(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Latin primer: In Three Parts : Part I. Rules of Construction ... : Part ..."

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



3c rq -e.fcfe. 




Cocgic 



LATIN PRIMER 



" Non «go ouDCtft meis amplncti veniboi opto : 

" Nod, nihi u linpiK centum rint, ofaqoe centnn, 

" F»rrea TOx. Adei, et priml lege littorii onn." Vim. 



p;.) 



COD^IC 



cGoo^k 



LATIN PRIMER: 



THREE PARTS. 



( fergfiMy md eltgaUly exem^kdjrtm tkt Lata Pb€Is) 

By which Ibe Leanicr may in ■ ituirt Time be taught la read ilif 

Latin Authiai with Judgment and Prccfaiion. 



TeacMng the CUuIc Way of writing Latin, with r^ard la the 

Amngcmcnt of Worda, accordiDg to the pecuUu Idiaiaa 

and Ciutonii ot the Latin Tangue. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE LATIN VERSE, 
And of roanj Kindi of CampoaitliiD in Vene. 



REV. RICHARD LYNE, 



THE EIGHTH EDITION. 

LONDON: 
PRINTED FOR GEO. B. WHITTAKEB, 

AVE-H ARIA-LANE. C(H)>{k' 



-i:V* 



The pecutiw olijcot of Put I. «f thia Book is, by 
various expedienta, to secure the child's own 
good will and attention to the proper mode of 
learoing : and for this purpose tdl difficulties, 
though not all occasiora of exertion, have been 
carefully obviated for him. 




Nntnl ky R. Cltb«rt. Bt JUin'i-tquare, London 



Memoria 
HENRICl KIRKE WHITE, 
de Nottingamia, 
et nupei 
de Coll. Diy. Joan, in Acad. Cantab- 
banc octavam imprimis 
et onmes in posterii editionei 
bujusee libelli 
(cujiu nnii pnecipue 
illuBtris et in ccelis tandem beatui 
ille Juvenis 
Tapidum, reiera rapidiMimum 
in JAtem binnaoioribui 
pn^iretaum auiim 
attribuere.'tKni sat de^giutua) 
inii^ritiln'ti qOantum' potait, 

■ b;*lt.;: ■ ■ 

i^nid SvncfiiPetroci Mraoria 

die.ded^.{LWi)t< C^. 3ui. 

A. D. 18S4. 



CAKXjk 



cGoo^k 



(Tie Firtt JS<m<m.J 
B. L. VIKGILIO SUO S, 



Oliu, miVii^li, sic jubeatDeus! ttiteipaelinneljbnim 
lis Ibrsan leettinu. Tibi er^ prae omiubua inMriptum 
volo. Nam et tui gratia eompomi: et M icriptoret 
fete, quoB ambiant, de^catioiubnfl aucnpMitur, ne I? 
patfir. Una eaim sda excepta, Mmuwn sdii tuiM cutk 
tiifn gandti paiticipe, et cui me quotldie et fn h«FaB de- 
vinctioTem babeo ; ilia aAi escepta, quia eU, aiai tu h, 
cum quo gntitaa me petiua inire deeetf £t ■ qua plus 
exipectationis tiabere pOBsira, quam de te, dulqisaime 
in&itde, qui nunc e cunabidU, matrem mu eognoae«w, 
et ipse subridens amabiliier, parenti pectus Meitum 
noviB pertentas gaa^Uis ; et qui necuin ventiwt* RBnta, 
« pOBthae pioker ht^us yitm tmwnWB equor, adeo eh 
UHVM t^ttints, nt uter ait patar vel fitiiu, 

" ]jSit9 ita^aoea faljeret liospites 

" pisorimcii obKoiom." Hon, 

Imo etiami iisdem BtadiiB,.itimidifle^liBa, Ohrfaiti •dUaet. 
et amoTC emuieu (tit me spes^ laotal) «t pater et ttia* 
iMiWa!ini«emwfBatts,.et«Dlteaa,etfrM«r. •■> 



l;,GOOt^l>J 



till 

Itaque tibi nunc, aselfhb, amoris ergo libelliim 
Toveo: in quo quid bU utUitatia (modo quidein 'quid 
■it) alii judicanto ; qui, an pac« fiat nostra an non, ex 
merito sententkd) statuent. Sed tibi forsan, qoalj- 
qualei arrideat iatboc ; quippe quod sit a patre tcriptum 
et tui causa. Hie, cunis jam relictie, et butabata tan- 
dem dicaculaque peracta, novam pergratamque discipli- 
nam inibia, primos gntdua acilieet et eletnenta iitius 
eloquentiB, qua mores homtnum emolliuntur, et ingenui 
a vulgo B^regannu. 

Qusm autem hie babelns librum, dividitur iir tres 
partes ; priori quanim comprenduntur canones viginti 
quatuor, una cum innumeris exemplis, de hoso iVTXft- 
PKBTARDi LiKGDAH Laiimau. Canones autem pleni 
sunt et capaceS) ut istbic fece omnes dicendi aiubagea 
tibi enodate restdvuntUF ; item ipsi adeo sunt simplices 
et apertii ut e l«^imquo, a restibulo usque Ciramnuuices 
et l^ere poasis et intelligere. Exempla non modo 
sunt habilia, et canoui sua singula quadrata ; sed ex- 
cerpta, quasi flores paradiso, a poetis fere omnibus bo- 
aestioribus, prsserdm ipso Virgilio et Horatio ; ut 
■bbinc turn canonis auctoritatem, et veram^ Romce Lati* 
nitatem, turn boooa-moretr et vktutis honorem discas. 

Secunda pars libelli continet etiam regulas viginti duss 
S£ poBinoNB TERBoatrri. Kam etsi, ut QuinctilianuB 
admonet, fiUcummu exl termo, cui rectut ordo, et apta 
jwwtmrot et cum his numerw epporbme cadent ctmtingU ; 
umen scribaiti Ladne Iuk omnia raro ccmtinguut simuL 
Quan necMM est, ut artan comp<m»di bane aaaaeuh 



et, pro re natat utrum pnecedat, utrum poatponatur 
verbuin. Muld d« compositione, laxo quidem miuu, 
j^urimis dusemerunt ; sed apud hob nemo, quantum 
ipse novi, tyroijem t^ociniuni hujus- artis adhuc eat 
dignatus edocere : nam rationia Ladoe scribendi hoc eat 
reTera.primoidium, ut liqneati utri -aenlentiee parti, Tel 
fere, vel ut tea poatulet, uniunquodqae vocabnlura 
potius asaignetur, Hpc, aliis dedignandbus, ego te 
docebo, fili. 

T«rtia hujug libelli parte Metsoorathuu inTeaifii, 
descriptionem scilicet omnigeiU) si ita£at, venua iMha, 
>ed imprimis Hobaiuki; cui at stodioae incumbai, 
VBHTBDiDu ilium lepidisaimum, et omnium Italiae Tatum, 
uno solo Marone excepts, prsstantiiiimum, cum fructu 
et fienore decerpes : id, quod vel solum Apers sit 
pretium. 

Hia utere, dilecttssime ; qua, pTecor, aliquo guwido 
fortunentui tibil Sed postlmc, anuis accrescentibui, 
quodcunque moliaris, ubicunque Terseris, quamdiu tibi 
^ritus et vita prorogeotur, hoc te quj^i moriena ob- 
teator, 'Auspice Ecclesia Anglicans, Chrieto Patrano 
tuo, tmo, fili, Patrono Optimo, et vnko noUro, ma^ume 
inseiviaa.' Turn quod boni cunque in me deGpit y$\ 
languescit, in te quotidis firmet iUe D?|U| in l« usque 
adaugeat ! Vale. 



U. Sift. 17M. 



l;,GOOt^l>J 



( the Second Edition.) 
Ri L. LUDOVICO SUO S. 



TiBi qaoqae, non roinus dilectei si quid publice spire- 
mus, oppigneranduB est amor. Licet enim tui CAusa 
noDdum nati, olim nee BcripUis, denuo nee edendus esset 
iste libelluB, attamen Ludovia ceqne ac Vir^lii emolu- 
mentum in votia habetur ; et utrique, de parili amor^, 
aunt patris dicandj labores. Modo, cielesti adsplraate 
Patre, ex hoc ulice ignis y«l paululum excudatis : et 
t^i sit indole uintilla, turn ab animis igtiusmodi cor- 
ri^atui; ut exinde ardescat, non iiurius invidise et 
cacozeli de toco priore, sed sequo fi-atemoque ftedere 
GOi^unctua anfor, ardor studiis incumbendi, appetldo 
doctrinse ; et ara et detenninatio bene vivendi. Hie 
tandem bonis scopus est, boc prelum est, quo literis 
intebdunt ; et in Locce tantumnwdo semuli sint fratres. 
Ilia est magniflca, ilia mirifica et nobilior (eniulitio, 
quam solam, inter fratres et licet, et decor! est) Ut exer- 
ceant ; quse sola non dividit sed nectit coida ; aciiit 
eadem et emollit lemulantes ; evehit, et evectos usque 
humiliores, usque refnenatiores agit ; ea sola est glori- 
osa contentio, cujus laus est in Evangdio ; namque 



adeo e duobus nnum conciUat, ut qu» nugia inter use 
agitant, eo magii aliuB alJi oWtringuntur fntres ; et eo 
dilectiores et derinctiores utriaque, quo ardentiui ob- 
niCjuDUir, et inipeiuiuB ad itietam indtantur. O pugna 
mire paoifica ; imo pax ipsa ! O certamen cffilo dignum ; 
cujus lituuH in cseleatibuft semper obauditurl Quam 
rariuB ID term I Sed ftaltem frattea, commilitonei, 
etiam hie, in castria excubanto tuis. En, Sanguis 
mens.' En, Viicera mea! Atque olim adolescentes, si 
NuiDfiii sic placeat, pie TecoTdemioi, quod taotopeie in 
curis habebat pater. 

Vixdum aiuiuii) natus es, (iliole ; et variolisi tussique 
pulmonaria indies jam propius ad b&bitaculum subre- 
pentibuB) et mille aliia prteliis assidue impeadentibus ; 
«heu ! quam lubricum et ambigi um est de vita caduca 
tua ! Sed a cwiis jam morte circumdatis, immaniora 
adcdescentiee pericula tibi quam maturissime denunciare 
prsstat. Corpori soluramodo comminantur morbi : et 
hpc tuimet vix est pariicula. Tu iotus incolis, gemma 
Christo repolita; et quam nunc retinet Unicus Hie 
Noster, ab hoste manu poteatissinia vallatam. Sed 
bostis adest, triplex et iuformis Cbimffira; quern et 
triplici acie, si succreveris, aut devincas necesse est, 
aut ab itio comminuaris. Sceleratus ille Proteus, pa- 
noletbriain in^eodens, nunc te imperitia tua et ignora- 
tiqne Salvatoris aggredietur ; nunc mcdlitie, ac bujua 
muodi laqueis turpique ministerio deturbare instabit ; 
nunc philaulia ve) nimia securitate aoporatum, si quando, 
invadet. Non gladio et clypoo repellendi sunt isti in- 



otHtes; 8«d Mei suictiuite, <iui Daaa itoverli; et 
calceamento integrJUtu, qua mundns aonenlntui ; «t 
disciplina humilitalia, qua, vilia in conipectu tuo. Irasti 
inexpugnabilior fiei. Pmoplia ista, dolori est suppu- 
tare, qiUm a teneris egeamug; et quam inde acunnbidis 
is aeietn proripiataur. Tu panmi Bends) dilectisnme 
infantnle, quaHs te iheatri pakntra expAtat ; nee, qnUn 
propere carenduin est, ne temere et ineTinia Leoni oc- 
curnw. Sed ipse conmabitur, qui l^tiine certarefit. 
Volesne ei^ leges decernendi et pabiue conditknies 
ediscere? " Inteiri^ patrem tuom, et annunciabit 
" tibi ; majores' tuos, et dicent tibi." " Inteiroga de 
"" semitis andquis, qusenam sit via boni ; et ambula pet 
" earn." Discipliiue laborein juventute sustineaE ; et 
postea finctum pacatissimum decerpes. Nc sit nuerori 
tibi " Disciplina, custos apei, relinaculuin fidei, dux 
" idneris salutaris, fomes ac nutrimentum bouse indolis, 
" magistra virtlids." (Div. Cyp.) Hkc sit Roma, bx 
sint- Athmnffi tuse ; disciplina scilicet, quee vinus est et 
sdenda. Nam et ab alio slimide miHieris ; ' Ut &HCtii» 
' non est inVeDiendus in arbore, in qua pampinus aut 
' floB non prius apparuerit ; sic et in senectute boDoiem 
' legitimuio adsequi non potent, qui in adolescenda 
' exerdtadone disciplinse non laboraverit.' 

Salntant ambo te paientes, LudoTice; nOBtri roborii 
et felicitads o fkuBtissimum, o gradsslnium incremen- 
t«m ! Tale semper perstea. Vale. 



l;,GOOt^l>; 



TESTIMONIES. 



Second Edititm. 



I in ready to «c)moirIedge, diat my citiag here Bome 
very respectable teatimoniea, vinch literary Gentlemen 
hare condescended to give to the merit (whatever it 
may be) of this little book of element&ry iiiBtnictioii, 
saTourg Bomewhat of a passioR, which notwidiBtanding, 
I diflclum. ' UtJoftDi tale tit quod loqaimur et docemns, 
ut non pro verbis noBtriresndemnari mereamur : Buffi- 
oeret nobis hKc gratis.' (Origen.) I am willing indeed 
to give the best argument I can, drawn from the opinion 
of better judges than myself, that the design has not 
miscarried : and certainly I give it with much satiefkc- 
tMa to myself, but more &r their's who think that 
sunething might be done to quicken the progress of 
eiiacation in Grammar Schools, and may be disposed 
to make trial for themselves of what this book contains ; 
utd I beg at'tlu satoe time to caudon them, notwith- 
standing its good report, not to expect every thing in 
Ak little volume. The design is undoubtedly good ; 
it may be thus far moderately well executed : it is opeR 
to improvement; and they, wlio have passed their 
judgment concerning it, have done that with grrat ' 
candour. 

« [; :,.i IK i:, CoO^k 



nt SritiiA Critic/or October, 179S. 

- An. S6. The Latb Prioer, &e." 

" Tba is a. wwk of greatei skill aod nsefulnesi thant 
" &c* &C. and Menu dnra up by an es])eiienced ' 
" hand. The account of the Horatian Hetres is a 
" lort of desideratum to the Gnmmui most in use. 
" They wHX be fobod in this trestiBe AiUy and per- 
" ntHaaavBly dBBoibftd^" 

' TJu Mtmthlj/ Reviatt/or Janvary, 1796. 
. " 48. Ihe lai&D^ Primes, &c 

" The. Savm MiMrra. of Sanctiiw, togefhra with 
" the (dJtwrratiosB of Scaliger and Voesius oa theXaldn 
" Tongue, though of Ute gseatest use to thoee whs 
" wish to aof^iire a entical knewledgeof that language, 
'' must be i^wed to be too abpizuitB $a the intellects 
'''■ of haji \ and we might pass the same- judynutt 
" on the Fort Boyal GranHsan. For a long ^me 
'* Idlly's Grunioar was the only one laok>wn in our 
'* ariiooli ; a wuk of coDsidentble IsbouE «id etuditioot 
"; 4>ut harah and |>e]:plexed : the d«fiiijM<»a ace &«- 
" quently conftised aad inaccuraie; and h is not.un- 
" G9mmonlbr aboyto lepeatemy Tnle.iDdiatOam' 
" mar without understanding, pieoisetj, the 'H'«|B«ng of 
"- one. The EUm Grammar is. now iw»t gen«aUy in 
" use, hut is htde more than an abridgement of Lilly : 
" much of the pedantic jaigon«f; the rAA graiwnarian 
" is indeed judidouBly omitted, and nuny of his re- 



" dimduieiei snlofped off; yet it u-Mt frBefiem 
" c^cult^ and abwinity-; Qie gtwMv put of ibe 
" defimtuHuofldOysienMmidiiiAflOtlMKdefcotit 
** aad ermf low of lainnni|r vnW ftsqiody hava 
" wished for i mcnre eaiy, cIbv and taftiilimm iMlhiiJ 
" of hwtnictiiig ibe riling gwamliju m dM damtti 
" of tlie Latin Tcmgiie> 

" This desideratiim leaBiatolMia a gnat ncaanw 
" attahied b j &» anthtHT of the woik liafgm ih, wfaicb 
" is dind«d Bito dme pu^ 

" The firM Mntaiaa twentji'^wo" (nam ttttO^fmrJ 
" gcncnd rnlH ofCSonitraetiao ; aftof fllwhanilln»' 
" trAtMbyexamplaBfiaadttLatatpveUt aod ererr 
'* pecuBxritj in Ae iangm^ is explained m such a 
« matiMT as to be iparibedjr tnt^igifale to boyi* tttbe 
•* sane tone the Mki^arBHUt be miA^UaHdwidi the 
** predsieo, acMA jodgamt, and good aenaa of the 
" andwr. 

" TheMCondparttmatsof Aaporilkmaf imds in 
•• Latin oranposition ; and Mr. Lyne is of opinion that 
" the grand sMiret of position has principally in dieie 
*< two praita, via. 

*•■!. Tlutt ^ wo«d govenwd ha plaead bafine the 
** 1lMl,-«bt>li gOTcna ib 

" i. TbudMWoidagreangbe:|dMedafl«rtlwword, 
" widi whidi'ie agnca. 

" X^eae two, he «iy^ may be tenoed the maxfaiu of 
** peritiora ; and tnm Aon Msnh Tsrioni nV, whieh 
** iB«7hecoiiTctiiMitly£ti(Nd^i]ito.two<aMses,Tis. ' 



' " 1. Rules reauhing &om the govemmoA of ftords. 

" t. Rulesresoldogfrom the agreement <^w9rdB. 
' " To which «dd a third cUm, viz. 

" 3. MiKellaneouB mlea, sot reducible to either of 
" the hvo cUsses foregoing. 

" The firat dasa contains five rulei. 

" The lecoDd) four rulea. 

" The third, thirteen rulea. 

" The Bulgect of the third part ia Latin Metre ; and 
" it contuns — 1. An account of the dif&ient IdiidB of 
" feet in tlte Latin tongoe ; !!. adeacnpti(»aiidayDop«ia 
" of the many sorts t£ reise in that language ; S. the 
" TanouaandbeaadfulmixtnreofLatinveraeincoaipo- 
" lition ; 4. a full description of the Metra Horadana. 

" Such is the general plan of a work, which we have 
" perused with pleaaun ; and we think it the best caU 
" culated, perh^a of any book we have ever seen, to 
" facilitate the learning of a Isngut^^, in the acquisition 
" vf K4iich many years are generally spent." 

The Critical JUeiewfor Jamary, 1797. 

" The LaUn Primer, &c. 

" We do not remendter to have seen a more, juefiil 
" puhlication than the present, an a guide' to t}ie knov- 
" ledge of the Iiatin language. The rulea are btain, and 
" simple, and, which we think an advantagepua jdan, in 
" the Engliah language. The Examples are necessarily 
" in Latin, and extracted from the best classic^ an- 
" ihorv. The two first parts, which reUte lo the coa> 



" itriictuKt snd petition, wOl euily enable a person to 
' acquiie a. very accurate and elegast knowledge of the 
' Latin language without a teachei ; sod with ratpect 
' to those who give instructicm, they will ihcfffen the 
" labour of both maater and scholai beyoBd any book 

" Most initiatory books, received aa gnidee to the 
" Latin language, are defectiTe in the proBodiml part : 
" this Primer goes much at lai^ into the sul^ect, ex- 
" plaining not (mly the several laws of the Hexameter, 
" Pentameter, Iambic, Trochaic, and Anspesstic verses, 
'^ but all the peculiarities of Tereoce aad Horace's 
" metres ; an^ Is much more comprehensive and exact, 
" than any grammatical wch^ written on tbe saiw 



i;,Goot;k' 



A Letter from Hemry Ki&ke White to a young 
Ftimd and Omten^OTary of his, now the Rev. 
Hkmhy Tacy, of Wtfmondham, m Norfolk. 

» D«A« T&CT, 

" Oit looking orer my books here, I have found a 
*• lyne's ftimer, which Mr. Middleton may not have 
" Men, SB it IB & recent publication. It ia undoubtedly 
" the best bookfbrabe^ruier,particuIarIyaIateEdiolari 
" extant. I have fbund it k. And if my progress in 
" classical knowledge has been rapid, I may attribute 
*' it to having begun with such a book. It is mudi at 
" your serrke : to me it ia now quite useless. I wish 
** you auccets in your studies, and b^ my respects 
" nay be made to Mr. Middleton. 

" 1 am, your's truly, 

" H. K. Whws." 

" llo'CIgct, Tuaiay." 

■ For the original of this Letter, and for the very eo^ 
of tbe Latin Primer (tteond editiimj therein mentioned, 
(Yn^ now in my possession) I am indebted to the Rev.- 
Mi. Henry Tacy himself: to whom, as he in£bnq(Me, 
" they were sent immtiKnttli/ after his (Ehiv]/ Kitke 
" White'i} vary successful examination at St. John's; 
" and when, as he afterwards said, he bad been reaping 
*' the firaitdF his acquaintance with the Lstia Primer." 



Kot Ii«nag the bononr of Mr. T»^i wquaiiitaiK«i 
I iro the inoie Indebted to him for these ucred relief 
of th»t exceOoit young ncB. Hm IbUomiv k » «tiff 
of (rtat UDr. T»cy moat juttly oilU " SQ bigUy in&NM- 
" ing Aftftti fif hill dear Friend'i mode of «tudjf written 
" mth4ia mm band" on k blank page of the Primer. 
AU cannot do aahedid. Buttoknowwfaatbedidwilli 
much lesi auistance than grammac Khools afibfd, duold 
Btimulate young gentlemen at grammar schools to nmch 
greater exertione dian they commtmly make. By way 
of a task imposed upon himself be says ; 

" On the second day of NoTember, 1803, (now Oc* 
" lober 81, 1803,) you must have read all the first 
" part— repeating every sulkliTision twice over — eight 
" pages a day. Then repeat it again, saying six pages 
" a day by lote, by the 18th of November. Then to 
f Posidoot which, finish by the Ist of December. — 
** Clarke is to be finished by the 1st of December, and 
" repeated by January, 1804. Horace's first book to be 
" finished by Monday S4th. Second book by Monday 
" aUt, (January 1804.) Then Virgil's Eclogues by 
" Monday, 6th November. Then the MimA, first 
" book, by ISth November. Second book by *Oth 
" November. ITiird and fourth books by 30th No- 
" vember. Then SaUust, a book a week. Lastly Ta- 
" citDB. Ovtd's Metamorphoses intermitted." About 
one yeai^ work. 



cGoo^k 



On a while HarUe TaUet, will) ft Medallion, by 
Ountrey, in All Saints Church, Cambridgei and erected 
at the expence of Fxamcis Boot, Esq. ofBoitm, m 
North America, ia the following InscripticHii by Wil- 
LMH SimH, Esq. Prsfenor of Modem HiBtorjr in the 
Uaivenity of Cambridge : ■ 

HENRY KIRKE WHITB, 

Bam March Sift, 1785;-(fi«I OcUAer lOtA, 1809. 

W.anB with fond hope, and Learning's sacred flame, 
To Granta's bowers tU^ youthful Poet came ; 
Uucouquered powers, th' immortal mind display'd j 
But wom-with anxious thought the frame decay'd : 
Pale o'er his lamp, and in hi* cell retir'd. 
The martyr student faded ifbd expired. 
O Genius, Taste, and Piety sincere, 
Too eaiJy lost, midst duties too severe ! 
Foremost to mourn was generous Sodthst seen : 
He told the tale, and shew'd what Wiiit£ bad been. 
Nor told in vain. — Far o'er d»' Atlantic wave . 
A Wanderer came, and sought the Poet's grave. 
On yon low stone he saw his. lonely name. 
And raised this fond memorial to his fame. 



,,Googlt^ 



LATIN PRIMEa 



CENEKAL RULES ©F CONSTRUCTIOS, 



KULS 1. 

Comrans th? nominstiTe case first, (with the WHcda 
dtereto belongii^, if any,) tiusi the verb; then tha 
wori. cnr wovde governed Of die veili ; lastly, the pre- 
position, (if «ay) with the word dependsig on iL 

SULE 2. 
A genidve case is usually ooMtnied after another 
noun. 

wu S. 

An infinitive nean is geneiaOy cnutrtied after a 
verb. 

Bimx i. 
An a^ee^e or pwHcipIe, if no oSier word depend 
<in it, must be ccwsmied bssoke its nonn. 

BULB 5. 

If an adQedive or partidi^ govern « ward after it, 

it must be constraed ai keb its npun. 

SdLS S. 

In an atdattve BW>late caostrue the parddp^ w 

ajjaetivc taatj i. «; aAer the noun OT wm^ with whiA 

itagreea. C'.oo»k' 



Z . CONSTRUCTION. 

KULB 7. 

If t?o ndjectiTes or psrUciples agree with die same 
iwun, they must not be construed one before, and ano- 
ther after that noun ; but either soru befokei by Rale 
4, or BOTH AFTER, S^ Rtile 5. 

BVLE 6. 
.Let the relative and ift clause be construed at soon 
eu po»nbk aftbr the antecedent. 

■ KUtE 9. 

Certain adverbs and coi^unctionB are construed be- 
fore the nominative case and verb ; t. e. they are con- 
strued first in their own cIaubc or sentence ; so is the 
relative qui ; and sa are quis the interrogative, quantus, 
qmcvnque, and such like words, (with their accompani' 
menu) in whatever case. 

RULE 10. 

When a question ia asked, construe the nam. case 
{unless il bi the interrogative qmt, quotus, mutnins, vter, , 
&c.) after the verb, or else between the En^ah verb 
and its Atudliary, expressing the auxiliary first'. 

RULE 11. . 

' Afterthevetbfuni) a verb passive, and averbneuter,. 
a nom.^ case is sometime^ construed ; but then there 
is usually another nom. case, expressed or implied, to 
cume before. ., .i ;■/. 



An abveib is not to be construed with a noun, but 
rather with a verb, or an.adjective, or participle. r 



KULX 14. 

The word governed nuut be* construed after (gene- 

rally intmediatety after) that word which governs, it ; 

except such word as Rule 9 specifies ; and even titssy- 

piust be constirued after prepositions. . .., 



CONSTRUCTION. S 

UDLB 15. 

. When in a sentence there is no finite verhi but taly 
an infimdve, with a nom. caae, expressed or iuMer> 
stood, construe siich an inflnitiTe tike an iodicativej 'the 
nom> being construed in its proper place. ' * 

HULX 16. 
When there occur an accusative case and an inf, 
mood, ^wd or ut iiattg left oui, construe the ace. first, 
with die w^rdjt^ before it, because it ia there virtually 
a noniinativ^.|M dimdd Ifaerefore, with its adjuncts, 
be craisaued hj^f^nomt bef<»e the verb. 

■ V-;- Klh.fi- 17. - '-■ 

Words in ^iposltioQ must be G<xistrued at near to one 
another at pottUtler ' ~ 

Byr.e 16, 
All corresponds^ vtg&s must be cMlstrued at near 
to one anothtr at jii^i^f, , , 

.^.liBlB 19. ' ' , . 
General])' constni^ ^ery word in any elause you 
have entered on aft«iWi»TjioiDj ease, before yjou proceed 
to another clause ; beginning each clause, ' as you pass 
&oni one to another with the nom. case and verb, iS 
there be such in it, wd finishing it according to Rule 1. 



An oblique case, ^ess' it be an a^iujcE to th^' nom; 
should be constcuH/-!!^^ theveri; and when more 
obliques than one d^nd/tin the e^ne'^ord, construe 
accMo^ei before d^rtetj^ttDet b^ore Oblatket, and 
genitives immediately 4ler the yrords which govern 

a.vLTS SI. 
When mm is put for habeo, the Ei^lisb nominative 
is e^tressed in Iditin by a dative, .and tlie accusative 
W *' nominative ; in this case coottriie tke-'dative firti 
Hke a lUMunatne, tKen tite verbi'"^ if-'d^ned froin 
Rabeo, and then the nomin^ye -after tlfe-verb, like an 
accusative. ' " , , ■ i , 



KDCX tX. 

Sy aTcry common «llipsis, the verb ram may be im- 
derstotid in any mood or tense; when it is so, it must 
be BBf^died in COOitming, as tlie sense requires. 
MTLX it. 
By a most el^ant eUipsie, any verb may be under- 
•tood and inferred by reBection from anodier verb of 
like import, actually expressed within the period. 
SULK «». 
AiUecdves an often elegantly nsed as adverbs ; and 
are then joined with verl^ in the construction, and 
rendered advertnally. 

SeeB,i5.mmAfpmdix0Partl, 



GENERA NOMINUM £T TERMmATIONES. 

1. F. 2. M. 

Fcemineum a prinue. Mas eat us r qne secundee. 

2. N. 3. M. 

Vm neutnim est. Et, or, ot, o, mascula tertS^ habentur. 
3. I Fceminea impantm s, x, out, lu ; fere et es, h ; 
F. \ Et verbale in to; et polvsyllitbon in do vel m go. 

a. N. 

H(ec sunt omnia neutra, m, or, ur, t, c, ut, e, I, ma. 

i. M. 4. R fi. F. 

Ut quartse maa> V neutrum est. Si fcemina quints. 

Note.->The charvoteri 1. V. S. M. bo. sbew to what de- 
(AensioD and gender the several roles apply ; as 1. V. the 
first decleuaioa fbminine ; and the oonitraiEig is afler this 
manner; viz. The oendbbs and tkkkinatioks of nodni. 
— a, a wordenXxg in a, priinae oflhejiTtt dtdentvm, foemi- 
Henm uftm imim t. — U*, r qne, • twrrf tnUng tn im, or in 
r, SMMUM B tf th* ttemd dedtmion, eat i$, ims, mum- 
Untt—Um, a leerd tHJinf m urn, est U, neutnua wwttr. 
Sr, or, M, «, worJi tnAng w «r, or, ot, o, terte of tht 
third decl. hajbentnr or* aeeoHnttd, nmscDla mataiUtK. 



COJjpjSJJCTION. 5 

u,- el and, veibaie a^iwl drnMiT/rnM « Mr(, in io, ending 
m ta; et oiu^ poljuylbMI ^-^^ if^fjf yllMei, tn <f#, 



-If dieIeanieT-be,WBb4M,-W-jnay be kdonstqi 
by step to parse, in-'tt 

He may name the parts of speiedi aoewdii^ to hk 
gWmmai:, 

... i. 

He to&y also decline some o( the more easy nouna 
'and verbs. 



And here some.^at aie leU'eacnF, hatqfaig their de* 
d^nsJODS and conjugations; ' . 




He may lesolve nondnative cases and their verbs by 
the first cpB(;ard and what other rules he matf have 
lesmt'm his grkimuiar applicable to the nom. case, parti- 
cularly its gender. 



He may go on to parse accusative coses governed by 
verbs ; genitive cases, the latter of tifo nonns'; infini- 
tives ; adjectives of whatever sort agreeiiw with nouns 
in the ntmi. aiccuB. or gen- cases; always declining such 
ve*b« aa'what paitid^es he parses are derived from, 
and appljing his grammar rules, as far as he has learnt 
them: 

7. . 

He may account for other oblique cases governed of 
verbs, and likewise of prepositions : and under Rule'Q 
jiere, he may begin to parse the ablative absoluK* 

8. 
In the ^ghth diapter, he may parse vetbs (hat-bavci 
itto nouL case expressed, and adjectives that have ua- 



« COKSTKUCTION. 

nonns ezpreeMd, mpplymg die eSipsis : anS here, under 
Bule 8, he nuty be^ to parse relatives as connected 
' with their Euitfcedeals, if he can be made to comprebead 
that. 



Now he may reserve the govenunenta of s^eictiTea ; 
parse nouDB of time, and place; and observe under Rule 
11. how nom. caaes, as well as others, follow aAer cer- 
tain verbs. 

10 and 11. 

In parsing the w<nrd govemedi he may , observe hoW 
such word, though construed after the word governing 
it, is commonly and i^gantly set before in £e Latin : 
mnd he should be careJul to write so himself in his I^tin 



12, 13, and 14. 
He may be reasonably espected to reaolvc any wdfd 
that occurs in these chapters, pairticularly in such pecu- 
liarities of the Latin idiom. ao are here exemplified : and 
these too he should study to imitate iu bis writings. 

N.B- — Of what words or sentences the learner is 
About to parse in Latin, he may, in each chapter, parse 
first the concise English translation. This will greatly 
assist him in both languages, by leadii^ him to observe 
their relative diSerences and accordtmees. In ibis he 
juost compare adjectives and adverbs in the three de- 
grees ) note the signs of caseS) persons, voices, moods, 
tenses; their ^leements, govemmeDts; and decline 
nouns, ptonouna, mul verbs, in this or seme such man- 



cGodg'lt^ 







CONSTEHCTION. 


















V 






* 
i 
i 


4 


III 
III 


ill 
III 


% 










e^ 




j 


1 








•a ■ 




Q 




< 


(S 






1 




Ill 


|tlf| 


i <: 




i5i|« 


'■? 


S 






Ififll 






.^1 


£ 


it 1 




litis? 


^1 

do 


f 


«l 


II 


sljlll 


1 






. d 


Ji 




ll 




III 


-la 


illii 


^B 




^^^'^^ 




i 


1 




, 5 • "-^ », 




■s 


II! 


^s5 


11 ill 

^lli it 



-dENERAL RULES OF CONSTRUCTION 
EXEMM.IFIED, 



^ G6A*Pf Efe 1. . . 

;-;,- . '-, ■" '. "^-, ■" *U ' 

.CdNSTKci Uteji^tft cuei feaV \viA tl)e wsrda thereto 
bdOngti^'if-bi^]^ ithbiilK verb; then the watd or 
words governed of' the verb ; lastly the prepouticHii if 
my, with the word depending on it. 

Conttrue ike Norn. Caujirtt. 
The NoM. Cate is m lUUict. ■ 

The learner is here informed;- tl)at "the noiiSnibit'S''., 
cue, nhich ia to be construed\f!rti,"ift dug' cliapier is 
in Italkt," that he may kn^i^n, onlybyIbokirig,*inthDiit 
«ny tHnible, with.fc^t word he is to be^^My eS^- ■ 
anmle. In the same Aiamiec the exelaplifyiag Wordi 
wiU be held out to^iiift'perpetually ufider every nde ; 
utd WotiM he but duly note, ..ted bestow ^ tittle consi- 
(deratJMl on die words in Italics, be wotild no^lio 
other assistance in this book, and would tnfallibly letaa 
by it the art of turning Ladn into EngKsh. Sut eaay, 
and obvious, and almost unavoidable, as it is, so to 
observe the words in Italics in their relation to' the 
Aule, #l:tenbe is repeatedly penuing them ;' yet tb win 
his gb6d-w3I, and observation in uiis instance is the 
nfM. ffiJHAilty. For that purpose, howeveri I 4iave 
^^^EiauoOesafaUy tried"d>« ex[f«lient of proposinf^ cer- 
tain ijuBMivAB^o him at 'tach example; previous 'ia his 
atten^Sl^^. - IldidHiowtherefor£s!ib)aitt'th(Heqiiea- 
kioM'atijpr each Rule. Ttipropt^lffiemcoRBtratjy will 
cost aint^eiitme, and MVe,niuc£^; it wi|l save a deal <^ 
. trauble ; if-may moat properly tie xnadfi. a part of the 
master's examination The ledmbr will then previoiuly 
cofisider those questions, to provide hiniselt wtA Jux* 



tMAJ.i. CONSTRUCnON. » 

Bwers, and so viD floon leani the myatery of die Ruk 
before him; unleas he be extremely defideiU*t 



The verb in the active voice, Present T. lod. M. 

Which mnrd is the Nom. case? Which the verb? 
Which must be constiued first 1 

Fres. Imp. Ind. 
Milei pugnat. JVjM unamui. Spirant tenti. 
Pres. Perf. (conmonlg called Pret. Perf.) Ind. Aotw. 
Ego invem. Pvelke airisenmt. FnOres utivcmnt. 
Piet. Imp. Ind. did. 
Tu dormiebas. Ego l^ebam. BalalMUit m». 
Pret. Perf. (ammotOg tailed Pluperf.) Ind. had. 
<?aUw canUverat. Prteeeptor ioeaent. .Pmrmli^- 
dtowant. 

Put, Imp. Ind. thali or mlL 
ClomaUt mfaiu. Titubabiint emit. MicabmK etuet. 

Fut. Perf. Ind. ihall haee, ^e. 
NoM Bifdiverimus. Vox dixeritia. Rexerint tmpera- 
toret. 

Pres. Imp> Pot. nwy or can. 
PrceceptoT doceat. 

Pres. Perf. Pot. may have, ^c. 
Not panierimns. 

Pret. In^ Pot. thoutd, ^c. 
Gloria exdtaret. 

Pret. Per£ Pot ehould have. 
Foi snrrexiMetis. 

■ Henry Kirk Wbite, when a boy, began tliii first part 
on Frid&y, 2 lit October, 1803, and flniifaed it the first 
time on Wednesday, Sod November, 1S03, in eleven les- 
loni or dajs' work, according to date, when and wbere 
each lesson endeil, as written b; htmieir in tbe book tbat 
lie nsed, aud from wbicb tbe severs! dates have been 
copied into this, of their proper places. Be went tbroag^ 
ft a second time for more observation, and repeated aJI 
tlie Examples by heart in tbe next sixteen days.— Tbe 
yoDiig learner should often hear of this. 



JO CONSTRUCTION. our. n. 

- ' Fnt. Imp. Pot may hefet^ter, 
Ludent wnact. 

Fut. Perf. Pot. may lienafter have. 
Pattoret venerint. 

Imperat. Imp, lei, 
Laudet magitter. Gaudeant pueri. Attendant du- 
cipHli. 

Imper.Perf. let— hone, 
. Docuerint preeceptorei, Adonverint omnei. 
See the P^ateologicon of my Latin Orammarfor many 
imiancei of the Imper. Perf. in VWg. Hot, /up, Ter, 
Iw. Cic. Qmit,^c., . ' - 

FAiSIVX VOICE. 

. ' Indie. Mood. 

. .^a^gattu- egtau. PtovectuB 6st kumittT. LegebaQ< 
tur auctoret. Victi erant hottei. Ckristut adoraljitur, 
i>uar« msti»ti erant. 

Pot. Afasd. 
- - Inkemita atBOveantur, Lege4 observatie nut. Itex 
bonorarenir. Libri perlecti esaent. Urbs expugmMtur. 
yitia suppreiM fiietiiiti 

■ ■ tnmer. Mood. 
Imperf. 
Pwret Biupenduntor. Swperbai contemnktur. 

Pttrtt BUspenBi simto. ^vperhu contemptui eato. 

The PMsivevuxiliarieB may 1^ learnt from the Grnm- 

, nur. And the Potentials may Ise ^sily conatrued as 

Optadvea, by expresBuig may, vvght, could, mould, oner 

the Nom. case instead of before it, aa May the nmater 

leach, instead of The matter may teach. 



CHAPTER II. 

CO,N^TRUE the nom. case first, wUk the word»thertl» 
belmgmg, if qny ; thm the verb, 

".'The Kqm. and its adjuncts are in Italics. 
' ^ote.— IVorda of varioua denominations may be ad- 
^uncts ti>_ tbe I^bii *t)f whatever aort, t)iey muat he 



cBAP. n. CONSTRUCTION. h 

Gonsimed btfore theierb. Thii a^uncts to the Nohi. 
may be, ■ 

1. One or more adjectives ^^reeii^ with it by the se- 
cood concord ; aa, 

1. A tingle adifetive to be rendered be?ok£ thk kouh 
byR.i. 

■ ' ■ ■ . ~ (IUESTIONS.' 
Which word is the nom. case J Which the adjunct J 
Which must be tendered fitat I What words muat be 
construed bdbi&llie^eTb? , 

Smi pueri amantur. ' Mali pueri punientur. Vera 
eirttM nobilitat. Luput atrox interficiebatur. Prcecep- 
tores nostri Vemunt. Rota pulchra cadet. Mare timi- 
dum furit, Naeigia veitra tedibunt, 

2. Tvioorm)Teii^eetimnithaeoi^imc^on,aillohe 
rendered befoke tbk moun, by R. 4. 

. ■ ftDEa^M^' 

Which wbrdTa the nom. caae7 What the adjuncts ! 
Which must be rendered first j ■ What words before the 
verb? Hate totj OBSERVKftTHE note? (Tkit hut 
guet^oh ihould' be frequently prjipoied; a trve ammer 
• shoald be strictly required; and, after a little practice, 
notjmly a true anmer, but a true anmer in the t^nrn,- 
^K.) , : , 

' Legeijiutte el invioU^ee prosunt. Fugit lyjix velox et 
naetUoia. Libri utiles et ihgenioti legentur. Quercvs 
aeria, patula, et ,^2aM»J(^em qiitat. S^vit inimicus impivs 
et atroar. Adjuv^ via liTOUtcens et ineulpata. Nocet 
oonlentio pmeHnaet petulans et inttma. BelUmt seerit 
oncefM et letSale. . . 

■Jutt and uneioldted tarns, ^c.^The tmift and spotted 
lynx, ^c. — Us^l and ingeiwms books, ^c.—The lefty, 
spreading, and acom-bearins, S^c, — The infmws and 
fstueli i^^dn innocent mtdolanuless, ^.—Rask, and 
i«taJNM, Md-mad, &c. — DanAtJid and deadly tuar, 4«* 
Cookie 



12 CONSTRUCTION. oup. n. 

II. Adjuncts to the ixnq. may be otkvt BUM in die 
same case, by apposidon, ot by conjuiiuioii. 

I. Sjf ^jymtition. 
QUzsTions. 
Whidi tbe tiom. case ? Which dM a^unda by sppo- 
sitionf 

Prtneept Evgamt vicit. Qtw, A«c Ptrncu*, ex- 
pugnBTJt. Ptcunia, trritamentum letialt, cormmpit. 
f nruCo, trifle tormetttum, angit. Cicero, vir IxMut, et 
mreettantuiimut orator, exulabat. Claret, VirgiUut, dc- 
licus me<B, vtr fummiM, elpoetafere divinut. 

PrinceEugate, ^c, — Cyrvt, the Periian King, ^e.-^ 
Money, a deadly incentive, ^c. 

II. Bfi CaymetioK. 

QUBSTIOKS. 

Which the nam. case t WUch die adjnnets i^ con- 
junction f 

Oavisi aant vir et uxor. Mens pater et mater adom- 
bant. Jtdius Ccetar, Pompeim et Crainu consentie- 
bant. Consendebant Catar Octavianmt, Antomu et 
Lepidut. Jtiviuit panit et polut. Venhu et vinum, faU 
lacia et ebrielat, vis, irte, et inntUa nocent. 

Garisi sunt reyAced, frwn gaudeo. — Conaentiebant 
muted. 



III. Adjuncts to the neon, may be a genitive <a any 
other obhque case, coimected with dat nominative, and 
to be construed o^er it. 



QUX3IIOK5. 

Which the BOta^ case? Which the adjunn, . w geni* 



««u. II, CONSTBUTCION. U 

Prodwt <tiw>r .Z>et. Spet jyrKrmi tohttuT. Prixferiti 

\pmculi r c m imM Ctntia oblectat. Diviiiantm, glorUe tl 
vobtptatu amor vitiat. Hujus mtmdi carte contamiotnt. 
^udetur noDwn Dommi, Patrii mei domut sdificatDr. 
Tallit aiuicitia mahnmi. jigronaa thitiantium color 
delectat. Omnium castelloram comee transducuntur. 

Prodeat firom frrmum. — Amor divitiaram, glorue, && 
— Nomen let the name, or may the name, ^c— Laudetur 
be praUed^ in' the imp. or opL mo«d. 



2. Other ah^^ ctuet connected nith the nom. and to be 
comtrued after it. 



Which tlte nom. case ? Which the sdjiuicta ? Wb«rc 
are the adjuncts to be construed ? What words befbr* 
the verb ? . - 

1. MiUtes elati rpe gaudebant. Conifruf spe after 
e\^i, N R. 14. 

2. Milites elati »pe vktorite gaudebant. 

3. Miiilet elali spe celerta victoria et hoitiwn fvga 
gaudebant, Casar. 



1. AWeciui lolicitudiTie Ccetar erat profectus. 
S. Magna affectus aoliatvdine Ctesar erat profectua. 
3. Magna affeclus tolicitudine Aoc nuncio Ccesar erat 
profectus. Ccesar. 



1 , Hosles tarria mind commoti fugiunt. 

2, Hostea tarria reptntina rui'nd commoti fugiunt, 

S. Hoates turris repenlind ruina commoti, inopinatA. 
maio turbati fiigiunt. 

4. fiostes turris repenlind rtiittd commoti, inojaitati 
maid turbati, deoram irdjierculai fiisiuiit. 

5, Hostea turria repentina ruitia commoti, inopinald 
nk^lurbali, deorumira percuUi, arbis direptione per' 
teriiti ftigiunt. Ceeiar, 



U CONSTBUCrtOK oBj», ar. 

t. Catut Cwio, M Jfrkmm freftettt* »m CtHoU, pro^ 
ceauc 

atpiat PkUn ^Ku Kori rfetptctou jpRMxnit. 

Et jam dstpioeM Muf HOv ifeipMM^ cop. Pvi. ./ft. ^ff^ 

«ft tMlia «(>]Bist iNiUN'.^aii K«ri da^cietu, procenit. 
Cdu. 
Et jam ab initio, fee. oiuf SMr.^i>ii* tfa btgmnimg, ^. 



IV. Adjuncts to the nom. may be a relative witb the 
coutituent parts of a dauae, oi even a whole aenteace ; 
till to be cooBtrued before liie principal verb. 

Quxmom. 

Which the nom. case J Which the relatire ? What 
worda follow next after the reladve, befere the princi- . 
pal verb? 

Doit, ^t nortt, comp«uithit Deiu, qui tumit corda 
et eogUatumes, compensabit 

Tenuit ctmmetudo, qiue guotidte magit inviUacil, Ea, 
pite necettaria tuitt, cooqumuitur. 

yir etfvevMO, quo* heri videbm, auat mortui. 



, CHAPTER ni. 

COffSTRUE tkenom. eaxfatt, with t\e murdt thtreto 
helongine, if a»y ; thentheverb; then the ivord or word* 
gonemed of the verb. 

Nole.— In Itiii IhinI ' 
tiwyivblofa, according tc 

Words Koverned of the verb, and therefbre fa be Mo- 
slmed after it, wa»j be of Tarkraa Mrts ; 

I, A BOim or oonna, in that case wbioh the *cr% r»- 
^nfraa ; lone verbs reqoiriDj; a nom. lAer thwn, otfcsn an 
obliqncoaae. <. .n>>>:;k- 



cHA?. IB. CONSTRUCTJON. IB 

A Nam, after the Verb. 

"What words are to be construed after the wrb 7 Which 
IB the verb ? What before the verb f 

Deus est mmmum botmm. Chriatua est tummum b<h- 
num. Chriatus est bomu ilk jMwfor. 

Alexander erat dnxforiUnnau. Titu> Romaniu Im* 
perator a^^llatus egt Anior ae DeUeue htuaani generit. 

Virttu habehir rationii kumane perfeetio; et hooor 
est pTcemiitm virlutu. 

A Gen. Cage after the Verb. 

H^ec domiiB et hie ager aunt/rofm mA. Mors nem- 
nit miaeretur, *ec dit)iti» nee paaperie. 

Satagit untwquuque reritm mantm. Vir bonui ii^ii* 
rii? obliTiscitur ; toic^i reminiscitur, 

Inqileatur v^erit BwxH, pngmt^ferimiK. 

Note. — When there ii no nom. caae expreised, it is im- 
plied in the verb, Rnd mait. In conitmln^, be topplied bj 
tine or tbe»e pronouiH, /, tiou, lie, ibe, tl, «r, gt, tht^; bc> 
cc^ioK to the number and peMoa of the verb ; thna in th« 
exam^ above, ImfUtUHr, they mrtfUUd. Kee C. 9. 11. 1. 

Dati«e after the Verb. 

LauB viriuti debetiv. Pecnuu multa conunodat, plu- 
riftiM inc«Hnmodat. 

Rex piuB reipiibUcee prodest. Cicero prseluxit majo- 
riJnu auu. Parenti debetnr maannia reverentia. 

Fama nendaei quia C3«dit7 Ferocmimo Uoni traditua 
est JLvsimachua. 

AccuMtive t^r tie Verb, 

C3mu ifflperium protulit. Romani vineebw* emrte* 
gentei. Virtiu conoliat et conservat amicUiam, Vitium 
.vHam moUslam eSicit ; et parit oditm ac inimicituu. 

BnUrnn Roeosok mMrons defetuoretn titum qmai ctnw 
manem patrem luxeiunL Filiam tuam cariiimiam occi- 
dit Virginivs, ne ctoprwn snatiaeret. 

Stnpnun cioJntMi ■ (f,i;)j)o|t^ 



16 CONSTRUCTION. cHap. i>. 

Ablatke ajler the Verb. 

Divkiii, nee tninut curi* abtuidavit Crcesus. CurU 
mortuus excmeratuT. Morbus qaiele, cura tomno spoliat. 

Morbus ipoliat quiete ; cura spoliat, &c. The firat 
spoliat is imaerHtood, &nd supplied b; Rule 23, from the 
tpoliat expresaed here. 

OJicio tw sapiens fungitur. Vita elerrux boni fnitm- 
tur. Stultus doetis et librif ahndtur. 

Doctis, learned tkingt, u e. /earning. 



2. The word goTerned by a lerb lUaf be &n inCniliVe 
noan ; aud possiblj tliat inf. also may have oertain words 
goveroed bj> it. In aach a. cnse, construe tbe inf. nest 
after tbe ler b, and Ibea tbe wards depending on tbe inL 

Scribere jussit amoc. Duo conaules CEspentnt ereari, 
Stultus pertevemre nequit. Fluctus detmnetcere csepe- 
runt. 

Carthagimenses bella reparare tentabant. Nemo Ro* 
manonim pacU mentionent habere dignatus est. 

Nnte. — From the last example we find, tbattbenord 
which the inf. governs, ma; likewise have another woril 
governed of it. The word governed, aecordingto Rule 14, 
must be coDalrned after that word which governs il ; (bere- 
fore jMCM most be construed after m 



CHAPTER IV. 

CONSTRUE the turn. eatejiTit, with the tvords thereto 
hebntging, if any ; then the verb ; then the teordorteords 
goeented of the verb ; laitlif tlie preposition if (Mff, mth 
the nord depending on it. 

Note. — Prepositions, as we Lave seen, are somulimcs 
adjuncts to the nom. bat in general they are attached lo 
die concluding part of the sentence, and to be construed 
after tbe verb. 

In this chapter, the wMds in llalioi are prepoaittOM and 
their adherents, to follow the Verb. ButtbeWrneimqit 



kmw, tti«( Hftie are not the only 'wor4« 1« !>* eonatnied 
sfier k verb ; fbera are otbti ^U'tqae cmm, fce. wtiicb be 
mnil (Kitingniab from the noin Rud iti adjancti, and con- 
strue ihem nest afLer ibe xeil>, tifca tlje prepoiirioa, &o. 



Whidi is the preposition ? The irotd governed of it 1 
Wbeie to lie construed ? Tirt verb T What words to be 
cMUtrued befcwe the Tfrb? 

Romaavminiperiiim a fiomuio exordium habet. £nu- 
lius Paulufi consul de Perteo triungthiun tigtt. Uasinisia 
cum Scipione araicitiara fecerat. 

Quiatue Foimieius cttm Nunumtitut pacem ignobikm 
fedt. FoBtea Caius Hostiliiu Moqcibw cum Namanti- 
n>«pacetn fecit iniamein. 

Publius Scipio Africanus militem vitkuiua et ignaviim 
sine aliqua aeerhilate coirexit. 

Copias euas Csaar in proximuM collem aubdnxit. 
Oscenses et Calagurritani nuttunl ad earn legatoi. 

£quitatutn ad ctufra mittit, adjSunwn Bagrsdam. Cu- 
rio copias ex loei$ luperioribiu in cangiuM dedudt. - 

Note— The learner berp will bave gone tbroogh every 
pari or lite Sr«t Rule orconslrnclioii ; wbicbi*BTerj'com- 
{irehenslvo one, and so uicrul, thiit tt will oftenlinici be 
sufficient of itself to conduct him tlirough wbolc and very 
lojq^ scnteAces ; iind Ihungb there are furiiM of ipMr.b, 
wliicb ciran<Tt tie wen exetnpliGed ondcr tbia mie, and 
therefore other rules nre necesmry, yet the learner must 
almost slwHjs Lear tiiis Srst rule m roind, under whslever 
other role be is reading ; beginning each sentence, nnleM 
(here be expressed exeqiUaDS fbr the contrary. With ibe 
nominative and ils udjnncts ; then proceeding lo the verb ; 
then to tbe wudi governed of the verb ; and so on. 



CHAPTER ^V. 



*' GojtBiac«*enDni.caBBftr«t, with the words-Gieeeto 
P %el<M^g, tf my; *en-*e vn* ; tben-the word or 



|8 CONSTRUCTION. ctUr. r. 

" woids governed of die vcib ; lastly, the prepoutioB, 
** ittay, with the word depending on it." 



ta which die aom. and its adjimota will be dUdo- 
gviahed by Italiest 

Wliich U the nom. case ? What adjuncts T To Ce 
aonstrued before or after the nom. ? The verb I ■ 

jj FoHm fartwta juvat. Adag, 

tt Audenteiyorluiui juvat. rlrg, 

8, Vocat hibot U&iwHU onmes. W. 

4. Omnei eodem cogimur. Hon 

li Ventis agitatur ingelM 

i'tmi* : et celta graviore casu 
Dedchut IvrreM : feriudt qw summoa 

Fulmita monte*. Id, 



" A getiidve case is usuaHy construed after anotlier 



Genitive tasesi soA the words diey depend oR, «in 
up^est m Italics. 

QtmTlOKB. 

Which is the genitive case ? What word don it follow 
lb etHMtructi^n f What words precede the varb ? 

i, Froh Deim tUq»e hoKmumJukn / Ter. 
■ 2. O curat homnmil Pert. 

S. AmanlMan Irae amoHs intc^ratio esL 
Amantium icoe mnorit inlegratio est. 
4, Interdum lacrymee ftmdeta vocU habent. Or> 
i. Nod ignara muli, miseria succunere diM«. f.irg. 



CHAP. V. CONSTBUCTiOM. 19 

ROLE 3. 

" An InfinitiTe noun is generally conatrued aher s 
'* *erb.** 

These and nich like infinitive vorda are not verbi or 
moodt (u they are commonly called) because they do 
not declare, o^frm, or predicate ; they are nonnt, because 
they are tiamet, names of actions or conditions. 

EXAMPLKS. 

The infinitives, and the words ihey depend tm, in 
Itolios. 

auESTioifB. 

Which is the infinitive nouaT The verb it follows t 
Tbe nom. and its adjuncts I 

1. Non ignara mali miseris tueeurrere lUtco. f^tfgt 

2. QaK_fallere poiiit amantem ? Id. 

■ S.. ■■ Possunt, quia poite vulentmr. Id, 

4. ■■-■■ Qui timid^ rogat, 

Doeet negare. Sen. 

5. Fotrtuna opes adferre, nOn animim^ pottit. 14. 



" An adjetftive or paidciple, if ho Other Vrord depend 
' oa it, must be construed before ita Donn." 

BXAUFLE9. 

Adjectives and tbeii nouns diatiagoiibed fay Italics. 

aUBSTIONS. 

Whidi the noun 7 Whidi the adj. ? Which of the 
wo to be construed first ? Before or after the verb t 



^fia'aliani tmdit. Ter. 
. Omnium rsrum, heus, viciseitudo e 



9. Svmtmimjtu ssepe 

4. iVuJJa mAm belto. Firg. 

5. ■ Vocatfgiorwfttys <anneB.C"r^';k' 



^30NgTR0CTK>N. 



** If an adjective or parddple govern s word afUf it, 
" it must be construed after its noun." 

nUtMVfX*. 

The noun and ai^ective, and flie wxird goveioed (^ 
that Adjective, in Italics. 

QVEBTlONa. 

The noun? The adj. ? The wordeovemed of die ad- 
jective? Which first of the three! Which next T Before 
or after the verb ? 

]. Vii conslU cxpers mole nik Ein, Sor. 

S. Res est xoUiciti plena timorii amor. Oi>. 

i. Incia virtnii nulla est via. Id. Est nuiia via, ^c, 

4; Errat, 

■ 'Qidsquis ah events facta notanda putat. Id. 
5. Vertut inopea rerum, nugasque canorse. ffort 
Rerum, <if matter. 



^' tn an ablative abiolute construe the participle or 
' adjective lasti that a, aft«r the noua or wqrd wi^ 
' whi^ it agrees." 



The ablative absolute is in Italics. 

ftUESTIONS. ■ 

WlntwrordsaredieeiuHni^, or abl. absolute? Which 
of them the nowi I Which the participle I Wtuch of the 
two to be coDStnied first ? The nom> ? 

1. Deo Volente, ridet et flet-quilibet. ^Jag, 

2. AuT9 logaaite, «ermo inanis oflHiie est. ^^ag, 
S. Arhftt-ethfteta, qnivK ^M caiSigit. Adag. 

. i. Etiam tanato vulnert, cicatrix maaet. Lattri ■ 
S. yia txmeta viatttnm qusttre. Crfi 



cHA». V. CONSTRUCTION. 31 

HIJLE 7. 

" If tWo adjecdres or pardciplm agree with the aane 
" noun, they mtut not be coiuitrued one beibre, and the 
" other after that notiii, but either both hefcHe by Ruk 
" i, or both a^ by Rule 6" 



The nousa snd adjectivet here concerned, in Italieii 



1^ example J Which of theae the noun ? The ad- 
jectives ? To be combrued by Rule 4, or by R. 5. T Why t 
fifty R- 4, «ay, '" Because the adjectives govern no 
wbrd sfler thetn-'' IfbgR. 5, say, " Because the ad- 
jective — governs the word — after it.") The nom. and 
adjuncts f Where to be Construed ? 

1. — Protperum aefelix tcelut 

Virtua vocatur. Sen. 

Felix, mcceuffl. 

2. Nee me lua/enida terrent 

DUta ferox : Dii me terrent. yirg, 

3. Vw bonus et-prudeiu venuaiwpieheiMet inertei. 

Hot. 

Inertea, lueleu, or goodjbr nothing. 
♦■ ■ Mal6 venim examinat omm* 

ComjOttshukx. Id. 
5. ■ Nobilitas loln est atque mica virtui. Juc. 

NolnUttu sola est alque wiica virtus< 



" het the relative and its clause be conEtmed as soon 
" as.pouiUe after the antecedent." - . . .. 

EXAUPLES. 

The antecedent, the relative, and its adjuncts, in Italics i 

Hie antecedent to be congtnied immediately befi»e the 

rriadve. If the antecedent be in the nmih case, coiwtm« 



» COHSTKUCTtONa cpAr. «. 

it first of all, u Lex quajubet, ^e. If the antecedent 
be in an oblique caae construe it after the word which 
gnnm it,m.Siege ttmmm*, tft* infgnat, %»■ 

QUESTIONS. 

The antecedent 7 The rdative ? Its dause ? Whore 
is the antecedent to be cooBtmed 1 Where the rel, and 
its clause? Before or after the verb ? If before, why ? 
(BMattse ihe ttntecedentia in the oena. oaoe.) Uafft, 
why? (Because the antecedent is in an oblique case,) 
and governed of -- — . 

1. Lex uRiversa est, queejubet natci et utorl. Lab. 
£. Gravior est ininaciu, qai latet in pectore. Id. 
S. Homo, qminhomnccalamUoto eat ftuserieori,me- 
minit Bui. Id. 

. Minor est quam eervua, dominui, qiu terpot tljnet- 



Id, 



- Aitimam rege, qui niti paret, 



Imperal, Hor. 
Animum, thy anger. 



CHAPTER VI. . 

KDLK 1. 

' CoMSTBUz the nom. case first, &c." 



The nom. and adjuncts ? The verb 7 What aiter ibt 
verb? 

1. 2>te« adimit s^iitudinem honiinibus. Ter. 

Siea, Time. 
J. ..1.. Trabit nta quempK ooltiptM, Virg. . 

S. ■ Qui* enim modm adsit amori ? /d 

4. Onuiia fert <etiM, animum quoque. Id, 
■ A ninan n gwque, teen tke reeilleciion. 

5. A^ier vitiiM, iriritque t^endo. Id. 

T^gaoAo, a panivegemadm it, by teptg eoaeeaM. 



CBAP.TI. <X>NSTRtrCt(0». ta 

Note. The gerundt m iB, do, dum, tiatgh c o m m e n ly 
repreuntedin mir Qttummrt ttbconigi^thea gli v e voke, 
are tometmet not active, but cxunw. So tiu f»piHe hi 
via ii tometimei pasiipe ; and the tupiiie in U i* lowi liHtet 
active, • thotigh not to repreteiOed in our Grat m n a rt. See 
»tf itKt, Gbah. MfwsniH^ Oenatit and Sw^mai. 

6. Sffivitque wiimia igwinU mUgm. H, 

7. Furor anna ministiat. Id. 

9, Dabit Devt his quoque flnetn, Td. 



< A geoitiTe cue is aaaSy ocButrwil albr aaother 



The gep. eaM ? The word it follows f tie rerb t 
What worda precede the verb f 

1. Omnwrn renm^ fien, aiei w ili rf g e«t t 7Vr. 
2.' Sat hAet/aeitonm Kn^er, qui recte ftdt. PJtuf. 
8. ^^^-^— flomftie iasitte thmniidi, 
Dum&ciles ommijiiMimm, dum mobilia setas. Virg. 

4. "VrBeetamorpatrialauAimqaeaamtxameupUo. ItL 

5. Seerit <(vu>r_/erri, M Mdsnta JMonta tetti. Id. 

6. PaIlidanionBequopulaatpede}MM(i«r<iM(a6erMa<, 

Kegvmque btrret. Hot. 

PbU death Jborib with impartiai/oot otfXe ^f, 

7. _- ^ w OSqaa te)b» 

. Panpari nohidltBr, 

Regttmqae putrit^ M. 

