Skip to main content

Full text of "A Latin grammar; with new corrections and additions"

See other formats









, tott!) Xtto (Corrections anK 'atJotttons. 





[The right of Translation is reserved.'] 


THE chief changes which have been made in the present 
edition are as follows : 

1. The principle involved in the new section, marked 
451. 1, has led to the introduction of forms which without 
explanation might offend the eye of the scholar, viz. dic- 
1 say/ due- <draw,'/d- trust,' ntib- 'veil,' 8d- or ddi- 'take 
an aversion to.' Yet these forms are as legitimate for the 
Latin language, as AITT- (eXnrov) * leave,' 0vy- (e^vyov) ' fly,' 
in Greek grammars. Precisely as from these bases are de- 
duced the imperfect tenses XCITT-W, Xenr-etv ; 0evyw, 0e vy-f.iv j 
so we may likewise deduce in the sister language from the 
short bases the imperfect tenses dic-o, duc-o, fld-o, nub-o, and 
a perfect ddi, forms which are no longer inconsistent with 
malidfcus, fatidwus ; dux duds, redux reduds, educare ; fides 
perfidus ; conntibium, pronuba ; or ddium. 

2. It has been thought desirable to attach references to 
the quotations employed in the Syntax. 

3. Some difference of arrangement has been made in the 
' principal parts' of the verbs, and in the syntax of the dative. 

4. Attention has been drawn to some inseparable prepo- 
sitions which represent the Greek ava in form and power, as 
well as to an inseparable preposition int&r, of like origin and 
no way related to the ordinary preposition inter ' between' 
( 834 b. and d. 9 1308. 1, 1342. 1). It may here be noticed, 
that in order to retain as far as may be the original numerical 
headings of the paragraphs, such new paragraphs as were re- 
quired have been distinguished by added digits, which havo 
the appearance of a decimal notation. Instances have just 
been given. 


5. To the crude forms a hyphen has been affixed (as in 
the Smaller Grammar), so as to imply that an addition to the 
word must be made before it is entitled to take a place in a 
Latin sentence. 

6. The defence of the crude-form system, which appeared 
in the Preface of the first edition, has been enlarged and trans- 
ferred to an Appendix. 

7. A second Appendix touches on some new views, which 
were thought to be not sufficiently mature for admission into 
the body of the Grammar. 

It will still be found that much which is important to 
the Latin scholar is wanting in these pages. But in reply to 
some objections on this head, it may truly be urged that a 
grammar is not the proper receptacle for the notice of pecu- 
liarities, which should find a place in the dictionary alone. 
The special office of grammar is to deal with general laws ; 
and it was with justice that Caesar gave to his work on this 
subject the title of Analogia Latino,. There has therefore 
been an error on the side of excess in the admission of much 
matter relating to the prepositions, the excuse for which is 
the very unsatisfactory condition of our dictionaries in this 

Lastly, the writer has to express his acknowledgments to 
Mr. John Power Hicks, of Lincoln College, Oxford, and to 
his son Mr. Thomas Key, of Lincoln's Inn, for much valuable 
assistance in the preparation of this edition. 

Feb. 15, 1858. 



1 THE Latin language was spoken in Rome and Latium, and after- 
wards spread with the Roman conquests over Italy, Sicily, and 
the greater part of France and Spain. 

2 The alphabet consisted, as Cicero tells us (Nat. Deor. n. 37, 93), 
^ of twenty-one letters. These must have been: abcdefghikl 

m no p q r stu and x, without any j v w y z. That the alpha- 
bet ended with x is implied in Suetonius (Aug. c. 88). J'and z 
were introduced at a late period from Greece, and for a long time 
limited to Greek or foreign words. 

3 The vowels were i e a o u t to follow the natural* order of 
their sounds. 

4 The liquid consonants, following the natural order of their 
formation from the back of the mouth towards the lips, were 
r I n m. 

5 X is a double consonant, sounding as Jcs. 

6 K is only used before , as its modern name implies ; for ex- 
ample, in the proper names Kaeso, Volkanus ; and in kalendae, 

Q is used only before u, as its modern name implies ; for ex- 
ample, in sequor ; and in old inscriptions, pequuia, <fec. 
Ph, ch, th, rh were not used in old Latin (Cic. Or. 48). 

* See Professor Willis's experiments as detailed in the Cambridge 
Philosophical Transactions, vol. i. for Nov. 24, 1828 and March 16, 1829. 



7 The true proutmciation of the Latin language is no longer 
known. The vowels were probably pronounced as they now are 
in Italian. 

x In England the words are commonly pronounced nearly as they 
would be in English. 

!) When i before a vowel commenced a syllable, it was called by 
the Romans i consonans; but was in fact a vowel i very shortly 
pronounced, like our y in you. But the English in such cases 
change it into a /. Thus i u n i o r (yunior) yourger is commonly 
written and pronounced 'junior/ 

10 When u before a vowel commenced a syllable, it was called 
u consonans ; but was in fact a vowel u very shortly pronounced, 
like our w in we. But the English change it into a v. Thus, 
u i n u m (winum) wine is commonly written and pronounced 
' vinum.' 

11 C and g were probably always pronounced as in cat and j?0oe, 
even before i and e. But the English follow their own rule. Thus 
Cioero, the Roman orator, is commonly supposed to have called 
himself Sisero. 

1 -2 The diphthongs, ae, oe, are generally pronounced as e. 

13 A short syllable is pronounced rapidly, and is sometimes 
marked by a crescent (") over the vowel, as the i in dominus 

14 A syllable or vowel is said to be long by nature, when the voice 
dwells upon the vowel, as verus true. 

15 A syllable or vowel is said to be long by position, when the 
vowel is followed by two consonants which do not both belong to 
the next syllable, as mfignus great, sunt they are, et mater and 
the mother. 

If; A straight line (~) over the vowel is sometimes used to denote 
a long syllable, as verus true, mugnus great. 

\ ~ A diphthong is nearly always long by nature, as aurum gold, 
aes bronze, proelium battle. The few exceptions consist of words 
in which the diphthong is immediately followed by a vowel, as 
praeustus burnt at the end. 

18 A vowel followed by a vowel in the next syllable is nearly 
always short, as fillus son, filla daughter, aureus golden. The ex- 
ceptions consist of words in which the long vowel has taken the 


place of a diphthong, or of two vowels, as f 10 (for faio) 1 become, 
nulllus (for nulloius) of no one, alms (for aliius) another's : so 
especially with foreign names, as Darius (for Dareius), Medea 
(for Medela). 

19 A short vowel followed by a consonant should generally be 
pronounced with that consonant, as pat-er father. 

A long vowel followed by a consonant should generally be pro- 
nounced separately from the consonant, as ma-ter mother. 

21 If a vowel, itself short, be followed by two consonants which 
can be pronounced at the beginning of a syllable, as jt?r, cr, tr ; 
br,gr, dr ; andjp, there are often two ways of dividing the word. 
Thus fiinebris connected with a corpse is pronounced in prose 
fu-nS-bris ; but in verse it may be pronounced fu-neb-ris. In the 
comic writers, however, such a syllable is always short. 

A syllable which is sometimes long and sometimes short is 
said to be common, and is marked ( " u ) or (~ ) over the vowel, as 
funebris or funebris. 

22 If the last syllable but one be long, it has the accent, as uinum 
wine, arcus low, regina queen, sagitta arrow. 

2 3 If the last syllable but one be short and the last syllable but 
two be long, this long syllable has the accent, as filia daughter, 
auonculus a mother's brother. 

24 If two or more short syllables, exclusive of the last syllable, 
come together, the second of them (counting from the beginning 
of the word) has its vowel nearly dropped* in pronunciation. Thus 
6p8ra work should be pronounced almost as op'ra; mlsSrla 
wretchedness, as mis'ria; exISrat he had gone out, as exi'rat ; 
1 c r ii m a tear, probably as la'r'ma.f 

25 If the syllable to be so dropped be an i (or e) or u, pronounce 
the i (or e) like y, the u like w. Thus m u 1 1 e r woman should be 
pronounced mulyer ; arle'tis of a ram, arye'tis ; perllmus we 
are ruined, perylmus ; fluuI5rum0/ rivers, fluuy6rum ; P u t S- 
5 1 i name of a town, Piity 61i ; r e s 1 1 1 u 6 r e to set up again, restit- 

26 A long word has sometimes more than one accent : as, immor- 
talis immortal ; re'ctipe'rare (rec'perare), to recover, to get back. 

* See Bentley's Terence ad Eun. ii. 2. 36 ; Hermann de Re Me- 
trica, speaking ofmiserum, p. 206. 
t Compare the French larme. 


Enclitics are little words pronounced and sometimes even 
written with the word preceding : as, quS and, mater-que and 
the mother; u6 or, mat4r-uo or the mother ; nS in asking ques- 
tions, as inater-ne abiit ? is the mother gone away ? Prepositions 
placed after a noun are of this kind : as, altis-de montibus down 
from the high mountains. 

Proclitics are words pronounced and sometimes even written 
with the word following. Prepositions are of this kind : as, in- 
ter-nos between us, inter-se between them, in-primis among the first, 
a-me from me. 

Elision. When one word ends with a vowel or a vowel and an 
m, and the next begins with a vowel or an h, the final vowel and 
m of the first word are not pronounced in poetry : thus, 

Monstrwwi horrendwm informs ingens cti! lumen Sdempttim 
should be read, 

Monstr', horrend', inform', ingens cul lumen adSmptum. 
Unearthly, ghastly, shapeless ; reft of an eye immense. 


30 The simplest words consist of one syllable : as the verbs dtic- 

draw, &g- drive or put in motion ; or the substantives pSd- foot, 

6X1- salt. 

These are called roots. 
3*2 A suffix is a syllable which is added to the end of a word and 

adds to or alters its meaning : as, due-* draw, duc-to- drawn; 

&g- drive, ag-mSn- a drove. 

33 A short vowel, generally , seems sometimes to be inserted 
before the suffix : as in a>-Mi- c>i*i!>/ put in motion, active. 

34 Several suffixes may be added one after another to the same 
root : as, g- put in motion, S.g-1-li- active, aglll-tat- activity, S-gl- 
Utat-fs of activity. 

Words formed by suffixes are said to be derived. 

35 A prefix is a syllable which is placed before a root, and adds to 
or alters its meaning : as, due- draw, dS-duc- draw down ; S,g- 
drive, ex-Tg- drive out. 

* For the quantity see $ 451. 1. 


Words formed by prefixes are said to be compounded. 
36 In the derivation and composition of words the letters are 
sometimes slightly altered : as, &g- drive, ac-to- driven, ex-Ig- 
drive out ; opgs- work, tfper-is of work. 


37 The Latin language has no article, so that a Latin substantive 
may be translated in three ways : 1. without an article, as mulier, 
woman ; 2. with the indefinite article, as mulier, a woman ; 3. 
with the definite article, as muligr, the woman. 

38 With Latin substantives there are three questions to be asked : 
What is the gender ? What is the case ? What is the number ? 

39 The genders are two, masculine and feminine. If a noun be of 
neither gender, it is called neuter. 

< See tables of genders, 191, &c. 

40 Little suffixes with the meaning of prepositions are added to 
nouns. Thus Sulmon- was the name of a town in Italy. Add 
the suffix em to it, and e-o Sulmon-em means / am going to Sul- 
mon. Add the suffix i, and Sulmon-l hSblt o means / reside at 

41 A noun, before these suffixes are added, is said to be in the 
crude form. A crude form is here printed with a final, hyphen. 

42 The word made up of a noun and one of these suffixes is called 
a case. 

43 There are five suffixes, which being added to a crude form 
make five cases : the nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, and 
ablative. To these is generally added the vocative.* 

44 The nominative is commonly formed by the suffix s : as, tr&b- 
a beam, nom. trabs. 

The nominative marks the quarter from which an action pro- 
ceeds, i. e. the agent. Thus, in the sentence, 'the master strikes 
the slave,' the blow comes from the master : this word master in 
Latin would be in the nominative case. 

* The case so called is in reality, so far as the Latin language is con- 
cerned, a nominative ; except perhaps in the singular of the o declension, 
viz. au&. But even with this compare the nominatives iste, HIS, ips2. 


The nominative is called the subject in English grammar. 
The vocative is used in addressing people. 

45 The accusative is formed by the suffix em : as, trab- a beam, 
ace. tr&b-em. 

46 The accusative answers to the question whither? or marks the 
quarter to which an action is directed : as, eo Sulmonem, I am 
going to Sulmon. Or again in the sentence, ' the master strikes 
the slave,' the blow goes to the slave : this word slave in Latin 
would be in the accusative case. * 

The accusative is often used with prepositions : as, In urbem 
venit, he came into the city. 

The accusative is called the object in English grammar.* 

47 The genitive is formed by the suffix ius or is : as, quo- who, 
gen. quo-iiis ; trab- beam, gen. trab-ls. 

The genitive answers to the question whence ? or signifies /rowi : 
as, cSlor sol-is, the heat from the sun. It is commonly translated 
by of: as, calor soils, the heat of the sun; or by the English suffix 
's : as, calor soils, the sun's heat."^ 

48 The nominative and genitive both signify from : but they differ 
in this ; the nominative belongs to a verb, the genitive to a noun. 

49 The dative is formed by the suffix bi or I : as, i- this, I-bi in 
this place ; trab- beam, dat. trab-i. 

The dative answers to the question where ? and is translated 
by at or in : as, Sulmon-i, at Sulmon ; ll-bi, in another place. It 
is used also for to, if there is no motion : as, haeret tibi, it clings 
to you. 

/>(.) The ablative has two very different meanings, and perhaps two 
different origins. Sometimes it answers to the question whence ? 
sometimes, like the dative, to the question where ? In the former 
sense it had originally a final d, as, from Gnaivo-, the old form of 
the praenomen Cneio- (Cneius), abl. Gnaivod. This form became 
quite obsolete. In the classical writers the ablative in form, what- 
ever be its sense, is very like to or identical with the dative ; but 
the I is often changed into an & : as, trab- beam, abl. trS,b-6 ; or 
lost altogether, leaving the preceding vowel long : as, ala- wing, 
abl. ala. 

* The English language has the accusatival suffix in him, the accusa- 
tive of he ; and in whom, the accusative of who. 

f* The English language has the genitival suffix in his, the genitive 
of he ; and in whose, the genitive of who. 


The ablative sometimes signifies from, as, CdYintho- Corinth, 
abl. Corintho from Corinth : sometimes it agrees ill meaning with 
the dative, as, riis- country, D. rtir-1, or Ab. rur-e', in the country ; 
D. Sulmou-i, or Ab. Sulm5n-e, at Sulmon. 

51 The ablative is often used with prepositions : as, ex urbS, out 
of the city ; cum reg-e", with the king ; In urb-e, in the city. 

52 Number. The plural is generally marked in English by s or 
en, as, dogs, oxen; in Latin sometimes by s, sometimes by um. 
These suffixes are added to the case-suffixes ; as in the genitives 
servo-r-um for servo-'s-um, of slaves ; re-r*-um for re-'s-um, of 
things ; or in the datives, vo-bl-s, re-bii-s. 

53 In adding these case-suffixes and plural-suffixes to the crude 
forms, some changes take place, particularly if the crude form end 
in a vowel. 

54 These changes depend chiefly upon the last letter of the noun. 
Nouns are therefore divided, according to the last letter, into 
classes called declensions. 



Latin C.F. 

tree, beam. 

masc or fern. 
first, chief. 

masc-. or fern. 



















* The r for * in the genitive is seen in the English genitives her and 

f The numbers of the declensions are given, because they are so 
arranged in nearly all grammars and dictionaries. 



Latin C.F. 








masc. or fern. 


masc. or fern. 



a stone. 















































































Latin C.F. 





















* An ace. pulveres in Horace. 



Latin c F. 

























Neuter nouns differ from others only in the N. V\ and Ace., 
which are always alike. In the singular these cases are nearly al- 
ways short in the last syllable, and in the plural always end in a. 

Latin C.F. 


















* Not found. 



NEUTER NOUNS (continued). 

Latin C.F. 































Remarks on the Consonant Declension. 

The nominative, as has been already said, is most regularly 
formed by the addition of s : as, trab- beam, N. trabs. 

58 If the crude form end in g or c, x is written instead of gs or 
cs : as, reg- king, N. rex ; nuc- nut, N. nux. 

59 If the crude form end in d or t, this letter is omitted : as, lapld- 
stone, N. lapis ; comlt- companion, N. comgs. 

CO If in Greek words the crude form end in ant, ent, or unt, the 
Nom. will end in as, Is, or us respectively. 

61 Even in Latin words, this change is sometimes found : as, in- 
fant- infant, N. infans or infas. 

62 If the crude form end in r or l t the s is omitted : as, patgr- 
father, N. pater ; consul- consul, N. consul : if in n, either the n 
or the s is omitted, as sanguln- blood, N. sauguls, or in old writers 

63 If the crude form end in on or on, both n and 5 are omitted : as, 
ho'md'n- human being, N. homo ; ration- an account, N. ratio. In 
Greek names in on or ont, the n is often retained, but not by the 
best writers : as, Lacon-, Xgnophont-, N. Lacon, X6n5phon ; better 
Laco, Xentfpho. 

* Not found. f Observe the irregular i. 


64 If the crude form end in * or ss, only one * is left at the end of 
the nominative : as, mus- mouse, os- mouth, oss- bone ; N. mus, 
os, 5s. 

05 If the crude form end in II, rr, or rd, the second of these con- 
sonants is omitted in the nominative : as, mell- honey, farr- spelt, 
cord- heart ; N. mel, far, c5r. 

66 If the word be neuter, the s is not added : as, alec- pickled 
herring, N. ale"c. Many adjectives however take the ? even for 
the neuter K V. Ac. : as, feroc- haughty, praesent- present ; N. 
V. Ac. neut. fgrox, praesens. 

67 Neuters in mat, borrowed from the Greek language, imitate 
that language in dropping the t in the N. V. Ac. : as, poemat- a 
poem, N. V. Ac poema". 

68 If the crude form has a short i before the final consonant, this 
is often changed in the N. into $ : as, milit- soldier, N. mile's. 

69 If the crude form end in Ss or ds, the N. and V. generally pre- 
fer us: as, venes- beauty, corpus- yfcsA, body ; N. and V. venus, 
corpus. Neuter words retain the us in the Ac. also. Greek words 
prefer ds in tho N. V. Ac. of neuters. 

70 The crude form of comparative adjectives ends in os; whence 
the neuter N. V. Ac. end in us, the masculine and feminine N. 
and V. in 6r : as, melios- better, N. and V. m. and f. metier, N. V. 
Ac. neut. melms. 

71 *When the nominative is left with a single consonant at the 
end, the quantity of the preceding vowel generally remains as in 
the crude form : as, salut- safety, custod- keeper, N. salus, custos ; 
and again, anat- duck, lapid- stone, patSr- father, have in the N. 
Sujls, Iftpls, patgr. 

72 But the crude forms in or have a short nominative : as, tlmor- 
fear, N. tlmor. Yet such a form as tlmor also occurs. 

73 Crude forms in s coexist for the most part with crude forms in 
r : as, arbSs- or arbor- a tree, 5dos- or <5dor- scent. Of these, the 
form with r is preferred in those cases where a vowel follows : as, 
G. arbtfris of a tree, odoris of the scent. 

* In old writers, such as Ennius, Plautus, Terence (and occasionally 
even Virgil), nominatives, which should be short according to this rule, 
are at times long : as, pater, like the Greek Trarrjp. So the nominatives 
aer, sSnipes, abies, aries, paries, Ceres, sangius, pulvis, from the crude 
forms aer-, soniped-, ahiet-, ariet-, pariet-, Ceres-, sanguin-, pulvis-, have 
some of them always, others at times, a long vowel. 


74 If the crude form end in &, 8r takes its place in those cases 
where a vowel follows : as, pulvis- dust, G. pulvSrls. 

75 If the crude form end in tin, $n, ut, &c., the short vowel is 
often changed into I in those cases where a vowel follows : as, 
ordon-nm, c&piit- head, G. ordinis, c&pltls. CarSn-yk^ drops 
the vowel altogether in those cases : as, G. carnls. 

76 V. Greek words in ant form the V. in a : as, Atlant- Atlas, 
N. Atlas, V. Atla. 

77 Ac. Greek words often form the Ac. in d : as, Pallad- the 
goddess Pallas, N. Pallas, Ac. PallSda ; a6r- air, Ac. aer& ; aether- 
the region of fire (ahove the air), Ac. aethera. 

78 G. Greek words often form the G. in os or us : as, Pall&d-, G. 

79 D. The dative sometimes takes an 8 instead of an I : as, aes- 
bronze, D. aerl, and rarely aere. 

80 D. Greek words sometimes form the D. in If : as, Pall&d-, D. 

81 Ab. The ablative sometimes takes an I instead of an <?: as, 
c&piit- head, Ab. capItS, and rarely caplti. 

82 N. and V. pi. Greek words often shorten the last syllable of 
the N. and V. pi. : as, rhetSr- orator, N. and V. pi. rhetdre's. 

83 N. V. Ac. pi. Greek neuter nouns whose crude form ends in 
8s form the N. V. and Ac. pi. in ea or e : as, Spes- an heroic poem, 
N. sing. 6p8s, N. V. Ac. pi. epeS, or 6pe. 

84 Ac. pi. Greek words often form the Ac. pi. in as : as, rhetbr- 
orator, Ac. pi. rhetSr&s. 

85 G. pi. There is an old form of the G. pi. in 8rum : as, nuc- 
nut, G. pi. niicerum. 

86 D. and Ab. pi. Greek nouns in mat often form this case in 
mdtls, rather than in mdtibus: as, poemat- a poem, N. sing. poe"ma, 
D. and Ab. pi. poematlbus, or poematis. 

87 D. and Ab. pi. Greek nouns sometimes form the D. and Ab. 
pi. in sin or si, with the final consonant of the crude form omitted, 
so as to leave the preceding vowel short : as, Troad- a Trojan wo- 
man, N. sing. Troas, D. and Ab. pi. Troasln or Troasl. 



Last let. 




















auos, auus 












auom, auum 

auim, auem 








re% re 





acui, acu 

rel, re 




aul, auS 



















auis, aues 





















* The o of the crude form may be traced even in those cases which 
appear commonly without it. Compare the gen. sing, guo-ius with the 
Homeric Ao 7 o:o ; the old nom. pi. oloe for illl with the Greek \oyoi ; 
the dat. and abl. pi. duobiis, and oloes for illis, with the Greek \oyois. 

t The a of the crude form is visible through all this declension except 
in the dative and ablative plural. That it once existed here also is proved 
by the old forms equabus, &c., and by the Greek dative p.ovaais. 

J Compare this declension with the Greek iro\t-, N. iro\is. 

The a of these cases was perhaps at first long, like Greek x> 
ffroa, ArjSa. So aguila, Enn. Ann. 148; sancta, filia, Liv. Andr. ap. 
Prise, vi. 42 ; liberd, Plant. Ep. in. 4. 62; especially in Greek words, as 
Ilurica, Trin. iv. 2. 10; epistula, Asin. iv. 1. 17 ; Canthara, Ep. iv. 1. 40. 



Last letter. 








There are no neuters of this declensicm. 




There are no neuters of this declension. 




[corn us]* 
cornul, cornu 







Remarks on the First, or A Declension. 

90 A very large number of feminine adjectives are of this declen- 
sion, while the masculine and neuter forms end in o : as, bona- 
f. goody b5no- masc. and neuter. 

91 N. Four words add an e to make the feminine nominative : 
quae ; haec ; istaec ; illaec. In the last three the c has nothing 
to do with the case-suffix.t 

92 N. The nominative in Greek proper names sometimes has an 
s: as, Aenea- Aeneas, N. AenSas ; but the best prose writers pre- 
fer the N. and V. in a : as, Aristagora. 

03 V. The vocative of Greek proper names sometimes has a long 
a : as, Aenea-, voc. Aenea. 

94 Ac The accusative of Greek proper names sometimes has an 
n : as, Aeuoa-, ac. Aenean ; MaiS,-, ac. MaiSn. 

95 G. The genitive has an old form in i : as, alai. 

9(5 G. The genitive sometimes takes an 5 : as, f&mllia- (fam'lia) 
a gang of slaves, an establishment of slaves, gen. f&mllias. 
* Not found. t See 289. 


97 D. The dative has an old form in i : as, alai. 

98 G. pi. The plural genitive sometimes has a short form : as, 
caellcftla- inhabitant of heaven, G. caelicolum, instead of caellco'la- 
rum ; amphora- a measure of content, G. amphSrum. And in foreign 
proper names on, as in Greek, is sometimes written instead of um. 

99 D. and Ab. pi. The dative and ablative have an old form in 
bus: as, Squa- mare, D. and Ab. gquabus. This form is often re- 
tained to distinguish the sex ; otherwise, equo- horse, and Squa- 
mare, would have the same dative and ablative plural ; so also 
dua- f. two, amba- f. both, have D. and Ab. duabus, ambabus. 

Remarks on the Second, or Declension. 

100 The Greek words Tro- a Trojan, and hero- a demigod, are de- 
clined like Greek words of the # consonant declension. 

101 If the crude form end in 8ro, the e is often dropped in those 
cases where a vowel follows the r : as, HbSro- the inner bark of a 
tree, a book, X. and V. llbSr, Ac. librum, <fec. See 124. 1. 

102 N. and Ac. The nominative and accusative prefer an o, if u 
precede, as auo- grandfather, N. &u5s, Ac. uom : otherwise 
u is preferred, as hamo- hook, N. hamus, Ac. hamum. But if 
the crude form end in quo, then cus and cum are preferred to quus 
or quos, and to quum or quom : as, Squo- horse, N. Sous, Ac. Scum ; 
antique- old, N. antlcus, Ac. anticum. 

103 N. Tn Greek words o is preferred to u : as, Delo- the island 
Delos, N. Delos. 

104 N. and V. If the crude form of a masculine noun end in ro, 
the N. and V. often drop the letters that follow r : as, llbero- 
book, N. and V. liber ; ulro- man, N. and V. ulr. 

105 N. Three nouns form the N. in 8: ipso-self, N. ipsus, more 
commonly ipsS ; isto- that near you, N. ist ; illo- yonder, N. ille. 
If nominatives so formed take after them the enclitic cS, look or 
lo, they have an i instead of an e : hence ho- this, N. h!c ; isto-, 
N. istlc; illo-, N. illlc. 

106 V. The vocative from proper names in io contracts te into I : 
as, Antonio- Antonius or Antony, V. Anton!. So gSnio- a guardian 
spirit, V. gem ; fllio- s'm, V. fill. 

107 V. Meo- mine contracts the V. into ml. 

108 V. The nominative is sometimes used as a vocative : as, Deo- 
God, N". or V. Detis. 

109 Ac. Greek proper names sometimes form the accusative with 
n : as, Delo- the island Delos, Ac. Del8n. 



110 G. and D. The following adjectives form their genitives in 
ius, their datives in I, for the masculine, feminine, and neuter, 
though some of them have occasionally the more common forms. 







quo- or 

quoius or 

quoi, cut* 
or cm 


































111 Many of these genitives in ius are found in poetry with a short 
penult, as illius ; but the genitive Sftiis (contracted from aliius) is 
always long. Altertiis with a long i is found in old writers ( Ter. 
And. iv. 1. 4 and Enn. ap. Donat. ad Ter. Ph. n. 2. 25) : in prose 
it is usual to pronounce the i short : alteriiis. 

112 G. Substantives in io contract il into i: as, otio- leisure, G. 
oti. This final i is sometimes written so as to overtop the other 
letters, as OT!. 

113 G. Greek words sometimes form the genitive in u : as, M6n- 
andSro- the poet Menander, G. Mgnandrii. 

114 D. Names of places form a dative in * with the meaning at : 
as, Mlleto- the town Miletus, D. Miletl at Miletus ; so humo- 
ground, D. hiimi on the ground ; domo- house, D. domi at home ; 
bello- war, D. belli in war : and some adjectives in certain 
phrases, as quint! die on the fifth day, &c. 

115 N. pi. The old nominative ended in e: as, oloe from olo- 
yonder, instead of illl from illo-. So also in Greek words : as, 
Adelpho- brother, N. pi. Adelphoe. 

110 1ST. pi. Deo- God has the plural N. Del, Dil, or more com- 
monly Dl ; and eo- this or that has a plural N. il, 1, or more 
commonly hi. 

117 N. and Ac. pi. Duo- two and ambo- loth have for the mas- 
culine N. du5 and ambo, Ac. duos or duo, ambos or ambo ; for 
the neut. N. and Ac. du5 and ambo. 

* Pronounced as monosyllables : cui (ki), huic (hik). 

f These words may be recollected by the following rhymes : 

ius and I from alio- altero-, I eo- and quo-, uno- and ullo-, 
solo- toto-, utero- neutSro-, I ho- isto- illo-, ipso- and nullo-. 



118 G. pi. The genitive sometimes has a short form, especially in 
numbers weights and measures : as, duo- two, G. pi. duorum or 
duum ; mo'dio- a bushel, G. pi. medium. 

119 G. pi. Greek words form the G. pi. in on : as, Georglco- be- 
longing to agriculture, G. pi. Georgicon. 

120 D. and Ab. pi. The dative and ablative of duo- and ambo- 
are in the masculine and neuter duobus, ambobiis. 

121 D. and Ab. pi. An old form of the D. and Ab. pi. is in es : 
as, oloes from olo- yonder, instead of illls from illo-. 

122 D. and Ab. pi. Deo- has in the D. and Ab. pi. Dels, Dils, or 
more commonly Dls ; and eo- has els, ils, Is, or more commonly 

123 Four neuters in o have a d in the N. and Ac. singular : quo-, 
quod ; isto-, istud ; illo-, illud ; alio-, aliiid. 

124 Ho-, isto-, illo-, when compounded with the enclitic c8, look or 
lo, take neither d nor m in the N. and Ac. neut. : as, hoc, istSc or 
istuc, illoc or illuc. 



Latin C.F. 















inner bark. 


























f ilil or fill 



















































* So our best Mss. for the best authors ; but editors in their timidity 
generally print equus, equwn. 


Remarks on the T/iird, or I Declension. 

125 Many words belong partly to the i declension, partly x> ohe 
consonant declension : as, sorti- or sort- a lot or ballot. In such 
words the singular is generally formed according to the consonant 
declension, the plural according to the i declension. (See 148. 1) 

126 Many words belong partly to the i declension, partly to the e de- 
clension : as, aede- or aedi- temple. (See 148. 1) The forms from 
e are seldom used except in the nom. and voc. But fame- or fami- 
hunger has an Ab. fame with the e long, as in the e declension. 

126. 1 N. Although neuter nominatives of this declension commonly 
end in , poti- possible has for the neuter in old writers potis, as 
well as p5tS. 

127 N. and V. If a crude form end in ri, the letters which should 
follow r are often dropped in the nom. and voc. : as, lintgri- a wherry, 
N. and V. linter ; Arari- a river in Gallia, N. and V. Ar&r or Araris. 

128 N. and V. Some adjectives ending in eri have both forms : as, 
acSri- sharp, N . and V. acer for the masculine, acris for the femi- 
nine ; but aciis is sometimes used even for the masculine. 

129 If the crude form end in &ri, the e is often dropped in those cases 
which do not end in er : as, linteri- wherry, G. lintrls. 

130 N. and V. If the crude form ends in li, the letters which should 
follow I in the N. and V. are sometimes dropped : as, vlglli- a night- 
sentinel, N. and V. vigil. This word is in origin an adjective. 

131 N. V. Ac. If the crude form of a neuter substantive end in 
dri or dli, the N". V. Ac. generally drop the final 8 and shorten the 
a : as, calcari- spur, N. V. Ac. calcar. These words are in origin 
neuter adjectives. 

132 N. and Ac. Three pronouns form the neut. sing. N. and Ac. 
in d : qui- quid ; i- Id ; ali- alld. 

133 Ac. Some few substantives are found only with the Ac. in 
im : as, vi-m force, siti-m thirst ; but em is in more general use. 
With adjectives em alone is found, as from leni- smooth, Ac. nuisc. 
and fern, lenem. 

134 Ac. Greek words often form the accusative in n : as, P&ri- 
Paris, N. Paris, Ac. Farm. 

135 G. Greek words sometimes form the gen. in os : as, m&thesi- 
knowledge, G. mS-theseos. 

136 Ab Neuter substantives (with the exception of names of 
towns) and also adjectives of all genders prefer the ablative in I : 



as, mari- sea., Ab. mSri ;* leni- smooth, Ab. lenl. But adjectives 
used as masc. or fern, substantives admit the Ab. in .- as affini- 
a relative by marriage, Ab. affinS. Participles in enti- when used 
as substantives, and also in the construction called the ablative 
absolute ( 1013), require the form in e. 
136. 1 Ac. pi. A form in eis (=ls) also occurs in inscriptions. 

137 G. pi. Some nouns drop the i in the G. pi. : as, cani- dog, 
3\WQm- young man, celeri- quick ; G. pi. canum, juvenum, celgrum. 
This is often the case in poetry : as, agresti- of the country, G. pi. 
agrestiuin, or in poetry agrestum ; and generally with those adjec- 
tives which have no neuter plural : as, Inop- helpless, G. pi. inopum. 

138 G. pi. Greek words sometimes form the G. pi. in on : as, 
metamorphosi- change of form, N. sing, metamorphosis, G. pi. 

139 G. pi. Plural names of festivals often form the G. pi. as if from 
a C.F. in io : as, Baccanali- of Bacchus, N. pi. BaccanaliS,, G. pi. 
Baccanalium or Baccanaliorum. 



Lat. C.F. 


a night- 

mas. or fern. 
relative by 

living being. 



lintri or 





uigili or 

affmi or 

animall or 

calcari or 



lintris or 

uigil es 
uigilis or 

affinis or 





* But mare as an abl. occurs in poetry after prepositions : as, e mare 
Lucr. i. 162, demure Qv. Trist. v. 2. 20. 

f Observe the omission of the i before the u. 


Remarks on the Fourth, or U Declension. 

140 Two monosyllabic nouns, su- a boar or sow, gni- a crane, are 
not contracted like the longer nouns of this declension, and are 
therefore declined as in the consonant declension ; but su- has 
both sub us and suibus in the D. and Ab. pi. 

141 Many crude forms in u coexist with crude forms in o : as, lauro- 
or lauru- laurel. Hence the genitives Senati, tiimulti, &c. as well 
as Sgnatus, tumultus, <fec. are found. See 148.1. 

142 G. From ,nu- an old woman the uncontracted Gen. anuls is 

143 G. pi. One u is sometimes omitted in the G. pi. : as, curru- 
chariot, G. pi. curruum, or in poetry currum. 

144 D. and Ab. pi. Many words change the penult u into i : as, 
cornu- horn, D. and Ab. pi. cornlbiis. 

Remarks on the Fifth, or E Declension. 

145 Many crude forms in e coexist with crude forms in a : as, 
matgria- or materie- timber. See 148. 1. 

146 G. Old forms of the genitive, such as dies and dil from die- 
day, are found. 

147 G. and D. The penult e in the G. and D. was originally long 
in all the nouns of this declension ; but if no i precede, it is consi- 
dered to be short in prose : as, from fide- faith, G. and D. fldel ; 
but from die- day, G. and D. die!. 

148 Few nouns in e have a plural, and still fewer a G. D. and 
Ab. L 




Consonant and i. 

t and e. 


urb- or 

part- or 


torqui- or 

urbi-, /. 

parti-, / 

or nube-,/. 






twisted chain. 





nubes or 

torques or 



























torque 7 













urbis or 

partis or 

nubis or 

torquis or 





















e and a. 

a and o. 

o and u. 

materia- or materie-,/ 

b5no- or bona- 

f Ico- or ficu-, /. 



mate'ries or materia 




matSriem or materiam 



-fX ' 


f ici or f Icus 

XllciuCl Id" 



materie or materia 


f Ico or f Icu 






f Ici or f Icus 







flcos or f Icus 



f Icoruni or f Icuum 



ficis or f Icubus 


ficis or f Icubus 

* Rarely partim unless used adverbially. 


149 Some nouns are not declined : as, nihll nothing, Us permitted 
by Heaven, nequam good for nothing, quSt how many, tot so many, 
many numerals. See Numerals, 252. Substantives unde- 
1 Jd are seldom used except as nominatives or accusatives. 

Some want the plural : as, senectut- old age, ver- n. spring, 
superbia-^rwfe, prole- offspring, auro- n. gold, oleo- n. oil. 

Some want the singular : as, tensbra-, N. pi. tgn-brae dark- 
ness; castro- ., N. pi. castrammp; anno- n., N. pi. armS, arms 
Puteolo-, N. pi. Puteoll Little wells, the name of a town. 
152 ^ Some have both singular and plural, but with different mean- 
ings : as, 


. . 

aedi- or aede- a room or temple, aedes a house. 

Squa- water, s quae medicinal springs. 

auxKlio-rc. help, auxtlia allied troops . 

abundance, copiae military forces. 

end > fines boundaries, territory. 

fortune, fortunae property. 

gratia- favour, gratiae thanks. 

a letter of the alphabet, llterae a letter w epistle. 

work, assistance, Spgrae labourers or Aired ie. 

153 Some nouns are deficient in one or more cases : thus, vie- turn 
has no N. or D. sing. ; 6p- help has no nominative. 

154 Some nouns form their cases partly from one crude form, partly 
from another. Thus, volgoV n. mob supplies a N. V. Ac. sing 
volgus, and volgo- n. the G. volgl, D. and Ab. volgo ; Jter- n. route 
supplies a N. V. Ac. sing, iter, and Itmer- n. the other cases ; 
praeclp- head-foremost supplies praeceps for the N. and V. sing, of 
all genders and the Ac. neut. sing., the other cases being formed 
from praeclplt- ; vas- n. a vessel is declined in the singular along 
with vaso- n. in the plural. 

155 Some nouns have one gender in the singular, another in the 
plural. Thus, 

die- day is m. or/, in the singular, but m. in the plural 
caelo- air, sky is n. m , 
freno- bridle is n. ^ or ^ 

rastro-rofc is n. j? ^ op n> 
iSco- joke ism. ?> w> or ^ ^ 
Wco- place ism. ^ or ^ 


156 Some adjectives are deficient in gender. Thus, memor- mind- 
ful pauper- earning -little, have no neuter ; victrlci- or victrlc- victo- 
rious is only fern, in the sing., only fern, or neut. m the plur. 

Some Irregular Nouns declined. 

157 B5u- ox or cow, N. V. bos, Ac. bouem, G. White, D. Wul, Ab bSue. 

PL N. V. Ac. bSues, G. bSuum or bourn, D. and Ab. bob 

158 Veo*God, N. V. Deiis, Ac. Deum, G. Dei, D. Ab. Deo. PI. N. V. 

Del, 'Dii, more commonly Dl, Ac. Deos, G. Deorum or I eum, 
D Ab. Dels, Dils, more commonly Dis. 

159 Domo- or domu-/., house, N. V. domiis, Ac. domum, G. domus, 

D domul, domo, with doml at home, Ab. d6mu or domo. PL 
N. V. domus, Ac. dSmus or d6mos, G. domuum or domorum, 
D. Ab. domlbiis. 

160 lou-plter- (= pater-) Jupiter, N. V. lupplter or lupiter, Ac. I5uem, 

G. ISuis, D. ISul, Ab. louS. 

161 lus-iurando- *., oath (really two words), N. V. Ac. msmrandum, 

G iurisiurandi, D. iurliurando, Ab. iurgiurando. 

162 Nig- or nlu- snow, N. V. nix, Ac. nluem, G. nluis, D. nXui, Abl. 

niue. PI. N. Ac. nlues, Ab. nluibfis. 

163 Re- P ublica- commonwealth (really two words), N. V. res-publlca, 

Ac. rem-publicam, G. D. rel-publicae, Ab. re-publica. PL Ac. 
res-publicas, G. rerum-publlcarum, Ab. rebus-publlcis. 

164 S6nec- or sen- an old man, N. V. senex, Ac. senem, G. sgnls, D. 

sem Ab. s6n6. PL N. V. Ac. senes, G. sgnum, D. Ab. senibus. 

165 Vlsi- uis- or m- force, N. V. uls, Ac. uim, G. uls, D. Ab. ul. PL 

N. V. Ac. uires, G. ulrium, D. Ab. uiribus. 

Some Foreign Proper Names declined. 

166 Aima- Aenea- Aeneas, N. Aeneas, V. Aenea, Ac. Aenean or -am, 

G. D. Aeneae, Ab. Aenea. 

167 Avyto-a- or - r Anchlsa- or Anchlse- Anchises, N. Anchlses, V. An- 

chlse or -a, Ac. Anchisen or -am, G. D. Anchlsae, Ab. Anchlsg 

168 Op^- Oreste- or -to- Orestes, N. Orestes, V. Orest&, Ac. Oresten 

or -em, G. D. Orestae, Ab. Oreste. 

169 M*rtpo- Menandgro- Menander, N. Mgnandros or -drus or -dgr, 


V. Menandrg or -dgr, Ac. Mgnandrifn or -drum, G. Mgnandrtt 
or -drl, D. Ab. Menandro. 

170 UavBoo- Panthoo- Panthus, K Panthus, V. Panthu, Ac. Panthun 

or Panthum, G. Panthi, D. Ab. Pantho. 

171 A0co- Atho- or Athon- (and perhaps Ath5-) Mount Athos, N. Athos, 

Ac. Athon Atho Athonem (and perhaps AthSn), G. D. Atho, 
Ab. Atho or Athong. 

172 AfiSoi- Didoi- Dido, N. V. Ac. Dido, G. Dldus, D. Ab. Dido. Also 

from Dldon- N. V. Dido, Ac. Dldonem, &c. 

173 Koo>- or K<a- Coo- the island Cos, N. Cos, Ac. Coon or Con, G. Col 

or Co, D. Ab. Coo or Co. 

174 Uapi- or Uaptd- PSri- or Parfd- Paris, K Paris, V. PSris or Parl, 

Ac. Parim or -In, Paridem or -d&, G. Paridos or -dis, D. Paridl 
or -dX, Ab. PSrldg. 

175 A^tAXe/- Achilleu- or -le- Achilles, N. Achilles, V. Achille, Ac. 

Achillen or -Ian or -lem, G. AchilleSs -lei -Us and in the best 
prose Achilll, D. Achillel or -lei or -ll, Ab. Achille. 

176 P 06f- Orpheu- or Orpheo- Orpheus, N. Orpheus, V. Orpheu, Ac. 

OrpheS, or -eum, G. Orpheos or -el or -ei or -1, D. Orphel or -ei 
or -eo, Ab. Orpheo. 

177 iXiovef- Ili5ngu- Jlioneus, N. Ilioneus, V. Ilioneu, Ac. Ilionea, G. 

Ili8ne5s or Ilionei, D. Ilionel or -ei or -eo, Ab. IliSneo. 

178 Uepo-ef- Persgu- or Perse- Perseus, like OrphSu- : but also N. 

Perses, V. Perse, Ac. Persen, G. D. Persae, Ab. Perse or -sa. 

179 2aKpaTor- Socrates- or Socr&te- Socrates, N. SocrStes, V. Socrates or 

-tes or -te, Ac. Socraten or -tern, G. Socratls or rather Socratl. 
D. Socratl, Ab. SocrSte. 

180 UepiKXeeo- Pgrlcle- Pericles, N. Pgrlcles, V. Pericles or -cle, Ac. 

Pgrlclea or -clem, G. Perlclis or rather PgrXcli, D. Pgrlcll, Ab. 

181 Ba^T- Th&let- or Th^lg- Tholes, N. ThSles, V. Thales or -le, Ac. 

Thaleta" or -tern, Thalen or -em, G. Thaletls Thails or -ll, D. 
Thaletl or Th&li, Ab. ThSletg or Thaie. 

182 A- Aty- Atys, N. Atys, V. Aty, Ac. Atyn or Atym, G. AtySs or 

Atyls or Atys, D. Atyl or Aty, Ab. Atyg or Aty. 


183 It has been already stated that there are two genders, mascu- 
line and feminine, and that those nouns which are of no gender 
are called neuter. 

184 The gender may be determined partly by the meaning, partly 
by the suffix or termination. 

Gender determined by Meaning. 

185 Males, months,* winds, and rivers, are generally masculine. 

186 Females, countries,* islands,* and trees, are generally femi- 

187 Nouns undeclined, as fas right, ngfas wrong, gummi gum; words 
belonging to the other parts of speech used for the time as substan- 
tives, as hoc ipsum * diu' this very word f diu 1 ; sentences used as 
substantives ; and the produce of trees, are generally neuter. 

188 Many substantives denote both the male and female, and are 
therefore called common : as, sacerdot- priest or priestess. These 
are for the most part really adjectives. 

189 Sometimes there are two different words or two different ter- 
minations, one for the male, the other for the female : as, tauro- 
butt, vacca- cow ; equo- horse, equa- mare. 

190 At other times the natural gender of animals is forgotten for a 
fanciful gender. Thus, the words uolpe- fox, cani- or c&ne- dog, 
Sn^t- duck, are generally considered to be feminine. On the con- 
trary, ansSr- goose, IgpSs- hare, are masculine. Those words which 
under one grammatical gender are applied to both male and female 
are called epicenes. If the real gender must be noticed, the words 
mS,s- male, and femlna-/<?mafc, are added. 

* The names for the months are really adjectives agreeing with the 
masculine noun, mensi- ' month,' understood. The names of countries and 
islands are also often adjectives agreeing with the feminine nouns, terra- 
4 land,' and insula- ' island.' So the names of ships (naui- understood) 
and plays (fabula- understood) are treated as feminines. 

Gender determined by Suffixes. 


191 The following suffixes produce masculine nouns, 
arranged alphabetically according to their last letters. 

They are 



Gives a 




Is derived 




a person 






a person 
























































a little fire. 






f rater- ciilo- 

little brother. 







\j v/ 




in tic 


cnt^ dig 


11 it Tnoer 



one ed 

































192 It would be a useful exercise to collect examples of each suffix. 
Thus, for the suffix a, from verbs, denoting a person : 

conulu-a- a messmate or guest, from c8n together and uiu- live. 

adugn-a- a stranger, 
scrib-a- a secretary, 
parrlcld-a- a parricide, 
transfug-a- a deserter, 
caellc&l-a- heaven-inhabiting, 
ignlggn-a- fire-lorn. 

M to and ugn- come. 
scrlb- write. 

pS,ter- father and caed- slay. 
trans across and fug- fly. 
caelo- sky and c61- inhabit. 
igni-_/?r and gn- produce. 

* Words of this class may perhaps be considered as common, but the 
masculine is generally meant. 
f See the neuter suffixes. 
J These are really masculine participles. 
These are often called supines. 







Gives a 




Is derived 















female stranger. 










a country 


a Gaul 


































tue- (r.) 










little breath. 







little sister. 










be spread 




















lie hid 

latg- bra- 

hiding -place. 





pat- era- 





h g - 

















































mor- (r.) 




don || 




be sweet 






ori- (r.) 














opina-(r.) fancy 
























* Literally, * a slave- gang.' 

+ Perhaps more immediately from nouns in tor, as from pictdr- 
painter,' pictura- ' painting.' 

J i. e. a substantive in tor. \\ See Appendix II. 

But -ion as a suffix of material objects is masculine, as : 

ion I verbs 




pug-ion- I dagger 
caball-ion- | hippocampus 







Gives a 




Is derived 




















men If 














act, &c 






















a little 


a very little. 




























a little work. 





royal power. 































thing done 


































it- or i- 






it- or i- 















race, birth. 




be cold 









195 The tables of suffixes here given are far from sufficient to de- 
termine the gender of all words. Indeed, some of the suffixes 

* These are really neuter adjectives, and the two suffixes are closely 
related ; pululndri- being preferred to pululnali- because the word has 
already got an /. 

f bulo and Vro are probably the same suffix, the latter being pre- 
ferred after a preceding /. See Appendix II. 

J The same may be said of culo and cVo, and perhaps fro. 

But es, as, as, us, together with er, ur, or, ur and /, are mere varie- 
ties of the same suffix. So also tner, Inos, mor, &c. are of one origin. 
Compare the last three with the Greek ' sacred ground.' 

|| More strictly eclo, the first syllable of which is the diminutival ec, 
see 207. 1. Indeed the form ecto is preserved in ulrecto- n., cdrecto- n. 

H See Appendix II. 


will bs found common to the masculine and neuter tables : as, o, 
io, ulo, Ino, ero, tSro, to. 

193. 1 Suffixes which denote an abstract quality or act are at times 
used in the sense of collective nouns, as from 

equita- ride, Squita-tu- m., a body of riders, cavalry. 

Italo- an Italian, Ital-ia- the body of Italians, Italy. 

sequ- (r.) follow, sec-ta- a body of followers, a school. 

ggn- produce, gen-ti- or gent- a race. 

multo- many, multl-tud5n- a multitude, a mob. 

18g- choose, ISg-ion- picked men, a legion. 

ciui- citizen, cml-tat- a body of citizens, a state. 

nobtii- noble, noblli-tat- a body of nobles, a nobility. 

iuueni- young, i mien-tut- a body of young men, youth. 

consul- consult, cousil-io- n., a body of persons consulting. 

196 It will be observed that a large number of substantives in a 
are feminine. But the rule is far from universal ; as may be seen 
in the masculines : Belga- a Belgian, Sulla- the Roman dictator, 
Matrona- m. the river Marne, Hadria- the Hadriatic, riauta- sailor, 
incola- inhabitant. 

197 The nouns in i occasion much trouble. The majority are femi- 
nine, but the exceptions are numerous. These may perhaps be 
remembered by the following acrostic : 

M asculml gengris crini- 
A mni-* axi- funi-* fini-* 
S enti-* denti- calli-* colli- 
C auli- fasci- fusti- folli- 
V t'ri- uent'ri- uermi- assi- 
L eni- posti- torri- cassi- 
I gni- imb'ri- pisci- ponti- 
N atali- uecti- fonti- monti- 
E nsi- mensi- pani-* orbi- 
S angui- angui-* ungui- corbi-. 

197. 1 Lat. C.F. Norn. English, 

amni- amnls river 

angui- anguis snake 

assi- as 

Lat. C.F. Norn. English. 

axi- or axis or axle or 

assi- assls pole 

calli- callis path 

* Many e'en of these, as fini-, 
Are also generis femimni. 



Lat. C.F. 



Lat. C.F. 



cassi- (pi.) 


























band of hair 






















folli- (pi.) 

















































198 Diminutives denote strictly small size, but are also used to 
denote sometimes contempt, sometimes affection. 

198.1 The gender of a diminutive is the same as that of the noun 
from which it is formed : as, fratgr- m. brother, fraterculo- m. 
little brother ; corona- f. a circular wreath or chaplet, corolla- f. a 
small chaplet ; corpSs- n. body, corpusculo- n. a small body. 

] 99 Hence the gender of a diminutive will often assist the memory 
to the gender of the primitive or word from which it is derived. 
Thus tuber-ciilo- n. a little lump proves that tubSr- lump is neuter. 

200 If the noun be of the first or second declension, that is, if it 
end in a or o, the diminutive ends in ula or ulo (older form Sla, 
$lo). Thus from Snlma- breath or life, dim. Snlmiila-. 

201 If the letter before o and a be u, e or i, olo and tila are pre- 
ferred. Thus from seruo- slave, linea- line, serudlo-, llneola- are 

202 If the letter before a and o be an r, I, or n, a contraction gene- 

* Leni- = A7?'o-, whence Lenaeus ' the God of the wine-press, Bacchus.' 
t Hence nom. sangws, ace. sangnem, Inscr. Or. 2270, 5054, the 
diminutive sangui-culo- m., and the adj. ex-sangui- 'bloodless.' Other- 
wise sanguin-^ nom. sanguis, &c. is in use. 


rally takes place producing a termination lla or llo. Thus from 
pugra- girl, foulo- eye, umo- wine, are derived (pugrela-) puella- 
f., (ocelulo-) flcello- m., (uinulo-) uillo- n. 

203 If the letter before a or o was an I, and that I was itself pre- 
ceded by a long vowel or diphthong, the diminutive ends in xilla 
or xillo. Thus ala- wing, axilla- armpit ; mala- jaw, maxilla- ; 
paulo- n. little, pauxillo- n. ; palo- m. stake, paxillo- m. ; talo- m. 
ancle, taxillo- m. ; uelo- n. sail, uexillo- n. flag.* 

204 If the noun be not of the first or second declension, the dimi- 
nutive generally ends in cula or culo (older form ctta, celo). Thus 
from cani- f. dog, fra-te'r- m. brother, ggnu- n. knee, spe- f. hope, 
are derived cS,nlcula- f., fraterculo- m., geniciilo.- n., specula- f. 

205 But if the noun end in c or g, t or d, the form ula or ulo is 
generally preferred. Thus from cornlc- f. crow, reg- m. king, 
c&put- n. head, lapld- in. stone, are derived cornlcula- f., regulo- 
m., capltulo- n., (lapldulo- contracted into) lapillo- m. 

206 If the noun end in on or 6n, the o is changed into u. Thus 
from hSmon- man, ration- f. account, are derived hSmunciilo- m., 
ratiuncula- f. 

206. 1 If the noun end in any of the five terminations os, or, os, 6"r, 8s, 
this syllable becomes us. Thus from rumos- or rumor- m. report, 
arb5s- or arbor- f. tree, opes- n. work, are derived rumusciilo- m., 
arbuscula- f., opusculo- n. 

207 These rules for forming diminutives are applicable to adjectives 
also : as, pauper- poor, pauperculo- ; mlsSro- wretched, misello- ; 
uno- one, ullo- j molli- soft, molliculo- ; paruo- little, paruolo- ; 
aureo- golden, aureSlo-. 

207. 1 Diminutives are also formed by the addition of suffixes 2c or 
ic, e or i, and w.f Thus from sen- an old man (which forms ac. 
seYiem, gen. senis, &c.) comes sen-ec- a little old man (with nom. 
snex). " Many of these diminutives have wholly superseded the 
primitives whence they were derived, so that the latter have dis- 
appeared : as, cul-go- m. gnat, clm-ec- m. lug, pul-gc- m.flea, sal-ic- 
f. willow, rad-lc- f. root, torqu-i- or torqu-e- f. twisted chain, &p-i- 
f. bee, an-u- f. old woman, ac-u- f. needle, rnan-u- f. hand, gen-u- n. 

* In these nouns a guttural has probably been lost before the /. Com p. 
pauco- 'few,' and tela- u web' from tex- ' weave.' 

f These suffixes correspond to our English suffixes ock ; ie or ee ; ew, 
ue, and ow : as seen in hillock, bullock ; lassie, knee, tree ; shrew, crew ; 
clue; sparrow, willow, crow. See Phil. Soc. vol. iii. 


207. 2 A diminutival suffix leo also occurs. Thus from Squo- or gco- 
horse, 8culeo-. So also there are Sciileo- m. a sting, mal-leo m. 
a mallet. Probably deo in hordeo- or fordeo- barley is virtually 
the same suffix, added to the root far- spelt. 

207. 3 Diminutives may be formed from diminutives : as cista- a box, 
cistula- a little box or casket, cistella- a little casket, cistelliila- a 
very little casket. So from Sculo- an eye (itself formed from an 
obsolete 5co-)* come tfcello- a little eye, and Scelliilo- a dear little 

208 The feminine diminutives in io declined like neuters, as Gly- 
cgrio- N. Gly cerium, from Glycera- /Sweet one, belong to the Greek 

209 To the same language belong the masculine diminutives in isco 
and astfro : as, Syrisco- N. Syrisciis little Syrus, paiasltastgro- a 

210 Many adjectives are used as substantives, the real substantive 
being understood. Thus : 

Medicina-, arti- art understood, the art of healing. 
Arithmetlca-, arti- art understood, the art of numbers. 
Medlcma-, taberna- shop understood, the doctor's shop. 
Agnlna-, caron-^sA understood, lamb's flesh, lamb. 
Bellona-, dea- goddess understood, the goddess of war. 
Africa-, terra- land understood, the land of the Afri. 
Annona-, copia- supply understood, the year's supply. 
CSrona-, uitta- fillet understood, circular filet, chaplet. 
Compgd-, catena- chain understood, foot-chain, fetter. 
Monica-, catena- chain understood, hand-chain, hand-cuff. 
Annali-, llbgro- book understood, year-book. 
Natali-, die- day understood, birth-day. 

De'cembgri-, mensi- month understood, the tenth month (from 
March), December. 

StStuario- m. (a man) of statues, a sculptor. 
Praetorio- n. (the place) of the praetor, the general's tent. 
Granario- n. (the place) for grain, granary. 
Oulli- n. (the place) for sheep, sheep-fold. 

210. 1 Such compounds in io as trienn-io- n. (from tri- three, anno- 
year) a space of three years, interlun-io- n. (from intSr between, 

* Compare OKK.O- or 0000- and the German auge. 



lima- moon) the time when no moon is 
neuter adjectives. 

, are probably in origin 


211 Adjectives are declined like substantives. 

212 Adjectives with crude forms in o for the masculine and neuter, 
in a for the feminine, are often called adjectives of three termina- 


Bono- m. and n., b5na- f. good. 

' Singular, 
Masc. Fern. 


N. bftnvis b5na bSnum 

F. bo'nS b5na bSnum 
Ac. b5num bonam bonum 

G. b5m bftnae b(5ni 
D. bftno bonae bono 
Ab. b5no . bona b5no 




N. boni bSnae b5na 

F. b5ni bSnae b5na 
Ac. b5nos bSnas b5na 

G. b5nomra bSnarum bSnorum 
D. b5ms bSnis btfnis 
Ab. b5ms bSnis bSnis 


Atgro- m. and n., atera- f. UacJc. 

N. ater 

F. ater 
Ac. atrum 

G. atri 
D. atro 
Ab. atro 


Fern. Neut. 

atra atrum 

atra atrum 

atram atrum 

atrae atri 

atrae atro 

atra atro 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. atri atrae atra 

F. atri atrae atra 
Ac. atros atras atra 

G. atrorum atrarum atrorum 
D. atris atris atris 
Ab. atris atris atris 


Aspgro- m. and n., aspgra- f. rough. 

F. asper 




Ac. asperum asperam aspSrum 
G. aspeii asperae asp^ii 
D. aspgro asperae aspSro 
^16.aspero aspera aspSro 

216 Adjectives with crude form in i are often called adjectives of 
two terminations. 






asperorum asperarum aspgrorum 
aspgris aspeiis aspSris 
ris asperis aspSris 





Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. tristis tristis tristS 

V. tristis tristis tristS 
Ac. tristem tristem tristS 

0. tristis tristis tristis 

D. tristi tristi tristi 

Ab. tristi tristi tristi 

Tristi- litter. 


Masc. Fern. Neut 

N. tristes tristes tristia 

F. tristes tristes tristia 
Ac. tristis or -es tristis or-es tristia 

G. tristium tristiurn tristium 
D. tristibus tristibus tristibus 
Ab. tristibus tristibus tristibus 

218 Aceri- sharp 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. acSr or acris acris acre 

F. acSr or acris acris acre 
Ac. acrem acrem acrS 

G. acris acris acris 
D. acri acri acri 
Ab. acri acri acri 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

acres acres acria 

acres acres acria 

acris or acres acris or -acres acria 

acrium acrium acrium 

acribus acribus acribus 

acribus acribus acribus 


Masc. Fern. 
N. cSlSr or celeris 

i- quick. 


V. cSleror celeris celere 

Ac. celerem celerem cele're' 

G. cele'ris celeris celeris 

D. celerl celerl celerl 

Ab. celeri celerl celerl 





F. cgleres celSres cSleria 

Ac. c8lris or cSleris or cSleria 
cSleres cSlSres 

G. celerum celerum celfirum 
D. celeribus celSribus celSribus 
Ab. cSleribus cgleribus celeribus 

219 Adjectives with one crude form in a consonant, and another in 
i 9 form the singular chiefly from the former, the plural from the 
second : as, 

Praesenti- or praesent- present. 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

praesens praesens praesens 

praesens praesens praesens 

Ac. praesentem praesentem praesens 

G. praesentis praesentis praesentis 

D. praesenti praesenti praesenti 

Ab. praesenti or -t8 praesenti or -to praesenti or -te 



N. praesentes 

F. praesentes 

Ac. praesentis or -tes 

G. praesentium 
D. praesentibus 
Ab. praesentibiis 

219. 1 Nouns in tor are often used as masculine adjectives ; nouns in 
tnci or trie as feminine adjectives, and also in the plural as neuter 

praesentis or -tes 


Victor- and u 
Masc. Fern. 
N. uictftr uictrix 
F. uictSr uictrix 
Ac. uictorem uictrlcem 
G. uictoris uictricis 
D. uictori uictrlci 
Ab. uictorg uictrlcg 

Lctrlci- or uictric- conquering. 
Mase. Fern. Neut. 
N. uictores uictrlces uictricia" 
F. uictores uictrlces uictricia 
Ac. uictores uictrlces uictricia 
G. uictorum uictncium uictricium 
D. uictoribiis uictricibus uictricibus 
Ab. uictoribus uictricibus uictricibus 

220 Adjectives with the crude form in a consonant are sometimes 
called adjectives of one termination. 

221 VetSs- old. 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 
N. uSttis uetus uSttis 

F. uetus uStiis uStus 
Ac. uSterem uStSrem uStiis 

G. ugtgris ugtgris ugteris 
D. ugtgri ugtgri uSten 
Ab. utSr or ueterS or ugtere or 

ugtSri uetgri ugteri 






N.- dmgs 

F. diuSs 
Ac. diuitem 

G. dmitis 
D. dmiti 

Diuit- rich. 



Ab. dluite or dmiti diuitg or dmiti diuitg or diuiti 




N. dmites 
V. dmites 
Ac. dmites 
Gf. dmitum 
D. dmitibus 
Ab. dmitibus 


not found. 


There is also in the poets a contracted form, dit- or dlti- ; 
whence N. m. f. dls, Ac. m. f. ditem, &c. ; but for the neuter of 
the N. V. Ac. sing, dlte, plur. dltiS. 


Tristios- or tristior- more bitter. 


N. tristiSr 
F. tristiSr 
Ac. tristiorem 
0. tristioris 
D. tristiori 
Ab. tristiorg* 

JV. tristiores 

F. tristiores 
Ac. tristiores 

G. tristiorum 
D. tristioribus 
Ab. tristioribus 







223 Adjectives whose crude form ends in a consonant rarely have 
a neuter plural. 

224 Some adjectives have a crude form in i as well as that in o or 
a: as, 

yoked-two-together or Miugi- 

cheerful hllari- 

weak imbecilli- 

unarmed ,, inermi- 

unbridled ,, infreni- 

of -one-mind 

* Seldom tristidrl. 








| -o " 
S ;g e 

^" - 





'So^j "So 2 S 


6C be bO 
S C .S 

iniilii .ii i 

Cco .otuoo 








222 ^ 

bo bo bO O 

.S S .S I 

'Sa'Sb'S) , 

"0^0 *S 'Qfa-aJ + sP'Sag I "I 

o - s '"i JS *3 *S "I 




o xi >a O a 3 = o ^ 



-2 85 -2.2 
s 5 

: . .. . 

li!lllli!i fll ^11 ti 

illltll I III 111 1 1 2 -si 


cr A 


. k 

um si.i i in 


332 3333 3 

ll.l^.sl.s.s 5 * 

*3a So fee 'SfSb'Bj tb o 'So o 


JSSI 12122 1'sS'sSS 1 



JX ^ 

See 230. 
Contracted into 
Of cru-or-, cru* 

Instead ofpro-imo-. 
See J3 231. 
These are called part 
See Appendix 11. 


226 Of these suffixes many are closely connected: as, dc and oc ; 
li, ri, and rio ; llli and beri ; estri and esti ; nco, luo, uo 9 and io, 
from verbs j oso and coso, &c. 

227 In adding the suffixes, the last vowel of the preceding word 
must not be neglected. Thus, with the suffix Ino or no, the 
following derivatives are formed : 

Roma- Rome, Roma-no- of Rome. 

porno- apple, &c. , Pomo-na- (goddess) of fruit. 

mari- sea, marl-no- of the sea. 

tribu- tribe, tribu-no- (commander) of a tribe, tribune. 

ege- (verb) want, ege-no- in want. 

228 Or, with a slight change : 

diuo- a god, (diuoino-) diuino- belonging to a god. 

ulpe'ra- a viper, (uiperaino-) ulperlno- belonging to a viper. 

229 And, lastly, since o is readily interchanged with a : 

Pompeio- Pompey, Pompeia-no- belonging to Pompey. 

230 Now, as by far the greater number of Latin nouns end in a or 
o, and the latter itself is often changed to a, the result was, that 
of the adjectives formed with the suffix ino or no, a large majority 
were found to end in ano. Hence ano was itself mistaken for a 
suffix, and from mont- mountain was formed montano- belonging 
to the mountains, &c. 

231 Again, as the nouns ending in o or a, when the suffix %no is 
added, often suffer a contraction so as to form adjectives in ino, 
and as the same termination resulted from adding the same suffix 
to nouns in i, the consequence was that Ino was mistaken for a 
suffix. Hence from ansSr- goose was formed ansSrluo- belonging 
to a goose, &c. 

232 Similarly, with the suffix li, or after a preceding I, ri are 
formed : 

ancSra- anchor, aucora-li- of the anchor. 

puella- girl, puella-ri- girl-like. 

fliiuio- river, fluuia-li- of the river. 

pflpiilo- state, p8pula-ri- of the same state. 

ciui- citizen, clul-li- like a citizen. 

tribu- tribe, trlbu-li- of the same tribe. 

fide- faith, f Ide-li- faithful. 

233 Again, of adjectives so formed, the greater number will be 


found to end in dli or dri. Hence these were mistaken for suffixes ; 
and, accordingly, from capita- head, uirgon- maid, reg- king, <fcc. 
were formed capiit-ali-, uirgin-ali-, reg-ali-. 

234 In the same way drio was supposed to be a suffix in place of 
rio, and from carbon- coal was formed carbon-ario- coal-dealer. 

235 Adjectives are also formed as follows : a. By prefixing a par- 
ticle to a substantive : as, 

from In not, genti- or gent- nature, in-genti- unnatural, immense. 
,, se apart, cord- heart, se-cord- senseless. 

,, se apart, cura- care, unconcerned. 

,, con together, muni- share, com-muni- common. 

236 b. By prefixing a substantive or adjective to a substantive : as, 
from c&pero- goat, ped-/0o, capii-ped- aoat-footed. 

[quadr-] four, ped-foot, qu.Mru-p$d- four-footed. 
centum hundred, m&im- hand, centl-mano- hundred-handed. 
magno- great, S,nlmo- mind, magn-anlmo- great-minded. 
,, mlsSro- wretched, cord- heart, mlsSrl-cord- tender-hearted. 

237 c. By prefixing a particle to an adjective : as, 
from In not, utili- useful, Xn-utili- useless. 

,, p&r thorough, magno- great, per-magno- very great. 

-pY&Q preeminently, claro- bright, prae-claro- very illustrious. 

238 d. By prefixing a substantive, adjective, or particle to a 
verb : as, 

from tuba- trumpet, can- sing, tubl-cen- trumpeter. 

,, parti- part, cap- take, partl-cep- partaking. 

caron- flesh, uora- devour, carul-uftro- flesh-eating. 
[beno-] good, gen- produce, beni-g'no-* generous. 
malo- bad, dic-t speak, mall-dico- abusive. 

de down, sed- sit, de-sid- slothful. 

c8m with, [it- obs., go] c8m-it- accompanying. 

239 Adjectives are also formed from prepositions. See the tablo 
of words derived from prepositions, 838. 

The suffixes which form the Comparatives and Superlatives are 
so much used, that they must be spoken of more at length. 
21 k The simple adjective is said to be in the positive degree : as, 
longo- or -a- long. 

* Literally well-born. f See 451. 1. 



241 The comparative degree takes the suffix ids or ior : as, long 
ios-* or long-ior- longer or more long. 

242 The superlative degree takes the suffix umo^ or imo, issumoi 
or issimo : as, long-issumo-* longest or most long. 

243 If the adjective ends in ero, $ri, or er, the superlative suffix: 
is slightly changed : as, nlgero- black, niger-rumo- blackest; llbero- 

/ra,llberrumo-; acZri- sharp, acerrumo-; celeri- quick, celerrimio-; 
pauper- poor, pauperrumo- ; ugtes- old, ugterrumo-. 

244 If the adjective ends in tti, the superlative suffix is slightly 
changed: as, facili- easy, fScil-lumo- easiest; difficlli- difficult, 
difficillumo-; gracili- slender, gracilluino- ; simtti-ft/k?, simillumo- ; 
dissimili- unlike, disslmillumo-. 

245 The following comparatives and superlatives are irregular : 
Pos. Comp. Sup. 

bSiio- good, melios- better, optiimo- best. 

malo- bad, peios- (=ped-ios-) worse, pessumo- worst. 

mag-no- great, maios- ( = mag-ios ) greater, maxiimo- greatest. 
paruo- little, minos- less, mlnumo- least, 

multo- much, plus-I n. more, pluriimo- n. most. 

multo-|| pi. many, plur- pi. more, pluriimo- 1| pi. most. 

See also the table of words derived from prepositions, 838. 

246 Sometimes one or more of the positive, comparative, and su- 
perlative are deficient : as, 

Pos. Comp. Sup. 

oc-ios- quicker, oc-isstimo- quickest. 

nequ-ios- worse, nequ-issumo- worst. 

nouo- new, nou-issiimo- newest. 

falso- false, fals-issiimo- most false. 

ingenti- immense, ingent-ios- more immense. 

desld- slothful, desld-ios- more slothful. 

iuuSni- young, iimios- younger. 

S6nios- older has no corresponding positive : see 207. 1. 

* In adding the suffixes of the comparative and superlative the vowels 
a, o, i, at the end of the crude form of the positive are discarded. 

f The forms with u are the oldest. They were used by Terence, &c., 
down to Cicero, inclusive. 

J From pie- ' full,' the root of pie-no-, is formed ple-ios- contracted 
into pious- and plus-. Compare the Greek Tr\e-ioi> and TrAe-o^. 
|| These are used in the singular in poetry. 



247 Cardinal numbers answer to the question, qu5t ? (undeclined) 
how many ? as, one, two, three, &c. ; or tSt (undecl.) so many. 

248 Ordinal numerals state the place occupied in a rank or series. 
They answer to the question quoto- or -ta- N. quStus, -ta, -turn ? 
occupying what place in the series ?* answer, first, second, third, 
&c. ; or t5to- or -ta- occupying such a place. 

249 Distributives answer to the question, quoteno- or N. pi. qu5- 
teni, -ae, -a ? how many at a time ? one at a time, two at a time, 
&c. ; or the preposition by may be used, by twos, by threes, &c. ; 
or the word each, as, two each, three each, &c. 

250 The numeral adverbs answer to the question, quotiens or 
quSties ? how often ? once, twice, thrice, four-times, &c. ; t5tiens 
or tSties so often. 

251 Roman Symbols. The symbols for 1, 10, 100, 1000, seem to 
have consisted of one, two, three, and four lines respectively : viz. 
I, X, C, M ; for the last two of which the more easily written 
symbols, C, and /<t\ or /t\, were afterwards substituted. The 
mark for 1000 seems to have suggested those for 10 000, 100 000, 
&c. viz. /?fct/^b, or ^ ^, <fec. The next step was to find sym- 
bols for the halves of these numbers, and the most easy course 
was to take the half of the symbols themselves. Thus, V, L, h 
or K, f^ or fc,, h or ^, severally denoted 5, 50, 500, 5000, 
50 000. Lastly, modern printers found it convenient to use the 
existing types for letters, to avoid the expense of new types for 
the numerical symbols. Hence, in modern Latin books, we find 
the letters I, V, X, L, C, D, M, and the inverted 0, all used in 
the representation of Latin numerals. It was probably an acci- 
dent, that of these seven letters, two were the initials of the words 
for which they stood : viz. C and M, of centum and millg.f 

* No single English word corresponds to quoto-. Such a form as 
what-th, \\kejif-th, six-th, would best suit it. 

f When a symbol of a smaller number precedes one of a greater, the 
smaller is to be subtracted, as IIX = 8, IX = 9, XXIX = 29, CD = 400. 
Further, a bar over a symbol denotes multiplication by 1000 : thus 
V = 5000. 



Masc. N. pi. 

""3 O I^H ^ 'S ZH fl lS C; ._- ^ ^ '3 S '^ "S "5 

3 |- 3 gil -3 a-isg s ts 

2 ,3 a> ^ ^ iS M o JO iS fl " " " 

55,a- CT'CT'M S o CTi p 


s a 

SS.SS-TH c 5 ^ 

w 1 t! 1 ! "8 Q. 

K 38 s 3 " 

o j s s -2 

fl. 3 .'o 

ji 3 S 




a^tj >o S >3 


! I 


.3 "3 


S bD 


a> s 

xe iS ^ 



g|ll^| e >Sg-a 

S^.S o'-^-J ^^3 S.g g 
-*jc^ ( cr l tflcoc3S* o''tj 


!> CO 







I . 

S o 



O, O 


2 * 

I S 

CJ g 

1 S 

* 4-4-1-= 


253 Cardinal Numbers. Those from quattuor to centum, both in- 
clusive, are not declined. Mili- is both substantive and adjective. 
If no smaller number accompany it, it is more commonly used as 
a substantive. Hence the phrases mille hSmlnum or mille homi- 
nes ; tria milia homlnum, tria milia trecenti hSmines. 

254 The three first numerals are declined. Uno- one makes G. 
unius, D. uni. The other cases are regular. The plural is used 
with those substantives which with a plural form have a singular 
meaning : as, N. pi. una castra one camp. 

255 Duo- dua- two is declined thus : Plur. N. duo duae du5, Ac. 
du5 or duos, duas, duo, G. duorum duarum duorum or m. f. n. 
duum, D. and Ab. duobus duabus duobus. In the same way 
is declined ambo- amba- both, except as to the quantity of 

256 Tri- three is declined regularly. 

257 Milli- or mlli- thousand is declined : Sing, for all casqs mille, 
Plur. N. V. Ac. miliS, G. milium, D. and Ab. mllibus.f 

258 From 13 to 19 there occur also dScem et tres, &c. Between 
20 and 100 there are two forms, viz. ulginti unus or unus et 
ulgintl, <fec. Above 100, the greater number precedes : as, tr8- 
centl sexaginta sex or trScenti et sexaginta sex. 

259 The practice of prefixing the smaller number to the greater 
in order to denote subtraction, as IV (one from five), IIX (two 
from ten), extended also to the names. Hence duSdeulginti, 18 ; 
undeulgintl, 19 ; duodetnginta, 28 ; undetriginta, 29 ; duSde- 
qu&draginta,, 38 ; undequadraginta, 39 ; and so on to dutfdecen- 
tum, 98 ; undecentum, 99. Series of the same kind belong to the 
ordinals, distributives and adverbs. 

260 The high numbers were chiefly required for representing 
money. Here abbreviations were found convenient. Thus mil- 
lions of sesterces were commonly denoted by adverbs alone, the 
words centena milia being omitted : as, dgciens ten times (a hun- 
dred thousand) sesterces, that is, a million sesterces ; uiciens twenty 
times &c., or two million sesterces. 

201 Ordinal Numbers. From 13 to 19 there are also sometimes 
found dgcumus tertius and decumus et tertius, <fec. Between 20 

* See Prof. Ramsay's Latin Prosody. Yet duo, Plant. Mil. iv. 9. 7. 
t A single / was preferred before the vowel i : so that from uilla- ' a 
farm' comes ultico- m. * a farm-bailiff.' 


and 100 there are two forms, uicensumus quartus or quartus et 
uicensumus, <fec. For 21, 31, 41, <fcc , units et uicensumus, una 
et uicensuma' or unetulcensuma, <fcc. frequently occur. 

262 Distributive Numerals. These are also used as cardinal num- 
bers with those nouns which with a plural form have a singular 
meaning : as, N. binae aedes two houses, binae litterae two letters 
or epistles. Duae aedes, duae litterae, would signify two temples, 
two letters of the alphabet. With uno- there could not be the same 
confusion : hence una littera, unae KttSrae, signify respectively 
one letter of the alphabet, one letter or epistle. The distributives* 
are often used by the poets for the cardinals. 

263 Adverbs. Between 20 and 100 there are three expressions : 
bis et uiciens, ulciens et bis, ulciens bis. Bis ulciens would 
mean twice twenty or forty times. 

264 There is a series formed from plica- a flat surface or fold, 
answering to quotu-plici- or -plgc-, N. quotuplex how many 
fold? viz. sim-pllci-t, du-plici-, tri-pllci-, quadru-plici-, quincu- 

pllci-, , septem-pllci-, , - , decem-pllci-, and 


265 There is a series of similar meaning, with crude form end- 
ing in plo- (to our full) and answering to quotiiplo- ? viz. sim- 

plo-, diiplo-, triple , quadruple-, quincuplo-, , septuple-, 


266 There is a series with suffix rio formed from the distributives, 

containing two, three, &c. : viz. , binario-, ternario-, qua- 

ternario-, qumario-, senario-, septenario-, octonario-, &c. 

267 There is a series with suffix no, formed from ordinal series, 
belonging to the first, second, &c. : viz. primano-, secundano-, ter- 
tiano-, &c. These terms are chiefly used to denote the legion to 
which a soldier belongs. Hence, in the higher numbers are found 
such forms in the nom. as tertia-decuma-nus, tertia-et-uicensuma- 
nus ; where the feminine form of the first part seems to be deter- 
mined by the gender of the Latin word Iggion-. 

268 Fractions are expressed by the ordinal series with parti- or 

* The distributives are also used in phrases of multiplication, as quater 
quini ' four times five men.' 

f Not from sine plica, but from an old root sim or sum ' one ;' which 
is also found in sinyulo-, simplo-, simili-, sincero-, semel, simul ; Gr. a^a, 
ovSa/j.0-, OTrAoo-; Eng. same ; Germ, sammhing, &c. 


part- part expressed or understood: as, nom. , tertia pars; f, 
tres septumae. 

269 But many shorter forms were employed. Thus, when the 
numerator is one less than the denominator : as, nom. f, duae 
partes, two parts out of three ; f , tres partes, three parts out of 
four, &c. 

270 Again, when the denominator is 12, the unit or whole being 
represented by assi-, N. as (our ace), the parts are 

Yg uncia- (our ounce and inch) 
T 2 5 or sextanti-, nom. sextans 
--% or ^ quadranti-, n. quadrans 
~5 or | trienti-, n. triens 
-JTJ quincunci-, n. quincunx 
-fir or 5 semissi-, n. semis 

^ septunci-, n. septunx 

T 8 5- or f bessi-, n. bes 

5^- or | dodranti- (from de-quadranti-) 

if or f dextanti- (from de-sextanti-) 

% de-unci-, n. deunx 

271 Fractions were also expressed by the addition or multiplication 
of other fractions : as, nom. tertiS, septuma, of |, or ^\ ; tertia et 
septuma, + 1 or ^. 

272 Mixed numbers were denoted by the Latin for the fractional 
part accompanied by that number of the ordinal series which ex- 
ceeds by unity the given whole number. Thus, nom. 3 is quadrans 
quarttis; 5, semis sextiis; 3, semis tertiiis, or rather, by con- 
traction, sestertius. The last quantity, viz. 2 1, was represented 
in symbols by adding s, the initial letter of semis, to the symbol 
for two, with a line running through the whole symbol, as in our 
own lt>, , for pounds ; thus, 4iS-. But printers have found it 
convenient to substitute the letters HS. 


273 Pronouns are, strictly speaking, substantives, adjectives, ad- 
verbs, <fec., and therefore belong to those heads of grammar ; but 
it is convenient to discuss them separately, partly because they 
SDmetimes exhibit the suffixes in a more complete, sometimes in 
a less complete form than other words belonging to the same parts 
of speech, and partly because they are so much used. 



C.F. not known,* /, &c. 

Sing. Plur. 

N. eo nos 


Ac. me nos 

G. mei nostrum or -ri 

D. mihiormi nobis 

Ab. me nobis 


C.F. tgb- thou, cv. 

Sing. Plur 

N. tu uos 

V. tu uos 

Ac. te uos 

G. tui uostrum or -ri 

D. tibi uobis 

Ab. te uobis 

276 For the pronoun of the third person, viz. he, she, it, the several 
parts of the adjective eo- or i- are used. 

277 The nominatives of these pronouns are not expressed unless 
emphatic, because the personal suffixes of the verbs already denote 
the persons. 


278 Reflective pronouns refer to the person or thing expressed in 
the nominative case. In English the word self is used for this 

279 Reflective pronouns, from their very nature, can have no no- 
minative 6r vocative. 

280 In the first and second persons, the common personal pronouns 
are used, viz. me, mel &c., te, tu! &c. For the third person the 
several cases formed from the crude form seb- self are used with- 
out any distinction for number or gender, to signify himself, her- 
self, itself, themselves. 

C.F. sSb-f self. 
Ac. se, G. sui, D. sibi, Ab. se. 

Remarks on tlie Pronouns EGO, Tu, SE. 

281 Ac. Med and ted are used by old writers, as Plautus, for me 
and te. Me, te, se, are also doubled, as meme, tgte, sese. The 
two first are rare, and only used to give emphasis. Sese is not 
uncommon. Mehe is an antiquated form for me. 

* Probably egomet (corresponding to the Sanscrit asmat), or rather 
mg%mSt. Compare too the Greek ^uer- (for typer-) of ^uercpos, implied 
also in (^/xees) r)fj.eis. 

f The same as the old English adjective sib ' related,' still preserved 
in Scotch. In Greek the form is <re^-, whence (r<f>e, aQfrcpos, &c. 


282 G. Mis and tis are antiquated forms, found in Plautus. 

283 D. Ml is rarely used in prose writers. Me, te or tlbe, sibe, 
are severally antiquated forms for mini, tibi, slbi. 

284 Ab. Med and ted are found in old writers 

285 G. pi. These are merely genitives of the possessive adjectives 
noste'ro-, uostSro-. Indeed nostrorum, uostrorum for the m ? and 
nostrarum, uostrarum for the f., are found in old writers. Vestrum, 
uestrl, with an e, are used by later writers. The genitives nostn, 
uostrl are used only in the objective sense. (See 927.) Nostrum, 
nostrum are required in partitive phrases. (See 922.) 

285. 1 D. and Ab. pi. Nis for nobls is given in Festus. 


286 The three demonstrative pronouns are adjectives, which point 
as it were with the finger to the place occupied : as, ho- this near 
me, isto- that near you, illo- that yonder. 

2S7 Illo- (older form olo-* or olio-) that yonder. 


Masc. Fern* Neut. 

N. ill! illae ilia 

Ac. illos illas ilia 

G. illorum illarum illorum 

D. illis illis illis 

Ab. illis illis illis 

288 In the same manner is declined isto- that near you.i 

289 To the three demonstratives, and to the adverbs derived from 
them, the demonstrative enclitic cS or c (look, lo) is often added 
for the sake of greater emphasis. 





XT. illS 



Ac. ilium 



G. illffis 



D. illi 



Ab. illo 




Illo- with enclitic c. 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 
N. illic illaec illoc or illuc 
Ac. illunc illanc illQc or illuc 
G. illiuscS illluscS illluscS 
D.\ illic illic illic 
Ab. illoc iliac illoc 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. illlcS illaec illaec 

Ac. illoscS illasee' illaec 

G. illorunc illarunc illorunc 

D. illiscS illisce illiscg 

Ab. illiscS illiscS illiscS 

* See 1173.1. 

f i'he Mss. often drop the t, as Hr. Ep. n. 2. 163, nempg mSdo sto. 
(See Lachmann'a Lucretius.) Istus as a nom. m. is in PI. Mil. iv. 6. 18. 
The dative illic is onlv used aaa.n adverb. 


291 In nearly all those cases which end in c, the e may be added : 
as, Ac. m. illuncS, <fec. 

292 In the same manner is declined isto- with eg, 

293 If, besides the enclitic ce, the enclitic ng whether is also added, 
the first enclitic takes the form cl throughout : as, illlclne illae- 
clng illtfclng &c. ; istlcmg istaecmg latticing &c. ; hieing haeclue 
hScmg &c. 

294 Many of the cases from ho- alone, have disappeared from the 
language, their places being supplied by those formed from ho- 
with eg. Hence in part the irregularities of the following de- 

295 Ho- this, partly with, partly without the suffix eg. 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. hlc haec hoc 

Ac. hunc hanc hoc 

G. hums hums hums 

Z).* huic huic huic 

Ab. hoc hac hoc 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. hi hae haec 

Ac. hos has haec 

Gr. horum harum horum 

D. his his his 

Ab. his his his 

296 Those cases which do not end in c, as here declined, may have 
that enclitic added: as, Gr. huiuscg; N. pi. m. hlcg, f. haec6 or 
haec ; Ac. hoscg, &c. An old N. pi. is hisce, PL Mil. m. 6. 9. 

297 An old form of the D. or Ab. pi. is hlbus. 

298 The adverbs from illo- (or olo-) are illo or illoc or illuc to yonder 
place, thither ; illim or illinc from yonder place ; illl or illic in 
yonder place, yonder, there ; ilia or iliac by yonder road, along that 
line; and olimf formerly or hereafter, in those days. See also 
Table of words derived from prepositions. 

299 The adverbs from isto- are, isto or istoc or istuc to the place 
where you are, to your part of the country ; istim or istinc from the 
place where you are; istl or istic where you are; ista or istac along 
the place or country where you are t 

300 The adverbs from ho- are, hoc or hue hither, towards me; 
hinc hence, from me, from this time ; hlc here, near me ; hac along 
this road, by me; and si (very rare), more commonly sic, so, thus, 
in this way. 

* Hlc is the form of the dative when used as an adverb, 
f Unless olim be the equivalent in form of our rjhilcm, an old dative 
of while, and signifying ' at times.' 



301 Logical pronouns refer only to the words of a sentence. To 
these belong i- or eo- this or that, and qui- or quo- which, &c. 

302 I- 0* eo-* this or that. 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 
N. Is ea id 
Ac. eum earn id 
G. eius eius eius 
D, el el el 
Ab, eo ea eo 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. ii or I or rather hi eae ea 
Ac. eos eas ea 

G. eorum earuin eoruni 

D. feis iis or is or rather his for all gen- 

Ab. \ ders. 

303 Old forms are N. h!s,t Ac. im or em, D. or Ab. pi. Ibus and 

304 The adverbs from i- or eo- are, eo to this or to that place or 
degree, thither ; indg (in compounds im or in, as exim or exin) 

from this* ,from that , thence ; Ibi in or at this , in 

that , there, then; ea along this or that line or road ; Ita" thus, 

so ; iam now, already, at last. 

305 Qui- or quo- which, what, who, any. 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N . quls or qui quae or qua quid or qu<5d 

Ac. quem quam quid or qu5d 

G. quoius or emus/or all genders 
D. quoi or cui or cm for all genders 

Ab. quo or qui 

qua or qui 

quo or qui 








quae or qua 




quae or qua 





D. Ab. quibus or quisyb/' all genders. 

* An older C.F. was in, whence in-d$ adv. * from this place.' Com- 
pare the Greek ev-6ev, as illustrated by oiKo-Oev, e^e-Oev. 

f Fest .sub voce ' Muger.' 

J For the blanks insert time, place, $c., as it may be. 

An older C.F. was quin or cun, whence un-dS (for ctinde, compare 
sl-cunde) ' from what place.' 



306 Of the double forms, qul N. and quSd are adjectives ; quls 
commonly a substantive, rarely an adjective ; quid a substantive 

307 Qui- or quo- is called a relative when it refers to a preceding 

word, as, the person who , the thing which , the knife with 

which 9 & c . To the relative belong all the forms except quis 

quS, and quid. 

308 It is called a direct interrogative when it asks a question, as, 
who did it ? and an indirect interrogative when it only speaks of 
a question, as, we do not know who did it. To the interrogative 
belong all the forms, except qua. 

309 It is said to be used indefinitely when it signifies any. In this 
case it is placed after some word to which it belongs ; very com- 
monly after si, ne, num, ec, Sli. All the forms are used in this 
sense, but qua is more common than quae. 

310 N. Ac. Quis and quern in old writers are sometimes feminine. 

311 G. D. Quoius and quoi are older than the other forms. They 
appear to have been used by Cicero. An old genitive cul occurs 
in the word cul-cul-m5dl of whatever kind. 

312 Ab. Qul is the older form, and is only used by the later 
writers in particular phrases : as, 1. qulcum = quocum m. or n. ; 
2. without a substantive in the sense wherewith; 3. as an in- 
terrogative, by what means, how? 

313 N. pi. Ques is a very old form. 

314 D. and Ab. pi. Quls, sometimes written queis, is the older 
form of the two. 

315 The adverbs from quo- or qui- are, quo whither, to what ; 

unde (formerly cundg) from what , whence; iibi (formerly 

ciibi) in what , where, when ; qua along what road or line, &c. 

316 The conjunctions from quo- or qui- are, quoin quum or cum 
when; quando when; quam how; quare (qua re) quur or car 

' ; ut (formerly cut) or tttl how, that, as ; quod that, because, <fcc. 


317 The following adjectives are derived from quo- or qui- : quanto- 
how great; quali- like what, of what kind; quot (undeclined) how 
many (whence quotiens how often)', quo" to- occupying what place 
in a series. 

318 From an old root, to- this, are derived the adjectives, tanto- so 
great; tali- like this, of this kind; t5t (undecl.) so many (whence 


ttftiens so often) ; tSto- occupying this place; also the adverbs tnm 
so ; turn or (with the enclitic eg) tune then. 

319 Of pronominal origin are, nam thus or for, and num now 
(Greek wv), an old word still used in gtiam-num even now, still, 
and in nudius tertiiis now the third day, two days ago. In com- 
mon use the enclitic ce is always added, as, nunc now. 

320 Ali is prefixed to many of the relative forms : as, aliqui- any, 
some (emphatic), declined like qui- any ; N. n. allquantum some, 
a considerable quantity ; allqu5t (undeclined) some, a considerable 
number, &c. 

321 EC is prefixed: as, ecqui- &c. whether any? ecquando whether 
at any time ? 

322 Hum whether, si if, ne not, are also prefixed : as, numqui- 

9 whether any, siqui- if any, nequi- lest any. N. numquis, slquls, 
nequis, &c. 

323 Of the adverbs formed from aliqui-, nequi-, numqui-, slqui-, 
many take the old initial c, as all-cubi, Sll-cunde', &c. 

324 Vtero- (originally cu-tero-) generally an interrogative, which 
of the two ? and sometimes a relative, he of the two, who ; and after 
si, either, as, si ut^ro- if either has G-. utrlus, D. tttrl. Hence 
neute'ro- N. neuter, <fec. (formerly ne-cut6r) neither.* 

325 Ipso- ipsa- self, very, is declined, N. ipsiis or ipsS ipsS, ipsum, 
Ac. ipsum ipsam ipsum, and the rest like illo-. 

326 The N. ipsus is found only in old writers, as Terence. Apse" 
or 'pse undeclined is sometimes found in old writers instead of 
the proper case of ipso- : as, re-apse for re-ipsa, eampse for earn 
ipsam, <fec. 

327 Alio- one, another, has Gr. alms, D. a"lil, and N. and Ac. neut. 
sing, aliiid, and the rest like illo-. From a crude form Sli- are 
derived the old N. m. f. alls, n. alld, and the adverbs alibi else- 
where, Sllt8r otherwise. 

* The plural of those words which have the suffix tero must be care- 
fully distinguished from the singular. Thus, 

N. sing, uter which of the two individuals. 

N. pi. utrl which of the two classes, parties, nations, armies, &c. 

N. sing, alter one of the two individuals. 

X. pi. alien one of the two classes, parties, nations, armies, &c. 

N. sing, uterquehoih of the two individuals. 

N. pi. utrlquS both of the two classes, parties, nations, armies, & c. 

N. sing, neuter neither of the two individuals. 

X. pi. neutri neither of the two classes, parties, nations, armies, &c. 



328 When alio- is used in- two following sentences, it is translated 

by one f another ; or some , others : as, alius 

rldet, alius lacriimat one laughs, another cries ; S,lios caedit, alios 
dmrittlt he kills some, and lets others go. 

329 When alio- is used twice in the same sentence, that sentence is 
commonly translated twice over : as, aliud alio tempore one thing 
at one time, another at another ; or by each other : as, alii aliis pro- 
sunt they do good to each other. 

330 Altero- (from ali-) one of two, another of two, the second, has G. 
alteriiis, D. altgr! ; but altgrlus occurs in poetry.* 

331 When altero- is used in two following sentences, it is trans- 
lated by the one , the other : as, alter rldet, alter lacriimat 

the one laughs, the other cries. 

332 When altero- is used twice in the same sentence, it is com- 
monly translated by each other : as, alter alterum uoluerat each 
wounds tJie other. 

333 As ali- and qui- form allqui-, so from altgro- and iitero- is 
formed alter-utero- one of the two, which is declined in both parts ; 
but elision generally takes place if the first part end in a vowel or 
m : as, N. alterutgr altgr'iitra altgr'utrum &c., but G. altgrius- 

334 Ullo- any (a diminutive from uno- one) has G. ulllus, D. ulll 
<fec. It is accompanied by a substantive, and is used only in nega- 
tive sentences. Hence nullo- none, declined like ullo-. 

335 Many enclitics are added to the pronouns to give emphasis to 
them: viz. 

336 Quidem : as, gquldem, for egS quldem I at least. 

337 Met : as, ggSmet / myself ; uosmgt you yourselves. It is com- 
monly followed by ipse : as, suisme't ipsl praesldils they themselves 
with their own troops. 

338 Te, only with the nominative tu : as, tutS thou thyself. 

339 C8, only with the demonstrative pronouns. See 28G-300. 

340 PotS : as, ut-pote inasmuch as, as. 

341 Ptg, in certain old forms : as, mihiptS, meptS ; and above all 
with the ablatives, meoptS, meapte, suoptS, suapte, <fec. 

342 Dem, with the pronoun i- or eo- : as, i-dem the same. The 
N. m. drops the s, but leaves the vowel long ; the N. and Ac. 
neut. take no d, and have the vowel short. In the Ac. sing, and 

* See note p. 54. 


G. pi. the final m becomes n before d. Thus, N. idem ea-dem 
Idem, Ac. eun-dem ean-dem Idem &c. So also with t5t, t5ti- 
dem (undecl.) precisely as many ; and with tanto-, N. m. tantus- 
dem, &c. of the same magnitude. 

343 Dam, with quo- or qui-. N. qui-dam quse-dam quid-dam or 
quod-dam, Ac. quen-dam quan-dam quid-dam or quod-dam <foc. 
a certain person or thing. It is used when a person cannot or 
will not state whom or what he means, and often serves to soften 
adjectives which would express too much: as, dlvlnS, quaedam 
eloquentici a certain godlike eloquence, a sort of godlike eloquence, 
I had almost said a godlike eloquence. From quidam is derived 
quondam at some former or future time, formerly, hereafter. 

344 Quam, with quo- or qui- : as, N. quisquam quaequam quid- 
quam or quicquam <fec. any, in negative sentences. It is Cvm- 

monly used without a substantive. See ullo- above. From quisquam 
are formed the adverbs umquam or unquam (originally cumquam) 
ever ; from whence nunquam never, ne-qulquam in vain, haudqua- 
quam in no way, l>y no means, neutiquam or rather nutlquam in 
no way, by no means, usquam any where, nusquam no where. 

345 Piam (probably another form of preceding suffix), with quo- 
or qui- : as, N. quispiam quaepiam quidpiam or quodpiam &c. any 
(emphatic). .From qui-piam comes the adverb uspiam any where. 

346 Nam : as, N. quisnam or qulnam quaenam quidnam or quod- 
iiam &c. who, which ? in interrogations (emphatic) ; and N. uter- 
nam which of the two? in interrogations (emphatic). 

347 Quo (this enclitic is probably a corruption of the relative 
itself) : as, N. quisquS quaequS quidque or quodquS &c. every, 
each ; whence the adverbs iibique' every where, undlquS/rora every 
side, iitlquS any how, at any rate, usque 7 every step, every moment; 
also N. uterquS utr&quS utrumquS each of two, both. 

348 Quisque in old writers is used in the same sense as quicunque. 

349 Quisque is generally placed 1. after relatives and relative 
conjunctions : as, ut quisquS uenit as each arrived ; 2. after reflec- 
tive pronouns : as, pro se quisquS each for himself ; 3. after super- 
latives and ordinal numerals : as, optumus quisquS all the best 
men, dScumus quisqug every tenth man, quStus quisquS 2 (every 
how manyet ) how few? 

350 Cumqug or cunquS (an old variety of quisque') : as, N". qui- 
cunque quaecunquS quodcunquS <fec. whoever, whosoever, whichever, 
whatever: so also N. utercunqug utr&cunquS iitrumcunquS etc. 


whichever of the two ; N. m. quantuscunque" <fec. how great soever, 
quandocunquS whensoever &c. CunquS may be separated from the 
other word : as, qui me cunque uldit whoever saw me. QuicunquS 
is rarely used as an indefinite, any whatever. 

351 Vis (thou wishest, from uol- wish) : as, N. qululs quaeuis quid- 
uls or quoduis <fec. any one you please (the best or the worst), a 
universal affirmative ; whence quamuls as muck as you please, no 

matter how , though ever so ; and literals iitrauis utrum- 

uls whichever of the two you please. 

352 Liibet or libet (it pleaseth) : as, N. m. qullubet <fec. any one you 
please ; and N. m. uterliibet &c. whichever of the two you please. 

353 Relative forms are often doubled. Thus, qui- doubled : as, N". 
m. quisquis,* n. quidquld or quicquid whoever, no matter who; 
whence cuicuimodl, a genitive, of whatever Krcc?,and quoquo mSdo 
in any way whatever. 

355 Quanto- doubled: as, N. m. quantusquantus &c. how great 
soever, no matter how great. 

356 Quali- doubled : as, N. m. qualisqualis &c. whatever-liJce, no 
matter what-UTce. 

357 Quot doubled : as, quotqu5t (undeclined) how many soever, 
no matter how many. 

358 So also there are the doubled adverbs or conjunctions : quam- 
quam however, no matter how, although, and yet ; iitut however ; 
no matter how; quoquo whithersoever; undeunde whencesoever ; 
ubiubi wheresoever ; quaqua along whatsoever road. 


359 Meo- mea- mine, my. 

Tuo- tua- thine, thy, your, yours (referring to one person). 
Suo- sua- his, hers, her ; its ; theirs, their. 
Nostero- nostSra- ours, our ; N. noster nostra nostrum &c. 
Vostgro- uostera- or uestero- uestera- yours, your (referring to 
more than one) ; N. uoster uostra uostrum &c. 
Cuio- cuia- whose. 

360 These are all declined regularly, except that the m. V. of meo- 
is ml. 

361 Suo- is a reflective pronoun, and can only be used when it re- 
fers to the nominative (see 280). In other cases his, her or its 
must be translated by the genitive eius from i-, and their by the 
genitive eorum or earum. 

* NO snecial form for the feminine in use. 


362 The adjective cuio- is rarely met with, the genitives cuius, 
quorum, quarum, being used in its place. 

363 The possessive pronouns, if not emphatic, are placed after the 
noun they belong to. If they are emphatic, they are placed before it. 

364 From the possessive pronouns are derived : 

Nostrati- or nostrat-, N. nostras of our country. 
Vostrati- or uostrat-, N. uostras of your country. 
Cuiati- or cuiat-, N. cuias of whose country. 

365 Formed in the same way are inftimati- belonging to the loicest, 
summati- belonging to the highest. All these are declined like 
Arplnati- or Arplnat- belonging to Arpinum. 



Ending in 

bi or I, dat. 

o (=om) ace. 

dg( = 6 w) 
old gen. 

a, abl. fern. 





along what 



ho,t hoc 3 t hue 




isti, istic 

isto, istoc,t istuc 

istim, istinc 

ista, istac 


ilh, illic 

illo, illoc,: iUuc 

illim, illinc 

ilia, iliac 

i- or eo- 





i- or eo- + dem 





qui- or quo- 























ali- + qui- or quo- 





si + qui- &c. 





' ne + qui- &c. 





uum + qui- &c. 



qui- doubled 





qui- or quo- + uls 
qui- &c. + liibet 





qui- &c. + qug 




HtSro- + qu6 





qui- <fcc. + quam 



qui- &c. + nam 




* See 790. 

f Occurring in horsum for ho-uorsum ' hitherwards. 
J Less used than the other forms 
Occurring in altro-uorsiis ' towards the other side.' 
|| Virtually occurring in allrinsecus ' from the other side.' 
IT In quoqueuorsus ' in every direction.' 
** in nequdquam and haudqudquam 'in no way, by no means.' 


367 An active verb denotes action, that is, movement : as, caed- 
fell, cut or strike, cur- run. 

308 The person (or thing) from whom the action proceeds is called 
the nominative to the verb. 

309 The object to which the action is directed is called the accusa- 
tive after the verb. 

370 A verb which admits a nominative is called personal : as, caed- 
striJce ; whence uir caedit the man strikes. 

371 A verb which does not admit a nominative is called impersonal : 
as, tona- thunder ; whence tonat it thunders. 

372 A transitive verb is one which admits an object or accusative 
after it : as, caedit pugrum he strikes the boy. 

373 An intransitive verb is one which does not admit an accusative : 
as, cur- run ; whence currlt he runs. 

374 The object of a transitive verb may be the agent himself: as, 
caedo m6 I strike myself, caedis te you strike yourself, caedit se he 
strikes himself, &c. A verb is then said to be used as a reflective. 

375 In Latin a reflective suffix is added to a transitive verb, so as 
to give it the reflective sense : as, uerto I turn, uertor I turn my- 
self ; uertis you turn, uertSrls you turn yourself ; uertlt he turns, 
uertltur he turns himself. 

376 A reflective verb then denotes an action upon oneself, and in 
Latin is conjugated in the imperfect tenses with a suffix s or r.* 
It will be denoted by an r between brackets : as, uert-(r.) turn 

377 The perfect tenses of a reflective verb are supplied by the verbs 
6s- and fu- be, united with the participle in to-. 

378 An intransitive verb is generally in meaning reflective : as, 
ciir- run i. e. put oneself in a certain rapid motion, ambula- walk 

* This suffix is no doubt the pronoun se ' self,' which, as it is not limited 
in number and gender, was probably at first not limited in person. In 
some of the Slavonic languages the same pronoun is actually applied to 
all the persons ; and in the Lithuanian the reflective verb is formed from 
the simple verb through all the persons by the addition of s. The inter- 
change of s and r has been seen already in the nouns; another example 
presents itself in nerter-ts, which is formed from iterfts, precisely as the 
gen. puluer-is from the C.F. pulitis, and the old pi. gen. nucer-um (see 
80) from the sing. gen. nucis. So also lapiderum, regerum (Charisius. 
p. 40 P. tech.), bouerum ,Cato R. R. 62). 



i. e. put oneself in a certain moderate motion ; but as the object in 
these cases cannot easily be mistaken, no reflective pronoun or 
suffix is added. 

379 When the source of an action (i. e. the nominative) is not 
known, or it is thought not desirable to mention it, it is common 
to say that the action proceeds from the object itself. A reflective 
so used is called a passive : thus uertltur, literally, he turns him- 
self, is often used for he is turned.* 

380 This passive use of a verb with a reflective suffix is more 
common than the proper reflective use. 

381 The nominative to the passive verb is the same as the accusa- 
tive after the transitive verb, caedunt puerum they strike the boy, 
or caedltur puer the boy is struck. 

382 Hence passive verbs can be formed only from transitives. 

383 An impersonal passive verb however is formed from intransi- 
tivesf : as, from noce- do damage, ntfcetur damage is done; from 
resist- stand in opposition, offer resistance, resistitur resistance is 
offered. When the intransitive verb can be thus expressed by an 
English verb and substantive, the passive impersonal may be trans- 
lated by what is also strictly impersonal, the person who does the 
damage, or offers the resistance, <fec. not being mentioned. At 
times this is impracticable, and it is necessary to use the word 
they or people with the active, as from i- go, ittir they go. 

384 Transitive verbs also may form a passive impersonal : as, from 
die- say, diciturj they say ; but in this case the words of the sen- 
tence that follow dlcitiir may perhaps be considered as a nomina- 
tive to it. See Syntax, 1240. 

* Many European languages will afford examples of this strange use 
of the reflective; as the German: Das versteht sich vort selbst, 'that is 
understood of itself;' the French: Le corps se trouva, 'the body was 
found ;' the Italian : Si loda Vuomo modesto, ' the modest man is praised ;' 
the Spanish : Las aguas se secaron, ' the waters were dried up.' There 
is something like this in our own language : the chair (jot broken in the 
scuffle. Nay, children may often be heard to use such a phrase as the 
chair broke itself. 

f Where the action of an intransitive verb is to be expressed without 
mentioning the nominative, the artifice of supposing the action to proceed 
from the object is of course impracticable, because an intransitive verb 
has no object. Here a second artifice is adopted, and the action is sup- 
posed to proceed from itself ; thus, nocetur, literally translated, is * damage 
does itself.' 

J In Italian, si dice ; in Spanish, se dize. In German it is expressed 
by man sayt, 'man says;' from which the French have literally translated 
their on dit, originally horn dit. 


385 A static verb denotes a state : as, 6s- be, dormi- sleep, iace- lie, 
uiglla- be awake, m6tu-/mr. 

386 Static verbs generally end in e, by which they are sometimes 
distinguished from active verbs of nearly the same form and 
meaning: as, 

iac- or iaci- throw, iace- lie. 

pend- hang or *M*pn</, pende- hang or 5<? suspended. 

sld- (side-re) a%A* or *w, sede- sit or fe smted. 

cap- or capi- tafc, h ^be- hold or Aat*. 
possld- enter upon possession, posslde- possess. 

feru- boil, ferue- fo Miny /ictf. 

[cand- set on fire], cande- Jta, & cale- fo Ac*, 

tend- stretch, strain, tene- hold tight. 

alba- whiten, albe- be white. 

387 A static imperfect is nearly equivalent to the perfect of an 
active : as, possedlt Ae 7is taken possession, and possldet A<J pos- 
sesses or is i?i possession; possederat he had taken possession, and 
possidebat he possessed or was in possession; possederit he will 
have taken possession, and possidebit he will possess or be in pos- 


388 Hence many static verbs in e have no perfect ; and even in 
those which appear to have one, the perfect by its meaning seems 
to belong to an active verb. Thus frige- be cold is said to have 
a perfect frix-. The compound rSfrixit does exist, but not with 
a static meaning : thus uinum rgfrixit the wine got or has got 
cold again. The form of the perfect itself implies a present re- 
frig-, not refrlge-. 

389 Hence two perfects from active verbs are translated as static 
imperfects : as, gno- or gno-sc- examine, whence perf. gnouit he 
has examined or he knows, gnougrat he had examined or he knew; 
consue- or consuesc- acquire a habit or accustom oneself, whence 
perf. consueuit he has acquired the habit or is accustomed, consue- 
uerat he had acquired the habit or was accustomed. 

390 Two verbs have only the perfect in use, and these translated 
by English imperfects of static meaning, viz. od-*, memln-, whence 
odit he hates, oderat he hated, odgrlt he will hate; mgmlnit he 

* These imply an imperfect crude form U- or odi- ' take an aversion 
to,' whence odio- sb. n. hatred ;' and men- 'mind' or ' notice,' whence the 
sb. f. men-ti- or ment- ' mind.' 

62 , VERBS. 

remembers, mSmlngrat he remembered, memlngiit he will remem- 

391 Static verbs are for the most part intransitive ; but some are 
transitive, as those which denote possession, habe- hold, tgne- hold 
tight, keep, posslde- possess, sci- know ; and verbs of feeling, as, 
ama- love, time- fear. 


392 A static intransitive has sometimes a reflective or passive per- 
fect. Such a verb is commonly called a Neuter -Passive : as, 



Pres. Spers. 

Perf. 3 pers. masc. 




ausus est. 




gauisus est. 




f isus est. 


be wont, 


solitus est. 

393 To the same class belong several impersonal verbs of feeling, 
&c. : viz. 

mlsSre- denoting pity, mlsSret mlsgrltum or mfsertum est. 

piide- shame, pudet puduit or pudltum est. 

plge- ,, reluctance, plget plguit or plgltum est. 

taede- ,, weariness, taedet taeduit or per-taesum est. 

lube- pleasure, lubet liibuit or lubltum est. 

pl&ce- approbation, placet placuit or pl^citum est. 

lice- ,, permission, licet Hcuit or llcltum est. 

394 Some transitive verbs are used without a reflective pronoun or 
suffix, yet with a reflective or intransitive meaning : as, fortunS, 
MQri^r^i fortune had turned i.e. had turned herself. In these cases 
the pronouns me, te, se &c. are said to be understood. 

395 This use of a transitive form with a reflective or intransitive 
meaning is more common in the perfect tenses : as, rguortitur he 
returns, rguortebatur he was returning, rguortetur he will return; 
but reuertit he has returned, rguertgrat he had returned, rSuertgrlt 
he will have returned. So deuortltur he turns out of the road into 
an inn, but deuertit (perf.) he has done so ; planglttir he beats him- 
self, but planxit he has beaten himself. 

396 Some of the principal verbs which are thus used with both 
a transitive, and reflective or intransitive meaning, are the fol- 
lowing : 


Lat. Trans. 
in Sue- move, 
auge- increase, 

muta- change, 
sta- set up, 

get loose. 

put in violent rush, 




keep away, 

beat oneself, 

wash. abstine- 

change. remit- 

stand. suppSdlta- keep filling up, abound. 

praecipIta-ZArow headlong, rush head- 

397 In some verbs the transitive meaning, though originally be- 
longing to the word, has become nearly or quite obsolete, as in 
prSpera- hasten, trans, or in trans., propinqua- make near or ap- 

398 The reflective form seems to have been originally given to some 
verbs to denote reciprocal action : as, 

amplect-imiir we embrace each other. 

conulcia-mur we abuse each other. 

fabula-mur we talk together. 

loqu-imiir we talk together. 

lucta-mur we wrestle together. 

oscula-mur we kiss each other. 



we share together. 
r 'we fight each other, 
we snarl at each other, 
we comfort each other, 
we cast lots together, 
we kiss each other. 

399 Many reflective verbs are translated by an English intransitive : 
as, pr5flc-isc- (r.) set out, laeta- (r.) rejoice, which have still a re- 
flective sense. These are called Intransitive Deponents. 

400 Many reflective verbs have so far thrown off the reflective 
meaning, that they are translated by an English transitive and 
take a new accusative : as, mira- (r.) admire, ugre- (r.) fear, am- 
plect- (r.) embrace, indu- (r.) clothe oneself, put on, sgqu- (r.) follow, 
Imita- (r.) make onself like, imitate. These are called Transitive 

401 Some intransitive verbs, by a slight change of meaning, are 
used transitively : as, from horre- bristle or shudder, horret t6n6- 
bras he dreads the dark; m&ne- wait, mSnet aduentum ems he awaits 
his arrival; Sle- smell, 51et unguenta he smells of perfumes. This 

* It is in this way that ft-, only a shortened form of fad-, first sig- 
nified 'make myself,' and then 'become' or 'am made.' It is indeed pro- 
bable that the c in J 'ado was not always pronounced. This would account 
for its disappearance in the Italian infinitive fare and French faire; and 
would also account for the fact that./? is commonly long before a vowel, 
as/i-o ' I am made,' for/ai-o. 

64 VERBS. 

is particularly the case with some neuter pronouns : as, from 
labora- labour , id l&borat he is labouring at this. (See 909.) 

402 Intransitive verbs may have an accusative of a noun which has 
the same meaning : as, uitam iucundam uluit he is living a de- 
lightful life. This is called the Cognate Accusative ( 894). 

403 Intransitive verbs when compounded sometimes become transi- 
tive : as, ufid-* go, euad- go out, escape; whence euadgre peri- 
ciilo or ex perlculo to make one's way out of danger, or guadSre 
periculum to' escape danger ; ueni- come, conueni- come toge- 
ther, meet; whence conuenire Sliquem to meet one, to go and see 
a person; grad- or gradi- (r.) march, egrgd- or egredi- (r.) 
march out, leave; whence egredi urbg or ex urbg to march out of 
the city, or egredi urbem to leave the city. 

404 Some transitive verbs when compounded take a new transitive 
sense, nearly allied to the original meaning, and thus have a double 
construction : as, da- put, circumda- put round or surround ; 
whence circumdare murum urbl to throw a wall round the city, or 
circumdare urbem muro to surround the city with a wall ; 
ser- sow or plant, inser- plant in, graft ; whence inse're're' plrum 
orno (dat.) to graft a pear on a wild ash, or inserere ornum piro 
(abl.) to engraft a wild ash with a pear; du- put, indu- put 
on, clothe ; indue're uestem Slicu! to put a dress on one, or indue're 
Sllquem uestg to clothe one with a dress. 

405 The verb then has two forms or voices : the simple voice (com- 
monly called the active), which does not take the reflective suf- 
fix; the reflective voice (commonly called the passive), which does 
take it. 


406 In English the pronouns I, you or thou, he, she, it, &c. are 
prefixed to a verb. In Latin, as in Greek, little syllables with the 
same meaning are attached to the end of a verb so as to form one 
word with it. 

407 The Greek verb in its oldest shape formed from the pronouns 
me- me, su- or tu- thou, and to- this, the three suffixes ml, si, tl, 
or, with a short vowel prefixed, 6ml, <M, etl.^ Now the Latin lan- 
guage has its personal suffixes not unlike these : viz. dm, Is, It. 

* See 451.1. 

f Compare the old verb 6t/ (e<r-/Ki), eo--<rt, e<r-n, with the old reflec- 
tive verb Tt/TTT-o/i-ot, rvirr-eff-ai, 

VERBS. 65 

408 The suffix dm, belonging to the first person, is but little altered 
in sum (=gs-urn) I am, or in inqu-am* I say. 

409 More commonly the suffix om undergoes one of two changes. 
Either the m is lost, as, scrlb-o / write, for scrlb'omf ; or, if a 
vowel precede, the o sometimes disappears, leaving the m, as, 
scrlbeba'm / was writing. 

410 The final o of the first person is always long in Virgilt, but 
common in later poets. 

411 The suffixes of the second person, te, and of the third person, 
It, also lose their vowel, if the verb itself end in one. Thus, 
scrlb-Is you write, and scrib-it he writes ; but scrlbeba's you were 
writing, Sra's you plough, scrlbeba't he was writing, Sra't he 
ploughs. So also the t is lost in fers you bring, fert he brings ; es 
(for Ss-Xs) you are, est he is ; and uolt he wishes. 

412 When the suffix tt thus loses its vowel by contraction, as, 
&ra-Xt, rat he ploughs, it might be expected that the syllable 
would be long ; but it is in fact nearly always short. Still in the 
reflective the right quantity is preserved, scrlbebat-iir, S,rat-ur; 
and the old poets, including even Virgil, have examples of a long 
quantity in such words as versat, augeat, accldet. 

413 The form of the second person suffix in the perfect is tl for tu : 
as, sci ipsis-tl you have written. 

414 The suffixes of plurality for the nouns were s and um. (See 
52.) Those employed for the verbs are nearly the same. 

415 From time and s is formed the double suffix times ' we' for the 
old Greek verb. The old Latin prefers umiis, as in u51-umtis we 
wish, sumus (=Ss-umiis) we are, quaes-umus we ask. Commonly 
fonus is written, as scrib-imus we write.\\ 

* The English language still retains a trace of the first person suffix 
in the verb am. See also 1158. 1, note -t, about sciain, 

f See the adverbs of motion towards, where om final is similarly 
reduced to o. 

Spondeo and nescio appear to have a short o in Virgil, but in reality 
are to be considered as words of two syllables, spondo or spondyo and 
nescyo. Scio in Italian has become so. 

The English language still retains its suffix of the second person 
est, and of the third person eth or s, as in sendest and sendeth or sends. 

II See the same interchange of un us and imus in the superlatives 
( 242), and in the ordinal numerals ( 252). Nay the Emperor Au- 
gustus wrote simus (i.e. simus) for sumus in the indicative. 


416 The % is lost after a vowel : as, scribeba-miis we were writing, 
a>a-mus we plough. 

417 From tu or ti and s is formed the double suffix tis 'you' (pi.) j 
or, with a short vowel prefixed, ttfe: as, scrib-Itis you (pi.) write. 

418 The prefixed i is lost after a vowel : as, sorlbeba-tls you (pi.) 
were writing, ara-tls yow (pi.) plough. So also in es-tis you are, 
fer-tls you briny, and uol-tis you wish. 

419 The syllable attached to the verb to form the third person 
plural is unt : as, scrib-uut they write. 

420 The u is always lost if the verb end in a or e, and sometimes 
if it end in i. Thus, scrlbeba-nt they were writing, scrlbe-nt they 
will write, scripseri-nt they will have written ; but audi-unt they 

421 In the imperative mood the suffixes of the second person sin- 
gular and plural change the & into , and tils into lt& : as, scrib-e 
and scrlb-itS write, scribito-tS ye shall write.* 

422 The final e is lost after a vowel : as, &ra plough ; also in fSr 
bring, fac make, die say, due lead, es be. 

MOODS, <fec. 

423 The indicative mood is used for the main verb of a sentence, 
whether it be affirmative, negative, or interrogative. It is also 
used in some secondary sentences. 

The indicative mood has no special suffix. 

424 The imperative mood commands. Its suffix in the future tense 
is the syllable to or ito : as, scrib-ito thou shalt write. 

426 The two tenses of the imperative are commonly united as one. 

427 The subjunctive mood, as its name implies, is used in second- 
ary sentences subjoined to the main verb. 

428 In some sentences it is not uncommon to omit the main verb, 
and then the subjunctive mood seems to signify power, permission, 
duty, wisli, purpose, result, allegation, hypothesis; whereas in fact 
these notions rather belong to the verb which is not expressed. 
Thus the phrase, Quid faciam 1 is translated by What should I 
do ? or What ami to do ? But the full phrase is Quid uis f&ciam 1 
What do you wish me to do f 

* So in the Greek, even the indicative has rvirrere for rinrrfris. 
Compare also the double fora s trisfa and triste, magis and mage* and 
above all the second persons of reflective verbs: uideris, uidere ; uiiie- 
barts, uidebare, &c. 

VERBS. 67 

429 The suffix of the subjunctive mood cannot be easily separated 
from those of the subjunctive tenses. 

430 The infinitive mood is also used in secondary sentences sub- 
joined to the main verb. It differs from the subjunctive in that it 
does not admit the personal suffixes to be added to it. 

431 The suffix of the infinitive mood is & or &r8 : as, es-se to be, 
scrlb-SrS to write. 

432 The infinitive mood may also be considered as a neuter sub- 
stantive undeclined, but differing from other substantives in that 
it has the construction of a verb with a noun following. 

433 The supines are the accusative and ablative cases of a masculine 
substantive formed from a verb with the suffix Uu or tu. The ac- 
cusative supine has occasionally the construction of a verb with 
the noun following. 

434 The accusative supine is in many grammars called the supine 
active ; and the ablative supine, the supine passive. 

435 The gerund is a neuter substantive formed from a verb with 
the suffix endo or undo ; of which the first vowel is lost after a 
and e. In the old writers it has the construction of a verb with 
the noun following. 

436 A participle is an adjective in form, but differs from adjectives, 
first, because an adjective speaks of a quality generally, while a 
participle speaks of an act or state at a particular time ; secondly, 
because a participle has the construction of a verb with the noun 


437 Tense is another word for time. There are three tenses : past, 
present, and future. 

438 The past and future are boundless ; the present is but a point 
of time. 

439 As an act may be either past, present, or future, with respect 
to the present moment, so yesterday had its past, present, and 
future; and to-morrow again will have its past, present, and 

Thus, first in reference to the present moment, we have : Past, 
he has written to A; Pres. he is writing to B; Fut. he is going to 
write to C. 

Secondly, in reference to yesterday or any other moment now 



gone by : Past, he had written to D; Pres. he was writing to E; 
Fut. he was going to write to F. 

Thirdly, in reference to tomorrow or any moment not yet 
arrived : Past, he will have written to G ; Pres. he will be writing 
to H; Fut. he will be going to write to I. 

440 Or the same ideas may be arranged as follows : 

Action finished, or perfect : at a past time, he had written to 
D; at the present moment, he has written to A; at a future time, 
he will have ivritten to G. 

Action going on, or imperfect: at a past time, he was writing 
to E ; at the present moment, he is writing to B ; at a future time, 
he will be writing to H. 

Action intended : at a past time, he was going to write to F ; 
at the present moment, he is going to write to C ; at a future time, 
he will be goiny to write to I. 

441 Or lastly, the same ideas may be represented by the lines in 

the following diagram : 







A point in the vertical line pp denotes present time ; a point 
in yy denotes yesterday or some past time ; a point in tt, tomor- 
row or some future time. 

The several horizontal lines a, b, c, &c. denote the time occu- 
pied in writing to A, , C, &c. respectively. Thus, 

a is wholly to the left of pp, and signifies he has written pre- 
sent perfect. 

TEBBS. 69 

b partly on the left, partly on the right : he is writing present 

c wholly to the right : he is going to write present intention. 

d wholly to the left of yy : he had written at time y past per- 

e partly on the left, partly on the right : he was writing at time 
y past imperfect. 

/ wholly to the right : at time y he was going to write past 

g wholly to the left of tt : he will have written at time t future 

h partly on the left, partly on the right : he will be writing at 
time future imperfect. 

i wholly to the right : at time t he will be going to write future 

442 The word ' perfect' in all these phrases means relatively past : 
thus the present perfect is past, the past perfect was past, the 
future perfect will be past. 

443 Again, the perfect tenses are used for events recently past, the 
consequences still remaining. I have passed a good night, and feel 
refreshed; he had had his breakfast, and was putting on his boots ; 
you will then have finished your letter, and will be ready to walk with 
me. But we cannot say, William the Conqueror has died in Nor- 

444 So also the tenses of intention apply to a time soon to arrive. 

445 The aorist, he wrote, is not thus limited ; it may be applied to 
any past time ; as, Cicero wrote a history of his consulship. It does 
not, like the past tenses which we have been considering, stand in 
any relation to any other point of time. The consequences of the 
act are not alluded to, as in the perfects ; nor the duration of the 
act spoken of, as in the imperfects. On the contrary, the aorist 
treats the act as a mere point of past time. 

446 In the diagram the aorist may be represented by the point Jc. 

447 The simple future, he will write, corresponds in general cha- 
racter to the aorist of past time. It is equally independent of 
other points of future time, and speaks of the act as momentary. 

448 In the diagram the future may be represented by the point /. 

449 If the simple present were strictly limited to the mere point of 
time which belongs to it, it would seldom be used ; but this, like 
some of the other tenses, is employed to denote a state of things, 


customs, general truths, <fcc., the duration of which in fact is not 
limited to a mere moment.* 

450 The true present may be represented in the diagram by the 
point m in pp. 


451 The Latin indicative has six leading tenses: three perfect 
tenses, and three which, for convenience, but somewhat inaccu- 
ratelyf, are called imperfects ; viz. the present, the past-imperfect, 
the future ; the present-perfect, the past-perfect, the future-per- 

451.1 The C.P. of a verb is often strengthened for the imperfect 
tenses : (a.) by lengthening the vowel : thus, die- say, due- lead, 
fid- trust, become in the imperfect tenses die-, due-, fid-, (b.) by 
doubling the final consonant : thus, mlt- let go, cur- run, uer- 
sweep, become mitt-, curr-, uerr-. (c.) by substituting two conso- 
nants for the final consonant : thus, rup- burst, scld- tear, t6n- 
stretch, become rump-, scind-, tend-. 

