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Request of 

IRev. 1b. <L Scabbing, 

to tbe 
of tbe 

TIlm\>er6it\> of ZToronto 



TORONTO, 1901. 









APPROVED, as a teacher, by families of distinguished rank, whe 
have experienced his careful attention and successful method the 
writer of this book author likewise of various other publications, and 
translator of several works from the French would instruct a Youth in 
the CLASSICS, French, English, and Short-hand give Lessons in 
PROSODY to an Adult or teach SHORT-HAND alone. His 
Short-Hand may be learned in four Lessons price two Guineas 
which he will refund on the production of any other system (now publicly 
known in England) that shall prove superior to his in Simplicity, Facility, 
and Clearness. Letters (post paid) may be addressed to " Dr. Curey, 

#3r He has just published a Moral Tale for Youth, entitled " Learning 
better than House and Land" 

O. Woodfall, Printer, 





ALTHOUGH that un-assuming and un-ostcntatious 
Modesty, which forms a conspicuous feature in your 
private character, may condemn me for thus divul- 
ging those deeds which your right hand secretly per- 
formed without the knowledge of your left; I cannot 
consent to forego the present opportunity of publicly 
; tying my gratitude for the numerous favors you 
were pleased to heap on me during the three years 
that I visited your son as private tutor, either con- 
stantly in preparing him for Harrow school, or oc- 
casionally afterward during his vacations favors, not 
limited to the cheerful payment of a generous remu- 
neration for my visits, but extended to further in- 
stances of kindness in various forms, particularly to 
repeated acts of unsolicited Munificence ~ to additio- 
nal Bounties, incalculably enhanced in value by a 

iv Dedication. 

self-denying Delicacy in the mode of conferring them, 
which exalted you much higher in my estimation, than 
even the Bounties themselves, large and liberal as they 

Accept, Sir, the only return in my power the re- 
spectful, though un- authorised, dedication of this 
volume ; and, with that mild, indulgent Benignity, 
which I have more than once experienced from you, 
excuse the freedom of this address from. 


your much obliged, 
and most obedient humble servant, 


July 16, 1808, 

P R E F A C E. 

SOME authors complain of the severity and illiberality 
of the public: but, for my part, I have great reason to 
congratulate myself on the public liberality and lenity, 
which if I had not experienced in a very eminent degree, 
I never should have troubled the world with this second 
edition of my Prosody. 

The first edition was disfigured with numerous and 
glaring blemishes; and no wonder: for the idea of that 
publication was suddenly taken up at the casual suggestion 
of a friend, as observed in my former preface; and, in 
nine days, the whole of the manuscript was ready for the 
press, except the "Analysis of the Hexameter" which 
also, in its turn, was dispatched with equal haste. 

All its imperfections, however, not withstanding, the 
public were pleased to receive my volume with indulgence, 
and to call for a new edition. A new edition, therefore, 
I now present for their acceptance: and, though I dare 
not yet presume to give it as a positively good book, yet I 
may safely venture to assert that it is a much less bad one 
than its predecessor. 

I will not here enter into an enumeration of the c0rrec- 

vi Preface. 

tions and improvements, but f.ball content myself withbrief- 
Iv noticing a few particulars, which require explanation. 

Throughout the whole of the work, to every verse (other 
than hexameter or pentameter) quoted as authority for 
quantity, I have annexed a number, referring to the No. 
in the Appendix, under which the reader will find a de- 
scription of such verse, and the mode of scanning it. In 
page 3, for example, the number 12, added to 

Nunc mare, nunc slime .... 

refers to No. 12 in the Appendix, where it will appear 
that the verse in question is an Archilochian Dactylic Tri- 
meter Catalectic, consisting of two dactyls and a semi- 

Should the reader ask, why I have quoted verses of less 
familiar kind, in many cases, Where I might, with much 
less trouble to myself, have produced examples in hexa- 
meter my answer is, that many of those hexameters, 
which are commonly admitted as proofs, afford no proof. 
For instance, the following line from Ovid, Ibis, 577 

Ulque nepos /Ethrae, Vencris periturus ob iram .... 
affords no positive proof that the OS of Ncpos is naturally 
long, because the c&sura would alone be sufficient to lengthen 
a short syllable in that position, as observed in page 140: 
and the same would be the case in any other hexameter or 
pentameter which might be quoted. But the quantity is 
decisively proved by the trimeter iambic which I have 
given in page 133, where the syllable in question termi- 
nates a loot, viz. 

. . . Priami | mpos \ Hecloreus, et letum oppetat. 

In that respect, it is much to be regretted, that, when I 
beginning to read the poets with a view to this now 

Preface. vii 

edition, the idea did not occur to me of deviating from 
the beaten track, and noting such verses as should fuVnish, 
not merely examples, but decisive proofs, of the quantity 
of final long syllables. Unluckily, the thought did not 
suggest itself to me until I had actually finished my course 
of reading. I afterward attempted to supply the omission, 
and, to a certain degree, succeeded, though not without 
considerable labor and loss of time. But, neither myself 
possessing, nor having elsewhere access to, the works of 
the poets with verbal indexes, I was compelled to relin- 
quish the task to content myself, in the remaining 
cases, with the extracts which I had already made and to 
follow the routine of my predecessors in giving examples 
instead of proofs. 

In different parts of the "Analysis of the Hexameter ^ 
some readers may perhaps be surprised to see so many 
examples quoted, where it might appear, at first sight, 
that a single one would be sufficient. It would have been 
lucky for me, if /had thought so in the outset, as I should 
have saved myself a great deal of labor; having, on more 
occasions than one, been obliged to run my eye over the 
entire works of half a dozen poets, in quest of a single line 
to answer my idea. But I wished (whether judiciously or 
otherwise, the reader must determine) to give examples, 
not simply of a dactyl or a spondee in a particular position, 
but of such dactyl or spondee preceded or followed by feet 
of diversified construction, the better to show the effect of 
every possible combination. Had I the work to do over 
again, I should not be so minute. 

In tiiat " Analysis? wherever I say that such or such 
combination is pleasing or unpleasing, harmonious or in- 

viii Preface. 

harmonious, I would not be understood to speak dicta- 
torially, as attempting to prescribe laws to controul the 
reader's judgement By those and similar expressions, I 
only mean that such is the effect produced on my ear: and 
I am far from commending the despotic arrogance of a 
French critic in denouncing " Wot" to any man who 
should disrelish a particular verse which happened to please 
Ins fancy " Malheur a cdui qui ne gout e pas la douceur 
de ce beau vers /" Like the corporeal taste, the intellectual 
also is widely different in different persons; nor would it 
perhaps be possible to find any two individuals upon earth, 
who should exactly agree in their taste of either corporeal 
or intellectual objects. As, in the former case, what is 
highly savoury to one palate, often proves disgusting to 
another, so, in the latter, a poetic combination which / 
approve, may be disapproved by some other writer one 
which /condemn, may by him be admired: and this diffe- 
rence of sentiment is the more likely to exist, if we happen 
to differ in our mode of reading, with respect to accent and 
quantity. On such occasions, I am by no means desirous that 
any one of my readers, however young and inexperienced, 
should implicitly adopt mine in preference to the contrary 
opinion : I rather wish him to examine the poets for himself, 
and, according as their practice implies approbation or dis- 
approbation, to form his own judgement, un-influenced by 
modern authority. Which way soever he may determine, my 
quotations will prove equally serviceable to him being 
ready collected to his hand, and furnishing convenient ma- 
terials for whatever use he chooses to make of them. 

Respecting the inaccuracy of our " Corpus Pottarum" 
noticed in pp. 184, 272, and other parts of this book, it may 
be proper to observe that I never have collated a single page 

Preface. ix 

t)f that publication, or a tenth part of a page and therefore 
beg leave to enter my anticipative protest against any dis- 
advantageous conclusion deducible from my silence concern- 
ing other instances of inaccuracy, however gross or nume- 
rous, which may hereafter be detected on a closer examina- 
tion. It was, moreover, through pure accident that I hap- 
pened to exemplify in Claudian, not in Horace, Virgil, or 
Ovid. Going on a rural excursion, I put a small classic vo- 
lume into my pocket; and that volume chanced to be Clau- 
dian. On reading him in the country, I followed my usual 
practice of noting with my pencil in the margin whatever 
appeared to me a typographic or editorial error ; and, on 
my return to town, had the curiosity to examine how far 
my emendatory conjectures were confirmed by what I had 
erroneously supposed to be Mr. Maittaire's publication ; 
when, to my utter astonishment, I thus accidentally dis- 
covered it to be only a servile re-impression from the common 
editions of the day a faithful transcript of the grossest 

I now conclude with a request that the oversights or de- 
fects of this my second edition may experience from the 
reader's lenity the same indulgence as was shown to those 
of the former. 


June 1, 1808, 

On the initial SC, SP, ST } X, and Z. 

IN page 15, I referred to this place for remarks on the 
initial SC, SP, >ST, X, and Z; a paper, which contained 
several of my quotations, being astray at the time when 
that part of my work went to press. 

Respecting the initial SC, SP, ST 9 Terentianus ob- 
serves (de Syllabis, 783) that, if follow td by a long 
vowel, they have the power of lengthening a preceding 
short final vowel, as in the subjoined example which he 
gives ' 

Ante STtsichorum vatem natura creavit 

but that, if followed by a short vowel, they have not the 
power of lengthening a preceding vowel. This, however, 
is a chimerical distinction, wholly unwarranted by the prac- 
tice of the poets. 

The learned Mr. Burgess, in his valuable edition of 
Dawes's " Miscellanea Critica" (p. 347), has shown him- 
self much better acquainted with the nature of the subject. 
Without regarding the quantity of the following syllable, 
he lays down the rule, that the preceding short syllable, 
if it terminate a foot, may remain short; which is cer- 
tainly true; but that, if it do not terminate a foot*, it 
becomes long, except " in scriptis comicis, usque qua 
sermoni propiora mnt:" and this, too, is pretty generally 
the case. But, as it will presently appear that Ennius and 
Propertius (to say nothing of the quotation from Horace) 

* This being differently expressed by Mr. Burgess, I here give his own 
words " Qttotiescuvujue ultima, qua brevis sit, rocaluli pracedcntis 
partem tjusdem cum ST, 6'P, SC, fyc. pedis coH-stituat, toties earn esxe 
Ittn^am, niii in scriptis comicis, , Usque yine sermuni propiuru sunt." 

Initial SC, SP, ST. xi 

furnish examples of a vowel remaining short which does 
not terminate a foot, I presume we may safely venture to 
simplify and generalise the rule, by saying, that 

The 'initial SC*, SP, SI] (with or without the addi- 
tion of a third consonant, as in SCRipta, &V.) have ex- 
actly the same power over a preceding short final vowel, 
as a mute and liquid liave over a preceding short vowel 
in the body of a word that is to say, that the vowel 
in question may, in every case, either remain short, or 
be made long., at the poet's option f. 

* SQ is, in .this respect, equal to SC, as will appear in the sequel. 

-j- Priscian has, in different parts of his first book, some scattered 
observations on the S, which are here worthy of notice. " S ante 
Mittam positd , inveniuntvr duo verba, quee gem-want qyllabam in pr&terito, 
Sto, Steti, Spondeo, Spopondi .... Nee sine ratione, S ante mutam 
posita, invenitur geminatum verbum, cum S amittit vim suara plerumque 
sic posita ante mutam ; wide nee in secundd syllabd rcpetitvr" r " Vi- 
tium faciwit, qui Z ante M scribunt. Nunqiiam trnm duplex, in capite 
syllable posita, potest cum alid jungi consonante. Lucanus quoqvc hoc os~ 
tenditinlQ [121] 

Tcrga-sedentt crebro waculas distinct* SM a rag do: 

nam, si eitstt ' ante M, subtrahi in metro minime posset, nee starct versus. 
S enim in metro saepe vim consonantis amittit." "S in metro apud 
vetustissicaos vim suarh frequenter amittit. f^irgilins, in il [JEncid. 30^] 

Powite : SPe* sibi quisquc" 

On considering these passages, together with the poetic authorities which 
I here quote, and my remarks on the suppression of the final S in 
pages l6'2, 173, 190* the reader will, no doubt, conclude, that, 
where we find a final vowel short before SC, 6'/ J , ST, the initial $ was 
equally suppressed in pronunciation; but that, where the preceding 
short vowel is made long, the ,V received its fullest sound, to produce 
the effect of lengthening such vowel by its position before two conso* 
nants. All this, however, not withstanding, I recommend to the 
Mouthful versifier, nei'cr (unices compelled by unavoidable necessity) to 

xii Initial SC, SP, AX 

The following quotations arc, I believe, sufficient 
establish tlus rule. 

1. Examples of final vowels short before SC*, SP, 

Auspicio regni, stabilitagw? SCamna solumque. (Ennius, Annal. \, 18. 
Tuque, o, Minoa venumda^ .SCylla; figura. (Propcrtius, 3, 19, 21. 
Alteelafc* .SPecus, pelrisque ingentibu' tecta. (tbmius, Ann. 11, 15. 
Ut ne^w SPectari neque cognosci potuerit. 22. {Terazce, Ilec. prol. 3. 
Tenuia SPuta, cruenta, croci contincta colore. (Lucretius, 4, 1146. 
Brachirt SPectavi sacris admorsa colubris. (Propertius, 3, 9, 53. 

Jam ben2 SPondebant tune omina, quod iiihil illain (Proper t. 4, 1, 41, 

Tu cat SPinosi roscida terga jugi. (Propertius, 4, 4, 48. 

. . . Poni^: SPes sibi quisque : sed haec ^uam angusta, videtis. 

(Virgil, ^n. 11, 309. 

Addidit ctfontcs, immensJ7?/ 57agna, lacusque (Ovid, Met. 1,38. 
Ante meos oculos tu STat, tua semper imago. (Ovtd, Pont. 2, 4, 6. 
Contra alius nullam, nisi olcnti in fornic STantcm. (Horace, Sat. 1, 2, 30, 
$&j) STylum verta?, iterum quae digna legi sint. . .(Horace, Sat. 1, 10, 72, 

?. A vow el short before three consonants. 

Est in qua nostri liter^ SCTftpta mernor. (Ovid, Ep. 5, 26. 
. . . Multo aj^tiquius est, quam lecti molli^f ST7?ata. (Lucretius, 4, 847. 
... l.inquimus, insani ridentes praemi^ SCRibx (Horace, Sat. \, 5, 35. 
Speluncasque videt saxis pendentii' .S7'/?uctas. (Lucretius, 6, 194. 
Consuluityw? 57'^iges nostro de sanguine; et in me . . . (Propcrt.1,5, 17. 

place a short final vowel before any of tbose combinations of consonants, 
or before X or Z: for, whether he choose to lengthen such vowel or to 
preserve it short, the effect will not, with our modern pronunciation, 
be so pleasing or handsome, as if the syllable terminated t ither with a 
consonant or with a vowel naturally long. 

* 1 do not here quote Undo, Scamandri from Catullus, 6l, 357, be- 
cause the name (as observed in page 1<)0) is written Kfx3jj9 in ancient 
Greek MSS. and so Dr. Clarke found it in the Harlcian Mb. of Homer, 
as appears in his note's on Iliad 0, 124, 305, &c. 

Initial SC, SP> ST. xiii 

Ilia squat raucum, quiddamque inamabi/? STRidet. (Ovid, Art. S, 289. 

.ijue ub't 77?igandum est, et ubi currendum, scio. 22. (Phad. 3, 6, 8. 
Mille Agathynia dedit, pcrflata<?2tf STflongylos Austria. (&7t.v, 14, 260- 

3. ^f */W/ Mtff/e long *. 

Nee deprecor jam, si ncfarirf SC/frpta ... 23. (Catullus, 4, 9. 

Ferte citi ferrum: date te/J : SCandite muros. (Virgil, JEn. 9, 37. 

Cel.w SCandere cqntigit Tonantis. 38. (Prudcntius, Peri-Steph. 6, 98, 

Ineptirt .STultitiaque adeo, ettemeritas. 22. (Plautus, Merc. 1, 1,26. 

Ut apud nivem et ferarum geli^ 5Tabula forem. 34. (Catullus, 61,55., 

Post, ubi procg?is generos^ STirpibus arbor . . . (Gratius, 142. 

Q,uicl gladium demens Roma?*fl STRingis in ora? (Martial, 5, 64. 

Ut didi^ 5Tipendiis 

Ducem juvetpecunia. 29. (Prudentius, Peri-Steph. 2, 90. 

Ut suevit patri5 Sraingere pectora, 44. (Martianus Caplla, 1, 4, 64. 

4. In the following examples, where the lengthened 
yovvel stands at a c&sura, I leave the reader to judge 
for himself whether it be rendered long by the ccesura 
alone, or by the following consonants, or by the combined 
efficacy of both. 

I\'on pulsYJ 6'Cythico sagitta nervo. 38. (Sidon* Apollinaris, Carm. 23, 345, 
...Complert SPatium: nam primiim quemque necesse cst...(Luc-r. 1, 390. 
Nulla fugae ratio ; nul/ SPcs: omnia muia. (Catullus, 6 1> 186. 
Pro sege/e SPicas, pro grege ferre dapem. (Tibullus, 1, 5, 28. 
Occult SPolia, et pluresde pace triumphos. (Juvenal, 8, 107. 
Ut dig?z^ SPeculo fivit imago tua. (Martial, 2, 66. 

Corripit gregis suilli sordid SPurcainiua. 36. (Prudcntius, fythan. 9, 56. 
Tristi S.3ualentis sclhrae palluerunt sidcra. 36. (Prudent. Catheut. 9, 77. 
Si pofc STblidum repente excitare veternum. 3. (Catullus, 18,24. 
Jura dart STatuas inter et arma Mari. (Propcrtius, 5, 11, 46 

* I do not quote, as an example, Modo SC?/rr, from Catullus/20, 1C, 
"because 3Ivdo had the final common, as will presently appear in the 
" Addenda et corrigenda," page xix. 

xiv Initial X and Z. 

. , . Autpretium: quippi? STimulo fluctuque furoris . . . (Li/can, 5, 118. 
. . . Praecekres. Agile STudium, et tenuissima virtus. (Stat. Theb. 6, 551. 
In Iate?v7 STbmachumqtie furit. 10 (Prudentius, Peri-Steph. 3, 150. 
Caesaraugusta STudiosa Christi. 37. (Prudentius, Peri-Steph. 4, 54. 
Promts detraher? STudebat unus. 38. (Prudcntivs, Peri-Steph. 6, 15. 
O novum caeff? STupenda vulneris miraculum ! 36. (Prudent. Catltem. 9, 84. 
Confer STudium est vota propaginis. 44. (Martianus Capdia, 1, 4, 58. 

With respect to the initial X and Z, there cannot be a 
doubt that they had the power of lengthening a preceding 
short final vowel, since we see that effect produced by a 
mute and liquid (page 17), though the mute and liquid 
did not possess equal efficacy with the A" or Z to lengthen 
a preceding vowel in the body of a word; such vowel be- 
ing only rendered common before the mute and liquid 
(page 16), but unavoidably and invariably long before 
either of the double letters (page 13). Accordingly, in 
the poetry of Homer, where the initial H and Z very often 
occur, not a single example is to be found of a final vowel 
remaining short before H not a single one before Z, 
except in the instances of two proper names, ZsXs/a and 
Zofxtn&oc, which he could not possibly have introduced 
into his verses without a licence of some kind. On the 
other hand, the examples of short vowels lengthened before 
the initial H and Z are very numerous. But, to avoid 
crowding my page with quotations, or noticing any line 
where the effect might be attributed to the c&sura, I con- 
tent myself with referring to the following passages, in 
which the lengthened vowel terminates a spondee 

Before "5. --II. O, 26 Od. A, 123 --H, 192 
0, 42, 101, 145, 159, 251, 461 - - O, 535 --P, 
163, 586-- 2, 404 T, 309 O, 314, 424 
flt, 262. 

Initial X and Z. XY 

Before Z 11. A, 331 K, 77 A, 752 N, 
355_-O, 97 P, 271, 4O5 T, 87 , 43, 
685 --Od. A, 483, 558 P, 424 T, 80 T, 
339 x, 177 Hymn, in Ven. 189, i>23. 

With these examples before their eyes, we might liav<* 
expected that the Latin poets would, on every occa- 
have lengthened a short vowel before A", and never pre- 
served one short before Z, except in cases of unavoidable 
necessity, such as the following 

Jam medio apparet flucfci nemoroai S^cynthos. (ftrgil, JEn. 3, 270. 
Dulicbii, Samiique, et quos tulit olta cynthos. (OriJ, Ep. \, 87. 
...Sanxerit; et Locris dederit quce jura <*leucus. (Ausonius, Prof. 22, II. 

Yet, in Ennius (Annal. 13, 4) we read 

Pontibus instratis conjunxit liters Xerxes 

and Terentianus (de Syllabis, 881) gives another ex- 
ample *, viz. 

.Sanguine turbatua miscebat litom Xanthus - 

while, of a short syllable lengthened in such position, though 
I am not prepared to assert that no example occurs in Latin 
poetry, I must say that I have not any-where observed an 
unquestionable instance : for, in that line of Virgil, Geo. 4. 


Drymoque, Aanthoque, Ligeaque, Phyllodocecjlie 

the Qite might be lengthened by the casura alone, without 
the aid of the A". 

* But, in a passage sometimes quoted from Lucan, 2, 672 
Tales fania canit tumidum super aequora Xerxcn 
Construxisse vias 

the text is corrupt ; the more accurate copies having Persen, " THE 
Persian" which is more elegant and poetic, and so used by Petronius 
Antigenides, epig. 4 

Perses insLguus adest: totus comitatur euntem 
Ortis: quid dubitas, Grcecia, ferrejugum? 

Initial Xand 2. 

Of final syllables remaining short before Z we Snd nu* 
merous instances, and in cases where no actual nec\ 
existed * ; as, for example 
Cancer ad aestivae fulget fastigi* onse. (Manilius, 3, 625. 
Aut Pelusiaci proritet pocu/a 5ythi. (ColumeUa, 116. 
Si lib? elotyp3D retegantur scrinia mcechae. (Juvenal, 6, 277. 
Trucis zntra ethi, nobiles Dirces aquas. 22. (Seneca, Here. Fur. 916, 
Eno^/e cphyris pinus opponens latus. 22. (Seneca, (Edip. 541. 
Pendentem volo oilum videre. 38. (Martial, 4, 77. 
Involvet quoties mobile Zona latus. (Paronius, eplg. 4. 
Censor Aristarchus, norma^i^ ^enodoti. (Auson(m, Sept. Sap. prof. 12. 
Quotque super ten-am sider^ Cbdiaci f. (Ansonius, epist. 17, 8. 

to which add Seneca, Thyest. 846*; Agam. 43.3; (Edip. 
421 Juvenal, 5, 45 Martial, 2, 58; 11, 86; 14, 
151 Ausonius, Prof. 13, 3, and Eel. 5, 9. 
I Of a final short vowel made long before Z, I cannot 
produce a single instance in Latin; though it is not im- 
possible that there may somewhere exist a lurking example 
which has escaped my observation. 

* Whether the Greeks of Homer's day, like the modern Germans and 
Italians, more fully sounded the Z as DS or TS t and the Romans less 
fully, I cannot pretend to say. But, however that may have been, Tc- 
rentianus (de Syllab. 641) clearly acknowledges a double sound in 

Quom sonis utrisque constetZ, quod estGraecum duplex 
whereas a passage in Quintilian, 12, 10, respecting the pronunciation of 
certain letters, is not quite so clear or satisfactory to me, as it has ap- 
peared to some other writers who have quoted it on the subject of the Z, 

f Through typographic inaccuracy, this line, together with the ninth, 
18 omitted in the Corpus Poet arum , n which, see some remarks in 
page 272. 



P. 1. Where I say, that "the C was pronounced as K before all vowels 
indiscriminately," / simply mean that it was pronounced hard before the 
E, I, and Y, as well as before A, O, and U: for, t/iiugh sounded bard, 
it was not pronounced as K in Caius, but as G; which peculiarity of 
pronunciation is noticed by Terentianus, de Syllab. 617 

Cains praenomen . . . . C notatur, G sonat : 

and his authority is confirmed by the concurrent testimony of the Greek 
writers on Roman affairs, who uniformly spelled the name FaVoj. 

P. 5. lines 3 and 4. Read 

IU8 commune cst gtnitivo prater AHus, 
Quod mediant extendit. Pompei, et talia, produc. 
P. 9. After the line, Jam Dsedaleo, fyc. instead of 56, read 55. 
P. 10. After the line, Aspice! per bifidas, fyc. instead of 51, read 56. 
P. 15, line 1. For Ferte citi flammas, read Ferte citi ferrum. 
P. 26. Instead of the Note on the noun Propago, substitute the following 
quotation from Statius, Silv. 2, 3, 39 

Primoevam visu platanum, cui longa propago, 
Innumerseqiie manus, et iturus in aethera vertex 
which fully establishes my assertion, and shows the futility of the gramma^ 
ruaut* distinction between the zrge table and the animal kingdom , in assign" 
g different quantities to the first syllable of that word. 
P. 28, line 5 from bottom. Read 

At nos horrifico cinefactum te prope busto .... 

P. 33. To the note on Areopagus add the following line from Ennius, 
-Eitmenid. 5 

Addenda SC Corrienda. 

Areopagiticam ea de re vocant petram 

which appears intended for a Trimeter Iambic to be scanned, in that 
case, areo-|-pagl-|-ticam, #c. 

In my former edition, I said that the second syllable ii-us long, agreeably 
to the Greek name, Apw wayo? collis Martins. But, if the line be (as 
I suppose} a Trimeter Iambic, Ennius has made the RE short; forming 
the word, as a compound, from an oblique case of the substantive, Agr?, 

Pp. 39, 41. Expunge from page 39 the seventh line, 

Nee supera caput ejusdem cecidisse viltam . . . (Lucretius. 

and place it in page 41, after 
Armaque gavlso, &c. 

altering, in page 41, the third line to 

Gavisum quoque producas, pariterque Victum 

and, toward the bottom, " Gavisum has" to " Gavisum and Vietuim 

P. 41, line 17. Instead of 

Cautum et stziutum jusserat 
read Cautum et statutum Jws erat. 

P. 53, line 10 from bottom. Read " the subjoined passage (4, 6, 75)" 
P. 71. Instead of " as will be shown in Sect. 42, on occasion of Es from 

Sum," read, " as will be shown in page 77." 
P. 98. Strike out the line, 

Homo, qui erranti, frc. 

which cannot be admitted to prove the point, because tw might, agreeably 
to t he practice of. Ennius and others, preserve the dm from elision, and 

Homo, qui \ erranti .... 
or Homo, qui | erranti .... 

Neither do the lines from Catullus and Prudcntius afford decisive proot : 
ft>r, in that of Catullus, if me consider the line as a single iv/v,r, in: 
might allowably make a dactyl of Est homo; or, if we divide it into two 
tents (as in page 205) the Quantity of the final syllable in homo w in- 
different: and, with respect to Prudcntfas, it was a common 

Addenda ( Corrigenda. 

. him to lengthen a short final vowel before two consonants at the com* 
mencement of the word ensuing. But the quotation from Martial, inde- 
pendent of any other authority, is alone sufficient to decide the question. 
P. 99. Expunge " Mtxjo" from its present station, and insert it with 
" Sero," 4'c. as having the final O common: for, in Seneca's Octavia, 
273, we find the following Anapaestic (No. 14) 

Quse fa-|-ma modo \ venit ad awes 

whence we may conclude, that, in the subjoined passages, the final vowel 
is long by its own power, not accidentally lengthened by the caesura or 
the SC 

At tu, si qua modo non adspernanda putabis .... 

(Calphurnius, 4, 157. 
Hoc quid putemus esse ? qui modo scurra .... 23. 

(Catullus, 22, 12. 

P. 119, line 6. Read"Lucai}, 10, 382." 

P. 131, line 20. Read 

Samnis in ludo ac rudibus cuivis satis asper. 

P. 137. After the line, Hie CEdipus, Sfc. add 22, as a reference to the 
jVo. in the Appendix. 

P. 190, line 8 from bottom. Read 

Testis erit magnis virtutibus unda Camandri. 
P. 154. Strike out Alituum, as an example of Epenthesis. On second 

thoughts, it appears to me only a change of vowel, Alituum for Alitium 

(like Civitatium), as Documentum, Arcubus, Portubus, for Dokimen- 

tuir, Arkibus, Portibus. 
P. 246. At the end of the Article GaUiambits, add <( See some remarks 

on the Galliambus in page 279." 

P. 262, line 5 from bottom. Instead of " by Seneca, in near two hun- 
dred lines/' read " by Seneca, with only one exception, in near two 
hundred lines." 

P. 264. At the bottom, add, " Although neither Catullus nor Horace 
used the Glyconic, except in conjunction with verses of different kind, 
other writers composed entire poems in this metre, as Boethius, 1,6; 
2f. 8; 3, 12; 4, '> Prudentius, Peri-Steph. 7 ; cont. Symm. 2, 


Addenda &" Corrienda. 

p rgc f. , an( l Terentianus, the preface to bis treatise de Literis. In 
tragic choruses also, it was used in continuation, as in Seneca's Here. 
Fur. act. 3, Here. GEt. act. 3, and Thyest. act. 2 which last men- 
tioned chorus consists entirely of Glyconics. 

P. 283. The Lesser Alcaic (> o. o3 '.. might have been placed in the class 
of Choriambics, and thus scanned as a Trimeter, of a different species 
from the Glyconic (No. 46} 

Levia. | peraoniie-|-re suxa 

the initial Dactyl sometimes occurring in one Species of Choriambic, the 
Asckpiadic Tetrameter (No. 44) and the concluding Bacc/iius being 
used in two others, the Tetrameter (No. 43) and the Dimeter (No. 49). 



PftOSOD Y teaches the proper accent and leogtn of syl- 
lables, and the right pronunciation of words. 

The letters of the alphabet are divided into Vowels and 

The Vowtls are six, viz. A, E, /, 0, U, K 

The remaining letters are Consonants, except H, which 
is generally considered as only a note of aspiratio'n or 

The Consonants are divided into Mutes and Semi- 

The Mutes are eight ; v4& JB, C\, D, Gf, K, P, 2, T. 

Some ancient grammarialis co'nside'rfcd // as a consonant, and 
ranked it with the semivowels, &e Teren'tianus Maurus, de syll. 51 J . 
t The C was prtfrkmticed as K "before all vowels indiscriminately ; 
and the G was in e^'ery I case souTide'd "hard, as in the English g'itfe, get* 
Hence the -easy transition from Lukitentus (as pc&tilentus), 
to LucukntvS) Docufacttfv 

2 Letters. 

The Semivowels are likewise eight, jp, Z, y]/*, N* t R, 
,S't, A r , Z. 

Of the Semivowfls four are called Liquids, viz. Z, JI/, 
JV, #; and 

T\vo are double letters, viz. A' and Z; the A" being 
-q.ial to CS or A^+ and the Zto ZXS'or 7^. 

The .7 was nothing more than the I less fully pro- 
nounced, though considered by some ancient gramma- 
rians as a kind of consonant ||. In words of Greek origin, 

* The final A/ and final A' were pronounced with a slight nasal sound, 
a* iii the French words Faim and Pain, so as to be hardly, or not at all, 
distinguishable from each other. From Cicero (Orator, 154) we learn 
that their sound was so nearly alike as to create, in certain cases, a very 
aukward ambiguity. See also Quinctilian, ix, 4. 

f The early Romans, like the modern French, did not, in many cases, 
pronounce the final S, unless the following word began with a vowel, 
Cunius, Annal. vii, 66", 

Ingenio quoi mil la malum sententia suadet* 
Ut faceret facinus levis aut main'; doctu', fidelis, 
Suavishomo, Jacundif, suo content u\ beatus, 
Scitu', secundaloquensin ternpore, cumwoclu', verbum 
Paucum, multatenens antiqua, sepulta, vetusta. 

About Cicero's time it began to be generally sounded (Orator, i6l; 
Quinctil. ix, 4) ; and Cicero himself, as \yell as his contemporaries Ca- 
tullus and Lucretius, occasionally omitted it in his poetry, as Tori-u' 
draco, phnen. 15 Magnn* 7co, 4p. See further under Synafapfa. 

I Likewise to GS, as in Rcxi, Junxi, Fin ; and apparently also, by 
metathesis, to SC, as Mixtum for misc'fum or tniscitum, like the English 
vulgarism Aks or ax for at>k. 

And also to 6'D, as Aduvajc for A&wsurh. 

\\ Ter. Maiir. in one place calls it a consonant, elsewhere a vowel. 
Quinctilian (i, 4) considers the J and / in conJIcio as the same voicel 
doubled. It probably was sounded by the Romans as it now is by the 
Germans in JaJir, Jagcr, Jena, &c. i. e. exactly like our initial Y iu 

^ More probably sue'set. See Swfoff, Sect. LV, 

Quantity of Syllables. 3 

the I is always a vowel, as liison, Tdpeliis, Tdspis, locust a * 


Colchidasic hospes quondam decepit iason. (Properties. 

Daveniuin: praeclara illic laudatur laspis. (Juvenal. 

Impia, quid cessas, Dtianira, mori ? (Ovid. 

The U was pronounced like our OO or broad U, as in 
Fool, Rule*, &c.; and the V was only the same vowel 
sounded as a single syllable in conjunction with the next 
vowel before or after it, as our 1V'\. 

A Diphthong consists of two vowels pronounced toge- 
ther in one syllable, as Aurum, Euge, Muses, (Estrum. 


Quantity of Syllables. 

Of Syllables, some are short, some long, and some 

Youth, Year, Yard, viz. Yahr, Yager, Yena -so that Jupiter, Jocus, Ja? 
cvlttm, were pronounced Yupiter, Yocus, Yaculum. Hence the easy de- 
rivation of Julius from lulus, JEncid. 1, 29-- See Position* 

* It was avowedly equivalent to the Greek OT: and in like manner 
the Italian Pur, the French Pour, and the English Poor, exactly agree 
in sound. Hence the easy transition, in many words, from to U, as 
Virulent us for virolentus, Vultfoi I'olt, Pullic-us tor pop'licus, '&c. 

f Hence Sy-lu-a, So'lu-o, or syl-ia, svl-i'o, i. e. syl-wa, sol-wv, 
Nunc mare, nunc &jliiaf....\2 (Horace, 

Nulla queat posthac nos soluisse dies. (Tibull. 

Hence also A-wispex, av'spcx, auspex Ca-id-tum, cats' tum t cautum 
La-wi-tinn (from law., lazis) lav:' turn, lautum. (See Syncope an,^ 
Epentfais.) Cicero relates (Div. ii, 40) that, when Crassus was setting 
out on the disastrous expedition in which he lost his life, the cry of 
"-Cattncas!" uttered by a man selling Caunian figs, was considered as 
ominous, being equivalent to Care ne cas, i.e. Caw'n'cas, as the words 
were probably sounded in the rapidity of ordinary speech. r(Sce further 
under Diphthongs.} 

B 2 

4 Vowel before Vowel. 

The quantity or length of syllables is marked as in the 
word timabo, of which the first syllable is short, the second 
long, and the third common. 

A short syllable is rapidly pronouncedy as C7in Cancido 
(to /#//), or as the middle syllable in the English word 

A long syllable requires double the time in pronunciation, 
as CI in Cowcido (to cut to pieces), or as the second syl- 
lable in the English word Confiding. 

A common syllable is that which may be pronounced 
either short or long at the option of the poet, as Hynien or 
Hymen*, Papyrus or Papyrus, Vaticanus or Vatleanus % 
Ill/us or Illlus, Fuefimus or Fuerlmus, (See Genitives 
in IUS, and Rimus Subjunctive.) 

Adfuit et sertis tempora vinctus Hymen. (Ovid. 

Et subito nostras Hymen cantatus ad aures. (Ovid. 

"Sfcoivu KCU favrri tr^r/yo^vov 7T&.'jrvg&>, (Anthol, 

Perdite Niliacas, Musae, mea damna, papyros, (3Iart, 
Redderet laudes tibi Vatican* 

Montis imago, 37. (Hor. 

Vaficana bibas, si delectaris aceta (Mart, 


Vowel before VoweL 

Vocctlcm breviant, alia mbcunte, Latmi. 
Produc (ni segitit&r R) fio, et nonwia quintx, 

'* Something similar may be observed in the English 'substantive Re* 
cord, in which the quantity of the latter syllabic varies according i 1 
accent is laid upon or removed from the former. 


Vowel before Vowel, 5 

eminos casus, E longo, assumit in El. 
E corripiunt Fidel^e, Spei^we, Reijw. 
IUS commune cst vati ; producito Alius : 
Alterfus bre'cia. Pompei, et talia, proditc. 
Eheu protrahitur : sed lo variatur, et Ohe. 
Nomina Gracorum cert&sine lege vagantur : 
Qua dam etcmm long is, ceu Dla, Chorea, Platea, 
Quadam etiam brecibus, vtluti Symphonia, gaudent. 

lo words of Latin origin, a vowel is usually short wheii 
immediately followed by a vowel or diphthong, as Puer, 

Comcia mens recti famx mendacia ridet. (Ovid. 

O pate r^ O pa t ri& c u r a sal u s q u e / IKK I ( Ovid. 

The same happens, though the first vowel be followed by 
//, or was originally long, as the particle I)e, and the 
middle syllable in Audivit. 

Vellera saepe eadem Tyrio medicantur aheno* (Ovid. 

Officium, nemo, qui reprchendat, erit. (Ocid. 

Quae minimis stipata coherent partibus arete. (Lucret. 
Hos amplectitur; hos dcosculatur. 38. (Martial. 

A media coelum region e dehisce re coepit. (Ovid. 

jl ltd i it et Triviae longe lacus, audiit amnis 


1. The verb Fio has the /long, when not followed by 
Yt, ttFlunt, Fiebam, Flam. 

Magnarurn return fiunt exordia srepe. (Lucre t. 

F'tent ista palam; cupient c j t in acta referri. (Juvenal 

6 Foicel before Voicel. 

But, when R follows, the /is usually short*. 
Kcflieret prima pes tuus udus aqua. (Ovid. 

1 2. The genitives and datives singular of the fifth declen- 
sion make E long before /. 
Xon radii solis, neque lucida telaiSei. . (Lucrcf. 

But it is found short in Sp2i, and both long and short in 
Rei and Fidel, 

Extingue flammas ; neve te dira? spe'l 22. (Seneca. 

Curtae nescio quid semper abest rei. 44. (Horace. 

Ipsius ra| rationem reddere possis. (Liter et. 

Unum pectus habent, Jideique immobile vinclum. (Manll. 
.. . . Nee jacere indu manus, via qua munitajfa/e/. (Lucrct. 
liievir baud magna cum re, sed ptetfu'jft&t. (Enniiis. 

3. Genitives in IUS have the I long in prosej, though 
in poetry it is common, as Uifius or Urn us, III IMS or II fins, 

* Yet Terence and Plautus make it long 

iDJunum est: nani, si esset untie \<\f~ieret. ... 22. (Ter. Ad. 1,2, 26. 

Si in obserendo possint intcrfuri 22. (Plautux, Trin. 2, 4. 

JPostquam nos vidimus auro insidias^Im. 22. (Plant. Bacch. 2, 3.. 
Neque v.nquam ludos tarn festivosj'zm. 22. (Plant. Casin. 4, 1,2. 
Pater curavit, URO ut fetu/Imtf. 22. (Plaut. Ampli. 1, 2, 25,. 

1 Pmdeutius, on the contrary, (Pass. Cyp. 59) has 

Jarnque tuum fieri mandas : fio Cyprianus alter. 56. 
t Lucretius furnishes five) examples of Ji^J, besides that in iv. 883, 
where it is not certain whether he intended Ipmt r~e~i t or Ipslus v\ ith rei a 
monosyllable, as in iii, 931. (See Sy<rmw.) Plautus, too, (Mil. 
Gl. 2, 1, 25) has 

Magnai re~i publicai* gratia. 22. 

e cases appear to have been anciently written both c-i and ti-i; 
which accounts for the variation in the quantity. 

I Qurc. fiant spatio, sive quum longa corripitur, ut 

" Vntus ob noxatn ct furias" extra carmen non deprchendas. Quinq- 
t:l. 1, 5. 

Vossius (Art. Gram, 2. 13) considered Svliusznl Ufrius as ahvavs 

I'vzcel before Vowel. 7 

except All us, which (being formed by crasis from aliins] is 
always lon.u. 

Hints etnitido stillent unguenta capillo. (Tibiill. 

Hints puro dostilleut tempera nardo. (TibulL 

L^'iuft ob noxani et furias Ajacis, Oilei. (J^ ir g- 

Si non unlit*, qurcso, miserere duoruin. (P roper t. 

Arcanum nee tu scrutaberis ullius unquam. (Hor. 

Nultiusque larem, nullos adit ilia penates. (Germanicus* 
Parsque mea? poenae tbfius instar erit. (Ovid. 

Kxcipiam medius tot Jus vulnera belli. (Lucan. 

Tu potes alter ius studiis haerere Minerva?. (Claud. 

Mox dum altcr'nis obligurrias bona. 22. (Ennins, sat* 6. 

4. Such proper names as Cains, Pompcins, Vulteins 
posed to have been originally written with a diphthong, 
Cai-nis, Pompci-'ius, Vultei-ius), as likewise Grains, Veins, 
&c. have the A .or E long before the /: the A also is 
long in the antique genitives, Aulai, Ternii, &c. 
Pervigil in pluma. Cnit'is, ecce, jacet. (Martial. 

Arcipe, Pompci, deductum carmen ab illo (Ovid. 

DivesequCan, dives pictai vestis, et auri. (Virgil. 

llladomus princeps Trojani Grant belli. (3-Iamlius. 

Forte super portae dux Veins adstitit arcein. (Propert. 

