MEMORIAL OF FRANCIS GARDNER. LLD. LATE HEAD- MASTER OF THE BOSTON LATIN SCHOOL. t irr OF LIFORNI BOSTON: PRINTED FOR THE BOSTON LATIN SCHOOL ASSOCIATION. 1876. ITT OF FOHNIA. MEMORIAL SERVICE A MEETING of the BOSTON LATIN SCHOOL ASSOCIATION was held in the hall of the school-house on Thursday, January i3th, 1876, to take action in reference to the death of FRANCIS GARDNER, LL. D., late head-master of the school. The President, Mr. Charles K. Dillaway, appointed Mr. Wendell Phillips, Dr. B. B. Appleton, William R. Dimmock, LL. D., Mr. Augustine M. Gay, and Mr. Godfrey Morse, a committee to prepare suitable Resolutions, which were reported, and entered as a Minute on the records of the Association. They will be found on a subsequent page. A committee was appointed to arrange for a Memorial Service, consisting of the following gentlemen : Mr. Charles K. Dillaway, President, Mr* Joseph Healy, Secretary, Mr. John D. Bryant, Mr. Augustine M. Gay, Rev. Henry F. Jenks, Mr. Godfrey Morse, and Mr. Arthur Reed. 4 The Memorial Services were held in Huntington Hall, March i5th, 1876, the anniversary of Dr. GARDNER S birth. The following was the ORDER OF EXERCISES. PRAYER, by the Rev. James H. Means, D. D., a graduate of the Class of 1839 : Our Father and our Friend, we gather before Thee as Thy children. Thou dost call us into being, and give us each our work, and in Thine own time dost take the life Thou didst give. But amid these changes, Thou Thyself remainest the same, guiding all, and building whatever we accomplish into the great temple of Thy plans ; so that if we live to Thee, our work cannot be in vain or perish. We are mindful to-night of the devoted labors of him who was our Teacher. We thank Thee that Thou didst spare him so long, didst permit him to accomplish so much for successive classes of pupils, and didst in the end so order it that his work and life should cease together. Thou didst lead him in a path not of his own choosing. Thou didst call him in early life to the care of widowed mother and sisters, a trust how sacredly fulfilled ! Hedging up the path to domestic life, Thou gavest him his pupils for his children. With grateful hearts, we bless Thee for what he was to us : for the fidelity with which he toiled for our good ; for the earnest ness of his efforts to foster all high thought and generous learning ; for his spirit of self-sacrifice. We recall tenderly his words of counsel and encouragement. We can rejoice now even in his stern severity, seeing in it only the proof of his zeal in our behalf. We honor his memory, feeling that his life has entered into ours, that we owe largely to him what we may have been able to accomplish ; and we pray Thee that by his example and teaching, by all the high-toned characters of those about us, we may be quickened and made diligent, may be led to live for the good of our fellow-men and for Thy glory so that when the end comes to us, as it has to him, we may feel that we have finished the work given us to do, and, looking unto Jesus, may rest in peace. May Thy blessing be with those personally bereaved ; comfort them in Thine infinite love. May it rest with those now or in other years associated with the departed in the work of instruction. May the School with which he was so long connected, send forth in the future as in the past, many who shall serve Thee in their generation by honorable and useful lives. Guide those who have charge of the interests of education in this city, that its institutions of learning may be models for the whole land. And let the words now to be spoken to us stir our hearts at once to honor him who has gone, and to profit by his example, even as we were blessed by his life. And unto Thee, of whom and through whom, and to whom are all things, shall be the praise forever. Amen. Music, " INTEGER VITAE," by the choristers :- Integer vitae scelerisque purus Non eget Mauris jaculis nee arcu Nee venenatis gravida sagittis Fusee, pharetra, Sive per Syrtes iter aestuosas Sive facturus per inhospitalem Caucasum vel quae loca fabulosus Lambit Hydaspes. Namque me silva lupus in Sabina, Dum meam canto Lalagen et ultra Terminum curis vagor expeditis, Fugit inermem. A MEMORIAL ODE was next pronounced by Mr. Robert Grant, of the Class of 1869, (given in full on a subsequent page,) followed by Music, by the Choristers : " Master, Master, growing old." Words by Mr. Horace E. Scudder, of the Class of 1864 ; music by Mr. Charles L. Capen. " Master, Master, growing old, Dost thou cling- to me? Seek my boyish hand to hold ? Use my eyes to see ? " " I was young as thou art now ; Let me still be young as thou." " Careless youth and learned age Master, dost thou find Aught on my unwritten page, That may ease thy mind ? " " Faith and honor, love and truth, These abide with happy youth." " Master, art thou gone from me ? Hast thou dropped my hand ? Whither shall I go for thee ? To what shadowy land ? " " Where the young are, there am I ; Youth lives on, though age may die." Closed are now those burning eyes, Gone that rugged smile ; Deep in our hearts the Master lies : Past his grave we file, Singing: "Master, hear our song; Live in our hearts forever young." The MEMORIAL ADDRESS was then delivered by William R. Dimmock, LL. D., of the Class of i85i, which was succeeded by Music, from Mendelssohn s St. Paul, " Be thou faithful unto death, and I will give thee a crown of life. Be not afraid ; My help is nigh," which was sung by Dr. S. W. Langmaid. The exercises were closed with the BENEDICTION, by the Rev. James Reed, of the Class of i85i. The musical portion of the exercises, sung by choristers, under the leadership of Mr. C. J. Capen, of the Class of 8 1839* was furnished by the following named gentlemen : - First Tenors, Henry W. Broughton, (Class of 1871,) John Homans, (1854,) Henry R. Stedman, (1867,) Howard M. Stephens. Second Tenors, Harry B. Hodges, (1870,) Arthur S. Kendall, (1871,) Frederick H. Lombard, Frank Merriam, (1867.) First Bases, Francis Campbell, (1871,) Frederick Dabney, (1862,) Frank W. Robinson, (1866,) Frederick H. Robinson, (1870.) Second Bases, Alfred S. Dabney, (1867,) Horace A. Lamb, (1867,) George S. Lamson, (1872,) Frank W. Rollins, (1873.) UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. MEMORIAL ADDRESS. ^ I ^HE task I have undertaken to-night is a difficult one. The life of a teacher is such, that it cannot, in its full measure, be made known to any. Its deepest anxieties and highest aspirations are such, that one so self-contained as he whose life and services we come here to commemo rate, would not speak much of them to his friends, however intimate ; and its toils and efforts are not those that are observed of men. In most walks of life, we can judge of men by what they do. Their efforts pass into achievements : the achieve ments remain. But when the simple record of a life is, that forty-three years \vere spent in the same school among successive generations of boys, who, because of their boyhood, could know really little of the motives and the efforts of their teacher, whom yet they venerated; I may well feel afraid, lest my words should fall so far short of their intended effect, as not to present the reasons for your IO veneration so fully as to justify the respect and love that you already bear for him. Besides, if he had been a somewhat common-place man, whose principal traits had been amiability and a genial disposition; who had, by continued existence in the same place, performed with fidelity, year after year, a round of routine duties, until we felt that his long service had given him title to our respect as a faithful public servant, it would not, perhaps, be hard to present fully to you such a presence and such a character. But every one who knew at all the great man whose memory we would preserve, felt that he was, in no sense, a common man ; that his traits of character were both marked and