles. 

Monday, March i^th. There was a nice breeze in the 
early morning, and sails were accordingly set. At 9 A.M. we 
ceased steaming, and proceeded under sail alone. At noon 
we had run 1 8 1 miles, and were distant 97 miles from Great 
Coco. 

Tuesday, March 15^. Little Coco was sighted at daylight. 
Later on we saw all the other islands of the Preparis group 
in succession, and were able to congratulate ourselves on 
having made a good land-fall. At noon we had sailed 1 20 miles, 



AN ACCIDENT 117 



and were in lat. 14 5' N. and long. 93 29' E., the Krisha Shoal 
being distant 1 50 miles. 

In the evening we had our first nautical entertainment 
since we have all been on board together. It proved a real 
success, and appeared to afford great enjoyment to all, the 
credit being mostly due to Mabelle and the Doctor, who took 
an immense deal of trouble to make everything go off properly, 
and were well rewarded by the universal appreciation of their 
exertions. I am sure that these amusements do good in re- 
lieving the unavoidable tedium and monotony of a long 
voyage. 

Wednesday, March i6th. Soundings were taken at frequent 
intervals throughout the morning, for \ve were uncertain as 
to the strength of the currents, and could not see far ahead, 
as the sky was both overcast and misty. About noon Tom 
got an observation, and found that we were in lat. 15 28' 
N. and long. 95 40' E., having sailed 140 miles during the 
past twenty-four hours. The Krisha Shoal was then about 
ten miles to the N.W. 

Towards five o'clock I was reading quietly on deck, when I 
was startled by an appalling shriek, followed by a good deal 
of commotion forward. A moment afterwards I saw poor 
Pitt bleeding profusely from his right hand. Having sent for 
the Doctor and some ice, I got hold of the wrist, and bound 
it up as best I could until the Doctor appeared, who then 
proceeded with his instruments to tie the arteries properly 
and to sew up the wounds. While opening some soda-water 
for the children one of the bottles burst in the poor man's 
hand, cutting five arteries and nearly blowing off the top of 
his second finger. It was a ghastly business altogether, 
and although he bore it bravely he could not help crying 
out occasionally. I stood it all pretty well till just at the 
end, and then fainted, which was stupid ; but sitting in the 
sun in a cramped position, with such sights and sounds 



n8 'APPROACH TO RANGOON 

was rather trying. It was a comfort to know that I was able 
to be of some use at first. 

At 7.45 P.M. we made Point Baragu Light, and at 10 P.M. 
sail was shortened, for by this time we were rushing along 
before a strong, fair wind, and did not quite know how far 
it might carry us by daylight. After dark the sea was bril- 
liantly lit up by millions of minute nautilidae, and from time 
to time we passed through shoals of large medusae, increasing 
and decreasing the light which they emitted as they opened 
or closed their feelers, to propel themselves through the water. 
They looked like myriads of incandescent lamps floating just 
below the surface of the water and illuminating everything as 
they passed with I do not know how many thousand or million 
candle-power. The effect was indeed fairylike, and one felt 
reluctant to go below so long as there was even the faintest 
chance of seeing another blazing shoal. 

Fortunately, the description of the China Bakeer pilot-brig 
given in the sailing directions is very precise and clear, or a 
wretched little native boat, on the look-out for a job, might 
have imposed herself upon us as the genuine craft, and have 
got us into serious trouble. The shoals hereabouts are 
numerous and the water generally is shallow. This native 
craft was rigged very much like an ordinary pilot-boat, and 
flew a huge ensign at the main until dark, besides burning 
enough blue lights, flash-lights, and flare-lights afterwards to 
draw any ship from her safe course. It would therefore not 
have been surprising if we had allowed ourselves to be misled 
by her. "VYe heard afterwards that only a few days ago she 
nearly led H.M.S. ' Jumna ' on to a dangerous shoal. 




CHAPTER VI. 



RANGOON. 



Tliursday, March 17$. The government pilot canie on 
board at 6 A.M., and we at once got up the anchor and pro- 
ceeded under steam up the branch of the Irrawady called 
the Eangoon River, leading to the town of that name. Its 
banks are flat, low, and densely wooded. The Great Pagoda 
is seen shortly after entering the mouth, and at Monkey 
Point the river divides into two portions (one of which is 



120 



RANGOON 



only a creek, while the other is the main branch, which 
passes Eangoon). Later on the factories, wharves, offices, 
public buildings and houses of the city become visible in quick 
succession. 

Little more than thirty years ago Eangoon consisted of a 
mere swamp, with a few mat huts mounted on wooden piles, 
and surrounded by a log stockade and fosse. Now it is a city 
of 200,000 inhabitants, the terminus of a railway, and almost 
rivals Bombay in beauty and extent. It possesses fine palaces, 
public offices, and pagodas ; warehouses, schools, hospitals, 
lovely gardens and lakes, excellent roads, and shady prome- 
nades. 

We arrived opposite the town about half-past ten, passing 
through quite a crowd of shipping, amongst which were several 
fine clippers and steamers, bound to all parts of the world. 
The rice season is now at its height, and everybody is working 




his hardest. So great is the competition, that some merchants 
complain that they have made no profit since the time 



BURMESE COSTUMES 121 



of the great Indian famines of 1874 and 1877, the only success- 
ful traders now being the owners of mills, who derive their 
gains from merely crushing rice. 

Early in the afternoon, Mr. Symes, Secretary to the Chief 
Commissioner, came on board, bringing a kind note from Mrs. 
Crossthwaite, the wife of the Chief Commissioner (who is away 
in Mandalay), asking us all to go and stay at Government 
House during our visit to Eangoon. We declined this proffered 
kindness, but accepted an invitation to dinner. Several other 
visitors came on board in the course of the afternoon, and at 
five o'clock we landed and went for a drive. 

Important as are the commercial aspects of the place, it 
is not these which interest and arrest the attention of the 
stranger, but rather what is old, quaint, and perhaps more 
or less effete. The appearance of the people themselves, 
to begin with, is most picturesque. Nearly all the men are 
naked to the waist, or wear a small white open linen jacket, 
with a voluminous putso wound tightly round their loins and 
gathered into a great bundle or knot in front. Their long 
hair is beautifully trimmed, plaited, and oiled, and their glossy 
locks are protected from the sun by an oiled-silk umbrella. 
The women wear much the same costume, except that the 
tamieri which replaces the putso is gayer in colour and more 
gracefully put on. There seems to be a strong family likeness 
between our own Scotch kilts, the Malay sarongs, the Burmese 
putsos and tamieris, and the Punjaubee tunghis. They are 
evidently the outcome of the first effort of a savage people 
to clothe themselves, and consist merely of oblong or square 
unmade pieces of cloth wound round the body in a slightly 
differing fashion. Some people profess to be able to recog- 
nise the Bruce and Stew r art plaids in the patterns of the 
sarongs. Stripes and squares are comparatively cheap, while 
anything with a curved or vandyked pattern is expensive, be- 
cause for each curved or vandyked line a special instrument 



122 



BURMESE COSTUMES 







Great Pagoda Court 

called a loon, must be used. 
Hence the probable derivation 
of langoti, by which name the same 
garment is called in India. The rain- 
hats are also remarkable, being sufficiently 
large to enable the wearer to dispense with an um- 
brella, though an oiled-paper parasol is generally carried in 
case of a shower. 

But it was not only the people who interested me. There 
were the great pagodas, like huge hand-bells, gilded and 
decorated in various styles, with curious little htees, or gilt 
crowns, at the top, ornamented with rubies and emeralds. On 
the extreme summit, in the place of honour, is almost invariably 



PAGODAS 



123 



fixed an English soda-water bottle, while the minor positions 
of importance are occupied by tonic-water bottles, which are 
of the same shape, but of a blue colour. The still more inferior 
places are crowned by dark green square-shouldered seltzer- 
water bottles. It seems a curious idea that a crown, which is 




Entrance to Temple 



not only a real work of art, but is made of rich materials, 
and worth 30,000^. sterling, after having been placed with 



124 -A PHOONGYEE FUNERAL 

much ponip and ceremony on the top of the finest pagoda in 
Burmah (Shway Dagohu, the gilded spire of which rises as 
high as St. Paul's Cathedral), should be surmounted and 
surrounded by the most commonplace articles of the con- 
quering ' barbarian hordes.' 

Presently we passed the funeral car of a Phoongyee, or 
Buddhist priest a marvellous structure, reminding one of the 
Juggernaut cars of India. The funeral of a Phoongyee is always 
made the occasion of a great function. The body is embalmed 
and placed on one of these huge cars ; and the people from 
the surrounding villages flock to the ceremony, bringing cart- 
loads of fireworks, for the manufacture of which the Burmese 
are celebrated. Great rivalry arises as to which village shall 
be fortunate enough, through its representative, to set the 
gorgeous canopy on fire, and thereby release the good man's 
departed spirit and send it straight to heaven without any 
further transmigration or trouble. This happy consummation 
is supposed to occur directly the large funeral pile, wilich is 
always of highly inflammable materials, takes fire. The result 
is that many accidents occur, besides a great deal of heart- 
burning and loss of life; for sometimes a whole quarter of 
the town is set on fire and much property destroyed in 
these contests. 

It is the custom, when a Phoongyee of the highest rank 
dies, to preserve the body in honey until the funeral car has 
been built, which is generally a matter of some weeks. The 
body of the car is surmounted by a sort of baldacchino, 
decorated with blue and green bottles and pieces of broken 
glass or porcelain. "When all is ready, the body, attired in a 
common yellow robe (during life the robes are of silk, satin, 
or velvet, or cotton, according to the priest's rank), is placed 
on the car ; women then seize the ropes attached to the 
front of the cumbrous vehicle, and men those behind. After 
.a prolonged struggle, supposed to typify the conflict between 



A STRANGE CEREMONY 



125 



good and evil spirits, the women gain the day, and the 
car proceeds on its way to the funeral pile, upon which 
the body is placed, and which is finally set on fire by huge 
rockets. 

The avenue leading to the Shway Dagohu Pagoda is 
guarded at the entrance by tw r o enormous statues of Injlus, or 
monsters, erected to propitiate the evil spirits ; bylus and nats 




Dagcm 



being to the Burmese very much what demons and devils are 
to us. The view of the pagoda from the avenue is indeed 

Q 



126 



SHIVA Y DAGOHU PAGODA 



wonderful. The great gilt dome, with its brilliant golden 
htee, grows and grows and increases upon the vision, 

until its enormous bulk is at last fully realised. Fancy 

a vast bell- shaped erection, \ 
with a pointed handle of 




Rangoon Boat (stern) 



solid gold, rising to nearly the height of the cross on the top 
of St. Paul's, surrounded by numerous smaller pagodas and 
dagolas, bell-temples, tombs, and rest-houses, some much 
dilapidated it being considered more meritorious to build a 
new temple than to repair an old one. Shway Dagohu itself 
stands on a planted terrace, raised upon a rocky platform, and 
approached by a hundred steps. A writer of about forty years 
ago says : 

' The golden temple of the idol may challenge competition, 
in point of beauty, with any other of its class in India. It 
is composed of teak-wood on a solid brick foundation, and 
indefatigable pains are displayed in the profusion of rich 
carved work which adorns it. The whole is one mass of the 



SHWAY DAGOHU PAGODA 127 

richest gilding, with the exception of the three roofs, which 
have a silvery appearance. A plank of a deep red colour sepa- 
rates the gold and silver, with the happy effect of relieving 
them. 

' All round the principal pagoda are smaller temples, richly 
gilt and furnished with images of Gautama, whose unmean- 
ing smile meets you in every direction, the sight of which, 
accompanied by the constant tinkling of the innumerable bells 
hung on the top of each pagoda, combines with the stillness 




Rangoon .Boat (stem) 

and deserted appearance of the place to produce an impres- 
sion on the mind not speedily to be effaced.' Close by live a 
hundred and fifty families, called ' slaves of the pagoda,' to 
whose care the edifice is entrusted. 

On the walls of one of the rest-houses were some well- 
drawn frescoes illustrating incidents in the life of Gautama, 
and statues of all dimensions, from the size of one's hand 
to something quite colossal. These figures are always repre- 
sented in one of three positions either standing, sitting, or 
lying the features of each wearing exactly the same amiable 
but vacant expression, and the hands and feet being invariably 
turned in the same direction. The carvings over the porch 
of the principal temple outside the strongly fortified pagoda 



128 BURMESE BELLS 



represent its storming and capture by the English, under 
General Godwin, in 1852. The naval officers who are de- 
picted carry telescopes of somewhat inconvenient length for 
practical purposes ; but the uniforms of the bluejackets, 
soldiers, and marines are fairly correct, and all the figures 
are carved with great spirit. 

The pagoda is supposed to have been commenced 588 
years B.C., in order to enshrine some hairs of Buddha and the 
bathing-gown of another holy man who lived two thousand 
years before him. The building was enlarged from time to 
time (especially when eight hairs from Gautama's beard were 
added to the sacred collection), and is now a solid mass of 
bricks, arranged in rows of steps, with three shrines to hold 
the precious relics, erected at various heights. The carved 
teak with which it is covered is solidly gilt from top to bottom, 
and this process costs 3O,ooo/. each time it is repeated. The 
new htee was sent down from Mandalay in 1882, and was 
received with the greatest pomp and ceremony by all the 
officials, both European and Burmese. 

To wander round the top platform or courtyard outside 
the pagoda in the twilight and listen to the bells was an 
extraordinary experience for all of us. The big Burmese bells 
are celebrated for their tone, especially those in the temples. 
The smaller bells are also good, as are the triangular gongs, 
called, from their shape, stirrup-gongs. The little bells which 
are hung on the htces at the tops of the various pinnacles 
surrounding the soda-water bottles have long clappers, easily 
moved by the wind : and the sound of these various bells 
and gongs borne on the evening breeze is harmonious in the 
extreme. 

The King of Siam has constructed a fine rest-house just 
outside the gates, for the use of the people of his nation, 
the pagoda itself being open to all peoples, kingdoms, and 
races. A private individual also built a magnificent wooden 



THE REST-HOUSE 



129 



rest-house, at the cost of a lac of rupees, just before Lord 
Eipon visited Eangoon. This virtuous act was supposed 
to assure him on his death immediate nirvana, or transition 
to Paradise without undergoing the process of transmigration 
or the ordeal of Purgatory. As a mark of loyalty and admira- 
tion, the founder transferred not only the rest-house, but all 
the eternal privileges which he had gained by building it, to 
His Excellency, in recognition of his endeavours to gain for 
the natives of India a larger amount of liberty and greater 
privileges. 

Mr. Hodgkinson, the assistant Commissioner, met us at 
the pagoda, and told us all he knew about it in the most 
interesting way. The drive back to Eangoon through the 
Dalhousie Park and Gardens, once the appanage of a royal 
palace, was perfectly delightful. It was rather late, and there 
was consequently a great rush to dress on board and get back 
to shore in time to dine with Mrs. Crossthwaite at Govern- 
ment House, three miles from the landing-place. It is a large 
roomy bungalow with a big verandah, surrounded by trees. 




Moulmein 



1 3 o 



ELEPHANTS AT WORK 



Mrs. Crossthwaite, her daughter, Mr. Hodgkinson, Mr. Symes, 
Tom, Mabelle, Mr. des Graz, and myself formed the party. We 

had a very pleasant evening, 
but our long and tiring day 
made at least one of the 
guests glad to get on board 
and go to bed. 

Friday, March 
1 8th. Left the yacht 
about seven o'clock. 
Mr. Hodg- 
kinson took 




us to see a timber-yard, where elephants are extensively used. 
It was a wonderful exhibition of strength, patience, and dex- 
terity. The docile creatures lift, roll, and push the logs of 
timber to any part of the yard. They pile it up into stacks 
high above their heads, seizing one end of a log with their 
trunk, placing it on the pile of timber, and then taking the 
other end of the log and pushing it forward, finally placing 
it on their heads, and sending it into its place. They work 
undisturbed amid the buzz of circular saws and machinery, 
where it would seem almost impossible for animals of such 
huge proportions to escape injury. They carry their intelli- 
gence to the point of rigidly enforcing the rights of labour. 



RICE 



Nothing will persuade an elephant to do a stroke of work, 
after he has heard the workmen's dinner-bell, during the hour 
of mid-day rest to which he rightly considers himself entitled. 
Their mental powers seem, indeed, to be very nearly on a level 
with those of the human workmen, with whose efforts their 
own are combined. No less than two thousand elephants were 
formerly employed in the yard of the Bombay and Burmah 




Company. Steam ma- 
chinery is now rapidly super- 
seding elephants, for each animal 
requires at least three men to look after him. 
We quitted the Bombay and Burmah Trading Company's 
teak-yard, most grateful to Mr. Jones, the manager, for his 
kind reception. Then our party divided, some going to see the 
pagoda, and others to see the rice-mills. At this season of 
the year the mill-hands are at work night and day, while from 
November to February the mills are as a rule closed. In the 
establishment which we visited a hundred tons of rice are 
turned out every twelve hours, several processes having to be 
gone through before the ' paddy ' is converted into ' white rice ' 
of the first quality. 



132 



AT RANGOON 



While rice is the main element in the trade of Rangoon, 
teak is the principal article at Moulmein. The finest teak 
forests are to be found in Northern Burrnah. The tree does 
not flourish south of the 1 6th degree of latitude. 

Returned on board to breakfast, to which Dr. and Mrs. 
Pedley came. Busy morning with letters and callers. Among 
the latter were Lord and Lady Stafford, on their way to join 
the ' Kilwa,' hi which they proceed to Moulmein and Singa- 
pore. Captain Fanshawe also called, and Mr. Syrnes and Mr. 
Hodgkinson came to lunch. Some Burmese curiosity-vendors 
paid us a visit in the afternoon, and we made some purchases, 
chiefly of silver and gongs. Posted our budget of letters and 
sent off telegrams in the evening, and sailed from Piangoon at 

I I P.M. 




POINT AMHERST 




Saturday, March igth. Arrived off the Salwen River abjut 
i P.M., but found that the tide did not suit for going up to 
Moulmein. We therefore had to anchor until the next morn- 
ing. Coast pretty, undulating, and covered with jungle. At 
five o'clock we landed and went to the water pagoda at Point 
Amherst a curious wooden structure, held sacred by the 
Buddhists. Pilgrimages are annually made to this spot from 
all parts of Burmah and Siam, and are the occasion of vast 
gatherings of people, who live and sleep entirely in the open air. 
There is a small native village close by, and also a post-office, 
telegraph-office, and pilot station ; while in the neighbourhood 
are many of the summer-dwellings of the Rangoon and Moul- 
mein merchants. 

Sunday, March 2Oth. Steam up early. At 10 A.M. we 
started to ascend the river to Moulmein. Passed the ' Kilwa ' 
coming down, and arrived about one o'clock. Moulmein is 

R 



134 MOULMEIN CAVES 

admirably situated on a range of hills, rising to a consider- 
able elevation on the left bank of the Salwen. The town is 
embosomed in trees, and pagodas and shrines occupy every 
prominent position. The population consists largely of 
foreigners, Chinese and Hindoos forming a large proportion 
of the aggregate number of 50,000. The navigation from the 
sea to Moulmein up the Salwen is far more difficult than 
the passage up to Rangoon. The Salwen is one of the great 
rivers of Asia. Its upper waters have never yet been reached 
by European travellers. About half-past four we landed and 
drove up to Salwen Lodge, where we had tea with Colonel 
and Mrs. Plant. Afterwards to church, which was very hot 
and full of mosquitoes. 

Monday, March 2ist. Landed early, and went to see the 
jail and another timber-yard where elephants are employed. 
At the jail a good deal of wood-carving is done, in addition 
to basket-making and carpentering. Returned to the yacht 
to breakfast, and received more visitors, including Mr. Men- 
henaick, the English clergyman here. Colonel and Mrs. Plant 
came to tea, and we afterwards landed and went to a lawn- 
tennis party and to dinner at Salwen Lodge. 

Tuesday, March 22nd. Started very early to see the 
caves, about eight miles from Moulmein. The smaller of 
the two contains a large number of sacred images, while the 
other is of vast dimensions. These caves are situated in a 
sort of cliff, rising abruptly from the plain. The lighting had 
been specially arranged for us by the kindness of Captain 
Dodd. 

A large portion of Burmah is still uninhabited. Much larger 
in area, it has not one-fifth of the population of France. But 
the increase is immensely rapid. Between 1871 and 1881 it 
was at the rate of 34 per cent. 

The inferiority of Burmah in respect of population, not- 
withstanding the superior fertility of the soil, is to be traced 



POPULATION 



135 



to the physical geography of the country. The great rivers 
of India flow east or west. The great rivers of the Burmese 
peninsula flow from north to south. The population of India 
could readily expand without material change of climate. In 
Cochin China navigation down the valleys of the great rivers 
involves changes of temperature and habit such as human 
nature is not generally able to endure. 

At an early hour we found the deck, as usual when we 
are about to leave a port, cumbered by an inconvenient 
crowd of unwelcome visitors, consisting in the present in-, 
stance of dhobis, gharry-wallahs, hotel people, and loafers 
and idlers generally, all of whom we 
at once proceeded to get rid of 
as soon as possible. Among 
the authorised visitors were 
the servants of some of our 




Entrance to Caves, Mouimein 



136 



DEPARTURE FROM MOULME1N 



friends on shore, who had 
kindly sent us parting pre- 
sents of fruit, jams, curries, 
curios, and the most 
lovely orchids, the lat- 
ter in such profusion 
that they were sus- 
pended all along the 
boom, causing the 
quarter-deck to look 
more like one of Mr. 
Bull's orchid exhibi- 
tions than part of a 
vessel. We photo- 
graphed some of them 
with great success, and 
with our gods from the 
caves in the back- 
ground, they will make 
an effective picture. 

The clothes from the wash had arrived on board, for a 
wonder, though the much-needed ice had not. It was, how- 
ever, impossible to wait for it, and accordingly at 12.45 we 
got up the port-anchor, and at 1.30 the starboard-anchor, 
and proceeded down the river, taking several instantaneous 
photographs en route. About four o'clock we met the 'Ran- 
goon ' coming up. She is a powerful paddle-wheel steamer, 
carrying the mails, and doing the distance of no miles 
between Rangoon and Moulmein, or rice versa, in all states 
of the tide which sometimes runs seven knots in eleven 
hours. Her decks were crowded with passengers, mostly 
natives. In the bows was a group of Phoongyees in their yellow- 
robes. 

The pilot-boat met us at Point Amherst, with Tab on board, 




Ferry at Morcenatin 



A BIR THDA Y ENTER TA INMENT 1 37 

bringing more fruit and orchids. He had arrived atEangoon 
on the 2oth, and had left there this morning, after having 
had a real good time of it with Colonel Euan Smith and 
the Manchester Eegiment, his only regret being that he had 
not killed a tiger. We waved adieux to the skipper, pointed 
the yacht's head to the southward, made sail, and, as soon 
as it was cool enough, lowered the funnel and set the main- 
sail. 

Wednesday, March 2T,rd. A pleasant but very shy 
breeze, which frequently obliged us to tack. At noon we 
had made good 60 miles under steam, and 40 under sail, 
Singapore being distant 1,050 miles. Lat. I533 / N.; long. 
97i3'E. 

Thursday, March 24.th. The twelfth anniversary of Baby's 
birthday. She was delighted with the presents which had 
already been collected for her at various places, and with the 
promise of others. 

A hot calm day. We had run 101 miles since noon yester- 
day, and were in lat. I432' N. ; long. 972f E. At 3 P.M. 
we raised the funnel, and at 4 began to steam. 

In the evening we had our second nautical entertainment 
in honour of the day. Muriel's ' first appearance ' as ' Little 
Buttercup,' in the old-fashioned costume of a Portsmouth 
bumboat woman, consisting of a blue gown, red shawl, and 
bonnet of antique shape, was greeted with vociferous applause, 
and it was only out of deference to her feelings of mingled 
modesty and fatigue (for it was very hot and airless below in 
the crowded ' assembly room ' ) that her song was not raptur- 
ously encored. The evening's entertainment was brought to 
a close in the orthodox manner by the drinking of healths 
and the expression of good wishes for all friends, absent or 
present. 

Friday, March 2$th. A fine breeze sprang up at i A.M. 
At 7. 30 we ceased steaming, and at 10 A.M. lowered the funnel. 



138 



EDIBLE BIRDS^ NESTS 



At noon we had run 138 miles under steam and 32 under 
sail, Singapore being 837 miles distant. Position, lat. 
ii c 4i'N. ; long. 97 14' E. 

We saw the Moscos group of islands yesterday evening, 
and early this morning sighted the North, Middle, and South 
islands. It is here that the finest, though not the largest, 




Point Amherst Water TempJe 



edible birds'-nests are found ; but the nests are built by a bird 
of quite a different species from that of Borneo. 

Saturday, March 26th. Early this morning we passed 
Tenasserim. 



AT SEA 



139 



During the day we were continually sighting various little 
islands, as well as high mountain-peaks belonging to the more 
distant mainland. At noon we had run 160 miles, and our 
position was lat. 9 if N. ; long. 97 o' E., Singapore being 
still 687 miles distant. 

The day proved intensely hot and steamy, with scarcely 
any air, though the thermometer was not so high as one would 
have fancied. Thankful we all were when, after some little 
delay, caused by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient draught 




Bound South 



in the furnaces, we were able at four o'clock to steam ahead 
and so create a breeze for ourselves. Lightning flashed and 
gleamed on all sides, and the air felt sulphurous and suffocat- 
ingly oppressive. At 7.45 P.M. we were overtaken by a heavy 
squall of wind, accompanied by thunder, lightning, and rain, 
which obliged us to close all ports and skylights. Fortunately 
the storm did not last long, though the weather continued 
showery all night. 

Sunday, March 27 th. The day broke dull, cloudy, and 
squally, and so continued. At noon we had run 1 39 miles 



140 SOUTHWARD BOUND 

under steam and n under sail, Singapore being 537 miles 
distant. Position by dead reckoning no observations being 
possible lat. 7 5' N. ; long. 98 16' E. 

In the afternoon we made the Butan Islands. The even- 
ing looked dull, but the sky was occasionally lighted up by 
flashes of the most brilliant lightning. The sea was so full of 
phosphorescence that when Baby and I had our ante-prandial 
' hose ' our bathing-dresses glistened beautifully. I felt rather 
unwell all day, and not being able to go down to afternoon 
prayers, listened to them from the deck. 

Monday, March 28th. Another squally day, with a good 
deal of rain and a fresh head- wind. It was delightful on deck, 
but very hot below. 

At noon we had run 1 70 miles under steam, and were only 
350 miles from Singapore. A good deal more lightning at 
night, and a great deal of phosphorescence ; also a very bad- 
looking, nearly new moon flat on her back and surrounded 
by a big halo. I saw a moon at Tangiers with a similar 
appearance last year, just before the terrible cyclone at 
Madrid, 

To-day we were to the north of Acheen Head and Brasse 
Island, but too far off to see the land. Scarcely any Cape in 
the world is sighted by so many vessels and touched at by so 
few as Acheen Head. Lord Eeay warned us most strongly 
against approaching it too closely in our comparatively de- 
fenceless condition, on account of the piratical character of 
the inhabitants. 

Tuesday, March 2gtli. I had a good night in the cool deck- 
house, and woke refreshed. I have been rather overworked 
lately, and am consequently beginning to sleep badly and lose 
my appetite. 

At noon we were in lat. 2 55' X. ; long. 101 28' E. The 
run proved to be 188 miles under steam, and left us 175 miles 
from Singapore. 



THE SULTAN OF J OH ORE 141 

We could now see the high land near Sabagore, and in the 
afternoon found ourselves off Cape Eachada, a pretty little 
place with tall trees nearly to the water's edge, and a long 
line of snowy white beach with a background of blue moun- 
tains. 

Wednesday, March 30^. At daybreak we were off Pulo 
Pisang, and shortly afterwards the pilot came on board an 
unintelligible and unintelligent sort of man, who could not 
tell us anything, and who had great difficulty in understand- 
ing what we said. He brought us, however, the latest papers. 

At 7.30 A.M. the P. & 0. steamer ' Bokhara,' from London, 
passed, and we asked her to report us as following her closely. 
The morning was brilliant, and the lights and shadows over 
the city of Singapore made it look even prettier than when I 
last saw it. As we had to coal, we proceeded right through 
the new harbour, and moored alongside Tanjong Pagar. Tab 
landed to make arrangements at the hospital for the reception 
of the Doctor, who was to remain there during our stay at 
Singapore, and soon returned with a very favourable report of 
the establishment. Dr. Simon, who was chief of the hospital 
at Malacca when we were there in 1 867, now occupies a similar 
post here. 

We had not been long at the coaling- wharf when our old 
friend the Sultan of Johore drove down and came on board. 
He was delighted to see us, though surprised at our sudden 
appearance, for he had been on the look-out for two or three 
days, and had sent two steamers out to meet us, which we had 
missed by taking another channel. The Sultan was profuse 
in his offers of hospitality, and wanted us to stay a week or 
two with him and to make all sorts of interesting excursions 
up the river in his new steam-yacht. This was impossible : 
but we promised to go to tea with him at his town house in 
Singapore to-night, and to visit him at his palace at Johore 
to-morrow. 



142 



THE SULTAN'S TOWN-HOUSE 




Traveller's Palm, Singapore 

We had many visitors in the morning, including one or 
two friends who had just arrived by the 'Bokhara.' In the 
afternoon the Doctor landed to go to the hospital, and later on 
we went on board the ' Bokhara,' and then landed and drove 
in the Sultan's carriages to the hospital, where, after some 
delay and difficulty, we found the doctor established in a 
comfortable room. Afterwards we took a long drive very 
much longer than we had expected through the prettiest part 
of Singapore. A steep climb up a hill and through a pretty 
garden brought us at last to the Sultan's town-house, which 
is full of lovely things, especially those brought from Japan. 
Such delightfully hideous monsters in bronze and gold, such 
splendid models, magnificent embroideries, matchless china, 
rare carvings, elaborate tables and cabinets, are seldom found 
collected together in one house. After a Ion" examination of 



DEPARTURE FOR BORNEO ^43 

all these pretty things, Tom arrived, and then we had to show 
them to him all over again. By this time we were quite ready 
for tea served in the verandah, with all sorts of nice fruits 
and cakes. Altogether it was a charming little entertainment, 
and we regretted having so soon to return to the hotel, where 
a numerous company assemhled at dinner in the large saloon 
and verandah. The drive down afterwards to the pier in 
jinrikishas proved delightful to the children. 

Thursday, March $ist. Hove the anchor up at 1.30 P.M. 
and proceeded under steam, with pilot on hoard, through the 
Straits of Johore to the Sultan's palace, where we dined and 
slept. 

Friday, April ist. An early drive, and a walk through 
the charming gardens which surround the palace, occupied the 
first part of the morning very agreeably, and later we returned 
to the yacht to receive a number of visitors. At 1 1.30 we got 
under way, and, with the Sultan on board, steamed through 
the Straits of Singapore. 

Saturday, April 2nd. Weighed anchor between i and 2 A.M. 
and proceeded under steam towards Borneo. Mr. Crocker, 
the recently appointed Governor of North Borneo, who was on 
board, gave us much interesting and valuable information 
during the voyage about the new colony which has been formed 
by the British North Borneo Company. 

It was a very hot day, but we were all busily occupied in 
tidying up and settling down again after our short but pleasant 
run on shore. 

At noon we were in lat. i 26' N., long. 105 39' E., having 
run 105 miles. At 4 P.M. we made Victory and Barren Islands, 
passing close to them later in the evening. 

We were talking to-day of the St. John Ambulance Asso- 
ciation, and as an illustration of what a useful institution it 
would be in these parts, Mr. Crocker spoke of the case of an 
unfortunate man who had broken, or rather smashed, his 



144 



AMBULANCE WORK 



arm so badly as to make it evident that his only chance of life 
lay in removing the shattered limb. There was no doctor 
near, nor anyone who knew anything of surgery. Somebody 
had, however, fortunately seen a surgical book at Government 
House. This was brought, and one man read aloud from 
it, while the other did his best to follow the instructions, and 
with the aid of an ordinary knife and saw, cut off the arm. 
The wound healed in a marvellous manner, and the man is 
now alive and well. 

Such an incident is happily quite exceptional. Indeed, it 
is almost impossible to imagine the combination of courage, 
determination, and endurance which must have been required 
on both sides. But minor accidents are of frequent occurrence 
in these wild regions, and a knowledge of how to render first 
aid in such cases would often be of invaluable service. 

We had an ' Ambulance ' case on board to-night, for a vein 

burst suddenly in the 
Doctor's leg. Fortunately 
Pratt was close at hand, 
and with ice and ligatures 




THE RIVER KUCHING 145 



checked the haemorrhage. Without his prompt help the con- 
sequences might have been serious. 

Sunday, April 3rd. At 6 A.M. sighted St. Pierre. The 
wind was fair and light, but it did not seem to temper the 
intense heat. At noon we were exactly under the sun, and 
were therefore all as shadowless as Peter Schlemihl. Despite 
the heat we had the Litany at half-past eleven, and evening- 
service at half-past six. At 10 P.M. we anchored off Tanjong 
Pulo, at the mouth of the river Kuching, on which stands 
Kuching itself, the capital of Sarawak. 

Tom feels the heat greatly, and has been unwell for the 
last day or two. To-night I had an anxious time looking after 
him, and could get no help from the Doctor, who was himself 
ill and delirious. 

Monday, April 4^. The anchor was hove at 6. 30 A.M., and 
we proceeded towards the entrance to the river, meeting several 
natives in fishing-boats, who told us that Piajah Brooke was 
away at Labuan in his steam-yacht the ' Aline.' We there- 
fore hesitated about going up the river, especially without a 
pilot ; but it seemed a pity to be so near and to miss the 
opportunity of seeing Kuching. So off we went up the narrow 
muddy stream, guided only by the curious direction-boards 
fixed at intervals on posts in the water, or hung from trees on 
the banks. 

This plan of making every man his own pilot seems both 
sensible and useful ; but the general effect of the notice- 
boards was not picturesque. The wording of some of the 
notices was brief and practical, though such a caution as 
' Hug this close on the outside,' painted in large letters on a 
board at the water's edge, had a certain quaintness about it 
which amused us. We ascended the river at half-tide, when 
the channel is pretty clearly apparent ; but at high tide the 
way must be difficult to find. The scenery w r as somewhat 
monotonous until we approached Kuching, but we were assured 



146 



KUCHING 



TO KucvUN 



Hocx^ 

KEEP 



ROCKS 
HUG THE 



Borneo 



that further inland, to- 
wards the mountains, 
it becomes really 
beautiful. The town 
itself seemed a busy 
little place, and there 
were two steamers lying 
alongside the wharf. Our arrival, 
without a pilot, caused much surprise, 
especially as we had not been expected 
until a day or two later. In fact, a 
pilot was just starting for the mouth 
of the river to look out for us. 
The 'Lorna Doone,' a small 
steamer, had also been 
despatched to Labuan to 
let the Rajah know that 
we were coming. After 



PR AH US 147 

reaching our destination we found great difficulty in turning 
round, owing to the narrowness of the river. The heat 
was fearful, and the sun poured down through the double 
awnings with an intensity which must be felt to be under- 
stood. We were rather afraid of both the fever and the mos- 
quitoes, and as neither the Rajah nor Eanee was at Kuching, 
we decided to drop dow r n the river again with the afternoon 
tide. 

After a short delay we landed with Mr. Maxwell at some 
neat little steps close to the jail, where there appeared to be 
but few prisoners. The public offices and buildings of Kuching 
seem to be particularly suitable for this hot climate. Not far 
off is the market, with nothing left for sale in it except a few 
vegetables and pines, the meat and fruit markets being over 
for the day, and the fish the staple commodity of the place 
not having yet come in. At high tide the prahus which 
we had seen waiting at the mouth of the river would sail 
swiftly up, bringing the result of their morning's work, the 
crew of each eager to be first and so to command the best 
prices. 

Most of these prahus are propelled by two, three, and four, 
or even eight, paddles ; and one which we saw had twenty. The 
larger ones only come out as a rule for warlike purposes or on 
high days and holidays, especially on New Year's Day, which 
is a great festival in Borneo, when five hundred warriors fre- 
quently compete in one race. It must be wonderful to see 
their paddles flashing, their boats dashing through the water, 
and to hear their wild shouts and war-cries. If only we 
could have stayed, a race would have been got up for our 
edification, although most of the warriors are out on the war- 
path just now, looking after stray jobs in their line, arising 
from the difficulties between the Sultan of Brunei and the 
Kadyans. 

A long narrow room over the market is used as the 



148 



THE MUSEUM 



museum at Kuching, and after 
climbing up by a steep lad- 
der we came to a trap- 
door, of which the key 
could not be found for 
some time. The collec- 
tion is interesting, and 
gives a good idea of the 
manners and customs of 
the Dyaks. It comprises 
specimens of their house- 
hold utensils, weapons, dress, 
matwork, besides models of 
their dwellings and canoes. 
Some of the basketwork was 
cleverly woven in beautiful 
patterns, marked out and 
dyed with the juice of coloured 
berries and seaweed. The 
head-flatteners, or boards used 
by the Milanos to alter the natural 
shape of their infants' heads, specially 
attracted our attention, and I felt it 
difficult to decide whether the inven- 
tion aimed at increasing the child's beauty or its brains. 

We were shown one of the ingenious air-compressing tubes 
which have been used by the natives for hundreds of years 
past to produce fire. It seemed to afford a proof of the truth 
of the old adage that there is nothing new under the sun. 
Professor Faraday alluded in one of his lectures to the possi- 
bility of producing fire by means of compressed air as a 
discovery of comparatively modern science ; whereas the fact 
has long been recognised and put to practical use in these 
obscure regions of the earth. The war-jackets were made of 




f 

i N > V 



Fire Tube 



CURRENT COIN 



149 



birds' feathers and wild beasts' skins, or of the barks of trees. 
Sometimes these garments were liberally decorated with small 
bells, cowries, and pieces of metal cut from old petroleum and 
preserved meat tins, which jingle and rattle as the wearer 
moves. Others were like chain-armour, of which the strips 
were fastened together by bits of hide or leather. The shields 
seemed of all sorts of shapes and sizes, some long and narrow, 
some circular, and some large enough to cover a man com- 
pletely, and they were nearly all ornamented with tufts of 
black, silky, human hair. The kreises and parongs were 
similarly decorated, as well as with fine horsehair dyed bright 
scarlet, and streaked 
with white. Some of 
the weapons had splen- 
didly carved handles 
and very fine bead- 
decorations, and many 
of the blades w r ere in- 
laid with gold and silver. 
Sulu and Brunei have 
for centuries been cele- 
brated for their arms, 
specially for their steel 
and damascene-worked 
armour, as well as 
for their bronze guns. 
The latter are used as 
current coin by the 
native tribes in their 
more important trans- 
actions. If a slave be 
bought or sold, or a 
quantity of rice, sago, 
or beans changes hands, 




150 TURTLES' EGGS 



the value is almost always reckoned in bronze guns. Grey- 
shirtings, a more convenient form of money for small dealings, 
have now gone out of fashion, but blue cloth still holds its own. 
Chinese ' cash ' and Spanish dollars are in circulation, but the 
natives will not look at a ' bit,' nor at any other sort of coin, 
either gold or silver. The metal which the natives prefer for 
their guns is composed of Chinese cash melted up, and for their 
swords they use the iron bands bj< which cotton bales are kept 
together. Outside the Government buildings stand some 
beautiful and curious cannon, of moderate calibre. Some 
came from Brunei, while others had only just been captured 
on the Barram and Leyun rivers, during the Eajah's expedi- 
tion, and were just being cleaned up and placed in position. 
The carving and modelling of many of them were extremely 
good. 

The Rajah's carriage, a neat waggonette and pair, driven 
by an English coachman, was waiting to take us to Mr. 
Maxwell's house, where we were to lunch. We drove along 
excellent roads, passing a church, school-house, and club, to 
a very pretty bungalow, standing in a pretty garden, and 
perched on the summit of a hill. The air felt much cooler 
here than in the town or on the river, and gave us excellent 
appetites for a nice impromptu little lunch. One delicacy 
consisted of fresh turtles' eggs, which I am afraid we did not 
all appreciate, for they tasted like ordinary eggs mixed with 
coarse sand. They are quite round, about the size of a small 
orange, with soft white leather, or rather parchment-like 
shells, and are found in great abundance on an island near 
Kuching. The natives make a coarse oil from the inferior eggs. 

The walls of the dining-room were covered with shields, 
kreises, spears, and arms of all kinds, collected by Mr. Maxwell 
himself. In some of them mason-bees were making or had 
already made their nests ! No w r onder Mrs. Maxwell com- 
plained bitterly of the mischief they did, and of the ravages of 



DOWN THE RIVER 151 

white ants, which are even more destructive. The dampness 
of the climate, moreover, makes it necessary to have the con- 
tents of wardrobes and bookcases frequently taken out and 
shaken, turned, and examined. 

We drove down to the river, intending to take boat and cross 
to the island and fort, but were only just in time to rush into 
the Government offices and so escape a terrible thunderstorm 
accompanied by torrents of rain. In this shelter we had to 
stay until it was time to embark on board the ' Adeh,' in which 
we were to go down the river. 

In the meantime the rest of our party had been lunching 
at the fort, where they had much enjoyed the view from the 
heights a sight which I rather envied them. Presently we 
saw them come down in the pouring rain, get into the 
Eajah's ten-paddled boat, and set off to join us. We were all 
drenched by the time we got on board the ' Adeh.' Here 
we w r ere joined by Major and Mrs. Day, as well as by two 
Dyak soldiers in full war-costume, in readiness to be sketched 
or photographed. 

Shortly after starting the strong current caught our bow 
and carried us into the bank, causing us to collide with 
and considerably damage two schooners, as well as the 
balcony of one of the numerous wooden houses standing on 
piles in the river. The bowsprit of one of the schooners was 
completely interlaced with the stanchions, ropes, and railings 
of our gangway, and it must have been a good stick not to 
snap off short. The tide was now much higher than when 
we came up, but the temperature had been considerably 
lowered by the thunderstorm, and was still further reduced by 
the rain, which continued to fall throughout the afternoon, 
making photography well-nigh impossible. The Dyaks seemed 
at first rather frightened by the camera, which they called 
' the engine ; ' but they were very civil and obliging, and 
assumed all sorts of attitudes, warlike and otherwise, for our 



152 DYAKS 

edification. Their scanty clothing was elaborately orna- 
mented with bead-work and embroidery, and the little mats 
which they carry to sit down upon were made of exquisitely 
fine plaited grass-work. Their arms were highly decorated 
with human hair of various colours, as well as with cowries, 
beads, and little woven balls of Brunei work. 

In due time we reached Quop, the highest point to which 
large vessels can ascend from the sea. Here we quitted the 
' Adeh,' and took all the party, including the two Dyaks 




Such ing 



who were very much astonished, and I think rather frightened 
on board the ' Sunbeam ' to tea ; after which we said fare- 
well with regret to our kind friends, and, with the ' Adeh ' to 
guide us over the treacherous shoals and mud-banks, steamed 
away, until we were once more fairly at sea and had lost sight 
of our pilot in the gathering darkness. 

Tom had another bad night, fancying he had caught the 
fever, and that we should all have it from going up the river. 
I had just persuaded him to take a sleeping-draught, and try 
and get some comfortable sleep, when I heard a tremendous 



THE RAT 153 

noise on deck. I feared at first that some of the men, as often 
happens in these out-of-the-way places, had been treated to 
poisonous liquor and were now suffering from the effects of it ; 
but on running up to make inquiries, and, if possible, quiet the 
disturbance, I was just in time to catch sight of the rat, whose 
presence on board has only recently been detected, scuttling 
off in the bright moonlight. He must have been tempted from 
his lair on the top of the deck-house by the fragrant smell 
of the new pineapples from Kuching, which were hung in the 




The Fort 



port cutter, but on venturing forth he had at once been 
' spotted ' by one of the men. When I arrived on the scene 
the whole crew had been called, and were in hot pursuit I 
need scarcely say, with no success whatever. 

Tuesday, April $th. A calm, close day, with a heavy swell 
running down from the China Sea, probably caused by a 
typhoon. Everybody most uncomfortable. Sails and boats 
were several times reported, but they turned out to be only 
little islands such as those of Nipa and Nibong, or else groups 
of floating palms swept clown by the Bruit and Barram rivers. 



154 FLOATING ISLETS 



These two rivers and the Eajang have the unpleasant 
peculiarity of washing small floating islets out to sea, which 
seriously endanger navigation. 

At noon we had steamed 173 miles, and were in lat. 
3 38' N., long. 1 1 1 56' E., Labuan being 222 miles distant. 

Tom is still unwell ; but I think it is better that he should 
be obliged to exert himself on deck, instead of remaining in 
his cabin. 




CHAPTER VII. 

L ABU AN. 

Wednesday, April 6th. At daybreak it was so hazy that 
our position could not be ascertained. Between 10 and 
1 1 A.M. sights were worked out, and it was found that a 
current had set us thirty miles to E.N.E. At noon we had 
run 230 miles under steam, and, putting the yacht's head 
round, we steered direct for the northern entrance to Victoria 
Harbour, off Labuan Island, where we dropped anchor at 
2 P.M. 

Not long afterwards Lieutenant Hamilton, E.N. (Harbour- 
master, Postmaster, Captain of the Port, Treasurer, and 
I believe the holder of half a dozen other offices under 
the British Government), and Mr. Everett called. They 



1 56 A BRITISH COLONY 

told us all the news, and recommended our going along- 
side the wharf to coal and water at this, the last British 
port before our long voyage to Australia. It is quite the 
funniest, most out-of-the-world place we have ever been in, 
just as Sarawak is the most wonderful little independent state 
well managed, complete in itself, with its small army, still 
smaller navy, and miniature government. Labuan has not 
possessed a Governor since Sir Charles Lees (then Mr. Lees) 
left, but it boasts capital public offices, a first-rate Government 
House, Secretary's residence, church, parsonage, and other 
amenities of advanced civilisation. Only there is nobody 
to govern, and hardly anything for the officials to do. At 
present the colon}' of Labuan seems a farce, and ought either 
to be done away with or placed on an entirely different foot- 
ing. The best plan would probably be to make it an adjunct 
to the Straits Settlements, at the same time establishing a 
protectorate over Sarawak and Brunei. 

Dr. and Mrs. Leys came on board in the afternoon, and 
later on we landed with them at the very rotten and rickety 
wooden pier, and reached a grass sward, by the side of 
which stand the public offices and a few shops. Some of the 
party walked, while others drove in various little pony-car- 
riages. Baby and I went with Dr. Leys to see a party of 
Sarawak Dyaks who had just come in from the Barram River 
with wedges of gutta-percha, which the}* were offering for sale, 
as well as some weapons and clothing just captured. We 
bought a good many interesting things, such as jackets made 
of cotton, grown, dyed, and woven by the Dyaks, horn and 
tortoiseshell combs, kreises, parongs, knives, pipes, tobacco- 
pouches, travelling-bags of plaited matting, and sumpitans or 
blowpipes from which poisoned arrows are discharged. They 
prize these latter very highly, and are generally loth to part 
with them, so that we may consider ourselves fortunate in 
having come across these few members of a tribe just returned 



PLURALITY OF OFFICES 157 

from a warlike expedition judiciously combined with the more 
peaceful and profitable trade of gathering gutta-percha and 
india-rubber. We also met a group of bird's-nest collectors, 
from whom we bought some nests of both the black and 
white varieties, scientifically known as Callocalia. Then we 
purchased two small rhinoceros-horns, greatly prized here for 
their supposed medicinal virtues, and considered to be worth 
their weight in gold. We succeeded likewise in getting some 
pairs of splendid pearl-shells, with fine golden lips and inci- 
pient pearls adhering to them ; but I am obliged to admit that 
they were frightfully expensive. 

After visiting all the shops in the town few in number, and 
nearly all kept by Chinamen we went for a drive into the 
country. It was just like driving through one vast park, along 
soft springy green roads leading through fragrant jungle. 
There were no fences, and fruit-trees of every kind abounded, 
heavily laden with oranges, pomaloes, mangoes, mangosteens, 
durians, and other delicacies all, unfortunately for us, at 
present unripe. 

The incongruity of some of the things which were pointed 
out to us during our drive was very amusing. There, for 
instance, stood a large jail, in the happy condition of being 
tenantless. So long, indeed, had it been empty that the gates 
stood permanently open, and the jailers had all departed for 
other lands, with the exception of the chief official, who re- 
mained in the colony, indeed, but who had long since turned 
his attention to other avocations. The system of plurality 
appears to prevail in Labuan, and it is said that amusing 
situations have more than once arisen in consequence of 
the multiplicity of offices centred in one individual. The 
postmaster, for instance, has been known to write to the 
treasurer for payment for the delivery of mails, the harbour- 
master to the same official for the value of coals consumed, 
the captain of the port for the homeward passage-money of 



I 5 8 



THE PENSION LIST 



some shipwrecked sailors all three letters and the replies 
thereto being in the same handwriting. I rather think, by the 
way, that the Labuan treasury was at a low ebb when we were 
there ; for I know that the question arose whether it contained 
enough money to meet some fifty or sixty dollar notes of ours 
which we had given in exchange for our purchases. 

The pension-list is very large in the island of Labuan. 
There is a church, but no acting clergyman, though there 
are three on the pension-list, and the bishop only comes twice 
a year, or sometimes twice in two years, according to the 




requirements of the remainder of his large diocese, which 
comprises North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore, besides 
Labuan. He is expected to arrive to-morrow from Sandakan, 
but I fear we shall just miss him. 

There is an hospital, but no resident doctor only two on 
the inevitable pension-list. I believe, however, that a surgeon 
is now on his way out from England to take up the duties 
of the post. Government House is surrounded by a charm- 
ing park and garden, and resembles an old-fashioned West 
Indian planter's residence of the best class. It might well 



BRUNEI RIVER 159 



serve to illustrate scenes in ' Tom Cringle's Log ' or ' Peter 
Simple.' It is built entirely of a dark wood like mahogany, 
and the rooms themselves looked snug and well arranged ; 
but, alas, the white ants have attacked one wing of the 
house, and it will have to be pulled down or rebuilt. 

Snakes are not numerous in Labuan, but the other day 
Mrs. Leys found one comfortably coiled up on the sofa, just 
where she was going to lie down. Not far from the town 
Dr. Leys once shot an alligator on its nest, which contained 
thirty-nine eggs. Two of these he gave me, and I hope to get 
them home safely, for they are not easily to be procured. We 
were also shown some beautiful shells and weapons, and a 
war -jacket made of bearskin, decorated with small bells and 
pieces cut from kerosene-oil tins. 

Our drive down to the shore, along the grassy roads of the 
park, in the clear moonlight, was most delightful. The yacht 
had gone off to her anchorage, and w T e had to wait some 
time for a boat. In the interval we amused ourselves with a 
Chinese open-air theatre, waxwork exhibition, and a puppet- 
show. 

Thursday, April "jtli. Weighed at 7 A.M. Mr. Everett 
and Lieutenant Hamilton came on board, and soon afterwards 
the mail steamer arrived, with the Bishop on board. We 
steamed across to the mouth of the Brunei River, admiring 
the beautiful views on our way, especially at Coal Point, where 
we transferred ourselves to the Rajah of Sarawak's steamer 
' Lorna Doone,' and proceeded up the river, the scenery of 
which is very picturesque. The late Sultan built a wall of 
stones across the channel with the view of keeping out the 
British fleet under Sir Thomas Cochrane and Captain Keppel 
now Admiral of the Fleet Sir Harry Keppel ; and although 
he did not succeed in his object, the result has been to 
make the navigation extremely difficult. The bay itself is 
surrounded by vast forests, and not long ago a steamer was 

u 



i6o BRUNEI 

prevented from entering the river for three clays, in conse- 
quence of a fierce jungle fire, the dense volumes of smoke from 
which completely obscured the entrance. The hills on either 
side of the river are prettily wooded, but here and there the 
land has been cleared and laid out in terraces for the cultiva- 
tion of pepper by the Chinese. Brunei Eiver has been called 
the Rhine of the East, and I think it deserves that name 
better than the town does its proud title of the Venice of the 
East, the sole point of resemblance in the latter case being 
that both cities are built upon piles. 

Some members of another tribe of Dyaks came on board 
to-day, with seven heads which they had captured, not on 
the war-path, but while engaged in a nominally peaceful 
expedition into the jungle in search of gutta-percha, camphor, 
and beeswax. They had chanced to come across some 
natives belonging to a hostile tribe, and had promptly secured 
as many heads as they could. 

The approach to the town of Brunei is extremely pictu- 
resque, but the place itself is not imposing. The wooden 
houses stand, as I have said, upon piles, and there is no 
means of communication between them except by boats, 
varying in size from house or shop boats to tiny canoes 
almost invisible beneath the widespreading hats of their 
occupants. The flooring of the houses is all open, and all 
refuse-matter falls or is thrown into the water beneath. 

We anchored a little above the ' Packnam,' and sent a 
messenger to the Sultan to enquire when it would be con- 
venient to him to receive us, for which purpose he appointed 
two o'clock. In the interval we went for a row, in quite 
the intensest heat I ever felt, to see something of the town 
and the market. The women's hats were enormous from 
three to four feet in diameter. Anything more curious than 
the appearance of a boat-load of these ladies can scarcely be 
imagined. It looked just like a bunch of gigantic mushrooms 



MARKETING 



161 



which had somehow got 
adrift and was floating 
down the stream. The 
marketing is, of course, 
all done in hoats ; and 
it was interesting and 
amusing to watch the 
primitive system of ex- 
change and barter. Very 
little money passed, 
though some of the 
hideous old women had 
little heaps of Chinese 
cash in front of them. 
All the young women 
are kept shut up in the 
houses, and those let out 
to buy and sell are in- 
deed frightful specimens 
of the human race. A 
couple of durians seemed 
to buy a hat. I could 
not arrive at any idea of 
the price of other articles. 
The fish is brought up 
here from the sea, just 
as at Knelling, by large 
boats to a certain point 
and thence in prahus. 
Both fresh fish and stale 
fish re/ 1 // stale and of- 
fensive it seemed to us 
appeared to be the lead- 
ing article of commerce. 




1 62 SAGO 

Besides the small canoes and prahus there were a good many 
large house and shop boats, with quite a goodly supply of 
stores, all owned by Chinese. 

Borneo produces about half the sago used by the civilised 
world. On our way among the houses we had many oppor- 
tunities of observing the primary process of preparing sago 
for the market. It is not very inviting, and is productive of 
a most sickening smell. The large logs of the sago-tree are 
brought down from the jungle by river and moored in the 
dirty water against the piles underneath the houses, the con- 
soling feature of this arrangement being that the water is 
running. One log is selected at a time for treatment. A 
man stands over it, and with an instrument, something between 
a hatchet and a hoe, extracts all the pith of the tree, which is 
the sago. This he pitches on to a mat suspended between 
four poles over the river, and, having poured water over it, 
he and any members of his family who may happen to be 
available proceed to run round and jump and dance upon the 
whole mass, singing and smoking all the time. This pressure 
has the effect of squeezing the fine sago starch through the 
mat into a trough below (usually an old canoe), full of water, 
where it remains until it settles. The water is then run off, 
and the white sticky mass is sold to Chinamen. It is satis- 
factory to know that it goes through a good many more wash- 
ings before it is considered fit for the market. 

Brunei is said to have been at one time a town of 25,000 
houses such as they were with an average of from five to 
seventeen occupants to each house. This does not, however, 
include the Sultan and his relatives, with their numerous 
retinues. Then the numbers dwindled down to 10,000 in- 
habitants ; and at present it is difficult to believe that there 
are more than half that number ; but we are told that some 
5,000 are now away on the war-path. 

At two o'clock exactly we landed, or, to be more precise, 



THE SULTAN OF BRUNEI 163 

climbed up a narrow ladder, the rungs of which were very far 
apart, to a wooden staging supported on piles. It was a dif- 
ficult feat to perform gracefully, and the noise of a salute of 
nineteen guns, fired almost in our ears, did not tend to facili- 
tate matters or make one feel more comfortable. Then we were 
led up a long wooden pier, on which stood some small but 
beautifully ornamented cannon, of Brunei manufacture, until 
we came to a large room, at one end of which stood a sort of 
dais, like an enlarged bedstead, covered with mats. On this 
the Sultan an ugly, smiling, feeble old man shortly after- 
wards took his seat. He was attended by retainers bearing 
betel-boxes, spittoons, weapons, and all sorts of things which 
his Majesty might want or fancy that he wanted. He received 
us affably, shaking hands with us all, and inviting us to be 
seated, after which he ordered large wax candles to be placed 
in front of Tom and me, Tom's candle, however, being much 
the bigger of the two. This was intended as a great compli- 
ment, and if times had not been so bad and beeswax so scarce, 
the candles would, we were informed, have been of even 
greater size. We were then offered cigarettes and excellent tea, 
flavoured with herbs, very hot and sweet. 

The sides of the room had been left open, for the sake of 
coolness, but the surrounding space was filled by a dense mass 
of human beings eager to see what was going on, so that 
there was not much fresh air. Conversation rather languished, 
for neither of the interpreters was very quick, and we had 
considerable misgivings as to the value and correctness of 
their translation of our pretty little speeches. 

At last, after presenting the Sultan with some slight offer- 
ings and expressing our warm thanks for the kind reception 
accorded us, we retired, being escorted to the boat by the 
First Wazier and another officer of state. Having again 
admired the cannon, and heard the history of their manu- 
facture, we re-embarked in our boats under a fresh salute of 



164 



A RETURN VISIT 



nineteen guns. I fear the poor town of Brunei must have 
been put to great expense by the Sultan's desire to do us 
honour. Just as we were starting, the large candles, hastily 
blown out, were put into our boat, as a last and very special 
compliment. 

We returned straight on board the ' Lorna Doone,' and 




had scarcely arrived ere we saw a long, smartly ornamented 
thirty-paddle canoe emerge from among the houses near the 
Sultan's palace, and come swiftly towards us. It had a white 
flag at the stern and a green flag at the bow, and was crowded 
with people carrying umbrellas of all sorts, sizes, and colours. 



A ROMANTIC STORY 165 

which served as insignia of the rank of their owners. Among 
them two very large yellow Chinese umbrellas, surrounded 
by three little carved galleries, were conspicuous. One was 
carried over Pangeran Bandahara, and the other over his 
younger brother, Pangeran di Gadong, who holds the position 
of Second Wazier of Brunei, but who had not appeared at the 
palace in consequence of his not being on speaking terms with 
the present Sultan. The two royalties, without their umbrellas, 
but accompanied by an interpreter and a few of the chief officers, 
came on board the ' Lorna Doone,' and were received by us 
in the extremely small deck-house, the remainder of the suite 
having to content themselves with looking through the win- 
dows and strolling about the deck. It was very puzzling to be 
obliged to invent fresh civilities, for we felt that our recent 
visit had quite exhausted our stock ; but I luckily bethought 
me that there was some connection by marriage between the 
Sultans of Brunei and Johore ; and the discussion of this 
point, which must have cost the poor interpreters much mental 
effort, lasted us a long time. In fact, with the exception of a 
short interval spent in enquiries as to our respective ages, it 
carried us on until it was time for our visitors to take their 
departure, which they did with many effusive hand-shakings, 
and many no doubt charming little farewell speeches. 

The way in which the connection between the Sultans of 
Brunei and Johore came about is rather curious. The Sultan 
of Sulu had been engaged in negotiations for the marriage of 
a princess of Johore (an aunt of the present Sultan) to one of 
his sons. The Sultan of Brunei had also set his mind on the 
same young lady. When the Sulu fleet of prahus started to 
bring the fair or dark princess to her new home, the Brunei 
fleet followed as far as the Straits of Johore, and anchored 
outside, but in the night a swift Brunei prahu stole softly along 
the shore, carried the young lady off, crept through the fleets 
again, and was soon out at sea on its way back to Brunei. The 



i66 SULUS 

next morning, when the princess was not forthcoming and the 
true state of affairs was discovered, the Sulu fleet was naturally 
anxious to start in pursuit ; but the Brunei prahus intercepted 
them, and before the Sulus could fight their way through, the 
lady had been safely lodged in the Sultan's harem at Brunei. 

If the weather had not been so exhaustingly hot, and Tom 
had not been so much afraid of our getting fever, I should have 
tried to persuade him to take us to Sulu, which must be a most 
interesting country, judging from the description of Burbridge, 
Wallace, and others. The natives retain many traces of the old 
Spanish dominion in their style of dress and ideas generally. 
They have excellent horses, or ponies, and are adepts at pig- 
sticking. Occasionally boar-hunts are organised on a large 
scale, which allow of a fine display of horsemanship, as well as 
of gaudy costumes. At the feasts given by the Sultan, the 
dishes, and even the plates, are all of mother-of-pearl shells, 
of the finest golden-lipped variety, each with one or more 
large pearls adhering to it. In some cases visitors have been 
tempted to pocket their plates, and strict watch and ward 
has therefore to be kept over them. There were some Sulus 
on the ' Lorna Doone ' with us, wearing horsey-looking trousers, 
short jackets with buttons on the sleeves, bright sashes stuck 
full of knives and other arms, and jaunty little turbans, some- 
thing like a Maccaroni's cap with the traditional feather stuck 
in it. They seemed altogether superior in point of civilisation 
and appearance to the Sarawak and Brunei Dyaks ; and if the 
taste of the lady whose adventures I have just recorded was 
at all consulted, I cannot help thinking she made' a mistake 
in the selection of her adopted country. 

After the Sultan's nephew had departed, we had a visit 
from Achu Mohammed, who has been British Consul here for 
many years, often in very troublous times. With him came 
an army of shopkeepers, or rather manufacturers, from whom 
we bought several curious specimens of Brunei wares. The 



MUARA COAL-MINES 167 

metalwork is really beautiful, especially the brass sirrhi-boxes, 
and some kettles with an ingenious arrangement in the lid, 
causing them to whistle loudly when the water boils. This place 
is also celebrated for its earrings, which are exactly like 
champagne-corks in size and shape, and are made of gold or 
silver gilt, and studded with rubies, emeralds, and other stones 
found in the neighbourhood. The narrow part of the cork is 
fixed in a large hole in the ear, down the back of which a row 
of little earrings is often worn in addition. 

Brunei looked very pretty as we left it, in the light of the 
now setting sun. The ' Packnam ' had already started on her 
return journey, and there was not much time to spare if we 
wanted to save the tide and the light. On our way down the 
river we again saw the heights from which Sir Harry Keppel 
had bombarded the town, and the Chinese pepper-terraces, 
now fast falling to decay. By five o'clock we had arrived 
alongside the ' Sunbeam,' with quite a cargo of purchases, 
and soon afterwards, having said farewell to our friends and 
entrusted to their care a very heavy mail for England, we 
steamed away. 

The spot where we had anchored in Brunei Bay was exactly 
opposite the Muara coal-mines, of which we could just see the 
shafts, with one or two houses beside them. On our return to 
the yacht we found that the owners of these mines had been on 
board, and had expressed a hope that we would postpone our 
departure long enough to enable us to visit the colliery, which 
seems likely to become a valuable property. The seam is 
twenty-six feet thick, and the coal is of good quality. After 
the Labuan failure, however, one is disposed not to be over- 
sanguine in such matters. "When Mr. Cowie first brought 
his wife out here the place looked so desolate and dreary 
that she absolutely refused to land. After a while she was 
persuaded to make a closer inspection, and, being a very bad 
sailor, has never left the place since, except once, when the 

x 



168 MODEL HOUSEKEEPING 

Eajah of Sarawak sent his steam-launch for her on New 
Year's Day to enable her to go and see some sports at Labuan. 
She was afraid to corne on board the yacht, and we had not 
time to call upon her and take her some books and papers, 
as I should like to have done, for her life must be terribly 
isolated. 

I have often been astonished to see how well people re- 
sist the relaxing influences of these out-of-the-way places. 
Their houses all have a nice homelike look ; the ladies are well 
dressed, and apparently keep their households in excellent 
order. In the rare case of unexpected visitors dropping in, 
meals are produced at short notice without bustle or confusion, 
the table being often decorated with flowers, and always 
arranged with refinement and elegance. What struck me as 
perhaps even more remarkable than the neatness and order of 
their houses was, that these ladies, who have to do, or at all 
events very closely superintend the doing of, the more im- 
portant part of the household work, talk far less about their 
servants and domestic troubles than many people in England, 
who only have to give an occasional order. They have also 
plenty of conversation on other than local subjects, though 
there are no circulating libraries within reach, and the supply 
of books and newspapers must necessarily be limited. It 
may be that this scarcity leads them to study the volumes 
which they possess more closely. 

Friday, April 8th. To our great disappointment, we passed 
Gaya Island and Bay before daybreak, and were therefore un- 
able to see anything of the magnificent harbour, where the 
North Borneo Company has one of its many stations. 

At 6 A.M. we opened out Ambong Bay, behind which rose 
Kina Balu (in English 'the Chinese Widow'), 13,700 feet 
high, looking most beautiful through the morning mist. A 
little to the north of this spot the Tainpasick River runs into 
the sea, and we are told that the best way of reaching the 



KUDA T 



169 



lower elevations of the mighty mountain, with their endless 
wealth of orchids and pitcher-plants, lies on that side. 

Finding that to pass outside Banguey Island would involve 
our making a large circuit, and losing some fine scenery, we 
decided to go through the Mallewalle Channel, and to anchor 
off Kudat for the night. At noon we had 
come 1 60 miles under steam, Kudat being 




Pitcher-plants and. Kina Balu 

thirty miles distant. At 2 P.M. we reached 
the northernmost point of the island of 
Borneo, which used to be the favourite 
place of assembling for the large fleets 
of pirate prahus, formerly the terror not 
only of the neighbouring Straits but of 
much more distant seas and countries. 



i;o ORANG-OUTANGS 



The entrance to Marudu Bay, another of the many fine 
natural harbours on this gulf-indented coast, is most pic- 
turesque. At 4 P.M. we anchored off Kudat, in the small bay 
of that name, which is only an indentation of the shore of 
the larger Marudu Bay. 

We landed at the usual rickety Borneo pier, and were 
met by Mr. Davies, the Resident, and Dr. Lamb, the company's 
doctor for this district. Tab and Mr. Pemberton soon made 
friends with Dr. Lamb, and went out snipe-shooting with him, 
the rest of the party meantime strolling about the bazaars, 
which, though neither large nor well stocked, afforded an 
opportunity of picking up a few curios, such as saws from the 
nose of a saw-fish, sirrhi-boxes, gongs, old china jars, Java 
sarongs, and so forth. We were also shown two large heaps 
of gum from the interior, lying on the seashore ready for 
shipment. Then we took a few photographs, including one of 
a house on piles, and another of a long Borneo house, in which 
many families live under one roof, with separate entrances 
for each family. Afterwards we strolled slowly on up the hill, 
towards the Residency. It was a pretty walk, but rather 
tiring this hot evening. I felt nearly exhausted myself, and 
was grieved to see how completely done up Tom was by what 
ought to have been for him very easy work. When at last 
the verandah was reached he was quite worn out and glad to 
lie down in one of the comfortable basket chairs. Delicious 
tea and cool champagne-cup soon refreshed us, however, and 
made us better able to admire the charming garden, with its 
profusion of plants and flowers, and to watch the antics of two 
tame mias, or orang-outangs, which were chained in separate 
palm-trees close to the house. They were ugly nay, hideous 
animals but very amusing in their ways. Their names were 
Zachariah and Jane ; and Zachariah, being the tamer of the 
two, was allowed to run about loose. He came to his master 
to be fed, then ran up his own palm-tree, from which he 



WILD CATTLE 



171 



jumped easily on to Jane's, and tried to entice her to other 
tree-tops ; but of course her chain prevented this. It made 
quite a little comedy, for when Zachariah had teased her 
sufficiently he brought her bunches of fresh leaves, and 
evidently did his best to induce her to, as it were, kiss and 




Kudat 



make friends. We watched them with much interest for a 
long time, and at last tried to take a photograph, but I fear 
they were too restless to allow it to turn out well. 

