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Full text of "Late account of the Missouri Territory, compiled from notes taken during a tour through that country in 1815, and a translation of letters from a distinguished French emigrant, written in 1817 .."

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KiivnLsa rsov Korrs Takkit Drar^rc a Torn trboccr that 

cdcsTRr IN I8i5, Avo x THA^fSLATio.'r or Lkttcrs fbox a 

SJSTi?rorifBXO Stizsvn Kjiiobakt, -WBiTTf:!* is 1817. 


Br D T. Al^DOX. 
*.rTnoB or tbk Mor4l asd Political Discocbse 05 \Vaji, Sic' 



Ji^ John Lyle, 

■- v.: 





• tVmtMtter, October 2Sth IBIT. 

Itavlnnf just returned from a visit to the \f usouri Territory, f 
♦as r quested by the \uthor of the "Late Account" of that c H(ntr]ir 
to examine his manuscript —which so far as i explored the coun- 
try ii cMTcct— — and I think tke Account well worthy of publicxji 



• * ParU, Cc*.3Ut 1817. 

Ihaye sketched wltb some attention Mr Mulox's "Late Accoun'fi 
^ftheMissonri Territory " From the knowledge 1 have been en«^ 
bled to acquire of that country by writers and explorers, I am dis» 
posed to attribute to the production, correctness and accuracy. 
His divisions of tubjects, appear ^tidicious t and his style, pieusant 
and intt restiug. The summary it will give, comprized compara- 
ti\-ely in few pages, to the people of the United States, who at this 
time feel a lively interest in being utbII informed concerning that 
jmraense region, combined with the merit ot the work, ought tocQ^ 
title it to a considerable share of the public patronage. 


I Parit, Oct SUl I81f. 

Baving hastily glanced o%-er Mr. D. T MadbX a ••Account of d<f 
MiiBOuri Territorj." From the observations I have been able to 
nuke in part personally, and the information ^ bave had anopporta* 
nity otlierwise to receive, I hav« no doubt of ita general cor>ectnes»> 
His subjects, are ceruirly interesting, and his descriptive portraits 
vivid. The tide of emigrati«m wUl for centuries to come, continue 
rolling to the west. Whatever tends to give a tolerably just new 
of tliis part of the tlireshold ot a new woi-ld cannot fail to be usefiil. /» 
veil as to excite the liveliest interest. All who feel disposed, an4 
vhohave had <ipportuniles of mformation, should there*'"e be en- 
couraged lo coiitribut*- to the stock Mr Madox's eftbrn^cms to 
me Well worthy of puolication, so tar ^s I Iwvo l<>)k.eil over ii ;— andt 
<4^« QO doobt his outlines yet unfilled, will form a useful addiUm. t 


^ tlEC0MMEinJATI0N3. 

mnchetter, M>9. 5rd 18 IT. 

t nare hastily perused Mr. D T. Madox's *♦ Late Account of tbe 
Idbsoui-i Territory."' From the information I have received of tliat 
conntrv, as • clLassome little knowledge I possess of it, lanien< 
ti i^ersuaded of liis correctness. The snbjcd son which he trtat» 
a lu Illy interesting to a great portion of the American people, 
at. :.e style of the work, will no doiib be pleasing to the Fiiblic. 
Th ^li.H'Ouri Territory hegins alrtaJy to attract consicUrable atten- 
lio 1 ii> most of the states, and purticularly, in the middle and soutli- 
ern, id iiiformatidii of tUe kind which tlie present work exhibits. 
Will -^'t t-xrremely useful to those who feel disposed to explore, oc 
setiie the country. 


Wmcheater, .Ve-u. 5tA 1817. 

Uarinff parti.-iUy examined the annt xed pages, intended for pub- 
licp "■ ' ks far as m\ intormatioi>tx.iiid3 I accord in opinion with 
<it« it^ftlWg«K»l'tiri0MW» »f Mttssrs. Millsi BUiUm Tejrler be. 


Wimhetter, AW. Ath ISIT. 

Fedine myself mteirested in the welfare of the publick in g^neral^ 
and having a desire for the extension of know ledge, and the en! 
couragement of literal urt, amongst the people of the United States 
as well the Historical acconnts of the vast country to the westward 
as o her parts. And having had a cursory view of a mar.uscnpt 
presented by Mr D T. Madox, giving son e account o the Misaou^ 
ri, and its extensive uncultivated regions. I have no hesitation lo 
saying agreeable to tht- information I have hadofth.vt country, that 
it exhibits a verv correct st.itement of the same, and will in my <>pio« 
ion priiVtr iiiteresiing to (he readc', aod advantageous to those wb|( 

ll^Mte •drentiirers to Uut CMwtiy. 



T^TE following pa^e?, are published at tlip rc^, 
qiu'st of a- dhfinguis/i'-d/t/Irv citf~.c/i now i.i t/i</ 
service o^/iis country. T/tc 'loteswere tahf;n (h(- 
ring a tour through thccountri/^ ivlvch thoj at- 
ie npt to descri'jc^ in the most unfuvora''lc season of 
thf [tear — :inuUt di ^cidtie^ u-h'ch i)redu'lcd a ^-lU 
and ca> 2j)!ete investigation of thi' subjects in(r>rhi 
ced ; and which is now co>i piled, under c mi'ii^ 
stances not very favourable to successful comp^sr, 

To these causes mcmij of their imperfct'oiu 
Via If with truth be escribed; mamj more to the 
want oftahnts end inOjnruitmn in the writer . 

The Map of the Missouri Terntonj., ongincUj 
intrndtd to (icconipanij this pufdiratinn^ isneqcss'' omitted for the vanf nfm Jir.'raV' r. 

Paris, Kentitcln. ,\':v. Vth i^iT, 


To a Frknd at the City of irashingtoiu 

1 had just returned, my dear friend, from a pedestriaa 
tovjr ihroUi<'i the wilds of tiie M s^ouri. w ■'»n ' -i-riived 
your missive . . • 'and I had fondly hoped i.ut your so* 
licitude on the subjects of our former con-' spondt-ce -.v** 
sul)sided ; but your anxiety seems inc»*easea by dissa point* 
ment rather than diminished by delay. 

Y'lu require that I should j?ive you a more detailed ac^ 
cou ii of the Oeograpuical, A^ricuilural, C<xnmerci;i:, a;>d 
Statistical relations of this interesting secti<»n of tiie \ ntii- 
c.«n union ; but you have not rightly appreciated t .e d tfi- 
cultiesattending'Uch an undertaking . . . Atotirt'r lu^b 
these immense regions, unaided by scientific appui.iMi'ij 
and that too, in a season of the year when nature w-t> slv pt 
of icr verdant robe», and the glories of the lorests wer> liid 
low. could afford ilie corre>^pi.'ndent but little matter k a t;r 
for t lie pen or the pencil. . . .yet, to he in^^enuous, fi .end, 
in whose bosom no**gall of malignant criticism" ksu.^s.^ I 
Tcwxy venture to submit the most insipieiit cffusiuiisui aiy 
pen and heart • • and to exclaim in the language of ih© 
p .lioMipiiic poet 

«•«•»•••* * Is ought so fair 
In ii! the dewy lands' ape of »he spring 
In i 1. l)-iglu eye f)f Hcspcr ortlie worn 
1: n.iunc's tairest for us, is oui^lit so fair 
As viraioub fnencUNiip; as i .i caudi i blush 
or iiini who s'livi-s * ith fortune to b«- jiist : 
YUe graceful tear that streams for other's woes •> 

Til the invest'tjatioii orttiisponiin jf L^M'-s'nna, as wdl as 
of most pans of the United States, and |>aiticularly of the* i 
western country, Tourists have afr>rci-.d but little infor. na- 
tion, calculated to aid us in a knowlcds^e either of its piiys- 
ical or natural history. They havt been either ihc creat- 
ures of land-jobbers, euiployed to encouraj^c the sale of 
laruis, otijcrwise unsaleabl'^, or else forei^^ii iiirelinjrs, obsc- 
qioiisiy voluntecrint;ii) publications, reduiiUant intUe most 
pu iiie falsehoods— puM;)seiv tlcsicrned •> destroy if possi- 
ble, the last assylum of oppressed humanity! And even 
thf Cicotjraphei s ot our own country, either tnrough n qli- 
geiioe,or the want of the means of information, i.ave imposed 
atai-inentson the public contrary, to liu- dij^nity of truth and 
self iice By both we are left to marvel at impossiljilities, 
an i io deplore tiie want of solid information. The desriip- 
tio!) (/fa «.ve, a mound, or a mammoth, may indeed a nuse 
the curious, instruct the ini^cnious, ami gratify u c pLu-^-so- 
fher; but they are po')r stuff to feed llr lubcrious par. of 
znaiii<.ind on long "t a time. 

You are well apprised, however of the difficulties of ac- 
oui a-ely describing' ;. country so little known as tnat west, of 
the Mississipi— a country yet unsurveyeci— but partially ejo- 
pen')iented one tier by the Agriculturalist, the Gtolosrist, 
the Butaiiidt, or tlie Statesman — but, whose generous bosona 
ofFcis to the researches of each, whatever wealth, curiosity, 
taste, genius, or a laudable emulation, can excite — a coun- 
try, in short of all others the best adapted to commercial in- 
tercsis, and the most accessible to the investigations of 
science, and pfiiiosophy, wi.tnever enterprise and industry, 
shall liave removed the obstacles which at present impede 
their progress. 

liut whilst I apologise for my own incapacity to do jus* 
tice to the subject, and for the many errors and detects witlj 
Vnicn the following sheets may be pregnant, it would be in- 
ju^lice to those who have gone before me not to admit tuat 
they must have found an equai, and perhaps a greaur num- 
ber ol i .congruous materials, which neither they noi mvit:^ 
coj . [■•:>-)ibiy arrant.;fc mco orUer and perspicuity. 

I\i. cou;:iry can be accurattl\ cksciihed, until it is .itcu- 
raicjv burveved— a truth not sufticicnilv atitnUcdto? althC 


4he wlmle scieic; <.l Ge'ti.-.ijny, as wti: u' political Statis- 

tir,.;<pciiU upon It; and however weli caiculMed the ar- 

rui^'-Uiei soU.-.e«o\ eminent t^f the United Staes n»ay be 

1, to .')bMatetni:se objections wiihw. the distiictb to wiachihty 

; ho.a t.ic liu'ht of soil, there is yc t one objccuon even to ti-ese 

iuoicous regulation— The Surveyor'. Ucpu.m.entis loo tre- 

nucnuv reiailecloutto imiiviciuals, bu> laiie qualihtd lor 

■ SVC. appoi.tnitms, and corscq^ei tly ii.capab.e oi affoidu.g: 

tl.c i..)v» rinnent any considerable information on tie topos^'ia- 

pi.v ..fiheir new territories. S'atistical Topog'a^liv, next 

' to ih.; fiscal coacer^is of a n tl.on, s an obj-ct ot Uie highest 

r iniporti:nce. ' It was, in a i-ical nieasuie owing lo the sti-ct 

' atiei.tion p.ud to tliib sciei,;;c, that the French nation weie e- 

nabted, under the mov p . ,inia: ..ppoi,ition. to prosper in 

agiicuiliH-o-anq in arms. T:;e foteign jealousies wluch the 

rising glorieb of our free country conmme to excite, may 

ere long again involve us in a contest wiih a ruuc intiuoer. 

But \.'ere vi'e under the certain prospects of perpetual tran- 

quiiity, the interest;, of science, of commerce, of domestic 

ec^.nomy, and of public works all require that every sec ioo 

oftiie union should be accurately describid and deli.x.aed 

Yovi wi»' pernaps consider tnese remai ks as. a bold and 

unpardonable digression tiom tie object of this fugitive pub- 

licatioiiu which ought to be appropriated lo the inlonnuiion 

of the ft venture, rather than to specu.ationsof pouiicai e- 

coiioniy— And I can only excuse myscil uy oft.; ing tneiu 

as an apology for the diaiculties inio wlucu 1 am reiucum- 

iy involved. -. • • i r 

Bui I tire you with what is mere niaUcr of opinion, betore 
I introduce you to the subjects about w>acii luat v^iuoii, 
«hou d be employed. If you can excuse tne vanity a.ucU 
inuuced me to exchange tne fdmiiiaiuy of episioLry cor- 
respondence, for the manner and arrangement ol aii uinur, 
y«a. .vili afford one glimmer ofiiopefor i,.e succc;> ot tiiia 
ft... ;»i.. etiori to disseminate min.n^jsl our iViio.v t..izcii»a 
l>iii\ v>l 1 ,'• . ii'irmaii.j J w ncii yon s<j arueiUiy tteaiie 

i^s Cuc/ie^ AW. lOt/tt. i317t 



Discovery and Settlement. 

THE Missouri Tcrritor}' constitutes the largest 
^orrion of the French dominions in North Amer- 
ica, known by the name of Louisiana. That part 
of IT lyings near thonnouth of the Mississippi river, 
BOW the state of Louisiana, in consequence of ils 
connt^uiiy to market, and the facilities of trade, 
made an earHcr progi'ess in population, agricuU 
ture, and commerce. The imponance of this sec- 
tion of the country was increased too, by other 
local circumstances; for \\ hile it possessed a cli- 
mate ecjually congenial, and a soil equally fertile 
\s\\\\ the other parts, it was more easily defend d 
by the parent country against the depradation^ of 
the savages, who contiiuieid to ^\ age an uncon- 
ditional warftire against the inftint settlements of 
tlie New World. 