peculiar, that they were fashioned in a complex mould. HOW T can I, then, be sure that I can represent it in words, so that you will have the same impression of FRANCIS GARDNER, which was" partially formed in my own mind in boyhood ; modified and rounded in my early man hood, and which has been strengthened and deepened by every year of my acquaintance with him ? And if I should so succeed in conveying to you this impression, how can I be sure that this will appear to you at all the likeness of the man whom you knew ? Feeling these inherent difficulties in my undertaking, I should have been glad if some one else had accepted this office ; and it is only from a sense of profound gratitude, 1 1 and of all but filial duty, that I have yielded to the wish of your Committee, and attempt to represent to you something of the worth of the noble life and the grandeur of personal character of FRANCIS GARDNER. Sixty-four years ago, to-day, in the beautiful village of Walpole, New Hampshire, he was born. His father, the Hon. Francis Gardner, was a lawyer, a graduate of Harvard College, in the Class of 1/93, son of the Reverend Francis Gardner, also a graduate of Harvard, in the Class of i;55, a Congregational clergyman, settled in Leorninster, Massa chusetts, who is described in the History of Leominster as "a man of sound understanding and of great learning," and "a discreet and prudent pastor." His mother s maiden name was Margaret Leonard, daughter of William Leonard, a man of influence in West Springfield, Massachusetts. The father, Francis Gardner, Senior, was a lawyer of prominence in Southern New Hampshire, and represented his district in Congress in 1807-8. There, however, he offended his party, by proving himself independent of party politics, and was not re-elected. These times in which we live, are not, in all respects, unlike the times that have gone before, and it was quite as bitter an offence then, as now, for a man to have a conscience for himself in party matters. Something of that independence that we so highly esteemed 1 2 in the son, descended, doubtless, from the honorable inde pendence of the father. The mother many of us knew, as she lived to advanced years, the centre of her household all her days, the object of fondest affection from her daughters, of the deepest devotion from her son. She was a decided character ; intellectually very keen and bright, with a good deal of humor "excellent company," even amid the infirmities of old age. In those early days of Walpole, when the young lawyer settled there, it was a town of a little less than eighteen hundred inhabitants, but was distinguished for the culture of its people. In i/95, he found worthy competitors in his profession ; for here, in this small village, there resided at the same time with himself, the Hon. Jeremiah Mason, who needs no words to recall his fame ; Joseph Dennie, well known in the literature of the time, and Hon. Roger Vose, distinguished as a wit, as well as a lawyer. The clergy man of the town, the celebrated " Parson Fessenden," father of Thomas G. Fessenden, one of the most noted poets of that clay, was himself a scholar, wit, and author. In 1793, that great- printer and publisher, Isaiah Thomas, established in Walpole, in partnership with David Carlisle who had been his apprentice at Worcester, the "New Hampshire Journal." This was subsequently changed in 13 name to the " Farmer s Weekly Museum," and Joseph Dennie became the editor. Under his management, and the contributions of that brilliant coterie of lawyers and wits, the Farmer s Museum became widely known, and had a large circulation through the whole country, from Maine to Georgia. There must have been a brilliant society in that town, when Francis Gardner, Senior, first went there to live. In addition to these, there were five sons of Col. Benjamin Bellows, the wealthy founder of the town, who lived there on ample estates, with large houses, kept up with all the comfort and hospitality of the olden time. I think we may well say, in the words of a faithful son of Walpole,* that " It was almost, if not quite, unequaled by any town of the size in New England, in the cultivation of its inhabitants, and the generous hospitality which they exercised towards each other, and towards visitors from abroad." In this town, Francis Gardner, Senior, built a house, which is still one of the principal residences in the village. It is one of those substantial square houses, with a slightly slanting roof, that have such a look of spacious comfort, and seem always in keeping with a country life. It is situated near the brow of a bluff, and commands an extensive view of the beautiful valley of the Connecticut, whose course can * Mr. Thomas Bellows Peck, (H. C. 1863,) from whom these particulars of the early society of Walpole and the description of its scenery were received. 14 be traced for several miles, towards the south, till the view is closed by the apparent meeting of the New Hampshire and Vermont hills in the distance. Directly opposite is the town of Westminster, with its wide and fertile meadows, from which rises gradually an extensive range of hills, which may be considered the beginning, on the East, of the Green Mountains. On the North, the view is closed by the huge bulk of Fall Mountain, at the foot of which are the well known Bellows Falls, and opposite, in Vermont, by a range of hills. As you stand at the Gardner house, you see on all these sides foliao-e-covered hills, encircling the t> o beautiful valley. Back of you is the pleasant village, and rising beyond it, another range,- the Walpole hills, which complete the enclosure. There can be few lovelier views in New England. It was upon this scene, that the boy, whose whole life was to be spent away from nature, gazed in his earliest years. He was, then, the child of distinguished and intellectual parents, and back of him were three generations, * trained in the best education of New England. His earliest home was amid scenes of beauty, and his family had the benefit of the brilliant and excellent society of this very remarkable country town. All this must have had an influence upon the child. When, however, he was but a few years of J * Rev. John Gardner, the father of Rev. Francis Gardner, was a graduate of Harvard College, of the class of 1715. i5 his father moved to Keene, in search of wider practice, and four or five years later to Boston. In 1822, FRANCIS GARDNER entered the Latin School. At that time, Benjamin A. Gould was Master, Jonathan Greely Stevenson was Sub-master, and Mr. Leverett, the editor of the Latin Dictionary, was an usher. In 1827, at the age of fifteen, FRANCIS GARDNER entered Harvard College, and was graduated with distinction in 1831. Mr. Wendell Phillips, who was his classmate at* school and college, says, that they met for the first time, and sat next to each other, at the examination for admission to the school, and that a close friendship then began, which lasted through their lives. " He seemed," says Mr. Phillips, "a rough, young giant, the tallest and strongest boy in the class, with all the magnanimity of strength ; but the rough ness was on the surface only. He was never coarse, never ungentle, but in feeling, thought, and word was always delicately refined, in the rudest play never a word spoken that our sisters might not have heard. An unkind word would at any time bring tears to his eyes ; any amount of pain he would bear, like an Indian, unmoved ; but the slightest disgrace, any sneer, made his eyes moisten. I never knew him afraid of anybody or anything but disgrace. He was from mere boyhood and all life long eminently a just man, only claiming fair play, and more than willing to allow it to others. I never knew the time, even in his i6 boyhood, when he did not detect or despise a sham ; that seemed born in him. Perhaps it grew out of what seemed a necessity of his nature, thoroughness. In