Some fine specimens of the heads of wild cattle shot by 
Mr. Davies stood in the verandah. One head alone required 
four men to move it. Mr. Davies gave me some interesting 



172 VA CCINA TION 



curios brought from a village where a rather severe fight took 
place recently. The natives posted themselves with great 
cunning behind some rocks on the top of a hill, which our 
people had to scale. From this shelter they hurled down 
spears and poisoned arrows, wounding many of their assail- 
ants, while our rifles were of no effect against them until the 
height had been carried. 

On our way back to the yacht we had to cross a rickety 
wooden bridge over a muddy creek, in which some of the party 
thought they saw a crocodile ; not a rare sight on this coast, 
though they are not so numerous here as in Sarawak, where 
the Government offers a reward of a dollar a foot for all those 
killed. Last }-ear 2,000 dollars were paid for 2,000 feet of 
crocodiles of all sizes and ages. 

Dr. Lamb, who dined on board with us, appears to be 
greatly interested in his work, though the life is rather rough. 
He has a good deal of riding about the country to vaccinate 
the natives, who seem fully to understand the value of the 
operation in mitigating the ravages of smallpox a disease by 
which the country was at one time decimated. Our regret at 
not having been able to stop at Gaya was increased when we 
heard from Dr. Lamb that the Assistant Eesident, Mr. Little, 
had just returned from a successful ascent of Kina Balu, 
having reached the summit by a new route, and brought down 
a wonderful collection of plants and flowers. 

About ten o'clock Mr. Davies came on board, and with Dr. 
Lamb and Tab started off on a shooting expedition across the 
bay. 

Saturday, April gtli. The night was hot and oppressive, 
and we could not help feeling somewhat anxious about the 
sportsmen, whose expedition in search of wild cattle has a 
decided spice of danger in it. Two o'clock came, and then 
four, and still they did not return. At last, to our great relief, 
at half-past six they arrived alongside, bringing with them 



ON THE FORE YARD 



173 



a fine young Sambur buck, the carrying of the carcass having 
delayed them considerably. They were disappointed not to 
have succeeded in killing a buffalo, especially as they had seen 
several herds of them in the distance ; but the natives who 
had been sent to drive the cattle performed their task with 
such indiscreet ardour, and with so much noise, that of course 
they frightened the cattle away. 

Directly the sportsmen came on board we started, and pro- 
ceeded under steam close under Malleangau, and thence south- 
ward of the fatal Egeria Eocks to the 
western extremity of the island of 
Mallewalle, passing to the 
northward of Man- 
darilla, and to 
the south- 
ward 
of Kaka- 
bau, whence 
steered for 
By noon we 

had steamed eighty-seven 
miles since leaving Kudat. Tom 
went up on the foreyard at 6.30 A.M., 
and did not come down until 1.30 P.M., 
when we had virtually passed the most dangerous part of the 
coast. We sent his breakfast up to him in a bucket, for he 
did not dare leave his post for one moment, the channel being 
most intricate, and the only guide the difference in colour of 
the coral patches. He suffered considerably from the heat of 
the almost vertical sun, which blistered his legs, in spite of 
extra protection, and made the glasses, which he had con- 
stantly to use, so hot that they burnt his hands and eyes, as 
they did ours when he brought them down on deck. 

About 4 P.M. we touched on a coral patch, in two fathoms, 




174 THE CORAL PATCH 

not marked on the chart (in lat. 6 40' N., long. 1 17 52' E.), 
which rather astonished us, and caused us to go still more 
slowly and carefully for some time. The sea being absolutely 
smooth, and the sky overcast, there was neither break nor 
reflection to help the look-out, though Tom thought that he 
had noticed something peculiar in the colour of the water a 
few moments previously. He was almost continuously in the 
foretop again from two o'clock until dark, when he took up 
his position on the topgallant forecastle. 

We passed between Tigabu and Lipeendung, and outside 
Sandy Island, Balhalla, Lankayau, Langaan, and Tong Papat, 
entering the Bay of Sandakan at 1 1.45 P.M., and anchoring off 
the town of Eleopura exactly at eight bells. 





CHAPTEE VIII. 

ELEOPURA. 



Easter Sunday, A2)ril loth. 
Eleopura looked extremely pic- 
turesque in the pale moonlight, 
with the grand sandstone bluff of 
the island of Balhalla standing 
out boldly in the foreground 
against the starlit sky ; but the 
coast-line seemed still more beau- 
tiful in the bright morning sun- 
shine. The brilliant light was 
relieved by some heavy thunder- 
clouds fringing the Bay of Sanda- 
kan and hanging in denser masses over the mouths of the 
numerous rivers which empty themselves into it. Balhalla, 
with its cliff of red sandstone running sheer down to the sea, 



1 76 E LEO PUR A 



is clothed on the shoreward side with the richest tropical 
vegetation, including vast quantities of the beautiful nepenthes, 
or pitcher-plant, which forms so prominent a feature in the 
flora of Borneo. 

Mr. Flint, the harbour- master, came on board at six o'clock 
to offer us the hospitality of his bungalow. After breakfast 
he and Mr. Crocker landed with the kind intention of ar- 
ranging for us to spend a short time on shore to recruit a 
little from the effects of the intense heat, the air being natu- 
rally much cooler on the hills than down in the bay. We had 
service at 1 1.30, and the present Governor, Mr. Treacher, and 
afterwards two other gentlemen, came to lunch. Later on we 
all landed, some of us going to the little church, where Tom 
read the service. There is no resident clergyman at Sanda- 
kan, but the Governor supplies his place every Sunday, except 
when the Bishop happens to pay a visit to the place, as he did 
last week. 

The luxury of getting on shore to large airy rooms, with 
deep cool verandahs, and the feeling of perfect rest and repose, 
can only be fully appreciated after a long and anxious voyage 
in a hot climate on board a comparatively small ship. Nor 
can anyone who has not suffered, as we all have, from prickly 
heat, understand how pleasant are fresh-water baths. We all 
felt far too comfortable and delightfully indolent for letter- 
writing, or even for reading, and could do nothing but enjoy 
to the utmost the delights of the shore under such agreeable 
conditions. Our good-natured host had turned out, bag and 
baggage, in order to make room for us, and had gone to 
Government House, leaving his comfortable bungalow entirely 
at our disposition. Some of the gentlemen, for whom there 
was not sufficient room, went to another bungalow not far 
distant. 

Monday, April nth. We were all up early, anxious to 
make the most of our time in this pleasant spot. Tom went 



COM ANTON CAVES 



177 



off for a ride with the Governor, while Mabelle and Baby took 
a long walk with Mr. von Donop (the Secretary) and Mr. 
Callaghan ; and Muriel and I proceeded to the top of the hill 
to see the Doctor. Some of the gentlemen went off shooting, 
and did not return until late in the day. 

I had been very anxious to go to the black bird's-nest 




Mr Flint's Bungalow 



caves of Gomanton, but was assured by everybody that the 
difficulties would be found insurmountable. All agreed that 
it was absolutely necessary to await the return and the report 
of Messrs. Walker and Wilson, who had gone to Gomanton 
to survey the road and to ascertain the practicability of utilis- 
ing the vast quantity of the excellent guano with which the 

Y 



178 A TIMBER STATION 

floor of the caves is thickly covered. A shorter expedition 
has been therefore proposed, and it is arranged that we shall 
cross the bay and look at the bilian-wood cutting. The 
party divided, some going in the steam-launch, and some in 
Captain Flint's boat to a picnic on the other side of the bay. 
The distant views of Sandakan are very fine, as is also the aspect 
of the north bluff of the island of Balhalla, where the best 
white birds' -nests in the world are found, and are collected 
at terrible risk to life and limb. We glided through a perfect 
archipelago of small islands, where we saw curious houses, 
inhabited by Bajaus, or sea-gipsies. These huts are built on 
piles in the water, and round them dart the natives in their 
tiny canoes, throwing spears at the numerous shoals of fish. 
So pleasant had been the voyage that we seemed to reach 
our destination almost immediately. It was a long un- 
finished pier, composed of a few split Nipa palms fixed, at in- 
tervals of a couple of feet apart, on piles driven into the bed 
of the river. This primitive jetty stretched far out into the 
stream, and was reached by a ladder of the same rough style, 
with a space of at least two feet between each rung ; not at all 
a landing-place for ordinary mortals European, at all events 
and only suitable for angels, Dyaks, .or monkeys. Never- 
theless it is the timber-loading station for ships trading with 
Sandakan, and stands at the mouths of Sapa Gaya and Suan- 
lamba Elvers, down which most of the best timber is floated 
in rafts or towed by steam-launches from the interior. For- 
tunately some native prahus were drawn up alongside the 
pier, and into these we stepped, and so got ashore, climbing 
up the steep bank to the cosy little bungalow above. There 
we found Messrs. Walker and Wilson, now on their way back 
from the caves, of which they gave an interesting descrip- 
tion. They seemed, however, to be firmly impressed with 
the idea that it would be impossible for us to visit them, 
the difficulties of the expedition being far too great for anyone 



A DIFFICULT EXPEDITION 



179 



unaccustomed to Borneo 
jungle-life. They had been 
obliged to swim rivers, wade 
through mud up to their 
arms, sleep in damp caves, 
and endure other hardships 
not very conducive to 
health in a malari- 
ous district. Of 
course they had 
got completely 
soaked through, 
| baggage and all, 
and were now 
doing their best 
to dry everything 
on the grass a 
process not facili- 
tated by a tre- 
mendous thun- 
der-shower which 




Kapuan Timber Station 



i8o BILIAN-WOOD 



came on suddenly during our visit. The effect of the storm was 
very grand, as the heavy clouds came rolling up the bay to 
discharge their burden of electricity and rain just over our 
heads ; but the moment it passed, out came the sun as brightly 
as ever. We had a most cheery picnic in the little five-roomed 
bungalow. The one piece of furniture, except the table and 
two chairs, which our hosts had brought with them, was a 
comfortable hammock-cot, of which the children at once took 
possession, to make a swing. "While we were sitting in the 
deep verandah, a steamer arrived alongside the pier, towing 
several rafts, which we saw unlashed and pulled to pieces in 
true primitive fashion, the heavy bilian-wood or ironwood of 
which they were composed being simply cast into the river, 
as near the shore as possible, to be fished out at low tide. 
Bilian-wood when newly cut is of a dark sand-colour, and, 
being hard and durable, is used for purposes where those 
qualities are required. 

All pleasant things must come to an end, and we were soon 
obliged to start again on our return voyage. We shipped Mr. 
Walker and Mr. Wilson on board the steam-launch and towed 
their boat. All went well till we got near the entrance to the 
Bay, where we encountered such a high sea that we had to 
cast the boat adrift to prevent her from being swamped. We 
stopped at the yacht to give our friends an opportunity of 
seeing her. Nearly all the crew, and even the stewards, were 
ashore at rifle-practice. Several visitors came on board and 
detained us for some time ; so that when we landed we were only 
just able to have a look at the Museum and get up to Mr. 
Flint's bungalow in time to dress for dinner at Government 
House, where we found quite a large party of gentlemen 
assembled to meet us. 

None of our sportsmen turned up to dinner except Mr. 
Cook. Afterwards various kinds of dances were performed 
by the natives for our entertainment. In some of the war- 



NATIVE DANCES 



181 



dances the men displayed much agility and gracefulness, dart- 
ing from side to side in their war-cloaks of toucans' feathers, 
which floated out behind them with each movement. They 
were armed with shields, spears, and kreises. It was really a 
most picturesque scene, and the large open verandah of Go- 
vernment House, with the background of sea, sky, and distant 




Dyak Dance 

mountains, seen in the bright moonlight, with the ' Sunbeam ' 
peacefully at anchor in the foreground, formed an appropriate 
setting. The Dusuns and Sundyaks are very fond of dancing, 
and seize every opportunity of indulging in the amusement. 
In times of abundant harvest, it is said, dancing goes on in 
every village all night long, and night after night. 



1 82 CURIOSITIES 

Tuesday, April 12th. Mabelle and the children went out 
for a ride this morning, while Tom and I paid a visit to Dr. 
Hoffmeister, whom we found much better. It was very hot 
work walking down to the shore again, and even the children 
seemed to find the temperature rather trying. Fortunately 
for the inhabitants of Sandakan, the nights are always cool, 
a fact to which the little community owes its excellent health 
and the preservation of its strength and energy. 

In the course of the morning we visited the town to see 
the bazaars and have another look at the Museum. There is 
a fish and general market at Eleopura, besides Government 
buildings, barracks, a hospital, hotels, several stores, and a 
club, to say nothing of a small temporary church, a mosque, 
and a joss-house. On the green in front of the Govern- 
ment building stands a handsome Irish cross, raised to the 
memory of poor Frank Hatton and other explorers who have 
perished in North Borneo. At the Government Offices we 
found a few interesting curiosities, particularly some finely 
woven mats that had been prepared in the interior for the 
Colonial Exhibition in London but were not ready in time ; 
an elephant's tusk of enormous size, and some teeth found in 
the jungle near here. This collection will doubtless form the 
nucleus of a larger museum. It comprises also gems, wea- 
pons, rat-traps, bird-calls, eggs, stuffed orang-outangs, and 
specimens of native stuffs and mats. The sarongs from Java, 
and Celebes are very curious, the pattern being elaborately 
worked in a sort of thick coloured wax, which makes them 
quite stiff. Some of them are expensive, costing sixty or 
seventy dollars each. There did not seem to be any of the 
curious fire-tubes for producing fire which we had seen in the 
Museum at Kuching. 

I returned early on board the ' Sunbeam ' to complete the 
arrangements for resuming our voyage this evening. Further 
deliberation has convinced us that the visit to the Gomanton 



THE HOSPITAL 183 



Caves is quite out of the question, notwithstanding the kind 
offers of assistance which we have received from Mr. Treacher 
and others. We have accordingly decided to content our- 
selves with an attempt to reach the Madai Caves in Darvel 
Bay, which are said to be somewhat easier of access. Mr. 
Treacher, Mr. Crocker, and Mr. Callaghan have offered to ac- 
company us, and to engage the requisite men for the expedition. 

There was a large party to lunch at Government House, 
and more came in afterwards to attend my informal Ambu- 
lance meeting, at which the Governor took the chair, and 
Tom explained the work of the society. I also ventured to 
say a few words, and Mr. Crocker supported the movement 
very cordially. Everybody in Eleopura was present, besides 
many from Kudat and Silam, and all seemed interested in the 
subject. Dr. Walker took the scheme up warmly. I earnestly 
hope it may go on and prosper. There can be no country 
where it would be more likely to be of use, considering the 
wild sort of life people have to lead here. I presented the 
new centre with a roll of anatomical drawings and a good 
many books and papers. I trust, therefore, that we may re- 
gard the Eleopura branch of the Ambulance Association as 
fairly started. 

After the meeting, feeling very tired, I went in my chair 
with Mr. Wilson to the church, which is a pretty little build- 
ing, and thence, a little higher up the hill, to the hospital. 
This appears to be an excellently well-managed institution, 
but is still sadly in want of a European ward, especially 
in view of the fact that the trade and population of the place 
are rapidly increasing. Ascending a few steps higher we arrived 
at the club, with its deep verandahs and spacious windows and 
doors, arranged to catch every breath of air, and to command 
the finest views. The cemetery lies in another valley right 
behind the club. It is a pretty spot, nicely kept, and quite 
away from the town. 



1 84 



THE RIFLE-BUTTS 




From the 
club we 
proceeded 
to the rifle- 
butts, pass- 
ing through 

so narrow and overgrown a 
path that my bearers declined to pro- 
ceed, until Mr. Wilson peremptorily 
insisted upon their doing so. Even as 
it was, I had to walk the last part 
of the way. Arrived at 
the butts, we found that 
our forecastle - cook had 
proved himself the best 
shot by several points. 





L_ 



Borneo Weapons 




ENTRANCE TO EDIBLE BIRD NEST CAVES. MADAI BORNEO 



DEPARTURE FROM E LEO PUR A 



185 



Altogether, the practice may be regarded 
as highly satisfactory, considering how 
long it is since our men have had an op- 
portunity of handling a rifle. I distributed 
certificates of efficiency, and then we all 
went back to an early dinner at Mr. Flint's, 
after which we had to re-embark. The 
nice-looking Sikhs who are in charge of 
the convicts here having carried our lug- 
gage down to the boats, there was nothing 
for us to do but to say good-bye to our 
kind hosts, and return to the ' Sunbeam ' 
once more. We found her lying alongside 
the wharf, where she had come to take in 
water, and quite crowded with our new 
friends, who were determined to see the 
last of us, and who almost all brought us 
some little curio to keep in remembrance 
of our visit to Sandakan. The tide was 
low, and it was no easy task to get down 
to the deck of the yacht from the some- 
what lofty pier. At last we were safely 
on board, and slowly steamed away, amid 
a volley of ringing cheers, which we re- 
turned by sending up blue lights and 
flights of rockets. 

The carrying capacity of the yacht 
was now rather severely tested, for in ad- 
dition to our own party we had Messrs. 
Treacher, Crocker, and Callaghan as pas- 
sengers, besides some thirty Sikhs, police- 
men, coolies, and others, whose services 
would be required for the expedition to the 
Madai Caves. 





1 86 DARVEL BAY 



Wednesday, April \~$th. Oppressively hot. "We made 
Tanjong Unsang at daylight, and steamed southward and 
westward along a fine coast. At noon we had come 135 
miles, and were in lat. 4 57' N., long. 1 18 47' E. 

All hands were busily engaged during the morning in pre- 
paring the large cutter for Tab's projected shooting expedition 
this afternoon. She is a fine big boat, temporarily fitted 
with a ridge-roofed awning and boards on which beds can 
be placed, thus making her almost like a house-boat. Every- 
thing that could be thought of as likely to be wanted was 
put into her ; but notwithstanding all that foresight and care 
could do, I felt rather uncomfortable about this lonely and 
somewhat risky enterprise. 

In the afternoon we steamed down a little out of our 
course towards the island of Tirnbu Mata, which is said to 
abound with deer and wild pig, to drop the cutter with Tab 
and four men from the crew in her, all armed with rifles, cut- 
lasses, and revolvers, besides their sporting weapons. Then 
we proceeded on our course to Silarn in Darvel Bay, 1 7 5 miles 
from Sandakan, where we anchored about 6 P.M. A prahu 
came alongside at once, manned by natives, and having on 
board a specimen of the worst type of rough Australian gold- 
diggers very tipsy, poor man, and very anxious to come on 
board the yacht. His efforts in this direction were, however, 
repulsed, and w r e finally induced the native crew to take him 
back to the shore. 

Darvel Bay is a most lovely spot, and in the sunset light 
I thought that I had never seen anything more beautiful in 
the world. We went ashore as soon as possible, having, how- 
ever, first to climb with extended though uncertain strides up 
one of the dreadful wide-runged ladders which confront us at 
every pier. This performance landed us on what appeared 
to be a very rickety kind of platform, with, as usual, a great 
deal of open space in the flooring. Being assured that it w r as 



A PRIMITIVE PIER 



187 



quite safe if we only stepped out boldly and with confidence, 
we advanced as well as we could, and found the task not so 
difficult after all, though it must be confessed that the flooring 
seemed terribly springy and elastic. The two small dogs were 
carried, but poor ' Sir Eoger ' was left to follow us as best he 
could, meeting with many a slip and many a tumble on his 




Entering River Madai 



way. It was too dark to see much of the town, which ap- 
peared to be clean and tidy, with several well-furnished shops 
in the principal streets. There is also a Government station 
here, and an experimental garden. The harbour is well shel- 
tered, and although it contains a good many coral-banks, 
vessels drawing sixteen feet of water can anchor quite close 
to the settlement. 



188 AN EARLY START 

The reports of explorers in search of gold on the Segania 
Eiver are satisfactory. A road is now being constructed which 
will render access to the gold-fields much easier than at present. 
It is, however, impossible for Englishmen to work the fields, 
and Chinese labour will most likely have to be employed. The 
process adopted by the natives of extracting the gold is primi- 
tive in the extreme. 

We met our friend the Australian digger again, and heard 
that he had come down from the fields with three companions, 
all ill with fever, one being so bad that he had to be carried 
all the way. Still they were satisfied with their success, and 
were now celebrating it by drinking their profits away as fast 
as possible. 

After strolling slowly up to Mr. Callaghan's comfortable 
bungalow, we rested a little and had tea, and then returned 
on board to pack up and make ready for our early start to- 
morrow. The steam-launch was already afloat with her boiler 
in her, but a good deal had yet to be done in the way of 
preparing the gig, fixing the awning, and stowing the stores, 
photographic gear, &c. 

Thursday, April 14.111. It was nearly midnight before all 
had been arranged in readiness for our early start and possible 
camp-out for at least one night ; and even then there was a 
great deal that had to be left unsettled, precise information 
as to roads, rivers, distances, and so forth not being easily 
obtainable in this partially developed country. 

At 3.30 A.M. I was called, and tried to dispel my drowsi- 
ness by the pleasing consciousness that an expedition to 
which I had long looked forward with such deep interest 
was about to be undertaken, and, as we had reason to hope, 
through the kind exertions of Mr. Treacher and Mr. Callaghan, 
duly accomplished. An hour later, these two gentlemen, 
accompanied by Mr. Crocker, came on board ; and then we 
started directly in a long native canoe, with a crew and escort 



THE FLOTILLA 



189 




of thirty coolies, Stilus, 
Dyaks, and policemen. Our 
destination was the famous 
caves of edible birds' -nests 
at Madai. The steam- 
launch, well laden with 
extra coal in bags, and a 
few spare coolies, led the 
way, having in tow the 
heavy gig, filled with pro- 
visions of all sorts, and 
materials for camping out. 
Then came the long prahu 
also in tow laden almost 

to the water's edge with her thirty passengers and their 
gear. The extent and weight of this little flotilla reduced our 
progress to a speed of about five knots. It was a perfect 
morning, and the air was quite calm except for the slight 
breeze which we created for ourselves as we progressed. 
Soon after seven o'clock the sun became unpleasantly hot, 
and we were glad to spread our awning. At eight we break- 
fasted extremely well, the necessary cooking being done over 
a small spirit-lamp, in the absence of kerosene or any of 



190 UP THE RIVER 



the mineral oils, the use of which is not allowed on board the 
' Sunbeam ' or any of her satellites. 

A little before nine we reached the mouth of the river, and 
safely accomplished some intricate navigation through narrow 
channels between coral reefs. The mists were still lying in 
solid white masses in the valleys and between the mountain 
peaks ; but the small densely wooded islets that dotted the 
bay were mirrored in its unruffled surface. The scene was 
altogether most picturesque, and reminded me a good deal of 
the splendid harbour of Kio ; but without, of course, the Cor- 
covado or Sugar-loaf Hill, or those curiously shaped Organ 
Mountains in the background. Once in the river, the view 
became quite different, and much more shut in, owing to the 
dense walls of mangrove and other tropical vegetation which 
lined either side of the wide stream, up which the tide was 
swiftly flowing. The air now seemed fresh and pure ; but 
in other states of the tide it is, I am told, very much the 
reverse. 

In about half an hour we reached a junction of two streams, 
where the boats composing our flotilla had to part company 
the steam-launch to be left behind, the prahu to lead the way, 
and the cutter to be paddled and punted up after us as far 
as she could go. This point proved to be only to a small 
landing-place, at which eight prahus were drawn up near two 
temporary wooden kajang huts belonging to the bird's-nest 
takers, members of the Eraan tribe, to whom the caves are 
let. Birds' -nests, it may be remarked, are a profitable pro- 
perty, yielding a royalty of 15,000 dollars, or over 2,500?. a 
year, to the North Borneo Company. 

From the cutter we embarked in the prahu, and from the 
prahu we finally landed in a swamp, where an hour's rest was 
allowed for the coolies to get their food, whilst we completed the 
arrangements for our return voyage, which, on account of the 
tide, promised to be much more difficult. 



THROUGH THE JUNGLE 191 

At 10.45 A - M - we commenced the real hard work of the 
expedition. Everyone walked except me, and I had to be 
carried in a very light chair by two coolies, who were frequently 
relieved. It was rather serious work for the bearers to say 
nothing of my feelings for they had never carried a chair 
before, and the way lay through thick jungle, constantly inter- 
spersed by morasses and swamps, and obstructed by fallen 
trees, overhanging branches, thorny creepers, and marshy 
streams. At first I had many misgivings, but soon gained 
confidence when I saw how careful the men were, and how 
anxious to avoid an accident. Two coolies went on in front, 
and with their sharp parongs cut down or hacked away the 
more serious obstacles. If either the chair or I caught in a 
tree or a thorn, or if any special difficulty presented itself, 
somebody appeared from somewhere and rendered prompt 
assistance. 

I scarcely know how they managed to make their way at 
all through the dense jungle which hemmed us in on every 
side, or to disentangle themselves from the numerous obstacles 
which beset our path. If one of the bearers suddenly plunged 
up to his waist in a morass, someone else instantly came for- 
ward to pull him out and to raise the chair again. When huge 
fallen trees obstructed the way, one or two men rushed forward 
to assist in lifting the chair and me over the barricade. In 
less than two hours I had been borne over an intricate and 
fatiguing path, up hill and down dale, with frequent changes 
but with no stoppages, until at last we fairly faced the lime- 
stone cliffs which we had seen from the distance rising straight 
out of the jungle. We had passed, and in fact followed for 
some distance, the fresh spoors, eighteen inches in diameter, of 
an elephant, the sight of which caused great excitement among 
the natives, especially when we met other natives armed with 
guns. 

One bird's-nest taker whom we passed had just seen 



192 



WILD BEES 




two elephants, and a great palaver ensued, in which the 
word ' harden,' or some such equivalent for ivory, frequently 
occurred. Many of the trees on the line of route were very 
fine, specially the tapangs, the splendid stems of which, sup- 
ported by natural buttresses, rose in several instances at 
least two hundred feet from the ground, unbroken by a 
single branch. In the stem of the tapang the wild bees build 
their combs, and beeswax is an important and valuable 
product of the country. These trees, either singly or in 
groups, are the property by inheritance of the natives ; so 
that whenever any attempt is made at clearing, or even 



A PICTURESQUE SCENE 193 



cutting down a single tree, one of these small proprietors is sure 
to come forward and swear that his interest, derived from his 
father, his grandfather, or some even more remote ancestor, is 
likely to be affected. The timber itself is valuable, and where 
two buttresses occur exactly opposite to one another the width 
of the tree is often so great that large slabs, with a fine grain 
capable of taking a high polish, and large enough to form a 
dining-table for twenty-four people, have been cut from them. 
The Borneo jungle is so dense, and is so completely over- 
shadowed by the trees rising from it, that there is no under- 
growth, and the effect of bareness is produced ; though I dare 
say that, if one could only look down on the forest from the 
car of a balloon, the flora of creepers, orchids, and para- 
sites would be very beautiful wherever the light and air could 
penetrate. 

Presently we came across a good subject for a sketch. I 
was waiting at the edge of a broad and winding river, shaded 
by tall trees, and flowing over a gravelly bed, while two men went 
on in advance to sound the depth of the stream before attempt- 
ing to carry my chair across. Just then two hunters appeared 
from the forest and seated themselves on large mossy boulders 
a short distance apart. They put down beside them their 
baskets and bundles of nests, their little mat travelling-bags, 
and their elaborately carved and cased spears, holding fast 
to their kreises, parongs, and bows and arrows. They w r ere 
literally armed to the teeth in their own fashion a very for- 
midable fashion it is too and I very much doubt whether 
the gun which one of them had lying beside him was not the 
least terrible weapon which he possessed, so skilled are they 
in the use of their simpler implements of the chase and of 
warfare. 

Continuing our difficult way, we at last emerged from the 
green darkness of the forest and found ourselves within view 
of the limestone rock or mountain in which are the marvellous 

A A 



194 TtfE MA DAI CAVES 



bird's-nest caves which we had come so far to see. The cliff 
presented a striking effect, rising white and shining in the 
bright sunlight, slightly veiled by the tall trees and creepers, 
the leaves of which shimmered in the hot noontide haze. The 
dark entrance to the caves, stuffy as it was, and obstructed by the 
curious framework of rattans on which the nest-hunters sleep 
and cook and stow their arms, was a pleasant relief to the 
heat and glare without. Still more welcome was the sight 
of the coolies bringing refreshments and cooling drinks. If 
I, who had been carried all the way in comparative luxury, 
felt glad to see them, it can be imagined what must have 
been the feelings of the rest of the party, including Mabelle, 
who had walked the whole distance, and struggled gallantly 
over a most uncertain and treacherous forest track. We were 
not able to get into the cave at the opening where the men 
were encamped, and had to go some way round to another 
entrance. 

From this point, each provided with a candle to light our 
way, we advanced into the darkness, stumbling, sliding, and oc- 
casionally falling on the slippery rocks, but still able to admire 
the noble proportions of the caves, their lofty grandeur, and the 
fantastic shapes of the limestone pillars by which the vaulted 
roof was supported. The whirring, fluttering, and twittering 
of many birds and bats could plainly be heard in the larger 
caves, which were densely peopled with winged and feathered 
inhabitants, and the roofs and sides of which were blackened 
by their nests. The Segama River, which we had ascended 
earlier, flows through these vast caverns, sometimes over a 
hard, stony bottom, but oftener over or through a mass of 
guano many feet in thickness, into which our guides more 
than once sank suddenly, emerging in a state which can be 
better imagined than described. Split palms were laid across 
the most awkward places ; but it was extremely difficult to 
keep one's footing on this primitive causeway, and despite 






PERILOUS WORK 195 



the assistance of the gentlemen, who carried me across many 
of the streams, it was impossible to escape an occasional 
wetting. 

At one point the guides and leading members of the party, 
going on rather too rapidly, left us in complete darkness, and 
after waiting some time in the hope that they would discover 
their mistake and return, we had no alternative but to struggle 
up a most fearful precipice towards the only ray of light which 
we could see in the distance. It really was hard work, not only 
on account of the steepness of the ascent, but of the slippery 
and slimy condition of the rocks. Sometimes we knocked our- 
selves with painful abruptness against hard projections, at 
other times we sank to our knees in a mass of soft, wet guano 
teeming with animal life of various kinds, but mostly of the 
biting or stinging character. Mr. Crocker slipped and fell 
down some thirty feet or so, but fortunately emerged unhurt, 
though covered with black slime from the crown of his head 
to the sole of his foot. 

After tremendous exertions we reached the end of our 
climb, during which I had been not only once but many 
times sorely tempted, and even strongly urged, to turn back. 
When we paused to rest, our eyes, by this time accustomed to 
the dim religious light, could perceive human figures crawl- 
ing and clambering about the roof and pinnacles of the vast 
cavern in which we now found ourselves, and could observe 
many narrow rattan ladders hanging in the most precipitous 
places, or stretching horizontally across almost unfathomable 
abysses. 

Fixed among the rocks on every side were strong hooks and 
pegs, to which the intrepid monkey-like nest-hunters attach 
their long, swinging ladders. Clinging to these, they proceed 
to prod all the nests within reach with a long bamboo pole, 
split into the shape of a three-pronged fork at one end, with 
a candle attached. They easily detach the nests, and rapidly 



196 LOST IX THE CA VES 

transfer them to a basket hanging by their side. Having 
cleared the accessible space around them, they then unhook 
one end of their frail ladders and set themselves swinging 
like a pendulum, until they manage to catch another hook or 
peg, and then proceed to clear another space in the same 
way. 

All this goes on throughout the day, and very often through- 
out the night as well, for the birds are then at home, and by 
their appearance the natives can judge more accurately of the 
age of the nests, on which their value depends. Occasionally, 
but not very often, a ladder breaks or a peg becomes rotten, and 
the hardy climbers tumble into the depths below, with almost 
invariably fatal results. The ladders employed are sometimes, 
I was told, as much as 500 feet in length, and we saw some 
ourselves over 1 50 feet long. Truly the seekers after birds 
and their belongings, whether eggs, feathers, or nests, are a 
daring race, alike on the storm-beaten cliffs of St. Kilda and 
of Norway and in the mysterious caves of Borneo and of 
Java. 

Imagine our disappointment when, after another severe 
effort, we reached the fissure in the rock which admitted the 
light from above, and found that it afforded no means of egress 
except for bats and birds. Not even a Dyak or Sulu could 
have squeezed his way in or out by it, and there was nothing 
for it but to retrace our steps. Fortunately, however, we had 
not gone far before we met our guides with lights coming at 
last to look for us, and they led us to a comparatively easy 
exit from the cave ; though in order to reach it we had to pass 
over horrible morasses of guano, into which we were only pre- 
vented from sinking by a path or bridge of two-inch palm 
stems affording a most uncertain foothold. On the way we 
passed more nest-hunters, and at the mouth of the cave we 
found another camp of wooden framework huts, on the top 
of which lay several men smoking, with their kreises, parongs, 



/%'.- I I . L 




RETURN THROUGH THE JUNGLE 197 

spears, and travelling-bags of matwork beside them. They 
would not part with any of their weapons or implements, 
even for more than four times their value, alleging that it 
would bring them ill-luck to sell them while engaged in an 
expedition, but adding that if we would go to their village, 
after their return, they would not only sell but willingly give 
us anything we might take a fancy to. 

In the course of our descent from the cave we came across 
ten or a dozen bilian-wood coffins, which were excavated in 
this spot about fifty years ago. They were of the plainest 
possible make, and were evidently rapidly falling to pieces. It 
is thought that further excavations will lead to the discovery 
of finer and older coffins, for it is almost certain that wherever 
these caves exist they have been extensively used at one time 
as primitive burial-places. 

Arrived at last by the side of a clear running stream, we 
were glad to take the opportunity of performing some much- 
needed ablutions, and to rest for a while. How tired we all 
felt I need not attempt to say. It required, indeed, a great 
effort of the will to take a few photographs and to carefully 
pack the birds' eggs and nests which we had collected, before 
resuming our journey. 

We were all sorry when it was time to leave our pleasant 
halting-place at Madai and start on our homeward way. The 
path through the jungle was, however, delightfully shady, 
and was altogether easier than our upward course. The last 
view of the cave, looking back from the little hill facing it, just 
before entering the jungle, will always remain in my mind, 
though I saw it somewhat hazily through the gauze veil in 
which my head was wrapped up, in order to protect me from 
the hornets, which had already stung several of our party 
severely. 

I have before now been in tropical forests and jungles, 
and they always produce the same awe-inspiring, and indeed 



198 



A PLEASANT RESTING-PLACE 



depressing effect. The almost solid green walls on either side 
of the narrow track ; the awful stillness which prevails, only 
occasionally broken, or rendered more intense, by the shrill 
note of a bird, the cry, or rather pitiful wail, of a monkey, the 
crashing of some larger creature through the dense under- 
growth, as well as the profound solitude, will easily account 

for these feelings. 
Having overcome my 
first sensation of 
nervousness, caused 
by constant slips and 
slides on the part of 
my bearers, I had 
an excellent opportu- 
nity for contempla- 
tion until, in little 
less than two hours 
after leaving our last 
halting - place, we 
reached a spot close 
to where we had 
landed. 

It was delightful 
to find that in our 
absence a charming 
little house had, by 

a piece of kind forethought, been built for us on the banks 
of the clear running stream. Raised as if by an enchanter's 
wand, this hut in the jungle was an inestimable comfort, and 
enabled us to rest quietly for a short time. At first it was 
proposed that we should certainly dine and possibly sleep 
in it ; but when it was remembered that, pleasant and pictu- 
resque as might be the situation, we were still in the midst 
of a malarious mangrove swamp, prudent considerations pre- 




Sulus at Silam, Borneo 



DIFFICULTIES OF TRANSIT 



199 



vailed, and it was decided to move on. After giving time, 
therefore, to the coolies to cook and eat their well-earned 
repast, everything was put into the prahu, which lay half in 
and half out of the water. Mabelle and I then seated our- 




selves in the centre of the boat, while everybody else pushed 
and shouted ; some walking, some wading, some occasionally 
swimming. Thus we proceeded down the shallow stream, the 
prahu frequently on her beam-ends on one side or the other, 
until righted by friendly hands ; shipping comparatively little 



200 THE RIVER'S MOUTH 

water, but still taking in enough to make everything damp and 
uncomfortable. 

It was a curious sight, the long boat, pushed by fifty or 
sixty natives and about a dozen Europeans, now in the water, 
now almost out of it. More than once I thought the natives 
must have been jammed between the bank and the boat 
when they slipped into a deep hole, and the great length of 
the prahu prevented her from turning quickly. At the nest- 
hunters' landing-place we found ourselves fairly high and 
dry, and had to be carried, prahu and all, for some little 
distance until we reached the deeper water beyond, only to 
find our further passage blocked by the trunk of a huge tree, 
so firmly imbedded in the mud that the united efforts of our 
large band of followers were powerless to move it. We had 
therefore to be pulled and hauled over the obstacle a feat 
accomplished with much shouting and hullabaloo. First our 
long sharp prow rose in the air, submerging our stern, and 
taking, of course, some water on board ; then the process was re- 
versed, and we went bows under. At last we emerged quite safely 
and in deep water. Most of the swarm of swimmers quickly 
scrambled into the boat and converted themselves into paddlers, 
while the remainder swam ashore and either waited on the 
bank for the return of the prahu or shouldered their kajang 
mats and cooking-utensils, and trudged off again through the 
swampy jungle to the little rest-house which we had quitted 
a short time before. In the fast-fading twilight the scene 
looked picturesque and characteristic. 

Resuming our now rapid voyage down the stream, we pre- 
sently reached the spot where our own boats were waiting for 
us. Mabelle and I at once took possession of the cutter, the 
gentlemen of the steam-launch, and all proceeded, as far as cir- 
cumstances would allow, to change our wet and dirty clothes. 
Then we joined company, and as soon as the prahu had 
discharged all her passengers and cargo our little flotilla 



SAFE ON BOARD AGAIN 



proceeded in the original order down the river. On the way 
we enjoyed a capital little dinner, commencing with small fish 
about three inches long speared by a boat-hook, and conclud- 
ing with quite the most delicious pine I ever tasted, grown in 
the experimental gardens of Silam. 

At last we reached the mouth of the river, and were once 
more on the bosom of the open sea. Bather an agitated 
bosom it was too, just now, heaving in such a manner as to 
toss the cutter about a good deal and threatening to com- 
pletely upset the native boat with its heavy load. In fact, the 
prahu behaved in the most alarming manner, absolutely 
refusing to steer, and turning broadside on to the constantly 
increasing swell. Our native pilot, too, in the steam-launch, 
did not mend matters by steering a very erratic course, and 
going a good deal further out to sea than was necessary. The 
islands, however, soon afforded shelter, and the moon rose 
over a scene of comparative calmness and repose. Most of us 
took advantage of this condition of things to rest a little after 
the labours of the day, and we found ourselves actually along- 
side the yacht before we had any idea we were near her. It 
was exactly half an hour after midnight, and Tom was de- 
lighted and greatly relieved to see us, having quite abandoned 
all hope of our appearing until the morning, and having con- 
jured up all sorts of gloomy forebodings as to the ill-effect of 
sleeping in mangrove swamps, besides attacks from hostile 
natives, and other horrors. The three gentlemen went off in 
our launch, towing the prahu, after receiving our warm thanks 
for the great trouble which they had taken, to which we were 
entirely indebted for the success of a most interesting expe- 
dition. With a grateful heart for pleasure enjoyed and diffi- 
culties overcome, I went to bed, completely worn out, at the 
end of what may fairly be regarded as another red-letter day 
of the present cruise. 

Tom had been unable to accompany us on our expedition, 

B B 



202 BORNEO PORTS 



considering it a public duty to put together the very interest- 
ing information which had been communicated to him by the 
authorities charged with the administration of affairs at the 
numerous ports at which we had touched on the coast of 
Borneo. He wished to complete his work, so that it might 
be read to Governor Treacher before being despatched to Eng- 
land. [This paper appeared in the ' Nineteenth Century.' ] 





CHAPTER IX. 

CELEBES. 



Friday, April i$th. Although it was nearly 
two o'clock before I went to bed, I was up before 
seven this morning ready to go ashore with 
Tom and Mabelle to say good-bye to our friends, 
and to see how Silam looked by daylight. It 
is a neat, picturesque little village with most of its wooden 
houses standing upon piles. Landing was, as usual, a difficult 
matter, for there was nobody to hold the boat, and no one 
to help us. The people in Darvel Bay have evidently very 



204 PEARL-SHELLS 



little curiosity, for they scarcely turned their heads to look at 
us, though European ladies have rarely landed here before. 
Near the shore, little shops, mostly kept by Chinamen, are 
established on either side of the pier. Their exterior is not 
imposing, but inside a very fair display of goods is to be 
found. 

The bay looked quite animated this morning, a fleet of 
small boats having arrived during the night, filled with Sulus, 
Eraans, and Bugis. Each boat carried enormous outriggers 
projecting on either side, and had an awning thatched with 
kajang mats ; while dried fish, arms, gongs, cooking-pots, bags, 
and odds and ends of all kinds hung from the poles which 
supported the rooting. A great deal of barter was going on 
on shore. At the first shop I went to I saw one of the bird's- 
nest collectors whom we had noticed yesterday pitch down 
a bundle of nests on the floor without saying a word. The 
Chinaman at once fetched some weights, weighed the nests, 
and mentioned the price in one word. Three words escaped 
the nest-hunter's lips, which resulted in the production of 
sundry bright-coloured cotton Manchester cloths, some evi- 
dently modern kreises (probably made at Birmingham), besides 
bird-calls and pipes. In the next shop were two dapper little 
Sulus in Spanish-looking costumes, with dozens of pairs of 
the golden-edged pearl-shells, which we had searched for in 
vain the night before last. The bargain was not yet con- 
cluded, so that it was useless for us to try to trade. The shells, 
being bought and sold by weight, are handled rather roughly ; 
but it was in vain that I endeavoured to persuade them by 
signs not to throw them about so carelessly at the risk of 
breaking their delicate edges. I did at last, however, succeed 
in getting some good specimens, finer than any we had yet 
met with. In the same shop were also some Bajans, or sea- 
gipsies, whose stock-in-trade consisted of a miscellaneous col- 
lection, including dried trepang, strings of very uninviting 



FAREWELL TO BORNEO 205 

dried fish, smaller pearl-shells, little skins of animals and 
birds, and rattan canes in the rough, but much cheaper and 
better than those to be bought at Singapore or elsewhere. The 
rattan is the stem of a creeping prickly palm, the scientific 
name of which is the calamus. The rotan sac/a is the ordinary 
rattan of commerce, but there are several others of more or 
less value. 

We walked up to the bungalow along a grassy path with 
kids and calves tethered on either side. Alas ! their mothers 
had not yet returned from the mountains, so that the promised 
supply of fresh milk and butter to which we had been looking 
forward was not forthcoming. 

Our friends at the bungalow were up and dressed, and 
none the worse for their fatigues of yesterday. Having mutu- 
ally congratulated each other on the success of the expedition, 
we heard how lucky we had been in escaping the Borneo 
pest of leeches. It has not been raining much lately, but in 
wet weather they are worse than in Ceylon. Not content 
with attacking the passing traveller from the ground, they 
drop down from every branch or leaf, and generally the first 
intimation of their presence is the sight of a thin stream 
of blood oozing from their point of attack. If an attempt 
to pull them off be made, their heads remain fixed in the flesh 
and cause festering w r ounds. The only way of getting rid of 
them is to apply a little salt, a bag of which is always carried 
by the natives when going on an expedition into the jungle. 
Strong tobacco-juice is another remedy. 

We had now to return to the boat, and to re-embark in the 
' Sunbeam,' leaving the curios which we had purchased to be 
sent home by the earliest possible opportunity. Our friends 
complimented us with a salute of nineteen guns ; to which we 
could make but a feeble return, as our armament only consists 
of two brass guns for signal purposes. None the less did \ve 
quit the shores of North Borneo with grateful appreciation of 



206 THE SHOOTING EXPEDITION 



its beauties and a vivid sense of its countless undeveloped 
riches of every kind. Pleasant reminiscences of almost every- 
thing did we carry away with us, except of the intense heat, 
which I believe has been rather unusual this year, even the 
oldest inhabitant complaining nearly as much of it as we did. 
Just at the last moment the steam-launch ' Madai ' arrived 
from Sandakan for Mr. Crocker and Mr. Treacher, bringing 
letters and presents of flowers, as well as things which we had 
accidentally left behind. She appeared to be a frail little con- 
veyance for a voyage of so many miles under such a broiling 
sun, and a good fast vessel something like the Rajah's ' Lorna 
Doone ' seems needed to maintain regular communication be- 
tween the various ports of North Borneo, Brunei, Labuan, 
and Singapore. 

We got under way at 8.45 A.M., and were much relieved 
when, at about ten o'clock, the cutter was descried in the 
distance, and still more rejoiced when we picked her up be- 
tween the isles of Timbu Mata and Pulu Gaya. Tab came 
on board directly, looking very well, but tremendously sun- 
burnt, as were also his four companions ; but all were in 
great spirits. They brought with them two deer, of which 
the meat was too high to be used. It seemed that the shoot- 
ing party had not been able to reach the island on the day 
they left us, for the ' Gleam ' draws a good deal of water, and 
the passage was intricate and shallow. They therefore slept 
comfortably in the boat, and in the very early morning, see- 
ing deer grazing, they landed, ascended a hill, and shot two 
of them. They also saw a good many pigs, but could not 
get any. Soon afterwards the Sulu chief and his followers, 
whom we had sent to look after the sporting party, arrived ; 
the chief waving the letter, of which he was the bearer, in 
his hand, in order to allay the apprehensions which his ap- 
pearance might naturally arouse. He and his people quickly 
spread themselves over the island, shouting, and waving white 



WAITING FOR THE YACHT 



207 



flags, in complete disregard of all the usual rules of civilised 
deer-stalking. Of course no more game could be got that day, 
for it was impossible by signs to stop the noise. While two 
of our men were out in search of deer, they were alarmed by 
the appearance of some canoes from the mainland, contain- 
ing thirty or forty natives. They proved, however, to be only 
harmless fishermen in search of the great tepai mother-of- 




pearl shell and smaller black oyster-shell, in which pearls are 
found, and which abound on the shores of the island. The 
night was again passed on board the cutter, and this morning 
another unsuccessful deer-hunt took place. They found wait- 
ing in the sun to be picked up by us the hottest part of the 
entertainment. The tea had unfortunately been left behind, 
but they had some very good cocoa, which supplied its place. 
At 9 P.M. we rounded the north end of Sibuco Island and 



2o8 FLOATING ISLANDS 

passed through the Sibuco Passage, entering the Celebes Sea 
at about 1 1 P.M. 

Saturday, April i6th. A very hot day. At noon we had 
steamed 235 miles, and were in lat. 2 47' N., long. 1 19 32' E. 
Busy settling down all day. Bather an anxious time as re- 
gards navigation. Tom spends most of his time in the fore- 
top. About 10 P.M. we entered the Straits of Macassar. 

Throughout the day we had been exposed to the danger 
of collision with the numerous submerged logs and trunks of 
trees carried down by the river Koti and floating on the 
surface of the sea. The current must be tremendously strong 
in this river, which gives its name to a large tract of country ; 
for not only are trees and logs washed down, but huge clumps 
of Nipa and Xebong palms, looking like (what they really are) 
small floating islands, are carried out to sea with their numerous 
feathered inhabitants. More than once when a sail had been 
reported in the offing, it proved to be one of those masses 
of vegetation, the branches and large fan-shaped leaves of 
which presented a deceptive likeness to masts and sails. Those 
which can be seen are not dangerous ; it is only the half-sub- 
merged logs, almost invisible, yet large enough to sink a ship, 
for which a careful look-out has to be kept, both in the rigging 
and on the bows. In fact, we were going slow and half-speed 
all day, our course having constantly to be changed to avoid 
these obstacles. Our arrival at Macassar may therefore be 
considerably delayed. 

Sunday, April ijth. Another fine calm day, but intensely 
hot. We crossed the line about 7 P.M., and soon after eight 
sighted the high land of Celebes. 

Monday, April iSth. At 4 P.M. we were off Cape Katt ; 
at 8 P.M. off Cape Madai. At noon we had come 2 1 1 miles 
under steam, and were in lat. 4 14' S., long. ii843 / E., being 
eighty-three miles from Macassar. Only the faintest breath 
of air could be felt, and even that soon died away. The sails 



APPROACH TO MACASSAR 



209 



which had just been 
set had therefore to 
be taken in again, 
and we proceeded 
as before under 
steam. This little 
experiment delayed 
us somewhat, but 
gave everybody on 
board some exer- 
cise. 

Tuesday, Afml 
igtli. At daybreak 
we found that we 
had drifted far to the 
southward during 
the sudden squalls 
and constant shifts 
of wind in the night. 
The currents here- 
abouts are exceedingly 
strong, and the sound- 
ings taken early in the 
morning proved that we 

were in unpleasantly shallow water in fact, almost touch- 
ing what we made out to be the edge of the Spermonde (?) 
Archipelago. Tom was at the masthead, endeavouring to 
pick up some landmark. At last he was able to distinguish 
the highest peak marked on the chart to the south of 
Macassar ; whereupon he fearlessly gave the order to go 
full speed ahead in a NN.E. direction between that island 
and Satanga. This was much pleasanter than groping about 
by means of soundings, and it was a great relief to think 
that we were at last fairly on our course for Macassar. The 




A DUTCH COLONY 



scenery became lovely, and at 12.15 A.M. we reached our des- 
tination, and dropped anchor near the lighthouse. 

The approach to the Dutch town of Macassar is very fine, 
and no doubt the beauty of its situation, as well as its con- 
venience as a place of call for ships of all nations, caused it 
to be selected as the first European port in the East Indies. 
The roadstead was fairly full of shipping, which included a 
gunboat, one or two steamers, and several large sailing-ships. 
Pratt went ashore the instant the health-officer and harbour- 
master (these officers being combined in one person) had left, 
in order to find out the capabilities of the place ; for we had 
been unable to gather anything from our first visitor, who 
could not speak a word of anything but Dutch, and contented 
himself with handing in a bundle of ship's papers, printed 
in every known language under the sun, and allowing us 
to select therefrom the one which suited us. Pratt soon 
returned, reporting, to our joy, that there was an ice-making 
machine ashore, and that, although it was only a little 
one, and would take nearly thirty-six hours to make the re- 
quired quantity, we were promised a thousand pounds of 
ice by 7 A.M. to-morrow, or half as much again by one 
o'clock. After some deliberation the latter arrangement was 
agreed to. 

About four o'clock we all landed, and under the guidance 
of the best interpreter to be found a Chinaman who could 
speak nearly twelve words of English we set off to inspect 
the ancient Dutch East Indian town. It is the oldest Euro- 
pean settlement in the Eastern Archipelago, and has the 
air of respectability which belongs to old establishments of 
every kind and in every part of the world. In comparing 
Macassar with Singapore, it must be remembered that under 
Dutch administration the community is left in a much greater 
degree to its own resources. Of the results of the two systems 
of government, in relation to the general prosperity, there is 




:. 



A COLLECTION OF ARMS 



211 



no room for doubt and uncertainty. The exclusive policy of the 
Dutch, the obstacles opposed to commerce, when not carried on 
under the national flag, have produced a lethargy and stagna- 
tion, with which the marvellous growth of free and untram- 
melled trade at Singapore offers a striking contrast. The 
Dutch have but a. slender hold over the Celebes. The physical 
configuration of the island is singularly straggling. To this 
circumstance it is probably due that the population is divided, 
both in race and language, into several distinct tribes. 

Outside Fort Rotterdam a large level space is reserved 
as a public park. Its drives are shaded by fine avenues. In 
the outskirts of Macassar the streets become lanes, passing 
through rich groves of tropical vegetation. The slender 
dwellings of the native population, formed of matting stretched 
on a light framework of bamboo, are seen peering out from 
underneath the over- 
hanging canopy of 
dense foliage. 

Having called on 
the Governor, we 
drove to the Hotel 
Macassar, where, with 
the assistance of the 
captain of a Nor- 
wegian ship, dinner 
got itself ordered. 
After taking this pre- 
caution we drove out 
into the country, or 
rather the suburbs, to 
look at a large col- 
lection of native arms, 

from this and the surrounding islands. We were specially 
interested in the narrow Dyak shields and the wider ones 

c c 




212 



A DRIVE ROUND 



which come from further north, as well as in the masks, skulls, 
and war-cloaks from Bali, Lombook, and Sumbawa, the 
musical instruments and weapons peculiar to Celebes, and the 

spears and kreises from all 
parts. So badly arranged were 
they, however, and kept in such 
a dark outhouse, that it was 
impossible to appreciate their 
value properly. After inviting 
the owner a superintendent of 
police and his family to visit 
the yacht, we continued our 
drive among pretty villas and 
bungalows, surrounded by the 
usual tropical fence, with gor- 
geous flowers and fruits inside 
it, until we came to a wealthy 
Chinaman's house and garden. 
The house was full of quaint con- 
ceits, and in the garden was a 
very pretty artificial pond sur- 
rounded by splendid ferns and 
palms, looking something like a 
natural lake in the midst of a 

tropic jungle. Then we drove on, through more valleys and 
past more gardens, to the Government coal-stores, which Tom 
inspected with interest, and which, he was told, contained 
at that moment 5,000 tons of coal. Afterwards, some of the 
party went on board the Dutch gunboat ' Bromo,' which acts 
as guard-ship, and is now coaling alongside. 

The Netherlands Company's steamship the ' Bajara ' sails 
to-morrow at 4 A.M., and the mail closes at six o'clock to-night ; 
so it was necessary to hurry back on board in order to get our 
letters and journals ready in time, though we had luckily fore- 




SHOPPING AT MACASSAR 



213 



seen this emergency. The dinner was very good, and was 
served in a nice cool airy room at the hotel, landlady, waiters, 
and all being extremely civil, though we could scarcely exchange 
a single word with any of them. 

Wednesday, A2'il 2Oth. Went ashore at 7.30 with Tom, 
Mabelle, Baby and Mr. Pritchett. The latter goes home to-day 
in the ' Bajara.' The morning was fairly cool. Mabelle and I 
went to one or two shops and tried to make some purchases ; 
but, between our ignorance of the language and our poverty 
in the current coins of the country, we did not meet with 
much success. While we w r ere at one shop, a very smart lady 
drove up in a neatly turned-out victoria and pair. She was 
dressed exactly like all the natives, except that the materials 
of her costume were better. A sarong, worked in a peculiar 
native way with wax, was wound round her waist, and a 
snowy white close-fitting linen 
jacket trimmed with lace and in- 
sertion formed the rest of her cos- 
tume. Her hair was neatly fastened 
up with a comb, but her feet were 
bare, except for prettily embroidered 
slippers. 

After breakfast most of the party 
went off on various shopping expe- 
ditions, for it will be Muriel's birth- 
day to-morrow, and we are all pro- 
viding suitable offerings for the oc- 
casion. Mabelle and Mr. Pemberton 
also went to the police-officer's resi- 
dence to try and bargain for some 
of the arms which we had seen last 

night. There were eight or ten weapons which I should dearly 
like to possess. However, it proved to be hopeless to attempt 
to drive a bargain, for the collection could not be broken up, 




214 BIRDS OF PARADISE 

and I did not care to give the price asked for the lot. The 
owner presented me, however, with a magnificent Gordonia 
rubra, which I regarded as a great acquisition, having long 
searched vainly for this very plant. It is a specially perfect 
specimen, with beautiful feathery tips. After great trouble 
Mr. Peniberton also succeeded hi buying for me a few spears, 
kreises, and baskets from Celebes, Sumbawa, and Bali, together 
with some so-called tortoiseshells (really turtle-shells) of a 
larger size than any that we had seen before. Still more 
pleased was I to get ten skins of the exquisite birds-of -paradise 
which Wallace so well describes. He considered himself amply 
repaid for toil and hardship by the discovery of their previously 
unknown splendour, which one can quite imagine, even in 
their dried and imperfectly prepared state. I have seen them 
alive at Singapore in an aviary, and they are indeed gorgeous. 

Meanwhile Tom and I had returned to the yacht, where we 
were endeavouring to hasten such necessary preparations as 
coaling, watering, and provisioning. I vainly tried to get a 
little rest, notwithstanding a stream of visitors, including the 
Governor, Commandant, and many others. We all lunched 
ashore, and found most of the officers messing at the hotel, 
but at a separate table. 

After further trouble in money-changing w r e went on board 
the yacht again, to find that the plentiful w r ashing of decks, so 
necessary after coaling, was in full force, as well as the general 
air of confusion always prevailing before setting off on a 
long voyage. There being no chance of a start at present, 
Mr. Pemberton kindly went off to try to get back a cheque 
which Tom had given for the tortoiseshells and birds-of- 
paradise already paid for by me on shore. Pratt reported 
that he had the greatest difficulty in getting his stores off in- 
tact ; for as fast as he had bought a thing and paid for it, the 
object or objects as in the case of twenty-four chickens 
suddenly disappeared into the recesses of the market again, 



A FALSE START 215 



and had to be hunted up with great difficulty and many 
excuses and subterfuges on the part of the sellers. The poor 
man with the cheque soon came on board, looking very 
frightened, and bringing a peace-offering of large green 
lemons and a bunch of the finest gardenias I had ever seen, 
the blossoms being eighteen inches round. 

Just before dark we got under way. After our long pas- 
sage under steam everybody pulled at the ropes Tom, children, 
and all as if they had never seen sails set before ; the men 
working with a will, and shouting their loudest and merriest 
songs. All sounded most cheery ; but the wind was unsteady, 
and the result was that the sails, which had been sent up 
with the fervent hope that they might remain set for the 
next six weeks, had to be lowered abruptly in as many minutes, 
and the anchor hastily dropped, to avoid a Dutch brig moored 
close to us, into which we were rapidly drifting in consequence 
of a sudden shift in the wind. The poor brig having already 
been in collision, and having lost her bowsprit and foretopmast, 
it would indeed have been hard to damage her again, though 
I expect we should have got the worst of it, for she was of a 
good old-fashioned bluff build. It was annoying to fail in 
getting under way under sail, and still more so to have to 
wait two hours while steam was being got up. At 8.30 P.M. 
we started again, more successfully this time, and proceeded 
quietly through the night. 

Thursday, April 2ist. Muriel's birthday. Ceased steam- 
ing at 6 A.M. A heavy roll throughout the day, with occa- 
sional strong squalls. All suffering more or less from the 
motion. At noon we had steamed sixty-three miles and 
sailed twenty-one. In the afternoon the weather improved. 
At 7 P.M. the ship was put before the wind in order to let 
Neptune come on board, after which the ceremony of crossing 
the line was carried out with due solemnity and with great 
success. The costumes were capital, the procession well 



216 



CROSSING THE LINE 



managed, and the speeches amusing. Muriel was de- 
lighted with an offering of shells, and Neptune finally took 
his departure amid a shower of one rocket (we could not 
afford more for fear of accident) and a royal salute of eight 
rifles. We could watch the flames of the tar-barrel in which 
Neptune was supposed to have embarked, as it rose and fell 



I I' III 




Fishing Boat Alias Strait 



on the crests of the waves for many miles astern, looking like 
a small phantom ship. 

Friday, April 22nd. Bad night ; heavy squalls through- 
out the day. Made and rounded the Paternoster at 8 A.M. 
Much cooler on deck ; no apparent difference below. 

At noon we had come 1 74 miles under sail, and were in 
lat. 7 56' S., long. 1 16 56' E. In the afternoon we made the 
entrance to the Alias Strait. 



ALLAS STRAIT 217 



The Strait of Alias is one of several navigable channels by 
which ships can pass from the confined waters of the Eastern 
Archipelago into the Indian Ocean. It divides the island of 
Sumba\va, famous for possessing the most active volcano in 
the world, from the island of Lombok. At the eastern end of 
Lonibok, a magnificent peak rises to a height of 12,000 feet, 
and overshadows the narrow channel beneath with its impos- 
ing mass. The effects of scenery were enhanced by a sharp 
squall, which drove us into the strait at a thrilling speed, 
under half-lowered canvas. When the squall cleared away 
the peak of Lombok stood forth clear of cloud, in all its ma- 
jesty and grandeur, backed by the glorious colours of the 
evening sky. During the hour of twilight a massive cloud 
rested motionless in the sky immediately above the peak. 
Beneath this lofty and imposing canopy, and seen more dimly 
in the fading light, this solitary mountain presented by turns 
every feature that is sublime and beautiful in landscape. 

Saturday, April 2^rd. To-day proved lovely after the rain, 
but there was very little wind. At noon we had come 66 miles 
under steam, and 62 miles under sail. I have felt wretchedly 
ill for the last few days, and seem to have lost both sleep and 
appetite. The motion, I have no doubt, has something to do 
with my indisposition, for we are going close-hauled to a wind 
from one quarter, and there is a heavy swell on the other, 
so that we roll and tumble about a great deal without making 
much progress. Every scrap of the Macassar ice has melted 
in these three days, instead of lasting three weeks, as did 
the ice from Singapore. This is a terrible blow, though \ve 
are consoled by the thought that the weather will be getting 
cooler every day now T , and that w r e shall therefore want it less. 
Unless exceptionally fortunate in making a quick passage, I 
fear, however, that we shall run short of provisions before 
reaching our first Australian port, Macassar having proved a 
miserable place at which to take in stores. 



A MARINE PHENOMENON 




Our 
Wiudbob 



At 4.30 
P.M. we 
found our- 
selves sud- 
denly, with- 
out any warn- 
ing, in a curiously 
disturbed stretch of sea. It was 
like a tidal wave, or a race off a 
headland, except that there was 
no tide and no cape, and we 
were many miles from land. I 
immediately thought of Wallace 
and the volcanic waves which he 
alludes to, especially when I 
observed that the water was 
covered with greenish yel- 
low objects, which at a first 
hasty glance I took for spawn 
of some kind. We soon had 
buckets and nets over the side, 
and fished up some of the 
floating particles, which proved 
to be bits of pumice-stone, 
rounded by the action of the waves, 
and covered with barnacles from the 
size of a pin's head upwards. So 
thickly were they encrusted that it was 
almost impossible to recognise the origi- 
nal substance at all. The barnacles, with 
their long cirri projecting and retracting 
quickly in search of food, gave the whole 
mass an appearance of life and motion 
very curious when closely observed in a 



FATE OF THE LARK 219 

basin. There were sea-anemones among them, and one little 
bit of stick, of which a long black snake or worm had scooped 
out the interior and thus made itself a home. Saribowa, said 
to be one of the most active volcanoes, is not far distant from 
the spot where we picked up the pumice-stone. 

It is a lovely, clear, starlight night, with no black clouds 
to threaten coming squalls of wind or rain. The breeze, 
though not so fair as we could wish, is at any rate cool and 
refreshing, and the reduced temperature is felt as a great relief 
to all on board. Even the poor carpenter, who has been ill 
for some time past, is beginning to look better, though his eyes 
are still very painful. I am sorry for him, poor man, and for 
ourselves too, for his services are wanted at every turn just 
now. We are making all ready for the bad weather, which we 
may fairly expect to meet with when once in mid-ocean. All 
the big boats have been got in-board to-day, chairs have been 
stowed below, the top of the deck-house cleared of lumber and 
live-stock, cracked panes of glass replaced, battening-down 
boards looked out, new ropes rove, and all preparations made 
for real hard sea work. How I wish we were going down 
the east coast of Australia, inside the barrier-reef, instead of 
down the stormy west coast ! I dread this voyage somehow, 
and begin even to dislike sailing. Perhaps my depression is 
partly caused by that stupid boy Buzzo having allowed my 
favourite lark, which I had brought from Hyderabad, to escape 
to-day. He sang much more sweetly and softly than most larks, 
and was a dear little bird, almost as tame as my pet bullfinch. 
Now he must meet with a watery grave, for he was too far 
from land when he flew off to reach it. 

Sunday, April 2^th. Weather still calm, fine, and hot, 
but no wind. Our little stock of coal is running very low, 
for we have been obliged to get up steam again. At 1 1.30 we 
had the Litany, at which I was able to be present, on deck. 
At noon we had steamed 127 miles, and were in lat. 11 25' 

D D 



22O 



A'ECESSAR Y PR EC A UTIONS 




S., long. 1 1 6 39' E. Tom is getting much better again, but is 
rather anxious at not having picked up the Trades so soon as 
he had expected. He now much regrets not having taken 
more coal and provisions on board, as he fears that the 
voyage may be unduly prolonged. We had quite a serious 
consultation to-day with the head-steward on the subject of 
ways and means, for the strictest economy must be" practised 
as to food and water, and the most must be made of our coal. 
Oh for another twenty-five tons in reserve ! 

You may imagine what the heat has been during the last 
few weeks, when, with the thermometer standing at 80 to-day, 



GETTING COOLER 221 



people found it so chilly that they could not even wait until 
to-morrow to get out their warm clothes ! 

Monday, April 2$th. Fine and hot, with, alas! no wind. 
Ceased steaming for a brief space, but, as we made no pro- 
gress, resumed after twenty minutes' pause. At noon we had 
come only eight miles under sail and 1 5 8 under steam, and 
were in lat. 13 58' S., and long. 1 14 52' E. The afternoon 
was showery, and hopes were entertained of a change of wind. 
A little breeze a very little one came out of the squalls, and 
we ceased steaming about six o'clock. 

Tuesday, April 26tli. A breeze sprang up in the course of 
the night, and we ceased steaming at 8 A.M. In the shade, 
and in a draught, the thermometer stood at 77. Everybody 
was or at least many were crying out for blankets and 
warmer clothing. The breeze increased almost to a gale, and 
we were close-hauled, with a heavy swell, which made us all 
very uncomfortable. 

Wednesday, April 2/ f tJi. At 4 A.M. went 011 deck with Tom. 
Weather much finer and wind fairer. We must hope that 
yesterday's curious little moon may have changed our luck. 
All day it continued finer, and in the afternoon the wind 
freshened, and shifted a point or two for the better, sending 
us along at higher speed and right on our course ; so that we 
must not grumble, though the motion was still most unpleasant. 

Thursday, April 28t1i. I have been suffering much from 
neuralgia, and last night could not sleep at all, so that although 
this was really a lovely day I was unable to enjoy its pleasant 
beauty. At noon we had come 148 miles under sail, and were 
in lat. 1 8 36' S., long. 109 26' E. There was no variation in 
the compass to-day, this being one of the spots in the world 
where a similar state of things is observable. 

