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o '-Y 







Dicta sunt omnia antequam prseciperentur : mox ea scriptores 
observata et collecta ediderunt. QUINTIL. 



[Aft Rights reserved^ 




THIS book is in the main an abridgment for school 
purposes of my larger Latin Grammar, but the abridgment 
is very unequal, some parts being reproduced with slight 
omissions, some parts being largely reduced, and others again 
being rewritten. Under the last head fall especially chaps, i 
and ii of Book I, and chap, vi of Book II. Of the last-named 
chapter, part, particularly 132, contains an analysis which is, 
I think, new and interesting. I have added an English trans- 
lation of the Examples in almost the whole of the Syntax. It 
will be found that in some cases I have given the ordinary 
English equivalent, whilst in others I have aimed rather at 
explaining the Latin construction. Three Appendices are 
new, viz. those on Metre, on Grammatical and Rhetorical 
terms, and on Latin authors. Some changes in arrangement 
have been made (e, g. as regards degrees of comparison, and 
Numerals) to suit ordinary usage. 

The Index has been made fuller than is usual in a book of 
this class so full, that it may not be unimportant to observe 
that the book is really intended not for reference, but for 
study. The lists are not exhaustive, the statements of occur- 
rence or non-occurrence of forms or expressions must not be 
taken too literally, but only as approximations to the truth, 
with especial regard to the classical authors and usages of 
recognized authority in schools ; and many of the rarer usages 
are not noticed at all, but left to be picked up in the student's 
own reading, or obtained, wheji needed, from a dictionary. 


I have given Greek nouns in considerable detail, partly because 
some of my readers may not be Greek scholars, and partly 
because a certain mass of examples is necessary to stamp on 
the mind the general treatment of Greek nouns by Latin 
writers. Chaps, xix, xxi, and xxii should be studied, because 
they group the verbs according to their natural relations, but 
in my judgment the best way of getting up the (so-called) 
irregular verbs is learning them, by sheer memory, as given 
in the list in chap. xxiv. They are not reducible to very 
definite rules, and a page of mixed verbs tests the student far 
better than small sorted packets. 

The number of Examples in the Syntax has purposely been 
kept small in order that the main lines of the analysis may be 
more clearly seen than was possible in the larger work. If a 
student once gets the classification fairly into his head, he will 
not find much difficulty in increasing the number of specimens 
from his daily reading of authors or in assigning the new ones 
to their proper classes. 

The sectional numbering has been carried throughout the 
book, including the Appendices. It is merely for the purpose 
of reference, and is sometimes quite independent of the in- 
ternal division of the matter. 

Prof. A. S. Wilkins of Owens College has kindly looked 
over several of the proof sheets. Had I submitted them all to 
him, my readers would, doubtless, have been spared some errors 
of author and printer which I have, and possibly more which I 
have not, noticed. I shall be much obliged for any corrections 
or suggestions (addressed to the publishers). 

24 July* 1880. 

IN this third edition a few corrections have been made and 
the translation of the Examples in the Syntax has been com- 

H. J. R. 

October ; 1885. 




I. Introduction and Alphabet 

II. Phonetic Composition 

III. Quantity of Syllables 

IV. Accentuation 


I. Inflexions in general IT- 

II. Inflexion? of Nouns ...,.,. . . 23 

III. Of Gender 25 

IV. Of Noun Inflexions of Number . , . . . . 30 
V. . First Declension ... . , . . . . 32 

VI. Second Declension 38 

VII. Greek Nouns, esp. Class I 52 

VIII. Greek Nouns, Class II 55 

IX. Degrees of Nouns Adjective . . . . . 6r 

X. Numerals 65 

XI. Peculiar Inflexions of certain Pronouns ... 7: 

XII. Adverbs and Conjunctions , 76 

Appendix to Chaps. XI. XII. Pronominal Adjec- 
tives and Adverbs 84 

XIII. Inflexions of Verbs 86 

XIV. Examples of the system of Inflexions of Verbs . . 89 
XV. Inflexions of sum and other Irregular Verbs . . 104 

XVI. Inflexions of Person, Number and Voice . . . J o8 

XVII. Inflexions of Mood in 

XVIII. Tenses formed from Present Stem . . . . i r 3 










Of Verb Stems, esp. the Present Stem 
Tenses formed from Perfect Stem . 
Formation of Perfect Stem 

Formation of Supine Stem 
Of the traditional classification of Verbs 
List of Verbs, with Perfects, Supines, &c. 



I2 3 


I. Elements of Word-formation 154 

II. Derivative Suffixes 156 

III. Labial and Guttural Noun-stems . . . . 158 

IV. Dental Noun-stems . . . . . . 160 

V. Lingual Noun-stems 165 

VI. Vowel Noun-stems ....... 170 

VII. Verb-Stems . . 173 

VIII. Composition 176 

IX. Interjections . . 182 


I. Classification of Words 184 

II. Parts of a Simple Sentence and Use of the parts of 

Speech . . . 186 

III. Use of Noun-Inflexions ; especially those of Gender 

and Number 192 

IV. Use of Cases . 195 

V. Use of Nominative Case 196 

VI. Use of Accusative Case 197 

VII. Use of Dative Case 201 

VIII. Use of Locative and Ablative Cases .... 204 

IX. Use of Genitive Case . > 212 

X. Use of Infinitive 216 

XI. Tenses of Infinitive 219 

XII. Use of Verbal Nouns 222 

XIII. Use of Verb-Inflexions. Inflexions of Voice . . 227 

XIV. Use of Verbal Inflexions of Person and Number . 230 
XV. Of the Indicative and Imperative Moods and their 

Tenses 234 

XVI. Of the Subjunctive Mood and its Tenses . . . 244 

XVII. Typical Subjunctives .-.-. . . . . 249 




XVIII. Use of Moods, especially Subjunctive, in (A) Hypo- 
thetical and (B) Conditional clauses . . . 2=,8 
XIX. Use of Subjunctive Mood to express desire (C, D) . 270 
XX. Use of Subjunctive Mood to express causation (E, F) . 284 
XXI, Use of Subjunctive Mood to express alien or con- 
tingent assertions 296 

XXII. Of Reported Speech 307 

XXIII. Order of Words and Sentences 312 


I. Prepositions and quasi-prepositional Adverbs . . 317 

II. Conjunctions 331 

III. Negative particles 335 

IV. Interrogative particles 331) 

V, Pronouns 340 


A. Money, Measures, Weights 348 

B. Division of Time and Expression of Date . . . 352 

C. Names of Relations by Blood and Marriage . . . 354 

D. Elements and Terms of Latin Metre .... 356 

E. Explanation of some Grammatical and Rhetorical terms 367 

F. Principal (extant) Latin Authors . . . . 372 
G Abbreviations . . . . . . . . - 









1 LATIN was the language spoken by the inhabitants of a district on 
the western side of Italy hundreds of years B.C. Of this tract the chief 
town was Rome, and the conquests of the Romans spread the language 
over the neighbouring countries. The modern languages of Italy, 
France, Spain, Portugal, Wallachia, and of parts of eastern Switzer- 
land, are derived from it; and mainly through the influence of the 
Christian Church it was the language principally used in European 
literature, law, State documents, and learned intercourse, during the 
middle ages. 

With the exception of a very few short inscriptions on stones and 
works of art, the earliest documents in Latin which are still preserved 
to us are a few fragments of Livius Andronicus and of Naevius, dating 
from about 240 B.C. or later. The earliest literary compositions in 
Latin in a complete state, are the plays of Plautus (born 354 B.C., died 
184 B.C.). The best period of the Latin language and literature was 
comprised in the lifetimes of Cicero and Augustus. After about 
A.D. izo, the decline both in language and literature became more 

Latin belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, and is 
most nearly related to Greek. Its alphabet was taken probably from 
that of the Dorian Greeks of the trading colony of Cumae in Cam- 
pania. The forms of the letters were similar to, and in the time of 
Cicero almost the same as, the capital letters now in use in English and 
other languages of western Europe. 

I. G. i 


SOUNDS. \Book /. 

2 The following table contains the letters of the Latin alphabet as 
used in Cicero's time, with their names and probable pronunciation. 

Sign. Name. Pronounced as English 

A a a in papa 

B be b 

C ce k 

D de d 

E e a in late, or e in fete 

F cf / 

G ge g hard, as in give 

H ha h in &z/ 

I i ec in ,/tttf, or / in machine 

K ka k 

L el / 

M em m (except at end of words) 

N en n, but, when before a guttural, as ng 

O o o, approaching to a<w 

P P e p 

CL ( i u ?=* 

R er r (trilled) 

S es j sharp (as in hiss, not ;j 

T te / 

V u oo in shoot, or w in 

X ix x 

To which' may be added two letters used only in copying Greek 
words, namely: 

Y u French, or u Germ. 

Z Engl. z or more likely Engl. j or dz 

G was not distinguished in writing from G until, it is said, the 
third century B.C. 


Consonants are classified according to the character of the sound. 

Of the Latin consonants p, to; c, g; t, d are momentary, or non- 
continuous (often called mutes); that is to say, the voice cannot dwell 
upon them : s and f are continuous. 

Again, p, c, t, s, f are voiceless i.e. they are not accompanied by 
any sound of the voice; b, g, d and usually T, 1 are voiced. (For 
voiceless the terms sharp, hard, surd, and the Latin tenues are often 
used; for voiced are used^/?^/, soft, sonant, and the Latin mediae.) 

c and g are sounded at the soft palate (i. e. the part nearest to the 
throat), and are called guttural ; t and d at the forward part of the 
palate near the gums, and are called dental; p and b at the lips, and are 
called labial ; f is a labio-dental, being pronounced between the under 
lip and upper teeth. 

Chap. /.] Introduction and Alphabet. 3 

5 r and 1 are called liquids 1 , or llnguals ; r is caused by the breath 
passing over the tip of the tongue, while it is vibrated ; 1 by the breath 
passing over the sides of the back of the tongue. In pronouncing B, 
the breath passes through a small opening over the centre of the 
forepart of the tongue, which is pressed against the palate near the 

6 If the uvula be lowered so as to obstruct the passage of the air 
through the mouth, the breath passes through the nose, and a nasal 
sound is produced. If the organs are otherwise in the positions 
required for to, d, g, but the air passes into the nose, m, n, ng (the last 
being a single sound as in sing) are produced. In Latin, n has this 
sound of ng when it comes before a guttural, as in uncus, unguis, 
pronounced ung-cus, ung-gwls. 

7 k and q had the same sound as c. But k went out of use at a very 
early period, except in a few old abbreviations ; e. g. K represented the 
name Kaeso, and K. or KAL, in dates stood for kalendis or kalendas. 
q is always followed by u ; and qu, sounded nearly as in English queen, 
was regarded in prosody as a single consonant, x was merely written 
instead of cs. 

8 h was a mark of aspiration, like a slight English h. In several 
words, the spelling, probably following on the pronunciation, some- 
times prefixed, sometimes omitted, li \ e. g. narena, or arena, hordeum, 
or ordeum ; tSdSra, or 6d6ra, c. 


9 Of the vowels a is the simplest : for e and 1 (called lingual vowels), 
the back part of the tongue is raised; for o and u (called labial "vowels), 
the lips are protruded, e is intermediate between a and i, and o 
between a and u. 

10 i and u, when pronounced rapidly before other vowels, become 
half-consonants. When they have this character, they are in modern 
times often written and printed j and v respectively. The Romans, 
though aware of the difference in sound, made no such distinction in 
writing. The sound of i was as German j, or English y, as \n yes, you. 
The sound of v was as French ou in out, or (nearly) English w in we. 
In some parts of Italy, e.g. near Pompeii, Latin v as semi-vowel was 
probably pronounced as the South German vr, which being sounded be- 
tween the lips, differs from the English v, which is sounded between the 
under lip and upper teeth. This South German vf is very close in sound 
to to, and thus many inscriptions after the second century and many 
mss. write with to words properly requiring v ; e. g. bixit for vixit. 

H Diphthongs are sounds produced in the passage from one vowel 
sound to another inclusive. Besides the combinations of u and i with 
other vowels just spoken of (which are not generally called diphthongs), 
-Latin has the following diphthongs; au, eu (rare), ae, oe, ei ; also in 

1 m and n are by some writers classed as liquids, as well as 1 and r. 

I 2 

SOUNDS. \Book I. 

early inscriptions ai, ou, and oi. ei appears to have gone out of use in 
Augustus' time (except in the interjection hei). 

The right rule for pronouncing diphthongs is to sound the con- 
stituent vowels rapidly in the proper order. The actual sound will, 
of course, differ according to the precise quality of the vowels, and 
the time during which the voice dwells on them severally. Hence we 
get as follows : 

au as German au ; a broader sound than ordinary English o-w in 

co-iv, town. 

eu as ow in a cockney or yankee pronunciation of ro-iv, town. 
ae nearly as the single vowel a in hat lengthened, 
ei nearly as in English feint, or as ai in faint. 
oe between oi in boil, and ei in feint. 


12. The following cautions may be useful to English students. 

Let each vowel have the same character of sound when short as when 
long; only do not dwell on the vowel when short. The English short o 
and e (in not, pet} are probably not far from the true Latin sounds; and 
these sounds should be lengthened for long o and long e. (The ordinary 
English long o (e. g. in note] and a (e. g. in fate) are really diphthongs 
= Latin ou, ei respectively.) Conversely u in brute ( = 00 in pool) and i in 
machine ( = ee in feet) are right for Latin, and the short Latin u and i were 
those same sounds pronounced quickly. (The English short u in pull and 
i \n_ftt are different from the Latin ft, I. A Frenchman pronouncing these 
English words would give the Latin short U and i, though to English ears 
the Frenchman's pronunciation often appears to make the vowels long.) 

The common English vowel heard in burn, dull, irk, &c. should be 
altogether avoided in Latin. And the true vowel sound should be always 
given, whether the syllable has the accent or not. A long vowel should 
always be pronounced long, whether open or before one or more conso- 
nants; a short vowel always short, even though the syllable be long in 

13 r should be always trilled, and run closely on to the preceding vowel. 
In English we often omit the trill (unless a vowel follows), and we usually 
insert a vowel sound immediately before it. Thus sound ere as English 
d-ra, not as airy ; Ire as English ee-ra, not as-eary: per as \nper-ry, not as 
in pert (as commonly known in English). 

8 always as in hiss, not like z, as in English his. This mispronun- 
ciation is very common after e or n. Pronounce res as race, not as raze ; 
dens as dense, not as denze. 

ti always as tee (long or short as the word may require), not as sh or 
ski: e.g. natio as nah-tee-o, not as nay-shw. 

bs as ps, not as bz : x_as ks, as in axe.; not as gz (as in exact}*. 

'Chap. /.] 

Introduction and Alphabet. 


(lip sounds). 
(throat sounds). 
(tooth sounds). 


(tongue sounds). 



Voiceless. Voiced. Usually voiced. Voiceless. Voiced. 

n before a 
n (when not 
before a 


The vowels may be arranged thus, so as to suggest their respective 




15 A SYLLABLE is sudi a sound, or combination of sounds, as can be 
uttered with one breath. It may consist of a vowel (or diphthong) 
only, or of a vowel (or diphthong) combined with one or more conso- 
nants. Some combinations of consonants can be sounded only if a 
vowel precedes, others can be sounded only if a vowel follows. 

A word consists of as many syllables, as it has vowels separately 

In ordinary pronunciation, a consonant between two vowels is 
littered partly with both. The real division of the syllables is in the 
middle of the consonant. Thus pater is really divided in the middle of 
the t, the first syllable being pat, the second being ter. The t is not 
sounded twice, but one half is sounded with each syllable. 

(In English double letters are often used, where only one is really 
sounded. For instance, in waggon we have only one g pronounced : in wag 
gone both are sounded as well as written.) When consonants are doubled 
in Latin, probably they should be sounded as two, but this is not certain. 

In Latin pronunciation, the tendency was to pronounce with each 
vowel as many of the consonants immediately following, as could be 
readily pronounced with it. 

6 SOUNDS. [Book L 

IS A syllable may begin with any vowel or diphthong, or single consonant. 
But of combinations of consonants, the following only are found in Latin 
words as initial (i. e. before the first vowel). 

1 i ) A non-continuous consonant or f followed by r or 1, viz. pi, pr ; 
bl, br; cl, cr ; gl, gr; tr ; fl, f r ; but not tl, dl, dr : e.g. plaudo, 
prandeo ; blandus, brevis ; clamo, crudus ; gloria, gravls ; traho ; fluo, 
frango (draco, Dmidae and perhaps Drusus are foreign words). 

(2) s followed by a sharp non-continuous consonant, with or without 
a following r or 1, viz. sp, spl, spr ; sc, scr; st, str; e. g. sperno, splendeo, 
sprevi; scio, scribo; sto, struo. 

(3) gn was found in the older language; e.g. gnatus, gnosco, gnarus: 
but the g was usually omitted in Cicero's time, except in Gnaeus. (So in 
English gnaiv, gnat, gnarl, the g is rarely pronounced.) 

17 i and u when used as semivowels are always before (not after) the vowel 
of the syllable. They were sometimes so pronounced when following con- 
sonants in the same syllable ; e. g. suavis, pronounced swawis, scio, in 
verse pronounced scyo sometimes. 

In the combinations ai and ei when followed by a vowel, the i both 
made a diphthong with the preceding a or e and also was pronounced like 
English y, e.g. Staienus, pronounced Stai-yenus; Pompeius, pronounced 
Pompei-yus. Cicero wrote the i double, e. g. Pompeiius. 


18 Many words in the Latin language underwent changes which 
made them easier to pronounce. 

Omission of Sounds or Syllables. 

19 Thus the last syllable, which in Latin is always unaccented, was 
frequently slurred in pronunciation. 

Final m was frequently omitted in early inscriptions; e.g. Scipione, 
opturno, for Scipionem, optumom : and in the classical period was disre- 
garded in verse, when the next word began with a vowel ; e. g. 
vemm haec tantum alias was pronounced veru haec tantu alias, the 
u-hae or u-a being pronounced in the time of a single syllable. 

Final m before an initial consonant was perhaps also omitted in pronun- 
ciation, but (if Mr A. J. Ellis' highly ingenious theory be true) if there was 
no pause in sense between the words, the initial consonant of the following 
word was doubled, thus omnem crede diem tibi diluxisse supremum was 
pronounced omneccrede diettibi diluxisse supremu. 

Final d, which was the sign of the ablative singular in early times, was 
omitted in classical _times : thus the prepositions pro, ante, post, stand for 
prod (cf. prod-eo), in the fore part, antid, in front, postid, in the hind part. 

Final s was frequently omitted ; as for instance in early inscriptions, 
Comelio, Herenio, for Cornelios, Herenios (later Cornelius, Herennius) ; 
and in Lucretius and earlier poets it is omitted in scansion ; omnibu' prin- 
ceps ; Quid dubitas quin omni' sit haec ration!' potestas? (Lucr. 2. 53), 

Chap. 21. ] Phonetic Composition. 7 

20 An entire syllable was sometimes omitted in what would otherwise 
have been too long a word, especially if several weak syllables came 
together : 

e. g. hSmlcIdium for hSmini-cidium ; veneflcium for vengnl-floium ; 
corpulentius for corpdruleatius ; vdluntas for v61unti-tas. 

Omission or Change of Consonants. 

21 When three consonants come together, the middle one is often 
omitted : e. g. fulmen for fulg-men ; fultus for fulg-tus ; mul-si for 
mulgsi; tormentmn for torq-mentum ; artus, narrow, for arctus ; 
pars for parts ; mens for merits ; regens for regents. 

22 Of two consonants the former is often omitted or assimilated to the 

23 If the consonant is omitted altogether, the preceding vowel is often 
lengthened so as to maintain the length or weight of the syllable : e. g. 
examen for exagmen ; jumentum for jug-mentum ; caementura (quarried 
stone) for caed-mentum ; smestris for sex-mestris ; pono for pos-no ; 
lima for luc-na ; deni for dec-ni ; jfl-dex for jus-dex ; idem for is-dem ; 
aemim for aes-num ; dlmoveo for dismoveo, diduco for disduco ; dilabor 
for dislabor ; tramitto for transmitto (which would become trasmitto). 

24 A consonant may be assimilated to another either completely or 
partially ; that is, it may either become the same consonant, or it may 
be changed into another consonant of the same character as the preced- 
ing consonant. 

25 Complete assimilation is chiefly found, either (a) when both con- 
sonants are of the same character, or () in the case of prepositions in 

(a) ces-si for ced-si ; fossus for fod-sus ; sum-mus for sub-mus ; 
salla for sed-la ; puella for puer-la ; columella for eorumen-la. When 
an assimilation produces double s, often one & only was written ; 
e. g. prosa for prorsa (i. e. proversa) oratio ; rusus, old russus, for 
rursus ; tostrnn for torstum ; quoties for quotiens ; vicesumus for 
vicensumus ; mlsi for mit-si ; clausi for claud-si. 

(Z>) ad in compounds : appello, accurro, aggero, &c. 

ob in oppono, occurro, &c.; sub in suppono, succurro, suggero, &c. 
ec in effugio, &c. ; dis in diffugio, &c. ; com in corruo, colluo, &c. 

26 Partial assimilation is found chiefly in the following cases : 

() A voiced consonant is changed into the corresponding voice- 
less consonant; e.g. scrlp-tus for scrib-tus; ac-tus for ag-tus; auxi 
( auc-si) for aug-si ; optineo for obtineo. This change was necessary 
tor articulation, even where the spelling was not altered. 

() m is changed into n if a dental follow ; n into m if a labial 
follow : e. g. con-tero for com-tero ; exin-de for exim-de ; im-pero for 
in-pero ; im-berbis for in-berbis, &c. 

Before a guttural n is written, but pronounced as the guttural 
nasal, i.e. as ng in English; e.g. inquam pronounced ing-q\vam. 

8 SOUNDS. \Book L 

27 Another change very common in Latin is that of tt or dt to ss or 
s; e.g. defensum for defendtum ; missum for mit-tum; nexum (i.e. 
nee-sum) for nect-tum ; &c. So always when a suffix beginning with 
t is appended to a form ending in d or t. (The right theory of this 
change is that the t of the suffix is changed to s, and the final d or t of 
the stem is assimilated to it ; e.g. mit-tum, mit-sum, missum.) 

28 s between two vowels changed to r ; thus pignus makes pign6ris ; 
6nus, 6n6ra (but shows its proper final consonant in onustus) ; pulvis, 
pulvfiris ; Papirius was formerly Paplsius ; Numfirius is for Numlsius ; 
dis- in composition becomes dlr- ; e. g. diiimo for dls-6mo ; dlribeo for 
dis-habeo, &c. 

29 After m and before a dental p is sometimes inserted ; e.g. sumptus, 
sumpsi for sum-tus, sum-si ; hiemps for hiems. The p is in fact almost 
involuntarily pronounced in passing from m to t or s. (Analogously in 
Greek aVSpor for aj/-po?, p-fa-rju^pia for /* f o-rjpcpia ', in French vendredi 
from veneris dies ; nomtore from numerus.) 

Omission or Change of Vowels. 

30 Vowels are sometimes' changed in quantity or in quality. 

Change in Quantity of l r 

Change in quantity is either from- short to long, or from long to 

31 Short vowels are changed to long (the quality of the vowel usually 
remaining the same) : 

(a) From the absorption of a consonant ; e. g. casum for cadtum 
(cassum) ; examen for exagmen ; jumentum- for Jugnientum ; pono for 

() In forming the perfect tense; e.g. leg'o, perf. legi; 6mo, emi ; 
sfideo, sedi; fugio, fugi ; video, vidij fftdio, fodi ; but a when length- 
ened in perfects becomes e ; e. g. ago, egi ; capio, cepi ; facio, feci 
(except before u, e.g. lauo, lavi). 

(c) In some compounds or derivatives ; e. g. placere, placare ; sSnare, 
persona ; sdpor, sopire ; r&gSre, rex, regis ; s&dere, sedes ; tggere, 
tegula ; dux, diicis, duco ; mal6-dlc-us, dicare, dlco ; fides, perf Idus, 
fldo. (It is assumed in these cases that the short vowel is the original.) 

(d} By transposition, ar, 6r (which is often for ir), &c. become ra, re, 
rl, &c. 

e. g. ster-no, stra-vi, stra-mn j cer-no, cre-vi, crl-men ; serpo, (s)repo ; 
ter-nus, trl-nus ; t6ro, trlvi, trltus ; and probably por, pro ; sup6r-Imus 
(supermus), supre-mus. 

(e) By contraction with another vowel (see instances below). 

32 Long vowels are changed t& short, chiefly in the final syllable ; e. g. 
calcar for calcare, bldental for Mdentale ; amat6r, majCr from stems 
with o long ; in verbs am&r, amat, mon6t, audit, all of which are pro- 

Chap. //.] Phonetic Composition. 9 

perly long by contractions (for ama-or, ama-it, &c.) ; audivgrfs 
(sometimes) ; so am6, r6gd, ctipi& occasionally in later poets ; and 
many final syllables in Plautus ; &c. 

Change In Quality of Vowels. 

33 Change in the quality of the vowel has usually been in this order : 
a, o, u, e, i, not the reverse; that is to say, an original a may change 
to any of these ; o may change to u, e, or 1 ; u may change to e or i ; 
e may change to i ; but an original i does not change to a, &c. 

34 Root vowels are often changed when by a* syllable being prefixed 
(as in composition) the root syllable loses the first place. The usual 
changes of radical vowels are as follows : 

Radical a to e before a final consonant or two consonants, or r ; 
e. g. carpo, discerpo ; rapio, correptus ; damno, condemno ; sacer, 
consScro ; fallo, fefelli ; pars, expers ; facio, artlfex, effectus ; annus, 
perennis ; pario, pepgri paro, impfiro ; c. 

Radical a to i before ng, or before any single consonant, except r ; 
e.g. pango, impingoj tango, attingo; pango, pgplgi ; tango, tetlgi; 
rapio, corripio ; apiscor, indipiscor ; facio, efflcio ; ratus, irrltus ; 
capiit, occiput ; amicus, Inlnricus ; fades, superficies ; &c. 

Radical a to u before labials or 1 with another consonant ; e. g. 
capio, aucupari ; taberna, contubernium ; lavo, diltivies ; salto, insulto ; 
calco, inculco ; c. 

Radical e to i, e.g. 16go, colllgo, dlllgo; 6mo, adlmo; figeo, indlgeo; 
prSmo, opprimo, tSneo, rStineo. 

Radical o is occasionally changed to u: e.g. ad61eo, adiilescens ; 
radical u to i ; e. g. clftpeus, clipeus ;' lubet, nbet. 

The diphthong ae becomes in compounds I, and au becomes o or u; 
e.g. aestimo, existlmo; aequus, inlquus; ; pfaudo, explodo; suffoco 
from fauces; accftso from causa; exclude from claudo. 

The usual changes of vowels in suffixes are as follows : 

35 a in suffixes becomes u before 1, e before r or 11, and i before other 
single consonants; e.g. casa, casula; porta, portula; cista, cistella; 
Allia, Alliensis. 

36 o in the older language often gave place to u in the later language; 
e.g. cSsentiont, consentiunt; vivont, vivunt; Idquontur, ISquuntur; 
p6p61os, pdpulus; volt, vult; mortuos (nom. s.), mortuus; quom, cum; 
filios, fllius, &c. ; 

but it is retained after e, i or u; e.g. auredlus, ebridlus, frivdlus. 

o was changed to u before two consonants or a final s ; e,g. carbon-, 
carbunculus ; min6s-, mlnfts, minuscftlus ; : corpfis-*, corpus, corpusculum ; 

but also to e sometimes before two consonants, or when final ; 
e.g. major-, majestas; faciundus (probably earlier faciondus), facien- 
dus; ipse (for ips6s, ipsd-); taurg (voc.) for taur6- or taurds; &c. 

6 in final stem syllable to i ; e. g. carddn-, cardlnis ; IrOmOn-, 
hOmlnis; alto-, altlttldo; armo-, armipOtens ; fato-, fattdlcus. 

SOUNDS. [Book T. 

6 in final stem syllable to i; e.g. cardda-, cardiais; admda-, 
homiais; alto-, altitude; armo-, armipdteas; fato-, fatidicus. 
37 u in the older (prae- Augustan) language is often found where I is 
used in the later language; e.g. maxumus, saactissuaius, vlcensunms, 
arciibus (from arcus), portubus, maacupem, capfctalem became later 
inaxlmus, saactisslmus^ vlcesimus, arcibus, portlbus, maacipem, capi- 

S3 6 is found as final, where I is found before s or d; e.g. facllg, 
facilis; mare, marls; potg, pdtls; fortasse, fortassis; rggg, rggis; 
rege, regis ; fatearg, fatearis. 

6 is changed to I in the final syllable of a stem to which a letter or 
syllable is suffixed: 

either if 8 be final in the stem, but the suffix begin with a con- 
sonant; e.g. 1115, iUIc; uadg, uadique; iadg, indidem; antS, aatistgs; 
bgag, bgaigaus; mdag-, mOaltus; aabg-, aablto; rggg, rgglte, rgglto: 

or if 6 be not final in the stem, but the suffix begin with a vowel; 
e.g. al6s (for alet-s), allt-is; p6d6s (for p6det-s), p6dlt-is; antistes 
(for antistets), antistit-a; agm6n, agmln-is; biceps, blclplt-em; ver- 
tex, vertic-is; d6cem, ddcim-us. 

But (in the last-mentioned case) S remains after i, or before r or tr ; 
e.g. aries, arigtis; t6n6r, tengra; plp6r, pipgris; ggnltor, g6n6trix; 
f6ro, r6f6ro ; seatio, consentio. 

6 (when not final in the stem) remains also if the suffix begin with 
a consonant; e.g. ale's for al6t-s; obsgs for obsgd-s; nutrlmga, nutri- 
mea-tum (compared with autrimia-Is) ; sgaex (i.e. seaec-s), sgaectus. 

39 Occasionally a vowel is assimilated to the vowel in the next syllable; 
e. g. slmulo, slmilis ; Aemilius compared with aemulus ; famllia with 
famulus; exsilium with exsul. In all these cases the u, which is both 
earlier than i, and has a special affinity to 1, is changed to i, because an i 
follows the 1. 

Affinity of vowels to consonants. 

40 It will be seen from the preceding, that some vowels appear to have 
special affinity to some consonants following. Thus we find 

u before 1; e before U; comp. vello, yulsum; percello, perculi; fallo, 
fgfelli ; pello, pgpuli, pulsum. 

e before r ; comp. fgro, coafgro with rego, corrlgo ; aasgr, aasgris 
with algs, alitis ; &c. 

u before m; the u however eventually gave way to I, which is the 
ordinary short vowel in unaccented syllables ; e.g. mSaumeatum, maxu- 
mus, ceatesumusj later m0aimeatum, maxlmus, ceatesuaus. 

e before two consonants.; i before one (not final); e.g. nutrlmgn, 
autriauals, autrimeatum ; scaado, coasceado compared with caao, coa- 

i is especially frequent before the dentals t, d, a and s, but this is 
partly because it is the lightest yowel, and suffixes with t, d, a, s are 
especially frequent, 

Chap. 77. ] Phonetic Composition. n 

Omission of Fb 

41 A short vowel is often omitted between two consonants ; e. g. i has 
been dropped in facultas for facilitas ; misertum for mlsgritum ; puertia 
(Hor.) for puerltia; postus (Verg.) for positus; replictus (Verg.) for 
repllcitus; audacter for audaciter; fert for f6rit; valde for vallde; 
caldus for calldus. And even when the vowel is radical; e.g. pergo 
for porrigo (from per rSgo) ; surgo for surrigo (from sub r8go). 

u in suffixes -ciilo, -pulo, especially in verse; e.g, manipulus makes 
maniplus; vinculum, viaclum ; pgriculum, pgrlelum ; cdlumen (Plaut.), 

6 before r, e. g. ace"r, acris ; aggr, agrum ; dextSra, dextra ; infera, 
infra; nostSr, nostra; also nialignus for m.allge'nus, gigno for gigfino; 
calfacere for caleTacere, &c. 

Other Changes. 

42 5 was in the earlier prae- Augustan language retained after v ; e.g. 
serv6s, later servus. Hence when o in qvo- changed to u, the v was 
dropped, and c (sometimes) written for q. Thus quom became cum ; 
quoi, quor became cui, cur; aliquobi, alicubi; quoquds (Plaut.) became 
cdcus (also written coquus), a cook ; 6quos, 6cus (also equus) ; loquon- 
tur, locuntur (also loquuntur).. 

43 h and v between- two vowels often dropped out, or the v was treated 
as a vowel, and the vowels, thus brought together, coalesced into a 
single vowel or a diphthong. 

dehibeo, praehlbeo (in Plautus) became debeo, praebeo ; comprg- 
hendo became comprendo ; cShors, cors ; nihil, nil ; mllii, often mi ; 
dehinc, mehercules are in verse sometimes treated, though not written, 
as if contracted into dene, mercules. 

amave'ram, amaram ; flevgram, fleram ; amavisse, amasse ; navita, 
nauta ; avlceps, auceps ; aevitas, aetas ; hovorsum, horsum ; provldens, 
pnidens; juvgnior, junior; breylma, brumaj nevolo, nolo; pblivltus, 

So in Plautus J6vem, 6vis, bSves, br6vi are monosyllabic, and 
avoneulus, oblivisci are trisyllables. 

44 i and v, in some words where they ordinarily were pronounced as 
vowels, sometimes in verse were treated as consonants (pronounced as 
Engl. y and w). 

Thus in Plautus scio, dies, filio, otium are scanned as if pronounced 
scjo, djes, filjo, otjum$ in the dactylic poets we have arjetat, abjStS, 
parje"tlbus, steljo, omnja, precantja, vindemjator, consiljum, &c. 

Similarly in Plautus tuos, suos, puer, fuit are scanned as tvos, svos, 
pver, fvit ; and in dactylic poets we have genva, pitvlta, patrvi, sinvatis. 
So the trisyllabic earlier forms mlluus, larua, were in the later pronounced 
milvus, larva. Tenvis, tenvior seem to have been always disyllables. 

45 In several cases, changes, liyhiclv might according to the usual practice 
be expected, were avoided, lest confusion should arise. 

e.g. afo is not so often changed in composition as sub is, because of the 

SOUNDS. [Book /. 

danger of confusion with compounds of ad; hence we have abreptus, not 
arreptus, like surreptus. The vowel before the suffix tat- is usually I; e.g. 
aviditas, pra vitas, gra vitas, but after i, 6 is used; e.g. pietas, societas 
(not piitas, sociitas). Similarly the vowel before the suffix -lo is usually u; 
e. g. singulus, populus, tantulus, hortulus ; but after 1, e or v, the older o 
is often preserved; e.g. aureolus, filiolus, servolus. 

This principle appears to have frequently preserved the i before s in the 
nom. sing, of nouns of the second class. Thus canis, jUvSnis, if deprived 
of i would become cans, then cas; juvens, then juves, or even jus, where 
the stem would be greatly disguised. 

46 When vowels come together in a word, sometimes they remain un- 
changed, sometimes they coalesce into a new sound (vowel or diphthong). 

47 A broader vowel followed by a long narrower vowel is usually absorbed 
into it or forms a diphthong with it. 

a + u becomes au; e.g. caultum, cautum; aviceps, auceps. 
a + 1 becomes e; e.g. ametis for amaltis. 

+ i becomes I; e.g. domlnl for domlnoi, dominls for dominois; 
or oi; e.g. quoi, proin. 

Exceptions : 

u + I either remains as in cui, huic, where u was probably semi-conso- 
nantal, or the i is dropped; e.g, senatu-i, sometimes senatu. 

e + I; e.g. spei or spe, rei or re, sometimes- pronounced as disyllabic 
spSI, rSI or rei. 

48 A broader vowel followed by a short narrower vowel often absorbs it. 

a + 6, or ii, or , or I; e.g. ama-ont (or ama-unt), amant; amav6ram, 
amaram; ainavisse, amasse; but Cri-Ius remains as dactyl. 

- o + 6, or I ; e. g. noveram, noram ; ntovisse,. mosse ; coemptus, comptus ; 
co-imo, como. But o + vi often becomes- u< evg. provldens, prddens; 
dvlpilio, upilio; ndvumper, nttper; m6vlto y mfito. 

, u+I; senatu-is, senatus. 

, e-hl; delevisse, delesse; mone-is, moneS; dehlbeo, debeo. 

49 A narrower vowel followed by a broader vowel either remains un- 
changed, or assumes a quasi-consonantal character. 

u + a, or o; e.g. tuas, tuos. 

e + a, or o, or u; e.g. moneas, saxea, saxeo, saxeum; eunt, earn, eo. 
In alveo, alvearia; eodem, eadem, &c. the e must be regarded as semi- 
consonantal. But monent, not moaeunt. 

1 + a, or o, or u, or e; e.g. audiam, audiunt, audies; filias, filios. But 
in fili for filie, sis for sies, mag-is for magios, and some other words, 
the i absorbs the following vowel. 

50 A vowel before the same vowel, usually absorbs it and becomes long? 
e.g. eooperio, coperio; cohors, cors; delevSrat, delerat; prehendo, 

But i + i, if one be long, gives I; if both are short, I; e.g. dil, dl; 
consilil, consill; audifsti, audlsti; mini, ml; but fugl-Is, fugls; egregi-Ior, 
egreglor; navl Ibus, navlbus. o 

Chap. ///.] Quantity of Syllables. 13 




51 TuAT^partpf grammar which treats of the Quantity of Syllables is 
often cz\\<&*4*rosody, a term which the ancients applied principally to 

If the voice dwells upon a syllable in pronouncing it, it is called a 
long syllable : if it passes rapidly over it, it is called a short syllable. 

Two short syllables are considered to occupy the same time as one 
long syllable. 

A syllable is long or short, either because it contains a vo^vel 
naturally long or short ; or on account of the position of its vowel. 

Long vowels are marked in grammars by a straight line over the 
vowel : thus d5ms. 

Short vowels are marked by a curved line over the vowel : thus, 

These marks over the vowels are frequently (though improperly) 
used to denote the length or shortness of the syllable. But it must be 
remembered that a long syllable may have a short vowel. 

52 i. Quantity of vowels not in the last syllable of a word. 

i. All diphthongs are long (except before another vowel) ; e.g. 
aurum; deinde; &c. 

a. All vowels which have originated from contraction are long ; 
e.g. cogo for cd-lgo (from com ago), momentum for mdvlmentum, 
tiblcen for tibil-cen ; &c. 

3. The quantity of the radical syllables of a word is generally 
preserved in composition or derivation, even when the vowel is changed; 
e.g. mater, maternus; cado, incldo ; caedo, incldo ; amo, amor, amicus, 
inlmlcus ; &c. 

So also almost always where the members of what is apparently a 
compound word may be treated as separate words, as quapropter, 
mecum, alioqui, agricultura. But we have siquldem and quand6- 
quldem (from si ;and quando) ; and of the compounds of ubl, uti, 
the following, ublvis, sicutl, necubi, utinam, utlque, have i always 
short, ubique always long. 

For the quantity of root vowels no rule can be given. The quantity 
of inflexional or derivative affixes is given in Books II. III. 

Greek words usually retain in Latin their own quantity. 

SOUNDS. [Book L 

53 ii. Quantity of vowels in the last syllable of a word. 
(A) Monosyllables are long. 


(a) The enclitics -que" 3 -n6, -ve", -eg, which are always appended 

to other words. 

() Words ending with b, d, t ; e.g. ab, sub, 6b; ad, Id, qu6d, 

quid; at, dat, 6t, net, tdtj &c, 

(c) fac, lac, nSc, an, In, f61, m51, vel, f6r, per, t6r, vlr, cdr, quls 

(nom. sing.), Is, bis, els, 6s (a bone}. The nom. masculine hie is not 

frequently short. 6s (thou art} usually short ; but es in Plaut., Ter. 

54 (B) In polysyllables: 

a and e (and jf) final are short 

Except a in 

(a) Abl. sing, of nouns with a- stem ; e. g. musa. 

(i) Imperative sing. act. of verbs with a- stem ; e.g. ama. 

(c) Indeclinable words; e.g. ergft, intra, quadraginta; but Ita, 

quia, eja; and (in Pers. and Mart.) puta, for instance (properly 

imper. of putare). 

{d} Greek vocatives from nominatives in as; e.g. Aenea, Palla : 

and Greek horn. sing, of a- stems ; e. g. Electra. 

55 Except e in 

(a) Gen. dat. abl. sing, of nouns with e- stems; e.g. facie; so 

also h&dig. But hgrg, yesterday, has 6 short. 

() Imperative sing. act. of verbs with e- stems; e.g. mone ; but 

in cave (Hor. Ov,), and vide (Phaedn Pers.), it is sometimes short. 

(c) Adverbs from adjectives with o- stems; e.g. docte, to which 

add f6re, ferrae, pgrggre, ohe ; but ben, ma!6, inferng, superng. 

t6m6re is only found before a vowel. mact6, probably an adverb, 

also has e short. 

(d} Greek neut. pi. ; e. g. tempS, pelage ; fern. sing, crambe, Circe" ; 

masc. voc. Alcide. 

56 1, 0, u (in polysyllables} final are long; 
Except i in 

(a) mihi, tibi, sibi, ubi, ibi, in which i is common ; 

and quasi, nisi. (Of the compounds ubinam, iiblvis are always 

short, ubique, utroblque always long, utlnam, nutlquam (or ne 

utlquam, not neutiquam) are short, though utl is long.) 

(Z>) Greek nom. ace. neuters sing.; e.g. sinapi: 

vocatives; e.g. Parl, Amarylll : rarely dat. sing. e.g. Minoidl. 

57 Except 6 in 

() cit5, imm5, modd (and compounds), dud, eg5, cSdd and end6 
(old form of in). Rarely erg5. Martial, Juvenal, &c., have intr6, 
porrO, serd, oct6. Sec. ; modo has sometimes final o long in Lucretius 
and earlier poets. 

Chap. III.] Quantify of Syllables. 15 

(b) In the present tense of the verbs sci6, nescid, put6, void, used 
parenthetically, o is sometimes short : and occasionally in and after 
the Augustan age in other verbs with short penult; e.g. rogtt, vet6, 
nuntid, obsecrd. Instances of o being short in other parts of the 
& . verb, or in verbs with long penult, are rarer; e.g. estd, caeditC, 
Oder 6, dabd, tendd, tolld, credd. 

(r) In Nominatives of Proper names with consonant stems 6 is 
common, e.g. PolliS, Scipid, Curid, Nas6 ; sometimes virgd, nem6, 
liomo, and other appellatives in Martial, Juvenal, &c. 

Datives and ablatives in o are never short, except the ablative 
gerund once or twice in Juvenal and Seneca. 

58 Final syllables (of polysyllables} ending in any other single 
consonant than s are short. 
But the final syllable is long in 

(a) all cases of illlc, istic, except the nom. masc. 

(b) all compounds of par, e. g. dispar, compar. 

(c) alec, lien. 

(W) lit, petnt, and their compounds (and of course It, petit as 
contracted perfects). 

(e) some Greek nominatives in -er; e.g. crater, character, ar, 
aether; and some cases in -n; e.g. siren (nom.), Aenean (ace.), 
Eucliden (ace.), epigrammaton (gen. pi.) ; &c. 

G9 Of the final syllables in 8, 

as, os, es, are long. 

(a) anas (probably) ; exds ; compds, Impos ; p6n6s. 

(b) nom. sing, in -es of nouns with consonant stems, which have 
dtis, Itis, Idis in genitive, e. g. s6g6s, mile's, obsgs : but paries, abies, 
aries, Cfires. 

(c) compounds of es (from sum), e.g. abgs. 

(*/) some Greek words; e.g. Ilias (nom.), crateras (ace. pi.); 
DelSs (n. sing.), Erinny6s, dhlamyd6s (gen. sing.), ArcadSs, cra- 
teres (nom. pi.) ; Cynosarg6s (neat. s.). 

60 us and is are short. 
Except us in 

(a) gen. sing, and nom. and ace. plu. of nouns with -u stems. 

() nom. sing, of consonant nouns, when genitive singular has long 

penultimate, e.g. telias (teUuris), palus (paliidis), virtus (virtutis). 

(Hor. has once palus.) 

(r) some Greek names; Sapphus (gen. s.), Panthils (nom. s.). 

61 Except Is in 

(a) dat. andabl. plural, e.g. mensls, vobis, quls ; so gratis, forls. 
Also in ace. (and nom.) plural of -i stems; e.g. omnis. 

r 6 SOUNDS. '[Book I. 

(b) and pers. sing. pres. ind. of verbs with -1 stems; e.g. audls: 
also possis (and other compounds of sis), veils, noils, malls. 

(c) and pers. sing, of perf. subj. and compl. fut. in which is is 
common ; e.g. viderls. 

(</) Samnls, Quirls. sangvis sometimes (always in Lucr.), pulvis 

(once Enn., once Verg.), have -Is. 

(e) some Greek words; Simois, Eleusls, Salamis (nom. sing.). 

62 iii. Quantity of syllables by position in the same word. 

1. A syllable ending with a vowel (or diphthong) immediately 
followed by another syllable beginning with a vowel, or with h and a 
vowel, is short ; as, via, praSustus, contrahit. 


(a) In the genitives of pronouns, &c. in -ius; e.g. illius, where 1 

is common. In alius (gen. case) the i is always long: in solius it 

is short once in Ter. In utrlus, neutrlus it is not found short, but 

in utrlusque frequently. 

() a in the penultimate of the old genitive of nouns with a- stems ; 

e.g. aulal. So also e in dI5I, and, in Lucretius, re!, and (once) 

fidei. Also el (dat. pronoun), unless contracted ei. 

(c) a or e before i (where i is a vowel) in all the cases of proper 
names ending in -ins; e.g. Galus, Pompelus (but see 17). 

(*/) The syllable fi in fio (except before er; e.g. fieri, figrem). 
(<?) The first syllable of eheu ! and the adjective cllus. In Diana 
and 5 he the first syllable is common. 

In Greek words a long vowel is not shortened by coming before 
another vowel ; e.g. Nereldl, E56, AenSas, aera, MaeStia. 

2. A syllable containing a vowel immediately followed by two 
consonants, or by x, or z, is long ; as the last syllable in regent, auspex. 

[The vowel itself is short in auspex (ausplc-em), long in regent.] 

But if the two consonants immediately following a short vowel be 
the first a mute or f, and the second 1 or r, the vowel remains short 
in prose and in comic poets, though in other verse it is frequently 

The following combinations occur in Latin words : pr, for, cr, 
gr, tr 1 , dr, fr ; pi, cl, fl ; e. g. apro, tenebrae, volucris, agrum, patris, 
quadriga, vafrum ; maniplus, assecla, refluus. 

(fol also occurs in pufolieus, but the first syllable is always long.) 
In Greek words other combinations allow the vowel to remain 
short ; e. g. Atlas, TScmessa, Cycnus, Daphne. 

1 Arfoitro, arbitrium, c., genetrix, meretrix, are nowhere found 
with long second syllable. 

Chap. III.} Quantity of Syllables. 17 

Where the combination is due to composition only, the syllable 
is always lengthened, just as if the words were separate (cf. 66) ; 
e.g. sfltoruo, abluo. 

iv. Effect of initial sounds on the final syllable of a 
preceding word. 

63 In verse the final syllable of a word is affected by the vowel or 
consonants at the commencement of the next word, in much the 
same way in which one syllable is affected by the succeeding syllable in 
the same word. 

A final vowel or diphthong or a final syllable in m is omitted (or 
at least slurred) in pronunciation, if the next word commence with a 
vowel or diphthong or h. 

Thus vidi ipsum, vive hodie, monstrum ingens are read in verse as 
of no more length than vid-ipsum, viv-odie, monstr-ingens. 

When est follows a vowel or m the e was omitted, e.g. amata est, 
amatum est were pronounced amatast, amatumst. 

6-1 But the poets (except the early dramatists) refrain in certain cases 
from so putting words as to occasion such an elision 1 . Especially such 
an elision is avoided when the first word ends with a long vowel or m, 
and the second word begins with a short vowel. 

An elision at the end of a verse before a vowel in the same verse is 
very rare in any poet, except in Horace's Satires and Epistles; e.g. 
in urbemst (Sat. i. i. n), centum an (ib. 50), atque hie (ib. 2. 22). 

An elision at the end of a verse before a vowel at the beginning of 
the next verse is found not uncommonly in Vergil, only once or twice 
in other writers' hexameters. In glyconic and sapphic stanzas it is 
not uncommon ; e. g. 

Ant dulcis musti Volcano decoquit umorera, 
et foliis, &c. (Verg.) 

Dissidens plebi numero beatorum 
esimit virtus. (Hor.) 

65 An hiatus is however permitted ; 

always at the end of one verse before an initial vowel in the next 
verse, except in an anapaestic metre : 

occasionally in the same verse; viz. 

(a) if there is an interruption of the sense; though it is very rare, when 
the first of the two vowels is short ; e. g. 

Fromissam eripui genero, anna impia sumpsi. (Verg.) 
Addam cerea pruna: honos erit huic quoque porno. " (Verg.) 

1 These statements are abridged from Luc. Muller. 
L. G. 2 

1 8 SOUNDS. [Book I. 

(l>) in arsis 1 , chiefly at the regular caesura; e.g. 

Stant et juniper! et castaneae hirsutae. (Verg.) 

Si pereo, liominum manibus periisse juvabit. (Verg.) 

(t) in thesis 1 , a long vowel, especially in a monosyllable, is sometimes 
shortened instead of elided ; e.g. 

Credimus? an qui amant ipsi sibi somnia fingunt? (Verg.) 
Hoc motu radiantis Etesiae in vada ponti. (Cic.) 

(d) a word ending in m is rarely not elided; e.g. 

Miscent inter sese inimicitiam agitantes. (Enn.) 

Sed dum abest quod avemus, id exsuperare videtur. (Lucr.) 

66 A short final syllable ending in a consonant is always lengthened by 
an initial consonant in the word following; e.g. (in liquuntur and 

Vellitur, huic atro liquuntur sanguine guttae. (Verg.) 
Quo Phoebus vocet errantis jubeatque reverti. (Verg.) 

67 A short final syllable ending in a vowel is rarely lengthened before 
two consonants at the beginning of the next word. 

This is done before sp, sc, st ; more rarely still before pr, br, fr, tr. 
There are a few instances in Catullus, Tibullus, Martial, &c. (none in 
Lucretius, Vergil, Horace, Propertius, Ovid); e.g. 

Nulla fugae ratio ; nulla spes ; omnia muta. (Cat.) 

Tua si bona nescis 
seryare, frustra clavis inest foribus. (Tib.) 

On the other hand a short final vowel is rarely found before sp, sc, 
sq, st, gn. 

Lucilius, Lucretius, Horace in Satires, and Propertius have, in all, about 
23 instances ; Vergil one, and that where the sense is interrupted. Other 
poets have hardly a single instance : such a collocation was avoided alto- 
gether. A short final vowel is not put before an initial z by the best 
writers except in zmaragdus, Zacynthus. 

The enclitic -que is lengthened in arsis not uncommonly by Vergil 
(before two consonants, or a liquid or s), and by Ovid : very rarely by 
others ; e. g. 

Tribulaque traheaeque et iniquo pondere rastra. (Verg.) 
So once final a ; 
Dona dehinc auro gravia sectoque elephanto. (Verg.) 

68 Occasionally (in Vergil about 50 times) a short final closed syllable 
is lengthened by the arsis, though the next word begins with a vowel : this 
is chiefly in the caesura, or when a proper name or Greek word follows, or 
where the sense is interrupted ; e.g. (all from Vergil) 

1 The arsis is the metrical accent of a foot, and is on the first syllable 
in dacty], spondee, and trochee ; on the last in iambus and anapaest. The 
thesis is the want of metrical accent, and is on the last syllable of dactyl, 
&c., on the. first of iambus, &c. 

Chap. ///] Quantity of Syllables. 19 

Pacem me exanimis et Martis sorte peremptis 
oratis? Equidem et vivis concedere vellem. 
Desine plura puer, et quod mine instat agamus. 
Olli serva datur, operum fraud ignara Minervae. 
Ipse, ubi tempus erit, omnes in fonte lavabo. 
Pectoribus inhians, spirantia consulit exta. 
In thesis it is very rare ; e.g. 
Si non periret immiserabilis | captiva pubes. (I lor.) 

69 v. Peculiarities in early dramatic verse. 

In early dramatic verse the quantity of syllables was not so definitely 
fixed or observed, as in the later dactylic and other verse. The principal 
cases of deviation from the rules given above may be classified as follows. 

i. Final syllables, afterwards short, were sometimes used with their 
original long quantity; e.g. fama (nom. s.), soror, pater; amet, sciat, 
ponebat, perciplt, vendidlt ; amer, loquar, &c. 

2. Final syllables with long vowels were sometimes used as short; 
e.g. domd (abl. s.), probS (adv.), tace", mauu, virl, &c. ; conrigl, bonas, 
foras, do!6s, ovs, manus (ace. pi.), bonls, &c. This is almost confined to 
iambic words. 

3. Syllables containing a vowel followed by two consonants were 
sometimes used as short. Such are 

(a) Syllables in the later language written with doubled consonants ; 
e.g. Immo, ille, simlllimae, Pliillppus, 6sse, dcculto, &c. 

(b] Some syllables with two different consonants ; e.g. Inter, Interim, 
Intus, Inde, iinde, n5mpe, dmnis. So also (according to some) voliiptas, 
maglstratus, minlstrabit, venustas, senSctus, &c. (or perhaps volptas, 
magstratus, &c.) ; gxpediant, gxigere, i^xorem. 

4. Final syllables ending in a consonant were sometimes not lengthened, 
though the next word began with a consonant; e.g. (in Terence) enlm 
vero, auctus sit, sor6r dictast, dablt nemo, simul conficiam, tamSn 
suspicor, &c. ; apud is frequently so used : even studSnt facere. This 
licence is most frequent, when the final consonant is m, s, r, or t ; and is 
due to the tendency of the early language to drop the final consonant, and 
to shorten the final vowel. 

5. On the freer use of what grammarians call synizesis, e.g. tvos for 
tuos, scjo for scto, &c. see 44. 


70 ACCENT is the elevation of voice, with which one syllable of a word is 
pronounced, in comparison with the more subdued tone with which the 
other syllables are pronounced. 

2 2 

20 SOUNDS. {Book L 

This subdued tone is called by grammarians the grave accent. The 
principal rules of Latin accentuation are given by Quintilian, I. 5. 22 31. 

It is the habit in modern times to understand by accent in Latin (as in 
English) only stress, or greater stress on one syllable relatively to other 
syllables, and to denote this by loud ness, or greater loudness of voice. 
There are however some grounds for thinking that the Romans meant by 
accent musical pitch and pronounced acutely accented syllables in a higher 
pitch, but not with greater stress or force or loudness 1 . 

71 Monosyllables always have the accent. 

Disyllables have the accent on the penultimate syllable, unless they are 

Words of more than two syllables have the accent on the ante-penulti- 
mate, if the penultimate syllable is short ; on the penultimate, if it is long. 

The Romans distinguish between an acute and a circumflex accent. 
The circumflex is only on monosyllables which have long vowels; and, 
in words of more than one syllable, on the penultimate, if that have a long 
vowel, and the final syllable have a short vowel. 

If the acute be marked by a ' over the vowel ; the circumflex by a A , 
the above rules may be illustrated by the following examples : 

Monosyllables ; ab, ml, fel ; ars, pars, nix, fax ; sp6s, flfls, m6s, lis ; 
nidus, ffins, lux. 

Disyllables; dus, citus, drat; dec-, Cato, arant ; sellers, pontus, 
ponto, luna ; luna, R6ma, vidlt. 

Polysyllables ; Sergius, fuscina, credere ; Se'rgio, fuscinas, crederent ; 
Metellus, fenestra ; Metello, fen^strae ; Sabino, praedives ; Sabinus, 
Romane, amicus, amare. 

72 All compound words, whether their parts can or cannot be used as 
separate words, are accented according to the regular rules; e.g. anhelo, 
redirno ; undique, itaque (therefore) ; itidem, utinam, postiiac, postmodo, 
introrsus, quicumque, jamdudum, exadversum, quodsi, forsan, &c. So 
respiiblica or res piiblica. 

A few words, called enclitics, always appended to other words, caused, 
according to the Roman grammarians, the accent to fall on the last syllable 
of the word to which they were attached. These are -que (and), -ne, -ve, 
-ce, -met, -pte, -dum, and also the separable words, quando, inde ; 

e.g. itaque (and so), utique (and as), illice, hicine, mihimet, respice- 
dum, exinde, ecquando, &c. So also que in pleraque. In the case of 
many words called enclitics (owing to their own quantity) the accentuation 
is the same, whether they be considered as enclitics proper, or parts of a 
compound ; e. g. quandoquidem, scilicet, quibuslibet, quantumvis, &c. 

73 Prepositions and adverbs used as prepositions (e.g. intra) were regarded 
as closely attached to the word which they precede and qualify. In 
inscriptions they are frequently written as one word with their nouns. The 
Roman grammarians considered them to have no accent when thus pre- 
ceding their noun or a word (e.g. adjective or genitive case) dependent on 

1 So A. J. Ellis, Hints on the Quantitative Pronunciation of Latin. I 
do not profess here to decide the question. 

Chap. IV.~\ Accentuation. 21 

it ; e.g. ad eas, adhuc, in foro, virtutem propter patris, &c. But if they 
follow their noun, they are said to retain their own accent; e.g. quae- 
propter, quacum ; but cum after personal pronouns is said to be enclitic ; 
e. g. nobiscum. 

(L. Miiller, resting on the usage of dactylic poets as to the caesura, &c., 
confines this to the words me, te, se, nos, vos, in company with disyllabic 
prepositions in -ter, -tra ; e. g. inter nos, intra se.) 

So also the relative was unaccented, the interrogative accented; e.g. 
quo die rediit, on which day he returned: qu6 die 1 on which day ? 

74 Apparent exceptions to the general rules are some words in which the 
accent remains, notwithstanding the loss of a syllable; e.g. 

r. Some words where the accent is on what is now the last syllabic ; 
e.g. illic, prodflc, tantdn, bonan, satin, nostras, for illice, produce, 
tantdne, bonane, satisne, nostratis, &c. 

2. Some where the accent is on the penult instead of on the ante- 
penult ; e.g. (gen. and voc.) Valeri, Vergili, &c. (for Valerie, Valerii; 
VergUie, Vergllii ; &c.); and the verbs (really not complete compounds) 
calefacis, mansuefacit, c. 

75 It would appear, though little reference is made to such a doctrine in 
the Roman grammarians, that words of more than three syllables must have 
frequently had besides the principal accent another subordinate one ; e. g. 
numeravimus, sisterSmus, longitudo, difficultatibus had probably a 
subordinate accent on the first syllables. 

The first part of a compound especially may have retained to seme 
extent the accent which it had as a simple word; e.g. pergrandis, praster- 
ire, ve"rsipellis, undeviginti. 

76 The frequent omission or absorption of a short vowel, or of a syllable 
which has according to the general rules the accent, leads to the inference 
that there must have been a tendency to put the accent nearer to the begin- 
ning of the word than the antepenultimate or penultimate syllable. The 
effort to do this, and the resistance made by the heavy dragging of the 
unaccented syllables after it, were the cause of the omission, e.g. intellexisti 
became intellexti ; dehibeo, debeo; rjavideo, gaudeo ; surripuit, surpuit; 
calcare (nom. sing.), calcar ; armigeruG, drmiger ; pueritia, puertia ; &c. 

So the weakening of the vowel in compounds; e.g. inquiro for inquaero, 
concludo for com-claudo, abreptus for ab-raptus, is difficult to explain, so 
long as the affected syllable is considered as accented. 

Similarly the change of ille-ce to illice, illic, suggests doubts as to the 
truth oi the doctrine respecting enclitics, given above, 72. 



77 WORDS may be divided into two classes, those which have inflexions, 
and those which have not inflexions. 

Nouns, pronouns, and verbs are Inflected; other words, viz. 
adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections, are not inflected. 

78 Inflexions are those alterations or additions, which are made in 
a word in order to give it special meanings suited to the different 
functions which it is to fulfil as part of a sentence. That part of a 
word which is essentially the same under such different uses is called 
the stem (or theme, or crude form}. 

Thus from stem bon, we have bon-us, a good he ; bon-a, a good 
she ; bon-ura, a good thing. 

From stem mulier, mulier-is, woman's ; mulier-es, women ; 
mulier-um, women's. 

From stem priucep, princep-s, a chief- princip-is, a chiefs. 

From stem ama, ama-t, loie-s ama-sti, love-dst ama-tus, 
love-d ; ama-ns, lov-ing. 

From stem pug, pu-n-go, I prick ; pu-pug-i, I prlck-ed ; pu-n-c-tus, 

Sometimes the inflexion is a mere addition at the end of the stem, 
as -is and -es are appended to mulier; -t, -sti, -tus, -ns appended to 
ama. Sometimes it is inserted in the middle, as n in pungo, punctus ; 
sometimes prefixed, as pu- in pupugi ; sometimes the stem is changed in 
consequence of the addition, as the addition of is to princep makes it 
into princip-is, or as sta- becomes stare for sta-gre. 

79 A stem is (in Latin) rarely used without having an inflexion, 
unless the inflexion, which would otherwise be used, is on phonetic 

Chap. /.] Inflexions in general. 23 

grounds inapplicable ; e. g. the stem nmlier is used as the nominative 
case without the inflexion s being added, because mul;ers would have 
come to be pronounced as mulies, and the characteristic r would have 
been lost. 

Different nouns and verbs and other words have often a common 
part ; such common part is called a roof. Thus the root sta- (ori- 
ginally sta, sometimes sta) is common to sta-re, sta-tio, sta-tuo, sta- 
men, sta-tura, sta-tim, c., to stand, standing, stablisb, standing- 
thread (i.e. warp), standing-height, instantly. A root may be used as 
a stem, or the stem may contain the root with alterations or additions. 


80 THE inflexions of nouns and pronouns are in the main the same. 
The inflexions of verbs are quite distinct. 

The inflexions of nouns are always additions to, or alterations in, 
the end of the stem. They serve to mark the gender, the case, and the 
number of the word. 

81 There are in Latin 

Three genders called masculine, feminine, and neuter. 

Six cases called nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, 
and ablative. Another form is found in some nouns, to which the 
name of vocative case has often been applied. 

Two numbers called singular andp/urat. 

Originally a noun probably received a special modification to 
denote its gender, its case, and its number; that is to say, the form 
of the word showed whether the person denoted by it was (for instance) 
considered as male or female (gender}, as the agent or object of an 
action (case), as by himself or as joined with others (tiumber). 

E.g. a common stem serv- denoting slave became servo- for male 
slave, serva- for female slave. If the slave was the object of the 
action, m was added, thus, servom, servam ; if not one, but several 
slaves were spoken of as the object of the action, s was added, thus 
servoms, servams, which were eventually pronounced and written 
servos, servas. 

But many of the inflexions, as they are found in regular Latin, 
do not show their purpose so plainly, being only the remains of a 
fuller system of inflexions, and having their original form often altered 
or disguised by contact with the final letters of the stem. 


82 Latin nouns may be conveniently divided according to their in- 
flexions into two main classes : 

The first containing the stems ending in a or e or o ; 

The second containing the stems ending in u or i or a consonant. 

In the first class a and o are as regards adjectives entirely, and 
as regards substantives to a large extent, suffixes expressing respectively 
a the feminine gender, o the masculine and neuter genders. The 
neuter is distinguished from the masculine only in the nominative and 
accusative cases. The steins in e arc confined to substantives, and are 
all feminine. 

In the second class there are both masculine and feminine nouns 
with all of these stems, and the inflexions of case and number are the 
same for both genders. Neuter nouns differ from masculine and 
feminine only in the nominative and accusative cases. Stems in u are 
confined to substantives. 

In both classes neuter nouns have the accusative and nominative 
alike, which in the plural always end in a. 

83 The chief constant differences between the inflexions of the two 
classes (besides the difference in stem-ending) are these : 

Nouns of the first class have the genitive singular, the locative 
singular, and the nominative plural (except in a few e stems) alike, 
and ending in a long vowel or diphthong ; the genitive plural ends in 
-rum preceded by a long vowel ; the dative and ablative plural (except 
in two e stems and a few old forms) end in -is. 

Nouns of the second class have the genitive singular and nominative 
plural ending in -s; the locative usually the same as the ablative; the 
genitive plural in -um preceded by a consonant or short vowel ; the 
dative and ablative plural in -bus (usually -ibus). 

Personal pronouns are peculiar in their inflexions. Other pronouns 
belong to the first class, but have the genitive singular in -ins, and 
dative in -i, for all genders. And there are some other points in which 
they differ from ordinary nouns. 

84 The following examples will serve to give a general notion of the 
inflexions of nouns. The peculiarities of the various stems will be given 
later. The terminations after the hyphens are the case inflexions com- 
bined with the stem vowel, except in the last, which has no stem vowel. 

CLASS I. a- stem: serva, a female slave. 

0- stem (masc.) : servos (often written servus), 

a male slave. 

(ncut.) : servom (often written serwixn), 
a slave thing. 

CLASS II. u- stem: artus (m.), a joint. 

1- stem : navis (f.), a ship. 
consonant stem : crus (n.), a leg. 

Chap. //.] 

Inflexions of Nouns. 



Nom. serv-a serv5s serv-om 
(usually (usually 
serv-us) serv-um) 

Ace. serv-am serv-om serv-om 

(serv-um) (serv-um) 

Gen. serv-ae serv-I serv-I 

Loc. serv-ae serv-I serv-1 

Uat. serv-ae sarv-o serv-o 

Abl. serv-a 




Nom. serv-ae serv-I serv-a 

Ace. serv-as serv-os serv-a 

Gen. serv-arum serv-orum serv-orum 

Loc. \ 

Dat. Uarv-Is serv-is serv-Is 

Abl. j 




















or art-ft 

art- ft 



or nav-S 









' art-uum 



art-ubus nav-ibus crur-Ibus 
or art-Ibus 

85 [According to the arrangement usually followed, substantives and adjec- 
tives are treated separately, and are classed as follows : 

Substantives in five declensions. Of these the ist contains a stems, the 
2nd o stems ; the 3rd consonant and i stems ; the 4th u stems and the 5th 
e stems. 

Adjectives were divided into adjectives of three terminations, nom. -us, 
-a, -um (i.e. stems in o and a); adjectives of two terminations is and e, 
and also or and us (i.e. i stems and some consonant stems), and adjectives 
of one termination (i.e. rest of consonant and i stems).] 



86 IN marking the gender of nouns a two-fold distinction was made; 
(i) according as sex could be attributed or not; (a) according as the 
sex attributed was male or female. 

Names of things, to which sex was not attributed, are said tD be 
of the neuter gender: but the Romans, yielding to their imaginations, 
attributed sex to many things, which really had it not, and thus living 
creatures are but a small number of the objects, which have names of 
the masculine and feminine genders. 

87 The distinction of gender is not marked throughout all the cases. 
In the nouns put together as the first class, the feminine was perhaps 


originally different from the masculine and neuter throughout, and it 
still is so in most cases. In the second class, the masculine and feminine 
are alike throughout: the neuter form is the same as the masculine ex- 
cept in the nominative and accusative cases. In the singular of the first 
class the neuter form both for nominative and accusative is the same as 
that of the accusative masculine : in the second class it is the bare stem, 
unprotected by a suffix, and therefore sometimes withered : in the 
plural of both declensions it always ends in -a. 

The real significance of the inflexions is best seen in adjectives, 
because they have the same stem modified, if of the first class, to repre- 
sent all three genders ; if of the second class, usually only to represent 
the masculine and feminine genders as distinguished from the neuter ; 
i.e. sex as distinguished from no sex; e.g. bonus (m.), bona (f.), 
bonum (n.) ; tristis (m. f.), triste (n.) ; amans (in. f. n.), but accusa- 
tive axnantem (m. f.), amans (n.). 

Substantives differ from adjectives as regards their inflexions, chiefly 
ill being fixed to one gender only. But 

i. Some substantival stems have a masculine and feminine form ; 
e.g. Julius (m.), Julia (f.) ; equus (m.), equa (f.). 

a. A few substantives of the first class are feminine, though with 
stems in -o ; others masculine, though with stems in -a. 

3. A substantive of the second class may be masculine, or feminine, 
or both, the form being indeterminate. 

4. Some suffixes of derivation are exclusively used for substantives, 
and not for adjectives: some again are confined to the masculine gender, 
others to the feminine. For instance, no adjective is formed with the 
suffix -i6n: again, all abstract substantives, if formed by the suffix -ion, 
or -tat, are feminine ; if formed by the suffix -or are masculine. 

It follows from the above, that the gender is not always known by 
the form. 

The test of a substantive's being of a particular gender is the use of 
an adjective of that particular gender as an attribute to it ; e.g. humus 
is known to be feminine, because dura humus, not durus humus, is used. 

An adjective, where the form is not determinately significant, is 
commonly said to be in the same gender as that of the substantive to 
which it is used as an attribute. 

But though the sex attributed to the person or thing is not always 
expressed by the form, the gender was never assigned in defiance of the 
true sex in persons, nor in animals, if the sex was of importance. Many 
animals are denoted by a substantive of only one form and only one gender, 
the masculine or feminine having been originally selected, according as the 
male or female was most frequently thought of. Animals of the kind 
generally would be spoken of, without distinction, by this noun, whether it 
were masculine or feminine; e.g. olores (m.), sivans in genenil ; anates, 
ducks, including drakes. If a distinction is important, the word mas or 
femina, as the case may be, is added ; e.g. olor femina, the female swan ; 
anas mas, the male duck. Such nouns are called epicoena (Quint. 1. 1. 24). 

Chap. III.} Of Gender. 27 

In the same way a feminine, e.g. Aetna, can be spoken of as masculine, 
if mons be added ; a river can be neuter, if fluxnen be added : and the 
appropriate change of gender takes place sometimes without the explanatory 
word being expressed; e.g. Eunuchus acta est, i.e. the play Eunuchus ; 
Centauro invShitur magna, i.e. he is borne on the great (ship] Centaurus. 
So occasionally lierba or litera is understood. 

The genders assigned to names of persons, animals, or vegetables, 
and of some other classes of natural objects, were as follows : 

90 Names of persons. Names of males are masculine, of females 
feminine. Thus proper names of females, derived from the Greek, 
though retaining the neuter suffix corresponding to their neuter gender 
in Greek, are in Latin feminine; e.g. in Plautus, and Terence, Plane- 
slum, GlycSrium, Fhrongsium, Stephanium, Delphium. 

For Appellatives, especially those derived from age or relationship, 
there are separate forms, sometimes from different roots, for the males 
and females; e.g. mas, male, femiaa, female; pater, father, mater, 
mother; avus, grandfather, avia, grandmother; proavus, great-grand- 
father, proavia, &c. ; filius, son, filia, daughter; puer, boy, puella, girl; 
n&pos, grandson, neptis, granddaughter, &c. ; vlr, man, mulier, woman; 
marltus, husband, uxor, wife ; vitricus, stepfather, noverca, stepmother ; 
prlvignus, stepson, privigna, stepdaughter; sdcer, father-in-law, socrus, 
mother-in-law ; gener, son-in-law, nurus, daughter-in-law ; frater, bro- 
ther, soror, sister'; patruus, uncle (father's brother} ; amita, aunt 
(father's sister) ; avunculus, uncle (mother's brother), matertfira, aunt 
(mother's sister}] verna (male} house-born slave, ancilla (female} slave; 
antistes, priest, antistlta, priestess; hospes, host or guest, hosplta, 
hostess or female guest; cliens, client, clienta; tibicen, flute-player, 
tibicina ; f Idlcen, harper, fidicina. So also many (derived from verbs) 
with -tor (or -sor) for masculine (nom. sing.), and -trix for feminine ; 
e.g. tonsor, barber, tonstrix. 

H6mo, man, ammans, living being (of a rational creature), are mas- 
culine ; virgo, girl, and matrona, matron, feminine. 

Others (all of and class of nouns) are common to male and female : 
viz. conjunx, consort; parens, parent; afflnis, connexion by marriage; 
patruelis, cousin; snex, old man or rarely woman; juvenis, youth; 
adulescens, youth ; infans, infant. So are ranked hospes (in the poets) 
and antistes. 

91 Other personal appellatives are usually or exclusively masculine, 
because the offices, occupations, &c., denoted were filled by men, or at 
least by men as much as by women. 

The following are sometimes feminine ; clvis, citizen; mUnlceps, burgher ; 
contubernalis, comrade ; hostis, enemy ; exul, exile ; vates, seer : sacerdos, 

artifex, artist ; auctor, responsible adviser. Others are used of females, 
but without a feminine adjective; e.g. dplfex, worker; carnlfex, bntche;- ; 
auspex, bird-observer ; sponsor, bondsman ; viator, traveller : defensor, 
defender; tfttor, guardian ; auceps, fowler; manceps, purchaser* 


So also sonic with -a sterns ; aurlga, charioteer; advdna, stranger, &c. 

Other? are nowhere found applied to females ; e. g. cornicen, horn- 
blower ; tiblcen, flute-player ; tublcen, trumpeter ; latro, brigand ; fullo, 
fuller ; mango, slave-dealer ; n&bulo, rascal. 

Some words which are only metaphorically applied to men or women 
retain their original gender ; e.g. manclpium (n.), a chattel ; acroama (n.), 
a musical performer ; scortum (n.), harlot; prostlbiiluni (n.), prostitute; 
viglliae (f.), watch ; excubiae (f.), nightwatch ; 6pgrae (f.), hands; de- 
liciae (f.), darling ; aux'ilia (n.), auxiliary troups. 

92 Names of Animals. For some quadrupeds, with which the Ro- 
mans had much to do, separate forms are found for the male and 
female. The stems in -o are masc., those in -a fern. 

Agnus, lamb, agna ; aper, wild boar, apra; aries (m.), ram, vervex 
(m.), wether, ovis (f.), sheep; aslnus, ass, asina ; asellus, young ass, 
asella ; nircus, he-goat, caper, goat, capra ; catulus, whelp, catula ; 
cervus, stag, cerva ; cdlumbus, dove, columba ; equus, horse, equa, 
mare ; gallus, cock, galllna, hen ; haedus, kid, capella ; Mnnus, mule 
(with horse for father), hinna; juvencus, steer, juvenca, heifer; leo 
(m.), lion, lea, or (Greek) leaena, lioness; lupus, wolf, lupa; mulus, 
mula, mule (with ass for father) ; porcus, pig, porca ; slmius, ape, simia 
(the fern, also of apes in general) ; taurus, bull, vacca, cow ; verres, 
boar, scrofa, sow ; vltulus, calf, vitula ; ursus, bear, ursa. 

93 For most other animals there was only one form ; e.g. 

Quadrupeds: bldens (f., sc. ovis), sheep; bos (m. f.), ox; camelus (m. f.), 
camel; canis (m. f.), dog ; damma (m. f.), deer ; el6phans, elephantus (rn. 
rarely f.), elephant : feies (f.), weasel, later cat ; fiber (m.), beaver ; glls 
(m.), dormouse; hystrix (f.), porcupine ; ISpus (m. rarely f.), hare; lynx 
(f. rarely m.), lynx ; mus (m.), mouse; mustella (f.), weasel; nltella (f.), 
dormouse; panthtra (f.), panther; pardus (m.), leopard; quadrupes (m. f. 
n.), quadruped; sorex (m.), shrew ; BUS (m. f.), swine ; talpa (f. rarely m.), 
mole; tigris (f. rarely m.), tiger ; vespertilio (m.), bat ; vulpes (f.), fox. 

Birds: e.g. acclpiter (m. rarely f.), hawk ; ales (m. f.), winged, hence 
a bird; anas (f.), duck; anser (m. rarely f.), gander goose; aqulla (f. ), 
eagle; avis (f.), bird ; bubo (m. rarely f.), horned owl ; clconia (f.), stork; 
comix (f.), crow; cofcurnix (f.), quail; cygnus (m.), swan; 61or (m.), 
swan; fullca and fulix (f.), cool; graciilus (m.), jackdaw; grus (f. rarely 
m.), crane; hirundo (f.), swallow ; Ibis (f.), ibis ; lusclnius (m.), luscinia 
(f. also of nightingales in general) ; mSrula (f.), blackbird ; miluus, milvus 
(m.), kite ; noctua (f.), oivl ; oscen (m. f.), singing bird ; palumbes (m. f. ), 
palumbus (m.), ivoodpigeon ; passer (m.), sparrow; pavo (m.), peacock; 
perdix (m. f.), partridge; pica (f. ), pie ; sturnus (m.), starling; strutlid- 
camelus (m. f. ), ostrich ; turdus (rarely {.}, fieldfare ; turtur (m. f.), turtle- 
dove; vultur (m.), vulture. 

Reptiles : e. g. anguis (m. f.), snake ; bufo (m.), toad ; chamaeleon (m.); 
cdluber (m.), -water snake ; colubra (f. also of snakes generally) ; crocddllus 
(m.) ; draco (m.), dragon; lacertus (m.), lacerta (f. also of lizards gene- 
rally) ; rana (i^frog; serpens (m. f.), serpent ; stelio (m.), gecko; testftdo 
(f.), tortoise. 

Chap. III.] Of Gender. 29 

Fishes; adpenser (m.), sturgeon; mugil (m.); muraena (f. ), lamprey ; 
mullus (m.), mullet ; piscis (m.), fish ; rhombus (m.), turbot ; salar (m.), 
salmon ; scarus (m.), wrasse ; sdlea (f.), sole. 

Invertebrates: apis (f.), bcc ; cicada (f.), grasshopper; araneus (m.), 
aranea (f. also of spiders generally) ; clmex (m.), Inig; culex (m.), gnat ; 
formica (f.), ant ; hlrCLdo (f.), leech ; lendes (pi. f.), nits ; llmax (f. rarely 
m.), snail; milrex (m.), purple-fish; musca (f.), fly; papilio (m.), butterfly; 
pgdis (m. f.), louse; pulex (m.), flea; sepia (f.), cuttlefish ; vennis (m.), 
worm; vespa (f.), wasp. 

94 Almost all trees and shrubs are feminine. Some of them have -o 
stems, but these are mostly from the Greek. 

Of plants andjloivers, some are masculine, the rest chiefly feminine. 

Names of fruits and woods are often neuter, with stems in -o, and 
some trees are also neuter, probably because the name was first applied 
to the product. 

The principal masculine names are : acanthus ; amaracus (also f. ) ; 
asparagus; boletus; calamus, reed; carduus, thistle; crocus; cytlsus 
(also f.) ; dumus, thicket; flcus (also f.), fig; fungus; helleborus (often 
-urn n.); intubus (also intubum n.), endive; juncus, btdmsh; lotus 
(usually f.) ; malus (but as an apple tree f.) ; muscus, moss; oleaster ; pam- 
plnus (also f.), vine; raphanus, radish; rhamnus, buckthorn; rubus, 
bramble; riimex (also f.), sorrel; scirpus, rush. 

The principal neuter names are: apium, parsley; acer, maple; bal- 
sanium ; laser ; papaver (also m.), poppy; piper, pepper; robur, oak; siler; 
slser (but in plural siseres), skirret ; tuber (truffle] : and the fruits or 
woods arbutum, buxum, &c. (but castanea, chestnut; 61ea ; balanus, 
acorn ; are also used as fruits, and retain their fern. gen. So buxus (besides 
buxum), boxtrec, for &flute)\. 

95 Names of jewels are mainly feminine and Greek. 

Masculine are Mamas, beryllus, carbunculus, chrysdlithus (also f.), 
6nyx (as a marble, or a cup], dpalus, sarddnyx (also f.), smaragdus, &c. 

96 Names of iowns, countries, &c. have, if of Latin origin, their 
gender marked by their termination; e.g. masculine; Veji, properly 
the Veians, Puteoli, little wells, &c. : feminine; e.g. Africa (sc. terra), 
Italia, Roma : neuter ; Tarentum, Bgnfiventum, Reate, Praeneste, Anxur 
(n., also m. of the mountain), Tibur (n.). 

Of Greek nouns many retain their Greek gender (though often with 
stems in -o), others, owing sometimes to their termination being misunder- 
stood, have other genders : e.g. Argos usually neut., but Vergil has dulcls 
Argos ; Statins frequently patrios Argos, afflictos Argos, &c. ; Livy occa- 
sionally Argi, as nom. pi. 

The Spanish towns are sometimes feminine in -is, e. g. Illiturgis ; 
sometimes neuter in -i, e. g. Hliturgi. 

Some neuter plurals are found; e.g. Leuctra, Megara, Artaxata, 

Names of mountains are all masculine, except those with marked 
feminine terminations (stems in -a or Greek -e) ; e. g. Aetna, Ida, 


RhodSpe, c. ; or neuter terminations; e.g. Pelion, Soracte". Alpes (pi.) 
is feminine. 

Names of rivers are masculine, even those with -a stems, except 
Allia, Duria, Sagra, Lethe, Styx, which are feminine. But sometimes 
rivers are made neuter by prefixing flumen and giving a termination in 
-um ; e.g. flumen Rhenum (Hor.) ; flumen Granicum (Plin.) ; &c. 

Names of winds are masculine; e.g. actuilo, Vulturnus, &c. So 
also Etesiae (pi.). 

97 All indeclinable words (except barbaric names, e.g. Abraham) are 
neuter : e. g. fas, nefas, instar ; and to this class belong infinitives 
(e.g. non dolere ist-ud, totum hoc philosophari) ; words used as names 
of themselves (e.g. istuc 'taceo,' hoc ipsum 'honesti') ; and often the 
letters of the alphabet (as ' c in g commutato') ; but these last are 
sometimes feminine, litera being expressed or understood. 


98 IN Latin the only distinction in point of number which is marked 
by inflexions is between one (singular number), and more than one 
{plural number). 

The particular inflexions of number will be best treated in connexion 
with the case inflexions. 

Some nouns, in consequence of their meaning, are used only in the 
singular, others only in the plural. 

99 The following are found ordinarily in the singular only : 

(a) Proper names of persons and places ; e.g. Metellus, Roma, &c. ; 
but Metelli of several members of the family ; Camilli of persons with 
qualities like Camillus; Galliae of the two divisions of Gaul (Gallia Cisal- 
pina and Transalpina) ; Volcani of gods with different attributes, but bear- 
ing the name of Vulcan, or of statues of Vulcan, &c. 

(b) Single natural objects ; e.g. sol, the sun ; caelum, the sky, hearcri ; 
tellus, the earth ; but soles is used in discussions as to whether there are 
more suns than one, or as equivalent to days, &c. 

(c) Conlinua; i.e. natural objects which are measured or weighed, 
not numbered, e.g. cruor, blood; r<5s, dew; aes, bronze; frumentum, corn; 
faba, beans, as a class ; ftimus, smoke. But these are used in the plural, 
when several kinds, or distinct pieces or drops, are meant ; e.g. vlna, 
different ivines ; nlves, flakes of snow; fabae, individual beans ; aera, bronze 
works of art; carnes, pieces of flesh ; fCLmi, wreaths of smoke. In poetry 
the plural is sometimes used without such a distinction. 

Ckap. IV.] Of Noun Inflexions of Number. 31 

(d) Abstract nouns; e.g. justitia, justice; but not uncommonly the 
plural is used even in these in order to express the occurrence of the event 
or exhibition of the quality at several times or in several forms, e.g. vir- 
tfltes, virtues; cupiditates, desires; odia, cases of hatred; conscientiae, 
several persons' consciousness (of guilt] ; mortes, deaths (of several persons] ; 
otia, periods of rest; adventus, arrivals; niaturltates, culminations; 
vlcinitates, position of people as neighbours; lapsus, slips; calSres, frlgora, 
times of heat, of cold ; slmilltudlnes, resemblances; &c. 

The following are found only or ordinarily in the plural ; though 
some of them correspond to what in other languages are denoted by 

(a) Names of certain towns or places, &c.: Thebae, Tigranocerta, 
Leuctra, Veji (originally the Veians}, Cannae (i.e. Keeds} : Gades, Cumae. 
bo Pergama, the towers of Troy, Tarbara. 

(b) Groiips of islands and mountains, &c. ; e. g. Cyclades, Alpes, 
Esqulllae, Tempe ( properly glens). 

(c) Collections of persons : e.g. dscemvlri, a commission of ten (though 
we have decemvir also used of a commissioner}, &c.; majores, ancestors; 
pr6c8res, primores, leading men; llberi, children; infSri, the spirits beloiv; 
sftpe'ri, the Gods above; caelltes, the heavenly ones ; pSnates, the health 
gods; manes, the ghosts; gratiae, the Graces; Furiae, the Furies; DIrae, 
Curses (conceived as goddesses) ; &c. 

(d) Parts of the body; e.g. artus, the joints; cervices (Hortensius is 
said to have first used the singular in this sense), the neck (neckbones ?) ; 
exta, intestlna, viscera, the internal organs ; fauces, the throat; lactes, 
the lacteal vessels; pantlces, bowels; renes, kidneys; tori, the muscles; 
praecordia, midriff ; . nia, loins. 

(e) Names of feasts or days; e.g. Calendae, Nonae, Idus ; feriae, the 
feast-day; nundinae, market-day; Baccanalia, feast of Bacchus ; c. 

(/) Other collections of things, actions, &c. ; altaria. an altar; 
ambages, evasion ; angustiae, straits (sing, rare) ; argdtiae, subtlety; antes, 
rows, e.g. of vines ; arma, tools, esp. weapons, armour; armamenta, ship's 
tackling; balneae, the baths, i.e. bath-house; blgae, a carriage and pair 
(sing, not till Sen.); cancelli, railings; casses, a hunting net (properly 
meshes}', castra, a camp (properly huts, tents'! castrum is found only as 
part of proper names, e.g. Castrum Novum) ; claustra, bars (sing, in 
Sen. Curt, rarely) ; clltellae, a pack saddle (panniers!}', compedes, fetters; 
crepundia, ckilcTs rattle, &c. ; cunae, cdnabula, incunabula, cradle; 
dellciae, delight; dlvltia^s riches; excubiae, the%vatch; 6pulae, a dinner; 
exsgq.uiae, funeral procession ; exuviae, things stripped off, spoils; facetiae, 
jokes (sing, rare); fasti, the Calendar; fori, decks; grates, thanks; in- 
dutiae, a triice; ineptiae, silliness (sing, in Plant. Ter.) ; infe'riae, offer- 
ings to the shades belo%v ; infitias (ace.), denial; insidiae, ambush; 
inlmlcltiae, hostility (rarely sing. ) ; laplcldlnae, stone quarries ; 16culi, com- 
partments, and so box, bag, &c. ; lustra, a den ; manubiae, booty ; mlnae, 
threats; moenia, town walls; nugae, trifles; nuptiae, marriage; dblces, 
bolts (also abl. s. obice) ; parietinae, ruins ; phal6rae, horse trappings ; 
praestlgiae, juggling tricks; prlmltiae, first-fruits; pugiUares, writing 
tablets ; quadrigae, a carriage and four (sing, not till Propert. ) ; quisciuiliae, 
refuse; reliquiae, the remains; rgpagula, bolts^ &c. : sallnae, sal/pits; 


sata, the crops ; scalae, s fairs ; scopae, a broom ; sentes, thornbush ; 
serta, a wreath; sordes, filth (sing, rare); suppStias (ace.), siipply ; 
tSngbrae, the darkness ; thermae, the warm baths (cf. balneae) ; tesqua, 
wastes; valvae, folding-doors ; vlndlciae, claims; virgulta, bushes ; uten- 
silia, necessaries. 

Some of these words are used in one or two cases of the singular. 

101 The following words are used in the plural with a special meaning, be- 
sides their use (in most instances) as an ordinary plural : 

aedes sing, a temple, plur. a house (properly, hearths, chambers!); aqua, 
water ; aquae, a watering-place : auxIUum, assistance ; auxilia, means of 
assistance, auxiliary troops: b6num, a good ; bdna, goods, i.e. one's property: 
career, a prison; carcSres, the barriers (in horse races) : codlcillus, a 
small piece of wood ; codlcilli, writing tablets, supplementary will : copia, 
plenty ; copiae, supplies, troops : cdmltium, the place of tribes-assembly at 
Rome; c6m!tia, the assembly: fides sing, a harps/ring, plur. a stringed 
instrument : fortuna, fortune ; fortunae, one's possessions : gratia, thank- 
fulness ; gratiae, grates, thanks: hortus, a garden; horti, pleasure-gardens, 
a country house : impgdlmentum, a hindrance ; impedimenta, baggage : 
littSra, a letter (of the alphabet) ; litterae, a letter, i.e. epistle: ludus, a 
game; ludi, Public Games: natalis, a birthday ; natales, one's descent: 
6p8ra, %vork; operae, services, hands, i.e. workmen: Ops, a goddess; 6pem, 
help ; 6pes, wealth, resources : pars, a part ; partes, a part on the stage : 
rostrum, a beak; rostra, the tribime or pulpit at Rome; tabula, a plank; 
tabulae, accoiint books. 


102 THE first declension contains stems ending in a,, e, and o. 


Stems in a are feminine, excepting some substantives which, being 
names of men or rivers, are masculine. All adjective stems in a are 

E.g. mensa (f.), a table-, b6na (adj.), a good she ; scrlba (m.), a 
clerk ; Claudia, a woman of the Claudian house. 


Nom. mensa b6na scrlba Claudia 

Ace. mensa-m bona-m s:riba-m Claudia-m 


Loc. L mensae bonae scribae Claudiae 


Abl. mensa bona scriba Claudia 

Chap. K] Declension of -a Stems. 33 


Nom. mensae bonae scribae Claudiae 

Ace. mensas bonas scribas Claudias 

Gen. mensarum bonarum scribarum Claudiarum 


Dat.l mensis bonis scribls Claudils 


Peculiar forms of cases are found as follows : 

103 SINGULAR. Genitive. Two old forms of the genitive ending in as and 
ai; the former in the word famllia (household], combined with pater, 
mater, films, filia ; e. g. pater familias, patres familias ; &c. 

The ending 5,1 is found (as two long syllables) in early poetry, chiefly in 
Lucretius, and occasionally in Vergil; e.g. aqual, pictal ; magnai rei 
publicai gratia (as iambic line) in Plautus. It is also found in inscriptions 
for the locative and dative. 

The ablative in early times ended in ad; e.g. praidad (praeda), sen- 

104 PLURAL. The genitive sometimes ended in -um instead of -arum; 

(a) chiefly in names derived from Greek; viz. amphdrum (e.g. trium 
amphorum, of three jars), drachmum ; and in proper names in Vergil, 
&c. ; e.g. Laplthum for Lapitliarum, Dardanldum for Dardanidarum. 
Also in compounds of gigno and colo, Grajugenum, caellcOlum for Graju- 
genarum, caelicolarum. 

Dat. Loc. All. The ordinary form Is is apparently a contraction of 
als, i.e. s added to the locative singular; e.g. mensa-i-, mensa-is,' mens's. 

Stems in la sometimes have Is, instead iis ; e.g. taenis (Verg.) for 
taenils. Hence gratiis (abl.), for thanks, became in ordinary language 

A few words have a form abus instead of Is. Thus ambabus, duabus 
are the only forms in use (never ambis, duis). Similarly, chiefly in old 
legal and religious forms, we have deabus, filiabus, libertabus probably to 
distinguish the females from the males dels or dis, flliis, libertis. 

105 The most usual tnascnline stems in a are the following : 

acedia, a neighbour pdeta, a poet (Gr. Trotijr?/?) 

agrlcdla, a farmer prSfftga, an exile 

incdla, an inhabitant transfuga, a deserter 

adv6na, a new comer serlba, a clerk 

aurlga, a chariot driver scurra, a buffoon 

collega, a colleague verna, a slave born in the family 

convlva, a guest Sometimes also 

nauta ) a sailor damma, a deer ; and rarely 

navltai (Gr. vaiVrjs) talpa, a mole 

parriclda, a parricide 

So also proper names like Sulla, Numa, &c. And rivers; e.g. Sequana, 
Seine ; Trebia, and Hadria, the Hadriatic sea. 

L. G. 3 



\B0ok IL 


106 Stems in e are all feminine substantives, except meridies (m.), noon. 
Dies, day (nn.) is often feminine, when an appointed day is spoken of; and 
almost always when it means time ; e.g. longa dies, a long period of time. 

Only two words with stem in e are inflected throughout all cases of 
both numbers. These are res, a thing and dies, day. Besides these 
none have any plural, except acies, edge; fa.cies, face; effigies, likeness; 
spe"cies,ybr>; spes, hope; series, a ro-iu, which are found in nom. and 
accus. plural: glides in accus. and eluvies in nom. plur. 

Most words with stem in e are of four syllables and end in ie. Many 
of these have also stems in a. 


Nom. rt-3 




Ace. f 

rei or re 




diel or die 





luxuries or 


luxurie-m or 

acii or acie 



luxurie or 

(not found) 

(no plural ex- 
cept possibly 
from stem in 

(not found) 


107 There is some uncertainty about the form of the genitive and dative 
singular. Neither case is common except from dies, res, spes, fides, 
and plebes. In modern books these cases are generally made to end in 
ei, and this practice is as old as the and century after Christ. But 
there is no proof of ei being disyllabic except in the words diel (often), 
rei (Hor.) and rei (Lucr.), fldei_(post- August.) and fidel (Lucr.). 
(But die and diel, rei and re, fidei and fide are also used.) Spei is 
monosyllabic in Terence; plebei is only used in prose. In other words 
in classical times i, e, and ei were perhaps written indifferently. Where 
there is a collateral stem in a, this supplies the gen. and dat. sing. e.g. 
luxuriae not luxuriei. A gen. in -es is rarely found; e.g. rabies (Lucr.). 


108 Stems in o are almost always either masculine or neuter; a few 
substantives are feminine, chiefly names of trees or Greek words. No 
adjective stems are feminine. A shortened form of the masculine nomi- 
native is used in addresses and is often called the vocative case. 

e.g. dflmmus (m.), an owner, a lord- bdnus (adj.), a good he] ulmus 
(f.), an elm; bellum (n.), war; bdnum (n.), a good thing. 


Declension of -o Stems. 
















(not found) 






















Nom. d6mini b6m ulmi bella 

Ace. domino a bonos ulmos bella 

Gen. dominorum bonorum ulmorum bellor 


Dat.f- domims boms ulmis beUis 




109 Stems in 6ro have usually certain peculiarities. Most drop the final 
us in the nominative singular; and many omit the 6 before -ro in all 
cases, except the nom. voc. masculine singular. 

e.g. numgrus (m.), a number; puer (m.), a boy] faber (m.), a work- 
man; vlr (m.), a man; membrum (n.), a limb. 









































numerorum puerorum 










110 Like numerus are declined umSrus, a shoulder; iitgrus, the womb; 
JunlpSrus (f.), a juniper ; and the adjectives fSrus, wild ; prop&rus, hasty; 
prospgrus, favourable. 

Like puer are declined s6c6r, father-in-law; ggngr, son-in-hnv ; vesper, 
evening star; LIb6r, the god Bacchus; jugSrum, an acre (plural juge"ra, 
jugerum, jugerlbus) ; and the adjectives aspgr, rough; Iac6r, wounded; 
Hb6r, free (hence liberi (pi.), children}; mlsgr, -wretched; t6n6r, tender; 
and compounds like mortlfe'r, death-bringing ; allgSr, winged : &c. Dexter 
is declined both like puer and like faber. 

Similarly the adjective satur, satiated (satiira, saturum, &c.). 


36 INFLEXIONS. [Book If. 

Like faber are declined ag6r, a field ; ap&r, a wild boar ; liber, bark, 
book ; and most other substantives and adjectives (m. and f.) with stems in 
Sro. The neuters are declined like membrum. 

111 Stems in -vo or -qvo, in order to avoid a concurrence of u with u, 
retained o in the nom. and ace. cases singular until after the Augustan 
age. Hence Squ&s, not gquus ; aevom, not aevum ; arduos, arduom, not 
arduus, arduum. This concurrence was also avoided by writing gqus 
or Scus, antlcus. &c. for equus. antiquus, c. (In modern books the 
forms equus, arduus, aevum, arduum, &c. are usually printed.) 

112 Substantive stems in io, until after the Augustan age, formed the 
genitive singular in i single; e.g. Virglli, Claudi, not Virgilii, Claudii; 
Ovid and Propertius, however, use ii. The vocative sing, of these 
stems ended in i not ie; e.g, Claudi not Claudie. But the vocative 
sing, is found only in proper names, and in filius, a son ; ggnius, natural 
temper; vulturius, a -vulture. The vocative of Pompeius and other words 
with stem in aio-, eio-, was either a disyllabic Pompei, or a trisyllable 

Adjectives have gen. sing, in 11. A voc. sing, is found only in a 
few adjectives derived from Greek proper names : it is in IS, e.g. 
Cynthie, Tlrynthie. 

113 There are but few o stems of the feminine gender. These are chiefly 
names of trees or Greek words, especially names of jewels and towns, 
&c. Those most used are the following : 

(a) alvus, belly ; carbasus, a sail; c61us, a distaff; ddmus (stem also 
in u; see 121), a house; humus, the ground; vannus. a fan. 

(b) names of trees ; 

aesculus, chestnut fraxmus, ash 

alnus, alder laurus, bay (cf. 121) 

arbutus, strawberry tree malus, apple tree 

buxus, box tree myrtus, myrtle (cf. 121) 

cedrus, cedar ornus, mountain ash 

cornus, cornel (cf. 121) plnus, pine (cf. 121) 

c6rtilus, hazel platanus, plane 

cupressus, cypress (cf. 121) pSpulus, poplar 

fagus, beech quercus, oak (cf. 121) 

flcus (rarely m.), fig (cf. 121) ulmus, elm 

(c) Jewels; e.g. amethystus, crystallus, sappMrus; c. 

(d) Towns and other places ; e.g. Aegyptus, Chersdnesus, Cyprus, 
Delos, Lemnos. Peldponnesus, Rhodus, &c. But Canopus, Isthmus, 
Orchomgnus and Fontus are masculine. 

(e) Other Greek words ; e. g. atdmus, an atom ; m6th6dus, a method, 

114 All neuters have nom. and ace. singular ending in -um, except 
virus, poison ; vulgus, common people, and Greek pelagus, sea, which have 
in ace. virus, vulgus and vulgum, pelagus. The plural of this last 
word is pelage. Virus and vulgus have no plural. 

Chap. K] Declension of -o Stems. 37 

115 Peculiar forms of cases occur as follows: 

SING. Abl. In early times the ablative ended in d; e.g. poplicod, 
preivatod. Possibly Plautus used it. It occurs in an inscription, B.C. 186. 

PLUR. Gen. -urn instead of -orum is found in some masculine 
names ; viz. : 

(a) in names of weights and measures (chiefly Greek) in combination 
with numerals. Thus nummum, sestertium, denarium, talentum, me- 
dimnum, stadium (for nummorum, &c.). 

(6) in deum, divum, virum (in poetry), and in the compounds in 
prose; e.g. decemvlrum ; llberum, Children; fabrum (in phrases, as 
praefectus fabrum) ; socium (in prose rarely, except of the Italian allies) ; 
equum (also written ecum). 

(<:) in names of people in poetry; e.g. Argivum, Teucrum, &c. Occa- 
sionally also in fluvium, famulum, juvencum. 

(d} in adjectives rarely : e.g. magnanimum (Verg.), amicum, aequom, 
&c. (Ter.). 

In numerals frequently; e.g. duum, ducentum, quingentum, &c. So 
usually in distributives; e.g. trinum, quaternum, senum, &c. 

This genitive is rare in neuters. But the genitives armum, somnium, 
oppidum are found. 

The dative and ablative form is sometimes contracted; e.g. suffragls, 

116 Deus, God, had voc. Deus; nom. plur. di (sometimes written dii); 
dat. abl. dis (dils); but del and dels are not infrequent in Ovid, &c. 

117 The following words of this class are defective or redundant in certain 

balneum (n.), a bath, also plur. balneae (f.), of the bath house ; caelum 
(n.), heaven, no plur. except caelos oiic'e in Lucr. where the meaning com- 
pels a plural ; carbasus (f.), linen, plur. carbasa (n.), sails, &c. ; gpulae 
(pi.), dinner, also sing, gpulum (n.) 5 frenum (n.), a rein, plur. freni (m.) 
and frena (n.) ; infltias, denial, ace. pi. only with verb Ire and only in this 
case ; jdcus (m.), joke, plur. jdci (m.) and jdca ; jtigulus (m.), in sing, also 
jugtilum (n.), collarbone, throat; jus jurandum (n.), oath, both parts of the 
words are declined ; e.g. juris jurandi, jure jurando, &c. ; Idcus (m.), a 
place, in plur. also Idea, of places, properly speaking ; 16ci, chiefly of places 
metaphorically, i. e. matters for argument, c. : nauci, trifle, only loc. or 
gen. sing.; nlhil (n.), nothing, only in nom* ace. s. often contracted nH ; 
(of the fuller form nlhllum are used ninlli as gen. or loc. of price ; nlhllo 
after prepositions, comparatives, and as abl. of price; and ad nlliilum; in 
ordinary language nullius rei, &c. are used) ; pessum, bottom, only ace. s. 
after verbs of motion, e.g. Ire, dare, &c. ; pondo, properly abl. s., also 
used as if indeclinable, ' pounds' ; rastrum (n.), a rake, also in plur. rastrl 
(m.) ; retlculus (m. ), more frequently reticulum \ suppfitias (ace. pi.), 
supply, help, only in this case; venum (n.), ace. sing, after ire, dare, &c. : 
Tacitus alone has a dative veno. For virus, vulgus, see 114. 

For substantives which have some forms of this first class and some of 
the second, see 121. 


[Book II. 

118 The inflexions of adjective stems in o and a are usually given to- 
gether, e. g. : 








Voc. f 

































































119 Similarly the possessive pronouns meus, mine; tuus, thine; suus, his 
(her, their) own ; noster, our own ; vester, jour own. 

In the vocative singular masculine mi is used. 


120 THE second main class of nouns contains stems ending in the semi- 
consonantal vowels u and i, or in a consonant. 


Stems in u, if masculine or feminine, have the nominative sing, in 
-us ; if neuter, have the bare stem for nom. and ace. singular. 

The feminine nouns with u stem are colus, domus, Idus (pi.), 
manus, portlcus, quinquatrus (pi.), tribus, and names of women (anus, 
an old woman; nurus, daughter-in-law; pronurus, sdcrus, mother-in- 
law, prosocrus) ; and of trees (cornus, cornel; cupressus, cypress; ficus, 
Jig; myrtus, myrtle; quercus, oafc). 

The neuter nouns are cornu, horn', g5nu, knee; pgcu, cattle] veru, 
a spit, and the rare plurals, artua, limbs and ossua, bones. 

All the rest are masculine. The great mass of them are verbal 
nouns denoting action; e.g. ggmitus, groaning; conatus, effort; visus, 
sight, &c. 

As examples may be given : artus (m.), a limb (rare in singular) ; 
anus (f.), an old woman ; cornu (n.), horn. 

Chap. VI.} 

Declension of -u Stems. 
















artu-i or artu 

anul ) 



ana j 



Ace. ( 









A 1,1 f 





The dat. abl. 

plural is in -Ibus, 

except aciibus, 

arcubus, artubus, 

laciibus, portubus, 

speciibus, tribubus, vgrubus (also 


121 There was apparently some confusion between these inflexions and 
those of stems in o. For many words have some cases as if from o 
stems and others as if from u stems. 

The most important word of this kind is ddmus, which is thus 
declined : 









domus and (Plaut.) domi 
domi, sometimes domui } 
domui, rarely domo 
domo, sometimes domu J 


domos, sometimes domus 
domorum, post-Aug. domuum 


arcus has gen. (besides arcus) arc! or arqui. 

anglportus only used in abl. s. and ace. pi. : a neuter with stem in o is 
more common. 

caestus has abl. pi. caestibus and caestis. 

cdlus has dat. colo only; abl. colu and colo ; ace. plur. colus and 
COlos ; no gen. dat. or abl. plural. 

cornus has dat. corno ; abl. cornu and corno ; plur. nom. cornus ; dat. 
abl. cornls. No other cases. 

cupressus besides nom. has only gen. abl. sing, and nom. ace. plural 
from both u and o stems. 

frStus only in nom. ace. gen. and abl. sing. A neuter stem in is 
more usual. 

glus, rare, except in abl. sing. A neuter stem in is also used. 

laurus only in gen. and abl. sing, and nom. ace. plur. : also a stem in 
declined throughout, but gen. plural not found. 

myrtus, only nom. ace. plural from u stem : all cases, except gen. 
plural, from o stem. 

pSnus, also two neuter stems in -u and in -6s (nom. pfiniis) : all are 
found in singular, but usually pe"nu for ablative : in plur. only pgnus, 
p&ndra ace. are found. 

plnus has o stem also : abl. s. always pinu, abl. pi. pinis : gen. pi. not 


quercus, gen. pi. quercSrum: no dat. sing, or dat. abl. plural. 

rictus, rarely a nom. rictum, pi. ricta. 

tonltrus, also a neuter stem in -uo. 

Many stems in the earlier language had genitive in i. Thus in Plautus 
and Terence we have adventi, fructi, gSmlti, ornati, quaesti, senati, 
sumpti, tumulti, victi (besides domi, arci already mentioned). 

122 No adjectives have u stems, except compounds of manus, e. g. angui- 
mamis, ace. pi. Lucret. 

There are three words whose stem ends in u, but the u is radical 
and the stem is monosyllabic. Their inflexions really belong mainly to 
the consonant class of stems: grfis (ace. gruem, c.); BUS which has 
two datives sulbus, subus, also subus; bQs, ace. bdvem, &c. gen. pi. 
bourn, dat. abl. plur. bobus or bttbus. To these may be added Juppiter 
(for Jovpater), ace. Jovem, &c. 

All the other words with u stems are of two or more syllables. 


123 Stems ending in i and stems ending in a consonant have very similar, 
often identical, case-endings and cannot always be clearly distinguished. 
These case-endings, as here given, in the i stems include the final stem- 
vowel (I) ; in the consonant stems they may be considered as mere 
suffixes. They are as follows: 

I stems. Consonant stems. 

SING. Nom. various various 

Ace. -em, sometimes -1m (for i-em) -em 

Gen. -Is (for 1-Is) -is 

Dat. -1 (for i-I) -I 

PLUR. Nom. -es (for i-es), neut. -ia } . 

Ace. -Is or -6s f ' es ' n< 

Gen. -ium -um 


Loc. - -Ibus (for I-Ibus) -Ibus 


124 The nominative singular of masculine and feminine nouns in both 
classes of stems was normally formed by the addition of s, but was 
liable to modification according to the nature of the final consonant. 

In the i stems we have sometimes -Is, sometimes -es, sometimes (the 
i having fallen away) simple s : and from stems in -li or -ri the nomina- 
tive ended in the final stem consonant. 

In the consonant stems a simple s was added to stems ending in 
mutes, except in a very few stems in which -is, perhaps also in some 
few -es, was added. In stems ending in n, 1, and r the nominative 
and stem are identical, excepting that stems in on dropped the n. 

Chap. VI.] 

Declension of -1 Stems. 

Both in i stems and consonant stems t or d, if coming immediately 
before the s, fell away. 

The nom. sing, of neuter nouns ended either in the final stem con- 
sonant, or sometimes, in i stems, the final i was changed to 6. A few 
adjectives have the form (in s) properly belonging to the masculine 
applied also to neuters. The accusative is always like the nominative. 

In i stems the accus. sing, has -em for masc. and fern, in all adjec- 
tives and always or usually in most substantives. A few substantives 
have also -im, very few have -im only. 

The abl. of i stems from adjectives (except participles), when used as 
adjectives, is in -i always or usually. Most substantives, substantially 
used adjectives, and participles have g. Neuters which have e, 1 or r 
final in nom. sing, have i in ablative. 

The locative ended in i, but its place is often taken by the ablative. 

Occasionally an abl. in i is found from consonant stems. . 

125 In the plural i stems have gs, rarely is in the nominative; es or Is 
or (as sometimes written) eis indifferently in the accusative. In the 
genitive the i of some stems in -nti, and a few others, is occasion- 
ally omitted in verse for metre's sake. 

2. I Stems. 

126 Stems in -pi, -bi, -mi, -vl ; -sci, -qvi, -gi, -gvi, -hi; -stl, -di, -ni, -li, 
-si retain i or e in nom. sing., masc. or fern. 

Except stirps, trabs, plebs, urbs, nix, frons, glans and compounds 
of cor. 

As examples may be given: nubes (f.), stem nubi-, a cloud; puppis 
(f.), stem puppi-, a ship-stern; tristis, adj., stem tristi-, sad. 



puppi-m or 















nube-s or 

puppe-s of 








nubi-bus puppl-bus 

tristi-s (m. f.) tristg (n.) 
triste-m triste 



tristg-s (m. f.) tristi-a (n.) 
tristg-s or tristi-a 





[Book II. 


Sterns in -ci, except those in -sci, drop i in nom. sing. 

As examples: urbs (f.), stem urbi-, a city- calx (f. sometimes m.), 
stem calci-, a heel; audax (adj.), stem audaci-, bold. 



Nom. urbe-s calces 

Ace. urbe-s or calce-s or 

urbl-s calcl-s 

urbi-um (no gen. pi.) 







audax (m. f. n.) 
audace-m(m.f.) audax (n.) 



audacS or audaci 

audaea-s (m.f.) audaci-a (n.) 
audac5-s or audaci-a 





Most stems in -ti, if -ti is preceded by a consonant or long vowel, 
drop -ti. 

As examples: amans (adj.), stem amanti-, loving; ars (f.), stem arti-, 
art; rete" (n.), stem retk-, a net. 


Nom. amans (m. f, n.) ars ret8 

Ace. amante-m (m. f.) amans (n.) arte-m rete" 

Gen. amantl-s artl-s retl-s 

Dat. amanti art! reti 

Loc.) amanti or .- reti or 

Abl.f amante retg 


Nom. amante-s (m. f.) amanti-a (n.) arte-s reti-a 

Ace. amante-s or amanti-a arte-s or reti-a 

amanti-s artl-s 

Gen. amanti-um arti-um reti-um 


Loc.r amanti-bus arti-bus retl-bus 


128 Stems ending in ri preceded by e usually drop the i in the nom. sing, 
masc. and drop the e (before r) in all other cases as well as in the fern, 
and neut. nom. : those ending in ari as well as all usually, if substan- 
tives, drop the final vowel in the nom. ace. sing, neuter. Otherwise 
stems in ri, li have usually is for nom. s. masc. and fern., 6 for neuter. 
Except m6mor, par and their compounds. 

As examples may be given; ac6r (acjj-), stem acSri-, sharp; anl- 
mali-s (adj.), stem animali-, endued with life. 

Chap. VI J] Declension of Consonant Stems. 43 


Nom. acer(m.) acris(f.) acre (n.) anlmali-s (m.f.) ammalg(n.adj.) 

animal (n. sub.) 

Ace. acre-m acrS animale-m do. 

Gen. acrl-s animali-s 

Dat. acrl animall 

AH ,,* animall (adj.) 

AbK acri animalg (subst.) 


Nom. acre-s (m. f.) acri-a (n.) animale-s (m. f.) anlmali-a (n.) 
Ace. acre-s or acri-a animale-s or animali-a 

acri-s animall-s 

Gen. acri-um animali-um 


Loc. I acri-bus animali-fous 


The form in -is (e, g. acris) is sometimes used for masculine nom. s. as 
well as for feminine. 

3. Consonant Stems. 

129 Stems ending in mutes (labial, guttural or dental) form the nomi- 
native singular by adding s, but the dentals t, d, being assimilated to it, 
fall away. 

A short e preceding the final stem consonant is usually changed to I 
in other cases than the nom. sing. 

As examples: princeps (adj.), stem princgp-, chief; jiidex (m. f.), 
stem judge-, a judge; rex (m.), stem reg-, a king; civltas (f.), stem 
civitat-, citizenship; Squgs (m. f.), stem equfit-, horseman; caput (n.), 
stem caput-, head; pes (m.), stem p6d^, a foot. 


Nom. princep-s (adj.) jiidex rex 

Ace. princip-em(m.f.) prineep-s (n.) judlc-em reg-em 

Gen. princip-Is judic.-Is reg-Is 

^H princip-I judic-I reg-1 

Abl. princip-6 judic-5 reg-5 


princip-es (m. f.) no neut. jfldic-es reg-es 

Gen. princip-um judic-um reg-um 


Loci princip-Ibiis judic-Ibus reg-Ibiis 




[Book II. 

















Dat | 












Ace. | 











Loc. \ 







and a few other 

nouns with stem 

in tat- have sometimes -imn in 

gen. plur. 

130 Stems ending in n form the nominative singular in one of two 

Those ending in -6n and -on (all masc. or fern.) drop the final n; in 
the cases other than nom. sing. On becomes In. 

Those ending in 6n remain unchanged ; in the cases other than nom. 
sing. 6n becomes -In. Most of these are in -mSn, and all these except 
one are neuter. 

As examples: h6mo (m. f.), stem h6m6n-, a man; Cratio (f.), stem 
oration-, speech; tibicSn (m.), stem tiblcSn-, a flute-player; noraSn (n.), 
stem nomfin-, a name. 









oration- em 
















Ace. j 

















Stems ending in 1, r, s are used as the nomin. sing, without addi- 
tion or change, except that some neuters change 6r into ur, others 6s 
into fcs. Stems in -s (except as, penny, os, bone, and mensis, month) 
change s into r (also tls into fir) before a vowel, i.e. in all cases except 
nom. sing. 

Chap. F/.] Declension of Consonant Stems. 


(Thus a nom. neut. in -us sometimes goes with a genitive -6ris, some- 
times with a gen. -6ris, according as its stem is in -6s or -us.) 

As examples: consftl (m.), stem consul-, a consul; muli6r (f.), stem 
mulier-, a woman; pater (m.), stem pat6r-, a father; am6r (m.), stem 
am6r-, love; tempus (n.), stem temp6s-, time; 6nus (n.), stem 6nus-, a 
burden; m5s (m.), stem mos-, a habit] crus (n.), stem criis-, a leg. 






fim6r (m.) 






















M I 

Ace. | 











Loc. f 







Nom. tempus (n.) 6nus (n.) 







mos (m.) 




crus (n.) 





temp6r-Ibus ou6r-Ibus mor-Ibus 




Ace. f 

The principal adjectives with consonant stems are those in -6s, 
which express the comparative degree of adjectives, 

As example: melior (adj.), stem m61i6s-, better. 

Nom. m6116r(m.f.) mglius (n.) Nom.) m61i5rgs ( m .f.) mS ii6ra(n.) 

Ace. melior-em meliiis Ace. j 

Gen. melior-Is Gen. melior-um 

Loci melior-I Loc 'j. melior-Ibiis 




46 INFLEXIONS. ' \Book II. 

Contrast of -i Stems and Consonant Stems. 

132 The class of i stems and the class of consonant stems have, speaking 
generally, certain marked differences. 

i. A very large proportion of the i stems have the syllable, which 
precedes the i, long, sometimes from the length of the vowel, more 
often from the i being preceded by two consonants. 

In the consonant stems the final stem consonant is always preceded 
by a vowel, and this preceding vowel is generally short. 

a. Further the i stems fall mainly into three divisions, thus: 

(A) Substantives and adjectives of not more than two syllables in 
the genitive sing. 

(B) Adjectives with derivative suffixes. 

(C) Adjectives compounded of noun stems. 

The consonant stems fall into three divisions, thus : 

(A) Substantives (few) of not more than two syllables in the 
genitive singular. 

(B) Substantives (and one class of adjectives) with derivative suf- 

(C) Substantives and adjectives compounded of verbal stems. 

Classification of -i Stems* 

133 A. The nouns of not more than two syllables in the genitive 
singular have either 

i. Disyllabic nominative in -es, or 

i. Disyllabic nominative in -Is (m. f.), neuter in -S, or 

3. Disyllabic nominative in -6r (for <5rls), or 

4. Monosyllabic nominatives. 

134 (i) Stems with disyllabic nominatives in -es : all feminine, except 
verres (m.), a boar ; vates (m. f., gen. pi. often vatum), a seer. Of the 
feminine, notice aedes (also aedis), hearth, temple; lues (also luem, no other 
case), pestilence; proles (no plur.), offspring; sedes, gen. pi. usually 
sedum), seat ; strues (no plur.), heap ; tabes (no plur., abl. s. tabe, tabo), 

(2) Stems with disyllabic nominatives in -is : 

(a) Adjectives; e.g. dulcis, sweet; gravis, heavy ; ISvis, light; omnis, 
all ; tristis, sad; turpis, foul; &c. 

(/3) Substantives: Masculine and Feminine; anguis (abl. -i rarely), 
snake; callis, path ; clvls, citizen; clunis, haunch; corbis (abl. -i some- 
times), basket ; finis (abl. often -i ; plur. rarely fern.), boundary; hostis, 
enemy ; pgdis, louse; scr6bis, ditch; testis, witness. 

Chap. VL} Classification of -1 ' Stems. 47 

(y) Masculine: amnis (abl. -1 often), river; aaaia or axis, pole, axle- 
tree; buris, plough-tail (ace. in -im, no abl.); casses (pi., also casse abl. s.), 
meshes; caulis, stalk; collis, hill; crlnis,, hair; ensis, sword; fascia, 
bundle; follis, leather bag ; funis, rope ; fustis (abl. often -i), club; ignis 
(abl. -i usually), yfrv ; manes (pi.), ghosts; orbia (abl. -i sometimes), a 
round ; panis (no gen. pi.), loaf ; piacia, fish ; postia (abl. -i often), door- 
post ; renes (pi., gen. renum sometimes), kidneys ; aentes (pi.), thorns; 
torquis, collar; torris, brand; vectis, croivbar ; vermis, worm; ungnis 
(abl. -i sometimes), nail, cla^v. 

Feminine : apis (gen. pi. apum sometimes), bee ; avis (abl. -i sometimes), 
bird; classis (abl. -i often), fleet, class ; clavia (ace. -im sometimes), key ; 
cratia (ace. -im and -em), hurdle ; messia (ace. -im sometimes), reaping; 
navis (ace. -im, abl. -i often), ship ; pelvis (ace. -im sometimes, abl. -i 
usually), basin ; puppis (ace. -im or -em, abl. -i or -S), stern of ship ; ravia 
(ace. -im, abl. -i always), hoarseness ; restis (ace. -im usually), rope ; sltis 
(ace. -im, abl. -i, no plur.), thirst ; tigris (also with stem tigrld-), tiger; 
turria (ace. -im usually, abl. -i often), tower; tuasis (ace, -im, abl. -i 
always), cough ; and others. 

Neuter: mare (abl. s. sometimes in -e in poetry: plural only nom. ace. 
except marlbua once), sea; mille (indeclinable in sing.), thousand ; rete 
(abl. s. sometimes ret& ; ace. s. also retem (m.)), a net. 

135 (3) Stems with disyllabic nominatives in -fir : 

imber (m., abl. -i often), shower of rain; linter or lunter (f. rarely m.), 
boat; venter (m.), belly; uter (m.), skin bag. 

135 (4) Stems with monosyllabic nominatives. 

All (except mas, gen. maris, male ; nix, gen. nlvla, snow ; trabs, gen. 
trabis, a beam} have a long syllable, usually formed by two consonants, 
preceding the i; e.g. urbs, a city ; arx, a citadel; plebs, the common 
people ; lux, light. 

All are feminine, except the following masculines : dens, tooth ; fons, 
fount ; glans (gen. glandis), acorn ; glla (gen. gllria), dormouse ; mas (gen. 
pi. marum sometimes), male ; mils (gen. muris), mouse ; pons (gen. pontis), 
bridge ; and the neuters lac, sometimes lacte" (gen. lactis, no plur.), milk ; 
plus (gen. pluris), more, plural plures (m. f.), plura (n.). 

Notice also nix (f.) (gen. nlvis, stem nigvi-), snow (no gen. pi.) ; vis (f.), 
force, ace. vim; abl. vl; gen. and dat. rare: plur. vires, strength; gen. 
viriuin ; dat. abl. viribus. 

137 B. Adjectives with derivative suffixes: 

-acl e.g. audax, bold; 16quax, talkative ; vlvax, longlived. 

-ocl e.g. atrox, cruel; ferox, fierce; velox, swift. 

-trlcl e.g. victrix, conquering ; corruptrix, corrupting. 

-atl e.g. nostras, of our country; Arplnas, of Arpinum, &c. ; so 

pgnates (pi.), gods of our hearth; summates (pi.), men at the top. 

-Itl e.g. Qulrla, a Roman citizen ; Samnls, a man of Samnium. 

present participles; e.g. amans, loving; monens, warning; 
hence anlmana, living creature ; parena, a parent ; torrens, a 
raging flood ; aerpena, serpent, &c. 

e.g. agUia, active; facllia, easy; fosallis, dug up; delebllia, 

destroyable ; slmilia, like. 


-all e.g. aequalis, equal; mortalis, mortal; rlvalis, rival ; quails, 

of -what kind. Some of these in the masculine and neuter are 

used as substantives ; e.g. 

Masc. canalis, a conduit ; fetialis, an ambassador ; sOdalis, 

a companion. 

Neut. (most drop the final -e in the nom. ace. sing.), animal, 

animal; tribunal, a judgment-scat ; vectlgal, ground-rent. 
-till e.g. edulis, eatable ; trlbulis, of a tribe. 

-ell crudSlis, cruel ; fldelis, faithful ; patruelis, of an uncle. 

-HI e.g. hostllis, of an enemy; vlrllis, manly. As substantives: 

Aednis, a public officer ; Quintnis, the fifth month. Neuter : 

e.g. ancfle, sacred shield ; 6vDle, shccpfold. 
-brl e.g. celSber, crowded ; December (sc. mensis), the tenth month; 

lugubris, mournful ; muliebris, womanly. 

-crl e.g. alacer, alert ; mfidiocris, moderate ; vfilucer, swift. 

-strl e.g. Ulustris, brilliant ; gquester, on horseback; pgdester, on 

foot ; terrestris, on land. 
-arl e. g. famlliaris, intimate ; mnitaris, of soldiers ; singularis, 

unique. Neuters used as substantives often drop finale: e.g. 

calcar, a spur ; laquear, a ceiling ; but cochleare, a spoon. 
-onsl e.g. castrensis, of the camp ; fdrensis, of the forum ; Cannensis, 

of Cannae. 

139 C. Adjectives compounded of noun stems : 

e.g. exanlmis, lifeless ; blennis, for two years ; Inermis, unarmed ; 
Iners, inactive ; praeceps, headforemost (gen. praeclpltis) ; so also anceps, 
biceps, &c. ; decllvls, sloping ; conc&lor, of one folour ; incdlumis, safe ; 
not speaking ; afflnis, related by marriage; effrenis, bit-less; trlformis, of 
three shapes ; bllinguis, two-tongued; delumbis, weak in loins; immanis, 
wild; blmestris, for two months; enervia, sinewless; enormis, huge; 
expers, without share; Idcuples, rich; complures (pi. ), neut.complura, several; 
implumis,^//^;-/^5-; impubis, not grown up; simplex, simple ; tiir6mis, 
triply oared; insignls, distinguished; insomnls, sleepless ; consors, with com- 
mon lot ; quincunx, with five oiinces, hence (generally) with five divisions. 

So also (probably compounds) flnjlTiis, empty ; subllmis, lofty. 

140 D. A few other words with -1 stems do not clearly belong to any 
of the above classes ; viz. : 

Substantives: ambages (f. pi., also ambage, abl. s.), windings; corn- 
pages (f.), fastening; inddles (f.), native disposition ; subdles, upgrowth, 
i.e. offspring; palumbes (m. f.), a, dove. 

cucumis (m.) (also with stem ciicumls-, gen. cucumfiris), cucumber; 
sementis (f.) (ace. sometimes in -im), seedtime; strlgllis (f., abl. usually 
in -i), a scraper. 

praesepg (n.), a fold ; tapete (n., plur. tapetia, tapeta; dat. abl. 
tapetlbus, tapetls), carpet ; Praeneste, Soracte, Reate and other proper 

cdhors (f.), a troop ; Mavors (m.), the god Mars. 

Adjectives: agrestis, rural; caelestis, heavenly; hflarls, cheerful; 
felix, happy ; pernix, active; h6bs, blunt ; t6r6s, round; c616r, swift; 
m6m6r, mindful ; virldis, green. 

Chap. VI.] Consonant Stems. 49 


141 A. Substantives of not more than two syllables in the genitive 
singular : 

(a) with disyllabic nominative : 

canis (m. f.), dog; senex (m.), gen. s6n!s, old man ; mensis (m.), gen. 
pi. usually mensum, month. 

frater (m.), brother ; mater (f.), mother ; pater (m.}, father. 

142 (I)} with monosyllabic nominative : 

Masculine : dux (gen. duels), leader ; grex (gen. grfigis), flock ; rex 
(gen. regis), king; pes (gen. pgdis), foot; praes* (gen. praedis), surety ; 
vas (m. f., gen. vadis), bail; lar (gen. laris), household god ; fur (gen. 
furis), thief; fios (gen. floris), flower ; mos (gen. moris), manner; ros 
(gen. roris), dew. 

Also sol (gen. soils), sun ; sal (gen. sails, m. n.), salt ; which have no 
gen. plur. 

Feminine : ops (in nom. s. only as name of goddess), help ; mix (gen. 
niicis), nut ; precem (no nom. s.), prayer ; vox (gen. vocis), voice ; frugeni 
(no nom. s.), fruit; lex (gen. legis), a larv ; laus (gen. laudis), praise. 

Also daps (gen. dapis), feast ; stlp-em (no nom.), piece of money ; fax 
(gen. facis), torch; crux (gen. criicis), cross ; nex (gen. ne"cis), murder ; 
pix (gen. plcis), pitch; vlcem (no nom. s.), change ; strix (gen. strlgis), 
owl ; which have no genitive plural. 

Par (m. f. gen. paris), an equal, as subst. has consonant stem; but as 
adj. has i stem (neut. pi. paria). 

Neuter: aes (gen. aeris), bronze; 6s (gen. ossis), bone; 6s (gen. oris), 
mouth ; crus (gen. criiris), leg ; jus (gen. juris), right ; also broth. 

Also cor (gen. cordis), heart ; fel (gen. fellis), gall ; mel (gen. mellis), 
honey ; far (gen. fan-is), spelt ; ver (gen. veris), spring; rfis (gen. ruris), 
country ; tus (gen. tu.ris), incense ; which have no gen. plur. Also vas 
(gen. vasis), -vessel, which has vasoruin in gen. plur. Fas, divine right ; 
nefas, wrong ; are indeclinable. 

113 B. Substantives (and a few adjectives) with derivative affixes: 

-c (gen. Icis), chiefly masculine; e.g. apex, point; pollex, tJmmb ; vortex 
or vertex, a whirl, a head; Ilex (f.), holm oak ; pellex (f.), a 

-Ic chiefly feminine : e.g. calix, cup ; fornix (m.), vault. 

-Ic all feminine : e.g. cervix, neck; me're'trix (subst.), a prostitute ; 

nutrix (subst.), nurse; radix, root. 

-6t (gen. 8tls), with nom. sing, in -es ; viz. abies (f.),yfr; aries (m.), rain; 

paries (m.), party-wall. 

with nom. sing, in -es ; viz. s&gSs (f.), standing corn ; tgges (f.), 

a mat. 
6t (gen. Itis); e.g. caespgs (m.), turf; gurgSs (m.), whirlpool; llmSs 

(m.), boundary. 

dives (adj.), rich; ales, winged; hence a bird (gen. pi. usually 

in verse alltuum). 


-tat abstract substantives, very numerous, all feminine: e.g. aetas, 

age; aestas, summer; cl vitas, citizenship ; bgnignltas, kindness; 
neredltas, inheritance; llbertas, liberty; majestas, dignity; 
, partnership ; v61uptas, pleasure ; &c. 

-tUt all feminine : viz. jiiventus, youth; sgnectus, old age; servltus, 

bondage ; virtus, manliness. 

-Ht salus, safety. 

-Id (gen. Idis), all feminine : e.g. cassis, a helmet ; cuspls, point of spear ; 
lapis, pebble. 

144 -6n (gen. Inls) ; e.g. hdmo (m. f.), man; nemo, no man; turbo (m.), a 

whirl ; also caro (f.) gen. carnis for carlnis, fiesh. 

-g6n numerous, all feminine, (except margo (usually m.), a brink ;) 

Virgo, girl ; Imago, image ; lanugo, downy hair ; callgo, mist ; 
orlgo, a source ; roblgo, rust. 

-d6n (gen. dlnls) numerous, substantives chiefly in -tudon, all feminine, 
except those otherwise marked. 

cardo (m.), hinge ; harundo (f.), a reed ; ordo (m.), a row. 

aegrltudo, sickness; fortltudo, courage; multitude, great 
number, &c. ; libido, lust. 