The disfovcry of the Gulph of St La\\Tcnce^ 
and the settkments made by the French on that 
river about the time that the English were colo- 
ni,». g ^1»^ iulcruKdi.ite country on tne Atlantic 
ocean, induced the former to convert their enterprise 
into stratagem; and by extending a line of posts 
Op tiie St. Lawrence along the chain of Likes intbQ 



jiorth and north-%N t st to tht he ad wartcrs of tlte 
^tissibsippi, thence doxvn that river to its mouih, 
thty would have it completely in their power to 
drve the English off the continent. Aecordii i^iy , 
ir the year 1680, M. de la Sulle, a rreiieiui...n, 
tr<.versed the countiy by an inland journey, ii. nji^ 
Quebec to the Mississippi. He was the first w ii.rle 
Tn;in who set foot on these devious wilds, lilln'^v, 
the haunts of beasts of prey and Rrocious sa\ jy s. 
His adventurous example was however folio, d 
b^ many of his countiy men, who for seventy > x ars; 
grew familiifl" with f;.tigue, danger and priviitiui>5, 
and made a wilderness their mvn. Whijst the 
British 'settlemefits on the Atlantic coasts w;erc 
marked as the victims ot the tomahawk and the 
sclpir.g knife, the French soothed, or <onciliated 
into friendship, thenum< rous tribes of sav;.ges that 
inl»abit the immense regions in the north and north- 


Thus support(?d by an alliance with the Indians, 
the French authorities in CantuH, opered a com- 
munication from theGulph of St. L.i\mnce, by 
the way of the great Lakes to the head waters of 
th' Mississippi, v hich they descended to its mouih ; 
esfablishing in their train, a line of posts at con\e- 
nier.t intervals, until they had'. teh surroun- 
ded The British colonies, 'or It ft them to be the yic- 
tin.s of the savages, w hom th* y had c xcit d agr inst 
them. Causes sufficiently powerfnl to prevent an 
. ext. nsion of the settlements on the otxk part, i.nd 
to i'^dnce ^bcm ( n *hf o'her. Amon,e: those in the 
Ti'c • f 'e b th' Fv vf -^ t i' !>. vvr\y period, was 
;pQbi Vinceunes, wliidi, actoiuii.g toM. Vobey, 


iilli MISSOURI TEaailOliV. I , 

Lwii» establislicd in the year 1735, and consequent- 
ly is nearly as eld as Philadelphia. 

From this time till the year ] 755, when hostili- 
ties broke out afresh between the two rival nations 
nothing of importance transpired in this part of the 
continent. Between this jDeriod and tlie year 1763 
the political affairs on the continent took a turn ; 
England had defeated the French in Canada, and 
by tJie treaty of thatyeai* had obtained a reJinquish* 
nicnt by that government, of all the territory on the 
Norrh American continent, east of the Mississippi, 
emphatically denominated, t/ie British colonies in, 
Korth America. 

The country west of thd Mississippi, with that 
part of the Floridas lying west of the Perdido river 
was stiH retained by the French government, under 
the general name of Louisiana. This colony, 
had, however, been transferred to Spain two } ears 
before, by a secret treaty, which was now <:onfir- 
med, and deliveiTd accordingh^ It remained un- 
der the most bigoted government, w hich, notwith- 
standing, exercised towards this particular province 
the greatest lenity of any in the new A\orld, till the 
year"l803. By the treaty of St. Illdefonso in 1800, 
Spain had re-ceded it to France, \\ ho sold it to the 
United States ; and which was now formally ta- 
ken possession of by the constituted authorities 
of that go\ ernment. 

The difficulty of governing such an immense 

Strict of country on the territorial principle ; a 

country measuring iipwards of eleven hundred 

tfiiles from north to south, and an equal, or perhaps 

k greater extent from east to svrst — with thinly de- 



taclied settlements in various dirccttons indueed 
the United States to divide it into two terrilorics. 
By ail act of congress passed in March 1804, *'all 
tliat portioii of country ceded by France to the 
United States, under the name of Louiaana, which 
lies south of tlic Mississipjii temtory, and of an 

* east and west line to commence oa the Mississippi 
, river, at the 32. degree of north latitude, and to ex- 

icnd west to the western boundary of the said cess- 

ion, shall constitute tl)e territory of tlie United 

States, under the name of the territory of Orjenms." 

. When tbis territory was erected into the State of 

* Louisiana, this northern boundary was extended 
tb die parallel of 33, de|;reesjftorth till it intersects 
tlie Red river, thence South on the meredian till it 

' strike the:Sftbine, which is its western t)oundary 
to the Gulph of Mexico. I . 

*■ By the twelfth bection of the act of congress be- 
fore qiioted,*' The residue pf the prt)vince ofl 
Louisiana, ceded to the .United States shall be call-| 
cdthe distiict erf" Louisiana;" since changed to' 
that of the Missouri Territory ; which is tlK* sub- 
ject of this meraoii. 

«' CHAP. IT. 

Extent and BonnJancs, 

If wc consider the Missouri territory in its whole 

^i^xteiit, and as constitutHig tl^c rcpiainder of Louisi- 

. una, we shall find a.coimtrj-, tlK)ugh va,e;ue and 

indefinite in itTi. boundaries, twice as brgc as the 


U-tioiC ^..i the Atlantic states put together. Such 
a description, however it may l>e connected w itii 
future subjects of political enquin , htib nothini; irt 
do with tliis sketch of that tcrritorj. 

I shall therefore define its boundaries bv tli^ 
fegul setdemcntii within the limits to which tl»c In- 
dian title is exungiiished. Under diis usptct it 
■\vill be found to be situated between 33. and about 
42. degrees north btiiudc; and between 10. and 17. 
degrees west longitude from the city of W'asliing- 
ton. . Bounded on the east by tlie Mississippi river, 
on the west b}' the Osagt; pur-:ha9C, fi-oni a pfjint 
three hundred niiks up die Misouri, funning due 
south to die Arkansas, thence includinpj the legal 
settlements, tiH it intersects tiic northern bo^inuary 
of the state of Louisana. In Uiis extent, it uill 
iTieasure from north to south upwards of six hun- 
dred miles ; from cast to west upwards of four him- 
^ed miles — more than four tkncs as l-irgc as any 
etv.te in the union. 

Uecapitulation. If we take, tlicn ll>e Mis^ls- 

sippi river for its limit on the ci\.st, the parallel of 12 
degrees nortli latitude, on the north, tlu: r ir|:;e of 
mountains Vvhich stjptrate thcuatcrsof the Mis^iis 
sippi from those ol the Pacific Oean, on t le u cs. , 
ad the northern boundaT) of the ^^talcof Louiiu.mi 
in latitude 33 degrees nrnih, on the south ; v.c sliall 
have a district coiUiining about 400,000 S quart 
miles ! six times as large as the State of KentMrk\'. 

The section north of the Missouri river, and that 
south of the Arkansas, are each sufficient to form n 
considerable state. But the intermediate countr}-; 
iving betivecn tlie Missouri and the Arkansas, ir- 



i ludliig the French and Spanish settlcn^xC ntr, and liif-^ 
Osage purchase, constitutes the principal body o; 
\his new territory ; imd may be considered, next to 
tht State or Louisiana,, the most valuable tract in t!:c 
valley of the Missisippi. 

1 give these as the supposed, and ntU the actur.l 
limits of the territory :— Ikauise they include the 
^vholc of the settlements to uiiich the Indian title n 
©r will probably be extinguished ia any short time 
and because, they contain the tract of country to 
\vhich my observations and researches have been 
more panicrularly appKed, and which is now exci- 
ting so much interest in every part of the United 
States as well b& in Europe. 

It is here, indeed, that we see the reality of Mr. 
Jefferson's remark in his inaugural speech to con- 
gress ; that " we have land enough in the West for 
the thousandth, and ten thousandth generation"— &: 
and which is daily conveited to the noblest purpo- 
ses, and becomhig an aasylum for oppressed hu- 



Situation and Aspect. 

IF we take a mean latitude between the northcn'i 
and southern f:xtremities of diis tcnitorj', it will 
be found that the countries with which this section 
of the United States corresponds, are those the most 
celebrated for the variety and richnessof their pro- 
ductions. In America, thev arc the middle part*. 


O- Mar}4and, Virt^inia, Tennessee and Kewtuclcy ; 
Sinta-fee in Mexico — Andalusia in S|:>ain ; Syni- 
cuse in die Island of Sicily ; Tunis on tlie Mediter- 
ranean ; the Cajie of Good Hop'* in Africa ; and 
Japan in Asia. 

'J1ie Mississippi river, after rcceiviiig the Mis- 
souri from the west, continues for several hundred 
TUJlcs, as if Courting tlie reception of other tributn-- 
ry streams, to approximate totliteast ; till mectinj^ 
the beautiful Ohio, it rol's in a serp'jnline curve,. 
Ix^nding uestwardly again to the mouth of the Ar- 
kansas, nearly on the same meridian witli the mouth 
of the Missouri. The distance between the mouths 
of these two rivers on the meridian is- al^out three 
Inmdred and eighty mHes ; by the meander* of the 
Mississippi it is nearly seven hundred milts. The 
face of the country east of this meridi m ab mi on u 
hundred miles inils- i^reatest breaddi isc^cncrally lev- 
el, sometimes swampy imdiminhabitabl', but well 
timbered. Hence we have a iirctty correct idea of 
the form of this territory within tlie prescribed Jim 
its ; which, biK forthe curvature of the Mississippi 
on the east, would approach nearer to tlfat of an ob- 
k)ng square than to any other geom?trio;il figure. 
To the west for several hundred miles, the country 
rises, sometimes abruptly into elevated knobs ; 
sometimes from regular grirlntions into level 
plains ; the whole being disposed into such a pro- 
per' ionable number of hills and dulcs, of level and 
inclinccl plains, as to gi^•G to it fertility, \'s»riety, 
healthfulness and beauty. 

This is die general aspect of die lTs;(klle];;ti^u'^:s,- 
wbich I assumed above in this conip;,rative vi( w;. 

B 2. 


Or of the country lying between the Missouri antf 
the Arkansas rivers- The country to the north of 
the former is equally dircrsified ,being interspersed 
with prairies or meadows, which produce no timber, 
covered witli a^ luxuriant growth of herbaceous 

Elants and grass for grazing cattle. These prairies 
elongto the alluvial formation. Many of them 
are low, wet,.level, rich, ami exhibit the appearance 
of recent formation ; otliecs, are elevated nearly to 
a height of the surrounding country, and have the 
appeanuKe of.great antiquity. That port of the 
territory ly«ig south of the Arkansas partakes of the 
variegated aspect of that portion of the Mississippi 
valley within the interior angle formed by the Red 
river and the main body of waters that wash ihi^ 
valley. » '- 

In oixkrtocompJete the aspect of the country 
north of the Missouri rivet, it will be necessaiy to 
notice a peculiarity in the texture of tlie surface. 
Ascending the river on this side from at. Charles, 
there is a natural levee, or enbankment, rising 
twenty or thirty feet above high water, which keeps 
the river within its channel, and which rollinji^owit 
to a level with the plain beyond it, is generally 
washed by ravines on its exterior base. These rav, 
ines, in eager pursuit of the river, break through 
the immense moutid of light soil, forming chasms, 
yarrow, deep anddangerous. The counuy beyond 
these has a wavering surface, varied by ridges which 
separate the running streams that irrigiite the valley. 

Within tlie assumed limits of this teiritory, there 
are neither lak^s nor mountains of any size, except 
a small range of tho latter which lie bctw ccn the 

Oj^a^e and St. Francis rivers. It is liowevcr, shef- 
tercd on the north- \\est from the ol.iliing blasts that 
blow from thcst imircns.e frozen regions by a nagc 
«>f mountains ofA:on:iiderablc elevation. 



R'mers nnd JS'civigatioiT. 

There is perhaps, no country in tlic world, tlic 
st«t(fe ©r Louisiana excepted,, so well supplied 
with navigi^ble rivers as the Missouri territory'. It 
\s washtd on the whole of its eastern limit by the 
mnjcstic Mississippi, bearing on its bosom the 
weaUh of the western world ; me*andering. Ixrtween 
the latitudes of thirty five and forty two decrees of 
north latitude, pour the n pid Missouri and Osage; 
piiralkl to these south wiird, glide the St. Francis 8c 
v\ hite rivers ; furtlKr 30uthwc\rd still, is lhebe:mti- 
ful Arkansas which nms oblic]uely seven hundred 
miles from north-west to south-east^ tlirough the fi» 
nest part of the territor}-. 