At 5.30 P.M. we had the third nautical entertainment of 
the present voyage, which was quite as varied and successful as 
usual. Mr. Pemberton's recitation from Tennyson, and Tab's 



A NAUTICAL ENTERTAINMENT 



humorous account of Father Neptune's visit to the ' Sunbeam,' 
were the novelties on this occasion. There were also some 
excellent songs by the crew, a pretty ballad by Muriel, and a 
reading by Tom ; Mabelle being as usual the backbone and 
leader of the whole affair. I managed to sit through it, though 
in great pain, but was obliged to go to bed directly after. 

Friday, April 2gth. The weather is now really lovely. 
Painting and varnishing are still the order of the day. At 
noon we had sailed 143 miles, and were in lat. 20 40' S., 
long. 107 52' E. Again there was practically no variation in 
the compass, and if we only go far enough we shall soon have 
an extra day in one of our weeks ! 

Saturday, April $oth. After a very bad night, during which 
I suffered agonies from neuralgia, I woke feeling somewhat 
better. We are now bowling along before a brisk trade-wind, 
which produces a certain amount of motion, though the vessel 
is fairly steady on the whole. At noon we had sailed 162 
miles, and were in lat. 22 32' S., long. 105 53' E. The wind 
freshened in the afternoon as usual, but died away slightly 
during the night, which was beautifully clear and starlit. 
Everybody is full of spirits, and I hear cheery voices on 
deck with the least little bit of envy, I fear, as I lie in my bed 
below. 

Sunday, May 1st. The merry month of May does not 
commence very auspiciously, with a dirty grey sky, a still 
dirtier grey sea flopping up on our weather bow, and half a 
gale blowing. Fortunately it is from the right direction, and 
\ve make good progress. 

I was able to attend the Litany at 11.30, and evening 
service at 4. At noon we had sailed 1 5 3 miles, and were in 
lat. 24 39' S., long. 104 14' E., and were fairly out of the 
tropics. In fact, everybody is now grumbling at the cold, and 
all the animals and birds look miserable, although the ther- 
mometer still stands at 69 in the shade. Perhaps the fresh 



WHALE OR SHARK 



223 



breeze makes 
us so chilly, 
hough it does 
not affect the thermo- 
meter. 

Monday, May 2nd. 
The weather is 
finer, though it still 
keeps squally; but 
the wind is baf- 
fling, and we 
were sail- 
ing a good 
deal out of 
our course 
during the 
night. At noon 
we were in lat. 
26 44' S., long. 103 
50' E. I managed to 
go to the deck-house to- 
day for lunch, and remained 
on deck a little afterwards. 
Just before sunset we saw 

several sea-birds, and a splendid albatross with a magnificent 
spread of wing. It was wonderful to watch its quick turns 
and graceful skimming flight, so swift, and yet with hardly 
any perceptible movement. 

Tuesday, May ^rd. A fine day, very smooth, almost calm. 
Carried away the strop of the mizen-topsail-sheet block and 
rove new sheets. At noon we had sailed 140 miles, and were 
in lat. 28 54' S., long. 103 i2'E. 

At 2.30 a large fish was observed close to the vessel. He 
was from twenty to thirty feet long, and must have been either 




Topmast Stunsails 



224 THE 'LIGURIA' 



a white whale or a shark swimming on his back, and so snowy 
white as to make the sea, which was of a beautiful clear ultra- 
marine blue, look pale green above him, like water over a 
coral reef. The creature did not rise above the surface, so 
we had not a good view of him, and he gave no sign of a 
disposition to ' blow,' though we watched him for more than 
half an hour. This makes me think that he must have been 
a shark, and not a whale, as the others assumed. 

At 4 P.M. the fires were lighted in order to enable us to get 
within the influence of the true west wind, for we had reached 
the edge of the trades. About 6 P.M. we commenced steaming. 

Wednesday, May ^tli. A fine day, with a moderate sea 
and a little imaginary breeze. At noon we had come eighty- 
six miles under steam and forty under sail, and were in lat. 
30 24' S., long. 124 26' E. The temperature at noon in the 
shade was 65, which we found very cold. 

At 4 P.M. we saw a steamer hull down. In about an hour 
we had approached each other sufficiently close to enable us 
to ascertain that she was the ' Liguria,' one of the Orient Line, 
bound for Adelaide. We exchanged a little conversation with 
signal flags, and, having mutually wished each other a pleasant 
voyage, parted company. This was the first ship seen since 
leaving Macassar. -The evening bitterly cold. 

We have just seen a splendid lunar rainbow, and I suspect 
it forebodes a good deal more wind than we have lately had. It 
was perfect in shape, and the brilliant prismatic colours were 
most distinctly marked. I never saw such a rainbow, except 
as the precursor of a circular storm. I only hope that, should 
we encounter such a gale now, we may get into the right corner 
of it, and that it will be travelling in the right direction. I 
wish it would come in time to run up our weekly average to a 
thousand miles by mid-day. 

Thursday, May $th. At 5 A.M. I was awakened by being 
nearly washed out of bed on one side and by a deluge of water 



A SQUALL 



225 



coming into the cabin on the other. A squall had struck us, 
and we were tearing along with the lee rail under water, the 
rain meanwhile pouring dow r n in torrents. The squall soon 
passed over, but there was every appearance of the wind in- 




E fleet of a Squall 



creasing, though the barometer still stood high. Squall fol- 
lowed squall in quick succession, the wind increasing in force, 
and the sea rapidly rising. It soon became plain that we were 
in for a gale of some kind, and a very little later it became 



226 THE STORM PASSES 

equally evident that, in accordance with the law of storms, 
we must be in the north-west quadrant of a circular storm, 
the centre of the disturbance being somewhere to the south- 
east. Sails were furled, others were reefed, and all was made 
fairly snug. 

At noon we had run 1 36 miles to the north-east since the 
early morning, but we had not quite reached our estimated 
weekly average of a thousand miles. At noon we were in 
lat. 31 29' S., long. 105 48' E., with Cape Entrecasteaux 
546 miles distant. The barometer stood at 30-10, and the 
temperature fell to 60. 

Several times during the morning the lee cutter had been 
in imminent danger of being lifted right out of the davits and 
carried away. About two o'clock the topmasts were struck ; 
an hour later the skylights were covered over with tarpaulin, 
and a good deal of battening down took place on deck. Be- 
low, the stewards were employed in tautening up things 
which had been allowed to get rather slack during the long 
spell of smooth weather which we have had of late, nothing 
like a storm having been encountered for weeks, or indeed 
months. 

Before dusk the lee cutter was got in-board, more reefs 
were taken in, air was made snug on deck, and I might say 
stuffy below. Shortly after this was accomplished we sailed 
out of the influence of the storm, the centre travelling 
quickly away to the south-east of us. Thereupon we shook 
out one or two reefs and set a mizen trysail to prevent the 
fine weather lops coming on board ; for the sea was begin- 
ning to go faster than the wind, and one or two big beads of 
spray found their way on deck, one of which, much to their 
amusement, drenched the children completely. The glass 
continued to rise, and the weather improved throughout the 
night. 

Friday, May 6tJi. I was indeed delighted when, at dawn, 



ERRATIC CHRONOMETERS 227 



it was thought safe to let us have a little light and air down 
below. Soon the sun rose, and all became bright and beautiful 
once more, though the air felt extremely chilly. We were now 
well on our course, but sailing pretty close to the wind, and 
therefore only doing about five or six knots. Continual 
squalls struck us throughout the day, and the sea was very 
lumpy from the effects of yesterday's gale, though the wind 
had almost completely subsided. What there was of it gradu- 
ally headed us in the course of the afternoon, which did not 
tend to make things more comfortable ; though the children 
at any rate did not seem to mind it, for they have entirely 
got over their slight sea-sickness. At noon we had sailed 
138 miles, and were in lat. 32 28' N., long. 108 6' E. ; the 
barometer stood at 30- 1 o, and the temperature was still 60. 

Sunday, May 8th. Woke early, only to hear that the 
wind had changed ; but it proved a lovely morning, though 
the sky was covered with fleeting clouds, which made it diffi- 
cult for the navigators to get the sun. We had the Litany 
at 11.30, and at noon were in lat. 34 47' S., long. 113 54' 
E., having run 201 miles. The temperature had risen to 63, 
and the barometer stood at 30-19. 

Tom has been deeply immersed in calculations all this 
afternoon, the best of the three chronometers on board, by 
Dent, having behaved in a very erratic manner since we got 
into a cooler temperature. On the other hand, the chrono- 
meter of Brockbank & Atkins, which has hitherto been re- 
garded as not quite so reliable, is making up for past short- 
comings by a spell of good conduct. Under these circumstances, 
it is difficult to know which to depend upon, and Tom is con- 
sequently somewhat anxious about his landfall. The weather 
has been so squally and overcast that no really good sights 
have been obtained all day. 

At noon we had only come 194 miles by dead-reckoning. 
Observation proved that we had been helped onwards by a 

E E 



NEARING LAND 



favouring current, and had really come 201 miles. We had 
evening service at 4.30 P.M. During the afternoon we saw 
many more sea-birds, and several albatrosses. It was a fine 
evening, the wind having dropped rather light. In the middle 
watch, however, it became squally. 



WESTERN AUSTRALIA 




Monday, May gtli. At 3 A.M. carried away the clew of 
the mainsail, and at 7 A.M. set more sail. At 10 A.M. we 
made West Cape Howe, Western Australia, our first land since 
leaving the Alias Strait. It was with great joy and relief, as 
well as with, I think, pardonable pride in Tom's skill as a 
navigator, that I went on deck to see these rock-bound shores. 
It was certainly a good landfall, especially considering the 



230 A GOOD LANDFALL 

difficulties which we had met with on account of the chrono- 
meters. The instrument which for years has been considered 
the most trustworthy suddenly changed its rate, and has been 
losing three seconds in the twenty-four hours. The navi- 
gators have been taking great pains. Observations have been 
frequent. Fifteen sights were taken daily, in three sets of five 
at three different periods. 

Tom's estimated average run of 1,000 knots per week 
under sail has come out pretty well, and my own daily esti- 
mates of the run have been also surprisingly near the mark. 
In fact, Tom thinks them rather wonderful, considering that 
they have been arrived at simply by watching and thinking 
of the vessel's ways all day and part of the night, and often 
without asking any questions. 

At 1 1 A.M. we lowered the mainsail and raised the funnel. 
At noon we had run 1 90 miles, and were half a mile to the 
northward of Eclipse Island, the barometer standing at 
30-19, and the thermometer at 59. At one o'clock we passed 
inside Vancouver's Ledge. The coast seemed fine and bold, the 
granite rocks looking like snow on the summit of the cliffs, 
at the foot of which the fleecy rollers were breaking in a 
fringe of pale green sea, whilst on the other side the water 
remained of a magnificent deep ultramarine colour. 

About two o'clock we rounded Bald Head, soon after which 
the harbourmaster of King George Sound and a pilot came on 
board, and were the first to welcome us to Western Australia. 
Over the lowland on one side we could see a P. & 0. steamer, 
with the Blue Peter flying. Accordingly we sealed up all our 
mails and hurried them off, having previously hoisted the 
signal to ask if they could be received. By four o'clock we 
were at anchor in King George Sound, which reminded us 
much of Pictou in Nova Scotia. 

Albany is a clean-looking little town, scarcely more than a 
village, built on the shore of the bay, and containing some 



ALBANY 231 

2,000 inhabitants. We were soon in the gig, on the way to 
the P. & 0. steamer ' Shannon ' to see our old friend Captain 
Murray. After looking round the familiar decks, and having 
tea on board, we exchanged good wishes for a fair voyage, and 
rowed ashore, landing on a long wooden pier. 

Carriages are not to be hired in Albany, but we found an 
obliging carter, who had come to fetch hay from the wharf, 
and who consented to carry me, instead of a bundle of hay, up 
to the house of Mr. Loftie, the Government Eesident. We 
have decided to remain a week in order to give me a chance 
of recruiting ; besides which the ' Sunbeam ' needs a little 
painting and touching-up to make her look smart again after 
all the hard work and buffetings she has gone through. 

Most of the party stayed on shore to dinner, for the kitchen- 
range on board the ' Sunbeam ' has got rather damaged by 
the knocking about of the last few days. I went back, how- 
ever, in my primitive conveyance as far as the end of the pier, 
and then returned straight on board, feeling very tired with 
even so short an expedition. In the course of the afternoon a 
large sackful of letters and newspapers from England was 
delivered on board, much to our delight. 

Tuesday, May loth. A busy morning with letters and 
telegrams. Dogs are not allowed to land in any part of 
Australia until they have performed six months' quarantine, 
but I was able to take mine ashore at Quarantine Island, 
which we found without much difficulty with the aid of a 
chart. A little before one o'clock we landed at the pier, where 
Mr. Loftie met us, and drove us to the Kesidency to lunch. 
It was a great treat to taste fresh bread and butter and cream 
once more, especially to me, for these are among the few 
things I am able to eat. After lunch several ladies and 
gentlemen came to call on us. 

I was sorry to hear that a terrible epidemic of typhoid 
fever seems to be ravaging this little town. Built as it is on 



232 DEFECTIVE ARRANGEMENTS 

the side of a hill overlooking the sea, and with a deliciously 
invigorating air always blowing, Albany ought to be the most 
perfect sanatorium in the world. Later in the afternoon I 
went for a drive with Mrs. Loftie all round the place, seeing 
the church, schools, and new town hall, as well as the best and 
worst parts of the town. It was no longer a mystery why the 
place should be unhealthy, for the water-supply seems very 
bad, although the hills above abound with pure springs. The 
drainage from stables, farm-buildings, poultry-yards, and 
various detached houses apparently has been so arranged as 
to fall into the wells which supply each house. The effect of 
this fatal mistake can easily be imagined, and it is sad to hear 
of the valuable young lives that have been cut off in their 
prime by this terrible illness. 

In the course of our drive we passed near an encampment 
of aborigines, but did not see any of the people themselves. 
We also passed several large heaps of whales' bones, collected, 
in the days when whales were numerous here, by a German, 
with the intention of burning or grinding them into manure. 
Formerly this part of the coast used to be a good ground for 
whalers, and there were always five or six vessels in or out of 
the harbour all the year round. But the crews, with their 
usual shortsightedness, not content with killing their prey in 
the ordinary manner, took to blowing them up with dynamite ; 
the result being that they killed more than they could deal 
with, and frightened the remainder away. 

The steward's report on the resources of the place from a 
marketing point of view is more curious than encouraging. 
There is no fresh butter nor milk to be had, except through 
the kindness of a few private individuals. Mutton abounds, 
but there is very little beef or veal. Good York hams are to 
be procured from England only. Fruit and vegetables are 
brought down from Perth or come over from Adelaide, and 
the most eatable salt butter is brought from Melbourne. 



OUR FIRST AUSTRALIAN EXCURSION 



233 



Wednesday, May the 
nth. It had been set- 
tled that to-day should 
be devoted to an excursion 
to the forests which are now being 
opened up by the new line of railway in 
course of construction. The special train 
of ballast-trucks which had been provided 
for us was to have started at ten o'clock, 
soon after which hour we landed, some 
delay having been caused at the last 
moment by the receipt of a message re- 
questing us to send ashore every rug 
we possessed, in order to make the 
truck in which we were to travel as 
comfortable as possible. The required 
wraps and furs had accordingly to be 
got up from the hold, where they had 
lain for months past. On landing we 
found a pleasant party assembled to 
receive us, including the engineer of 
the new line, Mr. Stewart, and his 
wife. In due course we were all seated 
on two long planks, back to back, in 
open trucks, behind an engine and 
tender. We commenced our journey 
by slowly passing the enclosures, >^ 

gardens, and courts adjoining the 
houses of the town. About three- 
quarters of a mile out of Albany 
we stopped to water the en- 
gine at a primitive trough 

in a cutting about twelve '. - -.'. 

feet deep the deepest on Kiu 



is! 




234 INTO THE FOREST 

the whole line, which in the main is laid over a surface as 
flat as a pancake. 

The morning was simply perfect one of those days which 
make mere existence a pleasure ; the air felt light and invigo- 
rating, the sun was bright and warm ; all seemed so different 
from the damp muggy air or fierce burning sunshine of 
which we have had so much experience lately. 

Our route lay over a sort of moorland, sprinkled with rare 
ericas such as we carefully preserve in greenhouses at home. 
Other flowers there were, too, in abundance, and of many 
kinds, including scarlet bottle-brushes, large white epacris, 
and mimosa covered with yellow balls of blossom. The trees 
seemed to consist chiefly of white gum, peppermint, and 
banksias, and all looked rather ragged and untidy. One great 
feature of the vegetation was what are called the ' black-boys ' 
(Xanthorrhed), somewhat resembling tree-ferns, with a huge 
black pineapple stem, at the top of which grows a bushy tuft 
of grass-like foliage. 

About nine miles out we came to a broad stretch of water 
known by the very prosaic name of ' Nine-mile Lake.' It 
looked lovely this bright morning, with the opposite hills and 
a fine group of blue gum-trees sharply mirrored in its glassy 
surface. The train stopped for a few minutes to enable us 
to admire the view and to take some photographs. In the 
course of another mile or so we quitted the main line to Perth, 
and proceeded along a branch line leading into the heart of the 
forest. The undergrowth was nowhere very thick, and where 
it had been cleared by burning, fine grass had sprung up in 
its place. As we left the moorland and got into the real forest 
of grand gum-trees the scene became most striking. The 
massive stems of many of the eucalypti were between thirty 
and forty feet in circumference and over a hundred feet in 
height. The glimpses which we caught between these tall 
trees of Torbay, with the waves breaking in huge rollers on 



THE NEW RAILWAY 235 

the shore or in angry surf against the steep cliffs of Eclipse 
Island, were quite fascinating. 

We steamed slowly along the lightly ballasted line only 
laid yesterday, and over which no engine has yet travelled 
two men running on in front to tap the rails and joints, 
and to see that all was safe. About three-quarters of a mile 
of rail is laid each day. It is being built on what is called 
the land-grant system ; that is to say, for every mile com- 
pleted the Government give the railway company 6,000 
square acres of land, to be chosen at the completion of the line 
by the company's agent, the Government reserving to them- 
selves the right of alternate frontage to the railway. The 
distance from Albany to Beverly (a town standing about 120 
miles equidistant from Perth and Fremantle, which will be 
the terminus of the line, at any rate for the present) is 220 
miles. The line was commenced and should have been carried 
on from both ends, but the contractors find it much cheaper 
to work only from the Albany end. It ought to be a very 
cheap line, for it requires scarcely any earthworks and no 
rock-cuttings or bridges, the soil being loose and gravelly with 
a granite foundation. There are few rivers to cross; and 
timber for the sleepers is to be had in abundance, and of the 
best quality, from the trees which must necessarily be cut 
down to clear the forest for the passage of the line. The 
entire road was to have been completed in three years from 
the time of commencement ; but it will probably be finished 
in about two, as a good deal of the work is already done. 

We were taken by another branch line to some saw-mills, 
where the sleepers for the railway are prepared. Here some 
of us got into a light American buggy drawn by a fine strong 
pair of cart-horses, in which conveyance we took our first 
drive through the bush. To me it seemed rather rough work, 
for in many places there was no track at all, while in others 
the road w r as obstructed by ' black-boys ' and by innumerable 



A PRIMITIVE SETTLEMENT 




Black Boys 



tree - stumps, which the 

horses avoided or stepped 

over most cleverly. Still 
the wheels could not be 
expected to show quite so 
much intelligence, and we 
consequently suffered frequent and 
violent jolts. From the driver a 
pleasant, well-informed man I 
learnt a good deal respecting the 
men employed on the line. There 
are about 1 30 hands, living up here 
in the forest, engaged in hewing 
down, sawing, and transporting 
trees. These, with the women and 
children accompanying them, form 
a population of 200 souls suddenly 
established in the depths of a virgin 
forest. They have a school, and a 
schoolmaster who charges two shil- 
lings a week per head for schooling, 
and has fourteen pupils. He was 
dressed like a gentleman, but earns 
less than the labourers, who get ten 
shillings a day, or 3^. a week, the 
best hands being paid regularly 
under all conditions of weather, and 
only the inferior labourers receiv- 
ing their wages for the time during 
which they are actually at work. 
There are four fine teams of 
Australian-bred horses, and 
a spare pair for road or 
bush work. Communi- 



THE SAW-MILLS 237 



cation \vith Albany, the base of operations, is of course main- 
tained by means of the line, some of the navvies even coming 
from and returning thither each day in the trucks. The 
married men who live in the forest have nice little three- 
roomed cottages, and those I went into were neatly papered 
and furnished, and looked delightfully clean and tidy. The 
single men generally live in a sort of tent with permanent 
walls of brick or w r ood, and mess at a boarding-house for 
eighteen shillings a week. This seems a good deal for a 
labourer to pay for food alone, but it really means five good 
meals a day. The little colony has a butcher attached to 
it, from whom meat of the finest quality may be purchased 
at sixpence per pound, all but the prime parts being thrown 
away. 

The rest of the party having walked up the line, I waited 
for them at the house of the District Manager, who with his 
wife received me most hospitably. On the walls of the apart- 
ment I was interested to notice the portraits of some of those 
who had been connected with my father-in-law in business, 
and who are now in the employ of Messrs. Miller, the con- 
tractors for this line. 

As soon as Mr. Stewart and the rest of the party had 
joined us, we proceeded to the saw-mills and watched some 
great logs of jarrah being cut into sleepers. There were no 
elephants to assist in the operation as in Burmah, so that all 
the work had to be done by steam, with a little help from men 
and horses. Quantities of fragrant rose-coloured sawdust, 
used for stable litter, were lying about. Tons of wood not 
large enough for sleepers were being burned in order to get rid 
of it. It seemed a terribly wasteful proceeding, but there was 
more material than was wanted, and space after all was the 
great thing needed. 

From the saw-mills we penetrated further into the forest, 
in order to see more large trees cut down, hewn into logs, and 

F F 



238 THE JIXKA 

dragged away. Some of the giants of the forest were really 
magnificent. We followed a double team of sixteen horses 
drawing a timber-cart composed of one long thick pole between 
two enormous wheels some seven or eight feet in diameter. 
Above these wheels a very strong iron arch is fastened, pro- 
vided with heavy chains, by means of which and with the 
aid of an iron crowbar, used as a lever, almost any weight 
of timber can be raised from the ground. The apparatus is 
called a ' jinka.' The men engaged in the work sit upon the 
pole with the greatest sangfroid as it goes bumping and 
crashing through the forest, striking up against big trees, or 
knocking down small ones ; sometimes one wheel and some- 
times another high on the top of a stump, or sometimes both 
wheels firmly fixed in one of the numerous deep holes. The 
scene was altogether most picturesque, as well as interesting ; 
and it must be remembered that the top of each stump was 
larger than the surface of a large dining-table. The trees 
were from eighty to one hundred feet in height, all their 
branches springing from near the summit, so that the shadows 
cast were quite different from those one is accustomed to see 
in an ordinary wood. The day was brilliant, the sun shining 
brightly, and the blue sky relieved by a few white fleecy 
clouds moving softly before a gentle air. The timber-cutters 
were of fine physique, with brawny limbs and sunburnt faces. 
"We watched the adventures of one enormous log. A team 
of fourteen horses were yoked to a strong chain attached by 
large hooks to a trunk of such vast proportions that it seemed 
as if all the king's horses and all the king's men could never 
make it stir an inch. Twice the effort was made, and twice it 
failed. First, the hooks slipped off the end, and as the horses 
were pulling and tugging with all their might, directly the weight 
was removed away they went helter-skelter down the steep 
hill, up which they had just climbed with so much difficulty, 
being utterly unable to stop themselves on the steep slippery 



A DISAPPOINTMENT 239 



ground. Next time the chain broke as the horses were 
straining every muscle, and the same tantalising process was 
repeated with even more striking effect. The whole of the 
long team of the fifteen horses (for they had added another 
this time) became hopelessly entangled, two of the poor animals 
either falling or getting hampered and knocked down in their 
headlong gallop. The third time the log was got into position ; 
the ' jinka,' with only one horse attached to it, was brought 
close, the pole was lowered, and the levers applied with such 
force that they not only raised the log but very nearly the 
unfortunate horse also into the air. When all was satisfac- 
torily arranged, the other horses were attached to the jinka, 
and away they all went merrily down the hill, but only to 
come into collision with a big tree. The horses had again to 
be taken out, and harnessed this time to the other end of the 
jinka, so as to pull it in the opposite direction. At last the big 
log reached the saw-mills in safety, about the same time as 
we got there ourselves. We visited the village shop, which 
appeared to be well supplied with useful stores, and also the 
butcher's and carpenter's shops, and the smithy. They have 
never seen a clergyman or doctor up here, but by railway 
there is easy communication with the town if necessary. In 
the course of our rambles we heard the disheartening intel- 
ligence that, owing to some misunderstanding, our train had 
already gone back to Albany, taking with it not only our 
luncheon, but all the wraps. We proceeded, however, to the 
trysting-place, only to be greeted by blank looks of disappoint- 
ment as each new arrival received the unpleasant news that 
the report of the train's erratic proceeding was only too well 
founded. Everybody was tired, cold, and hungry, and the con- 
versation naturally languished. At last Mr. Stewart, who had 
been down the line to reconnoitre, brought back the welcome 
news that the distant snort of the engine could be heard. In 
due course it arrived, and the baskets and boxes containing the 



240 DEPARTURE FOR KENDENUP 

much-desired food were transferred from the truck to the bank 
.and quickly unpacked by willing hands. Never, I am sure, was 
a luncheon more thoroughly appreciated than this in the depths 
of an Australian forest. The wraps, too, were most acceptable, 
for the air became keen directly after the early sunset. When 
we started on our return journey, taking back two truck-loads 
of workmen with us, it really seemed bitterly cold. Care had 
also to be taken to shelter ourselves from the shower of sparks 
from the wood fire of the engine, which flew T and streamed out 
behind us like the tail of a rocket. We went back much more 
quickly than we had come, and stopped nowhere, except to 
take in a fresh supply of wood and water and to drop some of 
our passengers at their wayside residences. 

Tab started off on horseback early this morning for 
Kendenup, a large station about forty miles inland, where we 
are to join him to-morrow, having been invited to stay for a 
day or two and judge for ourselves what station life is like. 
We accordingly sent all our luggage ashore to-night, in readi- 
ness for an early start in the morning. 

Thursday, May I2t1i. Half-past nine was the hour ap- 
pointed for our departure, and soon afterwards we were all 
assembled on the pier, where we were met by a little group of 
friends who had come to see us off. Mr. Roach, the landlord 
of the ' White Hart,' was to drive us in a comfortable-looking 
light four-wheeled waggonette with a top to it, drawn by a 
pair of Government horses. The latter are generally used 
for earning the mails or for the police service, but the 
Governor had telegraphed orders that they were to be lent to 
us for this expedition, as we could not have made it without 
them. Mabelle, Mr. des Graz, and Mr. Pemberton packed in 
behind, whilst I climbed up in front next the driver. There 
was a little difficulty at first in, starting, but once that was 
overcome it was indeed a case of ' off.' We galloped four 
miles without stopping or upsetting, the one fact being perhaps 



A BUSH HOTEL 241 



quite as wonderful as the other. Up hill, down dale, round 
corners, over stumps, along rough roads, through heavy 
sand on we went as hard as our horses could gallop. For- 
tunately there is not much traffic on the road, and during 
this mad career we only met two men walking and passed 
one cart. 

About seven miles from Albany we had to climb a long 
steep incline, called Spearwood Hill, from the top of which we 
had a fine view over Albany, King George Sound, and the 
lighthouse on Breaksea Island. There were a great many 
flowers and a few trees quite unknown to us in the bush. 
Some of the blossoms were extremely pretty, but it was hope- 
less to think of stopping to gather them, for our horses were 
warranted not to start again under half an hour at least. 
They went at a good pace, however, passing another cart, 
and one colonist on horseback, very much encumbered with 
parcels, but not sufficiently so to prevent him from politely 
making room for us. 

Chorkerup Lake Inn, our first change, fifteen miles from 
Albany, was reached in rather less than ninety minutes. It 
is a long, low, one-storeyed wooden building, but every- 
thing was scrupulously clean. In a few minutes the table 
was covered with a spotless cloth, on which fowls, home-cured 
bacon, mutton, home-made bread, potted butter, condensed 
milk, tea, Bass's beer, and sundry other articles of food and 
drink were temptingly displayed. We could not help regretting 
the absence of fresh milk and butter ; and it does seem wonder- 
ful that where land is of comparatively little value, and where 
grass springs up in profusion the moment that land is cleared, 
people should not keep a cow or two, especially when the 
family comprises numerous small children, and there is a con- 
stant though scanty stream of passing travellers to provide 
for, whose number will be increased when the railway passes 
within a couple of miles of the inn. 



242 THE IGUANA 



Just as we were starting I discovered that the old smith 
living close by had been engaged on one of my father-in- 
law's contracts in South Wales, and had worked for four 
years in the Victoria Docks in London. He was delighted 
to exchange greetings with us ; and it was quite touching to 
hear his protestations that he ' did not want nothing at all, 
only just to shake hands,' which he did over and over again, 
assuring me of his conviction that our visit was ' certain to do 
a power of good to the colony.' I suppose he gave us credit 
for having inherited, or at all events profited by, some of my 
dear father-in-law's good qualities. 

The next stage was a long and weary one of another 
fifteen miles, mostly through heavy sand. Luckily, we had 
rather a good pair of big black horses this time, which took 
us along well. It was a fine warm afternoon, like a September 
day in England ; but the drive was uneventful, and even mo- 
notonous except for the numberless jolts. We only met one 
cart and passed two houses, one of which was uninhabited 
and falling into decay. We also passed a large iguana, a 
huge kind of lizard about two feet long, lying sunning himself 
on the road. The aborigines eat these creatures, and say they 
are very good ; and I have heard that white people have also 
tried them successfully. Their eggs are delicious, and when 
roasted in hot embers taste just like baked custard. They lay 
from twenty to thirty in the large ant-heaps which one con- 
stantly meets with in the bush, and which when rifled, in 
January or February, yield a rich harvest of these eggs. A 
shrub very much like dogwood, with a lilac flower rather like 
a large thistle, but with the leaves turned back, was plentiful, 
and is a valuable product, horses being able to live upon it 
for many weeks without water, though it does not look espe- 
cially succulent. We saw beautiful parrots of all colours fly- 
ing across the road, besides magpies and ' break-of-day ' birds, 
a species of magpie. Our driver was very obliging in pointing 



AN OASIS 



243 



out everything of interest, including the Pongerup and Stirling 
Eanges in the blue distance. 

At the end of the thirty-one miles we came to one of the 
advanced railway villages inhabited by the pioneers of civilisa- 
tion. It was very like the one we visited yesterday ; in fact, I 
suppose they are all similar, experience having taught that a 
certain style of arrangement is the most convenient. 

A couple of miles further brought us in two hours forty 




A Breakdown in the Bush 



minutes from Chorkerup in sight of a tidy little house and 
homestead standing in the midst of a small clearing, sur- 
rounded by haystacks and sheds, and really looking like a bit 
of the old country. 

Eight glad we all were to get out and stretch our weary 
limbs after the shaking and jolting of the last sixteen miles ; 
and still more welcome was a cup of good tea with real cream, 
home-made bread, and fresh butter, offered with the greatest 
hospitality and kindness, in a nice old-fashioned dining-room. 



A DIFFICULT JOURNEY 



Everything was exquisitely clean, and nicely served. The sit- 
ting-room contained several books, and the bedrooms all looked 
comfortable. The outside of the house and the verandah were 
covered with woodbines, fuchsias, and Marechal Niel roses, 
whilst the garden was full of pink and white oxalis and other 
flowers. I ought, in sheer gratitude, to add that the mistress 
of this pretty hostelry absolutely refused all payment, and 
indeed sent out her two nice daughters to gather some roses 
and other flowers for a nosegay for me. 

If it had been difficult to reach this inn from the high road, 
it seemed ever so much more difficult to get away from it by 
quite another route. It was like leaving the palace of the Sleep- 
ing Beauty, so dense was the forest and so impossible to find 
the ancient track, already quite overgrown. A little persever- 
ance, however, brought us once more to the main road, along 
which we bowled and jolted at a merry pace for about ten miles. 
We met four wagons, drawn by four horses each, and laden 
with sandal-wood, guided, or rather left to themselves, by a 
Chinaman. It was with great difficulty that we succeeded in 
passing the first three wagons, and in getting out of our way 
the fourth collided with a tree, which, I thought, must bring it 
to a standstill ; but no : after prodigious exertion on the part 
of the horses, and a great straining of harness and knocking 
about of woodwork, it crashed slowly on, breaking the tree 
which was a tolerably thick one completely in two, and carry- 
ing part of it away. 

At the end of the ten miles we again turned off the main 
road at a point where a solitary pillar-post and parcel-box 
stood by the wayside, and once more plunged into the intri- 
cacies of a by-track. Lucky it was that we had saved the 
daylight, for some of the holes were deep enough to have 
upset any trap, and there was a steep hill, which our driver 
seemed to view with great apprehension, though I do not 
fancy we should think much of it in East Sussex. Soon 




- 



TREE FERNS. AUSTRALIA 



KENDENUP STATION 245 



after this we came to a large homestead and farm, near 
which a number of sheep were folded. On the opposite bank 
stood a substantial-looking wooden house, surrounded by a 
verandah and by a clump of trees, in the middle of what 
might have been an English park, to judge from the grass 
and the fine timber ; and after crossing a small creek we 
reached the hospitable door of Kendenup Station. 

It had turned bitterly cold after leaving Mount Barker, 
and I realised the value of the warning which our Albany friends 
had given as to the treacherous character of the Australian 
climate at this time of year. In fact I felt thoroughly chilled, 
and quite too miserably ill to do justice to any of the many 
kindnesses prepared, except that of a blazing wood fire. 

Tab seemed to have spent a pleasant morning riding 
through the bush after kangaroos, of which plenty had been 
seen, but none killed. The very beauty of the day interfered 
with the sport, for the air was so still and clear that the kan- 
garoos heard and saw the hunters long before they could get 
within shot. After supper the gentlemen went out to hunt 
opossums by moonlight, and shot two, literally ' up a gum- 
tree.' Opossum-hunting does not seem great sport, for the 
poor little animals sit like cats on the branch of a tree, with 
their long tails hanging down, and are easily spied by a dog 
or a native. 

Friday, May i$th. It was a very cold night, the thermo- 
meter falling to freezing-point. Woke at six, to find a bright, 
clear, cold morning, with a sharp wind blowing from the 
south, which is of course the coldest quarter in this part of 
the world. At seven a delicious cup of tea was brought up, 
and at eight we breakfasted, the table being charmingly deco- 
rated with fresh flowers and fruit. Afterwards a stroll round 
the house, gardens, and orchard, and a gossip over the fire, 
occupied the early part of the morning very agreeably. 

The difficulty of housekeeping here must be extreme. It 

G G 



246 STATION MANAGEMENT 



is almost impossible to keep servants in the far-away bush ; 
they all like to be near a town. I would earnestly advise 
everybody thinking of going to any out-of-the-way part of 
our colonies to learn to a certain extent how to do every- 
thing for himself or herself. Cooking, baking, and washing, 
besides making and mending, are duties which a woman may 
very likely have to undertake herself, or to teach an untrained 
servant to perform. I should be inclined to add to the list of 
desirable accomplishments riding, driving, and the art of 
shoeing and saddling a horse in case of emergency ; for the 
distances from place to place are great, and the men are often 
all out on the run or in the bush. 

About half-past nine Mr. Hassall took me for a drive round 
the station and clearing. We saw the remains of the old 
gold-workings, not two hundred yards from the house. Up 
to now they have been unprofitable, but hopes are entertained 
that, with better machinery for crushing the quartz, larger 
results may be obtained. At present the expense of working 
is so great that the gold is not found in paying quantities. 

From the deserted gold-field we drove through some en- 
closed land where corn and ' straw-hay ' had been grown, but 
had been given up because it did not pay. Then through more 
enclosures for cattle and sheep, and finally over some virgin 
land, across what might have been an English park if it had 
not looked so untidy from many of the trees having been 
' rung ' an ugly but economical method of felling timber, by 
cutting a deep furrow round the bark so as to stop the circu- 
lation, and thus cause the tree to die. Then we crossed a 
now dried-up river, and climbed the opposite bank of a creek, 
to a point from which we had a lovely view of the distant 
Stirling Eange. 

I was interested to hear that, with the aid of a foreman 
from Suffolk, the system of rotation of crops had been tried 
here with great success, as far as production went. Never 



THE HOMESTEAD 247 



were such wheat and ' straw-hay ' crops seen in the colony ; but, 
after all, the farm did not pay, for flour from South Australia 
could be purchased cheaper ; and as teams are constantly 
going into Albany with loads of sandal-wood and wool, the 
carriage out costs very little. 

I was told that the land here only carries one sheep to ten 
acres. On these extensive sheep-walks good dogs are much 
wanted ; but they are very rare, for the tendency of the present 
breed is to drive and harry the sheep too much. They have 
one good dog on the run here, who knows every patch of 
poison-plant between Kendenup and the grazing-ground, and 
barks round it, keeping the sheep off it, till the whole flock 
has safely passed. This poison-plant of which there are 
several kinds, some more deadly than others is the bane of 
the colony. They say that sheep born in the colony know 
it, and impart their knowledge to their lambs, but that all 
imported sheep eat it readily and die at once. 

The homestead is a nice, large, comfortable place with 
plenty of room for man and beast, including any stray bache- 
lors and other wayfarers, who claim hospitality almost as a 
right in these isolated localities. Adjoining the homestead is 
a well-stocked store, at which everything can be bought, from 
lollypops to suits of clothing, and from which the shepherds 
obtain most of their supplies. There are also enclosures for 
wild horses, which are numerous, and are occasionally hunted 
and captured. Last night two were brought into the station. 
Of course every accommodation is provided for the care and 
treatment of sheep in the various stages of their existence, 
including the means of washing and shearing them. An or- 
chard and fruit-garden close by yield tons of fruit every year 
for the merest scratching of the soil. To obtain labour is the 
difficulty. The birds, especially parrots, are terrible enemies 
to the fruit-crops. In the early morning one may see a tree 
laden with splendid fruit just ready to be gathered, and in an 



248 FAREWELL TO KENDENUP 

hour later the whole may be on the ground not eaten, but 
simply thrown down, bruised and spoilt, by the birds. Al- 
though the thermometer fell to freezing-point last night, we 
had pomegranates at dessert which had been grown and 
ripened in the open air. Oranges and lemons grow well, and 
vines flourish, wine-making having been already tried with 
fan* success in Western Australia. 

Arrangements had been made for a kangaroo-hunt to- 
morrow. I should dearly like to see one ; but it is impossible 
to remain for it, as not only is Tom expecting us to return, 
but I feel much too weak and ill to think of riding. It was 
therefore settled that Mabelle, Tab, and Mr. Peniberton should 
stay, and Mr. des Graz and I return to Albany. A black boy 
was despatched on horseback to Mount Barker with sundry 
telegrams to make arrangements for staying at Albany over 
next Monday night, when it is proposed to give a ball in our 
honour. Posts are so few and far between in Western Aus- 
tralia, and indeed in many other parts of the continent, that 
telegrams generally take the place of letters. The cost of a 
message is very moderate within the limits of each colony, but 
terribly dear when once those limits are passed. 

At twelve o'clock the waggonette came to the door, and 
I resumed my place in front, well wrapped up, for it was 
raining hard. We left the buggy to bring on the others 
to-morrow, and started on our way, full of regret at having 
to leave so soon, and of gratitude for the kindness and hospi- 
tality we had received. 

Just before leaving, we had an opportunity of seeing a 
native lad throw a boomerang or kylie, as they are called 
here. I could not have believed that a piece of wood could 
have looked and behaved so exactly like a bird, quivering, 
turning, flying, hovering, and swooping, with many changes 
of pace and direction, and finally alighting close to the 
thrower's feet. 



I VELCOME HOSPJ TA LIT Y 



249 



The horses were tired, and our progress was therefore 
somewhat slow as far as Mount Barker, where Mrs. Cooper 
the hostess again received us cordially, quickly lighted a fire, 
and made me comfortable in front of it. Then she produced 
a regular country lunch, ending with a grape tart, plenty of 
thick cream, and splendid apples and pears. I gave her 
some books in remembrance of our little visit ; and she 
finally sent me away rested and refreshed, with a present of 
fresh butter and flowers. 

It was nearly dark by the time 
we left Chorkerup indeed, 
scarcely light enough to dis- 
tinguish the kind landlady's 
white apron as she ran 
out to greet us. Such a 
warm welcome as she 
gave us ! and such a 




Boomerangs, or Kylies 



good meal of poached eggs, cutlets, bacon, and all sorts of 
good things, in spite of our protests that we wanted only a cup 
of tea ! Her children had gathered me a beautiful nosegay of 



250 OBSTINATE STEEDS 

bush flowers, and she put up some bunches of ' everlastings,' 
for which this part of the world is famous, and which are said 
to keep fresh for years. 

I settled down as best I could in the back of the wag- 
gonette before the horses were put in, so as to be quite ready 
for the actual start, which was a work of time and difficulty ; 
for the horses at first absolutely refused to move forward, 
though they kept alternately rearing, kicking, plunging, and 
standing stubbornly still. At the end of half an hour's efforts 
our coachman, who had been exhorted to stick tight in expec- 
tation of a flying start, gave up the attempt, and the horses 
were removed. After some discussion the least tired of the 
past pair and the least wicked of the present were put in, and 
off we went, with a jerk and a jolt, and many injunctions to 
stick to the road. This was easier said than done ; for when 
we came to the camp-fires of the lumberers whom I had seen 
at work yesterday, the glare frightened our horses, and caused 
them to swerve off the road, and dash into the bush by the 
side. This happened more than once ; but even on the road 
itself the jerks and jolts were so bad that we were forced to 
go slowly, so that we only reached Albany at half-past eight 
instead of at six o'clock, and found everybody very anxious 
about us. Tom and Baby waited on the pier until past seven, 
when cold and hunger drove them back to the yacht. 

Saturday, May i^tli. When I awoke this morning the 
fever and ague from which I had been suffering had all disap- 
peared, and, though still very tired, I felt decidedly better for 
the change and the bush life. I am convinced there is nothing 
like a land journey to restore a sea-sick person after a voyage. 
The news which greeted me on arriving last night had not 
been cheering, for several of our men were ill with feverish 
colds. 




CHAPTEE XL 

ALBANY TO ADELAIDE. 

Saturday, May iqtli. It was a cold showery morning 
when we landed, to photograph a party of natives, and see 
them throw boomerangs and spears. They were the most 
miserable-looking objects I ever beheld ; rather like Fuegians. 
The group consisted of two men, dressed partly in tattered 
European clothes, and partly in dirty, greasy kangaroo-skins 
heaped one on the top of another, and two women in equally 
disreputable costumes. One of the latter had a piccaninny 
hung behind her in an opossum-skin, the little hairy head 



252 ABORIGINES 

and bright shining eyes of the child peeping out from its 
shelter in the quaintest manner. Although the poor creatures 
were all so ugh', we did our best to take some photographs of 
them, using a pile of sandal- wood bags as a background. Then 
we drove up to the cricket-ground to see them throw their 
boomerangs or kylies, which they did very cleverly. One 
of the kylies was broken against a tree, but most of the others 
flew with unerring precision. The spears were thrown from a 
flat oval piece of wood, in size and shape something like the 
blade of a paddle, which sent them forward with great accuracy 
and velocity. The natives have formed a small encampment 
not far from here, where they live in the most primitive 
fashion, very dirty, and quite harmless. Their nearest neigh- 
bour tells me that they come daily to her house for water and 
scraps, but that they never attempt to steal anything or cause 
her any annoyance. 

We next visited two curio shops, kept by Webb and 
Gardiner. Webb is rather a clever naturalist, and corresponds 
with Dr. Hooker : he sent a good many botanical specimens 
from this neighbourhood to the Colonial Exhibition last year. 
There were some beautiful feathers of the male and female 
cockatoo, a few stuffed birds, and a good many weapons, some 
of which we bought. At Gardiner's we found more native 
weapons, which he buys in the bush and then sets the natives 
to work to repair. Fortunately for us, he had only recently 
returned from one of his expeditions, and we were therefore 
able to pick up some of the specimens in the condition in which 
he had found them, all rough and broken from the effects of 
recent fights. The spear-heads and teeth are generally made 
of flint or granite, or old bottle-glass, fastened to the shaft 
with kangaroo sinews and the gum of the ' black boy.' The 
tomahawks have double edges fastened on in the same manner. 
The knives are like one-sided spear-heads, with a short handle 
attached. The flat paddle-shaped pieces of wood by means of 



BUSH FLOWERS 2 53 



which they throw their spears are called womaras. There 
were also numerous specimens of kylies, and curious message- 
sticks about ten or twelve inches long, made from the thigh- 
bone of the kangaroo, and sharply pointed at one end. A 
sort of hieroglyph or rude writing is scratched upon them, 
and they are used to convey messages from one place to 
another. We bought some opossum-skins and rugs of various 
sorts, and admired the beautiful live birds, including parrots 
and cockatoos. 

From three to five o'clock I was ' at home ' on board the 
' Sunbeam.' The afternoon had improved, and was bright 
and sunny. I think our guests were pleased with their visit. 

Tab, Mabelle, and Mr. Pemberton returned this afternoon. 
They seemed to have had a most enjoyable though fatiguing 
day, having breakfasted at seven o'clock, and started before 
eight. They saw some twenty or thirty kangaroos, of which 
they only killed three. At half-past one they set out for 
Albany, and drove the forty-two miles, through Mount Barker 
and Chorkerup. Mabelle brought me back some bush 
flowers, very beautiful and interesting \vhen closely examined, 
especially the blue holly, a plant with a holly-like leaf and a 
blue pea-shaped flower. Two or three varieties of blue erica, 
tiny heaths, and epacris were also very pretty. It is curious 
how all, even the smallest of the bush flowers, run to bottle- 
brush just as readily as the great banksias and eucalypti, and 
what strange little bottle-brushy appendages they all have. 

Mabelle also brought some beautiful black cockatoos' 
feathers. Those of the male bird have a band of brilliant 
scarlet right across them, which looks so artificial that when 
a fan made of these feathers was sent lately to New Zealand 
nobody would believe that it had not been cleverly painted. 
The female bird has a light yellow and fawn-coloured tail, 
more delicate in colour though not so brilliant as her mate's 
plumage. We saw a great flight of black cockatoos yesterday. 



254 



LOYAL COCKATOOS 



These seemed to have white in their tails instead of red. 
Cockatoos are very affectionate and loyal to one another a 
fact of which those who kill or capture them take advantage ; 
for if they succeed in wounding a bird they tie it up in a tree, 




An Aboriin 



where, so long as it continues to cry, not one of its companions 
will leave it, but will hover around, allowing themselves to be 
shot rather than desert a comrade. It is a great pity these 
handsome birds devour the grain so terribly that settlers are 



QUARANTINE ISLAND 255 

obliged to wage a war of extermination against them. Very 
different is the behaviour under similar circumstances of the 
kangaroo, in whom I have in consequence lost much of my 
interest. When hard pressed the doe will take her offspring 
out of her pouch and fling it to the dogs to gain time for her 
own escape. The meat of the joeys, as the young ones are 
called, is by far the best, and tastes something like hare, 
though it is rather tough and stringy. The flesh of the older 
animals is more like that of red deer. Both require to be well 
basted, and eaten with red currant jelly, to make them at all 
palatable. 

Sunday, May i$tli. Such a lovely day more like an 
ideal May morning in England than an Australian winter's 
day. We attended service in a picturesque ivy-covered edifice. 

After lunch a great many workpeople and others came on 
board, by invitation, to see the yacht, as it was impossible for 
them to visit it on any other day. The blue waters of the 
Sound looked quite gay with the little flotilla of boats coming 
and going. 

At three o'clock we all went ashore in the steam-launch, 
most of the party intending to climb up the hill to the 
signal- station to look at the view. My own destination was 
Quarantine Island, where I sat on the sands in the delicious 
sunshine, while the dogs ran about and the children gathered 
flowers. It seems a nice, healthy, breezy little place, with a 
well-planned lazaretto, capable of accommodating a small 
number of invalids, and a convenient cottage for the custodian 
and his wife, whom we could see out in their boat fishing. 
While we were on shore, the men in our boat, with the 
assistance of two boathooks, but even then with considerable 
difficulty, captured an octopus about three feet across ; a 
horrid-looking monster, which tried to cling to everything near 
with its round suckers and long feelers. 

Monday, May i6th. Tom took me ashore to enable me 

H H 



256 A DAIRY FARM 



to keep a driving engagement ; but he was suffering from 
a chill, and felt very unwell. Although anxious to try the 
efficacy of his universal panacea exercise he was ulti- 
mately obliged to abandon the experiment and to return on 
board. 

I enjoyed my drive immensely, for it was a bright sunny 
morning, with a soft air blowing. The buggy was comfort- 
able ; the horses went well ; and Mr. Young, who drove me, was 
full of interesting information. After passing the cemeteries, 
we went by a rough road through the bush, where much of 
the vegetation was new and strange. Then we crossed the 
extreme end of a large fresh-water lake, and shortly after- 
wards emerged from the bush on to the shore of a fine \)&y, 
called Middleton Beach, along the edge of which, by the side 
of the curling breakers, we drove over a firm white sand, 
admiring the effect of the dark blue sea, changing to a delicate 
pale green before breaking on the shore. On the way back I 
was shown a small corrugated-iron house, with an outbuilding 
attached, in the middle of a considerable clearing, the owner 
of which proposes to supply the town of Albany with garden 
and dairy produce. I wish him every success, and hope that 
he will include eggs and poultry in his scheme ; for the only 
eggs which we have been able to procure have been six 
in number, and have cost threepence each. These, too, were 
only supplied as a special favour, because I was ' sick.' 

Tom dragged himself on shore again in the afternoon, 
but did not remain long, as we had to receive more visitors, 
who had been prevented from corning yesterday. 

At seven o'clock Mr. and Mrs. Loftie and Mr. Young came 
to dinner, and Tom being too ill to appear, I had to do my 
best to entertain them. After dinner, having seen the invalids 
made as comfortable as possible, we started, well wrapped up 
for it was bitterly cold for the dance at the Court-House, 
which is built on so steep a hill that, although the building 



GOOD-BYE TO ALBANY 



257 



is three storeys high towards the sea, yet by entering at the 
back the level of the top storey is at once reached. The 
dancing had just begun, and it proved a most cheery little 
ball. All present were hearty, kindly, and genial. 

Tuesday, May i?th. A lovely morning, perfectly calm. 
Tom much better, and anxious to be off. Mails and farewell 




The Port Watci 



messages were accordingly sent on shore, and Mr. Loftie 
came off with parting words of kindness and farewell, and 
laden with flowers. Precisely at eleven o'clock, with signals of 
' Good-bye ' and ' Thanks ' hoisted at the main, we steamed 
out of the snug harbour where we have passed such a pleasant 
week and have received so much kindness. The pilot soon 



258 MEDUS& 

quitted us, and we were once more on the broad ocean. The 
wind outside was dead ahead, and the heavy rollers tumbling 
in foreboded a still heavier swell as we got further away from 
the land. In fact, Torn more than once asked me if we had 
not better put back. As it was too rough to steam, a certain 
amount of snug sail was set ; and, close-hauled, we steered as 
near our course as circumstances would permit. 

There are a good many invalids on board among the 
crew and servants, the symptoms in each case being very 
similar. This morning the two maids, two stewards, and 
three of the men had more or less succumbed to ' malarial 
colds ' nothing serious, the doctor says, but very uncomfort- 
able. It is quite certain that many more are now laid up than 
we ever had on the sick-list in the tropics ; but the sudden 
change from heat to cold may of course account for this state 
of things. 

Wednesday, Men/ iSth.- The wind was rather more favour- 
able ; but, although close-hauled, we were nearly two and a 
half points off our course, the head-sea running very high. 
Although the air was warm I remained in my cabin all the 
morning, feeling wretched and uncomfortable. At noon we 
had run 110 miles 100 under steam and 10 under sail 
and were in lat. 35 44' S., long. 119 53' E., Kangaroo 
Island being 820 miles distant. The total distance now ac- 
complished since we left England is 9,236 miles under sail, 
and 7,982 under steam, making a total of 17,218 miles. 

I was called upon deck once during the day to see a whale 
with a fin on its back. Gray, in his book on Western 
Australia, says that this kind of whale lives principally on 
the large phosphorescent niedusje. The evening was cold, as 
usual, and I was glad to go below early. Yenus rose bril- 
liantly, but so red that several on board thought it must be 
the port light of a ship astern ; though how any vessel could 
have suddenly got there they could not make out. Soon after- 



PHOTOGRAPHY AT SEA 259 

wards shouts were heard on first seeing what Tom described 
as lamps of light or fireballs astern. These turned out to be 
the luminous medusae which Gray speaks of, and which were 
much larger and more brilliant than any we had yet seen. 

Thursday, May igtli. Wind fair, but head-swell still con- 
tinuing. I had a very busy morning below, writing journal 
and letters. At noon we had run 1 20 miles under sail, and 
were then in lat. 36 12' S., long. 122 4' E. In the afternoon 
we took some photographs of Tom in his E.N.A.V. uniform, 
the Guard of Honour, ourselves, the Court, &c., on the occa- 
sion of Neptune's visit when we crossed the line. Sundry 
unsuccessful attempts were made to photograph the animals, 
but they seemed to be suffering from a severe attack of the 
fidgets. To see ' Jenny Jenkins,' the monkey, in her new 
blue jumper with ' Sunbeam B.Y.S.,' embroidered by Mabelle, 
and ' Mr. Short,' the black-and-tan terrier, playing together, 
is really very pretty ; they are so quick and agile in their 
movements that it is almost impossible to catch them. ' Mrs. 
Sharp,' the white toy terrier, in her new jersey, a con- 
fection of Muriel's, occasionally joins in the frolic ; though 
her condescension is not much appreciated, for she is rather 
too quick with her teeth. The photograph of the Guard of 
Honour was spoiled by a passing whale, to which Tom 
suddenly drew everybody's attention by pointing to it with 
his drawn sword. The monster left a greasy wake behind 
him, as he swam lazily along, blowing slightly. 

Towards evening the air became very cold, and the wind 
not quite so fair. A splendid sunset threw a lovely glow on 
the sails. Later on the sea continued to go down, and I was 
able to make my first appearance at dinner at sea for many 
a long day past, but only as a spectator even now. 

Friday, May 2OtJt. Another fine clear day ; but the horrid 
easterly swell is as bad as ever, and with such a light wind we 
seem to feel it more. A busy morning with journal and letters. 



260 



EASTWARD OH.' 



At noon we had come 148 miles under sail, and Kangaroo 
Island was now 546 miles distant ; we were in lat. 36 25' S., 
long. 125 13' E. 

Saturday, May 2ist. A pouring wet morning, with every 
appearance of continued rain. Later on the weather cleared, 
though heavy squalls came up at intervals until noon, when it 
turned quite warm, bright, and sunny. 

In the afternoon the wind freshened considerably, and our 
speed improved in proportion. The heavy head-swell having 
gone down, everyone on board felt more comfortable. Ad- 
vantage was taken of the lull to get a few photographs of the 
engineers, cooks, and others. A nautical entertainment had 
been fixed for 6 P.M. ; but unfortunately that hour was 
selected to gybe the ship, so that it was 6.30 before 




Running down. Easting 



AN UNCOMFORTABLE TIME 




Cracking on 

the entertainment commenced. There was but a 
small audience ; which seemed a pity, for the per- 
formance was exceptionally good. 

The wind continued to freshen, and by 1 1 P.M. 
we were tearing through the water before a fair breeze, but 
knocking about a good deal more than was pleasant. 

Sunday, May 22nd. From midnight until 6 A.M. the state 
of things was wretched in the extreme. Sails flapping, the 
cry of the sailors continually heard above the howling of the 
wind, and much water on deck. Then I went to sleep, waking 
again at seven to find it blowing half a gale of wind, which 
rapidly increased to a whole gale. At noon we were in lat. 



262 NEARING LAND 



35 55' S., long. 132 7' E., having run 206 miles under 
sail. 

We had service at 11.15* anc ^ again at four o'clock. In 
the morning there was no congregation ; partly because of the 
rough weather, and partly because we had sailed so w r ell that 
nobody realised how r much faster the time was to-day than it 
had been yesterday, and we were therefore all behindhand. 
In the afternoon I went on deck for a short time, but found 
it so cold that I could not remain ; for, although the wind 
was right aft, the gale blew fierce and strong. Tom had a 
very anxious time of it, literally flying along a strange coast, 
with on one hand the danger of being driven ashore if the 
weather should become at all thick, and on the other the risk 
of getting pooped by the powerful following sea if sail were 
shortened. At 1 1 P.M. we met a large sailing-ship steering to 
the southward; which was felt to be very satisfactory, show- 
ing as it did that we were on the right track. 

Monday, May 23rd. Precisely at 7 A.M. we made the 
lights of Cape Borda or Flinders, on Kangaroo Island, about 
twelve miles ahead, exactly where Tom expected to find it, 
which was a great relief to everybody on board, after our two 
days of discomfort and anxiety. At noon we had run 265 
miles, and should have done much more had we not been 
obliged to shorten sail in the night. 

In the afternoon the yacht passed between Kangaroo and 
Althorpe Islands, the coast of the former being very like 
the white cliffs between Dover and Folkestone. It was ex- 
tremely cold, and after my night of neuralgic pains I did not 
dare to" go out on deck, and had to content myself with 
observing everything through the windows of the deck-house. 
In the evening we made Troubridge and all the other lights 
on the way up to Glenelg, and after some deliberation Tom 
decided to heave-to for the night, instead of sailing on to the 
anchorage of Port Adelaide. 






GLEXELG 263 

Tuesday, May 24th. By 6 A.M. we were on deck, en- 
deavouring to ascertain our precise position, and about seven 
a steam-launch came bustling towards us, whose occupants 
hailed us with cordial welcomes to South Australia. Directly 
they came alongside, our small deck-house was crowded with 
visitors, w r ho presented us in the name of the Holdfast Bay 
Yacht Club with a beautifully illuminated and kindly worded 
address. So anxious had they been to give us a warm and 
early welcome, that they had been on the look-out for us all 
night, while we had been waiting outside so as to arrive by 
daylight. It seems that the signalmen on Cape Borda had 
made out our number yesterday when we were more than 
seven miles off, so clear is the dry air of these regions. Our 
early guests were naturally hungry and cold ; and a large 
party soon sat down to a hastily prepared breakfast. It was 
excellently supplemented, however to us seafarers especially 
by a large basket of splendid fruit which our friends had 
brought off with them. Presently the Mayor of Glenelg and 
his daughter arrived, full, like everybody else, of kindly plans 
for our amusement while here. 

Having come to an anchor off Glenelg, Tom and Tab 
went up to Adelaide to attend the Birthday levee, and I 
landed later with the rest of the party at the long wooden 
pier. 

The first appearance of Glenelg from the sea is very like that 
of Deauville, the town appearing to consist of semi-detached 
houses standing in the midst of gardens and trees, with a pretty 
background of hills. There seemed to be no small houses or 
streets an impression which was confirmed by closer inspec- 
tion. In fact, Glenelg is essentially a fashionable seaside place ; 
and though there are a few excellent shops, most of the sup- 
plies must come from Adelaide, seven miles off, to which a 
steam-tram runs every half-hour, taking twenty minutes for 
the journey. The carriage-road crosses the tramway and the 

i i 



264 



THE QUEEN'S BIRTHDAY 



railway line to Melbourne at intervals. The country is quite 
flat, the road passing between fields now beautifully green. 
We saw the suburb of Goodwood a little way off, and soon 
afterwards the tall spires of the churches and the towers of the 
public buildings of Adelaide appeared. To-day being a general 
holiday in honour of the Queen's birthday, the houses in the 
city were decked with flags and the shops closed, which gave 




' Proclamation Tree, Glenel 



it rather a Sunday-like appearance. The streets are fine and 
wide, especially King William Street. We drove to Govern- 
ment House, a comfortable residence surrounded by a nice 
English-looking garden. 

It was very pleasant to meet our friend the Governor, Sir 
William Eobinson, again. After lunch we drove off to the races 
in two open carriages, with an escort of police, passing through a 



REPORTERS' DIFFICULTIES 265 

pretty part of the city, where charming little villas nestle in the 
midst of detached gardens. The racecourse itself is extremely 
pretty, and commands a fine view. The grand-stand is a fine 
building, with the Governor's box in the centre. The Cup had 
just been run for, but we saw a capital hurdle-race, over a 
course three miles long, with some very stiff flights of rails, 
about which there was no give-and-take. Then came a good 
flat race, three out of five horses coming in neck and neck. 
We drove back to Government House to tea, and then returned 
to Glenelg, where we had left the two little ones. 

On the pier we found awaiting us an unfortunate reporter, 
who had been hunting Tom down all day to try and interview 
him, but had always managed to arrive everywhere just too 
late. We took him off with us and gave him some dinner, 
for which he was very grateful after his hard wearying day. 
Presently Tom and Mabelle arrived, and directly afterwards a 
boat came alongside with another reporter. More unfortunate 
even than the first, he had sat at the semaphore, halfway 
between here and Port Adelaide, all night, and then, not 
knowing where to go, had oscillated between the two places all 
day, telegraphing in various directions for information. 

Wednesday, May 2$th. At half-past ten o'clock we started 
on an excursion into the picturesque mountains which lie 
behind Glenelg, Mr. Stock driving us in his nice little 
American buggy, drawn by a capital pair of horses. The rest 
of the party followed in a waggonette. Our way at first 
lay through the suburbs of Glenelg. The houses which we 
passed had a well-to-do appearance, with scarcely any shops 
or workmen's dwellings to be seen. The road soon began to 
ascend, and before long became steep. As we climbed up- 
wards towards Belair the view became so lovely that it was 
impossible to resist the temptation of adding to our collection 
by pausing to photograph the scene. Our first stopping-place 
was the Blackwood Hotel, where we found a capital luncheon. 



266 PORT ADELAIDE 



The air felt pure and bracing, the sun shone brightly, and 
the scenery had a thoroughly English character, with pretty 
hedgerows, and little streams crossed by modern bridges, all 
of which reminded us pleasantly of the old country. What 
was less familiar was an unprotected railway crossing which 
intersected the road close by, and over which a train passed 
rapidly, and, as it seemed to us, with dangerously insufficient 
warning. 

After driving for some distance along the crest of the hill, 
we dipped once more into the valley by another road quite as 
steep and more tortuous than the last. From this road the 
views were even more charming than those which we had 
previously admired ; for beneath us lay a complete panorama 
of Adelaide and its suburbs, covering part of the rich plain at 
the foot of the opposite blue hills, and skirted by the north 
arm of the Port river. The little horses went well, and, 
although the road was rough and in many places steep, trotted 
merrily on until we reached the pier at Glenelg. Here we 
found a group of sixty or seventy visitors to the ' Sunbeam ' 
waiting to be conveyed on board in the steam-launch, which 
had to perform several journeys to the shore before her task 
was accomplished. 

May 2$th. About noon we got under way and steamed 
up towards Port Adelaide, stopping for a time off the sema- 
phore hi order to visit the Japanese corvette ' Eyujo,' and the 
South Australian gunboat ' Protector.' The coast reminded 
me of that outside Liverpool, near the mouth of the Mersey; 
well-built watering-places, piers, and sandy beaches a very 
paradise for bathers completing the resemblance. Largs 
Bay is a particularly healthy spot, and possesses an hotel 
which is said to be the best in South Australia. At the 
semaphore also a compact little township has been established, 
which boasts a mayor and corporation. 

Further on nothing except sand and bushes could be seen ; 



A KIND RECEPTION 



267 




Protector,' Gunboat 



and a little higher we got into a narrower channel, and passed 
a few boats and small craft, every one of which had some 
sort of flag or bunting flying in our honour. The shouts of 
warm greeting increased as we approached the town, till at 
last it was difficult to turn quickly enough from side to side 
and respond to the waving hands and cheers and shouts of 
cordial welcome to the new country. The pier and wharves 
were densely crowded, and we were scarcely abreast of them 
before the Mayor (Mr. S. Malm) and Corporation came on 
board with an address saying how glad they were to see us 
in their waters. This visit was followed by another from 
Commodore Honey, Mr. Justice Bundey, and other gentlemen 
representing the South Australian Yacht Club. All this was 
very pleasant and gratifying ; though I must confess that such 
unexpected kindness produced that familiar feeling known as a 
lump in my throat. It is always rather touching to hear any 
one else cheered enthusiastically, and when those nearest and 
dearest to one are concerned, it is naturally doubly trying. 
After a hurried inspection of the yacht by our visitors, 



268 A HURRIED START 

and a hasty tea, we were obliged to say ' good-bye ' to our 
newly-made friends, for we had to catch the five-o'clock train, 
and there was no time to spare. In fact, we nearly missed 
it, and I am afraid we must have presented an undignified 
spectacle to the numerous idlers who had turned out to look 
at us I in a waggonette heaped with bags and bundles, and 
the others flying along the street. Passing through the plea- 
sant country, we arrived at the North Terrace station, and 
reached Government House a few minutes later. In the even- 
ing there was a dinner party and a reception, which brought 
what had been a most agreeable, but for me a very tiring, 
day to a close. 




CHAPTEE XII. 

ADELAIDE. 

Friday, May 2?th. We breakfasted punctually at nine 
o'clock, and I drove afterwards "with the Governor to see 
a collection of furs which were to be sold by auction. They 
were chiefly from Tasmania, and comprised a good many ex- 
cellent specimens. From the fur-shop we went to the Exhibi- 
tion buildings, where we were met by Sir Herbert Sandford 
(the British Commissioner), Sir Samuel Davenport, Mr. 
Jessop, and others. The building is light, airy, and well de- 
signed ; and when filled, as it promises to be, with natural 
products, manufactured goods, and works of art, will doubt- 
less be well worth a visit. I wish we could return for the 



2/0 AUSTRALIAN EXPLORATION 

opening, as we have been most kindly pressed to do ; but un- 
fortunately our motto always seems to be ' Forward ! ' and we 
are due in Melbourne on June gth, and at Mount Gambier 
on the 1 6th ; so that if we linger for every inducement I fear 
we shall never get through the programme of our voyage. 

From the Exhibition the Governor took me for a drive all 
round the city, past handsome and substantial public build- 
ings and through wide and clean streets. The system, of 
park-lands, or reserves of open spaces between the blocks of 
buildings, appears to be excellent, both from a picturesque and 
a sanitary point of view. 

We lunched at North Adelaide with Mr. Justice Bundey, 
and saw the beautiful view from his house. On arriving, I was 
given a basket of pink roses grown out of doors, which recalled 
delightful memories of an English June, although in Australia 
the present month really corresponds to our own November. 