-Sn (gen. Inls) ; flamen (m.), a priest ; pecten (m.), comb ; sanguen, usually 
sanguls (m.), blood. 

Numerous verbals in -m6n (gen. minis), all neuter: e.g. 
agmen, a train of people, &c. ; carmen, song; certamen, con- 
test ; crlmen, charge ; lenlrnen, alleviation ; nomen, -name ; 
stamen, -warp thread. 

-6n (gen. 6nls), all masculine, except Juno and abstract substantives in -ion 
which are numerous and all feminine. 

e.g. masculine: aqullo, north wind; carbo, coal; leo, lion; 
centurio, a captain ; mulio, muleteer ; senio (of dice), a seize ; 
sclpio, a staff; &c. 

Feminine : e. g. accusatio (f. ), an accusation ; concessio, 
grant ; quaestio, inquiry ; sedltio, a sedition ; ratio, a reckon- 
ing, reason ; and many others. 

legio (lit. a picking), a body of soldiers ; rggio (lit. a ruling] a 
district; relllgio, a religious obligation. 

145 -6r all neuter: some have nom. -6r, gen. orls : e.g. aequdr, a 

level ; marmdr, marble. 

Others have nom. -ur, gen. 6rls : 6bur, ivory ; fSmur, thigh ; 
jgcur, liver (also gen. jdclneris, dat. jocineri, &c.); robur, heart 
of oak, strength. 

-ur e.g. augur (m.), an augur ; vultur (m.), vulture ; fulgur (n.), 

lightning ; guttur (n.), throat ; murmur (n.), murmur. 

-6r agger (m.), a mound ; anser (m.), a gander; career (m.), 

prison ; niulier (f.), woman ; passer (m. ), sparrow. 

cadaver (n.), a corpse ; Iter (n.), a journey (so nom. ace. sing., 
other cases as if from Itlner : e.g. itineris, itinera, &c.); 
verbgra (n. pi.), strokes (also abl. s. verbere). 

-or all masculine, except two, viz. s6r6r (f.), a sister ; ux6r (f.), 


Chap. J^f.] Consonant Stems. 51 

am6r (m.), love; d616r, pain; fulg6r, glitter; and other 
verbals from present stem. 

actdr, pleader; amat6r, lover; auditor, listener; censor, 

-5r or -6s Some nouns have both -6r and -6s in nom. s., 6ris in gen. 

honos (less often h6n6r), honour ; labSs (more often Iab6r), 
toil ; c616s, also color, colour; 6dos (or 6d6r), scent. 

Adjectives of the comparative degree have nom. s. m. and f. 
-6r; neut. -us; gen. s. all genders -oris. 

e.g. mSlidr (m. f.), meliiis (n.), better ; duricr (m. f.), duriils 
(n.), harder. 

-6s making nom. s. -us, gen. -6rls. All neuter, except Igpiis (m.), 

hare; arb6r (also nom. arbos) (f.), tree. 

Neuter: corpus, body; de"cus, distinction; faclnus, a deed 
(usually bad deed) ; frlgus, cold; lltus, shore; ne"mus, grove; 
pectus, breast ; tempus, time ; and a few others. 

-us making nom. s. -us, gen. 6rls. All neuter, except VSnus (f.), 

grace ; vetus (adj.), old. 

Neuter: foedus, treaty; funus, death; genus, a kind; munus, 
gift ; 6nus, burden ; 6pus, work ; pondus, weight ; scelus, 
wickedness; sldus, constellation; i$Qx&) fleece ; vulnus, -wound; 
and a few others. 

143 C. Substantives and adjectives compounded of verb-stems: 

e.g. redux (adj.), bringing back ; faenisex (m.), gen. faenlse"cis, mower. 

Also auceps (m.), gen. aucupis, bird-catcher ; remex (m.), gen. remi- 
gis, a rower; compos (adj.), gen. comp6tis, having power ; praepfis (adj.), 
gen. praepgtis, swift ; incus (f.), gen. incudis, anvil. 

with gen. in Ipis : municeps (m.), burgess ; princeps (adj.), chief. 

with gen. in Icis: index (m. f.), teller; judex (m. f.), judge; vindex 
(m. f.), avenger; artlfex (m. f.), skilled maker; carnlfex (m. f.), butcher ; 
pontlfex (m. f.), priest ; auspex (m. f.), bird- diviner ; supplex (adj.), sup- 
pliant. * 

with gen. in -Idis : obs6s (m. f.), hostage ; praes6s (m. f.), president ; 
dose's (adj.), indolent. 

with gen. in -Itis : c6m5s (m. f.), companion; mile's (m.), soldier; ale's 
(adj.), winged ; 6qu6s (m.), on horseback ; pSd6s, on foot ; superstes (adj.), 

147 D. A few other words do not clearly belong to the above 
classes, e.g.: 

(i) Compounds of noun stems : Wvertex (gen. -Icis), with two tops; 
exlex (gen. exlegis), outlaw; occiput (n.), gen. occlpltis, J)0fk of head ; 
tripes, gen. trlpgdis, with three feet ; cornlpes, horn-footed; deggner, de- 
generate ; stipellex (f.), gen. supellectllis, couch coverings. 


52 INFLEXIONS. [Book If. 

(2) cuBtos (m. f.), gen. custodis, a keeper ; heres (m. f.), gen. heredis, 
an heir ; merces (f.), gen. mercedis, wages; paltis (f.), gen. palfidis, a 
marsh ; sacerdos (m.), gen. sacerdotis, a priest ; quies, rSquiSs (f.), gen. 
quiStis, c. rest; Cergs (f.), gen. Cer&ris, the goddess Ceres; pflbes (adj.), 
gen. pftbfiris, grown up ; clnls (m.), gen. clnfiris, ashes ; pulvls (m.), gen. 
pulveris, dust; tellus (f.), gen. telluris, the earth. 


143 GREEK nouns generally, at least in the prae- Augustan period, 
received slight changes, especially of vowels, to adjust them to the Latin 
usage. Thus in inflexions Greek o became in Latin not 6 but u; e be- 
comes not 6 but I; final v becomes not n but m ; final a>v (nom. s.) be- 
comes not on but o. In and after Augustus' time a tendency grew up 
to preserve more strictly the Greek forms. In some words and classes 
of words the Romans appear to have been misled by a superficial resem- 
blance and thus to have given Greek words the inflexions properly 
suitable to stems of a different character. 

Plautus, Terence and Cicero for the most part Latinize the in- 
flexions. Propertius, Ovid, and the post-Augustan poets very frequently 
retain the Greek vowels and n (for m) of the ace. sing. Intermediate 
between these two parties stand Vergil and Horace, who with Corn. 
Nepos, Pliny and other post-Augustan prose writers have the same 
tendency as Ovid, but use many of the Latin forms. In all writers the 
Greek forms are much more frequent in proper names than in appella- 
tives, and in rarely used words than in those which had become part of 
the ordinary language. 

i. Stems in -a. 

149 Typical examples: npovtriar, 'Arpei&js, 


Prflsia or Prusias 

Atrida or Atrides 

Circa or Circe 


Prusia or Prusia 

Atrida or Atride 

Circa or Circe 


Prusiam or Prusian 

Atridam or Atrlden 

Circam or Circen 




Circae or Circes 








Circa or Circe 

150 The Greek nouns corresponding to the Latin -a stems, ended in the 
nom. sing, as follows : masc. -as (-as), fern, -a (-a), after a vowel or r : 
otherwise, masc. -rjs (-es), fern. -77 (-e). If Latinized all become simply -a. 

Chap. VII.} Greek Nouns. Stems in -a. 53 

In obliqiie cases the Greek declension has (usually) -3,, -g in the voca- 
tive, -an, en in the accusative singular. 

But the Latin vocative in -a and ace. in -am (or -em, from Greek 
gentile names) are often found even when the nominative retains the Greek 

Stems in -tes had vocative (Greek, as well as Latin) -ta, e.f. Thyesta 
also-te, e.g. Boote. 

Patronymics in -des had vocative -de, e.g. Tydlde, Aeacide, Alclde ; 
sometimes -da, e.g. Aeacida, Cecrdpida (Ovid), Anchlsiada (Verg.) ; accu- 
sative always -den, e.g. Laertiaden, PSIIden. 

So also feminine nouns with nom. s. in -e ; e.g. Circen, Prienen. 

The genitive, dative, and locative almost always take the Latin form 
-ae. But Propertius, Ovid and later poets usually make the genitive in -ea 
from nominatives in -e. So also Quintilian in names like musice. 

The ablative of stems in -es and -e is usually -e. 

The plural is almost always in the Latin form. (Names of peoples Sec. 
often have -um for -arum. See 104.) 

151 The following examples \vill serve to show the variety in the nominative 
case singular. 

i. Greek nouns in -as (-as), or -775 (-es). Masculine. 

(a) Appellatives. SycSphanta, p6eta, nauta, plrata always. Simi- 
larly athleta, bibliopola, propola, citharista, and in Plaut. trapesslta 
(TpaTrf^iTTjs) ; danista (daveia-Trjs) . In Cicero, anagnostes, geometres, 
sophistes. So satrapes (ace. usually satrapam). 

(/;) Gentile names. Persa (Plant.), Perses (Cic.) ; Scythes (Cic. Hor.), 
Scytha (Lucan). In Cicero Abderltes, Crotoniates, Eplrotes, Staglrltes. 

(c} Names of men. Hermia (Cic.), MIda (Ter.), Marsya (Hor. Ov.), 
Pausania (Cic.), Phaedria (Ter.), Perdicca (Curt.), Aeeta (Ov.), Prusia 
(Cic. Liv.). On the other hand Archias, Amyntas (Cic.) ; Pmsias (Liv.) ; 
Aeneas, &c. 

Anchlses, Achates, Thyestes. 

Patronymics rarely have -a. Thus Heraclldes, Alcldes, Asclepiades, 
Pelldes. But Atrlda is found (Hor. Ov.). Lucretius has two patronymics 
from Latin names : Memmiadae (clat. sing.), son of Memmius ; Sclpiadas 
(nom. s. ; Scipiadam ace. s., Hor. ; Scipiadae gen. s., Prop. Hor. ; 
Scipiadas ace. pi., Verg.), son of Scipio. 

152 2. Greek nouns in -d (-a) or -rj (-e). Feminine. 

(a) Appellatives. ApStheca, aula, bibliotheca, tragoedia, comoedia, 
prSra, machaera, purpiira (?ro/)0i;pd), ancSra (ayKvpd), nausea (vavo-id), 
epistula (eTTitrroXi;), scaena (a-K-fiv-rj), always. In Cicero, grammatlca, 
dialectica, rhetorica, musica : in Quintilian grammatice, &c. 

(b) Names of places. Aetna, Greta, Libya, Sparta, Ida, Ithaca, &c., 
but in Ovid usually Aetne, Crete, &c. Thessalonlca (Cic.) ; Tiiessalonice 
(Liv. Plin.). Always Cyrene, Meroe. 

(c) Names of women. For ' A\K/j.-r}vrj Alcumena (Plant.), Alcmena (Cic.), 
Alcniene (Ovid). In Cicero, Varro, &c., Andrdmacha, Antidpa, Europa, 
H6cata, Helena, Semela, &c. In poets usually Andromache, Antiope, &c. 
But nympha (Cat. Verg. Ov.), nymphe (Ov.). Always BSrSnlce, Htbo, 
Daphne, Pers6ph6ne, Phoebe, Rhddope, Thule, Tisiphbne, &c. 


ii. Stems in -o. 

153 Typical examples: "Hnfipos, Mcuai/Spos-, *A0a>y. 

Nom. Eplrus or EpirSs Maeand6r or Maeandr6s Athos or Ath5 
Voc. EpirS Maeandgr or Maeandrfi 

Ace. Eplrum or Eplrdn Maeandrum or Maeandron Athon or Athonem 
Gen. Epirl Maeandri Atho? 

The -o stems in Greek had -05 (-6s) in nom., -ov (-6n) in accus. (and 
neuter nominative) singular. The Latin form (-urn) for the accus. is often 
found, even when a Latinized nominative (-us, sometimes -er for -6ms) is 
not found. The other cases rarely received any other than a Latin form. 

154 The following are instances of the usage : 

SINGULAR, i. Appellatives (feminine), e.g. methodus, at6mus, anti- 
d6tus, always. So trim&trus, or trimeter ; tetramStrus, or tetrameter ; 
on the other hand diamfetros (also diam6trus), barbltos (m. and f.), phase- 
los, or faselus, a bean, a boat. 

2. A r amcs of plants, &c., e.g. acanthus (m.), asparagus (m.), asph6- 
delus (m.), hyacinthus (m.), hellSbtfrus (m. more frequently helieb6rum, 
n.) papyrus (f.), &c. But 16t6s (f.), aspalath6s, &c. 

Precious stones (mostly feminine), amSthystus (f.), zmaragdus (m.), 
electrum (n.), topazes (f.), &c. 

Animals, arctos (f.) ; scorpios or scorpius (m.), camelus (m. f.), &c. 

3. Names of toums and islands (feminine), e.g. Abydus, COrintlius, 
Lampsacus, Paphus, Cyprus, Rhddus, T6n6dus, Eplrus, &c. The forms 
in -os, -on (os, ov} in the poets chiefly. Always Aegyptus, but (nom.) 
Imbros, Lemnos, DZlos, Samos, Sestos, Tyros, c. 

Names of rivers and mountains (masculine), PenSus, Caystrus, Maean- 
der, Parnassus, &c. Also Peneos, &c. Usually Pelion (n.) and nom. 
Olympus (m.), Caucasus (m.), ace. Olympian, Caucasum. 

4. Names of men. Usually Latinized, especially those in -pos (-rus), 
preceded by a consonant ; e.g. Teucer, MSleager, rarely Meleagros, Anti- 
pater, Alexander, Menander, sometimes Menandros, Evander, sometimes 
Evandrus. So we have as accusatives Daidalon, Slsyphum, &c. 

The genitive is sometimes in -u ; e. g. Menandru, ApoUodoru. 
Panthus, voc. Panthu is a contracted form (Ildj^ooj, HdvOoe). 

155 Greek words in -ews (-eos), are either completely Latinized; e.g. Tyn- 
dargus, Pen616us, or sometimes have nom. -6s, ace. -on or -o, e.g. Andr6- 
geos (gen. Andr6gCQ, and Andr6gei in Vergil). 

So also a few names of places, viz. : Athos, Ceos, ace. Ath6u (Cat. Ov. 
Verg.), Atho (Liv. Plin.), Ceo (Cic.). Coos (Mela), C6us (Liv.) for Kowy, 
KcDy, has ace. Coum (Plin. Tac.), abl. Coo (Cic. Plin.). Cicero and Livy 
inflect Atho, as if with stem in -on. 

For some stems in cu- (eu-) see 160. 

Chap. VIIJ] Greek Nouns. Stems in -o, -eu, -y. 


156 PLURAL. The nominative rarely in -oe; e.g. Adelphoe (Ter.), cane- 
phdroe, arctoe, cosmoe (Cic.). 

The Greek genitive in -wv (-6n) is found sometimes with liber as the 
name of a book; e.g. Vergil's Bucdlicon, Georglcon ; Manillas' Astro- 
n6micon; rarely otherwise ; e.g. Colonia Theraeon, for Theraeorum (Sail.). 

On the genitive in -um, e.g. Pelasgum, Grajum, see 115. 



157 GREEK nouns of this class, as of the first class, frequently retain 
such of their Greek inflexions as are not very dissimilar from the Latin 
inflexions. Plautus, Terence and Cicero for the most part Latinize the 
inflexions. Propertius, Ovid and the post- A ugustan poets very fre- 
quently retain the Greek vowels and -n (for -m) of the ace. sing, and 
short pronunciation of the final syllables. Intermediate between these 
two parties stand Vergil and Horace, who with Corn. Nepos, Pliny 
and other post-Augustan prose writers share the same tendency as 
Ovid, but use many of the Latin forms. The Greek forms in all 
writers are much more frequent in proper names than in appellatives. 


i. Stems in -o, -eu, -y. 
Typical examples: ;po>r, 'Arpeu's-, TrjQvs. 










Voc. j 






Atreum or AtrSa 

Tethym or Tethyn 

or heroa 




Atrei or Atr66s 

Tethyls or TethySs 


heroi ) 
heroS ( 



Tethyl or Tethyl 

159 -0 (a) Masculine. Nom. in -6s ; ace. -oem or (poet.) -6 ; gen. 

-6Is ; dat. -61. Plural nom. -6s ; ace. -oas ; gen. -oum ; dat. 
abl. -olbus? (-oisin once in Ovid), 
e.g. lieros, Minos. 

(b) Feminine. All cases in -o, except gen. -fts. Ovid occa- 
sionally has accusative in -on. 

e.g. Allecto, Argo, Callisto, Caljrpso, Dido, Echo, Hero, lo, 
Ino, Manto, Tneano, Sappho. 


160 -eu Masculine. Norn, -eus ; voc. -eu ; ace. -eum or (poet.) 6a ; 

gen. -ei or (poet.) -efls ; dat. abl. -eo. The poets (e.g. l> Verg. 
Ov. Prop.) often treat -ei, -eo as one syllable, 
e.g. Atreus, Cepheus, Erechtheus, Mnestheus, Nereus, Orpheus, 
Peleus, Perseus, Pr&metheus, PIraeeus, Proteus, Tereus, The- 
seus, Typhoeeus, Tyndareus, &c. For metre's sake we have 
in ace. IdOmenea, DiOnea (Verg.), Capanea (Stat.). 

The plural is rarely found ; e.g. accus. Slegarecs (Quintil.), 
Phineas or Phineas (Mart.). 

The name of the Macedonian king Perseus had an e- (or a-) 
stem used in Cicero, and a -eu stem used in Livy. Other 
writers generally follow Livy. Thus in Cicero, nom. Perses ; 
ace. Persen, rarely Persem ; gen. dat. Persae ; abl. Persa. In 
Livy, nom. Perseus ; ace. Perseum and Persea ; gen. Persei ; 
dat. abl. Perseo. 

In Horace are found gen. AchiHe!, 1711x61. 

The Greek d/x^opeuy (m.), is in Lat. always amphdra (f.). 

161 -y Nom. -ys, voc. -y (in poets); ace. -yn or -ym; gen. -yis or 

-yos ; dat. -yl ; abl. -ye. 

e.g. cheiys (f.), Cotys (m.), Erlnys (f.), Halys (m.), Phorcys (f.), 

Tethys (f., dat. Tethyl once Catul.). 

2. Stems in -e and -i. 
162 Typical examples : 2&)^par^r, riypis tiger, ir\ayos (n.). 


IN 1/111*1 






Socratem or Socraten 

tigrim or tigrin 

tigres or 




SocratI or SocratI s 

tigrls or tigrldls 





tigri or tigrldi? 




Socrate or Socratg 

tigrg or tigrldg 


Plur. N. Ac. pglage 

163 -e (a) Masculine. Nom. s. -es 1 . Ace. -em or more frequently 

(especially in post- Augustan writers), in -en. Gen. usually in 
-i'-', sometimes -Is. Abl. in -6, rarely -e. In plural these stems 
are often treated as if they ended in -a 3 . 

-ce e.g. Pharnaces. -che e.g. Laches. 

-te e.g. Acestes, Achates, Bdotes, Euphrates, Hippocrates, Iphl- 

crates, Is6crates, Mithridates, Orestes, Phrahates, P61ycrates, 
Socrates, Thyestes, Tirldates, Tlmocrates, XSndcrates, &c. 

1 These stems properly end in -os, or -es ; e.g. 2c6/cpares-, 76/0?-. The 
final s (in yevos-, &c.), which is changed to r in Latin ( 131), is omitted in 

2 Forms like J^wKparov, Ka\\iKparov, KaXXtcrfleVou, &c. (instead of 
SWK/DCITOVS, &c.), occur, in the Aeolic dialect and in some Attic inscriptions. 

3 Forms like Zi-j(f>dvai, ILoatT^Xcu, &c. occur in Greek in and after 

Chap. VIII.} Greek Nouns. Stems in -e and -i- 57 

A genitive in -ae is occasionally found in the poets; e.g. 

Antlphatae, Bootae, Orestae, Thyestae. 
-de e.g. Alclbiades, Aristldes, Carneades, Di6medes, Euripides, 

Ganymgdes, Hypgrldes, Miltiades, Palamedes, Parmgnldes, 

Simonldes, Thucydldes. Proper patronymics belong to the 

first class, 150, 151. 

-ne e.g. Artaphernes, Clisthgnes, Demosthgnes, Dioggnes. 

-le e.g. Achilles (see 160), Arist6teles, Hercilles, Praxiteles, 

Thales (see 166, 168) ; EmpgdScles, ThSmistoeles, Pgricles. 
-se (-ze) e.g. Gotarzes, Oaxes, Ulixes (see 160), Xerxes, Vologeses 

(some cases of a stem in -o are found from the last-named). 

164 ((>) Neuters. Nom. ace. sing. -6s or -us. Norn. ace. pi. -e (no other 
cases), e.g. cetfls, mg!6s, pglagus ; Texnpe (plur. only). Pelagus (n.), 
and cetus (m.), are also used with -o stems. So also grgbum (ace.), erebi 
(gen.), erebo; chao (dat.), (adj. n.). 

165 -i (a) Feminine (chiefly, except names of rivers). Nom. in -is. 

Ace. in -im or -in, abl. -i. 

Appellatives : e.g. basis (ace. also in -em), phthisis, p6esis, 
pristis, tigris (also with stem in -id). 

Names of Persons. e.g. Sesostris (m.), Memphltis (f.), 
Alcestis (f.). 

Names of Places, e.g. Amphipdlis, Neap61is, &c. ; Cha- 
rybdis, Hispalis, Leptis, Memphis, Sybaris, &c., also the plurals 
Gadls, Sardls, Syrtls, TraUIs. 

Names of Rivers. Masculine, e.g. Albis, Baetis (abl. also 
in -6), Liggris, LIris, Tamesis, Tanais, Tigris (see also 1 70), 
Tibgris ; Vesgris, Visurgis. 

A gen. pi. in -on occurs in the word mgtamorphoseon as part 
of the title of Ovid's work. 

(b] Neuter. Nom. in. -i. e. g. sinapi. Also a feminine form 
with nom. in is, ace. in -im. 

3. Consonant stems. 

166 The Greek forms are : Singular gen. -fis (Lat. -Is) ; ace. -a (Lat. -em) ; 
Plural nom. -gs (Lat. -es). Other differences apply only to particular stems. 

Typical examples: eX/^ay, KpeW, QaK-qs. 


Nom. glgphantus or elephans or -as glgphanti (or elephantgs ?) 

Ace. glgphantum or glephanta or -em elephantos (or elephantas?) 

Gen. elephant! elephantorum 

Dat. elephanto elephantis (or elephantlbus?) 
Abl. elephanto or elephantg 



Nom. Creo or Creon Aiicona or Ancon 

Ace. CreSnem or Creontem or -ta Anconam or Anconem 
Gen. Creonls or Creontls Anconae or Anconis? 

Dat. Creoni or Creonti Anconae or Anconi? 

Abl. Creone or Creonte Ancona or AnconS 

Nom.) PhyUIs Thetis 

Voc. f Tnales Phylll Thetl 

Ace. ThaletemorThalem Phylllda Thetim or Thetln 

or -en 

Gen. Thaletls or Thalis? PhyllldlsorPhyllldSs Thetldls 

Dat. Thaleti or Thall? Phyllidi or Phyllidl? Thetidi 

Abl. ThaletS or Thale Phyllide" Thetidg and Theti 

167 (a) Labial stems : 

-ap e.g. Laelaps (m.). 

-6p e.g. AetMops (m.), PSlops (m.). 

-op e.g. Cyclops (m.). 

-yph e.g. gryps (m. In plur. also gryphi, gryphorum, gryphis). 

-ab e.g. Arabs (m., also nom. Arabus ; abl. Arabo). 

-yb e.g. Chalybs (m.). 

(l>) Gtittural stems : 

-ac e.g. C6rax (m.). 

-6c e.g. Cappadox (some cases from stems in -o in post- Augustan 


-yc e.g. Eryx (m. ace. Erycum ; abl. Eryco Cic. Tac.). 

-Ic e.g. Cilix(adj.). 

-ac e.g. thorax (m.), Ajax (m.), Thrax (m.), Phaeax (m.). 

-yc e.g. Ceyx (m.), bombyx (m.). 

-yen e.g. 6nyx (m. f.), sarddnyx (f.). 

-nc e.g. lynx (f. rarely m.). 

-yg e.g. Phryx (m.), Styx (f.), lapyx (m.). 

-ng e.g. Sphinx (f.), syrinx (f.), phalanx (f.). 

163 (c) Dental stems : (a) stems in -t. 

-at (r) Neuter. Nom. s. in -a; Plural nom. in -ta ; gen. in 

-torum ; dat. abl. in -tls, sometimes in -tlbus. 
e.g. dlplSma, emblema, plasma, p6ema, prdblema, tdreuma. 
(2) Neuter. Nom. s. in -as ; e.g. artdcreas. 

-It Nom. s. in -Is ; e.g. Charis (f.). 

-ot Nom. s. in -6s ; e.g. Aeg5c6ros (m.), rhln6c6ros (m.), Eros (m.). 

-et Nom. s. in -es ; e.g. 16bes (m.), magnes (m.) ; Ores, Dares, 

Thales, Chr6mes, PhI161aches, &c. The last three have also 
forms as from -i stems ; e.g. Thalem, Thali, Thale ( 163. It 
has vowel, not dental, stem in Herodotus and Attic Greek). 

-5th Nom. s. in -es; e.g. Parnes. 

Chap. VIIL~\ Greek Nouns. Consonant Stems. 59 

-ant Nom. s. in -as, rarely in -ans ; ace. in -anta, often in poets 

vocative sometimes in -a ; e.g. Calcha, Palla. 

e.g. adamas (m.), gigas (m.), lphas (m. the other cases 
most frequently formed as from a stem in -anto) ; Atlas (m.), 
Calchas (m.), CSrybantes (m. plur.), PaUas (m.), Thoas (m.). 

For the Greek forms Acragas (m.), Taras (m.), used some- 
times in verse we have in prose -0 stems; e.g. Agrigentum, 
Tarentum or Tarentus. 
-ont Nom. s. in -on. All masculine. 

e.g. Anacreon, Autdmgdon, Charon, PhaSthon, draco, cha- 
maeleon, Creon, Antlphon, X6n6phon. 

The last three words, and others ending in -phont, have, in 
Plautus and Terence and sometimes in Cicero, stems in -ph6n, 
nom. -pho, only; e.g. Cteslpho, ace. Ctesiphonem, &c. ( 171). 

-unt Nom. s. in -us. 

e.g. Pesslnus (m.), Sellnus (f.), Trapezus (f.). For Snrous 
Cicero has Sipontum ; for 'TSpovs Livy has Hydruntum. Ache- 
runs (Plaut., Lucr.), Acheron (Cic. &c.). 

-ent Nom. s. in -is; e.g. SImoIs. 

-ynth Nom. s. in -ns ; e.g. TIryns. 

169 (/3) Stems in -d. 

In nom. sing, -d gives place to -s. 

-ad Nom. s. in -as. All feminine; e.g. lampas (ace. s. generally 

lampada) ; Pallas (dat. s. PalladI once) ; Areas, Cyclas, Dryas, 
Hamadryas, Hfcis, Ilias, Maenas, Oreas, Pleias, Thyas. _ 

A few instances occur of dat. pi. in -asin ; e.g. Hamadryasin, 
&c. (Prop.); Troasin, Lemniasin (Ovid). 

-6d Nom. s. in -us; e.g. trlpus (m.) ; Melampus, m. (voc. 

Melampu, once in Stat.). From Oedipus (m.) the following 

forms are found, chiefly in Seneca (Trag.) and Statins : nom. 

-us, -6des; voc. -6 ; ace. -um (Cic.), -6da? -odem, -6den ; gen. 

-6dls (Cic., Stat.), -6dae (Sen., Stat.); dat. -odae ; abl. -ode 

(Cic.), -oda. 
-yd Nom. s. in -ys ; voc. in -y in poets ; e.g. chlamys (f.), lapys. 

170 -Id Nom. s. in -Is; voc. in poets (not Plaut. or Ter.), frequently in 

-I. Other Greek forms are frequent; dat. sing, in -I occurs 
once, viz. MInoIdl (Catul.). 

As regards the ace. s. these stems fall into two classes : 

(r) Ace. s. in -Idem in prose and prae-Augustan poets; in 
-Ida in post- Augustan poets. All feminine. 

Appellatives : e. g. aegis, aspis, ephemeris, herois, p6ri- 
sc&lis, pyramis, pyxis, tyrannis (ace. s. in -ida once in Cicero). 

Names of persons : e. g. Amaryllis, Bacchis, Chrysis, Doris, 
Lais, LycSris, Phyllis, Thais. 

Patronymics, &c. : e.g. BrlsSis, Cadmeis, Colchis, Gnosis, 
MInSis, Prlameis, SalmSnis, Titanis. 

Names of countries: e.g. Aulis, Chalcis, Locris, Persis, 

(2) Ace. s. in -im or, sometimes, esp. in Augustan and post- 
Augustan poets, -in. So all masculines and some feminines. 


An abl. or dat. s. in -I is found in some ; e. g. EupSli, Oslri, 
Phalari, Th6ti, SSmlrami. 

Appellatives : e.g. Ibis (f., also in plur. ibes, ibium), Iris (f.), 
tigris (both river and animal, also declined as if with stem in -i. 
Dat. abl. plur. only tigribus). 

Names of persons. Masculine ; e.g. Alexis, Adonis, Daphnis, 
Eupdlis, Nabis, Paris (the last three have ace. also in -Idem), 
Moeris, Thyrsis, Zeuxis, Anflbis, Buslris, Osiris, Serapis. 

Feminine; e.g. Isis, S6mlramis, Procris, Thetis. 

Names of countries : e.g. Phasis (f.), Phthiotis (f.) have also 
ace. in -Idem or -Ida. 

-Id Nom. s. in -Is ; e.g. apsis (f.). (From KprjiriS- we have only an 

-a stem, crSpIda.) 

171 ((f) Stems in -n. 

These retain -n in nominative (except some stems in -6n, more in -on) ; 
ace. s. frequently in -a ; plur. in -as. 

-6n Nom. s. usually in -on; gen. s. sometimes in -6n6s; e.g. sindon 

(f.), Arlon (m.), Gorgon (f.), Memnon (m.), Ixlon (m.). 

Some have also nom. s. in -o ; e.g. Agamemno (m.), Amphlo 
(m.), LacSdaemo (f.), Macfedo (m.), Strymo (m.). 

-6n e.g. Phildpoemen. 

-an Masculine; e.g. paean, Alcman, Acarnan, Titan (rarely de- 

clined as with -o stem), Pan (ace. s. always Pana). 

-6n Mostly masculine. 

Names of persons and things. Nom. s. usually in -0 ; e. g. 
arrhabo (sometimes f.), mydparo, sipho, ApoUo (also like homo, 
e.g. ace. s. Apollinem), Laco, Amphitruo, Dr6mo, Phormio, 
Simo, Tranio, Dio, Higro, Milo, Parmenio, Plato, Pyrrho, Zeno. 
So also stems in -phon, see 168. But Triton, Telamon, Chiron. 
Names of places. Nom. s. usually in -on; e.g. Cdldphon 
(m.), Marathon (f.), SIcyon (f.), Babylon (f.), Calydon (f.), 
Helicon (m.), Cithaeron (m.). For Ancon, Croto (m.), we have 
often an -a stem, viz. Ancona, Crotona. 

-en e.g. attagen (m. but also a stem in -a, attagena) ; Siren (f.), 

splen (m.), Troezen (f.). 

-In e.g. delphin (m. usual nom. delphlnus) ; Eleusln (f.), Trachln 

(f.). Rarely nom. s. in -s ; e.g. Salamis (f.). 

172 (c) Stems in -s or T : exhibit simple stem in nominative. 

-ar e.g. nectar (n.). 

-or all masculine, e.g. rhgtor (m.), Amyntor, Antenor, Castor, 

Hector, Mentor, Nestor, 
-us (ur) Nom. s. in -us; e.g. LIgus. 
-e"r Nom. s. in -er ; e.g. aer; (m. ace. s. usually afcra; aether (m. 

ace. always aethgra). 
-er e.g. crater (m.) ace. cratera (Cic.). Also with stem in -a; 

nom. s. cratera and creterra. For panther, stater, we have 

always panthera, statera. 

Chap. IX^\ Formation of Comparative and Superlative. 61 


173 FROM many adjectives two derivative adjectives are formed in 
order to denote the degree of the quality exprest by them. The simple 
form is called the positive. The comparative expresses a higher degree 
of the quality in a comparison of two things or persons. The super- 
lative expresses a higher degree in a comparison of more than two 
things or persons ; as, dttrus, hard, dflrior, harder, dftrissmms, hardest. 

The comparative is sometimes used to express that the quality is 
possessed in too high a degree. 

The superlative is sometimes used to express that the quality is pos- 
sessed in a very high degree. 

Ordinary formation of Comparative and Superlative. 

174 These derivative adjectives are formed from the positive as follows. 

1. The stem of the comparative is formed by adding ios to the last 
consonant of the stem. The s is changed into r before vowels and in 
the nom. sing. masc. and fern, (see 28). In the neuter nom. and ace. 
sing, ios becomes ius. 

2. The stem of the superlative always ends in -Imo (before Augus- 
tus, umo). Usually this is suffixed to the stem of the comparative, and 
we thus get a termination -isstimo for ios-umo appended to the last 
consonant of the stem; i.e. by changing the inflexion i or is of the 
genitive into issumus or isslnms for the nom. sing. masc. Thus, 

dflr-us, gen. dur-I, comp. dur-Ior, superl. dur-issimus. 

trist-is, gen. trist-is, comp. trist-Ior, superl. trist-issimus. 

felix (felic-s), gen. felic-is, comp. felic-ior, superl. felic-issimus. 

Some adjectives form their superlative by doubling the last conso- 
nant of the stem and adding Imus. These are 

() Adjectives with stems ending in 6ro or 6ri, the e being omitted 
or retained, as in the positive, 109, no. 

pulcher, comp. pulchr-Ior, superl. pulcher-rimus. 

So niger, plger, rftber, taeter, vafer : acer, cel&ber, satofoer. 

asper, aspgrior, asperrlnms. 


So c&ler, dexter (also rarely superl. dextinms), liber, miser, pauper, 
tener, fiber. Also 

vStus no comp. vfiterrimus 

prospgrus prosperrimus 

sinister sinisterior (sinistimus only in 

augurial language) 

no positive detfirior deterrlmus 

nftpgrum (ace. nup6rior no superl. 
Plaut. once) 

maturus has matur-rimus, as well as the more common form matur- 
issimus. (sincerus, austerus, procerus, severus have superl. in issimus.) 

() The following adjectives whose last stem consonant is 1 ; 
facilis, easy; slmilis, like; difflcllis, difficult; disslmilis, unlike; gracllis, 
thin, slender] humllis, low; as, facil-is, facil-llmus. 

175 Irregular or defective adjectives (besides those named above 
2. a). 

1. The following are either deficient in the positive degree or form 
their comparative and superlative irregularly or from a different stem : 

Positive. Comp. Superl. 

b6nus, good m61ior optimus 

malus, bad pejor pesslxnus 

magnus, great major maxlnms 

(minimus (parvissi- 
parvus, small minor j muSj y ^ Lucr } 

multus, much plus (neut. cf. 136) plurlmus 

neqvam (indecl.), wicked neqvior neqvissimus 

, _ . fdivltisslmus (Cic.) 

T1 rich ^ Iti0r ditisslmus (Aug. 

d13 f ^ tior 1 and post-Aug.) 

E6nex, old s6nior (natu maximus) 

{jflnlor (sometimes 

post-Aug. juve- (natu minimus) 

P 6tis, P6t6, (indecl.), able\ b potisslmus, best 


(no positive, cf. oJ/cvs) odor, swifter ocisslmus 

frflgi (indecl.) frflgalior frugalissimus 

egentior egentissimus 

er.) | 

xx /r>i 4.\t malevolentior malevolentissimus 

ma]6v61ens (Plaut.)f 

x /TO * T xibenevolentior benevolentissimus 

b6nSv61ens (Plaut. Ter.) | 

/r >, * maledlcentior maledlcentissimus 
malgdicens (Plaut.)f 

b$n6flcus beneficentior beneficentissimus 

malgflcus maleflcentissimus 

Chap. IX.] Irregular or defective Adjectives. 

Positive. Comp. 


magnlficus magniflcentior 






j (Ter. once) 

htoorificus honoriflcentior 


cltra (adv.), on this side clterior 


(de, prep, down from) detgrior, worse 


extra (adv.), extSr (adj.) out-\ 
side (very rare in sing.), ex- exterior 


ternus J 

infra (adv.), infer (adj.), low\ 


(chiefly used in plur. the be- I inferior 



ings, places, &c. belcw) } 

intra (adv.), (within interior 


f ..- \ (posterior, hinder. 
post, posterus, next (in time) -r ^^ ' 

jpostremus, last 
jpostumus, last-born 

prae (prep.) before prior 


pr6pe (adv.), near prdpior 


supra (adv.), super (adj.), high \ 

fsupremus, highest, 

(chiefly used in plur. the be- Isuperior 

( last (in time) 

ings, places, &c. above) ) 


ultra (adv.), beyond ulterior 

ultlmus, farthest 

2. The following have superlative, but not comparative : bellus, 
caesius, falsus, inclutus, invictus, invltus, ndvus, sacer, vafer. 

3. The following have comparative, but not superlative : 

Verbals in -ills (except amabilissimus, mQbilissimus, fertilissimus, 
utilissimus, notoilissimus). 

alacer, agrestis, arcanus, diuturnus, exflis, jejunus, juv6nis, longin- 
qvus, obllqvus, oplmus, procllvis, pronus, satur, segnis, s6nex, serus, 
suplnus, surdus, taciturnus, tempestivus, vlclnus. 

176 Adjectives used only in the positive: 

Many adjectives, which express an absolute state or quality, e.g. 
material (e.g. aureus), time (e.g. nocturnus), special relationship (e.g. 
paternus), which does not readily admit the idea of a higher or lower 
degree, have 'no comparative or superlative. In some others they are 
wanting without any such apparent reason. 

If a comparison is required in such adjectives the defect is supplied 
by adding magis and maxime. Thus, magis mlrus, more wonderful, 
maxime mirus, most wonderful. 

Adjectives used only in the positive are chiefly of the following 
classes : 

1. Deri-vati'ves ending in -Icus, -Inus, -ivus, -orus, -tlmus, -ulus, 
-alis or -aris, -ills, and (from substantives) in -atus and -itus, as civlcus, 
naturalis, &c., barbatus, criiritus. 

64 INFLEXIONS. [Book If. 

Exceptions: aeqvalior; capitalior; civilior (Ov.) ; familiarior, fami- 
liarisstmus ; frugalior, frugalissimus ; hospitalissimus (Cic.) ; juvenilior 
(Ov.) ; liberallor, liberalissimus j popularior ; puerilior (Hor.) ; salu- 

2. Compounds ; as inops, magnanimus, c. 

Except those named above from dico, facio, volo ( 1 75). 

Except also amentior, amentissimus ; concordior, concordissimus ; 
deformior ; dementior, dementissimus ; immanior, immanissimus ; iner- 
tior, inertissimus ; ingentior ; insignior ; misericordior ; perennior ; 
sollertior, sollertissimus. 

3. Adjectives ending in -us, preceded by a -vowel. 

(a) But u often is, or becomes, consonantal, and thus allows a compa- 
rative or superlative without difficulty ; e.g. in -qvus and -gvis ; e.g. anti- 
qvior, antiqvissiinus ; pingvior, pingvissimus ; tenvis, tenvlor, tenvis- 

(b) industrior (Plant.) ; piisimus (condemned by Cic. Phil. 13. 19, 
but used by Antony, Sen., Curt., Tac.). 

4. The following: albus, almus, calvus, canus, curvus, fgrus, 
gnarus, mSdiocris, mirus, gnavus, rudis, trux. 

177 Many participles present and past have comparatives and super- 
latives, e.g. 

i. Present Participle : 

amans, appetens, ardens, continens, egens, fervens, flagrans, florens, 
indulgens, negligens, patiens, temperans, tuens, valens, &c. 

i. Past Participle : 

acceptus, accuratus, adstrictus, apertus, aversus, concitatus, con- 
junctus, contemptus, dissolutus, doctus, effusus, eruditus, exoptatus, 
expeditus, instructus, intentus, munitus, obstinatus, paratus, perditus, 
perfectus, promptus, refertus, remotus, &c. 

Chap. X.] 





<j s 

x' x 


L. G. 



\Book II. 

Chap. X. 



o u n 





ii. Signs for Numerals. 

131 In writing numbers a stroke over the (Roman) letters indicates thou- 
sands, and top as well as side strokes indicate hundred thousands ; e.g. 
xvin. is duodevlginti millia, xxcccc. is viginti millia quadringenti, 
jxj CLXXXDC is deciens (centum millia) centum octoginta millia sescenti, 
i.e. 1,180,600. 

_ The origin of the signs for numerals is uncertain. According to Mommsen, 
an outstretched finger, the open hand, and the double hand, were taken, 
viz. I, v, X for i, 5, 10; and another position of v (viz. L) for 50. 

iii. Inflexions of Numerals. 

182 Unus. For mode of declension see 195. In the plural it is used 
only with substantives whose plural denotes a singular, e. g. unae litterae, 
one epistle- unae aedes, one house (set of rooms, or of hearths T) ; uni mores, 
one and the same conduct] uni Suevi, the single tribe of tlx Suevi (or tbs 
Sue-vi alone). 

133 Duo. The masc. and neut. are: nom. ace. duo, gen. du5rum or 
duum, dat. abl. duobus. For the m. ace. duos is also used. The fern, 
is: nom. duae, ace. duas, gen. duarum or duum, dat. abl. duabus. In 
expressions like duodgcim, duodeviginti, duoetvicesimus, duo is not 
varied. Ambo, both, is similarly declined. 

Nom. and ace. tres, n. tria, gen. trium, dat. tiibus. 

154 All the other cardinal numbers up to centum are undeclined: so 
also is mille when used as an adjective. As a substantive it has a 
declinable plural millia, millium, millibus : but in the singular is only 
used in nom. or ace. In expressions like caesi sunt tria millia trecenti 
milites, we must supply militum after millia. If the name of the 
thing, &c. numbered precede, it is usually put in the genitive, e.g. 
militum (not milites) tria millia trecenti caesi sunt. 

185 The other cardinal, and all the ordinal and distributive numbers, 
are declinable adjectives with -o stems. The genitive plural of the 
cardinals and distributives is usually in -um for -orum (cf. 115); 
e. g. multa praesens quingentum nummum aeris (for quingentorum num- 
morum), an immediate fine o/* 500000 pounds of copper; pueri senum 
septenumque denum annorum ( 188, i). 

iv. Order in compounding Numerals. 

136 In compound numbers, from thirteen to nineteen inclusive, the smaller 
is usually prefixed to the larger without et, e.g. septem decem (or septem - 
decim), septimus decimus, septeni deni, septiens deciens ; but in cardinals 
and ordinals the order is sometimes reversed, and in cardinals et is some- 
times inserted, especially if the larger come first, e. g. decem septem, decem 
et septem, septem et decem : decimus septimus (Sen.). 

Chap. X.~\ Numerals. 69 

From twenty-one to ninety-nine, the rule is that, either the larger should 
precede the smaller number without et, or the smaller precede the larger 
with et, e.g. either viginti quattuor or quattuor et viginti ; vicesimus 
quartus or quartus et vicesimus, &c. ; but exceptions to both usages 

From a htmdred and one upwards, the larger number is usually put 
first, either without or (except distributives) with a conjunction, e.g. 
ducentos (et) quadraginta (et) quattuor, quingentesimum (et) quinqua- 
gesimum (et) octavum, duceni septuageni, centiens (et) quadragiens ; 
but with a conjunction the smaller (cardinal or ordinal) number sometimes 
is found preceding, e.g. quinquaginta et ducenta, septimum et quinqua- 
gesimum ac centesimum. So also ducentos et mille, mille et ducentos. 

For eighteen, nineteen, twenty-eight, twenty-nine, &c., the subtractive 
forms (e.g. duodeviginti, undeviginti, undetrigesimus, &c.) are most 
common, but compound forms are also found, e.g. decem octo, decem et 

v. Use of classes of Numerals. 

187 The ordinal, not the cardinal, is used in giving the date, e.g. In the year 
1879 is anno millesimo octingentesimo septuagesimo nono. 

188 The distributives are used 

(1) to denote that the number belongs to each of several persons or 
things, e.g. Caesar et Ariovistus denos comites ad colloquium adduxe- 
runt, took ten companions each ; pueri senuni septenumve denum annorum, 
boys of sixteen or seventeen years old, i.e. each was 16 or 17 ; ambulare 
bina millia passuum, to walk t^vo miles each time; tritici modius erat 
sestertiis ternis, corn -was at three sesterces the (i.e. each) bushel. If 
singuli is expressed with the persons, &c., the cardinal number may be 
used with the things numbered, e.g. singulis denarii trecenti impera- 
bantur, each was required to pay three hundred pence. In this use terni, 
not trini, is used. 

(2) in expressions of multiplication, e.g. bis bina, twice t^vo ; ter 
novenae virgines, thrice nine girls ; dsciens centena millia, ten times a 
hundred thousand. In these expressions the distributive numerals, e.g. 
deciens centena millia, do not mean a million to each person, but a hundred 
thousand taken each of ten times. 

(3) with nouns which have no singular, e.g. bina castra, the two 
camps ; trinis hostium spoliis, with three sets of spoils from the enemy. 
(In this use uni not singuli, trini not terni is used.) 

(4) Poets use distributives as merely equivalent to cardinals, e.g. 
centum quoi brachia dicunt centenasque manus (Verg. A. x. 565), i.e. a 
hundred hands in all, not a hundred in each arm. So also post- Augustan 
writers use trinus (not ternus). 

(5) In the singular the distributives are sometimes used, chiefly by 
poets, e.g. centauri corpore bino, a double body; centenaque arbore 
fluctum verberat assurgens (Verg.), with a hundred-fold shaft, i.e. a 
hundred oars ; novena lampade, with nine torches (a torch repeated nine 

Every other is expressed by alterni ; e. g. alternis diebus, every second 


vi. Expression of Fractions. 
189 Fractions are expressed in words in several ways : 

1. All fractions, with i for numerator, are denoted by ordinal num- 
bers, with or without pars, .g. \, dimidium (not dimidia) or dimidia 
pars ; -|, tertia or tertia pars ; \ , quarta, &c. 

2. All fractions with a numerator less by one than the denominator 
are denoted by the cardinal with partes simply, e.g. f, duae partes; 
f , tres partes ; , quattuor partes ; , quinque partes. 

3. All fractions with 12 or its multiples for a denominator, are 
denoted by the parts of an as. The as consisted originally of 12 unciae, 
and there were distinct names and signs for each multiple of the uncia and 
for some fractions of it. 

unciae. value, sign. 

1 2 assis or as, a pound i as. i 

i r deunx (de-uncia), an otince-off \\ S Z Z - 

10 dextans (desextans), a sixth-off 

9 dodrans (dequadrans), afourth-off f S Z 

8 bessis or bes (dui-assis), a two-as l f SZ 

7 septunx (septem unciae), a sez'en-ounce T r ^ S 

6 semissis or semis (semi-assis), a half-as \ S 

5 quincunx (quinque unciae), a five-ounce f\- ZZ 

4 triens (tri-), a third \ 

3 quadrans (quattuor-) or teruncius, a fourth | 

2 sextans (sexto-), a sixth \ 

1 1 sescuncia (sesqui-uncia), one and a half ounce % 2- 

i uncia, an ounce -^ - or ~ 

\ semuncia, a half-ounce ? 2 or 

| sicilicus, a Sicilian farthing T \ 

sextula, a little sixth -fa \ 

Of the above the sicilicus was not used till imperial times. The 
scriptulurn or scripulum (ypd/j./j.a) was also used for 7 \ of the uncia, 
-jig-as. The fraction T ? ff as was denoted by binae sextulae, or duella ; 
T ^ T as by dimidia sextula, or duo scripula. 

The above-named parts of the as were used (as has been said) as mere 
duodecimal fractions, applicable without any specific concrete meaning to 
any unit. Hence heres ex asse, heir to the whole inheritance: ex triente, 
to a third ; ex dimidia et sextante, to tivo thirds (a half and a sixth). 

4. Other fractions, not expressible by one of the above methods, are 
denoted by the cardinal for a numerator, and the ordinal (as in subsection i) 
for the denominator, e.g. |, quattuor septimae ; |, septem nonae. 

5. Some fractions are denoted by resolution into their components, 
e.g. f, dimidia et quarta; |, pars dimidia et sexta; |, pars tertia et 
nona ; \ :-?-, pars tertia et septima. 

6. Sometimes further division is resorted to, e.g. ^, dimidia quinta. 
And dimidia tertia is used for sexta ; dimidia quarta for octava. 

7. Sesciui, 1 1, is used only in compounds, e.g. sesquilibra, i^ Ibs. 

1 This term must either have been formed when the as was equal to 
4 unciae ; or be short for two-thirds of an as. 

Chap. XI.] Pronouns. 71 


Personal pronouns. 

190 THE substantives called personal pronouns are very peculiar in their 
inflexions, nor are all the cases formed from the same stem. 

ist Person. and Person. 3rd Person (reflexive). 


no nom. 



vostrum or vestrum 

191 SINGULAR. Accusative and Ablative. Sese was frequently used 
for se ; tete rarely for te. 

The forms med and ted occur as accusatives and ablatives in Plautus. 
The d is probably the ablatival d ( 19) incorrectly transferred to the 
accusative as well. 

Genitive. The old genitive of the ist and znd persons was mis, tis; 
the latter is found in Plautus. This was replaced as possessive genitive 
by the adjectives meus, tuus; and as objective genitive by the gen. 
sing. neut. of the same, viz., mei (of my being), tui. So suus (adj.), 
sui for the genitive, both singular and plural of the reflexive. 

Dative. Mi is used both by Cicero and the poets. 

192 PLURAL. Genitive. As possessive genitives the adjectives noster 
and vester (voster) were used: 

as objective genitives nostri, vestri and rarely nostrum, vestrum. 
as partitive genitives nostrum, vestrum and in the comic poets 
nostrorum, nostrarum, vostrorum, vostrarum. 

193 To all cases (except tu nom.) of these substantive pronouns the particle 
-mt is sometimes added. For tu, tute" or tutlmet is found. 

The adjectives often have in the ablative case -met or -pte appended ; 
e.g. meSpte, suamet; rarely in the gen. sing., e.g. tuipte; and ace. plur., 
e.g. suosmetj suamet. 








See below. 


mini or ml 






Ace. f 











Adjective pronouns, Sec. 

194 Some nouns adjective, and all pronouns adjective (except possessive 
pronouns, meus, tuus, suns, noster, vester), have for all genders the 
genitive singular ending in -ius, the dative in -I. In the other cases the 
inflexions are the same as ordinary stems in -o and -a. 

The words belonging to this class are unus, ullus, nullus, sSlus, 
totus, alter, liter (and its compounds uterque, &c.), alius, ille, iste, 
ipse, hie, is, idem, qui and its compounds (quivis, &c.). 

Of these alius, ille, iste, is, qui have neuter nom. and ace. ending in 
-d instead of -m. Other irregularities are named below. 

195 totus, whole. 


m. , , f . n. m. f. n. 

Nom. t6tus tota totum toti totae) 

Ace. totum totam tStum totos totasf 

Gen. totius in all genders totorum totarum totorum 

Dat} t5ti in a11 S enders totls in all genders 

Abl. toto tSta totS-' 

In the same way are declined solus, alone; unus, one', ullus (i.e. 
unulus), any at all; nullus, none. 

Also alter (the other), alt6ra, alterum, gen. alterius, dat. altSri. 

ut8r, utra, utnun, whether, i.e. which of two, gen. utrius, dat. utri. 

altfiruter, alterutra, or altfira utra, alterutrum, or alterum utrum, 
one or other ; gen. alterius utrius (post- Aug. alterutrius), dat. alter! 
utri or alterutri.' , 

uterque, utraque, utrumque, each; utercumque, utracumque, utnun- 
cumque, which so ever (of two). 

utervis, utravls, utrumvis, which (of two} you please; uterllbet, 
utrallbet, utrumllbet, which (of two) you like. 

neuter, neutra, neutrum, neither. 

Ips8 (in early writers frequently ipsus), he himself, ipsa, ipsum. 

196 The genitive has usually a long penultimate ; but all (except solius, 
utrius, and neutrius) are frequent in poetry with -Ius : so utriusque 
always : solius once in Terence. 

nulli is once or twice used for the masc. and neut. genitive ; and nullo 
for the dative. 

The feminine datives unae, nullae, solae, totae, alterae, are (rarely) 
found in early writers to the time of, and including, Cicero and Nepos. 

toto for dat. masc. is used once by Propertius. 

The genitive nullius and abl. nullo are rarely used substantively of 
things, but frequently of persons ; neminis being only found in prae- 
Ciceronian writers, and nenflne being only used by Tacitus and Suetonius, 
except once in Plautus. 

Chap. XI ^\ Pronouns. 73 

197 ille, that; iste, that near you (declined like ille) ; alius, another. 


m. f. n. m. f. 

Mom. illS Uia I fi alius alia I 

Ace. mum illainf aliura allamj 

Gen. illlus in all genders alius in all genders (rare) 

PH ill! in all genders alii in all genders 

Abl. illS ilia U15 alio alia ali<5 

The plural is regular in both. 

193 Old forms of ille found in Ennius, Lucretius, and Vergil, are olii for 
dat. sing, and nom. pi. masc. ; ollis, dat. and abl. plural ; and in Lucretius 
ollas, olla, ace. plural. 

In the prae-Ciceronian phrases alii modi, illi modi, isti modi, we have 
genitives (or possibly locatives) ; as also in alii dei, alii generis in Varro, 
alii rei in Caelius. 

Illae, istae, aliae are found in early writers rarely for dat. fern. sing. ; 
aliae as genitive in Cicero, Livy, and Lucretius (once each). 

Collateral forms, viz. alls, masc. nom. (CatulL), alld, neut. nom. ace. 
(Lucretius), ali, dat. sing. (Cat., Lucr.) are also found. The adverb alibi 
appears to be an old locative. 

199 The demonstrative particle cS was sometimes appended to the cases 
of ille and iste which end in -s, and frequently in an abridged form to 
the others (except genitive plural), especially in Plautus and the early 
writers: e.g. 


Nom. iUIc illaec ) ... _ illic illaec | .., 

Ace. illunc illancf lliac illosce illasce f maec 
Gen. illiusce in all genders 

T-V /> illic in all genders } . 

Dat.j I illisce in all genders 

Abl. ill5c iliac i!16cj 

So also istlc. 

In nom. sing, illace, istace for fern., and illcc, ist5c for neut. are also 

200 Hie (stem ho-), this near me, is declined as follows. 


m. f. n. m. f. n. 

Nom. hie haec) hi hael 

Ace. hunc hancf hoc hos hasf 

Gen. hujus or hujusce in all genders horum harum horum 
Loc. Me (adverb) | 

Dat. huic in all genders > Ms in all genders 

Abl. hoc hac h5c ) 

The fuller forms hosce, hasce, hujusce are found in Cicero : haec for 
nom. fern. plur. is found in Varro, Lucretius, and Vergil. Plautus had 
other of the fuller forms, e.g. Mce (nom. m. sing.), hoce (neut. nom.), hlsce 
(nom. plur. m.), hlbus (dat. abl. plur.). 



\Book II. 

201 Is, that (stem i- and eo-), is thus declined. 


m. f. 

Norn. Is 6a 

Ace. eum earn 

Gen. ejus (in all genders) \ 
Loc. Ibi (adverb) j. 

Dat. el or ei (in all genders) ) 
Abl. eo ' ea eo 

ei or ii 







Sis, eis or iis 

Ibus dat. abl. plur. occurs sometimes in comic poets and Lucretius; 
Sabus in Cato for abl. plur. fern. ; i and Is in Plautus (for ii and iis). Of 
poets only the prae- Augustan used any of the cases, except that Horace has 
the genitive and accusative in his non-lyrical writings. 

The dat. sing, ei has rarely a short penultimate (81) : as el it is frequent 
in Plautus and Terence and (in the last foot of the hexameter) in Lucretius. 
As a monosyllable it is also common. 

202 The suffix -pse is sometimes found in Plautus appended ; e. g. eapse, 
eumpse, eampse, eopse, eapse ; and in Cicero several times in the phrase 
reapse (for re eapse), in reality. In ipse (see above, 195) the suffix is made 
the vehicle of the case-endings. 

203 Idem (for is-dem) is thus declined : 

m. f. 

Nom. idem 



Ace. eundem eandem Idem 

Gen. ejusdem in all genders 

Dat. eldem in all genders 

Abl. eodem eadem eod 


Idem or 






easdem eadem 

eorundem earundem eorundem 
isdem or eisdem in all genders 

204 Qui (stem qu6-), which, what? any, an (adjective) relative, ii 
terrogative, and indefinite pronoun, is thus declined. 

m. f. 

Nom. qul quae I 
Ace. quern quam j 
Gen. ciijus in all genders 
Dat. cui in all genders { 

Abl. quo qua quo f 



m. f. n. 

qul quae) 

quos quasf 
quorum quarum quorum 


As an Indefinite pronoun qua, any : is more common than quae in fern, 
nom. sing, and neut. plur. 

Chap. XIJ] Pronouns. 75 

205 Cujus was treated (in prae-Augustan writers and once in Vergil) as a 
declinable genitive, i. e. an adjective with -o stem (e. g. is cuja res, cujum 
periculum est. Cujum pecus ?). The following forms are found so used : 
nom. s. cuja (f.), cujum (n.) ; ace. cujum (m. n.), cujam (f.); abl. cuja 
(f.) ; plur. nom. cujae (f.). (Never used instead of quorum or quarum.) 

In Plautus cuius (also written quoius) is often a monosyllable. 

206 QuI is used (i) as an ablative (of all genders, and, occasionally in 
early writers, of the plural) with the preposition cum appended (qui- 
cum); (a) as a substantive relative and interrogative (e.g. habeo qui \ 
utar); (3) as an adverbial interrogative, how 1 and (4) occasionally as^V 
indefinite, e.g. neuqui, siqui (Plaut). As a locative ubi (for qu6bi)-is * 

As ablat. plur. quis is found often in Varro, Sallust, and Tacitus, 
rarely in Cicero. 

207 Qui like any other adjective can be used substantively, but, in the 
nom. singular and neuter ace. sing., it is rarely so used as an interroga- 
tive: as an indefinite pronoun, whether substantively or adjectively, it is 
used only after si, nisi, ne, num. 

In the cases just named, an allied form quis, with neut. quid, takes 
its place. Quis (i) as an interrogative is generally a substantive, but 
sometimes a masculine adjective: (2) as an indefinite pronoun, it is used 
both as substantive and as masculine and feminine adjective. Quid and 
its compounds are always substantives. 

208 The compounds of qui, quis are mainly declined like them, but all 
have -quid (not -quod), when used as substantives. Other peculiarities 
are here named. 

Aliqui, allqua, allquod, some. Aliquis is a subst. and masc. adj. ; 
and is more common than aliqui. Aliquae as nom. fern. sing, occurs in 
Lucretius once, and not at all as neut. plur. Abl. aliqui is sometimes 
used in Plautus. 

Ecqui, ecqua or ecquae, ecquod, any ? Ecquis is subst. and masc. adj. 

The only cases besides the nom. in use are dat. eccui ; ace. ecquem, 
ecquam ; abl. m. and n. ecquo. The plural is rare, but the forms ecqui, 
ecquos, ecquas, are found. 

Qulnam, quaenam, quodnam, what? which? (numquinam, &c., 
ecquinam, &c., any f). Quisnam is also used. 

Quldam, quaedam, quoddam, a certain one, &c. 

Qulcunque, quaecunque, quodcunque, whatsoever. The -cunque is 
sometimes separated from qui, c. ; e.g. qua re cunque possum. 

Qullibet, quaellbet, quodllbet, which you like. 

Qulvis, quaevis, quodvls, which you will. Sometimes with cunque 
attached; e.g. quiviscunque, whatsoever. 

209 The following have quis instead of qui for the nom. sing. masc. 
Quisquis, whosoever or whatsoever; quidquid or quicquid, what- 
ever, also a substantive. 


Quiqui (nom. sing.) only in Plautus once. Quisquis as adjective is not 
applied to females. Of the other cases we have only the locative quiqui in 
Plaut. and possibly in cuicuimodi : the abl. masc. and neut. quoquo ; ace. 
in comic poets quemquem ; quiqui nom. plur. masc. ; in Livy quitms- 
quibus (dat. pi., perhaps in quotation from ancient document) : and quaqua, 
in Tacitus as abl. fern. sing. ; elsewhere only as adverb. 

Quisquam, n. quicquam, any at all. Generally used as substantive, 
but quisquam is also used adjectively of females (as well as of males). 
Quiquam as ablative in Plautus. The plural and the feminine singular 
are not used. Quodquam also not used. 

Quispiam, quaepiam, quodpiam, some. Plaut. has an abl. quipiam. 

Quisque, quaeque, quodque, each. Quicque or quidqus is subst. 
Quisque used of a woman in Plautus. 

Its compound unusquisque (unaquaeque, unumquodque) is similarly 

210 Quis appears to have stem qui-, and to belong to the -i stems. Proba- 
bly the forms (now partly assumed by quo-) were, Nom. quis, neut. quid 
(so also is, id) ; Gen. quis ; Ace. quern (the proper accus. of quo- being 
quom now used as conjunction), neut. quid ; Abl. qui. Plural Nom. and 
Ace. ques (old form used by Cato and Pacuvius), neut. quia (used as con- 
junction) ; Gen. cuium (found in Plautus) ; Dat. Abl. quibus. 


211 ADVERBS and Conjunctions are indeclinable words, some of them 
cases of existing words, others cases of lost words, others words with 
case- suffixes, different from those in common use in Latin, others 
mutilated remnants of fuller expressions. 

They are here arranged according to the final letter of the ending, 
which sometimes is a suffix, sometimes part of the stem or some modi- 
fication thereof. 

212 -ft Abl. sing. fern, from -o, or rather, -a stems. 

ea, in that direction ; fcac, iliac, and (Plaut., Ter.) ilia; 

qua, quaque, quanam, qualibet; nequaquam, by no means; 
usque quaque, every where; utralibet, in whichever direction, 
you please. 

These ablatives are often used with tSnus ( 230) ; e. g. eate- 
nus, thus far, hactenus, quatenus, quadamtenus, aliquatenus. 

So perhaps circa, about; juxta, close; erga, towards. 

supra (supera Lucr. often), above; infra, below; extra, 
outside; intra, -within; ultra, beyond; citra, on this side; 
contra, against. ..;.,.. 

Chap. XJf.] Adverbs and Conjunctions. 77 

So frustra, in vain (in Plaut. sometimes frustra ; ne frustra 
sis, not to deceive you). 

Apparently a similar ablative is used with prepositions, which 
in the ordinary language take an accusative ; e. g. antea (antidea 
old), antehac (antidhac old), before; postea (postidea old), 
posthac, afterwards ; interea, meanwhile; praeterea, praetor- 
hac, besides ; propterea, therefore ; quapropter, wherefore* 
-a Apparently accusatives plur. neut. 

Ita, thus (comp. Itl-dem) ; qtiift, whereas, because. 
-ae prae, in front (old locative?). 

213 -o Adverbs chiefly denoting manner (e.g. certo for certod, 

cf. 19; comp. ovrwy, ot/roo). 

(i) from substantives. 

ergo, on account of, therefore (2p7^) ; extemplo, at once; HIco, 
on the spot, instantly (in loco) ; m6do, only, just now (lit. in 
measured terms] ; niimero (prae-Ciceron.),//^/, quickly ; usually 
too soon (lit. by number?) ; oppldo (prae- August.), very (lit. on 
the plain, cf. eTriTr^Sws) ; postmodo, afterwards (cf. 224) ; 
prdfecto, really (for pro facto?); propemodo (Plaut.), almost 
(cf. 224). Praesto (always used as predicate, chiefly with 
esse), at hand, is of uncertain origin. 

(a) From noun adjectives and participles. 

certo, for a certainty; clto, quickly; contlnuo, straightway; 
crebro, frequently ; denuo, afresh (de novo); directo, directly, 
straight; falso, falsely; fortuito, accidentally; gratuito, gra- 
tuitously; liquldo, clearly; manifesto, palpably; merlto, de- 
servedly; rautuo, mutually; necessario, necessarily; omnlno, 
entirely, in all (as if from an adj. omnlnus) ; perpetuo, per- 
petually; precario, on sufferance;, seldom; secreto, secretly; 
sedulo, actively; serio, seriously; sgro, late; sublto, suddenly; 
tuto, safely; vero, indeed, no doubt. 

bipertito, tripertito, quadripertito, divided into two, three, 
four; improviso, unforeseen; inaugurate, without taking 
auspices; inopmato, necoplnato, unexpectedly, &c. 

(3) Ablatives of order. 

prlmo, in the first place; secundo, tertio, &c. ; postremo, 
ultimo, in the last place; immo (imo, at the bottom]}, at the 
least, nay rather. 

(4) Direction towards a place. 

e6, thither; eSdem, to the same place; eousque, adeo, so far; 
quo-ad, as long as; hue (for hoc), hither; adhuc, hitherto; 
illo, iUuc (illoc Plaut.), thither; isto, istuc (istoc Plaut.); 
alio, elsewhither; quo, whither; quonam, quovis, quocumque, 
quoquo, quousque ( 236) ; aliquo, somewhither. 

citro, to this side; ultro, further; intro, inwards ; retro, 
backwards; utro (rare), to which of the two sides; utroque, 
in either direction; neutro, in neither direction. 

porro, further (iroppw) ; ideo, idcirco, therefore ; quo-circa, 


214 -o-vorsus or o- vorsum, lit. turned towards ; but versus and vorsum were 

used indifferently and not inflected. 

liorsum, hitherwards (ho- vorsum) ; quorsus, quorsum, whi- 
therwards? istorsum, aliorsum, aliquovorsum, utroquevorsum, 
altrovorsum (Plaut., &c.), quoquoversus (Cic.), quoqueversum 

controversus (adj.), in dispute (lit. turned against] ; intror- 
sus, introrsum ; retrorsum, dextrorsum, sinistrorsum. 

deorsum, downwards.; seorsum, separately (se- vorsum, turned 
to itself, or turned aside] ; sursum, upwards; prorsum, prorsus, 
forwards ; rursum, rursus, backwards, again ; transvorsus, 
across. (Susum, prosum, rusum (russum), are forms also found 
in Plaut., Lucret., &c.) 

215 -do quando, when (quam-do) ; aliquando, sometimes ; quandoque, 

whenever, some time or other ; quandocumque, whensoever; 
quanddquidem, since ; endo, also indu, old forms of in (comp. 
induperator for imperator, Enn., Lucr. ; ind-Igeo, ind-Ipiscor, 

-u diu, for long ; interdiu (interdius Cato, Plaut.), in the day- 

time; noctu,/y night ; slmitu (Plaut.), at the same time ; dudum, 
lately (for diu-dum). 

216 -e Apparently old forms of ablative. (Comp. facilumed in S. C. 

de Bacc.) From adjectives with -o stems both positive and 
superlative this is the most usual adverbial ending. 

e. g. aegre, hardly (aegro-) ; blande, soothingly (blando-) ; 
carte, surely (certo-) ; considerate, with consideration (con- 
siderato-); docte, skilfully (docto-); plane, quite (piano-); 
ornate, in ornate manner (ornato-) ; recte, rightly (recto-) ; 
sane, of course (sano-) ; valde, 'very (valido-) ; vere, truly, 
actually (vero-); &c. 

ardentissime, most eagerly] audacissime, most boldly- cre- 
berrime, very frequently; doctissime, 'very skilfully; maxime, 
especially; minlme, least of all; paenissume (Plaut.), very 
marly; &c. 

apprlme (prae-Ciceronian), exceedingly (ad-primo) ; fre, 
ferme (superlative of fere), almost. 

hddie ( = hoc die), to-day. 

217 -6 (r) From -o stems; bgne, well (bono-); male, badly (malo-) ; 

inferne, below (inferno-) ; superne, above (superno-). Perhaps 
here belong tSmSre, at haphazard ; macte, blest. (Some take 
macte for a vocative.) 

(2) From other stems; especially abl. or neut. ace. of -i stems; 
abunde, abundantly ; ante (for antid), before ; forte, by chance 
(abl. of fors) ; facile, easily (ace. neut. of facilis ; comp. dulce 
ridens, &c.) ; impune, with impunity (as if from adj. impunis); 
mage (cf. magis, 232), more ; paene, almost ; rgpente, sud- 
denly (repenti-) ; rite, dttly ; saepe, often ; sponte, of its own 
accord (abl. of a nom. spons) ; sublime, aloft (sublimi-) ; v61iipe 
pr better volup (Plaut.), with pleasure (almost always with est). 

Chap. Xf/.] Adverbs and Conjunctions. 79 

So the ablatives mane, in the morning; lilce, by daylight ; 
nocte, by night ; magndpere, greatly (magno opere), &c. 
herculg, hercle, 'pon honoiir (for hercules. See Syntax). 

218 -pe" A form of que (compare quispiam, quisquam) ; nem-pe, indeed 

(nam-pe, comp. namque) ; quippe, indeed (for qui pe ? comp. 

utique) ; prdpe, near (comp. proximus, as if from proque). 
-vS Perhaps for vel. SIve (old seve, hence sen), or if, whether ; 

neve (neu), or not. 

ceil, as (for ceve, ce being of pronominal origin?). 
-c6 nlc, illlc, &c., see 221, 3; ecce, behold ^.m ence); sic, thus 

(cf. 22i);ac, 219. 

219 -Qu8 Appended to pronouns (a kind of reduplication) ; e.g. quisque 

(adj.), each ; quandoque, whenever ; quicumque (quiquomque) 
(adj.), whosoever; qudque, also; ublque, everywhere ; undlque, 
from all sides ; utique, anyhow; usque, ever; uterque (adj.), 
each. Also absque, without (abs) ; atque (ac), and also (for ad- 
que); ngque (nee), not; namque, for; hodieque (Vell.) = 
hodie; denlque,y/za//p. 

220 -pte" e.g. suopte ; see 193. 

-de" i. e. possibly the preposition de shortened by losing the accent?; 

e. g. inde, thence (im-de) ; indldem, from the same place; deinde, 
exinde, thereupon ; proinde, periride, just so ; subinde, imme- 
diately afterwards. 

unde, whence (quom- or cum-de) ; undlque, from all sides ; 
undScumque, whencesoever ; quamde (Enn. Lucr.), than. 

-ne sing, without; p5nS, behind. 

ne, not, lest ; ne (wrongly written nae), verily (comp. vat, vrj); 
n8 interrogative particle, perhaps the same as ne. Comp. n6- 
fas, ng-quis, n6-vls ( = non vis). 

221 -I (rarely I) (i) Ablative cases of manner. 

qui (interrogative and relative, like ut), how, in which 
case-, quln, why notl but (qui-ne); alioqui, alioquin, cetero- 
qui, ceteroquin, in other respects (the final n is of obscure 
origin) ; nequlquam, by no means- atqul, but. 

Si, if (abl. or loc. of pronoun, in which case) nisi, itnlcss 
(for ne si) ; slquldem, if indeed, since ; quasi, as if (quam si) ; 
sic, thus (si-ce, in which, or in this, way], 

nl, not (for ne, nei), also used as = nisi ; quidnl, why not? 

iitl (ut), how (for quo-ti) ; utique, any how ; utlnam, that! 
ne utlquam (nutiquam), by no means. 

(2) praeflsclni (also praefiscine), withoitt offence (prae fas- 
cino-, for, i. e. to avert, bewitchments} ; procllvi (or proclivfi), 
downhill (proclivi-, old stem proclivo-) : brSvI, in few words 

(3) Locative cases; iUi, isti (Plaut. Ter.); iUIc, istlc, 
there (illo-, isto-) ; Me, here (ho-); pridem, some time ago: 

h6ri (in Quintilian's time herg), yesterday- peregri, 
more commonly peregre, abroad, from abroad- temper!, 
in good time (tempos-) ; and others. 


222 -bi Ibi, there (is); inibi, therein; postibi (Plaut.), thereupon; 

interibi (Plaut.), in the meantime; ibidem, in the same place; 
ubl, (where (for quobi, cubi) ; ublque, everywhere; ubicumque, 
wheresoever; si-cubi, if anywhere; all-ciibi, somewhere; 
alibi, elsewhere (all-) ; utrubi, at (which of two places (utro-) ; 
utrubique, at both places. 

-b ab (abs), from ; 6b (obs), opposite to ; sub (subs), under. 

223 -am jam, now ; etiam, also (et jam) ; qudniam, since (quom jam) ; 

nunciam (Plaut.), now (nunc jam) ; nam, for (originally now) ; 
quam, hcnv, as ; quamquam, however, although ; aliquam, 
somehow ; allquan-do, sometimes ; aliquamdiu, for some time ; 
nutiquam ( 221), not at all ; uspiam, usquam, any where; 
nusquam, no -where ; praequam, compared with ; tarn, so ; 
tarn quam, as if; tandem, at length. 

nequam, good for nothing, is used as indecl. adjective. 

cSram, face to face (com, os-) ; clam, secretly (comp. oc-ciil-o, 
conceal) ; obviam, opposite (obvio- ; or ob viam, comp. obiter) ; 
palam, propalam, openly; perpgram, badly; protlnam (Plaut.), 
immediately (cf. protenus, 230). 

So the compounds with fariam ; e.g. bifariam, divided in 
two (bi-); trifariam, quadrifariam ; multifariam, in many 
places ; plurifariam, in several places. 
-dam quondam, sometime. (Comp. quldam, a certain one.} 

224 -om (urn) Probably accusative cases. 

donlcum (Plaut., ddnlque Lucr., donSc commonly), un- 
til; dum, while; du-dum, lately (diu dum) ; interdum, for a 
time ; quidum, how so ? primumdum, first of all ; appended to 
imperatives, e. g. agfidum, come now ; mangdum, stop pray ; 
tanggdum, just touch me ; &c. 

num (in questions), now? nunc (i.e. num-ce), now; etiamnum, 
even now. 

quom, cum, when (quo-) ; com (in composition), cum (prep.), 
with (comp. uV); quon-dam, sometime (quom-dam); quando- 
cumque, -whensoever ; turn, tune, then; umquam, ever (um for 
quom) ; numquam, never (ne umquam) ; nonnunquam, at 

actutum, instantly; cireum,r0wW(circo-);clanculum, secretly 
(clam, with suffix -culo-); commddum, suitably, just now 
(commodo-) ; demum, at length (lit. downmost; superl. of de) ; 
extremum,/or the utmost (i.e. last) time (extreme-); incas- 
sum, to no purpose (in cassum) ; minimum, in phrase quam 
minimum, as little as possible (minimo-) ; nlmium, too much; 
noenum (generally contracted to non), not (ne unum); 
parum, little; plerumque, for the most part (plero-, que) ; 
postremum, for the hindmost (i.e. last) time (postremo-); 
potissimum, especially (potissimo-) ; prlmum, for the first 
time (primo-); propemodum, almost (cf. 213); Itrum, for 
the second time; tertium, quartum, &c.; ultimum, for the 
furthest (i.e. last) time; secundum (prep.), following, along 
(sequondo-). For rursum, adversum, &c. see 214. 

Chap. XII.} Adverbs and Conjunctions. 


225 impraesentianun, at the present time (for in praesentia 

renun ?). 

pr6p6diem, very shortly (possibly a corruption for prope die, 

on a near day}. 

autem, however; Item, likewise (comp. ita, itidexn) ; saltern, 

at least, 

quidem, Squldem, indeed ; prldem, some time ago ; tandem, at 
length (tamdem) ; Itldem, likewise (ita) ; Identldem, repeatedly 
(for Idem Itldern? or Idem et Idem?). (Comp. Idem, the 
same, for is-dem ; totldem (indec. adj.), just so many ; tantus- 




226 -im 

denotes at or from a place ; hin-c, hence (Mm ce) ; illim, istim, 
Ulinc, istinc, thence; im in inde ( 220), thereupon; exim, exin, 
exinde, therefrom ; dein, deinde, thereupon ; int6r-im, mean- 
while, also at times (Quintil.); olim, in those times, i.e. formerly 
or hereafter (o\lo = iH.Q); 6nim, for; utrinque, on both sides (utro-)- 

altrinsecus (for altrimsecus ; Plaut.), on the other side ; 
extrinsecus, from outside ; intrinsecus, from within. 

227 t-im (sim) Formed from, or similarly to, past participles ; e. g. carptim, 
by pieces, separately (lit. plucking at it, carpere) ; confertim, 
compactly (confercire) ; confestim, immediately; cursim, swiftly 
(currere) ; efflictim, desperately (effligere, to kill, hence efflic- 
tim amare, to love to death); furtim, thief-wise, i.e. by 
stealth; partim, partly (parti-) ; passim, here and there (in a 
scattered way, pandere) ; pdStentim, feeling the way (pede 
tendere) ; praesertim, especially (putting in front, praesgrere) ; 
raptim, hurriedly (rapgre) ; sensim, gradually (lit. perceptibly ; 
sentlre) ; statim, immediately (lit. as you stand, sta-, stare) ; 
strictim, slightly (lit. grazing, stringere) ; vicissim, in turns 
(vici-). In affatim (ad fatim, to yawning*), in abundance, we 
have an accus. of an extinct noun fatis, a yawn (comp. 
fatisci, fatigare). 

-at-im (i) From verbs with -a stems; e.g. acervatim, in heaps, sum- 
marily (acerva-re) ; certatim, vying with one another (certa- 
re); datatim (datatim ludere, to play at ball), giving and 
reg'rving (data-re frequentative of dare); gravatim, with 
difficulty (gravari) ; nominatim, by name (nominare), &c. 

(2) From nouns (compare the adjective forms, e.g. barbatus. 
cord-atus, &c. ) ; e. g. ggnratim, taking classes (genus) ; gra- 
datim, step by step (gradu-) ; grggatim, in jlocks, herding 
together (grgg-) ; membratim, limb by limb (membro-) ; ostia- 
tim, from house to house (ostio-) ; paullatim, little by little. 
(pauUo-) ; singiUatim, one by one (comp. singulo-) ; summatim, 
slightly, sTimmarily (taking the tops, summo-) ; &c. 

-ut-im tolutim, full trot (raising the feet, tollgre) ; trlbutim, tribe by 
tribe (tribu-). 

-It-im -^rltim, man by man (vlro-). 

T G. 6 


228 -t ast, but ; at, bttt (also atque, atqui) ; ant, or (comp. are) ; 6t, 

and (comp. 2rt) ; tit (for uti), as (prout, praeut, sicut, velut) ; 
post, after (also pos, poste, postidea ; comp. ante, antidea). 
Sat is shortened for satis ( 232). For -met see 193. 

-d Old ablative suffix? cf. 19, 1 1 5 ; ad, to ; apiid, at ; baud (or hau), 

not ; sed, but (properly by itself?}. Qu6d, because, is neut. ace. 
(comp. 6Vi), but in quod si, quod quia, quod utinam is by some 
taken to be an old ablative. 

-n quln, why not ? (qui ne) ; sin, but if; an, whether ; forsan, 

forsltan (fors sit an), perhaps ; tamSn, yet ; en, lo ! In, in. 

-1 pr5ciil, off, afar; slmul, older semol (for simile"), together; 

sxn&l, once; vel, or (probably imperative of volo, hence choose}. 

-ur Igltur, therefore ; quor or cur, wherefore ? 

-6r Suffix of comparative degree: super, above (higher; sub, tip); 

desuper, insuper. 

per, throitgh ; ter (for tris, cf. 128), thrice; quater, four 

-per nuper, lately (novumper) ; parumper, for but little time (parum) ; 

paullisper, for a little while (paullo-) ; tantisper, for so long 
(tanto-); semper, always (sim-, whole? comp. simplex, simul). 

229 -tSr (i) From adjectives with -o stems: duriter (also dure), 

hardly (duro-) ; humanlter, inhumaniter (also humane, inhu- 
mane), politely, impolitely (humano-); larglter (also large), 
lavishly (largo-); navlter, ignaviter (also nave, ignave), 
skilfully, unskilfully (gnavo-) ; luculenter (also luculente), 
brilliantly (for luciilentiter from luculento-) ; turbulenter 
(also turbulente), confusedly (for turtoulentiter from turbu- 
lento-), and others in early writers. 

(2) From adjectives with i- stems, and one (supplex) 
with consonant stem : acrl-ter, eagerly (acri-) ; all-ter, other- 
wise (ali-, 198); aman-ter, lovingly (for amantiter); atro- 
ci-ter, audac-ter, brgvi-ter, clemen-ter (for clementi-ter), 
concordi-ter, constan-ter (for constant!- ter), decen-ter, dill- 
gen-ter, elSgan-ter, fellci-ter, frequen-ter, gravi-ter, leni-ter, 
16vi-ter, mediocri-ter, mem6ri-ter, with good memory; mise- 
ricordi-ter, pari-ter, salubri-ter, scien-ter, simlli-ter, sim- 
pllci-ter, sollemni-ter, soller-ter (for sollerti-ter), supplici-ter, 
tenvi-ter, vehemen-ter or vemen-ter, vernili-ter, vigilan-ter, 
utlli-ter, and others from stems in -nti, of which -ti is 
dropped before the suffix (cf. 20). 

(3) From other words: circl-ter, about (circo-); inter, 
between (in) ; praeter, beside (prae) ; prop-ter, near (prdpe) ; 
sub-ter, beneath (sub). 

nequl-ter, badly (nequam). Obiter (not ante- Augustan), on 
the way, is apparently ob iter (comp. obviam). 

Chap. XJL] Adverbs and Conjunctions. 83 

230 -s abs (ab, a), from ; bis, twice (for duls) ; els, on this side (comp. 

ci-timus) ; ex, out (ec in some compounds, and e) ; mox, 
presently ; obs (ob), on, opposite; subs (sub), tinder (in subs- 
tralio, c.) ; trans, across ; uls, beyond (comp. ul-timus) ; 
us-quam, us-piam, anywhere ; us-que, ever ; vix, scarcely. 

delnceps (dein, cap-6re), next, is a compound like parti- 
ceps, but indeclinable. 

-as alias, at other times ; eras, to-morrow ; fdras, (to] out of doors . 

-us mordl-c-us, with the teeth (mord-, mordere); s6c-us, otherwise; 

tgnus, as far as (subst. ace. s. extent?}-, prot6nus (or pro- 
tinus), immediately. 

emlnus, from a distance; comminus, hand to hand, are 
probably compounds of inanus, hand (meaning "hands off," 
" hands together"). 

231 -tus from ; same as Greek -dev (comp. ypa^-o^ev, scrlbz;;*j). 

antiqui-tus, from of old (antique-) ; divlni-tus, from the 
Gods (divino-) ; fundl-tus, from the bottom (fundo-) ; humanl- 
tus, after the manner of men (humano-) ; in- tus, from within 
(in) ; pgni-tus, from the interior, deeply (peno-) ; publicl-tus 
(Plaut., Ter. &c.), on the public account (publlco-) j radlcl-tus, 
from the root (radlci-) ; sub-tus, tinder neat h (sub). 
-8s pnes, in the possession ^/"(comp. pSnitus). 

232 -Is for -ios, the stem, or for -iiis the neuter ace., of the comparative 

suffix ; e.g. nlmls, too much', magls (sometimes magg), more; 
satis (also sat), enough. 

fortassls, fortassS, perhaps. 

-Is fSris, out of doors ; imprimis, in the first place ; gratils, gratis, 

for thanks, gratuitously ; ingratls, thanklessly; multinaodis, 
\ many wise; qudtannis, yearly, are locatives or ablatives. 

233 -iens post-Augustan -ies; the regular suffix for numeral adverbs: 
tStiens, so often (tot) ; qudtiens, bow often (quot) ; aliquo- 
tiens, sometimes; pluriens, often (plus-); quinquiens, fi*ve 
times (quinque) ; sexiens, six times (sex) ; dgciens, ten times 
(decem); viciens, twenty times (for vicintiens, cf. ao; from 
viginti); centiens, a hundred times (centum), and others. 
See Chap. x. 





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App. to XI. XIIJ\ Pronominal Adjectives and Adverbs. 



{Book IT. 

237 The following are the chief (pronominal) adverbs ofti 

quom, when. 
mine, now. 


antehac, before this. 

postnac, after this. 

subinde, immediately afterwards. 

nondum, not yet. 

alias, at another time. 

allquamdiu, for some 

length of time. 
quousque, till when? 
adhuc, hitherto. 

quondam,) sometime, i.e. formerly, 
61im \ or hereafter. 

tbties, so often. 

allqu6ties, several times. 

Identldem, repeatedly. 

nonnunquam, \ sometimes 

allquando, > (i. e. notun- 

quandoque ) frequently}. 

interdum, sometimes (i. e. 

unquam, ever (after nega- 
tives, &c.). 

usque, ever (of progressive 



238 LATIN verbs have inflexions to denote differences of voice, person, 
number, mood, and tense. 

1. There are two voices, the Active and the Passive. 
(The Passive voice is sometimes called Reflexive or Middle.) 

Some verbs have both voices, some have only the active, except in 
the third person ; others, called Deponents, have only the passive, but 
with the signification (apparently) of the active. 

2. Two numbers, the Singular and Plural. 
In a few verbs no plural is found. 

3. There are three persons (First, Second, Third) in each number. 
In the Imperative mood fhere is no form for the first person singular. 

A few verbs are used only in the third person. 

4. Three moods, Indicative, Subjunctive (often called Conjunctive), 

Chap. XIIL] Inflexions of Verbs. 87 

5. Six tenses, in the Indicative mood, active voice: 

(#) Three, denoting incomplete action ; the Present, Future, and 

(More precise terms for these tenses are (as used by some writers) 
present imperfect, future imperfect, past imperfect.) 

() Three denoting completed action; the Perfect, Completed 
Future, and Pluperfect. 

(More precise terms: present perfect, future perfect, and past per- 

In the Subjunctive mood, active voice, there are only four dis- 
tinct tense-forms, called Present, Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect. 
In the Imperative there are only two, the present and future. 

Some verbs in the active voice and all verbs in the passive voice 
have in the Indicative only three simple tense-forms, those of incom- 
plete action, and in the Subjunctive only the present and imperfect. 

The deficiency of the tenses of complete action in the Passive voice 
is supplied by participles in combination with certain tenses of the verb 
of being. 

239 Certain 'verbal nouns are (partly from their mode of formation, 
partly from their use) usually treated in connexion with the verb. 
These are 

(#) Two indeclinable substantives, called Infinitives (or the Infini- 
tive Mood). They are the Present infinitive, denoting incomplete 
action, and the Perfect, denoting completed action. 

() Three verbal adjectives, called Participles, the Present and 
Future belonging to the active voice; the Past participle belonging 
to the passive voice. 

(c) A verbal substantive and adjective, called the Gerund and 
Gerundive, usually classed, the first with the active, the second with 
the passive voice. 

(d) Two Supines, i. e. the accusative and ablative (or dative) of a 
verbal noun. 

The forms of the verb proper are often called collectively the Finite 
Verb ; the verbal nouns above named are sometimes called the Injinite 

240 Every single word in the Latin (finite) verb is a complete sentence, 
the verbal stem being used not by itself, but in combination with 
abbreviated forms of pronouns of the first, second, and third persons. 

The principles on which all verbs are inflected are the same. The 
differences in detail which are found are due partly to the nature or 
ending of the stem of the particular verb. But there are other differ- 


ences, of which the reason must apparently be sought elsewhere. Pos- 
sibly in early stages of the language there may have been a fuller system 
of forms applicable to all verbs, and in the language as we have it some 
verbs exhibit some of these forms and other verbs exhibit other forms. 

241 The inflexions are attached to the stem in the following order : 
inflexions of tense, of mood, of person, of number, of voice. The forms 
of the present tense, indicative mood, singular number, active voice are 
the simplest, and arise from the union of the stem with personal pro- 
nouns. All other parts of the verb (usually) contain modifications for 
tense, mood, number and voice. Of these the modifications for tense 
and mood are made between the stem and personal pronoun, and the 
inflexions for number and voice are appended after them. 

Thus dat is the 3rd person, singular number, present tense, indica- 
tive mood, active voice of a verbal stem meaning give. It is composed 
of da- verbal stem, and t abbreviated pronoun of 3rd person : and thus 
is strictly give-he (she, if), for which originally give-s is the English 
equivalent, but English, having lost its sense of the meaning of the final 
j, now prefixes in addition the pronoun he (she, if), as a separate word 
for the like purpose. 

da-r-e-m-us is the ist person plural, active voice, imperfect sub- 
junctive of the same stem, da-, give. The sound r denotes past time, 
e the mood of thought (instead of fact}, m the speaker himself, us the 
action of others with the speaker. Thus daremus analysed is give-did- 
in-tbought-I-they. If for -us we have -ur (daremur), the speaker and 
others are passive instead of active. 

242 The inflexions of tense are divisible into two classes : viz. those 
which are common to several tenses or forms, and those which are 
peculiar to the particular tense. 

The inflexions common to several tenses or forms may be referred 
to three forms of the verbal stem called the Present stem, the Perfect 
stem and the Supine stem. 

i. The Present stem is very often identical with the verbal stem, 
but not unfrequently is more or less modified. From this present stem 
are formed all the tenses and verbal forms which express incomplete 
action : viz. both in Active and Passive voices 

Indicative Present, Future, Imperfect ; 
Imperative Present, Future ; 
Subjunctive Present, Imperfect ; 
also the following verbal forms : 

Present Infinitive ; Active and Passive ; 
Present Participle ; Active (none in Passive) ; 
Gerunds and Gerundive. 

Chap. Xlfl.] Inflexions of Verbs. 89 

a. The Perfect stem is sometimes identical with the verb stem and 
with the present stem, but usually is considerably modified. From this 
perfect stem are formed all the tenses denoting completed action : viz. 
in the Active voice 

Indicative Perfect, Completed Future, Pluperfect ; 
Subjunctive Perfect, Pluperfect ; 
also the Perfect Infinitive. 

3. The Supine stem is always a modification of the verbal stem, 
and from it are formed certain verbal nouns, of which the forms called 
the supines, the past participle passive, and future participle active are 
generally treated in connexion with the verb. 

The past participle passive is used with certain tenses of the verb of 
being to form the perfect, pluperfect and future indicative, and the 
perfect and pluperfect subjunctive, of the passive voice. 



243 VERBS are as regards their inflexions divided into two principal 
classes ; those whose stem ends in a consonant and those whose stem 
ends in a vowel. The former may be called for shortness consonant- 
I'erbs, the latter e vo-wel- r vcrbs . 

Vowel-verbs may have a stem ending in a or u, or e or i. Of these 
by far the most numerous are those with stems ending in a, and this 
class differs most in its inflexions from consonant verbs. It is in the 
inflexions of tenses formed from the present stem that these differences 
are mainly found. 

First will be given on opposite pages the whole system of inflected 
forms of a consonant stem, r6g-, rule, and of a vowel stem, ama-, love. 

The English corresponding generally to the Latin forms of the 
Indicative and Imperative moods is added. The English corresponding 
to the Subjunctive mood varies so much with the character of 
the sentence in which it is used, that none can properly be given 
here. On the whole in the greater number of sentences the English 
used for the Indicative would also fit the Subjunctive. The proper 
translation according to the class of the Subjunctive is given in the 

The quantity of the final syllables is marked as actually used by 
Latin poets. (See also 53 foil.) Doubtless in some forms here 
marked short the quantity was originally long, and some traces of the 
earlier quantity are occasionally found. See 32, 68, 69. 


[Book IT. 


Active Voice. 

Sing. i. rgg-o, I am ruling or I rule 

2. rgg-Is, Thou art ruling or Thou rulest 

3. rgg-it, He is ruling or He rules 
Plur. i. reg-Im-ils, We are ruling or We rule 

2. rgg-It-Is, Ye are ruling or Ye rule 

3. rSg-unt, They are ruling or They rule 


Sing. i. rSg-am, I shall or will rule 

2. rg-es, Thou wilt rule 

3. rSg-6t, He will rule 

Plur. i. rgg-em-us, We shall or will rule 

2. rgg-et-Is, Ye will rule 

3. rSg-ent, They will rule 


Sing, i . reg-eb-am, I was ruling or / ruled 

2. rgg-eb-as, Thou wast ruling or Thou ruledst 

3. r6g-eb-at, He was ruling or He ruled 
Plur. i. rgg-eb-am-iis, We were ruling or We ruled 

2. rgg-eb-at-Is, Ye were ruling or Ye ruled 

3. rgg-eb-ant, They were ruling or They ruled 
















Imperative Mood, 

Sing. 2. rg-6, Rule (thou) 
Plur. 3. rgg-It-6, Rule O) 

. 2) , y . (Thou shalt rule 
Sing. 3 j. rgg-It-o ^ shall rule 

Plur. 2. reg-it-6t-6, Ye shall rule 
3. rSg-unt-o, They shall rule 

Verbal Noun-Forms. 

Infinitive Present. rgg-6r-6, to rule 

Participle Present S. Nom. reg-ens, ruling 

Ace. rSg-ent-em (m. f.), rSg-ens (n.) 


Ace. f 


chap, xi v: 

Inflexions of Verbs. 

9 J 



Active Voice. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 

215 Sing. i. am-o, I am loving or I love am-em 

2. am-as, Thou art loving or Thou loves t am-es 

3. am-at, He is loving or He loves am-6t 
Plur. i. am-am-us, We are loving or We love am-em-us 

2. am-at-is, Ye are loving or Ye love am-et-is 

3. ara-ant, 'They are loving or They love am-ent 


Sing. i. am-ab-o, I shall Q? will love 

2. am-ab-Is, Thou <uiilt love 

3. am-ab-It, He will love 

Plur. i. am-ab-Itn-iis, We shall or will love 

2. am-ab-It-Is, Ye will love 

3. am-ab-unt, They will lovs 


Sing. i. am-ab-am, I was loving or I loved am-ar-em 

2. am-ab-as, Thou wast loving or Thou lovedst am-ar-es 

3. am-ab-at, He was loving or He loved am-ar-fit 
Plur. i. am-ab-am-us, We 'were loving or We loved am-ar-em-us 

2. ani-ab-at-Is, Ye were loving or Ye loved am-ar-et-Is 

3. am-ab-ant, They were loving or They loved am-ar-ent 

Imperative Mood. 

Present. Sing. a. am-a, Love (thou) 
Plur. 2. am-at-e, Love (ye) 

^ . c - 2) - (Thou shalt love 

Future. Sing. am-at-o 

Plur. 2. am-at-5t-6, Ye shall love 
3. am-ant-o, They shall love 

Verbal Noun-Forms. 

Infinitive Present. am-ar-S, to love 

Participle Present S. Nom. am-ans, loving 

Ace. am-ant-em (m. f.), am-ans (n.) 

Gerund. . 'V am-and-um, loving 


{Book IL 



Passive Voice. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 

246 Sing, i . rg-6r, / am being ruled or / am ruled reg-ar 

2. r6g-6r-is, Thou art being ruled or Thou art ruled rgg-ar-Is 

or reg-ar-S 

rSg-it-iir, He is being ruled or He is ruled r6g-at-ur 

reg-Im-ur, We are being ruled or We are ruled rgg-am-iir 
reg-Im-In-i, Te are being ruled or Te are ruled rgg-am-m-l 
rSg-unt-ur, They are being ruled or They are ruled r6g-ant-tlr 



Sing. i. rgg-ar, / shall or will be ruled 

2. rSg-er-is or rgg-er-S, Thou wilt be ruled 

3. rSg-et-ur, He will be ruled 
Plur. i. rgg-em-ur, We shall be ruled 

2. reg-em-In-I, Te will be ruled 

3 . rgg-ent-ur, They will be ruled 

Sing. i. rSg-eb-ar, I was being ruled or I was ruled r6g-6r-6r 

2. reg-eb-ar-is, Thou wast being ruled or Thou rg-Sr-er-Is 

or rgg-Cb-ar-6 wast ruled or r6g-6r-5r-5 

3. reg-Sb-at-ur, He was being ruled or He was r6g-6r-et-iir 


Plur. i. rSg-eb-am-ur, We were being ruled or We were rgg-gr-em-iir 

2 . rSg-eb-am-in-i, Te were being ruled or Te were r6g-6r-5m-In-l 


3. reg-3b-ant-ur, They were being ruled or They rgg-Sr-ent-xir 

were ruled 




Sing. 2. r5g-6r-6, Be ruled 
Plur. 2. reg-im-In-i, Bs ye ruled 

Sing. H 


\Thou shalt be ruled 
}He shall be ruled 

Plur. 3. reg-unt-Br, They shall be ruled 

Verbal Noun-Forms. 

Infinitive Present. r6g-I, to be ruled 

Gerundive Sing. Nom. m. r6g-end-us * . 

f. r6g-end-a I to rule or to be ruled 

n. r6g-end-um 

(used adjectivally) 

Chap. XIV: 

Inflexions of Verbs. 




Passive Voice. 

247 Sing. i. am-6r, I am being loved or I am loved 

2. am-ar-is, Thou art being loved or Thou art 


3. am-at-ur, He is being loved or He is loved 
Plur. i . am-am-ur, We are being loved or We are loved 

a. am-am-in-I, Te are being loved or Te are loved 
3. am-ant-iir, They are being loved or They are 




or am-er-6 

Sing. i. 


3 . 
Plur. i. 



am-ab-6r, 1 shall or will be loved 
am-ab-gr-is or am-ab-Sr-e, Thou wilt be loved 
am-ab-it-ur, He will be loved 
am-ab-im-ur, We shall or will be loved 
am-ab-Im-in-i, Te will be loved 
am-ab-unt-ur, They will be loved 

Sing. i. am-ab-ar, / was being loved or I was loved am-ar-8r 

1. am-ab-ar-Is, Thou wast being loved or Thou am-ar-er-is 

or am-ab-ar-6 wast loved or am-ar-er-6 

3. am-ab-at-iir, He was being loved or He was am-ar-et-ur 


Plur. i. am-ab-am--iir, We were being loved or We am-ar-em-ur 
were loved 

2. am-ab-ain-in-i, Te were being loved or Te were am-ar-em-In-I 


3. am-ab-ant-ur, They were being loved or They am-ar-ent-iir 

were loved 


Future. Sing. 


Sing. a. am-ar-6, Be (thou) loved 
Plur. a. am-am-in-I, Be (ye) loved 

(Thou shalt be loved 
am-at-or \r, , ,, , , , 
\iie shall be loved 

am-ant-6r, They shall be loved 


Plur. 3 

Verbal Noun-Forms. 

Infinitive Present. am-ar-i, to be loved 

Gerundive. Sing. Nom. m. am-and-us 

f. am-and-a 
n. am-and-um 

to love or to be loved 
(used adjectivally) 



\Book II. 

2-13 Sing, i, 




Active Voice. 


rex-I, I ruled or / have ruled 
rex-is-ti, Thou ruledst or Thou hast ruled 
rex-it, He ruled or He has ruled 
rex-Im-fts, We ruled or We have ruled 
a. rex-Is-tl-s, Te ruled or Te have ruled 
3. rex-er-unt, They ruled or They have ruled 
or rex- Or- 6 

Completed Future. 

Sing. i. rex-e"r-o, I shall have ruled 

2. rex-Sr-is, Thou <wilt have ruled 

3. rex-gr-It, He will have ruled 
Plur. i. rex-gr-im-us, We shall have ruled 

2. rex-6r-it-is, Te will have ruled 

3. rex-Sr-int, They will have ruled 








[For the quantity of 
-is, -imus, &c. in perf. 
subj. and comp. fut. 
ind. see 281. For 
rexerunt see 274.] 



Plur. i. 




rex-r-am, I had ruled rex-is-sem 

rex-6r-as, Thou hadst ruled rex-is-ses 

rex-6r-at, He had ruled rex-is-s$t 

rex-6r-am-us, We had ruled rex-is-sem-us 

rex-6r-at-is, Te had ruled rex-is-set-is 

rex-6r-ant, They had ruled rex-is-sent 

Infinitive. rex-is-s5, to have ruled 


Active Voice. 

rect-um, to rule, i.e. ace. case of verbal noun with u- stem 
rect-u, in the ruling, i.e. ablat. case of verbal noun with u- stem 

Part. Fut. (Sing. Nom.) rect-flr-us (m.)) 

rect-Hr-a (f.) / about to rule 
rect-dr-ura (n.)) 

Infin. Fut. (Sing. Nom.) rect-flr-fts, -a, -um ease, to be about to rule 

,, ,, fuisse, to have been about 

to rule 

Chap. XI V.] 

Inflexions of Verbs. 




Active Voice. 


249 Sing. i. amav-I, I loved or have loved 

2. amav-istl, Thou lovedst or hast loved 

3. amav-It, He loved or has loved 
Plur. i. amav-Im-tis, We loved or have loved 

2. amav-is-tl-s, Te loved or have loved 

3. arnav-er-unt, They loved or have loved 

or amav-er-8 

Completed Future. 

Sing. i. amav-gr-o, I shall have loved 

2. amav-Sr-Is, Thou wilt have loved 

3. amav-8r-it, He will have loved 
Plur. i . amav-6r-Im-fts, We shall have loved 

2. amav-er-It-Is, Te will have loved 

3. amav-Sr-int, They will have loved 









Sing. i. amav-r-am, / had loved 

2. amav-er-as, Thou hadst loved 

3. amav-Sr-at, He had loved 
Plur. i. amav-6r-am-us, We had loved 

2. amav-Sr-at-is, Te had loved 

3. amav-Sr-ant, They had loved 







Infinitive. amav-is-s8, to have loved. 



Active Voice. 

amat-um, to love 
amat-'fl, in the loving 

Part. Fut. (Sing. Norn.) amat-iir-us (m.) | 

amat-iir-a (f.) > about to love 
amat-ar-um (n.)J 

Infin. Fut. (Sing. Nom.) amat-ar-us, -a, -urn esse, to be about to love 

,, ,, fuisse, to have been about 

to love 

9 6 


[Book II. 

rectus, recta, rectum sim 


Passive Voice. 


(m.) (f.) (n.) 

250 Sing. i. rect-us rect-a rect-um sum, 
/ have been or am ruled 

2. rect-us rect-a rect-um 6s, ,, ,, ,, sis 

Thou hast been or art ruled 

3. rect-us rect-a rect-um est, ,, ,, ,, sit 

He has been or is ruled 

Plur. i. rect-I rect-ae rect-a sumus, rect-1, rect-ae, rect-a sim-us 
We have been or are ruled 

2. rect-I rect-ae rect-a estis, ., ,, ,, sltis 

Ye have been or are ruled 

3. rect-I rect-ae rect-a sunt, ,, ,, sint 

They have been or are ruled 

Completed Future. 

Sing. i. rect-us rect-a rect-um gro, / shall have been ruled 

a. ,, ,, ,, gris, Thou wilt have been ruled 

3. ,, ,, ,, grit, He ivill have been ruled 

Plur. i. rect-1 rect-ae rect-a 6rlmus, We shall have been ruled 

2. ,, ., ,, giitfs, Ye will have been ruled 

3. ,, ,, erunt, They will have been ruled 


Sing. i. rect-us rect-a rect-um gram, rect-us, -a, -um essem 
/ had been ruled 

2. rect-us rect-a rect-um gras, ,, ,, ,, esses 

Thou hadst been ruled 

3. rect-us rect-a rect-um grat, ,, ,, ess6t 

He had been ruled 

Plur. i. rect-1 rect-ae rect-a gramus, rect-1, -ae, -a essemus 
We had been ruled 

2. rect-I rect-ae rect-a gratis ,, ,, ,, essetis 

Ye had been ruled 

3. rect-I rect-ae rect-a grant ,, ,, ,, essent 

They had been ruled 

Participle Perfect, rect-us, -a, -um, ruled. 

Infinitive Perfect (sing. nom.). rect-us, -a, -um esse, to have been, 
or to be, ruled. 

Chap. XIV.} Inflexions of Verbs. 97 


Passive Voice. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 

251 Sing. i. amat-iis, -a, -urn sum, / have been amat-iis, -a, -um sim 

or am loved 
2. amat-iis, -a, -um es, Thou hast been ,, sis 

or art loved 

2. amat-us, -a, -um est, He has been ,, ,, sit 

or is loved 

Plur. i. amat-I, -ae, -a sumus, We have been amat-i, -ae, -a slmus 
or are loved 

2. amat-I, -ae, -a estis, Te have been ,, ,, sltis 

or are loved 

3. amat-I, -ae, -a sunt, They have been ., ,, suit 

or are loved 

Completed Future. 

Sing. i. amat-us, -a, -urn e"ro, I shall have been loved 

2. ,, ,, 8ris, Thou wilt have been loved 

3. ,, ,, Srlt, He will have been loved 

Plur. i. aniat-i, -ae, -a grimus, We shall have been loved 

2. ,, ,, gritis, Te will have been loved 

3. ,, ,, 6runt, They will have been loved 


Sing. i. amat-iis, -a, -um gram, / had amat-us, -a, -um essem 
been loved 

2. amat-us, -a, -um e"ras, Thou hadst ,, ,, esses 

been loved 

3. amat-us, -a, -um 6rat, He had ,, ,, esset 

been loved 

Plur. i. amat-1, -ae, -a 6ramus, We had amat-i, -ae, -a essemus 
been loved 

2. amat-i, -ae, -a gratis, Te had been ,, ,, essetis 


3. amat-i, -ae, -a grant, They had ., ., essent 

been loved 

Participle Perfect (sing. nom.). amat-us, -a, -um, loved. 

Infinitive Perfect (sing. nom.). amat-iis, -a, -um esse, to havz been, 
or to be, loved. 

L. G. 7 


9 8 


[Book II. 


Other Vowel Conjugations. 


Indicative Mood. 



i. trlb-u-o 

cap-i-o aud-i-o 


2. trlb-u-Is 

cap-Is aud-is 


3. trlb-u-It 

cap-It aud-It 



i. trlb-u-Im-us 

cap-Im-us aud-Im-iis 


2. trlb-u-It-Is 

cap-It-Is aud-It-Is 


3. trlb-u-unt 

cap-i-unt aud-i-unt 




i. trlb-u-am 

cap-i-am aud-i-am 


2. trlb-u-es 

cap-i-Ss aud-i-es 


3. trlb-u-8t 

cap-i-6t aud-i-6t 



i. trib-u-em-us 

cap~i-em-fts aud-i-em-us 


2. trlb-u-St-Is 

cap-i-St-Is aud-i-et-Is 


3. trlb-u-ent 

cap-i-ent aud-i-ent 




i. trib-u-b-am 

cap-i-eb-am aud-i-eb-am 


2. trlb-u-eb-as 

cap-i-eb-as aud-i-eb-as 


3. trlb-u-eb-at 

cap-i-eb-at aud-i-eb-at 



i. trlb-u-eb-am-us 

cap-i-eb-am-us aud-i-eb-am -us 


2. trib-u-eb-at-Is 

cap-i-eb-at-is aud-i-eb-at-Is 


3. trib-u-eb-ant 

cap-i-eb-ant aud-i-eb-ant 


Imperative Mood. 



2. trIb-u-6 

cap-6 aud-I 



2. trlb-u-It-S 

cap-It-S aud-it-g 




H trlb-u-It-o 

cap-It-o aud-lt-o 



2. trlb-u-it-5t-g 

cap-It-6t- aud-it-6t-6 


3. trlb-u-unt-o 

cap-i-unt-o aud-i-unt-o 


Verbal Noun-Forms. 

Infin. Pres. 

Part. Pres. (sing, nom 

Gerund (sing. nom.). 


cap-er-6 aud-ir-g m6n-er-6 

cap-i-ens aud-i-ens m6n-ens 

cap-i-end-um aud-i-end-uin m6n-end-um 




Inflexions of Verbs. 

Other Vowel Conjugations \ 

Indicative Mood. 




i. trlb-u-fir 




2. trib-u-6r-Is 




3* trlb-u-It-ftr 





i. trlb-u-lm*ttr 




2. trlb-u-Imln-I 




3. trib-u-unt-ur cap-i-unt-ur aud-i-unt-ur m6n-ent-ur 



i. trib-u-ar 




2. trlb-u-gr-is 




3. trlb-u-et-iir 





i. trib-u-ein-ur 




a. trlb-u-emin-i 




3. trib-u-ent-tir 





1. trib-u-eb-ar 

2. trlb-u-eb-ar-Is 

3. trlb-u-eb-at-ilr 


i. trlb-u-Sb-am-ur cap-i-eb-am-ur 
a. trlb-u-eb-amln-i cap-^i-eb-amin-i 


cap-i-eb-ar aud-i-eb-ar m6n-eb-ar 

aud-i-eb-ar-is m6n-eb-ar-Is 

aud-i-eb-at-tir m6n-eb-at-ur 



3. trib-u-eb-ant-ftr cap-i-eb-ant-iir aud-i-eb-ant-tlr 


2. trib-u-er-6 

2. trlb-u-Imin-i 



Imperative Mood. 

cap-6r-S aud-ir-6 

cap-Imin-I aud-imin-i 

cap-It-6r aud-It-6r 



3. trib-u-unt-6r cap-i-unt-6r aud-i-unt-6r 

Verbal Noun- Forms. 
In fin. Pres. 

trlb-u-i cap-i aud-ir-I 

Gerundive (sing. nom.). 

trib-u-end-us cap-i-end-us aud-i-end-us 







[Book IL 

254 PRESENT STEM. Other Vowel Conjugations. 

Subjunctive Mood. 




i. trib-u-am 

cap-i-am aud-i-am 


2. trlb-u-as 

cap-i-as aud-i-as 


3. trib-u-at 

cap-i-at aud-i-at 



i. trlb-u-am-us 

cap-i-am-us aud-i-am-us 


2. trlb-u-at-Is 

cap-i-at-is aud-i-at-is 


3, trlb-u-ant 

cap-i-ant aud-i-ant 




1. trlb-u-gr-em cap-6r-em aud-ir-em m6n-er-em 

2. trib-u-6r-es cap-6r-es aud-lr-es m6n-er-es 

3. trlb-u-6r-6t cap-6r-6t aud-ir-6t m5n-er-6t 


1. trib-u-6r-em-fis cap-6r-5m-fis aud-ir-em-iis mdn-er-gm-iis 

2. trib-u-gr-et-is cap-6r-et-is aud-Ir-Bt-Is m6n-er-et-Is 

3. trlb-u-6r-ent cap-6r-ent aud-Ir-ent m6n-er-ent 



1. trib-u-ar 

2. trlb-u-ar-is 

3 . trlb-u-at-ftr 

Subjunctive Mood. 


cap-i-ar aud-i-ar 

cap-i-ar-is aud-i-ar-Is 

cap-i-at-fir aud-i-at-ur 

i. trlb-u-am-ur cap-i-am-ur 


2. trlb-u-amin-l cap-i-amin-i aud-i-amm-I 

3. trlb-u-ant-ftr cap-i-ant-ur aud-i-ant-ur 






Singular. Imperfect. 

i. trib-u-8r-6r cap-6r-6r 



2. trlb-u-6r-er-is cap-6r-er-is 



3. trlb-u-6r-et-iir cap-6r-et-ilr 




i. trib-u-er-em-iir cap-fir-em-iir 



2. trib-u-6r-emln-i cap-6r-emin-I 



3. trib-u-6r-ent-tir cap-6r-ent-ur 



Chap. XIV.] 

Inflexions -of- Vero*. 



Other Vowel Conjugations. 


Indicative Mood. 



i. trlbu-I 

cep-I audiv-1 


2. trlbu-is-ti 

cep-is-ti audiv-is-ti 


3. trlbu-It 

cep-It audlv-it 



i. tribu-!m-iis 

cep-Im-us audiv-Im-us 


1. tribu-is-tls 

cep-is-tls audiv-is-tis 


3. tribu-er-unt 

cep-er-unt audiv-er-unt 



Completed Future. 

i. trlbu-6r-o 

cep-gr-o audiv-6r-o 


2. tribu-gr-is 

cep-gr-is audlv-gr-is 


3. trlbu-er-It 

cep-gr-It audiv-gr-it 



i. tribu-gr-im-us 

cep-gr-im-us audlv-gr-im-us 


2. trlbu-gr-it-Is 

cep-gr-it-is audlv-Sr-it-Is 


3. trfbu-gr-int 

cep-gr-int audlv-gr-int 




i. trlbu-6r-am 

cep-gr-am audlv-gr-am 


2. trlbu-gr-as 

cep-gr-as audiv-gr-as 


3. trlbu-gr-at 

cep-gr-at audiv-gr-at 



i. trlbu-gr-am-iis 

cep-gr-am-us audiv-gr-am-us 


2. trlbu-gr-at-is 

cep-gr-at-is audlv-gr-at-Is 


3. trlbu-gr-ant 

cep-gr-ant audiv-gr-ant 



1. trlbu-gr-im 

2. trlbu-gr-is 

3. trlbu-gr-it 


1. tribu-gr-im-us cep-gr-im-iis 

2. tribu-gr-it-is cep-gr-it-is 

3 . trlbu-gr-int cep-gr-int 


1. tribu-is-sem 

2. tribu-is-ses cep-is-ses 

3. trlbu-is-sgt cgp-is-sgt 


1. tribu-is-sem-us cep-is-sem-us 

2. tribu-is- set-Is cep-is-set-Is 

3. trlbu-is-sent cep-is-sent 

Subjunctive Mood. 


cep-gr-im audiv-gr-im m6nu-gr-im 

cep-gr-is audlv-gr-is m6nu-gr-is 

cep-gr-It audiv-gr-It m6nu-gr-It 





cep-is-sem audlv-is-sem 

m6nu- gr-im-us 





audiv-is-sem-us m6nu-is-sem-us 
audlv-is-set-Is m6nu-is-set-Is 
audiv-is-sent m6nu-is-sent : ':' 

. ' ' : : , , : , 


{Book II, 


Other Vowel Conjugations. PASSIVE VOICE, 
Indicative Mood. 



i. trlbut-iis 










3' ,5 






i. trlbut-I 










3- 55 






Completed Future. 

i. tribut-us 





2. ,, 





3- 55 






i. trlbut-I 





2. ,, 





3- ,5 







i. trlbut-us 










3- 55 






i. trfbut-I 





^' 55 





3' ,5 





Subjunctive Mood. 



i. tribiit-us 

capt-us - 




2. ,, 






3- 55 






i. trlbiit-I 









3- ,5 







i. trlbut-us 





2. ,, 





3- 5J 






i. trlbut-I 










3- 55 





Chap. XIV.} 



Deponent verbs have the inflexions of the passive voice with the 
active meanings, and have also a present and future participle active and 
the gerunds and supines. 

The following examples are given (for brevity's sake) only in the 
first person singular, or other leading form : s^qu-, follow; prgca-, pray; 
vgre-, fear. 


Present. sgquor, I follow or am 

Future. sgquar, I shall follow 

Imperfect, sgquebar, / was follow- 
ing or I followed 

Perfect. sgcutus sum, I followed 
or have followed 

Comp. Fut. sgcutus gro, / shall have 

Pluperfect, secutus gram, I had fol- 





precatus sum vSritus sum 
prgcatus gro vgrltus gro 

prgcatus gram vgrltus gram 


Present. sgquar, I be following or prgcer vgrear 

Imperfect, sgqugrer, 7 were follow- prgcarer vgrerer 

ing or I followed 

Perfect. sgcutus sim, I followed precatus sim vgrltus sim 

Pluperfect, sgcutus essem, 7 hadfol- prgcatus essem vgrltus essem 



Present. sgqugrg,/o//ow (thoii) prgcarg vgrerg 

Future. sgcutor, thou s halt follow prgcator vgretor 


Present. sgqui, to follow prgcari vgreri 

Perfect. sgcutus esse, to have fol- prgcatus esse vgrltus esse 


Present. sgquens, following 
Future. secuturus, going to follow 
Past. sgcutus, having followed 



GERUND. sgquendum, following 
GERUNDIVE, sgquendus, to follow or 
to be followed 





[Book If. 


259 THE tenses of the verb of being are partly from a root es- whence 
es-um (Gr. ju for eV/u) and partly from the root fu- (whence fio), 
Gr. 0uoj. Pos-sum, I am able or I can, is a compound of p6te sum, and 
usually retains the t before a vowel but assimilates it to a following -s. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 



sum, 7<3> 

pos-sum, I can sim 



gs, Thou art 

pOtgs, Thou canst sis 



est, Tfe is 

pfttest, He can sit 




sftmus, We are 

possiimus, We can simfts 



es-tls, Te are 

pdtestls, Te can sitls 



sunt, 7<?y <zrr 

possunt, They can sint 





gro, 7 shall be 

pbtgro, 7 shall be able 


grls, Thou wilt be 

pdtgrls, Thou wilt be able 


grit, Tfe will be 

pdtgrlt, 77^ will be able 



grlmfts, We shall bs 

p6tgrlmus, We shall be able 


grltls, Te will be 

pdtgrltls, Te will be able 


grunt. T^y <u>/7/ <? 

pdtgrunt They will be able 




gram, I was 

pStgram, I could ov essem 




gras,. 7#0# wast 

pdtgras^ow couldestessSa 


or mightest 


grat, Tfe <ztw 

pdtgrat essgt 




gramus, We were 

pdtgramus essemfts 



gratis, r* <U*TY 

pdtgratls essetis 



grant, They were 

pdtgrant essent 





ful, 7 TUtfj or have 

patui, 7 could or fugrim 





fuisti, Thou wast 

pdtuisti fugrls 



fult, Tfe <u;tf.r 

patult fugrit 




fuimus, We were 

p6tuimus fugrimfts pdtugrfmus 


fuistls, Te were 

pdtuistls fugritis 



fuirunt, They were 

pdtugrunt fugrint 






fugro, 7 shall have 

pdtugro, 7 shall have been able Qr^c. 

been &c. 









fugrlmus, We shall 


have been 







Chap. XVI\ Inflexio?is of sum, possum, &c. 105 

Pluperfect. Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Sing. i. fugram, / had been p6tu6ram, I bad fuissem pdtuissem 

<2r*f . been able &c. 

3. fugras pdtugras fuisses pCtuisses 

3. fuerat p6tu6rat fuisset p6tuiss6t 

Plur. i. fueramiis pdtugramus fuissemiis p6tuissemiis 

i. fueratls p6tu6ratls fuissetls pdtuissetls 

3. faerant pdtuSrant fuissent pDtuissent 


Present Sing. 2. 6s, be Future Sing. 2 and 3. esto 

Plur. 2. este, be ye Plur. ^. estate" 

3. sunto 
Verbal Nouns. 
Infinitive. Present, esse posse 

Perfect, fuisse pdtuisse 

Future, fdre or futurus esse 
Participles. Present, (s-ens or ens) pfltens, powerful, only adj. 

only in compounds. 
Future, futurus 

260 Es in pres. incl. is always long in PlaUtus and Terence. 

When est came after a vowel or m, the e was omitted in speaking and 
sometimes in writing (nata st, natum st, oratio st). So e.g. in Cicero, 
and (according to L. Miiller) always both in scenic and dactylic verse. 
The same was not unfrequently the case with es after a vowel, and perhaps 
after m also; e.g. nacta's, lignum's. In the comic writers a short final 
syllable in s also coalesces with est; e.g. factust, opust, similist, for 
factus est, opus est, similis est ; occasionally with es ; e. g. nactu's, 
simili's, for nactus es, similis es. (Ritschl.) 

A form for the pres. subj. siem, sies, siet, sient, is frequent in Plautus 
and Terence. Cicero speaks of it as used in his time. Another form for 
the same tense fuam, fuas, fuat, fuant is also frequent in Plautus and 
other scenic poets, except Terence, who like Vergil uses it once only. The 
compounds occasionally have -sies, -siet, -sient. For the imperfect subj. 
f6rem, f&res, fdretis, f6rent are frequently used in most writers. 

The perfect &c. are in Plautus occasionally fuvit, filverit, &c. 

261 Like sum are inflected its compounds, viz. absum (perf. abfui or 
afui), adsum or assum (perf. adfui or affui), desum (de-est, de-eram, 
&c. pronounced dest, deram, &c.), insum, intersum, obsum, praesum 
(3rd pers. sing, praest, often written praeest), prosum (prSd- before a 
vowel; e.g. prod-es, prod-ero), subsum, supersum. Of these absum and 
praesum alone have a present participle absens, praesens. 

For inf. posse early writers have sometimes potesse ; and for possim, 
possis we find sometimes in Plant, and Ter. possiem, possies. 

The full forms, potis sum, es, est, eram, ero, sim, &c. are found in 
prae- Augustan poets ; especially potis est in Terence, Lucretius, and once 
in Vergil ; pote fuisset once in Ter. Potis and pote are also used as 
direct predicates without the verb. 

Potestur, possitur, poteratur, are quoted as used occasionally with 
passive infinitive in early writers (not now extant). Potestur once in Lucr. 



{Book IT. 




262 Indicative Mood. Do, 
Present Tense. give. 

be twilling. 


be unwilling. 


Sing. i. do 




2. das 


non vis 


3. dat 


non vult 


Plur. i. damus 




2. datis 


non vultis 


3. dant 




Future Sing. i. dabo 


(not used) 

(not used) 

2. dabis 




Imperf. Sing. . dabam 




Perf. Sing. . dSdi 




Subjunctive Mood. 

Pres. Sing. . dem 




Plur. . demus 




Imperf. Sing. . darem 





Pres. Sing. 2. da 


Plur. 2. date 


Future Sing. 2. dato 


Plur. 2. datote 


3. danto 



Present, dare 




Future, daturus es 



Present, dans 



(not used) 

Future, daturus 

Perfect, datus 

Gerund, danduni 


Gerundive, dandus 

263 do has a passive voice. The forms der and demur (ist pers. sing, and 
plur. pres. subj.) are not actually found anywhere. For duim, &c. see 

In prae- Augustan language the 3rd pers. sing, and 2nd pers. plural were 
volt, voltis. In conversational language si vis, si vultis became sis, sultis. 

For non vis, non vult Plautus has frequently nfivis, nvult ; on the 
other hand, for nolis, nolit, nolint, nollem he has sometimes the full forms 
non veils, &c. 

Also in Plautus frequently mav61o (once also in Terence), mavdlet, 
maveilm, mavelis, mavelit, maveUem. 

Chap. XV.] Inflexions of some Irregular Verbs. 




(used as pas- 

Eo (stem i-), 

sive of facio) 

, Edo, 







be borne. 








gdls or es 





6dlt or est 








gdltis or estis 
























factus sum 



latus sum 



gdam or gdim 





gdamus or 






gdgrem or essem 





gde or es 





edlte or este 




gdlto or esto 




gditote or estote 






Iturus esse 

faetum Iri 

gdgre or esse 
esurus esse 

ferre ferri 

laturus esse latum iri 

lens gdens fgrens 

G. guntis 

esOrus lattlrus 

factus latus 

gundum faciendum gdendum fgrendum 

-eundus (in comp.) faclendus gdendus fgrendus 

265 Ambio is the only compound of eo, which is inflected regularly like a 
verb with I stem. 

Futurus sim, fore, futurus esse, are frequently used for parts of fio. 

Fierem, fieri, in Plautus and Terence often have the stem i long. 

Qf the compounds with prepositions the following forms occur : confit, 
confleret, confierent, confieri ; defit, defiet, defiat, defieri ; ecfieri ; infit ; 
interfiat, interfieri ; superfit, superfiat, superfieri. 

In the passive we find estur for edltur (3 pres. ind. ), and essetur (once 
in Varr.) for gdgretur (3 pers, imperf. subj.). The contracted forms are 
also found from comgdo, and some (exest, exesse, exesset) from exgdo. 

266 Qugo, ngqugo, resemble eo, but have no imperative, participle, or 
gerund. Only the present indie, and subj. are at all frequent. Quis and 
quit (pres. act.) .are only used after non, as non quis, nonquit (for ne- 
quis, &c.). There are a few instances in early writers of passive forms, 
qultus sum, quitur, queatur; nequita est, nequltur. Queatur once in 
Lucr. But they are used only with a pass, infin. (e.g. nequltur comprimi). 

io8 INFLEXIONS. [Book II. 


267 THE suffixes, which denote person and number in the active voice, are 
the same in all tenses of the indicative and subjunctive moods, except in 
some persons of the perfect, and in the first person singular of the present 
and completed future of the indicative mood. 

In the passive voice the inflexions for this purpose are the same in all 
those tenses of the indicative and subjunctive moods, which are expressed 
by simple forms. (The tenses denoting completed action are expressed by 
compound forms, e.g. amatus sum.) 

These suffixes are as follows, the initial vowel being given in the oldest 
form in which, apart from early inscriptions, it appears in any verbs. 

Active. Passive. Perfect Active. 

Singular, ist person -om -or -I 

2nd -Is -6r-Is 4stl 

3rd -It -It-ur -It 

Plural. ist -um-us -Im-ur -Im-us 

-It-Is -Imlnl -ist-Is 

-ont -ont-ur -erunt 

3 rd 

The short initial vowel of the suffix (6, u, 6, I) is absorbed by an imme- 
diately preceding a, e, or I ; 

except (i) in the ist pers. sing., if the m is not retained ; 

(2) in the 3rd pers. pi. present, if -unt (-ont) follow -i. 

In a few other verbs (sum, do, fero, volo, edo) some of these suffixes 
drop the initial vowel in the present tense. 


268 The -m in the ist person singular and plural is the same as is seen in 
the oblique cases of the pronoun me. 

Singular, -m is dropped in the singular of the present indicative of all 
verbs (e. g. reg-o) ; 

(except two ; viz. sum (for 6s-om), I am, and inqua-m, quoth /;) 

also in the completed future of all verbs ; e.g. amavero ; 

and in the future indicative of all verbs with stems ending in -a or -e, 
and of some with stems ending in -i ; e.g. amabo, mdnebo, Ibo. 

In a- verbs the final a is contracted with the initial of the suffix ; e.g. 
am-o for ama-om ; do for da-om. Other vowel verbs retain their character- 
istic vowel; e.g. trlb-u-o, mdn-e-o, aud-i-o, cap-i-o. But three i verbs 
change i to e ; viz. 60 (stem i-), queo (stem qui-), and its compound 
ngqueo. Inquam has apparently a stem in a, which except in ist sing. 
pres. passes into 1 

Chap. XVIJ\ Inflexions of Person, Number , Voice. 109 

The perfect indicative always ends in I. The proper personal suffix (m) 
has dropped off altogether. 

In the passive voice the only change from the active is the addition of r, 
if the m has dropped away, or the substitution of it for m if the m has been 
retained in the active; e.g. act. amo, amabo ; pass. amor, amabor; but 
act. amabam, amem ; pass, amabar, amer. 

This r is generally considered to be a substitute for B, the proper passive 
inflexion being, as is supposed, the reflexive pronoun 1 se. 

289 Plural. The vowel before m is weakened to I in all verbs with stems 
ending in u, or in I, or in a consonant, 

except in the present indicatives of three verbs ; viz. sumus, we are, 
vdlumus, and their compounds, and the old form quaesumus (stem quaes-), 
we pray, where we have the older vowel u. da-mus retains the radical a. 

With these exceptions the suffix is the same in all tenses of all verbs, 
except when the initial vowel is absorbed by a preceding a, e, or I. 

The final -us is the part of the suffix which distinguishes the plural 
number. Its origin is uncertain. 

In the passive the final s is changed to r ; e.g. amamus, amamur. 


270 The consonant contained in the suffix of the second person is 8 in the 
singular (changed before another vowel to r in the passive), and t in the 
plural. The perfect indicative has t in the singular also. The personal 
pronoun of the second person sing, in Latin (tu) and the Doric dialect of 
Greek (TV) exhibits this t ; in the Attic dialect of Greek it exhibits s (cv). 

Singular. In the present tense of fSro, I bear; v61o, I will; 6do, I eat; 
the short vowel (I) is omitted or absorbed; hence fers (for ferls), vis 
(generally taken to be for vOlis, vllis, vils), and es (for 6dls, eds). es (es 
Plautus and Terence, 8s in subsequent poets) is also the 2nd pers. sing, 
present indicative of sum, / ant. 

All a-, e-, and I- verbs have the final syllable long ; viz. as, es, Is. 
Not so the verbs with I ; e. g. capio, capls. 