But a more minute aiid methodical enumeration 
and description of them will ht necessaiy to a 
thorough knowledge of their grandeur, beauty and 

In the first rank of these stands the mighty Mis- 
sissippi, which, whether it be considered Avith res- 
pect to the quantity of wattr it pours into the ocean, 
or the extent of the territory it ixfrvades,. is second 
to none on the globe. It occupies a space of near 
ttventy degrees of latitude, and v, ith it3 tributary 

Streams Jibout foriy five degrees of longitude; pcna* 
ding r;ll that vast plain, bounded westward ly by the 
snow or rocky mountains bordering on the Pacific 
Ocean, and eastM ardl) by the weslern range of the 
Alcganies — embn-cing with its confluent stream'^ 
upwards of thirty niillions of square miles ! So ]^ro- 
foundh- were the imagination*' of the al>origineti 
impressed with the vast extent of its raniifications^ 
tVe immense fountains xvhich suj>ply its ever rolling 
•tide, and the increasing mijcsty with which it ad- 
vances towards the Ocean, that they confered iipou 
it the distinguished appellation of Father or 

The navigation of this rrv-cr is so well knowa 
that an aceouilt ol it here would be vuin and unne^ 
cessar}'. Suffice it to sa}', that it is at all times pas- 
siible for tile lailgest vessels of inland navigation. 

Among the rivers that swell the Mississippi, and 
next to it in majesty, is the Missouri.^ This river 
has been so amply descriljed by Lewis and Qarke 
that I shall only give that portion of it vhich lie^ 
N^t\reen its confluence with the Mississippi, in lati- 
tude 38°. 55 ; and Blackrock, three hundred 
mil sup it. AmIc mouth of this river is anls- 
lamVof alluvial fnrmation, occasioned by the depo* 
Mtion of sediment brought down the Missouri, 8t 
which, being aiTCstcd by the tranAcrse cuitc nt of' 
the Mississippi, is depositerl here. The channel 
passes on both sides of the Island ; and always ad- 
mits cf an easy and safe pass:tge in dcscenrding, 8c 
%vhen the Mississippi is hig'uest, it facilitates the 
entrance in ascending. The rupidity of its current 
however^ which i»» about four miles an hour, renders 

•iilE Ml.-^SOURl TEURITOaV ^t 

j^^rcat diligence nccccssary in both cases, and in the 
liittcr, k recjuircs likewise much laboih'. But thcst 
difScukies arc all surmounted by the dexterity of 
navigators, who transport with grcirt jfroHt the mer- 
chandise of Ne\v Orleans several hundred miles a- 
J3:ainst the current. 

'i'his rr\'er is 870 yards wide at its mouth, and 
Varies but little in its widdi or depth as high up as 
Blacicrock. Its banks are generally more abrupt 
and elevated than tlic banks ot* the rivers on the east 
ol' the Misdlssi\)pi, aiid consetjuendy less liable to iu- 
undationby. tlie annual flood from above, llicsc 
floods gciKfally commence about die first of Marclv 
and continue from six weeks to two months — but 
are often variable both in tlx: time of their appearance 
and their extent. The water of this river is ne^'er 
clear^ aixl at this time it assumes a dark muddy col- 
our which renders its tviste very ui^pleasant. 

Tlie Missouri has a number of iributar}' streams 
which rise principally on the iouth side. There are 
Si sufTicient number, however on the north, to give 
variety and conrcnience to tlic coimtr}\ Between 
St. Charles and Boons settlement may be reckon- 
ed, Osage womans river, Gliap'tte Vivtr, Otter 
river. May river. Little and qrent Monitou rivers. 
Good womans river, btlow Boon's Salt works, and 
the two^ Charitous, on which the principal settle- 
ments in that country' have been made, and whicli 
is now becoming the new bec-hivc of the tcrritor}-* 
This river is navigable for small craft a considera. 
ble di-itance. Those on the south, aris Bon 
Homme, St. John's, Buffaloe, Gasconade, Osage, 
Salt river opposite tho mouth of the Great Mwii"^ 


tSu, aud Mine river nearly opposite Boon's Settle^ 
iiicnt. AI! these rivers will become of consider- 
able importance to the couiitry which tliey iirigate; 
hnt the Os;i^e river 133 miles from tlie mouth of the 
Missouri, is the largest and the most navigable. 
Its course is from the south west, 197 yards wide 
al its mouth, deep and gentle, and navigable for 
small craft for several hundred miles. Its princi-" 
jKil branches which afford navigation arc the Nan- 
gira, Gftmd river, Fork river, Cook's and Vermill- 
ion ri\xrs. On the Nangira, about twenty miles 
from its mouth, there is a curious €a?KSK)e' of more 
than one hundred and fifty feet fall in the distance 
of i'our hundred yards ; the water issues from a 
large spring, and is jM'ecipitatcd over three difier- 
ciit ledges of rocks, and falling to the bottom » U 
collected into. a beautiful basin, from whence it 
down into this river, a consideable stream.* 

•There is acurifrtis jumI rom:vnttc traditiiin among tfcf JndUn* . 
rcsp<.«tin;»^ tills cascndo — Mnny mooni before the white pecple viii- 
ittrf this cmmt.rv, tlj<Te rcskled on U>cse waters two triboi of Indi- ' ' 
ami— JJje Kansli^or t;ieat hnnter«: «nd tins Mcoapaai or tlic war^ 
like. . . . Tlir cliR-rof the l.-itu-r hurt an <nilj daiiK^iter . Nansiha, 
br the benutJfVil— Her f.ithor w«s bW uiwTwom do*n in war :.n* 
in the chase.— and her nxiUica- was already p>i»e to prepare a l>.iH- , 
qtiet for hm vrhcrc the Great Spirit K:>d ;*ppointed his eternal 
tiii'.it tnp jrronnd Karpim hajTno fricnil out" Ixif aged parent— ofte*\ 
had the pallant youths of hrt*o3m and the nci^^liboriring' tribes, be* 
sought tlie old man with presents of Duffiloc tongues and Heavci* 
skns, for the l>and of Nanpira — \nd often had the old chief c<<iiser\- 
tod— Btft Nanpira would not-Shc run to the clif's; & Utoked towaj-«ls 
the woild of spirits — She had loved Pozctico, who had been slaift 
in buttle, by tl»t enemy of her tribe, the young chief of the Kansas* 
The var-whoop wus still cchoint^, ;ind the poisoned .-irrowa *««• 
still flying, when the fLtlur ofls'ainjtrafcUI— •and the Mc^-T^ •^^■J 
to its mountains fbr safclj. 


Among^thS tributary streams of the Mississippi, 
jtfcc Arkunsiis ranks next to the Missouri. Its 

[}ltngth is nearly two thousand miks and is naviga- 
ble at proper seasons for at least one thousand miJes. 

^ It is six hundred yards wide at its mouth j is deep, 

-fijEJstfc and transparent.' There is no rivtr in the 

world whose navigation is more easy and safe. It 

may be ascended in lo;ided boats at the rate of three 

hundred miles in twelve days. It has neither 

^K^)ids, nor dangerous rocks J and its shiillows arc 
hard bottomed, wide and nutturally kept clear by 
^he current.- It is as beautiful as the Seine, and 

i ti-ants nothing but the liand of enterprise imd indus- 

yixy ta adorn and beautify its fertile banks w^tii 
•farms and villages. 

For eight or nine hundred miles from its mout'.i 

I it receives no considerable streams owing to the 

,. vicinity of the waters of theMissouri, the Kansas 
■and the \Vhitc river on tlie one side, and those of 
the^ Auachita and Red river on tlie other. The 

The father and the -Jovcr xvcre no more — and Nangira had oothirp 
'tfcft to hope fmr or to enjoy — She fled to the clifts, and costing: a 
Jkngiltp look to tiie world dtfepirits, precipitated berEtlfdowii th<> 
craf^d sttep— she was da.shtd in pieces !— The sympathising^ 
•Dcks Rtished out a flood of tears, which flow iv> this day oTer thj 
body of Nangira— Hence tlit name of the cascade and of the riv«p. 
that washes its baso. 

"Unmored, uncooqtiered, bow'd to fates decree, 
Sh. taiig'ht in chaill^> tlie lesson to be free." 

Alkin Ep. on women. 

Ih the Spirit of Nan^lra, a Lace damonlan woman bein^ :isl.ed by 
her master what slie understood. ? Beplird " How to be free. 
"'And on Ills afterwards requiring of her soniethlnjc unworthy she 
X»irt herself to death. AUxmus 


chief rivers that full into it are, the Verdigris; Ne- 
gracka, Canadian & Grand rivers. Many ^th^ 
have their sources in springs strongly impregnated 
with salt — Belwv the mouihoftliese rivers the.flat 
lands are finely tesselated with ;bayoux forming a 
number of islands on either side of the Arlu«&;)S. 
There is a rtinarkable communicatjon between this 
and the White river, connecting them tbgelher 
some distance from the Missisippi by means of. a 
channel or bayou, called the Cut-oflf m kh a currant 
netting alternately into the one or the other,, as tho 
flood in either hapjiens to predomiruite. .: > ^ 

WHte river \Aas but little known till lateK' ; it 
joins the Missiyppi about twenty miles above the 
Arkansas, in latitude thirty four degrees north. It 
is one of the most eligible rivers in this countrj', 
and w '^11 at some future day become important. . It 
rises in tlie Black mountains which separate the 
waters of tlie Arkansas from those of the Missouri 
and Mississippi. Several of its branches interlock 
w ith those of the Osage ri\cr, the Merameck, and 
the Bt. Francis. It is navi^;U3le about eight him- 
dred miles \\ithout any considerable interruption^— 
The whole of this distance may be made in bar^jes 
of consid'.*'able burden. '■ 

The waters of this river are limpid and beautiful, 
the current gentle, and e^ en in die driest times is 
plentifully supplied from the numerous and excel- 
lent springs which are every m here to be found. It 
is not less remarkable for th^ many considerable riv- 
ers which it receives in its course*— Of these, the 
Black river is the largest ; it enters on the north - 
«i5t. «de, iibout four hundred miles up, aixl is itscir 



aavigable with small craft for some distance, recei- 
ving in its course a number of handsome rivers, as 
the Current, Eleven Point, and Spring rivers. All 

I of which are of considerable beauty and utility. 
Spring river however, merits^ more particular des- 
cription— It issues forth suddenly, from an immense 
spring two hundred yiirds in width, affording an 
fininteiTupted navigation thence to its mouth, 
where it contracts its width to sixty yards and be- 
comes much deeper. It is about fifty miles in 

i length* This is full of the finest fish. Besides 
these, the White river receives the Eaux Cache a- 

I bout one hundred miles in length ; the James river 

I one hundred and twenty ; and the Rapid John froi^i 
a hundred to a hundred and fifty miles long. 

Unul now the country watered by these rivers 
had only been traversed by Indbns and hunters, and 
may be considered as still unexplored. In mv 
Geological and Topographical view of tlie countiy 
I shall give this and other parts of the territory, the 
least known, a more piirticular description. 

Seventy-five miles :ibovc the mouth of White 
river the St. Francis discharges itself into the Mis- 
BLssippi. This river would be as commodious arid 
navigable as any oth»er of its size but for its sluggish 

. current wh.ich creeps so tardily, that the driJt w opd 
growss together, forming immense rafts, that meet* 
ing with obstructions, in their slow descent, lodge 
trom sicle to side iiisupcrable bairicrs to its liiivi'^a- 
tion, for any co-.isidcrable disLmce, or with craft oi 
any considerable burden. The river is however 
long, da-]), and mijestic ; unci when enterprise and 
•id'iitry inlir.bil tlie f.rtile nlauis in its vieinitv, it 



%vill be easily rendeiTd subservient to the interests 
ol commerce and agriculture. 'I'he lands tlit-ou.^h 
which it runs are ot alluviui formation, rich, mariy, 
saijonaceous and highly productive in timber. | 

The South- wesicrn branch rises with the waters 
of White river, and the north-easteni, which is the 
pincipiJ branch, interlocks whh Big river, ^. he 
Mcrameck, and ruub nearly parrallel v. ith the Mis- 
sisbipi in.its whole length, seldom receding more 
than liin miles. Above the fork, the main brunch 
is a beau tiful limpid stixam ; but below, though 
increased in size by se> eral large rivers, the current 
becomes slow aud'h.zy. From tlie f.atness oi the 
countrv betwecr. this r:\cr and Cape Girardeau, its 
tributary streams loose themselves in large mor.isses 
fermii.g ponds cr lakes in nuniature— the principal 
oi which has i:s source near Big Prairie, eight or 
ten miks north-west of New Madrid .... The St. 
Francis, in high water, generalh overflows its bi-.nks, 
on that ^Adc to p great distance — The western Ix.nk 
is higher, a^d inigated by rolling streams, is much 
le^s ii,;ble to inundation. 

