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Full text of "Late Mogollon pottery types of the Reserve area"

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L I B R_A RY 

OF THL 

UNIVERSITY 

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FIELDIANA • ANTHROPOLOGY 

Published by 
CHICAGO NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM 

Volume 36 January 10, 1956 No. 7 



LATE MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 
OF THE RESERVE AREA 

John B, Rinaldo 
Assistant Curator, Archaeology 

AND 

Elaine A. Bluhm 

Assistant, Archaeology 
INTRODUCTION 

The classification of pottery excavated in the Reserve area of 
west central New Mexico by the Chicago Natural History Museum 
Southwest Archaeological Expeditions during the last six years has 
resulted in the distinction of some eight types which have hitherto 
been only incompletely and indefinitely described. Although we, 
who were doing the classifying, carried in mind a general idea of each 
of these, we hesitated to describe them until their existence as types 
had been confirmed by a sufficient number of sherds and some 
complete vessels. We were particularly hesitant over the seven 
brown ware types because they had been mentioned by Nesbitt 
(1938, pp. 139-140) as falling within the two types. Upper Gila 
Corrugated and Reserve Polychrome. 

As a result of this circumspection, compilation and publication 
of the descriptions which appear below were delayed for some time. 
These descriptions received their first real impetus from the appear- 
ance in mimeograph form of A Check hist of Southwestern Pottery 
Types, compiled by Dr. Harold S. Colton of the Museum of Northern 
Arizona. Included in this list were a number of types which had 
hitherto been inadequately described and it was suggested that we 
describe those with which we were most familiar. We acknowledge 
here the stimulus which Dr. Colton's paper gave to us. Dr. Paul 
S. Martin gave us more immediate and practical help, advice and 
encouragement in the preparation and final publication of these 
descriptions and for this we are very grateful. 
No. 784 -— 149 Tre LIBRARY OP THE 

JAN 19 iy66 

UMVOtnY OF lUlNOlS 



150 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

The whole vessels and sherds analyzed for this report came from 
Wet Leggett Pueblo, Three Pines Pueblo, South Leggett Pueblo 
(Martin and Rinaldo, 1950b) and Oak Springs Pueblo (Martin, 
Rinaldo, and Antevs, 1949) in the Pine Lawn Valley, New Mexico; 
Tularosa Cave, Cordova Cave (Martin, Rinaldo, and others, 1952), 
Block Cave (Martin, Rinaldo, and Bluhm, 1954), Apache Creek 
Pueblo and Higgins Flat Pueblo (Martin and others, in press) 
in the Reserve area; and Cosper Cliff-Dwelling in the Blue River 
Valley, Arizona (Martin, Rinaldo, and Bluhm, 1954), which were 
excavated by Chicago Natural History Museum from 1948 to 1953. 
In addition, several whole vessels illustrated here come from Chicago 
Natural History Museum collections from San Cosmos and Round 
Valley, Arizona, and from unknown locations in New Mexico. 

The majority of the raw data on which these descriptions are 
based was assembled by Mrs. Marilyn Corcoran, and we wish to 
offer our thanks for help so ably and graciously extended. These 
data on the physical descriptions were checked, analyzed, and com- 
piled primarily by Elaine Bluhm, with some assistance from the 
senior author. The data on the temporal and geographical dis- 
tributions of the types were gathered by the senior author from the 
excavation and survey data of the several Chicago Natural History 
Museum Southwestern Archaeological Expeditions, and additional 
data for Tularosa White-on-Red and Reserve Incised Corrugated 
were gathered from charts prepared by Dr. E. B. Danson for his 
doctoral dissertation. An Archaeological Survey of West Central 
New Mexico and East Central Arizona. We appreciate his making 
these data available. We are also indebted to Mr. James Barter 
for criticizing the following discussion and suggesting certain im- 
provements in the accompanying chart. Mr. Philip Young traced 
the map shown in figure 52. 

DISCUSSION 

Most of the pottery types of the Mimbres drainage and those 
of the Upper San Francisco are essentially the same before about 
A.D. 1100 and become somewhat differentiated after that; yet they 
remain essentially Mogollon in character. Because of these unusual 
circumstances, the pottery types described here take on added 
significance. They also have more value and meaning in archae- 
ological studies of the region because their sequence of typological 
development has been confirmed by the stratigraphy in Tularosa 
and Block caves and by the horizontal (or dwelling-by-dwelling) 
seriation of other sites in the area. 




Fig. 52. Map showing location of Pine Lawn Valley and late Mogollon sites. 

151 



152 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

The analysis and description of these pottery types have brought 
into sharper focus the picture of relationships between all the pottery 
types of the Reserve area. They have shown clearly that the vast 
majority of types (the only major exceptions being Reserve Black- 
on-White and Tularosa Black-on-White), represent a concatenation 
of variations on a very few basic types. We have tried to show this 
in a broad way by the accompanying chart (fig. 53), which illustrates 
the antecedents and relationships of the brown ware types in the 
area. The textured or tooled and corrugated types described here 
are all quite clearly related to their antecedent plain and textured 
types. 

Reserve Plain Corrugated, for example, is simply a late varia- 
tion, with narrower fillets, of Three Circle Neck Corrugated, which 
in turn harks back in the same way to Alma Neck Banded and more 
basically to Alma Plain and Alma Rough. Moreover, the tradition 
of texturing the surface by incising and punching observed in Alma 
Incised and Alma Punched (Haury, 1936, pp. 39-40) was carried 
on in the surface treatment of the lowest coil of Three Circle Neck 
Corrugated (Haury, 1936, p. 36), and later in the decoration of 
Reserve Incised Corrugated and Reserve Punched Corrugated. 
In both these types the designs are applied on what is essentially 
a Reserve Plain Corrugated base. Reserve Plain Corrugated is 
probably antecedent to Reserve Indented Corrugated and the 
combination of the two techniques of plain corrugation and inden- 
tation reaches its apogee in certain examples of Tularosa Patterned 
Corrugated. This close typological relationship is indicated by the 
fact that Nesbitt (1938, pp. 139-140) classified Reserve Plain Cor- 
rugated, Reserve Incised Corrugated, Reserve Punched Corrugated 
and Tularosa Patterned Corrugated all under Upper Gila Cor- 
rugated. Their distinction as significant chronological variations 
came later with the excavation of sites intermediate in time between 
Nesbitt's "pithouse" and "pueblo" periods and with longer strati- 
graphic series. 