452 The present has no tense suffix : as, scrib- write, scrlblt he 

433 When an affirmation is made with emphasis, also in nega- 
tive and interrogative phrases, the verb do is commonly used in 
the translation : as, he does write ; he does not write ; does he 
write ? 

454 The present-imperfect has the same form in Latin : as, scrlbit 
he is writing. 

* An example of the true present, as applied to acts, occurs in Ivan- 
hoe (c. xxix.), where the agitated Rebecca, standing at the lattice, re- 
ports to the sick knight the proceedings of the siege. " He blenches not, 
he blenches not !" said Rebecca. " I see him now ; he leads a body of 
men close under the outer barrier of the barbican. They pull down the 
piles and palisades ; they hew down the barriers with axes. His high 
black plume floats abroad over the throng, like a raven over the field of 
the slain. They have made a breach in the barriers ! they rush in ! they 
are thrust back ! Front-de-Bceuf heads the defenders; I see his gigantic 
form above the press. They throng again to the breach, and the pass is 
disputed hand to hand and man to man. God of Jacob ! it is the meet- 
ing of two fierce tides the conflict of two oceans moved by adverse 
winds." Such a use of the true present can only be looked for in dra- 
matic writing. The historic present, as it is called, is an imitation of this 
dramatic excitement. 

f Inaccurately, see 469. 

VERBS. 71 

455 The present is sometimes employed in past narrative, both in 
English and Latin, as if the scene described were passing before 
one's eyes. This is called the historic present : as, he tlien plunges 
into the river, swims across, and seeks tJie tent of the king. 

456 The present is also used in Latin when a state has continued 
for some time and still exists : as, iam tris inensls Sbest he has 
been absent now three months. 

457 The present in Latin sometimes denotes not even the begin- 
ning of an act, but only the purpose, when the mind alone is em- 
ployed upon it, or the matter at best is only in preparation : as, 
uxorem ducit he is going to be married. 

458 On the other hand, the present is at times used in Latin after 
certain conjunctions when past time is in fact meant : as, 

A. Quid pater, uiuitne ? B. Viuom, quom inde abimus,* 

liquimus (Plant. Capt. n. 2. 32). 
A. Well and your father, is he living ? B. We left him alive, 

when we came away. 
Dum studeo obsequi tibi, paene inlusi uitam filiae (Ter. And. 

v. 1.3). 
While I have endeavouredf to oblige you, I have almost trifled 

away my daughter's life. 

So also with postquam, ubi, and tit, when they signify the moment 

459 The past-imperfect has the suffix eba : as, scrlbeba- was writ- 
ing, scrlbebat he was writing. 

460 But the e of eba is lost after the vowels a and e : as, ara'bat he 
was ploughing, dSce'bat he was teaching. While after the vowels 
i and u the e is commonly left : as, ueni-ebat he ivas coming, acu- 
Sbat he was sharpening. 

4C1 The verb i- go loses the e : as, I'bat he was going. The old 
writers and the poets often use this contracted form with other 
verbs in i : as, molli'bat he was softening. 

462 Sometimes this tense is expressed in English by the simple 
past tense, he wrote. Thus, in answer to the question, What used 
to be his duties in the counting-house ? the reply might be, He 
wrote the foreign letters. This would be expressed in the Latin 
by the tense in eba, because a continued state of things is meant, 

* In editions generally abiirmts^ which is against the metre (abyimus, 
see 25). Some Mss. at any rate have abimus ; and see 1455 e. 
f Or, ' In my endeavours.' 

72 VERBS. 

scrlb-ebat he used to write, he always wrote. The Latin aorist would 
speak only of one act : He wrote the foreign letters on a particular 
occasion, scripsit. 

463 The use of the English simple past tense for a continued state 
of things is very common with verbs of static meaning (see 385) : 
as, he sat (all the time) on a rock ; lie loved frank and open con- 

464 The past-imperfect is also used in Latin when a state had con- 
tinued for some time, and still existed at the moment spoken of : 
as, iam tris mensis ciberat he had been absent then three months. 

465 The past-imperfect sometimes denotes only a past purpose, or 
that a matter was in preparation : as, uxorem ducebat he was 
going to be married. 

466 The simple future appears to have had for its suffix the syllable 
ah, which however loses its vowel after verbs in a or e, and its 
consonant* after verbs ending in a consonant, i, or u. Thus 
from verbs in a and e we have, ara'b- will plough, ara'b-It he 
will plough; dSce'b- will teach, dSce'b-It he will teach.^ 

4(57 Those verbs which retain only the vowel prefer a for the first 
person singular, and e for the rest : as, scrlb-a'm 1 shall lorite, 
scrlb-e's you will write, scrlb-e't he will write, &c. 

468 The verbs in i, according to the preceding rules, form the 
future with a or e as, audi-a'm / shall hear, audi-e's you will 
hear, <fcc. But the verb i- go prefers the future in b : as, 1'b-it 
he will go. In the old writers many other verbs in i have a future 
of the same shape : as, scl'b-it he will know. 

469 The Latin future from an active verb is not an imperfect future ; 
thus scribet signifies he will write, not he will be writing. 

* The loss of a b has been seen already in the datives of nouns. 

f To the doctrines of 459-61, 466-8, I now prefer the following: 
Scibam, scibo, are older than sciebam* sciam ; dicebo (Naev.) than dicam. 
The a of am-ab-a-m, ten-eb-a-m, sc-ib-a-m (for sec-ib-am where sec= 
seh- of German seh-en, our see) marks past time, as in er-a-m. The ab 
eb if) here, as in amabo tenebo dicebo scibo, denote imperfect action. But 
an imperfect pres. is akin to a fut, So er-o is in form a pres. The Keltic 
(Manx) has a general suffix of this power in agh, which plays a great 
part in Latin too, as tr-ah- ( = German trag-en) ' bear' for tol-agh, from 
tol- (tollo) ; also in Greek, as 7eA-a(x)-, fut. y\act), our 'laugh. Here 
ffh=f. So 7pa<- for yap-a^)-. But Greek <p = Latin b. Hence dol-ab-ra-, 
voc-ab-ulo-, am-ab-ili-, plor-ab-nndo-. The suffix-vowel, assimilated to 
root, gives t->r-eb-ra t(e)r-ib-ulo- (rpi/3-), gem-eb-undo-, rid-ib-undo-, 
lug-ub-ri-, vol-ub-ili- ; and with final consonant lost we have am-a', ten-e', 
>Vi', sol-u'. See Appendix II. p. 439, &c. 

VEHBS. /5 

470 The perfect tenses are formed by the addition of certain suf- 
fixes to a crude form of the perfect. 

471 A crude form of the perfect is formed from the simple verb in 
three different ways : 

a. By reduplication, that is, by prefixing to the verb a syllable 
more or less like the verb itself : as, morde- bite, momord- or me- 
mord- bit ; tend- stretch, tetend- stretched* 

b. By a long vowel : as, fac- or faci- make, fee- made ; uSn- or 
uSni- come, uen- came.\ 

c. By s suffixed : as, scrlb- write, scrips- wrote ; die- say, dix- 

d. But many verbs, including nearly all those which end in a 
vowel, abstain from all these three changes. 

472 All the perfect tenses of the three 1 moods, indicative, subjunc- 
tive and infinitive, were formed by adding the of the verb 
es- be. This is clearly seen in all but the present-perfect^ of the 
indicative, and partly even here ; as, 

* The English language appears to have an example of this formation 
in what we may perhaps call one of its oldest verbs, do, perf. did, the 
original meaning of which verb was ' put,' whence d?on * put on,' d'off 
' put off,' d'out ' put out.' The German compounds of thu"n would 
confirm this view of the meaning. Thus our English verb corresponds 
to a Latin verb of kindred form and meaning, viz. da- ' put' (for such is 
its meaning), perf. ded-. The Gothic abounds in perfects of reduplica- 
tion : as, halt ' call,' perf. haihait ' called ;' skaid 4 separate,' perf. skai- 
skaid 'separated.' 

f This formation also has its parallel in the English come, perf. came. 
It is not improbable that the long-vowel perfects originated in reduplica- 
tion : as, ueni- ' come,' perf. ueuen- contracted into uen- ' came ;' dg- 
' drive,' aag- contracted into eg- 'drove.' The last contraction is pre- 
cisely the same as occurs in the subj. pres. of the verb ama- ' love,' C.F. 
amaa- umc-, 3d pers. amaat, amet. Compare also the so-called temporal 
augment of Greek verbs. 

In some parts of the present- perfect irregularities conceal the con- 
nection of the terminations with the present tense of es- ' be.' Yet the 
, singular scrips-isti ' thou hast written' corresponds with great precision 
to the plural scrips-isCis ' you have written.' Again, in the third person 
singular there is something peculiar in the occasional length of the suffix 
it, as uendidlt Plant. Capt. prol. 9, perrupit Hor. Od. i. 3. 36, despexit 
Catul. 64. 20 ; and especially in the compounds of i- ' go,' which have 
this syllable always long, as praeterilt Ov. A. A. in. 63 &64 ; rediit Ov. 
Her. yi. 31 and xin. 29; sulmt Hor. Sat. i. 9. 21, Ov. Met. i. 114. This 
peculiarity is accounted for, if scripsit had an older form scrips-ist corre- 
sponding to est ' he is.' The loss of the s in this position would resemble 
that which occurs in the French tense fusse^ fusses, jut (old French fust). 
Indeed the s is silent in the French eat. Lastly, script must be regarded 



INDJC. Present. 
estls you are, 
(Ssunt* or) sunt they are, 

gram I was, 

eris ^ow wilt be, 

S CJBJUNC. Present. 
(6sim or) sim / am, 
(e'sis or) sis ZAo-w art, 


essem I was, 
esses thou wert, 

essS to be, 

Present- Perfect. 

scrips-istls you have written. 
scrips-eruntf they have written, &c. 


scrips-gram / had written. 
scrips-eras thou hadst written, &c. 


scrips-Sro 1 shall have written. 
scrips-Ms thou wilt have written, &c. 

scrips-erim / have written. 
scrips-eris thou hast written, &c, 

scrips-issem / had written. 
scrips-isses thou hadst written, &c. 

scrips-issS to have written. 

472. 1 Many Latin verbs, particularly those which end in a, e, i, or a 
liquid, have a u\ in the perfect immediately before the suffix 
borrowed from gs- be : as, 

as a corruption of scripsim, and that of scrips-ism, where ism would re- 
present the old Latin esum ' I am.' The loss of the s in this position is 
what has occurred in the Greek et^it ' I am' for ecr/iii, and in our own am. 
Nay, the Gothic form is im. If scripsim then be admitted as a theoretical 
form, the plural scripsimus is also explained. 

* See 722. 4, note. 

+ Though scripserunt is the ordinary pronunciation, the short penult 
is not rare in the poets. 

J This u (pronounced as our w) was no doubt an original part of the 
verb fa- ' be,' in the form ues-. Thus, the Gothic had vis-an * to be, 1 the 
Icelandic ver-a ' to be.' So the German wes-en ' existence' is but an 
infinitive mood ; and from a form wes is deduced our own past tense was, 
precisely as the Germans form er las ' he read' from lcs-en ' to read.' 
We have said that the original meaning of esse was * to eat.' So the form 
ues also means to eat in the Latin uescor ' I feed myself,' whence the sub. 
n. uisc-es- ' flesh.' In the old Latin writers uiscera did not mean ' en- 
trails.' We have said nothing of the origin of the suffix s as seen in 
scrip-s- &c. If this be a genitival suffix signifying ' from,' the formation 
of all the perfect tenses is simple enough ; as, scripsi ' I am from writing, 



:- Jtra- plough, Sra-uistls you have ploughed. 

dSc-e- teach, dtfc-uistls you have taught. 

airdi- hear, audl-uistls you liave heard. 

s8r- put, sSr-uistls you have put. 

col- till, cdl-uistlg you have tilled. 

ggn- produce, gen-uistls you liave produced. 

gem- groan, gem-uistis you have groaned. 

473 The present-perfect tense of the Latin is also used for an aorist : 
as, scripsit he has written or he wrote. 

474 Thus the English language confounds the aorist and past-im- 
perfect; while the Latin confounds the aorist and the present- 
perfect. See 462. 

475 For the formation of the past-perfect* and future-perfect, see 

476 The future-perfect of the indicative bears a very close resem- 
blance to the present-perfect of the subjunctive. Hence much 
confusion arose, so that even the first person of the indicative 
tense in era is occasionally found where a subjunctive in erim was 
to have been expected. But the greatest confusion is in the quan- 
tity of the syllables. As the future-perfect is formed from gro, 
erls, &c., we ought to have had in the indicative scripse'rls, scrip- 
sMmus, scripseritis : and on the other hand, as the present-per- 
fect subjunctive is formed from sim, sis, &c. we ought to have 
had in the subjunctive scripserlp, scripserlmus, scripse'ritls ; but 
the two tenses are commonly confounded in respect of quantity. 

477 The perfect tenses of some intransitive verbs are expressed in 

I have written' ; scripseram ' I was from writing, I had written' ; scrip- 
sero ' I shall be from writing, I shall have written,' The use of a pre- 
position in forming tenses is seen in our periphrastic futures ' I am to 
write,' * I am going to write' ; and also in our periphrastic present ' I am 
fl-writing,' where a represents the old preposition an, now written in. ' I 
am a-writing' is the old form of the language, now corrupted to ' I am 
writing.' Compare also the French je viens cfecrire, literally ' I come 
from writing,' i. e. ' I have just written.' 

* The formation of the past-perfect scripseram agrees with that of 
the Greek ereru^ea, which had once a <r, ereru^eo-a-, as may be seen 
from the third pers. pi. erfTvcpeaa-v. Thus, the Greek suffix of this tense 
is eo-a corrupted into eo, and the Latin is era, itself a corruption from 
esa. Consequently the two tenses have the same suffix, viz. the past 
tense of the verb es- ' be.' Nay, in the first person of the present-perfect 
re-ry^-o .the a represents aju, that is our first person of the verb 'to be;' 
and probably the preceding aspirate represents the suffixed s of scrips-, 
or in other words is a genitival suffix = ' from.' 

76 VERBS. 

English not only by the auxiliary verb have, but also by the tenses 
of be. Thus, rSdilt he has returned or he is returned, redierat he 
had returned or he was returned, redierlt he will have returned or 
he will be returned. These perfect tenses expressed by the auxili- 
aries is, was, will be, are often mistaken by beginners for passives. 
But a little reflection would of course satisfy them that the verbs 
in question do not admit of a passive. 

478 The perfect tenses are often expressed in English without the 
perfect form. Thus, in the three phrases : 

If a Roman soldier left his post, he was put to death, 
If an English soldier sleep on his post, he is shot, 
If you receive a letter, you will send it on to me, 

the verbs left, sleep, receive, would be expressed in Latin by per- 
fect tenses : viz. left by a past-perfect ; sleep by a present-per- 
fect ; receive by a future-perfect ; for an offence precedes in order 
of time the punishment, and of course a letter must be received 
before it is forwarded. (See 1159.) 

479 The imperative has two tenses, a present and a future ; but 
the so-called present might be more fitly named an immediate 

480 The imperative, mSmento, mementotS, you will remember, is 
derived from a perfect crude form, like all the other tenses of the 
same verb. (See 390.) 

481 The subjunctive mood has four tenses : the present, the past, 
the present-perfect, and the past-perfect. Of these, the two former 
are often called the imperfect tenses. 

482 The subjunctive present has the suffix d, as scrlb-a-, whence 
the third person, scribat. When the suffix a follows another a, 
the two are contracted into e, as ara- plough, subj. pres. araa- 
coutracted into &re-, whence the third person aret. An old suffix 
of this tense was ie or I, as sie- or si- from Ss- be, third person 
siet or sit. So also ueli-m, noli-m, mali-m, gdi-in, dui-m, and 
perhaps ausim, from the several verbs uol- wish, nol- be unwilling, 
mal- prefer, ed- eat, da- or du-put, aude- dare. 

483 The subjunctive past has the suffix ese or Sre, as from es- be, 
subj. past es'se-, from scrfb- write, subj. past scribSre-, whence 
the third person esset, scrlberet. The suffix Sre loses its short 
vowel after a, e, i, as third person arfi-'ret, do'ce-'ret, audl-'ret ; 
and sometimes after a consonant, as fer-'ret. 

VERBS. 77 

484 For the formation of the perfect tenses of the subjunctive see 

487 The translation of the subjunctive tenses has various forms, 
which depend chiefly upon the meaning of the verb to which the 
subjunctive is attached. 

488 If the preceding words denote a command, the subj. pres. and 
past are translated respectively by shall and should, or by to. Im- 
pero ut mittat / command that he shall send or / command him to 
send ; impSraui ut mitte'ret / commanded that he should send or 
1 commanded him to send. 

489 If the preceding words denote permission, the subj. pres. and 
past are translated respectively by may and might, or more com- 
monly by to. Concedo ut mittat 1 grant that he may send or / 
permit him to send ; concessi ut mitteret I granted that he might 
send or I permitted him to send. 

490 If the preceding words denote a purpose, the subj. pres. and 
past are translated respectively by may and might, or is to and 
was to. Ob earn causam scrlbo ut scias / write for this reason, 
that you may know ; tfb earn causam scripsi ut sclres / wrote for 
this reason, that you might know. Mittit qul dlcant he sends per- 
sons (who are) to say ; rnisit qul dicerent he sent persons (who were) 
to say. 

491 When the preceding words speak of the cause which leads to 
the result expressed in the following subjunctive, the latter mood 
is translated as an indicative. Tantiis est terror ut fiigiant so 
great is the alarm that they fly. 

492 The subjunctive in all its tenses may be translated as an in- 
dicative in passages where the assertions or thoughts of another are 
expressed. Qul scrlbat who is writing (they say), qul scribSret 
who was writing (they said), qul scripse'rit who has written (they 
say) or who wrote (they said), qul scripsisset who had written (they 

493 The subjunctive in all its tenses, after certain conjunctions, 
may be translated as an indicative. Quum scrlbat as he is writing, 
quum scribe'ret while he was writing, quum scripserit as he has 
written, quum scripsisset when he Jiad written. 

494 The subjunctive in all its tenses may be translated as an in- 
dicative in indirect interrogatives : as, nescio quid f aciat / know 
not what he is doing, nesciebam quid f Secret / knew not what he 
was doing, nescio quid fecerit / know not what he has done or 

78 VERBS. 

what he did, nesciebam quid fecisset / knew not what he had 

495 When the two verbs in these phrases have the same nomina- 
tive, the meaning is ambiguous : as, nescio quid faciam / know 
not what I am doing or I know not what to do, nescis quid fcias 
you know not what you are doing or what to do &c. 

496 In hypothetical sentences, the subjunctive, which marks the 
condition, is expressed by English past tenses : as, 

si scribat, if he were writing or were to write. 

si scrlbgret, if he had been writing. 

si scripsSrit, if he were to write. 

si scripsisset, if he had written. 

497 With verbs of static meaning, the past indicative of the Eng- 
lish is still used, but somewhat differently : as, 

si sciat, if he knew. 

si sclret, if he had known. 

si adsit, if he were present. 

si adesset, if he had been present. 

498 In hypothetical sentences, the subjunctive, which marks the 
consequence, is translated in the pres. by sltould or would, in the 
past and past-perfect by should have or would have : as, 

scribat, he would write. 

scrlbe'ret, he would have been writing. 

scvipserit, he would write. 

scripsisset, he, would Jiave written. 

499 In elliptical sentences, with qua" si as if t tanquani as if <fec., the 
subjunctive is translated nearly in the same way : as, tauquam 
dormiat as if he were asleep (when in fact he is not), tanquam 
dormlret as if he had been asleep (when in fact he was not) ; 
qu&si nunquam antehac proelio adfuSrls as if you had never before 
this been present at a battle (when in fact you have been) ; quS-si 
nunquam antea proelio adfuisset as if he had never before that been 
present at a battle (when in fact lie Iwd been).* 

5')0 The subjunctive mood has no special future tenses ; still all its 

four tenses are at times used as future tenses. 
501 The so-called subjunctive present is used for a future after 

a pres. or fut. : as, mitto qui rtfgerit 1 am tending persons to ask, 

* The clauses in the brackets are useful guides to the Latin tense. 

VERBS. 79 

mittam qui regent 1 shall send persons to ask, mlsl qui regent 
1 have sent persons to ask. 

502 The so-called subjunctive past is used for a future after past 
tenses : as, mittebam qui rogarent I was sending persons to ask, 
mlsl qui r&garent / sent persons to ask, mise'ram qui rflgarent 
/ had sent persons to ask. 

503 The so-called subjunctive present-perfect is used for a fut.- 
perf. after a pres. or fut., and the so-called subj. past-perf. is used 
for a fut.-perf. after a past. Thus, in the phrase, is ctfrdnam 
acclpiet qui primus escendSrft the man shall receive a chaplet 
who first climbs up, the word escenderit is the indicative future- 
perfect. But, by making the sentence depend upon such a word 
as dlclt he says, or dixit he said, the indicative escende'rit will be 
changed for a subj. : as, dlclt eum c5ronam accepturum qui 
primus escenderit he says that the man shall receive a chaplet who 

first climbs up, dixit eum ctfronam accepturum qui primus es- 
cendisset he said that the man should receive a chaplet who first 
climbed up. 

504 Thus, when the subjunctive perfect tenses are used as future- 
perfects, the present-perf. of the Latin is translated by the Eng- 
lish ind. pres., the past-perf. of the Latin by the English ind. 

505 If then we unite the different uses of the tenses in the sub- 
junctive as so far explained, we shall have 

Tense in a Pres. or Fut. after Pres. or Fut. 

ere Past Fut. after Past. 

erl Pres.-Perf. Fut.-Perf. after Pres. or Fut. 

use Past-Perf. Fut.-Perf. after Past. 

505 1 The subjunctive past is often used in phrases denoting a 
result with the power of an aorist, as, accidit ut primus nuntiaret 
it Jtappened that he was the first to bring word. Hence, although 
the present-perfect indicative is habitually employed as an aorist, 
the present-perfect subjunctive is rarely so ueed. Still examples 
occur (see 1182, ex. 5 ; 1189, last two examples), especially in 
negative clauses. 

506 The infinitive has strictly but two forms, the imperfect and 

507 The infinitive imperfect has for its suffix to/8 or M: as, from Sa- 
fe, inf. es'sS ; from scrlb- write, inf. scribSrS. 



508 Slightly irregular are the infinitives, fer'rg, from fSr- bear} 
uel'lS, nol'lg, mal'16, from u&l- or uel- wish, nol- be unwilling, mill- 
prefer. Plautus, Mil. 1. 1. 27, iv. 8. 6, has dicere ; in. 2. 34,promere.t 

509 The infinitive imperfect may be translated in three ways : by 
to: as, inclpit ridere he begins to laugh: in some phrases the 
English language omits this to, as, pStest rlderS he can laugh 
i.e. is able to laugh, uldi eum rlderS I saw him laugh; by ing : 
as, inclpit rlderS he begins laughing, or uldi eum riderg / saw 
him lanrjhing; as an indicative, with that before the English 
nominative: as, scio eum rtdGrS*/notf that he is laughing, scie- 
bam eum riderS / knew that he was laughing. 

510 For the formation of the infinitive perfect, see 472. 

511 The infinitive perfect may be translated in three ways : by to 
h"ir. : as, scripsissS dlcltur he is said to have written ; by having : 
as, risisse exltio fuit the having laughed was fatal ; as an indi- 
cative, with that before the English nominative : as, scio eum 
scripsissS I know that lie wrote or that he has written, sciebam eum 
scripsissS I knew that he had written. 

512 Thus the infinitive imperfect scrlberg corresponds to two indi- 
cative tenses, scrlblt and scrlbebat; and the infinitive perfect 
scripsissS also to two, scripsit and scripserat. 

513 The infinitive imperfect is sometimes used as a future, where 
the preceding verb itself implies a reference to futurity : as, pol- 
llcetur darS he promises to give. 

514 The participle in enti or ent is an imperfect, and belongs alike 
to past, present and future time. 

515 The participle or gerund in endo is also an imperfect, and 
belongs alike to past, present and future time. 

516 The participle in to is a perfect, and belongs alike to past, 
present and future time. 

517 The participle in tilro denotes intention or destiny, and belongs 
alike to past, present and future time. 


618 As the changes which take place in adding the suffixes to a 
verb depend in a great measure upon the last letter, verbs may be 
divided into the following classes or conjugations*, viz. : 

* See a similar division of nouns into declensions, 54, 55, 56, 
88, 80. t Compare at of the Greek inf., as SiSovai. 

VERBS. 81 

The consonant (or third*) conjugation, as scrlb- write, whence 
scrlberg to write, and scrlbls thou writest. 

The a (or first) conjugation, as Sra- plough, whence Srar8 to 
plough, and aras thou ploughest. 

The e (or second) conjugation, as dSce- teach, whence do'cerS 
to teach, and d8ces thou teachest. 

The u (or thirdf) conjugation, as a"cu- sharpen, whence ScuSrS 
to sharpen, and &culs thou sharpenest. 

The i (or fourth) conjugation, as audi- hear, whence audlre* to 
hear, and audls thou hearest. 

519 The o conjugation has nearly disappeared from the Latin lan- 
. guage. There remain however fragments of two or three verbs of 

this conjugation, viz. : 

gno- examine, whence gno-sco, gno-ui, gno-tum, or, as they are 
more commonly written, no-sco, no-ui, notum ; also the substan- 
tives no-me'n- n., no-tion- /. &c. ; po- J drink, whence the par- 
ticiple po-to- drunk, the substantives po-ciilo- n. drinking -cup, 
po-tion-/. drinking, and the adjective po-culento- drinkable, &c. ; 
aegro- make sick, implied in the participle or adj. aegro-to- sick. 

520 The other verbs, which might have been expected to end in o, 
have changed that vowel for a (see 229) : as from auro- gold is 
formed the verb in-aura-re^ to gild. 

521 The monosyllabic verbs ending in a consonant generally denote 
an act, and may be considered as belonging to the old verbs of the 
language : as due- draw. (See 30.) 

522 The verbs in a are generally formed from substantives or ad- 
jectives of the a or o declension, and have a factitive meaning, that 

is, signify to make : as from albo- or alba- white, alba- make 

white j from me'dtco- physician, me'dlca- (r. ) make oneself a phy- 
sician, act the physician, cure. 

523 The two monosyllabic verbs, da- put, and sta- stand, must be 
classed with the old verbs of the language. So also many other 

* The numbers of the conjugations are given, because they are so 
arranged in nearly all grammars and dictionaries. 

f Observe that the u and consonant conjugations are united to form 
the third conjugation, just as the i and consonant nouns are united to 
form the third declension. 

I Compare the Greek verb irtv-w I drink,' or rather the tenses TTW-O-W, 

The Greek language retained many verbs of the o conjugation : as 
8ou\o-6ij/ ' to enslave,' xP vff - flv ' to gild.' 



verbs ending in a had older forms without that final a, which 
therefore belonged to the consonant conjugation and the old verbs. 
See those verbs of the first or a conjugation, which are said to 
form their perfects and supines irregularly, as cuba- lie, <fec. 

524 The verbs in e generally denote a state, as iace- lie ; and often 
correspond to a consonant verb, as i&c- throw. (See 386.) 

525 The monosyllabic verbs, fle- weep, ne- spin, &c. should per- 
haps be classed with the old verbs of the language. So also many 
other verbs in e had older forms without that final e, which there- 
fore belonged to the consonant conjugation and the old verbs, as 
ride- or rid- laugh. 

526 The verbs in u are often derived from substantives in u, as 
from mStu- fear is formed metu-ere to fear ; from trlbu- a divi- 
sion, trlbu-ere to allot. 

527 The monosyllabic verbs, nu- nod, su- sew, <fec. must be classed 
with the old verbs of the language. 

528 The verbs in i are often derived from substantives or adjectives 
in i, as from tussi- a cough is formed tussi-re to cough; from 
molli- soft, molli-rS to soften. 

529 The monosyllabic verbs, sci- Tcnow, i- go, ci- rouse, must be 
classed with the old verbs of the language. So also those verbs 
which had an old form without the i, as ueni- or u8n- come. 

530 An attention to the final vowel of a verb is required in the 
foi-mation of the derivatives, particularly as regards the quantity. 

tSg- cover, tgg-u-mento- covering. 

arma- equip, arma-mento- equipment. 

[ere-] grow, in-cre-mento- * increase. 

argu- prove, argu-inento- proof. 

e-moli- heave up, emoli-mento-t great effort. 

[gno-] examine, know, co-gno-mento- surname. 


531 When the infinitive, the indicative present, the perfect, and 
the supine or verbal in tu of a Latin verb are known, there is 

* Monumento-, documento-, said to be derived from the verbs monc-, 
doce-, imply rather verbs of the consonant conjugation, viz. mon-, rfoc-,as 
do also the perfects and supines of the same. 

f Not to be confounded with e-mol-u-mento- ' outgrinding or profit 
(of the miller, who pays himself by the excess of bulk in grinding hia 
customer's corn). 



seldom any difficulty in conjugating it. They are therefore called 
the principal parts of the verb. 

532 In the following lists the crude form of the verb with its trans- 
lation, the infinitive, the first person of the present and perfect 
are given, and the accusative of the supine, or for reflective verbs 
the nominative masculine of the perfect participle. In most of 
the compounds the infinitive has been omitted for the sake of 




scab- scratch 




lab- lick 




bib- drink 




scrib- write 





cub- lie down 





nub- veil oneself* 





c&p- or capi- take 





rap- or rapi- seize 





rep- creep 





strep- resound 





scalp- scratch 





carp- nibble, pluck 





serp- creep 





cup- or ciipi- desire 





rup- burst 







f &c- or f aci- make, do 




iac- or iaci- throw 




pec- comb 




flee- bend 




plec- p&wfc 




nee- link, join 




Ic-J s^n'&e 




die- show, say 




uic- conquer 













* As a female in the marriage ceremony. 

f But in-nexuit Virg. J Another form of iac- 'throw.' 



pare- spare 





pose- pray, demand 




due- draw, lead 





535 g- drive 





plag-* strike 










frag- break 


fran go 



tag- touch 





Igg- sweep, read 





reg- wia&e straight 





tgg- thatch, cover 










fig- mould, invent 





pig- paint 





strig- grasp, graze 





tig- C?J/(2 





fulg- y?#sA 




ang- strangle 




cing- #iW 





ung- #razs<? 





sparg- or spar-|| scoter 





merg- or mer-1f SMI& 





terg-** or ter- mjoe 





fug- or f ugi- flee, fly 





itig- yoke, join 





pug- puncture 





stig- SMC& 





536 tr&h- drag 





ugh- carry 





537 liq- leave 




c3q- coo& 





538 tex- weave 





* For the quantity compare 

f* But panxit Enn., pegi Pacuv. 

J Fig- 'fix' and^- 'mould' may perhaps be originally one, with the 
sense ' squeeze,' like 0<j>iy-. See Paley's Propertius. Observe too th;it 
fictus for fixus was preferred by Varr. R. R. in. 7. 4, afficlus in. 3. 2, &c. 

Also tinguere, tinguo ; unguere, unguo. 

|| Comp. a-rrep- of crireipa}. ^[ Comp. marl- 'sea.' 

** Also terge-. Comp. rep- of and tcr-ra ' drv-land.* 


539 uiu- or ulg- live 





flu- or fluc-/ow 





stru- or struc- pile, build struSre 





640 <M-*faH 





r&d- scrape 





gd- or 6s- eat 

edere or esse 




caed-fell, strike, cut 





laed- strike, hurt 





cgd- go quietly, yield 





sgd- sit down 





scld- tear, cut 





fid- cleave 





strid- Am, screech 




scand- climb 





mand- chew 





pand- or pS,d- spread 




pend- hang, weigh 





tend- or tgn- stretch 





ftfd- or ftfdi- dig 





r<5d- gnaw 





cltid- sAw 





plaud- clap 





cud- hammer, coin 





f iid- j*?ow 

fund ere 




liid- >&zy 





trud- thrust 





tud- hammer, thump 





quat- or quati- rtrtig 




mgt- wow 




m essum 

pgt- or p8ti- go, seek 





mlt- let go, send 





* Akin to caed-, just as OUT fall to /*?//. 

t The forms with ss seem to have been originally in use with old 
writers, and even with Cicero, Virgil, &c. as cassum, essum. 

J Scicidi and jifidi were probably the older forms of these perfects. 
Ennius has the former. Comp. tetuli, afterwards lull. 

Also stride-. \\ But pansls in Germanicus and Vitruvius. 

If 7V5M5 in Quintilian and late writers. 



stert- snore stertere 

sterto stertui 

uort- or uert- turn uortgre 

uorto uorti uorsum 

sist- make to stand sistgre 

sisto stetiorstiti statum 

The compounds of da-* put or 

give, with prepositions of one 

syllable, are all of the third 

conjugation; as, with 

ab, put away, hide abdSre 

abdo abdidi abdltum 

ad, put to, add addere 

addo addidi addltum 

cSn, put together conde're 

condo condldi conditum 

de, put down, surrender dedere 

dedo dedldi dedltum 

dls, distribute dldgre 

dido dldldi didltum 

ec, put out, utter edere 

edo edidi edltum 

in, put on indere 

indo indidi indltum 

per, fordo, destroy perdere 

perdo perdidi perdltum 

ob, put to (as a bar) obdSre 

obdo obdldi obditum 

pro, abandon, betray prodere 

prodo prodidi proditum 

red, put back, restore reddSre 

reddo reddidi redditum 

sub, put up subdgre 

subdo subdldi subditum 

trans, hand over tradere 

trado tradidi traditunit 

To these add two other compounds of da- put : 
uend-^ exhibit for sale uendere uendo uendldi uenditum 

cred- trust, believe 

credere credo credldi creditum 

543 al- raise, rear, feed 
fal- cheat 
sal- salt 

pel- push, drive 
u61- pull, pluck 
c51- dig, till 
m51- grind 

L, M, N. 

algre alo 

failure fallo 

sallgre sallo 

pellere pello 



alui alitum or altum 
fgfelli falsum 


pgpiili pulsum 
uelli uolsum 
colui cultum 

molere molo molui molitum 

* Some Sanscrit scholars would lay it down that da- in these com- 
pounds represents the root Oe- of Ti6r)/j.i, not So- of 8i8w/j.i. They forget 
that the archaic forms perduim, creduim claim immediate connection with 
the archaic duim of da-. Besides 0e- or rather 0e<r- (Oeo--/j.os) is repre- 
sented in Latin by ser- ' put,' whence exser-, inser- &c. 

f Praedito-, * armed' or ' endowed (with),' implies a vb. prae-dere. 

J Literally ' put in the window.' The first syllable is an abbreviation 
of uenum, whicli occurs in uenum i-re, ueni-re, uenun-da-re. 


to 1 !- raise, bear 





udl- wish 




544 8m- take, buy 





gSm- groan 





fvem- roar 





prSm- press 





trgm- tremble 




545 can- sing 





gen- produce 





lin- smear 





sin- >2^, permit 



slui or sii 



546 pSr- or pS,ri- produce 
quaer-, quaes- 
c^r- sift, separate 
fer- raise, bear 

ger- or gs- wear, carry gerSre 
sp6r- reject, despise 
ser-j| put 
ser-|| ^?a?i^ sow 
t8r- rzii 




























































ugr- sweep 
ur- or us- burn 
cur- rem 
5i7 pS,s- or ^a,- feed 

* In meaning the following go together : tollere, tollo, sustnli, subla- 
tum. See fer-. 

f An old form of the perfect is tetuli. Latum is for tlatum. Comp. 

J Observe the quantity of litum, siturn, satum. 

Quaeso is used in the sense, ' I pray' or ' prithee.' A form quaesi- 
is implied in quaesltum ; as also in quaesttor 'a commissioner' or 'judge.' 

|| Ser- 'put' and ser- ' sow' are one in origin. 

II Trmi, trltum imply a secondary verb trib-, whence trlbulo- sb. n. 
' a threshing harrow.' Comp. rpi/8- of rplfio). 

'* From a secondary verb strag- (=ster-ag-\ whence strug-e- sb. f, 
slrag-ulo- adj. ; also stramen- ' straw/ Comp. our verb strew, old form 




uls- go to see 

lacess-* provoke 

facess-* perform, cause facesse're 

arcess-* send for 

capess-* take 

ulso uisi 

lacesso lacessiui lacessitum 

facesso facessi 

arcessgre arcesso arcessiui arcessitum 

capessere cS-pesso capesslui capessltum 

pone're pono posui positum 


548 lau-t wash 




lautum or lotum 

tribu- distribute 





acu- sharpen 





argu- prove 





solu- loosen 





uolu- roll 





inlnu- lessen 





sternu- sneeze 




spu- spit 





ru- make to rush, rush 





su- sew 





8tatu- set up 











549 da- put, give dare do d6di datum 

&i&-\\7nake to stand, stand stare sto steti statum 

ciiba-1I lie cubare cubo ciibaui 

neca- stifle, Ml ngcare neco iiecaui** necatum 

seca- cut secare sgco sScui sectum 

plica- fold pllcare pllco plicaui plicatum 

* These four verbs are formed from lac- or luci-,fcic- or/cz-, arci- 
(com pound of ci- ' call '), cap- or cdpi-. So also petess- c seek,' from p&- 
or peti-. 

+ See also laua- 549, and dilu- 655.2. 

f Observe the short vowel of rutum. Ruitnro- is the participle in 

Da- stands apart from the other verbs in a by the irregularity of its 
quantity. See 732. 

|j The derivatives from sta- have often a short vowel, as statu- sb., 
stabili- adj., statim adv. 

^f See also cub- 533. ** Nccuit Enn. and Phaedr. 



mica- vibrate 




frlca- rub 





dtfma- tame 





s5na- sound 









tSna- thunder 





crgpa- creak, chatter 
u6ta-* forbid wash 





iuua- assist 





551 The thirteen disyllabic verbs given in the preceding section 
were probably at one time all monosyllabic, and consequently of 
the consonant or third conjugation. The verbs ISuere, ablue're, 
procumbere, plectere, &c. are met with in the best authors ; and 
in the older writers there occur such forms as sone're, sonlt, stfnunt, 
tSnlmus, &c. Observe too that the same thirteen verbs have all 
the first vowel short. 

552 The other verbs in a form their principal parts like 

&ra- plough S,rare S,ro &raui Sratum 


553 hSb-e- hold, have 
sorb-e- suck up 
iub-e- bid, order 
iS,c-e- lie 
ta"c-e- be silent 
d8c-e- teach 
nSc-e- do damage 
arc-e- confne, keep off 
misc-e- mix 
suad-e- recommend 
rld-e- laugh 
uld-e- see 
prand-e- breakfast 
pend-e- hang (intrans.) 

* Old form titita-. Persius has uetauit. 

f luuaturo- in Sal. and Plin. ep. 

J lacituro- Stat. Arcto- or arto- as an adj. * confined. 1 


















































spond-e- promise 





toiid-e- shear 




ton sum 

mord-e- bite 





urg-e- press 




aug-e- increase (trans.) 





lug-e- mourn 




ci-e- rouse 





fie- weep 





51-e- smell 




dol-e- ache 









ne- spin 





man-e- remain 



man si 


t&n-e-* hold 




mSn-e- warn 

m on ere 




torque- or tor- twist, hurl torquere 




car-e- be without 




par-e- wait on, obey 





haer-e- stick 





iner-e-J earn, deserve 





torre- or t5r- roast 





cen-se- or cn- count 





lcit-e- lie hid 




nlt-e- shine 




cau-e- be on one's guard cauere 




fS,u-e- wish well 









f5u-e- keep warm 





mSu-e- move 





uou-e- vow 





feru-e- boil^ 




* Comp. 'tend- ' stretch. 

f- From a root ter- or /or-, whence tor-tor-, tor-men-. 
J Also mere-ri (r.). 

The literal sense of cen- was ' puncture,' and so ' count "" 
cen-tro- sb. n. ' centre.' 

|| Cauitum and fauitum were preferred by Cicero. 
^[ Also feru-Sre. 




554 i- go 

ire eo 

lui or ii Itum 


fulcire fulcio 

fulsi fultum 

sanci- hallow 

sanclre sancio 

sanclui sancltum 

or sancio 

sanxi sanctum 

uinci- bind 

uinclre uiricio 

uinxi uinctum 

farci- cram 

farclre farcio 

farsi farctum 

sarci- mend 

sarcire sarcio 

sarsi sartum 

sail- leap 

sallre salio 


sepeli- bury 

sepelire sepelio 

sSpellui sSpultum 

ueni- come 

uenlre uenio 

ueni uentum 

saepi- hedge in 

saeplre saepio 

sepsi septum 

apSri- open 

Sperire Sperio 

ape'rui apertum 

Speri- cover 

operlre Sperio 

Spgrui Spertum 

hauri- draw (water) 

haurlre haurio 

hausi haustum 

555 The other verbs 

in i form their principal parts like 

audi- hear 

audire audio 

audiui auditum 

555. 1 Some inceptive verbs with a suffix esc or isc : 

lang- droop, flag languesco langui 

dic-f learn 

luc- get light 

ard-J Haze up 

put- become putrid 

cal- get hot 

ual- get strong 

sil- become silent 

quie- become quiet 

ere- grow 

* The irregular supines of the verbs in 554 imply verbs of the con- 
sonant conjugation ; and indeed such forms as euenat, &c. for the imper- 





















Perhaps in Hor. Od. iv. 4, 65 

feet tenses occur in Ennius and Plautus. 
we should read pulchrior euenet. 

f Die- ' learn,' originally identical with die- ' say,' or more properly 
'show.' Comp. Se- of Set/cw/^t ' show.' Doce- ' teach' is also of the same 
family. Disco is for dic-sco. 

J Ard- is probably akin to at- ' raise,' so often used with Jlammam. 
Compare as to form arduo- ' lofty,' which is immediately formed from al- 
' raise.' Comp. too ap- of cupw. 

|| Calituro-, ualituro-. 



sue- become accustomed suesco 
rS+Scip-* come to one's senses again rSsIpisco 

rg+frig- get cold again rSfrigesco 

rg+um- come to life again rSuiuisco 

re+sci-/nd out (a secret) rescisco 

con-t-Sl- or ol- grow together coalesco 

Sd+Sl- or 61e- grow up Sddlesco 

ab+dle- grow out of use ab51esco 

ob+s81e-f get covered with dirt obsolesco 

sueui suetum 









obsoleui obsoletum 

555.2 Compound verbs : 

pro+cub- lie down procumbo procubui procubltum 

r8+cap- or capi- take back rgclpio rgcepi rgceptum 

ab+rap- or rapi- carry of abripio abiipui abreptum 

dis+carp-jow^ to pieces discerpo discerpsi discerptum 

per+fac- or faci- finish perf icio perfect perfectum 

c6n+iS,c- or iaci- hurl conlcio conieci coniectum 

r6+iac- or iaci- throw back reilcio reieci reiectum 

ad+lac- or Iaci- draw to allicio allexi allectum 

ec+lac- or Iaci- draw out ellcio elicui elicitum 

in+spgc- or spSci- look in insplcio inspexi inspectum 

rSd+&g- drive back rgdlgo redegi rgdactum 

ctfn+ag- drive together cogo coegi coactum 

con+pag-yu? together compingo compegi compactum 

per+frag- break through perfringo perfregi perfractum 

con+tag- touch closely contingo contlgi contactum 

con+leg- sweep together colligo collegi collectum 

re-flgg- read again relggo rglegi reiectum 

inter +18g- pick up, perceive intellego intellexi intellectum 

dl+\$g- esteem dlllgo dilexi dllectum 

neg+lgg- leave behind neglggo neglexi neglectum 

por-fl8g- lay out (a corpse) pollingo pollinxi pollinctum 

por+reg- stretch forth porrigo porrexi porrectum 

por+rgg- keep straight on pergo perrexi perrectum 

sub+rgg- rise surgo surrexi surrectum 

ab+fllg- dash down affiigo afflixi afSictum 

* Read the symbol (+) as plus or 'with.' 

t The root of this verb is connected with s8lo- sb. n. 'soil, 'also with 
sordea and sordido-. It appears again in the French sale ' dirty,' souillir ; 
and in the Eng. soil vb. or sb,, as well as sully and slush. 



con+flig- dash together 

confllgo conflixi conflictum 

ec+stig- stamp out 

extinguo extinxi extinctum 

dis+stlg- spot 

distingue distiiixi distinctum 

ec+miig- wipe (nose) 

emungo emunxi emunctum 

cou+sparg- bespatter 

conspergo conspersi conspersum 

con+pug- puncture forcibly 

corapungo compunxi compuncturn 

rS+liq- leave 

rglinquo rgliqui rglictura 

ob+cd- set (as sun}, die 

occldo occidi occasum* 

rg+c&d-/a^ back 

rgcldo reccldif rgcasnm 

ec+uad- come out 

euado euasi euasum 

ob+caed- cut down, Mil 

occldo occldi occisum 

con+laed- dash together 

collldo collisi colllsum 

re+scid- cut away again 

rescindo rescldi rescissum 

dis+fid- cleave in two 

diffindo diffldi diffissum 

rg+sld- subside 

resldo resedi resessum 

dl+uid- divide 

dluldo diulsi dlulsum* 

sub+cand- set fire to from below succendo succendi succeusum 

ec+scand- climb up 

escendo escendi escensum 

de+fend- ward of 

defendo defendi defensum 

ex+pend- weigh out 

expendo expend! expensum 

prae+hand- take hold of 

prehendo prehendi prehensum 

or prendo prendi prensum 

obs+tend- hold towards 

ostendo ostendi ostensumj 

ex+clud- shut out 

exclude exclusi exclusum 

con+tud- hammer to pieces 

contundo coutudi contusum 

per+qut- strike violently 

percutio percussi percussum 

re+sist- stand against 

rgsisto restiti restltum 

per+cel- overturn 

percello perculi perculsum 

con+pel- drive cogetJier 

compello compiili compulsum 

rg+pel- drive back 

rgpello reppiilit rgpulsum 

con+sol-H sit together, consult 

consulo consului consultum 

ex+em- take out 

exlmo exemi exemptum 

den-em- take down 

demo dempsi demptum 

con+em- arrange (the hair) 

como compsi comptum 

pro+gm- bring out 

promo prompsi prouiptum 

* Also in the older writers occassnm, diuissum, &c. 
f For re-cecidi, re-pepuli. Hence the double consonant. 
t Ostenso- in Lucan ; but in Ter. Ph. v. 4, 7. and in Varr. ostento-. 
II Sol-, an obsolete verb, is the parent of sSlio- sb. n. 'a seat.' It is 
also akin to side- sb. f., sMe- vb., sodali-, sella-, subsellio-. 



sub+em- take up 

sumo sumps! sumptum 

rS+prSm- press back 

rSprlmo repress! repressum 

con+tSm- (cut up) despise 

contemuo contempsi contemptum 

con+cn- sing together 

conclno concinui concentuin 

dS+sIn- (put down) leave off 

deslno desii desttum 

con+quaer- get together 

conquiro conquisiui conquisltum 

ab+feY- carry off 

aufero abstuli ablatum 

ec+fe'r- carry out 

effe'ro extuli elatum 

ob+f er- present 

offSro obtuli oblatum 

re+fer- bring back 

rSfSro rettiili* relatumf 

con+se'r- plant all over 

consero conseui consitum 

con+biir- burn up 

comburo combussi combustum 

ob+ciir- run towards 

occurro occurrij occursum 

in+du- put on 

induo indui indutum 

ec+du- put off 

exuo exui exutum 

dis+lu- or lau- dissolve 

dlluo dilui dllutum 

ob+ru- overwhelm 

obruo obrui obrutum 

in+su- sew in 

insuo insui insutum 

re+statu- set up again 

restltuo restitui restitutum 

ec+neca- kill off 

enSco en^caui enecatum 

or enSco enScui enectum 

ex+plica- unfold 

expllco explicaui explicatum 

or expllco explicui explicltum 

in+crgpa- chide 

incrgpo increpaui increpatum 

or incrgpo increpui increpltum 

pro+h&be- keep off 

prohlbeo prohibui prohlbltum 

de+habe- owe, ought 

debeo debui debitum 

prae+habe- present 

praebeo praebui praebitum 

co+arce- confine 

coerceo coercui coercltum 

ex+erce- work out, drill 

exerceo exercui exercltum 

re+sponde- answer 

respondeo respond! responsum 

in+dulge-j| be kind 

indulgeo indulsi indultum 

de+le- or Hn- blot out 

deleo deleui deletum 

b+51e- abolish 

Sb81eo aboleui Sbolitum 

* For re-tetuli, re-peperi. Hence the double consonant. 
f Rellatum also in old writers. Comp. redduc-^ redd-. 
J Also occucurri. 

Erce- or arce- is an obsolete vb. akin to the Greek fepy-, whence 
- and the neut. sb. ep-yo-. 
|| Dulffe- must be an obsolete vb. akin to the adj. dulci-. 



ex+ple- fill up 
rg+tgne- hold lack 
r8+cense- review 
ex+i- go out 

Sm+Ici- throw round one 
iu+farci- cram in 

con+pSri- find out 

555. 3 Reflective verbs : 

ISb- slip 

am-plect- embrace^ 

lic-e- lid at an auction 

pl&g- beat oneself 

fung- discharge oneself 

seq- follow 

18q- talk\ 

fru- or frug- enjoy% 

grS,d- or grS,di- march 

eo+grS,d- march out 

ordi- legin weaving 

fS,t-e- confess 

pro+ft-e- profess 

pjlt- or p&ti- suffer 

per+pat- suffer to the last perpeti 

n!c- kneel, lean 

m8n- or meuti- measure 

ad+sSn- or senti- agree with assentlri 

ut- use 

ex+peri- try 

ob+pSri- wait for 

quer- complain^ 







































































nlsus or nixus 



















* See note * 
f See 398. 

p. 94. 

I More literally * feed oneself.' 

Old form gnitor &c. from genu- (or genie-] ' a knee.' SPP Festus. 
|| But Plautus has opperitus. 

1 Literally 'beat oneself;' for quSs- is but a variety of auat- " strike.' 
Comp. /?%- (r.) and KO/TT- (r.) 'beat oneself.' 


6r- or Sri- rise 



mor- or mSri- die 



re- reckon 



mer-e- earn 






tu- or tue- guard 



Sp- oitam 



ad+&p- obtain 



pro+fcic- set out 



nac- win, obtain 



ip&c-fiX) bargain 



ulc- avenge 



ex+por+reg- wake up 



de+fat- give in 



con+m8n- invent 



ob+llu- forget 















* So rather than nactus in MSS. 

t Literally 4 1 begin to stretch myself out.* 





Last letter u 
Conjugation. 1 

















S. arc- 






Past Imperfect. 

8. arabam 








S. arabo 










S. 2. ara 
P.2. &ratg 






S. 2. arato 
3. arato 
P.2. &ratote 
3. aranto 






Past Tense. Present Tense. 

S'. aiem 


scrlbam iis 



6'. Srarein 





* AM see for quantity 412 and note. t Or acuont. 



Last letter a 
Conjugation 1 





Lat. C.F. 















aranti- or 

dScenti- or 

scrlbenti- or 

Scuenti- or 




or a- 

or a- 

or a- 

or a-] 

or a- 







557 There are certain verbs which mix together the consonant and 
i conjugations in the imperfect tenses, viz. : 


or fci- make 
i&ci- throw 
, , lS,ci- draw] 
speci- look] 

f5d- or fodi- dig 
fug- fugi-^e 
cS,p- ,, capi- take 
rap- ,, rapi- seize 

sap- or sSpi- taste 
cup- ,, cupi- desire 
pS,r- ,, piiri- produce 
quat- ,, quSti- shake. 

Together with the reflective verbs : 

gr&d- or grSdi- march I mor- or mori- die I pot- or pSti- make 
or- ori- rise \ pat- ,, pati-5^?r! oneself master. 

Observe too that all these seventeen verbs have the vowel short. 



Present Tense. 
S. fugio fugis fugtt ; P. fuglmus fug!tis fugiunt. 

Past- Imperfect. 
S. fugiebam, fugiebas &c. 

S. fugiam fugies &c. 

* Declined like praesenti- or praesent-. See 219. 

| Declined like a neuter noun in o. J Only used in compounds. 

VERBS. 99 

Present. S. fug6 ; P. fuglte. 

S. 2. fuglto, 3. fuglto ; P. 2. fugitote, 3. fugiunto. 


Present Tense. Past Tense. 

S. fugiam fugias &c. S. fugerem fuggres <fcc. 

INFINITIVE, fugere. PARTICIPLE, fugienti- or fugient-. 

PARTICIPLE FUTURE, fugituro-. GERUND, fugiendo-. 

559 Observe that those forms, which have the vowel after g marked 
short, follow the consonant conjugation ; the others are derived as 
from a verb in i. 

500 In old writers such forms as capire, fodire, parlre &c. occur. 


Crude form of perfect, Sra-uis-. 


Present- Perfect or Aorist. 

S. iiraui Srauisti arauit ; P. araulmus 3,rauist!s aVauerunt 

or a'riluere'. 
S. Sraugram a'raue'ras Sraugrat ; P. Sraugramus araugratis Sr5- 


S. arauero Sraugrfs Srauerit ; P. Srauerfmus Srauerftis S,rau6rint.* 


Present- Perfect or Aorist. 

S. Sraugrim a"rau6r!s araugrit ; P. araugrimiis araugritis Sraugrint.* 

S. Srauissem Srauisses arauisset ; P. arauissemiis a"rauisset!s Sra- 



The conjugation of a perfect which takes the suffix s, instead 
of ute, differs solely in the absence of the u. See 584, 588, 590, 
613, 620, 628. 

* These two tenses are often confounded by Latin writers as regards 
the quantity of the . See 476. 

100 VERBS. 

563 The perfect tenses often undergo a contraction : as, 


Srauisti or jirasti 



Srauistls or Srastis 

Srauerunt or ftrarunt or arauerg. 

araueram or Sraram &c. 
arauero araro &c. 
aVauerim ,, ararim &c. 
cirauissem ,, Srassem <fcc. 
Srauisse ,, arassg. 

564 In the perfects of the i conjugation similar contractions oc- 
cur : as, 

audmi or audii 

audluistl, audiistl, or audisti 

audiuit or audiit 

audluimus or audiimiis 
audluistis, audiistis, or audistis 
audlueruut or audierunt, or 

audiuere or audiere. 
audlu^ram or audieram &c. 
audluero ,, audiero &c. 
audiuerini ,, audierira &c. 
audmissem 5 , audiissem or audissem &c. 
audluisse ,, audiisse or audisse'. 

565 If the crude form of the perfect have x or s before &, as dix-is-, 
the following contractions are found : 


dixistl or dixtl 



dixistis or dixtls 
dixerunt or dixerg. 

dixisseni or dixem &c. 
dixissS dixe &c. 

566 As the future-perfect of the indicative originally ended in eso, 
rather than ero, and the subjunctive perfect in esim, rather than 
erim, the following contractions, which occur in old writers, are 
explained : 

Ind. fut.-perf. faxo, faxls &c. for fecgro &c. 
Sulj. pres.-perf. faxim, faxis &c. fecerim &c. 
Sulj. past-perf. faxem*, faxes &c. fecissem &c. 

567 So again, Srasso, Srassls &c. for ftravgro &c. 

* See 1209/ note. 



568 From this future-perfect is formed an old infinitive future 

569 The gerund of the consonant and i conjugations often ends in 
undo, rather than endo ; as scribundo-. 



Last letter a 
Conjugation 1 














Present Tense. 

S. ornor 






S. ornabar 

dScebarfs or 


mgtuebarls or 





S. ornabSr 
ornabgrfs or 

doceberls or 

uorteris or 

mStueris or 

audierls or 



S. 2. ornarg 
P. 2. ornamlnl 








P. 3. ornantor 





* Arbitrdre, uidere, for arbitraris, uideris, occur. f O r vnetuontur. 

I There was also for the 2d and 3d person of the singular an old form 

inmmo; as fa-mmo, progredi-mmo. Or metuontor. 



Last letter a 
Conjugation 1 














Present Tense. 

S. orngr 
ornerfs or 

dScearis or 

uortaris or 

mgtuaris or 

audiarls or 





ornareris or 

docereiis or 

uortereris or 

metuereris or 

audireris or 

ornariSr or 

docerier or 

uortier or 

metuier or 

audlrier or 









INDICATIVE MOOD. Present Tense. 
V. morior moreris moritur ; P. morimiir morimim moriuntiir. 

Past- Imperfect. Future. 

S mSriebar moriebaris &c. S. moriar morierls &c. 


Present Tense. S. morgre ; P. monmmi. 

Future. S. 2. moritor, 3. morltor; P. 3. moriuntSr. 


Present Tense. Past Tense. 

S. moriar moriaris &c. S. mSrerer morereris &c. 

INFINITIVE, m5rl. PARTICIPLE, morienti- or mSrient -. 

PARTICIPLE FUTURE, morituro-. GERUND, mSriundo-. 

* The infinitives in er belong to the old language, 
t The reflective verbs have also participles in enti- or ent- and in 
turo-. J See 557. 



571. 1 In old writers such forms as moilmur and mtfrirl occur. 

572 Ori- (r.) rise, and poti- (r.) make oneself master, partake more of 
the i conjugation : as, orlrgr, Srlrl ; pStlris, p5titur, pStimur, pS- 
tirgr, ptftlrl. 

573 The perfect tenses of a reflective or passive verb are formed by 
the perfect participle in to and the verbs gs- or fu-. 



Present- Perfect or Aorist. 
or fill P. ornatif sumus or fulmus 

/S. ornatus*' sum 
ornatus 8s 
ornatus est 


ornati estls 
ornati sunt 

fuerunt or fuere. 

S. oruatiis gram or fueram P. ornati 8ramus or fueramiis 

ornatus eras 
ornatus erat 

S. ornatus ero 
ornatus eris 
ornatus erlt 

S, ornatus sim 
ornatus sis 
ornatus sit 

S. ornatus essem 
ornatus esses 
ornatus esset 


ornati gratis 
ornati grant 


or fugro P. ornati grlmus or fugrlmiis 


ornati gritls 

Present-Perfect or Aorist. 
or fuerim P. ornati simiis 
,, fugrls ornati sltis 


ornati sint 


or fugrlmiis 
,, fugrint. 


or fuissem P. ornati essemus or fuissenms 
,, fuisses 

,, fuisset 

ornati essent 


ornatus esse or fuissg. 

* Ornatus, ornata or ornatum^ to agree with the nominative, 
f Ornati, ornatae or ornata, to agree with the nominative. 

104 VERBS. 


575 C.P. SCR!B- write. 

Principal parts : scrlbere' scribo scripsl scriptum. 

Present Tense, scrib-. 

As a present-imperfect, am ing : 

Ad fratrem meum scribo, 1 am writing to my brother. 

Ad fratrem tuum scrlbis, You are writing to your brother. 

Ad fratrem suum scribit, He is writing to his brother. 

Ad fratrem nostrum scrlblmus, We are writing to our brother. 

Ad fratrem nostrum scrlbitls, You are writing to your brother. 

Ad fratrem suum scribunt, They are writing to their brother. 

576 as an historic present : 

Postgro die ad sSnem scribo, The next day I write to the old man. 

577 as a present of custom : 

Eg5 calamo scribo, / write with a reed. 

Tu pinna scrlbis, You write with a pen. 

578 as a present, translated by do : 

Egtf uero scribo, Yes I do write. 

Tu uero scrlbis, Yes you do write. 

579 as a present, including past time, have been ing : 

lam duas horas scribo, / have been writing now two hours. 

580 Past-Imperfect, scrlbeba-. 
As a past-imperfect, was ing : 

Scribebam cum puSr intrauit, / was writing when the boy came in. 

581 as a past tense of custom, used to : 

Eg5 calamo scrlbebam, / used^ to write with a reed. 

Tu pinna scrlbebas, You used to write with a pen. 

* That is, not reflective or passive, 
f Or ' I wrote,' &c. 

VERBS. 105 

582 as a past tense, including time preceding, had been 

ing : 

lam tris horas scribebam, / had been then writing three 


583 Future Tense, scriba- or scribe-. 
Translated by shall, will : 

Oras mauS scrlbam, / shall write tomorrow morning. 

Cras manS scribes, You will write tomorrow morning. 

Present-Perfect Tense, scripsls-. 

584 As a present-perfect, have en :* 

Quattuor gpistSlas scrips!, / have written four letters. 

585 as an aorist, translated by the English past : 

Hgri ad nggotiatorem scrips!, / wrote yesterday to tlie mer- 

586 as an aorist, translated by did : 

Eg5 uero scrips!, Yes I did write. 

Tu uero scripsisti, Yes you did write. 

587 as a present-perfect, translated by an English pre- 
sent : 

Ego si scrips!, rescrlblt, If 1 write, he writes again. 

Tu si scripsisti, rescriblt, If you write, he writes again. 

588 Past-Perfect, scripsera-. 
Translated by had en : 

Ante id tempus scripse'ram, / had written before that time. 

589 translated by an English past : 

Eg5 si scripse'ram, rescrlbebat, If I wrote, he wrote again. 
Tu si scripse'ras, rescribebat, If you wrote, he wrote again. 

* That is, the perfect participle of the English verb. 

106 VEllBS. 

590 Future-Perfect, scripser-. 
Translated by shall have en, will have en : 

AntS noctera scripsSro, I shall have written before night. 

Ant6 noctem scripsSris,* You will have written before night. 

591 translated by an English present : 

Ego si scripsero, rescribet, If I write, he will write again. 

Tu si scripseris, rescribet, If you write, he will write again. 


Present Tense. 
Translated by the simple verb : 

Scribe ad patrem tuum, Write to your father. 

Scribite ad patrem nostrum, Write to your father. 

593 Future Tense. 

Translated by shall, must, let ; or by the simple verb : 
Scrlbito, Thou shalt write. Scribltote, Ye shall write. 
Scrlbito, He shall write. Scribunto, They shall write. 

Present Tense, scriba-. 

As a present-imperfect, am ing (indirect interrogative) : 

Nescio quid scribam, / know not what I am writing. 

Nescio quid scribas, 1 know not what you are writing. 

595 translated by an indicative present (result) : 

IndS fit ut nihil de hac re scrl- Hence it happens that I write 

bam, nothing on this subject. 

IndS fit ut nihil de hac re scrlbas, Hence it happens that you write 

nothing on this subject. 

596 translated by do (concession) : 

Vt scrlbam, non est satis, Even granting that I do write, it is not 

Vt scrlbas, non est stis, Even granting that you do write, it is 

not enough. 

* But see, as regards the quantity of the i after r, 47G. 

VERBS. 107 

597 translated by should, would (hypothesis) ; 

Si pinnft mihi sit, scribam, If I had a pen, I would write. 

Si phmS, tlbi sit, scribas, If you had a pen, you would write. 

598 translated by were ing : 

Sgdeo hie, tanquam scribam, / sit here, as if I were writing. 
Sedes istlc, tanquam scribas, You sit there, as if you were writing. 
Sedet illic, tanquam scribat, He sits yonder, as if he were writing. 

599 translated by may (purpose) : 

PinnS, d&tur, qua* scribam, The pen is given me, that I may 

write^ with it. 

PinnS, datur, qua scrlbas, The pen is given you, that you may 

write with it. 

599. 1 translated by must or shall (command) : 

Lex est ut scribam, There is a law that I must write. 

Lex est ut scribas, There is a law that you must write. 

600 translated by to (indirect interrogative) : 

Nescio quid scribam, / know not what to write. 

Nescis quid scribas, You know not what to write. 

601 translated by shall, will : 

Puer tlmet ne scribam, The boy is afraid I shall write. 

Puer tmiet ne scrlbas, The loy is afraid you will write. 

602 translated by from ing : 

Hoc impgdit ne scribam, This prevents me from writing. 
Hoc impgdit ne scrlbas, This prevents you from writing, 

602. 1 translated by English infinitive : 

Sing scribam, Let me write. Sing scribamus, Let us write. 
Sing scribat, Let him write. Sine scribant, Let them write. 

* Literally, with which.' 
f Or rather, ' to write with.' 

108 VERBS. 

602. 2 translated by an English imperative : 

N scrlbam, Let me not write. Ne scrlbamus, Let us not write. 

Ne scrlbas, Do not write. Ne scrlbatls, Do not write. 

Ne" scrlbat, Let him not write. Ne scribant, Let them not write. 

603 Past Tense, scrlbgre-. 

As a past-imperfect, was ing (indirect interrogative) : 

Nesciebam quid scribe'rem, I knew not what I was writing. 
Nesciebam quid scrlberes, / knew not what you were writing. 

604 translated by an English past (result). 

Inde factum est ut nihil de hac Hence it happened that I wrote 

re scribe'rem, nothing on this subject. 

Inde factum est ut nihil de hac Hence it happened that you wrote 

re scribgres, nothing on this subject. 

605 translated by should or would have been ing (hy- 
pothesis) : 

Si pinnS mihi esset, scriberem, If there had been a pen for me, I 

should have been writing. 

Si pinnS, tlbi esset, scrlbe'res, If there had been a pen for you, 

you would have been writing. 

606 translated by had been ing : 

Sgdebam hie, tanquam scribe'rem, / was sitting here, as if I had 

been writing. 

SSdebas istlc, tanquam scribgres, You were sitting there, as if you 

had been writing. 

Sedebat illlc, tanquam scrlbe'ret, He was sitting yonder, as if he 

had been writing. 

607 translated by might (purpose) : 

PinnS, dta est qua* scribe'rem, The pen was given me, that Imight\ 

write with it. 
PinnS, dta est qua scribgres, The pen was given you, that you 

might write with it. 

* Literally, ' with which.' f Or rather, to write with.' 

VERB?. 109 

60S translated by must or should (command) : 

Lex grat ut scrlberem, There was a law that I must write. 

Lex grat ut scrlbgres, There was a law that you must write. 

609 translated by to (indirect interrogative) : 

Nesciebam quid scrlbgrem, / knew not what to write. 
Nesciebas quid scribgres, You knew not what to write. 

610 translated by should or would : 

Puer tlmebat ne scrlberem, The boy was afraid I should write. 
Puer tlmebat ne scrlberes, The boy was afraid you would write. 

611 translated by from ing : 

Hoc impgdiebat ne scrlberem, This prevented me from writing. 
Hoc impgdiebat ne scrlberes, This prevented you from writing. 

612 translated as a past order* : 

Ne scrlberem, (He bade) me not write. 

Ne scrlbgres, (He bade) you not write. 

613 Present-Perfect, scripseri-. 

As a present-perfect, have en (indirect interrogative) : 

Nescio quid scripsgrim, / know not what I have written. 

Nescis quid scripserlst, You know not what you have written. 

614 as an aorist (indirect interrogative) : 

Nescio quid herl scripsgrim, I know not what I wrote yesterday. 
Nescis quid her! scripserls, You know not what youwrote yesterday. 

615 translated by may have en : 

Forsltan nimium scripsgrim, Perhaps I may have written too much, 
Forsitan nimium scripsgrls, Perhaps you may have written too much. 

* In reported speech. 

t But see, as regards the quantity of the i after r, 476. 

110 VERBS. 

616 as a future-perfect after a present, translated by an 

English present (reported speech) : 

Caesar polllcetur se, si scripse'rim, Caesar promises that if 1 write, he 

rescripturum, will write again. 

Caesar polllcetur se, si scripseris, Caesar promises that if you write, 

rescripturum, he will write again. 

617 translated by were to , or English past tense (hy- 
pothesis) : 

Si* scripse'rim d eum, rgdeat, If I were to writeft to him, Jte would 

Si scripsgris ad eum, rSdeat, If you were to write to him, he would 


618 translated by should, would (consequence of hypothesis) : 

Frustra scripse'rim, I should write in vain. 

Frustra scripsSrls, You would write in vain. 

619 translated by had en : 

S&leo hie, tanquam gpistolam I sit here, as if I had written the 

perscripserim J, whole letter. 

SSdes istic, tanquam Spistolam You sit there, as if you had writ- 

perscripsSris, ten the whole letter. 

SSdet illic, tanquam epistolam He sits yonder, as if 'he had writ- 

perscripserit, ten the whole letter. 

620 translated as an imperative : 

Id nunquam scripse'rim, Let me never write that. 

Id nunquam scripseris, Never write that. 

Id nunquam scripserit, Let him never write that. 

* This si might be omitted. Thus in the English too we might drop 
the if, and say, ' were I to write to him,' &c. 

t Or, ' if I wrote,' &c. 

J Per-scrib- literally signifies ' write through, write to the end.' 


621 Past-Perfect, scripsisse"-. 

As a past-perfect, translated by had en (indirect inter- 
rogative) : 

Quaesltum est, utrum scripsissem, The question was asked, whe- 
ther I had written. 

Quaesltum est, utrum scripsisses, The question was asked, whe- 
ther you had written. 

622 as a future-perfect after a past, translated by an English 

past (reported speech) : 

Caesar polllcebatur se, si scripsis- Ocesar promised that if J wrote, 

sem, rescripturum, he would write again. 

Caesar polllcebatur se, si scripsis- Caesar promised that if you 

ses, rescripturum, wrote, he would write again. 

623 translated by had en (hypothesis) : 

Etiamsl scripsissem, frustra esset, Even if I had written, it would 

have been in vain. 

Etiamsi scripsisses, frustra esset, Even if you had written, it 

would have been in vain. 

624 translated by should have, would have (consequence of 

hypothesis) : 

Turn* qutfqug scripsissem, Even in that case* I should have written. 
Turn quSqug scripsisses, Even in that case you would have written. 

Translated by an English infinitive : 

Debeo scribe're', / ought to write. 

Ngqueo scribe're', / cannot write. 

626 translated as an English indicative : 

Scio eum scriberg, I know that he is writing. 

Sciebam eum scriberg, 1 knew that he was writing. 

627 translated by an English perfect infinitive : 

Debebam scrlbgrg, / ought to have written. 

* Literally then.' 

11- VERBS. 

628 INFINITIVE PERFECT, scripsissg. 

Translated by an English perfect infinitive : 

Scripsisse dlcltiir, lie is said to have written. 

G29 translated by an English indicative : 

Scio eum scripsissg, / know that he has written. 

Scio eum herl scripsissg, I know that he wrote yesterday. 

Sciebam eum scripsissg, / knew that he had written. 

630 translated by the having en : 

Scripsisse exitio el fuit, The having written was fatal to him. 

631 PARTICIPLE IMPERFECT, scrlbenti- or scrlbent-. 
Translated by ing : 

Sgnex gpistolam scribens decldit, The old man, while writing a 

letter, fell down. 

632 PARTICIPLE FUTURE, scripturo-. 
Translated by about to , intending to : 

Ad ipsuni eras scripturus, haec Intending to write to himself to- 
nunc 5mitto, morrow, 1 pass over these things 

632. 1 Dlco me scripturum esse, / say that I will write. 

Dixl me scripturum essg, 1 said that I would write. 
632. 2 Dixl me scripturum fuissg, I said that I would have written. 

633 translated as an intention not fulfilled : 

Habebam el gratias, scripturus* 1 felt grateful to him, and should 
quoqug, nisi aegrotarem, have written toj, if I had not 

been ill. 

634 GERUND, scrlbendo-. 
Translated by ing : 

N. Mihi est scribendum gpisttf- To me belongs the writing the 

last, letters. 

Ac. Dellgitur ad scribendum He is selected for writing the 

gpistSlast, letters. 

* See also the conjugation of the verb/w- with the participle in turo. 
f Most of these constructions are confined to the old writers. See 
the use of the Gerundive, 1287. 

VERBS. 113 

G. Veni epistolas scrlbendi caussa, 1 came for the sake of writing 

the letters. 

P. Aptiis est scrlbendo episttflas*, He is fit for writing letters. 
Ab. Scrlbendot epistolas occupa- He is engaged in writing letters. 
tus est, 

G35 SUPINE, scriptu-. 

Translated as an English infinitive : 

Ac. Eo illuc scriptum, I am going yonder to write. 

Ab. Hae littgrae diffMles sunt These letters are difficult to write. 


636 Anna- (r.\ arm oneself. 
Principal parts : armarl, armor, armatiis. 


Present Tense, am arming myself, arm myself, &c. 

Armor, / am arming myself. 

Armarfs or armargj, You are arming yourself. 

Armatiir, He is arming himself. 

Armanrar, We are arming ourselves. 

Armammi, You are arming yourselves. 

Armantiir, They are arming themselves 

638 Past- Imperfect, was arming myself, &c. 
Armabar, / was arming myself. 
Armabaris or armabarS, You were arming yourself. 
Armabatur, He was arming himself. 
Armabamur, We were arming ourselves. 
Armabamlnl, You were arming yourselves. 
Armabantiir, They were arming themselves. 

* See note f p. 112. 

f This form of the Gerund, although an ablative, is often shortened 
in late writers, as uigilando (Juv. 3. 232). 

The form in re is not common for the present indicative ; it may 
be from fear of confusion with the infinitive. 

114 VERES. 

639 Future, shall or will arm myself, &c. 
Armabor, I shall arm myself . 
Armabe'ris or armaberS, You will arm yourself 
Armabltur, He will arm himself. 
Armablmui-, We shall arm ourselves. 
Armablmml, You will arm yourselves. 
Armabuntiir, They will arm themselves. 

640 Present-Perfect, have armed myself, &c. (or Aorist, armed myself.) 

Armatus* sum, / have armed myself. 

Armatus* 8s, You have armed yourself. 

Armatus* est, He has armed himself. 

Armatif sumus, We have armed ourselves. 

Armatif estls, You have armed yourselves. 

Armatit sunt, They have armed themselves. 

641 Past-Perfect, had armed myself, &c. 
Armatus gram , / had armed myself. 
Armatus eras, You had armed yourtdf. 
Armatus erat, He had armed himself. 
Armati eramus, We had armed ourselves. 
Armati gratis, You had armed yourselves. 
Armati erant, They had armed themselves. 

642 Future- Perfect, shall have armed myself, <kc. 
Armatus ero, J shall have armed myself. 
Armatus erSs, You will have armed yourself. 
Armatus Srlt, He will have armed himself. 
Armati erinms, We shall have armed ourselves. 
Armati eritis, You will have armed yourselves. 
Armati Srunt, They will have armed themselves. 


ArmarS, Arm yourself . \ Armamlnl, A rm yourselves. 

Armatd if the nominative be feminine, armatum if it be neuter. 
f Armatae if the nominative be feminine, armatti, if it be neuter. 
&c. Or fnero, &c. 

TERBS. 115 

644 Future. 

Armator or armamlno, You must arm yourself. 

Armator or armamlno, He must arm himself. 

Armantor, ' They must arm themselves. 


Present. (See the several translations of scriba-m.) 
Consul impSrat tit armer, The consul commands me to arm myself. 
Consul impgrat ut armerfs The consul commands you to army our- 
or armerg, self. 

646 Past. (See the several translations of scribere-m.) 
Consul impSrauit fit armarer, The consul commanded me to arm 


Consul imperauit ut armarerls The consul commanded you to arm 
or armarere', yourself. 

647 Present- Perfect. (See the several translations of scripseri-m.) 

Nescio quare armatus sim, 1 know not why I have armed myself. 
Nescio quare armatus sis, / know not why you have armed yourself. 

648 Past-Perfect. (See the several translations of scripsisse-m.) 
Nesciebam quare armatus essem, / knew not why I luad armed 


Nesciebam quare armatus esses, I knew not why you had armed 



Debeo armari, / ought to arm myself. 

Scio eum armari, / know tluit he is arming himself. 

Sciebam eum armari, I knew that he was arming himself. 

Armari signum belli est, To arm oneself is a sign of war. 

Debebam armari, / ought to have armed myself. 


Scio eum armatum essg, / know that he has armed himself. 
Sciebam eum armatum essg, / knew that he had armed himself. 
Scio eum armatum fore, I know that he will have armed himself. 

116 VERBS. 

Armanti- or armant-, (While) arming oneself. 

Armato-, Having armed oneself. 

Armature--, About to arm oneself. 

654 GERUND. 
Armando-, Arming oneself. 


Prgm- press. 

Principal parts : premi, prSmor, pressus. 

655 Pres. Prgmor* / am pressed, premeris you are pressed, prgmltur 
he is pressed. Preralmur we are pressed, prgmlminl you are pressed, 
premimtiir they are pressed. 

656 Past. Prernebarf / was pressed, premebarfs or premebare you 
were pressed, premebatiir he was pressed. Premebamur we were 
pressed, premebfiminl you were pressed, premebautur they were 

657 Future. Premar I shall be pressed, premeiis or premerg you will 
be pressed, premetur he will be pressed. Prememur we shall be 
pressed, prgmemlnl you will be pressed, prementur they will be 

* With many verbs this translation would not give the meaning, and 
indeed the English passive is defective in the imperfect tenses. Thus 
domus aedificatur means, not 'the house is built,' for that would imply 
that the building is completed, but ' the house is being built' or ' is a-build- 
ing ;' but of these two phrases, the first is scarcely English, and the second 
is obsolete. Again, such a verb as occldor must not be translated ' 1 am 
killed, 1 but rather ' I am on the point of being killed.' 

f Similarly, domus aedificabatur would signify * the house was being 
built' or ' was a-building.' So occtdebar must not be translated ' I was 
killed,' but rather ' I was on the point of being killed.' 

VERBS. 117 

658 Pres.-perf. Pressus* sumf 1 have been pressed^, pressus 

have been pressed, pressus est he has been pressed. Press! sumiis 
we have been pressed, press! estis you have been pressed, pressl sunt 
they have been pressed. 

659 Past-perf. Pressus* eram 1 had been pressed\\, pressus eras you 
had been pressed, pressus erat he had been pressed. Press! Sramus 

, press! eratis you had been pressed, press! grant 

660 Fut.-perf. Pressus* SroU I shall have been pressed, pressus eris 
you will have been pressed, pressus erit he will have been pressed. 
Press! grfmus we shall have been pressed, press! eritls you will have 
been pressed, press! grunt they will have been pressed. 


661 Present. Preme're be thou pressed, prgmiminl be ye pressed. 

662 Future. Pr&mitcr thou shalt be pressed, prgmltor he shall be 
pressed. Premuntor they shall be pressed. 


Present Tense. Res eo rediit, ut malis premar, Matters are come 
to this, that 1 am pressed with troubles. 

664 Ego si tot malis premar, peream, If I were pressed by so many 
troubles, I should die. 

665 Turn nlmium premar, In that case I should be too much pressed. 

666 Tlmflr est ne prgmar, The fear is that I shall be pressed. 

667 Stat per Caium, quominus premar, Gains prevents me from 

668 Nitor ne prgmar, / am striving not to be pressed. 

669 Past Tense. Tim5r grat ne prgmgrer, There was a fear that I 
should be pressed. 

670 Res eo redigrat, ut m&lis pre'me'rer, Matters had come to this, 
that I was pressed with troubles. 

* i. e. Pressus, -, or -urn. 

f Or as an aorist, ' I was pressed,' &c. 

J With some verbs the translation ' is ed' is admissible. Thus 

domus aedificata est means * the house is built' or ' the building is now- 
completed.' Occisus sum, 'I am killed.' Orfueram, &c. 

|| With some verbs this tense may be translated 'was ed.' Thus, 

domus iam aedificata era t, ' the house was now built,' i.e. the building 
was completed. 

^ Orfuero, &c. 

118 VEKBS. 

671 Eg5 si tot mails prgmgrer, perirem, If I had been pressed with 
so many troubles, I should have died. 

672 Turn nlmium prSmSrer, In that case I should have been too much 

673 Stetit per Caium, ne prgmerer, Caius prevented me from being 

674 Nltebar ne prgmerer, 1 was striving not to be pressed. 

675 Pres.-perf. Nescit, quam grauiter pressus sim, He knows not 
how heavily I have been pressed. 

676 As an Aorist. Nemo scit, quantis turn mails pressus sim, No 
one knows with what great troubles 1 was then pressed. 

677 Si pressus sirn, cedam, If I were pressed ', I should give way. 

678 Palleo, tanquam ab urso pressus sim, / look pale, as if I had 
been pressed by a bear. 

679 Nequlquam pressus sim, 1 should be pressed to no purpose. 

6SO Scit me, si malo pressus sim, tamen incolumem euasurum, He 
knows that if I am pressed by trouble, still I shall come out unhurt. 

Past-perf. Nesciebat, quam grauiter pressus essem, He knew 
not how heavily I had been pressed. 

632 Nequlquam pressus essem, / should have been pressed to no pur- 

683 Sciebat me, si malo pressus essem, ta"men nunquam cessurum, 
He knew that if I were pressed by trouble, still I should never yield. 

684 INFINITIVE IMPERFECT. Prml to be pressed. 

INFINITIVE PERFECT. Pressus* essS to have been pressed. 
PARTICIPLE IMPERFECT. Premendo- being pressed or to be pressed. 
PARTICIPLE PERFECT. Presso- pressed. 


C.F. ^C^i- follow. 

Principal parts : sSqui, sgquor, sgcutiis. 

633 Present. Sgquor I follow, sequgris you follow, sgqultiir he fol- 
lows. Sequlmiir we follow, sequiminl you follow, sSquunturf they 

* The case and gender will vary with the sentence. 
f The forms sequontur and secuntur also occur. 

VERBS. 119 

687 Past. SSquebar / was following, sSquebarls or sSqugbare' you 
were following, sSquebatiir fa was following . Sequebamtir we were 
following, sSquebamln! you were following, sgquebautur they were 

688 Future. SSquar I shall follow, sgquerfs or se'quere' you will fol- 
low, sSquetur he will follow. Sequemur we shall follow, sSquemlnl 
you will follow, sequenttir they will follow. 

689 Pres.-perf. S6cutus* sum I have followed*; , sScutus 6s you Jiave 
followed, sScutus est he has followed. SecutlJ siimus we have fol- 
lowed, sScuti estls you have followed, sScuti sunt they have followed. 

690 Past-perf. SScutus* gram I had followed, sgcutus gras^ow had 
followed, sgcutiis erat lie had followed. Secuti$ gramus we had fol- 
lowed, secuti gratis you had followed, sSciiti 6raut they had followed. 

691 Fut.-perf. Secutiis* gro|| I shall have followed, sgcuttis 6ris you 
will have followed, sgcuttis erft he will have followed. Secuti J 6ri- 
mus we shall have followed, sScuti iritis you will have followed, 
sgciiti erunt they will have followed. 


692 Present. S$qu&r% follow thou, %Q^m\nl follow ye. 

693 Future. SSquItor or sequlmlno thou shalt follow, sSqultor or 
sequlmlno he shall follow. SScuntor they shall follow. 


Present. S8quar, sgquaiis or sgquarS, sgquatur ; sgquamur, 
sSquaminl, sgquantur. 

695 Past. Sgqugrer, sgqugrerls or s6qu6rgrg, sgquSrettir; sgquere- 
mur, sgqugremlni, sgqugrentiir. 

696 Pres. -perf. Sgcutus sim**, secutus sis, sgcutus sit ; sScuti sl- 
miis, sScuti sltls, sSctiti sint. 

697 Past-perf. SScutiis essemff, sgcutus esses, sgcutus esset ; sScuti 
essemiis, s^cuti essetls, secuti essent. 

* Secutus, -a, -urn, according to the gender of the nominative. 

f Or as an aorist, * I followed,' &c. 

J Secuti, -ae, -a, according to the gender of the nominative. 

Orfueram, &c. || Or fuero, &c. 

^[ For the English translation, see the mode of translating scriba-m, 
&c. 594-624 ; and observe that Deponent verbs are translated by 
English active verbs. 

** Orfuerim, &c. ff Qrfuixisem, &c. 

1 20 VERBS. 

61)8 INFINITIVE. SSqui to follow. 

INFINITIVE PERFECT. Secutus ess to have followed. 
PARTICIPLE IMPERFECT. SSquenti- or sequent- following. 
PARTICIPLE and GERUND. Sgquendo- following. 
PARTICIPLE PERFECT. SScuto- having followed. 


C.F. Plu- rain. 

Present. Pluit it rains. 

Past. Pluebat it was raining. 

Future. Pluet it will rain. 

Pres.-perf. Pluuit it has rained, or 

As an Aorist. Pluait it rained. 

Past-perf. PluuSrat it had rained. 

Fut.-perf. Pluugrit it will have rained, &c. 


OF THE FEELINGS. (See 393.) 

C.F. Ptide- shame. 



Piidet me ignauiae, / am ashamed of my cowardice. 
Piidet te ignauiae, You are ashamed of your cowardice. 
Piidet eum ignauiae, He is ashamed of his cowardice. 

Pudet nos ignauiae, We are ashamed of our cowardice. 
Piidet uos ignauiae, You are ashamed of your cowardice. 
Piidet eos ignauiae, They are ashamed of their cowardice. 


Pudebat me ignauiae, I was ashamed of my cowardice. 
Piidebat te ignauiae, You were ashamed of your cowardice, &c. 


Piidebit me ignauiae, 1 shall be ashamed of my cowardice. 
Piidebit te ignauiae, You will be ashamed of your cowardice, &c. 

VERBS. 121 

701 Conjugation, in part, of a Passive Impersonal Verb; 

C.P. Resist- stand against, make opposition, oppose. 


RSsistltur mihi, Opposition is made to me, or / am opposed. 
Rgsistitur tlbi, Opposition is made to you, or you are opposed. 
Resistitur el, Opposition is made to him, or he is opposed. 

Resistitur nobis, Opposition is made to us, or we are opposed. 
Resistitur uobis, Opposition is made to you, or you are opposed. 
RSsistitur els, Opposition is made to them, or they are opposed. 

Past. Resistebatur mihi, Opposition was made to me, or I was 

Resistebatur tlbi, Opposition was made to you, or you were op- 
posed, <fec. 

Future. RSsistetur mihi, Opposition will be made to me, or / 
shall be opposed. 

Rgsistetur tlbi, Opposition will be made to you, or you will be 
opposed, &c. 

Pres. -perf. Restitum mihi est, Opposition has been made to me, 
or I have been opposed.^ 

Restitum tibi est, Opposition has been made to you, or you have 
been opposed, &c. 

Past-perf. Restitum mihi 8rat, Opposition had been made to me, 
or / had been opposed. 

Restitum tlbi erat, Opposition had been made to you, or you had 
been opposed, &c. 

702 Conjugation, in part, of the participle in turo with the verbs 
8s- and fu- be in the sense of intention or destiny. 


With the present of 8s-, intend to . 

Nihll acturus sum, / intend to do nothing. 

* i.e. 1 All this time' or * for a time.' This tense must not be con- 
founded with the aorist. 

t Or as an aorist, ' Opposition was made to me,' &c. 

122 VERBS. 

am destined to . 

Quid tlmeam, si beatus futurus sum ? What am I to fear, if I 
am destined to be happy ? 

703 With the Past of gs-, intended to . 

Nihll acturus eram, I intended to do nothing. 

was destined to 

Quid tlmerem, si beatus futurus eram ? What was I to fear, if 
1 vas destined to be happy ? 

705 With the Perf. of fu-, intended to , and should have done 

so, if . 

Dsdltos, occlsurus ful, If they had been given up, I should have 
killed them. 

was destined to , and should have done so, if . 

Nisi reuertissem, intgrlturus ful, If I had not turned back. I 
should have perished. 

706 With the Past-perf. of fu-, had intended to , and would 

have done so, if . 

Quam uim latro mihi fugrat illaturiis, In ipsum conuertl, The 
violence which the robber had intended to direct against me, I turned 
against himself. 


With the Pres. of gs-, intend to . 

Scrlbam quid acturus sim, / will write word what I intend 
to do. 

am destined to . 

Nescio quando sim mSrlturus, I know not when I am to die. 

708 With the Past of gs-, intended to . 

Scrips! quid acturus essem, / wrote word what J intended to do. 


was destined to . 

Nesciebam quando essem mtfrlturus, / knew not when I was to 

VERBS. 123 

709 With the Perf. of fu-, intended to, and should have done so, 


Quis diibitat quin deditos occisurus fuerim ? Who doubts but 
that) if they had been given up, I should have killed them ? 

was destined to, and should have done so, if . 

S6quitiir ut nisi reuertissem, int6riturus fugrim, It follows that 
if 1 had not turned back, I should have perished. 

710 With the Infinitive of 6s-, intend to . 

Scio* eum nihil acturum esse, / know* that he intends* to do 

is destined to . 

Scio omnes homines mSrituros esse, / know that all men are 
destined to die. 

711 With the Perf. -inf. of fu-, intended to , and should have 

done so, if . 

Fama est me deditos occisurum fuiss6, There is a report that if 
they had been given up, I should have killed them. 

was destined to , and should have done so, if . 

Certum est me nisi reuertissem, int6rlturum fuiss6, It is cer- 
tain that if I had not turned back, I should have perished. 

712 Conjugation of the participle in endo when used with the verb 
6s- and fu- be in the sense of duty or necessity. 

With the Pres. of 6s-. 

Mihi omnia uno tempo'rS sunt SgendS,, / have every thing to do 
at once. 

713 With the Past of 6s-. 

Mihi omnia uno temp5re 6rant SgendS, I had every thing to do 
at once. 

714 With the Fut. of 6s-. 

Mihi omnia uno tempSre 6runt agenda", / shall have every thing 
to do at once. 

* After a past tense, as sciebam I knew,' the infinitive would be 
translated by ' intended' or ' were destined.' 



715 With the Pres.-perf. of fu-. 

Nisi firmata extrema agminis fuissent, ingens clades acclpienda 
fuit, If the rear of the line of march had not been strengthened, a 
tremendous blow must have been received. 

Ab Alexamgno fuit habenda oratio, The speech was to have been 
made by Alexamenus, (but as he is now dead) &c. 

716 With the Past-perf. of fu-. 

Ab Alexaineno fuerat habenda oratio, The speech was to have 
been made by Akxamenus, (but as he was then dead) &c. 

With the Pres of gs-. 

Nescio quid sit nobis agendum, 1 know not what we ought to do. 

718 With the Past of es-. 

Nesciebam quid esset nobis agendum, 1 knew not what we ought 
to do. 

719 With the Pres.-perf. of fu-. 

Hoc haud dubium fecit quin nisi firmata extrema agminis 
fuissent, ingens clades accipienda fugrit, This made it certain that 
if the rear of the line of march had not been strengthened, a tremen- 
dous blow must have been received. 

With Imperf. of 6s-. 

Sentit diffgrendum esse In aestatem bellum, He feels that the 
war must be put off to the summer. 

721 With the Perf. of fu-. 

Hoc scio, nisi rSuertisset, In illo ei conclaul cubandum fuissS, 
This 1 know, that if he had not turned back, he would have had to 
sleep in that chamber. 



The verb es- means, first, eat; secondly, live; thirdly, exist for 
the senses, be ; fourthly, exist for the mind, be. In the first sense 
the forms in use are as follows : 



6s- eat. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. Present. S. es you eat, est he eats ; P. estts 
you eat. 

IMPERATIVE. Present. S. es* eat thou ; P. estg eat ye. 

Future. S. esto thou shalt eat, esto he shall eat; P. estote ye 
shall eat. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Past. S. essem esses esset; P. essemus essetis 

INFINITIVE. essS to eat.\ 

PASSIVE. Indie. Pres. S. 3. estur. Subj. Past. S. 3. essetur. 

722. 1 The same forms exist for several of the compounds, as comgs- 
eat up, whence cSrnes, comest, comestis, cSmesse. 

722.2 The verb ed- eat is but a variety of 8s- eat. It is declined 
regularly, except that for the subj. pres., besides the regular gdam 
&c. it has also an old form edim, edls &c. 



S. sum lam 
gst you are 
est J he is 

P. sumus we are 
estls you are 
sunt they are 

8s- or fu- be. 

(a) Imperfect Tenses. 



S. 6ram I was 
6ras you were 
Srat he was 
P. gramus we were 
gratis you were 
grant they were 


S. er5 I shall be 
grfs you will be 
grft he will be 

P. grfmiis we shall be 
erltis you will be 
grunt they will be. 


Present. S. gs be; P. estg be. 

Future. S. esto thou shalt be, esto he shall be; P. estotg ye 
shall be, sunto they shall be. 

* The quantity is not proved by the authority of any poet, but in- 
ferred from the statements of the grammarians Priscian (ix. 1, 11) and 
Servius (ad Aen. v. 785). 

f Thus it appears that forms which begin with es, and these alone, 
are used with the double sense of ' eat' and * be.' 

J Es and est often lose the e, as sanw's, iussu's, for sanus es, iussiis 
es ; bonust, bonast^ bonumst, for bonus est, bona est, bonum est ; quantist 
for quanti est; umbra's dmantmn, Plant. Mil. in. 1. 31. 




/S. sim 1 am 

sis you are 

sit he is 

P. slmus we are 

sitls you are 

sint they are 


S. essem 


P. essemiis 



e ; fore" 

at. Or 

I was 

S. forem 

you were 
he was 


we were 


you were 
they -were 


future- about to be. 


(b) Perfect Tenses. 

S. ful 1 have been 
fuisti you have been 
fuit he has been 

S. fui I was 
fuisti T/OW 
fuit he was 

S. fuSram 7 had been 
fuSras yew Ac? been 
fu8rat he had been 


P. fulmus we have been 

fuistls you have been 

fuerunt or fuere they have been. 

Or as Aorist. 

P. fulmus we were 

fuistls you were 

fuerunt or fuerS they were. 


P. fueramus we liad been 
fugratls you had been 
fuSrant tJiey had been. 


S. fugro I shall have been 
fueris you will have been 
fugrlt he will have been 

P. fuSrlmus we shall have been 
fuMtis you will have been 
fuSrint they will have been. 

* For the other meanings of the subjunctive tenses see the conjuga- 
tion of scribam^ &c. 

VERBS. 127 


S. fugrini / have been 

fuSris you have been 
fugrit he has been 

P. fuerlmus we have been 
fuSrltls you have been 
fuSrint they have been. 

Or as Aorist. 

* fugrim I was 
fueris you 'were 
fuerit he was 

P. fuerimus we were 
fueritls you were 
fuSrint they were. 


tS. f uissem / had been 
fuisses you had been 
fuisset he had been 

P. fuissemus we had been 
fuissetls you had been 
fuissent they had been. 

f uissS to have been, was or had been. 

724 As regards quantity, a. Es is often long in old writers (as 
Plautus, Mil. Gl. in. 1. 30), which agrees with the formation from 
esis (eis), with es eat, and with the Greek cis. b. For the quantity 
of the i after r in fueris, fuerimus, fuSritls, of the indicative and 
subjunctive, see 476. 

725 Old forms are, a. 6sum / am, gsumus, gsunt, Ssim &c. (see 
Varr. L. L. ix. 57), which are in nearer agreement with the root 
es-. b. simus for sumus (comp. scriblmus) was used by Augustus 
(Suet. Aug. 87). c. escit, an inceptive present ( 752), occurs in 
old writings (as xn. Tab. ap. Gell. xx. 1. 25, Lucr. i. 612) as a 
future. So indeed the whole future tense ero, 8rls &c. is in form 
a mere present. Compare also ftfre' (=fugr6), a present in form, a 
future in meaning, d. A fuller form of the subjunctive present, 
siem, sies &c., is common in the older writers, e. Another form 
of the present subjunctive, used in old writers, is S. fuam, fuas, 
fuat ; P. fuant. /. The past subjunctive S. ftfrexn, ftfres, foret ; 
P. fSrent sometimes takes the place of essem in classical writers, 
especially in hypothetical sentences ( 1209), and those which de- 
note a purpose (1179). It also occurs in compound tenses for 
essem, but not in Cicero.* g. In the perfect tenses a fuller form, 

* This From Madvig. 

128 VERBS. 

fu-uis- existed for the older writers, as fuuimiis (Enn. ap. Cic. de 
Or. in. 42), fuuisset (Enn. ap. Gell. xn. 4. 4). h. An imperfect 
participle enti- (N. ens) is attributed to Caesar by Priscian. The 
compounds praesenti- present, absenti- absent, for prae-Ss-enti-, 
ab-Ss-enti, are in form participles, in meaning adjectives. So also 
consentes for cSn-gs-entes, in the phrase, Dl consentes, literally 
the united gods. In late philosophical writings ens is used as a 
substantive for a thing. 

727 Es- or fu- compounded with pro or prod, be profitable. 
INDICATIVE. Pres. 8. Prosum prodes prodest, P. prosumus 

prodestis prosunt. Past. S. Proderam proderas (fee. Put. S. 
Prodero prodMs (fee. Pres.-perf. Profui &c. Past-perf. Profug- 
ram &c. Fut-perf. Profuero (fee. 

IMPERATIVE probably not in use. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Pres. Prosim &c. Past. Prodessem &c. Prcs.- 
perf. Profugrim (fee. Past-perf. Profuissem &c. 

INFINITIVE. Imperf. ProdessS. Per/. Profuissg. 

PARTICIPLE. Fut. Profuturo-, 

728 Es- or fu-, compounded with the adjective pftti- or pSt-, be 

able, can. 

INDICATIVE. Pres. S. Possum potSs p5test, P. possumiis pS- 
testls possunt. Past. S. Poteram poteras p5t8rat, P. pStgramus 
pSteratls poterant. Fut. S. Poterd pSteris ptfterft, P pStSrimfis 
poterltls poterunt. Pres.-perf. Potul p5tuistl &c. Past-perf. P6- 
tueram (fee. Fut.-perf. S. PotuerS p5tu6ris potugrlt, P. p5tu6- 
rimus pStuMtls potuerint. 

IMPERATIVE not in use. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Pres. Possim possis (fee. Past. Possem posses 
&c. Pres.-perf. S. Potuerim potueris ptftugrit, P. potugrlmus 
potugrltls p6tu8rint. Past-perf. Potuissem pStuisses &c. 

INFINITIVE. Imperf. Posse (used sometimes as a future, will 
be able}. Perf. P3tuiss6. 

PARTICIPLE. Ptftenti-* or p5tent-. 

729 F6r- bring. (For the perfect tenses see 540.; 
INDICATIVE. Pres. S. FSro fers fert, P. fgrlmus fertis fSrunt. 

Past-imp. Ferebarn (fee. Fut. Fgram (fee. 

* This is used rather as an adjective than as a participle. 

VERBS. 129 

IMPERATIVE. Pres. S. Fer, P. fertS. Put. S. Ferto ferto, P. 
fertotg fgrunto. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Pres. Fgram <fec. Past. Ferrem <fcc. 

INFINITIVE. Ferrg. Part. Ferenti- or fgrent-. Gerund. F&- 

The passive is regular except in the indie, pres. ferris, fertur ; 
imperative fertor ; subj.past ferrer <fec. ; infin. fern ; and part.perf. 

730 Inqu- or inqui- say has only IND. Pres. S. inquam inquis in- 
quit, P. inquimus inqultls inquiunt. Past-imperf. 

inquiebat. Fut. inquies inquiet. Perf. inquistl in- 

IMPERAT. Pres. S. inquS. Fut. inqulto. The present inquam 
is only used in repeating a phrase, I say, I tell you once more ; and 
inquit says he or said he introduces a direct speech, and always 
follows one or two words of this speech. 

731 Ced- give, tell, only used in the imperative present. 
S. Cgd5 give (me), tell (me} ; P. cettg give (me), tell (me). 

732 Da- put or give. 

INDICATIVE. Pres. S. Do das dat, P. d&mus dStls dant. Past- 
imp. DS,bam &c. Fut. Dabo &c. Pres.-perf. Dedl &c. Past- 
perf. Dederam &c. Fut.-perf. dgdgro <fec. 

IMPERATIVE. Pres. S. Da, P. d^tg. Fut. S. Daio dSto, P. 
datotg danto. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Pres. S. Dem des det, P. demus detls dent. 
Past-imperf. Darem &c. Pres.-perf. Dedgrim &c. Past-perf. 
Dedissem &c. 

INFINITIVE. Imperf. DSrg. Perf. Dgdissg. 

PARTICIPLE. Imperf. Danti- or dant-. Fut. DSturo-. GE- 
RUND. Dando-. 

The Subj. Pres. has also an old form, duim, duis &c., from a 
crude form du-. 

733 V61- or ugl- wish. 

INDICATIVE. Pres. S. Volo uls uolt or uult, P. uoliimus uoltls 
or uultls uSlunt. Past-imp. Volebam &c. Fut. V51am udles &c. 
Pres.-perf. V51ul &c. Past-perf. Volugram &c. Fut.-perf. V5- 
lugro &c. 


130 YEBBS. 

IMPERATIVE not in use. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Pres. S. Velim uelis uelit, P. uelimiis uelitls 
uelint. Past. Vellem uelles &c. Pres. -perf. VSluerim &e. Past- 
perf. Voluissem &c. 

INFINITIVE. Imperf. Velle. Perf. Voluisse". 

PARTICIPLE. Imperf. Volenti- or uolent-. GERUND. V&lendo-. 

734 Nguol- or nol- be unwilling, a compound of ne or ndn and uol-. 

INDICATIVE. Pres. S. Nolo neuis* or nonuls nguolt* or non- 
uoltf, P. nolumus neuoltls* or nonuoltist nolunt. Past-imp. 

Nolebam <fec. Fut. noles nolet &c. Pres. -perf. Nolul &c. 

Past-perf. Nolueram &c. Fut. -perf. Nolugro &c. 

IMPERATIVE. Pres. S. Noli, P. nolitS. Fut. S. Nollto, P. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Pres. Nolim noils <fec. Past. Nollem <fec. Pres.- 
perf. NoluSrim &c. Past-perf. Noluissem &c. 

INFINITIVE. Imperf. Nolle. Per/". NoluissS. 

PARTICIPLE. Imperf. Nolenti- or nolent-. GERUND. Nolendo-. 

735 Mauol- or mal- prefer, a compound of mgg and u61-. 

INDICATIVE. P^. /SI Mautflot or malo mauls mauolt, P, 
malumus mauoltls mauoluntt or malunt. Past-imp. Malebam. 

<fcc. ^W. males malet &c. Pres. -perf. Malui&c. Past-perf. 

MaluSram <fec. Fut. -perf. MaluSro &c. 

IMPERATIVE not in use. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Pres. Mauelimt or malim malls &c. Past. 
Mauellemt or mallem &c. Pres. -perf. Malugrim &c. Past-perf. 
Maluissem &c. 

INFINITIVE. Imperf. MauellSt or mallS. Perf. MaluissS. 

736 Fi- become, used in the imperfect tenses as a passive of f&ci- or 
fSc- make (see 534). 

INDICATIVE. Pres. S. Flo fts fit, P. flunt. Past- 
imp. Fiebam &c. Fut. Flam fies <fec. 
IMPERATIVE. Pres. S. Fi, P. fits. 

* The forms with ne are found in the older writers. 

f Or nonuult and nonuultis. 

J The longer forms mauolo &c. are found in the older writers. 

Or mauult and mauultis. 

VERBS. 131 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Pres. Flam <fec. Past. Ffgrem* &c. 
INFINITIVE. Imperf. Fieri.* 

737 I- go. 

INDICATIVE. Pres. S. Eo is it, P. imus itis eunt. Past-imp. 
Ibam &c. Put. Ibo Ibis &c. Pres.-perf. lu! or ii iisti lit &c. 
Past-perf. luSram or ieram &c. Put. -perf. luSro or iero <fec. 

IMPERATIVE. Pres. S. I, P. it& jfatf. /SI Ito ito, P. Itotg eunto. 

SUBJUNCTIVE. Pm. Earn eas &c. Past. Irem &c. Pres.-perf 
lugrim or ierim &c. Past-perf. luissem or iissem or issem <fec. 

INFINITIVE. Imperf. Irg. Per/. luisse" iisse or iss. 

PARTICIPLE. Imperf. lenti- or lent-, N. iens, ^c. euntem, G'. 
euntls &c. Fut. Ituro-. GERUND. Eundo-. 

737. 1 The passive is used impersonally. INDIC. Itiir, ibatiir, ibitfir, 
itum est &c. SUBJ. Eatur, iretur, itum sit &c. INFIN. In, Xtum 

737. 2 Some of the compounds being transitive form a passive, as adi- 
approach. Hence IND. Pres. S. S,de8r S,diris Sdltiir, P. &dimur 
adimJnl Sdeuntur &c. 

737. 3 Veni- for uenum i- be offered for sale, is a compound of i- go, 
and consequently conjugated like it. 

738 Qui- be able, and ngqui- be unable, are conjugated as i- go ; but 
have no imperative, no participle imperfect or future, and no ge- 

739 Ai- affirm, say, is seldom used except in the following forma : 

INDICATIVE. Pres. 8. Aio als or ais ait or ait, P. 

aiunt. Past. Aiebam or aibam aiebas <fec. 


It has been stated that many substantives and adjectives in a 
and o are used as verbs in a ( 522) ; that some substantives in u 
are used as verbs in u ( 526) ; that some substantives and adjec- 
tives in i are used as verbs in i ( 528). 

* The i is sometimes long in old writers, as Terence (Ad. i. 2. 26) 
and Plautus (Trin. n. 4. 131, and Men. v. 5. 24). 



741 It has been stated (^ 224) that some adjectives have a crude 
form in i as well as that in o or a. Similarly some adjectives in o 
or a coexist with verbs in i ; and some adjectives in i coexist with 
verbs in ft. Thus there is 

An adj. insano- mad, and a verb insani- be mad. 
, , largo- bountiful, , , largi- (r. ) lavish. 
,, cSleri- quick, ,, celSra- quicken. 

leui- light, Igua- lift. 

leui- smooth, ,, l5ua- polish. 

742 As so large a number of substantives and adjectives ended in o 
or a, and these led to verbs in a, the consequence was, that there 
was a tendency to introduce an a in all such secondary verbs, even 
when the substantive or adjective ended in a consonant. Thus 
there is 

A subst. nomen- name, and a verb nomina- name. 

,, laud- praise, ,, 

,, 5ngs-* load, ,, tfnSra- load. 

robor- hardness, ,, robtfra- harden. 

exiil- an exile, exula- be an exile. 
An adj. memor- mindful, mgmo'ra- mention. 

,, exoss- boneless, exossa- bone. 

praeclp- or praeclpit- head foremost, and a verb prae- 
cipita- send headforemost. 

742. 1 A few compound verbs take a final a although the simple verb 
ends in a consonant : as, 

From spec- or speci- (obsolete) look, consplca- (r. ) behold. 
,, diic-t lead, educa- bring up, nurse. 
,, spern- despise, asperna- (r.) 

* Verbs formed in this way from nouns in es, 8s &c. are very numer- 
ous: as, pignera-, nenera- (r.), frigera-, tempera-^ uolnera-, genera-^ 
(jlomera-, modern- &c. The neuter noun modes- is obsolete, it is true, but 
its existence is proved by the adj. modesto-. Ramshorn erroneously con- 
siders era as a verbal suffix, and even quotes as an example uocifera- (r ). 

f See 451.1. 

J This class is probably formed directly from compounded nouns, as 
is certainly the case with remiga- 'row,' from remtg- 'rower;' and that 
from remo- (m.) 'oar,' and ay- 'put in motion.' Velifica- (r.) 'make 
sail,' from uelifico- 'making sail; 1 and that from uelo- (n.) 'sail' and 


742. 2 Some verbs in a from substantives signify to supply with the 
thing which the substantive denotes :* thus there is 

A subst. tabula- plank, and a verb contabula- cover with planks. 
tigno- (n.) beam, and a verb contigna- furnish with 

calceo- shoe, and a verb calcea- shoe. 

743 Such verbs are often found only as perfect participles in to : 

From barba- beard, barbato- bearded. 

tfculo- eye, oculato- provided with eyes. . 
,, auri- ear, zurlto- provided with ears. 
,, cornu- horn, cornuto- horned. 
,, aes- bronze, aerato- armed with bronze. 
,, denti- or dent- tooth, dentato- armed with teeth. 
,, cord- heart, benS cordato- good-hearted, i. e., in the Ro- 
man sense of the phrase, clever. 

744 Certain reflective verbs from substantives also signify to pro- 
vide oneself with what the substantive denotes. The verbs in 
question belong chiefly to military phraseology : 

From Squa- water, &qua- (r.) fetch water. 

,, frumento- (n.) corn, frumenta- (r.) fetch corn, forage. 
, , pabulo- (n. ) fodder, pabula- (r. ) fetch fodder, forage. 
,, materia- timber, materia- (r.) fetch timber. 
,, ligno- firewood, ligna- (T.} fetch firewood. 
praeda- booty, praeda- (r.) go plundering. 
i, pisca- (r.)fish. 

744. 1 Again, certain reflective verbs from adjectives signify to regard 
as what the adjective denotes : as, 

From gr&ui- heavy, gr&ua- (r.) regard as heavy, be unwilling to 

digno- worthy, digna- (r.) deem worthy of one, deign. 

fac- make/ ^ Vocifera- (r.) ' raise one's voice,' from an obsolete adj. 
uocrfero- raising the voice ;' and that from uoc- ' voice' and fer- < raise.' 
Iptl^a- (r.) 'bring help ' from an obsolete adj. opitulo- ' bringing help ;' 
and that from op- help' and tol- ' bring.' 

* The English language agrees in this use of substantives as verbs. 
Ihus we use the phrases, to shoe a horse, to water a horse, to horse a 


From indigno- unworthy, indigna- (r.) deem unworthy of one. 
mlsgro- wretched, mlsgra- (r.) regard as wretched, pity. 

745 Verbs called frequentative, and they are very numerous, are 
formed by adding the suffix ita to the simple verb : as, 

Ag- put in motion, aglta- put in constant motion. 

Quaer- seek, quaerlta- seek perseveringly. 

Clama- cry out, clamlta- keep crying out. 

Mina- (r.) threaten, minlta- (r.) keep threatening. 

Flu-/ow, flulta- keep flowing. 

Sequ- (r.) follow, secta- (r.) be in the habit of following.* 

746 As this suffix tia is very similar to tto, the suffix of perfect 
participles, similar contractions and alterations commonly take 
place : thus, 

Merg- sink, participle merso-, frequentative mersa-.t 
Trah- draw, participle tracto-, frequentative tracta-. 
Pel- drive, participle pulso-, frequentative pulsa-.f 

747 Some frequentatives are formed by the suffix Vita : as, from 
scrib- write, scriptita- ; from leg- read, lectita- ; from uiu- live, 

748 Many frequentatives have superseded the simple verb : thus, 
gus-ta- taste was formed from an obsolete verb gus- taste, which 
is also the root of the substantive gus-tu- taste ; Imita- (r. ) copy 
was formed from an obsolete verb Ima- (r.), which is also the root 
of the substantive ima-g5n- likeness ; pota- drink to excess, was 
formed from an obsolete verb po- drink, which is also the root of 
the participle poto- drunk, and of the substantive po-ciilo- (n.) 
drinking -cup. 

749 A few verbs form, what are at once diminutives and frequenta- 
tives, with the suffix tea : as, ftfd- dig, fodica- keep digging or nudg- 
ing ; uel- pull, uellica- keep plucking. 

750 A few diminutive verbs are formed with a suffix ilia or tilla : 
as, f5ue- warm, focilla- cherish ; scrib- write, conscribilla- scribble 
over ; sorbe- suck, sorbilla- suck a drop or two ; can- sing, can- 

* The so-called frequentatives in cina- (r.), as sermo-cina- (r.) 'con- 
verse,' patro-cina- (r.) ' act the patron,' uati-cina- (r.) ' act the prophet,' 
are probably formed upon the same principle from the verb can- ' sing,' 
just as medita- (r.) is at one time applied to music, at another to any 
repeated act. 

t But the frequentatives merta-, pulta- are used by the old writers. 


tilla- warble. Ventfla- fan, from the subst. uento- wind, and 
ustula- singe, from the verb us- or iir- burn, are also diminu- 

751 A few imitative verbs are formed from nouns, with a suffix in 
issa: as, from pa"ter- father, p&trissa- take after one's father; from 
Graeco- a Greek, Graecissa- be in the Greek fashion. 1 ^ 

752 Inceptive verbs are formed from verbs, substantives and adjec- 
tives, with the suffix esc% or isc : as, 

From feru- boil, feru-esc- or feru-isc- begin to boil. 
,, [sSn- an old man], sSn-esc- grow old. 
luc- light, lucisc- or lucesc- get light. 

752. 1 If the substantive or adjective end in o or a, the e of esc is 
sometimes omitted, and the vowel a prevails : as, from 

Pugro- a boy, rg-puSra-sc- become a boy again. 

Intege'ro- or -a- whole, rgd-integra-sc- become whole again. 

753 But there are exceptions both ways, those verbs taking an a 
which are not entitled to it, and those which should have it 
dropping it : as, 

From mature- or -a- ripe, maturesc- ripen. 
ugtes- old, ue'te'rasc- become old. 

754 The suffix ess is added to a few verbs in i without any marked 
change of meaning : thus, 

From oS/pi- take is formed cSpess- take. 

[l&ci- obs. draw] IScess- provoke. 

,, [arci- obs. call to one] arcess- send f or. 

755 A few verbs, called desiderative, are formed from verbs with a 
suffix turi, which is liable to the same changes as the participial 
suffix to : thus, 

* Ramshorn erroneously treats as diminutival verbs exula-, iacula- 
(r.), opitula- (r.), uigila-, strangula-, the last of which is probably formed 
from an obsolete subst. strangula- ' a halter,' corresponding to the Greek 

f These verbs are formed after the Greek verbs in if: as, 
Indeed the later Latin writers use the z instead of ss, and write patrix-are. 

% In Greek e<r/c or KTK. 

Petess- seek' is formed in this way from the obsolete form peti- 
' seek,' which is also the root of petiui, petitus, petitor. 


From 8m- buy, empturi- desire to buy. 
,, Sd- eat, esiiri- be hungry. 
,, pSr- or pari- bring forth, parturi- fo w labour. 

So Sullaturi- efcstVe to play Sulla, implies such a verb as Sulla- 
(v.)play Sulla. (See 522.) 

756 Compounds of fac- or faci- and fi- are made with prefixes com- 
monly supposed to be verbs : as, 

From tepe- be warm, tgpefac-* or tepefaci- make warm, tepefl- 

become warm. 

,, Uque- melt, liquefac- or liquefaci- melt, cause to melt, 
llquefl- melt, become melted. 

757 The compound verbs formed by prefixed prepositions are very 
numerous. (See prepositions in the Syntax.) 

758 The verbs so compounded often undergo certain changes of the 
vowel : thus, a frequently becomes % before one consonant, e be- 
fore two consonants : thus, 

From statu- set up, is formed constitu- establish. 
c&d-fatt, occid- set or die. 

,, sali- leap, insili- leap upon. 

,, cap- or capi- take, acclp- or accipi- receive, and ac- 

cepto- received. 
,, i&c- or iaci- throw, conic- or conici-t hurl, and con- 

iecto- hurled. 

But the compounds of caue- beware, mSne- wait, trah- draw, Snia 
love, remain unaltered. 

759 Again, e generally becomes $ before a single consonant : as, 

From sede- sit, asside- sit near. 

r6g- make straight, dirlg- guide. 

,, tene- keep, abstlne- keep away. 

But the compounds of pt- go or seek, teg- cover, t8r- rub, g8r- 
wear or carry, remain unaltered. 

760 The diphthong ae becomes I, and au becomes o or u : thus, 

From caed- cut, occld- kill. 
,, laed- strike, illld- dash against. 

* In these words the vowel e before /is seldom long except in the 
older poeta. 

f Commonly written conjic- or conjici-. 


From quaer- seek, exqulr- seek out. 

,, claud- or clud-* shut, reclud- open. 
plaud- clap (the hands), explod- drive of (the stage by 
clapping the hands).f 

But the compounds of haere- stick retain the diphthong. Gene- 
rally for the changes in compound verbs see 555. 2, &c. 

761 A few compound verbs are formed with a prefixed particle : 

From ne not and sci- know, nesci- know not. 

ne not and qui- be able, ngqui- be unable. 

,, ne not and u61- wish', neuol- or nol- 

mSle ill and die- speak, mSledlc- abuse. 

,, be"ne well and f&c- do, benefac- do a kindness. 

,, magg more and uol- wish, mauol- or mal- prefer. 

sat enough and ag- do, sStag- have enough to do. 

762 The negative in appears never to be prefixed to verbst, except 
to the participles, especially those in to, and even then the com- 
pound participle commonly becomes an adjective ; except also the 
verbals in tu, which occur only as ablatives, as iniussu- without 
orders, incultu- without cultivation. 

Docto- taught, indocto- unlearned. 
Loto- washed, illoto- unwashed. 
Scienti- knowing, inscienti- not knowing. 
Dicenti- speaking, indicenti- not speaking. 

763 Many of these participles in to with in prefixed are to be 
translated by not to be ed: as, 

uicto- conquered, inuicto- invincible. 

menso- measured, immenso- immeasurable. 

penso- weighed, impenso- too enormous to be weighed. 

* Probably contracted from such a form as clauid-. Compare the 
Greek substantive K\rjfi5-, Latin cldui-, and gaudeo gauisus. 

f Corresponding in effect to the English * hooting off, hissing off.' 

J Hence it is probably an error to derive ignosc- ' pardon' from in 
' not' and gnosc- ' take cognizance.' See 1308. 2. 



764 This term includes those secondary parts of speech which have 
little or no variety of form, and are called adverbs, prepositions, 
conjunctions and interjections. 

765 It is not always possible to draw the line between these, as the 
same word may be at one time an adverb, at another a preposi- 
tion ; or again at one time an adverb, at another a conjunction. 
Thus, ante before we formerly may be either adverb or preposition ; 
and simiil at the same time or as soon as may be either an adverb 
or a conjunction. 

766 A large number of the particles must be treated individually 
to show their origin. In a grammar, however, it is out of place 
to do more than exhibit those suffixes which apply to whole 


767 Adverbs are formed in Latin from adjectives and substantives, 
including pronouns, and also from verbs. 

768 From adjectives in o or a are commonly formed adverbs in e : 
as, from the adjective lato- or -a- wide, the adverb late widely ; 
from the adjective pgrlculoso- or -a- dangerous, the adverb pericu- 
lose dangerously. 

769 From participles in o or a, used as adjectives, are formed in 
like manner adverbs in e: as, from docto- learned, the adverb 
docte learnedly; from ornato- dressed, the adverb ornate with 
ornament ; from doctissumo- most learned, the adverb doctissiime 
most learnedly. 

770 But malo- lad, and b6no- (old form beno-) good, form their 
adverbs, male ill, and bgng well, with a short 8. Inferng below, 
and supernS above also occur with a short #. So also rltS duly 
has a short , though only a shortened form of recte". 

771 Some adjectives and participles in o or a form adverbs in o :* 

* In some cases this termination is the ablative of the noun ; in others 
it probably corresponds to the Greek adverbs in o>s, from adjectives of 
the same form. Thus, even in Greek, OVTWS and ovrw ' thus,' a<pv<as and 
cupvu ' suddenly,' coexist. 


as, from raro- or -a- scattered, an adverb raro seldom ; from tuto- 
or -a- safe, ail adverb tuto safely, and tutissumo most safely. 

772 But clto- or -a- quick forms its adverb citS quickly with #.* 

773 From adjectives and participles in i or a consonant are formed 
adverbs in iter or t$r : as, 

From molli- soft, the adverb mollite'r so/%. 
, 3 celeri- smy, celerlter swiftly. 
felici- or felic- fortunate, feliclter fortunately. 
me'mo'r- mindful, mSmorftgr/rom memory. 

774 If the adjective or participle end in ti or , one 2 is omitted : 
thus, from amanti- or amant- loving is formed the adverb Smantgr 

775 As adjectives in o or a sometimes coexist with adjectives in i, 
so adverbs in Her or ter are sometimes found in connexion with 
adjectives in o or a : as, 

From duro- or -a- hard, the adverbs dure and duritgr severely. 
largo- or -a- bountiful, the adverb largitgr bountifully.^ 

776 Many adjectives, particularly comparatives, use their neuter 
singular as an adverb : thus, 

From fScili- easy, the adverb fa'clle' 
,, multo- or -a- much, the adverb multum much. 
doctior- more learned, the adverb doctius more learnedly. I 

776. 1 The neuter comparative should end in ius (=ios}, as just seen ; 
but in a few words a shorter form is produced by the omission of 
one of the vowels : thus without the i we have minus (for ml- 
nius) less, plus (for ple-ius^) more ; and without the u, m&gls (for 

* Vero ' in truth,' sero * late,' postremo * at last,' have always a long o 
in the best writers. It is only in the late writers, such as Martial and 
Statius, that these words are used with a short o. Even ctto has a long o 
in the old writers, as Ter. And. in. 1. 16, and elsewhere. 

+ Observe the same irregularity in the formation of the verb largi- (r.) 
' lavish.' Aliter ' otherwise,' like alibi ' elsewhere,' is formed from the 
obsolete pronoun ali-, whence the nominatives alis and olid. 

J The poets use adverbs of this form more freely than the prose wri- 
ters, and even in the plural ; as Virgil, acerba tuens, crebraferit. 

Comp. ir\eiov and ir\fov (for irAe-tov). 

1 10 ADVERBS. 

niagius) more, iilmis too muck, satis enough.* So prisf for prius 
before enters into the formation of the adjective pris-tluo- former. 

777 From adjectives and substantives are formed adverbs in Wfa or 
t&8% : thus we deduce from 

antiquo- old, antiquitus from of old. 

caelo- heaven, caelitiis/rom heaven. 

diumo- divine, diuinitus/row a divine source. 

fundo- bottom, fundltus/rom the foundation. 

radic- root, radicitus/rom the roots. 

publico- sb. n. public money ', publlcitus at the puttie cost. 

778 A few adjectives form adverbs with a suffix per, denoting time : 
as, from nouo- or -a- new, nuper lately. So also parumper and 
paulisper/or a little while, tantisper so long, quantispgr as long as, 
semp6r always. 

778. 1 The adverbs of numerals have already been given in 252, last 

779 Adjectives and substantives form adverbs in tim with the sense 
of one at a tune or one by one: thus, from the adj. singiilo- or 
-a- one at a time, the adverb singulatim or singillatim or singultim 
one at a time; from paulo- (n.) little t paulatim little by little; 
from uiro- man, uirltim man by man ; from tribu- tribe, tributim 
tribe by tribe ; from greg- flock, gregatim ^ock by flock ; from 
gradu- step, gradatim step by step. || 

780 From verbs also are formed adverbs in tim : as, 

From sta- stand, statim constantly, statim immediately. 

* For the meaning of nimis compare the use of the comparative, 
1 155. 4, &c. Satis literally signifies ' rather full' (see 1 155. 7). 

f To this corresponds the Greek irpiv (for Trpioi/) ' before.' So also 
Tr\fLv for ir\cii)j/. Tlpiv has more than once a long vowel in Homer. 

J This termination corresponds in meaning to the suffix of the old 
Greek genitive QGV : as, ovpavoOev 'from heaven.' Indeed the forms also 
are identical ; for the must necessarily lose its aspirate in Latin, and the 
final syllable ej/ of the Greek would be us in Latin : compare Tvirrofjiev, 
scribimus. The corresponding Sanscrit suffix is Ids. 

The first syllable of semper is probably the same root which is 
spoken of in the note to 264 ; so that it would signify ' one unbroken 

|| Compare the irregularities of paulatim, uiritim< gregatim &c. with 
the irregularities in the formation of adjectives, 227-229. This suffix 
tim is identical with the Greek Sov : as, from cryeAo- ' herd,' 
4 by herds.' 


From prae before and ser- put, praesertim especially. 
caed- cut, caesim* by cutting. 
pung- pierce, punctim by piercing. ,f 

781 From substantives and verbs are formed a few adverbs in us: 
thus from 

Corn together and manu- hand, co-min-us hand to hand. 
EC from and m&nu- hand, e-utin-us from a distance. 

So from the verb ten- stretch, the adverb tenusj stretching; whence 
proteuus forthwith.^ And from the verb uort- turn the adverb 
uorsiisj, which has also the form uorsum, corresponding in mean- 
ing to the English termination -wards. 