In the perfect indicative the suffix for the second pers. sing, ends in 
-isti, of which ending -ti is the proper personal suffix, 

In the passive -8ris (at first sight) appears to be formed by placing the 
characteristic passive r before the personal suffix ; the true theory however 
is no doubt that the passive suffix, with a short preceding vowel, being 
placed after the personal suffix caused the s between two vowels to change 
to r, necessitating also the change of the vowel i to e before r. Thus 
regSrls is for rSg-Is-is. The passive suffix itself (i.e. s for se, 268) was 
allowed to remain s, instead of being changed to r, as usually, in order to 
avoid having two r's close together. 

271 -re (e.g. amabare) is more common than -ris (e.g. amabaris) in 
Plautus, and, except in present tense, in Cicero and Vergil. It is frequent 
in Horace, rare in Livy ; and is usually avoided by all writers where the 

1 A passive formed by a reflexive pronoun is seen in Germ. Das versteht 
sick von selbst ; French Le corps se trouva ; Ital. Si loda Cuomo modesto 
('The modest man is praised') ; Span. Las aguas se secaron ('The waters 
were dried up'). KEY, Lat. Gr. 379. 


form would then be the same as the present infinitive active. Hence -ris is 
retained in pres. indie, (with rare exceptions) in verbs which have an active 
voice; but in deponents (where there is no risk of confusion, as the infinitive 
ends in i) -re is frequent in Plautus, sometimes found in Cicero ; -ris is 
usual in Vergil and Horace. 

272 PhiraL The plural suffix -Itls contains the personal pronoun of the 
second person (t), and the syllable -Is, which is either a pronoun of the 
second person in its other form, or a suffix of plurality. 

In the present tense of the four verbs named above ( 270) the initial i 
of the suffix is again omitted : fertis for fSrltis, voltis or vultis for volitis, 
estis for Sdltis ( 264), ye eat, and for (originally) Ssltis, ye are. So also 
in da-tis. 

In the perfect s is simply suffixed to the singular form. 

In the passive voice the suffix -Imlni is probably a masculine plural 
participial form. The Greek present passive participle is of the same form ; 
viz. -dmgnds, plur, 6mgnoi. Originally, perhaps, estis was used with it, as 
it is used with a past participle to form the perfect passive. 


273 The -t in the suffix of the 3rd person, both singular and plural in all 
tenses, is a demonstrative pronoun, found in the Greek (so-called) article, 
and in iste, tot, talis, tantus, &c. 

Singular. In the present tense of sum, gdo, fgro, v61o, the short 
vowel before -t is not found ; viz. est (both from sum and from Sdo), fert, 
volt, or (later) vult. 

The third person sing, active of a-, e-, and i- verbs was originally long, 
as may be inferred from the passive voice (amat-ur, monet-ur, audlt-ur), 
and is actually found long not unfrequently in Plautus, and sometimes in 
Augustan poets. 

In the perfect active the suffix is the same as in the present (-It). 
Plautus sometimes, and more rarely Augustan poets, have this -it long. 

To form the passive, -ur is suffixed to the active form. 

274 PhiraL The plural suffix is usually -unt, but in prae- Augustan inscrip- 
tions, in Plautus, and Varro, the older -ont Avas retained after V (or u) ; 
e.g. vivont, Confluent, loquontur. Of this suffix the t is probably the 
same as in the singular ; the origin of the n is Uncertain. 

The passive is formed (as in the singular) by suffixing -ur to the active 

The perfect suffix is the same as the present, the ending being er-unt, 
of which the -er is the same as the -is (before t) of the second person. The 
penult (-er) is usually long (e.g. rexerunt, amaverunt), but the dactylic 
poets, beginning with Lucretius (not Ennius) often, and others occasionally, 
shorten it; e.g. dormigrunt, locavgrunt, subegerunt, &c. (Plaut.), einS- 
runt (Ter.) ; dedSrunt. fugrunt, exigrunt, &c. (Lucr.). 

-ere (for -erunt) is not uncommon in Plautus and Terence, rare in Cicero 
and Caesar, but frequent in dactylic poets and Livy. 

In the Completed future indie, the suffix-vowel is i instead of u (-6rint 
for -grunt) ; probably in order to avoid confusion with the perfect. 

Chap. XVIL} Inflexions of Mood. 1 1 1 


1. Indicative Mood. 

275 THE indicative mood contains no special inflexions to distinguish it. 
The imperative and subjunctive moods are distinguished from it by 
certain modifications. 

2. Imperative Mood. 

(#) Present. The imperative present appears to consist of short- 
ened forms of the indicative present. The final s is thrown off, and -I 
is changed to 6 (or rather, as the form probably originally ended in -es, 
the s is simply thrown off; cf. 19). Hence the active rggis becomes 
rgge ; regitis, regitS ; the passive r6g6rls, rggerg ; the and pers. plural 
rgglmlnl is the same as in the indicative. But from verbs with vowel 
stems in a-, e-, I- (not I-) the a is thrown off in the singular without 
further change; e.g. ama, mone, audi. The exceptional form noli is 
formed from the and pers. sing, of the subjunctive present. 

276 In the verbs duco, f5ro (and their compounds), facio (with compounds 
which retain the radical a), and dlco, the final e of the singular was always 
dropped after Terence's time ; e. g. due, fSr, fac, calefac, die. In Plautua 
and other poets the imperatives often occur before words beginning with a 
vowel, in which case it is difficult to decide whether the text should be due 
or duce ; &c. 

es or 6s (from sum, cf. 270), 5s from Sdo were used for the imperative 
2nd pers. sing, as well as for the indicative. 

In verbs which have short penult, and vowel stems in a, e, i, and also 
in the compounds of eo, the imperative-forms in Plautus and Terence often 
shortened the final vowel; e.g. comm6da, m6ng, jub5, adl, abl; especially 
in colloquial forms ; e. g. mangdum, tac6dum, m5n6sls ; vldSsis. 

277 () Future. The future imperative active is distinguished by a 
suffix, originally -5d. In the form which is common to the second and 
third persons, e.g. reg-it-6, and the form for the third person plural, 
e. g. regunto, the -d has fallen off, as in the ablative case of nouns (cf. 


The suffix appears to have been simply added to the present indicative 
forms of the third person singular and plural. (The use of this form for 
the second person singular was probably due to -t being a characteristic of 
the second personal pronoun.) The plural second person is formed by 
appending -e (for -es, later -is) as the sign of plurality in this person to a 
modified form of the singular ; e.g. r&g-It-ot-e (for re"g-It-6d-e). 

The passive forms substitute -r for the final -d ; e.g. rBglt-or for 
reglt-od ; rSgunt-or for rSgunt-od. 

273 In Plautus, Cato, and old inscriptions, a form in -mlno is (rarely) found 
for the 2nd and 3rd pers. sing, of the imperative of deponents ; e. g. proflte- 
mino, praefa-mlno, progredi-mlno, fru-I-mlno. One instance of a passive 
verb denuntiaminp is found. This dW form is of the same origin as the 
2nd pers. plur. indicative in -mini. -**--. .._ : . 

1 1 2 INFLEXIONS. [Book If. 

3. Subjunctive Mood. 

279 The subjunctive is characterised by a lengthened vowel immediately 
before the consonant of the personal suffix. 

Present. This vowel is a in the present tense of all verbs, except 
verbs with a- stems, in which it is 6 ; e. g. reg-a-mus, regamur ; mone- 
amus, moneamur; audiamus, audiamur; tribuamus, tribuamur; but 
amemus, amemur. 

Except also some in which it is I; viz. sim, sis, c. from sum; 
velim, veils, &c. from vdlo; and the compounds of both; e.g. possim, 
absim, &c., nolim, malim. 

280 So also (besides the more usual forms) 6dim, edls, edit, edlmus, edltis, 
edint (Plaut. esp. in phrase habeo quod edim, Cat., Hor.) ; c6m6dim, 
comedis, comedint (Plaut.), exedint (Plaut.). 

Also from duo (an old form of do? 1 ), duim, duis, duit, duint (Plaut., 
Ter., and old law language) ; interduim (Plaut.) ; perduixn, perduls, per- 
duit, perduint (Plant., Ter., chiefly in phrase Di te perduint, which is 
also vised by Cicero) ; creduis, creduit (Plaut., who has also forms from 
this verb with the more regular a; e.g. duas, creduas, creduant, accre- 
duas. Cf. fuat, 260). 

Sum and its compounds had an older form siem, sies (see 260), from 
which sim, sis, &c. are contracted. The -es, -et is perhaps only the older 
form of the personal suffix -Is, -It. But more probably it corresponds to 
the long final syllable in Gr. eiV Sansk. sy&m. 

281 Imperfect and Pluperfect. The long vowel in these tenses is e in all 
verbs; e.g. rexissemus, amavissemus, &c. 

Perfect. The vowel (assumed to have been originally long) is I, 
which however, probably from confusion with the completed future, is 
in dactylic poets as often short as long. The pertinent instances are 
as follows: 

Perf. subj. -Sri- : dederltis (Enn.); fuerls (Ilor. in hexam.); respuerls 
(Tib.) ; dederls, crediderls, contulerls (Ovid). 

-Sri-: egerlmus, respexerls (Verg.), dixerls (Hor. in hexam.). 

Comp. fut. ind. -Sri-: dederltis, transierltis, contigerltis (Ovid), 
fecerlmus (Catull. in a hendecasyllable), dederls, occiderls, miscuerls, 
audierls (Hor. in hexam.), dederls (Prop., Ov. several times). 

-Sri-: viderlmus (Lucr.); viderltis, dixerltis (Ovid); suspexerls, revo- 
caverls (Verg.); vitaverls, detorserls, acceperis, coeperls (Hor. in hexam.). 

In Plautus and Terence there appears to be no instance incompatible 
with the rule of I for perf. subj., I for compl. fut. indie. 

282 The forms for the subjunctive appear best explicable by assuming the 
proper suffix to be I (seen in the Greek optative), which was contracted 
with a preceding a to e. Thus amas, ama-I-s, ames; amara-s (an assumed 
indicative, see below, 285), amara-i-s, amares ; amavissa-s (an assumed 
indie.), amavissa-i-s, amavisses (or esses for esa-i-s maybe supposed to 

1 The forms interduo, Plaut. Capt. 694, concreduo, Id. Atd. 577, are 
used apparently as completed futures ind. 

Chap. XVII r .] Inflexions of Mood. 113 

have been suffixed at once). But as I suffixed to the present indicative of 
vowel verbs other than those with a stems would have given still the same 
form when contracted, an a (seen in the Greek subjunctive) was substituted 
in all such cases. The consonant verbs eventually followed this analogy, 
the forms in i (see 280) being either sporadically used or (if originally 
usual) only sporadically retained. Sis and veils, &c. retain the I, because 
they have other points of difference from the indicative. 


283 Present. The present indicative is formed simply by suffixing the 
inflexions of number and person. The present subjunctive has a 
mood inflexion in addition. 

Future. The future indicative is in consonant, in i- verbs, and in 
u- verbs a modified form of the present subjunctive. The first person 
singular is the same: the other persons have long e where the present 
subjunctive has a; e.g. fut. reges, regemus, &c. ; pres. subj. regas, 
regamus, &c. In the 3rd pers. sing. act. the final syllable was short 
in the ordinary language. 

This e probably arises from suffixing I (compare the Greek optative) to 
the present subjunctive of these verbs; e.g. reg-a-mus, reg-a-I-mus, rege- 
mus ; just as amemus, pres. subj. was formed ( 282). But this formation 
would not do for a- and e- verbs ; because in a- verbs such a form (e. g. 
amemus) is already used for the pres. subj.; and in e- verbs, it (e.g. 
monemus) would be identical with the present indicative. Accordingly 

284 In a- and e- verbs there is a different mode of forming the future 
indicative; viz. by suffixing ib- to the present stem, with the final 
vowel of which it is contracted; e.g. ama-, ama-ib-, amab-; ist pers. 
plu. amab-imus, mon-e-, mone-ib-, moneb-; ist pers. plur. monebimus. 

A similar future (besides the ordinary form in -am, -es, -et), is not 
unfrequently formed from I- stems in early writers (Plautus, Terence, c.) ; 
e.g. aperlbo, adgredlbor (comp. adgredlri for adgredi), larglbere, oppe- 
rlbor, sclbo, &c. But of these forms none are found so late as the first 
century B.C., except Ibo, qulbo, nequlbo, which are the only forms in use 
at any time. Lenibo is also found in Propertius. 

The verb do has a short penultimate dabo. 

The verb sum and compounds have apparently merely a different form 
of the present for the future ; viz. 6r-o (for esom), ist pers. plur. r-Imus 
(compare pres. sumus for 6s-um-us). Most philologers however consider 
ero, &c. to be for esio, the i being similar to that of the present subj. 

L. G. 8 


285 Imperfect. The imperfect indicative has in all stems a long a pre- 
ceding the personal inflexions. Thus Ss- with a suffixed becomes 6sa- 
\vhich with the personal m and the usual change of s to r becomes 
gram, I <was. In all stems except 6s-, b is prefixed to this long a. 
Moreover in all stems but da- the vowel preceding ba is long. 

The long a, which is always found, serves to distinguish the im- 
perfect from the future where the forms are otherwise similar; e.g. 
amabainus (for amabaimus), amabimus; monebamus, monebimus; 
ibamus, ibimus; dabamus, dablmus; 6ramus, Siimus. It is apparently 
a sign of past time, and as such is found in the pluperfect also. 

In consonant stems the suffix is -eba-, and this is usually found also 
in verbs with i stems; e.g. reg-eba-mus, audi-eba-mus. But this long 
e is not found in eo, queo, and their compounds, and is not unfre- 
quently absent in the earlier language (Plautus, Ten, Varr., &c.); e.g. 
scibam, nesclbam, aibam, &c., gestlbat, grundibat, insanlbat, molllbat, 
praesaglbat, servlbas, stabillbat, venibat. So also, apparently for 
metrical reasons, in the dactylic poets; e.g. audibant, lenlbat, saevlbat, 
redimlbat, molibar, ferlbant, &c. 

Probably the suffix was originally the same as the future suffix of a- and 
e- verbs with a added, i.e. -lb-a-. The form -eba, seen in consonant and 
most i- verbs, is difficult to explain. It is generally supposed to have been 
borrowed under a misapprehension from the e- stems. 

288 Imperfect subjunctive. This tense had the suffix -er (for 6s), which 
with the modal suffix 6 made -6re. The first vowel coalesced with a 
preceding a, e, or I; e.g. reg-6r-emus, tribu-6r-emus, am-ar-emus 
(for ama-er-gnrus), mon-5r-5m-us, aud-ir-emus and caused the omission 
of a preceding i; e.g. capl-, caperem. 

In Sdo, volo, fero, and their compounds, the vowel 6 was dropped 
out; e.g. ist pers. plur. es-sem-us (for Sd-es-emus) ; vel-lem-us (for 
vol-er-em-us) ; fer-rem-us (for f6r-6r-6m-us). Do has darennis. Sum 
(as well as 6do) has essemus. 

essem (from sum) is formed from the imperfect indicative with the 
subjunctival suffix I ( 282). Thus 6sa-I-m becomes esem, the first syllable 
being lengthened by a double s as a compensatory result of the contraction. 
The imperfect of sum in a somewhat different form appears to have been 
used to form the imperfect of regular verbs, e.g. reg- with the imperfect 
indie, of sum, is reg-eram : hence reg-era-i-m, regerem. 

The imperative tense suffixes have been already discussed ( 275, 276). 

287 The present infinitive active has the suffix -6rS (for -6se, 28) in 
which the first e coalesces with a preceding a, e, or 1; e.g. reg-Sre, 
tribu-gre ; amare, mon-ere, aiid-Ire. CapSre is formed analogously to 
capgrem, 286. 

In sum, edo, volo, fero, and their compounds, the first vowel e was 
dropped out, as in the imperfect subj. Hence the infinitives are esse 
(for esese and for edese), velle (for volere), ferre (for ferere). 

The infinitive is generally considered to be the dative or locative case of 
a verbal noun with stem ending in s- or si- ; e. g. dieer-e for daikas-ai, 
viver-e compared with Sanskrit jivas-ai. The final e ( = ai) would be 
originally long. 

Chap. XVIII.} Tenses formed from the Present Stem. 115 

283 The present infinitive passive has the suffix i appended to the stem 
in verbs, whose stem ends in a consonant or in I or in u; e.g. reg-i, 
tribu-I, cap-I (but fieri from stem fi-; ferri from f6r-). In other vowel 
verbs I takes the place of the final e of the active infinitive; e.g. aud-lr-i, 
mon-er-I, am-ar-i. So also da-ri from do. 

A further suffix -6r is found appended to these forms (e. g. figier, 
amarier, &c.), frequently in Plautus, Terence, Lucretius, Cicero (in 
poetry), and not uncommonly in Vergil and Horace, only occasionally 
in later poets. But the shorter form is more common even in the first- 
named poets. 

The forms in -ier are possibly the original forms, but their origin and 
development are uncertain. 

289 Present Participle. The suffix is -cnti, nom. sing, -ens ; e.g. reg-ens, 
tribu-ens, audt-ens. But in the verb eo and its compounds, an older 
form of the suffix, viz. -unti, is retained ; the nom. sing, is however 
usually -iens. 

In -a and -e verbs the suffix coalesces with the final stem vowel ; 
e. g. amans, monens (for ama-ens, raone-ens). 

290 Gerund and Gerundive. The suffix is -endo-, which as a substantive 
is called a gerund, as an adjective, gerundive ; e.g. regendum, tribuen- 
dum, audiendum; amandum, monendum. 

An older form in -undo is common in Plautus, Terence, and Sallust; 
and after i, and in the words gerundus and ferundus, frequently in the 
MSS. of Caesar, Cicero and Livy. ire, go and its compounds always 
have this form ; e. g. eundum, adeundus, &c. Some law phrases also 
always (or at least usually), retained the form; e.g. rerum repetun- 
daruin ; familiae erciscundae, finibus regundis, in jure dicundo. But 
after u or v the suffix is found only in the form -endo. 

Old Futures in -so, -sim. 

291 In the older language, of Plautus and ancient laws and formularies, 
a future indicative in -so (-sso), subjunctive in -sim (-ssim), infinitive 
in -sere (-ssgre), and pass, indie, in -situr (-ssltur) is found. In- 
stances of the indicative and subjunctive active of this formation are 
very frequent. (In some instances it is not clear to which mood the 
word belongs.) As examples may be given 

i. From verbs with -a stems: amasso (inch), amassis, r^iTiassmt 
(subj.), appellassis (subj.), celassis (subj.), coenassit (hid.). 

Passive : turbassitur (ap. Cic.). 

Infin. Act. : reconeiliassere, irnpetrassero (four times), oppugnassere 

a. From verbs "with -e sttjns, preserving the vowel : nabessit (subj.), 
prohibessis, prohibessit (subj.), prohibessit, proMbessint (incl.), cohi- 
bessit (subj.), licessit (subj.). 



3. In verbs tuitk consonant or -i stems, and some "with -e stems, the -so, 
-sim is attached immediately to the final stem consonant : 

(a) -e stems: ausim (subj.), noxit (subj.), sponsis (subj.)i auxitis 
(subj.)i jusso, jussis, jussit (ind.), jussim (subj.). 

Also passive jussitur (Cat.). 

(b) -I stems: faxo (ind.), faxis, faxit (ind. subj.), faxim, faxlmus 
(subj.), faxitis (ind. subj.) frequently, faxint (subj.), effexis, defexis (ind.), 
capsis (ind.), capsit (subj.), capslmus (ind.) ; &c. 

Passive : faxitur (ap. Liv. ). 

(c) Consonant stems: axim, adaxint (subj.), clepsit (ind.); occisit 
(ind.) ; dlxis (subj.), induxis, adduxit (subj.) ; &c. 

Of all these forms faxo, faxis, ausim, ausis, almost alone are found 
after the time of Terence, who himself has only excessis, appellassis 
besides. But the following other instances occur : cohibessit (Lucr.); 
the phrase, di faxint (Cic.); recepso (Catull.); a few infinitives in 
Lucil.; Jusso (Verg., Sil.). Other instances are found in laws and 
other antique documents and formulae in Livy and Cicero, but these 
do not of course belong to the age of their (real or feigned) recorders. 

292 These forms are apparently to be explained as a future indicative, sub- 
junctive, and infinitive, formed by s, as in the Greek future, being suffixed to 
the stem, a short I or sometimes e of the stem being omitted; e.g. leva-, 
levaso; proliibe-, probibeso; sponde-, spond-so, sponso; faci, fac-so; die-, 
dixo. The double B in the forms from a- and (a few) e- verbs is either a 
mode of marking the place of the accent, or due to a mistaken etymology, 
as if the form were analogous to amasse from amavisse, &c. Possibly 
both causes may have combined. Moreover a single s between two vowels, 
except in compounds where the simple word began with s, was in the prae- 
Augustan language rare (cf. -28). The subjunctive is formed by the regu- 
lar suffix I; the infinitive by -6re, as in the present infinitive. 

(The ordinary explanation of these forms, viz. that e.g. levasso is for 
leva-ve-so ( = levavero), has much in its favour; but it meets with great 
difficulties in such forms as cap-so, rap-so, prohibesso, &c. ; and it does 
not really account for the double s. For levaveso would become leva-eso, 
levaso, levaro ; or if it became levav-so, as is assumed, it would be con- 
tracted into levauso or levuso (levauro, levuro) not levasso. Comp. 
43> 47-) 

293 The use of these forms is analogous to that of the forms in -ero, 
-erim, but is confined to those classes of sentences in which those forms 
differ least from a future indicative, or present subjunctive ; viz. (i) the 
indicative in the protasis (not the apodosis) of a sentence ; (except faxo, 
which might be either a simple or completed future) : (a) the subjunc- 
tive in modest affirmations, wishes, prohibitions, purpose, and in de- 
pendent sentences for the future, never for the perfect indicative (as the 
form in -erim frequently is). In all these classes the English language 
ordinarily uses an incomplete tense (present or future). The infinitives 
in -sere might be taken as either simple or completed futures. 

Chap. XIX.} Of the Present Stem. 117 


294 A VERB often exhibits a different stem in the present tense from 
that which appears to be presumed in the perfect or in the supine. 

Verbs may be divided into consonant verbs and vowel verbs accord- 
ing as the present stem ends in a consonant or in a vowel. 

(In the following enumeration the different instances will be classified 
according to the last letter of the verb stem ; and sometimes the perfect and 
supine added in illustration.) 

i. Consonant verbs. 

295 Most consonant verbs exhibit in the present stem no alteration of 
the regular stem of the verb ; e. g. rgg-, rgg-gre ; caed-, caed-gre, &c. 

Other consonant verbs exhibit such alteration; e.g. 

1. The stem is reduplicated to form the present tense ; e.g. 
ggn- (ggn-gre old form), gigngre for gl-gSngre (ggn-ui, ggn-Itum) ; 
sta-, sistgre (stgti, statum) ; 

sa-, sgrgre for sgsgre (sevl, satum). 

2. The radical vowel is lengthened; e.g. 

due-, ducgre ; die-, dlcgre (cf. die-are, causidic-us) ; 

fid-, fldere ; nub-, nubere (cf. proniibus). 

3. n is suffixed to the stem of the verb ; e. g. 

tern-, tem-n-gre ; cer-, cer-n-gre ; sper-, sper-n-gre ; 

ster-, ster-n-ere ; 1I-, H-n-gre ; si-, sl-n-gre. 

4. A nasal is inserted before the final stem consonant. 
(a) Labial stems : 

cub-, cu-m-bgre ; rup-, ru-m-pgre ; 

() Guttural stems : 

llqv-, li-n-qvgre ; vie-, vi-n-cgre ; nac-, na-n-cisci ; 

frag-, fra-n-ggre ; pag-, pa-n-ggre ; pug-, pu-n-ggre ; 

tag-, ta-n-ggre. 

In some verbs the nasal is retained in the perfect and dropped in the 
supine stem : 

fig-, fln-ggre ; pig-, pi-n-ggre ; strlg-, stri-n-ggre. 

In other verbs the nasal is constant in the verb stem ; e. g. 

jig- (cf. jug-urn), ju-n-ggre (junxi, junction), 
(r) Dental stems : 

fid-, fl-n-dgre ; sold-, aci-n-dgre ; 

fud-, fu-n-dgre ; tud-, tu-n-dgre. 


296 5. sc or isc is suffixed to verbal stems, especially to vowel stems in 
e, and gives often the special meaning of beginning or becoming. This 
inchoative form sometimes exists alone, sometimes is used besides the 
ordinary stem, sometimes is found in a compound, but not in the 
simple verb. The perfect and supine, if any, are the same as those of 
the ordinary stem (real or assumed). A very few stems carry the 
suffix -sc throughout all the tenses. 

sc is suffixed : 
(a) To consonant stems ; e. g. 

al- (algre), ale-sc-gre : die-, di-sc-ere (for dic-sc-gre) ; 

pac-, pac-isc-i ; trdm- (trgmgre), contrgm-isc-gre ; 

perg- (perggre), experg-isc-i ; vigv- (vlvgre), reviv-isc-gre. 
() To vowel stems ; e. g. 
A. Ira-, ira-sc-i ; laM- (labare), laba-sc-gre ; 

na-, na-sc-i ; vgtgra- (invetgrare trans.), vgtgra-sc-gro intrans. 

0. no-, no-sc-gre ; 

E. ere-, cre-sc-gre ; quie-, qule-sc-gre ; sue-, sue-sc-gre ; 

arde- (ardere), arde-sc-gre ; 
auge-, augere (trans.), auge-sc-gre (intrans.). 
haere- (haerere), haere-sc-gre ; 
splende- (splendere), splende-sc-gre, &c. ; 

ace- (acere), ace-sc-fire and many others from e stems, with perf. 
in -ui. 

1. dorml- (dormire), ob-donni-sc-6re ; 

obliv-, obliv-isc-i; sci-, sci-sc-6re ; 

apl-, api-sc-i ; cupl- (cupgre), concupi-sc-6re ; 

facl- (facSre), proflci-sc-i; M- (comp. hiare), M-sc-6re ; 

sapl- (sapgre), resipi-sc-6re, &c. 

297 6. The guttural is omitted in some stems which probably ended 
in gv- (i.e. g with a slight labial action after it ; cf. 17), e.g. 

flugv-, flu-6re ; frugv-, frui ; 

strugv-, stru-Sre ; vigv-, vlv-gre ; 

also the vowel stem conigv-, conivere. 

Other stems vary between gv and g ; e.g. 

stingvgre, stinggre ; tingvgre, tinggre ; ungvere, unggre ; ningvit, 
ningit (comp. nix, nlv-is), and the vowel stems urgvere, urgere. 

7. s is changed between vowels to r ; e. g. 

ggs-, ggrgre (gessi, gestum) ; quaes-, quaergre (comp. quaeso, 

qugs-, qugri (ques-tus) ; quaesivi, &c.) 

fts-, flrgre (ussi, ustum). 
Also the vowel stem hausi-, haurire (hausi, haus-tum). 

8. A few verbs have 11 in present stem, but not in other parts 

(Cf. 41). 

col-, perceUSre (per-ciil-i, per-cul-sum) ; 

pol-, pellgre (pe-piil-i, pul-sum) ; tol-, tollgr (ttll-i) ; 

vellgre retains 11 in perfect velli, but supine vul-sum. 

Chap. XIX.} Of the Present Stem. 119 

ii. Vowel verbs. 

298 Verbs ivlth stems ending in a : 

(a) Most of these verbs have the stem ending in a-, and preserve 
it in all tenses ; e. g. 

Fla-, flare (fiavi, flatum) ; fa-, fari (fatus) ; in which a is radical. 

In na-, nare (navi, natum), the a is constant, but the derivative nato 
shows that a is radical. 

In stra- (cf. 31 d) t ster-n-6ro (stravi, stratum) ; 

tla-, toll-re (tStuli, latum for tlatum) ; the present-stem is consonantal. 

Derivative verbs with a- stems are very numerous ; e.g. ama-, amare ; 

crea-, creare ; nuntia-, nuntiare ; 16va-, levare, c. ; 

all have perfects in -avi, atuin. 

299 (b) Verbs <witb stems ending in a- ; e. g. 
da-, dare (dedi, datum), but das has a. 

In all other verbs which may be considered to have a stem ending 
in a-, the final a- combines with the initial vowel of the suffixes in 
tenses formed from the present stem, so as to exhibit a ; e. g. 

Sta-, stare (steti, statum, but sometimes statum) where a is radical, 

crSpa-, crSpare ; enSca-, engcare, but seca-, s6care ; 

cuba-, cilbare ; nSca- usually in sim- sdna-, sonare (also 

d6ma-, ddmare ; pie verb ; son6re) ; 

Mca-, frlcare; -plica-) _. B ' . tona-, tonare ; 

mica-, mlcare ; -plica- [ p " v6ta-, vetare ; 

all which have perfects in -ui, and most of them usually supines in -Itum. 

Also lava-, lavare (and Iav6re) ; juva-, juvare ; 

which vocalise and contract the radical V with -ui of the perfect ; and 
contract or omit it in the supine. 

300 Of verbs with stems ending in o, the only traces are 

no-, which has the inchoative suffix in the present tense, noscSre, (novi, 
notum); the root has 6, comp. ndta (subst.), ndtare, cognitum, &c.; 
po- (potum), the frequentative pota-re being otherwise alone in use. 

301 Verbs with stems ending in u : 

(a) Most have stems in u, which however becomes short before 
the initial vowel of the suffixes ; e. g. 

acii-, acuere, acuis, acuisti, acuas, aeuebam, acuSrem, &c. ; 
the supine has ti. 

Plu-, pluere (perf. pluvi and plui) is apparently contracted for pliiv- 
or pldv-, (cf. pliivia). And the same may be the case with all : comp. 
fluo, fluv-ius. 

(/;) ruo has ru- in supine of compounds, but ruta (n. pi.) according to 

pii- is found only in adj. putus and frequentative putare. 

(c) A few verbs have U vocal in supine, but consonantal usually in 
present and perfect. 

loqv-, loqvi (locutum) ; solv-, solvere (solvi, sSltttum) ; 

seqv-, seqvi (secutum) ; volv-, volvfire (volvi, vdlutum). 

1 20 INFLEXIONS. \Book II. 

302 Verbs ivith stems ending in e : 

(<z) Few verbs have the stem ending in e, and these are mono- 
syllables, where e is radical ; e.g. 

dele- (compound), delere ; ne-, nere ; 

fle-, flere ; -pie, -plere. 

All these have perfect and supine in -evi, -etum. 
Other verbs with e (-evi, -etum) have consonantal present stems ; 
ere-, crescgre ; also qvie-, qviescgre ; 

ere-, cerngre ; sve-, svescgre ; 

61e-, -olescSre (also aboleo, abo- spre-, sperngre. 

levl, abolltum. ; and addlesco, 
adultum) ; 

() In most verbs with stems in -e, the e was probably short, as 
may be inferred from the perfect being in -ui (for -eui), and supine in 
-Itum, which in some verbs was reduced to -turn. 

mdng-, mongre (momii, monltum), and many others. 

cavg-, cavere (cavi for cavui, cavltum. contracted to cautum), and 

Contraction with the initial vowel of suffixes gives e in most 
forms of the present stem; e.g. monere, mones, monemus, monebam, 
monebo, monerera, monetur (mongt, as amat, audit). 

(V) Many verbs have e (probably g) in present stem, but drop it 
entirely and show consonantal stems in other parts of the verb, 
morde-, mordere (momordi, morsum), and others. 
vide-, vldere (vldi, vlsum) ; 
sgde-, sedere (sedi, sessum) ; 
prande-, prandgre (prandi, pransum) ; 
arde-, ardere (arsi r arsum) ; and many others. 

(d) Some have a present stem in -e, besides another (older or poetic) 
consonantal stem ; e.g. 

fervere, fervgre ; strldere, strldgre ; 

fulgere, fulggre ; tergere, terggre ; 

61ere, emit scent, dlgre ; tueri, in compounds -tui ; 

scatere, scatgre ; ciere, in compounds -clre. 

(Among other forms the rst persons fervo, fulgo, olo, scato, stride, 
tergo, fervlmus, &c. appear not to occur.) 

303 Verbs with stems ending in i ; 

(a) Some verbs with radical i, and many derivatives, have I, and 
retain it through all the tenses ; 

scl-, sclre ; ci-, -clre (also ciere) ; 

i-. ire ; qui-, quire. 

In these the i is radical. 

audi-, audire ; dorml-, donnire ; 

and many other derivatives. 

In all these the perfect is in -ivi, and in the derivative verbs and 
scio, the supine is in -itum. But Itum, cltum, qultum. 

Chap. XIX.] Of the Present Stem. 121 

() Some verbs have 1 in present stem, but drop it and show a 
consonantal stem in other parts ; e. g. 

amid-, amlcire (amlcui, amictum) ; ordi-, ordiri (orsum) ; 
fare!-, farclre (farsi, fartum) ; -pgrl-, e.g. aperire (apgrui, apertum) ; 
fulci-, fulclre (fulsi, fultum) ; rgperlre (rgppgri, rgpertum), 

hausl-, haurire (hausi, naustum) ; and other compounds ; 

meti- (for menti-); metiri(mensum); saepi-, saepire (saepsi, saeptum); 
sand-, sancire (sanxi, sanctum, vSm-, vgnire (veni, ventum) ; 

rarely sancitum) ; vine!-, vincire (vinxi, vlnctum). 

sarci-, sarcire (sarsi, sartum) ; s6p61i-, sepelire has perfect sepe- 

senti-, sentire (sensi, sensum) ; llvi, supine sepultum. 

6ri-, drlri (orsum) ) show in some tenses a present stem either in I or conso- 
pdti-, pdtiri j nantal. 

(c) Some verbs have the stem ending in i, which fell away before I 
or 6r; and as final in imperative, was changed to 6. The i is generally 
dropped in the supine stem. 

capl-, capgre (cepi, captum) ; morl-, inf. m6rl (also mdrlrl, fut. 

coepl-, coepgre (coepi, coeptum) ; part, mdrlturus) ; 

facl-, fac6re (feci, factum) ; parl-, pargre (p6pri, partum, old 

fddl-, f6d6re (fodi, fossum) ; pres. part, parens) ; 

fiigl-, fug-gre (fugl, fut. part, fugl- patl-, inf. patl (passum) ; 

turus) ; quatl-, ctuatfire j-quassi, quassum) ; 

gradl-, inf. gradl (gressum) ; rapi-, rapgre (rapui, raptum) ; 

jacl-, jac6re 0eci, jactum) ; -spiel-, -splcgre (-spexi, spectum) ; 
-Hcl-, -Hc6re (-lexi, -lectum) ; 

Two have I in other tenses than those derived from the present ; 
cilpl-, ciip&re (cuplvl, cupltum ; in Lucr. also ciiplret) ; 
sapl-, sapgre (saplvl, in compound rSsIpul and rgslplvi). 

(d) A few verbs have consonant stems in present, but I stems in other 
parts ; 

pgt-, pgtgre (pgtlvl, pgtltum) ; areesso, capesso, lacesso, have inf. 
riid-, riidgre (riidlvi) ; -6re, perf. -Ivl (or -il), sup. -Itum; 

quaes-, quaergre (quaeslvl, quae- trt-, tgrgre (trlvl, trltum). 
sltum) ; 

So vguo is found for evSnio. 



304 THE suffixes for the tenses formed from the perfect stem; i.e. for 
the perfect, completed future, and pluperfect in indicative, and perfect 
and pluperfect in subjunctive, are the same in all verbs ; viz. 

Comp. Future -Sr- ; Pluperf. Ind. -Sr-a ; 

Perf. subj. -er-I, Pluperf. subj. -iss-e. 

The perfect indicative has a suffix -is which however is not found in 
the third pers. sing, and the first pers. plural 5 in which the same per- 
sonal suffixes as in the present indicative are used. This suffix -is in 
the first pers. sing, loses its a ; in the third pers. plural, being followed 
by a vowel, changes to -er. 

The perfect infinitive is formed by the suffix is-se. This is appa- 
rently composed of the suffix is- just mentioned, and -se for -5se as in 
the present infinitive. 

305 The great resemblance of these suffixes to the parts of the verb sum, 
which are used to form the same tenses in the passive voice, suggests (and 
the suggestion has been generally adopted) that they are identical in origin. 

This theory would give a complete explanation of the pluperfect and the 
completed future indicative, with the exception that the 3rd pers. plural of 
the latter has Srint instead of runt, perhaps in order to avoid confusion 
with the 3rd pers. plur. perfect indicative. 

The perfect subjunctive would be explained by assuming as the suffix an 
older form of sim ; viz. -6sim, or with the usual change, -Srim. 

The perfect indicative and infinitive and pluperfect subjunctive seem to 
require the assumption of a long I being suffixed to the perfect stem before 
the respective parts of the verb sum were added. Thus audivissem, 
audivisse would stand for aud-Iv-I-essem, audlv-I-esse, rexissem, &c. for 
rex-I-ssem, &c. 

In the perfect indicative the 2nd pers. sing. e.g. audivisti would stand 
for aud-Iv-I-esti (the personal suffix -ti being lost in the es, thou art), 
2nd pers. plu. e.g. audivistis for aud-Iv-I-estis ; 3rd pers. plur. e.g. audi- 
verunt for aud-Iv-I-6sunt. The 3rd pers. sing, may have the simple 
personal suffixes, or may have been reduced from a fuller form ; e. g. au- 
divi-est, audivist, audivit. The -It is sometimes found long. The first 
person singular, e.g. audivi, may then be for aud-iv-I-esum, audlvism, 
audivim. And the ist person plural may have had a similar pedigree. 

It must however be observed that the resemblance to the parts of the 
stem es, on which this theory rests, is in some degree deceptive, for it 
consists largely in personal and modal suffixes, which even on another 
hypothesis might be expected to be the same. And the rest of the suffixes 
is, as has been seen, in some tenses but poorly eked out by the simple 
stem. 6s. 

306 The perfect stem when formed by a suffixed v, is frequently modi- 
fied by the omission of the v in all tenses and persons and both num- 
bers, except in the ist pers. sing, and plu., and 3rd pers. sing, of the 

Chap. XX.] Tenses formed from the Perfect Stem. 123 

perfect indicative. The vowels thus brought together are contracted, 
(excepting -ie, and sometimes -ii) ; e. g. ind. perf. amasti, amastis, 
amarunt; pluperf. amaram, &c. ; comp. fut. amaro, &c.; subj. perf. 
amarim, &c. ; Plup. amassem, &c. ; infin. amasse ; so flesti, fleram, &c.; 
and (though here the v omitted is radical) mosti, commosti, <Scc. (from 
moveo), and derived tenses. 

But we have some instances of uncontracted forms ; e.g. audieram, &c. ; 
audiero, &c. ; audiisti as well as audisti, &c. And such forms occur not 
unfrequently from peto, eo, and their compounds. 

Novero (ist pers. sing, ind.) always retains the v. (But cognoro, n5rim, 
ncris, &c.). And so does the shortened form of the 3rd pers. plu. perf. 
ind. of verbs with a steins ; e. g. amavere. (The infinitive being amare, 
the perfect, if contracted, would be liable to confusion with it.) 

In deslao, p8to, eo, and their compounds the omission of v usually 
(in the compounds of eo almost always, e.g. abii, abiisti, c.) takes place 
even in the ist pers. sing, and plural, and third pers. sing, of the perf. 
indicative; e.g. desii, desiit, desiimus. In other verbs with -i stems, -lit 
is sometimes found ; -ii hardly ever ; -Htrms never. 

The contracted forms are sometimes found from the above-mentioned 
three verbs; pgtlt (Verg., Ov.) ; It (Ter., Verg., Ov., &c.); ablt, pSrlt, 
adit, obit, rSdlt, &c. 

307 In the older poets, and occasionally in Vergil and Horace, in tenses 
formed from perfect stems in -s, an i between two ss is omitted and the 
sibilant written once or twice, instead of thrice; e.g. despexe (Plaut.) for 
despexisse ; surrexe (Hor.) for surrexisse : consumpsti (Prop.) for con- 
sumpsisti ; dixti (Plaut., and twice or thrice in Cic.) for dixisti ; erepse- 
mus (Hor.) for erepsissemus ; extiaxem (Verg.) for extinxissem. 


308 THE perfect stem is formed in one of five different ways, some of 
which are peculiar to, or invariably found in particular classes of verbs. 
All are used without any distinction of meaning. Some verbs have 
two or even more forms of the perfect stem. 

The five ways of forming the perfect stem are : 

Reduplication ; 

Lengthening the stem vowel ; 

Suffixing -s; 

Suffixing either -u or -v ; 

Using the stem of the verb without change. 

In the following enumeration the present stem is added where it 
differs from the verbal stem. All the verbs named, whether consonant or 
vowel stems, are arranged under the class to which their final consonant 
belongs: except monosyllabic vowel stems, and u stems, which are 
arranged separately. 

1 24 INFLEXIONS. [Book II. 

i. Perfect stem formed by reduplication. 

309 The first consonant of the stem is prefixed with a short vowel, 
which is e, if the stem vowel is a or e, and, if the stem vowel is o, u 
or i, is the same as the stem vowel. In the prae-Ciceronian language 
the vowel of the prefixed syllable appears to have been (always ?) e, 
whatever the stem vowel might be. And Cicero and Caesar are said 
to have used memordi, spepondi, pepugi. 

If the stem vowel is a, it is changed to e before two consonants, to 
1 before one ; ae is changed to I. Before single 1 g and 6 become u. 

If the stem begins with sp, sc, st, the second consonant is redu- 
plicated, and the s prefixed to the reduplication syllable. 


die- (Pr. disc- for dic-sc-), dl-dic-i ; pare-, pg-perc-i ; 

pag- (Pr. pang- ; comp. pac-iscor), pg-plg-i ; pose-, p6-posc-i ; 

pug- (Pr. pung-), pu-pug-i ; tag- (Pr. tang-), tg-tlg-i ; 

cad-, cg-cld-i ; caed-, cS-cid-i ; 

tud- (Pr. tund-), ttt-tttd-i ; 

morde-, mO-mord-i; sponde-, sp6-pond-i; tonde-, t6-tond-i; 


can-, cg-cln-i ; -mgn-, mg-mm-i ; 


fan-, fg-fell-i ; p61- (Pr. pell-) , pg-pul-i ; 

t61- (Pr. toll-), tg-tul-i in prae-Augustan poets; usually tul-i; 

curr-, cu-curri ; parl-, pg-pgr-i ; 

da-, dg-di ; Bta- (Pr. sta-), stg-ti ; stl- (Pr. si-st), stl-ti ; 

310 ii. Perfect stem formed by lengthening the stem vowel. 

If the stem vowel be a, it is changed to 5 (except in scabgre). 

rup- (Pr. rump-), rup-i ; scab-, scab-i; 

gin-, em-i ; capl-, cep-i ; 

Hciv- (Pr. linqv-), liqv-i ; vie- (Pr. vine-), vic-i ; 

ag-, eg-i ; frag- (Pr. frang-), freg-i : 

Igg-, leg-i ; Pag- (Pr. pang-), peg-i; 

faci-, fec-i ; JacI-, Jec-1 ; fugl-, fug-I ; 

6d-, ed-i; fiid- (Pr. fund-), fud-i; 6d- (Pr. obsolete), 6d-i; 

sgde, sed-1, vide-, vid-i; f6dl-, fod-i. 

vgnl-, ven-1. 

Chap. XXIJ] Formation of the Perfect Stem. 125 

j&va-, juv-i ; lava- (old lav-), lav-i ; 

cave-, cav-i ; fave-, fav-i ; f6ve-, fov-i ; 

mdve-, mov-i ; pave-, pav-i ; vdve-, vov-i. 

The lengthening of the root-vowel in the verbs which have v for their 
final consonant is probably due to the absorption of a suffixed v ( 316), 
e.g. cavi is for cav-vi or cavui. In a similar way vlci, vldi, veni may 
have arisen from an absorption of a reduplicated v ; e.g. for vS-vIci, vSvIdi, 

311 iii. Perfect stem formed by suffixing a. 

If the present stem ends in a vowel, the vowel is dropped before the 
suffixed s. None of the verbs whose present stem ends in a have their 
perfect formed by s suffixed. 

This suffix is supposed to be the same as that of the first aorist in 

P. B. carp-, carp-s-i; nub-, nup-s-i; rep-, rep-s-i; 

scalp-, scalp-s-i ; scrib-, scrip-s-i ; sculp-, sculp-s-i ; 

serp-, serp-s-i ; saepi-, saep-s-i ; 

jiibe-, jussi (jou-s-i old form : probably jub-eo is for j6v-eo). 
M. A euphonic p is generally inserted before s : m is once assimilated. 
com-, comp-s-i ; dem-, demp-s-i ; prom-, promp-s-i ; sum-, sump-s-i ; 
prSrn-, pres-si (for pren-s-i) ; tern- (Pr. temn-), temp-s-i. 


Ic, re, Ig, rg drop the guttural before s. 
C. QV. c6qv-, cox-i; dic(Pr. dlc-),dix-i; due- (Pr. due-), dux-i; 

pare-, par-s-i (also peperci, 309) ; 

luce-, lux-i ; mulce-, mul-s-i ; torqve-, tor-s-i ; 

fare!-, far-s-i ; fulci-, ful-s-i; sanci-, sanx-i; 

sarci-, sar-s-i ; vinci-, vinx-I ; 

-Hci- (e.g. aUIcioJ), -lex-1; -spiel- (e.g. asplcio), -spex-i. 

G. GV. cing-, cinx-i ; fig-, fix-i ; fing-, finx-i ; 

-fllg-, flix-i ; flugv-(Pr.flu-),flux-i; jung-, junx-i ; 

-16g- (in dilgg-, intellgg-, neg!6g-), -lex-i ; merg-, mer-s-i ; 

emung-, emunx-i; pang- (or pag-), panx-i (usually peg-i or 

ping-, pinx-i; plang-, planx-i; -pung-, -punx-i; 

r6g-, rex-i; sparg-, spar-s-i; stingv-, stinx-i; 

string-, strinx-i ; strugv- (Pr. stru-), strux-i ; siig-, sux-i ; 

t6g-, tex-i ; tingv-, tinx-i ; vigv- (Pr. vlv-), vix-i ; 

ungv-, unx-I; 

alge-, al-s-i ; auge-, aux-i ; frige-, frix-i ; 

fulge-, ful-s-i ; indulge-, indul-s-i ; luge-, lux-i ; 

mulge-, mul-s-i; conigve- (Pr. cSnive-), terge-, ter-s-L 


turge-, tur-s-i; urge-, ur-s-i ; 

trail-, trax-i ; v6h-, vex-L 



[Book IT. 

The dental falls away 

before s, or is assimilated to it; the preceding 

vowel is lengthened. 

T. fleet-, flex-i ; 

mitt-, mi-s-i ; 

nect-, nex-i ; 

pect-, pex-i ; 

sent!-, sen-s-i; 

quatl-, quas-si; 

D. ced-, ces-s-i; 

claud-, clau-s-i; 

divld-, divi-s-i ; 

laed-, lae-s-i ; 

lud-, Itt-s-i ; 

plaud-, plau-s-i; 

rad-, ra-s-i ; 

rod-, ro-s-i ; 

trud-, tru-s-i ; 

vad-, va-s-i; 

arde-, ar-s-i ; 

ride-, rl-s-i; 

suade-, sua-s-i. 


mane-, man-s-i ; 

Liquids, fa'c. 

veil-, vul-s-i ; 

ge"s- (Pr. ge"r-), ges-s-i ; us- (Pr. ur), us-s-i ; 

naere-, hae-s-i ; 

hausi- (Pr. hauri-), 



iv. () Perfect stem formed by suffixing u (vowel). 

Labials, strep-, strep-u-i ; 
trSm-, trgm-u-i ; 
crgpa-, crep-u-i; 
dOma-, dom-u-i; 
habg-, hab-u-i ; 

rub6-, (Pr. also rubesc-), rub-u-i ; 
sorbg-, sorb-u-i ; 
t6p6-, (Pr. also tSpesc-), te>u-i; 
rapl-, rap-u-i. 

313 Gutturals, frlca-, fric-u-i ; 
en6ca-, engc-u-i, (also en6c-a-vl) ; 
sca-, s6c-u-i. 

arce"-, arc-ui ; 

jac6-, jac-u-i; 

place-, plac-u-i ; 

egS-, Sg-u-i ; 

r!g-, (Pr. also rlgesc-), rlg-u-I ; 

fr6m-, fr6m-u-i ; ge"m-, 

v6m-, v6m-u-i. 

ciiba-, (Pr. also cumb-), cub-u-i; 

tlm6-, tlm-u-i. 

lubS-, lub-u-it ; 

sene"-, (Pr. sgnesc-), s6n-u-i; 

stiipS-, (Pr. also stupesc-), stiip-u-i; 

torpg-, (Pr. also torpesc-), torp-u-i. 

mica-, mlc-u-i, (but dimicavi) ; 
-plica-, -pllc-u-i, (also -pllc-a-vl) 

d5c-u-i ; d6c6-, d6c-u-i ; 

lice"-, lic-u-it ; n6cS-, n6c-u-i ; 

tac6-, tac-u-i. 

plgg-, p!g-u-it ; 

vlgg-, (Pr. also vigesc-), vlg-u-i. 

314 Dentals, stert-, stert-u-i. 
late-, (Pr. also latesc-), lat-u-i ; 
innot-, (Pr. inn6tesc-),innot-u-i; 
paenlte"-, paenit-u-it ; 

madS-, (Pr. also madesc-), mad-u-i ; 
sordg-, (Pr. also sordesc-), sord-u-i ; 

315 Nasals, Liquids, &c. 

N. gSn-, (Pr. gign-), gSn-u-i. 
sOna-, s6n-u-i ; 
emmS-, emin-u-i ; 
sn6- (Pr. sSaesc-), sgn-u-i ; 

vSta-, v6t-u-i (once v6t-a-vl). 

nltS-, (Pr. also nitesc-), nlt-u-i ; 

6port6-, 6port-u-it ; 

patS-, (Pr. also patesc-), pat-u-i. 

pudS-, pud-u-it ; 


t6na-, t6n-u-i. 
in6n6-, m6n-u-i ; 
tSn-, t6n-u-i. 

Chap. XXL] Formation of the Perfect Stem. 127 

L. al-, al-u-i ; col-, col-u-i ; consul-, consul-u-i ; 

mol-, m61-u-i ; 61-, (also 616-), 61-u-i ; v61-, v61-u-i. 

ca!6-, (Pr. also calesc-), cal-u-i ; caUS-, (Pr. also callesc-), call-u-i ; 
coalfi-, (Pr. coalesc- intrans. ; comp. alo trans.), coal-u-i ; 
d616-, d61-u-i ; pallg-, (Pr. also pallesc-), paU-U-i ; 

sll6-, (Pr. also sUesc-), sll-u-i ; studS-, stud-u-i ; 
vale"-, (Pr. also valesc-), val-u-i. 
evlle", (Pr. evnesc-), evH-u-i, 
sail-, sal-u-i (rarely salii). 

R. sr-, s6r-u-i. 

are, (Pr. also aresc-), ar-u-i ; care"-, car-u-i ; 
durS-, (Pr. dflresc-}, dUr-u-i ; fl6r6-, (Pr. also floresc-), flor-u-i ; 
horr6-, (Pr. also horresc-), horr-u-i ; m6rS-, m6r-u-i ; 
par6-, par-u-i; terrS-, terr-u-i. 

ap6r-u-i ; 6p6rl-, 6p6r-u-i. 

S. nex-, nex-u-i ; p6s-, (Pr. pon-), p6s-u-i ; tex-, tex-u-i. 

cense"-, cens-u-i ; tors-, (Pr. torre"-), torr-u-i. 

Semivowels, ferv- (also ferv6- and ferve-sc-), ferb-u-i (also fervi). 

316 iv. (b} Perfect stem formed by suffixing v (consonant). 

The consonantal v is suffixed to vowel stems only (except pasco ?) r 
and the preceding vowel is always long. 

Almost all verbs with stems in a- or I- have their perfect stem 
formed in this way. So also 

Labials, cupl, (Pr. cupl-), cupl-v-i ; sapi-, (Pr. sapl-), sapl-v-i. 

Dentals. pe"tl-, (Pr. pe"t-), pet!-v-i ; ru'dl-, (Pr. rud-), mdl-v-I. 


arcessl-, (Pr.arcess-),arcessl-v-i; capessl-, (Pr. capess-), capessl-v-i ;. 
pdsi-, (Pr. pon-), posl-v-i (always in Plaut., Ter. ; for posui see 315) ; 
quaesl-, (Pr. quaer-), quaesl-v-i. 

pas-, (Pr. pasc-, for pas-sc-), pa-v-i. 

317 Monosyllabic voivel -verbs : (also oloo, quiesco). 

A. sa-, (Pr. ser-), se-v-i ; stra-, (Pr, stern-), stra-v-i. 

0. n6-, (Pr. nose-), no-v-L 

U. fu-, fu-v-i (Plaut. but usually fui) ; comp. pin-, pliivi (also plui). 
E. ere-, (Pr. cer-n-), cre-v-i ; ere-, (Pr. cre-sc-), cre-v-i ; 

fle-, fla-v-i ; de-le-, dele-v-i ; 

ne-, ne-v-i ; -615- (e.g. abole-sc-o, adole-sc-o, obsole-sc-o), -615-v-i ; 

-pie-, ple-v-i ; quie-, (Pr. quiesc-), quie-v-i ; 

spre-, (Pr. sper-n-), spr5-v-i; sue, (Pr. sue-sc-), sue-v-i. 

1. cl-, (Pr. cie-, also cl-), cl-v-i ; I-, (Pr. ind. ist pers. eo), i-v-i ; 

1I-, (Pr. Hn-), H-v-i and le-v-i ; qul-, (Pr. ind. ist pers. queo), qul-v-i ; 

scl-, (Pr. sci-sc- ; besides the regular I verb scio), sci-v-i ; 

si-, (Pr. sin-), sl-v- ; trt-, (Pr. t6r-), trl-v-i (cf. 31 d). 

128 INFLEXIONS. [Book II. 

318 v. Perfect stem, same as present stem. 

This is frequent (i) in the compounds of verbs of which the simple 
has a reduplicated perfect (see 309); (a) by the dropping of v, in per- 
fects, in -Ivi, -evl, -avl (see 306); (3) regularly in verbs with u 
stems, which with other, chiefly consonantal, stems are here named : 

Labials, bib-, blbi ; lamb-, Iambi. 

Gutturals. Ic-, Ici. conigve"-, (Pr. cSnlve-), conlvi (also conixl). 

Denials, vert-, vert-i. 

-cand-, -cand-i ; cud-, ctld-i ; -fend-, -fend-i ; 

fld-, (Pr. find-), fid-i (probably for feTId-i) ; mand-, mand-i ; 

pand-, pand-i ; prghend-, prehend-i ; scand-, scand-i ; 

seld-, (Pr. scind-), scld-i (sci-cld-i old) ; sld-, sldi- ; 

prande-, prand-i ; retund-, retundl ; stride-, strld-i. 

Liquids and Sibilants. 
L. psall-, psall-i ; vol-, (Pr. veU-), veU-i (rarely vulsi). 

R. verr-, verr-i. comperl-, compgr-1; 

repSrl-, r6pp6r-i (both probably compounds of a perfect pgperi). 
S. pins-, {also pis-), pins-i ; vis-, vIs-L 

facessi-, (Pr. facess-), facess-i; Incessi-, (Pr. incess-), incess-i ; 

lacessi-, (Pr. lacess-), lacess-i. 

319 Vo^vels. U, vowel and consonant. 

acu-, acu-i ; argu-, argu-i ; exu-, exu-i ; 

fu-, fu-i (in Plautus sometimes fu-vi) ; -grfl-, -gru-i ; 

imbu-, imbu-i ; indfl.-, indu-i ; Ifl-, lu-i ; 

metu-, m6tu-i ; mlnii-, minu-i ; plfl-, plu-i, also pliivi ; 

nu-, nu-i ; spu-, spu-i ; statil-, statu-i ; 

sternu-, sternu-i ; sfl-, sul ; trlbfl-, trlbu-i ; 

solv-, solv-i ; volv-, volv-I ; ferve-, ferv-i (also ferbui). 

I. adi-, (Pr. ind. ist pers. sing, adeo), adi-i ; so usually the compounds of eo ; 
inqui-, (Pr. ind. inquam), inquli; sail-, sal-i-i (rare, usually salui). 


320 THE supine stem has a common base with the stem of the past and 
the future participles, and with that of some verbal substantives, to 
which class the supines themselves belong; e.g. supine, ama-t-u-; past 
part, ama-t-o- ; fut. part, ama-t-oiro- -, subst. denoting agent, ama-t-6r- ; 
denoting action ama-t-ion-. This common base, which will be here 
spoken of as the supine stem, is -t- suffixed to the stem of the verb. 

Chap. XXII.} Formation of the Supine Stem. 129 

When the verb-stem ends in a vowel, the vowel is, if long, gene- 
rally retained; if short, almost always changed, except in monosyl- 
lables, to I ( 38), or omitted altogether. A few of the verbs which 
have a consonant stem, have -It- (instead of -t in the supine), as if from 
a vowel stem. When the verb-stem ends in a consonant, or loses its 
final vowel, t is, when following certain consonants, changed to 3. A 
few other instances of this softening admit of special explanation. 

The verbs here will be classified according as they do or do not exhibit 
a vowel before the supine suffix, and, subordinately to that, according to 
the final vowel or consonant of the verb-stem. 

N.B. The supine itself will be here named when either supine, past 
participle, or verbal substantive in -tu- exists : otherwise such other form 
from the same base, as does exist. 

321 i. Verbs with a vowel preceding the supine suffix. 

A. i. Verbs having a in supine stem ; 
na- (for ggna- ? Pr. inf. nasci), natum ; 
stra-, (Pr. stern-), stra-tum ; tla-, (Pr. toll-), la-turn ; 
ama-, ama-tum ; and all other verbs with derivative a stems. 
frlca-, frlca-tum (also fric-tum) ; mica-, -mica- turn ; 
n6ca-, neca-tum (but cf. 326) ; s6ca-, secaturus (once). 

2. Verbs having -a in supine stem ; 

da-, da-turn ; ra-, (Pr. inf. reri) : ratum ; sa-, (Pr. s6r-), sa-tum ; 
sta-, (Pr. inf. stare ; also si-st8re), sta- turn (but in some compounds 

3. Verbs having -I (for -a) in supine stem ; 

crSpa-. crepl-tum ; cuba-, (Pr. also cumb-), cubl-tum ; 

ddma-, d6ml-tum ; -plica-, -pllcl-tum (also plica-turn ; 

s5na-, sdnl-tum (sona-turus, once) ; 
tona-, tbnl-tum (intona-tus, once) ; veta-, v6tl-turn. 

In juva-, ju-tum (rarely juva-turus) ; 

lava- (also lav-), lau-tum ; the I is absorbed by the v preceding. 

322 0. no-, (Pr. nose-), no-turn ; po-, (potare frequentative) po-tus, 

cognd- (cf. 300), (so also agn6-), cognl-tum. 

323 U. i. Verbs having u in supine stem ; 

acu-, acu-tum ; argtt-, argu-tum ; dilu-, dUu-tum ; 

exu-, exu-tum ; imbiU, imbu-tum ; indu-, indii-tum ; 

minu-, minu-tum ; -nu-, nu-tum (abnulturus in Sail.) ; 

spu-, spa-turn ; statti-, statu-tum ; stl-, sft-tum ; 

tribu-, tribu-tuni ; ttl- (Pr. tue- usually), tu-tum. 

15qv-, locfl-tum ; seqv-, s6cu-tum; 

solv-, solu-tum ; volv-, volu-tum. 

fru- (for frugv-) has rarely frulturus (usually, fruc-tum). 

2. Verbs having -ii in supine stem ; 

rii-, ru-tum, (but rutum according to Varr. ; fut. part, is rui-turus) ; 

pu-, (whence putare frequentative), pu-tus (adj.) ; 

clti-, (almost always clue-), -clutum (inclutus). 

L. G. 9 


324 E- i. Verbs having -e in supine stem : 

ere-, (Pr. cern-, also Pr. cresc-), cretum ; dele-, dele-turn ; 

fie-, fle-tum ; ne-, ne-tum (Ulp.) ; 

-ole- (Pr. obs-, es-olesc-), -die-turn; -pie-, ple-tum; 

quie-, quie-tum ; sue-, (Pr. suesc-), s-uetum ; 

spre-, (Pr. spern-), spre-tum. 

vie-, vietum Ter., Lucr. (but vieturn Hor. apparently). 

2. Verbs having I (for -6) in supine stem ; 

abSle"-, ab51!-tum ; calg-, .call-turus ; care"-, care-turus; 

d51e-, d6H-turus ; exerce"-, exercltum ; 

tabe"- (and compounds debe-, praebe"-), habl-tum ; 

jacS-, jaciturus ; lice"-, licl-tum ; lube"-, lubl-tum ; 

mre-, m6rl-tum ; misgre"-, mls6rl-tum (rarely miserttun) ; 

m6ne-, monl-tum ; noc6-, n6cl-tum ; par6-, parl-turus ; 

plg-, plgl-tum ; place-, placl-tum ; pude-, pudl-tum ; 

sol6-, soli- turn ; tac6-, tacltus (adj.); terr6-, terrl-tum; 

vale-, vall-turus ; v6r6-, v6rl-tum. 

cav6, cavl-tum (old : usually cau-tum) ; 

fave-, fau-tum (for favi-tum ; cf. favltor Plant.). So also 

fovS-, fo-tum; m6v6-, m6-tum; vdvS-, votum. 

325 I. i. Verbs having -I in supine stem; audi-, audl-tum; and others 

which have -ivi in perfect, except those in 303 b. 
bland!-, blaudi-tum ; largi-, largl-tum ; menti-, menti-tum ; 

moll-, m61i-tum ; parti-, parti-turn ; p6tl-, poti-tum. 

sorti-, sortltum. 

sand-, sanci-tum (sanctum more frequently); 
pe"ri-, p6r-Itus, adj. (but in comp. -per-tum); 
opperi-, opperitum (also oppertum) ; 
obllvi-, oblitum (for obllvitum) probably has stem in I. 
cupl-, cupi-tum ; p6ti-, (Pr. p6t-), p6tl-tum ; 

quaesi-, (Pr. quaer-), quaesl-tum; 

riidi-, (Pr. rud-), rudl-tum; trl-, <Pr. tfa-), trltum; 

arcessi-, (Pr. arcess-), arcessl-tum ; so also lacessl-tum, capessi-turn, 


2. Verbs having -I in supine stem ; 

cl-, (Pr. cie-), cl-tum (sometimes -ci-tum) ; 

I-, (Pr. ind. eo), I-tum) ; U-, (Pr. lln-), U-tum; 

qui-, (Pr. ind. queo), qul-tum; si-, (Pr. sin-), sl-tum. 

fugl-, fugi-tum ; ellel-, ellcl-tum (but illicl-, Ulec-tum, &c.), 

morl-, morl-turus ; 6rl-, 6rl-turus (sup. or-tum) ; 

parl-, parl-turus (sup. par-turn); pdsl-, (Pr. pon-), p6sl-tum. 

326 Consonant Stems. S1-, all-turn (more usually al-tum) ; 

fr6m-, fr6m-I-tum ; gSm-, g6m-I-tum; g6n-, (Pr. gign-), gnl-tum; 
in51-, m61-I-tum ; strgp-, strSp-I-tum ; v6m-, v6m-I-tum. 

ii. Verbs with a consonant preceding the supine suffix. 

327 l. Verbs which retain -t-. 


P. carp-, carp-turn ; cle"p-, clep-tum ; rep-, rep-turn ; 

rup-, (Pr. rump-), rup-tum; scalp-, scalp-turn; 

sculp-, sculp-tum ; sarp-, sarp-tum ; serp-, serp-tum. 

Chap. XXII.} Formation of the Supine Stem. 131 

apl-, (Pr. api-sc-), ap-tum; capl-, cap - turn ; 

rapl-, rap-turn ; saepl-, saep-tum. 

B. nub- (Pr. nub-), nup-tum ; scrib-, scrip-turn. 

M. 6m-, em-p-tum ; tern-, (Pr. temn-), tem-p-tum. 

328 Gutturals. After a preceding consonant (except n), the guttural usually 
falls away. 

C. Qv. C6qv-, coctum; die-, (Pr. die-), die-turn; 
due-, (Pr. due-), due-turn ; ic-, ic-tum ; 

llqv-, (Pr. linqv-), -lie-turn; vie-, (Pr. vine-), Vic-turn. 

frlca-, iric-tum (also frlca-tum) ; engca-, en6c-tum ; 

sSca-, sectum (also s6caturus). 

arcS-, arc- turn or ar-tum ; d8cS-, doc- turn ; 

miscS-, mix-turn (in MSS. often mis-turn) ; 

torqvfi-, tor- turn. 

amlcl-, amic-tum ; fare!-, far- turn ; fulcl-, ful-tum ; 

sancl-, sanctum (also sancl-tum) ; sarcl-, sar-tum ; 

vinci-, vine-turn. 

facl-, fac-tum ; jacl-, jactum ; 

nanci-, (Pr. nanci-sc-), nanc-tum or nac-tum; -splci-, -spec-turn. 

329 G. GV. (For stems ending in -lg-, -rg, see 333) ; 

ag-, actum ; cing-, cine- turn ; 

fig-, (Pr. and Perf. fing-), fic-tum; -nig-, -flic-turn; 

flugv-, (Pr. flu-), fluc-tus subst., also fluxus adj.; 

frag-, (Pr. frang-), frac-tum ; frig-, fric-tum ; 

frugv-, (Pr. fru-), fructum; fung-, func-tum ; 

jung-, junc-tum ; leg-, lec-tum ; 

-mung-, -munc-tum ; pag-, (Pr. pang-), pactum ; 

pig-, (Pr. and Perf. ping-), pic-turn ; plang-, plane-turn ; 

pung-, punc-tum ; r6g-, rec-tum ; 

rig-, (Pr. ring-), ric-tus subst. ; stingv-, stinc-tum ; 

strlg-, (Pr. and Perf. string-), stric-tum; 

strugv-, (Pr. stru-), struc-tum ; sug-, suc-tum ; 

tag-, (Pr. tang-), tac-tum ; t6g-, tec-turn ; 

tingv-, tinc-tum ; ungv-, unc-tum ; vigv-, (Pr. viv-), vic-tum ; 

augS-, auc-tum ; Itig6-, luc-tus subst. 

-llcl-, -lectum (except ellcl-tum), 

H. trah-, trac-tum; ven-, vec-tum. 

330 Dentals. See 334. 

tend-, ten- turn (also tensum; probably the supines of tendo and teneo 

are mixed) ; 
c6m6d-, comes-tum (rarely). 

Nasals, Liquids, &>c. 

N. Can-, can- tus subst.; men-, e.g. commln-isc-, commentum 

tentum ; v6nl-, ven-tum. 

331 L. al-, al-tum ; c61-, cul-tum ; 

consul-, consul-turn ; occul-, occul-tum ; 

v61- (Pr. inf. velle), vultus, subst. expression. 
ad61e- (Pr. adolesc-), adul-tum. 
sail-, sal-turn ; sSpgll-, sgpul-tuni. 


R. c6r-, (Pr. cern-), cer-tus adj. (also ere-, cre-tus) ; 

sSr-, -ser-tum (also serta, n. pi. garlands}. 

6ri-, or-tum (cf. 325. 2) ; ap6rl-, aper-tum ; parl-, par-turn. 

S. f6s-, (Pr. fSri-?), fes-tum (e.g. infes-tus, manlfes-tus) ; 

ggs-, (Pr. ge"r-), ges-tum ; pas-, (Pr. pasc-), pas-turn ; 

pis-, pis-turn ; qu6s-, (Pr. quSr-), ques-tum ; 

tex-, tex-tum; us-, (Pr. ur-), us-tum; 

tors-, (Pr. torre-), tos-tum. 

hausl-, (Pr. hauri-), haus-tum; 

p6sl-, (Pr. pon-), pos-tum (usually pSsItum). 

332 2. Verbs with t suffixed : but softened to s by the influence usually 
either of a preceding dental, or of two consonants of which the first is a 
liquid. A vowel preceding -sum is always long. (Other cases are but 
few; and the sum may be partly due to the active perfect (if any) 
having -si, as it has in all these exceptional cases, except censui.) 

333 Labials, lab-, lap-sum ; jube"-, jus-sum (for jflve"-, jousum ?) ; 
prem-, pres-sum (for pren-sum). 

Gutturals. The guttural usually drops out. 

C. pare-, par-sum. mulce"-, mul-sum. 

G. fig-, fixum; flugv-, (Pr. flu-), fluxus adj. (fluc-tus subst.); 

merg-, mer-sum ; sparg-, spar-sum, 

midge"-, mul-sum; terge"-, ter-sum. 

334 Dentals. The dental either drops out, the preceding vowel being 
therefore lengthened, or is assimilated. N. B. All dental stems have -sum. 

T. fleet-, flexum ; mSt-, mes-sum ; 

mitt-, mis-sum ; nect-, nexum ; 

nict-, (Pr. nit-), nixum or nl-sum ; pect-, pexum ; 

-plect-, -plexum ; vert-, ver-sum ; tit-, u-sum. 

fat6-, fas-sum. 

metl- , mensum ; senti-, sen-sum ; 

fatl-, (Pr. fatisc-), fes-sus adj. ; pati-, pas-sum; quatl-, quas-sum. 

D. cad-, ca-sum ; caed-, cae-sum ; 
ced-, ces-sum; claud-, clau-sum; 
cftd-, cu-sum ; dlvid-, dlvl-sum ; 
6d-, e-sum (rarely comes-tum, from com6d-) ; 
-fend-, -fen-sum ; fid-, fl-sum ; 

fid-, fissum ; frend-, fres-sum or fre-sum ; 

fud-, (Pr. fund-), fu-sum ; laed-, laesum ; 

lud-, m-sum ; mand-, man-sum ; 

6d-, -osum (e.g. per-osus, exosus) ; pand-, pan-sum or pas-sum ; 

pend-, pen-sum ; plaud-, plau-sum ; 

prehend-, prehen-sum ; rad-, ra-sum ; 

rod-, ro-sum ; scand-, scan-sum ; 

scld-, (Pr. scind-), scis-sum ; tend-, ten-sum (also ten-turn) ; 

trud-, trfl-sum ; tud-, (Pr. tund-), tu-sum or tun-sum. 

arde-, ar-silrus ; aude-, au-sum ; 

gavld-e-, (Pr. gaude-), gavl-sum; morde-, mor-sum ; 

pende-, pen-sum ; prande-, pran-sum ; 

ride-, rl-sum ; s6de-, ses-sum ; 

Chap. XXII.] Formation of the Supine Stem. 133 

sponde-, spon-sum ; suade-, sua-sum ; 

taede-, tae-sum ; tonde-, ton-sum ; vide-, vl-sum. 

ordl-, or-sum ; f6dl-, fos-sum ; gradl-, gres-sum. 

335 A r asats, Liquids, &c. 
N. mine-, man-sum. 

L. -cell-, -cul-sum ; fall-, fal-sum ; peU-, pul-sum ; 

saU-, sal-sum ; veU-, vul-sum. 

R. curr-, cur-sum ; haere-, hae-sum. verr-, ver-sum. 

S. cense-, cen-sum ; hausl- (Pr. hauri-), haus-tum (also hau-surus). 

Many verbs have no forms from a supine stem in use. 

336 The supines are respectively the accusative and ablative (or in some 
uses apparently the dative), of a verbal noun in -u. They are called 
respectively active supine, or supine in -urn, and passive supine or 
supine in -u. 

From this so-called supine stem are formed, as has been said, the 
future participle active by suffixing -urc~, sing. nom. -urus (m.) ; -ura 
(f.), -urum (n.) ; and the past participle passive, by suffixing the or- 
dinary case-endings of the second class ; e. g. sing. nom. -us (m.), a (f.), 
-urn (n.). 

These participles, in the appropriate gender and number, are used in 
the nominative case with the finite tenses of the verb sum, and in the 
accusative as well as the nominative with the infinitive of the same verb 
to supply the place of certain tenses for which there is no special form. 
The future participle thus supplies additional future tenses in the active 
voice especially in the subjunctive: the past participle supplies the 
perfect tenses of the passive voice, whether the passive voice have a 
strictly passive meaning, or, as in deponents, an active or reflexive 


337 As the ordinary classification of verbs is often referred to, it may be 
convenient here to give a brief account of it. It is as old at least, as the 
fourth century after Christ. 

Verbs are generally divided according to their form into four classes, 
called Conjugations. 

The four conjugations are distinguished by the vowel which immediately 
precedes re in the infinitive mood; which in the ist conjugation is S, I in the 
second S 1 : in the third 6, not usually belonging to the stem: in the fourth I. 

The distribution of the verbs among these conjugations is as follows. 

1 i.e. 5 according to the ordinary doctrine : but see 302 b. 

134 INFLEXIONS. [Book II. 

I. First conjugation contains all vowel verbs, whose stem ends in . 
as am-o, / love, infin. ama-re. 

II. Second conjugation contains all vowel verbs whose stem ends in e; 
as mone-o, / advise, infin. mone-re. 

III. Third conjugation contains all verbs whose stem ends in a con- 
sonant, or in u, or a variable i (called I above, 303 c); as 

r6g-o, / rule, infin. r6g-6re. 
tribu-o, I assign, infin. trlbu-ere. 
capi-o, / take, perf. cep-i, infin. cap6-re. 

IV. Fourth conjugation contains all vowel verbs whose stem ends in I, 
as audi-o, I hear, infin. audl-re. 

333 The following are the regular forms of the perfect and supine in the 
several conjugations according to the ordinary description. 

In the ist conjugation the regular perfect is formed by the addition 
of vl to the stem, the regular supine by the addition of turn, e.g. ama-vi, 

The exceptions are few : two verbs do, sto have a reduplicated perfect 
dSdi, steti: two others, jftvo, lavo, lengthen the stem vowel, e.g. (juvi, 
lavi) : the others add ui to the stem, the final a being omitted ; e.g. crSpa-, 
crSp-ui. None form the perfect in si or i simple. None form the supine 
in sum. 

In the 2nd conjugation the regular perfect is formed by the addition 
of ui to the stem, the regular supine by the addition of Itum, the final stem 
vowel e being omitted, as mone-, mon-ui. The exceptions are numerous, 
and of all kinds : the larger number adding si. Many have the supine 
in sum. 

In the 3rd conjugation all the forms are much used, some having 
even the long characteristic vowel of the other three conjugations, e.g. 
stsrno, stravi ; sperno, sprevi ; tero, trlvi. These are clearly instances of 
a vowel stem in the perfect and supine superseding a consonant stem. 
Many have the supine in sum. 

In the 4th conjugation, the regular perfect is formed by the addition 
of vi and the regular supine by the addition of turn to the stem; e.g. 
audl-vi, audi-tum. The exceptions are few : one lengthens the stem vowel 
(vgni-o, v6ni): one simply adds the personal inflexions (compgri-o, com- 
pgr-i). Three have perfect in ui ; viz. aperio, operio, and salio, nine have 
perfect in si. Two, viz. eo and cio, have short I in supine. None form 
the perfect by reduplication, except perhaps repSri-o, reppSr-i. Several 
have supine in sum. 




339 THE following list contains almost all the verbs of the Latin language, 
with certain exceptions, which exceptions are 

i. All verbs with a- or i- stems, which have their pres. infinitive in 
-are, -Ire (-ari, -Iri), perf. in -avi, -Ivl (-atus, -Itus, sum), and supine in 
-atum, -Itum. 

Chap. XXIV.] List of Verbs. 135 

i. All verbs with e- stems, which have perfect in -ui, but no supine. 
They are generally intransitive. 

3. Most inchoatives, which either have no perfect or supine, or one of 
the same form as the simple verb. 

4. Verbs compounded with prepositions. But such are named as 
differ from the form of the simple verb in perfect or supine, or which agree 
with it in having a reduplication in the perfect. 

5. A few verbs, with e- or i- stems, which have no perfect or supine. 
The supine is not much used, but is here mentioned wherever it or a 

perfect participle is known, as this is similarly formed. 

N.B. Where the English translation as given here, whether with or 
without a preposition, allows of the immediate addition of an object, the 
verb is transitive (though it may perhaps also be intransitive), e.g. arcesso, 
send for ; laedo, hurt, are transitive. Where it requires the addition of an 
English preposition, the verb is intransitive, e. g. ndceo, be hurtful. 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

accerso. See arcesso. 

acuo, sharpen actti acutum acfiere aeu- 

ago, do, drive egl actum age"re ag- 

adlgo, adegi, adactum, adiggro. So the other compounds, 
Except : cogo (cSegi, coactum, cog&re), dego, which has no perf. or 
supine, prodlgo which has perf. only, and 
circumago, perago, which retain a in pres., &c. 
satago is really two words : perf. egi satis. 
aio, say aj- 

The following forms only are preserved, pres. ajo, ais, alt (ais, ait in 
Plaut.), ajunt. Imp. ajebam, &c. complete. In Plant. andTer. aibam. 
Pres. subj. ajas, ajat. The part, aiens is used only as adj. 
algeo, be cold alsi algere alg-e- 

alo, nourish, raise alui altum a!6re al- 

alltum is found in post- Augustan writers. 
amicio, clothe amictum amlclre ain!c-i 

anilcui and am Ixl are both said to have been used for perf, 
ango, throttle, vex anggre ang- 

apiscor, fasten to one- aptus sum aptum apisci ap-I- 

sdf, get 
More usual in compound adlpiscor, adeptus sum, adipisci. See also 


arceo, inclose, keep ojf arcui (artus) arcere arc-e- 

artus, only used as adj. confined, narrow: 
exerceo, exercise, exercui, exercltum, exercgre, So also coerceo. 

) fetch, send for arcesslvl arcessltum arcessSre 

Another form (perhaps of different origin) is accerso. In pass. inf. 

arcesslri (accersiri) sometimes occurs. 

ardeo, be on fire arsi (arsurus) ardere ard-e- 

axguo, charge argui argutum argu6re argu- 

(with crime, &c.) 

argutus rare, except as adj. sharp. Fut. part, arguiturus (once in 

136 INFLEXIONS. [Book II. 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

audeo, dare ausus sum, ausum audere aud-e- 

ausus sum, I have dared ; ausus also (rarely) passive part. 
ave, imperat. hail (in Quintilian's time havg) also aveto, plur. avete : inf. 

avere. Martial has av5. 

aveo, long no perf. or sup. avere av-e- 

BMgeo, increase (trans.) auxi auctum augere aug-e- 

batuo, beat, fence batul batugre batu- 

(with a weapon) 

blbo, drink blbi blbgre blb- 

For supine and fut. part. p5tum, poturus are used. 

blto, go no perf. or sup. bltgre bit- 

Only in early dramatists. Plautus has compounds abito, adbito, inter - 
bito, perbito, rebito. 

cado, fall cgcldi casum cadgre cad- 

occldo, occldi, occasion, ocddSre. The other compounds, except 
rgcldo and (rarely) incldo, have no supine. 

caedo,/f//, cut, slay, cgcldi caesum caedgre caed- 

occido, occldi, occlsum, occidgre. So all the compounds. 

caleo, be hot calui (callturus) calere cal-g- 

calvor, play tricks (also as passive) calvi calv- 

Only in early writers for later calumniari. 

-cando, light , only in compounds. cand- 

e.g. accendo, accendi, accensum, accendgre. 

cano, sing, play cgclni (cantus cangre can- 

(on a harp, &c.) subst.) 

conclno, conclnui, concentum, conclngre. So occlno (also once occe- 
cini), incino and praeclno. No perf. found of other compounds. 

capesso, undertake capesslvi capessltum cftpessgre ] c P ess " 

capio, take cepi captum capgre cap-I- ' 

concipio, concepi, conceptum, conclpgre. So the other compounds, 

except antecapio, antecepi, anteceptum, antecapgre. 
careo, be in want carui (cariturus) carere car-g- 

caro, card (wool), very rare cargre car- 

carpo, nibble, pluck carpsi carptum carpgre carp- 

decerpo, decerpsi, decerptum, decerpgre. So the other compounds. 
caveo, be ware, be cavi cautum cavere cav-g- 

ivare of 

cedo, give way, yield up ces&i cessuni cedSre cd- 

cgdo, give, said to be old imperative 2nd per. sing. The plural cette (for 

cgdlte) only in early scenic poets. 

-cello, strike? only in compounds: celsus adj. high cell- 

percello (strike down], perculi, perculsus, percellgre. 
excello (distinguish myself} has (in Gellius) a perf. excellul. Of ante- 
cello and praecello no perf. or sup. are found, excelsus praecelsus, 
lofty, are used as adj. 

Wb&w, count, estimate^ censul censum censure cens-g- 

give opinion 

Chap. XXIV.} List of Verbs. 137 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

cerno, sift, distin- crevl jcrgtum cerngre jc6r- 

guish, decide, see (certus, adj. sure |cre- 

The meaning see is confined to pres., fut. and imp. tenses. 
decerno, decrSvi, decrgtum, decerngre. So the other compounds. 

* up civi oltu* 

The -i stem is rare in the simple verb : the -e stem rare in the com- 
pounds. accio makes (once) accltus ; *excio, excltus and excltus ; 
concio, concltus, and (once) concltus ; percio, percltus. 
cingo, gird cinxi cinctum cinggre cing- 

clango (rare) dang clanggre clang- 

claudo, shut clausi clausum claudgre claud 

conclude, conclusi, conclusion, concludere. So the other compounds. 
clgpo (old), steal clepsi cleptum clgpgre clgp- 

clueo, be spoken of -clutum cluere clu-e 

In Seneca (once) duo. Past part, only in compound Inclutus. 
c51o, till, pay atten- cdlui cultum cdlgre cdl- 

tion to 
So the compounds excdlo, excClui, excultum, exc61re, but accdlo, 

incdlo have no supine. Occulo has probably a different stem. 
coepio, begin coepi coeptum coepgre coep-I- 

Pres. ind. and subj. only in Plaut. Fut. coepiam in Cato. Imperf. 
subj. coepgrem once in Ter. Otherwise only perfect stem in use. 
But coeptus and coepturus are also used. (Coeptus sum often with 
a pass, infin. ; but also coepi.) The verb is apparently fi-om co-apio 

compesco. See pasco. 

conquinisco, crouch conquexi, old and rare conquinlscgre 

consulo, consult consului consultum consulgre consul- 

cSquo, cook coxi coctum cdqugre cdqv- 

credo. See do. 

crgpo, rattle crgpui crgpltum crgpare crgp-a- 

cresco, grow crevl crgtum crescgre cre- 

Though cresco is intransitive, it has a part, cretus, sprung from. 
cubo, lie, lie ill ctibui ciibltum ciibare ciib-a- 

cubavl is occasionally found. 

cudo, hammer cudi cusum cudgre cud- 

-cumbo, lie, only in compounds, as strengthened form of cubo. 

accumbo, accubul, acciibltum, accumbgre. 
ciipio, desire cuplvi ctipltum ciipgre ciip-I- 

cuplret once in Lucr. 

curro, run cucurri cursum currSre curr- 

The compounds frequently retain the reduplication, e.g. accucurri, 
dgcucurrl, excucurri ; more usually (in Cicero and Livy) drop it, e.g. 

deleo. See lino. 

depso, knead depsul depstum depsgre deps- 

dlco, say dixi dictum dlcgre dlc- 

disco, learn dldlci discgre die- 

Compounds retain reduplication, e.g. edisco, learn by heart, edldlci. 

1 38 INFLEXIONS. {Book 77. 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

dispesco. See pasco. 

divide, divide dlvlsi divlsum dlvldgre di-vld- 

do, give (see p. 106) dgdi datum dare da- 

The half- compounds circuindo, surround, pessumdo, ruin, satisdo, 

satisfy, venumdo, expose to sale, follow do precisely. 
credo, entrust, believe, vendo, sell, reddo, give back, and the compounds 
with monosyllabic prepositions, have consonant stems : e. g. credo, 
credldi, crSdltum, credgre. So also accredo, accredldi. 
The compound with prae exists only in praedltus, endued. 
The reduplication is retained in the compounds, except usually in 

For the passives of vendo, perdo, (except past part, and gerundive) 

veneo and (usually) pereo are used. 

dSceOj teach dbciil doctum d6cere d5c-g- 

dOleo, be in pain ddlui (dSHturus) ddlere d61-g- 

d6mo, tame domui ddmltum ddmare d6m-a- 

duco, drazv, lead, ac~ duxi ductum ducSre diic- 

gdo, eat edi esum 6dere gd- 

Supine sometimes essum. C6m6do has also (rarely) comestuni. 
6mo, buy (orig. take] emi emptum SmSre 6m- 

adlmo, ademl, ademptum, adlmSre. So other compounds, except 
^i) c66mo (cdemi, coemptum), perSmo, interfimo, which retain e: 
(2) the earlier compounds como, demo, promo, sCLmo, which make 

compsi, comptum, &c. 
o,0(seep. 107) Ivl Itum Ire !- 

Compounds always omit v (e.g. adil), in ist pers. perf., and usually in 

other persons of perfect and thence derived tenses. 
veneo, be for sale, perf. venii, is a compound of eo. It has no supine. 
VX.MO, strip ^(clothes, exui ezutum exu6re exu- 

facesso, cause t wafocff&cessl facessltum facessSre 

facio, make, do fed factum facfire fac-I- 

For the passive, in tenses formed from present stem, flo is used. 
proflc'lo, make progress, profeci, profectum, proflcgre. So the other 
compounds with prepositions. But calgfacio, tremgfacio, &c. being 
only half compounds retain a ( 74). 

proflciscor, set out (on ajoitrney), travel, prdfectum, prdflcisci. 
faUo, deceive, elude fgfelli falsum failure fall- 

refeUo, refute, refelli, refeUgre. 
farcio, stuff farsi fartum farclre farc-I- 

rSfercio, rgfersl, rgfertum, rgferclre. So also differtus. 
fateor, acknowledge fassum fatSri fat-6- 

confiteor, confessum, conflteri. So prdflteor. difElteor has no part. 


fatisco ) (fessus adj. (fatiscgre 

fatiscor (old) j y n > dro t weary) J jlatisci 

defgtiscor, defessum, defetisci. 

be favourable favi fautum favere fav-e- 

Chap. XXIV.] List of Verbs. 139 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

-fendo, strike, only in compounds. fend- 

defendo, ward off, guard, defend!, defensum, defendgre. So also 

offendo, strike against. 
ferio, strike (see ico) ferlre fer-I- 

(percussi, percussum are often used as perfect and supine.) 
fero, bear (see p. 107) (tuli) (latum) ferre fer- 

Perfect and supine are borrowed from tollo. 

afifgro, attuli, allatum, afferre ; 

aufgro, abstuli, ablatum, auferre ; 

differo, distiill, dllatum, differre ; 

offgro, obtuli, oblatum, offerre ; 

rgfgro, rettuli, relatum referre; 

(rarely rellatum) 

refert, it is of importance (probably for rei fert) is used as impersonal. 
suffgro has for perf. rarely susttili, usually sustinui. 

ferveo, boil, glow jferbui forvere ferv-5- 

A consonantal stem (e.g. fervit, fervfire) frequent in prae-Aug. and 

Aug. poets. 
fldo, trust flsum fidSre fid- 

fisus sum is used for perf., I have tmsted* 
flgo,yf^ fixi fixum flgfire ffg- 

flctus as past participle in Varro, R. R. and Lucr. 
fio, become (see p. 107) fi6ri fi- 

The compound infit, he begins, only in this one form (poetical). 

findo, cleave fidi fissum findgre fld- 

&ngo,form, invent finxi fictum finggre flg- 

fleo, weep flevi fletum flere fle- 

flecto, bend flexi flexum flectfire fiect- 

-fllgo, strike, only in compounds. 

affllgo, strike against, knock down, afflixi, afllictuin, affllge're. 

So the other compounds, except profllgo, put to rout, profligavi, profll- 
gatum, profllgare. 

fluo,_/7^7e/ fluxi (fluxus, adj. loose, fluSre fliigv- 

fluctus, sub. a wave.) 
f6dio, dig fodi fossum f6d6re f6d-I- 

Inf. fodlri, effodiri are found in the older language. 
fatur, he speaks fatum fari f,- 

The following only found : pres. ind. fatur ; fut. fabor, fabitur : perf. 
fatus est ; pluperf. fatus eram, erat ; imper. fare ; inf. fari : part. 
fantem, &c. (no nominative, except in phrase fans atque infans, 
Plaut.), fatus, fandus, and fatu. 

In compounds we have also -famur, -faniini : -fabar, farer, &c., and in 
imperat. &c., praefato, praefamino. 

fdveo, keep warm, fovl fotum fdvere fdv-- 


frango, break in pieces fxegl. fractum frangre frag- 

Compounds as confringo, confrggl, contractual, confringgre. 



[Book IT. 


Present. Perfect. 




Irgmo, roar, snort frgmui 




frendo, gnash (with the teeth) 

) fressum 

\ fresum 



frlco, rub 


frfgere frlg-e- 
frlggre frig- 
tral frugv- 

An old form fruniscor, 

frlgeo, be cold frisi 

frlgo, roast, (corn, &c.) frictum 

fruor, enjoy myself fructtun - 

fruitum once (Ulpian). Fut. part, frultilrus. 
frunitum is quoted from early writers. 

Vb&a, flee, fly from ftigl (fftglturus) fuggre fllg-I- 

totos>, prop " fulsi fultum fulclre fulc-I- 

fulgeo,y?a.s7* fulsi fulgere fulg-e- 

A consonantal stem e.g. fulglt, fulggre is found in prae-Aug. poets; 

twice in Vergil. 
fundo, pour, rout fUdi fUsum fundfire fud- 

(an enemy) 
fungor, get quit, dis- functum fungi fung- 

charge myself, (an office, &c.) 
fuo, grow? see sum ( 259, 260) 
furls, thou ragest furfire fur- 

Only furls, furlt, furunt, furebas, furebat, furgre, furens are found. 
gaudeo, be glad gavlsum gaudere gavld-e 

gavisus sum, / rejoiced. 

g6mo, sigh, groan ggmul gSmltum g6m6re g6m- 

g6ro, carry, perform gessl gestum g6r6re g6s- 

gigno, beget, produce g6nul gfinltum gigngre g6n- 

In old language (Lucr. Varr.), sometimes gSno is found. 
glisco, swell, kindle gllscgre gli- 

glubo, peel gluptum glubgre glflb- 

gradior, step gressum gradi grad-I- 

Compounds as aggrfidior, attack, aggressum, aggr6di. Inf. aggre- 

dlri, progredlri, ind. pres. aggredlmur are found in Plaut. 
-gmo only in compounds. grtt- 

congruo, agree, congrul, congrufire. So also ingruo, impend. 
habeo, have ^ habui habltum habere hab-6- 

So the compounds debeo, owe, debul, debltum, dgbgre; praebeo, 
afford, praebui, praebitum, praebgre (in Plautus dehibeo, prae- 
nlbeo) : probeo (Lucr.) for prohlbeo. 

haereo, stick, intr. haesi haesum haergre haer-e- 

haurio, drain, draw hausi haustum hauTlre haus-I- 


In Varr. once haurierint. Fut. part, 

hausurus, Verg. once, Stat. once, Sil. twice. 

(not hausus). 

hisco, gape, open the mouth, to speak hiscgre hi- 

jaceo, lie jacui (jaclturus) jacere jac-g- 

jacio, cast jeci jactum jacgre Jac-I- 

ablcio, abjeci, abjectum, ablcgre. So the other compounds. Disslcio 
for dis-jacio. 

porrlcio, offer (sacrifices), &c. porrectum, porrlcgre (without perf.). 

haustflrus (Cic. once) and 
The subst. is haustus 

Chap. XXIV.} List of Verls. 141 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

Ico (or Icio?), strike Ici ictuxn Icfire Ic- 

Of the present (rare), only icit, icitur, icimur occur : (fSrio is generally 

used instead). The perfect is often in MSS. written iecit. 
imbuo, steep, imbue imbui imbutum imbugre imbu- 

incesso, attack incessl incessfire incess- 

indulgeo, yield, intr. indulsi indulgere indulg e- 

(Indultum, &c. is only a late form.) 

induo, put on indui indutum induSre indu- 

(clothes, &c.) , , * 

inquam, quoth inquii jorinqvl- 

The following forms only occur. Pres. iml. inquam, inquls, inquit, 
inqulmus, inquiunt. Fut. inquies, iaquiet. Imperf. inquiebat. 
Perf. inquii, inquisti, inquit. Imperat. 2nd sing, inque, inqulto, 
plur. inqulte. 

Irascor, grow angry Iratum Irasci Ira- 

Iratus sum, I am angry; succensui, / (fired zip, i.e.) was angry. 
jiibeo, bid jussi jussum jiibere jiib-e- 

jungo, yoke, join junxi junctum junggre jung- 

juvo, help, delight juvi jutum juvare jiiv-a- 

fut. part, juvaturus. Adjiivo has adjuturus. 

labor, slip, glide lapsum labi lab- 

lacesso, provoke lacesslvi lacessltum lacessgre | acess " 

-lacio, entice. Only in compounds. laci- 

aUicio, allexi, aUectum, alllcgre. So illlcio, peUIcio. 
ellcio, ellcui, ellcltum, ellcSre. Prollcio has no perfect or supine. 

laedo, strike (rare), laesi laesuxn laedgre laed- 

coUIdo, dash together, colllsi, coUIsum, collldgre. So allldo. 

lambo, lick Iambi (once) lambgre lamb- 

langveo, be faint langvi langvere langv-e- 

lavo, wash lavi ^lautum lavare lav-a- 

A consonantal stem (e.g.lavit, lavSre, &c.) is frequent in prae-Augustan 

and Augustan poets. 
For compounds see luo. 

18go, pick ^lp, choose, legi lectum 16g6re l&g- 


colligo, collect, collegi, coUeetum, colligSre. So compounds gene- 
rally : 

Except that (i) allSgo, choose besides; perlfigo, read throtigh; praelfigo, 
read to others; rS16go, read again; sublSgo, pick up, substitute, 
retain e. 

(2) dilSgo (or dlllgo), love ; intellggo, understand ; neglggo, neglect, 
retain e and have perf. in -xi, e.g. neglexi. (Rarely intellegi, 



[Book II. 







Only used in 3rd pers. Rarely in plural. Also participle libens. (The 
stem vowel was in early times u; e.g. lubet.) 

llceo, be on sale llcui 

llceor, bid for Hcitus sum 

licet, it is permitted 

Only used in 3rd pers. 



Rarely in plural. 



Hcere Hc-g- 

LicSto, llcens, Hcitus, also 

lingo, lick linctum linggre ling- 

lino, besmear levl Htum llngre II- 

II vl is also found. 

In post-Augustan writers, we have Hnio, Hnivi, llnltum, linlre. 

deleo, blot out, delevi, deletum, delere, either belongs to this stem, or 

to -oleo, grow. 
linqvo, leave Hqvi linqvgre Hqv- 

The compound, rglinqvo, rgllqvi, rglictum, rglinqvgre, is more usual. 

llqveo, be clear, fluid llcul 
llqvor, melt, intr. 
16qvor, speak 

luceo, be light, beam luxi 

ludo, sport lusi 

lugeo, mourn, trans, luxi 

luo,/0jj', expiate lui 

Hqvere Hqv-g- 

Hqvi Hqv- 

16cutum Idqvi 16qv- 

Iflcere luc-e- 

lasum ludgre Ifld- 

(luctus subs.) lugere lug-e- 

lugre lu- 

Compounds retain the original meaning, ivash (luo = lavo), and have 

past part. e.g. dfluo, dflui, dflutum, dfluSre. 

mando, chew mandi (once) mansum mandgre mand- 

maneo, remain, await mansi mansuna manere man-e- 

emlneo, project, emlnui, emlnere (no supine). 
immlneo, impend, promineo, no perf. or supine. Permaneo is like 


mSdeor, be a remedy md5ri m6d-6- 

-m&niscor, only in compounds mn- 

Only perfect stem (with present meaning) in use. MSmlni, / remember. 

Imperative memento, mementote. 

commlniscor, devise, commentum, commlnisci. So also rgmlniscor, 
call to mind. 

mSrui mSrltum 

mersi mersum 

is intrans., but has part 

mSreo, earn 
mergo, sink, trans. 
emgrgo, emerge, 

metior, measure 
m6to, mow 
mfctuo, fear 

mSrere mgr-6- 
merggre merg- 
perf. emersus, having 

mensum metlri met-I- 

(messem feci) messum m6tere m6t- 

m6tui m6tu6re m6tu- 
mettitus, once in Lucret. 

mlco, quiver, fash mlcui mlcaxe mlc-a- 

emlco, emlcui, fut. part, emlcaturus. 
dlmlco, dlmlcavi (dlmlcui twice in Ovid), dlmlcatum. 

mingo minxi mictum minggre mlg- 

Another form of the present is mejo. 

Chap. XXIV.] List of Verbs. 143 


Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

mlnuo, lessen mlnui mlnutum mlnure inlntt- 

misceo, mix miscui mixtum miscere misc-6- 

The supine is sometimes written mistum. 

JtiWnm, feel pity mSert^Trare \ mlsgr5ri mls ^' 

mlsSreo is very rare : miseret and (in early writers) miseretur, mise- 

rescit are used impersonally. 

mitto, let go, send mlsi missum mittere mitt- 

mdlo, grind mdlui mdlltum m616re m61- 

mdneo, warn mdnui mdnltum mdnere m6n-6- 

mordeo, bite mdmordi morsum mordere mord-e- 

mbrior, die mortuus sum (mdrlturus) rndri mdr-I- 

Inf. morlri, emorlri several times in Plaut. once in Ter. once in Ovid. 

m6veo, move, trans. movi mStum mdvere m'Ov-5- 

mulceo, stroke mulsi mulsum mulcere mulc-e- 

Permulctus is also found besides the more usual permulsus. 

mulgeo, milk mulsi nmlgere mulg-e 

-mungo only in compound mung- 

emungo, wipe (nose), emunxi, emunctum, emunggre. 


nascor, be born natum nasci gna- 

Originally gnascor, whence agnatus, cognatus, prognatus. But 
enascor, cnatus. 

ngco, kill ngcavi ngcatum ngcare n6c-a 

necui once in Phaedrus and Ennius : en8co, stifle completely, engcui and 
engcavi (both rare), enectum, engcare. 

necto, link together nexi nexum nect8re nect- 

nexui is probably from nexo, nexgre which is an early form. 

neo, spin nevi netum (Ulp.) nere ne- 

ngqueo. See queo ; and 266. 

nltor, lean, strive jnlsum nlti gnict " 

fut. part, nlsurus : so also compounds. 

Originally gnitor, kneel, from g6nu, knee. Nixus generally in sense of 
leaning, nisus, striving. Conitor, adnitor, enitor, have both forms 
frequently (in sense of bearing children always enixa). Innisus, 
obnisus, subnisus are infrequent : and in poetry all the compounds of 
nisus are rare. 

-nlveo only in compound nigv- 

oonlveo, ,*, eyes, |M| (both rare) (no supine) C5nly5re 

nbceo, be hurt/id n6cui (ndclturus) nocere n6c-6- 

nosco, get to know novl, / know notum noscgre gno- 

notus only as adj. known: fut. part, is not used. 
agnosco, cognosce, have supines agnltum (fut. part, agnoturus once, 

Sail.), cognltum : 

ignosco, ignotum, fut. part, ignofrurus (quoted from Cato and Cic. ; 
ignosciturus from Piso) : dignosco, internosco, have no supine. 

144 INFLEXIONS. \Book II. 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

nubo, put on a veil nupsi nuptum nubgre nub- 

(as a bride), marry Part, nupta, married. 

-nuo, nod, only in compounds : but nutus is used as subst. nu- 

annuo, annul, annuSre. abnuo has fut. part, abnulturus. 
obllviscor (orig. cover with black), oblltum obllvisci ob-llv-i- 


occulo, conceal occului occultum occulere ob-cul- 

6di, perf., I hate (osflrus) 6d- 

A perf. form odivi, once (used by M. Antony). Exosus, perosus are used 

with an active meaning as participles and with sum, &c. as perfect. 
-61eo, grow, is only used in compounds, and is a different word from 61eo, 
smell (intrans.). 

abSleo, destroy, abdlevi, abOHtum, abSlere. 

ab51esco, decay, abdlevi, no supine, abolescSre. So also Inolesco. 

addlesco, grow up, addlevi, adolesc6re, adultus, *.$\. grown ttp. 

adSleo, (increasti), offer (in sacrifice), burn j J*** 1 tdeT 

For deleo see under lino. 

obsdlesco, wear out, intr. obs615vl, obsolescgre, obsdletus, adj. worn 

out. So also exdlesco. 
61eo, smell (intrans.) 61ui dlere 61-6- 

A consonantal stem (olat, olant, subolat, praeolat, o!6re) is found 

rarely in the comic poets. 
6portet, it behoves 6portuit 6portere 6port-6- 

Only used in 3rd pers. sing. 
opp6rior. See -p6rio. 

ordior, commence, trans. orsum ordlrl ord-I- 

6rior, rise ortum driri 6r-I- 

fut. part. 6rlturus : gerundive 6riundus used n.s &&}. sprung from. Pres. 
ind. 6r5ris, 6rltur, 6rlmur, imperf. subj. orlrer, or6rer. The com- 
pound adorior has in pres. ind. addiirls, addrltur. 
6vo, triumph 6v-a- 

The only forms found are ovet, ovaret, ovans, ovatus, ovandi. 
paciscor. See pango. 
paemtet, it repents paenltuit paenttere paenIt-6- 

Rarely personal, paenitendura is also found, paenitens as adj. 

. penitent. 

t, open pandi passum pand6re 

Dispando has dispansum, dlspessum. Expando, expansum. 

compingo, compegi, compactum, compinggre. So impingo. 
oppango, oppegi, oppactum, oppang6re. Depango, repango also 

retain a. 

pac-isc-or, bargain pp!gi pactum pacisci pac- 

Compaciscor or comp6ciscor has compactum or compectum. 
parco, be sparing p6perci (parsurus) parc6re parc- 

Plautus always, and Terence sometimes, have parsi. 
comperco, compersi, compercfire. Imperco, reperco, (or reparco) 
found in present only. 

Chap. XXI V^ List of Verbs. 145 

Present. Perfect. 

pareo, appear, be parui 






pario, get) bring forth pgpgrl 




Fut. part, parlturus. 

Parens, a parent, is an old participle of this verb. 

comp6rior(rare)i' ascertain > compgri, compertum, compgrlre. 
rgpgrio, find, reppgri, rgpertum, rgpgrtre. 

pasco, pasture, feed pavi pastum pascgre pas- 

The active is rarely used of the animals feeding except inpres. participle. 
Depasco follows pasco. 

Compesco (lit. pasture together"?), confine, compescui, compescSre (no 
supine). So dispesco (rare), separate. 

patior, suffer passum pati pat-I- 

perpgtior, perpessus sum, perpSti. 

paveo, quake with fear pavi pavgre pav-e- 

pecto, comb pexi (once) pexum pectfire pect- 

p5do pgpedi pedSre ped- 

peUo, push, drive back pSpuli pulsum peU6re pell- 

appello (esp. of a ship, put in], appuli, appulsum, appellgre. So the 
other compounds. Rgpello always has reppuli or repuli. 

pendeo, hang, intr. pSpendi pensum pendere pend-e- 

$&\&Q, iv eigh,pay, value pgpendi pensum pendgre pend- 

originally hang, trans. So suspendo, hang up. 

-pgrio only in compounds, except perltus, skilled. pgr-I- 

apgrio (ab perio?), uncover, open, apgrui, apertum, apgrlre. 
expgrior, try, expertum, expgrlri. 
dpgrio (ob perio ?), cover, Cpgrui, dpertum, Opgrlre. 
oppgrior, wait for, oppertum and opperltum, oppgrlri. 

pgto, seek, aim at ' 1 pgtltum pgtgre 

Only used in 3rd pers. sing. The gerund and gerundive are also found. 
pingo, paint pinxi pictum pinggre 

pinso, ) , jpinsui jpinsitum (pinsgre pins- 

plso, \** (pinsi |pistum |plsgre pls- 

Pinslbant once in Ennius. Hence pinsitus, often in Columella's prose, 
has perhaps I. Pinsui, pinsi occur once each. . 

placeo, be pleasing placui placltum placere plac-g- 

plango, beat (esp. the planxi planctum planggre plang- 

breast in grief) 

plaudo, clap (the plausi plausum plaudgre plaud- 

hands, &c.) 

explodo (hiss off, i.e. drive away by hissing], explosi, explosion, explo- 
dgre. So the other compounds, applaudo does not change the 

plecto, strike, punish (rare except in passive) plectgre plect- 

L. G. 10 

146 INFLEXIONS. [Book II. 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

-plecto, twine plexum -plectgre plect- 

Only in part. perf. and compounds, which are always of deponent form, 
except in one or two instances of imperatives in prae- Ciceronian 

amplector, twine oneself rotind, embrace, amplexum, amplecti. So 
complector. Of other compounds only participles implexus, en- 
twined ', perplexus, entangled, are found. 
-pleo, fill, only in compounds pie- 

Compounds as compleo, complevl, completum, complere. 
plIco,/0/</ pllcatum pllcare pllc-a- 

appllco, apply, put jappllcavi, appllcatum, atmllcare 

in (to shore] fappllcui, appllcltum, 

So the other compounds : the prae- Augustan writers used almost always 
-avi, -atum. The simple verb is rarely used. 

plUO, jp^vit (frequent in Livy) * lu6re ^ 

polluceo, offer in sacrifice polluctum pollucere polltlc-6- 

pono, place p6sul pOsItum pon&re p6-sl- 

Poslvi frequent in Plautus; also in Cato. Postum (simple and compound) 

is frequently found in poetry. 
posco, demand pfiposci posc&re pose- 

Compounds retain reduplication, as dep&posci, expdposci. 
possldeo. See sfideo. 

possum, be able p5tui (see pp. 104, 105) posse pdtes- 

p6tior, be master p6tltum p6tlri p6t-i 

In pres. ind. almost always pdtltur, potlmur ; imp. subj. potrer or 

potlrer. In Plaut. act. perf. potlvl, whence probably potui. 
p5to, drink potavi pQtum potare p6t-a- 

POtatum is rare ; fut, part. pStaturus and pSturus. 

potus, having drunk. 
prandeo, dine prandi pransum prandere prand-e- 

pransus, having dined. 
prShendo, lay hold of prShendi pr&hensum pr8hend5re prehend- 

Often contracted into prendo, &c. 

pr6mo, press press! pressum prSmSre prSm- 

comprlmo, compress!, compressum, comprlmgre. So the other com- 


pr6flciscor. See facio. 

psallo, play on a psalli psaU6re psall- 

stringed instrument 

it shames est pMre 

puditurum and gerund and gerundive are also found. Pudens as adj. 


pungo, prick pttpiigi punctum pung6re 

Compounds have for perfect -punxi. 
qvaero, seek, inquire qvaeslvl qvaesltum qvaerSre 

conqvlro, conqulsivl, conqulsltum, conquIrSre. So the other com- 

quaeso, quaesftmus, prythee, are old colloquial forms of ist pers. 

Chap. XXIV.} 

List of Verbs. 





qvatgre qvat-I- 
So the other compounds. 








Present. Perfect. Supine. 

qvatio, shake, trans. qvassum 

concutio, concuss! , concussum, concutSre. 

qveo, be able ( 266) 
qvgror, complain 
qvlesco, rest 
rabo, rave (rare) 
rado, scrape 
rapio, snatch, hurry 
away, trans. 

arripio, arrlpui, arreptum, arrlpgre. So the other compounds. 
ravio, be hoarse, once in Plaut. rav-i- 

ir-rauserit Cic. ; rausurus Lucil. come either from this stem or from 

a stem rauci-. 
rgfert. See fgro. 

straight, rule rexi rectum rgggre rgg- 

Compounds as arrlgo, raise, arrexl, arrectum, arriggre. 
Except pergo, continue, perrexi, perrectum, perggre, 

whence expergiscor, (begin to stretch myself otif), a^vak& myself, 
experrectum (expergltum in Lucil. Lucr.). 
surgo (sub-rego) rise, surrexi, surrectum, surgSre. 

reor, think 

reor has no present part. 
rSpo, creep repsi 

rldeo, smile, laugh rlsi 
ringor, shew the teeth, snarl 
rodo, gnaw rosi 

rudo, roar, bray rudlvi (rare) 

Persius has rudere. 
rumpo, break 





(rictus subs.) 




rumpgre rup- 

In Plautus the m is sometimes retained, e.g. dirrumptum, corrumptor 

ruo, tttmble, dash rul -rutum rugre ru- 

Generally intrans. The past part, found only in phrase ruta caesa 
(has u long, according to Varro, but in compounds it is always short ; 
e.g. diriitum). Fut. part, (post- Augustan) rulturus. 

saepio, hedge in saepsl saeptum saeplre saep-i- 

saUo) rj Isalitum .>, 1X -. \sal-i- 




Isalsum |sall- 

An inf. salire is not certain. Nor is the quantity of the first two syl- 
lables in salitum. The verb is found in MSS. with 1 and U. 

salio, leap salui (saltus subst.) salire sal-i- 

Desllio, desilui, deslllre. So the other compounds. 
The forms sallvi, salii are rare both in simple and compounds. 

salve, hail! also salvete inf. salvere and fut. salvebis. (The present 
salveo once in Plautus, perhaps in joke, salve being probably origi- 
nally an adverb.) 

sancio, hallcnv, ordain sanxi sanctum sanclre sanc-i- 

sancltum (rarely). 

10 2 

148 INFLEXIONS. [Book II. 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

sapio, have a savour saplvi sapgre sap-I- 

of, be wise 

deslpio, be foolish, no perf. or sup., deslpgre. 
rgslpisco, recover senses, rgslpui and rSsIpivi, rgslpiscgre. 
sarcio, patch sarsi sartum sarclre sarc-i- 

sario, hoe sarui (once) sarltum sarlre sar-I- 

Also written sarrio. Perf. also sarrlvi. 

sarpo, trim sarptum sarpgre sarp- 

scabo, scratch scab! (rare) scabfcre scab 

scalpo, scrape scalps! scalptum scalpgre scalp- 

Compounds follow sculpo. 

scando, climb scandi scansum scandgre scand- 

ascendo, ascendi, ascensum, ascendgre. So the other compounds. 
scindo, tear, cut scldi scissum scindgre scld- 

Exscindo has no perfect. The other compounds follow scindo. 
scisco, enact sclvi scltum sciscgre scl- 

A strengthened form of scio. 

scrlbo, write scrips! scriptum scrlbgre scrlb- 

sculpo, carve in stone, sculps! sculptum sculpgre sculp- 


Another form of scalpo. 
sSco, cut sgcui sectum sgcare sgc-a- 

fut. part. sScaturus (once in Colum.). 

sSdeo, sit sedi sessum sgdere s6d-6- 

Fossldeo, occupy, possedi, possessum, possldere. So the other com- 
pounds, except sUpersedeo, refrain, circumsgdeo, which do not 
change the e. Dissldeo, praesldeo have no supine. 
sentio,jfar/, think sensi sensum sentlre sent-I- 

assentior, assensus sum, is used as deponent (besides assentio). 
sgpglio, bury s6pgllvi sgpultura s6pllre s8pSM- 

sgqvor, follow sgcutum sfeqvi sgqv- 

sgro, sow, plant sevi satum sgrgre sa- 

sgro, put in rows (serta, garlands) sgrgre sgr- 

Compounds as consgro, consgrui, consertum, consgrgre. 
serpo, crawl serpsi serptum serpgre serp- 

Another form of rSpo. Cf. Greek epww. 
sldo, settle, intr. sldi sldgre sld- 

ssdi and sessum from sgdeo are the usual perfect and supine, and so the 


slno, put, leave, suffer slvi sltum slngre sl- 

In subj. perf. slrim, slris, slrit, slrint. 

Desmo, desii in post-Augustan writers (desisti, desiit, pluperf. desi- 
gram, perf. subj. desigrim), desltum, deslngre. (Cicero and Caesar 
generally use destiti for perf.) 
Desltus sum used before a passive infin. I ceased. 
sisto, set, stay, trans, stlti (rare) statum sistgre sta- 

desisto, destiti, destltum, desistere. So the compounds all intransi- 
tive. The reduplication is retained. Sisto is rarely intrans. and then 
has perf. stgti (from sto). So also circumstgti. 

Chap. XXIV.] List of Verbs. 149 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

s51eo, be ivont s61Itum sdlere s61-g- 

Perf. sdlltus sum, / was accustomed. 

solve, loose, pay solvi sdlutum solvgre solv- 

Sometimes in Augustan poets sfilui (trisyllabic). 

sdno, sound sdnui sdnltum s6nare s6n-a- 

fut. part, sOnaturus (once in IJor.). In prae-Augustan poets some- 
times songre, sonlt, sonunt. 

sorbeo, sup up, stick in sorbui (sorbltio,subst.) sorbgre sorb-g- 

absorbeo, absorbui, absorbere. So other compounds. Rarely a per- 
fect (post-Augustan) in si ; absorpsi, exsorpsi. 

spargo, scatter, be- sparsi sparsum sparggre sparg- 


Compounds as conspergo, conspersi, conspersum, consperggre. 

sp6cio, (or spicio ?) look, only in Plautus. spgc-i- 

asplcio, aspexi, aspectum, asplcere. So the other compounds. 

sperno, reject, despise sprevi spretum sperngre 

spondeo, pledge oneself 

r spftpondi 




spuo, spit 





statuo, set up, settle 





(with oneself) 

sterno, throw on the 





ground, cover 

(s r 

sternuo, sneeze 




sterto, snore 




stingvo (rare), stamp, 




Exstingvo, exstinxi, exstinctum, exstingvere. So the other com- 

sto, stand stSti statum stare sta- 

Fut. part, staturus in Lucan. 

Praesto, be superior, warrant, render, praestlti, praestatum (also prae- 
stltum), praestare. The other compounds have fut. part, -staturus 
(constaturus Luc. Mart., perstaturus Stat.) but no supine: disto 
has no perf. or supine : those with disyllabic prepositions retain e in 
the perf. (e.g. circumsteti). 

strgpo, make a din strfipui strSpItum strgpgre str8p- 

strldeo, hiss, screech strldi strldere strld-e- 

A consonantal form (e.g. stridunt, stridgre) is found in Augustan 

stringo, strip, graze, strinxi strictum stringgre jstrlg- 

draw tight ' (string- 

struo, heap up, build struxi structum struere strugv- 

svadeo, recommend svasi svasum svadere svad-e- 

svesco, accustom one- svevi svetum svescgre sv- 


An old form is found of pres. indie, ist plur. suemus (as from sueo). 
sugo, sttck suxi suctum suggre sflg- 

sum, be (see pp. 104, 105) esse gs- 

suo, sow, stitch sul sutum sugre su- 

1501 INFLEXIONS. \BookIf* 

Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

taceo, be silent tacui taciturn tacSre tac-e- 

taedet, it ivearieth taesum est taed-e- 

For perf. the compound pertaesum est is more common. Taedescit, 

obtaedescit, distaedet are also used impersonally. 
tango, touch tgtlgl tactum tangere tag- 

Attingo, attlgi, attactum, attinggre. So the other compounds. 

In Plautus rarely tago, attigo. 

tggo, cover texl tectum tgggre tgg- 

temno, despise temps! temptum temnere tem- 

tendo, stretch, tend tgtendi tentum tendgre tend- 

In post- Augustan writers sometimes tensum. Compounds have -ten- 

sum occasionally. 
tgneo, hold tSnui tentum (rare) tenere tgn-g- 

Supine and cognate forms are little used, except in the compounds, 
detingo, obtlneo, and rgtlneo. Contentus only as adj. content. 

dStlneo, detlnui, detent urn, detlngre. So the other compounds. 
terreo, frighten terrui terrltum terrors tgrr-g- 

tergeo, wipe tersi tersum tergere terg-e- 

A consonantal stem (e.g. tergit, terguntur) is also found sometimes. 

tSro, rub trlvl trltum tgrgre j*jj 

attgruisse in TibulL (once). 
texo, -weave texftl textum texgre tex- 

tollo, lift up, remove (sustuli) (sublatum) tollgre toll- 

toll (in prae-August. poets tgtttli) and latum (for tlatum) are the 
proper perf. and supine : but as these are taken by fgro, tollo takes 
the perf. and supine of its compound sustollo. 
The compounds have no perf. or supine. 

tondeo, shear tdtondi tonsum tondere tond-e- 

tdno, thunder tdnui tdnltum t6nare tdn-a- 

intdno has part. Intdnatus (once Hor.). The other compounds follow 


torqveo, twist, whirl torsi tortum torqvere torqv-e- 

torreo, roast torrul tostum torrere tors-e- 

traho, drag traxl tractum trahgre trah- 

trgmo, tremble trgmul trgmgre trgm- 

trlbuo, assign, grant trlbul trlbutum trlbugre trlbu- 

trfldo, thrust *~ trusl trusum trudgre trud- 

tueor, look at, protect *** tueri tu-g- 

tutus, adj. safe. 

Tutatus sum (from tutor) is generally used as perfect ; tutus or (post- 

Augustan) tuitus sum are rare. Contueor, intueor have (post-Augus- 

tan) contultus, intiiltus sum. A present with stem in -u (e.g. 

tulmur, contuor, &c.), is frequent in prae-August. poets and Seneca's 


tundo, thump ttttfldi tnrai tundgre tud- 

Contundo, contudi, contusum, contundgre. So pertundo. Obtundo, 

retundo have both -tunsum and -tusum. Perfect of retundo always 

Chap. XXI F.] List of Verbs. 151 


Present. Perfect. Supine. Infinitive. Stem. 

turgeo, swell tursi (very rare) turgSre turg-e- 

vado, go. vadfire vad- 

Invado, invasi, invasion, invad6re. So other compounds. 

valeo, be strong valui (vallturus) valgre val-6- 

vggeo, stir up (old word) (v6g6tus adj.) vggere v6g-6- 

v6ho, carry vexi vectum v8h8re v6h- 

Pres. part, and gerund also used intransitively, riding. 

vello, pull, pluck veil! vulsum veU6re vell- 

Vulsi both in simple and compounds is sometimes found in post- 

Augustan writers. 
vendo, sell. See do. 
veneo, be sold. See eo. 

v&nio, come v5ni ventum vSnlre vSn-I- 

vereor, be awed at v6rltum vereri v6r-e- 

vergo, incline vergere verg- 

verro, brush verri (rare) versum verrgre verr- 

verto, turn verti versum vertere vert- 

So the compounds generally, but 

dlvertor, put up (at an inn), divert! (perf.), diversum, divert! (inf.). 

rSvertor, return, perf. reverti, reversum, reverti (inf.), reversus, 
having returned. 

praevertor, attend to first, is entirely deponent : praeverto, be before- 

hand with, is very rare. 

vescor, feed oneself vesci vesc- 

iton, forbid v6tui v6tltum v6tare v6t-a- 

Persius has a perfect vetavi. 

video, see vldi vlsum vldere vld-e- 

vldeor, vlsum, vlderi, very common in sense of seem. 

vieo, plait (twigs, &c.) vietum viere vi-e- 

part. vietus (Ter. Lucr., but vi6tus. Hor.), shrivelled. 

vincio, bind vinxi vinctum vinclre vinc-I- 

vinco, conquer vlci vietum vincfere vlc- 

vlso, visit vlsi vls6re vls- 

vlvo, live vixi vietum vlv6re vigv- 

ulciscor, avenge oneself on, avenge ultum ulcisci ulc- 

^ 1ULd unctum 

volo, will vdlui veUe vdl- 

So its compounds nolo, malo ; see p. 106. 

volvo, roll volvi vdlfltum volvfire volv- 

Sometimes volui in Augustan poets. 

vdmo, vomit v6mui vOmltum v6m6re v6m- 

vOveo, VOT.U vovi vStum v6vere v6v-e- 

urgeo, push t press ursi urgere urg-e- 

uro, burn ussi ustum ur6re us- 

Comburo, combussi, combustum, combttrfire, is a compound of com 
with an older form buro, seen in bustum, tomb. 

Other compounds (exflro, &c.) follow the usual form. 

utor, avail oneself, make ute usum uti ut- 

i$2 INFLEXIONS. {.Book II. 

3W) The following verbs (with many others) are used as deponents; but 
some of them are also used, especially in the past participle, as passive. In 
some again both the active and deponent forms are in use either generally 
or in some others. Some past participles are given which are used as if 
deponents, though the usual form of the verb is active : 
abSminarl, detest ; abominatus also pass. 
adaentiri, assent ; also passive ; adsentire frequent. 
adttlari, wheedle, flatter ; also adulare (Lucr.). 
adultus, grown up ; from ad61escer6. 
altercari, dispute ; also altercare (Ter.). 
apisci, get ; once passive (Plaut.). Of compound adipiscor, adoptus is 

rarely passive. 

axVLtr&rl, judge ; arbitrare act., arbitrari pass, in Plaut. 
aucupari, catch at ; also aucupare (Plaut.). 
augtijari, take omens; also rarely augiirare ; auguratus also pass. (Cic. 

Liv. rarely). 

ausplcari, take omens ; also ausplcare (Plaut.), auspicatus also pass. 
blandirl, play the coax. 
cenatus, having slipped ; from cenare. 
cdmltari, accompany ; also pass. 

commentari, think over, practise ; commentatus also pass, 
coramlnisci, devise ; commentus also pass. (Ov.). 
compgrlri (Ter. Sail. ), find out ; usually pass. 
concretus, grown together; from concresc6re. 
consplratus, having conspired ; from consplrare. 
contemplari, contemplate ; also contemplare (Plant.). 
criminal!, accuse ; once in Cic. passively ; also crlmlnare (Plaut.). 
cunctari, delay. 

dignari, think worthy ; dignatus also pass. 
ddmlnari, play the lord. 
eventum subst., an event; from evgnlre. 
execrari, curse ; execratus also pass, 
exordiri, commence speaking ; exorsus also pass. 
exp6riri, try ; expertus also pass. 
fabrlcari, manufacture ; also fabricare. 
fatSri, confess ; so conflteri ; confessus also pass. 
fSnerari, lend money ; also fenerare. 
fluctuari (L\v.),flucttiate; usually fluctuare. 
far!, speak ; effatus also pass. 
frustrari, disappoint; also pass. (Sail.), 
gloriari, boast. 
gravari, be annoyed. 
fcortari, exhort. 

Imltari, imitate; imitatus also pass. (Ov. Quint.). 
interpretari, interpret ; interpretatus also pass. 
juratus, having sworn ; conjuratus, having conspired ; from jtlrare, con- 


largiri, make gifts. 
lUcrari, make gain. 

luctari, struggle; also luctare (Plaut. Ter.). 
Ifldlflcari, make sport of; also ludificare (esp. Plaut.). 
luxuriari, be luxuriant ; usually luxnrlare. 
mSdlcari, apply remedies ; usually medicare, 
mgditari meditate ; meditatus also pass. 

Chap. XXIV.} List of Verbs. 153 

inendicari (Plaut.), be a beggar; usually mendlcare. 

mentiri, tell a lie ; mentltus also pass. 

mSreri, deserve, sometimes earn ; me'rere, earn, sometimes deserve. 

metari, ) measure . metatus, metltus also pass. 

metiri, \ 

mddgrari, rule ; mddSratus also pass. 

mddulari, modulate ; modulatus also pass. (Ov.). 

mtln&rari, reward ; also mune'rare. 

nupta, married ; from nftbgre. 

nfttrirl (Verg. once), nurse ; usually nfltrlre. 

otollvisci, forget ; oblltus, also pass. (Verg.). 

occasns, of the sun, having sunk ; from occld6re. 

oplnari, be of opinion ; also oplnare (Plaut.); opinatus also pass. (Cic.). 

opsonari (Plaut.), purchase meat, &c. ; usually opsonare. 

oscltari, yawn ; also oscitare. 

osus, exosus, perosus, having hated, see p. 144. 

pacisci, bargain ; pactus also pass. 

palpari, coax ; also palpare. 

partiri, divide; also partire. So usually dispertire, impertire. 

placltus, having pleased ; from placere. 

popular!, lay waste; also p6piilare. 

potus, having drunk ; see potare, p. 146. 

praetgrltus (of time, &c.), having gone by ; from praeterlre. 

pransus, having dined ; from prandere. 

pilnlri, putiish ; usually ptlnlre. 

quietus, at rest ; from quiesc&re. 

ructari (Hor.), belch ; usually ructare. 

sectari, foll(nv ; rarely passive ; insectare in Plaut. 

sortlri, cast lots for ; also sortire (Plant.); sortltus also pass. 

suetus, acctistomed ; from suescSre. 

tacltus, silent ; from tacere. 


trlcari, trifle ; compounds not usually deponent extricare, intricare. 
tutari, defend ; rarely pass. 
ulcisci, avenge; once pass. (Sail.); ultus also pass. (Liv.). 
vSnSrari, worship; also venerare (Plant.), veneratus also pass. (Verg. 




341 WORDS are formed either directly from roots or from other words. 
The elements of formation are four : 

(a) reduplication, 

(b) internal change, 

(c) addition of suffixes, 

(d) combination of two or more words into one. 

Two or more of these modes of formation may be called into use 
in forming a word ; and especially, almost all words, whatever other 
change the root may have undergone, exhibit some suffix or other. 

342 Reduplication is the repetition of the root syllable, either to express 
repeated action or simply to give additional emphasis to the root. In 
Latin there appear but few instances of reduplication. The following 
among others are probably such : 

i. Reduplication of a closed syllable: 

bar-bar-us, foreign (from ftdp/Sapos) ; cin-cln-nus, a curl (comp. 
niKivvoi) ; gur-giil-io, the windpipe; mur-mur (n.), a murmur (comp. 
poppvpetv) ; quisquis, whosoever; tin-tin-are, to tinkle ; tur-tur (m. f.), 
a dove; til-til-a, a screech-owl ; til- til-are, to bowl, wail (comp. o'X-oX- 

a. Reduplication of an open syllable; or rather, of the initial 
consonant, with a vowel appended : 

bl-bfire, to drink ; cl-cada, a grasshopper ; cti-cMus, a cuckoo (comp. 
KoKAcul) ; cft-ctimis (m.), a cucumber', pl-pire, to chirp; sft-surrus, a 
whisper (comp. (rvpifciv) ; tl-tillare, to tickle ; tl-tfibare, to stumble. 

For the use of reduplication to form the present stem of verbs see 
295. i ; and to form \hzperfect stem, 309 sqq. 

Chap. /.] Elements of Word-Formation. 155 

343 Internal change is frequently found accompanying the addition of 
suffixes, or accompanying composition, but is then due mainly to the 
shifting of the accent (which is often brought about by lengthening the 
word), or to the influence of neighbouring consonants. The usual 
changes have been set forth in Book I. There appear to be but few 
instances in Latin, in which there is clear evidence of internal change 
being employed as the main element in the formation of a word. 
Compare however, e. g. tdga with t6g-6re ; sed-es with sSd-ere ; fides 
with f IdSre ; pr6c-us with prfic-ari ; dflc-ere with due- (dux) ; dicere 
with maiedlcus, &c. ; voc., nom. vox, with vflcare. For the change of 
vowel in forming the perfect tense see 310. 

But if, as is probable, the primary form of roots admitted of short 
vowels only, then all instances of (apparent) roots with long vowels 
fall under this head (unless the long vowel is a compensation for 
omitted consonants) ; e.g. lux, pax, &c., scrib-ere, lud-ere, &c. 

344 Suffixes are of three kinds : 

(i) suffixes of inflexion, 

(a) stem-suffixes (included under Inflexions in Book II.), 

(3) derivative suffixes. 

(1) Suffixes of inflexion are those which are employed to form the 
several cases and numbers of nouns, and the persons, moods, tenses, 
voice, &c. of verbs. 

(2) Stem-suffixes are those which form the distinguishing marks of the 
several declensions of nouns, and of the several conjugations (or classes) 
of verbs. In nouns of the first class they are a, e, o ; in nouns of the 
second class u, i or e ; in verbs a, u, e, i. A large class of nouns, and 
the most primitive verbs, have no stem-suffix. 

The application of the stem-suffixes in Latin nouns coincides to a 
large extent with the distinction of gender : in verbs it coincides, at 
least as regards the a and e stems, to a noticeable degree, with the dis- 
tinction of transitive and intransitive action, the a stems being fre- 
quently transitive, e.g. amare, to love; the e stems being frequently 
intransitive, e.g. ndcere, to be hurtful; splendere, to shine. The absence 
of a stem-suffix in many nouns is the result of the shifting of the 
accent, and consequent slurring of the end of the word, the consonant 
stem being thus reduced by one syllable from what was, or would 
otherwise have been, their full form (with a stem-suffix) ; e. g. praeceps 
for praeciplts, &c. In other nouns of the same class (consonant stems) 
there appears to be no clear ground for assuming the previous existence 
of a stem-suffix. 