play, in exer cise, in study, in any little business, such as boys sometimes have, he was always thorough, and he had no moods or fits. Whatever could be done, was done at once." Mr. Phillips says that he never was a general favorite, either at school or in college ; that he lived an isolated life, wrapped up in his pet studies, exercises, and odd habits, and rarely sought companionship ; but that there were a few who valued him highly and whom he valued. " He never quarreled, never resented an affront, was tender as a girl of any one s feelings or sufferings. " His conscientiousness, the dominance of the idea of duty, grew with his years. It marked his boyhood it governed his maturer years. The seriousness of life itself, that it was a terribly earnest thing, no frolic or make-shift to pass time, this element showed itself when I first knew him. " For an American, he was singular from the first, in putting many things above money. To know and to do was all his ambition." At that time there was at the University a military corps, and GARDNER was first non-commissioned officer. Mr. Phillips says, that his character and the reputation in which he was held, were markedly illustrated by his position and the manner in which he fulfilled his duties. " He was a sturdy, stubborn and despotic disciplinarian, as exact, thorough, and painstaking as any drill corporal at West Point. Though not a popular man, the whole class recog nized at once, without debate, that he was the man for the place, submitted to him and his exactions cheerfully, when they would have rebelled at half as much despotism from anybody else in that office. They knew that for him to be thoroughly exact, was fate and irresistible." He came forth from college at nineteen years of age, already an earnest, resolute, healthy man, "pure, truthful, just, honorable, kind, never bearing ill will, ever ready to acknowledge and ever sincerely enjoying real merit and fail- superiority to himself." These are the words of his classmate, who knew him so well from ten years of age. These were the traits of character of the young man as he entered on life. In the autumn following his graduation, he was appoint ed an usher in the Latin school. It was not, however, his purpose to devote himself for life to teaching. He intended to adopt his father s profession, and began the study of law while engaged as a teacher in the school, reading in the then famous office of Messrs. Rand and Fiske. But in the early summer of 1835, his father died. His practice in New Hampshire could not have been more than sufficient, with 3 i8 the competition that he met, to provide comfortably for his growing family, and he moved too late to Boston, to enter as fully into lucrative business, as he doubtless would have done in early life. He supported his family and educated his five children, sending, as we have seen, his only son to Harvard ; but when the summons came, he had but little property to leave them. On his dying bed, he committed to his son the care of his mother and sisters, and this duty the son performed with the utmost filial and fraternal fidelity. This change compelled him to abandon his own personal aims and hopes. He made the surrender a complete one, and, though another course in life might have tended to his greater comfort, he never regretted it. Indeed, with his devotion to duty, he could have done no differently, and this audience, assembled here to-night to do honor to his memory, bears witness, that out of self-renunciation comes true honor the truest success. And yet, Dr. GARDNER thoroughly enjoyed his work. He once said : " I love my calling, and if I were not a teacher, I think I should wish now to be a farmer. I want constantly to see something growing." He was appointed sub-master of the school in 1836, and remained in that position until the summer of i85o. He then accepted an appointment as private tutor of a young man visiting Europe, but in the autumn of i85i was. elected 19 Head Master of the school, which office he retained until his death nearly twenty-five years. Some years ago his health began to fail. A final illness, distressing and painful, after a few weeks, was ended by death, on the tenth of January last. This was the uneventful life of Dr. GARDNER : his daily course in and out of the same house for more than thirty years, at the same school for forty-three ; the regular hours, till age began, at the gymnasium, and early in his life the daily walk to Roxbury Neck ; the only relaxation, looking in at the bookstores in search of something that he might use in his work, and, at one period of his life, groping among the piles of books at the Public Library a simple, quiet life, that many men might pass, and pass with service to their fellow men, and yet leave nothing distinctive in their record. But what was behind and under this? How did the man shine out amid this simple round of regular duties ? A real teacher is much more than a patient hearer of lessons ; than a discriminating giver of tasks adapted to his pupils minds ; than a careful student and wise imparter of knowledge. A teacher, endowed by God for his task, is first a God-created man. He is one whose manhood is seen through all his work ; whose temperament is not smothered nor concealed ; who, through all peculiarities, and even throuo-h faults, comes into close contact with the minds 2O and the hearts of those over whom he is placed, so that they are impressed and stimulated by the living presence of one higher th-an they ; whose work is to be to them a guide, a corrector, but above all, an inspirer ; whose whole being is instinct with a devotion, with a life that is seen by them and enters into theirs. He may work by methods and upon carefully considered principles, but he is never an educational machine. His powers may be enhanced by thorough training ; his stores of knowledge enlarged by patient study, but a teacher s results are after all not so much from what he does, as from what he is the chief factor at work is not his knowledge nor his skill, but beyond all that the man himself. And I am sure that all you who were fortunate in being his pupils, however much you feel conscious of owing to his instruction in the varied studies that you may have worked at under him, yet would say, that as your eyes first fell upon the notice of his death ; as you, perhaps, looked upon him as he lay upon his bier, the thoughts that came rushing to your mind, were not first of Latin or of Greek, but of his character of his robust and independent soul. It is then essential, in estimating the worth of Dr. GARDNER as a teacher of the thousands who have gone forth into life, to call up to our minds the recollection of the manner of man he was. 21 I have already mentioned the change that was made in all his plans and thoughts by his father s death, and of his assuming the charge and support of his father s family. Devoting himself, as he did, to them, consciously aban doning all selfish aims, and feeling that he was to live for them alone, it was not long before he grew into a higher consecration still to service. Life seemed to him rightly spent only as it was spent for use. The ordinary enjoy ments of men, the social pleasures, absorption in the delights of literature, all these he put forever away from him. He was never seen at places of public amusement, never, during the larger part of his life, at the table even of a friend ; all invitations were declined ; not even the annual dinner at Commencement found him present. But if a boy had a question to ask, if a former pupil or even a stranger sought instruction, all that he knew, and all his skill, were given, without thought of time, and with absolute refusal to take reward. A number of years ago, Mr. Seavey, the Head-master of the Girls High School, came to Dr. GARDNER, with whom he was always on terms of intimate friendship, and