8. — Bi^eve et iir^»nl)ila t(M]N»» 

Onaibia wt Btbe. Bed&m^ esMHtw»&cti'>' 
Hm vtrtutu fjMt«v f^'Tg'- '^'«c »( opmi^ ^ 



KULK S. 

in is gaierally cotutnied after a verb." 



aUESTlONS. 

The int. noun t The verb it fliDowa ? The nom. and 
ai^iuictsT Or, The words to be construed first here? 

1, Truditur dies die ; 

Novseque pergant interire lunse. Hor. 

Dies, one day, tniditur, &e. — die, &y another day. 
■~4nterire, to mane, or perish, as it were. 

2. Qui noneetof ^eccare, cum pOBsitijubet. Sen. 
S. Redire, cum pent, netcit pador. Id. 

4. Amor ttnure neminem veruspoteff. Id. 

5. Quid Romee faciam? Mentiri neicto- Jwo. 

6. iJennaf elatis quisquan)cim/&Jer« rebus: 
Omnia mors sequat. Claudian, 
^alis rebus, in Mghfortime. - 

7. Tunc omnia jure tenebia. 

Cum poterit rex. esse tui. Id. 

Rex tui, the ruler of thyself. 
8. Nee, tibi qui liceat, sed quid/ecUM dtcebit, 

Oi:currat. Id. 
Nee oecurrst, nor kt it be eamidered, quid liceat. Sec. . 



" An adjective or participle, if no other word, Sec." 

QUESTIONS. 

Thenonn? The adj.? Which first? Why? The rerb? 
The nom. and adjuncts ? 

1. Ut ssepe summa ingenia in occidto latent! Piaut, 

in occulto, in secret, in a hidden place. - 

2. —-^-^ Trahit saa quemque volvptoi. ftrg. 
S. ■ ■ Labor omnia vincit 

Itaprobitg, et Airis urgens in rehus egestas. ■ Id. 

In^obui labor, hard labour, &c. et ^estas uri 
gens in, &c. 



HU. n. CONSTRUCTION. tt 

4. ■ Sffivitqae aataoM ignoMe migta. Id. 

5. DegenereM animot timoi argnit. M. 

9. Nunc animis opus, Mnen, nimc pectorejinno. M, 
N<m there it need animis of courage, IEoba, O 
Mneat, &c 

Awamu, is laiaa for the Mind, and for lAatever 
of iUi^entioiUi oaRemUee^on, Cottragt, Anger, . 
&c. 

7, ImpT6beantOT,f\\aA.BoanwrtallapecloracoffMl/([. 

O taicked Itme, to Khat do»t thou not, &c. 

8. " " ■'■- Quid non mortaiia peetora cogiii' 

Awi uterajtmui Id, 



ftULE 5. 
" If an adjective or participle govern a word, &c." 

KXAMPLES, 



Theaaaa^ Thea^.r Whichfirst? Why! Tbenom. 
and adjuncts i 

1. Labor tnmua vinrit 

Improbua, et durit urgent m rthu egettat. Pirg. 

2. CoMcia mciu recti inoK mcDdada ridet. Ov. 
*• ■ - — Ment tibi amtcia recti, Pirg, 

i. Neteia ment )xsaixaaafati.KrUtquefia)trce, Id. 
5, Forttma ttxvo keta negotio, Hor. 

*• _ ■ ■ Cprptu Onuttum 

Heilermt vitiit, animuni quoque praesrarat. Hor. 

7, At hnna pta-t hoaunuia decepta cuptaine /alto, 
Nil satis est, iuqiut. M At bona part hDminum,^c. 

8. Sumite mUeriam vettris, qui iscnbitis, teauam 
rtrilmt. Id. •■ •* ' 1 
Sumite materiam equatn vestris, 8ce.~ qui seribitis, 

y* leAo, Sic, 



Cix,slc 



« CONSTRUCTION. cup. n. 

MTU 6. 

" In >n aUative absolute, &£." 

£XAWLE8. 

ausaTioirs. 
The exempliiyiiig words ? Which is the participle, or 
faaa the participle imphed in it? Thenom. vidadjiiDcta? 
I. ■ ■■ — -.. !■ Ponuntque ferocia Pseni 
Corda, volente Deo. Virg. 
The CoTtiagituatu atsuage, &c. . Deo vofente, 
the God niUhta it. 
K. H«u! nihil incififtaa quemquam fidereZ)tD(f.' Id, 
A lot I it is laiBfiU/or any one to truet t» itiithmg, &c. 
S. Eat Deua in nolus, agUante calesctimu Uto. On. 
4_ . ]ife duee tutiu eris. Id. 

The panidj^ heing ia implied in duce >■ dace 
dien must follow me.— Me I. 

5. Nil despentndum, Tacro duce, et auepiee Tenero. 
Nor. 

The same puticiple being ia again implied in 
duct and in auspice, 

6. JtuRce quern nosti, populo ; qui stultus honorea 

Ssepe dat indignis. Id. 

Tli judge being the people, quem, &c, 

7. Per varios casus srtem eiperientia fedt. 
Exemph nonitrante viam. MaiuliHt. 

8. Inmermte Angiuto, natus est Christua. 



Inmerante AM^iuta, 
Avgtutiu betng Et 



Emperor. 



" If two adjectives or partidples agree with th« same 
" noun, &c." 

GXAHPLES. 

The exemplifying wordd 7 Which ofthese is the DOunT 
The adjectives? To be construed by Rule 4, or by R. 5 7 
Why? (See C. 5. R. 7.) The nom, and adjuncts? 
1. ■ . I ■■■ — . Farimm .et mtittdule semper 
Famina. Firg. 
farium and mulalnk both agree tritl iking. 



cBir. n. CONSTRUCTION. f 7 

ft. But nia caique dm ; hrwe ct trrtparabili UmpHt 
Onmibua eit vitse. Id, 

5. Udam et moiU latum ei. Peri> 

4. MoHlu et i>aria e*t ferro^ notera nalorain. Av. 
£. Id amore hoc omnia iosunt vitia ; injniiKi 

SiuniickHiesi '""ff'nt'ff', indncuB, 

BelfiiiD, pox nirauB. Ter. 

6, • Tot rebut iatquit 

Psruimui vied. Lvean. 

7, - — ■ ' . Hoc t^es babent 
MagMfown et mgetu (nulla quod i^iet din) 
Prodesse nuteiis. Sen. 

Tbe noun rAin^ or preFct^atica ia here ubdentood afiei 
hoc magn^. et tngau. 

8. Solvite, moitafes, ammoa ; cuntnqae levate, 
Tdtque tupervatntU vitam deflere jwrefi*, 
Fatareguntorbem; certaataotomnialege. Mmul, 

Here ^^fiere, the weeping anajf, or lo neep awaif, i> 
an infimtive nouo in the accut. case, governed of woatt, 
juBt aa the other noun ewatn ia. mortait, relax your 
iMndi ; and alleviate your care and the Keeping away of 
lift wiih 10 many mperflwme, ^c. 



WOLB 8. 
'* Let the relative and itt dauae," S 



QUXSTIONS. 

Themtecedent? TbereUtiTei ItadauHl WI»te 
is the antecedent to be.conatnied? Where the reL and 
itadauMT Before or after the verb ? Why? (SteC.5. 

It. a.) 

I. Miserriina/>rftuMi est, qiue mnmco caret. P. Syr. 
3. NiillBesttambona/orfiMa,(&jwaiu7jK»rafti«n. M 

Note. — The antecedent is frequently undenlood, and 
mv/ generally be supplied by toine prononu, u in the Tol- 
lowJDg examples : and remember, tb&t in thus lupplying 
Ihf aateoedcnt, tl must be rendered iiomediatol j before tb» 



eONSTRUGTIOST. out. m. 

4. Ab alio expectes (UMJ mUni mudfietruk 

5. Feras non curies (ittiid) qw>d vOmn nmpeUtt, 
F^aa,' noo mlp^ jkw muit be», yam ama not 

blamt, ^Ci 

6. lnvitatciiipfia.(iUe)^p9catttmpristerk. 

7. MiUtu minatur {McJ qmjaat mt v^uriam. 

8. QviBavivmmmedit,amettaKeBitmaa,li9^,Firg, 



CHAFTEH VII. 
mc I. 

<* CbiisTStst &e nom. cue fint," Sta, 



ladjnncti 

to follow the verb ? ■ Am yon obKired the Note f To 
tU* qtiettion,Jrequetaly propoud, noM but or kimat mi- 
mvr M the affirmalioe ttouid tatiify. 

1. Foteregout orbeinj'ceTtattantoHHMtl^e. JI/^iiU. 
naali pars pesBinui KTvi. Jifv. 



3, Lingua est maUlo^uix mentis indicium nuJs> 
Lii^ua nialiloqiutx, bn eei'f fjieaitm; tongue. Under- 
■ttaitAheitWiioTd^a'jhkdiivustMgWrlmtdpnf^, a 
lying, an rnpure, an iJle tongue. 
■ 4. Aemo rppentc fiiit turpNnmu. JWv. 
fi. ^. ..1. . . — - Ingeniuin re$ 

Adoeraa nadare MtlenU /for. 
Res advei»ae Advertitjf, So Res secuam— Rei 
optimEe Prosperity. 

6, Aimeos re( ojrftiiur psriunt : acfeeriie prdbanb 

7. Enervant animos dtliara, cantiujw, lytceque. Oc 
^ S. Kf^jlectiB urendmJiUx innaidtur agria. ffor, 

fikx urendo,' The/en mhich ought to ie burnt, ft. 



3UV. Til. COlffiTRUCnOK. 19 

10. Fortei cKantni fintibiu et Ixnui. 
Eit in juvencii, est in eqnia jMfnM 
Firtut : ntc imbeUen^/^owf 
Frogoienuit aqidUe oolumbam. Hor, 
Creantur, are produced. — Virtiu pMmm eit in 
juv. The virtue of their fithers, J^e. 



BVJ.B 2. 
' A genitive caie ia luually conatnied a&ex anotber 



Thegen. casef The word it ftdWi T Tbeverbt 
The wrada before the veifo in onutructioD I 



- Qvud non mortalia pectora cogiRi 



Am aacnjitmet ! firg. 
S. ViUs ntmma brevis spem nos vetat bchoate loo- 
gam. Hot. 

3. Via connli expert mole ruit sua. Id. 

4. At bona pan haminvm decepta cnpidine falto, 
Nil satis eat, inquit. Id, 

5. ^__— ^ Stat magni nommu umbra. Lucan, 
Umbra, the very tSadoiv, (i, e. the lemembrance) 

of, &a. — atat remmni. 

6. Ret est mUiciti plena tmoris laaot. On. 

7. Caiueia mens tteti-fam^ mendada rideU Id, 

8. Pqor eat bello litRoripse beUi, Sen. 

9. Serma eat cavendi ten^ui ia mediia malis. Id, 
10. Rex eit, qui posuit metus, 

£t (fff'i mala pectoHi, Id. 






boiffi7«iroTtoit. 



" An lafinitiTe noun is generally construed after i 
' verb." 



The inf. noun ? The verb it follows T The nom. and 
adjuncts ? or, words before the verb t 

1. Quid sit futurpm CTas,,^« ytunvra, Hor. 

2. " Quod adest, 
Memento componere eequua. Id. 

Rementber to order (or arrai^) rightly, quod, ^. 

5. £quam memento rebus in arduis 
Servare mentem. Id. 

t. ra^etima summis 

Mutare, et insignem attenuat Deua. Id. 
Note. — J)nu is the oom. CHie. 
B. Nee vero terrm^^rre onmes omnia potntnt. Virg, 
Verb nee omne* terrte potttmt. Nor indeed are alt loUs 
abU la, &c. 

6. Felix, qui paltiit rerum co^noscere txaaas. Id, 

7. JVofi, amabd) verkrore lapidem, ne perdas manum. 
'Amabd (an iuteijection) / beseech you. l_Plaut, 

8. Intra 



Qui vult etie pius. Lucan. 
Exeat, in the imperative Mood, Let him, ^c, 
10. Ser6rec«»ii(/erre, quodaubitjugum. Sen. 
, . Serb recusal. He refuaes too late, ienejugutt, 

quod jugum, &c. The first ^t^um is uuderBtood. 



aCESTIOXB. 

IVenounT The adj. 7 Which first! Why! What 
word* before the verb. 



imf. m (xmsimicno)o c 

1. Qnelnferrei:,siporni(mnoiiftM«tn«fc»A Ter. 
' ». iVWiaesttitotftoiUs^ri.qilbdiffldla.iietv 
Quam invitus facias. Id. Siet^or sit. 
S. Vk« lumma brevit — iptm no* viwt Ucboare 

itmgami Hor. 
4i 7»«Ki2a,iiwr»-we5i» puhtt j»«fc pwp*»«« «- 

ReKuraque tiures, /A 
fi. ^.^ ^ NU une MogM . ' 

Vita \ahore dedit mOrtelibua. /iL 

Vita dedit nil moTtalibuBi SfC 
£._..— Msl^v«nun'e3Meaiiiat«MU( 

C<mvpiui Index. Id. . 
7. Jejumu ommtohuM rank Tulg^a tenmix. AL - 

Vulgaria, common food. 
. a. Bfuim fidttm pMmiia ItvKBi. Id. 

lEienmt,' leUen. 
9. ■— - . ■! • l&c mNTM a«ii«M Wto, 

Na (ins'cire nbi, iwM palletoMe cv^. W. 
la DoctriiutBedOT(r»pmii»vc«MM'' 

Paulum MpuUtc diBtat w"^- 

Ceiola virlu*. Hor. 



SOLB j. 
" If an adjective or parlieiple gorern a word, &£."■ 

The noun f The adj. i The word ^emed of the 
adj. T Which firatof. the three?' WhiA neit? The 
words before the verb ? 

1. CntKititidulgent mK danw Ajf^-op*. nor. 
Indid^'sibi iywArfgiB^ifteyi aft«r.qr«MiU 

2. Qttid violentins avre tyranni ? •««'. 

The noun after which violentiiu is to be construed, 

a thing imr^ in mad. So in the next eitainple, (Ain^ 
is im^ied in afijuk aaddigntmi to be construed after 
it. 



at OONSTKTGTION. gbat. tit. 

i. Andeafijwd hreeiitu Qyarit et caFcere d%nuni. 
Si via eue aliquid: probku Uudatur et alget. 
Jm. 
A'ndc xliquid, dare lomeihifig, dignum, See, 
Gyara — an island, one of die Cycladet in the 
-jEgent Sea, wb^ber the Ramatu banialied obnoxioiu 
penoDB. — Esse aliquid, to be onjf Mug, 
Alget, /rwu( in neglect. 

4. N^ Achi/mbm Tiguqne hsc Umiiit tangst, 
Intra qiue puer eat. Id, 

Nil, let notimg, 

5. Aude,lMMpe«,contenmereopea;etteq<ioqae(%Mini 
limge Deo. Virg. 

6. — — Quid terra* alio eoZmtef " 

Sale mntamna ? Hor. 

Why do »e goto countriet, ^c. Quid, Wky,.'u e. 
Plotter quid, hecmae of mhat : eo Quid, Why, ia bo 
coqunction, but a Ptodoud goreined i^ propter oDder- 
atood* and therefore in the accua, case. 

7. Bara avit m territ, ni^oque timiliiaa ejfgtto. Jme. 
Avit vara m territ, ^c. 

8. Vive memtxr kthi; &git bon. Pert. Fine ttt 

S, ■■' — lUe potent ttii 

Lstaiaque d^t, cui licet in diem 
Dixiaae, ' Vixi,' Hor, lUe deget potent tvi, ^e. 
Potent mi, the ntatter of^nuelf. 
10. Juatum et tenacem propotiti tirvm 
Non civatm ardot praea juhentium, 
Non vultua inatantis tyranni 
Heute qaatit aolidik. Id. 
Non ardor civium jvbentimn praea, non wllia instantU 
tyroHni, ^uatit a toSdd mente ctram Jvitum et Unacem 
propotiH. — Juatuni, Who iejutt, ^. 

Note.— Ai teMMMt id tfiia example ii conatroed aTlei' 
nram by. the preaeat rote, tg jtutmn ia conaOued after it 



cGoo^k 



CBAS. TIL CONSTSUCnONi 



SVLS 6, 

>* Iq an abJative absolute construe the partid^, See." 



The otample or abL abiolute ! Which ia the parti- 
ciple, or has the paiticipla impUad in itt Tb« nom. 
and adjuncts f 

1. F(«nudabilk>rcervorumexerGitui,diiee2mw,qnain 
leoDum, carvo, Adag, [Zeow duee. CenodHct: tbe par- 
ticiple iadtice. — Quam leonnn^ tlum an oraiy ofliiMt. 

£. laperanie Aitgtuio, natua est Chrinut ; wqicrmtU 
Ehtrio,aaa&in>M. 

8. DeofaeenU, livor hand qnieqnam p oCaW. 
4. Interea guatus elementa per omnia qoBnutl, 
Nimquam ammo'j>re(iM obttant&mt, Jm, 
GustUB tuxitriei, after the jrerb. 
Animo, their tnclinalion, 
' ■5. ' " ' ' ' Prima cat btec altio,' qnM, m 
Judket aenm ndcefis aboalvltnr. Jw. 
The partfeqilB heag ia iajtidUt. — ^Nemo adeea*, no 



gmbtfjbtuon 
S. Paneti 



aetiuaAretaSimeemanjuServanBt, 
PanetiaraArcadid-AMt^jiukeeyittum, fttg. 
Etiam Arcadia, tec ntxAicaSA. — ^Dieat, imM 
toi^tuaiOBtiaaza. . 

7. jfe que idea decua hoc nn, te eomai^' iaibit,'. 
P^dv'i'.et.Meqaent magiri prooedare mraaca. 
.: Trdntetrn'tiuanuaeDtMtlariaTeadgiaBOatri, 
IrriUiMipetid solvant fimmdiM tents. ^*''^<^ 



■.■AdeoqMitvdeauaviiiMt,U,PolUo,U,conMle,^C, 
irotoii; 



SiWa, for sintiqiM, ■/'nagrt Iirita, &iM^|/rHt- 
' aolvcntt* 



etb respicituT telluB, nbi,,/tme tobtbr, 
Curtit' in immenauni panda caruia lalum. Oc 
9. ^tMUXmt^qiBA, parte inauditdtiteTi, 
^qAwn'lieet,BtataeiU hand sequus Aiit. Stn. 
^uuin licet statuerit, Mkhff»gkk» nutftfumdi- 
tenmedjuttlf. 

cjiiiKcCoO^k 



CONSTRUCTION. chaf. 

' 10. Deflete viram, 
Quo non alhu 
Potuit dtiuf 
Diacere causatt 
Vndtanttan 
Parte mtditd, 

Scroe et neutiA. Id. <k Chudh. 
Quo, than ivwiii, 



^ tf two a^ecUTCi or pariidplef agrw wuh die 
aine houhi 8cb." 



He exenpliftiiig wordat Wtucb of these is the 
nonii T Which the adjectivH ? By R. 4. or by R. 6. f 
Why7 (>S^ C, 5. R. 7.) The nom. and adjuiH^ ! 
1, Dulce tt decorum est pro patris mori. Hor, 
The ttoua i> (Ain^ unaerstood, 
. S, ' iffe potemi Mii 

ZtKbu^Ne degetf cui licet in diem 

Dixisse, ' VixL' ItL /lie lepresenU Uie noun* 

3. Felicet quo> tUe timomm 

Maxhrnu baud urget, ]ethi menu. Ziican. 
He foil phrase is *Ue tsoxttaw timor timorvm. 

4. Tinn drauqoe omnes aotfrs intelligiiiras Aomi, 
Quum, qiiB in pOtestate babuimiu, ea amisunui. 

Nottra bona &a naiirat bonat ret. [Plant. 

5. Ttedet quotidmarum harvm formar w t, Ter. 
6. : Glim 

ReUigiopep6rit<ee2mMaaffftieMH^/acfa. Xucref. 
RetUgiofaua tcU. ReDigio,^ lebgio ; to Rej^perit 
reppuUt, lettulit, /H"reperit, tepulit,. re^t, to lengthen' 
thefirtt lyUable fn veree. 

Ow, long ago, 

[Unl IK l:, GOO^k 



CHAP. TO. CONSTRUCTION. » 

7. MoMlmm korrmdum viforme, tngau, cui lumen 

ademptum. yirg, 

8. Sobtm Hwun hoc vifium afiert senectiu hcmunibiu, 
Atteniiorea sutnui omuea adTem, qaam pat eat. Ter. 
Ad rem, to the thing, to the principal thing, aa it n 

commonly esteemed, i. e. to moaty. Quam par ttt, 
than M righU 

9. Enat ioa^ me& quidem aentetttii, 

Qui miperium credat gravuu ease out ttofitZmt, 

Vi quod fit. quiLm iUud, quod amkitii adjuiug^tur. 

Ter. 

M.e& sententii, from mg ojnmioti. — Imperium, (Aof 

that gOMmituni, esse, if. See. — quod fit vi, wkich u mm* 

tained by farce, qujim, &c — MJtmgitUT amidtiA, it 

hovmd togetittr bj/, ^, 

N.B. Esse in this nhitli exan^e shewt a great 
deal, thou^ not all, of the naffire of an iNriNmri 
word, and of the reason of its name. EsiE hete, ae- 
c<wding to the construction we choose to give it, is 
eidier a-Terb, or a noun, oc even an ^ective : a verb, 
if we make it to affirm or predicate, Eme ia ; a noun, 
thus, BssB lo BE, or a beiho, in apposition with ini- 
perkim; an adjective, thos, Essx to bb, or as beino, 
when it agrees with imperium. The last construction 
is not so well here, but grammatical ; and ii lometinieB 
preferable; as, 

" £t nuestum simul ante araa oAttare parentemj 
" Sensit, et bunc propter ferrum ceUtre miniatros 
" Aqiectuque suo lacrymaa ^imdere cives." LvcreU 
as if adttantem, eeUaies, ^ffwuientee, S<nnedmes the 
infinitive is neceuarihf construed adjecdvely, and can 
notbe Ksolved in any odier way ; as, 

" Pnennn, tnde abient, ctwveni Chremis 
" Olera et pisdculos miautos ferre obolo in ctenam 

senis,^ Ter. 

aecesaarily as i£/erei>teni. So, " Eat interdura prtC' 
" ilare mercatuna rem quterere," Cato, De Re Rtut. 
whef« pratlarc is as the aA^. prattant to agree vrith 
the noun qtuefere. See the nature of the infinitive il- 



l;, GOOt^l>; 



» CONSTRUCTION. map. *n. 

InMnted M lai^ in my Lat. Gbah. where I have 
endeavoured to vindicaU thia matt elegant and uieful 
form of Bpeedi from that confined snd pigmy netion, 
in which our Grammars liave generally wrapped it (^ 
coturary to what its name so obvioualy imports. 

10. Part)H&t(iiam-exGm[dDeet)magni^(>mirca1alioris' 
Ore trabit, quodcimque potest, atque addit acerro. 
Quern Htruit ituid ignara ac non meauta iiituri. Har. 

Formica (nam exemplo estjparvulo [setH magrn Horit, 
trafdt ore ^uodcunque poteit, atque adda acervo, ■qven 
tlmit, haud ignara, ac turn bieaiUafiaun. 

The adjectire iaeauia, ■ jaaat thua ibilow ita nomi 
finmea, by Biile S. ^nd- dierefoie by the preeent rule 
ignara, and likewise pamtia must be conatmed after 
/orvtiea. The beautiful antithesis betvnea pUrnda and ' 
magni iaborit, JB thus best preserved in the construction ; 
TAeataX/orthiiitlheiTexampkJamallinfize, but oj 
great inmttry. 



&ULB 8. 
" Let the relative and its clause, &a." 



Qoxsnoita. - 

The antecedent ? The relative T Its clause T Where 

is the antecedent to be construed ? Where the relative 

artd its clause (Before or after' the verb ?) Why T (Set 

C. 5. R. 8.) 

I> Parvula (nam exemplo cBt) magni formica labops 
Ore trahit, quodcunque potest, atque addit aetno, 
Qttem tlruit, haud ignara ac non incauta futuri. 

C. Nil agit exeTttphm, Uiem quod lite retoloit. Id. 

ExempUimqwd, S^c. 
8. *r ■ Leve fit, qvod bentfertur, oniu. ,0b. 

Onut, quod, ^c. 

, * ' [; :,.i IK i:, CoO^k 



caAP.vm. CONSTRUCmON. »7 

i, Aat ego, gtue £edm mcedo regiiui, Joeitfue 
Et loror et cotgua, un4 cum g«iite tot aunos 
B^la gero. Virg. 

5. Heu ! quam misenun est ab eo kedif de gm nan 

Stmgueti. 
eu, &c — Iffidi &heo,ik quo, ^ 

Here, on FrLda;, 31st October, I80S, ended 
Hbhhy KiRKB White's first lesson ia this 
book, containing 31 pages in bia copy. 



6, file potenB sui 

Ltetusque deget, cut Heel in diem 
Dixu4e, ' Vixi.'- Hot, Ille, cm licet, ^c. 

7. Ira qua legitur, nocet. Sen, 

B. MbJI vivunt (ilii) fui m temper ticl6rot piitant. 
JUi'qiti, S^. — te, that they, TicturoB esie, are aboKt 
to Ime, BempeT) &c. 
9, Ferpetud vincit (iUeJ qm itfiter clementid. 
10. Bis vincit (Hie) q\d k oineit in victoria. 



CHAPTER vnr. 



" CoHSTBVE the noni. case first, Kc." 
Note. — Thongfa soTnetiUea, 



e espressed in the Latin, yet there is one sltrays 
implied in ever; verb, Rnd may be Bcpptied by one uf Iho 
propouDS, according; to (be namberand person of the verb. 
Let the learner atteud to lliis ellipsis, both because it Tre- 
qnently occurs, and because it is elegant in its use, tbe 
pronoun in Latin being very rarely expressed, unless for 
distinction or energy in speiilting. 

EXAMPLES. 

The verb, in which the nom. is implied, and the 
words, which, for reasons to be seen hereafter, must 
precede the verb in construction, (if there be an^ such) 
will, be in Italics. When tbe verb is the only wotd in 
Italics, construe that (ant ; then the word governed of 
it,aiid.BQ'<nu - 



GONSTRUGIKXK. 



The verb t The nam. case implied in itP The ad- 
jinicts of Ae nom. f The words to fbUow the verbT 

. I.. VeoMoi (xS^poer, sppaiatus. Eor. 

X. SubEim^rtamBideraTertice. Id. 

Egofertaai:, ^^.^—fcnam, team_fimo,aot&omJiro. 
S. PhyUIda mno ante alias, yirg. 

Tttt (fe» or yoK. 

1. €luSd «i me hxtiaa vadlMu iwe wft 
Sahlaaii Ariwa aidesa vwtioe. Mart 
Qiiodtittt, ^a. — LyTiciavalibua,.wfA^£ynrjMet(. 

X. /ifwfito Kiulta ; loqwre pattca. 
- 'Ai^t»t hear (Am, 4w. 

lile; lUa; lilud. Ht i Ske; It. 

nu, he. 

1. A^am^iMf hftc vitioBaa ; ia bora '<:epe ducentoa, 
Utinagnum,versuB(I(cfi)(()t<faii«j)e(fe in HRo. Hor. 

Nam fait. Tit. &c, «<spe itmt tn two p«fe die 

tabat due, vers. &c. 

^&i, the. 

S.. PhylHdftMMi ante slna ; nam me diBcedare,^a>ift 
£1 kHUtan, fonnOTe t^, vde, trr^titt, lola. I'irg,. 
Namfimt, tola, me ditcedere, ^. Me discedere, 
as if, QnoD xoo dibcgdebeu, becoiue that I departed, 
when (CM^tfere is an infinitire vei:b ; or, as if^ mb j>ibc»- 
DXNTEu, me departing, ]ike puervm ferre, above noted 
m Terence, {or pitenimjeretitetit, and then diseedere, like 
,/<rr*K is aU it»&iitive adjecdTCr-elibqist, &ei— Isogum 
vale, &e. Here^ »iJ« in the Latint. aod^^smattf in-tbc 
(Es^sdh areofalnw-fi^constTuctiini. Piimai^, i.«i 
CDiaidraed m tfoowdtves, they aie verbat- uid have their 
.nofD. easee, Mife t%/are jfov mff ; bnt.ia.tlHaDr^Btioi 
fo the adjective, laagvm, long, they are noiuMtJbrintii 



cH*f . nn. CONSTSUCTIOM. M 

nouns only'de adjeOi'aea sgrae. !■ thair iepeaiehee 
also upon <he verb Mjw*li «A«aa*^dieyiHe!B0TOaintIw 
transitive or-MJMMrivC'gB^e, «q»ewing« fiiM, qfwhJch 
this is the «tuHt, « im^ ^^taneU, iirngum Hsb, Thus, 
aUjpKrU«f qaech faeiOgOnwd fi«a4faekaH, ^ the 
oaeaf atMsdis AevHBe'of 4cpart«f qieedi fleter- 
MWtfdtitSBueheiagM vuioitsasitaiKe: Audlhisis 
a niiae^k in Gnaamx tn^ vduck imtamieiMejibnaeti 
oMentiM nBnUEable, 'aie «Milf r— obgd.^— FoimaqM, 
" ' ' ' ', jAipbr^'oi'aone tudi 



word, being tunentooo. 



7t 
3. i/wial ire sub umbras. Tu& re/erf 

Spectat ad omnes bene vivere. 
Tua refert, it concemt thee— aoeae, for novisse, from 
nosGo.— Te ipsum, ^IVam to Ipse, tAyKJ/l— Spectat ad 
:. ^ ^ 



, 1. Quidl^M^ferUijiMMimmrieM 
S. Multa? Quid terras alio calentes 
Sole tm tf oiww 7 Patriae guis exsul 

Se quoque fugit ? Hor. 
Quid nos, fortei brevi «■», ^. Why do im, mAojAmc 
ruA&afoiiU/eirAi^^c. Quifl«acfulpatri£^ &c. Who, 
tkoaf^ m txilejrom «u cotmtn/, ^, 

Vot,yeoryat. 
1. Pianam tenene £dte virgines : 

Z. Intonsum, pueri, dictte Cynthtum. Hor. 

lotonsum C^thiini), tmiAom {J. e. ; euthfal, ever 
jronng) A folio. 



Thetf. 

Which is the first ncamide here, «nd {ts S^unct f ' j 

The Mcond and its adjuneta? The third, &c.? Hie < 

f<mt«, -fte.? Tbefiffli, ftc.t Tlie thtue to be wo- J 

strued first «r«H? fiwTe yon xrafied TOtns^ of (fa« ^ 

Note! - .. " 



40 CONSTRUCTION. chap. toi. 

1, Qn^B apes Eeatate nov& per florea rnra 
Exercet subsole labor ; man gentis adultoa 
Eduamt foetus, out eutn UqnetiM meUa 
StiptaU, et diild dutendunt nectare oeUas, 
Avi onera aceipkirU venietitium ; ant agrmu facto,' 
Ignavum fucos pecuB a praeaepibus arceiU. ' yirg. 
Talis laioT, qitaiu exercet apes novA eeitate, •perfiwea 
rvra, tub tole ; cma edueunt aduUos, *c.-^— out cvm ttt- 
jMmt, ^c. — el distendvnt cellat, ^c.—AtU, SfC. orreceioe 
the burthent; venientiam, ofthote that come loaded vidi 
boney. 

Anl, agndne facto, arcent, ^c. Agnme facto, an ab- 
lative absolute. See Rule 6. A pi8esepibus,,/rQm their 
hket. 



' " A genitive case is usually construed after another 
' noun." 

EXAMPLES. 
aOBSTIONS. 



]. Crescit ontor tntmmi, quaatum ipsa peoinia crescit. 

5. euros Uominmn! O quantum est in rebus inane. 

Pert. 
O quantum inane, what an emptiness, in rebus, 
M their cOTtcerru. 

■3. . — ■■ fU( aUerwi maU 

Gradut ettfdurL Sen, 
Alterius mail, o/"«i« «>il. 

4. r- Multos in summa pericula miait 

VentvTt timor ipse mali. Lwan. 
•- Timor ipse, the very fear, 

6. Non domas aut fundus, non tn-tf-acermMtftauri'. 
jEgrolo d^mtim dedvadicoTjtoreCebiat, . ' 

Non animo curas. Hor. , . , 

t.oo^ic - : 



NMi^Witntt'slt, ftc. &C. DbdUAil Kill M, ROM rf> 
4mmd/a!en, -corprnt legnrt, ftc.— «or care* fci Air miiuL 
g^ II II II I II ^tptnai nctc qui pttitt^jM wraAj 
RiutkHis «tpectat, ihiu defiuu amnii ; n Jlle 
IdMtiir,et)kbetiir,ini}nineTt)tTiMJBafrum, tfor. 
12w»foiiJb, prarogat, JhN— Iti«iein,fi)teiieb)rit, 
expectat, donii && 
7. Eaind i)et Attfer, nha terra, et iMmttn, et ler, 
Et ctdum M ▼irtna? Si^etos quid i^iueTiiiraa ultiat 
Ji^tteTMt, quodcunque TidM,qaocuni}ae moviria. 
Zncon. 
/* there my ahoek, ^.— Wtrs, eltewhere t Jupiter 
e>^ Mot M Apitcr, ^c. So the Epicurean ^iloaophy : 
sa; here, There U Jupiter, %c. ■ 



** An infinidre noun is j^emQ; conatnietl alter « 
*' Terb." 

EZAUPtXa. 

MEatlOKS. 

The iii£ noun ? Tie verb it follows ? The ooin. «nd 
adjuncts T 

1. Nee regna socimn/erre, nee tseAtetehaa. Sen. 

Regna, t. e. Rege*. TtedtK, \. e. Cmjnget. Soeium, 
hoc eat,parUcipeMiwjnriiy a vo-partrter in their rigtUt. 

2> Ferre, quam sortem patMiotiir onines 
Nemo rectuat. Id. 

Nemo recusal fere lortem, guam aortem, &s. fls^boTS, 
C. 7. K. S. Ferre jugum, quodjugum, ^e. In tiudi, 
the Relative always stands thus between two cases »f the 
satn&noim, though the former or Antecedent is the one 
commorfy ^etjireMed. Mfltftc h ttetunderstood ; wVreaa 
somettraes, as here, the reverse is observed. Sse Bx- 
cep|iQ|ia to Rule 8. of Portion, in Part 3. 



42 CONSTRUCHON. chw. vm. 

3. £» nitent mu I hoo^vesiia quark haberi.- Ov. 

4. Quod cacere jNUtM, stultum est admittere. Ter. 
&, Nescio, qua natale solum dulcedine cuacbu 

Ducit ; et ixDmemorea non nnil chc sui. ' Ov. 
-I know not byrvkat snieetneis their native -soii, ^c,-~et 
non sinit, and infers them not, Sfc. — sui, iioip (VW> 
6. Aurum per medios ire satelUteai 
Et jKrr^jiere ama< saxa* ^or. 
1 Aunim axaax ire, &c. 



" An adjective or participle, if no otber word depend 
' on it, &c<" 



Thenoun? The adj.? WLich first of the two? -Why T 
The nom. and adjuncts, in the first or principal clause I 

rege. Hor. 
qui proTOgat horam, 
Rusticus expectat, dum deflnirt tunnis ; at ille 
Labitur, et fabetur, in omne volubilis cevv^i. Id.' 
S. Virtus est vitium fugere ; et lapientia priimi 
Stultitii caruisse. Id, 
Caruisse^ to be mithout. 
4, Latiils regnes, avidum domando 
Spiritum, quim si Libyam rmotie 
Gadibmjuagaa; et uterqve Pcenus 
Serviat uni. Id. 
Domando, by subduing, avidum Spiritum, r^pes, la- 
tivls, qu&th si jungas, &c.— remotis Gadibus, to (UttatU 
Gades; etuterque Peenus, and both Carthaginiani, ^e, 
uni, thee alone. 



Avidos victiwM/wnit ut etgroa 



Exaniniat. Id, 

Vio. fun. aaoin, &c. _ _ , q„„j,| ^ , 



p. TOJ. CONSTRUCTION. 43 

I. ' TcncTM (MM»M alkiia ^)pTo))ria ssepe 

Absteirentvitus.. Hot. AUena<^ffroliriatixpt,^c. 



** If an adjectire or patticiple govern a word after 
* it, &e." . . 



The noun ? The adj. ! Which of the two, dntt Whyl 
-Thenom, and adjuncts, in the first or principal clause ? 

I, Forttma tavo lata negotio, et 
Ludum insolentem biaere pertmax, 
Trananiutat incertos huiores, 

Nnne miAt, nunc alii benigna. Hor. ■ 
"Fortune rgoicing in crvel butineu, and mUU conttatd to 
platf her iiuoleta game, transmutat, Sec. 

Z, Explorant adversa vtroa ; perque aspera daro 
NitituT ad laudan virtw mterrita clivo. iSit, ItaL 
Advena, adverse things, i. e. adversity, ^c— que 
virtus iuterrita duro clivo nititur, &c. — per aspera laca, 
OBfr rough places, i. e. through di^Scultks. 

3. Blandoqxie venena 

DesidiK virivs paulatim evicta senescic Id, 

4. -- "" Puer (ut siievis pTojeclus ab twwfi* 
NavUaJ nudut humi jaceC infant indigus onmt 
Vit^ auxilio. Lvcrel. 

■ Psitr (ut navita pry. ah. son. ttnd.) ja. nud. hu. inf. 
md. om. aua, &c, f^itai is here used for Vike, the Gen. 
of Vila. 

5. FtBpmda cu^xe sectUa nuptias 
PrimdiQ inquinavere, et genus et doroos. 

Hocfonte derivala ck^s 

In patriam populomque fluxit. . Hor. 
,. Tid times fimtfid of vice first polluted, Sic^—B^'ide- 
jitfdjrom t^fovUmt haihfiomed, &c (^ .oojk 



6. ffiwmm Hriil iimi {wcnmik^esf 
tflM ygW Wm , }M^ now, tt£t 
JVm negworvt, mox datvre* 
Piwauem vitiotiorem. Id. 



" In an ablative absolute construe, 8xf 

KZAUPLEB. 

QUESTIONS. 

' 'nie>l)1.abiolute; Which Utile jpartidfle;<K,'WJbi(^ 
luu die iHOtJcipte implied in it ? The noni. and adjuncta, 
in the principal dauae t 

1. Quid &■ 

At^iB nefiu^ taadwi incipiunt aeatne, peractit 
CrmmuboM, Jvn, 

They be^ at lemgtk, aeatire <)iud est Sm, Sec 
i, SeatHs ille, ^ui, proctd negotvt, 
Ut jffiaca gens moctaliuDi, 
Patema runt bobuB ex«vet waa, 

Solutus onuu ftenore. Har, 
Happy A«, kAo, bnimn Mn^, '^e,-~at pr, g. &t. 
exercet, ploughs, ^. 

3. O fortunatofi nimiiim, bona si sua nonnt, 
Agricolas : quibua ipsa, procal discorSibus armi, 
Fundithumolacfleravictumjustiasimatenus! Virg. 

OtoofortttnatehutbatuhtenJ if tiey did iut An^m, ^c. 
ODtbuB ip. juBL tellua fund. Jam. &c. to tvJiom Ae verj/ 
hountemu earth itself, ^c. 

4. IinberbiH juvenB, Undran taata/te remOtO, 
Gandet eqwis, canibiuqua, et ^tici gramiM tam^ ; 
Cereus in vitium flecti, nxmiwr^s a«per, 
Ut^kun tvdiu jxroviaor, pmdigus tttia, 
SuMimia, copidasque, et muta teliBqBere pertiz. 

Jftn 



CHU. Tm. CONSTRUCTION. iS 

Cereus &Mi in vit, {*(« mu: to be baU t», ^e. Ce~ 
yenfieeti is a JSreedjnn, fiecti being an tnfinitiTe ooubi 
governed otadoxw understood. Ho pentUc reUtuptcra, 

Sublimis, ioliy, cupidua, fuii of tktira, pemixi 
r^adjf, or T«ry quick, &c. — amata, tkuigt once ioved, 
6. Comertit ttndns, eetas animusqae virSis 

Queerit opes et unicitjas : inservtt Iionori ; 

CommiBisse caret, quod mox mutare laboret. Id, 
Hit studiet bfing, ^c.—hit manly age, $c.— insenit, 
Ac M a tlave to, ^c.^-cavet, he forbear*, SfC, 

6< Units aenem cinTumveniiintinconnnodB; veiqud^ 

Quffirit, et inventts miser abstinet, ac timet uti; 

Ve] qi)dd res omnes timid^ gelideque ministrat ; 

^Dilator, ape longus, iners, aviduaque futuri, 

DifBcilis, quemlus, .laudator tainporis acti, 

Se puero, censor, casligqtorque rainorum. . 14. 
Mult, in, &c. — either that keteeks for necessarie*, and 
mitetidily abttaintfrom them when fowtd— or, that he t»* 
«Mte(, etc. Spe loDgns, fonmng dittmU hepet — temp- 
act q/* (tme jxMt— min. of hit yoimgert. 



" If two adjectives or paitidples a^ee with the same 
" noun, Sic." 

EXAMPLES. 
QUESTIONS. 

The exemplifying words? Whichoflhemisthenounl 
The adjectives (to be construed by U, 4, or by R. 5. ?) 
Why? fSeeC.B. R,7.) The primary clause or clauses { 
The nom. and adjuncts? 

I , Justttm et tenacem propositi virum 
Noll civium ardor iH^va jubentiuni, 
Non vultuH iostantiB tyranni, 
Ment« quatit solidi. HoTj 

S. ■ — Egomet ml ignosco, Msenius inquit. 

StuUiu et impTobut hie amor est digmtt<{Me notari. 

I pardon tni/telf, toy*, Sfc. — TAm t^-lwe it, 4^> 



M OOSSTISIXTKaf. mM.,'»mtt. 

iVsfar* « a U»itfw nmn te dw Offiime «r AWadve 
MM, goT OW wd .at digmu. TImb, it««)«myR««f «o 
know dn cmm of :mi iofiailwe bonb, 4iy ooMideriBg'wba 
MM tin woid gorena, to w^och it la awssed 4b right 
conmoedvA. So is 1^ next exanqile, vivtre « ppoi w p 
lo be a noBBUtiv^ becuwe itCoUawa tit, «x bnaiiaa it 
u in appoaition to virftu. And^igamieKe, iikSi. -1. is an 
WUUH^era, keoaiue it is gov«n>ed i^co^ 

S. tfua wwtM dt ^tumta, boni, sit -rirere ■pwo 
(NecnaraBbicMimo«at; aed^rnempeascmtC^fluii 
JE)M(MNUk «6Mni)u-40p>eiM, «tas3^^pe JraoviQ 
DiMate. Id. 
DiKi$e,-o b»m, qMtttmaiMnrtut ik, ^. — Rusticus, 
&c A rwtlie, mte mtbaat^ormaS^, md 9f a virottg- 
MHuftMMilliMM'— AtmwmiB, Aof •«, n'rK'fwrma, wi(A- 
oaf fwfe. — Minerva, geurady ^le ^edSess df wndom ; 
•onetimu madomitwU'i «n mp ti « t», as here, t})e lUiDd 
wliieli jnwfiMM ii^ ■ ^foms axad, -a ileon^ gtiuiu : bo 
emtttaed, cnww neoeuai^; ctuue after, it ; and tbw 
!• best Been the fidl iaiax ofcrasta Miafirftm^ 
i. Nam velud, ptieris absinthia tetra medentei 
Cum dare conaatatr^ ^daoias pocula drcun 
Contingimt mellis du&ifiavoque Uqiiore ; 
* * - , * * 

Sic Mso 

• « '• 
■ - ' — ■ Vdui tihi maoeloqueiai 
Camme Pierio radonem exponent nostnun. 

LverH, 
Nam tieluti ram noL eon. dare t£tra abiin. pttrit 
pr. am- or. eir.px. ^. 

So I naked— JtatioBem exmmere notlrc^ ^c. to pro. 
pmmd-my me^id of pta^aophy to yon, mtntet Pierim 
tttwtu, that i$, m verse. 
6, Ponite i^an tmddoMqtu mdtut. Sen. 
6. - Porro poer^ot ueria jrcjectas ah undii 
Navita)'nudui humi jacet; wfrns indigus omni 
Vibu auxilio.-*~- 



■C.oi^'^k' 



. Nee vanas.qtuemnt Keateapro tempore coeli. Lvertt. 

Nee etthlmdaat^ityrcartuloqiKlaiUmeeimlrieit, ^, 
Mot iMthe m^amt&tpmg taagMgi «f a UatLmtrttt* 
bemptiedtoaa^attiieM. > 

Pro tempore cueU, occordiHg to the cSmaU, or teaim 
of the year. 



<- LettheretatheaiiditaAiise,.& 



'Xb> uUMsdrat.! Thaicbtiwl iHdmmt Where 
'M.tbs:aDte«edsM::toi1>»coBBau»d7 Vbcgre Ihe Teladvs 
Mid ita dWM-? Before m after the verb f Why 1 fSiu 
C. 5. R. 8.) 

It fecit. Sou It, em leelus^ ^e. 
t. ^w) tetnel etfimintta recent, iervM.t odorem 

Testa diu. Hor. Teita diu tervabil odorem, qua, 

fe. 
i, Ira fiirot brevU est; amtaum rege, qui, mu paret, 

Imperat. Id. 
4. Judice, juem notli, popuh, qui ttiUlvt honorei 

Sape dot imJigmt. AL 
2. NilBifinnarirpn>pefTt.estwMirNuBici, 

Solaqtte, quce possit lacen «t MWwebtatUK- Her, 

M)niw(tdra..uLe>t px^e, &c« — ti< ottcafitwly 
(Am^, qiue, &c. 
C^ Redden gw voces jitm seitjMn-, et pede csrto 

SlgmC liuunmir gestit paribus eoltuders, et iram 

CoUigit ac ponit t«mard, et antatuc in ban*, '/il. 



4S COmTRUCnON. ema^ tx. 

pur. deUghUloj^aymUkhJi, ^. — andtakeiupaaididyt 
aside hit retentmetUt rtuhly, — in horaa, eoenf hour. 

Here, ob Saturday, 22(1 October, 1803,' ended' 
Hbnry.Kibkb Whitr's second lesson in this 
book, containing 8 pages in hts copy. 



CHAPTER IX. 



BDLB 9. 

" CxKTAiK adverbs and conj unctions are i 
" before the nomimuive eate and verb; i. e. they are . 
" construed first in their own clause or sentence ; so i» 
" the relative qui; and so are quit the interrogative, 
" quantus, qatcunque, and such like words, (mth their 
" accompaniments) in whatever case." 

^ote, — Tha aceompoMmenU of qui, qidt, quantus, ^. maf 
%e DOODS, with which ^ui, mis, bo. agree: or noons go- 
verned of them i or otUer adjectives annexed to them ; w 
prepositions, ofwliicb they ate governed. 



The words in Italics are they which, by the present 
Rule, must be construed first in their respective dauses. 
After they are construed, proceed to die nom. case ; 
then to the verb, &c according to Rule 1. 

aUKSTIOHS. 

The exemplifying word 1 Where to be construed ? 
The nom. case ? Its adjuncts ? The verb t The words 
diat are to fbllaw the verb 1 

1. U( sispe summS ingenia in occulto latent! Flmt.' 

Ut seepe, horn ojien, sum. ingen. 
ft. Quod cavere possis, atultujn eat admittere. Tir. 
S. Quern ferret, si parentem non ferret luum 1 Id, ■ 
■ Whom nould he bear wifk, j^, fc. 



ouKB. CONBTRUCIIOK. W 

4. JKm detwioKB onnu trattua liMBlit' M 
Form are alt, ^c— licentift, for leomieh, ^. 
,£. I>uiDuaoil«ka^ HoBauha«aiqmitmum.t 
Stulto intelligeiM 
QKMtiBUreatl Id. 
Hm ntuck doet one num txeet, ^ Horn vmck m uf 
UUigent meat differ* from, ^e. 

9. — Qw(>&tatTidiiiittntnhintqoM,t9qawmiT. 

rtrg. 



KUIB 10. 

*< What a qnestiaa a adnd, tatguat dw iHHn. am 
" ^mdflM it be the inu a io g a iive fm, ywliw, ipiawlw, or 
** tifer) after the vetb, or ebo betivcea th« Badiih TMb 
*' aad the aiuOiaiy, expreiung the auxiliaiy ant."' 

Note. — Bj auiiUariti bere are mMDt thoM wordi, wUoli 
ore tomeHtnea cttlled by joang franmariana, iStj^M q/* tb 
Moedi md Ttiutt: vw. mm, «it, dM, ww, wvr«, ifi>, aii^, Mn, 



The words in Italics aie such verlu uid Dom. cam 
as itx nde treats oC 



The exmplilyiDs words I Tlu nom. .(and a^uncts, 
if any) ? The verb ? Its mood and tense } The En^h 
amiuray, to come mlh and btfore tie nom. eat t Are 
there any words here under the ninth nde,' and therefore 
to be coasi3iied beibre the wnn. cast and verb \ 

1. Ut anpe tmnnta n^mia in eeculto ftifnit / Plaiti. 
Ham o/tm d», ^c. 

2, O qniteD mirnnm ett nesdre mori ! Seti. 

The Dom. i* it understood, Hon nretched it i), ^< 
HRi, Aon* to d&el 
, InfelislQuantidoiiimniavirtttieiMirMf'/ £««*n. 



fiO CONSTRUCTION. cup. is. 

Vnhafmy Seava I With, or, hy the mfOM of what 
great vahur haw you, ^c. 

4. Heul qu^diffi^ecft ciigien non prodereTultu! 

o». 

5. Dii immort^es ! Honam homo nxai. prtetlat f 

Stulto mtelUgau 
QaiAmtere*t! Ter. 

6. Qnaiajerret, si pttientem noo ferret lunmf Ter. 



Kzexpnoiii TO xuiB 10. 

Quit, ^uce, quid OT quod, quotiu,<[uanitu, mi vter, ^. 
mith thetr adfunctt, do not confenn to tbU rule. In an 
intem^tiTe sentence, they and their adjuncts must be 
cmwtnied before the verb, by Rule 9. 



The verb? The word or words to follow it t The 
nom. and adjuncts ? Worda under the ninth Rule I 

1. Quit eniffi tnotJiu adait amori ? yirg. 

S. PoluaanTirtua, gwtjinhoaterequirit? Id. 

Dolus an virtvt, is an instance of the rule itaelf ; 

Nvm tit dolttt, ^c. ^e. Who.ittquiret in an entfmy, 
wlietker there be, S^c. 

8. Ocuraahominuml juontutn est in rebus inoM .' 
Peri. 

4. Quisnam igiturKbeil sapiens, ubique imperioaus. 

QtMMom igUuT ett, ^c. SajMent, ^c. the man that it 
nite, and tevere to himself. Sapient and imperiotut, 
both agreeing with the same noun Homo understood, 
must both be rendered after it by Rules 5 and 7. 

5, _i Quit fallere possit amantem ? ' Virg. 

It it had heeitNumquit/alierepottitamantemf Qmt 

would be construed after the verb, because in such a 



cBiT.-a. CONSTRUCTION. fil 

pbnaeijpdt, by apluerems, Htanda (br aUquit, atuf one, 
very di^vnt from gws (the interrc^titre) mho t 

nuLx II. 

" After the verb mm, a verb paasive, and a verb 
" neuter, a nom. case is aometiineB constmed ; but 
*■ then tlwre is usually another nom, case expressed 
" or in^Uedt to come before." 



The nom. to be construed afler the verb nill appear 
n Italics. 



The nom. case to tdlow the verb ? The verb? The 
word or words to come before it? Which of these by 
the ninth Rule ? 

1 . Nam doli non (foti sunt, nisi aata colas. Plaut, 
- Jiamfor doli itratagemt, &c. Sec. nisi colas uhku 
you manage them, astn, by erajt. 

St. Est profectd Dau, qui, que nos gerimus, audit- 
qae et videt. Id. 

Svrelg then it a God, mho both hear* and tee*, quse 
DOS, ^c. 

9. Magnum hoc vitium vino est : pedes capiat pri- 
mum : Lvctalor dolotut est. Id. 

Hut it the greta fault, ^c. Il catchet, ^c. Itit,^c. 

4. Omnium rerum, heus ndtsHudo est. Ter. 

5. Summum jus seepe twmma est maMia. Id. 

6. PeroiRitatorem nudto; nam earrviut idem est. 



** An adrerb is not to be construed with • noun, but 
" rather with a verb, or an adjective cw participle." 



etWSTROCTION, ^ 



The adverb*, and the woids to whicit tbey belong, 
win be in Itolki. 



The xdveibf With whst word to be oonstruedT 
Tbenom, (and a^unct^ if an; } T 

1. Sat Aoiet &vitorum (empfTi qui recfl/dctt. PlaM. 

Ht abgayt hat, aat &Titoniin. &c. Fantoi ot Favi- 
tor, oris, ttfavatrer. 

i. Fdkitof u tapit, ^i psrioulo aliem aa^ Id. 
Periculo alieno,,^w» imolher tnan't dmgtr. 

3. Samnram jui uepe sninma at militu. Ter. 

*. O fortima I ut mmymam peipetud e* bcHia ! fd. 

5. ■ ■ Ji>r«giimiaero«indiora«fgitCT«ftM'. Firg. 

6. Ukarnm ne Umdi odm. Id. 



" After a prepentiaa contantljr loc^ fbr an accusa- 
tive or ablative case. 

XXAKFIiBI. 

Prepositiona and the words governed of Ami, are in 
Italics : and it mut be remembeTed, that prepontions, 
according to Rule 1, are Dsnally construed qfier the. 



The preporition ? The "word governed l^ it ? Where 
to be conitrued? The aom. and adjuncta? Which 
Gist by Rule S. 

1. Quftm teroere in nomet legem sancimua iniquam ! 

Nam vHnt nemo ^ne nasdlur. Hor. 
ft, Consda mens recti &nue mendacia ridet : 
At DOS m viAmn credula turba aUmus. Oo< 
Citdula tarba, ■ tredMttmi tet qfpMfki atatet 
c/peapk treMaiu, in viUtOBt to, ^ 



cHAF.a. CONSTRUCTION. 53 

S. Homo Bum : humaui a me nil alienum pnto. Ttr, 

Nil humani, nothing futtaan, or nothing which con- 

eenu a human being, alienum a me, of no concern to toe. 

4. ■■ Tacittirovivit juftpecforevulnus. firg. 

5. — , FulchrainquepetantpffP«fnCT-a mortem. 

Atid they teek konouTable, ^e. 

6. Post equiiem sedet atra cnra. Hor. 
Foat, close behind, equitero, the hnght. 



• " The word governed must be construed aSter (ge- 
" neralii/ immediately afierj the word which governs it ; 
" such words excepted, as Rule 9, specifies ; and even 
" they must follow prepositions." 

EXAMPLES. 

Note. — The word governed, and that which governs i(, 
will be distinguished by letters preGscd, a, b, e, d. Sec. And 
here nndefbtaail twu lUingi, viz. 

1. Of these letters, that which is prior in the alpha- 
bet, will denote the leading or governing word ; and 
that letter which is immediately next in the alphabet, 
' will be prefixed to the word governed ; thus, a, b, — c, 
d; bh governed of a, d is governed of c, &c> — There- 
fore construe a before h, and c before d, &c. 

a. When two or more words have the same leading 
word to depend on, it will be seen that they both de- 
pend on one word, by their having the same letter be- 
fore th^ini thus, n, 6, 6; both fi, 6, are governed of a. 
Again, a,b,e,c;b depends on a, but c, c, on b. 

QUSSIIONE. 

The verb ? The word, or words, to be construed 
after the verb 7 In what order, i. e. which first t which 
next T The nom. and adjuncts ? What by R. 9. ? 

1 . Trahit sua "quemque voluptas. Virg. 

Stn volup. trah. &c. 

X. FaHacia. 

Alia *uli«m 'truic' Ter. , C.oi)yk' - 



H COIfSTRIKTnOK. «aiUr. x. 

3. 'Cteania *fttt eatas, *uumiim qnoqiu. firg, 

4. -'—■ Adeo 'in teoeiU ^coamuactn Hwdwrn "est- 

Id. 

Aiea laultum, m vmeh, oiofn mucA coBtegueacef est 

t( M — to Jem good kabitt in teatkr minda or years. 

5. Pnecipuuin jam inde ^i 'tenexis ^a)p«da labo- 
rem. /d 

Impende, berim, pnecip. lab. — jam mde *, vutattthf 

from, or even from. 
€, 'Steritque 'animis ignobQe Tulguc. Id. 



CHAPTER X. 



" Cektatk adTerba, &c. sre construed befora the 
" nom. &c." 

EXAKTLEa. 

QUBSTioita' 
The eaterapfilying word 7 Where to be coaatrued 1 
The noB. and ecljiincts ? The jeA ? Tke woads to 
roUow the verb t 

1. Danmoaa guiil Don uimtmuit dies 7 Hor. 

2. Quid non mortalia pectora cogia, 
Auri sacra lames ? yirg. 

i. Itnprobe Amoi, juid non mortalia pectcH'a co^f 

FeKceSjOnihu est fortnaa peiaetft 
fisnal'/ii. ^. 3. 49S. 

S<iItBauUpcinltkitpau^ittVirgil;iu>tMepe«Sermu 
Anwc^f vmA K. " VivUe Mieel, ^ibos, ftc."gt>ti^ te na 
ty a vtr* /erred and faUc cmilmelum tlit note iif Teatra : 
y>liiehMt iiniint pMl nettr meant ; but Ktnild lAta oubU fn* 
Hero tp*ak mortpatJutically, " Farewell. HappJ thej fin" 
, w lioiH tlieir foTluDe is new accomulished ! We are called 
' fj otD futc to fate : 'J'o yoD tranquithlj- ii aecnred." S» tit 
kmratd Jtiuit, Jtan Louii-d* l» Cerda, mArabMifr tM»fm$- 



Jam 8] 



cftit.x. OONSTKUCTUKf. . 65 

5. OtKMCiM^ nuKTum Tideria, hominem scias. Sen* 
Sdaa, yOH may knon Aim 1« bCt &P- ■<>, n^ei, yOM 

MajF dmjf htm to be, 

6. Q K H K un fm fortem videria, miMrmn neon. M. 

7. Qva nkm qimque soft Nunnnorwii condit u arc^ 
Taotum habet et fidei. Jw. 

Hcr« tbe phreMI fiwMtuni tunanwnM, and toirfimi jMn, 
are wid to coTreapoad with one anolher: tti«rei« aoompa- 
ralive relation between them ; and Ibe; are nnder tike cir- 
comstancCB of goTernment and ooiQtmotiini ; henoe be-- 
oante quaxttm ttnnmiortaR mnnt b« conafmed beibre tbe 
verb eondk, tmlmm fi4n moat likewbe eoaie before h*htt. 
The isDie relation aQbiials between pum aiid Anc in the 
. next example; tbe ubm mode mnat be obierved incon- 
atrulng Ibem; i. e. tbej ■nntt(one, and therefore botb) be 
rendered flrit in tfaeir reapecUve claiuea. We thall lee 
more ofthia under Rnle 18. 

8. Qwm dies vidit veniens aupeibunii 
Hunc diea vidit fii^ns jacentem. Sea. 
Jacentem, falUn . 

9. Nil liabet infelix paupertai duriiu in ae, 
fimSm ^vbd ridiculos nominea facit. /ue. 
Dutior, duriua, Aardn-.^ilonatrue ridkidet laat 

in tW sentence. 
10. Qua»(oparenteBM)^|Unif vinclo t«nea, 
Naturaf Sen. 
■ By nhat a tie, ^c dost thou, ^c. ittUwe I 

Here, on Monday, 24 October, 1603. ended 
Henry Kirkb Whitb's third lesson in bii 
book, containing eight pages in his copy, with 
many more examples, and mucb less assistance 
by translations, &c. as was the case in bis sabse- 
qaent lessons. 



" When a question is asked, construe the nomuaa> 
' tive case, &e." 



cGoot^k' 



CONSTRUCnON. taa. x. 



The exemplifying words ? The ihmd. and adjunctB ? 
Thevnb} ItsMoodandToue? The Endiab aoxiliaiy 
to come witi and before the nom. ceue ? Words by the 
lunth Rule. 
■ 1. Non vires alias, conversaque Numina Knlu f 

Cede Deo. ^irg. Doit thou not perceive other 
ttrength, ^c. — converaa, tttrned agairut thee f 

2, Cur ante tubam tremor occupat artiu T Id. 

Why doth a tremour, ^c. 

8- Tantane aiuaua csAestihaa ira ? Id. 

/^um tint tantce, ^c. Can there be tuch, ^c. 

4. Cur omnium fi culpa pauconim sceliis 7 Sen, 
Why ii the fault of all made, ^c. Or, 

Cur oramum fit culpa paucorwm teelui f 
Why it the mckedneti of a few made, ^c. 

5. Mortem aliquid ultra est? Vita, ai cupias moii. 
Ultra, beyond, or wone than, [/et. 

6. Imperia dura toUe ; quid virtiu erit ? Id, 

7t Eheu ! quilra brevibus pereimt ingenlia causis -' 

Claud. 
Quam brev. caus. by mhat trifling, ^e, do great 
/hinge, ^c, 
8. Unde tibi frontem libertatemque parentis, 

Cum facias pejora senex ? Juv. 
Vnde tumit tiU, 4*. Hoib do you asmme, ^c. ^. 
Cum senex, &c. mhen though an-old man, ^c. 
"9. Dicite, Pontifices, in sacro quid/acil aurum t 

In sacro, in religion. {Pen. 

10. O Fortuna, viris invida fortibus, 

Quam nan Kqua bonis prsmia dicidit I Sett, 
What inadequate competuatlom dost thou, ^c. 



XXCEFIIONa TO aOLB 10. 



The learner must remember that the interrogativea 
JKM, quaJUae, quotue, and titer, are exceptions to this 



wAs.x. covsTKVcnoa. 47 

rule ; and to (it may be 'added here) are other iater* 
Togadres derived from these, u, cw/iu, quolvmiu, quo- 



The verb t The word or worda to foJluw itf The 
nom. and adjuncts ? Words by Rule 9. t 
I. ' Qutdmirum noscere mundum 

Si possnnt Homines, qiubuB est et mundis in ipna ; 
Exemphmique Dei quisque est in imagine parri ? 
Manil. 
Quibus eat et mundus, nrho haee men, ^c. 
X. ^^— — — — Vir bonus ett gvtt ? 