Many noun-stems and many verb-stems are apparently formed 
directly from the root by the addition of these stem-suffixes. In some 
a reduplication or an internal change, especially of the vowel, occurs 
also. The formation of one word, compound or simple, from another 
is often effected by the substitution of the stem-suffix appropriate to 
one part of speech for that appropriate to another. 


345 The following are examples of the formation of nouns from roots or 
from other words by the addition or substitution of no other than a 
stem-suffix. The majority of verbs are so formed. 

A. advgna, a stranger (adveni-re) ; convlva, a guest (conviv-gre) ; 
funda, a sling (fund-6re) ; mdla, a mill (m51-ere) ; sciiba, a clerk 
(scrlb-ere) ; tdga, a cloak (tSg-Sre) ; traha, a sledge (tran-6re). 

0. ahenobarbus, bronze-beard (barba-) ; condus, a store-keeper 
(cond-gre) ; cdqvus, a cook (c6qv-6re) ; fidus, trusty (fid-6re, flde-s) ; 
jugum, a yoke (comp. ju#g6re) ; mergus, a diver (merg-6re) ; nescius, 
ignorant (nescl-re) ; prdfugus, deserting (profugS-re) ; promus, a butler 
(prom-erg) ; rdgus, a funeral pile (rgg-6re, comp. erlggre, to erect) ; 
sdnus, a sound (s6n-6re and sdnare). 

U. acus, a needle (ac-, comp. ac-u-6re) ; currus, a chariot (curr- 
6re) ; ddmus, a house (comp. 5e/x-eti', to build, d6mare, to tame}. 

I (or E). abnormis, abnormal (norma-) ; bilinguis, two-tongued 
(lingua) ; nubas, a cloud (nilb-6re, to cover, comp. ye'0-os) ; rUpes, a 
rock (rump-6re, to break) ; sedes, a seat (sgd-ere) ; v6hes, a cartload 

[The following are without stem-suffix, dux, a leader (due-, comp. 
dac-6re) ; incus, an anvil (incud-6re) ; 6bex, a bolt (obic6-re) ; plani- 
ooted (p6d-).] 

(3) Derivative suffixes are those additions (not being recognisable 
roots) which are interposed between the root and the stem-suffix ; or, 
when there is no stem-suffix, between the root and the suffix of in- 
flexion. If they are themselves recognisable as roots, the formation of 
the word belongs to the sphere of 

Composition, which is treated of in a separate Chapter. 

Interjections, some of which are words, some mere natural sounds, 
will be enumerated in the last Chapter. 


346 DERIVATIVE suffixes may originally have been words, but are now 
merely sounds or combinations of sounds which have no separate use 
or separate meaning, but modify the meaning of the word to which 
they are suffixed. The same suffix does not usually express precisely 
the same modifications, and different suffixes often seem to have the 
same effect : compare e.g. -tud6n, -tia, -tat, all forming abstract sub- 
stantives of quality, e.g. amaritudo (Plin.) ; amarities (Catull.), bitter- 
ness acerbitas, harshness. Frequently indeed the use of a suffix may 
have proceeded from a fancied or imperfectly apprehended analogy; 

Chap. //.] Derivative Supines. 157 

and the ending of a word, which is partly composed of stem-conso- 
nants or stem-vowels, and partly of a suffix, has apparently been taken 
for an entire suffix, and as such applied to other stems. Sometimes the 
sense of the suffix has been obscured, and a further suffix is added to 
realize what the former suffix once expressed ; e. g. puella is diminutive 
of pugra, but afterwards supplanted puera as the ordinary term for a 
girl, and thus puellula was formed for a little or very young girl. 

347 A light vowel, 6, ft, 6, more frequently I, is often found between 
the last consonant of the stem and the suffix. 

Its origin is not clear. Sometimes it appears to be part of the suffix ; 
e. g. -So (-ic) in sfinex, pflmex, &c. ; more frequently it appears to be the 
stem-suffix weakened; e.g. candidus from cande-; altitddo from alto-, &c. ; 
sometimes it appears to owe its birth to analogy with other words ; some- 
times to a desire to ease the pronunciation, or avoid the destructive effect 
of contiguous consonants ; or even to render possible the use of the word in 
verse. It is indeed possible that it may be an expression of the slight sound 
occasioned by opening the organs, in order fully to articulate the final 

It has most frequently been treated in the following lists as the weak- 
ened stem-suffix ; but its occurrence in words formed from consonant stems 
is by no means unusual, and seems to conflict with this theory of its origin. 
If these consonant stems are the stunted remnants of forms which originally 
Avere vowel stems, this weakened vowel may be the relic of the fuller form. 
(So in French the final t of the Latin 3rd pers. sing, is preserved only 
before a vowel; e.g. a-t-il, and its meaning lost to the popular conscious- 
ness). If otherwise, one of the other explanations must be resorted to. 

348 The long vowel, found not uncommonly in the same part of a derivative, 
is sometimes part of the suffix ; e.g. dum-etum for dum-ec-tum ; sometimes 
due to contraction of the stem-suffix with a short initial vowel of the suffix ; 
e.g. the suffix -Ino appended to the stems Roma-, divo-, tribu-, mari-, ege- 
gives Romanus, divlnus, tribunus, marlnus, egenus : the suffix -111 ap- 
pended to ancdra-, tribu-, fide-, civl- gives ancoralis, tribtllis, fidelis, 
civllis. Sometimes it is due to following a false analogy ; e.g. mont-anus, 
anser-I-nus, &c., virgin-alls, reg-alis, c. 

In other respects the ordinary laws of consonant and vowel changes 
(given in Book I.) are observed. 

349 These suffixes are sometimes simple, i.e. consisting of a single 
vowel, or a single consonant with a vowel; sometimes compound, i.e. 
consisting of two consonants with one or two vowels. Compound 
suffixes are usually the result of adding a suffix to a stem which is itself 
a derivative; but sometimes the suffix, though originally compound, 
has come to be treated as if it were a simple suffix ; e. g. -uncftlo : 
sometimes it may be really a word which has ceased to be used sepa- 
rately, and only appears now to be suffixal ; e. g. -ginta, and perhaps 
-gno, -monio, -clnio, &c. 

350 In the following lists the principal suffixes only are given. The 
primary arrangement of noun-endings is according to the consonant or 
vowel which immediately precedes either the stem-suffix, or, in conso- 
nant nouns, the suffix of inflexions. (For instance, the suffixes -monio, 
-clnio are given under the head of -io, not under mon- or cin- ; -trici 


under -ci, not under t or r ; &c.) Subordinately to this, first come all 
word-endings which have the stem-suffix of nouns of the first class (o 
being used, for convenience sake, as inclusive of a) ; secondly, word- 
endings of the second class. The simplest endings, among which are 
those beginning with short vowels, are put first ; then such compound 
endings as have a consonant before the same short vowel ; then simple 
endings with long vowels ; lastly, compound endings with the same 
long vowel. The order of the consonants and vowels is the same as in 
Books I. and II. : the order of the words is generally alphabetical. 
Only a few instances of each suffix are given. 


Labial Noun-Stems. 

i. Stems ending in -mo. 

351 -mo i. Adjectives: e.g. al-mus, nourishing (al-6re) : 

2. Substantives: e.g. ar-mus (m.), shoulder-joint (comp. dp-, 
apapiffKw)', fa-ma (I.}, fame (fa-ri) ; spu-ma, foam (spu6re). 

-fcmo or -Imo used to form adjectives in the superlative degree and 
ordinal numbers ; e, g. post-umus, last-born (post-) ; imus 
(for In-Imus), inmost, lowest. 

-iss-umo or -iss-Imo probably composed of -timo appended to the stem 
of the comparative ; so that -iss-umo = ios-umo. Very fre- 
quent; e.g. alt-issumus, highest (alto-, high, alt-iQs-, higher}; 
aud-ac-issumus, boldest (audaci-, audac-ios-) ; antiquisslmus, 
most ancient (antique-, antiqu-ios-). Cf. 174. 

-1-ftmo or -1-Imo ) .^ the game guffix ended to the fina i consonant of 

-r-umo or -r-lmoj adjectives in _ u and _ ro or .rf. The 1 or r is doubled : 
e. g. facil-lumus, easiest (faclli-) ; celer-rlmus, swiftest (c616ri-) ; 
miser-rimus, most -wretched (mlsSro-). 

352 -t-umo or -t-Imo e. g. 

(a) fini-ttimus, on the borders (f ini-) ; leg-Itunms, legal. 

(b) Superlatives : ex-timus, outmost (ex) ; in-tlmus, in- 
most (in). 

(c) Ordinal numbers from the aoth to 9oth inclusive. 
The initial t of the suffix joined to the final t of the cardinal 
forms ss, of which one s was omitted, and in post- Augustan 
times the preceding n was sometimes omitted also; e.g. 
vlcens-ftnras (afterwards vlces-inms), twentieth, is for vigint- 
tumus (viginti) ; tricens-umus, thirtieth (trlginta). Cf. 178. 

Chap. ///.] Labial and Guttural Noun-Stems. 159 

"g J^ | Ordinal numbers from 200 to 1000 inclusive, probably by false 
' analogy from the preceding: e.g. ducent-5ns-umus (later 
ducent-es-Imus), two-hundredth (ducenti-) ; millens-uinus (mil- 
leslmus), thousandth (mille). 

ii. Stems ending in -vo, -uo. 

353 -vo is found after vowels, or 1 or r; -uo after other consonants 
(including tr). 

-vo i. Adjectives : e. g. cur-vus, curved (comp. cir-cus, /cu/3-r6s, 

Kv\-\6s) ; gna-vus, knoiving (comp. gna-vus, gno-sc5re). 
2. Substantives: e.g. cor-vus, a raven (comp. cor- nix) ; nae- 
vus, a mole on the body, literally a birth-mark (gi-gSn-o). 

-uo i. Adjectives, from verb stems: e.g. amblg-uus, on both 

sides, ambiguous (amb-Igere, to drive round} ; mut-uus, by 
way of change (mut-are); rellc-uus, remaining (relinqv-Sre). 
2. Substantives: e.g. patr-uus, a father's brother (patr-) ; 
jan-ua, a gate (jano-). 

-I-vo Adjectives: e.g. ndc-Ivus (also nbcuus), hurtful (ndcere) ; 

subslc-lvus, cut off, spare (subsgcare) ; v6c-Ivus, early form for 
vacuus, empty (vacare). 

-t-Ivo i. e. -Ivo added to the participial forms in -to ; 

Adjectives : e. g. cap-t-ivus, captive (cap8-re) ; f&gl-t-ivus, 
run-away (fugg-re) ; praer6ga-t-ivus, Jirst-asked (praerog- 
are). So the grammatical terms ablatlvus, datlvus, demon- 
strat-ivus, rglatlvus, &c. 

Guttural Noun-Stems. 
i. Stems ending in -co, -qvo. 

354 -co i. Adjectives : e.g. pris-cus, of aforetime (prius) ; raucus (for 

rauicus), hoarse (ravis, hoarseness}. 

i. Substantives : e. g. juven-cus, a bullock (juvgn-) ; es-ca, 
food (6d6re or esse, to eat). 

-Ico i.e. (usually) -co suffixed to vowel stems. 

i. Adjectives: e.g. Afr-Icus, of the Afrl (Afro-); civ-Icus, 
of a citizen (civi-) ; m6d-Icus, of healing (mederi, to heal}. 
a. Substantives : vil-Icus, a farm-steward (villa-) ; fabr- 
Ica, a workshop, handiwork (fabro-) ; p6d-Ica, a snare (p6d-, 

-tlco which suffixed to an a stem makes -atl-co- 

Adjectives : rus-tlcus, of the country (rus-) ; erra-tlcus, wander- 
ing (errare) ; silva-ticus, of a wood (silva-) ; hence subst. via- 
ticum, journey stipplies (via- comp. viator). 

355 -uco e.g. cad-ucus, falling (cad-6re) ; usually substantives: e.g. 

aeruca, -verdigris (aes). 

-Ico Adjectives: e.g. amlcus, friendly (amare) ; postlcus, behind 


Substantives: e.g. lectlca, a sedan (lecto-, couch}', lorlca, a 
breast-guard of leathern thongs (from lorum). 


-Inavo- S antlqvus, preferable, ancient (ante) ; longin-qvus, distant 
(longo-) ; pr&pinqvus, near (prdpg). 

ii. Stems ending in -ci, -c. 

356 -e"c (-Ic) Substantives : e.g. s6n-ex, old (gen. s6n-is) ; vort-ex, a whirl 

Adjectives chiefly from verb-stems: e.g. aud-ax, daring 
(aud-ere) ; fall-ax, deceptive (fall-Sre) ; min-ax, threatening 
(mina-ri) ; ver-ax, truthful (vero-). 
atr-ox, cruel (atro-) ; f6r-ox, high-spirited, fierce (fero-, wild}. 

-tric-i Semi-adjectival feminine substantives corresponding to mas- 
culine nouns in -tor. They are formed from participles in 
-to. When used as adjectives they have -i stems ; e. g. vic- 
tricia arma ; e. g. adju-trix, helper (adjiiv-are) ; effec-trix, 
producing (eflflc-6re) ; vena-trix, huntress (v6nari) ; vic-trix, 
conquering (vincSre). 


357 Stems ending in -to, or -so (when -so has presumably arisen from 

a dental}. 

-to Adjectives of quantity: e.g. quan-tus, how great (quam) ; 

quar-tus, fourth (for qvatvor-tus from qvattvor) ; qulnc-tus 
or quin-tus, fifth (qvinqve). 

-to (-so) i. Adjectives, very numerous, derived from verbs; express 
completed action ; i. e. the past participle, passive or deponent : 
e. g. rec-tus, ruled (r6g6re) ; par-tus, gained (pargre) ; ama- 
tus, loved (amare) ; conatus, having attempted (cSnari). 
Many such participles, or words similarly formed, are used 
as adjectives of quality ; e. g. al-tus, high (al-6re, to nourish) : 
fal-sus, false (failure) ; jus-tus, lawful (jtls-) ; lau-tus, 
splendid (lavare) ; sabl-tus, sudden (stlbire). 
2. Substantives: e.g. llber-tus, afreedman (HbSro-) ; fossa, 
a ditch (fddg-re) ; exta (n. pi.), heart, liver, &c. (probably 
for ex-sec-ta) ; furtum, theft (fxlr-, thief} ; pas-sum, raisin- 
<wine (pand-6re, spread out}. 

ic to I ^' e ' "* a PP enc ^ e( i to nouns with suffix -6c or -Ic : e.g. car-ec-tum, 
reed beds (car- ex-) ; sal-ic-tum, will&iv bed (salix). 

-es-to ( ^' e ' ~* a PP en ^ ec ^ to a suffix in -os, -us (-or, -ur) : e. g. adjectives, 
e. g. aug-ustus, consecrated (aug-ur-) ; vSn-ustus, pretty (v6ntis) ; 
fun-estus, deadly (funus) ; h6n-estus, honourable (hones). 

Chap. IV.} 

Dental Noun-Stems. 


358 -men-to 


-gin-ti ( 

i.e. to appended to suffix -men (for which see 372) forms 
neuter nouns chiefly derived from verbs : e. g. docu-mentum, 
a lesson (ddcere) ; incre-mentum, an increase, germ (incre- 
sc6re) ; impedl-mentum, a hindrance (impgdlre) ; pig-mentum, 
a paint (ping6re) ; testa-mentum, a will (testari). 

Adjectives : e. g. fraudu-lentus, cheating (fraud!-) ; 6pu-lentus, 
wealthy (6p-) ; sanguln-olentus, bloody (sanguen-) ; vi-olentus, 
violent (vis). 

Indeclinable adjectives of number, denoting multiples of ten 
(decem, of which the first syllable is omitted): e.g. vlginti, 
twenty ( = dvi-decem-ti, two-ten~ty)\ trl-ginta, thirty (tri-). 

-cen-to ) 
-gen- to \ 

Declinable adjectives of number, denoting multiples of a hun- 
dred (centum). Only used in plural : e.g. ducenti, two hun- 
dred (duo-centum) ; quin-genti, Jive hundred (qvinqye-cent-). 

359 -ato"| Adjectives, formed as if participles, but often from nouns; 
-oto I e. g. barb-atus, bearded (barba-) ; cord-atus, having good 
-uto | sense (cord-, nom. cor) ; falc-atus, sickle-shaped (falci-) ; 
-ItoJ pil-atus, armed w ith pike (pllo-). 

aegr-6tus, sick (aegro-) ; ast-iitus, crafty (astu-) ; nasutus, 
sharp-nosed (naso-). aur-Itus, ^ith ears (auri-) ; Cerr-ltus 
(for CerSrltus), frenzied by Ceres. 

-eto Neuter nouns, expressing a place where a plant, &c. grows ; 

e. g. dum-etum, a thicket (dumo-) ; myrt-etum, a myrtle bed 
(myrto-) ; querc-etum, oak grove (quercu-) ; vln-etum, -vine- 
yard (vino-). 

Sterns ending in -tu, -ti, -t (or -su, -si, -s, when -su, &c. ha've 
presumably arisen from a dental'}. 

360 - tu l Substantives numerous, derived mostly from verbs, and 
~ su ' generally denoting an action. (The accusative and ablative 

cases are the so-called supines^) e.g. adven-tus, arrival 
(adv6n-Ire) ; audl-tus, hearing (aud-Ire) ; cen-sus, reckoning, 
re-viewing (cens-ere) ; cr6pi-tus, a rattling (crgpare) ; fluc- 
tus, a wave (flugv-, flu8-re) ; merca-tus, trading, market 
(merca-ri) ; pas-sus, a step (pand-ere, stretch) ; u-sus, use 

-atu Substantives formed as if from verbs with -a stems, but really 

directly from substantives, denote (i^ a holding of office, &c., 
(2) the office itself, (3) body of officers! e.g. consul-atus, consul- 
ship (consul) ; eqvlt-atus, cavalry (6qu6s) ; magistr-atus, magis- 
tracy (magistro-) ; sSn-atus, senate (senex, old man}. 
Substantives : e.g. gens, a class (gen-, gigngre); mens, a mind 
(comp. mS-mln-i) ; semen- tis, seed-time (semen-). 


361 -enti) 

e.g. al-e"s, winged (K]A-)\ 6qv-es, a horseman (6qvo-); superstes, 
present (superstore) . 

i. (a) Participles present active; e.g. r6g-ens, ruling (r6g- 
6re) ; audi-ens, hearing (aud-Ire); ama-ns, loving (ama-re) ; 




[Book III. 

362 -ati 



363 -630 

() Adjectives, originally present participles, or formed as 
such ; e. g. abundans, overflowing (abundare) ; frgquens, 
crowded ; prudens, prudent (pro videre) ; sapiens, wise (sa- 


(f) Substantives of like origin : e. g. parens, a parent (pa- 

r6re) ; torrens, a torrent (torrere, to burri). 

2. Numerals: dextans, five-sixths (de sexto-, sixth off" 

twelve) ; dodrans, three-fourths (de quadro-, fourth off" 

twelve) ; triens, a tritbing, i. e. a third (tri-). 

Adjectives: e.g. nostras, of our country (nostro-) ; pSn-ates 

(m. pi.), household gods (p&no-, store)', Antias, a man of Antium ; 

Sarsinas, a man of Sarsina. 

Abstract substantives, very frequent, derived chiefly from 

adjectives, all feminine : e. g. aeqvl-tas, fairness (aeqvo-) ; 

ebrig-tas, drunkenness (ebrio-) ; honestas, honourableness 

(h&nos) ; v61up-tas, pleasure (vdliip-). 

jftven-tus, youth (juvSn-) ; vir-tus, manliness (viro-). 

364 -ensi 


365 -do | 


Stems ending in -so, -si (for -to, -ti). 
For -onso, and this again perhaps for -ontio. 
Adjectives, very numerous, expressing fullness: e.g. ann- 
osus, full of years, aged (anno-) ; form-osus (also written 
form-onsus), shapely (forma-); morb-osus, diseased (morbo-); 
sumptu-osus, costly (sumptu-). 

Some, perhaps from false analogy, have additional letters or 
syllables preceding this suffix: e.g. belli-c-6sus, war-loving 
(bello-, comp. belllcus) ; forinld6-l-6sus, fearful (formiddn-) ; 
somn-lc-ul-6sus, sleep-loving (somno-) ; cilr-i-osus, careful 

Adjectives formed from names of places: e.g. atri-ensis 
(sc. servus), a house steward (atrio-) ; for-ensis, of the forum 
(fdro-) ; Cann-ensis, of Cannae ; Sicili-ensis, of Sicily Utic- 
ensis, of Utica. 

Athen-iensis, of Athens (Athenae) ; Carthagin-iensis, of Car- 
thage (Carthagdn-). 

Stems ending in -do. 

Adjectives, chiefly from verbs with -e stems, the final e 
being changed to i : e.g. avi-dus, greedy (avere) ; marcl-dus, 
fading (marcere) ; timi-dus, timid (timere) ; ftvl-dus, fldus, 
fwet (tive-scgre). cupi-dus, desirous (ciipe-re) ; vlv-idus, 
lively (vlv-ere). 
fiimi-dus, smoky (fftmo-) ; s61i-dus,/r^z (solo-, ground}. 

Verbal adjectives, commonly used as gerundives; formed 
from the present stem : e. g. re"g-endus, audi-endus, fugi- 
endus, ama-ndus, gign-endus, nasc-endus ; blandus, soothing 
(comp. flare) ; sScundus, following, hence second (s6qv-). 


Dental Noun-Stems. 


-mlno ) 
-mno \ 






368 -ano 

-6b-undo) Adjectives derived from verbs: e.g. fre'm-e'bundus, roaring 
-Ib-undo V (fr6m-6re) ; m6r-Ibundus, dying (m6ri) ; pud-Ibundus, ashamed 
-ab-undoj (piid-ere). 

err-abundus, wandering (errare) ; vlt-abundus, avoiding (vl- 

-cundo Adjectives, probably gerundives from inchoative stems: e.g. 

fa-cundus, cloqiient (fari); Xra-cundus, angry (irasci); v6re- 

cundus, bashful (vSreri). 

Stems ending in -no. 

336 -no i. (a) Distributive numeral adjectives: e.g. bl-nus, two- 

fold, two each (bis for dvis) ; ter-nus or tri-nus (ter- or 
tri-) ; s3-nus, six (sex) ; vice-nus, twenty each (for vicent- 
nus from viginti) ; duce-nus, two hundred each (for ducent- 

.() Adjectives from names of trees, &c. : e.g. acer-nus, 
of maple (acer-) ; cdlur-nus (for coruli-nus), of hazel (c6- 
rulo-) ; e"bur-nus, of ivory (e"b6r-). 

i. Substantives: e.g. domi-nus, a lord (dSmare) ; som-nus. 
sleep (comp. s6p-6r-) ; sarcina, a bundle (sarcire, to close) ; 
reg-num, a kingdom (rgg-ere). 

This suffix in Greek forms participles, middle and passive : e. g. 
TVTTT-6/ui.evos, Tv\p-dfj,evos, TeTVfjL-/j.evo'i. alu-mnus, a nurseling 
(al-6re); Vertu-mnus, God of changing seasons (vert-6re). See 
also 272 for use of this suffix to form 2nd pers. plural of verbs. 

Perhaps compounds of g6n-, gi-gne're, or formed on this analogy : 
beni-gnus (ivell born], liberal (bene, gSn-) ; Hi-gnus, of holm 
oak (116C-); mali-gnus, stingy (male, ge"n-); privi-gnus, born 
from one parent only, i.e. a stepson (prlvo-, gn-). 
Adjectives: e.g. cras-tlnus, of to-morrow ; diu-tlnus, long con- 
tinued (diu). 

e.g. diur-nus, by day (dius-, dies-; probably for diov-6rlnus) ; 

taclt-urnus, silent (tacito-); Mb-ernus, in -winter (for hiem- 

rlnus); siip-ernus, above (supgro-). 

i.e. -no suffixed to stems in -t&ro or -tri, or to adverbs in -ter, 

&c. : e.g. ae-ter-nus, for ever (aevo-, aeviter) ; frater-nus, of a 

brother (frater-); in-ternus, inside (inter-) ; v6-ternus, lethargy 


Adjectives: e.g. d6cum-anus, of the tenth, e.g. a //'/^-farmer : 
a soldier of the tenth legion, &c. (dgciima-) ; font-anus, of a 
spring (fonti-) ; oppid-anus, of the town (oppldo-). 
Africanus, of the province among the Afri (Afr-iea-) ; Rom- 
anus, Roman (Roma-) ; Tuscul-anus, of Tusculum (Tusculo-) : 
Sullanus, of Sulla (Sulla-). 

antesign-anus, in front of the standards (ante signa) ; 
suburb-anus, near the city (sub urbem). 

-i-ano i.e. ano suffixed to nouns with stems in -io. Adjectives: e.g. 

Aemil-i-anus, belonging to the Aemilian houses (Aemilia-) ; Pom- 
peianus, of Pompey (Pompeio-) ; Sejanus (Seio-). 



\Book III. 


369 -5no 


370 -ino 


371 -agftn] 
-ugon \ 
-Ig6n J 


-Id6n \ 

372 -en 

Probably -ano suffixed to Greek suffix -Tr?/?, or in analogy there- 
with; e.g. Gadl-tanus, of Gadcs (Gadi-); T<5ml-tanus", of Tomi 

c61-6nus, a farmer (c61-6re) ; patr-onus, a patron (patr-); ann- 

ona, the year's supply of corn (anno-); matr-ona, a matron 

(mater-); Pom-ona, fruit Goddess (porno-). 

opport-unus, in front of the port, i.e. ready at hand (ob por- 

tum); trlb-unus, a tribe's chief (trLlovi-) . 

ali-enus, of another (alio-); eg-enus, needy (egere); hab-ena, 

a rein (habere). 

(a) Adjectives: e.g. can-Inns, of a dog (can-); div-inus, of a 
god (divo-) ; libert-mus, of the class of freedmen (Hberto-) ; 
pSrggr-Inus, from abroad (perggre-) ; verr-mus, of a boar 
(verres). Caudinus, of ' Caudium Latinus, of Latlum Reat- 
inus, of Reate. 

(Z>) Similar formations from names of persons are used as sub- 
stantives, being surnames : e. g. AntSninus (from Antonius) ; 
Censorinus (from Censor) ; Justmus (from Justus) ; Messal- 
lina (f.) (from Messalla (m.)) ; Planclna (f.) (from Plancus). 
(<:) Appellative substantives : e.g. carnlflc-lna, place of tor- 
ture (carnifex) ; mSdic-ina, healing art (med-Ico-) ; pisc-ina, 
fish-pond (pisci-) ; reg-lna, queen (reg-) ; ru-Ina, a fall (ru- 

Adjectives : intes-tlnus, internal (intus) ; vesper-tlnus, of even- 
ing (vesper-). 

From stems in -tor. For the omission of o compare suffix -trlci. 
Substantives: e.g. doc-trlna, teaching (ddctor); pis-trina, a 
bakehouse (pistor-) ; tex-trlnum. weaver's plan (textor-) ; tons- 
trlna, barber's shop (tonsor- for tonstor-). 

Stems ending in -n (cf. 130). 

Feminine substantives, numerous: e.g. Im-ago, a likeness (comp. 
Im-Itari) ; v6r-ago, a 7^(v6rare). aer-ugo, bronze rust (aes-) ; 
lan-ugo, downy hair (lana-, wool). cal-Igo, mist ; 6r-Igo, a 
source (orlri-) ; r6b-Igo, rust (rub-ro, red). 
Feminine abstract substantives, formed chiefly from ad- 
jectives : e. g. aegri-tudo, sickness (aegro-) ; magni-ttldo, 
greatness (raagno-) ; turpi-tudo, foulness (turpi-) ; vale-tttdo, 
health (valere). 

Feminine substantives, few: e.g. dulc-edo, sweetness (dulci-) ; 
ur-edo, blight (ur-6re); cup-Ido, desire (ciipe're); llb-Ido, lust 

e. g. pect-en (m.), a comb (pect-e"re); ungv-6n, ointment (ung- 


Neuter substantives, very numerous, chiefly derived from 

verbs: e.g. certa-men, a contest (certare) ; crl-men, a 

charge (comp. ere-, cerngre, rpiveiv) ; flu-men, a stream 

(flu- fire) ; frag-men, broken bit (frang-Sre) ; lenl-men, a 

Chap. IV.} Dental Noun-Stems. 165 

solace (15nire) ; n5men, a name (nose-fire) ; rSgi-men, gui- 
dance (rgg-ere). 

373 -5n Masculine substantives; many are personal names: e.g. 

commlllt-o, fellow-soldier (com, miles) ; erro, a runaway 
(errare) ; praed-o, a robber (praeda-) ; serm-o, conversation 
(s6r-8re, to join ; the m being probably of similar origin to 
the m in the suffix -mgn). 

Many are used chiefly as proper names, from some bodily 
characteristics : e. g. Capito, bighead (caput) ; Pronto (front!-) ; 
Labeo (labium) ; Naso (nasus) ; Strabo, squint-eyed. 

374 -ion i. Masculine substantives: e.g. centur-io, a captain (cen- 

tfcria-) ; nrftl-io, a muleteer (nrfllo-) ; sen-io, a seize at dice 
(sex, seno-) ; Glabr-io (glabro-, smooth, hairless), 
i. Feminine abstract substantives; chiefly from verbs: e.g. 
contag-io, contagion (com, tangSre) ; ISg-io, body of soldiers 
(Igggre, to pick) ; 6pm-io, an opinion (Splnari) ; consortio, 
fellowship (com, sorti-). 

-tion Feminine abstract substantives (very numerous), from supine 

stems. Some are used in a concrete sense : actio, action 
(aggre) ; cautio, a legal security (cav-ere) ; cognitio, know- 
ledge (cognoscSre) ; dubitatio, doubt (dubltare) ; largltio, 
bribery (larglri) ; sSlutio, a discharge (solv-6re) ; sponsio, a 
wager (spondere) ; statio, a post (stare, sisteTe) ; venatio, 
hunting, also caught game (venaxi). 


Stems ending in -lo. 

375 -O-lo) Numerous nouns, chiefly diminutival : e.g. 

i. Adjectives : aure-61us, golden (aureo-) ; parv-61us, very 
small (parvo-) ; horrid-ulus, roughish (horrido-) ; tant-ulus, 
so little (tanto-) ; garr-ulus, prattling (garrire) ; trgm-ulus, 
quivering (trfimSre). 

a. Substantives; (a) Masculine: serv-61us, a little slaw, 
calc-ulus, a pebble (calci-, chalk) ; flg-ulus, a potter (flnggro) ; 
16c-ulus, a compartment (16co-) ; tum-iilus, a hillock (ttlm- 

(b) Feminine : besti-ola, an insect (bestia) ; nause-61a, 
slight squeamishness (nausea-) ; nerb-ula, a small herb (her- 
ba-) ; sport-Ma, a small basket (sporta-) ; n6b-ula, a cloud 
(comp. nubes, vtfyos) ; ung-ula, a hoof (ungvl-). 

1 66 


[Book III. 


378 -biilo 


(c) Neuter : atri-olum, a small entrance hall (atrio-) ; negoti- 
olum, a bit of business (nggotio-) ; oppid-ulum, a small town 
(oppido-) ; cing-uliun, a belt (cinggre) ; jac-ulum, a dart 

Adjectives: generally used in neuter, as substantives: e.g. sim- 
plus, single (comp. sim-plex) ; du-plus, double (du-), &c. 





-aUo \ 
-olio ( 
-ullo J 


Substantives, chiefly neuter: fa-bula, a narrative (fari); sfl-bula, 

an awl (su-gre). 

latl-bulum, a hiding-place (latere) ; pa-bulum, fodder (pa- 

sc-gre) ; sta-bulum, a stall (stare) ; tintinna-bulum, a bell 


Numerous nouns, chiefly diminutival : 

1. Adjectives: e.g. anni-culus, a year old (anno-); pauper- 
culus, poor (pauper-) ; turpi-culus, ugly (turpi-) ; ridi-culus, 
laughable (ridere). 

2. Substantives; (a) Masculine: e.g. flos-culus, a flowret 
(flos-); quaesti-culus, a small profit (quaestu-); versl-culus, 
a short 'verse (versu-). 

(b) Feminine: febrl-cula, a feverish attack (febri-) ; mulier- 
cula, a girl (mulier-) ; plebe-cula, the populace (plebe-). 

(c ) Neuter, often from verbs : e. g. corpus-culum, a particle 
(corpds-) ; reti-culum, a small net ; cena-culum, a dining 
room (cenare) ; ora-eulum, a (divine) utterance (orare) ; 
pferl-culum, a trial, risk (comp. pSri-tus, expgrlri) ; vehl- 
culum, a carriage (v6h6re) ; vin-ciilum, a bond (vinclre). 

i.e. -culo affixed to stems (real or presumed) in -on: e.g. 
Masculine : av-unculus, a mother's brother (avo-, grand- 
father) ; carb-uncfllus, a small coal (carbon-) ; hSmunculus, 
a poor fellow (h6m6n-). 

Feminine : chiefly diminutives of substantives in -tion ; fre- 
quent in Cicero: aedificati-uncula, a small building capti- 
uncula, a quibble ; orati-uncula, a short speech ; virg-uncula, 
a little girl. 

i.e. -culo suffixed to the stem of adjectives of the comparative 
degree: e.g. longi-usculus, rather long (longo-); mSli-usculus, 
somewhat better; mln-us-culus, rather less; uncti-us-culus, 
somewhat greasy (uncto-). 

i. e. -illo suffixed to diminutives in -ello, -illo : e. g. ag-ellulus, 

a little field (agro-) ; anc-illula, a little handmaid (ancilla-) ; 

pu-ellula, a little girl (pugro-). 

i. e. -iilo fused with a preceding consonant : e. g. Hisp-allus (for 

Hispan-ulus) ; paullus (for pauc-ulus), few (pauco-). c6r-olla 

for cbronula, a garland (cOrona-). amp-ulla (for ampdr-ula), 

aflask (ampdra-); h6m-ullus (for hSmdnulus), a mannikin (h6- 

ni6n-); uUus (for unftlus) any (uno-). Cat-iUlus (for Caton- 

ulus); S-uUa (for sfirula), little calf of leg. 

for -griilo, -6nulo, or the doubly diminutival -ululo (cf. 

41) ; frequent. 

Chap. F.] Lingual Noun- Stems. 167 

1. Adjectives: bellus (for bSnulus), pretty (b6no-, comp. 
be"ne) ; gem-ellus (for ggminiilus), twin (ggmlno-). 

a. Substantives; (a} Masculine: ag-ellus (for aggrulus), 
a small fold (ag<?ro-) ; 5c-ellus (for dcululus), a dear little 
eye (oculo-). 

(b) Feminine : colum-ella (for cSluminiila), a small pillar 
(colum^na) ; 8f-ella (for offulula), a small bit (offula-) ; 
sella (for sSdula), a chair (sedi-). 

(c) Neuter: flagellum (for flag<?rulum), a small scourge 
(flagro-) ; sacellum (for saceruruui), a shrine (sac^ro-). 

-Ulo for -Inulo, or directly from simple stems : 

T. Adjectives: ovillus, of sheep (6vi-) ; tantillus (as if for 
tantululus), so -very little (tanto-). 

2. Substantives: (a) Masculine; haedilTus, a little kid 
(haedo-); lapillus, a little pebble (lapid-) ; Regillus from 
Regains ; Rtifillus from Ruf mus or Rdfulus. 

(by Feminine : anguilla, an eel (angvi-) ; armillae (pi.), 

bracelets (armo-, shoulder'} ; Drusilla (from Drusus) ; Prise- 

ilia from Priscus. 

(<:) Neuter : sigillum, a seal (sigmo-) ; vexillum, a banner 


378 -ela or -ella Appended to a verb-stem, or to a supine stem, or otherwise 

(according to Lachmann if the syllable preceding e be short 
-ella (not ela) is used). Feminine substantives: e.g. cand-ela, 
a candle (candere, to glitter}', client-ela, protection (client!-); 
corrupt-ela, a corruption (corrupto-); loqv-ella, speech (16qvi-); 
qu&r-ella, a complaint (qvSri); tflt-ela, guardianship (tflto-). 

Stems ending in -11. 

379 -HI Adjectives from both verbal and noun-stems: e.g. ag-Ilis, 

nimble (agere) ; hab-HIs, manageable (habere) ; hiim-ills, lowly 
(hUmo-, ground); par-UIs, like (pari-); flt-ilis, useful (ttti). 
-bill | Adjectives from verbs or verbal forms ; usually but not 
-ibili) necessarily with a passive meaning : e. g. admira-bilis, won- 
derful (admlrari) ; credi-bilis, credible (cred-ere) ; fle-blli5, 
lamentable, weeping (flere) ; illacrlma-bilis, pitiless, unwept 
(in-lacrimare) ; nobilis, famous (no-sc-6r6) ; sta-bilis, steady 
[stare) ; v61ft-bilis, rolling (volvgre). 

w i.e. -bill suffixed to supine stem; rare: e.g. flex-ibHis, 

pliant (flectere) ; plau-sibilis, praiseworthy (plaudgre). 

_ 3 i.e. -II suffixed to supine stem. It denotes quality, possible 

or actual, but not action : e. g. al-tilis, fattened (ale"re) ; 
fos-silis, dug up (f6dSre) ; pen-silis, hanging (pendere) ; 
versa-tllis, revolving, versatile (versare). 

-a-tlll Adjectives from nouns : e. g. aqv-atllis, living in water (aqva-) ; 

Mvi-atllis, of the river (flttvlo-); umbr-atilis, in the shade (um- 


380 -3JI i. Adjectives; very frequent: e.g. aeqv-alis, level (aeqvo-); 

centumvlr-alis, of the court of the Hundred men (centum- 

vlro-) ; dot-alls, of a dowry (doti-) ; mort-alis, subject to 

death (morti-) ; qv-alis, of what kind? (qvo-) ; reg-alis, 

kingly (reg-). 

2. Substantives; () Masculine: e.g. contubern-alis, a 

mate (com, taberna-) ; nat-alis (so. dies), birthday (nato-) ; 

juven-alis (juven-). 

(b) Neuter : anlm-al, a breathing thing (anlma-) ; cervic-al, a 

bolster (cervic-) ; pute-al, a stone curb round a well (pttteo-). 

Hence many names of feasts, in the plural neuter: e.g. 

Baccan-alia, Luperc-alia, Saturn-alia, &c. 

~6u! e - gl trlb -' ims a tribesman (tribu-); fld-elis, faithful (fide-); 

patru-elis, of (or descended from) a father's brother (patruo-). 

381 -HI i. Adjectives from personal nouns: 8,n-flis, of an old 

woman (ami-) ; civ-ills, of a citizen (clvi-) ; host-Ills, of an 

enemy (hosti-) ; scurr-ills, buffoon-like (scurra-) ; vir-ilis, of 

a man (vlro-). 

2. Substantives; () Masculine: Aed-nis, commissioner of 

public buildings (aedl-) ; Sext-Ilis, the sixth month, i. e. 

August (sexto-). 

(b) Neuters : bdv-ile or biib-ile, an ox stall (b6v-) ; hast-ne, 

a spear shaft (hasta-) ; suovetaur-ilia (pi.) , a swine-sheep- 

and-bull sacrifice (su-, 6vi-, tauro-). 

Stems ending in -TO. 

332 -6ro integer, untouched, whole (in tang-6re) ; 6p-6ra, work, a -work- 

man (6pi-); scalp-nun, a chisel (scalp-fire) ; um-6rus, a shoulder 
(comp. c3/x,os). 

bro! Feminine: iU6c6-bra, an allurement (ilUc6-re); Iat6-bra, a 
hiding-place (latere); vert6-bra, a joint (vertfire). 
Neuter : candela-brum, a candlestick (candela-) ; crl-brum, 
a sieve (ere-, cern-ere, comp. Kplveu>). 

"^ r ro | Iftdlcer, sportive (ludo-) ; sSpul-crum, a tomb (sgpSHre) ; simula- 
crum, a liketiess (simulare). 

i. Adjectives : al-ter, other (ill-, aUo-) ; ex-t6ro-, outside 
(ex-) ; nos-ter, our (nos) ; uter, whether 1 (quo-) ; compare 
also con-tra, ul-tra, &c. ; it-6rum (adv.), a second time (cf. 

2. Substantives ; (a) Masculine and Feminine : magis-ter 
(also magis-tra, f.), a master (magis) ; minis-ter (also 
ministra, f.), a servant (minus) ; s&qves-ter, a stakeholder, 
mediator (s6cus). 

(b) Neuter : ara-trum, a plough (ara-re) ; claus-trum (usu- 
ally pi.), a fastening (claud-ere) ; ros-trum, a beak (rod-6re); 
trans-trum, a cross bench (trans). 

Chap. Vl\ Lingual Noun-Stems. 169 

-as-tgro Fulvi-aster (Cic. Aft. 12. 44), a little Fulvius ; 61e-aster, a wild 

olive (olea-) ; surd-aster, rather deaf (surdo-). 

384= -6ro i. e. stem suffix in -o suffixed to suffix in -6s, -or : e. g. 6d<5r-us, 

scented (6d5s-); s6p-6rus, sleep-bringing (s6por-). 

-turo) ^ Adjectives; i.e. the future participle active: e.g. ama- 
-suroj turus, about to love (ama-re) ; da-turus, about to give (dare) ; 
6-surus, about to hate (6d-) ; pas-surus, about to suffer 

2. Substantives (numerous), feminine, similarly formed to 
the above. These nouns denote the employment or result, 
and are probably really formed from the substantive stems 
denoting agents and ending in -tor, -sor : cen-stira, the censor- 
ship (censere, censor) ; jac-tura, a throwing over, a loss 
(jac6re) ; men-sura, a measure (metlri, mensor) ; na-tura, 
nature (na-sc-i) ; prae-tura, thepraetorship (praeire, praetor) ; 
scrip-tura, a 'writing, a tax on registered use of public 
pastures (scrl-foere) ; u-siira, use, esp. of money (uti). 

Stems in -ri, -r. 

335 -ben) Adjectives : Dgcem-ber, tenth month (d6cem-); fune-bris, fune- 

real (fttnus-) ; salu-ber, healthy (salvo-, salut-j. 

Adjectives (few) : m6dio-cris, middling (mgdio-) ; v61ii-cer, swift 

tri ! Adjectives: 6qves-ter, of horsemen (6qv6s-); semes-tris, for six 

months (sex mensi-); similarly campester, of the field (campo-); 
terres-tris, of the earth (terra-). 

386 -ari Used, when a stem contains 1, in place of -all. Numerous 

adjectives and thence-derived substantives : e. g. ancill-aris, 
of a maid-servant (ancilla-) ; consul-aris, of a consul (con- 
sul-) ; llne-aris, of lines (llnea-) ; millt-aris, of soldiers 
(mliet-) ; p6pul-aris, of the people (p6pulo-) ; saiat-aris, 
healthful (salut-) ; vulg-aris, of the common people (vulgo-) ; 
calc-ar, a spur (calci-, beet) ; exemplar, a pattern (exemplo-). 

387 -5r Masculine substantives, denoting chiefly a quality: e.g. am- 

or, love (amare) ; ard-or, g/ow (ardere) ; clam-or, a shout 
(clamare) ; fur-or, rage (furore) ; pud-or, shame (pudere) ; 
um-or, moisture (iimere). 

" ? r > i.e. -or appended to the supine stem. All masculine sub- 

stantives (denoting persons), very numerous : accusa-tor, an 
accuser- ac-tor, an actor, a plaintiff', adju-tor, a helper ; 
audi-tor, a hearer, esp. a pupil; cen-sor, a valuer, a critic ; 
credl-tor, a lender ; divl-sor, a distributer ; emp-tor, a pur- 
chaser ; ora-tor, a speaker, a spokesman', posses-sor, an oc- 
cupier', sa-tor, a sower ; vic-tor, a conqueror. 

Similarly lictor, a magistrate's attendant; portl-tor, a toll- 
taker (portu-); s6na-tor, a senator (s6n-, old) ; vani-tor. 
a vine-dresser (vino-). 


Stems ending in -s. 

388 -nos (-nor) facl-nus, a deed, esp. ill deed (fac6re) ; fe-nus, breed (i. e. inter- 
est] of money (comp. fe-tus, fe-mlna) ; pig-mis, a fledge 

-ios (-ior) Adjectives in comparative degree. The original s of the 
suffix is seen only in the neuter gender and in derivatives, 
especially the superlatives ( 351), and us-culo ( 376). 
acr-ior, sharper (ac^ri-) ; alt-ior, higher (alto-) ; amant-ior, 
more loving (amanti-) ; dur-ior, harder (dtiro-) ; ma-jor 
(for mag-ior), greater (comp. mag-nus, magis) ; pe-jor (for 
pgd-ior), worse (comp. pes-simus) ; salubr-ior, more healthy 
(salubri-) ; v6tust-ior, older (ve"tusto-). 


Stems ending in -eo. 

389 -eo i. Adjectives: e. g. aur-eus, golden (auro-) ; corp&r-eus, of 

or having a body (corp6s-) ; femln-eus, of a woman (femlna-) ; 

ign-eus, fiery (igni-) ; sangmn-eus, bloody (sanguin-) ; plc- 

eus, pitchy (pic-). 

2. Substantives : calc-eus, a shoe (calci-, heel) ; flamm-eura, 

ayello<w bridal veil (flamma-) ; lln-ea, a flaxen line (lino-), 
-ac-eo cret-aceus, of chalk (creta-); rds-aceus, of roses (r6sa-). 
-neo Sbur-neus, of ivory (6b6r-) ; quer-neus (for quercneus), of oak 

-aneo Adjectives : consent-aneus, united (consentire) ; miscell-aneus, 

miscellaneous (miscello-). circumfor-aneus, aroimd the fortim 

(circum f6ro-) ; m6dlterr-aneus, inland (medio-, terra-) ; stiper- 

vac-aneus, superfluous (siiper vacare). 
-leo Diminutival suffix : acti-leus, a sting, prickle (acu-) : 6cu-leus (or 

gquu-leus), a colt (6qvo-); nuc-leus (nUcil-leus Plaut.), a kernel 


Stems ending in -io. 

390 -io i. Adjectives, chiefly from nouns: e.g. a6r-ius, in the air 

(a6r-) ; egrgg-ius, select (e grSgg) ; nox-ius, hurtful (noxa-) ; 
patr-ius, of a father. 

A great number of Roman clan-names end in -io. They 
are properly adjectives: e.g. Fab-ia gens, the clan of the 
Fabii ; Q. Fab-ius, Quintus of the Fabians. A few are used 
as praenomina. 

Aqvill-ius (aqvila-, eagle} ; Claud-ius (claudo-, lame} Fab- 
ius (f3,ba-, bean) ; namin-ius (flamen-, priest) ; Jun-ius 

Chap. VL~\ Vowel Noun-Stems. 171 

-, young) ; Man-ins, praen. (mane-, morning) ; Rubr~ius 
(rubro-, red) ; Serv-ius, praen. (servo-, slave) ; Vitell-ius 
(vltello-, egg-yolk or little calf- cf. vltulo-). 
i. Substantives; (a) Masculine: e.g. fluv-ius, a river 
(flugre) ; ggn-ius, native temper (gi-gn-gre). 

(b) Feminine: numerous, both from verbal and noun stems: 
e. g. av-ia, a grandmother (avo-) ; c61on-ia, a farmer settle- 
ment (c616no-) ; exgqu-iae (pi.), funeral (exsequi-) ; infit- 
iae, non-confession (in, fateri-) ; inert-ia, inactivity (in, arti-) ; 
iracund-ia, wrath (iracundo-) ; milit-ia, service in war (mi- 
ls) ; superb-ia, haughtiness (superbo-). 

Stems in -ie (-les for la-Is?) ; e.g. ac-ies, an edge (acu-); alliiv- 
ies, overflow (allavare) ; efflg-ies, a form (effi/zggre) ; fac-ies, 
a face (facSre) ; sgr-ies, a row (sgrgre). 

(c) Neuter : very numerous, both derivatives from verbs and 
nouns, and also compounds formed immediately from the sim- 
ple parts : e. g. bgngf ic-ium, a kindness (benefacgre) ; colleg- 
ium, a board or committee (collega-) ; exil-ium, exile (exul-) ; 
gaud-ium, joy (gaudere) ; homlcid-ium, manslaughter (hom- 
in-, caedgre) ; hospit-ium, hospitality (hospgs) ; incend-ium, 
a conflagration (incendgre) ; praecord-ia, the diaphragm 
(prae, cordi-) ; prlvileg-ium, an enactment against an indi- 
vidual (prlvo-, leg-) ; suspir-ium. a sigh (suspirare) ; somn- 
ium, dream (somno-). 

391 -Icio) chiefly adjectives: e.g. aedni-eius, of an acdile (aedlli-); nata- 

Hcius, of a birthday (natali-) ; sola-cium, comfort (solari) ; 

un-cia, unit of measure (\ino-). 

-ticio) j >e> _ icio use( j w j t k stem ^_ t) ^ Q f p ast p ar ti c jpi es . Adjectives : 
-sicioj conduc-tlcius, hired (conduc-gre) ; dedi-ticius, surrendered 

(dedgre) ; rgcep-ticius, of things received or reserved (reci- 

pgre) ; tralaticius, transferred, traditional (transferee). 

392 -tio i.e. -io appended to past participles or to similar formations. 

(a) Feminine substantives: e.g. angus-tiae (pi.), straits (a.n- 
gusto-) ; controver-sia, a dispute (contro, vertgre) ; nup- 
tiae (pi.), marriage (nubgre) ; pugrl-tia, childhood (pugro-) ; 
saevi-tia, cruelty (saevo-). 

Stems in -Itie-, usually with collateral stem in -itia: e.g. 
cam-ties, grayness (cano-); molll-tia (also -e stem), softness 
(molli-); nequi-tia (also -e stem), roguishness (nequam) ; 
plam-ties (also -a stem), a level (piano-). 

(b) Neuter substantives: e.g. cdmi-tium, assembly, place of 
assembly (com, -ire) ; servl-tium, slavery (servo-). 

-en-t-io i.e. -io, or more frequently -ia, appended to stem (in -enti-) 
of present participle, or of adjectives of like form : benevol- 
entia, goodwill (bgng, velle) ; glgg-antia, neatness (glgganti-) ; 
p6t-entia, power (posse) ; sapi-entia, wisdom (sapgre) ; vldl- 
entia, violence (vidlento-). 
So the neuter sil-entium, silence (sUere). 


393 -monio Substantives: (a) Feminine; e. g. acri-monia, sharpness (acri-); 

querl-monia, complaint (qv6ri). 

(b) Neuter ; matrl-monium, marriage (matr-) ; patrl-monium, 

hereditary estate (patr-) ; testl-monium, evidence (testi-). 

-cln-io Neuter substantives chiefly from verbs in -clnari : e.g. latro- 
clnium, brigandage (latro-clnari from latron-) ; patro-clnium, 
patronage (patro-clnari from patrono-); tlro-clnium, pupillage 
(tlrSn-) j vatl-clnium, prophecy (vaticlnari), from vati-. 

394 -5-rio Very numerous, often with collateral stems in -ari ( 386). 

1. Adjectives: e.g. advers-arius, opposed (adverse-); agr- 
arius, of land (agro-) ; nScess-arius, necessary (n&cesse) ; 
sen-arius, containing six (seno-) ; smnptu-arius, of expense 
(sumptu-) ; volupt-arius, of pleasure (for voluptat-arius 
from vdluptat-). 

2. Substantives; (a) Masculine: e.g. comment-arius (sc. 
liber), a note book (commento-) ; febru-arius (sc. mensis), 
the month of purifications (februo-) ; libr-arius, a transcriber 
(llbro-) ; sext-arius, a pint, i.e. sixth of a congius (sexto-), 

(b) Feminine: argent-aria (sc. fodina), a silver mine, (sc. 
tabula) a bank (argent!-); asin-aria (sc. fabula), of an ass; 
name of a play of Plautus (asino-) ; mosteU-aria, a play of 
a ghost (mostello-, diminutive of monstro-). 

(c ) Neuter : aer-arium, the treasury (aes-) ; congi-arium, a 
quart-largess (congius - 5 7 6 pints); emiss-arium, an outlet 
(emisso-) ; pom-arium, an orchard (porno-) ; vlv-arium, a 
preserve of li-ve animals, e.g. a fa h pond (vivo-). 

~ fi i f ^' e ' ~^ a PP en d e d to personal names in -tor (-s5r). Some 
appear to be formed immediately from the past participle or 
the supine stem. 

1. Adjectives: cen-s5r-ius, of a censor-, gladia-tor-ius, of a 
gladiator mes-sor-ius, of a reaper ; mgri-tor-ius, for hire 
(mgrlto-) ; sua-sor-ius, of the persuasive. 

2. Substantives, chiefly neuter: e.g. audl-tSr-ium, a lecture 
room- cna-toria (pi.), dinner dress- prae-t5rium, the gene- 
ral's quarters ; tec-torium, plaster of (walls (tecto-) ; vic- 
toria, victory. 

Chap. VII.} Verb-Stems. 173 


395 SIMPLE verbs are formed in four ways : 

i. A verb may be formed by union of a root directly with the 
suffixes of inflexion. In this case the root does duty as the verb-stem. 
Verbs so formed are probably the oldest in the language. They are 
all (or almost all) given in the list in Book II. chap. xxiu. 

e.g. r6g-, reggre, rule; fgr-, ferre, bear; ru-, ruSre, dash; su-, 
suSre, sow; fts-, Hr6re, burn (where the change of s to r is merely 

In some of these verbs the root (or what we suppose to be the root) 
is somewhat disguised either (a) by internal change, or by (b) the 
addition or modification of the final consonant in order to adapt the 
root to a slight turn of the meaning. 

(#) By internal change: e.g. diic-, dflco ; jug-, jungo. It is pos- 
sible that such change may have originally belonged to the present 
stem only and have gradually been carried through all the parts of the 
verb. In sealp&re, to scratch, sculpgre, carve, we have slight modifica- 
tions of the same root. 

() By altering the final stem-consonant : e. g. verr-ere, brush, and 
vert-Sre, turn, are probably one root differently modified. So mulc-ere, 
stroke, is modified to mulg-ere, milk. 

396 ii. A verb-stem may be formed by the addition of a verbal stem- 
suffix to the root : e. g. 

root am- stem am-a- amare, to love 

cu.b- cub-a- cubare, to He down 

tSn- tSn-6- tSnere, to hold 

nfle- n6c-S- ndcere, to be hurtful 

tu- tu-g- tueri, to defend 

fug- fiig-I- fuggre, to flee 

fgr- fgr-I- ffirlre, to strike 

ven- v6n-I- vSnire, to come 

In some cases it is doubtful whether the stem-vowel belongs to the 
present tense only, or belongs properly to the verb-stem and has given way 
only through phonetic changes : e.g. 

cftb-u-i, ciib-I-tum probably stand for ciib-au-i, ciib-a-tum ; 

fftgSre exhibits I in present and supine stem, though in the present it 
takes the form of 6 before r (e.g. ftig6-re) ; 

v6n-Ire exhibits the I only in the present stem. 

A good many verbs in -i are expressive of animal sounds and may pro- 
bably be formed directly from the sound : e. g. croclre, croak ; garrlre, chat- 
ter; g!5clre, chick ; grunnlre, grunt; hinnlre ; neigh ; muglre, low ; tinnlre, 
jingle, tinkle, &c. 


397 iii. A verb-stem may be formed from a noun-stem either by the 
retention of the stem-suffix of the noun, or by the modification of it so 
as to get the appropriate verbal stem-suffix. In this way are formed 
the great majority of the very numerous verb-stems in -a, a considera- 
ble number of the -e stems and of the -i stems, and some of the -u stems. 

i. Verbs with -a stems are formed (without special derivative 
suffix) : 

(a) from substantives with -a stems: e.g. aquari, to fetch water; 
curare, take charge of; lacrlmare, weep; rotare, wheel. 

(b) from substantives with -e steins (very few): e.g. glaciare, turn to 
ice ; mSrldiare (also dep.), take a hmch (or noon-day meal}. 

(c) from nouns with -0 stems, viz. : 

from substantives: e.g. ctlmiilare, pile up (cumulus); damnare, con~ 
demn (damnum, loss); j6cari, joke (jdcus); laniare, butcher (lanius); 
regnare, reign (regnum). 

from adjectives: aequare, level; dignari, think worthy; laxare, loosen; 
sacrare, consecrate (sacer) ; vagari, stroll about. 

(d) from substantives with -u stems (few) : e.g. aestuare, be hot, surge ; 
fluctuare (also dep.), tindulate, waver. 

(e) from nouns with -i stems, viz. : 

from substantives: e.g. calcare, trample (calx, heel); piscari, to fish 
(piscis) ; sedare, settle (sedes). 

from adjectives: e.g. celSbrare, frequent (ce'lSbe'r); dltare, enrich (dls); 
tSnuare, make thin (tenuis). 

(f) from nouns with consonant-stems, viz. : 

from substantives: e.g. dScdrare, decorate (duetts); hi&mare, spend 
winter (hiems) ; interprStari, act interpreter (interpres) ; jtidicare, judge 
(judex) ; laudare, praise (laus) ; omlnari, forebode (omen) ; salutare, greet 

from adjectives (very few) : e. g. degSngrare, degenerate (deg6n8r) ; 
paupSrare, make poor (pauper). 

a. Verbs with -u stems (few) are formed : 

from substantives in -u : e. g. mStu-gre, fear (mfitus) ; statuere, place 
(status) ; trltouere, divide (tribus). 

3. Verbs with -e stems are formed : 

(a) from substantives with -o stems; e.g. callere, have a thick skin 
(callum) ; niucere, be mouldy (mucus). 

(l>) from adjectives with -o stems: e.g. canere, be hoary (canus) ; 
denser!, thicken (intr.), be crowded (densus); fiavere, be yellow (flavus); 
mlserCri, have pity (mlsfir). 

(c) from nouns with -i stems; e.g. froDdere, be leafy (trans); sordere, 
be dirty (sordes pi.): tabere, waste away (tabes). 

(d) from nouns with consonant-stems: e.g. florere, be in Jlower (flcs); 
lucere, be light (lux). 

4. Verbs with -i stems are formed : 

(d) from substantives with -a stems: e.g. metlri, measure (meta); 
pfinlre, punish (poena). 

Chap. VII.} Verb-Stems. 175 

(b) from nouns with -o stems, viz. : 

from substantives: e.g. servlre, be a slave (servus). 
from adjectives: e.g. blandlri, coax (blandus); ineptlre, be silly (inep- 
tus) ; insanlre, be insane (insanus) ; saevire, rage (saevus). 

(c) from substantives with -u stems; e.g. gestlre, exult (gestus, a 
gesture}; singultire, sob (singultus). 

(d) from nouns with -i stems, viz. : 

from substantives: e.g. audlre, hear (auris); flnlre, put an end to 
(finis); mflnlre, fortify (moenia, pi.); sortlri, cast lots (sors); vestire, 
clothe (vestis). 

(e) from adjectives: e.g. insignlre, mark (insignis); molllre, soften 
(mollis); stabllire, establish (stabllis). 

(/) from substantives with consonant-stems: e.g. custodlre, keep watch 
on (custos) ; expMIre, free one's foot (ex pes). 

5. Inchoative verbs with suffix -sc are often formed directly from 
noun-stems, and on this account may claim a place here. Others have 
both the simple and the inchoative form in the present stem, see 296. 

(a) from noun-stems in -a and -o: e.g. gemmascSre, bud (gemma); 
rarescgre, grow sparse (rarus) ; silvescere, become woody (silva). 

(/') from noun-stems (especially adjectives) in -i: e.g. ditescere, grow 
rich (dls) ; dulcescere, grow sweet (dulcis) ; fatiscere, yawn (fatis in adfa- 
tim) ; gravescere, grow heavy (gravis) ; ignescere (or igniscSre), burst 
into flame (ignis) ; pinguescere, grow fat (pinguis). 

(c) from consonant noun-stems : e.g. juvenescere, grow young ($&%&.-}; 
lapidescere (Plin.), turn to stone (lapis) ; rorescere (Ov.), dissolve to dew (ros). 

398 iv. A verb-stem may be, formed by the addition of a special deri- 
vative suffix, besides a verbal stem-suffix, to a root. 

The following derivative suffixes are found in use (mostly with -a 
stems), but it is possible that some or a*ll of them may have been at 
least originally noun-suffixes. In that case this mode of formation (iv) 
would be resolved into the preceding (iii). 

-Ie-a (Infrequent.) As if from adjective-stems in -Ico : e.g. claud- 

Icare, limp (claudus, claudere) ; praevar-Icari, act in collusion 
(varus, crooked] ; vell-Icare, pluck at (velle're). 

-Iga e.g. cast-Igare, chastise (castus); fat-Igare, tire (make to yawn, 


As if from same stem as past participles, usually expressing 
repeated action or attempt (Frequentative Verbs). (None 
are from participles in -ato.) e.g. adven-tare, come frequently 
(advgnire); dictare, say frequently (dlcSre) ; habl-tare, dwell 
in (babere) ; n6-tare, note (noscgre, comp. cogmtus) ; osten- 
tare, show off (ostend6re) ; trac-tare, handle (trahgre) ; 
ver-sare, turn about (vertgre). 

-Iti Usually affixed to the last consonant of the present stem of 

another verb. Sometimes the i may be part of the stem-root 
of the suffix: e.g. ag-Itare, shake (aggre) ; cog-itare, think 
(cogere) ; dub-Itare, doubt (dubio-) ; pericl-Itari, make trial 


of (pgriculo-) ; r6g-itare, ask frequently (rOgare) ; vend- 
Itare, offer for sale (vendSre). 

i. e. -Ita suffixed to the same stem as past participles or ordi- 
nary frequentatives : e.g. dicti-tare, say repeatedly (dlc-6re, 
diet-are) ; haesi-tare, hesitate (haerere) ; pensitare, pay 
habitually, Cic. ; ponder, Liv. (pendere, pensare) ; ventl- 
tare, come often (vfinire). 

400 -fltl- From noun-stems: e.g. balb-CltIre, stammer (balbus); caec- 

fttire, be blind (caecus). 

-cina latro-clnari, be a brigand (latron-) ; patro-clnari, be a patron 

(patrono-); ratio-cinari, calculate (ration-); vatl-clnari, titter 
prophecies (vati-). 

As if from diminutival nouns : e. g. grat-ftlari, congratulate 
(grato-); vi-61are, use force to (vi-); ust-iilare, singe (usto-, 

-ilia- conscrib-illare, scribble on (scrlb-Sre) ; vac-Ulare (vacciUare 

Lucr. once), waddle, hesitate (vacca, a cow). 

-tra calci-trare, kick (calci-) ; p6n6-trare, penetrate (pgniis-, store). 

-ftrl Usually expressive of desire; formed as from the supine-stem: 

cenat-tiiire, be eager for dinner (cenare) ; es-ftrlre, be hungry 
(6dre) ; proscript-ttrire, be eager for a proscription (proscrlb6re) . 

-urri lig-urrire, lick; scat-urrire, gush forth (scat6re). 

401 Some verbs with -a stems are formed from, or parallel to, 
verbs with other stems : e. g. aspernari, scorn, spurn (ab, sperngre) ; 
consternare, dismay (consterngre) ; creare, make to grow (cre-sc-6re, 
grow} ; dicare, dedicate (dic6re) ; ediicare, bring up, train (edflc6re) ; 
hiare, gape (hi-sc-Sre, open the mouth to speak} ; labare, slip (labi) ; 
mandare, commit, entrust (manu-, dare); mulcare, beat (mulcere, 
stroke) ; sgdare, settle (sgdere, sit). 


402 NEW words may be formed not merely by the addition of a deri- 
vative suffix, but by the junction of two or more separately intelligible 
words into one. This is called composition. The distinctive features of 
two words being compounded are the loss of their separate accents, 
and the possession of but one set of inflexions. 

Any two words in syntactical connexion may, if the meaning be 
suitable, be the base of a new compound word. So long as the two 
words each retain their own proper inflexion or use, however frequently 
they may be used together, they are not a proper compound ; e. g. rem 
gerere, res gestae, &c. 

Chap. VIII.\ . Composition. 177 

Such habitual combinations are called spurious compounds, and are 
often marked by the fixing of a particular order for the words, though 
such order is not absolutely prescribed by general principles ; e. g. pater 
familias, jus jurandura, respublica, accept! ratio, &c. 

403 Compounds are distinguishable from a mere juxtaposition of the 
simple words of which they are or might appear to be composed, 

either (a) by the two words being used together in a way in which 
they would not be used as simple words, e.g. ediirus, subsimilis, 
cisrhenanus, proavus, qvinqvevir; 

or (b) by one or both not being used at all independently, e.g. 
dissimilis, vesanus ; 

or (c) by one or both losing their proper inflexions or terminations, 
e.g. arcitenens, malevolus, tridens, caprificus : ; 

or (d) by a vowel being changed or omitted owing to the two 
words being brought under one accent, e. g. Diespiter, duodecim ; 
auceps, usurpo. 

or (e} by the meaning of the compound being different or more 
than the meaning of the two words, e.g. supercilium, the eyebrow; (but 
super cilium, above the eyelid) ; conclave, a chamber. 

404 The precise form which the compound word assumes is not deter- 
mined by the previous connexion, but mainly by the .class (verb, adjec- 
tive, substantive, &c.) to which it is to belong ; and, subordinately to 
that, by the same causes (known or unknown) which occasion the 
selection of particular suffixes of declension or derivation. To us the 
particular form thus appears to be frequently 3 matter of caprice. 
There is, however, a tendency for the compound word to take a similar 
form to the second of the component words. 

The combination is always a combination of stems or roots (some- 
times dipt) ; and the resulting compound, even where it exhibits 
similar inflexional or derivative suffixes to those of one of the simple 
words, may most truly be supposed not to have retained such suffixes 
but to have reproduced them ; e. g. palmi-pes is a compound from the 
stems palma-, ped-, and has received the simple inflexions (i.e. nomi- 
native suffix) of the second class of nouns, just as the stem ped- itself 

But a verb or adjective, compounded with a preposition used abso- 
lutely ( 408), retains the form of the simple stem: a verb compounded 
of two words in proper syntactical relation with each other ( 409 
415) takes an a stem. 

So far as the inflexional or derivative suffix is concerned, compound 
words have been sometimes already included in the examples given in 
this and the previous book. Here they will be classified and selections 
made according to the variety of the elements of which they are com- 
posed, and the nature of the connexion. 

405 i. SPURIOUS COMPOUNDS. The following are the combinations 
which, from the fixity of their use, appear most nearly to approach 
proper compounds. 

L. G. 12 


1. Verbs: (a) animum advertere (or animadvertere), to take 
notice ; f Idei committere, to entrust ; f ideicommissa, trusts ; f idejubSre, 
to bid a person do a thing on your guaranty ; fidejussor, a guarantor ; 
pessum dare, to send to the bottom (comp. pessum ire, abire, premgre) ; 
venum ire, to be sold, venum dare, to sell (but venire, vend6re as com- 
pounds proper) ; usucapere, acquire by use. 

illcet, off! at once (ire licet) ; scilicet, let me tell you (scire licet) ; 
videlicet, you may see that is to say (videre licet), where the re has 
dropt off by its similarity to 11. 

() The disyllabic prepositions appear often to form with verbs 
only improper compounds ; e. g. circum dare, to throw around, appears 
to be in meaning a proper compound in urbem circum dare muro ; an 
improper one in urbi circum dare murum. 

Similarly retroagere, retrogradi, &c. ; be'neTace're, male'dice're, satis- 
facgre, palamfacerS. palamfieri. 

Compare also inque pediri, jacere indu, inque gravescunt (Lucr.), 
and the use of per in such expressions as per mini gratum est ; &c. 

2. Nouns: 

408 (a) Doubled adjective : 

alt&riiter, one of two ; quisquis, (whosoever ; qudtusquisque, how 
many. (Gomp. the adverbs : quamquam, utut, although, however.} 

tertius decimus, quartus decimus, and other compound numerals. 
So lex quina vicenaria, law relating to age of twenty-jive. 

(b) Adjective -f substantive : jusjurandum, an oath (lit. a swearing 
one's right, being a nominative formed to correspond with the gerundival 
use jurisjurandi, &c.) ; res gestae, exploits; res publica, the common 
weal ; ros marinus (ros maris Ov.), rosemary (sea-dew}. 

(c~) Genitive + substantive : accept! latio, expensi latio, crediting or 
debiting (lit. entering in book as received or expended) ; agricultura, 
farming] aquaeductus, a water-course-, argentifodinae, silver mines; 
ludimagister, a school-master; paterfamilias, materfamilias, filius- 
familias, &c. a father, &c. of a household; plebiscltum, a commons 1 
resolution ; senatusconsultum, a senate's decree. So jurisconsultus, one 
skilled in the law. 

(d) Genitive + adjective: e.g. verisimilis, likely (like the truth). 

(e) Oblique case and participle; e.g. dicto audiens esse, to be 

(f) Two parallel substantives: e.g. ususfructus, the use and enjoy- 
ment. So perhaps pactum conventum, a bargain and covenant. 

(g) Adverb (or adverbial accusative) + participle : e.g. gravedlens, 
strong smelling suaveolens, sweet-smelling. 

Similarly paeninsula, an almost-island (comp. duos prope Hannibales 
in Italia esse (Liv.) ; ex non sensibus, from what are not senses 

Chap. VIfI^\ Composition. 179 

407 3- Adverbs: e.g. saepenumero, often in number' tantummodo, 
only (lit. so much in measure} ; hactSnus, thus far ; quamlibet, quamvis, 
however much, although, &c. 

itaqve, therefore / et6nim, in fact, &c. have each but one accent: 
inagnopere, greatly ; prorsus ( 214), utterly, c. have been contracted: 
slqvidem, nisi ( 221), &c. have had the first vowel modified. So 
nudlus tertius (quartus, &c.), the day (two days) before yesterday, is 
a contracted sentence (nunc dies tertius est). Multimodis, miri- 
modls multismodis. &c. Lucr. has also omnimodis. 

408 ii. COMPOUNDS of prepositions used absolutely, or of 
inseparable particles* 

Such compounds are some verbs and some nouns, 
i. Verbs: 

(a) Common with prepositions; e.g. abire, go away j advenire, 
come to; colllgere, collect; demittere, let down; expellgre, drive out; 
inspicSre, look in ; oblbqui, speak against ; succedere, go under ; &c. 

(b) With inseparable particles : amb-, round ; dis-, in pieces ; por-, 
forth; red (re), back; sed (se), apart; e.g. ambire, go round; dissol- 
vere, undo; porrfgere, stretch forth ; rfemittere, send back; sevScare, 
c all aside. 

(c) Rarely with negatives; viz. in-, ne : e.g. ignoscere, not recog- 
nise, pardon ; nequire, be unable ; nescire, be ignorant ; nolle, be un- 
willingi With gerundive: infandus, nefandus, unspeakable: (in- is fre- 
quent with participles). 

a. Nouns: some containing verbal stems, some containing noun 
stems: e.g. 

concavus, hollow (cavo-) ; concors, of the same mind (cord-) ; col- 
lega, a fellow by law (leg-) ; conservus, a fellow slave (servo-) ; 

discolor, of various colours (c61or-) ; exheres, disinherited (hered-) ; 
exsomnis, sleepless (somno-) ; 

ignarug, ignorant (gnaro-) ; immSritus, undeserved (mgrlto-) ; in- 
6dia, fasting (SdSre, eat) ; iniqvus, unfair (aequo-) ; inops, helpless 
(dpi-) ; and many others with in-, not. 

ngfas, wickedness (fas-) ; nggotium, business (nee, otiuni) ; 

peraciitus, very sharp ; pergratus, very pleasing ; permagnus, very 
great; praeclarus, very illustrious; praevalldus, very strong; and many 
others with per and prae, very; 

praematurus, ripe before the time; praeposterus, behind before, re- 
versed; proavus, a great grandfather; procllvis, sloping forwards; 
pr6fugus, y^/Vzg- (fiiggre) ; 

recurvus, curved back; refluus, flowing back (fluSre). 

subabsurdus, slightly absurd ; subobscilrus, rather dark; subtiirpis, 
somewhat disgraceful ; and many others with sub, slightly : also subcen- 
j a lieutenant. 

12 2 


vecors, foolish (cord-) ; vegrandis, small (grand!-) ; vemens, 'violent 

409 Hi- Compounds formed by giving an appropriate suffix to 
words conceived as in regular syntactical relation to each other. 

A. Attributed- noun (usually substantive): 

() Numeral + noun (usually substantive) : e. g. bidens, with two 
teeth (denti-) ; blvius, with two roads (via-) ; centlmanus, hundred- 
handed (manu-) ; duplex, two-fold (pUcare) ; quadriga (for quadrijuga), 
a fourhorse chariot (quatuor, jugo-) ; sexnibarbarus, half foreign (bar- 
baro-); semlrutus, half fallen (rfito-) ; sesqui-pSdalis, afoot and halfm 
measure (pSd-); teruncius, a three-ounce, i.e. \ of an as (uneia-); 
unanlmus, of one mind (animo-). 

() Ordinary adjective + substantive; e. g. aequaevus, contemporary 
(aequo-, aevo-); laticlavius, with a broad border to the toga (lato-, 
clavo-) ; mSdlterraneus, midland (m8dio-, terra-) ; mlsSrfcors, pitiful 
(misero-, cord-) ; multlformis, multiform (multa-, forma-) ; plenlluniunV, 
time of full moon (plena-, luna-) ; versjco'lor, with changed colour (verso-, 

(f) Substantive -f substantive. The first is used as attributive: e.g. 
aerlpes, bronze-footed (aes-, pSd-) ; cornlpes, hornfooted (cornu-, p6d-) ; 
caprlcornus, goat-horned (capro-, cornu-) ; manupr6tium, cost of hand- 
work (manu-, prgtio-). 

410 B. Preposition + substantive: e.g. abnorniis, irregular (ab 
norma) ; adumbrare, sketch in outline (ad umbram, draw by the shadow) ; 
antelucanus, before daybreak (ante lucem) ; circumfdraneus, round the 
forum (circum forum) ; deg6n6r, degenerate (de gen5r6) ; egrggius, select 

(e grg6) ; extempSralis, on the moment (ex tempOrS) ; extraordlnarius, 
out of the usual order (extra ordlnem) ; inaures (pi.), eardrops (in aure) ; 
intervallum, space between palisades, an interval (inter valla) ; obnoxius, 
liable for a wrong (ob noxam) ; perennis, all through the year (per 
annum) ; proconsul, a deputy consul (pro consult) ; suburbanus, near the 
city (sub urbem) ; suffocare, strangle (sub faucibus, under throat} ; trans- 
Alpinus, beyond ths A J ps (trans Alpes). 

411 C. Nouns collateral to one another (rare): 

duodgcim, tivclve (duo+decem; octodgcim, eighteen (octo + decem) ; 
undgcim, eleven (uno + decem). 

suovetaurilia, (pi.), a sacrifice of a sheep, pig and bull (su- + 6vi- 
+ tauro-). 

412 D. Object -f verb (frequent): 

aedificare, to build, aedlficium, a building (aedem facere) ; agricdla, 
a farmer (agrum c61ere); agrlpgta, a squatter (agrum p6t6re) ; armlggr, 
a warrior (anna g&rSre) ; auceps, a birdcatcher, hence aucupium, aucu- 

Chap. VTIL] Composition. 181 

p,re (avem capere); auspex, a bird-viewer (avem spScfire); car- 
nlvdrus, flesh-eating (carnem vdrare) ; causidlcus, a pleader (causam 
dlcSre); faenlsex, hay-cutter (faenum scare); fatlfgr, death-bringing 
(fatum ferre); fratrlclda, a brother-slayer (fratrera caedgre); grandl- 
16qvus, talking big (grandg 16qui; lectisternium, couch-covering; a re- 
ligious ceremony (lectum sterngre): naufragus, shipwrecked (navem 
fraggre) ; navigare, to voyage, navlgium, -voyage, ship (navem agfire) ; 
morlggrus, complaisant (mSrem ggrgre) ; puerpgra, puerpgrium, child- 
bearing (pugrum pargre) ; sortflggus, lot-picker, hence soothsayer (sortes 
Igggre)! stipendium (for sttplpendium), pay (stlpem pendfire); v6ne- 
nlfer, poison-bearing (vSnenum ferre); vltlsator, vineplanter (vitem 

413 E. Oblique predicate + verb : 

e.g. aequlpgrare, make equal (aequum (aliquod) parare) ; Ifldl- 
ficare, make game of (ludos (aliquem) facgre) ; purgare, cleanse (purum 
(aliquem) agere). 

Here may be put the half-compounds of (usually) verbal stems 
with facfire and fiiri. The quantity of the e is doubtful : it is here 
marked only when proof exists, in which case the author's name is 

ca!6fac6re (Plaut., Lucr.) also calface"re, make warm; labgfacere 
(Ter., Ov.), make to fall; liqvfifacere (Verg., Ov.), llquefacere (Lucr., 
Gatull., Ov.), melt; patefacere (Plaut., Verg., Ov.), patefacere (Lucr.), 
display; patrefacere or patefacere (Plaut., Lucr.), pfitr6fac6re (Ov.), 
make rotten; desuefacare, disuse; mansuefacere, tame; c. 

414 F. Subject + verb (rare): 

galllclnium, time of cockcroimng (gallus canit); reglfugium, kings 
flight (rex fugit or reges fugiunt) ; stilHcIdium, a dripping (stUla cadit). 

415 G. Oblique case or adjective used adverbially + verb. The 
construction presumed is often very loose. 

artlfex, a handicraftsman, artlflcium, skilled work (arte facio); 
b6n6v61us, well-wisher (b6n6 v61o) ; bgnignus, well-born, liberal (ben6 
gen-itus) ; blfidus, cleft in two (bis findor) ; largifluus, copious (large fluo) ; 
manceps, a purchaser, mancipium, a chattel (manu capio) ; mandare, 
hand over to a person (manu do); montivagus, wandering on the 
mountains (montibus vagor) ; noctlvagus, night-wandering (nocte 
vagor) ; omnlpotens, all-powerful (omnia possum) : raucisdnus, hoarse- 
sounding (raucum sdno) ; tibicen, tiblcina, a Jlute-player m. or f. (tibia 
cano); tiiblcen, a trumpeter (tuba cano); vend8re, to sell (venum dare). 

So adverb (or oblique case) + participle, e.g. : 

alticinctus, girt high; bipartltus, divided into two (bis partlri). 



416 INTERJECTIONS may be divided into two classes, according as they 
are (i) imitations of sounds; (2) abbreviated sentences or mutilated 

i. Imitations of sounds. (The probable Greek and English modes 
of representing the same or similar sounds are here added.) 

or ha ( * n warnm S or sorrow. Comp. a; Engl. ah! Germ, achl 

heia ( * n encoura emen * : ' Comp. ela, Engl. hey. 

vah in surprise or indignation. Comp. oct. 

o various, Comp, <Z, c3, Engl, oh! 

15 a shout in excitement, Comp, lov or lov, Engl, yoho ! 

Sh5 or oho a cry of distress. Comp. Engl. Ho ! In Terence sometimes 
with dum appended. 

pro or proh in surprise or indignation ; especially in phrases, pro Di immor- 
tales, &c. Perhaps this is not imitative of a natural sound, but 
is a word. 

euoe for cuo?: a cry in Bacchic rites, 

au in fear and warning. 

fu or fui expression of disgust. Plaut. Most. 39, Pseud. 1294. Comp, 
$eu (?), Y.r\g\. fa ! faw ! foh ! Germ. pfni. 

phy in impatience at unnecessary explanation. Ter. Ad. 412. Pro- 

bably same as last. Comp. Engl. pooh. 

hul various. Perhaps a whistle, which is written in Engl. tuhew. 

babae) m wonc } er an d delight: a quivering of the lips. Perhaps imita- 

papae^ t j ve> Comp. Greek /3aj8af, TTOTTOI, irairaT. 

hahahae Laughing. Comp. a, a, Engl. Haha. 

vae in grief and anger. Represents a wail. Comp. oval, in Alex- 

andrine and i later writers, perhaps imitation of the Latin ; 
Germ. 7M?/$,Engl. woe. Compare also vah and the verb vaglre. 

dh9 in annoyance, especially when a person is sated ; probably be- 

tween a groan and a grunt. Comp. Engl. ugh. 

hei or ei in grief. It represents a sigh, Comp, f or I or e?}, and 
perhaps ata?, Engl. heigh. 

ehern or ) the sound of clearing the throat? Comp. Engl. hem, ahem, 

hem or em ( In Plautus em is often found in MSS. for en. 

Chap. IX.] Interjections. 183 

st to command silence. The corresponding sound in English, hist, 

is used to attract attention; and s/i, hush to command silence. 

a , or .?' a Or ( in surprise, vexation, fear, &c. : smacking of the tongue 
re y ' against the teeth. Comp. drrarat drraTaTcu, OTOTOTOI, 

Engl. tut, tut. 

heus a noise to attract attention : a combined whistle and hiss. 

Comp. Engl. whisht! and perhaps Germ, heisa (=Engl. huzza}. 
bombax apparently from /3o,u/3a : expression of wonder. 
euax a cry of joy. Comp. efrx, evdfciv, and perhaps Germ., juchhe. 

tax tax the sound of blows. Comp. Engl. thwack. 
taratantara (Ennius), the sound of a trumpet. 

417 2. Abbreviated sentences or mutilated words. The following are 
probably such: 

(a) Latin : 

en in Plaut. usually em, lol 

ecce lo herd The ce is perhaps the demonstrative particle, cf. 119, 

218. In the comic poets it is frequently combined with the ac- 
cusative (as if it were equivalent to see) of the pronouns is 
and ille ; eccum, eccam, eccos, eccas, ecca ; eccillum, eccillam, 
eccillut; once also eccistam. 

eccere used similarly to English there! 

medius fldius for me deus Fidius juvet, so help me the God of Faith. 

ecastor perhaps for en Castor. 

pol for Pollux. 

e"de"pol said by Roman grammarians to be for per aedem Pollucis. 

sodes prythee. Said by Cicero (Or. 45) to be for si audes. 

(b) Borrowed from the Greek: 

age come ! for aye. It is sometimes followed by dum. 

apage off! for ax aye. 
euge for evye. 

eugipae originally for eirye irat? 



418 SYNTAX is an account of the way in which the different parts of 
speech (i.e. classes of words), and their different inflexional forms are 
employed in the formation of sentences. 


419 WORDS in Latin may be divided into four classes, according as 
they denote, 

(i) a complete thought ; 

(n) a person, thing, or abstract notion ; 

(in) a relation or quality ; 

(iv) a mere connexion of words or sentences. 

Words of the first two classes are, with some special exceptions, 
inflected ; the last two are not inflected. 

420 I- Words which express a complete thought (called in logic a 
judgment) are fnite verbs (i.e. verbs in indicative, subjunctive and 
imperative moods) ; e.g. dico, dicis, dicit, / say, thou sayest, he says ; 
dicat, he should say dicito, thou shalt say. 

421 ii. Words which denote persons and things and abstract notions 
are called nouns (i.e. names), and are divided into two classes, substan- 
tives and adjectives. 

1. Substantives are such names of things, &c. as are representative, 
not of their possessing one particular quality, but of the sum of all the 
qualities and relations which we conceive them to have. 

Chap. /.] Classification of Words. 185 

(a) Pronoun Substantives. 

Personal Pronouns (in Latin) are names to denote the person speak- 
ing and the person spoken to ; e.g. ego, I ; tu, tbou. 

(b) Noun Substantives. 

Proper nouns are names of individual persons or places ; e.g. Lucius, 
Lucius Roma, Rome. 

Common nouns, or appellatives, are names of classes of persons or 
things; e.g. victor, conqueror; aurum, gold; flos, a flower. 

Abstract nouns are names of qualities, actions, and states, considered 
apart from the persons or things possessing or performing them e.g. 
magnitude, greatness ; salus, health ; discessus, departure. 

(c) Infinitive mood of verbs and gerunds are names of actions or 
states conceived in connexion with the persons or things performing or 
possessing them; e.g. videre, to see; videndi, of seeing. 

(d) Any word or phrase which is spoken of as a word or phrase 
only, is the name of itself; e.g. vidit, the word vidit. Such words are 
necessarily indeclinable. 

422 2. Adjectives (in Latin are not names of qualities, but) are such 
names of persons or things as are expressive simply of their possessing 
this or that quality, or being placed in this or that relation. (See 

(a) Pronominal adjectives describe by means of certain relations, 
chiefly those of local nearness to the person speaking, spoken to, or 
spoken of. They are often used instead of nouns ; e.g. meus, mine ; 
We, this ; ille, that; qui, which. 

(b) Numeral adjectives describe by means of number or rank; 
e.g. septem, seven ; Septimus, seventh. Some are indeclinable. 

(c) Nominal (or noun) adjectives describe by means of qualities ; 
e.g. magnus, great ; salutaris, healthy. 

(cT) Participles (including gerundive in some uses) are verbal adjec- 
tives used to describe persons or things by means of actions done by or 
to them; e.g. amans, loving; amatus, loved; amandus, that should be 

423 III. Words (besides oblique cases of nouns), which denote rela- 
tions or qualities of qualities or of actions, are called adverbs, and are 

(a) Connective adverbs ; i.e. those which besides qualifying a word 
in their own sentence, also connect that sentence with another sentence. 
These are all pronominal ; e.g. quum, when; dum, whilst; ubi, where; 
ut, how, as ; si, in whatever case, if; quia, whereas, because, &c. 

() Other pronominal adverbs; e.g. Me, here; turn, then. 

(c} Numeral adverbs ; e.g. septies, seven times. 

(d) Nominal adverbs (of quality, manner, &c.) ; e.g. b6ne, well ; 

186 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

(e) Prepositions either express modes of actions or qualities, and in 
this usage are generally compounded with the verb or adjective, or give 
precision to the relations denoted by the case-suffixes of nouns; e.g. in, 
in ; ex, out ; per, through. 

424 IV. Words which denote a mere connexion (not of things, but) 
of names with names, sentences with sentences, or parts of sentences 
with like parts, are called conjunctions ; e.g. et, nee, sed, in the following 
sentences, Caesar et Cicero eunt et colloquuntur, Caesar and Cicero go 
and talk together; Non eros nee dominos appellat eos, sed patriae 
custodes, sed patres, sed deos (Cic.), He calls them not masters nor lords 
but guardians of their country, fathers, aye gods. 

425 To these four classes may be added 

Interjections; which are either natural vocal sounds, expressive of 
sudden emotions, or abbreviated sentences ; e.g. ! heu ! ehem ! st t 
medius fidius, upon my word. 



i, Elements of a Sentence. 

426 WHEN we speak we either name a person or thing, or we declare 
something of a person or thing. 

The name of a person r thing js expressed by a substanti-ve. 
A complete thought always contains more than the name, for it 
declares something of the person or thing named. Every complete 
thought (called in Grammar a sentence) contains at least two ideas, viz. 

1. The person or thing of which we speak, called the Subject. 

2. Our declaration respecting it, called the Predicate. 

427 A complete thought may be expressed most simply in Latin either 
(a) by a finite verb, or () by two nouns. 

(a) A finite verb contains in its personal suffixes the subject, in its 
stem the predicate; e.g. curr-it, be (she, it) runs; plu-it, it rains; 
aina-mus, ewe love ; etc. 

() When the thought is expressed by two nouns only, the sen- 
tence will contain a substantive (or substantivally-used adjective), in 
the nominative case, for the subject, and either a substantive or an 
adjective for the predicate. Of .two substantives it is, apart from the 
context, indifferent which is considered as the subject, but usually the 

Chap. //.] Parts of a Simple Sentence. 187 

least general name will be the subject: e.g. Julius fortis, Julius is brave; 
Julius consul, Julius is the Consul, or, the Consul is Julius. 

The junction of the two ideas, i.e. the predication itself (called in 
logic the copula), is not expressed by any separate word, but (a) is 
implied in the indissoluble junction of the stem and personal suffixes in 
the finite verb ; or (b) is inferred from the close sequence of the two 

428 Both these simple forms of sentences are liable to be ambiguous: 

(a) The personal suffixes of a finite verb are often insufficient to 
define the subject, especially when the subject is of the third person. 
For the purpose of further definition, a substantive in the nominative 
case is often expressed with it, and the verb may then be regarded as 
containing only the predicate ; e.g. Equus currit, the horse runs (pro- 
perly horse run-he' 1 }. 

(b) The relation of two nouns to each other is also ambiguous. 
The adjective or second substantive may be used, not to assert a con- 
nexion (i.e. as n. predicate), but to denote an already known or assumed 
connexion (i.e. as an attribute), of the person or thing named by the 
first substantive with the quality named by the second substantive or 
the adjective. To remedy this ambiguity, some part of the verb sum is 
generally used (except in animated language) to mark the fact of a 
predication, and then (usually but not necessarily) means little more 
thai) the logical copula, e.g. Julius est consul, Julius (he) is consul. 

General rules. 

429 i. A finite verb, when its subject is expressed by a separate word, 
is put in the same person, and as a rule, in the same number, as its 

a. Any -substantive may be used as a subject. The subject of a 
sentence is, if declinable, in the nominative case ; but the relation of sub- 
ject and predicate may exist also between words in oblique cases. 

3. A noun, whether used as an attribute or predicate, is put in the 
same case, if it denote the same person or thing, as the substantive to 
which it is attributed, or the subject of which it is predicated. 

(Pronouns and participles follow the same rule as nouns, and will there- 
fore, unless separately mentioned, be included here under the term noun. 
Adjectives used otherwise than as attributes or predicates of a substantive 
will be included under the term substantive,} 

ii. Of Attributes. 

430 JjF a substantive by itself does not express the full name or definition 
which we wish to give of a person or thing, a word or expression is 
added, called an attribute* of the substantive. The simplest forms of 

1 More strictly perhaps {if we : may regard the o stems as properly mas- 
culine, and notice the nominative suffix 1 ) horse- he run*he. 

2 Whether in any given sentence a word or expression is an attribute and 
intended merely to aid in identifying the subject, or is a predicate and in- 

1 88 , SYNTAX. \BooklV. 

attributes are nouns, denoting the same person or thing, as the substan- 
tive of which they are attributes. An attribute may be 

(a) A substantive (often said to be in apposition}-, e.g. Gains 
Julius Caesar ; Julio consul! credidi, / believed the consul Julius. 

(b~) An adjective ; e.g, haec res, this thing j fortem consulem vidi, 
/ saw the brave consul This is the normal use of the adjective, the 
adjectival suffixes, like the personal suffixes of the finite verb^ acquiring 
further definition by the accompaniment of a substantive. 

(c) For the use of other words or expressions as attributes, see 
below ( 438). 

iii. Of Predicates. 

431 A predicate 1 is either primary or secondary, and each of these is 
either direct or oblique. A predicate is direct, if its subject is in the 
nominative case; oblique, if its subject is in an oblique case. It is 
primary, if predicated immediately of the subject ; secondary, if pre- 
dicated only through, or in connexion with, a primary predicate, 

A finite verb always contains a primary direct predication ; and is 
never used otherwise (except as mentioned in 421 d). 

A noun or infinitive mood may be a primary or secondary, direct 
or oblique, predicate. 

432 As primary predicate some form of the verb is usual, and chiefly 
the finite verb ; but a past participle or gerundive is not uncommon : 
a noun or pronoun is comparatively rare. An infinitive is also found 
in animated narrative; e.g. 

Invadunt hostes : Roman! fuggre : occisus Marcellus. Haec nuntiandd, 
The enemy rush on : the Romans (proceed to} fly : Marcellus is killed. 
This must be told. 

The distinction of the use of a noun as a primary predicate from its use 
as a secondary predicate with the verb of being (see next paragraph) is prac- 
tically so unimportant, that the term secondary predicate will often be used 
to cover both. 

433 (a) A secondary predicate is often added to a verb of indeterminate 
meaning (e.g. a verb of being, becoming, naming, &c.) to complete, as 
it were, the predication : e. g. 

Dux fuit Julius. Occisus est Marcellus. Haec sunt nuntianda. 
Liberati videbamur, We seemed (to be) freed. 

tended to give fresh information about it, may be sometimes doubtful. 
Latin has no mark to distinguish these uses. In Greek an attribute has the 
article prefixed, a secondary predicate has not. 

1 It is convenient sometimes to regard the whole of the sentence as 
divisible into two parts only : in this view the grammatical subject with all 
its attributes, &c. is the (logical) subject; the rest of the sentence is the 
(logical) predicate. 

Shap. //.] Parts of a Simple Sentence. 189 

Gaius dicitur advenire, Gaius is said to be coming. 

Caesar imperator appeUatur (or appellatus, or appeUari), Caesar is 

being called (or is called, or begins to be called} Emperor. 

(b} A secondary predicate is often employed to denote the cha- 
racter in which, or circumstances under .which, a person or thing acts, 
x>r is acted on 1 , 

Hannibal peto pacem, It is I, Hannibal, who now ask for peace. 
Primus Marcum vidisti, Ton are the first that has seen Marcus. 
Senex seribere institui, 7 was an old man when I began to write. 
Neque loquens es, neque tacens, umquam bonus, Neither when talking, 

nor ^when keeping silence, are you ever good. 
Caesar legatus mittitur (or missus or mittl). Caesar is being sent (or 

;/ sent, or begins to be sent} as ambassador, 

434 Oblique predicates are usually in sentences containing a finite 
verb. The following contain primary oblique predicates. 

Dicit Romanes fuge're, He says the Romans are fleeing (speaks of the 

Romans as fleeing}. 

Fama est Romanes fuggre, There is a rumour that the Romans are fleeing. 
Minabar me abiturum, 7 threatened I would go away. Minantur puellae 

se abituras, The girls threaten they will go away. 
Te heredem fecit, He made you heir.. 
Quern te appellem? Whom am I to p-all you ? 
Marcum primum vidisti, Marcus was the first you saw. 
Advenienti sorori librum dedit, He gave the book to his sister as she was 

coming up. 

Ante Ciceronem consulem interiit, He died before Cicero was consul. 
Capta urbe rediit, On the city being taken he returned. 

435 An infinitive, when used either as (i) predicate or (2) object, &e,, 
is often accompanied by a noun or other predicate ; e.g. 

(i) Caesarem dico appeUari (or appellatum ease) imperatorem, 7 say 

that Caesar is being called (or is or was called} Emperor. 
Caesar dicitur appeUari (or appellatus esse) imperator, Caesar is said 

to be called (to have been called} Emperor. 
Fertur iUe consules reliquisse, invitus invitos, He is said to have left 

the consuls, to his and their regret, 
Spero vos in urbem triumphantes ingressuros esse, 7 hope that you will 

march into the city in triumph, 

(z) Caesar bonus esse (or haberi) cupit, Caesar desires to be (or to be 
considered} good. 

Cogito iter facere armatus, I am thinking of making the journey armed, 

Licuit esse otioso ThemistocU, Themistocles was allowed to be idle. 

Movit me vir, cujus fugientis comes, rempublicam recuperantis socius, 
videor esse debere, 7 was moved by the man whose companion I feel I 
ought to be in his flight and ally in restoring the commonwealth. (Cic.) 

1 Such a secondary predicate might, if it needed distinction from the 
preceding class, be called a subpredicate. It is often called an apposition, 
or adverbial apposition. 

1 90 SYNTAX. \Book IV. 

436 Participles are (sometimes attributes, but) usually predicates to 
some substantive in the sentence, and are thus the means of com- 
bining into one sentence several subordinate predications : e.g. 
Venit iste cum sago, gladia succinctu, teneria jaculum ; illi, nescio quid 
incipient! dicere, gladium in latere defixit, The fellow came wearing 
his cloak, girt with a sword, a javelin in bis hand, and as the other 
was beginning to say something, plunged his sword in his side, (Corn,) 
In this sentence all the participles are predicates. 

iv. Of the use of oblique cases and adverbs. 

437 i. If a verb by itself, or with a secondary predicate, does not 
express all that we wish to declare of a person or thing by that sentence, 
additions may be made of various kinds ; viz. 

(a) If the verb express an action conceived as in immediate Con'- 
nexion with some person or thing upon which it is exercised, or to 
which it gives rise, a substantive in the accusative case may be added 
to denote such a person or thing. This is called the object (or direct or 
immediate object) ; e. g. amicos fugiunt, They Jiee from their friends ; 
Caesar librum teneat, Caesar should hold the book carmina fingo, / am 
making poetry. If the object be itself an action of the same subject, it is 
usually expressed by an infinitive mood ; e'.g; eupio discere, I desire to 

() If the verb express an action or fact indirectly affecting a 
person (or thing), who is not the subject or direct object, a substantive, 
in the dative case, may be added to express such an indirect (or remoter} 
object. Some (i.e. intransitive) verbs admit this indirect object only : 
many verbs admit of both a direct and indirect object: e.g. Placet 
oratio tibi, The speech is pleasing to you ; hoc fratri tradite, Hand this 
to your brother; liber Caesari datur, The book is given to Caesar. 

(c} Some verbs have what may be called a secondary object in the 
genitive case : if transitive, they have also usually a direct (frequently 
personal) object: e.g. Accuso te furti, I accuse thee of theft ; cadum 
vini implet, He Jills the cask with (makes it full of} wine ; miserescite 
patris, Have pity on your father. 

(d) A verb may be further qualified by adding oblique cases of 
substantives (with or without prepositions), or adverbs, to denote the 
place, time, value, means, manner, cause, &c. at, in, by, from, &c. 
which the action is done or state exists : e. g. Fui annum Capuae, / was 
a year at Capua ; litteras abs te Balbus ad me attulit vesperi, Balbus 
brought me in the evening a letter from you ; magni hoc aestimo, 7 value 
this at a large sum ; ardet dolore, He is in a fever 'with pain. 

The infinitive mood and the participles admit the same qualifica- 
tions as finite verbs. 

438 ^. Oblique cases of substantives (with or without prepositions), 
and adverbs, when they qualify (a) the verb of being and other verbs of 
similarly colourless meaning, have often the same effect as a secondary 

Chap. //.] Parts of a Simple Sentence. 191 

predicate 1 . They are rarely used predicatively without a verb. But 
they are also used to qualify () substantives attributively, and (c) ad- 
jectives, and sometimes (d) adverbs: e.g. 

(a) Caesaris est (or vocatur) gladius, The sword (is called} Caesar's, 
Sclo hoc laudi esse mihi, / know that this is an honour to me. 
Praestanti prudentia est, He is of remarkable prudence. 
In me odium est tuum, Tour hatred is against me. 
Sic est vita hominum, Such is the life of men. 

() Caesaris gladius, Caesar's sword. Cupiditate triumph! ardebam, 
/ was in a glow with the desire for a triumph. Aliquid laeti, 
something (of) pleasant. 

(This use as attribute is the most common use of the genitive.) 
Deoemviri legibus scribendis, A commission of ten for drawing up 

laws. Vir praestanti prudentia. In me odium. 
Omnes circa civitates, All the states round about. 
(r) Maximus regum, The greatest of kings. Cupidus triumph!, Desirous 

of a triumph. 

Arti cuilibet idoneus, Fit for any art whatever. 
Tanto major, (by) so much greater; splendidior vitro, Brighter than 
glass. Ex composite hilaris, Cheerful by arrangement. Valde 
utilis, Very useful. Aliquando laetus, Sometimes cheerful. 
(d) Convenienter naturae, Agreeably to nature. Tanto magis, so much 
the more. In dies magis, more day by day. Paene pedetemptim, 
almost step by step* 

439 v. Of coordination by conjunctions and otherwise. 

(a) Conjunctions and connective adverbs of manner (e.g. quam, 
ut), when used to unite words or phrases, unite those only which are 
coordinate to one another, i.e. which fulfil the same function in the 
sentence; e.g. two objects, two attributes, two adverbial qualifications; 
&c. e.g. 
Komani ac socii veniunt, The Romans and allies come. Nee regem nee 

reginam vidi, / saw neither king nor queen. 
mine credam an tibi? Am I to believe him or you? 
Bella fortius quam felicius geris, You are more brave than fortunate in 

waging wars. 
Tibi cum meam salutem, turn omnium horum debeo, I owe to you as 

well my own safety as that of all these. 
Cum omnibus potius quam soli perire voluerunt, They wished rather to 

perish with all the world than by themselves, 
Tu mihi videris Epicharmi, acuti nee insulsi hominis, ut Siculi, senten- 

tiam sequi, (Cic.) Tou seem to me to be following the view of 

EpicharmuS) a sharp man and, as a Sicilian, not without wit. 

1 Such words do not (like those in 430) denote the same person or 
thing as the word of which they are predicates or attributes ; and the main- 
tenance of their own special case is necessary to give them the requisite 

1 92 SYNTAX. \Book IV. 

(b) Coordinate words are often put simply side by side, without 
any conjunction: sometimes another word is repeated with each: e.g. 

Veios, Fidenas, Collatiam, Arioiam, Tusculum cum Calibus, Teano, 
Neapoli, Puteolis, Nuceria, comparabunt. (G. Agr. 2. 35.) 

Nihil vos civibus, nihil sociis, nihil regibus respondistis ; niMl judices 
sententia, niMl populus suffragiis, nihil hie ordo auctoritate decla- 
ravit; mutum forum, elinguem curiam, tacitam et fractam civi- 
tatem videbatis. (Cic.) 

(c) An answer, when not framed as an independent sentence, is 
often made in words coordinate to the pertinent part of the question : 
e.g. Quis librum dedit? Cicero. Cui? Bruto. Quern? Tusculanas Dis- 
putationes. Ubif In Tusculano. 

vj. Of fragmentary or interjectional expressions. 

40 A noun or infinitive mood is sometimes used (a) as subject without 
a predicate expressed, or () as predicate without a subject expressed ; 
or (c) as a mere address. Similarly (d) adverbs and interjections. 

<X) Quid, si adeo? What if I go to him? Agendum; eundum, (We 
must) act, go. Malum, the plague ! Tantum laborem capere ob 
talem fllium! To take so much trouble for such a son ! (Ter.) 

() Minim ni hie miles est, Strange if this is not the soldier. Pactum, 
Done (in answers).. 

(V) Audi, Caesar, Hear, Caesar. Tibi, Marce, loquor. 

(X) Bene mihi, bene amicae meae, A health to me, a health to mv mis- 
tress. (Plaut.) Hei mihi, Woe's me. 



441 i. A substantive when used as attribute or secondary predicate is 
put in the same case as the substantive which it qualifies. Usually also 
the sense will require that it be put in the same number, and, if it have 
more than one form, in the appropriate gender. 

(a) As attribute, i.e. in apposition. 

Caius Julius Caesar ; Cai Juli Caesaris ; &c. 

Urbs Roma ; Urbem Romam ; &c. ....... 

Chap. ///.] Use of Noun Inflexions. 193 

Duas filias juvenibus regiis, Lucio atque Arrunti Tarquiniis, Jungit. 


P. et Ser. SuUae. (Sail.) Rarely Ti. et C. Gracchus. (Sail.) 
Tulliola, deliciolae nostrae, tuum munusculum flagitat. (Cic.) 
vltae philosophia dux, virtutis indagatrix expultrixque vitiorunx 


Hoc tibi, Porsinna, juventus Romana indicimus bellum. (Liv.) 
Ei morbo nomen est avaritia. (Gic.) 

(V) As secondary predicate, either direct or oblique. 

Haec urbs est Roma. Caesar creatus est consul. 

Licet Caesari esse, (creari, legem ferre,) consul!. 

C. Junius aedem Salutis, quam consul voverat, censor locaverat, dic- 
tator dedicavit. (Liv.) 

Dolabella hesterno die hoste decreto, bellum gerendum est. (Cic.) 

Num potui Ciliciam Aetoliam aut Macedonian! reddere? (Cic.) 

Nequam et cessator Davus : at ipse subtilis veterum judex et caUidus 
audis. (Hor.) 

Adventus Philotimi at cujus hominis, quam insulsi et quam saepe pro 
Pompeio mentientis exanimavit omnes. (Cic.) 

Huic item Menaechmo nomen est. (PL Men. 1096.) So usually in 
Plautus. For the name put in the nominative see last paragraph. 

Puero ab inopia Egerio inditum nomen. (Liv.) 

Tuum 1 , hominis simplicis, pectus vidimus. (Cic.) 

442 The above rules for substantives apply equally to adjectives ; that 
is to say, adjectives, whether used as attributes or secondary predicates, 
are put in the case in which a substantive similarly used would be put. 
The gender and number will vary with the meaning. For adjectives 
should be regarded as substantives of wide general application (e.g. 
bonus, ' a good hej bona, ' a good she," 1 bonum, ' a good thing '). 

443 2. An adjective is sufficient by its inflexions of gender and number 
to denote, if in the masculine, males, or persons generally ; if in the 
feminine, females ; if in the neuter, things in general. 

An ordinary adjective is not commonly so used in the masculine singular 
nominative as stibject. But demonstrative and relative pronouns are fre- 
quently so used in all cases. 

Docti censent. Suavia delectant. Quid est hoc ? 

Cui pretium dedit ? unde aut quantum dedit ? 

Sum timidus. Sum timida. Sunt tiniidae. 

Est miserum igitur mors, quoniam malum. (Cic.) 

Ita prorsus existimo, bonos beatos, improbos miseros. (Cic.) 

Adsentatio non modo amico, sed ne libero quidem, digna est. (Cic.) 

Labor voluptasque, dissimillima natura, societate quadam inter sa 

natural! juncta sunt. (Liv.) 
Otium atque divitiae, quae prima mortales putant. (Sail.) 

1 Tuum may be considered as a genitive case (of tu) with adjectival 
inflexions ( 191). 

L. G. 13 

194 SYNTAX. \Book IV. 

Capita conjurationis ejus virgis caesi ac securibus percuss! sunt, (Liv.) 

Triste lupus stabulis. (Verg.) 

Varium et mutabile samper femina. (Verg.) 

414 Hence many adjectives of special meaning are constantly used in 
the appropriate gender as substantives : e. g. 
Adulescens, agnatus, amicus, animans, infans, juvenis, maritus. neces- 

sarius, rusticus, serpens, socius, &c. 
Commodum, decretum, dictum, factum, fatmn, ostensum, pactum, pec- 

catum, responsum, secretum, verum, votum, Sec. 

445 3. An adjective when used as attribute to a substantive is put in 
the same case, gender, and number as that substantive. 
Vana ilia res verae mox cladis causa fuit. (Liv.) 
Ego tibi mam Aciliam legem restituo, qua lege inulti, semel dicta causa, 
condemnati sunt. (Cic.) 

343 4. An adjective intended as attribute to more than one substan- 
tive is, unless for emphasis' sake, expressed only once, and is put in the 
case and number of the substantive nearest to itself in the sentence. 
Omnes agri et maria. Agri et niaria ornnia. 
Hominis utilitati agros omnis et maria parentia videmus. (Gic.) 

447 5. The substantive to which the adjective is an attribute, is fre- 
quently, in certain constructions almost always, omitted : viz. 

() Many adjectives being specially applicable, or frequently ap- 
plied, to particular substantives are used without them, and pass as 
ordinary substantives. 
e. g. Africus (ventus) ; cani (capilli) ; circenses (ludi) ; natalis (dies) ; 

occidens (sol) ; September (mensis) ; sestertius (nummus) ; 
Africa (terra) ; agnina (caro) ; Appia (via) ; aritnmetica (ars) ; calda 

(aqua) ; decuma (pars) ; dextra (mauus) ; fera (bestia) ; Latinae 

(feriae); patria (terra); praetexta (toga); summa (res); triremis 

(navis) ; 
Cumanum (praedium) ; Falernum, merum (vinum) ; hiberna, stativa 


Some are only so used in particular phrases. 
Primas (partes) agere, frigidam (aquam) potare. 

443 () When the same substantive is used both as subject and 
predicate, it is expressed once only, the adjective thus often appearing 
by itself as secondary predicate. 

Verae amicitiae sempitcrnae sunt. (Cic.) 

E-iuidem ego vobis regnum trado firmum, si boni eritis, sin mali, inbe- 
cillum. (Sail.) 

443 (r) A substantive is often omitted in one sentence, if it is expressed 
in the neighbouring clause or sentence. 

So usually (i) where two attributes referring to different things of 
the same class require the same substantive. 

Chap. ///] Use of Noun Inflexions. 195 

Ipsorum lingua Keltae, nostra Galli appellantur. (Caes.) 
Diversa cornua, dextrura ad castra Samnitium, laevum ad urbem 
tendit. (Liv.) 

450 (a) With relative and demonstrative pronouns, the substantive 
(often called the antecedent) is usually expressed in the former of the 
two clauses only. 

Legati ad Caesarein venerunt. }r ille statim remisit. 

Caritate ea praestat patria, pro qua mori et cui nos totos dedere et in 

qua nostra omnia ponere debemus. (Cic.) 
Me tuae litterae nunquam in tantam spem induxerunt, quantam ali- 

orum. (Cic.) 

Severitatem in senectute probo, sed earn, sicut alia, modicam. (Cic.) 
In quern primum Eneti Trojanique egressi sunt locum, Troja vocatur. 


451 6. A demonstrative or relative pronoun, used substantively as the 
subject of a definition, is usually attracted into the gender and number 
of the defining substantive. 
Sas divitias, earn bonam famam magnamque nobilitatem, putabant. 

Quae apud alios iracundia dicitur, ea in imperio superbia atque cru- 

delitas appellatur. (Sail.) 
Haud erat dubium quin Lucerinis opem Romanus ferret : ea modo, qua 

irent, consultatio fuit. (Liv.) 
Pompeio patre, quod imperio populi Roman! lumen fuit, extincto, inter- 

fectus est patris simillimus fllius. (Cic.) 

452 7. An adjective is frequently found as secondary predicate, where 
in English we use an adverb or prepositional clause. 
Soli hoc contingit sapienti, ut nihil faciat invitus, niliil dolens, nihil 

coactus. (Cic.) 
Marius antea jam infestus nobilitati, turn vero multus atque fercx 

instate. (Sail.) 

Gnavus mane forum et vespertinus pete tectum. (Hor.) 
Appius jam inde antiquitus insitam familiae pertinaciam, gerendo solus 

censuram, obtinuit. (Liv.) 


453 O F the six cases in Latin five have each more than one use : the 
locative has one only. 

The nominative is quite distinct from the others, which have all 
some points of resemblance among themselves. 


196 SYNTAX. \BookIV. 

The nominative is used both of the subject of the sentence and of 
the person addressed. 

Of the oblique cases the accusative, dative, locative, and ablative are 
mainly used in connexion with verbs ; the genitive with nouns. 

The accusative and ablative have a great variety of applications, 
which, however, may be ultimately reduced to three main uses each ; 
and there is considerable analogy between them. 

(1) The accusative denotes the area over which an action prevails; 
the ablative (as also the locative) denotes the point at which it is done. 

(2) The accusative denotes the goal ; the ablative the place of 

(3) The accusative denotes the object of a verbal action ; the 
ablative denotes the attendant influences and circumstances. 

The dative and the genitive resemble one another in so far that they 
both have an adjectival use, and both have also a use with verbs : but 
the adjectival use is the principal use of the genitive and the less im- 
portant use of the dative ; the use with verbs is much the commonest 
with the dative, and is occasional and isolated with the genitive. 

454 In their relation to verbs the accusative, dative, and genitive may all 
denote objects of action ; the accusative the direct object, the dative the 
indirect object ; the genitive a secondary object; the usual combinations 
being that the accusative denotes a thing and the dative a person ; or 
the accusative a person and the genitive a thing. 

Outside this sphere of immediate action the accusative (in its other 
uses) and the ablative denote the numberless qualifications of place, 
time, extent, degree, manner, cause, and circumstances generally. 

In their relation to nouns, whether as attributes or predicates, the 
genitive has the largest use, but the predicative dative, and the ablative 
of description, also play some part. 


455 THE NOMINATIVE case expresses the 

(A) Name of the person or thing spoken of; 

(B) Name of the person (or thing) spoken to. 

(A) Name of person or thing Spoken of; i. e. the subject of 
a sentence ; e. g. 

Milo adfuit. Dixit Pompeius. Panduntur portae. 

Tu nescis ? At tu sume peduni. 

Nocens precatur, innocens Irascitur. (Pub. Syr.) 

Chap. F.] Use of Nominative Case. 197 

Res, tempus, pericula, egestas, belli spolia magnifica magis, quaia 

oratio mea, vos hortantur. (Sail.) 
Unde et quo Catius ? (sc. venit). (Hor.) 

453 The nominative is used with en, ecce, as subject to an unexpressed 
predicate; e.g. 

En, Priamus. Ecce, iterum Crispinus. (Cic.) 
Ecce tuae litterae de Varrone. (Gic.) 
En crimen, en causa, cur regem fugitivus accuset. (Juv.) 

457 (B) Name of the person (or thing) spoken to. 

(This is often called the Vocative case. It is distinct in form from 
the nominative only in some stems in -o. See 108, 112.) 
Salve, anime mi. mi Clinia, salve. (Ter.) 
Mater, te appello. 

Ne saevi, magna sacerdos : I, decus, i, nostrum. (Verg.) 
Corydon, Corydon, quae te dementia cepit ? (Verg.) 
Vos, Albani tumuli atque luci, vos, inquam, imploro. (Cic.) 
Pollio,te,Messalla,tuo cum fratre simulque 
vos Bibule et Servi, simul his te, candide Furni, 
prudens praetereo. (Hor.) 


458 THE ACCUSATIVE is used in three principal senses, each of which 
admits of several applications. It expresses 

(A) The compass of an action or quality; e.g. 

i. Space over which; e.g. duo millia progredior, I step forward 
two miles. 

a. Time throughout which ; e. g. dies noctisque crucior, / am 
tortured whole days and nights. 

3. Extent of action of verb; e.g. multum unus poterat, He alone 
had much power. 

4. Part concerned (poetic usage) ; e.g. tremit artus, He trembles 
all over his limbs. 

5. Extent ; further defined by numerous prepositions. 

(B) The goal to which motion is directed; i.e. 

i. Place towards which ; e.g. Romam venit, He comes to Rome. 
i. An action as the goal of motion; e.g. Salutatum venit, He comes 
to greet. 

3. Goal, further defined by numerous prepositions. 

198 SYNTAX. \Bo0kIV. 

(C) The direct object of an action; e.g. 

i. Direct object of transitive verb; e.g. Cave canem, Ware dog, 

a. (Certain special usages ; viz.) 

(a) Two direct objects ; e. g. Me sententiara rogavit, He asked me 
an opinion. 

(b) Object of passive or reflexive verb; e.g. Suffusus oculos, 
Having his eyes suffused. 

(c) Object of verb understood. In exclamations; e.g. Ma miserum, 
Unhappy me. 

These uses may be set forth more in detail as follows : 

459 (A) Compass or measure of action, state, or quality; 
used to qualify verbs, adjectives, and nominal adverbs. 

i. Space over, along, about which; i.e. distance, length, &c. 
Usually with adjective or attributive genitive. 
Caesar tridui iter processit. Murus decem pedes altus. 
Abest ab Utica mille passus. 
A recta conscientia transversum unguem non oportet discedere. (Cic.) 

Sometimes this accusative denoting the distance is used to define the 
place reached; e.g. Caesar milia passuum tria ab Helvetionun castris 
castra ponit. (Caes.) 

460 2. Time throughout which. 

Noctes vigilabat ad ipsum mane, diem totum gtertebat. (Hor.) 
Annum jam audis Cratippum. (Cic.) 
Neque ille hoc animo erit aetatem. (Ter.) 
Sex. Roscius annos natus quadraginta. 

Id temporis, at that time, istuc aetatis, at that age, are not uncom- 
monly used. (For the genitives temporis, aetatis, see 522 b. ) 

461 3- The extent of action of the verb expressed, 
either (a) by a neuter adjective of quantity or pronoun ; 

Nos aliquid Rutulos juvimus. (Verg.) 

Quid me ista laedunt ? 

Unum sentitis omnes, unum studetis. (Cic.) 

So commonly tantum, quantum, multum, plus, postremum, &c. 

Other adjectives are used in poetry. 

Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo, dulce loquentem. (Hor.) 
Asper, acerba tuens, retro redit. (Verg.) 

() or by a substantive of the same meaning as the verb, accom- 
panied usually by an oblique adjectival predicate. (Cognate accusative), 
lamne tibi diu videor vitam vivere ? (Plaut.) 
Hunc, oro, sine me furere ante furorem. (Verg.) 
Tuis servivi servitutem imperils, pater. (Plaut.) 

462 4- Part concerned; in poetry chiefly of parts of the body ; in prose 
rare, and only in a few expressions. (The Ablative is more used, 497.) 
Os humerosque deo similis. (Verg.) 

Statque latus praeflxa veru, stat saucia pectus. (Tib.) 

Feminae lineis amictibus velantur, nudae brachia et lacertos. (Tac.) 

Chap. VIJ\ Use of Accusative Case. 199 

Sollicitus vicem imperatoris. (Liv. ) 

Maximam partem lacte atque pecore vivunt. (Caes. ) 

Phrases like id genus, of that kind ; capita virile secus (Liv.), persons 
of the male sex, are most like to accusatives of extent. 

463 5. The accusative of compass or extent is often used with prepo- 
sitions which define it more exactly ; e. g. 

Trans Tiberim longe cubat is, prope Caesaris hortos. (Hor.) 

Some prepositions, especially trans, even in composition, retain their 

ordinary vise with the accusative; e.g. 

Hannibal Hiberum copias trajecit. (Liv. ) 

Belgae Rhenum antiquitus traducti sunt. (Caes.) 

Analogous to the use with prepositions is the accusative after the 

adverbs propius, proximo (Cic., Liv.) and the adjectives propior, proximus 

(Caes., Sail.). 

Exercitum habet quam proxime hostem. (Cic.) 

Ipse propior montem suos collocat. (SalL) 

464 (B) Goal to which motion is directed. 

i. Proper names of towns and of islands (small enough to be 
considered as one place) are used in the accusative in this sense without 
a preposition. So also domum (home, not bouse), rus, foras. 

In poetry names of countries and appellatives as well as proper 
names are so used. 
In Sicilian! Syracnsas abitt 

Leucadem venimus : inde Corcyram bellissiine navigavimus. (Cic.) 
Domum ad te scribas. Senex rus se abdidit. 
Italiam fato profugus Lavinaque venit littora. (Verg.) 
Exercitus Aquiloniain est indictus. (Liv.) 
Matronam domum accepit. (Liv.) 

463 A preposition ad, in, c. is usually required when the place to- 
wards which 

(a) is expressed by common noun ; e. g. ad caput, ad te veniet. 

(l>] is interior of country, &c. ; e.g. in Siciliam, in urbem venit; or 
neighbourhood, e.g. ad urbem venit. 

(c) has urbem, &c. in apposition; these require ad or in, e.g. ivit 
Tarquinios in urbem Etruriae magnam ; venit in oppidum Cirtam. 

466 a. An action as the goal of motion or the like. 

This use is almost confined to the so-called supine in -urn, really 
the accusative singular of a verbal substantive with stem ending in u. 
Spectatum veniunt, veniunt spectentur ut ipsae. (Ov.) 
Lusum it Maecenas, dormitum ego Vergiliusque. (Hor.) 
Coctum ego, non vapulatum dudum conductus fui. (Plant.) 
Daturne ilia Pamphilo hodie nuptum ? (Ter.) 

Similarly infitias ire, to go to deny. 

46 7 3. The accusative expressive of the goal is often used with 
prepositions, which define it more exactly. 

In Sicilian! ad regem militatum abiit. (Ter.) 

Occasionally a preposition retains this use in composition. 
Rostra advolat. Arbitrum ttliun adegit. 

200 'SYNTAX. \BookIV. 

463 (C) Direct object of a transitive verb or participle: 
Non silvas ilia nee amnes ; rus amat et ramos felicia poma ferentis. 


Cervius iratus leges minitatur et umam. (Hor.) 
Cave canem. Egi gratias. Dat miM verba. 

469 Many verbs not originally transitive become such either (a) by composi- 
tion, or (b) by a stretch of the conception especially in poetry or animated 

(a) Venio, / come, convenio, 7 visit ; loquor, 7 speak, adloquor, 7 
address ; sto, I stand, praesto, I guarantee ot perform. 

(b} Horreo, I shudder, hence I fear ; ardeo, I am on fire, hence I love ; 
resono, 7 resound, hence 7 re-echo ; erubesco, 7 blush, hence 7 bhish at. 
Jura fidemque supplicis erubuit. (Verg.) 
Formosam resonant Amaryllida silvae. (Verg.) 
Pastorem saltaret uti Cyclopa, rogabat. (Hor.) 
Tribunatum etiam nunc spirans, locum seditionis quaerit. (Liv.) 

470 This same objective accusative is used in certain special ways : 

(a) Some verbs have two direct objects, one a person, the other 
a thing. These arp doceo, teach ; celo, keep in ignorance of; posco, oro, 
flagito, rogo and compounds. 
Non te celavi sermonem T. Ampil. (Cic.) 
Tribunus me primum sententiam rogavit. (Cic.) 

The accusative of the thing remains even when the verb is put in 
passive voice. 
Latinae legiones longa societate militiam Romanam edoctae. (Liv.) 

471 () In the poets many passive verbs, especially in the past parti- 
ciple, retain in the accusative the direct object, expressing either 

(i) A part of the body, &c. (frequent). 

Consurgit senior, tunicaque inducitur artus. (Verg.) 

Hie juvenis, casta redimitus tempora lauro. (Tib.) 

Jam satiata animos, jam duros ulta dolores. (Cic.) 

or (2) A thing worn, &c. (less frequent). 
Pueri laevo suspensi loculos tabulamque lacerto. (Hor.) 
Vestes induta recinctas, nuda pedem, nudos humeris infusa capillos. 


472 (c) The accusative is also used in exclamations, really object to 
some verb understood. (The particular verb is often quite unim- 
portant, and probably not distinctly conceived.) The object has 
usually an oblique predicate. 

fortunatos nimium, sua si bona norint, agricolas. (Verg.) 

excubias tuas, Cn. Planci, miseras ! o flebiles vigilias ! o noctis 

acerbas ! o custodiam etiam mei capitis infelicem. (Cic.) 
Di vostram fidem ! hominem perditum miserumque. (Ter.) 
En quattuor aras ! ecce duas tibi, Daphni, duas altaria Phoebo. (Verg.) 

Similarly Di meliora (sc. dent). Me hercules (sc. juvet). 
Unde mini lapidem ? (sc. capiam). 
Sed quo divitias liaec per tormenta coactas ? (sc. habes). 

Chap. VII.'] Use of Dative Case. 201 


473 THE DATIVE case is used in two principal senses only. 

(A) It expresses the indirect object, which is usually a person; 
e.g. Hoc tibi facio, I do this for you. 

Besides the general use, there are several special uses of the indirect 

(a) Where a local relation is implied ; e. g. Labuntur flumina 
ponto, The streams glide on to the sea, i.e. for the sea to receive them. 

() Agent; e.g. Haec mihi dicta sunt, These things I have said 
(lit. are for me said things}* 

(V) Person judging; e.g. Formosa est multis, She is fair in the 
eyes of many. 

(/) Person interested in a statement; e.g. Quid mihi Celsus agit? 
What, pray, is Celsus doing ? 

(e) Person possessing ; e. g. Sunt mihi divitiae, / have riches. 

CO Where a genitive might have been expected ; e. g. Heres est 
fratri, He is heir to his brother. 

(<") Work contemplated ; e. g. Signum receptui, The signal for 

(B) It is used predicatively in a quasi-adjectival sense (Dative 
of the thing, also called Dative of the purpose) ; e. g. Haec res curae est 
mihi, This thing is an object of care to me, i.e. / am attending to the matter. 

These uses may be set forth more in detail as follows : 

474 (A) i. The indirect object is the person (or thing) affected 
by the occurrence of an action or by the exercise of a quality, although 
not directly or primarily acted on. 

The indirect word put in the dative belongs properly to the whole 
predicate of the clause, though there is often some word in the sentence 
whose meaning is naturally supplemented by such an indirect object. 

The indirect object may be used with or without a direct object. 
A transitive verb will often have both : an intransitive verb has only the 
indirect object. 

(a) With simple verbs : 

Tibi aras, tibi occas, tibi seris, tibi etiam metes. (Plaut.) 
Quo licuit libris, non licet ire mihi. (Ov.) 
Dicit Cleomeni : Tibi uni. parcam. (Cic.) 
Cum tibi nubebam, nulli mea taeda nocebat. (Ov.) 
Quid volui misero mihi? (Verg.) Tuas res tibi habeto. 
Quae xnunera Niso digna dabis? Eisit pater optimus olli. (Verg.) 

202 SYNTAX. \Book IV. 

() With compound verbs : 

Applicor ignotis, fratrique elapsa fretoque. (Ov.) 
Vitam adulescentibus vis aufert, senibus maturitas. (Gic.) 
Cassius incendiis, Cethegus caedi praeponebatur. (Cic.) 
Tu, mini qui imperitas, aliis servls miser. (Hor.) 
Solstitium pecori defendite. (Verg.) 

(V) With adjectives ; 

Fiunt omnia castris quara urbi similiora. (Liv.) 
Triste lupus stabulis, maturis frugibus imbres. (Verg.) 

475 a. The indirect object is especially noticeable in the following 
usages : 

(a) Where a local relation literal or figurative is implied. Cicero 
and Caesar would generally use a preposition with its case, but Livy 
and the poets often put a dative. 
A te principium : tibi desinam. (Verg.) 
Incumbens tereti Damon sic coepit olivae. (Verg.) 
Nos onera quibusdam bestiis, nos juga inponimus. (Cic.) 
Adequitabant Samnites vallo. (Liv.) 

476 () Agent (regarded not strictly as agent, but as person affected). 
Regularly with gerundive and sometimes with passive participle or 
adjective in -bill. Otherwise rare. 

Caesari omnia uno tempore erant agenda. (Caes.) 

Suo cuique judicio utendum st. (Cic.) 

Cui non sunt auditae Demosthenis vigiliae ? (Cic.) 

Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit, nuUi flebilior quam tibi. (Hor.) 

Terra tibi, nobis aspiciuntur aquae. (Ov.) 

In prose aspiciuntur a nobis; sometimes a nobis aspiciundae sunt. 

477 (c) Person judging. 

Fortunatus sibi Damocles videbatur. (Cic.) 

In qua tu nata es, terra beata mini est. (Ov.) 

Animo cupienti nihil satis festinatur. (Sail.) 

Verum confltentibus latifundia perdidere Italiam. (Plin.) 

478 (d) Person interested in a statement: only personal pronouns in 
lively, often in ironical expressions. (Called Dativus ethicus.) 

Haec vobis illorum per biduum militia fuit. (Liv.) 
At tibi repente venit ad me Caninius mane. (Cic.) 
En vobis juvenem efflgiem atque imaginem mei. (Liv.) 

479 (e) Person possessing : generally with verb of being. 
An nescis longas regibus esse manus. (Ov.) 

Semper in civitate, quibus opes nullae sunt, bonis invident. (Sail.) 
Quo mini fortunam, si non conceditur uti? (Hor.) 
Res est omnis in hac causa nobis cum Clodia. (Cic.) 
Malum quidem militibus meis, nisi quieverint. (Liv.) 
Em tibi (Plaut). Vae capiti tuo. 

(N.B. The dative is used when the gist of the question relates to the 
thing possessed ; the genitive when it relates to the possessor.) 

Chap. VII.] Use of Dative Case. 203 

480 (./*) The dative is often so closely connected with a noun in the 
sentence, that a genitive might have been expected. Chiefly in poets 
and Livy. 

(Cato) urbi pater est urbique maritus. (Luc.) 

0111 dura quies oculos et ferreus urguet somnus. (Verg.) 

Puero dormienti, cul Servio Tullio fuit nomen, caput arsisse ferunt. 


481 () Work contemplated: chiefly verbal substantives and gerundival 
expressions, dependent mainly on substantives, or esse. 

Decemviri legibus scribendis. Lex operi faciundo. 
Diem concUio constituerunt. (Caes.) 
Solvendo non erat Magius. (Gic.) 
Aquam p6tui nuUam reperiebamus. 

482 (B) Predicative dative: expressing that which a thing (or 
person) serves as, or occasions. 

This dative is usually a semi-abstract substantive, always in the 
singular number, and without any attribute, except sometimes simple 
quantitative adjectives: e.g. magnus, major, minor, nullus, tantus, 

A personal dative is generally added (as indirect object) : 

(a) With the verb esse (so most frequently). 
Exitio est avidis mare nautis. (Hor.) 

Cogor vobis prius oneri quam usui esse. (Sail.) 