said that there were some of the teachers of his school who wished to study Latin thoroughly, and asked him to direct them to some competent teacher. Dr. GARDNER pondered a moment, and then told him that, on one condition, he would teach them himself, and would devote to their service two 22 afternoons in each week. The condition was, that they should not offer any pay nor give him any present. He should be very glad to serve them, and the city through them. They accepted his offer, and for two winters he gave to their service two afternoons a week, and found it a pleasure to teach such intelligent and earnest pupils. So ready was he ever to labor for others, so wedded was he to work. Regular exercise he took far beyond the measure of most men. It was necessary for health, but he denied himself all mere pleasure, and in this he was most strict. Nothing was more impressive in reference to his use of time, than the limitations that he set in reading and in study. Some years ago, I learned to my great surprise, that he had never read one of Dickens s novels. Indeed, I never knew of his reading fiction, so rigid was he in self-discipline, - though he had diligently studied the English poets and principal essayists, and prized them with a personal fond ness. To sit in his beautiful library, and look around upon its many cases stored with books, and then to see that it consisted almost entirely of the classics, and all that would best illustrate them, and of the most select of English o authors of highest imagination and highest thought ; to know that out of all the number, no book was ever bought merely that it might be read, but only as he believed that it would be of value for frequent study or future reference ; to f^JflOHtfU hear him say, that he took no pleasure in reading anything, aside from the hope that it might be of use to himself or others ; to find that, even in his favorite departments of study, the same inexorable law apparently ruled ; that he did not concern himself much with speculations connected with the classics or with ancient life, but confined himself in all his studies mainly to his own direct work of a teacher of boys, was to feel that his high idea of usefulness was carried fully into all the relations of life ; that he sought abso lutely nothing for himself except to spend and be spent in service. Yet, let me not give an impression that his range of study was narrow. In Latin, he was a profound student. He knew the language with rare exactness ; and it was characteristic of him that, though he valued Greek far more highly, and though nothing, perhaps, stirred him more strongly to a sort of despairing indignation than the efforts of some to strike out from the foundation of a liberal education that language in which men have been trained since the revival of letters, which is the hopeless model of vigor, precision, and beauty of expression, as well as the principal element in all modern thought, he yet gave more study to Latin than to Greek. His work in teaching language lay largely through the medium of Latin ; and hence to Latin his best work was given. But no one could 24 hear him conduct a recitation in Homer, without seeing how minute was his knowledge, and how careful had been his study of Greek. In his knowledge of French, the same trait was mani fested. I do not think that he ever gave much time to reading French literature, though he read French with fluency. That would have seemed to him reading for amusement ; but I have never met any one who had studied the grammar of the language so extendedly and so thoroughly. His knowledge of other foreign tongues was limited, but he had studied both German and Italian sufficiently for such uses as he had in view. No one could be more modest than he about his attainments. No one had more contempt for the common claim to a knowledge of several languages. I was standing with him one day upon his platform at school, when a boy came up and said, <% Mr. GARDNER, will you tell me, please, how many languages you know? " Mr. GARDNER replied : " I do not know that any one can really be said absolutely to know any language, but, allowing for the imperfection of the human faculties, and for the impossibility of knowing all that makes up the speech of an entire people, I have given so much time to its study, have examined it in so many different ways, that I think I may fairly be said to know one language, and that is, the English." The boy looked amazed. " But," said he, 25 how many languages do you know, as other people say, that they know languages ? " " Oh ! you mean how many languages do I know something about. Why, four or five more, perhaps." And how well he knew the English language, in its structure and form, its vocabulary and its pronunciation ! In literature he had studied it always in the best authors. How frequent his criticism : "That word is not good English ; you may find it in the newspaper or in a novel, perhaps, but you will not find it in an author recognized as standard." In pronunciation, he was careful to a degree that we rarely find. In the shades of vowel sounds and in the enunciation of diphthongs, he was quite as particular as in accentuation. He used to complain with some bitterness that both our great American dictionaries had spoiled the sound of the English language. His acquaintance with history was large, and in one period,, that of the French Revolution, his knowledge was exceedingly minute, descending to all incidents and all characters. The way in which he gained this particular knowledge was characteristic. Some one asked him the meaning of an allusion in Carlyle s History of the French Revolution. He did not understand it and undertook to find it out. He searched libraries until he found the answer to this inquiry ; but other questions meanwhile arose and he continued, until he accumulated something like a thousand 26 pages of manuscript notes and seven volumes of engravings and other prints illustrating the book and the period. Sometimes a brief note cost him all his leisure hours for weeks. This unique collection he was always ready to lend to any reader. He made it, hoping that it would be of service, and his pride of ownership was never suffered to withhold it from any opportunity of use. He eagerly read anything upon the subject of his pro fession, particularly upon methods of teaching the languages. He was often considered to be ultra-conservative in his methods, but while he did take an attitude of decided opposition to those whom he thought ignorant theorists or pretentious charlatans in education, he was really by nature an experimentalist, seeking to accomplish all that he could for his pupils, and trying, although convinced that there was no royal road to learning, to remove difficulties wherever possible. He was always ready to welcome the thoughts of any man of real experience or knowledge. Thus it must be nearly twenty years ago, that he put into my hands, and commended to my careful attention, that very original and brilliant work of " Marcel on Language." His knowledge was exact and always ready for use. During the last twenty-five years of his life, he could hardly be said to have read books he always studied subjects. In this study he would exhaust book after book, sometimes go from library to library, but he always had some precise 27 and definite end, and did not cease his investigation until he had reached that end. The point upon which he started might seem a small one, but he could not rest until he was satisfied upon it. It was singular to see how all his thoughts turned to usefulness. He once said, " I often think that when I get too old for service in the school, I should like to be a sort of volunteer assistant in the Public Library, where my knowledge upon some special subjects might be of use in directing readers." In his last years he on one occasion asked a friend : " If the