•The mouth cf the Mcrameck river is forty miles 
bclcw tln.t of the Missouri ; and lu ddb u iih that of 
the St. Francis, ujid Gasconade. U i.ffords excel- 
lent nav ligation to its source, a distance of nearly 
three hundred miles. The source of this ri\er 
miiv be co'^.sidaxd a curiosity in maural histor\ — 
It is i'. spriiuj; lake, f6rn»cd from fountains issuing 
inuiiediateh arc.und thr s}-ot, and eijncentrating in 
a pool of consic'erable extent, depth and beauty. 
This pool is s»i])])li( d v/nh a vj.rit ty (jrcxcellent fish; 
and tlie eouiury in its viciniiN will become an oUr 


ject to future purchasers, uiio may wish to unite a 
roinantic, with a I'crLile and couvcnieni siLuation. 
Big river is its principal branch. 
j^ About one hundred inilcs from the estuary of 
the Missouri it is joined by llie G.«sconade, w hicii 
may be ascended in small craft about the same dis- 
tance. It passes tlirough a hilly coimtry, and is 
full of shoals and rapids, which impedv, in a great 
measure, its navigation. / 

The s-ction south of tlie Arkansas is v.atcred by 
theOuaciiita, the principal branch oftlic Redri\er. 
And althougli that portion above tlie line of de- 
markation between this territory, and the state of 
Louisiuia, is not navigable for boats or:;ny con- 
siderable tonnage, the waters ai*e pure, and n.lU ad- 
apted to the vaiious kinds of water machinery. 

In what is called the Misissij-^pi valley, v.h.ich I 
, shall more pailicularly describe in tlie next rliapter, 
th.-re rises kv: or no ruimiiif2: sprinsfs or rivulets — 
It IS frequently intersect d bv bayous, or rbmmu- 
iiications from one nater course to another, ^•.■hich 
afford in high water, gieat facilities to inland navi- 

Recapitulation. Having enumerated and des- 
cribed in as concise and accurate a manner r.s possi- 
ble, the principal rivers which give variety, beauty 
and utility to this imjiortur.t section of the western 
country ; a review of their relative situations and 
importance will fnish tlie outline. 

1 . T/ie Missouri — What the Oliio is to the states 
of Pennsylvania, \''irginia, Ohio, Kentucky, and 
Indiana on the east of the Mississij:)i, the .Mis<?ouri 
will be to an equal district and population on t'.i. 



west. These two rivers may be considered as the 
wings to the body of the great valley ol the Missis 

2. The Arkansas is equal to the Tennessee and 
C umberland rivers. 

3. The White river is equal to the Tennes- 

4. The Osage river is equal to tlie Kentucky 

5. The St. Francis is equal to the Wabash. 
The States of Ohio, Kentuck}'^, Indiana, ani 

Tennessee are watered by five large rivers, the Ohio, 
Tennesee, Cumberland, Wabash, and the Ken- 
tucky river ; while the Missouri Tetritory alone is 
watered by an equal number, the Missouri, the 
Arkansas, White, Osage and St. Francis rivers. 
W^hether we consider these rivers as to tlieir length, 
situation, or navigation, the latter will individ* 
ttaljy, outrank the former. 


In examining the internal structure of the soil of 
this country, it oflfers to the investigation of the 
Geologist, the greatest variety of earths of any dis- 
trict of the same extent yet explored. In attempt- 
ing an account of these earths, I shall confine my. 
self principally to those of the most sd-iking charac- 
teristics and the greatest utility. 

4^ The Calcarious, or limestone region.— 2. Tljc 


Silicious, or sandy region.— -3. The Alluvial foma- 


The first of these, the li.nestone region, tcr-ni. 

nates abruiitlv about twenty miles bcl-iw Cape Oir- 
arclcau, and thirty-five above th mouth of the Ohio. 
In ascending from the bed of the larger water .cour- 
ses, the first str:tuni is a horizontal limcsttxierock, 
covered ^^ ith argillaceous Cc.rth, or clay; next is 
th)t bottom land of alluvial fornialion, of uiicqi J 
extent and quality; but generally fertile and pro- 
ductive ; succeeding to these, is a tabular formation 
,01 alluvion, surmounted upon a base of c'ay, com. 
posed of loam e.irth ami a fine light rich soil. 

Thi'se tables,* or second bottoms, are, on the 
Missouri river and its tributary waters, more or 
less intermixed wilh sand which is not found in tiic 
limestone regions of Kentucky anA Tennessee. 
Tliis sandy soil exists, however in that fj tile re- 
gion in the state of Ohio, emphatically denominated 
the "Miami counlr\ ," and which according to 
I)octor Drake, is inferior to no part of the Unitecl 
States. In tact, the congeniality of this kind of soil 
is so well attested by numerous obs.rv ations and 
'and experiments, both on the Miami and the Mis- 
souri , that none but the ignorant will be disposed 
to doubt of its value. 

The calcai'ious regions which surmount tlie 
ivhole, are more variable in their surface, and une- 
qual in their qudiry. They extend indefinitely 
from thiny-seven degrees north latitude, on the wa- 

iters of the Missouri ami the Mississippi S )mc. 

! times spnading inio level ' and ^inclined i)l.uns ; 
sometimes broken into lulls and dales— here and 
* C2 


there rich and productive ; and again sterile antf 

'J he tract of country north of the Missouri, i* 
less hilly than that on the south side, but there h 
a much greater proportion of prairie land in the for- 
mer than in the latter. The Missouri bottoms, al- 
ternately api^earing on one side or the othi r of the 
river, are of the finest kind for three hundred miles 
up, and generally covered with heavy timber. Those 
on the Mississippi are generally extensive and rich 
but not so well w oodtd; they iU'e in fact a continu- 
ed succession of the most beautiful prairies, or na- 
tural meadows. 

On the south of the Missouri river, till you arrive 
at the termination of the limestone district, you tra- 
verse the tliree classes of soil before discriminated i 
that is to say, the bottom lands of recent alluvion ; 
the second bottoms or table land of more ancient for- 
mation, and the elevated hills and plains of primi- 
tive masses of marl and granatc. 

The section just described is properly die Mis- 
souri, country; because it includes its tril)utiiry Ava- 
ters north and south ; and because it includes the 
whole of the southern region of the limestone coun- 
try west of the Mississippi, and within the limits 
here assumed. 

To review the whole of this section It w ill 

be found to possess a soil equally fertile and pro- 
ductive, variable and eligible, wnh any of the same 
latitude in the western country. 

1 am now to enter upon the description of. a plain 
of alluvial formation, stretching itself with scarcely 
any interruption, firom thirt}\ en degrees north. 

tatUude to the BcUizc. Tliis flat may be consklcr- 
ed ab the bay ot'tlv; great valley of the Misbisbippi. 
On ail average it is about thirt} miles wide, and 
with hardly an exception, is without a hill or a stone. 
Tiic whole of this valley i.iList have been at some 
remote period, the successive bed of this mi'^hty . 
river, which exl ibits the obvious signs of a gnid ;.:l 
approximation to the east; and unless its progrcvs 
shouldjjc arrested by the approach of the tyrant 
man, it may one day dischai"ge its iuexh.iubtible 
sources in the Atlantic ocean at the St. Mary's — 
forcing ih.e immense rivers which roll between this 
point and lake PoncluUrai:!, to become tribut.iry to 
its miy^htv flood. Wlnle the interveninc; hills and 
plains, earned down b\ the current and deposited 
below, shall fill up the watery interval with new al- 
luvion, and "hat is now occupied by monsters (A 
the deep be a fit residence for man : wiiile the Rr- 
tile valleys wiiich it leaves behind, shall become the 
granary of half the world. 

On leaving the uplands at cape Girardeau, we 
enter what is called the great swdmp : though it 
does not properly possess that character. The 
timber is not such as is usually found in swamps, 
but consists of fine oak, ash. olive, linn, ( linden. ) 
beech and popular of en rmous growth. The soil 
is a rich black loam. In the fall it is nearly dry ; 
the road which passes througli it is muddy only 
in particular places at this season ; but during high 
water it is extremel}' dangerous and disagreeable 
to cross. The horse sinks at every step to the belly 
in water and loose soil ; and in places entirely cov- 
ered, the unw arv tra\ eller but for the marks on the 



trees, would be in danger of being lost in the track- 
less morass. Tiiis swamp is sixty miles in length, 
and tour broad, ^videning as it approaches tlic 
St Francis. In the season of high flood, tlie 
V Mississippi and the river just meniior.ed hive a 
complete connection by means of this low land. 
Alter crossing the swamp there commences a ridge 
of iiigh Iand,'running paralld with the M ssissippi, 
bouilding what is called Tywapety bottom; this 
ridge in approaching the St. Francis westw ardl}-, 
subsides. Li passu ig over it wo appear to be in a 
hilly country possessing springs and rivulets of 
freestone water. The soil here i.s ^'ariablt — sterile 
and fertile alternately, but exceedingly well timber- 

It is a fiict worthy of notice, that between the 

mouths of the Merameck and the St. Trancis ri- 

» vers, a distance of five hundred miles, no river, 

of any consequence enters into the Missisiii)pi ; 

t the considerable rivers fall eiiher to the south-west 

\ into the St. Francis, or to the south-east mto the 


The soil of the prairies with which this country 
abounds, is more light and loose than in the wood- 
lands, and has a greater mixture of sand on the sur- 
face; but when wet it assumes every where a deep 
! .black colour and an oily appearance. Bv digging 

thn ugh a thin sratum'of s;md, you come to an 
I argilluceous clav of a dirty yellow, and sipona- 

^ cef)us qualit\ — This is the substratum of the \\ hole 

4 ^ countrv, which proves to be a rich mari ; perhaps 

•< the dtposite of very ancient alluvion. 

After leaving the valley, progressing westward 


Sy, the country for several hundred miles exhibits 
all the variety which is to be i'ound in elevated 
plains, broken hills, and delightful valleys ; charniv 
mgly intersected with creeks and rivulets of pare 
freestone water. 

To conclude this chapter, it will be necessary to 
review the countrj' and appropriate to each section 
its peculiar kind of soil. From the termination of 
the limestone range below Caix: Girardeau, running 
parallel with the Missouri and including it and 
the Mississippi above, you will find Uirge tracts 
of swamps, prairie and woodland'— of these, some 
are low and wet, some finely adapted to meadows ; 
others high, extensive and fertile, and again contrac - 
ted into small slips. Going south and west from 
this section,^ you have the Mississippi valley on 
your left hand, where all the soil is fertile, but 
much of it too low for cultivation till drained and 
leveed — On your right is an elevated country, less 
intermixed with prairies and, here and there poor, 
sandy and unproductive ; but generally consisting 
of large tracts of rich lands ; In fact it is unnecessa- 
ry to say that a country so extensive and so situated 
ought to posses e\'ery variety of soil to be found' 
ill the most favoured climate. 



To give a scientific description of the iudigcn- 
6^ vegetable productions of this country, '\^•ould 

34 -^ : LATE> ACCOUNT OF ' 

far exceed the design of this publication and the 
abilities of the writer. 1 shall therelbrc, under this 
arliele conline mysif to such as are dislingui^hed 
for their usefulness, or are characteristic oi" tiie fer- 
tiliiy of the soil, and congeniality of the climate. 
And even on these 1 shall be uiider the necessity 
of borrowing from those who instructed *in the sci- 
ence, and inspired with the theme have written on 
the glorif s of the American Flora. 

No botanist has hitherto sulHciently cxolored 
the borders of the Mississipjii and its western waters 
accurately to describe the riches and .beauties of j 

their vegetable productions This countrv, 

^vhlch pV)ssessf.s such a variety of soil and congeni- 
ality ol chmate ; — ci.lcarioub ridjcs, silieious plains, 
saponaceous botuj/.is ; basking in the full radiance 
of the most pi-ohfic summers ; may naturally l^c' 
expjcted to contain a variety of useful and orna- 
mental plants and flowers ■'^ lier;; 

" New w oods aspiring clothe their hills with given, 
^•Smooth slope the lawn, the gr^y rock peeps be- 
tween : 
** R Icnting nature gives her hand to taste, 
" And health and beauty crown the laughing waste." 

Bot. Garden. 

Tlie most generally diffused species among the 
timber trees are the oak ( the fpiercus ) of w hich 
there arc the following ^'arieties — the Black oak, 
\vhite oak, red oak, w illow oak, chesnut oak, black 
jack oak, and gi-ound oak— Many of these grou to 
an enormous size in this country. But die poplar 
( Lii'iodendi-on tuhpiferoe ) ixuly be considered as 


the monarch of die calcarious regions on the Mis- 
sissippi and the Missouri. It is Irequently found 
here from ,six to eiglit ieet iv dianieter, and irom 
sixty to seventy without a limb. The blaek wul- 
1 nut (jiighiJis nigra ) grows to an amazing bulk, 
' and is on* ot'liic most \'aluable timber trees of i!rj 
forcbt. Tlie jugliins ylba, or m liite walnut ; liic 
Paean tree, which is probubly a variety of the fit- 
ter — Don Ulloa, in his NTjiici;.s Aaiericanas, men- 
tions it by- the fei P.icaiias. It bears a nut 
much more palatuble and healthy than eiUier the 
Walnut, or liiecory nut. The hiceoiy, SL\enil va- 
rieli'.-. — Sut^nr mapk ( acer sucCiainum ) wild el.ii- 
ry ( Prumis V irjjini n ) buck-e}e, white and bine 
ash ( Fraxinus Amencjhus ) tiiL elm, the syeamure, 
oi" bi:tr(;n wood, the sweet gum, linden, or teii.. .>.- 
cup} the rich n^.arly hoils in e\tiT part oi the terri- 
tory TIk tulip tree, and sasalrass lamvl, so ini- 
])alient of cold as to ap.pcar as dwawfs in the nortii- 
ern regioi'.s, on tlK w arm b^nks of the Arkansas riac 
into statelinesM ar.d Ixaiity. 