782 From substantives and verbs are formed a few adverbs by 
adding the suffix am. 

Thus con together and 6s- or or- (n.) mouth or face form an 
adverb, coram face to face. 

The verb pand-|| open forms an adverb, palam openly. 
The verb cela- hide forms an adverb, clam secretly. 

783 In analogy with bis twice (for duis), we might have expected 
trlsl! and quatrls, but instead of these we have ter and qutSr, an 
s being commonly rejected after an r. 

784 The cases of adjectives and substantives, particularly pronouns, 
are often used as adverbs : thus the following, sometimes called 
adverbs, are in origin datives denoting the time when or the place 
where &c., hgri yesterday, manl in the morning, luci in the daylight, 
domi at home, run in the country, ftfrls out of doors, multlmo'dls in 
many a way, quotannis every year. 

785 The pronominal adverbs in bi or I, which answer to the ques- 

* The s in this word represents the t, as it does so often in the per- 
fect participle with verbs in d. 

t This corresponds to the Greek suffix Sijy added to verbs . as, from 
7pa<J>- * write,' ypafiSrjv ' in writing.' 
J These are also prepositions. 

There is also a form tenam of the same meaning as tenus, whence 
protenam ' forthwith.' 

|| Compare scand- 'climb' and scala- 'ladder;' mand- 'chew' and 
mala- 'jaw ;' sede- ' sit' and sella- ' chair.' 

T[ Compare the Greek rpts, and perhaps rerpaKis. For the loss of 
the s compare linter ' a boat' for lintris, puer for puerus, uidebare for 



tion where or when, and may be seen in the second column of the 
table in 366, are probably old datives. 

786 Again, the following, sometimes called adverbs, are in origin 
accusatives : 

DSmum home i. e. to one's home, rus into the country, fSras 
out of doors i. e. going out of doors. 

The pronominal adverbs in <?, which answer to the question 
whither, and may be seen in the third column of the table 366, 
are probably old accusatives which have lost the final m. 

788 Closely related to the pronominal adverbs in o are the adverbs 
in tro from prepositions <fec. : as, 

RS-tro backward. 

Por-ro* forward. 

Cl-trof towards the speaker. 

Vl-trof to a distance, forward, voluntarily. 

In-tro inwards. 

Con-tro towards. , 

789 Adverbs in 6, chiefly from pronouns, are used with compara- 
tive adjectives or comparative adverbs : as, 

Eo mjlgls so much the more or the more. 
Quo minus by how much the less or the less. 
Hoc utiliiis to this extent the more usefully. 
NiMlo minus never the less. 

790 The terminations inde, in, and im t seen in the fourth column 
of the table 366, must be considered as varieties of one suffix, 
since the compounds deindS, exinde &c. have also the shortened 

* Par is the old preposition, corresponding to our l for,' whence comes 
por -tro, por-ro, and by contraction pro. 

t Whence ultra citroque ' backwards and forwards,' in which the 
word ' backwards' is a translation of citro. The common derivation of 
ultro * willingly,' from uol- ' wish,' is altogether indefensible. 

J This word is seen in the compound verb contro-uort- ' turn against.' 
These adverbs in tro, though ultimately derived from prepositions, are 
immediately formed from adjectives, more or less obsolete, in tero. 

These are commonly held to be ablatives, and supposed to be trans- 
lated literally when we say multo maior 'greater by much.' The Greek 
too uses Tro\\(p nifav. Still it is possible that they are in reality only 
the old accusatives in 0, which have lost their final m : eo maior ' the 
greater to this degree.' 


forms dein, exin, exim* &c. The suffix is strictly dft, the n be- 
longing to the pronominal base. 

791 The adverbs in am, from pronouns, denote how much : as, tarn 
so } quam how, quanquam however, no matter how, although, quam- 
uls or quamliibet as much as you please, although. 

792 The adverbs in um, chiefly from pronouns, denote the time 
when : as, turn or tunc$ then, (num) or nuncj now, quom or quum 
or cum when, umquam or unquam (formerly cumquam) ever, num- 
quam or nunquam (for ne-umquam) never, quondam (for quom- 
dam) at a certain time (past or future), plerumque generally. 

793 The adverbs in a generally denote the road along which any 
thing is done. A large majority of these are from pronouns, as 
may be seen in 366. Other examples are, *-ecta in a straight 
line, dextra along the road on the right, sinistra along the road on 
the left. 

794 Some ablatives of nouns are used as adverbs : thus, ergo|| in- 
deed, really, in the matter of, is the ablative of an old Latin noun, 
ergo- (n.) work ; and similarly mo'dSlI only is literally by measure, 
being the ablative of m8do- (m.) measure. Likewise mang in the 
morning, diu in the daytime, noctu or noctS by night, lucS in the 
daylight, may be considered as ablatives. 

795 The adverb quando, from the relative, and those connected 
with it, denote time : as, quando** when, allquando** sometime, 
quandocunquS whenever, quandoquS whenever, some time or other. 

* This is the orthography used in Virgil. 

+ This suffix corresponds to Qev of 6j/-0ep, iro-Qfv: and indeed the 
final v of the suffix 0e* disappears at times in Greek, as in oirur-Qe or 

J This c is the demonstrative enclitic : see 289. And if the inter- 
rogative enclitic ne be added, ci is preferred to c, as in nuncine : see 

It is generally held that these are feminine ablatives agreeing with 
via ' road' understood. 

|| Corresponding to the Greek dative epytp ' in reality.' 

^T Whether we are speaking of a very great or a very small quantity, 
it adds weight to our assertion if we can speak of the quantity as known 
by measurement. Hence, with small quantities, modo ' by measure' may 
be translated by 'only ' On the other hand, with great quantities, ad- 
modum ' up to the measure' is equivalent to ' full, quite.' Observe that 
modo in old writers has a long final o, as in Ter. And. iv. 1. 6, Plant. 
Asin. prol. 5, Aul. n. 2. 62, Pseud, n. 3.23, Poen. i. 2.7, Lucr. n. 941 
and J 135, Cic. Arat. N. D. n. 42. 107. 

** The later writers shorten the o in these two words. 


796 The adverb utl or ut how, that, when (itself connected with 
the relative), has many adverbs compounded with or derived from 
it : as, iitlqug anyhow, at least, iitut no matter how, utcunquS 
howsoever, whensoever, neutiquam or niitiquam (for iie-iitiquam) 
in no way, utinam that ! 

796. 1 The adverbs in us, from pronouns of relative origin, commonly 
denote the place where or whither : as, usquam any where or to 
any place, uspiam any where or in any place, nusquam no where 
or to no place. 

71)7 Many adverbs are nouns and prepositions written as one word : 

Profecto* indeed^ is from pro facto for a thing done. 

Imprimis specially, from in primls among the first. 

Ilico immediately, from in loco on the spot. 

Indies every day (more and more), from in dies. 

Denuo a-fresh, from de nouo. 

Obiter in passing (or in French, en passant), from 5b Iter on 
the road. 

Interim meanwhile, from intSr imt during this. 

Admodum quite, from ad rnodum up to the measure. 
798 Thus the preposition or adverb uorsum or uorsus -wards is 
added to a number of adverbs in o, prepositions <fec. : as, 

Horsum hitherward, istorsum towards your neighbourhood, illor- 
sum towards yonder place, quorsum in what direction, aliorsum in 
another direction, allquouorsum in some direction, quoquouorsum 
in every direction, utroqueuorsum in loth directions, aduorsum 
towards, prorsum or prosum^ forwards, downright, rursum or 
rusum (for reuorsum) backward, again, deorsum downwards, sur- 
sum or susum upwards, introuorsum or introrsum inwards, re- 
trorsum backwards, dextrouorsum or dextrorsum towards the right, 
smistrorsum towards the left. \\ 

* Plautus uses this word with the first syllable long. 

f Indeed =in-deed is itself a parallel example from our own language; 
so also forsooth. 

J An old accusative, or perhaps rather dative, of the pronoun i- * this,' 
for an older form is interibi. 

Prosum is preferred by Plautus, and rusum by Virgil. Prosus and 
rusus occur even in Cicero, if we follow the Medicean Ms. ad Fam. xiu. 
13. and ix. 9.3. 

|| Most of these adverbs have also another form ending in uorsits in- 
stead of uorsum, and also in uersum, uersus. 


799 Thus too prepositions that govern an accusative are attached 
to the pronominal adverbs in o : as, 

Adeo to this or that degree, so ; in addition to this, moreover. 
Quo&d to what degree, how far ; to what time, how long. 
Adhuc to this time, so far, as yet. 

800 The prepositions that govern an ablative are prefixed to the 
pronominal adverbs in de, or their shortened forms in in (see 
366) : as, 

Proindg* or proin henceforward, therefore, accordingly, at once then. 

Deinde or dein after this, afterwards. 

Subinde soon after, ever and anon 

Exinde', exin or exim after this. 

Abhiuc/row this time (reckoning towards the past). 

Dehinc/rom this time forward, after this. 

801 Thus too the suffix sfaus is added to pronominal and other 
adverbs in dS, or rather to the shortened forms in in : as, 

Altrinsecus/rom the other side. Extrinse'cus/rom without. 
Vtrinque'se'cus/rom both sides. Intrinse'cus/rom within. 

802 Thus too the prepositions that govern an accusative are pre- 
fixed to pronouns in am or a, which last also appear to have been 
corrupted from accusative pronouns in am : as, 

Antea before this or that. Praeterquam besides that. . . . 

Postea after this or that. Superquam over and above that. . . 

Int&rea in the meanwhile. Antehac before this. 
ProptSrea/or this or that reason. Posthac after this. 

PraetSrea besides this or that. Praetgrhac besides this. 

Antequam before that. . . . Postilla since that time, from that 

Postquam after that. '. . . time. 

803 Thus too the preposition tgiius stretching, is suffixed to pro- 
nominal forms in a : as, 

Eatenus to this or that extent, Istactgnus so far as to reach your 

so far. neighbourhood. 

Hacteniis to this extent. QuatSnus to what extent, so far as. 

* Perinde is only a corruption of proinde or rather por-inde, and in 
no way related to the preposition per. Indeed the Mss. generally have 
proinde where editions give perinde. 


AlXquatenus to some extent. Quadamtenus to a certain extent. 

804 Some so-called adverbs consist of an adjective and substantive 
written as one word : thus, 

QuomSdo how is from quo mSdo in what manner. 
MagnoperS greatly is from magno ope're with great labour. 
H5die, or rather hodie, today, is from ho* die. 
Qudtidie every day, from quotlt die. 

805 Nudiustertius, or rather nudiustertius, the day before yesterday , 
is for numj dius tertius now the third day. 

806 Some adverbs are formed by the addition of two or more par- 
ticles : as, etiam even now, still, also, from et even, and iam now ; 
and etiamnum even now-a-days, from St, iam, and num. 

807 Scilicet, uidelicet, ilicet, though called adverbs, are in origin 
verbs. When literally translated, they signify respectively : 

Sclllcet one may know, of course. 
Videlicet one may see, no doubt. 
Ilicet one may go, it is all over. 


808 Prepositions are particles that are prefixed || to substantives 
and verbs, and sometimes to other parts of speech. In their 

* The old ablative before the enclitic c was added. We should pro- 
bably pronounce hodie as a disyllable, hojee ; or like the Italian oggi. 

f An old dative case. 

J The old form which with the enclitic ce produced nunc' now.' Dius 
is that nominative of the u declension which has an ablative diu ' in the 
daytime.' Further, dius is but a monosyllable, just as dies often is (see 
hodie above). Hence nudiustertius should be pronounced something 
like nujustertius (Plant. Most. iv. 2,40). 

These words are actually employed as verbs. Thus scilicet, Plant. 
Cure. ii. 2, 10, Lucr. n. 46'8, Sal. Jug. 4 ; uidelicet, Plant. St. iv. 1, 49 
and 51, Lucr. I. 210; ilicet, Ter. Ph. I. 4, 31. Similarly licet 'it is per- 
mitted,' became used as a conjunction in the sense of though.' 

|| The name preposition itself implies this. But in fact they occa- 
sionally follow (more particularly in the older authors) ; as in me-cum 
' with me,' quo-ad ' to what degree,' de quo or quo de ' concerning which/ 
So in English we have here-in, here-upon, &c. 


original sense they denote the relations of place : as, sub up, dg 
down, 8b towards. 

809 The letter s is often added as a prepositional suffix. Thus ab 
by sometimes becomes abs, aps or as ; sub up becomes sus ; 5b 
towards, obs or os ; ec out, ex ; di different ways, dis ; [ci, obs., 
thu], els ; [ol, obs., yew], uls. 

The first three of these prepositions, viz. &b ly or /row, sub 
up, Sb toward, take this s more particularly in composition with 
verbs which begin with one of the letters p, c or q, tf as, 

As-porta- carry away Sus-pend- hang up Os-tend- stretch to- 
Abs-cond- put away Sus-cJp- take up wards. 

Abs-tine-* keep away Sus-tJne- hold up 

811 Ecf out takes an s before the same consonants, and also before 
vowels : as, 

Ex-pos-: put out Ex-cur- 1 run out 

Ex-tend- stretch out Ex-Im- take out. 

812 Di different ways takes an s before the same consonants, and 
takes s, or its substitute r, before vowels : as, 

Dis-ptfs-J put in different places Dls-Ic- throw different ways 
Dis-cM-: depart Dlr-Jm- disperse ' 

Dis-tme- keep apart. 

813 EC before a verb beginning with an s has two forms, as from 
sfcli- leap, exsffi- or exfli- leap up, which do not differ in sound. || 

814 Dfa is preferred to di before a verb beginning with s, if that s 
e followed by a vowel : as, dis-sona- sound a different note; but 

in old authors, if a tennis follow: 
,' abs quiuis homine ' by any man you please.' 

tio*ov^ T1 l^ me - obs .[ ete ' but was 8ti11 Preserved in the' composi- 
tion of verbs which begin with /: as, ec-fer- ' carry out,' ec-fod- dig out,' 

of Plautus ' Terenc{ ' cicero ani 

J See 451. 1. 

in^ ly Written /^f - or dis ^- For the quantity of the pre- 
m the compounds of ,'., as conic^subici-^ A. Gellius, iv P 17. 

of tnnn^l? i* lSe ^ S reek character s, was the symbol originally 

other mbh^? '' ?i ? the R manS never used the as P irate X 7 
nresenC rt / letters : ? e 7 eventually came to look upon JT as re- 

mfv h T V*' and theref re discarded th e superfluous ,. Hence 
may be looked upon as the older form, but representing ech-sili- 


not so if that s be followed by a consonant, as di-scrlb- distribute 
in writing. 

815 The letter d is often added as a prepositional suffix. Thus pro 
for. In in, rS back, become severally pr5d, ind, red*, as in prod-i- 
ffo forward, ind-lge- be in want, red-i- go back, red-d- put back, 
red-due- bring lack, and by assimilation of d to the following I 
relllgion- religion, relllquiae N. pi. remains. 

816 The prepositions often lose one of their final letters. Thus &b 
becomes a in the composition of verbs which begin with the letter 
m : as, a-moue- move away. Before the verb fu- be, ab and a are 
both found : as, ab-fuit or a-fuit he was absent ; while before the 
verbs fer- carry, and fug- fly, the form au is used : as, au-fer- 
carry away, au-fug- fly away. Similarly a instead of ab is used 
before many nouns beginning with a consonant. 

817 In like manner ec out becomes e before other consonants than 
p, c or q t : as, e-blb- drink up, e-duc- lead out, &c. 

818 For for (see 834), super upon, and intgr up (see 834), be- 
fore words beginning with I, assimilate the r to this I, as pollice- (r.) 
bid beforehand, promise ; polling- 1 lay out (a corpse) ; supelle.;-f 
(nom. supellex) and supellectili-, strictly adjectives, laid upon, 
and hence as sb. f. tapestry , furniture ; intelleg- pick up or gather 
(information), perceive. 

819 Trans across before verbs sometimes takes the form tra : as, 
tra-diic- lead across, tra-d- hand over. 

820 Cum with before verbs becomes com or con or co : as, com-e'd- 
eat up, con-eld- cut to pieces, co-i- go together, meet. 

821 The other changes which prepositions sometimes undergo be- 
fore verbs maybe seen in the tables of perfects and supines, ^ 533- 

822 From prepositions and two of the pronouns demonstrative are 

* The preposition se ' aside' might have been added to these, as the 
conjunction sed ' but' is another form of that word. Sedition- * a division 
of the people,' or ' erneute,' implies the previous existence of a verb se-d- 
'put apart, separate,' from da- ' put' ( 542), rather than sed-i-, a com- 
pound of i- 'go. 1 as Madvig would have it (Lat. Gr. 203), for then the 
e would be short. In old authors other prepositions taKe this d: thus 
post, ante, supra, extra, &c. become postid, antid, suprad, extrarl, &c. 
Perhaps apud * near' may be only another form of ab, or, as the Greeks 
wrote it, apo 'by.' This is consistent with the original meaning of ab, as 
may be seen in the Syntax. 

f These compounds imply a simple verb leg- or ling-, corresponding 
to the Greek root Ae^-, German leyeii, and our lay. 


formed adjectives in tiro* and fro ; and from these again, prepo- 
sitions in tfr or 8r, and in tra or rd. Thus from sub up is formed 
the adjective supgro- upper ; whence the prepositions super and 
supra above. So from the obsolete root inf-, or rather enef-, below* 
is formed first the adjective infgro- lower, and secondly the prepo- 
sition infra below. Again, from in in is formed first the obsolete 
adjective intero- inner, and thence the prepositions inter between, 
and intra within, &c. From the obsolete preposition &d again is 
deduced a comparatival form Jterum again.^ 

823 From prepositions and two of the pronouns demonstrative are 
formed comparatives and superlatives. Thus from prae or pro 
before, a comparative prior- former, a superlative primo- first ; 
from In in, a superlative imo- inmost or lowest; from sub up, a 
superlative summo-t uppermost; from post after, postiimo- last; 
from 6c or ex out, extiimo- outmost or uttermost ; from the obsolete 
pronominal root ci this or near, c!tumo-|| hithermost, nearest ; from 
an obsolete ol yon, ultumo-|| farthest. 

824 Comparatives and superlatives are also formed from the inter- 
mediate adjective in tero or fro. Thus from post after is formed 
first the adjective postero- after, and thence a comp. post&rior- 
and a superl. postremo- ; from ex out, an adj. extSro- outer, and 
thence a comp extSrior-, and superl. extreme- ; from de down, an 
obsolete adj. detgro-, and thence a comp. detgrior-H worse, and 
superl. deterrumo-H worst; from sub up, an adj. supgro- upper, 
and thence a comp. superior- higher, and a superl. supremo- 
hif/Jiest, &c. 

825 From the simple prepositions and from the adjectives in ttro 
and fro are formed other adjectives in no : as, 

Siipino- looking upward, prono- looking downward. 

* These are in fact comparatives, as may be seen in the Greek irpo- 
repo- &c. 

t Compare the Welsh ad, old German it or ita, Danish alter, Swedish 
ater, all signifying ' again.' See 1308. 3. c. 

\ For subimo- or supimo-. In the same way from sub ' up,' and em- 
*take,' is formed the compound sum- 'take up.' Indeed the best Mss. 
more commonly have summ-. 

The vulgar orthography is posthumo-, which is grounded upon a 
ludicrously erroneous derivation from post humum. 

[\ Related respectively to ho- ' this,' and illo- * yonder.' 

^f Literally ' lower, lowest ;' but they occur only in the sense of value. 


Superno- above, inferno- below. 
Externo- without, interne- within. 

826 From some of the prepositions are formed adjectives in Ico. 

Postico- behind, as postica" ianua the back gate. 
Antico- or antique- preceding (either in time or value). 

827 From some of the prepositional superlatives are formed adjec- 
tives in ti : as, 

From summo- highest, summati- or summat- of the highest rank. 
,, infumo- lowest, infumati- or infumat- of the lowest rank. 

828 Adverbs in tus ( 777) are formed from prepositions : as, 
Intus/rora within or within, subtiis under. 

829 For the adverbs in tro and trin from prepositions, see 838. 

830 The prepositions* in use before substantives are the following. 
First, before accusatives alone : 

ad to contra, facing praeter beside 

aduorsum or aduorsiis erga towards prope near 

towards infra below prSpiiis nearer 

ante before inter between propter near 

apiid near intra within proxiime nearest 

circa round iuxta near sScuudum following 

circiter about 5b towards supra above 

circum round pe'ne's in the hands of trans across 

cis on this side of pr through [uls? obs., beyond] 

citra on this side of post after ultra beyond. 

831 Secondly, before ablatives alone : 

&b, abs, or a by or from [ec], ex, or e out of 

absque without prae before 

cum with pro before 

dS down from sing without. 

832 Thirdly, before an accusative or ablative : 

in in subter under 

sub up or under supgr upon. 

* Many of these prepositions are common to the Greek language, viz. : 
ab = a7ro. ec = eK. con or cum = aw or vv. 

ob = 7ri. ante = ai/ri. pro = 7rpo. 

sub and super = UTTO and virfp. in = fvorfts. post = ^.eTo or ?re5a? 


833 Clam secretly, coram face to face, palam openly, slmul at the 
same time, tgnus extending, uorsus or uersus towards, usqug all 
the way or all the time, are rather adverbs than prepositions. But 
see the syntax of prepositions. 

833. 1 Some substantives in the ablative followed by genitives partake 
of the nature of prepositions, as causa for the sake (of), gratia for 
the sake (of), and in old Latin ergo on account (of). So instar 
instead (of), like its English equivalent, appears to be compounded 
of In and some substantive signifying * station.'* This also is 
followed by a genitive : as, Plato mihi uniis est instar omnium 
(Cic. Brut. 51. 191) Plato alone in my eyes is worth the whole lot. 

834 Other prepositions are found in the composition of verbs and 
adjectives, and therefore called inseparable prepositions, viz. : 

a. Amf round, as, am-bur- bum round, singe ; ain-b8d- eat 
round; and the adj. an-cip- or an-clplt- two-headed. 

b. AnJ up, as an-hgla- send up (a blast of air). (See 1308. 

c. Dl or dls different ways, as. dis-cSd- depart, and from corda- 
string, the adj. dis-cordi- or dis-cord- of a different note. 

d. Inte'ril, inseparable prefix, up, a corruption of an obsolete 
antSr, and related to In or Sn up (see two paragraphs above and 
1308. 1), as praetgr to prae, and propter to propg (see 822), 
as intel-leg- pick up or gather (information), perceive. (See 

e. For for or forth, as por-rlg- stretch forth, pol-llce- (r.) lid 
beforehand, promise ; pol-ling- lay out (a corpse). 

/. R or r8d back, as, re-pel- drive back, r&d-i- go back, and the 
adj. re'-diic- returning. 

g. Self or s8d aside, as, se-p5s- put aside, and the adjectives unconcerned, se"-cord- or so-cord- spiritless. 

* As if for in-stdri or in-stdre, where star- might be an obsolete neuter 
substantive derived from the verb sta-. Compare the German an-statt. 

f Related to the Greek a/j.<f>i, and German urn. 

J Related to the Greek a?a, German ent, and English un. See 
'Transactions of the Philological Society,' for Jan. 27, 1854. 

Related to the Greek Sta, and the German zer. 

|| This inter, which must be carefully distinguished from inter 4 be- 
tween,' corresponds to the German inseparable unter in unternehmen 
&c., to our under in undertake, understand, and to entre in the French 
entretenir and entreprise. 

^ Related to the English sund-er and German sond-ern. 


h. Veh* or ue- away, as the adj. ue-cord- (heartless, i. e.) seme- 
less, uehementi- or uehgrnent- (devoid of mind), furious.^ 

K>5 The prepositions in modern editions are usually written in 
immediate connection with verbs, but separately from nouns. 
The Romans themselves however generally wrote them in con- 
nection with nouns also : as, inftfro in theforum.^. 

836 Hence if an enclitic be inserted, it commonly follows the noun, 
not the preposition : as, inforoqug and in the forum, or, to copy 
the modern mode of printing, in foroque (Cic. ad Att. iv. 1. 5). 

S37 If the preposition be repeated, it has a stronger emphasis, and 
may be separated from the noun : in curia inque f5ro in the 
senate-house and in the forum. 

838 It will be convenient to exhibit a table [| of words derived from 
prepositions : 

* Related to the German weg, and English away. 

f To these might be added the solitary example of neg^ after ;' viz. 
neg-leg- (' leave behind,') ' neglect.' This prefix is identical with the 
German nach, and consequently with the English nigh. 

J This consideration is of importance in the laws of metre. 

Precisely on the same principle and under the same circumstances 
Lucretius separates the preposition even from a verb, and writes disiectis 
disque supatis (i. 652). 

|| The contents of this table may be usefully compared with similar 
formations in our own tongue. To the superlatives in umo correspond 
Anglo-Saxon superlatives in ema: as, inn-ema, ut-ema, for-ma, aft-ema, 
mid-ema, nid-ema, lat-ema, hind- ema. The Latin language forms several 
comparatives and superlatives from words already in the comparative 
form. Nay, in prim-ores ' front-(men or teeth)' we see a comparative 
from a superlative. So the Anglo-Saxon formed superlatives upon super- 
latives, as utem-est^ nidem-est, I'dtem-est, or forem-ost, hindm-ost, utm-ost 
(see Grimm, D. G. in p. 630). Our own form-er agrees accurately with 
the Latin prim-or- ; and in near-er we have a comparative formed upon 
a comparative ; since near itself is but a compression of nigh-er, as next is 
of nigh-est. Under the head of pronominal prepositions we may com- 
pare beyond, before, behind, beneath, beout (obs.), afore, amid, abaft, 




rom gro, 

4 4 


f % -1 f .' 

1 1111 


g I 

o . 60 

II I,, 




i is 


"H -t- 9 & IOJ 

8 I 



839 The name ' conjunction' is commonly given to several classes 
of particles which require to be distinguished. 

840 Copulative conjunctions are those which unite words, phrases 
or sentences, without making one dependent upon another. Such 
are et and, the enclitic quS* and, atque and ; uelt or, aut or ; 
together with the interrogative particles an or, ne or. 

841 There are several words compounded of the above particles 
which also serve as copulative conjunctions : for instance, ngquS 
nor, neu8 nor, slug or if. 

842 Many of these may be used in pairs : as, 8t hoc gt illud loth 
this and that, Dlque hominesque loth gods and men, uel hoc uel 
illud eitJier this or that, aut hoc aut illud either this or that, neque 
hoc ngque illud neither this nor that, slue hoc slue illud whether 
this or that. 

843 Several of the particles above mentioned admit of abbreviation. 
Thus, atqug, uel, neque, neu8, slue, may severally become ac, u6, 
ne'e, neu, sen. 

844 Many adverbs, when used in pairs, perform the part of copu- 
lative conjunctions : as, nunc hoc nunc illud now this now that, 
modo hoc modo illud at one time this at another that, turn sapiens 
turn fortls on the one hand wise on the other brave. 

845 Certain phrases which run in pairs may also perform the office 
of copulative conjunctions : as, non m5do hoc, sed etiam illud 
not only this, but also that. 

846 Accessary conjunctions are those which unite an accessary sen- 
tence to the main sentence : as antequam in the compound sen- 
tence, antequain lux nos obprimat, erumpamus let us sally out 
before daylight comes upon us. 

847 Accessary conjunctions are often formed by prefixing a prepo- 
sition to some derivative from the pronoun quo- : as, quam, quod, 

* The same as the Greek re. Compare the interrogatives ns and 

f Probably an obsolete imperative of the verb uol- * wish.' 

J Probably a corruption of alterum^ as our or is of other. Compare 
the German oder. 


tit.* Thus there are : post-quam after that or after, ant-quamt 
before that or before, super-quam beyond what, pro-tit according as. 

848 Conjunctions of this character perform for a secondary sentence 
the same office which simple prepositions perform for nouns. Thus 
the same idea might be expressed by ant lucem erumpamus let us 
sally out before daylight. Or, again, we may say either post r&dl- 
tum eiiis after his return, or postquam redilt after he returned. 

849 Sometimes instead of a preposition, a comparative adjective or 
adverb, or other word of comparison, precedes the relative adverb : 
as, maior quam speraueram greater than I had hoped, priusquam 
speraueram before I had hoped, aliter quam speraueram differently 

from what I had hoped, simiil ut uldi eum the moment I saw him. 

850 Or some phrase may precede : as, eo consilio ut te terrerem 
with the design that I might frighten you or of frightening you, hac 
lege ut ne rgdeas with the condition that you shall not return, 

851 Sometimes the relative adverb is doubled : as, ultra quam ut 
uideam beyond seeing, super quam quod dissenserant besides the 

fact that they had disagreed. 

852 Sometimes a derivative from eo- this is inserted between the 
preposition and the relative adverb : as, post-ea-quam after, pro 

* This use of quam, quod, ut is probably to be explained on the prin- 
ciple on which Home Tooke has explained the origin of the English con- 
junction that. ' I know that he is returned' may be resolved into two 
sentences: 'He is returned, I know that fact.' So, in Greek, \eyu &n 
TQvr]K ' I say this : he is dead.' The quam, quod, ut then have, in 
the phrases we are speaking of, the signification this or that ; a meaning 
which accords with the use of the Greek relative in Homer. The par- 
ticles in question enable the reader to pause before the words to which 
they refer. So long as we have only a preposition and noun, no such 
pause is requisite. In tbe same way the mathematician reads a x 6, 
a into b ; but if we substitute for b a quantity containing more than one 
term, a pause is required in reading, and a vinculum in writing : as, 
a x b + c, which is read, a into . . . . b + c. Precisely in the same way, if 
a long infinitive or subjunctive clause be employed after a Latin verb, it 
adds to perspicuity if we insert near tbe main verb hoc, ita or sic. Thus 
Cicero says, Velim ita statutum habeas, me tui memoriam cum summa 
beniuolentia tenere (ad F. vi. 2. 1) ; and again, Sic habeto, neminem esse 
qui me amet quin idem te amet (ad F. xvi. 4. 4) : and Terence (Andr. i. 
5. 46) says, Hoc scio, esse meritam ut memor esses sui. Lastly, the French 
form in the same way their conjunctions puis-que, sans-que, pour-quoi, 
par-ce-que ; the Germans, in-dem, nach-dem, dar-aus class ; and the 
English, before that, beyond what, according as. See ' Penny Cyclo- 
paedia,' under tbe words Article and Conjunction. 

f Sometimes tbe preposition is separated : thus we might say, Ante 
erumpamus quam lux nos obprimat. 


eo iit accordingly as, pro-inde ut just as, propter-ea q\\6dforthe 
reason that, ex eo quSd/rora the fact that, In eo iit in the act of. 

853 Sometimes the particle atqug* or ac occupies the place of the 
relative. Thus we may say simiil iit at the same time that, as soon 
as, or slmiil atqug as soon as; and in familiar Latin, mai5r atquS 
greater than. 

854 Sometimes the relative particle is omitted. Thus we may say 
simiil ut redilt or slmul rgdilt as soon as he returned, 

855 Very frequently the prepositional word is omitted, and a soli- 
tary relative adverb performs the office of a conjunction : as, iit 
how, when, in order that, quum when, quando when, quod because. 

856 Or the relative may be accompanied by its noun : as qua-re, or 
abbreviated cur, why. 

857 Or the relative adverb may have an enclitic particle attached 
to it : as, quando-quldemf since, quon-iam (=quom iam) since. 

858 These relative adverbs, with the exception of quum and quod, 
are used in direct questions, in which case they no longer perform 
the office of conjunctions, and may be more conveniently called 
interrogative adverbs : as, quando when ? cur why ? iit how ? 
quoad how long ? &c. 

859 Many conjunctions have correlative adverbs in the main sen- 
tence which point to them ; and these, in one sense, may also be 
called conjunctions. I 

Thus, Ita so, and sic so, answer to iit as; tarn so much, to quam 
as ; turn then, to quum when ; tameii vet, to quanquam although ; 
Ita on the condition, to si if; sic on the condition, to si if; t yet, 
to si if, <fec. 

* This use of atque grows out of the abbreviation of a longer phrase. 
Thus, Aliud ego dico atque aliud tu diets ' I say one thing and you say 
another,' easily degenerates into Aliud ego dico atque tu. See 1148. 8. 

j- Perhaps this word was pronounced as a trisyllable, quanddqaem, 
for there is good reason to believe that quidem and 7* represent the same 
word, as in equidem and 70)76. See ' Penny Cyclopaedia,' under Terentian 

In fact, they are to their conjunctions what the antecedent is to the 
relative ; and the relative itself is the great conjunction of all languages. 



860 Interjections are abbreviated sentences which denote a sudden 
and hasty emotion of the mind. They are commonly inserted in 
another sentence as a parenthesis. 

861 In respect of form, they are for the most part violently cor- 
rupted from what they were ; yet a few admit of being analysed. 
Thus, the formula, so may such a deity preserve me, is the source 
of several. 

ItS me Hercules adiiiuet is corrupted into meherciiles, mcher- 
cule, mehercle, mercule, hercle. 

ItS, me Deus Fidius* adiiiuet, into mSdius-ftdius. 
Ita me Deus Pollux adiuuet, into e'de'pol, epol, or pol. 

And similarly, from the names of Castor, luno, Ceres, there 
arise the interjections mecastor or ecastor, eiuno, ece're. 

862 Some of the more common interjections are : 
Ah, a, ah, alas. 

Attat (for atatcit) denoting a sudden discovery, ah ah. 

Aut don't, have done. 

EcceJ behold. 

Ehem, hem, denoting surprise, ah, often best translated by 
repeating the word which caused the surprise. 

Eheu, heu alas. 

Eho, calling a person's attention to a question, here, answer 
me this, or expressing surprise, what ? 

EiS, do you hear ? 

En, em, hem behold, see. 

Eu and euge good, bravo (eu and cvyc , theatrical phrases). 

Ha ha or ha ha ha ha ha ha (laughing). 

Hei or ei alas. 

* That is, ' the god of Faith,' like the Greek Zfvs 6picios or Zeus TTJO-- 
TIOS. Some incorrectly derive this phrase from Atos Jilius, i. e. Hercules. 
f Perhaps for uufer te ' take yourself away.' 
Probably the imperative of an old verb. 
Probably connected with ho or hue ' hither/ 


Heus* harkee, holloa. 

Hui bless me ! or more strictly a whistle. 

N"S verily, almost always at the beginning of a sentence, and 
followed by a pronoun. 

Oh, o, denotes emotion, oh. 

Ohe (6) avast. 

Papae ye gods. 

Prohf, pro avert it heaven, oh. 

St hist, hush. 

Vae woe, as uae tibi woe to you. 

Vah has various senses, depending upon the tone in which it 
is uttered, and must be translated according to the context. 

863 There are also several neuter adjectives which are used as ex- 
clamations : as, malum ill betide you, the deuce ; infandum un- 
utterable thought, &c. 

864 A few unaltered verbs are used almost as interjections : as, 
age quick, quaeso prithee, amabo please, obsecro by all that's 
sacred, abi that'll do. 

865 The preposition pSr with its accusative, in the sense of im- 
ploring, belongs to the class of interjections : as, per dextram 
hanc by this right hand. (See 1350,.;' and k.) 

* Probably the imperative of an old verb. Comp. the root-syllable 
of aits-culta- ' listen.' 

t Perhaps for prohibe ' keep off.' 


866 SYNTAX means the connection of words in a sentence. In 
treating this part of grammar the same order will be followed as 
in the former part. 


867 The nominative* case marks the quarter from which an actionf 
proceeds. Hence the nominative is commonly a living being : as, 

VipgrS, llmam momordit (Phaedr. vin. 5), a viper lit a file. 
Aper segetes proculcat (Ov. Met. vin. 290), the wild boar tram- 
ples down tJie crops. 

868 Instead of living beings, inanimate* and abstract nouns are 
often used as the nominative : as, 

Cursum mutauit amnis (Hor. ad Pis. 67), the river has changed 

its course. 

Dies lenit Iras (Liv. n. 45), time assuages wrath. 
Verbe'r&t imber humum (Virg. A. ix. 669), lashes the ground 

the rain. 

869 The agent may act upon the agent. Hence the nominative is 
used with reflective verbs : as, 

Rhenus septentrionali oceano miscetur (Tac. Ger. i.), the Rhine 
mixes (itself} with the Northern Ocean. 

870 As the use of the passive has grown out of that of the reflec- 
tive, the nominative is also found with passive verbs : as, 

Insula adpellatur Mona (Caes. B. G. v. 13), the island is called 
Mono, more literally : calls itself Mona. 

* See 44, 48, 368, 381. 

f The active verb is probably the oldest form of the verb. 
J This savours of poetry, but language in its early state is always and 
of necessity what we call poetical. See 379-382. 


871 As verbs of a static character have generally something of 
action* mixed up with them, the nominative is used before static 
verbs : as, 

Ture calent arae (Virg. A. i. 421), with incense glow the altars. 

872 The old construction of verbs of feeling is seen in 700, 889, 
&c. But a large number of verbs which denote feeling have a 
nominative like other static verbs : as, 

Cicero eum gt ainabat et ugrebatur (Cic. ad Q. F. i. 3. 3), Cicero 
both loved and respected him.\ 

872. 1 Impersonal verbs admit a nominative of a neuter pronoun, just 
as in English we use it, there, 

Luciscit hoc (Ter. Haut. in. 1.1), it is getting light, look. 
Non te haec pudent ? (Ter. Ad. iv. 7. 36), are you not ashamed 
of these things ? 

873 Thus the nominative is used before verbs of almost every kind. 
A very common use of it is before the verb signifying ' be :' as, 

Tu es tristis (Ter. Ad. v. 1. 6), you are out of spirits. 
Senectus ipsast morbiis (Ter. Phor. iv. 1. 9), old age itself is a 

874 Some grammarians are in the habit of treating those sentences 
which have the verb be as the form to which all others are to be 
reduced. Hence they divide a sentence into three parts : 

The Subject, that of which you speak ; 

The Predicate, that which you say of the subject ; and 

The Copula, or verb be, which unites the subject and predicate. 

Thus, for instance, in the sentence or proposition, man is an 
animal, man is the subject, animal the predicate, is the copula. 

The subject, according to this system, is the nominative case. 
When, instead of the verb be, another verb is used, they resolve it 
into some part of the verb be and a participle. Thus, Cicero writes 
a letter is resolved into Cicero is writing a letter, where Cicero is 
the subject, writing a letter the predicate, is the copula. 

* Thus, he who sleeps often snores or drops his head, or dreams. At 
any rate, the going to sleep is commonly preceded by certain acts of pre- 

f The old writers said Cicero eius uerebaiur, or even Ciceronem eius 
uerebatur. Nay, Cicero himself has quos non est uerilum (de Fin. n. 
13. 39). 


875 The substantive, adjective, or participle that accompanies the 
verb be as a predicate, is in Latin made to agree in case with the 
subject nominative, and is called the nominative of the predicate.* 

SSpientia est rerum dluinarum t humanarum scientia" (Cic. 
de Off. i. 43. 153), philosophy is the knowledge of things 
divine and human. 

Insignls annus hiemg nluosa fuit (Liv. v. 13), the year was re- 
markable for a snowy winter. 

Viae clausae, Tibgrfs innaulgabllis fuit (Liv. v. 13), the roads 
were blocked up, the Tiber not navigable. 

876 In the same manner other verbs have at times a nominative in 
the predicate referring to and agreeing in case with the subject 
nominative (see 1050) : as, 

Munltiones intSgrae mS/nebant (Caes. B. G. vi. 32), the forti- 
fications remained untouched. 

Haud inrltae cecldere minae (Liv. vi. 35), the threats did not 
fall without effect. 

876. 1 Although a noun substantive or adjective with 8s- be usually 
constitutes the predicate, the place may be supplied by a descrip- 
tive word or phrase of a different form : as, a. a genitive or ablative 
of quality ( 928, 1010) ; b. dative of the light in which a thing 
is regarded ( 983) ; c. a prepositional phrase ; or d. an adverb : as, 

a. Nemo e decem Sana mente est (Cic. de Leg. in. 10. 24), not 

a man of the ten is of sound mind. 

Natura humana aeul brguis est (Sal. Jug. 1), human nature is 

b. Cul b&no fuit ? (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 30. 84), to whom was it 
beneficial ? 

c. Sunt In honorS (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 28. 77), they are held in 

d. Tuto non eris (Cic. ad Att. xv. 11), you witt not be safe. 
See also 1401. 

* This nominative in the predicate must be referred to what gram- 
marians call ' attraction.' The German language in such cases very pro- 
perly divests the adjective of all case : Der Mann ist gut, not outer. See 
also 1060. 

162 SYNTAX. 

877 The accusative with the active verb becomes a nominative with 
the passive : as, 

Regem eum appellant, they salute him as king hence 

Rex ab suis appellatiir (Caes. B. G. vii. 4), he is saluted king 
by his friends. 

Caium Terentiuin consulem creant, they elect C. Terentius con- 
sul hence 

Cams Tgrentius consul creatur (Liv. xxn. 35), C. Terentius is 
elected consul. 

Doctiorem fScere clultatem, to make the citizens more learned 

Disciplma doctior factast clultas (Cic. R. P. n. 19. 34), by 
instruction the citizens were made (or became) more learned. 

878 Even when verbs are in the infinitive mood dependent upon 
another verb, the noun in the predicate referring to the subject 
nominative will still agree in case with the subject nominative, if 
no reflective pronoun in the accusative be interposed : as, 

HSmlues minus creduli esse coeperunt (Cic. de Div. n. 57. 117), 

men began to be less credulous. 
Cum omnibus potius quam soli perlrg uSluerunt (Cic. in Cat. 

iv. 7. 14), they resolved to perish with all rather than to perish 

Vis formosa* uiderl (Hor. Od. iv. 13. 3), you wish to appear 


879 It is only in poetry that we find such phrases as 

Sensitf delapsus In hostis (Virg. A. n. 377), he perceived that 
he had unwittingly fallen among the enemy. 

880 In the old authors, and in the poets, the nominative is found 
for the vocative : as, 

Agedum Pontlfex Publlcus praei uerbS, qulbus me pro legio- 
nlbus deuSueam (Liv. vm. 9), come. Priest of the State, re- 
peat (for me to follow} the words in which 1 am to devote 'my- 
self for the legions. 

Almae fllius Maiae (Hor. Od. i. 2. 42), thou son of fostering 

* The insertion of the pronoun te would require a change : thus, Vis 
te formosam uideri, ' you wish yourself to appear beautiful.' 
f In prose it must have been Sensit se delapsum in hostis. 


881 In inter] ectional phrases the verb is often understood : as, 
Ecc6 littgrae (i. e. mlhi traduntiir) (Cic. ad Att. xin. 16. 1), 

behold, a letter is all at once put into my hand. * 


882 The vocative is used in addressing a person : as, 

Die MarcS Tulll (Cic. ad Att. vn. 7. 7), speak, Marcus Tullius. 
88-2. 1 The interjection o is only used in strong exclamations : as, 

Dl boni, quid est in hSminis uita diu ? (Cic. de Sen. 19. 69), 
good heavens, what is there lasting in the life of man ? 

882. 2 The vocative, if emphatic, commences the sentence ; if not, it 
is usually preceded by a few words. It is also frequently placed 
immediately after the pronoun of the second person. 

883 In the old writers, and in the poets, the vocative is sometnnes 
used with verbs of the second person, instead of the nomina- 
tive : as, 

MactSf uirtute esto (Liv. iv. 14), be increased in virtue, i. e. 

go on in thy virtuous course, and heaven Hess thee. 
Quo mSriturg ruis ? ( Virg. A. x. 811), whither dost rush to die ?% 


884 The accusative case answers to the question whither. Hence 
motion to towns or small islands is expressed by the accusative : 

Capuam concessit (Liv. xxm. 18), he withdrew to Capua. 
Nauigabat Syracusas (Cic. N. D. in. 34. 83), he was sailing to 

885 With the names of countries the preposition %n is usually em- 
ployed. || But the poets use the simple accusative with names of 
countries, and even other words, after verbs of motion : as, 

* For the nominative in apposition see below. 

f The Romans, losing sight of this being a vocative, retain it in the 
construction of the infinitive, as, luberem made uirtute esse (Liv. n. 12). 

{ For the vocative in apposition, &c., see below. 

If any phrase be added by apposition to the name of the town, the 
preposition in is required : as, Se contulit Tarquinios in urbem Etruriae 
Jiorentissumam (Cic. R. P. n. 19. 34). Peruenit in oppidum Cirtam 
(Sal. Jug. 102). See also Sal. Jug. 75. 

|| Thus, Tarentum in Italiam uenit, he came to Tarentum in Italy.' 

104 SYNTAX. 

Italiam fato prSfugus Lauina'que uenit LittorS, ( Virg. A. i. 6), 
to Italia, by fate an outcast, and to the Lavine leach he came. 

886 The accusatives dtfmum, rus, foras, uenum, and in the old 
writers infitias, m&lam rem, are used after verbs of motion : as, 

Domura rguortere (Cic. Tusc. v. 37. 107), they returned home. 

Rus ibo (Ter. E. 11. 1. 10), I shall go into the country. 

Ecfugl foras (Ter. E. v. 4. 23), I escaped into the street. 

Darg uenum (Liv. xxiv. 47. 6), literally to put in the window 
(for sale) hence to sell. 

Infitias ibit (Ter. Ad. in. 2. 41), he will have recourse to subter- 
fuges. * 

Malain rem hinc ibis ? (Ter. E. in. 3. 30), will you go and be 
hanged ? 

887 The verbal substantives in tu (called supines) are used in the 
accusative after verbs of motion (see also 1299) : as, 

Eo pabulatum ugnient (Caes. B. G. vii. 18), they will come here 

to get fodder. 
In earn spem erecta clultas erat, debellatum Irl (Liv. xxix. 14), 

the citizens had been encouraged to hope that they were going 

to finish the war. 

888 After active verbs the object to which the action is directed is 
put in the accusative case : as, 

Domlnus seruom uerberauit, the master Jlogged the slave. 

889 The impersonal verbs of feeling have the accusative of the per- 
son who suffers that feeling : viz. 

Me miseret eiiis, et p*get ; 
Pudet taedetque ac paenltet : as, 

Eos infamiae suae non pudet (Cic. I. Verr. 12. 35), they are not 
ashamed of their infamy. 

890 So also certain other impersonals take an accusative of the 
person v, ho suffers : viz. 

Me uel te iuuat dgcetquS, 
Turn praetSrit f iigit latetqug, 
Falllt oportet dedgcetqug : as, 

* The usual translation is ' deny ;' but this is inconsistent with such 
a passage as Liv, vi. 40.4 : Neque nego ne^ue infitias eo. 


Ngmmem uostrum praetSrit (Cic. II. Verr. in. 5. 11), it escapes 
no one among you. 

891 Many reflective verbs, called transitive deponents, take an 
accusative :* as, 

Naturam sgquif (Cic. de Off. i. 28. 100), to follow nature. 

892 The so-called perfect participles are used, particularly by the 
poets, like those of reflective or deponent verbs, and so take an 
accusative case : as, 

MembrS, sub arbiito Stratus (Hor. Od. i. 1. 21), having spread 

his limbs under an arbute tree. 
Aduersum fSmur tragula ictusj (Liv. xxi. 7), wounded in the 

front of the thigh with a tragle. 

893 Similarly, some verbs, which are commonly intransitive, are 
occasionally used (by the poets more particularly) with an accu- 
sative : as, 

Ingrati an!mi crimen horreo (Cic. ad Att. ix. 2 A. 2), 1 shudder 

at the charge of ingratitude. 
Meum casum dSluerunt (Cic. p. Sest. 69. 145), they lamented 

my misfortune. 

894 Some verbs, commonly intransitive, take an accusative of a 
noun related to the verb in form or meaning (called the cognate 
accusative), often in order to attach thereto an adjective : as, 

Mirum s6mniaui s6mnium (Plant. Rud. in. 1. 5), / have 

dreamed a wonderful dream. 
Amauti hero qui seruitutem seruit (Plant. Aul. iv. 1. 6), he 

who is in the service of a master that is in love. 
Alium cursum petiuit (Cic. ad Att. in. 8. 2), he went another 


895 Similarly, the verbs of smelling and taste, and a few others, 
take an accusative which defines the nature : as, 

Piscls ipsum marS saplt (Sen. Q. N. in. 18), the fish tastes of 
the very sea. 

* This and some of the following sections have been anticipated. See 
400 to 404. But the repetition was necessary for completeness. 

f The compound obsequ- (r.) ' follow the wishes of any one, oblige/ 
requires a dative of the person obliged, agreeing thus with the Greek con- 
struction of the allied word eir-opai (Aoriat l- 

% Ictus, ' having it wounded.' 


Olet pgregrinum (Cic. de Or. in. 12. 44), it has a foreign smell. 
Redolet antlqultatem (Cic. Brut. 21. 82), it savours of antiquity. 

896 Verbs of making, creating, electing, have aii accusative of the 
new condition or office (called the factitive accusative] , besides the 
accusative of the object : as, 

Me hebetem molestiae reddiderunt (Cic. ad Att. ix. 17), for 
myself, troubles have made me dull of feeling. 

Recta praua faciunt (Ter. Ph. v. 2. 6), they make straight things 

Ancum Marcium regem popiilus creauit* (Liv. I. 32), the citi- 
zens elected Ancus Marcius king. 

897 So also verbs of calling, thinking^, showing, seeing, take two 
accusatives : as, 

Octauium sui Caesarem salutabant (Cic. ad Att. xiv. 12. 2), 

Octavius his own friends saluted as Ccesar. 
Socrates totius mundl se incolam et cluem arbitrabatiir (Cic. 

Tusc. v. 37. 108), Socrates thought himself an inhabitant and 

citizen of the universe. 
Gratum me praebeo (Cic. p. Plane. 38. 91), / show myself 


898 The verbs doce- teach, cela- hide, keep in the dark, may have 
two accusatives, one of the thing, one of the person : as, 

Quid te litteras doceam ? (Cic. in Pis. 30. 73), what, am I to 

teach you your letters ? 
Non te celaul sermonem Ampl (Cic. ad Fam. IT. 16. 3), I did 

not conceal from you the conversation with Ampius.% 

899 With the passives of these verbs, the accusative of the person 
becomes the nominative, and the thing taught or concealed may 
be in the accusative : as, 

* There is a sort of motion to in this construction : ' They put him 
into the office.' A German indeed would insert the preposition signify- 
ing * to :' as, Sie w'dhlen ihn zum Fiihrer, * they choose him leader.' 

f With verbs of thinking the ablatives numero and loco, and the pre- 
position pro, are also used : as, in numero hostium eum habeo, in loco 
hostis habeo, pro hoste habeo. 

% These two verbs are also used with de of the matter referred to, or 
with an ablative alone of the means employed : as, celare or docere de 
aliqua re, docere fidibus. 


Celabar (Cic. in Bull. n. 5. 12), I was kept in the dark. 
Nosne h6c celatos tamdiu ? (Ter. Hec. iv. 4. 23), to think that 
we, of all people, should have been kept in the dark about this 

so long. 
Dulcis doctS mSdos (ffor. Od. in. 9. 10), taught sweet measures. 

900 Some transitive verbs of motion, compounded with trans, cir- 
- cum, praeter, *d, may have two accusatives, one of the 
crossed <fcc., one of what is conveyed across &c. : as, 

Iberum copias traiecit (Liv. xxi. 23), he threw his forces over 

the Ebro. 
Equltatum pontem transducit (Goes. B. G. n. 10), he leads t> 

cavalry over the bridge. 
Idem iusiurandum adigit Afranium (Goes. B. C. 1. 76), he 

pels Afranius to take the same oath. 
Arbltrum (aliquem) adlgere" (Cic. Top. 10.43), to force (a per 

son] to go before a judge. 

901 The thing crossed, &c. may, with the passive verb, be an ac- 
cusative :* as, 

Belgae Bhenum transducuntiir (Caes. B. G. n. 4), the Belgae 

cross the Rhine. 
Scopulos praeteruectS, uidetiir oratio mea (Cic. p. Gael. 21. 51), 

my speech seems now to have passed by the rocks. 
Tune deinde cetgrS, mandantur iusiurandum Sdactis (Sen. ep. 

95, p. 602 C.), then and not till then the other duties are 

intrusted to them when they have been sworn. 

902 Many verbs of asking, begging, demanding, may have two ac- 
cusatives, one of the person, the other of the thing : viz. 

Roga- perconta- (r.) flagita-que, 
Pose- rSposc- mterrdga-que", 
Quacs- 6t ora- postiila-que : as, 

Pacem te poscimus omnes (Virg. A. xi. 362), peace ofthee ask 
we alL~\ 

* Or, so far as traic-, tramit are concerned, in the nominative : as, 
Rhodanus traiectus est, ' the Rhone was crossed.' With the thing co 
veyedthe nominative is required in the passive: w,exercitus trail 

*% Pet- ' beg,' and quaer- * ask,' never take an accusative of the per- 
son, but employ a preposition ; the first ab, the second oft, ex o 

168 SYNTAX. 

Frumentum Aeduos flagitabat (Goes. B. G. I. 16), he kept de- 
manding corn of the Aedui. 

903 The thing asked with the passive verb may be an accusative : 

Scito me non essS rbgatum sententiam (Cic. ad Att. i. 13. 2>, 
you must know I was not asked my opinion. 

904 Many verbs which are originally intransitive* become transi- 
tive when compounded : as, from i- go is formed co-i- go together 
or meety and hence 

CoirS sScietatem (Cic. Phil. n. 10. 24), to form a partnership, t 
So, from uersa-rl to turn is formed a-uersa-r! to turn away (in 
Jwrror) : and hence, 

Filium auersatus (Liv. vm. 7), turning away in horror from 

his son. 

Auersatur sceliis (Curt. vi. 7), he turns away in horror from the 
(proposed) crime. 

905 Some transitive verbs, when compounded, slightly change their 
meaning, and thus have a changed construction : as, from sparg-J 
scatter, sprinkle, spargere Squam to sprinkle water; but consper- 
gSre Sliquem Squa to besprinkle any one with water. 

906 Hence some compound verbs have a double construction!], one 
derived from the simple verb, one from the changed meaning of 
the compound, viz. 

Adsperg- St insperg- indu-o-que', 
Exu- circtimda- inperti-o-que', 
AddS circumftid- ins&r-o-que. 

907 Abstract nouns from verbs occasionally follow the construction 
of the verb, and take an accusative : as, 

D8mum reditionis spe sublata (Caes. B. G. I. 5), the hope of 
returning home being taken away. 

Quid tibi hanc curatiost rem ? (Plaut. Am. i. 3. 21), what busi- 
ness have you to trouble yourself about this matter ? 

* See 403. 

f Hence in the passive societas coitur, ' a partnership is formed.' 

J Only the poets, and their prose imitators, use sparg- in the sense of 

The same difference exists between spu- and conspu-, between ser- 
and conser- or obser-. 

|| See 404. 


Quid tibi istunc tactiost ? (Plant. Cas. n. 6. 54) what business 
have you to touch that person ? 

908 The adjectives propior- and proxumo-, and the adverbs prSpius 
and proxume, from the preposition propg, sometimes, like that 
preposition, take an accusative (as well as a dative) : as, 

Exercltum habere' quam proxiime hostem (Cic. ad Att. vi. 5. 3), 
to keep the army as near as possible to the enemy. 

LSconlctis Sger proxlmus finem eoruna est (Liv. xxxv. 27), the 
territory of the Lacones is nearest tv their frontier. 

909 The neuters of pronouns and of adjectives or substantives 
which denote quantity are often used in the accusative where 
other nouns in the accusative would be rare, or even inadmissible. 
In these cases the English language often requires the insertion of 
a preposition : 

Id tibi suscensui (Plant. Pers. in. 3. 26), it was at this 1 took 

Vnum omnes studetls (Cic. Phil. vi. 7. 18), you are all eager 

for one object. 
Cetera assentior Crasso ( Or. i. 9.35), as to the other 

points I agree with Cras&tfs. 
lam hoc aliud est quod gaudeamus (Ter. E. v. 8. 11), then 

again we have this other matter to rejoice at. 
Id Speram do (Ter. And. i. 1. 130), lam labouring at this. 
Vtrumque laetor (Cic. ad Fam. vn. 1. 1), I am delighted at both 

Quid lacrumas ? (Ter. Ad. iv. 5.45) what are you crying for ? 

Idne estis auctores. mihi ? (Ter. Ad. v. 8. 16) is this what you 
recommend to me ? 

Bgniflcio isto nihll utltiir (Cic. in Hull. n. 23. 61), that ad- 
vantage you offer he makes no use of. 

ES, quae ab natura mSuemur (Cic. de Am. 24. 88), those warn- 
ings which we receive from nature. 
And even unconnected with a verb : as, 

Id temporls (Cic. de Fin. v. 1. 1), at that time. 

HSmlnes Id aetatis* (Cic. de Or. i. 47. 207), men at that age. 

Ego istiic aetatis (Ter. Haut. i. 1. 58), I at your time of life. 

* The phrase hoc aetatis was at last corrupted to hoc aetate. See 
Nonius, p. 192 ; and compare mage, uerere, for magis, uererts. In Plant. 
Trin. iv. 3. 83. we should read hoc aetate, not hac aetate. Compare also 
illuc aetatis qui sit, PL Mil. in. 1. 56 ; quid tibi ego aetatis uideor? PI. 
Merc. n. 2. 19. 

170 SYNTAX. 

>)10 The possessive pronouns in a which accompany the impersonal 
verbs refert and interest are in origin accusatives feminine singular. 

Mea refert, it concerns me, is a corruption of meam rem fert, it 

carries with it something belonging to me. So, 
Nostra* interest is a corruption of nostram inter rem est, it is 
in the midst of and consequently mixed up with something 
belonging to us. 

911 After many active verbs, instead of a single word, a whole sen- 
tence may take the place of the object, in which case the secondary 
verb is put in the infinitive mood, and the agent or subject of that 
verb is put in the accusative, called the subject accusative. Thus, 
Caesar redilt, Caesar is returned. 

Nuntiant Caescirem rediisse, they bring word that Caesar is re- 

For other remarks on the construction of the accusative and 
infinitive see below. 

012 Similarly, when a subordinate sentence is attached to a verb 
as its accusative, the nominative of that sentence is sometimes 
picked out and made the accusative of that verbj : as, 

Nosti Marcellum quam tardus sit (Caes. ap. Cic. ad Fam. viu. 

10. 3), you know how slow Marcellus is. 
Istam times ne ilium talem praerlpiat tlbi (Ter. E. i. 2. 80), 

* The use of re- in this sense of ' interest' is common : thus we find 
mea res agitur, ' my interest is at stake ;' in rem meam est, ' it is to my 
advantage ;' e re mea est^ ' it is suggested by my interest.' The expla- 
nation above given applies equally to the use of the genitive of the per- 
son, as Ciceronis refert, Ciceronis interest ; as well as the genitive of 
the value, as magni refert. The long quantity of the a is proved by 
Ter. Ph. v. 7. 47. and Haut. iv. 5. 45. Similarly, posted, from posteam, 
lengthens the a when the m is discarded. See also 409, 787, 802. 

f A mathematician might have expressed this by Ferunt (Caesar re- 
diit}em, attaching the symbol of the accusative case to the clause. As 
the Romans were afraid to do this, adopting what under the circumstances 
was perhaps the best make-shift, they selected for the addition of the 
suffix the chief substantive. Again, the passive construction should have 
been (Caesar rediit)s fertur ; but here again, by a similar make-shift, 
they wrote Caesar rediisse fertur ; and even in the first person, ego rediisse 

% Hence even in the passive voice, an dea sim dubitor (Ov. Met. vi. 
208), 'it is doubted whether I am a goddess.' So Cic. N. D. u. 44. 115, 
intellegi qualia sint non possunt ; and 59. 147, ex quo scientia intellegitur 
qualis sit. 


you are afraid that that girl you speak of will cut you out 

with that fine gentleman. 
Impurum uide Quantum ualet (Ter. Ph. v. 7. 93), see how 

strong the scoundrel is. 
Non satis me pernosti etiam qualis sim (Ter. And. in. 2. 23), 

you do not quite thoroughly understand even yet what sort of 

person I am. 
Virtus tu& me faclt ut te audacter moneam (Ter. Haut. i. 1. 4), 

your own worth makes me boldly warn you. 
Fac me ut sciam (Ter. Haut. i. 1. 32), mind you let me know. 

912. 1 Although the employment of the accusative as the agent or 
subject of a verb in the infinitive should, according to the ex- 
planation above given ( 911), be limited to the case where such 
a clause follows a transitive verb as its object, this use of an accu- 
sative before an infinitive mood became general (see 1239, 1240, 
1246), and even when not expressed affected the case of words 
referring to it* : as, 

Vlsumst utilius solum quam cum altero regnare (Cic. de Off. in. 
10. 41), it was thought better for one to hold royal power alone 
than to share it with another where in the indicative we 
should have had solus regnat. 

913 The prepositions in and sub sometimes require the accusative, 
and always after a verb of motion : as, 

In urbe est, he is in the city ; but, In urbem uenit, he came 

into the city. 
Sub muro stat, he stands under the wall ; but, Sub murum 

uenit, he came up to the wall. 

914 The majority of the other prepositions, which do not imply 
'motion from,' also govern the accusative. See Prepositionsf. 

915 Extent of place or time or degree is commonly expressed in 
the accusative! : as, 

* But see 878. 

f Those prepositions which require the ablative are included in the 
first two of the following lines ; those which are found with both, in the 
third line. All others have the accusative alone. 
Absque cum sine, ab coramque, 
Prae pro de tenus, ec palamque ; 
Both, super in sub, subter clamque. 
But the use of clam with an ablative seems doubtful. 

J Where a point of space is fixed by a distance from another point, 

172 SYNTAX. 

A recta conscientia non trausuorsurn unguem disced! t (Cic. ad 

Att. xin. 20. 4), he departs not a nail's breadth from a right 

Fossa quindecim pedes lata (Goes. B. G. vii. 72), a ditch fifteen 

feet broad. 
Decem annos urbs oppugnata est (Liv. v. 4), for ten years was 

the city besieged. 

/ <7 

Vndeulginti annos natus (Cic. Brut. 64. 229), nineteen years old. 
Maximam partem lactS uluunt (Caes. B. G. iv. I), for the most 
part they live on milk. 

916 The accusative is occasionally used by the poets in connection 
with an adjective, to define the particular part, and is often called 
the Greek accusative. Cetera in other respects is so used even in 
prose writers (Sallust, Livy, Velleius). 

Ecus tremit artus ( Virg. G. in. 84), the horse trembles in his 

Vir cetera egregiiis (Liv. i. 35), a man in other respects of dis- 
tinguished merit. 

Os humerosque deo similis (Virg. A. i. 593), in face and 
shoulders like a god. 

917 The accusatives ulcem* turn, lot, genus kind, and secus sex^ 
are often used in an independent manner : as, 

Stupentis et suam iam uicem magis anxios quam illlus (Liv. 

vin. 35), amazed and now more anxious about their own 

than the other's position. 

In id genus uerbls ( Var. L. L. x. 5. 180), in words of that class. 
Scis me aliquld id genus solltum scrlbgrS (Cic. ad Att. xin. 

12. 3), you know that 1 am in the habit of writing something 

of that kind. 
LibeYorum capltum ulrlle sgciis ad decem miliS, captS, (Liv. 

xxvi. 47), of free persons of the male sex full 10,000 were 


917. 1 The accusative partim is used even as a nominative to a verb : 


Partim e nobis tlmldi sunt, partim a republica auersl (Cic. 

the ablative is used by good writers, and sometimes with the preposition 
ab. See also 1018. 1. 

* The equivalent perhaps in form and meaning of the German wegen. 


Phil. viii. 11. 32), some of us are timid, some Hi-disposed to 
our country. 

918 In sentences of exclamation the accusative often appears, the 
word with which it should have been connected being suppressed : 

Me caecum* qui haec ante non uide'rim (Cic. ad Att. x. 10. 1), 

my blindness, not to have seen all this before. 
Quo mi, inquit, mutam speciemf, si uincor sono ? (Phaedr. in. 

18.9), what good, says she, is dumb beauty to me, if in song 

I am worsted ? 
Hem Dauom tibij (Ter. And. v. 2. 1), look, here is Davus at 

your service. 
BenS te pater (Ov. Fast. n. 637), a blessing on thee, sire. 


919 The genitive, like the nominative, denotes * from.' The dif- 
ference between their uses is this, that the nominative denotes 
the source of the action expressed by a verb, while the genitive is 
used chiefly in connection with substantives. It will often be found 
that the preposition de with the ablative may be substituted for 
the genitive, and sometimes Sb or ex||. 


920 The genitive is attached to another substantive to denote the 
origin of an action, and may be translated by from, of, or the 
English genitive in s : as, 

Consiilis iussu (Cic. in Cat. 1. 1. 2), by an order from the consul, 
by order of the consul, by the consul's order. 

921 This phrase corresponds to consul iussit, where consul would 
be called the subject of the verb iussit. Hence this genitive is 
often called the subjective genitive. 

* Perhaps dico understood. 

t Perhaps das understood. Literally thus : * To what end do ye give 
me beauty ?' 

J Perhaps hem itself ( 862) is an old verb. 

Perhaps Di adiuuent understood. 

II Hence the substitution of de, or a word like it, in all the European 
languages derived from the Latin. In our own language too of appears 
to be only a variety of the preposition off. 

174 SYNTAX. 

022 When of or from a whole a certain part only is taken, that 
whole is expressed by the genitive.* This is often called the par- 
titiv. genitive : as, 

Pars mill turn (Caes. B. G. vi. 40), a part of tlie soldiers. 

Oratorum praestantissiimi (Cic. Opt. Gen. Or. 4. 13), the most 
distinguished of orators. 

Vis auri (Cic. Tusc. v. 32. 91), a quantity of gold. 

Nemo nostrum (Cic. de Fin. n. 8. 23), not one of us. 

Qu! eorum curulis gesserant m&gistratus (Liv. v. 41), suck of 
them as had held curule magistracies. 

Rellquom ultae (Liv. xxxix. 13), the rest of his life. 

Delect! peditum (Liv. xxvi. 5), men chosen from among the in- 
fantry, or a picked body of infantry. 

Exlguom campi (Liv. xxvii. 27), a small portion of the plain. 

Vltuma Celtiberiae (Liv. XL. 47), the farthest parts of Celtiberia. 

Decemulri agro Appulo, qu5d eius publicum populi Romani 
grat, dluidendo (Liv. xxxi. 4), ten commissioners for divid- 
ing the Apulian territory, i. e. so much of it as was the public 
property of the people of Rome. 

Id nggoti (Ter. And. Prol. 2), that piece of business, or that 

Allquid noul (Cic. ad Att. v. 6. 2), something of new matter, or 
some news. 

Quodt eius fScere possum (Cic. ad Att. xi. 12. 4 ; ad Fam. m. 
2. 2, and v. 8. 5 ; and de Inv. n. 6. 20), so much of it as I 
can, or so far as is in my power. 

Obs. When the whole are included, the genitive in Latin can- 
not be used, although in English we still use the word c of.' Thus, 
' Three hundred of us have sworn' if three hundred form the whole 
must be expressed by Trecent! coniurauimus (Liv. n. 12). 
922. 1 Still, as the pronouns quisqug and uterquS deal with each 
unit of the whole number separately, though ultimately including 
the whole, they are entitled to a genitive of the whole : as, 

Tuorum quisque necessariorum (Cic. ad Fam. I. 9.25), every 
one of your connections. 

* Instead of this partitive genitive, the prepositions of kindred mean- 
ing, such as ex and de, are often used, and even the preposition inter. 

f In this construction our editions have quoad, but the best Mss. quod. 


VtriquS nostrum gratum fecMs (Cic. de Am. 4. 16), you will 

oblige both of us. 
Vterque eorum exercltum educunt (Caes. B. C. in. 30), loth 

lead their armies out. 

923 The same partitive use of the genitive is found with adverbs : 

Vblnam gentium ? (Plant. Merc. n. 3. 97), where among the 
nations ? in what part of the whole world ? 

Eo consuetudlnis re's adductast (Liv. xxv. 8), the thing was 
brought to that degree of habit. 

Nescirg uldeminl quo amentiae progress! sitis (Liv. xxvin. 27), 
you seem not to know to what a degree of madness you have 

Intgrea 15ci (Ter. Haut. n. 3. 16), in the meanwhile. 

Sulpicius omnium nobilium maxume Graecis litte'ris studuit 
(Cic. Brut. 20. 78), Sulpicius of all our nobles applied him- 
self most zealously to Greek literature. 

924 When a thing is said to belong to a person, it has generally 
come from him. Hence the owner to whom any thing belongs is 
in the genitive, which is then called the possessive genitive : as, 

Thebae popull Roman! iurg belli factae sunt (Liv. xxxni. 13), 

Thebes became the property of the Roman people by right of 


PropS Caesarls hortos (Hor. Sat. i. 9. 18), near Ccesar's park. 
Omnia hostium grant (Liv. xxi. 11. ad fin.), the whole country 

belonged to the enemy. 
Plebs Hanuibalis tota erat (Liv. xxm. 14), the commonalty 

were entirely at the disposal of Hannibal.* 

925 The possessive or partitivet genitive is very common in speak- 
ing of a characteristic, office, part, duty$ : as, 

* Instead of the genitive of the personal pronouns, the possessive 
adjectives are required : as, est tunm uidere, quid agatur (Cic. p. Mur. 
38. 83), ' it does belong to you to see what is going on ;' nos nostri sumus 
(Plant. Mil. Gl. n. 5.21), ' we belong to ourselves, we are our own mas- 
ters.' So also humanum, alienum, imperatorium, muliebre^ regium, &c. 
may be used instead of the genitives of the nouns whence they jare derived. 

f The term ' partitive' has been used, because in all these cases the 
notion of a partis perceptible. 'To make mistakes is one element in 
the character of man.' So again, * it is one element towards constituting 
a perfect judge to' &c. 

J A term for part, duty, &c. is often expressed : as, munus, negotium. 

170 SYNTAX. 

Ciiiusuls homlnls est errarg*, nullius nisi inslpientls In errorS 
persSuerare' (Cic. Phil. xn. 2. 5), it is in the character of 
every man to make a mistake, of none but a fool to persist in 
a mistake. 

Sapientis iudlcls* est, quid lex cogat, cogitare (Cic. p. Clu. 58. 
159), it is the duty of a wise judge to consider what the law 

926 The genitive of connection is not unfrequent : as, 

Sororis suae uirum (Cic. in Cat. iv. 6.13), his sister's husband. 
Hums Sub's Lentiill (ibid.), the grandfather of this Lentulus. 
Dluom pater atque hoinlnum rex (Virg. A. i. 65), sire of gods 
and king of men. 

926.1 A genitive is occasionally found where a case in apposition 
might have been expected (genitive of definition) : as, 

Haec uox Vtfluptatls (Cic. de Fin. n. 2. 6), this word 'pleasure.' 
Aliis uirtutibus contlnentiae, iustltiae, ftdei te consulatu 
dignissumum iudlcaul (Cic. p. Mur. 10.23), in respect of 
other good qualities, as those of integrity, justice, honour, I 
thought you thoroughly fitted for the consular office. 
Vnum ggnus est infestum nobis, eorum quos Clod! furor raplnis 
pauit (Cic. p. Mil. 2.3), one class and but one regards us 
with deadly hostility, I mean those whom the demon of Clodius 
has fattened on rapine. 

927 The genitive of the quality or quantity requires an adjective or 
participle with it : as, 

Vlr et consill magni et uirtutis (Caes. B. G. in. 5), a man of 

great talent and great courage. 

Quattuor iugerum Sggr (Liv. in. 26), a farm of 'four jugers. 
FossS, quindecim pedum (Caes. B. G. v. 42), a ditch of fifteen 

feet (in width}. 

Frumentum dierum tnginta (Caes. B. G. vn. 71), 30 days' corn. 
Hannibal, annorum ferme nouem (Liv. xxi. 1), Hannibal, a 

qfficium, proprium, &c. ; but it is idle to talk of an ellipsis when no such 
noun is expressed. 

* See note f P- 175. t See note * p. 175. 

J See also the ablative of the quality, 1010. The use of the geni- 
tive in this sense is less common than that of the ablative, and limited to 


928 The objective genitive is that where the genitive takes the placo 
of what would be the object after a verb.* In this case the 
English often requires the substitution of another preposition! for 
1 of:' as, 

Lectio librorum (Cic. Acad. Pr. n. 2. 4), the reading of books. 
Cuplditates immensae dluitiarum, gloriae, domlnationis (Cic. 
de Fin. I. 18.59), boundless desires, as for wealth, for glory, 
for power. 
Iniuria mulierum Sabmarumt (Liv. I. 13), the wrong done to 

the Sabine women. 

Which phrases severally correspond to llbros legere ; dlultias, glo- 
riam, dSminationem cupere' ; mulieres iniuria afficere. 

928.1 In the construction of the objective genitive, mel, tul, sul, 
nostrl, uestrl are required. 

GratS, mihi uehemente'r est mgnicria nostrl tua ( Cic. ad Fam. 
xn. 17), I am exceedingly pleased with your remembering us. 
Habetis diicem mSmorem uestri, oblltum sul (Cic. in Cat. iv. 
9. 19), you have a general who thinks of you, and forgets him- 
MagnS, mei imago ( Virg. A. iv. 654), a great image of me. 


929 Adjectives and participles are sometimes followed by a genitive 
of the cause\ in the poets and later writers : as, 

Lassus marls (Hor. Od. n. 6. 7), weary of the sea. 
Interrltus let! (Ov. Met. x. 616), not frightened at death. 
Inuictus laboiis (Tac. Ann. I. 20), unconquered by toil. 

permanent qualities ; the ablative denotes both permanent and temporary 

* Yet such phrases as amor uirtutis, taedium laboris, can scarcely be 
considered as objective phrases, seeing that the virtue and the labour are 
the causes or origin of the amor and the taedium. 

t This objective genitive is far removed from the true meaning of the 
case ; hence it is not surprising that our own language does not follow it. 

J Sometimes the subjective and objective genitives are at once attached 
to the same noun : as, Heluetiorum iniuriae populi Romani (Caes. B. G. 
i. 30), ' the wrongs done by the Helvetii to the Roman state;' where Hel- 
uetiorum is the subjective, populi the objective comes, as usual, last. 

More commonly an ablative of the cause is preferred. 

178 SYNTAX. 

930 Adjectives or participles which denote removal or separation 
may be followed by a genitive in the poets :* as, 

Opgrura solutus (Hor. Od. in. 17. 16), set loose from work. 
Liber laborum (Hor. ad Pis. 212), free from toils. 
Scelgris puriis (Hor. Od. i. 22. 1), dear of crime. 
Vacuas caedis mantis (Ov. A. A. i. 6. 42), hands free from blood- 

031 Adjectives of fulness may be followed by a genitive : as, 

Domus plena ebriorum (Cic. Phil. n. 27.67), a house full of 

drunken men. 
Lactls abundanst ( Virg. Buc. II. 20), abounding in milk. 

932 Some adjectives, formed from substantives, retain the substan- 
tive's power of being attended by a genitive : as, 

Stiidiosus equorum (Ov. Met. xiv. 321), fond of horses. 
Expers erudltionis (Cic. de Or. n. 1.1), without any share of 


Consors laborls (Cic. Brut. 1.2), having a common lot of labour. 
Securus famae (Ov. Trist. i. 1.49), without regard for what the 

933 Adjectives denoting accusation, guilt, or innocence , are fol- 
lowed by a genitive : as, 

Reus Suarltiae (Cic. p. Flac. 3. 7), charged with avarice. 
Sanguinis insons (Ov. Met. xin. 149), guiltless of blood. 

934 Many adjectives from verbs, and participles imperfect, are used 
as substantives^, and followed by an objective genitive : as, 

Ciipldus ueritatls (Cic. de Or. i. 11. 47), eager for truth. 
Auldus gloriae (Cic. p. Marc. 8. 25), greedy of glory. 
TSnax prdpSsItl (Hor. Od. in. 3.1), ever clinging to his purpose. 
Edax rerum (Ov. Met. xv. 234), devouring all things. 
Efflciens uoluptatis (Cic. de Off. in. 33. 116), productive of 

* More commonly an ablative with or without ab is preferred. 

t This and many such adjectives prefer an ablative of the cause. 

J Observe the difference between laborem contemnens^ * despising the 
labour/ and laboris contemnens^ ' a despiser of labour;' the former speak- 
ing of the single occasion, the latter of an habitual feeling ; which is the 
usual distinction between a participle and an adjective. 


GSrens negotl (Cic. p. Quinct. 19. 62), engaged in business as a 

935 Adjectives, more particularly in the later writers, take a geni- 
tive which may be translated by in, in respect to, in point of* : as, 

V&lldus Spurn (Tac. Hist. n. 19), strong in resources. 
Strenuus inllitiae (Tac. Hist. in. 42), energetic in war. 
Integer ultae (Hor. Od. I. 22.1), pure (in point) of life. 

936 Some adjectives, which commonly govern the dative, being 
used as masculine or feminine substantives, take a genitive : viz. 

Socio-, superstit- affini-que. 
Flnit'mo-, cognat (o-) aequali-que. 
PrSpinquo-, sim'li- consort\-que. 
Par-, fam'liari- ulcino-que. 
Ngcessario- contrario-que'. 
Amic(o-) et inuid(o-) aemiilo-que'.t 

937 In the same way some neuter adjectives have become substan- 
tives, and as such take a genitive : viz. 

Par, prSprium, simile and commune'. 


938 The impersonal verbs of feeling (see ^ 889), together with the 

* An ablative with or without in is preferred by the older and better 
writers. Ruddiman ( Stallbaum's ed. n. 73) has given from Johnson a 
list of adjectives found with the genitive in addition to those which fall 
under his seven defined classes. In this list 133 are of that kind which 
are to be translated by ' in' or ' in point of.' But not one of these is from 
Terence, Lucretius, or Cicero, and only five from Plautus ; whereas, 
among the later writers, there are twenty-six from Tacitus, and forty-four 
from Silius. Again, of the whole 133, not less than fifty-five have the 
one word animi. For instance, of the five examples from Plautus, four 
have this word, one passage having also mentis (Trin. n. 4. 53, and this 
evidently corrupt) ; and of sixteen quoted from Apuleius, thirteen have 
the same. From these facts we are inclined to infer, that animi is in 
truth, what the sense requires, a dative (see 114), as it certainly is when 
used with the verb excrucior, &c. (see 952), and that the use of the 
genitive with this sense in later writers grew out of a false analogy from 
animi, and words of like form, aided by the ambiguity between the two 
cases in the first declension (see 951). Virg. A. ix. 255. has integer 
aeui ; Albinovanus, HI. 5, integer aeuo. 

f That many of these are substantives is confirmed by the fact, that 
they admit the possessive pronouns : as, inuidos meos. Even their super- 
latives are so used as substantives : as, inimicissumum suum, Cic. p. Mil. 
9.25 ; meus familiarissumus, Cic. ad Fam. xin. 35. 1. 

180 SYNTAX. 

personal verbs misere- (r.) and mlseresc-, take a genitive of the 
moving cause : as, 

Si duarum paeniteblt, addentur duae (Plant. St. iv. 1.45), if 

you think two not enough, two more shall be added. 
Hunc nostrum copiarum suppaenitet (Cic. ad Att. vii. 14), our 

friend here half thinks that he has not force en.onyh. 
Fratris me pudet (Ter. Ad. in. 3. 37). Fm ashamed of my brother. 
, Piidet deorum hominumque (Liv. in. 19), I feel ashamed before 
heaven and before man. * 

939 Occasionally in the older poets a genitive is found with other 
personal verbs of feeling : as, 

Fastidit me! (Plant. Aul. n. 2. 67), he has taken a dislike to me. 
Stfidet tul (quoted by Cic. N. D. in. 29. 72), he is fond of you. 
Quae non uereturfuiri (Afran. ap. Non. ix. 3), who has no 

respect for her husband. 
lustitiaene prius mlrert belling laborum ? (Firg. A. xi. 126) 

thy justice first should I admire or toils of war ? 
Nee ueterum memini laetoruSf m&lorum (I'irg. A. xi. 280), 

nor their old griefs remember I or glory in. 

Neque ille 
Seposltl clceris nee longae inuidlt auenae (Hor. Sat. n. 6. 84), 

nor hoarded vetch nor taper oat he grudged. 

940 Occasionally verbs of removal or separation have a genitive of 
the whence in old writers and in poetry J : as, 

Abstlneto irarum calidaeque rixae (Hor. Od. in. 27. 69), abstain 

shalt thoufrom wrath and heated fray. 
Desine mollium tandem querelarum (Hor. 01 u. 9. 17), cease 

at last from plaints unmanly. 
Tempus desiste're pugnae (Virg. A. x. 411), 'tis time to desist 

from battle. 

* The genitive of the person with pudet may be either one who has 
acted shamefully or one who has been <!e;ilt with shamefully, so that the 
sight of him in either case raises the feeling of shame. 

f The reflective form of these verbs proves that the construction with 
an accusative could not originally have belonged to them. The idea of a 
Grecism is unnecessary. The genitive is the very case that might have 
been expected from the nature of the idea. 

The legal language here, as in so many cases, retained traces of the 
old construction : as, liberare tutelac ( Dig. xx\n. 50. 2). 


Manu signlftcarS coepit, ut quiescgrent pugnae (Quadrig. ap. 

Gell. ix. 13), he began to make a signal with his hand that 

they should rest from battle. 
Me 6mnium iam laborum leuas (Plant. Rud. I. 4. 27), you at 

last relieve me of all my troubles. 
Nee sermonis fallebar tamen (Plant. Ep. n. 2. 55), nor yet was 

I cheated out of what they said. 
Miror morb! purgatum te illius (Hor. Sat. n. 3. 27), / wonder 

thou art cleansed of that disease. 

941 Some verbs of fulness, want, and need, may have a partitive 
genitive (as well as an ablative) : as, 

Ollam denariorum implore" non pete's (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 18. 4), 

you cannot fill the pitcher with denaries. 
Completus iam mercatorum career Srat (Cic. II. Verr. v. 57. 147), 

the prison was at last filled with captains of trading ships. 
Non tarn artis indigent quam laboris (Cic. de Or. i. 34. 156), 

it is not so much skill they are in need of as industry. 

942 The verb p5ti-* (r.) make oneself master has a genitive (as well 
as an ablative) : as, 

Si exploration tibi est, posse te illlus regm potlrl (Cic. ad Fam. 

i. 7. 5), if you have ascertained that you really can make 

yourself master of that kingdom. 
Hi qul potiuntur rerum (Cic. ad Fam. i. 8. 4), those who are 

now masters of every thing. 

943 Verbs of memory, although they take an accusative of the thing 
actually remembered, have a genitivet of that about which the 
memory is concerned* : as, 

M8mlni Cinnam (Cic. Phil. v. 6. 17), / remember Cinna (i. e. 

his per son). 
Memlnl uluorum (Cic. de Fin. v. 1.3), I remember or think of 

the living. 

* If the adjective poti- was ever used as a substantive, signifying ' the 
powerful one, the master,' as potenti- in fact was, the verb would natu- 
rally take the genitive. Tacitus uses a genitive with the reflective verbs 
apisc- (Ann. vi. 45) and adipisc- (Ann. in. 55). 

t De with the ablative is also very common. 

J Hence verbs of reminding,' 'making mention,' must have a geni- 
tive of the thing brought to mind, unless indeed it be a neuter pronoun. 
(See 909.) 

182 SYNTAX. 

ISTeque unquam oblluiscar noctls illlus (Cic. p. Plane. 42. 101), 

nor shall I ever forget (the occurrences} of that night. 
Vgnit mihi PIStdnis in mentem (Cic. de Fin. v. 1. 2), the thought 

of Plato comes across me. 
Flagltiorum suorum rgcordabltiir (Cic. in Pis. 6. 12), he will 

remember his scandalous proceedings. 
Dulcis rgminiscitur Argos ( Virg. A. x. 782), he remembers sweet 


944 Verbs* of accusing, convicting, acquitting, take a genitive f of 
the offence charged : as, 

Altgrum ambitus accussat (Cic. p. Gael. 7. 16), he accuses another 

of bribery. 
Potestne heres furti agere ? (Cic. ad Fam. vn. 22) can an heir 

bring an action for theft ? 
Proditionls eum inslmulabant (Caes. B. G. vu. 20), they were 

inclined to accuse him of treachery. 

045 The penalty is expressed in the genitive in a few phrases : as, 
ArcessSrg capltisj (CYc.p.Deiot. 11.30), to bring a charge affect- 
ing a person's status as a citizen. 

Octupli dampnatust (Cic. n. Verr. in. 12. 29), he was con- 
demned to a payment of eightfold. 
Dampiiatus lborls (Hor. Od. u. 14. 19), condemned to toil. 

946 With verbs of buying, selling, costing, the price is expressed by 
the genitives tantl, quanti, minoris, pluiis ; in all other cases by 
an ablative. (See Ablative.) 

* For adjectives of this class see 933. 

f Or de with the ablative, which in some phrases is necessary, or at 
least more common : as, de ui, de moribus^ de testantento. Cicero (p. 
Clu. 41.114) says de pecuniis repetundis ; Tacitus (Ann. in. 33) repe- 
tundarum without the substantive. 

J Also capite dampnare (Cic. Tusc. i. 22. 50). 

We have called these genitives, in deference to common opinion, 
but they are perhaps old datives; a supposition which will account for the 
use of the forms in o (see following note), and remove the strange con- 
tradiction of idioms which appears in Hor. Sat. n. 3. 156 : 

Quanti emptae ? Paruo. Quanti ergo ? Octussibus. 
The phrase too in Catullus (xvn. 17), nee plli facit uni, will no longer 
have a license in the last word. If our theory be right, minoris, plu /$, 
Indus and assis will afford another instance of an anomaly growing out 
of a false analogy (see 935). 

DATIVE. 183 

947 The worth or value is expressed by the same genitives, and also 
by parul, magui, mlnumi, maxuml, and pluruini,* as well as the 
following, which generally are strengthened by the addition of a 
negative: viz. 

Huius et assis, flocc! plllque, 
Naucl nlhlll, teruncilque. t 

948 With the verbs refert and interest are employed tanti, quant! , 
parul, magnl, besides the ordinary adverbs of quantity. 

949 Of being so commonly the translation of the genitive, it may 
be a useful caution to observe that the English phrases signifying 
to talk of, to think of, are to be translated with the preposition de. 
Still certior fieri, to be informed, often takes a genitive. 


950 The dative case answers to the question where? in or near 
what place ? and to the time when ? Hence its place is often 
supplied by such words as In or cum with the ablative, or by the 
ablative alone, seeing that the ablative is often only another form 
of the dative. 

951 At a town or in a small island is expressed by the dative j but 
in the o (or second) declension the old dative in I is very generally 
preferred : as, 

Romae (Liv. xxi. 6), at Roma (or Rome) ; 

Athenls (Cic. de Sen. 13. 43), at Athenae (or Athens) ; 

T&renti (Cic. de Sen. 12.39), at Tarentum ; 

* Ablatives however are occasionally found, even in Cicero : as, in 
ii. Verr. iv. 7- 13, ista permayno aestuma* ; de Fin. iv. 23. 62, non nihilo 
aestumandum. Festus has bos centussibus, ouis decussibus aestimaretur ; 
and asse carum est is an old phrase. 

f We have not added pensi, because the phrase neque quid quam pensi 
habebat is equivalent to neque quidquam pendebat^ the word pensi being, 
according to the common idiom, attached to the neuter pronoun ( 922). 
Aequi boni consulere, ' to take in good part,' has never, so far as the writei 
knows, been satisfactorily explained. 

As the order of the paragraphs under this head has been much 
altered, the numbers of the sections will not correspond with those of the 
previous edition. 

In the phrase habitat Mileti (Ter. Ad. iv. 5.20) Donatus saw no 
genitive case ; he calls it aduerbium locale. The dative of nouns in o 
ended at one time, like the Greek ot/cot, hoycp &c. in the diphthong oi, 
of which the old dative quoi is an example ; and from this diphthong 
arose the two forms of the case, seen in nullo and nulli. 



Tyro (Virg. A. iv. 36), at Tyre; 
Laulnio (Liv. v. 52), at Lavinium ; 
Ptiteolis (Cic. ad Att. xvi. 14. 1), at Puteoli ; 
Tibim* (Cic. ad Att. xvi. 3. 1), at Tibur (or Tivoli) ; 
Curlbus (Liv. I. 18), at Cures; 
Ithacae (Cic. de Off. in. 28. 97), in Ithaca ; 
Lemnlf (Ter. Ph. iv. 3. 75), in Lemnos ; 
Karthaginl* NSuae (Epit. of Liv. XXVIIL for so the Mss.), 'at 
New Carthage*% 

952 The dative signifying wJtere? maintained itself in certain 
words in spite of the increasing tendency to express this idea by 
In and an ablative. Such datives are : huml on the ground, terrae 
(Virg. A. xi. 87) on the ground, dtfmi at home, ruri in the country 
(in poetry also rure), forls out of doors, Acherunt! (Plant. Capt. 
in. 5. 31) in Acheron or Tartarus, comiths at the election, ludls 
at the games, Latmls (sc. ferns) at the Latin festival, gladiato- 
rlbus at the gladiatorial exhibition, anlmi in the mind (pi. anl- 

953 The so-called adverbs in bi and i, which denote where, as, ubi 
where, ibi there, &c. ( 366, col. 2), are all datives in origin. 

954 The time when is put in the dative in certain words : as, 
hSrl (also herg) yesterday, man! (or mane) in the morning, ues- 
pgri (or uespere) in the evening, lucl in the daylight, die quinti 
(or quinte) 074 the fifth day (see Gell. x. 24), die pristlni the day 
before, die crastinl tomorrow, idibus martils on the ides (or 15th) 
of March, belli in war, inllitiae on military service, ubi when, 
Ibi then, &c. 

955 Adjectives which denote nearness take a dative : as, 

* The poets take the liberty of shortening such forms as Tiburl to 
Tibure (see 990). 

f See note , p. 183. 

J If the word urb- or oppido- be expressed, the preposition in must 
be used, as, Milites Albae constiterunt in urbe munitu (Cio. Phil. iv. 2. 6'), 
Ciuis Romanos Neapoli in celeberrumo oppido cum mitella uidimus (Cic. 
p. Rab. Post. 10 26). ' In a country' or 'in a large island' is commonly 
expressed by in with the ablative ; yet there are passages where the dative 
is found, especially in the poets, as Crctae (\ r iry. A. in. IG'2), Libyae 
(Virg. A. iv. 36), and late prose writers, as the Pseudo-Nepos, Cher- 
sonesi (Milt. 2), Cypri (Chabr. 3). The passage in Cic. R. P. in. 9. 14 
is not an example, for there Graeciae, as Madv ig has pointed out, is a 
genitive in connection with delulra. 

DATIVE. 185 

Belgae proxlml sunt Germanls (Caes. B. G. I. 1), the Belgae are 

nearest to the Germans. 
Heu quam ulclna est ultima terra mihi (Ov. Trist. in. 4. 52), 

alas, how near is the end of the world to me. 
Tlbi generg prSpinqul (Sal. Jug. 10), those near akin to you. 

956 Verbs which denote nearness take a dative : as, 

Parere"* uoluntati architect! (Cic. N. D. I. 8. 19), to wait upon 

the will of the architect. 
Ciultates amlcltia Caesar! conciliate (Caes. B. C. in. 55), to 

unite states in friendship with Caesar. 
Si pSpiilus Romanus foedSre' iungeretur regl (Liv. xxvi. 24. 

13), if the people of Rome should be united to the king by 

Curru iunglt Halaesus Squos (Virg. A. vu. 724), to his car 

Halaeso yokes the steeds. 
Nescit equo haereref (Hor. Od. in. 24. 54), he knows not how 

to cling to steed. 
Fort! miscebat mellS, Falerno (Hor. Sat. n. 4. 24), with strong 

Fakrnian he would honey mix. 
Luctantem Icariis fluctlbus (Hor. Od. i. 1. 15), wrestling with 

Icarian waves. 
Solus tibi certet Amyntas ( Virg. Buc. 5. 8), let Amyntas alone 

contend with thee. 

957 Adjectives compounded with prepositions of rest take a dative 
dependent upon that preposition : as, 

Qui mihi consciiis esse soles (Cic. ad Att. I. 18. 1), you who are 

wont to share my secrets with me. 
Mihi conscius sum (Cic. Tusc. n. 4. 10), I share the knowledge 

with myself (alone) or / am conscious. 
Eius mors consentanea ultae fuit (Cic. Phil. ix. 7. 15), his 

death was in agreement with his life. 
Coenisqug trlbus iam pernS, superstes (Mart. x. 48. 17), and a 

ham that had survived three dinners. 

* That ' to be present,' ' to wait upon,' rather than ' to obey," is the 
true meaning of this verb, to say nothing of other evidence, is shown by 
the use of the verb appare- with such a dative as magistratibus, and by 
the noun apparitor- ' an officer in waiting.' 

f This use of the dative with many of these verbs is limited to the 
poets : Cicero would rather have said haerere in equo, miscere cum 
Falerno, luctari cum fluctibus, certare tecum. 

186 SYNTAX. 

958 Verbs compounded with prepositions of rest take a dative* 
dependent upon that preposition. 

Quern quondam loni luno custodem addidit (Plant. Aul. in. 

6. 20), whom Juno of yore set as a watch o'er lo. 
Hi scrlbendo affuerunt (Cic. ad Fam. vm. 8. 6), the following 

were present at the registration. 
ludices sibi constarg debuerunt (Cic. p. Clu. 22.60), the jury 

ought to have been consistent with themselves. 
Til meo infellci errorl solus illacrumast! (Liv. XL. 56), you 

alone, have wept over my unfortunate mistake. 
Campus interiScens Tibgri ac moenibus Romanls (Liv. xxi. 

30), the plain that lies between the Tiber and the walls of 

Piidor non obest oration! (Cic. de Or. T. 26. 122), modesty does 

not stand in the way of a speech, or is not prejudicial to it. 
Omnibus eius consiliis obstltl (Cic. in Cat. in. 7), all his plans 

I have thwarted. 
Qul classibus praeerant (Caes. B. C. in. 25). those who were in 

command of the fleets. 
Homines bestiis praestant (Cic. de Inv. i. 4. 5), men stand before 

(or excel) beasts. 
Magnltudine Snlml pfltest repugnar! fortunae ( Cic. de Fin. iv. 

7. 17), with magnanimity a battle may be maintained against 

Siiperfuit patrl (Liv. I. 34), he survived his father. 

959 In the examples just quoted the verbs are of a static cha- 
racter ; but even after verbs of motion, when the resulting position 
rather than the movement to attain it is before the mind, the 
dative is still used (see 1336 k) : as, 

Antgtulissem uoluntatem tuam commodo meo (Cic. ad Fam. v. 
20. 1), I should have preferred your wishes to my own advan- 

* Thus the Latin here agrees with other languages in attaching a 
dative to prepositions of rest. So we have in the old language postibi 
and interibi) the latter of which was eventually corrupted to inter-im. 
So too in postquam, antequam &c., the quam is probably a dative in 
origin rather than an accusative, as is admittedly the case in the parallel 
forms of the German nach-dem &c. It is thus too that we find a dative 
in auro contra, 1320/. 

DATIVE. 187 

Contionantl eircumfuridSbatur multitude (Liv. xxu. 14), as 
he went on haranguing^ a mob kept pouring round him. 

Vfiaieiiti occurrltS morbo (Pers. in. 64), hasten to meet the com- 
ing disease. 

Ora ipsa oculis proponite (Cic. p. Sest. 7. 17), place their very 
faces before your eyes. 

Dura circurauento ftlio subuenit, interflcitur (Caes. B. G. v. 
35), as he advances to support his son ivho was surrounded, 
he is killed. 

Anatum oua gallinis saepe supponlmus (Cic. N. D. n. 48. 124), 
we often put ducks' eggs under hens. * 

960 Even simple verbs at times take a dative to express the where : 

DumiioYIgl custodes ponlt ut quae agat scirS possit (Caes. B. G. 

I. 20), he places men about the person of Dumnorix to watch 

him, that he may know what he is doing. 
Gustos frumento publlco est pSsItus (Cic. p. Flac. 19. 45), he 

was set as sentinel over the public corn. 
Flnem oration! fcere (Cic. n. Verr. n. 48. 118), to set a limit to 

a speech. 

961 Adjectives, being in their very nature static, express the rela- 
tion to an object by a dative : as, 

Collls aduersfis huic et contrarius (Caes. B. G. u. 18), a Kill 

facing and opposite to this. 
Slta Anticyra est laeua parts sinum Corinthiacum intrantibus 

(Liv. xxvi. 26), Anticyra lies on the left as you enter the bay 

of Corinth. 
Aptum est tempori et personae (Cic. Or. 22.74), it is adapted 

to the time and to the person. 
Verbum Latinum par Graeco (Cic. de Fin. II. 4. 13), a Latin 

word equal in force to the Greek one. 

Fllius pair! slmllis (Cic. de Fin. v. 5. 12), a son like his father. 
Nihil tarn disslmil quam CottS, Sulplcio (Cic. Brut. 56. 204), 

there is nothing so unlike as Cotta to Sulpicius. 
Lluius Ennio aequalis fuit (Cic. Brut. 18. 73), Livius was of the 

same age with Ennius. 

* But some verbs so compounded, especially with a</, are occasionally 
regarded as transitive verbs, taking an accusative : as, allabitur aures 
(Virg. A. IX. 474), cum Tiberi genua aduolueretur (Tac. Ann. i. 13). 

188 SYNTAX. 

Quod ill! caussae max time est Slienum (Cic. p. Caec. 9. 24), 
what is most unfavorable for that side. 

Is dolor communis uobis mecum est (Cic. de Prov. Cons. 1. 2), 
indignation at this is common to you with me. 

Eius caput lou! sacrum esto (Liv. in. 55), that man's head shall 
be devoted to Jupiter. 

Id uero mllitibus fuit pergratum (Caes. B. C. I. 86), this indeed 
was most acceptable to the soldiers. 

Htfmines omnibus Inlqul (Cic. p. Plane. 16. 40), men unfriendly 
to every one. 

Virtus fructuosa alhs, ipsl l&boriosa aut pgrlculosa aut certe 
gratuita (Cic. de Or. n. 85.346), energy full of fruit for others, 
for himself full of suffering or danger, or at best without re- 

Neque adco tibi uilis mta esset meS, (Liv. XL. 9), nor would 
my life have been so cheap in your eyes. 

Nequaquam specie aestumantibus pares (Liv. vn. 10), by no 
means equal in the eyes of those who judged of them from out- 
ward appearance. 

Homerus Sceptra pStltus eadem S,liis* sopltii quietest (Lucr. 
in. 1038), e'en Homer, who won our sceptre, was drugged by 
the same sleep (of death} with others. 

962 Similarly adverbs may have a dative of relation : as, 
Conuenieuter naturae uiuere (Cic. de Off. in. 3. 13), to live agree- 
ably to nature. 

Quam slbi constanter dicat, non ISborat (Cic. Tusc. v. 9. 26), 
how far he talks consistently with himself, he heeds not. 

Improbo et stulto et Inert! nemlni bene esse ptftest (Cic. Parad. 
2. 19), with a villain or a fool or a sluggard things cannot be 

963 Static verbs express their relation to an object by a dative : as, 
Hoc unum Caesar! defuit (Caes, B. G. iv. 26), this one thing was 

wanting to Caesar. 
Qu! dlligebant hunc, ill! fauebant (Cic. p. Rose. Com. 10. 29), 

those who esteemed this man wished well to the other. 
Aeduorum ciultat! praeclpue indulse'rat (Caes. B. G. I. 10), he 

hod been particularly indulgent to the state of the Aedui. 

* This construction occurs onlv in poets. 

DATIVE. 189 

Irasci amicis non tSmSre s51eo (Cic. Phil. viu. 5. 16), I am not 
wont with light cause to be angry with friends. 

NullS. fuit cluitas quin Caesar! pareret (Caes. B. C. in. 8.1), 
there was not a single state bui was obedient to Caesar, or ready 
to obey his orders. 

Hoc omnibus patet (Cic. p. Mur. 13. 28), this is open to all. 

Non placet Antonio consulatus metis, at plScuit P. Seruilio 
(Cic. Phil. IT. 5. 12), my consulship does not find favour with 
Antony ', true, yet it found favour with Publius Servilius. 

Qul nee sibi nee alter! prosunt (Cic. de Off. n. 10.36), men who 
are useful neither to themselves nor to their neighbour. 

Sic noster hie rector studuerit legibus cognoscendls (Cic. R. P. 
v. 3), so let this ruler cf ours first devote himself to the study 
of the laws. 

Adulescentl nihll est quod suscenseam(7 7 (?r. Ph. n. 3. 14), with 
the young man I have no reason to be offended. 

Quod tibi lubst, id mihi lubet (Plant. Most. i. 3. 138), what 
pleases you, that pleases me. 

Catonl licuit Tuscul! se delectare (Cic. R. P. i. 1), it was per- 
mitted to Cato to amuse himself at Tusculum. 

964 In the older writers dScet admitted a dative of the person, 
unless an infinitive followed the verb ; but in other writers an 
accusative of the person is alone admissible. 

Istuc facinus, quod tu insimulas, n6stro generi n6n decet 
(Plaut. Am. n. 2. 188), an act, such as that you complain 
of, would not be becoming in our family. 

965 Some verbs compounded with dls, which often require an Eng- 
lish translation by/rora, and in Latin are usually accompanied by 
the prepositions ab or inter or cum, occasionally in the poets take 
a dative* : as, 

LongS mea discrepat istis Et uox et r&tio (ffor. Sat. i. 6. 92), 
my words , my views are wholly out of harmony with them. 

Pedg certo Differt sermon! (Hor. Sat. i. 4. 48), by the fixed 
rhythm alone from prose it differs. 

Quantum Hypanis dissidgt Eridano (Prop. i. 12. 4), far as the 
Hypanisfrom the Eridanus is distant. 

* This construction is like that of the dative in connection with such 
adjectives as dissimili-, dispar-. 

190 SYNTAX. 

Scurrae dist&t amlcus (Hor. Kp. i. 18. 4), from the. buffoon far 
different the friend. 

966 The verb es- lie stands out from among other static verbs by its 
frequent use of a dative of the person to denote relationship, con- 
nection of office and ownership. 

Natura tu illi pater es (Ter. Ad. I. 2. 46), by nature you are his 

Mihi quaestor iniperatori fugrat (Cic. post red. in S. 4. 35), he 
had been my quaestor when I was commander-in-chief. 

Quibfis opes nullae sunt (Sal. Cat. 37), those who have no pro- 

967 From this idea of c having' comes the use of es- with a dative 
of the person in connection with a perfect participle and a gerun- 
dive ; a use which was extended to phrases of apposition where 
the verb es- is no longer expressed. 

Quicquid mihi susceptumst (Cic. p. leg. Man. 24. 71), whatever 1 
have undertaken, less accurately, whatever has been under- 
taken by me. 

Legendus mihi saepius est Cato maior (Cic. ad Att. xiv. 21), 
I have to read again and again the ( de SenectuteJ less ac- 
curately, it must be read by me, or / must read it. 

967. 1 Participles often become virtually adjectives, and as such are 
entitled to a dative of relation : as, 

Pinnas in litttfre pandunt Dllectae Thgtidi alcyones ( Virg. G. 
I. 399), their feathers on the beach spread out the kingfishers 
to Thetis dear. 
Notus mihi nomine tantum (Hor. Sat. I. 9. 3), known to me by 

name alone. 

963 It is rare, even in the poets, for a dative to be used of the 
agent with imperfect tenses of a passive. Some passages in prose 
writers, which seem to fall under this head, admit of a different 

CarmlnS, quae scrlbuntur aquae potorlbus (Hor. Ep. I. 19. 3), 
verses that are written in the realm of water-drinkers. 

Scrlberis Vario fortls (Hor. Od. I. 6. 1), thy bravery shall be told 
in Varius' page. 

Hoc in laborlbus uluentl non intellegitur (Cic. de Sen. 11.38), 
this to one living immersed in labour is not perceptible. 

DATIVE. 191 

Barb&rus hie 8g5 sum, quia" non intellegoY ulli (Ov. Trist. v. 
10. 35), a barbarian here am 7, for to no one am lintelligible. 

969 Even substantives take a dative to denote the object referred 
to : as, 

E bestiarum corporibus multS, remgdia" morbls et uolnerlbus 
eligimiis (do. N. D. IT. 64. 161), from the bodies of beasts we 
select many remedies for diseases and wounds. 

NSque mihi ex cfiiusquam altltudlne aut praesidia pSrlciilis aut 
adiumenta honorfbus quaere (Cic. p. leg. Man. 24. 70), nor 
do I seek in the exalted condition of any one whatever either 
protection against danger ', or aid to political advancement. 

TggtonentS galeis mllltes ex uiminibus fS,cgrg iiibet (Caes. B. C. 
in. 62), he bids the soldiers make coverings for their helmets 
of the osiers. 

Equltatum auxllio Caes&ri mise'rant (Caes. B. G. I. 18), they 
had sent a body of cavalry as an aid to Caesar. 

970 Where an habitual state of things is expressed, a dative of the 
person is sometimes used to define those with whom the habit 
prevails: as, 

BarbSrls ex fortuna pendet fides (Liv. xxvni. 17), with bar- 
barians fidelity depends upon fortune. 

Honesta" btfnis ulris, non occults, quaeruntur (Cic. de Off. in. 
9. 38), with good men the honourable, not the mysterious, is 
the object sought. 

Etiam sapientlbus cupido gloriae nSuissIma exultur (Tac. Hist, 
iv. 6), even among the wise the love of glory is the last thing 

971 Verbs of habitual action may in one sense be regarded as static, 
and so have a dative of the person to whom the habitual action 
refers. Such verbs are often reflectives. 

Appius mihi blanditur (Cic. ad Q. Fr. n. 12. 2), Appius performs 
the part of the ( blandus homo 9 to me, is all smoothness to me. 

Ne quid pars altera" gratlftcar! ptfpiilo Romano* posset (Liv. 
xxi. 9), for fear that the other party should do the obliging to 

* Instead of populo Romano the Mss. have pro Romanis^ which, 
though nonsense, is retained in all the editions. Populo Romano was 
shortened as usual to -p-ro^ and then mistaken for pro, which of course 
needed a noun, and to supply this need Romania was added. 

192 SYNTAX. 

the Roman people, i. e. should sacrifice any matter to oblige 

CaesSri supplicabo (Cic. ad Fam. vi. 14. 3), I will play the part 

of suppliant to Caesar. 
Alii gloriae seruiunt, &lil pecuniae (Cic. Tusc. v. 3. 9), some are 

slaves to glory ^ some to money. 

972 Where an action is done to part of the body, the party suffer- 
ing is expressed by the dative (though the English language pre- 
fers a possessive pronoun or possessive case) : as, 

Cui ego iam linguam praecidara atque 6culos ecfodiam domi 

(Plant. Aul. n. 2.12), I will at once cut off her tongue, and 

dig her eyes out here in tJie house. 
Tuo ulro Scull dolent (Ter. Ph. v. 8. 64), your husband's eyes 

Quid uis tibi dari in raanum? (Ter. Ph. iv. 3.29) how much 

do you wish paid down into your hand ? 
Tibi sicS, de minibus extortast (Cic. Cat. i. 6. 16), the dagger 

was wrested out of your hands. 

973 Thus verbs alike of giving and taking away have a dative of 
the person ; but it must not be inferred from this that either 
motion to or motion from is really expressed by the dative. 

D8di ad te liberto tuo littgras (Cic. ad Att. vi. 3. 1), I gave a 

letter to your freedman (to be delivered) to you. 
Reddidit mihi litteras (Cic. ad Att. v. 21), he delivered the letter 

to me. 
Ingens* cut lume'n ademptum (Virg. A. in. 658), from whom a 

monstrous eye had been taken away. 
Id totum eripere uobis conatust (Cic. in Rull. 11. 7. 19), all this 

he has endeavoured to tear from you. 

974 Verbs of trusting, for to trust is to put a thing into a person's 
handsf, have a dative of the person in whom the trust is placed : 

* That inqens is the epithet of lumen is shown partly by the same 
epithet having been given to lumen in v. 636, tclo lumen terebramus acuto 
Ingens ; partly by Virgil's habit of making the relative in this part of his 
verse an enclitic attached to the preceding word. See 1463 note. I 
had to thank a friend and then colleague for the suggestion. 

f* Indeed cre-do, cre-didi, cre-ditum, and the old subjunctive cre-duim, 
evidently belong to a compound of do. 

DATIVE. 193 

Se" suque omnia alienissumis crediderunt (Goes. B. G. vi. 31), 
they trusted themselves and all their property to perfect stran- 

Credon tibi hoc ? (Ter. And. in. 2. 17) am I to believe this that 
you tell me ? 

Mihi credg (Cic. in Cat. I. 3. 6), take my word for it. 

QuI slbl fidlt* (Hor. Ep. i. 19. 22), who in himself confides. 

Multitude hostium nulll re! praeterquam numgro freta"* (Liv. 
vi. 13), the mob constituting the enemy's force, trusting U 
nothing but their numbers. 

975 Some verbs of giving are used with a dative of the person in 
the sense of doing something out of regard to that person, par- 
ticularly in cases of forgiveness or concession : as, 

PraetgritS, fratrl condonat (Caes. B. G. I. 20), the past doings 
(of Dumnorix) lie forgives out of regard to his brother (Divi- 

Peccata llberum parentum mlserlcordiae concesserunt (Cic. p. 
Clu. 69.195), they have passed over the offences of sons out of 
pity to their parents. 

Tu Inimicltias reipublicae donasti (Cic. ad Fam. v. 4), you haes 
dropped your enmities out of regard to the public welfare. 

Mgmoriam slmultatum patriae rSmittltt (Liv. ix. 38), he for- 
gets his private quarrels out of regard to his country. 

Quantum consuetudinl famaeque dandum sit (Cic. Tusc. i. 45. 
109), how far we ought to make allowance for custom and what 
the world may say. 

976 Many verbs which denote an act done in the presence of or in 
reference to another concerned therein, take a dative of the per- 
son, in addition to the accusative of the thing, especially verbs of 
showing and telling. 

AltSr! monstrant uiam (Enn. ap. Cic. de Div. i. 58. 132), they 
show a fellow-creature the way. 

* See also 1002. 

f Literally ' lets go back,' ' sends back.' The idea of punishment in 
the Latin language generally takes the form of a fine. The offender dot, 
pendit, soluit poenam, ' pays the fine ;' the injured party sumit^ exigit 
poenam, ' takes, exacts the fine;' or should any common friend succeed 
in assuaging his anger, then the offended party remittit poenam interces- 
sor^ ' returns the fine to the interceding party,' that the offender receiving 
it from him may know to whose kind offices he is indebted. 

1!)4 SYNTAX. 

Haec hgro dicam (Plant. Am. i. 1.304), all this I will tell (to) 

my master. 
Virgo nupsit Mgtello (Cic. de Div. i. 46.104), the maiden took 

tiie veil* to Metellus, i. e. married him. 

077 This dative of the person often denotes for his advantage or on 
his account, and is translated by for : as, 

Sic uos non uobis melliftcatfs apes ( Virg. in uita), so ye too, 

bees., not for yourselves are honey-makers. 
Non solum nobis dluites esse uoltimus, sed liberis, propinquis, 

Smicis, maxumeque' reipublicae (Cic. de Off. in. 15. 63), it is 

not merely for ourselves we wish to be rich, but for our children, 

our relations, our friends, and above all our country. 
Tu fors quid me fiat parui pendis, dum illi consulas (Ter. Haut. 

iv. 3. 37), you perhaps care little what becomes of me, so you 

provide for him. 
Tlbi tlmul (Ter. Haut. in. 2. 20), I was alarmed for you, or on 

your account. 
M81ius el cS,uere uolo quam ipse aliis solet (Cic. ad Fam. in. 

1. 3), I am determined to take better security for him than he 

himself is wont for others. 
Nee tet tua funerS, mater Produxl pressiue Sculos aut uolngrS, 

laui (Virg. A. ix. 486), nor for thee led thine own mother 

forth the funeral pomp, or closed thine eyes, or lathed thy 


078 The dative of the personal pronouns more particularly, is used 
to denote an interest of the party (datiuus ethicus), and often 
ironically. In this case much latitude of translation is requisite 
to give the shade of meaning : as, 

Tongilium mihi eduxit (Cic. in Cat. n. 2. 4), Tongilius he has 
done me the favour to take out (of Rome) with him. 

At tlbi repents uenit ad me Canmius (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 2. 1), 
but (what think you) all at once there comes to my house your 
friend Caninius. 

* The flame- coloured veil, flammeolum, used in the ceremony of 

f TV a dative, and tua a nominative, the two pronouns being thrown 
together for the sake of emphasis. Another instance of te as a dative is 
seen in Ter. Haut. v. 2. 34, te indulgebant. See also p. 197, note f- 

DATIVE. 195 

Hacc uobis istorum militiS, fuit (Liv. xx. 60), this was the mill- 
\ tary service you have to thank your petitioners for. 

970 A dative and accusative seem to be rivals with each other in 
the construction of some verbs. The cases of this nature fall for 
the most part into two classes : a. those of older writers, who, 
adhering to the original meaning of a verb, employ a dative, which 
in later writers gives place to an accusative ; or the two construc- 
tions may even coexist with a slight difference of meaning in the 
verb : b. those where, the verb being entitled originally to a dative 
of the person and accusative of the thing, the thing is in a man- 
ner personified, and so put in the dative. 

Adula-ri, ' to wag the tail at/ hence ' to wheedle*, fawn on.' 
Pfltenti Sdulatus est (Nep. in Attico, 25), he fawned on the 

powerful man. 
Praesentibus &dulando (Liv. xxxvi. 7.4), by fawning on those 

Aemula-ri, e to play the rival,' hence ' to rival, envy.' 

His aemulamur, qui ea h&bent, quae nos habere cupimtis (Cic. 

Tusc. i. 19. 44), we envy those who possess what we are eager 


Ignosc-e're', literally f to forget' , and hence ' to forgive,' strictly 
with ace. of offence forgiven, dat. of person. 

Vt eis delicta ignoscas (Plaut. Bacch. v. 2. 68), that you may 

forgive them their shortcomings. 

Hoc ignoscant di immortales u61im pSpulo Romano (Cic. Phil. 
I. 6. 13), for this I would pray the immortal gods to forgive 
the Roman people. 

Inuide-rg, ' to regard with an evil eye,' hence ' to envy, grudge ;' 
originally it would appear with an ace. of the thing envied and a 
dat. of the owner. 

* Observe that the German verb wedel-n means 'to wag the tail.' 
f So again plebi a., Liv. in. 69. In Cic. in Pis. 41. 89, omnibus a. is 
justly preferred by Lambinus. But in later writers the ace is used : as, 
canes furem a., Col. VH. 12 ; principem, Tac. Hist. I. 32, aut quern 
alium, Ann. xvi. 19 ; dominum, Sen. de Ira, n. 31. Hence in Quint. 
ix. 3, huic non hunc adulari iam dicitur, the words huic and hunc should 
be transposed. 

t But Pindarum ae.,Hor. Od. iv. 2. 1 ; uirtutes, Tac. Agr. 15 ; uint/m, 
Plin. xiv. 2. 4. 

' To un-know,' if we had the word, v^ould best suit. 

196 SYNTAX. 

lamprldem nobis caeli te regi&, Caesar, Inuidet ( Virg. G. i. 503), 
long, long has the palace of the sky envied us thy presence, 

Afrlcae solo oleum et ulnum Natura inuldit (Plin. xv. 2. 3), 
nature grudged the soil of Africa oil and wine.* 

MSdica-rl and mede-ri, literally ' to act the physician/ hence 
1 to cure, heal, remedy,' with a dat. of the patient or ace. of the 

Ego possum in hac re medicari mihi (Ter. And. v. 4. 41), in 
this matter I can play the part of physician to myself ; but 

Ego istum lepide medicaborf metum (Plaut. Most. n. 1. 40), 
I will cure that fear nicely. 

Dies stultis quoque mederl solet (Cic. ad Fam. vn. 28. 3), time 
is wont to cure even fools ; but 

Eiusmodi . . . cupiditates, Quas quum res aduorsae sient, pau!6 
mederi possis (Ter. Ph. v. 4. 2), desires of such a kind that 
when things go wrong, you can cure them at little cost. 

M5de'ra-ri, 'to act as a limit or check (to)', hence 'to check, 
moderate,' and so generally ' to govern, control.' 

N6n uinum hominibus moderari, sed uino homines assolent 
(Plaut. True. iv. 3.57), it is not the bottle for the most part 
that has control over the man, but the man that has control 
over the bottle ; so at least the unfairly abused bottle would 
say if it could speak. 

MSderari et ammo et oration! quum sis Iratus, est uon medio- 
cris ingenl (Cic. ad Q. Fr. i. 1. 13. 38), to check both one's 
feelings and one's words when one is angry, is indeed the act 
of no ordinary character. I 

Parc-Si'S, { to save, to spare,' originally with ace. of the thing 
and dat. of the person for whom. 

Argenti atque aurl memSras quae multS, talenta Gnatis parcg 

* Thus i.florem liberum (=Ziberorum) in Alt. ap. Cic. Tusc. in. 9.20 ; 
i. nobis naluram (as an instructress), Cic. Tusc. in. 2 3, if the text be sound. 
As the evil eye might also be directed upon the owner himself, an ace. 
would not have been out of place ; and so we have an explanation of the 
forms inuideor ' I am envied,' Hor. Ep. n. 3. 56, and the participles in- 
uiso- ' envied,' inuidendo- ' enviable.' 

f Some good Mss. with Ritschl medicabo. 

In the general sense of 'governing' an ace. is common in Cicero ; but 
even in the sense of ' checking' an ace. is> found in later writers, as Tac. and 


tuls (Virg. A. x. 532), the silvery aye and gold of which thou 
speakest, all for thy children save. 

Suade-re', literally ' to sweeten'*, hence ' to recommend, give 
advice/ with ace. of thing recommended, dat. of person to whom 
the advice is given.f 

Quod tibi suadeam, suadeam me6 patri (Plant. Capt. n. 1. 40), 
any thing 1 would recommend to you, I would recommend to 
my own father. 

Tempera-re, $ ' to act as a limit, to set bounds (to)', hence 
' to check, spare,' and so ' to regulate, govern, mix in due propor- 
tion ;' originally, it would seem, only with a dat. 

Linguae tempera (Plant. Rud. iv. 7. 28), set limits to your 

NSque slbi homines feros tempSraturos existlmabat quin &c. 
(Caes. B. G. I. 33), nor did he think that, savages as they 
were, they would keep a check upon themselves so as not <&c. 

Eum sibi credls a mendacio tempeYaturum (Auct. ad Her. iv. 
8. 25), this man you suppose will refrain from a lie. 

Si culquam ulla in re unquam tempgraue'rit, ut uos quSque el 
tempgraretls (Cic. 11. Verr. 11. 6. 17), that if he ever spared 
any one in any thing, you also should spare him. 

980 Of the extension of the dative from the person to the thing 
the following are examples : 

Ignoscas uelim huic festlnatioul (Cic. ad Fain. v. 12. \), pray 
forgive my present haste. 

* From suaui- 'sweet,' Greek o5u-. Advice is often represented 
under the idea of medicine, wholesome, yet bitter and so needing some 
sweet to disguise it, as in Lucr. i. 936, sed ueluti pueris &c. 

f* In quis te persuasit (Enn. ap. Serv. ad Aen. x. 10) te is a dative. 
But an ace. of the person was eventually used, as uxorem eius suasi, Apnl. 
Met. ix. p. 288. Hence in the passive, animus persuasus uidetur esse^ 
Auct. ad Her. i. 6 ; persuasus erit, Ov. A. A. in. 679 ; persuasa est. 
Phaedr. i. 8. 

J Perhaps originally, like modera-ri, a reflective verb. In the sense 
of 'regulate, mix in due proportion,' an ace. was soon used : as, rempub- 
licam, Cic. de Div. i. 43. 96 ; acuta cum grauibus, Cic. R. P. vi. 18 ; iras^ 
Virg. A. i. 61. 

That imita-ri 'to make oneself like (to)', and segu-i 'to attach 
oneself (to)', must in some olden times have had a dative, seems to fol- 
low from their reflective form, as well as from the meaning. Thus the 
Greek lirevQai and Germ, folg-en always take a dat. 



Honor! inmderunt meo (Cic. in Rull. n. 3". 103), they looked 

with envy on the office 1 held. 
Cum capltl mgderl debeo, reduuiam euro (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 

44. 128), when I ought to be doctoring the head, lam dressing 

an agnail. 
R5go sumptu ne parcas (Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 4), I leg you not to 

spare expense. 
Teque his eripe flammis (Virg. A. u. 289), and thyself too rescue 

from these flames. 

When the active or simple verb requires a dative, care must 
be taken to use the passive as an impersonal. 

Bins testlmonio credi oportet (Cic. n. Verr. in. 71.166), his 
evidence ought to be believed. * 

Omnes deprecatores quibus non Srat ignotum, Stiam quibiis 
erat, In Africam dicuntur nauigaturl (Cic. ad Att. xi. 14. 1), 
all the intercessors who have not been forgiven, even those who 
have been, are about to sail it is said for Africa. 

Inuidetur enim commodls hominum ipsorum (Cic. de Or. n. 
51. 207), for even the advantages they themselves enjoy are re- 
garded with an evil eye. 

Mihi nihll ab istis noceri pStest (Cic. in Cat. in. 12. 27), / 
cannot be injured by your friends in any way. 

Cui 6nim pare! potuit ? (Liv. xxi. 14) for who could have been 
spared ? 

Dicto paretur (Liv. ix. 32), the order is obeyed. 

His persuaderi ut diutius morarentur non poterat (Caes. B. G. 
n. 10), they could not be persuaded to stay any longer. ,f 

082 In Roman book-keeping, the account where an item was to be 
entered was expressed by a dative. Hence in phrases of this 
class two datives often present themselves, one pointing to the 
account, the other to the side of the account, whether Cr. or Dr. 

* It is useful for beginners to translate verbs of this class by phrases 
which include a substantive and verb : as, cred- ' give credit,' ignosc- ' grant 
pardon,' noce- * do damage.' By this contrivance an impersonal transla- 
tion is obtained for the passive: creditur 1 credit is given,' ignoscitur ' par- 
don is granted,' nocetur " damage is done ;' and thus a hint is given for 
putting the person ' to whom' in the dative. 

f Still, exceptions occur: as, credemur, Ov. Fast. HI. 351 ; creditus, 
Ov. Met. vn. 98. See also p. 196, note , and p. 197, note t. 

DATIVE. 190 

Minus DolabellS Vend acceptum retttilit,* quam VcrrSs illi ex- 

pensum talent (Cic. II. Verr. i. 39. 100), Dolaletta placed to 

the credit of Verres a smaller mm tlian Verres placed to his 

(Dolabella's) debit. 
Quern fors dierura cumque dabit, liicro Appone (Hor. Od. I. 

9. 14), every day that fate shall give, set down to profit. 
Postulare id gratiae apponi sibi (Ter. And. IT. 1. 32), to expect 

that it should be set down to his credit as a favour received. 
Hoc uitio nrihi dant (Cic. ad Fam. xi. 28. 2), this they set down 

against me as a fault. 
Nostram culpam illi (so. terrae) imputamusf (Plin. xvm. 1. 1. 

2), we debit her for our own misconduct. 

983 Hence a dative^ is used to denote in what light a thing is re- 
garded, what it serves as. 

Nee earn rem habuit religion! (Cic. de Div. i. 35. 77), nor did 
he regard this as a warning from heaven. 

Vt sint reliquis documents (Caes. B. G. vit. 4), that they mat/ 
serve as a lesson to the rest. 