Qui Gonsulta patninv qui ^eget juiaque servat. 

Hot. 
Qui serrat cona. patr, qui aenat leg. &c. 
i. Mora quota est 1 Id, 

4. Qnotumarmdadet? Pkmt. 

Quotumtt ada piterjaeent ? Horn many hauei are 
betmen? 

5, Quotiu-aam-qmique reperietnr, qui, impuniute 
et ignootione omnium pn^odti, abatinere powit 
injuria ? Cic. ' 

Qmfw^uujM, &c. What num in a Hiomtamd mU be 
Jmatd, &c. — ignoratione omnium, the ignorance oj all 
men, i. e. no oae'e kmrning it, piopoaiu, btiag tiered 
or atmtred to Mm. 

The reason of all these exceptions may be found in 
the ninth rule, where we are told, that all such worda - 
in whatever case, must be construed first in their own 
clauses. ■ 



" After die v«rh turn, a verb passive, and a verb 
ieut«r, a nonk case is sometitnes constntedL &e." 



CONSTRUCTION. 



The nom. cue to follow the verb I The verb T Tbe 
word or words to come before it i Which of these b^ 
Rule 9. ? 

I, — — Meua mihi, suns cuiqtie e*t carut. Plaut. 

Meus est carus mihi, &c 
t.~'Semo»olutmtiBttq)it. Nam ego multos aspe vidi 
KegioDem fugere consdlii, phuiquam repertam 
habere. PUmt. 
Nem. sat. Bap. &c. &c. priusquain hab. rep.— 6^/ore 
lA» had it neU found. Habere here is the Inf. Mood, 
aw»d or ut being left out : Before I could see tiiat thejf 
liad it, &c. or Before thiM cvrcvmutance, that they bad it, 
&c. 

S. Amantium irse amoris integralio eat. Tar, 

4. In amore hoc omnta itutmt ct^ atjurue, 
Stupicionet, iiunucilue, inducux, 
BeUum, pax rurium. Id, 

5. ToDtus amor laudum, taoitn eat oictoria corse. 

yirg. 
Taiittu eit (ttaar, 8n. Uat, cur. t>f nek great comcen. 

TWo*. and fanlo eww, are correspondent pbnues, the 
latter being, ai it were, the echo or repetition of the former ; 
and Iherelbre, if tanlut, «o lania cara inuit be cODitrued 
b^bre the verb, each before iU own. 



- Sua cuique deutJU dira cupido. Id. 



7. BebuB angustis anwnosut aique 
Forlit appare. Hor. 
App. anim, &c. — reb. angust, wi narrow cireim- 

ttancei. 

8. . Ille potent nU 

Lalutqve deget, cui Ucet in diem 
Dixisse, ' Vixi.' Id, 

9. Qul^, Meecenaa, ut nemo, quam sib! sortem 
'o dederit, seu fors objecerit) ilU 



<70nlmbu vivat. Id, 



C.oovic 



MBM, z. CONSTRUCTION. J9 

HoK comet it, Maeetuu, ut nemo virat contentu 
ilia toTte, qiiam aortem aeu nUiOi &c, — objecerit thall 
Aotw tArmm m Au mpi^. 

10. Nimirum ttuoMU paucis tideabtr, ed qu6d 
Maxima pan hominum morbo jactatur eodem. 
Ed /or (AM reatoa, qu6d becavw. 



« An adverb is not to be CMUtrued widi a qoun, 
' but, flee." 



The adverb? With what word to he construed? 
Tbe oom. and adjuncta ? Which by Rvde 9. 1 

1. Vehement, in utranqne partem, Menedemei ea 
m'mu. Ter. 
Menedemut, jfOH are too, ^c. 

5. O fortuna, ut nunquam perpetui es bona ! Id. 
8. 0/i>rttinatot ntmhttn, bona si sua norint ! Firg. 
4. Diis aUter vievm. Id, Fisvm eat. 

6. Sispiut ventb agitatur ingena 
Finua. Hor. 

8; Quem rea phu^mia delectavere lecunds^ 
Mutatte quadunt. Id. 

Plut-mmio, BbictW two neuter adjectires, here uaed 
adrerbially, too much, 

— 'Mntatse ret, a change of ctm^lkm, aa.y, Him; a 
ehatige, &c. &c. 

7. Omiies eodem cogiraur ; omniiun 
Versatur urnfl Mrtu* ocyiu 

Sora exitura. Hot. 
The lot of all it thakm m the vm (of the three deB- 
tiniea) tAout to cmw out later or toaner. And » each 
Hian's lot drops oiit, be dies. 



ft 



«0 COMSTEUCTKIN. csu. x. 

g. epeml tnfiatia, nwtiu^ HeoBdii 
Allenm Katem, ine pneparalMm 
Pectus. Id. Bene prtKpa r a hm pttttt ipermt, flfec 
9. Vivite. Felioca, quitnu est ibtMiuptracta 
JaM aua. No8 alu «c aliii in fida ¥ocaanir : 
Vobu paita quiM. Fh;;. 
Ex aliu /atii in alia &ta .^wt one /ate to anHher 

/ate. 
V(Au quie* ert porta. Vide Rule H. 
, 10< Conttnud culpuQ ferro eompeae, priusquam 

Dira per incautum serpant coatagia Tu^na. Id. 
tmmediateltf rettrain, &c. 



** Aiter a preposition constantl; look fi» an accusa- 
" tive, or aUadre cose." 



The preposition T The word govemed by it ! Where ' 
to be cooatruedT The nom. aDda^uncU ? Winch fiiat 
by Rule 9.? 

1. ■ ■ Id arbitror 

Ajiprim^ Mvitieaae utile, ut tie 'quid oiinis. Ter. 

Arhitror id em i^prime utile m vita, wt w aU^md tit 

2. Vebemens in vtramqae partem, Menedem^ t» 
ntmis. Id. 

S. Ingentea animoa migutio in pedore versant. Virg. 
Versant, they maoe. 

4. Scinditurincertum jhufia tnemtrtmavulgns. Id. 

5. CaatiRnb culpam fenro compesce, piiusquam 
Din per incauttat serpaat cootsgia vulgut. Id. 

e, Adeo m tenerit consuesoere nmltam ett. 

Id. 



cuAr.x. COXSTBDCTION. «1 

7. Preecqmum jam iikle a tenerU impende kborem. 

8. TutatuT fkvor Euryalum, Ucrymsque decorse ; 
Grador ac pulcbro reniens de corpore virtus. Id. 
Ac virtus g^atioT venkns, and virtue more grateful, 

a» eotume. 

Laudaa 



Fortmuun et mcneB antiqus jdefais ; et idem, 
Si 'qwa ad iila Deua auhiib te agat, ns^ic recusei. 
Hot. 
Andquce {debia, (^people m old timei; et idem, 
and jfou the aame many naque rec. notdd peremptorily re- 
fttte, ai q. d. sub, igat, &c. if any god thvald ndaenhf 
bring you, %c. 
10. — " ■' Vivendi rect^ qui prorogat horam, 
RusticuB e^tectat, dum defluat anmis, at iSe 
Labitur, et Ubetur, in om,ne volubilis txvwn. Id. 



moLz 14. 



" The word governed must be conatrued after (ge- 
" neraily immediately afier) the word which governs it ; 
" except, &c." 

BXAHPI.H, 

It may be necessary for the learner to revert to Knle 
14, Cha^. IX. for the use of the single letters prefixed 
to certam words hereunder, 

QirasiiONs. 
The verb ? The word or words to follow the verb ? 
In what order, i.e. which first? Which next? Theoom, 
and adjuncts I What by Rule 9. ? 

1. Nil *dictu 'fodnn Vimque hsso 'limina 'tangat, 

'Intra 'quae puer est, 3vx, 
S, *Vitie 'aumma brevis ■'spem fnos Vetat 'inchoa 
loDgam. Hot. 
The little turn (or span J of life, &c. 
Longam spem, ditumt hope. Either not and in- 
chxre are two accusativea governed of vetat : or nai is 
the accusative, and inchoare the infinitive mood, ^uod 
or vt being, left out. 



fl« CONSTRUCTION. chap. n. 

S. Omnium *renmi, heus ! Mciisitudo "est. Ter. 

4. 'Amantium 'ine -'amoris 'integratio est. Id. 

5. ' — '■■ 'Viamque 'insiste 'dooundi, 

Dum &cileB "aoimi 'jiivenum, dutn mobHis sU«. 

6. Condnuo 'culpam ferro 'campeace,.prnuquara 
Dira 'pei incautum serpant cont^fia 'rulgus. M. 

7. - 'Ingeniiun res 

Adverste ^tidare 'solent, celare secnndee. Hor. 

8. '0 misera* 'horamiun hnentea ! "O *p£ctora c»ca ! 
Qualibus *iu 'tenebiis 'vitse, qiunticque peiiclu 
Degitur "hoc 'asvi, quodcunque esti Lueret, 
Hoc WT), U tlut life, deg. tpeiU, Sec 

Nolc.— Hoc Kni i$ an tltipiietd or impei^iet e^uwimt 
for boc Umpta xvi, hoc tp^tim xvi, hoc n^ttitan bti, hoc 
genut tevi. 

9. Omnia prius irerbiB ^experiri, quUm 'annia, *Mq»' 

entem ^cet. Ter. 
Experiri is the nominative case to the verb decet ; 
to try, ^c. become*. But the English idiom requires ex- 
perm, ^c. to be coostnied after decet ; as, It hecomet a 
mite man to try, ^c. 

10. Nonne 'id Vagidum 'est, te ^aliis ^caniilium . 

"dare, 
Forii sapera, itibi non ,posse ^aoxiliaiier } Id. 

Nonne eat id, &c. it not that. Sec, — te, thai you, dare, . 
should, &c.— aapere, thmddhe, &c. foris, abroad, i. e. in 
other men't butinest, non posse, and tua be ahie, &c. 

Attxiliarier by the figure paragogS for aHxiliari, the 
infimtive of auxifor. 



CHAPTER XI. 



' Cekiaik adverbs and conjuncdons are construed 
' befbre die com, cose, &c." See the whole Rule. 



cHAF. n. CONSTRUCTION. 83 

XXAMPUS. 
QOESTIONS. 

The example T Where to be construed ? The mwi. and 
adjimcU ? The verb 7 The words to follow the verb t 
1. Quid leteniis mioorem 

Consiliis aoimum fatigas ? Jlor. 

Quid fat. Bst. con. &c. — mioorem, vneqvat to il, 
it, — '■' Levitu lit patientia, 

Qtttcguid conigere est nefas. /d. 
Whatever kit not iamfid, &c. fit, it becomes, &c. 
S. Minimum decet libere, cut niultum licet. Sen. 

Decet eum libere minimum, &c. 

4. Lati^ regnes, avidum domando 
S]uritnni, ^u^ ri Libyam remotis 
Cbdibus juiq^ ; et ulerque Psnua 

Serviat imi. Hor. 

5. Mnlta petentibni 

Derant nndta. Bene est, cut Deua obtulit 

Pared, quod ntis est, manu. Id. 
Many timgt are wanting, petentibns, to them that 
covet, &c. — Bene est illi. Well it it to him, cui Deus, 
&C. — parca mam, though nitk a thrifty hand, to be 
construed last. 

6. Quid brevi fprtes jacuUmur tero 
Multa I Quid terras alio calentes 
Sole mutamus ? I'atricE mat exai 

Se quo^e fiigit ? Id, 
— lUepotens si ' 



Lsetusque deget, cwi licet in diem 
Dixuse, ' Vixi.' Id. 

8. ■ ■ Quid noB dura refugimua 
JEtaa ? Quid intactum nefaett 
Liquimns J Id. 

What, ^e. have we an hardened age. See, Quid ne- 
fasti, What wickednest — so above, nil Aumant, hoc aoi. 
Liquimus, have we left; from Linqao. 

9, Quid tristes querimonise, 

Si non supplieio culpa- recidJtur I 
Quid leges tine monbus 
VansB proficiunt? Id. 
Quid proGciunt trittei querimonus, &c. What avail 
sad compiaiati, &c, 

08 ' 



64' COHSTRUC7FIOK canr. xi. 

Tktu, according to Rule 23, the elUptU or ontunon of 
a verb in one clause or period may ofteniimet be mppSed 
by the verb, which is expreised in the next, the verb eX' 
pretied being of Uke import with that la be suppbed; 
which is the ease here. 

13. Estn^ Dei sedes, nisi tenh, el pontus, el a@r, 

£tcaHuin,elviTta3? Superos^ufqusenmuB ultra} 

Jupiter est, qttodcunque vides, gttocunqve moTeiis. 

Lvc. 



" When a question is asked, &c." 

SZAUPXSS. 
aUESTIODS. 

The exemplifying nords i The nom. and adjuncts ? 
The verb ? Its mood and tense ? The English auxi- 
liary to come mlh and before the nom. case ? Words by 
R. 9.i 

1. Mend salis pladdi vultiun, fluctusque quietos 
Ignorare juSet? MeuS huic cmfi^re monstrot 
Virg. 

Jubesne, dost thou bid, me me, ignorare Tult. &c.— 
Meng, dott tkou-bid tnci ocMifidere, &c. 

S. Si non pecc^sem, quid (u concedere posses f 
Materiam venite sors tibi nostra dcdit. Ov. 

3. O miseras homtnum mentes I O pectora caeca I 
Qualibus in tenebtis vitae, quantisque periclis 
Degitvr hoc cent, quodcunque est t Lucret. 

Here, on Tuesday, S5th Octobert 1803, ended 
HSNRY KiRKB White's foarth lesson in this 
hook, coDtaining 8 pages in bis copy, with more 
- examples end fewer notes, &c. . 



cBAP, xh CX>NSTRUCnON. €S 

4. Si tibi nulla sitini finiret copia IpophS) 
Narrares medicia. Quod quanto plura par^stt, 
Tanto plura cupis, nuUine faterier audea ? Lucret. 

If no abtmdance of mater coitldput on end to, ^c— 
Audesng, do you dare, Ikterier nuDi, confett it to, ^c— 
Qudd quanto phira, Sec that by horn much the more, See. 

QMiiio pUrm and tanto riara, are under like ciroom- 
■taacM oF Koferomeirt aud conitrtiGtiaii i and therefore, 
becaoH qtumio plurti mast be conitmed before pataiti, 
taaio pbtra moit be coDitined before ci^, 

Falerier, by the figure paragc^d foT fateri, the infini- 
tive noun otfateor. 

5. Qu^ temere in nosmet legem toncHnutiniquamf 
Nam vitiis nemo sine naacitut. Id, 

Him Tothlv do tee glee taacthn to, ^c, 

6. Eitni Dei tedei, Disi terra, et pontust et aer, 
£tcoeIum,et virtus? SuperosquidfUtsrimtuultra? 
Jupiter est, quodcunque videa, quocunque moveria. 

Luean. 

7. ji» noceat nit vUa bono f Id. 
Can any violence, ^e, 

8. Cur<^0te Don flovi^ Quia moa obliviad hominibus. 

, Plata. 
Quia mos bominibus, Becaiue there h (or t( iaj a 
cuttom irUh, 4'c. 

9. — __ Cur tamen hoa tm 

Evasisae palei, quos diri conacia &cti 

Mens babet attonitoB, et aurdo verbere ceedit^ 

Occnltum quatiente aaimo tortore Sagellum ? Jut. 

ytt why thould you, ^c. that (Aey have, ^c, — quo* 
menacons.dir, tacL&c— et ctedit, &c.— tortore animoi 
&c. their torturing mind, ^c. 

13. — — Quid not dura refitgimut 
JEtat ? Quid intactum ne&ati 
LiquimHt? Har, 



CONSTRUCTION; o«ap. xfc 

EXCBPI10N8 TO Wji-K 10. 



The verb? The word« to follow it, if any I Thenoni. 
and adjuncts ? What by R. 9. ? 



- Palnce gww exal 
Se quoquefugit? Htyr, 



2. Hue adea,0 Galatea, Qu« eBtnairi?u<fc«inundisr 



, Uterutmbi accumbamua 1 Id. 



Ad casus i-ahiosfldet sibi certitts? Hic, qm 
Plunbus assuerit mentem corpusque suDerbum . 
An, qui contentus parvo, mentuengque fiitun. 
In pace, ut salens, aptArit idonea bello ? Hor. 
The exemption here is in lUeme, nkich of the tnof 
VUme Met «6i certtfis v>hv:h of the^e tm v,^l rely oh 
himself mth more confidence f Hie is w. mrtwce of he 
nde itself; Hie, mil he? And so is ille, ira^red m the 
inttrrogative an, in the third question ; on tile, or wUl he, 
qui con. &c, &c. ut sap. in pace, &c. 



HULX 11. 
" After the verb «im, a verb paasise, Sjc." 

EXAMPLES. 

QUEBTioxa; 
The nom. case to follow the verb ? The verb ? The 
word or words to come before it I What by R. 9. ! 
1. £*( oligwrf prodire teniis, si non datur ultra. Hot. 

Si non datur ire ullra, 
8. P»uperenimnonM(,cuirenunttippetit«8ns. /* 



.CHAK ». CONSTRUCTION. C7 

Cut rerum tvppttit hmm, ffAe hu a nficiency, or the 
use ofthingt. 

3. ■■ r ' ■•' '■ Hie murut lunetu eito. 

Nil conscire sibi, nullS pallescere culpa. Id. 
Let tKt be Mt brazen fvalt, J^c. 
4-, Exemphtimiae Dei quisque ett in imagine pwd. 
Mtnil. 

5. Qui dabit, is magaofiel mihi major Homero. 

Ciede mihi res ett ingemota dare. Ov. 
la, qui dabit, fiet imhi, &g. 

6. , — Medio tHtwRiMM ibia. Id. 

7. ■ Ut ameris, anuMlit etto. Id. 

8. Ett modus in lebu^: tvnt certi dsniqae Jimt, 
Quos ultra citraque neqnit coossten rectum. 

Hm. 
Ultra citiaque quos recL neq. &c. 

9. ■■ Prosperum ae feiut udiia 
Virtu* tocatvr. Sen. 

10. Ham dives qui Jkrivait, 
Et c!to Tult fieri. Juv. 
Nam qui vult &. &c. — vult fieri, niehet to betHmie 



KULE IS. 

" An adverb is not to be construed frith a noun, 
" but, &c." 

EXAMPLES. . 

QUEBTIONB. 

The adverb ? With what word to be oonatrued t 
The nom. and adjuncts 1 What by R. 9. ? 



- Id arbiti 



Apprin^ in rita esse utile, ut ne 'quid nimis. Ter. 
3. Verum illud verbum ett vu^d qiwd diet solet, 

Omnes sibi malle melius esse, quam alteri. Id. 
Omne* malk ease meUu; ^c. That all mm notild 
rather, that it ihaM he mil tsith, ^c. 



6» . CONSTRUCTION. ctap. xt. 

3. Hoc pstrium eit potUt amnt^uen fiKom 

Sua sponte recte jdeere, quam alieno metu. 7*er. 
Thit it Ube a father, rather to acnutom kit ton, fac^ 
rect. &c. 

4. '■ Aiea in teneris contneacere tHuftum eat. 

Virg. 

5. • " Foraan et ksec oUm meminiBse j'wa&it. /d. 
Ptrhapt it wiU be a pUatwe, ^. 

$. Rebus at^uatiB animMUB atque 
Fords ^pare ; tt^etUer idem 
CoiUrahe*, rattA mnmnn tecm^ 
Tu^da veU. Hor, 
Ident, you alio. That, according to the perton of the 
verb, Idem and Eadem are often rendered ; J alto, wu 
ulto, He alto, ^c. up, con. turg. veU, &c. 
7, Doctrina aed vim proraovet inutam : 
PaiUum sepultffi ^itat inerdie 
Celata viinu. Id. 
'8. Quid triates querimoniee, 

Si flon aupi^icio culpa recidUur T Id, 
9. ' ' .'■- — ■■■ Spatio brevi 

Spem longam reaeces. Dum loquimur, fiigerit 

^tas: carpediem, qm^ nwum&m crtdula^ontitTo. 
Id. 
Cut eg datant hof from the thort tpan qf life, &c. 
ice. Carpe diem, take (i. e. tue thepretent day.) 

<iMim miaimiai treduU, refyi«g u Suit upottiblt m, fv. 
fbtim mimmim, lU iiah at pottiSU, Thas ^ntmuiMW, 
« lat^i «i poitible : qvAm MtHinrtif , m htOe tpottitit : qaim 
ofMtMM, Mt good u pottiblt: and aOer thu manner i« tbo 
ooquBotioD 9wtM to be alwayi rendered, wboo alUeb«d 
to a word in the faperlative degree. 



■ — ' Vivendi rtcti qui prorogat horam. 

Rusticus expectat, dum defluat amnis ; at iUe 
Labitur, et labetur, in omne volubilis cevum. Id. 



cGoo^k 



PONSTRUGTIOM. 



*' After a pieposition constantly look for an accttu- 
' tive or ablative case." 



The preposition ? The word or wordi to follow it T 
Where to be conatrued ? Th« nom. and adjuncts T 
What by B. 0. * 

1. £quam memento rebus in ardtuM 

Servare mentem. Hor. 
S. Auram per ttiediot in tatelUt^i 
Et perrumpere amat aaxa. M. 
Aurum amat ire, &c. 

3. Virtutem ineolumetn odimiM ; 
Sublatam ex oeulis qusrtmu* uindL Id. 
7nt)i(ii, T^e invidious mortals, Odimut tirtutem, ^c, 

4. Est modiu in re6itt .* rant certi denique Goes, 
Quos ultra eitria^ nequit consbtete rectum. Id, 

5. . Quid minim, otncere mundum 

Si poBsunt Itomines, quibus en et mundua in ^hU ; 

Exemplumque Dei quisque est in imagmie parva ! 

JUtmik 

6. Est Deus in ^Ms; agitant« cakscimua illo. 
Impetus hie sacree eemina mentiB habet. Ov, 
Impetus hie, this pomr, hab. &c.— Sacra mentis, 

of the Diviiie mind, 

7. Sit piecr adptena* princeps, adprtemia velox ; 

£t deleat, quoties ct^tur esse ferox. Id, 
Princeps, kt the Prince, he. Sea. — doleat, let 

& Fascitur in civis livor ! post fata quieedt : 

Tunc suus ex merilo quemque tuetur hom>r. 
In vivis, on the thing — ^post &ta, o/lff- dratA-^ex 
merito, according to his merit. 

0. Setft res^ncituT tellus, ubi, fune eoluto, Id. 

Currit in imtncnratn panda carina salwn. Id, 
The land is looked hack on, ^c.—vhen tho eahte, ^e. 
— pandi cart &c. 



CONSTRUCTION. 



- Tolluntur in altttm. 



Vt Ittpsu graviore nunt. Claudian. 
In altum, o» high. 



" The word governed mnst be construed after, &c." 

SXAMPLZI. 



The verb ? The word or words to follow the verb f 
Inwhat order; i. e. Which flnt? Which next ? The 
ncmi. and adjuncts T What by R. 9. ? 

1 . Quid sit futurum eras, *Aige ^qiuerere ; 
"Quem-Bors ^dierum-cunque dabit, lucro 
'AppoM. Hor, 
i, I. IHe *potens 'sui 

Ltetusqiie Meget, oui licet %^em 
■'Dixiwe, 'Vixi. Id. 
S, Privatus *illis 'censns *erat "bievis ; 

Commune magnum. Id. 
HUt census, for illorum census. 

Priv. ill. cens. Their private forfune, See. — Com- 
mune (negotittm, or, CommunUres) Their Commonweai^. 
4. Plerumque 'gratae "divitibus vicea : 
Mund«Eque parvo *8ub lare >pauperum 
'Cmase, 'sine *au]ffiis et ostro, 

Solicitam 'expUcuere *&onteni. Id. 

PUramque eiees aunt graUe divitibu* : mandttepie cesaa 

paupenim, subparvo lare, sine auUeis, ^c, — Sub parro 

lore, under the protection of their Awnife houtehold god, 

or, wider their AumUe roof. 

B. Non enim gax«e, neque C(»isulari8 
"Summovet lictor miseroa 'tumultus 
'Mentis, et 'curas laqueata '^arcum 
Teeta Tolantes. Hor. 
Non tnim gaza, neq^ie consuiaris Uetor nmmoMf »«- 
teros, |-c. et. euros vohntet circmn lofpteata, ^e. 



chjlP. xn. CONSTRUCTION. 71 

6. Nod demus aut fiiodus, mm *tetn j»cemu et 

*auri 
JEgtoto 'domini 'dednxit "coq/ow Hebres, 
Non Bnimo ctiras. Id, 
,^groto eorjare domwf. 

7. 'Desinat dotU quiiquam ^conGdeie "rebua ; 
K)iimiB mora 'tequat. Claudian. 

8. Seosit Alexander, 'teiti cum '^ddit 'in illi 
Miwnvini %al>itatoiem, quanta felicior hici qui 
'Nil 'cuperet ; quam qui totuin *tdbi 'posceiet 

orbem. Juv, 

9. "Vivitur ^e^igao melius ; natura beads 
^Omoibua 'esse 'dediti si quis ^:(^aoveHt 'ud. 

Claud. 
Vivitur, /( it lived, namely, Ay men, say, Men Uve, 
melius, better, exiguo, on a Utile :— 
Natura dedit mimibut ette beatu, Sec, 

10. Fallitui, egregio quisquis 'sub 'principe credit 
Servidum ; Bunquam ubertas 'gradot 'estat, 
Quiiin ^b ^tege pio. Id. 



CHAPTER XII. 



Of the Indicative Infinitive Mood. 

" V?SEH in a sentence there is no finite verb) but 
" only an infinidve, witli a. nominative case, expressed 
" or understood, constnie such an infinidve like an tn- 
" dicadve, the nominadve being construed in its proper 

Such Infinidves as ibis ElAeenth Rule, and the Six- 
teenth Rule, treat of, are properly called ferbt and 
Moods ; Verbs, because they afflm or predicate ; Moodi, 
because they are modes or manners of piedicali ng . 

C.,K.;ik 



72 GONSTRUCnOK. obap. xn. 

Tliefe imdei tlie fiftaenth Itule ara of the Indicaiiiii 
kind, because they affirm, as the Indicativei (endnendjr 
to called; Smc mooda are all IndicMives) alwaya d^ 
primarily and ntnjily ; primarily, as the jirtt or principal 
verb in the sentence ; simply, as imi^ymg nothimg, no 
sort of power, wish, or odur aKcbon, nor any thing 
but what they directly affirm. Hence Indicathie Zt^nU 
tt'ecf have, aad must have, a nominative case ex[n«Med 
or undenrtood befere ihem ; because if these, being 
princqtal verbs, had no nominative case, the sentence 
would be incomplete, a nominative beingno leasessenr 
did to a sentence than a verb itself is. The Infinitives 
of die Sixteenth Rule, under the ellipsis vii quod or vt, 
notwithstanding diat they also predicate, and are 
dmefine verbs and moods too, yet not being primary, 
are consequendy of the Sulgvnclive kind, and so do not 
require a nominative for die completion of the sentence 
(that member being already provided for with the piio- 
cipal verb) but have rather a pr<K)onunative or accusa- 
tive assigned to them* as a mark of the ellipeu, and 
because tiie sentence is thus more simple (or one, as it 
were) and more conmct. There is an Infinitive of die 
Imperatite kind in Greek ; as there is in Italian, the 
immediate ofi&pring of the Latin ; and yet, I believe, no 
instance of the Impertoive Infinitive occurs in Latin. 
The Indicative Infimtive is commonly said to depend on 
some verb of Inception, such as CajA, understood ; but 
this can no more be said of the InMcative Infinitive than 
of the Subjunctive Infinitive, in sound grammar, unless 
the action of which it predicates be inceptive.; which it 
generally is not, being sotnetimes an action of veiy loi^ 
condnuance, sometimes a reiterated action, and for the 
most part just the same as other verbal actions are ; at 
tlie exam^ues of this rule in C. IS, 19, 14, will abun^ 
dandy shew. 



The infinitive verb T The nom. and adjuncts ? Whidi 
by Rule 9.? Have yo» observed the note 7 Tliepat- 



OBjkp. xn. GOKSVUUCnOM; 7S 

extuuke, the notei are to muek more unttttMtt, amd 
tie.canfwl*A*artane£of.tktm -thauU bf MOJt M w h / re- 
gmired; 

The infinitive to be construed like finites, and their 
OomiuBtiTe catet will appear in Italica. 
1. I — Ego illud leduld 

Negate factum, Ter. Negare as if tiegiAam. 

i, -i — Hine temper Ulyttet 

Ciinunibua terrere novii : hinc tpargere vocei 
In Tulguni ainbiguas ; et gveerere coniciut anna, 
Terrebat. Spargebat. Quterebat. t^S' 

3. ' Sic omnia fatis 

In pejus ruere, et retro tttblapta referri. Id. 
In p^jUR, into a wtrie *tate. 
Rwimt. SefenuUur, — Et sublapu, and Jallmg mt* 
decay, refeni, are carried away, retro, Src. 
- 4. Ire prior Pallas. Id. 
It, from Eo, is, ici. 

5, Sotam nam perMvs ille 

Te coUre ; aicanoa etiam tibi credere tennii. Id. 
Nam perfidus ^le. Ap ihat perfidiotu Priitee^- 
colere for colif rroerei— credere, for cre£t, n»m- 
tnitt, arcan. sen. his secret thoughts, 

6. Solaqae culmiiubus ferali carmine bubo 

Stxpe fpieri ; et laogas in fletum ducere voces. Id. 
Here the nom. bubo bat many adjuncts all to be com- 
strved before the verb queri, tmdtherefore set in JtaUes. 
Thtu, " And tdooe in soHie turret's top the owl often- 
" time* comjdaiiied in m^-bioding strains," &c. Or, 
" And o&entimes in the M^s of solse Ugh buildiug tb« 
" solitary owl coragloincd in iU-bcMting strains ; and 
" 'dre>vr out her isii^&eaed vtuce into notes of lanwn* 

Querebalur. Ducebal. 

7. Instant ardentes Tyrii. Fan dacere muTOSi 
Jlfb/irig«e.arcem, etnHiBihHs tiibnoltere saxa; 
Part t^tare toeum- tecto, et caiteUtdgre atd^o. Id' 

Pans some <^ them, ducere exfraif, &o. — mtoHwimiid 
?-4utrvolTere roll i^-^vptam jarepare— concli)idn« 



CONSTRUCTION. 

TwmpuuM 

Auxiuo^we docots Deos, et tendert pabnai. /cf. 

^Afcitufit. PoeiU. Tendit Auxilio to Am help. 

J. II I . — ■ Ojttnet omnia 

Bona dkere, et laudare fortunas roeast 
Qui gnatum habeiem tali ingenio piKditum. Tef. 
Dioebaal. LaudabatU. 

10. Facild omnes perferre ac pati. 

Cum quibuB~ erat 'cunque un& ; hisse dedere, 
Borum <Aieijtd atucUis. Ter. 
Perferehat. Patiebatur. Dedebat. Obteqitebatur. 
Uni cum quibuscunque together mtk whonuaeoer 
— M dedere he gave himself vp (Dedo, ere, to gioe tip) 
ob«. itud. eor. he compUed mth their viUhet. 

Here, on Wednesday, S6 October, 1603, ended 
Hbnry Kirkb ^Whitr's fifth lesson in this 
book, containing eight pages in his copy, with 
nore examples and fewer notes. 



Of the St^nclke Infautwe Mood. 

Ste ifoU afier R. 15. 

" When there occar an accusative case and an infi- 

, *' nittve mood, quod or vt being' left out, construe the 

" accusative first, with the wnd tlmt before it, because 

" it is there virtually a nom. and should ^erefore, 

" widi its adjuncts, be cmutnied like a nom. before 

" the verb." 



vauniovt. 

The infinitive verb 7 TheaccusatiTeanditjiBdjancfsT 

Where to be construed; i, e. before or after the inftn- 

tivef The primary or {Hincipal dsuse T Its nom. and 

adjtmctt t Rule 9. f 



cwAP.xn. CONSTRUCTION. 75 

Such accusatives, aa this Rule treat* <^ with dtni 
adjuoctai if any, and tbeii infinitives, will be in Italica. 

1. In causS Ikcili quemvit licet ette duertum. Ov. 
It it lamfvi, say. It it eanf, quemvia, tha mty one, 

««ae, thovldbe, &c. 

2. Quod non vetat lex, hoc vetatjSrri pudor. Stn, 
Quod leic, Sec. — Pudor, &c. — Iioc that tiut, &c. 

3. Ars prima regni est, poite le invidiam patL Id, 
Prima, &c. — reeni, u iSregmauU, of ruliiig, &c. 

— te posse, tkat yim be abk, &c 

4. Scire tuumiuhil est, nisi le tcire et hoc sdat altar. 

Pert. 
" Scire tuum," as iftcienlia tua, tha hutwlejge; " te 
" scire," as if ul tu tctat, that thou tnoitett. Here ia 
-very nunifeat the necessity of that diitJnctioQ inaiited 
cm in this book, and most fully elucidated in my Lat. 
GaAH. between an Infnitite Noun and an Injmilitie 
Verb or Mood; " Scire' with " tuum" being the same 
as tcimtia, Jtnorvled^e, and therefore as much a nouiii 
as " tuum" is an adjective, whilst " scire" with " t«" in 
this same example it equivalait with Sdat, aiid dtere- 
fore as much a verb as Saat is. 
■ Errat, 



6. A^am nlere quod voles, primus sile. Sen, 
Primut tile, be firtt tilent ifourttlf of Oat, quod, of 
vhicA, ^e. 



i vis mejtere, dolraidum eft 



Prim^ ipsi tibi. Hor, 
Me, that I, 4c. 

Dolendmn est pritmtm iiU ip<t, ytnt nutt Jirtl fveep 
yourtelf. 

8. — ^quum est, 

Peeealit eeniaia poseentem reddere nirsus. Id. 
It it jutl, poscentem, that he mho reqmrei, veniam 
peecatis, &c, 

9. Nimid preestat, impeadiosum te qudm ingratum 

(fcwr. Plata. 
Dicier for diet, the inf. of (ficor. — ^Te dicier, that t/o» 
■thould be called, ^c. 

^ g [;;.i;Ki-,C00gk 



eOHBTRUCnON. 



" Wonfa in appoaidon must be oonMnwd aa near to 

"onmamodteT'ta poMible," 

Note. — Two er Biore wonli are uid to be tn iqipofitimt, 
when the lame thing dt persau is iniended by them ; tlioa, 
JflBTM TWSHf Cieiro: here are three diallnct words; bat 
tker ape all iMinea of the sanie peraon, and tbcrefo're said 
to be ia alrporitiMi. Wotxla of ihU devoiiptioA rnnat be 
CiHUtnied a< near to one aaolbae aa paasiUe. 



^ords in appoaition are distinguished by Italia. 



The irardfl in appositian? Are- they to be C<}fi- 
tttued before or after the verb I IfafUr ; which worda 
are the nom. and its adjuncts J— If the example Be mm 
•wtoejMcn/ claute ; which ia (be primvy ^nse ? It> 
Mom. and adjuncts T 
' 1. EilfbdiuBtuF ojwr imtentenfa mdmiun. Ov. 

ft. IgnaettmfiKot peeu* a'prGeaepibas arcoit. Ptrg. 

Tk^ drive awa^ the Dnnet, ^. 

S, -^ — Quoad vixit, eredidit ingeni 

Fauperient tfrttwm. Hor. 

Quimd, See. — he hetiefied poverty, ^. 

4. Eheu I fugaces, Ptuthmue, Potthume, 
Ziabuntnr anni ! Id. 

5. Quid terras alio calentes 

Sole mutamuB 7 PatriBe jitis exut 
Se quoque fiigit 7 Id. 

Quit, what man, exul, tho' an exile, patrite, ^. 

6. Magnttm pauperiei opprobrium jvbet 
QtMvis el fscere «t pati. Id, 
Paiiperics, *c. 

7. Quid fUM dara refugimus 

.Am* f <tuict intactmn ne&ati 
Liquimiu. Id. 

Quid, what, conies first, bf Rule 9, then aa« dmrm Met, 
Mhmrdeiudagt,&xs, where the auxiliary JloM standi 



MM HW an imrdeiudagt, &«, where I 
before the nam. awib} Rulo 10. 



% 



MAP. xn. CONSTRUCTION. 

Qiad tie/iuti, eleganllj for quid itrfaitmm, oi 
*tfMi, «iat wiiekatuti : to aba*«, hot mv* tot m 



" All correspondent words must be coutrued u 
" near to one another as posiible." 

Kote.—By eorretpmdtnS word* *re meant incb as these ■ 
TtUii—gMlU: Tatuit—quiailia : fie— ill : /ta — ul : Adei^— - 
tit!— A Ao— tuque: Hue— tuque: Ad— tuque: Peinu— 
qumm ■• Pint — qtntm: Idogu—qtuint : Prhu — qutia : QmAm 
»ner the comparstivo ilegree : Quim cooaeoted with tb« 
Bupvrlatiie degree: Quitunqve (iio whatever cue) diTided 
*— the figure tmesis: Jam— tndi: StcuM — oc: Pemuk—ae: 
m—ae: lifem — aluue: Mque—at- Eb—qabd: /Aw— 
iUue : Sfriiu — oeijiu, ffc. ift, 

Tbese and other sach words tnaypcTbapa in position be 
. so separated each rrom bis Tellow, as to be in different 
clansei ; but, in constrain^, the idiom of tbe Englbb lan- 
gaue requires tbat tiiej be rendered as near to each ottwr 
as tbe nature oflheKiitence will permit; and, in order lo 
elect this, the generaJ way is, not to ooDStme tbe fbrmor 
of two cor ret ponding word* till we can coBTenientl; con- 
strue the latter, 

ZXAKPLKS, 

Correapoodii^ words wiU a^>ear in Italics. 

aoBSTiotn. 

Tbe correspon^niF vtatAa 1 How to be construed ? 

(" At near," ^e.) The primary clause ? Its nom. and 

adjuncts ? What by R. 9. ? 

1. Uique adeoni mori miserum eat? Virg. 

Ettne, ieil; ueque adeo, to very, ^. 

i. Prsadpuum jam mde i teneris impends laborem. 

Jam inde, immediatety ; jam inde ^, vmne^^ely from, 

3. Tale taxaa carmen nobis, divine poeta, 

Quale sopor feisia in granine. Id, (..oo>{k 



78 CONSTKUCnoy^ aup> xv. 

Ta itadev tbit«XMHpIfi MoanUos tO'the Tole, «tikd tba 
^ttoboB alwfe, »ot to coBstrne the htmw word Ui*r tiU 



4, At bona pan bominuin, decepta cupidioe &Jmo, 

Nil BBtia est, inquit, quia tanii, quantum habeas, sis. 

Hot. 

Qma m tanti, beeauM you an, (or map he) fif lo 

muck cotue^uence, quantum habeas, a* you have (money 

m ealUe) m j)one)mmt: 

6. Nimirum inunui pauds Tideatur, «d ipM 
Maxima para hominum morbo jactatur eodsin. 

ffor, 
&~pt&d, for tXi return*, that, or in one word^ he- 
emoft 

6. Cotittnud ciilpam ferro compesce, prhu quam 
Dira per incautum serpant contagis vulgus. 

r„g. 

Had priiu and fxdm. or ei and quid abdve, been In ^if- 
ferent clause*, wiili many wordi bettveea, tboy muit have 
united in eonslrtictioa ; ai u the com in the next ex- 



7, — I.I . More honuoum evenit, ut, quod urn aa»- 
tuimali, 
iVi^ reicisceres tu, juim ego, tibi quod evenk 
boni. Ter. ^ , 

It hath happened after the manner of men, that you 
akoutd laum, qiiod jnsli (for ^/nd' fn^ tt m or, qtiod genu* 
malij what mitfortune, nactus sim, from Nancitcor — 
priua quam ego retcitcerem quod boni, &c. 
6. Ego vitam Deornm prt/ptarM ionfttenuun ewe 
arixtior, 
Qubd roluptates eorum propritt mtu Id. 
I think jAot f A« {{/» q/v ^. — pmpnK ■i*iwini> Mcumf 
to them, their properly, Aeprepetty^thtm: "Frowns" 
baa ■ genitive ailer it scmietiiaea, not ia its (mri Jri^t, 
bnt by reason of the noua which it implies, as, " Quod 
vdhqnrtn «int firopnK " volvpteOe* eonas,^' lecmue 
fieaiiirtt are their own (pleasures.) 

9. Cwpe dJemtyAw t n mi tm^ f»f dnl s pwtero. Hit. 
<iiidmPtmiiinltt,atlMeaipoemUe'.. 



lur.xn. CONSTRUCnONt 

Jo. Ottues dvdeto eogiEiui' ;• waaivm 
■ Veraatur unii Ann Myw 
Sors esitur«. Id. 



Are tbe correspondiD^ tenns in the exmmple one 
word or two! How divided? See tkt note Mere;, 

\. Quid sit futurum eras, fuge qiuerere : 
Quern- eon dieiuaa 'Outfue aaiat, lucro 
Appone. Hor. 

Remember Rule 9, in quem-atnqae, and that ^wm and 
cunqve, quo and cunqtie, qua and amqiie, &c. are, reapec- 
tively, Imt one word divided by die figure tnieiu, at in 
Englbh, we aay nhat day toever, to nhat place toever; 
ivMt-toever, though divided, being but one word. 

t. ■Quo- nod -eunque ieret mdior fortuna panntCi 

Ibimm, O aoCB. /(Jl 
WkiUter toever forttou btOer Oon nif/at/ter, 4v. 

S. O matre pulchi4 lilia pulchrior. 

Quern- criminosis -eunque voles raodum 
Pones lambJB. Id. 
OJUia puiekrior, S^c. by Rule 5. — TAoU ihalt mpote 
nh/ttever temu thoa thaU mtk, ^e. 

4. Qui- se -cwique furens medio tulit agmine virgOt 
Hie Anms subi't. Firg. 
Tulit se, eUrecUdherielf—inhit/oUoiM her. 

Here not only qua- and 'Ctoijue sre two oorrespondent 
pans <tf the same word to be re-imited in constmctioo ; 
but moreover, quacunque and hac have relation to roe 
another, standing, as we obaeived before of tatUum- 
quantum (Cbap. X. Rule 9.) under like drcumstancea 
of gOTcrament aad oon atiucLwui ; and dteiefbrei tfaowh 
tkne two TOwespiadiBg. wmAvcMmot b» » inw***- 



M CONSTRUCtlOM. cbap. xil 

ately united aa Meriut-ecyui, mm leetu, ^ quod. Sec yet 

M ate rule says, they muBt be brought as near to one 
Another as possible, which is to be ef&Med by consUu- 
tng hae the first in its own clause, as qtutcunque mast be 
construed first in its ; thus the correspondence between 
them will be duly maintained, and that entirely by 
making kac the leading word in one clause, as qitacvnqiu 
hyUme 9, must be in the other. 

5. Nalla dies paeon banc Italis nee fisden r«n^>ett 
Qho- res -etmqve cadent. firg. 

No tiwie shall break, banc paeem nee fcedera, mtk, 
^. — Quocuoque, &c. nhkh way soever a^ain thaU, ^. 

6. Qm- te -cunqve manent iato certamine casus, 
Et me, Tume, manent. Id. 

Wkateeer ehaneet awmt thee, Sfc. — they await me alto, • 
O TWmM. 

7. Ergo age, care Pater; cervici imponere nostrs : 
hise Bubibo humeris, nee me labor iite gravabit. 
Quo- res •cimjue cadunt, unum et commune pe- 

riclum: 
Una saluB ambobus erit. Firg. 
Come therefore, dear father; be Mou put (suffer thy- 
self to be put) on My, ^c. — / wiU bear thee on my, ^e. 
— MOT thail tki* labour, ^c. -Quocunque, &c<^-erit 
unum et com. per. &c. — ambobus, for both of ut. — 
N,& Unut here has the sense of idem, eadem, ioen. 
9. Nascere ; prieque diem vetuene age, Lucifer, al- 
nnm. Firg. 
Nascere, arite, Luc. Lucifer. 
Pra and veiaen* here, like jw and ctmjrw above, are 
one compound word, thus divided by tmesis : Prone- 
mem, coming be/ore. 



" Generally ctmstnie every word Jn any clause yoH 
" have entered on afkei the oon. case, b^bre you pm- 



oup. xjk CONSTRUGTIOIh 81 

" ceed' to Maodier cbuse.b^pnBuig each daiuei aa 
" you fMBB Scorn ose W wtotlmi with the nam. caw 
" -Koi Tctb, if diere be «Hcb io it, and finiihing it ac- 
" .Goiding ta Rule 1." 

In other words, fini^ one clause generally befoie you 
go to another ; and construe each clause in the ocder 
[Ncescxibed by Rule 1. 

Note. — A tUtttueXiu part of a'senleoce, ^DOnlly mn- 
tauitd bttKtBn two itapt, — \nd it ii innonceiviible to the 
learner, wbat tmable lie woald aTojd, how eaiy In f eoend 
OTOB tlie \ongeit Keateacef woald be to bin, if b« contd be 
pr«vaiJed mi to tie gaided by tills one pUin rule. It is his 
amn. inatleiition iii this iostaiioo, -wbtch oocaslogs bin 
nearly all tlie <lifli<'iilij he meets with In construing; his 
Jeaaons.— And jet bow plain and iatelligible is this Kole to 
the jouoKesl chilil, who knows a noon from a *eitif But 
NvOa «tt Um/atiHi r««, &c. 

£XAHPLEf, 

B'efe the. words in Italics are they which must be 
construed first in the clause. The numerical figures, 
whicli mily follow any example, tihew in what order 
die sereral clauses in that examfje are to be construed. 
When no sudi figures are annexed, the clauses are to 
be taken as tbey he. 

QUESTIONS. 

The primary clause ? The nom. and adjuncts! What 
by R. 9. ! The clause to be construed next ? Ita nons. 
M^ edjittctB ? R. 9. ? 

1, Verum itlud verbum est, vulgd qtad did solet. 

Omnet sibi malle melius esse, ^dm alteri. Ter, 
8. Onnia priiiB verbis expervri, pidm sram, stqiieiw 
tern deeet. Id. 

S. 1. 2. PTitu-quam, by Rule 18. 
S. Nulla est tam tiaahs res, qvin diffidlis tiet, 

Quam invitus facias. Id. 

There it m thing, ^c. 
4. Labor omiua vincit 

Jmpreim, et duris u^^eaa. in wbiu eguto'' yirg. 



CONSTRUCTION. 



0, _^_^^_ Porian el hcec olim memhiiwe JHvahU ; 
Durate ; et vosmet rebua lervaie Becuttdis. /i. 

— ^Dnrate, harden, et «enr. voa. and keep yottrteUei, 
rSb. aec/oT, ^c— N.B. The syUable «ie( is often added 
to the cates of Ego and Tu for emphasis ; aa fa ia aome- 
tintea added to Tu; met to mt and libi ; te to m ; pte 
to KMt 4^- ; ce to the cases of Ate ; and nam intem^- 
tively to ihe cases ofquii. 

7, Optima qitceque dies tniseris mortalibus aevi 
Prima iiJ^t; aubeunt morbi, tristisjtw senectiu, 
Et labor, et dmree rapit incUmentia mortis. Id. 

Every best day of their lifejlietfirtt, or toottett frtim, 
^e, Subeo, ire ; to mcceed. 

8. Stat tua cuique die* : breve et irr^tarabile tenant 
Omnibus eat oiitB : ted famam extendere factia. 
Hoc virtutis opua. Id, 

(t. — Spatio brevi 

Spem l<nigam reteces ; dum loquimur, fugeiit lm>ifb 

j£f<w, catyediem, quSmminimiim cre^iapottero. 

Hot. 

10. Eel modiia in rebiu ; tmi certi deiuque fines, 

Quos ultra citraque nequit consistere rectum. Jd, 



RULE 20. 



" An oblique caae, unless it be an a^unct to the 
" nom. should be construed af^r the verb ; and when 
" more obliques than one depend on the same word) 
" construe accusatires before datives, datives before 
" ablatives, and genitives immediately after the words 
" which govern them." 

< Note, — By sn »b£fiu Mf« is meant any case, except tk 
Jiominative, which being no dec lined, grammarians call tho 
rigit CME ; ai b; Mique mooH* are meant sll niouds exce[it 
lAtindieaUve.wliioh afBrmingabsolntelj or directly is there- 
fore tennedlAfri^Adnootf; (Ac nomiDaliTe and (Aelndica- 
llTe being only so named by way ofemlnenoe I fvi ai att 



dup.xn. CONSTRUCTION. M 

moodi ue iMfieNltMc becmnae thej all sfinn or t'wA'wrti, to 
all omm ofnonnM are amnMotnu, beckOM tliej all expreis 
the mmHe or namti of thing*.' 



Oblique cases, nnku adjuncts to the nominstiTe, will 
— appear m Italics. 



The word or words to follow the verb t The verb t 
The word or words before the verb ? R. 0. ? 

1 . '— - . ■ Trabit Boa qtumque voluptaa. Firg. 

J. — ■ • Non ormtia pogsumas omnes. Id. 

3. An qui amant, ipei libi wnnia finguot T Id. 

An ipsi) qui, &c 

" Accusatives before datives." 

4. Omnia fert setaa, aninwm quoque, Id. 

5. Omnia vincit amor : et nos cedainus atnori. Id. 

6. . — Labor oinma vincit 

ImprobuB. Id. 

T. Nee verA tense forre omnes omnia possunt. Id. 
8. PrtBciptntMJam inde a tetierh irapende laborem. Id. 
" Aceusadves before Ablatives." 

9, — — fitamque inaiste domandi, 

Dnmlkcilesaiuiiiijuvenum; duin mobilis letaa. Id, 

" Genitioe cases ininediately after tfac words wbick 
" govern tfaem." 

10. Seevitqiie aninut ignobile vulgiu. Id. 



SULE 21. 

" WheD turn is put for kaheo, the English nomina- 
* liTe is expressed in Latin by a dative, and the accu- 
' sative hj a noiainative : in this case construe the da- 
' dve first like a nominative, then the verb, as if de- 
' (&ied from haheo, and then the nom. after die verb,' 
' like an accusative." , . . . 



CONSTRUCTION. 



XXAHFI^B. 



The verb used for habeo, and the words to be Aere- 
fore construed by this rule, will be in Italics. 



The exemplifying words? Which of these is the 
nraninalivc ? wWe and how must it be construed ? 
(" Aeter the vkkb, Uke an acevt.") Which is the veibl 
How mu^t it be construed? (" jii if dechned fnm 
' BABSO.'") Which is the dative ? How and where must 
it be construed ? ('" Bbioss the vehb," fife " o nomi- 
tuUux."J 

1. EttmUiiTiammieiom pater; ett injiufa itoverca. 
VWg. 
Ego habeo patrem, SfC. 

2. Smit nolAs nutiapoma, 

Coitaneee moUes et pressi ci^iia lactis. Id. 
~ Not habemtif, ^ c. 

3_ Cm nunc cognomen lulo. Id, 

Qtd nunc habet, ^c. 
4. Est mihi disparibus septem compaela dcatis 

Fiitula. Id. 
Ego habeo jUtulam compactam, S^c. 

6. Addamcereapruna; tthoTtoteritkukquoqve^ponto. 
Et hoc pomwm qvoqite iUtbelMt homirem. ]_Id. 
fi. Talis amor teneat; nee tit mihi cura medeii. 

rtrg. 
Let tach love pottett Daphnis ; Nee ego kaheam, nor 
may I have, curan mtdendi. 

7. SKntimhibit»eptemTpTBi»tanticoTpoienynqih^.Idr 
Ego habeo bit leple m n ym p ha t s ^c. 

8. EnPriamus! Sunt hie eti^tntiMpramia lau^. Id. 
Hie etiam laus (virtus) habet tua prtpnaa. 

9. Dii ! quibui imperitem ett^mamaiam. Id. 
O tjot Dit! qvi habetis impertwm, ^c, 

H«re. on Thursday, Octobw 37, ll^S, wb<) 
Hbnby Kirkb White's si^th lesson in Hiis 
book, evBtwaii^ .eight p?ge» iB.Lisr-oapj'i.mtb 
more eKamples and fewer notes. 



0C(t!9XK0<TPKtK 



" By a voy common eSipda, the vetb mm may be 

* understood in anv mood ar t«BM ; whaa it U lo, it 

* must be auppUea in cOaatniiag, ac the senM n-- 

* quiies." 



The verb to be supped wffl sometimes follow the 
exam]^; and the word, aitei which it is to be con- 
Mtrned, W3 he in It^es. 



After what word is the verb, imdentood here, to be 
supplied? What is that veA i The prinuiy clause? 
The nom. and a^uncta ? 

1. Itaii quij^ fioni. Jm. 

Sunt, 

Z. Oiis aliter vhwit. Id. 

Bit 

3. NuUa salus bello. Id. 
EsfnuUa, ^. 

4. — - Vanum et mutabile atraptx- 

'. ^tfUHMti Idt 

5. Oanne arimn find pattia estt ut p iscibw ttmor. 

<h. 

6. — ^ - Errat, 

Qaint^ ab ofemta fiulm uotSaAa, pWai. . Id, 
- Este^ 

7. Amicus Plata : waae^ Soeratet; scd ttiifpa wnkiut 

Witaf. Adag, 
Ett thrioe iro|died-. 
& Fbl^ridemV boo aaimoi. iagiato Bnana mtiV im- 

pensius. Ter, 
Pol quidem, / rtvear by Pollux, say, f/pon my 

■aord, laerS animo, nihil esl, Kc. 
9. TVmtiu araor laudiun ; tantse est victoria curie. 

10. Una aahis viotii waSumMt^lSn J* ' 



i;, Go<S^k 



CONSTOUCnON. 



BDLX 25. 



" Bf a most (j^ant ellipsis any verb may be on- 
' derstood, and inferred by reflectioa fiom another 
' verb or Terbal of like impcwt actually exprenaed 
' witbin tbe period." 



The nom. and ila adjnneta, after whicb the ellijieu 
M to be mpf^ei, are in Italica ; m> ii that vab ex- 
piesaed, from which the other underetood is to be 
mferied. 



In which dause ia the verb miderstood ? From what 
Teib (or word) miut it be aupi^ed ? With what oom. 
caae must it ^ree in nmnber and peraon ? What miUt 
it be thai ? The primary dauae 1 Ita nom. and ad- 
juncts! R. ff.? 

I. Impitia htec tam culta oovalia milea ktAebk ?- 

Barbanu has >^;etea T ^g' 
From habebit, expretied in tiufirit mettlon, it nay be 
ateertpmtd that habebit i$ mpiied m tie next. 

it, .. --. Te nortnr, Vare, mgrka ; 

Te nemoB omne caitet. Id. 
The ttrh mutt Mcestarily be rendered tance m tiuctm- 
gtrucSam, beemue of the repetitum of te : and eanet ex- 
preued in the second fnember them that a Uke verb it to 
M wppltRi tn the Jirit, oix, canent, in the pin, Memficr, 
became iu non. myrictei u to. 

S. ^~—^—^ Cui non risere Parentea, 

Ifee Demt hnnc nmsA, Dea nee i&ntata cubili est. 



Ajttr Deni u imy^ti dlgnalui eit, to tgree with U, «, 
y be vftrreifrom digDala eit txpntted m the Ua cliwi 
MTM Md ri» ra^ n.^ 1.-11 tt__ij jy„| worths 0^ '■' 

1;, Goot^l>; 



te up-et KiA Dea. No God hath thought him wrtig ^ hi 
tehS, nor hath am/ Goddett thinght &m, Jv. m fohom hi 
fmretot nmm < mB i iI, leiAjtm tntmimHom. 



5.fc 



OONSTRUCnON. «T 

- I fate te, Tityre, jwm i i . 
.^ teJimUi, ipia hiBC arinuta WMfonr. Til. 
. . Hunc fOCM raoretn aKtoran, Imnc ipM («m(«>. /iL 
From leneto agreeing with iU nom. ime m tk ^t 
jIimm i« inferred teneant A> agree with Oe nom. socii m 
iie claiue precedimg. Let thy people return tkis maimer 
eftacr^ce, da thou, ^. ' 

6. Hot tibi doM calamoB (en Mdpe) Muate ; 
Aacneo ^wt ante aeBi> Z^. 

Here tA« v«rb m mipfied in tAe b«f M«Ml«ro/'fike wn- 
<«•«■ Dant *Ae)v« it wa^ ie dtrimedjrom do, to sire ; 
ofwl ante tbav* that it vmut k in iAe jNut (mm, dede- 
rant, 

£0, reeeioe; the Mtuet, ^ 

— Aacrso aenii to old Heaiod of Aaeraa in 
Greece. 

7. Nymphie, noater. amor, Xobethridea, ant mibi 

carmen. 

Quale meo Codro, coneedite. Id. 

— Nym^tte Xibetbrides, O ye L^ietkrian JVymdA*; 
C(Ae Muiet *o caUedJrtm their founiUuH Libe- 
thra in Qreece), my DeUght, either grant me 
inch a umg, qnije coiuetnitit meo Co£ro. 

8. Nee Afpiu in^dUs pecivi ; nee retia cervis 

Ulla dolum me^iuitw> Id. 
From meditantuT the learner mutt pranideMmtHf mth 
an/tther verb to agree with lupua. 

9. Hoc nog, " FoimoBom Corydon ardebat Alexin." 
Hsec eadem docmt, " Gujum pecns ? An Meli- 

b«ir Id. 
Hebc, i. e. hoc acuta, thit siephertt» reed, docuU noB, 
Corydon axAeh&tfloved) formoa, &c. — Hcec eademcicuta 
docuit not, Cujum, &c. — /* it Melibetu't f 
10. Carmina, quee Tultis, cognoscite ; Caimina do6u ; 

Huic alind mercedia arit. Id. 
Cognoscite, Leant ye, or Hear ye, Carm. &c, — ^Vobja 
ertnd carmina (Here Sum ia used for Haled) you tJEoU 
haoe, &C. — HiUG erit, &c. tint (Egle shall have aliud 
meijcedia for aUam mereedem. or aUud geruu mercedi*, 
toMher.rereard, another sort o/Tecomperue, 



,,Cpi)j;lc 



const&uctiom: 



" «Dd we theo joined wiA raba is the comtmcriia, 
" and rendered advetbially." 



Tb« fi4i*ctiviV to be eontnad admliiallTi and tfa* 
verb, mib vUdi it it i6 1m jmcd, irc in ItMio*. 



The adjective, to be coiutnied adveiWall;? With 
tolwt v«b } The frivuiy dauM ? The nom, and od- 
joncts ? R. 9. ? 

J, ^ ' Ostioque ijuigaia et aim 

Stat 8«iipMr ac fi'waa.^rpx spunumtia MmiSl. 

740 rtgtd» Sng^h aA«ri it /omad bg addiKg iia 
ttrvKmitim ly t9 it* proper at^tme; t*iu, Fietce, 
Fiercely j Brisk, ^tiMj.'^jind tfm hone itsndt dit- 

2. Mneathea, Sergeatnmque vocst, fortemq ; Qoaii^ 

Clasaem apttnt UutU, Bocieaque ad Utora cogant 

. Motttliea the Greek aeciuatiee of Mneidieiu.--Be- 
Jvre aptent, npply the emf. ut that, mhich u often m- 
tkrttood before eufymethe verbs, nAm Jvom the tetue H 
ttmy he ttrengh Merred.—He eaUi Hfnettheut, ^; S^. 
that they noMtikiUts get ready, ^e. 

3. ■_, .. , „,... — _ Ocy^ omnes 

Imperio k^tt parent, ac jiiss« faceMUnt. Id. 
Immediately all gladlif olev, ^c— HIfu2 AMmf^ 4^> 

4. Disdmulare etiam sperasti, perfide, tantUiQ 
Pome Aetbs, tacUiuque meii ditcedere tenii Id, 

Didtt thtM hope, that thtm etmldit aUo diaatm. tutt. 
&ef. — perfide, perfidiout^^neaM, and, ^. 



CONSTRUCTION. »8 



-Hulliaille 



Fletibus ; sut vocea iiHu traebMlii mdU. Id. 

6. Tu teereta pyran tscto interioie inb anru 
Erige. Id. 

Tu Mcr, erige, ftc. tect. inter, m tie imer court, 
sub anr. m tAe open air. 

7. /V(«CTpt(ef iwifiite, viri, et cransdtt traiiBtm : 
Sotnte reitt ci(h /iH 

HmtUy amike, ^c—an d nt tog^ier uptm, ^e^— 
^mcktif wi/ttrl, ^< 

- g; Ite: 

/'frttf ctri ffannnaa : date Tela : impdlite remo*. Id. 
Ite, from Eo, ire; &c &c. — date vela, koUt the $ailt, 

&c 
9. Testor, cara, Deos, et te, germana, tanrnqne 

Dnice caput, nuifficas invitam Mcmgier artes. Id. 
I eaU the Qodt to ivUnett, aad thee, can germ, dear 
sisUr, tuumq ; dulce «^t mtd (Ay nxet Ufe-. Inntain 
acdngier, that I nnwiOing^y have recooree to. Accin- 
gier, mf. m, foraceingi. 
10. En quid again? Rnmune procoa irriaa piioiea 
Experiar ? Nomadumque jietom connubia tttppUx f 
Id, 
En qnid, &c. — Being mockal, thatl I again try, 
^c, — Nomadmn, of the Nunudiaiu I 



CHAPTER Xni. 

BDLB 15. 

Of the /tuficotiw /fljErMtioe Moei. 

See Note, C. IS. R. 15. 

" Wbxs in a untenee Acre ii Bo finiu T«rb, but 



* only an infinitiTe, &c." 



C.,K.;ik 



Cp»eTWJ<!noN.. 



The iofinitive verb? The nom. andadjnnett? R.9.t 
Havf ^oo obMTvti du nou I 

1. Turn flic ({^on, et cqnis his dnnere dicti$. f^rj>. 
^^aiw pr /tgiaUm: JleouK orDemata; the mm. 

mtderOood imng other Creuw f^n. £. 175.) or Dens 
Tyberinus (^a. 8. 35.J «r Phiygii Peaates, ati'^.^n. 
8. 158. 

2. -"i- — Tvaafiomla. luniine fajvo 

/(tvo&H ac totis vulcanum spargere Kctia. 14. 

■ Then she (Jmiow) vzappei in smolce, was involve4i 
ifc. Vulwmun )^ e. igneao* IvKluta ett. Spariii, 
S. ■- Turn ateiUes exuTfrti Sirmi >gn>s ; 

Arrant berbn : et victum aegev Eegro n^abat. 