'5. In Ohe, lo (whether interjection or proper name), 

long, but was unable to produce any example. I do not recollect to 
have ever observed either of them so, and should be glad to see an ex- 
ample quoted from any good author. Terence has Sotius short, 
. . . t Sofiu' soliciti sint caussa, utmeunum expleant. 22. (Hcaut. 1, i', 77. 
Horace has Utnus short, epist. i, 3, 15; and its compound Utnusque 
occurs short in Od. iii, 8, 5 Phsedrus, 3, 10 Seneca, Tliyest..714- 
Martial-, spect. 13 Avienus, orb. desc. 1423, iS:c. Tofius is short 
in Cr.tullus, IS, and Lucretius, 6, 652. Alterlus is three times longm 
Tercnt. Maurus, de syllab. 1072, de metr. 32, and 

8 Vowel before 

and in Diana, the first syllable is common : id cheu it is 


o/ie! jam satis est, ohe, libelle ! 38. {Martial. 

llursus, w, magnos clamat tibi Roma triumphos. (Martial. 

Quaque fcrebatur ductor Sidonius, ~w 

Conclamant ...... (5/7. ItaL 

/<?, versa caput, primos mugiverat annos. (Propert. 

Qua? tibi caussa fugze ? quid, lo, freta longa pererras? 


Experta estnumen moriens utriusque T)ian&. (Martial. 
Juno, Y T esta, Ceres, Diana, Minerva, Venus, Mars, 
Mercurius, Jovi', Neptun us, Vulcan us, Apollo. (Ennius* 

6. In many Greek words, a vowel is long, though imme- 
diately followed by another, as Her, Achaia, Achelous, 
aonides, Laertes, Laodicc and other words compounded 
with Xaoj, La tons, E-tiyo, Panchaia, TJireicius, Taygetus, 
Trvas, Troiies, Galatla, &c. 

Erubuit Mavors, aversaque risit Enyo. (Claudian. 

Hunc Galatla* vigens ausa est inccssere bello. (Statius. 

7. Tliose words which are written in Crreek with the 
Diphthong Ely and in Latin with a single E or /, have that 
E or / long, as JEiieas, Museum, Darius, Thalia, Clio, 
Elegla, Ortadcs, &c. 

Xecmihi sunt visa? Clio C/^/.vque sorores. (Ovid. 

....... Detineat, cultis aut Eleg'ta comis. (JlfartiaL 

Et panacea potcns, etThessala ccntaiirca. (Liican* 

8. Most adjectives in EL'S, formed from Greek proper 
names, have the E long; and it continues so, when re** 
soivedf into El. -- (See 

* Hence, lc. us say, tlio q St. Paul to the G'alati-gns, nof 

t Being originally a <\*-\ : 'k. But those wlucJi ( 

Vowel before Fowel. 9 

Eumenidum vidit vultus Pelopeiis Orestes. (Lucan. 

Oppida semoto Pelop'eia marte vigerent. (Claudiqn. 

Jamque fretum Minya? Pagasea puppe secabant. (Ovid. 

.... Spargat : et (Ebalium Pagaseia puppis alumnum 

(F. Flaccu*. 

Laudata est oculis quod Cytherca meis, (Sabinus. 

Exigit indicii memorem Cy there ia poenam. (Ovid. 

In imitation of the Greeks, we see, in Statius, the adjec- 
tive Tibereius. 

9. Names of towns, temples, or monuments, in EA, 
I A, or EUM, formed, in the Greek manner, from the 
proper names of persons, most commonly have the penul- 
tima long, as Laodicta, Apamea, C&sarea y Alexandria , 
Antioclria, Mausoleum*. 

Terrarum mediis Apamecz mcenia clara, (Priscian. 

Noxia Alexandria f, dolis aptissima tell us. (P roper t. 

Jam vicina jubent nos vivere Mausolea. (Martial. 

10. Academut) Chorea, Platea, Malea, have the penul- 
tima common. 

In Latium spretis Academia migrat Athenis. (Claud. 

tain a trochee (**) in the two syllables immediately preceding the penul- 
tima, were, both in Greek and Latin, most frequently (but not always) 
formed with the penultima short, for the convenience of furnishing a 
dactyl, as Hectoreus, NestoreitSy Agenoreus, Antenoreits, &c. 

Herculeam Sparten, Nestoreamqus Pylon. (Ovid. 

Quidquid Agenoreo Tyros improba cogit aheno. (Martial. 
Atque Antenorei dispergitur unda Timavi. (Lucan. 

D&daleum lino quum duce rexit iter. (Propert. 

JzmD&daleo tutior Icaro.... 56. (Horace. 

* In fact, they are only adjectives, agreeing, the feminities with 
TrcXK urbs- the neuters with pmyi.uQvltfCvmonimcntumtemplu'ni. 

t As we find, for this passage, the various reading, AlexanJrina, see 
Horace's Alexandria supplex, Od. iv, 14, 35. 


10 Diphthongs. 

Atque Academia celebratam nomine villam, 

(Laurea Tullius. 
Protinus et nuda choreas imitabere sura. (Proper t. 

Kxercent varias naturae lege choreas. (Mctmluis. 

Purae smrtplatece, nihil ut med'itantibus obstet. (Hor. 
Aspice ! per bifidas plebs Romula funditurflateas. 57. 


Jonioque marr, Maleceque sequacibus undis. (Virg. 

Et ratibus longae flexus donare Mttlete. (Lncan. 

11. Greek genitives and accusatives from nominatives 
in EUS have the penultima short according to the common 
dialect, long according to the Ionic. 

Tydeos ilia dies: ilium fugiuntque tremuntque. (Statius. 
Excitor; et summa Theseavoce voco. (Ovid. 

. . . Regula. Cepheos vestigia balteas ambit (Gtrmanicus. 
Illonea petit dextra, laevaque Serestum. (J^irgiL 



Diphthongus longa est in Gratis atquc Latinis. 
I^rce breria, si compositum vocalibits anteit. 

" A diphthong is long, whether in a Greek or Latin word, 
as Jlltfomdes, Mdiba'us, Premium, CM/KM, LaTts, Graius 
and Calus, dissyllables, Pompelus, Procultlus y &c. 
En-Priamus: sunt hie etiam sua pr&mia laitdi. . (J r irg. 
(^uis cd'lum terris non tnisceat, et mare cltlo ? (Juv. 

Scis, Profcli, scisipse; nequ'e est te tallerectiiquarn. 

Spargk aqua capto.s lustruli Grata sacerdos. x 

' Quis hi ?' f Caius*A\tf.* f Vivisne ?' . . . . . . (Ausonlus. 

Hand procul est iina Pompeii nomen arena. (Lucan. 

Diphthongs. 1 1 

Note. We may suppose a latent or virtual diphthong 
in every syllable formed from two syllables by crasis*; and 
every such syllable is long, as Jull from Julii and Julie 
Demo and Promo from de-emo and pro-emo Dcbeo from 
dcfiibco or de-habeo the genitive and dative Manus and 
Manu from manuis and manui^ Jucundus, Junius, 
Jupiter, from Juvicundus, Juve-nius, Jovis pater '[. (See 
Supines, Sections 14 and 15, and Syn&resiSy page 147, 
Notes 1 and 4.) 

Jull bibliotheca Martialis. 38. (Martial. 
Jail Flore, quibus terrarum militet oris .... (Horace. 
Turbine flectit iter, portuque refertur amico. (JP. Flaccus. 
O dxAdjucunda viro, jucunda parent! ! (Catullus. 
Junius, a juvenum nomine dictus, habet. (Ovid. 

Exception. Free, immediately before a vowel in a 
compound word, is generally short . 

* But not by elision or syncope alone, as ant'eaf, scmanimis, 
magn'vpere, tindemitor^ &c. &c. (See Syncope.) 

. . . Desinc: nee cursus ant eat ilia tuos. (Ovid. 

&ffM*imfque micant cligiti, ferrumque retractant. (Virgil. 
fifagnopcre a vcra laps! ratione videntnr. (Lucretius. 

Carpebat raras serus lindstmtor nvas. (Seneca. 

t It will thus be easy to account for the quantity of many syllables, 
according to the doctrine of Vossius and Busby, viz. maaue t manu 
maniH*, in anus nrZ6iff, rebus iims, am as amae y ama audits, aucKs 
audie, at.(Ti t &Q. See Terence, Ileaut. ii, 3, 4-6 Vossius de anal. 
2, 17 and Busby 'a Paradigms. 

J That is to say, jWiCundus, juWcundus JuWenius, JuW'n'uis 
(See Syjixresis, page 151.) And from the nominative Joiia (quoted in 
page 8), Jclf'"i' t JoW^ Ju, as from boi'ibus or boWtbtts, boWbus, bubus. 
In like manner, Ovid and Seneca make the diphthong short in 

though it is usually lc ng' 

Longiur autiquis visa Mteutis hiems. (OnW, Trist. 3, 12, .2. 
. . . Arva mutantesj quasque JM&otis . . . . 5 U. (Scacca, (Edip. 474 

J3 Diphthongs. 

Stipitibus duris agitur, sudibusque pr&iistis *. (FirgiL 

Jamque novi praeunt fasces, nova purpura fulget. (Claud. 
Quos ubi vidernnt, prdacutce cuspidis hastas .... (Ovid. 
. . . Incidunt: arbusta fr&alta securibu' caedunt. (Ennius. 

Note. Greek proper names in EUS (genitive EOS) 
always have the EU a diphthong, or one long syllable, in 
the original; and the Latin poets accordingly made the 
EUo, diphthong, with very few exceptions, for which see 
Diaresis (page 15S). Wherefore, although the Romans 
sometimes inflected these names after the forms of the second 
declension (which supposes the EUS to have been consi- 
dered as two short syllables), I do not conceive that we 
ought in any case to pronounce it otherwise than as one 
long, unless compelled by unavoidable necessity. 
Parvo dilexit spatio M inoida Theseus. (Propertius. 

Eurydicenque suam jam tuto respicit Orphean. (Ovid. 

Conditus Inarimes aeterna mole Typhocus. (Lucan. 

. IT is also a diphthong in Greek names such as 
Orithyia, Hitliyia, Harpy la, slgyiens^, tS:c. 
Ma/cfc, KGU Qos&vict,, zv7r}.ox,oifio$ r ApuSr&ta. (Homer. 
Or~it.liyltin aiwans fulvis ampleclitur alls. (Ovid. 

* In fact, the Pre being originally prai or prac, these words become 
pra'ustis, pra'eunt, &.C. the luttor of the two vowels being tacitly elided, 
as the entire diphthong is by Catullus, Nupt. Pel. 120, 

Omnibus his Thesei duicem preopUirit aincix-iu 
lor which, liowever, some editions give pr&forrct. 

Siatius (Theb. 6', 5iy) and Sidonius Apolliiuiris (cann. ^3} preserve 
the /L' long 

. . . cam vucuus domino prairct -\riou. (Statins. 

Pt-eesse ofliciis tuie solebut. 38. (Sid. An respecting which, 

see the remark under PhaUxian. 

\ The original being TI, which can as easily be sounded in one syllable, 
as UI m the French monosyllables Lui t Xtii, &c. l-'or an exception, 
Sect. 4&, p. J6S. 

Position. 13 

Et patrio insontes Harpyias pellere regno; (J^irgil. 

Lenis Ilithyia, tuere matres. 37- (Horace. 

Lasvis Agyieu. 13. (Horace. 



Vocalis longa est, si consona bina sequatur, 
Aut duplex, aut\ vocalibus interjectum. 

A vowel is long by position, when it immediately precedes 
two consonants, or one double consonant (AT or Z), or is 
immediately followed by the letter J, as in major, pejor, 
hujus, cujus *. 

Quis furor est atram bellis arcessere mortem ! (Tibullus. 
Atnobis, Pcix alma, veni, spicamque teneto. (Tibull. 
It Sthenelus, qualem Mavortia vidit Amazon. (V. Flac. 
Atque, a fine trahens titulum, memoratur horizon. (Manil. 
Kara juvant : primis sic major gratia pomis. (Martial. 
Caussa patrocinio non bon&pejor erit. (Ovid. 

Exception. Bijiigus, and other such compounds of 
jugum, have the /short before the /f. 

* In fact, the / (or /) makes a diphthong with the preceding vowel, 
viz. mai-or, pei-or and so in Mai-a, Mai-us, Bai-ee, Troi-a, Ai-ax> 
ti-vnt, Cai-eta, Cai-us and Grai-us dissyllabics, &c. As for hvjvs 
and cujus, they were (like illivs) originally trisyllables : tlie former was 
ku-i-us, of which the first two syllables gradually coalesced into one by 
a synaeresis very easy of pronunciation to a Frenchman. In like 
manner, from qui-i-ui, quo-i-us, cu-i-us, came at length the dissyllabic 
fui-us or cujus. 
t The cause of that seeming difference is simply this, that the word 

14 Position: 

Interea bijugis infert se Leucagus albis. 
Centum yuadryugos agitabo ad flumina currus. 

Nvte. The position equally produces its effect on a 

i %/ 

syllable naturally short, as in rapt um, tectum, doc turn*, 
rejicio '\. 

Egreditur, famuli raptos iwdutus amictus. (Lucan. 

Rejice succinctos operoso stamine fusos. (Ovid. 

%. The effect is the same when one of the consonants 
stands at the end of a word, and the other at the beginning 
of the word following. 
Tollemoras; semper nocmt differre paratis. (Lucan. 

3. If the two consonants, or double letter, stand at the 
beginning of the following word, the vowel equally becomes 
long ; though the poets sometimes neglected this rule . 

"which in England we pronou nee jug MM, is in reality "z-ugum or yugwR, as 
the Germans in fact at this day pronounce it and, in the meeting of 
the two vowels in composition, the former is tacitly elided,, leaving the 
words b'lugus, quadr'iugus, as scmhlanie (Catullus r 59? 220) for -semi* 
foante, &c. See Syncope. 

* Originally rapituvt, tegitum, docitum ; and N. B. the usual division 
of the syllables, in such cases as those above, was ra-ptum, te-ctum, 
do-ctum, /a-psum, &c. as noticed by Terentianus Maurus, de syll. 984. 

f In rejicioj the J unites with the in re to form a diphthong, 
rey-icio : for, when J stands at the beginning of a word, it has not the 
peWer of lengthening the final syllable of the preceding, as 
Car* Jovis conjux maxima Juno. 

PracfipitarJ'jubcnt ....fcrden? j'ungant. ) 

So, in jur" jurando, (Seneca, Troacl. f)12, and Phacdrns, 1, 8) the 
-re continues short, not uniting with the J, since jure jurando is not 
properly a compound, but two distinct words, as 

fraudemjwre tu-eri Juraudo. [Juvenal, 13, joi. 

Sanctiora ndigisjuraadajura. (Pflrctfr/w.v, tr. 393. 

t Respecting the power of the initials SC, SI*, ST, to lengthen a 
bLort syllable, it is worthy of Minark, that, in compound ' 

Position. M 

Ferte citi ffammas ; date Ida ; scandite mu'ros. (77rv7. 
Post, ubi proceris generow j/irpibus arbor ..... (Gratius*. 
4. But //is not, in any of the foregoing respects, to be 
deemed a consonant. Joined with any one of the conso- 
nants, either in the beginning or middle or end of a 
word, it has not the power of lengthening a preceding short 
vowel: even with two consonants (i.e. a mute and liquid 
in the same syllable See the next rule) it may stand after 
a vowel remaining short ; and, when placed, without a con- 
sonant, at the beginning of a word, it does not, like a 
consonant, save the final vowel of the preceding word from 

IllicPellcei proles vesaw# P/rilrppi. (Luatn. 

Cernitur egregius lapis hie, cui nomen achates. (Prucltm*, 
Hie Paphias myrtos, hie purpureas amcthystos ---- (OvitL 
Sardonychas veros mensa qusesivit in omni. {Martial. 

Haec implet lento calctthos e vimine textos. (Ovid. 

Conveniunt pictis incinetse vestibtis HOIK. (Ovid. 

Arbor //abet frondes, pabula semper humus. (Ovid. 

words, such syllables are always made long, as rescindo y respito, 
antlsto, antlstes, denttscsfyium. 

Herculis antistare autem si fa eta putabis. (Lucrct. 

Bis senos triplices^ et dentlsailpia centum, (Martial. ' 

For further remarks on the initial SC, Sl\ ST, A*, Z, see the end of the 

* In such instances as this of Virgil, Mn. 1, 20, 

. . . Fosthahitacoluisse Saww. J/ic illius arraa 

it is not the //that saves the preceding vowel. The caesura (even with- 
out so remarkable a pause in the is alone sufficient, as in Ca- 
tullus, 64, 1 L 

Quu rex tempestate noi'5 auctus hynieixco .... 
See further under C'sura. 

16 Mute and Liquid. 


Mute and Liquid. 

Si mutant liquidamque simul brevis una prteivit, 
Contrahit orator, variant in carmine vates. 

A short syllable, followed by a mute and a liquid, may 
be either long or short in poetry, though always pronounced 
short in prose : and the addition of H to the mute makes 
no difference. 

Et primo similis volucri, mox vera volucris. (Ovid. 

Natum ante orapatris, pat rein qui obtruncat ad aras. 


Mittere cum posses vel cochleare mihi. (Martial. 

Cochlear extremum est, scruplique imitabitur instar. 


Note. If the liquid stand before the mute, the prece- 
ding syllable, though naturally short*, becomes always long, 
assert, fertis, from fcrit, ftritis. 

2. If the mute and liquid belong to different syllables, 
the preceding short vowel becomes necessarily long, as 
tib-luo y Ob-mo, sub-ruo t quamob-rem ; although, on ac- 

* To determine, in many cases, whether a syllable, which we find 
long before two consonants, be naturally long, or only rendered so by 
that position, we must look to the word in a different state where the 
position does not take place, as 

Non tales volucer pandit Junonius alas. (Claudian. 

Materni celebcr nomine Drusus avi. (Pedo. 

Nee mora: Bistoniis alacer consurgi* ab oils. (Claud. 

Utque facis, coeptis, Phoebe saluber y ades. (Ovid. 

Improbus ille puer, crudelis tu quoque mater. (Virg. 

Nee euro, utrum sis albus an ater homo. (Catull. 

! I' utc. and Liquid. 1 7 

count of the different division of syllables, it may remain 
short before some less smooth combinations of mute and 
liquid in words of Greek origin, as cy-cnus, ari-tknic- 
tica* t &c. 

Quo? capta cst aiio nuda Lacuna cj-cno. (Martial. 

Ilerculc supposito sidcra fulsit A-tlas. (Otic!. 

Etbaccis rcdimita da-phnc, tremuhrqne cupressns. (Petr. 
Atque nrbaiiii Pro-cue .... (Petronius, 

Aura vehit ; religant tonsas; vc\or\uv Pro-cnesson 1 , * (J^F. 
Delectat Marinm si perniciosus 1-ehnetfmott. (Afartiffl. 
. . . Forma captivte dominnm r l&cinessK. *>7. (Horace. 

3. A vowel naturally long is never rendered short by a 
mute and liquid following : e. g. rnatris, atri, salubrls^ 
gubcrnTiclum, from mater, liter* salnbo'j gubcrnaculinn, 
are always Ion 5. 

4. A mute and a liquid at the beginning of a word were 
sometimes made to lengthen a short syllable preceding f, as 
Pr*bponti<#?, trucemvc Ponticum sinum. 22. (Catullus. 

(^< Mtyeiptuf) w ^oyo?, ovo ' otpf-Qy.^. (Callimacliiis. 
So Sophocles, crra-S^a, Philoct. 4^)0 TI-XX>*, ib. 874 Ti^wjjr, Trnch. 
6'^f) Theocritus, A-^K, cpig. 3 and 4 and thus, in imitation of the 
Greeks, Prudentius has Re-thlcm, cathemer. 7, 1. -Nay, Hesiod seems 
to have preserved a vowel short before tuo mutes and a liquid (Scut, 
Here. 3) 

unless it be thought preferable to scan W^tK-r^yo^ making rfiu a single 
syllable by syna?resis. But that is not necessary : for a Greek, fami- 
liarised to KT at the beginning of words, could as easily pronounce 
KTP in one syllable, as a Roman pronounced SCR, 5'77t, before both 
which clusters of consonants we find short vowels retaining their natu- 
ral quantity in Latin poetry. See Preface. 

f But this liberty was very rarely used : for, in such instances as 
fi/>/cvfaque clyptiquc (&ueid, 7, 186), and 7Y/6i//ffquc trahtteqve (Gee. 
I, 16'4), the po\ver f the ca-svra is alone sufficient to lengthen the qvc 


18 Dtrfadtitfct, 

SECT. VII. Derivali-ces. 

Dcrii'ata patris naturam rerba seqimntnr. 
Mobilis, ct Tomes, La tern a, ac Kegula, Scde?, 
Qudmyuam orta e bre-cibus, gait dent producer c primam. 
Corripiuntur arista, Vuduin, Sopor, atquc Luerna, 
Nata licet loiigis. 'Usus teplitra docebit. 

Derived words usually follow the quantity of their pri- 
mitives, as anhnosus from animus iimmal, a-nimutus, 
from anima* /e/z/.y, fctura, fcinnw, jecundus, from the 
obsolete Jco, ftre facundus from fart | ghncbundu9 t 

frtmcbundus^, from gcmcre, frcincrc -ftimllia from 

famulus tutus (so great) from ttit , &c. 

(see C&sura) without the aid of tb- mute and liquid, as in Liminaque 
lavrusque (A^neid, 3, 91), Sideraquc I'cntiquc iioc:nt (-Ov. Met. 5, 484), 
Ttfj'/que pinu squc (Gratius, 130), &c, &c. Indeed there is not per- 
haps, in any classic author posterior to Catullus, a single example Uu-bc 
found of a short final vowel made long by a mute and liquid following 
without tlit aid of the Ca'Si/ra. Catullus, however, besides the verse 
above quoted, has three (and only three) other unquestionable ex- 
amples of the kind, viz. 

Et inde tot per iwpotcnfiZ freta, 2Q (4, 18. 

. . . Habebat uncti, ct ultima Britannia. 2'2 ('27, 4. 

Patria, o wca creatrix ! patria, o mea genitrix ! 3 (6l, 50. 

* The distinction between animus and anima (though both derived 
from the same Greek origin) is thus pointedly marked by Accius, 
frag. 351 Sapimus animo; fruimur unlmd : sine animo, anima est 

t So tracjmdus from the obsolete tYo, iras^ Iran , whence the participk- 

I Though we see some words of this kind written with E, us above, and 
others with 7, as furtbundus, luiTibundus, &:c. all those from verbs of thp 
.same conjugation ought, no doubt, to be written alike. 

Butfcfiw (the whole) has the long, as may be seen in the verstf 
quoted for totus. 

Derivatives. 19 

Scmimbus jactis est ubi fetus ager. (Ovid. 

Et qua>rit/<~/tf-v per nonius omnc suos. (Ovid. 

Si ft (itra gregerusuppleyorit, aureus eeto. (Virgil, 

lamina prm'cdit donsissima a'inibus eintis. (Ovid. 

Fccioidam vctnit reparari moriibus hydram. (Martial. 
Xon formosus ovat, sed evv&facundits, Ulysses. (Ovid. 
Pater familiar verus cst Quirinalis. 23. (Martial. 

Nee /o'/fl pars, homo terrai quota totius unus. (Lucret. 

In the tenses of verbs, this rule uniformly prevails, as 
nwvcbaw, muvcbo, move, morearn, ?nuverem > m'tirere, 
woven*?, muvcHdits, which, being forjned from muveo, 
have their tirst syllable short in conformity to it; whereas 
moveraw, Movcrim, mwisscm, movero, movissc, being 
derived from )iidvi, whose first syllable is long, have their 
tirst syllable long likewise as also moturus and wiotus 
from the supine mot urn. 

.Indrum, simulacrum, ambulacrum, lavacrum, volu- 
tabruni, involucrum* have their pen.ultima long, because 
derived from the supines aratum, simulatum, ambulatum, 
lavutuw, volntatuw* involutum, in \vhiph the penultima 
has the same quantity. 

On the other hand, morii'metttUM, initium *', have their 
second syllable short, because the corresponding syllable 
is short in the supines monituni and iriititm, from which 
they are derived. 

Exceptions. - Many derivatives deviate from the quuu 

* To these l,et nic add Documcnfum, for the sake of introducing a 
remark which may be of some use to learners, by removing a difficulty 
respecting the apparent irregularity of a long list of supines. That sup 
posed irregularity will iu great measure disappear, if they only recol- 

20 Deri I'd frees. 

tity of their primitives, astriobilis*] fumes, latcrna, re 
ncdeSy which have their first syllable long, although ihe 
correspond ing syllable be short in the words whence they 
deduce their origin, viz. in<rccv y foi'eo, Idteo, re go, xcdco, 
See further under Syncope. 

Again, Inccrna, arista, st'ipor, and radum, have their 
fust syllable short, though derived from Itlcco, r/reo, wpio, 
vudo, in which tlie first syllabic is long. 

In like manner, the entire class of verbs in VR'IO, 
railed desidcratire*, have the U short, though derived 
from the future participle in URUS, of which the penultima 
is invariably long; as parliirit, csi'irit, ca } natiirit, imp* 

Icct that the regular supine of the second and third conjugations is ITU 31 
with the / short; but that the Romans in many instances omitted the 
Short 7 in the rapidity of pronunciation, as we omit to sound the short E in 
the preterites of most of our verbs whose present tense does not end in D 
or T, as Lov'd, Talk'd, P reach' d, &c. so Ih&tDoctum is merely the syncope 
Doc'tvm from Docitum or Dokitum, whence Dolawcntum or Document inn 
above. And, as this syncope has, in some cases with us, been attended 
withan alteration of harsher into softer consonants for the sake ofpleasing 
ihe ear, it produced a similar effect in many of the Latin supines. Thus, 
as we hz\e passed, pass'd, past, burned, burn'd, burnt, dwelled, dwcll'd, 
dwelt, &c. the Romans had legitum, leg' turn, Icctum scribltinn, 
scrib'tum, scriptum rumpitum, rump' turn, rnptum nubitum, inib'tuui* 
nuptum with numerous similar cases, iij which the ear alone will be ti 
sufficient guide, without the aid of any further rule. 

* The irregularity of mobilis, however, exists only in appearance ; for, the 
regular supine of mneo being moviturn orineititinx, reduced by syncope to 
mow' t urn t and by crasis to motum -the adjective was first mfctbilis or 
mowibilis, then by syncope nww'bilis, and finally, by crasis, mebilis, with- 
out the smallest irregularity in any respect. -Pomes, too, might easily 
be traced in the same manner: but this hint will be sufficient to awake 
the attentipu of learners. 


riirit, with two others, in Martial, 11, 78, and Juvenal, 
u, ^08 ; from which examples it seems to follow that the U 
is likewise short in other verbs of the same class, as a (lo- 
rn turif, canlurit, diet nr it, dormiturit, cmpti'irit, lec- 
turit, petit urit, proscriptiirit, sculpturit, scripti'irit, syl- 

Partarit imuuneros angusto pectore inundos. (Claud. 

Xovi hominis mores : csiirit atque sitit. (Mart. 

SECT. VIII, Compound Words. 

Legem simplidum refluent cmnposta suoruw, 

J'ocakw licet, aut diphthongmn, syllaba mutet. 

Dcjero corripies^ cum Pejcfro, et Innuba, neciwn 

Pronuba, Faticlicum et socios, cum Semisopitus, 

(-lucix ctiam Xiliilum, cum Cogn'ftus, Agnitus, h&rent. * 

Longam Itubeeiljus, verb unique Ambitus, amabit. 

Compound words generally agree in quantity with the 
simple words from which they are formed. 

Thus pcrlego, attigi, admonct, consonans, have the 

* Is oblltcro another instance of such deviation from the quantity of 
the primitive ? 

HIEC vigeaut majjdata, nee ulla ollitcrct aetas. (Cat nil. 
Is it of the same family as dc-feo? \\z. ob-lco, ob-letuin, ub-lctura , 
thence (as picturatus from pictura) oblcturo, gradually, changed to 
vbTitutQ and oblttero ? The quantity of the second syllable seems to ex- 
clude Ktura of I'uw ; and the common derivation from litcra appears jioi 

22 Compound Words. 

middle syllable short, agreeably to the quantity of the cor- 
esponding syllable in their primitives, lego, tctigi, munet, 


Thus also perlegi, remotus, ablatus, have the penultima 
long, because it is long in Icgi, motus % latus. 
Quandoquidem data suntipsis quoque fata sepuicris. (Jur. 
Tuque, O, Minoa rcnuwdata, Seylla, figura. (Propert. 

The quantity of the primitive word is generally preserved 
in the compound, notwithstanding the alteration of a vowel 
in the latter. 

Thus ace i do, cone i do, eve I do, I net do, occi'do, reel do, 
mice/do, fromciido, have the middle syllable short; where- 
as, in accido, concldo, excldo, ineldo, oca do, rccldo, sue* 
cldo, from ccedo, the same syllable is long. 
Steniit tigros, sternit sata laeta, boumque labores, (Vfrg. 
Milo domi non est : peregre ]\lilone pro fee to. . . . (J\Iart. 
Ibis, io ! Romain uunc peregrine liber. (Mart, 

Desipercni homines, aaperent ferasecla feiarum. (Lucre f f 

Exceptions. Djejero and pejcro, derived fromjilro 
aledicus, caussidicus y fatidlcus, veridicus, from dlco - 
3anis6pitKS) from suplo- -ni/iiluni, from /ilium hodie from 
fcc die ag-riitus and cogriitus, from notns change the 
long syllable of their primitives into a short. 

.... Crclites mfrilormnus 47. (Catullus. 

Sera nimis vita est crastina : vive htfdie, (J\IartM f 

Et prior tsris era* qaam ferri eogriitus usus. (Lucret. 

.Agriitus accipics. Jubet a praocone vocari.. .. (Jyvenal t 

Imteciilus, from b^cUrum^ has the second syllable 

Compound fVords. 23 

The participle ambitus has the pea ultima long, whereas 
the J1I is short in the substantive ambitus, and in am- 
bit io *. 

Jussit, et amblta' circuindare litora terrte. (Ovid. 

Fallit, et ambit os a principe vendit honores, (Claud. 

Et properantis aquas per amcenos ambitus agros. (Hor. 
Cumque suo deinens expelliturv/wfoYz^auro. (Claudian. 
Nee n os ambitiO) nee amor nos tungit habendi. (^Ovid. 

Proniiba, inniiba, and sukni(ba % from nubo, have the 
NL r short : but it is common in connubium. 
Bis nocui mundo : mepronuba duxit Erinnys. (Lucan. 
Auxilium volucri Pallas tulit inniiba fratri. (Lucan. 

Quod gernitllypsipyle, lecti quoque subnuba nostri... (Or, 
Lusus cratsacrae connubia fallere toedce. (Martial. 

t Connubio juirgam stabili, propriamque dicabo. ( 

SECT. IX. Prepositions in Composition. 

Longa A, DE, E, SE> DI, prater Dirimo atque Dl- 

Sit RE brci'c: at Rcfert a Res produdto semper. 

* Besides ambio, ambltum, a simple derivative from ap$t or antic. 
(as supcro from super), there probably also was amb-co, amb-itum, a 
compound from to. 

f Observe, however, that neither this line, nor any other hexame- 
ter nor indeed any verse that I can find, although I might quote three 
or four from the tragedies of Seneca is capable of positively proving 
the second syllable in Connuliwn to be ever short. In truth, it is so 
frequently found Jong, that, at first sight, \ve \Vould be justifiable in 


4 Prepositions in Composition. 

Grcecuin; produc ptcrumqnc Latinnlrt. 
Contrahc quw Fundus, Fugio, Neptis///^', Xeposywe, 
Et Festus, Fari, Fateor, Fanum^we, crednitit. 
Hiscc Profecto addes, pantcrqnc Proeella, Protervus. 
At primam variant Propago, Propino, Profundo, 
Procure, Propello, Propulso : Proserpinajw/ife. - 
Corripe AB, et rdiquas, obxtet nisi consona bind. 

In compound words, the prepositions or particles A> 
DE> E, $E, DI, are long, as amitfo, Deduco, trumpo, 
Sc.paro, D'irtgo. 

Et qualem infelix amisit Mantua campum. (Vlrgih 

Dcducunt socii naves, et litoracornplent. . (VirgiL 

Quidquid ero, Stygiis erumpere nitar ab oris. (Ovid. 

Scparat Aonios Actaeis Phocis ab arvis. (Ovid. 

Perge modo, et, qua te ducit via, dlrige gressum. (Virgil. 

Exceptions. Dlis short in D'/rimo and Disertus. 
Hanc Deus et nielior litevn natura diremit. (Ovid. 

Fecundi * calices queni non fecere disertum ? (Horace. 

RE is short, as rcimquo, rcfero : but, in the imper- 
sonal refert (it concerns}, the RE is long, as coming 
from res. 
Xec tumulum euro : sepelit natura relic 'tos. (Mceccnas. 

afTirming it to be always so, and that, wherever it appears to be other- 
wise, the word should be pronounced Connub-yum t as Abietc and 
Jlrkte t when employed as dactyls in Virgil, are "pronounced Ab-ycte, 
Ar-yete. (See Synaeresis.) But the quantity of Pronuha, Innuba, and 
Subnuba, fully authorises us to conclude, that, in the line above quoted, 
and in other like instances, the second syllable of Connubium is really 

* See the note on thispassngp, in Sect. XXIL 

Prepositions In Compos it ion, 5 

Propelfit Boreas , stus ct unda refcrt. (Ovid. 

Pra'terea nee jam mutari pabula rtjcrt. (P r irg. 

PRO is short in Greek words, as Prometheus, Propon* 

tis*: in Latin words, we most frequently find it long, as 
prvi'eho, prbnurus. 

Qualiter in Scvthica religatus rape Prometheus .. . (Mart. 

Misit in has siquos longa Prtipontis aquas. (Ovid. 

Prove/if mur portu ; temvque urbesque receduot. (Virg. 

Promtrus et niagni Laomedontis ero, (Ovid. 

Exceptions. Prtifundut. Prtifugies, Prtifugio, Pro- 
wepos, Proncptis, frtifesjus, Proficiscor, Prvfari, Pro'* 
Jiteor, Prtifanus, Prbfccto, Prticclla, Protervus, and Pru- 
pero (i. e. pro-pilro) have the pro short as likewise 
Procus, which is sometimes erroneously classed with the 

Semanimes alii vastum subicre profundiim. (Lycan. 

I lac r JVro'j, hac profugos po^uistis sede penatcs. (Ovid. 
Cum Baliyloniacas subuiersa frftfugit in undas. (JltihiL 
Ut prunepos, Saturne, tuus, quern reddere vitam .... ((h\ 
...Jam reliquaex amitis, patruelis nulla, protiept!$...(Pcrs. 
Jam vero a mane ad noctem, festo *t(\uerofesfo< (LuciL 
Ipse soni terrore pavens, Pro/icixcere, dixit. (Ovid. 

Ncn aliter placiturn viro, sic moesta/^'^/rt/v/; 1 . (Lucan. 
Cur, cum me peteres, ea non projitenda putabas? (Ovid. 
Quis Cereris ritus ausit vulgare projaiii* ? (Ovid. 

Ad Cinnas Mariosque venis : sterncre pro feet o. (Litaui, 
Jsostra per adversas agitur fortune pr&cetlas. (Ovid, 

1 Manilius, however, by a bold violation of Greek prosody, 
i^ie pro long i 

. . , /Kcjnora, et extremum Propontidvs Hellcspoiitum !4 , -1 39 

26* Prepositions in Composition. 

Cum modo me specUis oculis, lascive, protcrvjs* (Ovid. 
Nox tibi, ni properes, ista pcrcnnis crit. (Ovid. 

Inter tot juvenes intemeratay;;*o6'o*. (Ovid. 

Propago (whether noun * or verb) Propino, Projuudo, 
Procufo, Propello, Propulso, Proserpina (though, 
N. B. not a compound, but merely a corruption of the 
Greek Persephone} have the/;ro common f. 
At consueta dotmi catulorurn blanda propago . .. . (Lucret, 
Sed truncis oleas melius, propagine vites .... (Virgil. 

Nee ratione fluunt alia, stragemque prvpagant. (Lucret. 

* The noun Propago, we are told by grammarians, lias the pro long 
Tvhon it signifies a line-stock or layer, and short when it signifies race 
or lineage ; and indeed ( it so happens that the passages in which the 
poets have used the word, lend a color to the assertion. That dif- 
ference, however, evidently appears to be the effect of pure chance, 
since Propago is in both cases the same identical word, only used on 
some occasions in its natural acceptation, on others metaphorically, as 
we say in English the Stock of a tree and the Stock of a family. Now 
the verb PrS pago having the first syllable avowedly common we 
run no risk in asserting that Propago, in every shape and in every 
sense, may have the Pro either long or short. 

f When I observe the very great irregularity of the Latin Pro in 
composition, without the slightest appearance of rule or reason to de- 
termine why it should be short in one word, long in another, and com- 
mon in a thud, I conclude that it was in reality evcryvJiere cwnmon, and 
that we should probably iind it so if we had enough of the ancient 
poetry remaining. The word being evidently borrowed from the Greek, 
in which it is written with an 0-micron, we might for that reason expect 
'.o find it invariably short : but, the Latin final being in other cases 
more gene: ally long, we might, for this reason again, as naturally ex- 
jpect to Iind Pro usually made long by those at least who did not un- 
derstand Greek. The poets seeiii to have dexterously availed themselves 
of this convenient ambiguity, by making the Pro either long or short ai 
it happened to suit their purpose. 

A, E, I, in Composition. 27 

Hi propaganda rucrant pro limite rcgni. (Claudian. 

Quod nulli calicem tiunn prophut*. 18. (Mart, 

line pro phi (frit Bitiaj pulcherrima Dido, (Mart. 

Quid refert ? aniniam per vulnera inillc prtifudit. (Sabinus. 
Flumina pro fund ens alien! conscia coeli. (Claud. 

\\\<\e. procurator minium quoque multa prticurat. (Ovid. 
.... Lintea : pars Indi procurat segmina dentis. (Aviemts. 
Aer a tergo quasi provehat, atque propel tat. (Lucret. 

Ut ywriteT propulsa ratis, stant litore matres. (F. Flaccus. 

Quam paene furvae regna Proserpina 56. (Horace. 

Non omnes fallis: scit te Proserpina canum. (Mart. 

The prepositions Ab, Ad, In, Ob, Per, Sub, are 
short in composition before vowels, as is likewise the final 
syllable of Ante, Circum, Super. 

Sometimes, when Ab or Ob is joined in composition to 
a word beginning with a consonant, the preposition, in- 
stead of becoming long by position, loses its final con- 
sonant, and remains short, as aperio, operio, timitto. 
(See also under Systole.} 

Aprilem memorant ab aperto tempore dictum. (Ovid. 

Tantum operire soles &\\\.aperire domum. (Catullus. 

Quod petiit spernit, repetit quod nuper omisit. (Horace. 

SECT. X. A, E, /, in Composition. 

Produc A semper compos ti part e prior e. 
At simul E, simul I, ferme breviare memento. 
Nequidquam produc, Nequando, Venefica, Nequam, 
Nequaquam, Nequis sociosque : Videlicet addes.?' 

28 A, E, /, in Composition. 

Idem masculcum monitus producito, Slquis, 
Scilicet, et Blgne, Tiblcen : junge Qadrlg, 
Blrnus, Tantldem, Quidam, etcbtopostd*Diei. 
Composition varidbis Ubi ; v*ruxbi$ Ibidem. 

If the first member of a Latin compound word end in A, 
that vowel is long, as Trado, Trano, Traduco : but in Greek 
compounds, the A is sometimes short, as adipsos, some- 
times long, as Neapolls. 

Traditur armatis vulgus inerme viris. (Ovid. 

Snepe, petcns Hero, juvenis tranaverat undas. (Ovid. 

Assuetam bello pacis traduxit ad artes. (Ovid. 

Exstinguitque sitim porno, cui nomen adlpsos. (Priscian. 
Ambarum medio procera Ncapotis arcem (Arienus. 

If it terminate in E, the E is usually short, as equidem, 
ntfaSy trcccnti. But, in verbs compounded with/^c/o or 
Jio 9 it appears to be common ; for we find it short in some, 
long in others, and, in others again, both long and short, 
without any apparent reason for the difference. 
Non cquidcm miror, si stat victoria tecum. (O-cid. 

Solve nefas, dixit : solvit et ille ncfas. (Ovid. 

A sene sed postquam numrni venere trcccnti. (Mart. 

Et stupcfacta suos inter Germania partus. (Ma nil. 

Jnsolito belli tremcfecit murmure Thulen. (Ciaudian. 
Sanguine quam largo Grajios calcfcccrit amnes. (Cl(tud. 
Velleradet succis bis madSfacta Tyros. (Tibull. 

Dum nimium vano tumcfactus nomine gaudes. (Mart, 

At nos horrifico cintfactum de i>rope busto (Lucrct. 

Quae semper maneant illabcfacta y precor. (Ovid. 

Sic mea perpetuis liquV/iunt pectora curis. (Or/A 

'Omentum in flainma })ingue Uqitifaciens. (Cat u II. 

Tnterea teneris tcpi-factus in ossibus humor, (JTirg. 

A, E, 7, In Composition. 

Alta tepcfticiet pcrmixta ihunina ctrde. 

Intremuit, motiunie sinus fate fed I aqnarum. (O*cid. 

Inde [HitT'ft'cit nidi is rota Candida coelum. (Ennitts. 

Xec tleiui dumirur ptiir/uint nocte fcneMrze. (Proptrt. 

CatiBser'patt/iet, qwe ferri pelliceat vim. (Lucret* 

Tube fact a seneseere tandem. 9- (Prudent, 

Qucc me miseria et cura cwitabefacit. 22. {Plaut. 