Two other types described below — Tularosa White-on-Red and 
Starkweather Smudged Decorated — were once included under the 
single type, Reserve Polychrome (Nesbitt, 1938, p. 139). It was 
later recognized that these constitute two distinct, significant 
variations (Martin, Rinaldo, and Antevs, 1949, p. 188). The term 
"Reserve Polychrome" is now considered to be a misnomer (Danson, 
1952) and the name "Tularosa White-on-Red" has been substituted 
for this type of pottery (Martin, Rinaldo, and Bluhm, 1954, p. 53). 













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153 



154 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

These pottery types also have their roots in Mogollon tradition. 
Starkweather Smudged Decorated is related on the one hand to 
Reserve Smudged and on the other hand to Mimbres Bold Face 
Black-on-White. Essentially it represents the application of Mo- 
gollon designs in a fugitive paint (probably white), to the interiors 
of Reserve Smudged bowls. In a similar fashion Tularosa White- 
on-Red represents the application of Mogollon designs in a white 
paint (sometimes fugitive) to the exteriors of Tularosa Fillet Rim 
bowls. When this relationship is traced back, Tularosa Fillet Rim 
is found to represent the addition of a fillet decorated rim to Reserve 
Smudged bowls, and Reserve Smudged is essentially a late interior 
smudged variation of Alma Plain. If the relationship is traced up, 
toward a.d. 1250 it may be seen that occasionally the designs on 
Tularosa White-on-Red are in the Anasazi design vocabulary, and 
that a similar relationship between St. Johns Polychrome and 
Tularosa White-on-Red is evident in the similarity in the exterior 
designs, and to a certain extent in the shapes of the bowls. In 
a sense, St. Johns Polychrome is a late variation of Tularosa White- 
on-Red with black on red decorated interiors rather than polished 
smudged interiors. In another sense, because the interior black on 
red designs of St. Johns Polychrome are derived from Wingate 
Black-on-Red, it is also a late variation of Wingate Black-on-Red 
with a Tularosa White-on-Red exterior design and shape. 

The surface treatments mentioned above of incising, punching, 
polishing, smudging, scoring, and neck banding have been character- 
ized repeatedly as Mogollon rather than Anasazi (Haury, 1936, 
p. 44; 1940, pp. 93-95). Their prior occurrence in Mogollon pottery- 
making has been confirmed recently by carbon 14 dates from 
Tularosa Cave and tree-ring dates from Turkey Foot Ridge. Fur- 
thermore, these techniques have a greater frequency both early and 
late in the Mogollon area, a fact which may not prove anything 
but at least argues strongly for their prior occurrence there. Whether 
these techniques had their ultimate origin to the south in Mexico, 
or to the southeast as originally postulated by Haury (1936, pp. 
45-46) remains to be determined. 

On the whole, one also senses a more closely integrated craft 
among the Mogollon than among the Anasazi. The Mogollon 
painted-decorated types seem more closely related to the plain ware 
types; for example, San Francisco Red and San Lorenzo Red-on- 
Brown seem closely related and so do Reserve Smudged and Stark- 
weather Smudged Decorated, Tularosa Fillet Rim and Tularosa 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 155 

White-on-Red. Such combinations occur among the Anasazi types 
(Mancos Black-on-White with indented corrugated exterior, for 
example) , but they occur so rarely as to seem accidental rather than 
consistent variations. Quite to the contrary, there is a sharp dis- 
tinction in Anasazi pottery between the unpolished and textured, 
or corrugated, types and the polished painted decorated types that 
occur rarely among the Mogollon types. These differences exist 
between Mogollon utilitarian and painted types, particularly in 
later times, but even then there are many intermediate types that 
create the impression of a closely knit technology. 

Reserve Black-on-White and Tularosa Black-on-White are 
exceptions in this group of related ceramics because they are painted 
types of northern derivation and are not genetically related to the 
brown ware types described herein. Reserve Black-on-White was 
described by Rinaldo in an earlier report (Martin and Rinaldo, 1950b, 
pp. 502-503). Although Tularosa Black-on-White has been de- 
scribed before (Gladwin, 1931, pp. 32-35; Colton and Hargrave, 
1937, pp. 240-241; Nesbitt, 1938, p. 139), we have included it here 
because we feel that the large documented collections of sherds and 
whole vessels and purchased collections (1894 and 1901) of 340 whole 
vessels at Chicago Natural History Museum indicate that current 
definitions are in need of modification. Even though it was Anasazi- 
inspired, we believe that Tularosa Black-on-White was locally made 
and perhaps influenced by local techniques. Eventually, it, too, 
might have been integrated with the local pattern had not the 
Tularosa drainage been abandoned at the end of the Tularosa 
Phase. 

Description of Pottery 

Reserve Plain Corrugated 

Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually brown; ranges from pinkish tan to dark brown and black 

(Maerz and Paul 5A9, 5A10, 8C9). 
Temper: light-colored sand grains, mostly rounded, some angular. 
Fracture: moderately crumbling to sharp, depending on firing and amount of 

temper. 
Thickness of vessel walls: 0.4 to 1.0 cm., average 0.7. 

Surface Features: 

Exterior color: usually medium to dark brown; ranges from light pinkish 
orange and grayish red to gray-brown and dark gray (Maerz and Paul 4A8, 
5A9, 6F9, 15A7, 7A9, 8C9). 



156 



FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 







...»*!*#»-^i .^m?q(i 





Fig. 54. Pottery sherds, a, d-i, Reserve Plain Corrugated; h, Reserve Plain 
Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety, Tularosa variant; c, Reserve Plain Cor- 
rugated, Smudged Interior Variety. Scale in centimeters. 



Exterior finish (fig. 54): plain corrugated, not indented; evenly spaced cor- 
rugations spiral around vessel. Coils usually stand out from surface; very 
rarely they are smoothed or flattened slightly. Coiling usually begins 1 to 3 
cm. below the rim, occasionally corrugations begin at rim. Corrugations: 
2 to 9 per 2 cm., average 5. 

Interior color: usually medium to dark brown; ranges from light tan through 
dark brown to black (Maerz and Paul 11E7, 12B6, 14A7, 15C9). 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 157 

Interior finish: usually poorly smoothed, often rough; few smoothing marks 
show. Occasionally surface is smooth but not polished. 

Vessel Shapes: jars and bowls. Few whole vessels available for measurement. 
Jars: usually wide-mouthed, with plain out-flaring rims. 