Tom had to rush off to meet Mr. Bray, and to attend the 
annual meeting of the South Australian Geographical Society, 
where he made a speech. 1 Among other people present at the 
meeting, he was introduced to the Australian explorer, Mr. 
David Lindsay, who returned about six months ago from a 
journey of thirteen months right across the continent, from 
Adelaide to a point a little to the south-east of Port Darwin. 
The expedition was most difficult and trying much more so 
than it would have been in any ordinary year, on account of 
the drought. The thermometer sometimes stood at 12 5 in 
the shade, and could not register the heat in the sun ! The 
explorers were obliged to travel by day, in order that they 
might see and report upon the country. They were once seven 
daj T s without water, and constantly ran very short of it. The 
journey was made entirely with camels, and the intelligence of 
these animals seems to have been extraordinaiy. One day the 
party were, as usual, very short of water, and Mr. Lindsay's 

1 See Appendix. 



THE CATHEDRAL 271 



favourite camel seemed almost exhausted. Fortunately his 
rider chanced to notice smoke in the distance, which, he knew, 
indicated the presence of blacks, and consequently water. 
Merely turning the camel's head in the right direction, he let 
the reins fall on its neck, and the creature carried him to the 
desired spot, although it took five hours to traverse the 
distance fourteen miles. After a little drink and a short rest 
of four hours he was able to proceed sixteen miles further, to 
a spot where he rested quietly for three or four days, by the 
side of a stream. 

Saturday, May 28th. We had several visitors in the early 
morning, among whom was Brigadier-General Owen, who 
brought plans for the defences of Adelpide for Tom to examine. 
Mr. Millar also called to make arrangements about our pro- 
jected trip to Silverton. 

At half-past eleven we proceeded by train to Port Adelaide, 
where we were received by the Mayor (Mr. Malin) and Cor- 
poration, and taken to see the new municipal buildings. 
Afterwards we had lunch in the town-hall ; and later on some 
of the party took a drive round the town and saw the 
museum, which, though small, is interesting, a large flour- 
mill, and several other buildings. By the 2.50 train we left 
for Adelaide, and had to dress with unheard-of rapidity in 
order to be present at the Governor's reception, which was 
attended by several hundred people. Fortunately it was a 
lovely day, and we were able to take advantage of the mild 
spring-like temperature to stroll about the pretty garden and 
listen to the pleasant strains of the police bands. 

Sunday, May 2gth. This morning we went to the Anglican 
cathedral at half-past ten, and heard a most beautiful choral 
service, including a ' Te Deum ' by Gounod. This being Whit 
Sunday, the interior of the church was prettily decorated. 
Service over, we drove to the residence of the Chief Justice, 
where zoology and botany are combined in a small space, 




for the 
semi - tropi- 
cal garden in 
front of his house 
is lovely, while in the 
spacious grounds at the 
back much care is given 
to rare and curious pets. 
The interior of the house is a 
perfect museum of beautiful specimens 
of Japanese art and curios of all kinds. 



Adelaide 



BROKEN-HILL 273 



Wednesday, Jane ist. A very agreeable luncheon at the 
Mayor of Adelaide's house, and afterwards to the town-hall, 
where we received a formal welcome from the Adelaide Town 
Council. Kind speeches and warm acknowledgments, followed 
by an organ recital. The instrument superb and admirably 
played. By 4.45 train to Cockburn to visit the celebrated 
Broken-Hill Silver Mine at Silverton. 

Thursday, June 2nd. Our special train reached Cockburn 
at eight o'clock this morning. We breakfasted at the running- 
sheds, and were afterwards driven over to Broken-Hill, which 
we reached at two o'clock, and descended the mine both before 
and after luncheon. We went down what is called M'Culloch's 
Shaft, at a point where the mine is 216 feet deep, and were 
greatly interested in seeing the process of extracting the ore. 
The latest weekly returns from this mine show a production 
of 46,000 ounces of silver. 

Friday, June yd. This morning we descended another 
shaft and inspected a different part of the mine, in which the 
ores differ greatly from those we saw yesterday, and consist 
chiefly of kaolin. After reaching the surface we visited the 
assaying offices, and watched the experiments for testing the 
richness of ores. 

The afternoon's drive to Silverton was very pleasant. 
After changing horses, we went on over plains covered with 
salt-bushes. The plucky little horses did their work excel- 
lently, and landed us at Cockburn at 6.30 P.M. Thence, after 
another change of horses, we continued our journey to Thacka- 
ringa, where we rejoined the railway. 

Saturday, June 4tJi. On the return journey from Silverton 
to Adelaide I stopped during the early hours of this morning 
at Terowie to see my cousin Herbert Woodgate, and thoroughly 
enjo3 T ed, in spite of sleepiness and fatigue, the sight at his 
house of so many objects which brought back memories of old 
days. The walls were covered with pictures of Swayslands, 

K K 



274 TEROWIE 



the dear old place in Kent of Herbert's father where I spent 
many happy hours of childhood, and where Mr. Burnand used 
often to come and coach us all in charades and amateur 
theatricals. There were also many pictures of Penshurst 
Place, and of the old village church, whose beautiful chime of 
bells I so well remember, and where I have ' assisted ' at more 
than one pretty wedding. It all brought back many mingled 
memories of joy and sorrow. Nothing could have been kinder 
than our welcome. I was quite sorry when we had to turn 
out again and trundle down to the train and be off once more 
to Adelaide, where we arrived at half-past twelve P.M. 

We were met at the station and carried off to lunch at 
Government House, and afterwards had to dress as quickly as 
possible to go to the meet of the hounds. The day was fine and 
pleasant, and it was very enjoyable driving down in the 
Governor's mail-phaeton, and seeing the other vehicles of all 
sorts and kinds proceeding in the same direction. The drivers 
of these vehicles were so regardless of all considerations of time, 
place, and speed, that I began to think hunting on wheels, or 
even going to a meet on wheels, was far more dangerous than 
riding across country. 

I am not sure that I should enjoy my time in Australia so 
much if I had not a certain belief in kismet ; for travelling 
out here is certainly very full of risk. What with unbroken 
horses, rickety carts, inexperienced drivers, rotten and ill-made 
harness put on the wrong way, bad roads, reckless driving, 
and a general total indifference to the safety of life and limb, 
a journey is always an exciting, and sometimes a risky, ex- 
perience. A little excitement is all very well ; but when it 
becomes absolutely dangerous, a little of it goes a long way. 
I dislike seeing a horse's hoofs quite close to my head, with 
a trace or two trailing in the dust, or to hear the ominous 
crack of splinter-bar or bolt ; yet these are things of daily 
and hourly occurrence in our bush drives. I must say I was 



THE HUNT 



275 



fully confirmed 

in my opinion 

that driving was 

more dangerous 

than riding when 

the hunt commenced. 

A man in scarlet went 

first with a little bag of aniseed, 

and was followed by about 150 

people on foot, and as many more 

either on horseback or in vehicles. The 

drag was so arranged that many of the 

jumps could be seen from a ridge near. 

The clever way in which little horses of all 

sorts and kinds, well bred and underbred, 

with all sorts of weights on their backs, jumped 

high timber fences without touching them, was 

wonderful to behold. Some of the obstacles were 

even worse than timber, for they were made of 

four wires stretched between timber posts with a 

solid rail at top. The last fence of all, after 

twenty minutes' run through a fairly heavy 

country, measured four feet two ; and yet not 

a horse out of the fifty or sixty who jumped it even touched it 

in the least. I noticed that one or two of the riders were 

very careless of the hounds, who had to crouch under the 

fences until the horses had jumped over them. Afterwards 

I drove with the children to ' The Olives,' a pretty house with 

a lovely garden, full of fragrant violets, where a large party 

was assembled to meet us at tea. 

Monday, June 6th. Resumed work upon my Ambulance 
paper at an early hour this morning. Not having a secretary 
to help me, I find the work really hard ; for my arm is often 
so bad that I can hardly use it. I had a very busy morning, 




276 AN AMBULANCE MEETING 

and after breakfast went to the Zoological Gardens, where we 
were met by Sir Thomas Elder and others. I was amused to 
see four little leopard cubs crouched in a row on a plank, look- 
ing in their dark corner like owls. From the Zoological 
Gardens we drove to the Botanical Gardens, and were met 
there by Dr. Schonburg, the director, who showed us all the 
plants, and especially pointed out the different species of 
eucalypti, which I am most anxious to understand, for they 
are a large 'family.' Everything here, whether called banksia 
or anything else, seems to run to bottle-brush just as in 
Western Australia. Antipodean botany is puzzling to the 
new arrival. The museum at the Botanical Gardens is 
excellently arranged, both for the exhibition of specimens and 
for the information of visitors. 

Mrs. Hay sent her carriage for us at one o'clock, and we 
went out to lunch at her pretty country place, where we met 
a large party. We had to hurry back directly afterwards to 
attend the Ambulance Meeting, at which the Governor kindly 
presided. It was held at Government House, and was well 
attended. I found it a great effort to read the paper I had 
prepared. There were few speakers. Everything, however, 
went off well, and I earnestly hope our afternoon's work may 
bear good, useful fruit. There was a dinner-party in the 
evening at Government House, followed by a small reception 
and some nice music. 

Tuesday, June ?th. In spite of my Ambulance meeting 
being over, the force of habit was so strong upon me that I 
awoke before four. At half-past ten I went to a small gallery 
of excellent pictures, over which we were shown by the gentle- 
men in charge. We afterwards went through the School of 
Art and saw the pupils at work. 

At half-past eleven Mr. D. Lindsay, the Australian explorer, 
came with his aboriginal servant, Cubadjee, whom he had 
brought from some place in the interior. This youth, it seems, 



THE POST OFFICE 277 



is considered the short member of his family ; but, although 
only seventeen years old, he is six feet five inches in height, 
while his elder brother, they declare, is seven feet six inches, 
and the rest of the family are equally tall. Cubadjee made fire 
for us with two pieces of wood (a process of which I had often 
heard), by rubbing a piece of wood with holes bored in it 
against another piece, quickly producing sparks, which easily 
ignited a piece of paper, and left a certain amount of black 
powder. 

At 12.30 I went with Mr. Riches to the Treasury to see the 
nuggets which had been collected by the Local Government 
to be shown at the Exhibition. Some of them were fine 
specimens, especially the last great find at Teetulpa a solid 
alluvial lump of gold. There was also a splendid piece of 
gold quartz, brought in only yesterday from Mount Pleasant. 
We next visited the post-office, and were shown all over that 
establishment by Mr. Todd, the Postmaster-General. There 
I saw for the first time the working of a large telephone ex- 
change, where at least half a dozen ladies sat with their mouth 
and ears alternately applied to the instruments, either to speak 
or to listen. The telegraph-room was also interesting. Only 
a few years ago the telegraph service cost per week some seven 
or eight pounds, whereas now the expenditure amounts to 
twice as many thousands. Mr. Todd had himself been with 
the expedition to establish the great European telegraph line 
that runs right through Southern, Central, and Northern 
Australia to Port Darwin. He told us an amusing story of 
the natives' notion of the work they were engaged on : ' What 
big fool white man is, putting up fence ! cat will run under- 
neath.' Mr. Todd is a great electrician, as well as a talented 
meteorologist, and his tables of winds and probable weather, 
to be seen in the central hall of the post-office, must be of 
great value to shipowners. 

On our way to the station we called in at the Lower 



2 7 8 



THE MURRA Y RIVER 




On the Murray River 

House, and heard Mr. Playford make his speech on the no- 
confidence vote. From the Lower we went to the Upper 
House, where another gentleman was advocating, as strongly 
as Mr. Playford has been denouncing, the Government loans. 

Many friends met us at the station, including the Mayor, 
the Speaker, the Chief Justice, and several others. Two 
carriages had been reserved for us in the Melbourne Express. 
The railroad climbs up the same hills among which we have 
taken so many pleasant drives during our stay here. The 
views of Mount Lofty and Mount Barker from the carriage 
window 7 were lovely, and I was quite sorry when darkness 
prevented me from seeing any more of the landscape. 

We arrived at Murray Bridge soon after six, and were met 
by Tab and Mr. Beid, and all walked up to a snug hotel. The 
beds were comfortable, and I managed to keep up a fire of 
mallee roots all night, for it was bitterly cold. 

Wednesday, June 8th. I awoke at two, and as it proved 
impossible to go to sleep again, I wrote and read until day- 



WELLINGTON LODGE 279 

break. At a little before nine we went down to the bank 
to meet Mr. Macfaiiane and his daughters, who had come 
forty miles down the Murray in their pretty little steam- 
launch to take us to their station lodge, eight miles from 
Wellington. They had started before four this morning, Mr. 
Macfaiiane steering all the way. The launch is a Clyde- 
built boat, and is very fast. We passed through pretty 
scenery on our way up the river, and after a time came to 
a station to which many acres have been added by reclaiming 
the swamps which lie on either side of the river. There 
chanced to be two guns on board the launch, and as we 
steamed along, the gentlemen amused themselves by occasional 
shots at the numerous black swans, coots, and ducks. 

We voyaged for some miles between banks fringed with 
willows, the original cuttings of which had been brought by 
an old French settler from Napoleon's grave in St. Helena. 
The trees have grown marvellously ; and I hear that this 
year the avenue, if it may be so called, is to be extended some 
miles further up the stream. 

At about one o'clock we arrived at the landing-pier, where 
we found one of the capacious trading-boats, of which we have 
met many on the river. It is a regular pedlar's store on a 
large scale, where one might buy dresses of the latest fashion, 
cloaks and bonnets, besides all sorts of medicines for man and 
beast, groceries, and stores of every kind. A most useful in- 
stitution it must be to isolated toilers on the banks of the 
Murray. 

On reaching Wellington Lodge we were first shown a 
shearing-house with every convenience for folding the sheep 
in thousands. After the shearing operations are completed 
the sheep are let out into little pens, so that it can be at once 
seen whether a man has done his work well or ill. We saw all 
the processes and modes of packing the wool, of which Mr. 
Macfaiiane is justly proud ; for I believe his system has been 



280 



A BUCKBOARD 



adopted in almost all the wool-producing countries of the 
world. Leaving the wool-sheds, we went to the stables, which 
were full of young horses ; and here we were shown a ' buck- 
board ' a wonderful Australian conveyance. It is as light as 
a feather, and is capable of carrying a great deal of luggage 
or farm produce, besides the driver and one passenger. This 
particular buckboard almost came to grief yesterday with 
Mr. Macfarlane, who had gone out shooting with one of his 
daughters. He had left the carriage to get nearer his game, 
when the horses took fright and ran away, tearing round and 
round a field ; a trace broke, and the light trap nearly touched 
the fence at every turn. The young girl stuck pluckily to her 
post, and at last succeeded in pulling the horses up. 

Through a door in the wall of the stable yard we passed 
into a beautiful garden full of violets, mignonette, scarlet 
geraniums, and late autumn flowers ; besides gooseberries, rasp- 
berries, currants, and other English fruits; while overhead 
stretched a long trellis covered with fine Muscatel vines from 
which some late bunches of grapes were still hanging. 

Wellington Lodge itself proved to be a comfortable dwell- 
ing, with rooms opening into, a garden, bright and gay with 




A Buckboard 






BALLARAT 281 



sunshine and flowers. The view over the plains was full of 
life, and the paddocks were well stocked with cattle and horses. 
After an excellent luncheon of good things produced upon the 
station, we spent a pleasant time looking over a capital col- 
lection of photographs, some of which Mr. Macfarlane very 
kindly gave us. Then we went into the garden, strolled round 
the stables, saw some of the young stock, and were shown 
what a buck-jumper could do. After a few preliminary cur- 
vets and bounds, the gates of the yard were opened and the 
animal was allowed to ' go ' like an arrow from a bow for 
three miles. His first leap was over a very stiff gate more 
than five feet high, which he took like a bird, and was soon 
out of sight. 

Having dined, we returned to the railway, and took up 
our quarters in a boudoir-car attached to the express train, 
timed to arrive at Ballarat at six o'clock to-morrow morning. 

Ballarat: Thursday, Jane gth. After an excellent night 
in a luxurious sleeping-carriage I was called at seven. A 
little before eight the Mayor of Ballarat and others were an- 
nounced, and I had to settle with them the programme for 
the day whilst the others were making their toilettes. At 
8.30 we left the station for Craig's Hotel, where we found 
breakfast prepared in a comfortable room. Tom and the 
doctor had arranged to arrive at half-past ten. They had 
parted from us at Port Adelaide on the 3rd instant, and had 
gone by sea in the ' Sunbeam ' to Melbourne, which they 
reached on the 6th, after a quick but stormy passage. Tom 
remained a couple of days at Melbourne just long enough to 
be present at the opening of the Parliament, and also at the 
annual banquet of the Public Service Association, at both of 
which functions he was glad to be able to assist. On the 
9th he embarked again, took the yacht on to Geelong, and 
came by train to meet us here. We were just in time to 
receive the Mayor at half-past eleven, and then we all went 

L L 



282 



STAR OF THE EAST MIXE 




Ballarat 



together to 
the town - hall, 
where the Corporation, 
the Mayoress, and a number 
of ladies were kindly waiting for us. 
After looking over the building we drove 
first to the Albion Lode Mine ; but as no pre- 
paration had been made for our descent, we 
went on to the Star of the East Mine, where, after putting on 
real miners' clothes, we went down in the cage with Mr. Carroll 
and several other directors who had come to meet us. The 
directors asked me to christen a new lode the ' Lady Brassey,' 
but I suggested that the name should be the ' Sunbeam,' and 
this they eventually adopted. I was afterwards glad to hear 
that the next day they struck gold. There was a good deal of 
walking to be done in the mine, and I was very tired when we 
got to the surface, at about three o'clock, having been under- 
ground more than two hours. But there was still the crush- 
ing and separating machinery to be seen. This proved to be 
much the same as we saw in use in Cornwall last year for 
dealing with the tin ore. 

It was past three before we got back to the hotel, tired 
and hungry. Much a's we were in need of refreshment, we 



DOW LING FOREST 283 



were not allowed to take it in peace, for interviewer after 
interviewer kept coming in. At last, in despair, we ordered 
three hansoms and went for a drive round the town and 
environs, which looked wonderfully beautiful in spite of the 
wintry season and the gloomy day. 

We dined at the table d'hote. Tom and the doctor arrived 
later. Tom's eye was very bad, and had to be bandaged up, 
and altogether he looked very unwell. 

Friday, June loth. Miss Cornwall, the discoverer and 
part owner of the Midas Mine, came early this morning with 
her father and one or two other gentlemen directors of the 
mine to take us to see it. The drive through the town was 
pleasant, and we admired its fine public buildings and beau- 
tiful avenues of trees. It was a long drive to the mine 
through Dowling Forest, a picturesque spot with large trees 
growing amid park-like scenery ; marred, however, by debris 
of abandoned mines, or little red flags and heaps of rubbish, 
which marked the camps of new explorers. Miss Cornwall 
made the way interesting by telling us the history of the 
various mines we passed. One story was about a mine 
known to be very rich, but which had never paid more than 
its working expenses. The reason for this unsatisfactory con- 
dition of affairs could not be discovered for a long time ; but 
at last one man ' peached,' and was followed by the police to a 
public-house, where he met four of his fellow-diggers. Although 
they had all been carefully searched before leaving the mine, a 
more rigorous examination by the police produced fifteen ounces 
of gold on each man, the gold being valued at 4.1. per ounce. 

Arrived at the mine, we donned our mining costumes 
and climbed to the top of a high mound, where the crushing 
apparatus stood. The contents of one of the huge cylinders 
had been kept especially for us to see, and the miners now 
proceeded to run it out, with the result that a good proportion 
of small nuggets was obtained. This was by no means the 



284 



THE MIDAS MINE 



last process. There would be two or three further washings. 
We next went down the mine in a cage, as is usual and 
had to walk through the workings, for there were no trucks 
or trolleys. The operations have been successful, and the 
character of the ground leads to the belief that large nuggets 




Lliners Camp 



may yet be found in the river bed. After going through a great 
many of the levels I felt tired, and sat down, and, to amuse 
myself, proceeded to scratch in the side of the heading in 
order to fill a little pannikin, which Miss Cornwall said each of 
the children and I were to have to wash out in the old-fashioned 
miner's way. Each pannikin was marked and sent to the top 



WASHING GOLD 285 



in charge of one of the 'head gangers.' Many of the miners 
were Cornishmen who had emigrated from the old country, 
and were bringing up their sons to their own calling in this 
wonderful new land. They have a saying here that a Cornish 
miner is the best miner in the world, and the only one better 
is a Cornish man's son. The meaning of this is that you 
cannot begin a calling too early in life, and that an intimate, 
though perhaps unscientific, knowledge of the various strata 
is of the utmost importance in mining operations. 

On returning to the surface the air seemed frightfully cold 
in comparison with the warm atmosphere of the mine ; and I 
shivered and shook, as I sat by a little heap of debris, and 
washed out my pannikin of dirt. But I only obtained about 
half an ounce of small gold nuggets, which, however, the 
experienced say, denote the proximity of a bed of very much 
larger specimens. 1 It seemed delightful to get into the warm 
shelter of the office, put on our wraps again, and enjoy the lunch 
so kindly provided for us. We drank success to the Midas Mine 
and all connected with it, specially to the energetic discoverer, 
principal shareholder, and manageress Miss Cornwall. 

Immediately after lunch Tom and I were obliged to leave, 
as we wished to call on the Bishop. There was only just time 
to do this and catch the train to Geelong, at which place we 
arrived at about half-past six. We were met at the station 

1 In connection with Lady Brassey's visit to the Midas Mine, the following 
extract from the Melbourne Argus of June 14th may be of interest : ' The 
nugget obtained in the Midas Company's mine, on the Dowling Forest Estate, 
Ballarat, on June llth, has been named the " Lady Brassey." It was found 
within two feet of the spot in the drive from which a dish of stuff was washed 
by her Ladyship when she visited the mine the previous day, and it has since 
been shown to her in Melbourne, and by her leave has been named after her. 
Its weight is 167 oz., and it consists almost entirely of pure gold. Together 
with the rest of the gold obtained from the mine last week (117 oz.) the nugget 
will be exhibited in the window of Messrs. Kilpatrick & Co., jewellers, Collins 
Street. The Midas Company was only registered in October 1885, since which 
time the gold won has realised a total of 5,400 oz. The Company began 
operations with 500Z. and has not had to make a single call.' 



286 GEELONG 

by Mr. Bartlett (one of the numerous sons of the Mr. Bartlett 
who was so long with Mr. Brassey in France, Spain, and other 
parts of the world), and soon found ourselves on board the 
yacht again, which looked, as usual, pleasant and homelike 
after our short absence. 

Saturday, June nth. I was up early, and tried to rouse 
the other people up too, so as to be ready to receive the 
Mayor and Corporation, who arrived punctually, accompanied 
by their ladies. The presentation of the address of welcome 
took some time, and then we had to go ashore and drive 
round the town of Geelong to admire its public buildings 
and natural beauties. Tom went first, with the principal 
members of the Corporation, in a break drawn by four horses, 
and I followed with the children in other carriages. We 
drove first to the skating-rink, through nice broad streets 
with good houses on each side. There we were shown an 
excellent collection of New Guinea curiosities belonging to a 
German explorer. From the skating-rink we drove through 
fine streets to the Botanical Gardens, where we were given 
beautiful nosegays, and there met the rest of the party, who 
were being taken round by the curator. The gardens, and 
especially the houses, seem admirably planned. I noticed an 
ingenious arrangement of water-pipes leading to the top of the 
tree-ferns, by which the parasites growing on them are kept 
constantly moist. 

When we had thoroughly explored the gardens we bade 
adieu to the Mayor and our friends on shore, and went off to 
the yacht. We reached Hobson's Bay at dusk, and arrived 
at Government House in the middle of dinner ! 




CHAPTEE XIII. 

VICTORIA. 

Sunday, Jane \2tli. The Government House of the 
colony of Victoria is an enormous building, surrounded by 
an extensive park, situated on the top of a small hill, which 
commands a fine view over Melbourne and its suburbs. 
There is a complete suite of private apartments in the house, 
besides rooms for many guests, and splendid reception, ban- 
queting, and ball rooms. 

Monday, June i^th. My cold is still bad ; and although 
Tom is also far from well, he went to the town-hall this morn- 
ing to receive a deputation from the Victorian Branch of the 
Imperial Federation League. The morning was a busy one 



288 MELBOURNE 



until it became time to go down to the yacht to lunch and to 
receive the officers of the naval forces and Naval Brigade. Miss 
Cornwall and her father came later, bringing the nugget with 
them which had been found on Friday not more than two feet 
from the place where I was scratching. It is to be named 
after me. It is looked upon as the forerunner of other and 
larger ones. Miss Eomilly also arrived, and we all returned 
to Melbourne in the evening. 

Tuesday, June i^tli. After a bad night I had to receive 
many interviewers. Amongst those who called was a gentle- 
man from the Woman's Suffrage Society, who wished to elicit 
some expression of my opinion, as he understood that I was 
strongly in favour of woman's suffrage. He seemed disap- 
pointed when I told him he was mistaken, and that I thought 
women already did govern the world more or less, whereas if we 
had votes we should probably not have nearly as much power 
as we now possess without any undue fuss being made about it. 

Mabelle went down with Miss Komilly to see her off to 
England by the ' Bengal.' Tom took the children for a walk, 
but it was still too wet for me to venture out, except in a close 
carriage. In the afternoon I went with the Governor to 
the fine public library, where we were met by Sir George 
Verdon and some other gentlemen. It is a splendid building, 
and the arrangements are most excellent. A student can get 
any book he requires, on almost every subject, without the 
least trouble. From the library we drove to the picture- 
gallery, which contains a small but excellent collection, partly 
selected and sent out by Sir Frederick Leighton. Then we 
went to the museum, where we found many New Guinea and 
Fijian curiosities. Ugly objects are here arranged so as to 
look pretty, and I gathered many hints for the future arrange- 
ment of my own museum at home. 

Tom and Mabelle had not intended starting for Mount 
Gambier until to-morrow, but they found to-day that it was 



THE MINT 289 



absolutely necessary to leave by the 4. 5 train if they wished to 
arrive in time for the opening of the new railway from Mount 
Gambier to Narracoorte. 

Wednesday, June i$th. I spent a busy morning reading, 
writing, receiving interviewers, and trying on my fancy dress 
for the Jubilee Ball. Lunch was early in consequence of Sir 
Henry and Lady Loch having to lay the foundation-stone of 
the Genevieve Ward of the hospital. I did not go to the cere- 
mony, although I discovered afterward that I had been ex- 
pected. The ladies of the committee sent me a lovely bouquet 
which they had intended to present, ornamented with a little 
stuffed bird bearing a tiny model of the ' Sunbeam ' on its 
back. I had a hard afternoon's work until tea-time, when 
my friend Mrs. Fairfax, the Admiral's wife, arrived with Miss 
Dundas. 

Thursday, June i6lh. Sir Henry Loch, Mrs. Fairfax, and 
Miss Dundas went to the Mint this morning to see the first of 
the new sovereigns struck, but I was not able to accompany 
them. Everyone seems to agree that the likeness of her 
Majesty which is to appear upon the coins is not at all good. 
The weather was showery all day, and bitterly cold in the 
afternoon when we went to assist at the stone-laying of the 
Wesleyan College, where many speeches were made, Sir Henry 




Victoria Defence Fleet 



2QO MOUNT GAM BIER 



Loch's being a really brilliant oration. There was again an 
early dinner to-night, to allow of our all going afterwards to 
the Bijou Theatre to see Madame Majeroni in ' Wanda.' 

Saturday, June iSth. Tom, Tab, and Mabelle returned 
to-day from Mount Ganibier. I must use Tom's description 
of the expedition. 

' We made another excursion from Melbourne on June I4th, 
to attend the opening of the railway connecting the district of 
Mount Gambier, in South Australia, with the direct line from 
Adelaide to Melbourne. We travelled to Wolseley by the 
ordinary train, the journey occupying from 4 P.M. on June 14 
until an early hour on the following morning. There we 
waited several hours for the special train from Adelaide ; and 
Mount Gambier was not reached until a late hour in the 
evening. 

' Mount Gambier is a pleasing town of 5,000 inhabitants, 
in the centre of a district of rich volcanic soil, thrown up over 
a sandstone formation by the eruptions of a former period, 
when the surrounding mountains were active volcanoes. The 
two principal craters are now filled with lakes of great depth, 
appropriately named, from their beautiful colouring, the Blue 
Lake and the Green Lake. Looking outwards from the craters, 
a vast and fertile plain expands on all sides, bounded by the 
ocean on the south, and by distant chains of hills on the north. 
Here and there the plain is studded with other cones, as dis- 
tinctly denned as those of Mount Gambier, but on a smaller 
scale. 

' I will not enter in detail upon all the incidents of the 
opening of the railway. We were greeted by the school 
children with a stirring rendering of the National Anthem. 
We travelled a short distance on the line, and were banqueted 
in the evening. I replied for the visitors, and preached 
federation. In the interval between the opening of the rail- 
way and the banquet we went out to see a run with the 



MOUNT GAM BIER 291 

Mount Gambier drags. The timber fencing would be thought 
desperate riding in an ordinary English hunting-field. The 
doubles in and out of a road are decidedly formidable. 

* We visited the Wesleyan Chapel at Mount Gambier. The 
minister described the excellent organisation which enables 
him to give effective spiritual supervision over a wide district. 
In the afternoon travelled by special train to Narracoorte. 
Had some interesting conversation on the land question. 
From the railway traffic point of view monopolies in land 
were severely criticised. Where tracts of 100,000 or 200,000 
acres are in the hands of a single proprietor, the district 
does not progress as in cases where the land is subdivided 
into smaller holdings. The large proprietor concentrates his 
energies on sheep. The owner of a small tract finds it pays 
to give a larger proportion of his land to arable cultivation. 
Subdivision of land encourages population. Monopoly in land 
has the contrary effect. If the increase of numbers, under 
good conditions as to standard of living, be one of the aims 
of government, it follows that concentration of ownership and 
occupation is contrary to public policy. The objection dis- 
appears where satisfactory arrangements are made for letting 
the land on liberal terms. In this case the large proprietor 
is a provider of capital, for which he receives interest, in 
the form of rent, readily accepting a lower rate than a 
labourer, with slender security to offer, would be compelled 
to pay if he were the borrower of money instead of the hirer 
of land.' 

The party from Mount Gambier, though rather tired, were 
able to come on board the yacht with us about one o'clock. 
We had quite a large and pleasant lunch on board, and an 
' At home ' in the afternoon, when upwards of two hundred 
people came to tea. 

The yacht was berthed alongside the graving-dock pier 
at Williamstown, which made it easy of access. In spite of 

M M 



THE REVIEW 




the agonising pain which Tom was suffering from 
an inflamed eye, he insisted on going to the Sea- 
men's Meeting, and actually managed to make a 

good speech, 
though he 
scarcely knew 
what he was 
saying at the 
time. The 
party at din- 
ner this even- 
ing included 
several mem- 
bers of the 
Government, 
among whom was 
Mr. Deakin, who has 
just returned from attend- 
ing the Colonial Conference in 
London. 

Monday, June 2oth. The day of the 
grand volunteer review (the beginning of 
the festivities in Jubilee week) dawned 
bitterly cold, as indeed one must expect in 
midwinter. I got leave from the Doctor, 
with great difficulty, for Tom to go to it in 
a closed carriage; for he was still suffering 
much from his eyes. Lady Loch drove 
with me to the ground in an open carriage, 
and of course we had an excellent place 
close to the saluting-flag, and were able to 
admire the march past of the troops. They 
seemed an excellent and well-drilled body 
of men. The Lancers and the Royal 




THE LEVEE 293 



Naval Brigade especially attracted attention. All the party 
went to the military tournament in the evening except Tom 
and I, who stayed at home with Lady Loch. The wind was 
very high and keen to-day, and seemed to increase in violence 
towards evening. 

Tuesday, June 2ist. During the night it blew half a gale, 
and the wind incessantly shook all the little lamps which are 
to be used at the Jubilee illuminations to outline the frames 
of the windows, producing discordant and sleep-dispelling 
noises. 

At half-past ten the day's celebration began with the 
Governor's levee, which was tremendously crowded by all sorts 
and conditions of men. There were two black chiefs from 
Fernshaw. Lady Loch first presented her address to the 
Governor from the ladies of Victoria, and then hundreds of 
other loyal addresses followed from all parts of the colony. 
There was considerable confusion, and the scene, as we looked 
down from the gallery at the end of the ball-room, was very 
animated and amusing. Directly after the levee came a 
grand lunch given by the Mayor. I went for a long drive, 
first to St. Kilda, and then on to the Convent of the Good 
Shepherd, which enabled me to form a very fair idea of 
the suburbs of Melbourne. I was particularly struck with 
the enormous width of the roads. Such space appears to us 
unnecessary, but I am told it is needed for the occasional 
passage of mobs of cattle. We met one large mob of, I should 
think, more than five hundred head, driven by half a dozen 
men with long stock whips. The stock-men appeared to 
travel comfortably, for some buggies followed laden with their 
simple camp equipment. 

Wednesday, June 22nd. At twelve to-day the children and 
I paid a visit to the law courts, where we were met by Mr. 
Justice Kernford, who, being engaged in court himself, de- 
puted Mr. Sheriff Bead to show us round. The courts seem 



294 THE JUBILEE BALL 

well arranged, and the rooms are much more handsomely 
furnished than similar places in England. The library at- 
tached to the courts was filled with books of reference. There 
are smaller rooms for consultations with clients. There were 
also one or two large reception-rooms, in which hung some 
portraits of former Governors and Judges. 

We had an early dinner, and then all dressed for the ball ; 
assembling first in the large private hall a little before nine, 
where we formed ourselves into a procession. The costumes 
were so rich and correct in their details that the sight must 
have been very pretty as we passed through the crowds of 
spectators (who had been arriving for hours, and had filled 
the public reception-rooms), and took up our positions on the 
dais. 

For the first few minutes the crowding was tremendous, as 
everybody wished to shake hands with the Governor and Lady 
Loch. In course of time, however, the throng began to clear 
away, and for the rest of the evening it was possible not only 
to walk about but to dance in perfect comfort. It was a 
magnificent spectacle, and the arrangements seemed admir- 
ably conceived and carried out, the Fountain Court, covered 
in by a temporary structure, being perhaps the prettiest of 
all. At one o'clock the doors of the supper-room were thrown 
open. Not long after supper Sir Henry and Lady Loch and 
I retired ; but I believe that many of the people did not get 
away until five o'clock. The illuminations were beautiful, 
especially among the shipping, both at Williamstown and 
Port Melbourne, and the little ' Sunbeam ' made herself as 
gay as she could with red and blue lights. 

Thursday, June 2$rd. The event of to-day was the chris- 
tening of the central hall of the Parliament Houses, to be 
henceforward known as the ' Queen's Hall.' An immense 
number of people had assembled. The dai's, to which the 
Governor, Lady Loch, and we ourselves were led, had been 



DEMONSTRATION OF SCHOOL-CHILDREN 295 

placed at the foot of Mr. Marshall Wood's fine statue of her 
Majesty, and everything was arranged to ensure a splendid 
coup d'ceil ; but all the details of the ceremony have been so 
fully described in the newspapers that I need not repeat them 
here. It was worth coming all the thousands of miles we 
have traversed by sea and land to have the opportunity of 
witnessing such loyal enthusiasm. 

Directly after we left the hall I hurried on board the 
' Sunbeam ' to receive a couple of hundred guests, and had 
only just time to get back to Government House to dine and 
dress for the State Concert at the Exhibition building, which 
was densely crowded. The combined musical societies, under 
the skilful leadership of Mr. Herz, opened the proceedings by 
singing the ' Old Hundredth,' in which the audience joined 
with great heartiness. This was followed by a grand Jubilee 
Ode, composed by Dr. Mackenzie, and by several excellently 
rendered solos, among the performers being Mr. Beaumont, 
the tenor, whose ' Death of Nelson ' brought the house 
down, and Miss Amy Sherwin, ' the Australian nightingale,' 
whose rendering of ' The Harp that once,' ' Within a Mile 
of Edinboro' Town,' and ' Home, Sweet Home ' was simply 
perfect. 

Friday, June 2^th. To-day a demonstration of school- 
children, said to be the largest gathering of the kind ever held 
in the colony, took place in the Exhibition building. Twenty 
thousand children must have been there ; and as they each 
W 7 ore a rosette and carried a little flag, the scene looked gay 
as a summer garden. Of course there were the usual loyal 
anthems ; and besides the cheers in the programme the 
children did a good deal of happy shouting on their own 
account. The Bishop of Melbourne gave them an excellent 
address, and all the arrangements were admirably and carefully 
carried out. 

Saturday, June 2$tli. Awoke early after a fairly good 



296 



CAULFIELD RACES 



night, and set to work at once on my correspondence, which 
accumulates terribly in spite of my efforts to answer every 
letter as it arrives. I made many futile attempts to write up 
my journal, but was interrupted by numerous interviewers, 
especially by secretaries of charitable societies, anxious to 
get some share of the proceeds derived from showing the 
' Sunbeam.' 

Preciselv at twelve o'clock we started for the races at 




s^-^asvr ' " '' '"' ' -' "' ^ ' : - "*- -'<-- 

Selectors 



Caulriekl. The road lay for several miles through prosperous- 
looking suburbs consisting of villas and a multitude of small 
wooden houses with corrugated iron verandahs and roofs. 
However convenient this material may be for such purposes, 
it does not add to the beauty of the landscape. Bungalows 
in India, and indeed all over the East, look picturesque and 
pretty, with their deep wooden verandahs, which must surely 



DANGEROUS WORK 297 



be much cooler than these corrugated iron houses, said to be 
hot in summer and cold in winter. 

We arrived at the racecourse at about a quarter to one. 
The heavy rain of last night had swamped the place, and 
though luckily the course was not flooded, it was very heavy 
going, and a great deal of the ground close to the course 
seemed quite under water. I heard a story of a lady having 
to swim her horse over a field during this morning's run ! It 
was bitterly cold, and we all felt glad of the excitement caused 
by the appearance of the jockeys, mounted on nice-looking 
horses. I fixed my mind on horse number twelve on the card, 
and thought he looked extremely well as he cantered past the 
stand. The poor animal kept up bravely till near the end, 
when he caught his foot in a hurdle, while going at a fearful 
pace, and fell, breaking his off-leg so badly that he had to be 
shot on the spot. His jockey escaped with only a severe 
shaking. I had 110 idea until I came here what steeple- 
chase riding was like in Australia. To-day, just before the 
first race came off, an ambulance-carriage was driven into 
the centre of the ground and took up a central position 
so as to be able to quickly reach any part of the course. I 
was assured that it was not at all unusual for two or three 
jockeys to be injured in one race. Another significant and 
permanent adjunct of the Caulfield racecourse is the neat 
little hospital, provided with every possible medical and 
surgical appliance for remedying injuries to the human frame. 
There are eight beds in the hospital, and I was told that they 
had at times been all filled with serious cases. Such a state 
of things degrades the good old national sport of steeple- 
chasing to the level of Spanish bullfights, where the toreadors 
hear Mass before going into the ring. It is not wonderful 
that these dreadful accidents happen, for some of the fences 
are truly fearful, consisting of a big tree cut into four or five 
pieces, nailed firmly one on top of the other to a height of four 



298 WILLIAMSTOWN 



feet six inches. This arrangement precludes all possibility of 
the fence yielding if the horse touches it. The argument in 
favour of this fence is that it represents the real fence of the 
country, and that horses are accustomed to jump it. The 
accidents, which are nearly as frequent and as bad in the flat 
races, occur generally from the tremendous number of starters. 
To-day there were thirty-two in one race and forty-seven in 
another, and some of the worst casualties were caused by one 
horse falling and others tumbling over him. 

At half-past two we left, for the Governor had to open the 
bazaar in aid of the Convalescent Home in the place of Lady 
Loch, who was unable to leave her room. We drove to the 
Exhibition building, which did not look half so pretty as 
yesterday when it was filled by the children. However, every- 
thing went off well according to the programme, and after one 
or two short speeches, and a few pieces on the organ, we made 
the tour of the bazaar, and tried to find amid the quantities of 
pretty things something to buy, which is always a difficult 
matter. From the Exhibition building Mr. des Graz and I 
proceeded to the yacht at Williamstown, whither she had 
been obliged to return on account of the rough weather off 
Sandridge. My telegram had not been received, and I had 
to wait at the station, until a civil greengrocer volunteered to 
drive me down to the pier alongside of which the yacht was 
berthed. After the spacious rooms of Government House the 
' Sunbeam ' cabins looked very small, but they are snug and 
bright. When one is so many thousands of miles away from 
England the various little treasures scattered about them 
remind me of home and its happy associations, and I feel not 
utterly cut off from the scenes I love so well. 

"VVe were packed up ready to go to Sir W. Clarke's charm- 
ing place at Sudbury, when we received a telegram saying 
that in consequence of a death in his household he could not 
receive us ; so all our plans have to be changed. Tom joined 



TO ST. HUBERT'S 299 



me on board the yacht shortly before midnight, after a pleasant 
evening at the banquet given by the Melbourne branch of the 
Imperial Federation League. 1 

Tuesday, June 28th. I was awakened early by the patter- 
ing of rain on the deck, and on looking through the portholes 
I could not see three yards ahead for the curtain of wet mist 
which seemed to hang before them. Tom was anxious that 
we should give up our projected journey, for he was much 
afraid of the risk I should run from the cold and damp. But, 
just as I always in England go to a meet on a fine day because 
it is fine, and on a wet day because I hope it will clear up, I 
determined to start now. I was already dressed by ten 
o'clock, when the Governor, and a few others whom Tom had 
invited to accompany him as far as the Heads, arrived. The 
fog was still so dense that the deputy harbour-master would 
not allow the yacht to be unmoored ; and after waiting some 
time, the Governor returned to Melbourne, whither I also 
went by the 10.45 train. Tom who had settled to take the 
yacht round to Sydney had to postpone his departure, as it 
was impossible to move out ; and we afterwards learned that 
many accidents happened during the fog. From Spencer 
Street Station we drove across to Princes Bridge Station, and 
thence proceeded at a snail's pace still on account of the fog 
out of the city, till we got to Mitcham, when it began to clear. 
A few minutes afterwards the sun came out brilliantly like 
an English summer's day, and when we reached Lilydale it 
really felt quite hot. 

Messrs. Cobb & Co. had sent a Tom Thumb sort of coach 
and a buggy, into which our numerous party could by no 
means squeeze. However, we packed both vehicles as full as 
possible, and sent for another conveyance, familiarly known 
as a ' Tip-up,' its narrow wheels making it liable to upset 
except on good roads. 

1 See Appendix. 

N N 



300 BLACK SPUR 



About three o'clock we reached St. Hubert's, a pretty 
house, the owner of which is now in England with his family. 
One of his sons remains to manage the estate. We were 
soon comfortably established in pleasant rooms looking on to 
a sunny verandah. The view from our windows was perfectly 
enchanting, stretching away over the distant mountains, now 
covered with snow. A tremendous sw r amp lies between the 
house and the foot of the range, which accounts for the heavy 
mist that rises at sunset. My room w r as delicious with a 
blazing fire, and after lunch we went round the cellars with 
our kind host, and saw all the interesting and various pro- 
cesses of wine-making. Mr. de Castella has introduced the 
best methods of preparation, as practised in Europe, and has 
succeeded in producing wines of a quality equal to the finest 
supplied from the French and German vineyards. By the 
time we had finished our tour of inspection it was cold and 
dark, and after dinner we all went early to bed. 

Wednesday, June 2gtli. We w T ere called at half-past six, 
and soon after nine made a start, in two coaches, on a cold and 
wintry morning, for Black Spur. Our way first lay through 
the vineyards, which were not in their best looks, having 
only just been scarified, as the process is called. It means 
cutting off the branches and reducing the vines to small and 
ugly bushes, destitute of leaves at this season. On our way 
we passed a large ' selection ' belonging to Mr. McNabb, who 
is a great judge of prize cattle and stock of all kind, and who, 
like many other Scotchmen in the colony, seems to have pros- 
pered in everything he puts his hand to. Further on we 
came to Koordal, a ' reserve ' for the aboriginals. It has a 
nice house, and the land is good. The aboriginals are rapidly 
dying out as a pure race, and most of the younger ones are 
half-breeds. Even in this inclement weather it was sad to notice 
how little protection these wretched beings had against its 
severity. We passed a miserable shanty by the side of the 



FERNS HA W 301 



road, scarcely to be called a hut, consisting merely of a few 
slabs of bark propped against a pole. In this roadside hovel two 
natives and their women and piccaninnies were encamped, pre- 
ferring this frail shelter to the comfortable quarters provided 
for them at Koordal. The condition of the men of the party 
contrasted very unfavourably with their appearance when they 
presented themselves under the charge of Captain Traill, the 
Governor's A.D.C., at his Excellency's Jubilee levee last week. 
To-day they looked like the veriest tramps, and were most 
grateful for a bit of butterscotch for the baby and the shilling 
apiece which we gave them after an attempt at conversation. 

From Healesville we rattled merrily over an excellent 
road, the scenery improving every mile, till we reached the 
picturesque little village of Eernshaw, a tiny township on the 
river Watt. Important as an absolutely pure water supply is 
to a city like Melbourne, where the present provision is any- 
thing but satisfactory, we could not help regretting that 
this hamlet and several others must be cleared away in the 
course of the next two years, in order to provide space for 
the gathering-ground of the city's drinking water. The 
increased facilities for travel afforded by the railwa} 7 , now 
nearly completed to Healesville, will, however, enable people 
to make new settlements on the other line of hills further 
from Black Spur. The memory of Fernshaw will always 
linger pleasantly, and I rejoice that I have seen it before it 
is swept off the face of the earth by the requirements of the 
big city near it. 

From Fernshaw up the Black Spur must be a perfectly 
ideal drive on a hot summer's day, and even in midwinter it 
w T as enchanting. The road is cut through a forest of high 
eucalyptus-trees, varying from 100 to 450 feet in height, and 
from twenty to fifty, and even seventy, feet in girth. At in- 
tervals roaring torrents rush down gullies overgrown with 
tree-ferns, and full of dicksonia-antarcticas and alsophilas. 



302 



FERNS HA W 



To-day they looked very curious ; for, instead of growing as 
usual, with their fronds erect or nearly level, all were bent 
down by the weight of the late heavy fall of snow, so that they 

resembled graceful um- 
brellas and parasols. 
So fairy-like was the 
sylvan scene that I half 
expected to see the 
curved branches open 
softly and disclose 




naiads or wood-nymphs. 
I had always been told 
that these fern-gullies 
were charming, but I 
never thought anything 
could be half so lovely 

as this romantic ravine. If only the sunlight could have 
glanced through the trees and thrown some shimmering sun- 
beams on the bright green leaves, it would have been even 



RAIL-SPLITTERS 303 



more delightful. After climbing up the hill by a steep but 
good road we arrived at Myrtle Gully, called after the trees 
which grow there. They are quite different from, our idea of 
myrtles, though their dark and glossy leaves contrast finely 
with the lighter green of the young tree-ferns and the blue- 
green of the eucalypti. My botanical ideas are getting quite 
confused and upset in Australia, and I must study the new 
forms with the assistance of some kind director of gardens. 
It is necessary to understand the classification of these plants, 
for the common names are entirely deceptive and utterly 
opposed to one's preconceived ideas of the species to which 
they belong. 

We climbed up to the summit of the hill, and on our way 
saw some rail-splitters at work. These men are peculiar to 
Australia, and I cannot but think they do harm to the country. 
On payment of a fee of 1 1. a year they are allowed to go into 
the forests and kill the finest trees by ' ringing ' them. Often 
the trees thus dealt with are left to die as they stand and dis- 
figure the forest. In this way an enormous quantity of valu- 
able timber seems to be uselessly destroyed. The rail-splitters 
remind me of squirrels, who nibble off nuts before they are 
ripe, and then take a dozen away to their winter's nests ; or 
of a vixen, who will bite the heads off twenty chickens and 
only carry one back to her cubs. 

On our return to the comfortable inn at Fernshaw we 
found cheerful fires ready to welcome us. This inn is very 
prettily situated. At the back runs the river Watt, brawling 
over its stones like the veriest Scotch salmon-trout stream. 
It is full of excellent imported trout, which flourish well in 
these antipodean waters and attain a weight of six or seven 
pounds. Across the river is thrown a primitive bridge, con- 
sisting of the trunk of a big tree cut in halves. Very slippery 
and slimy it looked, and I did not feel inclined to attempt 
the perilous passage. Near the inn were some extremely nice 



THE BRIDGE 



gardens with the trunks of old tree-ferns filled with flowers, 
producing a pretty effect as rustic flower-pots. 

Precisely at half-past two we started on our homeward 
journey, and with the exception of a few 1 minutes' stay at 
Healesville to water the horses, and at the hlacks' camp to 
have a little more chat with them, we did not stop anywhere 




on the way. Since morning the hlacks had turned their huts 
right round, for the wind had shifted and they wanted shelter 
from its severity. 

At 5.15 we reached St. Hubert's, just saving the daylight 
over the last seven miles of bad road. We all felt better for 
our pleasant expedition, though the violent joltings of the 
road and the bumpings of the coach were decidedly fatiguing. 



BOTANICAL GARDENS 305 

Thursday, June ^oth. We were called at half-past six, 
and hastily got up to pack off the luggage before setting off 
at eight, on a fine though misty morning. We had a de- 
lightful drive to the station at Lilydale, after bidding a regret- 
ful adieu to picturesque St. Hubert's. 

Once in the suburbs of Melbourne, it was necessary to 
crawl along at a snail's pace on account of the numerous 
express trains running into the city at this early hour. We 
did not reach the terminus until nearly eleven o'clock, and 
were glad to drive quickly to Menzie's Hotel for breakfast. 
A large mail arrived for us from Wellington, as well as 
heaps of letters and telegrams. At half-past twelve Mabelle 
and I went to the Botanical Gardens, where Mr. Guilfoyle, 
the superintendent, met us, and was good enough to allow 
me to drive all round the gardens. He kindly explained 
the arrangement of the plants, clearing away many botanical 
difficulties which have puzzled me ever since I landed in 
Western Australia. I do not think I ever saw so well-arranged 
and beautiful a garden as this, and never have I had so intel- 
ligent and kind a cicerone as Mr. Guilfoyle. There is a beau- 
tiful lake in the gardens, well stocked with different species of 
wild-fowl. We drove all over the exquisitely kept lawn, yet 
the carriage-wheels appeared to make no impression. The 
grass grows from a mixture of buffalo and other kinds of 
grass-seeds a combination which produces a velvet-like sward 
about three inches in depth, and apparently incapable of 
injury. At one part of the gardens where the carriage could 
not possibly penetrate, Mr. Guilfoyle had thoughtfully pro- 
vided a chair and two men to carry me through the fern- 
gully. This rivals what we saw at Fernshaw yesterday, and I 
was able to observe what I could not well see there the 
undergrowth of smaller ferns and the parasitic ferns grow- 
ing on the trunks of others. I was quite sorry to leave. 
Mr. Guilfoyle sent us away laden with interesting botanical 



306 THE BOOK ARCADE 

specimens, and gave Mabelle and me each a sweet-smelling 
bouquet of daphnes and white camellias. 

We lunched at Government House. After bidding good- 
bye to H.E. and Lady Loch, from whom we have received so 
much kindness, we went to Menzie's Hotel, calling on our way 
at Cole's Book Arcade, which is one of the sights of Melbourne. 
A most curious place it is ; consisting of a large arcade three 
stories high, about the length of the Burlington Arcade in 
London, though perhaps rather wider. The whole place from 
top to bottom is one mass of books, arranged in different 
styles, some according to price and some according to subject. 
It was crowded with intending purchasers, as well as with 
readers who apparently had not the slightest intention of 
purchasing, and who had only gone there to while away a 
leisure hour, and to listen to the band, which discoursed sweet 
music to them whilst they read. 

After strolling through this wonderful arcade, we collected 
the luggage from the hotel and sent it off to the station, fol- 
lowing ourselves hi time to catch the 4.55 train to Seymour. 

Friday, July ist. We left by the 9.30 train for Shep- 
parton, in pouring rain, passing through a flat rich grazing 
country, which seemed well stocked with sheep. The grass 
looked luxuriant, and must be excellent for dairy produce. 
The fences were different from any we had seen before, made 
of felled trees laid lengthwise all round the paddocks. As 
may easily be imagined, they form a formidable obstacle for 
young horses, many of which were running in the paddocks. 
All this was interesting, but the beauties of the distant land- 
scape were quite blotted out by the rain and mist. However, 
when we crossed the Goulbourn, the sun began to try and 
peep through the clouds, which had hitherto hidden every- 
thing from our view. Shepparton is a rapidly growing town- 
ship, with 2,000 inhabitants. A few years ago there was not 
a single house in the place. 



LIVEL Y PONIES 



307 



The township of Shepparton, like all Australian settlements, 
is arranged in square blocks, the houses consisting chiefly 
of four- or six-roomed cottages of one story, built of wood or 
corrugated iron. At present the whole place appears to be 
under water, but its inhabitants say that in summer it is 
beautiful, and the pasturage certainly looks excellent. In the 
course of our drives we went to Mr. and Mrs. Robinson's 
house. There I met some ladies and gentlemen interested in 
ambulance work, to whom I said a few words and gave some 
papers. I hope they will communicate with the head-centre 
at Melbourne, and obtain permission to establish a branch- 
centre here. Everybody seems to agree that it would be most 
useful, as the doctors are few and far between, and there are 
only five medical men to an area of i ,000 square miles ! We 
left by the 4.30 train for Seymour, Mr. Bose driving me to 
the station in his carriage with his pretty pair of ponies. 
They are said to be perfectly quiet, and I suppose they are, 
according to Australian ideas ; but they did not come up to 
my notion of docility. Besides sundry kicks and buck-jumps, 
they had both legs over the splinter-bar once, one leg over the 





Sydney Harbour 



O O 



3 o8 S YDNE Y 

pole twice, and another leg over the traces, which fortunately 
canie unfastened, or in the regular kicking match which 
ensued some mischief would have been done. I expected 
every minute that the little carriage would have been broken 
to pieces, and that we should have been landed at the bottom 
of the quagmire over which the road appeared to run. 

Seymour was reached at 6.30, just in time to change into 
the express, and at Albury we were again transferred, at 
10.30 P.M., into Lord Carrington's carriage, sent up from 
Sydney for us. 







CHAPTEK XIV. 

NEW SOUTH WALES. 

Saturday, July 2nd. When I awoke in the morning I saw 
a landscape of a very different character from the scenery 
of Victoria, showing that we were getting into a warmer 
climate. 

Our train was late, and all were glad when Sydney was at 
last reached and we found ourselves driving swiftly to Govern- 
ment House. The way lay through crowded streets resem- 
bling the Hammersmith Eoad beyond Kensington. There 
were some pretty views of the harbour down the narrow streets 






out of doors, and 1 e J^^ur-immensely. 
which there is a love >v ^ eteA to be fcap- 

heard so much c rt to* ^.^ ^ my preconceived 

pointed, but it moie 1 m J ^ crowded with small 

ideas of its attract, is. i ^ in th e non-arrival of 

boats, and the Volunteeis, W^.^ in Mac(1 arrie Fort, 
the 'Sunbeam,' were ta ing ^^ ^ ^^ ^ Tarpeian Eock 
So deep is the water b ^ a .^ Line> the P . & 0., and other 
that the big ships ^ Ue gjonggjde. we 

iant traversers of u1 ' ^ fl t<> ^ to bed ear ly after 

^t a ^Jj^b^iights. Beteeretn-inghowever 
our recent short . ste am-launch to meet Torn 11 

arrangements were mad, .01 ^ ^^ ^ Headg; ^ to teU 

the ' Sunbeam' on Volunteers wished to go 

him to stop at Watson s ; Ba; > :i ^ ^ ys are 

out to meet him. Satrn d a ^ fo ^ for Monday 
their only possible ^ to hundreds of people, 

it would be a serious W ^ ^ ^^.^^ Qn the i 00 k- 



Wa soon at the window en^ ^ ^ ^ 

The morning was misty, b, t ^^^ ^ Lady 

we re most beautiful. "* Esc eUency's staff, Colonel 

Carrington, with then- child e ; ^^ ^ steam . 

St. Quintin, myself and ot . atson's Bay 



the various little creeks and inlets were studded by fine houses 
with pretty gardens stretching down to the blue waters of the 
harbour. We passed Clark's Island, which is the quarantine 
station for dogs, Darling Head being the quarantine station 
for human beings, and then we saw the ' Sunbeam ' lying at 
anchor in the little inlet called Watson's Bay. The gig was 
soon sent alongside, and we were speedily on board. I was 
delighted to see Tom looking so much better, though he was 
still obliged to wear a pair of green spectacles. After a some- 
what lengthy inspection of the yacht Lord and Lady Car- 
rington and party returned to town, and we had service on 
board. 

Precisely at half-past two, as agreed, we weighed anchor, 
and proceeded slowly up the harbour under steam. Not 
seeing anything of the boats, which were also to leave Sydney 
at 2.30, we steamed as slowly as possible in order not to meet 
them too soon. A very pretty sight it \vas when we beheld 
the Volunteers approaching in two regular lines of boats, ac- 
companied by crowds of people in small sailing and rowing 
boats, as well as launches and steamers, all apparently peril- 
ously overloaded with passengers. 

When the Volunteers reached the yacht they all tossed 
their oars and stood up and saluted. Then the command- 
ing officers came alongside, and we received them on board. 
It really was a lovely sight, and my only wish was to be, like 
the famous bird, in two places at once namely, where I 
was, to help to entertain the Volunteers and thank them for 
their warm and kindly welcome, and on shore to look at the 
dear old ' Sunbeam ' surrounded by the mosquito fleet, through 
which she had considerable difficulty in making her way 
without doing any damage. It took some time for all the 
officers and men to come on board to have some refresh- 
ment and look over the yacht, and it was therefore rather late 
before the commanding officer rowed us ashore in his gig. 



3 72 SYDNEY 

We landed at the man-of-war steps, close to Government 
House, where a large crowd had assembled to give us another 
welcome. They formed a little lane for us to pass through, 
cheering lustily, and smiling and nodding as if they were 
glad to see us. There was nothing formal or obtrusive 
about their welcome. It was, in truth, a real, warm, honest 
greeting from friends across the sea, and it touched both 
Tom and myself deeply. All such demonstrations invariably 
give me a choking sensation in niy throat, and I was not 
altogether sorry when we had made our way through the 
crowd of kindly welcomers and reached the steep pathway 
leading to Government House. Halfway up we could stop 
and survey the scene, and I was able to partially gratify my 
wish to see the yacht from the shore with the boats around it. 

After a short rest we had another quiet evening, Tom 
coming to dinner, but returning to sleep on board the yacht. 
I went to bed early to try and nurse a bad and rapidly increas- 
ing cold, caught during the wet journey between Melbourne 
and Sydney. 

Monday, July ^tli. I awoke at five, and wrote letters. 
The doctor would not hear of my going out, as my cold was 
no better. 

It continued foggy all day, and the children had to con- 
tent themselves with skating and battledore and shuttlecock 
in the verandahs. Lord Carrington, Tom, and Mabelle went 
for a long walk, calling on Cardinal Moran, and paying visits 
to the picture : gallery, the Anglican cathedral, and other places ; 
and after an early dinner at 6.45 all the party went to the 
meeting of the Royal Humane Society. I was bitterly disap- 
pointed at being unable to attend, and perhaps do something 
to encourage the friends of the St. John Ambulance Asso- 
ciation. 

Tuesday, July $tli. Awoke early, and had a busy morning. 
The day proved lovely, so I was allowed to walk in the garden. 



THE SUBURBS 



313 



After lunch we started in a carriage-and-four for a long but 
most delightful drive to the South Head. We passed through 
the far-extending suburbs of Sydney with their good houses 
and gardens. It was very charming to have the occasional 
glimpses of the many inlets and creeks of the harbour. 
Farther on we reached the real bush, full of flowers, the 
ground being covered with the red and white epacris, and 




Summei' Hill Creek 



with various banksias, hoyas, and other flowers. At the 
South Head the view of the city, through the light veil of 
smoke and fog which hung over the landscape, and beyond 
the lighthouse on the other side over the ocean, was very 
fine. 

There was a large and pleasant party at dinner, and in the 



314 NAVAL VOLUNTEER DRILL 

evening an 'At home,' at which I was interested to meet 
several Sussex people. The world is very small after all ! 

Wednesday, July 6th. I had a busy morning, and at 
noon went on board the yacht, returning by three o'clock 
to meet Mr. Montefiore at the large picture-gallery. Thence 
we went to look at Mr. Bray's collection of curiosities from 
New Guinea and the Islands, and spent a pleasant and in- 
structive hour. Some of our party returned to Government 
House for an early dinner, while Tom, Mabelle, and others 
went on board the yacht to entertain the officers of the Naval 
Volunteer force which has been established in Sydney, on the 
model of the corps which Tom was instrumental in raising 
at home. At eight o'clock I went down to the shore and 
looked at the Volunteers drilling in the open. They certainly 
are a splendid body of men, and their drill is quite wonderful. 
I have never seen such good cutlass drill anywhere, and I 
have ' assisted ' at many similar inspections. 

Thursday, July ?th. To-day we called on the Mayor, and 
were taken all over the fine buildings which are being erected 
as a memorial of the Centenary of New South Wales. After- 
wards we visited the Picturesque Atlas Printing Office, and 
watched the processes of printing, engraving, lithographing, 
&c. Dinner w r as again early, and after it, Lady Carrington, 
Mabelle, Mr. Egerton, and others went to a Zerbini quartette, 
whilst Lord Carrington, Tom, and the remainder of the party 
set off to a shoeblacks' concert, the performers at which 
had originally been some of the roughest ragamuffins in the 
city. 

Tuesday, July I2th. The morning was pouring wet. Tom 
started at half-past nine to meet Mr. Inglis, who had arranged 
to conduct him round the docks at Cockatoo Island and over 
the ' Vernon ' reformatory-ship, an institution which owes its 
origin to Sir Henry Parkes. He was much interested with 
what he saw on board the ' Vernon.' The most hopeless 



PARLIAMENT HOUSE 315 

characters do not seem beyond the reach of the wholesome 
influence of the band. 

At 1.45 some friends came onboard the 'Sunbeam' to 
lunch, and directly afterwards people began to arrive for an 
' At home,' which lasted until 5 P.M. Luckily the weather 
cleared a little, or I do not know what we should have done 
to amuse our guests. There were a few gleams of sunshine 
at intervals, which served to dry the awnings and to make 
things look more cheerful and comfortable. 

At five o'clock we all went to the Legislative Council and 
heard Mr. Watts speak, and then to the Legislative Assembly, 
where a debate was also going on.' We were afterwards shown 
over the Chambers and their libraries by Sir Henry Parkes. 
I admired the dining-room, which was much prettier than 
that of our own House of Commons. From its balcony there 
is a magnificent view of Sydney town and harbour. The libra- 
ries seemed well furnished with books and looked thoroughly 
comfortable. It is the oldest Parliament House south of the 
Line, having been built early in the century. The members 
all seemed wonderfully fresh and untired, considering that it 
w r as 7.30 A.M. before the House rose this morning. The 
powers of human endurance are possibly strengthened by the 
fine climate. 

Wednesday, July i^tli. I had, as usual, a busy morning, 
and left at eleven o'clock, with Tom, Mabelle, and Captain 
Gascoigne, to lunch on board the German man-of-war ' Bis- 
marck.' Captain and Mrs. Bosanquet and several officers 
were there ; and we had a pleasant party, enlivened by the 
strains of an excellent band. We had to hurry away directly 
afterwards to be in time for the meeting which the Governor 
had kindly convened at Government House in connection with 
the St. John Ambulance Association. The meeting, held in 
the drawing-room, was well attended and successful. That 
over, there was only scant time to rest before an early dinner, 






3 i6 THE SAILORS HOME 



after which we went to a meeting of the Geographical Society 
at the Freemasons' Hall, where Mr. Bevan the explorer gave 
us an interesting account of his fourth and latest voyage 
to New Guinea. These explorations were undertaken, the first 
in a Chinese junk, the second in a big cutter, the third in a 
schooner, and the last in the steamer ' Victory.' 

Thursday, July i^tli. The children and Tom went out 
riding, and I had a husy morning with Mr. Wright, working 
until half-past eleven, when I went with Mr. Bevan to see 
some interesting New Guinea curiosities at the establishment 
of Messrs. Burn and Philps, the enterprising firm who sent 
him out to make his explorations. Tom had made an ap- 
pointment with Captain Hammill to visit the Goodenough 
Sailors' Home, but, having a great deal to do on board the 
' Sunbeam,' he asked me to go on his behalf and meet the 
manager and the committee of the institution. We had great 
difficulty in finding the place, and, after driving half over 
Sydney without discovering its whereabouts, went to the 
town-hall for information, and were there directed to two 
houses Trafalgar House, and the Goodenough Home, esta- 
blished by Sir Anthony Hoskins when he was out here as 
Commodore. The houses in both cases are small, but look 
beautifully clean. 

Mr. Shearston, the manager, seems a perfect enthusiast, 
and too much cannot be said in praise of his self-denial. He 
has given up the whole of his private house, except one bed- 
room and the tiniest little scrap of an office, for the purposes 
of the Home. Truly the promoters of the movement deserve 
every assistance in their good work ; and it makes one feel 
inclined to help them to secure the new site so urgently re- 
quired, when it is seen how earnestly they labour in the good 
cause themselves. They not only take in good characters, 
but go into the streets at night and pick up sailors, no 
matter how intoxicated they may be. They put them, to 



PARRAMATTA 317 



bed, and endeavour to send them back to their ships in the 
morning, so far recovered as to escape reprimand and perhaps 
dismissal. The inspection of this institution took some time, 
and on our way back we passed the proposed new site for the 
Home. 

Captain Hammill and Mr. Bevan lunched with us on board 
the ' Sunbeam,' and later on the yacht was shown to a large 
number of people. After Lady Carrington's ' At home ' in 
the afternoon, Tom, Tab, and Captain Gascoigne went to dine 
at the Yacht Club, and we had a quiet dinner, after which I 
did a good deal more work with Mr. Wright. 

Friday, July i$tk. An early start had to be made this 
morning in order to meet Sir Henry Parkes at the station at 
nine o'clock. Tom, Baby, and I were the only members of the 
party who turned up, and we found that Mr. Salomons and the 
Chinese Commissioners had been invited to accompany us. 
Precisely at nine we left the station in a comfortable saloon 
carriage, and, passing through the suburbs of Sydney, reached 
Parramatta at 9.30. This is one of the oldest townships 
in New South Wales. Conspicuous in the landscape rise the 
double spires of its handsome church, \vhich is more' than a 
hundred years old. The township has for years past derived 
considerable importance from its wool trade and manufac- 
tures ; and has now an excellent fruit trade, which has 
sprung up quite lately. Fruit- orchards surround the to\vn, and 
the orange groves look bright and green and beautiful with 
their shiny leaves and globes of golden fruit. It was almost 
accidentally that oranges were first grown here. The unex- 
pected success of the first few orange-pips, which grew and 
prospered amazingly, led to the industry being taken up, and 
splendid orange groves now surround the town. 