Hoc fit item cunctas in partes, unde vacffit 

Cumque locus .... (Zwcre*. 

Et rarefecit calido miscente vapore. (Lucrct. 

Exceptions. The .E is long in Neqitis, Nequa, 
Ntquitidj Ncquaify Ntquaquam, Ncquldquam^ 

Videlicet, Vtm-ficus, Scccdo and words similarly compound-., 
ed, likewise in those compounded with &C- for Se.v or Semi-, 
as Sedecim, Sentestfls, Se7W/i/^.~Martial, however, makes 
the first syllable of Stlibra short in several instances, and 
never long: and Terence (Adelph. 3, 4, 4 and Ileaut. 5, 
4 J, ( 2) has J'idc/icet short, unless we are to suppose that he 
made a syncope in the rapidity of enunciation, and pro- 
nounced the word rid' licet. 
Argenti libram mittebas : facta sclibra est. {]\fart. 

Pol, hand paternum istuc dedisti. Videlicet 22. (Ter. 

' If the fu^st member of the compound word terminate ia 

* The difference in quantity between ncccsse, nefas, nefandus, /- 
faatus, nefarius, ntqwo, and ntquis, nequam, ncquitia, &c. may per- 
haps be accounted for by supposing, that, in the former class of 
words, the ne was formed by apocope from the conjunction 'no.', and so 
retains its original quantity; whereas, in the latter, either it is the ad- 
verb T??, which is always long, or the c of cc was retained ia 
ciaue.Q, though omitted ia writing. 

SO Ay E, lj in Composition. 

I or Uy the 7 or U is short, as Omnipotent Caussidims, 

Biceps, Triceps* Siquidem, Duplex, \Ditcenii, Quadritpe*, 
Indriperator, Inddgredior, Inditpedire. 
Turn pater omuipotcnSy rerum cui surnma potestas. . . . (Vir. 
Sed nee caussidico possis irnpune negare. (Martial. 

Jane biceps ! anni tacite labentis origo. (Ovid. 

Hoc quoquetentemus : siquidem jejuna remansit... (Ovid. 

Ingemit, et diiplices tendens ad sidera palmas (Virgil. 

Cum facias versus nulla non luce dticentos ..... (Martial. 
Quadriipedcmque citum ferratacalce fatigat. (Virgil. 

Indi'iperatores pugnare, ac proelia obire. (Lucretius. 

...Tndiigredi, motus hominum gestusquesequentem.(Zz/cv. 
Indiipedita suis fatalibus omnia vinclis. (Lucretius. 

But, in Ludlmagister, Lucrlfacio, Lucrlfio, and Com- 
pendlfacio (which are properly not compounds, but each a 
combination of two distinct and complete words) the / is 
long: and the same may be said of Agriculturay though 
the /is short in the compound^ Agricola. 
Ludl-magistery parce simplici turbae. 23. (Martial. 

.... Tyrias coloris optimi : lucri- fecit. 23. (Mart. 

Nunc furtiva lucrl-fieri bombycina possunt. (Mart. 

Orationis operam compcndJ-face. 22. (Plant. 

TulnceUi according to the general rule, has the / short ; 
\vhereas, in Tiblceny the middle syllable is long, because it 
is a crasis of two short vowels into one long, from the origi- 
nal Tib'iicen. 

Qua jacet et Trojaa tufricen Misenus arena. (Proper tins. 
Cur vagus incedit totii tilncen in urbe ? (Ovid. 

The masculine ~idem*, Biga 3 , Quadrlgtf, SiquiSy S~iqu<x, 

For the neuter idem, is short 

Invitum qui servat, Idem iucit Occident! , 


A, E, /, in Composition. 31 

Siquod* Scilicet, llicet, 7>7>/w.v, Trimus, Qundrluntti, Qiriris, 
the pronoun Quldtnu, Qullibct, Tant'ideni, Blduitw, Tnduutn, 
Quofidie^j and the other coinpou nds of dic.s, have the / long. 
Omnibus Idem animus, scclerata cxcedcre terra. (I'irg. 
M totus tibi trlduo legatur. 38. (Mart. 

Inter tepentes post meridiem buxos. 23. (Mart. 

Quo tldie damnatur, qui semper timet. 22. (P. Syrus. 

Quotidian^ vita? consuetudinem. 22. (Terence. 

In Tgnfidem, the 1 is longf. 
Tantldem, quasi fela canes sine dcntibu' latrat. (Ennius. 

As the / is common in 7i&7, so it is in Utiicumque and 
Ublvis, With respect to Ubitjuc, we are told that it has 
the middle syllable always long. But, though I cannot 
produce a quotation to prove that it was also short, there 
appears no reason why it should not have been so, since 
the addition of the que can make no possible alteration in 

* Although Quofidic and Quottdiantts have the second syllable long, 
as may be proved by many examples in addition to the two here quoted, 
the following verse irom Catullus (66", 139) i*> Adduced to prove that the 
syllable is common 

Conjugis in culpa flagravit quotthUund, 

This line, however, arVords no such proof, since we are 'authorised 
to account it a spondaic verse, in which trie disputed word is to be pro*- 
nounced quottld-yaiia in four syllables, as ab*y?te and ar-yftc, in Virgil, 
for abute and aril te ab-yrgnits, in Propertius (3, 19, l<2) for aliu'gnu$ 
and Vwdcm-yator iorl'in^emiator^ in Horace, Sat. 1, 7,00, 

V Mediator et invictus cuisa?pe viator 

and as Xasld-yeni is prondunctd for ya&dieni, by those who do not 
approve an anapaest instead of a dactyl in the line (Horace, Sat. 2, 
8, 1) 

Ut Na-)-i(/i'e-!-m juvit te coena beati ? 

i If ever short, as it is said to be, on the authority of a doubtful 
verse from Varro, we Can only conclude that Tantldtm was formed by 
crasis from tanti-utem, and Tanfidcrn bj syncope. Tiie word t 
\v\\l bear us ou; in this supposition, 

35 A, E y I, in Composition. 

the quantity of the preceding 7, whatever difference it 
may produce in the accent. 

Ibidem, too, is said to have the middle syllable long : 
and I grunt- that so we happen to find it in the best 
writers. Yet that circumstance may be considered as 
merely the effect of chance, since we know that IKl has 
its last syllable common, and even find instances of Ih'i- 
</# with the penultima short in Jnvencus and Marnercus, 
whose authority, though not equal to that of Horace 
or Virgil, is certainly not to be overlooked in a case of 
this kind. 

And here let me caution the learner against considering 
Tri gin t a, Trlgesimus or Trlce&Thus, and TnCtrft, as 
compound words in which the Tri must be short as it is in 
all the real compounds of Tris, viz. Triceps, Triplex, 7V/- 
f&rmis, Trlcuspis, Tricentics, e, e : for Triginta can- 
not with propriety be called a compound word (like 7V/- 
ceutlcs) since GINTA is merely a termination. At all 
,its, the Tri in Triginta, together with its derivatives. 
Trigtsithus, Tr'iCfsimuSy and Trlccni, is ever long; and 
the examples which might be quoted are numerous : but, in 
addition to this from Martial (1, 4-4) 
Bis tibi triccni fuimus, Mancine, vocati 
I content myself with one from Horace, Sat. ^?, .0, 6.9 
> . . Teinpore dicam : hodie triccs'ima sabbata. Vin' tu . . . 
o show by his own authority that Triccnis cannot possibly 
the true reading ia Od. 2, 14, 5, where the measure 
pdispetisably requires a short syllable, though I see that 
very li.oe quoted in a modern Prosody to prove the syllabi? 
long. Instead, therefore, of Maittaire's Trlcems, we 
with Dacier, the Dauphin editor, and Mr. Wake- 

O and Y in Composition. 3.3 

field read TrEccnis (three hundred), which, beside* 
preserving the quantity, at the same time improves the 
sentiment, since, the greater the number, the more affect- 
ing is the lamentation. 

With respect to words of Greek origin, the / whkli 
terminates the first member of the compound word (if it be 
not written in Greek with the diphthong El) is short, 
less it happen to be rendered common or long by position, 
as Callimachus, Call*} crates, Call'tstratus ; in the first 
of which words, the /is naturally short; in the second it 
becomes common before the mute and liquid, CR; and, in 
the last, it is necessarily rendered long by the STR. 

SECT. XL O and Yin Composition. 

Grcecum O-micron pri md composti corripe parte : 
O-mega produces : ast Y-psilon br&viabis. 
() Latiiun in v arils br eclat vel protrakit usits. 

In compound words of Greek origin, when the first 
member ends in O, that vowel is short, as (Enuphorum, 
Schcenobates, Argonauta, Bibliopola, Areopagus*, Thes- 
salomca | unless rendered common or long by position, 

* Areopagus being frequently mis-pronounced in English vvjth the 
penultima long, it may be- proper to observe that the pa is short, as ap- 
pears from Homer, Odyssey E, 405 and 411, besides the following 
line from Brcdseus's Authologiu, page 5 

T*? vi rJArOE tft^py^o?, avr^icj, i^il;', 

t Instead of Thcssalunians in the N.Testament, as if the name of the 
town were Thessalonfonis, or Thcssa/unict. it would be more proper to 


34 O and Yin Composition. 

as Chirographum, Hippocrene y Philoxenus, Nicostratus. 
(Enophorum sitiens, plena quod tenditur urna. (Juvenal. 
Augur, schcentibateS) medicus, magus, omnia novit. (Juv. 
Et qui per freta duxit Argtinautas. 38. (Statins. 

Non habeo, sed habet biblitfpolaTryphon. (Mart, 

Tarigebat Macetum fines, murosqije subibat, 
Thes&al&nica, tuos. (Claud. 

But, if the first fart of the compound word end with 
an O-mega y as Mtvurctpgog, Minotaurus, TeaptrgTig, Go~ 
metres, rwygKQofr Geographus, Aayarcroy;, Lagopus, 
Agfi/Jo^o^ *, Leodocus, the O is long in Latin. 
Minotaurus inest, Veneris monimenta nefandoc. (VirgiL 
Si meus aurit^ gaudet lagopode Flaccus. (Martial. 

Kititur hinc Talaus, fratrisque Leodocus urget 
Remo terga sui. (VaL flacc. 

Metiri certa solet arte gcotnetra terramf. 
Describis varias tu, docte gcogrdphe, terras J. 

When Y terminates the first member of a Greek pom- 
read ThessalonldanSj conformably to the Greek i<rrXo>IKic. Thes- 
$alonians (which occurs in the title alone of the epistle) probably was at 
first only a typographic error, though faithfully copied in all sqbse. 
quent editions of the sacred volume. 

* According to the Attic dialect, for Aao&xo?, Laodocus, 
f I These two lines are not quoted from any classic author, bqt ex. 
temporarily made for the purpose of pointing put to learners the right 
pronunciation of two words which they may have frequent occasion to 
use, at l^M in English. J have never seen Geographus in poetry, and 
cannot find any verse in which Geometra or Geomttres has its true quan- 
tity. Jn his third satire, verse 76, Juvenal makes Gco- one long syllable 
by synaereais, and moreover avails himself of the mute and liquid 7'^ to 
inake the MF< long. Sidonius Apollinaris, copying probably after Ju- 
venal, and mistaking his spondee for a dactyl, makes the shortj 
jp an unpardonable violation of prosody. 

O and Y in Composition. 35 

pound word, that vowel is short, as Thrasybulus, F.ury- 

pylus, Polydamas, Polypus, unless rendered common 
or long by position, as Fotycletus, which has the Y com- 
mon, and Polyxena, in which it is long. 
Anna superveheris quod, Thrasybtile, tua. (Ausonius. 
Vely cum Deiphobo, Poljdamanta * roga. (Ovid. 

. . . Polypus hseret, et hac eludit retia fraude. (Ovid. 

O, in compound Latin words, is sometimes long, as 
Alidquin, Quandoque t, and sometimes short, as Quandfc 
quidern^ Hodie, Dnodeni. 

Mendosa est natural, alioqui recta; velut si . . . (Horace. 
Sera nimis vita est crastina: vive htfdie. (Martial* 

* Tlie Po in Polydamas is naturally short, altliough the author availed 
himself of the licence used by the Greek poets, of writing riovAuj instead 
oflloXvc and probably pronounced the name Poolydamas, giving the 
vowel a sound similar to that of the diphthong in our English words 
Poo/ and Fool Thus Homer (II. X, 100, alluded to by Persius, 1, 4) 

1 he same remark applies to Polypus, where we find it with the first 
syllable long (which is perhaps uniformly the case in Latin), unless we 
choose to recur to the Doric dialect, in which it is written with an 
0-mega. Homer, without a Doricism, has it in his Hymn to Apollo, 
spelled with a diphthong 

f As to Quandoque and Quandoquidem, although I cannot produce any 
authority to prove that the O was ever made short in the former, or long 
in the latter, I think we may lawfully presume that it was common in 
both, as in the simple Qtfando. And although we may not be able to 
ihid an instance of Duodeni with the long, yet we may reasonably con- 
clude tbat it occasionally was so, as in the simple Duo, 

Preterites of two Syllables. 

SECT. XII. Preterites of two Syllables. 

P reefer it a as summit pr imam dissyllaba longam. 
Sto, Do, Scindo, Fero, rapiunt, Bibo, Findo, prior es. 

Preterites of two syllables have the first syllable long, as 
Vcm, Vldi y Vici, Fed, Crevi. 

Vtnit summa dies, et ineluctabile ternpus. (l r irgiL 

Cur aliquid v~id't ? cur noxia lamina ftci ? (Ovid. 

Paene puer vario juvenes certamine vlci. (Ovid: 

. . . Eripui, etpotius germanum amittere crcvi. (Catul. 

Exception*. Sttti,- Dedi*, Scidi, Tuli, Bibi, and 
Fidi from Findo, have the first syllable short 
Olli per galeam fixo stetit hasta cerebro. (Virg. 

Creta Stdit magnum, majus de'dit Africa nomeh. (Mart. 
Aut scidit, et medias fecit sibi litora terras. (Lucan. 

Et qui non tulefat verbera, tela tulit. (Mart. 

* Although, in compliance with established usage, -Sttti and Dedi are 
retained here as exceptions, they might, with greater propriety, be 
classed under the general head of " Preterites doubling thejini Syllable " 
In fact, Dcdi is nothing else than the regular preterite di of the third 
conjugation, with the augment prefixed. Sttti is formed in like manner 
from the simple sti, only with the omission of the /&', as> in Spopondi no- 
tired in the ensuing section. That do and sto belonged to the third ag 
well as the first conjugation, will hardly be doubted by any scholar whg 
considers that the compounds of do are mostly of the third, that the su- 
pine of sto hud its penultima sometimes long agreeably to the first con- 
jugation, sometimes short according to the third, as may be seen by it? 
derivatives in sect. 14 and that, besides the preterite steti, it had also 
atari, a* appears from the following verse of Proper tiua, 2, 34, 53 
Nv ? si post Stygias aliquid restaverit umbras 

Preterites doubling the first Syllable. 37 

Hand aliter titubat, qiiam si friera vina Vibisset. (Ovid. 

D iff! di t, et muM por rectum extendrt arena. (Virg. 
The middle syllable is long in Abscldi from Ctfdo, and 
short in Abscidl from Scindo. 

Abs-cidit nostras multumsors invida laudi. (Lucan. 

Ab-scidit impulsu ventorum adjuta vetustas. (Lucan. 

SECT. XIII. Preterites doubling the first Syllable. 

Prccteritum geminans primam breviabit utramque, 
Ut Pario, Peperi, vetet id nisi consona bina. 
Casdo Cecldit habet y longd, ceu Pedo, secundd. 

When the first syllable of a verb is doubled in the perfect 
tense, the first and second of the perfect are both short, as 
Ci'riHi, Tctigi, Pepuli, Meniini. 

Tityre, te patulae cecini sub tegmine fagi. (Virgil. 

Pars* mihi pacis erit dextram teftgisse tyranni. (Virgil. 
Litora, quag cornu pepulit Saturnus equino. (Fa 1. Place. 
Si wiemhii, fuerant tibi quatuor, ^Elia, dentes. (Mart. 

Although the first vowel be long by position in the present 
tense, and continue long in the preterite, the prefixed syllable* 
(or augment} is nevertheless short, as Cucurri, Tetendi, 
Monwrdi. Spo 

Instead of Pars, q. Pr#s,' a. pledge, a security? 

t From the authorities here quoted, it follows that fpopondi is. the 
classic orthography, not spospondi, which would have the first syllable 
Jong by its position before &P, as we may invariably observe in com- 
pound words, ex. gr. Respuo, Respicio, Respondso, Respiro t Rtspergo, Sec. 

38 Supines of two Syllables. 

Stella facem ducens multa cum luce clicurrit. 
Ingemuit miserans graviter, dextramque tettndit. (Virg* 
Pectora legtthnus casta momordit amor. (Ovid. 

, . . Votum spopondit : nulla propter me sacro . . .22. (Sen* 
Quos Deus ipse viris intermina fortibus spbpondit. 56. 


Exceptions. Cecidi from Cado, and Pepedi, have the 
second syllable long. 

Terga fuga, donee vetuerunt castra, ctcldit. (Lucan. 
Nam, displosa son at quantum vesica, pepedi. (Horace. 

SECT. XIV. Supines of two Syllables. 

Cuncta supina voluntprimam dissyllaba longam. 
Ire, Fuo, Cieo, Reor, et Sero, Quire, Sinoquc, 
Do, Lino, et orta Ruo, breviabunt rite priores. 

Supines of two syllables generally have the first syllable 
long, asPisum, Motum y Potum, esum, Ffefu?n,the obsolete 
Pleturn, whence Impletum y RcplZtum,* &c. and the 
participles of the future active and preterite passive agree 
in quantity with the supine, as Flsurus, I r isus, Moturus, 
Alotus, Crctus, Fetus, Viltus^ Scltus, &c. 

* The supines in etum must unavoidably be long, as formed by 
crasis from eUum> Fie item FKtum, Pttitw* 1'letum, 

Supines of two Syllables. 39 

Exspectem, qui me numquam vlsurus abisti ? (Ovid. 

. . . Jussit, et humanas motura tonitrua mentes. (Ovid. 

Jamjam poturi deserit unda sitim. (TibulL 

. -. . Jactor, et tsuros terna per ora canes. (Ovid. 

Nee matura metitjteturi vota coloni. (Ovid. 

Imfjletura fuit sextas modo frigora brumze. (Martial, 

Nee supera caput ejusdem ceeidisse vittam . . . . (Lucrct. 

. . . Vis erat : hinc leges, etplebis-scita coacUe. (Lucaih 

Exceptions. The first syllable is short in Datum, 
Ratum, Saturn, ~itiim, Li turn, Quitujn, Siturn, the 
obsolete Fiitum* (from Fuo 9 whence Fiiturus), and 
Rutum-\ from Ruo, whence Dirutum, Erutum, Obrii- 
turn, Proriitum, Subrutum. 

Cui datus haerebam custos, cursusque regebam. (Virg. 
Atjuvenis, vipjsse dolo ratus, avolat ipse. (Virg. 

Hie Amrnone satus, rapta Garamantide nytnpha. (Virg* 
. . . Poscebatur humus ; sed Mum est in viscera terras. (Ovid. 
Ardentes auro, et pa.ribus lit a corpora guttis. (Virgil. 

forma in teqebris nosci non quit a est. (Terence. 

Hie situs est Phaethon, currus auriga paterni. (Ovid. 

Nectu mensarum morsus horresce^/w^ros. (Virgil. 

Saxa tulit penitus fyscyssis prortita muris. (Lucan. 

Jdcirco virtus medio jacet obruta coeno. (Petron. 

Citum from Cieo, of the second conjugation, has the / 
short; whence Citus, ConcHtus, Excitus. 
Corripuit sese, et tectis citus extulit altis. (Virg. 

*f For the reason of the difference in quantity between these two 
supines and all others inutwn, see the ensuing section. Rutus is found 
in Cicero, Ulpian, and other ancient writers. 

40 Supines of two Syllables. 

Altior insurgens, et cursu concitus 3 heros. (Virgil. 

Nee fruitur somno, vigilacibus txciia curls. (Ovid. 

But C'ttum from C/0, of tlie fourth coojugation, has a 

Unde ruunt toto concita pericula mundo. (Lucan. 

Rupta quies populis, stratisque e^dtajuventus. (Lucan. 

Statum seems to have had the first syllable common % 
as appears by its derivatives. 

Hie status incoelo multos permansit in annos. (Ovid. 

Ponemusque suos ad stata signa dies. (Ovid. 

Hie Stator : hoc primum condita Roma loco est. (Ovid. 
Dixit, et alterna fratrem statione redemit. (Ovid. 

Sex sestertia si statim dedisses. 38. (Mart. 

Damnavit multo staturum sanguine Martem. (Mart. 

Constatura fides superum: feraleper urbem 
Justitium .... {Lucan. 

Solsfitio Meroen, bruma tentabimus Istrum. (Claud. 

Quae sic orsaloqui: Spesne obstatura Pelasgis. . .(Statins. 
Preestatura novas vires incendia poscit. (Claud. 

Ins fit or imperil, caupo famosus honorurn. (Claud. 

Quseque tegis medios, ins fit a longa, pedes. (Ovid. 

Ipse deus solitus stabulls expellere vaccas. (Tibull. 

Concordes stabili fatorum numine Parcap. (Virg. 

Sic erat instdbilis tellus, innabilis unda. (Ovid. 

Qiri tu scis ? an tu fortasse fuisti mea3 matri obstctrlv ? 25. 


* Or, to speak more properly, the supine Statum, from Sto of the 
first conjugation, was regularly long, while Stttum, from Sto of the, 
third (noticed in sect. 12), was short: but, in process of time, the or- 
thographic distinction between Sfutum and Sfitum was confounded, and 
both were alike written with a y though the difference in point of quan- 
tity was still observed. 

Poly syllabic Supines. 41 

SECT. XV. Polysyllabic Supines* 

UTUM producunt polysyllaba cuncta supina. 
Gavisum pariter medium producers gaudct. 
I VI praterito, semper producitur ITUM. - 
C&tera corripies in ITUM qu&cumque 

Supines in UTUM, consisting of more syllables than 
two, have the penultima (or last syllable but one) long, 
as Sol a turn, Indutum, Exutum, Volutum, Minutum^ 
Acutum, Metutum, Stattltum*. 

Et circum Iliades, crinem de more sol u tec. (Virg* 

Si fuit Andromache tunicas induta valentes* (Ovid. 

Sustulit cxutas vinclis ad sidera palmas. (Virg. 

Ecce autein flammis inter tabulata volutus . * . . (Virg. 
Implet et ilia manum, sed parcius aere minuto. (Juven* 
Ponite jam gladios hebetes : pugnetur acutis. (Ovid. 

Narn cupide conculcatur niinis ante metutum* (Lucret. 
Cauturn et statutum jusserat. 29. (Prudentius, 

Gavisum has the penultima long:. 
Armaque g aviso referat captiva parenti. (Claud* 

Supines in ITUM, from preterites in IT /T I t are likewise 
long, zsPetltum, Pofitum, Qu&sltum, Arcess'itum, La* 

* It is not protended that all these supines actually cxi.-t at present 2 
but thcrec an be no doubt that they once did exist, as appears from 
their derivatives. They were formed by crasis from **^tuw (u& /'/ji/0 
from Fiutto, in Lucretius, 3, 190), and therefore are long; \vhereas 
Futu?n and "Rutum (noticed in tlie preceding section) were formed by 
syncope, F*ttoat Fii'tum, RSStum, Rii'tvm, and therefore contiriue short, 


42 Polysyllabic Supines. 

Cessitum, ComUtum from Condio, to season or preserve; 
(for Conditum from Condo, to fon'/^/, is short.) 
Saepe laccss'ttus probris, gladiisque petltus. (Claudian. 
Vidit ut optato se consule Rom&potltam. (Claud. 

Necsese dedit in conspectum corde cupltus. (Ennius. 
Quo rediturus crat, non arcessltus ; et hceret.. . (Hor. 
Ne male co?id~t turn jus apponatur ; ut omnes .... (Hor. 
Venimus hue lapsis quas'itum oracula rebus. (Virg, 

Supines in ITUMfrom preterites in (77 (except Recen- 
sttum*\ and all other supines in ITUM, not included in 
the preceding rule, have the / short, as Monitum, Tad- 
turn, P lac it urn, Territum y Raitum, Luitum > &c. 
Scilicet oblitos admonitura rnei. (Ovid. 

Saecula Romanos numquam tacitura labores. (Lucan* 
Turn quoque, cum fugerem, quasdam placitura cremavi. 


Inde lavant aegros. Est ira coercita morbi. (Gratius. 

Tcrriia quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis. (Lucan. 

Quae cineri vanus dat rititura labor. (Martial. 

Vastato tandem pocnas liiitura profundo. (Claud. 

Prisca rccensltis evolvite saecula fastis. (Claud: 

But this rule does not extend to polysyllabic compounds 
from supines of two syllables, noticed in the preceding sec- 
tion. They follow the quantity of the simple supines from 
\vhich they are formed, agreeably to the rule " Legem slm- 
plicium " Sect. 8, as itum, Obititm Datum, Abd'itum, 

** This is perhaps only an apparent exception; the early authors 
having probably written Reccn.rivi as \vell as Recensui ; in which case, 
Reccnsltum is regular according to the general rule, " IV I prateritu . , . " 
To countenance this supposition, we find Deposiri for Dcfosui 
Dcposlvit olivam. 48. (Catvll. 3?, 8. 

Increment of Nouns. 43 

Credit um Saturn, Tnsitum, Sec. except Cognition 
and Agiiiturn, noticed in the same section. 

Morte ob'itd, quorum tellus arnplectitur ossa. (Lucretius, 

Indiciis monstrare recentibus abdita rerum. (Horace, 

Ora clci jussu non umq'uam credit a Teucris. (Plrgil. 

/Eternis faiiuc monimentis visit a florent. (Lucretius. 

At specimen sdtionis et insitionis origo. (Lucretius. 

SECT. XVI. Increment of Nouns. 

If the genitive case singular of a noun do not con- 
tain a greater number of syllables than the nominative, 
that noun has no increment, as Musa, MUSK, Dominus, 
Domini. But 

If the genitive contain more syllables than the nomina- 
tive, then the penultiina of the genitive is the increment : 
and, whether that syllable be long or short, it preserves 
the same quantity in all the oblique cases, singular and 
plural, as Casaris, C&sciri, Ccesarem, Casarc* Casares, 
Ctesarum, Ccesdribus Sermenit, Sermoni, Sermvnem, 
Scrmune, Sermdncs, Scrmonitm, Sermonibus. 

From this rule we must except Bobus> or Bubus, in 
which the increment is long, although short in the ge- 
nitive *, 

* This, however, is only an apparent deviation from the general 
rule, since Ilobus is formed by syncope and crasis from Bo-cibus, or, as 
\ve ought rather to pronounce it, Bowtbus, which was contrucicrd to 
s t and at Icnglh to Bobus, or, probably, as we would pronouuce 

44* Increment of N 

Proditus inclusoG Cacus ab ore bovis. (Ovid. 

Non prefectures litora bubus aras. (Ovid. 

Iter, Supeilcx, and the compounds of Caput, are said 
to have a double increment, or an increment of two addi- 
tional syllables, Itineris, Supellectilis, and Pracipitis- 
But there is an inaccuracy in the assertion, since Itbieris 
comes from Itiner, and Ifer gives Iteris : Supplied ili$, 
too, is found in the nominative, as likewise Supellectile ; 
and the genitive Pratipiti* flows from Pracipes, whereas 
Pr (Keeps formed Pracipi*. 

it, Boo-bus ; whence it was indifferently written Bobys or Hubus, as 
Yolgvs Vutgus, Volnus Vulnus, Voltus Vultus, &c, &c; and the quan- 
tity was equally long in both cases; although Ausonius, contrary to thq 
practice of better authors, has an example of fiobus short, as if it had 
been formed by simple syncope, without crasis, Bo'bus 

. . . . /Es, velpti spirans, cum bobus exagites. Epig. 62. 
But he might with equal propriety have made the participle Motvs short, 
in opposition to ail the other poets, who uniformly made it long, and 
for the same reason as Bobus or Bubus t viz. that it was first Alovltus or 
MZwtus, thence contracted to M^to'tvs, and finally reduced by 
crasis 10 Mot us, with trje Q of course long like our o|d English par- 
ticiple Knowen, changed to Knov'n and Knovn Flowcn, to Flow'n 
and Mown Shove* to ShoiDn and Shovn, &c, &c. I would not have 
dwelt so long on a single syllable, were I not desirous of awaking the 
attention of learners to these apparently trifling minutijr, of which a 
proper conception will, in numerous cases of greater importance and 
jn eyery language, modern as well as ancient remove many doubts 
and difficulties respecting prosody, orthography, and etymology,, 

Increments of the First a fid Second Declensions. 45 

SECT. XVII. Increments of the First and Second 

Casibus obliquis i'iv crescit prima. Secundce 
Sunt brcria incrementa: tamen producit Iberi. 

The antique increment of the first declension, by the re- 
solution of the diphthong 2E into A'i, is only to be found 
in the poets, and rarely in any subsequent to the age of 
Lucretius. A few instances, however, occur in Virgil, 
as Aulai, Pictai, Aural ; and in these, and all such, the 
A is long. 

Olli respondit rex Albai Longai. (Ennius. 

/Ethereum sensum, atque aurtti siinplicis ignem. 

(JEn. 6, 747. 

The increments of the second declension are short, as 
Putrij I r iri, Saturi (if indeed they can properly be called 
increments, when Piter, Vir> Satur, &c. are formed by 
apocope from Puerus, rirus, Saturus, &c.) 
O pifcri! ne tanta aniinis adsuescite bella. (Virgil. 

Anna, v'iri! ferte arma! vocat lux ultima victos. (Virgil. 
Ite doinurn saturce venit Hesperus ite, eapella?. (J- r irg. 

Exception. Iber, and its compound Celtiber, have 
the penultima of the genitive long. 

Quique feros movit Sertorius exul Iberos. (Lucan. 

Vir Celtibms non tacende gentibus. 122. (Martial. 

Tlie increment in 76^' has already been noticed iu 
Sect. 3, page 6. 

46 Increments of the Third Declension. 

SECT. XVIII. Increments of the Third Declension. 
Increment in A. 

Nominis A crescens, quodflectit tertia> Ion gum est. 
Mascula corripies AR et ALjimta, simulque 
Par cum compositis, Hepar, cum Nectare, Bacchar, 
Cum Vade, Mas, et Anas; ^ueis junge LaremyMe 

The increment A of the third declension is mostly long, 
as Pads, Titanis, Vectigalix, Pietatis, Calcaris, Ajacis, 
NostratiS) Cujatis, &c. 

Jane, fac a?ternos/wcew pacisc\ue ministros. (Ovid, 

Accipe belligerae cruduni thoraca Minervac. (Martial. 
Graeca quoin duplex duabus solvitur nostratibus. 36. 


Concitat iratus validos Tltanas in anna. (Qvid. 

Exceptions. Masculines in AL and AR^ (except Car 
and Nar) increase short, as Annibal*, Par and its com- 
pounds, iS/, whether neuter or masculine, Hepar, Nectar, 
Bacchar., Vas> Mas, Anas, Lar, and Jubar. 
Annibalcm Fabio ducam spectante per urbem. (Silius. 

Cui, saevum arridens, Narrabis Amilcaris umbris. (Sinus. 
Vela dabant Jaeti, ct spumas stills a?re ruebant. (Virgil. 

* The gramrriarian Valerius Probus (quoted by AGcllius, 4, 7) 
says that Eimius, and othej: early authors, wrote Annibalis, AsdrubaUs, 
Amilcarlsj with the penultima long. Though they were probably more 
accurate, in this than their successors who made the increment short, the 
authority of the latter is the rule to be followed by us moderns. 


Increment from A and AS. 47 

Ipsa merumsecum portat, et ipsa salern. (MartiaL 

Latipedenique anatem cernas exccdcre ponto. (Avicmis. 

Sacra Borne, mafibus non adeunda, Deos. (Ovid. 

Pugnavere pares; succubuere pares. {Martial. 
Ossaque nee tumulo, nee separe conteget urna. (F. Flac* 

Supparis ha^.c aevi tempora grata mihi. (Ausonim. 

Sulfureas posuit spirarnina Naris ad undas. (Ennius. 

I^audibus immodicis Cares in astra ferant. (Martial. 

SECT. XIX. Increment from A and AS. 

A quoquc et AS Gracivm breve post ulat incrementum; 
S quoque Jinitum, si consona ponitur ante ; 
Et Dropax, Anthrax, Atrax, cum Smilace, Climax ; 
Queis Atiiccm, Panacem, Coliicem, Styracein^//^, Fit- 

* cemque, 

Atque Abacem, Coracem, Phylncem, compostaque nectesi 
A tide Harpax. Syplntcis legitur tamen atque Syphacis. 

Greek nouns in A and AS increase short, as Poema, 
Stemma, Lampas also nouns ending in S preceded by a 
consonant, as Trabs, Arabs likewise Fa,i\Drvpa.i\ Arc- 
tophylav and any other compounds of <pyX|, SmiUu\ C/i- 
ma*\ Colax, Nycticorax, Styrax, and the other words 
enumerated in the rule. 

Non quivis videt imrnodulata poematct judex. (Horace. 
Non * sttmns audacis plebeia toreumata vitri. (Martial. 

* So, J apprehend, the passage ought to be readj unless we con- 
jecture, moreover, that the author perhaps wrote aitdaces litrci [i. c. 

4$ Increment in . 

Uudique collucent prsecinctae lampddes auro. (Ovid, 

Namrnodothurilegos Arcibas, modo suspicis Indos. (Ovid. 
Psilothro faciem iaevas, et dropace calvam. (Martial, 

Atacem tonare cum suis oloribus. 22. (Sidon. ApolL 

Nunc inedica panacem lacryma, succoque salubri .... 

(Ser. Sam. 

Non sty race Idaeo fragrantes uncta capillos. (Virgil. 

"Smyrna'* cavas Atracis penitus mittetur ad undas. 


Syphax has the increment common. 
Compulimus dirum Syphacem, fractumque Metello .... 

Tolle tuum, precor, Annibalera, victumque Syphacem. 


SECT. XX. Increment in E. 

E crescens numero breviabit tertia pftmo, 

Prafcr Iber, patriosque ENIS, (sed contrahit Hymen) 

calices]. Respecting those curious and costly vessels, see the Presi- 
dent de BrosseVs Letters from Italy, and wonder, with me, that, when 
expressly treating on the subject, he could patiently content himself 
tyith the preposterous vulgar reading (14, 94) 

Nos sumus audacis pleheia toreumata vitri : 
Nostra nee ardenti gemma feritnr aqud 

as if, truly, the very rarest and most expensive sort of glass were exclu- 
sively reserved for plebeians, and the cheap common sort left for their 
betters ! Martial, beyond all doubt, intended thus: Sumus toreumata 
fion plebcia litriaudacis QT [Nos], toreumata vitri audacis, nun 
pltbda or, admitting the conjecture, [Nos], audaces vitrei, nun 
plcbeia torcmnafa. 


Increment in E. 49 

Ver, Mansues, Locuples, Ha?res, Mercesque, 

Et Vcrvex, Lex, Rex, tt Plebs, Seps, insuper 

lialec ; 
EL pcregrinum; ES, ER, Graca /Ethere et Acre 


The increment of the third declension is mostly short, 
as Gregis, Pedis, Compedis, MuHeris, Lateris, whether 
from Later or Lotus, &c. &c. 

Nobiliumque greges custos servabat equarum. (Ovid. 
Pressatur pede pes, mucro mucrone, viro vir. (Furiiis. 
Spes etiam validil solatur compede vinctum. (Tibullus. 

Ilaec sunt venena formosarum muliefum. 22. (Afranius. 
Non latere cocto*, quo Semiramis longam 
Babylooa cinxit. 23. (Mart. 

Dcinde hserere tuo laterl. prtecedere sellam. (Martial. 

Exceptions. The genitive Ibcris, from Iber, has the 
pen ultima long. So likewise have the genifives in ENIS, 
as Ren rcnis, Siren Sir en is, except that of Hymen, which 
increases short. Ver, Mansues, c, increase long. 
Quern juxta terras habitant Orientis Iberes. (Priscian., 
Non triste mentuin, sordidique lichenes. 23. (Martial. 
Dulcia (Plaucus ait) grandi minus apta lieni. (Seren. Sam. 
Praedixit spleni Deus Ida? posse mederi. (Seren. Samon. 
Quod lapides renum tritus potusque resolvit. (Priscian. 
Capparin, et putri cepas halece natantes. (Martial. 

Hebrew and other foreign names in EL, as Michael, 
increase long, as do likewise Greek nouns in ES and ER, 
such as Tapes, Trapes, Lebes, Soter, Crater except 
/Ether and Aer, which increase short. 


50 Increment in I and Y. 

Viginti fulvos operoso ex asre lebetas. (Ovid. 

Isse^per attonitos bacca pendente trapetas. (Sid. Apolitn. 
Crateras magnos statuunt, et vina coronant. (Virgil. 

Quid pereunt stulto fortes haltere Jacerti ? (Martial. 

Quacumque ilia levem fugiens secatathera pennis. (Virg. 

51 nigrum obscure comprenderit atra cornu. (VirgiL 

SECT. XXI. Increment in I and Y. 

I crescens numero breviabit tertia primo. 
Graia sed in pat rid Ion gum IN IS et YNIS adopt ant. 
Et Lis, Glis, Samnis, Dis, Gryps, Nesis/pe, Quirisjz/c,. 
Cum Viblce, simul longa increment a reposcunt. 

The increment /or JTof the third declension is gene- 
rally short, as Stips sfipiSj Pollev pollicis, Chlamys chla- 
mydis, Chalybs Chalybis, Persis Persldis. 
Die, inquam, parva cur sfipe quaerat opes. (Ovid. 

Insula inexhaustis Chalybum generosa metailis. (Virgil. 
Qualein virgineo demessumj&o///ceflorem. (Virgil. 

AnchLsae sceptrum, chlamydem pharetramque nepoti. (Ov. 
Lidice non opus est nostris, nee vindwe, libris. (Martial. 
Bidentc dicit attondisse forfice. 22. (VirgiL 

Codicis immundi vincula sendtanus. (Properties. 

Nee toga, nee focus est, nee tritus cimice Icctus. (Martial. 
Ncmlms ingenio quemquam confulere oportct. (L-ffcii 

Increment from IX and YX. 5 1 

Exceptions. Genitives in INIS or YNIS, from 
nouns of Greek origin, have the penultima long, as Del- 
phin delphlnis, Phorcyn Phorcynis, Salamis Salami nis; 
likewise I)is D'ttis, Vlbcx vibLcis, Gils gliris, Gryps 
grypkis, Samnis Sammtis, Qniris Quifitis. 
Orpheus in silvis, inter delphwas Arion. (Virgil. 

Laomedontiaden Priamum Salami na petentem. (Virgil. 
Noctes atque dies patet atri janua D'ltis. (Jlrgi/. 

Huic horret thorax Sammtis pellibus ursae. (Sil. Ital. 

Tradite nostra viris, ignavi, signa, Quirltes. (Lucan. 

Although proper names in IS, genitive IDOS or IDIS, 
occur in so many hundred instances with the penultima 
of the genitive short, that we might almost lay that down 
as an invariable rule, yet we find Nesis with a long incre- 

Silvaque, qurc fixam pelago Ncs'ida coronat, {Statins. 

Nee spatio distant Ncsldum litora longe. (Priscian. 

Psophis, too, increases long, as in Ovid, Met. 5, 607 
Usque sub Orchomenon, Psopkldaque, Cyllenenque. 

Statius, however, makes it short, Theb. 4, 2<)6 ' 
JEpytios idem ardor agros, et Psophida celsam .... 

But here perhaps, as in Ovid, we ought to read Psoplii- 
daquc ; since the word occurs several times in Pausanias 
with the penultima uniformly circumflexed. 

SECT. XXII. Increment from IX and YX. 

IX atque YX produc. Brcviabis Nixywe, Cili 
Strix, Fornix, Histrix, Chcenixye^ Varixye^e, 

52 Increment from IX and FAT. 

Mastichis his, Fili'cis, Larfcis, Coxendicis, et Fix, 
Et Calicis, Calycis<pe, et Eryx, et Styx, et lapyx, 
Phryx, et Onyx, addas. Bebryx variare memento. 

Nouns ending in IX ov FA" mostly have the penultima 
of the genitive long, as Felix fellcis, Ptrdix perd'icis, 
Coturnix coturmcis, Pernix perriicis, Lodix lodicis, 
l^ombyx bombycis. 

Tollite jampridem mctflcia tollite signa. (Lucan. 

Ecce coturnlces inter sua pvoeliavivun*. (Ovid. 

Vulturis atquejecur, vel jus perdlcis apricse. (Seren. Sam. 
.... Cedit apex, summa qua lux pistrice coruscat. 


SpadJcesvix Pell^ei valuere Cerauni. (Gratius. 

lodices mittet docti tibi terra Catulli. (Martial. 

Nee siqua Arabio lucet bombyce puella. (Propertius. 

Et mala radices altius arbor agit. (Ovid* 

Vivere cornices multos dicuntur in annos. (Pedo Albinov. 
Fata cicatricem ducere nostra sine. (Oral. 

Exceptions. NLv, Cilir, Sfrii\ For nix, Histrix, 
Chcenix, Varix, Salix, Filir, Larix, Coxendix, Pix, 
Calix y Calyx> Eryx, Styx, lapyx, Phryx, Onyx, have 
their increments short, as have likewise some proper and 
gentile names, such as Ambiorix, Biturix, &c. 
Et s trig is inventas per busta jacentia plumae. (Propertius. 