Maximum diameter across body; rim diameters of whole vessels and sherds 

vary from 10 to 26 cm. Small jar with rim diameter of 10.0 cm. has maximum 

diameter of 14.0 cm., height of 12.7 cm. (fig. 55). 
Bowls: straight-sided or slightly in- or out-curving. 

Diameters from sherds vary from 16 to 22 cm. 

< JARS ><-BOWLS^ 

Fig. 55. Rim forms of Reserve Plain Corrugated jars and bowls. 

Range of Distribution: upper San Francisco River and tributaries, upper Blue 
River and tributaries, Tularosa River, Apache Creek, northwest to Springer- 
ville. 

Stages and Phases: Reserve and Tularosa Phases, Pueblo II and III. 

Time: ca. a.d. 1000 to 1200. 

Reserve Plain Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety 

Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually medium brown with black near smudged surface; ranges 
from beige and tan to dark brown and black (Maerz and Paul 5A9, 6A10, 
15E10). 
Temper: same as Reserve Plain Corrugated. 
Fracture: same as Reserve Plain Corrugated. 
Thickness of vessel walls: 0.5 to 1.0 cm., average 0.65. 

Surface Features: 

Exterior color: usually medium brown to dark brown; ranges from tan to dark 
brown and black (Maerz and Paul 13B4, 13A6, 14C7, 16A7). 

Exterior finish: plain corrugated, not indented; evenly spaced corrugations 
spiral around vessel. Sometimes corrugations are rubbed over to smooth 
edges of coils. Corrugations: 3 to 10 per 2 cm., average 5. In Tularosa 
variant corrugations are narrow, toward upper end of range; top two or 
three rows of corrugations sometimes indented resembling fillet on Tularosa 
Fillet Rim bowls. 

Interior color: black, smudged, dull to glossy; rarely iridescent black. 



158 



FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 



Interior finish: smoothed and polished with smudged finish; occasional crackle 
finish. 

Vessel Shapes: bowls with straight or slightly in- or out-curving rims. Diameters 
from sherds and whole vessels 11 to 22 cm.; depths of whole vessels 5.5 to 
8.5 cm.; usually depth is less than diameter (figs. 56, 57). 

Range of Distribution: same as Reserve Plain Corrugated. 

Stages and Phases: same as Reserve Plain Corrugated. 

Time: ca. a.d. 1050 to 1200. 



Fig. 56. Rim forms of Reserve Plain 
Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety 
bowls. 



// I 







Fig. 57. Vessels, a. Reserve Plain Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety, 
Tularosa variant bowl (cat. no. 74970); Round Valley, Arizona; height 11.4 cm., 
diameter 23.4 cm. b, Reserve Plain Corrugated jar (cat. no. 21327); New Mexico; 
height 12.5 cm., diameter 14.0 cm. c, Reserve Plain Corrugated, Smudged 
Interior Variety bowl (cat. no. 74965); Round Valley, Arizona; height 8.5 cm., 
diameter 15.9 cm. d, Reserve Plain Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety bowl 
(cat. no. 74931); Round Valley, Arizona; height 5.4 cm., diameter 11.5 cm. 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 159 

Reserve Indented Corrugated 

Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually medium brown; ranges from yellowish tan and reddish tan 

through brown and gray-brown to dark brown and black (Maerz and Paul 

14C8, 13A9, 7A8, 8J7). 
Temper: light-colored sand grains, mostly rounded, some angular. More temper 

per sherd in Hinkle Park Cliff-Dwelling than other Reserve area sites may 

indicate sandier clay. 
Fracture: moderately crumbling, depending on amount of temper and firing. 
Thickness of vessel walls: 0.4 to 1.2 cm., average 0.7. 

Surface Features: 

Exterior color: usually medium brown to dark brown; ranges from pinkish tan 
and light tan to dull black (Maerz and Paul 12A2, 6A10, 8C6). 

Exterior finish (fig. 58) : corrugated, finger indented, usually at regular intervals; 
surface corrugations frequently slightly smoothed to flatten peaks of inden- 
tations. Rarely coils are almost obliterated with smoothing. Corrugations: 
3 to 10 per 2 cm., average 5.2. Indentations: 1.5 to 4.5 per 2 cm., average 2.8. 

Interior color: usually medium brown; ranges from light pinkish tan to black 
(Maerz and Paul 5A9, 8A3). 

Interior surface finish: carelessly smoothed to smooth, sometimes rough. 

Vessel Shapes: jars, bowls, and rarely double vessel with jar top set into bowl 
bottom, bowl overlapping at seam, edge of bowl finished before placing jar top. 
Jars: usually wide-mouthed, with out-flaring rim; rim usually plain; corrugation 
begins 1 to 2 cm. below rim, although sometimes corrugations extend to rim. 
Height of whole and reconstructed vessels varies from 5.9 to 28.0 cm.; max- 
imum diameter from 6.7 to 35.5 cm. (fig. 59). 
Bowls: usually straight-sided or slightly out-curving. Diameters, measured 
from sherds, vary from 18 to 24 cm. 

Range of Distribution: upper San Francisco River and tributaries, upper Blue 
River, Tularosa River, Apache Creek, possibly northwest to Springerville. 

Stages and Phases: Reserve and Tularosa Phases, Pueblo II and III. 

Time: ca. a.d. 1050-1250. 

Reserve Indented Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety 

Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually medium brown to brown, changing to black near smudged 
surface; ranges from yellowish tan through brown and gray-brown to dark 
brown and black; larger percentage of sherds have black core all the way 
through than in Reserve Indented Corrugated (Maerz and Paul 14C8, 13A9, 
7A8, 8J7). 

Temper: same as Reserve Indented Corrugated. 

Fracture: same as Reserve Indented Corrugated. 

Thickness of vessel walls: 0.4 to 1.0 cm., average 0.7. 




Fig. 58. Pottery sherds, a, c, h, I, Reserve Indented Corrugated, Smudged 
Interior Variety; b, d-g, i-k, Reserve Indented Corrugated. Scale in centimeters. 



160 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 161 

Surface Features: 

Exterior color: usually medium to dark brown; ranges from orange pink through 
brown and gray brown to black, occasional fire clouds (Maerz and Paul 5A9, 
13A6, 8C8). 

Exterior finish: corrugated, finger-indented at regular intervals; sometimes 
smoothed over corrugations, removing peaks of indentations and giving 
general dull polished effect. Other sherds unaltered after indentation. Cor- 
rugations: 2.5 to 8 per 2 cm., average 5.4. Indentations: 1.5 to 4 per 2 cm., 
average 3.0. 