school-committee should fail some day to re-elect me, don t you think that I should be happier in Italy than in this country without any especial object to live for? After an affirmative response, he said, " I think so, and if I should not be re-elected, I should not care. I think that so far as mere happiness is concerned, I could now be happier there than here. I should look upon it as a release, but I shall not resign so long as I think that I am able to do my work. I do not think that I have any right to lay my armor down so long as I have strength to wear it." It was in accordance, doubtless, with this feeling, that at the beginning of his last sickness he sent his resignation in his work was over. But the o school-committee, to their honor be it said, did not accept his resignation, and so he died in office as master of the school the first head-master to die while actually in the 28 service, since Ezekiel Cheever, who was appointed in 1671 and died in 1708, at the age of ninety-four. Of his physical characteristics, I need hardly speak to you who recollect so well that face and figure. Just six feet in height, his weight one hundred and ninety pounds, all bone and muscle, he was very active in all his movements till his powers began to fail. How often have I thought, as I have seen him running up that long, winding staircase at the Latin School, generally two steps at a time, of Dr. Arnold s saying, that when he could no longer run up the library stairs, he should know that it was time for him to go. How well do we remember when every night from five to six he led as teacher in the general exercises in the old gymnasium in Franklin Street, a nd how we afterwards watched him admiringly on the parallel bars, and laughed, perhaps, as we saw his skull cap fall on one side and his spectacles on the other, as he turned in rapid somersaults, supported by his arms as a pivot, over and over again. How pleased were we to listen to the stories that some older friend would tell of his prowess in still earlier days as a boxer, and how that length of arm and prodigious strength made him an antagonist with the gloves, dreaded even by professionals. That iron frame and those immense powers gave him great capabilities for work, for he never used them to 29 fatigue. His exercise refreshed his mind and did not tire his body. He was simply keeping- himself in best condition for labor. No ordinary toil or care could weary him. He must have been fifty years of age when he told me that so far as fatigue was concerned, he never knew the day when he could not, at its close, do the whole day s work right over again ; and having this remark alluded to afterwards, he said that he believed that it was literally true. He said once that the only sense of weariness that he ever had from teaching was that at times he felt as if a certain amount of magnetism had been drained from him. Such a wonderful man was he in his physical prime. A man so earnest in his work and life, so full of power, so firm in self-discipline, so strong of will as he, could not have appeared in manner like other men. But some pecu liarities of appearance and expression, and more particularly an increasing sombreness of spirit, grew out of circumstances of his life to which it is necessary to allude. He was so weighted with the cares of his father s family, that he early put away from himself the idea of marriage, and grew into years, without adding other interests to his, without attach ing to his life the dearest ties. But of intense strength in domestic affection, he clung most closely to his mother and his sisters. Strong man as he was, he burst into uncon trollable tears at an illness of his mother a number of years before her death. Of intense sensitiveness to all that was 30 calculated to touch the heart, he bore out for burial from his house, subsequent to his father s death, no less than eight members of his family brother-in-law, four sisters, nephew, niece, and mother, until he was left the past seven years entirely alone. But it was not only the deaths of these loved ones, this succession of repeated blows, that wounded him to the depths of his heart, and compelled him to sternest self- control. In most of these cases, the death was preceded by a long period of slow declining health, if not of actual disease; so that some years ago he said, "I have seldom for thirty years entered my house, without the thought that I might immediately hear sad intelligence from some one there sick." His home then was not one of gladness, but almost continually was laden with an atmosphere of sadness, was filled with sad memories and sadder forebodings. At length the last tie was broken ; his whole household was with the dead. There was no successor to any member of his family, and he knew that he must henceforth live a solitary life and die a lonely death. His life was not like that of other men; it was filled with pain to his deepest feelings. It is not strange that he seemed to many an austere man. Only they who really knew him could see the quivering heart underneath the rigid aspect, and knew that he was nerving himself for duty, and saw that the duty was always done, though we could only guess at what cost to himself. In 1870 he wrote thus to a friend: " We all have an instinctive dread of death ; but were to-morrow s mail to carry to you the news that I had passed away, I should wish you to understand that it was an event I most wished. Don t think that I am gloomy, for I am not. I simply have nothing to live for." And yet, another letter of his, a year later, tells the secret of his continued labors, gives a glimpse into the depths of his great heart, and shows the spirit with which he bowed to these afflictions. " If we accept the death of these loved ones in the right spirit, the love which would have been concentrated upon them will be more widely diffused, bringing a happiness, desolate as the heart may be, infinitely superior to any happiness springing from self-gratification in any form." As a teacher, the qualities of the man found their full exercise. Thorough and systematic in instruction, he trained his pupils to good habits of study, to mental accuracy, and solid foundations of learning. He had a remarkable facility for illustrating subjects by familiar objects and incidents. He was a marvel of patience in giving explanations. When he felt that the class or the individual boy was really seeking to understand a subject, he would repeat and vary his efforts over and over again, until the subject was made clear. These illustrations of his were often homely and quaint ; his anecdotes were pointed and 32 odd ; and they gave so much of originality to his instruction that boys were first interested and aroused by his manner and methods, and then received with zest the knowledge that he was trying to convey. He had especial skill with the lower end of the class with those who had, perhaps, been thought idlers or dunces through years of their school course. Many of them were of just the manly disposition, notwithstanding their own indifference to their studies, to appreciate the intense out-spoken directness of Dr. GARDNER, and began to work with new zeal ; while the skill of their instructor, in explanation and illustration, made their work more intelligible than ever before. The progress made by the poorest scholars in his room was constantly a surprise. Year after year, boys who had been looked upon as hope less by other teachers, were enabled, at the close of the year in his room, to enter Harvard very respectably. No pains were ever too great for him to take with a pupil, and he devoted afternoons, and holidays, and vacations with most earnest zeal to the service of any who needed his instruction. Some of his means of illustration were very ingenious. He had a model of Caesar s bridge, made by himself, that seemed much more simple to a boy than