The f-ecoiid t..b!e of alluvial soilrimning pi;n>ikl 
with the rivers and rising Irom the wet savi.'nics in- 
to exlei7sive Lv ns and swelling liill>, .re gen.r.illv 
co\ tred w iih open or entungkci ^\ cxx's excejn \\ here 
1i)c ii-uInsU'v ot man has eonverkd ihem int<5 till- 
-agc. In these rich tracts of marl grow the lo^- 
palmatlo, the CMr ij.rctn o. k, i!ic lannl benni :\ 
tl.i- connnon laurel, ar.d the red cedar. Tiie sir 'n-!it 
tiivery colunins of the pap iw fig, rising to the lu iy.iit 
of twc'.'.lv'or thirtv ilet, and erowiud by a earony 
of broad sinuiaed leaves, iorni ,; bU-i»;ing pic^nfi. in 
this d'-ligluiui scenery; which ^vauls n'jiliiiig bnl 





« » 




irhc fragi'ant blossoms of the magnolia, and the gof: 
den fruit of the orange, to realize the fabled traditi- 
ons of the ancient gro^•es of the Hesperides. 

, The magnolia grandiflora is not found much a 
TfOA-e the mouth of the Arkansas ; and here it is 
not seen in that towciing magnificence which it at- 
tains in the more southern regions. As this beau- 
tiful tree is not known in the northern latitudes a 
discription of it here will not fail to be interesting 
to m} readers. 

In the rich mai'ly soils of tlie ^Mississippi, it is 
frequently seen towering above a hundred feet, with 
a trunk perfectly erect, supporting a shady con- 
ical head of dark green foliage — From the -lenter of 
the coronets of leaves that terminate the branches ; 
expands a large rose- shaped blossom of alabaster 
white, v/hich is succeeded by a crimson cone contaio 
ing the seed of a beautiful coral red colour ; and these 
failing from their cells, remain for several days sus- 
pcndcd from the seed vessels by a silky thread, six 

. inches or more in length, emiuing tjie most fragrant 

' smell ; s,o that whethu* in this state, cr in blossom, it 
is'inilrior to n ;ne for grandeur and beauty. 

The sv.- ampii cmkI shullow splashes rp«y a\ all 

• tiims be distinguiijied by tlic crowded ranks of 
cane the tupela^ tree and the tiiiitc cedar. Thi» 
last is, perlians, the most pictiu'esque tree in all 
America, Four or five enormous buttresses, or, 
rude^Mllars, rise from the gi-ound and unite in ^ 
kind of arch at the height of seven cr eight feet, 
from the centre of which llvjrc ^ springs a str^ht 
column eighty or ninety feet without a branch: it 
fhvnspreacls into aflat) umbrella sbuped top, cov- 



ja-ed with finely divided leaves of the most delicate 
' grt^n. This platlonn is the secure abode of the 
I eagle and the crane ; and the oily seeds contained 
in iiscoiKS are the favorite repasts of the paroquets 
\^that arc continual!} flutterinij ^.round. 

But it is on the warm banks of the Arkansas and 

tlie Ouachita, that the riches and beauties of Flora 

^a^e principally displa} ed^ — li is here that the unfa- 

wding verdure of the extensive praires and wide sa- 

-Vannas ; tlie solemn magnificance of the primeval 

.forests, and the wild exuberance of the teeming 

; swamps, offer to the astonished adniiration of the 

Botinist, every thfii^, that by colour, by fragance 

aiid by form, can delight the senses and fix the at- 


In this countT}' vegetation of ever\ kind is gigan- 
tic—the cypress, the cedar, the oak, the plumb tree, 
the cherry, the sassafras lau el, the mulberry for the 
silk worm, and above all tiie indigenous olive flour- 
ishes on the White river, indefinitely south. I do 
, not know if this beautiful and valuable tree, which 
rises to the height of one hun<lred leet, and whose 
frut I have seen, will produce oil equal to that of 
Province in the south of France — But lam eonfi- 
'^ent it will answer wt II for the manufacturing of 
soap, for lamps, aud lor tailning leather. Should 
thjs f;il, however, I think ihe olive of Europe 
wwild succ'/cd Ik re. Madder, wild indigo, and the 
•yellow tree for dyeing grow spontaneously . . The 
gum tree, viel«l, a r>sin hiy:iily aromatic, St 
I file lemon tree, which produces a pleasant aciJ, all 
["flourish here. -- 

Alter pabsii.g the fir':;T section of elevated plains 


westwarclly from the JMississippi valley, the hHfe 
produce the growth common to such soils : such 
as tlic chcsnut, black oak, and the dogwood, or c©r- 
nus Florida — and the important family ot piues« 
range themselves in towering majesty, at a conve- 
nient distance on the whole of the margin of tliis 
ferlile region. 

Among the ornamental plants, arethespigilia,or 
Indian pink, the beautiful dionea, the delicate mim 
osa or sensitive plant, and the p) rolu * ; besides the 
numerous species of vines and wild cleinlxrs that 
display dieir luscious fruits, and fragant blossoms 
on the summits of die tallest trees. 

I cannot enumerate all the vaiieties of the vine— 
Those which I have ascertained to be the most pro- 
ductive in a state of nature will be sufficient — Tluy 
are, the prune giaj^e, the mountain grajxf, ripe in 
June ; the red, white, black, and violet, or bullet grape 
of Florida ... In short this seems to be the natural 
nursery of Bachus. But I shall treat of tliis subject 
more fully hereafter— In the meantime, I will rele.ive 
the reader, from thedulness of prosaical description 
with a poetic t (fusion from the inimitai)le Darwin. 
" Round ber tall elms with dewy fir.gers t^^ ine 
" The gadding tendrils of the adventurous vine ; 
*' From arm to arm, in gay festoons suspend 
" H( r fiaj^ flowers, her graceful foliage bend ; 

Swell with sweet juice her vernal orbs, and feed 


* Pyrola, or ever bitter-sweet .... This herb made into a 
ilecocti(Hi will) inc H !wcr of suljj'iur, is said lo bo a sovrtii^ii 
rcnedy for the caliper . . . T -c i'.pplication is bybnthinR thr 
pait-> all", c'.ed i:i a dccoc»ioi) of this herb ami lue fiuw'er ol' 
bulphar, ciiiu t:tki;)i^ a sinail portiuii iiiw urciiv . 





Shrined in transparent pulp her )x^arl\^ seed ; 

Hang round tlic orange all her silver bells, 
" And guard her fragancc with Hesperian spells; 
" Bud after bud her po'ished leaves untold, 
^' And load her branches with successive ujold. 

Bot. Gard. pait 1st. 


Affrictdltural Prodiictidns,, 

In so new a country as this territory, A-gi'lculturc 
dannot be expected to be carried to any great degree 
of perfection. The farmer must necessarily con- 
iiiie himselt to the raising of articles of home con- 
'Suniption before he attemps to supply the staples 
of foreign markets. The exports of this country, 
are, however, much greater thiin its infant state 
would seem to demand ; though but yet small when 
/Compared with the capacity of the soil, clin Lite, and 
future population. 

On the Missouri and Mississippi alcove its 
mouth, all the articles of agriculture common to the 
states of (Jhio, Kentucky and Indianna, are produ- 
ced in the greatest abundamx- and to tlie greatest 
perfection. It possesses ail the -advantages of rliose 
states, and many n;ore which they hive not. Its 
proximity to the great mart of Nt w Oik .ins, w ill 
enable the produce ^f this country to be the fir.>t in 
arriving at market ; and consequently to obtain the 
highest prices. 

The soil and climate of no part of the United 


States iirc better adapted to the growth of nhcat, 
rye, barley, Indian corn, oats, and t wry hjxcies 
otgr/iii. Rice, cotton and indigo may be eiihi- 
vattd in the soudicrn parts to great advantage ; and 
no part of the webttrn country siirpatises it for the 
culiure of tobacco, hemp and flax. 

The dry, fertile prairies yield all the products of 
the farm tliat require a rich soil, in great abundance. 
Tliose of wet, loamy soil form inexhaustable mea- 
dows for hay, and pasturage for grazing cattle. 
The Egyptian oats, timothy, blue, and the 
■white and red clo'. er, succeed admirably. Wheat, 
rye and oats, sometimes receive too luxuriant a 
growth, which occasions them to be blou n down 
and spoiled. The sweet, or Burmudiun potato*-, is 
cultivated to great perfection in all the sandy re- 
gions ; while the Irish potatoe,.like the people w hose 
name it beiirs, succeeds wherever it is cultivated. 
Cotton sufiicicnt for home consumption, gi'ows iii a 
much higher latitude on the west than on the east 
of the ISIibiiissippi : owii-,g in some measure to the 
peculiar quality of the :ioiI, but chiefly to the north , 
western mountains, whidi defend it from the chil- I 
ling blasts ;\ iih \\ hich the prevailing w'v ds are preg- 
nant. But on the White river and Arkansas, this 
article is raised to a perf.:ction equal to that of Lou- 
isianna ; and will, with rice, indigo and tobacco, 
probabh' become tlie staples of this part of the ter- 

Except the orange, and a few others not accli- 
mated, fruits of every species known in the United 
States flourish to givat advantage. There are no 
wliereto be found finer apples, peaches, pears^ chcr- 


tiR*s, plumbs, qumc's, rr.a .'js, or mjl^ns, than ia 
thii o >u;i(r. The pcc;vrh ) iticul.rly, term's '.veil 
oa the sunciv tracts oUlie Mi->bOiirr aril 0>:v.gj riv- 

[ ers. And h- cou.itrv a!) » Jtiiiv; Ai'ka'isas is viid 

1 h\ ib:\ i;^, v ho have m de soiiic txo.-ri neiiis, 

, to Ix fi lely tdaplcd to dv:: j)r > In :tioaoi" the li;^, t!ii 

• aim .ml, the olive aii I liii.- .tppric«»t. 

G.ird^ni.ij^ 'hcjugh propiiv '.j.loiv^in^ to tlic 
ftuhject ol' tlonir^uiturc, I shall incladrr in ^Wu. 

f T.i.^, uo ml S.. C'l id '^, S . Loui .» Si. vl n-vieve, 
C pj Girartlcau, New M iiid, and ah di- ola.r 
se.'tL'mLiits, prodiKv in th. greatest abundance un:l 
to the \rr: nest jKrLction, ill the culiii iry veg-ti- 

■ b!'-^ tJ<»^..t ar • found ui dieir 1. ail ides. Tne cab'oai^ 
i> rhoaiihl to grow to ,^eater perfection, o.\ the 

, IMi-.souri i!iaa in the states of Kenuicky and O lio. 
On the Mississippi v g r.ibf sof every description 
are known to arrive to perfection earlier than they 

'do on tlie s mie p r 1 il-. in anv oiher c )unuy. I'he 

! ini»:d of thi re-Kier of taste will be releived and pi -a- 
S':'d bv the foilovvi i«^ .ij)pi\)priate quotation from 

i^our co.uuti'* m n Mr. Barl.>\v. j 
*' Beneath tall trees in livelier verdure gay, 
*' Long level w.lksaii hutubi- ^arb display ; 
*' T')e infant corn unconscious of its u'orth, 
" Points the ^rcjn -.pir •, and Ix-nds t »c f )li i^- for*h; 
" 3 vect< neil on flowery ba I'cs, the p.issini^ Ir 
** JJreathes all the unrasted fr -j^MUce of the year ; 
*' Unbidd.m harvests .Vr the rvtijr)ns rise, 
" And bloomi.i,^ life repays th- geniJ skies. 
♦' Where circli-is^ sliores lU'cund th;.- cjalf exlcn-l, 

' «* The b')un<-eous lajroves -vith ri her bard.nsb>!id : 
» Sijontaucous li-uits the u ^'ii'tedpahns niuol^, 

D 2. 


" The beauteous orange waves a load of gold ;- 
" Tlic unti.ught vine, the wildly wanton cane, 
" Blcom on the waste, aiKl clotlie the enarbour*d 

The rich pimento scents the neighbouring skies^ 
" And uooly clusters oVr the cotton rii-e. 
*' Here in one view, the same glad brunches bring 

The fruits of autunm imd the floxvtrs of spring ; 

No M intry blasts the unchanging yeur deiorin, 

Nor beasts unsheltered fear the pinchhig storm ; 

But vernal brtczes oVr the blossoms rovt, 
* And breathe the ripened juices throuj^h the grove> 




CHAP. viir. 

Towns and Fillages. - ^ 

St. Louis is the principal town, and seat cX 
the luTitorial govt mmer.t. It vvas formerly called 
Pam Court, fnm ihc privations of the first settlers. 
It is siiu.iltd in latitude thirty eight degrees t\venty 
ininutts north, and in longitude eleven degrees fifty 
one minutes west from Wa>hington city. It occu- 
pies one of the finest situiitions on the Mississippi, 
both as to site and Geographical jX)sition. Tj"hc 
ground on ^^ hich it stands is not much higher here 
than the ordinary banks of the river ; hut the floods 
art rt ptlltd by a bold ^ho^e of limestone rock. The 
town is built hctwttn the river and a second bank ; 
it consists of three streets running parallel with tlic 
river, anel a nnnibc r ol'oth( rs cros ing thesj at right 
nn^ks. .. In a disjointed miumer, it extends along 


the river a mile and a half. Here is a line of v orks 
on the second bunk, erected for dciLncc Uic 
Indians, siipporiing several circular tontrs, twenty 
; ieet in dii.incier and fifteen in hiight : .viih a smdl 
siockade i<jn and a small stone breast wurk. 