Venit, et hirsuta spinosiqr his trice barba. (Calphur. 

Ille licet Cilicum victas agat ante catervas. (Tibullits. 

Ssspius occultus \ictiicoxe?idice morbus ,.,. (Seren. Samon. 
Fecundi* calices quern non feccrc disertum ? (Horace. 

* I had long entertained a suspicion that l-'ecundi \va? not from the 

Increment from 7A' and FLY. 53 

Masiiv inasfichis, a gam, increases short, whereas 
Mastiv mast'tgis, a whip or scourge, makes the incre- 
ment long. 
Pulegium, abrotonum, nitida cum masfiche coctutn. 

(Ser. Sam. 

AXXa Aios MA2TIFI tcaty tfafiiffM* A^a/o;. (Homer. 
Nunc mastlgophoris, oleoqae et gymnadis arte... (Prudent. 

If we be guided by analogy, Appendix ought to increase 
short, Appendicls. Natriv is said to increase short, on 
the authority of the following fragment of Lucilius, 2, 19 
Si natibus natricem impressit crassam, capitatarn 
which bears the appearance of a hexameter verse. If it 
really is what it appears, there can be no doubt respecting 
the quantity; though I confess that I should still be inclined to 
consider Nalrivm the same light as Nutriv, Vtctrix, Altrh\ 

pen of Horace, and be had perhaps written Facundi, poetically 
transferring to the cause the epithet which properly belongs to the ef- 
fect, as, in Homer, o;>ov eifywo, (II. r, 24-) in English, the cheerful- 
glass in Prci-jertius, (3, ^3, IS) garrula Iiora, &c. \vc. for I never 
could reconcile myself to the epithet Fccundi, in the common accepta- 
tion. But, if we give to Horace's words a new and different interpreta- 
tion, consonant to the idea of Propertius in tne subjoined passage 
6, 75), the adjective Fccundi, far from being exceptionable, must bfc 
considered as a very hv.ppy epilhr-t; the poet having in vi'.-vv, not so 
much the over/lowing bumper, as the bowl teeming . i>: inspira- 

Lull iliu vcrse-insp.iring g ; 

Miu-n potis irritet Musa poe'lis : 
Kacchc, soles Phaboytr^Y/.y ese ti;o 

iation is fully authorised by Ovid, uho uses the very 
:;, Fccundm, in a pcri'ectly jina 1 :- . o 

. . . . Quum clauifiui implevity"ec/ir/a Jupiter axrv. (Met. -i, 

54- Increment in O. 

and other feminine verbal nouns in IX, all increasing 
long, if Lucan had not used it in the masculine gender 

Et natrix violator aquag 9, 7 C 23. 

Bebryx and SandLv have the increment common. 
Bcbrycis et Scythici procul inclementia sacri. (VaL Flac. 
Possessus Baccho sseva Bcbrycis in aula. (Siiiits Italicus. 
Illaque plebeio, vel sitsantTtcis amictu. (Properties, 

Interdum Lihvco fucantur sancttce pinnae. (Gratius. 

SECT. XXIII. Increment in O. 

O crcsccns numero produdmus usque pricre. 

O parvum in Greeds br evict ; producito magnum. 

Ausonhis genitivux ORIS, quern neutra dtdcre, 

Corripitur : propria hisjunges, ui Nestor, ct Hector. 

Os orisj mediosque gradus, extends : sed Arbos, 

lloug coMbosta, Lepus, Meinor, et Bos, Compos, et 

.Corripe, Cappadocem, Allobrogem, cum Pre2C:/ce, it 

Ferum produces Cercops, Hjdrppsywe, Cyciops^e. 

The increment in O of the third declension is long in 


words of Latin origin, as Sol soiis^ J'o.v vocis, Vtlox 

:l$ 9 Victor victoris, Lcpor leporis, Eos ruris, Flos 

jioris, Dos dot is, Cos cot is, Tiro tirvnis, Cu-stos 

C::stodis, titatio stationis, and all other feminines in TO 

formed from the supines of verbs Cat-. (.':i~;nis, aiul 

r Lalin pro/ a . 

Increment in O. 55 

Vivite, lurconcs, comedones! vivite, venires! (Luclihis. 

Delectique sctcerdotes in publica vota. (Manilius. 

Matronaincedit, census induta neputitm. (Properties. 

Inquinat egregios adjuncta superbia mores. (Claudlan. 

Exesosque situ cogit splendere ligones. (Claudian. 

Ire vetat, cursusque vagos statione inoratur. (Lucan. 

Et mala vel duri lacrynias motura Catonls. (Luc-an, 

Exception. Proper names in OJVor O, taken from the 
Greek HN, as Agamemnon or Agamcmno, Plat on or 
Plato, and other Greek names increasing in O, preserve 
in Latin the same quantity of the increment which they have 
in the Greek. If that increment be an Q-micron^ it is 
short ; if an O-mega, it is long. 

Thus Agamemnon, lason, Amazon, Slndon, Philemon, 
Pahemon, c. increase short; whereas Simon or Simo, 
Plato, Spado, Agon, Solon, Lacon, Sicyon, c. increase 

Cuitus slndone non quotidiana. 38. (Martial. 

Sic Metliymnaeo gavisus Arlone delphin. (Martini. 

Halcyfaium tales ventosa per aequora questus. (Pedo Albin. 
Pythagoran, Anytique reum, doctumque Ptatuna. (Hor. 
Etgratum nautis sidus fulgere Laconum. (Martial. 

Daphnunas, pla- ananas, et alfrias cyparissos. (Martial. 
Solicitant pavidi dum rhlnocerota rnagistri. (Martial. 

Sldon, Orion, and JEgaton, have the penultiina of the 
genitive common. 

Stat, fucare coins nee Sidonc vilior, Ancon .... (SiL Itai 
Atque equidem Teucniin memiui Sidona venire. (/". 
Quorum si mediis Bceoton Gridna quaeres. (Q-cid, 

56 Increment in O^ 

Scorpius ingentem perterrltat Oriona. [MdnitiuS. 

Haec ceatutagemini strictos ^Egaonis enses . . . (Claudian. 
.... JEgGiona suis iinmania terga lacertis. (OvicL 

Saxo > Seno, and several other gentile names, increase 

Me Senonum furiis, Ercnni me reddite flamtnis. {Claudian. 
Prospicerem dubiis venicntem Saxona vantis. ( Cfau'dian* 
Pugnaces pictis cohibebant Liugomn armis. (Lucan. 

Brito has the increment common. 

Qua nee terribiies Cirnbri, nee ErUtoncs unquam. . . (,//;r\ 
Quam vcteres hracct&Brittduispo.u\)C\i3, et quam, M (Mizr/< 

Exception II. Genitives in OR IS, from Latin nouns 
of the neuter gender, have the penultima short, as 3-farmo/; 
Ebur, Corpus, &c. But 

A dor forms adorls and adoris, whence A dor cits in Vir- 
gil, and Adorea in Horace and Claudian. 
Mox ador, atque adoris de polline pultificum far, (Auson. 
Iliam sponte satos adoris stravisse maniplos. 

(Gannius, ap. Priscian* 

Emicat in nubcs nidoribus ardor adoris. (Idem, ibid. 

.Whether this variation of quantity be connected with a 
difference of gender, as in Decus dccoris and Decor dc- 
coris, I \vill not pretend to decide. 

Greek proper names in OR. and appellatives, as Rhetor, 
increase short. 

Ingemit etdulci frater cum Castore Pollux. (Val. Flaccus. 
Et multos illic Hectoras esse puta. (Ovid. 

Peleos et Priami transit, vel Nest or is, astas. {Martial. 
Dum modo caussidicum, dum te modo rhctora fingis. 


Os (the mouth) makes or is long. Adjectives of the 

Increment in U. 57 

Comparative degree have a long increment, as Melioris, 
Major is, Pejoris, c. 

ura, dei jussu non uinquam credita Teucrisi (Virgil. 

.... ^lens aliud suadet: video meliora, proboque; 
Deterwra sequor. (Ovid. 

The compounds of Hovg, as Tripus, Polypus, (Edipus, 
also Mcmor, Arbor, Lepus, Bos, Compos, Impos, in- 
crease short. 

Insignem fama, sanctoque Melampode creturn. (Statins. 
Phineas invites, Afer, et (Edipodas. (Martial. 

Mavis, Rufe, coquum scindere, quam leptirem. (Martial. 
Vivite felices, mcmtires et vivite nostri, (Tibullus. 

Exception III. Cappadox, Allobrox, Prtecox, and 
nouns which have a consonant immediately before S in 
the nominative, as Scobs, Scrobs, Ops, Inops, JEthiops, 
Cecrops, Dolops, increase short except Cyclops, Cer- 
cops, Hy drops. 

Mancipiis locuples, eget asris Cappadticum rex. (Horace. 
.... Materna, letum prcecocis mali tulit. 22. (Seneca. 

Insita praecoquibus surrepere Persica prunis. (Calphurnius. 
Hie Dolupum manus, hie saevus tendebat Achilles. (Virgil. 
Tela reponuntur manibus fabricata Cyclopum. (Ovid* 

Et pcirtentosos Cercopum luditin ortus, (Manilius. 

SECT. XXIV.Incremwtin if. 

tl crescens breve sit. Verum genitivus in URIS, 
UDIS, et UTIS, ab US, producitur : adjice Fur, Frux, 
Lux, Pollux. Brevia Jntercus^e, Pecusy//e, Li 

58 Plural Increment of Nouns. 

The increment U of the third declension is mostly short, 
as Murmur murmaris, Furfur furfuris, Dux duds, 
Prasul prcesi'dis, Turtur turtitris. 

Consiile nos, ditce nos, diice jam victore, caremus. (Pedo. 
Non falsa pendens in cruet Laureolus. (Martial. 

Exceptions. Genitives in UDIS, URIS, and UTIS, 
from nominatives in US, have the penultima long, as 
Palus palfidis, Incus incudis, Tell us telluris, Virtus 
virtu tis ; also Fur furis, Lux lucis, Pollux Pol- 
lucis, besides Friigis from the obsolete Frux. But In- 
tercus, Pecus, and Ligus, increase short. 
Tarn grave percussis incudibus aera resultant, (Martial. 
Cum sanguis nimius purl commixtus atroci. (Scr. Sainon. 
Quid domini faciant, audent cum taliajT/7r^ ? (Virgil. 
Pollucem pugiles, Castora placet eques. (Ovid. 

'Luce sacra requiescat humus, requiescat arator. (TibuUus. 

SECT. XXV. Plural Increment of Nouns. 

When the genitive or dative case plural contains a syl- 
lable more than the nominative plural, the penultima of 
such genitive or dative is called the plural increment, as 
SA in Musarum,' *BO in Amborum and Ambobus, BI in 
Nubium and Nubibus, QUO in, Quorum, QUIin Quibux, 
RE in Rerum and Reims. 

Plural Increments in A, E, /, O, U. 69 

Plural Increments in A, E t /, 0, U. 

Pluwlis casits si c reseat, protrahit A, E, 
AtqueO. Corripies I, U: verum excipe Bubus. 

The plural increments, A, E, O, are long, as Harum, 
Quarum, Musarum, Ambabus, Animabus, Rerum, Rebus^ 
Ho rum, Quorum, Domino rum. 

Quarum quae forma pulcherrima, Dei'opeiam .... (Virgil. 
Tuque, liarum interpres cur arum, et conscia, Juno. (Fir. 
.... Aut sicas patribus: sod Tartara nigra animabus .... 

Arreptaquemanu, "Quidagis, dulcissime * rerum?" (Hor. 

* As this passage has been misunderstood by the learned H. Ste- 
phanus and other critics, who have made the genitive rerum to depend 
on quid, let me here observe, en passant, that, in this and similar com- 
binations, the word rerum is exactly equivalent to our English phrase, 
" in tht world," or, as the French more nearly express it, " of th$ 
n'orld" " du monde." The following quotations will set the point iu 
its true light 

Tertia pars rerum, Libye .... Lucan, 9, 41 U 
" Africa, the third grand division of the world." 

Sic traditus illi, 

Servatusque, Oriens; at non pars altera rerum 

Tradita Claudian, 4 Cons. Hon. 70. 

" the other great division of the world," i. e. the West, 

Quid membra immania prosunt ? 

Quid geminae vires ? quid, (\uodfortisswia rerum 

In nobis natura duplex animalia )\iux\\. ? Ovid, Met. 12,501. 
. . . . " combined in us [Centaurs] the powers of two different animals, 
the most courageous under heaven" the adjective very properly agreeing 
xvith atiimalia, not with res, as in Catullus, 4, 2, 
illo, quern videljs, hospiies, 

60 Plural Increments in A, E, /, 0, U. 

Jttbus in angustis facile est contemnere vitam. (Martial. 

Projicis? o Latio caput horum et caussa matt rum ! 


The plural increments /and U are short, as Quibus, 
Tribus, Montibus, Lacitbus, Verubus : except Bubus, 

Ait fuisse navivm celerrimus 

i. e. " celerrimus pJiaselus omnium navium," with which Horace*s For- 
tissima 1 yndaridarvm (Sat, 1,1,100) is in perfect unison ; fortusima 
agreeing \\iihjemina understood, and Tyndaridarum (from the mascu- 
line Tyndarides] meaning the whole posterity of Tyndarus the mas- 
culine gend r including, of course, the feminine, as in ten thousand 
other instances, occurring in every page of the classics; so that there was 
not the smallest necessity for that pretended emendation, Tyndariarum, 
which is neither Greek nor Latin, or for supposing the unlicensed fe- 
minine nominative, Tyndarida. - As well might operum, in the follow* 
ing passage, be considered as a syncope for operorum from a pretendecj 
masculine, opems or vper, of the second declension, because, truly, the 
adjective pulchcrrimus is masculine ! 

Nonne vjdes, operuni quo se pulcherrimus ille 

Mundus amore liget ? Claudian, 4 Cpns. Hon. 2 84. 

But, to return to rerum 

Ergo erit ilia dies, qua tu, pulcherrime renum, 

Quatuor in niveis aureus ibis equis ? Ovid, Art. 1,213. 

Si, quae te peperit, talis, pulcherrime rerum, 

Qualis es ipse, fuit. Ovid, Met. 8, 49. 

O utinam nocitura tibi, pulcherrime rerum, 

Inmedio nisu viscera ruptaforent. Ov. Ep. 4, JC5. 

Qua tanto minor es, rjuanto te, maxime rerum, 

Quam quos vicisti, vincere majus erat. Ov. Ep. 9, 107. 
The sense of these passages is sufficiently evident from what has pre* 
ceded; nor will ihe following be less easily understood. 

Modo maxima rerum, 

Tot generis natisque potens [Hecuba]) nuribusque, viroque, 

Nunc trahor exsul, inops - Ov. Met. 13, 508. 

'* the greatest queen in the universe." 

.... Maxima rerum Roma Virgil, ^En. 7, G02, and 

Increment of Verbs. 6 i 

i has the penultiina long, for the reason alleged in 

,;e fel ; ces, qiiibus est fortuna peracta .... (Virgil. 

S'c etiatus Ibus : latrones dicta facessunt. (Ennius. 

te tribus nodis ternos, Amarylli, colores. (Virgil. 

NOD opikus inentes hominum curreque levantur. (Tibullus* 
Proeterea domibus flammam, domtbusque ruinam .... 

(Proper this. 

.... Prremia, de lacubus proxima musta tuis. (Ovid. 

Purs in frusta secant, veriibusque trementia figunt. (Virg. 
Portubus egredior, ventisquQ/crentibus usus .... (Ovid. 
Et toturn lustret curvatis arcubus orbem. (Mamlius. 

Et Tibcris nostris advena bubus erat. (Propertius. 

SECT. XXVI. Increment of Verbs. 

The second person singular of the present tense indica- 
tive active is the standard by which we estimate the incre- 
ments of verbs. Any tense or person, which does not con- 

.... Rerum pukherrima Roma Georg. 2, 534, 

'* the greatest, the finest, city in the universe" the adjective agreeing 
with Roma, as, in Horace's 

, . , . . . Venit, vilissima rerum, 

Ilicaqua (Sat. 1, 5, 88) 

cilissima agrees with aqui, though we translate it, " the cheapest thing 
(or commodity) under heaven." 

In the following passage of Ovid, Art. 1, 359, the word rerun, will 
Jiardly bear to be translated 

Mens erit apta capi tune, cum, l&tissima rerum, 
Ut seges in pingui, luxuriabit, huoao. 

6% Verbal Increment in A. 

tain a greater number of syllables than tbat standard word, 
has no increment. Thus Amat, Amant^ Ama y Amem, 
Amans, containing, like Amas, only two syllables, have 
no increment. 

If a tense or person contain one additional syllable, it 
has a single increment, which is the penultima, as qMAmus, 
ttMAtis ; for the final syllable is never called the incre- 
ment. If it contain two additional syllables, it has a 
double increment, as aMABAmus, aMABImus. Jf it 
contain three additional syllables, it has a triple increment, 
as aMAVERImus, aUAVERItis \i four, a fourfold 
increment, as auDIEBAMIni. 

For deponent verbs, we may either suppose an active 
voice which shall furnish our standard to regulate the incre- 
ments, or we may regulate them by other verbs of the same 
conjugation which have an active voice. Thus, for the 
verb Gradior, we may either suppose a fictitious active 
Gradio gradis, or be guided by Rapior which has a real 

SECT. XXVII. Verbal lucre A. 

A crescens produc. Do incremento cxcipe prlmo. 

A is long in all increments of verbs, of every conjuga- 
tion, as Stabani) Stares, P roper t&iut, Doceblnnui\ Au- 

Serins aut citius sedem proper amus ad unam. (Grid. 

Pugnabant armis, OUK yostfabricai'erqt usus. (Horace. 


Verbal Increment in . 6$ 

Festimwit AtBb$ t festina > cere Sabsei. (Martial. 

Qua nunc arte graves tolerabis inutilis annos ? (Martial. 

Ipse gubernabit residens in puppe Cupido. (Ovid. 

Clam tamen intrato, ne te mea carrnina leedant. (Ovid. 

Hunc omnes servate ducem, servate senatum. (Martial. 

Serta mi hi Phyllis legeret, cantaret Amyntas. (Virgil. 

Et cant are pares, et respondere parati* (Virgil. 

Esse videbaris, fateor, Lucretia nobis. (MartiaL 

Jupiter ! o quanta belli donabere pvseda ! (Statins. 
Contempt a tor item, cum se nux plurima silvis . . . (VirgiL 

Exception. The first increment (alone) of the verb 
Do is short, as Damus, Datis, Dabam, Dabo, Darem, 
Dare; for which reason we pronounce Circumdare, 
Venumdare, Pessumdare, Sec. with the penultima short, 
The second increment of Do, not being excepted, is 
long according to the general rule, as Dabamus, D&bet* 
mini, Sec. 

Hie lacrymis vitam damns, et miserescimusultro. (J^irgiL 
Quamvis magna dartt, quamvis majora daturus. (Tib nil. 
.... Taurino quantum possent circumdare tergo. (Virgil. 
Nam quod consilium, aut qua 3 jam fortuna, dabatur? (Fir. 
Multa rogant utenda dtiri, data reddere nolunt. (Ovid. 

SECT. XXVIII. Verbal Increment in K. 

E quogue producunt verbi incrcmcnta. Scd, ante R, 
F- brcviarc solent tcrna duo tempora prima. 

64 Verbal Increment in E* 

Die BeRIS atque BeRE at ReRIS produdto ReRE. 
Sit brevis E, quando RAM, RIM, RO, adjunct a se- 
quent ur. 
Corripit inter dum Steterunt Dedruntywe />0eta. 

The increment E is long* as Flebam, Rebar, Amerif, 
Doeerern, Legerunt. 

Prseteritique memorjlebat, metuensque futuri. (Lucan. 
Sic equidem ducebam animo, rebarque futurmn. (Virgil. 
Non hue Sidonii torscrunt cornua nautos. (Horace^ 

Neu juvenes celebret multo sermone, cave to. (Tibullus. 
Quo fletu manes, qua numina voce, mover et ? (Virgil. 
Dasdale ! Lucano cum sic lacereris ab uryo .... (Martial. 
Tu cave defendas, quamvis mordebere dictis. (Ovid. 

tjnde habeas, quaeritnemo: sed oportet habere. (Ennius. 
Castigatque, auditque dolos, subigitqueyi^erj. . . (VirgiL 

Exception. E 'before R is short in fabjirst increment 
of all the present and imperfect tenses of the third conju- 
gation, as 'Leg ere (pres. infin.) Legtrem, Legcris Legere 
(pres. ind. pass.) Legere (imperat.) Legerer. But, in the 
second increment, where the word terminates in ReRIS or 
ReRE, the E is long, as Loquereris, Prosequerere. 
Extremum land fructum caperetis ainoris. (Lucan. 

Parcere personis, dice-re de vitiis, (Martial. 

Sic flendus Peleus, si moreretur, erat. (Ovid. 

Cum consternatis diripereris equis. (Ovid. 

BeRIS and BeRE are likewise short, as Donaberis, 

Sanguine Trojan o et Rutulo dotabere, v'rrgo. (VirgiL 

Veium id ; quod multo tutc ipscfatebere niajus. (Virgil. 

Verbal Increment in L 6'3 

Cras donabtns hoedo. 48- (Horace. 

VeHttiy Veils, c. have the E short. 

Quod sis, esse veils, nihilque mails. 38. (Martial. 

Exception. E is short before RAM, RIM, and 
RO y as Amaveram, Amcwtirim, Amavero, Feceram, Fe- 
cerim, Fecero. But 

This rule applies only to verbs in their natural state, 
when they have not suffered contraction by syncope or 
otherwise, as F lever am t Fleverim, Flevero : for, in the 
contracted forms, Fie ram, Flerim, Flero, c. the E re- 
tains the same quantity which it possessed previously to the 
syncope, viz. Fle(ve)ram, Fle(ve)rif$ Fle(ve}ro. (See, 
lledlt and Amat under " Final .T," Sect. 35.) 

Respecting Dederunt and such other examples of 
the penuhima short, see the remarks under " Systole," 
Sect. 5i. 

SECT. XXIX. Verbal Increment ml 

Corripit I crescens verbum. Sed cleme Velimus, 
Nolimus, Simus, quaque Irinc formantur ; et I VI 
Prceteritum. Pariter quarts prius increment urn, 
Consona cum sequitur, tu protraxisse memento. 
RI conjunctiiitmpossunt 

In the increment ef verbs (whether the first increment, 
or the second, third, or fourth) /is short, as *-Lwqiiimit$i 


66 re r If a I Increment in L 

Amabnnus, Docebimini, Aud~iebamhri, Vcnlmus of the 
preterperfect tense, &e. c. 

Victuros agimus semper, nee vivimns unquam. (Mdnilius. 
Vicimus ; expu limits ; facilisjam copia regni. (Claudian. 
Cras ingens it crab wins cequor. 7. (Horace. 

Scindifur interea stuclia in contraria vulgus. (Jlrgil. 

Quapropterid vos factutn suspicamini ? 22. (Plautus. 
Mora tarda rnente cedat: simul ite; seqmniini. 34. (Catull. 

.' The/ is long in Nol'tto, Nolite, Noll" 
iote, Nofimn^ Nolltis, Vetlwus, Velltis, MallnntSy Ma- 
lltis, Simus, Sit is, and their compounds, Possimus, Ad- 
ftmus, Proslmus, &e. 

Ne nimiuni simus, stultorum more, molesti. (Martial. 
Cumsitis similes paresque vita. 38. (Martial. 

. . . . Possitis, ter iquisquemanus jactate micantes. (Calph. 
Credere, pastores, levibus nolite puellis. (Calphurnhis. 
The penultimaof the preterite in /F/islong, gf whatever 
conjugation the verb may be, as Audivi, Petivi,. Pofrci : 
also the first increment of the fourth conjugation, in every 
tense and person where it is immediately followed by a con- 
sonant, &> Au'dlnnis, Audit is, Audito, Audite, Audirem, 
Audire, Audiris, Audimur, Auditor, Audlrer, Audiri, 
with the contracted form Audlbam and the antique Audibo, 
which we uniformly find in ~ibam and ~ibo from F.O, as well 
as in Qnibam and -Quibo from Qnco. 
Cessi, et suMato montem genitoYe petivi (Firgil. 

Tu ne cede malis ; sd contra auctentior ito. (Virgil. 

Jungimus hospitio dextras, et tecte&ubimus. (Virgil. 

Nutrib&t, tetrim kitoulgeS ut?cra labris. (Virgil,, 

RIS and HI Subjunctive. 67 

Lcmbinit tacito vulneranostrasinu. (Propcrtius. 

Qui non edistis, saturi J ~ite fabulis. 22. (Plautus. 

Ipse suas aether flammas sufferre vequiret *. (Manilius* 
Jlidetager; restltur humus; vestltur et arbos. (Afartiaj. 
Deficit alma Ceres, nee plebes pane pot'itur. (Lucilius. 

Where the 7 is immediately followed by a vowel, the 
former is of course short by position, as Aud-iunt, 4udie- 
bam, Audiam, Audiens, c. 

Respecting the quantity of RI in XIMUS and RITIS 
of the subjunctive mood, prosodians are by no means 
agreed; some asserting that it is short in the preterperfect, 
and long in the future, while others maintain that it ought 
to be long in both. For a modern compiler or editor of a 
Prosody to hazard a judgement on a point which remained 
undecided among the ancient grammarians, might be 
deemed presumption. Yet, if we attend a littje to the 
rules of analogy, we may perhaps be enabled to form an 
opinion, either true or nearly approaching to the truth. 

In all the other tenses, wherever we see one syllable 
more in the first or second person plural than in the second 
person singular, we observe an agreement, in point of 
quantity, between the penultima of such first or second 
person plural and the final syllable of the second person 
singular, except where a difference is caused by position, as 
in f'.v, estis. Thus we see 
Piebeut amas, amumus, am (it is 
doccs, doccmus, docctis 

* It is worthy of observation, that Priscian (Periegesis, 4 17) iia* 
itcquitvr with a short increment- 

.... Extingui nequitur; quern Graii nomine vero 
Asbeston memoraut. 

6S RIS and RI Subjunctive. 

leg is, legimiis, leg it is 
audis, aud'imus, audltis. 

Imperf. . . . bas, . , . bamus, . . . batis, of every conjugation , 
Pluperf. . . .ras, . . . ramus, . . . rails, of every conjugation ; 
Future . . . bis, . . . blmus, . . . frit is, first and second ; 

. . . es, . . . emus, . . . etis, third and fourth ; 
i in per at. a ate., first conjugation 

e ete, second 

?te, third 

1 ite, fourth 
subj. pres. ts, emus, etis, 1st. conj. 

as, amus, citis, 2d, 3d, 4th. 
imperf. res, remits, r~ttis, every conj. 
pluperf. ssts, ssemus, ssetis, every conj. 

And the same regularity is observable in the passive 
voice; the penultima of MINI and MINOR in the 
plural being every-where short, as the final RIS and RE 
are in the second person singular. 

Now, since we observe that analogy to run so uniformly 
through the other tenses, we may, I think, reasonably conclude 
that it equally prevails in the perfect and future of the sub- 
junctive*, Nor is this a gratuitous supposition, but a 
fact, as will presently appear. If, therefore, we can by any 
means ascertain the quantity of either RIS or RIMUS or 
HIT IS, that will be sufficient to determine the quantity of 
all the three, since, by the law above noticed, they will 
mutually prove each other. 

To begin with the future tense, we find the RIS short in 
many instances, as 
Dixcfis, experiar; si vis, potes, a.ddit, et instat. (Horace. 

* The same opinion is held by Burmann, in his note$ on Qvicl, Ep. 7- 


R 75' and RI Sulyuncfrcc. 6& 

Tune insanus eris, si acceperis? an magi$ excors. ..(flor. 
Is iriihi, dives cris, si caussas egcris, inquit. {Horace. 
. . . I'idcris, hoc dices, Marcus averejubet. (Martial. 
Nee porrcveris ista, sed teneto. 38. (Martial. 

... Junxcr'is, alterius-fiet uterque timer. (Martial. 

Jlden's immenfiis cum conclamata querelis. . , (Martial. 
Et cum, Jam satis est, direr is, ille leget. (Martial, 

Hoc, precor, emenda : quod si corr exerts unum, 

Nullus in egregio corporc mevus erit. (Ovid. 

In the following passages we find the R IS of the future 
long naturally long, not accidentally made so by the 
effect of the caesura. 

Si thure pla \-carl.s\ et horna, SO. (Horace. 

Quemcumque miserum iv-|-fife'm| hominem scias. 22. 


Simul sonante 9cn-\-serl9\ iter pede. 122. 
Nisi tu illidrachmis//c j -i-r^';v.y| argenteis. 22. 

From the preceding examples, we may fairly conclude, 
that, in the following also, and in numerous other in- 
stances where the long TITS happens to stand in the caesura, 
it is not to the caesura that it is indebted for being long. 
In the first verse, quoted from Statins, that licence wou!4 
hardly be admissible. 

. . . Aut, cum me dapej/rc'er/.? opima. .. . 38. (Statius* 
Aut non tcittarls, aut perfice : tollitur index .... (Orid, 
Cum semel occidefis, et de te splendida Minos... (florace* 
. . . Audierls hacres. Ergo mine Dama sodalis .. . (Horace. 
. . . Miscucrls elixa, simul conchylia turdis . . . (Horace* 
Da mihi te placidum : dedens ip carmina vires, (Oi'id, 

* This quotation is from the Otl. ad Priap, if not \vrjtrn by Tibullu*, 
at Least attributed to him. 

70 RISandRI Subjunctive. 

From the authorities above adduced, it evidently appears 
that the future HIS was common. It now remains to in- 
quire whether the RIS of the preterperfect was so likewise. 
In the following passages, it is short. 
. . . Et, cum tot Croesos viccris, esseNumam. (Martial. 
Par animi laus est et, quos spcravens anno$, 
ferdere. (Lucan. 

Hoc, si me decies una convener is hora, 

Dicis. (Martial. 

Romam vade, liber: si, veneris unde, requirat. . .(Mart. 
Nee venit in mentem, quorum consederis aryis. (Virgil. 
Quantum profueris, quantam servavcris urbem. (Claudian. 
Uenique, cum meritis implcvcris omnia, Caesar... (Ovid. 
. . . Liqueris Anchisen : superet ,conjuxne Creu'sa. . . (Virg. 
Jiinc age, Rhipa3o quos yideris orbe furores, 
Musa, mone. (Valerius Flaccus. 

Aspieis, in quales misertim patefecerls usus. . . (Statius. 
Quae domus, aut tellus? aniinam quibus hausefis astris. 


Of the 7^76' long in the preterite I can hardly produce 
one perfectly unquestionable instance: yet I proceed to 
quote a few examples, such as I can find. 
. . . Quos ad Eoum tulerls Oronten. 37. (Stalius. 

Muuera, qua) dedens, habeat sine litejubeto. (Or id. 

Qui mihi cum dederis ingentia pignora, cumque... (Ovid. 
Ignorant populi, si non in morte probaris, 
An scieris ad versa pati. (Lucan< 

. . . Quos dcderls : acie nee jam pulsare rebelles. (Claudian. 

In the last four of these examples, it is true, the quan- 
tity of the RIS may be attributed to the caesura: but, in 
the Sapphic line quoted from Statins, that argument is not 
of equal force, as the csrsura was very rarely allowed to 

RISandRl Subjunctive. 71 

tengthen a short syllable in lyric composition: and, from 
what we have observed in the jR/Sof the future, we may 
safely venture to assert that the RIS of the preterite is 
also common in its own nature, without the assistance 
of the caesura. 

The RIMLTS and RfflS of the future are common 
beyond all doubt*: ex. gr. 

Quas ob res, ubi viderHmus nil posse creari. . . (Lucretius. 
. . Tlderitis Stellas illic, ubi circulus axem. . . (Ovid. 

Oderimus magis in culpam poenasque creates. (ManiHm\ 
Ilaec ubi divert iis, servet sua dona, rogate. (Ovid. 

Nee mi aurum posco, nee ml pretium dederitis. (Ennius. 
. . . Accepisse simul: vitam dederitis in unda. (Ovid. 

.-. . Consulis ut limen contigerltis, erit. (Ovid. 

Et mar is lonii transient is aquas. (Ovid. 

Dein cum millia multa fecerlmus. 38. {Catullus. 

Ne diverllisy obsecro, huic, vostram fidem. 22. (Plant us. 
.... rossint, figura noverimus mystica. 22. (Prudentius* 
.... Hinc pedem si ceperlmus, edere iteriun dactylum. 36. 

( Terentiamis Maunis. 
Nam, quum sustulenmus "OCamoen'e" . . . 38. (71 Maut\ 

Of the preterite RIMUS or RITIS, either long or 
short, I do not recollect any unquestionable example, ex- 
cept the following from JEneid, 6, 511 
,. . Egerimus nosti; et nimiuin meminisse necesse est. 

* To the examples here quoted of acknowledged subjunctives* niuy 
.v bi- added Erimus and Eritis from Swn, wluch, thougii usually 
coi)siue;-f-d as of the future iudiciUiv;^ do nevertheless really belong to 
thesubjmictive, as will be shown in Sect. 4'2, on occas'ycii of " Es front 
i!;//." And, agreeably to my ideas on the subject, Tcrtuilian, Javeu- 
Liud P:u;!'unp.s, have the HI iorg in Erlmus and 
jt cojninon, u.s it n in every other future 

72 /? IS find R I Subjunctive. 

On the authority, however, of this verse, and the 
incut of analogy from the numerous instances above ad- 
duced of the preterite R1S short, we may very safely pro- 
nounce the preterite RIMUS and RITIS to have been 
short also. 

But the ancient grammarian Probus asserts the RI to be 
long in the preterite; and Servius, in his note on the 
above quoted passage of Virgil, considers the short RI in 
Egerimits as a poetic licence; which proves at least that it 
was riot unusual to make it Ions *- 


Upon the whole, then, with Virgil and analogy to sup* 
port us on the one side, and Probus and Servius on the 
other, we are fully justified in affirming that RIMUS and 

* Some of my readers who happen not to recollect the scrupulous 
attention paid by Cicero to. poetic feet and measures, the serious ear- 
nestness with which he discusses them in his didactic compositions, and 
the fond predilection he entertained for the concluding ditrochee, which 
was so grateful to Roman cars may be tempted to smile, when I de- 
clare my Jirm persuasion that he could not have pronounced the HI- of 
the preterite otherwise than long at the close of the following sentences 
" Qitanti me semper fecentts," Orat. for Milo, sect. 36*, and " Quum* 
" quam, quid facturi fucritis, -non dubitem, quum -cideam quidfecenfis" 
for Ligarius,sect. 8. However, when those readers consider the general 
burst of upplause excited by the harmonious cadence alone of the final 
.ditrochee in " P atria dictum sapiens tenteritas Jilii comprobavft," as we 
learn from Cicero, in his Orator, sect. 214 when they reflect, that, 
in his labored harangue for Milo, 1 liiid, on a hasty glance over the 
J>ages, at least a hundred and seventeen periods or members of periods 
concluding with the ditrochee, hut not a single period which terminates 
with a pzuon of one long and three short syllables - and when they take 
into the account the strong emphasis laid on fcccritis in at least the se- 
cond of the* above. quotations they may perhaps allow that my per* 
auasion is not groundless, particularly when supported by the authority 
jof Pr*)bus and Servius. 

HIS and RI Subjunctive. 73 

common in the preterite, as well as in the fu- 
ture: and, since the RI is common in them, it follows, by 
analog} 7 , that the preterite RISis also common (as I {lave 
clearly proved the future RIS to be), and consequently, 
that, in the examples above quoted of the preterite RIS 
long, the RIS is long by its own power, and not by the 
effect of the caesura. 

In addition to the reasons and authorities above ad- 
duced in support of the opinion that the RIS, RIMUS, 
and RITIS, arc equally common in the preterite as in the 
future, that opinion is further confirmed (if further con- 
firmation be necessary) by the consideration, that it was a 
doubtful point among ancient critics whether the termina- 
tion RIM signified the past time, the future, or both, as 
we learn from AGellius, xviii, 2: and, since that doubt 
existed with respect to RIM, in which alone the preterite 
and future differed, we may conclude that a much greater 
uncertainty prevailed respecting the other persons, which 
are exactly alike or, rather, that the Romans in fact 
considered Ris, Rit, Rhnus, Ritis, Rint, as one iden- 
tical tense, like the Greek aorist subjunctive, having some- 
times a past signification, sometimes a future. 

Respecting RIM as a future termination, see Vossius, 
de Anal, iii, 15, and observe the following passages, with 
others which will occur in reading. 

Jusserim, Plautus, Capt, iii, 4, 67 - - Processerhn, 
ibid. llG Luscrim, Suwptifecerun, Creamer ivi, Cas. ii, 
7, 1 Dederiin, Epid. ii, 2, 73 I'iderlm, Bacch. ii, 
1, 6 Dedcriw, Most, iii, 3, 1.9, Pseud, i, 1, 8.9,' and 
again, 91 Occwpcrim, Mil. iv, 3, 5 1 2 Acceperim, Triq. 
iii, 2, 69 Direriw, ib. iii, 15 Crediderim, ib. iv. 2, 
96 Confutarerim y True, ii, 3, 2$ Injccerim, ib. 7, 

74 Future Pluperfect Tense. 

54 Ceperim, ib. 68 Ejcemcrim, Terence, And. i, 2, 
op, Resciverim, ib. iii, 2, 14 Fecerim, Eun. v, 2, 23 
Perierini, Heaut. ii, 3, 75 Dederim, Horace, Sat. i, 
iv, 39 to say nothing of Axim, Faxim, or Ausim, 
which shall presently be noticed toward the end of this 

The other future of the subjunctive, which, from its re- 
lation to the preter pluperfect of the same mood, may 
without impropriety be called the Future Pluperfect, 
Amasso, Amassts, Amasstt, Antassimus, Amassitis, Amas- 
sint, seems to have the I short in the final syllable of the 
second person singular and the penultiuia of the first and 
second plural, as is likewise the E in the penultima of the 
corresponding infinitive Amassere. 

This tense occurs in Virgil, /Eneid xi, 467, Jusso*, 
and was found in Cicero de Legs;, ii, 9, Jussit, until un- 
necessarily altered by modern editors. Not satisfied with 
Vossius's formation of it from the future in ERO, I derive 
it from the (contracted) pluperfect subjunctive, as Amas- 
.ycv;?, Amasso Summo'xsem, Summosso Recep'sem, 
Rccepso EJfecsem' or Ejfevtm, Jus'sem, 
Jusso Audissem, Audisso. - - The verbs in Ul took 
ESSO, as Prolubesso. 

To give the learner a more distinct idea of this tense, I 
collect into one view a number of examples, omitting 
many from regular verbs of the first conjugation, which 
occur too frequently in Plautus to be all quoted. It may 
1)0 well to compare these with the instances of contraction 
v. hich I give under the head of " Syncope" 

Seneca, Kpisl, 5<). 

Future Pluperfect Tense. 75 

Hso*, Accius, frag., Plautus, Men. i, 2, 
4,5 Capso, Bacch. iv. 4, 92 -- Accepso, Pacuvius, frag. 
340, Rtcepw, Catullus, xlii, 18 Ocavpso, Plaut. 
Amph. ii, 2, 41, and Cas. v, 5, 22 Dz'.m, Asin. v, i, 12, 
Capt. i, 2, 46, Mil. ii, 3, 12, and Merc. ii. 4, 16. 
FtLiis, Men. i, 2, Effe.vis, Poen. i, 3, 19, and Cas. 
iii, 5, 6'3Re$peMS 9 Aul. i, 1, 19, Most, ii, 2, 90, and 
Rud. iii, 2, 16 ObJ&i'is, Cas. ii, 6, 52 Induxis, Capt. 
i, 2, 46 Parsis, Bacch. iv, 8,69, and Pseud, i, 1, 77- 
Taxis, Varro, fr. 313 Excessis, Terence, And. iv, 

4, 21 Prohibessis, Plaut. Amph. iv, 2, 22, and Aul. 
iv, 2, 4 Prohibessit, Pseud, i, 1, 12 Occ&psit, Asin. 
iv, 1, 49 Capsit, Accius, frag. 442, and Plaut. Pseud, 
iv, 3, 6 Itijexit, Persa, i, 2, 18 Surrepsit, Mil. ii, 

5, 62 Aspexit, Asin. iv, 1, 25 Ademsit or A dempsit, 
Epid. iii, 2, 27 Excu&sit, Bacch. iv, 2, 16 Noxit, 
Lucil ins, frag, incert. 61 Occisit, Legg. XII. Tab. ap. 
Macrob. Sat. 1, 4 Extinxit, Plaut. True, ii, 6, 43 
Eduxit, True, i, 1, 18 Capsiuius, Rud. ii, 1, 15 
Mufca&stti& l Mil. ii, 2, 8 Exocnlass^itis, Rud. iii, 4, 
2.-> InwitassitUt Rud. iii, 5, 31 Adaxint, Aul. i, 1, 
1 1 Impetrasscre, Mil. iv, 3, 35, Stich. i, 2, 23, Cas. 
ii, 3, 53, and Aul. iv, 7, 6 Expugnassere y Amph. i, 1, 
55 ReconcUtassere, Capt. i, 2, 65. 