SiriUB, the CpetUlential) Dog-star. Exurebat, &c— 

'. /d 



4. Tyrrbwug; tvlfot wa^ir€ ptT «&n.claagiir. Id, 
And the dangor of the Tuscan trumpet, juoH 

Titrrhena tubte. Mvgiit. 

6. ■ ' Telorum efftmdere caoca. 

Omne genus Tevcn, ac duita detrvdere contis. Id. 

On the otAer sitie, Teucri, The Triytmt powtdjitrth, 
. 8tc. taut pfuhed them doxn, &c. 

5. — Troet contra defeTtdere sixis, 

Ferq ; cavas (fenn tda iMtorjnwrr fenestras* Id. 

Per cavas fenestras, throu^ the hollow loop-holes 
cf the hetieged lonier, — Densi by Rtde 24, inceasantly, 
i. e. in thick volliea, intorquere Mejr hurled, 6cc 

7. TmiaH trepidare intus, finutrsque nulonsn 
Fellefi^. Id. 

Turb. &c. &c. fruBtraque 8:c. &c.— 'fiigani ms- 
l(man,J^htfioM tknr 



pBuladm excedere pugn^ 






. -9. At Jlutubi J*n. ducilniJiq ; «a raits vi^ri 
Auaoniis. Id, 

But these thmgi teem tmrndcrfif toi S^, , 

10. Pascmtei ilttE taaium prodire volaudo^ 

QuanRuD acie posaent ocuU serrwe aequeotum. 

lUse tAe ^e* bjfjlying proceed to far, qiunL oc 
seq. &c. — ade in t^if. 



" When^tbere occiii an * acciuattve cate aad an in- 
" fimtive mood, quod or vt being lefl out, &c." 



QTITRTiaira. 

The io&utive verb t The acciuative and its adjuneu t 
To be ooastTued before or after the infinitive ? Tbe 
primai; clause t lu nom. and adjuncts i R. 9. 1 
1. Venun iUud verbum egt, quod vulgd did soleti 

Onmer siWrnalfe melius eff^, qufim alteri, TVr, 
Omfw* molfe, negotium eae melius tibi. Sic. 
' 2. Ita coMjNiratem Mie naturam ommum, 
Aliena ut melius ridrant <t d^udf cent^ 
Qudmnw! Id. 
Otiat the M^tttrnt^ ail nun tioiJdi»»o^tpo»ed, ut 
vid. et dijud. aliens, &c. 

In thia aad suclt like pasueea the prinripal verb and 
DOm. caae are uDderatood, and may bt sini^ed by Ne- 
Ja* at, Ferwm est, Rei Mt, Itane erf? For though the 
nmi WHY be mfficieMily implied by a half sentencei or 
by a ringle intetjee^n, it Buy at ^e same time be al- 
waya inor« iully, though not sJways more elegantly anil 

• 0/ the tMmefm Jwfeidw wwii Su mC. C. 13. 
R.I9. 



l;, GOOt^l>J- 



9* CONSTRUCTION. cbat. xm. 

pauionatelyi expresaed by the mppledcHi of a princ^al 
verb and nom. cajw ; snd this majr alway^s be done br 
•ome put of the rerb ttdutantiM or entitive (bum, &c) 
becauM that verb affirms of simple Being, and of no- 
thing more ; and this, namely, itt onm Being, ia ivbat 
may be always actually, because it is alwaya virtuaDyi 
fdSrmed 6f every proposition, and of every uiing diat ia. 
See my Lat. Gnuui. Of the Moodt. 

i. NHukte UK proprium cuiquam I Id. 

01 NUiUmeeue,^. OhthatfuAlung tkoMbe,-sm- 
prinm tetmd, &c. Or, Itane est, ut nihil sit, &G. /( 
*t $0, that mothmg it, ^-e, 

4. OsMM crede diem tilH i^budtte supremam ; 
Gnta Bupeiremet, qiue non sperabitui hora. ffor. 
Crede omn. diem, dilux. &c. — hora qus, &c.— 

auperreniet mill come over and aboee expeeto- 

5. QxuB credat, ttuUat operum sine Nnmine molei ; 
Bt "lini'wi" ciecoque cnal»m ftedere awniJiiiii t 
Si fbra ista dedit nobis, fbra ipsa gubemet. Maml. 

Tantaa motet operwn exist«re tine, &c. et mvndim 
ereatmn fesie, &c.— nmtmu^om atonu ctecoqve Jcedert 
and tA«tr bUnd (uncertun, undesigned) coHCvrrtnce, 

9. ■ — Cuncti le tchre fatentur, 

Quid fi>rtuna ferat populi ; sed diceze musaant. 
Krj. 

7. ■ ■ Cmr tamcn hot tu 
EvOMtte putes, quo* diri conscia iacd 

Mena habet attonitos, et aurdo Tcrbere ccdit t 

Jn. 

8. Noa fadld inveniea mulda in miflilnu unutn, 

Firtatem pretii qui putet eue sui. 
Ipse decor recti &cti, si prsemia desint, 

Non movet, et grads peenitet e**e probmn. 0». 
Pretii (iH, ofintriHtic valne, eahuible t» ittey^, worJiy . 
^ itt cott, even though it be gratis, for nothing, that it, 
attended nitk no exfrintie apptawe. — Et patutet homi- 
nem se ette probuni gratit. 
■ 9. Asperius nihil eat hjunili, cum su^t in altum : 



«HAP.xni. CONSTRUCTION. 

CwKtt focit, dun cwctB tin 
Ut tepoMte puteDt. Cbudifla. 
Hvmili, than a mean-tpirited penon, Sepotie, that 
he it posteited ofpomer, 

10. Jd eiie regni maximum pignua putant, 

Si quidquid aJiis non ucet, Holii licet. iSrt. 
Put. id ease max. &c. regni for regmiu&, — Si quiC'* 
quid Baa licet, &c. — aolia to Ihemielvf only. 



" Worda in appoattion nnist b« constnied as near ip 
" one another ias poadUe." 

4VMnOMS. 
. BXAKPLES. 

Tbe words m ^position t Before or after tjie verb t 
Jfafttrf llie qom, and adjuncts? B.9,f 

i; Non decetaupeibmn esse Aominent JvnuM* Plmt^ 

Non ^. bom, qtii tit mmm, mt. But, ■ 
S. EnimwKo Dii aoi qwin piia« tumintt UoBt. Id. 
Tndy tlu Godi treat tu mn, #v. 
S. Seqiiibv Miperboa mUot » ter^Dmu. Sen. . ■ 

4. Nm ■» taa ferrida tenant 

Bids, ferox. JDii ino Uarent, et fypOir JmUlt. 

5. Si ntMt Euiyalus RuttUof cecidisset in hoitei, 
HyrtaeidtB Niti gloiis nulla faieu Oe. 

If Evryaiuthttd net fallen miotiihmdi^tktRiituU 
iUtnemUt, the glory ^ Nitut, the ion of Hyrtaeut {arat 
had b^n, I** 

6. Lieor, inert viOmn, narea non exit ht shos ; 
Vtqn* iMens iinft Tnera serpit hinao> ^ 

agroBri^me. Norn eat, iha not 



Intrt tttiwn, 



i;,Goot;k' 



U COMBTJiUC^ON. «ati. xtn. 

7, Oraee pmim Slam tnagma nMBtifpwaaU Sen. 
Mag. nob. grave, &c. 



** AD corrMpondent words nuut be construed as near 
**t« one uiotfier ai possible." 



QUBsnoKB. 

The oonespondent words ? How to be construed t 
■ (" At near, ^c.^) The primary clause ? Its nom. aof 
adjuncts T 'R.B.I 

1. PhrU estoculatUB testis unus, gw^st auriti deccK. 

— ■■' pluria, of more value. 
9. Dum in dubio est animus, pauIo momenta hue 

Uluc impellitur. 
■■■ " ■ hue illuc tin* miy and thai Kajf-^^faiui, tutm. h/ 
the letut iavputiion, or came of motion. 

3. Omma priib verbis experiri, ^u^ armis, sapien- 
,4emdeost. Id. 

4. Ila comparatam esse naturam omnitun^ 
Alieoa mt maGit videant et cyjudicent, 
Qu^Bual Id. Ita-ut. MeHusquam. ■ 

B. FertUis assidiio si non renovetnr'arairo. 

Nil nisi cum spinis gramen babebit ager. Ov. 
SifirOUt ager non rntoveter, ^. 

6. Ita vita est honiiniun, ^uati cum ]iida> teneris.. 

Ttr. 

7. Nulla fides pietasque viris, qui castra sequnntur ; 
Ven^esque matiOs ; Ai&B,ubi maxima merces. 

Zucan. 

Ett nulla fides, &c. — que manus nmf, &c. — fu 

etf, &c. ubi max. mere. ett. 

3. Discit cnim citmt, meminitque lAeniiiu ffli^ 

Quod 'quia deridet, qu^moA probat et venert- 

*W' ■ . /ftr, 

[;:„ifKi:,C00i^k' 



tHAt.xof. CONSKHICriOW. S9 

Enim SteU ctfnlt, w* i miiii i tie itti^ ipttid 'fw deridet 
libentiut fodm quod, ^c. Thus, according to rale, hhnt- 
tmt comes hmnediateljr before quin; and cUtAt, by 
being cooBtnied last in its dause, comes as near to qaim 
as possible i the relative qvod, and its antecedent Midf 
are tfavis likewise biou^t together. And this is a tight 
order, ootwithstanding anobjection lies i^ainst it, or 
rslber aoainst one part of iti &om the nineteenth rule, 
which directs us to finish one clause before we proceed 
to another ; according to which, it will be, £nm Jiteit 
<i(tiii, me nevumt mentiit Uhd, quod quit deridet, • 

When two rules thus seem to counteract one another, 
prefer that by whidi the sense of the author ttiQ be 
made most evident : when they are equivalent in that 
respect, ftdlow either, as you msy here ; or else pay 
in»e regard to that by which the construction wilf be 
most sin^e, afid most according to the order in whidi 
the words themsetreB tie. 

9r Hoc patrium est, petntt consutfkcere fi£um 
Snft sponte rectft &cere, qtiim alieno metu. Ter. 

Here, on Friday. 38th October, 1608, ended 
Hehby KlBCB Wbitb's seventh lesson in this 
book, ctmlaininff tight pages in bis wpy, with 
more examples and fewer aotei, 8co. 



' KDLE 19. 

' Genenlly construe every word in any daiuct 



QCESTIONS. 

Hie primary daUse ? Im Jtom. and a^uncts ? H. 9. t 
The dause to be comtioed next? Which word first 7 



Sea nM* k As pmoedh^ cbnpier, ,<«neening- ate 
irards in ttblic*, &c. 

1, Mmni id flagiduia Ml^ le aliia coOEilium doret 
. Foris toftre, tibi non j»OMe KiuuliaTieT ? Ter. 
S. JTm patrnim «st|, pydda coiMM^iMfv jE&m 
. SuA t^mte Rct^ &eflte, jhJm dieiw imtir. Id. 

3. ■ Htc me tiM^/^idb toirent 

Aicl4^ feiox. : i>a me teirent, tt Ji^itei boMifc. 
Ulterius ne tends odiis. f^^. 

4. Tutatur/atwr Euryalmn, UcTymKjva; demrtt, 
Gntior oc pidehrB vemeiiB de oorpOtt* virtnst 

rttg. 

5. Latius regneit svidmn domando 



G&dihua JTingas ; el uterque. Faemis 
Serviat mii. ffor. 
1. «. 3. 4. or 2. 1.3.4. 
9v Ciygcit iiidulgen» ubi ^finw Affdrf^ 
i\^ec gitim peUit, nut cauia mor&t 
Vfigerit Tenas, vf ovtuwus albo. 

Corpore Umguor. Id. 
^-albo corpore /r<»» the yak hody, or, in thtpaU 

7> Anream qitugruM medioeritfttem 
Diligit, tuftw caret obsoled 
Sordibtu tecti, caret inTidendft 

Sobrimvia^ Id, 
Qiiiiiquis, &c — tutuB hnng titfe caret he it without 
sord, &c. — Bobrius being sober, car. auL invid. 
— invideoda that itoutd be envied to him, 
S. Saepiug vends agitatur ingeas 
Pimttf el.celue gnriace OXBU 
Decidunt turret ; feriimtjve summos 
FubtuMt mon'tCB. Id, 
9, ^quam memento rebua in arduia 
Senate mentem, nan seciti in bonis 
Ab insolenti temperatam 
lUetiak, montWK DeS. Hw, 
3.l.«..- - ^ ■ 

[; :,.i IK i:, CoO^k 



cBAP. Juu- CONSTRUCTION. 9? 

10. Atqae luxe perinde aunt, nt illiuB animiu, gwi es 
posBidet: 
Qm ud sdt, ei Aona ; illi, jut ncNi utitnr rectd, 
Biak. aV. 
In ihia example are eight ckusea, to be comtnied iq 
die following order ; vii. 1,_2. 9. 6, 4. 8. 6. 7. 
' And thete ^fts afjprtune are perinde atjiut at it the 
mind of, ^e. — ^bcHia lunt ei ; ^ui sdt, &c. — mala mU 
iUi, qui non, &c. 



I it be >n adjunct to tlie 



ouBsnoin. 

The word or words to foUow the veth 1 The verb ? 
The nom. and adjuncts 7 R. 9. ! 

1. Continiid eH^Mn.^rrocon^>esce, priuBquom 
Dirajwr McawAmt aerpant contagiatm^tM. ^irg. 

%. IngenUt animot an^vtto tn pectore veraant. Id. 
Veraant lAw mooe mgen, anim. &c. 

8. ■-' Dabit Deua Mt qumeJineM. Id. 

" AccusadTea before datiTea. 

Foraan et htgf dim roemuusae juvabit : 



DuTBte, et voimet raiiM aervate teciMdit. Id. 
B. Non ignaia inali mterit snccurreie disco. Id. 
6. -' ■ Poaantqaeferoda Psani 

Corda, tolmU Deo. Virg, . 
7. Timeo Danaot, et donaferetUet. Id. 

El, even. 

8. Zhit aliter Tisum. Id. > 

9. Degenert* animot timoi arguit. Id. 

10. -i Quia Mere piwait amanteM ? Id. 



CONSTRDCnON; 



" When fUffl is put for habeo, &c. ccHUtnie the dative 
" firat," &c. 



The exemplifying words J The nom. ? Where and 
how to be coDBtmS ? {See C. IS. R. H.) Theverb? 
How to be CTKiBtrued 1 {See C. 12. R. 21.) Which is 
the dAtive ? How and where to be conttrued T {Set 
C. 12. R. 21.) 



- Et tne fecere poetam 



Pierides. Sunt et mifU canrnna. Virg. Ego ha- 
beo, ^c. 

Pierides, the Mvtt) (so called from their mountam 
PieriuB in Greece) fecere have made, me, &c 

2. Carminai quae vidtis, cognoadte. Carmhta vobii : 
Hwc aliud mereedit erit. Id. 

3. Sunt et «Mi dona parenti. Id. 
Et-parent mvaa Aa&rt tua Ama. 

4. l3iaehtec,OVa&um,tiUtain'diraei^Kdof' 

. Vhg. 
Vnde est tibi, ^c. for Uitde habe» tu hdnc tam dam 
, mpfffineM. 

5. NuUi cerli 3omat : lucis habitamus opacis ; 
Ripamraque toros, et prata recentia rivis 
Incoliniua. Id, 

NvXU est, fc. aa if it were, NUUui h^dxt certam di>- 
muffi, ^c. No one has, ^c. — We dwell in shady grovet 
(Lucus, ci) — que incol, toros, &c. et piata rec &c.— 
recenda, tmened. 

6. Filiu* Auic, fato Divdm, proleMqae etrt& 
Ntdlajuit. Id. 

Hmc, fato DiMhn, /wl nidld f&ut proletqne vkUit ; 
i. e. Hk, fato DhoTvm, habuit mtllam f&am proleUiqii* 
virilem, 

tioXe.—FHuu had proletKvOt different i^ilersi the 
adjectiTe ntdU beloaga to botb ; and abonld, aocoiding to 



cpAT.sin. CONSTRUCTKW. 09 

tbe role on ■aob ocaatioaf, b« expieaMd vx tfae VHctdine, 
rtuHia. Sut this rale is not ijwa^a regartled: in Cicero we 
find this exception to it.iVoROMnw eitROiL iluflilia uicenda 
c(t. Whence it maj seem, that, iriwo noiuu, wilh which 
eneadj4Mtivei4:reea,lh(iugb'they majrbe of different gen- 
doi^^yet meui ll» utmu tfaiag, or hare Mspect dtb«r to 
other, the a^i^ctive maj in gender agree with e>tborj< whiob 
perhaps oiAfbeacooaDtiDgfor snob expreBsiona.iuffloieDttj', 
and aa well as if, with lonte grumnanBin, -We were to say, 
that ftom wiHa,"wldoh agtMt witbyrsJM, Is implied by re- 
flection taiUui to agree with jUiu*,' Ihoagh thii lattel' la no 
bad method of reconciling aocb phrases to the severitj of 
KTamtaar. 

7. Oaaet, Unde amor Ute toaoA ttU 7 VWg. 
Unde eat ti^ Sfc. i. e. Unde Xa6#f M utem amomt i 
S. Praet«¥A^io nee tutft tniAi velle referli 

CapreoU. Fvrg. 
Praterta sunt miAt, j**^- i- e. Prcelerea ego habto dito* 
capreoht reperlo't in periaitdid valle. 

9. Nunc ego (namque taper tibi eruHt, qui dicere 
laudes, 
Vare, tuaa cupiant, et tiiatia condere bells) 
Agrestem tenui meditabor ahmdine musam. Fiir^. 
Super here is an^revb itse4 noiimiaUy, and means 
an abundance,oi mamf, or more than enough. 

Nunc ego f namque tu habeUt pUtrimos, qui cupiant 
dicere tuat laadet, Vare, el candtre triuia beliaj medi- 
tabor, &c, — Condere, to compile, or dram up an account 
af, to desert. 



" By a very common ellipais the verb lum may be 
" understood, &c." 



After tAat word is the verb underatood hare, to be 
■npfdied? What is tlut.v«b? Tlie pdmsiy clause f 
.loe Donit sod adjuncts T RI 9. ? vhm appUeable. 



100 CONSTRUCTION. chap. zm. 

I. Statnu adqne diea, bteve et irrepsralde Unqms 

Omnibiu est vitK : sed fiunam exten4ere factis. 

Hoc Tirtutis opua. yirg. 

Huapptrnttddayitjixtdfor, ^c. the time of Ufe u 

tkort, ^e, — htt to extern on/t repvtatioH by good deedt, 

boc eit, Sic. 

i. Nescia xaeaa AoMmm &ti) sortiaque &tune, 

Et aerrare modiun, rebus mliUta secundia. Id. 
Bit. 



ApprimS in vitl ease utile, ut ne 'q«id nimia. Ter. 
Ne altmid ^, Let not any timg be, ^. or, That 
nothing thould he, ^. 

4. Bene ubi 'quid- diacimus ccnuiliuiQ acce^ase, 

hominem cautum eum 
Eaae dectaramiiB : atultuin uitem iUum, cui vortit 
mal&. I'laut. 
When we leant that any detign hath fallen out, ^, 
we declare that he it, ^e, — autem ilium ette, &c, — ^Vof 
to, the aame oa Verto, 

5. Ditrwn : aed lerina fit patentiA 
Quicquid conigere'eat nefaa* Hor. 

Ettdmwn. 

6. QwnuMtt^tbirlibeT? Sapiens, sibiqueimperiosnB; 
Quern neque paiqteriea, neque mora, neque vin^ 

cula terrent. Id. 
Eit. 

7. Virtua «Bt vidum fiisere ; et fopiMfia prima 
Stultid& caruiaae. Id. 

£«.— caruisse to he mthoia. 

8. Quia credat tantaa openm aine Numine moks ; 
Et minimia cscoque creMum foedeie mimdum ? 
Si fbra iata dedit nobis, fbn ipaa gubtrnet. ManU. 

Tantai mofei opemm eue v, extstere, 
Mvtuban creatun eiie. 

9. Quid ffiinm, noacere mundum 

Si posaunt bominea, quibus eat et mundns in ipna ; 
Exeo^umque Dei quisque est in imagine puiril t 



cBAP-sm, COSreTROCTION. 

10. NuIUfidei-i»etaaque viria, qui cutra Mqunnturl 
Vemdetque fWHiuf ; Ha fa*, ubi m a ^nm mereet. 



ILvc. 



*' Hy-a most elegant eUipau 1117 verb nuy be uudet- 
" stood, aod intened, &&' 



' In ifhicb clause is die TCrb understood ? From what 
verb (or word) to be supplied ? With what nom. case 
ift It to agree in number and person? What must it be 
the) 1 The primary clause I Its nom. and adjuncts T 
K. 9. ? 

1. Diuajuga moolisfqwr, fluvioadum jHsciaomaitf, 
Dumq ; tbymo pascentur apes, dum rore cicatLg ; 
Semper honos, nomeuq; tuum laudesque mane- 
bunt, yirg. 
a, O milii sola mei super Astyanactis imago ! 
iS'tc oculos, sic Ule manua, sic onfereboL Id. 

O Sola ima§o mei Astjanastis super (i. e. qma mrne tu- 
peratt) milii. Andromaelte gag* Ateaaiut ii noiotAtiml^re- 
Mm^MweeJ^ rfherdearmwdttateldUAilifa'i'x- — Feietiat 
iMMf RMMMrtljr be opiufrwd aftf sio tn lUtfirit clavte of tie 
leeond line, tbtd nettttarily ifter ille in llu ttcoad clause : it 
vuur or t»ag not bt eautnud ia lit third elaiue rihe traailalifm 
mU do mlhmit U, though the mlei of eomtruction rather re- 
quire il. " lliaa lie directed his eyes ; tlius he presented 
his hands; thus (or, tkia he cairiett) Mb countenance." 
7%e rtpetilion d^fcrebnt tee mil 10 inditpemalilt, that it tetmt 
to tvqmre a different evmtrvttion, at it coma before tAa ^f- 
ferent lAliqaa, oealos, manus, and ora ; tttatue the lame hind 
^.m^09ttum>>HntutTi6e4tothaegUfk»ndi,mndf»unttua»te. 



COMSTROCnOM. 




4. Ifo«Cgrjibw,ilkwrefcrttoinordiDeTbi7wt. Id. 
IKdeio to nimU ; to nHf , la M^em. CorydoM jn^ 
fioar, Tkrytu n^Mtd Aeat (vcmn fiwi) in wdine. 
!t AhhesQiKi, 



C«TtaBte«;< 






"),. 



74« Mrfr fa> fe npp&rf if tk jfrU woprf to be (mulnMd 
nt lie Jfrtt Ime, awieA'rirfy femora nusaB.— QiioB cer. 
tanta Jnvcno minta eat immemor bcxbarum : quonun 
cancine lynees stiqte&ctKJMi/; et Bmnina mutata snos 
camu ^<»4 tAe rtvcn AoMV ''^^ caartei ekaagtdj 
reqniemnt. Reqmeteo, 

S, I Hie m^iKM poltAt triumplios, 

Hie aaw« did patei atqoe Priaeep*. Hor, 

7. Me ftuaad oHree, . 

He aehorttt, kvecq ; mdvK. /d. 

g. — - — -- ■ N<Bi, n mal£ nunc, et olim 

Sic m(. Id. 
Si (it mal^ nunc, ncm ent, &c 
9. Quo bntta lelbu et eagajbimna ; 
Quo Styx, et inviai homda Taenui 
Sedes, Atlanteuftque Gnia 
ConctUitur. Id. 

By which the hrulal earth and wandering, ^c. concu-' 
tiuntur. (Now let the learner consider and answei it 
to hinuelf, nby from ctmeutitvr in the Bingular number 
it deduced conculiuntur in the plural. In lite same 
manner he uw in C. 12. R. 83. canent &om canet ; 
drgtMitu in the Haac. from dignata in the Fem. gender ; 
leneant ttoia'teneto; dedermt in thr pwt teoEe-fiiwa 



cur. zd. CONSTRUCTION. 103 

dami in the 'Present, and so eoncaattU from cmee£tt ; 
and meiitatur firom medUantur.J 



Qiuettn^ BxthynA IttcettU 

Carpathimnpelagtttcarind. Id. 



" Adjectives are often ek^^tly jued u adverbi; 
" and are tfaen joined with veiba in tbe GOnttructitn,' 
•1 jt» » - 



EXAimsi. 



The adjective to be construed adverbially? With 
what verb ? The primary clause ? Nom. »ui adjuncts I 
R. 9, r 

I. I, Boror ; atq ; faoatem n^j^e* i^are lupertniiu. 
Firg. 
ASare, the nnp, m. ofAffbr. 1, the imp. m. Eo, 
Z, Ipse amena animi, et rumore accenius anuro, 
Dicitur ante oraa, media inter numina Dlv&m, 
Multa Jovem manibuB suppkx oratte flu|nni>. Id. 
Amens animi, enraged in his mind.— Media inter nu- 
mina DiTflm, amidst the ahrines of the Oods. 

S. Improbe Amor, quid non mortalia pectora cogiat ' 
Ire itenun in tacrymas, iterum tentare precanao 
Cogitur, et, iwppUx animoa uAituitere amori ; 
NeqmdinexpertumfhistramoriturarelinquBt. Id. 
— Cogitur *Af (Dido) i»compellediieiteiain,8cc.8c<:. 
— Lett the thould leave any thing untried, being about to 
difi (that ia, and so die) nithout an^ rtaten, or oceation 
far it. 

i. Id qnidein ago; et taeUm, Lycidti mecwHipae 



104 CONSTRUCTION. CHAT, xm. 

i Id quifcm ^<^ that I a/m about ; et ipse, and I, tac. 
ytA. am tUattly ctnuidervtg. 

5. Gntstur xedoces, et gaza ketM agresti 
Exeipit. Id. 

He iteleomei fUm, ^. et tet. exc &c. and gladly 
tMerttmt them with the richet of the cwntry. 

6. ■ Sapiefu finire mtTnetOo 
Tristitiaiii viueque labores. Hor. 

7. Te minor, latum reget tKqmt* orbem. M 

8. VoB leue conaittum et dads, et dato 
Oaudetit aimee. Id, 

You both give, ^c. and kin^y rijoke in it mhen, ^c. 
(spoken to the Muses.) 

9. Sents in caelum redeas, diuque 
Ltstut intern* poptilo Quirim. Id, 

Senu redeaa, vutyeit thmi late return, ^c. Here 
" redeas" being an optative mood is ther^ore subjunc- 
dve ; and the princip^ veib and nora. case roay be thus 
Slipped, t>oh or preeor Kt " redeas," or, ila e»t, me v^le, 
«t " redeas," or, iia est tU " redeas." The pribrapal 
verb bei^m seldom premised in such sentences, some 
have coDBiaeied the optative to be no subjunctive, biit a 
primarj inocwL, in order to avoid the necessiw of sup- 
posing an ellipsis : and it is a good rule iii Granunar, 
never to suppose an ellipsis, without necessity ; but not 
to suppose It here will destroy the admirable simplicity 
of the usual distributioa of the Greek and Latin moods, 
by giving to the verb two primary moods, when other- 
wdse one will answer every purpose, and by making the 
same verb for the same purpose to be both primary and 
subjimctive too ; primary, when the ellipsis ia not aup- 
poved ; subjunctive, when in this manner it is actuaUy 
supplied, as it oflen ia. Moreover, it is t]ie character 
of the primary or principal mood to afSrm not only 
primarily^ but ^mpty and Erectly, never tnttmo^n^ or 
tmplying wbtX it does not affirm f vdiereas- the optative, 
. besides what it affirigs or predicates, mqiUet a with too, 
snd-Bo Visng ao prjnary inaodr it is consequently snb- 
''■ocdve ; and if diis be a subjunctive or nAt&auetU mood, 
-e must be a primary or prmeipat mtod nineWher& 
10 



CONSTBUCTION. 106 

or understood in the ume iMtence ; which 
necessity of supposing die dlipsis in the c^ 
Utive sentences, , where it is not supplied ; snd it wiH 
shew this farther, that the optstire mood is always a 
potential, implying some sort of poner as well as a wish, 
generally that of dMy; as here, mayri U«t return, that 
is, Irmhthat thou tmnrt, wmUmI, amldttrebtm; or, 
n) it if, that thou thouldtl return, every wish being tap- 
posed to rest on the ground or virtue of some duty, pio- 
|>rieW, or convenience. — By tins dme, the learner, see- 
ing that $iAjunctive moods are properly so called, merely 
because they are not the fi'tt, priiieqtal, or prmary 
verbs in ^u construction, may feel hinuelf rescued from 
that inveterate and perplexing error of suwosing the 
cause of the subjunctive to lie in some maefiniu word 
or coajtmctum, whereas its cause or government arises 
ftom its j>tac« only, and indefinite words and conjuno- 
tiona come ss well before incUeatives as sut^imctives, 
yea, snd subjunctives, when they imply neither wish dot 
poivra of any kind, predicate exactly as indicatives, that 
11, directly aiul' simply, but still are righdy called sub- 
junctives and expressed in the subjunctive form, because 
they are notfirH but tiUaequtnt verbs in theil se&tencea. 
See my Lai. Ohax, O/the Moodt. 

10. -■■ ■ I — Peccare docraitea 
' Faiiax historias maoet, td. 

Fallax movet, he treaeherotalj/ reeotmU, &e, 
doccBtes, iitAidng, Sec 

Here, on Saturday, 29 October, 1803, eoded 
-Bbnry Kibkb Whitr's ^ghtb leaaon in thia 
book, containing eight pages in bis copy, wift 
more examples and fewer notei. 



C(K)<;k' 



COBTSTHUCnON. 



CHAPTER XIV. 



"When in a sentence there is no finite verb, but Only 
* an infinitive, fijc." 

CfVie iniitatkie Ii^the Modd. 



aUBSTIOKS> 

TheinflnidTtfTeib? The iK>in< and in adjiiBotB ? ' R. 
9.? Have 70a afaaedyonneB' of the Kate t 

1 . Hi»c exaudiri gemUui ; . et iceva tonare 
Verbera : turn stridor ferri, tntct^q; c&teaffi;. Virg, 

^Tum afxidor ferri, and' the clankijig of iron, 

2. Hhtc txwuitrt geaitiu, voBq; jwmtffi 

VincU recusantam, et wex& tub nocte.ndeotmn : 
Setigeriq; net, <xUp£ m preeiepibiu wii 
Stxvire: aeJonttBrna^nenoKi^lan^hiponim. Id. 
Hence were lieard. groans and ibe 11^ otfioos, &c 
— Hinc, hence, fuwut^, fromGfx^.t 
encAonlmmi the eonfatei men meti 
tions, britflg boart, bean, woUxt, 

Sen aahooete at -llieagproaeAo/thM late night; ao 
sub lumine at the ap^oacS of the light : and eiib moute 
tometimeB raeanH, not ' (fim;% jm£r, but near to or at 
the foot of the tMnmUuK. 

3. At ntatret prind atieipilet, oeaUtq; tnaUgnit 
Amlnguee, tpectare rates. Id. 

4. Ecce autem, primi sub lumine solis et ortds, 
Sub pedibuB mugire tobtm. - Id. 

Frimi soUs of (Ae riiaig am, et ortliB and of the 
mormng. 

5. Ditcesau vmgire boves ; atque omne querelis 
Impleri nemiu ; et collet clamore re^jpt. Id. 



CHA». xiT, CONSTBCCnON. 107 

6. HU inter cadet, Ratnlotum elapiu* in tffO» 
Ctmjvgert, et Tuini defendier bo^tds aimu. Id. 
Hie MiKenUHt, theerueiandim^oiitimgofAgilla. 

7. Ut Tideie nnun iUgentiaq ; amw per umbru, 
Ii^enti tr^idare metu : part vertere terga, 
Ceu quoniuim pedei? rates : parg toUere vocem 
E»giiant> Id. 

When ihej (Oreciaa Ohostt in Hell) eaw the hero 
( JBneaai'^ho, the ^poett feigned, went down thither alive) 
and InB HTEDS glitteiing, "Sec. 

8. Not paoidi trejndare metn crinonq; fligiantem 
Excutere, <<«aQiCtDe re(lwfi(«r«^fbntlbus-igaM. 7rf. 
Foncibus, mth matfr, 

9- ^^CJ procul iode'&gam trejiidi. eelerare, recepto 

Procul inde, Surfron) li^iue, (Ae a(o((ai(j/!ilAe.Cyo/(m 
m:i8'ic^. — Sie owrito (^^MMi^ ■*(«& Sa^iiw) bo .be 
well deserved. 

10. _ Se^putui<nef^)-£^yptia.con^«x. 

Ut4 omne* ruere : ac totum ipiHnare 'feductis 
Convuls^m teDHB^rotrfs^.tridentibtscnvor. Id. 
, £gyptia cpDJUiXt C^eqw'ni^ ^tfnjlangr'f '!Bgyptitm 
^use,: i|ttend« hW Ip the 9fnJ^ht qff.Aatimi. — Ro- 
atrisque tridentibus, and with trident beika; beakt of 
sAtpt tn taaie way retembling Nepbuu't tridMt, Ste the 
Jigure^an,\^Kie)Ugalkifi»Pine'tHoraeti,'Od.T. 14. 
and another m Pqtter't Anliqvitiet if Qrieeei inhere the 
trident ii r^retenUdai eautpoKd of three p&cet ^hrats 
or iron, in the form of avord». Its lOe wtu to suMy the 
enemj^t thipi in baftk,. and its plaee just belnten nwid 
and water, there to do more mit^ef. 



BULB 10. 



Of thi StSytmctiee Infaiiiwe Mood. 

See Nile C. IS. fl. 15. 

' WIieB these occur an acouadTe cage and aninfi- 



CONSTRUCTION.; 



QUIITIONS. 

Tbe infinitire verb ? The accusative and its adjuncts I 
Where to be construed, th&t isi before or after Uie ia- 
S&idvel The primary clause t Its nom. and at^ubcta t 
K/fl.? - 

1. — ... — Unum hoc sdto, ninuo celeriuB 

VemTe, quod moleatum eat, qu^ id, qnod cupide 
^taa. Plant. 
KnoK thu one thin^, id lluU that quod molest, &c. 
Ten. nim. eel. quam id, quod, &c. 
t. Bene ubi '^wldiicinnis (vtuUmm aetediste, homi- 
nem cautum eum 
Etu declaramua ; stuttum autem ram, cui vortit 
nuU. IHoM. 

d. Et errat longd meA quidem sententiA, 

Qui intfjtfrMim ctedat ^vius MM aut'Btabilius, 
Vi quod fit, qu^ dlnd, quod ai^citi& adjnn- ' 
gitnr. Ter. 

4. I ■■ ■ " Laudaa 

Foraaiaxa et mores antiqiue plebin ; et idem. 
Si 'quia ad illadeus subito te agat, usque recuses: 
Aut quia non sentis, quod ckmas, rectius ate, 
Aut quia non firmua rectum defbudis. Hor. 
Id, gvod clamoM ette rectiiu, aut, Ac. 

5. Vt desint Tires, tam^i est laudanda vohmtas : 
Hac ego contentos auguror etK int. Ov. 

Vt although. 

6. Hoc pstrium est, potivks consue&cere filium 
Su& Bponte rect£ facere qudm alieno metu. 
HAc pater ac dominus interest ; hoc qui nequit, 
Fateatur, m nemre imperare liberis. Ter. 

— qui nequit hoc, he feho camM do this, fateatur, 
th(mld,4e. 

7. Onmes, quibiis res sunt minus secundse, migii 

sunt (nescio quomodo) 
SnB|Hciosi ; ad contumeliam omnia acd^oiK 



SAP. ziv. CONSTRUCnON. 109 

Pn^r nUtm impotenaam te semper credunt 

— Magis siupidosi more ttujMcimu than others — ma- 
gis more than others. 



muLB 17. "--■■;/■.- 

" Words ID apposition must be cotutn^ed ^ neat to 
'* one another as possible." 

EXAHFLIS. 



The wwds in apposition ? Before, or after Bw verb ? 
n' afier ; The nom. and its adjuneta ^ Jf the e^mr^te 
tie m a subwguent claute; 'Ine primary clause? lu 
nom. and adiuncta t R. 9. 1 

1. Hie mi hi malorum maxmmn fnctum abstulit, 
Nil timere. Sen. 

He hath taken from me, ^c. — abstulit from Aufero— 
Malorum of my muforUmei. 

2. Cert^ populi, quos deapicit Arctos, 

Felices errore suo, quoa ille timontm 
Maximui baud ui^t, lethi mel^. Lucan. 

3. 1 1. I.I- ... . Cur tamea hos tu 

Evasisee putes, quos diri conscia facti 

Mens habet atfonitos, et surdo verbere catdit ; 
Occulbun quatiente ammo tortore flagelluin ! Juo, 

4. Jiistum et tenacem propositi virum 
Non civiam ardor prava jubentium, 

NoQ Vultus instaatis tyrann! 

Mente quatit solidd ; neque Auiter 
Dux inquieti turbidiu Adrise, 
Nee fuhninantis m^^a Jovis manus. Ifor- 
— Dux turUdua the titrbid nUsr, inquieti Adciic 
of the rtttUis Adriatic sea. 

Cocgic 



CONSTBVCnON. 



"-AU correspondent words must be construed as 
" near to one another u possible." , 



The carreaponduig wordB ? How to be construed f 
(" At near, ^c."J The primaiy clause ? Nom. and 
adjuncts f R. 9. 7 

1. ' Unmn hoc scito, nmuo celeriut 

Venire, quod molestum est, quia id, quod cu< 
pidepetaa. Plant. 
Z. Atque hcec permde simt, ut illiui animuB, qui es 
poBsidet; 
Qui uti scit, ei bona; illi) qui jwd udtur rectS, 
mala. Ter. 
S, Et errat long2 m^ quidem sententift, 

Qui imperium credat giBTiDs esse aut itabiHut, 
Vi quod fit, qudm tll\^ quod amicitift a^jungitui. 

If ^Hodjit vi be coDstrned immediately after the antece- 
dent (n^iium, u tluleS. reqnirea, tben tfoAifiiu and fvfai 
will properly oome together, acconling to the rale before 

4. Nil agimus nwt sponte Dei. Zhcor. 

5. Hoc Titium afieit senectus bominIb|is ; 

Atteniiom sumus onues ad lem, qtiim par est. 
Atlentiaret ad rem qvAm, |«, Ter. 

6. Pauper enim non est, cui xerum suppctit usus. 
Si ventii bene, si lateri est, pedibusque tuis, wl 
Divitiee poterunt regales addere Mmtu. Hor. 

— Si ett bene ventri, if it be nell tvith your tUmoeh, 
B\ est h&M lateri, &o. — reg, divitiee pot. &c. — majus 
greiOer. 

7. Omne animi vitium t<mto compectmt in ae 
Crimen haixt, jdohIo myor, qui peocat, babetnr. - 



_J 



cHAx. SIT. CONSTRUCTION. Ill 

Omne wL an- hah, crim. Sbt^i h a b tui he u aeeewiled. 

8. Nun Tclutt pucri titfiimti, stqae ohrm ends 
In toidm mstnuBt ; nc bm in bea ti w miw 
Interdmn, mkilo qwB rant nMtnmda M^it, yu^ 
Qma poeii in tascbris pnvitmt vetmmtque 

futura. Lvcret, 
For tu cMidren trenMe,. and/ear^ ^. towe tomtlmeM 
year, in &c. qns tluttgt iMch sunt mett &C.— ^vitmnt 
dread metuaatqn« audfsar, fiitur& oi i^a(oill to ibqipm 
in &c. 

9. ■' Con^onituT orbii 

Regis ad ezemplum : nee tic infiectere kiuub 
Humanoa edicta valent, qudn vita regentia. Claud. 
The norkt ig regutaied ^Ur the, ^. <^ theRuter : 
nor are etSett aN« Po bend the Aumon, miitd, lie, &c. 
10. Fallitur egnvo-^tKiqnia wb ftampe cndit 
Serritiuia. NuwiUMa libflitai grotnr OKtat) 
tiuon, aiA i«g!B piok Id, 



BULK 19. 
" Generallf epiutrue every nojcd in vaj cltuae, &c." 

" Se« note in Chap. XII. eoncemiDg the words in 
" Italics, &c. under nris mle." 



The priinary clanae T Itsnom. and'a^imctsT R.9.? 
The clause to be etmstrued nextt lu nom. and ad- 
jnnct»T R. 9. r 

]. ATwriytaw <tfBci«m Kberi eue hominja j)wft^ 

Cw» it nibil pronwEeat, pottuhre id gntise ap- 
poni sibi. Ter. 
— Id^poai that thatthoMbgrnftittdi «}» to-him 

'« ::»,.ci=, Google 



]]X CONSTRUCTION. coaw. acir. 

S. Sie vita eiat,fddli omaes perfwre ne psti, 
, Cwrt jwfcuent.cHB^Hnd; hia ae deden; 
£«nm o&w^ stu^iu i ofitemM nnoini ; 
Nuaqmmpreeponent ae alii?. Ilafimliimi 
: Stw inviiiU Isudem mmmiu, «( amiooB paies> AJ. 

S. Jiutum et tenacem propositi cirum, 
Non civiuni ardor prava jubentium, 
Non tiuUtM instantis tyrtmni 

Mente quatit aolida ; neque Auster, 
Dux inquieb turbidag Adrie, 
Nee fuhninantiB magna Jovis mamu. 
Sijractut illabatur (w6m, 

Itnpavidum ferient ruifue. Hot. 
S. 3. 1. 4. 5. t. 7. 8.— illabatur ihouldfaUvponhim. — 

4. Quam temeri in mwmet l^^em $ancimus iaiquam ! 
Nam vitik nMw sine mscitur. Opttmus ilfe est, 
Qui minimis urgetur. AmicuBdutcMitttKquumest, 
Ciim mea compenset vitjia bona, pluribus huce 
(Si modd plura miiii bona twU) incline^ araari 
Si volet : H6c lege, m tratinA ponetur ^em. Id. 

•1. ». S. i. 5. 6. 7. 10. 8. 9. 11. 12. 13. 

Note.— Tlie tenth elaose U Inclinet 

— Amic. didc. &c. /( good natwred friend, at itjutt, 
lehtn he compares bi weighs my good qualities, mUk my 
vices, should incline to the former, being more in number 
(^ indeed I have (R. 21.) plura bona) if he would dt- 
nre, ^c. Hac lege, &c. on this condition, ^c. 

5. • Potto puer (ut aievis projectua ab undis 
Navita) nudiu hum! jacet, mfans indigiu omni 
Vitu auxilio ; dintprim&iii in luminia oras 
Nixibus ex atvo matria Natura profiidit : 
Vagitiijue locuni lugubri comptevtt ; uf eequum est, 
Cut tantum in yitarestet transire malorum. 

At variee crescunt pecudes, srmenta, terfeque ; 
Nee crepitaoUis opus eat ; nee cuiquamadhibenda 

est 
Alnee nntricH blanda aique it^aeta toquela : 
Nee variu qucerttnt Teates pro teinpore'clefa'. 



tMAT. xir. CONSTWKmON. 1 1 » 

Denique. non anniB opiu est, wm mffinibus aids, 
Qvat bua tutentuf ; qaanin onmibus omnia large. 
TeUiu ipia pariti natura^ dndala rennn. 

^-cum prJm. oat. prof, fthen fir»t nature hatk Amtt 
him forth, nix. mthgreat ttrvggies,ia. or, lum. ex. &«. 
— lit equum est, at it well hecomei him, cu! rest. Jor 
nhom U remmm, &c. non opus est, they havt no need 
— dtedala Tetam, the wiie conimw of liitngt, as Nature, 
i. e. the provident, ever octrve, ever present, all de- 
signing, a^ directing GOD of nature, is ; though the 
poet mre did not mean so. 

6. QW tatn xiHicttis vitem eow ew m wrtf ■noie ? 
Torquenturqae metu, ccecfi^ cupidme rerum ; 
AltenuBfM MMM corii^ duK «u«riuua stvum, 
Perdimua ; (t nuQo vetonun ooe btatit 
VicturoB agimat Memper, nee vivimui mtquam. 
Pauperior me bonis gmtqm est, ^ plura requitit ; 
Nee quod Wwt mmefof, UuOAm quod non habet 

Cum^ siVt parvos uaua natttra repoecat, 
Materiam ttrmtmu '"■gnf per vota ruinee ; 
IiHxuriamjve lucria enimuu ; Inxume ropiniu : 
' Et Bununum censils predum est, emmdeK cen*um, 

Altenus curia, hy mccenive caret. — £vum, life, — 
Nnllo fine, by no acam^iihment, — Semper agimus, nt 
always hold forth, victuroa, that we shally ^c. — Nee 
unqoam, and yet ne never. — Bonis, for the goods he 
posteises.-^VxTfoa usus, small accomTiiodationi.-—Kai- 
[rinaa rum. — Pretium, txi/ve.— Cen^s, a/ortune. 



" An obUqne caae, uniesa it be an adjunct to the 
*' nominative, &c" 

1 8" [; :„i IK i:, CoO^k 



CONSTRUCTION. out. «t. 



aoBBTioini. 

The word or nords to follow (he veib T . The verb ? 
The nom. aid it* adjuncw ? R,9.? 
1. £xperU> credite. Firg. 

— Experto, one that ha* expenence. 

i. Dena tpse^ocei ontmuni^w^niiniBtrat. yirg. 

S. Tu ne cede maht ; sed contra audentior ito. Id. 

4. Parcere tubjectu, et debellare titferbot. Id. 

5. Vocat labor ultimiui omnet. Id. 

6. Pukhramqae petunt per vulnera Mortem. 

7. -— ■ — Fonan mteroe meliom teqaenttu-. Id. 
6. NonoirMottaacofiMrtWfHe JV^umwaseotis? 

CedeZ>eo. Id. . 
9. StAtnia cui^ diea : breve et irreparabile tempos 

OmUhu est vitse ; teAJamam extendere/oclu. 

Hoc virtutia opus. Id. 
10. Aa.de,hiospes,amiejitiienopet,etteqMOqHedigmttii 

Finge Deo. Id. 
The toeatine u property an abiolute cote, and there- 
fore not alnayt confined to any one'part of a tentenee m 
the eonttruction. Here hospea remit to come better 
qfier tke verb; Dare, stranger: and for this retuon: 
hecmue it nitt be thu nearest to the pronoan of tla te~ 
eondpertan. Dare thou, O itranger. Nearett to that 
pronotm, whether fr'atutieie or potietnve, in a right or 
ot^i^ite case, the vocatiee mU be bett expreiied; atid in 
nuat tentericea where the vocative occuri, thai pronotm 
tnll occur alto. Both oecurrmg, the^ ttmd m a lund of 
apposition or attraction to o« another; and they both 
become more emphatic by being united tn construction, ac- 
cording to R. 1 7. 



N H put for hOeo, tct." 



CONSTRUCTION. 



QUEITIOHS. 

The exempliffing words ? Which the nominative I 
Where »nd how' to be conatrued? (Ste C, 12. R. il.) 
Wliich the verb ? How to be construed ? (See C. lH, 
R. il.J Which the dative i How and where to be 
construed ? CSee C. 12. R. 21.J 

1 . Onmia adtuni bona, quem penes est virtua. Plmit. 
lUi adnmt, ^e. for lU^ habet, S[e. — penes, is a pre- 

poatioc, M the power or pottettion of; qnem penea, in 
whote poueition, 

2. TecAtn habita, et ndris qudm »it tibi eurta tupellex. 

Pert. 
TecAm habita, dmU vUh yMrielf, say, look into 
yowtelf, or, as Horace, Te rpsum coocute, examii>4 
yowrtet/.—THiiia, for nonerit, from noico, you ihall knoK, 
quam curt. sap. what Uitle /um&ure, itkat a mall stock 
^f virtue, the only true wealth) tibi ait, you have. 
This is addressed to Nero, a vicious prince, who there- 
fore had no power to malce himself happy, though he 
could make o&ers miserable. 

8, Quid mirum nosceie mtuidum 

Si posaunt liomines, qitUnu eit et mundus in ipais ; 

Exemplumque Dei quisque est in imagine parvft ? 

Qui kaheia et mundum, ^. Moral 

4. jS'unl nihi Seuudei : sunt ruttka Nmttina, Nynt^ut, 

Faumque, Satyrique, et mof\ticoUe Sylvani. Oe. 
6. Pktordmt atme voetii 

Qiudlibet sudendi semper ^wt tequa polesta$. 

Hot. 
Piclorei alque poette temper habuermt aquampotet- 
tatem, ^'c.^—audendi, not from audio to hear. 

6. Non, ntiAi si Unguis centum tint, oraque centum, 
Fertea vox, omnes sceleium comprendere fonoas, 
Omnia peenaium perciirreie nomina possum. 

VWg. 
St ego kabeam, or lu^terem centum lingvat, ^c. — non. 
poas. com. om. form, / cowld not comprise all the 
tluipet, ^c. 



Ud CONSTRUCmON. mw.xn. 

7. Felie twtm ctuque ett, nee voto Tivitur uno. Per: 
Quitque habet tuitm veUe, i. e. tvam voltoUatem. 

8. I ■■■ Cert^ populi, qnoi deitpicit Arctos, 
Fdicei errore auo ; qnos ule timonim 
Msximui haud nrget, lethi metiu ; inde ruendi 
In femim mem frona virii, anmug^ capacet 
Morda. Lvcan. 

Vtrit mat, ^e. for viri habent pronam mentem ruaxU, 

Sometimes emtvtgo and tuppeto are thua used for 
. habeo ; and tbeo Ona wme nde applies ; as, 

Herfl, on MoodRy, 31 October. 1S03, ended 
Hbnky KtREB White's ninth lesson m tMt 
book, containing ei^bt pages in his copy, wilb 
more examples and fewer notes. 

9. Quod udi est, aU contingit, nil amplius oput. 
Qui Aa&!f, qaod ett, ^c. [ffor. 

10. Pauper enim non est, cut renim tuppttit um*. Id. 
QmhMetUMm rerutn. 



" By a very comtnon eDipsis the Twb » 
" undmtood, Ac." 



After what word is the verb, here understood, to be 
BuppUed ? What is that verb f The primary i^uw ? 
Nom. and adjuncts 7 R. 9. ? 
I . Regium boe iptum rear, 
Adversa capere. Sen- 
Hoc tfMitnt eue, ^c. 
X. Fronti nulla fides. Joe. 
E,t nulla Jtdes. ^c. ,,n..,,Goog\^ . 



ctt»». xiT. CONSTRUCTION. 117 

3. UdumetmoUelattmies; nunc, mmc propnrandm, 

etacrt 
Fingendiu sine fine rotd. Per*. 
NvMc, nunc «, ^c. 

4. Sed^Kl violentiussuretyranoi? Jvo, 

5. Rams enira fermS Ktwu commimu io illi 
FortunA. Id. 

Emm eonumtnU tenna eit, ^c. 

6. Nam ItDj^inali pars peuiniBsem. Id, 

7. Semper inops, quicunque cupit. Cland. 
Ille ett temper, ^c. 

8. IpsA quidem vtriui pretium sibi. Id. 

Fretium sibi, i. e> sui pretii, explained above) 
Chap. xiii. R. 16. 

9. Sensit Alexander) UfUA com vidit in ilU 
Magnum habitatonun, qnanto felicioi' Uc, qni 

' Nil cupeiet, quim, qui totum sibi poaceret orbem. 

HieJutrU, qui cuperet nil, quim iliejuerit, qui, ^. 



f By a most deg«rt elKpaifl any veib may be nuder- 
" stood and m&rred, &c. 



' In which chtue is the verb undeiMbod T Fmmwbat 
veib (or word) to be sn^Hed T With wliat nom. cue 
mint it apee in number and peraonT Wbat must it 
betheuT The primary clause f Nom, aad adjuncts! 

1. Sic te Divajxaent Cypri ; 

Swfratres Helmce, hieida tidera, 
Ventorumq; rtgat pater. Hor, 
So wwy Venus, the ponerfia go4det$ of Cypnu.TegiU 
te ; — to may Castor and PAlIffiC) the hrothert of Helen, 



118. CONSTBUCTIOK. cru. xit. 

turn brigilttart, ttganlte-; andmay S,tAji%ftkefiuhar, 

*«■ 

2. Qnem mortia dmuit gradum, 

Qw ricci* ocuU* monstia natantia ; 
, Qui m£t nuje turbidum, et 

IhlaiiieB acopiilofi Acroceraunia? Id. 
What iand of death did he fear,, mho mth dry eyes, ^e. 

3. Quid Uttei, ut tnarifUB 

fUEunt dicilnt ThetidM sub-laciymoga Tyojse 
Funera ; ne viidlis 
Culnulii csedem et L}'cite proriperet catervw. Id. 

UtdicnntfilitmiRiariiueThetrdisbJtHJw. SubialitiJie 
before; sowiitoefm^ aUlifbt/bren^jb; nibinantOR, 
jMt before »r mot to tAe moutrinm. 

♦. ■■ Ecce, furit te leperire atrox 

T^didea melior pacre ; 
Quern tu (cervut uti valliB in altera 
Viaum parte lupum grattuni* immemor) 
Sublimiyu^f mollii aobelitu. Id. 
The pretent Tide wiU at once untie thit knotty passage, 
at to yotrngbegimiert I bHieve it ahsayt U; a»d, it ' 



well tnav, a teamed trantlator of Horace (Dr. Patrick) 
'uMH^ laiomtd atHmta litttf!, thMgM ta littkiparpeie, 
n hit amttntcHon of the three but SHet, m^h ht ren- 



der* thiu ! " Whom you effeminate, like a hart wmmid- 
" Jvl of iti paetute, and mike ad. of breath, mil fig from 
" the mJf, teen in the other part of the valley." Mon- 
. Btrum— cui lumen ademptum! Ifow apply thii rule. 
Lb^ bmve Diomedesi eaa of Tydeva,, sup^ior to his &- 
tlkM, (becante equal t6 the godi, aa IIora€eaa*/e% Tydiden 
"^tris paeem. Q. 1 6.) rag«a to fed thee : whora thou 
efieminate with panting bieath ahak fly &om ; aa a hart 
imraindful of its paature (^git here ohvioatly iTferrei 
from fugiea) flies from a wolf aeeft in the other part of 
a valley. 

' Navita, Boa^omim 



Feenus perkorreidt, mtfw& iiki« 
CfecabiWtduadttfiitai; 



^ht of 11 
flrmg from 



Rur. CONSTRUCmOS. 119 

Miiet BBgittu et cekrem fngton 
Parthi ; catenu Parthat et lalun 
Robur. Id. 

Pffiniis navita thePhemdan teaman, — Bos^orum, 
the Boiphanu, pTub&Uy the StiwtB of Gibraltar, 
in iiis w^ to Biitaia or the Ca*siteritle«, where 
the FheniciaDB traded for tin. — neq. dm. &c — 
uku bevotid tlie Bemh. fiBiinJp Jrtmt amm ttier 
—Miles fcrhormeU tag. &c-- Ma iwiA 
'the ParthUmi (tlie Parthun foi^t 
fl^og from the enemj.) Parthui perhor, Stc. 

e. Othmi DivM ragat m patent 
Cieiinia £gKO, stmnl Btsa tnibet 
Condidit Lunam, neqne certa fuigmt 

ljii < lfy| i nantia: 
O^aaaheUoJmion Tkraet; 
O^m MecUpharetra deeori, 
Grospbe, not) gemmii, neqne purpura remale, nee 
KoxD, Id. 

The mortmr detained in the wide Egaean tea, \irwj% 
Sat a quiet life, when the hladt cloud, &c.— neq. ud. 
ful. and tie start do wt ifm* certa ao at l» be miamhf 
known tiautia, &c. — ven. io be bought non. gaa. neq. 
puip. &C. 

7- Mentemq ; l^^ihatam Mareotico , 
Rede^t m veros timorea 
. Ctesiir, ab Italia voUntem 
'Sxtavt adurgem ; accipiler velut 
MoUes columbas ; aiU leporfm citut 
Venator, in campis nivalis 
JEiaoime. Id, 

CflesRT brou(^ down her (Ckopatra''tJ mind intoxi- 
cated widi Mareotic wine to real fears, with his Mllies 
puranii^ her, Src. — Here (ft« txrb it tvice v^err^from 
the farHciple adni^^ena. 

8. MBecenas atavis edite F^ntttua, 

O et praesidium et dulce decua meum : 
Sunt, quos cuiriculo pulverem Olympicani 



ISO CONSTRUCTION. ch«. xnr. 

CoU^isaejutHif, netaq; fermdia 

EviUU rods, palnaq ; ooUlu 

Terrarum dominoi evehen sd Deoc : 

Htmc, n mobilium turba Quiritium 

C^tat teTgeminiS'tollere honoribiu ; 

Ilhtm, si proprio condidit horteo, 

Quicquid de Libyds Territur areia. Id. Od. I. 1. 

So the eider Betuley (and from Aim the younger Uke- 
mtejrtadi and pMntt tku pauage, and h^k todone tmut 
jvttice to ike intent of the author. 

MKcenas, descended from roral ancestors, O both 
1B7 patron and my sweet ^ory •■ Then axe aome, whom 
to gatber Olympic dust in the race-ground dd^ts, and 
the goal nicely passed by the glowing nbeda, and the 
palm (nobilis erebere) renowned for exalting men to 
the gods the masters of the worid : Hunc juvat, This 
man it delights (thit man it mott happy) if the multi- 
tude, &c. 

The common reading evehit in~the tixth Une rather 
ikon erebere entirely . ditJMiis the context by leaving 
Huiic and Ulum mthout any govenunent. They are not 
^aoemed qfevehit, it it aeJenon/e^«rf; nor o/'dimaveaB 
m i. 13. for Horace need not tell iu tureh/, that one 
mho mat endued with all pubUc honour, or mho ha4 all 
the mealth of Africa at Au command, tvouid not charge 
hit condition for that of a teaman : nor, mhtU evehit ' 
mtenenet, -can hunc and itlum depend on the verb juvat, 
tadett, indeed, evehit and itt appendicei are in a parin- 
thetit, nhick the copula que connecting meta with the 
precei&ig nominatitie to juvat, thewt it not the eate. 
It remaint therefore that Horace nrote, not evehit 
but evebere ; and that erehere dependt on nohilis. 
Liie txpreitiont occur in O.^l. ST. fortis tractare; 
4. 6. celerum Tolvere ; 4. 1 2. donare largus ; eluere 
efficax ; 4. 14. impiger vcxare, et wittere; and m 
many other places, of thii and other authort ; n>hieh 
makes it strange, that Mr. Baxter, a most useful ed^or 
of Horace, shoidd risk that censure of his, "CertenoWt* 
" evehere nullius autoricate commendatum, duriuscu- 
" lum nobis videtur." The De^kin and most editions 



cteAP. xiT. CONSTRUCTION. 121 

»f Horace tued m ichooh having adopted the commm 
feeing, . eVehit, H mas thought U\fs note might lerve to 
remofie a Of^dullg Jn hunc onrf ilium, lehkk to a co7ui~ 
derate boy that word is well quaSfiedla create. — Nor let 
it he obiected, that according, to BentUy's reading, which 
niakie hunc and iJlum to be governed o/" juTat rather than 
afdimoveas, juvat u in one initanee a periortal, and m 
Another oh hnpersoTial oerb. It is one and the tame tort 
p' Herb tn ewry consideralion, the prei. ind. S.' sing, of 
JUTO, as.uvi. And tfttwgA iuvat here, and decet, Ticet, 
Mtoet, ^, elsenhere, may be occasionally designated bv 
d^erent terms, this is only far the temporary assistance 
of young scholars. The philosophy of gramniar admits 
of no such disttnctum m the verb itself, ft is merely in 
the occasion. Every verb, that has no rational or intelli- 
gent ageta, may, to denote that eirmtmitanee, be styled 
tmpersonal, and so may every such elauie or sentence ■ but 
gramfmtKolly, the verb itself is, and ever must be, per- 
sonal, even though its theme be obsolete. Who will sati 
that oportet isnotoflhe third person, «4;jniiJy -i---v,*i 
J^rom oporteo ; and that hoc, mdd, Jkc. &c. thiB, that, 
it, &c, are not, in the lanmime of grammar, pronouns 
of the third person, though they may not mean rational 
or intelligent persons. We apply the word person only to 
intelligent beings; but this ii only by nay of eminence. 
In poetry it is i^Ued to irrational and senseless beings, 
and to mere fictions, as if intelligent. In grammatical 
resolutions, the mord person is as extensive in its compre^ 
hension as noun or pronoun is, and must designee verb* 
accordingly ; so that all verbs are personal, and what we 
hace been taught to call impersonal verbs, are iufficientlff 
£stinguithed by the name of defective. See my.IiAT. 
Okah. 

9, Ille et nefasto te posuit die, 

Quicanque primam ; et aacrilega manu 
Produxit, arboB, in nepotum 

Perniciem, opprobriumq ; pagi. Id. 
So the old Scholiast, and Cruquias, at>dDl. Heinsius, 
Baxter,^ and others, read this ; nor can I detect that bar- 
barism in it, mhich R. Bentley is so greatly shocked at, 
when he lays, " Quid obsecio erit, quo referatur Qm- 
amque f" The mfc b^ore us isill unravel thi difficulty ; 



14i CONSTRUCTION. 9m^t«Hr. 

and aU itt et^gmt extaofla inU ivriil^ the tvi*.. ihk 
viioeTer first planieA thee, bom plwt«d ihee oo W 
imluckj day, and i^red thee up, O Xxe^ with mov 
l^ous hand, for the niia o£ his po^eiity, fte. A 
snut &e aimed hoaever that Bentley luu chete» a btlfer 
reading, ai being taore exprutme ojthe pdtt't raf^qfaMri 
at tkeJiM oflua tree. The tame vku a^pproced t^ h^vra 
itm by N. Meituitis and Faber, and aJUr him ^ hU, 
OfplKH Thomat BentUy : and hera itfow'H f> * W wy /j ^ 

10, Ilium fi, nefksto te posuU die 

Qijicuiique primuna, et sacril^gk nuuu^ 
I^oduxit, arboB, in nepoto^i 

Pemidem, oj^robriuwque pagi ; 
Ilium et parentia cre^derm sui 
Fregisse cervuxm, et pei|eKaJia 
Smraisee nocCumo cruore 
HoBTulU. 0. i. 13. 
O, / cajd believe that be, whoever firat |)lanted thee 
onsti wilnclacjlay, and reared diee up, Tree, wilt 
aetiregninia hand, lo, ^ niin, fcc &c. PeaattaSa, his 
house, a« lacredat a ti^«jfde for the i^ety of kia gue^_ 
when lodged m k. CreS^rim muat be eonstraed be- 
fore the first Ilium, and again hffore the leeood /An*. 