Vitis ut arboribus decori est, ut vitibus uvae, tu decus omne tuis. 


Odi odioque sum Romanis. (Liv.) 
Ea res nemini unquam fraud! fuit. (Cic.) 
Evenit facile quod dis cordi est. (Liv.) 
Haec non operae 1 est referre. (Liv.) 

(b) With habere, ducere, dare, vertere, &c. 

Medium ex tribus sedere apud Numidas honor! ducitur. (Sail.) 
Curae, quid tibi desit, habet. (Ov.) 
Quis erit, vitio qui id vortat tibi ? (Plaut.) 

Tu id in me reprehendis, quod Q. Metello laudi datum est, hodieque est 
et semper erit maximae gloriae. (Cic.) 

(c) With other verbs, especially verbs of motion, &c. : only 
auxilio, praesidio, subsidio. 

Equitatum auxilio Caesari miserant. (Caes.) 

Quinque cohortes castris praesidio relinquit. (Caes.) 

Romanis post proelium demum factum Samnites venerunt subsidio. 


1 Most grammarians take operae as a genitive. 

204 SYNTAX. \Book IV. 


483 THE LOCATIVE and ABLATIVE cases express adverbial qualifica- 
tions referable to the general types of 

(A) Place where, 

(B) Instrument, 

(C) Place whence. 

The locative ex pressed place where, and was applied also by analogy 
to time and amount. 

The uses of the ablative appear to arise from three sources : (i) a 
case expressing an instrument; (2) a confusion of the form of this case 
with that of the locative ; (3) a case expressing place whence. The 
result is that the ablative in some of its uses coincides with the locative, 
but this is chiefly where the notion of instrument could be conceived 
as present. 

A preposition (at, in, ly, with, from) is generally required in English 

These uses may be summarily stated as follows : 

i. Place at which. 

Locative : e. g. Romae fuit, He was at Rome. 
Ablative : e.g. Campo jacet, He lies in the plain. 

i. Time w r hen or within which. 

Locative : (a, Z>) Die quinti venit, He came on the fifth day. 
Ablative: (a) e.g. Eorum adventu fcaec dixit, On their arrival he 
said this. 

() e.g. Tribus horis Iter confecit, He accomplished the 
journey in three hours. 

3. Amount at which. 

Locative : e. g. Quanti hoc emitur ? What is the price of this ? (lit. 

At how much is this purchased?}. 

Ablative: (a) e.g. Parvo emitur, The price is small (lit. It is pur- 
chased for a small sum}. 
() e.g. Quanto ille major eat? How much greater is he? 

Chap. VIII.} Use of Locative and Ablative Cases. 205 

The remaining usages have ablative only, viz. 

4. (a) Part concerned; e.g. Tarn re quam dictu mirabile, Strange 

as much in fact as in words. 

(ti\ Means ; e. g. Cornibus tauri se tutantur, Bulls defend them- 
selves with horns. 

(<:) Efficient cause ; e. g. Maerore consenescit, He is getting old 
with sorrow. 

j. (#) Description; e.g. Vir mediocri Ingenio, A man of moderate 

() Manner ; 

(i) with attribute; e.g. Bona fide hoc polliceor, I pro- 
mise you this in good faith. 
(a) without attribute; e.g. Nee via nee arte dicebant, 

They were speaking neither methodically nor skilfully. 

(c) Attendant circumstances ; e. g. Quid hoc populo obtineri 
potest ? What can be maintained with a people like 
this ? (or, when a people is like this ?). 

6. Use with prepositions ; e.g. In primis, among thejirst. 

(C) PLACE WHENCE (Ablative). 

i. Place from which movement is made ; e.g. Roma cedit, He de- 
parts from Rome. 

i. Thing from which separation takes place; e.g. Pellit homines 
loco, He dri-ves men from the place. 

3. Origin ; e.g. Jove natus, Sprung from Jove. 

4. Standard of comparison ; e.g. Quis melior Cicerone? TVho is 
better than Cicero ? 

5. Use with prepositions; e.g. A principio, From the commencement. 

These uses may be set forth more in detail as follows : 

1. Place at which. (() Locative and (#) Ablative.) 

(a) The Locative is used for names of towns and of islands small 
enough to be considered as one place: Also humi, on the ground; domi, 
at home; (and in connexion with domi) belli, militiae, in war; viciniae 
(Plant. Ter.) and animi (plur. animis) in certain phrases expressing 
doubt or anxiety. 

Here also belong the so-called adverbs hie, Ullc, istic (more rarely 
illl, istl) ; also (perhaps) ubi, ibi, &c. 

Negotiari libet : cur non Pergami ? Smyrnae ? Trallibus ? (Cic.) 
Ex acie fugientes, non prius quam Venusiae aut Canusii constiterunt. 


Plebem Romanam militiae domique colui. (Liv.) 
Discrucior animi. (Ter.) Pendemus animis. (Cic.) 

206 SYNTAX. \Book IV. 

If a relative follows the locative, the adverb ubi, quo, &c. is used, not 
the adjective ; e.g. mortuus Cumis quo se contulerat, not in quas se con- 
tulerat; but in quam urbem &c. is right. 

4S6 (<&) The Ablative in ordinary prose is used for names of towns 
or small islands if they have consonant or -i stems (the locative is also 
used, but more rarely). Also rure, parte, regione (all with attribute), 
loco, locis, dextra, laeva, medio, terra, marique, and expressions with 
totus or medius as attribute. The poets use this ablative more freely. 
Romae Tibur amem ventosus, Tibure Romam. (Hor.) 
Bellum terra et mari comparat. (Cic.) 
Totis trepidatur castris. (Caes.) 
Hasta prior terra, medio stetit altera tergo. (Ov.) 

487 A preposition is in prose usually required when the place at which 

(a) is expressed by common noun ; e. g. in foro. 

(b) is interior, or neighbourhood of town or country; e,g. in Hispania. 

(c) has urbe, oppido in apposition; e.g. in oppido Antiochiae erat, 

He was at Antioch in the town. 

38 The simple ablative' is used in some metaphorical expressions ; 
especially loco (locis), numero, principle, initio. 
Senator! jussa tria sunt ; ut adsit ; ut loco dicat, id est, rogatus ; ut 

modo, ne sit inflnitus. (Cic.) 
Principle nobis in cunctas undique partis nulla est finis. (Lucr.) 

AC 9 So also where the place is also the means : 

Conjurant, qui victus acie excessisset, eum ne quis urbe, tecto, mensa, 

lare reciperet. (Liv.) 
Hospitio me invitabit propter famUiaritatem notissimam. (Cic.) 

90 With verbs of motion the simple ablative often expresses the road 
by which. 

Lupus Esquilina porta ingressus, Tusco vico per portam Capenam 

evaserat. (Liv.) 
Tendimus nine recta Beneventum (sc. via). (Hor.) 

31 2. (a) Time when. 

Locative: chiefly pridie, postridie, quotidie, Sec. and vesperi, heri, 
temper!, luci 1 . 
Cum Canluius ad me pervesperi venisset et se postridie mane ad te 

iturum esse dixlsset, conscripsi epistolam noctu. (Cic.) 
Advorsum veniri mini ad Philolachem volo temperi. (Plant.) 

Ablative ; generally with adjective. 
Castoris aedes eodem anno Idibus QuintUibus dedicata est. Vota erat 

Latino bello. (Liv.) 

Arabes campos et montes hieme et aestate peragrant. (Cic.) 
Livius fabulam dedit C. Claudio, M. Tuditano consulibus. (Cic.) 

1 It is possible that luci &c. may really be ablatives. Cf. 124. 

Chap. F///.] Use of Locative and Ablative Cases. 207 

492 (<?) Time in the course of which (only ablative). 
Tribus horis Aduatucam venire potestis. (Caes.) 

Si debuisset, Sexte, petisses statim ; si non statim, paulo quidem post ; 

si non paulo, at aliquant o ; sex quidem illis men si bus profecto : 

anno vertente sine controversia. (Cic.) 
Ergo Ms annis quadringentis Romae rex erat. (Cic.) 

493 (0 Time throughout which; rarely except in post- Augustan 

Maestitia est camisse anno Circensibus uno. (Juv.) 

Octoginta annis vixit. Quid quaeris quanidiu vixerit 1 (Sen.). 

494 3. Amount at which. 

Locative. In expressions of -value, qualifying verbs. 

The genitives pluris, minoris, assis, are also used in the same sense, 
probably by mistaken analogy. 

Tanti, quanti, pluris, minoris also express price with verbs of selling, 
Sume hoc tisanariuni oryzae. Quanti emptae 7 Parvo. Quanti ergo 1 

Octussibus. (Hor. 

Parvl sunt foris arma, nisi est consilium domi. (Cic.) 

Pater id nili pendit. (Ter.) 

Majores nostri in legibus posiverunt furem dupli condemnari, faenera- 

torem quadrupli. (Cato.) 
Tanti est, It is worth while. 

433 Ablative. () Price, cost, penalty. 

Vendidit hie auro patriam : fixit leges pretio atque refixit. (Verg.) 

In Sicilia summum ternis HS tritici modius erat. (Cic.) 

Magno illi ea cunctatio stetit. (Liv.) 

Plurimi animos, quasi capite damnatos, morte rnultant. 

Perhaps here belongs the ablative regularly used with dignus, 

Idem fecit L. Philippus vir patre avo majoribusque dignissimus. (Cic.) 
Haud equidem tali me dignor honore. (Verg.) 

493 () Amount of difference: with adjectives in comparative or 
superlative degree ; ante, post, &c. Also with distare, abesse. 
Nonnunquam uno die longiorem mensem faciunt aut biduo. (Cic.) 
Dante si nigro fieres vel uno turpior ungui, crederem. (Hor.) 
Quo plures erant Veientes, eo major caedes fuit. (Liv.) 
Voverat aedem decem annis ante Punicum bellum. (Liv.) 
Aesculapi templum quinque milibus passuum ab urbe distat. (Liv.) 

497 4. Part concerned, means, cause: without or with an oblique 

(a) Part concerned or thing in point of which a term is 
applied or an assertion made : qualifying chiefly intransitive verbs and 
nouns. (In English the preposition in, or phrases in point of, as 
regards, are generally used.) 

208 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

Non tu quidem tota re, sed quod maximum est, temporibus errasti. 


Capti auribus et oculis metu omnes torpere. (Liv.) 
Quantus erat Calchas extis, Telamonius armis. Automedon curru, tantus 

amator ego. (Ov.) 
Herbas edunt formidulosas dictu, non essu modo. (Plaut.) 

498 So also after expressions of plenty and want, and verbs of depriva- 

Dives agris, dives positis in faenore nummis. (Hor.) 

Villa abundat porco, liaedo, agno, gallina, lacte, caseo, melle. (Cic.) 

Huic tradita urbs est, nuda praesidio, referta copiis. (Cic.) 

Ariovistus onmi Gallia interdixit Romanes. (Caes.) 

Med iUo auro tanto circumduxit. (Plaut.) 

499 (^) Means, i.e. instrument or stuff with, or by which, 
a thing is done. Chiefly with transitive verbs. (In English the prepo- 
sitions by, with, or such phrases as by means of, are generally used.) 

Cornibus tauri, apri dentibus, morsu leones, aliae bestiae fuga se, 

aliae occultatione tutantur. (Cic.) 
His ego rebus pascor, his delector, his perfruor. (Cic.) 
Amicos neque armis cogere neque auro parare queas: officio et fide 

pariuntur. (Sail.) 

Odio premitur omnium generum, maxime testibus caeditur. (Cic.) 
Quid hoc nomine faciatis? (Cic.) 

500 So fungor (lit. / busy myself), discharge; fruor (lit. I enjoy myself), 
enjoy; nltor (lit. / support myself), lean on; potior (lit. make myself 
powerful), am master of; vescor (lit. 1 feed myself), feed on; utor (lit. 
I employ myself), use; opus est (lit. there is a work to be done), there 
is need of; usus est, there is employment for ; have an ablative of 
this class. 

Possunt aliquando oculi non fungi suo munere. (Cic.) 

Commoda quibus utimur, lucemque qua fruimur, spiritumque quern 

ducimus, a Jove nobis dari videmus. (Cic.) 
Nunc animis opus, Aenea, mine pectore firmo. (Verg.) 

In the early language (e.g. Plautus) these verbs were used in the same 
meanings with a direct object in accusative; e.g. Omnia perfunctus vital 
munera marces. (Lucr.) 

501 (c) Efficient cause, or ground or influence. (In English 
the prepositions '/or,' ''from,' or expressions ' in consequence of," 1 ' under 
the influence ofj are generally used.) 

Paene ille timore, ego risu conrui. (Cic.) 

Tarn longo spatio multa hereditatibus, multa emptionibus, multa doti- 

bus tenebantur sine injuria. (Cic.) 
Maerore et lacrimis consenescebat. (Cic.) 
Censetur Apona Livio suo teUus. (Mart.) 

Chap. VIIL} Use of Ablative Case. 209 

502 5. Description, manner, circumstances ; usually with noun, 
participle, or genitive case : as oblique predicate. 

(a) Description or characteristic quality: qualifying the 
verb ease" or substantives. 
Qua facie fait? Rufus quidam, ventriosus, crassis suris, subniger, 

magno capite. acutis oculis, ore rubicundo, admodum magnis pedi- 

bus. (Plaut.) 

Affirmabat se omnino nomine illo servum habere neminem. (Cic.) 
Sunt solida primordia simplicitate. (Lucr.) 
L. Catilina nobill genere natus fuit, magna vi et animi et corporis, sed 

ingenio malo pravoque. (Sail.) 
Tribuni militum consular! pot-estate. 

503 () Way or manner : usually with adjectival predicate, except 
in certain words and occasional expressions. 

1. With predicate : either adjective or genitive case. 

Primo, si placet, Stoicorum more agamus, deinde nostro institute 

vagabimur. (Cic.) 
Marius quadrate agmine incedit. (Sail.) 

So aequo animo, with equanimity ; bona fide, in good faith ; dolo 
malo, maliciously ; eadem opera (Plaut.), at the same time; un& opera 
(Plaut.), just as well ; magno (tanto, &c.) opere, greatly meo jure, of 
my own right; paucis (sc. verbis), in a few words. 

2. Without predicate : mostly in old phrases, or where the thing 
may be regarded loosely as an instrument or cause. 

Existima modo et ratione omnia Romae Naeviura fecisse, si hoc recte 

atque ordine factum vldetur. (Cic.) 
Caesar ad opus consuetudine excubabat. (Caes.) 
Vix ea fatus eram, gemitu cum talia reddit. (Verg.) 
Ex essedis desiliunt et pedibus proeliantur. (Caes.) 

So also acie, in line of battle ; agmine, in marching order ; clamore, 
with a shout; condicionibus, on conditions ; curriculo (Plaut.) cursu, 
running; dolo, craftily, maliciously ; forte, by chance ; gratiis, for thanks, 
(i.e. without payment}-, jure, rightfully; injuria, wrongfully; joco, in joke; 
moribus, in customary fashion ; natura, by nature ; occidione occidere, to 
annihilate; silent io, in silence; sponte, voluntarily; vi, by force ; vitio, 
faultily; voluntate, of free-will ; vulgo, commonly; usu, in practice; and 

504 00 Attendant circumstances under which an action takes 
place or an assertion is made. (This is commonly called, at least in 
some uses, ablative absolute?) 

This ablative may often be translated into English by 'when,' 'if,' 
' although,' &c. with finite verb. It is indeed, especially when the oblique 
predicate is a participle, equivalent to an adverbial sentence. 

i. With noun (adjective or genitive case) as (oblique) predicate. 
Quid hoc populo obtineri potest ? (Cic.) 
Nil desperandum Teucro duce et auspice Teucro. (Hor.) 

L. G. 14 

210 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

Me nomine negligentiae suspectum tibi esse doleo. (Cic.) 
Tabulas in foro summa hominum frequentia exscribo. (Cic.) 

So mea sententia, in my opinion ; mea causa, for my sake ; meo peri- 
culo, at my risk ; tuo commodo, if convenient to yoii ; hujus arbitratu, 
at this man's choice ; salvis legibus, without breach of the statutes, &c. 

505 2. With present or perfect passive participle as (oblique) predi- 
cate. (N.B. The future active participle and, of deponents, the per- 
fect participle are rarely so used.) 

Haec dicente consule, equites circumfunduntur. (Liv.) 

Celeriter effecto opere legionibusque traductis et loco castris idoneo 

delecto reliquas copias revocavit. (Caes.) 
Senatus haberi mense Februario toto non potest, nisi perfectis aut 

rejectis legationibus. (Cic.) 

The perfect participle sometimes and occasionally other adjectives have 
a sentence for subject. 

Haec tibi dictabam, excepto quod non simul esses, cetera laetus. (Hor.) 
Inde ad Pluinnam est progressus, nondum comperto quam reglonem 
hostes petissent. (Liv.) 

506 Sometimes the perfect participle stands alone ; and this adverbial use 
is frequent in many adjectives. 

Eos sortito in provincias mitti placet. 

Vix tandem, magnis Ithaci clamoribus actus, composito rumpit vocem. 

Tranqulllo, ut aiunt, quilibet gubernator est. (Sen.) 

So necopinato, unexpectedly; consulto, deliberately; augurato, after 
taking the auspices ; merito, deservedly; falso, falsely ; assiduo, freqtiently ; 
liquido, clearly. 

507 Ablatives of this class are frequent with opus and occasional with usus. 
Opus fuit Hirtio convento. (Cic.) 

Priusquam incipias, consulto, et, ubi consulueris, mature facto opus est. 


The phrase quid opust facto? c. is very common in Plautus, c. 
(Perhaps it is a combination of quid est opus? and quo facto est opus?) 

608 6. The ablative of ' place where' is frequently used with prepositions 
which define it more exactly : e. g. 
Coram judice. In manu. Pro muris. Sub terra jacet. 

509 C. PLACE WHENCE (Ablative). 

i. Place from which movement is made. 

This use of the ablative without a preposition is in prose usually 
confined to the names of towns ; small islands ; and to the words domo, 
rure, humo. 

Damaratus fugit Tarquinios Corintho. (Cic.) 
Nos adhuc Brundisio nihil (sc. audivimus). Roma scripsit Brutus. 

Crebri cscidere caelo lapides. (Liv.) 

Chap. VIII.] Use of Ablative Case. 21 r 

610 A preposition (ab, de, ex) is in prose usually required when the ' place 
from which ' 

(a) is expressed by a common noun or name of person; e.g. ex saxo 
cadere ; a Pollione venire. 

(b) is interior or neighbourhood of town or country; e.g. ex Hlspania 
veiiit : a Gergovia discessit. 

(c) has urbe, oppido prefixed in apposition ; these require ex or ab, 
e.g. expellitur ex oppido Gergovia; Tusculo ex clarissimo municipio 

(d) in expressions of mere distance; e.g. tria millia passuum a Roma 

511 2. Thing from which separation takes place or exists. 

This is chiefly dependent on verbs of motion, abstinence, &c. especially 
compounds of ab, de, ex ; also on a few adjectives. 

P. Varium pellere possessionibus conatus est. (Gic.) 
Caesar re frumentaria adversaries intercluserat. (Caes.) 
Cedit Italia. Causa cadit. Muraenis me abstinebam. 
Solutus opere. Vacuus cura ac labore. Cave malo. (Plaut.) 

512 3- Origin. 

Apollo Jove natus ct Latona. (Cic.) 

Latino Alba ortus, Alba Atys, Atye Capys, Capye Capetus, Capeto 

Tiberinus. (Liv.) 
L. Domitius Cn. F. Fabia Ahenobarbus ; i.e. Fabia tribu. 

513 4. Standard of comparison; qualifying adjectives or adverbs 
in the comparative degree. 

(a) Qualifying adjectives. 

The adjective must be attribute or predicate of the noun which is 
compared with the standard. 

Quid magis est durum saxo, quid mollius unda ? (Ov.) 
Non tulit haec civitas aut gloria clariores aut humanitate politiores 

P. Africano, C. Laelio, L. Furio. (Cic.) 
Pane egeo, jam mellitis potiore placentis. (Hor.) 

Occasionally such an ablative is dependent on alius. 
Vereor ne putes alium sapiente bonoque beatum. (Hor.) 

(?) Qualifying adverbs. 
Serius spe omnium Romam venit. (Liv.) 
Longius assueto lumina nostra vident. (Ov.) 
NuUam, Vare, sacra vite prius severis arborem. (Hor.) 

514 5. The ablative of ' place whence" 1 is frequently used with preposi- 
tions which define it more exactly. 

e.g. a muro, away from the wall; de muro, down from the wall ; 
e muro, out o/or off the wall; sine muro, without a wall. 


2 1 2 SYNTAX. \Book IV. 


515 THE Genitive has two principal uses. 

A. Adjectival use; i. e. attribute or predicate of a substantive. 

1. Person or thing possessing or causing; e.g. Caesaris horti, 
Caesar's gardens. 

2. Divided whole ; e.g. Fortissimus Graecorum, Bravest he of the 

3. Particular kind or contents; e.g. Familia Scipionum, The family 
of Scipios. 

4. Quality or description; e.g. Res magni laboris, A matter of 
great toil. 

5. Object of action implied in substantives and adjectives; e.g. 
Fuga periculi, Flight from danger- Patiens laboris, Patient of toil. 

6. Thing in point of which a term is applied (Poetic) ; e.g. Aevi 
maturus, Ripe of (I.e. /') age. 

B. (a) Secondary object to verbs: also dependent on ad- 

i. Matter charged; e.g. Furti eum accusas, You accuse him of 

theft. Reus avaritiae, Accused of avarice. 

a. Object of mental emotion ; e.g. Taedet me tui, / am wearied 
of you. 

3. Thing remembered; e.g. Caesaris mexnini, I remember Caesar. 

4. Thing lacking or supplied; e.g. Cadum imples vini, Tou Jill a 
cask with wine. Plenus vini, Full of wine. 

(b) Usages properly referable to locative; e.g. Pluris te facio. 

/ count you of more value. See 494. 

These uses may be set forth more in detail as follows : 

516 A. Adjectival use: hence either dependent on nouns, or as 
secondary predicate. 

i. Person or thing possessing or causing, or to whom 
something belongs, or whose acting or condition is named. 

(a) Dependent on nouns. 

Ciceronis doznus. Crassi filius. Hectoris Andromache. 
SoUs ortus. Cornua lunae. Aequoris Deae. Labor discendl. 
Illius amicissimi. Inimicus otii, bonorum nostis. 
Est operae pretium diligentiam majorum recordari. (Cic.) 

Chap. IX.] Use of Genitive Case. 213 

Quae turn frequentia senatus, quae ezpectatio populi, qui concursua lega- 
torum, quae virtus, actio, gravitaa P. Lentuli consulis fuit ! (Cic.) 
Numinis instar eris mini. (Ov.) 
617 (b) As an invariable secondary predicate, 

Tempori cedere semper sapientis nabitum eat. (Cic.) 
Omnia quae muliexis fuerunt, viri flunt, dotia nomine. (Cic,) 
Jam me Pompeii totum esse scio. (Cic.) 
Carthaginienses tutelae nostrae duximus. (Cic.) 
Interest omnium recte facere. (Cic.) 

518 Of the personal pronouns the adjectives meus, tuus, suus, noster, 
vester are used (as adjectives) in this sense. But in conjunction with 
omnium, the genitives nostrum and vestrum (gen. pi.) are used. 

Mea domus. Amici tui. Accusator meus. 

Mea unius opera respublica salva est. (Cic.) 

Meum est libere loqui. Communis omnium nostrum parens. 

Neque gloriam meam, laborem lllorum, faciam. (Sail.) 

519 With interest, rSfert the abl. sing. fern, is used in lieu of the genitive 
of the personal pronouns. (The origin of this construction is uncer- 

Hoc mea refert. Dixit hoc illorum magls quam aua retulisse. (Sail.) 
Magni Interest Ciceronls vel mea potius vel mohercule utriusque me 
intervenlre dlacenti. (Cic.) 

620 a. Divided whole. 
(a) Definite whole. 

Of the personal pronouns, the genitives (sing, neut.) mei, tui, sui, 
nostri, vestri, nostrum and vestrum are used in this sense. t 
Solus omnium. Multl vestrum. Tertius regum Eomanorum. 
Provinciarum Macedonia a barbaris ; Cilicia a piratis vezatur. 
Uterque eorum. Medium viae. Plana urbis. Pars melior mel. 

521 N.B. The Romans often used an adjective and substantive agreeing, 
where in English we use 'of-' So always when the whole is really not 
divided. Adjectives thus used are adversus, aversus, extremus, medlus, 
raultus, nullus, omnis, plerique, summus, totus, &c. 

Nos omnes. In media urbe. Extreme anno. Tota Asia. 
Reliqua turba. Adversa basis. Aversa charta. Uterque frater. 
Trecenti conjuravimus. Amici, quos multos nabebat, aderant. 

522 () Indefinite (whole. Dependent on neuter adjective nominative 
or accusative : also on ninil, quo, eo, &c. 

Hoc praemii. Parum prudentiae. Aliquid pulcnri. 
Eo miseriarum venturus eram. (Sail.) Habetis affatim lignorum. (Liv.) 
Navium quod ubique fuerat in unum locum coegerant. (Caes.) 
Demonstrant sibi praeter agri solum nihil esse reliqui. (Caes.) 

-214 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

523 3 Particular kind or contents; that in, or of, which a thing 

(a) Definite (sometimes called Genitive of definition). 

This genitive generally corresponds to an apposition in English. 
Honos consulates. Numerus trecentorum. Virtus justitiae. 
Celsa Buthroti urbs. Nymphae lactis alimenta dedere. (Ov.) 
Ala trecentorum equitum. Auxilia peditatus equitatusque. (Caes.) 
Duo sunt genera liberalitatis ; unum dandi beneflcii, alterum reddendl. 


() Indefinite, (Genitive of sort, material, &c.) 

This genitive corresponds in English (not to an apposition, but) to a 
part of a compound, or to a phrase; e.g. 'a corn-heap,' 'money-rewards,' 
* a thousand in coins.' 

Acervus frumenti. Praemla pecuniae. Magnus numerus equorum. 

Magna vis seminum. Sex dies spatii. Mille nummum. 

Noluit ex decumis nimium lucri dare. (Cic.) Scelus viri, Palaestrio. 

So compendi facere, make of saving = a saving of; e.g. operam fac 
compendi (Plaut.) ; lucri facere, dare, &c., to get, give, by way of profit, or 
extra', e.g. cccc modios lucri faciunt (Cic.) ; numerare Valentio coguntur 
lucri HS xxx milia (Cic.). 

524 4- Quality or description: always with adjective. 

Fossa centum pedum. Puer sedecim annorum. 

Non multi cibi hospitem accipies, sed multi joci. (Cic.) 

Tuae litterae maximi sunt apud me ponderis. (Cic.) 

625 5 Object of action implied in substantives and adjectives. 

(a) Direct object; corresponding to an accusative or infinitive 
after the corresponding verb. 

For the personal pronouns in this sense are used the genitive 
singular neuter mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri. Occasionally meus, tuus, 
suus, &c. are used as attributes (as in 518). 

Accusatio sceleratomm. Possessio gratiae. Cura rerum alienarum. 
Emptor fundi. Scientia juris. Actor partium optimarum. 
Pigritia singulos sepeliendi. Cunctatio invadendi. Avidus laudis. 
Fugiens laboris. Vir tenax propositi. Tempus edax rrum 
Similes parentium. Conscii facinoris. Juris dictio. 

Similis often has dative, but a. person is generally in genitive. 

(Z>) Remoter object ; corresponding to a dative (rare) or ablative 
or prepositional phrases after the corresponding verb. 

(Meus, tuus, &c. are rarely used in this sense as attributes.) 

Vacatio muneris. Contentio honorum. (Cic.) 
Di, quibus imperium est animarum. (Verg.) 
Inimicitiae ex reipublicae dissensione susceptae. (Cic.) 
Studiosus litterarum. Mens interrita leti. (Ov.) 
Incertus sententiae. (Liv.) Ambiguus futuri. (Tac.) 

Chap. IX.] Use of Genitive Case. 215 

526 6. Thing in point of which a term is applied to a person: used 
after adjectives in poets and Tacitus. 

Aevi maturus. (Verg.) Seri studionun. (Hor.) Capitis minor (Hor.) 
Judlcii rectus. (Sen.) , Occultus odii. (Tac.) Linguae ferox. (Tac.) 
For animi with discruciari, fallere, &c. anxius, aeger, victus, &c., 
see 485. 

527 B. Dependent on verbs and adjectives. 

i. Secondary object of the thing, after certain verbs, which if 
transitive, have also a direct object of the' person : also after adjectives. 

(a) The matter charged; after verbs of accusing, condemning, 
acquitting, &c. ; also after certain adjectives of like meaning. 
Ambitus alterum accusavit. Majestatis absolvuntur. 
C. Verrem insimulat avaritiae et audaciae. (Gic.) 
Furtt recte agis. Damnatus voti. Manufestus rerum capitalium. 
Reus parricidii. Suspectus jam uirniae spei. 

528 (b} The object exciting mental emotion; after misereor 
and the impersonals miseret, pa6nitet, pig6t, pudet, taedet ; rarely 
after other words. 

Aliquando miseremini sociorum. (Cic.) 

Me quidem miseret parietum ipsorum atque tectorum. (Cic.) 

Paenitet te fortunae. Me civitatis morum piget taedetque. (Sail.) 

Justitiae mirari (Verg.), sepositi ciceris invidere (Hor.), appear to be 
mere imitations of Greek. 

529 (c) The thing remembered, or forgotten, &c. ; after memini. 
reminiscor. obliviscor, admoneo, &c. 

Vivorum memini, nee tamen Epicuri licet oblivisci. (Cic.) 
Catilina admonebat alium egestatis, alium cupiditatis suae. (Sail.) 

A similar genitive is found in the phrases certiorem facere, certior 
fieri, venire in mentem. 
Certiorem me consilii fecit. Venit mini Platonis in mentem. 

The thing remembered is often in the accusative after memini, re- 
miniscor, obliviscof, and in the ablat. with de after admoneo, certiorem 
facere, &c. 

530 (d} Thing lacking, or supplied; after impleo, compleo, egeo, 
indigeo, potior, fclerius, egenus, refertus, and other like words occa- 
sionally. (All are also used with the ablative, 498.) 

Tullia adolescentem temeritatis suae replet. (Liv.) 
Exercitationis indiget. Adherbalis potitur. 
Domus erat aleatoribus referta, plena ebriorum. (Cic.) 
Omnium rerum satur. Italia referta Pythagoreorum fuit. (Cic.) 
Ager frugum fertilis. (Sail.) Operum vacuus. (Hor.) 

Abstinere irarum, decipi laborum (Hor.), fessus rerum (Verg.) and 
the like seem to be Graecisms. 

531 2. For pluris, minoris, assis and other genitives used in expressions 
of value, see 494. 

2i6 SYNTAX. [Book 2V. 


532 THE infinitive (usually called the infinitive mood of a verb) is an 
indeclinable verbal substantive of peculiar character. It denotes an 
action or fact or event not (usually) in an abstract manner, but in 
connexion with the person or thing of which it is predicated. 

It is a substantive, because it is used as object and as subject to 
verbs, and as an oblique and direct predicate. 

It has however also a verbal character. It contains the notion of 
time; it has its object in the accusative or (indirect object) in the 
dative case ; it is qualified by adverbs, not adjectives ; and it readily 
admits, as a finite verb admits, of enlargements or qualifications by 
means of phrases or subordinate sentences. 

Its ordinary, and what we may call its normal, use is as direct object 
to a verb, or as oblique predicate of a substantive in the accusative case. 
Its other usages are developed from these. 

It has only an occasional and irregular use as a genitive, dative, or 
ablative case, or as an accusative after a preposition. The gerund and 
gerundive are used instead. 

533 The infinitive is used as 

A. (Ordinary usages). 

1. Direct object to a verb; e.g. Debeo venire, / ought to come 
(I owe coming). Sets loqui. Toil understand speaking. 

2. Oblique predicate, the infinitive with its subject forming the 
object to a verb ; e. g. Dico te venire, / say that you are coming. Video 
te sapientem esse, / see that you are wise. 

3. Direct secondary predicate; Dic6ris venire, You are said to be 
coming. Videtur sapiens esse, He seems to be wise. 

4. Subject of a sentence : 

(a) Absolutely ; e. g. Placet disputare, Disputation is agreed on. 
Turpe est fugere, To fly is disgraceful. 

(b) With its own subject ; e. g. Placet exercitum dimitti, The 
disbanding of the army is agreed on (It is agreed that the army should be 

5. In exclamations; At te Romae non fore, Then to think of your 
not going to be at Rome ! 

B. Primary predicate to a subject in the nominative case ; Clamare 
omnes ; ego instare, A shout from every one I press on. (Historic 

C. As genitive or ablative, or accusative other than objective; 
e.g. dignus amari, Worthy to be loved. Itoat videre (poetic for regular 
visum, 466), He was going to see. 

Chap. X.] Use of Infinitive. 217 

534 A. Ordinary usages. 

i. (a) Direct object to a verb: especially to such as involve 
a reference to another action of the same subject ; e. g. verbs expressing 
will, power, duty, purpose, custom, commencement, continuance, &C. 

Possum (soleo, debeo, volo, audeo, &c.) hanc rem facere. 
Vincere scis, Hannibal : victoria uti nescis. (Liv.) 
Non destitit monere. Institit sequi. Maturat proflcisci. 
Mitte orare. Odi peccare. Amat lauclari, 
Speras ascenders. Funem contingere gaudent. 
Haec dicere habui. (Cic.) Da flammam evadere classi. (Verg.) 
Similarly dat operam ( = conatur) id scire. 

(b] Object of the thing to a verb which has also a direct personal 

Such verbs are chiefly doceo, assuefacio, jubeo, veto, sino, arguo. 

Docebo Rullum posthac tacere. (Cic.) 

Jussit Helvetica abire, Assuefecit equos remanere. 

This infinitive remains when the verb is put in the passive or gerun- 
dive; e.g. Rullus docetur (docendus est) tacere. Helvetii jubentur 
(prohibentur) abire. Assuefacti sunt equi remanere. 

535 2. Oblique predicate, with its subject in the accusative case, 
the whole expression forming the object after a verb. 

Such verbs are those which have naturally a fact or event for their 
object ; e. g. verbs expressing declaration, opinion, knowledge, order, 
wish, sorrow, surprise, &c. 

Dico (puto, scio, doleo, admoneo, &c.) Caesarem abisse victorem. 

Sapientem civem me et esse et numerari volo. (Cic.) 

Nullos honores mini decerni sino. (Gic.) 

Fore se in discrimine videt. (Cic.) Te tua victoria frui cupimus. (Cic.) 

Similarly after phrases equivalent to verbs : 
Caesar certior factus est hostes sub monte consedisse. (Caes.) 
Caelius auctor est Magonem flumen tranasse. (Liv.) 
Magna me spes tenet hunc locum perfugium fore. (Cic.) 

536 3- Direct secondary predicate. 

(a) When the finite verb which has an oblique sentence for object 
is put in its passive voice, and the subject of the infinitive becomes the 
subject of this passive verb, the infinitive and other oblique predicates 
become direct secondary predicates. (Cf. 435.) 
Caesar dicitur (putatur, auditur, reperitur, &c.) abisse victor. 
Videntur haec esse faciliora. Jussus es renuntiari consul. (Cic.) 
Tn lautumias Syracusanas custodiendi deduct imperantur. (Cic.) 

() With another infinitive, or a pronoun, for subject. 

Erudito homini vivere est cogitare. (Cic.) 

Ostentare hoc est, Romani, non gerere bellum. (Liv.) 

218 SYNTAX. \BookIV. 

537 4. Subject of a sentence or in apposition to the subject, either 
(a) absolutely, or () with its own subject in the accusative case. 

The predicate of such a sentence is usually either est with a second- 
ary predicate, or an impersonal verb. 

(a) Absolutely. 
Facinus est vincire civem Romanum, scelus verberare, prope parri- 

cidium necare : quid dicam in crucem. tollere ? (Cic.) 
Haec ipsa sunt honorabilia, salutari, appeti, decedi, assurgi, deduct, 

reduci, consul!. (Cic.) 
Licet lascivire. Didicisse fideliter artes, emc-Uit mores. (Ov.) 

() With its own subject in the accusative case. 
Hoc fieri et oportet et opus est. (Cic.) 
Te hilari animo esse valde me juvat. (Cic.) 
Mihi nuntiatum est Parthos transisse Euphratem. (Cic.) 

(r) With its own subject omitted, but with secondary oblique 
predicate expressed. 

The secondary predicate is usually in the Accusative, but if the 
person or thing which is the subject of the infinitive is expressed in the 
dative with the principal verb, the predicate usually conforms. 

Non esse cupidum pecunia est ; non esse emacem vectigal est. (Cic.) 
Licet esse Gaditanum. (Also Licet civi Romano esse Gaditano ; rarely 

Licet civi Romano esse Gaditanum.) 
Vobis immunibus hujus esse mali dabitur. (Ov.) 

538 5. In exclamations: object or subject of verb understood. 
Ah ! tantamna rem tarn neglegenter agere ! (Ter.) 

Ergo me potius in Hispania fuisse turn quam Formiis ! (Gael.) 

539 B. As primary predicate to a subject in the nominative case: 
or sometimes without any subject. It is thus used to express the 
occurrence of actions without marking the order of time. (Historic 
infinitive.) Frequent in animated language describing a scene. Only 
present infinitive (besides odisse, meminisse). 

This usage is analogous to the predication of one noun of another 
without expressing est, &c. 427 , 584. 
Haec cum dixisset Catulus, me omnes intueri. (Cic.) 
Turn spectaculum horribile in campis patentibus : sequi, fugere, occidi, 
capi : equi atque viri adflicti, ac multi volneribus acceptis neque 
fugere posse neque quietem pati, niti modo ac statim concidere. 


540 C. As genitive, or ablative, or accusative (other than objective ; cf. 

(i) Dependent on substantives; only iri a few phrases. (In place of 
genitive or gerund.) 

Nulla est ratio amittere ejusmodi occasionem. (Cic. ) 
Tempus est jam majora conari. (Liv.) 

Chap. X.} Use of Infinitive. 219 

(2) Dependent on adjectives ; in poetry and post- Augustan prose. In 
place of genitive of gerund or supine in -u. 

Soli cantare periti Arcades. (Verg.) Mens erat apta capi. (Ov.) 
Niveus videri. (Hor.) Dignus erat, alter eligi, alter eligere. (Plin.) 

(3) Dependent on verbs ; chiefly to express purpose after verbs of 
motion, &c.; in early and Augustan poets. (In place of supine in -um.) 
Misit orare. (Ter.) Eximus visere. (Plaut.) 

Mittit me quaerere. (Prop.) Pecus egit altos visere montes. (Hor.) 

Sometimes other expressions, in imitation of Greek, occur ; e. g. 
Loricam donat habere viro. (Verg.) 
Nos numerus sumus et fruges consumere nati. (Hor.) 

(4) Dependent on prepositions (rare). 
Superest praeter amare nihil. (Ov.) 
Multum interest inter dare et accipere. (Sen.) 


541 THE Infinitive is put in the present, past, or future tense, according 
as the action or event denoted by it is contemporaneous with, or ante- 
cedent, or subsequent to, that of the verb on which it depends. 

1. Infinitive as object. 

Cupio "I / long 

Cupiam / shall long 

Cupiero 1 ,. / shall have longed 

Cupiebam f Videre ' / was longing Y to 

Cupivi / longed 

CupieramJ I had longed 

In this use the present infinitive is common: and even where in 

English the past infinitive is used. So especially with possum, debeo, &c. 

Possum } (I may see. 

Potui r videre, \ I might have seen (lit. / was able to see). 

Poteranv (l might have seen at the time. 

Debeo \ (I ought to see. 

Debui i- videre, -(I ought to have seen (It was my duty to see}. 

DebebamJ (l ought then to have seen, or, to have been seeing. 

The perfect infinitive is not often used as object, except 
(a) when it is important to speak of the action or event as 

already done or ready : 

Non potest non optasse, She cannot revoke the wish (already made), 
but Non potuit non optare, She could not help wishing. 

Malui dicere, I preferred speaking. 

Malui dixisse, I preferred to have done with speaking (to say no more). 

Debeo vincere, / ought to win. 

Debeo vicisse, / ought to be pronounced winner. 

220 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

(b) after volo in prohibitions. An old usage imitated by Livy and 
Augustan poets. It is also used after possum and some other verbs. 
Ne quis humasse velit Aiacem, Atrida, vetas. (Hor.) 
Consoles edlxerunt, ne quis quid fugae causa vendiuisse neve emisse 

vellet. (Liv.) 

Commisisse caret, quod mox mutare labor et. (Hor.) 
Bacchatur vates, magnum si pectore possit excussisse deum. (Verg.) 

542 2. Infinitive as oblique predicate. 

(a) In sentences dependent on principal tenses, 
Dico \ I say \ 

Dixi (perf.) / have said 

te scripsisse, ..................... that you have written, 

or (wrote. 
te scripturum esse, ............ that you will write, or are 

going to (write. 
te scripturum fuisse, ......... that you (were going to 

(write, or (would have 

illud scribi, ..................... that that is being (written. 

illud scriptum esse, ............ that that (was (written. 

illud scriptum fuisse, ......... that that (was {for some 

time) (written, or had 

been (written. 
illud scriptum iri, ............... that that (will be (written, 

or is going to be (written. 

In sentences dependent on secondary tenses. 

Dicebam \ I (was saying} 

Dixit (aor.) L te scribere, I said r that you (were (writing. 

Dixeram J I had said J 

.................. te scripsisse, .. ................ that you had (written. 

.................. te scripturum esse, ......... that you (would (write, or 

(were going to (write. 
.................. te scripturum fuisse, ...... that you had been going to 

(write, or (would have 

.................. illud scribi, .................. that that (was being (written. 

.................. illud scriptum esse, ......... that that (was (already) 

.................. illud scriptum fuisse, ...... that that (was {for some 

time) (written, or had 

been (written. 
.................. illud scriptum iri, ............ that (would be (written, or 

(was going to be (written. 

The same use applies if instead of dico, dixi, &c. the impersonal 
passive dicitur, dictum est, &c. be used. 

Chap. XL} Tenses of Infinitive. 221 

643 We may specially note 

(1) The infinitives esse, fuisse, as used with participles, are often 
omitted. See 584, 585. 

(2) For the future infinitive both active and passive, a periphrasis with 
fore or futurum esse is often made use of. 

Dico fore ut amem, amer, I say thai I shall love, shall be loved. 

Dixi fore ut amarem, amarer, / said that I should love, should be loved. 

(3) Fore with the past participle both in deponent and passive verbs, 
corresponds to the completed future: 

Dico (dixi) me adeptuin fore, that I shall hare gained ; missum fore, 
shall have been sent. 

(4) Memini is used with the present (and sometimes the perfect) in- 
finitive of events of which the subject himself was witness ; with the perfect 
infinitive of events of which the subject was not witness. 

Memini eum dicere, / remember his saying ; memini eum dixisse, / re- 
member he said. 

544 3. Infinitive as secondary predicate. 

Dicor "I J am being said 

Dicar / shall be said 

Dictus ero i / shall have been said , 

Dictus sum f scrlbere > / was (or have been said} \ t0 be 

Dicebar / was being said 

Dictus eram J / had been said J 

scripsisse, to have written. 

scripturus esse, to be going to write. 

vulnerari, to be in the act of being 

vulneratus esse, to have been wounded. 

545 4. Infinitive as subject. 

The present is most usual, but the perfect is used where the 
meaning requires it. 

Licet 1 I am allowed ~\ 

Licebit / shall be allowed 

Licuerit i . / shall have been allowed I , 

Licuit f mmi dlCer6 ' / was (or have been} allowed \ t0 5 ** k * 

Licebat / was (being) allowed 

Licuerat j / had been allowed J 

The perfect is found in some expressions where in English the present 
would be used. 

Proinde quiesse erit melius (Liv.), It will be for your advantage to keep 

niud non paenitebit curasse. (Quint.) 

Tune decuit flesse quum adempta sunt nobis anna. (Liv.) 

222 SYNTAX. {Book IV. 


546 BESIDES the infinitive other verbal nouns are found with the verbal 
characteristic (when formed from transitive verbs) of having a direct 
object in the accusative case. 

A. Gerund : e.g. agendum (subst), doing; with which is closely 

B. Gerundive : e.g. res agenda, a thing to do. 

C. Supine: e.g. ibis actum, Tou will go to do. 

D. Participles: (V) Present: Active; e.g. agens, doing (adj.). 

() Past: Active (only from deponents); adep- 

tus, having gained. 
Passive ; actus, done. 

(c) Future : Active ; e. g. acturus, about to do. 

A. B. The gerund and gerundive are nouns with -o stems, the 
gerund being in form a neuter substantive, the gerundive an adjective. 
They are used in all cases, but the gerund is used in the singular 
number only. 

The gerund, like the infinitive, shews its verbal nature in having its 
object in the accusative or in the dative, not in the genitive, case ; and 
in being qualified by adverbs, not by adjectives : it shews its substan- 
tival nature in its own construction. As compared with the gerundive, 
it is chiefly found when the verb from which it is formed is intransitive. 
or, though transitive, is used without the object being expressed with it. 

The gerundive is confined to transitive verbs, and is usually substi- 
tuted for the gerund of such verbs, when the object is expressed. The 
object is then attracted into the case of the gerund, and the gerund, 
taking adjectival inflexions (then called the gerundive), is made to agree 
with it in number and gender. But the gerundive is not used where 
indistinctness would arise from the change of the object's case. 

The oblique cases of the gerund and gerundive are used to supple- 
ment the infinitive : i.e. they are used where the infinitive if it Jiad case 
inflexions would be used in oblique cases. The nominative (and in 
oblique language the accusative) of the gerund and gerundive has a 
special use. 

resere > to rule > Or rulln S' ( 534, 5370 

Accusative with prep. : ad regendum, to rule. 

ad regendos populos. to rul? peoples. 

Chap. XII.} Use of Verbal Nouns. 2 23 

Dative : regendo, for ruling. 

regendis populis, for ruling peoples. 
Ablative : regendo, by ruling ; in regendo, in ruling. 

regendis populis, by ruling peoples in regendis 

populis, in ruling peoples, 
Genitive: regendi, of ruling. 

regendorum populorum, of ruling peoples. 

647 The accusative gerund (except as the substitute for the nomi- 
native in infinitive sentences) is used only after prepositions, usually 
ad, sometimes in, inter and ob ; rarely any others. 

Instead of the gerund with a direct object dependent on it, the 
gerundival expression is always used. 
Haec ad judicandum sunt facillima, (Gic.) 
Missus est ad animos regum perspiciendos. (Liv.) 
Magna jam summa erogata est in servos ad militiam emendos arman- 
dosque. (Liv.) 

548 The dative gerund expresses the indirect object, especially work 

Instead of the gerund with a direct object dependent on it, the 
gerundival expression is always used. 

Consul placandis Eomae dis habendoque dilectu dat operam. (Liv.) 
His audiendis credendisque opportuna multitude confluebat, (Liv.) 
Hi scribendo affuerunt. Decemviri litibus judicandis. 
Civitates non sunt solvendo. (Gic.) 

649 The ablative gerund is used both without and with a pre- 

(a) The gerund used without a preposition chiefly expresses the 
means, sometimes the manner and circumstances. 

Instead of the gerund with a direct object being used, the gerundive 
is generally substituted, unless some obscurity would result. 
Caesar dando, sublevando, ignoscundo, Cato nihil largiundo, gloriani 

adeptus est. (Sail.) 
Herdonius hostem se fatendo prope denuntiavit ut arma caperetis, hie 

negando bella esse, arma vobis ademit. (Liv.) 
Hodie stat Asia Luculli institutes servandis et quasi vestigiis perse- 

quendis. (Cic.) 

() With prepositions ab, de, ex, in; rarely pro, very rarely 
super. (Never with cum or sine.) 

The gerund is rarely used with a direct object depending on it, 
unless it be a neuter pronoun. 

Nomen legis Graece a suum cuique tribuendo due turn est. 
Primus liber est de contemnenda morte. (Cic.) 
In accusando atque in explicandis criminibus operam consumpsi. 

Pro ope ferenda sociis pergit ire ipse ad urbem oppugnandam. (Liv.) 

224 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

550 The genitive gerund and gerundive are always dependent on a 
noun, never on a verb (except as secondary predicate with esse). They 
are used indifferently, except where the one form or the other affords 
less ambiguity. 

Ita nati factique sumus ut et agendi aliquid et diligendi aliquos et 
refereudae gratiae principia in nobis contineremus. (Cic.) 

Inlta sunt in liac civitate consilia urbis delendae, civium trucidandorum, 
nominis Romani exstinguendi. (Cic.) 

551 The gerund is used in the nominative as subject to the verb 
est, erat, &c. predicating existence, with a dative of the agent, the 
whole expression thus conveying the idea of obligation \ 

The gerund is rarely used in this way with a direct object de- 
pendent on it, except in Lucretius and Varro. Instead of this, what 
would have been the direct object after the gerund becomes the subject, 
and the gerundive is used as a secondary predicate. Hence it may 
often be translated in English by the passive voice. 

In oblique language the accusative with esse, &c. is used. 

Eundum est mini, There is for me a going, i.e. I must go. 

Haec mihi sunt agenda, These things are for me to do, or must be done 

by me. Scio haec mini esse agenda. 
Hac tempe state serviundum aut imperitandum, habendus metus est aut 

faciundus, Quirites. (Sail.) 
Suo cinque judicio utendum est. (Cic.) 
Caesar i orania uno tempore erant agenda ; vexillum proponendum, 

signum tuba dandum, ab opere revocandi milites, acies instru- 

enda. (Caes.) 
Discessi ab eo bello in quo aut in acie cadendum fuit, aut in aliquas 

insidias incidendum, aut deveniundum in vlctoris manus, aut ad 

Jubam confugiendum, aut capiendus tamquam exsilio locus aut 

consciscenda mors voluntaria. (Cic.) 
Aeternas poenas in rnorte timendumst. (Lucr.) 

552 The gerundive is also used : 

(a) As oblique predicate to the direct object of certain transitive 
verbs (habeo, do, euro, loco, conduco, &c.) to express an action 
purposed to be done upon such object. If the verb is put in the 
passive, the gerundive becomes a direct predicate. 

Agrum de nostro patre colendum habebat. (Ter.) 

Demus nos philosophiae excolendos. (Cic.) 

Caesar pontem in Arare faciundum curat. (Caes.) 

Pars inde bibenda servatur. (Ov.) Detergendas cloacas locat. (Liv.) 

1 In Plautus verbal stems in -tion are occasionally so used and even 
with an accusative object ; e. g. Quid tibi hanc aditiost ? Why is there for 
you an approaching this woman? i.e. What do you mean by approaching? 
Quid tibi is turn tactiost? 

Chap. XII.] Use of Verbal Nouns. 225 

() As a mere attribute, with the meaning of (i) obligation or 
destiny or desert ; and this in negative and quasi-negative sentences 
approaches the meaning of (a) possibility. 
(i) facinus animadvortendum. (Ter.) 
Cognoscite aliud genus imperatoris, sane diligenter retinendum et con- 

servandum. (Cic.) 
Quies inter labores aut jam exhaustos aut mox exhauriendos renovavit 

corpora animosque ad onmia de integro patienda. (Liv.) 
Omnia sibi et empta et emenda esse clamavit. (Cic.) 
Vix erat credendum. (Caes.) 
Labores non fugiendos aerumnas nominaverunt. (Cic.) 

553 C. The accusative of verbal substantives with stem in -tu (i.e. 
the supine in -um) often has a direct, less often, an indirect object. 
Quamprimum haec risum vgni. (Cic.) 

Legati in castra Aequorum venerunt questum injurias et ex foedere res 

repetitum. (Liv.) 
Non ego Graiis servitum matribus ibo. (Verg.) 

This supine, with iri used impersonally, supplies a form for the 
passive future infinitive. 
Audierat non datum iri filio uxorem suo (Ter.), He had heard that there 

is not a going to give a wife to his son ; i.e. that a wife will not be 

given to his son. 
Putat onmia aut pleraque ambigua visum iri. (Cic.) 

554 [The so-called supine in -u is the ablative of the same stem, and is used 
as other ablatives ; e. g. 

Turpe dictu. Terribiles visu formae. See 497. 

The dative is occasionally found in somewhat similar use ; e. g. 
Alter collis usui opportunus. (Sail.) Aqua potui jucund^ (Plin.)] 

555 D. The participles are verbal adjectives~used either to predicate 
some action or state of a person or thing, or to describe a person or 
thing by some action or state. They are of three different times, past, 
present, and future, in reference to the time of the principal actions. 

The present and future participles, and in deponent and a few other 
verbs the perfect participle also, have an active meaning. 

The perfect participle has in verbs other than deponents usually a 
passive meaning. 

556 i. As primary predicate, or, more commonly, as secondary predi- 
cate with the verb esse, the future and perfect participles are used to 
supply the place of deficient tenses in the active and passive voice. The 
present participle is hardly ever so used. 

Amatus sum, amaturus sum, &c. Amatum te esse dico. 

Nihil dignum dictu actum Ms consulibus. (Liv.) 

Senectus est operosa et semper agens aliquid et moliens. (Cic.) 

L. G. 15 

2z6 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

557 2. As secondary predicate they denote the circumstances in which 
some person or thing is placed when the principal action occurs. In 
prae-Augustan prose the future participle is rarely so used. 

(A participle thus stands in place of an adverbial expression or sentence 
and often is best so translated, or sometimes by a finite verb coordinate 
with the principal verb.) 
Haec locutus sublimis abiit. (Liv.) 
Omne malum nascens facile opprimitur, inveteratum fit plerumque 

robustius. (Cic.) 

Non hercule mihi nisi admonito venisset in mentem. (Cic.) 
Nee vixit male qui natus moriensque fefellit. (Hor.) 
Inde Graeciae praesidebis, et speciem Romanis trajecturum tepraebens, 
et, si res poposcerit, trajecturus. (Liv.) 

558 Some stems in -bundo, originally gerundives, are (rarely) used as parti- 
ciples present, and even with object in accusative; e.g. 

Haec prope contionabundus circumibat homines. (Liv.) 

559 The passive participle is specially used as oblique predicate with habeo, 
do, reddo, facio, euro, volo, cupio. (Compare the gerundive 552.) 
Excusatum habeas me rogo : ceno domi. (Mart.) 

Missos facio mathematicos, grammaticos, musicos. (Cic.) 
Sic stratas legiones Latinorum dabo, quemadmodum legatum jacentem 
vidistis. (Liv.) 

560 The passive participle is, chiefly in "Livy and other historians, used with 
a substantive so as to express not so much a thing or person acted on, as 
the action itself. But the action is regarded as completed, and thus differs 
from expressions with the gerundive. 

Dubitabat nemo quin violati hospites, leguti necati, fana vexata hanc 

tantam efflcerent vastitatem. (Cic.) 
Regnatum Romae ab condita urbe ad liberatam annos ducentos quadra - 

ginta quattuor. (Liv.) 

Turn Danai gemitu atque ereptae virginis ira undiqne collecti invadunt. 


The neuter singular of the participle is so used without a substantive but 
chiefly in the nominative and ablative cases (cf. 506). 
Din non perlitatum tenuerat dictatorem. (Liv.) 
Inventum est carmen in libris Sibyllinis propter crebrius eo anno de 

caelo lapidatum. (Liv.) 
Erat uihil cur properato opus esset. (Cic.) 

561 The participles are sometimes used as ordinary adjectives, sometimes 
as substantives. 

(a) Participles used as ordinary adjectives. 

Vir sapiens. Certa poena. Vox acuta. Tempus futurum. 
Quid ? istae imagines ita nobis -dicto audientes sunt ? (Cic.) 
Medicus plane conflrmat propediem te valentem fore. (Cic.) 

Many become so completely adjectives that they are inflected for 
the comparative and superlative degrees, and take an object in the 
genitive instead of the accusative. 

Chap. XII.} Use of Verbal Nouns. 227 

() Participles used as substantives. This use is, except in certain 
words, chiefly found in the neuter singular of the perfect participle, 
and the plural of the masculine. 

amans, a lover ; adulescens, a young man ; candidatus, a candidate ; 
praefeetus, a chief magistrate; factum, a deed-, pactum, a bargain; 
senatus consultum, a resolution of the Senate ;, a commons' 
decree; jurisprudentes, lawyers ; senates diurna acta, Senate's journal. 


562 VERBS with active inflexions are of two classes, transitive and 
intransitive. Some verbs belong to both. 

Transitive verbs express an action conceived in connection with 
an object upon which it is exercised; e.g. amo, I love; moneo, / warn; 
audio, I hear ; Sdo, I eat ; pello, I push ; rego, I guide ; tolero, I bear ; 
uro, / burn ; laedo, / wound. 

But it is not necessary that the object should be actually expressed, 
e.g. edo, I eat, does not cease to be a transitive verb because no food 
is specified. 

563 Some verbs being specially applicable to, or frequently used with, a 
particular object are not unfrequently found in this special sense without 
the object being expressed. 

appellere, sc. navem, pttt in to shore ; conturbare, sc. rationes, become 
bankrupt ; facere, sc. sacra, sacrifice; facere mecum, sc. rem, make with 
me, on my side ; inhibere, sc. navem, back water; mittere, sc. nuntium, 
send a message; obire, sc. mortem, meet death, die; tendere, sc. pelles, 
pitch tents. 

564 Intransitive (or neuter) verbs express a state of being, or an 
action not conceived in connection with any object, as thereby affected ; 
e.g. curro, / run; liorreo, / shiver ; gaudeo, / rejoice praesum, 1 am 
at the head; ardeo, I am on fire ; noceo, I am hurtful. 

Such a state or action may affect other persons or things indirectly, 
and this indirect object may be expressed in an oblique case, just as a 
similarly indirect object may be expressed with a transitive verb; e.g. 
miM gaudeo, non tibi, 1 rejoice for myself, not for you ; praesum exer- 
citui, I am in command of the army (cf. 474)- 

Some neuter verbs often correspond to passive verbs in English; e.g. 
audiq male, / am ill spoken of; jaceo, / am prostrated; compare psrclo, 
I destroy ; pereo, I am destroyed ; vendo, I sell ; veneo, I am sold. 

228 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

565 Verbs with passive inflexions are of two classes ; viz. verbs which 
have also an active voice, and verbs which have no (corresponding) 
active voice. The latter are called deponents. (See list in 340.) 

In verbs which have also an active voice, passive inflexions are used 
principally to bring into prominence either the object of the action by 
making it the subject of the sentence, or the occurrence of the action, 
without specifying the agent. 

If the object of the action be a person or thing, i.e. if the verb be 
transitive, the passive may be used in both numbers and all three 
persons. Thus, laedo, / wound, may have for object me, te, eum 
(earn, id), nos, vos, eos (eas, ea). Consequently in the passive we 
may have (ego) laedor, (tu) laederis, (is, ea, id) laeditur, (nos) 
laedimur, (vos) laedimini, (ii, eae, ea) laeduntur, / am (being) wounded, 
thou art wounded, &C. 

If the verb be intransitive, and therefore express merely the existence 
or occurrence of an action, the passive is used in the third person 
singular only (as if the action itself were the real object of such a verb). 
Thus noceo, I am hurtful, I do hurt nocetur, hurtfulness exists, hurt is 
(being) done ; eo, / go ; itur, going takes place, is (being) done; suadebo, 
I will give advice; suadebitur, advice will be given. 

566 Besides the more usual case, in which the subject is acted on by 
others, passive inflexions are sometimes used in speaking: (i) of an 
action done by the subject to himself; and more frequently (2) of an 
action experienced without any specified external agency; e.g. 

(1) cingor, accingor, I gird myself ; dedor, give myself up ; erigor, 
raise myself; exerceor, exercise myself; exuor, take ojffrom myself; feror, 
bear myself; fingor, train myself; induor, put on myself; ponor, place 
myself; praecipitor, throw myself headlong ; sternor, throw myself on 
the ground; vertor (and compounds), turn myself; ungor, anoint 
myself; volvor (and compounds), roll myself; and others. 

(2) Corresponding in English to verbs used intransitively : alor, 
I feed ; circumagor, move round; corrumpor, spoil; delector, delight; 
exstinguor (of a light), go out; flndor, split ; lavor, bathe; mergor, 
plunge ; moveor, move ; mutor, change*; ornor, dress ; pascor, feed ; 
rumpor, burst ; tondeor, shave ; devortor, turn aside (to lodge) ; and 
many others, ' where sometimes it is difficult to say that there is any 
precise notion of action either by oneself or by others. 

Sometimes also (3) the action is one which the subject gets done or 
lets be done to him: e.g. cogor, I find myself compelled ; non defa- 
tigabor, / will not permit myself to be tired out, Q^c. 

The simple import of the passive inflexions is the same in all these 
cases, viz. that the subject is also the object of the action. 

567 Deponents have passive inflexions, but the meaning and con- 
struction of verbs with active inflexions. Some deponents are transitive, 
e.g. fateor, I confess ; some intransitive, e.g. epulor, I banquet. 

Chap. XII Il\ Verb Inflexions. Voice. 229 

In a few verbs this deponent use of the passive inflexions coexists 
with a properly passive one. The past participle is not unfrequently 
subject to vacillation. (See 340.) 

The precise import of the passive inflexions in the case of each deponent 
is not easy to tell, because we do not know the precise conception attached 
originally to the verbal stem. The ordinary meaning which we attach to 
the verb in its deponent form is that original meaning as modified by the 
effect of the passive inflections. 

The following appear to be some of the shades of meaning which sug- 
gested the use of the passive (originally reflective) inflexions. 

i. Action upon oneself ; e.g. fungor, I free myself ; proficiscor, I set 
myself forward (i.e. travel); potior, I make myself master ; apiscor, I fasten 
to myself ; amplector, I fold myself round (i. e. embrace] ; nitor, / make 
myself kneel. 

i. Action within oneself; e.g. morior. / die ; patior, I suffer; irascor, 
I get angry ; reor, / think ; spatior, / walk about. 

3. Action for oneself; e.g. obliviscor, / blot out for myself; mereor, 
I earn for ?;zy^//"(mereo, simply / earn] epulor, I make a feast for myself ; 
piscor, I provide myself with fish. So metior, partior, sortior, all convey 
the idea of the subject's share in the result. 

4. Becoming (e.g. playing a part); e.g. blandior, I play the coax ; 
furor, I play the thief, hence steal ; dominor, I act the lord ; interpreter, / 
act interpreter. 

5. Engagement in a mutual action. The effect is seen chiefly in plural 
number ; e. g. osculamur, we kiss ; praelior, / wage war ; comitor, / accom- 
pany (or make myself an attendant) ; rixor, / wrangle. 

568 In the construction of passive verbs several points require notice. 
If a transitive verb be changed from the active to the passive voice, 
the following additional changes are required, if the sentence is to 
express the same fact, as it expressed with the active form. 

(a) The object of the active verb becomes subject to the passive 

() A secondary predicate of the object changes from the accusa- 
tive to the nominative. 

(r) The agent (subject of the active verb) is put in the ablative 
with the prep. ab. 

/laedit tiuounds Marcus. 

e.g. Lucius Marcum 

consulem esse dicit \says Marcus is consul. 

flaeditur Cis being wounded by Lucius. 

Druso adjutor datus est | was given to Drusus as a 

Marcus a Lxicio { Marcus *( helper. 

consul esse dicitur I is being said by Lucius to be 

i i consul. 

23 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

563 An intransitive verb is not used in the passive except impersonally, 
and no further change is required, except usually the omission of the 
agent. (If the agent is expressed, it will be usually in the ablative 
with ab as above.) 

(An indirect object to an Intransitive passive verb in Latin will 
sometimes appear in English translation as the subject of a transitive 
passive verb.) 

Persuasumst homini ; factumst ; veatumst ; vincinmr ; duxit. (Ter.) 
Invidetur commodis homiiium ipsorum, studiis autem eorum ceteris 

commodandi favetur. (Cic.) 

Sed tamen satis flet a nobis, neque parcetur labori. (Cic.) 
Vult sibi quisque credl. (Liv.) 
A Cotta primisque ordinibus acriter resistebatur. (Caes.) 

570 A neuter prononn in the singular number (which is in the accusative as 
denoting the extent of an action after an active verb, cf. 461) is found 
with the passive construction. (It may be considered as an accusative still, 
or perhaps as a nominative qualifying the impersonal subject.) 

Hoc a Lucio ) Marcus laeditur, Marcus receives this wound from Lucius. 
(Marco nocetur, This hurt is being done Marcus by Lucius. 
Mibl quidem ipsi nihil ab istis jam nocerl potest. (Cic.) 
Hoc solum pugnatur. (Cic.) 



571 i. Subject and predicate contained in the verb. 

The finite verb contains both subject and predicate in itself, the 
personal inflexions expressing the subject, and the stem expressing the 

Hence, whenever in English an unemphatic pronoun is sufficient to 
denote the subject without risk of mistake, the finite verb in Latin 
requires no addition for this purpose. This is so with the verb 

572 1. in the first or second person. 

Thus curro. currimus, refer to the person or persons speaking; 
curris, curritis, curre, currite, to the person or persons spoken to. 

But the pronouns may be added for the sake of emphasis or 

Quod ego fui ad Trasumennum, ad Cannas, id tu hodie es. (Liv.) 
Negat cuncta Italia, negat senatus, negatis vos. (Cic.) 

Chap. XIV^\ Verb Inflexions. Person and Number. 231 

573 2. in the third person, when it is the same as the subject of the 
last preceding verb of the same number and person, and which is suited 
to the sense. (Very frequent.) 

Venit Verres in aedem Castoris: considerat templum: versat se, quaerit, 
quid agat. (Gic.) 

574 3, sometimes in the third person plural, when the subject is 'persons 
in general.' 

Deorum imnortalium judicia solent in scholis proferre de morte. (Cic.) 
Vulgo ex oppidis publice gratulabantur Pompejo. {Cic.) 

Hence we find sentences in which parfcim, partly, appears to perform 
the functions of a subject, as if it were pars or alii. (Comp, vulgo above.) 

Partim e nobis ita timidi sunt, ut omnem populi Romani beneficiorum 
memoriam abjecerint, partim ita a republica aversi, ut se hosti 
favere prae se ferant. (Cic.) 

More correctly Amici partim deseruerunt me, partim etiam prodide- 
runt. (Cic.) 

575 4. in certain verbs in the 3rd person singular, where the fact of 
the action, state, or feeling is the prominent point and the doer is left 
indefinite. Such verbs are called impersonal s, and may be classified 
as follows: 

(a) The verbs miseret, piget, pudet, paenitet, taedet. 
e. g. Ipsius facti pudet. luiseret me aliorum. 

(Other examples in 528. Many other verbs, e.g. decet, oportet, 
accidit, &c. are called impersonals : but these have always a neuter 
pronoun, or infinitive, or sentence for subject.) 

() Expressions concerning the weather or sky. 

Fulminat ; tonat ; pluit ; gelat ; advesperascit. 

Reate imbri lapidavit. (Liv.) Luciscit hoc jam. (Ter.) For hoc, 

comp. 570. 

(c) Intransitive verbs are sometimes so used, generally in the 
passive voice (see 569). 

Dicto paretur. Cui parci potuit ? 

Lites severe aestimatae : cui placet, obliviscitur : cui dolet, meminit. 


576 ii- Subject expressed by a separate word or words. 

As the finite verb always contains its own subject in its personal 
inflexions, the separate word, usually called its subject, is, strictly 
speaking, in apposition to these inflexions for the purpose of closer 

232 SYNTAX. [Book IF. 

1. When the subject is expressed by a separate word, the finite 
verb is in the same number and person as its subject. 

Te aerumnae premunt omnes, qui te florentem putas ; te lubidines 
torquent ; tu dies noctesque cruciaris, cui non sat est, quod est. 


Omnes enim patres familiae falce et aratro relictis intra murum cor- 
repsimus. (Col.) 

Exceptions : 

577 (#) If the subject be a substantive in the singular number, but 
denotes more than one person, the verb is sometimes in the plural. 

Diffugiunt alii ad naves ; pars scandunt rursus equum. (Verg.) 
Uterque eorum ex castris stativis a flumine Apso exercitum educunt. 


() The verb, if it closely follow a secondary predicate, sometimes 
conforms to it in number. (This is rare, except where it is indifferent 
which substantive be considered the subject.) 

Amantium irae amoris integratiost. (Ter.) 

Contentum rebus suis esse maximae sunt certissimaeque divitiae. (Cic.) 

578 2. When the subject is composed of two or more substantives, 
denoting different persons or things, but regarded as in connexion with 
each other, the verb is put in the plural : in the first person plural, if 
the subject contain the first person ; and in the second person plural, if 
the subject contain the second person and not the first. 

Paulus et Marcellus private consilio praetereuntur. (Caes.) 

Si tu et Tullia valetis, ego et suavissimus Cicero valemus. (Cic.) 

Ego et vos scimus inurbanum lepido ssponere dicto. (Hor.) 

579 Occasionally the plural is found when a singular substantive has another 
joined to it by cum; rarely when the connexion is by a disjunctive. 

Ipse dux cum aliquot principibus capiuntur. (Liv.) 
Haec neque ego neque tu fecimus. (Ter.) 

580 If the two or more substantives composing the subject really form but 
one notion, the verb is frequently put in the singular. 

Senatus populusque Romanus intellegit. (Cic.) 

Cum tempus necessitasque postulat, decertandum manu est. (Cic.) 

iiii Omission of the verbal predicate. 

581 ! When two or more subjects require the same predicate, but 
joint action &c. is not to be expressed, the predicate is usually expressed 
only once, and is put in the number and person required by the subject 
nearest to it in the sentence. 

Chap. XIVJ\ Verb Inflexions. Person and Number. 233 

Hoc mihi et Peripatetic! et vetus Academia concedit. (Cic.) 

Vir bonus et sapiens dici delector ego ac tu. (Hor.) 

In qua sententia Democritus, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Aristoteles fuit. 

Quaesturara nos, consulatum Cotta, aedilitatem petebat Hortensius. 


But also, for rhetorical effect, Dixit juratus P. Titius tutor pupilli 
Junii ; dixit M. Junius tutor et patruus : Mustius dixisset si viveret : 
dixit L. Domitius. (Cic.) 

582 2. When a plural subject is distributed by an apposition of alius, 
quisque, pars, &c., either the general plural predicate is omitted, or 
more usually the special singular predicate. 

Ambo exercitus, Vejens Tarquiniensisqus, suas quisque abeunt domos. 


Quisque suos patiraur manis. (Verg.) 

Inertia et mollitia animi, alius alium expectantes, cuncfcamini. (Sail.) 
Consules ejus anni, alter morbo, alter ferro perierat. (Liv.) 

583 3. The verb is sometimes omitted when it can be readily supplied 
by consideration of the context. So especially dico and facio ; and in 
answers, the verb used in the question &c. 

Quid tu, inquit, tarn mane, Tubero ? Turn ille. (Cic.) 
Sapienter haec reliquisti, si consilio ; feliciter, si casu. (Cic.) 
Galli per biduum nihil aliud, quana steterunt parati. (Liv.) 
A me C. Caesar pecuniam? Cur potius, quam ego ab illo? (Cic.) 
Magis ac magis anxia Agrippina, quod nemo a filio. (Tac.) 
Quo mini fortunam, si non conceditur uti? (Hor.) 
Sed hoc nihil ad m.3. Quorsum haec ? Quid multa ? 

684 A predication without est, &c. (besides its occurrence where the 
est is expressed in an adjoining clause) is common in descriptions of a 
scene or the like (comp. 539) ; and with past participle. 

Ante diem tertium Idus Novembris, cum sacra via descenderem, insecu- 

tus est me cum suis : clamor, lapides, fustes, gladii ; haec impro- 

visa omnia. (Cic.) 
Mare saevom, inportuosum, ager frugum fertilis, bonus pecori, arbori 

infecundus ; caelo terraque penuria aquarum. (Sail.) 
Interea cum meis omnibus copiis vexavi Amaniensis, hostis sempiternos : 

multi occisi, capti ; reliqui dissipati ; castella munita inproviso 

adventu capta et incensa. (Cic.) 

585 Similarly the infinitive esse is usually omitted with the future par- 
ticiple, and frequently with the past participle, (esp. after volo, oportet, 
&c.) ; sometimes in other cases. 
Eespondit se id neminem facturum putasse. (Cic.) 
Senatus censuit frequens coloniam Lavicos deducendam. (Liv.) 
Quid dubitatis ? jam sublimem raptum oportuit. (Plaut.) 
Quid refert utrum voluerim fieri an gaudeam factum? (Cic.) 

234 SYNTAX. \Book IV. 




The Indicative mood is the primary and ordinary form of the finite 
verb, and is therefore used wherever there is no special reason for 
employing the imperative or subjunctive. Not only facts but supposi- 
tions and commands can be put in the indicative mood, but only when 
the writer or speaker relies on the tenor of the context, or turn of the 
rhetoric, to guard against misapprehension, and does not care to mark 
the supposition or the command by the form of the expression. 

The tenses of the Latin verb in the indicative mood may be divided 
either (i) according to the time to which they relate, or (ii) according 
to the completeness or incompleteness of the action spoken of. 

i. Time to which the tenses relate. 

587 According to the time to which they relate, the tenses are either 
primary or secondary. 

The primary tenses denote time contemporaneous with, antecedent, 
or subsequent to, the time at which we are speaking, or to some time at 
which we feign ourselves to be present and watching events. 

The secondary tenses denote time contemporaneous with, antecedent, 
or subsequent to, some other time of which we are speaking, and wfcich 
we affirm (by the use of secondary tenses) to be past. 



Present; dico, Imperfect; dicebam, 1 

Contemporary. ^ ^.^ ^ sa \ ng 

Future; dicam, Aorist ; dixi, / said (i.e. 

Subsequent. / shall (jou, he after something had 

'will} say. happened). 

Subsequent to Completed Future ; 
present time but dixero, I shall 

antecedent to (you, he ivill) 

some future event. ha<ve said. 

Perfect; dixi, Pluperfect; dixeram, / 

Antecedent. I have said. had said. 

Chap. XVJ\ Indicative and Imperative Moods. 

2 35 


Contemporary. Pres. 


present time 
some future event. 







Jamor, / am 
I being loved. 

!amabor, I shall 
(you, be wit!) 
be loved. 
Completed Future ; 
amatus ero (or fuero), 
I shall (you, he will) 
have been loved. 


A or. 

j amabar, / was 

( being loved. 

j amatus sum, / 

j was loved. 


am (or have 
been) loved. 

{amatus eram (or 
fueram), I had 
been loved. 

ii. Completeness or incompleteness of the action. 

688 The present, future, and imperfect tenses express incomplete action 
(and hence are sometimes called respectively present imperfect, future 
imperfect, past imperfect). 

e.g. laedo, laedor, / am wounding, am being wounded laedam, 
laedar, / shall wound, shall be wounded; laedebam, laedebar, / was 
wounding, was being wounded. 

The perfect, completed future, and pluperfect express completed 
action (and hence are sometimes called respectively present perfect, 
future perfect, past perfect). 

e.g. laesi, laesus sum, I have wounded, have been wounded; laesero, 
laesus ero, / shall have wounded, shall have been wounded; laeseram, 
laesus eram, / had 'wounded, had been wounded. 

The shade of meaning, which the incomplete or complete tenses 
imply, varies somewhat with the meaning of the verb itself (as denoting 
an act, or as denoting a state), and is more clearly seen in some tenses 
or uses than in others. A periphrasis is often the only mode of 
expressing in English the meaning implied, but, it must be remembered, 
such a periphrasis often errs on the other side by giving too hard and 
precise an expression. 

589 Especially noticeable is the correspondence of a single tense, the 
perfect, in Latin to two tenses (aorist and perfect) in Greek, and two 
so-called tenses in English: e.g. feci expresses / made, cVoiqaa, and 
I have made, TreTroi'j/Ka ; factus sum, / was made, tTroirjdrjv, and / have 
been made, Trfnoirjuai. In the active voice the Latin form primarily 
denotes the past act, / made, and secondarily the result of that act, 
7i have made. In the passive voice it denotes primarily the resulting 
state, / am a made person, and secondarily the act which produced it, 
/ was made or I became. 

590 In the passive voice, since all the tenses in English, but only the 
completed tenses in Latin, are compounded of a past participle and the 

236 SYNTAX. {Book IF. 

verb of being, there is a want of exact correspondence between the two 
languages. Thus 

Amatus sum is (i) / am loved (present of the state) ; (a) I have 
been loved (perfect of the state) ; (3) / was loved (aorist of the act). 

Amor is I am loved, i.e. I am being loved (present of the act). 

Amatus ero, I shall be loved (future of the state). 

Amatus fuero, I shall have been loved (completed future of the 
state). But both are used without much or any distinction for futures 
of the state, or completed futures of the act. 

Amabor, 7 shall be loved, is the future of the act. 

Amatus eram, (i) / was (at the time) loved, i.e. a loved person (a 
contemporary state in past time) ; (2) / had been loved (an antecedent 
act in past time). 

Amabar, / was loved, i.e. / was being loved (a contemporary act 
in past time). 

Amatus fui, / was (at one time, or for some time) loved; i.e. a 
loved person (aorist of the state). It is not used of the perfect of the 
state (I have been loved, amatus sum), nor of a contemporaneous state 
in past time (amatus eram) *. 

Amatus fueram, (i) / had been loved, i.e. at one time, or for some 
time (an antecedent state in past time) ; (a) / had been loved (an ante- 
cedent act in past time), synonymous with amatus eram. 

591 The principal contrasts which may be implied by the use of a tense 
of incomplete action rather than of complete action, or vice versa, are 
as follows : 

1. Continuance of an action contrasted with its conclusion: e.g. 
Troja est, Troy still exists Troja fuit, Troy is no more ; dico, 1 am 
speaking, dixi, I have done my speech; pereo, / am going to ruin, peril, 
/'/ is all over with me ; liabeo, / have, babul, I had once. 

2. Continuance of an action contrasted with a single act. So 
especially the imperfect compared with the perfect (i.e. aorist) ; e.g. 
videbam, I was looking at, vidi, 7 caught sight of; putabam, 7 was of 
opinion, putavi, I formed the opinion, or, the thought once occurred to me, 
non putaram, /'/ had never occurred to me ; soiebam, 1 knew, scivl, 
7 learnt ; discebam, 1 used to learn, didici, 7 (once) learnt ; si volet, if 
he shall be willing, si voluerit, if he shall choose ; poteram, 7 had it in 
my power, potui, I proved able, succeeded in doing it. 

3. Purpose or attempt contrasted with actual performance, or the 
actual fact: e.g. sarvabam, 7 tried to save, servavi, 7 actually saved, 
servaveram, 7 had actually saved; capiam, 7 shall proceed to take, 
cepero, 7 shall succeed in taking ; illucescit, the day is breaking, illuxit, 
// is day ; dormiebat, he tried to sleep, dormivit, he fell asleep dabat, be 
offered, dedit, he gave. 

1 In Plautus it appears to be occasionally used of the aorist of the act ; 
e.g. Achillem orabo, ut aurum mihl det, Hector qul expensus fuit. 

Chap. XV.~\ Indicative and Imperative Moods. 237 

4. The action itself contrasted with the resulting condition: e.g. 
yenio, / am on my road, veni, / am here ; deficiebant, they were desert- 
ing, defecerant, they were deserters ; nosco, / am getting knowledge of, 
novl, / know; vincam, / shall win, vicero, / shall be the winner; 
peribo, / shall die; periero, 1 shall be dead ; occalesco, occalui, / grow 
callous ; occalui, 1 have become callous ; reminiscor, / call to mind, 
memini, / remember, bear in mind. 

The principal usages of the tenses of the indicative mood are as 
follows. More examples will be given in the chapters which treat of 
the moods. 


592 The present time is strictly the transitory moment between past 
and future. Hence the senses numbered below (i) and (2). As actions 
are often spread over a longer period, the present is used (3) of actions 
not wholly past, and (4) of actions not wholly future, the [former 
ending, so far as the account is given, with the present, the latter 
commencing with the present. Lastly (5) the present is used of what 
holds good now, although it may hold good also of the past and 

593 Thus the Present tense expresses 

i. An action at the time of speaking. 
Hie ego Servium exspecto. (Cic.) 
None, quum vos intueor, Romanes esse video. (Liv.) 

594 i. An action in past time, but rhetorically assumed to be present. 
This is frequent in vivid narrations. (Historic present.) 
Archagatho negotiuxn dedit, ut argentum ad mare deportaretur. As- 

cendit in oppidum Archagathus : jubet omnis proferre quod habe- 
rent. Metus erat summus. (Cic.) 

Vix ea fatus eram : tremere omnia visa repente ; summissi petimus 
terrain et vox fertur ad auris. (Verg.) 

595 So regularly with dum, ' whilst,' 1 of actions taking place at the same 
time as other actions whether in past, present, or future time. 

Dum obsequor adolescentibus, me senem esse oblitus sum. (Cic.) 
Dum ea Romani parant consultantque, jam Saguntum summa vi oppug- 

nabatur. (Liv.) 
Dum elephant! trajiciuntur, interim Hannibal quingentos equites ad 

castra Romana miserat speculatum. (Liv.) 
Jam inflci debet puer iis artibus, quas si, dum est tener, combiberit, ad 

majora veniet paratior. (Cic.) 

596 .3. An action extending over some time, including the time of 

Cupio equidem et jampridem cupio Alexandream visere. (Cic.) 
Quid ? tibin' umqnam quicquam, postquam tuus sum, verborum dedi ? 


238 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

597 4. An action about to be commenced. 
Quid est? Crasse, inmsne sessum? (Gic.) 

Tuemini castra et defendite diligenter, si quid durius acciderit : ego 
reliquas portas circumeo et castrorum praesidia conflrmo. (Gaes.) 

598 So especially with antequam, priusquam, and, where waiting is 
spoken of, with dum. 

Ante quam de accusatione ipsa dico, de accusatorum spe pauca dicam. 

Tu Me nos, dum eximus, interea opperibere. (Ter.) 

599 5- An action, without reference to any particular time (especially 
in stating abstract truths). 

Quod semper movetur aeternum est. (Cic.) 

Tua res agitur, paries cum proximus ardet. (Hor.) 


600 The Future denotes an action taking place, or (in verbs signifying 
a state) a state existing, in future time. The following usages claim 
notice : 

(a) Subordinate sentences, qualifying a principal future sentence 
(whether such future sentence is expressed in indicative or impera- 
tive, or subjunctive of command, &c.), and referring to the same time, 
have regularly and usually the future. (In English the present is 
generally found.) 

Naturam si sequemur ducem, nunquam aberrabimus. (Cic.) 
Hoc, dum erimus in terris, erit illi caelesti vitae simile. (Cic.) 
Qui adipisci veram gloriam volet, Justitiae fungatur offlciis. (Cic.) 
Ducere me auditum, perges quocunque, memento. (Hor.) 

601 () It is used to express a logical consequence ; or an event, the 
knowledge or declaration of which, though not the fact itself, is future. 
Sin autem caderet in sapientem aegritudo, caderet etiam iracundia : 

qua quoniam vacat, aegritudine etiam vacabit. (Cic.) 
Cognatam comperi esse nobis. DE. Quid? deliras. CH. Sic erit: non 
temere dico. (Ter.) 

602 (c) As a kind of imperative. 

De aqua si curae est, si quid Philippus aget, animadvertes. (Cic.) 
(Other examples in Chap, xix.) 

The Imperfect tense expresses (see 591) 

603 i. A continuous action contemporaneous with past action or time 
referred to. 

Postremam Romanorum aciem invadunt. Turn Marius apud primes 
agebat, quod ibi Jugurtha cum plurumis erat. (Sail.) 

Archias erat temporibus illis jucundus Metello illi Numidico, audie- 
batur a M. Aemilio, vivebat cum Q. Catulo et patre et filio. a 
L. Crasso colebatur. (Cic.) 

Chap. XV^\ Indicative and Imperative Moods. 239 

604 a. In letters, especially Cicero's, it often denotes an action at the 
time of writing, as being past when the correspondent receives the 

This usage occurs where the writer has specially in mind the par- 
ticular time of his writing, and is describing the feelings and occur- 
rences of the moment ; and so most frequently at the beginning or end 
of letters. But it is not always adopted where it might be, and is not 
uncommonly in close connexion with primary tenses. 
Ante diem viii. Kal. haec ego scribebam bora noctis nona. Milo cam- 

pum jam tenebat : Marcellus candidatus ita stertebat, ut ego 

vicinus audirem. (Cic.) 
Pridie Idus Febr. haec scrips! ante lucem ; eo die apud Pomponium in 

ejus nuptiis erain cenaturus. (Gic.) 
Vos quid ageretis in republica, cum has litteras dabam, non sciebam ; 

audiebam quaedam turbulenta, quae scilicet cupio esse falsa, ut 

aliquando otiosa libertate fruamur. (Trebon.) 
In his eram curis, cum scriberem ad te ; quas si deus aliquis in gau- 

dium verterit, de metu non querar. (Plin.) 

605 3. Habitual or repeated action in past time. 

Quicquid quaesierat, ventri donabat avaro. (Hor.) 

In Graecia musici floruerunt, discebantque id omnes. (Cic.) 

Commentabar declamitans cotidie. (Cic.) 

Dicebat melius quam scripsit Hortensius. (Cic.) 

606 4. An action commenced, or attempted, or proposed in past time. 

Risu omnes, qui aderant, emoriri : denique metuebant omnes jam me. 


Consistit utrumque agmen, et ad proelium sese expediebant. (Liv.) 
Consules incerti, quod malum repentinum urbem invasisset, sedabant 

tumultus, sedando interdum movebant. (Liv.) 
Hujus deditionis ipse Postumius, qui dedebatur, suasor et auctor fuit. 


So with postquam, of the state having commenced : 

Post quam nihil usquam hostile cernebatur, Galli, viam ingressi, ad 
urbem Ronaam pcrveniunt. (Liv.) 


607 The Perfect tense expresses an action done in past time. As 
contrasted with the imperfect, it resembles the Greek aorist, and 
denotes a single act, not a continued state ; a fact, not a description. 
As contrasted with the present, it resembles the Greek perfect, and 
denotes that the action is then already completed. See 591. 

In the division of the Latin perfect the clue given by the English trans- 
lation has been chiefly followed; e.g. scripsi, / wrote (aor. ), / have 
written (perf.). But the Latin form is really but one tense, denoting past 

240 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

608 i. Aorist or Historical Perfect. An action which took 
place in past time, either singly or in succession to other actions. So 
usually in a continued narrative. 

(a) Postremo Catilina in senatum venit. Turn M. Tullius consul ora- 
tionem habuit luculentam atque utilem reipublicae, quam postea 
scriptam edidit. (Sail.) 

Veni, vidi, vici. (Gaes.) 

L. Lucullus per multos annos Asiae provinciae praefuit. (Cic.) 

(b) So with paene, prope, where in English we use the pluperfect. 

Prope oblitus sum, quod maxim e fuit scribendum. (Gael.) 
Brutum non minus amo quam tu, paene dixi, quam te. (Gic.) 

(V) Frequently in this sense in temporal sentences, with postquam, 
antequam, priusquam, &c. (In English the pluperfect is frequent.) 

Post quam Cn. Ponipeius ad bellum maritumum missus est, paucorum 

potentia crevit. (Sail.) 
Hispala non ante adulescentem dimisit, quam fidem dedit ab his sacris 

se temperaturum. (Liv.) 

2. (Perfect or Present Perfect). An action already com- 
pleted before present time, so that the result, rather than the action 
itself, is present to the mind. 

(a) Membris utimur prius, quam didicimus, cujus ea utilitatis causa 

habeamus. (Cic.) 
Tandem aliquando, Quirites, L. Catilinam ex urbe vel ejecimus vel 

emisimus vel ipsum egredientem verbis prosacuti sumus. Abiit, 

excessit, evasit, erupit. Nulla jam pernicies moenibus ipsis intra 

moenia comparabitur. (Cic.) 

() Sometimes with emphasis, cf. 591 ; 

Fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium et ingens gloria Teucrorum. (Verg.) 
Filium unicum adolescentulum habeo. a, quid dixi, habere me ? immo 
habui, Chremes. Nunc habeam necne, incertumst. (Ter.) 

So of an action quickly completed ; 
Terra tremit : fugere ferae. (Verg.) 

(f) In subordinate sentences, in speaking of repeated actions, when 
the principal verb is in the present tense. 

Cum fortuna renavit, adfligimur. (Cic.) Other examples in Chap. xx. 

(d) Similarly in principal sentences, but only in Augustan poets 
and later writers. 

Rege incolumi, mens omnibus una est: amisso, rupere fidem con- 

structaque mella diripuere ipsae. (Verg.) 
Non domus et fundus, non aeris acervus et auri aegroto domini deduxit 

corpore febres. (Hor.) 

Chap. XVI\ Indicative and Imperative Moods. 241 

Completed Future. 

The Completed future denotes an action in future time completed 
at some point in future time. Like the other perfect tenses, sometimes 
it suggests, not so much the act itself, as the future resulting state. 

609 i. An action already completed at a given future time. 

(In a subordinate sentence, the present or perfect is generally used 
in English ; e. g. Cum (si) venero, When (//*) / come or have come?) 

Cum tu naec leges, ego ilium fortasse convenero. (Cic.) 
Hum cum videro, Arpiuum pergam. (Cic.) 

2. An action completed simultaneously to another action in future 

Qui Antonium oppresserit, is bellum confecerit. (Cic.) 
An ille non vicerit, si quacunque coudicione in iiauc urbem cum suis 
venerit? (Cic.) 

3. Of a definite act contrasted with a previous state. So especially 
si potuero, voluero, libuerit, placuerit. 

Plato, si modo interpretari potuero, Ms fere verbis utitur. (Cic.) 
Lege judiciaria neque legetur, quisquis voluerit, nee, quisquis noluerit, 

non legetur : judices judicabunt ei, quos lex ipsa, non quos honii- 

num libido delegerit. (Cic.) 

4. Future result of an action now past. Comp. 601. 

in plane occidiinus, ego omnibus meis exitio fuero. (Cic.) 
Unus homo tantas strages inipune per urbem ediderit ? juvenum primos 
tot miserit orco ? (Verg.) 

5. Often in comic poets, and occasionally in later writers, it is 
used, in principal or simple sentences, with but little if any difference 
of meaning from the simple future. So videro of an action postponed. 

Crede inquam mihi : aut consolando aut consiliis aut re juvero. (Ter.) 
Tu invita mulieres : ego accivero pueros. (Cic.) 
Molestus si sum, reddite argentum : abiero. (Plaut.) 
Sad videro quid official; : tantisper lioc ipsum magni aestimo, quod 
pollicetur. (Cic.) 

Future in -so. 

610 The future in -so (e.g. faxo, levasso, c. 291 sqq.) is used as a 
completed future in subordinate relative sentences, or with adverbs of 
time or condition. 

Paterfamilias uti super familia pecuniaque sua legassit, ita jus esto. 

(xn. Tab.) 
Agedum, Stiche : uter demutassit, poculo multabitur. (Plant.) 

L. G. i 6 

242 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 


6H The Pluperfect denotes an action in past time, done before 
another past action. Like the other perfect tenses sometimes it suggests 
the resulting state rather than the precedent act. This indeed is the 
proper meaning of the ordinary passive pluperfect. 

(a) An action before another action in past time. 

Prius omnia pati decrevit quam bellnm sumere, quia temptatum antea 

secus cesserat. (Sail.) 
Hanno cum eis, qui postremi jam profligate proelio advenerant, vivus 

capitur. (Liv.) 

(b) In letters and sometimes in other writings, and in speeches, it 
denotes an action prior to the time of writing, &c. (cf. 604). 

Nunc iter conflciebamus aestuosa et pulvemlenta via. Dederam (sc. 
litteras) Epheso pridie ; has dedi Trallibus. (Cic.) 

(c) A past action which produced a still continuing effect. Plu- 
perfect of act = imperfect of resulting state. 

Centum viginti lictores forum impleverant, et cum fascibus secures 

illigatas praeferebant. (Liv.) 
Frumenta non solum a tanta multitudine Jumentorum atque hominum 

consumebantur, sed etiam anni tempore atque imbribua procu- 

buerant. (Caes.) 

So with postquam, posteaquam, ubi, ut, &c. 
P. Africanus, posteaquam bis consul et censor fuerat, L. Cottam in 

judicium vocabat. (Cic.) 

(</) Of repeated actions, with principal verbs in imperfect. 
Hostes, ubi ex litore aliquos singulares ex navi egredientes conspex- 
erant, impeditos adoriebantur. (Gaes.) 
(See other examples in Chap, xx.) 

Future participle active with the verb sum. 

612 In order to denote what a person purposes, or is destined to do in 
future time, especially if regarded from a point in the past or future, 
the future participle active is used with the different tenses of the verb 
sum : thus, 


dicturus sum, 7*,,, 

Contemporary. about to (or mean fo or 

to or am to} saj. j meant Qr 

_ , dicturus ero, / shall dicturus fui, 7 was (once) 


dicturus fueram, / had 
Antecedent. meant to w. 

Chap. XVI\ Indicative and Imperative Moods. 243 

Facite quod vobis libet ; daturus non sum amplius. (Cic.) 

Quod crediturus tibi fui, omne crsdidi. (Plaut.) 

Orator eorum, apud quos aliquid aget aut acturus erit, mentes sen- 

susque degustet oportet. (Cic.) 
Conclave illud, ubi rex mansurus erat si ire perrexisset, proxima nocto 

conruit. (Cic.) 

The same form is resorted to for the subjunctive future; e.g. dic- 
turus sim, dicturus essem, &c. (Cf. 617.) 


613 The imperative mood is used to express a command or request. 
On its difference from the subjunctive, see 614, a. 

The present is used of the present time, or without any implied 
reference to a defined future time. 

The future is used with express reference to the time following, 
or to some particular case that may occur, and therefore is frequent 
in legal forms. 

Cura ut valeas. (Cic.) Cogite oves, pueri. (Verg.) 
Cum haec confessus eris, negate turn sane, si voles, te pecuniam acce- 
pisse. (Cic.) 

Other examples in Chap. xix. 

16 2 

2 44 SYNTAX. [Book IV, 


i, Of the Mood. 

614 THE Subjunctive mood, as distinguished from the indicative, ex- 
presses an action or event, as thought or supposed, rather than as done 
or narrated. This general distinction is somewhat variously modified 
in different kinds of sentences. 

These different kinds appear reducible to eight main classes, which 
may again be conveniently combined into four. 

1. Hypothetical (A) an,d conditional (B) sentences (Chap, xvili.), 
the former term being given to the apodosis only, the latter to tne 
protasis only of what are often called, as a whole, conditional sentences. 
As here used therefore the hypothesis is the action treated as contingent 
on another ; the condition is that other action, on which the first is 

In these sentences, which readily admit of either the indicative or 
subjunctive mood, the subjunctive implies that the action spoken of is 
not a fact. Nothing is implied as to knowledge or want of knowledge, 
doubt or assurance, probability or improbability, possibility or impossi- 
bility, so far as the mood is concerned ; but a non-real past action is of 
course impossible, a non-real future action is (apart from intrinsic 
impossibilities) possible. 

2. Sentences expressing a wish, or command (C), or purpose (D) 
(Chap. xix.). In these the subjective character of the subjunctive is 
unmistakeable. The imperative mood, which is really an abrupt form 
of the indicative, speaks of an action commanded, as if it were an 
assertion of fact. In theory and origin the imperative is the language 
of an absolute master, the subjunctive is a suggestion to an equal or 

A peculiar use of a command is found in concessive sentences, where 
a person rhetorically commands, or supposes, a change of what he 
knows or believes to be the fact. 

These sentences (C, D) are almost all characterised by the use, if a 
negative is required, of ne instead of non. Exceptions are compara- 
tively few (see however 674), and are chiefly due to the negation 
being intimately connected with some one word, not with the whole 

Chap. XVI.~\ Subjunctive Mood and its Tenses. 245 

3. Sentences expressing the consequence or natural result (E), or 
attendant circumstances (F) of an action (Chap. xx.). In these 
sentences the subjunctive does not in any way imply the non-reality of 
the action or event : indeed, the action is, or is assumed to be, a fact. 
But the subjunctive is still due to the accompanying thought as dis- 
tinguished from the bare fact ; viz, to the causal connexion which the 
sentence is intended to express, but which the particles (ut, cum) used 
in such sentences do not contain. They properly mean in which way, 
at what time, respectively, and gain the notion of result (so that}, or 
that of modifying circumstances (since ,- whereas, notwithstanding), 
only by union with the subjunctive mood. 

4. The next division (Chap, xxi.) contains sentences expressive of 
definitions, reasons, questions (G), which are given not as the speaker's 
own, but as some one's else. 

With these may be classed (H) all sentences which are dependent 
on infinitive or subjunctive moods, and are regarded only as part of the 
action expressed substantially by the infinitive, or as a thought by the 
subjunctive. In all these the subjunctive simply prevents the speaker 
being supposed to be responsible for the statements, &c. reported, or to 
be giving them as independent assertions. 

In only two (A, C) of these eight classes is the subjunctive found 
in simple or principal sentences. In all the rest it is in subordinate 
sentences. And these subordinate sentences- are mainly such as are 
introduced by the relative adjective etui, or the relative adverbs si, ut, 
cum, or by dum. As all of these relatives are also repeatedly found 
introducing subordinate clauses, which have the indicative mood, it is 
clear that the use of the subjunctive mood is not due to those relatives. 

615 There are some cautions which should be borne in mind in discussing 
why the subjunctive mood has or has not been used in any particular 

1. A writer may frequently (especially iri relative sentences), if he 
chooses, express what is really a thought or supposition, as if it were a fact, 
and therefore use the indicative mood ; or, on the other hand,- express a 
fact, as if it were only a thought or supposition, and therefore use the sub- 
junctive mood. If however he means to imply by the form of expression that 
it is for him at the moment a supposition or conception (though it may be 
also a fact), he uses the subjunctive ; if he wishes to imply that it is a fact, 
or to state it simply without any implication, he uses the indicative. 
Whether the same introductory particle or same turn of sentence can be 
used, must be determined according to the particular circumstances. 

2. As a subjunctive may be used on several different grounds, it is 
necessary to consider how far any particular occurrence of the subjunctive 
may be due to the general frame of the Sentence or to some collateral 
motive. The following classes of subjunctives are frequently occurring where 
the general frame of the sentence is suitable to an indicative : commands 
( 657 b), modest assertions expressed as an hypothesis ( 657 b), actions 
of an indefinite subject in the and person singular ( 646). On the other 
hand, in one whole class (H) of subjunctives, viz. those which are de- 

2 4 (5 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

pendent on infinitives and subjunctives, the mood is due rather to the frame 
of the sentence than to the particular meaning. 

3. The nature of the verb itself is often an important element. Auxi- 
liary verbs, e.g. possum, volo, &c. or sum with the future participle or 
gerundive, are often put in the indicative where other verbs would be in the 
subjunctive, not from any real inconsistency, but because possibilities, 
volitions, expectations, duties, are often much more positive than the 
particular actions to which they relate. It requires consideration therefore 
whether the writer means to speak of the act only or of the power, &c., 
itself as a supposition or thought ; e.g. potest solvere si velit, implies that 
a man has the money, but does not choose to pay ; possit solvere si velit, 
that he could get the money to pay with if he chose. 

4. It often appears probable that the choice of the subjunctive mood is 
due rather to a desire to avoid using the indicative, and vice versa, than to 
the independent strength of its claim. This occurs chiefly where certain 
particles or phrases or even tenses are so frequently used with the indicative 
or subjunctive, that the writer fears if he use the habitual mood he should 
be supposed to intend the habitual meaning. Of course this consideration 
can come into play only where neither the indicative nor subjunctive is, 
independently considered, incompatible with the meaning. 

ii. Of the Tenses. 

616 The tenses of the subjunctive mood preserve in the main the same 
character as the tenses called by the same names in the indicative mood, 
the present and imperfect denoting contemporaneous states or incom- 
plete acts, the perfect and pluperfect denoting completed acts or states ; 
and again, the present and perfect referring in the main to the time of 
speaking, the imperfect and pluperfect to some past time spoken of. 

But there are some special ambiguities, chiefly due to the future 
tenses of the indicative not having any separate correspondent forms in 
the subjunctive mood. 

617 Thus (i) the present subjunctive corresponds in most cases to 
the present and to the simple future of the indicative, but, when it is 
important to distinguish the future from the present, the future parti- 
ciple (with sim or essem) is resorted to. 

(2) The perfect subjunctive corresponds both to the perfect (i.e. 
both aorist and perfect proper) and to the completed future of the 

i. In independent sentences (A, C) 

618 The present relates to present or future time, without any distinct 
determination of either. 

The perfect usually relates to some point in the immediate present 
or future, but in concessive sentences usually, and sometimes in others 
(cf. 640 />), it relates to the past. 

The imperfect relates to any time not future, and therefore may, 
and frequently does, include the present moment. 

The pluperfect relates to some point of time in the past. 

Chap. XVIJ] Subjunctive Mood and its Tenses. 247 

ii. In dependent sentences (B, D, E, F, G, H) 

619 i. The present and perfect are used in sentences dependent on 
primary tenses. 

() The present subjunctive represents the present of the indica- 
tive : but if future time is otherwise indicated it may represent the 
future of the indicative; e.g. si naturam sequamur, nego nos aberraturos 
corresponds to si naturam sequemur, non aberrabimus. 

() The perfect subjunctive 

in some final sentences (D) (e. g. timeo ne venerit), in consecutive 
sentences (E), in sentences with cum (F). in reported sentences (G), 
and in such dependent sentences as are classed under H, represents the 
perfect (and aorist) of the indicative ; and in a dependent interrogative 
it may also represent the imperfect; e.g. quid dicebas would become 
quaero quid dixeris ; 

In all these classes of sentences, if future time be otherwise indi- 
cated, the perfect subjunctive may represent the completed future of the 
indicative, as it does also when used in conditional and most final sen- 
tences (B, D). 

620 2. The imperfect and pluperfect are used in sentences de- 
pendent on secondary tenses (including frequently the perfect as well as 
the aorist indicative, cf. 607), even though the statement is applicable 
as well to the present as to the past time, or generally to all times alike. 

(a) The imperfect subjunctive represents both the imperfect and 
perfect of the indicative. 

() The pluperfect subjunctive represents the pluperfect of the 

In final sentences and in sentences classed under (H), the imperfect 
may represent a future, and the pluperfect may represent a completed 
future, as seen from a point of view in past time. 

621 3. But in some cases the particular sense or context requires or 
allows a different tense from what these rules should give. Thus 

() The historical present is, in its effect on the verbs directly or 
indirectly dependent on it, sometimes regarded as a primary, sometimes 
as a secondary tense. 
Rogat Rubrium ut quos ei commodum sit invitet : locum sibi soli, si 

videatur, relinquat. (Cic.) 
Simul servis suis Rubrius ut januam clauderent et ipsi ad foris adsis- 

terent imperat. (Cic.) 

622 When the dependent sentence has another dependent on it, the 
former is frequently in the present tense ; e. g. 

248 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

Adversaril postulant ut in earn rem judices dentur ex eis civitatibus, 
quae in id forum convenirent : electi, qui Verri viderentur. (Cic.) 

Mago nuntios Carthaginem ad senatum mittit, qui defectionem sociorum 
in majus verbis extollentes, hortentur, ut auxilia mitterent, quibus 
traditum a patribus imperiun> Hispaniae repeti posset. (Liv.) 

623 (^) I n consecutive sentences, though dependent on a secondary 
tense, the present is used of such actions as belong to the present time 

Siciliam per triennium ita vexavit ac perdidit, ut ea restitui in anti- 
quum statum nullo modo possit, vix aute'm' per multos annos 
aliqua ex parte aliquando recreari posse videatur, (Cic.) 

624 And the perfect is used of a result completed at the present time 
only (corresponding to perfect indie.); and also of an event in past 
time simply regarded as such, without reference to its being contempo- 
raneous or prior to other past events. 

Aemilius Paullus tantum in aerarium pecuniad invexit, ut unius impe- 
ratoris praeda flnem attulerit tributorum. (Cic.) 

Tantum opes creverant, ut ne morte quidem Aeneae movere arma 
Etrusci aut ulli alii accolae ausi sint. (Liv.) 

625 00 The secondary tenses' are rarely found in sentences dependent 
on a present tense, and when so found admit of a special explanation 
from the writer's having more than the present time in mind. 

Laudantur oratores veteres, quod copiose reorum causas defendere 

solerent. (Cic.) 
* Ut me omnes,' inquit, ' pater, tuo sanguine ortum vere ferrent, pro- 

vocatus equestria nae<* spolia oapta ex hoste caeso porto.' (Liv.) 



626 THE following examples show the typical uses of the subjunctive 
mood and its tenses, with their proper English translations. 

(A) Hypothetical sentences, i.e. apodosis to a conditional sen- 
tence. (For translation of protasis see next section.) 

1. Faciam, I should do, w be doing. 

Chap. XVI Li Typical Subjunctives. 249 

/ should be found to have, or / should 

F rim (si jubeas, or have, done (the fact, or the know- 

jusseris,) ledge of the fact, being in future 


fsiluberes or I 3hould harve been d' in S, or should 
Facerem, v lusaissesS ^ ave ^ ne ' r ^ ^ a * ^ cen do ' m S-> or 

J I had done. 

- . (si juberes, or / should have done, or / had done (in 

3m ' jussisses,) past time). 

For the second and third persons would must be substituted for 
should: e.g. 

Facias (si Jubeas, or Ton \ 
Faciat jusseris,) He \ 

2. With condition suppressed. 

Velim, / could wish. Vellem, / could have wished. 
Quisdicat? I .. 

Quis dixerit ? ( Who can or ould sa l ? 
Ego censuerim, 7 am Inclined to think. 
Ubi invenias ? Where does or can one Jin d ? 
Crederes, One would have believed. 

627 (^) Conditional sentences, i.e. protasis to a conditional sen- 
tence. (For translation of apodosis see preceding section.) 

1. Si jubeas (faciam or fecgfim), If you should bid or be bidding. 
Si Jusseris (faciam or fecerim), If you should have bidden or should bid. 
Si juberes (facerem or fecissem), If you had been bidding or had bidden. 
Si jussisses (facerem or fecissem), If you had bidden. 

Sometimes the conditional particle is not expressed. (In the follow- 
ing sentences the ordinary translation of the apodosis as well as of the 
protasis is given.) 

\ Should you ask, or were you to\ 

Idicam, * J f , , , \Ishouldsay. 

[ should you have asked* or were * 

Eogaveris, J you to have asked, } 

............... dixerim, ................................. I should have said, 

or should be found 
to have said. 

Should you or ^reyou to have\ 

Eogares, I ^ c been asking, or bad been ask-\ QTlhadb 

T/"/' , j 
Rogasses, J Had you asked, } 

dixissem, ................................. / should have said, 

or / had said. 



[Book IV. 

628 2. Conditional sentences in the subjunctive often have for an 
apodosis either a future participle or gerundive with the indicative 
mood of sum, or an infinitive with the indicative mood of possum, 
licet, oportet, debeo, &c. 

Si adsis 

Si Jusseris 

Si adesses 

Si jussisses 

facturus sum, 

/ mean to do 

facturus ero, 

I shall Intend to do 

faciendum milii 

_ _x 

I have to do 

faciendum niilii 

I shall have to do 

if you should be 

facere possum, 

I can do 

facere licet, 

(I) may do 


facere debeo, 

I ought to do 

facere audeo, 

I dare to do 

if you bid. 

facere potero, 

I shall be able to do 

facere licebit, 

(I)s hall be allowed to do 

facere debebo, 

It wi/l be my duty to do 

. facere audebo, 

I shall dare to do j 

f facturus fid, 

I meant to do 

facturus eram, 

I was intending (had 

(sometimes fueram) intended) to do 

faciendum mini 

I had to do, or ought to 


have done 

faciendum mini 

I had to do, or ought to 

if you were or 


havt done at the time 

had beer, there 

facere poteram, 

I could have been doing 
(now or formerly) 

facere licebatj 

I might have been doing 
(now OK formerly) 

I ought to have been 

facere debebam, 

doing (now or for- 


facere audebam, 

I had dared to be do- 

if you bade or 

facere potul, 

ing (now or 'formerly) 
J fguld have done 

had bidden. 

facere licuit, 

(f) might have done 

facere debui, 

I .ought to have done 

facere ausus sum, 

I had dared to have j 


done J 

The difference in meaning is scarcely perceptible, whether the apo- 
dosis to si jussisses be constituted by fecissem or facturus fui. And 
practically faciendum mini fuit, or facere potui, might come to much 
the same. Hence the usages mentioned in the next two sections. 

Chap. XVII.} Typical Subjunctives. 251 

629 If the apodosis to a conditional sentence of past time is in a depen- 
dent interrogative or consecutive sentence, or dependent on cum, so that 
the subjunctive mood would be required on account of the dependency, 
a periphrasis by means of the future participle with fuerim is usually 
resorted to, instead of the simple pluperfect 1 active. 

Ostendis, (ostendes,) quomodo \ 

Non dubium est, (erit,) quin . jussissem, , 

Eo fit, (flet,) ut ^ hoc ' si juberem, facturus fueris > 

Tails es, (eris,) qui 

You show, (will show, how. \ .~ r , , , , ,, 

There is, (will be,} no doubt that, \ * ! had tWUm ^i &*", com 

So it results, (will result,} that, j m ^ J U ould ha done lt ' 

So it results, (will result,} that, 
Tou are, (were.} the sert of person to ha-ve done it, if I had commanded 

(been commanding}. 

630 If the hypothetical sentence depend on a secondary tense, fueris is 
still used generally, but in interrogative sentences (except such as non 
fuit dubium quin) f uisses is used instead ; e. g. 

Ostendisti, quomodo hoc, si ' facturus fuisses. 

Non dubium fuit quin 1 

Eo factum est ut > fueris. 

Tails fuistl qui ) 

For the pluperfect passive a periphrasis (esp. with the gerundive or 
possum) is resorted to ; e. g. 

Non dubium est, quin | . . j oppidum capl potuerit. 

Eo fit ut f em ' (clades accipienda fuerit. 

Non dubium fuit quin I potuerit 

cum c ' 

If not dependent, potorat or potuit would have been used in each. 
See examples in 652. 

3. The following are types of rhetorical irregularities : 
Gatis est si te videam, // is enough if I Jo but see you. 

Perieram, ni te vidisssm, // was all o'ver with me if I bad not caught 

sight of you. 

1 An hypothetical imperfect (e.g. facerem) is also occasionally found; 
a pluperfect very rarely. The subjunctive in facturus fuerim, &c. is due 
to the dependency of the sentence : the corresponding independent expres- 
sion would be in the indicative, the hypothesis being expressed by the 
future participle. 

252 SYNTAX. \BookIV. 

631 (C) 1. Optative sentences. 

Moriar, may I die! Ne moriar, may I not die! Morerer, were I but 
dying ! 

f moriar, C / way ///> / 

morerer, | I were (now) dying! or had been 

Utinam -j O that ( dying ! 

I mortuus sim, / may be dead, or may have died! 

[_ mortuus essem, [_ / <u>m* (now} dead, or /W */;><// 

Ita me di ament, honestus est, / swear he is honourable. 

Ne aim salvus, si honestus est, My life upon it, he is not honourable. 

2 . Jussive sentences. 

(a) Faciat, Let him do, he shall do, he must do. 

Ne faciat, Let him not do, he shall not do, he must not do. 

(by Ne feceris, Do not do, you shall not do, you must not do. 

Faceres, Ton were\ to do, you (be} should have been doing or have 

Faceret, He was f done. 

Fecisses, Ton were\ to have done, you (he) should have done, or 

Fecisset, He was f ought to have done. 

3. Die faciat, Tell him to do, bid him do. 
Censeo (Volo) facias, I recommend you to do. 

Fostulat, | . He requires them to, says they are to I , 

Fermittit, f ' He permits them to, says they may ] 
Postulavit,j . . He required, said they (were to \ , , 

Fermisit, j" a * He permitted them to, said they migbt\ il 
Cave facias, Beware of dding, don't do. 

Nolo facias, I don't wish you to do. 

4. Quid agam ? What am I to do ? What must I do ? 

Quid agerem? What was I to do ? What should I have done f 

5. Concessive sentences. 

Dicat, Suppose him to say, let him say. 

Dixerit, Suppose him to have said, let him have said (in past or 

future time). 
Bixisset, Suppose that he had said. 

f sit malus, Be he as bad as you please, however bad he be. 

I fuerit malus, However bad he was, or may have been. 
. I esset malus, Were he as bad as you please, however bad 

he were. 

I fuisset malus, Had he been as bad as you please, however 
I bad he had been* 

Chap. XVII.} Typical Subjunctives. 


632 (D) 1. Final sentences (i.e. expressing purpose). 

(i) Mitto 
Misl (perf.) 

I am sending or send } 

,. / shall send I one to say, or one 

ca ' / shall have sent j who is to say. 
I have sent 


eum ut 

| him to say, or that 

(i) Mittebam } I was sending or sent 

Misi (cf. 620) - qui diceret, / sent (have sent) 
Miseram j 

eum ut 


) him to say, or that 
'j he might say. 

2. Prohibeo, 

&c. quominus 

Non recuso, quominus 

&c. quin 
Non recusabam, diceret, / did not object to his saying. 


dicat, I prevent his saying, 
diceret, / was preventing his saying. 

dlcat, / do not object to his saying. 




Non timeo, 


ne veniat, I fear his coming. 

venerit, I fear his having come, or 

I fear he came. 

veniret, I was in fear of his coming. 

venisset, / <was in fear he had come. 

ut veniat, I fear his not coming. 


ne non veniat, I do not fear his not coming. 

3. (a) Exspecto, . ,. / am waiting, \ for him to say, or until 

' or wait \ he can say. 


Exspectabam, . _ ,. I was waiting,} for him to say, or until 

&c. dum diceret, or ^- W > he could have said. 

Abeo, &c. prius quam dicat, / am off, before he can say. 

Abibam, &c. prius quam diceret, 7 was going off, before he could say. 

Depugno, potius quam serviam, I fght it out rather than be a 
&c. slave. 

Depugnabam, potius quam servirem, / was ready to fght it out 
&c. rather than be a slave. 

254 SYNTAX. [Book IV. 

G33 (E) Consecutive sentences, i.e. expressing a consequence. 

1. Is sum, &c. qui nihil timeam, I am one who fears nothing. 
.......................... . timuerim, ................. .feared or has fear- 

ed nothing. 
Is eram, c .......... tlmerem, / was one who feared nothing. 

........................... timuissem, ............. ..... had feared nothing. 

Quis est, &c. quin cernat ? Who is there but sees? 

Quis erat, &c. quin cerneret ? Who was there but saw f 
Tempus erit, cum liceat loqui, The time will come for speech to 

be lawful. 
.......... fuit, ..... liceret ...... There was a time for speech to 

be lawful. 

2. (i) Eofifc ~\ The result is "1 that the sol- 
Eo flet ut milites The result will be | d'ters lose 
Eo factum erit \ animos The result will have i- (or are 

I demittant, been losing) 

Eo factum est (perf.) j The result has been J heart. 

........................ demiseiint, ............... have (rarely will 

have} lost heart. 
........................ demissuri sint, ............... will be likely to lose 


Eo fiebat *| militea ^ e resll!t CiVas ^ tfjat ^ oe so ^~ 

animos coming I diers lost (or 

ED factum est i The result was f were losing) 

Eo factum erat J int ' The result had been J heart. 

(Sometimes demiserint ( 624), the action being regarded as a dis- 
tinct historical fact, not as a continuous state, or as a contemporary 
with the principal action (imperfect)}. 

........................ demisissent, ............... had (rarely would 

have) lost heart. 

........................ demissuri essent, ............ were likely to lose 


(i) Paruni abest, quin Cato moriatur, Cats all but dies. 
...... afuit, ............ moreretur, ............... died. 

(3) f dicas, Suppose you to say, although you should s.ay, or 

'were to say. 
J dixeris, Suppose you to have said, although you should 

have said. 

diceres, Suppose, or although, you had been saying. 
I dixisses, Suppose, or although, you had said. 

Ut non dicas, c. Suppose you not to say, &c. 

Chap. XVIL] Typical .Subjunctives. 255 

634 (F) Sentences expressing attendant circumstances. 

Marcus, liking (since be 
1. (a) Marcus, u res placeat, abit, &c. //') the matter, goes 

........................ placuerit, abit, &c. ...since he has liked... 

........................ placeret, abibat, Marcus since he liked (at 

&c. the time) the matter was 

going away. 
........................ placuisset, abibat, . . . since he had liked. . . 

() In Livy and later historians : 

Quod faceret, dicebat, s '*"' be "*'* ' 

... ......... fecisset, ... ...... Whenever he had done this, he used to 


[N.B. In Cicero and Caesar the indicative is used ; e.g. 
_ . cum _ Whenever he had done this, he used to 

QUOd ubi feC6rat ' dlCebat ' say. 

So also 

Quod . . fecit, dicit, Whenever he has done this, he says. 

......... fecerit, dicet, ................................. he will say^\ 

2. (i) Cum navis adveniret, haec dicebam, On the ship approaching, / 

proceeded to say, or was 
saying, this. 
................................. dixi, .............................. I 

said this. 
................................. dixeram, As the ship ivas approach- 

ing, / had said this. 
............ advenisset, haec dicebam, When the ship had come up, / 

proceeded to say this. 
................................. dixi, .............................. J 

said this. 
................................. dixeram, ............... ............... / 

had said this. 

(a) Cum haec sint, Whereas, since, although, these things are so, 

............ essent, ............................................. (were so, 

or These things being so, or Under these 

(3) Simulat se audire, cum interea aliud agat, He pretends to hear, 

while all the time he 
is at something else. 
Simulabat ....... . ........ , ............. ageret, He pretended to hear, 

while all the time he 
ivas at something els:. 

(4) Audivi cum diceret, I heard him saying. 
Vidl cum veniret, I saw him coming. 


[Book IV. 

635 (G) Sentences containing reported definition, reason, con- 
dition, question. 

I you for 
i this. 

1.2. Laudatl He praises 

Laudabit He (will praise 

Laudaverit - te, Q ^ OC facias Jfr ou/7/ Aaiw 
Laudavit praised 

(perf.) J A? has praised J 

feceris you for having done this. 

facturus sis for purposing to do this. 

He (was praising ~\ 

, He praised (has I you for doing 

praised) [ this. 

He had praised J 

f ecisses for having done this. 

facturus esses for purposing to do this. 

These are often translated like the indicative (e.g. I praise you 
because you do this), but a distinction may be made by inserting as he 
said, as is thought, <&c. 




qui hoc 
quod hoc 

3. Minatur, &c. ni eant, 
Minabatur, &c. ni irent, 
Minatur, &c. ni iverint, 

Minabatur, &c. ni issent, 
Tentat, &c. si res agi possit, 
Tentabat, &c posset, 

He threatens them, if they do not go. 

He threatened them, if they did not go. 

He threatens them, if they should not 
have gone. 

He threatened them, if they should not 
have gone. 

He tries (whether the thing can be ma- 

He (was trying (whether the thing could 
be managed. 

Reported (often called Dependent) question. 

V quid facias, ' v (what you are doing. 

quid feceris, (what you did or have done. 

quid facturus sis, (what you (will do. 

I (was seeing, \ (what you (were do- 
&c. | ing. 

quid fecisses, (what you had done. 

quid facturus esses, (what you (were about 

to do. 

Non est dubium, quin id fiat, There is no doubt it is 

being done. 

quin futurum sit, ut id fiat, /'/ 

(will be done. 

Non erat dubium, quin id fieret, There (was no doubt 

it (was being done. 
quin futurum esset, ut id fieret, it (would be done. 



i quid faceres, 

Chap. XVIL] ' Typical Subjunctives. 


638 (H) Sentences with verb in subjunctive because dependent on 
infinitive or subjunctive. 

i. Dependent on infinitive. 

Dicit "j He says ] 

Dicet I se ire (iturum), cum He wilt say 

Dixerit j tempus postulet, He will have said i 

Dixit (perf.)J He has said 

postulaverit, , 

that he goes 

whenever the 

time requires. 

.postulaturum sit, 


He was saying 

~ , A tempus postularet. "7 v "" 
DixeratJ He had said 


postulaturum esset 

when the time requires or 
shall have required. 

when the time shall be 
about to require. 

{that he was going 
whenever the time 
required or should 
'when the time required or 

should have required, 
when the time should be 

about to require. 

So videor, videbor, visus ero, c. ire (iturus esse), cum tempus 
postulet, postulaverit, postulaturum sit ; 

videbar, visus sum, visus eram, ire (iturus esse), cum tempus 
postularet, postulasset, postulaturum esset. 

After the past infinitive the tenses are secondary ; e.g. 
Dicit 1 

Dixerit ' se ivisse (iturum fuisse), ubi tempus postularet. 

-j. . . r postulasset. 

Dicebat I postulaturum esset. 

Dixerat J 

So videor, &c., videbar, c., ivisse (iturus fuisse), ubi tempus pos- 
tularet, &c. 

2. Dependent on subjunctive. 

The other tenses and translations given under (i) will hold good, if 
we substitute as follows : 

Si eat, if he were to go, 

eat, he would go, 

Si ierit, if he should (or shall} have gone, 

ierit, he 'would (or twill} have gone, 

Si iret, if he had been going, 

iret, he would have been going, 

Si isset, if he had gone, 

isset, he (would have gone, 

for dicit or dicet se ire. 

for dixit (perf.) or dix- 
erit se ire. 

for dicebat se ire. 

for dixit (aor.) or dix- 
erat se ire. 

L. G. 

258 Subjunctive. (A) Hypothetical. {Book IV. 

[From here to end of Chap. xxi. the right-hand pages are not con- 
tinuous with the left-hand pages, but form a parallel exposition. All the 
sections on the left-hand pages have even numbers, all those on the right- 
hand have odd numbers.] 



(A) Hypothetical subjunctive. 

638 SUCH a subjunctive as appears in the principal clause (i.e. the 
apodosis) of a conditional sentence may be called a hypothetical sub- 

An hypothetical subjunctive expresses an action 1 which, while its 
non-occurrence is implied, is yet supposed to occur, if some other action 

The following rules for the tense apply to the subjunctive in both 

(a} The present tense is used of an imaginary action in the im- 
mediate present or the future, and therefore still possible, but marked 
(by the use of the subjunctive) as merely imaginary. 

(Z>) The perfect is used of an action similarly marked as merely 
imaginary, but assumed to be already .completed, or to be completed 
before an action still possible in the present .or future. 

(c) The imperfect is used of an action supposed, contrary to the 
fact, to be already occurring in the present time, or of a continuous 
state supposed, contrary to the fact, to have existed in past time. 

(J) The pluperfect is used of an action supposed, contrary to the 
fact, to have occurred in past time; or at least to be already completed 
at the present time. 

640 i- Hypothetical subjunctive, with condition expressed in a 
separate clause. 

Si is used of a positive, si non of a negative condition, nisi, ni, nisi 
si of an exception (which often has the same effect as a negative con- 

(a) Present. Tu si hie sis, aliter sentias. (Ter.) 
Ego si Scipionis desiderio me moveri negem, mentiar. (Cic.) 
Quid, si pater fana expilet, cuniculos agat ad aerarium ? indicetne id 

magistratibus films ? Nefas id quidem est : quin etiam defendat 

patrem, si arguatur. (Cic.) 
() Perfect (rare). Turn vero ego nequiquam hac dextra Capitolium 

arcemque servaverim, si civem in vincula duel videam. (Liv.) 

1 Action is used throughout as the general term for what a verb denotes. 

Continued on p. 260 

Chap. XVIIII\ Indicative in protasis and apodosis. 259 

637 [The following instances (Chapp. xviil. xxi.) of the indicative and im- 
perative moods are selected, partly for introducing certain idiomatic usages, 
but chiefly to illustrate, by contrast with these, the effect due to the sub- 
junctive mood. Compared with the sentences on the left-hand pages they 
all belong to one of two classes ; they either express a different meaning in 
similar sentences (or in sentences introduced by like conjunctions), or ex- 
press a similar meaning in differently turned sentences. The arrangement 
of the matter in these chapters is mainly such as is necessary to show the 
connexion with one another of the uses of the subjunctive; and the uses of 
the indicative are grouped as connectedly as the primary object of contrast 
or comparison with the subjunctive allows.] 

639 The use of the indicative in a principal sentence, with a sub- 
ordinate conditional sentence, is very common in all tenses except the 

The INDICATIVE makes a statement without implying that the action 
does not occur, or (necessarily} that it does occur. 

<541 1. Regular conditional sentences with si, si non, nisi, ni ; si modo, 
si quidem. 

(a) Present. Si id facis, hodie pcstremum me vides. (Ter.) 

Nos vero, si quidem in voluptate sunt omnia, longe multumque supe- 
ramur a bestiis. (Cic.) 

Denique si deus es, tribuere mortalibus beneficia debes, non sua eripere ; 
sin autem homo es, id, quod es, semper esse te cogita. (Curt.) 

Future. Si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris, (nam 
dubitatio damnationis, illis recuperatoribus, quae poterat esse?) 
virgis te ad necem caedi necesse erit. (Cic.) 

Quid? si tyrannidem occupare, si patriam prodere conabitur pater, 
silebitne filius ? Immo vero obsecrabit patreni, ne id faciat : si 
nihil proficiet, accusabit. (Cic.) 

Si tot exempla virtutis non movent, nihil unquam movebit : si tanta 
clades vilem vitam non fecit, nulla faciet. (Liv.) 

(b) Perfect. Si veneno te inter cenam tollere volui, quid minus 
aptum fuit quam iratum te efflcere? (Liv.) 

Dixi me pigrum proficiscenti tibi : quid turn profeci, mecum facientia 
jura si tamen attemptas ? (Hor.) 

Continued on p. a 6 1 


260 Subjunctive. (A) Hypothetical. \Book IV. 

Injussu tuo, imperator, extra ordinem nunquam pugnaverim, non si 

certain victoriam videam. (Liv.) 
Denique hercle aufugerim potius quam redeam, si eo miM redeundum 

sciam. (Ter.) 
Hos, ni mea cura resistat, jam flammae tulerint, inimicus et hauserit 

ensis. (Verg.) 

(c) Imperfect. Haec tibi ridicula videntur, non enim ades : quae si 

videres, lacrimas non teneres. (Cic.) 

Hannibal peto pacem, qui non peterem, nisi utilem crederem. (Liv.) 
Num igitur Opimium, si turn esses, temerarium civem aut crudelem 

putares? (Cic.) 

Nunc quemadmodum audiar sentio, at turn si dicerem non audirer. (Cic.) 
Tu vero, vel si testamentum defenderes, sic ageres, ut omne omnium 

testamentorum jus in eo judicio positum videretur, vel si causam 

ageres militis, patrem ejus dicendo a mortuis excitasses. (Cic.) 

(d} Pluperfect. Si Metelli fidei diffisus essem, judicem eum non 

retinuissem. (Cic.) 
Res neque nunc difficili loco mini videtur esse, et fuisset facillimo, si 

culpa a quibusdani afuisset. (Cic.) 
Atqui, VeUei, nisi tu aliquid dixisses, nihil sane ex me quidem audire 

potuisses. (Cic.) 

642 ii- With the condition not formally expressed. (This is some- 
times called the potential mood.) 

1. The condition is sometimes contained in a phrase in the sen- 
tence or implied by the context. 

Uno proelio victus, Alexander beUo victus esset; Romanum quem 

Caudium, quem Cannae non fregerunt, quae fregisset acies ? (Liv.) 

i. e. si evenisset. 
Illius impulsu cum turribus ardua celsis moenia mota forent : serpenc 

sine vulnere mansit. (Ov.) Where illius impulsu = si ab illo 

impulsae essent. 
' Vellem quidem liceret : hoc dixissem.' Dicas licet. ' Hoc fecissem/ 

Facias licet: nemo pronibet. ' Hoc decrevissem.' Decerne, modo 

recte : omnes approbabunt. (Cic.) 

NuUa profecto alia gens tanta mole cladis non obruta esset. (Liv.) 
Hoc spatio plura facinora in se victi ediderunt quam infesti edidissent 

victores. (Liv.) 
Omnia nostra, dum.nascuntur, placent : alioqui nee scriberentur. 

IUa vel intactae segetis per summa volaret gramina nee teneras cursu 

laesisset aristas, vel mare per medium fluctu suspensa tumenti 

ferret iter celeris nee tingueret aequore plantas. (Verg.) 

Continued on p. z6z 

Chap. XVI I I ^\ Indicative. Expressions of power, duty, &c. 261 

Epicurus quamvis comis in amicis tuendis fuerit, tamen si haec vera 
sunt, nihil enim affirmo, non satis acutus fuit. (Gic.) 