Examples of this tense would, no doubt, occur in much 
greater number than we now find them, if they had not 
been altered by copyists and editors, as Jussit above quoted 

* From IJ' I co or Ulcio* the original verb whence Ulciscor was deduced, 
and which (likr> Purco par si, or Futcitffuhi) formed its preterite UUi. 
Tiio participle i'Uus is easil} traced from the original verb the su- 
pine boiiiL', Wi'/Yww, uk'tttM, nl'twit, l&vfulcitum, fulc'tum t furtum* 

7o Future Pluperfect Tense. 

from Cicero, and, very probably, Rupsit and Paxit in 
the Lex Tal'wnis quoted by AGellius, xx, 1, where we now 
see Rtfpit and Pacit. And, had we at present a possibility 
of ascertaining the fact, perhaps we might find that the verb 
Demo is wholly indebted fbr its perfect DemPSi to the 
copyists of remote ages, who, finding some examples of 
l)ewp,ti and Dempxim'us (i. e. Dem* sit, Dem'simus, as 
Adempsit in Plautus above) in the future pluperfect, mis- 
took them for the perfect indicative, and altered the regu- 
lar perfect Demi in other place's to make them agree; 
although the original Emo, with its other compound?, 
Adbno, Eximo, Peri-mo, all form the preter perfect in 
Mini. See the remarks respecting the copyists, under the 
head "Systole. 9 ' 

I will not assert that we ought, after this form, to read 
Sttbmossis instead of Submosses, in Horace, Sat. i, 9, 48: 
but few persons, I believe, will deny that Faxim and 
Attsim, instead of being detective verbs, are in reality no- 
thing more than contractions of -Facia and Audeo in what 
we call the pluperfect tense subjunctive, winch tense lias a 
future as well a,s a past signification, and which the -early 
writers terminated in IM as well as EM, like Ntivim, 
Nai'cw, and many other nouns of the third declension. 
Thus we find in Plautus LocassI-M, Aul. ii, , 51 jVc- 
gass/M, Asin. ii, 4, 9ti EtnissIM, Casin. ii, j, 39 
ConfexLM (i. e. Confec'shn), True, iv, 4, 49 Objexim 
(i. e. Objee*im\ Pcen. i, 3, 37 and, among the frag- 
ments of Pacuvius, fr. 280, Axim*, formed from 

* The passage is too r( markablc, not Jo he quoted entire, as -if si 
jrointediy pro\cs the futurity of iho termination 73/ 
........... Precor venhtm, petens 

Future Pluperfect Tense. 7? 

the obsolete preterite of Ago, viz. Ag'mitn, AgYiw, Axim. 
-Now, allowing Fado, in like manner, to have once 
made Fad as well as Fed, we may say Fadssem, Fac'sem, 
/'.If (which occurs in Plautus, Ps. i, 5, 84, as does 
SubcucET in Pacuvius, frag. 1 5)1) and FaxIM. In the 
same manner, as Suadeo gives Suasi, Audeo gave Ausi*\ 
whence Attsteseify Auisem, AussESf, and AussIJ\f, 
whicii, for this reason, ought probably to be written with 
double SS. And, as we have Faxtt from Favim, so, from 
Aussim, we may reasonably suppose Ausso^ 9 like Jusso 
quoted from Virgil in page 74. 

Here I would just hint, that, wherever we find the 
word Esdt in Lucretius, we probably ought to read Essit 
in the future pluperfect, forming Esso, Essis, &c. from 
^: for neither the Latin form -ESCO nor the Grek 

* Unless I be very much mistaken indeecj, an example of the antique 
preterite Ausi occurs in the following passage of Plautus, AmphiL 
iv. "2 

Id Sosise factum 'st opera, qui inehodie quoque pra^sejutem qusit 

Indigne pra^vortier 
though, I grant, it mtiy be the subjunctive after Qui. 

t Nunc par iufandum, miserisque incognita terris 

Pugna subest : auferte oculos : absentibus aussint 

Ista Deis, lateajitque Jove'm. (Statins, Theb. xi, 15^. 

J Essern, though commonly called the imperfect, is in reality the 
pluperfect subjunctive of the original verb Eo t to come into existence, or 
lobe in existence. Some other tenses are equally miscalled. Let ug see. 
o, preterite Ei-* pluperfect Eeratn, E'ram, I had come into exis- 
tence, or I van in existence pluperf. subjuiict. Eissem, E'ssem^ I would 
hum come into existence, or I would be iti existence. fut. subj. Eero, 
E'ro, I shall hace come into existence, or I shall be in exisU:nc,e perfect 
infm. Eisse t E'sst, to have come into existence, or to be //j existence. 
these tenses be compared with Mer/nncram, I\Ic?nini*;.ew, J 

78 Verbal Increment in O and U. 

-E2KH is future. In like manner, instead of Supef&ffit, 

in Ennius, Annal. vi. 33, I would read 

Dum quidem unus homo Roma tola super ESS IT. 

To conclude on this subject I submit to the conside- 
ration of the critical reader, whether it be at all impro- 
bable that the copyists have frequently altered the text of 
their authors, and changed the terminations -SIS, -SIT, 
-SINT, of the future pluperfect which they did not under- 
stand, to-SES\ -SET, -SENT of the common pluperfect, 
in many places where we now find the latter in a future 
sense future, I mean, with respect to the time of some 
other verb in the sentence, as Pepcrisset (or PeperissIT) 
with respect to Decreverunt in the following passage from 
Terence, relating to a child not yet born 

Grcrcida cst .... 

Quidquid peperisset, decreverunt tollcre. (And.i,3, 14. 

Every Latin author furnishes abundant examples of the 
pluperfect subjunctive thus applied in a future sense, par- 
ticularly Caesar, who uses it perhaps oftener for a condi- 
tional future than for a completely past time. 

minisse, from, the obsolete Meno, to miml, regard, observe, or commit to 
memory; and all doubt will immediately vanish: or, if any yet remain, 
it will be removed by the learned Dr. Vincent's ingenious Hypothesis on 
the Greek verb Eifi. -* See, ujeanlime, the note on Erimus and Eritis m 
ptige 71. 

SliCT. XXX. Verbal Increment in O andU. 

C/ Increment um produc : U carrtpc: verum 
V v,/ In wlrww pexulittna taiga Jufuro. 

Final A. 79 

O in the increment of vcibs is always long, as AmaOJlc, 
Facitote, &c. 

Cumque loqui poterit, matrein facltotc salutet. (OclJ. 
Ilinc quoque presidium Ites&petiidte figurae. (O' -./. 

The increment 7 is sliort, as Siimus, Possuinus, Vo- 
iiunus, Malumus* 

Nos numerus siimus, e,t fruges consumere nati. (Horace. 

le, Pierides: nonomiua.possiimu$omnes. (J r iril. 

Si patria? voltimus, si nobis, vivcre cari. (Horace. 

.j\lalitmus ct placidisichneurnona quturere ripis. (Ncmesiau. 

But ^ r in the pen ultima of the future in RUS is alv, .'. s 
long, as Amaturus, PerifTirus, Veutnrus. 
. . . Magna sonaturum, des nominis hujus honorem. (Hor. 
Si periturus abis, et nos rape in omnia tecuui. (Virgil. 
Qua? sint, qua? fuerint, qua? in ox Centura trahantur, (I 7 irg. 

SECT. XXXI. --Final A. 

\finlta claio longis. Ita, Postea, done, 

Kia, Quia, ct casus plerosque : at protrahe sextain, 

Cui Grcecos (qtiot ab AS redo) conjungc vocandi. 

Final A is long, as A ma and all other verbs in the same 
form *, Contra, Ultra, Extra, Lttra. 

* Some prosodians quote Puta, with the A short, from Pcrsius, 4, .9. 
But the best editions have Pufo, v.hidi is cvi-Heiutly preferable, in 
both i .ind 


Plora, si sapis, o puella, plora. 38. {Martial. 

Infra castrorum timuit tentoria ductor. (Lucan. 

Extra fortunam est, quidquid donatur amicis. (Martial. 
Circa te, Ligurine, solitudo. 38. (Martial. 

Contra te facies imperiosa tua est. (Martial. 

Ultra labores, mater, Hcrculeos fuge. 22. (Seneca. 

Prtfterea, Interea, Antca, Post ilia, being in reality 
nothing more than accusatives neuter joined with preposi- 
tions, ought, one would imagine, to have the A short : yet 
\\e find them all with the A long. I once supposed that 
this might perhaps he the effect of the caesura : but, as we 
find the A undoubtedly long in the first two of the follow- 
ing examples without the aid of the caesura, we may con- 
clude, that, in the other instances also, it is by its own na- 
ture really long. 

Petti, nihil me, sicut anted, juvat . . . 22. (Horace. 

Sedet interea conditor altus. 14. (Boethiu^ 

Postilla, germana soror, errare videbar. (Ennius. 

Nee sibi post Ilia metuebant talia verba. (Catullus. 

Mullaque/Hvetera? vatum prrcdicta priorum .... (Virgil. 

In Posted, however, we find the A common. 
Posted mirabar, cur non sine litibus esset .... (Oi'id. 

Postea([u&m rursus speculatrix arva patere . . . (Victorinus. 
Si auctoritatem postea defugeris .... 22. (Plautus. 

Some prosodians, I know, make a distinction in this 
case, asserting, that, when the A is short, we should read 
Post ea, as two separate words. Whether that distinction 
be founded in fancy or reason, I leave each reader to deter- 
mine for himself. It might otherwise be supposed, that, in 
the line above quoted from Ovid, thesis not short, but 
that the EA is made one long syllable by syniuresis, as in 


Final A. 81 

Virgil's Attred (JEn. 1. 698). But I see no necessity for 
such supposition. 

Eia and Ita have the ^ short. The same, is generally 
the case with Quia : yet, since we find the latter long in 
Jrus, we may, upon his authority, pronounce it to be 

.... Ferret ad aurigene caput arhoris, Eia, per ipsum . . . 

(Valerius Flaccus. 

Qui Geticii longe non Ita distat humo. (Ovid. 

Odi te, quid bellus es, Sabelle. 38. (Martial. 

Hand (equidem credo) quid sit divinitus illis . . . (Virgil. 
J-'go primam tollo, nominor qula leo. 22. (Phadrus. 

The final A is likewise short in all cases of nouns, ex- 
cept the ablative of the first declension, and Greek voca- 
tives from nominatives in AS; to which we may add the 
long vocative Anchita (yEneid, iii. 475), as being sup- 
posed to come from a Doric nominative, Anchlsas ; for 
there is no necessity of alleging the caesura in this case, and 
deriving it from a Latin nominative, Anchisa. 
AncJiora de prorajacitur: stant litore puppes. (Virgil. 
J\h(sd 9 mihicaussas memora; quo numine la^so. ..(Virgil. 
. . . Gorgondj desecto vertentem lumina collo. (Virgil. 
Mac etenim lasso perrumpit Tethya cursu, (Priscian. 

llura milii et rigiu placeant in vallibus a nines. (Virgil. 
Armi'i, viri, ferte anna ! vocat lux ultima vlctos. (VirgiL 
'la bella gerens Balearis, etalite plumbo. (SiL Italians. 
ranimisopus, jEnea t mine pec tore firmo. (VirgiL 

(ireek vocatives in A t from nouns in AS of the third 
declension, forming the genitive in -dittos, are likewise 
accounted long; as A /la, Thoa, Calc/ia, Pal/a, Pcripha, 
Poly dama, &c. ex. gr. 

Xon haec, o Palla, dederas proriiissa j>avcnti. (VirgiL 


S2 Final A. 

Tempos, Atla, veniet, uia quo* spoliabitur auro... (OvuL 
Nevertheless, as the force of the caesura would alone be 
sufficient to make the A long in these examples, and in 
every other which I can at present produce, I conceive we 
are justifiable in supposing (until positive proof be ad- 
duced to the contrary) that the vowel is in its own nature 
short, and only lengthened by poetic licence f; since we- 
find such vocatives shor* in Greek, as 
O 0OAN, ovrtg avqg vvv f yccinog i o<r<rov tywyz .... 

Iliad, N, 222. 

* This quo makes a very auk ward figure so near to auro, and is most 
probably a corruption of the original text. I hardly < ntertain a doubt' 
that Ovid wrote 

Tempus, Atla, veniet, tua quom spoliabitur auro 

as Virgil, Geo. J, 493, 

Scilicet et tempus veniet, quom fmibus illis 

Agricola, incurvo terram molitus aratro, 

Exesa invenict scabra rubigine pila, &c. 

The word quom (i.e.quum} being usually written quo, an ignorant or 
hasty scribe might easily mistake it for quo. 

i Priscian makes the vocatives in question to form slN after the 
Greek fashion, and also AS after the Latin. If his decision be ad- 
mitted, the business becomes clear and easy; the AN being short, as 
in Greek, the AS long, of course, as in the nominative. Jlis words 
are, " Et sciendum est , quod in AS desinejitia masculina, .si ZV7' haheant 
In genilh'O, ^'ncati\'tn)i in AN I'otvnt tcrnrinarc wort Grsi-co, cf .similcm 
't.inic noniinutiro seri'firc, ut o Calcium rel o Calchas, et o Pallafi let 
o Pallas. VirgMius t(tmtn, anctohtate poeticd, o Palla protulit in xi. 

Sake artcrnummiki, HHU imc Palla 

el in rodctn, 

Qi/in ri;'o von alio dlgncr te fane 'r, Palla 
in hoc quoque Gr&vorumpoetas xtcuiui." lib. vi. 
Jiut, y* to :my ciitlcreace between Pallan and Palla, the omi?:on or re- 

Final A. 83 

rot Ja# $eo$ fAfy&ogrt /3^r....Il. IT, 288. 
Greek vocatives in TV./, from nominatives in 77? 
(changed to TA in some branches of the Doric dialect), 
are short, as Polydecta, Orestti, JEeta, Thytsta, &c. 
(See Maittaire, and Clarke, on the nominative 'I^ora 
for 'fcrsrorflj, Iliad A, 375.) 

Te tamen, o parvae rector Poly elect a Seriphi .... (Ovid. 
.... Fecerunt furia?, tristis Oresta, tuoe. (Ovid. 

Non, ait, hos reditus, non hanc, JEeta, dedisti .... (V. Fl. 
.. . . Tereos, aut coenam, crude 7 hyestii, tuam. (Martial. 

While on the subject of Greek nouns, it may be well to 
notice a question started by the learned and judicious 
Doctor Clarke respecting such accusatives as Orphca, of 
which we can prove to a certainty that the final A is short, 
at least in the Ionic dialect, making Orphcti, the two last 
syllables a trochee. In a note on Iliad A, 265, that 
critic informs us, that in the Attic dialect this A is always 
Jong, so that the word becomes Orphca, the two conclud- 

tention of the final N in writing must appear of little or no consequence, 
when \ve consider the stifled nasal sound of that N in pronv*ciation t no- 
ticed in Sect. 50, and other parts of this book. Wherefore, granting, 
that, in the verses which I have above quoted from Virgil and Ovid, 
those poets actually did not write the final JV, yet, as they probably 
still retained its nasal sound, that alone (without the aid of caesura) 
would, in either example, have been sufficient to make the syllable 
long by its position before the following consonant, as we see in tusus 
from tunsfis, traduco from transduco, &c. &c. 

* Though different from the examples above quoted, it may be well 
to notice here a short vocative in A, from a long nominative, viz. 
which several times occurs in Homer and Callimachus : e. gr. 

Ziv ANA ; ^ Tt3MMr$, o ^*f nportfct K&* Mfy*. (Iliad, T, 351.. 

84- Final A. 

ing syllables an iambus; the quantity of the accusative 
being regulated in both cases, he says, by that of the geni- 
tive, which we know to be Orpheus in the Ionic, and 
Orpheos in the Attic. Without presuming to combat the 
opinion of a man so far my superior in genius and learning 
especially where I see that opinion supported by so 
many proofs of the Attic quantity quoted from Attic 
writers I shall only observe, that, if such Greek names 
were to be sounded with their proper quantity in Latin 
as it appears reasonable that they should we never could 
have Orphea a dactyl, unless there were some third accu- 
sative case which Dr. Clarke has not mentioned. But 
Horace, who certainly understood the rules of Greek ver- 
sification at least as well as any modern critic, makes an 
unquestionable dactyl of Orpheti, in Od. i, 12, 8* 
Ovid also makes Thesea a dactyl in the latter half of a pen- 
tameter, Epist x, 34, and again in verse 110| to say 
nothing of numerous additional examples that might be 
quoted from him and other poets, particularly Statius, 
whose writings abound with such accusatives, and in such 
positions, that a considerable number of his verses must 
sound very inharmonious indeed, unless the EA be pro- 
nounced as two short syllables. Are we, then, to suppose 
that Horace and Ovid w.'lfully violated the rules of pros- 
ody? Tor the reason alleged in my remarks under 
" Diastole" (Sect. oi2) I do not think the supposition ad- 
missible : and we must rather look for another accusative, 

* l.'ncle' voc;u( m tcmere insecutae 

O/y;/tertsilva?. (37, 13) 
t Excitor, et sunmia Thcsl'a voce voco. 
liiic, r^ui silices, Th'&a, vincat, habes. 

Final A. 85 

neither Attic nor Ionic, which .shall have both the E and 
the A short in Orplica, and every other noun declined like 
it. Now that accusative is found in the common dialect, 
which, giving Ogftog in the genitive, must therefore, ac- 
cording to Dr. Clarke's rule, give in the accusative O^<psa, 
a dactyl. And, since Homer frequently took from that 
dialect the genitives Arcsog, Tvozos, Qivovsog, &c. &c. 
we may fairly presume that he took from it also the accusa- 
tive. In reply, therefore, to the learned critic's query, we 
may venture to assert, that, in the line of Homer above 

(0H2EA rAjytoii}?, ttrtei%&oy a&ayar0;<n) 
Qr^sa forms a legitimate dactyl; reserving to ourselves the 
privilege of recurring to the Attic dialect, when forced to 
it by necessity. But that necessity does not exist in the 
present case, nor in any other where we can conveniently 
scan such accusatives as dactyls, nor indeed at all in 
Homer's versification, where if we should find an instance 
of such an accusative with the final vowel long, we can as 
easily reconcile ourselves to a diastole of the alpha, as we 
do to that of the e-psilon and short iota in similar posi- 
tions, where Atticism is wholly out of the question. 

The numerals in GINTA are more generally found 
long, though they sometimes occur short. 
Sanguine Romano, sexagintaque triumphis. (Pctronius. 
Triginta toto mala sunt epigrammata libro. (Martial. 

Sexaginta teras cum limina mane senator. (Martial. 

tie.i'aginta rninas, seu vis, sex millia drachmas. (Priscian. 
Mutua quod nobis ter quinqudginta dedisti. (Martial. 
Tor trigintd quadrum partes per sidcra reddant. (Mqnilius. 

If it should be suspected, that, in the third and fifth of 

S6 Final E. 

those examples, Sexaginta and Quiriquaginta are only 
errors of the transcribers for Sexagena and Quinquagena, 
at least that suspicion cannot attach to the fourth or sixth : 
and it may be well to recollect that the Greek termination 
KONTA, whence the Latin GINTA is evidently borrowed, 
has the final vowel short, as in the line 
Toig i f afAct, rm*aKONTA tAsXaivui vqt$ Ivovro 
and many other instances, in the enumeration of the fleet, 
Iliad B. " 

Contra, likewise, and Juxta, are usually long in the 
more polished writers, though sometimes found short. 
.. . . Contra collegae jussa redisse sui. (Ovid. 

Ingens ara fuit, ju.rtaque veterrima laurus. (Virgil. 

Quis pater aut cognatu' volet vos contra tueri ? (Enftius. 
Contra jacens Cancer, patulam distentus in alvum. (Manil. 
. .-. .Lumina, CzlYistojuxta Lycaonida. (Catullus. 

The final A is short in the names of the Greek letters, 
Alpha, Beta, &c. 

Hoc discunt omnes ante Alpha et Beta puellas. (Juvenal. 
Quod Alpha dixi, Codre, penulatorum . . . 3; (Martial* 

SECT. XXXII. Final . 

E frrevia. Primes quint aque vocalula produc, 
Atque Ohe, Fermcjwe, Fercywe, Fameyz/e, 
7 y ,V ^oc/06* plurale Mele, Tempc, Pel 
/ Cetc necnon adverbia cuncta secttw/a, 

Final E. 87 

Exceptis Inferno 1 , Superntf, Bentf, ac Mal. Prater 
Enditicas ac syllabicats, mono sy II aba pro due. 

Final E is mostly short, as Nat?, Fuge, Lege, Legere, 
Nonpe, Deitide, llle, Qiiogue, Pane. 
llle dolet vere, qui sine teste dolet. (Martial. 

Jupiter est quodcumque vides, quocumque moveris. (Lucan. 
Frange toros, pete vina, rosas cape, tingere nardo. (Mart. 
Sic, ne perdiderit, non cess&t perdere lusor. (Ovid. 

Mi lie rnali species, w/7/cf salutis erunt. (Ovid. 

Exception. The final E is long in all cases of the first 
declension, as Tydide, Calliope, to which we may add 
those Doric vocatives Ulysse and A chill e, though it is to b 
observed that Achille is found in Propertius (iv, 12, 40) 
with the E short, by apocope from Achilleu. 

The final E is also long in the ablative of the fifth de- 
clension, as Re, Die, together with their compounds, 
Quare, Hodie, Pridie, Quotidie, and in the contracted 
genitive and dative, as Die, Fide. Fame, with the E 
long, comes under the fifth declension. 

Ohe, Ferme, Fere, likewise make the E long. 
Tros Anchiaiade, facilis di:scensus Averni. 
I lane tua Penelope lento tibi inittit, Ulysse. (Ovid. 

Kt, qnamquam sievit pariter r a hie <\\iefumet\ttQ . . , (Ovid. 
1-luhi'e ferii carens, dum breve tcmpus animus est. 34. 


Ki'iare: jussas cmnjidc pcenas luam. 2. (Horace. 

Consumit horas, et die totA sedet. 2. (MariiaL 

Qira? mens.cst hodie, cttreadeinoon puerofuli? 42. (Hor. 

88 Final E. 

Ille q i.i idem procul est, ita re cogente, profcctus. (Ovid. 
Quart non ju vat hoc, quod estis, esse ? :>8. (jllartiat. 
Libra die. sonmique pares ubi fecerit horas. (Virgil. 

Procliderit commissuy/Wtf, sponsumve ncgarit. (Horace. 

Exception II. The second person singular of the im- 
perative of the second conjugation has the E long, as 
Dvce, Alone, Vide, Respond*, Cave, c. Yet Care 
often occurs with the E short; sometimes also Vale and 
Vide, and, in one instance, Rcsponde. 
b'alve, P<ronia3 largitor nobilis undss. (Claudian. 

Tu cave nostra tuo contemnas carmina fastu. (Tibitllus. 
Idque quod ignoti faciunt, Vale dicere saltern. (Ovid. 

. . . .Auriculas? Vide, sis, ne majoruin tibi forte. . . (Pers. 
Vide, ne dolone collum conipungam tibi. ( J. (Ph&drus. 
Si, Quando veniet? dicet; respond^ Poeta . . . ( Martial. 

Some editors, indeed, under the idea of correcting this 
last verse, have corrupted it, and given 

Quando venit? dicet : tu respOiideto, Poeta ..... 
But no correction was necessary : for the ancients had 
responds re of the third conjugation, as well as rexpondcrc 
of the second : witness Manili us, .5, 7^7 
Sic etiain magno qucedam rcspoudere mundo 
li^ natura facit, qu?e coeli condidit orbem. 

In like manner, the short Cave, Vale, and Vide, came, 
no doubt, from obsolete verbs of the third conjugation. 
With respect to >Care, this is rendered more than probable 
by the anecdote of the Caiuiian figs, noticed in page :J, 
which shows that the E of Cave must have been pretty 
commonly pronounced short in prose. 

Exception III. The final E is long in those Greek 


Final E. S9 

neuters plural, Aide, Tempt, Pelage, Cete, Cacoethe, 
with any others of the same kind, which may occur. 

Cunctaque prosiliunt cete, terrenaque Nereus (Claud. 

Parvamne lolcon, Thessala an Tempt petain? 22. (Seneca. 
Et cycnea mele, Phoebeaque, daedala chordis.. . . (Lucret. 
At pelage multa, et late substrata videmus. (Lucretius. 

Exception IV. Adverbs formed from nouns of the 
second declension have the final E long, as Placide, 
Valdt or Valide, Maaime, Minime, &c. c; except 
Bene, Male, In feme, and Superne. 
Excipe solicitos placide, mea dona, libellos. (Martial. 
Nil bene cum facias, facisattamen omnia belle. (Martial. 
Tecta superne timent: metuunt inferne cavernas.. .(Lucr. 
Terra superne tremit, magnis concussa ruinis. (Lucretius. 
. . . Remorum recta est; et recta superne guberna. (Lucr. 

These three lines from Lucretius prove that the com- 
mon reading is perfectly justifiable in Horace, Od. ii, 
20, 11, 

Album mu tor in alitem 

Superne : nascunturque, &c ; 

and that there was no necessity for Monsieur Dacier to 
remedy a supposed violation of quantity by that inharmo- 
nious alteration of the text, 

SuperTV^/: -ZV^scunturque . . . . 

especially as Horace uses the same word Superne in ex- 
actly the same sense, Art. Poet. 4. 

Adjectives neuter of the third declension, used as ad- 
verbs, retain the original quantity of their final E, which 
is short, as Sublime, Suave, Dulce, Facile, Difficile, &c. 

Impune, also, whether etymologists choose to derive it 


90 Final I and Y. 

from a lost adjective of the third or of the second declen- 
sion, has the E short. The final vowel is likewise short 
in the adverb Here, and in Hercule. 
Cantantes sublime ferent ad sidera cycni. (Virgil. 

Suave locus resonat voci conclusus. Inanes . . . (Horace. 
Dulce 1 Venus risit : nee te, Pari, munera tangant. (Ovid. 
Haud impune quidem ; nee talia passus Ulysses. (Virgil. 
Et positum est nobis nil here praeter aprum. (Martial. 
Experiar calamos, here quos mihi doctus lolas . . , (Calph. 
. . . Verterat in fumum et cinerem, non (Hercule') miror . . . 


Exception V. Monosyllables ending in E, as Me, Te, 
Se, and Ne (lest or not\ are long except the enclitic 
particles Que, Ve, Ne (interrogative), and the syllabic 
additions Pte, Ce, Te, De, as in Sudpte, Nostrdpte, 
Hosce, Tute, Quamde. 

Extinxti me, ^eque, soror, populumque, patresque. (Virg. 
Ne, pueri, ne tanta animisadsuescitebella. (Virgil. 

Tantae vos generis tenuit fiducia vestri ? (Virgil. 

Hinc omnis pendet Lucilius. Hosc# secutus .... (Horace. 
O Tite tu/e Tati tibi tanta tyranne tulisti. (Ennius. 

Nostrap/e culpa facimus, ut malos expediat esse. 26. (Ter. 
Ju^-iter ! haud muro fretus magi', qitamde manum vi. 

SECT. XXXIII. Final I and Y. 

I produc. Ercoia Nis'f cum QuasY, Gr&caque cuncta. 
Jure Mihi varies, Ti\nque, tl Sibtj gucis Ibt Ubi 

Final I and Y. 91 

Junge, et Uti. CuY corripias dissyllabon : atqui 
Cui plerumque solct monosyllabon esse poetis. 
Sicurt corripiunt, cum NecuW, Sicubi, vates. 

The final /is mostly long, as in Domini, Classl, Fieri, 
Audirl, Fill 9 Ovidl. 

In via Sarmaticis dominl lorica sagittis. (Martial. 

Sic fatur lacrymans, clamque immittit habenas. (Virgil. 
Pastores! rnandat^/zen sibi talia Daphnis. (Virgil. 

Ilinc exaudirl gemitus, irceque leonum. (Virgil. 

Si metuis, si prava cupis, si ducerisira. (Claudian. 

Atqul, di^na tuo si nomine munera ferres .... (Martial. 
GUI respondit rex Albai Longa'i. (Emiius. 

Ah miser et demens ! viginfi litigat annis. (Martial. 

Noll nobilibus, noil conferre beads. (Propertius. 

Magne gem, cape thura libens, votisque fa veto. (Tibullus. 

Exception. The final vowel is generally short in Nisi 
and Quasi. 

Ascendi, supraque nihil, nisV regna, reliqui. (Lucan. 

Plurima dum fingis, sed quasi vera refers. (Martial. 

Lucretius, nevertheless, has Quasi with the J long 
Et, devicta quasi, cogatur ferre patique (2, 290 
and four similar examples occur in Avienus, Phaen. 554 ? 
1465, 1567, and 1654: but all these may perhaps be at- 
tributed to the cresura. In the following verse, however, 
from Statius (Silv. 4, 3, 59) the caesura cannot with equal 
probability be supposed to have lengthened the final / of 
His parvus (Lechiae nisi vetarent) .... 38. 

The final /and JTare short in Greek words, as Moly 

92 Final I find Y. 

in vocatives of the third declension, as Tiphy, Chely, Tethy, 
(but not in Tethy, the contracted dative for Tethy i) Theti, 
Pari, Daphni (but not in Slmoi, or such others as form 
ENTOS in the genitive) sometimes in the dative singu- 
lar, zsPalladl, Minoidi, Tethy i* (the 1 of such datives 
being always short in Greek, unless rendered long by po- 
sition or poetic licence) and datives and ablatives plural 
in 81, as Heroisi, Dryasi, Hamadryasi, Thyniasi, Charisi, 
Lcmniasi, Troasi, Ethesi, Schemasi^ &c. 
Ne pete Dardaniam frustra, Thet'i, mergere classem. (Stat. 
Moly vocant superi: nigra radice tenetur. (Ovid. 

Cedamus, chc/y : jam repone cantus. 38. (Statins. 

Quid tibi cum patria, navita Tiphy, mea ? (Ovid. 

Quam Tethy J longinqua dies, Glaucoque repostam .... 

(Valerius F la ecus. 
Pallactt litorere celebrabat Scyros honorem. (Statins. 

* The authorities, quoted for these short datives, render it not im- 
probable, that Virgil, although lie elsewhere used Orphei as a spondee 
by syiuTresis, intended it as a dactyl, in Eel. 4, 57 
.... Or/jA Calliope a, Lino formosus Apollo. 

f Ethesi is found in the remains of Varro, from whom Schemasi is 
also quoted: Lemniasi occurs in Ovid, Art. iii, 672 Dryasi, Hama- 
dryasi, Thyniasi, in Propertius, 1, 20 Charisi in the same author, iv, 
1, 75, as amended by Burmarm In imitation of which examples, I 
would recommend to my youthful readers to use, not the Latin termi- 
nation ADIEUS or IDIBUS, but the Greek ASI or 1ST, for the da- 
tives and ablatives plural of feminine patronymic or gentile names in 
AS or 76', such as Lesbis, Scstis, Nereis, Lesbias, Scstias, Appias, &c.- 
Nor am I singular in this opinion: for the late learned and ingenious 
Gilbert Wakefield, with due attention to classic propriety, wrote 
Charui and Pierisi in the dedicatory poem prefixed to his truly valuable 
edition of Lucretius. 

; It is to be observed that some editions here give Thetidi. 

Final I and Y. 93 

. . . Morte, ferox Theseus, qualetn Minoidi luctum . . . 


Luce autem canoe Tethyi restituor. (Catullus. 

Edidit base mores illis heroisin aequos. (Ovid 

Troasin invideo ; quae si lacrymosa suorum .... (Ovid. 
the N making no difference in the quantity, and being 
added (as every Greek scholar knows) merely to obviate 
the hiatus at the meeting of the two vowels, as we say in 
English AN Artist, not A Artist. 

Grammarians assert that the /is always long in the ad- 
verb Uti ; and it is true that we often find it so, as 
Magis relictis non uti sit auxili. 22. (Horace, Epod. 1. 
to which may be added Horace, Od. 3, 28, 6 Od. 4, 5, 
6, and 35, &c. But we also read it short in Lucretius, 2, 
536, Lucilius, frag. 5, and a verse of Ennius quoted by 
AGellius, 3, 14, viz. 

Sic ufi quadrupedem cum prirnis esse videmus . . . (Lucret. 
Sic uti mechanic! cum alto exsiluere petauro . . . (Lucilius. 
Sic uti siquT ferat vas vini dirnidiatum . . . (Ennius. 

and, as a further proof that the I may be short in the 
simple Uti, we find it so in its compound Utinam, which 
indeed I do not recollect to have ever seen with its middle 
syllable long. It is also short in Ufique. 
Ars utinam mores animumque effingere posset. (Martial. 
Tertiam addamus necesseest ufique correpti soui. 36. 

(Terentianus Maurus. 

Exception II. Milii*\ Titil, Sitii> UKi 9 Iln, have the 
final vowel common. 

* The contracted (lutivu, j)/?, funned by crasls from Mifti, is, of 
couise, necessarily long, as 

94 Final I and Y. 

Cur miln non eadem, quae tib?, ccena datur ? (Martial. 
Tecum mi hi discord ia est. 2$. (Horace. 

Datur tlln puella, quam petis, datur. 22. (Virgil, Catalect. 
Dum sib'i uobilior Latonre gente videtur, (Juvenal. 

. , . Sib'tque melius quam Deis notus, negat. 22. (Seneca. 
. . .Venalesque manus: ib'i fas, ubi maxima merces. (Lucan. 
Instarveris cnitn vultus ubi tuns. . . 44. (Horace. 

Ter conatus *7 collo dare brachia circum. (Virgil. 

Cui, when used as a dissyllable, generally has the / 

Mittat, et donet cwcumque terra;. 37. (Seneca. Troas, 8J2. 
to which may be added four other unquestionable examples 
from Martial, "1, 105 8, 52 -11, 721^, 49 be- 
sides several from Terentianus Maurus ; whence we may 
conclude that Juvenal also used cut as two short syllables in 
following line, instead of intending it for a spondaic 
. . . Cantabat patriis in montibus : et cut non tune . . . 

In the following lines, however, the /is long 
Ille, ci'u ternis Capitolia celsa-triurnphis 
Sponte deum patuere, ci'ii freta nulla repostos 
Abscondere sinus. ,. . (Albinus. 

Here perhaps the length of the / may be attributed to 
the caesura: but, as the other datives, Mihi, Tibi, Sibi, 
have the final vowel sometimes long without the influence 

Lesbia wz7, prassrmte viro, mala plurima elicit. (Catullus. 
ami so in numerous other instances. In the following verse of Ennius. 
however, we find Mi' formed by apocope, and remaining short 

Ingcns cura irii* rum concordibus iuquipararc. (Annal. 2, 5. 
* But v.e find no example of Cui otherwise employed than as one long ; 
syllable, in Virgil, Horace, Ovid at least none in which it can be 
yroi-cd t.! the poet intended it for two syllables. 

Final O. 95 

of the cassura, it appears reasonable to suppose that the 
case is the same with the dissyllable Cui, and that, like 
them, it has the /common. 

SECT. XXXIV. Final O. 

O dacur ambiguis. Grceca ct monosyllaba produc, 

Ergo pro caussa, ternum sextumque secundce, 

Queis etiamjungas ad-c-crbia nomine not a. 

Sed Cito corripies, Immo, et Modo At hcec Vfiriantur, 

Postremo, Sero. paritepPotToyue, Retro^we, 

Idcirco, atque Ideo, simul his conjunct io Vero. 

The final O is common, as Quando, Cato, dpollo, Duo, 
Ambo, Octo, A mo and other verbs, 'Ego, Homo, &c. &c. 
Quando pauperiem, missis ambagibus, horres. (Horace. 
Qua field ratem vends, aut credat semina terris. (Germanictts. 
Tu produxisti nos endo luminis auras. (Ennius, 

Eiidd mari inagno iluctus extollere certant. (Ennius. 

Sit Cattf, dum vivit, sane vel Ci^sare major. (Martial. 
Quis te, magne Cato, taciturn, autte, Cosse, relinquat? 


. . . Miscuit. Elysium possidet ^772^ nemus. (Martial. 
Ambo florentes aetatibus, Arcades ambo. (Virgil. 

Nam melius dub defendunt retinacula navim. (Propertius, 
Europamque Asiamque, duo vel maxima terras 
Membra. . . . (Ausonius. 

Ergo, rnctu, capiti Scylla est inimica paterno. (Virgil. 
Ergo solicits tu caussa, pecunia, vita? es ! (Propertius. 

With respect to the O of verbs, being copied from the 

96 Final O. 

Greek O-mega, we might naturally expect that it should be 
long. Accordingly, the poets of or near the Augustan age 
most commonly used it so. They, however, sometimes 
made it short though seldom, yet sufficiently often to prove 
that they held it to be common, as it likewise had been in 
the more remote age of Ennius. Statius, Martial, and 
their contemporaries and successors, very frequently made 
it short. 

Horrida Romuleum ceitominapangti duellum. (Ennius. 
Torquatus, volo, parvulus . . . 46. (Catullus. 

. . . Nescio ; sed fieri sentio, etexcrucior. (Catullus. 

Desino, ne dominae luctus renoventur acerbi. (Tibullus. 
Nunc 'cold subducto gravior procedere vultu. (Tibullus. 
Non ego velifera tumidum m&rejindo carina. (Properties. 
Vel caligineo laxanda reponito fumo. (Gratius. 

Tepeto, quem merui, quern nobis ipse dedisti. (Ovid. 
Exempt umque mihi conjugis esto bonae. (Ovid. 

Protinus ut moriar, non ero y terra, tuus. (Ovid. 

r Nesciti quid certe mens mea majus agit. (Ovid. 

. . . Dixero quid, si forte jocosius, hoc mihi juris . . . (Hor. 
Ni te visceribus meis, Horati, 

Plus jam diligu, tu tuum sodalem ... 38. (Maecenas. 

Prandeti, poto, cano, ludo, lavo, cceno, quiesco. (Mart. 
Captu tuam, pudet hen I sed capto, Pontice, ccenarn. (Mart. 
The gerund in DO, being in reality nothing else than a 
dative or ablative of the second declension, might naturally 
be expected to be long : and accordingly we find it so in the 
best authors : yet we also find a few, indeed very few, ex- 
amples of it with the O short: but not a single one, I be- 
lieve, that can with certainty be quoted as authority, is to 
be found in any writer of the Augustan age *. 

f * 

* The following passage in Ovid. ep. 9, 126, is rendered extremely 

Final O. 97 

ITnus homo nobis cnnctando restitult rem. (Eniiius. 

Oinnia si pergas viven(K vincere srecla. {Lutretius* 

Frigidus in pratis cantando rumpitur anguis. (Virgil. 

Altaque, posse capifociendo, Pergama cepi. (Or id. 

Plurimus hie ager moritur t-igilandft : sed ilium. . . (Juv. 
Sic vario* tain longa dies renorand6 dolor es....(Ter. Ma u?\ 
Quge nosti, medifantlu velis inolescere menti. (Ausomus. 

Exception. Monosyllables in O are long*, as 
Pro/i (the H not being accounted as a letter), the inter- 
jection O f, the datives and ablatives of the second declen- 
sion, as Somno Greek cases written in the original with 
an Q-mega, as Androged, Atho, Clio, Alecto likewise 
Ergo, signifying " for the sake or on account of." 
a patribus plebes, o digni consule patres! (Claudian. 

Pro molli viol$,'pro purpureo narcissc. . . . 

dubious by the various readings: the sanie is .the c;icc with the verse 
from Tibujlus, S, 6', 3: and, as to a line quoted i'roin Qermanicus, 
Phaen. 1/6', it must appear still more suspicious to any critic who .exa- 
mines the context. 

Fortunam vukus fagsa tcgendo snos* (Ovid. 

Auferet ipse oneurn pariter medicando dolorcm. (Tilndius. 
* Among the long monosyllables are usually reckoned the verbs Do 
and <SYo. It is true that \ve do not find them short; nor am I an advo- 
cate for shortening the in these or any other verbs. Yet I believe 
tlia-t the circumstance of our always finding Do and Sto long is purely 
accidental, and that they do not differ in that respect from all other 
verbs, since the is common in their compounds. But no poet, who 
had any ear, would have made those monosyllabic verbs short, -because 
they would have been nearly lost in the reading, if the voice bad not 
dwelt on them as long syllables. 

t For an example of made short, when not elided 'before a -vo\v<], 
see " Synalaphe" sect* 49. 


0.8 final O. 

Flaventesque abscissa comas, Proh Jupiter! ibit. . . (T 7 irg. 
Aura pulsa fides, auro venalia jura. (Propertius. 

Emeritos musi&GtPhtfbo tradiditannos. (Martial. 

Adfuit Alccto brevibus torquata colubris. (Ovid. 

Inforibus letuin Androgeo: turn pendere poenas. . . (Virg. 
Argo, qua vecti Argivi delecti viri. 22. (Ennius. 

Quondam ego tentavi CYo^oque, duasque sorores. (Peck. 
Ego and Homo, according to Lily's and the Eton gram- 
mar, are hardly to be found with the final vowel long 
" viv products hguntur." Here, however, I quote, or 
refer to, three and twenty examples of Homo long, and a 
few of Ego *. 

Homo, qui erranti comiter monstrat viam. . . 22. (Ennius. 
Insulsissimus est homo t, necsapit pueri instar. 3. (CatulL 
Aiiraris, Aule? Semper bonus homo tiro est. 23. {Mart. 
Ne nesciret homo spem sibi luminis. 44. (Pnukntius. 
To which may be added, Ennius, Annal. 1, 106" 4, 2 
-6,33 7,688, 4 Lucilius, Sat. 1, 1911, 
19 incert. 130 Lucretius, 1, 67 Catullus, 82, C 
Horace, Sat. 1/2, 31 Virgil, JEn. 9, 783 Pru- 
(Tentius, Apoth. 25 ib. 164 ib. 605 cont. Symm. 2, 
185 2, 827 Hamart. 151 Psychom. 385 besides 
numerous examples of the compound, Nemo. 

* It is worthy of remark, that Terentianus Muurus, in framing an 
example of a particular species of verse, where accurate precision is re- 
quired, expresses a doubt whether the reader will admit Ego to have 
the short, so as to form "Apariambus (or pyrrickius) which foot con- 
sists of two short syllables. His words arc 

Si pananiuus Ego aut Modo vel Putu, quern dabimus, sit. 