-JARS- 



^(— BOWLS— * 



Fig. 59. Rim forms of Reserve Indented Corrugated jars and bowls. 



< ^JARS- 



■BOWLS- 



FlG. 60. Rim forms of Reserve Indented Corrugated, Smudged Interior 
Variety jars and bowls. 



Interior color: black; dull polished smudged, smooth to glossy, occasionally 

iridescent. 
Interior surface finish: smooth to satiny smooth, some crackle finish; polishing 
streaks can occasionally be seen. 
Vessel Shapes: usually bowls, although occasionally neck of jar is smudged. One 
double vessel with jar top set into bowl bottom, with bowl overlapping at seam, 
edge of bowl finished before placing jar top. 

Bowls: straight-sided to outflaring, occasionally incurved sides, one double- 
flared bowl. Height of whole and restored vessels varies from 6.4 to 10.4 
cm.; diameters of whole vessels and sherds vary from 12.4 to 24.0 cm. 
Jars: wide-mouthed (figs. 60-62). 
Range of Distribution: same as Reserve Indented Corrugated. 
Stages and Phases: same as Reserve Indented Corrugated, 
Time: same as Reserve Indented Corrugated. 



162 



FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 







Fig. 61. Jars, a, Reserve Indented Corrugated jar (cat. no. 207688); Three 
Pines Pueblo, Pine Lawn Valley, New Mexico; height 27.1 cm., diameter 25.4 
cm. b, Reserve Indented Corrugated jar (cat. no. 263595); Higgins Flat Pueblo, 
New Mexico; height 26.4 cm., diameter 30.5 cm. c, Reserve Indented Corrugated 
jar (cat. no. 262609); Cosper Cliff-Dwelling, Arizona; height 20.0 cm., diameter 
25.0 cm. d, Reserve Indented Corrugated jar (cat. no. 21357); New Mexico; 
height 14.5 cm., diameter 18.5 cm. 



Reserve Punched Corrugated 

Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually medium brown; ranges from pinkish tan to dark brown and 

black (Maerz and Paul 5A9, 5A10, 8C9). 
Temper: light-colored sand grains, mostly rounded, some angular. 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 



163 







Fig. 62. Vessels, a, Reserve Indented Corrugated, Smudged Interior Vari- 
ety bowl (cat. no. 262629); Cosper Cliff-Dwelling, Arizona; height 10.5 cm., 
diameter 18.5 cm. b, Reserve Indented Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety 
bowl (cat. no. 260661); Tularosa Cave, New Mexico; height 9.0 cm., diameter 
15.9 cm. c, Reserve Indented Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety bowl 
(cat. no. 21317); New Mexico; height 6.4 cm., diameter 12.4 cm. d, Reserve 
Indented Corrugated miniature jar (cat. no. 21336); New Mexico; height 5.7 
cm., diameter 6.5 cm. 



Fracture: moderately crumbling to sharp, depending on firing and amount of 
temper. 

Thickness of vessel walls: 0.5 to 0.7 cm., average 0.6. 
Surface Features: 

Exterior color: usually medium brown to dark brown; ranges from brown tan 
to dull brownish black (Maerz and Paul 13B6, 15C6, 8L11). 

Exterior finish (fig. 63): plain corrugated, not indented; evenly spaced cor- 
rugations spiral around vessel; rows of punch marks in geometric patterns. 

Design: diagonal lines, diamonds, rows of chevrons, square spiral. 

Interior color: usually medium brown; ranges from tan to orange brown to dull 
black (Maerz and Paul 13B6, 15A6, 15C6, 8E9). 

Interior finish : somewhat smooth to poorly and carelessly smoothed. 

Vessel Shapes: jars, usually wide-mouthed with out-fiaring rims. Maximum 
diameters of whole and restored vessels vary from 13.1 to 18.2 cm.; rim diameters 



164 



FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 










Fig. 63. Reserve Punched Corrugated potsherds. Scale in centimeters. 

of vessels and sherds 11.0 to 14.0 cm.; height of vessels 11.0 to 16.8 cm. (figs. 

64, 65). 
Range of Distribution: upper San Francisco River and tributaries, Tularosa River 

and Apache Creek, north and east to Jewett Gap. 
Stages and Phases: Reserve and Tularosa Phases, Pueblo II and III. 
Time: ca. A.D. 1000 to 1150. 



Reserve Incised Corrugated 
Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually medium brown; ranges from pinkish tan to dark brown and 
black (Maerz and Paul 5A9, 5A10, 8C9). 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 165 



Temper: light-colored sand grains, mostly rounded, some angular. 

Fracture: moderately crumbling to sharp, depending on firing and amount of 

temper. 
Thickness of vessel walls: 0.4 to 1.0 cm., average 0.6. 
Surface Features: 

Exterior color: usually medium brown to dark brown; ranges from grayed 
orange to dark brown and black (Maerz and Paul 6A9, 15A3, 8E4, 8C9). 



Fig. 64. Rim forms of Reserve Punched 
Corrugated jars. 



T 





Fig. 65. Jars, a, Reserve Punched Corrugated jar (cat. no. 263492); Higgins 
Flat Pueblo, New Mexico; height 11.0 cm., diameter 13.0 cm. h, Reserve Punched 
Corrugated jar (cat. no. 73734); New Mexico; height 17.8 cm., diameter 18.2 cm. 



Exterior finish (fig. 66): plain corrugated, not indented; evenly spaced cor- 
rugations spiral around vessel, corrugations occasionally slightly smoothed 
over. Corrugations: 2.5 to 6 per 2 cm., average 4. Sometimes corrugations 
and design on neck of jar only, body plain. Incised decoration over cor- 
rugations. 

Design: made by incised lines, varying from 0.15 to 0.4 cm. in width, and 
wedge-shape to round-concave in cross section. Designs consist of parallel 
straight lines, diagonal and intersecting lines, nested triangles, alternating 




Fig. 66. Reserve Incised Corrugated potsherds. Scale in centimeters. 



166 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 167 

hatched triangles, cross-hatching, stepped elements, zigzags, rectilinear 
patterns. Rare cases of incised corrugation with punch design also. 

Interior color: usually medium brown to dark brown; ranges from light orangish 
yellow to dull black (Maerz and Paul 4A9, 6E10, 15A5, 8E8). 

Interior finish: smooth to poorly smoothed. 




Fig. 68. Rim form of Re- 

FiG. 67. Rim forms of Re- serve Incised Corrugated, 

serve Incised Corrugated jars. Smudged Interior Variety jar. 