Completed Future. Si tu argentum attuleris, cum illo perdidero 

fidem. (Plaut.) 
Pergratum mihi feceris, spero etiam Scaevolae, si de amicitia dispu- 

taris. (Cic.) 
(r) Imperfect. Si nullum jam ante consilium de morte Sex. Rosci 

inieras, hie nuntius ad te minime omnium pertinebat. (Gic.) 
Metellum si parum pudor ipsius dofendebat, debebat familiae nostrae 

dignitas satis sublevare. (Metell.) 
Turn enim magistratum non gerebat is qui ceperat, si patres auctores 

non erant facti. (Cic.) 
(d) Pluperfect. Cesseram, si alienam a me plebem fuisse voltis, quae 

non fuit, invidiae ; si vis suberat, armis ; si periculurn civium, rei 

publicae. (Cic.) 
Vivere debuerant et vir meus et tua conjux, si nullum ausuri niajus 

eramus opus. (Ov.) 

643 2. The indicative (of certain verbs) is used where the power, pos- 
sibility, duty, convenience, Q^c. of doing certain acts is spoken of, rather 
than the occurrence of the acts themselves. 

(a) The Present and Future are used when the possible, obliga- 
tory, c. action is spoken of as still possible. 

(b) The Perfect is used of past time generally. 

(c) The Imperfect is used of present time, or of a continuous state 
in past time, the action being regarded as no longer possible. 

(d) The Pluperfect is used of an action no longer possible in past 

(a) Present. Possum persequi multa oblectamenta rerum rusticarum, 

sed ea ipsa, quae dixi, sentio fuisse longiora. (Cic.) 
Longum est ea dicere : sed hoc breve dicam. (Cic.) 
Future. Nihil est quod verearis, ne sit hoc illi molesturi, cui orbem 

terrarum circumire non erit longum mea causa. (Plin.) 
(Jy) Perfect. Aut non suscipi bellum oportuit, aut geri pro dignitate 

populi Komani oportet. (Liv.) 
Prohiberi melius fuit impedirique ne Cinna tot summos viros inter- 

flceret, quam ipsum aliquando poenas dare. (Cic.) 
(c) Imperfect. Perturbationes animorum poteram morbos appellare ; 

sed non conveniret ad omnia. (Cic.) 
Itaque Plato eos ne ad rempublicam quidem accessuros putat nisi 

coactos: aequius autem erat id voluntate fieri. (Cic.) 
(cT) Pluperfect. Quanto melius fuerat, in hoc promissum patris non 

esse servatum. (Cic.) 
Catilina erupit e senatu, triumphans gaudio, quern omnino vivum 

Ulinc exire non oporiusrat. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 263 

262 Subjunctive. (A) Hypothetical \Book IV. 

644 2. Often the suppressed condition is l if occasion arose J ' if a trial 
<zvere made] and the like. This is most common 

(a) in the case of velim, vellem, malim, nolim, &c., or of the perfect 
(with sense of present) tense of some verbs of mental action (thinking, 
saying, &c.). In English we use the auxiliaries ' can," 1 ' could ',' ' should^ 
; wouldS ' may," 1 ' might.'' 

Id velim mihi ignoscas, quod invita socru tua fecerim. (Cic.) 

Jam mallem Cerberum metueres, quam ista tarn inconsiderate diceres. 


Quis dubitet, quin in virtute divitiae sint ? (Cic.) 
Hoc tantum bellum quis umquam arbitraretur uno anno confici posse ? 

Nee vero reprehenderim ' scripsere alii rem : ' ' scripserunt ' esse verius 

sentio. (Cic.) 
Ubi (Sarmatse) per turmas advenere, vix ulla acies obstiterit. (Tac.) 

or () with the adverbs merito, facile, lubenter, citrus, and the 
like, with or without a negative. The perfect is also sometimes found, 
especially in first pers. sing., without such adverb or negative. 

Sed neque verbis aptiorem cito alium dixerim neque sententiis cre- 

briorem. (Cic.) 
Libenter omnibus omnis opes concesserim, ut mini liceat vi nulla inter- 

pellante isto modo vivere. (Cic.) 

Ciceronem cuicumque Graecorum fortiter opposuerim. (Quint.) 
Macte virtute ! Ego enim ipse cum eodem isto non invitus erraverim. 

Sic ego istis censuerim novam istam orationem fugiendam. (Cic.) 

646 3. The subjunctive is used where the subject is impliedly indefinite, 
the verb being in the and pers. singular (i.e. you = one). 

(The condition understood is the reality of the subject.) N.B. The 
subject tu is rarely expressed. 

Quern neque gloria neque pericula excitant, nequiquam hortere. (Sail.) 
Demptum tenet arbore pomum : Hesperidas donasse putes. (Ov.) 
Injussu signa referunt, inaestique, (crederes vicfcos,) redeunt in castra. 


Neminem totis mox castris quietum videres. (Liv.) 
Putasses ejus luctus aliquem finem esse debere. (Sen.) 

Such a subjunctive may occur in a conditional or other subordinate 
clause; e.g. 

Mens quoque et animus, nisi tanquam lumini oleum instiUes, exstin- 

guuntur senectute. (Cic.) 
Bonus tantummodo segnior fit, ubi neglegas, at malus improbior. 


Continued on p. 264 

Chap. XVIIIJ\ Indicative. Contrasted usages. 263 

645 3. The indicative is found in some sentences similarly framed to 
those (on opposite page) with subjunctive. 

(a) Ducas volo hodie uxorem. (Ter.) 

At taceas malo multo, quam tacere dicas. (Plant.) 

Malo mehereule id quod tu defendis his judicibus populoque Romano, 
quam id quod ego insimulo, probari. (Cic.) 

Sunt ea quidem magna : quis negat ? sed magnis excitantur praemiis, 
ac memoria hominum serapiterna. (Cic.) 

Pro di immortales ! Oppianicum quisquam his rebus cognitis uircum- 
ventum esse dicet ? (Cic.) 

Satis superque me benignitas tua ditavit : baud paravero quod aut 
avarus ut Chremes terra premam, discinctus aut perdam nepos. 


() Libenter tibi, Laeli, ut de eo disseras, equidem concessero. (Cic.) 

Mediocribus et quis ignoscas vitiis teneor ; fortassis et istinc iargiter 
abstulerit longa aetas. (Hor.) 

Nunc quid dicis ? ' Cave ignoscas.' Haec nee hominis nee ad hominem 
vox est : qua qui apud te, C. Caesar, utitur, suam citius abiciet 
humanitatem quam extorquebit tuam. (Cic.) 

Quam scit uterque, libens censebo, exerceat artem. (Hor.) 

647 (c) The indicative is (except for some collateral reason) used with 
a definite, or expressedly indefinite subject ; especially the future and 
completed future of dico, quaero, &c. in introducing possible objec- 

1. With an expressedly indefinite subject : 

Quaeret fortassis quispiam, displiceatne mini legum praesidio capitis 
periculum propulsare. Mini vero, judices, non displicet. (Cic.) 

Dicet aliquis, ' quid igitur censes ? vindicandum in eos qui hosti pro- 
didere rempublicam ? ' Non manu, non vi, &c. (Sail.) 

Tu igitur ipse de te ? dixerit quispiam. Equidem invitus, sed injuriae 
dolor facit me praeter consuetudinem gloriosum. (Cic.) 

2. With a definite subject : 

Quaeres, quanti id aestimem. Si unquam licuerit vivere in otio, expe- 

rieris. (Pollio.) 
Ubi eos inveniemus, qui honores amicitiae non anteponant? (A few 

lines after comes Ubi enim istum invenias, qui honorem amici ante- 

ponat suo? (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 265 

264 Subjunctive. (B) Conditional. \BookIV. 

(B) Conditional subjunctive. 

648 Conditional subjunctives are used in subordinate sentences which 
qualify not positive or absolute assertions, but thoughts, actions in the 
abstract, qualities; i.e. they are used in sentences qualifying subjunc- 
tives, infinitives, gerundives, and future participles. 

A conditional clause with si frequently qualifies or appears to 
qualify a principal sentence which has the indicative. These cases are 
referable to two classes. The first of these is (z) when the indicative 
verb in the principal clause is an auxiliary verb ; e.g. possum, licet T est, 
fuit ; and the conditional clause really qualifies not the auxiliary but the 
infinitive or gerundive, which is connected with it. The other class is 
(3) when the principal sentence does not state the proper hypothetical 
assertion to which the conditional clause strictly corresponds, but sub- 
stitutes for it a statement of similar content but of a positive character. 

A conditional subjunctive expresses an action, whose non-occurrence is 
implied, but which is supposed to occur as the condition of .another supposed 

650 1- Conditional sentence with protasis and apodosis in 

(<?) The protasis (or conditional clause) may be without relative 
or connective adverb (the verb being generally put first in the clause). 
Roges me, qualem naturam deorum esse ducam, nihil fortasse respon- 

deam ; quaeras, putemne taleni esse, qualis modo a te sit exposita, 

nihil dicam mini videri minus. (Cic.) 

Partem opere in tanto, sineret dolor, Icare, haberes. (Verg.) 
Dedissss huic animo par corpus, fecisset quod optabat. (Plin.) 

In the comic poets such a protasis has sometimes the preposition absque 
with its case, and esset or foret. 
Nam absque te esset, hodie numquam ad solem occasum viverem. (Plaut.) 

(Z>) The protasis may be introduced by a relative adjective (qui 
Haec et innumerabOia ex eodem genere qui videat, nonne cogatur con- 

fiteri deos esss? (Cic.) 
Qui videret equuin Trojanum introduction, urbem captam diceret. (Cic.) 

(r) Ordinary conditional sentences have the protasis introduced 
by si. Instances are given in 640. 

Conditional clauses, with si, si maxume (followed by tamen), 
tametsi, etiamsi, are often used to concede, for argument's sake, a 
supposition contrary to the fact. 
Si haee non gesta audiretis, sed picta videretis, tamen appareret uter 

esset insidiator. (Cic.) 

Etiamsi mors oppetenda esset, domi atque in patria mallem quam in 
externis atque alienis locis. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 266 

Chap. XVIIII\ Indicative in Conditional clause. 265 

Indicative and Imperative in Conditional clause. 

Conditional clauses with the verb in the indicative usually qualify 
principal clauses which contain an indicative or imperative. 

The indicative is however found in the conditional clause, when the 
principal clause has the subjunctive, but this happens only where either 
the principal clause, properly correspondent, has been suppressed ; or 
where the subjunctive form is due not to its conditional function, but to 
a wholly independent reason, e.g. to its denoting a wish or command, c u 

In the indicative or imperative mood, a condition is put simply without 
its being implied that it does, or does not, occur, 

651 ! Conditional sentence with protasis and apodosis in 

indicative or imperative. 

(a) The protasis may be without relative or connective adverb, in 

indicative ; especially the present and completed future. 

Quicquid dicunt laudo : id rursum si negant, laudo id quoque. Negat 
quis ; nego : ait, aio. (Ter.) 

Clarissimo viro decrevit imperium, private tamen: in quo maximum 
nobis onus imposuit. Adsensus ero ; ambitionem induxero in 
curiam : negaro ; videbor suffragio meo honorem homini amicissimo 
denegavlsse. (Cic.) (J uv -) 

Bides ; majore cachinno concutitur : flet, si lacrymas conspexit amici. 

Veneris in patriam mecum, ibi tibi gratiam referam. (Sen. Rhet.) 
Or the protasis may be in imperative. 

Attendite : jam intellegetis. (Cic.) 

Tolle hanc opinionem : luctum sustuleris. (Cic.) 

(Z>) The protasis may be introduced by a relative adjective. 
Nihil est enim virtute amabilius, quam qui adeptus erit, ubicunque erit 

gentium, a nobis diligetur. (Cic.) 
Haec et quae sunt ejus generis facile videbit, qui volet laudare. (Cic.) 

(r) Ordinary conditional sentences have the protasis introduced 
by si. Instances are given in 641. 

With si, si maxume (followed by tamen, at), etsi, tametsi, etiamsi, 
of a simple supposition, especially where the supposition is known to 
be the fact. 
In Deciis Magiis si moderatio ilia, quae in nostris solet esse consulibus, 

non fuit, at fuit pompa, fuit species. (Cic.) 
Viri boni multa ob earn causam faciunt, quia honestum est, etsi nul- 

lum consecuturum emolumentum vident. (Cic.) 
Quod crebro quis videt, non miratur, etiamsi cur fiat nescit. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 267 

266 Subjunctive. (B) Conditional. \Book IV. 

(d) The subjunctive appears to be rarely used in stating conflicting 
possibilities (as with sive or sin), except in reported narrative or dependent 
sentence ; probably because the writer declines to mark as imaginary any of 
the possibilities among which he declines to decide. 

Eb tamen ego a philosopno, si adferat eloquentiam, non asperner, si non 
habeat, non admodum flagitem. (Cic.) 

652 2. Conditional sentence with subjunctive in protasis, but with 
some part of infinite verb, i.e. infinitive, future participle, 
or gerundive, in the apodosis. 

The verb in the apodosis on which the infinitive depends, or the 
auxiliary verb with the gerundive or participle, is usually put in the 
indicative (except for some collateral reason), and conveys a positive 
expression of duty, possibility, right, &c. (Gf. 628, 643.) 

(a) A condition qualifying an infinitive. 
Omnibus eum contumeliis onerasti, quern patris loco, si ulla in te 

pietas esset, colere debebas 1 . (Cic.) 
Deleri totus exercitus potuit 1 , si fugientes persecuti victores essent. 

Neque tu hoc dicere audebis, nee, si cupias, licebit. (Cic.) 

But the verb on which the infinitive depends or the auxiliary verb (with 
genitive, &c.) is sometimes put in the subjunctive either (i) as hypothetical, 
Haec si diceret, tamen ignosci non oporteret. (Cic.) 

or (2) often for a collateral reason : this is especially the case with 
potuerit, rajely potuisset. (Cf. 629, 630.) 
Ventum quidem erat eo, ut, si hostem similem antiquis Macedonum 

regibus habuisset consul, magna clades accipi potuerit. (Liv.) 
Philippus, si satis diei superesset, non dubius quin Athamanes quoque 
exui castris potuissent, sub tumulo consedit. (Liv.) 

() A condition qualifying the future participle, or the gerundive. 
Illi ipsi aratores, qui remanserant, relicturi agros omnis erant, nisi ad 

eos Metellus Roma litteras misisset. (Cic.) 
Quid, si hostes urbem veniant, facturi estis ? (Liv.) 
Hos nisi manumisisset, tormantis etiam dedendi fuerunt. (Cic.) 
Sic flendus Peleus, si moreretur, erat. (Ov.) 

The auxiliary verb in the apodosis may be in the subjunctive for a col- 
lateral reason ; e.g. if the apodosis is a dependent question, &c. (Cf. 629, 
Nee dubium erat, quin, si tarn pauci simul obire omnia (loca) possent, 

terga daturi hostes fuerint. (Liv.) 
Quae res sua sponte tarn scelerata et nefaria est, tit, etiamsi lex non 

esset, magno opere vitanda fuerit. (Cic.) 

1 This corresponds to the origin of the English idiom, should, could, 
might, &c. 

Continued on p. 268 

Chap. XVIII.'] Indicative in Conditional clause. 267 

(d) When several conflicting possibilities are stated, either the first is 
expressed by si, and the second by si, sin, si vero, &c. positively, by si 
non, sin minus negatively. 

Si feceris id quod ostendis, magnam habebo gratiam ; si non foceris, 
ignoscam. (Cic.) 

Aut si es dura, nega : sin es non dura, venito. (Prop.) 

Luxuria cum omni aetati turpis, turn senectuti foedissima est : sin 
autem etiam libidinum intemperantia accessit, duplex malum est. 


Sive enim ad sapientiam perveniri potest, non paranda nobis solum ea, 
sed fruenda etiani est : sive hoc difficile est, tamen nuUus est modus 
investigandi veri, nisi inveneris. (Cic.) 

653 (e) An exception (in the indicative) is often appended by way of 
afterthought : nisi, nisi forte, nisi vero, ironical, nisi tamen. Sometimes 
nisi o nly that, only, but, however. 

Nemo fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit. (Cic.) 

Ridiculum caput, quasi necesse sit, si huic non dat, te illam uxorem 
ducere : nisi vides, nisi senis amicos oras, ambis. (Ter.) 

De re non possum judicare, nisi iUud mini persuadeo, te talem virum 
nihil temere fecisse. (Cic.) 

Nos nihil de eo percontationibus reperiebamus, nisi certis ex aqua men- 
suris breviores esse quam in continenti noctes videbamus. (Caes.) 

65 5 2. Indicative conditional clause with apodosis in impera- 

The conditional clause may have, or may not have, si or nisi. 

Quamobrem si me amas tantum, quantum profecto amas, si dormis, 
expergiscere ; si stas, ingredere ; si ingrederis, curre ; si curris, 
advola. (Gic.) 

Vive, vale: siquid novisti rectius istis, candidus imperfci ; si nil, his 
utere mecum. (Hor.) 

Ebiamsi alii primam frontem tenebunt, te sors inter triarios posuerit, 
inde voce, adhortatione, exemplo, aninio milita. (Sen.) 

Verum parcite dignitati Lentuli, si ipse famae suae pepercit : ignoscite 
Cethegi adolescentiae, nisi iterum patriae bellum fecit. (Sail.) 

Arguet, arguito : quicquid probat ilia, probato ; quod dicet, dicas ; 
quod negat ilia, neges. Riserit, adride ; si flebit, flere memento. 


Rure erit et dicet venias amor odit inertes si rota defuerit, tu pede 
carpe viam. (Ov.) 

Continued on p. 269 

268 Subjunctive. (B) ^Conditional. \BookIV. 

654 3. Conditional sentence with subjunctive in protasis but with 
suppression or contraction of the proper hypothetical 

(a) An allied fact is sometimes substituted for the proper hypo- 
thetical statement. This allied fact is usually either 

(i. Present) a general truth (instead of a particular occurrence); or 

(2. Future) an unconditional prophecy; or 

(3. Perfect with paene, prope, or Imperfect) an incomplete action 
or tendency (instead of the completed result) ; or 

(4. Pluperfect) a wilful exaggeration. 

1. Multa me deliortaatur a vobis, Quirites, ni studium reipublieae 

supsret. (Sail.) 
Ilemini numeros, si verba tenerem. (Verg.) 

2. At si me jubeas domitos Jovls igne Gigantas dicere, conantem 

debilitabit onus. (Ov.) 
Si fractus illabatur orbis, impavidum ferient ruinae. (Hor.) 

3. Pens sublicius iter paene hostibus dedit, ni unus \ir fuisset. 


Quin labebar longius, nisi me retinuissem. (Cic.) 
i per L. MeteUnm licitum esset, matres iUorum miserorum sororesque 
veniebant. (Cic.) 

4. Praeclare viceramus, nisi spoliatum, inermem, fugientem Lepidus 

recepisset Antonium. (Cic.) 

Me truncus illapsus cerebro sustulerat, nisi Faunus ictum dextra levas- 
set. (Hor.) 

656 (b) An epithet, &c. forms the apodosis, instead of a statement of the 
epithet's being applicable. 

Hunc exitum nabuit vir, nisi in libera civitate natus esset, memorabilia. 


Vidimus et merulas poni, suavls res, si non causas narraret earum et 
naturas dominus. (Hor.) 

658 (c) In conversational questions the verb of the apodosis is omitted, 
perhaps not even distinctly conceived. 
Quid, si liunc comprehend! jusserim? TY. Sapias magis. (Plaut.) 

660 ( d ) * n sentences of comparison; with quasi, velut si, ac si, 
tamquam si, sicuti, ceu, &c., the verb of the apodosis (being an hypo- 
thetical repetition of the verb of the principal sentence) is often omitted. 
With tamquam and velut the si also is sometimes omitted. 
Verum homines conrupti superbia ita aetatem agunt, quasi vostros 
honores contemnant ; ita hos pstunt, quasi honeste vixerint. 


At accusat C. Cornelii films, et id aeque valere debet, ac si pater indi- 
caret. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 370 

Chap. XVIflJ] Indicative in Conditional clause. 269 

657 3. With apparent apodosis in subjunctive, 

(a) Sometimes it is not the particular action expressed this may be in 
indicative or subjunctive according to circumstances but the mention of 
the action, which is qualified by the conditional clause expressed. 

Quam vellem Romae esses, si forte non es. (Cic.) 

Tua nos virtus ita conciliavit tibi, ut, te salvo atque incolumi aniico, 

ne deos quidem iratos, si fas est dici, timeremus. (Liv.) 
Tu tamen velim orationem legas, nisi forte jam legist!. (Cic.) 

() Or the apodosis may express a wish or command or conse- 
quence, or modest assertion, &c. and on that account have its verb in 
the subjunctive, without the mood of the protasis being affected. 

Etenim si nox non adimit vitam beatam, cur dies nocti similis adimat ? 


Peream male, si non optimum erat. (Hor.) 

Fratrem mecum et te si habebo, per me isti pedibus trahantur. (Cic.) 
Si piguit portas ultra procedere, at illuc jussisses lectum lentius ire 

meum. (Propert.) 
Sin erit ille gemitus elamentabilis, si inbecillus, si abjectus, si flebilis, 

ei qui se dederit, vix eum virum dixerim. (Cic.) 

(c) Or the apodosis may contain an hypothetical statement contingent, 
not on the condition expressed, but on another which is not formally ex- 

Si unquam tibi visus sum in republica fortis, certe me in ilia causa 

admiratus esses (sc. si affuisses). (Cic.) 
Quod si in hoc mundo fieri sine deo non potest, ne in sphaera quidem 

eosdem motus Archimedes sine divino ingenio ( = nisi divinum in- 

genium haberet) potuisset imitari. (Cic.) 

659 4. In conversational questions the verb of the apodosis is sometimes 

Quid, si Me manebo potius ad meridiem ? (Plaut.) 

661 The indicative is used in sentences of comparison where the occur- 
rence adduced in comparison is a fact ; chiefly with ac, tamquam, 

Longe alia nobis ac tu scripseras narrantur. (Cic.) 

Nam et vitast eadem et animus te erga idem ac fuit. (Ter.) 

Jusserunt simulacrum Jovis facere majus et in excelso conlocare et 

contra, atque antea fuerat, ad orientem convertere. (Cic.) 
Fuit olim, quasi nunc ego sum, senex : ei filiae duae erant, quasi nunc 

meae sunt : eae erant duobus nuptae fratribus, quasi nunc meae 

sunt vobis, &c. (Plaut.) 

Continued on p. 271 

270 Subjunctive. (C) Optative and Jussive. \BookIV. 

Samnitium exercitus, velut baud ulla mora pugnae futura esset, aciem 

instruit. (Liv.) 
Hie vero ingentem pugnam, ceu cetera nusquam bella forent, nuUi tota 

morerentur in urbe, cernimus. (Verg.) 
Quasi vero mihi difficile sit quam vis multos nominatim proferre. 

662 (e) In wishes. 

SI nunc se nobis ille aureus arbore ramus ostendat nemore in tanto. 

Quanquam o si solitae quicquam virtutis adesset ! (Verg.) 


DESIRE, with contrasted use of indicative and imperative. 

664 (C) Optative and jussive subjunctive. 

THIS use, with the hypothetical subjunctive, exhausts the cases in 
which the subjunctive stands in a simple sentence, or in an independent 
principal clause of a compound sentence. 

In all these cases, except in questions ( 674), if the subjunctive verb 
requires a negative, ne is used instead of non. Cave and nolim, nollem 
are also sometimes used as equivalent to ne. 

The optative or jussive subjunctive expresses an action sup- 
posed and either wished, or deprecated, or commanded, 
or forbidden. 

666 1. Wish. 

(a) Without connective adverb ; (in negative sentences with ne). 
Valeant cives mei, sint incolumes, sint florentes, sint beati. (Cic.) 
Legati pro contione: Quod bonum felix faustumque sit vobis reique 

publicae, redite in patriam. (Liv.) 
Di facerent sine patre forem. (Ov.) 
Ac venerata Ceres, ita culmo surgeret alto, explicuit vino contractae 

seria frontis. (Hor.) 
Phoebe, gravis Trojae semper miserate labores, hac Trojana tenus 

fuerit Fortuna secuta. (Verg.) 
Ne sim salvus, si aliter scribo ac sentio. (Cic.) 

So in certain apologetic phrases ; (present and perfect). 
Obsecro vos, putate me ex media coatione unum civem succlamare: 

" Bona venia vestra liceat ex his rogationibus legere, quas salubres 

nobis censemus esse, antiquare alias." (Liv.) 
Tu, et meo judicio et omnium, vix ullam ceteris oratoribus, pace horum 

dixerim, laudem reliquisti. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 272 

Chap. XfX.] Indicative and Imperative. 271 

663 If the verb of the subordinate sentence is the same (whether re- 
quiring the same or a different mood) as that of the principal sentence, 
it is usually omitted, and the adverb thus appears to qualify a word 

De Fabiano Severus Cassius, antequam ab illo reus ageretur, dixerat : 
' quasi dissertus cs, quasi formosus cs, quasi dives es ; ununi 
tantum es non quasi, vappa.' (Sen. Rhet.) 

M. Porcium, sicut omni vita, turn prensantem premebat nobilitas. (Liv.) 
Cn. Plancii salutem non secus ac meam tueri debeo. (Cic.) 

Indicative and Imperative. 

665 The uses of the indicative mood in this chapter have not all a 
close connexion with one another. They have been selected as con- 
trasting, or at least being in some way comparable, with the quoted 
usages of the subjunctive. 

i. A similar meaning to that of this class of subjunctive 
may be expressed by the indicative. 

(a) A direct expression of a wish is made by the use of the verbs volo, 
cupio, &c. 

Te ipsum, Naevi, volo audire ; volo inauditum facinus ipsius, qui id 

commisit, voce convinei. (Cic.) 
Neque ficto in pejus vultu proponi cereus usquam, nee prave facti^ 

decorari versibus opto. (Hor.) 

(b) The second person of the future indicative, by telling a person 
what he will do, may imply that he shall do it. 

Interea dedite profanos nos : dedetis deinde et istos sacrosanctos, quum 

primum magistratu abierint. (Liv. ) 
Sed valebis, meaque negotia videbis, meque dis juvantibus ante brumam 

expectabis. (Cic.) 
Cum te audirem, accidebat, ut moleste ferrem tantum ingenium bona 

venia me audies in tarn ineptas sententias incidisse. (Cic.) 

667 ( c ) The use of all persons of videro (see 609, 5) to put off the con- 
sideration of a question is noticeable. 

Quae fuerit causa, mox videro ; interea hoc tenebo. (Cic.) 
Sed de te tu videris : ego de me ipso profitebor. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 27 3 

272 Subjunctive. (C) Jussive. \BookIV. 

() With utinam, sometimes with modo ; or (in poetry) ut. In 
negative sentences usually with ne. In execrations qui (adv.) is used by 
the comic poets. 

Utinam ipse Varro incumbat in causam. (Cic.) 

Utinam populus Romanus unam cervicem haberet. (Calig. ap. Suet.) 

Juppiter omnipotens, utinam ne tempore primo Gnosia Cecropiae teti- 

gissent litora puppes. (Catull.) 
pater et rex Juppiter, ut pereat positum robigine telum, neu quis- 

quam noceat cupido mihi pacis ! (Hor.) 

Qui ilium di omnes parduint, qui primus comnientust contionem habere. 


A wish is sometimes expressed by a conditional sentence, with the 
apodosis omitted ; see 662. 

668 2. Simple command. (In prohibitions ne, nemo, nihil, rarely 
non : sometimes (for et ne, vel ne) neve, neu ; nee.) 

(a) In present and, in prohibitions, perfect tenses. 

The use of the subjunctive of the second person, present tense, is 
not frequent, excepting when the subject is indefinite ( 646). 
Mini quidem in vita servanda videtur ilia les, quae in Graecorum con- 

viviis obtinetur : ' aut bibat,' inquit, ' aut abeat.' (Cic.) 
Ergo detur aliquid aetati : sit adulescentia liberior : non pmnia volup- 

tatibus denegentur : non semper superet vera ilia et derecta ratio. 

(Cic.) Here non belongs to omnia, semper. 
Amemus patriam, pareamus senatui, consulamus bonis, praesentis 

fructus neglegamus, posteritatis gloriae serviamus ; speremus quae 

volumus, sed quod acciderit feramus. (Cic.) 
Isto bono utare, dum adsit : cum absit, ne requiras. (Cic.) 
Quid bellicosus Cantaber, Hirpine Quinti, cogitet, remittas quaerere, 

nee trepides in usum poscentis aevi pauca. (Hor.) 
Ne transieris Iberum ; ne quid rei tibi sit cum Saguntinis ; nusquam te 

vestigio moveris. (Liv.) 
Nihil ignoveris ; nihil omnino gratiae concesseris ; misericordia com- 

motus ne sis ; in sententia permaneto. (Cic.) 

670 (^) In imperfect and pluperfect tenses, of advice applicable to cir- 
cumstances no longer existing. 

Non ego illi argentum redderem? ME. Non redderes, neque de illo 
quicquam neque emeres neque venderes, nee, qui deterior esset, 
faceres copiam. (Plaut.) Here non is used in echo of the question. 
Civem Romanum in crucem egisti. Asservasses hominem, clausum 
habuisses, dum Panhormo Raecius veniret : cognosceret hominem, 
aliquid de summo supplicio remitteres ; si ignoraret, turn, &c. 


Quid facere debuisti ? si ut plerique faciunt, frumentum ne emisses, 
sumpsisses id nummomm. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 374 

Chap. XIX.] Indicative and Imperative. 273 

Nunc morere : ast de me divom pater atque hominum rex viderit. (Verg.) 

Ipsam iracundiam fortitudinis quasi cotem esse dicebant : recte secusne, 
alias viderimus. (Cic.) 

'Vos,' inquit (Lucretia), 'videritis quid Uli debeatur: ego me, etsi 
peccato absolve, supplicio non libero.' (Liv.) 

Quae quam sit facilis, iUi viderint, qui ejus artis arrogantia, quasi 
difflcillima sit, ita subnixi ambulant, deinde etiam tu ipse videris. 


So also the simple future. 
Sed de hoc videbimus : exeamus modo. (Cic.) 
De nomine tu videbis cum Cispio. (Cic.) 

a. The imperative mood is used in commands and en- 
treaties, generally from the nature of its meaning in the 
second person. 

The third person is only found in the future tense, and its use 
almost confined to legal or quasi-legal phraseology. 

In prohibitions, with ne, the present is used only in the poets: the 
future only in legal or antique phraseology. A periphrasis by means 
of noli or cave is more common. 

(a) Present. Patres conscript!, subvenite mini misero, ite obviam 

injuriae, nolite pati regnum Numidiae tabescere. (Sail.) 
Tibi habe sane istam laudationem Mamertinorum. (Cic.) 
Tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito. (Verg.) 
Quid tuta times ? accingere et omnem pelle moram. (Ov.) 
Ne lacruma atque istuc, quidquid est, fac me ut sciam : ne retics, ne 

verere, crede, inquam, miM. (Ter.) 
DE. Bene ambulato. LY. Bene vale. DE. Bene sit tibi. (Plaut.) 

() Future. Quum valetndini tuae diligontissima consulueris, turn, 

mi Tiro, consulito navigation!. (Cic.) 
Si te forte meae gravis uret sarclna chartae, abicito potius, quam quo 

perferre juberis, clitellas ferus impingas. (Hor.) 
Primus humum fodito, primus devecta cremato sarmenta, et vallos 

primus sub tecta referto : postremus metito. (Verg.) 
Hoc pinguem et placitam paci nutritor olivam. (Verg.) 
Tu quidem macte virtute diligentiaque esto. (Liv.) 
Heres Titius esto cernitoque in centum diebus proxumis, quibus scies 

poterisque. Quod ni ita creveris, exheres esto. 

(In a will. Gai. 2. 165.) 
Borea flante ne arato, frugem ne serito, semen ne jacito. (Plin.) 

Continued on p. 275 
L. G. 18 

274 Subjunctive. (C) Jussive. [Book IV. 

672 3. In quasi-dependence on another verb. 

Primary tenses are used when the principal verb is primary, and 
secondary, when that is secondary. 

Abi, nuntia publice patribus, urbem Romanam muniant. (Liv.) 
Jugurtha oppidanos hortatur, moenia defendant. (Sail.) 
Hesterna tibi nocte dixeramus cenares hodie, Procille, mecum. (Mart.) 
Omnia fecerit oportet, quae interdicta et denuntiata sunt, priusquam 

aliquid postulet. (Cic.) 
Huic vitae tot tantisque gaudiis refertae forfcuna ipsa cedat necesse est. 

Quin. etiam Graecis verbis licebit utare, cum voles, si te Latina forte 

deficient. (Cic.) 

Quam mallem vinctos mihi traderet. (Liv.) 
Nolo me in tempore hoc videat senex. (Ter.) 
Cave putes quicquam homines magis unquam esse miratos. (See 664.) 


674 4. In interrogative sentences. 

Usually a negative answer is expected. In a negative question non 
is used. (These are sometimes called dubitative questions.) 

(a) In principal sentences. 
Quid faciat ? pugnet ? vincetur femina pugnans : clamet ? at in dextra 

qui vetet ensis erat. (Ov.) 
Haec cum viderem, quid agerem, judices ? Contenderem contra tribu- 

num plebis privatus armis ? Forsitan non nemo dixerit ; ' Resti- 

tissss, repugnasses, mortem pugnans oppetisses.' (Cic.) 
Apud exercitum mihi fueris tot annos ; forum non attigeris ; afueris 

tarn diu ; et, cum longo intervallo veneris, cum his, qui in foro 

habitarint, de dignitate contendas ? (Cic.) 
An mihi cantando victus non redderet Ule capruni ? ( Verg.) 

() So also in a dependent sentence. 

Non satis Bruto vel tribunis militum constabat, quid agerent aut quam 

rationem pugnae insisterent. (Caes.) 

Ubi consistamus, non habemus, praeter Sex. Pompeium. (D. Brut.) 
Extemplo agitabatur quemadmodum ultro inferendo bello averterent ab 

Italia hostem. (Liv.) 
De'pueris quid agam, non habeo. (Cic.) 

(c) The subjunctive with quidni, ivhy not ? has a similar meaning, and 
the whole expression is tantamount to a confident affirmative. ' How can 
I help, &c.'? ' of course I, 6<r.' 

Haben' hominem, amabo ? PH. Quid ni habeam ? (Ter.) 
Cum Maximus Tarentum recepisset, rogavit eum Salinator, ut memi- 
nisset opera sua se Tarentum recepisse ; ' quidni, ' inquit, ' memi- 
nerim? mimquam enim recepissem, nisi tti perdiaisses.' (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 276 

Chap. XIX.} Indicative in certain Questions. 275 

671 3. In Plautus and Terence faxo ( 293) is frequently used with an 
indicative future logically, not grammatically, dependent. 

Helleborum potabis faxo aliquos viginti dies. (Plaut.) 
Ego faxo et operam et vinum perdiderit simul. (Plaut.) 

673 The indicative or imperative is used in combination with some other 
similar expressions thrown in parenthetically. (Compare 751.) 

Certumst, antiqua recolam et servibo mini. (Plaut.) 

Quaeso, aequo animo patitor. (Plaut.) 

Credo, impetrabo ut aliquot saltern nuptiis prodat dies : interea fiet 

aliquid, spero. (Ter.) 
Credo, aut illos mortis timor terret, aut lios religionis. (Cic.) 

675 4. In the indicative mood a question relates only to a fact. The fol- 
lowing classes of questions may here be noted : 

(a) Relating to the speaker's present or prospective action ; in present 
Sed quid ea commemoro, quae turn, quum agebantur, in caelum laudibus 

efferebantur ? ( Cic. ) 
Etsi quid mi auctor es ? Advolone an maneo ? Equideni et in libris 

naereo, et ilium hie excipere nolo. (Cic.) 

(3) Expressing surprise or indignation ; especially, in comic poets, with 
satin' (ironical), etiam. 

An, dum bestiae loquantur, exspectamus, hominum consentiente auctori- 

tate content! non sumus ? (Cic.) 
Sed ego cesso ad Thaidem hanc deducere ? (Ter.) 
Verresne habebit domi suao candelabrum Jovis ? (Cic.) 
Satin' abiit, neque quod dixi flocci existumat? (Plaut.) 
Etiam rides ? Itan' lepidum tibi visumst, scelus, nos inridere ? (Ter.) 

(c) Implying an exhortation ; especially with etiam, quin ( qui ne, 
how not?) ; e. g. etiam taces ? will you be silent? non taces ? wont you be 
silent? quin urges? why not press? The present tense is used. 
Quid adernus nosmet postea ? LE. Etiam tu taces ? Tibi egon' rationem 

reddam? (Plaut.) 
Credo, non credet pater. AC. Non taces, stultissume ? Credet iiercle. 


Quin, si vigor juventae inest, conscendimus equos, invisimusque pras- 
sentes nostrarum ingenia ? ( Li v . ) 

[Hence the use of quin with imperatives, and (in a statement) wilh 

Quin sic attendite, judices. (Cic.) 

Ego vero jam te nee hortor nee rogo ut domum redeas ; quin nine ipse 
evolare cupio. (Cic.)] 

Continued on p. 277 
IS 2 

276 Subjunctive. (C) Jussive. \Book IV. 

67 6 5. Rhetorical commands, i.e. an action supposed and assumed, 
on, or notwithstanding, which assumption another statement is made. 
(Concessive sentences. Compare 650.) 

In negative sentences the particle is ne, not non. 

(a) Frequently with particles sane, fortasse. 
Haec si vobis non probamus, sint falsa sane : invidiosa certe non suat. 

Ne sint in senectute vires : ne postulantur quidem vires a senectute. 

' Malus civis, improbus consul, seditiosus homo Cn. Carbo fuit.' Fuerit 

aliis : tibi quando esse coepit ? (Cic.) 
Nenio is, inquies, unquam fuit. Ne fuerit : ego enim quid desiderem, 

non quid viderim, dispute. (Cic.) 

Verum anceps pugnae f uera,t fortuna. Fuisset : quern metui moritura ? 
Faces in castra tulissem. (Verg.) 

() With relative clause 1 like quam vis, quam volet, &c. 
Nihil agis, dolor : quam vis sis molestus, nunquam te esse coufitebor 

malum. (Cic.) 
Quam volent, faceti dicaces diserti sint, alia fori vis est, alia triclinii. 


Gaius vero Gracchus multis dixit sibi in somnis quaesturam petenti 
Tiberium fratrem visum esse dicere, Quam vellet cunctaretur, 
tamen eodem sibi leto, quo ipse interisset, esse pereundum. (Cic.) 

(r) With modo. 

Manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria. (Cic.) 
Ad vos nunc refero, quern sequar ; modo ne quis illud tarn ineruditum 
absurdumque respondeat : ' quern lubet, modo aliquem.' (Cic.) 

(D) Final subjunctive. 

673 The subjunctive of purpose is the same as the subjunctive of com- 
mand, only that it is dependent on relative adjectives and adverbs. 

The sentences classed under this head, like those classed under (C), 
are distinguished by the use, if a negative is required, of ne, not non. 

The final subjunctive expresses an action stated, as a 
purpose to be carried into effect. 

Present, and (rarely) perfect, tense in sentences dependent on pri- 
mary tenses. Imperfect, and (rarely) pluperfect, in sentences dependent 
on secondary tenses. 

The perfect and pluperfect are used with relation to the results of 
past actions: i.e. as completed futures subjunctive. 

1 For the use of the moods with quamquam, which is not of itself a 
relative clause, see 711 (b). 

Continued on p. 378 

Chap. XlXJ\ Indicative and Imperative. 277 

677 5. The indicative or imperative makes a concession positively 
and expressly ; the statement however need not be a fact, but may be 
made ironically or for argument's sake. 

(a) With particles sane, quidem, omnino, fortasse. 
Est istuc quidem honestum, verum hoc expedit. (Cic.) 
Finge justum te intulisse bellum ; cum feminis ergo agere debueras. 


(ft) In the statement of an opponent's objection : frequently intro- 
duced by at, at enim, at vero, at fortasse. (The reply, partly conces- 
sive, frequently has et quidem, quidem, true but, aye but.*) 
At enim eadem Stoici praecipua dicunt, quae bona isti. Dicunt illi 

quidem. sed iis vitam beatam compleri negant. (Cic.) 
Aliud esse censet gaudere, aliud non dolere. Et quidem, iaquit, vehe- 
menter err at. (Cic.) 

(c) The indicatives, licet, licebit, often introduce a concession (the 
verb dependent being in subjunctive by 672). 
Quamvis licet insectemur istos, metuo ne soli philosophi sint. (Cic.) 

(J) In Lucretius and post-Ciceronian writers (rarely in Livy) 
quamvis is found with indicative. 

Erat inter eos dignitate regia, quamvis carebat nomine. (Nep.) 
Quamvis intercidit alter, pro se proque Eemo, qui mini restat, erit. 


[In some sentences quamvis clearly qualifies the adjective only, e.g. 
Nee auctor quamvis audaci facinori deerat. (Liv.) 
Quod commodum est, exspectate facinus, quam voltis improbum; 
vincam tamen exspectationem omnium. (Cic.)] 

(e) The imperative is used with modo in concessions. 
Quern quidem ego actutum, modo vos absistite, cogam fateri. (Ov.) 

Indicative, especially in comparative sentences, and 
with dum. 

679 Some adjectival sentences with the indicative are given merely to 
contrast With final adjectival sentences. 

The indicative expresses a fact or simple definition, c. 
without any signification of purpose. 

[Such a signification of purpose may be conveyed by the future parti- 
ciple with the indicative (or any other) mood of sum. (See 612.)] 

Continued on p. 279 

278 Subjunctive. (D) Final [Book IV. 

680 1. With relative adjective (qui = ut is, <wbo is to, ivas to). Such 
sentences are not commonly negative : in provisoes the negative is ne. 
Hxbeo quern fugiara : quern sequar non habeo. (Quint.) 
Misi pro amieitla qui hoc Antonio diceret. (Cic.) 
Homini natura rationem dedit, qua regerentur animi appetitus. (Cic.) 
Scribebat Aelius orationes, quas alii dicerent. (Cic.) 
Par pro pari referto, quod earn mordeat. (Ter.) 
Plerique rem idoneam, de qua quaeratur, et homines dignos, quibuscum 

disseratur, putant. (Cic.) 
In eo vidisti multum, quod praeflnisti quo ne pluris emerem. (Cic.) 

682 2. With a connective adverb : 

ut, uti, that, in order that, quo (usually with a comparative) ; 

in negative sentences, ut ne, ne, and 

after expressions of hindrance, opposition, &c. quominus and 
quin 1 , the latter being used when the principal sentence also is negative 
or quasi-negative. 

(tf) General usage. 

Esse oportet, ut vivas; non vivere, ut edas. (Cornif.) 
Utroque tempore ita me gessi, ne tibi pudori, ne regno tuo, ne genti 

Macedonian essem. (Liv.) 
Accusatores multos esse in civitate utile est, ut metu contineatur 

audacia: verum tamen hoc ita est utile, ut ne plane inludamur 

ab accusatoribus. (Cic.) 

Tantum vide ne hoc tempore isti obesse aliquid possit. (Cic.) 
Adnitar, ne frustra vos hanc spem de me conceperitis. (Liv.) 
Scriptum erat, ut ad ludos omnia pararet neve comniitteret ut frustra 

ipse properasset. (Cic.) 
Obducuntur libro aut cortice trunci, quo sint a frigoribus et caloribus 

tutiores. (Cic.) 
Caesar cognovit per Afranium stare, quo minus proelio dimicaretur. 


Non recusabo, quominus omnes mea scripta legant. (Cic.) 
Nil verbi, pereas quin fortiter, addam. (Hor.) 
Vix milites temperavere animis, quin extemplo impetum facerent. 


(Z>) The subordinate clause is often in place of object or subject to 
the principal verb. 

Verres rogat et orat Dolabellam, ut ad Neronem proflciscatur. (Cic.) 
Decrevit senatus, ut L. Opimius videret, nequid respublica detrimenti 

caperet. (Cic.) 
Ke quid ferretur ad populum patres tenuere : plebes vicit ut quintuni 

eosdem tribunos crearent. (Liv.) 
Justitiae primum munus est, ut ne cui quis noceat, nisi lacessitus 

injuria. (Cic.) 
Proximum est, ut doceam deorum providentia mundum administrari. 


Continued on p. 280 

Chap. XIX.~\ Indicative. Comparative sentences. 279 

Misi quondam pro amicitia : qui hoc Antonio dixit. 

Homini natura rationem dedit ; qua reguntur animi appetitus. 

Scribebat Aelius orationes, quas alii dicebant. 

Unum id bonum est, quo melior animus efficietur. (Sen.) 

Expressae sunt ex unius cujusque damno, dolore, incommodo, calami- 

tate, injuria publicae a praetore formulae, ad quas privata lis 

adcommodatur. (Cic.) 
Liciti sunt usque adeo, quoad se efficere posse arbitrabantur : supra 

adjecit Aeschrio. (Cic.) 

1 Note to $6*2. 

681 Quin, like ut, is also used in consecutive ( 704, 706) and dependent 
interrogative ( 754) sentences. The following is a summary of the general 
usage of certain verbs : 

Verbs <A forbidding, hindering, opposing, with or without a negative or 
its equivalent, may be followed by ne or quominus, or an infinitive (with 
or without an accus.) ; 

verbs of opposing, refraining, neglecting, doubting, abest, &c. may, if 
negative or quasi-negative, be followed by quin ; 

non dubito, &c. also by an ace. and infinitive ; 

dubito is followed by a dependent interrogative an, an non. (Maclvig.) 

683 Comparative sentences may here be noticed: they are intro- 
duced by correlative adjectives or adverbs: e.g. tantus...quantus, tarn 
...quam, sic...ut; sometimes the demonstrative is omitted; sometimes 
the verb of the clause. (Other comparative sentences with ut in 715.) 

1. With adjective or adverb in positive or superlative degree. 
Tanta est apud eos, quanta maxima potest esse, morum studiorumque 

distantia. (Cic.) 

Locorum nuda noraina et quanta dabitur brevitate ponentur. (Plin.) 
Jugurtha quam maximas potest coplas armat. (Sail.) 
Verba quam potes ambiguis callidus abde notis. (Ov.) 
Tenuit locum tarn diu, quam ferre potuit laborem. (Cic.) 
Praeda inde majore, quam quanta belli fama fuerat, revecta, ludos fecit, 

Grata ea res, ut quae maxime senatui unquam fuit. (Liv.) 

2. With adjective or adverb in comparative degree, eo...quod, eo 
...quo, in proportion .. .as quam, than. (For priusquam, see 699.) 
Haec eo facilius magnam partem aestatis faciebant, quod nostrae naves 

tempestatibus detinebantur. (Caes.) 
Quo quisque est sollertior et ingeniosior, hoc docet iracundius et labo- 

riosius. (Cic.) 
Quo minus ingenio possum, subsidium mihi diligentiam comparavi. 

Nee nunc quidem viris desidero adulescentis ; non plus quam adules- 

cens tauri aut elephant! desiderabam. (Cic.) 
Antonio, quam est, volo pejus esse. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 281 

2 8o Subjunctive. (D) Final [Book IV. 

684 (c} In sentences restrictive of a preceding statement. 

ita...ut, cum eo ut, with the precaution that... must, provided that ; 
ita ne, ita ut ne. Compare 714. 
Accepimus (Caesaris) condiciones sed ita ut removeat praesidia ex iis 

locis quae occupavit. (Cic.) 
Atque ita mentitur, sic veris falsa remiscet, priino ne medium, medio ne 

discrepet imum. (Hor.) 
Lanuvinis civitas data sacraque sua reddita cum eo ut aedes lucusque 

Sospitae Junonis communis Lanuvinis municipibus cum populo 

Eomano esset. (Liv.) 

686 (W) A thing, about which fear is felt, is expressed by a sentence 
with ut, if it is wished ; with ne, if it is dreaded. (In English that not 
corresponds to ut, lest or that to ne.) Ne non is also used for ut, 
especially when the principal sentence is negative. 
puer, ut sis vitalis, metuo, et majorum ne quis amicus frigore to 

feriat. (Hor.) 
Rem frumentariam, ut satis commode supportari posset, timere se 

dicebant. (Caes.) 
Vereor ne Eomam, sic cunctantibus nobis, Hannibali ac Poenis toties 

servaverint majores nostri. (Liv.) 
Timeo, ne non impstrem. (Cic.) 

Similarly vide ne non sit, vide ut sit, Perhaps it is not, vide ne sit, 
Perhaps it is. (For another meaning of these expressions see 682.) 
Multa istius modi dicuntur in scholis, sed credere omnia vide ne non sit 

necesse. (Cic.) 

Erat, si cujusquam, certe tuum nihil praeter virtutem in bonis dicere. 
'Vide ne magis,' inquam, ' tuum fuerit.' (Cic.) 

688 00 With ne, nedum, much less . 

This usage arises from the prevention of the occurrence of the greater 
event being rhetorically regarded as the purpose of the occurrence of the 
less event. 
Vix in ipsis tectis frigus inflrma valetudine vitatur : nedum in mari sit 

facile abesse ab injuria temporis. (Cic.) 
Querebantur consules bellicosos ambo viros, qui vel in pace tranquilla 

bellum excitare possent, nedum in bello respirare civitatem forent 

passuri. (Liv.) 
Quippe secundae res sapientium animos fatigant, ne illi corruptis mori- 

bus victoriae temperarent. (Sail.) 

690 (/) P ur P os e not of the principal action itself, but of the mention of 
the action ; especially, with ne dicam, in suggesting, while declining to 
make, a stronger statement. The present subjunctive is chiefly used. 
Ne longior sim, vale. (Cic.) 

Quando quidem est apud te virtuti honos, ut beneflcio tuleris a me, quod 
minis nequisti, trecenti conjuravimus principes juventutis Romanae, 
ut in te hac via grassaremur. (Liv.) 
Satis inconsiderati fuit, ne dicam audacis, rem ullam ex illis attingere. 

Continued on p. 282 

Chap'. XIX.] Indicative and Imperative. 281 

085 3- f Some colloquial phrases may perhaps belong to the class of com- 
parative sentences. 

(a) With quantum, which is either relative or perhaps interrogative ; 
Vino et lucernis Medus acinaces immane quantum discrepat. (Hor.) 
Mirum quam inimicus ibat, ut ego objurgarem. (Cic.) 
Pnaedria, incredibilest quantum eruin anteeo sapientia. (Ter.) 

(K) With quam qualified by an adverb prefixed. (This usage, e.g. 
mire quam, is probably the result of attraction for mirum quam : the 
whole expression being adverbial, each member is made adverbial 1 .) 
Mire quam illius loci non modo usus, sed etiam cogitatio delectat. (Cic.) 
Succlamatum est ei frequenter a militibus Ventidianis, nam suos valde 

quam paucos habet. (D. Brut.) 

Haud facile fuit ea quae objicerentur memoria complecti, pleraque enim 
oppido quam parva erant. (Liv.) 

637 4. Similar (to the above-named uses of quantum, quam, ut, 683) 
is the use, in the early language, of ut in phrases which may be either 
relative or interrogative. (Comp. 753.) 

(a) Satin' ut, ' tolerably.' 

Satin', ut oblitus fui tibi me narravisse ? (Plaut.) 
Satin' ut meminit libertatis ? (Plaut. ) 

(b] Vide ut is used to express surprise. It is preceded by hoc or 

Hoc sis vide, ut palpatur : nullust, quando occepit, blandior. (Plaut.) 
illud vide, os ut sibi distorsit carnufex. (Ter.) 
(For ut after vide in a reported question, 750.) 

689 A climax or anticlimax may be expressed directly in the indicative ; 
especially by ne...quidem, non inodo...sed etiam, &c., and in post- Augus- 
tan writers adeo (adeo non, so much less). 
Lepido quidem numquam placuit ex Italia exire ; Tullo multo minus. 

Haec igitur sapiens non suscipiet rei publicae causa : ne res publica 

quidem pro se suscipi volet. (Cic.) 

Dies autem non modo non levat luctum hunc, sed etiam auget. (Cic.) 
Apollinis oracula numquam ne mediocri quidem cuiquam, non mcdo 

prudenti probata sunt. (Cic.) 
Hujus totius temporis fortunam nee deflere quidem quisquam satis digne 

potuit, adeo nemo exprimere verbis potest. (Veil.) 

691 So with non dico, non dicam, of a weaker statement, which the speaker 
rejects in favour of a stronger one. 
Incredibile ac simile portent! est, quonam modo ilia tarn multa quam 

paucis, non dico mensibus sed diebus, effuderit. (Cic.) 
Nihil est in ea urbe contra hanc rem publicam non dico factum, sed niliil 
omnino excogitatum. (Cic.) 

1 Comp. ^erd iS^wros 6avfj.aaTov offov, OavftavTus us Xafyw, &c. 

Continued on p. 283 

282 Subjunctive. (D) Final : with dum, 6^. [Book IV. 

692 3. An event expected and purposed. 

i. (a) With dum, until, rarely donee, quoad ; in present and im- 
perfect tenses only. (In English the subjunctive is best expressed by 
using ' shall ',' 'should] ' can] ' could ;' or by a periphrasis; e.g. dum 
veniat, veniret, ' to allow of his coming,' ' to enable him to corned) 

Exspecta, amabo te, dum Atticum conveniam. (Cic.) 

Dum relicuae naves eo convenirent, ad horam nonam in ancoris exspec- 

tavit. (Caes.) 
Multa bello passus, dum conderet urbem inferretque deos Latio. 

Actia pugna te duce per pueros hostili more refertur, donee alterutrum 

velox victoria fronde coronet. (Hor.) 
Epaminondas exercebatur plurimum currendo et luctando ad eum finem, 

quoad stans complecti posset atque contendere. (Nep.) 

(Z>) Sometimes the subjunctive implies not strictly that an action 
is purposed, but that it is expected and counted on (dum, ' ivhi/e 1 ). 

Nihil deinde moratus rex quattuor milia armatorum, dum recens terror 
esset, Scotussam mislt. (Liv.) 

694 (c) Sometimes (chiefly in Livy and later historians) with donee, ' so 
long as,' 'until,' 1 the subjunctive is used of facts; where the indicative 
would have been used in earlier writers. Only in present and imperfect 
and (rarely) pluperfect tenses. (Comp. 720.) 

Nihil sane trepidabant elephanti, donee continent! velut ponte age- 
rentur ; primus erat pavor, quum, soluta ab ceteris rate, in altum 
raperentur. Ibi urgentes inter se, cedentibus extremis ab aqua, 
trepidationis aliquantum edebant, donee quietem ipse timor circuni- 
spectantibus aquam fecisset. (Liv.) 

G3G (d) * So long as '= 'provided that] ' if only;" 1 dum, dum modo (in 
negative sentences dum ne, dummodo ne), with present or imperfect 

Dum res maneant, verba fingant arbitratu suo. (Cic.) 

Vox ilia dira et abominanda, ' Oderint dum metuant.' Sullano scias 
saeculo scriptam. Oderint ? quid ? dum pareant ? non. dum pro- 
bent ? non. quid ergo ? dum timeant. Sic nee amari quidem 
vellem. (Sen.) 

Quicquid vis esto, dummodo nil recites. (Mart.) 

Multi omnia cecta et honesta neglegunt, dummodo potentiam conse- 
quantur. (Cic.) 

Imitamini, patres conscript!, turbam inconsultam, dum ego ne imiter 
tribunes. (Liv.) 

Continued on p. 284 

Chap. XIX.} Indicative: with dum, donee, &c. 283 

633 The indicative mood is used with quam diu, so long as; dum, donee, 
quoad, until, whilst, so long as, of a simple expression of fact. 
The pluperfect appears not to be used in these sentences. 

i. (a) ' Until:' donee (donicum), quoad; and sometimes dum. 

Usque eo timui, donee ad rejiciundos judices venimus. (Cic.) 
Milo in senatu fuit eo die, quoad senatus dimissus est. (Cic.) 
Mihi quidem usque curae erit, quid agas, dum, quid egeris, sciero. 


695 () l While" 1 = l so long as,' ' all the time that;' dum, donee, quam- 
diu, quoad. The tense in both clauses is usually the same. 

Neque enim, dum eram vobiscum, animum meum videbatis. (Cic.) 

Hoc feci, dum licuit ; intermisi, quoad non licuit. (Cic.) 

Tit aegroto, dum anima est, spes esse dicitur, sic ego, quoad Pompeius 

in Italia fuit, sperare non destiti. (Cic.) 
Donee gratus eram tibi, Persarum vigui rege beatior. Donee non alia 

magis arsisti, Romana vigui clarior Ilia. (Hor.) 
Quamdiu quisquam erit, qui te defendere audeat, vives. (Cic.) 

697 (0 ''While,' 1 i.e. '/ the time that:" dum with present tense (though 
qualifying past actions), rarely with other tenses. (The indicative 
present is usually retained even in clauses dependent on infinitives and 

Of time only, without any notion of purpose. 

An event expected is sometimes treated as if it occupied the period of waiting. 

Dum veniunt amici, solus, filio procul stante, multa secum animo 
volutans, inambulavit. (Liv.) 

Nullis evidentibus causis obiere, dum calciantur matutino, duo Cae- 
sares, Q. Aemilius Lepidus jam egrediens, incusso pollice limini 
cubiculi ; C. Aufustius egressus, cum in senatum iret, offenso pede 
in comitio; Cn. Baebius Tamphilus, cum a puero quaesisset 
horas ; L. Tuccius medicus, dum mulsi potionem haurit ; Appius 
Saufeius, e balineo reversus, cum mulsum bibisset ovumque sor- 
beret; &c. (Plin.) 

Dum haec Veils agebantur, interim arx Romae Capitoliumque in in- 
genti periculo fuit. (Liv.) 

(</) ' While ' ' in consequence of.' 

In has cladis incidimus, dum metui quam cari esse et diligi maluimus. 

Ita mulier, dum pauca mancipia retinere volt, fortunas omnes per- 

didit. (Cic.) 
Verum ego liberius altiusque process!, dum me civitatis morum piget 

taedetque. (Sail.) 

Continued on p. 285 

284 Subjunctive. (D) Final : with prius quam, 6ff. \Book IV. 

ggg 2. An event expected and its occurrence, or prior oc- 
currence, prevented; with quam (quam non) after (a) prius, 
ante, () potius, and the like. When the principal sentence is nega- 
tive, the occurrence or prior occurrence of the event is not prevented, 
but secured (rarely, if ever, in perfect tense). 
() Haerens in tergo Romanas prius, quam fores portarum objice- 

rentur, velut agmine uno irrumpit. (l^ r .) 
Is videlicet antequam vaniat in Pontum, litteras ad Cn. Pompeium 

mittet. (Cic.) 
Sed non ante datam cingetis moenibus urbem quam vos dira fames 

ambesas subigat mails absumere mensas. (Verg.) 
Ad fratrem amicosque ejus non prius destitit mittere, quam pacem cum 

iis confirmaret. (Liv.) 

Sometimes (in Livy, &c.) without any accessory notion of purpose. 
Paucis ante diebus, quam Syracusae caperentur, Otacilius in African: 

transmisit. (Liv.) 

7CO () Zeno Eleates perpessus est omnia potius, quam conscios delendas 

tyrannidis indicaret. (Cic.) 

Eripiet quivis oculos citius mini quam te contemptum cassa nuca 
pauperet. (Hor.) 
So with ut also : 

Multi ex plebe, spe amissa, potius quam ut cruciarentur trahendo 
aniinam, capitibus obvolutis se in Tiberim praecipitaverunt. 



CAUSATION: with contrasted use of indicative. 

(E) Consecutive subjunctive. 

702 The consecutive subjunctive expresses an action viewed as 
characteristic of persons or things, or as the natural result 
of other actions or of qualities. 

For the distinctive use of tenses, see 633. 
704 1. With relative adjective, e.g. 

qui = ut is, 'so that hej '-such that he] 'the kind of person to," 1 
'such persons as :' in negative sentences qui non ; or, if the prin- 
cipal sentence is negative, or quasi-negative, quin (or qui non 1 ). Also 
cum = quo tempore. Especially frequent 

(a) after demonstratives (is, tails, tantus, &c.) or adjectives of 
quality ; 

Ego is sum, qui nihil unquam mea potius quam meorum civium causa 
fecerim. (Cic.) 

1 Quin is used for qui (quae, quod)... non, nom. case, rarely for any 
other case. In other cases either quin...eum, or quern... non is used. 

Continued on p. 286 

Chap. XX.] Indicative: wlih prius quam, &=c. 285 

639 2. With quam after prius, ante, citius, &c. ; 

(a) Of a simple statement of the subsequent occurrence of one 
event to another, as a fact. The imperfect is rarely used, the pluperfect 

Ante ferit (amor), tuti quam cernimus hostem. (Propert.) 
Haec bona, is, qui testamentum fecerat, Heraclio, ante aliquanto quam 

est mortuus, omnia utenda ac possidenda tradiderat. (Cic.) 
Neque prius fugere destiterunt, quam ad flutnen Rhenum millia pas- 

suum ex eo loco circiter quinque pervenerunt. (Gaes.) 
Non defatigabor ante, quam illorum ancipitis vias rationesque et pro 

omnibus et contra omnia disputandi percepero. (Cic.) 
Ifiembris utimur prius, quam didicimus, cujus ea causa utilitatis 

habeamus. (Cic.) 

() Occasionally the indicative is found, even though the occur- 
rence denoted is a matter to be prevented. 

Sed, me dius fidius, multo citius meam salutem pro te abjecero, quam 
Cn. Plancii salutem tradidero contention! tuae. (Cic.) 

701 ( r ) The same simple connexion of like expressions is found in the 
infinitive, participle, &c. 
Addit Pompeius se prius occisum iri a Clodio quam me violatuin iri. 

Doleo te sapientia praeditum prope singular! non tuis bonis delectari 

potius quam alienis malis laborare. (Cic.) 
Nonne tibi adfirmavi quidvis me potius perpessurum quam ex Italia ad 

bellum civile exiturum ? (Cic.) 
Constituunt illo potius utendum consilio quam aut deditionis aut pacis 

subeundam condicionem. (Caes.) 

Indicative with relatives: also with quod, ut. 

703 The indicative is used for simple definitions of existing per- 
sons or things or classes (qui, l *iuhoj 'whoever f cum, ' at which 
time '). 

After such expressions as sunt qui, the indicative is unusual (except 
in the earlier writers and poets), unless an adjective of number or defi- 
nition be added, as multi sunt qui. 

705 Sp. Thorius satis valuit in popular! genere dicendi, is, qui agrum pub- 

licum vitiosa et inutili lege vectigali levavit. (Cic.) 
Epicurus non satis politus est iis artibus, quas qui tenent, eruditi 
appellantur. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 287 

286 Subjunctive. (E) Consecutive. \Book IV. 

Campanl majora in defectlone deliquerant, quam quibus ignosci posset. 


Eaec est una contentio, quae adhuc pennanserit. (Cic.) 
Solus es, C. Caesar, cujus in victoria ceciderit nemo nisi armatus. 

fortunate adulescens, qui tuae virtutis Homerum praeconem in- 

veneris. (Cic.) 
Erit illud profecto tempus, cum tu fortissimi viri magnitudinem animi 

dssideres. (Cic.) 
In id saeculum Romuli cecidit aetas, cum jam plena Graecia postarum 

et musicorum esset. (Cic.) 

708 () after assertions of existence or non-existence (est qui, est cum, 
est quod, &c.); 

Sunt qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem. (Cic.) 
Est quatenus amicitiae dari venia possit. (Cic.) 
Fuit antea tempus, cum Germanos Galli virtute superarent. (Caes.) 
Quotus igitur est quisque qui somniis pareat, qui intellegat, qui memi- 

nerit ? (Cic.) 
Nee quisquam rex Persarum potest esse, qui non ante Magorum dis- 

ciplinam scientiamque perceperit. (Cic.) 
Nego in Sicilia tota ullum argenteum vas fuisse, quin Verres conqui- 

sierit, inspexerit, quod placitum sit, abstulerit. (Cic.) 
In castello nemo fuit omnium militum, quin vulneraretur. (Caes.) 

70S (<) occasionally without any special introduction. 

At ille nescio qui, qui in scholis nominari solet, mille et octoginta 

stadia quod abesset videbat. (Cic.) 
L. Pinarius erat vir acer et qui plus in eo, ne posset decipi, quam in 

fide Siculorum reponeret. (Cic.) 
Et quidem saepe quaerimu? verbum Latinum, par Graeco, et quod idem 

valeat: hie nihil fuit quod quaereremus. (Cic.) 
In enodandis nominibus, vos Sfcoici, quod miserandum sit, laboratis. 


710 (d] In relative sentences, restricting (e.g. by way of proviso) a general 
assertion ; especially with qui quidem, qui modo. 

Omnium quideni oratorum, quos quidem ego cognoverim, acutissisaum 

judico Q. Sertoriuin. (Cic.) 
Servus est nemo, qui modo tolerabili condicione sit servitutis, qui non 

audaciam civium perhorrescat. (Cic. ) 

Epicurus se unus, quod sciam, sapientem profiteri est ausus. (Cic.) 
Peto igitur abs te, ut omnibus rebus, quod sine moles tia tua facere 

possis, ei commodes. (Cic.) 
Tu, quod tuo coramodo fiat, quarn primum velim vezias. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 288 

Chap. XX.] Indicative with Relatives. 287 

Utrum tibi commodum est, elige. (Cic.) 

Virtus est una altissimis deflxa radicibus, quae nunquam vi ulla labe- 

factari potest. (Cic.) 

Heu me miserum, qui tuom animum ex animo spectavi meo. (Ter.) 
Fortunatus iUius exitus, qui ea non vidit, quum fierent, quae praevidit 

futura. (Cic.) 
Longum iUud tempus cum non ero, magis me movet, quam hoc ezi- 

guum. (Cic.) 
Sententiam meam tu facillime perspicere potuisti jam ab illo tempore, 

cum in Cumanum mini obviam venisti. (Cic.) 

707 Sunt multi, qui eripiunt aliis, quod aliis largiantur. (Cic.) 
Est cui cognomen corvus habere dedit. (Prop.) 
Multi anni sunt, cum M. Fadius in meo aere est, et a me diligitur 

propter summam suam humanitatem. (Cic.) 
Sed incidunt saepe tempora, cum ea, quae maxime videntur digna esss 

justo homine, commutantur fiuntque contraria. (Cic.) 
Fuit cum hoc dici poterat: 'Patricius enim eras et a liberatoribus 

patriae ortus : ' nunc consulatus non generis, ut ante, sed virtutis 

praemium. (Liv.) 
Quicquam bonum est, quod non eum, qui id possidet, meliorem facit ? 

Mihi liber esse non videtur, qui non aliquando nihil agit. (Cic.) 

709 Necesse est multos timeat, quern multi timent. (Laber. ap. Sen.) 

Quern per arbitrum circumvenire non posses, cujus de ea re proprium 

non erat judicium, hunc per judicem condemnabis, cujus de ea re 

nullum est arbitrium ? (Cic.) 
Ne quo nomine quidem appellare vos debeam, scio. Cives ? qui a 

patria vestra descistis. An milites ? qui imperium auspiciumque 

abnuistis, sacramenti religionem rupistis. (Liv.) 

711 In the indicative a limitation of the principal sentence by a relative 
clause is stated without assumption, as a description of existing persons, 
facts, &c. 

(a) With simple relative ; sometimes with quidem, modo added. 

Catonem vero quis nostrorum oratorum, qui auidem nunc sunt, legit ? 


Quis ignorat, qui modo umquam mediocriter res istas scira curavit, quin 
tria Graeconim genera sint ? (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 289 

288 Subjunctive, (E) Consecutive. [Book IV. 

712 2. With a connective adverb: ut, in negative ut non, 'so 
that not ; ' or, if the principal sentence is negative, or quasi- 
negative, quin. 

(a) Non is es, Catilina, ut te pudor umquam a turpitudine revocarit. 

Eelicuos ita psrterritos egerunt, ut non prius faga desisterent, quam 

in conspectura agminis nostri venissent. (Caes.) 
Hanc orationem habuit tanta constantia vocis atque vultus, ut non ex 

vita sed ex domo in domum videretur migrare. (Nep.) 
Nunquam tarn male est Siculis, quin aliquid facete et commode dicant. 


Litteras ad te numquam habui cui darem, quin dederim. (Cic.) 
Treviri totius hiemis nuUum tempus intermiserunt, quin trans Rnenum 

legatos mitterent. (Caes.) 

() The subordinate clause is often in place of subject or object 
to the principal sentence. 
Tantum abest ut nostra miremur, ut usque eo difficiles ac morosi simus, 

ut nobis non satis faciat ipse Demosthenes. (Cic.) 
Mos est hominum, ut nolint eundem pluribus rebus excellere. (Cic.) 
Saepe fit, ut ii, qui debent, non respondeant ad tempus. (Cic.) 
Ne deus quidem potest facere, ut qui vixit non vixerib, qui honores 

gessit non gesserit, ut bis dena viginti non sint. (Plin.) 
Ad Appii Ciaudii senectutem accedebat etiam ut caecus esset. (Cic.) 
UM Varus restitit, et quis esset aut quid vellet quaesivit, Fabius 

humerum apertum gladio appetit, paulumque afuit, quin Varum 

interficeret. (Caes.) 
Facere non possum, quin cotidie litteras ad te mittam, ut tuas ac- 

cipiam. (Cic.) 

714 (c) In sentences restrictive of a preceding statement: ut faciam = 
'whilst yet doing,' ut non faciam, &c. 'without doing,' &c. The prin- 
cipal sentence often has ita. (Compare 684.) 
Cujus ego ingenium ita laudo ut non pertimescam, ita probo ut me ab 

eo delectari faeilius quam decipi putem posse. (Cic. ) 
Kon ita pridem spondeos stabiles in jura paterna recepit commodus et 

patiens, non ut de sede secunda cederet aut quarta socialiter. 

Quis est qui velit, ut neque diligat quemquam, nee ipse ab uUo diligatur, 

in omnium rerum abundantia vivere ? (Cic.) 

(d) In concessive sentences: ut (ut non), ^supposing that? ' even 
if." 1 The subordinate clause is usually put first. (Compare 676.) 
Ut fueris dignior quam Plancius, (de quo ipso tecum ita contendam 
paulo post, ut conservem dignitatem tuam,) non competitor, sed 
populus in culpa est. (Cic.) 

Quotus quisque juris peritus est, ut eos numeres, qui volunt esse ? 


Continued on f. 290 

Chap. XX.] Indicative with Relatives; quod; and ut. 289 

Censores causas stipeudiis missorum cognoscebant, et cujus nondum 
justa missio visa esset, ita jusjurandum adigebant : 'Ex tui animi 
sententia, tu ex edicto C. Claudi, T. Semproni censorum in provin- 
ciam Macedonian! redibis, quod sine dolo malo facere poteris.' (Liv.) 

Prodidisti et te et iUam miseram, quod quidem in te fuit. (Ter.) 

() With doubled forms of relative, and those with cunque at- 
tached, e.g. quisquis, utut, quamquam, quicunque ; also uter. 
Sed quoquo modo illud se habet, haec querella vestra nihil valet. (Gic.) 
Quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis. (Verg.) 
Deiotari copias, quantaecuiyiue sunt, nostras esse duco. (Cic.) 
Quicquid est, ubicunque est, quodcunque agit, renidet Egnatius. (Catull.) 
Fotest omnino hoc esse falsum, potest verum, sed, utrum est, non es. 

mirabile. (Cic.) 

Utcunque ferent ea facta minores, vincet amor patriae. (Verg.) 
Romani, quamquam itinere et proelio fessi erant, tamen Metello in- 
struct! intentique obviam procedunt. (Sail.) 

713 Subordinate sentences denoting a fact, and themselves forming, or 
placed in apposition to, the subject or object of a verb (except a verb 
of feeling or saying, cf. 535), are often put in the indicative mood 
with quod. (For other sentences with quod see 740 744-) 
Accidit perincommode, quod eum nusquam vidisti. (Cic.) 
Te nee quod dies exiit censurae, nee quod collega magistratu abiit, nee 

lex, nee pudor, coercet. (Liv.) 
Eumeni inter Macedonas viventi multum detraxit, quod alienae erat 

civitatis. (Nep.) 

Praetereo quod Ulam sibi domum sedemque delegit. (Cic.) 
Fecit humaniter Licinius, quod ad me misso senatu vesperi venit. (Cic.) 
Super belli Latini metum id quoqua accesserat, quod triginta jam 

jurasse populos satis constabat. (Liv.) 
Often also such sentences are in apposition to an oblique case: 
Hoc uno praestamus vel niaxime feris, quod exprimere dicendo sensa 

possumus. (Cic.) 

;15 Facts explaining or defining a statement are often expressed by the 
indicative with ut, ' as? Thus a sentence with ut is found 

(a) Defining the order or degree: ut='j,' 'according as,' ''just 
as? The principal sentence often has ita, sic, perinde, pro. 
His, sicut erant nuntiata, expositis, consul de religione patres consu- 

luit. (Liv.) 

Ut sementem feceris, ita metes. (Cic.) 
Id, prout cujusque ingenium erat, interpretabantur. (Liv.) 

() Adducing a fact to be allowed for ; ut, prout, pro eo ut, ' in 
proportion to what] 'allowing for what? In early language also praeut, 
4 compared with.' 1 

At hi quidem, ut populi Romani aetas est, senes; ut Atheniensium 
saecla numerantur, adulescentes debent videri. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 291 

L. G. 19 

290 Subjunctive. (E) Consecutive. \Book IV. 

Ut non conferam vitam tuam cum Ulius, (neque enim est conferenda,) 

hoc ipsum conferam, quo tu te superiorem fingis. (Cic.) 
In quibus ut erraverim, legentes tamen non decepi, indicata et diversa 

opinione. (Quint.) 
Verum ut hoc non sit, tamen praeclarum spectaculum mihi propono, 

modo te concessore spectare liceat. (Cic.) 
Ut enim rationem Plato nullam adferret, (vide quid homini tribuam,) 

ipsa auctoritate me frangeret. (Cic.) 

(e) So of an impossible supposition put interrogatively. 

Hicine ut a nobis hoc tantum argenti auferat tarn aperte irridens ? 

emori hercle satiua est. (Ter.) 

Egone ut te interpellern ? ne hoc quidem vellem. (Cic.) 
Quanquam quid loquor ? te ut ulla res frangat ? tu ut unquam te 

corrigas ? tu ut ullam fugam meditere ? utinam tibi istam mentem 

di immortales duint. (Cic.) 
Inultus ut tu riseris Cotyttia volgata? (Hor.) 

(F) Subjunctive of attendant circumstances. 

716 The subjunctive with cum is in some of its uses very peculiar, but 
appears to be referable, like the preceding class, to the fact or event be- 
ing presented to the mind not as a mere definition of the time of the 
principal action, but as a cause or a possible cause of its occurrence, 
at least in the form in which it actually occurred. 

(F) The subjunctive expresses a real action, viewed as the 
attendant cause or circumstance, under, or notwithstand- 
ing, which other actions or events take place. 

718 1. With relative adjective: qui, 'inasmuch as hej ' although he* 
(qui praesertim, ' and that though hej} ; often with ut, ut pote, quippe, 
prefixed. So also ut ubi, &c. 

Peccasse mihi videor, qui a te discesserim. (Cic.) 
Me caecum, qui haec ante non viderim ! (Cic.) 

Nosmet ipsi, qui Lycurgei a principio fuissemus, quotidie demitigamur. 


Eeligione tactus hospes, qui omnia cuperet rite facta, extemplo de- 
scsndit ad Tiberim. (Liv.) 

Continued on p. 293 

Chap. XX.] Indicative: in temporal sentences. 291 

Sed mehercule, ut quidem nunc se causa habet, etsi nesterno sermone 
labefactata est, mihi tamen videtur esse verissima. (Cic.) 

Compararat Sthenius argenti bene facti, prout Thermitani hominis 
facultates ferebant, satis. (Cic.) 

(c) Making a concession : ut. . .ita, ' although '. . . 'yet." 1 (For quam- 
quam, utcunque, &c. see 711 () : for etsi, etiamsi, 650 r.) 
Verum ut errare, mi Planci, potuisti, (quis enim id effugerit ?) sic 

decipi te non potuisse quis non videt ? (Cic.) 
Saguntini, ut a proeliis quietem habuerant, ita non nocte, non die, 

unquam cessaverant ab opere. (Liv.) 

(J) Admitting the truth of what is put only as a concession or 
thought; ut, sicut, l as, in fact? 
Sit Ennius, ut est certe, perfection (Cic.) 
Terrendi magis hostes erant quam fallendi, sicut territi sunt. (Liv.) 

(e) Explaining by reference to a permanent habit, or to a state ; 
ut, sicut. Ut is immediately followed by est, sunt, &c. 
Venetorum auctoritate finitirai adducti, ut sunt Gallorum subita et 

repentina consilia, eadem de causa Trebium retinent. (Caes.) 
Permulta alia conligit Cnrysippus, ut est in omni historia curiosus. 

(/) In asseverations: 

Ita vivam, ut maximos sumptus facio. (Cic.) 

Indicative in relative and temporal sentences. 

717 Sentences with cum in the indicative mood are very frequent, but 
they denote the bare time when a thing occurred, without grammatically 
implying any sort of connexion between the principal event and that 
which marks the date of its occurrence. The comic poets, and Cicero 
in certain sentences (r), use cum for 'since,' 1 where later writers, and 
Cicero as a general rule, use quoniam, or resort to the subjunctive. 

The indicative expresses merely the fact, without implying 
any connexion between this and that event, although such connexion 
may exist. 

719 ! (#) With relative adjective; qui = 'ybr he,"* 'and yet he." 1 Some- 
times (in Plautus, Sallust, and Livy) quippe qui. 
Tu dies noctesque cruciaris, cui nee sat es, quod est, et id ipsum ne 

non diuturnum sit futurum, times. (Cic.) 

O fidam dextram Antoni, qua ille plurimos cives trucidavit. (Cic.) 
Habeo senectuti magnam gratiam, quae mihi sermonis aviditatem 

auxit, potionis et cibi sustulit. (Cic.) 
At Jugurtha contra spem nuntio accepto, quippe cui Romae omnia 

venum ire in animo haeserat, ad senatum legatos mittit. (Sail.) 

Continued on p. 293 

292 Subjunctive. (F) Attendant circumstances. [Book IV. 

Castra repetunt pavorls et tumultus Jam plena, ut ubi feminae puerique 

et alia imbellis turba permixta esset. (Liv.) 
Soils candor inlustrior est quam ullius ignis, quippe qui inmenso 

mundo tarn longe lateque conluceat. (Cic.) 
Tribuno plebis quaestor non paruisti, cui tuus praesertim coUega pare- 

ret. (Cic.) 

720 2. With relative adjectives and adverbs: of cases frequently 
occurring; with quicumque, cum, ubi, seu, &c. in Livy and later 
writers (rarely, if ever, in Cicero, Caesar, or Sallust) and only in plu- 
perfect and (sometimes) imperfect. Cum = whenever. 

Cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant. (Liv.) 

Neque nereditatem cujusquam adiit, nisi cum amicitia meruisset. 


Id fetialis ubi dixisset, hastam in fines eorum emittebat. (Liv.) 

Pnilopoemen ubi iter quopiam faceret et ad difflcilem transitu saltum 
venisset, contemplatus ab omni parte loci naturam, cum solus iret, 
secum ipse agitabat animo, quum comites haberet, ab iis quaere- 
bat, si hostis eo loco apparuisset quid capieudum cousilii foret. 


Vescebatur et ante cenam, quocumque tempore et loco stomachus 
desiderasset. (Suet.) 

Quocunque se intulisset, victoriam secum haud dubiam trahebat. (Liv.) 

Quotiens super tali negotio consultaret, edita domus parte ac liberti 
unius conscientia utebatur. (Tac.) 

Nee consul Romanus temptandis urbibus, sicunde spes aliqua se osten- 
disset, deerat. (Liv.) 

722 3. With (quom) cum, the subjunctive implies that the event, 
action, c. exercises, or might exercise, an influence on the event, 
action, &c. named in the principal sentence. (This use is rare in 

The clause with cum usually precedes (the whole or at least the 
verb of) the principal sentence, but sometimes is placed after it by way 
of explanation or contrast, see 724, 730, 734. 

The subjunctive is used as follows : 

() Of actions, events, &c. recounted not as mere marks of time, 
but as essential parts of the historical narrative ; in imperfect and plu- 
perfect tenses. 

Though 'when' often serves to translate cum into English, the 
effect in such sentences is best given thus ; e.g. cum rediret, ' returning ,' 
''as he returned ;' cum redisset, ' having returned,' l on his return .' 

Continued on p. 294 

Chap. XX '.] Indicative: in temporal sentences. 2 93 

() So especially where the quality displayed by the principal 
action is the antecedent to the relative. (Qui= ' such.' 1 ) 

Si mihi negotium permisisses, qui meus amor in te est, confecissem. 


Consurgitur in consilium, cum sententias Oppianicus, quae tune erat 
potestas, palam fieri velle dixisset. (Cic.) 

721 a. With relative adjectives and adverbs: of cases frequently 
occurring, or occurring not more at one time than at another ; with 
quicumque, cum, ubi, quoties, simul ac, si, ut quisque, &c., especially 
the perfect, pluperfect, and completed future tenses, in subordination 
respectively to the present, imperfect, and future in principal clause. 
Cum = ' whenever? 

Cum ad villam veni, hoc ipsum nihil agere et plane cessare me delectat. 

Cum paterfamiliae illustriore loco natus decessit, ejus propinqui con- 

veniunt. (Caes.) 

Quocunque aspexisti, ut furiae, sic tuae tibi occurrunt injuriae. (Cic.) 
Ubi per socordiam vires tempus ingenium diffluxere, naturae infirmitas 

accusatur. (Sail.) 
Quisquis erat qui aliquam partem in meo luctu sceleris Clodiani atti- 

gisset, quocumque venerat, quod judicium cumque subierat, dam- 

nabatur. (Cic.) 
Plerumque milites stativis castris habebat, nisi cum odos aut pabuli 

egestas locum mutare subegerat, (Sail.) 
Ego, cum a nostro Catone laudabar, vel reprehend! me a ceteris facile 

patiebar. (Cic.) 
Si ab persequendo hostis deterrere nequiverant, disjectos ab tergo cir- 

cumveniebant. (Sail.) 

Ut cujusque sors exciderat, alacer arma raptim capiebat. (Liv.) 
Nee hie puer, quotiescunque me viderit, ingemescet ac pestem patris 

sui se dicet videre. (Cic.) 

723 3- With conjunctions of time, other than cum, e.g. ut, ubi, postea- 
quam (postquam), simul ac, and, in Plautus occasionally, quoniam, 
the indicative is used in expressing the event on, or sometimes since, 
the occurrence of which something else takes place. (For dum, 
&c. see 693 sqq., for priusquam, 699.) 

Pompeius, ut equitatum suum pulsum vidit, acie excessit. (Caes.) 
Quae ubi spreta sententia est, iterumque eodem remeante nuntio con- 

sulebatur, censuit ad unum omnes interficiendos. (Liv.) 
Alia subinde spes, postquam haec vana evaserat, excepit. (Liv.) 
Posteaquam victoria constituta est ab armisque recessimus, cum pro- 

Bcriberentur homines, erat Roscius Romae frequens. (Cic.) 
Quern simul ac Juturna soror crebescere vidit sermonem, in medias dat 

sese acies. (Verg.) 

Continued on p. 295 

294 Subjunctive. (F) Attendant circumstances. \Book IV. 

Cum portae appropinquaret, editus ex composite ignis ab Hannibale 

est...Nota vox Philomeni et familiare jam signum quum excitasset 

vigilem, portula aperitur. (Liv.) 
Pnocion cum ad mortem duceretur, obvius ei fuit EpMletus...Is cum 

lacrimans dixisset ' quam indigna perpeteris, Pnocion ! ' liuic ille 

' at non inopinata ' inquit. (Nep.) 
Meridie cum Caesar pabulandi causa tres legiones misisset, repente 

hostes ex omnibus partibus ad pabulatores advolaverunt. (Caes.) 
Zenonem, cum Athenis essem, audiebam frequenter. (Cic.) 
Cum intempesta nox esset, mansissemque in villa P. Valerii, postridie- 

que apud eundem ventum exspectans manerem, municipes Regini 

plurimi ad me venerunt, (Cic.) 

724 The following are instances of the clause with cum being subsequent: 
Attrahitur a Veneriis Lollius commodum, cum Apronius e palaestra 

redisset et in triclinio recubuisset. (Cic.) 

Ingressus urbem est quo comitatu vel potius agmine J cum dextra 
sinistra, gemente populo Romano, minaretur dominis, notaret 
domos, divisurum se urbem palam suis polliceretur. (Cic.) 

So especially cum diceret, ' saying, as he did ' = ' on the ground that, 
as he said' (Compare quod diceret, 742.) 

Cotidie meam potentiam invidiose criminabatur, cum diceret senatum, 
non quod sentiret, sed quod ego vellem decernere. (Cic.) 

726 The clause with cum is sometimes tantamount to a secondary (often 
oblique) predicate of a thing seen, heard, &c. (Imperfect tense.) With 
this use of the subjunctive comp. fuit cum diceret, &c. 706. 
Saepe e socero meo audivi, cum is diceret socerum suum Laelium sem- 
per fere cum Scipione solitum rusticari. (Cic.) 

Adulescentium greges Lacedaemone vidimus ipsi incredibili contentione 
certantis, cum exanimarentur prius quam victos se faterentur. 


728 () Of the grounds or reason of an action, &c. Cum = ' since,' 1 
' whereas? 

Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, perge quo coepisti, (Cic.) 
Atqui necesse est, cum sint dl, si modo sunt, ut profecto sunt, ani- 

mantis esse, (Cic,) 
Dionysius, cum in communibus suggestis consistere non auderet, con- 

tionari ex turri alta solebat. (Cic.) 

730 The following are instances of the clause with cum being subse- 
quent : 
Venit ad nos Cicero tuus ad cenam, cum Pomponia foras cenaret. 


Quid facient crines, cum ferro talia cedant ? (Cat.) 
Quid faciat custos, cum sint tot in urbe theatra, quoque sui comites 
ire vetentur, eat ? (Oy.) 

Continued on p. 296 

Chap. XX.] Indicative: in temporal sentences. 295 

4. With (quom) cum, the indicative mood is used in the following 
meanings and uses (besides those in 705, 707, 721). 

725 (a) Coincidence in point of time. Cum=' when? ' at the 
time when? 

The event put in the indicative with cum is regarded as one which 
would not have been mentioned at all, except for the purpose of defin- 
ing the time. 

Cum liaec leges, habebimus consules. (Cic.) 

Cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus sollicitabat civitatium 

animos. (Liv.) 
Cum primum Romam venl, nihil prius faciendum putavi, quam ut tibi 

absent! de reditu nostro gratularer. (Cic.) 
Reliquum est, ut ante, quam proficiscare, scribas ad me omnia, cum 

profectus eris, cures ut sciam. (Cic.) 
De nomine tyranni hoc respondere possum, me, qualiscumque sum, 

eundem esse, qui fui cum tu ipse mecum societatem pepigisti. 

Cum Placentiam consul venit, jam ex stativis moverat Hannibal. 

In isto genere fuimus ipsi, cum ambitionis nostrae tempora postula- 

bant. (Cic.) 
Quae nemora aut qui vos saltus habuere, pueUae Naides, indigno cum 

Gallus amore peribat ? (Verg.) 
Turn cum in Asia res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae solu- 

tione impedita fidem concidisse. (Cic.) 

Eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat ; fratres illi Cibyratae inambulabant. 


727 () So in reckoning the length of time : cum= ' to the time that." 
Triginta dies erant ipsi, cum has dabani litteras, per quos nullas a 

vobis acceperam. (Cic.) 
Nondum centum et decem anni sunt, cum de pecuniis repetundis a 

L. Pisone lata lex est, nulla antea cum fuisset. (Cic.) 

729 (f) Reason; in early writers : in Cicero only where the verb in the 
principal sentence is laudo, gratulor, &c. Not after Cicero. Quom = 
' because? 
Di tibi oinnes omnia optata offerant, quom me tanto honore honestas, 

quomque ex vinclis eximis. (Plaut.) 
Quom te di amant, voluptatist mihi. (Plaut.) 
Gratulor tibi, cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam. (Cic.) 

In the following sentences, though similar otherwise to some in 730, 
the mood shows that coincidence in time only is marked. (Compare also 

Quid domini faciant, audent cum talia fores ? (Verg.) 
Quid sapiens faciet, stultus cum munere gaudet ? (Ov.) 

Continued on />. 297 

296 Subjunctive. (F) Attendant circumstances. \Book IV. 

' 3 ^ (r) Of events, actions, &c. notwithstanding which other 
events, &c. take place. Cumr=' although." 1 
Druentia flmnen, cum. aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium 

patiens est. (Liv.) 

Pylades cum sis, dices te esse Oresten, ut moriare pro amico ? (Cic.) 
Ipse Cicero, cum tenuissima valetudine esset, ne nocturnum quidem 

sibi tempus ad quietem relinquebat. (Caes.) 
Nunc cum ejus alienum esse animum a me sentiam, quamobrem red- 

ducam ? (Ter.) 
Hoc ipso texnpore, cum omnia gymnasia philosophi teneant, tamen 

eorum auditores discum audire quam philosophum malunt. (Cic.) 

734 The following are instances of the clause with cum being subse- 
quent : 

Cum=' and yet] ' while all the time" 1 (cf. 724), cum praesertim, 
' and that too though." 1 
Quomodo igitur hoc in genere accusas Sestium, cum idem laudes 

Milonem ? (Cic.) 
Cimulat se eorum praesidio confidere, cum interea aliud quiddam jam 

diu machinetur. (Cic.) 
Fadium abstractum delodit in ludo et vivum conbussit ; cum quidem 

pransus, nudis pedibus, tunica soluta, manibus ad tergum rejectis 

inambularet, et illi misero quiritanti responderet, Abi nunc, 

populi fidem inplora. (Asin. Poll.) 
Thucydides nunquam est numeratus orator ; nee vero, si historiam non 

Bcripsisset, nomen exstaret,- cum praesertim fuisset honoratus et 

nobilis. (Cic.) 

736 (d) Of an action or event, &c. rhetorically contrasted with a later or 
particular action, &c. of the same sort ; especially where the time of the 
two actions is different. 
Sisennae historia cum facile omnis vincat superiores, turn indicat tamen, 

quantum absit a summo. (Cic.) 

Cum te a pueritia tua unice dilexerim, turn hoc vel tuo facto vel populi 
Romani de te judicio multo acrius diligo. (Cic.) 


CONTINGENT ASSERTIONS,- &c. with contrasted use of 

(G) Subjunctive of reported statements. 

738 THE subjunctive in all the sentences classed here serves to distin- 
guish what is reported from what is uttered at first hand. These sen- 
tences are not like those in the next head, dependent on infinitive or 
subjunctive moods, but (except for some collateral reason) on the indi- 

Continued on p. 298 

'Chap. XXL~\ Indicative: in temporal sentences. 297 

731 (*0 Identity of action. (Present and perfect tenses.) Usually 
the tense and person of the verb in both sentences are the same. Cum 
' when] ' in that." 1 

Qui, cum hunc accusant, Naevium Plautum Ennium accusant. (Ter.) 
De te autem, Catilina, cum quiescunt, probant ; cum patiuntur, decer- 

nunt ; cum tacent, clamant. (Cic.) 
Concede tibi, ut ea praetereas, quae, cum taces, nihil esse concedis. 

Epicurus ex animis hominum extraxit radicitus religionem, cum in dis 

inmortalibus opem et gratiam sustulit. (Cic.) 

733 In some sentences (from Plantus and Terence) similar to some on the 
opposite page, 732, the coincidence in time serves to set off strongly the 
unreasonableness of the action. (Compare 729.) tynom=z' although.* 
Quid igitur faciam ? non earn ? ne nunc quidem, cum accersor ultro ? 

Hei mihi, insanire me aiunt ultro, quom ipsi insaniunt. (Plant.) 

735 00 The coincidence in time is sometimes vividly expressed by an 
inversion ; what would otherwise have been the temporal clause being 
put first as an independent sentence (often with jam), and what would 
have been the principal sentence being subjoined with cum, often cum 
repente, cum interim, &c. Cum = et turn. 
Milites, postquam in aedis irrupere, divorsi regem quaerere, strepitu et 

tumultu omnia miscere, cum interim Hiempsal reperitur, occul- 

tans se tugurio mulieris ancillae. (Sail.) 
Castra in hostico incuriose posita, cum subito advenere Samnitium 

legiones. (Liv.) 
Hannibal subibat muros, cum repente in eum, nihil minus quam tale 

quicquam timentem, patefacta porta erumpunt Romani. (Liv.) 
Jamque hoc facere noctu apparabant, cum matres familiae repente in 

publicum procurrerunt. (Caes.) 

737 (/) In a simple combination with faint contrast of two actions 
(subjunctive more usual). Cum = whilst, both (turn = and). 
Cum ipsam cognitionem juris augurii consequi cupio, turn mehercule 

tuis incredibiliter studiis erga me muneribusque delector. (Cic.) 
Cum te semper maxime dilexi, turn fratrum tuorum singularis pietas 

nullum me patitur officii erga te munus praetermittere. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 299 

298 Subjunctive. (G) Reported reason. \_Book 

The subjunctive expresses a definition or reason or 
condition or question reported, but not as the speaker's 
or writer's own at the time of speaking or writing: in a 
subordinate sentence. 

For the distinctive use of tenses, see 635 sqq. 

740 1. Reported definition or reason: with relative adjective. 
Faetus omnes libros, quos frater suus reliquisset, mini donavit. (Gic.) 
Magna proponit iis, qui regem occiderint, praemia. (Caes.) 
Interim cotidie Caesar Heduos frumentum, quod essent publice pol- 
liciti, flagitare. (Gaes.) 

2. Reported or .assumed reason: with adverb, quod, quia; 
non quod, noii quia, non quo. non quin. 
Laudat Fanaetius Africanum, quod fuerit abstinens. (Cic.) 
An paenitet vos quod salvum exercitum traduxerim? quod classem 

hostium primp impetu adveniens profligaverim 7 quod bis per 

biduum equestri proelio superaverim ? &c. (Caes.) 
Caesar sua senatusque in eum beneficia commemoravit, quod rex ap- 

peUatus esset a senatu, qupd amicus, quod munera aniplissima 

missa. (Caes.) 
Eomani. quia consules, ubi sumraa rerura esset, ad id locorum pros- 

pere rem gererent, minus his cladibus commovebantur. (Liv.) 
Pugiles in jactandis caestibus ingemescunt, non quod doleant animove 

succumbant, sed quia profundenda voce oxnne corpus intenditur 

venitque plaga vehementyor. X^^-) 
Mini quidem laudabiliora videntur, quae sine yenditatione et sine 

populo teste fiunt, non quo fugiendus sit, (omnia enim bene facta 

in luce se conlocari volunt,) sed tamen nullum theatrum virtuti 

conscientia majus est. (Cic.) 
Non tarn, ut prosini causis elaborate soleo, quam ut ne quid obsim : 

non quin enitendum sit in utroque, sed tamen multo est turpius 

oratori nocuisse videri cauaae, quam non profuisse. (Cic.) 

742 By a carelessness of expression the -verb .of ' saying ' or ' thinking ' is 
sometimes put in the subjunctive instead of the thing said. So especially 
diceret, dicerent. (Compare 724.) 
Cum enim Hannibalis permissu exisset de castrls, rediit paulo post, 

quod se oblitum nescio quid diceret. (Cic.) 
Qui istinc veniunt, superbiam tuam accusant, quod negent te percon- 

tantibus respondere. (Cic.) 

744 The clause with quod sometimes simply introduces a matter for remark. 
If this is stated as a supposition only, the .subjunctive is used. 
Miles, edico tibi, si te in platea offendero hac post umquam, quod dicas 

mihi, ' alium quaerebam, iter hac habui,' periisti. (Ter. ) 
Quod enim te liberation jam existimationis metu, defunctum honoribus, 
desig-natum consulem cogites, mihi crede, ornamenta ista et bene- 
ficia populi Roman! non xninore negotio retinentur quam compa- 
rantur. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 300 

Chap. JOT/.] Indicative: with quod, quia, &v. 299 

Indicative: in contrasted usages. 

739 The indicative expresses a fact; or a direct statement of 
opinion of the writer or speaker. 

i. With relative adjective. 

Paetus omnes libros, quos frater ejus reliquerat, mini donavit. 
Verres mittit rogatum vasa ea, quae pulcherrima apucl eum vlderat. 


Negavit se judices ex lege Rupilia sortiturum : quinque judices, quos 
commodum ipsi fuit, dedit. (Cic.) 

741 2. With causal conjunctions, quod, quia, quoniam, quando, 
siquidem, quatenus, ''inasmuch as." 1 (For quod see also 713.) 
Neque vero, quid mini irascare, intellegere possum. Si, quod eum 

defendo, quern tu accusas, cur tibi ego non succenseo, quod ac- 

cusas eum, quern ego defendo ? (Cic.) 
Ita fit ut adsint propterea, quod officium Eequuntur, taceant autem 

Idcirco, quia periculum yitant. (Cic.) 
Quod spiratis, quod vocem mittitis, quod formas hominum habetis, 

indignantur. (Liv,) 
Tusculanum et Pompejanum valde me delectant, nisi quod me aere 

alieno obruerunt. (Cic.) 

Vos, Quirites, quoniam jam nox est, in vestra tecta discedite. (Cic.) 
Quando igitur virtus est adfectio animi, laudabiles efficiens eos, in 

quibus est, ex ea proficiscuntur honestae voluntates. (Cic.) 
Summa utilitas est in iis qui militari laude antecellunt, siquidem 

eorum consilio et periculo cum republics turn etiam nostris rebus 

perfrui possumus. (Cic.) 
Quandoquidem apud te nee auctoritas senatus nee aetas mea valet, 

tribunes plebis appello, (Liv.) 
Cur enim non usquequaque Homericis versibus agam tecum, quatenus 

tu me tuis agere non pateris ? (Plin.) 
Quo quidem etiam magis sum exercitus, non quia mujtis debeo, sed 

quia saepe concurrunt aliquorum de me meritorum inter ipsos 

contentiones. (Cic.) 

743 Quod with indicative often expresses a fact, which is not so much the 
cause of the action of the principal verb, as the cause of the statement, a 
matter for remark. 

Quod scribis, te si velim ad me venturam, ego vero istic esse volo. (Cic.) 
Quod Silius te cum Clodio loqui vult, potes id mea voluntate facere. 


Quae cum ita sint, quod C. Pansa consul verba fecit de litteris, quae a 
Q. Caepione adlatae sunt, de ea re ita censeo. (Cic.) 

Continued on p. 301 

3oo Subjunctive. ' (G) Reported condition. \Book IV. 

746 3. Reported condition: the apodosis not being set out sepa- 
rately, but absorbed into the principal sentence. 

(a) Praetor aedem Diovi vovit, si eo die hostes fudisset. (Liv.) 
Metellus evocat ad se magistrates ; nisi restituissent statuas, vehe- 
ment er minatur 1 . (Cic.) 

Jugurtha timebat iram senatus, ni paruisset legatis 2 . (Sail.) 
Nee illos periculum, si animus host! redisset, cogere potuit gradum 

accelerare. (Liv.) 

Hernici pudore etiam, non misericordia solum, moti, si nee obstitissent 3 
communibus hostibus, nee opem ullam obsessis sociis ferrent, 
Eomam pergunt. (Liv.) 

Cur M. Brutus, referente te, legibus est solutus, si ab urbe plus quam 
decem dies afuisset 4 ? (Cic.) 

(/>) So especially in legal forms ; si, ni, uti, quicquid, &c. 
Rubrius Apronium sponsione lacessivit, ni Apronius dictitaret te sibi in 

decumis esse socium. (Cic.) 
ASrmabant qui una meruerant, secum Caesonem turn, frequentemque 

ad sig-na sine ullo commeatu fuisse. Nisi ita esset, multi privatim 

ferebant Volscio judicem. (Liv.) 

748 (r) Sometimes the apodosis is omitted altogether, perhaps not even 
distinctly conceived (comp. 658 r, 662). The principal sentence states 
the action taken or feelings excited in contemplation of a particular 
event, the conditional sentence states the condition on which the event 
would take place; this contemplated event itself, which is the real 
apodosis, is not stated. The conditional sentence appears like a de- 
pendent question. Si =' whet her? (Possim, possem, &c. are fre- 
quently found in the conditional clause.) 
Quaesivit iterum, si cum Romanis militare liceret. (Liv.) 
Hanc paludem si nostri transirent, hostes expectabant. (Caes.) 
Tentata res est, si primo impetu capi Ardea posset. (Liv.) 
Ad Gonnum castra movet, si potiri oppido posset. (Liv.) 

753 4. Reported question. (Dependent interrogative.) 

(N.B. A rhetorical question in the first or third person, not de- 
pendent on a verb of asking, but being part of a continuous report of a 
speech, is put in the infinitive: see ch. xxn.) 

() Qui sermo fuerit, et quid actum sit, scribam ad te, quum certum 

sciam. (Cic.) 
Sum circumvectus : ita ubi nunc sim nescio. (Plant.) 

Nunc has exspectationes habemus duas, unam, quid Caesar actums 
sit, alteram, quid Pompeius agat. (Cic.) 

Lesbonicum hie adulescentem quaero, in his regionibus ubi habitet. 


Continued on p. 3oz 

Chap. XXI.~\ Indicative. Contrasted usages. 301 

745 The following is a vow in direct language. 

Si duellum, quod cum rege Antiocho sum! populus jussit, id ex sen- 
tentia senatus populique Roman! confectum erit, turn tibi, Juppi- 
ter, populus Romanus ludos magnos dies decem continues faciet. 

(ap. Liv.) 

1 i.e. minatur, nisi restituissent statuas, se iis malum daturum. 

2 i. e. timebat, nisi paruisset legatis, ne senatus irasceretur. 

3 i. e. Hernici haec secum reputabant : Pudebit nos, si nee obsti- 
terimus, &c. ; or pudere se, si nee obstitissent, &c. 

4 i.e. Referente M. Antonio, senatui placuit ut M. Brutus, si... 
afuisset, leglbus solveretur. 

747 A thing to be ascertained is sometimes expressed as the condition, in- 
stead of being expressed as the object, of the seeing or knowing. 

Ibo visam, si domist. (Ter.) 
Nunc redeo : si forte frater redierit, viso. (Ter.) 
Mirum ni Me me quasi muraenam exossare cogitat. (Plaut.) 
Tu nisi mirumst, leno, plane perdidisti mulierem. (Plaut.) 
Miror, ilia superbia et importunitate si (Tarquinius) queniquam amicum 
nabere potuit. (Cic.) 

749 3- A direct question (or exclamation) is put in the indicative 
mood (unless it concerns what some one is to do, not what he is or 
was doing: see 631. 45 674). 
Ut valet ? ut meminit nostri ? (Hor.) 

Atticus. "Qui sermo fuit? quid actum est?" Cicero. " Scribam ad 
te, quum certum sciam.'' 

751 In conversational or animated language a question is often put, 
logically though not grammatically dependent on another verb or sen- 
tence, e.g. on such expletives as die mini, loquere, cedo, responde, 
expedi, narra, vide ; rogo, volo scire, fac sciam ; viden, audin, scin ; 
&c. So frequently in Plautus and Terence, even where later writers 
would make the question dependent and use the subjunctive. (Com- 
pare English 'Tell me, where are youV ''Tell me where you are."} 
Cf. 671, 673. 

Continued on p. 303 

302 Subjunctive. (G) Reported question. \Book IV. 

Rogitant me ut valeam, quid agam, quid rerum geram. (Plaut.) 
Vide quam iniquos sis prae studio. (Ter.) 
Videte, ut hoc iste correxerit. (Cic.) 

Quid fait causae, cur in Africam Caesarem non sequerere, cum prae- 
sertim belli pars tanta restaret ? (Cic.) 

In curiam compelluntur incerti, quatenus Volero exerceret victoriam. 


Legatos speculari jusserunt, num sollicitati animi sociorum ab reg3 
Perseo essent. (Liv.) 

752 ' Laeter ' ait ' doleanme geri lacrimabile bellum, in dubio est.' (Ov.; 
Hoc doce, doleam, necne doleam, nihil interesse. (Cic.) 

Tantum id interest, veneritne eo itinere ad urbem, an ab urbe in Cam- 
paniam redierit. (Liv.) 

Quid quaeris ? Perisse omnia aiebat, quod haud seio an ita sit. (Cic.) 

754 () Sentences with forsitaa (tors' sit an), and some with quin, fall 
strictly under the head of dependent questions. 

Concede : forsitan aliquis aliquando ejusmodi quippiam fecerit. (Cic.) 
Quid ? ilia quae forsitan ne sentiamus quidem, quanta sunt ! (Cic.) 
Quid est causae quin coloniam in Janiculum possint deducere ? (Cic.) 
Alterum dici non potest, quin ii qui nihil metuant, nihil angantur, ninil 

concupiscant, beati sint. (Cic.) 
Neque Caesarem fefellit quin ab iis cohortibus, quae contra equitatum 

in quarta acie collocatae essent, initium victoriae oriretur. 


Orgetorix mortuus est : neque abest suspicio, ut Helvetii arbitrantur, 
quin ipse sibi mortem consciverit. (Caes.) 

756 (<:) A question simply repeated in astonishment, &c. by the hearer is 
similarly put in the subjunctive, if dependent on an interrogative pronoun. 

Quid ergo narras? AN. Quid ego narrem? opera tua ad restim mini 

quidem res redit planissume. (Ter.) 
Enem, Demea, baud aspexeram te : quid agitur ? DE. Quid agatur ? 

vostram nequeo mirari satis rationem. (Ter. ) 

Continued on p. 304 

Chap. XX '/] Indicative: in direct questions, &c. 303 

Die, ubi ea mine est, obsecro ? (Plaut.) 

Nimis velim, certum qui id faciat mini, ubi Ballio Me leno habitat. 


Scire volo, quoi reddidisti ? (Plaut.) 

Quis ego sum saltern, si non sum Sosia ? te interrogo. (Plaut.) 
Rogo vos, judices, num si iste disertus est, ideo me damnari oportet ? 


Vide, num ejus color pudoris signum usquam indicat ? (Ter.) 
At enim scin', quid mi in mentem venit ? (Plaut.) 
Ergo mecastor pulcher est : vide, caesaries quam decet ! (Plaut.) 
Viden, limulis, obsecro, ut contuentur | (Plaut.) 

753 4. Relative definitions are liable to be confused with dependent 
questions. Scio quid quaeras, '/ know your question." 1 Scio quod 
quaeris, '/ know the answer to your question? Scio quantum tu scis, 
4 / know as much as you? Scio quantum tu scias, ' / know how much 
you know." 1 Dico quod sentio, ' 1 say what I mean ' 'I mean what I say." 1 
Dico quid sentiam, 'J give you my opinion? Utrum placet, roga, 'Put 
whichever question you like? Utrum placeat, roga, ' Ask 'which is 

Senes omnia quae curant meminerunt, vadintdnia constituta, qui sibi, 

cui ipsi debeant. (Cic.) 

Ausculta paucis, et, quid te ego velim et tu quod quaeris, scies. (Ter.) 
Quid concupiscas, tu videris : quod concupiveris, certe habebis. 


755 5. Forsitan is (c'hiefly in the pacts and later writers) sometimes put 
with indicative, as if it were the same as fortasse. 
Forsitan haec aliquis, nam sunt quoque, parva vocabit. (Ov.) 
Forsitan, infelix, ventos undasque timebas. (Ov.) 

In some expressions, especially with nescio quis, &c. the fact of the 
action is asserted in the indicative, a'nd the verb belonging to the de- 
pendent question is omitted. (Nescio quis = 'some one or other?) 

Venit eccum Calidorus ; ducit nescioquem secum simul. (Plaut.) 
Minime assentior iis, qui istam nescio quam indolentiam magno opere 

laudant, quae nee potest ulla esse, nee debet. (Cic.) 
Acutae crebraeque sententiae ponentur, et nescio unde ex abdito erutae 

757 6. A reply often puts interrogatively or admiratively some of the words 
of the other speaker. The mood is not changed (unless the case falls under 
756), but the person or pronoun is changed if necessary. Frequently 
autem accompanies the reply. 

AC. Tuus pater CH. Quid meus pater ? AC. Tuam amicam. CH. Quid 
earn? AC. Vidit. CH. Vidit ? vae misero mini. (Plaut.) 

Quaeso edepol te, exsurge : pater advenit. CA. Tuus venit pater ? Jube 
eum abire rursum. (Plaut.) 

Continued on p. 305 

304 Subjunctive, (H) Because dependent, &c. {Book IV. 

(H) Subjunctive because dependent on another subjunctive 
or infinitive. 

758 Subordinate sentences are often found with the verb in the subjunc- 
tive, not because of any special meaning (e. g. a non-real condition, a 
command, purpose, concession, &c.) which the verb has to express, 
but because they are stated not as a fact but as part of a thought. 
The principal sentence which they qualify has its verb in the infinitive 
or subjunctive. (If the subordinate sentence would in any case have 
had the subjunctive, even though the principal sentence had the in- 
dicative or imperative, it is not referred to this head, but to the head 
suitable to the special meaning.) 

The subjunctive expresses an action qualifying another 
supposed, or abstractly conceived, action, i.e. in sentences 
forming an essential part of an infinitive or subjunctive sentence, and 
neither expressing an independent declaration of facts, nor simply 
definitive of existing persons or things or classes. 

N.B. To this head belongs the substitution of the subjunctive for 
the indicative, when a speech or thoughts are reported. 

These sentences are chiefly relative, or introduced by si, cum, dum, 
or quod. 

760 1. Subjunctive, because dependent on infinitive. 

For the distinctive use of tenses, see 636. 
Jam mini videor navasse operam, quod hue venerim. (Cic.) But 

navavi operam, quod hue veni. 
Sapiens non dubitat, si ita melius sit, migrare de vita. (Cic.) But 

si ita melius est, migro de vita. 
Hoc video, dum breviter voluerim dicere, dictum esse a me paullo 

obscurius. (Cic.) Hoc dum breviter volui dicere, dictum est, &c. 
Negant intueri lucem esse fas ei, qui a se hominem occisum esse 

fateatur. (Cic.) From lucem non debet ille intueri, qui... fatetur. 
Non enim is sum, qui, quicquid videtur, tale dicam esse, quale videatur. 

(Cic.) Tale est, quale videtur. 
Romulus, ut natus sit, cum Remo fratre dicitur ab Amulio exponi jussus 

esse. (Cic.) From Romulus, ut natus est, expositus est. 

2. Subjunctive, because dependent on subjunctive (usually on 
one which expresses an hypothesis, condition, purpose, result, or re- 
ported speech). 

Si luce quoque canes latrent, quum deos salutatum aliqui venerint, 
crura, opinor, eis suffringantur, quod acres sint etiam turn, quum 
suspitio nulla sit. (Cic.) From his canibus crura suffringuntur, 
quod acres sunt, quum suspitio nulla est. 

Continued on p. 306 

Chap. XX 7.] Indicative : although dependent \ &c. 305 

Indicative although dependent on a subjunctive or 

759 The use of the subjunctive mood in sentences subordinate to a prin- 
cipal clause which has the subjunctive or infinitive is carefully re- 
stricted, so as not to throw an air of unreality about what is intended 
to be stated as fact. There are indeed many sentences in which it 
matters not whether the subordinate clause retain the indicative, and 
thus state a thing as it appears to all, or whether the subjunctive be 
used so as to state the same fact as part of the thought of the speaker 
or some one else. But there are other sentences where what is a fact 
is to be stated as such, and then the indicative must be used. Especially 
frequent in this way is the indicative with ut, * as,' and dum when 
simply meaning * while? Obviously in these cases a subjunctive might 
suggest a wrong meaning, e. g. a purpose or consequence or proviso. 

The indicative is regularly found where the sentence, grammatically 
dependent on a subjunctive or infinitive sentence, contains an inde- 
pendent declaration of fact, and frequently in other sentences, 
which express simple definitions or qualifications. 

76i i. Indicative, although dependent on infinitive. 

Apud Hypanim fluvium, qui ab Europae parte in Pontum influit, Aris- 
toteles ait bestiolas quasdam iiasci, quae unum diem vivant. 

Eloquendi vis efficit, ut et ea, quae ignoramus, discere, et ea, quae 

scimus, alios docere possinms. (Cic.) 

Putasne posse facere, ut, quae Verres nefarie fecerit, ea aeque acerba 
et indigna videantur esse his, qui audient, atque illis visa sunt, 
qui senserunt ? (Cic.) 

Ita mini salvam rempublicam sistere liceat, ut moriens feram mecum 
spem, mansura in vestigio suo fundamenta reipublicae quae jecero. 


Vos quoque aequum est, quae vestra munia sunt, quo quisque loco 
positus erit, quod imperabitur, impigre praestare. (Liv.) 

2. Indicative, although dependent on subjunctive. 

Mors si timeretur, non L. Brutus arcens eum reditu tyrannum, quern 

ipse expulerat, in proelio concidfsset. (Cic.) 
Si haec contra ac dico essent omnia, tamen, &c. (Cic.) 
Ego omnibus, unde petitur, hoc consilii dederim. (Cic.) 
IUud quidem statim curatur, ut quicquid caelati argent! fuit in illius 

bonis, ad istum deferatur. (Cic.) I.e. the result of the orders was 

that all the plate was taken to Verres' house. The subj. would 

have implied that this was the order. 

Continued on p. 307 
L. G. 20 

306 Subjunctive. (H) Because dependent. [Book IV. 

In Hortensio memoria fuit tanta, quantam in nullo cognovisse me arbi- 
tror, ut, quae secum commentatus esset, ea sine scripto verbis 
eisdem redderet, quibus cogitavisset. (Gic.) From quae secum 
commentatus erat ea,..reddebat, quibus cogitaverat. 

Sic eaim mini perspicere videor, ita natos esse nos, ut inter omnes 
esset Bocietas quaedam, major autem, ut quisque proximo acce- 
deret. (Cic.) From inter omnes est societas...ut accedit. 

Erant multi, qui quamquam non ita se rem habere arbitrarentur, 
tamen libenter id, quod dixl, de illis oratoribus praedicarent. (Gic.) 
From multi quamquam... arbitraretur tamen... praedicabant. 

Facburusne operae pretium aim, si a primordio urbis res populi Ro- 
mani perscripserim nee satis scio, nee, si sciain, clicere ausim. 
(Liv.) From faciam operae pretium si...perscripsero. 

Chap. XXI.] Indicative: although dependent, &c. 307 

Orator surripiat oportet imitationem, ut is, qui audiet, cogitet plura 
quam videat. (Gic.) 

1 Ne nihil remissum dicatis, remitto,' inquit Papirius, ' ne utique dor- 
sum demulceatis, quum ex equis descendetis.' (Liv.) Descendatis 
might have meant ' since you are dismounting,' 1 

Quotus enim quisque pliilosophorum invenitur. qui sit ita moratus, ut 
ratio postulat ? (Cic.) 

Servus est nemo, qui non, quantum audet et quantum potest, conferat 
ad salutem yoluntatis. (Cic.) 


762 THE use of the infinitive and subjunctive in reports of speeches and 
thoughts deserves collective notice. 

When a statement is directly made, a question directly put, or a 
supposition directly expressed, the language is said to be direct (oratio 
recta). So also in a report which preserves the independent form in 
which the speech, &c. was delivered; as, ' Caesar said: I am about to 
march,' &c. 

When a statement, question, or supposition is reported in a form 
which makes it dependent in construction on some such words as said, 
the language is said to be oblique or indirect (oratio obliqua) ; thus, 
' Caesar said that he was about to march.' 

763 (A) The moods used in the oratio obliqua are the infinitive and 
subjunctive, never (unless by an irregularity) the indicative. 

i. All statements in principal sentences in the indicative mood in 
the oratio recta become infinitives in the oratio obliqua ( 535). 
Those relative sentences in which qui - et is or nam is, quum = et turn, 
&c. (being not really subordinate sentences) are properly and usually 
put in the infinitive ( 775 777). 

764\ 2< Questions in the indicative mood in oratio recta, are, if closely 
\iependent on a verb of asking, put in the subjunctive, being in fact 
ordinary indirect questions ( 750) ; 

but, if they are part of the continuous report of a speech, they are 
put in the infinitive, if of the first or third person ; in the subjunctive, 
if of the second person. 

3 o3 Of Reported Speech. {Book IV. 

e.g. Quid facio ? becomes quid (se) facere ? 

Quid facis ? becomes quid (ille) faceret ? 

Quid facit ? becomes quid (ilium) facere ? 
(But rogavit, quid (ipse, ille, &c.) faceret for all alike.) 

765 3. All subordinate sentences ( 738, 758), as also all sentences 
in the subjunctive and imperative moods in oratio recta, are put in the 
subjunctive (comp. 672), with few exceptions, viz. : 

(a) The imperfect and pluperfect subjunctive in the apodosis to a 
conditional sentence, are (in oratio obliqua) expressed in the active 
voice by the future participle with fuisse : in the passive, by the peri- 
phrasis futurum fuisse ut ( 771). The future participle with esse is 
used also for the present (and sometimes for the imperfect) active ; and 
fore or futurum ease ut for the present (and sometimes for the im- 
perfect) passive. 

() Occasionally short relative clauses are attracted into the infin- 
itive: (compare 701). 
Scribebant, ut feras quasdam nulla mitescere arte, sic immitem et im- 

placabilem ejus viri animum esse. (Liv.) 
Admonemus cives nos eorum esse et, si noii easdem opes habere, 

eandem tamen patriam incolere. (Liv.) 
Afflrmavl quidvis me potius perpessurum, quam ex Italia ad bellum 

civile eziturum. (Cic.) 

(c) Sentences with dum sometimes (in poets, &c.) retain the indi- 
cative (cf. 759). 

Die hospes Spartae nos te liic vidisse jacentes dum sanctis patriae 
legibus obsequimur. (Cic.) 

766 (B) i. The tenses of the infinitive are present, or perfect, or 
future according as the time would have been present, past, or future 
in the oratio recta. 

i. The tenses of the subjunctive are usually secondary, viz. im- 
perfect and pluperfect, especially in commands or questions ; but the 
present and perfect are sometimes used, especially if the verb on which 
the whole oratio obliqua depends be in the present. 

767 (C) In ordinary historical accounts no other person than the 
third can in general be used. Thus 

i. Instead of pronouns of the ist or and persons, the pronouns se, 
suus, ipse, is, ille, in the requisite cases are used. 

The pronouns hie, this near me, and iste, that near you, are rarely 
found in oratio obliqua. 

(Nos and noster are sometimes used by Caesar of the Roman people 
or Roman army generally.) 

a. All finite verbs are put in the third person. 

Chap. XX II.} Of Reported Speech. 


768 The following tabular statement of the above may be useful : 

(A) Mood: Principal sentences. 

Oratio Recta. 
f Indicative 



Subjunctive (hypothesis) 



Commands or Imperative { 
Prohibitions Subjunctive | 

Subordinate sentences. 
Indicative \ 

ist / ^d pers. 
and pers. 

(B) Tense, 

Present I 
Future ) 

Completed Future ) 
Perfect f 



Future | 

Completed Future f 
Perfect ] 
Imperfect r 
Pluperfect ) 

(C) Person. 

ego, meus, nos, noster, tu. 
tuus, vos, vester, iste, is, 

hie, nunc, often by 

Oratio Obliqua. 

In active, future part, 
with fuisse, or some- 
times (for present or 
imperfect) esse. 

In passive futurum 
fuisse, ut, &c., or 
sometimes (for pre- 
sent or imperfect) fore 
or futurum esse, ut, &c. 






Imperfect, sometimes 

Pluperfect, sometimes 

Future participle with 



Fut. part, with esse 

Ise, ipse, suus, (usually) 
of the subject of the 
sentence: is, ille, of 
what is not the subject. 

ille, turn, tune 

3 io 

Of Reported Speech. 

[Book IV. 

769 The above rules will be best illustrated by the following extracts : 


(Is ita cum Caesare egit): Si 
pacem populus Romanus cum Hel- 
vetiis f&ceret, in earn partem ituros 
atque \\tifuturos Helvetios, ubieos 
Caesar constitu/jj^ atque esse vo- 
lume/ : sin bello persequi perse- 
vere/-^, Teminiszeretur et veteris 
incommodi populi Roman! et pris 
tinae virtutis Helvetic-rum. Quod 
improvise unum pagum adortus 
esset, cum ii qui flumen transij- 
sent suis auxilium ferre non pos- 
jent, ne ob earn rem aut 3uae mag- 
nopere virtuti tiibueret aut ipsos 
despic^rc-/: se ita a patribus major- 
ibusque suis didic/jj^, ut magis 
virtute, quam dolo conten&erent 
aut insidiis nitercntur. Quare ne 
commltteret ut is locus ubi consti- 
tissent ex calamitate populi Ro- 
mani et internecione exercitus no- 
men c&peret aut memoriam pro- 


SI pa- 

cem populus Romanus cum Hel- 
vetiis fac/V^, in earn partem ibunt 
atque ibi erunt Helvetii, ubi tu eos 
constitu^m atque esse volueris ; 
sin bello persequi persevered, 
reminisc/Vor et veteris incom- 
modi populi Romani et pristinae 
virtutis Helvetiorum. Quod im- 
proviso unum pagum adortus 
es, cum ii qui flumen transi- 
erant suis auxilium ferre non pot- 
erant, ne ob earn rem aut iuae 
magnopere virtuti tribu<?r/j aut 
nos Ae&pexeris. Nos ita a patri- 
bus majoribusque nostrls didic/w/u 
ut magis virtute, quam dolo con- 
tend<w/ttj aut insidiis nitamur. 
Quare ne commij^m ut hie locus 
ubi constitiwus ex calamitate po- 
puli Romani et internecione exer- 
citus nomen capto/ aut memoriam 

770 Eo mihi 

minus dubitationis datar, quod eas 
res quas vos (legati Helvetii) com- 
memoraw//'j memoria teneo, at- 
que eo gravius fero quo minus 
merito populi Rom. accio>rw/; 
qui si alicujus injuriae sibi con- 
scius fuisset, non fu/V difficile ca- 
vere : sed eo deceptu-r e st, quod 
neque commissum a se intellig^Z^ 
quare timeret, neque sine causa 
timendum putabat. Quod si V3- 
teris contumeliae oblivisci vo/o, 
num etiam recentium injuriarum, 
quod me invito iter per provin- 
vinciam per vim temptas//'j, quod 
Haeduos, quod Ambarros, quod Al- 
lobrogas vexasf/j, memoriam depo- 
nere possutn ? Quod vestra vic- 
toria tarn insolenter gloriaw/'w/', 
quodque tarn diu vos impune in- 
jurias tulisse 1 admir#w/Vz/, eodem 

(His Caesar ita respondit :) Eo 
sibi minus dubitationis dar/, quod 
eas res, quas legati Helvetii com- 
memorajjf/ memoria tenere/, at- 
que eo gravius fer/r quo minus 
merito populi Rom. acci&ssent : 
qui si alicujus injuriae sibi con- 
scius fuisset, non fuisse difficile 
cavere ; sed eo deceptuw, quod 
neque commissum a se intelligcr<? 
quare timeret, neque sine causa 
timendum putar^. Quod si ve- 
teris contumeliae oblivisci vellet, 
num etiam recentium injuriarum, 
quod eo invito iter per provinciam 
per vim temptasj^/ 1 , quod Hae- 
duos, quod Ambarros, quod Allo- 
brogas vexasj^z/, memoriam de- 
ponere posse ? Quod SIM victoria 
tarn insolenter gloriamztar, quod- 
que tarn diu se impune injurias 
tulisse admirr^7/:/r, eodem perti- 

l Have carried off scotfrce, i.e. 'have not been punished for? 

Chap. XXIL] 

Of Jteforted Speech. 

. Consuerww/ enim Ail im- 
mortales, quo gravius homines ex 
commutatione rerum doleant, quos 
pro scelere eorum ulcisci velint, 
Ms secundiores interdum res et 
diuturniorem impunitatem conce- 
dere. Cum haec ita sint, tamen 
si obsides a <vobis mlhi dabuntur, 
uti ea quae pollic^w/Vz/ facturos 
intelligaw, et si Haeduis de in- 
Juriis, quas ipsis sociisque eorum 
V, item si Allobrogibus sa- 
V, vobiswxm. pacem faciam. 

771 Rem male eglt 
natura, quod cervis et cornicibus 
vitam diuturnam, quorum id nihil 
interesset 1 , hominibus, quorum 
maxime interfuisset, tarn exiguam 
vitam ded;Y : quorum si aetas po- 
tuisset esse longinquior, omnibus 
perfectis artibus, omni doctrina, 
hominum vita erudita esset. 

1 Subjunctive by 732. 

772 Quid 
est levius aut turpius quam auc- 
tore hoste de summis rebus capere 
consilium 1 

773 Deorum immortalium benignitate, 
me'is consiliis, patientia militum, 
Vei/ jam erunt in potestate populi 
Romani: quid de praeda facien- 
dum censetis ? 

nere. Consuejj<? enim deoj immor- 
tales, quo gravius homines ex com- 
mutatione rerum doleant, quos pro 
scelere eorum ulcisci velint, his 
secundiores interdum res et diu- 
turniorem impunitatem concedere. 
Cum ea ita sint, tamen si obsides 
ab 'tis sibi dentur, uti ea quae pol- 
liceantur facturos inte'lligaf, et si 
Haeduis de injuriis, quas ipsis 
sociisque eorum intulerint, item si 
Allobrogibus satisfaci^r/, sese cum 
us pacem esse f&cturum. (Gaes.) 

Theophrastus moriens accusasse 
naturam dicitur, quod cervis et cor- 
nicibus vitam diuturnam, quorum 
id nihil interesset, hominibus, quo- 
rum maxime interfuisset, tarn exi- 
guam vitam dedisset : quorum si 
aetas potuisset esse longinquior, 
futurumfuisse ut omnibus perfectis 
artibus, omni doctrina, hominum 
vita erudi/rtar. (Cic.) 

(Tribuni militum nihil temere 
agendum existimabant :) Quid esse 
levius aut turpius quam auctore 
hoste de summis rebus capere con- 
silium? (Caes.) 

(Litteras ad senatum misit,) 
deum immortalium benignitate, 
suis consiliis, patientia militum, 
Veioj- jam fore in potestate populi 
Romani: quid de praeda faciendum 
censerent f (Liv.) 

774 Quod vero ad amicitiam po- 
puli Romani adtul? r//, id iis eripi 
quis pati poss/V f 

(Dixit)...Quod vero ad amici- 
tiam populi Rom. adtul/jJiTzf, id 
iis eripi quis pati -posset ? (Caes.) 

775 Axa est in vestibulo templi 
Laciniae Junonis, cujus cinis nuUo 
unquam move/r vento. 

(Fama est) 2xam esse in vesti- 
bulo templi Laciniae Junonis, cu- 
jus ( et ejus) cinerem nullo un- 
quam mover; vento. (Liv.) 

312 Of Reported Speech. [Book IV. 


776 Reg/Ywr mund#.f numine deo- Mundww censent reg/ numine 

rum : est quasi communis urbs et deorum eumque ease quasi commu- 

civitas hominum et deorum... ex nem urtew et civitatew hominum 

quo illud natura consequ/Vwr ut, et deorum... ex quo illud natura 

&c. conseqw/ ut, &c. (Cic.) 

(Aegerrime id plebs ferebat:) 

777 Jace/ tamdiu irrit^<? actiones jacere tarn diu irritaj actionerf 
quae de nostria commodis ferwn- quae de suis commodis ferraztur 
tur, cum interim de sanguine ac cum interim de sanguine ac sup- 
supplicio nostro lata lex confestim plicio suo Is&am legetn confestim 
exercetwr. (Gomp. 729, 733.) exercm. (Liv.) 

778 When an indicative mood is found in the midst of oratio obliqua, 
it expresses an assertion of the narrator, not of the person whose speech 
is being reported ; as 

Caesar per exploratores certior factus est, ex ea parte vici, quam Gallis 
concesserat, omnes noctu discessisse. (Caes.) 

(The clause quam Gallis concesserat is Caesar's explanation for the 
benefit of his readers : the scouts would describe it to him by the local rela- 
Interim Caesari nuntiatur Sulmonenses, quod oppidum a Confinio VII. 

milium intervallo abest, cupere ea facere quae vellet, sed a Q. Lu- 

cretio senatore et Attio Peligno prohiberi, qui id oppidum VII. 

cohortium praesidio tenebant. (Caes.) 
Diogenes quidem Cynicus dicere solebat Harpalum, qui temporibus illis 

praedo felix habebatur, contra deos testimonium dicere, quod in 

ilia fortuna tarn diu viveret. (Cic.) 