After leaving Parramatta our way still lay through orchards 
and vineyards, until we reached Seven Hills Grove, command- 
ing a beautiful view. Thence we went on to Blacktown, which 

p P 






RAILWAY ZIGZAGS 




takes its name from the large 
number of aboriginals who 
formerly lived in the neighbour- 
hood ; but they are now almost 
extinct. At intervals we either 
crossed or ran alongside of the 
old bullock-track, now a good 
high road, to Bathurst. Bath- 
urst can now be reached in a 
few hours from Sydney. In the 
old times it took four days to 
get there by coach, and much 
longer, of course, by bullock 
team ! We crossed a large 
river, the Nepean, passing 

through some charming fern- gullies, and soon afterwards 
reached the zigzags of the railway. They are so abrupt, that 
instead of the train turning round, it is alternately pulled 
and pushed up the steep incline. This seems to me a dan- 
gerous plan, and it certainly does not economise labour or 
steam force. It was interesting to find at one of the stations 
that the engine-driver who was taking the train up had 



THE BLUE MOUNTAINS 319 

worked for Mr. Brassey for many years in France and else- 
where, had married Tom's nurse, and had danced with me 
at the ball given in the engine-sheds at Shrewsbury at the 
great fete on the occasion of our marriage. At another place 
where we stopped the station-master for many years occu- 
pied a similar position at Aylesford, near my brother-in- 
law's place. They were both anxious to come and see the 
yacht, and I was rather amused to hear at lunch that while 
we were going up the mountain they had immediately re- 
turned to Sydney and had gone on board. 

The view from Springwood is beautiful, and close by lies 
Sassafras, or ' Flying Fox ' Gully, so called from the number 
of flying foxes found there. We next passed Falconberg, Sir 
Henry Parkes's place, and went on to Lawoon, where we 
stopped a short time, and where a man brought us some 
curious little black snakes great pets at present. Not far 
from here are the beautiful Wentworth Falls, and the views 
became superb ; I had not expected anything half so lovely. 
Distant glimpses of undulating forests were interrupted by 
abrupt sandstone cliffs, so steep that it was impossible not to 
believe a large stream ran beneath them. There is no river 
here, however, although the many small creeks and rivulets 
make beautiful falls, tumbling over the sandstone cliffs through 
luxuriant creepers and tropical ferns. It is impossible to ex- 
aggerate the beauty of the scene. The charm of the land- 
scape was the really Indian blue of the distant hills, from 
which they derive their name of Blue Mountains. It is not a 
blue haze, but a vivid blue, with tints varying from darkest 
indigo to palest cerulean blue ; but the colour is everywhere 
intense, and there are no half-tones. Perhaps one of the most 
attractive views is that just before reaching Katoomba, nearly 
3,500 feet above the sea-level. The train was stopped before 
reaching the station to let us admire the distant landscape. 
I should have liked to stay for hours. 



320 



BLACKHEATH 






Further 

ft^ on is Black- 

heath Hill, from 
which the view is said 
to be the finest in the 
whole of the Blue Mountains, 
though some maintain that 
the outlook from the hig zig- 
zag near Lithgow Down is still 
finer. On the return journey 
we had to wait nearly half 
an hour at Blackheath, and 
as I was not able to walk far 
I utilised the time by taking 
photographs. But no sun- 
picture can ever give 
the least idea of 
this scenery. 
Its finest ef- 
fects re- 
quire 



FALCONBERG 321 



the brush of the painter. On our return journey the noonday 
sun had dispersed the mists, and all the delicate details of the 
more distant landscapes were brought clearly into view. We 
travelled at a terrible pace, and the sharpness of the curves 
threatened every moment to send the train off the line. 
These sudden turns and jerks had the effect of making us all 
rather uncomfortable, and poor Baby and I felt quite sea-sick. 
The sensation was the same as when the ship makes a deep 
curtsy and seems to leave you behind as she dips into the waves ! 

There is a branch line at Katoomba to the Yenoolan or 
Fish River Caves, which I should have liked to have visited 
had there been more time. I had to console myself with the 
reflection that I had seen the caves at Adelsberg, Neptune's 
Caves in Sardinia, the caves at Moulmein, and other vast 
limestone caves in various parts of the world. 

After passing Sir Alfred Stephen's magnificent place we 
reached Falconberg, and by this time I felt so tired that I was 
truly glad of my carrying-chair. I do not think I could have 
walked even the short distance between the station and the 
house. Arrived there, I was obliged to ask leave to lie down 
instead of going to see the beautiful fern-glens with the rest 
of the party. It was a great disappointment. I was able, 
however, to enjoy the lovely distant view from the verandah, 
as well as the closer view of the rocky sandstone cliffs and 
fern-clad gullies ; and I could hear the mocking note of the 
rarely seen lyre-bird, the curious cachinnation of the laughing 
jackass, and the occasional distant note of the bell-bird. Even 
this brief rest amidst these pleasant surroundings refreshed 
me greatly, and I felt much better when later on we resumed 
our journey. The engine-driver was told to go slowly round 
the sharp curves, and we were spared a repetition of the un- 
pleasant experience of the morning. We arrived in Sydney 
a little after six, feeling much indebted to Sir Henry Parkes 
for his great kindness. 



322 THE NAVAL BRIGADE 

There was no time to think of rest, for I had to dress 
immediately and go with Tom, Mabelle, and others to the 
Ambulance meeting at the town-hall. It was a very good 
one, and afterwards the committee of the Williamstown and 
Port Melbourne Sailors' Home presented me with a testi- 
monial, in order, as they said, to express their gratitude for 
what we have been able to do for them. Tom and Mabelle 
went on from the meeting to Mrs. Tooth's ball. 

Saturday, July i6th. I awoke feeling so tired that Dr. 
Hoffmeister made me remain in bed till the middle of the day 
in order to keep quiet, though I contrived to get through much 
work with pen and pencil. 

Lunch was ordered early, and a little after two we went 
on board the yacht to receive the ladies of the Wollahra centre 
of the St. John Ambulance Association, to whom, according 
to previous arrangement, I presented certificates. At half- 
past three the contractors who gave Tom the charming picnic 
up the Hawkesbury River last Saturday l came on board with 
their wives and lady friends, and were soon followed by the 
members of the Royal Sydney Yacht Club and their friends. 
The boys' band from the ' Yernon ' played extremely well 
during the afternoon, the music and brilliant sunshine adding 
cheerfulness to the proceedings. When the general company 
had left, the bo} - s had a hearty meal of tea and cake, and 
were delighted at being shown over the yacht. 

Tom and I were obliged to hurry away at half-past four 
in order to see the Naval Brigade at exercise, under the com- 
mand of Captain Hixson. A very interesting sight it proved 
to be. Their drilling and marching past were admirable, as 
were also their volley and file firing ; while the rapidity with 
w T hich they formed into rallying squares to resist cavalry was 
really marvellous. Towards the close of the proceedings it 
was growing dusk, and the bright-coloured tongues of flame 

1 See Appendix. 



BOTANICAL GARDENS 



323 



from the rifles showed sharply against the dark blue sky. 
Tom presented the medals to the men and made them a 
speech ; and after all was over we returned to Government 
House. 

Sunday, July \jt\i. Tom and Mabelle went on board 
H.M.S. ' Nelson ' at 10.30 A.M. for church-service, and then on 
to H.M.S. ' Opal,' where they met Admiral and Mrs. Fairfax, 
and Captain and Mrs. Bosanquet, and a few other friends. 




Cook's Monument, Botany Bay 



The day turned out so lovely that I was persuaded to go 
round the Botanical Gardens in a bath-chair. I admired im- 
mensely the taste with which these gardens are laid out, and the 
skill with which a great portion of the site has been reclaimed 
from the sea. What seems so puzzling in this climate is the 
existence of tropical, semi-tropical, and temperate plants side 
by side. I saw violets, geraniums, roses, strelitzias, in full 
bloom, some growing under the shade of palms from Ceylon, 
Central Africa, and the warmest parts of North Australia, 



324 PREPARING TO START 

while others flourished beneath the bare branches of the oak, 
beech, birch, and lime trees of the old country. 

In the afternoon I had intended to go to the cathedral 
with Lady Carrington, but felt so unw T ell that I was obliged to 
lie down for a time, and then sit in the sun and try to recruit. 
I had, however, to go to bed at five ; but I made an effort and 
got up again at seven in order to appear at our last dinner at 
this charming house, where w y e have spent so many happy 
days and received so much kindness. After dinner we had 
a long talk over new and old times, and all felt quite sad 
at the prospect of the inevitable parting which must come 
to-morrow. 




CHAPTER XV. 

NEW SOUTH WALES (continued). 

Monday, July i8th. Lovely sunrise the last we shall 
see, alas ! in this beautiful place. Very busy ; rather a 
worrying morning ; so much to settle and arrange. Did some 
final shopping with the children. Met Lord Shaftesbury at 
lunch. Went off to the ' Sunbeam,' feeling quite sad that 
the moment of departure had at last arrived. The Admiral 
came on board ' Sunbeam ' at the last moment, bringing 
some violets as a farewell offering. Sailed slowly away, and 
gradually lost sight of the Heads in the darkness. 

Tuesday, July igtli. At half-past twelve Tom came below 
to announce our arrival off the port of Newcastle. The wind 



326 HOVE-TO 

had been so fresh and fair that we made a smart run of seven 
hours, sighting the lights at Nobby Head at about half-past 
ten. Our head was then put off the land, and we hove to, 
to wait for the tug. This is a process which to the old salt 
seems a pleasure nearly equal to that of going ashore, at 
all events to dropping anchor in a well-sheltered harbour. 
Though I certainly cannot call myself an inexperienced sailor, 
it appears to me to be the acme of discomfort. Even in a 
heavy gale it affords but sh'ght relief from the storm-tossed 
motion of the ship. On the present occasion it was a change 
from pleasantly gliding along through the water at a speed 
of nine or ten knots an hour to a nasty pitching motion 
which made us all very wretched. Everything began to roll 
and tumble about in a most tiresome manner ; doors com- 
menced to bang, glasses to smash, books to tumble out of 
their shelves, and there was a general upset of the usually 
peaceful equilibrium of the yacht. So unpleasant was this, 
that I suggested to Torn that, instead of waiting outside for 
the reception tug, we should get up steam and go into harbour 
at daylight so as to have a few hours' rest. This we did, 
and glided into the harbour precisely at 5.30 A.M., anchoring 
just off the railway-pier, and quite taking the good people of 
Newcastle by surprise. The town presented a great contrast 
to its namesake at home, for the morning dawned bright and 
lovely, with hardly a smoke-wreath to intercept the charming 
view. We looked out on a noble river with a busy town on 
its banks and low hills in the background. 

About eight o'clock the chairman of the reception com- 
mittee, Lieutenant Gardner, of the Royal Naval Brigade, came 
on board to arrange the order of the proceedings. Everybody 
was most kindly anxious to show us everything there was to 
be seen, but Tom thought the lengthy programme would be 
too much for my strength, and suggested that the original 
arrangement should be adhered to. Punctually at half-past 



NEWCASTLE 



327 



%-^>* 





-'- ^3%j^~- 



ten the Mayor and Cor- 
poration came on board to 

give us a cordial welcome 

and present an address. At 

11.15 we embarked in two 

steam-launches and went up 

the harbour, which looked 

gay and beautiful, the port 

being crowded with shipping. 

We were told, however, that 

it is not nearly so full as it 

used to be a year or two ago. 

They say that bad times have 

affected this like every other 
place, and that only a quarter of the 
number of vessels are in harbour now, 
compared to the returns of this time last 
year. 

Our first visit was to the hydraulic cranes, by 
which a ship can take in a thousand tons of coal in 
ten hours. From the cranes we went a little further up 
the harbour, to the landing-place, where a dense crowd eagerly 
awaited us. Carriages were in readiness, but Tom rather 
upset the plans by his usual wish to walk instead of going in 
state in a coach. I fear he severely tried the lungs and legs 
of his entertainers by taking them at a brisk pace up a steep 
hill to the high-level reservoir. As soon as I got into the 

Q Q 



NOBBY HEAD 



carriage a basket of fragrant violets was given to me by the 
school children of Lampton, one of the collier townships in 
the neighbourhood. We drove past the reserve and up to the 
reservoir, from which there is a fine view of the town and sur- 
rounding country. We stayed a long tune at the top of the 
breezy hill watching the dark blue waves turn to pale green 
as they curled their white-crested heads into great rollers and 
dashed against the steep cliffs of the many little headlands 
and promontories of the bay. Looking in another direction, 
the view extends over the rich alluvial plain which surrounds 
Newcastle, thickly studded with houses and colliery town- 
ships. One new colliery has been started quite close to the 
shore, and not improbably it will be carried, like the old 
Botallack mine in Cornwall, right under the sea, where the 
richest seam of coal runs. While we were taking in the 
characteristic features of the landscape the sun became so 
powerful, in spite of a cold wind, that umbrellas and sun- 
shades were found necessary. 

After leaving the reservoir we drove through another 
quarter of the town. Every house had at its door a smiling 
group of people who greeted us warmly. Leaving the town, 
we went on to Nobby Head. The position is fortified, and 
garrisoned with a company of the Permanent force. From 
this point the town is better seen than from the reservoir, 
and there is a good prospect of the entrance to the harbour. 
Though it was comparatively calm to-day, the waves rolled in 
with great force ; and it is said that in bad weather the sea is 
perfectly frightful. Just inside the Heads, not thirty yards 
from the shore, a small black buoy marks the spot where a 
steamer went down with every soul on board, not only in sight 
of land, but actually in port. While Tom was inspecting we 
rested in the signal -station and talked to the signalman. 

On leaving the fort we drove to Mr. Black's wool-shed, 
where the various processes of dumping and preparing the 



THE COAL-PIT 329 



wool for shipment were explained to us. It is wonderful to 
see how the bulk of a bale can be reduced by hydraulic pres- 
sure. The shed is perfectly empty at this moment, but in a 
few weeks it will be at its fullest, for the shearing season has 
already commenced. To-day its ample space was utilised to 
hold a large luncheon-party, at which a number of ladies and 
gentlemen were present. The speeches at this banquet, though 
short, were good. Having partaken of their hospitable enter- 
tainment, we were conducted by our kind hosts into a train 
which was waiting, literally, at the door of the shed, and were 
taken off, more or less through the streets of the town, to the 
Newcastle Colliery Company's Works. 

As soon as we cleared the suburbs the country became very 
pretty, and the place where we left the train, to descend the 
coal-mine, was really quite romantic, and entirely different to 
what one sees in the Black Country at home. There were 
several charmingly designed triumphal arches for us to pass 
under, all made of semi-tropical flowers and palms. The con- 
trast between these flowers and plants and the brisk keen 
mountain air, blowing cold and fresh in spite of the hot sun, 
was remarkable. After admiring the beauty of the various 
specimens of flowers, and inspecting the works at the pit's 
mouth where men were hard at work filling skips and empty- 
ing them into trucks waiting for their loads some of the 
party got into the cage and descended 400 or 500 feet into the 
bowels of the earth. A few of the ladies declared they felt 
nervous ; but there was really nothing to make them so except 
the total darkness. Arrived at the bottom, we found many 
miners with candles stuck in the front of their hats, and 
carrying lamps of the simplest construction, a piece of waste 
stuck into the spout of an ordinary can filled with what is 
called China oil (a decoction of mutton fat), waiting to light 
us on our darksome path. Several trucks were ready pre- 
pared, into one of which I got with the children, and we 



330 PIT-PONIES 

started, a large and merry party. On our way in we met all 
the miners coming out, for they leave off work at 3.30 in 
order to be at the pit's mouth at four, only working eight 
hours a day. 

All mines bear a greater or less resemblance to each other, 
whether they contain black diamonds, like the one in which 
we then found ourselves, white diamonds, gold, silver, tin, 
copper, gypsum, or any other mineral. There is the same 
descent in a cage, the same walk through workings higher 
or lower, as the case may be or ride in a trolly or truck along 
lightly-laid rails, and the same universal darkness, grirniness, 
and sloppiness about the whole affair, which render a visit, 
however interesting, somewhat of an undertaking. This mine 
seemed to contain a particularly good quality of coal, and the 
sides shone and glistened in the lamplight as we passed along 
them. Our walk through the levels of pit ' B ' was much longer 
than I had expected, and must have been quite half a mile. The 
temperature was always over 80, the atmosphere sometimes 
very bad, and the walking rather uneven. Thousands, not .to 
say millions, of cockroaches of portentous size enlivened if they 
did not add to the pleasure of the walk. "We passed a great 
many horses, in good condition, going back to their stables for 
the night. They are, it is said, very happy down in the pit ; so 
much so, that when during the Jubilee they were taken up for 
three days' holiday, there was the greatest difficulty in prevent- 
ing them from returning to the pit's mouth, at which men had 
to be stationed to drive them back for fear they might try to 
put themselves into the cages and so tumble down the shaft. 
Horses very quickly adapt themselves to circumstances ; and 
I dare say the garish light of day was painful to their eyes, 
and that they were anxious to return from the cold on the 
surface of the ground to the even temperature of 80 in the pit. 

Our walk was a long and weary one, and I felt thankful 
when we approached the pit's mouth and could breathe cooler 



A SUBTERRANEAN BANQUET 331 

and purer air. Our hosts were anxious that I should go a little 
further ; but I could not do so, and sank down into a chair 
to rest. The others went on, as I thought, to see some other 
workings ; but I afterwards heard that they soon reached a 
beautiful room hollowed out of the solid coal, with sides like 
ebony, and sparkling with black diamonds. The walls were 
decorated with arches and cleverly arranged geometrical pat- 
terns, formed of the fronds of various kinds of Adiantium, 
an inscription with cordial words of welcome being traced in 
the same delicate greenery. In the centre stood a table 
with light refreshments of various kinds. The entertainment 
afforded the opportunity for speeches, in which the rapid 
development of the mining industry of this district was de- 
tailed in telling figures, and mutual sentiments of kindness 
were most cordially conveyed. At the pit's mouth crowds of 
women and children had assembled to see us, and a little 
further off a train was drawn up, filled by ladies and gentle- 
men who had preferred to wander about park-like glades, 
while their more energetic friends had made the descent into 
the coal-mine. The united party numbering, I should think, 
nearly one hundred- next proceeded on board the ' Sun- 
beam,' for a very late five-o'clock tea and a hasty inspection 
of the vessel. At an early hour I retired to rest, utterly worn 
out. 

Wednesday, July 2Otli. Contrary to my usual habit of 
awaking between four and five o'clock, I was sound asleep 
when tea was brought at 5 A.M. ; and I should dearly have 
liked to have slept for two or three hours longer, so completely 
w r as I exhausted by yesterday's hard work. But it could not 
be ; and after a cup of tea, and a little chat over future plans, 
I set to work sorting papers, and putting names in books, to 
be given to our kind hosts of yesterday, in remembrance of 
our visit. At 7.15 we entered the boat which was waiting 
alongside, and proceeded to the shore, Tom, as usual, pulling 



332 THE HIGHEST LINE IN A USTRALIA 

an oar. Poor ' Sir Roger,' who has been explosively happy 
during the past two days at having us on board again, made 
a desperate effort to stow himself away in the boat, which, 
unhappily, could not be allowed on account of the quarantine 
regulations. It seems very hard that the poor doggies can 
never have a run on shore whilst we are in Australian w r aters. 
Their only chance of change and exercise consists in being 
sent in a boat to some quarantine island for an hour or tw r o. 

Arrived at the landing-place, Mr. Gardner, to whom we 
were much indebted for making our visit to Newcastle so very 
pleasant, was waiting to take us to the station. We started 
punctually at the time fixed, and passed through a dull but 
fertile-looking country, until we reached West Maitland, where 
I received a charming present of a basket of fragrant flowers. 
About twelve o'clock we were glad to have some lunch in the 
train. At Tarn worth Mr. King met us with his little girl, who 
shyly offered me a large and lovely bouquet of violets. 

From Tamworth the country became prettier and the 
scenery more mountainous. At one station there was quite a 
typical colonial landscape : park-like ground heavily wooded 
with big gum-trees, and a winding river with a little weir, 
where one felt it might be quite possible to catch trout. The 
country continued to improve in beauty, and we saw on all sides 
evidences of its excellence from a squatter's point of view. At 
one place a herd of splendid cattle were being driven along the 
road by a stockman, and we passed many large flocks of sheep. 
About eight Arrnadale was reached. 

The line from Armadale to Tenterfield is the highest in 
Australia, and is considered a good piece of engineering work. 
It is in that respect a great contrast to the line over the Blue 
Mountains, where the engineers had a comparatively easy task 
in following the tracks of the old bullock-road. 

The country round Tenterfield is something like the 
New Forest, with fine trees and a good many boggy bottoms. 



TENTERFIELD 



333 



About fourteen or fifteen miles from here the local ' Ben 
Lomond' rises to a height of 4,500 feet. In the clear star- 
light night we had occasional glimpses of its deep glens and 
rocky peaks. 

Thursday, July 2ist. The train reached Tenterfield about 
one o'clock this morning, and we drove straight to the Com- 
mercial Hotel, where we found comfortable rooms and blazing 




Cattle crossing the Darling River 



fires. Everything looked clean and tidy, and a cold supper 
awaited belated travellers, of whom there were many besides 
ourselves. I was aw r akened at 7.30 A.M by the sun shining 
gloriously through the windows of my room. The air felt 
delightfully fresh, reminding one of a lovely spring morning 
in England about April. Soon after eleven came Mr. Walker, 



334 THE SETTLEMENT STATION 

of Tenterfield, who had kindly called to show us everything 
worth seeing in the township near his station. His is a large 
holding, even for Australia, 300 square miles in extent, and 
stretching fourteen miles in one direction and eighteen in 
another. 

After lunch all the party except the children, who were 
out riding, started in two waggonettes for Tenterfield Station. 
The township of Tenterfield, like all new Australian towns, is 
laid out in square blocks, with corrugated iron houses, and 
various places of worship for different denominations. The 
views of the country around are pleasing, and the land looks 
fairly fertile, and is well wooded, with distant mountains seen 
through purple haze. We first went to the settlement at the 
station, where we saw a good thoroughbred horse, ' Cultivator,' 
who has done well in racing both at home and in the colo- 
nies; 'Lord Cleveland' (son of the 'Duke of Cleveland'), a 
good coach-horse with fair action, eighteen hands high ; and 
a little cart-horse with sloping shoulders, short bone between 
fetlock and knee, and square back like a thoroughbred short- 
horn bull. 

From the stables we went to look at the old store which in 
days gone by used to be sufficient for the needs of the whole 
neighbourhood for a hundred miles round. Then we proceeded 
to the wool-shed, built of corrugated iron, the wooden shed 
having been burnt down. Mr. Walker has about 70,000 head 
of cattle usually, and from 50,000 to 100,000 sheep, but his 
stock is somewhat reduced this year on account of the long 
drought. He has 300 thoroughbred Berkshire pigs, besides 
some wonderful milch cows and a fine Jersey bull. The cows 
are much wilder here than they are at home, and Mr. Walker 
has a most ingenious contrivance for securing the animals 
for milking. They are driven through a large gate into a 
passage, which gets narrower and narrower until it reaches a 
point where the cow can be secured. 



TENTERFIELD 



335 



After looking at the station buildings we went into the 
house, a comfortable cottage residence with a nice verandah 
all round, and what must be a pretty garden in summer. 
Even now it is full of violets, and some fine specimens of 
English trees oaks, elms, limes, and pines. After tea we 
went for a second drive all round the township, and up some 
low hills to get a view of the town from a distance and of the 
mountains from a different point of view. Next we took a few 




Sheep crossing River 



photographs, and should have taken more had not the focus- 
sing-glass of the camera got broken. Then we drove back into 
the town, and, I think, round almost every street, and saw all 
the public buildings, which are indeed creditable to such a new 
and rising township. We dined again at the table d'hote, and 
after dinner Mr. and Mrs. Walker called with all sorts of stuffed 
birds and beasts and other curiosities, which they had kindly 
brought as a remembrance of our visit. They took off Mabelle 
to a concert, for which the superior of the convent had sent 

K E 



336 AN EARLY START 

to beg my patronage in the morning. I could not promise 
to be present, and was much startled during dinner to hear 
that old-fashioned English institution, the crier, going round 
with his bell and lustily announcing that a concert ' was to be 
held this evening under the patronage of Lady Brassey and the 
Honourable two Miss Brasseys.' He kept walking up and down 
shouting this out until the concert commenced, and when he 
disappeared the Salvation Army appeared upon the scene with 
a brass band, the sounds of which are still ringing in my ears 
as I am trying to write this, preparatory to going to bed be- 
times to secure some rest before an early start in the morning. 
Friday, July 2 2nd. This was evidently not to be a night 
of rest for me. Between one and two I was awakened by the 
first arrivals by the mail train. At three o'clock people began 
to get up and go away, and we could fully appreciate how 
Australian buildings let in every sound. Between four and 
five the bugle sounded to call the gallant New South Wales 
Light Horse to parade. At five o'clock I was called. It was 
a cold, bright morning, with a hard frost, and as soon as my 
fire and lamps were lighted I got up and began preparing for 
the journey. We heard much galloping of horses in the early 
morning, and soon gentlemen in scarlet uniforms began to 
appear from various parts. We waited until a quarter to 
seven, and then, as our proffered escort did not turn up, we 
had to go to the station without it, for fear of missing the 
train. Five gallant members of the troop joined us on the 
way. The commanding officer wore blue undress uniform, and 
the others were in scarlet. It was amusing, on our way to the 
station, to see late-comers galloping furiously along the road, 
and it needed a little judicious delay to enable the scattered 
troopers to collect themselves and form into line. At the 
station we met our old friends the Chinese Commissioners, 
looking very curious in travelling-gowns over their national 
costumes. 



ANTIQUE COACHES 



337 




Off the Track 

In spite of the strict injunctions we had received to be 
punctual to seven o'clock, it was 7. 1 5 before the train started. 
We passed through a pretty but barren country, and reached 
Warrangarra, on the frontier, in about three-quarters of an 
hour. There I saw the most extraordinary-looking coaches, 
dating, I should think, from the time of Queen Elizabeth, 
with enormous reflecting-lamps, which produced a curious 
effect in the day, but doubtless are useful for bush-travelling 
at night. No sooner had we alighted from the train than 
I cannot say to my surprise, for familiar faces are always 
turning up in unexpected places the grandson of an old 
wheelwright at Catsfield came to speak to me, inquiring first 
after our family and then after his own belongings at home. 



338 AN OLD ACQUAINTANCE 

I \vas able to give him good news, and to tell him of the altera- 
tions going on at Normanhurst, where he had worked for a 
long time. He has been out here four years, and did very well 
until last year, when times became so bad ; but things are 
looking up again, and he told me he had four months' certain 
work before him, and a very good chance of an opening in the 
new township as the railway approaches completion. He looks 
exceedingly well, and says his wife and children also enjoy 
excellent health. He consulted me about taking the advice 
of his relations and going home. I told him I thought it 
would be a great pity to do so at present. \Vorking men in 
the colonies have a good time if they can only keep sober and 
are honest and industrious. Indeed those in the old country 
can scarcely form an idea of how superior the working man's 
condition is out here. Of course there are quite as many 
ne'er-do-weels here as in the old country, and I fear that the 
policy of the Government rather encourages this class, and 
that there is trouble in store in the near future. The so-called 
unemployed are mostly utter loafers, who will not give a good 
day's work for a fair day's wage. They refuse to work for less 
than eight shillings a day, and many of them if offered work 
at that price only dawdle about for a few hours and do really 
nothing. 








..... 



CHAPTEE XVI. 

QUEENSLAND. 

AT Warrangarra Station we left the train and stepped 
through the rail fence which divides New South Wales 
from Queensland. A walk of about two hundred yards brought 
us to the Queensland train, where we found a comfortable car- 
riage prepared for our reception. The Chinese Commissioners 
were in another carriage, and we proceeded as far as Stanthorpe, 
where they were met by a great many of their fellow-country- 
men and carried off to see the extensive tin mines close to 
the township, where 600 Chinamen are employed. From 
Stanthorpe we went on climbing up till we reached Thulun- 
bah, up wards of 3,000 feet above the level of the sea. Thence 
we went on to Warwick, which was reached about 12.40. Here 
a dear little boy appeared at the station and handed me a 
large and beautiful bunch of violets. It is very pleasant to 
receive flowers from people whom I have never before seen, 
and who only know my books. 



340 DARLIXG DOWNS 



After leaving Warwick we entered on the tract of country 
known as the Darling Downs, and a splendid stretch of land 
it is, covered with magnificent stock, both sheep and cattle 
looking well even now after the long summer drought. How 
much better they will look in a few weeks' time when the new 
grass has had time to grow can scarcely be imagined. The 
first station we passed through was one of the largest private 
stations on the downs ; the next was called the Clifton 
Station, and belongs to a company. Edenvale Station could 
be seen in the distance ; and on the opposite side stretched 
a large station belonging to Mr. Tyssen, whose landed estates 
are valued at five millions. This extensive table-land looks 
something like the prairies of South America, only with more 
trees and fewer undulations. The occasional fires we met 
with on our way heightened the resemblance. On reaching 
Tawoomba, one of the largest and pleasantest towns in this 
neighbourhood, a lady came to the carriage door and gave 
me another bunch of violets. The violets of Australia have 
more perfume than any we grow in England ; certainly they 
are more fragrant than those one gets on the Riviera. 

From Tawoomba the railway rapidly descends, dropping as 
much as 1,300 feet in ten miles. The scenery somewhat re- 
sembles that of the Blue Mountains, and is even more beau- 
tiful. The exquisite effects produced by the waning daylight 
lent a peculiar charm to this landscape. The forest close to us 
looked dark and sombre, whilst the valley further off was bathed 
in sunlight, and in the dim distance the mountains over which 
we had passed early in the day faded into a delicious pale 
blue chiaroscuro. The banks beneath or above us were cleft 
by little gullies, with struggling rivulets, edged by delicate 
ferns and strange plants. The railway stations even seemed 
prettier and more homelike than any we have yet seen in 
Australia. They were surrounded by gardens, and quite over- 
grown with creepers. The line must have been expensive to 



HELIDON 



make, and evidently required great engineering ability. A 
more direct line could perhaps have been constructed which 
would have saved heavy gradients and much rock-cutting. 




Fern Forest 



At Helidon Mr. Laidby joined the train. He had been 
late for the train at Tawoomba and had ridden down to 
Helidon, the train taking one hour and a quarter to do the 
twelve miles. I was sorry to hear that he and his mother had 



342 SYDXEY TO BRISBANE 

been summoned from Brisbane to see a brother who was some 
400 miles off in the bush suffering terribly from rheumatic fever. 
The sick man had been carried to a civilised place by some 
bushmen, who were nursing him day and night. I am happy 
to say he is now in a fair way to recovery. Mrs. Laidby is 
already a great supporter of the St. John Ambulance Asso- 
ciation, and declares herself more than ever convinced of its 
utility. 

I caught a severe cold on my arrival at Brisbane, and have 
been in bed for three days. I have therefore nothing to chro- 
nicle, and shall accordingly make use of Tom's diary for that 
time : 

' July 2Oth. Returned on board the " Sunbeam," and 
cast off from the buoy, making sail for Brisbane with a fresh 
breeze from the north-west. 

' July 2ist-22nd. We continued under sail with variable 
winds and generally fine weather. The chief features of the 
fine stretch of coast between Newcastle and Brisbane are 
the Boughton Islands, Cape Hawke, a densely wooded pro- 
montory rising to the height of 800 feet, and the Solitary 
Islands, a detached group scattered over a space of 22 miles 
in a north and south direction, at a distance of four to six 
miles from the shore. A light is exhibited from the south 
Solitary, and a signal establishment is kept up. We com- 
municated with this isolated port. An islet adjacent to the 
south Solitary Island is remarkable for a large natural arch, 
which the ceaseless breaking of the sea has opened through 
the rock. 

' Passing north from the Solitaries we again closed with 
the coast at Cape Byron. The scenery is magnificent. The 
coast range attains to a great elevation. Mount Warning, the 
loftiest peak, rises to a height of 3,840 feet, and is visible fully 
sixty miles. It was our guiding mark in the navigation of the 
coast for a space of twent}'-four hours. At Danger Point the 



A SMASH- UP 343 



boundary line between Queensland and New South Wales de- 
scends to the coast from the high summits of the Macpherson 
Eange. 

'July 2 yd. At noon we were off the entrance to the 
narrow channel which divides Stradbroke Island from Moreton 
Island, tearing along at twelve knots an hour, under lower 
canvas only, with a strong wind off the land and smooth 
water. It was a splendid bit of yachting. We passed a 
steamer which had come out with the Mayor and a large 
party from Brisbane to meet us. They \velcomed us to 
Queensland with hearty cheers, to which we cordially re- 
sponded. We stood in close under the land and followed the 
high coast of Moreton Island. Its northern extremity is a 
fresh, verdure-clad, and well-w r ooded point of land, on which 
stands a lighthouse. On this sunny, breezy day the scenery 
of this fine coast was quite beautiful. 

' Off the north end of Moreton Island we took a pilot, and 
proceeding under steam arrived at 10 P.M. off Government 
House, Brisbane, a distance of 50 miles from Cape Moreton. 
The navigation, from the bar of the river to Brisbane, a dis- 
tance of 25 miles, is extremely intricate. Everything has 
been done which it is possible to do, by leading lights at fre- 
quent intervals, to assist the pilots ; but we passed a steamer 
of the British India Company which had entered the river 
an hour ahead of the ' Sunbeam ' aground on a bank, from 
which she was not floated until after a delay of two days.' 

Monday, July 2$t1i. In the afternoon drove to 'One-tree 
Hill,' a richly-wooded height, commanding a splendid view of 
Brisbane, and of the far-extending range of mountains run- 
ning parallel with the coast. On our return to Government 
House the horses bolted, the carriage was smashed to pieces, 
one of the horses was fearfully injured, and we had a narrow 
escape from a fatal accident. 

Tuesday, July 26th. After a busy morning, went on 



344 THE MARBURG SHOW 

board the Queensland Government gunboat. The Governor, 
Mr. and Mrs. de Burgh Persse, and one or two others, came 
to lunch on board the ' Sunbeam,' and I had an ' At home ' 
afterwards. 

Wednesday, July 2jth. We all rose early and started by 
the 9.30 train, with the Governor, Sir Samuel Griffith, the 
Mayor, and a large party, for the first Agricultural Show 
ever held at Marburg. The train ran through a pretty coun- 
try for about an hour, to Ipswich, an important town, near 
which there is a breeding establishment for first-class horses. 
On reaching the station we were received by a number of 
school children, who sang ' God save the Queen ' and then 
presented Mabelle and me each with a lovely bouquet. After 
some little discussion over arrangements we were packed into 
various carriages and started off, the Governor's carriage of 
course leading the way. The horses of our carriage appeared 
somewhat erratic from the first, and soon we were nearly 
brought to a standstill against the trunk of a large tree. 
Fortunately the eucalyptus has so soft a bark that it tore off, 
and we did not break anything. TA T e shaved the next big tree 
in our road by a hair's-breadth, and then discovered that the 
reins were coupled in an extraordinary manner. Having rec- 
tified this mistake, we proceeded on our way rejoicing ; but 
again we were on the point of colliding with a monarch of 
the forest, when one of our own sailors who was on the box 
of the carriage seized the reins and pulled the horses round. 
Tom remarked that it was rather stupid driving. The man 
who was driving (a German) said, ' Xot at all, sir : the horses 
have never been in harness before.' When the other carriages 
came up we changed into a less pretentious vehicle, drawn by 
quieter horses. 

' Marburg is an interesting German settlement, formed in 
the last twenty years. The settlers have, by the most labo- 
rious efforts, cut down the dense scrub with which this part of 



GERMAN INDUSTRY 345 

the country was covered. Their frugality, their patience under 
many privations, and their industry have been rewarded. 
They grow maize, sugar, tobacco, and vegetables, but their 
cattle seem to be the most thriving and successful part of their 
business. In some seasons want of water, and in every season 
the heavy rainfall at the period when the grain is coming to 
maturity, are serious drawbacks to agriculture in this district. 
On the whole, it may be said that Queensland is far more 
adapted to be a pastoral than an agricultural country.' 

Every house in the neat little settlement was decorated, 
and many triumphal arches had been erected. An incident 
of a somewhat comic nature occurred at the Show. An 
address was being presented to the Governor by a man on 
horseback, who dropped his reins to give more emphasis to his 
delivery, and his horse, finding itself free, began to nibble the 
reins of the horses attached to the Governor's carriage. A 
general scrimmage seemed imminent, of which the man on 
horseback took not the least notice. He went on reading 
the address with the most imperturbable countenance, until 
two Volunteers rushed to the horses' heads and separated 
them. The Show w T as duly opened by the Governor, and w r e 
waited to see some of the animals tried. Luncheon was served 
in a sort of half-house, half-tent, and some very good though 
short speeches were made. We drove back by another road 
to Eosewood in order to enable us to see more of the scenery 
of this fine country. 

But our adventures were not over for the day. In going 
down a steep hill our driver did not allow quite enough room, 
and caught the back of one of the long low German waggons 
which are used in this district. The hind wheels came off, 
and a woman and child who were seated in the waggon were 
thrown into the road shrieking and screaming. Fortunately 
they proved to be more frightened than hurt, and the 
w r aggon having been repaired and the child and its mother 

s s 



346 



FERNBERG 



comforted with pictures and sugar-plums which I happened 
to have with me, they went on their way, and we reached 
the station a few minutes late, but picked up our time before 
getting back to Brisbane. After a hasty dinner I had to 




German Waggon 



be off to an Ambulance meeting kindly convened by the 
Mayor. Considering the short notice given, the meeting was 
a wonderful success. Tom, Lady Musgrave, and Mabelle went 
on to the Liedertafel Concert afterwards, and the rest of the 
party to the Jubilee Singers' entertainment, both of which 
were excellent. 

Thursday, July 28th. Was called early, and passed a very 
busy morning. At ten o'clock I went for a drive in Mr. 
Stevenson's drag to his house at Fernberg, from which there 
is a good view over Brisbane and its surroundings. Miinie 
came with me, and the rest of the party rode in the same 
direction, but went further than we did. At twelve we re- 
ceived an address, very prettily decorated with seaweed, from 



KEPPEL BAY 347 



the Sailing Club of Brisbane. We were to have embarked in 
the ' Sunbeam ' at half-past twelve, but unfortunately two 
tubes of the boiler had burst, and we had to wait for some 
time while they were being repaired. When we started the 
people assembled on the high banks cheered us all the way 
down. But we were a good deal delayed by the faulty tubes, 
and did not leave the mouth of the river till dusk. The 
scenery of the bank on each side is pleasing, and we all 
enjoyed the sail down. 

Friday, July 2C)th. We sailed merrily all night and all 
to-day, with a fair fresh breeze ; but there was a considerable 
roll, and having been on shore so long, we more or less 
felt the motion. During the night the question of stopping 
at Maryborough was definitely settled, and we sailed o^/side 
Sandy or Fraser Island instead of ^side it. This prevented 
us from accepting the kind and hospitable invitation of the 
Mayor and inhabitants of the township. At noon we had run 
204 knots, and were able to shape our course more towards 
land, the water becoming smoother with every knot we made. 
We saw Elliott Island, where if it had been calm it would 
have been very nice to stop. It swarms with turtle and sea- 
birds of every kind, which are reported to be perfectly tame, 
as the island is seldom visited. Cape Bustard was made later 
on, and we had a quieter evening ; but about 10 P.M. the yacht 
began to roll again heavily, the wind having shifted a little, 
obliging us to alter our course. 

Saturday, July ^oth. At 5 A.M. we dropped anchor in 
Keppel Bay, but had to wait for the tide to rise. We landed 
in the course of the morning in the ' Gleam,' the ' Flash,' 
and the ' Mote,' and made quite a large party, with dogs, mon- 
key, and photographic apparatus. We found a convenient 
little landing-place, and looked over the telegraph station 
and post-office, which are mainly managed by the wife of the 
signalman, Aird, an honest Scotchman, who knew me from 



348 



THE TELEGRAPH STATION 



my books, and was very anxious to give us a real hearty 
welcome to his comfortable little house. The first thing he 
offered us each was a tumbler of delicious new frothy niilk, the 




IP 

.1 ._- i, i 



Turpentine Tree 



ROCKHAMPTON 



349 



greatest 
possible 
treat. After 
sending off 
a telegram or 
two, and post- 
ing some letters, 
I was carried up 
to the lighthouse 
where the custom- 
house officer lives, and 
from which there is a 
fine view over land and 
sea. When the tide rose 
we returned on hoard, and 
about half-past two all the 
inhabitants of the station 
came on board to see the 
yacht of which they had read 
and heard so much, and which 
they were glad to see, as they 
said, ' with their own eyes.' At 
half-past three our visitors returned 

i- 

ashore, and we had to start up the 
river. A little higher up, the harbour- 
master of Kockhampton met us, bringing many telegrams 
from various people in that town as well as in Brisbane, all 
sent with the object of making our visit pleasant. 

We arrived at Rockhampton at 9.30 P.M. The cold I 
caught at the last Ambulance meeting has been gradually 
increasing, and became so bad to-day that I was obliged 
to go to bed early and take strong measures to try and 
stop it ; so that when the Mayor of Rockhampton came on 
board to welcome us I was not visible, nor did I see the Naval 




350 AN EXPEDITION 

Volunteers who were waiting on the bank to receive Torn. It is 
very pleasant to find how warmly he is welcomed everywhere 
as the originator and founder of the Naval Volunteer move- 
ment. 

Sunday, July' 31 st. I stayed on hoard all day, so cannot 
describe Eockhampton from my own knowledge of it. The 
others all went to church ; Mr. Ballard, Dr. and Mrs. Mae- 
donald, and Mr. Thompson, the owner of the opal-mines at 
Springsure, came to lunch, the latter bringing some curious 
specimens from his quarries. We had service at six o'clock, 
after which I was glad to go to rest. 

Monday, August 1st. A busy morning, as usual, before 
starting. We left at i o A.M. in three waggonettes (or four-wheel 
buggies, as they are called here) for Mount Morgan, each 
vehicle being drawn by four horses. Our party occupied two 
of the waggonettes, and the sailors and luggage filled the third. 
After passing through the clean and tidy town of Eockhampton, 
the streets of which, though wide, cannot be called picturesque, 
we entered on a long stretch of road. I never saw anything 
so gorgeous as the Tliunleryia rcnusta and Bougainvillea, now 
in full bloom, which hid most of the verandahs with a perfect 
curtain of rich orange and glorious purple. The hospital is 
a fine building on the top of the hill ; the grammar-school 
and several other good- sized public buildings give the whole 
place a well-to-do air. We crossed a bridge spanning an arm 
of a lagoon covered with a curious little red weed, out of 
which rose a splendid lotus lily, known as the Eockhampton 
Lily. The blossoms are blue, red, and white, and rear their 
graceful heads above the water in a conspicuous manner, 
growing sometimes as large as a breakfast-saucer. It was a 
beautiful morning, and had I not felt unwell with bronchitis, 
from which I have so long been suffering, I should have en- 
joyed the drive immensely. About seven miles out we came 
to a large poultry farm, but I am afraid the venture had not 



MOUNT MORGAN 35 r 



proved successful, for the farm looked neglected. Quite a 
little crowd had assembled in the verandahs of the inn and 
adjoining store, and the people had hoisted a Union Jack in 
our honour. 

About half-way up the hill we were glad to pull up at 
a creek to water the horses and sit in the shade. This 
was just before reaching the ' Crocodile ' inn, where several 
coaches were waiting to change horses. Soon afterwards we 
passed several mines, or rather reefs, with queer names, such 
as the ' Hit or Miss,' the ' Chandler,' and the ' Hopeless,' 
arriving in due time at the Eazor-Back Hill. It is indeed 
well named ; for, steep as we had found the little pitches 
hitherto, this ascent was much more abrupt, and might well 
be likened to the side of a house. Everybody was turned 
out of the carriages except me, and even with the lightest 
buggies and four good strong horses, it seemed as if the 
leaders must tumble back into the carriage, so perpendicular 
was the ascent in some places. On one side of the road a 
deep precipice fell away, and when we passed a cart or met 
a heavily laden dray coming down from the mines we seemed 
to go dangerously near the side. Altogether, the drive would 
not have been a pleasant one for nervous people. Bad and 
steep as the present road is, however, it cuts off a great 
piece of the hill, and is quite a Queen's Highway compared 
to the old road. Having at last reached the summit of the 
hill and breathed our panting horses, w r e went on through a 
park-like country, more or less enclosed, which led to the 
Mount Morgan territory. 

Here the most conspicuous building is the hotel, erected 
by the company for the convenience of the many visitors to 
the works. Although not yet finished, it is quite a pretty 
house, and will accommodate a large number of guests. 
It stands close to a dam across the mountain stream w r hich 
flows through the valley, and has for a foreground a refreshing 



352 THE MINES 



lake and bathing-place, formed by the arrested waters. We 
did not stop here, but crossed the creek and went up to 
the company's office, where we were warmly welcomed by the 
practical manager of the mines, Mr. Wesley Hall. The sun 
was now intensely hot, and it was quite a relief to retire into 
the shade. I felt very tired ; but as they had kindly harnessed 
two fresh draught horses into the buggy on purpose to take 
me to the top of the hill, I considered myself bound to go ; 
and off we started, passing enormous stacks of stone taken 
from the top of the mountain. These blocks are said to be 
full of ore, but have been allowed to lie so long exposed to 
air and weather that many plants and creepers, and even 
some large shrubs, are growing over them. As w r e climbed 
up the hills, which became steeper and steeper at each turn, 
we passed works and furnaces of every description, reaching 
at last a plateau, from which a fine view opened out beneath 
us. 

The township of Mount Morgan nestles in a pretty valley, 
and is enclosed by round-topped hills, which are covered 
with trees. A mile or two further we reached the foot of the 
steepest hill of all, where the rest of the party found trucks 
waiting for them, worked by an endless rope, going up and 
down. Into one of these they soon packed themselves, and 
were speedily drawn to the top of the hill, while we climbed 
slowiy, and indeed painfully, up by a pretty country road, 
eventually arriving at the shoot, at the bottom of which three 
drays w r ere standing. Into these, lumps of stone were being 
run as fast as possible, and when filled they were taken 
down to the works, to be quickly replaced by empty return 
drays. The stone looked exactly like old ironstone, but we 
were told that it was the richest native gold yet found, 
having been assayed as high as 99-8 per cent., and selling 
readily for 4?. 4.9. an ounce. To this was added the assurance 
that half an ounce of gold per ton would pay all working ex- 



A MOUNTAIN OF GOLD 353 

penses. The blacksmith's forge stood a little further on, and 
then we came to a very narrow woodland path, up which Tom 
and the sailors carried me in turns, as far as another platform 
on the hill. Here were several troughs leading to the larger 
shoot we had seen below, which kept it constantly fed, and 
also the openings of long tunnels which had been pierced into 
the very heart of the mountains. These shafts were merely 
experimental, to make sure that the richness of the ore was 
not superficial, but extended to a depth of some two hundred 
feet beneath the ground on which we were standing. It was 
curious to hear these statements, and look at the surround- 
ing country, which was perfectly free from the defacement of 
mining operations. The top of the mountain, on a part of 
which w r e were standing, had originally been of sugar-loaf 
form, but its extreme apex has been cut off, and quarrying 
operations are now going on vigorously. Tons of valuable 
stone are daily raised to the surface, from which large quan- 
tities of gold can be extracted. One blast which took place 
while we stood there proved nearly fatal to both me and ' Sir 
Roger.' The stone turned out to be harder than the miners 
had anticipated, and the fragments blew further than they 
should have done. One piece missed poor ' Sir Roger's ' paw 
by an inch ; and another whizzed past my head within two 
inches ; while a smaller piece hit me on the shoulder with 
what the manager described as a ' whacking sound,' making 
me feel quite faint for a few moments. 

After strolling about picking up specimens, trying to learn 
from Mr. Wesley Hall to distinguish between good and bad 
stone, their differing qualities being to us novices extremely 
difficult to detect, we sat down quietly to enjoy the view 
and try to realise the truth of the wonderful stories we 
had been hearing, which seemed more fit to furnish mate- 
rial for a fresh chapter of the 'Arabian Nights,' or to be 
embodied in an appendix to 'King Solomon's Mines/ than 

T T 



354 THE WATCHMAN 



to figure in a business report in this prosaic nineteenth 
century. Mabelle and I returned slowly to the hotel, which 
we found clean and comfortable. While I was lying on the 
sofa, waiting for the others to arrive, a regular ' srnash-up ' took 
place outside. Five horses 3 r oked in a timber-waggon (two 
and two abreast and one leading) were going down a steep 
bank into the creek below, when the timber suddenly lifted 
and came on the backs of the wheelers. The animals began 
kicking violently, getting their legs among the timber ; it was 
extremely difficult to extricate them even with the help of a 
dozen powerful and willing hands, though everyone near ran 
to the assistance of the bewildered teamster, who seemed quite 
unable to cope with the emergency. 

Presently an old man a most picturesque individual- 
passed slowly b} T , surrounded by quite a pack of hounds, in- 
cluding lurchers, retrievers, and even curs, as well as some 
very good-looking, well-bred greyhounds and kangaroo-hounds. 
On inquiry I found that his business was to patrol the 
place all night, and prevent intruders coming to take away 
samples of Mount Morgan ore. The dogs are said to know 
their business thoroughly, and contrive to be a terror to the 
neighbourhood without seriously hurting anybody. 

Australian up-country hotels are certainly not meant for 
rest. They are always either built of corrugated iron, which 
conveys every sound, or of wood, which is equally resonant. 
As a rule the partitions of the rooms do not reach to the top 
of the roof, so that the least noise can be heard from end to 
end of the building. There is alwaj's a door at one extremity, 
sometimes at both, besides a wide verandah, up and down 
which people stroll or lounge at pleasure. Every landlady ap- 
pears to have half-a-dozen small children, who add their con- 
tribution to the day's noises in the shape of cries and shouts 
for ' mammy,' who, poor soul, is far too busy to attend to them 
herself or to spare anyone else to do so. 



LIQUID GOLD 355 



Tuesday, August 2nd. The crushing-mills and the ma- 
chinery have to be kept working all night, for of course the 
furnaces are never let out ; and before daybreak all the 
noises of the works began, so that we were up early, and after 
breakfast went to the chlorination works with Mr. Trinear, the 
assayer. 

The first thing shown us was the stone just as it came 




from the drays we had watched at work yesterday. This 
was speedily crushed into powder, baked, and mixed with 
charcoal. It then passed through another process within the 
powerful furnaces, which separated the ore from the rock and 
poured it forth, literally in a stream, golden as the river 
Pactolus. I never saw anything more wonderful than this 
river of liquid gold. A little phial held to the mouth of one 



356 CHLORINA TION 



of the taps became just a bottle of gold in solution. By 
adding hydrochlorate of iron the gold is precipitated in about 
seventy hours, and the water can be drained off pure as crystal, 
without a vestige of gold remaining in it. The gold itself is 
then mixed with borax, put through a further smelting-process, 
and ultimately comes out in solid nuggets, worth, according to 
the purity of the gold, from 30x3?. to 400^. each. The children 
were very pleased at being able to hold i,2ooZ. in their hands. 
Mr. Trinear told me that as the metal comes from the furnaces 
mixed with charcoal they often obtain as much as 75, and he 
had got as much as 86, per cent, of gold. 

The Mount Morgan Gold Mining Company possess pro- 
bably the most productive gold-mine in the world. The dis- 
covery of the gold-bearing rock, of which the whole mass of 
Mount Morgan is composed, was made while searching for 
copper ore. The gold at Mount Morgan is obtained from a 
lode of decomposed iron pyrites, partly underlying a bed of 
quartz, and at various points cropping up to the surface. The 
original discoverers of the ore, and the individuals who sup- 
plied the slender amount of capital with which the company 
commenced operations, have realised great fortunes. 

At Mount Morgan the process known as chlorination has 
been developed on a larger scale than has elsewhere been 
attempted. It is described as follows : 

' The process of chlorination at Mount Morgan is a very 
interesting one, and would well repay a visit of inspection by 
any who are interested in the profitable and economic treat- 
ment of auriferous ores. The tailings, as they come from the 
battery or from the dry crusher, as the case may be, are first 
of all roasted in eight large furnaces, each with a capacity of 
putting through eight tons in twenty-four hours. The roasting 
of the ore in the first place is to free it from the waters of 
crystallisation and to burn all organic matter out of it. When 
it leaves the furnaces, it is turned out to cool in a large space, 



CHLORINA TION 



357 



between the furnaces and the chlorinising barrels. When it 
has sufficiently cooled, it is taken on an inclined tramway 
to the hoppers connected with the chlorination barrels, in 
which the gas is generated by mingling chloride of lime with 
sulphuric acid. Water only is added, and the barrels, which 
are perfectly air-tight, are kept revolving until the gold is 




thoroughly chlorinated, or, to speak plainly, put into a fluid 
state. Each barrel contains a charge of about a ton of ore, 
and it is possible to get through twelve charges in the twenty- 
four hours. 

The period for which the barrels are made to revolve 
averages one and a half hour. When this operation is over the 
contents of the barrels are discharged into draining- vats, from 



358 CHLORINATION 



whence the water and the gold, put into a state of solution, 
are drained into charcoal niters below. Charcoal possesses 
such an affinity for the chlorine that the gold is rapidly 
deposited, and the charcoal is so laid in these V-shaped 
niters that the golden fluid passes through layers, gradually 
becoming finer towards the bottom, and thus practically all 
the gold that is dissolved by the chlorine gas in the barrels 
is caught in the charcoal. So effectual is the process that 
the refuse from the draining-tubs will not assay more than 
a pennyweight or a pennyweight and a half to the ton, while 
the water which drains off from the charcoal filters is pumped 
back and goes through the process a second time. The 
contents of the charcoal filters are conveyed straight to the 
srnelting-works. There the charcoal on which the gold has 
been precipitated is first roasted in furnaces, and the residuum 
smelted in the usual srnelting-pots. After this it is run into 
ingots of the purest gold. 

' Chlorination was originally attempted in the United States. 
It has been perfected at Mount Morgan. By the ordinary 
crushing and washing process one ounce to the ton would be 
extracted from the rock quarried at Mount Morgan. By chlo- 
rination every particle of gold is extracted. The product some- 
times reaches 17 oz. per ton. The average maybe taken at 
5 oz. Half an ounce would cover expenses.' 

The day turned out lovely, and if my cough had not been 
so bad, I should have enjoyed the drive down from Mount 
Morgan. The pitches were just as steep, but they were nearly 
all downhill, which made our progress seem quicker and plea- 
santer. The country looked very pretty ; the ferns were quite 
lovely, and the lilies in full bloom. The pleasure of the drive 
was further marred by the dreadful odours arising from the 
decaying carcasses of unfortunate bullocks which had been 
left by the roadside to die from exhaustion. Happily, there 
were no such horrors at the pretty place where we paused to 



TO EMERALD AND SPRINGSURE 359 

bait our horses the same at which we had stopped going 
up yesterday and we arrived at the railway hotel at Bock- 
hampton at 2.5, and immediately went on board the 'Sun- 
beam.' 

In spite of heavy rain in the afternoon a great many 
ladies came to see the yacht, and were followed later by 
the Naval Artillery Volunteers, the Naval Brigade, and other 
visitors. At 6 P.M. Tom went ashore, accompanied by the 
children, to review the Naval Brigade, with which he was 
well pleased. After a hasty dinner at seven, we all went to 
an Ambulance Meeting in the council-chamber of the town- 
hall. The heat of the room seemed great on first entering it 
from the fresh air outside, and I thought I should have fainted 
before I reached my chair at the farthest end of the room. 
Presently, however, some doors were opened, and matters im- 
proved. The meeting was very satisfactory, a committee 
being appointed, and several doctors promising to help and 
give lectures, while many of the people present gave in their 
names as subscribers. From the Ambulance Meeting we went 
straight on to the station, where the servants had rigged up 
very comfortable beds for Baby and me in one and for Mabelle 
and Miinie in another railway-carriage, the gentlemen being 
provided for in two others. We were soon in bed, and at ten 
o'clock started for Emerald and Springsure. We should have 
been most comfortable but for the piercingly cold draughts. 
The moon shone brilliantly, and I could see from my cot the 
lightly wooded but flat pastures alternating with miles and 
miles of bush, with here and there a log hut or a tin house 
standing in its own little clearing, making an interesting 
picture as we flew through the district. 

Wednesday, August yd. There was still a bright moon, 
and as we approached Emerald the country, seen by its light, 
looked most picturesque. At Emerald, the rail to Springsure 
branches off from the main line to Barceldine. In the early 



360 THE OPAL-MINES 



morning, as we were passing Fernlee, where the Government 
line ends, our servants produced some welcome tea. From 
there we ran on to Springsure, where our arrival caused great 
excitement, for it was really the opening of the line, ours being 
the first passenger train to arrive at the township. By about 
half-past eight we w r ere all dressed, and w r ent to a comfortable 
inn, some on foot and some in waggonettes, where we break- 
fasted. 

After watching experiments with various horses, to see 
which were best and quietest, we started in a couple of 
buggies for the opal-mines, or rather opal-fields, of Spring- 
sure. We had not driven far when we came to a fence right 
across the high road, and had to go some way round over 
rough ground and across a creek to avoid it. This did not 
excite any astonishment in the mind of the gentleman who 
drove us, and he seemed to think it was a casual alteration 
owing to the new line ; but on a dark night the unexpected 
obstruction might prove inconvenient. When the top of the 
hill where the opals are to be found was reached, we all got 
out and set to work to pick up large and heavy stones with 
traces of opals in them, as well as some fragments of pumice- 
stone with the same glittering indications. W'e w r ere shown 
the remnants of a rock which had been blown up with dyna- 
mite to get at a magnificent opal firmly imbedded in it. The 
experiment resulted in rock, opal, and all being blown into 
fragments, and nothing more has ever been seen of the precious 
stone. Our search not proving very successful, we proceeded 
to the large sheep-station of Eainworth. This fine property 
originally belonged to Mr. Bolitho, and I was told that it then 
consisted of 300 square miles of country thoroughly well 
stocked, with excellent buildings, and what is to be most 
valued in this dry and thirsty land a running stream, which 
had never been known to be empty, even in a ten years' 
drought. The question of water becomes a serious considera- 



KA INS WOR TH 36 r 



tion out here, where every full-grown beast is supposed to 
drink and waste ten gallons of water a day. The drive to the 
station was very pleasant. We passed a racecourse, where a 
little race-meeting was going on. It looked a very simple 
affair, and we were told that once a year all the sporting 
population in what Australians call ' the neighbourhood,' ex- 
tending for some hundred miles around, assemble here to try 
their nags against one another. 

We seem rather unlucky about accidents, for on our way 
down a steep hill the horses suddenly became restive ; and if 
it had not been that our driver sent them spinning down one 
hill at full gallop, and up the next, thus leaving them no time 
for kicking, and preventing the carriage from ever touching 
them, we should probably have had a repetition of our smash 
the other day. We did not see a single kangaroo all the 
way, but passed a number of good-looking cattle and horses. 
Years ago this country swarmed with game, and was so 
eaten up that the ground looked as bare as your hand, the 
pasture being undistinguishable from the roads. By a stren- 
uous effort the settlers killed 30,000 kangaroos on a com- 
paratively small area on the Ekowe Downs, the adjoining 
station to this, and thousands more died at the fence, which 
was gradually pushed forward, in order to enclose the sheep 
and keep out the marsupials. 

By-and-by we arrived at a smart white gate in the fence, 
which a nice little boy dressed in sailor costume, who had 
accompanied us from Springsure, opened for us. These pad- 
docks held some merino sheep. Some fine timber had been 
left, so that the station looked more like an English gentle- 
man's estate than any place we have yet visited. We jolted 
wearily over huge boulders and great slabs of rock, and went 
up and down tremendously steep pitches in the roads, until at 
last we arrived at Eainsworth, where we received the warmest 
welcome from Mr. and Mrs. Todhunter. After luncheon I 

u u 



3 62 A MOB OF CATTLE 

stayed in the verandah and rested, whilst the rest of the 
party went out to look round the station and the opal- 
fields. 

The view from the verandah of the house up to the Rains- 
worth mountain was remarkable, its most conspicuous feature 
being the peculiar-shaped hill, 1,500 feet high, with its top 
cut off, leaving a table-land, where what is called opal -glass 
is found. This substance resembles opal in its consistency, 
except that it is white and transparent and does not possess 
prismatic colours like imprisoned rainbows. Before we left, 
Mrs. Todhunter kindly gave me some curious specimens of 
limestone, stalactites, and stalagmites, picked up on the surface 
of the black soil in the neighbourhood, besides two very curious 
little iron balls, joined together like a natural dumb-bell. We 
left in good time, and had an uneventful drive home. I felt 
curious to know the value of this fine station, and was told 
it was 40,000'. This, certainly, if correct, does not seem high 
for an extra-good station with a comfortable house on it, 
besides stables, farm-buildings of every possible kind, a well- 
stocked though rather neglected garden and orchard, a large 
wool- shed some ten miles off, and a practically inexhaustible 
supply of water. Besides all this, there are plenty of well- 
fenced paddocks, containing 30,000 sheep, 200 bullocks, and 
some horses ; also drays and carts, and other farming imple- 
ments. 

On reaching Springsure we found some excitement prevail- 
ing on account of a mob of a thousand cattle having passed 
near the town. These mobs of cattle are obliged by law to 
travel six miles a day at least, unless they have cows and 
young calves with them, when the compulsory distance is less. 
They feed all the way on their neighbours' ground, so to 
speak, and travel many thousands of miles , occupying months 
on the journey. A clever stockman loses very few beasts on 
the way, and such men command high wages. They often 



THE CATTLE-CAMP 



363 



undertake the journey at their own risk, and are paid only 
for the number of cattle actually delivered. I was, as usual, 
too tired to go out again, but the rest of the party set off to 
see the cattle-camp, and had a long walk over a rough road ; 
but they declared the sight well rewarded them for their 
trouble. The cattle were preparing to settle down for the 

night ; whilst the camp-fires 
were just being lit, and be- 
ginning to twinkle in the 
early twilight. On one 
side a brilliant red sunset 
glowed, and on the other 
the moon was rising and 
shedding her silver light 




upon the scene. It ^was so tempting to remain out that the 
sightseers were rather late for dinner ; after which we took up 
our old quarters in the railway carriages, and started on our 
homeward journey. This proved much more comfortable than 
the outward trip, for the railway officials had kindly stopped 
nearly all the draughts. 

Thursday, August ^tli. I awoke about five, and was at 
once struck by the strange appearance of the moon, which 



364 AN ECLIPSE 



did not look so big as usual, and had assumed a curious shape. 
I gazed at her in a lazy, sleepy way for some time, until it 
suddenly occurred to me that an eclipse was taking place, 
whereupon I roused myself and got my glasses. I was very 
glad not to have missed this, to me, always most interesting 
sight, especially as I had not the slightest idea that an eclipse 
would occur this morning. The atmosphere was marvellously 
clear, and I saw it to absolute perfection. 

We reached Rockhampton about 6 A.M., and were put into 
a quiet siding till eight, by which time we had dressed and 
were ready to go and breakfast at the comfortable railway 
hotel. There was just time for a satisfactory talk about 
arrangements for future movements before eleven o'clock, 
when the Mayor arrived to take us, in quite a procession of 
buggies, to the hospital. Here Doctor Macdonald met us, 
and I was put into a chair and carried through the various 
wards of an excellently planned and perfectly ventilated 
building. Everything looked scrupulously clean, and the pa- 
tients appeared happy and well cared for. Several instances 
were pointed out to me by Doctor Macdonald in which the St. 
John Ambulance would have been of great use. I heard of 
one case of a man who had come down 200 miles with a 
broken leg, no attempt having been made to bandage it up. 
The poor fellow arrived, as may easily be imagined, with the 
edges of the bone all ground to powder and the tissues sur- 
rounding it much destroyed. Then there was another case of 
an arm broken in the bush, and the poor man lying all night 
in great agony ; and again of another stockman who crushed 
his knee against a tree while riding an unbroken horse. The 
instances are too numerous to mention where the knowledge 
of how to make the best of the available means of relief and 
transport would have saved much needless suffering. There 
were some good rooms for convalescent patients, besides 
paying wards. 



THE HOSPITAL 365 



Everything looked bright, cheerful, and sunny except the 
ophthalmic wards, which, if I may use such an expression, 
displayed an agreeable gloom. Here, all was painted dark 
green, and the system of ventilation seemed quite perfect, 
for air without light was admitted and the temperature 
equalised, this being an important factor in bad cases. Oph- 
thalmia appears to be quite a curse in Australia, as we have 
already found to our cost, through Tom's suffering from it. 
There were nice shady verandahs to this part of the hospital, 
and comfortable chairs for the patients to sit and lounge 
in, besides a pretty garden. Not far off, in the compound, 
stood the various quarters for the nurses and servants, and 
the dead-house, and dissecting-room, with other necessary 
though painful adjuncts to a hospital. The doctor's cheerful 
bungalow, also near, was surrounded by a pretty garden. 

A rough drive over a bad road took us to the Botanical 
Gardens, which are enclosed by the most charming fence I 
have ever seen ; or rather by a fence made beautiful by the 
luxuriant creepers growing over it. A mass of the brilliant 
blossoms of the orange Thuribergia vcmista, purple Bouyain- 
villeas, and ivory-white Baumantia extended from end to end 
and side to side. This fence encircled a lavish growth of 
palms of all kinds and shapes and sorts and sizes, and many 
other tropical plants, which quite overshadowed the common 
European shrubs. These seem to flourish to perfection in 
winter here, and include verbenas of all colours, and unusual 
size and brilliancy ; a great profusion of phloxes, the Phlox 
Dntmmondi being a perfect weed, and scenting the whole air. 
These taller flowers were intermixed with mignonette, musk, 
and many dear old home favourites ; while all one side of the 
garden was taken up by a bush-house full of splendid palms. 
Ferns, various Alsopltilas, Lycopodium scandens, Vanillas, 
Hoyas, flourished in great variety. Pink and red Bougain- 
rilleas were growing on standards outside, among the orange- 



366 



A MEAT-CANNING FACTORY 



trees, and beyond lay lagoons covered with the far-famed blue, 
red, and pink lotus-lilies of Rockhampton. 

The sun became very hot, and I was glad to be carried 
back to the carriage and to drive straight to the boat, and 
so on board the yacht to rest, while the remainder of the 
party went shopping in the town. In the afternoon we all 
went in the steam-launch to see the Creek Meat Canning 
Factory a concern which has lately changed hands, and 

holds some of the largest contracts 
in the world for supplying armies 
and navies with tinned meat. The 
quality is excellent. Mr. Bertram, 
the manager, met us at the pier, 
at which we had considerable 
difficulty in landing, for the tide 
was low. After a little time and 
trouble we managed to reach the 
shore, and went through the works, 
which are most interesting. The 
manufactory stands on the bank 
of the river close to a pretty lake 
embosomed amongst hills, and 
surrounded with paddocks, where 
the cattle rest after being driven in from distant stations. 

We were all safe on board the yacht by 9 P.M., and at 
ten o'clock the anchor was weighed. The night was fine, 
and we only stopped at intervals to allow the pilot to re- 
connoitre, or to wait for a rise of tide. This is a most curious 
river, and might well be made the scene of a romance by 
some poetical person. It is only every ten or twelve days 
that craft drawing over ten feet can get up or down the river, 
and then only by the light of the moon. By day no large 
vessel can reach Eockhampton. 