Vos eritis indices Laudin an uitio duci id factum op6rtuit (Ter. 
Ad. prol. 5), you shall be judges whether this act a fault or 
credit should be deemed. 

Cui bouo fuit ? (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 30. 84), to whom was it an 
advantage ? or who was the gainer by it ? 

Matronis persuasit ne sibi uitio uertgreut quod abesset a pStria 
(Cic. ad Fam. vn. 6), she persuaded the matrons not to inter- 
pret her absence from her fatherland as a fault in her. 

984 Hence again the dative is sometimes used to denote the pur- 
pose : as, 

* The first entries being made into the day-book (aduersaria), are 
thence carried to the proper heads in the ledger (tabulae). Hence the 
compound re-fer- used of the second entry. Acceptum and expensum 
mean ' received' and ' spent' by the book-keeper. 

f Literally ' score against/ 

t For this dative may be substituted pro or in loco. Often a mere 
nominative or accusative may be used ; but the dative softens the phrase. 
&unt reliquis documentum (Q. Curt. viu. 14.26) is, ' they are a lesson to 
the rest.' Still, in the English translation of this dative the ' as' is often 
omitted for brevity. 

The favourite test of the old lawyer Cassius for discovering the 
author of a secret crime. A ridiculous blunder commonly marks the 
modern use of this quotation. 



Quinqug cohortis castris praesldio rellquit (Caes. B. G. vii. 60), 

he left five battalions as a garrison for the camp, or to guard 

the camp. 
Hunc slbi dSmMlio 15cum delegerunt (Caes. B. G. n. 29), this 

place they selected as (or for) a residence. 
Hie nuptiis dictust dies (Ter. And. 1. 1. 75), this is the day fixed 

for the marriage. 
Triumuir re! publlcae constltuendae* (Nep. in Attico, 12), one 

of three commissioners for regulating the state. 

985 The dative of a name is often used by attraction! to the dative 
of the object named : as, 

Nomen Arctur6st+ mihi (Plant. Rud. prol. 5), my name is Arc- 

Cui nunc cognomen luloj Addltiir ( Virg. A. 1. 271), to whom 

the surname lulo now is added. 

Leges qulbus tabulis duSdecim est nomen (Liv. in. 57), the 
laws which have the name of the l twelve tables. ' 

086 The phrase soluendo non grat, * he was not able to pay, he was 
insolvent,' as in Cic. ad Fam. in. 8. 2, seems difficult of explana- 

987 The poets use the dative (especially in nouns of the o declen- 
sion) after verbs of motion : as, 

It clamor caelo|| (Virg. A. v. 451), rises the shout to heaven. 


989 The ablative appears to unite in itself two cases of different 
origin, one similar in form and power to the dative, the other 
originally ending in a final d t signifying from. We commence 
with the former. 

* Written briefly IIIVIR- R- P- O 

f Other instances of similar attraction arc to be seen in 1060. 

J Can this .construction have grown out of the use of the crude form, 
which in reason should have been used in such phrases ? 

Sometimes the name is in the same case as nomen. But in Cicero 
it. Verr. iv. 53. 118,/ons cui nomen Arethusaest, the letters si alone per- 
haps constitute the verb, leaving a dative Arethusae. 

|| Can this be a corruption of an accusative caelom^ as the so-called 
adverbs quo, eo 9 &c. have also probably lost a final m. See also tenus, 
1384 b. note. 



990 At a town or in a small island the poets express by an ablative 
when the metre requires it, which can be only in the third or con- 
sonant declension : as, 

Dard&niumquS diicem Tyria Karthagine* qu! nunc Expectat 
( Virg. A. iv. 224), and the Dardan chief at Tyrian Carthage 
who Now loitereth. 

991 The place where in some other phrases may also be expressed 
in the ablative, as rure in the country. Not unfrequently it is 
better to insert the preposition in. But this may be omitted at 
times, particularly if an adjective accompany the substantive. 
When that adjective is toto- whole, it would be wrong to use the 

992 Time when is commonly expressed in the ablative : as, 
Bellum eodem tempSre mihi qu5que indixit (Oic. Phil. II. 1.1), 

he declared war at the same time against me too. 

993 The time within which any thing occurs is expressed by the 
ablative, whether the whole or any part be meant : as, 

Saturn! stella triginta fere annis cursum suum conftdt (Cic. 

N. D. II. 20. 52), the star of Saturn completes its course in 

about thirty years. 
Vrbes Afrfcae amiisf prSpS quinquaginta nullum Romanum 

exercltum ulderant (Liv. xxix. 28), the cities of the Afri 

during a space of nearly fifty years had seen no Eaman 


994 Hence the interval within which one event follows another may 
be expressed by ablatives : as, 

Mors Rose! quatriduo quoj Is occisust Chrysogono nuntiatiir 
(Cic. p. Rose. Am. 36. 105), the news of the death ofltoscius 
is brought to Chrysogonus within four days after he is killed. 

* See Dative, 951. That the ablative is only a license is stated by 
Servius on this passage : " Carthagine pro Carthagini . . . Sic Horatius : 
Romae Tybur amem, uentosus Tybure Romam, pro Tyburi." In Livy the 
best Mss., where reported, have Karthagini &c. 

f Hence the ablative is occasionally used when the accusative might 
have been expected. See 1018. 1. 

J Literally 'the death of R. is reported to C. in the same four days 
in which he was killed,' the death occurring near the commencement ot 
that period, the communication near the end of it. 

202 SYNTAX. 

095 Hence 

Testamentum fecit, atque his diebus paucis est mortua (Cic. p. 
Clu. 7. 22), she made a will, and a few days after this died. 

996 From the notion of where, the ablative is used with the prepo- 
sitions in and siib if there be no motion implied, and also with 
prae, pro, &c. (See 914, note.) 

997 In, in point of, in respect to, is often the meaning of the abla- 
tive where it is used to define or limit the sense of any word or 
phrase : as, 

Ennius fuit maior natu* quam Plautus (Cic. Tusc. L 1. 3), 

Ennius was older than Plautus. 
Scelere par est illi, industria infgriSr (Cic. Phil. iv. 6. 15), in 

wickedness he is equal to the other, in industry below him. 
Sunt enim quidam homines non re sed nomine (Cic. de Off. I. 

30. 105), for there are, it must be confessed, some who are 

human beings not in reality, but in name. 
Lepore omnibus praestitit (Cic. de Or. n. 67. 270), in wit he 

excelled all. 
Victoria sua gloriantur (Caes. B. G. I. 14), they pride themselves 

on their victory. 

998 The ablatives of verbals in tu, called supines passive, are often 
so used with adjectives, though the more familiar translation is 
by an English infinitive : as, 

Pleraque dictu quam re sunt fftciliora (Liv. xxxi. 38), most 
things are easier in the saying than in the reality, i. e. easier 
to say than to do. 

Quid est tarn iucundum cognltu atque audltu ? (Cic. de Or. i. 
8. 31) what is so delightful to see and to hear ? 

999 The substantive opes- (11.) work, and occasionally usu- (m.) 
advantage, have an ablativet to express the object which it is 
necessary to obtain : as, 

Opust fuit Hirtio conuerito (Cic. ad Att. x. 4.11), it was neces- 
sary to have an interview with Hirtius. 

* Literally ' greater in point of birth.' 

f The nominative is also found in this construction, more particularly 
if it be a neuter pronoun. (See 909.) 

J * The work to be done consisted in seeing Hirtius,' which accom- 
plished, other things might follow. This might have been expressed by 


PrlmumSratnihil, cur propgrato 5pus esset (Cic. p. Mil. 19.49), 

in the first place there was nothing which made it necessary to 

Vbi saeua ortast tempestas, turn gubernatore* Spust (Liv. xxiv. 

8), when rough weather springs up, then there is need of a 


1000 By, with, or from, &c. is frequently the translation of the ab- 
lative when it denotes the instrument, means, or cause : as, 

Cornlbus tauri, aprl dentlbus se tutantur (Cic. N. D. IT. 50. 

127), with his horns the bull, the boar with his tush defends 

Patriae ignl ferroqug minitatur (Cic. Phil. xm. 21. 47), he 

threatens his country with fire and sword. ,f 
Etesiarum flatu nlmii temperantur calores (Cic. K D. IT. 53. 

131), ly the Uowing of the Etesian winds the excessive heat is 


1001 The ablative of the means accompanies the five reflective verbs, 
ut-%, nit-, uesc-, fru-, pasc- : as, 

Pellibus utuntur (Goes. B. G. vi. 21), they use skins. 

Pura qui nititiir hasta (Virg. A. vi. 760), who rests him on a 

simple shaft. 

Lactg uescebantur (Sal. Jug. 89), they lived upon milk. 
Luce fruimur (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 45. 131), we enjoy the light of 

Frondibus pascuntiir (Virg. G. in. 528), they feed themselves 

with branches. 

1002 The ablative of the means in the same way accompanies the 
verbs, uiu- live, fid- trust, and the participle freto- relying : as, 

a somewhat similar phrase in Greek : as, cpyov t\v avyy^effQat ets \oyovs 

* Perhaps such a phrase as this had originally its participle also, as, 
for instance, inuento. 

f ' Fire and iron' would be a more precise translation, the latter re- 
ferring to the destructive axe quite as much as to the sword. 

(used in speaking of animals and slaves). 



Lactg uluunt (Caes. B. G. iv. 1), they live upon milk. 
Prudentia consllioque fldens (Cic. de Off. I. 23. 81), trusting 

in foresight and mental power. 
Ingenio freti* (Cic. de Or. n. 24. 103), relying upon their talent. 

1003 The ablativef of the means is used with the verbs fc- or fSci- 
make or do, fi- become, and fu- be, especially in the participle 
future- . 

Nescit quid faciat auro (Plant. Bac. n. 3. 100), lie knows not 

what to do with the gold. 
Quid hoc homing faciatls ? (Cic. II. Verr. I. 16. 42) what are 

you to do with this fellow ? 
Tuo quid factumst pallio ? (Plaut. Gas. v. 4. 9) what is become 

of your cloak ? 
Quid TulliSla mea ftet ? (Cic. ad Fam. xiv. 4. 3) what will 

become of my little Tullia ? 

Si quid eo fugrit (Plaut. Trin. I. 2. 120), if any thing happen 
to him. 

1.004 The ablative of the means often accompanies verbs or adjec- 
tives of tilling, increasing, mixing, joining, <fcc. : as, 

Nauis coloms pastorlbusque complet (Caes. B. C. I. 56), he fills 

the ships with farm-labourers and shepherds. 
Macte uirtute esto (Liv. iv. 14), heaven bless thy noble deeds.l 
Villa Sbundat lactg, caseo, mellg (Cic. de Sen. 16. 56), the farm- 
house abounds in milk and cheese and honey. 
L&pldlbusll pluuit (Liv. I. 31), it rained stones. 

1005 The price is the means by which any thing is obtained^ in 
purchase, and hence the ablative accompanies verbs and adjectives 
of buying, selling, bidding and valuing :** as, 

* Literally 'supported hySfreto- being in origin a participle of fer- 
' bear.' 

t In these phrases the preposition de is often used, as quid de me 
ftet ? 

J Literally ' be increased by thy manliness.' 

This should perhaps have been referred to 997. 

|| The accusative also is found. 

^[ Em-, commonly translated ' buy,' means properly ' take,' as is seen 
in the compounds dem-, exim-, sum-, &c. See 544. 

** Or it would perhaps be more correct to be guided by the English 
preposition a/, defining the point at which the price stands at a given 



Emere Squae sextarium coguntur mina (Cic. de Off. IT. 16. 56), 
they are compelled to buy a pint of water for a mina. 

Multo sanguinS Poenis uictOriS, stetit (Liv. xxm. 30), the vic- 
tory cost the Carthaginians much blood.* 

Quod non 6piis est, assS carum est (Cato ap. Sen. Ep. 94), what 

you don't want is dear at a farthing. 

1005. 1 To affix a penalty implies an estimation of a crime. Hence 
the amount of penalties, like prices, is in the ablative :t as, 

Decem mllibus aeris dampnatus (Liv. vn 16), sentenced to pay 
a penalty of 10,000 pieces of money. 

Multare uitia hominum dampnis, ignominiis, uinculis, uerbg- 
ribiis, exiliis, roortS (Cic. de Or. I. 43.194), to punish the 
vices of men with fine, degradation, imprisonment, flogging, 
exile, death. 

1006 Verbs of sacrificing often take an ablative of the victim, that 
is, the means employed : as, 

Cum faciam uittila pro frugibus, ipsS uSnlto (Virg. Buc. in. 
77), when I offer a calf for my crops, thyself shall come. 

Quinquaginta ckpris sacrlflcaruntt (Liv. XLV. 16), they sacri- 
ficed fifty goats. 

1007 Verbs signifying to accustom, take an ablative of the means, 
though in English the preposition to is prefixed : as, 

Homines labore adslduo et quotldiano adsuStl (Cic. de Or. 

in. 15. 58), accustomed as they are to constant and daily 

Credere" regil genus pugnae quo assuerant forg (Liv. xxxi. 35), 

the king's troops thought the battle would be of the kind they 

were accustomed to. 

1008 The road by which any thing is moved is also a means, and 
therefore expressed by the ablative : as, 

Frumentum flumlne Ararl naulbus subuexerat (Caes. B. G. i. 
16), he had conveyed corn in ships up the river Arar. 

moment. We often talk of prices rising, falling, and being stationary. 
' I bought consols at 63, and sold out at 94.' 

* Literally ' stood them in much blood.' 

f See also 945. J The accusative is also used. 

The dative also occurs after this word, as well as ad with the accu- 

206 SYNTAX. 

1009 The attending circumstances, manner, feelings, are expressed 
by the ablative : as, 

Summa contentions dixit (Cic. Brut. 20. 80), he spoke with the 

exertion of all his power. 
Infestis armis concurrunt (Liv. I. 25), they run together with 

their arms aimed at each other. 
Expedite* exercltu Iter feel (Cic. ad Fam. xv. 4.8), I proceeded 

with my army in light marching order. 
Id aequo Snimot non feret ciuitas (Cic. de Or. n. 33. 144), this 

the citizens will not bear calmly. 
Duarum cohortium dampno exercitum reducerS (Caes. B. G. vi. 

44), to lead the army back with the loss of two battalions. 

1009. 1 In this construction, if no adjective accompany the noun, the 
preposition cum is commonly added, as summa cura with the 
greatest care, or cum cura with care. Yet certain ablatives have 
become virtually adverbs, and so are used without either adjective 
or preposition : as, ordJne in order, ration e rationally, iure justly, 
iniuria without reason, more according to custom, fraude fraudu- 
lently, ui forcibly, uitio unduly, sllentio silently (but also cum 
sileutio), sSreno with a cloudless sky, austro with a south wind. 

J010 The ablative t of quality is the name usually given to that use 
of the case which denotes a condition of mind or body, &c. But 
it is essential that an adjective accompany this ablative : 

Tanta est eloquentia (Cic. de Or. n. 13. 55), he is so eloquent. 
Qua facie fuit ? Crassis suris, magno caplte, admodum magnis 
pedlbiis (Plaut. Ps. iv. 7. 119), how was he made ? He had 
thick calves, a great head, and very great feet. 
Spelunca infinita altltudinS (Cic. n. Verr. iv. 48. 107), a cavern 

of boundless depth. 
HSmlnes emerltis stipendils (Sal. Jug. 84), veterans who have 

served out their time. 

1011 This ablative is occasionally used when the state is not a per- 
manent one : as, 

Nullo frigSre adducltur, ut caplte operto sit (Cic. de Sen. 10. 
34), no cold weather ever induces him to go with his head 

* Literally ' unencumbered.' f ' With a level or calm mind.' 

J See also genitive of quality, 927. 


Magno tlmorg sum (Cic. ad Att. v. 14. 2), lam in great alarm. 

1012 Similar to this is the addition of the ablative of the name of 
the tribe or city to which a person belongs : as, 

Ser. Sulpicius Q.F.* Lemoniat Rufus (Cic. Phil. ix. 7.15), 
Servius Sulpicius Rufus, son of Quintus, of the Lemonian 

Cn. Magius Cremona? (Caes. B. C. I. 24), Cneius Magius of 

1013 Ablative absolute is the name commonly employed when an 
ablative of a noun is accompanied by a substantive, adjective, or 
participle, to denote the time when, the means by which, or any 
attending circumstances. It therefore belongs properly to the 
heads already given. There is however this peculiarity of trans- 
lation, that the English often requires no preposition : as, 

Abl. abs. of time when: Is, M. Messala, M. Plsone coss. 
coniurationeni fecit (Caes. B. G. I. 2), this, man in tJie con- 
sulship^ of Marcus Messala and Marcus Piso formed a con- 

Abl. abs. of means : CStapultis dispSsitis muros defensorlbus 
nudauerat (Liv. xxi. 11), by his catapults placed at different 
points he had cleared the wall of its defenders, or he had 
placed his catapults at different points and so had cleared &c. 

Abl. abs. of circumstances : Natura duce errarl nullo pacto 
p5test (Cic. de Leg. I. 6. 20), with nature for our guide, the 
path can no way be mistaken. 

Quid dicam hac iiiuentutS ? (Cic. ad Att. x. 11. 3) what am 1 
to say with such young men as we have now-a~days ? 

Voluntas tacitis nobislf intelleg! non pSterat (Cic. p. Caec. 18. 
53), our wish could not have been understood, had we been 

1014 That by which any thing is measured is a means of measure- 
ment, and therefore in the ablative : as, 

* Quintifilius. f Tribu understood. 

J Or the same might have been expressed by an adjective, Cremo~ 

To be read, Marco, Marco, consulibus. 
|| Literally M. Messala, M. Piso (being) consuls.' 
^f Literally * we (being) silent.' 


Voluptate omnia" dlrigere* (Cic. de Fin. n. 22. 71), to test every 
thing by pleasure. 

Non numgro haec iudlcautur, sed ponderg (Cic. de Off. u. 22. 
79), it is not by number that these things are estimated, but by 

Discriptus pSpulus censu, ordlnibus, aetatlbus (Cic. de Leg. 
in. 19. 44), the people distributed into different classes accord- 
ing to income and rank and age. 

1015 The comparative takes an ablative of the object with which 
the comparisonf is made : as, 

Vllius argentumst auro, uirtutlbus aurum (Hor. Ep. I. 1.52), 
silver than gold is cheaper, gold than virtue. 

1016 Similarly the adjectives digno- indigno- and the verbs formed 
therefrom, take an ablative of the object with which the compari- 
son is made : as, 

Eum omnes cognltione t hospltio dignum existumarunt (Cic. 

p. Arch. 3. 5), this (foreigner) all deemed worthy of their 

acquaintance and friendship. 
Haud Squidem tali me dign<5r honore ( Virg. A. I. 339), not in 

truth of such an honour do I deem me worthy. 

1017 The amount of distance or difference in time, space, or quan- 
tity is commonly expressed in the ablative. 

Id ulgiuti an ni s ante apud nos fecerat Coriolanus (Cic. de Am. 
12. 42), this Coriolanus had done among us twenty years be- 

llaec est aetas decem annis minor quam consularls (Cic. Phil. 
v. 17.48), this age is ten years less than that required for a 

Tribus tantis illij minus redit quam obseueris (Plaut. Trin 11. 

* Literally ' to keep in a straight line as a carpenter does by apply- 
ing his rule.' 

f A comparison implies proximity of the things compared. Hence 
this use of the ablative flows easily from the original meaning of the da- 
tive. Observe too that all the verbs denoting comparison signify strictly 
the bringing together, as corn-para-, cori-fer-, con-tend-, com-pos-. So 
also the prepositions of proximity, ad ( 1304 &.), prae ( 1356 of.), pro 
( 1361 g.), are used in comparisons. 

The adverb. 


4. 128), for every bushel you sow on that land, you lose three 
bushels in the return.* 

Mlllbus passuum sex a Caesaris castris consedit (Caes. B. Q. I. 
48), lie took a position six miles from Caesar's camp. 

10 ij The ablativest of pronouns and adjectives of quantity are much 
used in this way with comparatives : as, 

ViS, quanto tutior, tanto fere longiSr (Liv. ix. 2), a, road longer 

in about the same proportion as it was safer. 
Quo maio'r est In anlmis praestantia, eo maiore indigent dlli- 
gentia (Cic. Tusc. iv. 27. 58), the greater the excellence in the. 
soul, the more attention it needs. 

1018. 1 An ablative is occasionally used instead of an accusative ( 915) 
to denote duration of time. 

Quinque horis proelium sustinue'rant (Caes. B. C. I. 47), they 

had kept up the battle for five hours. 
Octoginta annis uixit (Sen. Ep. 93), he lived to the age of eight)/. 

1019 The form of an ablative is sometimes found in inscriptions, old 
writers, and certain phrases, where a dative would be expected : 

IOVE OPTVMO MAXSVMO (Inscr. Grut. xvi. 8), to Jupiter, the best, 

the greatest. 
Postquam morte datust Plautus, comoediS, luget (Plaut.'S), now 

that Plautus is given to Death, Comedy is in mourning. 
Triumulri auro argento aerg flando fe'riundo (Inscr. Orell. 569), 

the three commissioners for smelting and stamping gold, silver 

and bronze. 

1020 Hence the poets, to accommodate their metres, occasionally 
substitute the form of the ablative where a dative might have 
been expected : as, 

At si uirglneum suffuderit or8 rtiborem, 

Ventus erit ( Virg. G. I. 430), 

But if a maiden's blush s/ie pour from beneath upon her cheek, 
Wind will there be. 

* Literally ' less by three times as much.' Thus the extravagance 
of the phrase runs beyond possibility, 
f But see 789, note. 

J First verse of the epitaph written by Plautus for himself. Gell. n. 24. 
i.e.* the moon.' 


210 SYNTAX. 

MollS Calenum 
PorrecturS ulro miscet sltiente rubetam (Juv. i. 69), 

Mild Calene about to hand 
To her thirsting lord, she mixes therein a toad. 

1021 A true ablative ending in the letter d* belonged to the old 
language, and the loss of this d led to a form very similar to the 
weakened dative commonly called the ablative. Hence, from a, 
town is sometimes expressed by a mere ablative : as, 

C&rinthot fugit (Cic. Tusc. v. 37.109), he fled from Corinth. 

1022 Similarly the ablatives rurS and domo are used : as, 

ClbariS, sibi quemqug dSmo efferre iiibeiit (Caes. B. G. i. 5), 
they bid them bring food from home, every man for himself. 

Peiter rure redht (Ter. E. in. 5. 63), my father is returned from 
the country. 

1023 Verbs and adjectives of removal and separation are followed by 
an ablative : as, 

Signum non potSrat mouere loco (Cic. de Div. i. 35. 77), he 

could not move the standard from where it was. 
Tuos culpa libero (Cic. ad Att. xm. 22. 3), I free your people 

from blame. 
Praetura se abdicatj (Cic. in Cat. iv. 3. 5), he lays down the 

office of Praetor. 
Defunctl regis imperio (Liv. i. 4), having discharged the king's 

His Squa atque igni interdixerat (Caes. B. G. vi. 44), these he 

had forbidden fire and water. 
Inuldet igne rogi mlserls (Lucr. vn. 798), he grudges the poor 

wretches tliefire of a funeral pile. 

* As, for example, on one of the epitaphs of the Scipios (Orelli 550), 
Gnaiuod patre prognatns for Cnaeo &c. 

f More commonly a Corintho, as a Gergouia discessit (Caes. B. G. 
vn. 59). When a word denoting town is added, a preposition is neces- 
sary, as Expellitur ex oppido Geryouia (Caes. B. G. vn. 4); Generis 
antiquitatem Tusculo ex clarissumo municipio profectam (Cic. p. Font. 
.41). See also 884 note, and 951 note J. 

$ Literally * he unbinds himself from,' the office being a sort of charge 
-' burden which for security he had fastened to his person. 

The reflectire verbs fung-> defung-, probably meant original!;' to 
relieve oneself; and the burden, as with abdico me, will for the same 
reason be in the ablative. Hence the word 'discharge,' i.e. 'unload.' 
will be literally correct. 


Roma caremtis (Cic. ad Att. ix. 19. 1), we are deprived of Rome. 

1024 The verbs or participles which denote birth or origin take an 
ablative : as, 

Mercurius, louS natfis et Maia (Cic. N. D. in. 22. 56), Mercury 
born of Jupiter and Maia. 

1025 The prepositions which signify removal or separation have an 
ablative : as, 8c, de, ab, slnS, absqug, clam. See 914, note. 


1026 Some substantives are used in the plural where the English 
translation has a singular* : as, 

Cassi adipesf (Cic. in Cat. in. 7.16), the fat of Cassius. 
Inlmlcltiae cum Roscils (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 6. 17), a quarrel 

with the Roscii. 
Ceruicest se'cur! subiecit (Cic. Phil. u. 21. 51), he presented his 

neck to the hatchet. 

1027 The terms of weather are sometimes used in the plural where 
the English language would almost require the singular : as, ca- 
lores, frigSrS, grandmSs, imbres, nlues, pluuiae, pruinae. Thus, 

Terrere animos fulntinibus, nfrilbus, grandlulbus (Cic. N. D. IT. 

5. 14), to frighten the minds of men with thunder, and snow, 

and hail. 
Transcendere Apenninum intSlerandis frlgoYSbiis (Liv. xxn. 1), 

to cross the Apennines when the frost was unbearable. 

1028 The plural is preferred in general truths, where the English 
has commonly a singular : as, 

Vfri In uxores ultae ngcisque h&bent pStestatem (Caes. B. G. 
vi. 19), the husband (in that country) has the power of life 
and death over the wife. 

1029 The singular of some words is found where the English trans- 
lation requires a plural : as, 

Vlta illustrium (Nepos), the lives of illustrious men. 

* See also 152. 

f Editions commonly have erroneously and contrary to the Mss. the 
singular. See Steinmetz. 

$ Ceruic- probably meant a single vertebra. 

See Servius Aen. i. 372. See also Fischer's Pseudo-Nepos, Pre- 
face, near the end. 

212 SYNTAX. 

1030 The singular is preferred with animals and vegetables where 
there is an allusion to the table, because they are considered in 
the mass, not counted : as, 

Villa bundat porco, haedo, agno, gallina (Cic. de Sen. 16. 56), 

the farm-house abounds with pork and kid and lamb* and 

Leporem et gallmam et anserem gustare fas non piitant (Caes. 

B. G. v. 12), hare and fowl and goose they think it an act of 

impiety to taste. 
Pythagorlcls interdictum grat ne fSba uescerentiir(Cfo. deDiv. 

I. 30. 62), the Pythagoreans were forbidden to eat beans. 

1031 So also with other words where the mass does not admit of 
numeration : as, 

Pululnus rosa fartus (Cic. n. Verr. v. 11. 27), a pillow stuffed 

with rose-leaves. 
In uiola aut in rosa (Cic. Tusc. v. 26.73), on violets or roses 

(meaning the gathered flowers). 

1032 In military language the singular is used at times for a plural : 

Quo&d inse'qui pgdest potuit (Liv. II. 25), as far as the infantry 

could pursue. 
Eques eos ad castra egit (Liv. IT. 25), the cavalry drove them to 

their camp. 
Hie miles magis pl&cuit (Liv. xxn. 57), a soldiery of this kind 

was preferred. 
Eomanus Ira odioque pugnabat (Liv. in. 2), the Romans fougkt 

under a feeling of indignation and hatred. 


1032.1 Undeclined substantives ( 187) can only be used as nomina- 
tives or accusatives. But the names of the letters, and generally 
words spoken of as words, may be used as genitives, datives or 
ablatives, if an adjective or substantive in apposition fix the case. 

* Observe that the omission of the indefinite article in English makes 
the distinction between the animal for table and the living animal. 

f The singular however has its force, drawing attention to the indi- 
vidual. Thus, in the last phrase, ' each individual soldier has his own 
feelings of anger;' so again in the first sentence, 'a foot-soldier' would 
have been an equally good translation, signifying ' inasmuch as he was a 



1033 The masculine adjective is often used in speaking of men, the 
neuter in speaking of things ; especially where the gender is dis- 
tinguished in the termination. See 1044. 

1034 Some adjectives used as substantives may be seen in 210 ; 
and to these may be added, 

Statiua, hlberna, <fec. (castrS, understood). 
Tertiana-, quartana-, &c. (fSbri- understood). 
Circenses, Saeculares, &c. (ludl understood). 
Trlremi-, actuaria-, &c. (naui- understood). 
Suburbauo-, Tusctilano-, &c. (praedio- [n.] understood). 
Eepetundaruin (rerum understood). 
Centensumae, &c. (usurae understood). 
AgonaliS,, LiberaliS,, &c. (sS,crS understood). 
Primae, sScundae (partes understood). 
Tertia-, quarta-, <fec. (parti- understood). 
In posterum (diem understood). 

1035 The genitive of a deity is often used with prepositions, the 
proper case of aedi- a temple being understood. 

Habitabat rex ad louis* StS,toiis (aedem understood) (Liv. i. 

41), the king resided near ike temple of Jupiter Stator. 
A Vestae (aede understood) ductast (Cic. ad Fam. xiv. 2. 2), 

she was taken away from the temple of Vesta. 

1036 But the Latin language does not copy the English in the use 
of the genitive of a person's name, meaning his house ; but either 
inserts the word for house, or uses a preposition with the name of 
the person :f as, 

Veuisti in dSmum Laecae (Cic. in Cat. i. 4. 8), you came to 

Domi Caesaris deprensust (Cic. ad Att. i. 12. 3), he was caught 

at Caesar's. 
1036. 1 When a sentence contains two corresponding genitives governed 

* This is like our own phrase, ' St. Paul's' for ' St. Paul's Church.' 
f The use of the prepositions is as follows: to Cicero's house, ad 

Ciceronem or domum ad Ciceronem ; at Cicero's house, apud Ciceronem ; 

from Cicero's house, a Cicerone or a Cicerone domo ; and this even though 

Cicero be known to be absent. See these prepositions, S 1305. o ; 1311. c ; 

1303. /. 



by the same substantive, this substantive need for the most part 
only be expressed with the first genitive : as, 

Flebat pater de fill mortg, de patris filius (Cic. n. Verr. i. 30. 
76), the father was weeping for the death of his son, the son 
for that of his father. 

Quls est qui possit conferre uitam Trebon! cum Dolabellae ? 
(Cic. Phil. xi. 4. 9) who is there who can compare the life of 
Trebonius with that of Dolabella ? 

Meo iudlcio stare" malo quam omnium rellquorum (Cic. ad Att. 
xn. 21. 5), I choose to abide by my own judgment, rather than 
by that of all the rest. 

1036. 2 As a wife, son, daughter or slave may be said to belong to a 
man, the genitive of the possessor is occasionally used without 
the substantives denoting those relations : as, 

Hasdriibal Gisgonls (Liv. xxv. 37), Hasdrubal, the son ofGisgo. 
Verania Pisonis (Plin. Ep. n. 20), Verania, the wife of Piso, 

more literally Piso's Verania. 
Flaccus Claudl (Ter. And. tit.), Flaccus, Claudius's slave. 


1037 Adjectives and participles are attracted into the same case, 
gender and number as the substantive to which they refer. 

Thus, from docto- or docta- learned, and hdrntfn- man ; bSno- 
or b5na- good, muliSr- woman ; grS,ui- heavy, 5nes- load, we have : 


N, doctiis h5mo. 
I", docte homo. 
Ac. doctum hSmlnem. 

bonS muliSr. 
bonS, miilie'r. 
bonam muligrem. 

gr,ue 5nus. 
graue 5nus. 
graue onus. 

G. docti hSminis. 
D. docto hominl. 
Ab. docto htfmlnS. 

bonae mulierls. 
bSnae mulierl. 
b5na muligrg. 

grauls onerls. 
grSui ongrl. 
gr&ui tfne're. 


N. docti hSmlnes. 
V. docti homines. 
Ac. doctos homines. 
G. doctorum hSmluum. 
D.A.doctls homluibus. 

b5nae miilie'res. 
b5nae muliSrgs. 
bSnas miiliSres. 
bSnarum muli^rum. 
bonis miilieribus. 

gi-Suia 5nerS. 
gr^uia 5uera 
grftuia Snerci. 
gr2,uium Snerurn. 
graulbus 5uerlbus. 


1038 Sometimes the gender and number of the adjective or participle 
are determined by the sense* rather than the form of the substan- 
tive : as, 

Omirfs aetas curre're obuii (Liv. xxvu. 51), all ages i. e. persons 

of every age kept running to meet him. 
Capita coiiiuratiouis uirgls caesi ac securi percuss! sunt (Liv. 

x. 1), the heads of the conspiracy were flogged and beheaded. 
Concursus pSpull mlrantium quid rei esset (Liv. I. 41), a run- 
ning together of the citizens, who wondered what was the 

Ed numerost qul semper sancti sunt habltl (Cic. p. Arch. 12. 

31), he is one of a class who have ever been accounted sacred. 
Cetera multitude decimus quisque ad supplicium lecti (Liv. 11. 

59), of the great mass remaining, every tenth man was selected 

for punishment. 

1039 If a relative or other pronoun be the subject of a sentence 
which itself contains a predicative substantive, the gender and 
number of the pronoun are commonly determined by the latter : 

Thebae, quod Boeotiae cSput est (Liv. XLII. 44), Thebes, which 

is the capital of Boeotia. 
lusta gloriS,, qui est fructus uerae uirtutls (Cic. in Pis. 24. 57), 

the genuine glory, which is the fruit of true merit. 
ES,t qu&terna milia erant (Liv. xxi. 17), these Regions) were 

each 4000 strong. 
Hoc 5pus, hie labor est (Virg. A. vi. 129), this is the task, this 

the labour. 

1040 If an adjective or participle refer to several nouns of different 
gender or number, the gender and number are commonly deter- 
mined by one of the three rules following : 

a. Most commonly the adjective agrees in number and gender 
with the noun to which it is nearest ; 

b. Or, if the nouns be living beings, the masculine plural may 
be used ; 

c. Or, if they be things without life, the neuter plural may be 
used : as, 

* This is called the construct ad synesim. 

f Nay, we find in Livy, xxi. 55, Duodeuiginti milia Romano, erant, 
' the Romans amounted to 18,000 ;' for so all the best Mss. 



a. Mens St 5,nlmus et consllium et sententiS, clultatis po'sitast 

in leglbus (Cic. p. Clu. 53. 146), the intellect, and soul, and 

forethought, and feelings of a state reside in the laws. 
CingStSrigl princlpatus atque impgrium est tradltum (Caes. 

B. G. vi. 8), the chief post and the supreme command were 

handed over to Cingetorix. 
Niimldas magis pedes quam armS, tuta sunt (Sal. Jug. 74), 

the Numidians owed their safety rather to their feet than 

their arms. 

b. PSter mi et mater mortal sunt (Ter. E. in. 3. 12), my father 

and mother are dead. 

c. L5,bor uoluptasque, dissimilllmS, natura, s<5cietate quadnm 

inter se naturali sunt iuncta (Liv. v. 3), toil and pleasure, 
utterly unlike as they are in nature, are still joined together 
in a sort of natural partnership. 

1041 As a plural adjective may be distributed between two substan- 
tives, so may a plural substantive between two adjectives. Thus, 

Quarta et Martia" Iggiones (Cic. ad Fam. xi. 19), the fourth and 
the Martian legions.* 

1042 Many words which were originally adjectives or participles are 
at times used as substantives, and as such may have adjectives or 
genitives attached to them : as, 

Natalis metis (Cic. ad Att. vn. 5. 3), my birthday. 
VStus uicmiis (Cic. p. Mur. 27. 56), an old neighbour. 
Imquissumi mel (Cic. n. Verr. v. 69. 177), my greatest enemies. 
Paternus inlmlciis (Cic. p. Scauro, 2. 45. h.), an hereditary enemy. 
Publlcum m&lum (Sal. Cat. 57), public misfortune. 
Praeclarum responsum (Cic. de Sen. 5. 13), a glorious answer. 
SummS, pectSrfs (Cic. ad Fam. i. 9. 15), the highest parts of the 

OccultS, tempi! (Caes. B. C. in. 105), the hidden recesses of the 


Summum mentis (Sal. Jug. 93), the summit of the mountain. 
Medium diel (Liv. xxvi. 45), the middle of the day. 

1043 The neuter adjective often found in the predicate of a sentence, 

* Not unlike this is the use of two praenomina with the gens in the 
plural : as, C. et L. Caepasii, i. e. Caius et Lucius Caepasii (Cic. Brut. 
69. 242), * the two Caepasii, Caius and Lucius. 1 


when the subject is not of that gender, is to be considered as a 
substantive. Thus, 

TristS lupus stabiills ( Virg. Buc. in. 80), a sad thing is the wolf 

unto the stall. 
Varium et mutabllS semper FemlnS, ( Virg. A. iv. 569), a thing 

of motley hue and ever changeable is woman. 

1043. 1 A neuter of an adjective is often used with prepositions, espe- 
cially to form adverbial phrases : as. 

Stare in occulto (Cic. p. Clu. 28. 78), to stand in some dark 


In postgrum prouiderunt (Cic. in Hull. n. 33. 91), they provided 
for the future. 

50 also de improulso unexpectedly, de intSgro afresh, sing dubio 
without doubt. 

1044 There is greater freedom in using as substantives those parts 
of an adjective which show their gender ; as, for instance, the no- 
minative and accusative of neuters. Thus the genitives of neuters 
of the third declension should be avoided in this construction, un- 
less some other genitive less ambiguous accompany them. For 
example, we may say, 

Nil humanl (Ter. Haut. i. 1. 25), nothing like the conduct of a 
man, where humanl is virtually a substantive ; or, 

Nil humanum, where hiimanum is an adjective. 

But if the adjective be of the i declension, as cluili-, then we 
have no choice but nil ciullg, nothing like the conduct of a citizen ; 
unless indeed two adjectives are united, as : 

51 quidquam in uobis, non dlco clullis sgd humani esset (Liv. 

v. 3), if there had been aught in you of the feelings, I do not 
say of a citizen, but of a man. 

Potior utllis quarn h5nestl cura (Liv. XLII. 47), it is better to 
concern oneself about the useful than the honourable. 

1045 When the gender is not at once determined by the termination 
of the adjective, it is commonly better to use a substantive with 
the adjective : as, 

Multls homlnlbus or multis rebus, rather than multls alone. 

1046 The Roman gentile names, that is, the second names in io, are 
really adjectives, and hence are at times found with substantives 
of various genders attached to them : as, 

218 SYNTAX. 

Sulplcia horrea (Hor. Od. iv. 12.18), the Sulpician granaries. 
Octauia portlcus (Velle. i. 11), the Octavian portico. 
lulia lex (CYc. p. Balbo, 8.21), the Julian law. 
Cornelia castra (Caes. B. C. n. 37), the Cornelian camp. 

1047 The Romans use possessive adjectives formed from proper 
names instead of the genitive : as, 

Extendltur una 
lion-Ida per latos acies Volcania campos (Virg. A. x. 407), 

Spreads unbroken 

O'er the wide plain the bristling host of Vulcan. 
Henlis fllius (Ter. Ph. i. 1.5), master's son. 
Pompeianiis exercitus (Caes. B. C. in. 99), Pompetfs army. 

1048 Possessive adjectives include the notion of a genitive, and 
hence an adjective or participle, with or without a substantive, 
in the genitive case, is often attached to them ; or it may be a 
relative sentence, referring to the noun implied in the adjective : 

Quoi nomen meum absentis honor! fuisset, el meas praesentis 
prSces non pittas profuissS ? (Cic. p. Plane. 10. 26) do you 
think the prayers which I addressed in person were of no ser- 
vice to one to whom my mere name in my absence had been an 
honour ? 

Vt mea defunctae molliter ossa" cubent (Ov. Am. i. 8.108), that 
my bones when 1 am dead may softly lie. 

Meam legem contemnit, hominis Inlmic! (Cic. p. Sest. 64.135), 
lie treats my law with contempt, but then I am his enemy. 

VestrS, cousilia accusantur, qul mihi summum hSnorem im- 
pSsuistis (Sal. Jug. 80), it is your wisdom which is im- 
peached, for it was you who imposed upon me the highest 

Vestra, qul cum summa integritatS uixistls, hoc maxume in- 
tgrest (Cic. p. Sull. 28. 79), you who have lived with the 
greatest integrity are most concerned in this. 

"Veiens* bellum ortumst, qulbus Sabini armS, coniunxerant 
(Liv. n. 53), a war with Veii arose, with which city the 
Sabines had united their arms. 

1049 An adjective in agreement with the nominative often accom- 
panies a verb where the English has commonly an adverb : as, 

* ' Of or belonging to Veii.' 


Et tibi Lubens bene faxim (Ter. Ad. v. 5.5), and I would gladly 

serve you. 
In physlcis totust aliSuiis (Cic. de Fin. i. 6. 17), in natural 

philosophy he is altogether out of his element. 
Lupus greglbus nocturnus obambiilat ( Virg. G. in. 538), the 

wolf in presence of the flocks by night walks to and fro. 
Phlld'timus nullus uenit (Cic. ad Att. xi. 24. 4), Philotimus 

has not made his appearance at all. 

1050 The adjectives prior-, primo-, postremo-, princlp-, solo- &c. 
are used in immediate connection with verbs in such a manner 
that the English translation often requires the insertion of the 
verb Ss- be and the relative, or some other periphrasis : as, 

PrlmS SicIliS, prouinciast adpellatS (Cic. n. Verr. n. 1. 2), 
Sicily was the first that was called a province. 

Hispania postrema omnium prouinciarum perdtfmltast (Liv. 
xxvin. 12), Spain was the last of all the provinces to be 
thoroughly subdued. 

StoicI soli ex omnibus elSquentiam uirtutem esse dixerunt 
(Cic. de Or. in. 18. 65), the /Stoics are the only sect of the 
whole number who have declared eloquence to be a virtue. 

1051 A neuter adjective is often used as an adverb. Thus, 

Hb'die aut summum eras (Cic. ad Att. xm. 21. 2), to-day or at 

Dulce* ridentem (Hor. Od. i. 22. 23), sweetly laughing^ 

1052 When substantives signifying agents have one form for the 
masculine, another for the feminine, they so far take the charac- 
ter of adjectives, that they must agree in number, gender and 
case with the word to which they refer : as, 

Legis aeternae uis, quae quasi dux uitae et magistra offlciorum 
est (Cic. N. D. i. 15.40), the force of an eternal law, which 
is as it were the guide of life and the instructress in duty. 

Timor, non diuturnus magistgr offlcl (Cic. Phil. n. 36.90), 
/ear, no permanent instructor in duty. 

1053 Other words commonly treated as substantives take a similar 
liberty between neuters and masculines : as, 

* This is carried to a great extent by the poets, who use even the 
plural neuter in this way. The comparative neuter is the only foim for 
a comparative adverb. 

220 SYNTAX. 

Mare Oce&num (Caes. B. G. in. 7), the sea called Oceanus. 
Flumen Rhenum (Nor. ad Pis. 18), the river Rfienus or Rhine. 
Eiid&num ostium (Plin. in. 16), the mouth of the Eridanus. 
Volturniis amnis (Liv. xxin. 19), the river Volturnus. 
Volturnum oppldum (Plin. H. N. in. 5.9), the town Volturnum. 

1054 Although a substantive in Latin has commonly but one adjec- 
tive attached to it, except where conjunctions are employed, this 
restriction does not apply, a. to pronominal adjectives, b. to nu- 
merals, c. to adjectives of quantity, d. to those which accompany 
verbs as part of the predicate, e. to the possessive adjectives, such 
as Plutonia (see 1047),/. to three or more adjectives, with pauses 
to supply the place of conjunctions (see 1435 I.} : as, 

a. Eadem ilia indluldua et solida corpora (Cic. de Fin. i. 6.18), 

those same indivisible and solid bodies. 

b. Duo'decim milia Attica talenta dato (Liv. xxxvni. 38), he 

shall pay 12,000 Attic talents. 

c. Omnes rectae res atque laudabiles eo referuntur (Cic.&e Fin. 

i. 12. 42), all right and praiseworthy things are referred to 
this standard. 

d. Princepsque declma legio ei gratias egit (Caes. B. G. I. 41), 

and the tenth legion was the first to thank 1dm. 

e. Et domus exllis Plutonia (Hor. Od. i. 4. 17), and Pluto s 

shadowy house. 

f. Ea uoluptaria, delicata, mollis habetur discIpllnS, (Cic. de 

Fin. i. 11.37), this is accounted a voluptuous, tender, 
effeminate school of philosophy. 


1055 The second of the objects compared is expressed by the abla- 
tive in short and simple phrases ( 1015), but quam is employed 
for this purpose in longer or more complicated phrases, or when 
greater emphasis is desired. Thus, 

a. When the comparative adjective (or adverb) does n t belong 
immediately to the two objects compared, quam is required : as, 

Filium frequentiorem cum illis quam secum cernebat (Liv. 
xxxix. 53), he saw that his son was more frequently in their 
company than in his own. 

b. But suppose that the adjective does belong to both, still if 


the first object be governed by a word which does not govern the 
second, the second should be in a distinct proposition of its own 
preceded by quam : as, 

Meliorem quam eg6 sum suppono tibi (Plant. Cure. n. 2. 6), / 

give you as a substitute a better than myself. 
HSmini non gratiosiorl quam Calidius est, Curidio argentum 
reddldisti (Cic. n. Verr. iv. 20. 44), you paid the money to 
Curidius, a man not more influential than Calidius. 
Pompeius dixit se munltiorem forg quam Africanus fuisset 
(Cic. ad Q. Fr. n. 3. 3), Pompey said that he should be better 
guarded than Africanus was.* 

Obs. Yet even in this case, if the first object be an accusative, 
the second is often, though illogically, put in the accusative by 
attraction : as, 

Patrem tain pl&cldum reddo quam Suemf (Ter. Ad. iv. 1.18), 
I make your father as quiet as a lamb. J 

c. But even when the two objects are under the same con- 
struction, quam should still be used with other cases than the 
nominative or accusative. 

G. Albauo non plus ctnXmi grat quam ftdel (Liv. i. 27), the 
Alban had no more courage than honour. 

D. His Igitur quam physicis potius credendum existumas ? 
(Cic. de Div. n. 16.37) do you think then that we ought 
to trust these rather than the natural philosophers ? 

All. Absoluerunt admirationg magis uirtutis quamiurg caussae 
(Liv. i. 26), they acquitted (him) rather from admiration 
of his valour than for the goodness of his cause. 

d. But N. Elephanto beluarum nulls, prudentiSr (Cic. N. D. i. 

35.97), not one of all the great beasts has more intelligence 
than the elephant. 

Ex eius lingua melle dulcior fluebat 6ratio(CVc. de Sen. 10.31), 
from his tongue flowed words sweeter than 

* Here the difference of time, the one being future and the other 
past, made quam desirable. 

+ For quam ouis est. 

% Examples of both these constructions occur in 7W, multo maiori 
quam Africanus fuit, me non multo minorem quam Laelium, et in repub- 
lica et in amicitia adiunctum esse patere (Cic. ad Fam. v. 7. 3), where 
Laelium stands for quam Laelius fuit. 

222 SYNTAX. 

Melior est certa pax quam speratS, uictovia (Liv. xxx. 30), a 
certain peace is better than a hoped-for victory. 

Pluris est oculatus testis unus quam auriti decem (Plant. True. 
II. 6. 8), one eye-witness is worth more than ten ear-wit- 

Ace. Sapiens humana omnia infSriorS, uirtute duclt (Cic. Tusc. 
iv. 26. 57), a wise man looks upon all human things as 
inferior to virtue. 

Quo grauiorem Inlmlcum non habul (Q. Curt. vi. 43), a greater 
enemy than whom I never had.* 

Ita sentio, Latmam linguara locupletiorem esse quain Graecam 
(Cic. de Fin. i. 3.10), my feeling is this, that the Latin 
language is richer than the Greek. 

1055. 1 The adjectives of dimension, such as maior-, minor-, longior-, 
latior-, altior-f, and the adverbs plus, minus, amplius, are often 
used without quam, yet so as not to affect the construction of the 
numerical phrase attached to them : as, 

Plus septingentl capti (Liv. XLI. 12), more than 700 were taken 

Quinctius tecum plus annum uixit (Cic. p. Quinct. 12.41), 

Quinctius lived with you more than a year. 
Constabat non minus ducentos fuissS (Liv. xxix. 34), it was 

clear that there had been not less than 200. 
NSque longius mllia passuum octo aberant (Caes. B. G. v. 53), 

nor were they more than eight miles off. 
Spatium non amplius pedum sescentorum (Caes. B. G. I. 38), 

an interval of not more than 600 feet. 
Obsldes uiginti dato, ne minores octonum denum neu maiores 

qulnum quadraggnum (Liv. xxxviii. 38), hostages he shall 

give twenty in number, not younger than eighteen years of 

age, nor older than forty-Jive. 
Plus tertia parte interfecta (Caes. B. G. in. 6), more than a 

third part having been slain. 
A Caecllio prSpinqui mlnore centensiimis nummum mSuere' 

non possunt (Cic. ad Att. I. 12.1), from Caecilius his own 

immediate connections cannot get a sixpence at less than 

* With the relative the use of the ablative is alone admissible. 
f Altior (Lucr. iv. 415). 


twelve per cent per annum (literally, one in a hundred per 

1055. 2 A comparison of two qualities in the same object is expressed 
either by two comparatives, or by magis and two positives : as, 
Paulli contio fuit uerior quam gratior popiilo (Liv. xxn. 38), 
the harangue of Paullus was more true than agreeable to the 
Bella fortius quam felicius gerere (Liv. v. 43), to conduct wars 

with more courage than good fortune. 

Artem iurls h&bebltis magis magnam quam diffMlem ( Cic. de 
Or. i. 42. 190), you will then have a treatise on law rather 
bulky than difficult. 

1055. 3 For the sake of brevity an ablative is sometimes used where 
the correct expression of the idea would require many words, 
especially with spe, tfpmidne', iusto, aequo. 

Caesar opinion^ celerius uSniet (Cic. ad Fam. xiv. 23), Caesar 
will come more quickly than was expected. 

Amnis solito cltatior (Liv. xxm. 19), the river running with 

greater rapidity than usual. 

1056 * Too great in proportion to something' is expressed by a com- 
parative and quam pro : as, 

PuluSrem maiorem quam pro niimero excitabant (Liv. x. 41), 
they raised a cloud of dust greater than might have been ex- 
pected from their number. 

Proelium atrocius quam pro numgro pugnantium (Liv. xxi. 
29), a battle more furious than was to have been expected from 
the number of combatants. 

1056. 1 ' Too great for something' is expressed by a comparative and 
quam qul or quam ut : as, 

Maius gaudium grat quam quod homines c&pgrent (Liv. xxxiii. 

32), the joy was too great for human beings to contain. 
Campani maiora deliquSrant quam qulbus ignosci posset (Liv. 

xxvi. 12), the people of Capua had been guilty of misconduct 

too grave to be pardoned. 

1056.2 'Too great' generally, without formal reference to a purpose 

* Observe that all these constructions would remain correct in La- 
tinity, even if the comparatives were struck out. 

224 SYNTAX. 

or standard, may be expressed by nlmls and the positive, or by a 
comparative with the ablative aequo or iusto, or thirdly by a sim- 
ple comparative : as, 

VSluptas quum maior atque longior est, omne airiml lumen 

extingult (Cic. de Sen. 12.41), when pleasure is too intense 

and continued too long, it put* out the whole light of the soul. 

Llberius si Dix6r5 quid (Hor. Sat. I. 4. 103), too freely if I 

aught express. 

1056. 3 The simple comparative sometimes denotes only an excess be- 
yond the average, and may then be translated by ' somewhat' or 
'rather,' or by one of our diminutival adjectives in ish. In this 
sense the Latin comparative with a diminutival suffix in culo is 
also used, although it may also be used as a comparative. 

Senectus est natura IdquaciSr (Cic. de Sen. 16. 55), old age is 

naturally rather talkative. 
Virgo grandiusculS (Ter. And. iv. 5.19), a girl pretty well 

grown up ; a biggish girl, 
Thais quam ego sum maiusctilast (Ter. E. in. 3.21), Thais is 

a little older than I am. 

1056. 4 Atqug and ac in old writers and in poets are at times used in 
place of quam after comparatives : as, 

K6n Apollinis magis uerum atque h6c responsumst (Ter. And. 
iv. 2. 14), not Apollo gives a truer answer from his oracle 
than this. 
Haud minus ac iussl fSciunt ( Virg. A. in. 561), not less than 

ordered do they. 

1056. 5 The degree of excess is expressed by the ablative of substan- 
tives (see 1017), and by the ablatives eo or hoc and quo, tanto 
and quanto, multo and paulo, aliquanto and nihilo ; also by the 
numerical ablatives altero-tanto or duplo, as much again ; sesqui,* 
half as much again, &c. (see 1018). But the accusatival forms 

* This word is probably an ablative, whose full form may have been 
semi-sequi, the latter part being the ablative of the obsolete positive segui-, 
whence the comparative sequior- (but observe the different quantity), in 
the sense of * following, second, inferior.' Thus semis-sequis contracted 
into sesquis would be like the German anderthalb or Ig, just as semis- 
tertius contracted into sestertius is equal to the German drittehalb or 2. 
See 272. It may be added that the assumed meaning of sequi- would 
account both for its being superseded by the comparative and also for its 
having no superlative. 


in um are not uncommon : as, multum imprSbiSr (Plant. Most. 
in. 2. 139), Sllquantum amplior (Liv. i. 7), quantum magls (Liv. 
in. 15). 


1 057 The use of the superlative is chiefly in such constructions as 
the following : 

a. ConsIliS, sua optumo quoiquS prSbant* (Cic. p. Sest. 45. 96), 

they satisfy all the lest men of the excellence of their mea- 

Renuntiarunt ludos I5u! prlmot quoque die faciundos (Liv. 
XLII. 20), they reported that games should be celebrated in 
honour of Jupiter on the earliest possible day. 

Multi mortales conuenerS, maxime proximi qulquSJ, Caeni- 
nenses, Crustiimini, Antemnates (Liv. i. 9), a large num- 
ber of people came to the meeting, chiefly the inhabitants of 
the several nearest states, Caenina and CrustumeriUm and 

b. Optiimus quisquS maxiimS postgrltatl seruit (Cic. Tusc. i. 

15.35), the best men always do the most to serve posterity. 

c. Vt quisque optiime diclt, ita maxume dicendl difficultatem 

pertlmesclt (Cic. de Or. i. 26.120), the nearer a man ap- 
proaches perfection in speaking, the more is he alarmed at 
the difficulty of speaking. 

ItS, quam quisqug pessume fecit, tarn maxume tutust (Sal. 
Jug. 31), thus, the worse a man acts, tJie safer is he. 

d. Tarn sum mltis quam qui lenissumus (Cic. p. Sul. 31.87), / 

am as mild as the gentlest man on earth. 
Tarn sum ,micus relpubllcae quam qui maxume (Cic. ad 

Fam. v. 2. 6), / am as attached to the country as any one 

Hulc commendationl tan turn tribue're' quantum quoi trlbuisti 

plurumum (Cic. ad Fam. xin. 22), to attach as much weight 

to this recommendation as you ever did to any one. 

* Literally ' make them to appear good.' 

f This phrase should be contrasted with altero quoque die, tertio qua- 
que die, &c. which imply the passing over one, two, &c. days every time. 
Primo quoque die therefore signifies ' the first day of all ;' if that be im- 
possible, then the next, and so on, allowing not a day to pass without an 

J Plural, because each single state furnished a number. 

Te sic tuebor ut quern dillgentissume (Cic. ad Fain. xin. 
62), / shall watch your interests with as much care as I 
ever did those of any friend. 

DSmus celebratur ita ut cum maxume (Cic. ad Q. F. n. 6. 6), 
my house is thronged as much as ever it was. 

Mater nunc cum* maxume f ilium interfectum cuplt (Cic. 
p. Clu. 5. 12), she desires the death of her son now as much 
as ever. 

t. Quam potul maxiimis Stine'ribus ad Amanum exercitum 
duxl (Cic. ad Fam. xv. 4.7), lied the army to the Ama- 
nus by the greatest possible marches. 

Statue Sllquem confectum tantis dolorlbus quanti in homl- 
nem maxumi cdere possunt (Cic. de Fin. i. 12. 41), pic- 
ture to yourself any one exhausted by the greatest sufferings 
man's nature is capable of. 

Quantam maximam potest uastltatem consul! ostendlt (Liv. 
xxu. 3), he exhibits before the consul's eyes the greatest pos- 
sible devastation. 

Vt p8tui accuratisstime te tutatus sum (Cic. ad Fam. v. 
17. 2), I have protected your interests with the greatest care 
in my power. 

f. Quam maxumas, quam primum, quam saepissume gratias 
aget (Cic. ad Fam. xin b. 6), he will express his gratitude 
in the strongest possible terms, at the first possible opportu- 
nity, as often as possible. 

</. Quern unum nostrae ciultatis praestantissumum aucleo dicerS 
(Cic. de Am. 1.1), whom /venture to pronounce of all men 
in our country the most excellent. 

h. Ex Brltannis omnibus longe sunt humamsslm! (Caes. B. G. 
v. 14), of all the Britons they are by far the most civilised. 

Multo maxumS, pars (Cic. p. leg. Man. 18. 54), by far the 
greatest part. 

In fidibus aures uel miimmS, sentiunt (Cic. de Off. i. 41. 
146), in the strings of musical instruments the ear perceives 
the very slightest differences of note. 

i. The superlatives which denote place or time, together with 
me'dio-, which in power is a superlative, are used in agreement 

* One might have expected nunc ut cum maxume. 


with a substantive to specify the part of it to which the superla- 
tive applies : as, 

Summus mons (Caes. B. G. I. 22), the top of the mountain. 

In extreme llbro tertio (Cic. de Off. in. 2. 9), at the end of the 

third look. 

Prima lucg (Caes. B. G. i. 22), at daybreak, 
k. A superlative which in English would stand in the antece- 
dent clause, in Latin is attached to the relative clause : as, 

P. Scipioni ex multis diebus quos in ulta laetissiimos uidit, 
1118 dies clarissumus fuit (Cic. de Am. 3.12), of the many 
joyous days which Publius Scipio saw in the course of his life, 
that day was the brightest. 


1058 When one substantive is attached by way of explanation to 
another, it must agree with it always in case, and generally in 
number, and when practicable in gender : as, 

P. VSrius, uir fortissumus atque optumus cluls (Cic. p. Mil. 
27. 74), Publius Varius, a most gallant gentleman and excel- 
lent citizen. 

Duae urbes ptftentissiimae, Karthago atqug Numantia" (Cic. p. 
leg. Man. 20. 60), two most powerful cities, Carthage and 
Dellciae meae Dlcaearchus (Cic. Tusc. I. 31.77), my darling 


Ptfpulus Romanus uictor dSminusque omnium gentium (Cic. 
Phil. vi. 5. 12), the Roman people, the conqueror and lord of 
all nations. 

Omitto illas omnium doctnnarum inuentrlcis Athenas (Cic. de 
Or. i. 4. 13), / omit that great inventress of every science, 

Ant6 me consulem (Cic. Brut. 15. 60), before 1 was consul. 
10." 9 When the logical connection is lost sight of, and the construc- 
tion is affected by the proximity of some connected word or idea, 
it is called attraction. * 

* Observe that the German is logically correct in giving no termina- 
tion to the adjective in the predicate. Still more logical would it have 
been to have given the adjective one fixed form under all circumstances. 
Cases and number and gender strictly belong to the substantive alone. 

228 SYNTAX. 

1060 It is thus that the adjective or substantive in the predicate is 
made to agree with the substantive in the subject : as, 

N. Volo gt esse et haberl gratus (Cic. de Fiu. n. 22. 72), IwMt 

both to be and to be thought grateful. 

Ace. Creditur Pythag5rae audltorem fuisse Numam (Liv. XL. 
29), it is believed that Numa was a pupil of Pythagoras. 
G. Captluorum numgrus fuit septem milium ac diicentorura 

(Liv. x. 36), the number of prisoners was 7200. 
Messi clarum geniis Osci* (Hor. Sat. i. 5. 54), Messio's glori- 
ous race was Oscan. 
D. Vobis necessest fortibus ulrls esse (Liv. xxi. 44), you have 

no choice but to be brave. 

Fons aquae dulcis quoi nomgn Arethusae'stt (Cic. n. Verr. 
iv. 53. 118), a spring of fresh water the name of which is 

Vti mllitibiis exaequatus cum imperatore labos uolentibus 

esset (Sal. Jug. c. 4), in order that the general's taking 

an equal share in the labour might be gratifying to the 


All. Fllio suo m,gistro equitum create (Liv. iv. 46), his son 

having been appointed master of the horse. 
Consiilibus certiorlbus factls (Liv. iv. 46), the consuls hu?- 

V. RuiS mihl frustra credlte Smlce (Catul. 77. 1), Rufus i,i 

vain believed to be my friend. 

1061 An attraction of case and gender is seen at times with the 
relative : as, 

Raptim qulbus quisqug potgrat elatis, agmen impleuerat uias 
(Liv. i. 29), hastily carrying off what each could, a line of 
people in motion had filled the roach. 
Animal hoc quern uScamus htfnrtnem (Cic. de Leg. I. 7.22), 

this animal which we call man. 

But the different examples of attraction are also given in their 
several places. 

* Some editors would make Osci here a nom. pi. 

f For so we should read, and not Arethusa est. 

\ So again c. 84, Neque plebi militia uolenti putabatur ; Tac. Agr. 
18, Vt quibus bellum uolentlbus erat ; Macr. Sat. i. 7, Si uobis uolentibus 
crit. The idiom is possibly borrowed from the Greek : as, TW irA^flet ov 
v Mr]va.i(av afyiaraaOai, Thuc. II. 3. Tills from Cortins. 



1062 Vno- one is used in the plural when a plural substantive con- 
stitutes a new unit.t 

Vni ex transrhenanis legates mlserant (Caes. B. G. iv. 16), 
they were the only people of those beyond the Rhine who had 
sent ambassadors. 
Ex uuis geniinas mihi conficies nuptias (Ter. And. iv. 1. 50), 

out of one marriage you will make me a brace of marriages. 
Vm\e atque alterae scalae comminutae (Sal. Jug. 60), first one 
and then another ladder was broken to pieces. 

10(53 Sescento- six hundred is often used vaguely for a very large 

In quo multS molesta, discessus noster, belli pgriculum, mill- 
turn improbitas, sescenta praetgrea (Cic. ad Att. vi. 4. 1), 
in which there are many vexatious matters, our leaving the 
country, the danger of war, the violence of the soldiery, and 
a thousand things besides. 

1064 Mill- a thousand in the singular is commonly an adjective ; in 
the plural perhaps always a substantive. 

Mille equites Gallia eodem uersa in Punlcum bellum h&buit 
(Liv. xxi. 17), Gallia lying in the same direction had a 
thousand horse as a protection against an attack from the 

Quo in fundo facile 7 mille hominum uersfibatur (Cic. p. Mil. 
20. 53), on which land full a thousand men were engaged. 

Decem miliS, talentum Gablnio sunt prcmissa" (Cic. p. Rab. Post. 
8. 21), ten thousand talents were promised to Gabinius. 

1065 If a smaller numeral be added to the thousands, then the con- 
struction of an adjective is preferred : as, 

Philippe! nummi duodgcim miliS, quadringentl ulgintl du5 
(Liv. xxxix. 5), 12422 golden Philips. 

* Some remarks upon the construction of numerals have been made 
in the first part ( 253-272). 

f Thus, many human beings make up one people ; many letters of 
the alphabet go to a single letter or epistle. Sometimes the singular of a 
word happens not to be in use, and it may then be difficult to decide 
what was its meaning. Thus it is a question what was that meaning of 
castro- in the singular which caused its plural to signify ' a camp.' 

230 SYNTAX. 

But the genitive is still found at times : as, 

Philippeorum uummorum sedgcim miliS, trgcenti uiginti (Liv. 
xxxix. 7), of golden Philips 16320. 

1065. 1 An ordinal number is sometimes used elliptically, so as to im- 
ply an addition to the cardinal number immediately preceding : as, 

a. Where a nominative of an ordinal forms part of a predicate : 

Tu qutftus essS uelis rescribe (Hor. Ep. i. 5. 30), be it yours to 

say how many you wish to be. 
Die quStus et quant! ciipias cenare (Mart. xiv. 217), say what 

you wish to be the number to dine together, what the charge 

per head.* 

b. Where the ordinal is attached to one of the fractional divi- 
sions of the as ( 270, 272) : as, semis tertius, contracted to ses- 
tertius, half of the third unift, meaning altogether 2. Thus, 

Trientem tertium pondo corouam auream dgdit I5ul donum 
(T. Quintius ap. Fest. v. trientem), he gave as a gift to 
Jupiter a gold: crown weighing 2J Ibs. 

Lignum bes altgrum (Fest. ibid.), a log 20 J inches in diameter, 
or more idiomatically, a 20-inck log. 

Quartus quadrans (Fest. ibid.), 3. 

c. With tantum as much, expressed, or more commonly un- 
derstood : as, 

Immo etiamsi alterum Tantum perdundumst, perdam potius 
quam sinam (Plaut. Ep. in. 4. 81), nay though I must lose 
as much again, lose it I will rather than permit this. 

Ex eode^n semine Sliubi cum decimo[| rgdit, S,liubi cum quin- 
todeclmo ut In Hgtruria. In Sybarltano dicunt 8tiam cum 
centeusimo redlrg s51itum (Varr. R. R. I. 14. 1), from the 

* Compare the corresponding Greek phrase : a-rpa-r-nyos T\V s,evoK\fiSr)s 
irf/j.TTTos ai/Tos, Thuc. i. 46; or ijpedt] irpfcrfievTris SeKaros avTos,Xen. Hist. 
Gr. n. 2.17. 

f See note to 1056. 

J More literally ' If feet broad.' The fuller phrase would be besxrm 
alterum latum , or less" 1 alterum I. 

Literally ' a second as much.' 

II For cum decimo tanto, i.e. literally ' with a tenth as much.' The 
use of tantum 'as much' in the measure of crops is seen in Plaut. Trin. 
n. 4. 129, Tribus tdntis illi minus redit quam obseueris* 


same seed there is in some lands a tenfold return, in others 
fifteen/old, as in Hetruria. In the district of Sybaris they 
say that the usual return is even a hundred for one. 

Ager (Leontlnus) ecflcit cum octauo, bene tit agatur, uerum tit 
omnes di aditiuent, curn dectimo (Cic. n. Verr. in. 47.112), 
a return of eightfold from the land of Lentini is satisfactory ; 
but it needs the united blessing of all the gods to bring about a 
return of ten for one. 

FrumentS, maiorg quldem parti Italiae quando cum quarto 
responderint uix meminisse possumtis (Col. in. 3. 4), we 
can scarcely remember a time when corn, so far at least as the 
greater part of Italy is concerned, gave a return of four for 

1066 The distributive numerals are often used in pairs : as, 
Singulos singtill pSptili lictores de'derunt (Liv. I. 8), each of tne 

(twelve) states provided one lictor. 

Quma den iugera agrl data in singtilos pgdites sunt (Lin. 
xxxv. 40), fifteen jugers of land were given to every foot- 

1 067 The particular distributive bino-, like ggmlno-*, is often used 
of but two things when they match one another : as, 

Binds habebat scyphos (Cic. n. Verr. iv. 14. 32), he had a pair 
of cups. 

1068 The distributives bino-, trino-t &c. are used, like the plural 
of uno-, with plural substantives that have a singular sense : as, 

Quinis castris oppldum circumde'dit (Caes. B. C. in. 9), he sur- 
rounded the town with five camps. 

Littgras reddldit trlnas (Cic. ad Att. xi. 17. 1), she delivered 
three letters. 

Trinis catenis uinctus trahebatur (Caes. B. G. I. 53), he was 
being dragged along bound with three sets of chains.* 

* Duplici- in its original sense is used where the two things lie flat 
against each other, as duplices palmae, the joined hands in the act of 
prayer, and duplices tabellae 'folded tablets.' 

f Not terno- nor singulo-. 

I Even in speaking of one person the phrases are inicere catenas 
alicui, conicere in catenas, esse cum catenis, as indeed the English phrase 
is also plural. Hence in Hor. Od. HI. 4. 80 we should probably read 
Trecenae Pirithoum cohibent catenae. 

232 SYNTAX. 

1069 The poets occasionally use a distributive in place of the simple 
number, and that both in the plural and singular : as, 

Dispar septenis fistulS, cannis (Ov. Met. n. 682), an unequal- 
pipe of seven reeds. 

Gurglte septeno rapldus marS subm5u8t amnis (Lucan, vui. 
445), with, sevenfold flood the rapid river bids the sea with- 

1070 The word sestertio-, which is strictly only a numeral, 2, is 
commonly used in reference to money, and in that sense signified 
originally 2 asses or Ibs. of bronze ; but as the weight of Roman 
money decreased to a great extent, and silver coin came into use, 
sestertio- (or sestertio- nummo-, or nummo- alone) was eventually* 
the name of a small silver coin worth about 2c?,f of our money, 
and was the ordinary unit of money. It is also used as an insig- 
nificant sum of money. 

PrStium constitutumst in m5dios singulos HSJ III (Cic. u. 

Verr. in. 70.163), the price fixed was three sesterces the bushel. 
Sestertium sescentS, quadraginta miliS, deferri ad se domum 

iussit (Cic. p. Clu. 25. 69), he ordered 640,000 sesterces to be 

carried down to his house. 
Ecquis est qul bonS. Posturnl nummo sestertio sibi addici uelit ? 

(Cic. p. Rab. Post. 17.45) is there any one who would be 

willing to have the whole property of Postumus knocked down 

to him for a single groat ? 

1071 A million sesterces fall short of 10,000. Hence the numbers 
required, when the sesterce is the unit, soon became inconveniently 
large, and the only mode the Romans had of expressing numbers 
above 100,000 was by means of the numeral adverbs : thus, 

AccepI uiciens ducentS, trlginta quinque mllia, quadringentos 
septendecim nummos (Cic. n. Verr. I. 14. 36), 7 received 
2,235,417 sesterces. 

Sestertium deciens centenK miliS, (Cic. n. Verr. I. 10. 28), one 
million sesterces. 

* Towards the close of the republic. 

f This would make the denarius about 9eT, which is slightly above 
the usual estimate. But our antiquarians commit the strange error of 
taking the average of existing denarii instead of the very largest for the 
standard, as though coins could have gained weight by time. 

J To be read perhaps sestertii terni ; but the Mss. have nearly all 
the mere symbols. See 272. 


1072 By way of brevity centena miliS, was dropped with the adverbs, 
causing no ambiguity, because the adverbs could only be used with 
sestertium in this sense : thus, 

Sestertium quadringentiens abstulit (Cic. n. Verr. i. 10. 27), he 

carried off forty million sesterces. 
Et eum tu accussas auarltiae, quern dlcis sestertium ulciens 

uSluisse perderS ? (Cic. p. Flac. 33. 83) and do you accuse 

of avarice one who you say wished to throw away two million 

sesterces ? 

1073 Although sestertium as used with milia was in fact a genitive, 
it was found convenient to treat it as a neuter-substantive ; so that 
sestertia* was used as a nom. or ace. pi., and signified so many 
thousand sesterces. 

Capit ille ex suis praediis sescenS, sestertia, ego centena ex mels 
(Cic. Parad. vi. 3. 49), yonder man draws, let us suppose, 
600,000 sesterces per annum from his estates, 1 100,000 from 

1074 Similarly with the adverbs it was found convenient to give to 
sestertium a genitive and ablative singular. 

Decem pondo auri et argenti ad summam sestertii dgciens In 
aerarium rettulit (Liv. XLV. 4), he paid into the treasury ten 
pound weight of gold, and of silver to the amount of a million 

NSque in sestertio uiciens p&rum se splendlde gessit, nque in 
sestertio centiens affluentius uixit quam instltuerat (Nepos 
in Attico 14), as his establishment was sufficiently handsome 
when his income was two million sesterces, so he lived with no 
greater luxury than at first when his income was ten millions. 

1075 The construction of pondot by weight or pound, and libra-m 
pound, in denoting weight, is very anomalous, the first having 

* The word sestertium (nom.) is sometimes said to have been a coin. 
There in fact was no such coin and no such word. There is perhaps 
something parallel to the anomaly mentioned in the text in the practice 
of declining the genitive cuius of the relative as though it had been an 

f Pondo would appear to have been originally an ablative ' by weight ;' 
libram, libras, seem inexplicable. But in Liv. iv. 20 all the best Mss. 
have libra, which would admit a simple explanation by the scales,' and 
so, like pondo, come in a secondary sense to signify ' a lb'.' 

234 SYNTAX. 

always the same form, the second being always an ace. singular 

or plural. 

Paterae aureae fuerunt ducentae septuaginla sex libras ferine 
omnes pondo, argentl decem gt octo mllia et trecentS, pondo 
(Liv. xxvi. 47), there were 276 golden bowls all about a pound 
in weight, and of silver bullion 18,300 Us. 


1076 The nominatives of the personal pronouns are not commonly 
used, because the terminations of the verb already express the 
notion ; but if there be any emphasis, then they are required. 

Quis tu h5mo es ? (Ter. And. iv. 1. 11) who are you ? 

Ego istum iuugnem d5ml tenendum censed (Liv. xxi. 3), I for 

my part think that this stripling of yours should be kept at 

Natura tu ill! pSter es, consllils ego (Ter. Ad. i. 2.46), by nature 

you are his father, as guardian I. 

1077 Similarly he, she, it, they, if emphatic, must be expressed by 
the proper pronoun, i-, ho-, isto-, or illo- (see below). 

1078 These nominatives appear however at times to be required 
when there does not seem to be any emphasis upon them. Thus, 
in repeating a person's words in surprise, it is usual to insert the 
omitted nominative : 

M. Quid fecit? D. Quid ille fecerit? (Ter. Ad. i. 2.4) M. What 

has he done ? D. What has he done, ask you ? 
Where the words what and done seem to require the special em- 

1079 So in confirming an assertion or answering a question, the 
nominative of the pronoun is required. 

Ego uero utar pror5gation8 die! (Cic. ad Att. xin. 43), yes, my 
friend, you are right, /shall avail myself of the postponement. 
Where the word shall is emphatic, not the pronoun. 
108C So again where quldem it is true introduces a word preparatory 
to a sed but : as, 

Deinde tul munMpes, sunt ill! quldem splendldissumi hSmlnes, 
set tamen pauci (Cic. p. Plane. 8. 21), then as to your fellow- 
townsmen, they are, 1 grant, men of the highest station, but 
still only few in number. 


Oratorias exercitationes, non tu quid em rellquistl, sed phl!5s5- 
phiam illls antepSsuistl (Cic. de Fato, 2. 3), your exercises 
in oratory you have not abandoned, it is true, but you have 
given philosophy the preference over them. 

Nos sclto de uetere ilia nostra sententia pr5pg iam essS depulsos, 
non nos quidem ut nostrae digmtatis simus obliti, s6d ut 
habeamus rationem aliquando etiam salutis (Cic. ad Fam. 
I. 7. 7), we, you must understand, have been almost weaned at 
last from those old opinions of ours, not indeed so far as to 
forget our dignity ', but so as sometimes to take account of our 
safety also. 

1081 The singular tu and plural uos* being commonly translated by 
the same word you, it is often useful to insert some plural vocative 
or other phrase with the latter, so as to prevent ambiguity. 

Si quid est quod mea tfpeYa 5pus sit uobls, ut tu plus uldes, 
Manebo (Ter. And. iv. 3. 23), if there be any thing in which 
you (and your young master) have occasion for my assistance, 
as you (Davus) understand matters better than I do, I will 

1082 The use of a first person plural for the singular nos for ggo, 
noste'r for metis is occasionally met with in Latin, but more from 
a feeling of modesty than pride. See dlcamus (Cic. p. leg. Man. 
16. 47), and cohortat! sumiis potulmus arbltraremiir ostendK- 
miis (Cic. de Div. n. 1.1). 

Se 9 suo-, &c. 

1083 The reflective pronouns of the third person, both substantive 
and adjective, are variously translated according to the word they 
refer to. This word is commonly the nominative of the sentence : 

Ea praedia aliis coluit, non sibi (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 17.49), 

these farms he cultivated for others, not for himself. 
Turn ilia reiecit se in eum (Ter. And. i. 1. 108), then the other 

threw herself back into his arms. 
lustitia propter se est colenda (Cic. de Off. n. 12.42), justice is 

to be cultivated for itself. 
Non sul conseruandi caussa profugerunt (Cic. in Cat. I. 3. 7), 

it was not to save themselves that they ran off. 

* The same ambiguity exists between the possessive adjectives tuo- 
and uostero-, and may be removed in the same way. 

236 SYNTAX. 

Sua quae narrat facinora? (Ter. Haut. u. 1.8) what doings of 

his own does he recount ? 
Vtne haec ignoraret suom patrem ? (Ter, Ph. v. 6. 34) the idea 

of this woman not knowing her own father ! 
AlienS, mSlius dliudlcant, quam sua (Ter. Haut. TIL 1.95), they 

judge letter of other people's affairs than their own. 

1084 Se <fec. and suo-, in a secondary sentence, may of course refer 
to the nominative or subject of that secondary sentence. They 
sometimes however refer to the agent of the main sentence, parti- 
cularly if the secondary sentence express something in the mind 
of that agent : as, 

Vir bonus nihil quoiquam quod in se transferat detrahet (Cic. 

de Off. in. 19. 75), a good man will not force any thing from 

any one to transfer it to himself. 
Sentit animus se ul sua, non aliena moueri (Cic. Tusc. I. 23.55), 

the mind feels that it is acted upon by a force of its own, not 

one from without.* 

1085 Se &c. and suo- sometimes refer to a noun not in the nomi- 
native, if that noun be substantially the subject : as, 

A Caesare inuitorf, sibi ut sim legatus (Cic. ad Att. n. 18.3), 

/ am invited by Caesar to be legate to him. 
Faustiilo spes fueratt, regiam stirpem apud se educarl (Liv. I. 

5), Faustulus had entertained the hope that the children at 

nurse in his cottage were of royal stock. 

1086 Se <fec. and suo- sometimes refer to nouns not in the nomina- 
tive, if placed near them : as, 

Furuium per se uldl lubeutissume (Cic. ad Fam. x. 3.1), Fur- 
niuSj so far as he himself is concerned, I saw with the greatest 

Ratio gt oratio conclliat inter se homines (Cic. de Off. 1. 16.50), 
reason and speech unite men to one another. 

* In Caes. B. G. I. 36, ad haec Ariouistus respondit &c., which 
chapter is all one sentence, there is much freedom in the use of these 
pronouns. Thus, in the last clause, quod sibi Caesar denuntiaret se 
Aeduorum iniurias non neylecturum, neminem secum sine sua pernicie 
contendisse, sibi and secnm refer to Ariouistus, se to Caesar, sua to 

f Equivalent to Caesar me inuitat. 

Equivalent to Faustulus habuerat. 


Suas res Syr&cusanis restltuit (Liv. xxix. 1), he restored to the 

Syracusans what belonged to them. 
Placet Stolcis suo quamqug rem nomine adpellarg (Cic. ad Fam. 

ix. 22. 1), it is a law with the Stoics to call every thing by its 

own name. 
Magonem eum classe sua In Hispaniam mittunt (Liv. xxin. 32), 

they send Mago with his fleet to Spain. 
Rgdlmendl se captluis copiam f&cgre (Liv. xxn. 58), to give the 

prisoners an opportunity of ransoming themselves. 

1087 Inter se is used with active verbs for se inter se : as, 

Inter se adsplciebant (Cic. in Cat. in. 5. 13), they kept looking 
at one another. 

1088 The possessive pronouns often denote what is favourable to the 
party, especially in connexion with nouns signifying time or place : 

, as, 

Rbgo ut ngque occasion! tuae desis, ngqug suam occasionem 
host! des (Liv. xxn. 39), / ask you neither to be wanting to 
an opportunity favourable to yourself, nor to give to the enemy 
one favourable to him. 

1089 The possessive pronouns are often omitted in Latin where they 
are expressed in English : as, 

Non dubiumst quin ux6rem nolit filius (Ter. And. I. 2. 1), 
there is no doubt that my son is unwilling to marry. 

Et eri semper lenitas, uerebar quorsum euaderet (Ter. And. I. 
2.4), and my master's* constant gentleness , I was afraid what 
it would end in. 


1090 Ipso- is used with the personal pronouns and other nouns to 
denote emphasis : 

Calpurnius custodia militar! cinctus extingultur ; Priscus se 
ipsef interfecit (Tac. Hist. iv. 11), Calpurnius is sur- 
rounded by a guard of soldiers and put to death ; Priscus 

Fratrem suum, de!n se ipsumf interfecit (Tac. Hist. in. 51), 

he killed his brother, and then himself. 

* So in English we say * master, father,' &c. for ' my master, my 

t Observe the difference between these two phrases. 

238 SYNTAX. 

Triennio ipso minor quam Autouius (Cic. Brut. 43. 161), exactly 

three years younger than Antonius. 
Ipsae defluebaut coronae (Cic. Tusc. v. 21. 62), the wreaths kept 

slipping down of themselves. 
Is, 8t ipse Alpiuus anmis, difflcilllmus transltu est (Liv. xxi. 

31), this, itself too an Alpine river, is most difficult to cross.* 


1091 Ho-, isto-, illo-, are called demonstratives, because the speaker 
in using them points to the things he speaks of. 

Ho- is the demonstrative of the first person, and points to what 
is near me. 

Isto- is the demonstrative of the second person, and points to 
what is near you. 

Illo- is the demonstrative of the third person, and points to 
what is distant from both of us. 

1092 Ho- this has the following uses : First, it points to something 
near the speaker : as, 

Set quid hoc ? Puer hercle'st. Mulier, tu aposuisti hunc ? 
(Ter. And. iv. 4. 2) but what is this (at my feet) ? Faith, 
it's a baby. Woman, was it you put this baby down here ? 

Hie uersus Plautl non est, hie est (Serv. ap. Cic. ad Fam. ix. 
16. 4), this verse is not Plautus's, this is. 

1093 Hence hie hSmo may mean ego, the speaker : as, 

Vah, solus hie homost, qui sciat diuinitus (Plant. Cure. n. 1. 33), 
bah, your humble servant has not his match as a prophet. 

1094 Secondly, ho- refers to present time : as, 

Ab illis homlnlbiis ad hanc h5mmum lubidinem ac llcentiam 
me abducls ? (Cic. n. Verr. in. 90. 210) do you propose to 
draw me away from the men of those days to the self-indul- 
gence and intemperance of the present race ? 

Quid hoc p5piilo obtlneii pStest ? (Cic. de Leg. in. 16. 37), 
what measure can be carried with such citizens as we have 

* Whenever ipso- is used, the student should ask himself to what it 
is opposed. 


1095 Ho- may also be used logically : First, at the beginning of a 
sentence referring to something immediately preceding : as, 

Est genus hominum, qui esse primos se 6mnium rerum uolunt, 
Ne'e sunt Hos cons6ctor (Ter. E. n. 2. 17), there is, you must 
know, a class of people who will have it that they are first in 
every thing, but are not so These are the game I hunt down. 

1096 Secondly, as a so-called antecedent to a relative, when placed 
after that relative : thus, 

Quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat (ap. Cic. Tusc. 
i. 18. 41), whatever art each knows, in that let him exercise 

1097 Thirdly, when referring to what is coming : as, 

Quorum dperum haec erat rtio (Caes. B. C. I. 25), of these 
works the following was the plan. 

Hoc S,nlmo scito omiiis sanos ut mortem seruXtuti antSponant 
(Cic. ad Fam. x. 27), you must know that all men in their 
senses have determined upon this, to prefer death to slavery. 

1098 Isto- that (connected with you] has the following uses : First, 
it points to something near the person spoken to : as, 

Istam quam hSbes unde hSbes uestem ? (Ter. E. iv. 4. 28), that 
dress which you have got on, where did you get it from ? 

Tu tibi istas posthac comprimito mSnus (Ter. Haut. in. 3.29), 
you, sir, must keep those hands for the future to yourself. 

1099 Secondly, isto- refers to the second person, though there is no 
pointing : as, 

S. Hoclne Sgis annon ? D. Ego uero istuc (Ter. And. i. 2. 15), 
S. Do you attend to what 1 am saying or not ? D. Tes, sir, 
1 do attend to what you say. 

1JOO Isto- signifies in itself neither praise nor blame, neither love 
nor hatred. The context may imply one or the other : 

B5no &nmio fac sis SostratS ; 6t istam quod p5tes fac consolere 
(Ter. Ad. in. 5. 1), keep up your spirits, Sostrata ; and do 
your best to comfort your poor daughter there. 

Istuc est s&perS (Ter. Ad. in. 3.32), there you show true wis- 
dom, sir. 

Video de istis qui se p5pularls h&bert uSlunt, abessS non nem*- 
nem (Cic. in Cat. iv. 5.10), 1 perceive that of your would-be- 
thought friends of the people, a certain gentleman is absent 

240 SYNTAX. 

1101 Illo- yonder, distant, former, other, points to something com- 
paratively distant : as, 

Tolle hanc patlnam. Aufgr illam offam porclnam (Plant. Mil. 

Gl. in. 1. 164), take away this dish. Remove yonder rissole 

de pore. 
Set quis illic est prociil quern uideo? (Ter. Ad. in. 3.84) but 

who is yonder man there, whom I see in the distance ? 

1102 Referring to something distant, though not visible : as, 

Ille suam semper egit uitam in 6tio, in conuiuiis (Ter. Ad. v. 
4. !)), my brother there has always passed his time in idleness, 
vi society. 

1103 Illo-, like ho-, may be used logically ; that is, refer to the words 
of a sentence. When they are used together, ho- refers to the 
nearer word, illo- to the farther : as, 

Melius de quibusdam acerbi inimici merentur quam hi amid 
qu! dulces uidentur. 111! uerum, saepg dicunt ; hi. nun- 
quam (Cic. de Am. 24. 90), litter enemies deserve letter of 
some persons than those friends who seem to be all sweetness. 
The former often speak the truth, the latter never. 

1104 Sometimes not the nearer word but the nearer* thing is marked 
by ho-, the more distant thing by illo- : as, 

Melior est certa pax quam sperata uictoriS,. Haec in tua, ilia 
in Deorum mSnu est (Liv. xxx. 30), certain peace is better 
than hoped-for victory. The one (peace) is in your own hands, 
the other (victory) in those of the gods. 

1105 A change of person is often marked by illo-, in which case the 
word other is often the best translation : as, 

Vercingetorix obuiam Caesar! proftciscitur. Ille oppldum No- 
uiodunum obpugnare instltuerat (Caes. B. G. vn. 12), Ver- 
cingetorix sets out to meet Caesar. The other (viz. Caesar) had 
begun to besiege Noviodunum. 

Aeolus luctantis uentos impgrio premit. 111! circum claustrS, 
fremunt (Virg. A. I. 56), Aeolus the struggling winds with 
sovereign sway restrains. They thus restrained around the 
barriers roar. 

* In this way are to be explained all those passages where illo- is said 
to be referred to the nearer word, and ho- to the farther word : as, for 
example, in Liv. xxv. 29, where ille and illius refer to Hiero as long 
dead, hie and huius to Hieronymus as only recently dead. 


1108 Illo- also introduces something about to be mentioned, in op- 
position to what has been just mentioned : as, 

Horum Sg5 sermon^ non m5uebS,r. Illud, uerS dicam, me 
mSuet, Sbessg tris cohortis (Oic. ad Fam. in. 6. 5), by what 
these men said to one another I was not annoyed. One thing 
however (1 will be candid with you) does annoy me, and that 
is, that three battalions are absent. 

Illud tibi promitto, quicquld erlt a te factum, id sgnatum com- 
probaturum (Cic. ad Fam. x. 16. 2), one thing I promise you, 
whatever you do, that the senate will fully approve. 

1107 Illo- expresses distance in time, past or future : first past time : 


Quid ille, iibi est Mllesius ? (Ter. Ad. iv. 5. 68) well, and that 

gentleman from Miletus you were speaking of, where is he ? 
Hei mlhl quails erat ? quantum mutatiis S,b illo Hectorg qui 

rgdlt exuuias indutiis Achilli ( Virg. A. n. 274), alas, what 

was he like ? How changed from that Hector of other days 

returning clad in Achilles' spoils ! 
Ille ego liber, ille ferox, tacui (Ov. Met. i. 757), /once so free, 

so proud, was silent. 

1108 Hence illo- is applied to well-known personages of past times : 


C. Sequr, tit instltui, dluinum ilium ulrum. 

A. Platonem uidellcet dlcls. C. Istum ipsum, Attlce (Cic. de 

Leg. in. 1.1), 

C. I will follow, as I have begun, that heaven-inspired man. 
A. You mean Plato, no doubt. C. The very same, Atticus. 

1109 Also to proverbs : as, 

Verum illud uerbumst, u61go quod dici solet, 

Omnis sibi 'sse melius malle quam alteri (Ter. And. u. 5. 15), 

Too true 's the old saying in every body's mouth, 

All men wish better to themselves than to their neighbour. 

11 10 Ho- and illo- are used together to mark the connection of some- 
thing present with something past : as, 

Atat hoc illud est ; 

Hinc illae lacrumae, haec illast miseric6rdia (Ter. And. 1. 1.98), 
Ah, ah ! then, this explains that matter ; 
Hence all that weeping, hence that sympathy. 

1111 Illo- is also applied to future time : as, 

Hie dSmus Aeneae cunctis dominabltur oris 

Et n*ti ntoum, et qui nascentur ab ilhs (Ft*. A. m. 97), 

Here shall JEneas 1 house o'er every border rule, 

His children's children and their children too. 



a. i-, o-, &c. 

,rtw, <, <* fe ' sAe > *> 
e and conse.uenUy it never 

it always refers to some word or words in the 
1) 13 Commonly i- refers to a word preceding : as, 

EuntI mihi Antium, uSnit obuiam tuos puer. Is mihi 1 

abs te reddldit (Cic. ad Att. 11. 1. 1), /" S9 ' A ^ 
^ there CM - ^ '' TO " ""' l r 
Ju) gam me a letter from you. 
Vnam rem expllcabo eamquS maziimam (0*. de Fin. I. 8. 28), 

on* thing I will explain, and that the nost imp ortant, 
1114 I- also refers to what follows : as, 

long m your presmt painfvl situation there. 

1U5 I- is often used as an antecedent to a relative, and then may 
often ta translated by the words a, one, a n, *o., d 
a reason be implied : 

Si In eos quos speramus nobis pr5ffituros, non dubltamus 
Ce7fflci& qnales to eos essSdebemus quliam profuemnt 
terre onic , q ood 


3 esse aeoemus ^ui icnu ^*- 

we do not hesitate to bestow our good 

those by whom we have already been 

stls apua maiuico Mw-JSlBul ^PVP. 

i si- j r\ff i 10 '^7^ f)f whom we now caw peic 

^aAlA^^^ 1 ^ 

. The passage in Platu 8 (Mere. Prol. 91) is corrupt. See Bothe', 



Mm time conuSnlt ex eo agro qul Caesaris iussu dluidatur, eum 
m8ueri qul Caesaris benlficio s&iator sit (Cic. ad Fam. xui. 
5. 2), it is altogether inconsistent that a man who is a senator 
by Caesar's favour should be ejected from land which is in 
course of distribution under Caesar's order. 

Nam quo redibo ore ad earn quam contempserim ? (Ter. Ph. v. 
7. 24) for with what face shall I go back to a woman whom I 
have thoroughly insulted ? 

1117 The relative clause often precedes, in which case this second 
pronoun is emphatic : 

Hoc qui admlratur, is se quid sit uir bonus nescirS fateatur 
(Cic. de Off. in. 19. 75), if any one wonder at this, let that 
man confess that he knows not what a good man is. 

Non est consentaneum, qui mgtu non frangatur, eum frangi 
cupldltate (Cic. de Off. i. 20. 68), it is an inconsistency for 
a man to be proof against fear, and then not to be proof 
against temptation. 

1118 I- is used before a relative in such a manner as to denote the 
belonging to a class, and is to be translated by such, the sort of 
person, one of those, the man to , so as to : thus, 

NgquS tu Is es qui quid sis nescias (Cic. ad Fam. v. 12. 6), nor 
are you the person not to know what you are. 

1119 In this sense i- is often followed by ut : thus, 

In eum res rSdiit iam IScum, ut sit nScessum (Ter. Haut. n. 
3. 118), matters are at last come to such a state that it is neces- 

b. qui-, quo-, &c. 

1120 The relative quo- or qua- and qui- agrees like other adjectives 
with its noun if expressed : as, 

Intellexit diem instarg quo die frumentum metiri Sporteret 
(Caes. B. G. i. 16), he saw that the day was close at hand, 
on which day it was required that he should measure out the 

Caussam diclt ea legg qua lege sSnatores soli tgnentur (Cic. p. 
Clu. 57. 156), he is making his defence under a law by which 
law senators alone are bound. 

244 SYNTAX. 

1121 In the sentences just given the noun is expressed twice over. 
This repetition is unnecessary ; and commonly the noun which 
should accompany the relative is omitted, so that, the relative 
agrees with the antecedent noun in number and gender, bi 
its case determined by its own clause : as, 

Ab reliquis princlpibus qui hanc temptandam fortunam non 
existimabant (Goes. B. G. vn. 4), by the other chiefs who 
thought that this risk ought not to be run. 

Intromissis equttlbus, quos arcessendos curauerat (Goes. B. G. 
v. 56), horsemen having been let into the place, whom he had 
sent for. 

Adeunt per Aeduos quorum antiquitus erat in fide ciuitas 
(Goes. B. G. vi. 4), thsy make their approach by means of 
the Aedui under whose protection the state had been from of 

Quid uos hanc miseram sectumlm praedam, quibus licet iam 
essg fortunatissimis? (Goes. B. G. vi. 35) why do yon pursue 
this wretched booty, you who have it in your power now to be 
the most fortunate of men ? 

Aduersarios suos a quibus paulo ante erat eiectiis (Cats. B. O. 
vii. 4). his opponents by whom he had been a little befor 

1122 The relative may have a different noun from the sentence to 
which it is attached : as, 

Erat lima plena, qui dies maritlmos aestus rcaximos 

consueuit (Goes. B. G. iv. 29), it was full moon, which day 
usually makes the sea-tides the greatest. 
Cumae, quam Graeci turn urbem tenebant (Liv. iv. 44), Gumae, 

which city Greeks then occupied. 

1123 A very common construction consists of the relative and its 
" so-called antecedent divided by the other words of the relative 
clause : as, 

Habetis quam pgtistis facultatem* (Caes. B. G. vi. 8), you have 


* In sentences such as these it is a common habit in modern printing 
to plac "the relative clause between commas, whereas the connection is a 
dose as between an ordinary adjective and ita noun. Indeed it ^ ^us efu^ 
to translate such sentences in the exact order of he word . . thus, 1 
the-which-followed winter;' ' The-which-you-sought opportui 


Ea quae sgcuta est higmg (Goes. B. G. iv. 1), in the winter 

which followed. 

Ad eas quas dixlmus munltiones (Caes. B. G. in. 26), to the 
fortifications which we have mentioned. 

1124 In the first and last of the phrases just quoted the noun be- 
longs equally to both clauses. In the following it belongs to the 
relative clause : 

Quos in praesentia tribunos mllitum circum se ha"bebat, se 
sSqui iiibet (Caes. B. G. v. 37), such tribunes of the soldiers 
as he had about him at the moment, he orders to follow him. 

1 125 Thus, sometimes the noun of the main clause, more commonly 
that of the relative clause, is omitted. But if the noun be sepa- 
rated from the main verb by the relative clause, it sometimes 
takes its case from the relative clause, to which it. is nearer : as, 

Populo ut placerent quas fecisset fabulas (Ter. And. prol. 3), 
that the plays he might write should please the people. 

Vrbem quam st&tuo uestrast (Virg. A. i. 577), the city which 1 
am setting up is yours. 

1 1 20 An antecedent is not always necessary : as, 

Nee erat quod scribe'rem (Cic. ad Att. xn. 9), nor was there any 

thing to write. 
AssSquere quod uls (Cic. ad Att. xi. 7. 3), you will obtain what 

you wish. 
llabebis quoi des littgras (Cic. ad Att. XT. 13. 5), you will have 

some one to send a letter by. 
Interuenit Suim quoi m&tuisti credo ne saluo caplte nggarS 

non posse's (Cic. Phil. n. 38. 99), for there suddenly stepped 

forward one, to whom you were afraid, I suppose, you could 

not say no without getting your head broken. 
Par to* quSd auebas (Hor. Sat. i. 1. 94), having acquired what 

you longed for. 
Bgne est cu! Deus obtulit parca quod satis est m&nu (Hor. Od. 

in. 16. 43), 'tis well with him to whom the Deity has offered 

with frugal hand what is enough. 
Dies deindg praestltutS, capitalisquS poenS, qul non remigrasset 

Romam singulos m8tu suo quemque Sbedientls fecit (Liv. 

* Here quod auebas may be considered as a noun in the ablative. 

246 SYNTAX. 

vi. 4), a day was then named, and capital punishment held 
out to any one who should not by that day have returned to 
Rome there to live, and this decisive measure made them all 
obedient, each individual being influenced by fear for himself. 
Praemia atque honores qu! milltare secum uSluissent proposuit 
(Lit), xxin. 15), he held out rewards and honours to such as 
should be willing to serve under him.* 

1127 Such omissions fall for the most part under the four following 
heads : a. where the antecedent, if expressed, would be in the 
same case as the relative ; b. where the verb immediately precedes 
or follows, and thus shows the connection ; c. short relative 
phrases, where the antecedent would be a nominative or accusa- 
tive ; d. an antecedent dative before qui.t 

1128 The relative in short phrases sometimes adapts its case to the 
main sentence : as, 

Quern uidebitur praeftcigs (Cic. ad Att. vi. 3. 2), you will place 
at the head of the business whom you think proper. 

Quo consuerat interuallo hostis sequitiir (Caes. B. G. I. 22), he 
follows the enemy at the interval he was accustomed to. t 

Raptim qulbus quisqug pSterat elatis (Liv. I. 29), each hastily 
carrying out what he could. 

1129 When a relative referring to the preceding sentence is sepa- 
rated from its verb (or other governing word) by a conjunction or 
relative, it is convenient in the translation to substitute for the 
relative some proper form of the pronoun i he' or ' this,' with an 
English conjunction if need be : as, 

Quod postquam barbari fieri animaduerterunt (Caes. B. G. in. 

15), but when the barbarians saw that this was being done. 
Quod ubi auditum est (Caes. B. G. in. 18), and when this was 


1130 When a relative is connected in meaning with two clauses, it 
generally adapts its case to the secondary clause, if that precedes 
the main clause : as, 

* See also examples under 1226, and Liv. in. 19. 6. 

t This was probably at first owing to the similarity in sound between 
qui and cui or quoi, so that the case d would be virtually included in a ; 
and then extended to the plural. 

J The English often omit the relative, which however must always be 
supplied in translating into Latin. 


Is enim fueram, quoi* cum llceret magiios ex otio fructus ca- 
pSrg, non diibitauerim me grauissumis tempestatlbus ob- 
uium ferre (Cic. R. P. I. 4. 7), for I had been one, who having 
it in my power to derive great advantages from repose, still 
did not hesitate to face the most fearful storms. 

Nam quid de me dlcam, quoi ut omnia contingant quae uolo, 
le'varl non possum ? (Cic. ad Att. xn. 23.4)/ar what should 
I say of myself, when, though every thing should befall me that 
I wish, still I could not be relieved ? 

Is quit albus aterng fuerit ignoras (Cic. Phil. n. 16.41), one of 
whom you cannot say whether he was white or black. 

Quern nisi Saguntmum scelus agitaret, resplceret prSfecto &c. 
(Liv. xxi. 41), and if Heaven's curse for his crimes at Sagun- 
tum had not been pursuing him, assuredly he would have looked 
back at <&c. 

1130. 1 When two relative clauses are combined (as by gt, qug, &c.), 
and the cases of the two relatives should strictly speaking be dif- 
ferent, the second may sometimes be omitted, when it would be a 
nominative or accusative : as, 

Bocchus cum pgdltlbus quos Volux adduxSrat, ngque in priorS 
pugna affuerant, postremam Romanorum aciem inuadunt 
(Sal. Jug. 101), Bocchus, with the infantry which Volux had 
brought up, and who had not been present in the preceding 
battle, attack the rear of the Roman army. J 

1130. 2 The adjectives tali-, tanto-, and t5t, as also the adverbs tain 
and turn, are used as antecedents to the respective relatives quali-, 
quanto-, quot, quam and quum. 

1131 The relative is often used in parentheses with the sense of 
the logical pronoun i- or eo- : as, 

* Rather than gui cum mihi liceret, &c. Hence probably we should 
read in Phil. n. 7. 17, hoc uero ne P. quidem Clodius dixit unquam, quoi 
quia iure fui inimicus, doleo a te omnibus uitiis iam esse superatum. 

f Had the ignoras preceded albus, the phrase would have been quern 
ignoras, &c. 

I Sometimes the proper case of i- is supplied in the second clause, 
as eos in Cic. de Clar. Or. 74. 258. 

So also the relative adverb ut is used -for sic or ita in Ter. Ph. v. 2. 
9, Haud scio hercle (ut homost] an mutet animum, ' I am only too much 
afraid faith (knowing the fellow's character) he may change his mind.' 
Compare Hec. in. 5. 10, Sic sum, 'it is my way.' 

248 SYNTAX. 

Quod si mihi permlsisses, qul metis am5r in te est, confecisscm 
(Cic. ad Fam. vn. 2. 1), whereas if you had left thi; m 
altogether to me, such is my affection for you, I should Iiave 
settled it. 

Quod si f&cit, qua impudentiast (Cic. p. Rose. Com. 15. 45), if 
he does this (and he has impudence enough to do it), <&c. 

1131. 1 Logical pronouns, and we here include, besides i- or eo-, all 
the pronouns so used, as ho- ( 1095), illo- ( 1103), and quo- 
( 1131), are at times used in immediate agreement with a sub- 
stantive, where a genitive of the pronoun with rel might have been 
expected : as, 

Hoc mgtu latins uagfiri prohlbebat (Caes. B. G. v. 19), by the 
alarm which thence arose, he prevented (the troops from) wan- 
dering about to any great distance. 

Haec quldem est perf&cllis defonsio (Cic. de Fin. TIL 11.36), 
the defence of this at any rate is a very easy matter. 

1132 I-dem. 

I-dem same is employed in many constructions, the chief of 
which are the following : 

Imperl nostrl terrarumque illarum Idem est extrgmum (Cic. 

de Prov. Con. 13. 33), our empire and that country have now 

the same boundary. 
Quaerlttir Idemng sit pertlnacia et pers8ue"ranti (Cic. Top. 23. 

87), the question is, whether obstinacy and perseverance be the 

same thing. 
Acadgmlcus 6t Idem rhettfr (Cic. N. D. n. 1.1), an academician 

and at the same time a professed speaker. 

Animus te erga est Idem ac fuit (Ter. Haut. n. 3. 24), my feel- 
ing towards you is the same as it was. 
Idem abeunt qul uene>ant (Cic. de Fin. iv. 3. 7), they go away 

the same that they come.* 
Eodem 16co res est qu&si ea pScunia IggatS, non esset (Cic. de 

Leg. ii. 21.53), the matter stands in the same position as if 

the said money had never been left. 
Idem nSgas quidquam certl posse" rBpSrlrl, Idem te compe'risse' 

dixistl (Cic. Acad. Pr. n. 19.63), on the one hand you sat/ 

* With their opinions unaltered. 


that nothing certain can be found ~by man, and yet on the other 
hand you also said that you had discovered so and so, 
N8que ego ftlltgr accepi ; intellexl tS,m8n idem (Cic. ad Fam. 
ix. 15.3), nor did I take it otherwise ; I saw however at tfa 
same time &c. 

1133 The construction with a dative or with cum belongs to the 
poets and the later writers : as, 

Eodem mecum p&tre gSnltiis (Tac. Ann. xv. 2), sprung from the 

same father as myself. 
Inuitum qul seru&t, Idem fScIt occidentl (Hor. ad Pis. 467), 

who saves a man against his will does the same as one who 

kills him. 


1134 The use of the interrogative pronouns qui-, utgro- &c. falls 
under the two heads of direct* and indirect questions ; the former 
having commonly the indicative, t the latter nearly always the 
subjunctive : as, 

Direct questions : 

Quis tu es ? (Ter. And. iv. 1.11) who are you ? 
Quid Igltur slbi uolt pS,ter ? (Ter. And. n. 3. 1) what does my 

father mean then ? 

Indirect questions : 
Quid rgtmeat per tg mSmlnit, non quid amisgrit (Cic. p. Deiot. 

13. 35), he remembers what he retains through you, not what 

he has lost. 
Qualis sit Snlmus, ipse S-nlmus nescit (Cic. Tusc. I. 22. 53), 

what sort of thing the soul is, the soul itself knows not. 

* In the direct question the English language puts the nominative 
after the verb or its auxiliary, except indeed when the question is about 
the nominative itself and begins with * who,' * which,' or ' what.' Secondly, 
an interrogative pronoun or particle commences the sentence, unless in- 
deed the question be about the act itself, in which case the verb or its 
auxiliary comes first. Thirdly, the mark of interrogation (?) is placed at 
the end of the sentence. On the other hand, the indirect interrogative is 
always attached to some word or phrase, generally to a verb. Secondly, 
the nominative, as in ordinary sentences, always precedes its verb. Thirdly, 
it is not entitled to the mark of interrogation. 

f See below. 

250 SYNTAX. 

Both : 

Quid facturl fuistis ? Quamquam quid facturi fugrltis dubltem, 
cum uldeam quid fecgrltls ? (Cic. p. Lig. 8. 24) what would 
you have done ? And yet am I to doubt what you would have 
done, when I see what you actually have done ? 
Both : 

Quid nuiic flet ? Quid fiat rogas ? (Ter. Ad. in. 1. 1) what will 
become of us now ? What will become of us, ask you ? 

11 '>."> A question is sometimes asked with a participle dependent 

upon the main verb, in which case it is commonly necessary for 

the English translator to substitute a verb for that participle, and 

at the same time to insert a relative before the original verb : as, 

VndS pgtltum hoc in me iSds ? (Hor. Sat. I. 4. 79) whence didst 

thou get this stone (which) thou throwest at me ? 
Quibus mos und8 deductus AinazSnia sScurl dextras Sbarmet, 
quaereYS distull (Hor. Od. iv. 4.18), but whence derived the 
custom which with Amazonian axe equips their arm, I ask 
not now. 

Cogltatg quantis l&boribus fundatum impe'rium, quanta uirtutS 
stSMitam libertatem unS, nox paeng demerit (Cic. in Cat. 
iv. 9. 19), consider what labour was employed to found that 
empire, what valour to establish that liberty which a single 
night has almost annihilated. 

1136 Occasionally two questions are included in one sentence, and 
require to be separated in the translation : as, 

Nihil iam aliud quaergrg debetis, nisi utgr titri insldias fec&rit 
(Cic. p. Mil. 9. 23), you have now nothing else to inquire into 
but this, which of the two plotted against the other's life, which 
had his life so endangered. 

Cetgrorum mis8rab!li(5r oratio fuit commgmSrantium ex quantis 
flplbus quo reccldissent Karthaglniensium res (Liv. xxx. 
42), the language of the rest was still more affecting, as they 
dwelt upon the powerful station from which, and the low depth 
to which the state of Carthage was fallen. 

1137 It may be observed, that the Latin language employs the in- 
direct interrogation much more frequently than the English, which 
often prefers a mere relative with an antecedent substantive, or a 
substantive alone : as, 


Nunc quid agendum sit conslde'ratg (Cic. p. leg. Man. 2.6), 
consider now the business which you have to transact. 

Non sum praedlcaturus quantas illS res domi mllltiaequg ges- 
s6rit (Cic. p. leg. Man. 16. 48), I am not going to proclaim 
the greatness of his achievements at home and abroad. 


1138 The simple qui- any is an enclitic,* and cannot occupy the 
first place in a sentence. 

Omnia semper quae magistrates illg dlcet, secundls aurlbus, 
quae ab nostrum quo dicentur aduersls accfpietls ? (Liv. vi. 
40) will you always receive with a favourable ear what those 
magistrates say, and with an unfavourable ear what is said 
by any of us ? 

1139 The use of this word is frequent in sentences beginning with 
the relative or relative adverbs, and after si, nisi, ne, num : as, 

lam illis promissis standum non est, quae coacttis quis m6tu 
promlsit (Cic. de Off. I. 10. 32), lastly, there is another class 
of promises which are not binding, viz. those which one makes 
under the compulsion of fear. 

Quo quis uersutior est, hoc inulsior (Cic. de Off. n. 9. 34), the 
more crafty a man is, the more is he disliked. 

Vbi sgmel quis pgigrauMt, e! credi postea non oportet (Cic. p. 
Rab. Post. 13. 36), when a man has once forsworn himself, 
he should not afterwards be believed. 

Num quod e'lo'quentiae uestigium apparet ? (Cic. de Or. I. 9. 
37) is there any trace of eloquence to be seen ? 

Habent leglbus sanctum, si quis quid de rS publlca fama ac- 
cSpgrlt, iiti ad magistratum defgrat, nSug cum quo alio 
communlcet (Caes. B. G. vi. 19), they have it provided for 
by law, that if any one hear any thing by report on matters 
of state, he shall lay it before the authorities, and not com- 
municate it to any other person. 

Si qui grauiorS uolngre accepto 6quo decIdSrat, circumsistebant 
(Caes. B. G. I. 48), whenever any one at all severely wounded 
fell from his horse, they formed around him. 

* This of course does not prevent the compounds siqui-, negui-, &c. 
from being emphatic. 

252 SYNTAX. 

1140 In the phrases with sJ-qui-, the main sentence has no connect- 
ing pronoun, the sl-qui- clause itself performing the office of a 
noun : as, 

Si quid est paMli* obruunt nlues (Liv. xxi. 37), what fodder 
there is, is buried under the snow. 

1141 Allqui- some, any, is always emphatic, and is opposed to such 
words as all, much, none : as, 

Vnum allquem nominate (Cic. p. Clu. 66. 185), name some one 

or other. 
Si nos &d Sllquam allcuius commo'di allquando reciiperandi 

spem fortuna reseruauit, minus est erratum a nobls (Cic. 

ad Fam. xiv. 4. 1), if fortune has reserved us for any chance 

(however small) of recovering at any time (however distant) 

ant/ thing desirable (in the slightest degree], then our error 

has been less. 
Est istuc quldem Sllquid, sed nequaquam In isto sunt omniS, 

(Cic. de Sen. 3. 8). what you say is, I grant, something, but 

it by no means includes the whole, 
Si uis esse allquldf (Juv. i. 74), if thou wishest to be somebody 

in the world. 

1142 The substantive! qui-quam and adjective ullo- signify any (if 
only one, and no matter what that one may be), and are used in 
negative, interrogative, conditional and comparative sentences : 

Sing sociis nemo quidquam tale conatiir (Cic. de Am. 12. 42), 
without companions no one attempts any such thing. 

Idcirco caplte et siiperclliis est rasis, ne ullum piluin uiri btfui 
hSberg dicatiir (Cic. p. Rose. Com. 7. 20), he goes with his 
head and his eyebrows shaved, that, he may not be said to have 
a single hair of respectability about him. 

Et quisquam lunonis numen &doret Praeterea? ( Virg. A. 1. 52) 
and is any one after this to worship the divinity of Juno ? 

* Thus, si quid est pabuli may be considered to be the accusative case 
after the verb obruunt. 

f So Juvenal, if we inav trust the best and the majority of the Mss. 
(Madvig.) Cicero uses both sum aliguis and sum aliquid. 

+ Qui-quam however is at times an adjective, and ullo- at times a 
substantive, in speaking of persons : as, qui-quam, Ter. Haut. i. 1 29, 
Plant. Ps. in. 2. G2 ; ullo-, Caes. B. G. i. 8. 3, Liv. v. 40, Cic. ad Fain, 
xiii. 26. 1. 


Num. censes ullum animal, quod sangulnem habeat, sine corde 

essS possS ? (Cic. de Div. I. 52.119) now do you think that 

any animal that has blood can exist without a heart ? 
Si ulla mea apud te commendatio ualuit, haec ut ualeat rogo 

(Cic. ad Fam. xiir. 40), if any recommendation of mine ever 

had weight with you, I beg that this may. 
Quamdiu quisquam erit, qu! te defende're audeat, uiues (Cic. 

in Cat. I. 2. 6), as long as there is a single living being who 

dares to defend you, you shall live. 
Cuiuis potest accidere, quod cuiquam potest (Syr. ap. Sen. de 

Tranq. An. 11), that may happen to every one, which may 

happen to any one. 
Nihil est exitiosius cluitatibus quam quidquam agi per uiin 

(Cic. de Leg. in. 18. 42), nothing is more pernicious to a state 

than that violence should be resorted to in any thing. 

1143 Qui-piam is used like aliqui- :* 

Quaeret quispiam (Cic. in Hull. n. 8. 20), some one will ask. 

Forsitan Sllquis aliquando eiusmo'di quidpiam fScSrft (Cic. u. 
Verr. n. 32. 78), per/taps some one will some time or other 
have done something of this kind. 

Pecuniam si quoipiam fortuna a"demit, aut si Slicuiiis erlpuit 
iniuria, tamen consolatur honestas Sgestatem (Cic. p. 
Quinct. 15. 49), if money be taken from any one by misfor- 
tune, or wrested from him by the violence of some one, still 
integrity is a consolation to poverty. 

1144 Qui-uls and qui-lubet any you please are universal affirmatives, 
and may often be translated by every one :t as, 

Abs quiuis ho'mlne beuiflcium accipSre gaudeas (Ter. Ad. ir. 

3. 1), one would be glad to receive a favour from any one. 
Mihi quiduis sat est (Plant. Mil. Gl. ill. 1. 155), for me any 

thing is enough. 
Non cuiuis hSmlni continglt adire Corinthum (Hor. Ep. I. 17. 

36), it is not every man's lot to visit Corinth. 

* Except that it has never the meaning of ' something important,' 
which aliqui- often has. 

f A superlative may often be substituted for them ; as for example 
in the following sentences : ' the greatest stranger,' ' the least quantity,' 
' only the most fortunate.' 



Quern sequar ? Quemlubet, m5do aliquem (Cic. Acad. Pr. n. 
43. 132), whom am I to take for my guide ? Any body you 
please, provided it be somebody. 

1 1 44. 1 Qui-qug (N. quisqug) every, all taken each by itself, is opposed 
to unluerso- all united as a whole. See examples under 1057, a, 

1145 Qui-dam some is used both generally, and in reference to par- 
ticular objects which we either cannot or do not choose accurately 
to define. Hence it is often employed to soften some strong me- 
taphor or epithet : 

Sed sunt quldamf itS, uoce absSni iit In oratorum numerum 
ugnirS non possint (Cic. de Or. i. 25. 115), but there are in 
fact some of so unmusical a voice that they can never be ad- 
mitted into the number of orators. 

Accurrit quldam, notus mlhl noming tantum (Hor. Sat. 1.9.3), 
there runs up a certain person known to me by name alone. 

Ngque pugnas narrat, quod quidamj facit (Ter. E. in. 2. 29), 
nor does he talk of his battles, as a certain person does. 

HSbet 8nim quendam aculeum contumeliS quern patl ulr! bonl 
difflcillumS possunt (Cic. n. Verr. in. 41. 95), for insult has 
in fact a sort of sting in it, which a gentleman can with the 
greatest difficulty endure. 

Fuit enim mirificus quldam in Crasso pudSr (Cic. de Or. i. 26. 
122), for there was in fact in Crassus a bashfulness I had 
almost called astounding. 

1146 Qui-cunquS is commonly an adjective, and is used in three 
ways (of which however the first is by far the most common) : a, 
as every one who, in the same way as the ordinary relative is used ; 
6. without any antecedent, but so as to admit the insertion of such 
words as no matter before the who ; c. in the sense of some one or 
other, the best I can. 

a. Qutfd erit cumquS uisum, Sges (Cic. de Fin. iv 25. 69), 

wJiatever you think proper, you will do. 

b. Quocunque in ISco quls est, idem est el sensus (Cic. ad Fam. 

vi. 1. 1), wherever a person is, his feelings are the same. 

* See also 349. 

t Here Cicero has no particular persons in view. 

J Here there is a particular person in view, viz. the braggart Thraso. 


c. Quae sanarl pSterunt, quacunque* rS-tionS sanabo (Cic. in 
Cat. n. 5. 11), what parts admit of being healed, I will heal 
in the best way I can. 

1147 Qui-qui-f is commonly a substantive, and is used chiefly in 
the sense of no matter who, &c. ; but at times as a relative in 
grammatical connection with the main clause : 

Ago gratias, quoquo S,nimo fads (Cic. Phil. n. 13. 33), / thank 

you, no matter with what feeling you do it. 
Quicquld auctorltatS possum, Id omn8 tlbi polllceor (Cic. p. 

leg. Man. 24.69), whatever power I possess in my name, 1 

promise you the whole of it. 

1148 The chief constructions of alio-$ one, some, other, are the fol- 
lowing : 

Aliiid est maledice're, aliiid accussarS (Cic. p. Gael. 3. 6), it is 

one thing to abuse, one to accuse. 
Quae minus tuta erant, alia fossis, alia" uallis, alia" turrlbus 

muniebat (Liv. xxxn. 5), the parts which were less protected, 

he was fortifying, some with ditches, some with palisades, 

some with towers. 

Ipsi inter se alils alii prosunt (Cic. de Off. I. 7. 22), they them- 
selves mutually assist one another. 
Me qutftldie aliud ex alio impedit (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 19), for 

myself, one thing after another hinders me every day. 
Equltes alii alia dllapsl sunt (Liv. XLIV. 43), the cavalry slipped 

off, some by one route, some by another. 
lussit alios alibi fSderS (Liv. XLIV. 33), he ordered tfam to dig, 

some in one place, some in another. 
Quotannls alium atque alium domlnum sortiuntur (Liv. xxxi. 

29), they take the chance of the lot every year, first for one 

master, then for another. 
Tlmeo ne aliud credam atque aliud nuntigs (Ter. Hec. v.4.4), 

* Potero might have been inserted. 

f The use of qui-qui- in the sense of gui-que is very rare, at any rate 
in the best writers. 

$ That alio- did not originally mean difference is shown by the fact 
that aliqui- is connected with it, and that its other derivative altero- in 
itself never signifies difference. 

This shows the way in which atque alone came to be used after alio-. 

250 SYNTAX. 

/ am afraid that I am giving credit to one thing, and you 
asserting another. 

Longe alia nobis ac tu scripseras mmtiantur (Cic. ad Att. xi. 
10. 2), the accounts brought to us differ widely from what you 

Non aliiis essem atque nunc sum (Cic. ad Fam. i. 9.21), / 
should not have been a different person from what I now am. 

Lux longe aliast, soils et* lychnorum (Cic. p. Gael. 28.67), there 
is a wide difference in the light of the sun and of a lamp. 

Lutatio quae alia res quam cele'rltas uictoriam dedit ? (Liv. 
xxn. 14) what else but rapidity gave Lutatius the victory ? 

Quid enim aliud quam admSnendi essetis ut morem traditum 
a p&tribus seruaretis ? (Liv. xxn. 60) for what else would 
there ham been to do but to remind you of the duty of main- 
taining a custom handed down by your fathers ? 

Quid est dlcere aliud, Quia indignos uestra uoluntate creaturl 
non estis, necessltatem uobis creandi quos non uoltis im- 
ponam ? (Liv. vi. 40) what is this but to say : Since you will 
not willingly elect unworthy persons, 1 will impose on you the 
necessity of electing those whom you do not like ? 

Rogauit, numquld aliud ferret praeter arcam (Cic. de Or. n. 
69. 279), he asked whether he was carrying any thing else be- 
sides a chest. 

1149 Altero- is used in the following constructions, being always 
limited to one of two, or the second of many : 

Quorum alter exercltum perdldit, alter uendldit (Cic. p. Plane. 

35. 86), of whom one has lost, the other has sold an army. 
Alterif dlmlcant ; altrl uictorem tlment (Cic. ad Fam. vi. 3. 

4), the one party stake all upon war, the other look with terror 

to the conqueror. 
Miluo est quoddam bellum qusl naturale cum coruo ; ergo 

altgr altgriiis oua franglt (Cic. N. D. n. 49.125), between the 

kite and the crow there is, as it were, a sort of natural war ; 

consequently each breaks the other's eggs. 
Altgrif alteros allquantum attriuerant (Sal. Jug. 79), each 

nation had considerably reduced the power of the other. 

* When et or que are used in these phrases, the things compared are 
brought together. A pause too should precede. Atque is not so limited. 
f See the note to 324. 


Vterqug nttmSrus plenus, altgr altera de caussa habetur (Cic. 
Somn. Sc. 2), loth numbers are accounted full, the one for 
one reason, the other for another. 
Oinnes quorum In alterius mSnu uitS, ptfsltast (Cic. p. Quinct. 

2. 6), att those whose lives are in the hands of another. 
Tu nunc grls alter ab illo ( Virg. BUG. v. 49), thou shalt now be 

next after him. 

Ad Brutum nostrum hos llbros alteros quinquS mittemus (Cic. 
Tusc. v. 41. 121), we shall send to our friend Brutus this 
second set of five looks. 
Altgrum tantum gqultlbus diulsit (Liv. x. 46), he gave to each 

horse-soldier as much again. 

1149. 1 NemSn- no man, no one, though properly a substantive, is 
found with appellations of persons, as nemo cluls no citizen, nemo 
Romanus no Roman, nemo quisquam no one whatever, where how- 
ever ciuls, Romanus, quisquam, may be regarded themselves as 
adjectives. In place of the genitive and dative nullius and nulli 
are preferred. 


1150 The pronominal adverbs,* especially by the old writers, were 
often used as adjectives in connection with nouns : as, 

Teque Ibidem peruoluam in liito (Ter. And. iv. 4.38), and I 

will give you a good rolling in the same mud. 
Quid SgS nunc &gam nisi in angiilum allquo SJbeam ? (Ter. Ad. 

v. 2. 9) what am I to do now, but take myself off into some 

quiet corner ? 
Venit meditatus alicunde ex so!6 loco (Ter. And. n. 4. 3), he is 

just come, after conning his lesson, from some solitary place. 
Modo quandam uidi uirginem hie uiciuiaef (Ter. Ph. I. 2. 45), 

1 just now saw a maiden in this neighbourhood. 
Quo tendltls inquit ; Qul geniis ; undg d5mo ? ( Virg. A. viu. 

113) whither haste ye, says he; who ly race; from what home ? 
Indldern ex Achaia 8riundl(Zw. xxv. 15), sprung from the same 

Indldemne ex Ameria ? (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 27. 74) what from 

the same Ameria ? 

Those forms of course being selected which accord with the relation 
of place expressed in the accompanying phrase. 

f Hie uiciniae, both datives. See 952. Nay in Plant. Mil. n. 3. 2, 
hie proxumae uiciniae, for so the Palimpsest and Mss. C. D. 

253 SYNTAX. 

1151 Tho relative adverbs, like the relative itself, are often used 
without an expressed antecedent : as, 

Pergam quo coepi hoc Iter (Ter. Hec. I. 2. 119), 1 will continue 
this journey of mine, to the place I started for. 

Si rem seruassem, fuit ubi negotiosus essem (Plaut. True. i. 2. 
38), if I had saved my money, I should have had something 
to employ myself upon. 

Est, dis gratia, unde haec fiant (Ter. Ad. I. 2.41), there is, 
thanks to the gods, the wherewithal to do this. 