Vessel Shapes: jars, usually wide-mouthed with plain out-flaring rims and rounded 

lips. Maximum diameter 9.0 to 28.8 cm.; rim diameter 7.5 to 22.5 cm.; height 

7.7 to 33.7 cm. (fig. 67). 
Range of Distribution: upper San Francisco River and tributaries, Tularosa River 

and Apache Creek, north and east to Jewett Gap and northwest to upper 

Little Colorado River. 
Stages and Phases: late Three Circle Phase(?), Reserve and early Tularosa Phases, 

Pueblo II. 
Time: ca. A.D. 950 to 1125. 

Reserve Incised Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety 
Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually medium brown changing to black near smudged surface; 
ranges from pinkish tan to dark brown and black (Maerz and Paul 5A9, 
5A10, 8C9). 

Temper: same as Reserve Incised Corrugated. 

Thickness of vessel walls: same as Reserve Incised Corrugated. 
Surface Features: 

Exterior color: same as Reserve Incised Corrugated. 

Exterior finish: same as Reserve Incised Corrugated. 

Design: same as Reserve Incised Corrugated. 

Interior color: black, smudged, dull to smooth and glossy. 

Interior finish: smooth to satiny smooth, occasional crackle finish. 
Vessel Shapes: no whole vessels found, only occasional sherds. Probably mostly 

bowl fragments; one wide-mouthed jar neck with rim diameter of 13 cm. (figs. 

68, 69). 
Range of Distribution: same as Reserve Incised Corrugated. 
Stages and Phases: same as Reserve Incised Corrugated. 
Time: same as Reserve Incised Corrugated. 







Fig. 69. Jars, a, Fragment of Reserve Incised Corrugated, Smudged In- 
terior Variety jar; Wet Leggett Pueblo, Pine Lawn Valley, New Mexico; height 
12.0 cm., diameter 16.7 cm. b, Reserve Incised Corrugated jar (cat. no. 207687); 
Wet Leggett Pueblo, Pine Lawn Valley, New Mexico; height 34.6 cm., diameter 
29.0 cm. c. Reserve Incised Corrugated jar (cat. no. 262610); Cosper Cliff -Dwell- 
ing, Arizona; height 12.5 cm., diameter 12.5 cm. d, Reserve Incised Corrugated 
miniature jar (cat. no. 207694); Wet Leggett Pueblo, Pine Lawn Valley, New 
Mexico; height 8.1 cm., diameter 9.2 cm. 



168 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 169 

Tularosa Patterned Corrugated 
Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually brown; ranges from pinkish tan to dark brown and black 

(Maerz and Paul 5A9, 5A10, 8C9). 
Temper: light-colored sand grains, mostly rounded, some angular. 
Fracture: moderately crumbling to sharp, depending on firing and amount of 

temper. 
Thickness of vessel walls: 0.5 to 0.9 cm., average 0.7. 

Surface Features: 

Exterior color: usually medium to dark brown; range from grayed orange to 
black (Maerz and Paul 13B6, 6A9, 15A5, 8A9). 

Exterior finish (fig. 70) : plain corrugated body, occasionally slightly smoothed 
over corrugations to remove sharp edges; geometric patterns produced by 
indented corrugated areas. Some vessels where neck is patterned corrugated, 
body is smooth; one example with plain corrugated neck, indented cor- 
rugated body. 

Designs: chevron, diamond and square spiral. Reserve variant designs are 
alternate rows or alternate bands of several rows of plain and indented cor- 
rugated coils. 

Interior color: usually medium to dark brown; ranges from light orange and 
pinkish gray to dull black (Maerz and Paul 6A7, 13B6, 8A9, 6A7, 15A7). 

Interior finish: fairly smooth to rough; some polishing marks show. 

Vessel Shapes: jars, usually wide-mouthed with plain out-flaring rims with rounded 
lips. Maximum diameters of whole and restorable vessels 12.6 to 33.4 cm.; 
rim diameters 6.5 to 20.0 cm.; heights 10.5 to 30.0 cm. (fig. 71). 

Range of Distribution: upper San Francisco River and tributaries, upper Blue 
River and tributaries, Tularosa River, Apache Creek. 

Stages and Phases: Reserve and Tularosa Phases, Pueblo III. 

Time: ca. a.d. 1050 to 1250. 

Tularosa Patterned Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety 

Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually brown, changing to black near smudged surface; ranges from 

pinkish tan to dark brown and black (Maerz and Paul 5A9, 5A10, 8C9). 
Temper: same as Tularosa Patterned Corrugated. 
Fracture: same as Tularosa Patterned Corrugated. 
Thickness of vessel walls: same as Tularosa Patterned Corrugated. 

Surface Features: 

Exterior color: same as Tularosa Patterned Corrugated. 
Exterior finish: same as Tularosa Patterned Corrugated. 
Designs: same as Tularosa Patterned Corrugated. 









Fig. 70. Pottery sherds, a-c, f, Tularosa Patterned Corrugated, Smudged 
Interior Variety; d, e, g-j, Tularosa Patterned Corrugated. Scale in centimeters. 



170 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 171 

Interior color: black; ranges from grayish black to black (Maerz and Paul 

15A7). 
Interior finish: smoothed, almost glossy smudged black. 

Vessel Shapes: bowls, straight-sided or with slightly in- or out-curving rims. 
Diameters of whole vessels and sherds 14.0 to 22.3 cm., heights of whole vessels 
7.2 to 11.7 cm. (figs. 72, 74). 



cm 




Fig. 72. Rim forms of 

Fig. 71. Rim forms of Tularosa Tularosa Patterned Corrugated, 

Patterned Corrugated jars. Smudged Interior Variety bowls. 



Range of Distribution: same as Tularosa Patterned Corrugated. 
Stages and Phases: same as Tularosa Patterned Corrugated. 
Time: same as Tularosa Patterned Corrugated. 

Starkweather Smudged Decorated 
Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually brown: ranges from orangish flesh color through rose gray 

to black; sometimes light core grays rapidly toward black smudged surface 

(Maerz and Paul 5A8, 14D7, 15A12, 8A8). 
Temper: light-colored sand grains, mostly rounded, some angular. 
Fracture: somewhat crumbling to sharp, depending on firing and amount of 

temper. 
Thickness of vessel walls: 0.4 to 0.8 cm., average 0.5. 