CHAPTER XVII. 

THE EAST COAST. 

Friday, August 5</<. At 1.30 A.M. we anchored off John- 
stone Point, and at 8 o'clock we hove anchor and proceeded 
to the mouth of the Fitzroy River. The pilot left us at 10.30, 
and we proceeded out to sea under sail. There was a strong 
wind from the south-east, and I was glad to stay in bed all 
day. We passed through the Cumberland Isles, and Tom had 
a rather anxious night, as the navigation was very intricate. 

Saturday, August 6tJt. The morning broke clear and fine, 
the fresh breeze still continuing. The scenery during the 
day was lovely, and I was carried into the deck-house in 



UP THE COAST 



order that I might enjoy it. The views were more like 
the Inland Sea of Japan than the tropical scenery, made 
up of cocoanut palms, tree-ferns, and coral islands, which 
I had been looking for. The mountain shapes were very 
beautiful, as were also the bays and inlets, and the varied 
colours of the land, sea, and sky gave brilliancy and effect to 
the landscape. The east coast of Australia at this season of 
the year is a perfect cruising-ground for yachtsmen. The 
Great Barrier reef, extending for a distance of 1,000 miles 
from Swain Keefs to Cape Yorke, protects the coast from the 
heavy swell of the Pacific. The steady breezes from the south- 
east are favourable for sailing, especially in the direction in 
which we are steering. 

At 4 P.M. we were off Pine Island, a small islet of the Percy 
group, on which a light has been established. From Pine 
Island onwards to the Whitsunday Passage the navigation 
recalls the experiences of mai\y pleasant summers on the west 
coast of Scotland. The inner route, which we followed, passes 
between numberless rocks and islands. The Percy Isles form 
a distinct group, extending twenty miles from north to south, 
and eight miles from east to west. To the westward of the 
Percy Isles a still larger group has received the collective name 
of Northumberland, the several islands being distinguished by 
familiar Northumbrian names. Advancing northwards, at a 
distance of some sixty miles from the Percy group, the Cum- 
berland, Sir James Smith, and Whitsunday groups form a 
continuous archipelago on the eastern side of the passage. 
The highest peaks attain an elevation little short of i ,000 feet. 
The islands are for the most part richly wooded. Some 
peaks are clothed with timbers to the summit, others are 
smooth and grassy, a few are bare of vegetation. The rocks 
are magnificent. Paternoster rises sheer from the water to a 
height of more than 900 feet. 

' Turning from the sea to the mainland, the coast-rangei 



GLOUCESTER ISLAND 369 

at a short distance inland forms a continuous barrier, vary- 
ing in height from 3,000 to upwards of 4,000 feet. At Whit- 
sunday Passage, through which we passed on the afternoon 
of August 6th, the line of coast is broken by Cape Conway, 
which, at its south-eastern extremity, rises to a height of 1,637 
feet. A chain of peaks extends northwards from Cape Con- 
way to Mount Drysander, and forms a fine amphitheatre of 
hills on the western side of the Whitsunday Passage. On 
the eastern side is a group of islands, of which Whitsunday, 
the largest, is eleven miles long, while Whitsunday Passage 
is twenty miles in length. At its narrowest part it is con- 
tracted to a breadth of two miles. On the mainland side the 
passage opens out into the fine natural harbour of Porte Molle. 
On the eastern side the line of shore is broken by the bays of 
Whitsunday Island, and the channels which divide it from the 
smaller islands, by which it is completely surrounded.' 

Cape Gloucester was reached in about three hours after 
we had issued from the Whitsunday Passage. Piounding the 
cape, we anchored for the night close under the land. 

Sunday, August Jtli. The morning dawned clear and bright, 
and we sent off two men in the dinghy to land on Gloucester 
Island. They took the dogs for a run ashore, and I asked 
them to collect what they could in the way of shells or 
greenery. They did not bring back much of either, but re- 
ported that the island was very pretty and had a nice sandy 
shore, with forests running down almost to the water's edge, 
and quantities of parrots and parrakeets. We had church 
at half-past ten, and directly after service went across to 
Bowen, anchoring a short distance from H.M.S. ' Paluma.' 
Bowen is a small town, but the harbour is spacious. The sea 
was rather rough, and we found some difficulty in communi- 
cating with the shore ; but after lunch all the party landed in 
the large cutter. I was sorry to hear that Bowen is rapidly 
dwindling and losing its trade ; the inhabitants hope, however, 



370 TOWNSVILLE 



to recover some of their former vitality when once the network 
of railways is extended to their little town. Later on the 
officers of the ' Paluma ' came on board, and seemed pleased 
to meet people lately from Europe ; for they have been on this 
station several years, surveying the Barrier Eeef. Our own 
shore party returned late, having much enjoyed their expedi- 
tion and the long walk. They had picked up a good many 
curiosities, including one of the largest and finest hawksbill- 
turtle shells I had ever beheld. It had been most carefully 
polished by a lighthouse-keeper on one of the reefs, who had 
caught the creature himself. A great many telegrams were 
received this evening, all referring to the various kind arrange- 
ments proposed for us at Towiisville and elsewhere. 

Monday, August 8th. Weighed anchor at daybreak, and 
were pushed merrily forward by strong S.E. breezes. We 
sailed swiftly up the coast as far as Townsville a pretty- 
looking town of foreign appearance, with its wharves and busi- 
ness-houses close down on the beach, w r hilst the villas and 
private residences stand on the little nooks and corners of a 
hill at the back. The officers of H.M.S. 'Myrmidon,' which 
was lying in harbour, soon came on board to see us. They 
had broken their rudder-head outside the Barrier Eeef, where 
they too were hard at work surveying, and had come into 
Townsville for repairs. The anchorage proved roily, there 
being no protection whatever, and I had rather an uncomfort- 
able night. 

Tuesday, August gtli. At daybreak Tom moved the yacht 
out to the shelter of Magnetic Island, where the coal-hulks 
lie, some six miles off Townsville. There we kept boxing 
about all the morning, under the mistaken idea that it was 
quite smooth. Meanwhile some supplies were taken on board ; 
but as I w T as not well enough to undertake the long expeditions 
which had been planned, and the rest of the party declared 
that it would not be possible to go without me, they were 



A BUSY PLACE 



37i 



given up. After landing and taking a walk 
through Townsville, the shore- 
going people 
pronounced it 
to be quite as 
clean - looking 
and prosper- 
ous as Bowen, 
but with more 
business going 



on. The town, which 
has a population of 
12,000, is built on a 
tongue of land between 
the sea and Eoss Creek. 
It consists of one main 
street containing banks, 
public offices, counting- 
houses, and well-sup- 
plied stores and shops. The 
bustle in the streets and the flour- 
ishing and prosperous appearance 
everywhere were quite cheering. 
Townsville owes its prosperity to 
its railway, which is already opened 

to a distance of two hundred miles into the interior, and 
which has made it the port for a wide area of pastoral country 
and for several promising gold-fields. 

The bay of Townsville is open, and the shoal water extends 
some two miles from the beach. A breakwater is in course of 
construction, and dredging operations are being prosecuted 
with energy, so that the defects of the port will in course 
of time be remedied. We started with the same strong trade- 
wind up the coast, passing through some pretty picturesque 

x x 




372 A VISIT FROM NATIVES 

islands and roads, hoping to anchor at Dungeness. for the 
night. Finding it impossible to get up there before dark, we 
anchored in Challenger Bay, under shelter of Palm Island, 
shortly after sunset. Soon after we had dropped anchor ab- 
original blacks were reported alongside, and on going on deck 
I saw two miserable-looking objects in the frailest of boats. 
Indeed the craft looked like the pictures of an ancient Bri- 
tish coracle, and was so light and unseaworthy that every 
wave washed into it. They had nothing for sale except 
some commonplace and evil- smelling shells, which they were 
anxious to exchange for tobacco and biscuits, evidently pre- 
ferring these commodities to money. We bought all the shells 
they had, and they were so well satisfied with their bargain 
that they returned later on with another bucketful of con- 
chological curiosities, which were also purchased. They looked 
most harmless individuals ; but having been warned by Cap- 
tain Bridge never to trust the natives here, we thought it 
better to set a double watch for the night, more as a matter 
of precaution than from any fear of actual danger. Though 
they may have the reputation of being friendly, and may be 
certified as such in books of sailing directions, and on the Admi- 
ralty charts, one can never feel sure of their disposition. A 
trifling event may have occurred since the last report was 
made which would alter the disposition of the whole tribe 
towards Europeans. Some officers may have landed to shoot, 
and walked over the crops of the natives without apologising 
or offering them remuneration, not knowing that they had 
done anything wrong. Drunken sailors may have landed, and 
so changed the friendly attitude of the inhabitants to deadly 
enmity towards the next arrivals. I honestly believe that a 
great many of the reported outrages in the South Sea and 
other savage islands are due more to a temporary misunder- 
standing between blacks and whites than to any cold-blooded 
barbarity or love of bloodshed on the part of the natives. 









PALM ISLAND 



373 



Wednesday, August loth. Some of the party went early 
ashore, and I need scarcely say they were not molested in 
the slightest degree, and only found a most harmless black 
camp of about twenty individuals, with gins nursing their 
babies and men walking about. They brought off a good col- 
lection of pectens, clams, helmets, conchs, pearl-oysters, and 
large cowries, but the specimens were not very perfect. Also 




Queensland Xatives 



a quantity of greenery in the shape of Pancrathims, Logodium 
scandens, climbing Lycopodium, and a curious sort of fruit off 
a palm, which grows in large cone-shaped clusters. They call 
it breadfruit in these parts, and the natives eat it ; but it 
certainly does not look either inviting or eatable. One fruit 
weighed twelve, and the other over eleven, pounds. 

Two more natives came alongside this morning. The}* had 



374 HINCHINBROOK CHANNEL 

not the slightest vestige of clothing ; but two men, whom I 
saw over the side later in the day, both sported hats, and one 
of them had on besides a man-of-war shirt ; the other wore 
a very short tunic cut low in the neck and several rows of 
canary- coloured glass beads. We weighed at eleven, and pro- 
ceeded towards Dungeness under sail. I was carried up into 
the deck-house to see the view, which was provokingly ob- 
scured by mists and driving rain. We found some difficulty in 
making our way, owing to the new buoys not having yet been 
entered on the Admiralty chart. Fortunately, the officers 
of the ' Myrmidon ' had warned Tom of this fact, made more 
dangerous by the thick mist and fog. We ultimately arrived at 
Dungeness in safety, taking everybody by surprise, as no ship 
had ever been known to go through the southern entrance of 
Hmchinbrook Channel before without a pilot. The pilot, a 
nice old man, had been looking for us all day yesterday, as 
well as all last night. As we did not appear, he must have 
gone home, thereby losing the pleasure of conducting us into 
the harbour, but giving Tom the gratification of bringing the 
vessel in through the channel without taking a pilot. 

Thursday, August nth. When I awoke at eight Tab and 
Mr. des Graz had already started on their shooting expedi- 
tion, and at noon we also set forth on an excursion up the 
Herbert River. Tom had caused a comfortable bed to be 
rigged up for me in the gig, so that I was not obliged to dress, 
but simply got out of one bed into another. The gig was 
towed by the steam-launch, which also trailed the ' Flash ' 
behind in case we might want to land in any shallow place 
or get aground on a sand or mud bank. After the first 
little fluster of moving was over it was a great pleasure to 
me to be once more in the open air after being shut up for 
what seems so long a time. It felt deliciously warm too, 
the temperature being /4. The scenery w r as beautiful- 
sandy shores, green woods with high precipitous mountains 



DUNGENESS 



375 



in the background, covered with shiny slate-like shale, which 
when moist shows up like a mirror through the mist. The 
view so reminded me of Scotland that I felt inclined to take 
up my glasses to look for deer among the craggy peaks and 
corries. We passed the little pilot station of Dungeness, and 
almost directly afterwards the hamlet of the same name. It 




Cardwell School-house 



bears some resemblance to its English namesake, for it is 
situated on a sandy spit of land, surrounded by mangrove 
swamps instead of grass marshes. I noticed, too, that the 
people have the fever-stricken look which is sometimes seen 
about Lydd and that part of the country. There are only fifty- 
six inhabitants, men, women, and children. Dull as the sur- 
roundings seemed, it is wonderful how bright and cheerful the 



376 A SUGAR PLANTATION 

people who came on board yesterday seemed to be. The river, 
though wider, put us very much in mind of the Kuching, in 
Borneo the same tropical vegetation and miles of unhealthy- 
looking mangrove swamps. We passed several tidy-looking 
little settlements on the banks, some picturesquely built of 
wood thatched with sugar-cane or palm-leaf, while others 
were constructed of corrugated iron, which must be frightfully 
hot in summer. The white people, so far as we could judge, 
as we passed up and down the river, were suffering from 
the climate. The Kanakas and Chinamen seemed more pros- 
perous ; and the few aboriginals looked quite happy in their 
natural surroundings. 

The servants, with their usual ingenuity, managed to both 
cook and serve an excellent lunch, in the boat, with only the 
assistance of the ' Darby and Joan ' stove. About half-past 
two we reached the wharf of the Halifax sugar-plantation, where 
our arrival disturbed a large party of aboriginals, women and 
children, who were enjoying their afternoon bath, splashing, 
jumping like a shoal of fish. Our party (including the dogs) 
landed, and on their return said that the crop of sugar 
looked very healthy, and the rolling and crushing stock of 
the cane was in excellent order. The whole district is well 
adapted for the cultivation of sugar. No less than 9,600 tons 
were produced in 1886. The growth is steadily increasing, 
and the country will sooner or later become the centre of a 
large and prosperous trade. 

For the cultivation of sugar on the Herbert both British 
and coloured labour is employed British workmen in the 
mills, the coloured people in cutting the cane. "Wages for 
Englishmen range from twenty-five shillings upwards weekly. 
We spoke to some of the wives of the workmen, several of whom 
are recent arrivals from Lancashire. Then- dwellings are of 
the simplest description, made of corrugated iron or of straw, 
and scattered at haphazard in a clearing in the jungle or on 



ALLIGATORS 377 



the banks of the river. These pioneers of cultivation have to 
lead a hard life and bear many privations circumstances in 
which the colonising qualities of the Anglo-Saxon race always 
come to the front. 

There was an hotel and a store, and, as is usual in this 
sort of place, enormous piles of broken bottles and empty 
cases of tinned meats, jams, &c. It breaks my heart to see 
the colonists, particularly the children, living on condensed 
milk, tinned meats, and canned fruits from America, when 
there is so much good pasture running to waste all round the 
house. In the orchards the trees are literally broken down 
from the weight of their crop, while quantities of fruit which 
the boughs cannot support are given to the pigs and cattle. 

We had to wait a little before starting on our homeward 
water-way, for the tubes of the ' Trap's ' boiler began to leak, 
and had to be repaired. This delay gave us an opportunity 
of observing some of the inhabitants, who came to the pier to 
see us. They looked smart and clean and well-to-do quite 
different from those we had noticed as we ascended the river. 
We stopped to take one or two photographs of tropical scenery 
and of various little stations on the way down the river. We 
also paused to look at the body of a dead alligator which had 
been caught in a snag. He was between five and seven feet 
long, and a second rather larger one lay close by. From time 
to time we caught sight of parties of blacks hidden amongst 
the rank vegetation of the shores, and we saw some beautiful 
birds, particularly a brilliant blue kingfisher, flashing about 
like a jewel in the sunlight. There was another pretty little 
red-beaked bird ; and an enormous black crane, about four 
feet high, with white tips to his wings, and a red and blue 
topknot, stalked about among the lotus-lilies. One part of 
the river banks was covered by a dense growth of pancra- 
tium lilies, scenting the whole air ; while elsewhere a tangled 
curtain of pink and violet ipomrea hung down from tall trees. 



578 



HINCHINBROOK ISLAND 



I may mention that the currents in the river are very strong, 
and that we had several tropical showers in the course of 
the day. Although I enjoyed my outing, I was thankful to 
get on board again and lie down on my bed. Mr. and Mrs. 
Wardlaw came off later on, and 
brought me some orchids and a 
telegram from Mr. Pennefather 
pressing us to stay till to-morrow, 




so as to allow the gentlemen to have the good day's shooting 
he had arranged for them ; but want of time rendered this 
pleasant plan impossible. The maids, stewards, and some of 
the crew had gone on shore on Hmchinbrook Island, and 
brought back a quantity of ferns, orchids, lilies, and shells, 
and an amusing report of the blacks' camp which they had 
seen there. The children were so delighted with the descrip- 



IN THE DOLDRUMS 379 



tion the maids gave them of the wonders on shore that they 
promptly took off their father and two other gentlemen in the 
steam-launch to search for curiosities, hoping to be fortunate 
enough to find some shells as beautiful and uncommon as 
those the servants had brought back with them. 

Friday, August \2tli. An hour after midnight the sports- 
men returned, and Mr. Pennefather came to breakfast. He 
was much disappointed that the party could not stay for 
another day's shooting, and talked of the variety of game to 
be had geese, ducks, widgeon, teal, coot, plover, quail, swans, 
turkeys, and bitterns, to say nothing of cockatoos, parrots, 
wallabys, kangaroos, and alligators. Yesterday the engine- 
driver, being a sportsman himself, kindly stopped the train 
and allowed them to have a shot, or rather several. They 
succeeded in killing one poor lady wallaby with a dear little 
baby in her pouch, which did not seem very young, and would 
therefore have been easy to rear ; but, unfortunately, they did 
not take possession of it and bring it on board for a pet, to add 
to the little flock already brought up by hand. Wallabys are 
quite easy to tame when caught as young as this little crea- 
ture, and are very gentle and affectionate. Arrived at the fac- 
tory, the shooting-party had lunch with Mr. Pennefather, and 
then went out with their guns, but only succeeded in bagging 
a bandicoot, two ducks, a widgeon, a plover, and a few other 
birds, making altogether a somewhat nondescript bag. 

Precisely at 9.30 we started under steam through the 
Rockingham Channel, which separates Hinchmbrook, an island 
of magnificent mountains, from the mainland. We are now 
well in the doldrums of the Tropic of Capricorn, and the de- 
licious fair strong trade-breezes we have hitherto enjoyed 
have now deserted us, or rather we have sailed through them. 
I do not think I ever saw anything finer than this Rocking- 
ham Channel. The mountains on the mainland are high, 
and of beautiful shapes, with points and rounded outlines, 

Y Y 



380 CARDWELL 



covered with green foliage, whilst on the inner shore of the 
island of Hinchinbrook there is a dense mass of tropical 
foliage clothing the hills up to their highest tops. Where 
the scrub has been burnt, little patches of ferns of a fresh 
light green colour have sprung up, and the leafy mass is 
broken here and there by a perpendicular rock or a white 
lace-like cascade. Every bay and little inlet has its own 
peculiar charm, and occasionally a sharp spit of rock is thrust 
out into the sea. The water to-day is as placid as it can 
possibly be, and reflects on its surface as in a mirror all the 
beauties of the scenery. About twelve o'clock we reached 
Cardwell, a collection of little tin houses, looking from the ship 
as if they stood amid widely separated fields and orchards. 
All the party but the Doctor and myself went on shore to see 
the place. The people were all very kind, and our party were 
entertained at the house of Mr. Walsh, the principal Govern- 
ment official ; and afterwards the chairman of the Local 
Board, on behalf of the inhabitants, read and presented a 
neatly worded address to Tom, who made a suitable reply. 
The party then returned on board, laden with orchids, cocoa- 
nuts, and everything the township produces. The few settlers 
were most hospitable, and expressed great pleasure at seeing 
us. Whilst Torn and the others were taking their ramble at 
Cardwell, Mr. W^alsh came off to pay me a little visit ; but 
directly the shore party returned on board, at 2.30, we re- 
sumed our voyage under steam towards Mourillyan. The 
channel was still lovely, with islands on one side and the high 
mountains of the mainland on the other. I do not know when 
we have had such a charming sail, and there was a certain 
appropriateness in the surroundings on this i2th of August. 
The general contour of the hills, the purple colouring of the 
mountains, the Norfolk pines and other trees on some distant 
heights (when you were not near enough to see how tropical was 
the foliage) reminded me vividly of Scotland. What a pleasure 



MOURILLYAN 381 



lovely scenery is ! and what a delight to be able to travel and 
see it ! I do not think I have ever forgotten or shall forget 
a single really beautiful view I have ever seen and admired. 
Those scenes are all clear and distinct, put away in little 
pigeon-holes of memory. If my brain were only a photo- 
graphic camera, I could print them off as clearly on paper 
to-day as in the long bygone years when I first saw them. 
All the incidents and circumstances are still fresh in my 
recollection. 

For the last few days the scenery has been an especial 
pleasure to me, laid up as I am in the deck-house, where a 
comfortable bed has been arranged for me, so high that I can 
look out of the window and have my eyes delighted and my 
nerves soothed. I am very thankful that I can thus enjoy 
the lovely coast, though I should much prefer being able to take 
a more active part in the sight-seeing, orchid- and shell-collect- 
ing, and general scrambling which ensues every day when the 
rest of the party go for their pleasant walks on shore along 
sandy beaches shaded by graceful palms, with tree ferns 
growing almost to the water's edge. It is fortunate, perhaps, 
that this constant malarial fever has made me feel too weak to 
care much about anything, so that I am not tempted to long 
to do imprudent things. I was indeed sorry when the shades 
of evening began to fall and prevented my seeing anything 
beyond the mere outlines of the coast. 

The distance to Mourillyan is only forty miles, and the 
entrance to the harbour is extremely fine, though it was so 
dark that we could hardly distinguish anything. Soon after 
we entered the harbour and dropped anchor, Mr. Leviiige, the 
manager of three large sugar-estates in the neighbourhood, 
came on board, full of plans of pleasure for the morrow. 
Unfortunately the programme which had been arranged was 
rather more than I could undertake. I may be able to manage 
the eight miles in a steam-tram through the jungle, to see the 



382 



AN EXPEDITION 




sugar-plantation, crush- 
ing-mills, and lunch with 
the manager *and hos- 
pitable proprietor of the 
plantation ; but I fear I 
shall not have strength 
or time to go on to the 
Gundy Plantation, some 
miles off, up a branch of 
the Johnstone Kiver, and 
see the scenery there, 
which is said to be very 
fine. The original idea 
w r as to go on in boats to 
Geraldton, close to the 
mouth of the Johnstone 
River, where the yacht 
or a steam-launch was 
to meet us and take us 
back to Mourillyan Har- 
bour, about eight miles 
off. We left it till the 
morning to decide what 
we should do, and went 
to bed in good time so 
as to be ready for an 
early start if I felt strong 
enough to attempt it. 

Saturday, August 13. 
-Woke just at day- 
break. When I looked 
through the porthole I 
found that this harbour 
of Mourillyan where we 



THROUGH THE JUNGLE 383 



were lying was one of the most picturesque I had ever seen. 
It is entirely land-locked, except for the narrow passage 
through which we entered last night. Both vegetation and 
landscape looked thoroughly tropical, and two or three bunga- 
lows were perched amid the dense foliage on the steep banks 
of the rising hillsides. 

We were ready before our kind hosts, and it was quite 
eleven o'clock before we landed and established ourselves in 
the steam-tram, ready for a journey to the Mourillyan sugar- 
plantation. My long deck-chair having been placed most 
comfortably in a sugar-truck, my journey was luxuriously 
and easily performed, though, after the perfectly quiet, smooth 
movement of the last few days, I rather felt the occasional 
jolts and jars. I have travelled through tropical jungles in 
all parts of the world, and though the scenery to-day was 
wanting in the grandeur of the virgin forests of Brazil, and 
of the tangled masses of vegetation of Borneo and the Straits 
Settlements, it had much special beauty of its own. The 
variety of foliage was a striking contrast to the monotonous 
verdure often seen in Australia. Some of the palms and ferns 
were extremely beautiful, and so well grown that each might 
have been a specimen plant in a greenhouse. What I 
call the umbrella palm, but what they call here the cab- 
bage palm a sort of Zamia alsopJiila grew abundantly in 
groups. Wherever there was a clearing we could see high 
trees, some with their bare white stems rising to nearly a 
hundred feet before they branched out, while others were 
completely covered, and almost killed, by masses of creepers 
whose leaves, of every kind and shape some large and 
broad like the Aristolocliias ; others quite finely cut like 
Logodiums ; others sharp, pointed, and shiny ; others again 
palmated and of every shade of green, gave a fine effect to 
the different peeps and vistas as we glided along. Presently 
the clearings became more numerous, and we passed a deserted 



A SUGAR PLANTATION 



village, surrounded by gardens, where some Chinese had 
settled a few years ago and tried to make a living by supply- 
ing ships with vegetables. They did not find the venture 
successful, and have left the district. We passed several small 
tramways running at right angles into the bush, with little 



mm. 




Zamoa Tree 



huts adjoining, built of rushes and thatched with sugar-cane. 
In these the men lived when sent down to cut timber for 
the fences, furnaces, and sleepers for the tramway, as it was 
pushed further and further up through the jungle. ' Sugar is 
a very expensive crop to start, for the work of clearing the 
jungle is most laborious, and therefore costly. The expense 



JAVANESE WORKPEOPLE 385 



of cutting down timber for the first rough cropping is 10?. per 
acre. The complete clearing and grubbing of roots for the 
purposes of ploughing and permanent cultivation is not less 
than 2ol. an acre. The cost of clearing alone is thus 30?. an 
acre. The machinery of the mills, of Scotch manufacture, 
cost more than 6o,oooZ. Some 900 acres have been brought 
under cultivation. The total capital already expended may be 
taken at 200,000?. The yield of sugar is from three to five 
tons per acre. The price may be taken at 20?. per ton. The 
production of sugar last year was 2,050 tons.' 

' The successful results of labour imported from Java are 
a special feature at Mourillyan. We heard an excellent cha- 
racter of the Javanese workpeople. They are sturdy, and most 
docile. They are imported for a term of three years, under 
strict engagements with the Dutch Government. An advance 
of two to three pounds is given to each workman before he 
leaves home. His fare costs 61. to Queensland. His wages 
are 30$. a month and found. The secret of success has 
been the adoption of a system of supervision by Javanese 
sarongs. Javanese are employed to drive locomotives, and 
for the management of the boilers and most of the machinery 
in the mills.' 

The proprietors of the plantation have 5,000 acres cleared 
already, and will clear more as soon as they can raise suffi- 
cient capital. They have already invested 250,000?. in the 
land, 20,000?. in the tram, and 40,000?. in the mills, indepen- 
dent of the money they will require for all sorts of contem- 
plated improvements and additions. The process of crushing 
is just the same as we saw in Trinidad. The carts bring in 
the cane from the field, and it is passed through a series of 
rollers to extract the juice, which is pumped up to a higher 
floor, where it is received into vats, and then by different pro- 
cesses converted into sugar of three kinds white, medium 
white, and light brown. The first-quality sugar is made white 



386 MOURILLYAN HARBOUR 

by being subjected to a process of sulphur fumes, which pro- 
duce beautiful glittering crystals. It is said that this method 
of treating the sugar is not so satisfactory as the old and 
rougher process. It seems to bleach the crystallised particles 
without sufficiently removing the impurities. The quality of 
the sugar is, however, excellent, and it commands a high price 
in England. 

From the mill I was carried through a clean and tidy- 
looking coolie village to a comfortable house of the bungalow 
type, like those in Mourillyan Harbour, inhabited by Mr. Nash, 
the proprietor of one of the plantations, and Mr. Levinge, who 
had kindly arranged a luncheon for us. Australian colonists 
are the most hospitable people in the world. Their one idea 
seems to be to endeavour to do everything they can for you, 
to give you the best of everything they possess. Nowhere, in 
all our far-extending travels, have we received more true hos- 
pitality. I had a comfortable sofa provided for me, whereon 
I lay during lunch, and afterwards I rested in a chair in the 
verandah while the others went to see more of the sugar 
plantation and mill. 

About three o'clock we started back, and returned much 
quicker than we came up, for which I was very thankful. 
Pleasant as the day had been I was getting rather worn out. 
On our return to Mourillyan our hospitable hosts accompanied 
us on board, and made an inspection of the ' Sunbeam.' They 
could not stop long, as our Jersey pilot said we had better be 
off before dark, the entrance to the harbour being very narrow. 
It is, however, so well buoyed that when the new r chart is 
published there will be no difficulty in getting in or out at any 
time of the day or night, with or without a pilot. In the night 
there are two leading lights which show you the direct way in, 
the only danger being at spring tides, when the tide sometimes 
runs eight or nine knots an hour. The harbour looked lovely 
as we steamed away, and we were quite sorry to leave the little 



UP THE COAST 



387 



haven of rest where we had spent such a peaceful, comfortable 
day and night. 

We were soon outside Mourillyan and past the picturesque 
mouth of the Johnstone River. Judging from the photographs, 
the scenery of this river must be very fine, for the sun-pictures 
represent several high waterfalls pouring volumes of water over 




dark and perpendicular 
basaltic rocks. One of 
the falls is said to be 300 

feet high, and there are several cascades with a fall of between 
100 and 250 feet. The light breeze from the S.E. carried us 
on famously. We soon saw the Seymour Range ; a little later 
we found ourselves off the mouth of the Mulgrave River, and 
by midnight had passed through the narrow channel which 
divides the Falkland Islands from the mainland at Cape 
Grafton. We ladies retired early to bed, and even the children 
acknowiedged to being tired ; but the gentlemen played whist 
on deck till a much later hour. The nights are perfect now. 

z z 



388 COLLISIONS A T SEA 

The breeze is rather fresh by day when not under the shelter 
of a protecting coast ; but one must remember that if the wind 
be fresh it is wafting us speedily on our way, and we must not 
grumble, for we have turned the corner and are now home- 
ward-bound. 

About three o'clock this morning we met a steamer going 
down the coast, and, with the usual fatuity of steamships, she 
would not make up her mind which way to go until she was 
close to us, and then ran right across our bows. It is most 
extraordinary why steamships will not get out of the way of 
sailing-ships at night. The matter is entirely in their own 
hands, for the sailing-ship is comparatively helpless. It is 
quite impossible for the officer on watch to tell at what rate 
the approaching vessel is moving, and the steamer ought to 
alter her helm the very instant a sailing-ship is perceived. 
Our pace is rather rapid, particularly in light winds, and it 
is probable that the steamer misjudged her distance from us. 
The more voyages 1 make the more I feel that the melan- 
choly little paragraphs one only too often sees, headed ' Lost 
with all hands,' or ' Missing,' are nearly always the result 
of accidents caused by a bad look-out and careless steering. 
I often tell Tom it is his duty to report those cases which 
come to his own knowledge. The instances have been 
numerous on this voyage alone ; but he is too kind-hearted 
to like to complain, which I consider a mistaken view of 
humanitarianism. 

Sunday, August i^tli. I did not wake till late, and then 
found we had just passed Cairns Harbour, which is said to 
be a wonderfully rising place. The soil is good and suitable 
for sugar, and a railway is being rapidly constructed which 
will open up the interior of this part of Northern Queensland. 
The scenery is lovely, especially up the Herberton River, where 
one of the most magnificent waterfalls in Australia is to be 
seen. 



A PLEASANT SAIL 



389 



We had service 
at eleven, but I was 
only able to listen 
to the hymns from 
my cabin. At after- 
noon service at half- 
past four I heard 
every word just as 
plainly from my bed 
on deck as I could 
have done had I 
been below in the 
saloon. This has 
been one of the most 
perfect clays at sea I 
can remember, and I 
was carried up early 
on deck to admire 
the beautiful coast, 
with the Macalister 
Range in the back- 
ground. At noon 
to-day we were in 
lat. 1 6 37' S., long. 
145 47' E., stealing 
quietly along under 
balloon canvas. At 
one o'clock we passed 
the entrance to Port 
Douglas, another 
young and rising 
place. Early in the 
afternoon we were 
abreast of the light- 




390 CAPTAIN COOK 



house on the Low Islands, which returned our signals with 
creditable promptitude, and after sighting Cape Kimberly we 
found ourselves abreast of the Daintree Eiver, where, I am 
told, there is some beautiful scenery. A little later Cape 
Tribulation was passed, where Captain Cook ran his vessel 
ashore to discover the amount of damage sustained after she 
had been aground on a coral reef. They are now trying 
to recover her guns, which are so overgrown by coral that 
it is likely to prove a difficult job. Divers have been down 
and have absolutely seen the guns ; but if they try to dis- 
lodge them with dynamite the result may be the same as at 
Springsure with the large opal that they will be blown to 
pieces. It is interesting to once more read Captain Cook's 
voyages on the scene of some of his most important dis- 
coveries, and to think that many of these peaks, bays, moun- 
tains, and inlets were named by him after some more or less 
memorable incident. Cape Tribulation lies exactly under the 
Peter Botte, a large and peculiarly shaped mountain. The 
whole coast here is very like that of Cuba, especially the shape 
of its mountains and the indentations of its coasts. The sun- 
set was magnificent, and made the mountains look quite vol- 
canic as they rose in the sky against the lurid light, produc- 
ing red, yellow, and grey tints such as one sees at Vesuvius, 
Etna, or Stromboli. 

This afternoon, as we were looking over the side, Tom 
and I observed a quantity of a brownish substance floating on 
the surface of the water. We thought it might be either the 
outpouring of a neighbouring volcano, or the spawn of some 
fish, sponge, coral, or algae. "We drew up several buckets of 
this discoloured water, and on closer inspection found the 
floating matter to be a small sponge which exists in larger 
pieces at a considerable depth below, but on reaching the 
surface changes to a sort of powder, which reunites again and 
forms a filmy track for a long distance. 




CHAPTER XVIII. 

EAST COAST (continued). 



Monday, August i$tli. Last night was an anxious 
one for Tom, who was up and down a good deal, and 
did not get to bed until 5.45 A.M., having hoisted the 
pilot -flag and left orders for the yacht to jog about 
until the pilot came on board. It was half-past eight o'clock 
before we were securely moored in the harbour, almost along- 
side of our old friend the little ' Harrier.' Originally a yacht, 
she is now one of her Majesty's ships, and is used for cruising 
from one island to another. With 35 men on board, and guns 
and gear of all kinds, she is not by any means the smart little 
craft she used to be ; but she is in thorough working order, 
and as good a sea-boat as ever. 



392 CO OK TOWN 



Cooktown, in spite of the preponderance of iron houses and 
shops, looks rather pretty from the sea, and is picturesquely- 
situated in an amphitheatre of hills, of which Mount Cook is 
the highest. Its small port is formed by the mouth of the 
Endeavour River. There are abundant indications that larger 
and more substantial buildings will rapidly be substituted for 
the provisional structures of which Cooktown at present con- 
sists. The population is about 2,500. The Palmer River 
gold-diggings, and some recent discoveries of tin, which have 
attracted a large number of miners, are the chief sources of 
prosperity. A railway will shortly connect Cooktown with 
the gold-mines. A section of thirty-two miles has been already 
opened. It was a delicious day, and I enjoyed sitting under an 
awning until the afternoon, when some of the party went on 
shore to play lawn-tennis, whilst the Doctor, Mimie and I 
went for a little drive, which did me good, though it tired 
me at the time. 

Tuesday, August i6tli. Awoke about seven, feeling much 
refreshed, and went early on deck. Many visitors came on 
board, only a few of whom I was able to see. All the rest of 
the party again landed, and at twelve o'clock Tom and I went 
on board the ' Harrier.' I was carried on deck, and then man- 
aged to get below to look at the new alterations. Captain Pike 
had some pretty watercolour drawings and a good collection 
of curios, picked up at various islands. These were capitally 
arranged in the cabin, and looked very nice. He kindly gave 
Mabelle and me some beautiful shells, as well as some gorgonias 
growing on a pearl-shell. In the afternoon w r e went out for a 
drive. On leaving the town we followed the same road as 
yesterday, after which we came to a fairly good bush-road or 
track, running through a pretty country, with some fine trees 
and a great variety of foliage. We passed one or two nice 
stations, with comfortable, deep-verandahed houses, and tidy 
gardens and orchards. Ultimately we plunged into the regular 



A SPECULATOR 



393 



bush, where the sandflies and mosquitoes began to trouble the 
rest of the party ; but my invaluable eucalyptus oil saved me. 
Nothing could exceed the care our driver took of me ; his 
chief anxiety was that I should not suffer a single jolt beyond 
what the roughness of the road necessitated. He came out 
here when he was twenty-one years old, and rushed at once 




Cooktown 



to the goldfields ; found i,ioo/. in three days, on an alluvial 
field 300 miles inland from Sydney ; lost it two days after, 
by putting it into a speculative mining concern which failed 
the day after he parted with his money. He then became 
a gentleman's coachman at Sydney, and had several other 
minine; and reefing adventures on some fields near the John- 



394 THE STORY OF ELIZABETH WATSON 

stone Biver. All went well with him until he had an attack 
of fever, which laid him up for eighteen months, and not only 
ahsorbed all his own little savings but that of his comrades, 
to whose kindness he was indebted for the positive necessaries 
of life. Now he is coachman at the largest hotel here, and 
as soon as he has scraped a little money together, intends 
going off to the Croydon. diggings, where I hope he will be 
fortunate, and trust he will invest his hard-earned money more 
satisfactorily. Owing to our late departure we had no time to 
stop, as we had intended, to see the tomb erected over the 
remains of poor Mrs. Watson, her child, and Ah Sam the 
Chinaman, who are buried here. The story of their death is 
a sad one, and we listened with interest to the circumstances 
as related by Mr. Fitzgerald ; which are briefly these. 

Elizabeth Wilson, who came originally from Eockhampton, 
was the wife of Mr. Watson, the owner of some small schooners 
engaged in the beche-de-mer trade, whose head establishment 
was at the Lizard Island. Some time in 1881 she persuaded 
her husband to take one of his vessels on a tour of inspection, 
leaving her with a child of two years old and a couple of faith- 
ful Chinamen in charge of the Lizard Island. Mr. Watson set 
forth very reluctantly, only yielding to his wife's assurances 
that with firearms in the house, which she well knew how to 
manage, she would be in no danger. Soon after her husband's 
departure, however, the natives came across from the main- 
land in great force, killed one of the Chinamen, and wounded 
the other. When it became dark the brave woman hastened 
to provision one of the square iron tanks used for boiling 
down the beche-de-mer, and embarked in it with her babe and 
wounded retainer. Nothing could be more clumsy than such 
a craft, 4 feet long by 3 feet wide, and perhaps i \ feet high. 
She put water-bottles on board, and with only a shawl for sail 
and an oar to steer with set forth on the calm sea, towing, 
however, a little dinghy behind, in case of her iron vessel 



A TRAGEDY 



proving too unmanageable. The trade-wind carried the tank 
thirty miles out to sea to one of the Hawick group ; but she 
was prevented from landing there by the threatening aspect 
of the blacks in possession. She drifted a little further to a 
neighbouring island, where the spring tide carried the tank 
up so far inland that she could not launch it again. This 
was the more terrible, as a very few miles further would have 
brought her to the lightship. There were no blacks on the 
island, to which the tank had been carried. Mrs. Watson had 
sufficient provisions, but apparently no water. They all must 
have died of thirst just before an abundant rainfall. Three 
weeks later, when their bodies were discovered, there were pools 
of fresh water around them. In the meantime Mr. Watson 
called at the lightship and recognised his own dinghy, which 
had drifted thither a few days before. He immediately set 
out, accompanied by Mr. Fitzgerald, and soon reached the 
little island, where he found his wife's body, one arm still 
clasping her child, and the other hand holding a loaded re- 
volver. Her diary lay close by, and told the sad story almost 
up to the last moment. The dead Chinaman lay near the 
tank. The bodies were put into rude shells and taken to Cook- 
town, where they were buried. The poor woman's diary and 
the tank are preserved in the Museum at Brisbane. 

Thursday, August iStli. We gave Cape Sidmouth a wide 
berth and passed Night Island, going close to Cape Direction 
and Restoration Island, which latter is exactly opposite the 
narrow 7 opening in the Barrier Eeef through which Bligh found 
his way in 1780, in an open boat, after the Mutiny of the 
' Bounty.' Bligh gave the name to Restoration Island to com- 
memorate his escape from the mutineers. A little further to 
the north took us abreast of Providential Channel, through 
which Captain Cook entered with the greatest difficulty in 
1770. He arrived outside the Barrier Reef, rolling heavily 
to the swell with no wind, and finding it impossible to descry 



396 



A CORAL REEF 



a single opening. Hope seemed at an end, when, providentially, 
Captain Cook espied from his masthead what looked like deep 
water between two rocks, through which he safely steered his 
vessel. From Eestoration Island to Cape Weymouth we were 
considerably exposed to the sea, and rolled about a good deal 
until we got into the shelter of Weymouth Bay. Passing Fair 
Cape, we reached Piper Island at about eight o'clock, and 
anchored for the night, close to the lightship, alongside which 
there was another small steamer. The last fourteen miles 
had to be done in the dark. This was a time of great anxiety 
for Tom, for the passage was narrow, being only about half 
a mile wide in places, and the current was strong. It blew 
hard all night, and we longed for the sheltered anchorage of 
last evening. 

Friday, August igtli. Early this morning Tom and some 
of the gentlemen went on board the ' Claremont ' lightship. 
After breakfast we landed on the reef. It is a bare heap of 
sand and coral, save on its highest part, where a few T tufts of 

coarse grass are growing. 
;.N Here we found a native 

_ ytfJHIn. f St. John, New Bruns- 

wick, brought up, as 
he told us, by foreign 
parents, engaged in the 
business of collecting 
beche-de-mer, or dried 
sea- slugs, for which there 
is a large demand in 
China. 

This white man had 
in his employ thirty na- 
tives. He had five fine 

boats, which are constantly at work inside the Great Barrier 
Reef. The money embarked in this enterprise had been 




Coral on Pearl OvsLcr 



BECHE-DE-MER 397 



advanced by a bank at Cooktown. Beche-de-mer commands 
a high price. We were shown the accumulated casks full of 
this unattractive edible, representing a value of many hun- 
dreds of pounds. Lee, the head of this establishment, was 
living in a shelter formed of tattered canvas and battered 
sheets of corrugated iron, but he evidently possessed the power 
of command and organisation, and was not without education. 
He produced the Admiralty charts of the coast and Barrier 
Beef, with large additions to the delineation of the reefs from 
his own explorations. 

Beche-de-mer is of various qualities. The best is worth 
i2ol. per ton, the next looh, a third quality 90^., and a fourth 
from 8oL to as low as 30^. per ton. The beche-de-mer is a 
curious kind of sea-slug, rather like a sea cucumber. Its 
scientific name is Holothuria. It makes excellent soup, which 
is very nourishing, and is like the snail soup so much given to 
invalids in the south of France. In Cooktown the Europeans 
eat it largely, while in China, as trepang, it is a much-prized 
and high-priced delicacy. 

We had a long and pleasant conversation with Lee, 
and Tom and I were both much struck with him. Tom was 
anxious to purchase for me a pair of large hawksbill turtle 
shells which he had seen earlier in the morning on the light- 
ship, but Lee absolutely refused to part with them at any 
price. He said a man had done him a good turn in Cook- 
town, and he had promised him the shells. We suggested 
that it was possible, as the man was a resident of Cooktown, 
that he might get him another pair and let us have these ; but 
Lee was quite firm, and said, ' No, I have given my word, and 
it would be very wrong to break it on any account whatsoever.' 
His charts were most interesting, and his own discoveries of 
new reefs and shoals were intelligently marked. I hope that 
for the good of the navigating world they may some day be 
incorporated into an Admiralty chart, but I trust not without 

3 A 



398 AN ENTERPRISING SETTLER 

due recognition of Lee's work. He certainly deserves the 
greatest credit for the careful and painstaking observations he 
must have made while cruising in his little schooners about 
the Barrier Eeef. Many a shipwreck may possibly be pre- 
vented and many a life saved by his laborious and at pre- 
sent unrewarded exertions. Just before we were going away 
it seemed to suddenly dawn upon Lee that Tom was Lord 
Brassey. He asked the question, and when an answer in the 
affirmative was given shook hands most warmly, and was 
delighted when he was told that I was Lady Brassey and that 
the children were my own dear ones. He had all our his- 
tory at his fingers' ends, and was extremely pleased to see the 
' historical Sunbeam ' and ' her spirited owners,' as he called 
us. Later on in the morning he tried to come on board the 
yacht in his schooner, but unfortunately missed the rope and 
so lost the opportunity of seeing the vessel. I was interested 
to hear from him a confirmation of our supposition that the 
island off which we anchored was the one on which Eliza 
Watson's body was found. 

We landed on the leeward side of the island, and on going 
to the windward shore it was curious to notice the process by 
which these islands gradually become covered with vegetation. 
The whole shore just above high- water mark was covered with 
little seeds, beans, and various other atoms of vegetation which 
had been dropped by birds or cast up by the sea, and which 
in process of time will cover the island with trees and shrubs. 
The island did not look much bigger than half a dozen times 
the size of the yacht. At low spring tides the most beautiful 
corals and shells are found. 

The blacks we saw on shore were a good-looking set of 
men, the finest in stature we have yet seen. Lee says he has 
to be most careful and always ' sleep with one eye open,' as they 
are treacherous. They would turn round on him at any moment 
if they saw a chance and did not know he was well armed. 



NEARLY AGROUND 399 

All the inmates of the lightship came on board the yacht, 
with which they were much delighted. They said they could 
not have imagined anything like it on the sea, and thought 
they must have got on dry land without knowing it. We 
parted with mutual good wishes, and I have no doubt that the 
visit of the ' Sunbeam ' will be a pleasant little incident, afford- 
ing much material for conversation for weeks to come. We 
did not forget to give them some Ambulance papers. 

We weighed at 11.30, and anchored under the Piper 
Islands an hour after sunset. Distance, eighty-five miles. 

Saturday, August 2otJt. All hands were called at four, 
and we got under weigh soon after, making Home Islands 
about seven. Thence we passed through Shelbourne Bay, 
by Hannibal Islands, and so off Orford Ness. The naviga- 
tion here was very intricate, and necessitated much trouble 
and attention on Tom's part, and the taking of endless cross 
bearings and observations. At 11.50 we passed the s.s. 
' Tannadice,' and exchanged friendly greetings. All navigators 
owe the commander of this ship gratitude for reporting the 
reef named after his vessel. It lies in a most dangerous 
position, and would doubtless have brought many a good ship 
to grief had it not been reported and charted. Soon after 
we started this morning we very nearly got on another reef. 
The wind blew fresh and fair, and the current ran strong. 
Tom chanced to be engaged taking some observations, and 
so paid, for a few moments, less attention than usual to the 
pace at which we were going ; and in this hazardous interval 
the yacht very nearly ran on a coral reef that was only just 
a- wash. 1 

From Fern Island, an almost straight course through a 



1 The temporary failure of the chart lamp was the real cause of this alarm. 
The coast sheets for Northern Queensland are on a very small scale, and it 
requires a strong light and young eyes to read their figures and the infinitesimally 
small signs denoting rocks. 



4oo PORT ALBANY 



narrow channel hemmed in by rocks, reefs, shoals, and islets, 
brought us to the entrance to the Albany Pass. The naviga- 
tion is intricate, but the scenery quite lovely ; the land on 
either side of the Pass, -whether on the mainland or on the 
islands, being densely wooded. At Fly Point on the main- 
land our attention was attracted by some curious-looking 
projections on a hillside, which resembled an enlarged edi- 
tion of Stonehenge, in red sandstone. On looking through the 
glasses we discovered that these projections were ant-hills of 
an extraordinary peaked shape, some of them being many feet 
in height. 

The entrance to Port Albany and Somerset is narrow ; 
and the strong tide and wind combined to knock up an un- 
pleasant popple. At Somerset on the mainland, and imme- 
diately opposite to our anchorage at Port Albany, a pretty 
little station has been built, with a flagstaff in front of the 
bungalow. On our arrival the flag which was hoisted was 
dipped a great many times and a large bonfire was lighted, in 
order to give us, I suppose, a really warm welcome. 

Sunday, August 2ist. The boat went ashore early this 
lovely morning to the large house we had seen last night. 
The station belongs to Mr. Jardine, a relative of the founders 
of the firm of Jardine, Matheson, & Co., so well known in 
China as well as along this coast. The station is for cattle, 
and they are gradually increasing its boundaries so as to be 
able to supply Thursday Island and the neighbourhood with 
fresh meat, of which they are lamentably in need at present. 
About twenty-five years ago Mr. Jardine drove a mob of 700 
cattle from Rockhampton to this place. It took him and his 
party nearly two years to accomplish the journey, and they 
had to fight the blacks on their way. 

The men who went ashore in the boat brought off some 
milk and new-laid eggs. There is excellent water here. The 
supply is obtained from two springs and a well, and as water 



SNAKES 401 

is bad, scarce, and dear at Thursday Island, many ships come 
here for it. Last Sunday there were sixteen schooners in 
this little port. They are all away now at the reefs, but are 
expected back next Sunday. 

We had Litany at eleven o'clock. In the afternoon I 
landed with the Doctor, and sat, or rather lay quietly, on the 
pleasant sandy shore for an hour or two, while the Doctor and 
the sailors roamed about and picked up many curious pieces 
of coral and some lumps of scoriae, of which the whole island 
seems to be formed. There is very little soil beneath the 
volcanic matter, and it is wonderful how trees and plants 
manage to grow in such luxuriant fashion. Some cocoa-nut 
trees have been planted, which are doing exceedingly well, 
and I rested under their shade, looking up at the sky through 
the long, pale green leaves. The innumerable flies, ants, and 
sandflies were troublesome. But what can be expected in a 
land where the ant-heaps are ten feet high and twenty-four feet 
in circumference ? While on his rambles with one of our 
men the Doctor saw a large snake four or five feet in length, 
which he vainly tried to kill ; but the reptile escaped into a 
crevice in the rocks amongst the brushwood. 

Tom, Tab, and Mr. Wright, in the meantime, went over to 
the mainland to pay a visit to Mr. Jardine. They found the 
sea rather rough in the narrow crossing, and after a stiff 
clamber up the hillside arrived at the house. Mr. Jardine 
was away, but his manager, Mr. Schramud, gave them some 
interesting information about the pearl fishery, and spoke of 
the trouble of establishing their station in old days. He took 
them round the paddocks where the bullocks are kept, and 
then a little way through the bush, where he showed them 
an encampment of aborigines which was much better con- 
structed than usual. The centre hut was large, with nicely 
built walls and a substantial thatched roof of coarse dry 



4O2 



A NATIVE DRUM 



The hut was divided into two parts, one section containing 
two beds slightly raised from the floor, and the other a few 
rough seats and a table, upon which stood a broken lamp and 
a drum, apparently hollowed out from a piece of wood. Mr. 
Schranmd gave the drum to Tab, saying that its peculiarity 
consisted in the fact that, though the natives possessed no 
adzes or chisels, the wood was completely hollowed out, and 

yet it must have been done 
with knives of the most in- 
ferior description. He had 
often tried, unsuccessfully, to 
' catch the natives at work ' 
as he expressed it, in order to 
watch their method of deal- 
ing with such hard wood. On 
leaving the encampment the 
party returned to the beach 
and came across in the cutter 
to the island, landing in the 
nice little sheltered cove where 
the Doctor and I were esta- 
blished. 

Shortly afterwards the 
Doctor and Mr. Wright started 
across the hills to meet the 
others, while Tom, Tab, and 
I returned, or rather tried to 

get back, to the yacht in the gig and the cutter, but the tide 
had fallen considerably, and the reef over which we had floated 
so gaily on landing, was now showing all sorts of nasty little 
jagged heads and rounded tops, both above and very near the 
surface of the water. It was not without many bumps and 
jars, and a certain amount of risk of finding ourselves firmly 
aground, that we fairly emerged into the open sea ; then a 




ANT-HILLS 403 



long pull, a strong pull, and a pull all together against the 
swiftly running current brought us once more alongside the 
good ship ' Sunbeam.' 

The rest of the party had still greater difficulty in getting 
off, for the tide was falling every minute, and the dinghy had to 
be sent off to pick them up one by one and transfer them to the 
gig. They seemed to have enjoyed their walk very much, and 
described the island as being covered with scrub. They saw a 
few animals which, though wild now, have evidently once been 
domesticated, and actually stumbled upon a family of little pigs. 
They climbed over the hill at the back of the landing-place and 
descended to the windward shore, where they found a stretch 
of beautiful firm white sand, extending for some distance along 
the coast, indented by many pretty little coves and bays, in 
which however there was not much flotsam and jetsam to be 
collected. Mr. Wright and the Doctor had also been to the 
windward beach, but by a different route, which led them 
through a valley full of extraordinary ant-hills. From their 
description this place must have looked like a veritable city of 
tombs, something like the view of Jerusalem from the Mount 
of Olives. I was sorry they had not taken a camera with 
them, although we had already taken photographs of isolated 
ant-hills. The Doctor saw another snake quite as large as 
the first, but it also escaped before he could get within strik- 
ing distance of it. Perhaps it was just as well it did escape, 
as we heard afterwards that they are venomous, in fact deadly. 
There is no cure for their bite, and though they get out of 
your way if they can, when once attacked, or if you chance 
to stand between them and their hole, they fly at you most 
viciously, and their bite has generally fatal results. 

We had evening prayers on board at six, and after a quiet 
evening's reading, went to bed rather early. 

Monday, August 22u<L I sent ashore this morning, by 
the men who went for the milk, a few books and Ambulance 



404 



AMATEUR SURGERY 




Hammer-head Oyster 



papers for Mr. Jardine, in' return for which he sent me several 
beautiful pearl-shells, some of which had curious corals grow- 
ing on them. Mr. Schramud paid us an early visit. He 

was much interested 
in the Ambulance 
papers I had sent 
him, and said he al- 
ways had a good deal 
of amateur doctor- 
ing to do, both for 
himself and others, 
when out in the bush. 
He gave me a vivid 

description of how on one occasion his horse, usually a quiet 
animal, first threw him against the trunk of a tree, breaking 
his leg in two places, and then, instead of standing still for 
him to remount, bolted off to the station, seven miles away. 
Mr. Schramud crawled to the nearest tree, stripped some 
bark off with his knife, padded it as well as he could with 
some portion of his garments, and with two straps which he 
fortunately found in his pocket strapped his leg up, making 
what he described as an excellent splint or cradle. He then 
proceeded to drag himself on his hands and knees through the 
bush towards the station, a terrible journey, for he had not a 
drop of water or food of any kind with him. Some hours 
passed before the people at the station, seeing his horse come 
home riderless and guessing an accident, set out to trace the 
tracks of the horse through the bush by the light of a lantern, 
and found him with much difficulty. 

We had great trouble in getting up our anchors this morn- 
ing, for they were fouled in every possible way, and it was 
nearly eleven before we started and were fairly steaming 
through Albany Pass towards Cape Yorke, on our way to 
the Thursday Island group. Cape Yorke has been described 



THURSDA Y ISLAND 405 

as the seat of Government in these parts, but is a melancholy 
looking place, and can never have been of any importance. 
Tom did not quite like taking the inner and shorter channel to 
Thursday Island, so we went to the north of Wednesday and 
Hammond Islands, and arrived at the back of Goode Island, 
where there is a signal-station and lighthouse, from which 
they signalled a kind welcome and an offer of a pilot, which 
was declined with thanks. We then rounded the island and 
proceeded to Normanby Sound close to Friday Island, and, 
after a tremendous tussle with the tide, finally reached Thurs- 
day Island and anchored in Normanby Sound just off Port 
Kennedy, the name given to the capital of the island, after 
the late Governor of Queensland. 

Thursday Island is one of an extensive and intricate 
group. The chief building material used in the settlement 
is corrugated iron, embellished by verandahs supported on 
wooden posts and nattily painted, making the little dwellings 
look both pretty and comfortable. The Eesidency is a larger 
bungalow on the top of a little hill, and half a dozen fairly 
good houses cluster round it. Then comes a row of stores 
along the sea-face, and a few more houses stand at the back. 
A soft sandy track runs in front of the stores, but there are 
no roads, and consequently no vehicles, and no draught beasts. 
There is no communication, except from the visits of occa- 
sional steamers, nor are any provisions obtainable, except 
canned meat and fruits. The vegetables are grown by the 
invaluable Chinese, on some of the islands opposite. Even 
the water, of which the supply is scanty, is condensed. The 
only servants available are people of colour. The ladies have 
to do everything for themselves, and children of eleven and 
twelve years are frequently trained by the force of circum- 
stances to become as good cooks and housemaids as many a 
well-paid servant at home. A gentleman living here said to 
me the other day, ' How little do our sisters in England know 

SB 



406 



A HARD LIFE 



the way we live in some of the colonies ! I am very glad 
you have come out, Lady Brassey, for you will be able to 
describe, as we cannot in letters, the really hard, rough life 
we lead here.' For those who are well and strong, and 
can enjoy roughing it, constantly knocking about in a small 
schooner from island to island, with often nothing to eat 
except cocoa-nuts and yams, the life is not intolerable ; 
but for those who are delicate, and not able to bear without 
suffering these conditions, it is indeed a very hard life. The 
women who bravely face these hardships deserve all our ad- 
miration and sympathy. In spite of the great difficulties, they 





Claremont Island Lightship 



ESCAPED CONVICTS 407 

manage to maintain a high standard of education and re- 
finement. Truly their lives read a lesson to us all, and 
teach us how much there is to be thankful for, and how 
little real cause we have to grumble at many things about 
which we make a fuss. 

Mr. Milman, the Resident, and Mr. Symes, the Commis- 
sioner of Customs, called upon us soon after our arrival, and 
took the rest of the party on shore to lawn-tennis, which must 
be a great resource here, for there is no sport of any kind. 
Mr. Milman has made a good tennis-court, and anybody who 
likes can play there every afternoon. The society on Thurs- 
day Island consists of two resident ladies, supplemented by 
occasional visitors, and six gentlemen. Besides this handful 
of English, Mr. Hall lives on Prince of Wales' Island, and 
Captain and Mrs. Stevens on Goode Island. 

Mr. Milman was anxious to take us to Murray and Darnley 
Islands, in his little steamer the ' Albatross,' but she is at 
present looking for escaped convicts from New Caledonia, and 
it seems doubtful when she will return. The story about 
these escaped convicts is rather interesting. A boat's crew 
landed here the other day, with four men, who stated they 
were shipwrecked mariners. They were all examined sepa- 
rately, and told such inconsistent stories (even differing as to 
whether their ship had one, two, or three masts), that suspicion 
was aroused. Some were Italians, but one appeared to be a 
Frenchman, though he pretended not to understand a word of 
the language. They are undoubtedly escaped convicts from 
New Caledonia. Two own to/ having had another man with 
them, and say that when they landed he disappeared. The 
others will not acknowledge that the party was ever more than 
four in number, but the blacks have since reported finding a 
body on the beach twelve miles from where these men landed, 
near Somerset. There are still five men wandering about, 
who were hospitably entertained and furnished with food and 



408 



A NEW CALEDONIA TRAGEDY 



clothes by Mr. Jardine, at Somerset, before he knew who 
they were, and three others were compelled to go on board 

the ' Claremont ' lightship, 
T - through want of food, and 

were promptly shipped off 
to gaol hi Brisbane. The 
' Albatross ' was the little 
steamer we saw lying 
alongside the lightship at 
Piper Island, on the iQth 
inst. She was then on 
her way to search all the 
reefs and islands for the 
five missing men. I hope 
it will not be long before 
they are brought in, for, 
independent of any other 
crimes they have com- 
mitted, they must almost 
certainly have been guilty 
of a most brutal murder, 
and have killed their own 

comrade. It is wonderful how so many of these men escape. 
It is difficult to understand how they can procure boats, pro- 
visions, and sufficient water for the voyage of over 2,500 miles, 
that being about the distance from New Caledonia to Rock- 
hampton or Cooktown. The run between New Caledonia and 
Australia is dead to leeward before the trade-winds. 




The last Mill in Australia 




CHAPTER XIX. 

PEINCE OF WALES' ISLAND. 

Tuesday, August 2$rd. I had a better night, and awoke 
feeling much refreshed. Most of the party went early ashore 
to see what this uninteresting town is like. Tom spent a busy 
morning with Mr. Milman, going into statistics, fortification 
questions, and so forth. In the afternoon we steamed across 
to the pearl-shell station on Prince of Wales' Island, managed 
by Mr. Hall. He has a nice bungalow there, and seems very 
busy and happy in his occupation, contriving to keep good 
friends with all the ' boys,' as the coloured labourers from 
Manilla, China, the South Sea Islands, and other places are 
called. These ' boys ' are now busily occupied in unloading 
the shells from the boats and cleaning and preparing them for 
the market, which latter process we had come to see to-day. 
First we went to a small shed where about half a dozen 
' boys ' were employed, some in chopping and scraping the 
shells in order to reduce their weight, whilst others were wash- 
ing and cleaning them with brushes made from the outside of 



410 DIVERS 

the cocoa-nut husk, which, when split into strips, is excellent 
for the purpose, as it scrapes and polishes the shells without 
scratching them. The boxes stood ready outside for packing, 
each holding about two cwt. of shells, valued at 1 1 1. per cwt. 
The number of shells varies according to their size, from sixty 
to sixty- five fitting into each box. On a table in the middle of 
the shed the shells were being quickly packed and nailed up, 
ready for exportation. They are just now higher in price, on 
account of the disaster on the north-west coast of Western 
Australia, which has temporarily crippled that rival station. 
From the cleaning and packing shed we went to another, 
where the diving apparatus is kept. This was sent out from 
England, and is exactly the same as that in use everywhere, 
being made to fit tightly round the ankles, wrists, and neck, 
with an immense superfluity of space in the middle to hold a 
storage of air. Besides this heavy dress, divers wear a belt 
with a large knife stuck into it, to cut themselves free from 
any obstacle their ropes may get foul of, and they also have a 
hook, to which their air-pipe is attached. In addition to an 
enormous pair of leaden boots, two heavy pieces of lead are 
.suspended over their shoulders, one piece lying on their chest 
and the other on their back. They descend with great ra- 
pidity, and can walk, icith the current, on the bottom easily 
enough ; but woe betide them if the tender is not careful, for if 
their air-line catches in anything it is absolutely impossible 
for them to make any headway against the tide. Unless the 
men above are quick and clever enough to repair the mistake 
promptly, they are lost. 

Mr. Hall had kindly prepared tea for us at his house, but 
I wished to return on board, and so deferred my visit until a 
future occasion. On returning to our anchorage we had quite 
a business to stem the tide, and took a long time to reach our 
destination. The others arrived in time to go on shore and 
have a game of lawn-tennis, an amusement which they all 



OPALS 411 

much enjoy, and which does them a great deal of good in the 
intervals of their voyages. Mr. Milman dined with us and 
told me a great many interesting things about his island, and 
afterwards the gentlemen had some good games of whist. I 
have at last heard the real story of the opals, for Mr. Milman's 
overseer was the first to bring in a piece of opal off the Blackall 
station on the Listowel Downs, in 1869. The beautiful frag- 
ment stood on the mantelpiece for several years before it was 
thought of any value, but at the time of the great mining fever 
attention was attracted to the specimen, and it was sent to a 
mineralogist, who pronounced it to be a fine and valuable opal. 
The story struck me as being very similar to that told of the 
first diamond found in South Africa ; but doubtless there is a 
strong family likeness in the early history of all gem-bearing 
districts. 

Wednesday, August 2^th. At ten o'clock this morning 
Mr. Milman came on board, and we proceeded down the 
Sound to Goode Island, where we anchored about half a 
mile from the shore. Tom, Tab, Mabelle, and Mr. Milman 
landed at once, and walked up to the lighthouse to take a 
bird's-eye view of this extensive archipelago and to discuss 
the best method of defence, about which Mr. Milman was 
anxious to know Tom's opinion. Later on I landed with the 
rest of the party, and we went to see Captain and Mrs. 
Stevens, the former of whom is the manager of the pearl- 
fishing station here. I then returned with Mrs. Stevens and 
her children to lunch on board the yacht. Whilst I was still 
lying down to rest I heard a bustle on deck as if the dinghy 
were being lowered, and as I wanted to send a message on 
shore 1 called to them to stop. In reply they told me that 
' Sir Eoger ' was swimming off to the yacht, and that not a 
moment must be lost in trying to save him. It did not tend 
to calm my fears when Mrs. Stevens told me that the bay 
was perfectly full of sharks, and that she herself had lost a 



412 A PLUCKY DOG 



fine dog not a month ago under similar circumstances. Poor 
old ' Sir Eoger ' swam bravely out, keeping his head well 
above the w r ater ; but what with the fear of the strong current 
dashing him against the sharp coral reefs, and the dread of 
seeing him dragged under by the snags of a ferocious shark, I 
spent a bad quarter of an hour. At last I saw him pulled 
safely into the boat. I have been so ill lately, and necessarily 
left so much alone when the others were on shore, that my 
dog has become more than ever a companion to me, and never 
leaves my chair or bed for an instant if he can possibly help 
it. He had been fairly driven away this morning to accom- 
pany Tom on his long walk to the lighthouse, for I knew the 
outing would do him good. Halfway up the hill he refused 
to follow any further, and bolted back, in a straight line, to 
the beach, and had actually swum more than halfway to the 
yacht before he was picked up. I should hardly have thought 
a dog could identify the vessel at so great a distance. 

Those of the party who had been left on shore came off to 
a late lunch, and shortly afterwards we got up our anchor and 
steamed back towards Thursday Island. This was again a 
work of great difficulty, for the tide ran eight or nine knots an 
hour, and a stiff gale was blowing against us. Once or twice, 
in the narrows, we positively stood still for five or ten minutes 
at a time, and the chief engineer was considerably chaffed 
about his beloved engines not moving the vessel ahead at all. 
We reached our anchorage safely at half- past four, and soon 
afterwards many people came off to the yacht. I was too 
tired to see them, but I am told they appeared greatly in- 
terested in their inspection. Some of our own party went 
ashore in the afternoon to lawn-tennis, and Mr. Milman came 
back with them to dinner. 

Thursday, Aiignst 2$th. We were to have been off, first 
at daybreak, and then at 9 A.M. When Mr. Milman and Mrs. 
Hunt, the wife of the missionary, whom we were going to 



AMONG THE ISLANDS 



413 



convey to Darnley Island, appeared on board, it was blowing 
a strong gale of wind nearly dead in our teeth, and the voyage 
did not offer a very cheerful prospect. As we had made all 
arrangements, we thought it better to proceed. At half-past 
six we started, and, passing Ninepin Bock and Saddle Island, 
soon found ourselves in a channel full of reefs, rocks, islands, 
islets, and dangers seen and unseen, which made the navi- 
gation an anxious task for Tom. He was ably assisted by 
Mr. Milman. It was a most unpleasant morning, and, keep- 




Darnley Island the Shore 



ing quietly down in my berth, I think I was better off than 
some of those on deck. After passing Ninepin and Saddle 
Islands, and the three island-sisters, Poll, Bet, and Sue, w r e 
made Cocoa-nut Island, one of the few high islands we have 
seen to-day. During the afternoon the navigation continued 
to be intricate, but shortly after sunset we made York Islands, 
under the lee of the larger of which we anchored for the night 
in tolerably sheltered water. The York Islands are two in 
number, connected with each other at low water by a sandy 
spit. A semicircular reef four miles long and nearly two miles 



414 DARNLEY ISLAND 

broad extends along the south side of the islands, the larger 
of which is one and a half mile long, and lies towards the 
western end of the reef, while the other is on its north-eastern 
extremity. There are only two white men living on York 
Islands ; one is an English gentlemati, and the other bears 
the name of Yankee Ned. He is the proud possessor of a 
telescope which, he declares, belonged either to Captain Cook 
or Admiral La Perouse. it bears marks of great antiquity, 
but there is no name or descriptive mark to show that it ever 
really was used by such distinguished navigators. These two 
men have a very large beche-de-mer station here, which they 
manage with the aid of some natives, and make over i,oool. 
a year out of it. 