** AdjeotiTes aie often elegandy used as adverbs ; 
and are dten joined with mbs in die constrnction, 
Are." 



" «rc' 



The adjective, to be construed averbially t With 
what verb ? The primiiry clause ? The nom. and ad- 
jnncu ! R. 9. 1 

I. At tu, nauta, vagte nee parte maKgmu aiense 
OsaibuB et capiti inhumato 
Puticulam dare, ffor- 



At tu, DAutii ae SKSg. psree £»« 'pmSc vtg. ar, 
&c. 
t. Non hoc jocoBs artrremet tyne ; 
Quo, Mum, temfis? Dennepfrneaz 
itrftm aermoBtn Deomm. ^ 
TWr «itf M( (wr my, ^. 
a. Mweofi, faetHMle nepotr AdntMi 
QbI feft)i enthts tKttninttitt reeentmiL 
Voce />!•««»*» cahw, et decone 
More ]»dtestTEe. U. 
Merc. fac. nep. &c. — qui. tbc. et ntor; dee. pal^ wAtf, 
iri^A thi/ voice atii the SKereue* of the graeefiU Paknra 
(where ch a mpfatHa raced and combated) cM. fbnn. didtt 
mteiyform — t/ie feroeiofta marmot of men itt eariy age$. 
i. Begulum et Sctoros, aniiHeq; magufe 
Pvodigmi, Pono mrpetiiBte, FmShan 
Oratme hisigni referam Gsinn*^ 
Fatttieiurnqtie.' M. 
I wffl gntttaSj mug m kiftf itn&n a§ Wegtiha, snd 
die Soiuri, and nudhB pnxU^ of fafi great (tau >"t^ 
fiU) life, Ae Carthsgfeian HaifoAal codquering Atm at 
th»iank if Camtf, and RAtldnv. 

fier^ Qtt TtaeadagTr NotMnber 1» 1803, einkd 
HlENBY KiKKB WHITK's tOBth IflUoi ia tktt 
book, cotttaining ata pi^fsi a fau eopy.^ 
6. Quid, qudd nqne pnMutaoa 

Bev^B ^n temuBoi, et ultra 
Limites clieutium 

SaUt aeam* ? Id, 
Quidt what vttt you toy ; qi^ nqne revdl», that 
you are ever plucking up, &c. 

6, Utcunque mecum vos eiitis, Ubetu 
InsanieDteiii uavita Boaphonim 
Tentaio, et arentes amiss 
Littoria Aaayrii viator. Id. 
-Whentmr jaa (tie Mum) mU fto ititlinet. I itill 
wiUii^ try the r^iiw Bo^oni^ ail a aeaaaai^ and 
the bmaing ewKU <» the AaajriVB ahoie, aa a tnreHei. 
Thtu theferee ^IdbeWMitew^nmf* ▼»>><» i."'^^ 

it iwmU «o( arere itjainedia ' -— " 

ZV. Patrick imUdhnKil. 



«* CONSTRUCTION, chap, xiV; 

7> FenuT pudicce conjugie oaculim, 



jTorviMhumiiNMtHm vu]tum>' Id, 
Fertur, he (RegtUutJia a^i, ifflnovisse a se osculum 
&c — Caput Here it a term of lam, and meant the honour- 
able condition of a Roman citiaen : hence tlaves mere taid 
non habere caput, becaiue they leere not in that, condition, 
and therefore were not polled in the centtu or atteisment ; 
to that ut capitis minor here meant, as tljDiigh he weie no 
longer a. Roman ddzen, but a mere tlatie. 
8. Rectitu viveB, Licini, neque altiim 

Semper urgendo ; neque don) prQcellas 
Cautui hprretcis, nimiuin premendo 
Littus iniquum. Id. ' 
Neque altum semper urgendo, by ijeilher urging al- 
ways toirarda the ^eep. — Nimium premendo littns ini- 
(Luutai by pleasing too close upon the dangerous shore. 
I S. I, puer; atquemeo»ttuWG«u&«m&elibeUd. Id. 
,10. ■' ' — • ' ' Vivas in amore jpcisque ; 

Vive, vale. Si quid no«iati leotius istiB, . 
Candidut in^erii : si non, his utere mecum. Id. 

On Wednesday, Noveinb^r d, 1809, Henry 
KiBKHWHiTBhere finished th& first part of tbis 
book, having gone through the whole in eleven 
days, as he proposed (o himselfon Friday, 'Octo- 
ber 21, 1803. Multa tuHt,fecitque paerl His 
recording his progress every day shews how mach 
he was bent on the performance of his tas|c; and 
the delight it gave liim. 



HwB ends the First Part of the LATIN PRIMER. 
The execntionof which has required full as mud) roe- 
nagsroent, tuid experience of the necessary wants and 
heedlessness of fJiildreD, as its design and object are both 
useful and important. Its design ii to untie those mwv 
^nots and difficulties of Construction, which the discord-^ 



CB*»tV«i CONSTBUCnONr Itf' 

ant idiona of th6 Iiid» im%m»f^ »d our owsy a point 
of pscition ducAj, hnc ptcea ^t at « ii «d iqt in ^ nay 
ofamijleKaeti its A J KBitatUaSamt mo htnur at - 
oBce witfa the obstacln theinselTeB, and with die riah4; 
waftrfgetMgoverlheKt; atMi that wtthoM haTdciung 
his owD a^liDalioa, or difpensiog witb the whota oChia 
endlBavoun' t» hdp himMlf oa : v^iek fteenato be tfee 
moat nativd and cAedual. mode of tea^iBc I aailoer- 
tainly is a ahoitaf and more direct nepof ieaniin([ the 
Ijatin tongue than haaheaBhUharto every lAoe pnft- 
tised in our country. Whea ooae ihe leaanec u well 
acquainted with the whole of the Fiiat Part, ke may 
proeted tnAoiit delay to ViigS'a Ech^uaBr and (fiae. Or 
two of them being read) to the Ode* of Honor;, the 
nature of the dii&uliBea to be coped witlt thai* being 
already made familiar to his mind, and no leM ktailnr 
to bim the natiner <€ overciMBii^ thevk 



Ifot m Henry. Kirke Whit£i Gc^y. 

KULB 2S. 

The Aoeugadveof tbflFMrtraftcra rather pwtici|d« 
passive, is goToniMl by ttmn Am a , qnoad, or some rait- 
able prepositioD understood. But the phrase is best ren- 
dered by taking both the accusativB and verb or participle 
together, and construing the accusative first, with the 
Eu^ish verb have or participle having before it. 

The accua. of the part, its adjunct, and the word it 
depends on, are in ItaHcs. 



' The accus. of the part ? Its adjunct ? The word it 
depends on 7 To be conatmed before or after that word? 
With the word have or participle having ? The primary 
clause t The leadmg word ? 



U6 CONSTRUCTION. eUAt. aaW " 

1. ■ — ■■■-—. Trea pnemU primt ' 

Aecipimt, flavaque caput n«e(entur oliva. Firg. 
: The; three first shaU, &e. — And shall have Iheir Aeocf 

' 2. £t imtUUa maa requieniiit flumina. eurnu. Id. 
■■■ And the rmert haemg their courres iwnted, ^c> 

. 3, Torti rettimidM tempoT,a qasrcu. Id, 

• Having hit (Mkpfei bound with wreatbed, &c 
'. 4. Vitds et sacra rediwdtut tempora laiiro. Id. 
■ 5. Fnnicen ibant ectncli tempora t«eniia. Id. 
6.- Uttam exuta pedem. Id. 
Htamg one foot bare. 

7. /wMNm heitenio vena* ut seniper, laecho. Id. 
Hasmg hit ewt puffed up, ^c. 
' 8. Ule JatefHMteum molli^/iiltut hyacintho. /if. 
' He hating, ^c. 
9, Dio quibua in terris intcripti nontina regum 
Nucantur flores. Id. 
, Sayinwhat lands there grow flowers AopM^tAcnantM 
ofloitgi intcrihed on them, 
10. Hinc'tibi quae semper vicino ab limite sepes 
HyhlsU wpibuBfitrefn depatia talicti, 
Ssepe levi aomnum auadeoit inire bubutto. Id, 
Hinc (sepes} ab yiono Ihnite, quie Kpe« aemper^^o- 
rem roficti depatta ett Hyblteii apibus, aaepe siiadebit 
ti,bi levi ailBurro inire sonmum — On one aide the hedge 
vptm the nei^bouiing border, which hedge always hat 
itt inUom^oniert^edon by Hyblaeon bees, shall oAentimea 
lull thee by their gentle humoting to sleep. 



SHD 01 THI ?IBST r&BT. - 



l;, G<SO^I^ 



THE 

LATIN PSIMER. 



Qt THB POBItlOS Of WOXDB IM LATIJT 
COMPOSITION. 



tendi et eoimUri MKlentia vubrattr, Jdtotnidiitinmociague 
j/erttuutm eit, vaUrteaatquam^tirimum, nm mJdeletUtumem 
■Mxfe, ttd ad matmm jMofMffvmmiMt; primmm, mum nMl 
iiOrsr* poieii in a^cluM, gtud in avrt, vtlut qwtotm Mfti> 
bvla, ttatint affnuKt! liniub fuoif NatHmAtrtniitr b4 m«rfM. 

Qui NOT. 
The grand secret, the great mystery of die position of 
words in the Ladn tonguej lies principally in these tiro 
points, viz. 

1. That the word govefned be placed be/ore the word 
nhich governs it. 

2. ThtUtht yeord agreeing be placed after the ivord, 
with which it agree*. 

These two may be termed die maxim* of posititm ; 
and &om them result various rulest which may be con- 
venientlj divided into two classes ; viz. 

1. Rules resulting fi;om the goYemmHit of words. 

t. Rules resulting from the agreement of words. 

To which add a tMrd class, viz. 

$. Miscellaneous rulest iMt ''reducible to either of 
the two classes fbregoii^. ' 

JH thete nifef, atrngUoi tho$e_ of CoHitrttctioth ntfttt 
be learnt by iearl. ' ' 

■[;:,.ifKi:,C00(^l>J- ' 



RULES OF POSITION. 



CLASS I. 
aVLBS sxsuiTnio pkou tbk aoTXuniEHT of 

KUll 1. 

Am Infinitive Houa (if k be governed) is iiBually 
placed somewhere before the word which govemi it. 

' SULK 2. 
A noun in an oblique case is commonly placed be- 
fore Ac word wUeh govenu it; whetb«rib>tw«d be 
& verb, or another noun { an idjective, or p 



Dependent clause^ aa well asain^te wortta, are placed 
b^»e the principal verb, oii which such clauses do 
mainly depend. 

The verb is conunonlj placed last in its own iJause. 

XULE 5. 

PnpontMKDi uBuUy peecede the cases gowmsd by 
them. 



aviiBB assovnxa s»<ut tbs Aauimsx •« 

ftULB 6. Firri e<mcord. 
The verb ia uaually placed after its sonutaotive CMC, 
s^metimei at the distance of many words. 



POSITION. 1*9 

BUXE 7. Second Concord. 
The adjective or participle is conmuMily {Jaeed after 
the noun or pronoun, with which it agieea. 

KUXB 8. Tldrd Concord. 
■ The relative ia commonly placed aAei the antecedent 
with which it agrees. 

KHLi 9. Third Concord. 
The relative is placed as near to the antecedent as 
possible. 



CLASS III, • . 

MIBCELLAHEOnS aOLBI. 

BDulO. Atherhi, 
- Adverbs are placed before rather than after die words 
to which they belong. ■ — 

KULE 11. Adotrbt. . 
Adverbs are in general placed imme^ately before the 
words to which they belong ; no extraneous words com- 
ing between them. 

kdlS is. 
IgUur, mOem,- ewm, et'iam, are terg seldom placed 
first in a clause or sentence. The enditics, qat, ne, t>e, 
are never placed first. 

BQIE 18. 

Taitten is very often and elegantly pUced after the 
Grat, second, or third Word of the clause in which it 



aiTLS 14, 

Connected words should go together ; Uiat is, they 

may not be separated from one another by words that 

are extraneous, and have n<t relation to them. *^ ■' *| 'S'*^ 



130 tr^iTsas. 

• RVLB Ifi. CadoK*.. . 

TheOtdnoe or oflnehiding put of a ebiue ev sen- 
tence should wry •eldom coiwut of wMoaylkUiM. 

KDtE 16. 

So far as other rules and perspicuify wiQ allow, in the 
arrangement and choice of words, when the foregoing 
ends with a voivel, let tbs next b^inwith a consonant ; 
and vice wrM&. 

RDLS 17. 



In general a ledintdanc; of long wtvda must b« 

In general, diei* miw b* no redandan^ of long 
measures. 

Kuts 20. 
In general, theM nuM be mo ndundancy of sbcnrt 



Hie last syllables of the foregoiiig word must not be 
dw same as the first sylUUes of tlie word following. 

KUIE ZZ. 

Many words, which bear the sanM qaimtity, whkb 
begin Mike or end alike, or which have the same cha^ 
racteristic letter in declension or coijugation, (many such 
trords) may not come togedier. 



...Google^ 



THE RULE* OF POSITION, WITH THEIR 
EXCEPTIONS EXEMPLIFIED. ' 



" Ah Infinitive Noun (if it Ite govtrnod) U uaiully 
". placed somewhere before the wotd which ^v«nw 



1. Amoi miiceri com timore non potat, 
Z. Dari})oaxim(iaoApotttit,auferripoteit, 
3. Eripere telum, non 4are\n,W> decet. 

1. What the ear infomiB 0Mb Ao kf&nitive noun 
would sound better aAer the word which gdrenu it, to 
gratify the ear, place it aSSert m Cicero baa done in the 
following instance : 

" Nolo eniin cujusqnam fortis Mqae iBmtris viri ne 
mininraBi qaiden erratum c&a maxiffiA lande amjtm- 
gere." 

If Nolo had been set after conpingere, according to 
the present and fmirth Rnles, the cadence would hare 
been spoiled by a dabtyl and spondee being there fbnned, 
where in prose such a measnre must never be admhted ; 
what is the proper cadence of an Heroic verse may well 
begin, but must never conclude a sentence in prose, the 
solemn harmony of prose requiring cadences of aaotter 
sort ; and by rules may be learned, what is proper to 
the one as well as to t£e o^«'. , 

2. To avoid a ooncwience of vow^, die infinitive 
may isometimea ibilfitv the word that governs it ; as, 
" Bonus, puei amat mtelUgarei" rather thsti iHttUtgerer 



132 POSl'rtON. KULG t, 

mnat. The leuon of which is, that a concurrence of 
▼oweh a apt aometimes to impede the voice, by caiUMiw 
a very nnpleasant hiatiu or opening of the mouth, and 
suspending for a while the organs of speech, so as Co 
make them labour in their ofiice, as any one may sensibly 
perceive in reading aloud this line of Ovid, 

" Omne solum forti^iatrta e$t, ut piscibus sequor." 

The difficulty of uttering patria eit is felt; the move- 
ments of the tongue in getting through the in-e are so 
very awkward ; and therefore this concurrence of vowels 
is Uiu8 cqndemned by Quinctilian (whose opinion, to 
support my own, for the learner's assurance, I shall quote 
on many occasions) 2'um vocalium coneurnt* : ^ cmn 
accidit, hiat et infernttit, et qwiti laborat oratio. 



** A Koun in an oblique case is commonhr placed 
" before the word which governs it, whether that 
" word be a verb or another noun, an aidjective or par- 
" ti^uple." 

EXAUPLSS, 

1. Sen^ficia dare ^ui nesdt, injustd petit. 

St. AnMOtiet oftitaK pariunt, advcTUi probaHt. 

3, Fortmutm citius rapitu, quim retinta*. ' 

4. /nopt beneficium bis dat, qui celerijer dat. 

£i i)al(S,^treniiniscitur. Vehementer ir& ex c aiiduit, 

6, Men8_/ulari prttjcia. Pairitimilu, 

7. Amor et metle etfelle eitfcecundiuumu. 

EXCEFTlOtr. 

The exception to this rule is as that to the foregoing. 
To facilitate the utterance, or to gratify the ear, the 
word governed may be set after that which governs it ; 
and the ear is thus ot^timea grali6ed, when the word 
governed being longer than that which governs it, is 
aerefore set after it ; as we shall see hereafter. 



pvu«. POSITION. W3 

auLB S. 
" Dependent daniea, aa well aa liogle. wordst u« 
" pbu:ea before the pnndpal verb, on wfckh mdi 
** clauses do mainly depend. ' 

Note-— M«t otHs aiivle woids, but bjr a ktad of liak or 
sbai« counectiof Hreral wordi tcgetlier. wboje olasiea 
may b« itependent on one wofil, »nd ooae lutder Ihe gaue- 
tml nmim uT being pUced before it 



1. Ctemrsuys, that of all the Gauls the BelgK irera 
the bravest, becaose merchants least of all conversed 
with, a»d irovght tAem Aon iii»g*, tMoh ^amiudt tA« 
mmi; ^t^ea, quct ad effammumdoi amnot perttMnt, 
important. 

Here the pronoun en, beng gsremed of the verb im- 
martant, is therefore put before it. But why shooid tka 
wtennediate dause yate ad t, a. p. cmne also befofe' 
imfortant ? Because, for perspicuity, die rdatire gtu* 
should not be aepuated £ram ita antecedent aa ; bm if 
qMiK cannot be separated from to, much Icsa can ad 
^eenmandot ammo* jtnrtmtiU be separated i-om gsue 
by the interventioD of importamt, vahi^ wonld be giving 
to qvce a new vert^ and apoil the sense ; so that nt- 
ftvrtant is necessarily jlaced laat here, not only ta ks 
immediate dependoit being to come before h, hat tike- 
wise that whole intermediate clause, which thiougb tlw 
nwdium of ea depends on it also. 

8. CenarmatdemmaqfdoiMgalmdiuiito.huftiatd'^ 
SMt, nko not Men. witi Ae anagr tw 5Wm— .C<b«ihi amim 
filio, {tii IMS n ffiiftnU ml i iaia t , b me feiimagfe cw 
piebat, 

kit is here the princiml verb, and i» p»periy 
..^-dlut in the sentence^ The infinitive an« oomes 
befbre it hy Rule 1 , being governed (^ it in ttia accwsa- 
ijve case ; for the Uke reason, by Rule St, bsN^SctuM tba 
BccusatiTe, and jUio the dative, are set bei^ <V*<?F> 
they being both governed by that infinitive or verbal. 
noon ; nor can oatiet by any means be separated firom 



)Si . POSITION. KDi-E S. 

Jltio, mth which it is even nahirall^ comtectedi and 
Ceeiar (Unds fbremoBt here, aa being the nominatiTe 
CMC ; while that entire clause qni tim m Hitpanid imfi- 
tabat comes before cvpUbat, am before henefienan agert 
too, that the relative qui and its adjuncts may foJlo* 
the antecedent /Uo as soon as possible, according to 
Rule 9. Thus it the position of every word in this 
sentence regularly accounted for, as by time rale or 
other, there it not a nord in all the voatmet of Cicero, 
hut itt ' right jxMifton, (if it be right) may be accoimted 
Jot ; and thus it appears that the princi^ finite verb 
fv^hat, being placed last, is placed where it ought 
to be. 

3. Suppose more words under this same government : 
tbe, principal verb a^iiebat will still ret^n its position. 
Thus, 

Catar insAed to do a Imdneaa to hitjriend't ton, wkt 
mat then with the armySn Spmn, and who had before, ta 
the late wart, with great seal, eonmatided tome horte.-^ 
Catar amiei Jilio, jmi tvm in Hitpanid nuUtabat; atque 
tdemjapt antea belljijmoribut eqwUUui tedi^ preefiieral, - 
ten^cvtm agere enpiebat. 

Here every word Irom ^ ftun, dfc. to prf^nerat, 
having relation tojEfio the antecedent, most by Rule 9, 
be immediately annexed to it ; and consequendy, be- 
cause by Rule X,JUio comes before benefdtim agere cK- 
fi^itU, all those fourteen words, from cpd to prixfueral, 
must precede likewise. 

4. If it had been the fiuher, Cesar's {riend (whose 
Kiunc, we wiU say, wa« Lentulus) that had commanded 
some horse in Cssar's wars ; and Cssar therefore wished ' 
to serve his son ; still all relative terms, having reluion 
tojEfio, must, as well aaJUio, be set before the priocipBl 
verb CHpie&it. Thus, 

Cteiar anuci fiUo, qui turn in Hitpanid militabat, el 
cHJvt pater Lentubu (tiatn hoc erat nomen amieo) JMt 
«x(«a bellit prioriiHt equitatui prafverat, b«N^((wm 
.fgf rvpiebdt. 



l;, GOO^k 



The excepdon to this third rule is, when the tentrnce 
is very long and ctHDpIicated ; when it is tnode up of (O 
many kindred and dependent clauset, that were tbey all 
to coine between the principal verb and nominative ca«e, 
the relation between that verb and ita nominatiTe m^ht 
be obBcnred or lost. ' 

When this happen*, to avoid prolixity, the principal 
.verb and nominative caSe must be brought togemWi 
.either at the beginning of the sentence, or at the end, 
rather at the beginning ; though soinetiines the whole 
period may receive a peculiar force and enetgy from 
the piincipal verb and nomtoative case being set last. 
However, in general, the principal verb and nominative 
.case of a long sentence should be in the fore-frwit ; and 
remember, that if the chief verb have any words imnie- 
diately dependii^ on it, as cupiebat above has ttgert 
bemefKutm, it will attract them, and they must all go 
together. Thus, if in the fiHregoing example the sen- 
.-tence hod be«i somewhat more extensive, the principal 
.verb, its nominative case, and immediate dependenta, 
would appear better in the beginninK> As, 

Catar mthed to do a kindneu to hitJrieiKCi ton, »io 
mat tlien with the armg m Spain, and »ho»e father Len- 
ttUut (for (0 ]ut friend teat named) had informer mors 
mth great neal commanded the eaoairy, md at length 
mm out with mir and woundt rather than old age, had 
fUed at Adntmetum in Africa. — Cceiar benefuium agere 
evpiebat. amiei JUio, qui turn m Hitpamd mUitabat, et 
efisdtm pater Lentulnt (nan hoc eratnomenamco) heliit 
prioribtu tamt^ui tedtiU preefiierdt ; et tandem mOUH 
potiil* et munerilnte qndm eeiate confectut, in Africa apnd 
Atbvmelum vitdfrnctuifnerat. 

Noie.—It being sud above, that a sentence may some- 
times acquire an encreated energy from the principal verb 
and its nominative being ptaced last; it maj be useful hero 
to exhibit an instance of it There is a striking one in 
Seneca, Dt B*n^. L 6. e. 31. where ihst anlbor speak* of 
the proad expedition of Xerxei, and the sbamefal roUt.be 
■net with from « lew Greeks. 



TS6 posmoN. auua. 

Dwma atqve humana intpeUenttm, tt mulamttm qmc- 
yiad (AttiUriU, trecentj atare jiwKTuDt. StratMsque per 
■ tofaiin ptusim GnBciam Xerxes intellexit, qitantntm ab 
eiterx^ turba dwtaret. 

This pounon of die luxninatiTe caae and Terb^ it 
tboi incMit proper^ when any particolar emphasis be- 
Icniga U diein, or soBetbiOg vbtrtever it be, that is ez- 
traonlinary, and demands atcention. Xerxes invaded 
Europe with fleets and armies ahnost innanierablB, 
\€t tiuts amnipotent, as he timcied, he met with an un- 
expeoted ebataele M ThemopylK, where his march wai 
at<n)ped, not by mimbera equal to his own, but Yij a 
Uule troop of ^ree himdred Spartans, under their iHritTe 
king Leomdas ; which is a circumstance HKMt remari^ 
able : and therefore in the pasiage abovC) this little 
troop, UteOiti, and what they achieved, ttmre jvtenaA, 
are judieiously set ia that part of the smteDce, namdy, 
«t the cudenct) which is ever apt to strike more fordb^ 
on the nind, and to be retained loi^est, rebounding, as 
it 'were, on die eats of Ae audience. 

Agim« that this same Xerxes, the proudest^ vaioMl 
mubil that erer. Hved, should he so brought to-a r^it 
wqt'of diBikiiv-, as to percrivc the diffeiieace betvreeo 
a multitude slid an amy, is what in such a man ooe 
*«iild hardly expect ; m& therefore in the smie pas- 
•^< we find the second cadence to consist of Xerxa 



Fariber, because it is traly so, that a nultituda, aa 
undiadplmed mass of men, whe^r diey be kimed 
' with PersiaB sabiea or Gallic pikes, do aot conatitutet 
hut an very inferioc ta an atmy) and becauae dusre- 
BMidn mny lead to prudent counsel it is a drcnm- 
ttaiMe diat deUanda atteBtiott : and therefore the subr 
jeet-or noaunatire oaae asd verb bea^ in this pn^MH 
utjon the words of most import, are tbwe [daeed ■ 
vrhere they will be most noticed ; i. e. sM^ <='°*^ i 
tfnis, Qonhm tA exerettu turba diitarel. The fbtiUtj 
and inferiority of the rabble, by being pr<^unded last, 
ve likely to moke the last impresuon, and the reflec- 
tion there£)fe to be most attend ta ; for both in helv ' 
tag aad in readmg, diose ideas strike meat which atrikt . 
last, and those inip«ssionB an naMt Mnriblj^ tAt, mi 

■ ■ t [; :„| IK i:, CoOt^k 



KOLi 4. POSITION. 1S7 

dw lon^iett KUined, whicli are lut made. Tbit u u 
Utural in tbe human mind, aa it u for most ecKoei to 
mieat not the riae but tbe fkD of Miuida, even that with 
which the air ii last affected, and with which only the 
ear is twice salated, becauae it is d»t which is Utt and 
DKUt atron^ leverberated. 



SOLE *. • 

" The verb is commoidj ^aeed laat in iu: «wn 
" dauae." 

Verba anutm ebidert (aaya Quinctilian) foulto, itcim- 
poiitia pofiadtr, eptinmm eit : m MrMt mm t 
tU inett. Inat. 9. 4. 



] .. M^an^ cauia avaro nnnquam dejiat. 

t, Ninumn altercando veritaa amittitiir, 

S. NilpropriuAidMOM, quodnutunerfx)^. , 

t. Necewe e«t, multoa timeat, quem multi timtnt. 



!■ To avoid an impn^er umcnrrence of Towel^i or 
on any other accoimt to gratify the ear, the verb may 
have another poaitian, £an that to which thit rule 
aMigni it. So tbe n^nd be duly informed, we roajr 
alwaya aoothe die ear ; aa, " Ex quibua neminnn mihi 
aeeeaae eat ncnninare," Ck. where, put ttt laat of all, 
and preaently three ill effect! will appear ; in a mono- 
lyllabic eadnice ; in a concorrenee of Towds there ; 
Hid in an unideaaant predominance of the letter * in 
Mceiae nomiHan, and that, before tbe »e of McailMnt is 
wdl oBt of the ear. Therefiire, when <luincl3ian aay* 
Ibat die VMTb ahoidd be laat, if possible, he immediately 
•dda. At n id atpenm erit, eedat ken m^ mmm* ; 
at Jit •ftd »mtm * Grteeot Latimupt oratoru frtfta*- 



Ill posrrmir. wn s. 

tiwitwi. And wgiia, Em bed (nMt^erMM- im bam 
{weriM^tt jmtgaiUVr, quo aMgntuM moMimi. 
. ». Wbcn de vab is « nitmoB^Uftble, tiMn it afaouU 
Bdt Ifike the list ^aoe ia a clause or ieaieaee : fi>z sacli 
werda qvul did cadence, auktng it auddea and abrapt j 
which, unless occasiDn reqidres it to be aot sboold 1M 
carefiilly avbided. Whether the cadence should be soft 
and harnxmious, or grave and serious, it must not be 
abrupL Cicero was extiemelr exact in forming the 
latter part of his periods, so choosing and planting his 
words, that his sentences migbt easily and gradually 
come to their close. For, as Quinctilian obserrea, 
though there should he baniiany in the whole, yet that 
hambny is most needed, and the effect of it most evi- 
dm kL the dose : Magit tamen el ieMermtr in etim- 
ttitu et apparet (numerua). 



" PrepositioDi usually precede the cases govented ' 
' byttieiQ''' 



Bo M whem. Svbjvdke lis eat. PoaftOa tjnieacit. 

Nnnqiutn tibeitM gntiei amttti 
QuIbb «h6 regt pi&. 

xxcsmoHS, 

Tfaia rale ii cnttrarr to the gea»d KUKqii nfplaniinn. 
tha toovd gorented be£»e die w«d which gftvenw.iti 
yet the case ita^ ia w far congruaui lo uie g^ke**!. 
panikm, that tbme ■■ n» nde whigh haa Ruwe eiiO^»-.. 
tians tfaaa the prbaest. 

1. rVwr,. (oieonb, is set sAer ita ease; aa tMhfkmtit 
nar*IUmtimardt Lotion, 

t. Sr«nu^i»^(w,ls setafteritscaee, wbetberthac 
cMe he an u>lative or genitive ; aa, i>0pfo» (mm : ■■riMiw 



MUM «. posrnoit. ia» 

8: Ptna, m the pcmer of, a«j foOcxr iU mte; M 
Owmia adtumt bona, quern pengt ett mtHm. Flatl. 

4. Utqtte, even to, or, at far 'at, vhether with or 
widiout ft ccmrainitant particle, is elegmdy Kt after 
ita case; as Ttoiiuiin tuque; ad RonutPt tuqmt; trtaik 
Alpe* utque ; ah Athenit vtijue. 

5. Cim, iv'Uh, is coBraMmly Hi after these worda, me, 
te, te, qtiA, qnA, qui, qvibiu, KtAit, and ro6i< ,- as ■Kcwnt, 
tecum, S^c. 

In short, there is hardly any preposition whicfa Bnay 
not be sometimes found after its case. Here fiiUow a 
few instances more rare than the foregoing, 

Teptpora circum. VWg. PociUa circipH. Lveret, 

Quan contra. Cic. Popalo coram. Svet, 

Specula de montis. Virg. Mtmtibiu m nostris. Id. 

Stadia mecnlraria. Virg. QwrewMfaretihciK /for. 

Coi^pnrpro Nftnphn. Otr. Memne. Virg. 

Fitat Keaw 4me n^scitur. Har. Mastd ktsere mA 
ipsft. Ov. 

.fjMBte taker labare SioiMa. Firg. Membrm swf: 

iMt. 

Seo p m t m m taper. Piksd. litn ryper impoMit. Ov. 

Qwt iJtra eitracptBt Sort JVWtm aliqiad «i(ni 
«atf Sn. 

These hberties, used both by prose writers and poet^ 
diB leaTDer may adopt, to aniaC met 
■11 tinsel tot tuphooy, oc emphaas. 



iV^* 6. Firtt Concerd. 

" The Terb is usualiy placed after its nonmutivt 
" ease, Bomedmes at the distance of many norda." 

ThiMgh wc hare; seen this Ytry liiHy exemfdified in 
fbnHr nles ; yet this positioii of the verb with respeel 
to its Dominative case, or rather the position of tlM 
BOBBBatiTe ieasc itself, has not been yet distinctly at- 
toidad lo^.andi they who inaftnct children, know tim 
dariger at leaving any thiag to be; gathered by ■rfcci 
ease, bM*«*er obvious. ^ It :i8 iteoesaary nwr^orw H . 
(.'.nook. 



ffigtnto 



FOSITIOIf. KULB «. 

tliH ruk, H it afbrd* an opporttmity of lOok- 
mto it! exceptioiu, nliich are important. 

Thia rule, in oUier worda, it, TJit yominative eoit it 
eammoiUg ut before iU verb, 

IXAMPLXf. 

1. Mort omnibus eti communia. Cie. 
X, Sylla omnes suoa divitiiB exfient. 
3. Amor misceri cutn timore non potett. 
*. Perfidus ilU te eokre. 
S. Ego illud ledulo negart tkctura. 

I, In very abort aentencet the nsmitutiYe' case >■ 
fi«quentl]r set after the verb ; aa, " Quare, patret «»• 
" acripti, teeedant improbi." Cic, ** Oeattu ett cum 
" liberii Marcui Fiiimui, eonttdarit," Td. " Cretcil in 
" diet aiiwuloa Aofttimi n trnt t na." Id. " At tectabaiUur 
"awAi." Id. 

Si And ID longer sentences, to improve the cadence, 
the noDunative may follow the verfa ; oUiqnes, if there 
be any, being still placed foremost, according to Rules 
I. «. as, 

" Quouaqne tandem ahutere, Csliliiia, padentia 
" nostra T Qnam diu etiam fiiror isle tuus noa 
" eludett Quern ad finem seae effiriBnata jactabit 
" mtdacia f Cic. 

Read the Domioadire audacia here before jaetabit, the 
cadence will be ruined, and the ear will immediately 
detrainine, that it is very property placed after ; where- 
as, if yon KtdJiiTvr, the other nominatiTe afUr eludet, 
Ae ear will he no less offended there. This shews, th^ 
<M such occasionauhe ear is to he consulted, and that 
the proper place of the nominBlive is b^bre the verb, 
Mnleas harmony require it to be after, perspicuity at tha 
Mme time dlowing it to be so. 

3. Because the cadence is that part of the period 
irtiich makes most impifenion on Oke mind; aod b«- 
cause sentences, as wdl as discouraca, if wdl caa> 
structed, will ever grow laort en^uttic, aa tlwy ad- 



4du t. P0SIT1019. 141 

Vance, sccottfing to diat of QuinedHan, Augtri ewm 
detent lenlentice et inturgere : for these reaiwiu, it in tl« 
nominative case there be an^ diing tbu should strike 
most, and draw much attention, the cadence of course 
ii Ae plactr for that mord to appear in ; as, 

** Aderat janitor careens, camifex prstcnis, mon 
" terrorque socionun et civium Bomanontm, Iklor 
" Seitmg." Cic. in Ftrg. 

WhoeTei, aaya Mons. Bollin, in his Belles Lettres, 
■peaking of this passage, whoerer should put Licior 
Settiw in the begulning, would spoil the period. The 
dreadftil apparatus of this esiecutioner, this camifex, as 
Cicero repeatedly styles bim in fail pleadings against 
Yerres, should go before him. 

** Quid puteni f Contemptiunne me f Kon video, nee 
" in vitft,' nee in gratis, nee in rebus geatis, nee in hac 
** me& tnedlocritate ingenii, quid despicere potnt An- 
- fcmiiM." Ck. PUlip a. 

Cicero meant, that of all the people in die norld, the 
last waa Antony, to whom, on any score of merit, he 
should eiqKCt to be an object of contempt. He has 
clearly shown his meaning, by placing AiOonitu in th^ 
cadence ; and by the same position of that word, be 
bas iully expressed bis own contempt of Antofiy. 

" Hast& potita pro mde Jovia Statoris bona Cntn 
" Pompeii : (misenmt me t consunqitis enim lacrymia, 
" tamen infixua animo hteret dolor !} bona inquam, 
*' Cruel Pompeii Magni vocis acerlHssimie subjecta 
" prsconts." Cic. Pki&p 2. 

Cicero upbraids Antony with the cruel and shameful 
nan&er, in which he had insisted Pompey the Great, 
die ehunpion of Roman hlierty, and more tban OM* 
ifae saviour of the state. Antony had confiaeued llM 
goods of that QlustrioiM Rmnarn, uid had ena exposed 
tbett to Bale at public auction. Now it waa not the 
auction (KattA potitd) nor the place where the auction 
was holden (pro eede Jom* Statorit) but the boita Cnai 
PonyteU, it being Pompey's goods, that were so dis- 
honoured ; this was the dreumatance, by which Cicero 
would inflame the senate with indignation gainst Hs, 
adversary; and therefore, with great jut^ment, this 
SominatiTe and its adjuacts, bona Ctt. Pomfeii, con- 
elode the first sentence. 



lit POSITION. TOut ft. 

In that cbannittg puenthesU ssuoi bow admirabij 
does the Dominauve dolor strike the last blow, that it 
mi^t thereby be infixut, enstamped and rooted, ^ in 
the speaker's own mind, bo also in the breast of bis 
audience ! And, if there be any thing in the positi^ 
of words, dolor is most critically planted here ; whether 
the orator bad in view to kindle the like'pas'sion in the 
bosoms of the conscript fatbeis, or to testify bis own 
fixed recentroent at such indign usace of Ponipey ; and 
that, though he did not weep indeed, his tears being all 
exhausted, there still remamed in his mind that, which 
was inextricable, and which would gore him to the last, 
indignant grief. 

But in the cadence, at the close of the whol6 pas- 
sage, me find prtsamt, not bona Cncei, &c. and that 
with peculii^ propriety. The dignity of the personage 
here spoken of bad been already sufficiently attended 
to. Pompey once critically named, and every thing 
, being gained, that could be, from the respect which the 
senate entertained for that character (here, however, 
and not before, most seaaonabty amplified by the style 
and epithet of Magtti) it was the artM managemNit of 
Cicero to give most force now to that aggravatu^ term 
jpr^tconit, the common cryer, the instrument' of Xntoiiy 
m profaning Fompey's htmour. 



" Stat Bua cuiqoe diet." f'irg. 

M(fre than the measure of the verse, the natural im- 
portance of this nominative ifie* here, that fatal dm/t^ U 
h^pily accorded to by its being there placed, where it 
must needs make the last and most sensible impression 
on the r^ecting mind. Transpose these words, thus, 

" Cviqw diet tua ttat." 

Here is no false quantity, but the verse much de- 
formed ; because dies is spoiled of its dignity by that 
too speedy transition which must now be made to the 
words that follow. So much in writii^ may be .lost or 
won by the position of a single word ; and so mucb msy 



RULB8. POSITION. 141 

be effected by a wdl-jndged cadeoce. StBpe tameii ttt 
tekement- a^^piit tetuu* m verba: quod lihi M^did purie 
aenltntite ■ met, Iratttiri inUntione, it obtcurari eircNM- 
jacentibut toiet : tn claumU po^titm atngnatur auiiton 
et m^igitMr. Quinct. 

■ • 4. Tbe iMiniuuitiv« case is pnmerljr let after its verb, 
when it (the nom.) is tlie antecedeiit to a reUtiTe, that 
cannot well come before that Terb, oar jret by the 
intervention of other vords be Hparated from its ante- 
cedent. Ab, in Oicero, 

" Lncioa Rabritu Caisinas fecit hEeradem. Et qni- 
" deiii ride, cpiim te atnaeit it, gui albBs aterrS funis 
" ^orans, fratria filinm pneffiritl" 
' litis is a flarcaam of Cicero againit Antony, wbo 
' had boaated of hia harii^ been nmned as heir in man 
wills than Cic«ro ever was. Cicero allows this ; but 
accounts for it. He insinuates, diat Antony had forged 
many of the wiBs, in -which he had been so greatly 
favoured. Lucius Rutmus of Caasinum, says be, made 
you bis heir, in preference to his own nephew; a 
strange instance of a£Fection dris in one, who knew 
nothing of you ! In this passage it, the nominative to 
amavit, is the antecedent, and jfui tbe relative :/« is ilia 
pretended testator, jw, albtu aterve, ^c. the circum- 
Btance, by which it sbould seemi that he was. cmly a 
pretended testator, that is, the antecedent It, to yriom 
Antony beeatne heir, and the relative ^m, to.wbtan 
Antony was never known, denote the same tnan. Of 
course, the inconsistency, which Cicero alludes to, is 
strengthened and made more flagrant by those two 
members of the period, U, qai, bemg thus united ; but 
united they could not be, if the nominative w were 
placed before atnaxit ; for if it were so placed, th^ 
relative qid could not accompany it, without entirely 
mutilating and dismembering the whole texture of the 
Sentence. 

From all that has been said under this rule, there 
are three inferences to be drawn. 

1. lliat a judicious position of', words mightily con- 
duces to the strength and beauty of a discourse : hence 
the importance . of tbese rules. 

' ■ , , Cix,slc 



S. ThM Bpecbl cue ibould IM had t« &nn u e«^,* 
floariog. MidhRniiDiuouscMteDee. K. t^^A. If, 
, 3. That lata the firionc*' sbotdd b* ^rown (so it 1m 
done wiA pen^xxaty >sd oider) not ooly a nonniuttiva 
case, but any otber word, which being of extaOTdmary 
amorti may h^ that poaitiMi be set off to advantage, 
awt obtam iu due ire^t. Thai Cicera, in tlie «x- 
mtfh above, gftve great Btrength to prereonii by acting 
it in tfaa eadeow, vchereu ia ita oabiral place befiam 
«oci octriMtimte that word would ^re been IfMt abaoM 
in insi|:nificaiict> And thua, when QuiiKtiliwi in liia 
ibapterAro»t}KMiltai^Bpe*Ui)g<tfthe oadwce, vooU 
give an instance of a very fine one, he cbose •■» &om 
Cioero's acoond Philifq^ coneiuii^ of the adrerb 
paitnAf. " Quale eat dlud Ciceronia ; Ul tiii necettd 
" ttvi m DOfupeoftt Populi Romani veai«rf fiorindiet 
*■ Trana&r hoc ultimuini minua vslabitt Nam totioa 
. " duct^ hie eat quaai mucro : ut per ae beite vora^idi 
" neceaatati (jam nihil ultia expectaotiboa) banc 
*^ quoipie adjieeret definrntMem. ut cibw Iraeii noo 
" poaaet jMMtridte." To vomit after wiw betrays in- 
tamparate : but to retch and di^orge prottruiie, Uu 
iaif after, ahewa the Axoeaa of tbe day preceding to have 
haen indecent indeed : benee the inqiortMaft of !«*• 
Irtdie in tiiis paaa^e ; and the reuon of.it> t^^aawioe 
in the oadenee, tktn nicdy [Wanted to badge AntOBy 
with 4m defamed ud betti«l ^anster- «f ft orunkiutd. 



" The adjeetiTe or partici^e ia commonly pUoed 
?' nfier % qqw or pronoun with wWd) it tgfee^" 



. " Ab eo ordiri Tolni siaxiin^, fuod «t 0!l0, t«ft 



»UL»7. POSITION. US 

2. " Rebut praimlibitt adjungit atque anDectit fu- 

S. " Vits cursum videt, ad eamqiie degendam pne- 
'* parat res ftecettarias." Id. 

4. " Qeneri aDimantiuni onmi eit a naturi tributnm, 
" ut se, TJUm, ctnpusque tueator." Id. 

4. *' Amlntio major : rifa trittior." Id, 

SXCXPTtOHB. 

1. T« BVtMd a disagreeable co^mrreact of vowels, 
there may be frequent occaaiona^Kt set the adjective 
before its noun : as, " Inrntbapttdlla i-^hee di»cipUtue." 
See odier instances under the toBowing exception.. 
- S. In Cicero die adjective oftea precedes the noun 
when the ktter consists of n^ore gyllables thso the , 
fi>nner, ea^)eciaUy if the adjtfetivs be a very short 
word, and the noun a long ope ; as, " H<^ duciplitii' 
". igimr; hoe animal; magn^outimilitudinet: vffajffi- 
" cii pracepta; propria i** '<* pTixtep&} Stoj^rum.: 
" sequemur hoc quideiT tempore, et bfie jo •quteitiwe 
" potiasimum Sioiees ^is-^ tltt^fo atgtfA consumpai." 

Unless there are AtMifat^asons for the contrary, 
longer words sbatra^^nerally be placed aAer those 
that are shorter ^ ^or when polysyDablei are succeeded 
.by short words, j. specially by monosyllables, the lan- 
guage is defoM^d and tmoklesB. The basis of a period 
IS its cadratee ; clausula eit »eda oratioaiii says QuTnc- 
tilian ; and as ii wise builder will be careful to give 
tnuch strength to the ground work, so good composi- 
tion requires that long words do in general, as by their 
own weight, incline towards the cadence, which is 
then made more gradual ^ the period throughout is 
•tcengthened ; and by such periods the whole discourse 
becomes nervous and sedate. 

5. When the noun, with which the adjective agrees, 
baa a genitive case depending on it, the adjective is 
better placed first, and the genitive next, the noun, 
oa which the genitive depends, being set last of the 
three ; as, " His ergo tanctUti^t reipiMi^tB voeibur 
" pauca respondebo."'-:— Cic. "Nulla enim viUepOrt." 

, , , Ci,i,slc 



IM posmoK. uu s. 

— /^ " /Umd Jaraue £txndi, hoc qyietimt JupatrnJi 
" gemu," — Id. " Ulla officii prtecepta." — Jd. 

4. Wiien the noun widi whidi the »djective agiwes, 
is itself a genitive case governed of another noun ; thea 
alio the adjective may be first of the three, and the 
genitive according to Rule S, before the nono wfaidt 
governs it ; as, " Omntttm Qattarum cojjMe." " Utpai 
■is in Klritttgye oralionii /acullate." Cic. 

5. Sometimes the adjective is set before the oenn fiir 
no other reaaon dan only to gratify the ear. Bomu 
jmer. CtUr e^atu. j Magaum ttudium. Stm mn tm 6onwa. 

We muat not think scorn of the ear's judgment, to 
which our master, j^uincdlian, makes great coaces- 
■ions. Optimi_^.^mietn de ilia [ccoipositione] judkaM 
attre* ; qtuset plena ti-ntxitat, et pariira expteta dend^ 
rant, et Jragotu offetMuntur, et lenibut muAxntm; el 
. ecntortit excitaiUuT et *i;^lia probarU, clavda depreieit- 
Ndtmt, redundaatia et ni^a fastidmra. laitit. 8. 4. So 
Oeero; j4urhimjudicivm-.^ttiiperlnmai»m. Nay, the 
ear, QuinctiUan farther <^)Krvea, ih bo general, so 
prompt vtd natural a judge, that even illiterate per- 
aiMU thereby-^re chariqed iraU, a good composiDon, 
'though they caniW»J|^^ '^5 s^olar, account fi» the 
pleasure they receive, TBC^^^'^areason viby, Idto- 
que docti rationem coniptmend'^^Ulfkttttt, etimm tndodi 
voluptatem. — Id. By all meana thal^t&re let the leamer 
consult his ear, repeating to (limielfAgain and again die 
aame words in divers positions, alwAy» Ijjwerer widuB 
*h» limitation of rules ; and by degrees u*c i*iU enalJe 
htm to ascertain the right position, quoad 
«lmoM in an instant. 



'' The relative is commonly placed after the aacece- 
" dent with which it agrees." 

EKAKFLEB. 

i. " Cognosoes ex iis litem, giuu liborto tuo dedi." 
Cic. 

C3.ifKi:,C00^k 



■cu 8. POSITION. 147 

I agh tsger, medioum jw Ineredein 



ftcit. 



XZCBPnoHS. 



I. Mans. Laocelot, in his Neiv Melhiid, ^. well 
observes, that the rebnive jui, ^e. should generally^be 
considered as between two cases of the same noun; 
and then by the third concord it a^eei with the fore- 
going noun, as the tnie antecedent, in gender, number, 
■nd person ; by the second concord with the fbllowing 
noun, in case, gender, and number. These two noons 
are sometinies actually expresced, both the one and 
the other ; as, " Belhm tantum, quo hello onmea pre- 
mebantul't Pontpeinfc confedt." — Cie, " Ultra eum 
ioedM yuo in loco German! consedermt." — Cat. " Z)tM 
instare, qua die irnmentum mihtibus metiri oponeret.'' 
Id, Csesar, a roost exact writer, was fond of this 
phrase ; and it ahonld a]w»s be adopted, when, with- 
out it, there may be any minger of ambiguity, as the 
following instances win diew ; LeodomEtntero, Cleopfafi 
discipulilin, fM Cleopbiliu, ^c. Apal. If CleophiUi$ had 
noit been repeated, jw might erroneously be referred to 
Leodanuattem instead of the true antecndeot Cleophili. 
Thus mudi it was necessary to premise, for a r^ht 
understanding of what, follows. 

Of these two coses, between which the relative is 
■aid to stand, that which follows the relative is usually 
omitted, theothra-, the tnie antecedent, is more com* 
monly expressed, and from hence arises the i«e>eiit 
nd«. 

But it happens sometimes, and eleKantIy,< that the 
tme antecedent is omitted, and the /(lowing case ex- 
pressed, which, thongh in fact do exception to the 
rule, yet to some appears to be so, and must be attended 
to accordingly. Here are instances of this apparent, 
though no real exception. 

1. " Nemini credo, qm diett Uanditur pauperi." 

The full expressjoo would be, Nemim diviti credo, 
fid dtuea, ^c. 

t. " Populo ut placerent, jua* fecisset/a&t*^- ^*f- 

Popvlo u( illtg/abuia plaeereiU, quat/ee%Ȥet/atmia$. 



148 POSITION. RULB S. 

3. " Illi, acripta quihut comoedia priica tint at." 
IIU viri, tcriptaquibut comeedia pruea wri» e«(: [Wjr. 
4> " Atque alii, quorum comoedia prisca virorum ett, 
Atqae alu viri, quontm, ^c. ctrorvm ett. [_Id. 

S. Cujm odorem otei nequeaa peiferre — 

• ■•»••■•••••• 

Comu ipse bilibri 
Caulibus InstiltaL Id. 
Ijue eomu hilibri tnitillat cauUbiu okvm, ei^tu oM, ^c, 
I'he learner now perceiveB in what nuuiner the ante- 
cedent may seem to be placed after the relative ; die 
antecedent, in truth, being underatood, and the other 
case, wbidi is commonly omitted, being in suCh phrases 
ex;^eased. 

But this other case, the second nonn, which usually 
follows the relative, maybe placed, as by dte poets it 
bi^n is, before the relative, me true antecedent being 
■till understood ; as, 

1. [^rb«M Twnii statuo, vestra est. Virg. 

Here itrbem is evidnttly &e gnbjnnctive noua, else il 
would not be in the accusative caie, tbe fuU senteoce 
being. Hoc itrbt, quam wbem ttatuo, vestra ett. 

i, JStmuchmi quern dedisti nobis, quas turbas dedit 1 

Itte eutmchut quern eitmicham, ^. \TeT. 

S. NoMcreatetn quern convenire vcJui in oavi non 
erat. Plaut. 

Naucreatu, quern Naucrealem, ^e. 

Thus explained, many passages in tbe Latin authors 
will be as easy as tbey are elegant ; while, for want of 
this obvious lesoliition, they have been thought very 
difficult, as particularly that qf Plautus above has per- 
plexed many commentators. 

2. A real exception. The relative may be placed 
, before its antecedent, when for any sufficient reason it 

cannot be set m,me£ateh/ after it, and then no where 
after it, much less at a great distance after it, without 
ambiguity. See this illustrated, under tbe next mle^ 
in the example, " Hate quifaciat, ^c," 



cGoo^k 



' The relative is placed u near to the antecedeDt 
u possible." 



1. The leasoD of this rak is, that tb« conAecdon be- 
tween the relative and untecedent (the due many times 
of die whole period) may be kept a> clear and as free 
Jrom obKurity as posuble. According to thia mle, 
Toeaxy words must not st^id betnixt the relative and 
iBtecedem ; for bj snch a separation the ligature or tie 
of these two important members of the period may be 
weakened; perfaiqw destroyed ; nor may we place be- 
tween them any word at all, which from such a position 
may be mistaken for the antecedent. 

" Kon ego earn cum summis viris compare, sed si- 
" millitnmn Deo judico, htec qvi &ciat." 

Here earn is the antecedent to jtu, but that does not 
appear bo distinctly as it ought, not only because there 
are very improperly ' two verbs, two whole sentences, 
between this relaiive and its antecedent ; but also, be- 
cause as qui now stands, Deo may be emmeously taken 
far the antecedent, and no iimneaning sentence be 
made of it. Therefere Cicero, whose words these are, - 
did not so arrange than. But, unwilling by the inter- 
poaition of Atec ^ifacUu, where the relative lies, to se- 
parate eunt, which is the antecedent, iVom thote terms 
at honour, cam summit virit cmnparo ted tintillimam Deo 
judico, with which Julius Cseaar, the person meant by 
nwm, was to he complimented, and at the same time 
cavtiouB to avoid that ambiguity, with which the above 
condemned position of qui would be attended, he mar- 
^Ued his words after Uiis manner : 

" Haec ^ fadat, nun ego ewn cnm smnrais viris 
*< eomparo, led simillimum Deo judico." 

The natural position of the relative is after the 
antecedent. But here a pditical reason excluding^tti 
from the place next afler mm, there remained but 



t&la aheroative, via. To place qui stBl after its an- 
Mcddetit, but Bt liidi i dl^dnce as to create an amUi 



.J 



gnitf ! or else to >et it before iti antecedent, bringiiu 
it M near ai ponible that my, contrary to the luu^ 
fwm indeed, but without risking the sense. Cicero 
preferred the latter ; teaching ns, that perspicuity in 
language is of so much importance, that fashion, even 
ruks themseWes, however elegant and usefiil on general 
occasions, miAt yield, when a too scrupulous obserr- 
wice of them would countenct oc obacme the meaning 
of a discourse. 

8, " Mea quidem sententid, pad semper eat cobbu- 
", lendura." 

This sentence has in it do relative, and night, for 
what the present rule has to do with it, be indifieraitly 
expressed as it is, or 

Pact mea quidem aestentia semper est ctmsulcodum. 
Or. 

Mea quidem sententU semper est consnlendum paci. 
Or, 

Semper est consulendum pad mea quidem sen- 
Here forjMci you have the choice of four positiona : 
it may be either the first word or the last ; or it nmy 
be set between iententid and temper, or between coMn*- 
iendmn ani-mei. But should paci be an antecedent to 
a relative, the position will be no longer arbitrary; but 
after paei, wherever it be olaced, and as soon after aa 
posBible, must come the relative and its adjuncts* - Ac- 
coidiogly, Cicero wrote thus, 

" Mei quidem sententia, paci, qaa niAi/ habitrra tit 
" imidiantm, semper est consuloidum.'* 

Now pact the antecedent, and qu^e the relstiver are 
hssd in hand, as they ought to be ; and the relation 
between them is evidenL- But suppose it had been 
thus, 

" Pad, mei quidem sententii, quse nihil habitura 
" sit insidiarum, semper est consulendum." Or, 

" Paci semper est consulendum, tne& quidcni sen- 
" tentift, quee nihil bsbitura sit insidiarum." Or, 

" MeS quidem sententift, qnee nihil habitnra sit iD- 
." sidiarura, paci semper est consulendum." ' ' 
. IncBch of these three positions, sentottiiaHnunealbe 
of, and may be taken for, the antecedcBt, 



mmi 10. POSITION. IftI 

as well as pact. Hence the neeewi^ of the rule ; and 
the iiDpropTietf of placing between the aatecedeDt.and 
the relative man^ words, or eran a ungle word, that 
m^ bear the appearance of the former. 

To tbia rule there ia no exception. For as it is not 
■aid, that [he relative shall alnaja follow tbe antece- 
dent, but that it should be as near to it as possible, and 
this wiih a view to perspicuity ; I know not on what 
occasion the contrsTy may be requisite, other -than to 
perplex one's language, aai the mind of him to whom 
the discourse is made ; but this, whether it be adopted 
in the pulpit, by tbe historian, in the senate-house, or 
at the bar, is the trick of folly, the subtM^ige of a 
knave in a bad cause. 



MISCELLANEOVS RULES. 
BuiB 10. Adverbt. 
" Advbbbs are placed before rather than after the 
" wcMrds to which they belmtg." 



" Hoc tantnm bellum, tarn turjie, lam vetui, tarn Uui 
" tkeuum atque diapersum, quis tmqvam ar^aretur, 
" aut ah omnibus impcTstoribus uno anno, aut omni- 
" bus antMS uno iiaperatore confici poise?" Ck. 

Observe in this example, how tam is placed not after, 

but before turpe, a>d then again before veliu, and again 

' ton before lati, and ala'o tarn Utti before tUvuVm, and 

VMgmmi belbre artitrarelur; each before the word it 

modifies. 

BXCEPIlOtr. 

When a particular emphasis lies on the adverb, and 
tbe idea whicfarit is des^pied to raise, is very important, 
it may then possibly be placed rather afW dian before 
the word, to which it is attached, accordii^ to what 



IH POSITION. mmtM II. 

iaa: been befere intndeated, under the excc|>tions to the 
SBClb role, of placing^ thoae woids l«Bt, or near to tbe 
cadence, by nhich w<vda it is inteoded tlwt the peraoo 
addirased abali be moat affected. There abo we meet 
wiih that admirable iiutance of this exceptiooi taken 
fimn Cicero, and so touch commended by QniDCtiltAnt 
vix. .... 

" Ut ttU necease eaaet in contpectu Fo]m1i BotnaiM 
" vomere pottrijie." 



The gi«at importance of this adrerb pottridit hat 
Mea already excised ; it is therefore auScieBt to rer 
peat bete, ihttt becauae of ita importance it is placed 



kfUr Mnafre. 

" Libertasque recurrentes accept* per annoB 
" Lusit amabiliter : donee jam sievus, &c." Hot. 
The position of amainUter after lu^ is fortunately 
contrived to let off the innocent and pleasant raillery of 
the old roatic bards in their convivial amusements, and 
oreatly strengthens the antithesis between-that harmless 
festivity and the insolent affectation of nit, of which 
Horace complains, and which in time was carried to 
such an indecent height of licendousness and rancour^ 
that A. U. C. 302, itvas made a capital ofl&noe to ting 
or compose any defamatory veraes. 



RDLE II. Adeerht. 



" AsTtns are in general placed immediately before _ 
" tlie words to which they belong ; m> extraneous wotdl 
" coming between." 



" Hoc tantum bellum, torn turpe, tam vetu», tarn late 
" ^imnm atque dispersum, quia uaquam arlntrarttiir, 
" ^c." Cie. 

The adverbs tarn, tam, tam la&, and un^poosi, codie 
not only before, but immediately before iht wwds »>»■ 
dified by thoni 

[;:„ifKi:,C00t^l>J 



EXCEFTtOK. 

Wlien the word, to which the adverb belongl, bis 
another word or words depending on it, »wA othsr 
words are not extraneous, and ought to come next be- 
fore the word which gorems tbem, the adverb being 
placed first of all. 

." Quse dvitas antea unqnam fiiit, ntm dico Atheni- 
" ensiun), quce tatit lati quondam mare termttK didtoi ; 
*' Qon Cartliaginiensiuiii, qui pemmltdm classe mariti- 
" miujue rebus valuerunt;. noo Rhodioruin, quorum 
*' usque ad nostram memoriani diaoipUna DBTslis et 
" gloria remansii : quae civitas aitlea tM^riMM tam tentna, 
*' quse tamparva insula ^^uf, quse rum pDrtus suoa et 
" agros, et aliquam partem regionis atque orK mariti- 
" ttiK per se ipsa defenJtiret t" Ck. 

Here both the liiite and exception are exemplified 
several tiipes. Let ns observe how. 

Amea and vnquam belonfi tojuit, and are set imme- 
diately before it, there beuw no words depending on 
Jiiit to intervene. On the l^e account non ta set im- 
mediately before dko. 

The adverbs Mtu, lali, quondam, arc all attached to 
tenmMte, and come before it, but not innmediately be- 
fore, because of mare, which being governed of tenmiM, 
must therefore come between. So pervtaUam \a set 
before valuerunt, hvX not immediately before it, bfjr 
cause of cloMte maritanisque rebut ; which words being 
governed by coAierunf must themselves have the imme- 
diate precedence, jinteawiquam, farther on, belong to 
Jiat, and are placed befi>re It, but not immediately be* 
. lore, because that position belongs to fom t«nuM, ^c. 
which words depend on Juit, and therefore claim t^ 
uunediate precedence. 

Tam cornea immediately befotft Umit, to which it 
belongs, and again tam immediately before parva, be- 
cause there jire no words depending oa imuu and 
parva to intervene. 

In the latter part of this example (qinx non portw, 
^c.) the adverb non belongs to the verb definderet, and 
is accordingly placed before it, but not immediately 
before it j there are f6urteen words between ; which 



I<« POSITION. KGLB is. 

w<»ds being all gorerned of, or strictly coimected with 
iilfatderH, must come Dearer to it than a leu important 
pAiticIe ; and therefore, according to the exception, 
dult fntiAt, the sdrei-b non, maat stand at a greater 



Fromtltti-poeitbn of non with defetuhret, eee tba hU' 

CrtsnM of the tenth rule, which requires that adverbs 
placed before the words they modify, falber thas 



ttfter. Ralbetr than uuneceiMrily riolate that r^e, by 
putting an adverb after the word to which it b«l<Mgs ; 
anA at the aame lime to abide by what the exception td 
tin eleveMb rule directs, Cicero would put roM before 
d^mukret, thoi^ at the distance of ibnrteen woi^sl 
So MTupidmi* is the geniiu of die Latin tongne. 



TtVLK 12. 

" lOITVR, auiem, erum, eliom, are very sddom 
" plAced first in the clause or sentence. The enclitics^ 
" yMy ne, ce, are never placed first." 



-^1. <* Quod ^'(ur in causa quserendnm est, Ac." Cic. 

2. " Nee promissa igitvr servanda sunt ea, quK soot 
**'5ri, quibuB promiseris, inutilia." Jd, 

SalluEt frequendy sets igihtr first in a sentence, as, 
" igitur confimiato animc^ ^e." But in thia he is not 
to be imitated, igitur being very seldom so placed by 
other writers. Pareua, in his Lexicon Crtftcum, saja of 
this particle, Eleganter in medii oratione collocaiur. 

The same Pareua says of ttatem, Kenwtd nllocatar th 
Hudid teutentid; and dtes this instance from Terence, 
" Quid tu antem, asine, bic anscultts t" 

Emm. 
" N«<Hte ffltwi eoa solos, fifc" Gc. 



»m.* If. POSITION. iss 

Ejajmj>o*ttbuuiUtt«met»ajtecoUoaUur,MyaVaieux, 
aod ^aducefl these examplea from Cicero; " Mihi 
f aote entm." " Drusift capit nmn vendere," ■ Iq. 
" animinii e*t mini, &c" 

£tiam. 

1. " Nondum rtioM dixi,'qnee vohn." Ter. 