(Do Metr. 292. 

t In all the other verses of the piece which has furnished tkis ex- 
ample, and \\lnchconsists f twenty-six lines, Catullus has uinforrnly 
made the third foot an amphimacer. 

Final 0. 99 

Scd uunc rogare ego vicissiin te volo. 2C. (Plautus. 

Tateor. -Quidni fateare, ego quod viderim r 22. (Plaut. 
Hunc ego, juvenes, locum, villulamque palustrem ... 3. 


AMBUS ego primus castos violare pudores ? (Cato. 

. . . Sicut ego, solus, me quoque pauperior. (Ausoniux. 

Exception II. Adverbs formed from nouns have the 
final O long, as Subito, Merito, Multo, c. 
. . . Parvum tigillum, missum quod subito vadis . . . 22. 


Mac derideri fabula merit o potest .... 22. (Phcedrus. 
Adde, quod iste tuus, tarn retro proelia passus .... (Ovid. 

But the last syllable is short in Modo, Quomodo, Dum- 
modoy Postmodo, Cit6, Immo. 

Fortunata domus, modosittibi fidusamicus. (Propertius. 
]~)uunnod6 purpureo spument mi hi dolia musto. (Propert. 
Postmodo tu pocnas, barbara, morte dabis. (Pedo Albinov. 
Quidquidhabent oinnes, accipe, quomodo das. (Martial. 
Quo levis a, nobis tarn cit6 fugit amor ? (Ovid. 

. . . Vendere; nil debet : fcenerat immo niagis. (Martial. 

The adverb Sero, the conjunction Verb, as likewise 
Porro, RetrQ> Idcirco, Poxtremu, have the final O 

Imperium tibi sero datum : victoria velpx . . . (Claudian. 
Sero domum est reversus titubanti pede. 22. (Ph&drus. 
. . . Quod petimqs : sin very preces ct dicta superbus 
Respuerit .. . (Valerius Flaccus. 

Pascuntur vero silvas, et summa Lyca^i. (Virgil. 

Vester porro labor fecundipr, historiarum 
Scriptorcs. (Juvenal. 

100 final O. 

Quid porro tumnlis opus est ? aut ulla requiris . . . (Lutaft. 
Atque aniina est animac proporro totius ipsa. (Lucretius. 
. . . Unde retro nemo. Tulinms Oceani minas. 22. (Seneca, 
Feroque viso, rettulit retro pedem. 22 (Phadrns. 

fdcirco gemellum vocitarunt choriambon. ol. (Ter. Maur. 
Idcirco certis dimensum partibusorbein . . , (Virgil. 

Et Scauros, et Fabricios; postremu severos. . . (Juvenal, 
Postremo, quoniam incultis preestare videmus. . (Lucret, 

Icko, likewise, has the common. 

An ideti* tan turn veneras, ut exires ? 23. (MdrtiaL 

Ire jam mine uk6 nobis visiting est consultiiis^ 36. 

(Terentiarnis Manrus. 
. . . Vulneribus quassita nieis: id'edne tot annos. .. (Claud. 

Adeo frequently occurs with the O long; and I cannot 
produce an example in which it is short: but> from its 
affinity to Ideo, I have not a doubt, that, like Ideo y it had 
the O common. 
Usque adeone times, quern tu facis ipse timendum ? (Lucan, 

Profectti and Illicit are found with the final vowel 

. . . Addas, hexameter profecto fiet. 38. (Ter. Maurus. 
Illico barbaries : necnon sibi captaVideri . . . (Sid. Apoll. 
but it is evident from their derivation (pro facto in loco) 
that the final O could not be naturally and constantly 
short ; though I have not at hand an example of either 
word, in which it is unquestionably long. 

* In all his sccizuns (nearly eight hundred in number) Martial has not 
a single instance of a spondee in the second place. 

t r lhe urn is not elided hen 1 , but made short* a practice very fre- 
quent with Tcreutianus Maurus. 

Final U, B> D, T. 101 

SECT. XXXV. Final U, B, D, T, 
\J prodyc. C, D, T purum, corripe semper. 

U final is generally long, as Cornu, Manu, and sucli 
Greek vocatives as Pant ha and Melampu, which, being 
wi ittcn in the original with the diphthong ov, must neces- 
fiarily have the U long in Latin. 

Nee rnora, curvavit cornu, nervoque sagittam . , . (Ovid. 
Quo res sum ma loco, Ptinthu ? quam prendimus arcem? 

Quid furtirn lacrymas? Ilium, venerande l\Ielampii . . . 


Tela manu nviseri jactabant irrita Teucri. (Firgil. 

Tantalea) poterit traderc poma manu*. (Propertius. 

Quod sumptum atque epulas vlctu praeponis honesto. 


Exceptions. Indu and Nemi have the U short, It is 
likewise so in those words naturally ending with short iiS t 
in which the final S suffers elision, to preserve the syllable 
from becoming long by its position before a consonant 
at the beginning of the following word, as Pltni? for 

* This verse, \vjth the accompanying line from Lucilius, will satisfy 
the scruples of those who refuse to acknowledge Curru, Mctu, Venatu t 
^cc. as datives in die following and other passages 

Parce?efw, Cytherea (Virgil, .Eneid i, 26*1. 

CVrrwque volans dat lora secundo. (JE.n.\ 9 }60. 

Vtnatu invigilant pueri , ., , , . (ALu. ix, 605. 

102 Final U, B, D, T. 

. . . Indii manu validas potis cstmoderantcr habenas. (Lucr. 
Nenit qucunt rapidi contra constare leones. (Lucretius. 
Ille vir baud magna cum re, sed plcnii* fidci. (Ennius. 
Concerning this elision of the final *S*, which was very 
frequent with the earlier poets, see the remarks under 
" Kcthlipsis." 

Final syllables ending in B or D are short*, as fib, 
Quid, Illitd, and likewise those in T pure that is to say, 
T with a vowel immediately before it, as et, at, Tut, Quot, 
Amat ; for, if there be another consonant joined with the 
T y the vowel is necessarily long by position, as est, ast, 
Amant. Ant also is long, on account of the diphthong. 
Jpse decet quid again. Fas cst et ab hoste doceri. (Ovid. 
Dixit : at ilia furens, acriqtie incensa dolore . . . (Virgil. 
At rnihi jam vicleor patria procul esse tot annis. (Ovid. 
Sed quoniarn mores totidem, ^o/idemque figurae . . . (Ovid. 
Tot mala sum passus, qiiot in a&there sidera lucent. (Ovid. 
Luce sacra requiescat humus, rcqnicscat arator. (Tibullus. 
Ducit Itonaeos, et Alalcomenea Minerva? 
Agruinaf. (Statins, 77/ei. 7, 330. 

With respect to the 7} however, an exception must be 
made of those third persons singular of the preterperfect 
tense, which contract IFIT or 1IT to 17] or AV1T to 
AT ; the IT and the AT being in these cases long, as 
Quo tibi fervor ab'it, aut quo iiducia fati ? (Lucan. 

* Except llaud, which is long on account of the diphthong. 
t This passage, together with Pyrrhus's inscription 

vffof O.TTO 

may serve to dc^cnniue the meaning of Ax^o^iv^Vs A 615^ i Homer, 
Iliad A, 8. 

kinalU, B, D, T: 103 

\ , . Qyo non diguior has sit bit habenas. 38. (Statius. 
Flamma /Ktf*f altum: propior locus aera cepit. (Ovid. 

In these examples, as in numerous others which might 
be quoted (particularly from Lucan, who furnishes perhaps 
a greater number than all the other poets together) the 
length of the IT must not be attributed to the power of the 
cresura, since that syllable is formed by a crasis of two 
short // into one long Afriit, AVit, &c. as Tifricen is 
formed from Tiblicen, zndPerlmus of the preterite from 
Periimus in the following verse of Ovid, Art. 3, 607, 
Callida prosiliat, dicatque ancilla, "Perimus" 
or, even if it were proved, that, without crasis, Rcdit was 
formed from Redivit by a syncope of the VI, still the re- 
maining/must be long, because it was already long before- 
the syncope took place. 

Irritat aniini virtutem, ecfringere ut arcta . . . (Lucretius. 
. . . Disturb at urbes, et terras motus obortus. (Lucretius. 

In these contractions, the A was naturally long, before 
the syncope was made, and therefore must continue long, 
as it does in other persons and tenses, Ama-ventnt ama*- 
runt, Ama-i'c t rant amlirant, Ama-^erint ama'rmt, Amti- 
Kit amlit or thus, A mar it or A maw it, amaic't, umat. 

Similar instances of contraction occur in Virgil, Geo. 1, 
279, ^-n. 7, 363, /En. 8,- 141 Ovid, Fast. 6, 769, 

Coeumque lapetumque creal, sicvumque Typhoea. (Firgil. 
At non sic Phrygius penetrdt Lacedsemona pastor, 
Ledteamque HelenamTrojanas vexit ad urbes? (J'lrgil. 
At Aiaiatn (auditis si quidquam credimus) Atlas, 
Idem Atlas generdt, cccli qui sidcra toliit. (Tlrgil. 

Postera lux melior: super at Masinissa Syphacern, 

Et cecidit telis Asdrubal ipse suis. (Ov/J. 


final U, B, D, f. 

to which add Peritdt and Contitrbdt in Lucretius, 3, 710, 
and 5, 69. In Terence also, Phormio, 5, 4, 50, some 
critics consider Educat as a contracted preterite*; and the 
ancient grammarian Probus viewed in the same tight jRtfftff, 
in JEneid 3, 3 
.... omnis humo fumat Neptunia Trqja. 

But, in this, I cannot agree with Probus: for, although 
the action ofCecidit, in the preceding line, be past, what 
necessity to suppose the same with respect to Fumat ? why 
not say, " While fallen Troy lies smoking on the plain, we 
are impelled" (agimur) ? It adds beauty and interest to 
the narrative, which thus presents us with a double picture 
on the one side, a set of wretched outcasts anxiously 
deliberating on the course they are to pursue and, at a 
small distance from this melancholy scene, the ruins of 
their late magnificent city still enveloped in flames and 
smoke; which last image entirely disappears, if we under- 
stand Fumat in the past tense, " after Troy has smoked." - 

Now it is natural to imagine that the ruins of Trov continued 


to smoke during a considerable time after the first night: and 
Seneca the Tragedian supposes the smoking to have lasted 
long enough, surely, for any reasonable purpose of modern 
criticism, since he represents the Trojan captives, when 

* This, however, is at least very doubtful: for, considering the cha- 
racter and intention oj" the speaker, we may reasonably .suppose him to 
use \\\vprcsci:t tense for the .purpose 6jf aggravating the crime, and ex- 
asperatiug the wife by the information that her husband stilt continues to 
spend thr? family property in the maintenance of his illegitiinate daugh- 
ter. The present tense Edacat \v . | continued ict.iD, as m 
Catullus, 00, 41 

Ut fios in ieplis secrctus niiocitur hortis, 

I quotas pccori, nullo coir . ,;'O, 

a iniilcenL ;iur:r, finnat ->A, f ducat \Hibe t* 

Final U, B, D, T. 105 

carried off to sea by the returning Greeks, and no longer 
within sight of land, still pointing to the volumes of ascend- 
ing smoke, and saying to each other, 

Ilium cst illic, ubi fumns alte 
Serpit in cerium .... (Troas, 1053. 
Besides, the continuity of the action is better sustained by 
supposing that the fugitives, so soon as they had reached a 
place of safety (/Eneidii, 804), recapitulated the disastrous 
events of the preceding night canvassed the different 
omens and preternatural admonitions enumerated by the 
Dauphin editor in his note on yEn. iii, 5 and in that 
day's consultation formed their resolution to emigrate: 
after which, the building of a fleet, and the collecting of 
adventurers to accompany them, properly fill up the re- 
maining period previous to their embarkation, without 
any breach of continuity in the action, as must inevitably be 
the case if we understand Fumat in the past tense, and 
know not what becomes of the fugitives during the sup- 
posed interval from the time of Petivi, book ii, 804, and 
Agimur, book iii, 5. I take for granted that no man, who 
is versed in the classics, will make the preceding Postquam 
an objection to the present tense in this passage, any more 
than in the two following, from Georg. iii, 432, and JEn, 
iii, 193- 

Postquam efhausta palus, terrtcque ardore dchiscunt 
Postquam allurn tenucre rates, nee jam amplius ullas 
Apparent ternc 

Final C. 

SECT. XXXVI. final C. 

C longum est. Brevia Ne'e, Fac; quibus adjicc Donee, 
Hie pronomen, et Hoc primo et quarto, variabis. 

Final C is generally long, as Sic, Hue, Illlc, Illuc, 
the adverb Hlc, the ablative Hoc. 

Sic oculos, sic ille manus, s~ic ora ferebat. (Virgil, 

line indocto primum se exercuit arcu. (Tibullus. 

Est h'ic, est animus lucis contemptor; et istum . . . (Virgil. 
Hil c, hue adventate, meas audite querelas. (Catullus. 
Adhiic Achilles vivitin poenas Phrygum. 22. (Seneca. 

. . Prodigio : quodcumque parant hoc omine fata . . . 


Exception. Nee and Dontc are short, as also the im- 
perative Fdc. 

Parve, (nee invjdeo) sine me, liber, ibis in urbem. (Ovid. 
Donee eris felix, niultos numerabis amicos. (Or id. 

Signa rarius, aut semel fac iliud. 38. (Martial. 

With respect to Fac, some grammarians assert that it is 
long, and that, wherever we find it short, we ought to 
read Face. But I do not see how that difference can at all 
affect the quantity; for, whether we write Fac illud or 
Face illud, the words will, in either case, measure neither 
more nor less than File' illud, with the Fac short. Thus, 
likewise,, in Lucretius, ii, 484, 

. . . Nqn possunt : J'dc enim minimis e partibus esse . . . 
find in Knnius, Phaget. 6, 

itfc emas glaucurn, et Cumas apud: at quid. . . 

Final C. 107 

whether we write Fac or Face, It can make no possible dif- 
ference. But it makes a considerable difference on the 
other side of the question, that two passages, quoted from 
incorrect copies of Ovid (Art. 1, 225, and Rem. 337) to 
prove that Fac is long, wear a quite different appearance in 
better editions, viz. 

Hosjacito Armenios : hasc est Danaeia Persis* 
Durius incedit? Face wambulet Omne papillae . * 

Exception II. The pronoun Hie is common. 
Hie vir, kic est, tibi quern promitti ssepius audis. (VirgiL 
Atqueait, ///c, hie est, quern ferus urit amor. (Ovid* 

To speak more properly, however, Hie is really short ; 
and, wherever we find it long before a vowel, it ought to 
be written Nice 9 , as an abbreviation of Hicce by apocope. 

The same remark applies to the nominative and accusa- 
tive Hoc, which the ancient grammarians positively assert 
to be short*; wherefore they observe, that, in JEneid, 2, 
664, we must read 

Hocc* erat, alma parens 

which rule we see uniformly followed by the late learned 
Gilbert Wakefield in his elaborate edition of Lucretius, 
with respect to both Hie and Hoc. 

To these two examples of Hoc short, from Plautus, Bacch* 
4, 1, 10, and Trinumm. 4, 4, 1, 
Ileus ! ecquis hie est? ecquis hoc aperit ostium ? 22. 

* Terentianus Maurus thus expresses himself on the subject, De 
Metris, 86 

At geminum in tali pronomine si fugimus C, 
Spondeus ille non erit, qui tails est 
"HOCillud, germana,fuit" sedet "HOC erat, alma" 
Iambus ille fiet, iste tribraches. 

103 Final L. 

Quid hoc hie clamoris audio ante redes meas ? 22. 

may be added the following, quoted by Vossius from the 

anonymous reliques of ancient poetry - 

Et vos hoc ipsum, quod minamur, invitat. 23. 

Propter hoc, atque aliis, c. a hexameter. 


Corripe L. At produc Sal, Sol, Nil, multayue Hg- 

L final is short, as Mel, Pel, Pol, Simul, Semtl, Ni- 
hil, Vigil, Asdrubal, Faciil, Yamid, Consul. 
Florea serta (meum me I!) et haec tibi carmina dono. (Apul. 
Sive^/c/ ir-sinum tepefacta dilue \ymp\rd. (Seren.Samoniciis. 
Velim. po'lj inquis : atpol ecce villicus ... 22. (Catullus. 
Obstupuit simitl ipse, simul perculsus Achates. (Virgil. 
Cum seme I in partem criminis ipsa venit. (Ovid. 

Exiguum, sed plus qaam nifiil, illud erit (Ovid. 

Vesta eadem est, quae terra: subest vigil ignis utrique. 

Vertit terga citus damnatis Asdrubal ausis. (Silius Italians* 
Innocui veniant: prOciil hinc, proci'il impius esto. .. 
Jura dabat populis posito modo consul aratro. 
Quod superest, faciil est ex his cognoscere rebus. (Lucret 
Ossa dcdit ten'oe, pro-hide acfamul infimus esset. (Lucret. 

Exceptions. Nil arid Sol -are 
Nil opis cxternac cupiens, nil. indiga laudis, (Clauditm. 

Final L. 109 

Cum sol oceano fulgentia condidit ora. (Germanicus. 

Sal is also said to be long, on the authority of the two 
following lines 

Xon sal, oxyporumve, caseusve. 38. {Statins. 

Sal, oleum, panis, mel, piper, herba; novem. {Ausonius. 

Nevertheless, as Sal is ,in fact only an abbreviation of 
the old nominative Sale, which we still find extant in the 
following line of Ennius, Ann. 14, 5, preserved by A Gel- 
lius, 2, 26 

Coeruleum spumat sale conferta rate pulsum 
I think we may be allowed to suppose that ii was in reality 
short, and that Statius and Ausonius made it long merely 
by poetic licence; for I would not have recourse to the 
supposition of Non sal being a trochee; since, among 
many hundred verses written by Statius in the phalaeciau 
measure, not a single instance elsewhere occurs of a tro- 
chee or iambus in the first place, as was common with the 
earlier writers. But, that Sal from Sale is not, by that 
apocope, rendered long, must appear probable, when we 
recollect that even those nouns in AL which had the A 
long in ALE before the apocope took place, became af- 
terward short, as Cervical, Tribunal, Vcctlgal, &c. 
Tinge caput nardi folio: cervical olebit. (MartiaL 

Mane superba tribunal adit. 10. (Ptr&devti&s* 

Rettulit ignotum gelidis vectlgal ab oris. (Claiidian. 

With respect to Hebrew names ending in Z, the final syl- 
lable has generally been made long. A modern versifier, 
however, who wishes to use them, would do well to consult 
the Septuagmt or Greek Testament, and, wherever he 
finds any of them written with an Eta, an O-wega* or a 
diphthong, to make the syllable of course long making- 
E-psilon and O-micron short and elsewhere following 
his own discretion: for few critics, I presume, will condemn 

1 ] o Final M. 

him for adopting, in such cases, whatever quantity best 
suits the exigency of his versification, without regarding 
the authority of the old Christian writers, who were cer- 
tainly not so good prosodiaus as their pagan predecessors** 

M *corat ecthlipsis : priscl brcviarc solebant. 

Respecting the real quantity of final syllables ending is 
J!/, we moderns are very much in the dark, from this cir- 
cumstance, that (with few exceptions) the writers of the Au- 
gustan age, and their successors, elided all such syllables 
before vowels; and, before consonants, we cannot tell 
whether they be naturally long, or long by position. And, 
although we sometimes find the Jl/with its vowel un-elided 


and short, particularly in the early poets, so we likewise 
find diphthongs and single vowels which we know to be na- 
turally long, as will appear under the head of u Synalttpke," 
sect. 49. Hence, no conclusive argument can be drawn 
from those examples, to prove the real and proper quantity 
of the final M: and we are justifiable in supposing that it 
was various in various cases that the Romans had, for 

* Besides, tho Christian \vriters different, in that respect, from the 
pagan authors, noticed under "Diastole" sect. 52 did not think them- 
selves tied down to rule in proper names. Witness the most polished 
and classical of all the old Christian poets Prudentius who, on 
a violation of metre in a proper name, adds the following remark 
Carminis leges amor atireorum 
Nominum parvi facit; et loquciuli 
Cura de sanctis vitiosa non est, 

Nccrudis, unqnam. (Peri Stfph. 4, 1(*5, 

Final M. Ill 

example, a short UM or OM corresponding to the ON of 
the Greeks, and a long UM for their HN, as Ha<pov, 
Pap/torn, Paphiim, Ag*aivv> Arcadum and that, al- 
though the AM might have been short in Maiam from 
Ma*av*, it probably was long in jEneam from Aivetdv. 
But it is of little consequence at the present day whether 
we consider the final syllables in J/as long or short, since 
the practice of the best authors requires that we should, in 
writing poetry, either make every such syllable long before 
a consonant, or elide it before a vowel. 

The earlier Latin poets, as above observed, often pre- 
served the final M before a vowel, and made the syllable 
short; which practice was retained by their successors, 

with respect to the compounds of Com (or Con} and of 
, as Comes, Comedo, Circiimago, Circiimco or 
t the syllable being equally free from elision, and 

the quantity remaining the same, whether the M be written 

or not. 

Insignita fere turn millia militum octo. (Eunius, 

Dura quidcm unus homo Roma tota superescit f. (Ennius. 

Praetextae ac tunicae, Lydorum opu' sordidum omnc. (Lucll. 

Et ear inn oinniaj: adirem furibunda latibula. 34. (CatulL 

Cedo equidem, nee, nate, tibi comes ire recuso. (J^irgil. 

* Terentianus Maurtis (de Metr. 108.9) considers at least the fr.n.i- 
niue AM of the first declension as naturally short, since he t-ilks of its 
being rendered long by position before a consonant. His own verses 
afford several instances of the AT and its vowel un-elidcd and short 
as do likewise those of Ph&drus ; for example 

Bina productas habere nee minus compertum est. J6". (T> r. Maurut, 
Hac re probatur, quantum ingenium valet. 22. (Plist-drus. 

f Probably wpcrcszit. See page 77- 

J For the quantity of omnia in this place, sec under te Synala-p/ic," 

112 Final M. 

Vivite, lurcones, comedones! vivite, ventres ! (Lucilius. 
Luctantur paucse, comedunt coliphia paucas. (Juvenal. 
Quo te circiimagas? qua? primaaut ultima ponas ? (Juven. 
Circumeunt hilares, et ad alta cubilia ducunt. (Statius. 
Saivaque circuit u curvantenribrachia longo .... (Ovid. 

Quoniam, which is nothing else than Quom jam (i. e, 
Quum ju'tii) pronounced together as a single word, fur- 
nishes another instance of the final JJ/with its vowel pre- 
served and made short by the poets of every age. 
. . . Juverit; quoriiam palam*. . . 46. (Catullus, 59, 203. 

In every other case, except those above mentioned, the 
best and purest writers were accustomed to elide the final 

* This is the only verse I can find, lo prove the quantity of Quoniam, 
No verse of Virgil, for instance, can certainly prove that he intended to 
use it otherwise than as two long syllables; though, from this example 
in Catullus, we are authorised to conclude that Virgil and the other 
poets used the word as three syllables, the first and second short. An 
equal uncertainty would exist respecting the syllables and quantity of 
Efiam to which let me add Ni/til and Nihilum if they occurred in 
no other than hexameter verse. As Etlam is nothing more than Efjatn, 
\ve might very fairly conclude that the Et is equally long by position, 
when united with Jam into one word, as when it stands before it sepa- 
rate, as, for example, in JEndd 4, 584, 

It jam prtma novo spargebat lumine terras 

and, as A"///// and Nihilum are derived from Hilum, which has the. / 
long, we might reasonably presume thatJY7/^7is in fact only one long 
syllable, Nil 'Nihilum two, Nilutn and no hexameter verse could, 
in either case, be possibly made to prove the contrary. But the 
subjoined Sapphic, from Horace, Od. 3, 11, 3<), will prove Etiam to 
be thrre' syllables, of which the first and second are short; the Jam 
becoming *i-am by di.Tnssis : and the accompanying choriambic, irom 
Catullus, 5p, 1^7, will likewise prove Nihilum to be three syllables, the 
tirsit and second short, as a verse, which I have quoted in page 10&, 
proves Nihil to be two short syllables. 

.... Quss manent culpas cfiam. sub Oreo. 37. (Horace. 

.... Coelited) R?&7uminus . . . 4(J. (Cat u flat. 

' Final N. 113 

Af with the preceding vowel* ; though we see an instance 
to the contrary in Horace, Sat. 2, 2, 28 
. . . Quam laudas, pluma ? cocto num. adest honor idem? 
as the line is given by Messrs. Dacier, Bentley, and Wake- 
field, instead of the aukward reading of the Dauphin edi- 
tion, coctove num adest : and, on the other hand, Pro- 
pertius (2, 15, 1), Tibullus (1, 5, 33), and Lucan (5, 
o27) furnish examples of the M with its vowel un-elided 
and long viz. f 

O mefeKcem ! o nox mihi Candida! et o tu . . . (Propert. 
Et tan turn venerata virum, hunc sedula curet. (Tibullus. 
. .. Scit non.esse casam. O vitae tutafacultas. . , (Lucan. 
But, in these cases, the caesura, particularly when accom- 
panied with such a pause in the sense, would be sufficient 
to lengthen and preserve from elision a short vowel, even 
without the M. See Caesura, sect. 4 6. 

SECT. XXXIX. Final N. 

N longum in Greeds Latiisque. Sed EN brevia1)is 
Dans brerce INIS : Grcecum ON (inodo non pluralt) 


Jungito prtfter Athon et talia. Corripe ubique 
Graiorum quart urn, si sit brcvis ultima recti. 
Forsititn, in, Forsiin, Tamen, an, Viden', et Satfn', 


* For .the probable cause of this elision, and the Roman mode of 
pronouncing the final M, see the remarks under " 

114 Final N. 

The final A T is long in Latin words and in those of Greek 
origin, as Non, en, Ren, Splcn y Siren, Hymen, Pan, 
Qifin, Sin, Salamln, Attagen, Orion, Platon, Piuton^ 
Mors non una venit: sed, quee rapir, ultima mors est. 

(Lucilius jun. ap. Senec. 

. . . Dixerit, Hos calamos tibi dant, en accipe, Musa?.(Fz>g. 
. . . Et trita illinitur : vel splen apponitur hcedi. (fn'cr. Sam. 
Lacte niadens illic suberat Pan ilicis umbrae. (Tibullus. 
Hy?nen, OHymena^e! Hymen, ades, O llymena3e!(Cfl/M/. 
Vix lucet ignis: ipse qu'tn aether gravis. ^2. (Seneca. 

Quern si leges, lastabor ; sin autem minus. , . 2. (Phfedrus. 
Non attagen lonlcus ... 29- (Horace. 

Mersit et ardentes Orion aureus ignes. (Manilius. 

JEthereusque Plat on, et qui fabricaverat ilium... (Mamliits. 
Unde venit Titan, et nox ubi sicleracondit. (Lucan. 

Greek accusatives in AN from nominatives in AS, and 
.accusatives in EN from nominatives in E or ES, are like- 
Avise long, as JEneTtn, Tiresian, Pencloptn, Calliopcn, 
Anchiscn likewise Greek genitives plural in ON, of 
whatever declension they be, as Cimmerian, Jlfetawor- 
p/wscon *, &c. 

Ponto cum BoreTin expulit Africus. 44. (Seneca. 

. . . Harpen alterius moiistri jam caede rubentem. (Lucan. 
. . . Occurrit; veterem Ahchiscn agnoscit amicum.(^r77. 
Cimmerion etiain obscuras atcessit ad arces. (TibuLlus. 
Jupiter ! ut Chalybon omne genus pereat ! (Catullus. 

* After the same form, \ve fincl, in Martial, Epigrammaton, !_, 2 
/Kvlidon, 1J, J)l In Terentiiiinis Maur'us, Heroon, de Metr. 1023 
In Priscian, Bulimcoji, 380 Tigcslr&vn, 37 o 6cc. &c. 

Final N. 115 

Exception. an, For s an, Forsitan, In, Tamen, Vi- 
dtri*. Satin', are short; so are nouns in EN, which form 
the genitive in tNIS short, as Nomtn, Pectcn, Tubicen, 
Tiblcen, Flumcn, Flamen, Tegmen, Augincn. 
Tor sit an et, Priami fuerint quae fata, requiras. (J r irgiL 
Ludit )';z humanis divina potentia rebus. (Ovid. 

. . . Ipsa dedi. Helen' ut jugulo consumpserit ensem ? (Staf. 
Safin* estid? Nescio, hercle: tantum jussu' sum . . . 22. 


Nomen Arionium Siculas impleverat urbes. (Ovid. 

ur vagus incedittot& tibicen in urbe ? (Ovid. 

Exception II. The Greek ON (written with an 0- 
micron'), in the singular number of the second declension, 
is short, as Rhodon, Cer heron, JEacon, Pel ion, llidn, 
Erction. [The genitive plural in CWis long, as above 

Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon, aut Mitylenen. (Horace. 
Cerberbn abstraxit, rabida qui percitus ira . . . (Ovid. 
Pelion hinnitu fugiens implevit acuto. (Virgil. 

Ilib'ti, etTenedos, Simoisque, et Xanthus, et Ide. (Ovid. 
Pallida nee nigras horrescat Erotion umbras. (Martial. 

But Greek accusatives in ON, of the Attic dialect, 
having an O-mega in the original, are long, as Athon, An- 
drogeon, Peneleon, Nicoleon (from Nlcoleos, Attic for 
Nicolai'is) Demoleon (from Demoted^ which Burmann 
restored to its station in Virgil, JEneid 5, 265, for the 
sake of a more pleasing sound /would add, for the sake 
of propriety.) 

* See Vide short, under "Final /' page 88. 

116 Final R. 

Hence At/ton cannot possibly be admitted as the true 
reading in "Virgil, Georg. 1, 332, where the measure ab- 
solutely requires the other accusative Atho ; the long O 
being, not elided, but made short, before the succeeding 
Aut athit, ant Rhodo-j-pen, aut alta Ceraunia telo . . . 

Lastly, the final A" is short in all Greek accusatives, of 
whatever declension, from nominatives whose final syllable 
is short, as Ma'wn, JEginan, Scorpion, Mcnelaon, Farm, 
Ir'in, The tin, Ityn, c. 

Namqueferunt raptam patriis JEginun ab undis. (Statins. 
Scorpion incendis cauda, chelasque peruris. (Lucan. 

Tu fore tarn lentum credis Menelaon in ira? (Oi'id. 

. . . Thy r sin, et attritis Daphnin arundinibus. (Propertius. 
. ..Et Thet'in et cornites, et quos suppresserat ignes. (Stat. 
Tantaque nox animi est, Ityn hue arcessite, dixit. 

SECT. XL. Final R. 

R breve. Cur prodifc, Fur, Far, quibus adjice Ver, 


Et Graium quotquot longum dant ERIS, ct JEther, 
Acr, Ser, et Iber. Sit Cor breve. Celtiber anceps. 
Par cum compositis, et Lar, producere vulgo 
Nortnajubet: sedtu monitus variabis utnimque. 

Final R is short, as in Amilcar, Calcar, Muliet\ 7\r, 
Puer, Vir and its compounds, Gadir, Timor, Hector, 
Satiur, Turti'tr, Prccor and all other verbs. 

Final JR. 117 

Nil nocet admisso subdere calcar equo. (Q*pid$ 

Calcatosque Jovi lucos prece, Bostdr, adora. (Sil. It aliens. 
Ossihus 0//6f;*etimpositum. 10. (Prudentius. 

Quod si pudica mutter in partein juvet . . . 2 C 2. (Horace. 
Ora ferox Sicula? laxavit Muiciber /Etna). (Luc-an* 

Abnuit in liquidis ire pedester aquis. (Martial. 

Cum flaret madida tauce December atrox. (Martial. 

Deforme alitibus liqucre cadaver Iberis. (Silius Italicus* 
Fortiter\\\e facit, qui miser esse potest. (Martial. 

Semper eris pauper, si pauper es, /Erniliane. (Martial. 
Ipse /e'r aequoreo libans carchesia patri . . . (Val. Flaccus. 
Ille r/r baud inagna cum re, sed plena' fidei. (Ennius. 
$einmr excelsam rerum sublatus in arcem. (Claudlan. 
. . . Via est diei. Gadlr hie est oppidum. ^2. (Avicnus. 
Hinc amor, hinc timur est : ipsum tlmor auget amorem. 


Hunc illi Bacchus, thalami memor, addit honorem. (Germ. 
Jupiter ambrosia satur est, et nectare vivit. (Martial. 
Quotque aderant vates, rebar adesse deos. (Ovid. 

Triste nataturo nee querdr esse fretum. (Ovid. 

Pcrfe'r et obdura : postrnodo mitis erit (Ovid. 

Cum tamen hoc essem, minimoque accenderer igni .... 


Omnes rnortales sese laudarier optant. (Ennius^ 

Dum loquor, horror habet; parsque est meminisse doloris. 

Labiliir, et labctur in omne volubilis aevum, (Horace* 

Exceptions. Cur is long, and also Fiii\ Far, Nar, 
J 7 er, with, those Words of Greek origin which form their 
genitive in KRIS long, as Crater ; Staler, &c. like- 

118 Final R. 

wise Aer, JElher, and Ser. - Ibtr, too, is long, but its 
compound, Celtiber, is common. 

Multa quidem dixi, cUr excusatus abirem. (Horace. 

Callidus effracta numrnos/77?* auferet area. (Martial. 

. . . Fur erat, et puri lucida mica sails. (Ovid. 

Sulfurea Niir albus aqua, fontesque Velini. (Virgil. 

Et vtr auctumno, brumae misccbitur asstas. (Ovid. 

Crater auratis surgit ca^latus ab astris. (Manillas. 

Jnde mare, inde aer, inde (Ether ignifer ipse. (Lucretius. 
Aer a tergo quasi provehat atque propellaj. (Lucretius. 
Legit Eois Str arboribus. 14. (Seneca. 

Si tibi durus Ibtr, aut si tibi terga dedisset . . . (Lucan. 
Nunc Celtibcr in Celtiberia terra ... 23. (Catullus. 

Ducit ad auriferas quod me Salo Celtiber oras. (Martial. 
Lar and Par are usually accounted long. In my for- 
mer edition of this work, I supposed that they were really 
short, and that, wherever found long, they were only made 
so by poetic licence. My reasons were these : 1 . Par and 
its compounds are found short in Prudentius, Avienus, and 
Martianus Capella. 2. I had not observed either Par or 
Lar long in any other position than the trikemimeris, 
penthemimeris, c. where a short syllable might be ren- 
dered long by its position alone, as in the following ex- 

Ludere \par im-\-par, equitare in arundine longa. (Horace. 
Exagi- -tant et \Lar et turba Diania fures. (Ovid. 

3. Par and Lar increase short. Now, in other nouns 
(without a single exception that I can recollect) the nomi- 
native AR\s short, whenever the genitive has a short incre- 
ment ; and even those which increase long, have AR short 
in the nominative, as Altar quoted above, Calcar, Pul- 
vinar, Torcultir. But, on further search, I have since 

Final R. 119 

observed several examples of Par long in such positions 
as leave no room to doubt that the writers considered it to 
be long in its own nature, or at least common; e. g. 
Haec modo crescenti, plena? /wr aitera lunte. (Clandian. 
with Ennuis, Ann. 1, 32 Pedo, S3 Martial, 6, 11, 
and 12, 8 Lucan, Statius, Thcb. 11, 125. 

From the authorities, therefore, on both sides, we may 
safely pronounce Par to be common : and, as analogy re- 
quires that Lar should be short, though we see it apparent- 
ly long in the verse above quoted from Ovid, we may, after 
the example of Par, venture to consider Lar as common 

Cor is short * 

Confiteor inisero molle cor esse mihi. (Ovid. 

Molle cor ad timidas sic babet iile preces. (Ovid. 

and a passage, sometimes quoted from incorrect editions 
of the same author to prove that he made it long, is found 
in more correct copies to prove the contrary, viz. 
Molle meum levibusywe cor e<t violabile telis ; 

Et semper caussa est, cur ego semper amem. (Ep. 15, 79. 
Now, setting the consideration of quantity entirely out of 
the question, Ircibusquc (which is authorised by the 
Frankfort MS.) will, on a careful examination of the con- 
text, evidently appear the better reading. By means of 
it, the epithet Molle is made to allege a reason, by assert- 
ing a material fact, instead of supposing that fact to be- 
already known " My heart in of tender mould, and ea- 

* In addition to Ovid's authority, see also Lncilius, sat. 20 Cicero, 
Tusc. 3 Soiur ;) , Tiiyt'bt. 13?, Here. (Et, 49 Martial, 10, 15 
Ausonius, epic 1 ,. 4 y Prudeiilius, cutliiun. 0', 54, 

io .Final 

sily vulnerable," Sec. Exactly so does Ovid express him- 
self in another place, Trist. 4, 10, 65 
Molle, Cupidineis nee wzexpugnabile telis, 

Cor niihi, quodque levis caussa moveret, erat. 

SECT. XLI. Final AS. 

AS proJuc. Breve Aniis. Gracorum tertia quart iim 
Corripit et rectum, per ADIS si patrius exit. 

Words ending in AS mostly have their final syllable 
long, as JEneas, Atlas, Pallas (masculine, making the 
genitive Paliantis\ Cras, Fas, Mas, Vas, Nefas, Musas 
all verbs, in whatever tense, as Amas, Amabas, Do- 
ceas, LegaSj Audius, &c. gentile names, as Arpinas 
Larinas, &c. with such antique genitives of the first 
declension, as Vias, Famtiias, &c. 

Cum Trojam jEneas Italos portaret in agros. (Ovid. 

JEtas ha?,c tibi tota computatur. 38. (Martial. 

Quam longe eras istud? ubi est, aut unde petendurn ? 


-S\fas est, omncs pariter pereatis, avari. (Propertius. 
Jupiter et mas est, estque idem nympha perenuis. (Apul. 
Intellexit ibi vitium VMS efficere ipsum. (Lucretius. 

Et belle cantas, et sal fas, Attale, belle. (Martial. 

Pervius exiguos habitabtis ante penates. (Martial. 

Dictfs in auremsicut audiat solus. 23. (Martial. 

Quaque jacet superi Larinas accola ponti. (Si I. Italicus. 

Final ES. 121 

Mcretrix et m&tev-familias unfiin domo. 22. (Terence. 
Omnibus endolocis in --;"n:-i apparel 

itias, oculosque manusque ad sidera lassas 
Protendunt. (Ennius. 

Exceptions. The AS is short in Anils* 
Et pictis anas enotata pennis. '38. (Pctronius. 

II. Those Greek nouns in AS are short which make the 
genitive in ADOS or ADIS, as Areas, Pallas feminine, 
and Latin words in AS formed after the manner of Greek 
patronymics, as Appitis. 

Cum quibus Alcides, et plus Areas erat. (Martial. 

Bellica Pallas adesr, et protegit fegide fratrem. (Ovid. 

'ds expressis aiira pulsat aquis. (Ovid. 

Greek accusatives plural in AS of the third declension- 
are likewise short, as Troas, Heroas,, Heroidas, Hector as, 
Lampadas, Delphinas, Sec. 

In te fingebam violentos Troas ituros. (Ovid. 

Aut monstrare lyra veteres herolisalumno. (Statiax. 

Jupiter ad veteres supplex herdidds ibat. (Ovid. 

Et multos illic Hector as esse puta. (Ovid. 

Accenditgeminas lampadas acer Amor. (Tibullas. 

Orpheus in silvis, inter dt lp hind 6'Arion. (Virgil. 

SECT. XL1L Final ES. 

ES dabitur longis. Brcviat se d tertia rectum, 
(Jam patriibrevis est crcsccnsper:ultima t Prs kinc 

Final ES. 

Excipitur, Paries, Aries, Abiesque, Cercsywe. 
Corripito Es dc Sum, Penes, e ncutralia Grceca. 
His quint um et rectum numeri dent Gracasecundi. 

ES is long, as Res, Spes, Vulpes, Anchises, Lo- 
cuples, Tot ic s, Quo ties, Decles the genitives of nouns 
in of the first declension, as Eury diets, Penelopes, Ides, 
Calliopes the plural cases of Latin nouns of the third 
and fifth declensions the ES of verbs in every tense and 
conjugation (except Es from Sum, and its compounds) as 
.Doces, studies, Ames, Legeres, Fugisses the antique 
genitive in ES of the fifth declension, as Dies, Ra- 
bies *, c. 

Una tamen spcs est, qua3 me soletur in istis. (Ovid. 

Vulpts ad ccenam dicitur ciconiam. . . 22. (Phadrus. 
. . . Perses ; et fecit per mare miles her. (Petrnnius. 

Toties uno latrante malo. 14. (Seneca. 

Quofi'erithyph&llicon addit. 15. (Terentianus Maurus. 
Ducenties accepit, et tamen vivit ! 23. (Martial. 

Fatali Dido Libyes appellitur ora?. (Silius Italicus. 

Nodes atque dies patet atri janua Ditis. (Virgil. 

. . . Cretseisque jugis, vix syrtts inter oberrans. (Avienus. 
Nee res ante vident: accepta clade queruntur. (Claudian. 
Quidj^e* abducta gravius Briseide? quid fles . . . (Propert. 
bulges, et Venerem coelesti corpore yincis. (Petrvnius. 
Dices o quoties, Hoc mihi dulcius .... 44. (Claudian. 

* AGellius, 9, 14, informs us that this genitive in ES was agreeable 
to the almost general practice of antiquity quotes several examples 
and asserts, that, in Virgil's own manuscript, the verse, Geo. 1, 208, 
was written, 

Libra dies somnique pares ubi fecerit horas 

not die, as we now read it. This genitive appears to have originally 
i the third declension, Di-c<i$ ihcuce, by crasis, Di-es* 

Final ES. 123 

. . . Prcestes Hesperiae : dicimus integro . . . 44. (Horace. 
. . . Velles, ut nunquam solveret nlla dies. (Properties. 
Quodcumque est, rabies unde illasc germina turguent. 