Some disumcf from this line of fbrtiiications up 

y the riviT, then are seven-.l mounds, the- remains of 

Liintiquity ; which would seem to indic.:ie that lliis 

I place had, in former limes, been the cl>oseii site of 


St. Louio Was first laid out in tlie spring of 1 764, 
[ by the remains of a French coioijv from fort Cn ir- 
j-trts on the east side of the Mississippi. it 
I flourished and become the parent of the vili.:i»eb 
I of St. Charles, C.rondrkr, Portage de Sioux, St. 
; John, Bon Homnt and St. Ferdinand. The first 
settlers, by conciliutu)gtlic affections of the natives, 
I drew all the Indian trade of the Missouri ; and St. 
j' Louis still coi.tinues to be tlte emporeum not only 
: for his, but a considerable poriion of the Illinois 

The present population cannot be less tlian three 
thousand, and its r.umlxrs are dailv increasiMij. 
I Thcbuildino^are of wood, gei^rjlly small and in- 
diff rent ; but a number of spacious and commo- 
dious stone and brick houses are now erecii:ig. 
Th^re are in this town, twenty two commercial es- 
tablishments tba* do business upon a pretty lar^e 
sc 1'-. B side>>twob nking institiHions \wh a c. j;- 
it.l of half a million of dollars. Th«^ imports are 
cl i' fly mrde to this pi ice from New Orkans, 
winch is li\-ewis the d stiivati n of their exports. 
St. Genevieve is next iu consequence lo St, 


Louis, was laid out in the year 1774, about oiiej 
mile from ihc Mis^k3sippi, between ihetwo branch, j 
cs of a stream called Gabourie, on a flat of aboutj 
one I'.uiidred acres, of second botu>m, or tabl*- land. 
Its direeiion from St. Louis is a little east of so,utlV 
and distance sixty-fm niUs. It is the depositc 
ol lead mineh— O. Mine la Motte, the 
Mine a Burton; New Di£^:jjin.i2:s, the miiR-s on Big 
river, and some other — Av.d i^, in short, the sujro* 
liouse, or rcciprocol suppl\ and ckposilt of ihesc, 
mines: funiiJiii!^ d.ose who ork tlv.m with ne- 
cessaries and luxuries, and deriving advantii^ 
from the trade which Ins ariicle ot commerce pro* 
cures them. 

The. population of St. Genevieve, including' 
New Bourbon, and the adj vC«,nit stttlenv^nis, 
amounts to upwards of twenty W[*' hundred souls. 
The houses, like ihase of St.'L'ouis, indiffereir 
— But hseligink situation, the f i tiliry of the st>i 
within its vicinity, the richness of the lead minei 
wliich depend upon it ; all give assur-iuces of itsri? 
siji£? nrogress ar.rl its future pr-jsp-.'rity. ^ ' 

St. Charles is the se-^t ol justice for the dis- 
trict beij-ing- its name, l^ contains about two 
. tfiousand inh.ibitants including tlie whole of hs set- 
tlements; a considerable proportion of which .re 
Americars. It is twcnty-t -vo miles north oi" St. 
Lou s, in thirty nine degrees north latitude, and rle- 
V'-n degrees fifty-five minutes \vest of Washin,^<>Q 

Citv. t • 1 r u 

This vifla9:e is situated on the north side ot the 
Ik'lissonn river, twc'itv milci from iti junction wl.h 
^^ Alissibsippi. The town is laid out upou a im 


row space, between the river and the bluff, admit- 
tiiig but one street, which is about a mile in Iciigth. 
. This place will retain its ijnportance — The excel- 
lency of the soil in its neighborhood ; the immense 
country settling to the north and south whose trade 
must centre here — the advantages which t must 
denve from the country & stttkments above — The 
laciiiiies of being supplied at a clieap rate with 
salt, iron, and produce ; all combine to give pros- 
perity to its fuiurt jH-ospects^ 

New Madrid is situated in Latitude 36 de- 
grees 34 minutes north and nearly on the same me- 
ridian with St. Genevieve — Its distance and beur- 
ling from St. L<)uis, is probably about 170 miles 
south on a straight line ; by the river, it is probably- 
300 miles. It was laid out on the second bank of the 
'.Mississippi, in the year 1790, on an extensive scale 
and an elegant plan ; and was chosen as the most 
TOigil^lc 5:te on the river. 

This town was ori^;::ally planned upon a model 
at once tasty and convtnient ; it \var.tG Z^e^?,^ foUT 
mHi^s south and two west from the river, ^ as- to 
-^oss a beautiful, li i^g, deep lukc, of the purest . 
spring water, one'liundrcd yaids wide, and some 
miles lo'ig; emptying kself by a constant rapid 
stream throughthe center of the town. The bunks 
of this lake, called St. ArHiis, are high, beautiful and 
pleasant ; tlie water deep, clear and sweet, and weU 
stored with fish ; the bottom a clear sand, free 
from wood, shi'ubs, or other vegetables. Oa each 
side of this delightful lake, streets were to be laid 
out 100 feet Avid •, and a road to he continued 
found it of the same breadth ; and this double 


front of central streets were in the charter preserved 
ft;rc\cr lor the health and pleasure of the citizens. 
Tile same reserve was made on the m;irgin oi" tho 
3\i)-i>ibbippi ; bo that New Madrid seemed equally 
Cjlculatcd lor commercial advantages, taste and 

But the earthquakes in 1811, — 12 ^avea consi- 
derable sho( k to ihe whole town; ii destroyed se- 
veral buildings, and ^nnk a p. rt of ihe first bottom 
and stconcf tabic iil)(;ut tigliKcr. inches. New 
Aladrid is beleivcd by many to have been the centre 
of this strange concubbion. The nhabiiantb became 
alarmed, and determined to desert tiie place alt6- 

But it is now about to be restored — The num- 
ber ot" inhabitants are not easih asceriuined ; as 
tlicy have been fl} ir.g to and from ii, ( vi r since the 
Tear 1811 ; andscatered in various directions thro* 
a L'Jge dibtrict. The number, ho\vever maj b« 
estimated at about t\\ elvc hui^ditd, mostly Ameri- 

New Madrid is the scat of justice for its dis* 

Arkansas is situated sixty miles up tlx: river 
«)f th;t name, and contains six or eight hundnd in- 
h.ibitants, several retail st(vres, and is in a rapid 
sUite of improvement. It was originallv a French 
jiCttkn.enT, and is likely to continue such ; ab there 
are at this time propositions before th.- general gov. 
crnnunt, to est; blish a colony here by some very 
dibtin<;ulslied French emigriints. How far Con- 
liTi'.ss'will accede to a propo^/i'ion gi-anting h.r 
fjioi.e U;:d to foreigners on term^ of d-fcrrcdiniy- 


, ^nents, to i\tc exclusion of her own citizens \vc can 
I only predict from iormer preccdcuti). Qui vult 
' dfccipi, dccipiatur. 

I Herculakeum is situated on the Mississippi, 

huif uay bctuven St Louis and St. Gcncvicv-j. 

i The site of this place is extremely romantic ; — Vt 

I the mouth of Joachin, and on a flat of no i^eat width 

I between the river and the second bottom, li. s tite 

town . . . Wiiile at each end ptrpendicuuir prccij)i- 

►-ces, two hundred feet hi<^h, rise almost from tlic 

I Water's edge.' 'I'his intcrv;illy ajipears to be ::n 

opening- for the Joachin and the Mississi|)j)i. < )n 

the top ofca-.h of tueseclitts sliot towers have been 

erf^cted. T'lc to vn contiins thirty or forty houjiO, 

and three or four imndrcd inhabitants. Slv ral f»ne 

grist and sd^v milis ire ereciL-din th- ncis^hoorhood, 

and a boat yard est tbiislicd in tlio \ illaj^e. 

Vuide P >che, or C arondekl i>? situared ^ix miles 
belo\vSt. Louib and contains probably 150 inliabi- 

Huri'^sault on the Missouri is much more pof.u- 
lous, andthe adjoini ig coanlry macn more thickly 
popul :tcd. 

j Cape Ciirirdcau. Thi'j to-v;i is entirelv Amcrl- 
I can, and b liit aft.r the A aiTicin f ishio i ; it is in a 
i thriving sr.iU\ nnd .Iroady co.itaiiis a nan!-)er of 
I (>;joil houses of l)riok ;nd stine. The seat of jus- 
; tice for that countv \ •, now h id at the town of Jajk- 
son, ten miljs fr otn Pv':irod~>'s ferry. 

Sr. Mijhael is a new towi, twenty miles from 
Aline a B'.irton, and the Coanty sc^at \'or St. G.n.-- 
vievc. FnuikliH is tiie Countv sait for Ho\s\;;d 


County. Pctosi is the scat of justice for Washing- 
toi. (.ount). 

VVairiiigton is a smull village two miles from 
Fn'nkliii, surrounded by ricli iuuds, rjid in a tlour- 
isiiUig condiiioii. 

TlKrc LTc a lumber of new villages laid out in 
this rt»} , twi i.nimjjortani to become the sub- 
js^c? oi dthcription: Uiough some may- one day 
become ilie pruie and ornament oi the courities in 
'»v liieii tlH} are it.Uuad ; bui to anticipate tlieir fu- 
tuii. probperit) v\ c uid be as vain as building castles 
in die air. Iiibati.c, howtvr, that every man in 
the wtbtem cou. try wishes to l)uild a city upon 
hi^> onii Urm — Hui.drtds of villui^e^ are laid out 
■diaiiicvcr acquire any other importance but a name. 


JLtad Alines* 

The subject of mines and mineral productions in 
this country , is, ol all oihtrb, that wiih whici. 1 am 
tht least capable of in\cstif/atiiig with accuracy. 
In Older to a lh<.rough ac(j\u;intai ce widi ail iis 
ranijli-'ations : it would be iitccji^ars first to be a 
IVlii.cralogibt, then a miner, and lastly a sptculutor 
iji ht producfioii of the mines. Bin 'vitliout w.jt- 
ingfcrthis complicdled ii.f. rmaiion, I v.i!!giv( my 
readers such ;in account of i!u Lead MiiK .-, ol Uii^ 
cenntry as I have been cnc.b:< d :o pr^^enrf. 

1 I <• lead mines, or dlii'ffiiiij^s, ;is ihey urt ^'vnerrJ- 
3y ( . ;i<.d ar.- acattert'd over the preater pvirt f»f tlic 
Citlciaiuus region before describ'.d. liow far they 


extend -40 the west is not known ; or wiicLher the 
©IJcT region is not as pregnant witii silver as this is 
T\itK lead, is yet to be ascertained. 

Mine a Burton, sixty miles sout'n of St. Louis, 
and forty miles west of St. Genevieve, nuiy be 
oonsidercd as the centre of those tlut are proiitably 
worked. These mines, are, perhaps, the richest iu 
tile known world. I'hcy were dibcovered previous 
to dieir being worked, by the ore that was visible 
40 every rivulet, washed, by rain from its original 
bed. But it was not till a short time previous t© 
tlic late war that these mines were worked to 
'advantage. During that period they became a 
source of wealth to tne industrious miner, and hig' • 
ly beneficial to die country generally. 

The following is an etsiimate of their annual pro- 
ductions, from the best information of the diiferent 
JVlines, and of the im'nber of labourers employed 
'in them, without iacludnig smelters, blacksmiths 
and others. 

Annual Estimate. lbs. kad. !iands. 

MiL a Barton ..-.-- 50, 000 13 

New Diggings 200,000 40 

Peril's Diggings; ?..... ^qOOO 50 
L'.b(5i'tv MmOs 3 

Elliott's Diggings 100,00 20 

"Mines o;" B'ilc Fountain - - - - 300,000 50 

Brvan's Diggings 600,000 70 

l^".chvv-oo:;ls' 75,0:)0 30 

i\U..' a I Al'.>tte ../.-. 1)\0:)0 40 

Fdiu-ohe Cuuriois ----- 10,000 15 

■rA> LA'i-t Accoux r or 

Mine a Ro'uln, ant^ 
Mine a J cc 

'X . . . - 30,000 2© 

Si-.cb(;kth ,;naCucUt, five mUes / ^.^ ^^ 

Ironi Mine a Burton, say 3 

< "I 
Total. 2,000,000 4^0 
This article oiiglit projxTly to ha\e eoine under 
the liciici of the Studbtical View ; butaixthc subjects 
of that chapter are butimperlectly known, it \^ ill ne- 
cessarih be icnfiricd to arecapitukitionofAhe whole. 
Iron J this, however, some estimate of the riches 
of these mine's may be drawn. When tliey eome 
to be mere extensi\ cly m crked, there is not a doubt 
])ut that ti ey will supply the United States notODly 
>vith a sutficient quantity for home consumption- 
but also '.vilh an immense surplus for ecmmeree. 