Que. 
, " Alctadrum^, Halium^w, Noeaiooa^, Prita- 
Tooque." Ov. 

Ne. 

This is not fw the negative for non, ntu, nnubiM, ^e. 
but die enclitic for noime ^ onnon i* uJrum, ^c. an inler- 
rogative^ and generally an affirmatiTe. 

1. Daturod ilia Fampbilo hodie nuptura ? Ter. 

S. Adeon'meignaTum putuT /(^. ^iJnnt.*fbradiHMK. 

S. Juatitimvpriuaimror, bellinelabonun? Virg, 

Ve. 

Si qms in adversutn rapiat casusve, Deusoe. /i. 
Thus lpte^ ne, oe, are always attached to a preceding 

Word, as if a part of the same, and aie even uttered aa 

such ; aa Deutve, not Deut ve. 



auLX 13. 

" TjiMEN ia very often and elegantly placed after - 
" the first) second, or third vrord of the clause in 
" which it stands." 

Tamen eleganter mfne tententug coUocatmr. Panvt. 

KXAMPLES. 

1. Incipiam tanten. Tibtdl. 

ft. Tu moriere tamen. Pnpert. 

3. Tu, si tuis blanditiis tamen. Cia. 

EXCEFTUIN. 

Ttmen mor« frequently occurs first in a sentence 
than igitur, mitem, enim, and etiam do. And, indeed, 



13S POSITION. KDLE 14. 

though iu usual {Kwition it u the rule s^s, yet, wheq 
the muie, of which tarnen is a member, is preceded 
by HXne weighty circumstance, and does itself also 
advance something as weighty, something, which, by 
being equally true, equally important, may counter- 
vail the other ; in short, when tamen is used to aver 
any thing very strongly, cum anaeret valde, then it 
acquires a peculiar force by being set first, so exciting 
and arresting the attention to what follows. Of this 
here are three examples from Cicero. 

1. " Tametsi mihi nihil fiiit optatius, quam nt pri- 
mum abs te ipso, deinde a -cseteria omnibus, qu&m 
" gratissimuB erga te esse cognoscerer ; tamen afficior 
Bummo dolore, ejusmodi tempora post tuam profec- 
tionent consecuta esse, ut tu meara, et cffiteromni 
erga te fidem et benevotentiam absens esperiare." 
Cic. Ep. ad./amil. I, 5. 

f. ■" Nam etsi minore in re violatur tua dignitaa, 
** quim mea salus afflicta sit ; iamen est tanta simili- 
" tudo, ut Bperem te mihi ignoscere, si ea non timue* 
" rim, quse ne tu quidem ua^uam timenda duxisti." 
Ep. ad. Jamil. 1. 6. 

S. " Quod me quodammodo moUi brachio de Pom- 
** peii familiaritale objurgas : nolim ita exisdmes, me 
" mei pTcesidii causA cum ilio coniunctum esse,' &c. — 
" sed ut ille esset meUor, et aliquid de populari levitate 
" deponeret ; quern, &c. — Quid, si etiam Caesarem, 
« cujus nunc venti valde sunt secimdi, reddo meliorem ? 
" Quinetiam, si mihi nemo invideret; si omnes, ut 
" erat equum, faverent ; Utmen non minus esaet pro- 
, " banda medicina, qus sanaret vitiosas partes reiptib- 
" licie, quam quie ezsecaret." Ep, ad. Att. i, 1, 



" CoRNxcTED words should go together ; that is, 
' they may not be ■ separated from each other by 
' words that we extraneous, and have no relation ta 



cGoo^k 



There is noAing in this rule coatury to wfaat hu 
been advanced in foregoing onea ; where, especially 
nnder die third, fourth, snd flixtb, it ameared -that 
words immediately connectecl, as the ven) and nomi- 
native case, the word governed, and that which gOTeras 
it, Ik. mjiy he separated from each other so nrat to 
adqiit whole clauses between them; for these words 
thus interptraed are every one of them connected wit^ 
<»e another, and with those between which they It* i 
90 diat if we examine the longest weD wriltoi period^ 
it win be fomid that, in the express terms of thu rul«, 
connected irards go together, having not one extnnieomi 
word between them. 

The intent of this rule is to set a guard agaioatthat 
martificial mixture and rude jumble of words, which 
bc^ Are ^ to Ml into irom a kudable ambition of 
wndng freely. They find, that in Out Latin to^e 
worda are seldom confined to the natural order ; and 
therefore they set about a new one ; bift tmaequilnte^ 
mth the laws of composition, they have no mediod ; 
imd having no method, they have recourse to GBa> 
jectore, their chief counsellor, or to chance, the m^ 
neral^ne, for the manner in which they are to wnte. 
Heaee, fdiat is thus written, is like a maaa.of fq^.^ther 
things, which chance might tlvow together, ./r^QM^t 
iaterr^ptii onUio, as Quinctilian would caU it, composed 
td words gathered weH enough bom the Dietionaip 
and in which there may not be what is camauM)^ 
liailed iabe Latin, but in the conlestute ao cwfivea, 
that die natural order would be better. 

But for all this, the learner is still, In general, to quit 
die natural order, in which the beauties of the Roman ~ 
tongue can seldom be displayed. Only let him know 
the bounds which he may not pasa. Iiet him always 
bear in mind this general cauboi^ that though words, 
■ritich are cotmected, may not be ^waya. contiguous 
yet neither doea good composition allow them to ^ 
sqtarated fnm each other by words, wtuch among (fim 
bave BCkher relation mr nga&mtei, Mti-timtUn 
enflA to barv >Ki>'|li»ce. 



C.00.IC 



The 'poution-of'fcrtiam is unfortunate' and' faulty ill 
this expr^Bsion of Horace ; 

" Qusqu^s erit.viUe, tcribaat color." ,Sgf, ]!.4« 

Scribbv; fenns no parenthesia 'here ; nor has it any, 
connection either by govermnent or concord with «ther 
of the'w'ords between whicli it Btandi : betifeea th&d 
therefore it should have no place any more dian betweeti 
quu^it and erU. ~ In the accuracy of ^ood language its 
place is laAerGofor," or, if the wholeconteKt would admit 
of it, before gtumpdt. Thus af^na, in the san^ 'utiie; 
judice is out ofits place m 



!< Sed bona si quis ' 



.'! /■uiKW.CODdideritiJaudatur Ceesare." ' 

It 4li6ald stand.in tbe clause with laudalmr, do dottbt. — 
Aaiideindela not jhstlyplacedin this of Virgil, (beloi^- 
ing to vftuf 3h>itM', it should therefore be eitter befoK 
ftmiu, or after hem.) 

" Vina bonos qwertMtuk oadia otier&rat Acestes 
" LitATS T-nnacrio,' dederatque abeuntibiis heros, ' 
"Dividjl.", ,^n. I. 199. 

Nin»u, e^l^gef hu empire. ^ far at tie bordert i(f 
Lyina,. 
" NlMU Ltfinfe. piotuitt imperiuni usque^ tarminos." 

Here the Latin is impropedy expressed. Zybtte has 
no sort of connectitni. with either of the words between 
which it st^ndsv not with any other ttord to ^em 're< 
fated ; so that :^$6(>ic there is perfectly estratieora, attd 
denumda anothA .position. To know its proper^i^aqe, 
considf^ where' Its lafflnity ties. It is a genitiTe esse, 
gt^erned'of'lemwnot; therefore near f enmntu it must 
Stand, ■t-lekst.BO bear as to shew the connection; thii^ 

L NiKu,yriii3^t,iimffixittnijuqve. aeL terwKuiot JayUtr.-^ Of, 
Ninut toque ad terminot LybUe imperiatxpralmiU. Ott 
Vtqae ad terminoi Lyhits Ninui impmamprotidU. Or, 
Nimm aA Lt/bue luque termuuu protttGt )m] 



vvuni*. IIOMtON. 1^9 

fiylulit,wmMhetnKo{vtt/ae,taiQ{ad, ksddfter- 
MMM in that posidoii, bat not of i a ^i i u mi 'because 
imperium would nOt be extTaneoas ' tbere, beti^ con- 
Atteted with oile of thow ttorda, nimiely, frOtuSt : nor 
even BMinet Lylnee in Aat portion would &is ol^«cti<Mi 
Se, if £y6i<» luid be«i gotemed of tMfMtMMinatfsd of 
tertmntu ; fbr then it would be, Nmiu ettlarged tie em- 
pwt q^ LyUa, and dw dKUmBtaoeei of pontion would 
IJHUige-Witb the sense. 

Bnt tbeee inevolarities are kst likely to b^i^ien in 
. t/batvaoittmiea otsa in those' of two or more dnues % 
yAere, -fioia a m^lece of punctiiation; bojra frequently 
Mt in one clanse, words whid ought to be in another. 
1^ one word' thus iniB|JAc4$, two dnuM'at lout are 
epoSed, one (Werdiarge^ die other mndlaied.* Ii^ us 
ne-this eiemjdifted. 

' -Q^oU coMKCfMHMnoHffif flioreeseeUnif, none' Moiv 
ttrong, than wAcn good mcr, oUAe ni manner t, art attaoked 
to tach other. 

Omnium *oeietaitim nuUa jir^rtoniior ttt nulla jiidn 
firmoT cvrn vtrt moribas bom timiUt nutt famUiarilatt 



Suppose a scfaool-boy, unacquainted With the present 
rule, to produce this aa an evening exercise, without any 
ptmctuatioiL and the order of the wordsso broken.aa to 
wahnost ufiinteBigible. 

~ -Jbddsexertise diere is a gre^ perpl^ty, and it 
ariiea en^ely from the false posidon of only two words, 
^wAn and bom ; 911^ is-put in die second clause, whereas 
It ou^t to be in the third ; and bom, which belongs like- 
. wiae-t04he third clause, is set in tbei fourth, ml will 
raduCe this instaiice into proper order. 

■ OilbHHintocietatitmmtllapree*tanti«reil,fiullaJlrmor, 
qtim' oum tiiri boni, tnorUnu timiiei, tvM familiMitatt 
fVmmeti. 

If we enquire into the use of'^iutm andftmi; we shall 
know, that they are now in dieir right pOeitkni. - 

■ CwMtr'Aont ia a -con^arative -conjunctioti, and'ciui 
be of 00 use, but where it aerrea to conple the^two 
japaberr of a 8entenee,-bV<ween which atcaapansoii is 
xnade. The comparison here is between die friendUtip 

C.o„,L 



MO POSITK»r. aots-Jfi 

«f gMi UW Wd Am of AtkeA, ihM iC kMfraM WNNJW 

«r «. }k <• n.J»i»ior OB one haftd, and «tMt nrt from, ^e. 
m ttw «tiMr ; here therefore betweea jfriMor ud etm, 
Add h«n onlyi ii qit^ to do iu ofSoe* 
' tn like niHiiier Uk *4jective ionic^Bhaveno pUceiM 
(he fflurtb cImiw, where it has no c«»iMctioii. It f^pwes 
with the noHB ••» io the tliird gUum, md Ihae'it 
mint he. 

. Qoioctiliui, luhi«dwpteT<b£7Mipe«ifn)M,fi«questh^ 
eompkinaof th» incondite langu^e. He nt-yt, of tU 
Mdere.' the natunl is the heet, when the wow wiB h> 
« enotber, end mn ktto a good oid«ioe ; mod 



freatly condeBma thoae l«e«dtes end inqnoper 
poeitiona, ,by which the diaeourae is inatiuitedi fukd 4w 
f«ise loot ; and againtt which the pieaept: nJe is de- 
•jpcd to.be a bar, aait effectuall;^ ^> ^ if theleaAwi 
wil] be mindful of it, and pay diie attention to the ^- 
fiHeBtpM«laofp«iKt«ati(H>, e^uiaUy tboae wi^ the 

P«IMd> . ,. . 



" The cadence or concluding part of a chuae sr 
V ientmce ahould ven leldom craaiat of auionl' . 

■llaWea." I 



. Cicero, .which ia aa much a« to a^ the whole achoel 
of Roman eloquence,, romored monoayDaUu «a fat 
>ack OB could be#om Ae cadence; io geitenJ I mean, 
«a fW back as the uae and import of bh(& word* would 
allow. To see this rule exemplified it might be ■mWg'i 
|6 inspect any classic page I yetbereareafewinalimces 
«f the muum in whi^ Cicero used to repel mowM^ 
JbU^ea from the cadence, merfll; aa being worda of &at 
■ption. 
' Sed « KM noaifeain «»dMat. «i unj/amimi, 



tbereiiire ao . exaoiplea o( the rule. ' But vft auodv 
l^y.RuIeS, it would protMUyhave bod its pll^ after 



" His lacrynua noD movetar Hilo ; rrtujuodflm 
" inc^ibili lobine BDimi : exilium ibi eue pntat, tibi' 
*' virti4ti nm tit locus : — tit Ate eft mentei &c. 

We haye- alieody Men with what propriety oblique 
ca^ come, foremoBt, andfinitererbflbutiaawmeiKe; 
butber« thepoutumisquiteositraiyi became the vrabi 
chaece to be ewiKwyllableB. 
~ S. ". Nee iim «m demena." 
, 4. ," NM.ttthmmiaeoan&t." 

5. " Slet hoc urbt prsedara." 

6. ^^t^stma btx at htec ab wteritn-Publii Clodit." ' 
Haw carefully in the sixth examife are -the three 

n^OQ^vyllables hue ett heec, like midl' fngatmu of a 
rock qot fit for corner stoneB, immured^ aa it were, in 
the midst of the period I 

7. ". NuUius tantumrff flninen ingenii." .' 

8. " Quojrumlkcinutejt oonunnne,-c!ar»Ottjiteoniiii' 
".pr^eda communia?" 

9. " Quibus eso dudbua in banc wpem wntetatiamqile' 
", Mum ingressus.' 

10. " AtTerohajiugloriK,'C. Oieur, quamerpaulo* 
" ante a^^tua." 

11. " £t quidqnid ett pionere gestiun." 

IS. 'f O.preeclaiam illam eloqueDtiam tuam, cum Mr, 
" Dudua concionatus !" 

- In fomiing verbs of passive tenmnadiMis in Latin, the 
KU^axy, when osed, is commonly ^seed after the par-; 
dciple to.wjuch it iff attadied, ai amatut eiiem ; oudift 
eratit: biithere, inthe four Ustexamples, Cicero would' 



have the auxiliary come first, that the polysyllable miftht- 
-incline, as oHich aa mieht be, to the cadence, -and tbe- 
inpiwsyllable recede. In this manner must we generally 
du^se of other auxiliaries of this sort, tunt, tim, tit, ^c' 
aetting them before their correspondent .participles, per- 
haps at die distance of twoor threeworda, as "n paulo! 
saXeadfptw" in .Cioero. . 
: ButTrby (ihonld^this be ? 

[; :,i IK i:, GoOt^l>J 



MX lOSmtRf. tilna U. 

The cttmit, m b:v« nftn Ittattttd; iff Ae laost 
ia|io«a>t,part ofiH the ptaiad, and to #t« It due 
ii«gl)t, an MM be t^m to make it eoft, g M i dael , 
■kl «Mjt tM that. the penan addreated tnur bare tune 
to con it over, even v<h3e he hears tt. But Aia on 
■evai be, wben the aeiise is wrapt up, oi rather rapt 
away, in tenna, that ni^ he uttered in at insttnt, by a 
•ingle effort of the voice, as monosyUsUes are. The 
gradatory, aad eoitly expiring sound* of die organ, are 
amch mwe a&nii^ and delightfiil- to be beeurd tbajir 
•xpinitHU of gon-ppwder ; which latter oae nay bear, 
but cannot listen to ; which-do not chatfti hot shock, 
more even than the acdenB majesty of thilnder'; and 
which will scorch indded thou that are near, but dif- 
fuse no glowing, gratifying beat. Such in language is 
the diff^enoe betweea • ftowing cadenM, M>d that 
which is violem and hasty. To the finmer one Atay 
U«teB, aa w^ as hear it : l^ oonrting the ear it cspti- 
Vatea the ntiiad : the scnae ia nonriihed op by a due 
supply of fuel ; and the ideas, thua converted, kindling 
as diey go, do more eaaily insinuaM tlwmeetves into . 
tbe.nxderatanding, Bnt by the latter, someAing more 
being looked for, the expectation is mocked, whereas it 
ought to be.giatified : with U) affectation of vehemence, 
it possesses no energy ; heeaose the sense is com^vessed 
and uMibUadt by being (breed into, too narrow a com- 
pass, by being bound up and shackled in that p&rt of 
the period, iA srhsd), bt^noad every other part, it ought 
t»jMve. leaat vestnotioB, and to come for^ in fullness 
of expressioD* 

WoidarbaaatifuHy styled by Homer, "willed words," 
are the vehicles of llionght : if they are w^, if ibey 
are not wall fledged, the soisa is either lost ai curiage, 
gr but partially eoaveyed. Hence, whe« the cadence, 
eomposed of short words, ia too precipitate ; ff bra At 
period breaks anddenty away, and «m^, as it w^rt, io 
a moment, tlien the saise is net brought thoroughly 
home,butfsUs,iuBeuibub,«t the thresh^, and having 
ewooned there, it has no Strang to reach the htterior 
sftartments, tlte reeesset of the mind. 

Longiniis, sect. 41, says, that short and precipitate 
measures do more than any thing daban t&e. snUiue ; 

C.,K.;ik 



that tketr cadenoe ii for erer dw MrfM, Mtd' therefore 
attrwely ^agtvdMe; asA 'thai lAen periodB are 
patohed and *Mdded up with wtitdB ttf shott and few 
ayttaUea, Aej are always dectitute of grandenf. 

M Luri il W B of diifl Hcind are to be foimd even in Cicero : 
for even in Giceio blenuahea tliey ara. *' ConsutBtnm 
" petneii kc — per manicipia, cohmiaaqne Oallift, a 
" auo not turn, cwn, ^c ," PAifip. 2. And agaid, " A 
" Harco Antonio quod ftu non ttl, rex Rooue coiuti- 
" tueretur." Id. The cadence here b excellent ; but 
that vrticje claoBe, qtudfa* mm etl, made lip of raono- 
ayllablea, hu none of that deliberate gravin, which 
became him. who was pleading before the Conscript 
Fathers. Bat, operi tmgo fat ett obrepere nrnmaia : 
(Hot.) taS. it is nore profitable, as w«ll as [deasia^, to 
admire the exeelleneies <rf a good man, than to carp at 
bis fiulings. 



Though ttondsjdlables are in general tn be excluded 
from the cadence, yet there are occasioos on which the 
period may esd abruptly, and then manosyllables in the 
oadcnoe ak's to be preferred. 

I. WheA die sutgect is any diing that happens sud- 
deidy, or very speedily. 

t. When indignation is eifprevsed. 

3. When the sabject Is any thing fiitile or cont^n^t- 
tible. 

All tbiB> Tanbraann, in his excellent coiwntotary m 
Viigil, hab thus exemplified from that divine poet, sUd 
from HmBcc ; in JGn. 5. t. 481. 

Excep. I.) " Stermtnr, exanimisque tretneiU pro- 
cumbit hmni hot. 

" Inonnparabilii hie versus est: quern ServtiTs inco- 
" gitatiisime (modo Servii id est tchoUok) pessiltaum 
" Tocat, quAd terminatnr monosyDabo. Ut)-um etiim 
*'«aBlis? HnncC^, an, 

^* StertatttT, examauqae tremmt hot a>mtit ktu. 

" Ita Ma. I. 

Sxcep. 1.) " Dat latus : insequitw duiuila ^fi^t^up- 
** ' tus aqule fnoa^ 

[;:,.UKi:,C00t^l>; 



" Verumi vt comiit teurua : ut coofluxit Iq nOunij 
<f raoDtemmue; iu corruit vemub in monosyllabimi,' 
" copi& mnltanuii ByUatwnun in unom ayllabam coact&." 
Sifut et-in iUo^ iGn. 2, 
yExatp. 1.) " Ruit oceanoiMw." 

Item, £n. 4. 

Exetp. t. . L I " En ! hsc prqmissa fides tttj"- 

, CoDcenung this instance of Excep. 3. the commen- 
tator »y0i " Quid illo acrius ?" and beie, i. e. ^n. £.. 
<81. 

. " Nihil enim aptius indignatiani, quam oratio desi.- , 
'' neos in . tDono^llabiun. Vel evolve Demostbenis' 
" oiationes. . Hoiatius iquoque, quuro e raagnis caeptis 
" futile ^poena exituruin stamacharetur, ex prohxis < 
" TQcibua eduxit-monosyllabiun ; 

Excep, S. " Parturient montes, nascetui ridiculns 



" in TibulL c 9. item Eiythrieus et Com.yValerius, 
" Lipsii do-Bor." ■ 

4, Fear, while \\ agitates the mind, convulses alto 
the body, throws it into a universal tremor, and robs' 
one of his breath, so that be even pants for want of iL 
Fear, I say, thus affbcting the speaker, ib naturaHy ex-, 
preBsed in short and broken terms. When the enraged ~ 
father in the play exdaims, " Age, Pim^hiU; exi, 
" Paptphiiei-ecqmdtepudetf" the son, alarmed by that . 
angry summons, hastily enquires, " Qws me vqU ?" and 
then, abaiihedby-the unexpected appearance and the' 
frowns of bis dread parent,, he fearfully exclaims, ■ 
" i'erii ; yater ett." Ter. Andr. 

On such occasions next to monosyllables, which do 
not always occur, words of few syllables may be pre- 
ienred,. aud likewise brachyayllables, i. e. words of ■ . 
spfUables short in quantity. After this s6rt, the poet; 
from whose works may be instanced every thing that 
is beautiflil, represents Jupiter as dispatching M^onry 
in all b^ste lo Carthage. 

" Vade age, note, coca Zepkym, et lakere petmit.'* 

" ■ " * [; :„| IK i:, C00t^l>; 



And tbna QoMn Dido in ■ freuy ; wfaen the faid» 
her people to pursue tbe treeidiennu lover, nd de- 
•trarliii fleet. 



" Anrie cilt jAmMNOf f liitfa tula j tMpcOite n 



diedirtncted [ninccn amas cO «l 
ODce tb >sob11^ and eotrect hmuT; 

" Qwt kqtior ; mt «&■ tiwi I" 

And thus in the 9th £0. v. 87, Ceieo* excjaum to the 
Tiojans in Itolj from the nunpsrt of their b 
town, when he lees the jcnony spprosdung, 

" FerU atiftmtm, date ttta, fconcSte mtrof. 
" HoUif adett, tja.' 

Angat, u vre have teen, though it iweBf itaelf, ii 
. notmthstaQdiag well sxpnaati m s!:cn ssd iutj 
terms- 

" Non/ervm, non potior, non mam," ssfi the Roman 
CtHHul (Cic.) to the traitimnu Catiline. And elae- 
wbere to th« object of tiia rei«itment. " 7^ vent qitit 
" es t" As Horace saji, " Ira/uror brant ett," anfff 
is madness while it lasts ; and madnesa vents iiself in 
hasty mood. 

5. When in Cicero, without taj r^rd to the im- 
port of words, a clmse 01 sentence ends itiib » mono- 
syU>ble, there is then generally rtb^ect paid to the 
measure irf the cadrace : for thu monosyUable, muoh 
iHUntr than odterwisc, ' forma wi& the- piecedfaig syl- 
hdiU dthti- s wymiBiiM, man seihlmis, or die fnc 
kmbns. The sasu may be renarhad in oOot p^ita 
wrJMM^ bat 1 9MU OionO, tbc Mmflf aB. 




STNALBPHA. 

'"QoB Dota damfefltictt turflitacliais non inusta vitse 
^tHxett?" 

" QuotieB jam tibi extorta eat sica iata de m a n ibi ig { 
■K'Qiiotiea t«^ ecddit casu aliquo/etefapni e<ti': . 

" Jaoet iUe nunc, prostratuB^M at ? 

" Qvue endea per bosce annoa sine illo j^' alt" 



" Intua hwluaum perieubtm tit." 

" httat eatMstia ; cum luxuria nobis, cum-aipenti'i 



" Totmn hoc quantumctinque eat, quod ceite mm' 

'■* nvm ei^ teftgt ett, iniiuani, tuum." ^, , . „ ^, 



" jaeet i& iMivc." ' 

, .",AiK>tiea,cbn8ulem interficerecoitiiAu.et?"' 

". Adrentu tuo iata aubiellia vacua ./beta tunl." .. 

" Nulhmi flagitium me te." - ' - 

. ".Re^eaU-jptrnter. opinionetn omnkim confettut ett. 
■ In.,tliia landric CMdence the Img and fidl sgnnd of 
ibft last v^IaUe in '«> maBBer abaorba and awalhnn ap 
tbat of the ^Uahle precediDg, which 'bemg paaaed rery 
tightly, oxer, diea upon , the ear : the lait amiable thn . 
btconw tOMoadj attached even to the penulttma of 
the wotd preceding, aa jn utterance ahnost to cs&bkee 
with it, aQiil,,Bo eluSea that objection, whicb-from the 
preaent rule would otherwise lie against it. 

In like maimer, and much more, ia a monoayllable 
in the cadence softened, when attracted to the fore- 
gc»ng word by aynalepha or ecthUpsii ; that is, if we 
m^ht nteak now, as it is reasonable to suf^Mse die 
Iiatini did occaaionally, uttering the latter word as if it 



««L»-1S. POStTIOWt 167 

were really a part of the former ; jiut as in Ei^ih w* 
ocquionallj sayi when at the same time we might or 
might not write, thant for AiU not, Ac*« for he if , ymt'iv 
&r you are, <^c. I say ocaumnaily, not a]wayi,.hut 
merely to avoid any extraordinary barahnesa ; as " Q,am, 
" caede> per hosce annoa sine iUo/ac^ ett, or facta 'tl ? 
" C)un scelere cerlaitd'ett, or certaitdum tt. For m> 
we frequently find it actually written ;" Scelua, inquain, 
** factum '«(." Plaut, MotUU, et ofiU pattm. Nay, . Ui^ 
final t and the vowel before, it, ua£d v«y commoiily U^' 
undergo the same elision ; aa, 

".Deetd, fiddia, Auavi* homo, facvndii , suoque 
" Contend atqne.beatuB, scitua, facunda loqnena in 
" T<^por6 eommod^, et veiboruni vir paunttnun." 

" Ltmina tectorum, et metfi' in penetralibui hottam.". 

" Inter se ciusse eiV et decenieie ferro^" Id. 

■ Th6 GAnnnoQ leadihg of these two line* ia Vi^ 
differa indeed from thitt, having medhmt in-the 6nt, not 
medi'', and in the aeCMid virot, not eir', otnert, not 
deeentere. But Pierius, Servius, J. Louis de la Cerda; 
and Taiibmann, though they do not abxdutely reject 
the common reading, yet all agree that many anoent 
copies juatify the , other, nay, almoat all the- ancient 
copies; and that Priscian, Aldus, Pimpontius, Scaligeri 
and others approve of the other reading. Thus fof- 
toerly was written omuha', for omnibui, eju\ for ejiUr 
quitqi^ for qiuiqiut. And thus, which is more id 
point, Lucretius, who yields to none in d^ance of 
expression; frequently drops the letter n ; as " £ouont' 
" duellica prcdes," and plainly, shews that eliaion 
might be Oc^Mtally osed or. not; -as ia thia> venst 

- B ol -o ul- D III- u ui - cut - - 

" Corjaorum ^ffiem' est quoniam premere omnia deorsum. 

ProbaMy. the m also in q^Eciit' should be dro^^ed. 

Than this I know of no other way to account for. the 
frequent oae, which Cicno and other pohte men made 



1« POSITION. KCLK IS, 

of radi eadebcM u are liere spoken of; and whic&, «»- 
ienrtmi, u I suppose diey somettmes were, ta»j be at 
hard) and mdegant u any ill-fonned csdeoce csn be. 
The very tenna, 'Synalepha and EviUiptU &tcmw the 
MppounoO) the fbrmet inesmng eotmetio, i. e. a Janfiiy 
ortemtK&Hg together, die iMter eluta, a cutting or ttrii- 
i»g cff; becanse by these figares » Towel, or a eonao- 
■ant, or both at once, may beKiit off, that two sylla- 
bles nay coalesce and become one. This is iriiat 
QninetSini bas expressly taught na more Aaa onee, 
" Nam Synaleepha iadt, nt ultinue ayllalMe pm naa 
timent," which he laid to shew, that the cadence of this 
period, Nam M 66i^ tiMuiutw, mmeattiiK l«w j>r»- 

tidittm a^ is a double an^eat, ins frtanii eti. The 

wvri Ktaettf here shews how the rhetorician hinuelf 

read. Elsewhere he aaya, " Nam et coeuntea lAens^ 

" tpju Synaliephe dicitur, etiam leniorem iaciiint brstio- 

" nem, ipiam si oDsna verba aiio fioe dudantw." On 

which Tumebiua thus comments, " Ajnmrel ex hoe 

" Iqoo, •lioa Iiatinos,. more GKecomm, admisiise tfo- 

" stct^ihen, ut Gwn vocalia ,a vocsli exciperetut. Id 

^ iWitna max fiti .diel;o non cUuditur quo fine : sed 

» tanniaatur initio aeqaentia.' Again snys Qni n ct< l i wH 

f Atqui eadem ilia litera sa, quottes ultima «sb 4^ ^O" 

" calem verbi icqucntis ita contingil. ut in eun tiaosire 

".pDsdt, etiam si scribitur, tomen paruin exprinsitnr, 

&C." To which AsceniiuB adds, in his oobubmC 

Antiqui codicea, Flautini pneiertim, m oe scr^ituq 

quidnn hsbent ; sed pro miitmi ett, ■«•&' at; ant 

ffwZtM' ai." 

The yoong scholar will not be ol^ncled at (bit loBf 
account of the nature of Synab^ha or £cthUpsiB. ^he 
same thing). It all tends to shew the impcwtwee of 
the fif^enth lule, and of this fifth exc^tioo to it. 



HADBtteS. 



KwnosiFr'so ibu {f. 



tn tbia rule we have coiuitlered the cadencci u if 
confoud to the last syllable only. We will now take 
it in a larger vieir, as compiiatn^ aeverali even so many 
aa .the last six syllables of a period. 

Measuring the full cadence, we may include the last 
three feet, if they be disaytlables : the last two, if tri- 
syllabies, or a trisyllAble and a' dissyllable ; or we may 
r^ard the last foot only, if it be a trisyllable ; or if a 
mixed and compound foot. According to which, this 
Postscript will exhibit, in various scales, composed of 
many' different measures, a large number of cadences, 
which ou the authority chiefly of Cicero and Qnincti- 
lian, the Jeamer is exhorted to imitate occasionally in 
his own writing^.- ■ KoT^t he is to think hirasdf con- 
fined solely to these oadences, naif they were the oAly 
good ones, and comprised all the hannooy of the Lat^ 
tongue. These are but a spet^en (such howevmr as 
the greatest masters have recommended); nor is it 
meant, that be who writes must be for ever weighing 
and measuring his syllables, in doing which whoever is 
wholly occupied, he cannot attend to what is still more 
important, good sense. A good writer will observe 'the 
eonduct of a skilful horseman, who always keeps the 
rems in bis hand, and is always on-his guard ; hut he 
does not hold his horse for ever on the menage ; nor ia^ 
hc'Condaually checking, directing, find over-ruling him, 
which would infallibly bre^ his course, aad proMrfy 
bring! bim dawB> 



l;, GOOt^l>; 



CADENCE, 



A SPECIMEN OF CADENCES 



IT Latin Comjiotition, ajiproBei oftatd recommended hy 
Cicero and QiUnctiUan. 



f TBKE£ STLLABLIS. 

1. A Baeckio— 

t. A Cretic or AmplUmacer'u- 

Of this foot QuinctUian says, Creticut eel imtHi opii' 
mui et claueuUf. la a cadence he thus exempliiieB it 
from Cicero, " In conspectu Populi Rotnani romere 
" potlridie," Postridie here is a trisyllable. 

3. A PaUmhatxhio or AMihq^hic—v 

The last syllaUe being common, this may, if in 
|dease, be styled a Molossus, three long ; and may also 
be preceded by another Molossus, as we shall see oa 
No. 26. 

4. A Dactyl -vu 

CUidet et Dactyttu, nyi QnincttUan, nut mm obmf' 
vaiio tdiivuB Creticitmfaat ; nhich is as much as to say, 
that a Cretic or Amphimacei forms a better cadence 
than a Dactyl ; because in general die final tiyllaUe 
should be Teally long, not merely pro tonga. I^iere is 
a vast difference, says he, whe^er the concluding syl- 
lable be really long, or only reckoned so ; Aures tftmm 
coHvdeni ineiw, ialelligo, multum refetre, utrwtme loHga 
. lit, qute cludit, an pro longa. 

Quinctilian admits of a Cretic or Iambus before a 
Dactyl, but no Spondee, and stiU leu a Choree. 

5 ' CakwIc 



CABENCE. in 

QmnctflioD ^owb of diiB, still intbmting fcowerer, 
tbat it were better to have tbe lut ijllBble loiiff. He 
gives /iatte u on -instance ; but inuMdixtely addj, Si 
Hon vubutmu eite Sacchwm. 



' GASIHCia FOK roUX BTLLABUI. 

Neither Quinctilian dot Cicero approve of thia «h 
dence : but Aristotle, aod his icholan Theodeotes Hid 
TbeophrutuB comm«id it much: and indeed Quiac* 
dUen allows it to be not witbout ita leqpectabk adai- 
rera, wben he expresses his ovn diaa|mTobation ; Ntm 
iM capU, ul a magmt ciri* dinmtiam, Faon, gmtttex 
fribta brtvibut et tcmga. 

7/ Bptirilut Primkiv--' 
We have heie a Spondee preceded by an Iambus, or 
a MoloBRus preceded by a sbon syllablei s cadence, of 
whidi Quinctitian thus expresses his good t^nnioD ; 
Apparet, MolotiHn quoqae clautuLe convenire, dwn habeat 
ex qwnnmque fede ante k bmem. 

S. Epitnitu Terthu—v- 
This ia a Spondee before an Iambus. Seiet Spondeut 
IttitAo recti praponitur. QuiixM. And it ma; be oIh 
served that this cadence ia the reverse of the <ne 
preceding. 

9. A Choriamhtu-vt- 

10. A Dispondee 

A cadence of two Spondeea should consist of three 
liffiida 91 neatbeiB : fin othanviae it would cowlitute in 
■ «« -. " , 



in Cfuaascn. 

•oood M wen ai metre, the UuA part of k S^poaUtt 
Hexameter : but what aounils well, in vene is no jn^ 
tlnn jargon ia prose, the genuine music of which is'&t 
^perioT to that of verse. In prose every kind of verse 
' should be. avoided; the jingle even of a bemistic ^lould 
be excluded; and therefore the condition above is im- 
posed by Quinctilian on this cadence ; Duo Spondei not 
fere con/ungi patiuiUar ; mice tn vernt quoque notalnU$ 
claiuvla est ; nut cum id^eri potest ex tnbat quati mem- 
bris. Then, from an oration ofCrassus, be cites this 
example. " Cur de perfugia nostris copias comparat 
" it contra not." 

11. EjMtriiia Quarttit-'-a 

We have here a Spondee fdiowed by a Choree, a ot- 
^pce commsnded, i^nd thus exemplified jt^ Qiuact|bu)f 
ffanjiOtteBtut: ei,'Rotnanuttm. , , 



1^ DieiareutvelDitrochteut^v-v 

This Ditdioree, or Double Trochee, notwithstanding 
Ae g^^Tal position, that the last syllable should be 
lc»ig, forms that cadence which seems to have been' 
more admired formerly than any.. Qth^rj Nothiiig,^ sayi 
Turnebius, can be more mu^cal. Quinctilian informs 
ti9, that it was much used m Aaia, a siiiBcient proof of 
its beHig very soft and delicate. Cicero gives this in- 
itance of itfrom Crassus, " Patris dictum sapiens tt- 
** nieritas Slii comprobacit ;" and says that ifae pe^^ 
were so much pleased with the close of this perrad, tt 
even to shout aloud with aijniiration ; an instance of 
republican gravity, and of what mqmentous objects 
Jn&y engage' the attention of popular assemblies ! ' " 

13. Peeon Tertiut uu-u 

14. Pteon Prmuu-uvu 

Instance! of this are given by Quinctilian ; " Si j»- 
" tero: Dixit Aoc Cicero." But such measurca, he" is 
i^reM to tnfbrm us, are better adapted to the b^nming 
•f a period, than to Uiecadenoe, where (ia-tlWi''0*<' 



CUNMCll 01 Win ITLULBUI. 

15. A Bacchic ami lambuMu-'w 

Qr an lamboa befbre s Crctic. This, both by Cicw* 

and QuuKtUian, is Bmcb qdebnted^ under tke >wd- 
l^lon of Z^AnwM, The butei aays it is (tafii/w ■• c&w 
wiM«t mtnu: frf'eoune well adapted to lul^ectaof ft 
gnve and aerigiii. nature, wbeo the ouUnce oiufat to be 
sedate tud aolemn. But Cietna nja, the Dodumua ia 
of Mv notable a meaaurei that it wmild be afiectatu^ t« 
repeat it often. 

16. A CVefie ontf d iS'jpemfiw-u-'- 

Auf " De 9110 niAti dicam, niii depellendi mnmii 
" ctaita," Cicero pro Ctxlio. This cadence ii softer 
wben cotn^iied in one word, as " ArcMpiratw ;" but 
more forcible when coioposed of leveral members, aa 
" Cri mmi t eaum;" — " Quo ntftti dicam." The SpcHidee 
ia well Biilted to an utterance grave md slow. It waa 
VoudL used by Demosthenes, that solema orator ; and 
answers in its guieral use to Adagio, in music ; whOe 
the Molossus, or rather the Dispondee, may correspond 
widt Adagio, AdagiO' 

17. A Trihrac and Spondee u-,»— 

Qiuncdliui commends this much for ita softneai, attd 
exemplifies it in "faciUuUei — tettieritatci." 

IS. An Anapett and Sp/mdee uit"' 
Qoinetilian allows this, without gnring it much com* 
nendalioa. Speaking of the find Spmlee, he says, 
Potettt etion n vmit bene, ^teponi Anap0Um, ' His 



iBMaweiifiNMi,eiqe»j>roC<ri. "MulMr^wiif^mil, 
"mbilii ^erum etiam wfila." In poi e4itiaiis,ojF.Ci9e^ 
h.iajtd tfiamnota: ijie cadence, ttpwerer,,;^ fdll dt^ 



19. A Sptmdee and an Aiuipett--tiw 

Thii is tbe former rereraed ; and Qoincdliaa eom> 
mendi it for its BoHness. AtuipeetUu — meliorfot, prte* 
eedtnte Spondeo eel Baeckio. ' 

to, A Spondee atldaBacckie-'U" 
" Baechiu* et elu£t, et fibi jimgtiiir, ' Venennm ti- 
*•. meres," Fitat Outretm; Spondemn otttem amat-; ttf 
" mm ' Venena timeres ;' ted ' Virus- tiiaereai" A 
Cbaree should not precede a Baechie in the dose of'* 
period ; because such a juncture would fonn the oa- 
oesce of an heroic rerse ; VenenA (imert*. ButsSpMK 
dee preeediug gives to the Bacchic mor« weight ; Vin» 
Smeret. Here Quinctilian teaches, that When anjr ob- 
jection from quantity lies against a nord^ the measiytt. 
may be improved by the choice of some aynonymoua 
term, and the sense remain entire, nay more forcibly 
expressed, as in his example of this cadence ;, because 
venena before timerex would not do, he took the syno- 
nyma virvi. For this purpose the novice in th« 
latin tongue may have recourse to fais Gradu* ad 
Tanuutmn, which book I adviae him to cenault wben 
be is writing prostw as much, or more, than when he ia 
writing verse. . The Gradiu will aid him mud in- 
• iRodalating his cadences, in selecting synonyms, and 
BOW -and then a convenient sober-suited periphrasis ^ 
I aay, sober-suited, Uke our own nightingale, tuneful) 
not ganvdy. 

31. A Syondeewnda Crelic —v- 

Quinctilian oondemos a Choree before a Cretic"; be- 
caose such a juncture Ibirns the cadence of an Tunbie 
Pure. But he aaya, lengtben. tl)e. last syllable of the 
pboiea,.aod you give it great weight ; Jit plettum awstH 

t^tfit... .. , ... ...;,:, 



l;, GOOt^l>; 



SS. An latttbUsanddDcKlylu—uM ' ■ - -. 

Cbulet et Bactyht — : Ifah«bUaitte.Uiie.CretiftmH 
lanAmn, Spimtiam male, pejut Choram, QhmcI. 



CASEITCBI OF IIX STLLABLZI^ . . 

,. «*. TinoVrelici-v—v- . . . , 

Cretwntett-im&t optmti»—elelattmUi.-^~--iS9^tt 
ae ipte tequitur, ' Seivare ^twn pluiimiM.' Sia mtimt, 
fiioM Choreo priecedente. Quintt. 

is. An Anapeit and a C>vticuu--u> 
- In the- passage aQuded to under tke cadeiuw lien 
before this, Quiactilian ipeaking of tbe Cretic in t&t 
doae of a sentence, uys, Apparet verh, qaam bene am 
prtecedant, vel Anapaxbu, vel tile, qm videiur fini ap^ior, 
Paeon, The difference betneen the Fseon here spokes 
ot, viz. the Fourth, and ap Anapest, before a Cretj^ 
isi that the Paeon has one ahort time more than tlw 
Anapeat; thuB,bvu--w- 

26. TWiVoJttMt— .---. 
Here, are three Spondees for a cadence, nowrlHi* 
atanding" an objection has. been made to tno, unl^ra 
comprised in three membera ; for though two. Spondeei 
ibnn the close- of an heroic verse, it cannot be said 
properly, that three Spondees do ; because in good h&- 
roiCB, whenever the fifth foot is a Spondee, the fonfth 
is a Dactjd ; 9therwise there is such a sloth in the verse, 
aa to give it much the appearance of prose (a dicum- 
Btance, which at once sheW« this cadence to be Dataral 
In [ffose) as in this of VirgUi jEn. 7. v. 634i. 

Attt leva ofT^ lento iucvnt argeato. 
Is iriiich verse ofit 9ujy the three indeed, but tlte^fimr 

[; :,.i IK i:, C00t^l>J . 



iMt feet an Spondees, a metre l)j viaA totfinBiHi fiir 
poetry. Hiere ia one more lucli rene in Virgil, 

Saicaper, etteapiUot, tt depnuoiCMfoalkt. (jf«o.JLv. 

. »7«. 
and this is a most nofbrtimate liae ; for thou^ then 
is in it what affects the mind with pleasure, yet that 
arises from the romantic scenery of the verse, not from 
the sound, which ill expresaei the wild discmsiiRis of 
hippomamac Maxes. 

27. TieoJtu^eslifu-uv- 
Et gyidem optime ert uti juncbtt AttaptBtbUt aayi 
Quincdlian, and gives this instance «£ it, " Nam abl 
" libido dominatur, innowmtiaa leee prtetiditm att" 

tS. ABi^hie mdanAni^stu—tHi- 
Tbe Rhetorician having said as above of the An^kest^ 
adds, that it acquires more softness by havkig a Spcmdee 
or Bacchic before it. Mollior fitt pr**eed^tte ^tanJeo 
vei Bmcckio, ut, ti wmtet idnv. " Leve ioDocentitt pne* 
.." sidium est." 

£9. Tkq Bacchiet \i — u-- 
Batchiut et cludil, tt sibijiotgibtr ; " Vencoum dme- 
" lea." Quuut. 

30. AMoi<MtiuandAnlibacchic-"--\t 

Having said aa above of ibe Bacchic, Qiunbtiliaa 
adds, Contrariu* qtutqtie ^ ttt, claadit (nia ti ttltiniam 
loHgam eut vobmau) optttnfjiue kabei aiUe te MoUutm; ' 
fO, " £t niinis reqterBum." 

: From the parenthesis fawe appears Qumctilian's ap- - 
probation of the twenty-^ixth otdence, vi& Two Ho- 
msi.. 

31. A Bacchic and Aatibacekie v— -- C 

This cadence is likewise commended by Quinctfliaa, 
who, having said of the Anciltscchic, habebit ante k 
Moloison, adds, aat Bacehivm ; and then fiJIows this 
example, " Quod hie potest, not potaetmu." 

3S. A CreticMdaDactft-i—vu. 



Kui 16. POSI'nON. 17f 

■ Cbidet el Daetj/Uu, nut eum obaemitio uUmte Cntk 
mtm/acit, at, ' Muliercula nixus in littore.' Haiebit 
OMte bene Creticum, et lonAum, Spondemm pair, p^vf 
Cioreum. 



mircx 16. 



- *' Sq ftr as otfaer rules and perspicuity will allow, !■ 
" tfae airangement Htd choice of words, wben the Ibre^ 
'.'- going ends nidi a vonel, let tbo next begin frith » 
*' consonant ; and nice verta" 

By this lule, and the six, next following, the learner 
will be directed in the choice of his words, as well aa ia 
the position of them. 

Among QutQctiliao's strictures on composition, ontj' 
is, that by a concurrence of vowels sometimes the dic- 
don chaps and g^ies, jf interrupted, lags and labours, 
(^IWn vocalium concursug : qui cum accidit ; et iitlersiititi 
et- JHon laborat omtio) because the uttering of tno or 
nere vowels, when they come together, causes some^ 
times an unpleasant, sometimes a paiifful distension 6f 

^he mouth ; " Patria ei^' " puhAra oralitme tfiita 

" omma ostentare." Th&t elegant auUior, Isocratea^ sr 

' cautiously avoided this concurrence of vowels betw6ea 
words, that in him you shall hardly find an instance of 
it. His scholars, indeed, Theopompus especially, were 
ceiisured both by Demetrius Phalerius and by Quincti- 
]ian, for being too nice and scmpulous in this rc^Kct ; 
for sometimes the Synalepha has a wonderful effect in 
giving softness, and sometinies grandeur to aa ex^Kes- 
■ion ; and therefore -Gicero and Dentosthenes, far from' 

- 6)Mpm]fg, made a. moderate use of it. in their discquites, 
i^ ^ti^iqg, however, a general regard to what thi> 
nile enjoins. 

^ We, who walk, . as it v!ei^ oo foreigq ground, murt 
mPj ex.traordioary' caution in this, respeqt, or incur di^ 
^i^tttatio^ of a.loos^ and negligwt style. S^ich was dw 
cautioD andentiy u^ect tQo^i^v the me«tiiig of .4 [^a-i 

C.IK»|C 



ITS POSITION. mutx 16. 

raHta of woweta in any maimer, that when in the ume 
word Mveral onncurreil, either one of them was cot olF 
hf an apoBtroph^, or else one of them, viz. the fina^ was* 
Bunilanted by a consonant, of which it will be wortb 
whfle to remark serersl ii 



1. One wKtl dnj^d. 

I. Die for did. Ab, " Libra dU sonmique parea ubi 
" fecerithoras." Firg. " Vides jam rfte muluun esae." 
Plant. " Sed medii post castra <&." Maial. " Ad 
" prhni rftdioa iuteritura die." Auaon. " Et jgu die 
" veaper oat." SaU. *' Decima parte die." /<(. 

£. Faeie tarfaeiei, so nied both in (he geo. and du. 
casea by Luciliua, quoted by A. Griliiu, 9. 14. 

9. Fide fotjidei. " Utque jfafe [ugnua dealraa ntri- 
" usque pOpcnciL" Ov. " tioutantis juvenem Jide." 
Hot. S. 7. See both Bentl^ (m thia text, and tlw old 
Commentator in Cruquiiu. 

4, Dii tor diet. AulusGelliuBSm, that accoK^i^tO 
thii Virgil, Mn. I. 640. wrote,*" Munera Iffitidamqns 
" dO," not Dei qnaai BaccU. Gelhus ii not singular in 
diis, for neither Servius nor Fietiua dispute it. — Plautuii 
in Merc, haa (fit for diet. 

A. Amm and,^tm, and^iwMi, GxfKmeitJrom/mitl, 
when used, as fi>rmerly, in the &ih dedennon. ^. Qell: 
tmd hie Commentator. 

5. Pemicii, pn^etui, hixurii, specii, acH,/aeii, bo& 
in the gen. and dat. instead of jwrnictn, ^. A. GelL ' 

t. The final voieel eupplactd bg a cauoMWti 

1. Faeiee (ot faciei. Sic entm pleragM teUu velenm 
decUnafiit : luecfaciee, ht^tufadei. A. Qell. 

S. Diee tor dieu Id. Who quotes from Effiliua, " Poa- 
* trnna: longmqua iSm confeeerit ntas." Cicero is alsO 
said to have used diet for diet. " Verba sunt hsec Mard 



"Tiiiti, EqtutetterodaturMil&udiespamaM." Id, TiM 
aame Gellius likewise tells w, nor is be ain^idar hoe, 
wrote, act "" 



that Vitgil, in the verae above cited, wrote, BOt Librt 
die, ^. but Libra diet toimifpie, ^o. 



" wtt» ifi, vosrtiojs, ir» 

'Bat by this rvie, coUuuhi of oonioBanti miut be do 
lesi generally avoided than the cDDCHmng of Towels. 
Cetervm ccnuonante* qtwque, eceque pmeeipae, jmts ami 
tuperioret, m committura verborum Tutantur. Thia is_ 
Quinctilian'B objection to a plurality of GonBoiuuUB. 
When many of them come together, th^ bring the teeth 
and lips into too long a contact, and produce a mumbling, 
or a hissing, or a chattering, or a mmbling noise ; aa. 
An ttutltorun ; Sextut Rotcku ; Rex Xerxtt ; Error 
Romtdi ; BonAax. 

Some consonants are rougher and more diOicult to 
be pronounced dian others ; we mast take special care 
that &ey do not crowd together ; such as C (as we now 
in Latin falsely sound it, viz. like S before e, i, and y, 
for the Latins always sounded C like K) D. F. G. L. N. 
Q. S. T. X. These, it has been observed, are the last 
-consonants children learn to articulate, lliey depend 
each on a separate action of the tongue; of nmrae, 
when Several of them meet, the movements- of the 
tongue ia uttering must be more compUcate and diffi- 
cult. 

So caieful were the Latins in old dmeg to avoid (be 
CoQision of harsh sounding consonants, that like die 
Gredks they would sometitnes drop the final consonant 
of a former word, that it might not impinge against the 
initial one of the word folloiving. Thus we have seen 
in Ennius doctu for doctus before fideUi ; in Lucretiu*, 
eqmra for ematrum before duellka. For tereitiu Jwt it 
£gitit3 locQ, Lucilius wrote (CTftwyiMtef f^nu loco. For 
diem ianc Cato would say die hanc. And for £t pott t 
interrogstively, quasi. Quid tumpostea? we arc told the 
Emperor Augustus used to aay,£'po? Hence the words 
belltgerare for belbtm gerere ; pomeridiamu for poitne- 
ruRamu ; po' meridiem for poit meridiem ; pe' meridiem 
for per meridiem; potin' for potigne, ^c, S[c. Hence 
also It is, namely, to avoid a colUsion of consonants, that 
in the use of these prepositions, a, ab, e, ex, we set, a, e, 
before a consonant, aS, ex, before a vowel, as a mattH, e 
manu ; at ore, ex ore. 

Winkelman, in his History of Art, quoted by tb4 
Physiognomist Lavater, charges the northern l^n^iagea 
Midi these defects, Hut they abound with monosylU^eD, 

-C3.ifKi:,'C00t^l>J 



•nd an doggitd' with' conaonants, the conneedn^ and 
got- wbidi is aomedmes impowible'tootlKT 



" In general, a rednndancr of abort words must be 
"avwded." 

Etiam motuM^Uaba^ il ptura mU, Mys QninctUiHi, 
maie contirmabtuUtir : qtaa neceue eit,- coMpontio multit 
cfaunUt eoneita tubnilui. Ideoque ettatn breoium tier' 
honim ae notmaum vilanda continuatio. Elsewhere, be 
compares the bdudcI of many short words to the noise 
of a child's rattle, and coodemna the frequent uae of 
diem i Ne, quod tumc maximum oitittm ett, immim COH- 
textujeniUnt [syllabw] ac tomm red4ant pent pmerUiim 
MwtacMiomm. 

But the occasion of this rule, and its exceptions, bave 
been very fidly cidarged on, and exemplified, in fonner 
P^s, particubvly under Rule 15, and therefore it may 
suffice here to give an instance or twomoreof the awk- 
ward effect of many abort words unseasonably be^ed 
together. 

" Do^qaod ti», et me victusque volawqueremitto." ■ 
Xn. ]«. 88»i 
O ifi,'reddite flit -Aoc pro pietate mea. Catvi. 
Aut facere, ktec a te dictaque factaque nml. Id. 



" In general, a redundancy, of long words most be 
" «v6ided>" 

The reason of this rule may be infen«d from what 
baS'been said in commendatioh of long. words, tbu tb^ 
gire weight and enstamp grandeur and solemm^'Oll'' 
S'diiRwwae, when- aeaaonably uaed- for thitt puqiOWi 

C3.ifKi:,'C00t^l>J 



«in,x 18. POSITION. 181 

But such a Btyie dpe& not suit all subjectB ; and when 
it ia injudiciously applied, the composition ia spoiled 
by a Tain pomposity, an idle a£fectatioii of magnificfioce, 
which is no more uian bombast ; and which, retarding 
the exprcBsiop, is ill qaalified to quicken and give li& 
to those ideas, which ^ subject; matter should sunett. 
Great and swelling words unseaaonably applied, anine 
not like stars, but glare like meteors, as Longinus says, 
when he chains Alexander's tutor, Callisdienes, with 
being too eager in the pursuit of el^snce. Such 
terms, ill apjdied, are not spirit but froth. Tramgreaa- 
ing the preceding rule, we inqur the censore of impo- 
tence ; and we may by a neglect of this beootne guilty 
of what the Grecian critic above nentioaed styln the 
most unpardonable offence a writer can be gitilty (xT, 
that of soaring above the subject. Forced aod un- 
natural imagea indeed, vain fencies, and an- aECectation 
of working on the passions, where patbos is not neces- 
sary, are the objects of bis censure, and not merely the 
verbum dklum, whether it be of fewiiyllaUes or of 
many. But in treating, de tj/roanift tcniewfi, of the 
very elementary part of writing, it is reqnisite,' by such 
rules as this and the foregoing, to cantion boys, againat 
that abuse of language, which is in truth the beginning 
of, and, as young ideas sboot, may betray unpracosed 
aad unwary writers into those very imperfections, of 
wbich Callisthenea and others, censured by Longinus, 
were guilty, namely, impotence and bombast. The 
business of a boy at first is rather to express, than in 
his own mind to beget ideaa, they being first su^ested 
. to him. And knowing that words are the vehicles of 
thoughts, he must learn to convey the latter by words 
convenient for them, here laying the foundation of good 
writing, and remembering always, that whether the 
chariot be too heavy for the wheels, or the wheels for 
the chariot, in both cases the machine is ill-con- 
siiucted. 

Tbotezcejftions to this nde, viz. when long words 
may abomid to advaat^e, may be found arnoi^ the 
exceptions to rules the nineteenth led twantleth, hei'e 
following. 

* [; :„| IK i:, C00t^l>J 



KULB 104 

" Im general, there must be do redundancjr of long 



BULS SO. 
" Ih general, there must be no redundancy of short 



The long roeunre and the short have each their prA- 
per uae and beauty ; and it bein^ on certain occaaiont 
only, that the ooe is raatly pieierable to the^ oilier, it 
foUowB, that on aucb occasions only the one should sen^ 
siUy and glaringly abound above the other. We must 
ctniaider what the subject requires ; for a misapplied 
coatiBuitr of loiw times or ^ort may be death to a 
composition. When the diction should be quick and 
lively, long measures will appear dull and heavy ; when 
the topic requires strong expressions, and terms of 
weight and gravity, then fay the use of short syllables, 
if titej are many, the style becomes weak, fluttering, 
and hasty. Utrtanqae [tenipus longum et brevel locu 
vtile. Nam et iUud, uit optu est velocitaie, tardum et 
MgHt ; et hoe, ttlnpondat exigihtr, pracept ac reiultant 
meria damnatur. Quinct. 



BZCBPTIOMS TO BULB 19. 

To express slow and niajeatic movements, great 
strength, awknard attitudes, difficulty, disdain, occa^ 
sions of delay, &c. long words and long meaauiefl an 
judiciously sufiered to abound. 

1. The state and m^esty of the queen of heav<ia are 
finely fitrUck off by Virgil in those few words abounding 
in long syllables, of which eight are contiguous ; 
" Ast q[o, qu«e divom incedo regina ?" ^is. 1- 

Taubmann, admiring this passage, sa^ it is rftviM 
turn terbonm am fedum eon^ritio, arte nmrntf i* 
judieiofieta. 

.[;:,.ifKi:,C00^k 



Mtseo. POSITION. IBS 

, 2. TlieunQwni^bulkoftheceBtaiofEKyx,theIinge 
strength of King £neu in wielding such a mua, and 
withal the exertion necessary even in £neaa to do that, 
»re thus exhibited by the same poet, j£n, 5. 

" Magnanimuaque Anchinades et pondus et ipaa 

** Hue illuc Tinclorum immensa volumina venaL" 

where the lengdi of the. period (for thia ta but one 

clause) aa well as of the words and meaaures all serve 

to raise the description. 

3. Behold the chimsy unwieldy iffestuies of the 
Cyclops labouring at Vulcan's forge ; Georg. 4. 

" Illi inter sese magna vi brachia tollunt." 

4. In one long word, placed too where it on^t to 
be, in the cadence, Cicero represents the slow proceed- 
ings of an ill equipped fleet ; ^ 

" Evelarat jam e coBspectu iere fugiens quadrire- 
** mis," (thus far all is swift and rapid, aa it should be, 
but) " ctmt cttom Ivac celerte ttavet in tuo loco moUebaa- 
" iur" In vtrrem. 

5. And thus he astouiAes us with the vast and inex- 
|mgnable firmness, with which the brazen statue of 
Hercules in Agrigentum withstood the assaults of a 
lawless, impious rabble, who attempted to destroy it : 

" Poatea conrulsis repaguUs, e^actisque valvis, de- 

" moUri signum fc vectibus labefactare couantur. 

" Horft ax^iUua jam in dcmoliendo signo pennuiti 
'" homines moliebantur. lUud interea nulla lababat 
" ex parte : cum alii Tectibus eubjectis conarentur 
-" eommoveie ; alii deligatum omnibus membris rapere 
" ad Be fimihuB-" lb. 

■ The final cadence, rapere ad tefimibut, including the 
last seven syllables, and reckoning the synalepha as one, 
is a &nBll Ionic and a Dactyl ^ ^,_ ^ „i in which the 
short measures predominate, and fortunately ; for here 
we see the intemperate spite, with which these rebel 
- slaves were at last actuated, after so many vaiii and 
disiq>pointed efforts to fulfil their wicked purposes. 

6^ In a beantifiil Btaim« using long words be 
(Cicero) describes the storms and eommottons of 
^te. state, and other troubles, by which his wishes were 
<Ppposed, and himself debarred from study and redre- 
jwnt; 



lU POSmCJN. snLBig, SOr 



« QuaaggpttBtiogi i t t iBniim wmBflionim Meonim cnm 
" graves icammtmiuni tmapoTuin, tmnVarii nostri casus 
f lefeHenint. Natn qui ]ociib quietis et tranquillftatis 
" plenissimus fore videbatur, in eo maxinux moles mo- 
" leitiqntH el iuHmientitiiiue Un^estatet exititerunt," 
DeOrat. 

Tile wkole passage bereig well and seasonably sup- 
tatied wkli leng woi^ ; but the last sentence is admira- 
ble, y. RaJe 31, on tAu »entenee. 

6. Yow^ Cbcerps, upon the stage, in his nnboantled 
admiration of one fkir lace, af^ts to disdain aU othet 
women in tfa« world besides. To express which Terence 
bas^enqdoyed long words'; 

" O &dem pulchrsm I Deleoorauesdriiinc exanimo 
mulieres ; 
■ ''■■Ttedettpitoiduinarimkaritmfotwidrum,'' Em. 

8. Cicero insists, diat the cUmbrdus eqn^page ' with 
idiichHiJo was attended, when he left' Rome, proves 
that Milo had no intention of attaeklng'Clodius, then 
on the way. . Now, mark the desniption of his equi- 
page; 

" CiuB hie iasidiatoi, qui iter iUud ad ceedero facien- 
" dam apparaseet, cum uxore veberetnr in rbeda, penn- 
" Iatus,vnlgi)iiagnoimpedimento,acmoliehrietdelicato 
" fiRcillanaD puerorumque eomitatu," 
. . Who, th^ has ever so little eflr, hut is swsAle, on 
tlteibare reading of this passage, -that Cieero' purposely 
emidcTed long Words ; and that he efowdbd them one 
' a^MB another, -the better to Apress thie mutdtude of 
attendants, men, women, and cbSdren, Who 'were tnore 
likdy to encumber, than to be of service in a cOnibat ? 
Mont; Roliin, BeUet Ifettres. 

. 9. Wbeur to speajk, s^tousl^, yo« woul4 certainly 
B{^y ^hort words or diminiitiveB, ^en hy we^ of Tidi- 
ed c» mockery long botnbastic terAs'are sometiines 
.used to good effect. Of this there can be no belter in- 
stance, than in the Epilogue ad Eamtekiim, peifornied 
■Ihtely (18033 ^ Weetminatet Sthool; Wliere the tyrant 
iof FasBca, under the charaCier of Thmo, in fafcf &Gor- 
-man advcDtuEer, who having too duceeskfull^ l(if%ded 
France and bowed it to a foreign yoke by its'oWnarmS, 
now galls it to the bone hy affecting that attenlpt 4ii 



Bn^bod, it dms petotrayed in the immennty of hii own 
Twut^i by oae wbo edoru him toSarbma, 

" laduperatoruiu celeberrime ciBgiianimoruni,'' 

whidi ii a Leonine or ihyminif rene, the beit fbr bur- 
}e«que, ai>d fo idwgether peenliafly fortunate here. 

xxcErrioRB to kclg 20. 

To expreu hurry, speed, puBJon of any kind, impa- 
tiaice, vehement indignation, greatjoy, &c. short words 
jUld short measures do properly abound. 

I . In Virgil, to nhom we are still indebted for beau- 
jUiul conceptiom and enpresaiona on every occasion, and 
whose beauties shine with new lustre, as oflen as we cast 
our admiring eyes upon them, Jupiter thus dispatches 
his messenger to Carthage on an errfand, which was to 
be communicated immediately to the Trojan Prince 
there ; ^n. 4. 