Friday, August 26th. The wind was blowing stronger 
than ever to-day at daylight. We got under weigh at six as 
prearranged, but were no sooner out of the shelter of the 
island than Tom came to ask if it would not be better, on my 
account, to turn back, for we should have fifty miles or more 
beating dead in the wind's eye to Murray Island, besides 
which the weather was so thick that we should have some 
difficulty in seeing the unsurveyed coral reefs through which 
we must pass. The only objection to this course was that we 
had promised to convey Mrs. Hunt to her new mission sta- 
tion at Murray Island. "VYe finally decided to proceed as far 
as Darnley Island, which we should necessarily pass on the 
way to Murray Island ; so, passing Campbell, Stevens, and 
Nepean Islands, at which innumerable cross-bearings were 
taken, we anchored off Darnley Island precisely at half-past 
ten. It is very pretty as seen from the sea, with large groves 
of cocoa-nut trees growing right down to the shore. On the 
higher ground the cleared slopes of grass give it at a dis- 
tance something of the look of an English park. At half-past 
eleven we all landed, being only too glad to have dry land 
once more beneath our feet, after the shaking and tossing 



KING JACK 415 

about of the last twenty- four hours. All our anxieties as to 
Mrs. Hunt were relieved by seeing her husband's schooner, 
the ' Mary,' riding quietly at anchor in the bay. The diffi- 
culties of landing were great, for the tide was low and the 
poor gig kept bumping against the coral-reefs and rocks 
to such an extent that I was afraid she would have a hole 
knocked in her bottom. However, some of the natives came 
out to help us, and, wading waist-deep in the water, guided 
us into a small channel, and from thence carried us one by 
one ashore. I was borne in my chair straight to the house 
of the chief, who is called King Jack, and who, with his 
wife, \vas anxious to welcome and shake hands with us all. 
The flag flying before his trim little cottage red with a 
yellow cross did not satisfy King Jack at all, so we promised 
him a blue Jack for use on future festive occasions. 

At the back of the village a grove of cocoa-nuts waving 
in the strong sea-breeze put me in mind of a South Sea 
island, such as we so often landed on in going round the world 
in 1870. Even the dress of the natives was just the same, 
consisting of the original long George II. sack, brought out by 
the first missionaries, with its original shape somewhat lost and 
altered by the lapse of long years and the variety of hands 
through which the pattern has passed. We rested in the back 
garden for some time. The chief's men climbed the trees and 
brought us down fresh cocoa-nuts, giving us the milk and the 
nice creamy substance which lines the shell when the nuts 
are quite young. This is most delicious, and is a dainty one 
never has a chance of tasting in England, for it is quite dif- 
ferent to the dried- up and aged cocoa-nuts to be procured from 
Covent Garden. We took some photographs of the groups of 
natives and of the curious native boats, hollowed out of a 
single trunk, which were lying pulled up on the shore before 
us. The larger canoes are made from timber grown in New 
Guinea, which must be much larger than any trees we saw 

3 c 



416 



KANAKAS 



growing on the island. After a short delay I was carried by 
some native policemen through a little village consisting of a 
few circular and oblong houses made of plaited grass and thatch, 
all of which had been so familiar to one's eyes in the South 
Seas. It was quite like old times to see these dwellings again, 
and some of them were actually occupied by genuine South 

Sea Islanders Kana- 
kas. The men of these 
islands are very similar 
in appearance to that 
race, though I think 
the type here is finer. 




At the end of the village stood the missionary's house, 
which was a superior abode to the others. It has been built 
and is kept for the use of white missionaries when they come 
over from the other islands. The native teachers generally 
live in a little grass hut at the side, and content themselves 
with gazing at the ' mansion ' a small dwelling, consisting of 
only one main room and two side-rooms off it, with deep 
verandahs all round. The native teacher is a well-educated 



A N OPEN-AIR COURT 417 

Kanaka. His wife is of the same race, and is pleasant and 
agreeable. She seemed to keep her house, hut, and children 
very tidy. Our path led up from here through banana and 
cocoa-nut groves, with an undergrowth of sweet potatoes, to 
the top of a little hill about 1 50 feet high. Close to the rather 
dilapidated native church we found a beautiful sward of grass 
shaded by cocoa-nut trees, where we established ourselves to 
rest and look at the view. After a time the others joined us, 
and we took some photographs before lunch, and then the 
party went off in different directions some to the windward 
beach to see what shells could be collected ; but they were not 
very successful in their quest, the violence of the waves having 
either killed or broken most of the specimens found. Others 
went clambering up to the top of the high hills ; while Mr. 
Milman sat in my carrying-chair and held a sort of open-air 
court. The natives formed a picturesque group on the grass 
around him. He found out all the news of the place since he 
had last been here, and inquired into the administration of 
justice in a sort of pigeon-English somewhat difficult to under- 
stand. 

There was only one crime to report. A poor woman 
had been guilty of what they called ' telling tales ' namely, 
saying that the laws of Murray Island were good, but that at 
Darnley Island they were ' very bad.' For this the old chief, 
King Jack, promptly fined her 200 cocoa-nuts, which, by the 
way, we bought for io-s., knowing what a welcome addition 
they will prove to our own and the crew's diet, for fresh vege- 
tables are difficult to procure. Mr. Milman has taken the 
precaution of planting these islands with cocoa-nuts, and he 
allows the people to keep a certain number, so that there is a 
definite and just way of punishing them if they offend against 
the law, by fining them so many cocoa-nuts. The money 
paid for the cocoa-nuts goes into the national exchequer ; 
and although the amount realised is not large, as may be 



4 i8 A PEACEFUL SCENE 



imagined, it contributes to the cost of repairs or improve- 
ments. 

During the afternoon ' Sir Eoger ' performed some of his 
tricks for the amusement of the assembled natives. Their 
delight was intense and unbounded. Though he may have 
had a more crowded, he never had a more enthusiastic, audi- 
ence. The performance was repeated several times, but the 
natives never seemed to weary of it. I thoroughly enjoyed 
the trip to the island to-day, and found it delicious to lie 
lazily under the shade of the cocoa-nut trees and listen to just 
as much or as little as I liked of what was going on round 
me. The rustle of the wind through the long leaves of the 
cocoa-nut trees is far more calm and peaceful than even 
the murmur of the ' immemorial elms ; ' and the glimpses 
of the sea, dotted by small islands and coral reefs, on which 
the waves broke in beautiful creamy foam, were most lovely. 
About four o'clock we went down again to the village, passing 
through tracts of cultivated ground bearing crops of sweet 
potatoes. On our way we paused to admire the church bell 
an ancient dinner-bell, which hung by a piece of string from 
the longest and scraggiest arm of a very old and leafless tree. 
All the rest of the party were assembled on the beach, and a 
brisk trade was being done in corals, shells, and cocoa-nuts, 
paid for in tobacco, which the islanders much prefer to money. 
The teacher's wife was made happy by the gift of a reel of 
white cotton and a packet of needles, which will enable her to 
carry out her dressmaking operations and repairs with much 
greater ease. Her eyes quite glistened as she took them. Mr. 
Savage told me that the two Eegina birds-of-paradise tails 
which I bought to-day were obtained from a native of New 
Guinea who lives on the island of Peram, at the mouth of the 
Fly River. From this man's account, the birds must abound 
there ; but I cannot help regretting that the poor creatures 
should be sacrificed merely to line the cloaks of rich ladies. 



THE MISSION-SCHOONER 419 

While we were up on the hill the crew had been engaged 
in procuring water to replenish our fast-failing stock. They 
had had great labour in bringing off the water, for the \vell is 
half a mile from the beach, and the sea was very rough. We 
only got a ton after all, when we should have liked a dozen or 
fourteen tons ! Soon after our return on board a number of 
boats followed us, laden with baskets of sweet potatoes, yams, 
pumpkins, cocoa-nuts, shells, coral, &c. So great was the 
supply that the deck of the ship soon became covered with 
native produce, the owners of which, like all true savages, con- 
sidered it a matter of etiquette and dignity not to express the 
least surprise or astonishment at anything they saw, although 
somewhat taken aback by the pictures and large looking- 
glasses. They were very pleasant and obedient, doing exactly 
what they were told without touching anything. 

Though feeling much the better for my outing, I became 
tired, and was glad to lie down and rest in the deck-house. 
The little mission schooner, the ' Mary,' with a dove and olive- 
branch on her flag as a message of peace, was tossing and 
rolling about in the most unpleasant manner, exposing her 
keel at almost every wave, first to windward and then to lee- 
w r ard. Her captain and crew, a fine, determined-looking set 
of Kanaka men, did not seem to mind the sea at all. I pity 
poor Mr. and Mrs. Hunt, who will have to make their voyage 
to Murray Island to-morrow in the teeth of this heavy wind. 
Mrs. Hunt remained on shore, but Mr. Hunt and Mr. Savage 
came on board to dinner ; and from Mr. Savage I heard a good 
deal of his work among the natives. The station here is com- 
paratively small, but at Murray Island a training-school for 
native teachers has been established, that island being some- 
what larger than this, surrounded by live coral reefs, and con- 
taining about 400 inhabitants. Their principal field of mission 
operations among the natives appears to be in the Fly Eiver 
in New Guinea, which is a most unhealthy spot. Their work 



420 



MISSIONARIES 



/" . 

xly 



X-N 



is now beginning to be at- 
tended with a large measure 
of success. At first no attempt 
w r as made to teach the Papuans 
English. The missionaries 
were the only people who could 
communicate with the natives. 
The ignorance of English 
proved a great drawback to all 
trade, and it has certainly re- 
tarded for years to come the 
opening up of the country. 
Not only is the climate bad, but 
the natives of New Guinea are 
treacherous, and not to be de- 
pended on for a moment. 

Mr. Savage has been out 
here for two years, thirteen 
months of which time he has 
lived entirely by himself. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hunt are now going 
to inhabit Murray Island, with 
only one European carpenter 
as their companion, while Mr. 
Savage will be stationed prin- 
cipally at the Fly Eiver. The 
mission receives all its supplies 
from England via Thursday 
Island, from which place they 
are fetched in the little schooner, 
built by the carpenter Bruce, 
who was formerly a yacht- 
builder. The life of these good 
people appears to be one of 



A NARROW SHAVE 421 

much self-abnegation. I hope with all my heart that the 
mission may succeed, and that the devoted missionaries will 
be rewarded for their self-denying exertions. 

Saturday, August 2jtli. A grey morning, with the wind 
blowing stronger than ever. Navigation in these seas is by 
no means easy. During the night we had dragged our anchor 
a little, enough to get unpleasantly near the shore ; and just 
as we weighed, the sails did not fill so quickly as they ought 
to have done, which caused the yacht to pay off with her head 
towards the shore instead of off shore. There was barely a 
ship's length between us and the reef. It was with great dif- 
ficulty, and only by promptly dropping the anchor, that we 
prevented ourselves from running straight on to shore. On 
first starting we thought we should only get to Bet Island, one 
of the three sisters. These islets swarm with turtle, which lay 
their eggs on the sandy shores all the year round. We were 
looking forward to turtle soup, turtle eggs, and all sorts of 
delicacies, to make a pleasant change in the monotony of 
our daily fare. The wind, however, blew so fresh that, though 
close-reefed, we sailed from ten to twelve knots an hour, which 
of course caused a considerable amount of motion. 

At a little before noon to-day we were off Cocoa-nut Island. 
Later we passed in succession the Bet, Sue, and Poll Islands, 
and the Ninepin Eock, a curious- shaped little islet, though any- 
thing less like a ninepin I cannot imagine. In the afternoon, 
by dint of hard driving, we were able to reach a good an- 
chorage in Flinders Channel, between Horn and Wednesday 
Island. As an instance of the rapidity of our sailing speed, 
I may mention that seven measured miles between the two 
islands was done in rather less than half an hour ; which, 
considering we were close-hauled, was not bad work. We had 
a fairly quiet night, though it was blowing a gale, and of 
course the ship tumbled and rocked about a good deal. 

Sunday, August 2&tlt. As the tide was running very 



422 A BREEZY SPOT 



strong, it was decided not to start until eleven o'clock. We 
therefore had prayers before starting, and sailed slowly across 
to our old anchorage, which we reached about midday. 

In the afternoon I was carried ashore to see Mrs. Milman, 
who appears to be a great invalid. She has two nice little 
girls, who look after the house and save their mother a great 
deal of trouble. There was another little girl there, a daughter 
of Canon Taylor, who had come up from Cooktown on a visit. 

The Eesidency is a pleasant house, open to every breath of 
wind that blows ; of which, according to our experience of these 
parts, there is plenty. The inhabitants tell us that this is 
the normal condition of the weather here during nine months 
of the twelve. No doubt these breezes are health- giving, but 
the perpetual blowing of the wind must be fatiguing. It 
roars and whistles and shakes the house like an incessant 
hurricane. The three months during which there is no wind 
is at the period of the north-east monsoon, and then the rain 
descends in torrents. Life during this time of the year at 
Thursday Island is described as being dreary indeed. 

We returned on board at half-past five, and everybody but 
myself landed again later, and went to church at half-past 
seven at the Court House. Mr. Milman read prayers and a 
sermon, and Tom read the lessons. 

Monday, August 2gtli. A very windy morning. Some pearl- 
merchants came on board, bringing fine specimens of pearls, 
which seem quite as costly here as in London. I bought 
some shells, more as specimens of queer freaks of nature 
than for any intrinsic beauty or value they possessed. In the 
afternoon w r e landed again on Thursday Island, and Tom and 
I explored the little town, round which I was carried in a 
comfortable chair. The place is larger than I expected, and 
the stores seemed well furnished with dry goods of all kinds, 
besides tinned meats, vegetables, and fruit ; but there are no 
fresh provisions. A few goslings, very like our wild geese, but 







ANT HILLS QUEENSLAND. AUSTRALIA 



THURSDA Y ISLAND 



423 



not so big as a good- sized duck, were running about, for which 
the owners asked 30$. apiece ! There were also some chickens 
to be bought for los. each. Some of the houses are really 
not unsightly when seen from a distance, but when you ap- 
proach them the adjacent ground is found to be strewn with 
straw, paper, old tins, broken bottles, and rubbish of every 
description. I should like to have all the rubbish taken out 
to sea and sunk, and then I would plant more trees and 
shrubs. At present some miserable- 
looking cocoa- nuts, and a 

few hibiscus- ^^^ *Sy*^^ bushes, with 

their bright / X red blos- 




In the Torres Straits 



soms, comprise everything in the way of vegetation. On our 
way from the town to the Kesidency we passed Mr. Symes's 
house. His mother very kindly came out to welcome us, and 
asked us to go into their comfortable bungalow and have 
some tea, which we were most thankful for. I was so tired. 
Mrs. Symes had a married daughter and two nice little grand- 
children living with her, and we had a pleasant chat. She 

8 D 



424 A FIELD FOR AMBULANCE WORK 



gave me what she says is an infallible cure for bronchitis, 
and I only hope it may prove so. I spoke to Mrs. Synies 
and her daughter, to whom I had previously sent papers, 
about the Ambulance ; and they appeared to be quite keen 
about it, and promised to do all in their power to aid any 
classes that might be estabh'shed here. Continuing our walk 
we went to the excellent lawn-tennis ground just below Mr. 
Milman's house. We could only make a short stay, for the 
sun had set and it was rapidly getting dark. The sea was 
rough going off, and I felt rather exhausted by the tune I 
arrived on board. Mr. Hall and Dr. Salter came to dinner, 
and with the latter I had a long talk about the Ambulance. 
Dr. Salter is quite willing to give the lectures, but there would 
be great difficulty in bringing people together for the classes, 
for the tides are strong and shifty, and so uncertain that one 
can never know till the morning what they are going to be. 
The Doctor says the only chance of inducing people to come 
will be to find out approximately the most convenient day and 
hour and then hoist the signal on the flagstaff, so that the 
inhabitants of the neighbouring islands may see it and attend 
if they choose. Several of the masters and managers of the 
pearl-shelling stations have promised to come themselves, and 
then to try and pass on the knowledge they may acquire to 
their Malay, Manilla, and other ' boys ' who go out pearl-fish- 
ing and after beche-de-nier. The instructions will be useful to 
these people, for accidents often happen, principally from their 
own carelessness. The divers are sometimes hoisted up to the 
surface asphyxiated from want of air, and requiring almost 
precisely similar treatment to the apparently drowned. Only 
last week they had a man on board one of the schooners very 
nearly dead, but still able to speak and move. Instead of 
attempting to relieve him they brought him here, a distance 
of fifteen miles ; and by the tune he arrived, of course the 
little spark of life he had possessed was quite extinguished. 



THE LAST PAGE 



425 



If only a knowledge such as that conveyed by the instructions 
given by the St. John Ambulance Association can be spread 
here, particularly among the people employed at the pearl- 
fishing stations, it will be most valuable. There are a great 
many men engaged in the pearl trade in the Torres Straits, 
New Guinea, and the numerous islands in the vicinity. It is, 
of course, impossible to establish a centre here ; but I hope 
before I leave to set a class on foot, with Mr. Hall for the 
secretary, as he is most enthusiastic on the subject. Tom and 
I will, as usual in such cases, become life members, so as to 
give the movement a start. 




Church on Darnley Island 



APPENDIX. 



PART I. 

VOYAGE FROM DARNLEY ISLAND TO PORT DARWIN, 
MAURITIUS, CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, AND ENGLAND. 

(By LOKD BBASSEY.) 

THE pen having fallen from her hand, the task which a brave 
yet gentle spirit was struggling so hard to complete must be accom- 
plished by one who does not possess her gifts. For obvious reasons, 
the description of the remainder of the voyage will be compressed 
within the closest limits. 

The ' Sunbeam' sailed from Thursday Island on September ist. 
For three days the winds were favourable, from the eastward. The 
next two days being calm, the voyage was pursued under steam. 

On September 5th, in the evening, the ' Sunbeam ' was navi- 
gated, not without difficulty, through the intricate channels of 
Clarence Strait. On the 6th, at an early hour the anchor was 
dropped off the settlement of Palmerston. Our arrival at Port 
Darwin took place under such circumstances as render it impossible 
to offer any description from personal observation. 

Palmerston, the name given to the settlement at Port Darwin, 
is beautifully situated on wooded headlands, jutting out into the 
harbour, in whose ample waters it is no figure of speech to say 
the navies of Europe could be anchored. The buildings have 
been erected with considerable taste. A fine esplanade has been 
laid out along the sea front. The electric wire connects Palmerston 
with all the great colonies of Australia. In constructing the over- 
land telegraph from South Australia, a great middle section of the 



428 APPENDIX 



continent was discovered, capable of producing pasture for tens of 
millions of sheep and millions of cattle and horses. The first sec- 
tion from the north, of what will eventually be the Trans- Australian 
Railway, has been commenced, and is being carried out with energy 
by Messrs. Miller, the well-known Melbourne contractors for public 
works. 

The total area of the northern territory of South Australia is 
523,620 square miles. Within this vast expanse are stony wastes 
and waterless tracts, vast rolling downs, wide grassy plains, rich 
alluvial flats, large navigable rivers, and metalliferous areas, excep- 
tionally rich in tin, coal, copper, and silver. Thus far mining has 
been more successful than agriculture. The Chinese have alone been 
able to accomplish anything in cultivation. They have gathered 
harvests of rice and sugar-cane from the limited areas which they 
have taken in hand. On the banks of the rivers coffee could be 
grown in many places. 

The climate is tropical, and malaria, with its fever and ague, is 
prevalent. The mean temperature of the year is 75 degrees, and 
the thermometer has never been seen lower than 68 degrees. The 
atmosphere is dank, steamy, and heavy with moisture during the 
wet season, and parching and malarial during the dry season. 

From Port Darwin to the Cape of Good Hope, and thence to 
Sierra Leone, the voyage lay for the most part within the zone of 
the South-east Trades. Rodriguez Island was sighted on Septem- 
ber 26th, and Mauritius was reached on September 29th. It is a 
painful task to attempt to describe scenes which would have been 
painted so much more effectively by another. To give the daily 
life, which, needless to say, was very sad, I will not attempt. 

Mauritius is one of the few ports in which sailing ships still 
hold the field against steamers. It was filled with a noble fleet. 
As a mark of sympathy, which touched us deeply, their flags were 
hoisted at half-mast as soon as our sad intelligence became known. 

Viewed from the anchorage of Port Louis, the island of Mauri- 
tins presents a scene of much beauty. A chain of peaks and craters 
of picturesque and fantastic forms runs through the island from end 
to end. The needle-shaped Peter Botte, 2,784 feet, and the Pouce, 
2,707 feet, are conspicuous summits. All the mountains are of 
volcanic formation. Their barren precipices are blue and purple, 
and their vegetation, watered by frequent and abundant showers, 
is of the richest green. The landscape displayed admirable effects 
of colour, varying with every change from rain to sunshine. 

The Botanical Gardens and the Observatory are the most 



APPENDIX 



429 




interesting objects which Port Louis offers to the passing 
traveller. The gardens are lovely. The lakes, surrounded by 
palm trees and a most rich and abundant tropical vegetation, are a 
charming feature. The fine and rare specimens in the gardens in- 
cluded the Traveller's tree, abounding in water, the Kuffia palm 
from Madagascar, the lettuce-headed palm, the talipot palm, the 
Latania aurea from Rodriguez, and another variety of latania from 
Round Island. 

The Observatory, under the supervision of Dr. Meldrum, is 
chiefly devoted to meteorological and astronomical investigations. 
In addition to these subjects, observations of the solar spots are 
taken daily, and transmitted monthly to the Solar Physics Com- 
mittee in London. The transit of the moon has been observed 
with much success. Sea observations from the log-books of vessels 
touching at Mauritius are carefully recorded. The tracks and posi- 
tions at noon of 299 tropical cyclones, which swept over the Indian 
Ocean south of the equator from 1856 to 1886, have been laid down 
on charts, and are ready for publication. The in-curving theory of 



430 APPENDIX 



cyclones, as worked out by Dr. Meldrurn, is now generally adopted, 
and it would appear that the rules given for the guidance of ships 
in the Southern Indian Ocean have been the means of saving much 
life and property. 

On the second day of our short stay we paid a quiet visit to the 
Acting Governor. The recent political convulsions in Mauritius, in 
connection with Sir John Pope Hennessy, had by no means sub- 
sided. During his leave of absence the Governor was being repre- 
sented with admirable tact and judgment by Mr. Fleming, who 
had already succeeded in establishing amicable relations with both 
sides. Considerable jealousies exist between the English and French 
residents in Mauritius. They have been unfortunately aroused to 
an unprecedented degree of violence by the proceedings of Sir John 
Pope Hennessy. The mass of the population of Mauritius are of 
mixed race, descendants of the coolies employed on the plantations. 
French or rather patois speaking Creoles come next in point of 
numbers. The Chinese are the universal shopkeepers. 

Later in the day we ascended the Pouce. It commands a view 
over the harbour of Port Louis and the interior of the island. The 
broad and shallow valleys, green with sugar-cane, reminded us 
much of our own South Downs. From the Pouce we drove to the 
residence of a relative, who is the owner of extensive sugar-cane 
plantations. The staple industry of Mauritius is the cultivation of 
sugar. More than 100,000 tons are annually exported. India and 
Australia are the chief markets. The bounty on the production of 
sugar in France and Germany has driven the sugar of Mauritius 
altogether out of Europe. Mauritius received a great blow from the 
opening of the Suez Canal, but it still possesses abundant resources. 
The wealth of the island may in some degree be measured by its 
public revenue, which amounts to no less than 700,000^. a year. 

Mauritius produces scarcely anything required for its own con- 
sumption. It imports rice from India, grain from Australia, oxen 
from Madagascar, and sheep from the Cape. 

Our last morning at Port Louis was devoted to the defences and 
the docks. Progress is being made with the improvement of exist- 
ing defences and the construction of new forts. The works are well 
advanced, and the guns are promised shortly from home. Mauri- 
tius possesses three graving-docks. The Albion Dock could be 
readily enlarged to receive a ship of war. It would be a wise policy 
on the part of the Government to assist in the work. 

The passage from Port Louis to Algoa Bay occupied eleven days. 
To the southward of the Trades, off the coast of Natal, a short but 



APPENDIX 431 

severe gale from the south-west was encountered. The gale was 
followed by a fresh breeze from the east, which carried the ' Sun- 
beam ' rapidly to the westward. In three days a distance of 797 
miles was covered, with winds from S.E. to N.E. 

The ' Sunbeam ' reached Port Elizabeth on October 12. The 
anchorage is protected from all winds except those from the south- 
east. Port Elizabeth from the sea has the aspect of a small 
Brighton. On landing it presents many cheerful indications of 
prosperity in its pier, railway station, municipal buildings, streets 
and shops, and last, but not least in the estimation of the traveller, 
its excellently appointed and hospitable club. The residential 
quarter is happily situated on elevated ground, swept by refreshing 
breezes from the ocean. A large space is covered with good houses 
and well-kept lawns. The public gardens are a great feat of horti- 
culture. The arid and sterile soil has been converted by liberal 
irrigation into a green oasis, containing groves of palms and a varied 
tropical vegetation. Needless to say the work is the achievement 
of a Scotch gardener. 

The prosperity of this active commercial centre is due to the 
trade carried on with Kimberley, of which it is the port. The value 
of the diamonds produced at Kimberley was estimated for 1883 
at 2,359,000^. ; 1884, 2,562,000^. ; 1885, 2,228,000^. ; and 1886, 
3,261,000^ These amounts will be exceeded in later returns. 
As yet, the price per carat shows no tendency to decline. The 
work of mining for diamonds gives employment to a large amount 
of well-paid labour. Some 2,000 white employes are engaged at 
an average wage of 5^. 95. per week. Twelve thousand coloured 
men are working under their direction, their earnings exceeding 
\l. per week. 

Port Elizabeth is the chief entrepot for ostrich feathers. The 
value of this article of export for 1886 was over half a million 
sterling. The process of selling the feathers by auction is one of 
the most singular business transactions at which it has been my 
lot to assist. One of the buyers in attendance, on the occasion 
of our visit, represents a London firm, and is said to be making an 
income of over i.oooZ. per year. A spirited effort is being made 
to establish an entrepot for the Cape wines at Port Elizabeth. We 
visited the extensive cellars under the public market, where a 
company has opened a business, which it is intended to conduct in 
accordance with the most approved methods of treatment in the 
wine-growing districts of Europe. 

A day was spent at Port Elizabeth, and two days of rapid sailing 

3 E 



432 



APPENDIX 



before an easterly wind brought the ' Sunbeam ' into Table Bay on 
the morning of October 15, just in time to gain the anchorage before 
one of the hard gales from the south-east, which are not unfrequently 
experienced at the Cape, set in. Between Port Darwin and the 
Cape the distance covered was 1,047 knots under steam, and 5,622 
knots under sail. The average speed under steam and sail was 
exactly eight knots. In the fortnight, October 13 to 27, 3,073 knots, 
giving an average speed of nine knots an hour, were covered under 
sail alone, with winds of moderate strength. Balloon canvas was 
freely used. 

Table Mountain is admirably described by Hiibner as a mighty 
buttress confronting the restless billows of the Southern Ocean. 
It was covered, on the morning of our arrival, with the grace- 
ful wreaths of mist which have so often excited the admiration of 
travellers. A strong south-east gale was blowing on the occasion. 
Table Mountain presents to the dwellers in Cape Town a scene 
of beauty which changes from hour to hour. Every veering of the 




Off the Cape 



APPENDIX 433 



wind brings some new yet ever effective adjustment of a mantle of 
vapour, seldom cast aside, which is sometimes silver, sometimes 
purple, and from time to time subdued to a sombre tone by an 
approaching fall of rain. 

In former years many and disastrous were the losses of life and 
property in Table Bay. Gales from the N.W. and the NN.E. are 
frequent in the winter, and blow occasionally with resistless fury. 
In the old sailing days ships caught at anchor in the bay by one of 
these terrible storms were doomed to destruction. By the enter- 
prise of the Colonial Government, and the skilful engineering of Sir 
John Coode, a wide area of sheltered anchorage is now afforded. 
The breakwater has been extended to a length of 560 yards, and a 
further extension is far advanced, which will give a total length of 
breakwater of 1,500 yards. 

A wet dock has been formed, capable of receiving the largest 
steamers in the ocean mail service, and broad enough for an iron- 
clad. The principal dimensions are : length, 540 feet; breadth, 68 
feet ; depth, 26 feet. An outer harbour, 44 acres in extent, will be 
gradually formed under the protection of the breakwater. When 
these works are completed, Cape Town will afford advantages to 
shipping such as are scarcely exceeded in any port of Great 
Britain. 

Cape Town contains not a few buildings of which the inhabitants 
of an older capital might justly be proud. The House of Assembly 
is a noble structure. The admirably kept and beautifully situated 
Observatory, the banks, the railway station, and the docks are all 
excellent. The Botanical Gardens, and the shady avenue dividing 
them from Government House, would be an adornment to the finest 
capital in Europe. 

Considerable as are the attractions of Cape Town, they are far 
exceeded by the charm of its picturesque suburbs, extending for some 
miles along the foot of Table Mountain on its eastern side. The 
country is richly wooded, chiefly with our own dear English trees, 
and abounds with pleasant buildings, surrounded with gardens 
bright with the flowers of the summer of our Northern latitudes. 
The scene recalls the most favoured part of Surrey. The canton- 
ments of the troops at Wynberg, on a well- wooded plateau, have all 
the lovely features of an English park. 

We made an excursion with Sir Gordon Sprigg and his kind 
family to Constantia, where the Government have purchased an 
old Dutch manor-house, and are cultivating the vine under the 
superintendence of Baron Von Babo, with the view of producing 



434 APPENDIX 

wines on the most approved European principles. Our host has 
made one of those interesting and honourable careers for which 
colonial life offers so many opportunities to those who know how to 
use them. He began life in the gallery of the House of Commons, 
as a reporter of debates, in the days of Cobden. As Premier of a 
Colonial Parliament, he has had an opportunity of applying the 
maxims of political wisdom gathered from a close observation of 
our own Parliamentary proceedings. 

Another excursion was made to Stellenbosch, a characteristic 
example of the old Dutch towns of the Cape Colony. We were 
under the guidance of Sir Gordon Sprigg, Mr. Hofmeyr, and Mr. 
Tudhope, the Colonial Secretary. The journey from Cape Town 
occupied an hour by railway. Stellenbosch is in many ways a perfect 
reproduction of a country town in Holland. If we miss the canals, 
we have the domestic architecture, the fine avenues running through 
the principal streets, and the Dutch characteristics of the people. 
These features give to this distant settlement in South Africa, not 
one of whose inhabitants probably has ever visited Holland, a 
markedly national aspect. 

On our arrival at Stellenbosch we were driven, under the 
guidance of the Mayor, to the University, where a mixed staff of pro- 
fessors, English and Dutch, are doing excellent work in education. 
We were received by a guard of honour, furnished by the students' 
Volunteer Corps. Having inspected the University buildings, we 
drove out to an old Dutch farm, under a burning sun, and through 
a country in which the foliage of the temperate and the tropical 
zones was closely intermingled. 

The farm we visited comprises an extensive range of buildings, 
with an excellent dwelling-house, roomy stables, and the stores, 
filled with butts of wine, which are characteristic of the district. 
The buildings form a large quadrangle, surrounding a plot of grass 
shaded by noble trees. The situation of the farm is very striking. 
It stands in a deep valley, green, fertile, and well watered, but 
completely hemmed in by mountains of volcanic formation some 
4,000 feet in height, beautiful in form, but entirely devoid of vege- 
tation. Want of rain and the phylloxera are constant anxieties at 
the Cape. We observed that the field labourers were invariably 
men of colour. Their earnings do not exceed one shilling per clay. 

Cape politics have been a fertile source of trouble and anxiety 
to the British Government at home. With the necessarily im- 
perfect knowledge of local circumstances, it is impossible, from 
London, to deal in a satisfactory manner with the relations between 



APPENDIX 



the Government of a distant colony and neighbours so little known 
as the Boers, and savages so- rude as the Kaffirs and Zulus. Our 
errors of the past will not be repeated, if only we resolve firmly not 
to fetter the discretion of the local Governments, which, in pursu- 
ance of a wise policy, we have called into existence. 

The visit of President Kruger, of the Transvaal, to President 
Brand, of the Free State, was a prominent topic at the time of our 
visit. It had led to the delivery of a speech by Mr. Kruger, in 
which he had declared the determination of the Boers to preserve 
their complete independence. In the Cape Colony people are 
more interested in the establishment of railway communication 




St. Helena 



436 APPENDIX 



with the new gold-fields within the borders of the Transvaal than 
in the question of political union. As yet a certain reluctance is 
manifested by the Boers to establish railway communication with 
the Cape. An English company has made a railway from Delagoa 
Bay to the Transvaal frontier, and the line will shortly be extended 
to Pretoria. In the meanwhile the people of the Cape Colony are 
desirous of extending their system of railways, already 1,483 miles 
in length, into the interior. Considerable discoveries of gold have 
recently been made within the limits of the Transvaal, but close to 
the border, and all the workers at the mines are Englishmen from 
the Cape Colony. There is no reason to doubt that permission to 
establish railway communication with this newly discovered gold- 
mining district will be ultimately granted. 

Among the Boers of the Transvaal a large number are friendly 
to the English. Once connected with the Cape by railway, and by 
a Customs union, which has been much under discussion, the Cape 
Colony and the Transvaal will be for all practical purposes of trade 
united. A divided administration of government in a country of 
such wide extent is an unmixed advantage. 

It was particularly gratifying to hear from Mr. Hofmeyr, the 
head of the Dutch party in the Cape Parliament, and a most able 
representative of the Colony in the late Colonial Conference, how 
entirely satisfied his people are to live under British rule as now 
conducted. The Dutch colonists at the Cape have no personal 
relations with Holland. They look back upon their former connec- 
tion as an interesting historical association ; but the protection 
which England affords against the occupation of the Cape by some 
other foreign power is a practical boon, and one greatly valued. 
There is a party at the Cape which regards with disfavour the 
dependence of the present Premier, Sir Gordon Sprigg, on the 
Dutch vote, or, as it is called, the Africander Bond. From another 
point of view we may hail with satisfaction the success which an 
Englishman has achieved in winning the confidence of the Dutch. 
While conducting the government to their satisfaction, he is 
thoroughly loyal to his own nationality. Baron Hiibner speaks in 
discouraging tones of our position at the Cape. A much more 
cheerful impression was conveyed by the present able Governor, 
Sir Hercules Robinson, and by other eminent men whom I had an 
opportunity of consulting. 

Judging from such indications as came under our personal 
notice, the native races, so far from being "a source of weakness, are 
a great strength to the colony. The Indians in North America, 



APPENDIX 



437 




St. -Helena 



the Maoris in New Zealand, the aborigines of Australia, have dis- 
appeared or dwindled away before the white man. The Zulus and 
Kaffirs have proved themselves capable of adopting and promoting 
civilisation. They show in numerous instances a high appreciation 
of the blessings of education. They are ready to labour on the 
farms, on the railways, and in the mines. They are content to 
live under the rule of a superior race. 

Material prosperity has been greatly advanced by the discoveries 
of gold, the opening up of gold-fields, and still more by the large 
amount of wealth which has been derived from the exportation of 
diamonds. 

The ' Sunbeam ' left Cape Town on October 24th. St. Helena 
was reached on November 3rd. Like all the islands of the Atlantic, 
it is of volcanic formation. It presents to the ocean on every side 
a coast-line of precipices, sharp peaks, and gloomy chasms. The 
contorted shapes of rock and mountain give a powerful impression 
of the tremendous forces of nature in a period of volcanic activity. 
The landing-place for St. Helena is under the lee of the island, at 
Jamestown, a small town depending entirely on shipping. 



438 APPENDIX 

Above Jamestown for some 2,000 feet the country is inexpres- 
sibly sterile. At a higher level the soil is watered by the frequent 
showers brought up from the ocean by the South-east Trades, and 
is covered with a rich carpet of grass. In every sheltered dell the 
growth of timber is abundant and varied, combining the trees ot 
the tropics with those of our cold English latitudes. The water- 
courses are innumerable. The bed of every stream is filled, and 
every bank is covered with lovely masses of arum-lilies. The 
scenery of the island is most beautiful. The Acting Governor 
occupies a fine country house surrounded by a noble park. It is 
sad to visit Longwood, and to reflect on the intolerable weariness 
of such a place of confinement to the victor in many battles, and 
the former arbiter of the destinies of Central Europe. 

A personal visit to St. Helena is necessary to appreciate the 
facilities for the defence of the island. The landing-places are 
few, and they are commanded by works of considerable strength. 
New works are in progress which will give an extended range of 
fire to seaward. The guns are not yet to hand. The expenditure 
recently authorised, amounting to some io,oooL, appears fully justi- 
fied in view of the importance of St. Helena as a coaling station for 
the Cape route to the East. As a sanatorium it might be of great 
value to the ships of the African Squadron. 

The ' Sunbeam ' touched at Ascension on November yth. This 
barren and inhospitable volcanic island has presented a singularly 
unpromising field of labour to the naval detachment which for 
many years has been maintained there. Solid and capacious 
stores, extensive ranges of buildings, miles of roads, the tanks, the 
hospitals on the seashore and on the mountain, the farm on the 
peak a green oasis crowning a heap of cinders attest the zeal of 
a succession of officers and men. To the naval reformer they give 
occasion for reflections on the considerable cost which has been 
thrown upon the country in the creation of an establishment which 
has become practically useless through the universal use of steam 
and the suppression of the slave trade. In the present circum- 
stances St. Helena offers unquestionably superior advantages for all 
naval purposes. As a coaling station it is in a better position, being 
approximately equidistant between the Cape and Sierra Leone, and 
less exposed to rollers, which frequently interrupt the coaling of 
ships at Ascension. It is repugnant to abandon to utter ruin an 
establishment created with much labour and expense. To this 
alternative, however, we must come, unless we are prepared to put 
Ascension in a -state of defence. The value of the naval stores is 



not less than 50,000^., .and 
the ample stock of coal would 
offer an irresistible temptation to 
an enemy's cruiser. Three or 
four long-range, armour-piercing 
guns, with a few machine- 
guns, would give security 
against a coup de main. 
We should look to the 
fleet to prevent an 
attack in 
force. 




Ascension Green Mountain Noddy Rookery 



3F 



440 APPEXDIX 

Sierra Leone was reached on November i4tb. In this section 
of the voyage the distance under canvas was 3,327 knots, the 
average speed 7-7 knots, and the distance under steam 289 knots, 
with an average speed of 7 knots. The South-east Trades were 
light, and balloon canvas again proved extremely serviceable. 

Sierra Leone is an important coaling station, half-way between 
England and the Cape. The harbour is large and safe for ships of 
heavy tonnage. The works of defence are in active progress. The 
cost is estimated at 22,ooo/. for works and 15,000^. for armaments. 
It is to be regretted that the armament is almost entirely composed 
of muzzle-loading rifled guns. In addition to the works now in 
hand, a battery is thought desirable to prevent an attack with long- 
range guns from seaward. Having admitted Sierra Leone into the 
list of our coaling stations of the first class, its defence should be 
made complete against a powerful cruiser. 

The British settlements on the West Coast of Africa date from 
1672, when the British African Company was first formed. The 
British protectorate is estimated to extend over 3,000 square miles. 
Freetown, the capital, is built on a peninsula about eighteen miles 
long. 

The town is backed by mountains of considerable elevation, 
richly wooded, and beautiful in outline. The streets are laid out 
with regularity on ground sloping rapidly to the river. The houses 
are of wood, and the roadways are unpaved. The population is 
37,000. The throng at the landing-place has a decided family re- 
semblance to any similar assemblage of the negro race in the West 
Indies. The general aspect is cheerful and free from care. The 
washerwomen, in Manchester print gowns of gorgeous colour, are 
conspicuous and grotesque personages. 

At Sierra Leone the Church of England is strongly supported 
by the Church Missionary Society. It has a large body of adhe- 
rents, and is the see of a Bishop. It has a college, affiliated to the 
Durham University, which has turned out coloured students of dis- 
tinguished ability. My friend Mr. Blyden, author of ' Christianity, 
Islam, and the Negro Race,' is a distinguished leader of the higher 
culture among the negro race. 

The capabilities of the coloured races are nowhere seen to greater 
advantage than at Sierra Leone. They supply the official staff of 
the Government. A coloured barrister of marked ability is the 
leader of the Bar, and makes a professional income of 3,oooZ. a 
year. 

The day seems drawing near when it will be no longer necessary 



APPENDIX 



441 



to send Englishmen 
to administer the go- 
vernment in a climate 
so often fatal to the health 
of the European. The trade 
of Sierra Leone, in common with 
that of the Gold Coast gener- 
ally, consists mainly in the 
exportation of the palm 
kernel, from which an 
' oil much used in the 
manufacture of 
soap and candles 
is extracted. 
Marseilles and 
Hamburg are 
the chief 



Sierra Leone 



442 APPENDIX 



centres of this business. The imports are mainly Manchester goods 
and spirits. The trade has fallen off in recent years owing to the 
constant warfare among the tribes bordering on the colony. 

The greatest excitement prevailed in Sierra Leone at the time 
of our visit. An expedition was being sent to punish a neighbour- 
ing tribe for frequent deeds of violence to British subjects. It 
achieved a rapid success. The forces engaged consisted of the men 
of the West India regiment and some seamen of the ships. Sir 
Francis de Winton was in command, supported by Major Piggott 
and Captain Brown. Sierra Leone is the headquarters of the 
West India regiment stationed on the West Coast of Africa. Their 
number is 400. The barracks are a large and airy range of 
buildings, in a commanding situation on the heights above the 
town. 

We breakfasted with the Acting Governor. An old fort has 
been adapted as the official residence. Its thick walls, originally 
built as a defence against the bullets of an enemy, give some pro- 
tection from the heat of the African sun. The wide ramparts afford 
a shady walk, commanding lovely views of the town and harbour 
beneath, and the noble amphitheatre of mountains above. Sierra 
Leone would be delightful but for its climate and the fevers which 
it brings. 

The ' Sunbeam ' left Sierra Leone at sunset on November i5th 
under steam. The North-east Trades were picked up in latitude 
1 1 N. A call of a few hours was made at Porto Praya on Novem- 
ber i gth. The French frigate of instruction for cadets, the ' Iphi- 
genie,' a heavily rigged ship of 4,000 tons displacement, had 
anchored on the previous day. Porto Praya wears the air of decay 
so commonly observable in foreign settlements under the Portu- 
guese flag. The country is fertile, but progress is checked by the 
great weight of taxation, the public income being misapplied in 
keeping the unemployed in unprofitable idleness. We noticed a 
considerable number of able-bodied men hoeing weeds in the public 
square. 

We found three kind Englishmen leading a life of exile, in 
charge of the station of the West African Telegraph Company. 
St. Vincent, the only island of the Cape de Verdes which has any 
trade, is a coaling station much used by steamers on the South 
American route. 

On the day after leaving Porto Praya the ' Sunbeam ' lay be- 
calmed under the lee of St. Antonio. The anchorage used by us in 
1876 was in view, as was also the house and plantation of which a 



APPENDIX 



443 




Barque hove -to 



drawing is given in my dear wife's ' Voyage in the Sunbeam.' There 
were many sad reminiscences as the former track of the ' Sunbeam ' 
was crossed. On November 29th, without warning from the baro- 
meter, a strong gale commenced from the east, and lasted without 
intermission for four days. Under low canvas and close-hauled, 
the ' Sunbeam ' gallantly struggled forward, making 130 knots, on 
November 29th, and on the three following days 112, 57, and 92 
knots respectively. While hove-to in this gale the canvas was 
severely punished. All the lower sails were more or less damaged, 
and sail was reduced to storm trysails. Two large barques were 
passed lying-to under lower main topsails and mizen storm stay- 
sails. At dawn on December 2nd Fayal was sighted. 

The gale was blowing dead on shore at Horta, and it was pre- 
ferable to run for shelter under the lee of the island. As we closed 
the land, grand effects were produced by the clouds and mist driv- 
ing before the gale down the green slopes of the mountains to the 
dark cliffs of lava and basalt, on which the mighty surges of the 



444 



APPENDIX 



Atlantic were breaking into foam. Late in the afternoon of De- 
cember 2nd the ' Sunbeam ' gained tbe northern entrance to the 
channel which divides Fayal and Pico. An attempt was made 
to reach Horta, but it was found that a heavy sea was running 
into the anchorage. It was a pitchy night, and we determined to 
wait outside till daylight, standing across to Pico under steam for 
shelter from the wind and sea. 

At dawn on the 3rd the moon was still shining on the northern 
face of the noble mountain, towering in solitary grandeur to a 
height of 7,800 feet. The snowy peak stood up from its mantle 
of clouds, and took the rosy hues of the morning. An hour's 
steaming carried us into the anchorage at Fayal, where we re- 
mained through the day of December 3rd. The passage from 
Sierra Leone to Fayal had been accomplished, with adverse winds 
during a considerable part of the voyage, in 16^ days, 2,005 knots 
being covered under sail at an average speed of 6-3 knots, and 460 
miles under steam at an average speed of 6 knots. 

We found several sailing vessels at anchor in the roadstead of 
Horta. One British vessel had come in for provisions, another to 
repair a damaged rudder. A barque hailing from Boston was one 
of a line which carries on a regular service under canvas between 
the Azores and America. They depend chiefly on passengers, who 
make the cruise for the sake of health. The Norwegian flag was 




APPENDIX 



445 




represented by one most crazy wooden ship, 70 years old, and by 
another of nearly equal antiquity, and in a like condition of un- 
seaworthiness. The captains of both the Norwegians were hoping 
that the surveyors might condemn them as unfit for further service. 

Fayal offers especially favourable opportunities for the obse- 
quies of an unseaworthy ship insured beyond her value. The 
danger to life from the attempt to navigate in vessels no longer 
fit to contend with storm and tempest can only be removed 
by compelling the owners to bear some share of the pecuniary 
risk. 

The local prosperity depends mainly on shipping. Business is 
on the decline. The opening of the Suez Canal, the introduction of 
powerful iron and steel built ocean liners, which suffer compara- 
tively little from the effects of heavy weather, and, as the people of 
Fayal allege, the legislation promoted by Mr. Plimsoll, which has 
withdrawn their best customers, the weakly and unsound vessels, 
from active service at sea, have combined to produce a marked 
diminution in the number of ships calling at the port. The 
whalers under the United States flag still make it their head- 
quarters in the summer season. During the present year nine have 



446 APPENDIX 

been, seen at the anchorage at the same time. Exciting chases in 
pursuit of the sperm whale sometimes take place in the channel 
between Fayal and Pico. Numerous whale-boats are kept on the 
island, and are instantly launched when a whale is seen near the 
shore. A breakwater is now in progress at Horta, but the work is 
proceeding with the customary fes tina lente method of the Portu- 
guese. 

Having taken in water and provisions, the voyage was resumed 
on the evening of December 3rd, with a favourable wind from the 
SS.E. At midnight the wind shifted suddenly to the north-east, 
and on the following morning the ' Sunbeam ' bore up, before a 
severe gale, for shelter under the lee of Terceira. Late in the day 
the veil of lowering clouds was drawn aside, and the sun descend- 
ing to the west, lighted up the landscape with a flood of golden 
light. 

Terceira is of volcanic formation. Its highest ridges attain an 
elevation of 4,000 feet. The crests of the hills are clothed with 
forests of pine and rich pastures. At a lower level the indications 
of laborious cultivation are seen in range upon range of terraced 
gardens and vineyards. The island is densely inhabited, and the 
numerous white houses give an air of cheerfulness and prosperity 
to the scene, which recalls the more familiar charms of the Bay 
of Naples and the Straits of Messina. 

On December 5th, the gale subsided to a calm, and the voyage 
homewards was commenced under steam. In a few hours the 
engines broke down, and sail was made to a light breeze from the 
north-east. On the succeeding days favourable winds were experi- 
enced fron the westward. On the nth the wind shifted to the 
south-east, accompanied by drizzling rain and fog, which rendered 
observations impossible, and which continued until the Seilly Island 
lights were sighted in a fortunate lifting of the haze, on the 
evening of the i2th. The run from the Seilly Islands to Spithead 
was made at the rate of ui- knots an hour, before a south-westerly 
gale. 

The total distance from Fayal, including the call at Terceira, 
was 1,440 miles, of which sixty only were under steam. The average 
speed was 7 knots. The ' Sunbeam ' entered Portsmouth Harbour 
at noon on December 14. 



PAET II. 

(A) ABSTRACT OF LOG OF 'SUNBEAM,' PREPARED BY 
THOMAS ALLNUTT BRASSEY. 

(B) OUTLINE OF VOYAGE, REPRINTED FROM ' THE TIMES 
OF DECEMBER 15 TV/, 1887. 



3 G 



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450 



APPENDIX 



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452 



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ABSTRACT OF LOG OF ' SUNBEAM 



453 



S 1i3l 

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>iCMNCMCM 



ABSTRACT OF LOG OF 'SUNBEAM' 



455 



in 








1/1 10 




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10 


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456 



APPENDIX 






10 to to to to to 

pq HHS H H 
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odd " 



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p p 
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to O O O 
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J^ 

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ABSTRACT OF LOG OF 'SUNBEAM' 



457 



CO -^ VQ 






OO N OO OO N COvO t^vO !>. t-.vO O COOO 

vOM-ONOCMr^Ni^t^OcMO-'i-'-ico 

MCMi-iCMCMCMCMfiCMCMCMCMCMCM" 



(v) CM CM 1-1 i-i i-i 



H W H H S H H H H H H W H K S 

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vo \O M3 



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W 



1 ^ CO f) ro 



O2 O2 O2 O2 02 O2 02 020202020202020202020202020202 O2 O2 02 02 O2 O2 02 O2 

CM CM CO CO CO ^}- LO lO^O ^O NO t~* t^GC OO OO ON ON ON ON ON ON CM CM Tj~ t^.QO ON O 

CM O ON ON ON ONOC io-3-focOO)i-i*-iHHHHCMCMCNl 

1-1 1-1 OO ONCO CO t->. vb"3-^CONi-<CMi-'Ni-ii-ii-iCMCM ___ . _ - 

1O *O V7^ \O ^O -O 1^1 IO l/ ^ "^ 1 - r l Lr > 

ONOO ON ON ON ON ON t^VO ^i" CO CO CM CM CO CM CM CM CO ^~ CO CO CO CO CO CM CN1 CM >-i t->.OO ON w 

CM f^vO LOOO "^ t^ v> O O CM LO M T^- CM rj- N t^ LO CMCM CMOOOOOONO ^O 

pppoNONOp p>-"i-<i-ii-i > -i M i-icMCMMMCMCM| r ) rr :t "r :t "? < r 1 ?' T^ 

bbboNONob bbbbbbbbbbbbbbl OOOOOOON ON 

COCOCOCMCMCOCO COCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCOCO COCOCOCOCOCOCM CM 

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458 



APPENDIX 



PH 

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\.M. weighed and pro 
ea. NOON, returned 
left Cape Town. Mm 
llobben Island under 
\i. ceased steaming 


' ' 3 r3 

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ABSTRACT OF LOG OF l SUNBEAM' 



459 



ro 3 

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Tj- -+J -t-a p^ 

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w w 

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0^^^ a 

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i-O O O O ("O O ^~ *-O ^^ i-O N O 
O ^~ co^O O O co t>. LOOO >- co 





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if in to CM i 


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2" 2'2~ - 


O ro if to to t^oo o CM M M M 
CM CM CMCM CM CMCM rorOCOCOCO 


CO CO CO CO 

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TJ- CM' o\ co 


^f 1 CO VO i i f^ to Tt" 
TJ- j to M CM to ro 


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ro to CM" roCM i-Htoroiftoroto 


*f CM to Iv. ON 1-1 


CM if VO ON ON CM CM if VO to ^^ ON O CM if 
i_ _, I-IMMC-ICM CMCMCMCMCMrorOrO 


to tn to 

VO ON O if to 


to to to to to 


to to to to to 

b ON OOVO ro roO O t^OO to CM 
CO !-- t--.t--.t->. t^ t--. t^vo vo vO vo 




t^OO 00 00 OO 00 


10 

ON ON i i ^~ too 


to to to to 

toCO ON O i 1-1 CM ro CM 


to to to to to 

CO OO t^ r^ t^ t^ t^ t^vo vo vo vo 




VO 00 OO 00 OO 00 00 


to to to to to to to IO to to 

vo CO O ro rovb vb t8Q ONM b " CM w 1-1 ON f^ t- if ro ON Ocboovbro 
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. **J -^J W V*J v^J W 




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vo vo t^r- 




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CM to to O C- 
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bbbb bbbbbbb bob bb b bb b bb bbbbb 

rorororo rororororororo rororo roro ro roro ro roro rororororo 










a a ' H * " " " " S o> ' " *& ' 
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ABSTRACT OF LOG OF < SUNBEAM* 461 



SUMMAEY. 

Steam Suil 

Portsmouth to Bombay . . . . 3,040 miles 4,046 miles. 

Bombay to Macassar .... 4,585 ,, 2,509 ,, 

Macassar to Adelaide .... 601 ,, 3,256 

Adelaide to Port Darwin . . . 976 ,, 3,285 ,, 

Port Darwin to Cape of Good Hope . 1,047 5,622 ,, 

Cape of Good Hope to Portsmouth . 831 ,, 6,668 



1 1, 080 25,386 

Total distance under steam and sail, 36,466 miles. 



(B) THE CRUISE OF THE ' SUNBEAM: 
REPRINTED FROM THE 'TIMES' OF DECEMBER 15, 1887. 

THE ' Sunbeam ' reached Portsmouth Harbour on Wednesday after her 
long voyage of 36,000 nautical miles among the British Possessions in all 
parts of the world. We are enabled to give the following short account of 
this very interesting cruise. 

For certain duties of the navy, such as protection of the revenue, 
supervision of fisheries, the police of the Pacific, instruction in pilotage, 
small vessels are required which will be thoroughly seaworthy, capable 
under sail of taking full advantage of the winds, and in calms making fair 
speed i:nder steam with a low consumption of fuel. It is believed that 
such a type is represented in the ' Sunbeam,' and that her performances 
during an extended cruise recently completed may be of interest in a naval 
point of view. 

The principal dimensions of the hull and spars of the ' Sunbeam ' are 
as follows: Length between perpendiculars, 137 ft. ; beam, 27 ft. 6 in. ; 
depth of hold, 13 ft. gin. ; displacement in tons, 576; sail area in square 
yards, 9,200. 

In fourteen years of active cruising in all parts of the world the sea- 
worthiness of the ' Sunbeam ' has been thoroughly tested. Neither when 
lying to nor scudding has she ever shipped a green sea. She can be 
worked with a complement of eighteen seamen and three stokers. She 
can carry an armament of machine and quick-firing guns. 

The consumption of fuel may be taken at three tons in twenty-four 
hours for a speed of 7| knots ; four tons for eight knots ; and seven tons 
for nine knots. The measured-mile speed was 10-27 knots. Seventy tons 
of coal can be carried. 



462 APPENDIX 

Under sail alone in the most favourable circumstances 13 knots is an 
extreme speed. Three hundred knots have been made good on a few 
occasions, with some contributions to the day's run from current. On a 
passage the average distance made good is 1,000 miles a week, of which 
one-third is under steam. 

The recent cruise of the ' Sunbeam ' included India, the Eastern 
Archipelago, and Australia. The outward voyage was by the Suez Canal 
and the return voyage by the Cape. On leaving Portsmouth calls were 
made at Cowes and Southampton, the departure being finally taken from 
Plymouth on the igth of November, Gibraltar was reached on the 26th of 
November, Algiers on the 1st of December, Malta 5th, Port Said loth, 
Assab Bay igth, Aden 2ist of December, and Bombay 3rd of January. 
From England fine weather was experienced as far as Algiers. Thence to 
Port Said the winds were strong from the westward, with an interval of 
calm lasting nearly two days. In the northern portion of the Eed Sea 
fresh northerly winds prevailed. On leaving Aden the north-east mon- 
soon blew with such force that it was decided to make a stretch to the 
eastward under sail. As the distance from the Arabian coast increased 
the monsoon gradually abated, and a course was laid under steam direct 
to Bombay. On nearing the coast of India the monsoon became more 
northerly, and the ' Sunbeam ' fetched Bombay under sail. Having given 
a general description of the weather, the records of the log-book may be 
summarised as follows : Distance under sail, 4,046 knots ; distance under 
steam, 2,830 knots ; the average speed in each case being within a fraction 
of seven knots. 

On the first section of the voyage the average speed of 1,000 miles a 
week was maintained with remarkable uniformity. Bombay was reached 
on the precise day which had been estimated before leaving England. 

After a few days at Bombay the ' Sunbeam ' proceeded to Kurrachee, 
and remained in its salubrious climate from the loth of January to the 
7th of February. Lord Brassey and his family in the interval made an 
extended journey in North-Western India. The return passage from 
Kurrachee to Bombay, favoured by a brisk north-east monsoon, was made 
entirely under sail in less than forty-eight hours, the distance covered on 
the gth of February being 268 miles. The Queen's Jubilee was celebrated 
during the second visit of the ' Sunbeam ' to Bombay. 

The voyage was resumed on the 22nd of February. Touching at 
Jinjeera and Goa, Colombo was reached on the 5th of March. The entire 
distance from Kurrachee to Cape Comorin, including both entering and 
leaving port, had been accomplished under sail. The monsoon was not 
felt on the Malabar coast. From Bombay to Cape Comorin the passage 
was made with the daily sea breezes, blowing fresh in the afternoon, 
followed by calm prolonged through the night and the first part of the 
day. Calling at Trincomalee en route, the ' Sunbeam ' next proceeded to 
Burmah. March is a busy season in the rice trade, and a noble fleet of 
sailing ships was assembled at Rangoon. 






THE CRUISE OF THE 'SUNBEAM' 463 

After leaving Eangoon the ' Sunbeam ' proceeded to Borneo, touching 
at Moulrnein and Singapore. The Sarawak river was reached on the 3rd 
of April. Following the northern and eastern coast of Borneo, Labuan, 
Brunei, Kudat Bay, Sandakan, and Darvel Bay were successively visited. 
Macassar was reached on the 1 9th of April. In the section of the voyage 
extending from Bombay to Kurrachee, and thence by the route which has 
been described, the total distances covered were 4,695 knots under steam 
at an average speed of 8*3 knots, and 2,509 knots under sail at an average 
speed of 5*1 knots. 

The ' Sunbeam ' left Macassar on the evening of the 2oth of April 
The Indian Ocean was entered from the Alias Straits, which divides the 
islands of Lombok and Sumbawa, on the 24th. A heavy swell was en- 
countered from the east, caused, as it was afterwards learned, by a cyclone 
which did great damage to the fleet engaged in the pearl-fishery on the 
north-west coast of Australia. The South-east Trades were picked up on 
the 25th, and blew steadily until the 3rd of May. On the 5th of May a 
gale, with furious squalls, was experienced from the south-west. It was 
followed by a calm, and afterwards by westerly winds. Albany was 
reached on the 8th of May. The ' Sunbeam ' again put to sea on the 1 7th 
of May. A week was occupied on the passage to Adelaide. In the great 
Australian Bight north-east winds were encountered, gradually shifting 
to the west, and blowing a gale during the last two days before reaching 
port. On the day before the arrival at Adelaide the distance of 265 knots 
was made good ; sail having been much reduced for several hours to avoid 
running down on Kangaroo Island in thick weather at night. Between 
Macassar and Adelaide a distance of 3,256 knots was covered under sail 
at an average speed of 6-3 knots. The distance under steam was 601 knots 
and the average speed seven knots. 

From Adelaide the ' Sunbeam ' made a smart run to Melbourne, en- 
countering a heavy gale with furious squalls off Cape Otway. After a long 
stay at Melbourne the voyage was resumed to Sydney, Newcastle, and 
Brisbane. 

On leaving Brisbane the passage was taken inside the Great Barrier 
Eeef without the assistance of a pilot. Fourteen hundred miles of this 
difficult navigation were traversed under sail. The ' Sunbeam ' touched 
at all the ports of Northern Queensland, and between Cooktown and the 
Albany Pass anchored in the three intervening nights under the lee of the 
coral reefs. A somewhat prolonged stay at Thursday Island was broken 
by a visit to Darnley Island and other anchorages in the Torres Straits. 
Port Darwin was reached on the 8th of September. Between Adelaide 
and Port Darwin the distance under sail was 3,311 knots, and the average 
speed 7*2 knots. The distance under steam was 966 knots, and the 
average speed 6*5 knots. On arrival at Port Darwin the ' Sunbeam ' had 
completed successfully the circumnavigation of the Australian continent. 
Unhappily the cruise, so auspiciously commenced, ended with that painful 
event which has cast a dark shadow over all its other memories. 

3 i 



464 APPEXDIX 



From Port Darwin to the Cape of Good Hope, and thence to Sierra 
Leone, the voyage lay for the most part within the zone of the South-east 
Trades. Rodriguez Island was sighted on the 26th of September, and 
Mauritius was reached two days later. The passage from Port Louis to 
Algoa Bay occupied 1 1 days. To the southward of the Trades, off the 
coast of Natal, a short but severe gale from the south-west was encountered. 
The gale was followed by a fresh breeze from the east, which carried the 
' Sunbeam ' rapidly to the westward from off Gordon Bay, her landfall on 
the coast of Africa. A day was spent at Port Elizabeth, and two days of 
rapid sailing before an easterly wind brought the yacht into Table Bay on 
the morning of the 1 5th of October, just in time to gain the anchorage 
before one of the hard gales from the south-east set in which are not in- 
frequently experienced at the Cape. The construction of a noble break- 
water has given complete security to the anchorage off Cape Town. 

Between Port Darwin and the Cape the distance covered was 1,047 
knots under steam and 5,622 knots under sail ; the average speed under 
steam and sail was exactly eight knots. In the fortnight from September 
13 to 27, 3,073 knots, giving an average speed of nine knots, were covered 
iinder sail alone, with winds of moderate strength. Balloon canvas was 
freely used. 

The ' Sunbeam ' left Cape Town on the 24th of October. She touched at 
St. Helena on the 3rd of November, Ascension on the 7th, and Sierra 
Leone on the I4th. In this section of the voyage the distance under 
canvas was 3,327 knots, the average speed 7-7 knots ; and the distance 
under steam 289 knots, with an average speed of seven knots. The 
South-east Trades were light, and balloon canvas again proved extremely 
serviceable. 

The ' Sunbeam ' left Sierra Leone at sunset on the 1 5th of November, 
under steam. The North-east Trades were picked up in latitude 1 1 deg. N. 
A call of a few hours was made at Porto Praya on the igth of November. 
On the following day the northern islands of the Cape Verde group were 
sighted. During the 2ist and 22iid of November a great number of sail- 
ing ships were passed, outward bound. The Trades were interrupted by 
a calm on the 24th of November and stopped finally on the 27th. On the 
following day, without warning from the barometer, a strong gale com- 
menced from the east, and lasted without intermission for four days. 
Under low canvas and close hauled the ' Sunbeam ' gallantly struggled 
forward, making 130 knots on the 29th of November, and on the three 
following days 112, 57, and 92 knots respectively. "While hove-to in this 
gale the canvas was severely punished. All the lower sails were more or 
less damaged, and sail was reduced to storm trysails. Two large barques 
were passed lying-to under lower main topsails and rnizzen storm staysails. 
At dawn on the 2nd of December Fayal was sighted. 

Shelter was obtained for 24 hours under the lee of the island of Pico, 
and on the following day the ' Sunbeam ' anchored off Horta, the port of 
Faj-al. The passage from Sierra Leone to Fayal had been accomplished, 



THE CRUISE OF THE 'SUNBEAM' 465 

with adverse winds during a considerable part of the voyage, in i6i days, 
2,005 knots being covered under sail at an average speed of 6'3 knots, and 
460 miles under steam at an average speed of six knots. Having taken 
in water and provisions, the voyage was resumed on the evening of the 
3rd of December, with a favourable wind from the south-south-east. At 
midnight the wind shifted suddenly to the north-east, and on the following 
morning the ' Sunbeam ' bore up before a severe gale for shelter under the 
lee of Terceira. 

On the 5th of December the gale subsided to a calm, and the voyage 
homewards was commenced under steam. In a few hours the engines 
broke down, and sail was made to a light breeze from the north-east. In 
the succeeding days favourable winds were experienced from the west- 
ward. On the nth the wind shifted to the south-east, accompanied by 
drizzling rain and fog, rendering observations impossible, which continued 
until the Scilly Island lights were sighted in a fortunate lifting of the haze 
on the evening of the I2th. The run from the Scilly Islands to Spithead 
was made at the rate of n^ knots before a south-westerly gale. The 
total distance from Fayal, including the call at Terceira, was 1,440 miles, 
of which 60 only were under steam. The average speed was seven knots. 
The ' Sunbeam ' entered Portsmouth Harbour at noon on the I4th of 
December. The total distance covered during the voyage was 36,709 
nautical miles, 25,800 under sail and 10,909 under steam. The runs 
under sail only included 39 days over 200 knots, 1 5 days over 240, seven 
days over 260, three days over 270. The best day was 282 knots. The 
total consumption of coal was 330 tons. Though the quality taken in 
abroad was in many instances inferior, an average distance of 33 knots 
was steamed for every ton of coals consumed. 

When the ' Sunbeam ' reached the Cape it was found that the tubes of 
the boiler had been seriously injured by the great varieties of fuel burnt 
during the voyage. The pressure of steam was considerably reduced, with 
a corresponding loss of speed. On leaving Terceira the boiler broke down 
completely, and for the remainder of the voyage the winds were the only 
resource. 

The crew, consisting of 24 men in various ratings, have behaved in a 
highly creditable manner. The offences when in port have been few, and 
at sea every duty has been carried out in a manner worthy of British 
seamen. Three men joined at King George's Sound. They had been 
sentenced to a short term of imprisonment for insubordination on board 
a yacht returning from a cruise in Australian waters. To oblige the 
Government Resident, Lord Brassey consented to receive these men on 
board on trial. Better men it would not have been possible to obtain had 
they been recruited through the usual agencies. 



4 66 APPENDIX 



PAST III. 

SPEECHES IN AUSTRALIA, TO WHICH SPECIAL REFE- 
BENCE IS MADE IN THE LAST JOURNAL OF LADY 
BRASSEY. REPRINTED FROM THE AUSTRALIAN 
PRESS. 

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY OF AUSTRALASIA. 
ADELAIDE, MAY 27TH, 1887. 