Vagarl qua uelit (Cic. de Or. i. 16. 70), to wander along what- 
ever road he pleases. 

1151.1 The adverbs of all pronouns used logically, especially those 
connected with the relative, may refer to antecedents of any 
gender or number, so that unde', for example, stands for ab or ex 
quo, qua or qulbus, quo for In or ad quern &c., ubi for in quo 
&c. : as, 

Omnibus unde petltur, hoc consili dederim (Cic. ad Fam. vn. 

11. 1), to all defendants in a suit I would give this advice. 
PStest fieri, ut Is unde te audissS dicls, iratus dixerit (Cic. de 
Or. n. 70. 285), it may be that the person from whom you 
say you heard it said so in anger. 

Xequ8 praeter te quisquam fuit, ubi nostrum ius contra illos 
obtineremus (Cic. p. Quinct. 9. 34), nor was there besides 
you any one before whom we could maintain our right against 

Htfmo apud eos quo se contiilit gratiosus (Cic. n. Verr. iv. 18. 
38), a man of influence among those to whom he betook him- 

Omnia qua ulsus grat constrata armls (Sal. Jug. 101), all the 
ground along which the eye could see was bestrewn with arms. 


1152 The verb agrees in number and person with the agent (or no- 
minative), and where it contains a participle, in gender also. 

1152. 1 Where there are two nominatives to a verb, the verb either, a. 
adapts itself to both, taking the plural form ; or, b. to the nearer 


a. Haec ngque ego neque tu feclmus* (Ter. Ad. I. 2. 23), true, 
neither I nor you ever acted thus. 

CastSr et Pollux ex equis pugnarg uisl sunt (Cic. N. D. n. 2.6), 
Castor and Pollux appeared fighting on horseback. 

b. Et tu et omnes h5mlnes sciunt (Cic. ad Fam. xm. 8. 1), you 
and all men know. 

Sgnatus popiilusque Romanus intellect (Cic. ad Fam. v. 8. 2), 

the senate and people of Home perceive. 

Emissae eo cohortes quattu5r et C. Annius praefectus (Sal. 
Jug. 77), there were sent out to that place four battalions and 
C. A nnius as governor. 

1152. 2 But of course when the compound sentence does not admit of 
being broken up into separate parts, a plural verb is required : as, 
I us gt iniuria natura diiudicantiir (Cic. de Leg. I. 16.44), right 
and wrong are naturally distinguished from each other. 

1152. 3 The second person, as in English, is often used indefinitely, 
where we might also say ' a man.' (See 1224.) 

] 152. 4 The third person plural, as in English, is often used indefinitely, 
especially with the adverb uolgo promiscuously : as, aiunt they say., 
ferunt they carry the news about, they report. 

1152. 5 The compound tenses formed with fu- are rarely used. When 
found beside those with es~ they denote more forcibly precedence 
in point of time : as, 

Leges, quum quae latae sunt, turn ue"ro quae promulgatae fug- 
runt (Cic. p. Sest. 25. 55), both those laws which were passed, 
and above all those which (though never passed) were duly 

Anna quae fixa in parietlbus fuerant, ea huml sunt inuentS, 
(Cic. de Div. i. 34. 74), arms, which had previously been fixed 
up on the walls, were found on the ground. 
Ngque allter Carnutes interftciendi Tasgetil consllium fuisse 
captures, neque Eburones ad castrS, uenturos esse (Caes. R 
G. v. 29), but for this (he said} neither would the Carnutes 
have conspired (as they had done) to put Tasgetius^ to death, 

* It need scarcely be noticed that 'we' has a twofold meaning, includ- 
ing with the first person sometimes the second person ego et tu, ego et 
uos ; sometimes the third, ego et hie. So also * you' may include several 
persons addressed together, tu et tu; or may denote 'you' and ' he ' you. 1 
and' they,' &c.. 

260 SYNTAX. 

nor would the Eburoties have been marching (as they then 
were} to the camp. 

1152 6 F8rem (fee. is used in compound tenses by many writers* pre- 
cisely as essem is. 

1152. 7 The compound tenses made up of fu- with the participles in 
turo and endo are used only in hypothetical phrases : see 709 
to 721, and 1214. 


1152.8 The indicative is employed in affirming, denying, and asking 
questions. The chief uses of this mood and its several tenses have 
been already stated.f Moreover, it is evidently sufficient to point 
out the cases where the other moods are required. Hence all fur- 
ther remark upon the indicative is nearly superfluous. However, 
it may still be useful to draw special attention to those cases where 
error is not uncommon. 

1153 Conditional sentences may be divided into two general heads : 
1. those which put an imaginary case, the non-existence of which 
is implied in the very terms, and which are here called hypothe- 
tical, such as, ' If he were here, he would tell us,' or ' If I had 
been ill, I should have consulted the physician ;' in which cases 
it is clearly implied that ' the person spoken of is not present, 'that 
' I was not ill. ' 2. Those suppositions which may be the fact or 
not, so far as the speaker professes to know, as, ' If I receive the 
letter, I will forward it.' This distinction being understood, it 
may be stated that conditional sentences of this second class have 
nearly always the indicative J in Latin in both clauses, although 
the English language may have the subjunctive : thus, 

Erras si id credls (Ter. Haut. I. 1.53), you are mistaken if you 

believe that. 
Perficietur bellum, si urgemus obsessos (Liv. v. 4), the war will 

be finished, if we at once press tJie besieged. 
Si qu5d erat grande uas, laeti adferebant ; si minus eiusmo'di 

quippiam uenari potuerant, illS, quldem certe pro lepusciilis 

c&piebantur, patellae paterae turlbulS (Cic. n. Verr. iv. 

* As Sallust, Livy, and the poets, but not Cicero, 
f See 45 1-478 and 575-591. 
J But see below. 


21.47), if any great vessel fell in their way, they brought it 

to him with joy ; but if they were unable to run down any 

thing of that sort, then at any rate they would catch him as a 

sort of leveret, a plate, a chalice, a censer. 
Apud me slquld grit eiusmtfdi, me imprudente erffr (Cic. ad 

Att. i. 19. 10), in my writings, if any thing of the kind exist, 

it will exist without my knowledge. 
Si qui aut priuatiis aut p5pultis eorum decreto non stetit, s&- 

criflciis interdicunt (Caes. B. G. vi. 13), if any party, 

whether an individual or a state, abide not by their decision, 

they forbid them the sacrifices. 
Set si tu negaris ducere, ibi culpam in te transferet (Ter. And. 

ii. 3. 5), but if you refuse to marry, then he'll throw the blame 

on you. 
Gratissumum mihi feceris, si &d eum ultro ueneris {Cic. ad 

Fam. vii. 21), you will greatly oblige me if you will make 

the first move and call upon him.* 

1154 Often the indicative mood is in the clause of condition, fol- 
lowed by an imperative, or a subjunctive used as an imperative : 

Si me dillgis, postridie kSlendarum coena Spud m5 (Cic. ad 
Att. iv. 12), as you love me, dine with me on the second. 

Si quicquam inueuies me mentitum, occidito (Ter. And. v. 2. 
22), if you find that I have told any falsehood, kill me. 

Si itast, facturus ut sit ofticium suum, Faciat ; sin aliter de 
hac re est eius sententia, Respondent mi (Ter. Ad. in. 5.4), 
if the fact be that he will do his duty, why let him do it ; but 
if his purpose in this matter be otherwise, then let him give 
me an answer. 

1155 The indicative mood may be used without si as a condition or 
supposition : thus, 

Negat quis,t nego ; ait, aio (Ter. E. n. 2. 21), a man says no, 
I say no ; he says yes, I say yes. 

* It will be here seen that the conjunction may be used with every 
tense of the indicative ; yet it is a common assertion in Latin grammars 
that the subjunctive denotes doubt or contingency, and that si takes the 

f A mark of interrogation is often inserted, but is unnecessary. 

202 SYNTAX. 

115G So also an indicative mood at the beginning of a sentence often 

expresses a concession, as introductory to something opposed : as, 

Triumphauit Sulla" de Mithrldate, sed Xta triumphauit, ut ille 

pulsus regnaret (Cic. p. leg. Man. 3. 8), true, Sulla did 

triumph over Mithridates, but his triumph was of such a 

nature, that the other, though defeated, still held royal power.t 

1157 So also the double slug slug has the indicative mood : as, 
Homines nobiles, slue reete seu perperam fa"cerS coeperunt, In 

iitroque excellunt (Cic. p. Quinct. 8. 31), men of family, 
whether they commence a course of good or lad conduct, in 
either career become distinguished. 

1158 The doubled forms of the relative,* and those which have 
cumque attached to them, take the indicative : as, 

Quidquid erit, scribes (Cic. ad Att. xiv. 1), whatever it be, you 
will write. 

Tu quantus-quantu'sf, nil nisi sapientia's (Ter. Ad. in. 3. 40), 
you, every inch of you, are nothing but philosophy. 

Quamquamst scelestus, non committet hodie unquam iterum 
ut uapulet (Ter. Ad. n. 1. 5), be he ever so great a scoundrel, 
lie will not run the risk of a second thrashing today. 

Vtut erat, mansum tameii oportuit (Ter. Haut. I. 2. 26), no 
matter how it was, he ought still to have staid. 

Hoc quoquo ibo mecum erit (Plant. Aul. in. 3.1), I will have 
this with me wherever 1 go. 

Qulcur.que Is est, el me profiteer inlmlcum (Cic. ad Fam. x. 
31. 3), whoever that man may be, I declare myself his enemy. 

Deiotari copias, quantaecuuque sunt, nostras essS duco (Cic. 
ad Fam. xv. 1. 6), the forces of Deiotarus, in their full ex- 
tent, I look upon as ours. 

Qui ublcunque terrarum sunt, Ibi est omne relpubllcae prae- 
sldium (Cic. Phil. n. 44.113), and wherever in the world they 
are, there is every thing that is to guard the country. 

1158. 1 In relative propositions which limit something which is stated 
in general terms, the old writers, and even Cicero at times, used 
the indicative. 

* See 353-358. $ See Addenda. 

f Printed in the editions so that the verb wholly disappears ; a com- 
mon error in the text of Terence. 


Catonem uero quis nostrorum oratorum, qu! quldem nunc sunt, 
legit ? (Cic. Brut. 17. 65), but Cato who of our orators, at 
least those now living, ever reads ? 

Ex oriitoiibus Attlcis antiquissuml sunt, quorum quldem scripts, 
constant*, PMcles et Alclblades (Cic. de Or. n. 22.93), of 
Athenian orators the oldest, at least among those whose writ- 
ings are authenticated, are Pericles and Alcibiades. 

Quae tibi mandaul, uelim cures, quod^slng tua molestia face're' 
poteris (Cic. ad Att. T. 5. 8), these commissions I icould thank 
you to attend to, as far as you shall be able without inconveni- 
ence to yourself. 

Tu tiimen uelim ne intermittas, quod^eius fS,cSr pSteris, scrl- 
bre ad me (Cic. ad Att. xi. 12. 4), you however will 1 beg of 
you not cease, so far as you have it in your poiver, to write to 

Erus, quantum audio, uxore excidit (Ter. And. n. 5. 12), mas- 
ter, from what I hear, has lost the chance of a wife. 

Nil locist socordiae, Quantum intellexi modo senis sententiam 
(Ter. And. I. 3. 1), there is no room for stupidity, to judge 
from ivhat I saw just now of the old man's feelings.-^ 
1 J 59 Sentences which express repeated action have the indicative in 
the secondary clause in the best authors : as, 

Quum uer essS coepgrat, d&bat se labor! (Cic. II. Verr. v. 10. 
27), at the beginning of every spring he gave himself up to 

Hostes tibi allquos singulans ex naui egredientis conspexerant, 
iinpe'ditos MSriebantur (Caes. B. G. iv. 26), the enemy, when- 
ever tliey saw any coming out of a ship by themselves, fell upon 
them before they could get clear. 

Si a persequendo hostis deterrere neqmue'rant, disiectos a tergo 
circumuSniebant (Sal. Jug. 50), if they could not deter the 
enemy from pursuit, as soon as they were scattered, they kept 
them on the rear. 

* So the Mss., not constent. J See 922, last example. 

f In such phrases as : non ego te, quod sciam, nnquam ante hunc 
diem uidi (Plant. Men. in. 2. 35), sciam is probably an old indicative 
corresponding to inquam ; as it must be in hand sciam an ne opus sit 
quidem (Cic. de Am. 14.51), and in hand sciam an iustissumo triumpho 
(Liv. ix. 15). It seems not unlikely that an erroneous interpretation of 
this sciam led to the use of the subjunctive in the parenthetic phrases, 
quod meminerim, &c. (See 1195.) 


Vt cuiusque sors exclderat, alacgr arina capiebat (Liv.* xxi. 
42), every time the lot of any one fell out of the urn, delighted 
he took his arms. 


1160 The use of the tenses in epistolary writing is occasionally very 
peculiar. The letters in ancient Italy being sent nearly always by 
private hand, and the roads with the facilities for travelling being 
very defective, a long time often elapsed between the writing and 
the receiving a letter. Hence it was not uncommon for the wri- 
ter to make allowance for this interval, and to use those tenses 
which were suited to the time when the letter should be read : as, 

Etsi nil sane hdbebam\ n5ul, quod post accidisset quam dedissem 
ad te PMlogSnl litteras, tamen quum Philotlmum Romam 
remitterem, scrlbendum illiquid ad tefuit, &c. (Cic. ad Att. 
vi. 3. 1), although I have indeed nothing new that has oc- 
curred, at least since I put my last in the hands of Philo- 
genesforyou* yet as 1 am sending Philotimus lack to Rome, 
1 am bound to write something to you. 

Hdbebam acta urbana usque ad Nonas Martias, e quibiis intel- 
legebam omniS, pStitis actum irl quam de prouincils (Cic. ad 
Att. vi. 2. 6), /have the proceedings in the city down to the 
7th of March, from which I am disposed to infer that the 
question of the provinces will be postponed sine die. 

Litte'rarum exemplum qufis ad Pompeium scrips!, mlsl tibi (Cic. 
ad Att. in. 8.4), 1 enclose you a copy of a letter I have just 
written to Pompey. 

1161 Such terms as 'yesterday,' 'today,' 'tomorrow,' 'here,' are 
avoided for the same reason. Besides, it was far from the ordi- 
nary practice to affix a date of time and place, so that the words 
might have been unintelligible. 

Piiteolis magnus estj rumor Pttflgmaeum esse in regno. . . . 

* Livy is not consistent in this construction. Examples of a sub- 
junctive in him are : ubi dixisset (i. 32), quum uidissent (n. 27), quem- 
cumque prehendisset (in. 11), sicubi conserta nauis esset (xxi. 50), ubi 
semel procubuissent (xxn. 2), ubi conuenissent (xxn. 38). 

f Otherwise the tenses should have been, habeo, acciderit, dederim^ 
remittam, est. 

J The epistolary tense would have been erat. 


Pompeius in Cumanum Parillbus uenit. Mlsit ad mg st&- 
tim qul salutem nuntiaret. Ad eum postrldie mang udde- 
bam quum haec scripsl (Cic. ad Att. iv. 10), we have a strong 
report down here that Ptolemy has been restored to his throne. 
.... Pompey arrived at his villa yesterday. He forthwith 
sent one of his people with his compliments to me. lam going 
to pay him a visit this morning. 

Puteoli, April* 22. 

Trlginta dies erant ipsl, quum has ddbam litteras, per quos nul- 
las a uobis acceperam (Cic. ad Att. in. 21\ it is now exactly 
thirty days since 1 heard from you. 

\ 162 Such change of tenses occurs chiefly at the beginning and end 
of letters, where the writer has it more forcibly impressed upon 
him that he is not in conversation. It is also confined for the 
most part to those matters which are likely to be affected by the 
interval of time that must elapse before the letter is read. 


1163 The chief distinction between the two tenses is seen in 592, 
593. The future is chiefly used in laws. 

Diuis omnibus pontlfices, singulis flammes sunto (apud Cic. 
de Leg. u. 8. 2()),/or the gods in general there shall be a col- 
lege of pontifices, each separate god shall liave hisjlamen. 

1164 It is also used in the language of wills : as, 

Titius filius meus mihi heres esto (Gaius, n. 179), my son 
Titius shall be my heir. 

1165 It is also used generally in reference to future time, more par- 
ticularly if that time be fixed by any condition or otherwise : as, 

Vbi n6s lauerimus, si uoles lauato (Ter. E. in. 5.48), when we 

have bathed, bathe if you will. 
Quoquo hie spectabit, e6 tu spectat6 semul ; 
Si quo hie gradietur, pariter tu progrediminot (PL Ps. in. 2. 69), 

* The Festival of Pales was on the 21st. 

f So the Mss., not progrediminor ; and indeed the passage requires 
the singular. Moreover Madvig has proved, what Kvarup already main- 
tained, that the form in minor does not exist. That in mino does exist, 
and belongs to the singular. See Madvig, Opusc. n. 239. 



Where'er he looks, thither must you look with him ; 

Where'er he marches, march you too forward by his side. 

Cum ualetudlnl tuae consiilugris, turn consulito naulgatioul 
(Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 4. 3), when you have taken measures for 
your health, then and not till then take measures for your 

1166 The present is used in a less auth ritative manner, and is ap- 
plied both to the immediate occasion and to general directions. 

luno Lucina fer opem {Ter. And. in. 1.15), Juno Lucina, aid 

me, I implore thee. 

Mihi credS {Cic. ad Fam. ix. 16. 8), take my word for it. 
lustltiam cole et pietatem {Cic. Somn. Sc. 3), cultivate justice 

and affection. 
Vide quam rem agas {Ter. Ad. in. 2.45), have a care what you 

are after. 
Caue sis {Ter. E. iv. 7. 29), be on your guard, if you please. 

1167 The present of the subjunctive mood is often used as an im- 
mediate imperative : as, 

Ecferant* quae secum hue attulerunt {Ter. Haut. iv. 4. 23), 
let them bring out what they brought here with them. 

Quod boni d&tur, fruargf dum licet {Ter. Haut. n. 3.102), all 
the good that offers, enjoy while you may. 

1168 The presents cura and f&c and the subjunctive uelim are often 
prefixed to a subjunctive of a verb, with or without tit, and so 
express more forcibly what might have been expressed by a simple 
imperative of the latter verb : as, 

Qua re si quod constltutum cum po'da'gra h&bes, f&c tit in alium 
diem differas {Cic. ad Fam. vn. 4), if then you have any 
engagement with the gout, mind you put it off to another day. 

Fac &put te ut sies {Ter. And. n. 4), mind you have your wits 

* This subjunctive is due to an ellipsis of a verb which is occasionally 
supplied: as, Treuiros uites censeo (Cic. ad Fam. vn. 13.2), * I recom- 
mend you to fight shy of the Treviri.' 

f Madvig would limit this use of the second person to the cases of a 
general nature, where ' you' means ' any one.' But he admits that there 
are some examples where 'you' is used in its definite sense, and himself 
quotes from Terence, Si cerium est facere, facias ; uerum ne post cul- 
pam conferos in me, * If you are resolved to do it, why do it ; but do not 
afterwards throw the blame on me.' 


Cura ut quam primum uenias (Cic. ad Fam. iv. 10), take care 

and come as soon as you can. 
Tu uelim animo sapient! fortique sis (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 12), do 

you meanwhile, I beg you, act with philosophy and firmness. 

llij'.) An affirmative in the future often expresses a direction with a 
confidence that it will be followed : as, 

Tu interea non cessabis et ea quae habes instltuta perpSlies 
(Cic. ad Fam. v. 12. 10), you meanwhile will lose no time in 
giving the last polish to what you have in hand. 
Slquid accident noui, fScies ut sciam (Cic. ad Farn. xiv. 8), if 
any thing new occurs, you will let me know. 

1170 The present imperative is used at times to express a condition : 

Tolle hanc opinionem, luctum sustuleris (Cic. Tusc. I. 13. 30), 
once put an end to this opinion, and you will have put an 
end to all mourning for the dead. 

1171 A question may be so asked as to amount to an order : as, 
Etiam taces ?* Eg5 c&uebo (Ter. Ad. iv. 2. 11), hold your 

tongue; Syrus will be on his guard. 
Quiii con seen dim usf equos ? (Liv. I. 57) come, come, let us 

mount our horses. 
Abiiit hinc in malam rem cum suspicione istac, scelus ? (Ter. 

And. II. 1. 17) go and be hanged with your suspicions, you 

Non tu hinc abis ? (Ter. E. iv. 7. 29) be off, sir. 

1172 Hence in some phrases, such as those just quoted, the present 
imperative takes the place of the indicative : as, 

Etiam tu hoc responde, quid istic tibi negotist? Mihin ? Ita 
(Ter. And. v. 2. 8), answer me this at once, what business have 
you in that cottage (which you have just left) ? What business 
have I ? Yes, you. 

* Literally ' Are you yet silent?' with a hint that he will soon be 
made so. 

f Literally ' Why do we not mount our horses ?' 

J Literally 'Are you going? &c. ; if not, I'll help you.' Pronounce 

R, a in. 

Pronounce etyam, qu'istic, ti and mm. 

268 SYNTAX. 

Quin* die, quid est (Ter. And. n. 6. 18), come, come, sir, tell me 

what it is. 
Quin tu hoc audl (Ter. And. n. 2. 9), come, come, listen to this. 

1173 Sentences of forbidding, <fec. are variously formed. Ne with 
the future imperative is used in laws, and occasionally elsewhere : 

NocturnS, milligram s&crlftciS, ne sunto, praetgr ollS, quae pro 
p5pulo rite flent ; neue Inltianto, nisi ut assolet, Cererl, 
Graeco s&cro (apud Cic. de Leg. n, 9. 21), sacrifices by women 
at night there shall be none, save those which are duly made 
for the state ; nor shall they celebrate mysteries, except as is 
wont, to Ceres, according to the Greek rite. 

BSrea flantg, ue arato, semen ne i&clto (apud Plin. xvm. 77), 
when the north wind blows, plough not, sow not. 

1 1 74 Ne with the present imperative is found for the most part only 
in the old writers and the poets : as, 

Ah ne saeui tant&pere (Ter. And. v. 2. 27), oh, be not in such 

a passion. 
Quaeso animum ne despondg (Plaut. Merc. in. 4. 29), I prithee 

despond not. 
Nlmium ne crede color! (Virg. BUG. n. 17), trust not too much 

to the outside. 

1175 The subjunctive mood is used in forbidding, &c., but generally 
in the perfect tense. The use of the second person of the present 
subjunctive is rare, except when that person is used indefinitely. t 

Nihll ignoueris, nihil gratiae caussa fece'ris, misericordia coui- 
motus ne sis (Cic. p. Mur. SI. Q5), forgive nothing (they say), 
do nothing to oblige a friend, be proof against pity. 

Ne transieris Iberum, ne quid rel tXbi sit cum S&guntinis (Liv. 
xxi. 44), cross not the Ebro (he says), have nought to do with 
the people of Saguntum. 

Ne me istoc posthac n6mine appellassis (Ter. Ph. v. 1. 15), do 
not call me by that name for the future. 

* In this way these two particles, efiam and quin^ practically acquire 
a new meaning, just as quidni, ' why not,' comes to signify ' of course.' 
Compare too the secondary meaning of OVKOVV arising from its use in 

f These qualifications are from Maclvig. 


NO quaeras (Ter. Haul. iv. 4. 23), ask no questions. 

Isto bono utarS dum adsit, quum absit ne rSqulras (Cic. da 

Sen. 10. 33), enjoy that blessing while you have it ; when gone* 

grieve not for it. 

176 The verbs cSu8, noli, nolim, are frequently used in negative 
requests : as, 

Cauneas, *. e. caug ne eas (ap. Cic. de Div. II. 40. 84), do not go. 
Caue te esse tristem sentiat (Ter. And. u. 3.29), take care he 

does not perceive you are out of spirits. 
Caue dixeris (Ter. Ad. in. 4. 12), say it not. 
Oolite id uellS quod fieri non pStest (Cic. Phil. vn. 8. 25), do 

not wish for what is impossible. 
Hoc nolim me iocarl piites (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 15. 4), do not, I 

pray you, suppose that I am joking in this. 

1177 The poets have many other imperatives used in negative re- 
quests, as fuge, mitte, parce, &c. 

Quid sit futurum eras, fuge quaergre (Hor. Od. 1. 9. 13), what 

shall be tomorrow, shun to ask. 
MittS sectarl (Hor. Od. I. 38.3), cease to search. 


1178 A secondary clause or subordinate proposition is attached to 
the main clause or proposition in four ways : a. by a relative, b. 
by an interrogative, c. by an accessary conjunction, or d. by the 
construction called accusative and infinitive. 

1178.1 With this subordinate relation must not be confounded the 
relation between two coordinate clauses, united by such words as 
et or qug and, or else placed beside each other without any con- 
junction. Coordinate propositions are either both main propo- 
sitions, or both subordinate clauses attached to the same main 

1178.2 When a secondary clause beginning with a conjunction pre- 
cedes the main clause, the secondary clause is called the protasis 
(putting forward), and the following main clause the apttddsfe 
(payment of a debt). 

* The chief uses of the subjunctive have already been briefly pointed 
out in 487-505 and 594-624. 

270 SYNTAX. 

1178.3 The subjunctive is used where a proposition is put forward, 
not as a fact, but as a conception to be spoken of. Hence it is 
used in secondary clauses attached to the main clause of a sentence 
by a conjunction, or relative, or interrogative : 1st, where an OD- 
ject is expressed ; 2d, where the assertions or thoughts of another 
than the speaker are stated ; 3d, where that which does not exist 
is imagined, <fec. But it will be practically more useful to deal 
with the separate cases. 

] 179 The object* or purpose of an action may be expressed by an 
imperfect of the subjunctive and the conjunctions ut, quo, qui, 
and the relative ; or if the object be prevention, by ut ne, ne, 
quommus, and quln : as, 

Aliis n5cent, ut In alios llbgrales sint (Cic. de Off. I. 14. 42), 

they injure some, that they may be generous to others. 
Magis mihi ut incommSdet quam tit obsequatur gnato (Ter. 

And. I. 1.135), more to annoy me than to oblige my son. 
Slbi quisqug tendebat ut pgrlculo prlmusf euadgret (Liv. xxi. 

33), every one for himself was striving to be the first to get out 

of the danger. 
Obducuntur cortlcS truncl quo sint a frigoribus tutiores (Cic. 

N. D. ii. 47.120), the trunk of a tree is sheathed with bark, 

that it may be safer from the cold. 
Verba rgperta sunt quae indicarent uSluntatem (Cic. p. Caec. 

18. 53), words were invented to indicate the will. 
Galllnae pullos pennis fouent ne frigore laedantur (Cic. N. D. 

II. 52. 129), hens warm their chickens with their wings, that 

they may not be hurt by the cold. 
Vix me contlneo quln inuSlem in Capillum (Ter. E. v. 2.20), / 

with difficulty restrain myself from flying at his hair. 
Elefantos in primam aciem indue! iussit, si quern Inlce're e<l res 

tumultum posset (Liv. xxvu. 14), he ordered the elephants 

to be led into the first line, in hopes that this manoeuvre might 

cause some confusion. 

1180 Hence also verbs of commanding, advising, begging, wishing, 
compelling, preventing, permitting, are followed by an imperfect 
of the subjunctive, and ut, or the negatives, ut ne, ne, quomlnu?, 
quln : 

* See 599, 607. 

t Prius in the Mss.. altered by some to prior. 


Allobrogibus impgrauit ut his frumenti copiam f&cSrent (Cacs. 
B. G. i. 28), he commanded the Allobroges to supply tJicm 
with corn. 

Monet lit in relicum tempus omnis suspiciones ultet (Caes. 
B. G. I. 20), he advises him for the future to avoid all sus- 

Per te ego deos oro ut me adiuues (Ter. And. in. 3. 6), by the 
gods 1 beg you to assist me. 

Smite orator ut sim* (Ter. Hec. prol. n. 2), allow me to be an 

1181 Not unfrequently the ut is omitted before the subjunctive in 
short phrases : as, 

Sine me expurgem (Ter. And. v. 3. 29), allow me to clear myself. 
Quo die Roma te exiturum putes uelim ad me scrlbas (Cic. ad 
Att. n. 5. 3), I would wish you to write me word what day 
you think you shall leave Rome. 

1181. 1 But verbs of wishing, and also prohlbe-, impgra-, sin-, iiibe-, 
pati- (r.), and ueta-, are also found with the accusative and infini- 
tive, especially the passive infinitive ; and indeed the last three of 
these six verbs are but rarely found with ut. 

1182 The result^ is expressed by the subjunctive. This construction 
is common after verbs, &c. of accomplishing and happening : as, 

Tempgrautia ecficlt ut appetltiones rectae rationl pareant (Cic. 
Tusc. iv. 9. 22), self-restraint effects this, that the passions 
wait upon right reason. 

Accidit ut primus nuntiaret (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 34. 96), it hap- 
pened that he was the first to bring word. 

Nunquam accedo qum abs te beam doctior (Ter. E. iv. 7. 21), 
1 never go near you without leaving you the wiser. 

Non possunt multl rem amitte're ut non* plures secum in ean- 
dem calSmltatem trahant (Cic. p. leg. Man. 7. 19), it is 
impossible for many persons to lose their property without 
dragging a still larger number into the same calamity. 

* This has been altered to exorator sim by those who did not know 
that the last syllable of orator might be long in Terence. 

f The formfaxo is used only parenthetically, and does nut affect the 
mood of the verb which accompanies it, which is always the future of the 
indicative. Faxo scies, 'you shall know, trust me for that.' Tl'is has 
been shown by Madvig in the second volume of his Opuscula. 

J Non is required where the result is expressed ; ne would be wrong. 

*'* SYNTAX. 

Illud tlbi affirmo, si rem istarn ex sententia gesseris, fore fit 
absens a multis, cum redierls ab omnibus collauderS (CVc. 
ad Fam. i. 7. 5), of one thing I assure you, and that is this, 
that if you carry the matter out satisfactorily, the consequence 
will be that even in your absence you will be praised by many, 
and when you return you will be lauded to the skies by all. 

Tautum opes creuerant, ut mQuere armS, uec Mezentius, ngque 
ulli alii accolae ausi sint (Liv. i. 3), so greatly had their 
])o wer increased, that neither Mezentius nor any other of their 
neighbours dared to draw the sword. 

1183 With phrases which denote hindrance, opposition, avoiding, 
omission, doubt, the subjunctive is preceded by ne, quominus or 
quln, but by the last, only in case there be with the main verb a 
negative to express the non-existence of the hindrance : as, 

Impgdior dolore anlm! ne plurS dicam (Cic. p. Sulla, 33. 92), / 

am prevented by indignation from saying more. 
Per me stetit* quo minus hae fierent nuptiae (Ter. And. iv. 

2. 16), it was my fault that this marriage did not take place. 
Neque &best susplcio quln ipsS slbi mortem consciugrit (Caes. 

B. G. i. 4), nor is there wanting a suspicion that he was the 

author of his own death. 
Prorsus nihil best quin sim miserrumus (Cic. ad Att. xi. 15.3), 

absolutely nothing is now wanting to complete my misery. 
Nuinquidt uis quln beam? (Ter. Ad. n. 2.39) is there any 

thing else I can do for you before I go ? 
FS,cerg non possum quln ad te mittam (Cic. ad Att. xn. 27. 3), 

/ cannot but send to you. 
Nou dubito quin mlrerg (Cic. ad Att. xvi. 21), / do not doubt 

that you are surprised. 
Quid est caussae quin c<51oniam in lanlculum possint deducere ? 

(Cic. in Hull. n. 27.74) what reason is there to prevent them 

from founding a colony on the Janiculum itself? 

1184 Impersonal phrases that signify an addition, &c. are generally 
followed by ut and the subjunctive : as, 

* Forcellini is inaccurate in making per me stat equivalent to sum in 
caussa. The phrase can only be used of hindrances. 

f A question is often equivalent to a negative. This, or a shorter 
form, numquid uis 1 was a civil mode of saying ' Good bye 1 (Plant. Cap. I. 
2. 88). 


Relicumst ut de felicltatg paucS, diciimus (Cic. p. leg. Man. 16. 

47), it, remains for us to say a few words on good fortune. 
Accessit* eo ut milltes eius conclamarint pacem se uelle (Cic. 

ad Fam. x. 21.4), there was added to att this that his soldiery 

cried out they wished for peace. 

1185 In the same way ut and the subjunctive often follow the verb 
est with or without a substantive or neuter adjective : as, 

SSd est mos hSminum ut nolint eundein plurlbus rebus excel- 
led (Cic. Brut. 21.84), hit it is in fact a habit with the world 
not to allow that the same person excels in several things. 

Verisimlle 1 non est ut monumentis maidrum pgcuniam antepo- 
neret (Gic. n. Verr. iv. 6. 11), it is not likely that he valued 
money above the monuments of his ancestors. 

Atque e! ne iiitegrumf quidem erat ut clulbus iura redderet 
(Cic. Tusc. v. 21.62), but he had it not even in his power 
then to restore to his countrymen their rights, t 

1186 Verbs &c. of fearing have the subjunctive, with ne if the ob- 
ject be not desired, with ut if it be desired : as, 

Vgreor ne hoc serpat longius (Cic. ad Att. i. 13. 3), I fear that 
this will creep further. 

Ornamenta metuo ut possim r6cipere (Plaut. Cure. iv. 1. 3), 
the ornaments lam afraid I shall not be able to recover. 

HaudJI sang penculumst ne non mortem aut optandam aut 
certe non timendam putet (Cic. Tusc. v. 40. 118), tltere is 
assuredly no risk of his escaping from the belief that death is 
an object to be desired, or at least not to be feared. 

* Accedit is often followed by quod and the indicative, particularly 
where the past or present is spoken of. So also adde quod. 

f Mihi non est integrum, ' the thing is no longer entire ; I have taken 
a step in it by which I am committed to a continuance in the same direc- 

| In such phrases as the preceding a notion of futurity is commonly 
implied, and hence it will generally, perhaps in good writers always, be 
found that aji imperfect of the subjunctive is alone admissible. Even 
in the second sentence the idea is, ' It is not likely we shall find that 
&c.' It bhould be observed too, that the subjunctive phrase always fol- 

Observe that the Latin inserts a negative where the English has 
none, and vice versa. 

|| This is an example of a practice Common in Cicero, the crowding 
negatives in a sentence. 

274 SYNTAX. 

1187 The quality or quantity is often expressed by the subjunctive 
with iit, or the relative, preceded by some word signifying so or 

Non tarn imperitust rerum ut non sclret (Caes. B. G. I. 44), he 

is not so inexperienced in the world as not to know. 
Res eiusmodl cuius exitus proulderl possit (Cic. ad Fam. vi. 4), 

a matter of such a kind that the issue of it can be foreseen. 
Neque enim tu Is es qul quid sis nescias (Cic. ad Fam. v. 12. 6), 

nor indeed are you the sort of person not to know what is due 

to you. 
TantS, putabatiir utilltas perclpi ex bobus, ut eorum uiscerlbus 

uescl sceliis hSberetiir (Cic. N. D. n. 64. 159), so highly 

valued were the advantages derived from the ox, that to eat 

his flesh was deemed an impiety. 

1188 Sometimes the pronominal noun or adverb is omitted in the 
Latin, but the subjunctive still retained : as, 

Plnarius erat ulr acer et qu! nihll in fide Slculorum r&poneret 
(Liv. xxiv. 37), Pinarius was a man of energy, and not one 
to rely at all on the honour of the Sicilians. 

1189 In indefinite expressions the relative preceded by a verb sig- 
nifying existence is followed by a subjunctive* : as, 

Suiit qul censeant (Cic. Tusc. I. 9. 18), there are persons who 

Inuenti autem multl sunt qui gtiam uitam profunde're' pro 
pS,tria parati essent (Cic. de Off. I. 24. 84), and there have 
been found many who were ready to pour out their very life- 
blood for their fatherland. 

Quis est quin cernat ? (Cic. Acad. Pr. n. 7. 20) who is there 
who does not see ? 

Fuit antea tempus quum Germanos Galii uirtutS sup^rarent 
(Caes. B. G. vi. 24), there was formerly a time when the Ger- 
mans were surpassed in valour by the Galli. 

Est quatenus S,micltiae dftrl u6ui& possit (Cic. de Am. 17. 61), 
there is a line up to which friendship maybe indulged. 

Est iibi id uSleat (Cic. Tusc. v. 8. 23), there are cases where this 
principle avails. 

* In these sentences the English language can always employ the 
word ' there.' 



Null* dSmus in Slcllia locuples fuit, ttbi istg non textrlnum 
instituerit (Cic. n. Verr. iv. 26. 58), there was not a wealthy 
house in Sicily, but what that man set up in it a cloth manu- 

Inuentus est scrlbS, quldam qui cornicum Settles confixerit 
(Cic. p. Mur. 11.25), there turned up a certain clerk, who 
caught the weasels napping.* 

1190 There are many phrases apparently similar to these where the 
indicative is found, but in most of these it will be seen that the 
relative clause is the subject, and what precedes it the predicate : 


' Quis illic est qui c6ntra me astat ? (Plant. Pers. I. 1. 13) who 

is the man yonder who stands facing me ? 
Here the person alluded to is altogether definite. 

Sunt autem multl qui eripiunt aliis quSd aliis largiantiir (Cic. 
de Off. i. 14. 43), and indeed those who rob one set of men to 
lavish what they thus rob on another set, are a numerous class. 

1191 Sometimes est-qui, sunt-quif are to be looked upon as nouns, 
equivalent to nonnemo, nonnulli, and are then followed by the 
indicative : as, 

Set 6st-quod suscense"t tibi (Ter. And. n. 6. 17), but he is an- 
noyed with you about a certain matter. 

Sunt-quos currlculo pulue'rem OlympXco 

CollegissS iuvat (Hor. Od. i. 1.3), 
To some on Olympic course to have swept up dust is maddening 


Sunt-qui ItS, dicunt imperil Pisonis superbS, barbaros ngqul- 
uissg pati (Sal. Cat. 19), some do say that the barbarians could 
not bear the tyrannical commands of Piso. 

Est-ubl peccat (Hor. Ep. n. 1. 63), sometimes (the world) goes 

1192 After digno-, idoneo-, apto-, uno-, solo-, primo-, &c., what is 
necessary to complete the predicate is expressed by the relative or 
ut with the subjunctive : as, 

* Literally ' pierced the eyes of the crows.' 

f Nay Propertius (in. 7. 17) has est-quibus for a dative. Compare 
too the Greek eornvoi. 

t But an infinitive also in later writers, as legi dignus (Quint, x. 1. 96). 
See also 1255. 

276 SYNTAX. 

Lmianae fabulae non stis dignae sunt quae Iterum legantur 

(Oic. Brut. 18.71), the plays of Livius do not deserve a second 

Idoiieus lion est qui impe'tret (Cic. p. leg. Man. 19. 57), he is 

not a Jit person to obtain, his request. 
Solus es, Caesar, cuius in uictoria cecldgrit nemo nisi armatus 

(Cic. p. Deiot. 12. 34), you are the only conqueror, Caesar, in 

whose victory no. one fell unless armed. 

1 1 93 After comparatives, quam qui- or quam tit is followed by the 
subjunctive : as, 

Maiores arbores caedebant quam quas ferre 1 cum armis miles 
posset (Liv. xxxni. 5), they were cutting down trees too heavy 
for a soldier to carry in addition to his arms. 

FerociSr oratio uisa est quam quae habenda apud regem esset 
(Liv. xxxi. 18), the speech was looked upon as in too high a 
tone to be addressed to a king. 

Nimis laeta res est uisS, maiorquS quam tit earn st&tim capgre 
Suimo posset (Liv. xxii. 51), the suggestion seemed too de- 
lightful and too grand for him to grasp immediately. 

Senior iam et infirmior quam ut contentionem dicendl sustl- 
neret, obmutuit et concidit (Liv. xxxni. 2), being now 
advanced in years and too weak to support any violent effort 
in speaking, he suddenly lost his voice and fell to the ground. 

] 194 A predicate is limited and explained by qui- and the subjunc- 
tive :* as, 

PeccassS mini uldeor qui a te discesscrim (Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 

1.1), I did wrong, I think, in leaving you. 
Satin sanu's, me" qui id r6gites ? (Ter. And. iv. 4. 10) are you 

quite in your senses to ask me that ? 

1195 So also a relative clause with a subjunctive (but not to the 
exclusion of the indicative)! is used at times parenthetically : as, 

* Quippe qui-, utpote qui-^ ut qui-, are also used in this way, but 
with greater emphasis. The indicative is found in some writers in these 

f See 1158.1. Many passages are unduly put forward as examples 
under this head by both Madvig( 364, Anm. 2) and Zumpt ( 559) : as, 
quod sine moles'ia tua fiat (Cic. ad Fam. xin. 23), qui modo tolerabili 
condicione sit (Cic. in Cat. iv. 8. 16), quod suum did uellet (Cic. n. Verr. 
iv. 16.36). 


RSfertae sunt orationes centum quinquaginta, quas quldem 
Sd hue inuengrim et legSrim, et uerbls et rebus illustrlbus 
{Cic. Brut. 17. 65), the hundred and fifty orations are replete, 
at least such of them as I have hitherto come across and read, 
with brilliant language and brilliant matter. 

N8que erat In exercitu, qul quldem pgdestria stipendia" fecisset, 
uir factis nobllior (Liv. vn. 13), nor was there a soldier in 
the army, at least of those who had served on foot, more dis- 
tinguished for his deeds. 

1196 In indirect questions, i. e. where an interrogative pronoun or 
conjunction and verb are attached to some verb or phrase, the 
verb following the interrogative* is in the subjunctive : as, 

NaturS, declarat quid uelit (Cic. de Am. 24. 88), Nature pro- 
claims what she wishes. 

Teneo quid erret, et quid &gam h&beo (Ter. And. m. 2. 18), / 
twig what his mistake is, and know what to do. 

Ex captluis cognouit quo in 18co hostium copiae consedissent 
(Goes. B. G-. v. 9), he learnt from the prisoners where the 
enemy's forces were posted. 

Ignorabat rex utSr eorum esset Orestes (Cic. de Am. 7. 24), the 
king knew not which of the two was Orestes. 

Ex hoc quantum b5ni sit In Smicltia, iudlcar! ptftest (Cic. de 
Am. 7. 23), from this a judgment may be formed, how much 
happiness there is in friendship. 

Existit quaestio num quando &m!cl nSuI uetgrlbus sint ante- 
ponendl (Cic. de Am. 19. 67), there rises the question, whether 
at any time new friends are to be preferred to old friends. 

Cum incertus essem, ubi esses (Cic. ad Att. I. 9), being uncer- 
tain where you were. 

Discent quemadmodum haec flant (Cic. de Am. 12.41), th?y 
will learn how these things are done. 

Diiblto an Vgnusiam tendam (Cic. ad Att. xvi. 5.3), I am at a 
loss whether to make for Venusia. 

Copias suas, iudlcionS non conduxgrit, S,n gqultum aduentu 
prohlbltus, dubiumst (Caes. B. G. vi. 31), whether it was 

* Care must be taken not to confound the relative and interrogative. 
Scio quid quaeras means, ' I know the question you wish to put ;' but 
scio quod quaeris, * I know the answer to it.' Compare Ter. And. in. 3. 4, 
et quid te ego uelim, et quod tu quaeris scies. 

278 SYNTAX. 

from design that he omitted to collect his forces, or because he 
was prevented by the arrival of our cavalry, is doubtful. 

Ddleam necng doleam nihll interest (Cic. Tusc. u. 12. 29), 
whether I am hurt or not hurt, makes no difference. 

Id uiso, tun &n illi insaniant (Ter. And. in. 3. 3), the object of 
my visit is to see whether it be you or they that are mad. 

De pueris quid agam, nou h&beo (Cic. ad Att. vn. 19), what to 
do with the boys, I know not. 

Hanc (paludem) si nostri translrent, hostes expectabant (Caes. 
B. G. ii. 9), this (morass) the enemy were waiting to see whe- 
ther our men would cross.* 

1197 In the older writers, and occasionally in Horace and Virgil, an 
indicative is found in indirect questions : as, 

Si nunc memorarg uelim, quam fideli animo In illam fui, uere 
possum (Ter. Hec. in. 5.21), if at this very moment I wished 
to mention how faithful 1 have been towards her, I could do 
so with truth. 

Vide ut discldit labrum (Ter. Ad. iv. 2. 20), see how he has cut 
my lip open. 

Adspice ut antrum 
Siluestris raris sparsit labruscS, rScemis ( Virg. BUG. v. 6), 

See how the wild labrusca\ 
Has sprinkled the cave with scattered grapes. 

1198 An interrogative clause sometimes accompanies the phrase quid 
ais, or the imperatives die, cgdo, or the indicative quaeso, but 
without being dependent on them : as, 

Quid aisj, ubi intellexeras I'd consilium capere, cur non dixti 
extemplo Pamphilo ? (Ter. And. in. 2. 37) just tell me this : 
When you saw that they were going to play that game, why did 
you not immediately tell Pamphilus ? 

Dic mihi, placetne tlbi edSre iniussu meo ? (Cic. ad Att. xni. 

* It has been already noticed ( 495) that in these indirect questions 
there is often an ambiguity whether the existing time or future time be 
meant. Compare 594 and 600. 

f ' A wild vine.' 

j The phrase quid ais is also used in expressing surprise at something 
heard : as, ' What do you say ? surely I misunderstand you,' or ' You 
don't say so.' 

This die mihi, like the conjunction eho, is merely a mode of inviting 
a person's special attention to some coming question. The French in the 
same wav use dis-moi. 


21.4) be so good as to answer me this: Do you approve of 

your publishing the book without my authority ? 
CSdS, quid iurgiibit tecum ? (Ter. And. n. 3. 15) pray, what 

quarrel will he have with you ? 
Quaeso, quotiens dlceudumst tibi ? (Plant. Most. iv. 2. 32) how 

often must I tell you, prithee ? 

1199 The phrase nescio-qui- is to be looked upon as a trisyllabic 
word partaking of the nature of an adjective. Hence there is no 
irregularity in the construction with an indicative : as, 

Alii nescio-quo pacto obduruerunt (Cic. ad Fam. v. 15.2), others 
somehow or other have become hardened. 

1200 A similar union accounts for the indicative in such phrases as, 
Sales in dicendo nimium-quantum* ualent (Cic. Or. 26. 87), 

jokes tell immensely in oratory. 
Id mirura-quantum* profuit ad concordiam ciuitatls (Liv. n. 

1), this conduced wonderfully to harmony among the citizens. 
Immane'-quantum ilnimi exarserg (Sal. ap. Non.), the men fired 

up beyond all measure. 

Reported Speech or Thoughts (OBLIQUA OEATIO). 

1201 When the words or thoughts of another are reported and 
not in the first person, it is called the obliqua oratio, and all se- 
condary clauses, that is, clauses dependent upon the relative or 
upon conjunctions, are in the subjunctive mood. Compare the 
following passages : 

Sgnatu reiqug publlcae eg 8 non dero, si audacter sententias 
dlcere uultis ; sin CaesSrein respicitts atque eius gratiam 
sequimini, ut supgriorfbus fecutis tempSrlbus, &go mihi 
consllium cdpiam, ngquS sgnatus auctorltati obtemperabo^ , 
I will not be wanting to the senate and the country, if you are 
willing to express your opinions boldly ; but if you look to 
Caesar, and make his favour your object, as you have done on 
recent occasions, then 1 will take my measures for myself, and 
will not be guided by the authority of the senate. 

* Still the original phrases must have been, nimium est quantum 
ualeant, mirum est quantum profuerit, &c. Compare the Greek phrase 

t See Caesar, B. C. i. 1. 

280 SYNTAX. 

Senatu reique publlcae se non defuturumpollicetur, si audacter 
sententias dlcerS uelint ; sin Caesarem respiciant atque eius 
gratiam sgquantur, ut supSriorlbus fecerint temp5rlbus, se 
sibi consllium capturum neque senatus auctoiitati obtempS- 
raturum, he promises that he will not be wanting &c. 

1202 Or the tenses might be thrown into past time (which is more 
commonly used) by writing pollicebatur or polllcltus est, uellent. 
resplcgrent, sequerentiir, fecissent 

1202. 1 In the obliqua oratio, as compared with the directa oratio, the 
changes are as follows : 

The main tenses, which are indicatives in the original speech, 
are changed to the accusative and infinitive. 

Imperatives are changed to imperfects of the subjunctive. 

Subjunctives remain subjunctives. 

Direct interrogatives in the indicative are changed to the ac- 
cusative and infinitive, provided the person was either the first or 
third ; but if it was the second person, then the subjunctive is 

With regard to the tenses, imperfects remain imperfects, and 
perfects remain perfects ; but which of the imperfects or perfects 
is to be preferred, depends upon the tense of the indicative verb 
to which the whole is subjoined. 

The pronouns ho- (in its original sense) and isto- have no place 
in the obliqua oratio, any more than eg5, tu, nos, uos, (fee. Illo- 
commonly supplies the place of the second person. See Sal. Jug. 
cc. 61, 62, 64, 65, 77. 

All this however does not prevent the use of the indicative 
mood in the midst of the obliqua oratio, where the writer chooses 
to say something of his own. 

1203 Sometimes the obliqua oratio is introduced by a verb of recom- 
mending &c. with the subjunctive mood, and this is followed by 
an infinitive ; before which in the English some word signifying to 
say must be inserted : as, 

Censebant ut noctu Iter facerent, possS prius ad angustias 
u6nirl quam sentlrentiir (Caes. B. C. I. 67), they recom- 
mended that they should march by night, observing that they 
might make tlieir way to the pass before they were perceived. 

* See Madvig'e Opuscula, vol. ii. p. 208. 


1204 At other times the obliqua oratio is introduced by a verb of 
saying, &c. with the infinitive mood, and this is followed by a 
subjunctive ; before which in the English some word signifying to 
recommend &c. must be inserted : as, 

Decent sul iudlcl rem non essS ; proinde habeat r&tionem pos- 
teritatls (Caes. B. G. I. 13), they point out that it is not a 
matter for them to decide upon, and they recommend him 
therefore at once to consider the consequences. 

1205 Without a formal use of the obliqua oratio >, a verb in a depend- 
ent clause may be in the subjunctive mood, when it expresses the 
thoughts or words or alleged reasons of another. 

Aristides, nonne ob earn caussam expulsust patria, quod praeter 

modum iustiis esset ?* (Cic. Tusc. v. 36. 105) Aristides again, 

was he not driven from his country on tJie very ground that 

he was just beyond measure ? 
Fabio dicta dies est, quod legattis in Gallos pugnasset (Liv. vi. 

1), notice of trial was given to Fabius, for having fought 

against the Galli when ambassador. 
Aedem deo I5ul uouit, si eo die hostes fudisset (Liv. xxxi. 21), 

he vowed a temple to the god Jupiter, if he routed the enemy 

that day. 

1206 In these cases the power of the subjunctive may be expressed 
by inserting such words as they said or they thought : for example, 
in the last sentence but one the English might have been, ' be- 
cause he was just they said beyond measure.' 

1207 Sometimes the verb to say or think is expressed in these phrases, 
and unnecessarily put into the subjunctive mood : as, 

Ille petere contendit ut rglinqueretur, partim qued mar8 tlrne- 
ret, partim quod rellgionibtis impedlr! sese dlceret (Caes. 
B. G. v. 6), the other zealously entreated to be left behind, 
partly because he was afraid of the sea, partly because he was 
prevented, he said, by religious scruples. 

* The subjunctive mood may be thus used, when the writer speaks of 
a feeling which moved himself at a, former time: as, Mihi Academiae 
consuetudo non ob earn caussam solum placuit, quod . . . ., sed etiam quod 
esset ea maxuma dicendi exerdtatio (Cic. Tusc. n. 3.9), 'For myself the 
practice of the Academy pleased me, not merely because . . . ., but also 
because it afforded the best exercise in speaking.' (Madvig). Occurrebant 
(mi hi) colles campique et Tiberis et hoc caelum, sub quo natus educatusque 
essem (Liv. v. 54 J. 

282 SYNTAX. 

Here impediretur would have expressed the same, though less 
forcibly ; on the other hand, timeret might have been translated, 
* he was afraid, he said. ' 

Cum Hannlbalis permissu exisset de castris, rSdiit paulo post, 
quod se oblltum nescio-quid dlceret (Cic. de Off. I. 13. 40), 
after leaving the camp with Hannibal's permission, he returned 
shortly after, because he had forgotten something or other, he 

Legatos suos multl de prouincia decedere iusserunt, quod illo- 
rum culpa se minus commSde audlre arbitrarentur (Cic. u. 
Verr. HI. 58. 134), many (governors) have directed their lieu- 
tenants to leave a province, because through the misconduct of 
these lieutenants they themselves, they thought, had got a lad 

Quern qui reprendit, in eo rgprendit, quod gratum praeter 
mo'dum dicat esse (Cic. p. Plane. 33. 82), and he who cen- 
sures him, censures him for being, he says, grateful beyond 

1208 It has been said above that the subjunctive is used in speaking 
of that which does not exist. Thus, what is denied is in the sub- 
junctive after a conjunction : as, 

Istos tantum Sbest ut ornem*, ut ecftci non possit quin eos 
oderim (Cic. Phil. xi. 14. 36), so far from complimenting 
those persons you speak of, I cannot be prevented from hating 

Tantum Sberat ut binos scrlbSrent, uix singulos confecerunt 
(Cic. ad Att. xin. 21. 5), so far from copying two sets (of the 
work}, they with difficulty completed one. 

Piiglles in iactandis caestlbus mgemiscunt, non quod doleant, 
sed quiS, profundenda uoce omng corpus intendltiir (Cic. 
Tusc. u. 23. 56), the boxer in throwing out the caestus utters 
a groan, not because he is in pain, but because by sending out 
the voice every muscle in the body is strained. 
Non eo dico quo mihi uSniat in dubium tuS, fides (Cic. p. 
Quinct. 2. 5), / do not say this because your word is doubted 
by me. 
Maiores nostri in db'minum dS seruo quaeri nolugrunt, non 

* The rule applies of course to ornem, not to the other subjunctives 
in this sentence. 


quiS, nou posset uerum inuenlrl, sed quiS, uldfbatiir indig- 
num essS (Cic. p. Mil. 22. 59), our ancestors were unwilling 
that evidence should be drawn by torture from a slave against 
his master, not because the truth could not be got at, but be- 
cause (in this case} there seemed to be something degrading. 
Non quin confiderem dllfgentiae tuae (Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 24.1), 
not that I in any way distrusted your carefulness. 

1209 Another example of the subjunctive employed in speaking of 
what does not exist, is seen in hypothetical* sentences, both in the 
clause of condition and the clause of consequence. These sen- 
tences are conveniently divided into present and past. 

a. Hoc nee scio, nee si sciam, dlcere ausim (Liv. praef.), this 

in the first place I do not know, and secondly, if I did know, 
I should not venture to say. 

Tu si hie sis, Sitter sentias (Ter. And. n. 1. 10), you yourself, 
if you were in my situation, would feel differently. 

b. Quid fftciam, si furtum fecerit ? (Hor. Sat. I. 3. 94) what 

should I do, were he to commit a theft ? 

c. Nonne sapiens, si fame ipse conftciatur, abstulerit clbum 

alterl ? Mlnume uero (Cic. de Off. m. 6. 29), would not a 
wise man, if he were himself on the point of being starved, 
rob some other of food? Assuredly not. 

d. Id si accident, simiis armati (Cic. Tusc. I. 32. 78), if that 

were to happen, we should be ready armed. 

e. Si frater esset, qul m&gis morem gereret ? (Ter. Ad. iv. 5. 

74) if he had been a brother, how could he have been more 
obliging ? 

f. Si quis hoc gnato tuo Tuos serutfs faxetf, qualem haberes 

* See above, 1153 and 496, 497, 498. 

t Thatfaxit is inadmissible here, even Madvig would allow, although 
he denies the existence of the word faxem. Moreover the explanation 
of the form faxo given in 566 is confirmed by a line in the same scene, 
Pol si tstucfaxis, hau sine poena feceris ; for the law of the Latin lan- 
guage requires that the two verbs should here be in the same tense (see 
Madvig's own Gr. 340, obs. 2), and the difference of form is agreeable 
to a peculiarity of, the iambic senarius, which, while it admits contracted 
forms in the middle, prefers the uncontracted at the close of the line, as 
periclum and periculo^ Plant. Cap. in. 5. 82 ; norit and nouerit, Ter. 
And. Prol. 10 ; sit and sies or siet, And. 11. 5. 13, Haut. in. 1.47; fac 
generally, but face at the end, And. iv. 1.56, v. 1.2 ; besides a large 
number of words which are commonly monosyllabic in pronunciation ex- 
cept in the last place, as mihi, And. iv. 4. 4, Haut. in. 1. 101. Madvig's 

284 SYNTAX. 

gr&tiain ? (Plant. Cap. in. 5. 54) if any slave of yours had 

done the same for your son, what would your gratitude ham 

been like ? 
Si has inimicltias cauere pStuisset, uiueret (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 

6.17), if he had been able to guard against the enmity of 

this party, he would have been now alive. 
g. Absque eo esset, recte ggo mihi uldissem (Ter. Ph. I. 4. 11), if 

it had not been for him, 1 should have taken good care of 

R6gnumne hie tu p6ssides ? Si p6ssiderem, ornatus esses ex 

tuis uirtutibus (Ter. Ad. 11. 1.21), are you lord paramount 

here ? If I had been, you should have had a dressing such 

as your special merits deserve.* 
h. Ngcassem te uerberibus, nisi irattis essem (Cic. R. P. i. 

38. 59), / should have flogged you to death, if I had not 

put myself in a passion. 
Deletus exercltus foret, n! fugientis siluae texissent (Liv. in. 

22), the army would have been annihilated, had not the woods 

covered them in their flight. 

1210 It will be seen that in hypothetical sentences with the present 
tenses (whether imperfect or perfect), the condition, though not 
fulfilled at the present moment, is not an impossibility, for it may 
yet perhaps be fulfilled. 

1211 The past tenses in hypothetical sentences (both imperfect and 
perfect) allude to past time, or at any rate to an obstacle in past 
time affecting the present state of things. In either case it is 
novv too late to alter matters ; and therefore these tenses often 
imply not only the non-existence of a state of things, but also 

1212 The tenses in hypothetical sentences are determined in the 
usual way. If the imperfect be used in the conditional clause, 
the notion of the verb is not completed before that in the clause 

view is, that/a^o and such forms are the equivalents of the Greek TW//W, 
irpalw, and consequently simple, not perfect futures. See his Opuscula, 
vol. ii. p. 6'0, &c. This is clearly wiong. 

* It should be remembered that in the oblir/ua oratio the subjunctive 
will be found after si, even when the construction is not that which we 
have called hypothetical, but the ordinary sentence of condition, which 
in the directa oratio would be in the indicative. 


of the consequence. Oh the other hand, a perfect tense in the 
conditional clause generally* denotes an action completed before 
what is expressed in the clause of the consequence. As regards 
the past tenses of hypothetical sentences, in the clause of the con- 
sequence the past-imperfect is used to denote a continued state of 
things, or something not yet completed, whereas a single occur- 
rence is expressed by the past-perfect. 

213 Thus the general construction of sentences containing the word 
if, is, that the hypothetical, i. e. those which put a case, the non- 
existence of which is implied, have the subjunctive in both clauses, 
while in other cases the indicative is required in both clauses. 

1214 The apparent exceptions to this rule are for the most part to 
be explained by the sentences being elliptical. Thus in hypothe- 
tical sentences the participles in turo and endo are often found in 
the clause of consequence ; and, if so, always attended by an in- 
dicative : as, 

Si me triumpharg prohlberent, testis cltaturust fu! rerum a 
me gestarum (Liv. xxxvni. 47), if they had attempted to 
prevent my triumphing, I should have catted up witnesses of 
my achievements. 

Illi ipsl qui remanserant relicturi agros grant, nisi litteras ml- 
sisset (Cic. u. Verr. in. 52. 121), even those who had remained 
behind would have abandoned the lands, if he had not sent 
the letter. I 

Quid quod si Andranodoro consIliS, processissent, Heracleae 

cum ceteris fuit seruiendum, nay, if the plans of Andra- 

nodorus had succeeded, Heraclea must have become a slave with 

the rest of the people. 

Si prluatus esset, tSmgn ad tantum bellum Is Srat dellgendus 

* This word is inserted with a view to such a sentence as,fdsifecisses, 
fer mihi gratnm fecisses, where however the real consequence is expressed 
in pergratum, * I should have been greatly your debtor.' 

f Literally ' I intended to call them,' for which our translation sub- 
stitutes, by no very violent inference, ' I should have done so.' The lat- 
ter literally translated would have been citauissem. 

I That is, ' They were preparing to leave, and' (though the author 
omits expressly to say so) ' no doubt would have done so.' 

This passage occurs in Liv. xxiv. 26, with the alterations required 
by the obliqua oratio, viz. sibi and fuerit in place of Heracleae and fuit. 
Compare a similar change in the same chapter of the phrase, Si iffugium 
patuisset in publicum, impleturae urbem tumultu /uerunt. 

286 SYNTAX. 

(Cic. p. leg. Man. 17. 50), if he had been in a private stati&f*, 
still for so seriotis a war he was the man who ought to have 
been selected. 

1215 A similar explanation accounts for the following phrases : 

Ni metuam patrem, h&beo quod moneam probe (Ter. And. v. 
4. 15), if I were not afraid of my father, 1 could give him an 
excellent* hint. 

Id eg5, si tu neges, certo sciot (Ter. Haut. iv. 1. 19), even if 
you were to deny this, I know it for certain (and consequently 
your denial of it would be fruitless). 

AdmSnebat me res ut intermissionem elSquentiae deplorarem, 
n! uererer ne de me ipso uldSrer queri (Cic. de Off. u. 19. 
67), / was reminded by the matter before us that I ought to 
lament the disappearance of eloquence from among us ; and 
should have yielded to the suggestion, had I not feared that I 
might be thought to be urging a merely personal complaint. 

Si per Metellum llcltum esset, matres illorum, uxores, s5rores 
uSniebant (Cic. u. Verr. v. 49. 129), their mothers, wives, 
sisters were coming (and would actually have come), if Me- 
tellus had permitted. 

Multa me dehortantiir a uobis, ni studium reipublicae siiperet 
(Sal. Jug. 31), many considerations dissuade me from trou- 
bling you (and they would probably prevail), if my love for 
my country did not outweigh them. 

Pons Iter paene hostibus de'dit, ni unus uir fuisset (Liv. n. 
10), the bridge all but offered a passage to the enemy, (and 
would have done so completely,) had it not been for one brave 

Quod ni prSpere pernotuisset, haud multum S,b exltio legati 
Sberant (Tac.l Ann. i. 23), and if this had not speedily be- 
come generally known, (they would have put an end to the 
lieutenant-general, for even as it was), they were not far from 
so doing. 

* Literally ' I have an excellent hint to give, and but for the reason 
assigned I would give it.' 

f Of course ' my knowledge' is in no way conditional upon ' your 
speaking the truth or not.' 

Tacitus abounds in this construction: see in the very same chapter, 
ferrum parabant* ni . . . . interiecisset. 


Such sentences as the following are mere instances of ordinary 
exaggeration forthwith corrected* : 

Me trunciis illapsus cr5bro Sustulerat, nisi Faunus ictum 
Dextra leuasset (Hor. Od. n. 17.27), Horace a trunk down 
gliding on his skull had carried off, (or at least would have 
done so), had not Faunus with his hand lightened the blow. 

1217 The verbs of duty and power, already expressing in themselves 
what is less forcibly implied in the subjunctive mood, generally 
retain the terminations of the indicative in hypothetical sentences : 


Ilunc patris ISco, si ulla in te pietas esset, colerg debebas (Cic. 

Phil. n. 38. 99), this man you ought to have respected as a 
father, if you had had any affection in you. 
Consul esse qui potui, nisi hunc uitae cursum tenuissem a 
pueritia? (Cic. R. P. I. 6.10) how could I have been consul, 
if I had not kept strictly to this course of life from my boy- 
hood ? 

1218 In the same way the verb * to be j in the indicative is accom- 
panied by adjectivesf, and occasionally substantives, when the 
hypothetical form of the sentence might have suggested the sub- 
junctive : as, 

Longumst si tlbi narrem quamobrem id fSciam (Ter. Haut. n. 

3. 94), it would be tedious if I were to tell you why I do so. 
Aequius erat id uoluntate' fieri (Cic. de Off. I. 9. 28), it would 

have been better if it had been done willingly. 
Nonne fuit s&tius tilstis Amaryllidls Iras Atqug superbS, p&ti 

fastldia 1 ? ( Virg. Buc. n. 14) had it not better been Amaryllis' 

bitter wrath and haughty whims to brook ? 
Quanto melius fueratt in hoc promissum patris non essg serua- 

tum ? (Cic. de Off. in. 25. 94) how much better would it have 

been, if in his case his father's promise had not been kept ? 

1219 The conjunction in hypothetical sentences is sometimes omitted, 
as in English ; but in this case the verb is commonly placed first : 

* It should be observed, that in sentences of this character the nisi 
or si commonly follows. 

f Particularly adjectives of propriety. 

The past-perfect tense in place -f a simple perfect is common in 
such phrases, and also with the verbs of duty and power. 

288 SYNTAX. 

RSges me, nihil fortassg respondeam (Cic. N. D. i. 21. 57), were 
you to ask me, I should perhaps make no answer. 

Dares hanc uim Crasso, in ford saltaret (Cic. de Off. in. 19.75), 
had you offered this power to Croesus, he would have danced 
in the forum. 

1220 Very frequently the conditional clause is omitted : as, 

Stare piites, &deo procedunt tempSrS, tarde (Ov. Trist. v. 10. 5), 
you would think (if you were here) that time was standing 
still, so slowly does it advance. 

Reos dlcSres (Liv. n. 35), you would have said they were on 
their trial (had you been there}. 

Hoc confirmauerim, elSquentiam rem unam esse omnium dif- 
ftcillumam (Cic. Brut. 6,25), this I would maintain (if there 
were occasion}, that eloquence is the one thing of all most dif- 
icult to attain. 

1221 Thus, malim I should prefer , nolim 1 should be unwitting, uelim 
1 should wish, are modest expressions, not partaking of the rude- 
ness of malo I prefer, nolo / won't, uolo I insist ; while mallem, 
nollem, uellem, signify I should have preferred &c., and refer either 
to past time, or to what is now impossible. Hence, 

Nollem* factum (Ter. Ad. n. 1. 11), 7 wish it had never been 
done, i.e. I beg your pardon. 

1222 The consequence also is at times omitted : as, 

si Sub rastro crgpet argent! iniM seriS, (Pers. II. 10), oh, if 
neath the harrow ajar of silver were to crack for me. 

1223 The consequencet again is generally omitted in sentences con- 
taining quS,sI as if, or equivalent words : as, 

Qu&sl uero consili sit re's (Caes. B. G. vn. 38), as if forsooth 
it were matter for deliberation. 

Me iuuat, uelut si ipse in parts l&boris fugrim, ad finem belli 
peruenissg (Liv. xxxi. 1), 7 am delighted, as though I had 
myself shared the toil, to have arrived at the close of the war. 

* Literally * I should have wished it not done.' The suppressed con- 
dition may have been, Si optando potuissem quae facto, sunt infecta red- 
dere. Natim factum would signify, ' I should be sorry to have it done.' 

t Thus in the second sentence the fuller form would have been, * I 
am ii8 much delighted as I should have been if &c.' 


Eius cr&delltatem, uelut si coram adesset, horrebant (Goes. B. 

Ch I. 32), they kept shuddering at this man's bloodthirstiness, 

as though he had been present. 
Sic quaesttfr est factus, quam si esset summo loco natiis (Cic. 

p. Plane. 25.60), he was made quaestor with the same facility, 

as if he had been born in the highest station. * 

1221 When the second personf is used to denote generally one, a 
man, the subjunctive commonly enters into secondary clauses, 
whether preceded by a relative or conjunction : as, 

In excitando plurumum uSlet, si laudes eum quern cohortere 
(Cic. ad Fam. xv. 21.5), in rousing to action, the greatest 
effect is produced, if one praises the person whom one is en- 
BSnus segnior fit, iibi neglegas (Sal. Jug. 31), the good man 

becomes less active, when you neglect him. 

Tantum remanet, quod rectS factis consecutus sis (Cic. de Sen. 
19. 69), that only is left behind, which a man has obtained by 
good deeds. 

1225 Secondary clauses which are attached to clauses in the sub- 
junctive or infinitive mood and form an essential part of the idea 
therein expressed, are themselves in the subjunctive mood : as, 

Si lucS qu5qu8 canes latrent, quom Deos salutatum allqul 
uenerint, his crura suffringantur, quod acres sint quom 
susplcio nullS, sit (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 20.56), if even in the 
light dogs were to bark, when any persons come to a temple to 
offer their prayers, they would have their legs broken for being 
so watchful when there is no ground for suspicion. 

1226 Hence verbs of promising and threatening, inasmuch as they 
express in one word ' the saying that something will be done', take 
a subjunctive of the condition : as, 

Praemium proposuit qui inuenisset nSuam u&luptatem (Cic. 

* See 499. In the four examples here given the tenses in the in- 
dicative mood with a negative would have been respectively, consili res 
non est, in parte laboris nonfui, non aderat, non crat summo loco natus. 
Thus it is only the mood that is here altered by the hypothetical form of 
the sentence. 

f This remark is from Madvig. 
J For the omission of the antecedent ei see 1126. 

200 SYNTAX. 

Tusc. v. 7. 20), he promised a reward to the man, who should 
find a new pleasure* 

1227 By the omission of the governing verb the subjunctive appears 
to carry with it a meaning which really belongs to that verb. 

a. Possibility, ptftest esse ut understood. This construction 
however is very rare unless some such word as forsitan, forsan,t 
accompany the subjunctive : as, 

Velim des opSram, quod commo'do tuo fiat (Cic. ad Fam. xm. 

27. 3), 1 would beg you to give your assistance, so far as may 

be done without inconvenience to you. 
Me miseram, forsan hie mihi paruam habeat fidem (Ter. E. i. 

2.117), alas, maybe my friend here may have little faith in 

Nlmium forsltaii haec ill! mirentur (Cic. n. Verr. iv. 56.124), 

those people may perhaps admire these things overmuch. 
Ngque id facio, ut forsitan quibusdam uldear, simiilationg (Cic. 

ad Fam. i. 8. 2), nor do 1 do this, as some perhaps may think, 

by way of make-believe. 

b. Permission and concession, such a verb as sin- permit, or 
cSd- grant, being understood : as, 

FruaturJ sane hoc solacio (Cic. de Proy. Con. 7.16), let him 
enjoy forsooth this consolation. 

Vt desint ulres, tamen est laudaudS uoluntas (Ov. Pont. in. 
4. 79), though strength be wanting* praiseworthy still the will. 

FuSrit cupldus, fuerit iratus, fuerit pertinax, sceleris uero cri- 
ming llceat mortuo cSrer6 (Cic. p. Lig. 6. 18), he may have 
been ambitious, he may have been revengeful, he may have 
been obstinate ; but the charge of impiety at any rate allow 
him, now that he is dead, to be clear of. 

Vt 8nim cetgrS, pariS, Tube'ronl cum Varo fuissent, hoc certe" 

* See 503. 

f The an at the close of these words is no doubt identical with the 
Greek av ; but as this takes the form KCV in Homer, we probably have 
in it only a variety of our verb can. Compare our may-be and the 
French peut-etre. Moreover the root can was not a stranger to the Latin 
language, for it virtually occurs in the old form ne-quin-ont for nequeunt. 

$ Observe that the concessive tenses nearly always comme\\ee a clause, 
unless modo or dum accompany them. 

* Even granting that.' 


praeclpuoin Tuberonis fuit (Cic. p. Lig. 9. 27), for even 
allowing that every thing else had been shared by Tubero with 
Varus, this at least was the peculiar qualification of Tubero. 

Sit clarus Sclpio, ornetiir exlmia laude Afrlcanus, hbeatur uir 
ggregius Paullus, sit aeterna gloria Mariiis, anteponatur 
omnibus Pompeiiis, grit profecto inter horum laudes alT- 
quid Itfci nostrae gloriae (Cic. in Cat. iv. 10. 21), let Scipin 
be renowned, let Africanus be covered with especial glory, let 
Paullus be accounted a great man, let Marius enjoy eternal 
fame, let Pompey take precedence of all, still there will assur- 
edly be amid the glories of these men some room for our fame 

Ne sit summum malum dolor, malum certe est (Cic. Tusc. n 
5. 14), granting that pain is not the greatest evil, an evil it 
certainly is. 

Maiient ingenia sSnlbus, mSdo permaneat studium (Cic. de 
Sen. 7. 22), the intellect remains with the aged, provided only 
there still remain energy. 

Seru6s est nemo, qui in5d5 tolerabill condlcionS sit seruitutis, 
qul non audaciam cluium perhorrescat (Cic. in Cat. iv. 8. 
16), there is not a single slave even, if his position as a slave 
be but tolerable, that does not shudder at the audacity of men 
who call themselves citizens. 

Id quoque possum fe"rre, m6do si reddat (Ter. Ad. n. 1. 51), 
that also I can put up with, provided only he pay. 

Tu fors quid me fiat parui pendis, dum illi consulas (Ter. Haut. 
iv. 3.37), you perhaps care little what becomes of me, provided 
only you secure your master there. 

HSmlnes, quamuis* in turbldis rebus sint, tamen interdum 
Snlmis relaxantur (Cic. Phil. n. 16.39), men, allowing that 
they are in circumstances as troubled as you please, still at 
times unbend. 

c. Indirect interrogative, rdgas understood : as, 

A. Quid fecit ? B. Quid ille fecerit ? (Ter. Ad. i. 2. 4) A. What 
has he done ? B. What has he done, ask you ? 

d. Wishing, uls, pr6c6r, <fec. understood : as, 

* The poets, together with Livy and later writers, use quamuis with 
an indicative, and vice versa quanquam with a subjunctive: as, quamuis 
tst rustica (Virg. Buc. in. 84), quanquam moueretur (Liv. xxxvi. 34). 



Quid faciam ? (Ter. E I. 1.1) what would you have me do ? 
Quid fS,cerem ? (Ter. E. v. 1. 15) what ought I to have done ? 
Valeaut qui inte> nos discidium uolunt (Ter. And. iv. 2. IS), 

farewell to those who insist upon tearing us asunder. 
Ne uluam si id tlbi concede (Cic. ad Fam. vii. 23. 4), may I 

die if I grant you that. 
Dispeream nl Submosses omms (Nor. Sat. i. 9. 47), may I be 

utterly destroyed, if thou wouldst not have made the whole of 

them move off. 
Atque ita me di ament ut ego nunc non tam meapte causa 

Laet6r quam illius (Ter. Haut. iv. 3. 8), and so may heaven 

love me, as lam delighted now not so much on my own account 

as on his. 

e. Demanding, postulant ? &c. understood : as, 

Tu ut unquam te corrigas ! (Cic. in Cat. I. 9. 22), you ever cor- 
rect yourself ! 

Hicine ut tibi respondeat ! (Ter. Ph. v. 8. 3), this man answer 
you !* 

f. Duty, Sportet &c. understood : as, 

Vlllcus iniussu domini credat nemini (Goto. R. R. 5.3). a bail'/ 

should lend to no one without his master's authority. 
PStius diceret non esse aecum (Cic. de Off. in. 22.88), he should 

rather have said, it was not fair. 
Sumeret Alicunde (Ter. Ph. n. 1. 69), he should have borrowed 

it from some one. 
Frumentum ne emisses (Cic. u. Verr. in. 84.195), you shoidd 

not have bought the corn. 

g. The object is often expressed elliptically, more particularly 
in a parenthesis, which ought always to be brief : as, 

Vere ut dlcamf (Cic. n. Verr. v. 69.177), to speak candidly. 

S^nectus est natura ISquaciorJ, ne ab omnibus earn uttiis 
uidear uindlcare' (Cic. de Sen. 16. 55), old age is naturally 
somewhat talkative, so you will not charge me with defending 
it from every fault. 

* See 1247 and note. 

f Perhaps in this example ' permission' is the notion understood, dabis 

I Hoc dico understood, ' I say this that I may not appear &c.' 


Vix mcedo inanis, ne ire posse cum onere existumes (Plant. 
Am. i. 1.174), I can scarcely walk with nothing about me, so 
do not suppose that I can get on with a load. 

1228 For the sake of brevity, such a verb as existumes or dlcam is 
often omitted in sentences like that just given. Thus Plautus 
might have said in the last example, Vix incedo Inanis, ne Ire 
possim cum Snere : as, 

Nouam earn potestatem Mpuerg pSMbus nostris, ne nunc dul- 

ceding sgmel capti ferant desldgrium (Liv. m. 52), this power, 

when yet unknown to them, they wrested from our fatJters ; 

much less now, having once tasted the sweets of it, will they 

tolerate the loss. 
MortaliS, factS, peribunt, Nedum sermonum stgt hSnos (Hor. 

Ep. ii. 3. 68), deeds will perish, much less will the glory of 

words survive. 
Vix In ipsis tectis frlgus ultatur, nedum in mar! sit f&ctie abesse 

b iniuria temporls (Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 8), even in a roofed 

building it is difficult to avoid the cold, much less is it easy 

at sea to escape being hurt by the weather. 
Erat Snim multo domicilium hums urbls aptiiis humanitati 

tuae quam tota" Peloponnesus, nedum Ptrae (Cic. ad Fam. 

vii. 28. l),/or in those days this city was better suited as a 

residence to one of your refined habits, than any part of the 

Peloponnesus, let alone Patrae. 

1229 Quum or cum in clauses signifying a reason for or against any 
thing is followed by a subjunctive : as, 

Quum ultS, sine amlcis mgtus pl6n& sit, ratio ipsa" m&net S,ml- 
citias compararS (Cic. de Fin. i. 20. 66), seeing that life 
without friends is full of danger, reason itself warns us to 
form friendships. 

Quae quum omniS, facta sint, tamen unS, sola erat ciultas Ma- 
mertlna, quae legates qui istum laudarent miserint (Cic. 
II. Verr. n. 5. 13), in spite of all these doings, Messana was 
the one sole city that sent an embassy to speak in favour of 
the accused. 

Sed ea quum contemplarl cupgrem, uix adsplciendl pStestas 
fuit (Cic. de Or. i. 36. 161), but although I was eager to have 
a good stare at these things, I could scarcely get a look at 

294 SYNTAX. 

Quae quum itS, sint (Cic. in Cat. i. 5. 10), this being the case. 

1230 Quum as an adverb of time in the past tenses has the subjunc- 
tive mood, being translated with the imperfect by while or as, 
with the past-perfect by after : as, 

Quum acerrime pugnaretur, siibito sunt Aedul uisi ab laterS 
nostris aperto (Caes. B. G. vn. 50), as the battle was pro- 
ceeding with the greatest spirit, there suddenly appeared a 
body of Aedui on the exposed* flank of our men. 

Quum dies complures transissent, subito per exploratores cer- 
tior factus est (Caes. B. Gr. in. 2), after many days had al- 
ready passed by, he was suddenly informed by his scouts. 

1231 Quum followed by turn, in the sense of not only, but also, has 
generally the indicative, occasionally the subjunctive : as, 

Quum multae res in philosophia nequaquam satis explicatae 
sintf, turn perdifficilis quaestio est de natura deorum (Cic. 
N. D. i. 1. 1), while there are many things in philosophy 
which have been by no means fully explained, one of the most 
difficult is the inquiry about the nature of the gods. 

1.231 . 1 After ante-quam and prius-quam, a. a subjunctive is used, where 
the speaker would imply the non-occurrence of the act ; b. an in- 
dicative, where he would imply the occurrence of the act, and 
therefore particularly where a negative precedes, and above all in 
past sentences. In other cases there seems to be some indifference 
as to the mood. 

a. Subj. Niimidae, priusquam ex castris subuSniretur, in prox- 
iimos collls discedunt (Sal. Jug. 54), the Numidians went 
off to the nearest hills, before assistance came from the camp. 
AntSquam hSmlnes ngfarii de meo aduentu audirS potuissent, 
in Macedonian! perrexl (Cic. p. Plane. 41. 98), before the 
villains could hear of my approach, I went straight on into 

AntS ISues pascentiir In aetherg ccrui, Quam nostro illius laba- 
tur^ pectorS uoltus (Virg. Buc. I. 60), sooner aloft in air 

* i. e. the right, which had no shields to protect them. 

t The examples of this construction are not numerous, and what thrre 
are seem open to doubt. In some perhaps, instead of turn we should 
read tamen, and translate the quum by ' although.' 

J Yet in a similar passage (A. iv. 27) Virgil has uiolo and resoluo. 


shall graze the hart, than from this breast his features pass 

1. 2nd. Nequg prius fugere destlterunt, quam ad flurnen per- 

uenerunt (Caes. B. G. I. 5.?), nor did they stop flying, before 

they reached the river. 
Ngque antS dlmlsit eum, quam fidem dedit (Liv. xxxix. 10), 

nor did he let Mm go, till he gave his word. 
Non defatigabSr, antSquam illorum uias percepero (Cic. de Or. 

in. 36. 145), 1 will not give in, before 1 fully understand their 


Ante aiiquanto quam tu natus 8s (Cic. ad Fam. x. 3. 2), a con- 
siderable time before you were born. 


1232 The infinitive* is an undecliued neuter substantive, which de- 
notes in the most general way the action or state expressed by the 
verb. The use of it, as of other undeclined substantives ( 149), 
is in strictness limited to the nominative and accusative, indeed 
almost exclusively to the latter. (Yet see 1255.) 

a. It seems to occupy the place of a nominative in such sen- 
tences as, 

Docto homm! uluere est cogltare (Cic. Tusc. V. 38. Ill), with 

the educated man to live is to think. 
Non c&dlt autem inuldere in s&plentem (Cic. Tusc. in. 10. 21), 

but envy is incompatible with the character of the wise man, 

or the wise man is not susceptible of envy. 

b. It occupies the place of an accusative in such sentences as, 
Stoici Irasci nesciunt (Cic. de Or. in. 18. 65), the Stoic knows 

not anger. 

EmSri ciipio (Ter. Haut. v. 2.18), I long for death (that 1 may 
get out of my misery). 

1233 Hence the infinitive is occasionally, though very rarely, found 
after prepositions which govern the accusative : as, 

Inter optiime ualere et grSuissume aegrotarg nihil dicebant 
iuteresse (Cic. de Fin. n. 13.43), between the best health and 
tne severest sickness there is no difference they said. 

* In the Greek language this is so completely the fact, that the article 
may be prefixed to it in all its cases. The English also treat their infini- 
tive as a substantive, when they place before it the preposition * to.' 



Quod ciimen dicis praeter Smassg meum ? (Ov. Her. vn. 164) 
what charge dost allege against me, except the having loved ? 

1234 Hence also a neuter adjective occasionally accompanies the 
infinitive : as, 

Viue're ipsum turpe est nobls (Cic. ad Att. xm. 28), life itself 

is disgraceful to us. 
Totum hoc displicet phllSsophari (Cic. de Fin. i. 1. 1), all this 

acting the philosopher offends me. 

1235 The most common use of the infinitive is as the object of active 
verbs, particularly those which signify wish, -power, duty, habit, 
knowledge, intention, commencement, continuance, cessation : as, 

Arteriae micarg non deslnunt (Cic. N. D. II. 9. 24), the arteries 
never leave off throbbing. 

Intueri solem aduorsum ngqultis (Cic. Somn. Sc. 5), you can- 
not gaze directly upon the sun. 

Et nesci6-quid tibi sum oblitus h6die, ut uolui, dicere (Ter. 
And. v. 1.22), and somehow or other I forgot to tell you to- 
day, as 1 intended. 

Vincere scis, uictoria uti nescis (Liv. xxn. 51), you know how 
to gain a victory, you know not how to use a victory. 

1236 Some verbs besides an accusative of the person* take a second 
accusative of the thing expressed by an infinitive : as, dSce-t teach, 
iube- bid, ugta- forbid, sin- permit, cog- compel, mSne- warn, horta- 
(r.) encourage, impedi- hinder, prohlbe- prevent, <fec. Thus, 

Docebo eum posthac tacerS (Cic. in Hull. in. 2. 4), / will teach 
him to be silent for the future. 

HSrus me iussit Pamphllum obseruare' (Ter. And. n. 5.1), mas- 
ter has ordered me to keep an eye upon Pamphilus. 

Ab 5per6 legatos discedgre ugtuerat (Caes. B. G. n. 20), he had 
forbidden the lieutenants to leave the work. 

Me 8nim impedit pudSr ab hSmlnS grS-uissumo haec exquIrgrS 
(Cic. de Or. I. 35. 163), for I cannot for shame urge this re- 
quest on one of his dignity. 

1237 After the passive too of many of the verbs given in the preced- 

* See Madvig, Gr. 390. 

f All these verbs, except the first two or three, are also found with a 
subjunctive following. See 1180, 1181 


ing section the infinitive is used, the accusative of the preceding 
construction, which expressed the person, becoming now the nomi- 
native : as, 

An sum gtiamuunc Graece ISqu! docendus ? (Cic. de Fin. n. 5. 

15) or am I at this time of life to be taught to speak Greek ? 
Consoles iubentur scrlbere exercltum (Liv. in. 30), the consuls 

are directed to enrol an army. 
Muros a'dirg uetltl sunt (Liv. xxm. 16), they were forbidden to 

approach the watts. 
Prohlblti estis in prouincia pe"dem pone're' (Cic. p. Lig. 8. 24), 

1238 Verbs of saying*, hearing, feeling, thinking, knowing, are fol- 
lowed by an accusative and infinitivet : as, 

Th&les aquam dixit esse Inltium rerum (Cic. N. D. I. 10. 25), 

Thales said that water was the beginning of things. 
Perlubenter audiul te essS CaesSrl famlliarem (Cic. ad Fam. 

vn. 14.2), I heard with very great pleasure that you were on 

intimate terms with Caesar. 
Te multum profecisse sentio (Cic. ad Fam. v. 13. 2), I feel that 

you have advanced matters greatly. 
Spero nostram amicitiam non e'gere' testlbus (Cic. ad Fam. Ii. 

2), / hope that our friendship needs not witnesses. 
Tlbi eos scio obtempSraturos magls (Ter. Ad. iv. 5.70), I know 

that they will more readily comply with your wishes. 

1239 An abstract substantive or a neuter pronoun which conveys 
the same meaning as the verbs of the last section, may be followed 
by the construction of the accusative and infinitive : as, 

Ilia oplnio tolletur, Crassum non doctissumum fuisse (Cic. de 
Or. ii. 2. 7), that opinion shall be put an end to, that Crassv* 
was not a most learned man. 

De hoc ipso, nihil esse bonum nM quSd honestum esset, dis- 
piitauit (Cic. Tusc. ii. 25. 61), he held an argument on this 
very point, that there is nothing good except what is right. 

1240 An impersonal passive of saying, thinking, &c. is sometimes 

* See 911, 912. 1, also 1202 with note, and 1203. 
t The same applies to phrases such asfama est, auctor sum, certiorem 
tefacio, &c. 

21)8 SYNTAX. 

used with an accusative and infinitive, particularly with the per- 
fect tense or the participle in endo : as, 

Nuntiatum est S,dess8 Scipionem cum legionS (Caes. B. C. in. 
36), word was brought that Scipio was close at hand with a 

Ibi dicendumst nullam cssg rempubllcam (Cic. R. P. in. 31.43), 
there we cannot but acknowledge there is no constitution. 

1 241 Sometimes the same idea is expressed by the personal passive 
together with the nominative and infinitive : as, 

Caesar a GergSuia discessisse audiebatur (Caes. B. G. vn. 59), 

reports reached them from time to time that Caesar had left 

VSluntaria mortg intSrissg creditus est (Tac. Hist. iv. 67), he 

was believed to have perished by his own hand. 
Gladiorum multitude deprehendi posse indlcabatur (Cic. p. 

Mil. 24. 64), secret information was given by more than one 

person, that a large number of swords might be seized. * 
Perspectust a me de te cogltare (Cic. ad Fam. i. 7. 3), 1 saw 

clearly that he was thinking of you. 

1242 Verbs of wishing, permitting, bidding, hindering, &c. are fol- 
lowed by the accusative and infinitivet : as, 

CorpSrS, iuuenuni firmari laborg uSluSrunt (Cic. Tusc. IT. 15. 

36), they wished the muscles of young men to be strengthened 

by labour. 
Delectum haberi prohlbebo (Liv. iv. 2), I will prevent the levy 

of troops from being held. 
Rem d arm deducl studebat (Caes. B. C. I. 4), he was eager 

that matters should be brought to a contest of arms. 

1243 The verbs, iube- bid, u6ta- forbid, prohlbe- prevent, impera- 
command, may be used passively with a passive infinitivej : as, 

* See 911 and note. 

f The construction with the subjunctive with many of these verbs is 
more common. See 1180. 

J This construction is widely different from that noticed in 1237. 
The tit which is the nominative to iussu's would be the accusative after 
renuntiare in the active construction ; whereas in consules iubentur scrib- 
ere exercitum, the word consules would be the accusative after iubent 


lussu's rBnuntiari consul (Cic. Phil. II. 32. 79), directions were 
given that you should be returned as consul. 

In lautumias deduci impgrantur (Cic. 11. Verr. v. 27. 68), an 
order is given that they should be conducted down into the 

1244 The perfect passives, coeptiis est, dSsltus est*, are preferable 
to the active when a passive infinitive is used : as, 

MatfiriS, coepta 6rat comportarl (Caes. B. G. iv. 18), they had 

begun carrying timber. 
Papisiiis est utfcarl desltus (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 21.2), he ceased 

to be called Papisius. 

1245 The verbs which express the emotions of the mindt are fol- 
lowed by an accusative and infinitive to express the cause of the 
emotion^ : as, 

Haec perfecta essS gaudeo (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 47. 136), / am 
delighted that these matters are settled. 

Tantum se eius Spmiouis deperdidisse ddlebant (Caes. B. G. v. 
54), they were hurt that they had lost so much of tfieir reputa- 
tion in this respect. 

1246 A predicate consisting of a neuter adjective, or a substantive, 
or an impersonal verb, is accompanied by the accusative and in- 
finitive to express the subject : as, 

Non est rectum minor! parere maiorem (Cic. Univ. 6), it is not 
fitting that the superior should obey the inferior. 

Facmiis est uincirl cluem Romanum (Cic. n. Verr. v. 66. 170), 
it is a serious matter for a Roman citizen to be bound. 

Omnibus boms expe'dit saluam ess rempubllcam (Cic. Phil, 
xin. 8. 16), it is for the interest of all good men that the coun- 
try should be free from danger. 

* So in the old writers there occur such phrases as nequitur ccmprimi 
(Plant. Rud. iv. 4.20), retrahi nequitur (Plant, ap. Fest.), id fanum 
nequitum exaugurarl (Calo ap. Fest.), suppleri queatur (Lucr. i. 1045;, 
and perhaps ulcisci nequitur (Sal. Jug. 31). 

f This construction is similar to horret tenebras* id gaudeo, &c. See 
401, 893, 909. 

J The construction with quod is more common, and in some cases that 
with cum is admissible. See 1455 i. 

300 SYNTAX. 

Hos trucidari oportebat* (Cic. in Cat. i. 4.9), these men ought 

to have been butchered. 
Corpus mortale allquo tempore intgrfrg ngcessest* (Cic. de Inv. 

II. 57.170), mortal flesh must some time or other perish. 

1247 Broken sentences consisting of an accusativef and infinitive 
are often used interrogatively to express any strong feeling, as 
indignation about the present or past, rarely about the future : as, 

Ex-illan famllia tarn inlibgralg f acinus esse ortum ?J (Ter. Ad. 
in. 4.2) to think that so ungentlemanly a proceeding should 
have originated with that family ! 

Te ista uirtute in tantas aerumnas incidissg ? (Cic. ad Fara. 
xiv. 1 . 1) that you with your merit should have fallen into 
such troubles ! 

Mene incepto desistere uictam ? ( Virg. A. i. 41) Juno indeed de- 
sist from what she has begun, defeated f 

1248 The accusative that precedes the infinitive performs the same 
office as the nominative in the other moods, and it is for this 
reason often called the subject-accusative. There is this differ- 
ence however between the infinitive and the other moods, that 
the latter have suffixes to denote the different persons, so that 
the nominative need not be expressed by a separate pronoun. 
With the infinitive the subject-accusative pronoun is nearly al- 
ways expressed : as, 

Scribis, you write ; but, dico te scribgrS, I say that you write. 

1240 But even with the infinitive the subject-accusative pronoun is 
occasionally omitted if both the infinitive and the main verb have 
the same subject : as, 

Confiture hue ea spe uenissS (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 22. 61), confess 

that you came here with this hope. 

Id nescirS Mago dixit (Liv. xxm. 13), Mago said that he did 
not know this. 

* Oportet and necesse est are also at times used with the subjunctive, 
but rarely with ut. Necesse est prefers a dative to an accusative if it be 
a person, as, homini necesse est mori (Cic. de Fat. 9. 17). 

f The construction of ut with the subjunctive refers to the future. 
See 1227 e. 

J This infinitive is dependent upon some such phrase as credendum 

See also 879. 


Refracturos carcerem mlnabantur (Liv. vi. 17), they lept threat- 
ening that they would break open the prison. 

1250 On the other hand, the reflective pronouns are sometimes used 
unnecessarily with verbs of wishing : as, 

Gratura sS ulderl studet (Cic. de Off. n. 20. 70), he is anxious 
to be thought grateful. 

Attlcum sg dlci oratorem uolebat (Cic. Brut. 82. 284), he in- 
sisted on being called an Attic orator. 

1251 When to the construction of the accusative and infinitive a 
short clause is attached by means of a relative or the conjunction 
quam, the same construction, by a species of attraction, is at times 
introduced into this clause also : as, 

Affirmaui, quiduis me potius perpessurum, quam ex Italia exl- 
turum* (Cic. ad Fam. II. 16.3), / solemnly declared that I 
would suffer any thing rather than leave Italy. 

Antonius aiebat sS tantldem frumentum aestumasse', quanti 
SScerdotemf (Cic. n. Verr. in. 92. 215), Antony kept de- 
claring that he had valued the corn at the same price as Sa- 

Susplcor te hisdem rebus quibus me ipsumj commSuerl (Cic. 
de Sen. 1.1), I suspect that you are moved by the same cir- 
cumstances as myself. 

1252^ There are constructions where the infinitive seems to supply 
the place of a genitive : as, 

Nisi quern forte lubido t&net potentiae paucorum libertatem 

suam gratlflcarl (Sal. Jug. 31), unless perchance a fancy 

possesses any one for sacrificing his liberty to gratify the power 

of a few. 
Tempus est hinc Sblre me (Cic. Tusc. i. 41. 99), it is time for 

me to go away. 
Summa eludendi occasiost mi nunc senes, Et Phaedriae curam 

adimere argentariam (Ter. Ph. v. 6. 2), 1 have a glorious 

opportunity now of dodging the old people, and relieving 

Ph&dria of his anxiety about money. 

* For quam ex Italia exirem. f For quanti Sacerdos aestumasset. 
For quibus ipse commoueor. For adimendi. 



1253 In narrative the infinitive is at times used as the main verb* 
with the power of the past -imperfect of the indicative ; and when 
so used, is called the historic infinitive : as, 

Consulem anceps cura Sgitarg ; nolle desererg socios, nolle 
mmugre exercitum (Liv. xxxiv. 12), a twofold anxiety 
troubled the consul ; he was unwilling to desert the allies, lie 
was unwilling to diminish the army. 

Ego instare ut mihi respondSret, quls esset (Cic. n. Verr. II. 
77. 188), I meanwhile kept pressing him to tell me who he was. 

Iste unumquodqug uas in maims sumgre, laudarg, mirarif (Cic. 
n. Verr. iv. 27. 63), your worthy praetor kept taking into his 
hands and praising and admiring evert/ separate vase. 

1254 After the words parato- ready, prepared, and insueto- unaccus- 
tomed, an infinitive is at times used by good writers, J and in the 
poets and later writers after contento- contented, sueto- and assueto- 
accustomed : as, 

OmniS, perpgti p&rati, maxime a re frumentaiia laborabant 

(Caes. B. C. in. 9), prepared to endure the worst, they suffered 

most in the article of grain. 
Id quod paratl sunt facerg (Cic. p. Quinct. 2. 8), the which they 

are prepared to do. 
Insuetus uera audire (Liv. xxxi. 18), unaccustomed to hear the 


1255 Some writers, especially the poets, use the infinitive in many 
constructions where good prose writers employ a different form of 
words : as, 

Fruges consumgre nati (Hor. Ep. i. 2.27), born to consume 

* In such a phrase as iamque dies consumptus erat^ quum tamen bar- 
bari nihil remittere, &c. (Sal. Jug. 98), the verb remittere is still the 
main verb. 

f For a copious use of the historic infinitive see Caes. B. G. in. 4, 
where there occur in succession, dccurrer'e, conicere, repugnare, miltere, 
occurrere, ferre, super ari. 

Cicero more commonly however uses ad with the gerund. 

In this and the following sentences more legitimate phrases would 
have been : ad fruyes consumendas, ad pellendos inimicos, committendae 
pugnae, exeundi^ qui cantaretur, ut adiret^ the supine uisum, habenda or 
guae habeat, ad sequendum, persequendi. The use of the adjective with 
an infinitive is very common in the lyric poetry of Horace. 


Non mihl sunt ulrSs Inlmlcos pellSre (Ov. Her. I. 109), 1 have 

not strength to drive away my foes. 
Auldus committgrS pugnam (Ov. Met. v. 75), eager to join 

Nulla hinc exirg potestas (Virg. A. ix. 739), no power of going 

out from hence. 
Pu6r ipsS fuit cantari digniis ( Virg. BUG. v. 54), the boy himself 

was worthy to be sung of. 
Vlrum t5t Sdlrg Chores Impulit ( Virg. A. I. 14), she urged the 

hero to encounter so many toils. 
PScus egit altos Visgre mentis (Hor. Od. i. 2. 7), he drove his 

cattle to visit the lofty mountains. 
Ille suo mSriens dat habere" nepoti ( Virg. A. ix. 362), he again 

dying gives them to his grandchild to keep. 
Cele'rem sequi Aiacem (Hor. Od. I. 15. 18), Ajax swift to follow. 
NScessItudo persgqui (Sal. Jug. 92), the necessity for pursuing. 

1256 The Latin language often admits the perfect infinitive where 
the English language uses the simple infinitive ; but it will be seen 
in such cases that the completion or consequences of the action 
are regarded more than the action itself. This distinction applies 
especially to phrases of regret or satisfaction in the future tenses, 
also to phrases of wishing and prohibition, &c. : as, 

Content! simiis Id unum dixisse ( Veil. 11. 103), let us be satisfied 

with this one observation. 

Quiesse erit melius (Liv. in. 48), you had better be quiet. 
Bacchas ne quls diss8 uelit (Tnscr. S. C. de Bacc.), let no one 

wish to approach the priestesses of Bacchus. 
Magnum si pect5r8 possit Excussissg deum ( Virg. A. vi. 78), 

in hopes she may have power to shake from her breast the 

mighty god. 
SSciis maxume lex consultum esse uolt (Cic. in Caecil. 6. 21), 

the law wishes to provide for the interests of the allies above all. 

1257 On the other hand, while the English express past time by the 
perfect infinitive after the auxiliary verbs could, might, ought, the 
Latin writers generally consider it sufficient to express the past 
time in the main verb, and to use with it the simple infinitive : as, 

Llcuit In Hispaniam lr (Liv. xxi. 41), 1 might have gone to 

304 SYNTAX. 

Hoc gg5 curare" non debul (Cic. ad Fam. v. 2. 9), this I ought 
not to have cared for. 

1258 Still not unfrequently both the main verb of duty and the in- 
finitive are in the perfect tense : as, 

Tune dScuit flessS (Liv. xxx. 44), then was the time for weeping. 
Quod iamprldem factum esse oportuit (Cic. in Cat. I. 2.5), what 

ought to have been done long ago. 
Adulescenti inorem gestum oportuit (Ter. Ad. II. 2. 6), you 

ought to Jiave humoured the youngster. 

1259 In the compound tenses of the infinitive, both active and pas- 
sive, the verb essg is often omitted : as, 

Denegarat se commissurum mihi gnatam suam uxorem (Ter. 

And. i. 5.6), he had declared that he would not trust his 

daughter in marriage to me. 
Omnls uos oratos uolo (Ter. Haut. prol. 26), I must entreat you 

Neque tu hoc dices, tibi non praedictum. Caue (Ter. And. i. 

2. 34), nor shall you say that no previous notice was given 

you. So be on your guard. 

1260 The future infinitive, both active and passive, is often expressed 
by the circumlocution of ftfrS with ut and an imperfect subjunc- 
tive* (called the periphrastic future) : as, 

Spero fore ut contingat id nobls (Cic. Tusc. i. 34. 82), 1 trust 

that we are destined to have this Jtappiness. 
Pompeius dixerat fore uti exercitus Caesfrris pellgretur (Caes. 

B. C. in. 86), Pompey had foretold that Caesars army would 

be routed. 

1261 The participle in turo with fuisse is exclusively used as a hypo- 
thetical tense : as, 

An Pompeium censes tribus suis consulfitlbus laetaturum fuisse, 
si sclret se in solltudlne Aegyptiorum trucidatum In ? (Cic. 
de Div. II. 9. 22) or do you think that Pompey would have 
gloried in his three consulships, if he had known that he was 
to be butchered in a desert of Egypt ? 

* This construction is the only one where the verb has no participle 
in turo. Observe however that the periphrastic future differs from the 
eimple future by being unlimited in point of time. 


NM nunth de uictoria pgr eqult^s essent allati existimabant, 
futurum fuisse uti oppidum amitte'retur (Caes. B. C. in. 
101), they were of opinion that if the news of the victory had 
not been brought by men on horseback, the town would have 
been lost. 

1262 A future passive may be expressed by the impersonal passive 
infinitive of i- go and the accusative supine : as, 

Arbitrantur sS bentflcos uisum Irl (Cic. de Off. I. 14. 43), they 

think they shall be considered kind. * 

1263 A future-perfect passive is at times expressed by the infinitive 
fdYg and the perfect passive participle : as, 

Debellatum mox f8r8 rebantur (Liv. xxni. 13), they thought 
that the war would be shortly brought to a closet 


1264 Participles are partly like adjectives, partly like verbs. Like 
adjectives they agree with some noun in case, gender and number. 
On the other hand they are derived from verbs, denote an act, and 
govern the same case as the verb from which they are derived. 
The tense or time of a participle depends upon the verb which it 

1265 The participle in enti is an imperfect, and corresponds to the 
English participle in ing : as, 

Gubernator clauom tSnens se'det in puppl (Cic. de Sen. 6. 17), 
the pilot holding the tiller sits on the stern ; i. e. the pilot 
holds the tiller and sits at the stern. Here tgnens refers 
to present time, because se'det is present. 

Arantl Cincinnato nuntiatumst eum dictatorem essS factum 
(Cic. de Sen. 16.56), word was brought to Cincinnatus plough- 
ing, that he had been made dictator ; i. e. as Cincinnatus 
was ploughing, word was brought to him that he had been 
made dictator. Here Sranti refers to past time, because 
nuntiatumst is past. 

* More literally, * that people are going to look upon them as kind.' 
The beginner should take care not to confound this supine with the per- 
fect passive participle. 

+ For the significations of the tenses see also 509, 511, 512, 513. 

306 SYNTAX. 

Croesus Halyn penetrans magnam peruortgt opum uim (quoted 
by Cic. de Div. n. 56. 115), Croesus penetrating to the Halys 
will overturn a mighty power ; i. e. when Croesus shall 
penetrate to the Halys, he ;vill overturn a mighty power. 
Here pSnStrans refers to future time, because peruortet is 

The participle in enti is often best translated by the conjunc- 
tions as, whilst, &c., with the proper tense of the indicative mood. 

1206 The participle in enti is sometimes used where the act is com- 
pleted, but only just completed : as, 

Romara ugniens cSmitia edixit (Liv. xxiv. 7), immediately upon 
his arrival at Home he proclaimed the day for the election. 

1267 Similarly the participle in enti is sometimes used when the act 
has not yet begun, but will commence forthwith : as, 

Discedens in Italiam legatis imperat ut! nauis rSflciendas cura- 
rent (Caes. B. G. v. 1), immediately before setting out for 
Italy he gives orders to the lieutenants to have the ships re- 

1268 The participle in turo* is used by the best writers rarely except 
in connection with the verbs es- be and fu- be ; with the former 
to denote intention or destiny, with the latter to denote what would 
have happened under a certain hypothesis. 

1 269 In Livy and the later writers it is often used at the end of the 
main clause of a sentence with the same significations : as, 

Dllabuntur in opplda, moenlbus se defensuri (Liv. viu. 29), 
they slip away into different towns, intending to defend them- 
selves by means of fortifications. 

Dgdit mihi quantum p5tuit, daturiis amplius si potuisset (Plin. 
Ep. in. 21), he gave me as much as he was able ; and would 
have given me more, if he had been able. 

1270 The perfect participle in to had probably at first only an active 
signification. It still retains this power in those verbs which are 
called reflectives or deponents, and traces of it also appear in the 
poetical construction : MembrS, sub arbuto Stratus ( 892). 

1271 Still in the ordinary language the participle in to is nearly al- 

* See 51 7 and 702-7 11. 


ways used as a passive, unless the verb whence it is formed be 
employed exclusively as a reflective or a deponent.* Thus, with 
scrfb-ere to write, we have scripto- written, being written, having 
been written; but with sequ-i to follow, secuto- having followed. 

1272 At the same time there are not a few perfect participles from 
reflective or deponent verbs which are at times used passively : as, 

Senectutem ut adlpiscanttir omnes optant, eandem accussant 

Sdeptam (Cic. de Sen. 2. 4), old age all pray that they may 

attain to, yet abuse when it is attained. 
Virtus experta atqug perspectS, (Cic. p. Corn. 6. 16), merit that 

has been tried and proved. 

Partitot exercltu (Caes. B. G. vi. 33), having divided his army. 
Euersio exsecratae cSlumnae (Cic. Phil. i. 2.5), the overthrow of 

the accursed pillar. I 

1272. 1 Although, when the simple verb is not transitive, the passive 
is commonly used only as an impersonal, still the poets take liber- 
ties in this respect, especially in the perfect participle : as, 

Triumphatae gentes ( Virg. G. in. 33), nations that have been 
triumphed over. 

1273 A few participles in to from deponents appear at times to be 
used as imperfects : as, opgrato-, feriato-, uso-, sgcuto-, uecto-, 
s&lito-, &c. Thus, 

Vldit se Spgratum (Tac. Ann. n. 14), he saw himself sacrificing 

(in a dream). 
Conclamant socil laetum paeana sgcuti (Virg. A. x. 738), his 

comrades following pour forth the fatppy paean. 

1274 The participle in to is at times used with the verb h5,be- have, 
by which circumlocution a sort of perfect indicative of the active 
voice is produced : as, 

HSJbes iam stStutum quid tlbi agendum putes (Cic. ad Fam. iv. 

* Still there are exceptions. Cenato- is equivalent to quum cenauis- 
set, and has nothing of the passive signification. Other exceptions are 
pranso-tpoto-, nupta-, exoso-, iurato-, coniurato-, adulto-, &c. See also 
392, 393. 

f Literally his army having been divided.* 

J Others are comitato-, confesso-, emenso-, emerito-, pacto-, perfuncto-, 
populate-, &c. 

But for the simple verb, triumphare de gentibus. 

308 SYNTAX. 

2. 4), you have at last determined what course you deem it 

riff/tt to pursue. 

Roman! iu Asia pgcunias magnas collScatas h&bent (Cic. p. leg. 
Man. 7. 18), Romans have invested large sums of money in 
Asia. * 

1275 The participle in to is used with the futures of the verbs da- 
ffive and redd- give back, so as to form a future perfect ; but the 
phrase further denotes that the act is done for another person : as, 

Sic stratas legiones LStlnorum d&bo, quemadmSdum legatum 
iacentem uldetis (Liv. vm. 6), / will lay the legions of the 
Latins low for you, just as you see their ambassador lying on 
the ground. 

Hoc ego tlbi ecfectum reddam (Ter. And. IT. 2. 20), this 1 will 
effect for you. 

1276 The participle in to in agreement with a substantive is largely 
used, where the English language commonly prefers an abstract 
noun. Thus, 

Barbarus eum 5b iram iuterfectl dtfmini obtruncauit (Liv. xxi. 
2), a barbarian cut him down out of revenge for the murder 
of his master. 

MaiSr ex ciulbus amissis dolor quam laetltia fusls hostlbus fuit 
(Liv. iv. 17), there was more sorrow for t/te loss of their fellow- 
countrymen than delight at the rout of the enemy. 

Ab condlta urbe ad llbe'ratam (Liv. i. 60), from the foundation 
of the city to its liberation. 

Post natos hSmlnes (Cic. Brut. 62. 224), since the creation of 

1277 The neuter nominative of the participle in to is occasionally 
used (by Livy for example) as the subject of a verb. Thus, 

Auditum omnem exercltum prSficisc! laetltiam iugentem fecit 

(Liv. xxvin. 26), the hearing that the whole army was setting 

out caused unbounded joy . 
DegSngratum in li!s artlbus huic quSqug decori offecit (Liv. 

I. 53), his degeneracy in other qualities stood in the way of 

his credit in this respect also. 

* More literally * they have large sums invested.' From this con- 
struction arose the formation of the perfect in the languages derived from 
the Latin. 


Diu non perlltatum tgnuSrat dictatoreiri ne antg meridiem sig- 
num dare posset (Liv. vu. 8), a long delay in obtaining a 
success/id issue to the sacrifices had prevented the dictator from 
giving the signal before noon. 

1278 The ablative of the participle in to is used at times as an abla- 
tive absolute with a whole sentence for its substantive : as, 

Exposito quid Inlqultas loci posset (Caes. B. G. vn. 52), having 

explained to them what consequences unfavourable ground 

could produce. 
Edicto ut qulcunque ad uallum tendSret pro hoste haberetur 

(Liv. x. 36), having proclaimed tJiat whoever made for the 

entrenchment would be dealt with as an enemy. 
Permisso seu dlcere prius seu audlre inallet, ItS, coepit (Liv. 

xxxiv. 31), permission having been given him to speak first 

or to listen, as he preferred, he began thus. 
Audito Marcium in Clllciain tendSrg (Sal. Fragm. v.), having 

heard that Marcius was hastening into Cilicia. 

1279 The ablative of the participle in to* is occasionally used abso- 
lutely even without a noun : as, 

Non est peccato mi ignosci aecum (Ter. Hec. v. 1. 10), / am 
not entitled to be forgiven if I offend (more literally, an of- 
fence having been committed). 

1280 An ablative of the participle in to, with or without a noun in 
agreement, is used with Spiis estf : as, 

Eihti grat cur propgrato opus esset (Cic. p. Mil. 19. 49), there 
was no reason why they need make haste. 

Prius quam inclpias, consulto ; 8t iibi consulugris, mature facto 
optis est (Sal. Cat. 1), before you commence, you must delibe- 
rate ; and when you have deliberated, you must act with due 

1 281 As the Latin language is for the most part without a participle 
for the perfect active, the following circumlocutions are in use. 

a. The ablative absolute : as, 

* Some ablatives of this kind have virtually become adverbs : as, au- 
spicato, Ittato, &c. 

f Vsus est is found with the ablative of the participle in to in the older 
writers. The construction is consistent with the use of the same phrases 
in connection with other ablatives. See 999. 

310 SYNTAX. 

Hac partg copiarum aucta iterum cum Sablnis confllgltiir (Liv. 
I. 37), having increased this part of his forces, he engages 
again with the Sabinea. 

b. Quum with the past-perfect subjunctive, or iibi with the 
simple perfect indicative : as, 

Quum ab sed8 sua prosiluisset amouerlque ab altaiibus iuuenem 
iussisset (Liv. n. 12), having leapt down from his seat and 
ordered the young man to be moved away from the altars. 

Vbi eo uenit, propg tribunal constitit (Liv. n. 12), having 
arrived there, he at once posted himself near the tribunal. 

c. An accusative of the perfect passive participle dependent 
upon the main verb : as, 

Gallum caesum* torque spoliauit (Liv. vi. 42), having slain the 

Gaul, he stripped him of his cottar. 

1 282 The participle in to is a perfect, and its tense or time depends 
upon the verb which it accompanies. Thus, 

a. Omnia quae dlco de Plancio, dlco expertus in nobls (Cic, p. 

Plane. 9. 22), all that I say about Plancius, I say having 
made trial of him in my own person. Here expertus is a 
present-perfect, because dlco is a present I have had 
experience of his great worth, and therefore speak with 

b. Consecutus id quod anlmo proposuerat, receptu! can! iussit 

(Caes. B. G. vn. 47), having obtained what he had proposed 
to himself, he ordered the signal for retreat to be sounded. 
Here consScutus is a past-perfect, because iussit is a past 
He had obtained what he wished, and so he sounded a 

c. Kon admissl, Karthaglnem prottnus ibunt (Liv. xxi. 9), if 

not admitted, they will proceed straightway to Carthage. Here 
admissl is a future-perfect, because ibunt is a future ; and 
indeed if the conjunction si be used, the phrase will at once 
become : si admissl non Smut. Thus the perfect participle 
which accompanies a future tense is far from expressing a 
1 2S3 The gerund is a neuter substantive in endo which denotes the 

* Often a better translation is effected by two verbs: as, ' he slew him 
Jind stripped him &c.' 


action or state expressed by the verb. It differs from the infini- 
tive, in that it is declinable, and that through all the cases (in- 
cluding, what is commonly omitted, the nominative). Also like 
an ordinary substantive it may be governed by some few preposi- 
tions (in, ab, de, ex, rarely pro, with the ablative ; and with the 
accusative by ad, ob, intgr, rarely In, circa, antg). 
Norn. liiuenl parandum, seni titendumst (Sen. Ep. 36), earning | 

belongs to the young, using to the old man. 
Ace. Homo ad intellSgendum natust (Cic. de Fin. n. 13. 40), man 

is born to understand. 
Gen. Dicendl difflcultatem pertlmescit (Cic. de Or. I. 26.120), he 

dreads the difficulty of speaking. 
Deus bSuern sirandl caussa fecit (Cic. N. I), n. 14.37), God 

made the ox for the purpose of ploughing. 
Dot. Telum fodiendo acumlnatum (Plin. xi. 2), a weapon pointed 

for digging. 
All. Virtutes cernuntiir !n agendo (Cic. Part. Or. 23. 78), the manly 

virtues are seen in action. 

1284 The simple ablative of the gerund is used at times in such a 
manner that the nominative of the ordinary imperfect participle 
might be substituted for it : as, 

Miscendo* corisllium prScesque, nunc orabant n6 se exulare 
p&teretur, nunc m5u@ba.nt ne morem pellendl reges Inultum 
sineret (Liv. IT. 9), mixing advice and entreaties together, 
they one moment legged him not to suffer them to remain in 
exile, another warned him not to leave the practice of expelling 
kings unpunished. 

1285 The gerund is followed by the same case as the verb to which 
it belongs : as, 

Viam quam nobis qutfque ingrgdiundumst (Cic. de Sen. 2. 6), 

the road which we also have to travel. 
Suo quoiqug iudiciost utendum (Cic. N. D. in. 1.1), each must 

use his own judgment. 
Di&lecticast ars uera ac falsS, diiudlcandl (Cic. de Or. n. 38. 

157), logic is the art of judging between truth and falsehood. 

* Equivalent to miscentes. It is probably to this use of the gerund 
that the Italian and Spanish languages are indebted for their imperfect 
participle in ndo. So also reportando (Liv. xxv. 8. 10), omnia temptando 
(Sal. Jug. 70). 

312 SYNTAX. 

Tvibuendo suom quoiqug (Cic. de Off. I. 5. 14), by allotting to 

every man what belongs to him. 
M5r! maluit falsum fStendo (Cic. Part. Or. 14. 50), he preferred 

to die through confessing a falsehood. 

1286 The gerund being a substantive may also have a genitive after 
it (but this usage seems limited to the genitive of the gerund) : as, 

Reiciundl trium iudlcum leges Coraeliae faciunt potestatem 
(Cic. IT. Verr. n. 31.77), the Cornelian laws give the power 
of challenging* three jurymen. 

Ego eius uldend! cupldus (Ter. Hec. 3. 3. 12), I desirous of 
seeing* her. 

Sui purgandlf causa (Caes. B. G. iv. 13), for the sake of clear- 
ing* themselves. 

1287 Gerundive. When a noun in the accusative^ would accom- 
pany the gerund, the construction is commonly altered so that 
this noun takes the case of the gerund, and the gerund, now called 
a gerundive, takes the number and gender of the noun : as, 

Dlllgentla colendast nobis (Cic. Or. n. 35. 148), we must culti- 
vate a habit of precision. 

Coniungo me cum htfrnlnS magls ad uastandam Italiam quam 
ad uincendum parato (Cic. ad Att. vin. 16), I am uniting 
myself with a man who is better prepared for devastating 
Italy than for concluding the war victoriously. 

NequS res ullS, quae ad placandos deos pertmeret praetermis- 
sast (Cic. in Cat. in. 8. 20), nor was any thing omitted which 
was thought likely to appease the gods. 

* The insertion of the preposition ' of ' after these participles would 
make the phrases vulgar ; but a vulgar phrase is generally an old one. In 
fact the formation of the Latin participle in endo from an abstract sub- 
stantive called the gerund is exactly parallel to the origin of our own 
participle in ing from a substantive in ing. With us the substantive 
Wits the older form ; and the use of the participle originated in such a 
phrase as, 'the house was a-building' (L e. ' in building'), ' I was a-hunt- 
ing of a hare.' 

f- The pronominal genitives in , even when they refer to a plural 
noun, require that the gerund should be a genitive singular. 

J The same construction is also admissible with the four reflective 
verbs, ut- ' use,' fru- ' enjoy,' fung- ' discharge,' and poti- ' make oneself 

All the best Mss. have uastandam and placandos, as Madvig has 
pointed out ; not, as our editions, uastandum, placandum. 


InltS, sunt consllia urbis delendae, cluium trucldandorum, no- 
minis Roman! extinguendl (Cic. p. Mur. 37. 80), plans were 
formed for destroying the city, butchering the citizens, extin- 
guishing the Roman nation. 

1288 The two constructions of the neuter gerund with a noun de- 
pendent upon it, and the gerundive in agreement with the noun, 
are not to be used indifferently. The construction with the gerund 
was the earlier one, and so belonged to the older writers*, but still 
maintained its ground in certain phrasesf. In those which are 
commonly considered the best writers, the construction with the 
gerundive was for the most part preferred!. Indeed, when the 
phrase is attached to a preposition governing the accusative, the 
gerundive construction is adopted almost without exception. 

1289 The use of the gerundive with the accusative is very common 
after the verbs Idea-, conduc-, cura-, rgdlm-, da-, susclp-, &c. : as, 

Moniimentum el marmSreum faciundum Itfcarunt (Cic. ad Fam. 

iv. 12. 3), they placed the making a marble monument in his 

hands, i. e. they contracted with him that he should build the 

Columnam conduxgrat f&ciundam (Cic. de Div. II. 21. 47), he 

had undertaken the erection of a pillar, or he had contracted 

to erect. 
Pontem In Arari faciendum curat (Caes. B. G. I. 13), he has a 

bridge built over the Arar. 

1290 The gerundive is often omitted in these phrases for the sake of 
brevity : as, 

Si RhSdiis turpe non est portorium 18care, ne HermacreontI 
quldem turpest conducerS (i. e. exlgendum understood) 
(Cic. de Inv. I. 30. 47), if it is not disgraceful in the Rho- 

* Mihi hac noctu agitandnmst uigilias (Plant. Trin, iv. 2. 27), ' I have 
to keep watch to-night ;' aeternas poenas in morte timendumst (Lncr. I. 
112), 'they have to dread eternal punishment when dead.' 

t See 1285, 1286. 

J Madvig has carefully examined this question in his Opuscitla, i. 
380, &c. He there points out that in the phrase ad occupandum Veson- 
tionem (Caes. B. G. i. 38) there is no violation of the rule, Vesontionem 
being masculine, like Narbo Martins in the same country. 

Hence the connection between the two significations of locare, to 
place' and * to let,' the latter alone surviving in the French loner. 

314 SYNTAX. 

dians to let the port dues, neither is it disgraceful in Herma- 
creon to farm them. 

Anseribus clbariS, IScantur (i. e. praebenda understood) (Cic. 
p. Rose. Am. 20. 56), the providing food for the (sacred) 
geese is farmed out. 

1291 This construction is used with impera- impose*, the gerundive 
being always omitted : as, 

Equites impgrat cmitatibus (i.e. cogendos understood) (Caes. 
B. G. vi. 4), he imposes upon the states the providing horse- 
soldiers, or he commands them to provide him with cavalry. 

1292 The genitive of the gerundive is usedt to denote a tendency, 
fitness or purpose, more particularly in connection with the verb 

s- be : as, 

Quae diutinae obsidionis tdlgrandae sunt (Liv. xxx. 9), what- 
ever is of use for supporting a long blockade. 

Quae temgre Sgltaugrant, ea prodendi imper! Roman!, tra- 
dendae Hannibal! uictoriae grant (Liv. xxvn. 9), the hasty 
measures they had taken, tended to sacrifice the Roman empire, 
to betray the victory into the hands of Hannibal. 

Cetera in duSdecim tabulis minuend! sunt sumptus (Cic. de 
Leg. n. 23. 59), the other regulations in the twelve tables have 
for their object a diminution of expense. 

Arm cepit, non pro sua iniuria, sed legum ac llbertatis sub- 
uertendaet (Sal. Fragm. Or. Philippi c. Lep.), he has taken 
up arms, not to avenge any wrong done to himself, but to up- 
set our laws and our liberties. 

1293 The dative also of the gerundive is used to denote fitness or 
purpose : as, 

QuSs! firmandae ualetudlni in Campaniam concessit(7 T ac. Ann. 
in. 31), he retired into Campania as if to improve his health. 

* That this is the literal translation of impera- is consistent with the 
translation of separa-, dispara-, compara-, appara-, ' put apart, in dif- 
ferent places, together, before a person.' 

f Particularly by Livy. 

J This construction is commonly explained, but whether rightly is 
doubtful, by an ellipsis of caussa. It often occurs in Tacitus. 

Tacitus has even the ablative in this sense : explenda simulatione, 
Ann. xiv. 4. 


Qui Sum ferendo grant (Liv. n. 9), such as were capable of 

bearing the burden. 
Nee soluendo aeri Slieno respubllca erat (Liv. xxxi. 13), nor 

was the state in a condition to pay its debts. 
DScemuiros agro Samnlti metiendo dluidendoquS creat (Liv. 

xxxi. 4), he appoints ten commissioners for the purpose of 

measuring and dividing the Samnite territory.* 

1295 The construction of the gerundive with the verb gs- be, in the 
sense of duty, is only a particular case of what has been already 
noticed in 966, and the dative of the person in fact belongs to 
the verb ^s rather than to the gerundive, f Thus, 

Vt tlbi ambulandum, ungendum, sic mihi dormiendum (estt) 
(Cic. ad Att. ix. 7. 7), as you must walk, must anoint your- 
self, so I must sleep ; which would be more literally trans- 
lated, as walking, as anointing belongs to you, so does sleeping 
to me. 

1296 The frequent use of the gerund and gerundive with 6s- be, in 
the sense of duty or fitness, led the mind at last to attach the 
notion of duty to the gerundive itself, so that the latter is at times 
used as an equivalent of an adjective in btti. Thus, 

Nee te, iuuenis memSrandg, sllebo ( Virg. A. x. 793), nor thee, 
ever-memorable youth, will 1 pass by in silence. 