Surface Features: 

Exterior color: usually dark brown; ranges from beige to black, sometimes 

almost smudged (by accident?) (Maerz and Paul 13A2, 6A9, 5E11, 15E8, 

8C9). 
Exterior finish: roughly smoothed to smooth; a few pieces may be polished. 

Occasionally exterior of vessel is plain corrugated with edges of corrugations 

slightly smoothed. 
Interior color: smudged black, with fine design. 
Interior finish (fig. 75): smooth smudged surface, occasionally iridescent. 

Design is more a matter of difference in finish than of difference in color. 

Pottery polished over paint before firing, and paint disappeared (during 

firing?) leaving design usually noticed because of contrast between polished 

body of pot and non-polished painted area; result similar to negative painting. 

Two sherds have design in white paint. 









172 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 173 

Designs (fig. 76): geometric design of fine to medium fine lines, varying from 
0.1 to 0.4 cm. in width; usually parallel lines, straight, zigzag, or chevron; 
some concentric squares or diamonds, an occasional square spiral, one cur- 
vilinear spiral; solid triangles attached to lines rare; wavy lines rare; one 
example of large dots. 

Vessel Shapes: bowls, with straight or slightly in-curving walls, rounded lips. 
Diameters of whole and restorable vessels vary from 12 to 26 cm., heights 
8.4 to 10.6 cm. (figs. 77, 78). 

Range of Distribution: upper San Francisco River and tributaries, Tularosa River, 
Apache Creek, north and east to Jewett Gap. 

Stages and Phases: Reserve and Tularosa Phases, Pueblo II and III. 

Time: ca. A.D. 950 to 1200. 

Tularosa White-on-Red 
Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually dark brown; ranges from orange red to dull black (Maerz 
and Paul 6C11, 6B10, 7A9, 8H9). Some sherds black in center of core with 
gray near edges. 
Temper: light-colored sand grains, mostly rounded, some angular. 
Fracture: crumbling to sharp, depending on firing and amount of temper. 
Thickness of vessel walls: 0.5 to 0.8 cm., average 0.7. 

Surface Features: 

Exterior color: usually red brown to dark brown; ranges from reddish orange 
to dull brown and black (Maerz and Paul 6F11, 7H9, 7A10, 8L4, 8E8). 

Exterior finish (fig. 79): smooth to polished body of vessel with white painted 
lines 0.2 to 0.4 cm. wide. In some cases paint has been removed during or 
after firing so that painted area is rougher than surrounding surface. Bowls 
have fillet rim, 2 to 3 rows of fine indented corrugations 0.6 to 1.2 cm. below 
edge; corrugated area varies from 0.4 to 1.4 cm. in width. 

Designs: chevrons, square spiral, interlocking fret, stepped lines, zigzag; only 
line design, no solid pattern. Design in broad horizontal zone below the 
rim fillet. 



Fig. 73. Jars, a, Tularosa Patterned Corrugated, Reserve variant jar (cat. 
no. 207685); Wet Leggett Pueblo, Pine Lawn Valley, New Mexico; height 
24.2 cm., diameter 24.3 cm. b, Tularosa Patterned Corrugated, Reserve variant 
jar (cat. no. 74969); Round Valley, Arizona; height 13.3 cm., diameter 12.9 cm. 
c, Tularosa Patterned Corrugated jar (cat. no. 207686); Wet Leggett Pueblo, 
Pine Lawn Valley, New Mexico; height 22.8 cm., diameter 24.3 cm. d, Tularosa 
Patterned Corrugated, Reserve variant jar (cat. no. 262801); Hinkle Park Cliflf- 
Dwelling, New Mexico; height 21.1 cm., diameter 25.3 cm. e, Tularosa Patterned 
Corrugated jar (cat. no. 263596); Higgins Flat Pueblo, New Mexico; height 22.8 
cm., diameter 24.0 cm. /, Tularosa Patterned Corrugated jar (cat. no. 21349); 
New Mexico; height 10.7 cm., diameter 12.7 cm. 




a 




Fig. 74. Bowls, a, Tularosa Patterned Corrugated, Smudged Interior Vari- 
ety, Reserve variant bowl (cat. no. 21286); New Mexico; height 18.4 cm., 
diameter 22.2 cm. b, Tularosa Patterned Corrugated, Smudged Interior Variety 
bowl (cat. no. 21307); New Mexico; height 7.4 cm., diameter, 15.4 cm. 



174 




Fig. 75. Starkweather Smudged Decorated potsherds. 



175 







^ 



176 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 177 

Interior color: dark brownish black or black. 

Interior finish: rough unsmudged to glossy smudged with occasional crackle 
finish. 

Vessel Shapes: bowls with straight or slightly in-curving walls and straight or 
slightly out-flaring rims. Diameters of whole and restored vessels 18.0 to 26.0 
cm., heights 7.3 to 13.9 cm. (figs. 80, 81). 



Fig. 77. Rim forms of Starkweather 
Smudged Decorated bowls. 




I 



Range of Distribution: upper San Francisco River and tributaries, upper Blue 
River and tributaries, north to upper Little Colorado River, Apache Creek 
and tributaries. 

Stages and Phases: Tularosa Phase, Pueblo III. 

Time: ca. a.d. 1100 to 1200. 

Tularosa Black-on-White 

Paste: 

Construction: coiled and scraped. 

Core color: usually uniform white to light gray, sometimes darker; occasionally 

center of core darker gray than edges (Maerz and Paul 15A2 to 8A7). 
Temper: light-colored angular particles, occasional darker particles included; 

some sherd fragments. 
Fracture: sharp to slightly crumbling, depending on firing and thickness of 

sherd. 
Thickness of vessel walls: 0.3 to 0.6 cm., average 0.4. 
Paint: iron paint, dull black, occasionally oxidized to dark red-brown (Maerz 

and Paul 8L6, 7H12). Sub-glaze paint occurs on less than 1 per cent of 

sherds. 

Surface Features: 

Jar exterior, bowl interior color: usually white to light gray, occasionally 
medium gray (Maerz and Paul 4A1, 14A1, 6A8); fire clouds on some jars. 

Jar exterior, bowl interior finish (fig. 82): slipped, polished over slip with oc- 
casional dull streaks on surface which indicate imperfect polish; crackle 
finish on ca. 25 per cent of sherds; paint applied after polishing. 

Jar interior color: usually white to medium gray, occasionally medium gray or 
gray-brown (Maerz and Paul llAl, 14A1, 7A9, 8C8). 