did the description in the Latin. His bag of beans was often in use to illustrate the principles of arithmetic. The black-board was constantly made a means of instruction to convey by diagrams lessons 33 in morals, too, as well as geometry. He would startle a class sometimes by the peculiarity of his illustrations. I remember once that he drew a figure on his coat-sleeve instead of the black-board. We remembered that, though we might have forgotten it, if put upon the board probably just what he intended. He believed strongly in presenting to the eye the object he desired to convey to the mind, by all means of pictorial illustration. By his personal exertions, the Latin School acquired probably the largest collection of pictorial and other illustrations of Roman and Grecian topography and antiqui ties possessed by any institution in the country ; comprising paintings, rare and old engravings, models in cork, casts from the antique, the best foreign mural maps and plans, casts of medals, antique coins, specimens of marbles from ancient ruins, and hundreds of photographs of Italian and Athenian views and of statuary. But these were not merely placed upon the walls, they were used by him in the instruction of his classes, and no recitation was more interesting to visitors from Europe as well as from this country, than those in which the boys, after giving an outline description of Rome or Athens, would proceed to different parts of the room, pointing out the different locali ties upon the maps and pictures, or giving from the models details of the buildings. Their knowledge came directly from hinv from no text-book save a brief manuscript of his 5 34 writing ; and one of his pupils told me that he found this outline, learned in his school days, of more value to him in Athens than all the guide books that he had. And yet, Dr. GARDNER was never in Athens or Rome. How well his pupils remember him in recitation ; the short and quick questions, one leading to another ; the care ful accuracy that he required in matters of etymology ; the common-sense view that he took of matters of syntax. How he used to go down to elementary principles, surpris ing, perhaps, a class who had imagined themselves equal to the exceptional cases of syntax, by a few questions that told them that their knowledge of some of the parts of speech was uncertain. I remember his coming into the room of one of the younger classes holding up a knife. " What part of speech is that ? " A few boys accustomed to look for something out of the usual course in his questions, main tained a prudent silence ; but almost all gave as answer, " A noun." " No, it is not a part of speech at all its name is a noun it is a knife." This merely illustrates his way of probing frequently the knowledge of the boys in familiar style, seeing if they really comprehended what they were learning. The great object that he aimed at in his instruc tions was that the boys in their classical work should learn Latin and Greek, and not merely to translate certain selec tions from the languages. Mere polish of work he valued little in recitation in comparison with progress made. Under 35 his instruction the boys year after year gained accurate and ready knowledge ; they carried away an idea of thorough ness, a standard of comparison that must have been useful in all pursuits of life. But he was by no means confined by the topics of the recitation. He was always willing to attend to, always encouraged questions from the boys, unless they were plainly idle ; and his pupils remember with admiration his remarkable readiness on all the multiform questions raised by school boy curiosity and ingenuity. In the government of his school he required strict obedience, unquestioning submission to authority, and re spect in both words and manner. But he was not particular about points of order regarded as essential by many. His authority was so absolute, that he could allow a great deal of freedom in the school-room. His own physical powers were so vigorous, that he appeared to sympathize with the restlessness of boys. He endeavored to secure their interest in their studies, believing that then the ordinary forms of school discipline could be dispensed with. There was always in his room an impression of vigorous life. The painful stillness of the House of Correction and of many schools a stillness as of death, you did not find, but indi cations of intelligent study and happy work. He left a great deal to boys honor, but it was always with his eyes wide open. If he found himself deceived, 36 there was, according to circumstances, a lash of contempt applied with stinging words, or an expression of evidently sincere sorrow and disappointment, either of which was generally sufficient to prevent a repetition of the trans gression. There was always under his influence an unusually high standard of truth among his pupils. He was so straight forward himself, so free from any tricks or meanness, that he made a very strong impression of the manliness of truth. He was never more severe than upon falsehood, and upon the usual methods of deception by which boys often disguise or dodge the truth. He did not readily forget such offences in a boy ; indeed, it is doubtful if he ever forgot them. But while he would encourage a boy to make every effort to redeem himself, he felt that if a boy had once erred in a particular direction, he was likely ever after to sin again in the same way. He had a remarkable faculty of detecting the faults of boys, underneath the surface of ordinary school propriety, and was inexorable in holding good boys to a high standard of right feeling as well as of right action ; and, possibly, he may have appeared more stern to their slight offences, than to the more serious faults of boys who made little effort to do right. In truth, he was educating those who seemed more capable of it, to high moral princi ples ; while in the case of those of lower character, he was sat isfied with securing reasonable conformity to external duty. 37 Boys in the lower classes who did not come into close contact with him, except when detected in serious faults, were often afraid of him. But the boys in his own classes were soon impressed by his patience in instruction, his entire devotion to their interests, and his earnest maintaining of an absolute standard of truth. The absence of unnecessary restraint, his perfect impartiality and love of justice, his. readiness to make full amends for any mistake in govern ment, the air of manliness and independence that always characterized him, his firmness that could be shaken by no appliances of influence, his especial kindness to the poor- to those who were laboring under difficulties led them almost universally to respect, to admire, to venerate him. His manner was unsympathetic, but they early learned that they could trust implicitly to his real kindness of action and life. There was nothing demonstrative about his regard for them, but they felt that they could rely upon him for any service they might need. As one of his pupils wrote a number of years ago : " We soon learned that under Mr. GARDNER S straightforward, blunt manner lay a genuine affection for us and for his own vocation as teacher ; and the curt phrase of censure came home without rankling, because we knew it not only just and uttered in all kindness, but based on a higher sense of duty and a more perfect appreciation of right, than we could ourselves compre hend." 38 He had a certain grim humor and an odd quaintness of expression that were very effective in his dealing with the boys, and often very amusing as they were repeated and passed through the school. Conceit he was very apt to pierce, and the few pupils who carried away from the school any bitterness of feeling, were mainly those whom, after the manner of Socrates, he chided for " thinking themselves to be something when they were