Exception. Nouns of the third declension, which in- 
crease short in the genitive, have ES in the nominative 
short, as Dives, Eques, Pede's, Hospes, Termes, Limes. 
Vivitur ex rapto: non hospes ab hospite tutus. (Ovid. 

Et tegeSj et cimex, et nudi sponda grabati. (Martial. 
Ipse deae custos, ipse safeties erat. (Ovid. 

Et meliore tui parte superstes eris. (Martial. 

Candidus in nigro lucet sic limes Olympo. (Manilius. ' 
Deses et impatiens nimis base obscura putabit. (Ter. Maur. 
Auritum primis emittit gurges ab undis. (Avienus. 

Vix hebes has oras ardor Titanius aftlat. (Avienus. 

Regius Eois Myraces interpres ab oris. (Valerius Flaccus. 
Prcests ipsajuradicit: adsederunt Gratias. 36, (Catullus. 
Exiguus regum rec tores cespes habebat. (Rutilius. 

.... Interius nebula? ; et denso jam fome's in igni. (Avien. 
Xunc tumido gemmas cortice palmc's agit. (Ovid. 

Dives agris, dives positis in foenore nu minis. (Horace. 

IpseeyweX ipse pedes, signifer ipse fui. (Ovid. 

Germinat et nunquam fallentis termes olivae. (Horace. 
Species exsequias reddit equesque, duci. (Pedo Albinov. 
But Abits, Aries, Ceres, Paries, are long, and likewise 
Pes with its compounds, as Cornipes, Sonipes. 
Populus in fmviis, abies in montibus aids. (Virgi!. 

. . . Creditur : ipse aries etiam nunc vellera siccat. (Virgil. 
Hie farcta premitur angulo Ceres omni. 23. (Marmtt. 
Desuper Auriga? dexter pes imminet astro. (Manillas. 
Stat sonipts, et froena ferox spumantia mandit. (Virgil 

J24, Final ES. 

Perhaps, however, when we advert to the agreement in 
quantity between the ES of the nominative and the penul- 
tima of the genitive in other nouns of the third declension, 
we may be allowed to suspect that the ES in every one of 
these exccpted nouns was in reality short, or common, 
especially if we recollect that Abies, Aries, Paries, 
uipcs, (supposing them to have the ES short) could not 
have been introduced into heroic verse without a licence of 
some kind that instances of Pu> and its compounds are 
found with the ES short in Ausouius and Prudentius, au- 
thorised besides by the testimony of the grammarian 
Probus, who asserts them to be properly short and that 
Ceres also has the final syllable short in the following line 
ofBocthius, 3, 1, 4, 
Ut nova* iru^e gravis Ceres eat. 8. 

Exception II. Es in the present tense of the verb 
Sum-\- is short, as are also its compounds, Pvtcs, Abes, 

* Nova is here in the nominative, agreeing with Ceres. See the 
context, quoted under " Faliscan", Appendix, .No. 8. 

f Vossius, v/iihout quoting any authority, asserts that Es (' 
catest) is long, as being, according to him, a contraction of edis. But 
how was that operation performed ? If by a syncope of the Di, tl 
would still remain short, as it is in the original \vord. If only the I was 
at first struck out, leaving Ed's to be afterward softenf-'l into E's, in 
that ease the third person, syncopated in the same manner, would be 
Ed't, E't, not.LV: and then (to say nothing of Esscni i<r Essc) //an; 
and whence are we to form the iwpcratrn' E,s, l\-.u\:<\ in Plautus, Mil. 3, 
3% 82? from Edc? from Editof. . . . iMoie natural to suppose .that 
Y''i\ thou art, arid Es, tbou calcst, were originally the same identical 
word ; and that, when the Romans employed, for example, the phrase 
il Eat jiantm," they spoke elliptieally, vix. " He c.iitt&' l>u means o 
*-- he fives upon bread" the accusative being governed by a 

Final ES. 125 

. Prod-*, c. likewise the preposition Penes 

k neuters in ES, as Caeoetlies, JI/ppomaticx, c. 

and Givrk nominatives and vocatives plural of the third 

declension, from nouns \vhich increase in the genitive sin- 

r, but which do not form that case in EOS, as 7H- 

Trot'x, RketoreSj Dczmones, Amazones y 

7'rr, >. Iladdes. 

Quisquis c$, ainissos hinc jam obliviscere Graios. (Virgil. 
Tu potts et patrice miles et esse decus. (Martial. 

Xunc ades o coeptis, flava Minerva, meis. (Ovid. 

Te penes arbitrium nostrae vitrcque necisque. (Subinus. 
. . . Scrihendi ctfGOethcs, et negro in cordesenescit. (Juveii. 
Armigeri Tritonts cunt, scopulosaque cete, (Statins. 

. . . Lynces : etinsolitse mirantur carhasa tigres. (Claudian. 
. . . Aspidcs : in mediis sitiebant dipsadcs undis. (Lucan. 
Turn me vel tragicag vexetis Erinnyes> et me. . . (Propcrt. 
Capripedes calamo Panes hiante canent. (Tibnllits. 

Sunt geminae, Rhenique Eritannidcs ostia cerium t. (Prise. 
But nominatives and vocatives plural in ES, of Greek 
nouns forming the genitive singular in EOS, are long, as 
Hcereses, Crises , Phrases, Metamorphoses, c ; because 

tion understood, as in " Gramina pastas," ^En. 2, 471; for surely no 
grammurian will assert that past us does or possibly can govern the ac- 
cusative gramlna, MY opinion is countenanced by the authority of 

r and Lucretius, the former of whom used the participle Ens of 
Sum, as we learn from Priscian, lib. 6' " Casar non iucnngrue prntnlit 

- ./ I'trbo SuMj J.'.y, Est ;" \vliichindecdhe\vell might do, since his 
countrymen daily used it in its compounds, Pr#ncns, Abseiis, Potcns 
to say nothing of its latent existence in the present participles of all 
other verbs : and Lucretius used that same participle in the sense of 
eating or consuming, in the "following line, 5, 397 

Ignis enim superavit, et dMli-KXS multa perussit. 
Scs remarks on the tenses of the verb Sum, in page 77. 

126 Final ES. 

those plural cases arc written in the original Greek with 
the diphthong EI2, contracted from EE2 : and 

N. B. A verse heretofore quoted from Ovid, Ileroid. 
10, 86, to prove that he made the plural accusative ES 
short, cannot be admitted in evidence, as the. 1 text is not 
ascertained, In my next section, 1 shall endeavour to 
show that the word Tig res, which is made to furnish the 
supposed proof, was originally written by the poet, Tigris. 
It must not, however, be dissembled that Ennius furnishes 
one example of the Latin plural ES short, and Cicero 

Pirgini? nam sibi quisque domos Rpmanu' rapit sas. (Enn. 
Obruitur Procyon; ernergunt qiites una. (Cicero. 

Note, moreover, that, although Es in the present tense 
of Sum be short, the final syllable vi Esses is not short, as 
asserted in a modern Prosody, but, like the ES of all 
other verbs in the same tense, most certainly and invariably 
long, both in the simple verb and its compounds. 
Esses lonii fa eta puella maris. (Bropertius. 

Posses in tanto vivere ilagitio ? (Proper tins. 

There is an entire class of words, overlooked, it seems, 
by prosodians, but which may very properly, I conceive, 
have the final ES short : I mean such Greek vocatives as 
Demosthenes, written* in the original with an E-p$ilon, and 
corning from nominatives in ES which form the genitive in 
EOS. But learners must beware of forming similar voca- 
tives from such names as Achilles. Ulysses, c. in which 
the ES of the nominative is merely a Doncism for EUS; 
my remark extending only to those whose nominative ori- 
ginally ends in ES without the intervention of any dialect 
or poetic licence. 

Final IS and YS. 127 

SECT. X LIII. Final IS and YS. 

Corripies IS et YS. Plurales exclpe casus. 
Gils, Sis, Vis verbtim acnomen, Nolls^we, Velisqite, 
Audis cum sod is, quorum et gtnitivus in INIS, 
KXTISre, aut ITIS long um, producito semper. 
HIS conjunctlvum mos est -carlare poctis. 

Final IS and YS are short, as Bis *, Afis^ Ais, Inqitfs, 
Thefts, Tethys, Itys, Chelys, Erinnys. 
Timi fris ad occasum, bis se convertit ad ortuin. (Oi-id. 
Non tfp/s inde tulit coilectos sedula flores. (Ovid, 

Donavi tamen, Inquis, atnico millia quinque. (Martial. 
Janidudum tacito lustrat Ihefis onmia visu. (Statins, 

* Lily's grammar seems to say or imply that Ovid alone makes Bis 
short " Et bis apud Oiidium" But the following examples from 
other authors will set the point in a better light. 

Inde ad noselisa liis advolat ; aut etiarn quod . . . (Lucretius, 4, 3l6. 
'us in octonas excurrit pondere libras. (Virgil, Moret. 18. 

. . . Apta quadrigisequa; te bis Afro . . . 37 (Horace, Od. 2, 16*, 35. 
Troja bis (Etaei numine c^'pta del. (Proper tins, 3, I, 32. 

. . . Tuqife bis octonos, Cancer, binosqne tHentes. (Maiiilius, 3, 570. 
Octo A**, aut denibj metueiidus dicitur aer. (Manilius, 4, 483 

Ante bis exactum quam Cynthia c<>nd( ret orbem. (Lucan, 2, 577. 

]S : unique bin octunis nondum rex pra^ditus aiinis. (Silins Italicus, 14-, 89. 
Bifique jugo llhenum, bis adactum legibus Istrum. (Statins, Theb. J, 19- 
Laita bis octonis accedit purpura fastis. (Statius, Silv.4:, 1, 1. 

Kanique b"s llerculeis deberi Pergama telis* (Valerius Flaccus y 2, 571* 
. . . Et67$ idem facimus : nimium si, btella, videtur . . (Martial, I, 45. 
Trecenta debet Titius : hoc bis Albums. 23. (Martial, 4, 37- 

Contigit hunc illi quod b''s a mare diem. (Martial, 9> 40. 

A'el senas quater, et b~s actJe ternas. 38. (Ausonius, Epist. 7 ' , 26. 

Aut septem geminis bis octo juu fc e. 38. (Au&onius, ibid. 33. 

In a word, where can a example be found of Bit long, except in 
position before a consonant ? 

128 final IS and YS. 

Seque simul juvencmque premat, fortass^is acerbas .... 


Tipkysaglt, tacitique sedent ad jussa ministri. (VaLFiaccuj* 
Tcthys et extrcmo saepe reccpta loco est. (Grid. 

Reginam resonant Othrys et Ossa Thetin. (Claudian. 

. . . Phorcys ; et immanes intorto murice pbocas. 

(Valerius Flaccits* 

Exception. All plural cases ending in IS have that 
syllable long, as J///.SY.V, VirTs, A mils, No bis, Vobls, 
Quls for (j nib us, Omuls, Urbls. Likewise such con- 
tracted plurals as Eriniiys*, for Erinnyes or Erimiyas, 
have the YS long. 

Praesentemque virls intentant omnia mortem. (J T irgiL 

Inducenda rota est: das nob'is utile munus. (Martial. 

Atque utinam ex vobls unus, vestrique fuissem . . . (FirgiL 
Quls anteora patrum Trojse sub rnoenibus altis . . . (Virgil. 
Non omuls arbusta juvant, humilesque myricac. (Virgil. 
Adde tot egregias urbls, operumque laborem. (Virgil. 
for so the last three verses are given in the best modern 
editions, which follow the same orthography in similar 
cases, agreeably to the known practice of antiquity. 

There appears to have been another class of plurals in 
IS, of the third declension, which were short: but, through 
the inattention of ignorant transcribers, they have all va- 
nished from the poets' pages, in which we now find the 
words written with luS. Where they stand before a con- 
sonant or at the end of a verse, we perceive nothing to 

* I cannot produce a verso to prove the quantity ; but the word 
occurs in Seneca, GEdip. 64 

Etniecum Erinnys proriubns thalcimi traham* 

Final IS and F 129 

awake even a suspicion that the text has been falsified, 
But there is one passage in Ovid, which fairly authorises a 
belief that those short plurals in IS were used by the Roman 
poets, as we know them to have been by the Greeks, ex. gr. 
Anlhol. 1, 6, 3 

Of KOPI2 K%gf xogov xogsffuvro pt 

A%gi zogov fca,VTog y rovg KOPI2 ez 
which plainly proves that the plural 12, formed by syncope 
from IE 2 and IA2, is short. --Now, as Tiygig forms the 
genitive singular in IO2 as well as IAO2, the nominative 
and accusative plural from Tt'/gtog will be Tfygteg Ttygis, 
'and T/y*a Tiygig, with the 12 in both cases short, agree- 
ably to the above quoted examples. And, as the Romans, 
in adopting Greek terminations, usually retained the ori- 
ginal quantity, we may to a certainty conclude that they 
made the iinal syllable short in the plural nominative and 
accusative Tigris, and other words similarly declined ; 
though this Graecor Roman termination, with its quantity, 
seems to have been wholly forgotten since the pages of an- 
tiquity were marred and corrupted by the copyists. The 
passage of Ovid is this 
Forsitan et fulvos tell us alat Ista leones : 

Quis scit an haec sasvas insula fjgrerhafaet? (Ep. 10, 86. 
It is evident that Tig res (of which the ES, as a Latin ter- 
mination, must necessarily be long) cannot here stand in 
the verse: and numerous have been the attempts 'of various 
critics to amend the passage by conjectural readings, some 
of them as different from the text, as the Koran from the 
Bible. But, instead of adopting any of their conjectures, 
v. e have only to place a simple dot over the latter vowel of 
the word Tigres t and thus convert it into Tigris (like 

130 Final IS and YS. 

KOPI2 above), which will at once give us good sense and 
good metre. The transposition, however, of Alat and 
Habet would, in my humble opinion, improve the di- 
stich, viz.- 
Forsitan et fulvos tellus liahct ista leones : 

Quis scit an et svrvas insula tigris alat * ? 

Fls, Audls, and the same part of all other verbs of the 
fourth conjugation Gils, V~is whether noun or verb, 
Veils, and 67<y, with their compounds, as Quamvls, Nolls, 
Malls, Adsls, Possls and Gratis, as formed by crasis 
from Gratils likewise have the IS long. 
Lyde, flu anus, et tamen . . . 46. (Horace. 

Ncscls, heu ! nescis domino? fastidia Roma?. (Martial. 
Ha^c tibi sirl.9 est, si mentis tanta potestas. (Martial. 

Belltis homo et magnus vis idem, Cotta, videri. (Martial. 
Sen voce mine mavis acuta. 30. (Horace. 

Qiiiilclx et facere et pati. 46. (Horace. 

Quamrls ille sua lassus requiescat avena. (Properties. 
Quod sis, esse veils; nihilque malis. 38. (Martial. 

AchlSy ettimidis faveas, Saturnia, votis. (ribullus. 

Quin etiain docui, a^ia possls arte parari. (Ovid. 

Grails anhelans, multa agendo nil agens. 2G. (Phccdrus. 

In effect, Sis y being a crasis of Sicx^, must necessarily 
belong. Yet the following pas3'age is quoted from Juve- 
nal, 5, 10 

Tarn jejuna fames ? cum possl's honestius illic 
Et tremere, et sordes farris mordere canini. 
But it is to be remembered that some copies give Possit, 

* The above remarks are extracted from a paper of mine on the 
subject, in lie " Muai/ily Magazine 1 \-n Ajjril, 1801. 

f Quod te qutile sict, paucis. adverte, tlocebo. (Petunias. 

Final IS and YS. 131 

having Fames for its nominative, and producing, I con- 
ceive, a beautiful prosopopoeia* To those, however, who 
do not relish the idea of "shivering Hunger gnawing her 
black crust in a bleak corner," I propose Fas sit as a sub- 
stitute for Poss'iSj though I do not venture to call it an 
emendation, or think it by any means comparable to 

Xcscis, too, is asserted to have the IS short in a line 
given under the name of Ovid, viz. 
Nescis an excedant etiam loca : venimus illuc ; 
quoted, however, not from Ovid himself, but from a mis- 
quotation in Smetius. Ovid's line runs thus 
Nescio an exciderint mecum loca : venimus illuc. 

(Ep. 12, 71. 

Exception II. The final IS is long in those nouns 
which form their genitives in ENTIS, 7iV75, or 7775; 
with the penullima long, as Shriuis, Salaniis, Sanmls, 

Hac ibat Slmms : ha?c est Sigei'a tell us. (Ovid. 

Samms in Judo ac rudibus caussis satis asper. (juucilius* 
Sed Us est mihi de tribiis capellis. 38. (Martial. 

RISofthe subjunctive has already passed under review 
in Section 29. 

A modern Prosody asserts that the verbs Faxis and 
Aiisls have the final syllable long. In fact, as futures of 
the subjunctive mood, they may have the 75 either long or 
short at option; since all other verbs in the same mood and 
tense have the 75 common*, as I believe I have proved in 
Sect. 29. 

* Were we, in each individual case, to confine our view to that case 

final OS. 

SECT. X LI V. Final. OS. 

\ r idt OS product. Compos breviatur, ct Impos, 
Osywe ossis : Graium neutraliajungitOy ut Argos 
Et quot in OS Ldiia jletituntiir more securities, 
Script a per O parvuin: pa trios quibus adde Pelasgos. 

Final OS is long, as in Dominos and other plural accu- 
satives of the second declension sir bos, Horios, and 
other such nouns os oris, Flos, Moj, Nos, Vos, Ros, 
Gustos, Ncpos, Trvs, Minos, Herds, Athos, and ail 
oilier words which are written in Greek with arr O-mega, 
as Androgeos, with those proper names that change labs' 
(a trochee) to Icos (an iambus) according to the Attic 
dialect, as Petielcos, Demolcos, Meneleos, Nicoleos, &c. 
Arctos Oceani metuentes aequore 1 tingi. (Virgil. 

Clamos ad cesium volvundu' per aethera mugit. (Ennius. 
Labos et olim conditorum diligens. 22. {Avienus. 

Karius in terras os inclinabat honestum. (Avienus. 

VtJtSs in septis secretus nascitur hortis. (Catullus. 

Virgin ibus Tyriis mos est gestare pharetrani. (Virgil. 

Dos mea tu sospes, dos est mea Graia juventus. (Ovid. 
Quae bos ex homine est, ex bove facta dea. (Ovid. 

singly, we might run out into endless and unfounded distinctions, assert- 
ing that such and such verbs, as, for example, Dixcris, I'cceris, &c. 
have the IS short such and such others, as Dcdcris, Audieris. &c. 
make it long others again common, as Vidcris, c. for it \vould be 
impossible^ in what remains to us of the Roman poetf}', to find examples 
of every individual verb both long and short. But, on comparing toge- 
ther the whole number of examples of different verbs, we clearly per- 
ceive that the / of the tense in question was common in all. 

Final OS. 133 

Nee nos ambitio, nee amor nos tangit habendi. (Ovid. 
Et V(/.y o cerium, Tyrii, celebrate faventes. (Virgil. 

Et ros, et primi suadet dementia soiis. (Ncwesian* 

Custos opaci pcrvigil regni canis. 2. (Seneca. 

... Priami mpos llectoreus, ctletum oppetat. 22. (Seneca. 
Hand alitcr Tros ^Eneas et Dauiiius hcros. (Virgil* 

I lie, quern cernis, At lids, immissis pcrvius undis. (Petron, 
' ceros imbrcs, et crebro lumine Yuptos.>.(Gerinamcus. 
. . . Androgcos oftertnobis, socia agmina credens. (Virgil. 

Exceptions. Os (a bone) is short, and likewise its 
compound Exos, together with Compos^ Inipos, and Greek 
neuters, as Chaos, Melds, Argos, Sec. 
Necnon e staguis cessantibus exos liirudo. (Scren. Samon. 
Insequere, ct voti postmodo compos eris. (O*cid. 

Et Chaos, et Phlegethpn, loca nocte silentia late. (Virgil. 
. . . Sivefpro, vacuum litibus Argos erat. (Ovid. 

Also Greek nouns of the second declension (written, in 
the original with an O-micron) have the OS short, as Tyros, 
Arctos, Hi os. (Those written with an O-mcga are long, 
as noticed above.) 

Et Tyros instabilis, pretiosaque murice Siclon. (Lucan. 
Proefulget steilis Arctos inocciduis. (Helvius Cinna. 

Turn, cum tristis erat, defensa est Ilios armis. (Ovid. 

Finally, all genitives in OS, from whatever nominatives 
they may come, are short, as Pallados, Oileos, Orpheos, 
Typho'dos, TyphdidoSi Tethyos. 

ula quot baccas Pallados arbor habet. (Ovid. 

O furor! o homines, dirique Promethcos ^^artes! (Statins. 
Alta jacet vasti super ora Typhoeos JEtnc. (Ovid, 

Arva Phaou celebrat diversa Typhoidos ^tnae. (Ovid. 

134. Final OS. 

Non ea Tydides, non audet O'ileos Ajax . . . (Ovid. 

Tethyos aiternae rcfluas calcavit arenas. (Claudlan. 

Diripiantque tuos insanis unguibus artus 

Strymonirc matres, Orp hefts esse ratae *. (Ovid. 

But, N B. although genitives in OS be short, I can see 
no reason why those in EOS, from nominatives in IS or 
EUS, should be always and necessarily short, or why 
other poets, might not with equal propriety have availed 
themselves of the Attic dialect, to make the OS long in 
Neapoleos, for instance, or At reds, if the exigency of their 
versification had so required, as Virgil took advantage of 
the Ionic to make the penultima long in Idomenca and 
llionea. If we had more of the Roman poetry extant, we 
might probably find numerous examples of such licence :' 
perhaps even, if it had seasonably occurred to me to note 
that particular in reading the few poets who have reached 
our time, I might have been able to produce some which 
now escape detection under the cloke of caesura. (See 
Sect. 46.) 

Neither do I sec any reason why, in Latin, such femi- 
nine names in O as Clio, Alccto, Manto, Calypso, should 
be allowed only the contracted genitive in US (or/?) merely 
because, in the few instances where the Roman poets have 
written them in the genitive, they happened to use the con- 
tracted form, as best suiting their immediate purpose. 

* This distich has been quoted by some modern grammarians, with Or- 

phcon in the second line, to p'rovethat nouns in /*S'(diphtbongjE{7) may 

ionn their accusative in EON. Even if that assertion were true (which 

t the rase), it is easy to discover th&tOrpheon is here inadmissible, 

i hat rat<e tuos art its ''.v,st (), '!//.-,;// i-. n. . h less elegant than rala tuos 

urtus csst [artus] Orp/ic--n, \\hifh rcuding lias enjoyed the sanction of 

the literati for more tlKin a century. 

Final US. 135 

Would it not be as well to say, " Genitive Alcctvos, by con- 
traction AlectUs" and indiiiernmiy to wiite cither the one 
or the other, as occasion might require 

SECT. XLV. Final US. 

US breve pomitur. Produc monosyllaba, quaque 
Caxibus incresciiut tongls > et nomina quarts, 
Exccptis niimeri recto quint oqu e prioris. 
Producas conflata a Iloyc, contractt'que Gr<eca 
In recto ac pat rio, ac rencrandum no men lesus. 

Final US is short, as in Tityri'is> Li tils, Ambobiis, Mon- 
tibiis, Pcrtub'lSy Amamtis and all other verbs, Intns, 
Penitiis, and other adverbs and in the nominative and 
vocative singular of the fourth declension. 
Incipe: pascentes servabit Tityrus hcedos. (f7rv7. 

lieu! fuge crudeles terras j fuge litils avarum. (/ / 7; > v7. 
Nunc etiam peperi : gratare ambohiis, lason. (Oi'itl. 

Fluctibus* hie lumidus, nubibus iile ininax. (Ovid. 

* It is neither impossible nor improbable, that, in the line from Varro, 
quoted in the. * DS-IM:; section for an example of Didus t the word was 
originally written by without contrncu n, viz. 

Didozs aUjue suum misceri sanguine saiiuuen. 

f The dibiich to which th;s verse Lelon^s (fioin Ovid, Trist. J, C, 
C;3) is given, tiu:^ altered, in the Eton graia^ar, as an example under 
the rule winch teachrs that Hie refers to the latter antecedent, lllc lu 

e arspicias, nihii e^-t ni.-i j^ontus et aer, 
Nubibut hie tun-idus, Jhu'tib .tt> ii 1:1 uax. 
But there was no necessity for u.teii. -..-L'S text, which appears 

136 Final US. 

Litora rarus in here, portubiis orba venit. (Ovid. 

Serius aut citius seciem properamns ad tinam. (Chid. 

Hie Dolopum mrinus, hie saevus tendebat Acbilles. (Virgil. 
O patria! o divum domus Ilium, et inclyta bello . . . (Virgil. 
Int us aquaB dulces, vivoque sedilia saxo. (Virgil. 

Perspicere ut possis res gestosjfftfttfififc omnes. (Lucretius. 

Exception. 7*S' is long in monosyllables, as 
,72f7<y, Tus in the genitive singular, and the nominative, 
accusative, and vocative plural, of the fourth declension - 
and in all nouns of the third declension which increase 
long, as Solus, Tellus, Paliis ; under which description 
we may, without making a separate rule, include those 
Greek names in US which form their genitives in UNTIS, 
as Opus, Amatkus, Pessinus, &c. 

Et rus in urbe est, vinitorque Romanus. 23. (Martial. 
Sed rigidumJ/75 est et inevitabile mortis. (Pedo Albino?. 
Proscripti Regis Rupili />/?* atque venenum. (Horace. 

rietenim subito sus horridus, atraque tigris. (Virgil. 

Emi hortos ; plus est: instrue tu; minus est. (Martial. 
Angulusille feret piper et tUs ocyus uva. (Horace. 

Scilicet immunis si luctus una fuisset. (Pedo Albinov. 

Portus asquoreis sueta insignire tropaeis. (Silius Italicus. 
Divitias rnagnas hie tellus ipsa ministrat. (Priscian. 

perfectly correct, as given in the common editions; for Ovid hiin- 
b(;U, the best interpreter of his own word?, elsewhere bays, 

Sic deus et virgo est, hie sj/e celer, ilia tiniore. (Met. 1, 53^. 
In both cases, Hie refers to the wearer object. IHc to the more distant: 
the st a was marc r to Ovid than the sky; and, as we survey afar the 
tuner race between Apollo and Duphnc, the nymph is more remote from 
our view than her pursuer. 


Final US. 137 

. . Brevi docebo. Servitus obnoxia , , . 22. (Pkadrus. 
ILstAmathus, est celsa nrihi Paphos, atque Cythera. (Virg. 
Palus inertis tbeda Cocyti jacet. 29. (Seneca. 

We find, however, one etcample of Palus short, viz. in 
Horace, Art. Poet. 65 
, . . Regis opus, sterilisque diupalus, aptaque remis. 

But here it is to be observed that Messrs. Bentley, 
Cuningham, and Wakefield, have given different readings 
from conjecture, thinking it highly improbable that Horace 
could have written the line thus. Indeed I am of the same 
opinion, unless perchance he intended Palus to be of the 
second or fourth declension ; in which case the US' would 
be properly short without any violation of quantity. And 
perhaps, when we consider the supposed derivation of 
Palus from HaXo? or H?jXo, and recollect how many 
other nouns belong to different declensions, as well as 
verbs to different conjugations, we may not deem it altoge- 
ther improbable that such was Horace's intention. 

Exception II. US \s long in the compounds of 
(forming the genitive in PODIS or PODOS) as Tripus,. 
Mdampus, (Edipiis, Polypus. 
Hie (Edipiis JEgoea tranabit freta. (Seneca, Theb. 3 1 3. 

But Polypus of the second declension (borrowed from 
the Doric dialect) has the US short ; and so it might like- 
wise be in (Edipus and Melampus under the same circum- 
Utque sub sequoribus deprensum polypus hostem. . . (Ovifl. 

US is long in Panthus and such other names written 
in Greek with the diphthong OT2 contracted from OO2 
and in genitives from feminine nominatives in 0, as 


138 Casura. 

Mantus, Clius, Eratus, Sapphiis, Didus, Itis, Inns, Spius, 
Clothiis, AlectiiSy Enyus, &c. which are in like manner 
written in Greek with a diphthong contracted from OO2. 
Finally, lesus (in Greek Iwovg') has the US long. 
Pan thus Othryades, arcis Phoebique sacerdos. (Virgil. 
Fatidicae Mantiis, et Tusci filius ainnis. (Virgil. 

Didus* atque suum misceri sanguine sanguen. (Varro. 


SECT. XLVI. Caxura. 

The term Ccesura is used by grammarians in two ac- 
ceptations first, as applied to whole verses secondly, 
as applied to single feet. In the former acceptation, it 
will be noticed in the "Analysis of the Hexameter" 

When applied to single feet, the C&sura means the divi- 
,sion or separation which takes place in a foot, when that 
foot is composed of syllables belonging to separate words, 

Pasto-|-res ovi-j-um tene-|-ros de-|-pellere fetus 
in which verse the Casura takes place three times, viz. in 
the second foot, between res and ovi - in the third, be- 
tween urn and tene and iii the fourth, between ros and 

* See the remark on this word in page 135. 

f It is not uncommon, particularly on the continent, to give the 

Casura. 1 59 


Syllaba safe brevis Caesura extcnditur, etsl 
Litera nee duplex nee consona bma sequatur. 

A short syllable in the caesura is frequently made long, 
though its vowel be not followed by two consonants or a 
double letter; the pause* and emphasis being sufficient to 
produce the same effect as if the final consonant were 
doubled, or the final vowel pronounced with double length, 

name of Casura to the final long syllable of a word, remaining after the 
completion of a preceding foot, as res, vm, and ros, in the example 
above quoted. Alvarez, whose rules I have, for the most part, 
adopted, several times uses the word iu that acceptation : nor does he 
appear to have been guilty of any greater impropriety in that use of the 
term, than Terentiunus Maurus in his use of its Greek synonym, Tome, 
as applied to the whole verse, Terentianus, besides using Toms for the 
division or separation of the verse into two parts (which is its original 
signification), repeatedly applies the term also to the/r*f portion of the 
verse so divided, and to any other combination of syllables equivalent 
to thatjirst portion. After all, however, it certainly is more accurate 
to confine the term C#sura to the separation or division, and to call the 
residuary long syllable simply along syllable, or a temifoot. 

* Quintilian, treating of the poetic feet and measures to be employed 
in oratory, B8.ys+ < Est tnim in ipsd division? verbontm quoddam lattns 
tempns ;" where the context shows, that, by the dii'isio verborum, he 
means, not the division of words into syllables or feet, but the division 
of one word from another, or the interval between two words. Again, 
speaking of the words " NON TUKPE DUCEHET," he says, " Paullulum. 
vwra damns infer ultlnmm atquc proyimum verbum; <tf TUKPE illud inter- 
rath quodam producimus, i. e. the short E of Turpe, which, by that 
pause, is rendered long. Again, " Ncqitc cnim ignoro, in jine [of a 
clause or member of a sentence] pro fa?igd accipi bretem, quod videtur 
aliyuid vacant i tempori, ex eo quod insequifur, acccdcrc." Lib. 0, cap. 4 ? 


140 Casura. 

and the initial consonant of the following word doubled. 
But, N. B. it is not at all necessary (as some critics 
imagine) that there be any pause or division in the sense 
or grammatic construction, which would require or admit 
even a comma: ex. gr. 

Nulli cura iu-lt externos quaerere divos. (Proper tins. 

Disposi-/rt quaG Sarmaticis custodia ripis. (Claitdian. 

Dux peco-m hircus: duxerat hircus oves. (Tibullus. 

Ipse suos geni-z?,y adsit visurus honores. (Tibullus. 

Quas simi Us utrimque tehens vicinia coeli . . . (Tibullus. 
Et tibi Maeonias in-ter heroidas omnes . . . (Proper tius. 
Jura trium peti-Z a Caesare discipulorum. (Martial. 

Iste raeus periit; peri-Z^ arnia inter etenses. (PedoAlbiu. 
. . . Cum gravius dorso subi-I/ onus *. Incipit ille. ..(Horace. 
Ut redi-jrf animus, cultorem pauperis agri . . . (Ovid, 

Mors heic gentis erat: san-guls ibi fluxit Achaeus. (Lucan. 
Non te nulli-e7s exercent numinisirae. (Virgil. 

Illius ut Phce-Z^7? ad limen constitit antri. (Claudian, 

Ausus de Cicerone da- re palmamque decusque (Plin. jun, 
Hie densis aqui-/5 pennis obnixa volabat. (Enmus. 

Quern, qui suspici-^^ in coelum nocte serena . . . (Cicero. 
Quis novusincoeptos timor impedi-7^ hymenaeos ? (V. Flac. 
This power of the caesura affects the final syllable of the 
t ri h em im eris f , as 

* The construction of this passage being grossly misunderstood by 
many persons, who, misled by the Dauphin editor's interpretation, 
make onus the. nominative to sub'tit, and dorso the dative, it may not be 
amiss to observe, 911 passant, that the syntax here is the same as 
in Virgil, /En. 4, 5.99 

. . . QiR'in subiisse kumeris ronfcctum jetate parcntcm. 

t The trUicwiwfris is that portion of a verso (counted or measured 
from the beginning of the line) which contains three half parts, i. e. t 

Casura. \ \ 1 

Pectori-1-/7? inhians, spirantia consulit exta - 

of the Jtotothertivtitrfa, as 

Emicat Eurya-|-/^, et muncre victor amici 

of the hephthcmnucri*\ as 

Per ter-|-ram, et ver-'-sa pul-|-r7* inscribitur hasta 

and of the eunchemimcris, as 

Graius ho-|-mo infeoj-tos lin-;-quens profu-j-gtfs hyme- 


in which cases, equal emphasis is supposed to be laid on 
those final syllables as if they were written PcctoribuSS, 
Eitryal-uSS, PukiSS, ProfuguSS. 

If any person object to this mode of reading, I pray him 
to recollect that it is not now recommended for the first 
time, but has long enjoyed the sanction of the learned and 
judicious Dr. Clarke. That able critic, in a note to his 
Homer, Iliad A, 51, where the word Bclos has the final 
syllable made long by the caesura, directs us to pronounce 

A u tar epeit* autoisi #/aSSkhepeuk6$ ephieis 
meaning, I presume, that we should utter it as we do the 
English word acroSS, the last syllable receiving the chief 
emphasis I will not say " accent" lest I be accused of 
wishing to sacrifice accent to quantity. It is by no means 
my intention to sacrifice either accent to quantity or quan- 
tity to accent: nor would any man show himself more 
scrupulously observant of the true Roman accent than I, 
if there were now living any person capable of ascertaining 
ichat that accent was, and willing to teach us how we 
should apply it. But there lies the grand, the insuperable, 

half feet, or a foot and half penthcmimcris, five half feet, or two feet 
and half fieplithemimeris t seven half feet, or three feet and half 
cnnc/iemimeris, nine half feet, or four feet and half. 

142 Ctzsura. 

difficulty. The accent of the old Romans is irrecoverably 
lost: and is it, I ask, altogether certain that we are infal- 
libly right in applying to their words the accent of a mo- 
dern language, especially of a language so widely different 
from theirs as the English ? 

To show bv a living example how liable we may be to 
error in sounding one language according to the accent of 
another, I only appeal to any man who understands the 
genuine accent of the French, whether the grave, the 
acute, and the circumflex, do not produce very different 
effects : and I then ask him, whether an Englishman, 
though he be made perfectly acquainted with the general 
sound of the French vowels and consonants, can, by any 
possible application of the accent as he has been taught to 
observe it in his own language, ever learn to pronounce 
tiie French with due discrimination between the grave, the 
acute, and the circumflex, unless he hear it spoken by 
persons to whom the true pronunciation is familiar. Nay, 
even in one and the same language, the proper and univer- 
sally acknowledged prose accent cannot and must not be 
always observed in either writing or reading poetry. I 
cannot prove my assertion by any Latin example in which 
the quantity is not altered together with the accent : but, 
of those words in which a change of accent is the unavoid- 
consequence of an alteration in the quantity, the num- 
ber is considerable, and fully sufficient to justify my remark. 
Vdlucres, for instance, and Phdrctram, and Tenebris, are 
accented in prose on the first syllable, and so they are 
in poetry, while the second syllable remains short: but, so 
soon as that becomes long, the accent is immediately 
changed* and ei'cn/ scholar pronounces Folitcrc-^ Ph*; 
; Tcncbr'is, as in the following lines 

Casura. 143 

Obscoenique canes, importun^que vol de-res. 

Virgin! bus Tyriis mos est geslzirepharefram. 

Srcvit et in lucem Stygiis emissa tentbris. 
Now, by the same rule viz. that of a change in the 
accent arising from an alteration in the quantity I ask 
whether words of two syllables may not with equal pro- 
priety be differently accented according to their different 
quantity, as words of three. For example, although we 
may in prose and likewise in poetry when the first syl- 
lable is long pronounce pat res, dgros, dtrox, may we 
not be allowed to lay a different accent on these words 
when the first syllable is short, and to pronounce pat res, 
i/grds, atro.c, in the subsequent verses ? 

Albanique patrts, atque altae moenia Itomne. 

Sternit agrds, sternit sata Iteta, boumque labores. 

Ecce inimicus atr6x magno stridore per auras. . . 
And, if it be right to transpose the accent in words 
which change the quantity of the Jirst syllable, can it be 
wrong to transpose it in those which have the quantity of 
\hejinal syllable changed by position or caesura, as Belos, 
above * ? 

In short, would there be any harm in coolly reconsider- 
ing all those passages respecting accent which are quoted 
from the ancients, and impartially examining whether the 

* Iii page 65 of " Mttron ariston" I find that there are some learned 
men in this country who have pubiiclv adopted the mode of reading 
according to quantity ;.s the Rev. Mr. Collier, of Trinity-college, 
Cambridge, and the Rev. Mr, Stock, master of the foundation-school 
at Gloucester. I am informed thut the same practice is likewise fol- 
lowed by other respectable teachers: i-d, since the publication of my 
first edition, I learn that it is becoming still more general so that, 
after the lapse of no very long period, there, will probably not be u 
scholar in the kingdom who will read ot 

144 Ccesura. 

writers really intended that the rules of prose accent should 
in all cases be rigidly observed in reading poetry ? whether, 
for instance, Quintilian intended it when he talked of pro- 
nouncing Circum liiofa (^Eneid 4, 254) as a single word, 
with a single acute accent (" dissimulatd distinctione . . . . 
" tamquam in mid voce, una est acuta' Inst. 1,5) 
whether the " dissimulata distinctio" might not have been 
usual in other cases too, in which one word suffered a 
change, and another a total privation, of its prose accent 
and whether, upon this ground, the word volat, in the 

Coeruleo per summa Icvls volat aequora curru 
might not have transferred its accent to the final syllable of 
levis y so as to make it leviSS, according to Dr. Clarke's 
rule, and to leave, pursuant to Quintilian's hint, '" only one 
acute' for the four syllables, viz. Ic'yis volat. 

I ask, indeed, whether it be a reasonable supposition 
that the Romans should, without scruple, have violated the 
prose accent in comic poetry, which more nearly ap- 
proaches to prose language, and yet have rigidly observed it 
in the more exalted strains of lyric and heroic song. From 
Cicero, Paradox. 3, 2, we learn that the actors on the 
stage were obliged to pay the utmost attention to strict pro- 
priety of pronunciation, and were hissed off for trespassing 
in a single syllable. By Dr. Bentley, the great champion 
of accent, we are taught (De Metr. Terent.) that Malum, 
&C. are to be accented on the final syllable: and accord- 
ingly, in the first scene of the Andria, we find no fewer 
than Jifti/'/ii-c words so accented by him, as Aderdt, 
.i^iiiir, c. I readily admit this to have been proper, 
and timt wither the doctor nor the actor would have been 
.1 ofi' ihe stage for such pronunciation. But, if proi 

Synare&is. 145 

in Terence to transfer the accent to the final syllable, why 
improper in Horace or Virgil ? 

I leave the question to be determined by more competent 
judges than myself: and, without pretending to decide 
which is the right mode or which the wrong, I refer my 
reader to two late publications, the one in favor of quan- 
tity, entitled " Metron ariston" said to have been written 
by the late Dr. Warner the other, a treatise " on the. 
Prosodies of the Greek and Latin Languages" attributed 
to a learned prelate of the established church, and sup- 
porting the cause of accent. 

SECT. HINIl.Syna>resis. 

Syllaba de.gemindfacta una Synaeresis esto. 

When two vowels, which naturally make separate syl- 
lables, are pronounced as one syllable, such contraction is 
called a Synaresis, as in the following examples. 
PAtfethontem patrio curru per signa volantem. (JManUlus. 
Eosdem habuit secum, quibus est elata capillos, 

Eosdem oculos : lateri vestis adusta fuit. (Propertius. 
Hac eddem rursus, Lygdame, curre via. (Propertius* 

.. .Servus; Habes pretium : loris non ureris, aio*. (Hor. 

* In Aio 9 Aiuntj Aiebam, &c. the A and 7 are property distinct syl- 
lables, as we see in Ais and Ait 

Seque suti miserum nunc ait arte premi. (Olid. 
Whenever, therefore, the measure of tl?e verse does not absolutely 


14(5 Synaresis. 

Presidium regale loco dejecit, ut aiunt . . . (Horace 

Eripere el noli, quod multo carius ipsi . . . (Catullus. 

Sed fortuna valens audacem fecerat Orphea. (Virgil. 

Quid respondcamus*, nisi justara intendere litem .... 