THE annual meeting of the South Australian Branch of the Royal 
Geographical Society of Australasia was held at the Society's rooms, 
"Waymouth Street, on Friday afternoon, May 27th. Sir Samuel 
Davenport (Vice-President) occupied the chair. 

The ordinary business of the meeting having been concluded, and 
speeches of welcome having been delivered by the Chairman, Lord Brass ey 
said : ' You have spoken of the voyages that have been taken on the 
" Sunbeam " as adventures not unworthy of those old Northmen in whose 
distant fame England and Australia equally share. I cannot take to myself 
the credit of being an adventurer in the same sense in which our northern 
forefathers were adventurers. I will not speak of the morality of their 
proceedings, but simply of the feats of navigation in which they engaged. 
Those northern forefathers of ours were not provided with all the informa- 
tion which geographers and explorers have given to the navigators of 
modern days. Consider for a moment the hazards and the difficulties 
encountered by Captain Cook. Going about as I do with all the facilities 
afforded by the most recent discoveries in science, and still finding the art 
of navigation not made so very easy, I confess that when I look back to a 
great man like Captain Cook, who entered these seas with no information, 
and with no other resource but his general seamanship and knowledge of 
navigation, my admiration of his achievements grows continually stronger. 
I particularly rejoice that so excellent a society as this has been established 
in Adelaide. I understand it is a society collateral with others which 
exist in the other colonies of Australia. It seems to me that you are 
doing a most valuable work. Exploration must precede settlement. It 
is a necessary process, by which alone you can arrive at the proper settle- 



SPEECHES IN A USTRALIA 467 

ment and development of this country. A previous speaker expressed 
deep satisfaction that the control of this fifth continent had devolved on 
the Anglo-Saxon race. In coming to these colonies I touched at two 
seaports, which, by the contrast they present, brought forcibly to my mind 
the advantage of a liberal policy in dealing with commerce. The two 
ports to which I refer are Singapore and Macassar. Singapore dates from 
some fifty or sixty years ago at the most, but it has grown to a magnifi- 
cent emporium of trade ; and how has it reached that position ? By 
declaring on the very first day that the protecting flag of England was 
hoisted that equal privileges should be given to men of commerce to what- 
ever nationality they might belong. When we turn to Macassar a place 
which might be not unfairly compared in regard to facilities of position 
with Singapore we find the Dutch determined to close it to the enter- 
prise of every foreign nationality. The result of this selfish spirit is that 
Macassar presents all the indications of languor and decay, while Singa- 
pore presents all the indications of prosperity and wealth. Before I sit 
down, may I refer to some portion of the report, in which reference was 
made to recent spheres of exploration in which the society is interested ? 
You refer to the exploration of New Guinea. There are some delicate 
questions connected with New Guinea, on which I certainly shall not 
now touch, but I may say that what I have seen of the world has tended 
to impress on my mind most deeply the conviction that latitude does fix 
in a very decisive manner a limitation upon the sphere of the Anglo - 
Saxon race for direct physical labour. I feel convinced that unless you 
have temperate weather, such as we are now enjoying in Adelaide, to 
make up for the hot season, the Anglo-Saxon race cannot undertake out- 
door labour. You may direct and administer it ; you may be able to go 
through figures in the office ; but, to go out into the field to dig and delve 
is impossible. Despite this, however, the tropical countries may prove of 
inestimable benefit. Although they may not be suitable for the employ- 
ment of the Anglo-Saxons as field labourers, it does not follow that they 
are not to be of great benefit even a direct benefit to our own race in 
regard to the employment of labour. If we can succeed in developing 
these tropical regions by employing the labour of the tropical races, the 
increasing prosperity will serve to extend the markets for the products of 
Anglo-Saxon labour in countries adapted to our race. A visit to Australia 
must be a matter of deep interest to every patriotic Englishman. In the 
old country we are becoming more and more sensible that it is the highest 
statesmanship to keep together every limb of the British Empire. There 
is an increasing affection to the colonies in England, and an increasing 
pride in their advancement. National sentiment and enlightened self- 
interest will bind and keep us together, so that not one limb of the great 
British Empire shall be severed. I have said more than strictly belongs 
to the motion, but I was prompted to do so by my friend in the chair. I 
move a vote of thanks to the Chairman.' 



468 APPENDIX 

ADELAIDE CHAMBER OF COMMERCE. 
ADELAIDE, JUNE IST, 1887. 

THE hall of the Chamber of Commerce was crowded on Wednesday after- 
noon, it having been announced that Lord Brassey would deliver an 
address. The audience included most of the prominent merchants of the 
city, and others interested in commerce, and Dr. Kennion, the Anglican 
Bishop of Adelaide. Mr. A. W. Meeks presided, and said that a special 
meeting of the Chamber had been called to hear Lord Brassey give an 
address on mercantile affairs. The Committee knew the great interest he 
(Lord Brassey) had taken in all matters referring to maritime and mercan- 
tile affairs, and the voyages made in the ' Sunbeam ' had made Lady 
Brassey well known. Lord Brassey 's father was well known in connec- 
tion with great public works. 

Lord Brassey said : ' Your Chairman did not give me any information 
as to the kind of subject which I should address you on, but I presumed 
that the Chamber of Commerce would be most interested in the labour 
question. 

' The polic}' to be pursued by the Government of this colony in relation 
to the admission of Chinese or coolie labour into the Northern Territory 
is, I understand, among the pressing subjects of the hour. Approaching 
the subject without prejudice or bias, it does not seem difficult to deter- 
mine the principles by which the action of the State should be guided. If 
we have faith in the superior qualities of our own people we shall do well, 
even at the cost of considerable delay in material development, to reserve 
for our own race those parts of the country in which they can succeed, in 
which they can not only labour, but preserve and perpetuate from genera- 
tion to generation, the qualities which have made them great. While 
the policy seems clear in relation to regions adapted to the physical 
qualities of our own race, it seems not less clear for the regions beyond. 
To refuse the aid of the tropical populations for opening up the resources 
of countries where the Anglo-Saxon race cannot perform manual labour, 
and still less establish a permanent settlement, is not to advance but 
seriously to injure the true interests of this colony. By openingup portions 
of your Northern Territory with imported labour, a new outlet will be 
afforded for the investment of your capital, and a new market created 
under your own control for the sale of your manufactures. 

' I pass to another subject which must be dealt with, not by legislation, 
but by mutual good feeling and by common sense. Wherever business is 
carried on upon a large scale, difficulties must in the nature of things be 
anticipated in the relations between labour and capital. Each of these 
elements in the operations of industry may be helpless without the other, 
but when we pass from the stage of production to the appropriation of 
profits the conflict of interests is inevitable. Strengthened by the experi- 



SPEECHES IN AUSTRALIA 469 

ence in the old country, I would earnestly recommend for all your larger 
trades voluntary courts of arbitration and conciliation. If we go back to 
that dark time in England which followed the close of the long struggle 
with Napoleon, the hostility of classes was seen in all employments, 
and in none was it more conspicuous than in the collieries. A happy 
change has passed over the spirit of the scene. Nowhere has the method 
of arbitration been more successful than in Durham and Northumberland. 
A scale of wages for miners has been agreed upon, varying with the price 
of coal, and arbitrators have been found to apply the scale to the condi- 
tions of the time, in whose justice employers and employed have implicit 
confidence. Among these valuable men Mr. David Dale is an eminent 
example. He and other men of his high stamp and quality men such 
as Rupert Kettle, Mundella, and Frederic Harrison occupy a truly 
noble position in relation to labour questions. They have won the confi- 
dence of the masses, not by truckling to prejudices, not by disavowing the 
sound and well-tried rules of political economy, but by listening and by 
explaining with unwearied patience, by showing a sincere sympathy with 
the working classes, and by taking a deep interest in their welfare. The 
mention of these distinguished names leads me to the adjustment of diffi- 
culties by Courts of Conciliation. They may be described as committees 
consisting of equal numbers of employers and workmen, appointed to meet 
at frequent intervals, and to discuss in a friendly open way, and on terms 
of perfect equality, all the questions in which there is a possibility of 
conflict. The practicability of the plan has been proved by experience. It 
is impossible to exaggerate its good effects. By frequent and friendly 
meetings knowledge is acquired on both sides which could be gained in 
no other way, and suspicion is changed to sympathy. I hope that no bad 
influences of false pride on one side, or of unmerited distrust on the other, 
will deter the employers and the employed of South Australia from rapidly 
bringing into operation the excellent method of averting disputes, which 
Courts of Conciliation both in England and on the Continent of Europe 
have never failed to provide. 

' Free trade and Protection are topics which wide-spread depression has 
thrust into prominence of late. The present Government in England, in 
deference to the demands of Protectionists, appointed a Royal Commission. 
Its members were the representatives of conflicting views, and after an 
exhaustive inquiry they separated without changing the opinions with 
which they entered upon their labours. We may draw the inference that 
the subject is not quite so simple as the most earnest partisans in the 
controversy would wish us to believe. For the United Kingdom I am a 
convinced Freetrader. I admit that the old country, where half the 
population subsists on imported food, which must be paid for in exported 
goods, is not on all fours with a colony capable of producing in abundance 
all the necessaries of life for a population infinitely more numerous than 
at present exists within its borders. But while the conditions are different 
the fact remains that under a protective system customers are precluded 



470 APPENDIX 



from buying in the cheapest market, agriculture is heavily charged for 
the benefit of a less important interest, and labour artificially diverted 
from those spheres of industry in which it might be employed to the 
greatest advantage. Certain it is that cycles of commercial depression 
would not be averted, but rather prolonged and aggravated, by a policy of 
protection. Impressed with the weight of evidence on this point, the 
recent Royal Commission of Trade declined to recommend Protection 
as a panacea for commercial depression in the United Kingdom, and I 
hesitate to recommend it to the Chamber of Commerce in Adelaide. 
"While, however, I would deprecate the imposition of burdensome import 
duties for the purposes of Protection, I fully recognise that moderate im- 
port duties are necessary as a means of raising revenue. The first duty 
of every Finance Minister is to obtain an income for the State by the 
methods which are the least irksome to the taxpayers. In new countries, 
not exporters of manufactured goods, import duties are universally found 
to be the least irksome form of taxation. If under a moderate tariff indus- 
tries are established earlier than would be possible without some Protec- 
tion, the incidental advantage is secured of varied ernplojTnent for the 
people. "Where all depend on the same pursuit or the same industry, an 
unfavourable season or a fall in price may cause a general depression. 
There is less risk of universal melancholy and decline when the public 
wealth is derived from various and independent sources. My conclusion 
is against import duties on a high scale, levied, as in the United States, for 
the purpose of exclusion. I recognise the necessity in certain circum- 
stances for the imposition of import duties on a moderate scale for the 
purposes of revenue. 

' I have one more remark to offer in connection with the labour question. 
Among the many gratifying things which I have seen in your colony, 
nothing has exceeded your system of education. I congratulate your 
people, and I honour your Government for their efforts in the cause. It 
may not, however, be superfluous to refer to that tendency to look dis- 
paragingly on manual labour, which is so frequent and fatal a result of 
the very perfection of educational work. Education may become a curse 
rather than a boon if it relaxes that physical energy which in all com- 
munities, and especially in a new country, is the indispensable condition 
of progress. It has been truly said by the poet Browning : 

The honest earnest man must stand and work, 

The woman also otherwise she drops 

At once below the dignity of man, 

Accepting serfdom. 

I count that Heaven itself is only work 

To a surer issue. 

Society must take to itself the responsibility for the preference given to 
clerical over mechanical employments. "We have not done our duty in 



SPEECHES IN AUSTRALIA 471 



giving to our skilled workmen that social recognition which is their due. 
But I am happy to say that in the old country we are decidedly in the 
way of amendment. The return of working men in greater numbers to 
the House of Commons has been productive of much good in a social 
point of view. 

4 In conclusion, it may not be inappropriate to the occasion to dwell 
for a few moments on the influences of honest trade in raising the standard 
of civilisation and elevating the character of men. The prosperity of 
commerce depends on intelligence, on industry, but above all on character. 
Cleverness may sometimes win a stroke. There have been financiers in 
the City of London whose career might have been painted in the language 
applied by Earl llussell to Mirabeau " His mind raised him to the skies ; 
his moral character chained him to the earth." I can quote no instance 
in which men of this stamp have achieved an enduring success. It is not 
the men whose craft and cunning people fear, but the men in whom they 
trust and whom they love who in the end succeed. It is the office of 
commerce to give to the world perpetual illustrations of the homely but 
ennobling truth that honesty is the best policy. Commerce puts before 
those engaged in it many temptations. The good man of business must 
rise superior to them all, and thus it is that in his life and work he can do 
so much to communicate advantages, to advance material welfare, and to 
raise the tone of morals. Such, and not less, is the mission of the merchant 
and the trader. For myself, I am proud to know that I am the son of a 
contractor for public works, whose good reputation was the best part of 
the heritage which descended to his sons.' 

MELBOURNE, JUNE 25x11, 1887. 

A complimentary dinner was tendered to Lord Brassey, K.C.B., the 
lion, treasurer of the Imperial Federation League, by the members of the 
Victorian branch of the League, at the Town Hall on Saturday evening. 
The banquet was laid in the council chamber, and about eighty gentlemen 
sat down to the tables. The chair was occupied by Mr. G. D. Carter, 
M.L.A., president of the Victorian branch. On his right were the guest 
of the evening, the Premier (Mr. Duncan Gillies), and the Postmaster- 
General of Queensland (Mr. M'Doiiald Paterson), and on his left the 
Mayor of Melbourne (Councillor Cain), the President of the Legislative 
Council (Sir James MacBain), Mr. Justice Webb, and Mr. Nicholas Fitz- 
gerald, M.L.C. The company included a large number of other prominent 
citizens, many of them not being members of the League. In giving the 
toast of ' The Queen,' the Chairman said that they could not better have 
given expression to their loyalty to Her Majesty than by meeting to ad- 
vocate the unity of the empire over which she reigned. The assemblage 
of representative citizens for such a purpose formed a most appropriate 
conclusion to those rejoicings in which we had so happily shared during 
the week of Jubilee. 

3 K 



472 APPENDIX 



The toast was received with enthusiasm, and a verse of the National 
Anthem was sung. 

The Chairman gave the toast of ' His Excellency the Governor.' 

The toast was received with cheers. 

The Chairman next proposed the toast of ' Imperial Federation.' 
They had no definite views at present on the subject of Imperial Federation. 
The point to which they had got was this, that they desired to see the 
empire united as one inseparable whole. We were bound together by 
the ties of kindred, kith, and kin, and he even dared to hope that the 
view expressed by Mr. James Anthony Froude when he was here would 
be realised, and that there would eventually be a union of the English- 
speaking peoples of the world for the purpose of mutual defence. On 
behalf of the Victorian branch of the Imperial Federation League, and 
of the colony generally, he offered a cordial welcome to Lord Brassey, 
and trusted that he would carry away with him pleasant recollections of 
his visit to Victoria. 

Lord Brassey said : ' As the treasurer of the Imperial Federation 
League established in London, it affords me the greatest gratification to 
be your guest this evening. Our work in the old country would be of 
little value, unless it were approved and supported by public opinion in 
these great and growing colonies. Speaking on behalf of the Imperial 
Federation League in London, we have no cut-and-dried plans which we 
are anxious to put forward. We see great difficulties in arriving at any 
solution of the question of federation ; but with their growth in population, 
in wealth, and in resources, we anticipate that we shall see more and more 
a manly resolve on the part of the colonies, not only to make provision for 
their own defence, but to share in the responsibility of the defence of the 
united empire. With your increased participation in the burdens, you 
must necessarily receive an increased share in determining the policy of 
the empire, and thus we see looming in the not far distant future the 
necessity for further consideration of the problem of federation. We do 
not desire, we should deprecate, a hasty solution. We believe that pro- 
bably the wisest course will be to deal with circumstances as they arise. 
We wish to pave the way by timely and temperate discussion. The views 
of the founders of the Imperial Federation League were well put, in one 
of his latest speeches, by a grand statesman of the old country, Mr. W. E. 
Forster, the first president of the League, who said : " The idea of the per- 
manent unity of the realm, the duty of preserving this union, the blessings 
which this preservation will confer, the danger and loss and disaster which 
will follow from disunion, are thoughts which possess the minds of Eng- 
lishmen both here and over the seas. These thoughts are expressing 
themselves in deeds ; let this expression continue ; at present it helps our 
cause far more effectually than any possible scheme." I am not one of 
those who ever doubted the loyalty of the colonies to Old England. If 
any Englishmen were in doubt as to the feeling of the colonies towards 
the mother country, the events of the past week in this noble city of 



SPEECHES IN AUSTRALIA 473 

Melbourne wcrald dispel effectually any uncertainty. On Tuesday last we 
saw your militia march past like a wall, to the tune of " The Old Folks at 
Home." That may be a somewhat homely melody, but it conveyed a 
touching sentiment to the spectator from the old country. On the follow- 
ing day a ball was given at Government House, an entertainment the 
splendour of which could hardly have been exceeded in any capital in 
Europe. That entertainment owed its character not merely to the grace- 
ful hospitality of the host and hostess on the occasion, but to the eager 
desire of those who were present to seize the occasion for showing their 
attachment to the Queen, in whose honour and in whose name that ball 
was given. On the following day in your Parliament Buildings, which, by 
the beauty of their design and the amplitude of their proportions express 
your greatness in the present and anticipate your growth in the future, a 
noble hall was dedicated, with a generous spirit of loyalty, to the name of 
the Queen. On the evening of the same day we attended a concert at 
which thousands of your citizens were present. On four several and sepa- 
rate occasions the National Anthem was sung, and on each occasion with 
increasing fervour. On the following day 30,000 children were brought 
together, trained to utter the sentiments of their parents in that National 
Anthem which they sang so well. In journeying in some of the remoter 
parts of this colony, it was touching to hear " God Save the Queen " sung at 
every opportunity by the little children, who are thus early trained in the 
sentiment of loyalty. If we pass from these momentary incidents of the 
week to circumstances of a more permanent and perhaps more serious 
character, what are the conclusions which an intelligent traveller from the 
old country may draw, with reference to the ties which bind the colonies 
to the mother country ? If he looks at your society and your family life, 
he finds the same manners, the same habits, the same ways of viewing 
circumstances and things. Your English tastes are shown in the houses 
which you build, the clothes which you wear, the food which you eat, 
and in the goods you buy. The national character of the Anglo-Saxon 
race is shown as strongly here as in the mother country in your spirited 
devotion to manly sports and pastimes ; and when we think of the 
other ties that bind us a common faith, a common literature, the same 
dear mother tongue what other conclusion can be drawn by the intel- 
ligent traveller than this that the ties which bind the colonies to the 
mother country are stronger than those which any legislature or states- 
manship could contrive, and that they are inherent in the innermost life 
of the people. Gentlemen, you may call the union which binds us an 
empire, you may call it a federation, you may call it an offensive and 
defensive alliance of the closest kind you may call it what you will the 
name is of subordinate consequence while mutual sympathy and sentiment 
retain that binding force which, as we have seen in this Jubilee week, 
you are all so generously prepared to acknowledge in your relations with 
the old country. Perhaps I may say a few words on this occasion with 
reference to the mutual advantages which are afforded by our remaining 



474 APPENDIX 

together as members of a united empire. There was a time when the 
connection was less valued than it is at present by some of the eminent 
statesmen of the old country. Since the days of which I speak great 
changes have taken place. The map of Europe has been reconstructed 
on the principle of the recognition of nationalities. The Germans have 
made themselves into a nation ; the Italians have made themselves into 
a nation. Our tight little island is small indeed in area, in comparison 
with the great territories of Continental Europe. It is small in area, but 
if. we and the children descended from us these great English-speaking 
nations which have overspread the world remain united together, we are 
the first of the nationalities of Europe. I think there are some indica- 
tions that the maintenance of the unity of the British Empire may be 
less difficult than might perhaps in former days have been anticipated. 
Science has done much to shorten distances ; it has given us the electric 
telegraph, an improved and improving steamship, and railways. As the 
colonies grow in importance, it must necessarily follow that the Imperial 
policy will be concentrated more and more upon objects which are 
common to them and to the mother country. The foreign policy will be 
directed to the maintenance in security of the communications between 
the mother country and the colonies, an object of common interest to 
yourselves and to ourselves. Looking forward to a not very distant time, 
it is evident that your growth in population and power will give you the 
command of the neighbouring seas. Your relations with India will be- 
come closer and closer, and you will be in a position not less strong, and 
your interest will be as great as that of the mother country in preventing 
the hoisting of any flag hostile to your own upon the ports of India. All 
the countries of the British Empire will hold together, because it will be 
for their advantage. Trade follows the flag. While other branches of our 
foreign trade have been languishing, the trade with the colonies has re- 
mained flourishing and elastic. We lend you our capital on much easier 
terms than we would ask if you were under a foreign flag. We hold before 
you in external relations the shield of a great empire. The advantages of 
the present arrangement, from a colonial point of view, were happily put a 
short time ago in a speech by Sir John Macdonald, from which I will ask 
leave to quote two or three sentences. Speaking at Montreal, he said : 
" We want no independence in this country, except the independence that 
we have at this moment. W 7 hat country in the world is more independent 
than we are ? We have perfect independence ; we have a Sovereign who 
allows us to do as we please. W r e have an Imperial Government that 
casts on ourselves the responsibilities as well as the privileges of self- 
government. We may govern ourselves as we please, we may misgovern 
ourselves as we please. We put a tax on the industries of our fellow- 
subjects in England, Ireland, and Scotland. If we are attacked, if our 
shores are assailed, the mighty powers of England on land and sea are 
used in our defence." There may be some who think that the union of 
the empire cannot be maintained, because it is difficult to reconcile the 



SPEECHES IN AUSTRALIA 475 



impetuosity of youth with the prudence of old age. They think that in 
the impetuosity of youth, you will resent the prudence with which the 
mother country holds you back. Upon a wise view of it, we find in the 
distinctive qualities and defects of youth and age the elements of a 
felicitous combination. The father of the philosophy of history, Thucy- 
dides, has attributed to Alcibiades a great truth : " Consider that youth 
and age have no power i;nless united ; but that the lighter and the more 
exact and the middle sort of judgment, when duly attempered, are likely 
to be most efficient." I hope that the wise policy with which the affairs 
of the British Empire may be conducted will illustrate the advantage of 
the mutual and combined influence of the young colonies and the old 
country. I feel deeply grateful for the privilege of being your guest on 
this occasion, and for the presence of many eminent men at your table. 
They have not assembled here merely to pay a compliment to an indivi- 
dual. They have come to express their deep interest in the Imperial 
Federation League. I shall go back deeply touched by the love I have 
seen the people of these colonies show Old England, whose greatest pride it 
is to have been the mother of mighty nations. I cannot sit down without 
acknowledging on behalf of Lady Brassey the kindness which you have 
shown in the mention of her name. I shall be a faithful reporter of your 
proceedings to my dear wife. She will greatly appreciate the kind recep- 
tion given to her name.' 



SYDNEY, JULY QTH, 1887. 

A COMPLIMENTARY picnic was tendered to Lord Brassey on Saturday by 
the public works contractors of New South Wales. The picnic took the 
form of a trip to the Hawkesbury River, and about 150 gentlemen attended. 
Amongst those present were the Eight Hon. W. B. Dalley, P.C., Sir John 
Robertson, Sir John Hay (President of the Legislative Council), Sir 
"William Ogg, Sir Edward Strickland, Hon. Julian Salomons, Q.C., M.L.C. 
(Vice-President of the Executive), Hon. James Inglis (Minister of Public 
Instruction), Hon. F. Abigail (Minister for Mines), Hon. W. Clarke 
(Minister of Jiistice), Mr. Eiley, M.P. (Mayor of Sydney), and others. 

The party left Redfern in a special train shortly after nine o'clock in 
the morning, and arrived at Peat's Ferry about noon. At the ferry they 
viewed the work proceeding there in connection with the construction of 
the new bridge, and then went on board Captain Murray's river-boat, the 
' General Gordon,' whose course was so shaped as to allow them the op- 
portunity of seeing some of the most picturesque scenery with which the 
Hawkesbury abounds. On the upper deck arrangements had been made 
for the serving of a cold collation. Mr. J. C. Carey presided. 

The Right Hon. W. B. Dalley proposed the health of ' Our distinguished 
guest, Lord Brassey.' In the course of his speech he said : ' Our hosts on 



476 APPENDIX 



this occasion are men who have in the construction of the great public 
works of this country expended about 14,000,000!. of the public funds 
during the last ten years. Their guest is the son of a man who had, by 
similar labours to those of their hosts on a gigantic scale, by means of his 
vast and unparalleled industrial enterprise, helped largely to change the 
face of the world ; who had constructed some of the greatest monuments 
of our later civilisation in England and in India and in the British 
colonies, in France and in Germany, in Belgium and in Italy, in Spain, 
Denmark, and Russia. He was in the first rank of those benefactors 
of humanity, who perform prodigies of power in the control and manage- 
ment of their own private affairs, whose labours are extended over the 
whole world, and who leave on every shore the monuments of their own 
genius and the memorials of the power and resources of their country. 
For the greater portion of his eventful life he was doing a large share of 
the peaceful business of Europe, and nearly everywhere throughout the 
empire, in the erection of gigantic public works, he was earning and dis- 
pensing tens of millions, assembling in the construction of such great 
works the representatives of many nationalities, so that it has been said 
that the curious might have heard eleven different languages spoken in 
the execution of the same contract. He was heightening and extending 
the renown of Englishmen, upholding and increasing their reputation in 
the eyes of foreigners, and teaching lessons of greatness and of justice to 
the labouring millions of other nations. Here also in this colony he con- 
structed some of the greatest of our public works. To the son of such a 
man, visiting our colony, it seemed right and fitting that our own public 
contractors should show all the honour which they could bestow upon him. 
In welcoming Lord Brassey to this company of men of enterprise and of 
large undertakings, and in asking him to meet men of representative cha- 
racter and position in the community, you make your compliment dearer 
and more precious because you are influenced by profound respect for the 
memory of his parent. Your guest, as a man who has served in great 
offices, and gained in a high degree the esteem and confidence of those 
who have known and watched his career, would have been entitled to a 
hearty welcome at the hands of British colonists for his own valuable and 
unselfish public services to the empire. But you have been prompted to 
honour, not only his personal merits and his individual labours, but the 
great industrial name which he bears a name ennobled by the labour 
and enterprise of his father because you are proud to associate yourselves 
with the career of one who had done, as you are in your smaller way en- 
deavouring to do, much for mankind. I give you a company of public 
contractors the health of the son of the greatest of them all, the son of 
" Thomas Brassey." ' (Cheers.) 

Lord Brassey, in reply, said that he felt great difficulty in responding 
in worthy terms to the far too kind and flattering speech which had been 
made on behalf of his hosts. But it needed not a speech to express from 
a full heart his grateful appreciation of their kindness. He did not forget 



SPEECHES IN AUSTRALIA 477 

his origin. He was proud of it (hear, hear) and he could assure them - 
that if he had been spared the personal anxieties experienced by those 
employed in the execution of public works, he had a fellow-feeling for 
those who were engaged in that most valuable sphere of enterprise. The 
speech in which his name had been introduced to them referred and he 
was glad that it did refer so largely to the career of his dear father. He 
was proud to know that the opportunity was afforded to his father of per- 
forming the useful office of a pioneer of civilisation throughout the length 
and breadth of the world. His father entered timidly upon that career. 
He (Lord Brassey) had often heard him describe the day which led him 
to the execution of public works. At the time when the Liverpool and 
Manchester Railway our first railway was in contemplation, old George 
Stephenson came to see his father, then a young man, brought up as a 
surveyor and carrying on his business in Birkenhead, with reference to 
the purchase of some stone. His father conducted Mr. Stephenson to the 
quarry. The impression made upon Mr. Stephenson by his father was 
most favourable, and when he shook hands with him in the evening he 
said, ' Well, young man, there is something promising about you. I see 
a great field for railways. It would be well for you to follow my banner 
and enter upon 1his new sphere of enterprise.' The young man trembled 
at the idea, but he took the advice, tendered for a portion of the Liverpool 
railway, and during the construction of the first ten miles of that railway 
their guest was born. He would not enter into the details of his father's 
career, but he had often asked himself what was the secret of his success. 
He hoped he was not exaggerating his father's praise when he said that he 
believed his success was mainly due to his high and honest character ; 
and if he might make one more reference to his father he would say this, 
that the motive which prompted him to extend his enterprise to the great 
limits which it ultimately reached was not primarily a love of money it 
was the spirit of enterprise, and the ambition to be a constructor of great 
and noble works. The results which had followed from his labours were 
patent to all the world. They had done much to promote the prosperity 
of mankind. He (Lord Brassey) did not know that we could find greater 
evidence of the benefits of the railway system than here. These colonies 
could not expect prosperity without railways. The inheritance which 
devolved upon him as the son of his father had impressed upon him a 
heavy weight of responsibility ; and he did most devoutly wish to turn to 
good account the opportunities that had been given to him. With this 
desire he had paid a visit to the shores of New South Wales. Every 
traveller who came from the old country and made friends with those 
living here was another link between the old country and the new. It 
rejoiced his heart to see so many evidences of the warm feeling of affec- 
tion towards the old country, that dear mother land whose pride in and 
attachment to the colonies was growing stronger every year. We had 
seen great events happen during his short political career. We had seen 
Germanv become a united nation, we had seen Italj' become a united 



478 



APPENDIX 



nation, and if the English-speaking and England-loving people intended to 
maintain their influence in the world, they must keep together (cheers)pan 
united empire with local self-government was a happy solution of a great 
political problem. It had been rendered possible by that instinctive feeling 
of race which bound us all, and in that greatest gift in the science of politics 
the common sense which was so eminently characteristic of the British 
race. He thanked them for their great kindness in receiving him on that 
occasion. Neither he nor his would ever forget that kindness. 

At the conclusion of the speeches cheers were given for Lord and Lady 
Brassey. 

The ' General Gordon ' returned to Peat's Ferry late in the afternoon, 
the excursion having been a most enjoyable one, and the party reached 
itedfern early in the evening. 




Jnbey. 



ABERDEEN 

ABERDEEN, Lord and Lady, 102 
Aborigines, Australasian, 251, 252, 

401 

Acheen Head, 140 
Achu Mohammed, 166 
Adam, Mr., 32 
Adelaide, 264, 266, 269 
Adelaide Chamber of Commerce, 468 
Aden, 3 
Africa, British settlements on West 

coast of, 440 
Afsur Jung, 50 

Aga Sultan Mahomed Shah, 60 
Agra, 29, 30 

Agriculture in Ceylon, 100 
Ah Sam, the faithful Chinaman, 394 
Air-compressing tubes for producing 

fire, 148 

Albany, 230, 231 
Albany Pass, 400 
Albatrosses, 223 
Albion Lode Mine, Ballarat, 282 
Albuquerque, Affonso, 86, 87 
Alias Strait, 216 
Alligators, m, 159, 377 
Amateur surgery, 144, 404 
Amber, an ancient city of the Kaj- 

poots, 26 
Ambong Bay, 168 
Ainlterstia nobilis, 102 
Amomum repens, 94 
Amritsar, 21 
Ant-heaps, 401, 403 
Antique coaches, 337 
Apollo Bunder, the, 63, 65 
Arco dos Vicereys, Goa, 84 



BILIAN-WOOD 
Armadale, 332 

Arnold, Mr. Edwin, quoted, 43 
Ascension, 438 
Australian exploration, 270 
Australian gold-diggers, 186, 187 
Australian up-country hotels, 354 

' BACCHANTE,' H.M.S., 59, 63, 70 
Bajans, or sea-gipsies, 178, 204 
'Bajara' (steamship), 212, 213 
Balhalla Island, 175, 178 
Ballarat, 281 
Ballarat, Mayor and Mayoress of, 281 , 

282 

Ballard, Mr., 350 
Bannerman, Colonel, 30 
Barnacles, 218 
Barnes, Colonel, 14 
Barram river, 153, 156 
Barrier Eeef, Great, 395-397 
Barter, native, 149, 161 
Bathing in the tropics, 92 
Bathurst, 318 
Baumantia, 365 

Beche-de-mer, 394, 396, 397, 414 
Bees, 192 
Beeswax, 192 
Bell-bird, 321 
Beloochees, 6 
Benares, 32 

'Bengal' (steamship), 288 
Bertram, Mr., 366 
Bevan, Mr., 310 
Beypoor, 94 
Bijapur, 51 
Bilian-wood, 180 

3 L 



INDEX 



Birds, 377, 379 

Bird's-nests, 157, 178, 190-197, 204 

Bird's-nest caves, 177, 189-197 

Birds of Paradise, 214, 418 

Bishop of Melbourne, 295 

Black, Mr., 109 

Black Book of Taymouth, 58 

' Black-boys ' (XantJwrrJiea), 234 

Black-buck, 39-41 

Blackheath Hill, Blue Mountains, 320 

Black Spur, 300 

Blacktown, 317 

Bligh, Captain, of the ' Bounty,' 395 

Blue Mountains, the, 319 

Ely den, Mr., 440 

Boats, Queensland native, 372 

Boer , the, 436 

'Bokhara,' P. & 0., 141, 142 

Bokharas, the, 6 

Bolarum, 37 

Bombay Light Horse, 59 

Bombay and Burmah Company's 

timber-yard, 130, 131 
Boomerangs, 218, 232 
Booth, Mr. E. T., quoted, 160 
Borneo, 143 
Borneo weapons, 184 
Bosanquet, Capt. and Mrs., 315, 323 
Botanical Gardens, Ceylon, 10 ; 

Sydney, 323 
' Bottle-brush,' the, 276 
Bougainvillca, the, 350, 365 
Boughton Islands, 342 
' Bounty,' mutiny of the, 395 
Bo\ven, 369 

Boynton, Sir H., quoted, 161 
Brassey, Lady, death of, xx, 427, 457 
Brassey, Lord, speeches of, 466-478 
Bray, Mr., 270, 314 
Breadfruit, 373 
' Break-of-day ' birds, 242 
Bridge, Captain, 372 
Bridge, Mr. (chaplain), 14 
Brisbane, 342 
Brisbane Sailing Club, 347 
British African Company, 440 
British North Borneo Company, 143 

1 68, 190 



CARDAMOMS 

British settlements on West coast of 

Africa, 440 

Broken-hill silver-mine, 273 
'Bromo ' (gunboat), 212 
Brooke, Rajah, 145 
Brown, Mr. Harvie, quoted, 6 
Bruit river, 153 
Brunei, 160, 162 
Brunei river, 159, 160 
Brunei, Sultan of, 160, 165 
Byculla Club ball, 68 
Byculla races, 70 
Byham's monument, 38 
Bylus, 125 
Buck-board, a, 280 
Buck-hunting, 39-41 
Buck -junipers, 281 
Bundey, Mr. Justice, 267, 270 
Burmese costumes, 121 
Burmese bells, 128 
Burnand, Mr., 274 
Bush flowers, 253 
Bush hotel, a, 241 



CABBAGE-PALMS, 383 

Cairns Harbour, 388 

Caladium-leaf umbrellas, 105 

Calamus, 205 

Calicut, 93 

Callaghan, Mr., 183, 185, 188 

Callocalia, 157 

Campbell, Sir Colin, 31 

Cannon, Mr., 26 

Canoes, 415 

Cape Bustard, 347 

Cape Byron, 342 

Cape Colony, 435 

Cape de Verdes, 443 

Cape Direction, 395 

Cape Flinders, 262 

Cape Hawke, 342 

Cape Rachada, 141 

Cape Town, 432, 433 

Cape Tribulation, 390 

Cape Yorke, 404 

Cape wine-trade, 431 

Cardamoms, 94 



INDEX 



481 



CARDWELL 

Cardwell, 380 

Carey, Colonel, 106 

Carrington, Lord and Lady, 310, 31 1, 

314, 324 
Carwar, 91 
Cattle-camp, a, 363 
Cattle-rearing, 334, 340, 362, 400, 

428 

Cattle, wild, 171 
Caulfield races, 296 
Caves, bird's-nest, 177, 189 197 
Caves, Moulmein, 134 
Cawnpore, 30-32 
Ceylon, 97 
Celebes, the, 203 
Challenger Bay, 372 
Chapman, Colonel, 17 
Charts, 399 
Cheetahs, 39-41 
Chinamen in British colonies, 339, 

3 8 4, 394. 405, 428, 43 
Chinese Commissioners in New South 

Wales, 317, 336, 339 
Chlorination of gold ore, 356 
Chronometers, 227 
Church Missionary Society, 440 
Clarence Strait, 427 
Clarke, Sir W., 298 
Coach -travelling in the colonies, 337, 

344, 345, 361 
Coaches, antique, 337 
Coal, 220 

Coaling-stations, 438, 440, 443 
Coal-mines, 329 
Cochin, 94 
Cockatoos, 253 
Cockburn, 273 
Cochrane, Sir Thomas, 159 
Cocoa-nut Island, 413, 421 
Cocoa-nuts, in, 415, 417 
Cocos, the, 116 

Coffee-cultivation in Ceylon, 101 
Coffee leaf-fungus, 101 
Coffins in caves, 197 
Colliery, a, in New South Wales, 328 
Collisions at sea, 388 
Colombo, 97, 98 
Coloured races, capabilities of, 440 



DE WINTON 

Connaught, Duke and Duchess of, 54, 

62, 68, 70 
Constantia, 433 
Convicts, escaped, 407 
Coode, Sir John, 433 
Cook, Captain, 395 
Cooktown, 392 
Coral, 401 

Coral reefs, 396, 399 
Cordery, Mr., 34, 50 
Cornish miners in Australia, 285 
Cornwall, Miss, 283, 284, 288 
Corrugated-iron buildings, 405 
Cowie, Mr. and Mrs., 167 
Cranes, 377 
Crawford, Mr., 52, 77 
Creek Meat Canning Factory, 366 
Crocker, Mr., 143, 176, 183, 185, 188, 

195, 206 

Crocodiles, 113, 172 
Crossing the line, ceremony of, 215, 

216 

Crossthwaite, Mrs., 121, 129 
Cubadjee (Australian aboriginal), 276 
Cumberland Isles, 367, 368 



DA CARVALHO, Captain, 83 

Da Fonseca, quoted, 85 

Daintree river, 390 

Dairy farms, 256 

Dalhousie, Lord, 2 

Dances, Dyak, 181 

Darling Downs, the, 340 

Darling river, 333 

Darnley Island, 413, 414 

Darvel Bay, 186, 203 

Dashtar, Mr., 10 

Davenport, Sir Samuel, 269 

Davies, Mr., 170-172 

Day, Major and Mrs., 151 

Deakin, Mr., 292 

De Burgh Persse, Mr. and Mrs., 344 

De Castella, Mr., 300 

Delhi, 26 

Des Graz, Mr., 50, 92, 240, 298, 374 

Dewani Khas, Jeypore, 26 

De Winton, Sir Francis, 442 



482 



INDEX 



DHOLEPORE 
Dholepore, 30 
Diamond-fields. 437 
Diamond-trade, 431 
Dillon, General, 18 
Divers, 410, 424 
Dodd, Captain, 134 
Dogs, regulations concerning, in Aus- 
tralia, 231, 332, 354 
Doldrums, the, 379 
Domestic life at Brunei, 168 
Donaldson, Mr. H. D., 81 
Dowling Forest, 283 
Drum, a native, 402 
Dundas, Miss, 289 
Dungeness, 374 
Dusuns, the, 181 
Dutch colonists, 210 434 
Dyaks, 148, 151, 152, 156, 160, 181 

EARRINGS, 167 

Eclipse of the moon, 364 

Edible bird's-nests, 94, 138, 189-197 

Elder, Sir Thomas, 276 

Eleopura, 175 

Elephants, 45, in, 113, 130, 131, 134 

Elliott Island, 347 

Ellora, 32, 33 

Elsmie, Mr., 21 

Emerald, 359 

Endeavour river, 359 

Erskine, Mr., 12 

Eucalypti, 234, 276, 344 

Eucalyptus oil, 393 

Everett, Mr., 155 

Evening at sea, 93 

' Everlasting ' flowers, 250 

Exercise, 256 

Exploration in South Australia, 270 

FAIRFAX, Mrs., 289, 323 
Falconberg, 321 
Falkland Islands, 387 
Falls of Gairsoppa, 91 
Fanshawe, Captain, 132 
Faraday, Professor, quoted, 148 
Fayal, 443-445 
Fences, Australian, 297 



GRIFFITH 

Ferguson, Mr., cited, 51 

Fern-gullies, 302, 305, 321 

Fern Island, 399 

Ferns, 365 

Fernshaw, 301, 303 

Fire-making by air-compressing 

tubes, 148 
Fitzgerald, Mr., 395 
Fitzroy river, 367 
Fleming, Mr., 430 
Flinders Channel, 421 
Flint, Mr., 176, 178, 180, 185 
Floating islands, 154, 208 
Flowers, 253, 365 
Fly Point, 400 
Fly Eiver, 418-420 
Flying-fox Gully, 319 
Fraser Island, 347 
Funeral of a Phoongyee, 124 
Funeral procession at Colombo, 98 
Furdonji Jamsetjee, Mr., 42 
Futtehpore Sikri, 29 



GALLE, 107 

Ganesh Khind, 52 

Gardner, Mr., 326, 332 

Gascoigne, Captain, 315, 317 

Gautama, 127 

Geelong, 286 

Geelong, Mayor of, 286 

German industry, 345 

Gilchrist, Major, 34, 72 

Glenelg, 263, 265 

Gloucester Island, 369 

Goa, 8 1-97 

Gold-fields, 188, 246, 277, 282-285, 

352, 392, 393. 436 
Golkonda, 35 

Gomanton bird's-nest caves, 177 
Goode Island, 405, 41 1 
Gordon, Captain, 58 
Gordonia rubra, 213 
Gray, quoted, 258, 259 
Great Barrier Eeef, 368, 396 
Great Coco, 116 
Griffin, Sir Lepel, 71 
Griffith, Sir Samuel, 344 



INDEX 



483 



GUICOVVAR 

Guicowar of Baroda, the, 69 

Guilfoyle, Mr., 305 

Gum, 170 

Gum-trees, 234 

Gundy sugar-plantation, 382 

Gutta-percha, 156 

Gwalior, 30 



HALIFAX sugar-plantation, 376 

Hall, Mr., 407, 424 

Hall, Mr. Wesley, 352, 353 

Hamilton, Captain, 57, 68, 70, 72 

Hamilton, Lieutenant, 155 

Hammill, Captain, 316, 317 

Hannay, Major and Mrs., 53 

Hannibal Islands, 399 

' Harrier ' (gunboat), 391, 392 

Hassall, Mr., 246 

Hats, women's, at Brunei, 160 

Hatton, Frank, 182 

Hawkesbury river, 475 

Hay, Mrs., 276 

Head-rlatteners, 148 

Head-hunters, 160, 192, 193 

Healesville, 301, 304 

Hcmilcia vastatrlx, 101 

Herbert, Mr., 72 

Herbert river, 374 

Herberton river, 388 

' Hercules,' H.M.S., 2 

Hincliinbrook Island, 378, 380 

Hindoo ladies, 68 

Hindoo wedding, 43 

Hixson, Captain, 322 

Hobson's Bay, 286 

Hodgkinson, Mr., 129, 130, 132 

Hoffmeister, Dr., 51, 182, 322 

Hofmeyr, Mr., 436 

Holdfast Bay Yacht Club, 263 

Holothuria, 397 

Home Islands, 399 

Honey, Commodore, 267 

Horse-dealers, Arabian, 70 

Horse-fair at Shikarpur, 5, 13 

Horses, 334 

Horses in coal-mines, 330 

Horta, 443, 444, 446 



KANAKAS 

Hot springs at Kanniya, 109, in 

Houses in Borneo, 170 

Hiibner, Baron, quoted, 432, 436 

Hunt, a, in Australia, 275 

Hunt, Mr. and Mrs., 412,414,415, 

419, 420 

Hunting with cheetahs, 39-41 
Hyderabad, 43-50 

ICE -MAKING, 210 

Iguanas, 242 

Illuminations at Bombay, 63 

Immigrants in New South Wales, 338 

Imperial Federation League, 285, 

299,471 
Inglis, Mr., 314 
Inquisition stake, Goa, 89 
Ipomcca, 377 
Irrawaddy river, 1 1 9 

JAIN temples, at Agra and Gwalior, 

29, 3o 

Jamestown, St. Helena, 437 
Jamrud Fort, 17, 1 8 
Jardine, Mr., 400, 401, 408 
Javanese workpeople in Queenslan 

385 

' Jenny Jenkins ' (monkey), 259 
Jessop, Mr., 269 
Jewels, 64 
Jeypore, 27, 28 
Jinjeera, 73, 74 
' Jinkas,' 238, 239 
Jinrikishas, 104, 105 
Johnstone river, 382, 387 
Johore, Sultan of, 141, 143, 165 
Jubbulpore, 33 
Jubilee celebrations in India, 50, 54. 

58, 70 ; at Melbourne, 294 
Jumping fish, no 
'Jumna,' H.M.S., 118 
Jungle in Queensland, 383 
Jungle-cock, 1 10 



KAFFIRS, 437 
Kanakas, 376, 416, 419 



4 8 4 



INDEX 



Kandy, 99, 104 

Kangaroo Island, 262 

Kangaroos, 245, 248, 253, 255, 361 

Kanniya, hot springs at, 109, 1 1 1 

Kapuan timber-station, 178 

Keating, Mrs., 70 

Keith, Captain, 30 

Kendenup, 240, 245, 247 

Keppel Bay, 347 

Keppel, Sir Harry, 159, 167 

Kernford, Mr. Justice, 293 

Kettles, whistling, 167 

Khassia, 73 

Khurseed Jah, 47 

Khyber Pass, 1 7 

' Kilwa,' the, 132, 133 

Kirnberley, 431 

KinaBalu, 168, 172 

King, Mr., 332 

King George Sound, 230 

King Jack, 415, 417 

Koordal, a reserve for Australian 

aboriginals, 300 
Koti river, 208 
Kruger, President, 435 
Kuching, 145 
Kuching river, navigation in, by 

direction-posts, 146 
Kudat, 169 
Kurrachee, 10 
Kusti (Parsee cord), 59 
Kutab Minar, the, 23, 24, 26 
Kylies, or boomerangs, 248, 252 



LABUAN, 155 

' Lady Brassey ' nugget, the, 285 
Lahore, 15, 16, 20 
Laidby, Mr. and Mrs., 341, 342 
Lamb, Dr., 170, 172 
Lampton, 328 
Largs Bay, 266 
Laughing jackass, 321 
Laurence, Maude, 14, 54, 72 
Layard, Sir C. P., quoted, 100 
Leaf-fungus, coffee, 101 
Lee, the gatherer of beche-de-mer, 
397, 398 



MAHARAJAH 

Leeches, 205 

Levinge, Mr., 381, 386 

Leys, Dr. and Mrs., 156 

Life at s?a, 92 

' Liguria ' (steamship), 224 

Lilies, 350,3 66, 377, 438 

Lindsay, Mr. David, 270, 276 

Liquid gold, 355 

Little, Mr., 172 

Little Coco, 116 

Liveries in Ceylon, 102, 103 

Lizard Island, 394 

Loch, Sir Henry and Lady, 289, 292- 
294, 298 

Loftie, Mr. and Mrs., 231, 232 

Log of ' Sunbeam,' abstract of Ports- 
mouth to Bombay, 448, 449 ; Bom- 
bay to Kurrachee, Rangoon, Borneo, 
and Macassar, 450-452 ; Macassar 
to Adelaide, South Australia, 453 ; 
Adelaide to Melbourne, Sydney, and 
Port Darwin, 454-456 ; Port Dar- 
win to Mauritius and Cape of Good 
Hope, 457, 458 ; Cape of Good Hope 
to Portsmouth, 458-460; summary, 
461 

Logodium scandens, 373 

Lombok, 217 

Longwood, St. Helena, 438 

Lotus tank, Colombo, 98 

Low Islands, 390 

Loyal cockatoos, 254 

Lucknow, 31 

Lycopodium, 373 

Lyre-bird, 321 

Lyttelton, Colonel, 12 



MACALISTEK Range, 389 

Macassar, 210, 211 

Macdonald, Dr. and Mrs., 350, 364 

Maclean, Mr., 106 

McLean, Mr., 50, 66 

MacXabb, Mr., 300 

Madai bird's-nest caves, Darvel Bay, 

183, 189-197 
Magnetic Island, 370 
Maharajah of Patiala, 22 



INDEX 



485 



MAHOMMEDAN 

Mahommedan ladies, 68 

Malabar Point, 57, 61, 68, 71 

Malades imaginaires, 96 

Malaria, 428 

Malin, Mr. S., 267 

Manchester regiment at Agra, 29 

Mandovi river, 82 

Mangalore, 92 

Maradu Bay, 170 

Marble Kocks, Nerbudda river, 31, 33 

Marburg, 344 

Marine phenomenon, a, 218 

Marshall, Colonel, 49, 50 

Mason-bees, 150 

Mauritius, 428 

Maxwell, Mr., 147, 150 

Mayhew, Colonel, 12 

Meat Canning Factory, a, 366 

Medusas, 118, 258 

Meerut, 26 

Mehdi Ali's wife, 67 

Melbourne, 287 

Meldrum, Dr., 430 

Memorial Gardens, Cawnpore, 30 

Message-sticks, 253 

Midas Mine, Ballarat, 283 

Middleton, Captain, 106 

Milanos, the, 148 

Milking cows, method of, 334 

Millar, Mr., 271 

Millett, Mr., 113 

Milman, Mr. and Mrs., 407, 411 413, 

417, 422, 424 

Mines, curious names of, 351 
Mir Alam tank, 46 
Mirs falconer, the, 5 
Mitchell, Mr., 21 
Mohamed Hyat Khan, 14 
Monkeys, 52 
Montefiore, Mr., 314 
Mooltan, 14 
Moore, Captain, 70 
Moran, Cardinal, 312 
Moreton Island, 343 
Morley, Mr. Arnold, 2 
Moscos Group, the, 138 
Mosque of Ibrahim Eozah, 51 
Mosquitoes, 393 



NIZAM 

Moulmein, 133 
Mount Cook, 392 
Mount Gambier, 289, 290 
Mount Morgan, 350-358 
Mount Morgan Gold-Mining Com- 
pany, 356 

Mount Warning, 342 
Mountain of gold, a, 353 
Mourillyan sugar-plantation, 380-383 
' Mr. Short ' (terrier), 259 
' Mrs. Sharp ' (terrier), 259 
Muara coal-mines, Brunei, 167 
Mulgrave river, 387 
Muriel as ' Little Buttercup,' 137 
Murray, Captain, 231 
Murray Island, 414, 419 
Murray river, 278 
Museum at Kuching, 148 
Musgrave, Lady, 346 
' Myrmidon,' H.M.S., 370 
Myrtle Gully, 303 



NASH, Major, 113, 115 

Nash, Mr., 386 

National Aid Society, 3 

Native States and army of India, 24, 

25 

Nats, 125 
Nautical entertainments, 137, 221, 

261 

Nautilidre, 118 
Naval Brigade, 322 
Naval Volunteers, 314, 350, 359 
Nawab of Jinjeera and his wife, 74- 

76 

' Nelson,' H.M.S., 323 
Nepean river, 318 
Nepenthes, 176 
New Caledonia convicts, 407 
Newcastle, 325 

Newcastle Colliery Company, 329 
New Guinea, 418-420 
New South Wales Light Horse, 336 
Nicholson, General, 14 
Night Island, 395 
Ninepin Rock, 413, 421 
Nizam of Hyderabad, 46 



486 



INDEX 



Nobby Head, 328 
Normanby Sound, 405 
Northumberland Islands, 368 



OBSERVATORY, the, Mauritius, 429 
Occupation at sea, 92 
Octopus, 255 

Oliver, Mr. Norman, 81, 91 
Ootacamund, 94 
' Opal,' H.M.S., 323 
Opal-mines, 360, 411 
Ophthalmia in Australia, 365 
Opossums, 245 
Orang-outangs, 170 
Orchids, 136 
Orford Ness, 399 
Ostrich-feather trade, 431 
Owen, Brigadier-General, 271 



PADDY-FIELDS, 100 

Pagodas, 122, 123 

Palace of the Viceroys, Goa, 85 

Palmer, General, 31 

Palmer river gold-diggings, 392 

Palmerston, 427 

Palm Island, 372 

Palm oil, 441 

Palms, 208, 365, 383 

' Paluma,' H.M.S., 369, 370 

Pancratiums, 373, 377 

Pangaum, 90 

Pangeran Bandahara, 165 

Pangeran di Gadong, 165 

Pangin, or New Goa, 83, 90 

Panthers, 113 

Papuans, 420 

Paramatta, 317 

Parel, 62 

Parker, Captain, n 

Parkes, Sir Henry, 315, 317 

Parrots, 369 

Parsee ladies, 58, 68 

Patiala, 21, 22, 24, 25 

Pearl-divers, 424 

Pearl Mosque, Delhi, 26 

Pearl oyster window-panes, 86 



POULTRY 

Pearl-shell dishes, 166 
Pearl-shells, 157, 204, 404, 422 
Pearls, 207 

Pedley, Dr. and Mrs., 132 
Pemberton, Mr. and Mrs., 170, 214, 

221, 240 

Penal laws in Darnley Island, 417 

P. and O. steamers, 4, 5 

Pennefather, Mr., 378, 379 

Pension list in Labuan, 158 

Pepper terraces, Brunei, 167 

Percy Isles, 368 

Peshawur, 16 

Peter Botte Mountain, 390, 428 

PJilox Drummondii, 365 

Phoongyees, funeral rites of, 124 

Photography at sea, 259 

Picture-cleaning at Goa, 86 

Pigs, wild, 206, 334, 403 

Pike, Captain, 392 

Pineapples, 201 

Pine Island, 368 

Piper Islands, 396, 399 

Pitcher plants, 169, 176 

Pit-ponies, 330 

Pitt (steward), accident to, 117 

Plaids, origin of, 121 

Plant, Colonel and Mrs., 134 

Planters in Ceylon, 100 

Playford, Mr., 278 

Plumieria, 102 

Plurality of office in Labuan, 157 

Point Amherst, 133 

Poison-plant in pastureland, 247 

Pomegranates, 248 

Poonah, 51 

Pope-Hennessy, Sir John, 430 

Port Albany, 400 

Port Adelaide, 266 

Port Darwin, 427 

Port Douglas, 389 

Port Elizabeth, 431 

Port Kennedy, 405 

Port Louis, Mauritius, 428 

Porto Praya, 442 

Portsmouth, 2 

Pouce mountain, 428, 430 

Poultry, 52, 350 



INDEX 



487 



PRAHUS 

Prahus, 147, 169, 201 
Preparis group, the, 1 16 
Primitive settlement, a, 236 
Prince of Wales' Island, 409 
Pritchett, Mr., 92, 213 
Processions in India, 3 
' Protector ' (gunboat), 266 
Providential Channel, 395 
Public works contractors of New 

South Wales, 475 
Pumice-stone, 218 
Purdah, the, 66, 7 1 , 76 
Putso, the, 121 



QUARANTINE Island, 255 

Queen's, the, birthday in the colonies, 

264 
Queensland, as a pastoral country, 

345 ; gold-mines, 352 ; up-country 

hotels, 354 
Quoit-throwing, 19 
Quop, 152 



BACK-MEETINGS in the colonies, 297, 

361 

Bail-splitters, 303 

Bailways, colonial, 233, 266, 332, 436 
Bain-hats, 122 
Bainsworth, 360 
Rajah of Travancore, 94 
Bajang river, 154 
Bajpoori river, 73 
Bajpura, 22 
Balli, Mr., 12 

Bamleh Military Hospital, 3 
Banagar Palace, 33 
Bangoon, 120 

' Bangoon ' (steamship), 136 
Bangoon river, 1 1 9 
Bao of Cutch, 61 
Batnagiri, 76 
Bats, 153 
Battans, 205 
Bavee river, 20 
Bawul Pindi, 16, 18 



Bead, Mr. Sheriff, 293 

Beay, Lord and Lady, 4, 5, 12, 13, 57- 

59, 61, 62, 65-67, 69, 140 
Reporters' difficulties, 265 
Best-houses, Burmah, 129 
Bestoration Island, 395 
Bice, 120, 131 

Richards, Sir Frederick, 109 
Riches, Mr., 277 
Bobinson, Mr. and Mrs., 307 
Robinson, Sir William, 264 
Rockhampton, 349, 364 
Bockhampton lily, the, 350, 366 
Bockingham Channel, 379 
Rohri, 13 

Romilly, Miss, 288 
Roses, 270 
Rotan saga, the, 205 
Royal Geographical Society of 

Australasia, 466 
Boyal Sydney Yacht Club, 322 
Runjeet Singh's tomb, Lahore, 15, 

1 6 

Russell, Dr., quoted, 87 
' Ryujo ' (Japanese corvette), 266 



SAD incident, a, 79 

Saddle Island, 413 

Sago, 162 

Sahyadri Ghats, the, Si 

Sailors, heedless and imitative, 95, 96 

Salomons, Mr., 317 

Salter, Dr., 424 

Salvation Army in the colonies, 336 

Sal wen river, 133, 134 

Sami Rock, the, 114 

Sandakan, 185 

Sandakan Bay, i75> 1 7& 

Sandflies, 401 

Sandford, Sir Herbert, 269 

S. Cajetan, Goa, 86 

S. Caterina, Goa, 87, 88 

Sapa Gaya river, 1 78 

Sar-Bahr, Gwalior, 28 

Saribowa (volcano), 219 

Sarongs, 182, 213 

Savage, Mr., 418-420 

3 M 



INDEX 



SAW-MILLS 

Saw-mills, 237 

Schinnahal Tank, Ulwar, 27 

Schonburg, Dr., 276 

Schramud, Mr., 401, 404 

Sea-horses, 1 1 1 

Sea slugs, 394, 396, 397 

Secunderabacl, 36 

Secundra Bagh, Lucknow, 31 

Segaraa river, 188, 194 

Shaftesbury, Lord, 325 

Shah Dura, the, 19, 20 

' Shannon,' P. and 0., 231 

Sharks, 412 

Shearston, Mr., 316 

Sheep-rearing, 247, 360, 361 

Shelbourne Bay, 399 

Shells, 392, 397 

Shervvin, Miss Amy (the Australian 

Nightingale), 295 
Shikarpur, 11-13 
Shway Dagohu pagoda, Burmah, 

124 

Shepparton, 306, 307 
Sierra Leone, 440-442 
Silam, 1 86, 203 
Silver-mines, 273 
Silverton, 273 
Simon, Dr., 141 
Singapore, 141 
Sir Deva Sing, 24 
Sir Dinshaw Manockjee Petit, 63 
'Sir Eoger,' 15, 66, 187, 332, 353, 

411, 412, 418 

Sir Salar Jung, 35, 39, 42, 49 
' Sirocco ' (steamship), 99 
Slaves of the Pagoda, 127 
Smallpox, 172 

Smith, Colonel Euan, 29, 137 
Snakes, 159, 401, 403 
Solitary Islands, 342 
Somerset, 400 
South Australia, area, climate, and 

capabilities of, 428 
South Australian Geographical 

Society, 270 

South Australian Yacht Club, 267 
Spears, 252 
Speculation in Australia, 393 



' SUNBEAM ' 

Speeches of Lord Brassey: to Royal 
Geographical Society of Aus- 
tralasia, Adelaide, 466, 467 ; 
Adelaide Chamber of Commerce, 
468 ; Imperial Federation League, 
Melbourne, 471-475 ; Public Works 
contractors, Sydney, 475-478 

Sponge, 390 

Sprigg, Sir Gordon, 433, 434, 436 

Springsure, 360, 362 

Spring wood, 319 

Squalls, 225 

St. Antonio, 443 

St. Francis Xavier's tomb, Goa, 88 

St. Helena, 437 

St. John Ambulance Association, 71, 
143, 183, 276, 312, 315, 322, 342, 
346, 359, 364, 424 

St. Quintin, Colonel, 310 

St. Vincent, 442 

Stafford, Lord and Lady, 132 

Stake, Inquisition, at Goa, 89 

Star of the East Mine, Ballarat, 282 

Stations, cattle, in Queensland, 360, 
362 

Steam-tram in the jungle, 383 

Steering at sea, careless, 388 

Stellenbosch, 434 

Stevens, Captain and Mrs., 407, 411 

Stevenson, Mr., 346 

Stewart, Mr. and Mrs., 233, 237, 239 

Stock, Mr., 265 

Stockmen, 362 

Straits of Macassar, 208 

Suanlamba river, 178 

Subterranean banquet, a, 331 

Sugar-cultivation, 376, 381, 384, 385, 
388, 430 

Sukhur, 12, 13 

Sultan of Brunei, 160, 163, 165 

Sultan of Johore, 141, 165 

Sultan of Sulu, 165 

Sulus, the, 1 66, 198, 204, 206 

Sumbawa, 217 

Sumpitans, or blowpipes, 156 

' Sunbeam,' her capital sailing quali- 
ties, 5; dimensions of, 461 ; sum- 
mary of her cruise, 462-465 



INDEX 



489 



SUNDYAKS 
Sundyaks, the, 181 
Sunflowers, 102 
Sunstroke, 95, 96 
Surgery, amateur, 144, 404 
Sydney, 309 

Symes, Mr. and Mrs., 121, 132, 407, 
423 



TABLE BAY, 432, 433 

Table Mountain, 433 

' Tab's ' shooting excursion, 186, 206 

Tainpasick river, 168 

Taj, Agra, 29 

Tamieri, the, 121 

Tamworth, 332 

Tank, of Mir Alam, 38 ; in the Ni- 
zam's Palace, Hyderabad, 46 ; at 
Khurseed Jah's, 48 

' Tannadice ' (steamship), 399 

Tapang-tree, the, 192 

Tawoomba, 340 

Teak, 132 

Temple of the Sun, Mooltan, 14 

Tenasserim, 138 

Tenterfield, 332 

Tent-pegging, 19 

Terceira, 446 

Terowie, 273 

' Thames,' P. & 0., 4, 5 

Theatricals at sea, 137, 221, 261 

Theebaw, King, 76, 77 

Thermometers, 270 

Thompson, Mr., 350 

Thukkar quoit-throwing, 19 

TJiunbergia vcmista, 350, 365 

Thursday Island, 400, 405, 412, 423 

Thwaites, Dr., 102 

Timber stations, 178 

Timber-waggons, 354 

Timber-yards, 130, 131 

Timbu Mata Island, 186 

' Times,' the, on the cruise of the 
' Sunbeam,' 461-465 

Tin-mines, 339 

' Tip-up,' a, 279 

Titles, native, at Hyderabad, 50 

Todd, Mr., 27 



TURPENTINE 

Todhunter, Mr. and Mrs., 361 

Tomb of the Emperor Hamayun, 
Delhi, 26 

Tombs of the Kings, Golkonda, 35 

Tonic-water bottles used as temple 
ornaments, 123 

Torres Straits, 425 

Towers of Silence, Bombay, 37 

Towns, etc., chief, visited by Lady 
Brassey: Alexandria, 3 ; Cairo, 4 ; 
Kurrachee, 10 ; Shikarpur, 12; 
Mooltan, 14 ; Lahore, 14 ; Pesha- 
wur, 1 6 ; Bawul Pindi, 18; Am- 
ritsar, 21 ; Eajpura, 22 ; Patiala, 
21-25; Delhi, 26; Jeypore, 
27 ; Agra, 29 ; Gwalior, 30 ; 
Cawnpore, 30; Lucknow, 31; 
Benares, 32; Hyderabad, 34; 
Secunderabad, 36 ; Bijapur, 51 ; 
Poonah, 51; Bombay, 56; Goa, 
82 ; Colombo, 97 ; Trincomalee, 
107; Bangoon, 119; Moulmein, 
133; Singapore, 141; Borneo, 
143; Labuan, 155; Brunei, 160; 
Eleopura, 175; Celebes, 203; 
Albany, 230 ; Adelaide, 264 ; 
Ballarat, 281 ; Geelong, 286; Mel- 
bourne, 287 ; Sydney, 309 ; New- 
castle, 326 ; Brisbane, 342 

Townsville, 370, 371 

Traill, Captain, 301 

Trans-Australian railway, a, 428 

Transvaal, the, 436 

Traveller's palm, 142 

Traveller's tree, 429 

Travelling in Australia, 274 

Treacher, Mr., 176, 183, 185, 188,206 

Tree-ferns, 302 

Trepang, 397 

Trimulgherry, 37 

Trimen, Dr., 102 

Trincomalee, 107 

Trinear, Mr., 355 

Tropical forests, 197 

Troubridge, 262 

Trout, 303 

Tudhope, Mr., 434 

Turpentine-trees, 348 



490 



INDEX 



Turtle, 421 
Turtles' eggs, 150 
Tyler, Dr., 30 
Typhoid fever, 231 
Tyssen, Mr., 340 



ULETT (English coachman), 35 

Ulwar, 27 

Umbrella palms, 383 

Umbrellas as insignia of rank, 165 

Unseaworthy ships, 444, 445 



VACCINATION, 172 

Vancouver's Ledge, 230 

Vasco de Gama, 84, 86, 94 

Verdon, Sir George, 288 

' Vernon ' (reformatory ship), 314, 322 

Vine-cultivation, 434 

Volcanic waves, 218 

Volunteers in Australia, 292 

Von Babo, Baron, 433 

Vultures, 57 



WALKER, Mr., 178, 180, 183 

Walker, Mr. arid Mrs., 333-335 

Wallabies, 379 

Wallace, quoted, 214, 218 

Walsh, Mr., 380 

Warburton, Major, 17 

War dances, 181 

Wardlaw, Mr. and Mrs., 378 

War jackets, 148, 159 

Warrangara, 357 

Watcher of a gold mine, 354 

Water-carrier, 30 

Waterfalls, 387, 388 

Waterfield, Colonel, 16, 17 

Water-lilies, 1 1 2 

Watson, Elizabeth, tragic story of , 394 

Watson's Bay, 310, 311 



ZULUS 

Watt river, 303 

Wax candles as complimentary gifts, 
163, 164 

Weapons, native, 149, 184, 213, 214 

Wedding, Hindoo, 43 

Wellington Lodge, 279 

Wentworth Falls, 319 

West African Telegraph Company, 

442 
. West Cape Howe, 229 

West India Kegiment, the, 442 

West Maitland, 332 
. Weymouth Bav, 396 

Whalers, 445 

Whales, 258 

White, Mr. Frank, suicide of, 78-80 

White ants, 151, 159 

White bird's-nests, 178 

Whitsunday Island, 369 

Whitsunday Passage, 368 

Wild bees, 192 

Wild cattle, 171 

Williamstown, 298 

Wilson, Mr., 178, 180, 183, 184 

Wine-making, 300 

Wollahra centre of St. John Ambu- 
lance Association, 322 

Wolseley, Colonel, 21 

Woman's Suffrage Society, Victoria, 
288 

Women's hats at Brunei, 160 

Wood-cutting, 238 

Woodgate, Mr. Herbert, 273 

Wool, 328 

Wright, Mr., 401-403 



YORK Islands, 413 
Young, Mr., 256 



Zamia alsopliila, 383 
Zulus, 437 






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