Salt jnrks. - 

On tins article, I am rjke\\ ise much at a Iosl — 
but 1 dtcin it ol Tiiuch less import: nee to myrea- 
der^;, to i;e ir.structed en the subjects ol reti.ilii'g 
Ici'.d by the p( vam\ a'wl salt by th.e bui^lie!, th;;n in 
a kncwlcfiiic of ihe permanent scurces of ^\ealth 
a:.d cnj-)vmcnt. 

T!)e salt v.crks, are, however, numerous and 
pr( r.tiblc— t.(n.e cf th.em belong to, 
cih(r< to the Lnhtd States; and dicy not onh } it Id 
an iibiuKiiiPt supply fw tl'^" < c-iiSUT7ip;i(>n of the 
vountr\ , but aiVord a ccnhidcnible j.urphis for com- 


mcrcc. The iisiuil price per l)iishLl i? o;:c clollcir 
and fifty cents ; But this price must br^ reduced 
when these inexh:uistil)!e tources sKsll !">e ir.or • 
cxtensivelv \vor<,cd : For it secin.i th.'.t tlve wliol'- • 
dl the western part of tlic tcnitory is 0:1. e:Uire salt ' 
mine, "There exist:} abriut one- thoiisimd miles up 
the Missouri," says a ceiehruted author " j;nd no. 
far from ti»e river, a salt mouiifaiu, which is saidt<> 
be one hundred and ei":!uv miles lonif and forty- 
five m width, composed of sohd rock s;.ltr' 

But tRe priueip'.l salt works x\"ii at Boo'i's Lick 
and its vicinity aI)out t\vohnndrv\l miles -ibove St. 
Louis, on the north side of the Missouri. 'J'lien; 
are about twelve miles from the mouth oi' Charatoa 
river 'I'iie lo\ver salt worlc> ar<i not as profitable 
Of as u-ell -.vorked as t!lose•ai>o^ e. W.i it s • 
itca'ly deno.niiV.ited Boon'r. S.tllemenr, is ul)0Jt 
foriv-five miles above llie s.;it work-:. 

'riie uj?ptr works, or Ijoo'.i's Lick is no'.v i i 
•fine operation and make about one iriidad Inish-- 
' Is orsalt per wec^k. I'he w..tcr isi.itire gre.itei.t 
ubundanc--, aval fully saturated, with |(ilt ; so thatby- 
t:in_c^ more extensiseiy \vorkf':l they nSa iio doub: 
;. icld a j;roiit ixjual lo any in the United States. 

Tile Fr-atkliii ^alt v;oil:i, ••;rji:ii>cs, fo orodilcc 
.m abur.rlant jx-ofjr. 

On the south of tl^.e ?.Iissou-.'! is B-.;ckn<'H'., aud 
.Emmcr.'s v.orlis, the water is \^vy stronir, but bad 
!y op: r :t'd Tficy are ten juiles from i!ie river and 
.'iftv t ii fromBoon's I^iek. W'.rks bdoijjjj to the United States, and 
will be leased by ihun on n;odcri'le terms to thos: 
who m;vv v, ish to vc k them. . _ 


Hi^ht of Soil, . . . . Z and Titles. 

The right of soil to Louisiana, like that of A- 
mcrica gtiierallv, uas obtained by discovery, con- 1 
^ quest, and settlement. In this, France had early 
acquired a right to the w liole of the courtry |3earin^ 
that name. And she seems to ha\e1cept it n»ore 
for the purposes of opiwsition to her great rival, ! 
Kngland, than for the local advantages which it 
procured her. For, a§ if anticipating her defeat im 
Canada, she transierred it, in the }ear 1762 by « ! 
secret treaty to Spain, who held it as her most favo- j 
rile colony, till die year 1800, ^\ hei; it was recede* 
to France by the treaty of St. lUdefonso. Thfe 
treaty was enforced by that of Madrid, in the sue'-; 
•ceding year. From France it passed to the Uiii-t 
ted States, by ll:\e treaty of the 30th of April, 1803,-' 
wiUi the same extent that it originally had in th^ 
hands of France and of Sp^^in. 

The right of soil was then, fully vested in the 
respective ^o\eniments at die the time they excr- 
Gii^d their jurisdictions over the territor}'. 

It was by the government of Spain that the great- 
QBt number of land titles was granted. Of iliese, 
there weretv\o descriptions: First, Donations, or 
Complete grants — and Second, Settlement or Head 


When M-e consider the despotic character of the 
9j:)anish government, and die extent to which she 
ourried heraulhoriiv in some of the provinces, wc 
ijc at a loss to account for the i-emarkiJ)!e lenip- 


^ith wWcb the territoriyl governmrat of Louisiana 
^vas administered. Lun'^ls were gratuitously j^ant. 
td in fee simple, and the inhabitants toUtUy exempt- 
ed from Uxation. 

Duiiutions tc/ individuals were made for real, or 
pretended "services, and in_(]uaniitle5 proportiosied 
to the merit of the claim. Settlement, or Head 
rights, bcinjj for the purpose of strengthening the 
country by encouraging emigration, wus apportion- 
ed according to the numbers of the f.uniiy, inclu; . 
ding husband, wife, andehHdren— S5 that matrimo- 
ny in this country tended not only to happiness, b*it 
; to wealth. The United States have confirii^d all 
I land claims made agreeably to tlic laws, usiigi.s 8c 
I "customs of the Spanish government, pi ior to the 
Uyear 1803, provided that the grant shall not secure 
.'to the gi'antee, or his assigns, more than one mile 
..square, together with sucU other and furllter fjuantl- 
. tv as was allowed bv the former frovernment to the 
husband, wife, and family of an actual settler. 

All lands in this territory, not disposed pf as a- 

. bove by either of the former j^vernments, bilonc; 

to the iJnited States. For the .surveying and dis- 

Eosalof which a Land Office ii established atSt» 
louis, consisting of a Deputy Surveyor General, a 
Rvgister of the Lanrl Oflice, and a Receiver of pub- 
lic monies. The Deputy Surveyor General, ap- 
points surveyor^ under him, and the vacant landi 
are laid out into Townships, Sections, and Quarter 
Sections, by lines according wiih the oardinal 
points of the Compass. 

By an act of Congress, the land sales are to b-^ 
Fcguliit^d bv proclamaii<«) ofUie President pf^he 

1^:2 . • 

54 t.AT'i: ACCOUNT 01> 

United States. The price is fixed at t'Vo dotlntS- 
per Acre, one fourth to be paid on entering rl\e 1..; ;!« 
-with {innual payments of one fourdi till the whole 
be paid. On the first jxiyment a certificate, in die 
nature of a receipt issu. s from the land Office, a 
duplicate of which, when tlie payment is comple- 
ted is forwarded 0:1 to ihf Commissioner of the 
General Land Offices who returns the Frej ident'e 
Patent for a lull and complete title to the land u^iin- 
cunibercd by prior claims, and consec|uentl3 unin- 
Tplved in the masses of higation. 

Out of these lands helou^riitg to tlie General Gov- j 
ernment, ihc sixteenth Sec.i .»n in every Townr>!rjp, i 
is reserved by the Unitexl St;iies for the support oj j 
acho<jls. _ 

What a difference in the value of a title of Umd 
©btiined in this lenutory, and those obtain* d undtf 
the governmepts of Virginia and North Carolina, 
in M hat are now the states of Kentucky and Ten- 
jiessee! In these, for twenty years, the Land Of. 
iices were open to every swindler! whilst the hon- 
est adventurer, instead of wealth, independence, oi« 
even a home, frequendy paid his money for a chain 
of law suits that entailed poverty upon him and hft ^ 



An enquiry into die healthiness of the climate of 
the country to which a man proposes to emigrate 

. i 


is generally one of ihc first that lie makes. Ai^d 

it ij one s'j rational, and of sudi vital importance, 

tliaf I >h.iil enclcavour to give it a candid and per- 

splc i;.»'ri inswcr, ratln r th, n to pursue the bi:l j. cl; 

tliroLi'^n i!k; nnazes of philobopiiical speculation, lot 

< whieii I amequ:'..}- in v/ai.t of the dipsosition, and- 

d;TU. ^ It is v., In di-.r v.e posr.css wealth, honors, 

ai:d .li ti;c other gocxls of this world, if we are de- 

-p/ivul ofrh.a v.hieh alone can give us atruertii^h 

^ fijr ih. tru'- e.ijo;, in nt of the i),VzrWr//. 

O.iv-otrhc j-^r'at-st'inen of thu u.^e h. is treated 

this . )h'y CX under ti e head of** all ti'.it can ir/ercase 

"the pro<rresi ofhu-n.-n knov UdiA.." 1 Jial! treat 

of it us idl tiiat c:a\ .'.icrtase the bum of I'.unian hap- 


lii ao exten?<ive a country as this, it will natur.:lly 
be expected that the eliniat'e is as v.j'ious as the sit- 
^ uation of its parts. Norlh«.rn and soutliern, high, 
and low huids, thf margin of larti^c rivers and inte- 
rior dry plains, w ill each Ix acted i;;)on by Iieat and 
oold, and an atinosp'iere jxeuliar to tlie'nature of 
their respective situations. 

The few olx-^ervations which have been made iu 
Wiis country have not been sufiiciently regular and 
j 3imult;ineous to shew the corresponding and com- 
I parative ojx rations of the climate, between tills and 
•iher countries, or berwecn the pi.ns q£ 
tl> country itself, to enal)le us to deduce any par- 
ticular inference from its effects and influence. 
Rv asoning, however, from the bituttion and dS- 
I pcct of tlie ccimtn , and substituting analog}- for ac- 
■ tual observation ;:nd experience, the climate of this 
country will be found to correspond with thos<r- 


countiies witli which I have ah-ci;dy compared it iri^ 
the llilrcl chapter of tliis work, under ..he ;uLick ot 
Siuiaiion and Aspect: — -with this dift^tence ; Llut 
ilie eabtern margin c6mi)0bing the Missi^isippi val- 
ley, has i.o paralkion the globe. That n\tr, 
hidecd been assimilated to the Nile ! and there is 
one pnjperty conmion to them both, wliich h. some 
meisiiri justifies the compariiou — That is thai thci 
HvdrophubiiJ, or canine madness has never been 
known o\\ the waters ol' either. But their climate, 
soil, aid vegetable productions are widely difterent. 
The Mississippi valley tliou.^h the largest body of 
land of recent tormation, is en-iginal, distinct, ancUu-, 
pcrior in quality to any in the known world. The 
Patowmac, and that part of the Adantic coast 
^vhich skirts the eastern bouiidaries of Maryland, 
Virginia, and North Carolina, produce but a mea- 
gre growth of vegetation ; whilst the Mississippi 
nourishes the most luxuriant forests, thickly set 
widi underwood and cane. These forests, as will 
be more fully shewn in the article on the cultivatioiT 
of the gi'ape naturally mtrucl, and keep in acii-jii in 
their vicinity more he;it and moisture than countries 
more open and le::,s productive. . ^ J 

Running springs i;re but r •rely found in the pra- 1 
ries, or on the Missouri ; but well-\vuter may be • 
generall} obtained by digging 25 or 30 feet, in ihc , 
rich (h-\ lands west oftlK Mi.-5>issip|.i, springs, and I 
rivulets of exex:llent water are every where to bo 
met with. 

As' to the healthiness of the climate generally — 

Nature seems to have m ,dc a prvtiy e<}u.;l djstriini- 

ion of her favours throughout this globid* 'Flic dis- 


parity observable by comparing one cou try with 
a.iotlier huii lor the most purl been oecasioiiec! by man. 
In higii, dry t>iluaticns, and at a distance troni the sea 
•Ojst ti large ri\ers, we enjoy abundance of health &: 
vigour, but hive few advanUiges of wealth In rick 
firriile soils and warm climates, we find all the meaiS 
•f growinp; rich, with less heallh and '.njoyment. 

I'his territory in a state of nature, is generally 
fccalthy ; 'but w hen the rich marly soil, iuid the bor- 
ders of the large rivers come to be culti\atcd; 
when the vast masses of vegetation which now glo\^ 
with life and beauty shidl be felled and putrifud ; it 
will no doubt be infested with the epidemicaldis- 
rases peculiar to countries simiLirly BitUiiteil. 

CilAI*. xiir. *• 

Cuhivatlon of*t/ic Grape. 