* The last three phrases are common. See 984. 

f So in such a phrase as legionem in Morinos ducendam Fabio dedit 
(Caes. B. G. v. 24), the dative Fabio is dependent not upon ducendam, 
but upon dedit ; and again, the accusative after dedit is not legionem, but 
legionem ducendam, ' the duty of conducting the legion.' But although 
the dative case commonly accompanies the gerund and gerundive, yet 
there are occasional examples even in Cicero where ab and the ablative 
occur, especially when the verb takes a dative of its own, and a second 
dative in the sense of the agent would cause ambiguity. Thus, quibus 
est a uobis consulendum (Cic. p. leg. Man. 2.6), 'whose interests you 
must consult.' 

Est mihi admits the translation, ' I have ;' and precisely in the same 
way, est mihi ambulandum may be well translated by ' I have to walk.' 
Thus the origin of the dative in this phrase is without difficulty. 

The notion of possibility is sometimes expressed by the participle 
in endo, but it occurs in the best writers only with a negative or uix : as, 
malum uix ferendum (Cic. de Fin. iv. 19.53), 'an evil scarcely to be 
endured.' For the use of this participle with fu- ' be' in hypothetical 
sentences, see 715-721. 

316 SYNTAX. 

1297 The phrases denoting duty at the same time refer commonly 
to the future time for the performance of the act ; and indeed 
generally, as the gerund or gerundive is strictly an imperfect, the 
completion of the act must belong to future time. Hence the 
idea of futurity gradually attached itself to this form, and gram- 
marians have given it, though inaccurately, the name of a future 
participle. That it is truly an imperfect* is well seen in such 
phrases as : 

IntSr agendum ( Virg. BUG. ix. 24), while driving. 

In p&tiia delenda occupati et sunt et fuerunt (Cic. de Off. I. 
17. 57), they both are and have been for some time occupied in 
blotting out their fatherland from the face of the world. 

1298 The so-called verbal adjective in bundo is really a participle, 
and so sometimes found with an accusative : as, 

Vitabundus castra hostium (Liv. xxv. 13), carefully avoiding 
the enemy's camp. 

1299 The verbal substantive in tu is used in the accusativet after 
verbs of motion to denote the object : as, 

Ad Caes&rem gratulatum conuenerunt {Goes. B. G. I. 30), they 
came from different quarters to Caesar to congratulate him. 

Quinque cohortis frumeutatum mlsit (Caes. B. G. vi. 36), he 
sent five cohorts to get corn. 

Id rescltum iri credit (Ter. Ad. I. 1. 45), he believes that people 
are going to find it out, or he believes that it will be found out. 

1300 It governs the same case as the verb from which it is derived : 

Pacem pStitum oratores mittunt (Liv. I. 15), they send ambas- 
sadors to seek peace. 

Legates mittunt rSgatum auxllium (Caes. B. G. 1. 11), they send 
ambassadors to ask aid. 

1301 The verbal substantive in tu is used in the ablative with cer- 
tain adjectives : as, 

* Something like an imperfect participle is seen in the so-called ad- 
jective secundo- (i. e. sequendo-) ' following, second.' 

f This accusative of the verbal in tu is often called the supine active, 
and the ablative of the same the supine passive ; but there is nothing 
passive in the latter, and therefore the distinction is inappropriate. A 
similar error exists in our own language in the foolish practice now be- 
ginning to prevail of saying, ' a house to be let,' instead of 'a house to let' 


DiffiLctig dictu est (Cic. de Off. n. 14. 48), it is difficult to say 

(literally, in the saying). 
Optumum factu est (Cic. ad Fam. vn. 3. 1), it is the best thing 

to do. 

1302 The verbal in tion sometimes governs the same case as the verb 
from which it is derived : as, 

lustitia est obtemperatio scriptis leglbus (Cic. de Leg. 1. 15. 42), 

justice is obedience to written laws. 
Domum redltionis spe sublata (Caes. B. G. i. 5), the hope of 

returning home having been taken away. . 


Ab (or a before some consonants) seems to have signified ori- 
ginally proximity ; and hence it was well suited to denote the 
quarter from which an action commenced, and therefore the source 
and origin of things. Thus it signifies : 

a. The quarter at or near which, expressed by at, in, on, <fec. : as, 
A fronte t ab slnistra partg nudatis castrls (Caes. B. G. II. 23), 

the camp being laid bare in front and on the left. 
Gallia ab Sequairis et Heluetils adtingit Rhenum (Caes. B. G. 
i. 1), Gallia reaches to the Rhine at the parts occupied by the 

Isthmus du5 maria ab occasu gt ortu solis flnltima dMmlt 

(Liv. XLV. 28), the isthmus divides two adjoining seas on the 

west and the east. 
A matre Pompeium arctisslmo contingebat gradu (Suet. Aug. 

4), he was very nearly related to Pompey on the mother's side. 
Apud socrum tuam prSpe a meis aedlbus sgdebas (Cic. in Pis. 

11. 26), you were sitting at your mother-in-law's near my 


b. With the verb sta- stand, &c., by, on the side of, in favour 
of: as, 

Nemo a senatu et bonorum caussa stgtit constantiiis (Cic. Brut. 

79. 273), no one stood more firmly by the senate and the cause 

of good men. 
Hoc nihllo magls &b aduorsariis quam a nobis fiiclt (Cic. de 

Inv. i. 48. 90), this tells no more for our opponents than for 


318 SYNTAX. 

Vide ne hoc totum sit a me (Cic. de Or. I. 13. 55), have a care 
lest the whole of this argument be in my favour. 

c. In, in respect of, in point of, as regards : as, 

Sumus gnim imparati, cum a milltlbus turn a pgcunia (Cic. ad 
Att. vn. 15. 3), for we are indeed unprepared, not merely in 
point of troops, but even of money. 

Antonius ab gqultatu firmus esse dlcebatur (Cic. ad Fam. x. 
15. 2), Antony was said to be strong in cavalry. 

d. The department in which the services of an officer or servant 
are called for, and thus arises a name for the office : as, 

H5m!nes habet quos S,b epistSlls et llbellis et rationibus appel- 
lat (Tac. Ann. xv. 35), he has persons whom he calls secre- 
taries, registrars, accountants. 

PhllemSnem, a manu seruum, simplici mortS puniit (Suet. 
Jul. 74), his amanuensis Philemon he punished by simply 
putting to death. 

AntiSchus Ti. Claudl Caesaris a bibliotheca (Inscr. ap. Grut. 
584. 6), Antiochus, librarian to Tiberius Claudius Caesar. 

e. At, in reference to time : as, 

Summissus a prlmo, post exsultauit audacius (Cic. Or. 8. 26), 
subdued at first, he afterwards burst out in a bolder style. 

f. From, the point of departure : as, 

Maturat ab urbe proflciscl (Caes. B. G. i. 7), he hastens to set 

out from the city. 
Ab Roma legatl uenerunt (Liv. xxi. 9), ambassadors came from 


g. With, after verbs signifying commencement : as, 

Caedis Inltium fecisset a me (Cic. Phil. v. 7. 20), he would have 

made a beginning of the massacre with me. 
Ab his sermo 8rltur, respondet Laelius (Cic. de Am. I. 5), with 

these the conversation commences, Laelius replies. 

h. From, the commencement of time : as, 

Ab hora septlma ad uesperum pugnatum est (Caes. B. G. I. 26), 

the battle continued from one o'clock until evening. 
Tuas gpisttflas a primo lego (Cic. ad Att. ix. 6.5), / am reading 

your letters from the beginning. 

AB. 319 

Qulbus a pugris dedit! fuimus (Cic. de Or. I. 1 2), to which we 

have been devoted from our boyhood. * 

i. From, the commencement of a series : as, 
Carneades est quartus ab Arcgslla (Cic. Acad. n. 6. 16), Car- 
neades is fourth in the line from Arcesilas. 

j. Immediate succession of time, translated by with, after : as, 
Ab his praeceptis contionem dimisit (Liv. XLIV. 34), with these 

injunctions he dismissed the assembly. 
Ab hoc sermone profectus est (Liv. xxn. 40), immediately after 

this conversation he set out. 

k. With verbs signifying to pay, the source whence the money 
proceeds : as, 

Tlbi quod debet, ab Egnatio soluet (Cic. ad Att. vn. 18. 4), 

what he owes you, he will pay by a draft on Egnatius. 
Rellquam pgcuniam a Fabgrio repraesentabimus (Cic. ad Att. 

xn. 25), the rest of the money we will pay at once by drawing 

on Faberius. 

I. With personal pronouns and the names of persons, from their 
house : as, 

A. Unde est ? B. A nobis (Ter. And. iv. 4. 15), A. Where did it 

come from ? B. From our house. 
Ab Andriast ancilla haec (Ter. And. in. 1.3), this maid-servant 

is from the Andrian woman's house. 
Haec cistella, numnam hinc ab nobis domost ? (Plaut. Cist. 

iv. 1. 6) this casket, pray did it come from our house here ? 

m. A motive, from, out of, in consequence of: as, 
Tanto ardorS mllltum est usus ab ira inter condlciones pads 
interfectae stationis (Liv. xxiv. 30), he was so warmly sup- 
ported by his soldiers, from their anger at the troops on guard 
having been killed during a negociation. 

Non a ciiplditatg solum ulciscendi agrum nostrum inuadent 
(Liv. v. 5), not merely from the desire of revenge will they 
invade our territory. 

7i. The agent with passive verbs, expressed by the preposition 
by: as, 

* Literally * from boys,' an idiom which agrees with our own. 



Ab socils unlce diligebatur (Cic. p. Plane. 9. 24), he was most 

highly esteemed by his colleagues. 
A me tu coactus es conftterl (Cic. n. Verr. v. 30.76), you were 

compelled by me to confess. 

o. What is considered as an agent, with intransitive verbs : as, 
Mare a sole" collucet (Cic, Acad. Pr. II. 33. 105), the sea is made 

a mass of light by the sun. 

KlhXl est ualentius, a quo intgreat (Cic. Acad. Post. I. 7. 29), 
there is nothing stronger (than itself} by which it may be de- 

p. Removal, separation, distance, expressed commonly by from : 

Ab delectatione omni negoths impedlmur (Cic. p. Mur. 19.39), 

we are prevented from taking any amusement by business. 
Proxlmiis a tectis ignis defendltiir aegre (Ov. Rem. Am. G25), 

an adjoining fire is warded off from buildings with difficulty. 
Ab inimicorum audacia telisquS uitam defendSre (Cic. p. Mil. 

2. 6), to defend our lives against tJie audacity and weapons of 

our enemies. 
Ipse ab horum turpltudine Sbhorrebat (Cic. p. Sest. 52. 112), 

he himself turned away in horror from the baseness of these 

Milia passuum tria ah eorum castris castrS, ponit (Caes. B. G. 

I. 22), he pitches his camp three miles from their camp. 
Obs. In many of these constructions a mere ablative is suffi- 
cient (see 1023), but before persons the preposition Sb is required. 

q. Ab is sometimes placed before the measure of the distance, 
instead of the place measured from : as, 

Ab millbus passuum oct5 uento teuebantur (Caes. B. G. iv. 
22), they were detained by the wind eight miles off. 

PSsItis castris a millbus passuum quinde'cim auxilia expectarS 
constltuunt (Caes. B. G. vi. 7), having encamped at a dis- 
tance of fifteen miles, they resolve to wait for the allied troops.* 

1304 In composition with verbs &b denotes, a. removal, absence: as, 
aufSr- carry away, &bes- be absent ; hence abut- (r.) use up. b. down : 

* See Matthiae's Greek Grammar, Transl. u. 878. airo <na5iuv rer- 

AB. AD 321 

is, able- or abXci- (abilci-) throw down, absorbe- suck dowfv, abs- 
trtid-* thrust down, affllg-* dash down, appSs- or apos-* set down.^ 
In composition with adjectives &b denotes absence, difference : 
as, amenti- or ament- without mind, mad, absono- cut of tune or 

1305 Ad signifies a. Motion to (i. e. up to, not into] ; as, 

Exercltum ad C&sllimim duclt (Liv. xxm. 17), he leads his 

army to (the walls of) Casilinum. 

Munltionem ad flumen perduxSrat (Caes. B. C. m. 66), he had 
carried the fortification to the (bank of the) river. 

b. To what time : as, 

Ad id diibios seruarant anlmos (Liv. xxi. 52), up to that time 
they had kept their minds in a state of doubt. 

c. To what extent : as, 

Omnes Sd urmm Idem sentiunt (Cic. de Am. 23. 86), they have 
all to a man the same feeling. 

Serui ad quattuor milia hSmlnum CSpItolium occupanere (Liv. 
in. 15), the slaves to the number of 4000 men seized the Ca- 

lucautos ad s&tie'tateni trucidabltis (Liv. xxiv. 36), unpre- 
pared as they will be, you will butc/ter them till you are tired. 

AdJ uigintl matronis per uiatorem accitls (Liv. vm. 18), as 
many as twenty ladies having been summoned by the mes- 

d. Direction, to, towards : as, 

Via ad C&sllmum obsessa (Liv. xxn. 16), the road to Gasilinvs.i 

being occupied by the enemy. 
Verglt ad septemtriones (Caes. B. G. i. 1), it inclines to the 


e. Purpose, for : as, 

MultS, sunt Snlmaduorsa herbarum g8n8ra ad morsus bestiarum 
(Cic. de Div. i. 7. 13), many kinds of herbs have been dis- 
covered for the bites of beasts. 

* See 451.1. 

f Compare the German ab-gehen ' go down,' and Sansk. ava ' down.' 
I In this usage the numeral alone depends upon the preposition, the 
substantive adapting its case to the rest of the sentence. See 1055. 1. 


Ad ludos pecuniae decermmtur (Cic. ad Q. F. i. 1.9.26), 

is voted for the games. 
Ad a"grum iustruendum ulres non Srant (Liv. vi. 5), they were 

too weak (in purse) to stock a farm. 
P&lus Romanes Sd insequendum tardabat (Caes. B. G. vn. 26), 

the marsh made the Romans slow to pursue. 

f. To, in reply : as, 

Ad ilia quae me magis mouerunt respondebo (Cic. p. Gael. 11. 
27), / will reply to those other points which moved me more. 

g. In respect of, looking to : as, 

Vir ad usum pgrltus, ad fortunam felix (Cic. p. Font. 15. 43), 
a man of experience as regards the world, and favoured in 
respect to fortune. 

h. In addition to : as, 

Si ad cetgrS, uolnera hanc quoquS plagam iuflixisses (Cic. in 
Vat. 8. 20), if in addition to the other wounds you had in- 
flicted this blow also. 

Ad hoc promissS, barba et cSpilli efferaue'rant spSciem orls(Liv. 
n. 23), in addition to this a long beard and long hair had 
given a savage character to his face. 

i. By, of future time : as, 

Nos hie te ad mensem lanuarium expectamiis (Cic. ad Att. i. 

3. 2), we expect to see you here by the month of January. 
licscio quid intersit iitrum nunc ugniam, &n ad decem annos 

(Cic. ad Att. xii. 46), I know not what it matters, whether I 

come now or ten years hence. 

j. Near, before, off, to, over (all in the sense of nearness) : as, 
Ad Geronium constltSrat bellum (Liv. xxn. 32), before Gero- 

nium the war had come to a standstill. 
Classis quae ad Siclliam grat (Liv. xxvu. 22), the fleet which 

was lying off Sicily. 
Canunt ad tibiam clarorum ulrorum laudes (Cic. Tusc. iv. 2. 3), 

they sing the praises of great men to the flute. 
Konnunquam ad uinum disertl sunt (Cic. p. Cael. 28. 67), thty 

(c-:e sometimes eloquent over their wine. 

k. In comparison to, by the side of: as, 

AD. 323 

Nihil ad nostram hanc (Ter. E. n. 3. 69), nothing to this one of 

Terra ad uniuorsi caell complexum quasi puncti inst&r obtinet 

(Cic. Tusc. i. 17. 40), the earth, compared to what the whole 

heavens embrace, is as it were but a point. 

I. In accordance with, after : as, 

CSto uitam ad certain rStionis normam dMgit (Cic. p. Mur. 2. 

3), Cato shapes his life by the strict square of reason. 
Vixit Sd aliorum arbltrium, non ad suum (Cic. p. Mur. 9. 19), 

he has lived according to the pleasure of others, not his own. 

m. Among , before (in the same sense as cipttd) : as, 

Minus cladis, cetgrum non plus Snimorum &d hostls Srat (Liv. 

x. 35), there was less loss, but not more confidence among the 

Sgnatorum stiperbiam ad plebem criminantur (Liv. in. 9), they 

attack the tyranny of the senators before the commonalty. 

n. Immediately upon, in consequence of, at : as, 

Ad famam obsidionis delectus hberi coepttis est (Liv. ix. 7), 

at the report of a siege, a levy of troops was commenced. 
Ne'e ad diicis casum perculsS, rn&gis quam irrltata est multitudo 
(Liv. ix. 22), and the great mass of the men were not so much 
panic-struck as roused to fury at the accident to their chief. 

o. Before a word denoting a person, to the house of thai person : 

Magnl d&mum concursus S,d Afranium* flebant (Goes. B. C. I. 

53), great crowds kept flocking to the house of Afranius. 
Ngqug dSmum unquam ad me litteras mittam quin adjungam 

eas quas tlbi reddi uelim (Cic. ad Fam. in. 8. 10), nor shall 

1 ever send letters to my own house, without adding to the 

packet a letter for you. 
DSuertit Cloditis ad sg (Cic. p. Mil. I9.5l),0lodiusturnedoutof 

the road to his own house. 

p. With a noun denoting the department in which a servant's 
offices are looked for, whence arises a name for the office (see &b, 
1303 d.) : as, 

* And this phrase is used although Afranius himself was in Spain at 
the time. See 1303 I. . 

324 SYNTAX. 

Llcinum seruom slbi habuit ad manum (Cic. de Or. in. 60. 

225), he had a slave Licinusfor his amanuensis. 
Puer quis ex aula capillis Ad cyathum statuetur unctis ? (Hor. 

Od. I. 29. 7) shall some page from the palace with perfume*! 

locks be stationed beside the wine-ladle ?* 

1306 Ad in composition with verbs denotes a. motion to : as, &d-i- 
go to y approach, acced- step up to. b. addition : as, acced- be added, 
asciib-t enroll with. c. nearness: as, asslde- sit near, adiace- lie 
near, assurg- (alicui) rise to (a person), d. assent, favour : as, annu- 
nod assent, arrlde- smile on, acclama- express assent by acclamation, 
cheer. But see 1308. 1, etc. 

1307 Aduersus or -um (old form aduorsiis or -um) is literally trans- 
lated by our to-wards. It denotes : 

a. Motion towards : as, 

Quis haec est, quae me aduorsum incedit ? (Plant. Per. n. 2. 

18) who is this woman, that is coming towards me ? 
Impetum aduersus montem in cohortis faciunt (Caes. B. C. I. 

46), they make a charge up\> the mountain upon the cohorts. 

b. Opposite, facing, before (without motion) : as, 

Lero et Lerlna aduersus Antipolim (Plin. in. 11), Lero and 

Lerina opposite Antipolis. 
Egone ut te aduorsum mentiar, mater mea ! (Plant. Aul. iv. 

7. 9), I tell a falsehood before you, mother ! 

c. Conduct towards (good or bad, friendly or unfriendly) : as, 
Quonammo'do me geram aduorsus Caesarem ? (Cic. ad Fam. xi. 

27. 5) how in the world am I to bear myself towards Caesar ? 
Id gratum fuisse aduorsum te, habeo gratiam (Ter. And. i. 1. 
15), that this was pleasing to you, 1 feel grateful. 

d. To counteract, against : as, 

Sunt tmen quaedain remgdia prSpria aduersus quaedam ue- 

* In very late writers, as Vegetius, ad was used to denote the means: 
as, ad sponf/iam deteryere (m. 4 2), ad acutam cannam exsecare (in. ,H 
12), ad siphonem paulatim infundes (i. 10.2), ad acum pars auriculae 
signatur (in. 2. 27), perforare ad acum (ibid. 28). 

f See 4.51.1. 

t He who goes up a mountain goes facing it. Compare the use of 
the ablative absolute, aduerso monte ire, and 1320 b. 


nenS, (Cels. v. 27. 12), there are however certain specific reme- 
. dies against certain poisons, 
e. At variance with, in opposition to : as, 

Pecuniae conclliatae aduorsum leges, aduorsum rempubllcam 
(Cic. n. Verr. in. 84. 194), money quietly obtained in oppo- 
sition to the law, in opposition to the interests of the country, 
f. Aduorsum is used adverbially with i- ao &c. and a dative of 
the person : as, 

Gesso hgro meo ire aduorsum ? (Plant. Gas. in. 6. 5) why do I 

not < t once go to meet my master ? 
1308 Am, rarely if ever used except in composition, when it signifies, 

a. with verbs, round: as, anquir- look round for ', amplect- (r.) 
embrace, am-ic- or &m-ici- throw round, b. in adjectives, on bolh 
sides : as, ancip- or anciplt- two-headed. 

1308. 1 Ana (=ai/a), used in its full form only as an adverb, and only 
in medical* prescriptions, signifies distribution or each : as, 

SaccSri, eru! pollings, ana unciam imam ( Veg. Art. Vet. in. 
65. 6), sugar, and the flour of black vetcJies, one ounce of each. 
F61il capparis, folil mirti siluestris, f61i! ciiprcssi S,na uncias 
tres diligentissime deteres (ibid. in. 2.6), take of caper-leaves, 
wild-myrtle-leaves, cypress-leaves, three ounces each, and pound 
them as fine as possible. 

1308. 2 Ant up (=ava) is found only in composition. The form in which 
it appears greatly varies, a. In an-hela- it retains its correct form. 

b. Frequently it has the consonant assimilated to that which fol- 
lows, as in accumiila-, addormisc-, allgua-, ammone-, apprehend-, 
acquiesc-, arr?g-, assicca-, atter-. c. Sometimes the consonant is 
altogether lost, as in a-gnosc-, a-scend-. d. More commonly it is 
attracted into the form of the familiar preposition ad, thus chang- 
ing the dental liquid for a dental mute, as in Sdaresc-, Sded-, Sdlrn-, 
adolesc-, adur-. e. Not less frequently it is attracted into the 
form of the familiar preposition in, by an easy change of the 
vowelj, as in incip- or inclpi-, Inhorre-, intumesc-, imbu-, ignosc-. 

* As the medical art at Rome was in the hands of Greeks, Greek 
words obtained admission into this part of the language, 
f See 834 b. and note. 

So in, the negative prefix, corresponds to the privative av. 
Even om-it- (omitt-) represents the C.F. of CW-IT?/. 

326 SYNTAX. 

1308. 3 An up, like its equivalent ava, has the following meanings : a. 
up, as anhela- send up (a blast of air), make a violent expiration ; 
ascend- climb up, accumiila- heap up, adiuua- lift up and so aid, 
alleua- raise up, apprehend- take up, arrig- erect, adaequa- raise to 
a level with, inhorre- bristle up, intumesc- swell up, instltu- set up. 
b. back, as Inhlbe- hold up or back, incllna- bend back, inflect- bend 
back, infring- refract, c. again, as agnosc- recognise, ammtfne- or 
admone- remind, adsurg-* rise up again, instaura- (=restaura-) 
celebrate anew, ingemlna- redouble, d. reversal of a preceding act, as 
ignosc-/or<7^, acquiesc- repose after labour, e. loosening, opening, 
as adaperi- open up, In&ra- plough up, infind- cleave open, plough 
up. f. commencement, as cidama- fall in love, addormisc- fall 
asleep, aduespSrasc- begin to be dusk, ambur- begin to burn, singe, 
imbu- wet for the first time, informa- give a first shape to, imminu- 
impair (what was entire), inclp- or incipi- take up, begin, g. sepa- 
ration, removal, disappearance, as &dlm-t take up and so take away, 
amputa- cut off, assicca- dry up, adaresc- dry up (intr.), infring- 
break of, incld- cut off, intabesc- melt away. h. through, as adlg- 
drive through, transfix, admisce- mix up or thoroughly, i. intensity, 
as accid- cut deep into, aded- eat deep into, attonde- cut (the hair) 
close, Sdur- burn a deep hole in, atter- rub a deep hole in, afflc- or 
affici- produce a deep impression on, seriously affect. 

1308. 4 An signifies up in the adjective accllui- uphill. 

1309 Ante. a. Before in place : as, 

Immolabat ante praetorium (Cic. de Div. i. 33. 72), he was sa- 
crificing before his tent. 

AntS tribunal tuum M. Fanni, antS pedes uostros iudices, cae- 
des erunt (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 5. 12), before your tribunal, 
Marcus Fannius, before, your feet, gentlemen of the jury, 
will murders be committed. 

b. The same without a case : as, 

Fliiuius ab tergo, antg circaqug uglut ripa praeceps, oram tu- 
muli omnem cinggbat (Liv. xxvn. 18), a river in the rear, 
in front and on the sides something like a precipitous lank 
shut in the whole circuit of the eminence. 

* See Liv. xxr. 36. 7, xxu. 2. 6, and ad-insury- xxn. 4.2. 
f Compare 

AN. ANTE. 327 

c. Before a person (lare) : as, 

I>lcSrS caussam ante iudlcem (Cic. i. Verr. 3. 9), to make a 
defence before a judge. 

d. Motion forward (without a noun) : as, 

Vt si aut m&nibiis ingrSdiatur quis, aut non ante sed retro 
(Cic. de Fin. v. 12. 35), as if a person were to walk upon his 
hands, or to walk, not forwards, but backwards. 

e. Before in order : as, 

Quern antS me dillgo (Ball. ap. Cic. ad Att. vin. 15 A.), whom 
I esteem above myself. 

f. Before in time (which is the ordinary meaning of the word) : 

Multo antS noctem copias rSduxit (Liv. xxvu. 42), long before 
night he led the forces back. 

g. Before in time without a noun : as, 

Et feci ante et f&cio nunc (Cic. ad Fam. xv. 14. 3), 1 have done 

so before, and I do so now. 
Faucis antS diebus oppldum obpugnarant (Liv. XLI. 11), a few 

days before (this) they had assaulted the town. 
Anno antS quam mortuost (Cic. de Am. 3. 11), the year before 

he died. 

h. This preposition, as well as post, often causes this ablative 
to be changed for an accusative by attraction, as if it depended 
upon the preposition. Thus, 

Chalcldem dies ante paucos prodlderat (Liv. xxxi. 24), he had 

betrayed Chalcis a few days before. 

Sulci ante annum fiunt quam umt consSruntiir (Col. v. 5), 

the furrows are made a year before the vineyards are planted. 

Latinae feriae fuere antS diem tertium nonas Maias (Liv. XLI. 

16), the Latin festival was two days before the nones of May, 

i. e. the 5th of May. 

i. Hence another preposition may be placed before antS : as, 
Caedem contiilisti in ante diem quintum kalendas No'vembrls 
(Cic. in Cat. i. 3. 7), the massacre you fixed for the fourth 
day before the kalends of November, i. e. October the 28th. 
Suppllcatio in dicta est ex antS diem quintum idus Octobrls 
cum eo die in quinque dies (Liv. XLV. 2), a thanksgiving 



was proclaimed to continue from the fourth day before the ides 
of October inclusive for Jive days, i. e. from the to the 
\5th of October. 

1310 Ante in composition with verbs signifies before in place, time 
and excellence: as, ante-i- walk before, live before, surpass; ante- 
ced-* precede in place, in time, in quality. 

1311 Apud (aput) is for the most part limited to persons. It de- 
notes : 

a. Near, with places (rarely) : as, 

Apiid oppldum Cybistra castrS, feel (Cic. ad Fam. xv. 4. 4), 7 

encamped near the town Cybistra. 
Apud forum modo e Dauo audiui (Ter. And. n. 1.2), 1 heard 

it just now from Davus near the forum. 
Ciulcam coronam apud Britanniam merltiis erat (Tac. f Ann. 

xvi. 15), he had earned a civic crown among the Britons. 

b. Near, with persons : as, 

In lecto Crassus erat, gt apiid eum Sulplcius sedebat (Cic. de 

Or. n. 3. 12), Crassus was on the couch, and near him Sul- 

picius was sitting. 
Apud exercltum est (Cic. n. Verr. iv. 22. 49), he is with the 

Auet animus apud illud consllium dlcSre (Cic. Phil. v. 5. 13), 

my soul Longs to speak before that bench of judges. 

c. At the house o/a person J, even though he be away : as, 
Brutum apud me fuissg gaudeo (Cic. ad Att. xv. 3. 2), I rejoice 

(to hear) that Brutus has been at my house. 
Domi esse apud sese archlpiratas dixit duos (Cic. n. Verr. v. 
29. 73), there were at his house, he said, two of the chief pirates. 

d. Metaphorically in one's senses : as, 

Non sum aput me (Ter. Haut. v. 1.48), I am all abroad, am 

lost, am out of my senses. 
Proin tu fac apud te ut sies (Ter. And. n. 4. 5), do you then at 

once take care you have all your wits about you. 

* See 451.1. 

f This use of apud with the names of countries is almost peculiar to 

J See 1303/, 1305 o. 


e. In the time of: as, 

Apud p&tres nostros (Cic. p. Mur. 36. 75), among our fathers, 
i. e. in the times of our fathers. 

Apud saeclum pritis (Ter. E. n. 2. 15), in the preceding genera- 

f. In the mind : as, 

Praemia Spud me mlniimum uSlent (Cic. ad Fam. I. 9. 11), 

rewards with me have very little weight. 
Apud uiros b5nos gratiam conse'cuti sumiis (Cic. ad Att. iv. 

1. 3), vie have obtained influence with good men. 

g. In authors : as, 

Vt ille apud Terentium (Cic. de Fin. v. 10. 28), like that old 

man in Terence. 
De sgpulcris nihil est Spud SSlonem amplius quam .... (Cic. 

de Leg. n. 26. 64), on the subject of sepulchres there is nothing 

in the laws of Solon more than .... 

1312 Ar (of the same meaning as &d), rarely if ever used except in 
composition*, and then it signifies a. to : as, arcess- and arci- 
call to (you), send for; aruSca- call to (you), aru51a-yfo/ to, arugna- 
one lately arrived, a stranger, b. presence : as, arbltero- a person 
present, a witness, umpire, judge ; arfu- be present (whence arfuit). 

1313 Circa, a. About, round, in reference to place : as, 
Custodes circa omnis portas miss! ne quis urbe egrederetur 

(Liv. xxviii. 26), guards were sent round to all the gates to 
prevent any one from leaving the city. 

CSnes circa Be hSbebat (Cic. n. Verr. I. 48. 126), he had dogs 
about him. 

b. The same without a noun : as, 

Lup& sitiens ex montibus qui circa sunt ad puerilem uagitum 
cursum flexit (Liv. I. 4), a thirsty wolf out of the mountains 
which lie around, upon hearing the crying of a child turned 
its course thither. 

c. About, as to time : as, 

Postero die circa eandem horam copias admouit (Liv. XLII. 57), 
the next day about the same hour he moved up his troops. 

* But see Plant. True. n. 2. 17. 

330 SYNTAX. 

d. About, as to number : as. 

Delude p8r insequentls dies circa singulas hemlnas Smittendum 
(Cels. vii. 15), then during the following days about an he- 
mfina is to be drawn off each day. 

e. About, upon, concerning, in reference to (chiefly in the later 
writers) : as, 

III circa consilium eligendl successorls in duas factiones scin- 
debantur (Tac. Hist. I. 13), these were dividing themselves 
into two parties upon the question of electing a successor. 

1314 Circlter. a. A bo ut, as regards place (rare) : as, 

Vt opmor, loca haec circitgr excldit mihi (Plant. Cist. iv. 2. 7), 
I fancy it was hereabouts I dropt it. 

b. About, as to time : as, 

Circlter idus Sextllls puto me ad Iconium fSrg (Cic. ad Fam. 
in. 5. 4), about the ides of Sextilis, i. e. August \3th, / cal- 
culate I shall be in the neighbourhood of Iconium. 

c. About, as to number (the chief use of the word) : as, 

Dies circiter quiudecim Iter fecerunt (Caes. B. G. I. 15), they 
marched for about jif teen days. 

1315 Circum, round, whether in rest, or circular or other similar 
motion : as, 

TerrS, circum axem sg conuortlt (Cic. Acad. Pr. n. 39. 123), the 

earth turns round its axis. 
Ex ea turn quae circum essent SperS, tuerl se possS conftsl sunt 

(Caes. B. C. n. 10), from this tower they fdt confdent that 

they should be able to defend the works which lay around. 
Pugros circum amicos dimittlt (Cic. p. Quinct. 6. 25), he sends 

the servants round to his friends. 
Paucae, quae circum illam essent, mS,nent (Ter. E. in. 5. 33), 

a few women remain to wait upon that lady. 

1316 Cls. a. On this side of, within, as regards place : as, 

Saepe ab his cis Padum ultraquS legiones fusae grant (Liv. v. 

35), the legions had been often routed by them on this side of 

the Padus and beyond it. 

b. Within, in regard to time (only in Plautus) : as, 
Nulla, faxim, cis dies pauc6s siet (Plaut. True. n. 3. 27), / 

would make it wholly disappear within a few days. 


1317 Cls in the composition of adjectives signifies on this side of: 
as, cisalplno-, cisrhenano-, cispadano-, on this side the Alps, the 
Rhine, the Po. 

1318 Cltra. a. On this side of, within, as regards place : as, 

Erat enim cum suis naulbus citra Veliam mlliS, passuum tria 
(Cic. ad Att. xvi. 7. 5), for he was in fact with \usfleet three 
miles on this side Velia. 

b. The same without a noun : as, 

Tela hostium cltra cadebant (Tac. Hist. in. 23), the missiles of 
the enemy kept falling short. 

c. Within, as to time : as, 

Locls ullginosis cltra kalendas Octobns semlnarg conu&iit (Col. 
ir. 8), on wet lands it is right to sow before the \st of October. 

d. Short of, in degree : as, 

Peccaul citra sceliis (Ov. Tr. v. 8. 23), my guilt is short of im- 

1319 Clam and the diminutive clanculum are used only before per- 
sons, in the sense of without their knowledge : 

a. As prepositions : as, 

Sibi nuuc uterque contra legiones parat 

Paterque filiusque clam alter alterum (Plant. Cas. pr. 50), 

Affainst each other now are they preparing armies, 

Both sire and son, each unknown to each. 
Emptast clam uxorem et clam filium* (Plant. Merc. in. 2. 2), 

she has been purchased unknown to my wife and unknown to 

my son. 
Alii clanculum patres quae faciunt (Ter. Ad. I. 1. 27), what 

others do without their fathers 9 knowledge. 

b. They are often used adverbially without a substantive. 

1320 Contra, a. Over against, facing : as, 

Quiuctius trans Tibgrim contra eum IScum ubi nunc naualiS, 
sunt, quattuor iugerum colebat agrum (Liv. in. 26), Quinc- 
tius was cultivating a farm of but four jugers on the other 
side of the Tiber, opposite where the dockyard now is. 

* So Ritschl from the palimpsest ; but otherwise the best Mss. have 
uxore andjilio. 



Asplc-dum contra me (Plant. Most. v. 1.56), just look me in 
the face. 

b. Up*: as, 

Ducenaria dutf contra scalas ferebat (Plin. v. 20), he would 
carry two two-hundred weights up stairs. 

c. Metaphorically, opposition, against : as, 

Res Romana contra spem uotaque eius resurgebat (Liv. xxiv. 
45), the power of Rome was rising again contrary to his hope 
and his prayers. 

d. Towards, of the feelings or behaviour : as, 

Elgphanti tanta narratur dementi contra minus ualidos ut 
<fec. (Plin. viii. 7), the kindness of the elephant towards the 
weak is said to be so great that &c. 

e. The reverse (with or without a case) : as, 

In stultltia contrast (Cic. p. Clu. 31. 84), in folly it is just the 

Quod contra fit a plerisque (Cic. de Off. I. 15. 49), whereas the 

contrary of this is done by most people. 

f. Weighed against (and with a dative case apparently) : as, 
Non carust auro c6ntra (Plant, Kp. in. 3. 30), he is not dear at 
his weight in gold. 

1321 Coram. a. In the presence of, only before persons : as, 

Mihi ipsi, coram genero meo, quae dlcere ausu's ? (Cic, in Pis. 
6. 12) even to me, in the presence of my son-in-law, what lan- 
guage did you dare to use ? 

Prices ad uos conuerto, disque et patria coram obtestor (Tac. 
Ann. iv. 8), / turn my prayers to you, and before the gods 
and my country implore you. 

b. Frequently without a substantive : as, 
Quasi tecum corarn loquerer (Cic. ad Fam. n. 9. 2), as if I had 
been talking with you face to face. 

1322 Cum. a. With, chiefly in the case of persons : as, 
Vagamur Sgentes cum coniiigibus et llberls (Cic. ad Att. vm. 

2. 3), we wander about in poverty with our wives and children. 

* Because he who moves facing the stairs ascends them. See aduor- 
sum, 1307 a. 


Tecum ess uehSmenter uelim (Cic. ad Fam. v. 21. 1), I should 
be infinitely delighted to be with you. 

l>. A relation between two parties is expressed by the dative of 
the chief party, and cum with the other : as, 

Tecum mihi res est (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 30. 84), my dealings are 

with you. 
Intercedunt mihi Inimlcitiae cum istius mulieris ulro (Cic. p. 

Gael. 13. 32), there is a disagreement existing between me and 

the husband of that woman. 

c. With or in, in the sense of wearing : as, 

Nolo me in uia Cum hac ueste uideat (Ter. E. v. 2. 67), I must 
not have him see me in the street in this dress. 

Cenauit cum toga pulla (Cic. in Vat. 13. 31), he dined in a black 

Ipse esse cum tolo (Sal. Cat. 27), he himself went about armed. 

d. Two nouns are at times united by cum, so as to have a 
common predicate or adjective or genitive attached to them : as, 

Ipse dux cum aliquot principibus cpiuntur (Liv. xxi. 60), the 

general himself with a considerable number of the leading men 

are taken. 
A'bin hinc in malarn rem cum suspicione istac scelus ? (Ter. 

And. IT. 1. 17) go and be hanged, you and your suspicions, 

you scoundrel. 
Pedem cum uoce rgpressit ( Virg. A. n. 378), he clicked his foot, 

and checked his voice. 
luduit albos cum uitta crmis (Virg. A. vii. 417^, she puts on 

locks and fillet white alike. 
Clmlnl cum montS l&cum (Virg. A. vii. 697), the lake and 

mountain of Ciminus. 

e. With, denoting coincidence of time : as, 

Summ! puerorum Smores saepe una cum praetexta ponuntur 
(Cic. de Am. 10. 33), the strongest attachments of boys are 
often laid aside together with (at the same time as) the prce- 

PSrfter cum ortu solis castrS, metabatur (Sal. Jug. 106). pre- 
cisely as the sun was rising he was measuring out a camp. 

f. With, in, &c., to express accompanying feelings, circum- 
stances : as, 

334 SYNTAX. 

Athenienses cum slleutio audltl sunt (Liv. xxxvm. 10), the 

Athenians were heard in silence. 
Flamlni corpus magna cum cura inqulsltum non iuuenit (Liv. 

xxn. 7), the body of Flaminius he made search after -with the 

greatest care, but did notfnd it. 

g. The immediate consequences, expressed by to : as, 

Venit Lampsacum cum magna calamltate et prSpe pernlcig 

clultatls (Cic. ii. Verr. i. 24. 63), he came to Lampsacum* 

to the great damage and all but utter ruin of the citizens. 
h. With, in comparisons : as, 
Couferte hanc pacem cum illo bello (Cic. 11. Verr. iv. 52.115), 

compare this peace with that war. 
Cum meum factum cum tuo comparo (Cic. ad Fam. in. 6. 1), 

when I compare my conduct with yours. 

i. With, in the sense of against, with verbs denoting contest : 

Cum omnibus salutis meae defensoiibus bella gerunt (Cic. p. 
Sest. 2. 4), they wage war with all who defend my life and 

Hannibal de imperio cum popiilo Romano certauit (Cic. de Or. 
II. 18. 76), Hannibal contended for empire with the Roman 

j. Cum eo, followed by tit and a subjunctive, is employed to 
express an addition or qualification : as, 

Lanuulnis sacrS, sua redditSr, cum eo iit aedes lunonis com- 
munis Lanuulnis cum ptfpulo Romano esset (Liv. vin. 14), 
to the people of Lanuvium their sacred property was restored, 
on the conditimi that the temple of Juno should be in common 
between the burgesses of Lanuvium and the people of Rome. 
Vnum gaudium affulsgrat, cum eo tit appareret haud procul 
exltio fuissg classem (Liv. xxx. 10), one joy had shone upon 
them, together with the certainty that thejleet had been at one 
time on the verge of destruction.^ 

1323 Cum or c(m in composition with verbs signifies a. union : as, 
concur-}: run together, co-i- meet, consul- [sit together], deliberate. 

* Lampsacum, not Lampsacus, is the nominative in Cicero. See n. 
Verr. i. 24. 63. 

t See also 1065. 1, examples 2, 3, 4. 
J See 451.1. 

CVM. CON. DE. 335 

b. completeness (in the way of destruction) : as, comSd- eat up, 
corn-bur-* burn up, contud-* hammer to pieces, conflc- or conflci- 
dispatch, concid- cut to pieces, c. completeness (in the way of suc- 
cess) : as, conftc- or conftci- make up, consequ- (r.) overtake, obtain, 
consecta- (r.) hunt down. d. with a great effort : as, conic- or conlci- 
hurl, conclama- cry out loudly, collSca- place with care, place for a 
permanence, conciit- or concuti- shake violently, comprehend- seize 
firmly, e. in harmony : as, concin- and consSua- accord, harmonise, 
consent!- agree (in feeling). /. the same as be in English, at once 
changing the construction of the verb and adding completeness : 
as, constSr-* bestrew or pave, collm- besmear. (See 905.) 

1324 Cum or c5n in adjectives denotes union : as, conscio- sharing 
knowledge, coramuni- shared in common, commSdo- having the same 
measure, fitting, coniiig- yoked together, yokemate. 

1325 Cum or con with substantives denotes fellow : as, conseruo- 
fellow-siave, commlliton- feUow-soldier, constfce'ro- one of two fathers- 

1326 De. a. Down, down from: as, 

Ruunt de montibus amnes ( Virg. A. iv. 164), adown the moun- 
tains rush the rivers. 

Clipea" de columnis dempsit (Liv. XL. 51), he took the shields 
down from the pillars. 

Atque haec agebantiir in conuentu pSlam de sellaf (Cic. n. 
Verr. iv. 40. 85), and what is more, these remarks were made 
in court openly from the chair. 

b. The source from which : as, 

Hoc audlui de p&trg meo (Cic. de Or. in. 33. 133), this 1 heard 

from my father. 
Mills iugerum de Pilio emit (Cic. ad Att. xin. 31.4), he bought 

a thousand jugers (of land) of Pilius. 
Pecuniam numerauit de suo (Cic. ad Att. xvi. 16 A. 3), he paid 

the money down out of his own pocket. 

Virtus, quam tu ne de facie quldem nostl (Cic. in Pis. 32. 81), 
Virtue, whom you know not even by sight. 

c. Part of, one or more of: as, 

* See 451.1. 

t Which was on elevated ground. 

336 SYNTAX. 

De tuis innumerabilibus in me offlchs, grit hoc giatissiimum 

(Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 1. 2), of your innumerable kindnesses to 

me, this will indeed be the most welcome. 
Hftbe&tur sane orator sed de m!noiibus (Cic. Opt. gen. Or. 4. 9), 

let him be accounted indeed an orator, but one of an inferior 


d. The material of which any thing is made : as, 

Primum slbi fecit pociila de liito (Tibul i. 1.31), he first made 

h im cups of dirt. 
De fratrg quid fiet* ? (Ter. Ad. v. 9. 39) what will become of my 

brother ? 

e. Motives, causes, suggestions, variously translated, as by 
under, for, on, &c. : as, 

lustis de caussis r&tiones deferre prSperau! (Cic. ad Fam. v. 

20. 2), for good reasons I made haste to give in my accounts. 
Quorum de sententia totS, res gestast (Cic. p. Sull. 19. 55), under 

whose advice the whole matter was conducted. 

f. Down upon, on : as, 

De gradu conarl (Liv. xxxiv. 39), to fight their best on foot. 
Etiamsl cSclderit, de ggnu pugnat (Sen. de Prov. 2), even if he 

fall, hefghts on his knee. 
Noil possum, inquit, tibi dlcgre, nescio gnim quid de gradu 

faciat tanqua'm de essedario interrogaretur (Sen. Ep. 29), 

1 cannot tell you, says he, for I know not what he could do 

fighting on foot as though the question had been about a 


cf. On (a topic), over, about, of, concerning : as, 
Nihil dico de meo inggnio (Cic. in Caecil. 11. 36), I say nothing 

of my own abilities. 
Regulus de captmis commutandis Romam missus est (Cic. de 

Off. I. 13.39), Regulus was sent to Rome about an exchange 

of prisoners. 
De" me autem suscfpg paulisper meas partis (Cic. ad Fam. in. 

12.2), on the other hand, as regards myself , put yourself in 

my position for a moment. 
Afrlcaiius de Numantinis triumphauerat (Cic. Phil. xi. 8. 18), 

Africanus had triumphed over the people of Numantia. 

* Literallv 'will be made.' See 1003. 

BE, DI. 337 

h. With words of time the meaning is somewhat doubtful. It 
would seem however that here also the notion of a part (see sub- 
division c.) prevails, and that the determination as to what part 
is only to be inferred from the context. Thus the best translation 
perhaps is our preposition by or in the course of : as, 

Vt iugiilent hSminem, surgunt de noctg latrones (Hor. Ep. I. 

2. 32), to murder man, rises by night the robber. 
Coeperunt epularl de die (Liv. xxiu. 8), they began banqueting 

by daylight. 

De tertia uigilia exerclturn rgducit (Goes. B. C. n. 35), in the 
course of the third watch he leads back the army. 

i. At times de is used with a noun to denote immediate suc- 
cession of time, directly after : as, 

Non bonus sompniis est dS prandio (Plant. Most. in. 2. 8), 

sleep directly after breakfast is not good. 
lamque S,dgrit multo Pri&mi de sanguine Pyrrhus ( Virg. A. u. 

662), and soon will Pyrrhus be here, fresh from the streaming 

blood of Priam. 

1327 De in composition with verbs denotes a. down : as, dem- (for 
de-Im-) take down, demit-* let down. b. removal : as, detonde- 
shear, decortica- strip off the bark. c. absence : as, dee's- or rather 
des- be wanting, debe- (for dehlbe-) owe, deftc- or deftci- fail. d. 
prevention : as, dehorta- (r.) dissuade, deprgca- (r.) pray a thing 
may not be. e. unfriendly feeling : as, desplc- or desplci- despise, 
deride- laugh at. f. partially : as, deperd- lose in part, deperi- 
perish in part, deroga- take part away (by a rogation), g. inten- 
sity (?) : as, depSpula- (r.) lay thoroughly waste, deSma- love to dis- 

1328 De with adjectives denotes a. down : as, decllui- sloping down- 
wards, b. absence : as, dementi- or dement- without mind, idiotic. 

1329 Dl or dls (dir) is used only in composition. With verbs it de- 
notes a. division : as, dluld- divide, did- distribute, discrib-* dis- 
tribute by writing, dil&b-* slip away in different directions, b. dif- 
ference : as, discrgpa- sound a different note, dissenti-/^ differently. 
c. the reverse of the simple notion : as, displace- displease, difftd-* 

* See 451. 1. 

f In this last sense the prefix was perhaps originally the preposition 
diordis. See 1329* 

338 SYNTAX. 

distrust, discing- ungird. d. intensity : as, dilauda- bepraise, dis- 
ciip- or disciipi- desire to distraction. 

1330 Dls in the composition of adjectives denotes a. difference: as, 
discolor- of different colour or colours, discordi- or discord- (from 
corda- a musical string) sounding a different note. b. negation : as, 
disslmlli- unlike, dispari- or dispr- unequal. 

i'.>31 [Ec], e, ex may be looked upon as the opposite to In, just as ab 
in its ordinary senses is to &d ; and an attention to this distinction 
is often a useful guide in the translation of the English preposition 
from. It denotes a. out of (with motion) : as, 

Telum e corpSre extraxit (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 7. 19), he drew the 

weapon out of the flesh. 

Eum exturbasti ex aedibus (Plant. Trin. i. 2. 100), this man 
you bundled out of the house. 

b. Off, i. e. from on (and it may be observed that In signified 
on as well as in) : as, 

Ex 8quis desiliunt et pedibus proeliantur (Caes. B. G. i. 2), 

they leap off their horses andjight on foot. 
Nisi e campo in cauam hanc uiam demittirnus equos (Liv. 

xxin. 47), unless we ride down from the plain into this 

hollow road. 

c. On, from., when a person is in or on a place and directs his 
efforts thence : as, 

Castor et Pollux ex equis puguarS uisl sunt (Cic. K D. n. 

2. 6), Castor and Pollux were seen fighting on horseback. 
Contionari ex turri alta sdlebat (Cic. Tusc. v. 20. 59), he was 

wont to harangue the people from a high tower. 

d. The material of which any thing is made, of : as, 
Exponit multum argentum, non pauca pocula ex auro (Cic. n. 

Verr, iv. 27. 62), he displays much silver, and not a few cups 

of gold. 
Statua ex aerS factast (Cic. n. Verr. n. 21. 50), a statue was 

made of bronze. 
Qui 5rat totus ex fraude et mendacio fact us (Cic. p. Clu. 

26. 72), who was made up entirely of roguery and lying. 

e. A change from one character to another, from : as, 
Quaero ex te sisne ex paupeiTumo dlues factiis (Cic. in Vat. 

EC, E, EX. 339 

12. 29), / ask you whether or no from being very poor you 
have become rich. 

Sic hSmlnes saepe ex fucosis firm! suffragatores euadunt (Q. 
Cic. de Pet. 27), in this way men often turn out firm from 
having been deceitful supporters. 

/. The preceding construction is also used to denote an inter- 
mediate condition : as, 

Pallidum e uMdi et molle folium habet (Plin. xxi. 90), it has 

a palish green and soft leaf. 

.</ Of> signifying part of, preceding the whole : as, 

Nemo e dScem sana mente est (Cic. de Leg. in. 10. 24), not a 

man of the ten is of sound mind. 
Fufius, uniis ex mels intumis (Cic. ad Fam. xin. 3), Fujius, 

one of my most intimate friends. 

h. The commencing point of time whence measurement pro- 
ceeds, expressed by from : as, 

Ex kalendis lanuarils ad hanc horam inuigllaui relpubllcae 
(Cic. Phil. xiv. 7. 19), from the first of January to the pre- 
sent hour 1 have kept a close watch upon the interests of the 

Ex ea die septentriones uent! fuerg (Cic. ad Att. ix. 6. 3), from 
that day the wind continued in the north. 

i. Immediate succession of time, after : as, 

Ex consulatu est prSfectus in Galliam (Cic. Brut. 92. 318), im- 
mediately after his consulship he set out for Gallia. 

Oppldum ex itine're expugnarg (Goes. B. G. n. 12), to storm the 
town immediately on his arrival. 

Diem ex die expectabam (Cic. ad Att. vn. 26. 3), / was waiting 
day after day. 

j. Source of information with verbs of asking, hearing, &c. : as, 

Sed allquld ex Pompeio sciam (Cic. ad Att. v. 2. 3), but I shall 
learn something from Pompey. 

Hoc te ex aliis audire malo (Cic. ad Att. v. 17. 2), this I prefer 
your hearing from others. 

Quaesiui ex Phania, quam in partem prouinciae putaret te 
uelle ut ugnlrem (Cic. ad Fam. in. 6. 1), 1 asked Phania 
into what part of the province he supposed you to wish me to 

340 SYNTAX. 

k. Cause : as, 

Grauiter claudicabat ex uoluere ob rempubllcam accepto (Cic. 

de Or. n. 61. 249), he was very lame from a wound received 

in his country's service. 
Arctius ex lassltudme dormiebant (Cic. de Iiiv. n. 4. 14), they 

were sleeping somewhat soundly f rom fatigue. 

I. That on which any thing depends physically or morally : as, 
Vldetis pendere alios ex* arbore, pulsari autem Slios et uerbg- 

rarl (Cic. n. Verr. in. 26. 66), you see some hanging from a 

tree, others again beaten and flogged. 
Ex quo uerbo tota ilia caussa pendebat (Cic. de Or. TI. 25.107), 

on which word the whole of that cause depended. 

m. The authority upon which a person acts : as, 

Ex senatus consulto Manlius uiriculis llbSratur (Liv. vi. 17), 

under a decree of the senate Matdius is released from prison. 
Res ex foedere rSpetunt (Liv. xxi. 10), they demand redress 

under the treaty. 

n. The standard by which any thing is measured : as, 

Non est ex fortuna fides pondgranda (Cic. Part. Or. 34. 117), it 

is not by success that fidelity is to be measured.^ 
Ex eueutu homines de tuo consllio existumabunt (Cic. ad Fam. 

I. 7. 5), the world will judge of your prudence by the result. 

o. As suggested by, in accordance with : as, 

Statues fit ex fide fama requS mea uldebltiir (Cic. ad Att. v. 

8. 3), you will decide as shall appear to be in accordance with 

my honour, character and interest. 
Te ex sententia naulgasse' gaudeo (Cic. ad Att. 7. 21. 1), I am 

delighted that your voyage has been satisfactory. J 
Piscis ex sententia Nactus sum (Ter. Ad. in. 3. 66), I have fallen 

in with a dish offish to my lieartfs content.^ 

* Very frequently ab is used with this verb. 

f Literally ' weighed.' 

J Literally ' that you have sailed according to your wishes or feeling.' 

The phrase ex met animi sententia is ambiguous, meaning either 
* to my heart's content, 1 or * on my word of honour' (literally 'according 
to the feeling of my heart'). Hence the pun in Cicero (de Or. n. 64. 
260), Nasica censori, quum ille Ex tui animi sententia tu uxorem habesl 
Non hercule, inquit, ex mei animi sententia. 

EC, E, EX. 341 

p. In proportion : as, 

FS,cIt haeredem ex deuncS Caecmam (Cic. p. Caec. 6. 17), he 

makes Caecina heir to eleven-twelfths of his property. 
Ex parte magna tibi assentiSr (Cic. ad Att. vn. 3. 3), I agree 

with you in a great measure. 
q. The quarter on or at which : as, 
Vna ex parte Rheno coutlnentur (Caes. B. G. I. 2), on one side 

they are shut in by the Rhine. 

r. The liquid in which any thing more solid is dissolved, is pre- 
ceded by ex : as, 

Resinam ex melle Aegiptiam* uorato, saluom fe"ceris (Plant. 

Merc. i. 2. 28), take a bolus of Egyptian gum mixed in honey, 

and you will make it right. 
Cucumeris silvestris pars inte'rio'r ex lactg . . diluftur (Cels. v. 

21.1), the inner part of a wild cucumber is dissolved in milk. 

1332 [Ec], 6, ex in composition with verbs denotes a. out : as, exlm- 
take out, exi- go out, ggrgd- or egrgdi- (r.) march out, ecfer- or effe>- 
carry out, expds-t set forth, b. removal by the act expressed in the 
simple verb : as, excanta- remove by charms, edormi- sleep off, ex- 
terre- frighten away. c. escaping by means of the act expressed in 
the simple verb : as, eulta- escape by moving on one side, elucta- (r.) 
get away by wrestling, ecfiig- or ecfiigi- escape by flight, d. obtaining 
an end by the act of the simple verb : as, extiid-t hammer out, 
Suestlga- trace out, el&bora- work out, exsSqu- follow out, attain, e. 
publicity : as, edlc-f proclaim, enuntia- divulge, f. ascent : as, 
emerg- emerge, eueh- carry up or raise, exsist- stand up. g. com- 
pleteness : as, edisc- learn by heart, exur- burn up, emere- (r.) com- 
plete one's service, h. change of character with verbs formed from 
adjectives and substantives : as, expia- make clean, atone for, ce- 
tera- make savage, ecfemina- convert into a woman, i. removal of 
what is expressed by the noun whence the verb is formed : as, 
exossa-^ bone (as a fish), enoda-J make smooth by removal of knots. 
j. the reverse : as, expllca- unfold, exaugiira- deprive of a religious 
character, exauctora- discharge (i. e. relieve a soldier of the obliga- 

* So Ms. B, not Aegyptiam. 
f See 451.1. 

J Perhaps immediately from the adjectives exossi- ' boneless,' enodi- 
* without knots.' 

342 SIXTAX. 

tion expressed by the Latin auctoramento-). k. distance : as, ex- 
audi- hear in the distance or on the outside. 

1333 In adjectives formed from substantives this preposition denotes 
absence : as, enerui- without muscle, exsompni- sleqiless, extorri- 
(for exterri-) banished. 

1334 Erga with an accusative, a. Facing (very rare) : as, 
Tonstricem Suram Nouisti nostram, quae has nunc erga aedis 

habet* (Plant. True. n. 4. 51), you know our coiffeuse Sura, 
who lives now facing this house. 

b. Towards (of friendly feeling) : as, 

Eodem modo erga amlcos affect! siimus quo erga nosmet ipsos 
(Cic. de Am. 16. 56), we are disposed in the same way towards 
friends as towards ourselves. 

c. Against (of unfriendly feeling, rare) : as, 

Quasi quid filius Meus deliquisset me erga (Plaut. Ep. in. 3. 8), 
as if my son had committed any offence against me. 

1335 Extra, t a. Without (no motion) : as, 

Hi sunt extra prouinciam trans Rhodanum prim! (Caes. B. G. 
i. 10), these are the first people without the province on the 
other side of the Rhone. 

b. The same without a noun : as, 

Extra gt inttis hostem h&bebant (Caes. B. C. HI. 69), they had 
an enemy without and within. 

c. Metaphorically : as, 

Extra caussam id est (Cic. p. Caec. 32. 94), that is foreign to tJie 

question before us. 
Dlco oinnis extra culpam fuisse (Cic. n. Verr. v. 51. 134), 7 

affirm that all were blameless. 
Sed mehercules extra iocum homo bellus est (Cic. ad Fam. vn. 

16. 2), but really without joking he is a pleasant feUow. 

d. Except: as, 

Extra diicem paucosquS praeterea, rellqui in bello rpac5?, Tn 
orationg criidelSs (Cic. ad Fam. vn. 3. 2), except the cliej 

* This reading is partly conjectural, 
f For the preposition ex, e, see 1331. 

ix. 343 

and a few besides, the rest were rapacious in the field, Hood- 
thirsty in language. 

nauigato citra Calicadnum extra quam si quS, nauis lega- 
tes portablt (Liv. xxxvm. 38), neither shall he navigate the 
sea on this side of Calicadnus, always excepting the case of a 
ship carrying ambassadors. 

133G In is used with the ablative and accusative ; with the former 
when there is no motion,* with the accusative when there is 

In with the ablative denotes a. In, in reference to place : as, 
In eo conclaui el ciibandum fuit (Cic. de Div. n. 8. 20), in that 

chamber he would have had to sleep. 
Attiilit in cS,uea pullos (Cic. de Div. n. 34. 72), he brought the 

chickens in a cage. 

In hortis cum memo suo ambulabat (Cic. Acad. Pr. n. 16.51), 
he was walking in the park with his neighbour. 

b. On or over : as, 

Nerno eum unquam in gquo sedentem uldit (Cic. n. Verr. v. 

10. 27), no one ever saw him on horseback. 
Equitare In arundlng longa (Hor. Sat. n. 3. 248), to ride on a 

long reed. 
Pons In Ibero prope eflfectus Srat (Caes. B. C. i. 62), the bridge 

over the Ebro was nearly finished. 

c. Among : as, 

Caes&rls in barbaris erat nomgn obscurius (Caes. B. C. I. 61), 
C&sar's name was not well known among the barbarians. 

Exercltum In Aulercis collScauit (Caes. B. G- in. 29), he quar- 
tered the army in the country of the Aulerci. 

d. Included in, part of: as, 

Nihil praeter uirtutem in bonis ducere (Cic. de Fin. in. 3. 10), 
to look upon nothing but manliness as entitled to a place among 

Capito in decem legatis grat (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 9. 26), Capito 

was one of the ten deputies. 

e. In, in the sense of within the range of, but only in certain 
phrases : as, 

* That is, no motion in relation to the noun \ or rather, no motion 
from the exterior of it to its interior. 

344 SYNTAX. 

Cum in sole ambulo. c51oror (Cic. de Or. n. 14. 60), when I 
walk in the sun, I get bit 'owned. 

Ist& mSderatio anlmi in dculis clarissumae prouinciae atque in 
aurlbus omnium gentium est pSsIta (Cic. ad Q. F. 1. 1. 2.9), 
that power of self-control you possess lies under the eyes of a 
most distinguished province, and within the hearing of all 

f. In, denoting the position in which, a person is, as regards 
the feelings of others : as, 

Difficile est dictu, quanto In 6dio slums a"piid exteras nationes 
(Cic. p. Leg. Man. 22. 65), it is difficult to say in what de- 
testation we are held among foreign nations. 

ES, clultas tlbi una in Smorg fuit (Cic. n. Verr. iv. 1. 3), that 
state was the special object of your affection. 

Apiid eum sunt In honore e"t in pretio (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 
28. 77), they are respected and valued by him. 

g. In, before persons, signifying in the case of, in what concerns 
them : as, 

Respondit se id quod in Neruiis fecisset facturum (Caes. B. G. 

ii. 32), he replied that lie would do the same as he had done 

in the case of the Nervii. 
Idem in b5no seruo did s&let (Cic. de Or. n. 61. 248), the same 

is commonly said of a good slave. 

h. Dressed in, wearing, armed with : as, 

Pa"tlbulo adfixus, In isdem aniilis quos gestabat (Tac. Hist. iv. 

3), fixed to the gallows with the same rings on, which he wore 

(when alive). 
Trlflda Neptunus In hasta (Vol. Fl. I. 641), Neptune armed 

with a three-fanged spear. 

i. In respect of, in reference to : as, 

Vexatiir &b omnibus In eo llbro quern scripsit de uita beata 

(Cic. Tusc. v. 9. 24), he is attacked by all in reference to the 

book which he wrote on a happy life. 

j. A period of time in the course of which a thing happens is 
often preceded by In : as, 

Vix ter In anno audire nuntium possunt (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 
46. 132), they can receive news scarcely three times in the year. 

IN. 345 

Hae res contra nos f&ciunt In hoc tempSrg (Cic. p. Quinct. 1. 1), 
these things make against us under present circumstances. 

Fere in diebus paucis quibus haec acta sunt Chrysis uicina 
haec moritur (Ter. And. I. 1. 77), within a few days or so 
after this occurred, my neighbour here Chrysis dies. 

k. The simple verbs of placing, such as pSs- put, Itfca- place, 
stS-tu- set up (even though motion be implied in them), take In 
with an ablative in the best writers, and that whether used in 
their simple sense or metaphorically : as, 

T&biilae testament! Romam grant adlatae, ut in aerario pone- 
rentur (Caes. B. C. in. 108), his will had been carried to 
Rome, that it might be deposited in the treasury. 

Omnem curam in siderum cognitions po'suerunt (Cic. de Div. 
I. 42.93), they employed all their thoughts in the study of the 

Apud P&tronem te in maxuma gratia p&sui (Cic. ad Att. v. 
11.6), I have caused you to be in -very high favour with Patro. 

1337 In with an accusative denotes a. Into : as, 

Gladium hosti in pectus infixit (Cic. Tusc. iv. 22. 50), he drove 

the sword into the enemy's breast. 
Paene in ftfueam decldl (Plant. Per. iv. 4. 46), I all but fell into 

a ditch. 
Inde 6rat brguisslmiis in Brltanniam traiectus (Caes. B. G. iv. 

21), from thence was the shortest passage to Britain. 

b. On to : as, 

Fllium In humeros suos extiilit (Cic. de Or. i. 53. 228), he lifted 

his son on to his shoulders. 
DeiotSrum In ecum sustulerunt (Cic. p. Deiot. 10. 28), they 

lifted (the aged) Deiotarus on to his horse. 

c. Among (with motion) : as, 

Cohortis quinque In Eburones mlsit (Caes. B. G. v. 24), he sent 
five cohorts into the country of the Eburones. 

d. The new form or character into which any thing is changed 
has In before it : as, 

Ex homing se conuortlt in beluam (Cic. de Off. in. 20. 82), he 

changes himself from a man into a beast. 
Aqua" mSrina in dlmldiam partem decSquenda est (Col. xn. 24), 

the sea-water must be boiled down to one-half. 

346 SYNTAX, 

e. The object on which any thing is spent or employed : as, 
Nullus tgruncius insumitur* in quemquam (Cic. ad Att. v. 

17. 2), not a farthing is spent on any one. 

Maiorem sumptum in praudium fecerunt (Cic. TI. Verr. iv. 
10. 22), they spent a larger sum on a breakfast. 

f. Direction of sight or thoughts on or to an object : as, 

In quoius fortunas non ociilos deftgit ? (Cic. Phil. xi. 5. 10) 

on whose property does he not fix his eye ? 
In te unum se totS conuortet cluitas (Cic. Somn. Sc. 2), the 

whole body of citizens will turn their thoughts to you alone. 

g. Direction of power towards or over an object : as, 

Vlri in uxores ultae necisque habent ptftestatem (Caes. B. G. 

vi. 19), the husband has power of life and death over the wife. 
Ne tamdiu quidem dominus erit in suos ? (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 

28. 78) shall he not even for this little time be master over his 

own people ? 

h. Feeling towards, whether friendly or hostile (though more 
frequently the latter) : as, 

Ad impietatem in decs, in homines adiunxit iniuriam (Cic. 
N. D. in. 34. 84), to impiety towards the gods he added out- 
rage to man. 

Si ferae partus suos dillgunt, qua nos in llberos nostros indul- 
geutia esse debemiis? (Cic. de Or. n. 40. 168) if wild beasts 
love their offspring, what ought to be our kindness towards 
our children ? 

i. Purposet (even though not attained), for, to: as, 

NullS pecuuiS nisi in rem militaremst data (Cic. p. Rab. Post. 

12. 34), no money was given except for military purposes. 
In hanc rem testem Sicilian! citabo (Cic. n. Verr. n. 59. 146), 

/ will call Sicily itself as a witness to prove this fact. 

j. Tendency, sense of words, &c., for t to, as : as, 

* Yet with pos- and consum- the best writers prefer in with the abla- 

f This usage was carried to a great extent by the later writers, but is 
more limited in Cicero, who instead of such a phrase as in honorem ali- 
cuius^ would have said honoris alicuius caussa. (See Madvig, Opusc. 
i. p. 167.) 

IN. 347 

Ego quae" in rem tuam sint, ea uelim facias (Ter. Ph. n. 4. 9), 

as for me, whatever course may be for your interest, that 1 

should wish you to adopt. 
In earn sententiam multS, dixit (Cic. ad Att. II. 22. 2), he said 

much to this effect. 
Haec in suam contumeliam uertit (Caes. B. C. I. 8), all this he 

interpreted as an insult to himself. 

k. - Resemblance (resulting from an act), manner, form, after : as, 

Pgditum agmen in mo'dum fugientium agebatur (Liv. xxi. 41), 

the infantry was hurrying along so as to look like a body of 


I. In distributions the unit is expressed by In and an accusative 
plural with or without the adjective singulo-, while the English is 
expressed by every, each, the, &c. : as, 

Iain ad denarios quinquaginta in singulos modios annona per- 

uenerat (Caes. B. C. I. 52), the price of corn had now reached 

to fifty denaries the bushel. 
Q.uingenos denarios prgtium in capita statuerant (Liv. xxxiv. 

50), they had fixed 500 denaries as the price per head. 
Tempora in horas commutar! uides (Cic. ad Att. xiv. 20. 4), 

the state of things changes you see every hour. 
Vltium in dies crescit (Cic. Top. 16. 62), vice increases every 


m. The future in phrases of time expressed by for, until, &c. : 

Ad cenam hSmlnem inuitauit in postgrum diem (Cic. de Off. 

in. 14. 58), he asked the man to dinner for the next day. 
Sermonem in multam noctem produxlmus (Cic. Somn. Sc. 1), 

we kept up the conversation until late at night. 

n. In some phrases denoting the position of a party, the verb 
6s- be is used with in and an accusative, although no motion or 
change is expressed* : as, 

Pulcerrumum ducebant &b exteris nationlbus quae In amici- 
tiam popiill Romanl diciouemque essent, iniurias propul- 
sarS (Cic. in Caecil. 20. 66), they deemed it a most glorious 

* This originated, says Madvig (Lat. Gr. 230, obs. 2, note), in an 
inaccuracy of the pronunciation, where the distinction between the accu- 
sative and ablative rested on the single letter m. 



duty to ward off outrage from foreign nations who stood in 
the relation of friends and vassals to the Roman people. 
Quum uostros portus in praedonum fuissS pStestatem sciatTs 
(Cic. p. leg. Man. 12. 33), when your own harbours have been, 
you are aware, in the possession of pirates. 

1338 In when compounded with verbs* denotes a. into : as, ini- 
enter, indiic-t lead in. b. upon : as, iniiig t place (as a yoke) upon, 
indu- put on, induc-t draw on, impe'ra- impose, c. against : as, 
infer- carry against, illid- dash against, imride- look with envy at. 
d. at, over : as, inggm- groan at, illacruma- weep over. e. privacy : 
as, Inaudi- or iudaudi- hear as a secret. But see 1 308. 2, 1308. 3. 

1339 Infra denotes below, a. In regard to place, with or without a 
noun : as, 

Argentum ad mare infra oppidum exspectabat (Cic. II. Verr. 

iv. 23. 51), he was waiting for the silver by the sea-side below 

the town. 
Infra nihll est nM mortale ; supra lunam sunt aeterna omniS; 

(Cic. Somn. Sc. 4), below there is nothing but what is mortal; 

above the moon every thing is eternal. 

b. Of time : as, 

Homerus non infra superiorem Lycurgum fuit (Cic. Brut. 10. 
40), Homer was not of a later date than the elder Lycurgus. 

c. Of number : as, 

HiSmg pauciora ou subMto, non tamen infra nSuena" (Plin. 
xvin. 26), in winter you must place fewer eggs under them, 
not a smaller number however than nine at a time. 

d. Of magnitude : as, 

Vr! sunt magnttudlng paulo infra glgfantos (Caes. B. G. vi. 28), 
the urus in size is a little below the elephant. 

e. Of worth : as, 

* In in the composition of adjectives signifies not, but has no con- 
nection with the preposition. On the other hand, verbs are never com- 
pounded with the negative in. lynora- ' be ignorant' seems to be an 
exception, but only seems, for it is formed from the adjective ignaro-, 
which as an adjective was entitled to the negative prefix before the sim- 
ple adjective gnaro-. Substantives compounded with in * not' are at times 
found, but only in the ablative, as iniussu ' without permission.' 

f See 451. 1. 


Infra se onmia humanS, ducet (Cic. de Fin. in. 8. 29), he will 
deem every thing human below him, i. e. unworthy his atten- 

1340 Intgr denotes between or among, a. Of place : as, 

Mons lura est inter Sequanos 8t Heluetios (Caes. B. G. i. 2), 
Mount Jura lies between the Sequani and the Helvetii. 

Inter sobrios baccharl uldetur (Cic. Or. 28. 99), he seems to be 
acting Bacchus among sober people. 

b. Of time, between, during : as, 

Dies quadraginta quinque inter blnos ludos tolleutiir (Cic. II. 

Verr. n. 52. 130), forty-five days between the two festivals 

shall be struck out. 
Hoc inter cenain dictaul (Cic. ad Q. F. m. 1.6.19), I have 

dictated this during dinner. 

c. Mutuality: as, 

Inter se asplciebant (Cic. in Cat. in. 5. 13), they kept looking at 

one another. 
Clcerones pugri amant inter se (Cic. ad Att. vi. 1. 12), the young 

Ciceros are great friends. 

1341 Inter in composition with verbs denotes between : as, interpds- 
place between. But see 1342. 1. 

1342 Intgr is compounded with nouns forming both substantives and 
adjectives a. with the sense between : as, interuallo- (n.) the space 
between two stakes in a palisade, an interval, intertignio- (n.) the 
space between two beams, intern uutio- a messenger who goes backwards 
and forwards between two people, b. within : as, inter-ciiti- or -cut- 
within the skin. c. between, as regards time : as, interlunio- the 
interval when no moon is visible. 

1 342. i Inter from In or aii up = ava (see 834, and compare 308. 1) 
denotes a. up : as, intelleg- pick or gather up (information), per- 
ceive, interturba- stir up, intermisce- mix up. b. again : as, inter- 
pola-/w# (cloth) again, vamp up anew. c. reversal of a preceding 
act : as, interiug- unyoke, interquiesc- repose after labour, d. sepa- 
ration, removal, disappearance: as, interrup- break off, intermlt- 
leave off or let out (the fire), intercliid- shut off, intercld- fall away, 
escape, interfrlg- break off, inte'raresc- dry up, interblb- drink up, 
interfile- forbid, intermlna- (r.) warn off with threats, e. especially of 

350 SYNTAX. 

disappearance by death, as inter-flc- or -fici- make away with, kill, 
intgrlm- take of, kill, int^ri- pass away, die, inter-mtir- or -mori- 
die off, interneca- kill of, interfugesc- die of cold (hence be neglected 
and so become obsolete), f. through : as, inter-fod- or -f5di- dig 
through, interspira- breathe through, inter-fug- or -fugi-jtfy through, 
interlace- and interfulge- shine through.* 

1343 Intra denotes within, a. Of place without motion : as, 
Intra parietes meos de mea pernicie consilia Ineuntur (Cic. ad 

Att. in. 10. 2), plans are entered into within the walls of my 
house for my own destruction. 

AntiSchum intra montem Taurura regnare iusserunt (Cic. p. 
Sest. 27. 58), they decreed that Antiochus should rule within 
Mount Taurus. 

b. Of place with motion : as, 

Intra portas compelluntiir (Liv. vii. 11), they are driven within 
the gates. 

c. Metaphorically : as, 

Eptilamur una non mSdS non contra legem sgd gtiam intra 
legem (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 26. 4), we feast together not only 
not against the law, but even within it. 

Quidam phrengtici intra uerba desipiunt (Cels. in. 18), some 
lunatics show the disease only in words. 

d. Of number (particularly in regard to time), within, during : 

Intra annos quattuordScim tectum non subierant (Caes. B. G. 

i. 34), for fourteen years they had not passed under a roof. 
Intra paucos dies oppldum capltur (Liv. n. 25), within a few 

days the town is taken. 

1344 Intro in is used in composition with verbs of motion or direc- 
tion : as, introi- enter, introduc- lead in, intro-splc- or -splci- look 

\ 345 luxtat (root iiig- yoke, join} denotes a. Proximity of place, 
close by : as, 

* This inter became soon in a great measure obsolete, so that many 
of the words belong exclusively to the older writers, Cato, Plautus, Lu- 
cretius. It may be useful to compare the meanings of this inter with 
those of an and' its representatives, 1308. 2. 

f This word is scarcely to be met with in Cicero. In Tacitus it is 
very common. 


luxta murum castra pSsuit (Caea. B. C. I. 16), he pitched his 

camp near a wall. 

6. The same with motion, nearly to : as, 
luxta seditionem uentum (Tac. Ann. vi. 13), matters came 

nearly to a sedition. 

c. Proximity of time, immediately after : as, 

Neque gnim conuSnit iuxta inediam protlnus satiStatem ess8 
(Cels. n. 16), nor indeed is it reasonable that immediately 
after fasting there should be a full meal. 

d. Nearness in quality, akin to : as, 

Velocitas iuxta formldinem est (Tac. Ger. 30), speed is akin to 

Eorum egS ultam mortemqug iuxta aestumo (Sal. Cat. 2), the 

life and death of such men I look upon as much the same. 

e. Equality without a noun, equally : as, 

Solo caeloquS iuxta* graui (Tac. Hist. v. 7), the soil and at- 
mosphere being equally unhealthy. 

1346 Ob denotes a. Towards, with motion (but only in very old 
writers) : as, 

Ob Romam noctu l^giones ducfe're coepit (Enn. ap. Fest.), he 
began to lead the legions by night towards Rome. 

b. Against, before, with or without motion : as, 

Follem slbi obstringit ob gulam (Plant. Aul. n. 4. 23), he binds 

a bladder before his mouth. 
Lanam ob oculum habebat (Plaut. Mil. Gl. v. 1.37), he had a 

piece of wool over his eye. 
Mors ei 5b 8culos saepe uersatast (Cic. p. Rab. Post. 14. 30), 

death often passed to and fro before his eyes. 

c. Against, for, in accounts, where money is set against the 
thing purchased, pledged, &c., or the thing purchased, &c. against 
the money : as, 

A'ger obpositust pigneri Ob decem mnas (Ter. Ph. iv. 3.56), 
my land has been put as a pledge against ten mince, i. e. has 
been mortgaged for that sum. 

* In this sense a dative is found : as, res parua ac iuxta mognis dif- 
ficilis (Liv. xxiv. 19), k a little matter, but equally difficult with great 

352 SYNTAX. 

arrabonem a me accepisti ob mulierem (Plant. Rud. in. 

6. 23), nay you received from me earnest-money for the woman. 
A'it se ob asinos frre argentum (Plant. As. n. 2. 80), he says 

that he has brought the money to pay for the asses. 
Est flagltiosum ob rem iudlcandam pecuniam acc!p8r (Cic. Ji. 

Verr. n. 32. 78), it is indeed a scandalous thing to take money 

for giving a verdict 

d. A purpose or reason, for, on account of: as, 
Haec ggo ad te Sb earn caussam scrlbo ut iam de tua quSque 7 
rationg mgdlterg (Cic. ad Fam. I. 8. 3), all this I write to 
you with this object, that you may consider the course of pro- 
ceeding you also should now adopt. 

Verum id frustra n ob rem faciam, in uestra mS-nu sltum 
(Sal. Jug. 31), but whether I am doing this in vain or to 
some purpose, is in your hands, my friends. 

1347 Ob in composition with verbs signifies a. to, towards : as, tfbi- 
go to, ostend- hold out to, occur-* run to meet. b. before : as, obam- 
bula- walk before, obuSUta- keep flying before, obuersa- (r.) pass to 
and fro before, obtine- hold in the presence of (an enemy), c. shut- 
ting, obstructing: as, obd-put to, obstru- build up, obslde- blockade. 
d. against (physically) : as, oblucta- (r.) struggle against, offend- 
strike against, e. against (morally) : as, obnuntia- bring an un- 
favourable report, obtrecta- depreciate, <5bes- be injurious, f. upon : 

as, occulca- tread upon, opprlm- crush, obtgr- trample upon. g. 
covering, affecting the surface : as, obdiic-* draw over, offud-* pour 
over, occalle- grow hard on the surface. 

1348 Plam openly; publicly, in the presence of many. a. With an 
ablative (or perhaps dative) : as, 

Inde rem credltorl palam pSpiilo soluit (Liv. vi. 14), upon this 
he paid the money to the creditor in the presence of the people. 

b. The same without a case : as, 

Arrna in templumf luce et palam comportabantur (Cic. in Pis. 

10. 23), people were carrying arms into the temple in daylight 

and openly. 

1 349 P8ngs denotes a. In the hands of, in the possession of: as, 
See 451.1. f Al. templo. 


Pengs eum est ptftestas (Cic. ad Fam. iv. 7. 3), the power is in 
his hands. 

Istaec penes uos psaltriast ? (Ter. Ad. in. 3. 34) is that singing- 
girl at your master's house ? 

Serui centum dies penes accussatorem fuere (Cic. p. Mil. 22. 60), 
the slaves for a hundred days were in the custody of the ac- 

Culpa te"'st penes (Ter. Hec. iv. 1. 20), the fault lies with you. 

Penes te gs ?* (Hor. Sat. 2. 3. 273) are you in your senses ? 

1350 PSr denotes a. Through, with motion : as, 

It hastS, Tago per tempus utrumque ( Virg. A. ix. 418), passes 

the spear through Tago's either temple. 
Helue'tii pSr angustias suas copias transduxSrant (Caes. B. G. 

i. 11), the Helvetii had led their forces through the defile. 

b. Through, as seen through : thus, 

NaturS membranas Sctilorum perlucidas fecit ut p8r eas cernl 
posset (Cic. N. D. n. 57. 142), nature made the membranes of 
the eye transparent, that they migJit be seen through. 

Quod uidsbam gquldem, sed quasi per callgiuem (Cic. Phil, 
xii. 2. 3), which I saw att the time it is true, but only through 
a cloud as it were. 

c. When a similar thing occurs at consecutive points of a line : 

Inultatl liberallter per dSmos (Liv. I. 9), generously invited to 

all the houses, i.e. some to one, some to another. 
Quid h6c negotist quod 6mnes homines fabulantur p6r uias ? 
(Plant. Cist. v. 1. 1) what is this business which all tfte world 
is talking about in every street of the town ? 

d. Of time, during, through, for : as, 

Tgnuisti prouinciam per decem annos (Cic. ad Att. vn. 9. 4), 
you have clung to the province during ten years. 

R5go te nS te uiae pSr hiemem committas (Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 
8), / beg you not to expose yourself to the danger of travelling 
during the winter. 

e. The means by which a thing is done, through, by, by means 
of: w, 

Compare this with a similar use tf apud above. 
A A 

354 SYNTAX. 

Qufid Sdeptiis est per scelus, id per luxuriam ecfuudit (Cic. p. 
Rose. Am. 2. 6), what he has obtained through impiety, he is 
squandering in luxury. 

Quomlnus discessio fieret per aduorsarios tuos est factum (Cic. 
ad Fam. i. 4. 2), it was owing to your opponents that a divi- 
sion did not take place. 

f. When the means employed are deceitful, pgr may be trans- 
lated by under. In this case the nouns employed are such as 
specie- appearance, nomen- name, caussa- cause, <fec. : thus, 

Per speciem alienae fungendae uicis suas 6pes firmauit (Liv. I. 
41), under pretence of acting for another, he strengthened his 
own power. 

Aemulationis suspectos per nomgn obsidum amSuebat (Tac. 
Ann. xiir. 9), those suspected of rivalry he was endeavouring 
to get rid of under the name of hostages. 

q. When the agent does not act through any intermediate 

means, he is said (though incorrectly) to act through himself : as, 

Quoscunque ntfuis rebus idoneos credebat, aut per se aut per 

aiios solllcitabat (Sal. Cat. 39. 6), all those whom he thought 

well fitted for taking part in a revolution, he was working 

upon, either himself or by means of others. 
Nihtt audactSr ipsl per sese sine P. Sulla f&cerg potuerunt (Cic. 

p. Sul. 24. 67), they could do nothing daring of themselves 

without the aid forsooth of Publius Sulla. 

/i. With phrases denoting hindrance, <fec., the point where the 
hindrance exists is expressed by per through : as, 

Vtrisque adparuit nihil p8r alteros stare" quo mmus inceptS, 

persgquSrentur (Liv. vi. 33), to each nation it was evident 

that there was no obstacle on the part of the other to prevem 

them from carrying out their intentions. 
Per duces, non per mllites ste'te'rat, ne uincgrent (Liv. in. 61), 

it had been the fault of the generals, not the soldiers, that they 

had not conquered. 

i. With verbs denoting permission or power, the person who 
might have stood in the way is expressed by pSr : as, 

DiglSdientur ill! per me licet (Cic. Tusc. iv. 21. 47), t/ify may 

fight it out for me, i. e. as far as lam concerned. 
Quum et per u&letudlnem et pgr annl ternpus nauigare pot^ris, 

PER. 355 

ad nos ugnl (Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 7), when loth your health 
and the season of the year permit your sailing, come to us. 

j. By, in entreaties, to express the person or object in consi- 
deration of which the favour is asked* : as, 

Pert egS tg deos oro (Ter. And. v. 1. 15), I entreat you by the 

PSr ego te fill quaecunque iurS, liberos iungunt p&rentibus pre- 
cor quaesoquS (Liv. xxm. 9), by all the ties, my son, which 
bind a, child to a parent, I pray and entreat thee. 

k. Hence in oaths, by: as, 

lurarem per I5uem DeosquS Penatis me ea sentlrS quae dicS- 
rem (Cic. Acad. Pr. n. 20. 65), I would have sworn by Ju- 
piter and the Household Gods that I really felt what 1 said. 

1351 Per in composition with verbs denotes a. through: as, per- 
due-^ lead through, perflu-/ow through, b. completion: as, perfic- 
or -ftci- complete, permit- let go altogether, abandon (to others), 
perora- conclude a speech, c. destruction : as, pgri- perish, perd- 
\jordo~\, destroy, perlm- kill\\. 

1352 Per in composition with adjectives denotes a. through : as, 
pernoct- lasting all night, perulgil- awake all night, perenni- last- 
ing through endless years, b. very^ : as, perleui- very light, per- 
magno- very great, c. destruction : as, periuro- violating an oath, 
perfido- breaking faith. 

* This in fact is only another example of the means noticed in e. 
A weak party approaches an offended superior through some third party; 
as for instance in Caesar, B. G. vi. 4, the Senones, in applying for his 
mercy, adeunt per Aeduos. 

f Observe how the preposition is separated from its noun in these 

_ In expergisc- (r.) wake up,' the preposition is joor, the old form 
being exporgisc- i. e. exporrigisc-. Again in perhibe- the old form was 
probably porhibe-. Compare perinde, a corruption of proinde or rather 

See 451.1. 

II The per signifying destruction is perhaps of a different origin. At 
any rate it is the same as the German prefix ver, seen in verthun ' de- 
stroy;' and as our English for, seen in the obsolete fordo i. e. 'destroy,' 
forswear, forget, &c. 

^[ The prefix per * very' is often separated from the simple adjective : 
as, per mihi mirum uisumst (Cic. de Or. I. 49. 214), 'it seemed very won- 
derful to me.' 

356 SYNTAX. 

1353 Pong (closely connected with post) signifies behind, a. With 
a noun : as, 

Pone nos recede (Plant. Poen. in. 2. 34), step lack behind us. 
Vinctae ponS tergum manus (Tac. Hist. in. 85), his hands were 

bound behind his back. 
b. Without a noun : as, 
Et ante et pone, 8t ad laeuam et ad dextrara, et sursum et 

deorsum [mouebatur] (Cic. de Un. 13 ad fin.), [it moved] 

forward and backward, to the left and to the right, upward 

and downward. 
Pong sequens (Virg. A. x. 226), follovring behind. 

1354 Post denotes behind, after, a. Of place: as, 

Flumen grat post castra (Goes. B, G. n. 9), there was a river in 

the rear of the camp. 
Sed magnum metuens se post craterS, tSgebat (Virg. A. ix. 

346), but behind a vast bowl in his fear he hid him. 

b. The same without a noun : as, 

Caedere inclpiunt seruos qui post erant (Cic. p. Mil. 10. 29), 
they begin to cut down the slaves who were in the rear. 

c. Of time, after, since : as, 

Post tuum discessum blnas a Balbo ; nihil noui (Cic. ad Att. xv. 

8), since your departure two (letters) from Balbus ; no news. 
Hoc sexennio post Veios captos factumst (Cic. de Div. 1. 44. 100), 

this occurred six years after the capture of Veii. 
Post diem quintum quam barb&ri Iterum male pugnauSrant, 

legati a Boccho ugniunt (Sal. Jug. 102), on the fifth day 

after the second defeat of the barbarians, an embassy from 

Bocchus arrives. 

d. The same without a noun : as, 

Iiiltio mea sponte eum, post inuitatu tuo mittendum duxl 
(Cic. ad Fam. vn. 5. 2), at first of my own motion, after- 
wards at your invitation, I thought it right to send him. 

Post paucis diebiis* Slios dgcem legatos adduxerunt (Liv. XL. 
47), a few days after they brought other ten ambassadors. 

SSnatus post paulo* de his rebus h&bltiis est (Liv. v. 55), a 
senate was held soon after on this subject. 

* Or these may possibly be datives dependent upon post, as in postibi. 
Compare 957, 958, and the use of contra with auro. 


e. Metaphorically : as, 

Vbi perlculum aduenit, inuldia et superbia post fuerS (Sat. 

Cat. 23), when danger approached, envy and pride fell into 

the rear. 

1355 Post in composition with verbs signifies a. after, of place : as, 
postscrib-* (Tac.), write after, b. after, of time : as, postfacto- 
done afterwards, postgenito- born afterwards, c. after, in import- 
ance : as, postpos-* and posthabe- deem of secondary importance. 

1356 Prae denotes before, a. Of place : as, 

Tiberim, prae se armentum agens, nando traiecit (Lit). I. 7), 
he swam across the Tiber, driving the herd before him. 

Stillantem prae se pugionem tiilit (Cic. Phil. n. 12. 30), he 
carried the dripping dagger before him. 

Also as an adverb : thus, 

I prae (Ter. And. I. 1. 144), go first. 

b. The same metaphorically : as, 

CstSrt tectiores ; egtf semper me dldlcissS prae me tiili (Cic. 
Or. 42.146), the others are more reserved ; I ever avowed the 
fact that I once studied the subject. 

c. The cause (but chiefly in negative sentences), for : as, 
Solern prae iaculorum multttudlnS non uldebitis (Cic. Tusc. I. 

42. 101), you will not see the sun for the number of darts. 

Nee loqu! prae maerore p5tuit (Cic. p. Plane. 41. 99), and he 
could not speak for grief. 

Prae lassitudine opus est tit lauem (Plaut. True. II. 3.7), I am 
so fatigued 1 'must take a bath. 

Credo prae Smore exclusti hunc fSras (Ter. E. I. 2. 18), I sup- 
pose it was for love you shut him out. 

d. In comparison with, by the side of: as, 

Romam prae sua Capua inridebunt (Cic. in Rull. II. 35. 96), 
they will laugh at Rome compared with their own Capua. 

1357 Prae in composition with verbs denotes a. before : as, prae- 
mlt-* send in advance, praebe- (i. e. praehlbe-) hold before, present, 
praesta- place or stand before, b. before, in the sense ot passing by : 
as, praeflu-yfow by, praenaulga- sail by. c. at the head of, in com- 

* See 451.1. 

358 SYNTAX. 

mand : as, praees- be in command, prae-fic- or -fici- place in com- 
mand, d. at the extremity: as, praerod-* gnaw at the end, praecliid-* 
close at the end. e. superiority : as, praesta- and praeced-* surpass, 
f. before, in time : as, praecerp- gather too soon, praedlc-* say be- 
forehand, praesagi- feel beforehand, g. the doing a thing first for 
others to do after : as, praei-rS uerba to tell a person what he is to 
say, prae-cip- or -dpi- teach, praescrib-* enjoin by writing. 

1358 Prae m the composition of adjectives denotes a. before, of 
place : as, praecip- or praeciplt- head-first, b. before, of time : as, 
praescio- knowing beforehand, c. at the extremity : as, praeusto- 
burnt at the end, praSacuto- sharp at the end. d. very : as, prae- 
alto- very deep, praeclaro- most glorious"^. 

1359 Praetgr denotes a. Passing by : as, 

Praeter castrS, Caesaris suas copias transduxit (Oaes. B. G. I. 
48), he led his own troops past Caesar's camp. 

Serul praeter oculos Lolli haec omniS, ferebant (Cic. n. Verr. 
in. 25. 62), the slaves kept carrying all these things along be- 
fore the eyes of Lollius. 

b. Beyond, in amount or degree : as, 

L&CUS praeter modum creuerat (Cic. de Div. I. 44. 100), the lake 

had risen above its usual level. 
Hoc mihi praecipuom fuit praeter &lios (Cic. p. Sul. 3.9), this 

belonged especially to me above others. 

c. Besides, i. e. in addition to : as, 

Praeter se denos ad conloquium adducunt (Caes. B. G. i. 43), 
they bring to the conference ten men each besides themselves. 

Praetgr auctorltatem, ulres qu8que ad coercendum habebat 
(Caes. B. C. m. 57), besides the authority of a name, he had 
the physical means also for compulsion. 

d. Except^, excluding: as, 

* See 451.1. 

t This formation is scarcely if at all found in Cicero ; for praectho- 
(11. Verr. iv. 48. 107) has been altered into perexcelso- by Zumpt on the 
authority of Mss. 

\ This signification and the last are not so opposite as may at first 
seem. Thus in neque nestitus praeter pcllis habenl quicquam (Caen. B. 
G. iv. 1), either translation is admissible without any difference of mean- 
ing. See also 1233. 1. 


Omnibus sententiis praetgr unam condempnatust (Cic. p. Clu. 

20. 55), he was found guilty by all the votes save one. 
Frumentum omng praeter quod secuin portaturi grant com- 

burunt (Caes. B. G. I. 5), they burn up all the grain except 

what they purposed to carry with them. 
Prlmo clamore oppidum praeter arcem captum est (Liv. vi. 

33), at the first shout all the town but the citadel was taken. 

In the sense except praetgr may be used like a conjunction, so 
as to be followed by a noun in the same case as some preceding 
noun : 

CeteYae multltudinl diem stStuit praeter rerum c&pltalium 
dampnatis (Sal. Cat. 36), he fixes a day for the rest of the 
multitude, except those convicted of capital offences. 

e. Contrary to : as, 

Nihll el praetgr ipsius uoluntatem accldit (Cic. in Cat. n. 7. 16), 

nothing happened to him contrary to his own wish. 
Multa irnpendere uldentur praeter naturam (Cic. Phil. i. 4, 10), 

many things seem likely to happen out of the usual course of 


1360 Praeter in composition with verbs signifies passing by : as, 
praetgri- go by, praetermit- let go by. 

1361 Pro denotes a. Before, of place : as, 

PraesIdiS, pro templis omnibus cernltls (Cic. p. Mil. 1. 2), you 

see troops before all the temples. 
Laudati pro contione omnes sunt (Liv. xxxvm. 23), they were 

all commended in front of the assembled army. 

b. Before, with the notion of defending, in defence of: as, 
Pro nudata moenlbus patria corpora oppouunt (Liv. xxi. 8), 

in defence of their native city, now stripped of its walls, they 

present their bodies to the enemy. 
EgS pro sodali et pro mea omnl fama decerno (Cic. de Or. n. 

49. 200), I am fighting the last battle for my friend and for 

my own character altogether. 
Haec contra legem proque legS dicta" sunt (Liv. xxxiv. 8), such 

were the arguments urged against and in favour of the law. 

c. In place of: as, 



Lubenter uerbS, iungebant, ut sodes* pro si audes, sis pro si uis 

(Cic. Or. 45. 154), they were fond of joining words, as sodes 

for si audes, sis for si uis. 
Quoi legatus et pro quaestorg fugrat (Cic. I. Verr. 4. 11), under 

whom he had been lieutenant and proqucestor, i. e. deputy- 


d. Equivalent to, as good as, as, for : as, 

Pro occlso relictust (Cic. p. Sest. 38. 81), he was left for dead. 
Confessionem cedentls hostis pro uictoria hSbeo (Liv. xxi. 40), 

the confession of a retreating enemy I look upon as a victory . 
Id summit pro certo (Cic. de Div. n. 50. 104), this they assume 

as certain. 

e. Inpayment for, in return for, for : as, 

Mlsimus qul pro uectura solvgret (Cic. ad Att. I. 3), we have 
sent a person to pay for the freight. 

f. In consideration of, for : as, 

Hunc a'marg pro eius suauitate debemus (Cic. de Or. I. 55. 234), 
this man we ought to love for his own sweetness of character. 

T6 pro istis factis ulciscar (Ter. E. v. 4. 19), Pll punish you for 
those doings. 

g. In proportion to, considering, in accordance with : as, 
Proelium Strocius quam pro numgro pugnantium edltur (Liv. 

xxi. 29), a fiercer battle is fought than could have been ex- 
pected from the number of the combatants. 

Pro multltudfrie homlnum et pro gloria belli angustos hS-bent 
finis (Caes. B. G. I. 2), considering the number of inhabitants 
and their military reputation, their territories are confined. 

DScet, quidquld Sgas, SgSre pro ulribus (Cic. de Sen. 9. 27), it 
is right tJiat whatever you do, you should do to the best of your 

His raptim pro tempSre instructis (Liv. xxx. 10), these men 
being hastily drawn up as well as the circumstances admitted. 

h. For, in favour of : as, 

Hoc non m5d5 non pro me, sed contra me est p5tius (Cic. de 

* An error no doubt of Cicero's. Sodes must be for si uoles, I and d 
being interchanged, as in so many words ; odor and oleo, lacruma and 
dacruma, Vlixes and Oftvaaevs. 


Or. in. 20. 75), this, so far from being for me, is rather 
against me. 

1362 P6r and pro in composition with verbs signify a. forward : 
as, progred- or progredi- (r.) advance, porrlg- stretch out, procur-* 
run forward, b. out : as, prodi- come forth, prosili- leap out. c. to a 
distance: as, prSfug- or profugi-/y to a distance, proterre- frighten 
ff> prosequ- (r.) follow for some distance, prohlbe- keep off. d. down- 
wards : as, profllga- knock down, proter- trample down. e. extension : 
as, promlt-* allow to grow long. f. publicity : as, prSfite- (r.) de- 
clare publicly, proinulga- advertise (a law), proscrlb-* offer a reward 
for the life of, pronuntia- announce publicly, g. progress, profit : 
as, proftc- or profici- make progress, advance, prodes- be of service, 
h. in place of: as, procura- take care of in place of another, i. be- 
fore, in time : as, prolud- rehearse beforehand, j. postponement or 
continuation: as, prodlc-* name a future day, profgr- postpone, pro- 
r5ga- continue for a longer period (by enactment). 

1363 Pro in the composition of adjectives denotes a. downward : 
as, procliui- downhill, b. negation : as, prcffundo- bottomless, pro- 
f ano- not sacred, profane. 

1364 Pro in composition with nouns of relationship denotes greater 
distance, expressed in English by great : as, pr^nSpot- great-grand- 
son, proauo- great-grandfather, prosocSro- wife's grandfather. 

1365 Pro'pe't denotes near. a. Of place : as, 

Ipsius copiae prtfpe hostium castra ulsae sunt (Caes. B. G. I. 
22), his own forces were seen near the enemies' camp. 

b. The same without a case, or with b and a noun : as, 

Quls hie loquitur prSpg ? (Plaut. Rud. I. 4. 11) who is talking 

Bellum tarn prSpe a Sicilia, tSmgn in Slcllia non fuit (Cic. n. 
Verr. v. 2. 6), the war though so near Sicily, yet was not in 

c. The same metaphorically : as, 

Pr5p8 sgcessionem plebis res ugnit (Liv. vi. 42), matters came 
almost to a secession of the commonalty. 

* See 451.1. f See also 908. 

3b2 SYNTAX. 

d. Near, of time : as, 

Prope adest quum alieno m6re uiuendumst mihi (Ter. And. I. 
1. 125), the time is at hand when I shall have to live in ac- 
cordance with another's ideas. 

1366 Proptgr (from propg) denotes a. Neo.r, with or without a 
case : as, 

Propter PIStonis stS-tuam consedlmus (Cic. Brut. 6. 24), we took 

our seats near a statue of Plato. 
Duo fllil propter ctibantes ne senserunt quidem (Cic. p. Rose. 

Am. 23. 64), his two sons sleeping close by were not even aware 

of it. 

b. On account of, for, through : as, 

Tironem proptSr humanltatem ct mSdestiam maid saluom, 
quam propter usum meum (Cic. ad Att. vn. 5. 2), / wish 
Tiro to recover more out of regard to the delicacy and modesty 
of his character than for any benefit to myself. 

Nam n6n est aecum me propter uos decipi (Ter. Ph. v. 7. 34), 
for it is not reasonable that I should be a loser through you. 

1367 Re (or rSd) in composition with verbs signifies a. backward: 
as, rgtrah- drag back, renuntia- carry word back, repSt- go back, 
reformlda- draw back in fear. b. hence reflection of light or sound : 
as, rgsona- re-echo, rSfulge- shine brilliantly, c. in return : as, r8- 
pend- repay, rSfgri- strike in return, red-d- repay, d. opposing an 
effort in the other direction : as, rStlne- hold back, reuinci- bind back, 
re'tlce- keep back (a secret), e. refusal : as, renu- refuse by a shake 
of the head, rScussa- make some excuse and so decline, f. reversing 
some former act : as, rescid-* cut down again (that which has been 
erected), rgmlt-* let go again (that which has been stretched), re- 
quiesc- repose (after labour), rescisc- discover (that which it has 
been attempted to conceal), rgc&lesc- grow warm again, a. revers- 
ing the act expressed in the simple verbf : as, reftg-* unfix, rg- 
signa- unseal, rgcliid- open, rStgg- uncover, rgs&ra- unbolt, h. put- 
ting away from sight, concealing, sheltering : as, relega- (leave be- 
hind), banish far away, rgcond- put away into some secret place, 

* See 451.1. 

f Hence the adjective recidiuo- 'rising again' shows that redd- once 
signified * rising again after falling or being felled,' as the new shoots from 
the stump of a chestnut- or oak-tree. 


re-dp- or -clpi- receive and shelter, i. remaining behind when the 
greater part is gone : as, remane- remain behind, reside- remain 
still at the bottom, j. change of state : as, red-d- render, make, rgdlg- 
reduce to some state.* k. repetition : as, refloresc- blossom a second 

1363 Retro by the later writers is compounded with verbs of mo- 
tion, and signifies backwards : as, retrogradi- (r.) march backwards 

1369 Se in the old writers is used as a preposition with the ablative, 
and signifies separation or without : as, 

Si plus minus secuerunt, se fraude esto (XII. Tables, ap. Gell. 
xx. 1), if they cut more or less, it shall be without detriment 
(to them). 

1370 Se (or sed) in composition signifies a. with verbs, separation : 
us, seced- withdraw, sepos-t put aside, b. in adjectives, absence: 
as, securo- free from care, secord- or socord- senseless, spiritless. 

1371 SScundum (i.e. sequendum, from sequ- (r.) follow) denotes 

a. Following : as, 

I tu se'cundum (Plant. Am. n. 1. 1), do you come after me. 

b. Along: as, 

Legiones Iter se'cundum marS supgrum faciunt (Cic. ad Att. 
xvi. 8. 2), the legions are marching along the upper sea. 

c. Behind, without motion : as, 

Volniis accepit in c&pItS secundum anrem (Sulpic. ad Cic. Fam. 
iv. 12. 2), he received a wound in the head behind the ear. 

d. After, of time : as, 

Spem ostendis secundum cSmltia (Cic. ad Att. III. 12. 1), you 

hold out a hope of improvement after the elections. 
Secundum uindemiam (Cato, R. R. 114), after the vintage. 

e. Second in order, next to : as, 

Secundum te nihll est inihi amlcius solltudlng (Cic. ad Att. 
xn. 15), next to you I have no better friend than solitude. 

* To this head belongs the use of redi- in such phrases as, iam res 
in cum rediit locum (Ter. Haut. n. 3. 118), 'matters are at last come to 
this state ;' ad eum surnma imperi redibit (Caes. B. C. I. 4), ' the chief 
command will devolve on him.' 

t See 451. 1. 

364 SYNTAX. 

/. In accordance with : as, 

Omuia quae sgcundum naturam flunt sunt habenda in btfnls 
(Cic. de Sen. 19.71), every thing that happens in accordance 
with nature is to be reckoned among blessings. 

g. In favour of : as, 

Pontlfices sgcundum eum decreuSrunt (Cic. ad Att. iv. 2. 3), 
the pontifical college decreed in his favour. 

1372 Sing denotes without : as, 

Homo sine re, sine fide, sing spe (Cic. p. Gael. 32. 78), a man 
without money, without credit, without hope. 

Infero marl nobis nauigandumst, gg iam cum fratre an sing ? 
(Cic. ad Att. vnr. 3. 5) we must sail along the lower sea. 
True ; but just tell me, with my brother or without him ? 

1373 Sub has for its original meaning up, as is seen in its deriva- 
tives the adjectives supgro- above, summo- highest, the prepositions 
super upon, supra above; and above all in the use of sub itself in 
the composition of verbs*. It is found with both accusative and 

1374 Sub with the accusative denotes a. Up tot : as, 

Sub prlmam nostram aciem successerunt (Caes. B. G. I. 24), 
they came up to our first line. 

b. Under, with motion : as, 

Exercltus sub iugum missus est (Caes. B. G. I. 7), the army 

was sent under the -yoke. 
Totamqug sub avrna coactam Hespgriam (Virg. A. vii. 43), find 

all Hesperia to arms compelled^. 

c. Within reach of things from above (with motion) : as, 

Vt sub ictum uenerunt, telorum uls ingens effusa est in eos 
(Liv. xxvii. 18), the moment they came within throw, an 
enormous quantity of missiles was showered upon them. 

Quod sub oculos ugnit (/Sen. de Ben. I. 5), what comes within 
the range of the eye. 

* See 1370'. Indeed our own word up is the very same word as 
sub; and the Greek yircrro- 'highest,' the title usually given to the Ro- 
man consul, is a superlative from the same root. 

f* The sense of to belongs to the accusative termination, and not to 
the preposition. 

J Compare the common phrase without motion, sub armis esse. 

SINE. SVB. 365 

ES, quae sub sensus subiecta sunt (Cic. Acad. Pr. n. 23. 74), 
those things which are brought within reach of the senses. 

d. Subjection to dominion, under (with action) : as, 

Sub popiili Romani imperium ceclderunt (Cic. p. Font. 1. 12), 
they fell under the dominion of the Roman people. 

e. In phrases of time, immediately after; and sometimes, 
though rarely, just before : 

Sub eas litteras statim recitatae sunt tuae (Cic. ad Fam. x. 

16.1), immediately after these dispatches, yours were read out. 
Afrlcum bellum sub rgcentem Romanam pacem fuit (Liv. xxi. 

2), the war with the Afri followed close upon the peace with 

Sub haec dicta omnes manus ad consoles tendentes procubue- 

runt (Liv. vii. 31), immediately after these words tliey all 

prostrated themselves, stretching out their hands to the consuls. 
Quid l&tet ut maYinae Fllium dlcunt ThStidis sub IScrimosS, 

Troiae Funera ? (Hor. Od. i. 8. 13) why skulks he, as did 

sea-born Thetis' son tliey say on the eve of Troy's mournful 

carnage ? 

1375 Sub with the ablative signifies a. Under (without motion)* : 

Sub terra semper hSbitaugrant (Cic. N. D. n. 37. 95), they had 

always lived underground. 

Hostes sub montS consederant (Gaes. B. G. I. 21), the enemy 
were encamped under a mountain. 

b. Within reach of things above (without motion) : as, 
AdprSpinquare non ausae naues, ne sub ictu superstantium in 

rupibus plratarum essent (Liv. xxxvu. 27), the ships did 
not dare to approach, lest they should be within shot of the 
pirates stationed above on the cliffs. 

lam lucesccbat, omuiaqug sub Sculls grant (Liv. iv. 28), it was 
now getting light, and all that was passing below was visible. 

c. Inferiority, subjection (without action), under : as, 

* Under with motion is at times expressed by the ablative ; for in- 
stance, when the mind dwells upon the state that follows rather than the 
act, or when other prepositions are added to signify the precise motion. 
Thus, sub terra uiui demissi sunt in locum saxo conseptum (Liv. xxn. 
57), ' they were let down alive into a stone chamber underground.' 

366 SYNTAX. 

Matris sub imperiost (Ter. Haut. II. 2.4), she is under her mo- 
ther's rule. 

Vh- implger et sub Hannlbalg m&gistro omnis belli artis edoc- 
tiis (Liv. xxv. 40), a man of energy, and who had been tho- 
roughly instructed in the art of war under Hannibal. 

d. In conditions, under : as, 

lussit e! praemium trtbui sub ea condicione ne quid postea 
scriberet (Cic. p. Arch. 10. 25), he ordered a reward to be 
given him, under the condition that he should never write 

e. In phrases of time during, in, just at : as, 

Ne sub ipsa profectione mllites oppidum irrumpe'rent, portas 
obstruit (Caes. B. C. I. 27), that the soldiers might not burst 
into the town during the very embarkation, he builds up the 

1376 Sub in composition with verbs denotes a. up: as, subueh- 
carry up (as a river), sum- (i. e. sublm-) take up, surg- (i. e. sur- 
rlg-) rise, subduc-t draw up, sustlne- hold up. b. under: as, 
subs- be under, subi&ce- lie under, submerg- sink. c. assistance : 
as, subuSni- come to assist, succiir-t run to assist, d. succession : 
as, succln- sing after, succlama- cry out after, e. in place of: as, 
sufflc- or suffici- appoint in place of, suppos-t put in place of, sub- 
stitu- set up in place of. f. near : as, subs- be at hand, subsequ- 
follow close after, g. underhand, secretly : as, surrfp- or sunipi- 
snatch away secretly, suborna- equip secretly, subduc-t withdraw 
quietly, h. in a slight degree: as, subrlde- smile, siibaccussa- accuse 
in a manner, i. abundance^ : as, sufflc- or suffici- and suppSt- be 

1377 Sub in the composition of adjectives denotes in a slight de- 
gree: as, subobscuro- rather dark, subfusco- dusky. 

1378 Subter is used generally with an accusative, rarely with an 
ablative, often without a noun. It signifies a. Under: as, 

Iram in pecttfrS, cupldltatem subter praecordiS, IScauit (Cic. 

* Compare the use of sub with an accusative in phrases of time, 
t See 451. 1. 

\ This sense is connected with that of sub 'up.' Compare the op- 
posite, defic- or defici- ' be low, wanting.' 


Tusc. I. 10. 20), anger he placed in the breast, desire under 

the midriff. 
Ferrg iuuat subter densa testudlnS casus ( Virg. A. ix. 514), 

they glory beneath the close array of shields to bear each 

Omnia haec, quae supra et subter, unum essS dixerunt (Cic. 

de Or. in. 5. 20), all these bodies, which are above and below, 

form one whole they said. 
b. Metaphorically, in subjection, under : as, 
Virtus omnia" subter se habet (Cic. Tusc. v. 1. 4), virtue holds 

every thing in subjection to her. 

1379 Subter in composition with verbs signifies a. under : as, sub- 
terlab-* glide underneath, b. secretly: as, subterduc-* withdraw 

1380 Supgr is followed both by an ablative and an accusative. With 
an ablative it signifies a. Over (without motion) : as, 

Destrictus ensis cul supSr impia Ceruicg pendet (Hor. Od. in. 
1.17), o'er whose unholy neck a drawn sword hangs. 

b. Upon (without motion) : as, 

Potgras requiescSre mecum Fronde* super uMdi ( Virg. BUG. I. 
80), thou mightest have reposed with me upon green leaves. 

c. Concerning: as, 

Quid nuncias Super anu ? (Plant. Cist. iv. 1.7) what news do 

you bring about the old woman ? 
Velim cogltes quid agendum nobis sit super legation^ (Cic. ad 

Att. xiv. 22. 2), / wish you would consider what we must do 

concerning the embassy. 

SupSr with an accusative denotes a. Upon (with motion) : as, 

Imprudens super aspidem assldlt (Cic. de Fin. n. 18.59), un- 
wittingly he sits down upon an asp. 

Alii super uallum praeclpitantiir (Sal. Jug. 58), others are 
thrown headforemost upon the stakes. 

b. Above in order (as at table) : thus, 

Nomentaniis grat supgr ipsum (Hor. Sat. n. 8. 23), Nomentanus 
lay above him. 

* See 451.1. 

368 SYNTAX. 

c. Beyond (but with a notion of greater height*) : as, 
Proxlme Hispaniam Mauri sunt, super Niimldiam Gaetull (Sal. 

Jug. 19), next to Spain are the Moors, beyond Numidia the 

d. More, in amount : as, 

SS,tis superqug dictumst (Cic. N. D. n. 1. 2), enough and more 
than enough has been said. 

e. Besides: as, 

Punlcum exercitum super morbum etiam fames affecit (Liv. 
xxvir. 46), the Punic army, besides sickness, suffered severely 
also from famine. 

1382 Supgr in composition with verbs signifies a. over: as, siiper- 
ueni- pass over, superemine- project above, superfiid-t pour over. 
b. abundance: as, supe're's- abound, c. remaining over, survival: 
as, supgre's- remain over, survive, d. in addition: as, superadduc-t 
bring in addition. 

1383 Supra denotes a. Upon, with motion : as, 

Sub terra h&bltabant ngque exigrant unquam supra terrain 
(Cic. N. D. n. 37. 95), they lived underground, and had never 
come out above the ground. 

Et saltu supra uenabulS, fertur ( Virg. A. ix. 553), and with a 
bound he flies upon the spears. 

b. Upon, in contact with : as, 

Nereides supra delphmos sSdentes (Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 5. 
med.), Nereids seated upon dolphins. 

c. Over, at some distance above : as, 

EccS supra caputt h5mo 18uls ac sordldus, sed tamgn gquestn 
censu, Catienus ; 6tiam is lenietur (Cic. ad Q. F. i. 2. 2. 6), 
see, there is ready to pounce down upon my head a fellow de- 
void of principle and honour, but yet of equestrian station, I 
mean Catienus. Even he shall be appeased. 

* For example, in the instance quoted Sallust used the word because 
they were farther from the sea, and therefore probably higher. 

f See 451. 1. 

J Dr. Butler (Latin Prepositions, p. 121) has given this passage to 
prove that supra caput means ' exceedingly.' He connects it with leuis, 
though the words are separated by homo. 


d. Above, in order (as at table) : thus, 

Accubueram apiid eum et quidem supra me Attlcus, infra 
^'erriiis (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 26. 1), I had just sat down to din- 
ner at his house, and l>y the way Atticus sat next above me, 
Verrius below. 

c. Above, in amount : as, 

Caesa eo dig supra milia uiginti (Liv. xxx. 35), there were slain 
on that day above twenty thousand. 

Etsi haec commemoratio u8reor ne supra hSmniis fortunam 
essS uldeatur (Cic. de Leg. n. 16. 41), and yet what 1 am 
going to mention will be thought, I fear, to exceed the lot -of 

f. In addition to, over and above, besides : as, 

Supra belli Sablnl mgtum id quSque accessgrat (Liv. n. 18), 
besides the fear of a Sabine war, there was this further trouble. 

g. In reference to former times, before : as, 

Paulo supra hanc me'mo'riam serui una cremabantiir (Goes. B. 
G. vi. 19), a little before the times which those now living can 
recollect, the slaves (of the deceased) used to be burnt with him. 

h. In referring to a preceding part of a book or letter, above: as, 
Vt supra demonstrauimus (Caes. B. ti. vi. 34), as we have shown 


1384 T&nus (from ten- or tend- stretch), which always follows its 
noun, signifies reaching to, and is used a. With an accusative 
(very rarely) : as, 

Rggio quae uirginls aequ5r M Helles 
Et Tanain teniis immens6 descendlt &b Euro ( Vol. Fl. i. 537), 

The region which to the maiden flelle's sea 
And far as the Don from the vast East descends. 

b. With an ablative of the singular, particularly with words in 
a or o*: as, 

AntiSchus Taur6 tgnus regnare iussust (Cic. p. Deiot. 13. 36), 
it was ordained that Antiochus should rule only as far as the 

c. With an ablative of the plural (very rarely) : as. 

* This form was probably at first an accusative, Taurom. 
B B 

370 SYNTAX. 

PectSrlbusquS tenus raolles Srectus in auras 
Naribiis et p&tulo partem marls eutfmlt ore (Ov. Met. xv. 512), 
Chest-high upraised into the moving air 
From wide-spread mouth and nostrils vomits out 
One half the sea. 

d. With a genitive of the plural, particularly in the consonant 
declension : as, 

Et crurum tSnus a mento palearia pendent ( Virg. G. in. 53), 
And leg-deep from the chin the dewlap hangs*. 

1385 Trans signifies a. On the other side of: as, 

Coglto interdum trans Tlberim hortos aliquos pararS (Cic. ad 
Att. xn. 19. 1), I think at times of purchasing some park on 
the other side of the Tiber. 

b. To the other side of : as, 

Trans Alpls transfertur (Cic. p. Quinct. 3. 12), he is carried to 
the other side of the Alps. 

1386 Trans in composition signifies across : as. transmlt-t or tramit- 
send across, transi- go across. 

1387 Vorsiis (uorsum, uersus, uersum) signifies direction : as, 
Brundusium uorsus Ibas (Cic. ad Fam. xi. 27.3), you were going 

in the direction of (or towards} Brundusium^. 

1388 Vorsus is also used in conjunction with the prepositions ad 
and In : as, 

Ad oce&num uersus prSficiscl iubet (Caes. B. G. vi. 33), he 
orders him to set out in the direction of the ocean. 

In Italiam uorsus naulgaturus Srat (Sulpic. ad Cic. ad Fam. 
iv. 12. 1), he was about to sail towards Italy. 

1389 Vis on the other side of, with an accusative (but rarely used) : as, 
Sacra gt uls et cis Tlberim fiunt ( Varr. L. L. iv. 15), sacrifices 

are offered both on yonder and on this side of the Tiber. 

1?90 Vltra denotes a. On the other side of, beyond : as, 

Vltra Sllianam uillam est uillulS sordlda et ualde piisilla (Cic. 
ad Att. xn. 27. 1), on the other side of Silius 1 country-house 
in a cottage of mean appearance and very small. 

* See also 803. f See 451. 1. 

J See also 798. 


b. To the other side of, 

Paulo ultra eum IScum castrS, transtulit (Caes. B. C. in. 66), 
he moved the camp to a spot a little beyond that place. 

c. Metaphorically : as, 

Sunt cert! deniqug fines 
Quos ultra citraqug ngquit consisted rectum (Hor. Sat.i. 1.106), 

There are in fine fixed limits 
Beyond and short of which truth cannot halt. 
Non ultra hemlnam Squae assumit (Cels. iv. 2.4), he takes net 
more than a pint-and-a-half of water. 

d. The same without a noun : as, 

Estne Sllquld ultra, quo progredl crudelltas possit? (Cic. n. 
Verr. v. 45. 119) is there any thing beyond this to which 
bloodthirstiness can go ? 

1391 In the examples already given, it has been seen that preposi- 
tions are at times placed after their nouns, although their name 
implies the contrary*. In the old language this appears to have 
been the case with perhaps every preposition, and the practice 
prevailed to the last in some legal phrases. It may further be 
observed that a. The preposition cum is always placed after the 
ablatives of the personal pronouns : as, mecum, tecum, secum, 
nobiscum, uobiscum, and for the most part after the ablatives of 
the simple relative : as, quocum, quacum, quicum, quibuscum. 
b. The prepositions tgniis and uorsus always follow their case. <?. 
The disyllabic prepositions generally are more apt to occupy the 
second place than those which are monosyllabic, d. The relativef, 
and the pronoun ho- this, when it occurs at the beginning of a 
sentence, have a tendency to throw the preposition behind them. 

* It may be useful to compare the meaning of the term case with 
that of the term preposition. They both denote primarily the relations 
of place. They are both so intimately connected with the noun as to be 
pronounced with it, and even written with it, although printers have as 
regards prepositions abandoned the authority of the best inscriptions and 
manuscripts. Thirdly, as the case-ending is always added as a suffix, so 
also in the old language was the preposition. Hence there is no original 
distinction, either in essence or form, between a case-ending and a prepo- 
sition. These considerations may perhaps tend to create in the mind a 
clearer notion of what a case is. 

f This explains the form quoad, as compared with adeo, and also 
quamobrem, quemadmodum, quocirca. 

372 SYNTAX. 

e. When an emphatic adjective or genitive accompanies a noun, 
this emphatic word commonly comes first, and is immediately 
followed by the preposition, which must then be considered as an 
enclitic attached to it, and should be pronounced accordingly. 

1392 The preposition is occasionally separated from its noun. The 
words which may come between are included for the most part 
under the following heads : a. an adjective belonging to the noun ; 
b. a genitive belonging to it ; c. an adverb or case attached to that 
noun when it is a gerund or participle ; d. the enclitics n, quS, 
ue, although in the case of the monosyllabic pronouns the noun 
as well as the preposition commonly precede these enclitics* ; e. 
the conjunctions which commonly occupy the second place in a 
sentence, as autem, enirn, quldem, tamen, uero. 

1393 The preposition may attach itself to the adjective in place of 
the substantive, or even to a genitive which depends upon the 
substantive, and the substantive itself be removed to a distance ; 
or, lastly, the preposition occasionally is found before the verbt. 

1394 Whether a preposition is to be repeated or not before each of 
two nouns, is to be decided by the intimacy of the connection 
between them. When that intimacy is close, the nouns may be 
considered as one, and a single preposition will be sufficient. Thus, 
the Aulerci and Lexovii being close neighbours in the map of Gallia, 
one preposition is enough in 

Exercltum In Aulercis LexSuiisque conlocauit (Caes. B. G. in. 
29), he posted the army in the country of the Aulerci and 

1395 On the other hand, if the nouns be looked upon as very distinct, 
two prepositions are requisite : as, 

SStls St ad laudem 6t &d utllltatem profectum arbitrator (CW. 
B. Gr. iv. 19), he thinks t/iat sufficient progress has been made 
both for glory and for utilityl. 

* See 836, 837. 

f As, dum longus inter saeuiat Ilion Romumque pontus (//or. Od. 
in. 3.37). 

J Hence the preposition inter is often repeated : as, interest inter 
caussas forluito antegressas et inter caussas naturalis (Cic. de Fat. 9. 19). 
So also Cic. de Fin. i. 9. 30, Parad. i. 3. 14. 

ADVERBS. 0/-3 

1396 When the antecedent and relative are dependent upon the 
same preposition, the preposition may for brevity's sake be omitted 
in the relative clause, if the verb be not expressed : as, 

Me tuae litterae uunquam in tantam spem adduxerunt, quan- 
tam Sliorum (Cic. ad Att. in. 19. 2), as for myself, your let- 
ters have never led me to entertain so strong a hope as those of 
other friends. 

1397 If two prepositions have a common noun, that noun must be 
repeated in Latin (except in the case of those disyllabic preposi- 
tions which are used adverbially) : as, 

Hoc non modo non pro me, sed contra me est potius (Cic. de 
Or. in. 20. 75), this, so far from being for, is rather against 


1398 An adverb, as its name implies, is commonly attached to a 
verb, and usually precedes it ; but if the adverb is emphatic, it 
may commence or end the whole sentence ; or if unemphatic, it 
may occupy the non-emphatic, that is, the second place* in a 

1399 An adverb may of course be used with participles, and this 
usage is sometimes retained by them even when they have be- 
come virtually substantives : as, facto- (n.), dicto- (n.), responso- 
(n.), &c. Thus, 

In tfdium adducentur aduorsaril, si qu5d eorum siiperbe, cru- 
dellter, rn&lltiose factum profgreturf (Cic. de Inv. I. 16. 22), 
the opposite parties will be brought into discredit, if any tyran- 
nical, cruel, or spiteful act of theirs be brought forward. 

Sui negotl bene gerens (Cic. p. Quinct. 19. 62), a good manager 
of his own affairs. 

Pol mei patris bene parta indiligeuter Tutatur (Ter. Ph. v. 3.5), 
faith he takes poor care of what my father earned so creditably. 

1400 An adverb often accompanies adjectives and adverbs, but is 
rarely found with substantives, and perhaps only under one of the 

* See 1473. 

t Observe th^t if factum had not been a substantive, the pronoun 
must have been quid, not quod. See 306. 

374 SYNTAX. 

two conditions : a. that the substantive shall be in apposition ; b. 
that it shall be interposed between a substantive and its adjective 
or dependent genitive : as, 

a. Marius septumum consul dSmi suae est mortuos (Cic. K D. 
in. 32. 81), Marius in his seventh consulate died at his own 

Populus, late rex (Virg. A. T. 21), a city that ruleth far and 

b. E't heri semper lenitas uerebar quorsum euaderet (Ter. And. 