*' Vade, age, nate, voca Zephyros, et labere pennis." 

These ate willed words, vrhidi mn as Mercury should 
-ily; the god hastened by the zephyrs, the mandate by 
-short measures. 

i. By short measures, how-vronderiully, how delight- 
fully hiM the incomparable bard described the velocity 
of hid steeds ! ^m S, 

" Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula cam- 

3.' And the font of vanquished foes ! Mn. 1 1 , 
" Prima fiu^t, doniinfl anussa, levis ala Camillse : 
." TurbatifugiuntRutuli; Aigitacer.Atinas: 
" Disjectique duces, desolatique manipli 
" Tuta petimt, :et equis &versi ad msenia; tendtinU' 
" Neq quiaquam instantes Teucros letuinque ferentes 
" Sustentare valet telis, aut sistere contra. 
" Sed laxos re&runt humeris languentibus arena ; 
" Quadrupedumque putrem sonitu quatit ungulacam- 
' ' pum. 

■ » Votvittirad muros calivine turbidus atni 

" puivis." . ;-,'•■ 



1M POSmON. Kttw 19. M. 

la Om pMwge, where A> m« WJ — ifcr'a N aBt Miit 
toeeaee, l^ tbe vmaeflbetaof dieRiitaliM wftfanani; 
iriicte alao the force of the Tn^ans is most foljj ex- 
fnmed (Nee mM^uam, ^.) there the Daet^b'ftre for 
airtik dw h i e d, ind Spondees dwoBd: butthefligbt 
is iiMtaiillj renewed, nd witb it die i^iidi^ of the 

4. The veloditj of s faBt-suliiig ih^ i* thus in short 
measares described by Cicero in hia j^eadings against 

-Venea; 

" Hkc Centuriinna navis erat incredibtK celeritate 
" vdis.^—Eroluat jam econspectn fere fiigtensqua- 
" dnrenuB." 

5. AodUiURinRhort measures by Seneca ('f'ji. I, 99.) 
the flight of faster- salluig time ; 

" Bespiee eeleritalHii rai^dissimi toaporis ; c^ta 
" breritaKm hiyns spalii, per quod dtatisaimi curri- 
" mns." 

In these two passages every thing is rapid ; £)r 
though the words are long, the syllableB ore short ; and 
■B Hone. iMlin observes, there i* a dioic« of the very 
letters here, most of which aie snoott and. liquid ; 
Incre^Mi ceUritate relU. — Ceterilalem rt^ndmiim toh 
porit. The iinal cadence in tfattbraoer of thedep«s8^[e« 
M that so much admired of old, namriy, a Didior«e, 
qaadrtrenii* ; that in the other is a Greldc and DactyK 
which, the Dactyl being last, is a quick measure, and 
commended, as we have seeli, by Quinctiliaii^ cila- 
iii^ml eurrintii*. 

6. It was indignation, that called ftrtfa that hasty 
ipaadate from Queen Dido ; 

**Ite, 
" Ferte citi flamma« ; data vela ; impellite remos." 

7. And the suddenness of herphrenry Jntermitting, 
dtit taaght her in these short meaamrca so abrupdy to 
correct and interrogate herself; 

" Q,uid loquoi ; aut ubi suml .^n. 4, 

8. Cicero, impatient of delay, and eager all at once to 
drive Catiltoe ixoui Rixne, in terms exactly meattted (o 
flw occMioa thus commands him into exile ; - 

C.,K.;ik 



'*! Epcden 'tx nUte, .'G^aluut ; lil!i>era ranptMcam 
•■ ineei't tn-eaUiiuB, ri hnhcTooera n^tetav, piofi- 

The cadence here is Peon Secnndus, pro-JcUcere; or it 

itH^benieasMred-t^ two Dictyla, expte-tat, prc^^iiv; 
miaabhatha MioeriuMi oeaMimi, as these exceptions 
treat of, migbt be objected to; bdt tie; ue befe alto- 
gether spplicabtej and braiitifiil. 

9. When, driven by the abaahmg eloquence of Clceio, 
Catiline had really left Rome, and by his exit had re- 
lieted that city &om impending ruin, with what a tumult 
of joy does tbe Cfmsul (Cicero) congratulate his coun- 
trymen on their esc&pe ! 

" Tandem aliquando, Quirites, Lucium Catilinaiu, 
** Airentem audacia, scelua anhelantem, pestem patris 
" nefari^ moUentero, vobis atque huic urbi fbcrum flam- 
" mamque rninitanlem, ex urbe vel ejccimus, vel emiai- 
" mus, vel ipeum egredientem verbis proaecuti siunus. 
" Abiit, excessit, evasit, erupit : nulla jam pemides a 
" monstro illo atque prodigio msenibus istis intra mee- 
" nia comparabitur." 2 In Cat. 
, Here is alacrity in the very words ; no one can read 
tbem but with pleasure ; and this is the efiect of those 
^rightly Dactyls, Pyrrhics, and Trochees, which are so 
beautifully interspersed throughout this truly elegant and 
charming passage. 

The cadence is an Amphibrac and a Dactyl, mania 

eom^nbiiw, than . which (not fit for general use) no 
cadence can be better qualified to express an efiusion of 
jo}. 



" The last syllables of the foregoing word must not 
*■- be- the aame . as- die fint syUaUes of dt« word fi^- 



l;,GOOt^l>J 



MS POSITION. toLKtl; 

This is exactly Qoiitctilun's nie, iritoK wstdi are, 

Videndnm etiam, ne it/Ualkx »erbi prwrU mUvmb •mI 
prinue sec[uetitu. And by him the impropriety of like 
Byllablea concnrring is thus twice exemplified from 

" Res mihi mvUie vita sunt, Brute." Frag. Epit. 

" O/ortwMfon* ikUmr, me coiwile Romanl CortniM. 

The same objection lies agoinM tJiis of Ovid, in luM 
fable of Daphne, as we read it, 

" Crura teceiU tentet." 

The poet himself, however, read it as if " Crura ae- 
" kent sentes ;" but even bo, the objection is not en- 
tirely removed. Faulty likewise on the same account, ia 
this of Vii^, ^n. S. v. 806. 

" Ascensu supero." 

That such expreeaiwiB are iaidty, out ears nwr rea- 
dily inform us ; for in our ears they have the efifect of 
stammering. 

Several examples of this have been collected by dif- 
ferent hands from Cicero. One pasaage, however, 
charged with being faulty in this respect, is in my opi- 
nion, a fortunate transgression of the rule. It is a pas- 
sage which we have lately ventured to admire. 

" Nam qui locus, &c. — in eo maximBe mole* molt- 
" ttiarmn et tarbulentissinue tempestates exiEterunt." 
Orat. 1. 8. 

Molei moleitiarum here hath given great ofience to all 
the critics ; bat it strikes me, that Cicero designedly, 
used this expression maxima molei molestiarum, and 
likewise this, turbulentittima len^iUiUs, the more 
strongly to intimate the disasters he complained of. 
Ej reiteradiig the same sounds, he dwells on the same 
idiea, raises it, and seems to magnify the mass (motet) 
of those troubles and turmoils, by which the tiroes had 
been disturbed, and himself detained from enjoying 
that otto cum dignilale, which he had before spoken of 
with BO much rapture. 



We are at liberty then to tnoagtem thia mie, v^Kn 
Mj ao doing we can impress more s^xnif^y an id«»btf 



Ht>«& POSITION. \S9 

tbMj-t^tb which vie woulA have tlie mind mott affeetett; 
and tnch ekpreasion« are peciiliatly applicable snd for- 
taaate, when the subject is any uiins raonstrDus, de- 
fermed, i^ly, or troublesome, aa in Ciceto, nolet mole- 
atianm. ' 



BDLE 22. 



" Makt words, which bear the larae quantity, which 
" b^pui alike or end alike, or which have the aame cha- 
f lacterittjc letter in decknaion or conjugation, (many 
" such words) may not coine togedier, 

TbiiEi UkewiM in a great meaaure it Quinetilian's rale ; 
lUa gw>^ fitia muit epudevi loci, n cadentia rimUltr, 
tmtiitter tktineiftia, tt eodem modo declinalu, iimita 
jutgaiOitr. He founda it on this good reason, diat the 
•rtrybeauties of Isngnage are irksmne, unless siq^nrted 
by thatofTariety. Variety is for ever requisite to gva> 
Ij^ the-humaa taste; and unless this be duly main- 
tained, the discourse not only becomes fulsome, by the 
sameness perradinfc it, but may sometimes be charged 
with aSeetadon, which is worse than a coarse and inele- 
gant style, firtules etiam ipiix ttxdiwn pariant, nm 
gratia varietatis adjutce. — ^Oratumis coitvpositio ni« 
taria at, et offendit timiiitvdine, et affeciatime depre- 

hendituT.- In unkersum autem, it lit neceae, durain 

poti&s et aaperam compositiMem malim esse, qvam effe- 
vunatam et enenem. Qvinet. Be the thoughts ever so 
fine, their lustre will be tarnished by such a style of 
writmg as this rule condemns. 



I confess myself at a loss to exempli^ this rule so 
Mitly as I wish, it being tnore easy to find virtues 
than faults of any Inndin the lAoiee volumes of and- 



W POSITION. KDia fSt 

quity ; and I would not neem to caipi wlten I coold 
not justly ceimure, by adducing passages, that are less 
Sf^licable. Here ere a few. instances, vrhtclt may 
serre in some degree to illustrate the ride ; and i£ tfaey 
da it but imperfectly) the rule ii. '''~~U'>"^_ aad .nu^ 
explain itself. 



3. " His recentihas tuutrU veshvque domeatieu per^ 

mlU, Id, 

4. " Cati&ntB profectione ontttia patefacla, ilbulrata, 
" oppretsa, vindicala esse videiUit" Id. 

In the first of these examples, the long hissing of 
teenra ttqaetw i* very unpleasant. In the other;, too 
many ir<^dH bear the same cadence ; the syllable ir, 
and then the letter a, are repeated too oflen. Such a 
diction is apt to run away with the ear, and leave the 
mind uninformed. 

5. This reiteration in the beginning of words is still 
more offensive ; as, JadieimtjvScu/m; KaA justi j»dia,i 
Jtiniani, dted, I think, by one of Quincitihan's anno- 
tators to illuHtrate Quincdlian's stricture on such e;^- 
pressions. 

6. " Nam quoad longissimS potest men* mea retpieere 
" spatiam prffiteriti temporis." Cic. 

Mens mea is rather a trespaaa on the rule ; but m^ht 
have done pretty well, if retpicere tpatium had not fol- 
lowed : two errors contiguous cast a kind of sullen light 
'Upon each other, and so both become more glaring. 

7. We have already censured the cnfra tecent lenlei of 
Ovid, in our way of reading especially; and still more 
censurable is this of Ennius ; 

8. — ' " Verborum vir paucorvm." 



a. And again this of Virgil, £n. %, Si.. 
" Iiisootem iufando iitdicio." 



Googlt^ 



&tt.> 2S. ^OSITIOlf. 191 

le. The first line of an Ode lately found in the Ps* 
' Isdne Libraiy at Rome, runs dius, 

** Discolor grandem gravat uva ramum.'* 
This Ode, laddresaed " Ad Juliunt Flonun," and 
written in the Sapphic metre, ia by some ascribed to 
Horace, as if it -were tbtf thirty-Dinth of the first book : 
another Ode, " Ad Libnim suum," in the Alcaic Metrei 
and found at the same place and time, they call die 
fordetb. But the two Odea intitled Carmen Seadan 
may more properly be so numbered ; and I must 
doubt, that grandem gravat could come from the tune- 
iul pen of Horace : and since the former edition of diia 
boot was printed, I have learned, that a much waxt 
competent judge, 'Ctia claaaical Dr. Rosa, Bishop of 
Exeter, was equally unwilling to impute either of these 
Odes to Horace. I have them written by his own 
hand on a blank leaf in R. Bentley's edition of Horace| 
with this following note of his Lordship's subscribed j 
" Has duaa odas Horatio trtbutas et Romse in Biblio- 
" theca Palatina reconditas Caspar PallaTieini nuper 
" detexit; quas ut Horatii esse credam, vix addud 
" possim." This has fallen into my hands since his 
Lordship's decease ; which I add, lest I should seen) to 
affect a correspondence with him on the subject of these 
Odes. 

. Looginus condemns an expression of this kind in 
Herodotus, which, as I write to young scholars, I will 
exhibit here in Roman characters, " Zettueet de ieet 
" thalatieM." I must Say, I admire this expression of 
the Greek historian, as being no bad representation of 
.the boiling and fermenting ofagitated Waters. If, how- 
ever, it be faulty, the Greek only shall not bear the 
blame : it may be transferred into our own tongue, the 
English version of these Greek words being. Toe Mteth- 
i>^ tea, or the tea teething. 



The Axceptioti to this Rule is as that to Rule 21 : 
The same sounds are judicioitsly returned upon the ear, 
becaiUe no less gratefully received by it, when thereby 
lively conceptionB can be raised, and the picture, at it 



m POSITION. mu.K, 

woe, of ibat, which H described or apoken. o^ aevu 
to pass before tlie mind, and lielpa its RootemplatioD. 
Such, in my mind, is the effect of that exprefuon in 
Herodotus, 

" Zetateet de tecM thahuuet;" 
and of that in Cicero, 

" Molei molestiarwH ;" 
ind Uin more, 

" Maxinue moles molestiarvm el Iwbulentissimee iem- 
" pestatet exitiiemnt." 

For the aaine reason, who does not admire llint redun- 
dancy, of vowels, especially of the vowel a in 
" OaUa aurea rubra ;" Vlrg. 

))T which it was doubtless the very design of ihe Poet to 
distinfiuish Tumus above tiia chosen attendant in di^ 
uipioaches to the hostile town ; to distjagiiiah him by 
his golden helmet, that helmet in the description being 
in a manner conspicuous to the eye ; 



" MaculU quern Thrachu aOnt 



" Portat eqvui, criitaq ; legit Galea awea rubra." 

MacrobiuB, (■SatvrmU. 1. 5. c. i.) admires and cites tins 
same passage as an instance of the extraordinary elo- 
quence of Vir^l, particularly of what he styles, " nccwn 
" iUvd gemu elocutwmt," for which he teUs us, Fronto 
was much noted ; and by which, ashe afterwards says, 
is not to be understood "jejuna eieeitat," far be sudi 
an imputation from him, who, in Macrohius's ju^^ 
mint, had not only all the eloquence of Cicerc^ but 
that too of the ten orators ofAtheiu) but, if I under- 
stand him rightly, that which is simple and unlaboured, 
fVugal but full, in which nothing, not even an epithet, 
IS figurative or far-fetched, but every thing natural, 
perfectly appropriate, and even necessary, but no more. 
" Tenvii qutdem et ticcia et tobriut amat quondam di- 
'" cendi fmgalltalem" Like iLe fair one in Horace, 
such a style is smplex tawtditiie : such here is the plain 
but pertinent portraiture of the Rutulian wanior, ^Ot 



mudf hut nugnificent : his is ttot tha hnd-piece of 
Paria ; it is the helmet of Tumot, and it ii dw hdmet 
of a Hog- 



A piece of ftdricei I tneut to o£fer at the concluiion 
of the PoBtKiipt to Rule 15, but then nifiered it to 
■lip my memory, I may Bubjoiu here, via. That young 
■choluB, as soon u they have leaned the Latin Proto- 
dia, do scan cadences in prose writen with as much 
precisicm and nicety as Uey c(»nmoaly do verses in 
Virgil and Horace. Nothii^ than this will more ex- 
actly form their ear to the gemdne music of die Latin 
ton^e : and being thus accasttnned to take particular 
notice of the arrangement of words, the beauties of an 
author will become more itriking to tliem, and diem- 
selves better qu^ified to imitate the same. 



IKB OF TBB SICOMD fABT. 



l;, GOOt^l>; 



l;,GOOt^l>; 



LATIN PRIMER. 



OF THE LATIN METRE. 



Ik this Tlurd part will be contained, 

1. An sccount of the differrot kinds of Teet in the 
-Latin tongue. 

S. A descriMlon, and synopats, of the many sorts of 
verse in that language, witb lome useful notices con- 
cerning the Iambic and Trochaic metres of Terence. 

IntkuthatefmKhavailedmytelfoftheutefiUlabourt 
t^Sioiu. Laacdot, author ofihePort&oyal Gram- 
tMTi ! to mhote reiearcket, honever, tmne have not 
beat cotifitied, a* what it here mid of the mttret of 
Termtx, ttUl iheto, tmd at hit LUt of the Latin 
Verte compared with my Synoptit may then aito, 
the former ex^lntiug thirty-three, the kater teventy- 
Jioe, of Afferent deaominationt. 

3. The varioua and beautifiil mixture of Lwin verse 
in composition. 

4. A full description of the Metra Horatiana. 

To assist the memory in disdnguishing the Latin ftet 
one from another, obserre in tvhat order the taUe re- 
presents tbetn, and also the rek^n, or rather cmtra- 
listy, which subsists in each couplet. 

■ t Google^ 



"naa in tbe fint couplet, the Spoodee ii two loi^> 
the '^rrhic two ahort ; in the next, the Choree u (mk 
long and one ahtnt, the lambiu one abort and one long. 
A like diveraity may be marked in each couplet. 

The di£EbreDce between the two lonica ist that tke 
Great begte 4 Mt^tri, bmia^ the vtMtw quantity 
j^aced fint, and it therefoK sunumed Migor ; whereas 
the tmall Ivnic b^ini a Mmori, and is HxkSok called 
Mmor. Tfaui the faina ne Ae Teverae of each odm'> 

Again, the Epitritftnd Paftn <me the reverae of ooe 
anower ; the Epibrita conaiating of three long and one 
dioit ; the Ps<Mia of ihtee thort and one long. Tbeae 
are aumamed, Fint, Second, Third, FourtL as the ain^ 
long orahort tiaw iaitt ibefiHt* aB«0iid,ttird, orfinuth 
■yllable. 

The foot) which we indifferently call Choral or 
Tnehee, waa by Cicero and Quincdlian named Choree 
tst&j ; and the term Trochte waa by them morepropeily 
bettowed on the frtfirop. 



. Ci,i,slc 




i. 8' 



I ?' 



a. 6- !■ * 



II 



? ? 



>■ ». s> t > > > 

m m 

I if 



r ri 



I If If I If f| 
I- n ! ! 






s 5 s 5 
€, li £ s 
1 I • S' 



f 5 



: BENT SPECIES OF LATIN VERSE. 



certain number of feet disposed ia' sk 
It coDsiats of a certain succession of 
exact number of times, falling into a pre- 
sence. 

•re many sorts of veraeiih tbe ' Latin tan- 
/at they may aU be distributed into these three 



^xAKEix&s, with such as have relation (o 

.them. 

jLUBiCB, Pure and Mixed, which are either Mo* 
' nometers, Dimeters, Tnmeteis, or Tetrameters, 
' ' perfect or unperfect. 

^LraicB, including all that may not be referred to 
&e two prece£ng classes, except those rarely 
used, nluch are miscdlaneous. 

Mte.— As to the nnmber of raetres in a Latin or Greelc 
lie; VossiuB, in a note on Lilbocomaa's Prosodia, oi)- 
Crea, Uiat verses of more than sis metres are properly 
Hied PtrioiU or Cireaili rather than Veriet, thoagh Vertet 
fnj are. Victorinus says the same; and that DceaiiMUrt, 
torses of ten metres, are tbe longest koown; but Vossias 
Aere refera to an old anonymous writer De Mctrii, Un 
Dodeeiimelert, or verse* of twelve metres, called Ptoniant; 
as Oetamtters, verses of eight metres, are named Ariiloiu- 
Smt: botb frum their authors, 



l;, GOOt^l>;' 



1. HEXAMETERS. 



Ax Hexameter verse conauts of ux feet, of nUA 
the fiift four m^y b« either Dactyls or Spoadee«r m 
tbey beet suit the subject treated of; the fifth fbot » 
uni^y a. Dactyl, and the tixth a Spondee or Ghent, 
the lut sj^ble of a verse being commoa ; a*, 

IIH mtfr Mte su^w m bwcfia teUtmt, VWg. 

QwidrvpeaiuiU pattern tonttu jvoftt la^ula camputR. Id. 

The fifth foot may sometimea be a Spondee ; and it 
verse ia then called a Spondaic Hexameter ; or ratber, 
obseiveH Voasiua, iSftntaWfc, from ;SpoB*ti», tbe Ore* 
Sot Spondee | as, - 



N.B. In Spondaic verses the ftmrtb fi^t oi^t to be 
a Dactyl, quickening and relieving two Spondees at 
Uv dose ; and this dose or Dispondee is more soft, if 
indnded in one word of Akit sylbbles ; », 

Cum Deim toMu, m a g im M Jom imtini iienliMi. M 

Not tbat triayllablM h«ire ttn W b»«vteied; tlvQue 
sonMtJmet extremaly heauliful, aa in dim verae, ' 

fra tuolU, ^iqJa,_propiirpvtto IfarAio. li. 
The last wor^ however of a Spondaic mv^t never be 
less than a trisyllable ; and no Hexameter should con- 
clude with BfVeral diaiyllables, as this ill-conatructed 
one of Tibuflus (1. 6.) may shew : 

Setnper, vt inducar, blandot qffert miAi mdtut. 
There are Hexameters composed wholly of Spon- 
dees; u, 

[; :„i IK i:, GoOt^l>J 



Ofkrttpott^ nx Albai Longai. Etut. 
Qatit te iMtrem ttAit, twii conattre. CattUl, 

IHamedM CaHa tbesn Bfohsiie tcTMb, ftam the Aot 
MoloBSufl, ind cites the folloMog frotu CshIub Btin«i, 

AMWn «HM(»«ti O t r mmm dttietii. 

But theae are juitly antiquated. 

A&othei' great) very great defect in Hexameters, and 
indeed in TCrsea of any kind, is the want nf Ctema, 
without nhich they can be possessed of no beauty. 

The Cauura ut scanning cuta oS the kst aylkUe of 
a word, and throws it into the foUoning toot ; that is, 
by GiesuTB the last syUable of a word is the first syllable 
of a foot ; and by this it conies to pass, that the words 
add ftet hsTe mc the most part dmiireat eadcneea, as 
they ought, aad not always end (ogelber, oa they da in 
these aukwaid verses, 

UrUn \JSrem \ Nvper [ eepnt \J5rHor | hottu. 

Awrea canmna, </u5, ierHns, nuaame tutvm. 

Roma mama letruti imager Ifanmbal anrui, Enn. 

Ha* re* orf te icriptag, Luci, mitintw JEU, LucU. 

Prater ctslera Romeg mene poemata cemet 

Scribere, Hok. 

HtMC neque dira eenena, ntc hotticut aujtrwt earn. Id. 

V«tflM with etAf OR* Ceeiun are lik«wiae T«ry nik- 
ward ; as these of tiucretius, 

Etjam tatera, morUiUt qute atatkt adira. 
Naribu*, auribvi, atqite ocuitt, orisque lapori. 

Ttiere ne more such hi Lueietiiu. 

The Ceeauia should always take plate befc^e die 
fourth foot : and the oflener it happens, the better the 
verse will be ; as, 

- -1 - O bI- -I - B oi-« bI- - 

Syhettrem tawi tmuam meditayit avena. Firg. 
in which there are three Ceeiuias. In the following there 



l;,GOOt^l>J 



fOO METRE.' 

/Us latut lutmm moUi/iiktu k^aantko, f'irg. 

More duut fonr seldom occur. There inaj however 
be a fifth ; but thea the verse will end with a mono- 
•^le. 

Thii CcEBura has the privilege of lengthening a syl- 
lable that is short : as in the verse above, JuUki Aya- 
eintho; and 

Omnia vincit amor, et no$, ^c. Id. 

Dona deAtnc owro gravia tectoque elephanto. Id. 

Thus the coDJunctiou que is sometimes used long, as, 

Ziiminaque laurusque Dei, &c. firg. 

where ^ being an enclitic is regarded as a part of the 
preceding word, as Servius says, Particula, quce tut tvb- 
tttmtiam non kahet, membrumputatur tuperioru OTationi); 
auod (I eit, ' Liminaque' guasi una pars oratioah ett. 
But this is a liberty not to be used oilen. Nor, it may 
be here observed, must we make a practice of neglect- 
ing the syrialeplia in our verses ; diough occasionally 
we may use even that privilege, on the very best au- 
thority ; and then, we must know the final vowel and 
dijdithong, though otherwise long, become common * ; 
as, 

Et tuceiu peeorl et lac tubducitur agnit. Virg. 

Cre£mut f An qui amaat, ipii liU tomnia^fiagunt f Id. 

Slant etjtmiperi et cattanete hirsvtce< Id, 

Arcehis gravida pecon, armentaque potcas. Id. 

Potthtduta eoluitte Samo. Hie illiut arma. Id. 

£t vera hKeiiu palttU D«S. Hie v^ matrem. Id. 

[;:„ifKi:,C00t^l>J 



LomeiUii, getmtvque, ttftemmto vMaUt, Virg. 
Ante Itbt Boa Athmtidei dfijcondonftm Id, 
*yietor «p«f TOfidum Sktwenta tub /&) alio. Id, 
"Ter nmt conati imponere Pelio Otiam, Id. 
'Glaueo et Ptmopett, et Inoo MeUctrla, Id, 
*Af>&nM( mtiln .• jIanMt RMop^mtet. M. 
*1iuuke tomo in m^no, gvat dira CtUtno, /A 

lUi IB the &xA vmma; wlmh ^ Ae iMih 
PoeU fanre AocMiaiullT indnlged in, u Ifaewf bt c we 
may : and it is extremely lofl; and be&ntiiul in ita pro> 
per place wd seasoB, of wkich tbe ear will be the b»t 
infbnnaiiL See more examples in my Lai. Qkau. 

Note farther,' that sometimes the Hexameter has a 
redmidant syllable at the end, which in scamiing fbrmi 
a synalejAia with the first syllable of the next verse ; 
as. 

Omnia Mercuria nmlit, vocemque coloremyve, 
Et crtnftJfcttU. Tirg.—** On' et ttt.*— 

There is imotber sort of redundancy in vera^ «bH«4 
SjfnecpliOMtis, when in jhe same ward two syllables 
must.be sounded as mm, if W* know how; but our. 
pteaent general mode is not to sound the first at all ; 
aa. 

Sat ImOafitennt aJveiiia aiwatg teato. ftr^. 

Vno eodemqne tutit ^ntrfti, portfriugiu ftmunt. M, 

Rvpe tub hoc eSdem, quam proxima jnnuf obumbrel, 

Cafpurn. 
Eosdem Aofruif tecum, qvibiia est elata capiUoi i 
EosdemvcuAM; Itlera tntm adutt»/idt. Prtfirf. 



tot METRE. 

fn tlui of Orid is an imtance of both reduodaitcies, 

' Barbte color aureut, aureague 

Ex hamerii mediot coma dependebat in armot. 

Otlier inBtauces of the latter sort most frequent in 
venea, ar^ 

Dii, diu,. H, tit, queii, dein, defunc, deett, meo, tuo, 
«ti0, eo, of one syllable ; lidem, iisdem, deiwk, proinde, 
deeram, deettem, deero, deeue, anteiJ, iMihac, omnta, 
deoriwn, Tketitu, Thetti, of two syllables ; AcInUei, 
Ulyuei, abiete, ariele, semihomo, of three ; Arielibtu, 
^. MmtaniniM of four, with a few others ; which we may 
safely ituitMe ; Quie tuto quivis imitabitur. Vots. 



PENTAMETERS, &c. 

To the class of Hexametm beloi^ Peotameten, 
and six other smaller verses, as being parts of >n 



PBMTAIUTIK. 

This verse, also called Elegiac, because used in el^y, - 
of five feet ; of which the first and second may 



Be either Dactyls or Spondees, the third a Spondee 
generally, though sometimes an Iambus under Ue co»- 
dition of a Ctesura, the two last always Anapests ; as, 

Non bate ealettet m^wa dextra coat, Ov, 

■ o ol- -I u M eo -I • ■ 

t^m dederit priimu «teida, victor eriU Id. 



Some scan this Yene by two Pentbemimen, etuA 
conaistmg of two feet and s cesiira or single syllable ; 



Non bene eteleitei impia dextra co&t. 

Pentameters are seldom found by tbemselm alone : 
but AusoniuB Itas the sayings of the Seven Wise Men, 
all expressed in Pentameters tmly. In Martianui Ca- 
pella IS a coatinaabon of two and thirty such verses ; 
and HeliodoruB, in his Ethiopic history, has an entire 
ode of them. 

~In eood Pentameters there i« ever a cssura aAer the 
second foot ; of course there must be no ectlJipsis or 
synalepha after the second foot, because then the cceiura 
would be destroyed in a manner. 

The most graceful cadence in this verse is a dissyl- 
lable ; next to that a word, not of three, but of four 
syllables ; and least of all a monosyllable, onless it be 
absorbed by one of the synalephas ; as, 

Imitit oadU litera lecta tna ett. Ov, 

A great firalt in Pentameters is a tyoaki^ in the 
third or fourth, or beginning of the fifth foot ; aa, 

Hercuiit, AntcBiqve, Hetperidunupie comet. Proftrt, 
Tttga vrHim et mrtvbtm otamum acerba cinu. Catl 
Quadr^ugo cerntt *<epe retittere equoa. Ov. 
Quem moao, qw me tmitm atque uninnn amievm habuit. 
CatuL 



Umgum 

Nam timul acfeitit dederitfort eopiam Aelmit. U. 
Alqiti non tolum hoc te dicit eognitum habere. Id. 
Loripedeni rectui derideat, MMopem aibut, /m. 

These are set as -KuAa on rocks, i^od which younj 
poets sometimes suffer shipwreck. 

We must avud ThyKing in ^tis aad every other aort 



SH METRE. 

QiuenbmtJUmu per memut ODmejfiaeQS. 

Such TenM an ctdled £eomn«i not^ as I Ebrmerij 
coigectiired, from the hanh sound thev sometimei 
toAs, aot, u Hr. Bailey uya, " from uieir maidag, 
•• as it were, a Irion's ttul," by the reflection of the 
fhyme cm its correspondhig syllable, a« he ought to have 
MnJamed himaelf, uor exacUy as Dr. Johnaon Btatei i( 
" from tbetr author Leo ;" but, as I harre since learned 
from VoMius on Lithocomui, they are so named Saaa 
Leonhu, a Benedictine Monk, of die Monastery of Sl 
Victor, in Paris, A.D. 1160, and from him, not aa their 
knthor, (he was not the first who wrote ao, as we tee), 
but because he was the first irtio afllected this way of 
versi^ing, and wrote mndi so. Hence it is also culed 
IlItMkish Terse. ' VMsins condemns it ; " Fugiendi etjam 
" Versus Leonini -, etsi nee poetce prindpes aemper em 
" effugerint." Lot Oram. Lithoe. 

The late ingenioua autfaoi of VlvKKSSt-VMitVl, a Dit- 
MrfttfkM upon Part of the Greek md Latiti Pnuodg, 
whicb I abovld hew gUdty nconneBct to A* nmiGe of 
young Oraismariaiub were its mvttei and design jm^ 
Orammadcal, admires such Teraes ; as indeed do ^ 
iriwn they i^ipear ran nantet, and in bu<^ examples « 
be oitea in hu note, p. 72. 

« O patv, 0. pMn« eun docusque tu«n«n 
" £t modo nuternu tecta videtur aquii — 
" Contuht in Tyjio* anna vicuroque torp^ — . 
* BtM^ieis joTent* kiserM arte modM--~ 
"'nraeterii totie* juve quietus eqtuf — " 

where certainly the rhyme CjOnfined to only (»e or two 
iMtefB is soft and musical : but not so m that other (^ 
(Hid above qoted, including three letters ; nor in thoae 
whidi spml the dignity of some hymns in the Bomish 
Litur^ ; as in that of Corpna-Chrisd day. 

NvUm 4aAu, .ttobit mattu 

Ex tntaebt Firgme, 
Et Jn-nmmh emnarMl^ 



Sparta Verbi teminc, 
Std monu incolalw 
Miro claatil ordine. 

Here the rhyme U too frequent ; but its difltin^sfaing 
&ult i>, that it includes a ^rk>r censonsnt, which makes 
it alw^ harsh, as in these, 

Triwcit, i, verbis tirtutem elude tuperbU. Virg. 
Si Trqjtejitlit aU^md rettare pulatit. Ov. 
Vir, precor, uxor*; f'raier, tuecwrre torori. Id, ' 
Quot ceelwn ttellax, tot kabet tua Roma paella*. Id, 
Quinetiatnalitentiprosunttibi, Cynthia, eenli. Proptrt, 
Dttkit ad heHematfuerat tniAi rixa lueerwu. Id. 



Of these six, three form the beginning, and three 
'the latter part of an Hexameter. 

1. AH AKCKILOCSIAK PEHTBKUUIEIl. - 

This has its name from Archflochns its author ; and 
is composed of two Dactyls and a Cssura, heitfg there- 
fqjre a^o Called a Dactylic Penthemimer, and by Ser- 
'vius, A Dacttuc Diuetee HzpeKcataleciic ;' m, 

' Pulvti et umbra tumus. Hpr, i. 7. 



This was first used by Alcman, the Greek poet, and 
-consists of three Dactyls, and (Aerrfore styled Hj/fet' 
Kot.) a Csesura ; as, 

- « •! -« •!- ■ et- 
Mtmera latitiamque Dei. f^g. ^n. 1. 

iitfabncata^ga ilUdio, Id.' M». 4. 

C.CH»|C 



Thii contaitu the finir fittt Sset of an Hvzkmeter, 
the lait heing always a Dactyl ; aa. 
- «»i • ■ «i- ,!■ ?■ 

Soieitur acru hyemt grata vice, Hor, 1. 4. 

4. A PBAUSCrS, or aschiloohian bbroic, or 

aPONSAIC IBIKAUsnSi 

This contains the four last feet of an Hexameter ; 
for here the last must be a Spondee ; and therefore it 
should not be called, as by some it is, DactyKc, bul 
Spondaic; aa, 

• ^ el - ai- ■>( 
Canatne perpetuo celebrare, Bor. I. 7. 

6, A FHEKXCKATIAlt TUHETEB, OT TBQVDTA. 

Thia, invented by Pherecrates of Athens, contains 
the three last feet of an Hexameter ; the last of course, 
and the first, being commoDly a Spondee ; as, 

Quoinetf potaica fimu. Hot, 1.14. 
Catullus sometimea makes the first a Choree ; as, 



Perge, ne remorare. 59. 200. 
(Although, with submission, I understand the exam'- 

^e, Hymen.o Hymetuee, as in the former editioni) to 
be correct, Hymen being in the Voc. Case ; yet, as it 
has been objected to, I have substituted another for it. 
I am far from thinking this account of the Latin Metre 
&ulde88 ; and would ^ankfully correct every error that 
was certtunly pointed out to me, however ungentlemaiily 
and barbaric the manner of the critic might be. And 
1 wish my own book to give place, when a better sp- 
peara, as I hope there may. SeeSUukmo^iEdiMbwgh 
ma^Wiine for November 1821.) 

Boethiua has an Anapest in the first place ; tat 

Simui turgtt ab ortu. 



uuuic. METRE. S07 

But CmuUvu farms thia TrimetVi not' otHf with s 

Choree in the fint place, but a Dut^ likewiie in the 

laat, which writers on this snliiect seem to have taken 

It of; as, 



'6. AV ADOnC, SVOBU. 

This vene was caO^Adaue, bam Aden, a jroung 
l^'priaa Fmoe, '* Cujus in thienia eo utebantor." Vott. 
Ttiy chanted it at hu AinenL It coosiata of a Dactyl 
andsSpoodeei u, ' ■ 

RuL AfoOo. Hor. Oct, 1. 10. 
BoeUiinB has many of them uicoeaqively e 

ifec oMor adtit,. 
NwbUa men* e^t 
WmelaqiteJrteMM, 
H«e u£t regtwO, L, 1. de Cm. PAU. 



n. IAMBIC VEIISE. 

Iahbic Vene ia ao called, fiom the fitot Iambus in 
it. Of thia kind there are two apeciet, one &tin- 
gnished by the quality, the other by the quantity of 
Diefe^t. 

1. laaMct dittiaffuMhd by the Qualiti/ oftheFut. 

Aa to the qnali^ of 'Suax feet. Iambic Verses are 
ciihcT Pur^ that is, composed wholly of lunbuaes; or 
il^oed, that ia, having certain other feet interminKled. 

Originally thia verse connsted entirely of lambaaes : 
as, 



Suit el ip$a Rama cintwc ntif. Hvr. Epod, IS. 

I. Aflerwsrda, to make it more grave, Spopdett 
T^ere put in the odd (1. H. 5.) ^cea ; sp . 



■lu -I- -II) -I- -Iw 

Par* tanitatiM velie tanarijmt, - Sen. 

lOiidt in £tct aiooimta to exactly tbree Third Epitritt;: 

Part MtnUatit pette'sanarijiiit. 

Z. Then again, tlie odd .places had ti^ifiereiitly Spon- 
dees or Iambuses ; except that in the fifth or last but 
me waa always a Spondee, to make tbe cadence more 



r tmere iKminm tinwi fotett, Stn. 

8. Thiidly, the Tribrac having the same time as an 
Iiiubufl, {Ear two short times are equal to one long) 
vas used instead of an lambuB in the even places, 
except tiM uxth or last, where (nnless the verse was a 
Scazon,,the lambns is retained; And,. 

4. Fourthly, the Anapest and the Dactyl, having the 
aame time as the Spondee, tbimd admittance into the 
odd {daces ; as, 

I^^Mtbere ratio nulia pentanm fnUtt. Sen,, 

Qui ttatmt aBquitl, parte tttau£ta oOmi. 

J0qmm tieet itatueril, hmid agwu_fiut. ItL,. 

• p -iB u bI- -.i^-i - -I <. 

Oommare tmniaut ; jpimui allot gere : 

G v-io-i- -{" ■'• - " 
Seqiatur mperbot vltor a tergo Deut, Id, 

6. Fifthly, the conic poets went farther still. Even 
where, but in the last place, which, except Scazons,. is 
for ever occupied by an Iambus, thev put all the ftet, 
idiich were before reserved to die odd places, natiaely, 
the Spondee, Anapest, and Dactyl, and also the Cretic, 



tJETRE. 3D» 

AjgqpliilH^ ProeeleiuiQiitic wd Bacdnc ; all wUdk 
together with tlie Tribiac and lambm, thev used in aay. 
plao^ «m& wad «dd« exGept](h« Jsst, t^oi bad alnsy* 
tat Lunbmi »a. 



QjfencSrti tSco. Ttr. 

FirtuU aiMre eportel, nonfaettmwui ; 
B a -I s u-i- -t • -I - -t ■ 
Satiabetfiviionimteit^per,t[atrecteJa^ PUut. 

ffomo mm, iumam tuhl a me tMtmim ]^iO, 2>r. - 
See the use of the other feet eun^Med in Tenooe^ 
AhnoBt all Fhndnu's iablea an in tfaU kind of -veiae ; 

- •!- tml- • •!*■ obV -t e 

jfimtM menlo jjroprtiMi, fin a H tnwii ofptUt, 

Facit pareata bomttu, non nee ei itUt t , 

In anch verses as a Tribrac cs a Procelenamatic n^ 
follow a Dac^l, and precede an Anapest, we ntut thua 
account for a nnildiuidtj| of slunt ayllablesi perfai^ 
■o many aa eight, all contiguina, if siicb and such feet 
jshanee ao to occur. 



scAiON, or CLAunicAm uvaici. 
6. This is a sixth sort of Mixed Iambic, called Sea- 
son or Lame, because the cadence is here inTsrted, and 
maimed as it were, an lamhua being put in the fifth 
place instead of a Spondee, and a Spondee in the sixth 
mstead of aa Iambus : ^a, 

S»d turn ndcMWf manfiae piod in tergo eit. Phad. 

dittmgiathed by tie Quanlky or Nvmber ^. 
their/eel. 

there are diree pjindipd sorts (to aay'no- 



2ia METR£. 

thngofMooometenheie, (which are very ntrelj med) 

]. Doanxa; coMuting of four foet, or two me>- 
tures; for one meaaurelai^iccontaiiia two feet, thongb 
an HercMG m^anue lias only vae. 

t. TaiMXiBa8f of three measnreB, or six feet, there- 
fore called also Senaiii, fiom.teiMU tik. 

3. TKiaAMETEas, of four loeasurei, or eight feet, 
aad therefore called also Qeadrati, and Oct(»uyii. . 

U I 



Fortmta non nnUatgewu. M». 
But their heat cadence ia a trisyllable, as in most of, 
tka lines of this beautiful Morning Hymn. 

- -i^ -I - -Jo 
/am lacit ortO ttaere, 
Deumprecemwr taj^^eet ■. 
(Zt IN t&frnu octinu 
Ni)* tervtt a noceritibiu. 
Linmam refreenam ten^eret, 
Nelitit Mi>rror ituontt, 
Vumnjimendo contegat, 
Jft vtmiUUet haurial. 
Skit pitra cordu tntinti ; 
Abnttat et vecordia. 
Cfimif terat wperbum . « 
Pplit ciitjue pardttu : . 
Vl atm d^et Muceiterit, 
JVoclm^Me «»-« re(bc«n<r\ 
.Afuadt per abttiaetitiam 

r' canarmtt gloriamf 
Patri $it gloria, 
Sjuique toli filio, 
akm Spiritu Pardcleto, 
Ntau, et per omne teeulam. Brec. Rom. 

2. nuxTxas, or skkaui. 
Iliia is the Iambic used moat in tragedy, its beilr; 
cadence a dissyllable ; as, 

- -I a -I - -i^ -I - -I » 
QuKUHjve regno Jida, el magna pot^ . 
Donmatur mua, nee levet metvit deoij Sen^, 



METKE: Sll 

In this metre is comppsed'thefoSowing Hymn for 
tke Comertkm of St. Pml, in the Romish Coleadar. 
^S^^g*' Ooctor, Pmde, tmret mitrve, 
Et noitra tecum pectora m ectUim traJte, 
, Velata dum mfriidiem eernat fides, 
Et soli* itutar, tola regnet Charktu. 
Sit, Trinitati tetr^crna gloria. 
Honor, potettM, atque JMUatio, 
I* unttote qufe gMemat omnia,. 
Per univerta cetenuiatii leiula. 
In Has metxt also is written the Iftb oC Honee'a 
Bpoda. 

8. TXTRAUEZKKS, OTI ftSAfiOtATI, &C. 

These are used only by comic poets ; and they 
a^Hiund with them. 

» -la -I o -I - u ulu -lb -I.- - I u 

Pfcumam ta loco negUgere, maxHKtim interditm eit Utcrvm. 
■ Ter. 

u. ,t u -I : » ulo -I - -I- -I « « -I o 

'^nnre omoiiJt, mtieTM «ft;jV(Sferttm avitfUodiiiwU, caret. 
P.hmU 



OI'IAHMO, AS PSBVBGT'OB'DtFEKVECT. 

Here is another distinction to be observed in Iambic 
verses, which are either perfect or imperfect ; and iiom 
hence arise certain metrographical terms, which the 
learner must now be made acqifainted'with. 

When a verse is perfect-B ^"its parts, being neither 
defective nor redundant, it is csUe^ Acatalkctic, i. e. 
MX itoppng short f such m d^ote w^ have alr^y seoi 
exemplified. 

When a verse is defective of 'toe syllable in the first 
foot, it is AcxFH&zoDS, i. e. keaJSnt. 

Wboi it wants one syllable at the end, it is Cata- 
ucnc, i. e. AoAtng or ttopping too tooa. 

When it wanu.a whole foot, it is Diuickt«ata* . 
ijpciic. . 

[;:„ifKi:,C00t^l>J 



When « nne is ndundaat, lunog iDon than die 
■utcd metiure, it ia then called HYrutUTAUcnc> or 
HirxKimsft. 



I. IMPI»FECT DIMETERS. 

— Trv^w £i £e. Hor. S. 18. 

• -1 _•-! « 'lo 

Ada, Pater, Supreme,- 

' -Is -lo -I 

Qmm MMw BiBit wiTiimii. PrwL 
Tbeie have always an Iambus befi>re the last syllabi^ 
and tm called Anacreontics, from Anacretmi who used 
them, mti who baa cometimea a Cretic or Amphimacer 
in the fint place : so has the imperial poet Hadriaa 
(unleas tat amhJare he wrote amUare) in the toOowing 



AmXmiare per p^iUai. 



Vitam pr4Stta pur am 
JterparatMtm, 
Vt $peetmtet Jetim, ■ 
Semper coUatemur, 

SU kttu Deo Patri 
Svmnio Ciruto Decut, 
Spmtui Smuto, 
Tribtu AoNOr utuu. LibelL Free. 

i. HTPEBCATALSCnC. 
_-, -I • '-I - -I B -I 

LMdumque/ortuna gravetqiie. Uor. t. 1. ' 

C.ooylc 



2; IMPEPEEQT TRIMETERS. 

There is bnt one sott (tf Imperfect Trimeter, and 
that is Cataiectie, having always an Iambus hef<H« the 
Ijist syllable ; aa, 

Ifpvteque pergunt inUrirtbrne., Hor.i,lS, 



S. IMPERFECT TETRAMETERS. 

There are two sorts, viz, Acephaloia ani Cataketk. , 
Of the first is this noble Hpm on .die death of Christ., 

1. AotCBAionai 

-I U -I u -lu-l- -I O-I • - 1, 

Pange, lingua, ghnoti lavream ceTlammit, 

■ £t si^er Crwii trpphtxo die triumpkum nobilern: 

QiuilUer, Redemptor orbii ti^nolattu vicerit. , 

De parerUit protoplaitijraude Factor condolens, 
*Qitando pomi noxialis in nfcem mortv rwt : 
Ipte Ugnitm tunc notaoit,. dattma %ni ut tolteret, . 

Hoc opiM noitrcE salviiiovdo depopOKerat i 
Myltiformii proi^orU art irt aTtemfaUeret ; 
Et medelam ferret inde, hostis unde Iceserat. 

Quando vevit ergo sacri plemivdo temporit, 
Mifsus est ab arce Patrit Naius, orlnt ComUtorj . 
. Atqve ventre virginali came amictut prodiit. 

Vagit Injan* infer arcla conditut prtsse^a ; 
Membra panmi trtvoluta Virgo Mater alligat : ^ 
Et Dei manu* pedetgue ttricta cingit fascia. 

Sfifn^termi tU Beatis Trinilati gloria ; 
Mqaa Patri, FiUoque : Pardecut Paracleto : - 
t/niut Trmiqae nomen laudet wneertilas. Brev. Rom, . 

* The learned and celehraled Hr. Bingham, in bis An-\. 
tiqoities of the Christian Chnroh, reads, 

" QuOMdijMMtiHixMUimarmiNMprteMCBrrmf.'' 
a, bettor Terse and better Latiq. , 



cGoot^k' 



tl* METRE. 

Tbw kind »{ verve U atynarte^, as they my, that k, 
mot to connoted or bound up, but it may be divided into 
two ; of which the fint here is a Trochaic Diraeteri 
^ other an Iambic Dim. Aceph. and so it b writtta 
in the Breviary, each strophd containing six verses; 
thus, 

- o I- u • t(V - 

Pange, tmgua, glonon 



Et su^r Cruets trepkeeo, 

hie TriuntpAimi tuAUem : 

Qualiier Reden^tor orbit 
Immolatui vicerit, ^c. 

The author of thu was St. Ambrose or St. AaBttn* 
Gontemponuiei in the fourth century, as some say ; or 
dandiamn Hamercui, aa Kdoniua ApcJlinaria inuata ; 
it ll quoted here from the RcNman Brevjazy, nad bodt 
diis and dieae before, especially the.Monung Byni^ 
written, I believe, by St, Amhnii«, the authoc of many 
hymns in that metre, are too beautiful to need Mm* 



i. OAIALSCTIO 1 

Rerntte ptulUtm imhi meum guml imokuti. Catut, tt. 

Such verses are also distingnlshed by the name of 
H^fponactn, ftom the Greek poet Hipponax, who used 
them, and SeptenarU, from the seven whole feet in 
tbera. This before us is a pure Iambic, nithout neces- 
dty however, so that the foot before die last syllable 
be an Iambus. It is also Asyoartetos, containing a 
Dim. Acat. and a Dim. Cat. 



l;,GOOt^l>J 



TEOdHAICS. 

Thk author of the Port Royal Grammars * (M, 
Claude Lancelot) allows not, that there are any Tro- 
cliaic verseB properly so called. He lays they ore 
AoepbalonB Iambics ; and that some gramataria&s, 
oeve^ imputing the defect we have just now spoken oft 
to the beginning of a verse, but always to the end, call 
sach verses Trochaics, because, afUr their way of 
acanning, they form Trochees or Chorees, and not 
Xambuaes. Thus the Acephalous Iambic Dimeter, TVv- 
iUur diet die for instance, when scanned by Tntchees, 
takes the name of 

EuripideuB Trochaicus Dim, Cat. 
Tnu&w £ei £e. Hor. 

imd the Acephalous tamb. Tetrameter, as Pange Ungva, 
8[c. when scaiuMd by Trochees, as it may, is called, 

Trochaiciu Tetram. Cat. Asynut. 

- B I- ol - bI--1- uI- -I - ol 

Pattge, Imgva, glorioti kmream certaminia. 
The first part of which is a Trochaic Dim. Acat. 

- u 1- ul - si- 

Ptmge lingna gloTMti. Terence is iiill of mixed Tro- 
chuc Tetrameters) Catalectic, and has three Acat. 

There are no Trochaic Trimeters of this kind, be- 
cause there are no Acephalous Iambic Trimeters ; and 
yet, though this may militate with Mons. Iiancelot'e 
opinion, he notwithstanding was deceived ; for there 
are Trochaic Verut, Pure and Mixed, properly so called.. 
The Hen* .imeter Arcbilochian (of wluch this is an ex- 
ample, ISolvitur aeria hyenu grata vice — Verii et Faxiom) 
is jiiynartetos, i. e. capable of being divided into two, 
of which the latter, composed entirely of Trochees, is 
; t^ an impure name called an 

* H. Clande LanoeloL So I have always understood ; 
thoagti some call the author by the name of Titrb. Pro- 
bably the save- person. He was tutor to the Prinoe of 
Conti, and died AJ>. 16»&. At 1. 1I& 

^ 8 C-""8l'^ 



£ie JiETRfe. 

Id^l^uHic Trocludc Dim. Catalectic. 

Verit et Favoni. Hor. 1. 4. 

/mratfKnte Lwia. Und. 

Here we two lunbuses certainly ; but if you scan dui 

ve»e by Iambuses, it will be dtogetber mutilated. 

In Catullus 'we find two wrta of Mixed Trochaics, 
both Dimetfers, thfc one consiBting cjf a Trochee, a 
Dactyl, and two Trocbees, the other of a Spondee, a 
Dactyl, and two Trochees, both in the Epitbalamium 
sf Julia and Manlius. 

u|. y ul- »[; 

Flammeum maeo ventre. 

-I -« ol - al- 

UngventtOe glabru martte. 
Vtd. Hendee, Fhaleu. ^c. other sorts of mixed Ttfl- 
chaios. See also " Versei $tl4om used." 



in. LYRIC VERSE. 

WITH SUCH VEBSBil AS HAVE RELATION THERETO. 

This dasH, under which are eomi^ehendcd aH 
'verses, (except thwe seldom used) not referred to the 
two daases precedii^, may itself be subdivided into 
tliree species more, namely, Croriaubics, HBintiCA- 

SILLABIC8, ■ AnaPBSTICS. 

CHORIAMBICS. 

These take their general name from the foot Cbori' 
ambus, by which they ^re partly measured. 

There are seven sorts bf Choriambic Verses. 

1. A'Giyconic, so called from Glycon. This con>- 
'vat% of a ^oodee, Choiiambus and Iambus ; as. 



Hi 



Sie U Diva pMetu, Cypri. Hor. 1. 3. 



St, An AicUmad, mveated 1^ Asckpiu,' containi a 
Spondee or an lambiu, two Choriarabuseti, andanlam- 



~Mtteeiutt i^avu etUte regiimi, Hor. 1. 1. 

^ An Alcaic Choriambic Pentameter, bo called from 
AIcseuB, has in it a ^i»dM, iiat^ Choriambiues, and 
an Iambus; as, 

SeupliiTetht/emet,teutribvitJt^teriiitimam. Hor, l.Il. 

4. : AnAictnanic C%oriambi(^ so named from Alcman, 
eonUum a Spondee, two Choriambiues, and a Csesnni ; 
in the Cesttva only different from the Asclepiad ; as, 

Htu ^aaiH prac^i meria pr^mdo. Boetk. 

5. An Ariilophanian Choriambic, so called from 
Aristophanee, contains (me Choriambus and a Bacchic i 



LyAa, die per onmtt, ffor.U-8, 
Baxter, one of Horace's best editors, calls this verae 
an Anacreontic Dimeter HeptatyUahic, as having been 
used by Anacreon, and containing two feet in seven syl- 
lables. It is also called Alcaic. 

6. An Alcaio ChoriamUe Tetramtler, called also 
SpichoriamiMe, conusu of the S«cond E[dtrit, two Cho- 
riambuaes, and a Bacchic ; as, 

Te Deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando. Hor. 1, 8. 

Fnidentius has thrown all these Choriambics together 
into one ode or stanxa, in the order in which they here 
lie. But there is stUI ^seventh sort efiChorumbfc 
yetit, vij. 



7. A PkUkitm ClwntmMe, w called from Philicot of 
Coxcyn, whs wiot« wlnde poema io it. It con«bta of 
fire . Cboriambnaes and a Bacchic or an Amphibnc. 
Hariua Plotiiis gives this tat an czunple, 



Tt ponii, Bacche foUr, Uqtie, decent, eamto, Vetmi,^ 



HBNDECASYLLABICS. 

Thbsc TNMt have their general name from die 
number of their syllables, viz. eleven; in coundng 
wbidit bowerer, two syllables united by Synalepha go 
for one. 

HendecaayllabicB are of four sorts, namely, PauiD- 
ciAH, Safphic, G&bai Alcaic, Shall Alcaic. 

Phauociam, or Phaleciait. 

This, BO called from Phaleecus, a Grecian bard, moA 
used by Catullus, who excels in it, and well adapted 
to epigram, contaioa five feet, of nhich, accordiog'to 
Catullus, tbe first is eitber a Spondee, Iambus, or 
Choree, the next a Dactyl, and then three Chorees ; 
so that in fact we have here another sort of mixed Tro- 
chaic; as, 

- -I - o •fr ol- ol- o 

Hit le plut ocuiu nieuamarem. CatuL 14. 



iThiB was invented by the Greek poetess S^ipho, sw 
contains five feet, a Choree, a Spoudee, a Dactyl, an 
two Chorees, a fourth sort of mixed Trochaic ; as, 

Creieit indulgent libt dirut hydropt. Hpr. i. X. 

f.>».;ilC 



CatuUiu pots « Trochee tom 



Pauca mmeiate mece pueUa, 
and Sraecs, even a Dactyl ; as, 



Que jue 4<f Htiperiat jacet ora metat. 



ORXAT ALCAIC. 

Thia, vhose author waa Altaeus, u conqtoaed of an 
Iambic Fenihemimer and twQ Dactyla (now an lanibie 
Pendieipiiner consist* either of two lambuaea and a 
Cteaura, or of a Spondee) lambuaea and Cteanra) as, 

f^det, tU idta itet ime eanmbtm. Hor, 1 9> 

QiddntfutimtmeratiptgequtBrere. Id, ib. 

It is worthy of remath, that in lonie of Horace's 

Great Alcaics, the Ceefura or half foot, ia found in the 

fint syllable of a word; as, 

j^KcfondM t» certamine Martio. 0. 4. 14> 
aiA in some in the middle of a word, the remaindei of 
that word however being c\it off and lost in acanninfe 



Hhic onme principituit, hue refer exttmn. O. S. 9. 
and in Brreral the Cesura or half foot lies in a mono- 
•yllaUe; as, 

Hoc eaverat mau pnmda ReguU, 0. 3. 5. 
The legulai CBsura is in the last syllable of a word, 
IB the very term seems to indicate: it is obaervable 
dierefore that Horace should admit it ebewhere ;. and 
Sat the observation I do with much pleaanre make 
fny acknowledgmenta to ray dear young Friend and 
Fnpil Mr. QsoBQX I^acp or njMmrnt ; ivhoae 



l;,GOOt^l>J . . 



«W. MfOftSL 

wittliniw tt B^twg tiiMiB aad'otterpeealHriiiask IxXk 
of metre and expresaion, in Classic authors, be laiig 
pardon me, if I speak o£ here, in justice to. his om' 
classic taste. So early in the dawn, may. it aw^tiaaitij 
brighten (yielding only to the brighter rays of Chriatiao 
virtue) into that " Literal Istida et docta cavillatio," 
which MacrofainaiBomMrhen-ranks atoong the greatest 
of his festiTC' jdeasnres ; and ' triii^ ta- still eateemei^ 
not as the essence indeed, but as a characteiistic of the 
Gentleman, and the privilege of the Scholar. 

SltALL ALCAIC. 

' TWh froM Kndar is also caiQed' a Pindaric DaetyUc 
Tetrameter, and ia properly a Decasyllabic, having bat 
ten lyllables, comprised'in two Dactyls and two Cho- 
reesi and tbepefbra (since verses are ri^tly^ deaann- 
nated from their cadeKe)- a-'6fil^sd^t!of'«nixe4.T^o• 



•.fi«MMZa(torJwMfaIDr audax: Rbr. S. i. 

■ Ftbm Didmedes the Grammariatt, Vossius meakt of 
i UniA Akmc,- oon^tosed of an Iambic Oim,.HypercaL 

and a Cretic ; as, . , ■ '. - 

j4vdi»i-MutaraM ioe^^os tiobUit. 

Biiftiii* it no;o«teerthaD'aBla»*ie Trimetw AtaW 
iBfftio. 



Audita J^utanm tacerdo*, a^&tfit^ 



■ ■' ANAPESrrCS. ■ 

Vv^' I»oeaBiited.at',f)nt'of<'f(NU' Anpems^ Mtoi 
wMi^ Xta«i^and:^Mlees were wediiwtMd VfAw- 
^Mtsq maannidi, tbat'tW».yef8e> notMitliMaBdim in 
■mai ntigtabnat-perhaps liB*«-aa Amftavia ib- . ^ 



Lemugtie/erit teaora Dau, Sat. 

Some have only two feet ; as Uuwe of Seneca on the 
deadL of Claodiiu : 

Defietetinai, 
QuononaSiu 
Fotait ctttut 
Diaeere eaimu, 
U%i tttMum 
Parte aiuUtA, 
Safe el neiftrdt 

There are in Pmdentiui, Boediiiu, and Ci^lla, 
Anapeatic verMB, eompoKcl of a Spondee, or Anape«t, 
-two more Anapeati, and a aii^le pliable : Litbocamus 
names them Partieniac; Maiiiu Victoriniu cftlla thaa 
Phalitctm; as, 

Qui te voht ette potentem, 

4'Mmot domet iiuferoce*. Botth, 



MISCELLAHE0U3. 

BaaiDGS all the foregoing, there are twenty>aeTca 
eihex lorts of vene, which do but aeldoin occur ; and 
Ihave therefore here detacbed them from the rest, that 
being thus situated they might here at least draw due 



1 . An ArchHochian Heplameler, composed of the first 
fimr feet of an Hexameter (whereof the fourth mint b« 
mDac^l) and three Chorees; as, 
vi 

[; :„| IK i:, C00t^f>; 



I9«S /SCBTIte. BVinnnawt 

. , . ,ffor. l.i. 

This verse, u we .have alieady.swd, is.by a Greek 
term styled Ati/natlttM, L.ai, Bot^ao stnetly «ae, but 
that it maybe divided into two smaller ones. We ajiall 
' soofi' see otfaera of tbe same capacity. The two, into 
which this Heptameter may be dissolved, are, or jfll- 
Manic Dactylic Tetrameter, deicrilled in the first clas^ 
and a Trochaic Dimeter, BTackycatakctic, which like- 
wise has been described ; thus, 



Soloitur (MTU A^m« gfMta viee 

Verit et Paeoni. 

3> (inM^rdWocAtNn /wnfttii conlaiiiB: two Ianabiwefli> 
Caesiwa* sn^' three Chorees ; and.it.iS'ia iact a.six^ 
iBor^QCmjxf^Troch^ie, if we regw^ilscedeacej fu^,: 



Trakmtque siccat iMchiiu^caTiMM.- ■ Hor. 1. 4. 

This may be scanned hli^ an lamlncTriAi.'Cat. and 
differs from that only herein, that whereas fhe third 
foot of the Iambic may be either a Spondee or an Iam- 
bus, in this of Aichjlochus the third must be a Spon- 
dee, that the Cffisura may he reaOy long, and DOt pro- 
ionga; as. 



Trahtaitqite siccat machmcB carina*. 
9..^tgifmlao-AT«MlMhian.((iatatm£).Atipiartetoa.i M, 

Strtbere nentcidoi atnore prrcubuBr groin, Hor. Ep. 1 1. 
4. Elegiatnine Jrckilochian (seeend sort) j^tynarl; aa, 

itteicte t^taiit, Dea.mlf^ier. ZAcMb .Jii»\fyhlX 

[;:„ifKi:,C00^k' 



TheaB.at&fix»ei3y th&ievene aCfmhoiiiMr; Ae.fint 
being composed of an Archilochian DectylK' PoHbi^ 
minier, and an lainliic Dimetft, of which (Jie first may 
be a Speod^e' oi lambua ; and tbe. aewntd :COonuuDg 
an lanAiis Dimeter and an Aichilocbian Dactylic Pen* 
themimer ; thua, 

■ B bi - •> b1 
5>' Seribere eerctcujai 

o -I» -I - -I " • 

AiBore perculfwa grmi, 

• -Ib -I --I b 

. i,.Itmcte.martalu Dea 

. . ■ Nate jmer Theltk. 

■ ■■ S. d- SiUi£e I<m\c « Majori, TetTomteUr, uaed hf 
Solades, and «oiuiitii^ <tf two Great Ionics, a Dichcnve 
and Spondee ; as, 

H<U cumgtwuna compede defeat eatenai. MttH. 

but ia tHe- first, and in the lecond place may b« s Me- 
' u the third a second Epiuit ; as. 