Fig. 76. Drawings of Starkweather Smudged Decorated potsherds, showing 
variation in design. Scale in centimeters. 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 



179 






Fig. 79. Tularosa White-on-Red potsherds. Scale in centimeters. 

Jar interior finish: smoothed, fine scraping marks on surface; temper inclusions 
occasionally protrude through surface. 

Bowl exterior color: white to medium gray, slipped surfaces lighter than un- 
slipj)ed (Maerz and Paul llAl, 6A7). 

Bowl exterior finish: smoothed, usually slipped and polished over slip; polishing 
streaks evident; occasionally painted, paint applied after polishing. 

Design elements: interlocking solid and hatched square scrolls, often with 
terrace endings, ca. 16 per cent; interlocking solid and hatched circular 
scrolls, sometimes with terrace endings, ca. 14 per cent; interconnected 
opposed solid terraces in diagonal, whirlwind or vertical bands, ca. 9 per 
cent; "plaited" or "woven" bands of negative parallelograms, parallel lines 
with or without pendent dots, or negative zigzag design, with simple cross- 
hatching as fillers, ca. 4 per cent; solid triangular scrolls, ca. 4 per cent; 
bands of opposed solid terraced oblique lines separated by row of hatched 
stepp>ed squares or diamonds, ca. 4 per cent; band of diamonds or circles 



Fig. 78. Bowls, a. Starkweather Smudged Decorated bowl (cat. no. 260660); 
Tularosa Cave, New Mexico; height 10.5 cm., diameter 22.0 cm. b, Starkweather 
Smudged Decorated bowl (cat. no. 263593); Higgins Flat Pueblo, New Mexico; 
height 8.0 cm., diameter 13.0 cm. c, Drawing of interior of b, showing design. 



180 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

filled with crosses, bands of parallel lines and stepped lines, concentric bands 
of negative parallelograms, parallel lines varying in width, or cross-hatching, 
sometimes outlined with oblique terraced lines, ca. 4 per cent. Other designs 
include cribbing, concentric rectangles or triangles, bands of interlocking 
solid scrolls, bands of opposed solid and hatched terraced lines, warp and 
woof designs in square and triangular units, solid and solid-and-hatched 
checkerboard, horizontal parallel zigzag lines, vertical bands of diagonal 
squiggle hatch and parallel lines, radiating solid double sawtooth lines, 
chevrons, etc. 

Fig. 80. Rim forms of Tularosa White-on-Red bowls. 



Comparison: Tularosa Black-on-White designs differ from Reserve Black-on- 
White designs in several ways. The hatching in Tularosa Black-on-White 
is usually longitudinal, i.e., parallel or almost parallel to the framing lines, 
while the Reserve Black-on-White hatching intersects the framing lines at 
about a 45 degree angle. In Tularosa Black-on-White the framing lines are 
heavier than the hatching but in Reserve Black-on-White they are about the 
same. Hatching in Tularosa Black-on-White is also finer and the lines are 
closer together, but frequently the draftsmanship is poor and the hatched 
lines merge with one another and the hatching runs over the framing. Solid 
elements in Tularosa Black-on-White are smaller and more compact, some- 
times giving the effect of negative designs; negative designs occur here but 
not in Reserve Black-on-White. 

Vessel Shapes: jars, bowls, pitchers, ladles, effigies, eccentric and miniature forms 
(figs. 83-85). 

Jars: ca. 12 per cent of purchased collection. Straight necks, globular bodies; 
occasional specimen with long neck resembling Chaco shape; few with re- 
curved necks; maximum diameter 4.4 to 31.9 cm.; height 4.3 to 27.3 cm. 
Some jars with quadrilobate globular bodies; maximum diameter 6.9 to 21.4 
cm.; height 5.0 to 16.5 cm. Some small forms with tripartite bodies; maximum 
diameter 10.1 to 13.7 cm.; height 9.8 to 12.9 cm. 

Pitchers: ca. 46 per cent of purchased collection. Straight necks, globular 
bodies, differing from Reserve Black-on-White pitchers in that necks tend 
to be shorter and bodies more globular. Occasional specimen with quadri- 
lobate body. Handles vary; plain strap ca. 48 per cent; animal effigy strap 
ca. 25 per cent; animal and bird effigy knob ca. 6 per cent; plain knob ca. 
11 per cent; remainder twisted loop, sprinkler, or grooved strap. Maximum 
diameter 4.3 to 19.7 cm.; height 5.3 to 16.8 cm. 

Ladles: ca. 20 per cent of purchased collection. Usually have round or oval 
bowl with rounded or squared rod type handle, often with ears or knob at 
end; occasionally handles are grooved, open on under side, or rattle type. 
Maximum length 5.2 to 29.5 cm.; diameter of bowl 3.5 to 17.0 cm. 




a 




Fig. 81. Bowls, a, Tularosa White-on-Red bowl (cat. no. 262648); Cosper 
Cliff-Dwelling, Arizona; height 13.3 cm., diameter 24.1 cm. b, Tularosa White- 
on-Red bowl (cat. no. 263723); Higgins Flat Pueblo, New Mexico; height 7.7 cm., 
diameter 20.9 cm. 



181 





\ 







m /, 






Fig. 82. Tularosa Black-on- White potsherds. Scale in centimeters. 



182 





Fig. 83. Vessels, a, Tularosa Black-on-White bowl (cat. no. 74157); San 
Cosmos, Arizona; height 11.3 cm., diameter 21.8 cm. 6, Tularosa Black-on-White 
pitcher (cat. no. 261123); Higgins Flat Pueblo, New Mexico; height 14.3 cm., 
diameter 15.5 cm. c, Tularosa Black-on-White jar (cat. no. 263858); Apache 
Creek Pueblo, New Mexico; height 23.7 cm., diameter 30.3 cm. d, Tularosa 
Black-on-White jar (cat. no. 261122); Higgins Flat Pueblo, New Mexico; height 
25.0 cm., diameter 27.8 cm. e, Tularosa Black-on-White jar (cat. no. 263591); 
Higgins Flat Pueblo, New Mexico; height 22.6 cm., diameter 28.6 cm. /, Tularosa 
Black-on-White jar (cat. no. 263889); Higgins Flat Pueblo, New Mexico; height 
22.9 cm., diameter 30.5 cm. 



183 



184 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

Canteens: ca. 6 per cent of purchased collection. Globular bodies, small 
straight short necks, pair of small strap, loop, or knob handles high on shoul- 
ders. Diameter 6.5 to 21.6 cm.; height 7.2 to 17.8 cm. 