nothing." But what was Dr. GARDNER as a Head Master, as well as a teacher, in his relations to his assistants ? Doubtless he was not always understood by those who were working under him. Some, perhaps, thought him hard a man who demanded a great deal of labor from them, and then was not always satisfied with the best that they could do. Habituated to hard toil and great expenditure of effort himself, it may be that he did demand more than some with the best will could perform. He never asked any to give so much toil and energy to the school as he gave himself. But it is true that he did insist on results, on success in teaching. If the boys of a class did not make fair progress, he was dissatisfied, no matter how patient or how scholarly the teacher. He did not expect all things from any one, but he did feel that the city paid sufficient salaries to secure as teachers men who had fair power of control, reasonable tact in government, and devotion to their duties. He did 39 not think it right that the time of a whole class of boys should be wasted, that a teacher might have opportunity gradually to work into fitness for the place, the duties of which he was supposed, on his appointment, competent to perform. He was too strong a man to allow his sympathy for a teacher whom he thought unsuccessful to interfere with his conviction of duty to his school. But Dr. GARDNER never required any one to adopt ways and methods of his. He allowed the largest liberty in this respect, and only demanded that the classes should make the desired progress. When under twenty-one years of age, I was appointed an usher in the school. I had, of course, but the slightest experience in teaching. I remember well the morning when I presented myself before him for my in structions. I never forgot his words ; I repeat them here because I presume that he uttered them substantially to others, and they seem to me to illustrate better than any of my own, his relations to his assistants. After telling me that the city had a right to expect good teaching, and that if a teacher did not succeed, he must give way to some one who could, he said, " I shall demand of you results, but you may take your own methods of producing them. I shall not complain of your methods if the right results come. I shall always be glad to give you advice, but one thing more. If you adopt your own course and methods, you may fail ; if you try to copy mine, you certainly will. In teaching, no 40 6ne can copy another ; he must be himself. I do not under value experience, of course, but after all, in a very high sense, a teacher is born and not made." He was then a strong, decided man, not only doing his own work well, but insisting, so far as he had the power, that others should do their work well also. His authority in all general matters extended down through the school, and it was an authority that was felt. But teachers in their own rooms, so far as they did not interfere with the general discipline of the school, were left to adopt such measures and means as they found best, unless the interference of the Head Master was required. In any particular case where the teacher needed the especial assistance of the master, Dr. GARDNER was ready with advice or authority ; but if there was a radical lack of con trol, he never undertook to govern a class for another. He o was sometimes blamed for not propping up the weak control of a teacher ; but he firmly held the opinion, that if one were really deficient in authority, he could not be supported or materially helped by any one else. But completely as he was identified with the school, his heart beat in quick response to any call for sympathy in public matters. How earnestly patriotic he was during the war! How he endeavored to link the school to the move ments in the field, and so carry to an ardent glow the patriotic feelings of his pupils by the adoption of one company, (whose captain was an old school-boy,) known as the Latin School Company, to the comfort of whose men the school constantly contributed, his pupils at that time will well remember. And when the war was over, how tenderly he honored the memory of those who fell, and cherished the services of those who survived, is shown hy the portraits in the school hall, by the marble tablets, and by the beautiful statue that exhibits upon her shield the names of our dead heroes. And not only in our country s greatest need did he reach out in service beyond his home and school, but in the public fairs for great charities that have illustrated the gen erosity of our city, it has been well known how actively he gave his energies, how ready he was to assist his boys in learning early to give their help. Such then was our teacher ; eager for the improvement and the character of his scholars ; devoted, with a devotion that took no thought of self, to all their interests ; thorough in his teaching and accurate in knowledge, apt at instruction, enthusiastic in his work, conscientious and firm as an agent of the city in directing others, and yet so liberal- that he recognized the right of others to work in their own way, as they were best fitted to work; energetic, impartial, un affected, independent, sincere ; proud of his school, proud of the city ; devoted with untiring loyalty to his country, 42 with a heart that beat in sympathy with the suffering every where. The old School has many bright names upon its record. We can count scholars from Cotton Mather down. In this centennial year, we number five signers of the Declaration of Independence, from our roll of boys ; orators whose fiery words could summon a people to arms, or, if human words could, assuage the passions of contending sections ; many representatives of our government at foreign courts, judges and chief justices of our own and other States, governors and members of Congress in numbers, bishops and saintly clergy, men of power to-day in all professions and callings in life : but is there one among them all, from Governor Leverett, who was a boy here in 1635, down to our own time, who ever did more for the School, through the impress upon his pupils, did more for this community, is more deserving in this connection to be honored and revered by us, than FRANCIS GARDNER ? But in speaking of him as our teacher, we have not said all that we think of, as we remember him to-night. As a teacher he was great, but in ways that we can hardly describe, in the bearing and look of the man, in the uncon scious influence that he exerted, he gave such an expression of genuine manhood, of honest and fearless independence, and of undeviating honesty, with a hatred of shams and pre tense, that his name is dear to us and his character dearly 43 prized. We think of him, after all, not so miich as our teacher, as we do as a man whom it was good to know. Just here we have, I think, an indication of how great he really was. Number up the men who have left any name as famous teachers, how few they are. But how fewer still are they of whom you can think as anything else than teachers. If they became great, it was, in part, because they were really absorbed in their work. You could not think of them ^as anything else. But with Dr. GARDNER, great teacher as we know he was, we yet feel that his manhood was large enough for any calling. We can imagine him in the profession that he first fancied. What might he not have attained as an advocate at the bar, with his immense application, capacity for storing knowledge ready for use, clear discernment of character, great power of will, skill in elucidating facts, exact and immense command of language and, in case of need, withering sarcasm and humor that could scorch ? o Suppose him in public life. How independent would he have been of all mere party ties or partizan action 1 How he would have scorned the corruptions of the day, how true he would have been to all our highest aspirations for our