779 But this principle is sometimes neglected, and the indicative put where 
the subjunctive ought to stand. 

C. Mario magna atque mirabilia portend! haruspex dixerat : proinde, 

quae anirno agltabat, fretus dis ageret. (Sail.) 
Hortatur,ad cetera, quae levia sunt, parem animum gerant. (Sail.) 


780 i- Order of words in a prose sentence. 

The order in which the words stand in a Latin sentence is not fixed by 
any invariable rule but depends chiefly on the requirements of facility of 
comprehension, emphasis and rhythm* 

Chap. XXIIL] Order of Words and Sentences. 313 

(A) Facility of comprehension suggests the following rules, -which 
however are frequently superseded, if emphasis or rhythm require a different 

781 T> The subject is put first, the predicate last, and the object and other 
qualifications of the predicate interposed, in order that the precise extent 
and purport of the predicate may be known, before the hearer or reader can 
suppose the sense to be complete. 

Cur ego tuas partes suscipio ? Cur M. Tullius P. African! monumenta 
requirit, P. Scipio eum, qui ilia sustulit, defendit ? (Cic.) 

In poetry the order depends greatly on the requirements of the metre : 
Ponitur ad patrios barbara praeda deos. (Ov.) 

782 2> Qualificatory expressions (except attributes) are for a similar reason 
placed immediately before the word they qualify. Consequently, 

(a) The preposition precedes its substantive, either immediately, or 
with qualificatory expressions only interposed. 
Consul de bello ad populum tulit. (Liv.) 
Sine ullo metu et summa cum honestate vivenms. (Cic. ) 
Haec officia pertinent ad earum rerum, quibus utuntur homines, facul- 
tatem, ad opes, ad copias. (Cic.) 

723 Some prepositions, chiefly disyllabic, occasionally stand after a relative 
pronoun without a substantive. 

Cum is always suffixed to personal and usually to relative pronouns. 
Quinque cohortes fnunentatum in proximas segetes mittit, quas inter et 

castra unus omnino collis intererat. (Caes.) 

Homo disertus non intellegit eum, quern contra dicit, laudari a se, eos, 
apud quos dicit, vituperari. (Cic.) 
In poetry the order is often modified. 
Solus avem caelo dejecit ab alto. (Verg.) 
Foederaregum vel.Oabiis vel cum rigidis aequata Sabinis. (Hor.) 

734 (b] Adverbs and oblique cases precede the verb or adjective to which 
they belong. 

Bellum civile opinione plerumque et fama gubernatur. (Cic.) 
Multi autem, Gnathonum simUes, sunt loco, fortuna, fama superiores. 


(c] Negatives precede the word they qualify. 

Nec animo nee benevolentiae nee patientiae cujusquam pro vobis cedam. 

Ninil ne ab iis quidem tribunis ad Velitras memorabile factum. (Liv.) 

785 3. Attributes, whether adjectives, substantives in apposition, or oh- 
lique cases, usually follow their substantive, but the reverse order is frequent, 
and with demonstrative pronouns, and adjectives of number and quantity, 
is the rule. 

Principle male reprehendunt praemeditationem rerum futurarum. (Cic.) 
Balbus quaestor, magna numerata pecunia, magno pondere auri, majore 
argenti coacto de publicis exactionibus, Kal. Juniis traiecit se in 
regnum Bogudis, plane bene peculiatus. (Asin. Pollio.) 

314 Order of Words and Sentences. \Book IV. 

Bellienus verna Demetrii Domitium quendam, nobilem illic, Caesaris 
hospitem, a contraria factione nummis acceptis compreliendit et 
strangulavit. (Gael.) 

Adjectives and (not so frequently) a genitive case are sometimes put 
before, instead of between or after, a preposition and its substantive : 
e.g. Magna ex parte, tribus de rebus, ea de causa; deorum in mente. 

735 In many expressions the order of the words is fixed by custom : 

e.g. Populus Romanus, civis Romanus, res familiaris, res gestae, aes 
alienum, jus civile, senatus consultum, magister equitum, tribunus 
plebi, pontifex maximus, Bona Dea, Carthago nova, &c. 

787 4. When a substantive is qualified by both an adjective and a genitive, 
or by both a genitive and a prepositional expression, the adjective in the 
first case, the genitive in the second case, is usually put first, and the other 
attribute interposed between that and the substantive, e. g. 

Amicitia nullam aetatis degendae rationem patitur esse expertem sui. 


Cujus rationis vim ex illo caelesti Epicuri de regula et judicio volumine 
accepimus. (Cic.) 

788 5- Relative pronouns regularly stand at the commencement of their 
clause, never after their verb. 

Hie est, quern quaerimus. Quae cum ita sint, hoc loquor. 

But sometimes an emphatic word (or words) is prefixed to the relative, 
especially when the demonstrative sentence is put after the relative sentence. 
Romam quae apportata sunt, ad aedem Honoris et Virtutis videmus. 

789 6. Connective adverbs and interrogative pronouns usually (except for 
emphasis' sake) stand at the head of their clause or only after words (e.g. 
relative or demonstrative pronouns) referring to the preceding sentence; 
never after their verb. 

Quae cujusmodi sint, facilius jam inteUigemus, cum ad ipsa ridiculorum 

genera veniemus. (Cic.) 
Haec tu, Eruci, tot et tanta si nactus esses in reo, quam diu diceres ? 


But in poetry we have, e.g. : 
Tu numina ponti victa domas ipsumque, regit qui numina ponti. (Ov.) 

790 7' Words belonging to two or more co-ordinate words or expressions 
should strictly be put either before them all or after them all. But it is 
very usual, partly for rhythm's sake, for the common word to be put after 
the first of the co-ordinated words. 

Jam viris vires, jam ferro sua vis, jam consilia ducibus deerant. (Liv.) 

An tu existimas, cum esset Hippocrates ille Cous, fuisse turn alios medi- 
cos, qui morbis, alios qui volneribus, alios qui oculis mederentur. 


Una est enim eloquentia, nam sive de caeli natura loquitur, sive de terra, 
sive de divina vi sive de humana, sive ex inferiore loco sive ex aequo 
sive ex superiore, sive ut impellat homines, sive ut doceat, sive 
ut deterreat, rivis est diducta oratio, non fontibus. (Cic.) 
But in poetry irregularities occur : e.g. 

Pacis eras mediusque belli. (Hor.) 

Chap. XX III.} Order of Words and Sentences. 315 

791 (B) Emphasis suggests the following rules : 

I. Any word which is to be made prominent is placed at or near the 
beginning of the sentence, or sometimes, if not the primary predicate, at 
the end (as an unusual position). 
A mails mors abducit, non a bonis. (Cic.) 
Dedi veniam homini impudenter petenti. (Cic.) 
Sequemur igitur hoc tempore et in liac quaestione potissimum Stoicos. 


2. An unemphatic word is sometimes- inserted between words con- 
nected with one another, partly to throw the words before it into greater 
relief, partly to prevent itself occupying a more important position in the 
sentence. So especially est, sunt, &c. 
Quadridui sermonem superioribus ad te perscriptum libris misimus. 


Qui in fortunae periculis sunt at; varietate versati. (Cic.) 
Primum Marcelli ad Nolam praelio populus se Romanus erexit. (Cic.) 

3. Contrasted words are put next to one another. 

Ego Q. Fabium, senem adulescens, ita dUexi ut aequalem. (Cic.) 
Quid quod tu te ipse in custodiam dedisti? (Cic.) 

4. Contrasted pairs of words are often put with the words in one pair 
in a reverse order to that of the other pair, (two of the contrasted words 
still often being together as by last rule). This figure is called chiasmus 
(i. e. crossing}. 

Ratio enim nostra consentit ; pugnat oratio. (Cic.) 

Cum spe vincendi simul abjecisti certandi etiam cupiditatem. (Cic.) 

Clariorem inter Romanos deditio Postumium, quam Pentium incruenta 

victoria inter Samnites fecit. (Liv.) 
Cedere alius, alius obtruncari. (Sail.) 

5. Where cumulative effect or a sense of similarity rather than con- 
trast is desired, the same order of words is preserved in the component 
clauses. This figure is called anaphora (i.e. repetition}. 

His similes sunt omnes qui virtuti student: levantur vitiis, levantur 

erroribus. (Cic.) 
Ut non nequiquam tantae virtutis homines judicari deberet ausos esse 

transire latissimum flumen, ascendere altissimas rupes, subire ini- 

quissimum locum. (Caes. ) 

722 (C) Rhythm admits, of no definite rules being given, but suggests 

i. That short words or expressions occupying a distinct position as 
subject, predicate, &c. be put first. 

Erant ei veteres inimicitiae cum duobus Rosciis Amerinis. (Cic.) 
Terrebat et proximus annus lugubris duorum consulum funeribus. (Liv. ) 
Movet ferocem animum juvenis seu ira seu detrectandi certaminis pudor 
seu inexsuperabilis vis fati. (Liv.) 

i. That there be variety in the arrangements of neighbouring sen- 
tences as regards prosody and syntax. (Thus B. 4, and B. 5, are often 
found together.) 

3i 6 Order of Words and Sentences. [Book IV. 

Vide quid intersit inter tuam libidinem majorumque auctoritatem, inter 
amorem furoremque tuum et illorum consilium atque prudentiam. 


Adde hue fontium gelidas perennitates, liquores perlucidos amnium, 
riparum vestitus viridissimos, speluncarum concavas amplitudines, 
saxorum asperitates, impendentium montium altitudines immensi- 
tatesque camporum : adde etiam reconditas auri argentique venas 
inflnitamque vim mannoris. (Cic.) 

7S3 (D) The position of the following adverbs may be specially noticed: 

(a] Nam always, namque almost always, at the beginning ; enim after 
one or (rarely) two words. 

(b] Itaque almost always at beginning; igitur usually (except in Sallust) 
after one or two words. 

(c] Etiam immediately precedes the word it qualifies; qu6que, quidem, 
demum, immediately succeed such a word. 

(d] Tamen first except for emphasis ; autem, vero, after one (or two 
closely connected) words. 

(<?) Ne (affirmative) is (except in a peculiar class of answers in Plautus) 
prefixed to a personal or demonstrative pronoun. 

794 ii. Position of subordinate sentences. 

1. Subordinate sentences (except those which express a result) follow 
the rule of qualificatory words or phrases, i.e. they are put before the prin- 
cipal sentence to which they belong ; either before the whole of it or before 
all but a few words. 

Cum hostium copiae non longe absunt, etiamsi inruptio nulla facta est, 

tamen pecua relinquuntur, agricultura deseritur. (Cic.) 
Qui autem ita faciet, ut oportet, primum vigilet in deligendo (quern 

imitetur), deinde, quern probavit, in eo, quae maxime excellent, ea 

diligentissime persequatur. (Cic.) 
Quid autem agatur cum aperuero, facile erit statuere quam sententiam 

dicatis. (Cic.) 

2. A short principal sentence is often prefixed to the whole or part of 
the subordinate sentence, especially if this be a dependent interrogative. 
Stoicorum autem non ignoras quam sit subtile vel spinosum potius dia- 

serendi genus. (Cic.) 


I. Prepositions and quasi-prepositional Adverbs. 

II. Conjunctions. 

III. Negative particles. 

IV. Interrogative particlesi 

V. Pronouns. 

i. Prepositions and quasi-prepositional Adverbs. 

795 i. (#) Prepositions proper ; are those which are not used except 
with a substantive in an oblique case (or in composition). 

ab, ad, apud, cis, cum, de, ex, in, inter, ob, per, pro, sed, sine, sub, 
uls. To these may be added erga, penes, tenus. 

() Some other words have both an adverbial and a prepositional 
use, i. e. are used both without a substantive dependent, and with a sub- 
stantive in an oblique case : 

adversus, ante, circa, circiter, circum, citra, clam, clanculum, 
contra, coram, ergo, extra, infra, intra, intus, juxta, palam, pone, post, 
prae, praeter, procul, prope, propter, secundum, simul, subter, super, 
supra, ultra. 

(c) A few particles used only in composition, viz. amb- ; an-, dis-, 
per-, red-, -secus ; and a few adverbs closely akin to prepositions, e.g. 
contro, intro, retro, simul, simitu are also noticed. 

793 ii. The following are (a) used with accusative and ablative; in, 
sub, super. Clam has very rarely an accusative. 
() Used with accusative only; 

ad, adversus, ante, apud, circum, circa, circiter, c's, citra, clam, 
clanculum, contra, erga, extra, infra, inter, intra, ob, penes, per, pone, 
post, praeter, prope, propter, secundum, supra, uls, ultra. 

(c) With ablative only; ab, coram, cum, de, ex, intus, palam, 
prae. pro, procul, sed, simul, sine. 

(d) With accusative and dative ; advorsum, contra, juxta. 

(e) With genitive and ablative ; tenus. 
(/) With genitive only ; ergo. 

318 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, i. Prepositions. 

797 iii. (a) Prepositions used in composition (as well as with oblique 

ab, ad, apud, cum, de, ex, in, inter, ob, per, prae, pro, sed, sub. 
(b) Used with verbs, but without clear mark of composition ; 
ante, contra^ intra, post, praeter, subter, super. 

798 Occasionally the preposition is separated from its case by other words. 
This is usual with per in oaths and adjurations : but otherwise is almost 
confined to poetry. 

Ergo and versus are always subjoined to the substantive ; tenus to the 
substantive or its epithet. Cum is always subjoined to a personal pronoun, 
and often to a relative pronoun. Besides these : 

Cicero subjoins propter occasionally to personal and relative pronouns; 
de, contra, and, rarely, ante, circa, circum to relatives. 

Vergil occasionally subjoins circum, contra, inter, juxta, penes, 
propter, sine, subter, supra ; and, when an attribute follows, ab, ad, 
ex, in, per, sub, ultra. Other writers have occasional instances, Livy 
and Tacitus not infrequently ; especially after relatives. 

799 Abs, ab, a, /row (ab before vowels, a before consonants) : with abla- 
tive only. 

From (a} e.g. ab urbe, from the city; a puero hoc fecit, he has 
done it from his boyhood; a Fuflo solvere, to pay by a draft on Fufius; 
possum a me dare, / can supply (it) from home. 

(b) Of the agent: from or by; captus a rege, taken by the king; 
zona torrida ab igni, a belt scorched byjire. 

(r) Of the department concerned: a te stat, he is on your side; 
servus a rationibus, a slave for book-keeping. 

In composition: abs before c, q, t; as before p; ab before d, I, n, 
r, s, j, h, and vowels ; au before f, except in afui, afore; a before m, v. 

It denotes separation ; e. g. abscedere, to go away ; abdicare, to cry 
off^ renounce; consumption; e.g. absorbere, to sup up] reversal; e.g. 
a jungere, to unyoke. 

800 Absque, without, used only as preposition with ablative. Not in Cicero 
or Augustan writers. 

Absque sententia (Quintil.), without thinking. In Plautus absque te 
foret (conditional clause), had it not been for you. 

801 Ad, to (but not into): with accusative only: 

(a) To; ire ad Capuam, to go to Capua; ad anna, to arms; ad 
necem caedi, to be beaten to death; comp. ad fatim (aflatim), 227; 
admodum, (up to the limit f) very. 

Ad septingentos periere, They perished to the number of seven hundred. 
Sometimes the prepositional character is forgotten ; e.g. ad rnille et sep- 

SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, i. Prepositions. 319 

tingenti caesi, up to 1700 men were killed ; ad noc (in addition to this), 
besides, moreover. 

(b) At, near, before: ad manum habere, to ba<ve at his hand; 
ad vinum disertus, eloquent over his wine ; ad postremum, at last ; ad 
hiemem, on the approach of winter. 

(c) Looking at (of a model or object) : ad Imnc modum instituere, 
to train up after this fashion ; ad ludibrium salutare, to greet in mockery ; 
comparare ad lecticam homines, to get porters for the sedan. 

In composition : ad is usually assimilated to c and (written c) to q, 
and the d omitted before gn. But it is also often assimilated to p, f, g, 
t, n, 1, r, and the d is often omitted before s. 

To, at: accedere, to approach; adoptare, to adopt; adamare, to fall 
in love ; addubitare, to come to doubt. 

In addition : agnasci, to be born (grow) into a family (often only in- 
tensive); adgdSre, to cat up; attrectare, to handle. 

802 Adversum, adversus (also exadversum, exadversus, as adverb rarely) 
with dative and accusative. Towards, against : 

(a) with dative : venire advorsum mini (Plaut.), to come to fetch me ; 

(b) with accusative : exadversus eum locum, opposite to that place ; 
adversus montem, breasting the hill; adversus ea respondere, to reply to 
this ; adversus edictum, against the edict. 

803 Amb-, am-, an- in composition only ; around, on both sides (comp. 
Cytt0t, a/A0w, ambo) ; e. g. 

amblre, go round, canvass; amputare, lop around, cut off; anclsus, 
cut round or at both ends. 

804 Ante (antid, old) before : as adverb, and with accusative. 

(a) Before, as adverb : paucis ante diebus (before by a few days, 
496), a few days before. 

(b) With accusative : ante ostium stare, to stand before the door ; 
ante alios miserandus, pitiable before (above) others. 

For antehac, antea, previously, 212. 

In composition ; antecellere, (project} excel; anteponere, place in 

803 Apud, at; only with accusative: usually with names of persons. 
Apud me esse, at my house or in my judgment; non sum apud me (Ter.), 
1 am not in my senses ; apud populum manumissus, freed in presence of 
t be people; apud Ciceronem, in Cicero's (writings . 
Apud aedem Bellonae, at the temple of Bellona. 

8C6 Circum, circa, circiter, round, about; both as adverbs and with 

(a) Circum, circa, of space ; circum undique convenire, to come 
from all sides around ; circa pectus, round his breast ; circum amicos 
mittere, to send round to one's friends. 

320 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX. \.Prepositions. 

(b) Circiter of time and number : diebus circiter quindecim per- 
venire, to arrive within fifteen days ; octavam circiter horam re dire, to 
return about the eighth hour. 

(f) Circa, about, i.e. concerning (post- Augustan) : circa hoc dis- 
putare, to dispute about this; circa decs neglegens, careless in divine 

Quocirca (for quodcirca?), wherefore; idcirco, on that account. 
In composition (loose); circumdare, throw around; circumducere, 
-scribere, -venire, used specially in metaphorical sense, cheat. 

337 Cis, citra, on this side, with accusative: citra also as adverb ; cltro 
(adv.), hitherwards. Cis is usually opposed to trans (uls being anti- 
quated) ; citra, citro to ultra, ultro. 

(a) As adverb : dextra diriguit nee citra mota nee ultra, his right- 
hand grew stiff, moving neither to him, nor from him ; telum citra cadit, 
the dart falls short ; verba ultro citroque habita, words exchanged be- 
tween them. 

(b) As preposition : cis flumen ease, to be on this side the stream; 
citra veritatem, falling short of truth. 

(<r) Citra, without, only post- Augustan : citra docentem scire, to 
know without a teacher ; longe citra aemulum, quite without a rival. 

03 Clam, used both as (a) adverb, and () with an accusative. 

(a) Secret/?: vel vi, vel clam, vel precario, by force, or secretly, or 
on sufferance ; nee id clam esse potuit, and this could not be concealed. 

(b) Unknown to: clam matrem suam, without the knowledge of his 

Clam is very rarely used with ablative. Clanculum is also used as 
adverb and once with accusative. 

8C9 Com (old), cum, (with, only with an ablative. It is placed after 
the personal pronouns and the relative (except usually quibus). 

Caesar cum legionibus, Caesar with the legions ; cum gladio, wearing 
a sword ; cum cura cavere, to take careful precautions ; tecttm loqueris, 
you are talking to yourself ; cum animo suo volvere, to turn it over in his 
mind ; tecum actio est, an action lies against you. 

In composition: com- before p, b, m ; co- before vowels; con- before 
v, j, and before dentals and linguals generally, except that n is often 
assimilated before 1 and r. 

Together: e.g. conjurare, to conspire ; confiteri, to confess to another; 
commutare, to barter. 

Completely: e.g. concoquere, to digest; condemnare, to condemn; 
consequi, to overtake ; constare, to be well ascertained. 

810 Contra, opposite to; both as adverb and with a substantive, appa- 
rently in dative (Plaut, Ter.) but usually accusative cases. 

(a) Opposite: stat contra, he stands opposite; contra me, opposite me. 

Cis, clam, cum, contra, coram, de, dis-. 3 2T 

(b) In return : contra diligere, to requite love with dative (or 
ablative of price ?) contra auro vendere, to sell for gold. 

(V) Contrary : contra quam fas est, contrary to what is right ; in 
stultitia contra est, /'/ is just the other way in folly ; contra ea, on the 
other hand, 

(d) Against: non pro me sed contra me, not for me, but against 

811 Coram, used as adverb and with ablative. 

(a) Face to face: coram sumus, we are face to face ; veni coram, 
/ came into his presence. 

(b) In presence of: coram latrone, in a brigand's presence ; ii coram 
quibus magis quam apud quos verba facit, his audience rather than his 

812 De, down from; with ablative only. 

(a} Down from : de caelo tactus, struck from heaven ; de digito 
anulum detrahere, to draw a ring from ajinger. 

(b} From, of: aliquis de ludo, a man from the school- de patre 
audire, to hear from one's father ; merer! de illo, to deserve from him; 
duodeviginti, two from twenty, \. e. eighteen ; templum de marmore, 
a temple of marble. 

(V) Of, concerning: e.g. de republica disputare, discuss politics; 
qua de re agitur, 'which is the matter in question ; actumst de me, it is 
all over with me. 

(d) Of time : e. g. somnus de prandio, sleep just after dinner ; de 
nocte, in the course of the night ; de tertia vigilia, during the third watch. 

(e) In various phrases : de consilii sententia, under the opinions of 
his assessors ; de more, according to custom; de industria, of set purpose 
(opposed to sine industria) ; de integro, afresh ; de lucro, as a piece of 
good luck ; gravi de causa, on solid grounds. 

813 In composition : 

(<s) Down : descendere, to come down ; destinare, tojfix down. 

(b) Off, away : designate, mark off; deverti, to turn aside, put up 
at an inn. 

(c) Down to: devenire, to come to; deferre, to report; deferre 
alicui jusjurandum, to put a man on his oath (offerre, to offer to take 
one's oath). 

(d) Formally, or completely: e.g. decurrere, to run in procession, 
march past ; deplorare, to weep bitterly, give up for lost ; decantare, to 
sing over and over again ; debellare, to bring war to an end. 

(e} Un-: dedecere, to be unbecoming; dedocere, to unteach ; despe- 
rare, to despair ; detegere, to uncover. 

814 DIs-, di-, in twain : only in composition. 

Dis- before sharp mutes and s ; dir- before a vowel or h ; di- before 
flat mutes, liquids, nasals, semi-vowels, and sp, sc, st. Before f, dis- 
is assimilated (e.g. differre). 

L. G. 21 

322 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, i. Prepositions. 

(a) Asunder: discindere, cleave asunder ; disslcere (dis jace"re), to 
scatter ; divendere, sell piecemeal. 

(b) Un-: discingere, ungird; difflteri, disavow. 

(r) Exceedingly : differtus, crammed ; disperire, utterly perish. 
(d) Among : dignoscere, distinguish ; dispicere, see through. 

815 Erga, towards : only with accusative. 

Fides erga imperatorem. loyalty to the general ; odium erga regem, 
hatred to the king. 

In Tacitus also in relation to; inscitia erga domum suam, ignorance 
of his own family matters. 

816 Ergo as adverb and as postposition with genitive case. 

(a) In consequence, therefore : Exitus ergo quis est, What then is his 

(b) With gen. rare except in old language ; 

Ludi vlctoriae, non valetudinis, ergo voti (Liv.), Games vowed for the 
sake of a victory, not for health's sake. 

817 Ex, e, out of: used with ablative case only. In some phrases (see ) 
e, not ex, is used. 

(a) From, i.e. out of, from off: negotiator ex Africa, a trader from 
Africa ; ex equis desilire, to leap down from their horses ; ex tempore, on 
the spur of the moment; e veatigio, without delay ; ex itinere oppugnare, 
to attack while on the march. 

Metaphorically of the source : ex otio fructus capere, to get profit 
from leisure ; ex Pollione audire, accipere, to hear from Pollio ; ex pedi- 
bus laborare, to be in trouble (with his feet, e. g. have gout. 

(b) In accordance with: ex animi sententia, in accordance with 
one's conscience or wish; heres ex deunce, heir to ele-ven-twelfths ; ex 
aequo, equally ; ex contrario, on the contrary ; ex composite, as agreed; 
ex merito, as earned ; ex more, according to custom ; magna ex parte, in 
a great degree ; e re tua, to your interest ; e republica, to the interest of 
the state; e re nata, under the actual circumstances; e regione, in a 
straight line or directly opposite. 

(r) Of the material or ground: pocula ex auro, cups of gold ; ex 
fraude factus, made up of fraud; resina ex melle, resin mixed with 

(cT) After : ex consulatu proflcisci, to start after his consulship ; 
diem ex dieducere, to drag on day by day. 

818 Jn composition : ex before vowels, b, and sharp consonants ; ef, 
sometimes ec, before f ; otherwise e. 

(a) Out, forth : excldere, to fall out ; exponere, to jet out, to dis- 
embark ; exsurgere, to rise up. 

(b) Throughout: enarrare, to tell in detail; emerere, to serve out 
one's time. 

(r ) Thoroughly : elevare, to lighten, disparage ; extimescere, to fall 
into a panic, 

(d) Un- : exarmare, to disarm ; enodare, to unravel. 

Erga, ergo, ex, extra, in, infra. 323 

819 Extra, outside; both as adverb, and with accusative. 

(#) Extra et intra hostem habent, they have an enemy outside and 
in ; extra munitionem egredi, to step outside the defences. 

Metaphorically () extra jocum, without joking: extra numerum, 
out of time; extra ordinem, out of rank or turn. 

(c) Not including: reliqui extra ducem, the rest excepting the leader. 

820 In (old forms endo, indu) used both with accusative (of motion to*) 
and ablative (of rest in). 

(a) Of place (accus.) into, onto: in eorum finis incurrere, to make 
an incursion into their territory in jus ducere, to lead into court ; in 
murum evadere, to get onto the 'wall. 

(abl.) In eorum finibus bellum gerere, to (wage war in their terri- 
tory ; injure res est, the matter is in court; in capite coronam habere, 
to have a chaplet on the head; in praedio pecuniam ponere, to invest 
the money in a farm. 

(b) Of time and number: (accus.) in posterum diem invitare, to 
invite for the next day ; dicere in noctem, to speak till night-fall ; tricena 
Jugera in pedites dare, to give 300 acres for every foot-soldier ; in dies 
major, greater every day. 

(abl.) in praesentia, at the moment; sol binas in singulis annis 
reversiones facit, the sun makes two turns in the course of each year ; 
virtutem in bonis habere, to count virtue among his goods. 

(r) Of the circumstances: (accus.) according to; in mea verba 
jurare, swear acceptance of my words ; opus in speciem defonne, a work 
plain in appearance; in orbem ire, to move (so as to make, i.e.) in a circle; 
in vicem, in turn; in partem juvare, to contribute a share of help. 

(abl.) in honore et pretio esse, to be honoured and valued ; in tanta 
propinquitate castrorum haec deferuntur, this is reported, the camp be- 
ing so near; opus vel in hac inagnificentia urbis conspiciendum, a work, 
striking, even with the city in its present splendour ; in incerto esse, to 
be uncertain ; in aequo, on an equality ; in primo, in front. 

(d) Of the object: (accus.) impietas in deos, impiety towards the 
gods ; pecunia in rem militarem data, money provided for military pur- 

(abl.) elegans in dicendo, neat in speaking; talis in hoste fuit 
Priamo, such was he in the case of (or in dealing with) his enemy Priam. 

821 In composition : often assimilated to 3, r, and written m before 
labials (p, b, m). 

(#) In, on : includere, shut in ; inspicere, look in ; imminere, hang 
over; inniti, lean on; invidere, look at (grudgingly). 

(b) Intensive : incipere, take up, begin ; inhorrere, shudder. 

822 Infra, below : as adverb and with accusative ; used of space, time, 
and metaphorically : 

Innumerabiles mundi, supra infra, dextra sinistra, ante post, countless 
worlds above % below, on right, on left, before, behind ; accubuit infra ma 

21 2 

324 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, i. Prepositions. 

Atticus, Atticus reclined at table below me ; Homerus non infra Lycurgum 
fuit, Homer was not later than Lycurgus magnitudine infra elephantos, 
in size less than elephants. 

823 Inter : with accusative only. 

(a) Among, in the middle of: inter ceteram planitiem mons saxeus, 
a rocky hill in the midst of what otherwise was level j inter epulas 
obtruncatur, he is killed whilst at dinner; inter saucios, among the 
wounded ; inter paucos disertus, eloquent as but few are ; inter se dili- 
gere, aspicere, &c., to love, behold one another. 

So interea, interim, meanwhile; (interim, in post- Augustan writers 
also denotes sometimes^. 

() Between : e. g. inter loricam galeamque, between the breastplate 
and helmet ; inter manus aufertur, he is carried away in their arms 
inter caesa et porrecta, between the slaying and offering; inter eos 
decernere, to give a decree in the suit between them. 

In composition : 

(a) Among, between: intercedere, interpose; interesse, be a differ- 
ence ; interrogare, cross-question. 

(b) Of breaking a continuity: intercldere, cut through; intercldere, 
fall through, be lost ; interimere, take off, kill ; intervertere, turn away, 


(c} Together : interjungere, yoke together. 

824 Intra, within; as adverb, and with accusative. Intro adverb of 
motion within. 

(a) Deni in quadram pedes, quadraginta per oram, intra centum 
erunt, It will be ten feet square, forty in circumference, a hundred in area; 
seauimini me intro hue, follow me in here. 

(b) Intra moenia esse, ire, to be, go, within the walls ; intra annum 
mori, to die within a year ; modice aut etiam intra modum, in modera- 
tion or still less ; intra verba peccare, to offend but in words only. 

Intro is loosely compounded with ducere, ire, &c. 

825 Intus, within, as adverb ; rarely also with ablative. 

Intus evocare foras, to call a man out from within; intus est, l he is 
within;' 1 duel intus, 'to be led within;" 1 tali intus templo sedet (Verg.)> 
'such is the temple in which he sits.' 

826 Juxta, close to, as adverb, and with dative (rare) or accusative. 

(#) Accedere juxta, approach near ; juxta murum castra ponere, 
pitch the camp close to the wall ; juxta divinas religiones fides humana 
colitur, next to divine obligations good faith among men is cultivated. 

() Alike : ceteri juxta insontes, the others just as innocent ; res 
parva ac juxta magnis difficilis, a small matter, as difficult as great ones. 

827 Ob : only with accusative case. 

(a) Before, so as to obstruct : mors ob oculos versatur, death is be- 
fore my eyes ; olmam venire, to come to meet. But ob iter, on the way. 

Inter, intra, intus, juxta, ob, palam, penes, per. 325 

() For, on account of: ob asinoa argentum ferre, to bring money in 
payment of the asses; ob decem minas pignori opponere, to pledge for 10 
minae ; pretium ob stultitiam ferre, to carry off' a reward for folly ; 
frustra an ob rera, in vain or for real advantage ? quam ob rem, on 
which account; ob timorem, on the ground of fear ; ob salutem accipere, 
take for safety's sake. 

828 In composition obs, ob is generally assimilated to p, f, c, g ; often 
written (as pronounced) op before s and t ; the b of obs is omitted in 

(a) Over, against, before, as obstruction: e.g. occludsre, shut 
against a person; officere, get in the way; obloqui, to speak against ; 
obrepere, to steal upon ; obsignare, seal up. 

(b) Towards, with the idea of favour: obsequi, follow compliantly; 
Oboedire, hearken to. 

(c) Down : occidere, (of the sun) set ; opprimere, squeeze; obtrun- 
care, cut down. 

829 Palam as adverb and rarely with ablative : 

(a) openly : haec in foro palam gesta sunt, this was done publicly 
in the forum ; palam est res, the thing is known ; pisces audire palam 
est, it is notorious that fah can hear. 

(b) * in presence of y with ablative : rem creditor! palam populo solvit, 
he pays the amount to the creditor in the presence of the people. 

830 Pfines, with, i.e. in the possession of, only with accusative, and almost 
always with the name of a person: Penes quoe sunt auspicia more 
majorum? nempe penes patres, In (whose hands are auspices according to 
the custom of our ancestors? why with the Fathers of course. 

831 Per, through, only with accusative (except in loose compounds, e.g. 
per quam, per mini mirum est). 

() Through, of space, &c. : coronam per forum fert, he carries the 
crown through the forum ; praesidia per oppida disponere, to place garri- 
sons throughout the towns ; per manus tradere, to pass from hand to 
hand; per triennium, for a whole three years. In comic poets per tern- 
pus advenire, to come at the right time. 

(b) Through, by the aid of: eos aut per se aut per alios sollicitat, 
he tries to win them either by himself or by the aid of others ; per me 
stetit quominus hoc fieret, / was the cause of its not being done; per vim, 
by force; per ego te deos oro (cf. 798), I implore you by the gods. 

(c) Without hindrance from: trahantur per me pedibus omnes, 
they may all be dragged off by the feet for what I care ; si per commodum 
reipublicae possit, if it can be done without hurt to the commonweal. 

832 In composition : 

(a) Through, all over : perfringere, to break through ; perscribere, 
to ivrite in full ; persalutare, to greet all in succession. 

($) Intensive: percutere, ts strike, shock; perdiscere, to learn 
thoroughly; permanere, to last out; perpurgare, to cleanse thoroughly; 
pervenire, to reach. 

326 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, i. Prepositions. 

(r) In a bad sense: perdfire, to destroy; perire, to be destroyed; 
perfugere, to desert ; pervertere, to overturn. 

833 Pone, behind, (for pos-ne ; cf. post) both as adverb and with accusative. 
Pone subit conjux, his -wife comes behind; pone castra pabulatum 

ibant, they ^vent behind the camp to collect fodder. 

834 Por-, old form of pro (comp. porro, irpbo-u, ir6ppw) only in composition, 
e.g. porric6re (por jacgre), offer in sacrifice; portendere, (hold forth] 
portend ; possldere, occupy.'' 

835 Post, behind, after, both as adverb and with accusative : 

(a) In space: servi post erant, slaves 'were behind ; se post cratera 
tegebat, he concealed himself behind a mixing bowl. 

(b) In time: multis post annis, many years after ; maximus post 
hominum meinoriam, the greatest (since \. e.) in tnens records ; ex post 
facto, from subsequent events. So posthac, postea, postilla ( 212), 

(r) Metaphorically: post esse, to be thought less of; post ferre, 
habere, putare, put second, hold, think less of. So in argument, quid 
postea, what then? w hat follows from that ? 

835 Prae, in front, before, both as adverb and with ablative: 

(a) Before: e.g. i prae, go before; prae se ferre, to display; prae 
nianu habere, to have at hand. 

(b) In comparison with ; prae nobis beatus, happy compared with 
us ; adverbially in Plaut. praeut, praequam, compared with how. 

(c) For, in consequence of, usually of hindrances : e. g. nee loqui 
prae moerore potuit, he could not speak for grief . 

837 In composition 

(a) B?fore, in front, at the end: praecedere, go before; praescribere, 
(write at the top ; praetexere, edge ; praestare, vouch for, make good. 

(b) Of time: e.g. praecipere, seize beforehand, admonish; praeire, 
go over first, as a pattern ; praevenire, outstrip. 

(c) Before others, greatly: praecellere, be distinguished ; praegesbire 

838 Praeter as adverb and with an accusative : 

(a) Past: praeter castra copias produxit, led forth his troops past 
the camp. 

(b) Beyond: praeter modum crescere, grow beyond bounds; unus 
praeter ceteros, one far beyond others. 

(V) Except : nihil praeter pellis habent, have nothing except skins ; 
praeterea, besides ; praeterquam, except, except that. 

Often with verbs in loose composition, e.g. praeter-ire, -ducere, &c. 

839 Pro, before, in front, with ablative only (except in prout, proinde). 
(#) Before: pro castris, in front of the camp; pro tectis aediflcio- 

rum, on the front of the roof. 

Pone, post, prae, praeter, pro, procul, prope, propter. 527 

() In behalf of: contra legem proque lege dicere, speak against 
and in defence of the law ; pro collegio pronuntlant, they declare on behalf 
of the board; pro imperio jubet, commands in virtue of his authority, i.e. 
officially and authoritatively. 

(r) Instead of: pro console, acting in place of the consul ; pro dam- 
nato erat, he was as good as condemned; pro explorato habere, regard 
as certain. 

(d) In return for : pro vectura solvere, pay as passage-money. 

(>) According to : atrocius quam pro numero, more fiercely than 
'would be expected from the number ; vires pro corpore, corpus grande, 
strength in proportion to his body and a big body ; pro virili parte de- 
fendere, to take a man's share in the defence ; pro eo quanti te facio, in 
accordance with my appreciation of you. 

840 In composition prod before vowels ; pr5 usually long, except before f. 
(<z) Forth; proclamare, shout out; procumbere, fall prostrate; 

proscribere, advertise, proscribe. 

() Before ; pr6fari,/or<?te//; proludere, practise beforehand. 

841 Prdciil ; as adverb and with ablative ; often also with ab. 

(a) At a distance : procul este, stand aloof; baud procul moenibus 
(Liv.), not far from the walls ; procul negotiis, far from business. 

() Metaphorically: quis tarn procul a litteris? who stands so far 
aloof from education ? procul dubio, undoubtedly. 

842 PrdpS : chiefly as adverb, sometimes with accusative. 

(a) Near: prope adest, it is close at hand; non modo prope me 
sed plane mecum habitat, lives not merely near me, but actually (with me. 

Also with prepositions ab, ad; prope a meis aedibus, near to my 
house ; prope ad portas, close at the gates. 

(b) Almost: prope flrmissimus, almost the firmest; prope est 
factum ut, &c., it almost happened that, &>c. ; tam prope ab exule fuit 
quam postea a principe, be was as near being an exile as he was after- 
wards being emperor. 

843 Propter (for propi-ter) ; both as adverb and with accusative. 

(a) Near : voluptates propter intuens, taking a near view of plea- 
sures ; propter aquae rivum, near a stream of water. 

(b) On account of: non tam propter me quam propter pueros, not 
so much on my account as on that of the boys. 

So quapropter, wherefore ; propterea, therefore ; propterea quod, be- 

844 Red-, re- in composition only: red- before vowels and h, re- before 
consonants: (but sometimes the d was assimilated, or fell off, the vowel 
being lengthened to compensate. Thus reddo, reccido or recido, r- 
jectus; reliquiae, rellcuus (rellqvus in post-Augustan poets), rellgio. So 
the perfects reppgri, reppuli, rettuli, rettudi, partly due to the redupli- 
cation, cf. 318). 

328 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, i. Prepositions. 

(a) Back: e.g. recedere, go back; religare, bind back, tie up; 
retinere, hold back. 

(b) In response : redarguere, refute ; reddere, give in return ; reso- 
nare, resound. 

(c) Against, counter: reclamare, cry out against ; repugnare, resist. 

(d) Behind: relinquere, leave behind; restare, remain, be left. 

(i) Again, esp. of restoration: reconciliare, reunite- reflcere, renew; 
reminisci, recall to mind; resurgere, rise again. 

(/") Un-; recantare, recant; recingere, ungird; resignare, unseal, 

845 Eetro, behind, only used as adverb : 

Quod retro est, what is behind (in space), past (in time); retroponere, 

to put in the background ; retroagere, turn back, reverse. 

846 Sed, se in old language with ablative; se fraude esto (xn. Tabb.), it 
shall not be a crime. 

In composition: secedere, go apart; sejungere, disjoin; sed-itio, a 
secession, or sedition. 

847 secundum, following, properly the neuter of the gerundive of sequor : 
used chiefly with an accusative. 

(a) Behind: volnus accepit secundum aurem, he received a wound 
behind the ear. 

() Along : secundum flumen, along the river. 

(c) After : castra secundum praelium capta, the camp was taken 
after the battle ; ille mihi secundum te est, he is in my estimation next 
to you. 

(d) In accordance with: secundum naturam vivere, to live in 
obedience to nature; multa secundum causam nostram disputare, to 
argue at length in favour of our case. 

848 SImul, together, as adverb, in post- Augustan also with ablative. 

Totos dies simul eramus, We were together whole days : often with cum, 
e. g. nobiscum simul, together with ^ts. 

Pollio Mamerco simul postulatur, Pollio is put on his trial with 

In Plautus simltu is used adverbially as simul. 

8i9 Sing, used only with ablative. 

Without, i. e. not having: homo sine re, sine fide, sine spe, sine sede, 
sine fortunis (Gic.), a man without property, (without honour, without 
hope, without home, without chances ; sine multorum pernicie, without 
exposing many to ruin. 

50 Sub, subter, used with accusative and ablative ; subter also rarely 
as adverb. 

(a) Beneath : quae supra et subter sunt, things above and beneath. 

(accus.) Sub divum rapiam, / will bring them to the light of day ; 
aedis suas detulit sub Veliam, moved his house to the foot of the Velia. 

(abl.) Vitam sub divo agere, to pass life in the open air ; sub monte 
consedit, settled at the foot of the mountain. 

Red-, retro, se, secundum, siraul, sine, sub, super. 329 

() Of time (ace.), close upon, i. e. (usually) just after : sub galli 
cantum, y'j/ after cockcrow ; sometimes just before or up to: sub ipsum 
funus, just before death. 

(abl.) At : sub luce, at daybreak. 

(c) Metaphorically: under (accus.): sub oculos venit, it comes 
under one's eye. 

(abl.) sub judice Us est, the matter is before the judge ; sub specie 
pacis, under the appearance of peace. 

851 In composition : b is often assimilated to labials, f, r and gutturals; 
sus (for subs) before t and sometimes c and p ; su before s usually. 

(a) Under : succumbere, lie under ; subducere, draw from under ; 
subscribere, write under. 

(b) In substitution : subdSre, substitute, forge ; subnasci, grow into 

(c) Up, from under up : succrescere, grow up ; summittere, send up, 
rear ; suspendere, hang up, 

(d) Secretly: subauscultare, overhear; subornare, equip secretly; 
subripere, snatch away. 

(e) Slightly : subaccusare, blame somewhat ; sublucere, faintly 
gleam; subirasci, be a bit angry ; subnegare, half deny. 

852 Super, as adverb, and with accusative and ablative. 

(a) In space, over, upon : imponendum medicamentum, a dressing 
should be put upon it. So desuper, from above. 

(accus.) Super lateres coria inducuntur, hides are put upon the 

(abl.) Super impia cervice pendet ensis, a sword hangs over his 
impious neck. 

() Above, beyond: (accus.) Nomentanus erat super ipsum Forcing 
infra, Nomentanus sat above him, Porcius below; super omnia Romanum 
noraen. the name of Roman beyond everything. 

(c) In time (rare), over, during, at : 

(accus.) super cenam loqui, to talk over supper. 

(abl.) rixa super mero debellata, a quarrel fought out over the 

(/) Over, besides: satis superque est, it is enough and to spare; 
quid super sanguinis est? what blood have we left'/ So insuper, in 

(e) Upon, concerning: (abl.) sed hac super re nimis, too much on this 
matter; multa super Priamo rogitans, putting repeated questions about 

In composition : over : supergredi, step over ; supersternere, lay 
over ; supersedere, sit upon, be above, forbear. 

853 Supra, rarely supera : as adverb and with accusative. 

(a) On the top, above: toto vertice supra est, be is a whole head 
above them; versus supra tribunal et supra praetoris caput scribe- 
bantur, verses were perpetually written above the bench and above the 
praetor s head, 

330 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, r. Prepositions. 

(b) Above, before : ut supra dixi, as I said above; paulo supra 
hanc memoriam, a little before our time. 

(c) Above, more: trecentis aut etiam supra millibus emptum, 
bought for 300000 sesterces or more ; supra Coclites Muciosque id f acinus 
est, the deed surpasses the Coclites and Mucii ; supra gratiam, above the 
reach of influence. 

854 T8nus, as far as, with genitive or ablative: always put after the word 
dependent on it. 

(gen.) Rumores Cumarum tenus caluerunt, rumours were rife as 
far as Cumae; crurum tenus a mento palearia pendent, the dewlaps 
hang from the chin as far as the legs. 

(abl.) Later! capulo tenus abdidit ensem, phmged the sword into his 
side up to the hilt : verbo tenus acute disserere, discuss cleverly as far as 
theory goes. 

Hence hactenus, thus far ; protenus or protlnus, right on, forthivith. 

855 Trans, across, with accusative only: xnultitudinem trans Rhenum 
traduxit, be led the mass across the Rhine ; trans flumen est, be is across 
the river. 

In composition: often becomes tra before J, d, 1, m, n. 

(a) Across : transire, go across ; traicere, throw across. 

(b) Of a change: tradere, hand over, hand down to posterity ; 
transfundere, decant, transfer. 

(r) Through to the end: transigere, complete, settle a suit. 

856 Versus, versum (versus, vorsum), towards, used both with (a) a 
preposition, () a locative adverb, and (f) accusative which however is 
usually an ordinary accusative of the place towards which. 

(a) Modo ad urbem, modo in Galliam versus, castra movet, moves 
his camp now towards the city, now into Gaul. 

() Nescio neque unde earn neque quorsum (quo vorsum) earn, 
/ know not (whence nor whitherwards I am going. 

So horsum, hitherwards ; sinistrorsus, to the left sursum, upwards, 

(r) Cursum Massiliam versus perflcit (Cic.), completes his run (of 
ships) to Marseilles quern locum Aegyptum versus finem imperil 
habuere (Sail.), this place was the limit of their power in the direction of. 

857 Ultra, beyond as adverb and with accusative: (uls is only in old 

(a) In space : paulo ultra eum locum, a little beyond that place. 

() In time : usque ad Accium et ultra, as late as Accius and later; 
non ultra vos difleram, / will not put you off any longer. 

(ace.) Nee ultra pueriles annos retinebitur, it wilt not be kept be- 
yond the years of childhood. 

(c) In quantity, degree, Q^c.: ultra nobis quam oportebat indul- 
eimus, we indulged ourselves more than we ought. 

Supra, tenus, trans, versus, ultra, ultro, usque. 331 

(ace.) Ultra legem tenders opus, extend one's work beyond the statute. 

ultro citroque, there and back, backwards and forwards (see citro) ; 
ultro, further, unasked, unprovoked. Often in English, actually, even: 
ultro pollicetur, offers spontaneous ly, actually offers. 

858 Usque, all the way, continuously : used as adverb, and with preposi- 
tions, and with accusative which usually comes under place to which. 

(a) In space: perreptavi usque omne oppidum, / have crawled 
through the whole town ; usque Romam voces referuntur, the voices are 
borne all the way to Rome. 

(b) In time and order, &c.: onmes usque ab Romulo (usque ad 
Romulum), all continuously starting 'with Romulus {ending with Romulus') ; 
usque eo (adeo) dum, so long until', poenas dedit usque superque quam 
satis est, bs was punished quite as much as or more than was sufficient. 

II. (^Co-ordinating) conjunctions. 
(Mainly from Madvig.) 

839 Co-ordinate sentences, regularly expressed, either have a conjunc- 
tion with every member, or with all but the first. In the former case 
the writer shews that he has foreseen, and determines to mark, the dis- 
tribution of his sentence into two or more co-ordinate clauses or parts ; 
in the latter case the first clause expresses the original idea, the others 
are in the nature of afterthoughts. 

i. Copulative Conjunctions. 

Copulative conjunctions are those which connect both the sentences 
and their meaning : et ; -que, appended to (usually) the first word of a 
clause; atque (before consonants or vowels), ac (before consonants 

860 i. et simply connects, whether words or sentences: 

que marks the second member as an appendage or supplement to 
the first : and is often used in joining two words, which together make 
up one conception : 

ac, or atque, lays a greater stress on the appended second member : 
e.g. omnia honesta et inhonesta, all things becoming and unbecoming; 
omnia honesta inhonestaque, all becoming things, and the unbecoming too ; 
omnia honesta atque inhonesta, all becoming things and no less the un- 
becoming also. 

These distinctions are not always clearly marked, and the selection 
is sometimes made rather to give variety to the sentence and to avoid 
the confusion of principal with subordinate divisions. 
Est tamen quaedam philosophi discriptio, ut is, qui studeat omnium 
rerum divinarum atque humanarum vim naturam causasque nosse, 
et omnem foene Vivendi rationem tenere et persequi, nomine hoc 
appelletur. (Cic.) 

332 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, n. Conjunctions. 

Molliebantur irae, et ipsa deformitas Pleminii memoriaque absent is 

Scipionis favorem ad vulgum conciliabat. (Liv.) 
Senatus populusque Romanus. Jus potestatemque habere. 

861 i- et, ac are sometimes found emphatically in commencing a reply, 
e.g. Curae est mini. Mic. Et mihi curae est. (Ter.) 

E caelo? Sy. Atque e medio quidem. (Plant.) See also 667 b. 

et is also used for a/so, chiefly in such expressions as, et ille et 
ipse, et nunc, &c. e.g. Sunt et mea contra fata mini. (Verg.) 

For ac in comparison see 660, 66 1. 

862 3. An affirmative sentence, following a negative sentence and ex- 
pressing the same general meaning, is joined to it by et, ac, -que, not, 
as in English, by an adversative conjunction. 

Nostrorum militum impetum hostes ferre non potuerunt, ac terga 
verterunt. (Caes.) 

853 4- When the distribution of a sentence or expression is foreseen 
and marked, the conjunctions are used as follows : connect either words or sentences. This is the regular mode. connect words only; (not in Cicero). 

que... que in prose are rare ; but are used with a double relative. 

et...que only as a loose connexion of two sentences. 
Et mittentibus et missis ea laeta expeditio fait. (Liv.) 
Omnes legatique et tribuni. (Liv.) 
Omnes, quique Romae quique in exercitu erant. (Liv.) 

864 5. () In stating three or more perfectly co-ordinate words, 
Either no conjunction is put, e.g. summa fide, constantia, justitia; 
or (Z>) each is connected with the preceding, e. g. summa fide (or et 

fide) et constantia et justitia ; 

or (r) the conjunction is omitted between the first members, and 
que (sometimes et or atque) is annexed to the last, e.g. summa fide, 
constantia justitiaque. 

865 A conjunction is usually put between two epithets, and either 
omitted or inserted between three, e.g. 

multae et graves causae (not multae graves causae ; but multae 
aliae causae is frequent). 

multae et graves et diuturnae causae ; or causae multae, graves, 

866 6. Occasionally two co-ordinate words are put without any conjunc- 
tion. This is chiefly (a) when the words are opposites, completing one 
another ; or (I)) in old forms. 

(a) Omnes te di homines, summi medii infimi, cives peregrini, viri mu- 

lieres, liberi servi oderunt. (Cic.) 

/') Deus optimus maximus. Cn. Pompeio, M. Crasso consulibus, 
Velitis, jubeatis Quirites, &c. 

Et, ac, qua; sed, vemm, autem. 333 

867 7- Co-ordinate words and sentences are connected or introduced 
by other adverbs also, e.g. turn... turn, at one time,. .at another time; 
(cum... turn, as ewe!!... as) \ modo...modo ; nunc...nunc; more rarely 
in prose jam. . Jam ; simul. . .simul ; qua. . .qua ; e. g. 
Disserens in utramque partem, turn Graece, turn Latine. (Gic.) 
Intellego te distentissimum esse, qua de Buthrotiis, qua de Bruto. 


863 Any word may however serve in rhetorical language in place of a co- 
ordinative conjunction. 
Quod si recte Cato judicavit, non recte frumentarius iUe, non recte 

aedium pestilentium venditor tacuit. (Cic.) 

Ninil enim habet praestantius, nihil quod magis expetat, quam honesta- 
tem, quam laudem, quara dignitatem, quam decus. (Cic.) 

869 A series of propositions are often marked by the use of, first primum, 
then deinde or turn, then (sometimes) porro, postea, or praeterea, last 
denique or postremo. 

Primum Latine Apollo numquam locutus est : deinde ista sors inaudita 
Graecis est ; praeterea Phoebi temporibus jam Apollo versus facere 
desierat ; postremo... hanc ampniboliam versus intellegere potuis- 
set. (Cic.) 

ii. Adversative Conjunctions. 

870 Adversative conjunctions contrast the meaning, while they connect the 
sentences. Such are sed, verum, ceterum, autem, vero, ast, at, atqui, 
quod, and in some uses quamquam, tamen, etsi, tametsi. Of these autem 
and vero are placed not at the beginning of the sentence, but after one 
word, or sometimes two closely connected words ; tamen is placed either at 
the beginning of the sentence or after an important word. 

871 i. Sed (set), but, introduces a statement which alters or limits the 
assertion of the preceding sentence ; or it expresses transition to another 
subject of discourse. It is often repeated with each clause or word to give 
them additional emphasis. 

Verum, sometimes verum enimvero (but be that as it may] is similar, 
but is used with a stronger effect. 

Ceterum is similarly used ; chiefly in Sallust and Livy. 
Sed jam ad id, unde digress! sumus, revertamur. (Cic.) 
At inquit, trecenti sumus ; et ita respondit : trecenti, set viri, set 

armati, set ad Thermopylas. (Sen. Rhet. ) 
In M. Catone quae bona nonnunquam requirimus, ea sunt omnia non a 

natura, verum a magistro. (Cic. ) 

Illis merito accidet quidquid evenerit : ceterum vos, patres conscripti, 
quid in alios statuatis considerate. (Sail.) 

i. Autem, however, introduces a different statement, in continuation 
of the preceding, without really altering or limiting it. Sometimes it is 
used to pick up, for special notice, a preceding word or statement. 

Ast, is similar but is almost confined to old legal language, to Vergil, 
and post-Augustan poets. 

Vero, indeed, is similarly used, and gives special emphasis to the word 
preceding it : it is also often used after nee or turn. 

Nunc quod agitur agamus : agitur autem, liberine vivamus an mortem 
obeamus. (Cic.) 

334 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, n. Conjunctions. 

Scimus musicen nostris moribus abesse a principis persona, saltare vero 

etiam in vitiis poni. (Nep.) [(Cic.) 

Num quis testis Postumum appellavit ? testis autem ? num accusator ? 

3. At, but, on the other hand (sometimes whereupon], ~ introduces an 
emphatic remark different from and opposed to the preceding statement. 
Sometimes it appears in the apodosis of a conditional sentence. It is espe- 
cially used in a lively retort or exclamation : at enim in the statement of an 
adversary's objection. 

Quod si se ipsos nostri Illi liberatores e conspectu nostro abstulerunt, at 

exemplum fact! reliquerunt. ( Cic. ) 

Horum omnium studium una mater oppugnat. At quae mater? (Cic.) 
Quibus rebus confectis omnia propere per nuntios consul! declarantur. 

At ilium ingens cura atque laetitia simul occupavere. (Sail.) 

4. Atqui, but, sometimes introduces an objection, sometimes a fresh 
step in the reasoning. 

Quod si virtutes sunt pares inter se, paria esse etiam vitia necesse est : 
atqui pares esse virtutes facillime potest perspici. (Cic.) 

5. Quod, but, is used (chiefly before si, nisi, but also before etsi, 
quia, quoniam) to continue a statement. 

Coluntur tyranni simulatione, dum taxat ad tempus : quod si forte, 
ut fit plerumque, ceciderunt, turn intelligitur quam fuerint inopes 
amicorum. (Cic.) 

6. The statement of a fact opposite to or corrective of previous state- 
ments is often introduced by quanquam, tamen, etsi, tametsi, And yet. 
(For nisi in this sense, see 653.) 

Non video quo pacto Hercules 'in domum aeternam patris' pervenerit, 
quern tamen Homerus apud inferos conveniri facit ab Ulixe. Quam- 
quam quern potissimum Herculem colamus, scire sane velim. (Cic.) 

'Quid est ? Crasse, ' inquit Julius, 'imusne sessum? etsi admonitum ve- 
nimus te, non flagitatum.' (Cic.) 
(The ordinary use of etsi and other concessive conjunctions is given in 

651 c; of quamquam in 71 1.) 

iii. Disjunctive Conjunctions. 

872 i. Disjunctive conjunctions are those, which connect the sentences, 
but disconnect their meaning ; viz. aut, vel, -ve (appended to first word 
of clause), sive or (before consonants only) seu. 

aut is used where the difference between the conceptions or pro- 
positions is real or important ; 

vel (often vel potius, vel dicam, vel etiam), and -ve, are used 
where the difference is unimportant, or concerns the expression more 
than the substance. Both aut and vel are sometimes used in adding 
the consequence of denying a former proposition : or else, otherwise. 

Seu (sive) is used chiefly to correct a previous assertion, and, when 
without a following seu, usually has potius with it. 
Qua re vi aut clam agendum est. (Cic.) 
Post obitum vel potius excessum Romuli. (Cic.) 
Quod ipsura a se movetur, id nee nasci potest nee mori ; vel concidat 

omne caelum, omnisque natura consistat necesse est. (Cic.) 
Quid perturbatius hoc ab urbe discsssu sive potius turpisslma fuga ? 


Aut, vel, -ve, sive (seu) ; ne, nl, nee. 335 

873 2. Where the distribution is foreseen, the conjunctions are doubled, 
preserving their usual distinction from each other. 

aut...aut are used of things mutually exclusive, especially where an 
alternative is put distinctly. 
Omne enuntiatum ant vemm aut falsum est. (Cic.) 

vel... vel (in poetry also are used of things, both or all of 
which may co-exist (partly... partly}, or where the choice is a matter 
of indifference to the speaker or concerns the expression only. 

sive (seu)... sive (seu) are used where it is uncertain or indifferent 
which conception should be taken. (When used with verbs, they are 
often conditional particles = vel si. Cf. 651 d.) 
Hanc tu milii vel vi vel clam vel precario fac tradas. (Ter.) 
Vel imperatore vel milite me utimini. (Sail.) 

Corpora vertuntur : nee, quod fuimusve sumusve, eras erimus. (Ov.) 
Homines nobiles seu recte seu perperam facere coeperunt, in utroque 
excellunt. (Cic.) 

874 3- ^ e ^ is used, especially with a superlative, as an intensive particle 
('even') to introduce what is regarded as the climax, the inferior stages 
being left to the imagination or implied in the context. 

Heus, te tribus verbis volo. Sy. Vel trecentis, (Plaut.) 

So it introduces a special instance : why even, for instance. 
Raras tuas quideni. sed suaves accipio litter as. Vel quas proxime ac- 
ceperam, quam prudentes ! (Cic. ) 

III. Negative particles. 

875 The negative particles are ne", n, ni, nee, neque, non, baud. 

N6 is found in composition, e.g. nSque, nSqueo, nolo (nSvis), nescio, 
nSfas, nemo (ne nemo old for homo), nullus (ne ullus), nutiquam 
(neutiquam). It is identical with the enclitic interrogative -ne, and is 
found in quin (see 221), and probably in sin. 

Ne and ni were originally identical, and at one time (6th Cent, u.c.) 
often written nei. Hence nihil for ne (nei, ni) nilum. Ne is used in 
the phrase ne...quidem; and sometimes by itself, sometimes following 
qui (adj. and adv.), ut, dum, in sentences with imperative, or subjunc- 
tive signifying (wish, command, purpose, &c. ( 664, 678). The en- 
clitic disjunctive -ve is often appended, and makes neve or neu. 

Ne or nee is found, in composition with quiquam (abl. ?) or quid- 
quam (ace.), in the words nequiquam or nequicquam, in 'vain; it is also 
found in nequaquam, by no means ; nedum ( 688). 

Ni is generally used as a negative conditional particle for nisi (ori- 
ginally ne si?). Originally it was probably a simple negative, as in 
phrases, nimirum (cf. 747), quidni, quippini, and became specially 
appropriated to conditional clauses, as ne did to final clauses, -ve is 
sometimes appended. 

87g Nee is usually a co-ordinate conjunction, interchangeable with 
neque, of which it is regarded as an abbreviation. But it is also found 

336 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, in. Negative Particles. 

as a simple negative in some old phrases; e.g. nee recte (Plaut.), also in 
the compounds nec-opinus, neglego, neg-otium, and in the derivative 
nego. It is also used, with -ne appended, in the second member of a 
disjunctive question (nec-ne, or not, cf. 771). 

Non, originally noenum (for ne unum ace. cf. 224), is the ordinary 
simple negative. 

Haud (haut, hau) is a simple negative, used chiefly before adverbs 
(e.g. hand quaquam, haud sane, haud procul) and adjectives, not often 
before verbs, at least after Plautus, except in phrase haud (hau) 
scio an. 

In- and ve- are used only in composition ( 408, i. 2). 

877 i. (a) Non, haud, nee (in phrases referred to above) are used as 
simple negatives, as English not. Both non and nee are occasionally 
(nee frequently in Ovid and Livy) found with an imperative or jussive 
subjunctive (instead of ne). 

Nihil as adverbial accusative (461 a), and nullus as adjective, are 
sometimes used where we use, not at all. 
Non, non sic futurumst : non potest. (Ter.) 
Thebani nihil moti sunt, quamquam nonnihil succensebant Romanis. 

Haec bona in tabulas publicas nulla redierunt. (Cic.) 

(Z>) Ne before a word and quidem after it are together equal to not 
even, or not ..either, (when we use this latter expression as adverb with- 
out nor following,) e.g. ne hoc quidem, not even this, not this either. 

Nee is also sometimes used in the sense of ne... quidem in and after 
the Augustan age. 
Postero die Curio milites productos in acie collocat. Ne Varus quidem 

dubitat copias producere. (Caes.) 
Tu voluptatem summum bonum putas : ego nee bonum. (Sen.) 

(c) Ne with the imperative or the subjunctive of wish or command 
is not ; but with a subjunctive of purpose (without ut) is lest or that 
not. So (in such sentences) ne quis, ne quando, ne ullus, necubi, &c. 
are used instead of ut nemo, ut nunquam, ut nullus, ut nusquam, &c. 
Noli dicere, cave dicas are equivalent simply to do not say. 
Lata lex est, ne auspicia valerent, ne quis obnuntiaret j ne quis legi 
intercederet, ut lex Aelia, lex Pufla ne valeret. (Cic.) 

(^/) Minus, especially after si, sin ( 651^), or quo ( 682), and 
minime, least of all, are used as equivalent to not at all, not. Vix, 
scarcely; parum, but little, and sometimes male, have a character ap- 
proaching to that of a negative. 
Egone ut, quod ad me adlatum esse alienum sciam, celem? minume 

istuc faciet noster Daemones. (Plaut.) 
Ego autem ilium male sanum semper putavi. (Cic.) 

878 2. A negative sentence, or member of a sentence, requiring to be 
joined to the preceding by a co-ordinate conjunction, is introduced by 
neque (nee) ; or if a purpose or command, &c. be implied, usually by 

Non, baud, nee, ne ; et non; nee... nee, non modo, &c. 337 

neve (neu). So nee for et non, necdum for et nondum, nee quisquam 
for et nemo, neque uUus for et nuUus, &c. Usually also the Romans 
said neque enim, neque vero, nee tamen, though sometimes non enim is 
found, and rarely non tamen. 

Et (or ac) non, et nullus, &c., are found where the negative belongs 
to a special word in the sentence, or the new sentence is intended as a 
correction of the former. So also et (sometimes ac) ne...quidem. 
Senatui pacis auctor ful, nee sumptis armis belli ullam partem attigi. 
Patior, judices, et non moleste fero. (Cic.) [( c i c -) 

Quasi nunc id agatur, quis ex tanta multitudine occiderit, ac non hoc 
quaeratur, utrum, &c. (Cic.) 

879 Sometimes neque (nee) is used, where the negative belongs only to a 
participial or other subordinate clause, but the principal verb or sentence 
has to be united with that preceding. 

Haud cunctanter Hiberum transgrediuntur ; nee ullo viso lioste Sagun- 
tum pergunt ire (Liv.) et, nullo viso noste, pergunt. 

880 3- Several negative sentences or clauses may in fact form one sentence, 
without the connexion being marked, or foreseen. Either (a) there is no 
conjunction used, or (b) the conjunctiou is used ( 864) only with the 
second or third members, not with the first. 

(a) Non gratia, non cognatione, non aljls recte factis, non denlque aliquo 
mediocri vitio. tot tantaque ejus vitia sublevata, esse videbuntur. 


(/') Justum et tenacem propositi virum non civium ardor prava juben- 
tium, non vultus instantis tyranni meute quatit solida, neque 
auster, . . .nee fulminantis magna manus Jovis. ( Hor.) 

881 4- When the distribution of the sentence or thought into two or 
more co-ordinate clauses or expressions is foreseen, it may be marked in 
several ways. 

If all the clauses are negative, we have 

(a) neque (nee)... neque (nee), neither... nor..., except usually in 
commands, &c. 

() neve (neu)... neve (neu), neither... nor, where a prohibition or 
wish is intended: that neither... nor, lest either... or, where a purpose, &c. 
is intended. (This is not frequent.) 

(c) non modo 1 (solum) non...sed ne...quidem, not only not... but not 
even ; where the second member implies a stronger statement than the 

If a predicate or other word is common to both clauses, but stands 
with the latter, the non after modo or solum is frequently omitted, and 
we have 

non modo (solum)... sed ne...quidem. 
(See also 689 andnedum, ne dicam, non dico, &c. 690, 691.) 

1 Non modo is ' not exactly? k I do not say f non solum 'not only,' non 
tantum ''not so much.' 1 Non modo is more common at least in Cicero. 

L. G. 22 

338 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX. HI. Negative Particles. 

(a) Virtus nee eripl nee subripi potest ; neque naufragio neque In- 
cendio amittitur ; nee tempestatum nee temporum turbatione 
mutatur. (Cic.) 

(li) Peto a te, ut id a me neve in hoc reo neve in aliis requiras. 

(c) Obscenitas non solum non foro digna, sed vix convivio liberorum. 

Regnat Eomae advena, non modo vicinae, sed ne Italicae quidem stirpis. 


882 If all the clauses are not negative, these clauses are introduced by 

() et... neque, both... and not, if the first be affirmative. If the 
negative belong to a word only, non may be used. 

() neque... et, neither... and, if the second be affirmative. 
neque... que is more rare. 

(c) non modo (solum, tantum) non... sed (verum) etiam, if the 
second be affirmative and a stronger statement than the first. 
Patebat via et certa neque longa. (Cic.) 
Uva, vestita pampiuis, nee niodico tepore caret et nimios soils defendit 

ardores. (Cic.) 

Nee domi tantum indignationes continebant, sed congregabantur undi- 
que ad regem Sabinorum. (Liv.) 

883 5- One negative, applied to another, destroys its effect, and the re- 
sult is equivalent to an affirmative. This is chiefly seen in the phrases 
non nemo, some one non nullus, some; non niMl, something ; non nun- 
quam, sometimes- nemo non, nullus non, everyone; nihilnon, everything; 
nunquam non, always; nusquam non, e -ve rywhere ; non possum non, 
I cannot help myself, i.e. I must. 

Necnon in the earlier prose is not used, as it is sometimes in verse and 
in later prose, as little more than an equivalent for etiam. 
Nee hoc ille non vidit, sed verborum magniflcentia est et gloria delec- 

tatus. (Cic.) Here it has its full force. 
Necnon et Tyrii frequentes convenere, (Ver.) 

884 But negatives do not destroy one another, when the first negative is 
general, and this is followed 

(a) By ne... quidem or non modo emphasizing some particular 
word or phrase. 

() By several subordinate members each with a negative. 
(r) By another co-ordinate member joined by neque (nee). 
(',-/) Se quoque dictatorem Romae fuisse, nee a se quemquam, ne plebis 
quidem hominem, non centurionem, non militem violatum. (Liv.) 
() Nemo umquam neque poeta neque orator fuit, qui quemquam 

meliorem quam se arbitraretur. (Cic.) 
(c) Nequeo satis mirarl neque conicere. (Ter.) 

iv. Interrogative Particles: -ne, nonne, num; utrum, -ne, an. 339 

IV. Interrogative Particles, 

885 Interrogative particles are used in those sentences in which a ques- 
tion is asked relating to the truth or falsehood of a particular state- 
ment, and a simple affirmative or negative answer is expected. 

These questions are either simple or alternative. 

Simple questions may be expressed without any interrogative pro- 
noun or particle. An affirmative sentence then not unfrequently expects 
a negative answer, and 'vice versa, the tone of voice or circumstances 
supplying the necessary warning. In alternative questions the first 
member is similarly left sometimes without any interrogative particle. 

The particles which are used in introducing simple questions (when 
they have no interrogative pronoun) are 

-ne, properly, not (appended to another word), non-ne, and num, 
properly, now (numne, numnam, numquid). An is also found in what 
appear at first to be simple questions. 

In conversational language the final e in -ne is often omitted, e.g. nostin ; 
and then a preceding & is in some verbs omitted ; e. g. ain, scin, vidSn, 
audln (for ais-ne, scis-ne, vides-ne, audis-ne). So also satin for satis-ne. 

The particles used in introducing alternative questions are utrum 
(neut. of uter), whether, -ne, and an. 

For dependent questions, see 750 752. 

L In simple Questions. 

&S6 -Ne puts a question without any implication as to the character of 
the answer: e.g. Sentisne? Do you feel? Nonne implies the expectation 
of an affirmative answer: e.g. Nonne sentis? Do you not feel? Num 
implies the expectation of a negative answer: e.g. Num sentis, Ton do 
not feel, do you} 

An affirmative answer is expressed by etiam, Ita, factum, vero, 
verum, sane, ita vero, ita est, sane quidem, &c. ; or with the proper 
pronoun, as, ego vero ; or by the verb (or other words), repeated in 
the proper person, e.g. sentio. (Cf. 439 f.) 

A negative answer is expressed by non, minime, minime vero ; or 
with the pronoun, e.g. minime ego quidem ; or with the verb, &c. e.g. 
non sentio. When the contrary is asserted by way of reply, we have 
immo, immo vero, No, on the other hand, Nay rather. 
Quid hoc ? Dasne, aut manere animos post mortem aut morte ipsa 

interire ? Do vero. (Cic.) 
Quid ? canis nonne similis lupo ? (Cic.) 
Num igitur peccamus ? Minime nos quidem. (Cic.) 
Huic ego 4 studes ? ' inquam. Respondit ' etiam.' (Plin.) 
Hue abiit Clitipho. CH. Solus ? ME. Solus. (Ter.) 
AN. Jam ea praeteriit ? DO. Non. (Ter.) 
Causa igitur non bona est ? Immo optima. (Cic.) 

22 2 

34 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, iv. Interrogative Particles. 

ii. In alternative Questions. 

887 In alternative questions utrum or -ne are used in the first member 
of the sentence, an (sometimes anne) in the second member. In comic 
poets utrum is often put first and the alternatives are then expressed by Or not is expressed by an non or nec-ne. 

In dependent questions -ne is frequent in the second member, 
especially if the first have no particle. -Ne...-ne are found occasionally, 
chiefly in the poets. 

Utrum nescis quam alte ascenderis, an pro nlhilo id putas ? (Cic.) 
Vosne vero L. Domitium an vos Domitius deseruit ? (Gaes.) 
Utrum voltis patri Flacco licuisse necne ? (Cic.) 
Utrum praedlcemne an taceam ? (Ter.) 

888 An is frequently used in a question apparently simple, but which 
may be regarded as really the second member of an alternative question, 

, the first being either not put in the form of a question or left to be 
inferred from the context. It introduces questions which imply the 
needlessness of the preceding remark, or meets an anticipated objection. 
TOR. Sed ad haec, nisi molestum est, habeo quae velim. TUL. An me, 

nisi te audire vellem, censes haec dicturum fuisse ? Do you then 

think? (Cic.) 
Quando ista vis autem evanuit ? An postquam homines minus craduli 

esse coeperunt? (Cic.) Was it not after, &c.? 

889 From alternative questions must be distinguished such questions as 
have several subordinate parts, which are different from, but not alter- 
natives to, one another. These are connected by aut. 

An tu mei similem putas esse aut tui deum? Profecto non putas. 
Quid, ergo ? solem dicam aut lunam aut caelum deum ? (Cic.) 

V. Pronouns. 
Hie, iste, ille, is. 

890 The demonstrative pronouns are hie, iste or istic, ille, or illic. 
They denote respectively, hie, that which is near the speaker in place, 
time, or thought : iste, that which is near the person addressed : ille, 
that which is not (comparatively) near either. 

Is has no definite demonstrative meaning, but always refers to some 
person or thing named in the context. If more emphasis is required, 
hie or ille is used. The adverbs derived from these pronouns are used 
with the same relative signification. 

In time and thought hie and ille are opposed, hie referring to that 
which is near, ille to that which is remote. Ille is also used of a 
well-known or famous person or thing. 

Iste is specially used of an opponent in a lawsuit, and hence of 
something despised or disliked. 

Is, with conjunction et or ac prefixed, is used to give additional 
emphasis to a new predicate or description ; ille (like other pronouns), 
with quidem appended, is used in making concessions (where in Eng- 
lish we use no pronoun). 

V. Pronouns: hie, iste, ille; se, suus, Ipse. 341 

Hanc urbem hoc biennio consul evertes. (Cic.) 

Gratia te fleet! non magis potulsse demonstras, quam Herculem Xeno- 

phontlum ilium a voluptate. (Cic.) 
Hunc ilium poscere fata reor. (Verg.) 
Hie et Ule, ille et ille, this or that. 

Habet homo memoriam et earn infinitam rerum innumerabilium. (Cic.) 
Uno atque eo facili proelio caesi ad Antium hostes. (Liv.) 
Doctum igitur hominem cognovi et studiis optimls deditum, idque a 

puero. (Cic.) 
P. Scipio non multum Ille quidem nee saepe dicebat, sed Latine loquendo 

cuivis erat par. (Cic.) 

Se, suus, ipse. 

891 Se and ipse are both used where we in English use self, but they 
are also found where we do not use it. Thus se often corresponds to 
him, her, them; ipse to the adjective very, or other expressions of 
emphasis. Se is of the third person only ; ipse is simply an adjective 
of emphasis, and can be used of any person, but when in an oblique 
case by itself (without me, te, nos, vos), it is of the third person. Se, 
suus are distinguished from other pronouns of the third person, by 
being used always either of the subject or of some word in the sentence. 
If him, her, &c. requires emphasis, when not relating to the subject (or 
otherwise where se is suitable), ipsum is used, either with or without 

Suus, the possessive of se, relates also to the subject of discourse. 
When it is an attribute of the grammatical subject, it can of course 
only relate to some other subject of discourse, very commonly to the 
direct or indirect object. 

892 Se, BUUS are used primarily in reference to the grammatical sub- 
ject of the sentence. If the subject itself requires emphasis, ipse is 

Athenae urbs est ea vetustate, ut ipsa ex sese suos civis genuisse dica- 

tur. (Cic.) 
Neque sane, quid ipse sentiret, sed quid ab illis diceretur, ostendit. 


893 In speaking of actions by the subject upon himself, ipse is very 
common and agrees normally with the emphasized word. But it is 
predicated of the subject, not merely when (a) what is emphasized is 
the subject, and not others, acting, but also sometimes () when it is 
the subject acting on, or by, himself, and not on others. 

(a) Non egeo medicina: me ipse consolor. (Cic.) 
Sunt qui Tarpeiam dicant, fraude visara agere, sua ipsam peremptam 
mercede. (Liv.) 

() Iste repente ex alacri atque laeto sic erat humilis atque demissus, 
ut non modo populo Romano sed etiam sibi ipse condemnatus 
videretur. (Cic.) 

342 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, v. Pronouns. 

Eos delectari videmus, si quid ratione per se Ipsi invenerint. (Cic.) 
Bellum pacem foedera societates per se ipse, cum quibus voluit, injussu 
popull ac senatus fecit diremitque. (Liv.) 

894 Se, suus, especially the latter, are also used in reference to some 
word in the sentence which is not the subject. This is rarely done 
where the context would create ambiguity. 

Hannibalem sui cives e civitate ejecerunt. (Cic.) 
Suis flammis delete Fldenas. (Liv.) 

Neque occasion! tuae desis, neque suam occasionem host! des. (Liv.) 
But also Deum adgnoscis ex operibus ejus. (Cic.) 

895 Se, suus are also used in reference to the subject of the sentence 
or clause, on which the subordinate clause containing se, suus depends. 
So regularly when the subordinate clause has a subjunctive of the 
classes 1 D, G, or H, (But exceptions occasionally occur.) 

(a) Scipionem Hannibal eo ipso, quod adversus se dux potisslmum 
lectus esset, praestantem virum credebat. (Liv.) 

Domitius ad Pompeium in Apuliam peritos regionum mittit, qui petant 
atque orent, ut sibi subveniat. (Caes.) 

() Similarly of what is the logical, though not the grammatical, 
subject, of the principal sentence. 
A Caesare valde liberaliter invitor, sibl ut sim legatus. (Cic.) 

Ipsius, ipsl, &c. are sometimes found for suum ipsius, sibi ipsi, &c. 

Caesar milites incusavit: cur de sua virtute aut de ipsius diligentia 
desperarent? (Caes.) 

96 Se, suus are also used in reference to the unexpressed subject of an 
abstract infinitive or gerund. 

Honestius est alienis injuriis quam re sua commoveri. (Cic.) 

Quls, quisplam, aliquis, quidam, nescio quis, alteruter, aliquot, 
nonnemo, &c. 

897 The pronouns, which correspond to the English a or some, are 
quis, quispiam, aliquis, quidam. Of these quis is the least emphatic 
and quidam the most. 

Quis is usually in relative sentences, and after cum, si, nisi, ne, 
num ; aliquis is not uncommon after si, and sometimes used after ne. 

Quis and quispiam are best translated by a (man, thing, &c.), one, 
or in the plural by nothing ; 

aliquis (plur. aliqui) by some one, some one or other 

quidam means a certain person, &c. ; 

aliquot (indeclinable), a few, several ; 

nescio quis, some one or other ( 755). alteruter (of two persons}, 
one or of her no matter which. 

1 In consecutive sentences eum, not se, is regularly used. 

Quis, aliquis, quidam ; quisquam, uUus, quivis, 343 

More specific are the double negatives nonnemo, one or two, non- 
nullus (adj.), some certainly, some at least, nonniliil, something at any 
rate. So est (sunt) qui, 703, 706. 

(a) In affirmative sentences : 

81 mala condiderit in quern quis carmina, jus est Judiclumque. (Hor.) 
SI nulla est (nota), quid istos interpretes audiamus? Sin quaepiam 

est, aveo scire quae sit. (Cic.) 
Commentabar declamitans saepe cum M. Pisone et cum Q. Fompeio aut 

cum aliquo cotidie. (Cic.) 

Accurrit quidam, notus mini nomine tantum. (Hor.) 
Hoc quidem certe video, cum sit necessa alterum utrum vincere, quails 

futura sit vel haec vel ma victoria. (Cic.) 

() In negative sentences; also with sine, &c. 

His idem propcsitum fuit, quod regibus, ut ne qua re egerent, ne cui 

parerent, libertate uterentur. (Cic.) 
Vidi, fore, ut aliquando non Torquatus neque Torquati qulspiam 

similis, sed ut aliquis patrimonii naufragus, bonorum hostis, aliter 

Indicata haec esse diceret.. (Cic.) 

Qulsquam, ullus, uter, quivis, quilibet, utervis. 

898 The pronouns which correspond most with the English any are 
quisquam (usually subst.), ullus (adj.), quivis, quilibet. Quisquam and 
ullus are any whatever, any at all, where all are excluded; and are used 
in negative or quasi-negative sentences (the negative being always pre- 
fixed), or after comparatives, or in relative and conditional sentences, 
where the barest minimum is sufficient to justify an affirmative. Quivis 
and quilibet (originally relative sentences) signify any you please, and 
imply that all will answer the required conditions. Hence they can be 
used in either positive or negative sentences. 

When only two persons or things are concerned, uter is (rarely) 
used corresponding to quisquam ; utervis, uterlibet to quivis, quilibet. 
For non quisquam, non ullus, non quidquam, non uter, c. are 
generally used, at least in prose, nemo, nullus, nihil, neuter, &c. (For 
the use of the forms of quisquam, see 209; of nemo, nullus, 196 ; 
of nihil, nihilum, 117.) 

Iste nihil umquam fecit sine aliquo quaestu atque praeda. (Cic.) 
Quani diu quisquam erit, qui te defendere audeat, vives. (Cic.) 
Non recito cuiquam nisi amicis, idque coactus, non ubivis, coramve 

quibuslibet. (Hor.) 

Cuivis potest accidere quod cuiquam potest. (Publ.) 
Ut enim histrioni actio, saltatori motus non quivis sed certus quidam 
est datus, sic vita agenda est certo genere quodam, non quolibet. 

At minus habeo virium, quam vestrum utervis. (Cic.) 

344 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, v. Pronouns. 

Quisque. uterque, ambo, singuli, alterni, &c. 

899 Quisque, each (and sometimes, in Lucretius frequently, quisquis), is 
used of each several case, where there are more than two: uterque 
(rarely quisque, except with suus) of each several case, where there are 
two only. In the plural quisque and uterque are properly used of 
each party, or of each set of cases. 

When all are spoken of without implying any distinction between 
them, omnes or nemo non are used; ambo of two only. Cunctus 
(usually in plural) and universus are all together ; totus is the whole. 

Unus quisque, every single person; singuli, one apiece, several; 
alterni, every ^ other. 

Quisque is frequently' accompanied by se or suus ; and also fre- 
quently joined to a superlative or ordinal, which is always placed before 
quisque, e. g. optimus quisque, all the best people ; decimus quisque, 
every tenth, one in ten ; primus^ quisque, one after the other ; also the 
very earliest ; quotus quisque, how few ! 

To quisque correspond generally (though not as distinguished from 
omnes) ubique, usque ; to uterque corresponds utrobique, or utrinque. 

Magni est Judicis statuere, quid quemque cuique praestare oporteat. 
Abduci non potest, quia uterque utrique est cordi. (Ter.) [(Cic.) 
Fro so quisque, ut in quoque erat auctoritatis plurimum, ad populum 

loquebatur. (Cic.) 

Quid ubique habeat frumenti et navium, ostendit. (Caes.) 
Qui tiniet his ad versa, fere miratur eodem, quo cupiens, pacto : pavor 

est utrobique molestus. (Hor.) 
Ex ceteris philosophis nonne optumus et gravissimus quisque oonflte- 

tur multa se ignorare ? (Gic.) 

Forma del munus. Forma quota quaeque superbit ? (Ov.) 
Censeo, uti C. Pansa, A. Hirtius consules, alter ambove, si eis videbltur, 

de ejus honore praemiove primo quoque die ad senatum referant. 


In viduitate rellctae filiae singulos fllios parvos habentes. (Liv.) 
Vix hostem, alterni si congrediamur, habemus. (Verg.) 

Quisquis, quicunque, qualiscunque, utercumque, &c. ; utique. 

900 The indefinite relative pronouns are sometimes used absolutely, i.e. 
instead of whoever, whichever, they denote any one whosoever, some one 
or other, any thing whatever. So quisquis, quantusquantus, quicunque, 
qualiscunque, utercumque, &c. 

De Drusi hortis quanti licuisse tu scribls, id ego quoque audieram, sed 

quantiquanti bene emitur, quod necesse est. (Cic.) 
Vos lamina. hanc potius quocumque absumite leto. (Verg.) 
Quae sanari poterunt, quacumque ratione, sanabo. (Cic.) 
Si numina divum sunt aliquid, si non perierunt omnia mecum, quando- 

cumque mini poenas dabis. (Ov.) 

Nisi mercedem aut nummos unde unde extricat. amaras porrecto jugulo 
historias. captivus ut, audit. (Hor.) 

Quisque, ambo; quisquis, utlque ; Idem, alius; alter. 345 

901 Similarly utique comes to mean anyhow, at all events; non (ne) 
utlque, not of course, not necessarily. 
Velim M. Varronis et Ollli mittas laudatlonem, Ollii utique, nam illam 

legi, volo tamen regustare. (Cic.) 
Sapient! proposition est in vita agenda non utique, quod temp tat, effl- 

cere, sed omnino recte facere : gubernatori propositum est utique 

navem in portum perducere. (Sen.) 

Idem, alius, alter, ceteri. 

902 Idem is same, as opposed to alius ; alius is other generally, alter, 
other of two or the second of many ; ceteri is the others. Relicuus is 
remaining, i.e. after something has been subtracted. Often it is indis- 
tinguishable from ceteri. 

When alius or alter is repeated in different clauses, the first is in 
English often to be translated one, the second alius is another, alter the 
other. In Livy, &c. alius is sometimes used where ceteri would be 
more strictly right. 

When repeated in the same sentence, alius is often to be translated 
by different', e.g. alius alium videt (vident), different men see different 
things, or one sees one thing, another another; sometimes alius alium 
(alter alterum) vident is they see one another. 

Unus et alter is one or two. (For idem ac, alius ac see 661.) 

Multae idem istuc aliae cupiuut. (Plaut.) 
Equidem certo idem sum qui semper fui. (Plaut.) 
Alium esse censes mine me atque olim, cum dabam ? (Ter.) 
Alias bestias nantis aquarum incolas esse voluit, alias volucres caelo 
frui libero, serpentis quasdam, quasdam esse gradientis : earum 
ipsarum partim solivagas, partim congregatas, inmanis alias, 
quasdam autem cicures, nonnullas abditas terraque tectas. (Cic.) 
mi alias aliud eisdem de rebus et sentiunt et judicant. (Cic.) 
Alter! apud alteros formidinem facere. Pro metu repente gaudium 

mutatur : xnilites alius alium laeti appellant. (Sail.) 
Numero centuriarum Tarquinius alterum tantum adjecit. (Liv.) 
Unus et alter adsultur pannus. (Hor.) 
Altero vicesimo die litteras reddidit. (Cic.) 
O spectaculum un! eras so jucundum, ceteris non item ! (Cic.) 
Refugientes pauci aliam omnem multitudinem in potestate hostium 
esse afferebant. (Liv.) 

346 SUPPLEMENT TO SYNTAX, v. Pronouns. 

Quis? quisnam? ecquis? ecq[iiisnam ? numquis? 

903 Of the interrogative pronouns quis and (usually) quisnam (some- 
times namquis) denote tubo? which (of many}? uter, whether of 'two - 

ecquis, numquis, and sometimes siquisnam, num quisnam inquire 
whether any one or thing of the kind exists. 

In all these quis, quid are substantive, qui, quod adjective ( 207). 

TH. Quis fuit igitur ? PY. Iste Chaerea. TH. Qui Chaerea ? PY. Iste 

ephebus frater Phaedriae. (Ter.) 
Ecquis in aedibust ? Heus ecquis Me est ? ecquis hoc aperit ostium ? 

ecquis exit ? (Plaut.) 
Ninil jam quaerere aliud debetis, nisi uter utrl insidias feeerit. (Cic.) 

Miscellaneous Remarks on Pronouns, 

904 The second person plural is not used in Latin (as in English) for the 
singular, e. g. Quid ais ? What say you ? 

The first person plural is sometimes so used, as in English. 

Tu, quaeso, festina ad nos venire. (Cic.) 

Keliquum est ut de felicitate (Pompeii) timide ac pauca dicamus. Ego 
enim sic existimo. (Cic.) 

905 On the usual omission of any separate personal pronoun, when it 
would be the subject, see 571, 572 sq. 

It is also, if no ambiguity is likely to arise, often omitted, when it would 
be in the accusative ,or datiye. 
Fratrem tuum in ceteris rebus laudo : in hac una reprehendere cogor. 

So always vidi eum rogavique ; never vidi eum et rogavi eum. Meos 
Caesarisque libros reliqui, / left my own books and those of Caesar 
(never eosque gaesaris). 

The possessive pronoun is generally omitted. 
Roga parentes (sc. tuos). 
Patris (sc. mei) animum Tnifri reconciliasti. 

906 The possessive pronouns are sometimes used in the sense of 'favourable 
to me, you,' &c. 

loco aequo, tempore tuo pugnasti. (Liv.) 
Alfenus utebatur populo sane suo. (Cic.) 

907 The indefinite pronoun ' one ' is variously expressed in Latin : but 
these different modes are not all equally applicable in all circumstances. 

(a) By a personal passive : e. g. Rex nic valde diligitur, one feels 
strongly attached to the king. 

(b) By an impersonal expression: e.g. Non licet Ire, one may not go ; 
solet dici, one often says ; parendum est, one must obey. 

(c) By the first person plural ; e. g. Quae volumus, credimus libenter, 
what one wishes, one readily believes. 

Quis? quisnam? Miscellaneous Remarks, 347 

(d) By the second person singular subjunctive ; e. g. putares, one 
ivould have fancied. 

(e) By quis or aliquis ; e.g. si quis dicat, if one should say, &c. 

(/) By is with a relative, e.g. is qui hoc dicit, one who says this, &c. 
(g) By se after, or with, a general infinitive (cf. 537 c); e.g. 

Neglegere quid de se quisque sentiat (what people think of one), noa 

solum arrogantis est sed etiam omnlno dissoluti. (Cic.) 
Melius est ire se ipsum, it is better (one does better) to go oneself. 

Frequently this indefinite pronoun is omitted altogether in Latin : e.g. 
Libros quaeris : bonum affero, You seek books : I bring you a good one. 

So after 'any,' 'each,' 'some,' 'certain; 9 e.g. quisquam, quivis, any- 
one; quisque, each one', aliquis, some one ; quidam, a certain one ; or sim- 
ply 'one.' 

908 ' Each other,' f one another, ,' &c. are expressed in Latin by, 

(a) alius alium (alter alterum) intueri, they began to look at one 
another. (Cf. 582.) 

(b) inter se, inter nos, &c. 

Veri amici non solum colent inter se ac diligent, sed etiam verebuntur. 
(Cic.) Will not only look after and love, but also respect one another. 

(c) Sometimes by repetition of the noun. 

Manus manum lavat. (Similarly, but without implying reciprocity: Vir 

virum legit. Dies diem docet.) 

(Atticus moriens) non ex vita, sed ex domo in domum migrare videbatur. 

Tantae fuerunt tenebrae, ut per biduum nemo hominem homo agnos- 

ceret. (Cic.) 

(d) In later writers by invlcem (in turn]. 

Quae omnia hue spectant, ut invicem ardentius diligamus. (Plin.) 

(e) Sometimes by ultro citro, 

Societas inter populum Carthaginiensem regemque data ultro citroque 
fide affirmatur. (Liv.) 




i. Coinage (chiefly from Hultsch). 

909 COINED money was not used at Rome till the time of the decemviral 
legislation (303 u.c. = 45i B.C.). The coin was called an as and was sup- 
posed to weigh a pound ; hence called, in distinction from the subsequent as, 
as libralis or librarius. Coins also existed for the semis, triens, qvadrans, 
sextans and uncia. The real weight (of unworn pieces now found) is p to 
1 1 unciae and may be taken therefore at an average of 10 unclae. The 
coinage was of copper (aes), alloyed with tin and lead. 

In 485 u.C. ( = 269 B.C.), shortly before the first Punic war, silver was 
first coined, and at the same time the as was reduced to the weight of 
4 unclae (and then gradually before the end of the first Punic war to 2 
unciae) instead of an actual 10, nominal 12, unciae. Three silver coins 
were introduced ; the denarius (often stamped with a biga, or qvadrigu, 
and thence called bigatus or qvadrigatus) = 10 (reduced) asses ; the 
qvinarius-5 asses; the sestertius = i\ asses. The coin equivalent to 
the reduced as was of copper and called libella ; the half of this was sem- 
bella; the quarter (of the libella) was teruncius. The double as was 
coined and called dupondius ; other coins were tressis = 3 asses; decessis 
= 10 asses. The denarius was probably -fa pound of silver. 

In the year 537 u.c. ( = 217 B.C.) the copper as was reduced to the 
weight of one uncia, and to the value of ? V denarius or sestertius. Pro- 
bably at the same time the denarius, which had been gradually losing, was 
reduced so as to be equal to 5 \ pound of silver. The as eventually sunk to 
the value of \ uncia. 

A new silver coin called victoriatus, because stamped on the reverse 
with a figure of Victory, was introduced probably about the year 228 B.C. 
At first it was f denarius, afterwards by the Clodian law, 104 B.C., it was 
reduced to be = \ denarius, and as such was known to Varro, Cicero, &c. 

In the time of Nero the denarius was again reduced to ^ pound of 
silver, and at the same time Nero debased the silver. 

Copper coinage was dropped from about 84 to 74 B.C. until 15 B.C. 
(Except that some coins by Antony are found.) Then the silver sesterce 
being given up, a four-as piece was coined instead ; and a piece of half the 
value of the new sesterce, viz. the dupondius. Both these were of brass. 
The as, semis and qvadrans were of copper. 

Gold was first coined in 217 B.C.: but sparsely until Sulla, Pompey 
and Caesar. Caesar's coin called aureus was fixed as equivalent to 25 
denarii or 100 sesterces. 

Coinage, Money, Interest, 6<*. 349 

The value of these different coins is about as follows : 

Eng. Mon. 

As libralis (copper) 5^. 

269 217 B.C. 

As sextantarius ( =-f sestertius) (copper) nearly \d. 

Sestertius (silver) i\d. 

Denarius (silver) \d. 

217 30 B.C. 

Sestertius (silver) nearly id. 

Denarius (silver) 8</. 

Aureus (gold) = 25 denarii = i oo sestertii . i yj . 
Hence the following amounts are deduced : 

Mille sestertium 8. IQJ. 

Decies sestertium =1,000,000 sestertii . . ^8500. 

ii. Expression of sums of money. 

910 The denarius which was the silver coin in most currency was little used 
in reckoning. The ordinary unit of reckoning was the sestertius, or num- 
mus, or, in full, sestertius minimus. 

Up to 2000, the cardinal numbers are prefixed, e. g. centum sestertii, 
ducenti sestertii. But for higher numbers, in thousands up to a million, 
a neuter substantive in the plural number was used, sestertia, e.g. duo or 
septem sestertia for duo or septem millia sestertium (the short form of 
the genitive plural being taken for a neuter substantive) ; sestertium sexa- 
gena millia, sestertium sexagena millia nummum, sestertium nummum 
qvinque millia. 

For sums of a million and upwards numeral adverbs are .resorted to, 
e.g. decies centum (or centena) millia sestertium. Usually the numeral 
adverb and sestertium are put alone, e.g. decies sestertium; similarly 
duodecies sestertium (1,200,000), ter et vicies (2,300,000). In these ex- 
pressions again sestertium was taken to be a neuter substantive, and de- 
scribed as such, but in the singular number only, e.g. (nom.) sestertium 
qvadragies relinquitur (4,000,000); (ace.) sestertium qvadragles accepi ; 
(abl.) sestertio decies fundum emi, in sestertio vicies egere (to be poor in 
the possession of 2,000,000 sesterces}. Occasionally, when the context is 
clear, the adverb alone is put, and sestertium omitted. Sometimes other 
parts of the full expression are omitted, e. g. decies centena millia, decies 
centena (cf. 188. 2). As an instance of a composite expression may serve, 
Accepi vicies ducenta, triglnta qvinque milia, qvadringentos decem et 
septem nummos (Cic.), 2,235,417 sesterces. 

iii. Expression of Interest of Money. 

911 Interest was denoted at first by the proportionate part of the capital, 
and the parts of the as were made use of for this purpose. Thus the decem- 
viral legislation fixed legal interest at jV of the capital, fenus unciarium. 
This is equivalent to 8 per cent., and if Niebuhr's views be right, that this 
originally related to the old year of ten months, it would be equivalent to 
10 per cent, for a year of twelve months. In 347 B.C. the rate was reduced 
to semunciarium fenus, i.e. -fa of the capital, i.e. 5 per cent, for the year 
of twelve months. 


In and after Sulla's time, the more common Greek method of reckoning 
interest by the month came in, and the legal rate was T ^ of the capital per 
month, called centesima (sc. pars sortis), i.e. 12 per cent, for a year. 
Lower rates of interest were denoted by the fractional parts of the as (the 
centesima being taken as the as), higher rates by distributives (or a combi- 
nation of distributives and fractions). The following expressions are found 
either in the Corpus Juris or Cicero. Interest is expressed by the plural 
usurae, in apposition to the parts of the as : 

usurae unciae . . i. e. ^ of the centesima . = i per cent. 

usurae qvadrantes . . ^ = 3 

usurae trientes or tertia 

centesimae pars . . \ 4 

usurae qvincunces . . T \ = 5 

usurae semisses or diml- 

dia centesimae . . | = 6 

usurae besses or bes cen- 
tesimae | = 8 

usurae deunces . . . \\ =11 

usurae centesimae .. =12 

binae centesimae . . . = 24 

ternae centesimae . . = 36 

qvaternae centesimae . =48 

qvinae (centesimae) . . =60 

But the singular is sometimes found, e.g. fenus ex triente factum erat 
bessibus (Cic.). Interest rose from \ to f, i.e. per month, =4 per cent, to 
8 per cent, per year. 

iv. Measures of Weight 1 . 

912 The as and its divisions and multiples have been already given, 189. 
The Greek system also was used in the imperial times, the unit being a 

denarius, called from the Greek drachma, of which the libra ( = as) con- 
tained until Nero's time 84 (so in Celsus and Pliny), 'afterwards 96. This 
latter drachma was divided into three scriptula, the scriptulum = two oboli, 
the obolus = three siliquae. 

The libra may be taken as about pound Troy. Hence the denarius 
or drachma (before Nero's time) was nearly an Engl. drachm (60 grains). 

v. Measures of Length. 

913 The unit of one system was a finger-breadth, digitus ; 'four finger- 
breadths made a palm, palmus ; and four palms, a foot, pes ; a foot and a 
palm was palmipes ; a foot and a half (sesquipes) was a forearm, cubitus. 
The ulna was taken as a third of a man's height, perhaps the length of the 
whole arm. 

But the foot was also divided into twelve parts, and for these the names 
of the fractions of an as were used. Two Jeet was similarly called dupon- 
dius ; 2 feet was pes sestertius. 

1 In iv vii. I have chiefly followed Hultsch. The English equiva- 
lents are usually from the tables appended to Smith's Did. Antiqq. 

Interest, Weights, Measures, 6^. 351 

In land-surveying, the rod, pertica, contained ten feet, hence called 
decempeda. The actus (i. e. the furrow made at one drawing (driving) of 
the plough oxen) measured twelve rods. 

The unit of distance was not the single step (gradus, i\ feet) but the 
passus, 5 feet, i.e. the distance from the point where the same foot is taken 
up to the point where it is put down. A thousand paces, mille passus, 
gives the origin of a mile. The Greek stadium was also used and taken at 
| of a mile (i.e. our furlong). 

The pes=ir6 Eng, inches; mille passus=485o Eng. feet or -919 Eng. 
mile. The pertica =9 feet 8-5 inches. 

vi. Measures of Surface. 

914 The pes qvadratus (square foot}, as- contrasted with the pes porrectus 
(foot in length}, was the unit. But in land measurement a higher unit was 
taken, the scripulum (Varro), decempeda qvadrata (Pallad.), i.e. the 
square rod. 

The actus qvadratus, often simply actus, contained 144 square rods, 
perticae; a double actus was a jugerum ; a double jugerum formed an 
heredium ; 100 heredia formed a centuxia ; 4 centuriae formed a saltus 
(Varr. R. R. 1 10). 

The fractions of the jugerum were denoted by the parts of an as, the 
sicilicus also being used for T V '> the sextula for fa ; the scripulum (for of 
the sextula, i.e. for) ^^ of the jugerum. 

The pes qvadratus = -94 Engl. sq. foot : the actus qvadratus i rood 
9 perches 131 sq. feet : the jugerum = 2 roods 19 perches 189-9 square feet, 
i.e. almost of an acre ; an heredium was nearly an acre and a quarter. 

vii. Measures of Capacity. 

915 The unit of liquid measure was the qvadrantal, which was defined as 
vas pedis qvadrati, i.e. as containing a sqtiare foot of wine. The name in 
and after Cicero's time was superseded by that of amphora (d/x0o/)eu5). The 
amphora contained two urnae, the urna four congii ; the congius six sex- 
tarii ; the sextarius two hemlnae ; the hemlna two qvartarii ; the qvar- 
tarius two acetabula. A culeus contained 20 amphorae. 

The duodecimal system was applied to the sextarius, a twelfth of which 
was a cyathus = uncia. The triens=4 cyathi, qvadrans = 3 cyathi, sex- 
tans =2 cyathi, &c., are spoken of. 

The unit of dry measure was the modius, which contained two semodii 
or 16 sextarii. The divisions of the sextarius (hemina, &c.) were the 
same as of liquid measure. 

The sextarius was =-96 pint Engl. Hence the amphora was about 
= 5f gall- Engl.; the modius = nearly 2 gall. Engl. 



916 The Romans divided time into years, months, days, and hours. A civil 
day, as recognised in law, was from midnight to midnight ; a natural day, 
from sunrise to sunset. The duodecimal system was applied here also, the 
natural day being divided into twelfths, called horae, which were therefore 
of different absolute lengths according to the time of year. From Dec. 
23rd, when the day at Rome was, according to modern reckoning, 8 hrs. 
54m. long, and the Roman hour was 44^ m., the length increased up to 
25 June, when the day was 15 hrs. 6 m., and the Roman hour 75^ m. At 
the equinoxes, 23 March, 25 Sept., the Roman hour was of the same 
length as our own. The civil day is sometimes spoken of as divided into 
twenty-four hours. 

The night was for military purposes divided into four watches (vigilia 
pzima, &c.) of equal length. And a similar division of the day into four 
parts is also implied by Varro's account of the praetor's marshal crying the 
3rd hour, noon, and the 9th hour. Various loose names for different parts 
of the day and night came into vogue, and are arranged by Censorinus 
(c. 24) in the following order, starting from midnight : 

i. De media nocte; 2. gallicinium ; 3. conticinium, general silence-, 
4. ante lucezu ; 5. diluculum ; 6. mane ; 7. ad meridiem ; 8. meridies ; 
9. demeridie; 10. suprema ; n. vespera; 12. crepusculum; 13. lumini- 
bus accensis, or, anciently, prima facie; 14. concubium; 15. intempesta 
nox ; 1 6. ad mediam noctem ; 17. media noz. 

917 The division of time into weeks of seven days with distinct names was 
not used by the ancient Romans (before the introduction of Christianity). 
The months were distinguished by the names adopted by us from the 
Romans, excepting that, before the time of the Emperor Augustus, Julius 
and Augustus had the names of Quincfflis and Sextnis (i. e. fifth and 
sixth month, March being the first). The days of the month were com- 
puted from three leading days in each, which were called respectively 
Calendae (Kal.), Nonae (Non.), and Idus (Id.); to these the name of the 
month was appended as an adjective. The Calendae was the first day of 
every month ; the Nonae and Idus the fifth and thirteenth, except in the 
months of March, May, July, and October, in which they were the seventh 
and fifteenth respectively. From these days they counted backwards, the 
days between the ist and the Nones being reckoned as so many days be- 
fore the Nones : the days between the Nones and Ides as so many days be- 
fore the Ides ; and the remaining days of the month as so many days before 
the Kalends of the next month. The day immediately preceding any of 
these reckoning points was called pridie Nonas, &c. ; the day next but one 
before was the third day before (in consequence of the Nones, &c. being 
themselves included in the reckoning), and so on. 

There are two abbreviated modes of denoting the date; e.g. the 2/th 
of March might be marked as vi Kal. Apr., or a. d. vi Kal. Apr. The first 
is for sexto (die ante) Kalendas Apriles ; the second for ante diem sextum 
Kalendas Apriles. The latter expression appears to have originally signi- 
fied before (on the sixth day) the Kalends of April ; the exact day being 

Division of Time and Expression of Date. 353 

thrown in parenthetically, and attracted from the ablative into the accusa- 
tive case in consequence of following ante. Similarly we find the date 
sometimes denoted by the number of days preceding a festival ; as a. d. V 
Terminalia, i.e. ipthFeb. (the festival of the god of boundaries being on 
the 23rd Feb.). This expression was considered as one word, before which 
in or ex may stand : as, Ex ante diem iii Nonas Junias usque ad pridie 
Kalendas Septembres, front the $rd June to the $ist August ; differre 
aliquid in ante diem xv Kalendas Novembres, to put off something to the 
iSM October. 

The readiest way of reckoning the day is, (i) if the date lie between the 
Kalends and Nones, or between the Nones and Ides, to subtract the num- 
ber of the day mentioned from the number of the day on which the Nones 
or Ides fall, and add one (for the inclusive reckoning): (2) if the date lie 
between the Ides and the Kalends, to subtract the number of the day men- 
tioned from the number of the days in the month, and add two (i.e. one for 
the inclusive reckoning, and one because the Kalends are not the last of 
the month in which the date lies, but the first of the following month). 

918 In leap year the intercalated day was counted between a. d. vi Kal. 
Mart, and a. d. vii Kal. Mart, and denominated a. d. bissextum Kal. 
Mart., so that a. d. vii Kal. Mart, answers as in the ordinary February to 
Feb. 23, and a. d. viii Kal. Mart, to Feb. 22nd, &c. (Hence the name of 
leap year, annus bissextllis.) 

Before the reformation of the Calendar by Julius Caesar, B. C. 45, the 
number of days in the months were in March, May, July and October, 31 ; 
in February 28 ; in all the rest 29. Hence, as these four months were two 
days longer, the Nones and Ides were two days later. This should be 
remembered in reading Cicero's letters, many of which were written before 
45 B.C. After that year the number of days in each month was the same 
as it is with us. 

The following examples suppose the date to be subsequent to B.C. 45. 
The usual abbreviated form is given. [It must be remembered that 
Kalendae, Nonae, and Idus are feminine, and the months adjectives ; that 
the date ( l on the first,' &c.) is in the ablative (Kalendis, Nonis, Idibus) ; 
and that a. d. vi Non. Mart. &c. is for ante diem sextum Nonas Martias.] 

Day of 





(So also Aug. 

(So also Jun., Sept., 

(So also May, Jul., 






Kal. Jan. 

Kal. Apr. 

Kal. Mart. 


a. d. iv Non. Jan. 

a. d. iv Non. Apr. 

a. d. vi Non. Mart. 


Prid. Non. Jan. 

Prid. Non. Apr. 

a. d. iv Non. Mart. 


Non. Jan. 

Non. Apr. 

a. d. iii Non. Mart. 


a. d. viii Id. Jan. 

a. d. viii Id. Apr. 

Prid. Non. Mart. 


a. d. vii Id. Jan. 

a. d. vii Id. Apr. 

Non. Mart. 


a. d. vi Id. Jan. 

a. d. vi Id. Apr. 

a. d. viii Id. Mart. 


Prid. Id. Jan. 

Prid. Id. Apr. 

a. d. iv Id. Mart. 


Id. Jan. 

Id. Apr. 

a. d. iii Id. Mart. 


a. d. xix Kal. Feb. 

a. d. xviii Kal. Mai. 

Prid. Id. Mart. 


a. d. xviii Kal. Feb. 

a. d. xvii Kal. Mai. 

Id. Mart. 


a. d. xvii Kal. Feb. 

a. d. xvi Kal. Mai. 

a. d. xvii Kal. Apr. 


a. d. iii Kal. Feb. 

Prid. Kal. Mai. 

a. d. iii Kal. Apr. 


Prid. Kal. Feb. 

Prid. Kal. Apr. 

L. G. 







a | 



v ia M 

.i 1 $ i 

H II ^ 




OT ^ 


i H 

i i_ i-I- 

** t> I* i / -H 

H i 
ft L I 

I CJj --4 

i a 



Names of Relations by Blood and Marriage* 







922 Afoot consists of two or more a'djoining syllables, having defined quan- 
tities, and may be contained in one or more words or parts of words. 
The Latin names of the different feet recognised in statements on metre 
are, as follows : examples of each are added : 


Pyrrhlchius ~ ~ age Spondeus vici 

Trdchaeus - ~ prode Iambus - - agas 

or ChfirSus 



~~ agitt 




" -' prodite 




~ - proditos 

Bacchlus ' 


or Amphim&cer 

Antlbacchlus 1 

- ~ vicina 



(nom. or ace.) 



Prdceieusmatlcus ~ - 

~ " recipere 




~ ~ flagitare 





- - flag^itio 

Antispastus ^ - - " 


lonlciis a major! - - 

~ ~ fehcia 

ISnlcusaminori ~ ~ 


Paeon I mus 

~ ~* flagitia 

Paeon II dus 


Paeon III th " 

~ trepidare 

Paeon IV tus ^ ~ ^ - 


Epitritus I mu 


Epitritus II d> " 


Epitritus III tiul 

~ dijudicas 

Epitritus IV tus - 




* requisiveras 


923 A verse or line is composed of a number of feet in a definite order, 
and is variously named and described by the number of syllables or of feet or 
of metres which it contains: e.g. hendecasyllabus (eleven-syllabled], dgca- 
syUabus, &c. ; senarius (with six feet], septenarius, &c. ; m6n6m6ter (with 
one metre], dimeter (two), pentameter (five), hexameter (six), &c. 

In dactylic verse one foot makes (for this purpose of description) a 
metre ; in iambic, trochaic, and anapaestic verse two feet make one metre. 

A verse containing the stated number of complete metres is called acata- 

If the last metre be short by one syllable, it is called catalectic : if short 
by two syllables brachy catalectic. 

1 Some writers reverse the application of the terms Bacchius and Anti- 

Elements and Terms of Latin Metre. 357 

If there be one or two syllables after the last complete metre, it is 
called hypercatalectic. 

A verse is said to be pure when it consists only of one kind of feet (e. g. 
pure iambic). Most verses are impure, i. e. they contain more than one 
kind of feet. Some verses admit in certain parts any of several feet, while 
in other parts one kind only is admissible. 

Some kinds of verse are named after their inventor or first user, usually 
a Greek lyric poet; e.g. Archilochus (cir. 700 B.C.), Alcaeus, Alcman and 
Sappho (cir. 600 B. c.), Hipponax (cir. 540 B. c.), Anacreon (cir. 520 B.C.), 
Pherecrates (cir. 450 B. c.), Asclepiades and Glycon (age unknown). 

924 The main classification of verses is best made by considering whether a 
verse moves from long syllables to short (falling rhythm) or from short to 
long (rising rhythm). Thus verses composed of dactyls and of trochees form 
one class : those composed of iambs and of anapaests form another class. 

Many verses are catalectic, that is to say, the last foot is abridged. If 
this is the case in iambic or trochaic or anapaestic verse the last foot is thus 
represented by one syllable, most frequently a long syllable : in dactylic 
verse either by a single syllable (male ending) or by a trochee (female end- 
ing). A certain rest is thus obtained. In verses of more than two metres 
(i.e. in trimeters, tetrameters, &c.) a similar rest is often sought in the 
middle of the verse by making a break. And this in two ways : 

(1) In the verses which are used continuously to form long poems or 
long parts of plays, viz. in the dactylic hexameter, in the iambic trimeter 
and in the trochaic tetrameter, this break is procured by making the end of 
a disyllabic or polysyllabic word come at the middle of the third or fourth 
foot or of both feet. This ' cutting* of the verse is called caesura. It is in 
harmony with the principle which prevails in these verses of avoiding, at 
least in the first half, frequent coincidences, especially successive coin- 
cidences, of words with feet. 

(2) In some other" verses we find regularly, at the end of the first or 
second half of the verse, or at the end of both, a long syllable, after which, 
as after a rest, the rhythm starts afresh. Thus in the falling rhythm a 
trochee with such a long syllable becomes a cretic, a dactyl becomes a 
choriamb, and, in the rising rhythm, an iamb becomes a bacchic, an 
anapaest becomes a rising or lesser ionic (ionicus a minori). 

A spondee, as being equal in length ( 51) to either a dactyl or anapaest, 
belongs to both rhythms, and is freely used in certain parts of the verse, 
sometimes necessarily, sometimes optionally, in place of trochee, dactyl, 
iamb or anapaest (cf. Hor. A. P. 256 sq.). A tribrach is found, in some 
verses frequently, taking the place of iamb or trochee, the long syllable 
being resolved (as it is often said) into two short ones. 

925 The last syllable of a verse is in most, but not in all kinds of verses, at 
option either long or short, whatever the metre may theoretically require. 
A short vowel is not so frequent a close as is a long vowel or a consonant. 
Again, generally an hiatus is not noticed between the end of a verse and the 
beginning of the following verse. Occasionally, however, a short vowel is so 
elided ( 64). If, however, the metre runs on continuously, the end of the 
verse being subject to the same requirements as to quantity and as to the 
avoidance of hiatus as if there were no division of verses, there is said to be 
sjfaS,pliIa (continuity} in the metre or between the verses. Anapaestic 
verse in Greek has always this continuity. It is frequent also in Glyconics 


and Sapphics as used by Catullus and sometimes in those used by Horace. 
A word is rarely divided between one line and the next (cf. Hor. Od. i. 
2. 19; Catull. 61. 82). 

The following are the principal kinds of verses which occur in Latin 
poetry now preserved. Sometimes a poem, or a distinct part of a poem, is 
composed of a number of verses all of one kind, sometimes of two or more, 
used alternately or in some regular order. 


N.B. The vertical line is used in the metrical scheme to mark the feet or 
sets of feet ; in the lines quoted it is used to mark a caesura or break, 

926 Dactylic. 

i. Dactylic hexameter catalectic, or Heroic verse, consists of six feet, 
the first four of which are either dactyls or spondees, the fifth is a dactyl, 
rarely a spondee, the sixth always a trochee or spondee. If the fifth foot is 
a spondee, the fourth is a dactyl. There is usually a caesura (either male 
or female) in the middle of the third foot, sometimes not until the middle 
of the fourth foot. First used in Latin by Ennius, then by Lucilius, Lucre- 
tius, Catullus (62 ; 64) and above all by Vergil, Horace (in Satires and 
the Epistles), Ovid (in Metamorphoses) and many later writers. 

S) I quibtis etnguino \ red\mita eapitto 
Frons expircintis \ praeportat pectoris z'ras, 
Hue hue adventate \ meets \ audite qucrelas. 
Ipsitts ante pedes \fltictits \ marts adludebant. (Catull.) 

2. Dactylic tetrameter acatalectic : rare (Pseudo-Sen. Here. Oct. 

Unde sonus trepidas aitres ferit. 

3. Dactylic tetrameter catalectic : similar to the last four feet of the 
Hexameter : used chiefly with other verses, 

Cms ingens iteretbimus aequor. 
Plurimus in Junonis honorem. (Hor.) 

4. Dactylic dimeter catalectic (or Adonius, from a poem of Sappho 
calling on Adonis) consists of a dactyl and a trochee or spondee. Used 
only with other verses. 

_ ^ ~ | ~ Terruit urbem. (Hor.) 

927 Dactylo-choriambic. 

5. Dactylic dimeter hypercatalectic, or Arcliil6criius minor, consists 
of a dactyl and a choriamb. Used only with other verses. 

_ _ ^ i _ .- ~ _ Pulvis tt umbra sumus. (Hor.) 

Elements and Terms of Latin Metre. 359 

6. Dactylic pentameter is composed of two dimeter hypercatalectics, 
but the first of the two admits a spondee in place of dactyl and a molossus 
in place of a choriamb. There is always a break after the choriamb. Ovid 
has nearly always a disyllabic at the end of the verse. Catullus and Pro- 
pertius have occasionally words of three, four, or five syllables. The verse 
is very frequently used in alternation with the hexameter. See 938 A. 

Obruet hostiles \ ista ruina domos. (Ov.) 

Tune vero longas \ condimus Iliadas. (Propert.) 

Id quod verbosis \ dicitur et fatuis. (Catull. ) 

928 Trochaic. 

7. Trochaic tetrameter acatalectic consists of eight trochees, for any 
of which a spondee may be .used, and for all but the last a dactyl or anapaest 
or tribrach. Only in comic poets; e.g. Plaut. Menaech. 588 foil. 

Dixi causam : condiciones \ tetuli torlas confragosas. 

8. Trochaic tetrameter catalectic consists of seven trochees and a half 
(i.e. six trochees and a cretic). Frequent in comic poets with the same 
choice of feet for the first six trochees as in the acatalectic. A break at 
end of 4th or 5th foot (e. g. Plaut. Men. 588 sqq.). Seneca observes stricter 
rules allowing tribrachs in the odd places (except last) and spondees and 
anapaests in the even places. Dactyls are used also. Seneca's metre 
appears to have these varieties of feet : 

Pallid i fauces averni \ vosque Tacnarci spectis 
Unda Mtscris grata Lethes \ vosque torpentes lacus 
Jmpium rapite atque m.ersum \ premite perpetuis malts. 

(Sen. Phaedr. 1210 foil.) 

9. Trochaic dimeter catalectic consists of two trochees and a cretic. 
Only used in combination with other lines (Hor. II. 18). See also under 

- ^ - ~ | ~ Non ebur neque anreum. (Hor. ) 

10. Ithyphallic, i.e. trochaic dimeter brachycatalectic, consists of 
three trochees. Only used with other lines. 

- ~ - ~ ~ ~ Bacche, Baccke, Bacche. 

929 Dactylo-trochdic. 

N.B. Dactyls followed by trochees form what are sometimes called 
logaoedic verses. 

ir. ArchllSchiua major consists of four dactyls followed by three 
trochees. In the first three feet spondees may be used. Only used with 
other verses (Hor. Od. I. 4). 


Nitnc decet aut viridi \ nitidum caput impedire myrto. 

Pallida mors aeqiio \ put sat pede pauper um tabernas. (Hor. Od. i. 4.) 

12. Alcaic decasyllabic consists of two dactyls (not each contained in 
a separate word) followed by two trochees. Only used as the fourth line of 
the Alcaic stanza. 

_~~|_~~|_^_- Impavidum ferient ruinae. 

Omne caput movet ttrna no men. Impetus aut orient is haedi. (Hor.) 

13. Aristdphanlc consists of a dactyl followed by a trochee and 
spondee (or trochee?). Not used by itself in Horace (i. 8). 

- ~ ~ | - ~ | Lydia die per omnes. (Hor.) 

930 Trochaeo-dactylic. 

The first disyllabic foot in these verses is often called the base. It 
usually admits of some variety; e.g. spondee, trochee or iamb. 

14. Sapphic (Sapphlcus minor) is a trochaic quinarius with a dactyl 
always in third foot. It usually consists (in this order) of trochee, spondee, 
dactyl and two trochees. Catullus has (but rarely)? a trochee in the second 
foot. There is a caesura, usually male, sometimes female, in the dactyl. 
This verse is usually combined with the adoiiic, bu-i in Seneca is frequently 
used continuously by itself. 

Pauca nuntiate \ meae pucllac. (Catull.) 
Quo nihil ma/us \ melitisve terris 
Fata donavere \ bonique Divi. (Hor.) 

15. Phalaecian, or simply Heiidecasyllabu^, is like the last a special 
form of trochaic quinarius. The first foot is usually a spondee, but in Catullus 
occasionally a trochee or iamb ; the second a dactyl (except in Catull. 55 
where it is frequently a spondee). The other three feet are trochees. There 
is no special caesura. It forms whole poems and is much used by Catullus, 
Seneca, and Martial ; also by Statius (Silv. i. 6; n. 7 ; IV. 3 ; 9). 

Adeste hcndecasyllabi quot estis 

Ovines undique quotquot estis omnes. (Catull.) 

Tanto ten fastu negas, amice? (Catull. 55.) 

1 6. Phgrecratian consists of a dactyl between two disyllabic feet 
which in Catullus are trochees or spondees, in Horace spondees only. (For 
ist foot Catullus once has iamb, Horace once has trochee.) Used in 
stanzas with other feet (see below 938). 

I ~ -' I (Catull.) Prodeas nova nupta. 
_ ~ ~ | (Hor.) Grata Pyrrha siib antro. 

17. Glyconic consists of a trochee or spondee followed by two dactyls. 
Catullus usually has a trochee in first place, a cretic in 3rd place. Horace 

Elements and Terms of Latin Metre. 361 

has almost always a spondee in ist place. Seneca (cf. Oedip. 903 sqq. but 
not Thyest. 336 sqq.) has sometimes a spondee in second place, which 
makes the verse in fact the same as a trochaic dimeter catalectic. 

Quicquid excessit modutii 
Pendet instabili loco. (Sen.) 
Cinge tempora floribus. (Catull.) 
Nos cantabimus invicem. (Hor.) 

1 8. Priapeus consists of trochee or spondee, followed in order by a 
dactyl, cretic, trochee, dactyl, trochee. In fact it is glyconic + pherecratian. 
There is a break at the end of the cretic foot. Only found in Catull. 17, 
Priap. 85. 

O colonia quae cupis \ ponte hcdere 

Uva pampinea rubens \ ed^tcata sub umbra. 

19. Asclepiadeus minor consists of one spondee, one choriamb and 
two dactyls. A break usually after choriamb. Much used by Horace and 
Seneca. (This line repeated forms what is called the First Asclepiad 
metre, Hor. I. I ; III. 30.) 

Maecenas atavis \ edite regibiis. (Hor.) 
Tecum conseruit \ pest if eras mantis. (Sen.) 

20. Asclepiadeus major consists of one spondee, two choriambs and 
two dactyls. A break usually after each choriamb (Catull. 30; Hor. I. n ; 
18; IV. 10). 

I -I -I- !- . 

Quae mens est hodie \ cur eadem \ non puero fuit? (Hor.) 
Alphene immemor atque \ unanimis \false sodalibus. (Catull.-) 

2 r . SappWcus major (i. e. the ordinary sapphic with a choriamb in- 
serted) consists of trochee, spondee, choriamb, dactyl, trochee and spondee. 
A break after the choriamb. Only in Hor. I. 8. 

t -i i !---- 

Cur timet Jtavum Tiberim \ t anger e? cur olivum* 

931 Cretic and greater Ionic. 

12. Wetic tetrameter acatalectic consists of four cretics. Only found 
in comic poets (e.g. Ter. Andr. 625 sqq.). Occasionally admits Of other 
feet, e, g. dactyl or paeon. 

-~-| _~_ I--- J-wa 

Tanta vecordia innatd cuiquam ut siet* 
Turn coacti necessario se aperiunt* 

23. S5tadeus consists of three ionics a majori and one trochee or 
spondee. A double trochee is often substituted for the" 3rd ionic, some- 
times for the first ; and some pf the long syllables are occasionally resolved 
into two shorts. Only in Terentianus Maurus. 


Lavinia cum dicimus, hacc tamen figura fst 
Metrumque facit, sotadicon quod vocitartmt 

Qui multafertmt hoc pcde Sotaden locutum. (Ter. Maur. 1 508 sqq. ) 
Quasi si repetam quo,s docui disyllabos jam. (ist foot ^ ^ ~ ~) 
Unum ut faciant duo pariter pedes jugati. (2nd foot - ~ ~ ~ ~) 

(Ib. 1458 sq.) 


932 Anapaestic. 

24. Anapaestic dimeter acatalectic consists of four anapaests, for any 
of which a spondee and for the first and third of which a dactyl may be 
substituted. A break after second foot. Coincident endings of foot and 
word are frequent. Much used by Seneca. 

Itc umbrosas \ cingite silvas 
Summaque montis \juga cecropil 
Celcri planta \ lustrate vagi, (Sen.) 

25. Anapaestic monometer acatalectic consists of two feet, either 
anapaests or spondees. The first may also be a dactyl. Only interspersed 
among dimeters, 

-' Saltus aperit. 
Captent auras* 
Notte silenti. 

Anapaestic tetrameter catalectic is frequent in Greek (e. g. in Aristo- 

933 Iambic. 

26. Iambic tetrameter catalectic consists of seven iambs and a half. 
In the first and fifth places are found spondees occasionally (Catull. 25). 
The comic poets use spondees, &c. in every place but the seventh. 

Remitte palliu m mihi \ meum quod involasti. (Catull.) 

Nunc detmtm experipr mi ob oculos \ caliginem obstitisse. (Plaut.) 

27. Iambic trimeter acatalectic consists of six iambs. It is sometimes 
found pure throughout a poem (Catull. 4; 29), but generally in Horace ad- 
mits a spondee frequently, a dactyl rarely, in the ist, 3rd and th places, 
and an anapaest in the jst and 5th. Seneca has the spondee and anapaest 
frequently in these places. The tribrach occurs in all places except the 
last. Seneca uses it chiefly in the even places. Phaedrus and the comic 
poets admit all these substitutes for iambics in any of the first five places. 
There k a caesura usually at the end of t\ feet, sometimes not until the end 
of ^ feet. 

Elements and Terms of Latin Metre. 363 

Socer generque \ pcrdidistis omnia. (Catull.) 
Et hoc negat minacis \ Adriatici. (Catull.) 
In/amis Helenas \ Castor offensits via. (Hor.) 
Pavidumque leporem et \ advenam laqzieo gruem. (Hor.) 
Nil praeter domini \ nomen mutant pauperes. (Phaedr.) 

28. Iambic Scazon or Hipponacteus, also a trimeter acatalectic, differs 
from the ordinary trimeter by having a spondee or trochee in the sixth 
foot and iamb in the fifth. Either a spondee, anapaest or dactyl may be 
used in first or third feet ; a tribrach in the 2nd, 3rd and 4th. Caesuras as 
in the ordinary trimeter. Much used by Catullus and Martial, also by 
Persius in Prologue. 

Nam risu inepto \ res ineptior nullast. (Catull.) 
Dum Janus hiemes \ Domitianus aitctuninos 
Augustus annis \ aestates. (Mart.) 
Nihil est miserius \ neque gulosius Santra. (Mart.) 

29. Iambic trimeter catalectic consists of four iambs, and a bacchic. 
Spondees are sometimes used in the ist and 3rd places and a tribrach once 
occurs. A break after 2.^ feet. Only used with other verses (Hor. I. 4; 
II. 18). 

Trahentque siccas \ machinae carinas. 
Mea renidet \ in domo lacunar. (Hor.) 

30. Alcaicus enneasyllabus consists of spondee (sometimes iamb), 
iamb, spondee, bacchic. It is a special form of iambic dimeter hypercata- 
lectic, and forms the third line of the Alcaic stanza. 

Te iriste lignum mox caducum. 
Clari giganteo triumpho. (Hor.) 

3 1 . Iambic dimeter acatalectic consists of four iambs, for the first and 
third of which a spondee is often substituted. A tribrach and dactyl also 
occur though rarely. Used with other verses (Hor. Epod. I 10). 

Sacer nepotibus cruor. 

Virtus sepiikhrum condidit. (Hor.) 

3 6 4 


3*2. Iambic dimeter catalectic consists of two iambs and a bacchic. 
A special form of this verse called the anacreontic has an anapaest in the 
first foot. They are used together in Seneca (Med. 857 sqq.). 
^ Quonam cruenta maenas 
Praeceps amore saevo 
Rapitur ? quod impotenti 
Facinus parat furore ? (Sen.) 

33. Iambic dimeter brachycatalectic consists of three iambs, 
found at close of a system of dimeter catalectics. 

_ _ ^ _ Quis credat extilem. (Sen. Med. 865.) 



34. Galliambic consists in theory of two iambic or anacreontic dimeters 
of which the first is catalectic and the second brachycatalectic. There are 
thus six feet, which are usually anapaest, iamb, bacchic, anapaest, tribrach, 
iamb; but with some variations. The metre is only found in Catullus' 65111 
poem. The name is from the Gaulish priests of Cybele, which form the 
subject of it. 

Super alta vectuS Atys \ ccleri rate maria. 
Tibicen ubi canit Phryx \ curvo grave calamo, 
Ubi capita maenades vi \jaciunt ederigerae. 
'Jamjani dotet quod egi ; \ jam jamque' paenitet. 

Bacchiac and lesser Ionic. 

35. Bacchiac tetrameter* acatalectic consists of four bacchics. Only 
found in comic poets, e.g. Plaut. Mcn< 753 sqq. ; TV///. 223 sqq. ; Amph. 

Sed haec res mi hi in pectore ei cords curae st. 
Homo idem in duobus locis lit simul sit. 

Occasionally a bacchiac hexameter occurs ; e.g. PI. Amph. 627 sqq. 
Satin parva res est voluptatem in vita, atqut in aetatc agunda. 

36. Ionic a minori. The only metre of this kind in Latin is in one 
ode of Horace (in. 12). The poem is composed of forty feet, all of this 
description, and may (as the synapliia throughout is perfect) be divided 
into four decameters, but is usually printed as if divided into four stanzas, 
each containing two tetrameters and a dimeter. 

___|__|^__|^__ &c . 

Miserarum est neque dmori dare ludum neque dulci 
Mala vino lavere aut exanimari, jnetuentes 
Patruae verbera linguae. 