Bowls: ca. 8 per cent of purchased collection. With straight or out-flaring walls 
and straight or slightly flaring rims. Maximum diameter 10.7 to 31.3 cm.; 
height 4.9 to 14.7 cm. 



(I((^'^'i) 



-JARS X BOWLS- 



FiG. 84. Rim forms of Tularosa Black-on -White bowls and jars. 



Seed bowls: ca. 3 per cent of purchased collection. Globular bowls with in- 
curving rims; sometimes specimens are made by grinding off broken neck 
of jar or pitcher. Maximum diameter 16.2 to 22.3 cm.; height 10.9 to 14.5 
cm. 

Ring vessels: ca. 1 per cent of purchased collection. Small vessels; body forms 
ring with straight neck coming up out of top at one side; one jar with strap 
handle. Maximum diameter of ring 5.6 to 18.0 cm.; thickness of ring 1.7 to 
6.2 cm.; height of vessel 3.8 to 11.3 cm. 

Effigy vessels: ca. 4 per cent of purchased collection. Jars and pitchers with 
duck-shaped bodies, some with bilobed or trilobed breast; a few with modeled 
bills, others with open neck and no head. Animal effigy jars have body 
resembling duck form, and four modeled legs; one with head resembling 
mountain sheep with ears, broken stubs of horns, and incised mouth and 
nostrils. Height 11.1 to 14.3 cm.; length 11.4 to 21.2 cm.; width 7.3 to 16.3 
cm. Miniature duck forms, length 4.8 to 10.6 cm.; height 2.3 to 4.8 cm. 

Cup: single specimen, round bowl and strap handle. Diameter 12.2 cm.; 
height 7.4 cm. 

Range of Distribution: upper San Francisco River and tributaries, upper Blue 
River and tributaries, Tularosa River and tributaries, upper Little Colorado 
River and tributaries, upper Gila River and tributaries. Traded to Rio Grande 
area, Hopi area and Flagstaff region. 

Stages and Phases: Tularosa Phase, St. Johns Phase, Pueblo III. 

Time: A.D. about 1100-1250 (estimated date). 







Fig. 85. Vessels, a, Tularosa Black-on-White quadrilobate pitcher (cat. no. 
73674); San Cosmos, Arizona; height 12.0 cm., diameter 17.3 cm. h, Tularosa 
Black-on-White duck effigy pitcher (cat. no. 21243); New Mexico; height 13.1 
cm., width 14.0 cm., length 16.9 cm. c, Tularosa Black-on-White ladle (cat. no. 
75082); Round Valley, Arizona; length 19.9 cm., bowl diameter 10.2 cm., bowl 
depth 4.1 cm. d, Tularosa Black-on-White ring vessel (cat. no. 73967); San 
Cosmos, Arizona; height 7.9 cm., diameter 15.3 cm. e, Tularosa Black-on-White 
canteen (cat. no. 73915); San Cosmos, Arizona; height 12.3 cm., diameter 13.3 
cm. /, Tularosa Black-on-White animal effigy jar (cat. no. 73984) (legs restored); 
San Cosmos, Arizona; height 16.4 cm., width 9.7 cm., length 16.0 cm. g, Tularosa 
Black-on-White jar with tripartite body (cat. no. 74997); Round Valley, Arizona; 
height 8.6 cm., diameter 11.6 cm. 



185 



186 FIELDIANA: ANTHROPOLOGY, VOLUME 36 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

COLTON, H. S. 

1954. Check list of southwestern pottery types. Museum of Northern Arizona, 
Ceramic Series no. 2 (preliminary copy). Flagstaff, Arizona. 

CoLTON, H. S., and Hargrave, L. L. 

1937. Handbook of northern Arizona pottery wares. Museum of Northern 
Arizona, Bull. 11. Flagstaff, Arizona. 

CosGROVE, H. S. and C. B. 

1932. The Swarts Ruin. Papers of Peabody Museum of American Archaeology 
and Ethnology, Harvard University, vol. 24, no. 2. 

Danson, Edward B. 

1952. An archaeological survey of west central New Mexico and east central 
Arizona. Unpublished manuscript, Harvard University. 

Gladwin, H. S. 

1931. Some southwestern pottery types. Series IL Gila Pueblo, Medallion 
Papers, no. 10. Globe, Arizona. 

Haury, Emil W. 

1936. Some southwestern pottery types. Series IV. Gila Pueblo, Medallion 

Papers, no. 19. Globe, Arizona. 
1940. Excavations in the Forestdale Valley, east-central Arizona. University 

of Arizona Bulletin, vol. 11, no. 4 (Social Science Bulletin, no. 12). 

Haury, Emil W., and Saylbs, E. B. 

1947. An early pit-house village of the Mogollon culture, Forestdale Valley, 
Arizona. University of Arizona Bulletin, vol. 18, no. 4 (Social Science 
Bulletin, no. 16). 

Hawley, Florence M. 

1936. Field manual of prehistoric southwestern pottery types. University of 
New Mexico, Bull. 291, Anthr. Ser., vol. 1, no. 4. Albuquerque. 

Hough, Walter 

1907. Antiquities of the upper Gila and Salt River valleys in Arizona and New 

Mexico. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bull. 35. 
1914. Culture of the ancient Pueblos of the upper Gila River region. New 

Mexico and Arizona. United States National Museum, Bull. 87. 

Lehmer, Donald J. 

1948. The Jornada Branch of the Mogollon. University of Arizona Bulletin, 
vol. 19, no. 2 (Social Science Bulletin, no. 17). 

Maerz, a., and Paul, M. Rea 

1930. A dictionary of color. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 

Martin, Paul S. 

1943. The SU site. Excavations at a Mogollon village, western New Mexico, 
1941. Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, vol. 32, 
no. 2. 

Martin, Paul S., and Rinaldo, John B. 

1940. The SU site. Excavations at a Mogollon village, western New Mexico, 
1939. Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological Series, vol. 32, 
no. 1. 
1947. The SU site. Excavations at a Mogollon village, western New Mexico, 
third season, 1946. Field Museum of Natural History, Anthropological 
Series, vol. 32, no. 3. 



RINALDO AND BLUHM: MOGOLLON POTTERY TYPES 187 

1950a. Turkey Foot Ridge site. A Mogollon village, Pine Lawn Valley, western 

New Mexico. Fieldiana: Anthropology, vol. 38, no. 2. 
1950b. Sites of the Reserve Phase, Pine Lawn Valley, western New Mexico. 

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