country s life ! Again, what a soldier he would have made! How strict a disciplinarian, and yet how faithful to his men ; how ready would he have been for all emergencies ! How we 44 can imagine him leading a forlorn hope, with a courage that could not falter ! We would not unduly extol his memory. He had his faults, as others have ; but where, I appeal to you, his pupils, do you find another man of such decision and force, whose tenderness was so great, of such power of will and such self-trust, who so systematically devoted him self to service ; of such stores of knowledge and such skill in controling others ; whose only ambition was usefulness ? We feel grateful for his instruction as a teacher; we look back upon his life devoted to the School with admira tion ; we in some measure realize how noble and self- denying a life he lived. FRANCIS GARDNER, our teacher, the great Head Master of our time, has gone. And as we now know how large a place he has filled in our recollections and regards, we feel that to us without him the world will never seem quite the same. MEMORIAL ODE. WE come to-night together From the great world s stir and strife, To pay the fitting trib ute To a pure, devoted life ; To sound a good man s praises ; Of simple worth to tell, And to fall a tear on the humble bier Of one who lived so well. Oh, whatsoever be man s fate In this strange world of ours, Tread he a pathway rough with thorns Or strewn with smiling flowers ; Tis the deepest wish of each human heart That when life s toil is past, The world may say, o er his coffined clay, He was faithful to the last. 4 6 And with the truest meaning, May those rare words be said Of the stern, heroic, Christian man We mourn to-night as dead. A crown of thorns was the life reward Of our dear old guide and friend, But he bravely fought without a thought Of himself to the bitter end. Oh happy he whom fate allows The cup of joy to drain ; Oh happy he whose life is tuned To fortune s sweet refrain ! For when the face of Heaven smiles, For when the heart is light, And no tears arise to dim the eyes, It is easy to do right. But think of him content to toil Through all the weary years, Renounce the wishes of his heart And win his bread with tears All silently for others sake He worked by day, by night, Until at length his rugged strength In duty found delight. 47 And through the dull, the weary years He kept his secret still ; He knew not wealth, he knew no ease, And all the world seemed chill The few stars faded one by one That cheered his humble sky, Nor wife, nor child, beside him smiled When the good man came to die. E en as the oak, that long exposed To lightning, wind and rain, Uprooted falls before its time, In ruin to the plain ; He bore with fortitude the strokes Of Providence, until, O erwhelmed at last by blow and blast, The steadfast heart grew still. And so we leave unto his God Our friend, whose rugged truth, Instilled the seeds of manliness Within our cherished youth. Oh may our children ne er forget With reverence to speak Of the brave old man of iron, Who taught their fathers Greek. 4 8 Above his grave the grass will grow, And still the busy tide Of life roll on, as if our friend Had never lived and died. There was a beauty in his years Which never can depart ; Well doeth he, whoe er he be, Who takes it to his heart. MINUTE. THE BOSTON LATIN SCHOOL ASSOCIATION most gratefully recognizes the measureless debt which the School owes to the generous, untiring and zealous devotion of the late Dr. FRANCIS GARDNER. He brought to its service marvellous industry, almost unequalled power to work, exact scholarship, and a conscientious thoroughness in preparation for duty, rare among American scholars ; a talent for teaching and love of it, which not only served the brilliant and ready intellect, but won to study and lifted to success minds upon which the most persevering efforts of others had been wholly without result. His ingenuity in varying his explanations and fertility of illustration,- joined to singular patience, generally succeeded at last in rousing the most sluggard, interesting the most indifferent, and reaching the comprehension of the dullest student. He had the true master s power to win submission. Even his boyish delight in athletic games, which made him join his 5o boys in all their sports on terms of frolic equality, never lessened this power of control. He let no pupil see he was a favorite. Neither brilliant gifts nor social position tempted his scrupulous impartiality. If a keen watch did ever detect any inclining of the scale, it was toward some poor and friendless one to whom nature had not been generous, and who was struggling for light and strength. The Association owes its existence to him, and to his zeal and effort the School itself owes a large share of the love and respect it enjoys to-day. He did not so much serve it as live for it ; had hardly any life separate from the School, and died in the harness ; his vigorous constitution and iron strength were worn out by a too generous and unresting service, which was indeed the joy and delight of his life. Those who grew up under his "care recognize that he taught them more than language, or science; since by his inspiration life took a serious and earnest purpose, and by example as well as precept he stirred them to be always thoroughly fit for any duty they undertook. Though his method was one of strict discipline and unquestioning submission to authority, it was ennobled and justified by training boys to a hearty love of sound learning, to the highest sense of honor and a perfect loyalty to truth. No habit of deception, in word or deed, no toleration of shams, could survive his discipline and example. Patient of labor and never sparing himself, he demanded of his pupils diligent 5i efforts, but only to secure the full development of their own powers. Under a manner which some thought austere was a tenderness almost womanly, which felt keenly even a cold word, and melted in his harshest-seeming moments before the first appeal to his heart. It is not for us to recall that domestic circle where, self- denying and devoted, he bore, all his life, heavy responsibility with tireless love. During his long term of. office, nearly half a century, he neither took nor needed recreation or leisure. To so wholly devoted and disinterested a spirit, rest meant giving up his leisure hours to some lagging or ill-prepared pupil, enjoining on him only the condition that he should offer no pay nor any special thanks. These rare gifts and this uncalculating sacrifice reaped all the reward they asked, the love and respect of those who grew up under them, and who look back to him not only as the great Head Master, ranking with those of other lands whose names have come down to us embalmed in the gratitude of ages, but as one of the best friends of their happiest years, one to whom they owe the finest inspiration and the best help those years had. Though his rigorous devotion to his profession left him little time for other matters, still his influence was always felt on the right side, and his pupils were never mere scholars, but ready and prepared at every call of citizenship or society. The debt which sound learning, classical study and a true education owe to his efforts is incalculable. But more valuable 52 still, here and now, is the inspiration of a life sacredly and modestly devoted to constant usefulness, of a conscientiousness which sought no public applause, gave no hour to gain, allowed none for leisure, and repudiated even the cultivation of literature unless as a means to help others ; this example is an invaluable contribution to the educating forces of society and a noble spur both to teacher and pupil. No man in this generation has given himself more earnestly or more disinterestedly to the service of the community, and few have achieved greater success in such service.