Tiic subject of this chapter I comTTumicated list 
summer in a j)a|x:r addressed to the Kcnfucki/ So- 
met y for proniothv^ Agriculture : from vvlience iM 
found its way into tfie public prints. And as the 
observations it contains are as well iid.ipted to the 
meridian of St. Louis, as to that of Lexington t 
cw-.nnot but form a Viiluable addition to this publica* 

It has long I)een a subject of surprise to foreigni 
«rs as well as to our own country men, that tlje 
j^rape should trrow to such in'cat pcruction in all the 
the latitudes from 17 to 45 ci-.|j:rees in the o'd^ worW 
and thut it shonld be so limited and precoriowR iri . 



its productions in the New. " Nor is cur suiprise at 
all dimii\islKxl, nor our enquiry into the causes of 
this diflFtrence in the growth and product of a single 
vegetable, , at all satisfied, by recollecting that the 
ji&il oi" America is equal, and in many respects sups^ 
'.rior to that. appropriated to simibr pui-poses in Qth- 
er ccuntrivTs. W e have ail the mean, but notic of 
the extrtmes either of heat or cold, in w hich this ar- 
ticle is successfully cidtivated in otlur places. 
And yet, ur.dtr a temperature which elsewhere is 
*£0 congenial to its production, as to render it an ob- i 
ject ot I r mar}- ii p rtance to the cultivator, btit 
ranly indimnifies him.herc for his labour; aiwi;nts, in fact, almost to a total neglect of it ei- 
ther fi r pkasui-C cr profit. Ncr can our unsucess- 
ful endeavours to raite the Gr^pe arise 
from a want of acqiiaintance with the methods pf 
cuhivalir.g itinoUier places; since we have a« 
mongst us experienced vine dressers from the va- 
rious parts ol the \vorld, in which it is cultivated 
in the greatest abuudanex anel to the gicatest [xf-^ 
feeikn. ' ,. • 

Wv riiij tht rcfore, refer the causes of our fmiu^c,. 

Or.Iy, to the chr.ngeable and multiform lUvUire ot*' 

,oiir climate, wliich diough less intense in its ex -' 

trcme of heat ai d cold, is nevertheless, more flue* 

"tuiitirgand const quemly more unfavour^ibk to tftps 

pewth of plaikts, r.ot acclimated, than to such as 

are indigenwis. This is evident from the nccessi*5 

ty we arc unekr of accelerating by artificial meuns*^ 

tlie growth of mar.} culinary vegetables, which our 

,Ute seasons would retard, or destroy altogether.-' 

The Grnpe, whicii v.'C cultivate for wine, tlicugl*. 


; pot indigenous to the climate, requires likc^vioc our 
i fostering curt to protect its tender shoots from the 
ihclemei icy of an uniowurd spring. 

The sudden transition ofour cyuntry fi-om a 

it(3tming wilderness to an open champaign; 

state of nature to civilization and refinement, pro- 

[ duces in our seasons a sensible change, ;vhich the 

slo\v' prepress of other countries rendered imperccp- 

tbk. - - 

The luxuriant forests that in some measure ar- 
rested tlic effects of the cold winds that bio-.v from 
tlv> vas^ uneultfvated fi"ozen regions oi the ngrih 
land north west, have retired before the cntv-rprisc of 
I our citizens, and gi>'en place to open fields and 

What was the work of many centuries in othei 
countries has t>een ih':; eftlct of a few years in ours. 
—These forests absorbed much of the chillinc: 
moisture, or counteracted with their native heat, the 
force of ihc heavy vapours and Ix'nunibing fogs 
wiiii x^■hich these wilds cire saturated. 

We know that cold is a negatixe c]u:;lity, or o;d\- 
the abse'.ice of heat ; an 1 that vegetables, like other 
bodies possess the pi>\vcr of artmctiiig and com n^ 11. 
nicaiing heat to the surrounding atmo.>pherc ; and as 
llie atU'aetion of the Lirgcr bodies is the greatest, 
thcA- nccessiiril}- absorb a gre::ter quantity of heat, 
a portion of v.hichis disehi.rged i.s the atniospiicre 
CM)ls, till an equilibrium is produced upon tjic 
vhole, ^^lflch acts equ.lly on every thinjj: widiin its 
nuij^e. Thi^ \^ obvious from every ones expcri- 
cnc— Anindividu 1 alone in a room v.lihout fire, 
wculd freeze in a cold day, v.lio, v.ith a I^.undred 

I', I 


more would be comft^rtably warm. There would 
be a perceptible, though 1101 so great a diillrence be- 
tween l^s situation in an open plainanda eJose wood,' 
In the first case, the temperature of the atmosphere 
would be modcVated bv the natural heat ottiie bod-, 
ics in the room ; in the' last, by the heat absorbed 
by the larger bodies during tlie day, which would ^ 
tee communicated, as the air cooled, to the smaller | 
bodies tliGt had absorbed less. ^• 

It is obvious then, if this reasoning be correct (8c 
it is strongly corroberated by experience) that tlie 
late frosts which liapjxn in spring, are much more 
fetal to vegetation in an opsw plain than in n jhick 
forest.— Consequentlv a vmey.ird planted in the one 
•situation Mill rarelv succeed at all, and never to ad- 
vantage ; while in'the other it will rarely fail of pro- 
ducing a plentiful crop ol Grape. The following 
fctctswill mere fully illustrate the truth of this posi- 
tior— Five miles cast of Lexington is a vineyard 
■situated in a large plantation, that opens to the noitli 
und south about hall a mile, and to the east andwest 
a considerable distance. This vineyiud, with 
which the proprietor has taken much pams for elev- 
en years, hi^ never yielded- but one crop of Grape. 
During the last year it has beer, twice bitten down 
h\ the frost. Oiv- mile from this is another vinc- 
yjrd, which is diff-rcnilv situated ; being bounded 
Oil the south by a luxuriant growth of eheiTy trees, 
on the east bv a thrivi. c: row of cedars, and on the 
no-th and west bv tow ..liig forest trees. vThis vine. 
Viiid remains u rinrt by iliO iiost, aua bears evtC)'^ 
Tear r full crop of Grape. 


The uniformity of theseresults from their respective 
NBtliaticns, proves that the ftilure of vlie grape with 
'ii^, is owing to local and fcansient causes, wlndi 
'tnay be easily and effectually counteracted. Fot 
^fathough we cannot force nature in her operauons, 
Ave may aid and uccelerate her productions by arti- 
lEciiil means. And a vineyard planted in an oblong 
Square^ with tM-o or thret rows of apple or cherry 
Wes on each side, will rarely be injured bj' the frosts, 
^he red cedat, on account of its being an ever-greert 
and bearing a thicker foliage, is probably superior 
Ho the fruit trees ; as the thicker and more flourishing 
«ie surrounding vegetation, the more heat and 
taoisi ure will be attracted and kept in action in they 

irkinitV. ■'■■■ ' ""'" , ^ ^ / 

^ ' Under this tfieory , the Vine dresser has the choice 
^cultivatingA^nth his vineyard, valuable friiittfee4f 
#r Hesperian groves — of gratifying his cupidity <x 
fcis taste. The same reasoning viil apply to viw^ 
lyards planted in tbwn gardens, where the hoosc^ 
Smoke, &c. prt)tect them from the chilling blasts. '^ 
• The vineyards at Vcvay, m Indiana, are shdte* 
'. ftd cm the'north by devated hills covered with a Iu» 
•riant growth of fdrest trees, and on the south, by 
"l^cOl^, ^Wse vt^arfti md nloist vapours have an 
appropriate mfluence in modcarttin^ihe impending 
atmobphere. These vineyards have, in a few y«irs 
enriched the proprietdTSr-^^^One vme dresser culti. 
vates two Acres an^ a half, yhich produce about 
seven hu 'dred gallons of wine, worth one thousand 
dollars! besides a sijfl&icient quantity of other arU- 
Cjes, for family consumption; a greater profit ^ 
fittolc by ahVtjther species of Agricultuic* '^ 


Two years ago, ni\ friend on the Arkansas, madi 
an experiment' with the indigenous giapc ot that 
country. He selected a large vine of what is calivd 
the Florida or bullet grape, that had enveloped a ;all 
forest tree, which he carefully felled, so as not to iu- 
jun* the vine; trimming of the brushy part of the 
bonghs, and leaving the more sturdy branches as 
props to the vine, which he pruned and cultivated 
about tlie roots— This vine the first year produced 
one barrel of excellent wine. 

It is much to be lamented that we have not yet 
^idopted some wholesome and innoccQt bever age as 
a substitute for ardent spirits, the bane of morals, 
healdi and happiness! Mankind has been accuston^-. 
cd to intoxicating drinks frofh the earliest ages of 
fiociet>'— and we cannot expect that they will ev^^ 
refrain from them— But that wine, if made insuffi, 
tient quantititfi, would m some measure supp ai4 
the use of distiUed spirits, there is no doubt.— I he 
obtaining of this desirable end too, would mcrease 
the independence of our own country^ by addmg tm 
its already numerous productions; and become* 
successful defence ag^nst the attacks of foreignei^ 
ivho make a merit of depreciating^ what in.trui^j|. 
Ibey do oot understand. 


Statistical Fievf. 

'' This article ought to comprise a summary of a]| 
^t relates to ^e present State of this ten-iiory, la|p 


*to its physical Topography — 2d. To its political 
Topography— ^ And, under this heud, Legislation^ 
Laws, Judiciar}' and Judicial proceedings, political 
divisions, population, Religious societies, and Scm^ 
inarits of iciiming. tid. Geology — Including mincsv 
minerals, and mineral productions— 4th. Botany, 
t and as Doctor Drake would have it ) Medical 
Topography — 5th. An account of the Mountains^ 
Lakes, Rivers, Creeks, rivulets, and natural springs* 
6th. Commercial advantages, with notices of its 
navigable rivers. Canals, and roads for the transpor- 
tat on of produce and merchandise — 7th. Manufac- 
tures, and manufacturing companies — with its 
produce for home, and foreign markets — 8th. Wild 
and tame ani mills, including beasts, birds, Sc fishc^ 
serpents, toads, and insects. 

On the most important of these subjects I have 
ooncisely treated in the prececding pages — For 
many of them, there was a deficiency of details; 
and on all, I wanted that information which the 
functionaries of the govemmem' have not furnished 
to the territory itself. 

A notice of the memorials to Congress, may, yert 
properly conclude this chapter ; as they embrace 
subjects in which, not only the territory, but the 
United States, ought to feel a lively interest. 

The first is, thai of the French' emigrants, prayings 
a grant from Congress of choice lands on the Ar* 
tansas, on tenns of defered payment. 

The second is, a memorial of a part of the citx-% 
2ens of thi; territory, praying admission into th^ 
JJ-niQa as an indcpendant state^i 

a Iate account OS" 

0•^ the first of these it mny be as^c^lf 
Isl. How fur is it the- interest ot'tlic United Siaiv-islO 
iiK.reasc hrr population, by en ouragmglar^ coa- 
munitics of foreigners to settle h-r vacant lauds oii 
terms more tavcuiable than those granted by law lo 
her own ciliztns. 2d. Is i just, or equitable to b' H 
to strangers a h.rge body of choice lands, the most 
advantt'.gtously situated of any in the territory, 
^^ iih t\AcI\ e years to pay the purchase money, w hilp 
native Americans, who have paid tiixes, and fought 
tlic battles of th.eir countrv, ^re lel\ to pay tlie s;imc 
price for the refuse of the lands, in one third of tli^ 
time. 3d. what will be the effects of this policy, on 
monJs, and the political institutions, yet t(j l)c for- 
med iiithese newterriiories, when Ion ign principle s, 
essentiidly different from onrown, and ^^upported by 
wealth, shall have their influence, in their establis. 

To these questions it may be truly and laconically 
an^wercxl — that there is nehher interest to the pub* 
lie ; justice to the citizen, nor advantages in monils^ 
or politics, likely to be derived from this stretch of 
ii:nionil urbanity, in treating strangers better 'hoa 
our own citizens. If the govert'.ment has any thing; 
to spare, there are claims enough founded on puf>» 
he services ( t use the langu. ge of the constitution > 
vet up.|:rovided for. 
" On the subject of the memorial to becOm< a state^ 

i* mav bt? asked — i 

" 1st. That if the people, in the highest grade ofa ' 
territorial goven.mcnt, with an indtpendm.* Legis* 
luture of their own choice, ;:re incapi^^lc of forming 
sijuuuy municipid regulations, and of renicdi'in^ 


tho evils of which they compLai in thoir, 
C: a tlicy be suppose I c:.pablc oi torning the basis 
cf . pcraiancnt stale go^ cm ment which will not be 
fra-.i^ht with similar or greater evils. 

2cl. Are not the limits asked for in the memorl i 
too great tor any one stale— And -v ill not such a di- 
vi-,ioii of ilie tc-n-itor\ prove injurious to its nor- 
thera and southern sections, which it will det;ic]i, 
;ind leave like disinherited children, to poverty an J 


1 have merely c^iven these subjects, tlv Socr uc 
jiegative ; it remains f t Congress to deci ie on :• a 
for the good of the nation, and die equal ngiiUi of 
|1k: citizeivj* 






Discovery and Settlement - - 11 

] ^ CHAP. II. 

Extent and Boundaries. ....,• ^ .. . i^ 

Situation and Aspect - 10 

Rivers and Navigation 10 


f CHAP. VI. 

I Botany S3 

CHAP vn. 

^giicultural productionii 39 

Towiib and Villages 4fi 

Lead Mines 49 

Salt Works 50 

Bight of Soil. . . Lxnd Titles 53 

€limatc 5^ 

; CHAP. XIII. ' 

\ Cultivation of tlie (irape -•. 57 

Sintrstjcal Vk-NVi, - - • - - - .^ • , . a - OB 

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f • 


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