Eltmtnta nidet qtuB jiiuero»4feptt tHogutri. Ter.Maur. 
Benefac maUfacienttfmt : hoc Deo Svprtmo 

■- e •!• - obI- B - bI- 

Fiet timtlit, ^ refteii imo» miUoique. 

The two last are by J. C. Scaliger,r by way of imi- 

6. lonicus a Miiutri Trim. Col. conaiating of two 
■niall Ionics and an Anapest ; as, 

Animari itiettienU$ palntce. Hor, 3. 12. 

7. lotueu* a Minori TTttn. Cot.- containing three en- 
tire Small Ionics ; aa, 



IM UETBE. OLDOH vnn. 

8. /OMW a Xiun Tetram. A*^ ronnifMi foar 



S t m dm m ai^ert, Neo(mk, Liparvi tutor Hebri. 

Hot. 3. 12. 

The ttro Tenet here by diwoludob are tfafrfirat vX 
dw three Itaiici aod an Aaonic ; thai, 

Stitdtum mtfirt, Neobuie, Lvgarte^ 

t ntlor HAn. 
See this Ode in Cmqniua'B Horace. 

9. AmtupMlk or Pritqieiaa tfexam. 
•o called 1^ Diomedes, Lithocomus, and Vosiiiu, 
bavh^, in theu- exomplei a Choree, a Choiumhua. an 
lamhiu, and a Pherecratian Trimeter ; aa. 



O Coioitia, quae cupii ^onio ladere i(mgQ, 

This is T. 1. of the ISth'of Catullus, in which there 
is no Antispast. 

10. A Dactylic Itbyi^Mllic Tetram. m whidi are 
diree Dactyla and a P^rfaic ; used once by Boettuai^ 



Qui terere mgenuvm tolet agnaa. 
Liberal arvttjpriu*/ruticibut; 
Falce rubot ^Ucentque retecat. 
11. jin Iambic Aftmometer, Aceph. as, 

OcckS. Ter. Euk. i. 3. 
The same may be measured as a Trochaic Monome* 
ter. Cat. 

OccHfi. 

1%. Am lanMc Monometer. Acat. as, 

Qi^iibtdeHf Ter. And. 1. 6. 

IS. A Boetfuan Iambic Petahemnur, followed by » 
Itbntcf as, > 

C3.ifKi:,C00^k 



Mquorejlammtu. Boelh. 

.'.liti.Ai Xracli^ MsiuanrJIfffMreaL n, 

/i«tBNwm Sta llbco. Hem. Ter. Phorm. L 4. 

'- iS'.'A BoethiattTrochmeFetahemmer,to\\QwedL}tyxa 
Adonic ; ; asi 



Sakm attcil. B«et&. 

IB. The Saturuiim Vetse, composed of an lamb^ 
t)tia^ .pat..aikd.a Trotduic Dim. Bracbycat. used) ifc 
seems, in a pocdc warfare between Ntevius and tb% 
Metelli ; as, . ' . / 

-. ' - tiafruft* mofftm Metetli Neeviir poette. , 

17. An Anapettic D^oiia, flypercaU &b, 

'■ Jiteiiam. Qofdnam-at,? T^. Andr, S. i. 

18. Ati Ajtapettic Tripo£a, or ha_/tn<^ilic Ttira- 
potUa Btucliyval. ss, 

'. . 'Ji^mirr, MB^aJcjiknm. Ter. Htc. 4>.l. I 

We have se^a already, bpw Anapeatu! verses were so 
called, though not an Anapest in them. 

It has been objeeted that the first syllable of e^tAol 
ia^ot short- t»ib long, and "Jong with ^ Tengeance," be- 
tstne-tfie first oftBtfcpoi is long.- But Vosnusrin^w 
EtvmologiamJ^ingiiiB Latinie, at tht phraae Me-Sut- 
jSAtM, shews that Uie first syllable of edejiol is short, and 
tlna if i^a vulgar error ta wriiewdepot, as if tlie wqrd 
Were compounded of tsdem Pollucis ; the composition 
being, as a reoicritic woidd kifow, perdenn Pollucem. 
So, epol for per Pollucem ; ecere for per Qererem ; ejvno 
^^ymmumf efut^iMiosjxrQ'uiiinum'; ecmlar^ 
pa Caitorem. . . 

19. An Iambic Trmeier, Hgpermefcr by ft whole 

foot: M, ... .....;../ i 



«»: METRE. 

Th» it no Iambic Tetnunetsr Acat to be tbiu icrowri.' 

- -I 0-I--I - -I - olo-l- -I «- 

Imjtu I Etmuen ; n porro ute odioti pergitit. 
lor we shoiild have in one vene then bodi it Trochee 
and an Iambus ; which may not be, according to the old. 
lute to be observed throughout Terence. lamUei Tn- 
eliaitm turn fenait, neque Fyrrhichiumtati loco tUliaii: iri 
Trockaiei neque lambum nejus Pyrrhichhtm. 

Thii lame verse, however, may, according to die tnw 
BKMure, be termed Iamb. Tetram, Brachycal. whidi 
would be no less rare. But I call it rather a Triaietcr, 
because every oiher verse in this long scene ia a Tiw 
neter. 

CO. An lamUc Tetrameter, Hypercat ; as, 

1. VH te erofUcent, Syre, fui meUtinc estrvJu, Attt 

-I V -I 

pol tibi uta». Tar. Heaut. 3. 9. 

t. widUbKest? R^tat, qui bmntudacit fiLcmoii* 

miAi conteiut tit ? Ter. Pkorm. 1. S. 

- -I - aols -I -. o .1 - -I - o^i- 

$. EjutmemiieHt; ttmmetimeo: umtmemereUMt: 

nam ahtqve eo ettel. Id. U»d. 14. 
SI. A Trochaic Tetrameter Acat. as, 
1. Memiiutin' nte tue groMdam, et miAi tt magnopen 

intervmalvm, Ter. Heaut. 4. 1> 

- c «i - -I - -1 -I - -I- -I 

t. Noti ego vettra htee, Nollem faetvm, jtufwandmn 
dabitmr, te e»Me, Id. Aleph. t. 1. 

I. Age, da vatiam. Negravere. Fae,promittet Ifoih 
onuttia ? Id. i&. £. 8. 

it, A Trochaic Trimeter, Hvpercab aa. . i 



ts^BOK vsts. METRE. HT 

-I - -t • -I - ol • -t- « 

Jam idpeccatum prtnHBn magnum; at hmiaiatm tamen. 
Ter. Adelpk. 4. «. 
So this verse is read in an ancient edition, printed ia 
1560, Lugdiati, apod MaltUam Bonhome : a mott use- 
ful edition of Terence, which I adyioe him to loake much 
O^ whoever has it. If fno^umberepeatedin this verse, 
it ia Trochaic Tetram, Cat. of common use in Terence. 
23. J Telram. Hypereia. aa, 

S B -I - -I- -t . I> bI - 

1. Bene/actum. Hem! audUtiiu? Otmtia: agemt,in 
tuit lecundis retpice, Ter. Andr. S. 6. 

So Ais verse oo^t to be read, without rebut after 
femmlb, which would make it hypercatalectic bjr two 
feet, of which there occurs no example. 

St, Tufortaiie, quidmejiai, jtaTvipenda*, dumilU ca»' 

mla*. Ter. Heaut. 4. 9. 
24. A Galliambic Hexameter, generally composed of 
an An^>est, two Iambuses, two Dactyls, and an Anapest ; 



Super aita veclut AtyM ceUri rate maria, 

Fkrygium nemu* citato cupttH pede letigit. Catul. 

The second foot ia sometimes a Tribrac in the Alyt 

of CatuUiu (that divine poem, as J. C. Scaliger speaks 

of it, and says, that he had often attempted to imitate it 

but in vain) a«, 

= O -I O O Ur U -!■■ O Ul - B ulu ,U - 

ViTuUfii cUu» adit Idam properante pede cAonw. 
The first is sometimes a Spondee ; aa, 

Liquendum ubi etiet orto mthi tole cubicaium. 
Also, the tliird may he an Anapest; as, 

u u -Ion -I o u -I • u bI • u ol« B 

Ego mulier, ego adoiescetu, ego ephehuM, ego putr. 
Sometimes it differs from an Iamb. Trim. Acat. ooly 
in having an Anapest in the third place, and a Spondee 

in the fourth ; as. 



BSLBOMVttBf 



This De Aty u the sixty-first ef CatiJluB, in wbid 
Aere are still more Tarietiss of -metre to be observed. - 

25. The Proceletamatk Verse, composed of three 
Proceleusraatic feet, sndaTribiac, therefore all of short 
syUabtea; u, 

SB sUl SBBVt iidsqIb-OU - ' V 

. Aiumda miuTula.pri/pertteT obiit. 
of which the auUior is Serenus, quoted by Diomedet, 

26. The Molasvc Vert*, conqiosed of four Molm«, 
therefore all of long s^lablesi mentioned befiwei but not 
specifically ; as, 



OQimpoa^trexAlbm LongM. Enn. 

27. The CaTcine or Cameront Verse, bavinga motion 
or measure as well backward as forward, And so rumung 
ihis way or that, like a Crab-jUh, which in Greek is 
Carcinoi, in Latin Cancer. Hence Sidonius Apollinarii 
and Diomedes have named this kind of verse Hecwrreni, 
and otherB Antistrephont oi Reciprocal, But of this 
kind diere are various sorts ; as, 

1. When the same words being read backward, pnH 
duce the same kind of verse, as when read forwvd ; 
thus, 

- B ol- -I - u t-I- -I - o u I 

Mttta mihi eaaeas memora, quo rutmine lata. 

-i - B ui- u bI- -I - bbI ■ 
Lteto numine quo, metmura causas mihi Musa, 

which is an Heroic Hexameter hoth -ways. - - 

2. When not the same words, but the same letters 
being read backward, the very same words and v6rse 
turn out a^in ; bs in this of Sidonius Apollinaris, £. 9. 
Epitt. I*. 

Roma ttbi tubito oolibus tint amor. 

« Pentameter both ways. C.oi)i;k ■■ 



a. METRE. 229 

S, When the same words being read backward make 
aDQtber kitiil of rerse. Thus the following is a Sota* 
dean Ioiul- 'lajor> when read forward, but an Heroic 
Hexameter,' read backward; as, 

Messem ana, classeg mare, eahan tenet attra. 



Attra tenet ctslum, nutre clattet, area mesum. 

4t Whefi a whole distich bo revolvOB, that the metre 
of tbe one shall recur into the metre of the other ; alul 
so the same metre an the iriiole exist backward as &r> 
ward. , Thu8| of this disdch of Apollinaris, consisting, 
of an Hexameter and a Pentameter ; by rerersiont the 
' Pentameter runs into an Hexameter, aod out of ihft 
Hexameter comes a Pentameter ; as, 



Tempitre contwm^itm jam cito d^fidet. 

KfiVERSSD. 
'usf sel • -I - -I - <"»l • • 

Deficiet cito jam contttmptitm tempore Jkimen, 

- ^ol - -I - , -I us -lu «- 

Tramite decurrxt quod modopreedpiti. 

where not only the tame kind of verse returns, but even 
the same order of feet throngfaotit, though to preidrve 
ihe same kind of vene, that is not neceaaary. 

For many other Canrine verses, 1 find references to 
Roddphua Gloceiiiua, ui Lexka Phitoiophko, voc Car- 
ctntif, to the elder ScBliger, vis. Julius Csespr Scaliger, 
til Hyle, e. 30. Mtd HZ. and also to Yvo Viliomanu, ot 
the younger Scaliger, against Rob. Titiutf f, S. n> 2I| 

Here then are seven and twenty different kinds of 
verses, seldom used, aod rarely note4< Seven of tluse 
are in Horace, of whose metres we shall speak tnore 
largdy ; ten are in the Playa of Terence, and all, I be- 
Utrro, of die kmd to be found there ; the oA«r ten are 
, by fliflfereBt bands. 



OF TERENCE'S METRES. 



Of Tbrekce'b Metres in general, the foUowb^ 
though summary account, may be useful. 

' 1. All his verses are either Iambics or Trochain; 
and they aie either Monometers, Dimeters, Trimeteiii 
or Tetrameters ; which again are Acatalectic, or Cata- 
tectic, or Erachycat^ecttc, or Hypercatalectic 

S, Of the Iambics, those most in use are Acatalectu 
Trimeters, and bAth Acatalectic and Catatecttc Tetra- 
meters. Acataleciic Dimeters, and Catalectic Trime- 
ters, do notoCear bo often. Those met with biit once 

ir twice throughout all his plays, have been just now 



S, Of Trochaica, the most frequeot are Catalectic 
Tetrameters, the composition of many whole scenes. 
Less frequent are Catalectic Trimeters ; still less Cata- 
lectic Dimeters. Those least frequent of all have beoi 
already seen in the preceding list. 

4. Some verses may he measured either as lamlnca, 
or as Trochaics. In which, however, it must- be re- 
uMmbered, that if laeaaured as Iambics, they admit tt 
no Trochee ; and if regarded as Trochaigs, th^ can 
have no Iambus* 

B. But both Iambics and Trochaics, in Terence and 
in Plautiui, have, besides' their characteristic feel, Spoih 
dees, Dactyls, Anapests, Cretics, Ara^hibracs, BacdicS) 
Trifanics, and evep F^oceleusmatics. With these feet 
their ' writings are plain and metrical ; without thea, 
they must be so marred and misshaped by harharaui 
elikions, disscdutioBs, and contraciions, as to be extreme^ 
difficult to be read. ' 

G. The feet above-piei^tioned may be in any. ^Wf^ 
except the'last,' if the yerse be Acatalectic soiqaq^' - 
cfipt the last but one, if Catalectic ; in whic^- J^gti; • 



. METBfil 231 

such Iambics have an lambua, and such Trochaics a 
Trochee ; or it very rarely happens to be otherwise. 

7.. The Cffisura, or half foot, in the close of Cata- 
Isctics, whether Iambic or Trochaic, may be either 
long or Bhort, the last syllable being common. Hence 
a Pyrrhic may be found at the close of some verses, 
bat no where else. 



Here follows a Synopdia of all the many sorts of 
verses which have been before described. And though 
I cannot think it contains all that have been in use, 
much less all the language is capable of; yet I believe 
a larger inventory is not to be found elsewhere ; unless 
it be in a book which I have never seen, hut which 
VossiuB thus refers his reader to, " Consulat Servium 
" ih Centimetro," and in which Servius, I conclude, 
d^cribes one hundred different sorts of I<atin Verse. 
But' what VoBsius acknowledges of his account, may 
be said even of such an account by Servius,*" Plura 
" possunt excogitari." Vossius's account is very im- 
pertect. I am however indebted to it. And such is 
the variety of the Greek and Latin feet, though com- 
posed of only two sorts of measures, the long time and 
the short, that verses of five hundred different sorls 
might be made of them. 



l;,GOOt^l>J — ■ 



U$ MBiTRE. coHPOBinaa 

COMPOSITION IN VERSE. J 

Havimo reviewed the several kiods of Latin VeiW 
individuaUy, we will now observe the be&utifal vBiieaT 
they are capable of in Carmine, i. e.'in cmapoaitionf 
for by Carmen we are not to uDderstand a sioj^Ie verxi 
but a poem, wlietber it be an Epigram, Ode, Bpiatle, dj 
any odier sort. 

When only one sort of verse is used throuehout tba 
ode or poem, such an ode, &c. is caDed Mokocoloi;, 
■ when sevtral sorts, Polgodlei, or, more preciiely, if 
there are two sorts of verse in a poem, it is stjded D» 
colot: if three, TVieo/ot; if four, TefnicolM. There it, 
no loMance of the last ( Tetraeolot) in Horace ; and m- 
Iknber notice will be lakea of it here. 

.When the Stansa or Strophfi is composed of tm> 
verses, it denominates the ode Dulrophoi; when of 
three, TrUtrojihot; whenbfibur, Tetriutroj^Ku^heyaai- , 
which the Latin stanza should not go, Catullua only, 
having written one of five (Julice ei Mania Ej»t!iaia* 
tnium) and that not entirely consistent with itself, tbs 
stanza being for the most part, but sometimes not, ccn* 
posed of five Pherecratian Trimeters, of which theliiil 
four are irregular, having a Dactylic cadence, and IM 
fiflh more exact. 

"By a complex use of these terms, the ode is Dieola 
DiitTophot, when in a stanza there are two verses of 
different kinds ; it is Dkolot Trutrophot, when the 
stanza contains three verses, but of only two kioda, 
one sort being used twice ; Dicoiot Tetrastrophot, when 
the stanza has four verses, but of only two sorts, one . 
sort being used thrice. Again, the ode is Tneolot 
Trutrophos, when the stanza consists of three verses, 
each M a different kind ; and Tricolos Tetnulrop)iei, 
when in the stanza there are four verses, but of only 
three kinds, one being used twice. 

The different kinds of composition in verse then, to 
be here exhibited, are six, viz. 



m 'I 



i 



CiK>'ik- 



VERSE. 



[To /ace page % 



it Deque amori dare ludum. Id. 
(ft, Neobule, Lipane-i nitoi Hebri. Id. , 






gg x^uilico. Hem! Ter. 

cj \ Quidnam eat. Id. 

gg' 'Idqml scio. Id. 

Eg' jvero ; ai porro esse odioai pergids. Id. 

^Q It ? Reditu, qui tarn audads taonoris mihi consciua sia. 

g^' Lni> Ne gravere. Fac, promitte. Non omittis J Id, 

ga Itam primiun, magnum, at hunumum tamen. , Id. 

ga ]uid me fiat, pairi peadas, dum iUi consulas. Id. 

BL Tag. AoetA. 

65. "■ "• . 

aa m Metelli Nffivio poets. 
^■j ctUB Atys celeri rate maria. Catut. 
^g SI cupia ponto ludere longo. Id. 
gg' genuum volet agrum. Boetk, 
yQ^oina compede dedicat catenas. I^art. 
^^,;rulaproperiter obiiL Serenut. 
wg.t rex Albai Longai. £wutu. 
75-1 - ■ B«i - - . oi 

•J fa, daasea mare, cnlum tenet astn. J Sotad. Ion. M^, 

-I- o bI - -I - •■ ' 

cceluin, mare classes, aiea messem. ^n Herok Hesam. 



l;,GOOt^l>^ 



L Ob 



HVSUE. POSITION. 

Odx MoNOcotos, aUdi Cauuk Monocoun. 
Dicotos DtsTKOPBos, aUat, ^e. 
DicoLos TusTROPHoa, aUat, Sfc, 
Dicoi.09 TEiauiaoFHOs, tUku, ^e. 
Tbicolos Tristrofhos, tUias, Sfc'. 
TmcoLOS Tetrastbopbos, a&u, S^c. 



I. MONOCOLOS. 

tdiu fit. Id. CoHFOunoiri, ia oqe sort of metre, cotu^t more 

mI li, >eatly of Hexameters, in which are written Heroic 

i, IS ; or Iambic Trimeters, adapted to Tr^edf ; 

fi ons ; Trochaics, especially Tetrameters CatalectK^ 

h used by PlautuB nnd Terence in Comedy ; As- 

iada ; Phaleucians ; and AmipcBtics ; less frequently 

f>ic Dimetera ; Iambic Tetrameters Catalectic Gly- 

ica ; Sapphica ] and Archilochians ; more rardy 

,' Pentameters and Adonica. 

amh. Tetrameters Cat. called alto HipponacUi and 
Iteitarii occur not anfrequeraly in Plautut and Terence. - 
ley are c^ed Sepienani from their having sevKi 
(ole feet; and HtpponacUi itota th£ Greek poet 



ir. DICOLOS DISTROPHOS. 

Of thu there la a great variety. The most eommon 
are t^eae. 

1, That called Elegiac, from e e legem, Gr. To tay, 
alta! alatf this metre having been first, or maat 
used in fmieral ditties among the Greeks. It is much 
used by' Ovid, who ex^s in it. Catullus has some 
odea in it ; Propertiua has four bdoks of elegies, and 
nbuUus has fottF booU of elef^ except£. 4. E, 1. 
It ooDsists of an' HexAdetef aad~ Peatuaetet' ; as, 
z 8 



Flebilit ini^gtu* EUgeia tebt capHiot. 

Heal ntmif ex veto wme tibi none* efiU Ov, 

S. An Hexameter and Archilochian Dactylic Pen- 
themimer; as, 

Diffugere nieet; reJewUjam granma cav^M, 
jirborilnuqiie comae. Hor. i. 7. 

9. An Hexameter and an Alcmanic Dactylic Tetra- 
meter; u, 

TwK me ducwiMt li^uervnt ttoete tenebrae, 
Lwrtimbtuque pnoT rediit vigor, Boetk, 

4. An Hexameter and Plialiaciu Tetram. ; as, 

Te iuar'u el terra tt*meroq*e earentu arena 
Meiuorem cotuheta, Arekyta. Hor. I. 2Si 

5. An Hexameter and Iambic Dimeter ; as, 

Nox erat, et calo Julgebat btna tereno 
Inter minora ndera. Har. Epod. 16. 

6. An Hexam. and Pure Iambic Trim. Acat ; as> 

AUerajam teriiur belUt civiliioM atas ; 

Suit etipta Roma viribiu mil. Har.Epod.l(i. 

7. An Hcxam. and the second Archilochian Efagi- 
aarV/> Aajii. ; as, ■ 

Horrida tetnpttUu calum controMt ; et^ biuret 
Nioetque deduevtUJoeem : — mmc mare, aii M w'li w . 
Hor. Epod. IS. 
Ste Trie. Tria. n. 4. 

8. An Alcmanic Trim. HypercaL and a Ph«recrat. 
Trim. ; a«, 

Unut enim rentm pater est, 
Uttui cvncta mmttrat. Bomt. 

9. An Iamb. Trim. Aca(. and aPenta^n.; as, 

Qyamtiafiaente dieet ami gurgile, 

Non'exphlurat cogat aoanu opet. Boeiht 

10. A SctioQ latpb. Tiim.and an. Ian>I><.'PfiD>:; 
w, . ■ 

■Feromi doet* tyllabat amat ealift •> 

Harfine/etix M<«*twt ott, MmrU . 

C.KWIC 



11. An Iambic Trimeter and Dimeter ;, aa, 
Beatui UU, ^ut, procul negotiit, 

Ut prisca getia nKtrtaJnim. Hor. Ejiad. 2. 

. 1 S. An lamhic Dim. Acepli. and Iambic Trim. 
Cat.; as, 

TrvdilVT dUt die, 
Hfovaque ferguta interxTe .Umee. Hor, g, IS, 

13. A Gluconic Choriambic and an Asdepiad Gho- 
riambic ; as, 

IniaetU opuleniior 
Thetemris Arctium, et .divitU India.- Hor,3,iH. 

14. An Archyl. Heptam. Asyn. and Archil. Iamb. 
Trun. ; as. 

SoiiyUur acrit Jtyema grata vice — feri* et JFbpoiti; 

Tralaintque ticca* mocAints carituu. Hor. 1. 4. 

This fourteenth sort, may, as we shall see, he termed 

Tricolos Trktrophos, the first being a. dissoluble verse. 

15. An Iambic Trim; Acat. and the first Archil. 
£]e{pamb. Asyn. ; as. 

Petit, nihil me ticut anleajuvat 

Scribere versicubit — omore perculsum gram. 

Hor. Epod, II. 

This niay likemsebe measured a* TticTfif. 

IS. A Trochaic Dim. Acat, and an Iambic Dim. 
Aceph. ; as, 

Pdngr, litigwa, glorUM 

Lauream eertamiiwt. Brev. Rom. 

17> A Trochaic Dim. Acat. and a Fhereorst^ Ttiin. ; 

.' Quos oides ^edere ceito 

Solii cttlmine reget, Boetk. 

18. An Aceph, Iamb. Tetram. and an Iamb. Trim. 
Acat. i aa, , . - 

Ore jmlckro, et ore muto scire vit, ^uee rim / Fofo. 
Iiaago Rvji rh^torii Pictavid. Avsd», 



■•\;„o,k' — 



III. DICOLOS TRISTROPHOS. 

Tbi author of thtf PoR Royal Gramtnan ' Hftys tint 
it not a ngahi stallta. But why not regular he does 
not inlbnn ui. We find it used by Horace, thus, 

Two lonjct a Minori Trim. Aeat and one I<Hr. a 
Blin. Tetnm. Aqrn. 

Eqiut ipto nutior BelUrophonte, 
Neque pugno' tuque ugni petle otcftu, 
SimU wtetot TAemit humerot — kmt m tmtUt. 

Hor. S. 12. 

So the dd Conimeatator on Horace scans this Ode ; 
iriiloh is, however,- the only one of the kind m Horace ; 
■ad it may also be measured as Tricolos Tetnstiopboa, 
It we abul see when we come to apeak of that metre. 
The old Commentator styles this Metrum fSoiadiatm, 
from one Sotades, a poet of Crete, who wrote in it ; so 
that we bave full authotity far aecduntii^ it a regiia 



IV. WCOLOS TETRASTROPHOa 
Or thia kind the ptindpal are, 
1. Three Aact^iad ClttfiwmbiGs add • G^conic; 

"• 

Attmm per me£ot ire MateViiet, 
£t perrtimpert amei laaa, jtoteilAa 
Jctufithmeo. Ctmeidit aMgwrit 

Arpn domou •£ bttrmm, Hor. 3. IG. 

S. Three Ssfiphic Hendecasyllabics, and an Adonic 
Dipodia; as. 

Jam joHf lemt ami, atqme £ree ■ 
Qram^mt mutit pater, ei raboife 
Dexiera totnu jmenldbu arcei, 

Terr^wrbm. Hot. \,S, ,^-^,j,^|^, 

X« 



V.'TRICOLOS TRISTROPHOS. 

Of this here are four instances, and thna of Ottta 
in Horace. 

!• A Glyconic Choriunbic, an Aacteptad Choiiam- 
bic, and an Alcaic Choriambic Pentameter ; as, 
Dicendutn mihi, quuquit ej, 

Jtfundum qttem colttU mens taa penS^, 

N<m tvnt ilia Dei, quce ttuduit, cujus habeberit, 
Prvd. 

2. An Iambic Trim. Acat. an Archil. Dactylic Pen< 
tfaemimer, and an Iambic Dimeter Acat. ; ss, 
Fetti, mkH me, aieut antea,juval 
. Scribert verMiculoi — 

Amore peradman graei. Hinr. Epod. 11. 

Verses tlie second and third of this sortof Trie. Trtt^ 
may be thrown, ae we know now, into one Terse, nfX. 
the firet Elegiambic Archllochian Asynartetoi : and 
then, as we have also seen, this species may be esteemed 
Dicoht Oistrophot. Hence by the Bsme ode two species 
of composition seem to be exemplified. It is, however, 
but one species, which, like a dissoluble verse, may be 
called AtynarleUa. And such ambiguity rauM- always 
take place, whenever the strophe contains adverse that 
is dissoluble. 

C. Lancelot says, this eleTentb Epod isthe only spe- 
cies of Tricoloii Tristropkoi in Horace.. But lie errs. 
There are in Horace two more, one verse in each being 
AsynaTte,,^ Very benutifiil and ingemoaa. kind of verse, 
which Jjancelot somehow or other. seems unacquainted 
Vith. 

3. A Dactylic Tetram, a IVodiaic. Dim. Bracfayeai 
uid an Iambic Trim. Cat. ; as, 

SdoHmr acrit hyentgrata vice — 

f%rw etFaooai .- 
. TrahurU^pte »ieca* mac&iiut eermau 1. 4. . 



MKIKU. COIfPOtmOll 

in his moat valuable edidon of Horace, 
thUode. 

i. An Hexameter, an laaibic Dimeter Acat. and an 
Ardiilocliian Dactylic Penthemimer ; as, 

Henida tempeatat cmlwm contraxit : et imhret 
Nwttqug dtduamt Jovem. — 

Nune mare, nunc tihue. Epod. 13. 

The Thirteenth Epod is so scanned t>y D. Heinsios, 
ia his editi(m printed at Amsterdam in 1718. 



VL TBICOLOS TETRAStaOPHOS. 

Tm kind of compontton is extremel;^ beMitifld; 
bat un&rtunately the ancient poets have left us no 
great variety of it. C. Lancelot says, there are only 
two species in Horace : we shall however find one matt 
in the writings of that bard ; and it is surprising, that 
that great grammarian, in bis account of the Latin 
Poetry, should have passed by Horace in so cursory a 
manner, as he really AiA. 

%. Two Asclepiad Choriambics, a Fherecratiau Tri- 
podia, and a Glyconic Cboriambic ; as, 
Dia»am toKnediciU mrginef; 
Intonium, pueri, tficifa CyntMum; 
LtUai mmq ue Mpremo 
DUettam pemttu Joei. Carrn. See. 

i. Two Great Alcaics, an Iambic Dimeter Hyper- 
cat, and a Small Alcaic, otherwise called a Pindaric 
Dactylic Tetrameter ; as, 

OiU profanmn miigut et atceo. 
FmeUlingaU : canmna tion prhit 
AvdUa, Miuanim eacerdoi, 

Ftrgmibtu ptKritque cmto. ■ S, 1. 

C.oovic ■ 



3. Two lonin, a Minori Trim. AcU. (nhich Cm- 
quiuB calia Sappliic TrimeterB) an Acxeontic Trim. Cat. 
and an Adonic ; as, 

Miserantm eil neqae amori dare Uubim, 
Neqw didciiaala vmo lavere, out ex- 
, tmivari metuejite* palnuB — 
Verbera kngva. 3. 12. 

4. Another remarkable, and not very elfgaat, in- 
' stance of Tricolot TetroMtrophot, is that in Boelhius ; 

viz. A Boethian Trochaic Penthemimer, an Adonic 
and then a Boethian Iambic Penthemimer, followed by 
another Adonic ; thus. 

Si quia Arctvri 

Sidera netctt 

a -1 B • 

Propinqua rammo 

Carine labi : 
Cttr letiat tardui 

■ Plauttra Bootei, 
Mergatqw terat 

Mqwrefiamnmt, 

For Ugai in my copy, at the aec<md Stct^he, I have 
substituted Uvat, to assist the sense. 



METRA HORATIANA. 



ReadHobagej who will: but let no one afiifct to 
admire him, without agood imderBtandii^, first of the 
variety, then of the Eannoay of his numbers; by 
m^abp of whif^ we may, without iriiidL w^ never can. 
be sensibly eve^ of ^ sul^j^y of bi* s^ntjnNDts, 



MO METRA HORATIANA. 

tttnch less of, the (eneneis of bis dictiqn, bow full he 
is in every expression, bow thrifty and curioiu in the 
choice of all bis words, and how extremely fortunate 
in tbe use. of them. 

I will therefore coocJude this book with a very plain 
and simple account of all Hoface's Metres ; exhibitii^ 
i. A Prospectus of tbe difieicnt kinds of verse by him 
used ; i. A Schedule of tbe many sorts of metrical 
OMnposition in his Odes, &c. ; 3. A Table shewing the 
mode of scanning, and tbe composition of, every ode or 
line in Horace. 

Nctt. — The abbrenatiottt in the Prospecbit are explained 



HoKACE wrote in four and twenty different kinds of 
verse, of which tbe following' are examples ; 

1. TemUwbem. 1. 2. 

I. AikA^OMC, eoi^Mting <^D. S, 

2. Arboribuaque conue. 4. 7. 

%. An Archilocbisn DactyUc Penthemimer, D. P. 
des. 

S, Orato Phyrrha tub taitro. 1. 5. 

3. A Pherecratiatt TVtpodta, genertdljl S^ D. S. 

4. Sic te Diva potens Cypri. I. S. 

i, A Glyconic Choriambic>, S. Cs. 1. 

5. Aut £phetvm Umaritee CorinthL 1. 17. 

9. PhaUtcu,, or ArcJuL Heroie. Tetrap. S D. or S, 
thei.S. 

6. Landabnnt aKi claram Rbodon out Mltvlenen. 1 . 7; 
* 6. Ah Heroic Hexameter. 4 D. or S. D. Si 

, C.,„wk 



HETRA; HOUTIANA. J41 

r. limb. Dm. Ataft. «r £«npif. TVooiMC Z>nK. 
Cut. Ku^o note*.) 

.8. Amioe pfopugnactil*. Epod..l. 
B. ' laml^ JXm, ActU. f li^ tuffw. 

'9. jS^t&f^ ftitorantet ^eAtjtie. I. 9. 

9. /ami. DiM. iTjiieratf. Fh^ wau. 

"IP, MMnnidetindoiaolaaaiar. S. 18. 

10. Iamb. Tris). Cat. Vidga nottu. 

11. nU Libmui intar tUa tiamm. Spod. I. 
11. /am(. rrtta. ^eof, rulghmtut. 

it. Maecenas atavis edite regibtu. 1.1. 
IS. An Aslepiad Choriambte. S. Os. Gr. 1. 

13. Jam Motit tenia nwit atqve <Kr«, 1. 2. 

IS. d Sapiphie HetiSteMtaabie. C.S.D.C.S. 

14. Videa ut alta stet Dive candidum. 1. 9. 

14. Great Alcaic Hendecasjllabic. I. or S. L 
C«s.D.D. 



15. f&mtM ecmmtriia aaOo, 1. 0. 

IS. SmaUAkak, or Pindtmc Dactylic. D.D.C.C 

'18, Ta ne Aiueueris sdre, irt&B| quem mOii, qnem tiU. 
I) 11. 
' i6. AkttC Choriambi Fenttn. S, Gs, Ct. Ca. 1. 

17 1 I^dia, (He ptr onmu. 1.8. 

17. JlritbifA. or Amu, or AlCMc Choriamb, C^B. 

18. Te Seoi OTo, Sybaritt cnr jmipercs smsndo; 1.8. 

18. J^ Alcaic Choruuiib.Tetrsni.Ep. Sec Ca.CB.B. 
IB. ^Mmri mmmUtjiattvett 1. If. F.^Hot. a Crm. 

19. lomcaitiMri Trim. orJmc. Trim.Gai, t Smitlt 

lOMCt, A. 

Vip -UUennua est oeque amori dare ludnm. 9. 12. 
20^ Si^pluG Igoic a MiiK Trim. Acat. 3 Snail 

■ ■ loDlGth , - ... 

' ■ ' ::»,J,=,G00glt^ 



lU MGTBA HORATIAMA. 

81. StKdkima^ert,ife<Aide,Lk>arett tutor BtOri. S.U. 
81. Im. a Mm. Telram..Jcat, Atyi, (F. Uor. ab 
Sekt.) iSmaillonia. 

22. Sdvitui Miis byema gnt» viea Veru et Favmu. 

1. ♦. 
22, Archil. Dact. Hrotun. Acat. Axjp. S D. or S. 
D.C.C.C. 

23. Scribere ijermUot muyreperathum gram. Spod. II. 
£3. Ftr»tElegim^AnlttCjsi/ti:D.D*CtBt.etIaaA. 

J>im.Jcat. 

2i. Nivesqiieded(tCBUtJovem.K>iociii>i^ii<ii":tilii8e. 
* Epod. IS. 

S*. Second Ele^amb. ArdiiL Asyn. Iamb. Din. 
Acat. D. D. Cm, 



NEGLECTED HEXAMETERS. 

* Ber(nc Hextm^ In tbe eplstks and sadm ctf 
' Horace there are Hexameters, which, from a studied 
.negtwence, bave not the m^estic port oi heroic verses, 
, BBd have tIier«fiH« been called Neglected Hexameleri, 
These, because tfaey are {dain and humble in spspu- 
ance, some trough ignoraoK trnderralue ; vh^eaa, in 
fact, they are i^mirable, and excellent as.Chtade 
- I.Kicelot says of them, dmost beyond the readief imi- 
tation. Their simplicity auita did^iclic poetry : and they 
are choice relics of tine toA. pure Ladnityi Here ii va 
instance of sudi verseSi and a ^oof also tliat they were 
BO written with desiga : (V. eUam Stt. 2, 8. Ep. 1. T. 
Ep. 1. 14.) -^ ^ 

Primam ego mb Ubnm, dederim futdu ette peetm, 
Excer^am numero. Neqae enm amchutere verswii 
Sixera eue tatit: neyiie n quit »CT^>at uH not 
Satm^pnpnor«L,pMtihmcuiefiKtBm. i^a(.1.4. 



METRA. HOEATUKA.' 



TIm Uttte pieee, entitled PatijAaS, mai detigfud by C. 
Waae at a tpecvaen of Hvrac^tMelm, and it guoted 
hy both Cnt^imt ana Baxter, 

I FDiaSdii 

a £itiut ignenoTo; 

3 Et per pnta jnvencum 

'4 Uentem perdita qiueritat* 

5 Nod iUam thalami pudm- ttrcet i _ ^ 

6 Kon Italia hoBos, sec magm com mariti. 

7 Pptat in formqia bom ... 

8 CoDVertier Tnltus Buos ; ?. 

9 Et Prtetidaa didt beatas ; - . ' ~ 
to loque laudsti turn qabd laa alU est, ^ 

II fi«d clu6d iuTenctt Gocaua in frontc erigit. 

12 Si qnanid mianK Gopa nq^wtil* 

13 Bracliiift nnlnlr fen coIU ouri, 

~ ]4 ' Fbrenque veoKW oinaibiis illigat, 

IS-. .OwIgaejwngtewqBwrilori. ■ ^ 

, 16^' ' AndoosB sniiaM effidunt tela ei^dima. , 
' \f Illicitisque gaudet 

1 8 Corpva isducU staButio, se ^aeaa jnvencam. 

19 • ,8-1 ».--U«- 

•jO Et amoria padibundi malewiadis 

SI « ..-loo-Ioo-I,.*- _ * 

SSpbeequItur votis; et procreat, beune&sl biDiembreni; 
38 CecrojH'des juvenis quern perculit firactum tnanu, 
- S4 'Filo icaolTeoa Gooesiffi triada tecta d6muB. 

N. Id and 21, that is, tlie lame a JIfin. Trim. Cat. 
and the Jonk a Mm. jetrtm. viexe not obserred by die 
author of this specimen of Horace's Metres ; and it is 
remarkable, that hardly any editors, except Craquius 
and HeinaiuB, aeein to understand that th^ are such 
verses as these in Horace. 



Ci,i,slc 



fU METRA BOSATUUTJL: 

A SCHEDULE 
OftluwuiniMtofSfetnettCompoiiti(Miuedhf 

1« t£e woiks of tltif excellent poet an twenty dif- 
finent Borta of metrical compodtioa ; of tbem ninetaeD 
are in h^ odes and epoda ; luxl ao many as ten of tbeac 
are found in hia fint book of odeib The tmntietkk 
dwt of hia eiuatlei i^ aatirea. 

THE SCHEDULE. ^ 



Hm fint kind of netncal oompoiition is Hmace ii, 
M L. I. 0. 1. MonoMdoB m Vmmeiabn, compriaed m 
tma aort of rarae coJyc namaly, the Aaclqiiad ChOTiam' 
bic i iriiich netre occun thi^ in thia poet i rifc 
Lib.l.Od.1. Maemu amii a^ reggmi. 
8. 80. StMgi WBiW H UwiiBii tanpera um i. 
4. a. . Dmunmfoleraa, gm ayut acamofcf; ■ 
For the uruetni* of 1m VCnt ia thii eon, seePn- 
spectu^ Ho. ISi 



The KeoBd:aaH ia^ n L. 1.0. S. Dicolon Tetn- 
Bticphon, the atn^e «t atanca containii^ fimr vtxam 
but of only two kvds, namdy, three Sraiiic Hende> 
caqrllabtts, aad one Adonie, TUa baa Mm diatin- 
suiabedby the i^ixflatioii of Ae Sa^iUc Metre ; and 
ttwre are ia'Honce six and twen^ odea of this de- 
•cription, riz. 

lab. U Od. 2. Jam taiit terrU tuoit atqiie£ne. 
If 10. Meram,fa(iinde m^fot Atlantin 
i. It. Queai nrum out kena, tyra, tet am.. 
It SO; file fotaUt modicU SaSanu 
I. tt, ItOtger vike, Keterisque jmnu, 
I^ «JC I> — L.. ^^^ ^_. r. — ^ 



SO. O Vemu rwtaa Cpdi Paahtque, 
Si. Po tc i mu , M jmd wmd mo w iwrw. 
98. Ferticoi odi, pm tg)pmvliu* 

' C.IK»|C 



METRA HORATUNA; 34j 

Lib. 2, Od. 2. JVntiut argfitOo color «^ oeortt. 

S, 4. JVe lU avcilUe tibi amor jmdori, 

St, 6. Septim Qadet adUvre mecant, el. 

S, 8, Vila tijuTU iibi ^erati. 

S, 10. Reetiut met, Licmi, neqw allum. 

t, 16. Otiam Diooi rogat in pateDii. 

9t 8. Idartiit celebs qvxd agam caleTtdit. 

S, 11. Meratri, nam te dodht magittro, 

3, 14. Herculis rUti modo £ctiu, o pUlu, 

3, IS, Faune,t^gviphaTmnjugientumamalor. 
'3,. 20. Nonvidet, quanta noveaspericlo. 

8, 22. MtnOium aatot nemonanqut virgo. ■ 

8, 27. ImjMOt parrte reanentU omen. 

4, '2. Phtdarum qtdtqiut ttadet temalari. 
4, 0, I>ive, quern prolet Niobcea magtitp, 

' 4, II. Est mihi notutm mperantU annum, 

Carm. Sec, Phabe, lyRarvmque potent Vwna, 
rtdePmpecium,N.18.l. 



8. 

The third sort is, as L. 1. 0. 3, Dicoloa Distrophoni 
in stanzas of two verses, each of difierent measures. 
These are a Glyconic Chommbic ; and an Asdepiad 
Cboriambic ; and of this composition there are twelve 
odes in Honoe, vis. 

Lib. 1, Od. 3. Sie UD^potem Crnri. 

I, 13. Cum tu, Lydia, Tel^. 

1, 19, Mater tava Cttpidinum. 

1, S6. £t thuTe etfililmt jtaai. 

a,. 9. Donac graUu eram tibt. 

8, in. Uxor pauperii Ilwi. 

8, 19. Quantum diiiet ab tnacho. 

8, 24, Intactit amlentior. 

8, 25, Quo me, Oaccke, rapit tm. 

$, 28. Fe»to quidpotma die, 

,4, 1 ■ 1/Uentdtta Vetma dht, 

4, 9. Qvem tu, Mehmaene, temeL 
P.PrOip.N.*.lg. .-, ,1 



•« MffTKA HORATUHA. 

4. 

The fovnli kind ii, u !•. I. O. 4. ddiez Dicoloii 
Distrophoo, conqiosed of die Aidiilodiian Daictylic 
HeptaraMer, Anynaitetoa, and the Ardulochun lixa- 
bic; as, 

Ii. 1. 0. 4> Sol/nbir aerit h/tnu grata tnce— Firrii et 

J Vn Xm ^itf <ioo« fluwAtiur cannar. 
Or, if wt pfeaae, this fourdt kind ii a Tticdoa Tri> 
■U-ophoa ; and thai the Stropbd wiH coauat of three 
dideroit veiaeM, «a Alcmanic Dactylic Tetrameter, a 
Trochaic^ Ithyphallie Din. Brad^cat. aad an AicUlo* 
chian lanbic. n before ; tiua, 

St^itfr acTu hyeau grata mk 

Veri* «1 FwMi i 
Traimtt^ tuxai macJAua cariatu. 
There if no other instance of (hu Metre in Horace. 
V. JPnup. N. iX. 10. et Sifnopnti, N. 6. i9. 48. 



The fifth kind ia, a» L. I. O. S. Tricoloa Tetnutro- 
phon, having itanHaof four vertea, hut of only three 
■orta. The Brat and geocmd are Asdepiad Ohoriambic; 
the third a Fberecratian Tripodia ; the fourth a Glyco- 
nic Cboriambic. In this metre Horace has leTenodei; 
Til. 

Lib. 1, Od. S. Qttw wnUta graeUU le fiier in nsa. 
1( 14>. O noeu, refmnt in mare te ion, 

CariB Sec ' > ^**'''** **"««* *»* oir^wier. ■ 

1, ii. yUoM &iww2w fflc nmSt, iChliil. 

9, 7. Qmdfiet, AHerie, qaem ^ ea^Mt^. 

Sf 19. OfotuBlatidunig tplM^diorvUro. 

4, 14. Aadktrt, l.yce, D&mea tola; Jfii. 
rid. iVtxp. If. IS, 8.*. 



The aixA won is, as Z.. I. O. 6. Diedon Tetrastro- 
phon, composed of three Asdepiad -GhanaqabiGa^ and 



METSA HORATIAMA. <47 

one OyeoKC Chonunbic fa this dau are ium odes 

flf Horece; vii. 

Ub. 1, OcL 6. ScrHterU yariofirtit, eat ioMtim^ 
li IS. Ftutvr ovm twerit PIT fnta naeiiiUt 
I, S4. Quu ienderio titpuaar, tmt taodm* 
I, ^ 93, ^Un,nedoletufSummm,minKr, 
8, ' IX. NoUt longafera betla XwndtUUe. 
. S, 10. EKtremam Tmmm d hiheret, tyet. - 
9» I8> tn t ^mmm Dim aS ik tiirrinAeiiea, 
4, 5. Dim* arte bomt, optme SomMla. 

4, 12. /tmvemtoMtea, mee mare tenmnaa. 



7. 

The KTenth ckai is, w !«. 1. 0. 7. Duoltm OUtro- - 

Slion, the first of the couplet b^iw an Hemic Hexam. 
le second a Fhslisctu or Artbil. Heroio Tetrasl. Of 
this composidoB ire lave Aree -odes in Horace; vis. 
Zi.1. 0. 7. LaudainaaidiiclaTaiitRhoionavtMihfietien' 
1. £8. Te TfUtrit et terriK, numeraqae carentii armtf 
Epod. IS. Qwd tiln vit, vtuSer, mgru digmuima barritt 
nd. Protp. 6. B. 



8, 

The eighth clau is, as L. I. O. 8. 
^oDf the couplet coat^ning first 

Chonambic ((he same Choriambic at .. _ 

and Anacreontic) and then an Alcaic C^oriainbic Te> 
tram. This metre Horace has in only one ode ; via. 

L, 1. 0. 8. ZffHa, (fie |wr«MK«. 



IJjeoloii Distro< 
an AristotAianiail 
that callea Alcaic 



The niiith tatt «f metrical oompontioa in Htnace is, 
as Xb 1. O. A. . Xnspbn X«tBUropbo[{, in this .ord^, 



«48 METRA HORATIAKA. 

two Great Akatcs, an Iambic Dim. Hypercst. and 
the Small Alcaic ; which last is also eaUed Pindaric 
Dactylic Tetram. This is commonly called the Alcaic 
Metre ; and tliiai it should seem, was Horace's &f our- 
ite strain ; far he has composed in it so mmy as seTcn 
and thiitj odes ; viz* 

Od. 9. Vtdet nt aba tUl rtae eqii£dimt. 

18. O nudn pukhrafiUa pukkrior, 
17t Felox amcsnuffl tape Lucretiletn,. 
i6, Mutit amicut, tnttUiam et metutt 
27* Natit m tuum LatttUe ta/piit. 
29. Jcci heatit mmc Arahm mmdiss. 
31. Quid dedicatmn potcU ApeiUiiem, 
Slu Parent DeoTVm cukor et mfrequaUt 
S5. O Dwa, frotunt qua regit /tnttum. 
S7> Nvnc ettlnbettdum, imacpedeUbenh 

I. Mottm ex Metello coatule cnactHs. 

$. JEquam memento rebut in arduit, 

S. Nondutn tubacta/errejagum ealet. 

7< tape mecum temput in uit'imum. 

9, Non temper anbret nubibut hitrndott 

1 1. Quid beliicMUi CaiUaher, aut Scythet, 

\$, lUe et nrfatto lepotuit die. 

14. £ieu I fugacet, PoftAume, PotthMK- 

\6. Jampaucaara^jugeraregiif. ■ 

17. Cut me querelit exmamas tw, 

1 9. Bacchum m rem^t carama n^ibut. 
%0, Nor utiltUa nee tenuijerar. 

1. Odi prQfanum vulgKS et arceo. 

2. Auguttam, anuci, pauperiem pati, 

3. Juitvm et tenacem propotili varum. 

4. Detcende ccbIo, et die age tibia* 

5. Ctxlo tonatttem cre£dimus Jonenu 

6. Delicta 7»ajorwn ifKmeriivt lutt, 
17. ^li cetuito noUlit ab Laao. 
SI. nata mecum contuli Ma»iitL 
23. Calo tuplnaa H ttderit natutt. 
tS. Vim poellit nuper idoneui. 
29. Tyrrhend regutn progeniet, tibi. 

i. Qualem mimttrvmJiuvMUt alittm. ' 
9. Nejbrit credat uUerilwra, qiut. '■ 4 



MBTIIA Hb&ATEANA^ M» 

4, 15. J>iks£iutwMiCswnr«K>aM^w. * 
fV.Pra9vM14.<}.U 



'The tenth kind ft, u I;. 1. 0.11. MonoeoleD. c«i->~ 

.uitiug of Alcaic CHoriambic Fentameten aloite; and 

of this there are three odas in Horace; vis. 

Lib. 1, Od. II. TV tte ^latieru icire, tttfat, qucM 

mibi, quern tibL 

1, , 18. JVuUun, Fare, uara 'nte prvu tnenit 

arboTent. 
4, 10. O cTudeUt adtme^ H Ffnerii maneribui 
jxtteat, 
r»d. Proap. N. 18. 



' II. 

TiM abnHk MTt is. as L. 2. D. 18. KcolaQBi-. 
strapbon. Of I'hif Goin4et dw fint ■■ an laimhie Dim> 
Aceph. (otherwise caHed Enrtpid. Troehaic Dim. Cat.) 
and the aeomd an Iamb. TiiiO. Cat. and. thia metn 
occurs only in this one ode ; vix. 

L. 2. O. 18. JVoM (iar rmik (Mfam. 

r,d.Pntp.N.7.\6. 



IX. 



The twelfth sort is, as L. i. O. IS. eiUur IKcdm 
Tristn^ODi containing twoSu^ic lonici a Minor* 
Trim. Ac8t and an lome a AfAfTTetram. Aayn. tbna, 
L. 3. 0. 1 2. Miteranmett luque amori dare bidam, 

Jf»f»t 4iiki wala vw Imnre, oKt eatmimari 
m etu atu jMtnw taiera fiagwv. 
•r ft is TrieolMi TMnutrephon, and ae taaaatM sf two 
Sapphic Ionics a Min. Tiim. Acat. aa befose, m Aaa* 



S50 UETSA HORATIANA. 

CKonlic lo^ a JIfin. Trim. CsL and lastly an Adonk ; 

kftet Uiw mauMT, 

Miterarvm at neque aigori dare Ivdvmt 
Neque duici m«ia vino iaotre, out ex- 
amtmari metuMtet patnux 
ferbera littgute. 
Of such compositun Hp»ce affiirds bnt ^is out 

rJnvtup. J^. ii}, ti, or SO. 19. 1. 



IS. 

TbetlurteaitIits,aaL. 4.0. 7. Dkolon Dlitn>[Aoii, 
di« first bong an Heroic Hexam. tbe next an iudiO. 
DacL Penthem. Of tliis Ukenise we hme but one in> 
Btaoce in Horace ; Til. 
Ij, *• 0.7- Digiigert tttvet: radeunt jam grtamnaeaajpit. 

ride Prosp. 9. 9, 



Tliefedr«entIiwrfi^4Hg^I- DieoImUstvo* 
^Im, cflDmstingofaii lacob. Trim. Atm, wi'MiJi 
Dim. Acat, la ttu metre^re the 6rBt ten epoda ; 
Epod. 1. IbtM Liburtut inter alia nantumt 
X, BemtHt tile, quipraad negotiis, 
8, Parentit oliont giui impia nuam, 
4. £*i|M( et agMi quanta sortito obttgit. 
fi. jil o Deorwn quiccpud m cala regit' 

6. Quid tmmerentet /uMpiietvexat camt. 

7. Quo ? Quo, Mcelttti, ruitit f Aut cur dexterit. 

8. Rogare Um^o ptaidam te S4Bc»lo. 

9. Quanda repoitum Ciecu&wn ad/eitat dopes. 
1 0. Mala toluta navit exit aUte, 

yid.Proip.N. 11. a. 



The fifteenth sort is, aa Epod. II. the onlr inttance 
in Horace, either Dteoloa Diatrapbon, when it connsta 
of an lambm Xiim. Acat, and the first Archil, ^^ianb. 
Aayn. thus, . 

[; :„i IK 1:, G00t^l>; 



UETEA nORATUNA. tn 

lEipoi. 11. Petti, nikil me nnrf mteajmal, 

StribeTevenieulot,amorepercuUwmgTan* 
or it maj be Tiicolon Tristrophon, and tben coneista of 
an limb. Tiim. Acat. as befbret so ArcbiL Dactylic 
Peathemimer, sod on lam. Dim. Acat. tbus, 
Pelli, niiil me sicut anteajusalf 
Senhere verikulat, 

Amore perculmin grani. 
Fid. fVMp. II. Ha. or 11. 2. 8. 



18; 

The nxteentb sort of metrical composidon in Horace 
Is, as Epod. IS. his only inatance, either DicolonDia- 
tropfaon, the first being an Heroic Hexam. the other) 
the Second Archilochian Elegiamb. Asyn. as, 
Viffodt IS, fforrida tempeilcu ctEhim coatraxit : et imhre* 
Ntvetque aeducutU Jovem, Nunc mare, nunc 

oc it ia Tiicolon Tristrophon ; when the triplet ctHuists 
of first an Heroic Hexam. then an Iamb, Dim. Acat> 
sad then an ArcML Dactylic Penthem. thus, 

Horrida teapetiaa caban contraxU ; et mbm 
KtBeiqae dtdncunt Jvoem, 
NtOK mare, mme Mybtct, 
rtd.Pr<up.e.i4,.orQ.B.i. 



17. 

The leventeentib aoit ia. as Epodi 14. Dicolofi IKs- 

• trophoD, conq>oEed of an Hennc Hexam. and an Iamb. 

Dim. Acat. This we meet with twice in Horace ; to. 

Epod. 14. MoUit merlia cur (ontom ^jMerit mitt 

15. Nox erat, et aslojwigebat bmm tereno- 
Vid, Pro^. 6. 8. 

1». 

The euhteendi sort is, aa Epod. 18. Uie oiiy insltnce 

ofitwiHorae^SkolonDiitRqthoB, tbe firat btkig w 

Hmok HmoM. the next an Iamb. Trim. Acat. n^ 

W^oA.16. AkerajamUriivUtitmlibH$tilitt, 

• rkLPntf, t,lU 



)B«ie KETBA BOKATUKA. 



Tke t^netomdi sort is, n E^bd. 17> Ae tntly exsnmle 
ki Honc^ MoDocolon, caamsiia^ niioUy of bouie 
TiiiUeterfe Ai3n.a^ 



Epod. ir. /am lam Okaei do n 



Fid.Pnipil 



The twentiedi and lut kind of metncal o 



icompontioo 

D the woiki of Honce is, as nD his epistle* ana utiTU, 
Honacidmi, cmnposed entiTely of Heroic Hexatneteis ; 
araoog wbielt tlwu^ there are many of i wennn^j 
loom and careleas contexture, oalled, as tre have beara 
already, NtgUeUd HexameUri; yet th^ an by no 
means, because of their homdy suit, to be ea t ee in ed 
lightly, but to be highly ralued, and madi atteodedis 
in sdiools, as rard instauiies of the true and pate idiom 
of the La^ tongue. , 



Here fidlowa a. Breriate of die {oreRoing Schedule ; 
and then a Table, by wltrck the metncal compoaitiaa 
of all or any part oFHo r ac a 'i works may be kncnni by 
little more uisd a glance of the eyci And, after this 
.Bisriatesad Table are the two Odea sud to havo been 
.finmd some few years since in the Palatina Library by 
fbe SubUbrarian Caspar Fallaviciiii, and hy gome attn* 
Iptad to Horace, as was said above. Posdbly tbey 
may be HoAce'a ; certainly they are pret^ ; hnd to 
Bmti& the young Schohr with a sight of thein,-I haw 
Kiongpt it no tnniblo lo insert than here. Se^ above 
p. I»l. 

nxr toon on we nbjtct of Xtftfai van in Mnenu, 
. Ao kanier It refexrad by Vosrioa to TerentiaB Vmam, 

ServiiUi MarttiB Vietonnna, Hnitu Hotiua, AtJ i ai , 
- FonmnteitB, md kbove all, to the oldPoela tbem- 

selTC*, the very Hippocrend, " ai aarfo vnat po^ari." 



A Bretnate ^Oefingniig Sch^Me of fforae^t Metrtt. 



"^rittiTit tt 9. Dtcolon TMaitrcipfaoiL 

■liOHlMinlKaLZ nina AmIb. OuiiBBbi— & 1. O-Z 



Icolon Tettaitroplwn. 



7. Dioolen DutnnhoiL 
B—^ HEuiD.-r<rHit m4| 
i3ii^-ai).«'8.& 



3. Dicolon IHMtDpluai. 



B. Dkolon DUtrophoa. 

Cboti IMnoA.— 4t Ac. ft Ck A 



9, Tiieokn TMnj(n|ilMt. 



t. iWJk«r Ulcoloo IHiMphan, »• Tneokn Tetnjtn 

^^^I>utKmL^MriL~ill.arg.D.\aTmOnitUaieL~L. 
AiOa. '— ■- '■ -J iij fi 4& tt. UBb. DIK RnmM— 



Alcniin DHt. TMim.-^ B.orS.D, 
IMe. IttinitailL DiiB. IbmOljc^-i C. 



i. TrMDlon TetTMlropbon. 
lAn. 



11. Dicalon IMMroiiboD. 



Ifl. SfAer Dicokn IMitnpliaD. 



Or Tiiculoa Tiiitnpbao. 



13. Dlcolon Dktniplion. 



ArUL D«t. Pntlisiit— C A Own. 



17. Dkolon Dbtropboii. 
Hsoii KcxuB. 



ic Dblrcmboii. 



IS- Dicufon DlttTOBhon 
TriM. A 



IS. EthtT Dicolun Dlitrgphon. 
IcstniA. A(T^-«9. Cm AnL 



Or Tricokm Kitanbaii. 
Indi Trim. AoL— h^a: 



jt ftWW L 



Til oUraiMtnit ten anr at Umt ih H 



> THIS TABLE SHEWS THE METRE OF EVERY ODE, 
'_- OR LINE IN HORACE. 

The ^^uies in dw fint of every tvo Columns denote tlie Ode, &c 

'X%{»e in the second, corresponding with the Breviate and 
V - Schedule, shew the Composition. 



OdfL 

.*■ 

'.3, 

i. 

\ . 

■h 

10; 

.»* 

}*■} 
■ff 

id: 

17.' 
18.' 


lanim 
Hcl. 

a. 
s. 
-*■ 
s. 

0. 
.8. 

'•' 

2. 

10.-; 
V'- 

8. 

..'^■ 
B- 

a.' 
-.til' 
io.' 
>., 
■f3, 


lib. 
Ode. 
!1. 

es. 
w. 

JS- 
2S. 
27. 
18. 
»?. 
35. 
3J. 

aV.. 

si 

34. 
35.- 

*6. 

'38. 


. 

S. 
8. 
S. 

2. 
Ih 

9. 

7. 

e. 

.2! 

0- 

2. 

6.- 
9. 

■9.' 
tf 

-9., 

^ 


Odai 

lib 
Ode. 

1. 

2. 

3.- 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 

13. 
14. 

ra. 

18. 
11 
« 


2. 

9. 
2. 
9. 
8. 
9. 
2. 
9. 
2. 
9. 
2. 

6. 

9. 
9. 
2. 
9, 
11. 



Odb 

i. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 

14. 

IS. 

10. 

u. 


Hetj 
9. 
9. 
9. 
9. 
9. 
9. 
S. 

3. 

3. 

6. 

i. 
12. 

9. 

2. 

3. 

s. 

9. 
2. 


Lib. 
OOk 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 

2a. 

27. 
28, 
29. 
30. 


3. 

9. 
2. 
9. 
3. 
3. 
9. 
i. 
3. 
9. 

jin.S 


Ods 

Ub 
Ode. 

1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

S. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 

*c.P 


4. 
net. 

3. 

a. 
3. 
9. 

6. 

S. 
13. 

t. 

9. 
10. 

2. 

a. 

9. 
9. 

9. 


Ep. 

I. 

S. 
4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
if. 

la. 
13. 

14. 
IS. 

1*. 

IT. 


da. 
HcL 
14. 
14. 
14. 
It 
14. 
14. 
14. 
14. 

a 

14. 
IS. 

7. 

IS. 
1!. 
17. 
IS. 
19. 
S. 










■ 








955 

Q. Horatii Flaeci (ui/enmtj Carmittum, 
Lib. 1. Od. xxxix. 



Ad JuUum Fhnm, 

DiscoLoE grandem gnvU uva ramnm ; 
Imtat autumnus ', glacialia anno . 
Mox hyems Tolvente aderit, capillis 
Horrida canis. 

Jam licet nymphai trepide fugaces 
Insequi, lento pede dednendaa ; 
Et labria capUe, ■imulantia iiam, 

ObcuIk figi. 
Jam licet vino m&didos vetusto 
De die Itetum tecitare cannen : 
Plore, si te des hilatetit, licebit 

Sumere nodem. 
Jam vide curaa aquilone sparEas, :^ 
Mens viri fortis sibi conatat, utrum 
Serius lethi citiusve iristis 

Advolat hora. 



l;, GOOt^l>; 



Q. HarmHi flaeei (ta/erant) CSurmJMUMj 

Lib.!. Od.xi. 



Ad Libnm rmoH. 

DnLCt Lil>ello,nemo sodklium 

Fonan metmim charior ezdttt. 

De te OMMKti qnid, fidelis, 

Offidom domino rependis i 

Te Roma caulum territftt atduft? 

Depone vaoot mvidiB metus ; 

Urbuque, fidens dignitati, 

Per plateaa animoflus audi. * 

En quo fiirentet Euntoudum cboioa 
Disjedt alms Inlmine Jupiter 1 
Huic anatabit; &macBDtu 

Fctpetuo celebnmda cresdt. 

* Aadi. Meliai ttndt, • 



Fiinted by ». OUbtit, SI. Jrim'ifquare, Laaimu ■.