Elements and Terms of Latin Metre. 365 



37. Alcaic hendecasyllable consists of a spondee (occasionally iamb), 
and bacchic followed by two dactyls. There is almost always a break after 
the bacchic. It is used for the ist and 2nd lines of the alcaic stanza. It 
might be considered as an iambic quinarius with a spondee in the third foot 
and an anapaest in the fourth (Madvig), but looking at the character of the 
fourth line of the stanza it is better to consider the first and second lines as 
compounded of iambic and dactylic rhythm. The first syllable of this and 
of the nine-syllable verse (;upr. 30) is often called auacrftsis (back-stroke). 

Nee Tera virtus \ cum semel excidit 

Curat reponi \ deterioribus. 

Retorta tergo \ brachia libero. (Hor.) 

937 lambo-Trochaic. 

38. Saturnian. This is the oldest form of Latin verse, and the laws 
of it are very uncertain, because few, and those mostly very irregular, 
specimens are preserved. The most regular form is an iambic trimeter 
hypercatalectic, with a spondee in the fourth foot and a break in the 
middle of it. Or it may be considered as compounded of an iambic 
dimeter catalectic, followed by an ithyphallic (No. 10), i. e. by three trochees. 
But the first part was sometimes merely three feet, either spondees, iambs, 
dactyls, or anapaests, and the last part was similarly rudely organised. 

~-|~-l~--l!-- ~ 

Dabunt maluni Aletelli Naevio poetae. 
Jmmortales mor tales si foret fas flere, 
Plerent divae catnenae Naeviwn poetant. 
Itaque, postqtiam est orcino traditust thesauro, 
Obliti sunt Romae loquier lingua latina. (Naev.) 
? Romai 


Some of the above-mentioned verses are merely repeated to form a 
poem or large portion of a poem. Above all the dactylic hexameter (No. i), 
and iambic trimeter (No. 27) are so used: less frequently the iambic scazon 
(No. 28), trochaic tetrameter (No. 8), Phalaecian (No. 15), the lesser 
Asclepiad (No. 19, cf. Hor. Od. I. i; in. 30; IV. 8) and the greater Ascle- 
piad (No. 20, cf. Hor. i. ir ; 18; iv. 10) and in Seneca the lesser Sapphic 
(No. 14) and the Glyconic (No. 17). But elegiac and lyric poets frequently 
combine in regular order two or more kinds of verses. The following are 
the principal composite metres (in this sense), with the components of 
each stanza, the stanzas being repeated as often as the poet chooses. 

A. Elegiac. Dactylic hexameter (No. i) and dactylic pentameter 
(No. 6) alternately. The sense is usually (except in Catullus) not continued 
syntactically from one couplet to the succeeding one. Ovid, except in the 


Metamorphoses, used this metre exclusively. So also Tibullus (Books I. n.) 
and Propertius. Catullus' elegiacs are rough. Martial wrote many poems 
in this metre. 

B. Alcaic. A stanza of four lines ; viz. two eleven-syllable (No. 37), 
one nine-syllable (No. 30) and one ten-syllable (No. 12).. The stanza is 
artistically composed, of two lines having iambic rhythm in the first half, 
and dactylic rhythm in the second half; then of an iambic line; last of a 
dactylo-trochaic. (See Hor. I. 9 and often; especially in. i 6.) 

C. First Glyconic. A stanza of four lines ; viz. three glyconic (No. 17) 
and one pherecratian (No. 16). Only in Catull. 34. 

D. Second Glyconic. A stanza of five lines ; viz. four glyconic and 
one pherecratian. Only in Catull. 61. 

E. Second Asclepiad. A stanza of four lines'; viz. three lesser ascle- 
piads (No. 19) and one glyconic (No. 17). Hor. i. 6; 15; 24; 33; n. 12; 
in. 10; 16; iv. 5; 12. (For first asclepiad, see No. 19.) 

F. Third Asclepiad. A stanza of four lines ; viz. two lesser asclepiads, 
one pherecratian and one glyconic. Hor. i. 5; 14; 21; 43; in. 7; 13; 
iv. 13. 

G. Fourth Asclepiad. Glyconic and lesser asclepiad alternately. Hor. 
i. 35 13; J 9! 3<5; in. 9; 15; 19; 24; 25; 28; iv. i; 3. 

H. (First) Sapphic. A stanza of four lines ; viz. three (lesser) sap- 
phics (No. 14) and an adonic (No. 4). Catull. n ; 51 ; Hor. i. 2 and often ; 
Sen. Med. 582 sqq. ; Stat. Silv. iv. 7. 

J. Second Sapphic. An aristophanic (No. 13) and greater sapphic 
(No. 21) alternately. Only in Hor. i. 8. 

K. Alcmanian. Dactylic hexameter (No. i) and dactylic tetrameter 
alternately. Hor. I. 7; 28 ; Epod. 12. 

L. First Archilochian. Dactylic hexameter and lesser archilochian 
(No. 5) alternately. Only in Hor. iv. 7. 

M. Second Archilochian. A stanza of three lines; viz. dactylic hexa- 
meter, iambic dimeter (No. 31) and lesser archilochian (No. 5). The two 
latter are usually considered as forming together one verse, called an 
iambe'le'gus- But as there is no synaphia between the iambic and the 
archilochian (whence this supposed one verse is called asynartetus, i.e. 
not fitted together] it seems best to treat them as separate verses. (So Lam- 
binus.) Only in Hor. Epod. 13. 

N. Third Archilochian. A stanza of three lines ; viz. iambic trimeter 
(No. 27), lesser archilochian (No. 5) and iambic dimeter (No. 31). The 
two latter here also (as in M) are often treated as one verse and called 
elegiambus. Only in Hor. Epod. n. 

O. Fourth Archilochian. A greater archilochian (No. u) and iambic 
trimeter catalectic (No. 29) alternately. Only in Hor. i. 4. 

P. First Pythiambic. Dactylic hexameter and iambic dimeter (No. 3 1 ) 
alternately. Only in Hor. Epod. 14, 15. 

Q. Second Pythiambic. Dactylic hexameter and iambic trimeter 
(No. 27) alternately. Only in Hor. Epod. 16. 

R. Hipponactean. Trochaic dimeter catalectic (No. 9) and iambic 
trimeter catalectic (No. 29) alternately. Only in Hor. n. 18. 

Elements and Terms of Latin Metre. 367 

S. Second Iambic. Trimeter and dimeter acatalectic iambics alter- 
nately. Hor. Epod. i 10 ; Martial i. 49; m. 14; ix. 77. (The so- 
called 'first iambic' consists of trimeters.) 

T. Iambic trimeter scazon (No. 28) and iambic dimeter (No. 31) 
alternately. Only in Martial i. 61. 

V. Anapaestic. Consists of a number of anapaestic dimeter acata- 
lectics (No. 24), frequently mixed with monometers (No. 25); e.g. Sen. 
Mcd. 790 sqq. ; Phaedr. i sqq. In Greek the set of dimeters is frequently 
closed by a dimeter brachycatalectic (which is often immediately preceded 
by a monometer). This closing verse from its frequently expressing a 
proverb is often called versus paroemiacus. 

X. Anacreontic consists of a number of iambic dimeter catalectics 
(No. 32) closed by a single iambic dimeter brachycatalectic (No. 33). See 
Sen. Mcd. 856 sqq. 



939 N.B. Many of these terms being in fact Greek words of wide generic 

meaning have not been applied by grammarians and rhetoricians 
uniformly to the same class of expression. 

i. GRAMMATICAL TERMS; chiefly names of grammatical figures. 

Amphlbdlia, ' ambiguity ; ' e. g. aio te Romanes vincere posse where tc may 
be subject and Romanos object ; and vice versa. 

Anacdlfithdn, where a sentence is begun in one way and finished in another 
not syntactically accordant ; e. g. Deos verisimile est ut alias indul- 
gently s tractent for deos... alias tractare or Di...ut...tractent. 

Anastr&phe, ' inversion ; ' e.g. wale quod vult for qtcod male vult ; tecum for 
cum te ; trans tra per et remos, &c. 

AphaerSsIs, ' omission ' of a letter or syllable at the beginning of a word ; 
e.g. Us for stlis, natits for gnafus. 

Apdcdps, 'cutting off,' i. e. omission of a letter or syllable at end of a word ; 
e. g. ille for illus, me for med, vigil for vigilis. 

Apdddsls, ' reply ' applied to the demonstrative or consequent or principal 
clause ; cf. 626, 628, 629, 638, 654, &c. 

940 Archaismus, use of an ' old'' or obsolete form or word or expression; e.g. 

olli in Vergil for illi ; duellum in Horace for bellum. 
Assimilatio, see 22 27. 
Asynd6t6n, 'omission of conjunctions;' e.g. usus fructus ; sarta tecta ; inde 

ventis remis in patriam properavi (Cic.). Cf. 439 b. 
Attractio, often applied to such constructions as are referred to in 451 : 

also urbem quam statuo vestra est for urbs quam, &c. 
Barbarismus, using a faulty ' non-Latin ' word, esp. a word faultily formed ; 

e. g. gladia for gladii, scala for scalae. Distinguished by relating to 

a single word from soloecismus which relates to a complex of words. 
Brachyldgia, ' shortening of expression ;' e.g. 581, 58*. 


941 Crasls, ' union ' of two or more vowel sounds; e.g. cars for cohort, prorsus 

for proversus. 
Diaeresis, ' separation ' of one vowel sound into two ; e. g. Orpheus for 

Orpheus : also the treatment of a usually consonantal v as a vowel; 

e. g. sttuae for silvae. 
Ecthllpsls, ' crushing out,' in verse of a syllable ending in m before an 

ensuing vowel ; see 63. 
Ellipsis, ' omission ' of a word syntactically required. Cf. 447, 563, 583, 

Enallage, 'change;' i.e. putting of one case for another, applied by old 

grammarians to such usages as those in 475 a, 480 and others. 
EpenthSsIs, ' insertion ; ' e. g. of u in AZctimena for Alcmena ; p in sumpsi, 

sumptum ( 29). 

TTaiisrHc ( 'Graecism; ' use of a Greek form or construction, not pro- 
perly Latin also; e.g. cf. 148, 156, &c. ; 5*8, 53, 
540 (3)- 

Hendladys, ' one by two ; ' use of two words co-ordinated instead of an ex- 
pression in which one qualifies the other grammatically; e.g. 
paterae et auriim for aureae patera*. See also 580. 

Hypallage, ' exchange ; ' applied to such deviations from ordinary expression 
or construction as Tyrrhenus tubae clangor for Tyrrhenae tubae 
clangor ; arma dd Vokania for anna a dco Volcano facta, &c. 

Hyperbaton, ' transgression ; ' i. e. when a considerable clause or expres- 
sion is interpolated between two parts of a sentence mutually 
connected in meaning; e-g. hyperboreo septem siibjecta trioni; 
animadverti omnem accusatoris orationem in duas divisatn esse 

Hyphen, 'union' of two words, as if by composition; e.g. non-sutor, 'one 
who is not a tailor,' ignari ante-malorum, 'ignorant of the ills 

943 MfitathSsIs, ' change of position;' transposition of two (or more) letters; 

e.g. cretus for certus (31 d). 
Paragoge, ' addition ; ' applied (according to a probably false theory) to the 

formation of dicier from did by addition of er. But see 288. 
ParenthSsIs, ' insertion ' of a clause into the midst of another ; e. g. si nos, 

id quod maxime debet, nostra patria delectat (Cic.). The term is 

generally applied to an ordinary insertion ; if unusual either from 

its character or length, it is sometimes called hyperbaton. 
Plednasmus, ' saying too much,' an unnecessary fullness of expression ; e.g. 

erant otnnino itinera duo, quibus itineribus domo exire possent 

(Caes.) ; sno sibi gladio hunc jugulo, ' I slay him with his own 

sword to him ; ' praesensi prius. 
Prdlepsis, 'anticipation,' applied to such use of an adjective as laceras aries 

ballistave concutit arces, where the towers are lacerae from the 

effects of concutit. 
Pr6tS,sIs, 'proposal,' applied to the relative or conditional, &c. clause, cf. 


944 Syllepsis, 'taking together,' applied to the relation of an adjective to two 

or more substantives of different genders, &c. 446. 

Synaer6sis, 'contraction' of two vowels into one sound: e.g. treating 
deinde, quoad as monosyllables ; aurec, eidcm as disyllables ; 
ariete, tenuia as trisyllables ; cf. 43 50. Other terms are 
synecpliQnesis and synlzesis. All three are variously distinguished 

Explanation of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms. 369 

and applied, but most frequently used of those contractions which 

are regarded as exceptional and not expressed in writing ; e. g. 

44, 49, while crasis would apply to 47, 48. 
Synaloepha, * coalescing ' of two vowels, applied to the elision in verse of 

the vowel at the end of one word before a vowel beginning the 

next ( 63). 
Syncdpe, 'striking together,' applied to the omission of a vowel in the 

middle of a word ; e. g. saeclum for saeculum, puertia for pueritia, 

&c. Cf. 39. 

Synecphonesis, ' pronouncing together, see Synaer6sis. 
SjfnSsIs, where the construction is adapted to the ' sense ' of the word rather 

than to the form ; e.g. turba ruunt ( 577)> tui'ba circumfusi fre- 

mabant (Liv.) ; concursus populi mirantium (Liv.). Cf. some exx. 

in 443- 

Synlzesls, 'settlement together,' see Synaergsis. 

945 Tmesis, 'cutting' of a compound word into two ; e.g. scptem subjecta trioni 
for septem-trioni ; per mihi gratum feceris for per-gratum; quae 
me cunque vacant, for quae cunqtie me ; and saxo cere comminuit 
brum which Ennius wrote, probably mistaking cerebrum for a 

Zeugma, 'joining,' where a verb grammatically belonging to two or more 
substantives, is in sense appropriate to one (or to less than all); e.g. 
te greges centum Siculaeque circum mugiunt vaccae (Hor.); where 
'lowing' does not properly suit greges sc. ovium. Magonem alii 
naufragio (sc. perisse), alii a servis ipsius interfectum, scriptum 
reliquerunt (Nep.). 

2. RHETORICAL TERMS (called 'figures of speech'). 

S45 A113goria, a continued description of one thing in terms and in images 
properly belonging to another ; e.g. at jam tempus equum fumantia 
solvere colla (Verg.), of ' concluding a book.' A more detailed 
allegory is seen in Horace's description (Od. I. 14) of the State in 
political difficulties under the name of a ship tossed by waves. 
Essentially allegory and metaphor are the same. 

Anaphdra, ' repetition ' of the same word or grammatical form at the com- 
mencement of several clauses ; e. g. in his templis atque tectis dux 
Lentulus erat constitutes meis consiliis meis laboribus, mei capitis 
periculis, sine tumultu, sine delcctu, sine armis, &c. (Cic.). 
Cf. 79i, 5- 

Antithesis, 'contrast;' e.g. ego projector, quod tu peccas ; tu delinquis, ego 
arguor ; pro malefactis Helena redeat, virgo pcreat innocens (Erin.). 

Aat6n6masia, ' substituting ' a description * for a name ; ' e. g. Tydides for 
Diomedes ; eversor Karthaginis for Scipio. 

Apdsiopesls, ' breaking into silence' after a sentence or subject has been 
begun; e.g. Quos ego scd motos praestat componere Jluctus (Verg. 
A. r. 135). 

947 ApostrSphe, 'turning away' to address some person, or thing, who is 
absent or at least not the proper object of address at the time ; 
e.g. o leges Porciae legesqtie Semproniae (Cic.) ; Citae Ivlettuin in 
diversa quadrigae distulerant : at tu dictis, Albane, inanercs 

Catachresls, a ' wrong use ' of a term either to supply the place of a non- 
existing word, e.g. parricida for the murderer of a brother ; or to 

I,. G. 24 



put a different aspect on a case ; e. g. virtus for temeritas, libera- 
litas for luxuria, &c. 

CMasmtts, 'making a (Greek) X,' i.e. 'crossing,' where a second and cor- 
responding set of words are stated in inverse order to that of the 
first set ; e.g. multa quae nostra causa non f admits, facimus causa 
amicorum (Cic.). Cf. 791, 4. 

Climax (or gradatio), a series of words or expressions each stronger than 
the preceding : nihil agis, nihil moliris, nihil cogitas, quod ego 
non modo audiam, sed etiam videam planeque scntiam (Cic.). See 
also the first ex. in 537 a. 

Enallage, ' change,' i.e. use of a more general word for a specific word : 
e.g. Poenus for Hannibal, urbs for Roma. 

948 Epexegesls, 'additional explanation,' applied to such usages as habere in 

loricam donat habere viro (Verg.), or to the subordinate clause in 
pacem. amicitiamque hortatus est, ut cum rege in gratiam rediret 
(Nep.), &c. 

Homoe6t81eut6n, ' like ending ' of several clauses ; e. g. in muros statim 
curritur^ exercitus a soclis accersitur, dilectusjuuentuti demmtiatur ; 
neminem, alteri posse dare in malrimonium nisi penes quern sit 

HSmonymia, ' applicability of same word to different things ;' such words 
are called hdmonyma ; e.g. taurus maybe an animal, a moun- 
tain, a constellation, name of man or root of tree. (So Quintilian.) 

HyperbSle, ' exaggeration ; ' e. g. gemini minantur in caelum scopuli 
(Verg.); or the description of Camilla's swiftness in last ex. of 

Hyst6r6n pr6tSr6n, ' putting the former later,' of an inversion in expres- 
sions of the proper order in thought or fact; e.g. moriamur et 
in arma ruamus (Verg.). 

949 Ironla, 'dissimulation,' when the thing that is said is, or suggests, the con- 

trary of that which is meant; e.g. in balneis delitiierunt : testis 
cgregios! dein temere prosiluerunt ; homines temperantis! (Cic. 
Caec. 26) ; meque timoris argue tu, Drance, quando tot stragis 
acervos Teucrorum tua dextra dedit (Verg.). (Cf. 653 and many 
sentences with quasi (690).) 

LItdtbS, ' plainness,' used of a self-depreciatory mode of speaking ; e. g. non 
nego instead of aio ; non indoctus for doctus, &c. 

MStaphdra (or translatio), 'transference ' of a term from its proper subject 
to another : frequently the application of a physical or concrete 
term to a mental or abstract subject; e.g. sitiunt segetes, asper 
homo ('rough,' i.e. ' ill-tempered '); incensus ira, 'fired with 
rage ; ' eloquentiae fiilmina, &c. It differs from allegory only by be- 
ing less sustained, and by being worked into the discourse instead 
of being an independent fable. Almost all language is metaphor, 
more or less vivid and conscious. 

M6t5nymia, ' change of name, ' applied to such expressions as Neptumts for 
'sea ; ' Vitlcanus for 'fire ; ' Ceres for ' corn ;' bene moratae urbes for 
bene morati tirbis cives ; Graecia for Gracci ; Vergilius for carmina 
Vergili ; proximus ardet Ucalegon, where Ucalegon is for 'Uca- 
legon's house.' 

On6m3,t6poeia, 'name making,' in modern writers applied only to making 
names from the sounds which they are to denote ; e. g. ulula, 
' howler;' murmur ; clangor ; hirrire (of a dog snarling), &c. 

950 OxymorSn, 'pointedly foolish,' applied to such expressions as insaniens 

Explanation of Grammatical and Rhetorical Terms. 371 

sapientia ; strenua inertia ; splendid? mendax : et absentes adsunt et 

egcntes abundant et imbecilli valent et, quod difficilius dictu est, 

inortui vivunt (Cic. Lael. 7). 
Pardndmasia (adnominatio), 'playing upon a word/ 'punning; ' e.g. consul 

ipse parvo animo et pravo, facie magis qtiam facetiis ridiculus (Cic. ). 

Inceptio est amentium haud amantium (Ter.). Praetor iste vel 

potius praedo sociorum. Cui quod libet, hoc licet. 
PSriphrasIs, ' roundabout expression,' ' circumlocution ; ' e. g. fac discas for 

disce ; vos oratos volo for vos oro ; Scipionis providentia Kartha- 

ginis opesfregit for Scipio Karthaginem fregit. 
Prdsopdpoeia, ' personification ; ' e. g. crudelitatis mater avaritiast, pater 

furor. Si patria mea loquatur, ' M. Tulli, quid agis?' 1 (Cic.) Ex- 

templo Libyae magnas it Fama per urbcs (Verg.). See Verg. Aen. 

vi. 273281. 
Synecddche, when the whole is 'understood along with' (i. e. under the name 

of) '# part ;' e.g. puppis for navis ; tectum for domus ; mucro or 

ferrum for gladius ; &c. 

951 Sdloecismus, i.e. grammatical blunder in matters of syntax; Quintilian in- 

stances non feceris for ne feccris ( 668) ; hie aut z'//^for hie an ille; 
eo intus and intro sum for eo intra and intus sum. See Barba- 

S^nonymia, ' using different words or expressions for same meaning ; ' e. g. 
nonferam^ non patiar, non sinam (Cic.). Words of same mean- 
ing are called synonyma ; e. g. gladius with ensis ; scutum with 
clipeus ; mare vtithpontus, &c. 

Taut616gla, ' repetition of the same thing ; ' sometimes used as identical with 
synonymia ; sometimes applied to repetitions of the same word ; 
e. g. non solum igitur illud judicium judicii simile, judices, non fuit 
(Cic.). Nam cujus rationis ratio non exstat, ei rationi ratio non 
est Jidem habere (Cornif.). 

952 It is important to bear in mind that these terms are only short modes of 
referring to certain (or uncertain) classes of usages, and the sphere of this 
application is different in different writers. Whether the usages are legiti- 
mate or proper depends on the context and the occasion and on general 
considerations of intelligibility, good sense, vigorous expression, propriety, 
habit of speakers and writers and the like, and does not depend at all on 
there being a name for the usage. A name confers no licence, and a gram- 
matical or rhetorical figure is a name of a fact, not of a law. The mode in 
which these figures are spoken of in old writers (e.g. ' This is by metonymy,' 
&c.) might mislead a student to attribute to them some inherent worth or 





Prae- Ciceronian Age. 

933 Cn. Naevius, a Latin of Campania, d. 199 B.C. Dramatic and epic 
poems; only fragments extant. 

T. Maceius Plautus, b. 254 B.C. at Sassina in Umbria, d. 184 B.C. 
Comedies, 20 of which are extant, many being written 201 189 B. c. 

Q. Ennlus, b. 239 B.C. at Rudiae in Calabria, d. 169 B.C. Poems 
epic and dramatic; only fragments extant. 

M. Porcius Cato (Censorinus), b. 234 B.C. at Tusculum, d. 149 B.C. 
History, speeches, and treatise on farming; this treatise and fragments 

054 P. Tgrentius, b. 185 B.C. at Carthage; d. 159 B.C. Six comedies; all 

L. Attius (or Accius), b. 170 B.C., d. cir. 94 B.C. Tragedies and 
other poems-; fragments only extant. 

C. Lucilius, b. 148 B.C. at Suessa Aurunca in Campania, d. 103 B.C. 
Satires ; only fragments extant. 

953 Golden Age. (A) Ciceronian. 

Cornlflcius, probable name of the author of a treatise on rhetoric 
addressed to C. Herennius and printed with Cicero's works. Possibly 
Q. Cornificius trib. pi. 69 B.C. 

M. Terentius Varro, b. 116 B.C. at Reate, d. 27 B.C. Antiquarian 
and grammatical writings ; satires, partly in verse ; a treatise on farming. 
Extant: part of a work on the Latin language (written cir. 43 B.C.), and 
the treatise de re rustica (written 37 B. C.) : fragments only of others. 

M. Tullius ClcSro, b. 106 B.C. at Tusculum, d. 43 B. c. Speeches, 
treatises on rhetoric and philosophy, and private letters. 58 speeches 
(some mutilated), most of the treatises and many letters are extant. Speeches 
from 8 j B. c ; treatises from 55 B.C., except a work on rhetoric written in 
his youth ; letters from 68 B. c. all reaching nearly to his death. Frag- 
ments only of his poems extant. 

Q. Tullius Cicero, b. 102 B.C., d. 43 B.C. A short political essay 
de petition* consulates : extant (with his brother's writings). 

C. Julius Caesar, b. 100 B.C., d. 44 B.C. Speeches, history, treatises 
on astronomy and grammar ; only histories (or rather notes for history) of 
his own campaigns extant. 

A. Hirtius, d. 43 B.C., wrote 8th book of Caesar de Bella Gallico, 
and Bellum Alexandrinum : both extant, printed with Caesar. 

Cornelius NSpos, b. 104 to 94 B.C. near the Po, d. after 32 B.C. His- 
tory in the form of biographies : some extant. 

T. Lucretius Cams, b. 98 B.C., d. 55 B.C. Philosophical poem: 

C. Valerius Catullus, b. 87 B.C. at Verona, d. 54 B.C. Poems, 
of varied character ; epic, lyric, occasional : extant. 

Principal Latin Authors. 373 

Publilius Syrus of Antioch, cir. 45 B. c. Minaes. Extant a collection 
of proverbial lines extracted from them. 

C. Sallustius Crispus, b, 87 B.C. at Amiternum, d. 34 B.C. History. 
Extant : histories of wars with Catiline and with Jugurtha, and some 
speeches from the other histories. 

956 M. Caelius M. F. Rflfus b. 85 82 B.C., d. cir. 48 B.C. Speeches. 
Some lively letters to Cicero are -extant, forming Book viil. of Cic. ad 


Among other correspondents of Cicero, several of whose letters have 
come to us with Cicero's, are L. Munatius Plancus (Cic. ad Fam. Book 
x.); C. Asinius Pollio (same Book) ; D. Brutus (Book XL); C. Cassius 
(Book xii.) ; P. Lentulus (ibid.); M. Junius Brutus (Cic. Epist. ad 
M. Bmturri). One or two letters also occur from C. JuL Caesar, Cn. 
Pompeius, M. Porcius Cato, M. Antonius, M. Lepidus, Q. Metel- 
lusNepos, Matius, Caecina, Cicero films. 

(B) Augustan. 

057 P. Vergllius Maro, b. 70 B.C. at Andes near Mantua, d. 19 B.C. 
Rural and epic poems, viz. Bucolica (B.C. 41 38) ; Georgica (B.C. 37 30); 
Aeneis (begun cir. B. c. 26 ; left unfinished at his death) : all extant. Some 
other smaller poems, partly satirical, which have been ascribed to him, are 

Q. HSratius Flaccus, b. 65 B.C. at Venusia, d. 8 B. c. Poems lyrical 
and satirical or didactic ; partly in the form of epistles ; all extant. 

T. LIvius, b. 59 B.C. at Patavium, d. 17 A. D. History of Rome from 
the foundation of the city to the death of Drusus (9 B.C.), in 142 books of 
.which 35 books (viz. I x. xx XLV) only are extant. 

Albius TIbullus, b. cir. 54 B.C., d. 19 B.C. Poems chiefly amatory. 
Other poems are printed with Tibullus', especially those of 

Lygdamus, b. cir. 43 B.C. Amatory poems. 

Sextus Prdpertius, b. cir. 49 B.C. inUmbria, d. after 16 B.C. Poems 
chiefly amatory ; all extant. 

L. Annaeus S6n6ca (the father), b. cir. 54 B. c. at Corduba, d. cir. 
38 A. D. Wrote in old age reminiscences and specimens of the exercises 
of rhetorical schools, called Suasoriae and Controversies; partly extant. 
(Often called Seneca Rhetor to distinguish him from his son.) 

Vitruvius Pollio, cir. 14 B.C. Wrote a work on Architecture, still 

P. Ovldius Naso, b. 43 B.C. at Sulmo, d. 17 A. D. Poems amatory 
(B.C. 14 i A. D.) mythological and antiquarian (A. D. 2 8) and elegiac 
(A.D. 9 1 6) all extant. A tragedy which he wrote is not extant. 

Gratius. Poem on hunting; extant probably only in part. 

Manilius. Poem on astronomy written about the end of Augustus' 
reign ; extant. 

Silver Age. (A) Age of S:neca. 

951 T. Claudius Caesar Germanicus, b. 15 B. c., d. 18 A. D. Translation 
in hexameters of Aratus' poem on the constellations. 

M. Velleius Paterciilus, a soldier before i A. D., d. after 30 A.D. 
Roman history ; a short work mainly extant. 


Valerius Maxlmus, cir. 30 A.D. Wrote collection of anecdotes, 
all or almost all extant. 

A. Cornelius Celsus, time of Tiberius. Practical treatises on various 
arts ; work on medicine extant. 

Phaedrus (freedman of Augustus). Fables in verse ; mainly extant. 

L. Annaeus S6n6ca (the son), b. cir. 4 B.C., d. 65 A. D. Philosophy 
and tragedies ; both largely extant. 

Q. Curtius, Rufus, time of Claudius. History of Alexander the Great ; 
not wholly extant. 

L. Junius MddSratus Cdlumella, of Gades, time between Celsus and 
Plinius major. Treatise on farming, in twelve books (one in verse); all 

Q. Asconius PSdianus, cir. 3 88 A.D. Notes on Cicero's speeches, 
partly preserved. 

Pomponius Mela of Tingentera in Spain, time of Claudius. Geography; 

A. Persius Flaccus, b. at Volaterra 34 A.D., d. 62 A.D. Satirical 
poetry; extant. 

M. Annaeus Luc anus, b. 39 A.D. , d. 65 A. D. Poem on war between 
Pompey and Caesar called Pharsalia ; extant. 

Petronius Arbiter, time of Nero. Romance; extant in large frag- 
ments, chiefly in prose, but partly in verse. 

Calpurnius, time of Nero. Bucolic poetry ; extant. 

959 (B) Age of Quint Ulan. 

C. Plinius Secundus (the elder), b. 23 A.D., d. 79 A.D. History, 
Grammar, Natural History; extant only Natural History in 37 books. 

C. Valerius Flaccus, d. before 90 A. D. Epic poem on Argonautic 
expedition ; extant. 

C. Sllius Itallcus, b. 25 A.D., d. 101 A.D. Epic poem on 2nd Punic 
War. Extant. 

P. Papinius Statius, b. at Naples cir. 45 A.D., d. 96 A.D. Poems 
epic and occasional. Extant: Thebais cir. 8092 A. D. ; Acldllcis (un- 
finished) and Silvae written in the last years of his life. 

M. Valerius Martialis, b. at Bilbilis in Spain cir. 42 A. D., d. cir. 
102 A.D. Epigrams in verse; extant. 

M. Fabius Quintllianus, b. at Calagurris in Spain, cir. 35 A.D., 
d. cir. 95 A. D. Treatise on rhetoric ; extant. 

Sex. Julius Frontlnus, b. cir. 40 A.D., d. cir. 103 A.D. Military and 
engineering works. Extant : treatise on Roman aqueducts, and anecdotes 
of military tactics, and fragments. 

930 (C) Age of Tacitus. 

Cornelius Tacitus, b. cir. 54 A.D., d. cir. 119 A.D. Rhetoric and 
later Roman history. Extant : a considerable part of the history, a life of 
Julius Agricola and a description of Germany. A dialogue ' de oraioribits ' 
is attributed to him, but its very different style from that of the other 
works of Tacitus makes this attribution doubtful. 

C. Plinius Caecllius Secundus (the younger), b. at Comum 62 A.D., 
d. 1 13 A. D. Letters (published by himself) and a panegyrical speech. Extant. 

Principal Latin Authors. 


D. Junius JiivSnalis, b. at AquTnum cir. 67 A.D., d. cir. 147 A.D. 
(So according to Friedlander. Usually put 20 years earlier.) Satires; 

Velius Longus, time of Trajan. Grammatical treatises, one of which 
is extant. 

Hyginus, time of Trajan. Landsurveying ; partly extant. 

C. Suetonius Tranquillus, b. cir. 75 A.D., d. cir. 160 A.D. Biogra- 
phical, antiquarian and grammatical writings. Partly extant, principally 
the Lives of the Caesars, written cir. 120 A. D 



For abbreviations of money , see 178, 181, of date, 917, 918. 

(i) First names (Praenomina). 





















N. or Num. 






S. or Sex. 




S. or Sp. 






Women's names are expressed by inverted characters ; as, Q for Gaia. 

CES. or CENS. 
Cos. 1 


L. or LIB. 
P. C. 
P. M. 

PR.oc.0r PRO. 

P. R. 


(2) Titles of Persons, &>c. 
Censor or Censores. QUIR. 
Consul or Consules. RESP. 
Divus. R. P. P. R. Q. 


Filius. S. 

Imperator. S. P. Q. R. 


Libertus, Liberta. S. P. P. Q. R. 

Nepos. TR. MIL. 

Patres Conscript!. TR. PL. 
Pontifex Maximus. TR. POT. 
Praetor, 0rPraetores. X. V. 
Pro consule, i.e. Pro- X. VIR. STL. 

consul. JUDIK. 


Proqvaestor. XV. V. S. F. 

Populus Romanus. 



Respublica Populi Ro- 
man! Qviritium. 


Senatus Populusque 

Senatus Populus Ple- 
besque Romana. 

Tribunus Militum. 

Tribunus Plebis. 

Tribunicia Potestate. 

Decemvir(um) 2 . 

Decemvir(um) stliti- 
bus (i.e. litibus) 

Qvindecimviri sacris 

1 Not until 3rd cent. p. Chr. was cons, used ; in Diocletian's time be- 
gan the custom of doubling the 8 (e.g. conss.) to denote the plural 

2 Descriptive genitive; *of,' i.e. 'one of the ten commissioners.' 


The name of the tribe to which a person belonged is sometimes added 
to the name in an abbreviated form ; thus, Pup. for Pupinia ; Qvi. or 
Qvir. for Qvirina. See 512, and Caelius' letter in Cic. Epist. ad Fam. 
vni. 8, 5. 


Pis Manibus Sacrum. 
De sua pecunia. 

D. M. S. 

D. S. P. 

F. C. Faciendum curavit. 

H. C. E. Hie conditus est. 


H. S. E. 
P. C. 

(4) In "voting on trials. 

A. Absolve. 

C. Condemno. 

N. L. Non liquet. 

A. P. 
V. R. 

Hie situs est. 


Ponendum curavit. 


In voting on laws. 

Antiquam (legem) probo. 
Uti rogas. 

(5) Epistolary. 

D. Data (est epistola). 

S. D. Salutem dicit. 

S. P. D. Salutem plurimam dicit. 

S, Salutem (dicit). 

S. V. B. E. E. V. Si vales, bene est : ego valeo. 

S. T. E. Q. V. B. E. E. Q. V. Si tu exercitusque valetis beno 

est : ego quoque valeo. 
S- V. G. V. Si vales gaudeo. Valeo. 

(6) In decrees of the Senate. 

D. E. R. I. C. De ea re ita censuerunt. 

I. N. Intercessit nemo. Scr. arf. Scribendo arfuerunt (i.e. adfuerunt). 

S. C. Senatus consultum. V. F. Verba fecit. 

A. U. C. 

D. D. 

D. D. D. 
F. F. F. 

(7) Miscellaneous. 

Anno urbis conditae. ITER. Iterum. 
Dono dedit. L. Libertas. 

Dat, dicat, dedicat. 

Felix, faustum, fortuna- 


M. P. Mille passuum. 

Q. B. F. F. Q. S. Quod bonum felix 

faustumque sit (cf. 666). 

HS (for IIS, i.e. duo + semis) sestertius ( 910). 






Anno Christ! . 
Anno Domini. 
Anno mundi. 

"" .' Christum natum. 
post \ 

c. caput, capitis, &c. (chapter}. 
cet. cetera. 

cf. confer, or, conferatur. 
Cod., Codd. Codex, Codices. 

(8) Modern Latin. 

coll. coUato, or, collatis. 

comp. or cp. compara, or, compa- 


del. dele, or, deleatur. 
D. O. M. Deo optimo maximo. 
ed., edd. editio, editiones. 
e.g. exempli gratia, 
etc. or &c. et cetera, 
h. e. noc est. 

Abbreviations, 377 

I. C. Jesus Christus. N.B. Nota bene. 

Ictus. Juris consultus. N. T. Novum Testamentum. 

ibid, ibidem. obs. observa, or, observetur. 

id. idem. P. S. Postscriptum. 

i. e. id est. q. v. quern, or quod, vide. 

i. q. id quod. sc. scilicet. 

L. or Lib., Libb. Liber, Libri. sq., sqq. sequent!, sectuentibus. 

L. B. Lectori Benevolo. s. v. sub voce. 

1. c. loco citato. vid. vide. 

1.1. loco laudato. viz. videlicet. 

leg. lege, or, legatur. v. versus, versum, &c. 

L. S. Locus Sigilli. v.c. verbi causa. 

MS., MSS. Manuscriptum (or Manu-V. eel. Vir celeberrimus. 

scriptus, sc. liber), Manuscripta, V. cl. Vir clarissimus. 

or manuscript!. V. T. Vetus Testamentum. 


[The figures relate to the sections.] 

439. They will compare Veil, Fidenae, Collatia, Aricia, Tusculum with 
Caere, Teanum, Neapolis, Puteoli, Nuceria. You gave no answer to your 
fellow-citizens, none to your allies, none to kings: no assertion was made 
by the verdict of judges, by the votes of the people, by the authority of the 
body before me : before your eyes was a dumb forum, a voiceless senate-house, 
a silent and downcast state. 441 (a). He unites his two daughters to 

the royal youths Lucius and Arruns Tarquin. Publius and Servius Sulla. 
Tlbe'rius and Gaius Gracchus. Pet Tullia, my little darling, is clamorous 
for your present. O philosophy guide of life, O thou that ever seekest for 
virtue and drivest vices forth. This is the war, Porsinna, which we 
Roman youths proclaim against you. The name of that disease is avarice. 

441 (b). This city is Rome. Caesar was created consul. Caesar may 
be (be created, propose a law in his capacity of,) consul. Gaius Junius 
dedicated when dictator the temple, which he had vowed when consul, and 
had ordered when censor to be built. Dolabella having been decreed 
yesterday to be an enemy, war must be carried on. Could I make Cilicia 
into Aetolia or Macedonia? A good-for-nothing and an idler is Davus : 
you on the other hand are spoken of as a fine and clever judge of the old 
masters. The arrival of Philotimus what a fellow that is ! such a fool and 
for ever telling lies for Pompey took away all our breath. This man's 
name also is Menaechmus. The boy had the name of Needson given him 
from his poverty. We caught a sight of your heart, a simpleminded fellow. 

443. The learned are of opinion. Sweets delight. What is this? 
To whom did he give the purchase money? whence did he get it, and 
how much was it he gave? I am a timid man. I am a timid woman. 
They are timid women. Death then is a wretched thing, since it is an 
evil thing. That is just what I think, that the good are blessed, the 
villainous are wretched. Flattery is unworthy not merely of a friend but 
even of a freeman. Toil and pleasure, things most unlike by nature, are 
joined to one another by a kind of natural fellowship. Leisure and riches, 
which mortals count the first things. The heads of that conspiracy were (men) 
beaten with rods and struck with axes. A grievous thing is a wolf to the 
folds. An uncertain and ever changeable creature is woman. 444. A 

young man, an agnate (a relative through males ; cp. App. C), a friend, 
a living creature, an infant, a youth, a married man, an intimate, a rustic, 
a serpent (a crawling he or she\ a fellow, &c. A convenience, a decree, 
a saying, a deed, fate (an uttered thing), a prodigy, an agreement, a sin, 
an answer, a secret, truth, a vow, &c. 445. This empty affair was 

presently the cause of a real disaster. I restore to you that law of 
Acilius', by which law many have been condemned after one statement of 
the case. 446. All lands and seas. Lands and seas all. To man's 

service we see all lands and seas obedient. 447. The African (wind); 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 379 

hoary (hairs) ; the (games) of the circus; a birth(day); the setting (sun, i.e. 
the west) ; the Seventh (month, i.e. September) ; the sesterce (coin of two and 
a half pounds). Africa (the land of the Afri); lamb (flesh) ; Appius' (road) ; 
arithmetic (the art of numeration) ; hot (water) ; a tithe (tenth part) ; right 
(hand); a wild (beast); the Latin (festival); father- (land); a bordered 
(gown); the main (thing); a three-oar (ship), i.e. with three ranks of oars. 
An estate at Cumae; Falernian (wine); neat (wine); winter-, settled, quar- 
ters. To play the first (parts); to drink cold (water). 448. True 
friendships are (friendships) for ever, /hand over to you a kingdom, strong 
if you be good, weak if you be evil. 449. They are called in their own 
tongue Kelts, in ours Gauls. The wings (tend) in different directions, 
the right tends towards the camp of the Samnites, the left towards the city. 
450. The envoys came to Caesar : he sent them back immediately. 
That fatherland is the first (to us in dearness, i. e.) in our affections, for which 
we ought to die, and to which we ought to devote ourselves wholly, and in 
which we ought to place all that is ours. For myself I was never brought 
to such great hopes by your letters as I was by those of others. Sternness in 
old age I approve, but, like other things, in bounds. The place on to which 
the Enetans and the Trojans first disembarked is called Troy. 451. 
That they used to think was riches, that was good reputation, and great 
rank. What among others is called passionateness, in a despotism is named 
haughtiness and cruelty. There was no doubt that the Roman should 
bring succour to the people of Luceria ; the only matter for deliberation 
was the road ( 490) they should take. Pompey the father who was a light 
to the empire of the Roman people having been extinguished, his son, the 
very copy of the father, was put to death. 452. It is only to the wise 
man that it happens to do nothing unwillingly, or in pain, or under com- 
pulsion. Marius who was previously set against the nobility, then presses 
them much and fiercely. Active make for the forum in the morning and 
at (i.e. not before) eventide your house. Appius from that day maintained 
the obstinacy from of old hereditary in his family by holding the censor- 
ship alone. 455. Milo was present. Pompey spoke. The gates are 
thrown open. Knowest thou not? Take then your crook. Guilt falls to 
prayers, the innocent to wrath. It is the facts, the time, the risks, poverty, 
the splendid spoils of war, more than my words that urge you. Whence 
and whither wends Catius? 456. Lo, Priam (is here). Ha, Cris- 
pinus again. Ha, two letters from Varro. There's a crime, there's a 
cause for a runaway (slave), to put a king on his trial. 457. Hail, my 
soul. O dear Clinia, hail. Mother, I call on thee. Keep not thy wrath, 
great priestess: Go, our glory, go. O Corydon, Corydon, what madness 
seized you ? You, mounds and groves of Alba, you, I say, I implore. Pollio, 
thee, Messalla, with thy brother, and you too, Bibulus and Servius, and with 
them thee, bright Furnius, I deliberately pass over. 459. Caesar 
advanced a three days' journey. A wall ten feet high. He is a thousand 
paces from Utica. One ought not to swerve a nail's breadth from a right 
conscience. Caesar pitches his camp three thousand paces from the camp 
of the Helvetii. 460. Through the nights he kept watch till actual 
morning, the whole of the day he used to snore. Now for a year you have 
been attending Cratippus' lectures. Nor will he be of this mind all his 
life. Sextus Roscius, forty years old. 461. Somewhat we have aided, 
the Rutulians. What hurt do those things of yours do me? One feeling 
have you all, one desire. Sweetly smiling, sweetly speaking Lalage will I 
love. Rough, bitter-looking, back he retreats. Do I already seem to you 
to be living a long life ? Let me, I pray thee, first rage this rage of mine. 

383 Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

I have served a slavery to thy commands, my father. 462. In face and 

shoulders like a God. And she stands with her side pierced ( 471, i) with 
a javelin, stands wounded in the breast. The women clothe themselves in 
linen robes, leaving their arms bare to the shoulders (bare as to their fore- 
arms and arms above elbow). Anxious on behalf of the general. They 
live mainly on milk and cattle. 463. Far across the Tiber he lies (ill) 

near Caesar's gardens. Hannibal threw his forces across the Ebro. The 
Belgae crossed the Rhine of old. He keeps his army as near as possible to 
the enemy. He himself nearer the mountain places his troops. 464. 

He went away (into Sicily to Syracuse, i.e.) to Syracuse in Sicily. We came 
to Leucas : thence we had a splendid voyage to Corcyra. Write to your 
home. The old man buried himself in the country. Exiled by fate he 
came to Italy and the Lavinian shores. The army was ordered to assemble 
at Aquilonia. He received a matron into his house. 465. He went to 

Tarquinii, a large city of Etruria. 466. They come to look, they come 

to be looked at themselves. Maecenas goes to play, I and Vergil to take 
some sleep. I was engaged just now to cook, not to be thrashed. Is 
she given in marriage to Pamphilus to-day? 467. He went off to 

take service with the king in Sicily (unto Sicily to the king to fight). 
He flies to the Beaks (i.e. the place of addi'essing the Romans). He forced 
him to an arbitration (to an arbitrator). 468. Not woods nor rivers, 

'tis the country she loves and boughs bearing prolific fruits. Cervius in 
wrath is ever threatening (folk) with the laws and ballot box. Ware dog. 
I returned thanks. He gives me words (instead of money, i.e. cheats me). 
469. He blushed before the rights and honour of the suppliant (i.e. He 
respected the rights of the suppliant who appealed to his honour). The 
woods reecho ' Beautiful Amaryllis.' He begged him to dance (in the 
character of) the shepherd Cyclops. Even now with the tribuneship 
on his lips he seeks an opportunity for sedition. 470. I did not 

conceal from you the language of Titus Ampius. I was the first whom the 
tribune asked his opinion. The Latin legions had been taught Roman 
warfare by their long alliance. 471. The old man rises and wraps his 

limbs in the cloak. This youth having his temples girt with pure bay. At 
length having her spirit glutted, at length having avenged her hard griefs. 
Boys having their satchel and board hanging on their left arm. Having 
put on robes girt back, barefoot, with hair thrown upon her bare 
shoulders. 472. O too happy tillers of the soil, if they did but know their 
blessings. What a wretched guard was yours, Gnaeus Plancius ! what a 
tearful watch ! what bitter nights ! what an unfortunate post to guard my life 
too ! On your honour, gods (I appeal to your honour); (you see) a man lost 
and wretched. Lo four altars ! behold two for thee, Daphnis, two (altars), 
high altars, for Phoebus. Whence (can I get) me a stone? But what is the 
good of riches collected by such torments? 474 (a). You plough for 

yourself, you harrow for yourself, you sow for yourself, for yourself also 
will you reap. Whither my books have been allowed to go, I am not 
allowed to go. He says to Cleomenes : I will spare you only. When I 
married you, my torch was a hurt to none. What wished I for my wretched 
self? Keep your things to yourself (a formula tised in divorces). What 
presents will you give Nisus worthy of him? The excellent father smiled 
to him. 474 (b). I put in to unknown (shores), having escaped from 

my brother and the sea. Life is taken from the young by force, from the 
old by ripe age. Cassius was being put to direct the fires, Cethegus the 
slaughter. Thou who art lord to me art a wretched slave to others. Ward 
off the solstice from the herd. 474 (c)> Everything is made more like a 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 381 

camp than a city. A grievous thing is a wolf to the folds, showers to the 
ripe corn. 475. From thee is the start: for thee (i.e. when I have 

reached thee) will I leave off. Leaning on a taper olive thus began Damon. 
We (men) put loads on certain beasts, ive put yokes. The Samnites kept 
riding up to the rampart. 476. Caesar had everything to do at once. 

Each must use his own judgment. Who has not heard of Demosthenes' 
sleepless nights? To many good men he left tears when he died, to none 
move tears than thee. Land is before thy eyes, before ours are the waters. 
477. To himself Damocles seemed a fortunate man. Blest to me is the 
land in which thou wert born. To a longing mind nothing is done speedily 
enough. To those who confess the truth, it was the broadacres that ruined 
Italy. 478. This was their two days' warservice for you. But, you must 
know, of a sudden came Caninius to me in the morning. There's a youth 
for you, the copy and likeness of myself. 479. Know you not then 

that kings have long arms? It is always so in a state; those who have no 
wealth envy the good (i.e. the nobler). What is the good of fortune to me 
if I am not allowed to use it (Quo mihi with accus. not nom. perhaps for 
quo mihi est habere)1 In this case I have to do entirely with Clodia. It will 
be the mischief for my soldiers, if (I shall find) they have not kept quiet. 
There's for you ! Woe to your head ! 480. Cato is Rome's father and 

Rome's husband. For him the eyes (i.e. his eyes) are pressed with hard 
rest and iron sleep. As a lad whose name was Servius Tullius was sleeping, 
his head they say caught fire. 481. A commission of ten for writing 

laws. The instructions for doing a work. They settled a day for a council. 
Magius was insolvent. We found (at the time) no drinking-water. 482 

(a). The sea is destructive to greedy skippers. I find myself forted to be a 
burden before I am a benefit to you. As a vine is a grace to trees, and 
grapes to vines, thou art all grace to thine. I hate, and am hateful to, the 
Romans. The business did not prove damaging to anyone. That easily 
comes to pass which is dear to the Gods. It is not worth while to recount 
this. 482 (b). To sit in the middle of three is among the Numidians 

taken as an honour. He has it in charge to see what you lack. Who will 
there be to throw that at you as a fault? You blame that in me which to 
Q. Metellus was granted to be an honour, and is to-day and ever will be the 
greatest glory. 482 (c). They had sent the cavalry to aid Caesar. He 

leaves five cohorts to guard the camp. Not until the battle was over 
did the Samnites come to support the Romans. 485. You choose 

to trade : why not at Pergamum ? at Smyrna ? at Tralles ? Fleeing 
from the battlefield they did not stop before (they were at) Venusia or 
Canusium. The commons of Rome I have tended in the field and at home. 
I am in an agony of soul. We are in suspense of soul. He died at Cumae 
whither he had betaken himself. 486. Fickle as the wind, let me in 

Rome love Tibur and at Tibur Rome. He prepares for war by land and 
sea. There is a panic all through the camp. The first of the two spears 
was fixed in the ground, the second in the middle of his back. 488. A 

senator is bid three things, to attend ; to speak in his place, that is, when 
the question is put to him ; to speak with moderation, (that is) not to speak 
interminably. In the first place we see ( 478) everywhere in all directions 
there is no limit. 489. They agree on oath that no one should receive 

to his city, his house, his table, his hearth, anyone who has left the battle- 
field a conquered man. He from his notorious intimacy will (cheer me 
with, i.e.) show me hospitality. 490. A wolf entered by the Esquiline 

Gate and passing along Tuscan Street had escaped through the Capene 
Gate. From here we take straight to Beneventum. 491. Caninius 

382 Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

having come to me late in the evening and said he was going the next 
morning to you, I wrote a letter at night. I wish (that it should be come 
to Philolaches to meet me, i.e.) to be fetched from Philolaches' (house), 
in good time. The temple of Castor was dedicated the same year on 
the 1 5th July. It had been vowed during the war with the Latins. 
The Arabs wander over fields and mountains winter and summer. Livius 
(Andronicus) exhibited a play in the consulship of Gaius Claudius and 
Marcus (Sempronius) Tuditanus (i.e. in the year 240 B.C.). 492. In 

three hours you can get to Aduatuca. If he had owed it, Sextus, you 
would have sued for it immediately; if not immediately, soon (paulo 496) 
after; if not soon, still some time after ( 496); within (those six months, 
i.e.) six months from then surely; in the course of a year without question. 
So (within these four hundred years, i.e.) within four hundred years from 
now there was a king at Rome. 493. It is a real sorrow not to have 

seen the games of the circus for a year. He lived (eighty years, i.e.) to the 
age of eighty. Why do you ask how long he lived? 494. Take this 

rice-gruel. How much did it cost? A trifle. But how much? Eight asses 
(four pence). Of little worth are arms abroad, unless there is policy at 
home. The father reckons it at nothing. Our ancestors placed in the 
laws that a thief should be condemned in double (the value of the property), 
a usurer in fourfold. 495. This man sold his country for gold : he made 
and remade laws for a price. In Sicily corn was at most 3 sesterces per 
bushel (strictly the bushel of corn was at 3 sesterces) . That hesitation cost him 
dearly. Most men sentence souls to death, as if they had been condemned 
of a capital offence. The same thing was done by Lucius Philippus, a man 
most worthy of his father, grandfather and ancestors. For my part I do not 
think myself worthy of such an honour. 496. Occasionally they make 
a month a day or two longer. If you had become the worse looking by 
only a black tooth or a single nail, I should have believed you. The more 
numerous the Veientes were, the greater the slaughter was. He had vowed 
the temple ten years before (before by ten years) the war with the Poeni. 
The temple of Aesculapius is five miles (five thousand paces) from the city. 
497. You have erred not indeed in the whole matter but, what is most 
important, in the dates. All bewildered in ears and eyes were ( 339) 
numb with fear. As great as Calchas in (interpreting) the organs (of 
animals), or the Telamonian in arms, or Automedon with a chariot, so great 
am I as a lover. They eat herbs terrible (in the speaking, i.e.) to speak of, 
not merely to eat. 498. Rich in land, rich in money invested in loans. 

The country house abounds with pork, kid, lamb, fowl, milk, cheese, 
honey. To him the city was surrendered, bare of a garrison, crammed 
with supplies. Ariovistus forbade the whole of Gaul to the Romans. He 
did me out of all that gold. 499. Bulls defend themselves with horns, 

boars with tusks, lions with the grip of their teeth, other beasts by flight, 
others by hiding. These are the things / feed on, these I delight in, these 
I thoroughly enjoy. Friends one can neither collect by an armed raid nor 
procure with gold: they are got by attention and good faith. He is 
overwhelmed with the hatred of all classes, above all he is floored by 
the evidence. What are you to do with such a man as this? 500, 

Sometimes the eyes cannot discharge their proper functions. The com- 
forts which we have, and the light \ve enjoy, and the breath we draw 
are, as we see, given us by Jove. Now is the need for courage, Aeneas, 
now for a steady heart. You fade after discharging all the duties of life. 
501. He all but collapsed from fear, I from laughter. In so long a time 
( 492) many properties were being held without wrong by inheritance (cf. 

Translation of Examples in Syntax, 383 

99 d), many by purchase, many by dowry. He was growing old from 
grief and tears. The district of Abano is esteemed for its countryman 
Livius. 502. What sort of looking man was he? A red man, big- 

bellied, with thick ankles, somewhat black (in hair), with a big head, 
sharp eyes, a ruddy face, very big feet. He kept declaring that he had no 
slave at all of that name. The first elements are simple and solid. Lucius 
Catilina was born of noble race, with great energy mental and physical, 
but of a bad and vicious disposition. Tribunes of the soldiers with the 
power of consuls. 503 i. First if you please let us proceed after the 

fashion of the Stoics, afterwards we will digress as our habit is. Marius 
advances with his troops in square column. 503 2. Think that 

Naevius did everything at Rome properly and reasonably, if this is con- 
sidered to have been done rightly and duly. Caesar, as was his custom, was 
on guard at the work. I had scarce uttered these words, when with a groan 
he thus replies. They leap down from their chariots and fight on foot. 
504. What can be maintained with such a people as this? Nothing should 
be despaired of with Teucer for leader and Teucer for luckbringer. I am 
sorry that you suspected me on the score of negligence. I copy out the 
books in the forum among a great crowd of people. 505. While the 

consul was saying this, the horsemen throw themselves on the flanks. 
Quickly accomplishing the work and taking the legions across and choosing 
a fit place for the camp, he recalled the rest of the troops. A (meeting of 
the) senate cannot be held in the whole month of February, unless the 
deputations are either settled or put off. When dictating this to you I was 
in good spirits excepting only for your not being with me. Thence he 
advanced towards Pluinna, having not yet ascertained what part the enemy 
had made for. 506. It is decreed that they should be sent into the pro- 

vinces according to the result of the lot. At length with reluctance, driven 
by the loud shouts of the Ithacan, according to agreement he opens his mouth. 
In a calm as they say anyone makes a pilot. 507. It was necessary to 


Corinth to Tarquinii. Nothing here as yet from Brundisium. Brutus wrote 
from Rome. Showers of stones fell from the sky. 510. To fall off the 

rock. To come from Pollio. He comes from Spain. He departed from 
Gergovia. He is driven out of the town of Gergovia. He is three thousand 
paces from Rome. 511. He endeavoured to drive Publius Varius from 

his holdings. Caesar had cut off the enemy from their supplies of corn. 
He leaves Italy. He loses his case. I was abstaining from lampreys. 
Released from work. Free from care and toil. Ware mischief. 512. 

Apollo was the son of Jove and Latona. From Latinus sprang Alba, from 
Alba Atys, from Atys Capys, from Capys Capetus, from Capetus Tiberinus. 
L. Domitius, son of Gnaeus, of the Fabian tribe, (surnamed) Ahenobarbus 
(Brazenbeard). 513 (a). What is more hard than a rock, what softer 

than a wave? This state has brought forth none either more brilliant for 
their achievements ( 497) or more refined gentlemen than Publius Africanus, 
Gaius Laelius, Lucius Furius. 1 am in want of bread, a better thing to me 
now than honeyed cakes. I fear you may think some other than the wise 
and good to be the happy man. 513 (b). He did not come to Rome 

so soon as all hoped. My eyes see farther than usual. Plant no tree, Vanis, 
before the sacred vine. 516. Cicero's house. Crassus' son. Hector's 

Andromache (his wife). The sun's rising. The moon's horns. Goddesses 
of the sea. The toil of learning. His best friends. An enemy to ease, a 

384 Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

foe to the good. It is worth while to recall to mind the pains our ancestors 
took. What a full attendance of the senate on that occasion, what expec- 
tations on the part of the people, how the deputations flocked to the 
place from all Italy, how manly, spirited, and dignified was Publius Len- 
tulus the consul! As a God will you be to me. 517. Everything 

which was the woman's becomes the man's property, held as dowry. 
Now I know myself to be entirely given to Pompey. We held the Car- 
thaginians as our wards. It is all men's interest to act rightly. 518. 
My house. Thy friends. My accuser. By my single help (By the help 
of me alone) the commonwealth is preserved. It is mine (my habit) to 
speak freely. The common parent of us all. Nor will I make the glory 
mine, the toil theirs. 519. This concerns me. He said, this con- 
cerned them more than himself. It is greatly for the interest of Cicero or 
rather for mine or, upon my word, for that of both, that I should visit him 
while at his studies. 520. Alone of all. Many of you. The third of 
the kings of Rome. Of the provinces, Macedonia is harassed by the wild 
tribe?, Cilicia by the pirates. Each of them. The middle of the path. The 
level parts of the city. The better part of me. 521. All of us. In 
the middle of the city. At the end of the year. The whole of Asia. The 
rest of the crowd. The front of the base. The back of the paper. Each of 
the brothers. Three hundred of us have sworn to one another. Friends, of 
whom he had many, were present. 522. This piece of reward. But 
little prudence. Something beautiful. To such a pitch of misery was 
I to come. You have logs in plenty (cf. 22 7). All the ships (What of ships) 
there had been anywhere they had collected to one place. They point out 
that there is nothing left them beyond the soil of the land, 523 (a). 
The honour of the consulship. The number of three hundred. The virtue 
of justice. The lofty city of Buthrotum. The nymphs gave the nourish- 
ment of milk. A squadron of three hundred horsemen. Supports (con- 
sisting) both of foot and horse. There are two kinds of liberality ; one in 
giving a kindness, the other in returning it. 523 (b). A heap of corn. 
Rewards in money. A great number of horses. A great quantity of 
seeds. Six days' space. A thousand coins. He was reluctant to give too 
much profit out of the tithes. A scoundrel of a fellow, Palaestrio. They 
get 400 bushels to the good. They are compelled to pay to Valentius 
30,000 sesterces extra. 624. A ditch a hundred feet long. A boy of 
sixteen. You will have a guest of no great appetite, but great in merriment. 
Your letters are of the greatest weight with me. 525 (a). The accusa- 
tion of the guilty. The possession of influence. The care for other people's 
things. The purchaser of the estate. A knowledge of law. An actor of 
the best parts. Lazy reluctance to bury them individually. Hesitation to 
invade. Greedy of praise. Shirking toil. A man who holds to his pur- 
pose. Time that eats things away. Like their parents. Conscious of the 
crime. (Declaration of law, i.e.) Jurisdiction. 525 (b). Freedom from 
office. The struggle for official honours. Gods who have the rule over 
souls. Animosities taken up from political differences. Devoted to litera- 
ture. A mind without fear of death. Uncertain of opinion. Doubtful of 
the future. 526. Ripe in age. Late in studies. Lessened in (head, 
i.e.) civil position. Upright in judgment. Secret in hatred. Fierce of 
tongue. 527. He accused the one of canvassing. They get acquitted 
of treason. He charges Gaius Verres with avarice and boldness. You 
duly sue for theft. Condemned to pay his vow. Caught in the perpetration 
of capital crimes. On his trial for parricide. Already suspected of enter- 
taining too ambitious hopes. 528. Some day (i. e. At length) pity 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 385 

your allies. I indeed feel pity for the very walls and roof. It repents you 
of your fortune. I am bored and wearied with the ways of the state. To 
admire for justice. To envy one the chickpease reserved. 529. I re- 

member the living nor yet am I allowed to forget Epicurus. Catilina kept 
putting one in mind of his poverty, another of his desire. He made me 
informed of his design. The thought of Plato occurred to me. 530. 

Tullia infects the young man with her own rashness. He is in need of exer- 
cise. He makes himself master of Adherbal. The house was crowded 
with dice-players, full of drunken men. Sated with all things. Italy was 
crowded with Pythagoreans. Land fertile in crops. Free from businesses. 
To abstain from fits of passion. To be cheated of one's toils. Wearied of 
matters. 534 (a). I can, am used to, ought to, wish to, dare to, do this 

thing. You know how to conquer, Hannibal ; the way to use your con- 
quest you know not. He did not leave off warning. He set on to follow. 
He hastens to set out. Give up praying. I hate sinning. He loves being 
praised. You hope to ascend. They delight to touch the rope. I had to 
say this. Grant that the fleet escape the flame. He takes trouble to know 
this. 534 (b). I will teach Rullus to hold his tongue after this. He 

bade the Helvetii go away. He trained his horses to stay. 535. I 

say (think, know, grieve, warn you) that Caesar has gone off conqueror. I 
wish myself both to be, and to be considered, a wise citizen. I allow no 
honours to be decreed me. He sees that he will be in danger. We desire 
you to enjoy your conquest. Caesar was informed that the enemy had sat 
down at the foot of the mountain. Caelius is the authority for Mago's having 
crossed the river. Great hope possesses me that this place will be a refuge. 
536 (a). Caesar is said (is thought, is heard, is found) to have gone away as 
conqueror. These things seem to be easier. You are ordered to be returned 
as consul. They are ordered (to be taken to the Syracusan stonequarries, 
to be imprisoned there, i.e.) to be taken and imprisoned in the Syracu- 
san stonequarries. 536 (l>). To an educated man to live is to think. 
This, Roman, is to make a display of war, not to wage it. 537 (a). 
It is a wicked deed to bind a Roman citizen, a crime to beat him, almost a 
parricide to kill him : what am I to call fastening him on a cross? These 
very things are marks of honour to be greeted, sought, made way for, be 
received by persons rising, be escorted, brought back, consulted. One may 
frisk. Learning the arts thoroughly softens the manners. 537 (l>). This 
ought to be and must be done (It behoves and is necessary that this be 
done). I am pleased that you are in cheerful spirits. The news was 
brought me that the Parthians had crossed the Euphrates. 537 (c). To 
have no desires is wealth ; to have no eagerness to purchase is a revenue. 
One may be a citizen of Gades (Cadiz). It will be given you to be free 
from this mischief. 538. Ah, to treat so carelessly a matter of this 
importance! There now that I should have been in Spain at that time 
rather than at Formiae ! 539. When Catulus had said this, all (began) 
to look -at me. Then there was a horrible spectacle in the open plains : 
following, flying, slaughter, capture : horses and men dashed to the ground, 
and many, from wounds they had received, able neither to fly nor to endure 
to lie still, but only to struggle and fall down on the spot. 540 i. 
There is no sense in letting slip an opportunity of that kind. It is time 
now to attempt something greater. 540 2. The Arcadians alone are 
skilled in singing. Her mind was apt to be caught. Snow-white to the 
sight. The one was worthy to be chosen, the other to choose. 540 3. 
He sent me to beg. We are going out to look. He sends me to seek. 
He drove his herd to visit the lofty mountains. 540 4. He gives the 

L. G. 25 

386 Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

man a corslet to possess. We are a number only, and born to consume 
the crops. MO 5. There remains nothing except love. There is a 

deal of difference between giving and receiving. 541 b. Son of Atreus, 

you forbid anyone to think of burying Ajax. The consuls issued a procla- 
mation forbidding anyone to sell or buy anything to facilitate flight. He 
avoids doing anything which he would afterwards have trouble in chang- 
ing. The seer is frenzied in her attempts (cf. 748) to shake off the 
mighty god from her breast. 645. One will not repent of having paid 

attention to that. Then was the time for weeping when our arms were 
taken from us. 547. These things are very easy to decide. He was 

sent to ascertain the dispositions of the kings. A large sum has now 
been expended on buying and arming slaves for service in war. 548. 

The consul gives his attention to appeasing the Gods at Rome and holding 
a levy. Numbers of people flocked together ready to hear and believe 
this. The following were present at the recording. A commission of ten 
for deciding lawsuits. The states are not solvent. 549 (a). Caesar 

gained glory by giving, by relieving, by excusing, Cato by making no 
present at all. Herdonius by confessing himself an enemy almost served a 
notice on you to take up arms, this man by denying that there were wars at 
all, took the arms out of your hands. At this day Asia rests on the main- 
tenance of the arrangements and, I may say, on treading in the footsteps of 
Lucullus. 549 (l>). The word law in Greek is derived from assigning 

each his own. The first book is on the contempt of death. 1 spent my 
exertions in making the accusation and setting forth the charges. Instead 
of bringing help to the allies he proceeds to march in person to lay siege to 
the city. 550. We are so (born and made, i.e.) framed by nature as to 

contain in ourselves the instincts to do something, to love some people, and 
to repay a favour. In this state have been formed plans for destroying the 
city, butchering the citizens, putting an end to the name of Rome. 551. 
At this crisis we must be slaves or lords: we must feel fear or cause it, 
Quirites. Each must use his own judgment. Caesar had to do everything 
at once ; to set up the flag, give the signal with the trumpet, recall the 
soldiers from work, draw up the line. I withdrew from a war in which 
one had either to fall in battle, or to fall into an ambush, to come into the 
conqueror's hands or to take refuge with Juba or to choose a place for what 
would be exile, or to decree oneself a voluntary death. We have to fear in 
death eternal punishment. 552 (a). He had some land from my father 

to cultivate. Let us give ourselves to philosophy to refine. Caesar has a 
bridge (of boats) made in the Arar (Saone). Part of it is kept for drinking. 
He puts out a contract for cleaning the sewers. 552 (b}. There's a deed 

which calls for (notice, i. e.) punishment. Let me tell you now of another 
type of general, one which calls for very careful retention and preservation. 
Rest between toils either already spent or soon to be spent refreshed their 
bodies and spirits to endure everything anew. He cried both that he had 
bought and was to buy everything. It was scarcely to be believed. They 
gave the name of pains to toils which could not be avoided. 553. 

Come as soon as you can to have a laugh at this. Envoys came into the 
camp of the Aequi to complain of the wrongs and demand restitution in 
accordance with the treaty. I will not go to be a slave to Grecian mothers. 
He thinks that all or most things will appear ambiguous. 654. 

Foul to say (in the saying). Terrible forms to look at. The other hill was 
convenient for practical purposes. Water pleasant to drink. 556. I 

am loved, I am about to love, &c. I say that thou art loved. Nothing 
worthy of mention was done this year (cf. 491). Old age is busy and 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 387 

ever doing and stirring something. 557. Having said this he went 

aloft. Every evil is easily crushed in its birth, but when grown old becomes 
stronger. Upon my word it would not have occurred to me if I had not 
been reminded of it. Nor has he lived ill who has escaped notice both in 
birth and death. Thence you will protect Greece, at once wearing to the 
Romans the appearance of preparing to cross, and actually ready to cross if 
circumstances should require it. With almost an harangue of this kind in 
his mouth he went from man to man. 559. I ask you to hold me 

excused; I dine at home. I put aside the mathematicians (astrologers), 
grammarians, musicians. I will so lay low the legions of the Latins as the 
envoy lay low just now before your eyes. No one doubted that it was 
outraged guests, slaughtered envoys, ransacked temples that brought about 
this great destruction. There were kings at Rome, counting from, the 
foundation of the city to the deliverance of it, for 244 years. Then the 
Danai with a groan, raging at the girl's having been carried off, collected 
from all sides and rush on. Failure in getting favourable omens for a long 
time had detained the dictator. A verse was found in the Sibylline books on 
account of the frequent showers of stones in that year. There was no reason 
why haste should be required. 561. A wise man (lit. A man having taste). 
Fixed penalty. A shrill (sharpened) voice. Time to come. What? are 
then those images of yours so obedient to us (lit. so listening for us at our 
word)? The doctor quite confirms the opinion that you will be shortly in 
health. 569. The man was persuaded : it was done : they came : we are 
beaten : he married (the lady). A grudge is felt at the benefits received by 
the men themselves, but their exertions to benefit others are viewed with 
favour. Still however we will give satisfaction and no labour shall be 
spared. Each wishes himself to be trusted. Strenuous opposition was 
made by Cotta and the (centurions of the) first ranks. 670. To myself 

no injury can now be done by them. This is the only point of contention. 

672. What I was at Trasumene (lake) and at Cannae, that you are to-day. It 
is denied by the whole of Italy, denied by the senate, denied by you. 

673. Verres comes into the temple of Castor : looks upon the sanctuary : 
turns himself about : seeks what to do. 574. They are wont in the 
schools (of rhetoric) to bring forward decisions of the immortal Gods on the 
subject of death. Official congratulations from the towns all along the road 
(imperfect tense) were offered to Pompey. Part of us are so timid as to have 
thrown aside all recollection of the favours of the people of Rome, part so 
opposed to the commonwealth as to show that they favour the enemv. 
Friends partly deserted me, partly even betrayed me. 575 (a). The deed 
itself puts him to shame. Pity seizes me for others. 575 (b). It lightens; 
it thunders; it rains ; it freezes; it draws to evening. At Reate a shower of 
stones fell (it stoned in a shower). It begins to dawn here now ('it, here' 
represent hoc]. 575 (c). The order is obeyed. Who could have been 
spared? The damages in the suits have been strictly assessed : the party pleased 
forgets it; the party hurt remembers. You who think yourself flourishing 
are weighed down by anxieties; you are tormented with desires; you are 
racked all day and night, because what you have is not enough. In fact 
all of us householders have left reaping-hook and plough, and crept within 
the city walls. 577 (a). Some fly off to the ships : part again climb the 
(wooden) horse. Each of them lead out their armies from the stationary 
camp away on the side of the river Apsus. 577 (/'). Lovers' quarrels 
are a renewal of love. To be contented with one's property is the greatest 
and surest riches. 573. Paulus and Marcellus are passed over by private 
agreement. If you and Tullia are well, I and my sweetest Cicero are well. 


388 Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

I and you know to separate a rude saying from a humorous one. 579. 

The leader himself with some chiefs are taken. This neither I nor you 
have done. 580. The senate and people of Rome understands. When 

time and need requires, we must fight it out with force, 581. This 

much both the Peripatetics and the old Academy grants me. I delight to be 
called a good and wise man, and so do you. And of this opinion were Demo- 
critus, Heraclltus, Empedocles, Aristotle. The quaestorship I was a candi- 
date for, Cotta for the consulship, Hortensius for the aedileship. It was 
stated on oath by Publius Titius, guardian of the ward Junius : it was stated 
by Marcus Junius, guardian and uncle : it would have been stated by Lucius 
Mustius if he had been alive ; it was stated by L. Domitius. 682. Both 

armies, that of Veii and that of Tarquinii, go off each to their own homes. 
We endure each his own ghost (the events of a ghostly life). From slug- 
gishness and softness of spirit you hesitate, one waiting for another. The 
consuls of that year had perished, one by disease, the other by the sword, 
583. What, says he, are you here for so early, Tubero? Then he (spake). 
You have done wisely in leaving this, if you did so deliberately; and 
fortunately if you did so by accident. The Gauls (did) nothing else 
for two days but stand ready. Gaius Caesar (ask) money from me? Why 
so rather, than I from him? More and more anxious became Agrippina, 
because no one came from her son. What is the good of my possessing 
fortune, if I am not allowed to make use of it? This however is nothing to 
me. Whither tends (i.e. What is the purpose of) this? Why make many 
words of it? 584. On the 3rd day before the Ides of November 

(nth Nov.), on my coming down Holy Street, he followed me with his 
(roughs) : shouts, stones, sticks, swords : all these unexpectedly. A sea 
raging, harbourless, land fertile in crops, good for cattle, unfavourable to 
trees : a scarcity of water both in sky and land. Meanwhile with all my 
forces I made a raid on the Amanienses, our constant enemies : many 
were slain, (or) captured : the rest dispersed : some fortified hamlets were 
taken by a sudden attack and set on fire. 585. He answered that it 

had not occurred to him that anyone would do it. A crowded senate 
determined that a colony should be established at Lavlcum. Why do you 
hesitate? He ought to have been hurried aloft by this time. What mat- 
ters it whether I wished it to be done or rejoice at its being already done? 
590 (p. 236 note). I will beg Achilles to give me the gold for which Hector 
was ransomed. 593. Here I am waiting for Servius. Now when I look 
at you, I see you to be Romans. 594. He gave Archagathus the task of 
having the silver carried down to the sea. Archagathus goes up into the 
town, bids all to produce whatever they had. There was a great panic. I 
had scarce uttered this : of a sudden everything seemed to quiver : sinking 
down we drop to the ground anxl a voice is borne to our ears. 595. In 

complying with the young men's request, I forgot myself to be an old man. 
Whilst the Romans are preparing and consulting, Saguntum was already 
being besieged with might and main. Whilst the elephants are being 
conveyed across, meantime Hannibal had sent 500 horsemen to spy out 
the Roman camp. Now is the time for imbuing the boy with those arts 
which, imbibed while he is of tender age, will make him come better pre- 
pared to more important matters. I for my part desire and I have for long 
been desiring to visit Alexandria. What? did I ever cheat you ( 468 tr.) 
at all since I have been yours? 597. Well, what do you say? Crassus, 

are we going to sit down? Look to the camp and defend it needfully, if 
anything fall out for the worse : I meantime am going round the rest of the 
gates and strengthening the guards of the camp. 598.. Before I 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 389 

speak of the accusation itself, I will say a few words on the hope of the 
accusers. You meantime will await us here till we come out. 599. 

What is ever in motion is eternal. Your interests are concerned (lit. Your 
business is being done) when the adjoining wall is on fire. 600. If we 

take nature as our guide, we shall never go wrong. Our time here, while 
we are on the earth, will be like that heavenly life. Anyone who shall 
wish to gain true glory, should discharge the duties of justice. Remember 
to take me to listen wheresoever you go. 601. If however the wise 

man had been susceptible of suffering, he would have been susceptible of 
wrath ; now as he is free from wrath he will be free also from suffering. I. 
have found she is of kin to us. What? are you out of your senses? It will 
turn out as I say: I am not speaking at random. 602. About the 

water if there is any trouble, you will look to it, if Philip does anything. 
603. They attack the rear rank of the Romans. At that time Marius was 1 
busy in the front, because Jugurtha with most of the enemy was there. 
Archias was in those days a pleasant associate of Metellus the conqueror of 
Numidia, his recitations were attended by Marcus Aemilius, he used to live 
with Quintus Catulus both father and son, his acquaintance was cultivated 
by Lucius Crassus. 604. I was (am) writing this at the ninth hour of 

the night on the eighth before the Kalends. Milo was (is) already in 
possession of the plain of Mars : the candidate Marcellus was (is) snoring so 
loud that I heard (hear) him through the wall. Feb. isth. I have written 
this before daybreak : I am going to day to dine at Pomponius' wedding 
dinner. What is the state of politics with you at the time of my writing" 
this I know not : I hear there are some disturbances : I hope they are' 
wrongly reported, so that we may sometime enjoy liberty and peace. 
These are my anxieties at the time of writing to you : if some God shall 
turn them into joy, I shall not complain of the apprehensions. 605. 

Anything he had earned he bestowed on his greedy belly. In Greece 
musicians were in favour, and all used to learn the art. I used to practise 
declaiming daily. Hortensius used to speak better than he has written (or* 
ever wrote). All who were present were dying with laughter: and for the 
future all began to dread me. Both lines take up a position and they pre- 
pared themselves for battle. The consuls, uncertain what sudden mischief 
had fallen on the city, tried to allay the tumult, and by their efforts to do 
this sometimes excited it. Of this surrender Postumius himself, who was 
offered in surrender, was the adviser and mover. After they failed in 
seeing any sign of the enemy, the Gauls marching on reach the city of 
Rome. 608 i (a). At last Catiline came into the senate. Then 

Marcus Tullius the consul made a speech at once brilliant and politically 
Useful. He afterwards wrote and published it. I came, I saw, I conquered. 
Lucius Lucullus was for many years governor of the province of Asia. 
608 I (b). I almost forgot that which was the principal object of my letter. I 
love Brutus as much as you do, I had almost said as much as I love you* 
608 I (<:). After Gnaeus Pompeius was sent to the war by sea, the power of 
the oligarchy grew. Hispala did not let the young man go till he pledged 
his word that he would keep aloof from these rites. 608 i (a). We use 

our limbs before we have learnt for what purpose we have them. At length, 
Quirites, we have, shall I say, expelled Catiline from the city or, if you 
like, let him go or escorted him with words in his voluntary retirement; 
He has gone away, has withdrawn, has escaped, has broken out. Now no 
more will the destruction of our walls be plotted inside the walls. 
608 i (b). We Trojans are things of the past : Ilium is no more and the 
great glory of the Teucri. I have an only son, a young man. Ah ! What 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

said I ? that I have (a son)? Nay I have had, Chremes. Whether I 
have still or not, is uncertain. The earth trembles, the beasts are fled. 

608 -2 (r). When fortune blows (has blown) on us, we are dashed to the 
ground. 608 2 (d). Whilst the king is safe, all (the bees) have but one 
mind : if he is lost, they break at once their loyalty and plunder the honey 
they had piled up. Not house or lands, nor heap of bronze and gold has 
drawn away fevers from the sick body of their lord. 609 i. When you 
come to read this, I shall perhaps have met him. When I have seen him 
I shall proceed to Arpinum. 609 2. lie that shall crush (have crushed) 
Antony, will thereby put an end to the war. Will he not then be really 
the conqueror, if on any terms whatever he succeed in entering this city 
with his (troops) ? 609 3. Plato, if I shall succeed in translating him, 
uses some such words as these. By the Judicature Act neither will the man 
who chooses be elected, nor the man who refuses escape election: those 
will be the judges whom the Act itself, not man's caprice, shall have selected. 

609 4. But if we are utterly fallen, I shall have been the ruin of all my 
friends. Shall one man go unpunished after causing this carnage through the 
city? after sending so many leading warriors to (for) Orcus? 609 5. Trust 
me, I say. I will help you either by consolation or counsel or act. Do 
you invite the ladies ; meantime I shall have summoned the boys. If I am 
troublesome, give back the money: I will then be off at once. Some 
time I will look to what he effects : meanwhile I highly value his offer. 
610. As a father of a household shall enact with regard to his own family 
and money, so shall the law be. Come now, Stichus : whichever of (us) 
two shall cry off shall be fined a glass. 611 (a). He decided to put up 
with anything rather than enter on war, because the previous attempt had 
turned out ill. Hanno, with those who had come up last after the battle 
was lost, is taken alive. 611 (b}. We are now travelling on a hot and 
dusty road. I sent off (a letter) from Ephesus yesterday: this letter I send 
from Tralles. 611 (r). A hundred and twenty lictors had filled the 
forum and were carrying axes bound up with their bundles of rods. The 
crops not only were being consumed by this great number of beasts and 
men, but had also been beaten to the ground by the season and the showers. 
Publius Africanus, after he had been twice consul and censor, proceeded to 
put L. Cotta on his trial. 611 (d). The enemy, whenever from the 
shore they caught sight of single soldiers disembarking, attacked them while 
embarrassed. 612. Do whatever you like. I mean to give you no 
more. I have lent you everything which I meant to lend. An orator 
must try the minds and feelings of those before whom he may be pleading 
at the time ( 600 a] or be preparing to plead. The chamber where the 
king was to stay (for the night), if he had continued his journey, fell in the 
very next night. 613. Mind you keep well. Collect the sheep, lads. 
When you have admitted this, then deny, if you will, that you received the 
money. 621. He asks Rubrius to invite whomever it may be con- 
venient to him : and leave one place for himself, if Rubrius pleased. At 
the same time Rubrius orders his slaves to shut the gate and stand them- 
selves at the doors. 622. The other side demand that judges to try 
the case should be assigned out of those states who frequented that forum: 
those were chosen whom Verres thought fit. Mago sends envoys to the 
senate at Carthage to represent in exaggerated terms the defection of the 
allies and urge them to send reinforcements so that they might recover the 
empire of Spain which had come to them from their fathers. 623. For 
three years he so harassed and ruined Sicily that it cannot possibly be 
restored to its former condition, and it will require many years before it can 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 391 

have a chance of some partial recovery. 624. Aemilius Paullus 

brought so much money into the treasury that the booty gained by one 
general has put an end to the poll-tax. Their resources had grown so 
greatly that not even at the death of Aeneas did the Etruscans or any other 
neighbours dare to take up arms. 625. The orators of old are praised, 

for their habit of defending at length the cases of accused persons. That 
all men, father, said he, might truly report me sprung from your blood, 
on a challenge I slew my enemy and bear these horsemen's spoils to you. 
640 (a). If you were here, you would feel differently. Jf I were to say that 
I am moved by regret for Scipio, I should tell a lie. What if a father were 
to rob temples, drive a mine to the treasury? would a son give information of 
it to the magistrates? That indeed would be ( 643) a sin : nay he would 
even defend his father, if he should be accused. 640 (b). Then verily 

should I in vain have, with this right hand, saved the Capitol and the 
citadel, if I were to see a fellow-citizen be dragged to prison. Without 
your consent, general, I should never think of fighting out of the ranks, not 
though I were to see victory certain. In fine I would upon my word 
rather flee away at once than return if I should know that my return must 
be thither. These, if my care were not resisting, the flames would already 
have seized and the hostile sword would have drained (their blood). 
640 (c}. All this seems to you laughable, for you are not present : if you 
had been a spectator you would not have restrained your tears. It is I Han- 
nibal who sue for peace, I who would not have been sueing if I had not 
believed it to be expedient. Would you then have thought Opimius, if you 
had lived in those days, a rash or cruel citizen? How I am listened to 
now I am fully sensible, but if I had been speaking then, I should not 
have been listened to. You however alike if you had been defending a 
will, would have pleaded so that all rights of all wills might seem to be in- 
volved in that trial, or if you had been pleading the cause of the soldier 
would with your words have roused his father from the dead. 640 (d). 

If I had distrusted Metellus' honour, I should not have retained him as a 
judge. The matter neither now seems to me in a difficult position and 
would have been in a very easy one, if some persons had not been to blame. 
But, Velleius, if you had not said something, you would not have succeeded 
in getting me to say anything. 641 (a). If you do this, you see me to- 

day for the last time. We indeed, if pleasure contains everything, are far 
away distanced by beasts. In fine if you are a God, you ought to confer 
benefits on mortals, not take away what they have: but if you are a 
man, always bear in mind that which you are. If you shall be con- 
demned, and in fact when you are condemned (for with those men as 
judges what doubt of your condemnation could there be?), you will 
have to be beaten to death with rods. What? if a father shall attempt to 
seize a throne, or betray his country, will the son keep silence? Nay he 
will implore his father not to do it : if he prevail nothing he will accuse 
him. If so many examples of valour do not move you, nothing ever will 
move you : if so terrible a disaster did not make life cheap, none will 
make it so. 641 (b). If I wished to take you off by poison at your 

supper, what was less suitable conduct than to make you angry? I told 
you when you were starting that I was lazy: what good did I get by 
telling you this, if notwithstanding you attack rights which are on my side? 
Epicurus however courteous he may have been in defending his friends, still, 
if this is true, for I affirm nothing, was deficient in sharpness. If you be 
found to bring the money, I shall be found to break my word to him. You 
will greatly please me, and I hope Scaevola also, if you discuss friendship. 

392 Translation of Examples in SyntaX. 

641 (f). If you had not already previously formed a plan for the death of 
Sextus Roscius, this piece of news did not in the least concern you. If 
Metellus was not sufficiently defended by his own modesty, the rank of our 
family ought to have given him sufficient support. At that time in fact 
a man who had got an office did not hold it, if the Fathers had not given 
formal sanction. 641 (d). I had yielded to odium, if you will have it 

that the commons were hostile to me, which they were not ; if there 
was violence in the matter, then to fear; if there was danger to the citizens, 
then to the commonwealth. Both my husband and your wife ought to have 
been living, if we had not meant to dare some great deed. 642. Defeated 
in one battle Alexander would have been defeated in the whole war; but 
what battle could have broken the Roman, who was not broken by the 
Caudine Forks, not broken by Cannae? At a push from him lofty walls 
with high towers would have been stirred : the serpent remained without a 
wound. I could have wished I had been permitted: I should have said 
this. You may say it. I should have done this. You may do it: no 
one stops you. I should have decreed this. Decree away, only decree 
rightly : all will approve. Assuredly no other nation would have failed to be 
overwhelmed with such a weight of disaster. In this space of time the con- 
quered committed more cruelties on themselves than the conquerors, if set 
on, would have committed. All our own productions please us while they 
are being produced : otherwise they would not be (have been) written. She 
would have flown over the tops of the stalks of unmovvn corn and not have 
hurt the tender beards as she ran, or would have taken her course through 
the midst of the sea suspended on the swelling wave and not have wetted 
her swift feet in the water. 643 (a). I could (can) go through the many 

attractions of country life, but I feel that even what I have said has been 
too long. It is a long business to mention them : but this much in brief I 
will say. There is no reason why you should fear lest this be troublesome 
to him, for he will not find it tedious to go round the world for my sake. 
643 (b}. Either the war ought not to have been undertaken or it ought now 
to be waged in a way worthy of the Roman people. It would have been 
better for Cinna to have been forbidden and prevented from putting so many 
leading men to death than for himself at some time to suffer for it. 
643 (c). I might have called disturbances of mind diseases; but (if I had) it 
would not have been convenient ( 642) in all respects. And so Plato thinks 
that they would not even take part in politics unless compelled : it would 
have been fairer however for it to be done voluntarily. 643 (</). How 

much better had it been for the father's promise not to have been kept in 
this matter. Catiline rushed out of the senate, triumphing in delight, he 
who never ought to have gone thence alive. 644 (a). I (could) wish 

you would excuse me for doing it against the will of your mother-in-law. 
Really I should have preferred you continuing in dread of Cerberus than 
that you should say that with so little consideration. Who can doubt that 
riches lies in virtue? So great a war as this who would ever have thought 
could be finished in one year? Nor am I inclined to object to 'scripsere 
alii rem' ; 'scripserunt' I think is the more correct. Whenever the Sarma- 
tians come ( 721) in squadrons, scarce any line could stand it. 644 (l>). 

But I should not readily say anyone was more apt in words or closer packed 
with meaning. I would gladly give all wealth to everybody if only ( 684) I 
could be allowed to live in your fashion without being interrupted by brute 
force. Cicero I would boldly match against any of the Greeks whatever. 
Bravely spoken! (lit. Blessed for valour, 501), in fact I myself should not 
mind going wrong in your hero's company. So I should give my opinion 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 393 

to your friends that they should avoid that new style of speaking. 645 (a). 
I wish you to take a wife to-day. I much prefer your being silent to your 
saying that you are silent. I prefer upon my word that what you maintain 
should be proved before those judges and the Roman people than what I 
charge against you. These are great deeds of course: who denies it? but 
they are stimulated by great rewards and by the eternal remembrance of 
mankind. Good heavens! Will anyone after learning these things say 
that Oppianicus was deceived? Enough and more than enough has your 
liberality enriched me : I shall not (be found to) have acquired what either 
like greedy Chremes I may bury in the earth or squander like a loose young 
rake. 645 (). I will for my part gladly yield for you, Laelius, to dis- 

course on that, I am possessed by moderate vices such as may be excused 
( 646) : perchance even these length of time will handsomely diminish. 
Now what is it you say? Beware of pardoning. This is the language nei- 
ther of a man nor (fit to be addressed) to a man : he that uses such language 
before you, Gnaeus Caesar, will be quicker in casting off his own human 
feeling than in wresting yours. 1 will gladly give my opinion that each 
should practise the art he knows. 646. "Tis in vain that you exhort a 

man who is roused neither by glory nor dangers. He holds an apple taken 
from a tree : you would think the Hesperides had given it him. Without 
the word of command they bear back the standards, and sorrowful you 
would have thought them conquered return into the camp. Presently you 
would have seen no one at rest throughout the camp. One would have 
thought that there ought to be an end to that mourning. The mind too 
and spirit, unless you drop oil as it were upon their light, die away from 
old age. A good man only becomes less active if you neglect him, but a 
bad man becomes more wicked. 647 i. Some one will perhaps 

inquire, whether I disapprove of using the protection of the laws to drive 
off danger. No, judges, I do not disapprove. A man will say, What then 
is your opinion? that we should take measures against those who have 
betrayed the commonwealth to the enemy ? Not by arms, not by force, &c. 
Do you then speak of yourself? some one will have said. I do it unwil- 
lingly,, but pain at the wrong I have suffered makes me unusually boastful. 
647 -2. You will ask, how much I value it at? If I shall ever be per- 
mitted to live in ease, you will find by experience. Where shall we find 
those who do not prefer office to friendship? Where can you find the man 
who prefers the promotion of his friend to his own? 650 (a). Should 

you ask me what I consider to be the nature of the Gods, I should perhaps 
give no answer : should you inquire, whether I think it to be such as you 
have just set forth, I should say that nothing seems to me less likely. A 
share in this great work, had grief permitted, Icarus, thou wouldst have had 
(been now having). Had you given this mind a body equal to it, he would 
have done what (i.e. the definite thing) he wished. For without you 
(were it), I should not have been living till sunset this day. 650 (&). 

One who sees these and innumerable things of the same kind, would he not 
be forced to admit the existence of Gods? One who had seen (been seeing) 
the Trojan horse brought inside would have said that the city was taken. 
650 (c). If you had not heard of these things as done, but had been looking 
at them in a picture, still it would have been clear which of the two was 
the plotter. Even if death had to be met, I should have preferred meeting 
it at home and in my country rather than in strange places abroad. 

650 (d). And yet for my part if a philosopher were to be furnished with 
eloquence, I should not despise it; if he have it not, I should not require it. 

651 (a). Whatever they say, I praise : if again they deny it, I praise that too* 

394 Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

Does any one say no, I say no : does he say ay, I say ay. He has by his 
decree assigned supreme command to a most illustrious man, but that man 
a private individual. In this lie has imposed a very great burden on us* 
(If) I shall assent, I shall have thereby brought canvassing into the senate- 
house. If I shall refuse, I shall seem by my vote to have refused a post of 
honour to a great friend. You laugh, he is convulsed with a louder laugh : 
he weeps, if he sees (has seen) his friend in tears. (Shall you have) come 
into my country with me, there I will return the favour to you. Attend 
and you will understand. Take away this thought : you will have taken 
away all mourning. 651 (l>). There is in fact nothing more love- 

able than virtue : the man that has gained that, wherever he be ( 600) 
in the world, will have our affection. These and things of this kind 
anyone will easily see who wishes to praise. 651 (c). In the Decii 

Magii if there was not the control which is usually found in our consuls, 
there was pomp, there was show. Good men do many things for this 
reason, because it is right, although they see no advantage likely to 
result. What a man often sees he does not wonder at, even though 
he is ignorant of its cause. 651 (d}. If you do (shall have done) what 

you profess, I shall be very grateful to you; if you do not, I shall ex- 
cuse it. Either if you are hard, say no, if you are not hard, come. 
Luxury, while disgraceful to every age, is foulest to old age: but if there is 
besides want of control over the desires, the evil is twofold. For be it 
that we can attain wisdom, it should not be procured only but enjoyed : be 
it that that is difficult, still there is no limit to the hunt for truth until you 
have found it. 652 (a). You loaded him with every insult whom, if 

you had had a spark of dutiful affection, you ought to have reverenced as a 
father. The whole army might have been annihilated, if the conquerors 
had pursued the fugitives. Neither will you dare to say this, nor will you 
be allowed, if you were to desire it. If he had said this, still no excuse 
should have been allowed him. They had come into such a position that 
if the consul had had a foe like the former kings of the Macedonians, a 
great disaster might have been incurred. Philip not doubting that, if there 
had been day enough left, the Athamanes also might have been turned out 
of their camp, sat down at the foot of the hill. 652 (l>). Those very 

farmers who had remained, were going to leave all their farms, if Metellus 
had not written to them from Rome. What do you mean to do, if the 
enemy come to the city? If he had not set them free, these men would 
have had to be given up to torture. Such should have been the mourning 
for Peleus if he had been dying. Nor was there any doubt that the enemy 
would have turned their backs, if this small number had been able to be in 
all places at once. And this thing is naturally so wicked and criminal that 
even if there had been no law it should have been carefully avoided. 653. 

No one hardly dances when sober, unless perchance he is mad. Absurd 
creature ! as if it were necessary, if he does not give her to him, that you 
should marry her: unless you look to it, pray, and court the old man's 
friends. I can form no judgment on the matter, only I persuade myself of 
this that a man such as you has done nothing without good reason. We 
found out nothing about it by putting questions, but saw by positive 
measurements with a water-glass that the nights were shorter than on the 
mainland. 654 i. Many things urge me to keep aloof from you, 

Quirites, did not my devotion to the state overcome them. I remember 
the tune if I could but have retained the words. 654 2. Why, if you 

were to bid me describe the Giants subdued by Jove's fire, the task will 
break me down in the attempt. If the world were to be broken up and 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 395- 

fall on him, dauntless will he receive the blow of the ruins. 654 3. 

The bridge of piles all but furnished a road for the enemy, if it had not 
been for one man. Why, I was slipping still further if I had not checked 
myself. If L. Metellus had not prevented it, the mothers and sisters of 
the wretches were coming. 654 4. We had had a splendid victory if 

Lepidus had not received Antony when stripped, disarmed, a fugitive. A 
tree falling on my head had taken me off, only that, Faunus with his right 
hand lightened the blow. 655. Wherefore if you love me as much as 

assuredly you do love me, if you are sleeping, awake ; if you are standing, 
step on ; if you are stepping on, run ; if you are running, fly to me. Live 
and farewell: if you know anything more correct than these rules, candidly 
impart them ; if not, use these with me. Even if others shall be occupying 
the front rank, and the lot shall have placed you among the rearguard, 
still from thence fight with voice, with cheer, with example, with spirit. 
Spare ye however the dignity of Lentulus if he has spared his own reputa- 
tion : spare the youth of Cethegus, unless this be the second time that he has 
made war on his country. Will she find fault, do you find fault; what- 
ever she approves, do you approve: say what she says, deny what she 
denies. Has she smiled, smile on her: if she weep, remember to weep 
also. If she is in the country and says 'Come' love hates the lazy if 
wheels shall not be at hand, do you hurry to her on foot. 656. Such 

was the end of a man, worthy of record if he had not been born in a free state. 
We saw blackbirds too being placed (on table), nice things if the host had 
not proceeded to describe their causes and qualities. 657 (a). How I 

could wish you had been at Rome, if perchance you are not there. Your 
virtue has so won us to you, that whilst you are our friend safe and sound 
we fear not, if it is not impious to say so, even the Gods in wrath. I should 
like you however to read the speech, unless as is possible you have read it 
already. 657 (b). For if night does not take away a happy life, why 

should ( 674) a day like a night take it away? May I be hanged if it were 
( 643 c) not the best course. If I have my brother and you with me, those 
fellows may ( 668) for all I care be dragged by the feet to execution. 
If you were too lazy to proceed beyond the gates, at least you should have 
bidden ( 670) my (funeral) couch go thither more slowly. But if the 
groaning (of which we speak) be quite pitiful, weak, despairing, tearful, I 
should scarcely call ( 644 l>) one who abandoned himself to it, a man. 
657 (c ). If ever you thought me brave in politics, certainly you would have 
admired me that day (i.e. if you had been present). And if this cannot 
be done in .our present world without God's , assistance, neither would 
Archimedes without God-inspired intellect have succeeded in imitating the 
same movements in a ball. 658. What if I bid him be seized ? You 

would be wiser (to do so). 659. What if I rather remain till noon ? 

660. The fact is men spoilt by pride lead their life as if they despised the 
offices you confer : and yet are candidates for them as if they led an upright 
life. But, you say, the son of C. Cornelius is accuser and that ought to 
have as much weight as if his father had been the informer. The army of 
the Samnites, as though there were to be no delay in joining battle, draws 
up its line. Here however we see a great struggle, as though there were no 
fights elsewhere, none dying throughout the city. Just as if it were difficult 
for me to produce by name as many as ever you like. 661. A very 

different tale is told us from what you had written. For both her life is the 
same and her feelings towards you the same as they were. They bade us 
make a larger statue of Jove and place it on high and, contrary to what it 
had been before, turn it to the east. Once upon a time there was an old 

396 Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

man just as I am now: he had two daughters, just as mine are now : these 
were married to two brothers, just as mine are now to you. 662. If 

only that golden bough would but show itself to us on a tree in this 
mighty grove ! And yet oh if there were still any spark of our wonted valour ! 
663. Of Fabianus Severus Cassius had said before he was put on his trial 
by him : You are fluent after a sort, handsome after a sort, rich after a 
sort: there is one thing only which you are not after a sort a flat. The 
nobility tried to keep down M. Porcius then in his canvass as throughout his 
life. The safety of Gnaeus Plancius I am bound to defend no otherwise 
than my own. 665 (a). Naevius, I wish to hear it from your own lips : 

I wish this unprecedented act to be proved by the voice of the man who 
did it. Neither do I choose to be put up anywhere in wax with a face 
made worse than it is, nor to be honoured in badly composed verses. 
665 (l>). Meantime surrender us common persons; you will afterwards 
surrender also those consecrated men, as soon as they have gone out of 
office. However you will keep your health and look after my business, 
and expect me, please the Gods, before midwinter. On hearing you, so it 
was that I felt annoyed that so powerful a mind you will kindly excuse 
my saying it should have fallen into such absurd sentiments. 666 (a). 

Farewell to my fellow-citizens, may they be unharmed, may they be flourish- 
ing, may they be happy. The envoys in front of the meeting (said), May 
this proposal (which we are going to make) be good happy and prosperous 
for you and the commonwealth : return into your country. Had the Gods 
but consented to my having no father! And Ceres after the prayer that so 
might she rise on a lofty stalk, smoothed with wine the anxieties of the 
furrowed brow. Phoebus, who hast ever pitied the heavy toils of Troy, 
so far (and no farther) may the fortune of Troy have followed us. May I 
not be saved if I write other than I think. I beseech you, think me 
to be a simple citizen from the midst of the meeting shouting to you in 
reply: with your kind leave permit us to choose out of these proposals 
those which we think to be wholesome for us, and to reject the rest. In the 
opinion of myself and of every one, you have, let me speak without offence 
to these gentlemen, left scarcely any distinction for other orators. 666 (b). 
O that Varro himself would throw himself into the cause ! O that the 
people of Rome had but one neck ! Almighty Juppiter, would that the 
ships of Cecrops had not the first time touched the shores of Gnosus ! O 
father and king Juppiter, would that weapons may be laid aside and perish 
from rust and that no one may hurt me a lover of peace ! O may all the 
Gods just destroy him ( 280) who first hit upon the plan of holding a meeting. 

667. What the cause was I will consider presently : meantime I shall hold 
this. However about yourself you will see: of myself I shall declare this. 
Now die: as for me the father of Gods and men must look to it. Wrathful- 
ness itself they used to say was the whetstone of courage : whether rightly 
or not will be for us to look to at another time. You, said Lucretia, will 
have to see what is due to him : myself though I acquit of guilt /do not free 
from punishment. How easy that (art) is, they will settle who strut about 
supporting themselves on the claims of the art as if it were excessively 
difficult, and next to them you yourself will settle. But about this we will 
consider : only let us go out. About the debt you will see with Cispius. 

668. I think we ought to observe in life the rule which is maintained in 
wine-parties among the Greeks: either he must drink, it says, or must go. 
So something should be granted to age : youth may be a little freer : not 
everything should be refused to pleasures: the true and strict rule should not 
always prevail. Let us love our country, obey the senate, look to the 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 397 

interests of the good, neglect immediate profits, work for the glory of 
posterity : let us hope for what we wish, but bear what happens. Use 
that advantage while it is here; when it is gone, do not seek for it. What 
the warloving Cantab rian, Quintus Hirpinus, may be thinking of, waive 
inquiring, nor flurry yourself to provide for the needs of a life which (really) 
needs but few things. Cross not the Ebro : have nothing to do with the 
people of Saguntum : don't move a step (from your footmark) any whither. 
Excuse nothing : yield not an inch to favour : be not stirred to pity ; remain 
firm in your opinion. 669 (a). Enrolled fathers, assist me, wretched 

man that I am, go and meet the wrong, let not the realm of Numidia waste 
away. Keep to yourself by all means that laudatory decree of the Mamer- 
tines. Yield thou not to woes but march more boldly to face them. Why 
art thou afraid of what is safe? Gird thyself and push aside all delay. 
Stop weeping and let me know what is the matter whatever it be : don't 
keep it secret, don't shrink, trust, I say, to me. Off with you ! Farewell, 
Good bye. 669 (&). When you have most carefully thought for your 

health, then, dear Tiro, think of sailing. If perchance the heavy burden of 
my paper chafe you, throw it away rather than wildly dash the panniers 
against the place whither you have to carry it. Be the first to dig the 
ground, the first to carry off and burn the loppings, and the first to bring 
the stakes under cover : the last to reap. By means of this nourish thou the 
rich olive dear to Peace. God bless you for your courage and care. You, 
Titius, shall be my heir and shall decide (whether to accept or not) within a 
hundred days of your having notice and not being disabled. If you shall 
not so decide, you shall be disinherited. When the north wind is blowing 
plough not, plant not crops, cast not seed. 670. Was I not to pay 

him the money? You should not have paid it him nor have bought any- 
thing of him, nor sold to him, nor have given him the means of going to 
the bad. You sent a citizen of Rome to the cross. You should have 
reserved the man, kept him shut up, until Raecius could come from Pan- 
hormus ; had he then recognised the man, you should have remitted some- 
thing of the extreme penalty; had he been ignorant of him, then, &c. 
What ought you to have done? If you did as most others do, you should 
not have bought corn, but have taken the amount in money. 671. 

You'll drink some hellebore, I'll take care, for some twenty days. I'll 
secure, he'll thereby lose both wine and labour. 672. Away, bear 

this public message to the Fathers that they fortify the city of Rome. 
Jugurtha exhorts the townsmen to defend their walls. We had told you, 
Procillus, yester-eve to dine with me to-day. He must have done everything 
which has been enjoined on him and notified to him before he put in any 
request. To such a life as this, crowned with so many full delights, fortune 
herself must yield. Why you may even use Greek words when you choose, 
if Latin words fall short. How much I should have preferred he had given 
them up to me in chains. I do not wish the old man to see me at this crisis. 
Don't fancy that anything ever excited men's wonder more. 673. 

I'm determined, I will work the old ground and be my own master. 
Prythee permit it quietly. I think I shall succeed in getting him to put off the 
marriage for some days at least (lit. put forward some days for the marriage) ; 
meanwhile something will be done I hope. No doubt (ironical), either 
those are frightened by the fear of death or these by (the fear of) the 
sanctity (of the place). 674 (a). What is she to do? fight? a woman 

will be beaten in fight : cry out? but he had in his hand a sword to forbid 
that. Seeing this what was I to do, judges? was I, a private person, to 
contend in arms against a tribune of the commons? Perchance some onti 

398 Translation of Examples in Syntax* 

may be found to say, You should have resisted, should have fought against 
him, should have met death in arms. Are you to tell me ( 478) that you 
have been with the army all these years, not put foot in the forum ; absent 
all this time, and then come here after this long interval and dispute for a 
post of honour with those who have lived in the forum? Was then he, when 
beaten in song, not to give me the goat (he wagered)? 674 (). It 

was not at all clear to Brutus or the tribunes of the soldiers what to do or 
what plan of battle to adopt. We have nowhere to make a stand except 
Sextus Pompeius. At once the plan was discussed how by acting on the 
offensive to turn the enemy from Italy. What to do about the boys, I 
do not see. 674 (f). Have you got the man, pray? (Why should I not 

have him? i.e.) Of course I have got him. On Maximus having recovered 
Tarentum, Salinator asked him to remember that it was by his services that 
he had recovered Tarentum. Why should I not (i.e. Of course I) remem- 
ber it? says he : for I never should have recovered it if you had not lost it. 
675 (a). But why do I mention things which when they were in doing used 
lo be praised to the skies? Yet what do you advise me? Do I fly to him or 
do I stop? For my part I am both fast in the midst of my books and I do 
not wish to receive him here. 675 (b). Are we then actually waiting till 
beasts speak, and are we not contented with the concurrent authority of 
men? But am I actually loitering instead of escorting her to Thais? Shall 
Verres have at his own house a candelabrum of Jove's? Pretty well that! 
gone off, and cares not a lock of wool for what I said. Actually smiling? 
Did it seem then to you such a fine joke to laugh at us, you villain? 

675 (c). What shall we have to eat afterwards? Will you be silent? Am 
I to be accountable to you? I believe, my father will not believe it. Will 
you not be silent, you fool? He'll believe it, I'm sure. Why, if we have the 
vigour of youth, do we not mount our horses and inspect with our own eyes the 
dispositions of our wives? Why, look at the matter thus, judges. In truth I 
now neither exhort you nor ask you to return home : why, I myself desire to 
fly from hence. 676 (a). If we do not gain your approval of these views, 
assume that they are false, at any rate they are not of a nature to excite 
odium. Be it that there is no strength in old age : from old age strength is 
not expected. A bad citizen, a wicked consul, a factious fellow was 
Gnaeus Carbo: (Let him have been so to others, i.e.) Be it that he was so 
in the opinion of others ( 477) ; when did you begin to be of that opinion? 
There never was such a man, you will say. Be it so (lit. Let no one have 
been so), I am discussing what I desire, not what I have seen. But the 
fortune of fight had been doubtful. Grant that it had: whom did I, 
doomed to death, fear? I would have borne torches into his camp. 

676 (b). You do nothing, pain: however troublesome you are, I shall never 
admit you to be an evil. Let them be as humorous, witty and eloquent as 
they will, the power shown in the forum is one thing and that at the dinner- 
table is another. Gaius Gracchus however told many people that when he 
was a candidate for the quaestorship his brother Tiberius seemed to say to 
him in his sleep, let him hesitate as much as he chose, he would have to 
die by the same death by which he had himself died. 676 (c). Old 
men retain their abilities, if only they retain their zeal and industry. I 
now refer to you whom I am to follow : only let no one give me that very 
ignorant and absurd answer, ' Anybody, provided it be somebody. ' 677 (a). 
That course of yours is right, but this is expedient. Suppose that you 
have rightly waged war: ought you therefore to have had to deal with 
women? 677 (b}. You will reply that the Stoics call the same things 
preferable which your friends call good. True they do call them so, but 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 399 

they deny that a happy life is filled with them. He thinks that it is 
one thing to have joy, another thing to be free from pain. Yes, and makes 
a great mistake. 677 (c). We may attack them as much as you please, 

I am afraid they are the only philosophers. 677 (d). He was among 

them in royal rank, although he had not the name. Although one of 
the two has perished he who remains to me shall stand both for himself and 
for Remus. Nor was there wanting one to recommend a deed however 
bold. Expect to hear of any deed you please (i.e. quod /acinus expectare 
commodum esf vobis), as bad as you please, still I shall surpass the ex- 
pectation of all. 677 (e). Whom indeed I shall at once compel to 
confess only do ye stand aside. 679. I sent one in a friendly way, 
and he told this to Antony. Nature has given man reason, whereby 
the appetites of the soul are ruled. Aelius used to write speeches, which 
others used to deliver. That only is good by which the soul will be 
made better. From each man's loss, pain, inconvenience, ruin, wrong, the 
praetor drew up public formulae, on which model a private suit is 
arranged. They bid up as high as they thought they could do the business 
for ; Aeschrio bid above them. 680. I have one to avoid : I have none 
to follow. I sent in a friendly way one to say this to Antony. Nature 
has given man reason whereby to rule the appetites of the soul. Aelius 
used to write speeches for others to say. Give him back tit for tat so as to 
sting him. Most persons think the matter one fit for inquiry and the men 
worth arguing with. In this respect you were sharp-sighted, in laying 
down beforehand a limit above which I was not to purchase. 682 (a), 
We must eat to live ; not live to eat. Both times I so bore myself as not to 
be a disgrace to you, or to your kingdom or to the race of the Macedonians. 
It is useful for there to be a number of accusers in a state, that boldness may 
be kept in check by fear : but it is only useful provided we are not simply 
made sport for the accusers. Only see that at the present time there be 
nothing which can get in his way. I will endeavour to prevent your having 
formed these hopes of me in vain. It had been written to him to prepare 
everything against the games and to take care that his haste should not 
prove fruitless to himself. Trunks are covered over with skin or bark that 
they may be safer from frosts and heats. Caesar saw that it was due to 
Afranius that a pitched battle was not fought. I shall not object to all the 
world reading my writings. I will not add a word to prevent you dying 
like a man. The soldiers scarcely restrained their feelings enough to 
prevent their making a rush on them at once. 682 (/>). Verres begs 
and prays Dolabella to go to Nero. The senate decreed that L. Opimius 
should see that the state received no damage. The Fathers maintained 
their ground that no motion should be made to the people : the commons 
were successful in electing the same men tribunes for the fifth time. It is 
the first principle of justice that no one should hurt anyone unless wrongly 
provoked. The next thing is for me to show that the world is ruled by the 
providence of the Gods. 683 i. There is the greatest possible 
difference with them in habits and pursuits. The bare names of places will 
be given, and with as much brevity as can be. Jugurtha arms the greatest 
number of troops that he can. Craftily ( 452) conceal your words under 
characters as ambiguous as possible. He held the place as long as he 
could bear the toil. Having brought back from thence a booty exceeding 
the fame of the war, he held some sports. This was as pleasing as any- 
thing ever was to the senate. 683 2. They kept doing this for a great 
part of the summer so much the more easily because our ships were being 
kept back by storms. The more completely master of his art and more 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

able a man is, so much more irritation and pain does teaching cause him. 
In proportion to my want of ability I have had to rely upon carefulness. 
Nor now indeed do I feel the want of a young man's strength, any more than 
when a young man I used to feel the want of that of a bull or an elephant, 
I wish Antony to be worse off than he is (worse to be to A. than there is), 
684. We have accepted Caesar's terms, but on condition that he withdraws 
his garrisons from the places he has seized. And he so puts his inventions, 
so mixes up true with false, as to secure the middle according with the 
beginning and the end with the middle. To the people of Lanuvium the 
citizenship (of Rome) was given and their own sacred rites restored with 
the proviso that the temple and grove of the saviour Juno should be 
common to the burghers of Lanuvium and the people of Rome. 685 (a). 
The want of harmony is enormous between the Median scymetar and wine 
and lights. He was going in with strangely bitter feelings, so that I had to 
scold him. O Phaedria, my superiority in wisdom over my master is 
incredible. 685 (b). Strange how much not merely the occupation 

but even the thought of that place delights me. He was interrupted by 
frequent cries from the soldiers of Ventidius, for of his own he has very 
few. It was not easy to remember all the objections made, for most of 
them were utterly trivial. 686. My boy, I fear you will not be long- 

lived, and some of your greater friends will kill you with cold (receptions). 
They kept saying that they were afraid as to the possibility of bringing 
up the supplies of corn properly. I fear lest if we delay like this it will be 
for Hannibal and the Phoenicians that our ancestors have so often saved 
Rome. I fear I shall not get it. Many things of that kind are said in 
declamations (lit. in the schools), but perhaps it is not necessary for us to 
believe them all. It would be ( 643) your line, if anyone's, to count 
nothing but virtue among goods. Perhaps, said he, it would rather be your 
line. 687 (a). Haven't I nicely forgotten that I told you? He remem- 

bers his freedom pretty well, eh ? 687 (b). Just look at this, how he 
wheedles ; no one when he (has begun) does begin is more coaxing. 
O look there, how the rascal has twisted his face. 688. In weak 

health, one scarcely avoids cold even indoors, much more difficult is it to 
guard against the inclemency of the weather when on the sea. This 
complaint was that the consuls were both war-loving men who even in 
profound peace would be able to stir up a war, much less would they let 
the state have breathing-time in war. The fact is, prosperity wears the 
temper of wise men, much less could such men with depraved habits make a 
moderate use of victory. 689. Lepidus never approved of the plan of 

leaving Italy : Tullus still less. These things then the wise man will 
not undertake in the interest of the state, nor will the state wish them to be 
undertaken in her interest. Time however not only does not lighten this 
grief but actually increases it. The oracles of Apollo never met with 
credence even from any ordinary person, much less from a skilled inquirer. 
The condition of things in the whole of this crisis was more than anyone 
could bewail as it deserved, still less can anyone find words to describe it. 
690. Not to be longer, farewell. Since with you respect is paid to 
courage, that you may owe to your (may have got by) kindness what you 
have failed to get by threats, (I tell you) three hundred of us leaders of the 
youth of Rome have sworn to one another to attack you in this way. 
"It showed great recklessness, not to say audacity ( 517), to touch any of 
those things. 691. It is incredible and portentous how he managed to 
squander such a quantity of things in so few not months but days (tarn 
-multa quam panels, &c., as many things as the days were few). There has 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 401 

been in that city nothing I don't say done, but even devised, against this 
state. 692 (a). Wait, pray, till I can see Atticus. He waited at 

anchor till the ninth hour to allow of the remaining ships meeting there. 
He suffered much in war till he could found a city and bring in his Gods to 
Latium (i.e. to help, &c. Latium, 475). The battle of Actium is rehearsed 
by the lads after the manner of enemies under your leadership, until swift 
victory can crown one or other with her (palm) branch. Epaminondas 
used to practise greatly running and wrestling, until he could manage while 
standing to grip his adversary and straggle with him. 692 (l>). Without 

any further delay the king sent 4000 armed men to Scotussa while the 
panic was fresh. 693. I was in fear until we came to challenging 

the jurymen. Milo was in the senate on that day until the senate was 
dismissed. I shall be anxious about what you are doing (or how you are 
faring) till I know what you have done (how you have fared). 694. 

The elephants were not at all alarmed as long as they were being driven on 
what appeared like a continuous bridge : the first fright began when the 
raft being loosed from the rest, they were borne quickly into the open 
river. There pushing one another, as those on the outside drew back from 
the water, they began to shew some panic, until as they looked at the water 
all round them fear itself (brought quiet, i.e.) made them quiet. 695. 

In fact all the time I was with you you did not see my soul. This I did 
as long as I was permitted: I ceased doing so as long as I was not 
permitted. Just as there is said to be hope for a sick man as long as 
there is breath, so I as long as Pompeius was in Italy, did not cease to 
hope. So long as I was pleasing to you, I throve, more blessed than the 
king of the Persians. So long as you were more in love with no other 
woman, I throve more renowned than the Ilia of Rome. As long as there 
shall be anyone to dare to defend you, you shall live. 696. So long 

as (i.e. If only) things remain, let them invent words at their own choice. 
That expression is cruel and detestable, ' Let them hate (so long as they 
fear, i.e.) if they do but fear.' You may be sure it was written in the time of 
Sulla. ' Let them hate' what? So long as they obey? No. So long as 
they approve ? No. What then ? So long as they fear. On these terms I 
should not have been willing even to be loved. Be whatever you like, if 
only you don't recite. Many neglect everything that is right and honourable 
if only they can get power. Imitate, enrolled fathers, the inconsiderate 
mob, if only I am not required to imitate the tribunes. 697 (r). 

Whilst his friends are coming, he walked about alone, his son standing at 
a distance, he himself turning in his mind many things. Without any 
evident causes died two Caesars while putting on shoes in the morning; 
Q. Aemilius Lepidus while just stepping out, having knocked his toe against 
the threshold of his chamber; Gaius Aufustius after leaving his house, as 
he was going to the senate, having struck his foot (against something) in 
the Assembly-place; Gnaeus Baebius Tamphilus, when he had asked the 
time from his (boy, i.e.): slave; L. Tuccius a physician whilst taking a 
draught of honey-wine ; Appius Saufeius \vhen on his return from the bath 
he had drunk some honey-wine, and was sucking an egg ; &c. W'hilst these 
things were doing at Veii, meantime the citadel of Rome and the Capitol 
was in great danger. 697 (d). We have fallen into these disasters while 
preferring to be feared than to be loved and esteemed. Thus the lady while 
seeking to retain a few slaves ruined all her fortunes. I have however 
gone on too freely into deeper water in my annoyance and weariness 
of the ways of my country. 698. The Roman sticking to his rear 

burst in as it were in one body before the doors of the gates could be 

L. G. 26 

402 Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

shut against him. He of course before he can come into Pontus will 
send a despatch to Gnaeus Pompeius. But you will not gird with walls 
the city given you, before cruel hunger force you to consume with your jaws 
the gnawed tables. He did not cease to send to his brother and friends 
until he could confirm peace with them. A few days ( 496) before 
Syracuse was taken, Otacilius crossed into Africa. 699 (a). Love strikes 
us, before in safety we see our enemy. All this property, he who had 
made the will, had some time before his death delivered to the use and 
possession of Heraclius. Nor did they stop in their flight till they came to 
the river Rhine about five thousand paces from that place. I shall not 
tire of it before I have learnt their two-edged ways and methods of dis- 
puting both for and against everyone. We use our limbs before we have 
learnt for what purpose we have them. 699 (). But upon my honour 

( 417) I shall much sooner sacrifice my own safety for you than surrender 
Gnaeus Plancius' safety to your attack. 700. Zeno of Elea endured 

everything rather than inform against those who conspired with him to 
overthrow the despotism. Anyone shall tear out my eyes sooner than 
scorn you and despoil you of a rotten nut. Many of the common people in 
despair, rather than be tortured with still drawing breath, covered up their 
heads and threw themselves into the Tiber. 701. Pompeius adds that 

he will be slain by Clodius before I shall be hurt. I am grieved that you, 
a man endowed with almost unique wisdom, are not rather delighted with 
your own advantages than troubled with others' woes. Did not I declare 
to you that I would endure anything whatever rather than go out of Italy 
to a civil war? They determine rather to adopt that plan than undergo 
terms either of surrender or of peace. 704. I am a man who never did 

anything for my own sake rather than for that of my fellow-citizens. The 
Campanians had committed in their revolt too great crimes to admit of 
pardon ( 569). This is the only contention which has remained till now. 
You are the only man, Gaius Caesar, whose victory was marked by the 
death of no one who did not bear arms. O fortunate youth to have found 
a herald of your valour in Homer. The time will assuredly come for you 
to regret the lofty spirit of the bravest of men. The life of Romulus fell in 
an age when Greece was already full of poets and musicians. 705. 
Spurius Thorius had considerable power in the popular style of oratory 
I mean the man who by a bad and useless law relieved the public land from 
tax. Epicurus was not sufficiently educated in those arts which give their 
possessors the title of ' accomplished.' Choose which of the two is convenient 
to you. Virtue is most of all things fixed with the deepest roots ; it can 
never be shaken by any force. Ah ! wretched that I am ! I looked at your 
feelings with the eyes of my own. Fortunate was his end : he saw not the 
things actually happening which he foresaw would happen. The long 
period when I shall not exist moves me more than this short time. You 
have had ample opportunity of seeing my views ever since the time when 
you came to meet me at my house at Cumae. 706. There are those 

who think that death is the departure of the soul from the body. There is 
a limit to the indulgence which may be given to friendship. There was 
formerly a time when the Gauls surpassed the Germans in valour. How 
many then are there who obey dreams, or even understand them or remem- 
ber them? Nor can anyone be king of the Persians who has not previously 
mastered the Magians' course of instruction. I say that there was not 
throughout Sicily a single silver vessel which Verres did not hunt up, inspect, 
and take from it anything that pleased him. There was not one of all 
the soldiers in the fort who was not wounded. 707. Many are those 

^Translation of Examples in Syntax, 403 

who take away from one to give to another. There is one man to whom a 
crow gave the possession of a surname. It is many years since M. Fadius 
is in my treasures and loved by me for his thorough culture. But crises 
often occur when what seems especially worthy of a just man changes and 
becomes the contrary. The time is past when it could be said : Why, you 
are a patrician and sprung from the liberators of your country : now the 
consulship is the reward not of race as formerly but of valour. Is any- 
thing good which does not make him who possesses it better? I do not 
consider him a free man who does not occasionally do nothing. 708. 

Why that unnamed gentleman who is wont to be mentioned in disputations 
used to see things 200 miles off. L. Pinarius was a sharp man, who 
trusted more to precluding the possibility of being deceived than to the 
honour of the Sicilians. True, we often look for a Latin word parallel and 
equivalent to a Greek word : here there was no reason for looking. In 
explaining names you Stoics toil to a piteous extent. 709. He must 

needs fear many whom many fear. A man whom you could not have over- 
reached if you brought the case before an arbitrator, to whom judgment on 
such a question did not properly belong, him will you condemn by means 
of a judge who has no right as arbitrator on such a matter. I do not even 
know by what name I should address you. Citizens ? you who have 
revolted from your country. Or soldiers? you who have thrown off respect 
for your general and the auspices, and have broken the obligation of your 
oath. 710. Of all orators, so far at least as I know them, .1 consider 
Q. Sertorius the most acute. There is not a slave, if only he is in a 
tolerable condition as a slave, who does not shudder at the boldness of the 
citizens. Epicurus alone, so far as I know, dared to profess himself a wise 
man. I. beg then of you to oblige him in all things, so far as you can do 
so without trouble to yourself, I should be glad of your coming as soon as 
possible consistently with your convenience. 711 (a). Who however 

of our orators of the present day reads Cato? Who that has ever cared to 
know these things moderately is ignorant that there are three kinds of 
Greeks? The censors used to examine the case of those who were dis- 
charged from serving in the army, and anyone whose discharge seemed 
at present not legitimate, they compelled to take an oath ( 467) as 
follows: "According to the purpose of your mind you will according to the 
decree of Gains Claudius and Titus Sempronius the censors return into the 
province of Macedonia, so far as you shall be able honestly to do so." You 
have, so far as in you lay, ruined both yourself and the unhappy woman. 
711 (I}. But however that is, this complaint of yours is of no avail. What- 
ever it is, I fear the Danai even when bringing gifts, I count as ours the 
forces of Deiotarus, however great they are. Whatever is the matter, 
wherever he is, whatever he does, Egnatius has a smile. This may no doubt 
be false, it may be true, but whichever it is, it is not surprising. In what- 
ever way posterity will take those deeds, love of country will conquer. The 
Romans, although they were weary with marching and battle, still advance 
in order and pn the alert to meet Metellus. 712 (a). You are not the 

man, Catilina, for shame ever to have recalled you from foul acts. The rest 
they drove in such a panic of fear that they did not desist from flight before 
they had come in sight of our column. He made this speech with so firm a 
voice and look as to seem not to be retiring from life, but from one house 
to another. The Sicilians are never in such a bad way that they cannot 
say something witty and apt. I never had anyone to whom to give a 
letter for you but what I gave it. The Trevii i did not stop any time during 
the whole winter sending envoys across the Rhine. 712 (//). So far are we 


404 Translation of Examples in Syntax. 

from admiring our own productions that we are actually so hard to please and 
whimsical as not to be satisfied with Demosthenes himself. It is the habit 
of men to dislike the same man's excelling in several things. It often 
happens that debtors do not meet their obligations punctually. Not even a 
God can make one who> has lived not to have lived, or one who has held 
office not to have held office, or twice ten not to be twenty. Appius 
Claudius besides- being old was also blind. When Varus stopped behind 
and asked who he was and what he wanted, Fabius strikes his uncovered 
shoulder with his sword and all but killed Varus. I cannot help sending 
you a letter every day in order that I may get one from you. 713. It 

happened very inconveniently that you nowhere caught sight of him. You 
are checked neither by the period of the censorship having expired, nor 
by your colleague having resigned his office, nor by statute nor by shame. 
It was much against Eumenes while living among the Macedonians that he 
was of a foreign state. I omit the fact that she selected that as a home 
and settlement for herself. Licinius acted very politely in coming to me 
in the evening after the senate was dismissed. In addition to the fear 
inspired by the war with the Latins had come the fact that it was tolerably 
clear that thirty tribes had already leagued themselves together. In this 
one respect above all others we excel wild beasts, that we have speech to 
express our feelings. 714 (c). His ability I praise without being much 

afraid of it, and approve while thinking that I can be more easily pleased 
than beguiled by him. Not very long ago it received the steady spondees 
into its ancestral right, obliging and contented, but not to the extent of 
withdrawing in its love of companionship from the second or the fourth place. 
Who is there who would be willing to live in abundance of everything 
without either loving anyone or being himself loved by any? 714 (d). 

Even supposing that you were more worthy than Plancius, itself a point 
which I shall presently discuss with you without detracting from your worth, 
it is not your competitor but the people that is to blame (for your not 
being elected). How very few skilled lawyers there are, even if you count 
those who claim to be. Even if I do not compare your life with his (for it 
does not admit of comparison) I will compare this one point in which you 
make yourself out to be superior. Granted that I have gone wrong in 
these matters, still by mentioning a different opinion as well, I have avoided 
deceiving my readers. However, supposing this not to be so, still I pro- 
pose to myself a splendid spectacle, provided only I may enjoy it with 
you in the seat next me. For even if Plato had brought no reason (see 
what weight I assign the man), he would have subdued me by his mere 
authority. 714 (e). That this fellow should carry off from me all this 

money and laugh in my face ? It were better to die. I interrupt you? 
I should not have wished that either. And yet what am I saying ? Can it 
be that anything should break you? that you should ever correct yourself? 
that you should think at all of flight ? Would that the Gods would give 
you the disposition to it. (To think) that you should have laughed un- 
punished at the revealing of the Cotyttian mysteries. 715 (a). The 
consul, having laid this news before the senate exactly as it had reached 
him, consulted them on the religious point. As you shall have sown, so 
will you reap. They interpreted that, each according to his own temper. 
715 (/;). These men however are, compared with the age of the people of 
Rome, old men : but, as the generations of Athenians are reckoned, ought 
to be considered young men. But upon my word, as the case now stands, 
although it was shaken by yesterday's conversation, it seems to me per- 
fectly true. Sthenius had got, so far as the means of a man of Thermae 

Translation of Examples in Syntax. 405 

went, a very fair quantity of well-made silver. 715 (c). But although, 

my dear Plancus, you may have made a mistake, for who can avoid that? still 
who does not see that deceived you could not have been ? The people of 
Saguntum, although they had rest from righting, yet had never ceased 
working either by night or day. 715 (d). Grant that Ennius is, as he 

no doubt is, more perfect. The enemy required frightening more than 
deceiving, as frightened in fact they were. 715 (e). Led on by the 

authority of the Veneti the neighbouring tribes Gauls always farm, 
sudden and hasty plans retain Trebius on the same ground. Chrysippus, 
always careful in historical investigation, collects many other usages. 
715 (/). My life upon it, I incur the utmost expense. 718. I seem to 

myself to have sinned in leaving you. How blind I was not to have seen 
this before. We ourselves, although at first as stern as Lycurgus, become 
milder every day. The stranger touched by religious scruple, desiring as 
he did to have everything done duly, at once went clown to the Tiber. 
They make their way back to the camp now full of panic and confusion, 
women and boys and other non-combatants being mixed up there. The 
brightness of the Sun is more brilliant than that of any fire, shining as it 
does so far and wide in an immeasurable universe. You the quaestor did 
not obey the tribune of the cornmons, and that too though your colleague 
obeyed. 719 (a). You are tormented days and nights through, for 

what you have is not enough, and you fear lest even that should not last 
long. O trusty right hand of Antonius, with which he cut down numbers 
of citizens. I feel very grateful to old age: it has increased my eagerness 
for discourse, and removed my eagerness for drink and food. Jugurtha on 
the other hand on receiving the unexpected news (for he had a fixed 
conviction that everything at Rome was purchaseable), sends ambassadors 
to the senate. 719 (/;). If you had left the business to me, such is my 

love to you, I would have settled it. They rise to consider their judgment, 
when Oppianicus, as was allowed at that time, declared that he wished the 
votes to be given openly. 720. When they caught sight of a debtor 

being led into court, they used to rush together from all par