I. 2. 4), and master's constant gentleness, I was afraid what 

it would end in*. 
Omnes circa popiill (Liv. xxiv. 3), all the states around. 

1401 Adverbs are used in some phrases with the verb es- be, when 
an adjective or participle might have been expected : as, 

Vt! ngquS uos c&piammi St ill! frustra sint (Sal. Jug. 85), that 
you may not be deceived, and that the other party may be dis- 

Aput uetSres dicta impune erant (Tac. Ann. i. 72), among our 

ancestors mere words were unpunished. 
Teliae ful sane liibenter apud Talnam nostrum (Cic. ad Att. 

xvi. 6. 1), at Velialwas indeed most comfortable at our friend 



1402 The simplest form of the Latin negative is net. On the other 
hand, non has some other element added to the simple negative, 
and is therefore more emphatic. Hence non^ is used with the 

* Even here it is far from certain that semper does not belong to 

f The same is the form of the English negative as it appears in our 
old writers. It also enters into the formation of never from ever, The 
particle enters into the formation of many Latin words : as, nequi- ' be 
unable,' ngfas, nZfasto-^ nefario-, nefando-, neuis ' thou wilt not,' in 
which it is short ; and the following with a long e^ neue, nedum, nemon-* 
nequam, nequitia-, nequaquam, nequiquam. Other words into which ne 
enters are nunquam, niitiquam, neuter (old form ne-cuter\ as also the 
phrase ne minus. See also 761. 

?5& 1 ^ T n ma y P 088 ibly be formed from ne and unvm, just as our English 
no is a corruption of none, i. e. ne one. Compare the German nein from 
ji ne ein. Indeed the old Latin writers use the form nenu, which seems 
j l more clearly to be a contraction of ne unum. 

NE. NON. HAUD. 375 

indicative, and with the subjunctive when a result is expressed, 
in which case the subjunctive evidently assumes the meaning of 
the indicative*. 

1403 When non affects a single word in a sentence, it precedes it ; 
when it affects a whole sentence, it commonly precedes the verb. 
Occasionally, in order that it may have great emphasis, non is 
placed at the beginning of a sentence, or at the beginning of the 
predicative part of a sentence, and in these cases it often becomes 
difficult to give a translation which shall not greatly alter the 
order of wordst : as, 

Non hos palus, non siluae mSrantur (Caes. B. G. vi. 35), no 
marsh, no woods restrain them. 

1404 In sentences containing a main verb of thinking or saying, the 
negative, which really belongs to the infinitive mood, is at times 
for emphasis placed before these main verbs : as, 

Non existiimauit suis slmlllbus probari possg se esse hostem 
patriae, nisi mihi esset Inlmicus (Cic. Phil. n. 1. 2), he 
thought that the men of his own stamp could never be satisfied 
he was a public enemy to his country, unless he was a private 
enemy of mine%. 

1404. 1 Ne, haud (hau), non, are all proclitics. Hence the form of 
the verbs nesci-, hausci- (so in Ritschl's Plautus) ; and hence such 
an order of words as : 

Vt iam Uceat una conprehensione omniS, complectl, non-dtib!- 
tantemquS dicSre, omnem naturam essS seruatrlcem sul 
(Cic. de Fin. v. 9. 26, ed. Madvig), so that we may now in- 

* In the same way the French use the strengthened negatives, ne.. pas, 
ne.. point, ne..rien, in such phrases &sje n'irai pas,je n'irai point, je ne 
vois rien, &c., where the particles pas , point, rien, severally represent the 
Latin nouns passum, punctum, rem. On the other hand their subjunctive 
mood commonly takes a simple ne. 

f In the commencement of Horace's Satire (i. 6), Non quia Maecenas 
4fc. naso suspendis adunco Ignotos, the negative is separated from the verb 
to which it belongs by nearly five lines. 

J In the same way the Greeks use the order OVK C^TJ, although the 
negative belongs to the following infinitive. In Latin also nega- probably 
owes its formation to the same principle, the negative in this word too 
belonging always to the accompanying infinitive. 

So also OVK (ou) is commonly a proclitic ; and similarly our not 
(cannot, kndw-not) is an enclitic. 

376 SYNTAX. 

dude all in one general assertion, and without hesitation say 
that nature is always self -preserving. 

1405 Between ne* and quidem the word (or words, if intimately 
connected) on which the emphasis lies is always interposed : as, 

Ego ne utllem quidem arbitrSr esse nobis futurarum rerun i 
scientiam (Cic. de Div. n. 9. 22), for my part I do not think 
it even expedient for us to know the future. 

Ne si cupiam quidem (Cic. in Pis. 28.68), not even if I desired it. 

1405. 1 Besides not even, the ordinary meaning of ne quidem, it is 
sometimes to be translated neither^ : as, 

Ne VSrius quidem dubltat copias producers (Caes. B. G. n. 33), 

neither does Varius hesitate to lead out his forces. 
Hulc ut scelus, sic ne ratio quidem defuit (Cic. N. D. m. 26. 68), 

as this woman (Medea) was not deficient in villany, so neither 

was she in wit. 
Si illiid, hoc ; non autem hoc ; Igltur ne illud quidem (Cic. de 

Fin. iv. 19. 55), if that be true, then this must be so; but this 

is not true ; consequently neither^ is that. 

1406 Where in English the conjunction and is followed by a nega- 
tive pronoun or adverb, the Latin language commonly prefers n- 
que accompanied by an affirmative pronoun or adverb : as, 

N8que ex castris quisquam discessgrat (Sal. Cat. 36), and not a 

man had left the camp. 
Neque ullam sScietatem confirmarl posse credldi (Cic. Phil. n. 

35. 89), and I thought that no alliance could be ratified. 
NSque est usquam consllio locus (Cic. de Off. n. 1. 2), and there 

is nowhere room for deliberation. 

1406. 1 In writers after the Augustan period nee often has the power 
of not even : as, 

Patris iussS nee pStuisse f ilium detrectarg (Tac. Ann. ill. 17), 
the orders of a father it was not even in the power of a son to 
decline (let alone the will). 

* As fjuidem is itself a word of strong affirmation, it was enough to use 
the simple negative ne. 

f In German auch nicht. See Madvig ad Cic. de Fin. p. 816. 

J This distinction has been thoroughly established by Madvig (ibid.), 
who has dealt with all the apparent exceptions in Cicero, Sallust, &c. 

NE. NON. 377 

.... Nec pugrl credunt, nisi qul nondum aerg l&uantur (Juv. 

II. 152), (all this} not e'en our bairns believe, save those, Who 

for the penny -bath are yet too young. 
Sed nee Tibgrio parcit (Suet. Oct. 86), but not even Tiberius does 

he spare. 

1407 Similarly an intention to prevent any thing is expressed in 
Latin by ne and an affirmative pronoun or adverb, although the 
English often uses the conjunction that, followed by a negative 
pronoun or adverb : as, 

Vt d&ret operam ne quod his colloquium inter se esset (Liv. 
xxui. 34), that he should take care that they should have no 
conference with each oilier. 

DispSsItis exploratorlbus neciibi Roman! copias transducSrent 
(Caes. B. G. vn. 35), scouts being placed at different points, 
that the Romans might not lead their forces over at any 

Tu tamSn eas SpistSlas concerplto nequando quid emanet (Cic. 
ad Att. x. 12. 3), you however will tear up those letters, that 
nothing may ever ooze out. 

1408 On the other hand, where a result is denoted, the conjunction 
ut is employed with the negative pronouns, &c. : as, 

Tantis impe'dior occupationlbus ut scribendi fScultas nulla 
detiir (Cic. ad Fam. xn. 30. 1), / am hindered by so many 
engagements, that I have no opportunity of writing. 

Obuiam mihi sic est prodltum, ut nihil posset fieri ornatius 
(Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 11. 2), they came out to meet me in such 
a manner, that nothing could be more complimentary*. 

1409 But when the negative affects a single word, and not is ex- 
pressed by et non : as, 

V6tus et non ignobllis dicendl m&gister (Cic. Brut. 91. 315), 
an old and not unknown professor of oratory. 

* Thus in the following tables the words in the first column belong to 
clauses of purpose, those in the second to clauses of result : 

ne quid . 1 . .... 
nequidquam } ut mM ' 

ne unquam / 

ne-cubi . . ut nusquam* 

ne ullus . ut nullus. 

378 SYNTAX. 

Incredibllis Sirfmus et non unius uiri uires (Cic. p. Mil. 25. 67), 
a spirit past belief, and a power of work such as no single man 
ever had. 

1409. 1 Again, when and not introduces an idea directly opposed to 
what precedes, et non or ac non are required : as, 

111! indices, s! iudlces, et non parrfcidae pS, triae nominandi sunt 
(Cic. p. Plane. 29. 70), those jurymen, if indeed they are to 
be called jurymen, and not ratJier parricides of their father- 

Qusi uero me tuo arbltratu, et non meo gratum esse oporteat 
(Cic. p. Plane. 29. 71), as if forsooth your opinion and not 
my own ought to decide the measure of my gratitude. 

Quid tu fecisses, si te T&rentum et non S&ma>obriuam misis- 
sem ? (Cic. ad Fam. vn. 12) what would you have done, if 
I had sent you to Tarentum, instead of Samarobriva ? 

Nulla res recte p5test admlnistrari, si unusquisque uelit uerb 
spectare, et non ad uoluntatem eiua qui ea uerba hSbuerit 
accedere' (Cic. de Inv. u. 47. 140), nothing can be executed 
properly, if every separate person is to look to the words only, 
instead of complying with the intention of him who used tJwse 

Non dlce'rem, si pueri esse illam culpam, ac non pSMs existu- 
marem (Cic. n. Verr. in. 68. 159), I should not have said so, 
if 1 had thought that was the boy*s and not the father's fault. 

Plurlbus uerbis ad te scrlberem, si res uerba deslderaret, ac 
non pro se ipsa ISqueretiir (Cic. ad Fam. in. 2. 2), 1 shoidd 
have written to you at greater length, if the subject had needed 
words, and not itself spoken in its own behalf. 

Qui pfltes rSpgrire ex eo genere homlnuin qui te Sment ex 
Snlmo ac non sul commSdl caussa slmulent ? (Cic. ad Q. F. 
i. 1.5. 15) how are you to find men of that class who love you 
sincerely, instead of pretending to do so for their own advan- 
tage ? 

1410 The adjective nullo- and the indeclinable noun nihll are occa- 
sionally used emphatically for lion and ne : as, 

Nihil ngcessest (Cic. ad Att. vn. 2. 8), there is no necessity. 
Sextus &b armis nullus discgdlt (Cic. ad Att. xv. 22), Sextus 
has not a thought of laying down the sword. 

NE. NON. 379 

1411 An accumulation of negatives is common in Latin, so as to 
produce a strong emphasis (but attention must be paid to the 
position of non in such phrases*) : as, 

a. Non nihil tit in tantis malls est profectum (Cic. ad Fam. 
xn. 2. 2), some progress has been made, considering the very 
unhappy position we are in. 

PSpulus solet non nunquam dignos praetSrire (Cic. p. Plane. 

3. 8), the citizens are wont at times to pass by the worthy. 
Se non nolle dixit (Cic. de Or. n. 18. 75), he said he was no way 


b. Tuum consllium nemo p8test non laudarS (Cic. ad Fam. iv. 

7. 2), the course you are pursuing no one can avoid praising. 
Aperte Mulantem nSmo non uldet (Cic. de Am. 26. 99), a man 

who openly flatters, every one sees through. 
Nihil non aggrSdientur homines (Liv. iv. 35), men will attack 

any thing. 

1412 After a general negative, a second negative may be introduced 
under either of the following circumstances a. when some word 
or phrase is made emphatic by being placed between ne and qul- 
dem ; and b. when the main clause is divided into two or more, 
of which each has its own negativef : as, 

a. Aduentus noster nemlni ne mlnumo quidem fuit sumptu! 
(Cic. ad Att. v. 14. 2), our arrival was not even the least ex- 
pense to any one. 

Non enirn praetgreundumst ne id quidem (Cic. II. Verr. i. 60. 
155), for we must not pass over even this. 

I. Sic habeas nihil te mihi nee carius essg nee suauius (Cic. ad 
Att. v. 1. 5), be assured that there is nothing either dearer or 
sweeter to me than yourself. 

* Thus, 

non nihil =aliquid. nihil non omma. 

nemo non = omnes. 
nullus non = omnis. 
nunquam non= semper, 
nusquam non = ubique. 

non nunquam = aliquando. 
non nusquam=alicubi. 

Similarly non modo , non tantum , mean ' so much and more besides ;' 
whereas modo non , tantum non , mean ' something just short of / 

f Occasionally a double negative with the power of a single negative 
occurs through carelessness : as, quos non miseret neminis, * who don't pity 
no one.' (Cato an. Fest. v. nemini.) 



1413 After clauses containing words compounded with ne", a second 
clause is sometimes introduced which requires that the affirmative 
notion*, instead of the negative, should be supplied : as, 

NSgant CaesSrem in condlcione mansurum, postiilataque haec 
&b eo interpSsita esse, quomlnus a nobis pararetur (Cic. ad 
Att. vn. 15. 3), they say that Caesar will not abide by the 
terms, and that these demands have been put forward by him 
to prevent our making preparations. 

Nemo extulit eum uerbis qui ItS, dixisset ut qui adessent iii- 
tellSge'rent quid dlceret, sed contempsit eum qui minus id 
fa"cerS potuisset (Cic. de Or. in. 14. 52), no one ever extolled 
a man for speaking so as to make himself intelligible to those 
present, but all despise one who is unable to do sot. 

1414 A negative will often extend its influence over a second clause 
attached to the first by aut or ue : as, 

Neque consistendi aut ex essedis desttiendl facultatem dgdS- 
runt (Caes. B. G. v. 17), nor did they give (them) an oppor- 
tunity of halting or leaping down from their war-chariots. 

Non ubluis coramuS quibusllbe't (Hor. Sat. i. 4. 74), not any 
where or before any people. 

1414. 1 A negative prefixed to two clauses may be used to deny not 
each separate clause, but the combination. Thus in the following 
example each of the three negatives affects what has been included 
for the nonce in brackets. 

Non enim (dix! quidem sed non scripsl), nee (scrips! quidem sed 
non 5bil legationem), nee (Sbii quldern sed non persuasl The- 
banls) (Quint.% ix. 38. 55), for you must not suppose that I 
spoke, and then abstained from writing ; or that I wrote indeed, 
but took no part in the embassy ; or that I did take part in the 
embassy, yet failed to persuade the Thebans. 

* i. e. for nega- ' deny,' die- ' say ;' for nol- ' be unwilling,' uol- * wish ;' 
for nemo ' no one,' omnes ' all.' As regards nega- see 1404. Compare 
too Hor. Sat. i. 1-3, nemo . . . uiuat, laudet (i. e. omnes laudent) ; Liv. 
xxvi. 2, nemo memor esset, praesidio sociis essent ; Plant. Trin. in. 2. 62, 
nolo . . ., set . . . 

f Observe that nemo extulit has caused contempsit to be an aorist as 
well as a singular, though a plural present is required by the sense. 

J Translating Demosthenes p. Cor. c. 55. 


1415 The negative in ne quidein, when followed by a common 
predicate, often extends its influence over a preceding clause be- 
ginning with non mo'do or non solum : as, 

Assentatio non mo'do amlco sed ne llbero quidem dignast (Cic. 

de Am. 24. 89), flattery is unworthy not merely of a friend, 

but even of a freeman. 
SenatuI non solum iimarS rempublicam, sed ne lugere' quidem 

Ucuit(Cfo. in Pis. 10.23), the senate were forbidden not merely 

to assist, but even to mourn over their country*. 

1416 In imperative sentences, and in subjunctive clauses dependent 
upon ut or ne, neu8 is used rather than ne'que' or et ne : as, 

Suis praedixerat ut Caesarls impetum exclperent neuS se ISco 
mtfuerent (Caes. B. C. in. 92), he had told his men before- 
hand to wait for Caesar's attack, and not move from their 

HSmlnem mortuom In urbe neuS sepelito neue urlto (apud Cic. 
de Leg. n. 23. 58), neither bury nor burn a corpse in the city. 

1416. 1 Haud not (in old writers often hau) is used chiefly before ad- 
jectives and adverbs, but also in the phrase haud scio or hau scio 
/ know not. 


1417 The simplest interrogative particle is the enclitic ng, which is 
affixed to that particular word on which the question turns, whe- 
ther verb, substantive, adjective or particle : as, 

Ptftestne uirtus, Crassg, serulrg ? (Cic. de Or. I. 52. 226) is it 
possible, or is it not possible, Crassus, that virtue should be a 
slave ? 

Apollinemne tu Delium spSliare ausus gs ? Illlne tu teruplo tarn 
sancto manus impias afierre' conatus es ? (Cic. II. Verr. I. 
18. 47) was Apollo of Delos the god whom you dared to de- 
spoil ? Was that the temple with all its sanctity on which you 
attempted to lay your unholy hand ? 

* It is in such passages as these that non modo is said to be used for 
non modo non. The distinction is well seen in Cic. p. leg. Man. 13. 39 : 
Quoius legiones sic inAsiamperuenerunt,ut non modo manus tanti exer- 
citus, sed ne uestigium quidem quoiquam pacato nocuisse dicatur. . . . Non 
modo ut sumptum Jaciat in militem nemini uis adfertur, sed ne cupienti 
quidem quoiquam permittitur. 

382 SYNTAX. 

Nullon ego Chremetis pacto adfiuitatern ecfugere potero ? (Ter. 

And. i. 5. 12) is there no way in which I shall be able to escape 

a marriage into Chromes' family ? 
A. Quid coeptas Thraso? B. Egone? (Ter. E. v. 7.1) A. What 

are you after, Thraso ? B. What am I after ? 
Siclue Sgls 1 (Ter. Ad. i. 2. 48) is this the way you act ? 
I'licone credere ea quae dixi oportuit te ? {Ter. E. v. 6. 11) if 

you must needs believe what I said, ought you to have done so 

at once ? 

2418 A question is often asked without any interrogative particle : 

Rogitas ? N6n uides ? (Ter. E. iv. 4. 8) do you ask ? Don't you 

Nequeo te exorare ut maueas triduom hoc ? (Ter. Ph. in. 2.4) 

can I not prevail upon you to wait the next three days ? 
Clodius insldias fecit Mlloni ? (Cic. p. Mil. 22. 60) did Clodius 
waylay Milo ?* 

1419 In directf questions the particle num commonly implies the 
expectation of an answer in the negative, and nonne one in the 
affirmative : as, 

Num facti piget ? Num eius color pudoris signum usquam in- 
dicat ? (Ter. And. v. 3. 6) is he sorry for his conduct ? No. 
Does his cheek show any sign of shame ? No. 

Quid canis, nonne simllis lupo ? (Cic. N. D. i. 35.97) well and 
the dog, is he not like the wolf ? Of course he is. 

1420 In simple indirect questions (not commencing with an interro- 
gative pronoun J) ne is commonly employed, sometimes num : as, 

Vldeamus primum, deorumne prouldentia muudus regatur ; 
deinde, consulantne rebus humauls (Cic. N. D. in. 25. 65), 
let us consider first whether the universe is governed by the 
foresight of the gods ; secondly, whether they provide for the 
welfare of man. 

Spgciilarl iussi sunt, num solllcitati anlmi sociorum a rege 

* In many of these cases it would be perhaps better to consider the 
words as an assertion either put honically or in the name of the other 
party. Thus, ' Clodius waylaid Milo, you say.' 

f See 1 1 34 and note. 

Such as qui-s, ubi, unde, quo, quando, &c. 

NE. NUM. AN. 383 

essent (Liv. XLII. 19), they were directed to be on the look-out 
to find whether the king had been tampering with the allies. 

1421 The particle S,n is not used in the simple direct question ; and 
in the simple indirect the best writers seldom use it except in the 
phrases nescio an, haud scio a"n, dublto S-n, incertum an : as, 

Est id quldem magnum atque haud scio an maxumum, sed tlbi 
communS cum multis (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 15.1), true, that is 
an important matter, and I would almost venture to say the 
most important of all, but still it is common to you with many. 

Hoc diiudlcarl nescio an numquam*, s6d hoc sermong certe" 
non pQtest (Cic. de Leg. I. 21. 56), the decision of this point 
I am strongly inclined to think can never take place, but cer- 
tainly not through the present conversation. 

MSriendum certe est, t Id incertum S,n hoc ipso die (Cic. de 
Sen. 20. 74), die we must, some time or other, and possibly 
this very day. 

1422 The use of si (and si forte") in indirect questions is very rare, 
except in phrases where hope or expectation is expressed or implied 
(if perchance) : as, 

Expectabam si quid de eo consilio ad me scribSres (Cic. ad Att. 

xvi. 2. 4), 1 was waiting to see whether you would write any 

thing to me about this plan. 
Circumfunduntur ex rellquis partlbus, si quern Sdltum repg- 

rirS possint (Goes. B. GL vi. 37), they pour round on the other 

sides, in hopes they may find some place to enter at. 

1423 The term disjunctive question is used to denote those cases 
where one or more alternatives are added (which in English are 
preceded by the word or). The forms used, alike for direct and 
indirect questions, aro the four which follow: a. iitrumt , 

* In many of the ordinary editions the negative in these phrases has 
been deprived of its first letter. Thus Ramshorn, p. 710, quotes nescio 
an ulli from Cic. ad Fam. ix. 9. 2, though the best Mss. have nulli. See 
Orelli's edition. So also Cic. ad Att. iv. 3. 2. 

f Num is limited in its use to the simple question. Yet at times it 
appears to be used in disjunctive questions, because at the close of that 
simple question which alone was intended at starting, it suddenly occurs 
to the writer (see 1426) to draw attention to the absurdity of some al- 
ternative, which he attaches as usual by the particle an. See Madvig's 
Opusc. ii. 230. 

384 SYNTAX. 

an* ; b. ng, ,n ; c. , S,n ; d. , n6 : 


a. Vtrum nescis quam alte escenderis, an pro nihilo id piitas ? 
(Cic. ad Fam. x. 26. 3) which is the right explanation of your 
conduct ; that you do not know to what a high station you 
have risen, or that you set no value upon it ? 

Id Sgltiir, utrum hac petitione an proxiima praetor fias (Cic. 
ad Fam. x. 26. 2), the question is this, whether you are to be 
praetor this election or next. 

1. Ea fgrarumne an hSrnlnum caussa gigngrg uidetiir ? (Cic. 
N. D. ii. 62. 156) is it for the wild-beasts think you or for 
man that it (the earth) produces these things ? 

Quaero eum, Brutlne slinilem malls, an Anton! (Cic. Phil. x. 
2. 5), I ask whether you would wish him to be like Brutus or 

c. Sortietiir, an non ? (Cic. Prov. Cons. 15. 37) shall he cast lots 

or not ? 

Postremo, fugere an manere' tutius foret, In incerto erat (Sal. 
Jug. 38), lastly, whether to fly or stay were the safer, was a 
matter of doubt. 

d, Sunt haec tuS, uerb&, necne ?t (Cic. Tusc. in. 18. 41) are 
these your words or are they not ? 

Nihll intresse nostra putamus, ualeamiis aegring simiis (Cic. 
de Fin. iv. 25. 69), it makes no difference to us we think, 
whether we are well or ill. 

1424 The forms, n6, ne ; Sn , S,n , are found in 

the poets (and but rarely elsewhere) : as, 

Qul tgneant oras, hSminesng feraene, 
QuaergrS constltuit (Virg. A. I. 312), 

Wlio occupy the borders, men or beasts, 
He resolves to ask. 

* Care must be taken not to confound with disjunctive questions those 
in which, although the English language uses the same particle, there is 
really no opposition between the parts, but all may be equally denied or 
affirmed, so that out and not an must be interposed : as, quid ergo, solem 
dicam aut lunam aut caelum deum 1 (Cic N. D. i. 30. 84) ' what then, 
shall I apply the name of god to the sun, or to the moon, or to the sky ?' 

f Ne in the second part of a direct question is rare, and perhaps 

limited in the best writers to the form necne. So utrum , necne 

occurs in an indirect question. The Pseudo-Nepos has utrum , 

matremne, &c. 

AN. SI. VTRVM. NE. 385 

SaepS m&nus 5pSrI tentantes admSuSt, an sit Corpiis &n illud 
Sbur (Ov. Met. 10. 254), oft his hands he moveth to the work, 
trying whether that before him be flesh or ivory. 

1425 The old construction with titrum has after it nS, &n : 


Vtrum, studioue id sibi habet an laudi putat Fore, si perdiderit 
gnatum ? (Ter. Ad. in. 3. 28) does he look upon this as an 
amusement, or does he think it will be a credit to him, if he 
ruin his son ? 

Vtrum erat utilius, suisng serulre an pSpulo Romano obternpe- 
rarg ? (Cic. n. Verr. iv. 33. 73) which was the more expedient 
course, to be slaves to countrymen of their own, or to meet the 
wishes of the Roman people ?* 

1426 It has been seen that &n is the particle ordinarily used before 
the second part of a question. Hence &u (or an uero) is well 
adapted for those cases where a statement is immediately followed 
by the alternative put in the form of a question : as, 

NScessest quicquid pronunties, Id aut esse aut non essS. An 
tu di&lecticis ne imbutus quidem es 1 (Cic Tusc. I. 7. 14) 
what you put forward must needs either be or not be. Or art 
you not acquainted with even the A E C of logic ?t 

Ad mortem te CatillnS, duel iamprldem oportebat an uero 
Sclpio Graccum priuatus interfecit, C&tlllnam nos consules 
perferemus ? (Cic. in Cat. I. 1.3) death, Catiline, ought long 
ago to have been your fate or does any one really pretend, 
that when Scipio, though a private man, slew Gracchus, the 
consuls of Rome are to tolerate Catiline ? 

Nos hie te exspectamiis ex quodam rumore, an ex litteris tuls 
ad alios missis (Cic. ad Att. I. 3. 2), we meanwhile are ex- 

* The particle ne is at times added to the interrogative pronouns and 
also to the particles num and an : as, quine, quone, quantane, uterne, 
utrumne, numne, anne. But care must be taken to distinguish those 
elliptical phrases where the relative and not the interrogative pronoun 
precedes ne. Thus, Ter. Ph. v. 7.29 : De. Argentum lube rescribi. Ph. 
Quodne ego discripsi parro illis quibus debui ? De. ' Order the money to 
be repaid. Ph. What, the money which I paid away forthwith to those 
creditors I spoke of?' And again, Ter. And. iv. 4. 29 : Quemne ego heri 
uidi ad uos adferri uesperi ? * What, the child which I myself saw being 
carried to your house yesterday evening ?' 

f Which must be the case if you deny my proposition. 
C C 

386 SYNTAX. 

petting you here on the authority of some rumour, or (am 1 
right?} letters of yours to some other people.* 

1427 An answer in the affirmative may be expressed by 6tiam, It& 
or ita est, sic or sic est, uerum, uero, factum, sane, maxume, 
quidnl ?, admodum, oppldo, plane, &c., by a personal pronoun 
with uero, or lastly by the verb of the preceding sentence re- 
peated :t as, 

Haecin tua domust ? Ita (Plant. Am. i. 1. 206), is this your 
house ? Yes. 

NSu! tlbi quiduam scrlbam ? quid? 6tiam (Cic. ad Att. I. 
13. 5), have I any news to write to you ? any news ? yes. 

P. Itane patris ais conspectum ueritum hinc abiisse ? G. ad- 
modum. P. Phanium relictam solam ? G. Sict. P. Et 
iratum senem ? G. Oppido (Ter. Ph. 2. 2. 1), P. Do you 
really mean that, afraid to face his father, lie is gone off? 
G. Precisely. P. That Phanium has been left by herself? 
G. Just so. P. And that the old man is in a passion ? G. 

A. Dasne hoc ? B. Do sane (Cic. de Leg. I. 7. 21), A. Do you 
admit this ? B. Tea, 1 do admit it. 

1428 An answer in the negative may be expressed by non, mhiume, 
nihil minus, &c. : as, 

Cognltorem adscrlbit SthSnio. Quern ? Cognatum allquem ? 
Non. Thermitanum aliquem ? Ne id quidem. At Slcu- 
lum ? Mluume (Cic. TI. Verr. u. 43. 106), he appoints a per- 
son to act as attorney for Sthenius. Whom, think you ? /Some 
relative ? No. Some inhabitant of Thermae ? Not even that. 
StiU a Sicilian of course ? By no means. 

1429 Imo seems to have signified properly an assent with an im- 
portant qualification (but from carelessness it is used at times 
where the correction amounts to a total denial) : as, 

Vluit ? Imo 6tiam in sgnatum uenlt (Cic. in Cat. I. 1. 2), is 

* Hence in Tac. an is used almost with the sense ufuel: as, Ann. u. 
42,y?/iem uitae sponte an fato impleuit, 'he ended his life by an act of 
his own, or was it by a natural though sudden death.' 

f At times the affirmation is understood without a formal expression ; 
as when a reply begins with at ' true but,' at enim 4 true but beyond a 
doubt,' et quidem * true and no less truly.' 

% Just as si ' so,' ' yes.' is used m French &c. 

ET. QVE. ATQVE. 387 

he alive ? Yes indeed he is, and more than that, comes into 
the senate. 

Caussa Igltur non bona est ? Imo optumS,, sed Sgetur foedis- 
sume (Cic. ad Att. ix. 7. 4), the cause then is not a good one ? 
Nay, the best of causes, but it will be supported most disgrace- 

A. Sic hunc decipis ? D. Imo enimuero A'ntipho, hie me 
decipit (Ter. Ph. 3. 2. 43), A. Is this the way you cheat this 
poor fellow ? D. Not exactly so ; it is this poor fellow, An- 
tipho, who is cheating me*. 


1430 Of the three copulative conjunctions, et, qug, atque (ac), the 
enclitic que is more particularly employed to attach something 
subordinate to what precedes and unites two things more closely 
together into one : as, 

Soils et lunae reliquorumquS sldgrum ortus (Oic. de Div. I. 56. 

128), the rising of the sun and moon and the other stars. 
Senatus pSpulusque Romanus (Cic. Phil. in. 15. 38), the senate 

and people of Rome. 

1431 Long phrases are connected commonly by 6t, sometimes by 
que, rarely by atqug ; whereas all three are employed to connect 
words or short phrases, except that qug is never attached to those 
demonstrative pronouns or adverbs which end in c. 

1432 When two words or phrases are to be united, a still stronger 
union is effected by employing a pair of conjunctions. Thus, a. 

et 8t is employed either with single words or long 

phrases, b. quS, qu8 is used in the connection of re- 
lative clauses, and sometimes with a pair of words the first of 

which is a pronoun j and also generally in the poets, c. que, 

et 1 is limited to single words, of which again the first is often 

a pronoun, d. even et , qug occurs, but again rarely 

except with single words : as, 

* A friend and former colleague suggested that imo is merely a con- 
traction of in modo ' in a manner,' and referred to the arguments I had 
put forward elsewhere ('Alphabet,' p. 141), to show that modo when used 
as an adverb had a monosyllabic pronunciation. 

f This form occurs in Sallust, not in Cicero. 



a. Nihil est enim simiil St inuentum et perfection (Cic. Brut. 

18. 70), for nothing was ever both invented and perfected at 

b. Q.ulque Romae, quique In exercitu grant (Liv. xxn. 26), loth 

those at Rome and those in the army. 
Meque regnumqug meum (Sal. Jug. 10), both myself and my 

Alii fontemque ignemquS ferebant (Virg. A. xn. 119), others 

the limpid stream and fire were bearing. 

c. Seque et cohortern (Liv. XXY. 14), both himself and the cohort. 

d. Id et singiilis uiiiuersisqug sempgr hSnori fuit (Liv. iv. 2), 

this was ever an honour alike to individual leaders and to the 
whole mass of those who followed. 

1433 When more than two things are to be united, of which no one 
is to be more closely united to one than to another, the following 
forms are admissible : 

a. et , et , et . 

b. , et , et . 

c. , , que. 

d. , qu6, que* : as, 

a. Is, t in custodiam cluis dedit, et suppHcationem mihi de- 

creuit, et indices praemils affecit (Cic. in Cat. iv. 5. 10), 
this person has ordered citizens into custody, has voted a pub- 
lic thanksgiving in my name, has rewarded the informers. 

b. Admlrar! soleo grauitatem et iustltiam et sapientiam CaesS- 

rls (Cic. ad Fam. vi. 6. 10), I always admire the high prin- 
ciple, and justice and wisdom of Caesar. 

c. Vrbem pulcerrumam florentissumam pStentissumamque essg 

uoluerunt (Cic. in Cat. n. 13. 29), they wished Rome to stand 
foremost in splendour, prosperity, and power. 

d. A cultu prouiuciae longisslme absunt, minimeque S,d eos 
mercatores saepe commeant, proxlmlqug sunt Germanls 
(Caes. B. G. I. 1), they are farthest from the civilisation of 
the province, are visited very rarely by merchants, and lie 
nearest to Germany^. 

* Very rarely , atque (ac) , atque (ac) . 

f The poets often attach a que to the first, as well as all the following 
members of a series: 'AS^oblitus regisijue ducumqne meique(0v. Met. xm. 
276), ' forgetful of prince, of chief's, of me.' 

ET. QVE. ATQVE. 389 

1434 When of the words or phrases to be united, the union is to bo 
closer between some than others, more than one of the conjunc- 
tions 8t, quS, atquS must be used ; and thus the Latin language 
has great power in grouping together the different parts of a sen- 
tence according to their importance* : as, 

Caedes atque incendia, et legum interitum, et bellum cluile ac 
domesticum, et totlus urbis atque imperi occasum appr5- 
pinquare dixerunt (Cic. in Cat. in. 8. 19), massacres and 
conflagrations, the annihilation of law, civil and domestic 
war, the downfall of the city and the empire, all these were 
approaching they said. 

Illud signum soils ortum, et forum curiamque conspMt (Cic. 
in Cat. ill. 8. 20), yonder statue looks upon the rising sun, 
and the forum and senate-house^. 

Nauigantes inde pugnatum ad Lllybaeum fusasque et$ captas 
hostium nauls acceperg (Liv. xxi. 50), as they were sailing 
thence they received the news that a battle had been fought off 
Lilybceum, and that the enemies' ships had been all put to 
flight or$ taken. 

Itqug productis copiis ante oppldum considunt ; et proxlmam 
fossam cratibiis integunt atquej aggere explent, seque &d 
t gruptionem atque omnls casus compS,rant (Caes. B. G. vn. 

79), accordingly having led out their forces they take a posi- 
tion before the town ; and the first ditch which presented itself 
they bridge over with hurdles, or'^fill up with earth, at the 
same time that they prepare against a sally and every other 

1435 There are three modes by which an enumeration is made so as 

* Cicero at times in his orations purposely uses et alone throughout a 
long period to connect all the single words and phrases and clauses, whe- 
ther long or short ; his object being rather to deluge his hearer's mind with 
a torrent of ideas, than to place them in due subordination before him. 

f The omission of the word the before senate-house has the same effect 
of bringing the latter pair of nouns nearer together, as the change 'of con- 
junction has in Latin. 

1 This disjunctive use of et and atque is not uncommon. 

If every one of the three conjunctions be translated by and, the 
repetition at once offends the ear and confuses the mind. The variety 
of stops in our modern printing enables us to make that distinction visible 
to the eye, which the Romans made sensible to the ear also by a variety 
of conjunctions. See ' Journal of Education,' iv. 135. 

390 SYNTAX. 

to be highly impressive : a. that already mentioned (in 1433) 
with the prefixed and repeated et (called Polysyndeton) ; b. a sim- 
ple enumeration without conjunctions (called Asyndeton) ; c. a re- 
petition of some word at the beginning of each clause (called Ana- 
phora) : thus, 

1. Semp6r audax, pgtulans, lubidmosiis (Cic. p. Sull. 25. 71), 

always daring, mischievous, sensual, 

Quid uoluerit, cogltarit, admiserit, non ex crimlne est ponder- 
andum (Cic. p. Sull. 25. 69), his criminal wishes, intentions, 
actions, are not to be measured by the charges of his accuser. 
c. Erepti estis sine caede, sing sanguine^ sine exercltu, sine 
dlmlcatione (Cic. in Cat. in. 10. 23), you have been rescued 
'without a massacre, without bloodshed, without an army, with- 
out a struggle. 

1436 An omission of a conjunction is a. common in the old lan- 
guage and public formulae between two words ; b. the regular 
construction with words or phrases opposed to one another ; and 
c. occasionally used in a light and lively style for the sake of bre- 
vity : as, 

a. RSgationem promulgauit, uellent iiiberentnS* PhiHppo regl 
bellum indie! (Liv. xxxi. 6), he put up a public notice of 
his intention to take the pleasure and order of the people for 
declaring war against king Philip. 

Lex Aelia SentiS, (Gaius, I. 6. 18), the law passed by JElius and 

Vsus fructusf est ius Slienis rebus utendi fruendi salua rerum 

substantia (Paul, in Dig. vn. 1. 1), the usufruct is the right 

to the use and produce of property belonging to others, without 

detriment to the property itself. 

b. Ne cursem hue illuc uia deterruma (Cic. ad Att. ix. 9. 2), 

that I may not keep running first to this place and then to that 
along the worst possible road. 

OmniS,, mlniimS, maxiirna, ad Caesarem mitt! sciebam (Cic. ad 
Q. F. in. 1. 3. 10), all the news, from the most unimportant 
to the most important, 1 knew was regularly sent to Caesar. 

More literally * he advertised a bill asking whether they wished 
and ordered that war should be declared against king Philip.' 

f Thus what was originally two independent words became almost 
one ; still the accusative is usum fructum. 

ET. QVE. ATQVE. 391 

Quum diu anceps fuisset certamen, et Saguntmis* quiS, praeter 
spem resist&rent creuissent animl, Poenus qui& non ulcisset 
pro uicto esset, clamorem rSpente oppidan! tollunt (Liv. 
xxi. 9), when the contest had been for a long time doubtful, 
and the spirit of the Saguntines was increased because they 
had up to this time made a resistance beyond their hopes, 
while\ the Carthaginian was as good as defeated because he 
was not already victorious, the townspeople suddenly set up a 
Sulla pStuit, 8go non pStero ? (Pomp. ap. Cic. ad Att. ix. 10. 2), 

was Sulla able, and shall not I be able f 

f. Aderant prdpinqui, ainici (Cic. n. Verr. I. 48. 125), his con- 
nections, friends were present. 

In fens Inesse fortitudinem saepg dlcimus, ut In equis, in leo- 
nlbus (Cic. de Off. I. 16. 50), we often attribute courage to a 
beast, as the horse, the lion. 

1437 When clauses follow one another without any conjunctions to 
connect them, the same order is commonly used in each (except 
that an inversion is admissible in the last clause) : as, 

Ad hoc praeusti artus, nlug rlgentes uerul, quassata" fractaque 
arma, claudi ac deblles equl (Liv. xxi. 40), in addition to 
this their limbs frostbitten, their muscles stiffened by the snow, 
their arms shattered and broken, their horses lame and ex- 

Is motus terrae multarum urbium magnas partis prostrauit, 
maie 1 flumlnlbus inuexit, montls lapsu ingentl proruit (Liv. 
xxn. 5), this earthquake threw down a great portion of many 
cities, carried the sea up rivers, caused fearful avalanches\\. 

* In the passages where long clauses are opposed, the writer takes 
care to place opposed words at the beginning of each clause, as here : 
Saguntinis . . ., Poenus. . . Where the phrase is a short one, this is not 
necessary, as in Cic. in Cat. n. 11.25, quibus nos suppeditamus, eget ille- 
' of which we have abundance, while he has none.' 

f This conjunction is almost necessary in the English translation when 
two opposed clauses are attached by a conjunction to another sentence. 

J Compare also the use of such opposed clauses after an in 1426 ; 
and see * Journal of Education,' iv p. 140, &c. 

After nerui the editions have membra torrida gelu ; which, to say 
nothing of the substantive preceding the epithet, is evidently a mere mar- 
ginal interpretation of praeusti artus. 

|| Here again our editions insert after prostrauit, auertitque cumu 
rapidos amnes, which is evidently an interpolation. 


1438 With adjectives and adverbs of comparison*, the conjunctions 
St and quS are used in such a manner that the two things com- 
pared are brought together and under a common construction, 
while the adjective or adverb of comparison either precedes or fol- 
lows the things compared ; or is interposed after the first of the 
things compared, as a sort of enclitic. Thus, if we include the 
double and single use of each conjunction, there are six varieties : 

a. Strenui milltls et boni impgratorls offlci&, simul exsgqueba- 

tur (Sal. Cat. 60), he was performing the parts at once of a 
zealous soldier and a good general. 

b. Quoi-smiiil et Volcatio pgcunia numgratast (Cic. n. Verr. 

in. 76. 176), the money having been paid to him and Volca'.r-'* 
at the same time. 

c. Nihil est enim simul et inuentuin et perfectum (Cic. Brut. 

18. 70), for nothing was ever invented and brought to perfec- 
tion both at the same time. 

d. Alienata mentS simul luctu me'tuque' (Liv. xxiv. 26), their 
minds distracted by the double feeling, of sorrow (for their 
mother's death} and fear (for themselves). 

e. Hoc, princlpium-slmul omenque belli (Liv. xxi. 29), this t at 

once a commencement and an omen of the war. 
f. PSrlter, comitlque 5n6riqu8 timentem (Virg. A. n. 729), 
fearful alike for his companion and for the load he bore. 

1439 The use of atquS with adjectives and adverbs of comparison is 
much more free, as neither an identity of construction nor the 
close union of the things compared is essential. Thus, 

Me c51it 8t obseruat aeque atque ilium (Cic. ad Fam. xiu. 

69. 1), he pays as much respect and attention to me as to him. 
Si qui dlcatur Slium occldisse ac uSlugrit (Cic. de Inv. n. 7.23), 

if a person were charged with having killed a different person 

from what he had intended. 
Par deslde'rium sul rellquit ac Ti. Gracchus relique'rat (Cic. p. 

Rab. 5. 14), he died as much regretted as Tiberius Gracchus 

had done. 

1440 Et is occasionally used in the sense of ( also,' ' too,' even in 

* This word is here used in a wide sense, so as to include such adjec- 
tives as aequo-* par- o r pari-. simili-, dissimili-, idem, UHO-, duo-, duplici-^ 
und the adverbs aeque, puriter, simul, una, &c. 

ET. QVE. ATQ.VE. AVT. VEL. 6.)'<> 

the best writers*, but for the most part only in certain combina- 
tions : as, sd St, slmul et, sic et, et ips. 

1441 QuS and ue in the poets are sometimes placed, not after the 
second of the two words compared, but after a word which is the 
common predicate of both clauses : as, 

Insanum te omnes puerl clamentque't puellae (Hor, Sat. II. 
3. 130), the madman ! all would exclaim, both boys andgirls^.. 

1442 The poets take the liberty of placing que behind a later word 
than the first of its clause, particularly in a pentameter line : as, 

Quum maestiis b alto 
Iliori, ardentes respIcSretque deos (Tibul. it. 5.21), 

As in sadness from the deep 
On Ilion and the burning gods he was looking back. 

1443 The construction neque St , and also that of &t 

nSque deserve attention, because they differ from the English 

idiom. Thus, 

Patebat uia, et certa nee longS, (Cic. Phil. xi. 2. 4), a road lay 
open to them which had the double advantage of being certain 
and not long. 

VSluptates grlcolarum, ne'e ulla impediuntur s&nectute, et 
mini ad sSpientis ultam proxume uidenttir accede're' (Cic. 
de Sen. 15. 51), the pleasures of the farmer (have a twofold 
recommendation: they)\ are never obstructed by old age, how- 
ever advanced, and they seem to me to approach most nearly to 
the life a wise man would lead. 


1444 The difference between aut|| and uel, though commonly trans- 

* See Allen's ' Doctrina Copularum,' p. 52. 

f A construction that probably began with a repetition of the predi- 
cate : pueri clament clamentque puellae. Other instances are to be found 
in Horace ; as, mutatosque, Od. i. 5. 5 ; horribilique, u. 19. 24 ; mediusque, 
ii. 19.28 ; tetigitque, n. 19.32: and in Tibullus; as, pereatque, I. 1.51; 
sequiturque, i. 3. 56. See Orelli ad Hor. Od. u. 19. 28. 

J See Allen's ' Doctrina Copularum,' p. 120. 

Or the words within brackets might have been omitted, and the 
word ' and' exchanged for ' at the same time that.' 

|| See 840, notes f and J. 

394 SYNTAX. 

lated by the same word in English, is marked. Aut divides two 
notions essentially different, while ugl marks a distinction either 
not essential in itself or unimportant in the mind of the speaker, 
so that it is often used to correct a mere expression. When they 
are repeated, the distinction becomes still more marked. In the 
construction aut aut , the denial of one clause is an affir- 
mation of the other. Whereas in the construction uel uel 

all the clauses may coexist or not, the speaker merely ex- 
pressing his indifference as to a choice between them. Lastly, uel 
is used with superlatives and in other phrases with the sense of 
even, or perhaps more precisely if you like*. 

a. Audendum est Sliquld uniuersis, aut omniS, singulis pSti- 
enda (Liv. vi. 18), we must make a bold effort in a body, or 
else every individual must suffer the worst. 

Aut occiibuissem honeste, aut uictores hodie uiueremus (Cic. 
ad Att. in. 15. 4), either I should have fallen honourably, or 
else we should have been now living as conquerors. 

b. Magnus h5mo, uel pStius summus (Cic. Brut. 85. 293), a 
great man, or rather the greatest of men. 

Vna atque altera aestas uel metu uel spe uel poena uel prae- 
miis uel armis uel leglbus potest t5tam Galliam semplternis 
uinculis adstringere (Cic. Prov. Cons. 14. 34), one or two 
summers, by the influence of fear or hope or punishment or 
rewards or arms or laws (I care not which), may bind all 
Gallia in eternal chains. 

c. Vldetur uel moil satius fuissg quam essg cum his (Cic. ad 

Att. ix. 6. 7), it seems to me that even death would have been 

better than to live in the company of these people. 
Vestra caussa me loqul quae ISquor, uel ea fides sit (Liv. xxi. 

13), that it is for your sake that I say what I do say, let even 

this be a security to you. 
Cuius eo tempo're' uel maxiima Spud regem auctorltas 6rat (Liv. 

xxxvi. 41), whose influence with the king at this time was the 

very greatest-^. 

* It will be seen that all the meanings here given to uel are consistent 
with its being in origin an imperative ofuol- ' wish,' in the sense of make 
your own choice/ See 840, note f. 

f The use of ue agrees nearly with that of uel, from which it is pro- 
bably formed ; but it is always an enclitic, and occurs more frequently in 
poetry than in prose. 

AT. 395 


1445 The conjunction &t denotes rather addition than opposition. 
It is commonly employed after a concession, especially 
a. After si, in the sense of yet, still : as, 

Si minus suppllcio afflci, at custodiri oportebat (Cic. II. Verr. 
v. 27. 69), if it was not right they should be severely punished, 
still they ought to have been guarded. 

Si non bSnam, &t Sllquam rationem afferrg solent (Cic. n. Verr. 
in. 85. 195), they usually bring forward, if not a good reason, 
yet some reason. 

I. In a reply, when a proposition of the other party is assented 
to, but at the same time rendered useless for his purpose by some 
addition : as, 

Nunquam nisi hSnorlflcentissiime Pompeium appellat. At In 
eius persona multS, fecit aspgrius (Cic., ad Fam. vi. 6.10), 
he never speaks of Pompey except in the most complimentary 
terms. Precisely so, but in dealing with him he acted on 
many occasions somewhat roughly. 

c. Hence it is employed to anticipate an opponent's objection, 
in which case the verb inquies or dices is commonly omitted, and 
not unfrequently the particle Suim or uero added : as, 

At sunt morosi et difficlles sgnes (Cic. de Sen. 18.65), but you 
will tell me, old men are cross and difficult to please. 

At enim Q. Catulus Sb hac rations dissentit (Cic. p. leg. Man. 
17. 51), true, I shall be told, but Quintus Catulus dissents 
from this view. 

d. It denotes a sudden emotion of the mind, and is employed 
in sudden transitions in a speech : as, 

Exi foras sceleste. At etiam r&stitas ? (Ter. E. iv. 4. 1) get out 
of the house, you scoundrel. What ! do you still resist ? 

Narr&bat se hunc neclegere cognatum suom. At quern uirum ? 
(Ter. Ph. n. 3.19) he often told me that this kinsman took no 
notice of him. And yet what a noble creature he was ! 

e. Hence the repeated form att&t, i. e. ^tatSt*, is used to mark 
a sudden discovery : as, 

* See 24. 

396 SYNTAX. 

hoc illud est (Ter. And. 1. 1. 98), ah, ah, I see it then, this 
explains tJiat 

1446 Autem strictly denotes again, and is never used in the sense 
of opposition, but real addition. It never occupies the first place 
in a clause. Its significations are 

a. Again: as, 

Turn autem hoc tlmet (Ter. And. i. 5. 34), then again she is 
afraid of this. 

Sed quid 6go haec autem nequiquam ingrata revolvo ? ( Virg. 
A. ii. 101) but why do I again in vain turn o'er these unwel- 
come thoughts ? 

Porro autem alio (Ter. Ph. i. 1 . 14), and ere long with another 

b. On the other hand: as, 

Neque enim tu is es qui quid sis nescias; neque autem ego 
sum Ita demens tit &c. (Cic. ad Earn. v. 12. 6), nor indeed 
are you the person not to know what is due to you, nor on the 
other hand am I so mad as &c. 

c. And or now (especially in a parenthesis) : as, 

Diogenem adiilescens, post autem Panaetium audiSrat (Cic. -de 
Fin. n. 8. 24), he had attended the lectures of Diogenes when 
a young man, and afterwards those of Pancetius. 

Nemlnem conueni (conuenio autem quStldie plurumos) quin 
omnes mihi gratias S,gant (Cic. ad Fam. ix. 14.1), I have 
met no one (and I daily meet very many), but they all thank 

d. But or now, especially in adding the new propositions of a 
syllogism : as, 

Si amitt! uitS, beatS, p5test, beata essS non potest. Quis enim 
confldit slbi semper id stabile permansurum quod fragile 
sit ? Qui autem diffidat perpgtultatl bflnorum suoram, 
tlmeat ngcessest, lie Sllquando amissis illis sit miser. Be- 
atiis autem esse in maxumarum rerum tlmore' nemo p8test. 
Nemo Igltur essg beatus potest (Cic. de Fin. u. 27. 86), if 
happiness can be lost, it cannot be happiness. For who feels 
sure that that will always remain stable to him which is in 
itself frail ? But if a man feels no security in the continu- 
ance of his blessings, he must needs be afraid of some time or 


other losing them, and so becoming miserable. But no one 
can be happy when in fear about matters of the greatest im- 
portance. Consequently no one can be -happy. 

e. Autem is also used in catching up some objectionable word 
or phrase, where we insert some such expression as did I say ? 

Numquis testis postumum* appellauit ? testls autem, num ac- 
cussator ? (Cic. p. Rab. P. 5. 10) now did any witness mention 
the name of Postumus ? Witness did I say, did the accuser ? 

Intelllgis quam meum sit scirS quid in re publica fiat ; flat 
autem, immo uero etiam quid futurum sit (Cic. ad Att. v. 
13. 3), you understand how much it concerns me to know what 
is doing in the public world; doing did I say, nay even what 
will be done. 

In afrlcam* transcendes ; transcendes autem dico ? hoc ipso 
anno duos consoles, unum In hispaniam*, alterum In afii- 
cam* miserunt (Liv. xxi. 44), you will cross over into Africa. 
Will did 1 say, this very year they have sent their two consuls, 
one into S2^ain, the other into Africa. 

1447 Pemum is strictly an adverb of time, and signifies a. At last, 
a very long time having preceded : as, 

Ego n6uos maritus anno demum quinto et sexagensumo Fiam ! 

(Ter. Ad. v. 8. 15), I become a bridegroom now for the first 

time in my sixty-fifth year ! 
Nunc demum uenis ? Cur passu's ? (Ter. Ad. n. 2. 25) are you 

come now for the first time ? Why did you put up with it so 

long ? 
Quarta uix demum exponlmur hora (Hor. Sat. 1. 5. 23), at last 

at ten o'clock (and then with difficulty) we land. 
b. Nothing short of, especially with the pronoun i- or eo- : as, 
Sic 6nim sentio, id demum ess8 mlserum quod turpe sit (Cic. 

ad Att. vin. 8), for I feel that that, and that alone, is wretched 

which is base. 
Idem uelle et Idem nolle, eS, demum firma amlcltia est (Sal. 

Cat. 20), an identity of desires and dislikes, that and nothing 

short of that constitutes lasting friendship. 

1448 Bum is strictly an adverb of time, and signifies a. While, as 
/<n-ifj as (nearly always with the indicative) : 

To copy the Mss., where proper names have no capitals. 

398 SYNTAX. 

Bum haec dicit, abiit hora (Ter. E. II. 3. 49), while he was 

saying this, an hour passed away. 
Dum haec in ugnetis* ggrunturf, titurius in finis unellorum* 

peruSnlt (Caes. B. G. in. 17), while these things were going 

on among the Veneti, Titurius arrives in the territories of the 

Dum latine* loquentur litterae, quercus huic loco non derft 

(Cic. de Leg. i. 1.1), so long as literature shall talk Latin, 

this spot will not be without its oak. 
Diem insgquentem quieuere mllites, dum praefectus urbis ulres 

insplcerett (Liv. xxiv. 40), the next day the soldiers rested, 

that the general might in the interval examine the strength of 

the city. 

b. Until (nearly always with the indicative mood, unless a pur- 
pose be intended) : as, 

Expectabo dum uenit (Ter. E. i. 2.126), I shall wait until he 

Expecta amabo te, dum attlcum* conueniamj (Cic. ad Att. vn. 

1. 4), wait, 1 pray you, until I can see Atticus. 

c. Provided that (always with the subjunctive) : as, 
Odgrint, dum metuant (ap. Cic. Phil. i. 14. 34), let them hate, 

provided they fear. 

Omnia hSnestS, neclegunt, dum mod5 potentiam cousSquantur 
(Cic. de Off. in. 21. 82), they neglect all that is honourable, 
if they can but attain political power. 

d. Yet, a while, as an enclitic after negatives (including uix) or 
a present of the imperative : as, 

Vixdum gpistSlam tuam legSram cum curtius* uenit (Cic. ad 

Att. ix. 2 A. 3), / had scarcely yet read your letter, when 

Curtius called. 
Legation^ decreta necdum missa (Liv. xxi. 6), when the embassy 

had been decreed, but not yet sent. 
Adesdum, paucis te uolo (Ter. And. i. 1. 2), Jiere a moment, I 

want a few words with you. 

1449 Enim must commonly be translated by the English conjunction 
for, but at times retains what was probably its earlier signification 

* See p. 3.97, note. f See 458. 

The subjunctive, to denote a purpose. 


indeed, as in Snimuero indeed, indeed, r n8que enim nor indeed, 
etgnim and indeed, a'tSnim* true you mil say, but in fact, sSd 
Snim but indeed, &c. : as, 

Enimue'ro dauet, nillocist segnitiae nee soc6rdiae (Ter. And. I. 
3. 1), indeed, indeed, Davus, there is no room for sloth or 

Quid tute tecum ? Nihil enim (Plaut. Most. in. 1. 24), what 
are you saying to yourself ? Nothing, I assure you. 

1450 lam is an adverb of time, and often differs from nunc just as 
eo tempore differs from hoc tempSre. It commonly denotes some- 
thing extreme in point of time : as, 

a. Already (sooner than might have been expected) : as, 
Hermae tui pentellclt iam nunc me delectant (Cic. ad Att. r. 

8. 2), your Mercuries of Pentelic marble already now charm 
me {before I have seen them). 

Haec iam turn cum Sderas offendere eiiis Snlmum intellegSbam 
(Cic. ad Att. 1. 11.1), this, already when you were with us, I 
perceived annoyed him. 

b. At last (later than might have been expected) : as, 
Postiilo ut redeat iam in uiam (Ter. And. i. 2. 19), 1 'expect him 

to return at last into the right path. (He has gone astray long 

c. Presently: as, 

De qulbus iam dlcendi IScus grit (Cic. Brut. 25. 96), of which 1 
shall presently have an opportunity of speaking. 

d. Then again, lastly (to denote a transition from one subject 
to another) : as, 

Iam quantum dlcendi graultate ualeat, uos saepS cognostis 
(Cic. p. leg. Man. 14. 42), then again how impressive he is as 
a speaker, you yourselves have often witnessed. 

e. Iam iamquS, of what is expected every moment : as, 
Quanquam ipse iam iamque &dero (Cic. ad Att. xiv. 22. 1), anil 

yet I myself shall be with you forthwith. 

1451 ItaJ so differs from sic so as the logical i- or eo- this from the 
demonstrative ho- this. 

* See 1445 c. f See p. 397, note, 

t The oldest form of the neuter pronoun id. Compare the Gothic 
ueuter thata, Avhence our that. 

400 SYNTAX. 

a. So (so exceedingly), pointing to a coming tit that : as, 
inclusum in curia senatum habuerunt Ita multos dies tit in- 
tgriermt nommlli fame (Cic. ad Att. vi. 2. 8), they kept the 
senate shut up in their house so many days that some died of 

b. So (so little, or with a restrictive sense), with the same con- 
struction : as, 

Ita triumpharunt, ut ille pulsus superatusqug regnaret (Cic. 
p. leg. Man. 3. 8), they triumphed, it is true, yet so that the 
other, routed and overpowered though he was, was still a sove- 

c. So, referring to the preceding sentence : as, 

Ita sunt omniS, debilltatS, (Cic. ad Fain. n. 5), to such an extent 

is every thing exhausted. 
Ita est (Ter. E. i. 2. 44), yes, it is so. 

d. So, corresponding to a preceding or following as (ut &c.) : 

Vt quisque optume graece scit, ita est nequissumus (Cic. de 
Or. ii. 66. 265), as each man is better acquainted with Greek, 
BO is he a greater rogue. 

e. So*, in expressing a prayer : as, 

Ita me Di ament, nonnihil tlmeo (Ter. E. iv. 1.1), so may the 
gods love me, 1 am somewhat frightened. 

f. Ut . . . Ita although . . . yet : as, 

Vt a proeliis quietem habue'rant, Ita non nocte', non die un- 
quam cessauerant ab Spere (Liv. xxi. 11), although they had 
had rest from fighting, yet they had never ceased either by day 
or by night from working. 

g. Itat . . . si on the one condition . . . that : as, 

Pacis Ita allqua spes est, si uos ut uicti audietls (Liv. xxi. 13), 
of peace there is not the slightest hope, except on the condition 
that you listen to the terms offered as men who are conquered. 

* Sic is used in the same way : sic te diua potens cypri . . regat, 
Hor. Od. i. 3. 1. 

t So also sic is used in Horace (Ep. i. 7. 69) : sic ignouisse putato 
Me tibi, si cenas mecum. Indeed sis is only si with the demonstrative 
.suffix added. Compare the use of so in English for if: ' So you dine with 
me, I'll forgive you.' 



h. This, referring to an accusative and infinitive following* : as, 
ita constXtuI, fortXtSr esse agendum (Cic. p. Clu. 19. 51), this I 

resolved upon, that I must act with firmness. 
i. So (so very), with the words by which the degree is to be 
measured, not expressed (especially after negatives) : as, 

SimulacrS, praeclara, sed nou Ita antiqua (Cic. H. Verr. iv. 49. 

109), figures of great repute, but not so very old. 

1452 Nam, while it commonly signifies for, has two other meanings 
which deserve attention : 

a. Thus, for example (introducing a particular instance after a 
general proposition)f. I. It often assigns a reason why a parti- 
cular name or fact which might have been expected is not included 
in a series or argument just preceding. Thus, 

b. Nam quod nggas te diibltare quin magna In offensa sirn apud 

pompeium hoc tempore, non uldeo caussam cur ItS, sit (Cic. 
ad Att. ix. 2. 2), / purposely pass over your statement that 
you have no doubt of my having given great offence to Pompey, 
for this simple reason, that I do not see any reason why it 
should be so. 

Nam maeciam, non quae iudlcaret, set quae reicgretur esse 
uSluisti (Cic. p. Plane. 16.38), I omit the Mcecian tribe, for 
in presenting that tribe you intended it to be, not one of those 
to furnish a jury, but the one to be challenged by your oppo- 

1453 QuidemJ gives emphasis to the word or words before it, and 
its meanings deserve great attention. They are 

a. At least : as, 

Ut mihi quldem uidetiir (Cic. de Fin. i. 7. 23), so it seems to me 
at least. 

Mea, quldem sententia pad semper est consulendum (Cic. de 
Off. i. 11. 35), in my opinion at least (whatever others may 
think) peace ought ever to be the object of our counsels. 

b. Ne . . . quldem not even : as, 

* Sic is used in the same way. 

f See Caes. B. G. in. 28 ; PI. Trin. i. 2. 46, Men. 1. 1. 20, Pers. i v. 8. '2. 
I The same in meaning and perhaps in form as the Greek 76. See 
'Alphabet,' p. 141. 

See 1405, 1412, 1415. 

D D 

402 SYNTAX. 

Id ne ferae quidem f&ciunt (Cic. de Fin. I. 10. 34), this even the 

wild-beast does not do. 
Ne id quidem est exploratum (Cic. ad Att. x. 8), even that is 

not certain. 

c. Et quidem and indeed, nay : as, 

Me cum giiblnio senteutiam dlcere, et quidem ilium rtfgarl 
prius (Cic. ad Att. x. 8), that I should give my opinion in 
the same room with Gabinius, and indeed he be asked his first! 

d. Et quidem, and qui-quidem (in replies), assenting to what 
is said, and at the same time ironically adding what renders the 
assent useless : as, 

Torquem detraxit hostl. Et quidem se texit ne interlret. At 
magnum perlculum adilt. In ociilis quidem exercitus (Cic. 
de Fin. r. 10. 35), he tore the collar from his enemy's neck. 
Yes, and (excuse my adding) covered himself with his shield, 
that he might not be killed. But still he incurred great danger. 
Certainly ', in the eyes of the army. 

At erat mecum senattis et quidem ueste mutata. At tota 
it31i, conuenerat quoi quidem uastltatis metus iufere- 
batiir (Cic. p. Plane. 35. 87), but the senate, you say, were 
with me. They were, and (you have forgotten to add) dressed 
in mourning. But all the inhabitants of Italy had assembled 
to support me. They had, and (by way of encouragement 1 
suppose) were daily threatened with the devastation of their 

. Qui-quidem which by the way : as, 

Quo quidem in bello uirtus enltuit egregiS, -m- catonis proiiui 
tul (Cic. pro Mur. 14. 32), in which war by the way, the 
valour and abilities of your great-grandfather N. Cato shone 

De triumpho tlbi assentior, quern quidem totum fScIle abiecgro 
(Cic. ad Att. ix. 7. 5), about the triumph I agree with you, 
and by the way 7 shall readily at once abandon all idea 
of it. 

f. It is true, certainly (a concession commonly followed by sed) : 

FScIs amice" tu* quidem, sed mihi ulderls Sliud tu htfiiestum 

* See 1080. 


iudlcare atque ego existumem (Cic. ad Att. vm. 2. 2), you 
act like a friend Tyrant, but still you seem to me to hold a 
different opinion of what is right and proper from that which 
I entertain. 

Ignosco equldem* tlbi, sed tu quoque mihi uelim ignoscus 
(Cic. ad Q. F. in. 1. 3. 7), I forgive you certainly t but I must 
leg you too to forgive me. 

g. Similarly in a transition from one subject to another, the 
last clause of the preceding matter has a quldem, while the new 
matter is introduced with an autem. Thus, 

Ac de primo quldem offlcl fonte dixlmus. Pe trlbiis autem 
rgllquis latissiime patet ea ratio qua societas hSmXnum 
contlnetur (Cic. de Off. i. 6. 19 et seq.), and we have now 
said enough of the first source of duty. Of the three which 
remain, the most extensive in its operations^ is the principle 
by which society is held together. 

1454 Qu5d (in origin only the neuter of the relative, signifying this 
or that) is translated by the words that, because, &c. In the older 
constructions it is generally preceded by some part of a logical 
pronoun. The difference in use between quSd and fit in the sense 
of that, lies chiefly in this, that qu5d commonly precedes a state- 
ment of facts past or present in the indicative, lit commonly in- 
troduces purposes or results expressed in the subjunctive. The 
uses of qu5d belong for the most part to the following heads : 

a. That, the fact that, after a logical pronoun (see 301 <fec., 
1112 <bc.) : as, 

Eo ipso quod necesse erat solul, facultas soluendi impe'diebatur 
(Liv. vi. 34), by the very fact that it was necessary payment 
should be made, the means of making that payment were ob- 

Horum fortissiml sunt belgae, propterea quod a cultu prouin- 

ciae longisslme absunt (Caes. B. G. i. 1), of these the bravest 

are the JBelgce, for the reason that they are furthest removed 

from the civilisation of tlie province. 

Praeterquam quod admissi audltlqug sunt, ea quoque uana" 

* i. e. ego quidem, and perhaps pronounced ekem or eke. 
t Literally * extends most widely.' 

404 SYNTAX. 

legatio fuit (Liv. xxi. 10), beyond the fact that they were 
admitted and heard, this embassy also was without effect. 

b. As quid why is used for propter quid, so quod is commonly 
used for propter qu5d, that is because. Thus, 

Gratias aglmus diiclbus uestris, quod oculis magis quam aurlbus 
crediderunt (Liv. vi. 26), we thank your generals for that 
they gave credit to their eyes rather than to their ears. 

In uiam quod te des* hoc temporg, nihil est (Cic. ad Fam. xiv. 
12), there is no reason why you should expose yourself to tra- 
velling at this season. 

Laudat africanum quod fuSritf abstinens (Cic. de Off. n. 22. 
76), he praises Africanus for having been temperate. 

c. In that, where quum or the relative itself might have been 
used (see 1455 h.) : as, 

BSne facttis quod abominaminl (Liv. vi. 18), you do well in 

rejecting it as something impious. 
Fecistl mihi pergratum quod serapionis llbrum ad me mlsistl 

(Cic. ad Att. n. 4. 1), you have done lohat is most agreeable 

to me, in sending me Serapionis book. 

d. QuSd often introduces a clause which serves as the nomina- 
tive or accusative to the main verb, or stands in apposition to a 
noun. Thus, 

Accedit quod miriftce ingenils excellentibus delectatiir (Cic. ad 
Fam. vi. 6. 8), there is added the fact, that he is wonderfully 
charmed with men of extraordinary genius. 

Mitto quSd omnis meas tempestates subierls (Cic. ad Fam. xv. 
4. 12), I pass over your having encountered, as you say, all 
the storms to which 1 have been exposed. 

Me un, consolatio sustentat, quod tlbi nullum a me pigtatls 
offlcium defuit (Cic. p. Mil. 36. 100), for myself but one con- 
solation supports me, I mean the fact, that no duty demanded 
of me by affection has been wanting to you. 

e. Qutfd often introduces a sentence, which is to be the subject 
of remark, when the English may be expressed by with regard to 
the fact that, or more simply. Observe too that a. if the sentence 
so introduced be a present or past fact, the indicative is required ; 
I. if it be a future possibility, the subjunctive : as, 

* See 1189. f See 1205. 

QVOD. 405 

a. Quod scrlbis te si uelim ad me uenturam, ego uero te istlo 
essS u61o (Cic. ad Fam. xiv. 3. 5), as to your offer to come to 
me if I wish it, I do not wish it (my dear Terentia) ; on the 
contrary, I wish you to remain where you are. 

Quod me uetas quidquam susplcarl . . ., ggram tibi morem (Cic, 
ad Att. in. 20. 3), you forbid me to harbour any suspicion 
/ will oblige you. 

Qu5d ad crirnma attinet, quibus moti bellum indixistis, uel 
fateri ea tutum ceusemus (Liv. vi. 26), as regards the 
charges which induced you to declare war, we think it safe 
for us even to confess them. 

b. Turn quod te postgrius purges, hums non faciam (Ter. Ad. 

ii. 1. 8), then as to your trying afterwards to clear yourself, 
as you perhaps will, I shall not value it at this. 
Nam quod de argento spereni, aut posse postulein me fallere, 
Nihil est (Ter. Haut. iv. 2.4), for as to my entertaining any 
hope about the money, or expecting to be able to take them in, 
thaCs at an end. 

f. Nou quSd not because, not that (or more commonly non quo*), 
with a subjunctive, is used to deny a reason, or to guard against 
an inference (see 1208) : as, 

Nullo modo prorsus assentior, non quod difficile' sit mentem 
ab ociilis seuocare ; sed quo rn&gis seuSco, eo minus id 
quod tu uis possum mentg comprehende're' (Cic. N. D. in. 
8. 21), / by no means give an unqualified assent, not that I 
find it difficult to abstract my thoughts from what I see with 
my eyes, but because the more I do this, the less able am I to 
grasp with my mind the idea you wish me to grasp. 

g. Quod, like quum (see 1455 g}, is used to denote duration 
of time : as, 

lam diu est quod ue"ntri uictum non datis (Plant. Am. 1. 1. 146), 
it is now a long time since you gave my belly any food. 

h. Quid quod often introduces a new and striking fact when 
the literal translation would perhaps be : what would you say to 
the fact that ? but the idea may often be more simply ex- 
pressed by nay. Thus, 

* Not only is non quo more common, but the examples with non 
quod seem apt to have a following cf, as difficile here, and doleant S 1208, 
ex. 3 : and so are open to suspicion. 

406 STJfTAX. 

Quid quod sSnatus eos uoluit praeesse prouinciis, qu! non prae- 
fuissent ? (Cic. ad Att. vi. 6. 3) nay the senate decreed thai 
these should preside over the provinces, who had not already 
done so. 

i. Qu5d followed by a conjunction, as si, nisi, utinam, ubi, 
<fcc. is often used to connect a new sentence with what precedes ; 
in which case it often admits such a translation as but, whereas, 
and. Thus, 

Quod si tu ualeres, iani mihi quaedam explorata essent (Cic. 
ad Att. vn. 2. 6), whereas if you had been in health, some 
points would have been cleared up for me before this. 

1455 Of quora, quum, or cum*, the chief uses are as follow : 

a. To denote time, with the past-imperfect subjunctive, while., 
i. e. at some point of time in a long period. Thus, 

Ad hannlbalem, quum ad lacum auerni esset, quinquS uobiles 
iuuenes ab tarento uenerunt (Liv. xxiv. 13), there came to 
Hannibal, while he was near the lake of Avernus, five young 
men of high family from Tarentum. 

b. Time with the past-perfect subjunctive, aftert, when : as, 
Cum hostis fudisset, moenia ipsa oppugnare est adgressus (Liv. 

vin. 16), after routing the enemy, he advanced to storm the 
fortifications themselves. 

c. In indefinite expressions^, quum, when preceded by a verb 
signifying existence, is followed by a subjunctive : as, 

Eiit illud prdfecto tempus quum grauissumi homlnis fidem 
desideres (Cic. p. Mil. 26. 69), there assuredly will come the 
time when you will feel the loss of so high-principled a man. 

d. When a time is precisely denned, as for instance by the two 
particles turn quum, the indicative is used even with the past 
tenses, both perfect and imperfect : as, 

Turn quum in asia res magnas permulti amlserant, sclmus 
romae fidem concldisse (Cic. p. leg. Man. 7.19), at the time 

* In form an old accusative of the relative. Compare the English 
when^ the old accusative of who, as then !s of the. 

f Yet after postguam, ubi, and ut, in a sense nearly the same, the 
indicative aorist is used. 

See 1189. 


when, very many lott vast properties in Asia, we know that at 
Rome credit was knocked down. 

Quid quum dabas his llteras, non eos ad me uenturos arbitra- 
' bare 1 (Cic. ad Fam. m. 7. 3) well, and when you were hand- 
ing the letter to them, did you think that they would not come 
to me ? 

e When, used with the perfect and the other tenses in a man- 
ner not included under the heads a, b, c, and requiring commc 
the indicative : as, 

Quum se inter equltum turmas insinuauerunt*, ex essedis de- 
" slliunt (Caes. B. G. iv. 33), their habit is, when they ham 
ivorked their way among the squadrons of. cavalry, to leap 
down from, their chariots. 

Quum caesar in galliam uBnit, altgrius factionis princlpes grant 
aedui, alterius sequani (Caes. B. G. vi. 12), whtn tear 
first came into Gallia, the Mdui were at the head of one party, 
the Sequani of the other. 

Lougum illud tempus, quum non 8ro, magis me mouet quam 
hoc exlguom (Cic. ad Att. xn. 18. 1), that long period, when 
1 shatt no more exist, has more influence with me tha, 
present short span. 

Cum hide &beot,iam turn inceperat Turba int&r eos (Ter. L. IT 
4. 58), when I came away, there had already commenced 
between them. 

lam ^ddicta atque abdticta erat,quom adportum uemo(P^^. 
Merc in. 4-31), she had already been knocked down (by the 
auctioneer) and carried off, when I got to the harbour, 
f When, where the time or circumstances are first defined, and 
then follows quum with an indicative verb, which is in substanc 
the main verb of the sentence : as, 

Legebam tuas littgras, quum mihi gpistSla affertur fi lepta 
circumuallatum esse pompeium (Cic. ad Att. ix. 12. 1), / 
was in the act of reading your letter, when behold despatches 

* This reading, not insinuauerint,\* justified by theMss. and required 
by the idiom of the language. It is one of many such passages corrupted 
by editors. See Madvig ad Cic. de Fin. v. 15 ; and above 1 159. 

with the power of an aorist seems to have been the i 

408 SYNTAX. 

are brought me from Lepta, stating that Pompey was com- 
pletely blockaded. 

Commodum ad te dederam litteras, cum ad me diSnysius fuit 
(Cic. ad Att. x. 16. \\Ihad only that moment sent off a letter 
to you, when Dionysius made his appearance here*. 

ff. It is used to express a long period down to the present in- 
clusive : as, 

Hanc domum lam multos annos est quom possideo 6t colo 

(Plant. Aul. prol. 3), this house I have occupied and taken 

care of these many years. 
Multi ami! sunt cum ille In aerS meo est (Cic. ad Fam. xv. 

14. 1), it is now many years that that man has been in my 

Quia septem menses sunt, quom in hasce aedis pedem Nemo 

intro tetulit (Plant. Most. n. 2.39), because for the last seven 

months not a soul has set foot in this house. 
h. With two indicative verbs in the same tense, it expresses 
identity of action as well as identity of time (when the best trans- 
lation is by the preposition in) : as, 

Quae quum tSces, nulla esse concedes (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 19.54), 

in the very fact that you say nothing about these matters, you 

acknowledge that they amount to nothing. 
Praeclare facis quum puerum dlligls (Cic. de Fin. in. 2. 9), you 

act a most noble part in thus loving the child. 
Lflco i!18 motiis est cum est ex urbe depulsus (Cic. in Cat. u. 

1.1), in driving him out of Rome, we dislodged him from his 

(military) position. 

i. When used as an equivalent for quod, it has an indicative : 

Gratulor tlbi quum tantum uales apiid eum (Cic. ad Fain. ix. 
14. 3), I congratulate you on your Jiaving such influence with 

j. Quum, since, as, although^ used to denote a reasonf for or 
against, requires the subjunctive. Thus, 

* Literally ' at my house.' See 1161. 

f The text of Cicero, particularly in the sixth and following books of 
the miscellaneous letters, has often quum or quando where the best Mss. 
have the more correct reading quonium, viz. where a reason is given ;md 
an indicative mood follows. See Wunder's V. L. ex codice Erfurtensi, 
praef. p. 97 &c. See also 1229. 

QVVM. VERO. 409 

Qui cum una dSino iam cap! non possiut, In alias dtfrnos exeunt 
(Cic. de Off. i. 17. 54), and as at last they cannot all be con- 
tained in one house, they move off into other houses. 
Druentia quum aquae uim uehat ingentem, non taraen nauium 
paiiens est (Liv. xxi. 31), the Durance, although it carries 
with it a tremendous volume of water, still is not able to float 

k. Quum followed by turn* unites two clauses, the first of 
which deals with what is general, or common, or old, while the 
latter opposes to it that which is special, or strange, or new. 
Hence the turn is often accompanied by emphatic adverbs, such 
as maxume, imprimis, uero, &c. In this construction sometimes 
the subjunctive mood, more commonly the indicative, follows 
quum. Not unfrequeutly the quum is used without any verb of 
its own. Thus, 

Quum plurumas commSditates amicltia contlneat, turn ilia 
praestat omnibus (Cic. de Am. 7. 23), among the very many 
advantages which friendship possesses, the most important of 
all is this. 

Quum ipsam cognltionem iurls augiirii consSqui cupio, turn 
mercule tuis stiidils erga me detector (Cic. ad Fam. in. 
9. 3), at the same time that I am eager to acquire a knowledge 
of the augural law for its own sake, I am upon my word 
charmed with your zeal in my favour. 

Quos ego sSnatores uidl, qui acerrume cum cetSrit, turn hoc 
iter pompel ultupgrareut (Cic. ad Att. vu. 5. 4), what sena- 
tors have I seen most fiercely attacking every thing that had 
been done, but above all this march, of Pompey's ! 

1456 Vero always gives great emphasis to the word before it. Its 
chief uses are as follows : 

a. Added to Snim indeed, giving it greater power : as, 
Enimuero daue nil locist segnitiae nee soc6rdiae (Ter. And. i. 
3. 1), indeed, indeed, friend Davus, there is no room now for 

b. In answering questionst emphatically, in which case it com- 
monly follows either the verb or a personal pronoun which stands 
first in a sentence. Thus, 

* See 1231. f See 578, 586, 1079, 1427. 



Ego uero apuliam prSbo (Cic. ad Att. x. 7.1), yes, my friend, 
you are riff hi ; 1 do approve of Apulia (as the place for you 
to go to). 

c. It is particularly used after the pronoun i- or eo-, as also 
after the particles of time, turn, ubi, ut, to introduce the end of a 
climax, then beyond all mistake, th^n with a vengeance : as, 

Hoc senatui curam iniecit ne turn uero sustinerl sedltio non 
posset (Liv. v. 7), this filed the senate with alarm lest their 
last hope should now be destroyed, and the sedition should be 
indeed past resistance. 

Vt uero* numidas insequentes aquam ingressl sunt, turn rlgere 
omnibus corpora (Liv. xxi. 54), but the moment that, in pur- 
suit of the jNumidians, they entered the water, then beyond all 
mistake the bodies of all the men became numbed with cold. 

Id uero Ita accendit animos ut per omne fas atqug nefas secu- 
turi uindlcem llbertatis ulderentiir (Liv. vi. 14), this indeed 
completed their indignation, enraging them to such a degree 
that they seemed ready to follow the assertor of t/teir liberties 
even to the violation of every divine and human law. 

d. As a connecting particle it may be translated by but ; yet 
some words should always be inserted to express the importance 
of the matter added : as, 

Certior factus est tris iam copiarum partis heluetios transdux- 
issg, quartam uero partem citra flumen rellquam esse (Caes. 
B. G. i. 12), he received information that the Helvetii had 
conveyed over three parts of their forces, but that the fourth 
part fortunately was still on his side of the river. 

1457 Vtt is translated by that or to, as, how, when, &c. Its con- 
structions are as follows : 

a. That, to, to express an object (always with an imperfect sub- 
junctive)$ : as, 

* Observe that the full translation of uero after ut or ubi is not given 
until the apodosis as it is called of the sentence. To understand the force 
of uero in this passage, it should be known that the Roman troops had 
come out of their camp without sufficient clothing, without breakfast, in 
a winter-day amid snow and wind 

f Vt is in origin only another form of quod. The difference in form 
is explained by the several changes which have occurred in illud and illut, 
in quoins and cuius, in cubi and ubi. 

J See 1179. 

VERO. VT. 411 

Ab Sratro abduxerunt cincinnatum, ut dictator esset (Cic. de 
Fin. ii. 4. 12), they took Cincinnatus from the plough, that he 
might be dictator. 

Sed (iit Sd ea quae coniunctiora rebus tuis sunt rguortar) (Cic. 
ad Fam. i. 8. 5), but (to return to what is more closely con- 
nected with your affairs*}. 

Vt te omnes di deaeque perduint (Ter. Haut. iv. 6. 6), oh that 
all the gods and goddesses would destroy thee ! 

Hos l&bores timeo ut sustineas (Cic. ad Fam. xiv. 2. 3), these 
labours I am afraid you will not support. 

b. That, so that, to, so as to, to express a result (always with a 
subjunctive)! : as, 

Sol ecftcit ut omnia floreant (Cic. N. D. n. 15.41), the sun 

causes every thing to blossom. 
Sicilian! it& uexauit iit ea restitui in anticum statura nullo 

mSdo possit (Cic. i. Verr. 4. 12), he has harassed Sicily to 

such a degree that it cannot by any means be restored to its 

former condition. 

c. That, in the sense of granting that, even allowing that, al- 
thoughl, in which case it commonly begins the sentence (still with 
a subjunctive) : as, 

S8d iit fugris dignior, non competitor in culpast (Cic. p. Plane. 

4. 10), but even allowing you were the more worthy of the two, 

it is not your competitor who is in fault. 
Verum iit hoc non sit, praeclarum spectaculum mini propono 

(Cic. ad Att. 11. 15. 2), but even supposing this is not so, I 

promise myself a glorious sight. 

d. That, to think that, the idea of / in elliptical phrases of 

indignation or ridicule : as, 

Paigr iit obesse Mid debeat ! (Cic. p. Plane. 13. 31), the idea of 
a father being bound to damage his son ! 

e. In explanation of some preceding word, namely (still with a 
subjunctive) : as, 

Quod ipsi diebus uiginti aegerrime confecSrant, ut flumen 
transirent, ille uno die fecerat (Caes. B. G. i. 13), what they 
themselves had completed with the greatest difficulty in twenty 

* See 1227 g. f See 1182, 1187. 

J See 1227 b. See 1227 e. 

412 SYNTAX. 

days, namely the passage of the river, the other had done in a 
single day, 

f. How (with an indicative in direct, a subjunctive commonly 
in indirect sentences) : as, 

Vt uales ? (Plant. Most. in. 2. 29) how do you do ? 
Audisti ut me circumsteterint (Cic. ad Att. i. 16. 4), you heard 
how they planted themselves round me. 

g. As, to express similarity, often with sic or Ita so to corre- 
spond with it. An indicative is required in this and all the fol- 
lowing constructions. Thus, 

ItS, est, ut scrlbls* (Cic. ad Att. vn. 8. 1), it is as you say. 

IpsS rex, sic ut sompno excittis Srat, semlnudus fuglt (Liv. 
xxiv. 40), the king himself, just as he was when roused from 
sleep, with but half his clothes on, runs of. 

H5mo tit 6rat f uriosus respondit (Cic. p. Rose. Am. 12. 33), the 
fellow with his usual madness replied. 

Illi, ut est homlnum genus suspiciosum, hoc arbltrantur (Cic. 
in Caecil. 9. 28), those (Sicilians}, with that readiness to sus- 
pect which characterises their nation, hold this opinion. 

h. As, to judge from what . Thus, 

Vt stam rem uideo, stiusf obsaturabere (Ter. Haut. iv. 8. 29), 
to judge from what I see of tfiat business of yours, you will 
have your fill of it. 

i. As was to be expected . Thus, 

Vt ab irato uictorg (Liv. xxi. 12), as might be expected from an 

angry conqueror. 

j. As, so far as is possible, making allowance for (in ellip- 
tical phrases, no verb following the conjunction!}:). Thus, 

Multum ut temporlbiis illis ualuit dicendo (Cic. Brut. 7. 27), 

he had great power in oratory, making allowance for those 

Non nihll ut in tantis malls est profectum (Cic. ad Fam. xn; 

* Literally * write,' the extract being from a letter in answer to one 
from Atticus. 

f See 288, note. 

J Some such phrase as fieri potest understood. This construction 
must be carefully distinguished from another elliptical use of ut with^m 
solet understood, ' as naturally happens.' See Heindorf ad Hor. Sat. i. 

VT. 413 

2. 2), some progress has been made, considering the very bad 
state of affairs. 

k. To express contrast, rather than similarity, when the ut and 
Ita may be translated by though, yet. Thus, 

Vt 15cus procul muro satis aecus agendis ulneis fuit, Xta haud- 
quaquam prospere, postquam d effcctum operis uentumst, 
coeptis succedebat (Liv. xxi. 7), although the ground at a 
distance from the wall was sufficiently level for bringing up 
the vinece, yet when they came to the actual employment of 
them, no success whatever attended their efforts. 
L As applied to time, ut commonly signifies immediate succes- 
sion, the instant that, and is most frequently followed by the aorist 
of the indicative : as, 

FugS s&tellitum, ut iacentem uidere regem, factast (Liv. xxiv. 
7), a flight among the guards took place the moment they saw 
the king lying on the ground. 

m. It is also used to denote the point from which a period of 
time commences, but with the same notion of immediate succes- 
sion, from the very moment that : as, 

Vt catllina erupit ex urbS, semper ulgllaul (Cic. in Cat. m. 
1.3), from the very moment that Catiline sallied from Rome, 
I have ever been on the watch. 

Vt ab urbe discessi, nullum Sdhuc internals! diem, quin 511- 
quld ad te" litte'rarum darem (Cic. ad Att. vii. 15), from the 
time of my leaving the city, I have never yet allowed a single 
day to pass, without sending you something in the way of a 

Vt prlmum forum attlgi, spectaul sempe'r ut tlbi possem quam 
maxume essS coniuuctus (Cic. ad Fam. v. 8. 3), from my 
first setting foot in the forum to the present hour I have ever 
made it an object to be as closely as possible united with you.* 


In the simplest form of sentence, viz. one which denotes an 
action, the common order is the nominative, the accusative, the 

* Other examples are : ut semel emigrauimus (Plant. Most. u. 2. 39), 
uxorem ut duxit (Ter. Hec. v. 1.25), ut uenit (//or. Sat. n. 2.128), ut 
tetigi (Ov. Trist. in. 8. 27), ut fluxit (Hor. Epod. 7. 19), ut equitauit 
(//or. Od. iv. 4. 42). 

414 SYNTAX. 

verb ; i. e. first the quarter whence the action proceeds, then the 
direction of that action, lastly the action itself. Any words be- 
longing to the nominative and accusative commonly follow them, 
while those belonging to the verb commonly precede it. The lat- 
ter consist of adverbs or adverbial phrases which express the time, 
manner, means, and generally the attending circumstances. 

1459 But as the grammatical connection between Latin words is 
expressed in the terminations of those words, a greater freedom 
of position is admissible than would be practicable without am- 
biguity in English. Hence the words of a Latin sentence are 
commonly placed with a view to marking their relative import- 
ance and emphasis, * and on this principle must the arrangement 
of the Latin sentence be studied. 

1460 The most conspicuous place in a sentence or clause of a sen- 
tence is the first. Hence this place is allotted to an emphatic 
word. Thus, Caesar's Gallic war properly begins with the word 
Gallia. Again, in the seventh chapter there occurs a sentence 
beginning with Caesar^ because the preceding paragraph spoke 
only of what the other party, the Helvetii, were doing. Hence a 
sentence thus beginning with the nominative of a proper name 
should have some such words as on the other hand, meanwhile, &c. 
inserted after the nominative, to give it a sufficient prominence in 

1461 A still greater emphasis is given to other words t when placed 
at the commencement of a sentence, because the very inversion of 
the ordinary order draws the greater attention to them : as, 

Susceptum cum saguntmis bellum, habendum cum romanis 
est (Liv. xxi. 10), we began the war with Saguntum, we must 
conduct it against Rome. 

* Emphasis always implies an opposition to some other word ex- 
pressed or understood ; and the student would do well in each case to ask 
himself what the opposed word or notion is. 

t See also the sentences beginning with Dumnorix^ c. 9 ; Heluetii, 
c. 11 ; Caesar, c. 18; or Liv. xxi. c. 3, Hanno ; c. 5, Hannibal; c. 7, Han- 
nibal ; c. \\iSaguntini. 

% Seethe examples in interrogative sentences, 1417. See also the 
position of the verb in cases of concession, 1156, 1227 6, and in hypo- 
thetical conditions, 1219 ; also 1436 b, third example. 

Still susceptum in the Latin is only a participle ; but the English 
translation would lose its force if the sentence began with ' the war.' 


1462 The word est*, commonly the most unimportant word in a sen- 
tence, acquires a strong accent when placed first in a sentence or 
clause (see 1080, 1st example ; 997, 3d example) ; but est and 
grat are also found in the first place when a formal narrative or 
description commencest : as, 

Erant In ea legioue fortissiml uM centiiriones qui &c. (Caes. 
B. G. v. 44), now there happened to be in that legion two very 
brave officers, with the rank of centurions, who <&c.% 

Est in secessu longo ISciis <fec. ( Virg. A. i. 163), there is in a 
deep recess a place &c. 

1463 Relatives, interrogatives, and conjunctions naturally occupy the 
first place in their several clauses. If they give up this place to 
another word, the strangeness of the transposition gives unusual 
emphasis to the word thus occupying the first place : as, 

Nos tua progenies, caeli quibus adnuis arcem (Virg. A. i. 

25411), we, thine own progeny, to whom thou promisest the 

height of heaven. 
Adeon rem redissS, patrem ut extimescam (Ter. Ph. 1. 3. 1), to 

think that matters should be come to this, that a father should 

be the object of my dread ! 
Posthac si quidquam, nil precor (Ter. Ph. 1. 2. 92), if aught 

occur hereafter, 1 offer no prayer (for him). 
Ego illlus ferre possum magnified uerba, Verba dum sunt (Ter. 

E. iv. 6. 3), / can bear that fellow's grand words, so long as 

they are mere words. 

* Thus in Greek, <m, generally an enclitic, has an accent when it 
commences a sentence. 

t The monosyllabic verbs dat,fit, it, seem at times to occupy the first 
place when not emphatic. Possibly their very brevity is a reason for 
giving them this advantage, lest they be wholly overlooked. See a parallel 
case in 1469, note . 

See also i. 6, Erant; m. 12, Erant &c. ; v. 6, Erat ; v. 25, Erat 
&c.; vi. 38, Erat. See also Virg. A. n. 21. 

This doctrine of emphasis growing out of a strange position is well 
exemplified in the heroic verse. The most natural place for a sentence 
to begin is at the beginning of a verse. But there occur passages where 
a sentence begins in the sixth foot ; and in such cases the isolated word 
is always specially emphatic in good writers. See Bentley ad Lucan. I. 
231, and Journal of Education, iv. 356. Perhaps too, when a sentence 
terminates with a word in the first foot of a line, that equally isolated 
word should be one of importance. 

|| Compare also v. 1, Troiae qui &c.; 392, Tyridm qui &c.; and in. 
658, ingens cui &c. 



1464 It snould be recollected that there are many actual pauses in 
a sentence where the printer inserts not even a comma. The 
word which follows such a pause must, for the purposes of em- 
phasis, be considered a commencing word*. 

1465 It must be recollected too that many little words, as ut, si, et, 
nee, sed, ne", nonf, an, quaint, and the prepositions, are at times 

t proclitics, that is, pronounced with the word which follows them, 
so that they must not be deemed to be first words to the exclusion 
of the following word. See Addenda. 

1463 The last place in a sentence is often an emphatic one : as, 

Qui honos post condltam hanc urbem h&bltust togato ante me 
nemlnl (Cic. Phil. u. 6.13), an honour which since the foun- 
dation of this city was never paid to any one wearing a toga 
before me. 
Aliud Iter h&bgbant iiullum (Caes. B. G. i. 7), other road they 

had none. 

Apud heluetios longe dltisslmus fuit orgetSrix (Caes. B. G. i. 
2), among the Helvetii by far the richest man was Orgetorix. 
Nam ex his praediis talenta argenti bina Capie"bat statim (Ter. 
Ph. v. 3. 6), for from these farms he received two talents of 
silver every year invariably. 

Anlmos uestros temptabunt semper, uires non expgrientur 
(Liv. iv. 5), your courage and your feelings they will attempt 
to master, aye without intermission ; of your actual strength 
they will make no trial. 

1 467 It has been stated that the ordinary place of a verb is at the 
end, and that it is emphatic at the beginning of a sentence. When 
placed elsewhere it has the power of making the preceding word 
or words emphatic || : as, 

* Thus in the ordinary hexameter there is frequently a pause after 
the first two feet and a half, which is followed by an emphatic word: as 
in Virg. Buc. x. 73, 

Gdllo, ciiius amor 
Qudntum nere nouo 

tantum mihi crescit in horas, 
uiridis se subicit dlnus ; 

where uiridis means ' with the sap flowing freely,' not ' green.' 

t See 1404.1. 

J In the Mss. these little words are very often, if not generally, written 
in immediate connection with the following word. 

See 28. 

II The reason of this appears to be, that the predicate of a sentence is 


SSguntum uestrl circumsldent exercltus : mox karthaptnem 
circuinsldebunt romanae ISgiones (Liv. xxi. 10), Saguntum 
is besieged by your armies : ere long Carthage will be besieged 
by the legions of Rome. 

Vtlnam pro de'core' tantum et non pro salute esset certamgn 
(Liv. xxi. 41), oh that the struggle had been one for glory 
only and not for existence. 

Vt seruemlnl dest* uobis Animus ? Quid, si moriendum pro 
patria esset, faceretls ? (Liv. xxn. 60) when the object is to 
save yourselves, does your courage run low ? What then would 
you have done, if you had had to die for your country ? 
Prius semprouio per ciuium agmen quam per hostiumt fuit 
erumpendum (Liv. xxn. 60), Sempronius had to force a 
passage through the ranks of his own countrymen before he 
forced one through those of the enemy. 

A68 Sometimes the word thus placed before the verb is not itself 
so emphatic as the word with which it is intimately connected, 
and which then stands at the end of the sentence : as, 

Geta, Prouinciam cepisti duram (Ter. Ph. i. 2.22), oh Geta, 
the duty you undertook was a hard one. 

Maecenas ftt&uls editg reglbus (Hor. Od. i. 1. 1), 
Mcecenas sprung of royal line. 

1469 An adjective^ or dependent genitive, if emphatic, commonly 
precedes its substantive ; whereas when not emphatic, it com- 
monly folio ws. Thus, 

Saepe et contempttis hostis cruentum certame'n edldit, 8t in- 
clitl p5pull regesque perleul momento uictl sunt (Liv. xxi. 

commonly the more emphatic part, and that the verb is commonly the 
chief part of the predicate. Observe too that a participle in its own clause 
has the same influence. 

* So generally in Mss., not deest. 

f The comma usually inserted after hostium is inadmissible, as the 
fuit should be pronounced almost as though it were attached to it like an 

J In the phrase tuom officium facere to do your duty,' it would at 
first seem that tuom has no title to the emphatic position which it com- 
monly, though not always occupies in this phrase ; but the answer is, that 
officium (=opificium) originally meant not ' duty,' but * work,' so that the 
phrase literally translated is, ' to do your own work, not another person's.' 

When a substantive is very short compared to its adjective, the 
former commonly precedes, as aes alienum, res familiaris. 

E E 

418 SY.N'TAX. 

43), if a despised foe has often maintained a bloody contest, 
not less often have renowned states and monarchs been con- 
quered by tlie slightest blow. 

Pulchrum erit campanl, romasum imperium uestra fide, ues- 
tris ulrlbus retentum esse (Liv. xxm. 5), it will be a proud 
reflection, men of Capua, that the empire of Rome herself was 
saved from falling by your fidelity, by your power. 

1470 A still stronger emphasis belongs to the adjective or dependent 
genitive when it throws* as it were its substantive to the end of 
the sentencet : as, 

Be quo quum disputarem, tuam mihi dan uellern cotta elo- 

quentiam (Cic. N. D. n. 59. 147), in discussing which I 

should have wished your eloquence, Cotta, to have been given 

to me. 
Hoc tlbi iuuentus romana indicimus bellum (Liv. n. 12), such 

the war which we, the youth of Rome, declare against you. 
Bonds me absente hie confecistis nuptias (Ter. Ph. n. 1.28), a 

pretty marriage you have knocked up here in my absence. 
E qulbus unus auet quauls aspergere cunctos, Praeter eum qul 

praebSt, aqua (Nor. Sat. i. 4. 87), one of whom delights to 

sprinkle with any (the dirtiest} water all save him who acts 

Nee cum huiusmodi usus uenit tit conflictar6s malo (Ter. Ph. 

in. 3.21), and have never been called upon to struggle with a 

misery of this kind. 
Nam per eius unam, ut audio, aut uiuam aut moriar senten- 

tiam (Ter. Ph. in. 1. 10), for on his one vote it depends, I 

hear, whether I am to live or die. 

1470. 1 And generally any qualifying word may in this way be sepa- 
rated from the word qualified : as, 

ltd patrem adolescentis facta haec tolerare audio uiolenter 

(Ter. Ph. v. 1.4), so very furiously is the young maris father 

off ended I hear with these proceedings. 

* This wide separation of the adjective and substantive would cause 
confusion, but that the great emphasis of the adjective causes it still to 
be ringing in the ear when we come to the substantive. 

f Compare in the first book of the Aeneid, v. 647, patrius amor, rapi- 
dum Achaten ; v. 661, noua consilia ; v. 673, nostro dolore ; v. 675, luno- 
nia hospitia ; v. 679, magno amore ; v. 680, nostrum mentem ; v. 688, 
notos uoltus. 


1471 The demonstrative pronouns, and the logical pronoun i- or eo-, 
commonly occupying the place before the substantive, appear to 
acquire a special emphasis when placed after it : as, 

Te appl tuumquS c&put sanguine hoc consecro (Liv. in. 48), 
thee Appius, and thy head with this blood 1 devote. 

1471. 1 Numerals are often placed at the end of a sentence or clause.* 
Gallia est omnis diuisa in partis trls (Caes. B. G. I. 1), Gallia 
as a whole is divided into three parts. 

1472 Nouns in apposition and the genitive commonly follow the 
substantive to which they belong, and therefore have an emphasis 
when prefixed to the substantive : as, 

Vn! consull serullio ius fuit dlcendl dictatorfs (Liv. xxn. 31), 
to Servilius alone, as consul, belonged the power to name a 

Sed Ita forsitan dScuit cum foedgrum ruptorg duce ac ptfpulo 
deos ipsos committe're ac profligarS bellum, nos qul sScuu 
dum deos uiolati sumus, commissum ac profligatum conft- 
cSre (Liv. xxi. 40), but perhaps it was fitting that, with a 
general and a people who habitually violate treaties, the gods 
themselves should commence the war and break the neck of it\, 
and that we who next to the gods have been injured should then 
come in and finish it. 

F&bius potens uir, quum inter su! corporls h5mines, turn etiam 
ad plebem (Liv. vi. 34), Fabius, a man of influence not 
merely among the men of his own body% 9 but also with the 

1473 As an emphatic word demands a large share of the attention, 
it tends to prevent the mind from dwelling on the word or words 
which follow. Hence as the first place in a sentence or clause is 
allotted to emphatic words, so the second place is adapted to un- 
important words, which are inserted here although unconnected 
with the adjoining words : as, 

* A habit borrowed probably from the form of accounts, where the 
numbers are placed at the end of the lines in a vertical column for the 
convenience of addition. 

f Literally * to give the knock-down blow which ail-but finishes.' 
J t. e. class or order. 

Such words should be read most faintly, so as not to attract atten- 

420 SYNTAX. 

laiiua se ac parietibus texit (Cic. p. Mil. 7. 18), he protected 
himself behind the gate and the walls of his house. 

An huius ille legis mentionem facere ausus esset ? (Cic. p. 
3 HI. 12. 33) or wow& he have dared to make mention of this 

Hunc illi e naui egressum comprehendgrant atque in uinciila 
coniecSrant (Caes. B. G. iv. 27), this man had no sooner dis- 
embarked than they had seized him and thrown him into 

Magnus Ibi numerus pecoYis repertus est (Caes. B. G. V. 21), a 
great number of sheep was found there. 

Maguara haec res caesarl diflftcultatem adferebat (Caes. B. G. 
viz. 10),. TIO little difficulty did this occasion to Ccesar. 

Rgsistes autera si satis firmus steteris, si te neque collegae uanS, 
gloriS, nequg tua falsa infamia mouerit (Liv. xxn. 39), and 
resist him you will, if you stand firm enough, if nor your 
colleague's empty glory, nor your own ill-founded disgrace 
affect you. 

Vno die intermisso galli, atque hoc spS-tio magno cratium uu- 
mero effecto, media uocte ad muultioues accedunt (Caes. 
B. G. vn. 81), having allowed one day to pass (without any 
attack), and having in this interval made up a great quantity 
of hurdles, at midnight the Gauls quietly advance to the lines* 

Quos sibi caesarf oblatos gauisus rethieri iussit (Caes. B. G. 
iv. 13), delighted that these men should be thrown in his way, 
Ccesar ordered them to be detained^. 

1474 It is because of their enclitic character^ that autem, quidem, 
qu5qug, <fec. never occupy the first place in a clause or sentence. 
Igitur, euim, uero, are occasionally found at the beginning, and 

* Manv editors would place a comma before Galli* thus giving it an 
importance it does not deserve. It is in fact a sort of enclitic, and should 
appear in the English translation in the least prominent place. Similarly 
a comma should follow, not precede the word Caesar or Galba in the first 
line of the following chapters, B. G. II. 2, n. 7; in. 3, in. 28; iv. 6, 
iv. 13, iv. 20; v. 7, v. 11. 

f Here both sibi and Caesar have the nature of enclitics. 

J For the enclitical position of a word which refers equally to two 
words or to two clauses, see 1438 b and e. 

The vocative when in the first place is of course emphatic. Other- 
wise it is commonly an enclitic, and should be thrown in after an em- 
phatic word. 


then have more importance than when they occupy their more 
ordinary place after the first word. 

1475 In short* sentences, words which are opposed to one another 
are either brought close together, or placed as far apart as possible, 
in the latter case occupying the two emphatic positions of first 
and last. 

Hostls hostem occldere uolui (Liv. n. 12), / wished to slay the 

enemy of my country. 
Hospes uecauit hospitem (Plant. Most. n. 2. 48), he strangled 

one who was his own guest. 
Cum h&nc sibi uidebit praesens praesentem eripi (Ter. Ad. iv. 

5. 34), when he shall see her torn from him before his very face. 
Ratio nostrS, consentit, pugnat oratio (Cic. de Fin. in. 3. 10), 

our principles agree, our language is at 'variance. 
Nee ad mortem minus anlmi est, quam fuit ad caedem (Liv. 

n. 12), nor have I less courage to die myself, than I had but 

now to slay another. 
Mihi magis litterae sunt exspectandae a te, quam a me tibi 

(Cic. ad Pam. ix. 10), I have a better right to expect a letter 

from you, than you/rom me. 

1476 When two clauses opposed to one another contain the same 
word in different cases or tenses, that common word usually pre- 
cedes the words opposed. 

Si cluis uester, siciit ad pacem p&endam uenit, It, pacis condl- 
cidnes rettiilisset, superuacaneum hoc mihi fuisset ItSr (Liv. 
xxi. 13), if your countryman, who came to ask for peace, had 
in the same patriotic spirit reported the terms of that peace, 
this visit would have been superfluous for me. 

Vince're scis, uictoria utl nescls (Liv. xxn. 51), how to gain a 
victory, you know ; how to use a victory, you do not know. 

Non solum cal&mltate', sed 6tiam calamltatis formldmg llbgra- 
tos (Cic. p. 1. Man 6. 16), relieved not merely from ruin, but 
also from the fear of ruin. 

Et fS-ce pro thalaml fax mihi mortis Sdest (Ov. Her. 21. 172), 
and in lieu of the marriage-torch the torch of death awaits me. 

* See i486 b note, and 1437. 



As the very phrase * crude form' is yet strange to the ears of most 
scholars, it may be useful to explain what is meant by it ; to es- 
tablish the truth of the new system ; and to show the practical 
advantages which it offers even for elementary instruction. 

In the first place, it may be noted, if only to conciliate the 
attention of readers, that upon the system of crude forms every 
Sanskrit grammar is constructed. 

' ' Inflection'', says Professor Wilson ( 48 of his Grammar, 2d 
ed.), " whether of declension or conjugation, is contrived by the 
Sanskrit grammarians on the same principle. It consists of two 
parts : 1, the anga, ' body,' or inflective base, that is the word 
itself; and 2, of certain particles, which, being attached to the 
base, complete the inflected word". He goes on to say, at the 
latter part of 51, " there is but one general declension in Sans- 
krit grammar" ; and though it is convenient to divide nouns into 
classes, yet even then, he adds, "no arrangement admits of more 
ready reference than that which classes them according to their 
final letters." 

Again, in 167, he founds the system of conjugation on the 
dhatu, or ' crude verb ;' observing also, in 171, that " the verb 
in its inflected form is composed of two elements : 1, the anga, or 
( base,' the modified verb to which the inflections are subjoined ; 
and 2, certain letters or syllables which constitute the inflectional 
terminations, and are subjoined to the base. " 

The exhibition of the Greekf and Latin languages upon the 

* Chiefly reprinted from the English Journal of Education (Bell), 
New Series, Nos. 48 and 50 (Dec. 1850 and Feb. 1851). 

f See the Elements of Greek Grammar by J oseph G. Greenwood, Esq., 
now Principal of Owen's College, Manchester. 


crude-form system is in perfect accordance with the passages we 
here quote from Professor Wilson's Grammar, and with the remarks 
of Bopp in his Vergleichende Grammatik, 112, <fec. 

The first proposal in print to apply the principle to the analysis 
of the classical languages was made by the present writer in a re- 
view of Zumpt's Latin Grammar in the first Number of the Journal 
uf Education, published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge in 1830 (pp. 98-100 and 105). The system had been 
previously expounded in the classical lecture-rooms of the Univer- 
sity of London (now University College).* 

In endeavouring to give a more distinct exposition of the sys- 
tem of crude forms, we shall, for the sake of brevity, for the most 
part limit our observations to the Latin language. 

In the ordinary grammars it is the practice to start from the 
nominative of a noun, and from the infinitive or first person of 
the present indicative of a verb. Now the nominative of a noun 
is something more than the naked word, as it also expresses a 
certain relation to the sentence. So again, the first person of a 
verb includes in its termination a representative of the pronoun 
' I'. The infinitive mood in like manner presents to us a suffix, 
by means of which the notion of the verb is expressed in the form 
of an abstract substantive. Thus, in every one of these three 
cases we have some foreign matter, so to say, added to the pure 

Now the principle of the crude-form system is to get rid of 
this foreign matter, and thus to exhibit the simplest form of a 
word, or, as Bopp expresses it, die Grundform, die nackte Wort- 
ffestalt. But it would be thought a false step to introduce that 
which, though in a certain sense more true and more philosophical, 
would involve a complicated process of analysis. To such an ob- 
jection the supporters of the crude-form system answer, that their 
principles are not only true, but at the same time are recommended 
by extreme simplicity. Thus they affirm, with Professor Wilson, 
that on the crude-form system there is at bottom but one declen- 
sion and but one conjugation ; and if for some purposes it is still 

* In the year 1836 was published the Bromsgrove Latin Grammar 
by the Rev. G. A. Jacob, M.A. (late Scholar and Tutor of Worcester 
College, Oxford) ; which is drawn-up in a great measure, but far from 
uniformly, upon the crude-form system. Mr. Jacob subsequently pub- 
lished a Greek Grammar upon the same plan. 


convenient to divide nouns and verbs into classes, these classes 
depend upon one simple and unvarying rule, viz. the character- 
istic or last letter. 

But examples will best explain what is meant. In the fourth 
declension, that of gradus for example, the same letters down to 
the vowel u inclusive, appear in every case both of the singular 
and plural, except in the dative and ablative of the latter, and the 
doubt which this one exception might suggest is removed by the 
occurrence of such forms as verubus, acubus. From the fact of the 
rive letters gradu being thus common to all the inflected forms, it 
becomes to some extent probable that the several ideas of number 
and case are distinguished by the letters which follow gradu. Si- 
milarly in the fifth declension, dies for example, the three letters 
die, being constant, tend to a similar conclusion. In the third 
declension, nouns such as turris, auis, differ much in several of 
the case-endings from rex, homo, aestas. The former exhibit an i 
in nearly every case ; for we have turrim in the ace. singular, and 
turrls, auls y as well as turres, aues in the ace. plural ; turri, aui, 
as well as turre, aue in the abl. sing. Nay, even a plural, nom. 
such as turrls is well established as an archaic variety. Thus an i 
presents itself in every case of both numbers. On the other hand, 
we never meet with an ace. regim, nor with such plural cases as 
regls or regium. Under these circumstances there are strong rea- 
sons for separating the consideration of such words as rex from 
those nouns which have a nominative in is. Looking then, in 
the first instance, to turris as an example of a class, we find turri 
in every case. To proceed : in the nouns of the first declension, 
as musa, an a is traceable through every case of both numbers, if 
we include in our view such datives as equabus, duabus, ambabus, 
and the Greek forms p.ov<rais, &c. 

In the nouns so far discussed, the parts common to every case 
are gradu, die, turri, musa ; and so we have come across classes 
which end in four out of the five Latin vowels. There remains 
one declension, the second, and one vowel, viz. o. Now the nouns 
of this declension exhibit the vowel in question in the dat. and 
abl. of the singular, in the gen. and ace. of the plural, as domino, 
dominorum* domino*. The corresponding Greek declension helps 
us out in many of the other cases, as SouXoy, SovXoio or SovXov. 
SnvXov, bovXot, SovXois. But we need not depend on the Greek 
alone. Cicero also wrote seruos, seruom t rather than seruus, ser 


uum; and so in all words where the ordinary ending of these cases 
would give us the combination -uus, -uum. Again, Cicero's geni- 
tive of qui was quo-ius, not cuius. So also we may fairly assume 
that nullius with its long i is a contraction of nullo-ins, a genitive 
which bears a marked affinity in its termination to the Homeric 
genitive Aoyoto. We may the more safely assume that nullius is 
only a reduced form of nulloius, because a long i in Latin often 
corresponds to the diphthong ot of the Greek, as in domini (nom. 
pi.), dominis, compared in respect of ending to SouAoi, SovXoty. 
In the nom. pi. Terence wrote Adelphoe ; and oloe is said to have 
been used as an archaic form for the nom. illi. At any rate, as 
regards the abl. pi. Festus says : ' aboloes dicebant pro ab illis.' 
Thus the sing, vocative alone in this declension presents any diffi- 
culty. But the change to a short e is seen even in the iiom., as 
in Me, iste, ipse ; and that the last of these grew out of an old 
ipsos is pretty well established by the fact that the old writers 
give us a nom. ipsus. In truth, it is nearly a law of the Latin 
and other languages, that any short final vowel is soon reduced to 
a short e. Thus magis, scriberis, aetatis*, scripserunt, when de- 
prived of the final consonants, become at once mage, scribere, aetate, 
scripsere. Add to this, that a vowel o is wholly unknown to ihe 
terminations of the other declensions. From all these facts it is 
inferred that in the second declension the part essential to the 
noun, as opposed to case-endings, terminates in the vowel o. 

But we have passed over that portion of the third declension 
which differs in the mode of forming the cases from turris. Ex- 
amples of such nouns are, if we define them by their nominatives, 
rex, nux, lapis, paries, uirtus, aetas, pater, consul, hiemps, ratio, 
homo, puluis, <fec. Upon any grammatical system such words pre- 
sent anomalies in the nominative case. In the other, or so-called 
oblique cases, the difficulties are few ; and it will be found that 
the essential part of these words ends in a consonant, viz. reg- t 
nuc-, laptd-, pariet-, uirtut-, aetat-, hiem- ; and again, pater-, con- 
sul-, ration-, homon-, pulufa-. The modification or loss of the final 
consonant which ensues in the first seven of these nouns on the 
addition of an s to form the nominative, is nearly parallel to what 
happens in the formation of the perfect tenses, rexi, duxi, diuisi, 
misi, sumpsi; and this was to be expected, as the same consonants 

* See Grammar, 909 note. 


are brought into juxtaposition. As regards puluis, cucumis and 
cinis, the final s of the nominatives in reality performs a double 
office. In other words, puluiss would have been theoretically a 
more correct form ; and hence it is that the last syllable of this 
nominative is at times found long, as in Virg. Aen. i. 478, et uersa 
pululs inscribitur hasta. That the base of puluis must put in a 
claim to an s, is proved by the diminutive puluiscvlus as compared 
with nauicula, canicuta^fraterciilus. The oblique cases puluerem, 
pulueris, &c. confirm this, for the syllable er in these words repre- 
sents the is of the base, just as er in scripserunt corresponds to the 
middle syllable is of scripsistis, and the er of the reflective or pas- 
sive scrib&r-is to the is of the simple verb scribis. The change of 
s between vowels into r is familiar to every Latin scholar. It 
must also be admitted, on consideration, that while i is the vowel 
which the idiom of the language prefers before s, a short e is all 
but required before r. 

The absolute disappearance of the final s in the nominatives 
pater, consul, ratio, homo, and the loss in addition of a liquid from 
the end of the last pair of words, will need a fuller discussion, and 
shall be considered presently. 

Thus far we have dealt only with the declension of nouns. As 
regards the verbs, the question is exceedingly simple. No one 
will have any difficulty in assigning ama, mone, reg, and audi, as 
the essential elements in the conjugation of the verbs ama-re, 
mone-re, reg-ere, and audi-re. The only parts of the verb amare 
which fail to exhibit an a after the m are the first person amo of 
the indicative present, and the whole of the present subjunctive, 
amem, <fec. But a contraction of ama-o into amo would be per- 
fectly parallel to what is seen in the Greek grammar in rijuaco, 
7 IPO) ; and the compression of ama-am, ama-as, ama-at, <fec. (which 
the analogy of scrib-am t scrib-as, scrib-at, &c. would have led us to 
expect) into amem, ames, amet, &c. is a matter of no extraordinary 
character, considering the intimate connection between a long 
vowel e and the simple a. A Greek scholar is of course familiar 
with this fact ; and in the Latin perfect eg-i (as compared to the 
present ag-o) we seem to have a word which has been contracted 
from a perfect of reduplication a-ag-i. In the second conjugation 
we should have been able to trace the vowel e throughout all the 
deduced forms, if we had taken for our example any of the verbs 
fle-re t ne-re, de-le-re, or ex-ple-re, for in these the perfect and so- 


called supines still exhibit an e in the base of the word. And even 
among those verbs which commonly form the perfect in -ui, as 
moneo, habeo, &c. , the archaic forms, such as habessit, seern to im- 
ply an old perfect habeui ; for habessit must have been a contrac- 
tion of habeuesitj just as amasso and amassim are admitted to be 
contractions from old forms amaueso and amauesim, which pre- 
ceded amauero and amauerim. Lastly, the conjugation of audi-re 
in no single instance fails to retain the i. 

Thus we reduce the four conjugations to the four heads, of 
verbs in a, in e, in consonants, and in i. The question here sug- 
gests itself, how is it that there are not six conjugations to corre- 
spond to the six declensions ? in other words, what has become of 
the conjugations in o and in u ? To speak first of the verbs in u : 
the class exists, and as examples of it may be taken the verbs 
nu-ere, plu-ere, acu-ere, metu-ere; but the vowel u is rarely subject 
to contraction with a following vowel, so that it was found unne- 
cessary to separate verbs of this class from those which ended in 
a consonant. On the whole however it is perhaps desirable, for 
simplicity's sake, to make a u conjugation; and in fact in the 
third person of the plural of the present indicative these verbs 
have a peculiarity which distinguishes them from such verbs as 
reg-ere, scrib-ere ; we mean that metuunt and sequuntur, though 
supported by the authority of our grammars and ordinary editions, 
are not so legitimate, if manuscripts are to be trusted, as metuont 
and secuntur. Secondly, an advantage is gained by the separation 
of verbs in u from verbs in a consonant, in the complete analogy 
of the perfects col-ui, audi-ui, ne-ui, ama-ui, gno-ui, plu-ui, where 
we have the same suffix added without distinction to a verb end- 
ing in a consonant, and to verbs in all the five vowels, i, 6, a, o, u. 
Pluuit was the only perfect known to Livy ; and the older writers 
generally adopted either the form annuuit, or at least annuit with 
a long u, thus distinguishing the perfect from the present. But 
there still remains a vacancy caused by the non-appearance of a 
class of verbs in o. Such vacancy can only be filled by a wretched 
remnant of a conjugation. The forms gno-ui, gno-tum (noui, no- 
turn), the participles potus and aeqrotus, all point to bases in o, 
viz.gno-ypo-, aegro-. The present of the first exhibits a somewhat 
fuller form in the so-called inceptive gnosc-o. That there was 
once a verb po- ' drink,' is proved by the substantives po-tion-, 
po-culo- (nom. potio, poculum), by the frequentative po-ta-re, and 


by the Greek 7ro>-cra>. TrfTrco-Ka. Again, a verb aegro-o from the ad- 
jective aegero (nom. aeger, aegra, &c.) would be in perfect keeping 
with the Greek verb SovXo-o) from the noun SovXo- (nom. SouAor). 
Unfortunately there was a tendency in the Latin language to force 
all those verbs which are formed from substantives or adjectives 
of the second declension into the first conjugation. Thus from 
the substantives dono-, domino- (nom. donum, dominus), and from 
the adjectives misero-, denso- (nom. miser, densvss), were deduced 
the verbs dona-re, domina-ri, misera-ri, densa-re. The readiness 
which exists in the Latin language to interchange the vowels a 
and o is well seen in ignora-re, from an adjective ignaro- (nom. 
ignarus), while the simple adjective gnaro- (nom. gnarus) is de- 
duced from the verb gno- (gnosco or nosco). 

The application of the crude-form system to verbs was virtually 
adopted in the Latin grammar which was used in the Charter- 
House during the headship of the Rev. Dr. Russell, as the three 
conjugations of amare, monere and audire were treated as contract 
verbs, amao amo, amais amas, amait amat, <fec. It has at times 
been objected to this view, that a contraction of amait to amat 
ought to have led to a long vowel in the last syllable of amat. 
The argument is valid, but yet no way damages the theory, for 
the syllable was originally long, as indeed is seen in the passive 
amatur, monetur, auditur, whereas from reglt comes regttur. It is 
thus that the old writers, as Plautus, Terence, &c. never hesitate 
to treat the third person of a tense as having a final long syllable, 
whenever the corresponding vowel is long in the first and second 
persons of the plural. Examples may be seen in the " Prolego- 
mena" to RitschPs Plautus, p. 182, &c., such as uelU, audiet, fit, 
solet, attinety habet, sit, det, fudt, mauellt, afflictat, eget, desideret, 
It, lubet, though followed in every example he quotes by a word 
with an initial vowel. There are not wanting similar examples in 
Virgil and Horace ; but editors and teachers complacently get over 
the difficulty by attributing the unusual length to the so-called 
principle of caesura, or to poetical license. What therefore at first 
view appeared as a defect in the theory of crude forms, only tends 
to prove the validity of the system. 

In the irregular verbs the system of crude forms has its usual 
superiority. The conjugation for example of the so-called sub- 
stantive verb, in both Greek and Latin, becomes more intelligible, 
and therefore more easy to remember, when attention is paid to 


the form of the base. Sum and /it, when examined by them- 
selves, appear utterly unconnected ; but a light is thrown even 
upon these, and still more decidedly on many other parts of the 
conjugation, when 8s is regarded as the point of departure. Varro, 
for example, tells us that esum, esumus, esunt were the old forms, 
which, losing their initial vowel, became severally sum, sumus, 
sunt. That e<r-/ii* in Greek should be changed to ei/u was to be 
xxpected from the habitual tendency of that language to suppress 
<Ae sibilant. Further, an attention to the crude form $s at once 
explains the so-called adjectives, but really participles, absens, 
praesens, which are but reduced forms of ab-es-ens prae-es-ens. 
Again, the beginner in Greek is somewhat confused at times by 
the similarity in many parts of the verbs fifjn ' I am' and et^t * I 
go'. He will have most of his doubts at once solved by the know- 
ledge that the former has eo-, the latter i, for its base. 

We next proceed to examine the proposition that all the Latin 
declensions in reality belong to one type. In the process of word- 
building the chief difficulty arises from the fact, that if vowels are 
brought together, contraction commonly results ; while if conso- 
nants are placed in juxtaposition, the one or the other is frequently 
modified, so as to harmonise with the other. Hence it follows 
that where the choice presents itself, we should select for our first 
consideration those forms, where, of two syllables brought into 
contact, either the first ends in a consonant and the second begins 
with a vowel, or vice versa, where a vowel at the end of the first 
is followed by a consonant at the beginning of the second. Now 
it so happens that among the suffixes which have the office of 
denoting cases, the majority commence with a vowel. Hence 
the consonant declension for the most part exhibits the cases in 
a fuller and less modified form. Thus to take the accusative, 
Teg-em assigns a whole syllable to the case-ending, whereas in 
turri-m, die-m, musa-m, seruo-m (or seruu-m), gradu-m, a vowel 
has been lost. The same applies to the plural accusatives reg-es, 
turri-s (turres), die-s, musa-s, seruo-s, gradu-s. Similarly in the 
ablatives of the singular, reff-8, turrl (turr8), die, musd, seruo, 
gradu, the first gives us a letter as the representative of the 
case, whereas contraction absorbs this vowel in all the vowel de- 
clensions, yet at the same time leaves a trace of the same termi- 

* The modern Lithuanian, or the language now spoken around Memel 
and Riga, conjugates its substantive verb, esmi, esui, esti, &c. 


nation in the length of the final vowel, as arising from contrac- 

The genitival is of reg-is would lead us to expect from analogy 
turri-isj die-is, musa-is, seruo-is, gradu-is, not one of which occurs. 
This fact at first sight appears somewhat fatal to the theory \ but 
a closer inspection will remove much of the difficulty, and the 
satisfactory removal of a difficulty ought to be held a strong con- 
firmation of a theory. Now the forms gru-is, su-is, anu-is (the 
last in Terence) really exhibit what is demanded ; and the long u 
in gradus gen. has always been held to be the result of contrac- 
tion from graduis. Secondly, in the first and fifth declensions 
the older language has at least two forms, musai and musas (as 
in pater-familias, to say nothing of the Greek gen. <ro(j)ias), diei, 
dies and die. Now it is evident that all these varieties would 
grow out of musa-is and die-is. By the loss of the s we obtain 
musai and diei, and then by an ordinary contraction musae and 
die; while the absorption of the i in musais and dieis gives us 
musas and dies. In the second declension, although seruo-is is 
unknown, yet in nullius, or rather nutto-ius, we get even more 
than the suffix wished for ; and a termination us harmonises better 
with the Greek genitival suffix os than the ordinary Latin suffix is. 
Thus in the celebrated Baccanaliau inscription we find senatu-os 
for the genitive of senatu-. 

But there still remain the genitives auis, turns, which refuse 
even in their quantity to justify the theory of a previously exist- 
ing aui-is or turri-is. The explanation probably is this : the Latin 
language had some twenty verbs which blended together the third 
and fourth conjugations, as facio, iacio, orior, gradior, which in 
the first person singular and third plural follow the analogy of the 
fourth, but in the other persons that of the third conjugation. 
Nay, as we look further and further back into the language, we 
find such forms as parirs for parere, morimur for morimur, euenat 
for eueniat, &c. Similarly in the declensions they seem at times 
to have had double forms, one ending in a consonant, one in the 
vowel i. Thus by the side of naui- ' a ship' we may assume a 
shorter form nau- : compare the Greek vav-s. Thus nau-is would 
be a legitimate genitive, and nau-fragus, nauta need not be deemed 
contractions from naui-fragus, naui-ta. So au in auceps, auspex, 
may have been an original base, signifying 'bird,' from which the 
gen. au-is with a short i is regularly formed, In fact, we have 


probably in this tendency to double forms the explanation of the 
confusion by which the Romans themselves were led to force the 
nouns ending in a consonant and those ending in a vowel i into a 
common declension.* 

In the genitives plural die-rum, musa-rum, seruo-rum we have 
a common suffix ; while in reg-um, aui-um, gradu-um we only 
miss the r, the addition of which would bring them into perfect 
agreement with the preceding trio. Now this r really represents 
the s which formed the essential part of the genitival suffix in the 
singular, it being a law of the Latin language to change an s into 
r whenever it is thrown between vowels, as in such neuters as 
opus, operis, in the verb esse, eram, ero, <fec. But this s of the 
genitive is itself lost in musai, musae, in semi, in Vlixi, Achilli, 
Cleomeni (for Vlixis, Achillis, Cleomenis), and in diei. Hence 
there is nothing very surprising in the disappearance of its repre- 
sentative r in the plural. Besides, caelicolum, amphorum, num- 
mum, duum, and even dieum, specieum, are more or less familiar 
contractions for caelicolarum, amphorarum, nummorum, duorum, 
dierum, specierum. Lastly, it is a well-known fact that nucerum, 
bouerum were the old forms of nucum, bourn. And these two 
words by the way justify the theory at which we have hinted 
already, that the plural cases are in reality formed from the sin- 
gular genitive by the addition of a suffix for plurality. Thus nucer 
and bouer, of the two archaic forms nucerum, bouerum, represent 
the singular genitives nucis, bouis, precisely as from the base cinis 
or puluis we have a genitive ciner-is, puluer-is. Thus musarum 
is for musas-um, of which musas is an old genitive singular. In 
the Greek language this s falling between vowels is of course lost 
as usual, and we have povo-aav instead of p,ovcra(r-a>v. Similarly 
theory would give us for the noun yei/ecr- (nom. yevos) a singular 
genitive yevea-os, but in place of this the Greek ear preferred 
yevf-os ; while the Latin has gener-u. 

What we have said of the plural genitive being formed directly 
from the singular genitive has its parallel in the accusative. Thus 
musam, seruom should be considered as the Latin mode of writing 
what would have appeared in Greek as musan and seruon. The 

* Indeed there is strong reason for believing that the final i is in 
origin a diminutival suffix, the special power of which was soon lost. In 
other words the two forms nau- and naui- stood to each other in the same 
relation as our lad and laddie. 


addition of an 5 as the symbol of plurality would have given us 
musans, seruons ; but as n was never pronounced in Latin, any 
more than in Greek, before the consonant s, it was at last omitted 
in writing, and so there arose musds, seruos, but of course with a 
long vowel. In the Cretan dialect of the Greek language such a 
form as 8ov\ovs for the accusative plural was in ordinary use ; but 
the Attic dialect substituted 8ov\ovs, precisely as the nominative 
of O&OVTS became not oSovs but o8ovs. 

The Latin dative reg-i would suggest other datives, auii, did, 
musai, seruoi, gradui. Of these diei and gradui occur in the 
ordinary language ; musai is an archaic variety of musae ; and 
even in the second declension quoi, as we have already observed, ex- 
hibits the desired form. But gradui and diei are often contracted 
into the disyllables gradu and die. Moreover the Greek grammar 
habitually so far suppresses the final i as to make it subscript, 
which seems very like retaining it as an etymological symbol, 
while in pronunciation it was altogether destroyed. Hence seruo 
agrees substantially with 6\>uAa>. Besides, the Latin datives nulli, 
utri, &c. are evidently representatives of nulloi, utroi, as nullius, 
nuUi nom. pi. , nullis, stand for nulloius, nulloi, nullois. 

We have said that i is the ordinary suffix of a singular dative. 
An older form must have been bi. Such is seen in the so-called 
adverbs, but originally datives, i-li (nom. i-s), u-bi (or cubi, as 
seen in si-cubi, num-cubi, ne-cubi, from the relative), a^'-fo' (archaic 
nom. ali-s), utro-bi (nom. uter), ubi-que (nom. quisque), no-bi-s,* 
uo-bi-s ; secondly, in the plural datives reg-i-bus, aui-bus, die-bus, 
equa-bus, duo-bus, acu-bus ; thirdly, in the Homeric datives i-<i, 
/3i77-<i, oupui>G-0i, o-T7jdf(T-<j)i ; fourthly, in the Sanskrit datives of 
the dual and plural nau-bhy-am and nau-bhy-as from nau- * a ship,' 
as well as the plural instrumental case tiau-bhi-s. But if it be 
admitted that a b once belonged to the datival suffix, it remains 
to be explained how it came to disappear, as in musis and semis. 
This objection will be answered if it be shown that those very 
forms which long retained a b have since lost it. Now the four 
little words, tibi, sibi, ubi, ibi have all lost the labial in the French 
derivatives toi, soi, ou, y. Again, the three prepositions ab, sub, 
ob are subjected to the same curtailment, in a, in asporto (for abs- 
porto), in suspendo, suscito, sustoUo (for subs-), and in ostendo (for 

* Sibi, tibi are omitted in this enumeration, because there is reason 
to believe that the bases of these words have a claim to the b. 


ols-tendo). The two verbs iubeo and habeo also lose their I at times, 
the first in jussi, jmsum, the second in the derived substantive 
a-tnentum for habi-mentum ' something to hold by,' and also in the 
French present fai, tu as, il a, Us ont. The persons awns, avez 
do indeed retain the b virtually in the form of a v ; but when the 
French add this present tense to the infinitive in order to make a 

future, ' I have to ,' the syllable av falls off from both av-ons 

and av-ez, as seen in finir-ai, finir-as, finir-a, finir-ons, finir-ez, 
fnir-ont. Similarly the conditional of the French verb is always 
made up by attaching the past tense avais, &c. to the infinitive, 
but in this process the syllable av again disappears, and we have 
finir-ais, &c. The German verb hob-en and our own have suffer 
in the same way. Thus the German haben in the present exhibits 
hat not halt, and in the past tense hatte not hab-te ; while we say 
has, had, rather than haves, haved. 

Hence with a knowledge that the b in Latin words had no safe 
footing, we may boldly infer that from an old dative musa-bi were 
formed first musai and ultimately musae ; and from a plural musa- 
bi-s, on the one hand musa-lus, on the other, with the loss of the 
b, miisais, musis. For the vowel-changes compare the three words 
quairo (the old form), quaero, in-guiro. 

The nom. native has been reserved to the last, because it con- 
tains what has been deemed by some a grave difficulty. Although 
s is visibly the suffix of the nominatives reg-s (rex), aui-s, die-s, 
Aenea-s, seruo-s (seruus), gradu-s, yet it has been objected that 
neuters, with few exceptions, are without the final sibilant, that 
the same is true of nearly every nominative of the first declension, 
of such words as puer in the second, and of pater, consul, ordo, 
ratio in the third declension. 

With regard to neuters, the identity of the nominative and 
accusative in every instance is a difficulty which must attach to 
every grammatical system, as much as to that founded upon crude 
forms. Perhaps the cause may lie in this, that in the simplest 
form of sentence, viz. one consisting of a nominative, a verb, and 
an accusative, as dominus seruum caedit, the action expressed in 
the verb proceeds from the nominative to the accusative, from 
the master to the slave j and so the idea of the nominative in 
origin was identical with that of an agent. But an agent having 
life must of necessity be either masculine or feminine. Thus a 
neuter noun would have no claim to serve as a nominative, and 

p F 


consequently could not in strictness be entitled to the nominatival 
suffix s. Again, if neuters had at first no nominative, there was 
little use in a distinctive mark for an accusative, these two cases 
being under ordinary circumstances specially opposed to each 
other. But in the second declension a special difficulty presents 
itself. In other neuter nouns the nominative, vocative and ac- 
cusative obtain their identity by the omission of all case-endings, 
and at times by sacrificing a portion even of the crude form, 
whereas with nouns in o an m seems to be attached, in violation 
of the general rule as regards the accusative, and with still less 
justification in the nominative. This difficulty is one which will 
be considered in the next appendix ( xxn.), and we hope solved. 
It is mixed up with a somewhat recondite question. 

The s* in the first declension, it must be admitted, is only 
found in masculine nouns, and even they are of foreign origin, as 
the word above quoted, Aeneas. Still there is so close a connec- 
tion between the first declension of the Latin and the first declen- 
sion of the Greek language, that any thing proved for the one has 
a bearing upon the other. Thus the s of ra/uas and TroXtrrjs leads 
to rather a strong belief that the Latin also must once have pos- 
sessed such a letter, although no longer found in what is left of 
the language. But it has been said that the office of this s in the 
Greek words is not that of denoting a nominative, but to mark a 
gender. The assertion is founded solely on the accident that the 
masculine nouns take an $ in the nominative, which the feminine 
nouns have discarded. But even the masculine nouns appear with- 
out this letter in many phrases of Homer, as vf(f)\r]yepTa Zeuy, 
p.r)TieTa Zevs, iWoTa Neorcop, <fec. ; and Cicero too preferred the 
forms without a sibilant in the Greek words Archyta, Aristagora, 
^ well as in the names of his countrymen Sulla and Cinna. More- 
over, an argument such as that of the Greek grammarians might 
just as well be used in proof that s in Latin is a mark of the femi- 
nine gender, seeing that of acer, acris, acre, the middle form acris 
is generally feminine. We have a parallel error in the Icelandic 
grammarians. This language, it is well known, has a general 
tendency to employ the letter r where the classical and other kin- 
dred languages have an s. Accordingly an r is found as an ending 
of many nominatives ; but it happens to be limited for the most 

* The greater part of this argument was first printed in an article in 
iLe Classical Museum, No. xix. p. 59. 


part to those of a masculine gender. Hence, in 141 of his Gram- 
mar, Rask calls it the sign of the masculine. Unfortunately for 
his doctrine, ku- ' a cow', su- ' a sow', also take an r to form the 
nominatives kyr, syr ( 170) ; and in 159 he has the candour to 
say, *' In the oldest times there were also many feminines in r, 
e. g. cedr ( a vein', afterwards ced, elfr ' river', afterwards elf," &c. 
But a comparison of the Greek and Latin grammars will present 
us with evidence to prove that even feminine nouns of the a de- 
clension were not averse to the nominatival s. In the Greek lan- 
guage it is the ordinary doctrine that <ro<f)ta and o-ocpo; are but 
dialectic varieties of the same word. If we may extend the same 
doctrine to the Latin language, we are entitled to say that there 
is no substantial distinction between luxuria and luxuries, tristitia 
and tristities, materia and materies, words which (as Madvig ob- 
serves) rarely form their genitives, datives and ablatives after the 
model of the fifth declension. 

We next consider those nouns whose crude form ends in a 
liquid, as pater-, consul-, ration- or ord6n-. Our theory as regards 
these words is, that the s, originally added, was first assimilated 
to the preceding liquid ; that by a second change one of these 
two liquids was dropped, but so dropped that the preceding vowel 
by its increased length was made to compensate for the loss ; and 
thirdly, that this long syllable was finally deprived of its length. 
A triple assumption such as this, of course requires strong proof 
in the way of analogy ; and it is believed that the nine arguments 
which are presented in the following paragraphs will be thought 
to contain such proof. 

1. The four Greek verbs 0-77 apoo, oreAAw, (patz/a>, and i/e/zo>, to 
take these as examples of classes, have for their respective bases 
the syllables o-Trep, oreA, <pai/, and vep,. From these, if the regular 
formation had been followed, we ought to have had, as first 
aorists, eo-Trepcra, eoreAo-a, e^arcra,* fvep-aa. Assimilation would 
have changed them to eo-Treppa, eo-reAAa, ecpawa, and o/ep-/u.a ; and 
again, the suppression of one of the liquids, together with the tit- 
ting compensation by increase in the length of the vowel, would 
give us, what is actually found, forreipa, eoreiAa, etprjva, fveifui. 

2. As the feminine of adjectives ending in a consonant was 
often formed by the addition of the syllable o-a, e.g. rwrov-cra, 

* Aorists eitep<ra, ecAaa, eKevo-a occur in Homer, See Addenda. 


Xapieo--<ra, 3?oivur-<Ta, for Tvirrovr-a-a, yapisirr-va, QoiviK-cra, SO from 
the crude forms /iaicap-, raXai/-, repev- should have been formed 
/MdKap-ora, raXai/-cra, repey-cra, which, if our view be correct, passed 
through an intermediate p.a.Kap-pa, roXai/-i/a, repey-i/a, to ^a/cuipa, 
TaXaiva repetva. 

3. The Latin superlative ended commonly in sumo- or simo- ; 
but in acer-rimo-, deter-rimo-, simil-limo-, the 5 has assimilated 
itself to the preceding liquid, r or I. 

4. The Latin infinitival suffix ere appears to have grown out 
of an older form ese, as seen in es-se ' to be' (for es-ese). This view 
is confirmed both by the universal habit of the old language to 
present an s between vowels where the later language preferred r, 
as in Fusiiis, asa, afterwards Furius, ara ; and by the occurrence 
of a passive infinitive dad (see Forcellini), which of course implies 
an active infinitive dase for dare. Hence uel-le, nol-le, mal-le have 
in le a substitute for an older re, as that was a substitute for se. 

5. In the Icelandic tongue, as we have already said, an r in- 
stead of an s is the ordinary nominatival suffix of masculine nouns. 
But when such a noun ends in n or I, the r is at times assimilated, 
so that from a base ketil- ' kettle', graen- ' green', span- * spoon', 
we have the nominatives ketill, graenn, spann. Again, some words 
whose base has a final r, as dor- ' spear', are not afraid to take a 
second r in the nom., as dorr. And if the base ended in s, the 
old language at times even added a second s for the nominative. 
Thus from is- ' ice', laus- ' loose', were formed old nominatives fas, 
lauss. We have here, by the way, a case precisely parallel to the 
theoretic nominative puluiss mentioned above. But in the later 
Icelandic language there was a tendency, as was to be expected, 
to discard one of two similar consonants at the end of a nomina- 
tive ; and thus what was a virtual symbol of the nominative wholly 
disappeared. In 139 of Rask's Grammar it will be seen that the 
nouns which were thus truncated had a base ending in the letters 
r, I, n and s, i. e. the very endings which are subject to the same 
mutilation in Latin. We have here then a simile which really 
runs on all lours, and which alone ought to settle the problem. 
But to proceed. 

6. The Icelandic verb in the third person regularly takes an r 
corresponding to the s of English, as from the base tei- ' tell', hann 
tew ' he tells' ; yet from skin- ' shine', the old writers preferred skinn 
for skinr * shines', and this skinn afterwards became skin ( 93). 


7. The genitive plural in Icelandic has regularly a suffix ra 
(corresponding to the Latin rum, and so a corruption of sum), yet 
from hin- ' the', and gamal- ( old', the gen. pi. is hin-na, gamal-la 
( 93). 

8. The ordinary termination of the neuter comparative in Ice- 
landic is am or ra* as kdldara ( the colder' ; but from vaen- " fair', 
sael- 'happy,' are formed the comparatives vaen-na, sael-la ( 199). 

9. The Latin language is specially apt to discard any final s 
which follows an r. Thus for uidebaris, uide.reris, we find in pre- 
ference uidebare, uiderere. Again, although the analogy of the 
Greek Siy, rpis, the Latin bis (duis), and our own twice, thrice, 
would have led us to expect tris and quatris in Latin, yet we find 
nothing but ter and quater. It is therefore no matter for surprise, 
if instead of puerus, paters, lintris, which strict theory demands, 
we find puer, pater, linter. But the Greek nominatives Trarrjp, x fL P) 
reprjv, from the several crude forms Trarep-, x P~? Tepev-, exhibit 
the long vowel of compensation ; and so also does the Latin more 
frequently than is commonly believed, as pater in Virgil : 

Ostentans artemque pater arcumque sonantem. Aen. v. 521. 
Concilium ipse pater et magna incepta Latinus, &c. xi. 469. 
Congredior. Fer sacra pater et concipe foedus. xn. ] 3. 

What we have said would account for such nominatives as 
ration, homon ; but even these are not found. The difficulty is 
however cleared up when we call to mind that while the Greeks 
wrote SrpajSuw, the Romans preferred Strabo. Nay the Greeks 
themselves changed eyo>i/ to eyo>. See Addenda. 

So much for the singular. In the plural nominative a com- 
parison of reg-es with the forms exhibited in the other declensions 
leads us to the conclusion that auls (archaic), gradus, and dies 
have all by contraction lost an e before the final s, whereas musae, 
standing for musa-es, has lost the sibilant itself. Lastly, serui 
(SouXoi) must be considered as contracted from seruoe, and this 
reduced from an obsolete seruo-es. 

Thus all the Latin declensions appear to have been moulded 
upon one common type. 

We will close these remarks with a word or two of comment on 
an objection, to which reference has already been made. Even if 

* This suffix in the Moeso-Gothic has a sibilant in lieu of the liquid r. 


we admit your system to be founded on the firmest basis of philo- 
logical truth, it requires much complicated argument to prove its 
truth, and for that reason would be found utterly impracticable 
in the instruction of the young. The answer is simple. The 
proofs are for the learned alone. The business of the pupil is to 
learn the contrary process, by which from the bare word or crude 
form the so-called cases are formed by the addition of syllables or 
letters. This process is far easier than that put forward in the old 
grammars. Thus the Latin words for * king', ' bird', l thing', ' wing', 
( slave', ' step', are presented for the first time to the beginner in 
the forms reg-, aui-, re-, ala-, seruo-, gradu-. From these he is 
taught to build up the different cases. In this process he has at 
once an advantage over those who follow the old course. He can 
never be at a loss for the declension, as the last letter is an in- 
variable guide. Nay, he may throw aside all consideration of the 
order in which the declensions follow, as the terms ' consonant 
declension', ' i declension', &c. are at once simple and sufficient. 
Thus he is saved from many traps which are set for one who uses 
the Eton Grammar. For example, the words puer, linter, pater 
are only deceitful guides to the declension until we know some 
other case or cases ; whereas the crude forms puero-, linteri-, pater- 
at once give a direction which cannot be mistaken. A treacherous 
similarity exists between equus, uirtus and senatus, between seruos 
and arbos, between dies and paries; but there is no chance of the 
pupil referring to the same declensions equo-^ uirtut- and senatu-, 
or seruo- and arbds-, or die- and pariet-. 

We now pass from the familiar matters of declension and con- 
jugation to a part of grammar usually much neglected the gene- 
ral doctrine of derivation ; and we shall still find that the crude 
forms of nouns and verbs give us a safer foundation on which to 
build. Thus from the substantives ciui-, fide-, uita-, tribu-, we 
more readily proceed to the adjectives ciui-li-, fide-li-, uita-li- 9 
tribu~li-, than we can from the nominatives duis, fides, vita, 
tribus. Still more decided is the advantage in deducing directly 
from the crude forms mari-, Roma-, bello-, tribu-, rather than 
from the nominatives mare, Roma, bellum, tribus, the derivatives 
marino-, Romano-, Bellona-, tribuno-. Again, the diminutives 
nauicula, uirguncula,* diecula, sucula, ratiuncula, are with little 

* Zumpt, through looking to the nominatives, speaks of uirguncula 
ae formed bj the addition of a suffix uncula. 


difficulty referred to the crude forms naui-, uirgSn-, die-, su-, 

The light which the study of Latin throws upon the etymology 
of our own tongue is a secondary but still an important conside- 
ration. Here again the crude forms have a marked advantage 
over the nominatives. Thus our English adjectives re-al, reg-al, 
gradu-al, manu-al, vertic-al, nation-al> are less easily referred to 
the nominatives res, rex, gradus, manus, uertex, natio, than to the 
crude forms, which present themselves at once to the eye. The 
same, or nearly the same, is true of the words lapid-ary, avi-ary, 
sangnin-ary, salut-ary, station-ary. 

In what has been hitherto said, the chief stress has been laid 
upon the forms of words. But there is another consideration of 
even greater moment for the student. To give the name of no- 
minative to what is really something more than the mere expres- 
sion of a name has naturally led to the utter neglect of that some- 
thing more ; and the logical view of language has only confirmed 
the error. On the other hand, when we know that the nominative 
is really a case, in other words that it expresses a relation between 
the word and the other members of a sentence, we have much 
light thrown on the nature of the Latin language. We then see 
that the special office of the nominative is to define the source of 
the action implied in the verb. Nor let it be objected that such a 
view is traversed by the employment of nominatives with a passive 
verb, for the passive is at bottom a reflective verb.* Nay the con- 
struction of a passive sentence only confirms what we have said ; 
for the moment the true agent is formally expressed in a passive, 
the preposition ab is called in aid ; so that in the two sentences 
dominus seruum caedit and seruus caeditur a domino, dominus and 
a domino are equivalent phrases. 



A DISCUSSION, ill-fitted for admission into the body of a school- 
grammar, may yet deserve a place here ; and I am desirous that 
my more precise views should be accessible to the reader of these 
* See Grammar, 375-379, and the two notes * pp. 59 and 60. 


pages. Still, for details, that is for the full arguments, which 
alone can carry conviction, I must refer to the paper, as printed 
in the Transactions of the Philological Society of London for 1856. 
Here I can give only an abstract. 

i. Introduction. The Gaelic suffix ach or ag 'little' has its 
representative in the final syllables of the various Scotch diminu- 
tives, l&ss-ock and lass-ow, lass-re^ and lass-iV, 'a little lass.' But 
the Latin and Greek also have intimate relations with the Keltic. 
Again, as our own tongue throws off final gutturals in way, day, 
honey, Norway, &c. (German weg, tag, honig, Norweg, &c.), so the 
Latin also loves to drop ay a as in maior (= mayor), mavolo, rnalo. 
Yet as with us derivatives sometimes restore the g, for example 
in Norweg-ian, so is it in Latin. Another mode of avoiding a 
guttural with us is to substitute a labial sound for- it, as in laugh, 
rough. This habit also prevails in Latin. Lastly, diminutives in 
form often discard their diminutival power, as French sol-eil, Ita- 
lian fratello, sorella ; and these are apt to stand alone in a lan- 
guage, without any primitive to contrast with them. 

ii. Agh, as seen in substantives : lim-ac- ' slug.' In Greek 
occur some 60 examples, as poS-ax- 'dwarf- rose, 'TraXX-a*- ' youth,' 
p.eip-aK- ( young person.' The Latin substantives of the first 
declension have lost a final guttural, as shown by the derived 
adjectives rosac-eo-, ferulac-eo-, membranac-eo- (24 of them), and 
vernac-ulo-. To the double-diminutives, Gaelic cur-ach-an ' a 
coracle,' Scotch lass-ick-in, German veil-(i)ch-en 'a little violet,' 
correspond Latin ferul-ag-on-, &c. (about 20) ; and hence it is 
inferred that ferul-ac- or ferul-ag- were older forms of ferul-a-. 
Plants in the form ferul-ag-, lapp-ag-, would correspond to our 
charl-ock, shamr-ock, sour-ock (sorrel). 

in. Agh in verbs. A diminutival suffix added to verbs gene- 
rally denotes a succession of petty acts, as twinkle, sprinkle, hobble. 
So with Latin verbs which take the suffix agh. The guttural 
still traceable in a few of these verbs, which therefore adhere to 
the third conjugation, as plang-, frang-, trah-, stra(g-} whence 
stravi, sb. strage-, adj. stragulo-. In the great majority the loss 
of it has transferred the verbs to the first conjugation, in which 
however it is seen that the final a is something foreign to the root, 
as cub-a-re. lav-a-re, beside cumb-ere, lav-ere. The guttural again 
traceable in derivatives, as or-ac-ulo-, lav-ac-ro-. 

iv. Agh in verbs supplanted by ab (for abh). Latin generally 
tins t> at the end of syllables where Greek has (/>. Hence a fimr 


b is seen attaching itself to verbs of the a conjugation in the de- 
rived adjectives medicab-ili-, laudab-ili- (over 400), compared with 
ut-ili- ; in the sbs. vocab-ulo-, venab-ulo-, compared with jac-ulo- ; 
in dolab-ra- ; and in the frequentatives (note this idea) plorab- 
undo-y contionab-undo- (over 60). But if ab be thus adapted to 
denote continuity of time, it may well be the element seen in 
am-ab-am, and even in am-ab-o, so that am-ab-o will strictly be 
an imperfect present. Similarly ero, fcrofj,at, el/u, are in form pre- 
sents, in power futures. 

v. Ab for ag in substantives after a guttural, as cann-ab-i- 
1 hemp,' and otherwise, as, tr-ab- (=dor-ab- ?) f tree.' 

vi. As agh denotes what is habitual in all Manx verbs and 
many Manx adjectives, so it enters into such Greek words as 
KoA-a/t- ' flatterer,' fav-d*.- ( cheat/ XaX-ay- ' prattler' (above 
20), and into the Latin bib-ac-, ed-ac-, loqu-ac- (about 50). 

vn. AK, so common in Greek sbs., gives place to ec or ic in 
Latin. Thus to TraAXaK-, vpaK-, nvvdaK- correspond pellec-, sorec-, 
podec-. The lists of words in ec and ic (together over 60) very ge- 
nerally exhibit the idea of smallness, as culec- 'gnat,' pulec- 'flea,' 
cimec- 'bug.' So too, as plants and small birds with us often 
end in our diminutival suffixes ock and ow, the Latin also has for 
plants ulec- t rumec-, carec-, vitec-, frutic-, scandic-, salic- y flic-^ 
tariiaric- ; and for birds perdic-,fulic-, comic- , coturnic-, soric-. 

vin. Agh in sbs. becomes ug or uc, so as to lie nearer our own 
ock. Latin examples cruc-, frug-es. The '-rord crux (=<m>Xo^) 

ix. Agh reduced to a mere guttural, as in our own park for 
parr-ock. Ar-c-, cal-c-, fal-c- } lan-c-, mer-c- y analysed. 

x. Our ec often, yet not always, reduced to e in the body 
of such words as ros-e-tum for ros-ec-tum, i. e. ros-agh-tum (see 
rosac-eo- in i). Sometimes the two forms, as virectum and vire- 
tum, dumectum and dumetum, exist beside each other. 

xi. As the Scotch reduce lassoed to lassow, so the second Latin 
declension owes its existence chiefly to a similar loss ; but the adj. 
aprug-no- still bears traces of an older aperogh- ' a wild boar ;' and 
s : milar evidence is found in hordeac-eo-, sebac-eo-, foliac-eo-, bulbac- 
eo- (19 such), as well as in rapic-ic~, tribunic io-, &c. 

xn. As the Scotch reduce lassie^ to lassie, so ensic-ulus, canic- 
ula, retic-ulum tell us that ensi- 9 cani- 9 reti- had once a final gut- 
tural. Again in the fifth declension plebec-ula> diec-ula bear wit- 
ness that plebe-j die- had once a final c ; which is confirmed as 


to the latter by a comparison of our day and the German tag. In 
the fourth declension the argument would have been smoother, if 
we had found anuc-ula and genuc-ulum, rather than anic-ula and 
genic-ulum. But we know historically that genibus grew out of 
genubus. Moreover as yow (genu) : knee : : dopv : tree : : genuc- 
ulum : Jcnuck-le. This seems to establish the legitimacy of genuc- 
ulum. Plautus too by his twice-employed adjective mef&culonu, 
implies a sb. metuc-ulus. Observe too that as lassie : lass, so 
cani- : can- ; and a c. P. can- ( dog' is consistent with can-um 
gen. pi., and with KVV oy, <fec. So with ap-um, juven-um. 

xin. Agh in sbs. sometimes doubly represented, as in -verben- 
ac-a-y form-ic-a-y samb-uc-o-, fur-c-a-. So ocettulo- has the like 
suffix el thrice over. 

xiv. The softened ow, for ock, seen in English adjectives, as 
shall-ow, yell-ow, virtually occurs in the Greek /Spa^-v-, yXuK-v-, 
eXa^-u-, <fec., and so is represented in the Latin equivalents brev-i-, 
dulc-i-y lev-i-y an argument confirmed by the derivatives brevic- 
ulo-y dzdcic-ulo-, levic-ulo-. True-, i. e. tor-uc- 9 retains the suffix 
in greater purity. 

xv. Agh in adjectives also sometimes doubly represented, as 
in fl-acc-o- (=/LiaX-aK-o-), plan-c-o-, ail-b-o-, fl-av-o- 9 gil-v-o-, cur- 
v-o-, tor-v-o- (comp. tr-uc-\ ard-u-o-, &c. 

xvi. Some adjectives in o are deduced from genitival forms, as 
patrius, igneus ; and so no way connected with our suffix. 

xvii. Agh in verbs reduced first to ug or uc, and then to u, 
as in/w-,/r^-(r.), stru-, viv-, volv-, solv- (with lu-), ferv-, loqu-, 
nu-y ru-y spu-j scru- (scru-ta-ri, a-Kok-ev-eiv), &c. 

xvni. Agh in verbs reduced to ec or ic, as spec-, plec- of plect-, 
nee- of nect-, flee- oiflect-^ and (g)nic- of (ff)niti, (g)ni,rus. 

xix. Agh in verbs reduced to a simple guttural, as mer-g-, 
spar-g-, ter-a-, vera- 'incline,' ver-g- ( pour,' ful-g- } par-c-, pos-c- t 
ves-c- (r.), ul-c- (ulcisci), torqu-e-. 

xx. Agh in verbs supplanted by a labial, first by p. Examples 
such as carp-, rup-, scalp-, serp-, trep-, are examined. 

xxi. Secondly by b, as scrib- (=ypa(j)-), t(e)rib- (rptj3-} implied 
in trivi, tribulum ; c(e)r-ib- implied in cr-ib-ro- n., glub-. An ex- 
tinct b claimed for some other secondary verbs on the evidence of 
derivatives, as vol-ub-^ sol-ub-, fl-eb-, ten-eb-, lug-ub-, illic-ib- 9 
sal-ib-, in place of volv-, 8olv-,fle-, tene-, luge-, illici-, soli-. 

xxii. Thirdly by m. The direct interchange of ^ and p, ap- 
pealed to in support of this doctrine. Examples of such verbs in 


m considered, as frem-, prem-, trem-, crem-a-re, and a vb. crem- 
implied in the sb. crem-or. The m which appears in the alleged 
suffixes men (/xar) and mentum claimed for the preceding verb, so 
that we should rather divide the several elements, as in orn-am- 
entum, mon-um-entum, teg-um-en, ov-o^-ar- or ov-vfi-ar-, &c. The 
same argument applied to the infinitive rvnr-f^-fv, &c. The paper 
then reverts to substantives ; and after noticing the fact that the 
suffix om of bottom, fathom, is represented in the oldest German 
by am and urn, as pod-um or pot-am and vad-um, treats this suffix 
as a labialised agh. Thus the old German var-am corresponds to 
our brake (=bar-agh) ' fern ;' and potam not only to the Latin 
fundo-, but also to its equivalents TrwS-a*- and pod-ec-. Hence 
om (urn), the strange ending of the nominatives and accusatives 
of Latin neuters, ervom, bettum, is justified as representing ervogh, 
bellogh, older forms, it is thought, than ervo-, bello-. Hence too 
opium-, Ilium- (iXioi/-), form adjectives apiac-o-, Iliac-o-. 

xxin. Agh in verbs passes through ec or eb to e, as ver-e- (r.) 
beside verec-undo-. The cases of suade-, dense-, rube-, tene-, late-, 
scate-, luge-, exple-, spre-vi, cre-vi considered. 

xxiv. Agh in verbs passes through ic &c. to i. If the adj. 
leni- stand for lenigh, so also must the verb kni- ; and similarly 
with like cases. Derivatives too, as orig-on- 9 claim a guttural in 
behalf of ori- (r.), &c. 

xxv. Agh in verbs exchanges its guttural for a sibilant, as 
rapcKro-- (beside rapax-r}) ; so in Latin incipiss-, petess-. The 
French forms finissant &c., and our wo. finish, show that the 
Latin sb. and vb.jfou- stood in place tffin-igh. So also the Ita- 
lian finisco brings in with its own claim one for all inceptive, or, 
as Homer treats them, iterative verbs ; and these two meanings 
alike accord with the power assigned to our suffix in m. 

xxvi. EC or ic &c. exchange the guttural for a t-, chiefly after 
a preceding guttural, like our own gobb-et for gabb-ock, giml-et 
for giml-ick, spig-ot for spig-ock. But the license is often carried 
beyond the excuse, as in emm-et for emm-ock. Thus abiet- stands 
for abiec-, witness the adj. abieg-no-. Vell-ic-a-re, fod-ic-a-re, 
mors-ic-a-re have our suffix in the legitimate form, ic ; but fre- 
quentative verbs generally have changed ic for it, as ag-it-a-re, 
which with no less than 300 similarly constituted verbs, may plead 
in excuse a preceding guttural ; but not so esitare, saltare, pultare. 
Aedilit-io- &c. we know stands for aedilic-io-, and perhaps brevit-er 
for brevic-er &c. 


xxvn. Our ic reduced to it in other forms. Such comparatives 
as trist-ic-ior, laet-ic-ior (afterwards Iristit-ior, laetit-ior), esta- 
blished on good MS. authority; and hence tristit-ia-, laetit-ia-, 
explained as similar to grat-ia-. The same explanation proposed, 
more or less doubtingly, for words of the form nav-it-a-, serv-it-io- 
n., mon-it-ion-, serv-it-ut-, fund-it-or-, mult-it-udon-, nov-ic-io- 
and nov-it-io-, subdit-ic-io- and subdit-it-io-. 

xxviii. Agh &c. change the guttural for a d, as in na-id- 
beside en-ait-a, naiy-viov. Hence i*ubedon-, albedon-, in place of 
the classical robigon-, albugon-, &c. Mult-ic-ud-on- (if the older 
form) would have a valid excuse for d in place of g. 

xxix. The many changes of vowel, which have been here as- 
signed to our suffix, justified by the law which assimilates vowels 
in adjoining syllables. Thus a Greek writes p-aXao-o--, epecro--, 
p-eiXio-o--, opva-a- (o being habitually followed by u rather than by 
another o). So a Roman preferred : 1. ar-a-, ar-at-ro- n., ar-ab-am, 
ar-ab-ili-, al-ac-er (al- ( raise') ; 2. gem- eb- undo-, frem-eb-undo-, 
trem-eb-undo-, ver-e- (r.), ver-ec-undo-, ten-e-, ten-eb-am, ten-eb-ra-, 
ter-eb-ra-, cel-eb~eri-, fer-et-ro- n., ver-et-ro- n., pet-ess-, nec-esse, 
c(e)r-e-vi y sp(e)r-e-vi, f(e)r-e-to- ; 3. nit-ib-undo , rid-ib-undo-, rid- 
ic-ulo-j in-cip-iss-, mc-issim; 4. lug-ub-ri , hic-ub-ra-re ; or with 
not identical, yet kindred vowels, as 5. lat-e~, lat-eb-ra-, scat-eb-ra-, 
sal-eb-ra-, lac-ess-, fac-ess-, cap-ess-, par-e-, man-e-, alg-e-, ard-e- ; 
or 6. quer-ib-undo-, c(e)r-ib-ro- n., t(e)r-i-vi, t(e)r-i-to-, t(e)r-ib- 
ulo- n., vert-ig-on- ; or again, 7. vol-uc-ri-, vol-up-i-, vol-ub-ili-, 
vol-um-en-, in-vol-uc-ro- n., sol-u-to-, sol-ub-ili-, tol-u-tim, doc-un 
ento-, mon-um-ento-, in-col-um-i-. Some exceptions from this law 
considered. A convincing example of vowel-assimilation is seen 
in the series of words: a, 7raXAa m. ' a youth ;' e, Lat. pellex f. 
' a concubine ;' i, fillie ' a young mare ;' o, Scotch pollock t a 
young fish,' TTO>\OS l a foal ;' u, Lat. pullus, either a colt or chicken, 
where the words are at bottom identical, and in themselves de- 
note merely ( a little young one.' 

xxx. The many changes of consonant which have been as- 
signed to our suffix explained, partly from the desire to avoid 
gutturals, especially repeated gutturals, partly on the principle 
that aspirates readily interchange. By way of example, the irre- 
gularities of the verb <pfp- (Sanskrit bhri or d/iri) considered in 
Greek, Latin and English. 


The numerals refer to the sections, not to the pages, except where the letter p. is pre- 
fixed. The letter n. means note. Latin words and parts of Latin words are in 


a conjugation, 519, 522, 523. 
a declension, 89-99, p. 424. 

ab, 810, 816, 1303, 1304. 
abd-, 542. 

abdica-, 1023. 

abest ut, 1208. 

able-, 1 304. 

abin, 1171. 

ablative, 50, 51, 989, p. 429, i ; 
absolute, 1013; 'by' or 'with,' 
1000; for dat. 1019; 'from,' 
1021 ; in rf, 50, 1021 ; 'in point 
of,' 997; of circumstances. 1009 ; 
of degree, 1017 ; of gerund, 1294; 
of means, 1000; of penalty, 
1005.1; of measure, 1014; of 
price, 1005; of quality, 1010 ; 
of road, 1008; of time, 992; of 
' where,' 99 1 ; with comparative, 
1015, 1055, 1055 d; with /ac-, 
>-, 1003; with prep., 1025; 
with verbs of buying, 1005; of 
removal, 1023; of sacrificing, 

abs, 810 n. 

absenti-, 725. 

abstine-, 940. 

abstract nouns, 907. 

ac, 1430 &c. 

ac non, 1409. 1. 

accent, 22-28. 

accessary conjunctions, 846. 

accliui- ? 1308.4. 

accusative, 45, 46, 369, 884; singu- 
lar, p. 429 ; plural, p. 429, p. 431 ; 
after active verb, 888; after adj. 
in bundo, 1298; after deponents, 
891; after intransitives, 893; af- 
ter participles in to, 892 ; after 

quo, 918; after substantives, 
907 ; cognate, 894 ; and inf. 911, 
1248 ; factitive, 896 ; for nom. 
912; of time, &c. 915; two to- 
gether, 896-902 ; with verbs of 
calling, 827; of feeling, 889. 

accusing, adj. of, 933 ; verbs of, 

active verb, 367 ; conjugated, 575. 

acw-, 207. 1. 

ad, 1305, 1306. 

adama-, 1308. 3. 

adaequa-, 1308 3. 

adeo, 799. 

adim-, 1308.3. 

adiff-, 900. 

adipes, 1026. 

adjectives, 211-239; concord of, 
1037; as sub., 936, 1034, 1042; 
for adv., 1049, 1051; gender of, 
1040 ; place of, 1468; possessive, 
1047, 1054 e; in predicate, 1060; 
suffixes of, 225-234 ; in a, o, i, 
have lost a guttural, p. 442, xiv. 
xv., p. 444, xxvii. ; in ab-ili, 
p 441, iv. ; in ac, p. 441, vi. ; 
in ac-eo, p. 440, ii., p 441, xi. ; 
in ac-o, p. 443, xxii. ; in bundo, 
1298 ; in ic-io, p. 441, xi. ; in it- 
io, p. 443, xxvi. ; of comparison, 
1438 ; of fitness, &c., 956. 

admodxm, 797. 

admone-, 1308. 3. 

adsurg-, 1308.3. 

adula-, 979. 

aduorsus, 1307. 

aemula-, 979. 

aetate gen., 909 n. 

affliff-, 1304. 



agnosc-, 1308. 3. 

ai-, 739. 

adverbs, 767, 1398; in a, 366, 
793 ; in am, 782, 791 ; in bi, 
366, 785 ; in e, 768 ; in im, 790 ; 
in de, 366, 790, 800; in fe, 783 ; 
in tier, 773, p. 443, xxvi. ; in 
itiis, 777; in o, 366, 771, 789, 
1056 ; in per, 778 ; in secus, 80 1 ; 
in tenus, 803; in tim, 779, 780; 
in tro, 788; in urn, 792; in us, 
781 &c.; in vorsum, 798; in 
predicate, 1401 ; of comparison, 
1438, 1439; place of, 1398; pro- 
nominal, 366, 1150; with partic., 
1399 ; with sub., 1400. 

ai- vb., 739. 

ali-, 320, 327. 

alio-, 110, 111, 327,1148. 

aliqui-, 1141. 

alphabet, 2. 

alter differs from alteri, 324. 

altero-, 110, 111,330, 1149. 

a/terms, 111, 380. 

am,, 834 a, 1308. 

ambur-, 1308. 3. 

amplius, 1055. 1. 

aw, 1421 &c.; use of, 1426 ; a 
proclitic, 1465; repeated, 1424. 

arc 'up,' 834 b, 1308.2. 

ana, 1308. 1. 

anaphora, 1435. 

Anglo-Saxon superl., 838 n. 

animi, 935 n. 

annona-, 210. 

annuvit, p. 427. 

ante, 1309. 

anted, 802. 

antecedent omitted, 1126, 1151. 

antequam, 1231. 1. 

anu-, 142, 207. 1. 

aorist, 445, 446, 585, 586, 614. 

appos-* 1304. 

apposition, 1052, 1058, 1472. 

apud, 815 n., 131.1. 

apprehend-, 1308. 3. 

ar, 1312. 

arasso, 567. 

arassere, 568. 

arduo-, 555. 1. n. 

as, divisions of the, 270. 

asking, vbs. of, 902. 

asyndeton, 1435. 

at, 1445. 

atque (ac), 1430, 1439; for quam, 
853: with comp., 1056.4. 

attraction, 1039, 1055 b. obs., 1059, 
1125, 1251. 

au, 862 n. 

auersa-, 904. 

auts gen., why short, p. 430. 

aut, 840; differs from uel, 1444. 

awtero, 1446; place of, 1474. 

beniqno-, 238. 

blandi-, 971. 

bookkeeping, phrases of, 982. 

b&u-, 157. 

buying, vbs. of, 946, 1005. 

c, 11. 

cam-, 190. 

can-urn gen. pi. explained, p. 441. 

capess-, 754. 

cardinal numbers, 247, 252, 253. 

care-, 1023. 

case, 42, 1391 n. 

cassum, 540. 

c* suffix, 289, 293, 319, 792, 11 12 n 

cedo, 731, 1198. 

cela-, 898. 

centena milia, 1072. 

certa-, 956. 

ceruiees, 1026. 

cetera, 916. 

cimec-, 207. 1. 

circa, 1313. 

circiter, 1314. 

circum, 1315. 

circumda-, 906. 

cis, 1316. 

cito, 772. 

cifra, 1318. 

clam, 782, 1319. 

claud-, 760 w. 

coeptus est, 1244. 

cognate ace., 402, 894. 

collectives, 195. 1. 

comparative, 240-246, 838, 1015, 

1055, 1193. 
comparison, adj. and adv. of, where 

placed, 1438. 

composition, 35; of verbs, 758. 
condona-, 975. 
conditional sentences, 1153. 
cunduc-, 1289. 
conici-, 812 n. 
conjugation, 518; a, 519,522, 523; 



c, 386, 519, 524, 525; i, 51 9, 528, 
529; o, 519, 520; w, 519, 526, 
527; consonant, 518, 521; of 
verb active, 576 &c. ; deponent, 
685; impersonal, 699; part, in 
turo with es- and fu-, 702 &c. ; 
passive, 655; pass, impers. 701; 
reflective, 570, 636 &c. 

conjunctions, 839; omitted, 1436; 
postponed, 1463. 

conscio-, 957. 

consonant conjugation, 518, 521. 

consonant declension, 55, 87. 

consperg-, 905. 

consul- vb., 555. 2. 

consul for consuls ', p. 435. 

contra, 1320. 

contract verbs in Latin, p. 426. 

contracted perfect, 563-7. 

copula, 874. 

copulative conjunctions, 840, 1430 

coram, 1321. 

corona-, 210. 

cred-, 981 n. 

crude form, 41, p. 422; in Sanscrit 
grammars, p. 422; simplicity of, 
p. 438. 

cui bono ? 983 n 

cuicuimodi, 311. 

cum prep., 820, 1322, 1323, 1391. 

cum conj., 1455. 

cum maxume, 1057 d, p. 226. 

cura-, 1168, 1289. 

custom, vbs. of, 1007. 

da-, 549, 732, 975, 1275, 1289. 
dative, 49, 110 n., 950; doubled, 
982; dat. ethic, 978; in poets, 
986,988; of attraction, 985; of 
, fitness, 1293; of motion to, 987; 
i of name, 985; of part, in endo, 
* 1293; of person concerned, 877; 
of person whose body is con- 
j cerned, 972; of purpose, 984; of 
serving as, 983; plur., p. 433; 
sing., p. 432 ; with adj., 961 ; with 
adv., 962; with gerundive, 967; 
with perfect particip., 967 ; with 
static vbs., 963; with sbs., 969; 
with vbs. of giving, 973 j with 
vbs. of taking away, 973. 
de, 1326-8. 
di as a suffix, 366, 800. 

debui, 1257. 
decet, 964 
deciens, 1071. 

declension, 54 ; first or a, 89-99 ; 
second or o, 100-24; third or t, 
125-39 ; third or consonant, 55- 
87 ; fourth or M, 140-44 ; fifth or 
0, 145-8; vowel, 88; irregular, 
157 ; mixed, 148. 1 ; reduced to 
one, p. 423, 429. 
defective nouns, 149, 1032. 
defung-, 1023. 
demonstratives, 286, 1091 
demum, 1447. 
denario-, 1070. 
deo-, 158. 

deponent verbs, 399, 400 ; conju- 
gated, 685. 
derivation, 34 ; of verbs, 740 &c. ; 

from prep., 838. 
desiderative verbs, 755. 
desin-, 940. 
desitus est, 1244. 
detenor-, 812, 814, 824. 
rfi,13-.29. 1330. 
dtc-, 534. 

dicam omitted, 1228. 
digno-, 1016, 1192. 
diminutives, 198 &c. and Appen- 
dix ii. 

diminutive verbs, 750. 
direct interrogative, 308. 
dirim-, 812. 
discrib-, 1329. 
disjunctive conjunctions, 1444 ; 

question, 1423. 
distributive mimbers, 249,252, 262, 

diti-, 221. 

doce-, 553, 556,898, 1236. 
domi, 114,952, 1036. 
domo-, 159. 
dornum, 886, 1036. 
due-, 534. 
dum, 1448. 
duo-, 117, 118, 120. 
duplici-, 1067 n. 

e, 1331. 

e declension, p. 424. 

ea, 304, 366. 

*<?, 811,813, 817, 1331. 

ecastor, 861. 

ecce, 862. 



ecfer-, 811. 

edepol, 861. 

ego, crude form of, 274 n. 

e'ho, 862 n. 

elision, 29. 

ellipsis of sb., 1033; of main verb, 

1227; of verb of requesting, 1204; 

of verb of saying, 1203. 
em-, 1005 n. 
emolumento-, 530 n. 
emphasis decides order of words, 

emphatic adjective precedes, 1468 ; 

emphatic genitive precedes, 1468, 


enclitics, 27, 1473. 
enim, 1449; place of, 1474. 
eo, adv., 304, 366,789. 
epicenes, 190. 
epistolary tenses, 1160. 
epol, 861. 

equidem, 336, 1453 /. n. 
equo-, 124. 1. 
erat first, 1462. 
erga, 1334. 

es-, ' eat,' 722 ; be,' 723. 
esse omitted, 1259. 
est first, 1462. 
et, 1430 &c. ; c also,' 'too,' 1440; 

a proclitic, 1465. 
et non, 1409. 
et neque, 1443. 

et, que, and atque opposed, 1434. 
ethic dat., 978. 
etiam, 1171. 
ctiamnum, 806. 
ex, 1331. 

excess, degree of, 1056.5. 
cxerce , 555. 2. 
existumes, 1228. 
extent of place, &c., 915. 
cxporgisc-, 555. 3. 
, 1335. 

/ae, 1168. 

factitive ace., 896. 

fastidi-, 939. 

faxem, 566, 1209 n.f. 

/cro, 566, 1209 n.t. 

fearing, verbs of, 1186. 

feeling, verbs of, 393, 872, 889, 938, 

939, 1245. 

feminine suffixes, 193. 
V-, 729. 

fi-, 736, 1003. 

fieri, 736 n. 

fi<j-, 535. 
first word emphatic, 1460, 1461. 

foras, 886. 

forbidding, sentences of, 1173-7. 

fore, 725. 

forem, 725 

fore ut, 1260. 

foris, 952. 

forgiving, verbs of, 975. 

fractions, 268-272. 

frag-, 535. 

frequentative verbs, 745. 

freto-, 10d2. 

fru-i 1001, 1287n. 

fu-, 723, 723.1,1152.5. 

./M-i 558. 

fullness, adj. of, 931 ; verbs of, 941. 

fung-, 1287 n. 

future, 439, 441, 447, 448, 466-469 ; 
f. perfect, 476 ; f. perf. subj., 503, 
505, 1226; f. perf. pass., 1263; 
f. periphrastic, 1260; f. for im- 
perative, 1170. 

genders, 39, 183 &c., 1040. 

genitive, 47, 48, 919; sing., p. 430; 
plur., p. 431; emphatic, 1391 e, 
1469, 1470; after gerund, 1286; 
after neut. pron., 922; in it/*, 1 1 
n. ; inpointof,935; objective,927; 
ofcause, 929 ; of'connection, 026 ; 
of definition, 926.1, of quality, 
927; of removal, 930, 940 ; of 
tendency, 1292; partitive, 922; 
place of, 1468, 1472; possessive. 
924 ; subjective, 921 ; with adj., 
929 ; with adv., 923 ; with gerund, 
1286; with possessive, 1048; 
with subs., 920 ; with verbs, 938. 

gentile name, 1046. 

genu-, p. 442, xii. 

genus, 917. 

gerund, 435, 634, 1284-6, 1294, 

gerundive, 1287 &c. 

giving, verbs of, 973. 

Glycerio-, 208. 

gratified-, 971. 

Greek ace., 916; nouns, 166 &c. 

gus-1 748. 

habe-, 386. 

habesrit, origin of form, p. 427- 



hau, 1404. 1. 
haud, 1416.1. 
historic present, 449 n., 455; hist. 

infin., 1253. 
ho-, 295-300, 1092 &c. 
hoc adv. 300. 
hocine, 293. 
hodie, 804. 
hordeo-, 207.2. 
korsum, 366 n. 

house, 1035, 1303 /., 1305 o., 1311 c. 
huius, 947. 
Awnt, 114, 952. 
hypothetical sentences, 496-9, 705, 

1153,1209, 1223. 

i consonans, 9. 

* conjugation, 519, 528, 529. 

i declension, 125-39, p. 424. 

z- or eo-, 302, 1113&C. 

i=y, 25. 

i- verb, 737. 

iace-, 386. 

iam, 1450. 

t, 304, 366. 

i-dem, 342.1, 1132. 

z^ifwr, place of, 1474. 

ignora-, 1338 n. 

ignosc-, 762 /*., 979, 980, 1308. 3. 

ilico, 797. 

UK, UKm, adv., 298, 366. 

illo-, 287 &c., 1101 &c. 

t#o adv., 298, 366. 

tmo-? 748. 

irnbu-, 1308. 3. 

imminu-, 1308.3. 

two-, 823, 1429. 

impera-, 1281. 

imperative, 421,422, 42*, 479, 593, 
1163, 1173. 

imperfect, 439 &c.; conjugated, 
556; infin. 506-13; past, 459-65. 

impersonal verb, 371, 393, 699-701, 
872; conjugated, 699, 700; pas- 
sive, 383, 701. 

in, 913, 1336. 

incip-, 1308.3. 

inde, 304, 366. 

indefinite pronouns, 1138 &c. 

indicative, 1152.8; for subj. 1215; 
of concession, 1156; of supposi- 
tion, 1155. 

indirect interrogative, 318, 494, 495, 

indirect oration, 492, 1201. 

indirect question, 1196. 

infero-, 822. 

infinitive, 430-2, 506-13, 1232 &c. ; 
after adj 1254; after relative or 
conjunction, 1251 ; and ace. 1238- 
1240; as a gen., 1252; historic, 
1253; imperfect, 509, 512,513, 
625; in poets, 1255; of hypo- 
thesis, 1261 ; ofindignation, 1247 ; 
passive, 1244; perfect, 510,511, 
628 ; with prep., 1233. 

infitias, 886. 

informa-, 1308. 3. 

infra, 1339. 

inhibe-, 1308.5. 

inquam, 408. 

inser-^ 906. 

instar, 833. 1. 

insueto-, 1254. 

intelleg-, 818. 

inter, 1340, 1341, 1393 n., 1395 n. 

inter, 'up,' 818, 834 d., 1342. 1. 

inter se, 1087. 

interclud-, 1342. 1. 

interdic-, 1023, 1342. 1. 

interest, 910, 948. 

interfic-, 1342. 1. 

interi-, 1342. 1. 

interim, 797. 

interiug-, 1342. 1. 

interjections, 860. 

interlunio-, 210. 1. 

intermit-, 1 342. 1. 

interpola-, 1342. 1. 

interrogative, direct, 308,1 134,1417- 
1419, 1423, 1425, 1426 ; double, 
1136; indirect, 318, 494, 495, 
1196, 1197, 1420-1424; par- 
ticles, 1417 ; pronouns, 1134 &c. 

infra, 1 343. 

intransitive verb, 373, 378, 394 ; 
used transitively, 401-403. 

intro, 1344. 

intumesc-, 1308. 3. 

inuide-, 979, 1023, 980. 

inuicto-, 763. 

ipso-, 326, 1090. 

iri, 1262. 

irregular nouns, 149 &c. 

irregular verbs, 392 &c. 

is ea id, 302. 

isti adv., 299. 

istim adv., 299. 



itti. 1451. 
iterum, 322. 
i;^-, 53.5. 

, } 60. 

iuxta, 1345. 

Ar only before a, 6. 

Karthagini, 951. 

Keltic suffix a^A in Latin, p. 439. 

/or//? 257 

lab-, -, 

lapiderum, '.'>' 

last word emphatic, 1 ! 

last word in an hexameter begin- 

ning a clause, I46.'i n. 
fo/7/ra, 543. 
leaves, 1031. 
letters, number of, 2. 
/>',era-, 940 n. 
libram, 1075. 
/>/;/, 807 n. 
i/, 1257. 

, for lintris, p. 437. 
liquids, order of, 3. 
/W/Z-, 1280. 

logical pronoun, 301, 1112. 
lucta-, 956. 

..,' referred to in notes, 725, 
..951,1141, 1163, 1165,117o, 
1182, 1195, 1202, 1205, 
1224, 1236, 1287, 1288, 13:i7 i., 
1337, 1404.1, 1423, 1405. 1. 
mur/ii, 776. 1. 
maior, 1055. 1. 
t n I u in re m. 
TO, 1221. 
i. . 
manica-, 2 1 0. 

--, 207. 1. 
masculine suffixes, 1.91. 


,979, 980. 
medica-, [)l't. 
memini, 390, 943. 

memonr, verbs of, 943, 



Mileti, 951 n. 

rmVi-, 257, 1064, 

minor-, 1055. 1. 

minus, 776. 1, 1055. 1. 

mmz-, 939. 

mirum quantum, 1200. 

miJtcc-, 956. 

mixed numbers, 1065. 1 4. 

rnodera - . 

modo. 7 

moods, 423 &c. 

wior- conjugated, 557. 

mutas for mmam, p. 432. 

nam, 1452. 

ne, 1173, 1179, 1228, 1402 ; a pro- 
clitic, 1465; differs from ut nora, 
3408 .; nequidem, 1405, 1453 

w, verily,' 862. 

n<T, 1417/1420; affixed to interro- 

gatives, 1425 n.; repeated, 1424. 
nearness, adj. of, 955. 
nearness, verbs of, 956. 
nee-, 534. 
nee a proclitic, 1465 j 'not ven,' 

1106. 1. 

neceane est, 1246 . 
nedum, 1228. 
nega-* 1404 n. 

negatives accumulated, 1411. 
negative particles, 1402. 
negative repeated, 1412. 
neg-leg-, 83 1 /., n. 
nemon-, 1149. 1. 
ng-ywe et , 1443. 
nef/ue rfui&quam, 1406. 
ner/uitur, 1244 n. 
neiicio, 410 n. ; nescio an, 1421. 
nescio-qui-, 1109. 
neue, 1416. 

neuter nom. in i/m, p. 443, xxii. 
neuter nom. rejects*, why ? p. 43. 3. 
neuter-passives, i 
neuter pronouns, .009. 
neuter suffixes, 194. 
nig- oiniu-, 162. 
nihil for nun, 1410. 
nimix, 776. 1. 
nimium- quantum, 1200. 
ni/-, 555.3; 1001. 



'no,' how expressed, 1428. 

nolim, 1221. 

nollem, 1221. 

nominative, 44, 48, 368, 867; for 

voc., 880; form of, p. 425; plur., 

p. 437; power of, p. 433, 439; 

singular, p. 433 &c. 
non, 1402 ; a proclitic, 1465 ; place 

of, 1403. 

non modo for non modo non ? 1415. 
non nemo, 1411 n. 
non quin, 1208. 
non quo, 1208. 
non quod, 1454/. 
non-emphatic words, where placed, 


noui, 389. 
no*, H'82. 
noun in apposition, where placed, 


no/me, 1419. 
nub-, 533, 977. 
nuccrum, 376 n. 
nudiustertius, 805. 
nullo- for non, 1410. 
num, 1419, 1423 n. 
number, 52 ; differs from English 

idiom, 1026 ; concord of, 1 040. 
numerals, 247 &c.; place of, 1471. 1. 
numquid tm, 1 183 n. f. 
nuncine, 792. 
wiper, 778. 

o conjugation, 519, 520. 

o declension, p 424. 

o final in verbs, 410. 

ob prep., 1346; in com p., 1347; 

em, 830 n. 
obiter, 797. 
objective gen., 927. 
.o'tliviso-, 943. 
obliqua oratio, 492, 1201. 
ohsoleso-, 555. 1. 
oculo-, 207. 3. 
>rfi, 390. 
officio-, 1469 n. 
o/fl-t/-, 1308. 2. 
o;js-, 999. 
opitnfa-, 742. 1 n. 
oportet, 1246 n. 
ojw* */, 1280. 
order of words, 1458. 
ordinal numbers, 248, 252, 261. 

1065. 1. 

ordo for ordons, p. 435. 
owner, 1036. 2. 

paenitet, 889, 938. 

pag-, 535. 

joa/am, 782, 1348. 

parato-, 1254. 

pare-, 979, 980. 

pare-, 956. 

4 part of,' 1057. t. 

parti- verb, 398. 

participle, 436, 514 &c., 1264 ; for 
abstract differs from adj., 934 n. ; 
in endo, 1 296 ; in endo with es-> 
712; in endo with /-, 715; in 
i/i, 1265; in /o, 1270; in furo, 
1261,1268; in<urowithe*-,702; 
in furo with /a-, 705; perfect, 
892; perfect, circumlocution for, 
1281; question in, 1135. 

particles, 764. 

partitive gen., 922, 925. 

pose-, 1001. 

passive, 379, 880,570; conjugated, 
655; impersonal, 701, 981; of 
saving and thinking, 1-41. 

past imperfect, 459-65, 580-2; past 
perfect, 473; ind. 588, 589; subj. 

pater for paters, p. 435. 

ptiter, p. 437. 

pause in hexameter, 1464 n. 

penalty, gen. of, 945. 

penes, 1349. 

pensi, 947 n. 

per, 1350 ; in comp., 1351 ; of de- 
struction, 1351 n. . 

per me slat, 1183 n. 

perd-, 1351. 

perfect, 439 &c., 442, 443, 478, 
533 &c.; form of, 471; conjuga- 
tion of, 561; contracted, 563-7; 
present, 472; infin., 510, 511, 
1256-1258; of intransitives, 477 ; 
third person of, 472 w, ; use of, 478. 

perinde, 800. 

permission, subj. in, 489. 

personal pronouns, 274, 1076. 

personal suffixes, 406 &c. 

personal verb, 370. 

play, 535. 

plural suffixes of nouns, 52 ; of 
verbs, 414 &c. 

plural for sing., 1026. 



p/u,, 245 n., 77K. 1., 1055. 1. 
pnrim-, !>7. r > n. 

Jinl fitiy-, HI It. 

polysyndeton, 1 i 

plllllfli, I H7.'. 

/<///, I 

y-, HIS, S.'M r, I 

POTTO, 788. 

.idj , K). 1 7; ).;eii., 924-25. 
pronouns, ;{. r >!). 

/-, :uu;. 

/H",/, I.';,'. I ; in coin p., I 
pn.1,11,,, SOU. 

pOXtf/tllllll, 9.V. //. 

ini-, 6 
// vrrh, .'H'.', l'.!f!7 . 

, l.';.''.ii ; in romp., l:i.V/. 

/<- 1 542 // 

rr. l.V.9; in comp., l.'iflO. 

predicate, M7.|. 

pivpositions, HOI!, }!.{(,!) I- I // . 

I .'inn, i:97; caie after, !'i i . ; 

< II.HI;;.- ol' Conn in. Si/!) \'c. ; La 
I ill Coinpiiinl wit ll ( i irrk, .S.'JK //., 

Jt.'5 1' //.; nir;iniii:; of, !,'!!)! n.* ; 
omitted, i:i!M; pi.irr <,i, I ;;.'! ;;. 
prtMnl tente, i r, M2 B| bid 

.') ; lil.storic, II!) //.., I,),") ; pi-i'f., 
; p<-rf. in.l., 

584, 687 1 p-'ii" Niihj., (il;>-(i2(). 
PIH-C, loor,. 

/.rinin , J!'J!:J, IQ50, 
firinini--, H;{S //. 
principal part-, ,,.'-! ,Vc. 

prior-, '2;i. 

fii-HiM^i'iin, I '.'.'M . I. 

/*/, l.'JIil ; in OOmp , 1 " 

|.roclii' !, I KM- I, 1 Ki-". 


pi <>!:, \\frl n. 

proliil,,- , L2 

proiml,', HOO. 

j,ronomin;il ;idvcrl>s, .'ililJ, 1 !/>(). 

pronouns, 1?7 ; ' <^c.; di-nionsl i vc, 

indefinite, I I-'!!', i\ c. ; inl, i 

tivc, n;;|. &o, ; logical, :;ou 

II I'.'; peiso.Kll, 874, K>7r.; pos- 
Scssivr, ;;,-).'!, KUiit; M'llccllVc, 

27 H-Sr,. KMJ-HJ). 

, i 

nr , !)OH. 

prosnm, 7 OR. 

I'M.-ndn-NepOH, 951 n.f; 1423 . 
;*//////, 9,38. 
p?/<?r for p'K-rns, p. 4.37. 

pul HI:;, H, p. I '.!(;. 
punishment, vrrlis of, !*7- r ' //. 
I.IM-JMIS.-, I!K), 1107. 

y//i7, ,'U5, 316. 

i/llillll Wltll ('(imp., 10, r ). r ) ; with : up., 

l(). r >7 f.| ;i. pmclilic, I Hi.',. 
</iiiii(/it<t>n, .'>.")!!, 7.'' I . 
i/nomuis, l',r,'2, 7!' 1, 
i/ininilii, 7-''. r i, I l, r ), r > ;'. 

l/IKIIlli, '.I l() //. 

VMI/.S-;, ID!), I 

////, J:MJ ., i I:;D ,^c. ; displaced, 


i veil), 7''^. 

- or V//U-, ."O.'J, 1120-31; 'unv/ 
n;;s ; ;-, 1131, 

/" fnni/iif, I I !(>, I I -iS. 

</ it id ni i. 1 17'.' n. 
iiniilijiinil, I I.' I //. 

7//i I/HIM, .;!:;, 1 1 if.. 

7///W/-///, !!. r '7 -, KIHO, M()3, 1-11.1, 

i i.v; ; plao of, 1474, 

f/ni Inln'l, I II !. 

(/ill nil in, .'! l'(i. 

r/^//' fiiinii, '.' !.'>, 1 I !.">. 

i/ui/i/ir i/ii'i with sulij., I !.' I /. 

<////' i/iiiiin, -'!!'!, Ill '. 

i/ni-t/m; 847-5 ; . 92 ! L, 

v///- y ///- , 1 1 17, 1 158. 

,,l,i II,:,, 851, Mil. 

V ( /. 1 l.M; will. ,-///*-, !22. 
t/iiiiinliini, 792. 
t/iiiiinin, I I.)-' /'. /'. 
<H"x/K,-, place of, 1171. 

v//./j , IM;;, i (in.', i. 

, 122!), 12H1 /;, 

rather,' IO.MI. .'!. 
/V///0 for rut ions, |> 

b., I'ltl /;. 
rt, 'hack, 1 I 
ri'i-iifiiin-, I .'Hi/ //. f. 
reciprocal verbs, ;>!)IJ. 
m/i;;i- t 12119. 



reduplication, 471* 

rediit, 472 w. 

rSfert, 910,948. 

reliecti ve pronoun, 278-N5, 1083-9; 

omitted, 1249. 
reflective verb, 374 &c.; 398-400; 

conjugated, 570, b'36. 
regerum, 376 n. 
relative, 37, 1120-31; attraction 

of, 1061; double form of, 353-8, 

1158; postponed, 1403. 
remit-, 975. 
repeated action, 1159. 
reported speech, 1201. 
reppuli, 555. 2. 
re-publica-, 103. 
rescisc-, 1367. 
result, suhj. of, 491, 1408. 
retice-, 1367. 
wfro, 1868, 
rite, 770. 

Kitsd.l, 1319 n., 1404. 1. 
rixa-, 391. 
road by which, 1008. 
roya-, 903. 
roots, 30. 
rosa-, 1031. 
rt*-, 390. 
rvp-, 533. 
rwri, 952. 
rv/.v, 880. 
rusum, 798. 

* final lost in nom., p. 435. 

sacrificing, vbs. of, 1006. 

sanyui-, p. 9. 

Mtto, 77'i. 1. 

scilicet, H07. 

crt6-, 5:',:;. 

e, 1083, 1369; crude form of, 280. 

second person, 1152. 3, 117.1, 


second word non-emphatic, 147.3. 
secondary clauses, 1225. 
secnndum, 1371. 
secus, 917. 

scd, 8.'14, 1:109; a ])roclitic, 14 G5. 
sedition-, 815 w. 
seme I, 26 4 n. 
semper, 778. 

sera- or *enec-, 164. 207. 1. 
Bouse supersedes form, 1038. 
*er-, 542 n. 
sermocina-, 745 n. 

-, 971. 

-, 1063. 
io-t 272, 1070. 

tester titan, 1073. 

showing, vbs. of, 976'. 

si, 490-9, 1153, 11, VI, 115.'), 1209; 
omitted, 1219; as an interroga- 
tive, 1422; a proclitic, 1465. 

sic, 300, 1451 g, n. 

simple voice, 405. 

simplici-, 264 n. 

simul, 853, 854. 

sin-, 1236. 

sincero-, 264 n. 

sine, 1372. 

sing, for pi., 1032. 

.vt-yw-, 1139, 1140. 

aiwe, 1157. 

smelling, vbs. of, 8.05. 

nodes, 1361, c, n. 

*o/o-, 110, 1050, 1192. 

sordido-, 555. 1 n. 

*or/i- vb., 39JJ. 

Kpnrii-, 535. 

spondee, 410 w. 

static verb, 385, 3!) 1 . 

sio- pron., 288 n. 

Btreiigtli.-iicd form of verb, 451. 1. 

stude , !>;;.'). 

made-, 1\). 

sub, 913, l.",73-(j. 

*iilnci- t 812n. 

.subject, 874. 

lubject-accuiatiye, 911, 1248-50. 

subjective gen., 921. 

subjunctive, 4*27-9, 481-505, 1178 
&-c.; as a future, 600-5, 1226; 
for imperat. 1167; in commands, 
488, 1180; in concessions, 1227 
1 1 in elliptical sentences, 1227; 
in hypothesis, 496-9, 1209 &c. ; 
in indirect <|ucstions, 494, 495, 
1 196 ; in oliliiiua oratio, 1201-6; 
in parenthesis, 1195 ; in permis- 
sion, 489, 1180; in puijM.'ses, 
400, 1179; in results 491, 1182; 
of duty, 1227 /; of indignation, 
1227 e; of possibility, 1227 a; 
ofpfoiyer, 1227 d ; translated as 
indie., 491, 493, 494; with ut 
t/ui, 1194 n. 

substantive, number of, 1026 ; in 
predicate, 1060 ; in a, o, i, , e, 
have lost a guttural, p. 440, iL 



&c. ; in ab-ulo, p. 441, iv. ; in 
ac-ulo, p. 440, iii.; in ac-ro, p. 

440, iii. ; in ag-on, p. 440, ii. ; 
in arn-ento &c. p. 443, xxii. ; in 
c, p. 441, ix. ; in ic-ula, p. 441, 
xii. ; in ec or c, p. 441, vii. ; in 
ec-ula, p. 441, xii. ; in ed-on, p. 
444, xxvii. ; in et, p. 443, xxvi. ; 
in e-/o, p. 441, x. ; in ic-ulo, p. 

441, xii.; in it-ia, p. 444, xxvii.; 
in it-udon, p. 444 5 xxvii. ; in it- 
ut, p. 444, xxvii. 

subter, 1378 ; in comp., 1379. 
suffix, 32 ; of adj., 225-234 ; of 

masculine subs., 191, 192; of 

feminine, 193 ; of neuters, 194 ; 

personal, 406 &c. 
sum, sunt, explained, p. 429. 
summo-, 823. 
suo-, 361, 1083. 
suppedita-, 396. 
supelleff-, 818. 

super, 1380; in comp., 1382. 
superlative, 240-46, 1057 ; from 

prep., 838. 
supine, 433, 434, 887, 998, 1299- 


supra, 1383. 
suscip-, 1289. 
susum, 798. 
syllable long by nature, 14 ; long 

by position, 15; short, 13. 
symbols, numerical, 251. 
syntax, 866. 

tag-, 535. 

taking away, verbs of, 973. 

tanquam, 1223. 

fund, 946 n. 

tantum, 1065. 1 c. 

te as a dat., 977 n. 

telling, verbs of, 976. 

tempera-, 979. 

'temple,' 1035. 

tene-, 3H6. 

tense, 437 &c. 

tenses of Latin verb, 451 &c. 

tenus, 1384, 1391 b. 

tepefac-, 756. 

ter, 783, p. 437. 

terg-, 535. 

< that of,' 1036. 1. 

third person, quantity of, 412. 

tig-, 535. 

time, difference of, 1017 ; how long, 
915; within which, 993-5 ; when, 

' too,' 1056. 

torque-, 553. 

towns, 884, 951, 990, 1021. 

traic-, 900. 

trans, 1386. 

transitive verb, 372 ; used reflec- 
tively, 394-7. 

trusting, verbs of, 974, 1002. 

tu, crude form of, 275. 

v. consonans=>, 10, 25. 

u conjugation, 519, 526-7. 

u declension, 140-4, p. 424. 

ubi, 315, 366, 953-4. 

ubique, 347, 366. 

ue, 1444, n.; displaced, 1441. 

uel, 840, 1057/1. 

uelle, how formed, p. 436. 

uend- t 542. 

uenum, 886. 

vere- 9 939. 

uero, 1456; place of, 1474. 

uesc-, 1001. 

iteta-, 1236, 1237, 1243. 

irfc-, 534. 

uicem, 917. 

uiciens, 1071. 

uiciniae, 1150. 

//o-, 334, 1 142. 

uls, 1389. 

ultumo-, 823. 

ultra, 1390. 

ultra, 788. 

ultumo-, 823. 

unde, 305 n., 315, 1150. 

undeclined subs., 1032. 1. 

WHO-, 1062. 

uorsus, 1387, 1391 A. 

ut, 316, 796, 1451 j a proclitic, 


/-, 1001, 1287w. 
utinam, 796. 
utique, 347, 796. 
7*/w/, 358, 796. 
w/ ym with subj., 1194 ??. 
utrum, construction of, 1425. 

vegetables, 1030. 

verb, S67 &c.; after emphatic word, 
1467; derivation of, 740 ; dimi- 
nutive, 750 ; frequentative, 745; 



impersonal, 371; of saying, 
&c., 1238 ; of wishing, 1242 ; 
place of, 1458, 1461, 1467 ; in 
a. 522 ; in a^r, p. 440, iii. ; in 
cina, 745 n. ; in e, 386, 524 ; p. 
443, xxiii. ; in eo or ic, p. 442, 
xviii.; in esc or isc, p. 443, xxv.; 
in ess or to, 754, p. 443, xxv. ; 
in ff, p. 442, xix. ; in *, 528, p. 
443, xxiv. ; in ita, p. 443, xxvi. ; 
in ra, p. 442, xxii. ; in o, 519, p. 
427 ; in p, p. 442, xx. ; in t final 
long, p. 428 ; in turi, 755 ; in 
u, 526, p. 427, p. 442, xvii. ; 
in ab, eb, ib, 6, p. 442, xxi. ; in- 
ceptive, 752; intransitive, 373- 
8 ; irregular, 392 ; of accusing, 
944 ; of buying, 946 ; of com- 
manding, &c., 1180 ; of compar- 
ing, 956 n.-, of duty, 1217; of 
fearing, 1186; of feeling, 393, 
889, 938-9 ; of hindrance, 1138 ; 
of memory, 943 ; of requesting 
omitted, 1204; of saying omitted, 
1203 ; of smelling, 895 ; of wish- 
ing, 1242; passive, 380 &c. ; 
personal, 370; place of, 1437, 

1467, 1468; plural suffixes of, 
414 &c. ; reciprocal, 398; reflec- 
tive, 374 &c., 398-400 ; static, 
385-91 ; transitive, 372. 

verbal sb., 1264; in tion, 1302; 
in tu y 887, 1299. 

tn-, 165. 

vita-, 1029. 

vocative, 43 w., 882 ; fornom. 883; 
place of, 1474 n. 

vocifera-, 742. 1 n. 

vol-, 733. 

vowels, order of, 3 ; vowel silent, 
24 ; vowel-assimilation, p. 444, 

weather, 1027. 

words opposed, place of, 1475. 

worth, gen. of, 947 

x, last letter, 2 ;=&*, 5 ; or rather 
X2, 813 n. 

y not a Latin letter, 2. 
'yes,' how expressed, 1427. 

z not a Latin letter, 2. 


(It will be found convenient either to correct the text herefrom, or to affix 
the words : ' See Addenda.') 

44, 45, 47, 49. For beam read * tree or beam.' 

89. For cornu read cornu in the nom. voc. ace., for although Greek 
neuters in u, like all other neuters, prefer a final short vowel, and 
although a short u is here claimed by the grammarians, as by Dioin. 
p. 308, 1. 15, ed. Keil ; Prob. 31, 26, and 32, 32 ; Pomp. 172, 4, and 185, 2; 
yet we find nuda genu Verg. A. 1, 320, and Ov. M. 10, 536 ; cornu Ov. 
F, 3, 869 ; gelu Ov. Nux, 106 ; and nowhere a short u. 

236. To [quadr-] append as a note : Brackets in the form [] denote 
obsolete or theoretic words. 

344. Dele quaequam, as never found. 

366, 1. 2. For de ( = *) read 6 ( = w). 

472.1, note }. Dele the first eight lines. 

503, 1. 10. Bead accepturum. 

532. Add : The order of words is alphabetical, reckoning backwards. 

533. After 1. 8, add sap- or s&pi- taste, be wise, s&pere, sapio, papui. 

540, 1. 18. Eead claud- or clud- shut (eland- standing for clauid- ; 
cf. the sb. *xfr$- a bar). 

540, 1. 25. After quatio insert per-cussi. 
last line but one. For uorti read uerti. 
last line. For sist- make to stand, read set-, sist- stop. 

548. After 1. 6, insert plu- rain, plugre, pluit, pluuit, or pluit. 

554. Add senti- or sen- feel, sentire, sentio, sensi, sensum. 

555.3, 1. 16. After nic- add or met-. 

570. Add to imperative fut. : A form without the final r was pre- 
ferred, as censento (= censentor) Corp. Inscr. Momms. 198, 77. Cf. Madv. 
op. 2, 241. 

722.1. Add : perf. part. c5mesto-, c5messo-, or cOmeso-. 

732. Add: the passive also has a short vowel in datur, dabatur, 
d&bitur, subj. daretur, inf. dari, part. d&to-. 

745. Dele note *. 

774. Dele altogether. 

777. For itus or tus read us ; and, in note, for ftv read iv ; and add : 
This us is often cut down to e (cf. ipsus, ipse), as in peregre", from 
abroad; supernS, from above; infemS, from below; ind-6, from this; 
und-6, from which. 

788, ]. 2. For tro read ro ; also write ret-ro, cit-ro, etc. 

800, 1. 6 . Dele ever and anon. 

830. The first meaning of inter is under; of ob, after; of per and 
trans, over. 

831. The first meaning of in is down; hence imus for inimus, 
lowest. Cf. iv-igoi, sv-t(>0iv. 

834, 1. 3. For ambur- burn round, ambed- eat round, substitute: 
am-ici- throw round, clothe with, am-plect- (r) fold oneself round, embrace. 

886. Add after infitias exequias, suppetias. 

958. Transfer first example to 959. 

1068, last line. Dele sets of, as catena originally meant a hoop or 
link, and only catenae in the pi. a cliain. 

1 156. Add : Other examples are seen in Laudabunt alii .... 
me nee tarn, &c., Hor. Od. 1, 7, 1 ; Est ut uiro uir . . . aequa lege 
Necessitas, &c., Od. 3, 1, 9; Optat quietem . . . ., Optat Prometheus 
. . ., Optat supremo . . . sed uetant leges louis, EpocL 17, 65; Cupio 
. . . Cupio . . . sed, Cic. Cat. 1, 2. 

1184, last ex. For Cic. read Plane, ad Cic. 

1228, 1. 10. For Mortalia facta read Facta. 
1. 19. For better read much better. 

1236,1.7. For Herus read Erus. 

1256, 3rd ex. Head Bacas. 

1295, 1. 1 and 4. For gerundive read gerund or gerundive. 

1308, 1. 2. Dele anquir- look round for. 

1309 c. For example Dicere, etc. substitute : Ego baiulabo : tu ut 
decet dominum, ante me ito inanis (Plaut. As. 3, 3, 70), I'll do the 
porter's work; you as becomes a master shall go before me without anythiny 
to carry. Add: Pone me erat Aegina, ante Megara (Sulp. ad Cic. lam. 
4, 5, 4) ; Unam cohortem quae ante ceteras extra aciem procurrerat 
(Caes. B. C. 1, 55, 3); Ante se statuit funditores (Liv. 42, 58, 10). 

1338. Begin with: In in composition means, first, down, asin-curuo- 
bent down, m-clina- bend down, in-fleet- bend down ; secondly, into, etc. 

1340. The first meaning of inter is under, aqua inter cutem dropsy 
(Gels.); hence too interula (sc. uestis) under-clothing; cf. Germ, unter, 
our under, and the simple in down. 

1346. The first meaning of ob (= er<) is after; hence occiput, 
the back of the head ; cf. obsequi. 

1350. Per is decapitated from super and means, first, over, as Ire 
praecipitem in lutum per caputque pedesque (Catul. 20, 9) to go head- 
foremost into the mud, o'er head and heels alike. Add: Ibi per stragem 

iacentium elephamorum atrox edita caedes (Liv. 26, 6, 2 whore Madvid 
against MSS. would read super stngem); Equus pilo traiectus quum 
prolapsum per caput regem etfudisset (27, 32, 35); Ponte per Nilum 
facto (44, 19, 9). 

1351. Per in composition means, first, over, as per-fund- pour all 
over, per-ung- anoint all over; hence too per-uide- = (Hor.) overlook, 
per-fuga = transfuga = G. iiberlaufer one who goes over (to the enemy). 

1367. He (rec) in composition means, first, up, as re-curuo- bent up, 
re-pando- the same, re-cubo- lie with the back raised, re-sld-e- sit up (in bed), 
reci-proco- up and down = our ridge and furrow. 

1408, 1. 4. For so many engagements read engagements so important. 

1454 e, subdiv. a, 1. 4. For wish you to remain read insist on your 

1465. Add: In collating a MS. (Harl. i.?) of Liv. 6, 1-17, many 
years ago, at the British Museum, I found the above words written as 
proclitics, the number of times here stated: ut IB, si 8, nisi 1, sen 1, et 1, 
nee 7, ne 7, non 23, aut 1 , at 1, an 2, quam 4. Also qui 2, guae 1, qua 1, 
quo 1, quod 4, quum 6, quin 2, turn 4, tarn 1, iam 2, sic 2, se 9, te 1, 
etiamsi 1. Further, 251 monosyllabic prepositions against 48 not so 
written, and 10 disyllabic prepositions against 7 not so written. The 
same collation exhibited written as enclitics : sum 1, sunt 1, est 3, esse t, 
sim 2, erat 5, erant 1, se 7, sui 1, quisque 2, tamen 1, enim 1, and even 
summaui for summa ui (compare summopere). 

Page 435, 1. 32. Attach to the word 'assimilation' the note: f So 
v, 6a.ffos, vvgfos, of Ionic and Old Attic became in later Attic 

Page 435, 1. 35. Attach to the word ' compensation ' the note : J So 
wo, (for ?) of the purer Aeolic became in Attic xvuvu, 
and tyt^a, ifih^u became tysi^u, qfaigu. See Liddell and Scott 

under N and P, where however the change is reversed. 

Page 437, 1. 15. To %tig append the note : f A nominative %tt 

appears in an epigram of Timocreon's in Hephaestion wig/ furfur 1 : 

rJa ffVftfiovXtVtIV %t(>S O.'TO, V9Vf $t TTKoat,. 

In Index. Neuter nom. rejects s, why? For p. 43.3 read p. 433 j 
for quidquod read quid quod. 

28 Caetla St. Leicester Sq. 

Also, by the same Author, 



Crown 8vo. cloth, price 3s. 6d. 
London : BELL AND DALDT, York Street, Coveut Garden. 



Svo. price 10. 6d. 
London : BELL AND DALDY. 1868. 

October, 1876. 






Full Catalogues will be sent post free on application. 


A Series of Greek and Latin Authors, with English Notes ,- edited by 

eminent Scholars. Svo. 
.ffisehylus. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 18s. 

Cicero's Orations. By G. Long, M.A. 4 vols. 16*., 14s., 16s., 1 8s. 
Demosthenes. By R. Whiston, M.A. 2 vols. 16s. each. 
Euripides. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 3 vols. 16s. each. 
Homer. By F. A. Paley, M.A. Vol. I. 12s. ; Vol. II. 14s. 
Herodotus. By Rev. J. W. Blakesley, B.D. 2 vols. 325. 
Hesiod. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 10s. 6d. 
Horace. By Rev. A. J. Macleane, M.A. 18s. 
Juvenal and Persius. By Rev. A. J. Macleane, M.A. 12*. 
Plato. By W. H. Thompson, D.D. 2 vols. 7s. 6d. each. 
Sophocles. By Rev. F. H. Blaydes, M.A Vol. I. 18s. 
Tacitus : The Annals. By the Rev. P. Frost. 15s. 
Terence. By E. St. J. Parry, M.A. 18s. 
Virgil. By J. Conington, M.A. 3 vols. 12s., 14s., 14s. 

An Atlas of Classical Geography; Twenty-four Maps. By W. 
Hughes and George Long, M.A. New edition, with coloured outlines. 
Imperial Svo. 12s. 6d. 

Uniform with above. 
A Complete Latin Grammar. By J. W. Donaldson, D.D. 3rd 

edition. 14s. 

A Complete Greek Grammar. By J. W. Donaldson, D.D. 3rd 
edition. 16s. 

George Bell and Sons' 


A Series of Greek and Latin Authors, with English Notes. Fcap 8vo. 

Caesar de Bello Gallico. By George Long, M.A. 5s. 6rf. 

Books I.-III. For Junior Classes. By G.Long,M.A. 2s.6d. 

Catullus, Tibullus' and Propertius. Selected Poems. With Life. By 

Rev. A. H. Wratislaw. Bs. 6d. 
Cicero: De Senectute, De Amicitia, and Select Epistles. By 

George Long, M.A. 4s. 6tf. 

Cornelius Ne^pos. By Rev. J. F. Macmichael. 2s. 6d. 
Homer : Iliad. Books I.-XII. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 6s. 6rf. 
Horace. With Life. By A. J. Macleane, M.A. 6s. Qd. 
Juvenal : Sixteen Satires. By H. Prior, M.A. 4s. Qd. 
Martial: Select Epigrams. With Life. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 6s. 6cL 
Ovid : the Fasti. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 5s. 

Sallust : Catilina and Jugurtha. With Life. By G. Long, M.A. 6s. 
Tacitus: Germania and Agricola. By Rev. P. Frost. 3s. Qd. 

Virgil. Bucolics, Georgics, and ,<Eneid, Books I.-IV. Abridged 

from Professor Conington's edition. 5s. 6d. 

(The Bucolics and Georgics, in one volume. 3s.) 

^neid,Bks.Y.-XII. Abgd. from Prof. Conington's Ed. 5s.6rf. 

Xenophon: the Anabasis. With Life. By Rev. J. F. Macmichael. 5s. 

The Cyropaedia. By G. M. Gorham, M.A. 6s. 

Memorabilia. By Percival Frost, M.A. 4s. 6d. 

4 Grammar- School Atlas of Classical Geography. Containing Ten 

selected Maps. Imperial 8vo. 5s. 

Uniform with the Series. 

The New Testament, in Greek. With English Notes, &c. By 
Rev. J. F. Macmichael. 7s. Bd. 


JEschylus. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 3s. 

Caesar de Bello Gallico. By G. Long, M.A. 2. 

Cicero de Senectute et de Amicitia, et Epistolae Selectse. By 

G. Long, M.A. Is. 6d. 

Ciceronis Orationes. Vol I. (in Verrem). By G. Long, M.A. 3s. 6d. 
Euripides. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 3 vols. 3s. 6rf. each. 
Herodotus. By J. G. Blakesley, 1>.D. 2 vols. 7s. 
Homeri Ilias. I.-XII. IJy F. A. Paley, M.A. 2s. 6rf. 

Educational Works. 

Horatius. By A. J. Macleane, M.A. 2s. Gd. 

Juvenal et Persius. By A. J. Macleane, M.A. I*. Gd. 

Lucretius. By H. A. J. Munro, M.A. 2s. Gd. 

Sallusti Crispi Catilina et Jugurtha. By G. Long, M.A. Is. Gd. 

Terenti Comcediae. By W. Wagner, Ph.D. 3s. 

Thucydides. By J. G. Donaldson, D.D. 2 vols. 7s. 

Virgilius. By J. Conington, M.A. 3s. Gd. 

Xenophontis Expeditio Cyri. By J. F. Macmiehael, B.A. 2s. Gd. 

Novum Testamentum Grsecum. By F. H. Scrivener, M.A. 4s. Gd. 
An edition with wide margin for notes, 7s. 6d. 


>A Selection of the most usually read of the Greek and Latin Authors* 

Annotated for Schools. Fcap Svo. 
Euripides, Alcestis. By F. A. Paley, M.A. Is. Gd. 

Medea. By F. A. Paley, M.A. Is. Gd. 

Hippolytus. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 

Hecuba. By F. A. Paley, M.A. [In the press. 

!schylus. Prometheus Vinctus. By F. A. Paley, M.A. Is. erf- 
Ovid. Selections. By A. J. Macleane, M.A. Is. 6d. 


A. Series of Classical Texts, annotated by well-Ttnown^Scholtirs. 

Crown Svo. 

Aristophanes. The Peace. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 4s. Gd. 
The Acharnians. By F. A. Paley. {Immediately. 

Cicero. The Letters to Atticus. Bk. I. By A. Pretor, M.A. 4s. Gd. 
Demosthenes de Falsa Legatione. By K. Shilleto, M.A. 6s. 

The Oration against the Law of Leptines. By B. W. Beat- 
son, M.A. 

Plato. The Apology of Socrates and Crito. By W. Wagner, Ph.D. 

4s. 6d. 

The Phsedo. By W. Wagner, Ph.D. 5*. Gd. 

The Protagoras. By W. Wayte, M.A. 4s. Gd. 

Plautus. The Aulularia. By W. Wagner, Ph.D. [Immediately. 

Trinummus. By W. Wagner, Ph.D. 2nd Edition. 4s. Gd. 

Sophoclis Trachinise. By A. Pretor, M.A. [In the press. 

Terence. By W. Wagner, Ph.D. 10s. Gd. 

Theocritus. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 4s. Gd. 
Others in preparation. 

George Bell and Sons' 


5!tna. By H. A. J. Munro, M.A. 3s. 6d. 

Aristophanis Comcediae. By H. A. Holden, LL.D. 8vo. 2 vols. 
23*. Qd. Plays sold separately. 

Pax. By F. A. Paley, M.A. Fcap. 8vo. 4s. 6d. 

Euripides. Fabulse Quatuor. By J. H. Monk, S.T.P. Crown 

8vo. 12s. 
Separately Hippolytus, cloth, 5s. Alcestis, sewed, 4s. 6rf. 

Horace, Quinti Horatii Flacci Opera. By H. A. J. Munro, M.A. 

Large 8vo. 11. Is. 
Livy. The first five Books. By J. Prendeville. 12mo. roan, 5s. 

Or Books I.-III. 3*. 6d. IV. and V. 3s. 6d. 
Lucretius. Titi Lucreti Cari de Rerum Natura Libri Sex. With 

a Translation and Notes. By H. A. J. Munro, M.A. 2 Vols. 8vo. Vol. I. 

Text, 16s. Vol. II. Translation, 6s (Sold separately.) 
Ovid. P. Ovidii Nasonis Heroides XIV. By A. Palmer, M.A. 8vo. 6s. 
Propertius. Sex. Aurelii Propertii Carmina. By F. A. Paley, M.A. 

8vo. Cloth, 9s. 
Thucydides. The History of the Peloponnesian War. By Richard 

Shilleto, M.A. Book I. Svo. 6s. Qd. (Book II. in the press.) 
Greek Testament. By Henry Alford, D.D. 4 Vols. Svo. (Sold 

separately.) Vol.1. 11. 8s. Vol. II. II. 4s. Vol. III. 18s. Vol. IV. Part 1. 18a.; 

Part II. 14s.; or in one Vol. 32s. 


Auxilia Latina. A Series of Progressive Latin Exercises. By 

Rev. J. B. Baddeley, M.A. Fcap Svo. 2s. 
Latin Prose Lessons. By A. J. Church, M.A. 2nd Edit. Fcap. Svo. 

2*. 6d. 

Latin Exercises and Grammar Papers. By T. Collins, M.A. Fcap. 
8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Analytical Latin Exercises. By C. P. Mason, B.A. Post Svo. 3s. 6d. 
Scala Graeca: a Series of Elementary Greek Exercises. By Rev. J.W. 

Davis, M.A., and R. W. Baddeley, M.A. 3rd Edition. Fcap Svo. 2s. 6d. 
Greek Verse Composition. By G. Preston, M.A. Crown Svo. 4s.6rf. 


Eclogse Latinee ; or, First Latin Reading Book, with English Notes 

and a Dictionary. 15th Thousand. Fcap Svo. 2s. 6d. 
Materials for Latin Prose Composition. 8th Thousand. Fcap Svo. 

2s. 6d. Key, 4s. 
A Latin Verse Book. An Introductory Work on Hexameters and 

Pentameters. 5th Thousand. Fcap Svo. 3s. Key, 5s. 
Analecta Grseca Minora, with Introductory Sentences, English Notes, 

and a Dictionary. 19th Thousand. Fcap 8vo. 3s. Qd. 
Materials for Greek Prose Composition. 2nd Edit. Fcap. Svo. 3*. 6rf. 

Key, 5s. 

Educational Works. 


A First Cheque-Book for Latin Verse-makers. Is. 6rf. 
A Latin Version for Masters. 2s. Qd. 

Reddenda; or, Passages with Parallel Hints for Translation into 

Latin Prose and Verse. Crown 8vo. 4s. 6d. 
Reddenda Reddita (see next page). 


Foliorum Silvula, Part 1. Passages for Translation into Latin 
Elegiac and Heroic Verse. 6th Edition. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

Part II. Select Passages for Translation into Latin Lyric 

and Comic Iambic Verse. 3rd Edition. Post 8vo, 5s. 

Part III. Select Passages for Translation into Greek Verse. 

3rd Edition. Post 8vo. 8s. 

Folia Silvulse, sive Eclogse Poetarum Anglicorum in Latinum et 
Grsecum conversse. Svo. Vol. I. 10s. 6d. Vol. II. 12s. 

Foliorum Centurise. Select Passages for Translation into Latin and 
Greek Prose. 6th Edition. Post 8vo. 8s. 


%* Many of the following hooks are well adapted for school prizes. 

.ffischylus. Translated into English Prose by F. A. Paley, M.A. 
2nd Edition. Svo. 7s. 6d. 

- Translated hy Anna Swanwick. Crown Svo. 2 vols. 12s. 

Folio Edition, with Thirty-three Illustrations from Flax- 
man's designs. 21. 2s. 

Anthologia Grseca. A Selection of Choice Greek Poetry, with Notes. 

By Kev. F. St. John Thackeray. Fcap Svo. 7*. 6d. 
Anthologia Latina. A Selection of Choice Latin Poetry, from Nsevius 

to Boethius, with Notes. By Rev. F. St. John Thackeray. Fcap 8vo . 

6s. 6d. 
Aristophanes: The Peace. Text and metrical translation. 

B. B. Rogers, M.A. Fcap 4to. 7s. 6d. 

The Wasps. Text and metrical translation. By B. B. 

Rogers, M.A. Fcap 4to. 7s. 6d. 

Corpus Poetarum Latinorum. Edited by Walker. ] vol. Svo. 18s. 

Horace. The Odes and Carmen Saeculare. In English verse by 
J. Conington, M.A. 5th edition. Fcap Svo. 5s. 6d. 

The Satires and Epistles. In English verse by J. Coning- 
ton, M.A 3rd edition. 6s. 6d. 

' Illustrated from Antique Gems by C. W. King, M.A. The 
text re vised with Introduction by H. A. J. Munro, M.A. Large Svo. II. Is. 

George Bell and Sons' 

Mvsae Etonenses, sive Carminvm Etonse Conditorvm Delectvs. By 

Richard Okes. 2 vols. 8vo. 15s. 
Propeitius. Verse translations from Book V., with revised Latin 

Text. By F. A. Paley, M.A. Fcap 8vo. 3s. 

Plato. Gorgias. Translated by E. M. Cope, M.A. 8vo. 7s. 
Philebus. Translated by F. A. Paley, M.A. Small 8vo. 4s. 

Thesetetus. Translated by F. A. Paley, M.A. Small 8vo. 4s. 

Analysis and Index of the Dialogues. By Dr. Day. Post 

8vo. 5s. 

Eeddenda Reddita: Passages from English Poetry, with a Latin 
Verse Translation. By F. E. Gretton. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

Sabrinae Corolla in hortulis Eegise Scholae Salopiensis contexuerunt 

tres viri floribus legendis. Editio tertia. 8vo. 8s. 6d. 
Sertura Carthusianum Floribus trium Seculorum Contextum. By 

W. H. Brown. 8vo 14.s 
Theocritus. In English Verse, by C. S. Calverley, M.A. Crown 8vo. 

7s. 6d. 
Translations into English and Latin. By C. S. Calverley, M.A. 

Post.Svo. 7s. 6c?. 

into Greek and Latin Verse. By E. C. Jebb. 4to. cloth 

gilt. 10s. 6d. 

Virgil in English Khythm. By Eev. B. C. Singleton. Large crown 
8vo. 7s. 6cJ. 


A Latin Grammar. By T. H. Key, M.A. 6th Thousand. PostSvo. 8s. 
A Short Latin Grammar for Schools. By T. H. Key, M.A., F.K.S. 

8th Edition. Post 8vo. 3. Gd. 

A Guide to the Choice of Classical Books. By J. B. Mayor, M.A. 

Crown 8vo. 2*. 

The Theatre of the Greeks. By J. W. Donaldson, D.D. Post 8vo. 


A History of Roman Literature. By W. S. Teuffel, Professor at the 
University of Tubingen. By W. Wagner, Ph.D. 2 vols. Demy 8vo. 21s. 

Student's Guide to the University of Cambridge. Kevised and cor- 
rected. 3rd Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 6s. 6d. 


Greek Verbs. A Catalogue of Verbs, Irregular and Defective; their 
leading formations, tenses, and inflexions, with Paradigms for conjugation, 
Rules for formation of tenses, &e. <bc. By J. S. Baird, T.C.D. 2s. 6d. 

Greek Accents (Notes on). On Card, Orf. 

Homeric Dialect. Its Leading Forms and Peculiarities. By J. S. 

Baird, T.C.D. Is. 6d. 

Greek Accidence. By the Eev. P. Frost, M.A. Is. 
Latin Accidence. By the Eev. P. Frost, M.A. Is. 

Educational Works. 

Latin Versification. Is. 

Notabilia Quaedam ; or the Principal Tenses of most of the Irregular 

Greek Verbs and Elementary Greek, Latin, and French Constructions. 

New edition. Is. 6d. 

Richmond Rules for the Ovidian Distich, &c. By J. Tate, M.A. Is. 6J, 
The Principles of Latin Syntax. Is. 


A Series of Elementary Treatises/or the use of Students in the Univer- 
sities, Schools, and Candidates for the Public 

Examinations. Fcap 8vo. 

Arithmetic. By Kev. C. Elsee, M.A. Fcap. 8vo. 7th Edit. 3s. 6rf. 
Elements of Algebra. By the Eev. C. Elsee, M.A. 4th Edit. 4s. 
Arithmetic. By A. Wrigley, M.A. 3s. 6rf. 
A Progressive Course of Examples. With Answers. By 

J. Watson, M.A. 3rd Edition. 2s. 6d. 
An Introduction to Plane Astronomy. By P. T. Main, M.A. 2nd 

Edition. 4s. 
Conic Sections treated Geometrically. By W. H. Besant, M.A. 

2nd Edition. 4s. 6d. 

Elementary Statics. By Rev. H. Goodwin, D.D. 2nd Edit. 3s. 
Elementary Dynamics. By Eev. H. Goodwin, D.D. 2nd Edit. 3s, 
Elementary Hydrostatics. By W. H. Besant, M.A. 7th Edit, 4*. 
An Elementary Treatise on Mensuration. By B. T. Moore, M.A. 5s. 
The First Three Sections of Newton's Principia, with an Appendix; 

and the Ninth and Eleventh. Sections. By J. H. Evans, M.A. 5th Edition, 

by P. T. Main, M.A. 4s. 

Elementary Trigonometry. By T. P. Hudson, M.A. 3s. 6d. 
Geometrical Optics. By W. S. Aldis, M.A. 3s. Qd. 
Analytical Geometry for Schools. By T.G.Vyvyan. 3rd Edit. 4s. 6d. 

Companion to the' Greek Testament. By A. C. Barrett, A.M. 3rd 

Edition. Fcap 8vo. 5s. 
An Historical and Explanatory Treatise on the Book of Common 

Prayer. By W. G. Humphry, B.D. 5th Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 4s. 6d. 
Music. By H. C. Banister. 4th Edition. 5s. 

Others in Preparation. 


Principles and Practice of Arithmetic. By J. Hind, M.A. 9th Edit. 

4s. 6d. 

Elements of Algebra. By J. Hind, M.A. 6th Edit. 8vo. 10*. 6A 

See also foregoing Seriei* 

George Bell and Sons' 


Text Book of Geometry. By T. S. Aldis, M.A. Small 8vo. -is. (5d. 

Part I. 2s. 6rf. Part II. 2s. 
The Elements of Euclid. By H. J. Hose. Fcap. 8vo. 4s. 6d. 

Exercises separately, Is. 
The First Six Books, with Commentary by Dr. Lardner. 

10th Edition. 8vo. 6s. 

The First Two Books explained to Beginners. By C. P. 

Maaon, B.A. 2nd Edition. Fcap 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

The Enunciations and Figures to Euclid's Elements. By Eev. J. 
Brasse, D.D. 3rd Edition. Fcap. 8vo. Is. On Cards, in case, 5s. 6d. 
Without the Figures, 6d. 

Exercises on Euclid and in Modern Geometry. By J. McDowell, B.A. 

Crown 8vo. 8s. 6d. 

Geometrical Conic Sections. By W.H.Besant,M.A. 2nd Edit. 4s.6rf. 
The Geometry of Conies. By C. Taylor, M.A. 2nd Edit. 8vo. 4s. 6d. 
Solutions of Geometrical Problems, proposed at St. John's College 

from 1830 to 1846. By T. Gaskin, M.A. 8vo. 12s. 


The Shrewsbury Trigonometry. By J. C. P. Aldous. Crown 8vo. 2s. 
Elementary Trigonometry. By T. P. Hudson, M.A. 3s. 6d. 
Elements of Plane and Spherical Trigonometry. By J. Hind, M.A. 

5th Edition. 12mo. 6s. 

An Elementary Treatise on Mensuration. By B. T. Moore, M.A. 5s. 


An Introduction to Analytical Plane Geometry. By W. P. Turnbull, 

M.A. 8vo. 12s. 

Treatise on Plane Co-ordinate Geometry. By M. O'Brien, M.A. 8vo. 

Problems on the Principles of Plane Co-ordinate Geometry. By W. 

Walton, M.A. 8vo. 16s. 

Trilinear Co-ordinates, and Modern Analytical Geometry of Two Di- 
mensions. By W. A. Whitworth, M.A. 8vo. 16s. 

Choice and Chance. By W. A. Whitworth. 2nd Edit. Cr. 8vo. 6s. 

An Elementary Treatise on Solid Geometry. By W. S. Aldis, M.A. 

2nd Edition, revised. 8vo. 8s. 
Geometrical Illustrations of the Differential Calculus. By M. B. Pell. 

*vo. 2s. 6d. 

Elementary Treatise on the Differential Calculus. By M. O'Brien, 

M.A. STO. 10s. 6d. 

Notes on Roulettes and Glissettes. By W. H. Besant, M.A, 8vo 

3s. 6<2. 

Elliptic Functions, Elementary Treatise on. By A. Cayley, M.A. 
Demy, 15s. 

Educational Works. 


Elementary Statics. By H. Goodwin, D.D. Fcap.Svo. 2nd Edit. 3s. 
Treatise on Statics. By S. Earnshaw, M. A. 4th Edit. 8vo. 10s. 6rf. 
A Treatise on Elementary Dynamics. By W.Garnett,B.A. Cr.Svo. 6s. 
Elementary Dynamics. By H. Goodwin, D.D. Fcap. 8vo. 2nd Edit. 

Problems in Statics and Dynamics. By W. Walton, M.A. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 

Problems in Theoretical Mechanics. By W. Walton. 2nd Edit. 

revised and enlarged. Demy 8vo. 16s. 
An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics. By Prof. Potter. 4th Edit. 

revised. 8s. 6d. 

Elementary Hydrostatics. By Prof. Potter. 7s. 6d. 
By W. H. Besant, M.A. Fcap. 8vo. 7th Edition. 4s. 

A Treatise on Hydromechanics. By W. H. Besant, M.A. 8vo. New 

Edition in the press. 

A Treatise on the Dynamics of a Particle. Preparing. 
Solutions of Examples on the Dynamics of a Kigid Body. By W. N. 

Griffin, M.A. 8vo. 6s. 6d. 

Of Motion. An Elementary Treatise. By J. E. Lunn, M.A. 7s.6rf. 
Geometrical Optics. By W. S. Aldis, M.A. Fcap. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

A Chapter on Fresnel's Theory of Double Refraction. By W. S. 

Aldis, M.A. 8vo. 2s. 
An Elementary Treatise on Optics. By Prof. Potter- Part I. 3rd Edit. 

9*. 6d. Part II. 12s. 6d. 
Physical Optics ; or the Nature and Properties of Light. By Prof. 

Potter, A.M. 6s. 6d. Part II. 7s. 6d. 
Heat, An Elementary Treatise on. By W. Garnett, B.A. Crown 

8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Figures Illustrative of Geometrical Optics. From Schelbach. By 

W. B. Hopkins. Folio. Plates. 10s. 6d. 
The First Three Sections of Newton's Principia, with an Appendix; 

and the Ninth and Eleventh Sections. By J. H. Evans, M.A. 5th Edit. 

Edited by P. T. Main, M.A. 4s. 

An Introduction to Plane Astronomy. By P. T. Main, MA. Fcap. 

8vo. Cloth. 4s. 

Practical and Spherical Astronomy. By E. Main, M.A. 8vo. 14s. 

Elementary Chapters on Astronomy, from the "Astronomie Phy- 
sique " of Biot. By H. Goodwin, D.D. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

A Compendium of Facts and Formulae in Pure Mathematics and Natural 
Philosophy. By G. R. Smalley. Fcap 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

Elementary Course of Mathematics. By H. Goodwin, D.D. 6th Edit. 

8vo. 16s. 

Problems and Examples, adapted to the "Elementary Course of 
Mathematics." 3rd Edition. 8vo. 5s. 

Solutions of Goodwin's Collection of Problems and Examples. By 

W. W. Hutt, M.A. 3rd Edition, revised and enlarged. 8v O . 9s. 

10 George Bell and Sons' 

Elementary Examples in Pure Mathematics. By J. Taylor. 8vo. 
7s. 8d. 

Mechanical Euclid. By the late W. Whewell, D.D. 5th Edition. 6*. 

Mechanics of Construction. With numerous Examples. By S. Fen- 
wick, F.R.A.S. 8vo. 12s. 

Table of Anti-Logarithms. By H. E. Filipowski. 3rd Edit. 8vo. 15s. 

Mathematical and other Writings of R. L. Ellis, M.A. 8vo. 16s. 

Notes on the Principles of Pure and Applied Calculation. By Rev. 
J. Challis, M.A. Demy 8vo. 15s. 

The Mathematical Principle of Physics. By Rev. J. Challis, M.A. 
Demy 8vo. 5s. 


Rome and the Campagna. By R. Burn, M.A. With Eighty-five fine 

Engravings and Twenty- six Maps and Plans. 4to. 31. 3s. 
The History of the Kings of Rome. By Dr. T. H. Dyer. 8vo. 16s 
A Plea for Livy. By T. H. Dyer. 8vo. Is. 
Roma Regalis. By T. H. Dyer. 8vo. -2s. (\d. 
The History of Pompeii ; its Buildings and Antiquities. By T. H. 

Dyer. 3rd Edition, brought down to 1874. Post 8vo. 7s. 6d. 
Ancient Athens : its History, Topography, and Remains. By T. H. 

Dyer. Super-royal 8vo. Cloth. H. 5*. 
The Decline of the Roman Republic. By G. Long. 5 vols. 8vo. 

14s. each. 
A History of England during the Early and Middle Ages. By C. H. 

Pearson, M.A. 2nd Edit., revised and enlarged. 8vo. Vol. I. 16s. 
Vol. II. 14s. 

Historical Maps of England. By C. H. Pearson. Folio. 2nd Edit, 
revised. 31s. 6d. 

A Practical Synopsis of English History. By A. Bowes. 4th Edit. 

8vo. 2.-.-. 

Student's Text-Book of English and General History. By D. Beale. 

Crown 8vo. 2s. Gd. 
Lives of the Queens of England. By A. Strickland. 6 vols. post 8vo. 

5s. each. Abridged edition. 1 vol. 6s. 6d. 
Outlines of Indian History. By A. W. Hughes. Small post 8vo. 

3s. Gd. 

The Elements of General History. By Prof. Tytler. New Edition, 
brought down to 1874. Small post 8vo. 3s. 6d. 


An Atlas of Classical Geography. ^4 Maps. By W. Hughes and 
G. Long, M.A. New Edition. Imperial Svo. 12s. Gd. 

A Grammar- School Atlas of Classical Geography. Ten Maps selected 
from the above. New Edition. Imperial Svo. 5s. 

First Classical Maps. By the Rev. J. Tate, M.A. 3rd Edition. 
Imperial 8vo. 7s. 6d. 

Standard Library Atlas of Classical Geography. Imp. 8vo. 7s. Gd. 

Educational Works. 11 


New Dictionary of the English Language. Combining Explanation 

with Etymology, and copiously illustrated by Quotations from the best 
Authorities. By Dr. Richardson. New Edition, with a Supplement. 2 
vols. 4to. 41. 14s. 6d. ; half russia, 51. 15*. 6d. ; russia, 61. 12s. Supple- 
ment separately. 4 to. 12*. 

An 8vo. Edition, without the Quotations, 15*. ; half russia, 20s. ; russia, 

A Dictionary of the English Language. By Dr. Webster. Ee-edited 
by N. Porter and C. A. Goodrich. With Dr. Mahn's Etymology. 1 vol. 
21*. With Appendices and 70 additional pages of Illustrations, 31*. 6d. 

The Elements of the English Language. By E. Adams, Ph.D. 

14th Edition. Post 8vo. 4s. 6d. 

Philological Essays. By T. H. Key, M.A.,' F.R.S. 8vo. 10*. 6d. 
Language, its Origin and Development. By T. H. Key, M.A., F.R.S. 

8vo. 14*. 

Varronianus. A Critical and Historical Introduction to the Ethno- 
graphy of Ancient Italy and to the Philological Study of the Latin 
Language. By J. W. Donaldson, D.D. 3rd Edition. 8vo. 16s. 

Synonyms and Antonyms of the English Language. By Archdeacon 

Smith. 2nd Edition. Post 8vo. 5s. 
Synonyms Discriminated. By Archdeacon Smith. Demy 8vo. 16s. 

A Syriac Grammar. By G. Phillips, D.D. 3rd Edit., enlarged. 
8vo. 7*. 6rf. 

A Grammar of the Arabic Language. By Rev. W. J. Beamont, M.A. 
12mo. 7s. 


Novum Testamentum Grsecum, Textus Stephanici, 1550. Curante 
F. H. Scrivener, A.M., LL.D. 16mo. 4s. 6rf. 

By the same Author. 
Codex Bezse Cantabrigiensis. 4to. .?(..<,. 

A Full Collation of the Codex Sinaiticus with the Received Text of 
the New Testament, with Critical Introduction. 2nd Edition, revised. 
Fcap. 8vo. 5. 

A Plain Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament. With 

Forty Facsimiles from Ancient Manuscripts. New Edition. 8vo. 16s. 

Six Lectures on the Text of the New Testament. For English Readers. 
Crown 8vo. 6s. 

The New Testament for English Readers. By the late H. Alford, 

D.D. Vol. I. Parti. 3rd Edit. 12s. Vol. 1. Part II. 2nd Edit. 10s. 6d. 
Vol. II. Part I. 2nd Edit. 16*. Vol. II. Part II. 2nd Edit. 16s. 

12 George Bell and Sons' 

The Greek Testament. By the late H. Alford, D.D. Vol. I. 6th 

Edit. II. Ss. Vol. II. 6th Edit. II. 4s. Vol. III. 5th Edit. 18s. Vol. IV. 
Part I. 4th Edit. 18s. Vol. IV. Part II. 4th Edit. 14s. Vol. IV., 1Z. 12s. 

Companion to the Greek Testament. By A. C. Barrett, M.A. 3rd 
Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 5s. 

Hints for Improvement in the Authorised Version of the New 
Testament. By the late J. Scholefield, M.A. 4th Edit. Fcap. 8vo. 4s. 

Liber Apologeticus. The Apology of Tertullian, with English 
Notes, by H. A. Woodham, LL.D. 2nd Edition. 8vo. 8s. 6d. 

The Book of Psalms. A New Translation, with Introductions, &c. 
By Rev. J. J. Stewart Perowne, D.D. 8vo. Vol. I. 3rd Edition. 18s. 
Vol. II. 3rd Edit. 16s. 

Abridged for Schools. Crown 8vo. 10s. d. 

The Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England. By the Ven. 
Archdeacon Welchman. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. Interleaved, 3*. 

Pearson on the Creed. Carefully printed from an early edition. 
With Analysis and Index by E. Walford, M.A. Post 8vo. 5s. 

An Historical and Explanatory Treatise on the Book of Common 
Prayer. By Rev. W. G. Humphry, B.D. 5th Edition, enlarged. Small 
post 8vo. 4s. Qd. 

The New Table of Lessons Explained. By Kev. W. G. Humphry, 
B.D. Fcap. Is. Qd. 

A Commentary on the Gospels for the Sundays and other Holy Days 
of the Christian Year. By Rev. W. Denton, A.M. New Edition. 3 vols. 
8vo. 54s. Sold separately. 

Commentary on the Epistles for the Sundays and other Holy Days 
of the Christian Year. 2 vols. 36s. Sold separately. 

Commentary on the Acts. Vol. I. ,8vo. 18s. Vol. II. in preparation. 
Jewel's Apology for the Church of England, with a Memoir. 32mo. 2s. 

Notes on the Catechism. By Rev. A. Barry, D.D. 2nd Edit. 

Fcap. 2s. 

Catechetical Hints and Helps. By Rev. E. J. Boyce, M.A. 3rd 
Edition, revised. Fcap. 2s. Qd. 

Examination Papers on Religious Instruction. By Rev. E. J. Boyce. 
Sewed. In. Qd. 

The Winton Church Catechist. Questions and Answers on the 
Teaching of the Church Catechism. By the late Rev. J. S. B. Monsell, 
LL.D. 3rd Edition. Cloth, 3s. ; or in Four Parts, sewed. 

The Church Teacher's Manual of Christian Instruction. By Rev. 
M. F. Sadler. 3rd Edition. 2s. Qd. 

Brief Words on School Life. By Rev. J. Kempthorne. Fcap. 3s. Qd. 

Short Explanation of the Epistles and Gospels of the Christian Year, 
with Questions. Royal 32mo. 2s. Qd. ; calf, 4s. 6d. 

Butler's Analogy of Keligion ; with Introduction and Index by Rev. 
Dr. Steere. New Edition. Fcap. 3s. Qd. 

Educational Works. 13 

Butler's Three Sermons on Human Nature, and Dissertation on 
Virtue. By W. Whewell, D.D. 4th Edition. Fcap 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

Lectures on the History of Moral Philosophy in England. By W. 
Whewell, D.D. Crown 8vo. 8s. 

Elements of Morality, including Polity. By W. Whewell, D.D. New 

Edition, in 8vo. 15*. 

Astronomy and General Physics (Bridgewater Treatise). New Edi- 
tion. 5s. 

Kent's Commentary on International Law. By J. T. Abdy, LL.D. 

8vo. 16s. 

A Manual of the Eoman Civil Law. By G. Leapingwell, LL.D. 8vo. 



A series for use in Schools, with English Notes, grammatical and 

explanatory, and renderings of difficult idiomatic expressions. 

Fcap. 8vo. 

Schiller's Wallenstein. By Dr. A. Buchheim. 2nd Edit. 6s. Qd. 
Or the Lager and Piccolomini, 3*. 6d. Wallenstein's Tod, 3s. 6d. 

Maid of Orleans. By Dr. W. Wagner. 3s. 6rf. 

Maria Stuart. By V. Kasl ner. In the press. 

Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea. By E. Bell, M.A., and E. Wolfel. 

2s. 6d. 

German Ballads, from Uhland, Goethe, and Schiller. By C. L. 
Bielefeld. 3s. 6d. 

Charles XII., par Voltaire. By L. Direy. 3rd Edit. 3s. 6d. 

Aventures de Telemaque, par F^nelon. By C. J. Delille. 2nd Edit. 
4s. 6d. 

Select Fables of La Fontaine. By F. E. A. Gasc. New Edition. 3s. 
Picciola, by X. B. Saintine. By Dr. Dubuc. 4th Edit. 3s. 6rf. 


Twenty Lessons in French. With Vocabulary, giving the Pronun- 
ciation. By W. Brebner. Post 8vo. 4s. 

French Grammar for Public Schools. By Rev. A. C. Clapin, M.A. 
Fcap. 8vo. 2nd Edit. 2s. 6d. Separately, Part I. 2s.; Part II. Is. 6rf. 

Le Nouveau Tresor; or, French Student's Companion. By M. E. S. 
16th Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

14 George Bell and Sons' 

First French Book. Fcap. 8vo. New Edition. Is. 6rf. 
Second French Book. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. -2s. 6rf. 
Key to First and Second French Books. Fcap. 8vo. 3s. 6d. 
French Fables for Beginners, in Prose, with Index. New Edition. 
12mo. 2s. 

Select Fab'les of La Fontaine. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 3s. 
Histoires Ainusantes et With Notes. New Edition, 

Fcap. Svo. 2s. Qd. 

Practical Guide to Modern French Conversation. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 6rf 
French Poetry for the Young. With Notes. Fcap. Svo. 2s. 

Materials for French Prose Composition ; or, Selections from the best 

English Proae Writers. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 4*. 6d. Key, 65. 
Prosateurs Contemporains. With Notes. Svo. New Edition, revised. 


Le Petit Compagnon; a French Talk-Book for Little Children. 

16mo. 2s. Gd. 
An Improved Modern Pocket Dictionary of the- French and English 

Languages. 20th Thousand, with additions. 16mo. Cloth. 4s. 

Modern French and English Dictionary. Demy Svo. In two vols. 
Vol. I. F. and E. 15*. ; Vol. II. E. and F. 10.?. 


Being a Selection of the best Tragedies and Comedies of Moltere, 
Racine, Coraeille, and Voltaire. With Arguments and Notes by A. 
Gombert. New Edition, i-evised by F. E. A. Gasc Fcap. Svo. 1*. each;, 
sewed, 6d. 


MOLIEKE : Le Misanthrope. L'Avare. Le Boui-geois Gentilhomme. Le 
Tartuffe. Le Malade Imaginaire. Les Femmes Savantes. Les Fourberies 
de Scapin. Les Precieuses Ridicules. L'Ecole des Femmes. L'Ecole des 
Maris. Le Medecin malgre Lui. 

RACINE : Fhe'dre. Esther. Atuaiie. Iphigenie. Les Plaidenrs. 

P. CORNEILLE: LeCid. Horace. Cinna. [_In tlie press. 

VOLTAIRE : Zaire. 

Others in preparation. 


Materials for German Prose Composition. By Dr. Buchheim. 4th 

Edition revised. Fcap. 4s. 6d. 
A German Grammar for Public Schools. By the Kev. A. C. Clapin 

and F. Roll M tiller. Fcap. 2. 6d. 
Kotzebue's Der Gefangene. With Notes, by Dr. W. Stromberg. Is. 

Educational Works. 15 


The Elements of the English Language. By E.Adams, Ph.D. 14th 
Edition. Post 8vo. 4s. 6d. 

The Rudiments of English Grammar and Analysis. By E. Adams, 
Ph.D. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. 2s. 


First Notions of Grammar for Young Learners. Fcap. 8 vo. Cloth. 8d. 

First Steps in English Grammar for Junior Classes. Demy 18mo. 
New Edition. 1*. - 

Outlines of English Grammar for the use of Junior Classes. Cloth. 
1*. 6d. 

English Grammar, including the Principles of Grammatical Ana- 
lysis. 20th Edition. Post 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

The Analysis of Sentences applied to Latin. Post 8vo. Is. Grf. 

Analytical Latin Exercises: Accidence and Simple Sentences, &c. 
Post 8vo. 3s, 6d. 

Edited for Middle-Class Examinations. 

With Notes on the Analysis and Parsing, and Explanatory Remarks. 
Milton's Paradise Lost, Book I. With Life. 3rd Edit. Post 8vo. 2s. 

Book II. With Life. 2nd Edit. Post 8vo. 2s. 

Book III. With Life. Post 8vo. 2s. 

Goldsmith's Deserted Village. With Life. Post 8vo. Is. 6rf. 
Cowper's Task, Book II. With Life. Post 8vo. 2s. 
Thomson's Spring. With Life. Post 8vo. 2s. 

Winter. With Life. Post 8vo. 2s. 

Practical Hints on Teaching. By Rev. J. Menet, M.A. 4th Edit. 

Crown 8vo. Cloth, 2s. 6d. ; paper, 2s. 
Test Lessons in Dictation. Paper cover, Is. 6rf. 
Questions for Examinations in English Literature. By Rev. W. W 

Skeat. 2s. 6d. 
Drawing Copies. By P. H. Delamotte. Oblong 8vo. 12s. Sold als 

parts at 1*. each. 

Poetry for the School-room. New Edition. Fcap. 8vo. Is. fid. 
Select Parables from Nature, for Use in Schools. By Mrs. A. Gatty. 

Fcap Svo. Cloth, la. 

School Record for Young Ladies' Schools. 6d. 
Geographical Text-Book; a Practical Geography. By M. E. S. 

12mo. 2*. 

The Blank Maps done up separately. 4to. 2s. colourei 
A First Book of Geography. By Rev. C. A. Johns, B,A., F.L.S. 

Ac. Illustrated. 12mo. 2*. 6d. 
London's (Mrs.) Entertaining Naturalist. New Edition. Revised by 

W. S. Dallas, F.L.S. 5s. 
Handbook of Botany. New Edition, greatly enlarged by 

D. Wooster. Fcap. 2*. 6d. 

16 Educational Works. 

The Botanist's Pocket-Book. "With a copious Index. By W. E. 

Hayward. Crown 8vo. Cloth limp, 4s. 6d. 
Experimental Chemistry, founded on the Work 6f Dr. Stockhardt. 

By C. "W. Heaton. Post 8vo. 5*. 

Cambridgeshire Geology. By T. G. Bonney, F.G.S. &c. 8vo. 3s. 
Double Entry Elucidated. By B.W.Foster. 7th Edit. 4to. 8s. 6d. 
A New Manual of Book-keeping. By P. Crellin, Accountant. Crown 

8vo. 3s. 6d. 

Picture School-Books. In simple Language, with numerous Illus- 
trations. Royal 16mo. 

School Primer. 6d School Reader. By J. Tilleard. 1*. Poetry Book 
for Schools. !. The Life of Joseph. Is. The Scripture Parables. By the 
Rev. J. E. Clarke. Is The Scripture Miracles. By the Rev. J. B. Clarke. 
Is. The New Testament History. By the Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A. 1*. The 
Old Testament History. By the Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A. 1*. The Story of 
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress. Is. The Life of Christopher Columbus. By 
Sarah Crompton. !. The Life of Martin Luther. By Sarah Crompton. la. 


Arithmetic for Young Children. Is. Qd. 

Second Stage. 18mo. 3s. 

Exercises for the Improvement of the Senses. 18mo. Is. 

Geography for Young Children. 18mo. 2s. 

Books for Young Readers. In Eight Parts. Limp cloth, Sd. each ; 

or extra binding, Is. each. 

Part I. contains simple stories told in monosyllables of not more than four 
letters, which are at the same time sufficiently interesting to preserve the 
attention of a child. Part II. exercises the pupil by a similar method in 
slightly longer easy words; and the remaining' parts consist of stories 
graduated in difficulty, until the learner is taught to read with ordinary 
facility. ri 



The popularity which the Series of Reading-books, known as " Books for 
Young Readers," has attained is a sufficient proof that teachers and pupils 
alike approve of the use of interesting stories, with a simple plot in place of tho 
dry combination of letters and syllables, making no impression on the mind, 
of which elementary reading-books generally consist. 

The publishers have therefore thought it advisable to extend the application 
of this principle to books adapted for more advanced readers. 

Now Beady, 

Masterman Ready. By Captain Marryat. Is. 6rf. 
Parables from Nature (selected). By Mrs. Gatty. Fcap. 8vo, Is. 
Friends in Fur and Feathers. By Gwynfryn. l.s. 
Robinson Crusoe. ]s. 6d. 
Andersen's Danish Tales. By E. Bell, M.A. Is. 

In preparation . 
Grimm's German Tales. (Selections.) 

London : Printe by JOHN STRANGEWAYS, Castle St. Leicester S i. 


I "i 

C\j H 

S -P 




University of Toronto 








Acme Library Card Pocket