Tityrc, pascentes a flumine relce capcllas. (Virgil. 

Rure levis verno flores apis ingeritalveo. (Tibullus. 

Inarime Jovis imperiis imposta Typhueo. (Virgil. 

Denariis^ tainen hanc non erno, Basse, tribus. (Martial. 
. . . Sttttio s et lucifugis congesta cubilia blattis. (Virgil. 
Unius ob noxam et furias Ajacis, Odd. (Virgil. 

. . . Flos VerouensitfOT J depereuntjuvenum. (Catullus. 
Bis patrifle cecidere manus. Quin protinus omnia . . . (Virgil. 
Quia^ variis pedibusloquimur sermone soluto. (Ter:Maur. 
Aut alias quojus desiderium insideat rei. (Lucretius. 

Virtus qua?renda3 rei finem scire modumque. (Lucilius. 

compel us to use the Synxresis, we ought, no doubt, to scan them as- 
separate syllables, e. gr. 

Vos sapere, et solos aib bene vivere, quorum . . . (Horace. 
Quern secum patrios aiunt pcrtare peiiates. ( Virgil. 

* Here, however, \ve ought perliaps to read Respondamus, from 
Respondo of the third conjugation, which I have quoted from Manilius 
iu page 88. 

f Denarius, like all other derivative adjectives in arius, has the A 
long, as in the following example 

Unus saepe t-ibi tota denarius area. (Martial. 

I A Syntr&if, like that in yeroncn&iuw, was the original cause of the 
genitives plural in UM, instead of IUM, from many nouns of the third 
declension, as Parentu'm and Ch'itatum, for Parent turn and Ciiitatium 
(vyhich latter genitive, though not common, has the sanction of classic 
authority) ; unless perhaps grammarians would rather choose to attri- 
bute such contractions to syncope, as Viriditm (Statius, Theb. 2, 27y) 
for Viridium, and Apum for Apium, which is preserved uncontracted by 
Ovidj Met. J5,383. 

Lest this be thought a proreleusmatic verse, be it observed that tiie 
Syn#resis of Quid repeatedly occurs in Tereutianus. 

Synccresis. 147 

Xec nebulatn noctu, nee aranei tenuia fila . . . (Lucretius. 
Pompe/, meorurn prime sodalium. 55. (Horace* 

JDtfodecies undis irrigat omne nemus. {Auctor Phcenicis. 
Periclum matres co/;jquinari regias. 22. (Acclus. 

Fietis* (Horace. 

Mittebat qui suos'\ ignes in mille carinas. (Manillus. 

. . . Necsubesse (praeter istos, quos loquor) casus alios. 36. 

( Teren 1 ianus Man rus, 
Sed duo sunt, quae nos distinguunt, millia passitum J. 


Nee tamen aut Phrygios reges aut arva furentis 
Bebrycia3 spernendus adi. [i, e. ad\i\ . . . (VaL Flaccus. 
. . . Tandem C'oluerint ea, quae conjecta repente. . . . 

. . . Vocalis ut illam latere ex utroque awrctet. 51. 

( Tercntianus Maitrus. 

The use of Synseresis is frequent in //, Udem, lisdtm, 
Dil, Diis, Dein, Dehiceps, Drinde, Dcest, Deerat, 
Deero, Dcerit, Deerunt, Decsse, Cut, and lime \\. 

* All supines in ETUM being long, as formed by cras;is from ettum> 
the participle V^tus, agreeably lo the general rule, has the lon^, as 
we see in Lucretius, 3, 386' 

Nee supera caput ejusdeni cecidisse vie tarn 


t But we might here read Sos after the antique form, as 
Poeni sunt soliti sos sacrilicare pnellos. (E?inius. 
Commonly printed Pasmm, as Currum in Virgil, JEn. (), 653, for 

This amended reading^ for which we are indebted to the ingenious 
sagacity of the late Gilbert Wakefield, will serve to explain the feniia- 
tion of Cogo from Coago, and Coglto homCoagito, first by synncresis, and 
finally by crasis. dctus, too, is only a synxresis, tiie word being 
formed from Co and the supine It urn of o. 

{i As ioCui and 7/uic, though they frequently occur as dissyllables in the 

1 48 Syn&resis. 

Ii mihi sint comites, quos ipsa pericula ducent. {Lucan. 
lidem oculi lucent, eadem feritatis imago. (Ovid. 

Sint Msecenates; non decrunt, Flacce, Marones. (Mart. 
Cui tu lacte favoset miti dilue Baccbo. (ffirgik 

Hide conjux Sichaeus erat, ditissimus agri . . . (Virgil. 

Anteambulo, Anteire, Antehac, Dehinc, Mehercule, 
in the subjoined examples, maybe supposed rather to have 
the E elided, than coalescing into one syllable with the 
following vowel : and perhaps the same remark may apply 
to Deinde and Deest, as well as to other words which 
are commonly ranked under Synagresis. In Contraire, 
the E is elided. 

Sum comes ipse tuus, tumidique anteainbulo regis. (Mart. 
Anteire auxiliis, et primas vincere caussas. (Gratius. 

Plurimaque humanis antehac incognita mensis. (Lucan, 
jDehinc sociare chores, castisque accedere sacris. (Statins. 
Male est, mehercule*, et labpriose. 38. (Catullus. 

Et simulat transire domum; mox delude recurrit. (Tibullus. 
Deest jam terra fugas: ptlagus Trojamne petemus ? (Virg. 
. . . Tigribus ? aut sasvos Libyac contra/ire leones ? (Statins. 

Note, however, that the De is not, in every such case, 

CCVTTC writers ,we do not find either of the words in Virgil, Horace, 
Ovid, and many other poets, except as a single long syllable. At least, 
their writings furnish no instance in which it can be proved that they in- 
tended Huic or Cui for two syllables, as would be the case if we were to 
find the first syllable short, and the other long, as in the following ex- 

Falsus htiic pennas et cornua sumeret a?thras 

Hector (Statius. 

Ille, cu! rernis Capitolia celsa triumphis 

Sponte deum patuere .... (Albums. 

Puer, o cui trinam pater . . . 29' (Prudent his. 

* The final E is here not elided, but made short, bee "Synafci 

Syn&resis. 14$ 

necessarily subject to either synreresis or elision : for, be- 
sides numerous instances in which we find it preserved 
and made short, as in Dchinc, Delude, Dehisco, &c. we 
sometimes see it retain its original quantity, as in Dehor- 
tatui\ quoted from Ennius by A Gellius, 7, 2, and in 
Deest, Statius, Theb. 11, 276 
Hannibal audaci cum pectore dehortatvr* . . . 
Deest servitio plebes: hos ignis egentes .... 

Statius furnishes two other examples of the same kind, 
Theb. 7, 236, and 10, 235, if the text be correct in those 
places; for the readings are not certain. 

There are other cases (though they hardly can with pro- 
priety be considered as instances of genuine Syn<ere*i*) in 
which two vowels, properly belonging to separate syllables, 
are united in one, which retains the original quantity of 
the latter vowel, whether long or short that is to say, 
when /and U, suffering somewhat of a change from their 
vowel state, are used like our English initial Kand W ; 
on which occasions, the / or 7 operates as a consonant, 
and has (in conjunction with another consonant) the power 
of lengthening a preceding short -vowel. 
. . . JEdificant, sectuque intexunt abitte costas. (Virgil. 
Induit tibiegruE cornua falsa bo vis. (P roper tius. 

. . . Mcenia, quique imos pulsabant ariete muros. (Virgil. 
H&rentp(irietibits scalas; postesque sub ipsos. . . (Virgil. 
Qua nee mobilius quidquam neque tcmm'is cxstat. (Lucret. 

* It is to be observed, however, that, in some copies, this line is 
differently given, viz. 

Hannibal audaci dum pectore me dehortatur 

in which case, if dehortatur be the true reading, as it probaUy ::, the 
E suffers elision. 

150 Syn&resis. 

Hinc omne principium, hue refer exitum. 55. (Horace. 
Ut Nasidieni juvit te coena beati? (Horace. 

Somiuapitultd qui purgatissima mittunt. (Persius. 

Nam neque fortultos ortus, surgentibus astris . . . (Manll. 
Vindemiator et invictus cui saspe viator . . . (Horace. 

In these verses we must pronounce ab-yete, ab-yegnee, 
ar-ycte, par-yttibus, ten-wf-us, princip-yuffi, "Nasld-yeni, 
pit-wit a, fort-tvltos, vindem-yator ; in each of which 
cases, except the last three, the position produces the ef- 
fect of lengthening a preceding vowel, otherwise naturally 
short. The proper quantity of the first six of those words 
is too well known, to require any proof: but, as some 
doubts have been entertained respecting the others, the 
following quotations are given, to remove them ; and place 
beyond dispute the real quantity of each. 
Ant vigila, aut dormi, Nasidiene, tibi. (Martial. 

. . . Mucusque et iredfa. pltffitd nasi. 38. (Catullus. 

. . . l$ec for tin turn spernere caespi'tem. 55. (Horace. 

' \\mfortultum felis contubernium . . . 22. (Phcedrus. 
Mitis in apriciscoquitur cindtnria saxis. (Virgil. 

In the following passages of Statius, Silv. I, 4, 36, and 
Theb. 12, 2 

Sperne coli tenuiore iyra : vaga cingitiir astris . . . 
. . . Ortus ; et instantem cornu tenuiore videbat . . . 
the licence is carried still further; and we must not only 
consider the U as W, but make the Wio one syllable by 
Synaeresis, and the short E of the preceding syllable long 
by position before the NIT Ten-more '*. 

* Similar instances (according to some editions) are found in the 
same author, Theb. 4, 6'or 5, 5*)? C, !<#: but the readings are 

1 ^ i 

After these examples, we need not feel any scruple or 
difficulty respecting that of Virgil, Geo. 1, 482 
. . . F/ui'iorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes . . . 
or this of Ennius, Annal. 1, 101- 
Cedunt ter quatuor de ccelo corpora sancta 
Ai'him : praepetibus sese polchrisque locis dant 
for, instead of being driven to the necessity of supposing 
the first foot in either case to be an anapaest (fluvio 
trctUm), we have only to read Virgil's line, Fluw-yorum, 
&c. taking the 7 and W into one syllable, as is common 
at the end of many words in the Dutch language * and 
to pronounce Ennius's Avium somewhat like our English 
Law-yer or Sazv-yer, viz. Aw-yum, in xvhich there can 
be no greater difficulty, than in contracting Aiispex or 
Awispev to Aw'spex or Auspex. 

not sufficiently ascertained. On the lengthening of the short E in 
Tcnuis, let us hear Terentianus, De Syllabis, 474 
Sed tamen videmus illam * consonae vim srnnere; ( * The U. 

" Tenuia" ut di.xit poeta* nubis ire " vellera:" (* Virg. Gco. 1, 398, 

Longa nam fit "Ten" nunc, quom sequantur V et /. 
Nee minus, vocalis 'una si sequatur luinc, potest 
Consonae praebere vires, et digammos effici, 

"Genua"* cum " labant" Daretis, "^g-er" est " anltelitus." (*.En. 5, 43C. 
* That the Romans could and did pronounce UW in one syllable, might 
easily be proved by many examples, as Cluvebam, Plui'i, Adnuvi, Genuvi, 
&c. to say nothing of Deposui'i, which we probably ought to read, in- 
stead of Dtposivi) in Catullus, Carm. Sasc. 8 : but the following, from 
Ennius, Annal. JS, 5, will be sufficient 

Nos sumu' Romani, qmfui'imus ante Rudini 

for, as the third letter in Fuvimus was evidently inserted for the sole 
purpose of lengthening the short syllable Jw, I ask how it could pro- 
duce that effect? If we consider it as our common English F, it could 
not produce it: for the V of a subsequent syllable has not the power of 
lengtheoiog u short vowel immediately preceding it, without the inter- 

152 Synaresis. 

In some names of Greek origin, as Thetfdotus, Th'dti- 
doshtSj &c. a Synseresis sometimes takes place, attended 
with a change of one of the vowels, agreeably to the Doric 
dialect, viz. Theudotus, Theudosius, &c. 
Quain tulit a ssevo Theudotus hoste necem. (Ovid. 

Theiidosii, pacem laturi gentibus, ibant. (Claudlan. 

vention of another consonant, as we see in Cavus, Lcvis, Nivis, Novus, 
Juvenis, &c. The only way, therefore, in which the poet could accom- 
plish his end of lengthening the first syllable, was to pronounce 
FTtw-innts. Hence may be deduced an argument in support of the 
doctrine laid down in Dr. Busby's grammar, that the preterites of all 
Latin verbs were originally formed alike, Aina-i, Dokif-i, Leg-i, Audi-i : 
to which I will venture to add, that the F or /t 7 appears (as in Fui-i, 
Genuvi, c. above noticed) to have been introduced merely for the sake 
of giving length and emphasis to the short penultima, as Amaiv-i+ 
Aud~iw-i: for it is to be observed that the penultima of all preterites in 
VI is long. The difficulty of pronouncing IW together in one syllable 
cannot be admitted as a valid objection in this case ; since we see, that, 
after the E was cut off from Sii'e (or Siwe) the Romans could still pro- 
nounce the remainder of the word as a single syllable, whether they 
wrote it Sin, or (as we now read it) Sen: and, in our own language, the 
I and W of the Saxon Sti-wdrd are united to produce Stex-ard, as 
Lee-ward is, by our seamen, pronounced Lcw-ard. To conclude this 
long note, I ask whether it be not at length high time that our classical 
teachers should instruct their pupils to pronounce Eu-anda , Eu-enus, 
Eu-CKj Eu-ius, Eu-adne, &c. agreeably to the original Greek, as the only 
mode of accounting for the length of the first syllable instead of 
leaving them to suppose that the short Greek E can be rendered long by 
the presence of the Latin V in the subsequent syllable. I have found 
it necessary to adopt the practice myself in a recent little publication, 
entitled "Scanning Exercises J or young Prosodia?is." 

D'ucresis. 153 

SECT. XLVIII. -- Diaresis, or Dialysis. 
Distraint in gcminas resohita Diaeresis unam. 

A Due reals is the division of one syllable into two, as 
Aurdi for Aur<e Siuldent for Suadent Troia for 
Trqjaor Troi-a* (see page 13) Siiescofor Suesco Re- 
Hquiis or Rdiciii'ts for Rdiquus Ecqiiis or Eccuis for 
Ecquis jMiluiis for JMilvus Silua, Soluo, Voli'io, for 
Silva, Solvo, Volvo, &c. 

]tbereum sensum, atque aiirdi simplicis ignem. (Vh*git. 
Atque alios alii irrident; Veneremque, suadent . . . (Liter. 
Misit infestos Trout ruinis ... 37- (Seneca. 

Has Graii Stellas Hyadas vocitare siicrunt. (Cicero. 

Ut insuttd voce terreret feras. 22. (Phcedrus. 

Rcltiquas tamen esse vias in mente patentes. (Lucretius. 
Ecqiiis exter erat, Romse regnare quadrate. (Ennius. 

Columbag saepe quum fugissent mil'uum. 22. (Phadrus. 
Xunc mare, nunc sillice . . . 12. (Horace. 

Nulla queat posthac nos soluisse dies. (Tibullus. 

Debtierant fusos evoluisse meos. (Ovid. 

To modern ears, accustomed to the English sound of 
the F, such a diaeresis as that in Sili'ue, Solmsse^ and 
Ei'oliiisse, may appear somewhat extraordinary. But we 
shall easily be reconciled to it, when we recollect that the 
words were usually pronounced SilfFtf, SolWhse, &c. in 
which ca<e, there was very little difference between the W 
making part of a syllable with the following vowel, and the 
(' making a separate syllable, 'and pronounced with the 
broad sound given to it by the modern Italians and Ger- 

:: Troia" atque " Maia" de tribus vocalibus. (Tcrcnt. dc SyH. 494. 1 


154 .Ditf rests. 

mans, nearly lik'e our OO in the word Foot *. And the 
Roman poets, very probably, intended such diareses on 
many occasions which pass unobserved by modern readers. 
Tor example, since the / and U are both short in Silita 1 , 
and the O and U in Stilito and Voiuo, who can venture to 
assert that we ought not to read them so in the following 
lines of Virgil, and indeed in every other passage of ancient 
poetry where the measure of the verse will indifferently 
admit two short syllables or one long ? 
Et claro siliias cernes Aquilone moveri. (Ccorg. ], 460. 
Saxuui ingens vultiunt alii .... (^Eneid, 6, 61$. 

Extemplo JEneae stiluuntur frigore membra. (jn. 1, 96. 

I will not pretend to affirm that we ought so to pro- 
nounce the words; but I conceive that they would, in that 
manner, sound much better than with our modern /^ and 
would give us a more lively and picturesque description of 
the waving of the forest?, the rolling of the huge stone, and 
yEneas's shivering fit. 

Perhaps, too, the words which we pronounce Arvurn, 

* The following passage of Plautus is worthy of notice 

Via* aflerri tioctuam, 

QiKr- 7'n, Tu, usque dicat tibi ? (Menac/i. 4, 2, <)6. 

Uerf. the Tv t TV, must be prouOBRCed Too, Too t as we may learn from, 
the hooting of the owl. - The dog also tun give us a useful lesson 
(.ah teach us to pronounce ( Ireek (atid Lutin too, I presume) more cor- 
rectly than we do at present. Aristophanes, in one of his comedies, 
introduces the barking of a clog, \vhich he expresses by the diphthong 
au several times repeated au nu au an. Now, if it he only ^ranted 
that the Athenian dog barked in the same tone as a modern London 
fiog, it clearly follows that our pronunciation of the au must be wrong, 
since it cannot possibly imitate the voice of that animal, as intended 
by the poet. To produce that effect, \ve must pronounce the syllable 
alter tb manner of the Italians aad Germans. 

Diaresis. 155 

Parvus, Larva, Cere us, Sen' us, ought, in many cases, 
to be pronounced iirutlm, puruiis, la r Ma, ccrutts, sVriius, 
which pronunciation would be fairly authorised by etymo- 
logy : for arvwn is nothing more than ariiiim rus or sol urn ; 
the adjective aruiis (arable, or ploughed) being derived 
from ftro, as pascuus, cceduus, riguus, mutuus, nociius, 
&c. from other verbs paritus is evidently of the same 
family as parum larud is derived from lar, laris 
d runs, from xigag seriiiis (another adjective, like 
a runs, pascuus, &c. above) from scro, seras, to lock up, 
or confine. 

In the following line of Plautus, for example, (Pcen* 3, 
4, 2) to avoid making the second foot a trochee, some 
critics will probably read sermiis 
Tuus | scnins | aur//;/* Ip-|-si lenoni datat (22) 
while others will avoid both the trochee and the diaeresis, 
by scanning thus 
TmC stT-|-viis au-|-r; ipr|-si lenoni datat. 

A diaeresis took place perhaps much oftener than we su- 
spect in syllables containing what we call the consonant J. 
That letter we know to have been in reality a vowel, as we 
find it in Jam, which is frequently used by the comic 
writers as a dissyllable in its compounds Et-jam or 
Etiam, and Quom-jam or Quoniam, which are universally 
acknowledged as trisyllabic* in Julius, which Virgil 
never could have derived from lulus, if he had pronounced 
the first syllable of the former as we sound the word Jew, 
c. c. This, then, being the case, is it in the smallest 
degree improbable that the poets always read the initial J 

But, as no hexameter verse can possibly proie this, see quotations 
furnishing the prt>ot', in a Note to Sect. 38, page 1J!3. 


1 56 Diuresis. 

as a vowel and a separate syllable when the measure of the 
verse did not forbid such mode of pronunciation? The 
following lines will explain my idea. (See the remarks on 
J in Sect. 5.) 

Aut, uterunt patres in iulia templa vocati . . . (Ovid. 

Sed Proculus longA. venicbfit Julius Alba. (Ovid. 

Quod nisi me longis placasset "iuno querelis . . . {Statins. 
Saepe ferus durosjaculatiir 'iupiter imbres. (Columella. 
Pluribus ut coeli tereretur ianua divis. (Catullus. 

Preeterea nee Wm mutari pabula refert. (Virgil. 

Grammatici certant, et adhucsub Hudice lis est. (Horace. 
Qui modo pestifero totiugera ventre prementem . . . (Ovid. 
Per populos dat )'/7;*tf, viamque affectat Olympo. (Virgil. 
Tiphysagit, tacitique sedent ad iussa ministri. (Val. Flac. 
. . . Dum venit, abductas ; et iunctis cantat avenis. (Ovid. 
Qui tamen insequitur, pennis adiutns Amoris . . . (Ov'uL 

I cannot, undertake to say that we ought to read such 
words with the syllables divided as I have given them : but 
I believe it will be owned that this mode of reading would, 
in numerous cases, improve the harmony of the versifi- 

As the Ionic dialect in Greek frequently resolves the 
diphthongs ei and y into r,t, the Roman poets occasionally 
availed themselves of that licence in words of Greek deriva- 
tion, originally written with either of those diphthongs, 

Quas inter vultu petulans Elegla propinquat. (Statins. 
Blanda pharetratos Elegeia cantat amores. (Ovid. 

Magnaque Pha'bei quaerit vestigia muri. (Lucan. 

Quam colat, cxplorant, juvenis Phoeteius urbem. (Ovid. 
Seu tibi Bacchei vineta madentia Gauri . . . (Statins. 

Quid memorandum ffique Bacclicid dona tulmint? (/'/;^\ 

Due res is. 1J7 

. . . Dignior? En cinercs Sewcleaquc busta tencntur. (Stal. 
Delius in corvo, proles SeiKctiia capro . . . (Ovid. 

Qui inox Scylltis exsul grassatus in undis ... ( Lucau. 

Argo suxa pavens postquam Scylleid legit. (dlbiwcanuSi 
Teucrus R IKK teas primum estadvectus ad oras. (l^ir^lL 
Talis in aclversos ductor Rlicetctus hostes . . . (Virgil. 

JEquoraque et campi, Rhodopeaque saxa loquentur.(Z?/(v/^. 
Cur potiora tibi Rhodope'ia regna fuere? (Sabiuns. 

Gens Cadmca superregno certaminainovit. (SUius. 

Nerei'dumque choris Cadimia cingitur Ino. (Saidca. 

His elisa jacet moles Aetneca lacertis. (Orul. 

Has inter, quasque accipiet Nemcc-ins horas .... (Man'tl. 
Thressd premitnr Pclion Ossa. 14. (&HCCfL 

Jamque aderunt j thalamisque tuis Thrclssa propinquat. 
. ( / \tlerius Fit/ecus. 

Turn quoque erat ncglecta decens, ut Tk recta Bacche. 


Deflet Thrl'iclum Daulias ales Ityn. (Pedo Alblnoi'ainis. 
. . . Plltix, et Oceani spretos f>ede reppulit amnes. (/7/:.7. 
Quatuor auctumnos Pleias orta facit. (Odd. 

Though not immediately connected with dia?resis, .this 
may be a proper place to notice another lonism adopted 
by the Latin poets. Feminine patronymic and gentile 
names in E'iS have the E short in the common dialect, but 
long in the Ionic: hence \ve find Nereis and Nereis, \vith 
many similar examples, which will occur in reading 
.\creis his contra resecuta Crataeide natam. (Grid, 

Exlulit et liquido NerFis ab aequore vultum. (Mamlhis. 

In ^lanilius. 3, 3 JO, we see a diaeresis of the Grot- ft 

158 Syhalorphc. 

diphthong EU*, unsanctioned by Grecian authority in 
Catullus, 27, 8, we find AdonMs and in Rutilius, 1, 
608, Harpy ia. (Seepage 12.) 

Et finitur in Andromeda, quam Perseus armis . . . (ManiL 
Ut albulus columbus, aut Adontus. 22. (Catullus. 

Circumsistentes reppulit Harpyias. (Rutilius. 

SECT. XLIX. Synalcephe. 
Diphthongum autTocalem haurit Synaloepha priorc m. 

Synalcephc cuts off the final vowel or diphthong of a- 
word before the initial vowel or diphthong of the following 
word, as 

ConticuerE Omncs, intenti^/wi? Ora tenebdnt. (Virgil. 
DardamdJE E muris: spes addita suscitat iras. (Virgil. 

In which cases, we are to read 
Conticucr* omnes, intenti^w* ora tenebant. 
Dardanid" e muris . . 

Exception. Oand Heu are not elided. 
ego, quum dominam aspicerem, quam fortiter illic . . . 


* Unless perhaps he intended the line for a spondaic verse; which, 
iowever, it is not necessary to suppose, because it is presumable that 
the early Romans, when they declined such names as Orpheus after the 
forms of the second declension, considered the EUS as two separate 
syllables; though their more polished successors ivade the EU a 
diphthong, in conformity to the practice of the Greeks. 


Tu quoque, o Eurytion, vino, Centaure, peristi. (Proper?. 
Hcu / ubi pacta fides ? ubi qiue jurare solebas ? (Virgil. 
Sometimes other long vowels or diphthongs also remain 
un-elided ; in which case they are most commonly (but 
not always) made short *. 

Ter sunt conatl imponere Pd'w Ossam. (llrgit. 

Glauco, etfanopca*, et Inoo Melicertae. (Virgil. 

Fulmen, ?o ! ubifulmen? ait: gemit auctor Apollo .. . 


Et pro iarabo nemo culpet tribrachyn. 22. (Terentianus. 
Te in circo, tt in omnibus libellis . . . 38. (Catullus. 

. . . Essem, te, mi amice, qua?ritando. 38. (Catullus. 
Omphati in tantuin tbnme processit honorem. (Propertius. 
Odecus imperil! o spes suprema senatus ! (Lucarr. 

Qua rex tempestate, ?wro auctus hymenaeo . . . (Catullus. 
Atque Ephyrti atque Opis, et Asia Deiopea. (Virgil. 
Amphiara'ides Naupactoo Acheloo . . . (Ovid. 

Ille Xoto, Zephyroque, et Sit homo Aquiloni . . . (Oriel. 
. . . Anni tempore eo, qui Etesue esse feruntur. (Lucret. 
. . . Implerunt rnontes: flerunt RhodopFicr. arces. (FirglL 
Xunc magno nobis sunt in.* nice ore cancnda?. (Pr'uscian. 
Insut<e+ lonio in magho, quas dira Celxno . . (Virgil. 

* A long vowel being equal to two short, and a diphthong actually 
consisting of two, the latter vowel i* supposed to be elided, leaving the 
other as it originally was, that is ttriay, short by position, as observed 
n the subject of Pra before a vowel in composition, page 1C. Where 
the syllable remains long, both vowels are supposed to be preserved uo- 

f It is somewhat curious, indeed, that Terentianns (de Metris, 76) 
should here consider the & as remaining long, and the word Insult a 
forming a O ticus, instead of a dactvl. In this be \tas less excusable 
than those modems^vho scan the verse 

ImuV 7-J-o/;7j in magno ...... 

latter. Uvwever, wQnld ,do well to recollcl thai Viroil in every 

1 60 Synalcephe. 

A\(\ucGctcc, atquc Ilebrus, et Actias Orithyia. (Virgil. 

A short vowel more rarely escapes elision : yet some in- 
stances do occur, in which it is preserved, as 
. . . Yeni putant : credunt signis cor inesse ahenis. (Lucll. 
Dclie te Paean, et te Eui'e, Euie Paean. (Cvlumclla. 

() iactuin male! o miselle passer! 38. (Catullus. 

Male est, mehercu& *, et laboriose. 38. (Catullus. 

But it is to be observed, that, in each of the last three 
examples, there is a pause which prevents the clash of the 
UP. -elided vowel with the vowel following. 

Synahcphe affects not only a single syllable, but also two 
syllables sounded as one by synaeresis: ex. gr. 
. . . Stellio ; et lucifugis congesta cubilia blattis. (Virgil. 
Et earum f omnia adirem furibunda latibtila. 34. (Catullus. 
in which verses, the IO and IA .are absorbed by the foK 
lowing vowels, except so far as the /may still be retained 
witli the sound of our initial Y y viz. Stell yet, Ornn yad. 

Catullus very aukwardly subjects Sea to elision, and 
Aviuim, not more elegantly, the conjunction Ne 

mhrr place makes ~iom- a dactyl; and that, although the second syllable 
be found with an 0-tncga in the Greek, and long in Horace and Ovid, 
y3t we find it also short in Ovid, Trist. 2, 2.98, Pont. 4, 5, 6, and Fast. 
4, j')() in Catullus, 85 Statins, Theb. 1, 14 Seneca, Thyest. 
I-k) and particularly in the following pentameters, from Proj)trUus. 
3, II, 73,. and Claudian, Rapt. Pros. 1, pra?f. 12 

Cirsarisi in toto sis inemor loiiio. '(l ) ropcrtius. 

ylli^eas hiemes, zo//:ttAi]ue domat. (C.iaudian. 

* See UtrcuKi page f)0, and Mthcrc-ulc, pae 148. 
f In thi< (Jiilliambic of Catullus, the UM of Earum is not elided, but 
iTuide short ($ve page 1 ! J ) and the syiueresis in Onuiia is no thing 
liiiiu \\hat\ve bee in X'irgil, ^En. 6", 33 

Qnin protinus omnia 

Pcrlperent oculis . . 

SynalocpJtc. 161 

Renidet usquequaque, xeuad rei ventum est . . , 3.(Catui*. 
Ne expectanda forent, ponto quod solacarerent. (Avienus. 

Synalocphe not only takes place where vowels meet in 
the same line, but also, by means of synapheta^ occa- 
sionally extends its influence to a vowel at the end of a 
verse, followed by another line beginning with a vowel, 
when a long pause does not intervene to suspend the 
voice, as 

Ignari hominumque' 16c6rum-|-yz^ 

Erramus (J /r irgiL 

where we must read 


See further under " Synapheia," Sect. 54. 

Before I quit Synal(phe y I submit to teachers, whe- 
ther, according to the etymology of the word, it does not 
rather convey the idea of two vowels or syllables blended 
into one (which then must necessarily be long), than of the 
elision of a preceding vowel or diphthong, leaving the sub- 
sequent vowel short, if it happened to be so before. Such 
appears to have been the idea of Quintilian in one place, 
viz. Inst. 9, 4, and still more clearly in book 1, 5, where 
he makes Syn<e-resis and Synalcephe synonymous, giving, 
as an example, Ph&thon for Phaetkori, in the following 
line from Varro, 

Cum te flagranti dejectum fulmine, Phtethon .... 
whereas, in another place (9, 4), he applies the term 
Synaltephe to the Ecthlipsis of M with its vowel before a 
vowel following*. 

. . . Junctus sibi anapnestus .... " I've pre^diom est:" nan; 
facit, ut ultima} syllabac pro una, scner.t. 


Might not tiie term Elision conveniently supply the place 
of both Synalaphc and Ecthlipsis ? 

SECT, L. Ecthlipsis. 
M TO rat Ecthlipsis, quoties vocalibus ant el t. 

Ecthlipsis strikes off a syllable ending with M 9 When 
immediately followed by a word beginning with a vowel, 

Disce, puer, virtutm ex me, verumque laborem, 
Fortune ex aliis. (Virgil. 

curas hominz/w / o ! quantum est in rebus inane! (Pers. 

Sometimes, however, the syllable was preserved from 
elision ; and, thus preserved, we find such syllables short 
in some instances, long in others. See Sect. 38, pp. Ill, 113. 

Ectldipsis (equally as synalo3phe before mentioned) 
sometimes, by the aid of synapheia, strikes out a syllable 
at the end of a line, when the next verse begins with a 
vowel, and no long pause intervenes. See " Synapheia" 
Sect. 54. 

The final 6* was also frequently elided by the earlier 
poets, not only before a vowel, with the loss of a syllable, 
as we see in Plautus and Terence, but also before a con- 
sonant, without the loss of a syllable, as 
Vicimus, o socii! et magnatn/w^/jaiw/JK'piignaiu. (Ennius. 


Deblaterat plenus bonu rusticu ; concinit una. (Lucilius. 
Xuni, sidenihilo fierent, ex omnibii rebus . . . (Lucretius. 
At, tixus nostris, tu dab? supplicium. (Catullus 

This elision, or apocope, so far as I have observed, 
took place chiefly in short syllables : yet it was also occa- 
sionally practised with long, as Mult? imdis, Vas* ar* 
geuteis, Palm' ct crinibus, Tccti f metis, for Multiz 
modis, Vasis argeutcis, Pahnis ct criuibus, Tectis fractis. 
(Cicero, Orator, 153.) Nor was it only the & and its 
vowel which thus suffered apocope, but even S'7 f : for 
Quintilian (9, 4) informs us, on the authority of Cicero, 
that, in earlier times, it was common to say Po' meridiem 
for Post meridiem. 

However strange the elision of the J/may appear to an 
Englishman whose ear is exclusively accustomed to a full 
and harsh pronunciation of that consonant, it will seem 
less surprising to any person who recollects that the Romans 
did not, like some modern nations, make OM or UM -^ 
whole mouthful, but gave to the J\I a slight nasal sound, 
such as our French neighbours give to it in the word Fahn, 
and as the Portuguese give to it even in Latin words. It 
is easy to show that this was the practice of the Romans, 
and that they gave a similar sound to the A, making no 
greater difference in pronunciation between C//V// .)/ and 
CV;rwA r than a Frenchman makes between the final con- 
sonants in l\tiM and PaiN that is to >ay, none at 

* Thus Tam-tns and Quam-tus (from lain and (\auni) \vcro prononnc* u 
111 the same manner as if they had been T ant us and (\uantun, and at 
length came to be written so. And what is Hunc but Hum-cr *i 
lium-ke^ the accusative of 7/Yc-ic //c, bu' U<- / - > 

164 EctMipsis. 

To pfovc this, I need not appeal to their conversion of 
the Greek AN, IN, ON, into AM, IM, OM or UM ; 
for Cicero furnishes a yet more convincing argument in his 
emark on Nohiscum, in the "Orator/' section 154 & 
remark, which would have been wholly unfounded, if lie 
had made any perceptible difference in pronunciation be- 
tween the M and the N*. I refer the learned reader 
.to the passage itself. Maxima dcbetur, &c. Juvenal, 
14, 47. 

With Cicero's remark may be compared the following 
of Quintilian, Inst. 9, 4*--"Eadem ilia litcra [M], 
if qiwties ultima est, et vocalcm rerbi sequentis it a ton- 
; tingit ut in cam transire possit, etiam si scribitur, 
c; tamenpantm exprimitar; nt ' Mult urn ille, 1 et 'Quan- 
" turn erat;' adco nt pccne cujusdam nova; liters somnh 
" reddaf. Neqtie enim exhnitur, sed obscuratur, et 
" tantum aliqua inter duas vocdles nota est^ nc i])s& 
a cot ant? 

And that the Romans did not give a full sound to the 
N, even when followed by another consonant, appears 
from their having written Niidiustertius for Nunc dies 
tertius P-rifcg'fttis for Pr&gnnft$ 7 mum for Tunsum 
Tgnavus for IngttiMts Pactum for Panrtum 
Passinn for Pansum Fas and Ncfas for Fans and Ne- 
fans, of which we yet discover the traces \nfacta nefantia 
among the fragments of Lucilius, as we also find infans 

.(I<fC-ce r as la tune is only an abbreviation of Istum-cc or 

Kor would a modern Frenchman, Italian, or Portuguese, make any 

difterence in pronunciation between Hinuk and Hunk. 

* I have somewhere seen, on the u'ords Cnm %onrinibns, a remark ot 
^xuctly the same tendency as that of Cicero above noticed. I think it 
was in tither Quiutilian or Priscian ; but I cannot at present (iud it, 

EC fh lipsis.- 

{or nefans] f acinus in those of Accius. It further appears 
from their having indiscriminately used Conjunx or Con jit f 
Tango or Tago Pan go or Pago Tot tens, 
or Toties, Quoties and from the compounds of 7 /v 
viz. Tradoj Trano, Traduco, Trajicio, Trames, &c. If 
indeed the ES of Tb/fc/and Quoties had been made short 
after the expulsion of the JV, or the Try when disencum- 
bered of the AS, we might have attributed the change to 
poetic licence. But, since both the ES and the Tra still 
continued long, and there was nothing gained in point of 
quantity, we can only impute it to the general mode of 
pronunciation, which did not sound the final NS, except 
very slightly, as the modern French do. 

Let us, for example, take Trans-no, and try how anun- 
latined Frenchman would pronounce the two words, of 
how any Frenchman pronounces a similar combination 01 
consonants in his own language. Let him say Dans m? 
maisons in the hearing of an Englishman who has never 
before heard any foreign tongue spoken ; and let tlu; 
latter be desired to write down the two first words, 'Dan* 
9ios, from the Frenchman's oral delivery. After some 
study, he will write Daw no, or Dah no, or Da no, or, 
in short, any tiling under heaven except da AS noS : and 
here we have precisely the Latin Trans-no reduced art 
paper to Trd-no, yet still probably retaining the slight nasal 
sound of the N *, 

* A hymn of Pope Damasus is here worthy of notice. I give it en- 
tire, that the reader may the better judge how far it authorises my 

Martyris erce dies Agatlias 
ais cmicut 

166 Ecthlipsis. 

Hence it will appear, that, in point of pronunciation, 
it was a matter of very little consequence with respect 

Christus earn sibi qn4 sociat, 
Kt diadema duplex decorat. 

Stirpe decens, clegans specif, 
Sed insigis ar.tibus atque fid<% 
Terrea prospera nil reputans, 
JussuDci sibicorde ligana; 

Fortior ba?.c trucibvsque viris, 
Exposuit sua membra fiagris. 
Pectore quam fuerit valido, 
Torta mamilhv docet pattilo. 

Delicisc cm career erat ; 
Pastor ovem Petrus hanerecreat. 
LaHiorinde, nuigisque (lagrans, 
Cuucta flagella cucunit ovans. 

Ethniea turba, rogum fugio?*, 
Hujus et ipsa meretur opcm; 
Quos fidei titulus decorat, 
His Vcnerem magis ipsa premat. 

Jam renitens, quasi sponsa, polo, 
Pro misero rogita Dainuso. 
Sic sua festacoli faciat, 
Sc celebruiitibus ut favcat. 

As a poolic composition, tlii* liyian bus little claim to cnn- -notice ; 
wor does Hi A\lse quamity in the tit'tb Hue add to its-merit: but, as t-end- 
ii)^ i -omc li-lit on ancient proinr.iciation, it is n valuable 

It, is evident at first sight that Damasus kiteiided his 
ro riiir^e ; :I;K] tlierefore we arc bound to wake them rhime, 
if we can. Our modern accentuation, houcvcr, prevents this: for 
d gat Jte t '.vith tin English accent on the first syllable, cannot, possibly 
rhime with Ezhxia.' accented on the second. l>ut, it', udoj'liug Dr. 
idea (noticed in page 114), *e luy the voe^ni on tl>e rinal 
long syllables, ^flrt<r', /.".r/'w/V, and so in all tho other lines the. final 
;Ie orcacb bei;_; ; i;hcr naturally lont% on.Pi-rfcd iotu' b\ its po- 
we shmfl -l.inic as can be 

EcthUpsis. \67 

to nK>t of the compounds of Trans, whether they were 
written with or without the NS. If any regular distinc- 
tion was made, I suppose that it might probably have been 
founded on a rule somewhat like the following Let the 
S (accompanied by the A ) be retained and pronounced 
before vowels, as Trans eo> Translgo : let it also be re- 
tained and pronounced before those consonants with which 
it could unite at the beginning of a Latin word*, viz. C or 
K, F, J/, P, Q, T: before all other consonants, let 
it be rejected, because it cannot be pronounced. Thus, 
let us write TranSCurro, TrADuco, TranSFero, (perhaps 

desired. We may hence conclude that Damasus certainly pronounced 
his verses in that manner agreeably, no doubt, to the usual mode of 
pronunciation in his time, viz. the fourth century, when the Latin was 
yet a living language, spoken by all classes of people. And, although 
the stylt had greatly degenerated from that of the Augustan ;era, we 
have no reason to suppose that the pronunciation had undergone any 
change; whence it seems to follow, that the pronunciation in question 
was conformable to the practice of the golden age of Homan literature. 
-* A difficulty, however, SCCMS to exist in the words Fugiens and Oprm, 
which no possible change of accent can make rhime to an English ear. 
But the French pronunciation of the final Af and jYS' (in frtnck words, 
I mean) will at once remove that difficulty, and produce exactly the 
same sound in the EXS and the EM just a* Falm and Pains make 
perfect rhime in French, though the French are much more fastidious 
jn th niceties of rhime than \ve indeed, ridiculously so, as is well 
known to those of my readers who are acquainted with the rigid, ty- 
rannic laws of French versification. 

* Although auch initial combinations do not all occur in words of 
Latin origin, they all, nevertheless, (or their equivalents) are found 
in the Latin language. Smyrna, for example, and Smilttx, ami Sina- 
ragdu* % were perfectly familiar to Homan ears. Equally so were Sphinx 
and Sphtrtt} in which th* Gretk $ wus exactly equivalent to the 
Lutiu 1'. 

16*$ Ecthlipsts. 

TranSGrcdior), TrALatus, TranSM'arinu.^ TrANo t 
TranSPorto, TrwSQ!*** (if an y sucn combination exist), 
TrARhcnanuSi TrA-Sulto, TranSTulit, and so in similar 
t-di-es, I do not, however, imagine that such rule was 
uniformly observed, but that each person, according to 
his own ideas of propriety, wrote either Tra or Trans in 
those combinations where I suppose the 8 not to have been 
sounded, while all nevertheless agreed in pronouncing the 
words alike, whether the NS were written or not; as. mo- 
dern Frenchmen express the word Time by the same sound, 
whether they write it Temps or Terns, and would still con- 
tinue to pronounce it in the same manner, though a further 
innovation in the orthography should strike oft" the final S, 
which is not at all sounded at present. 

A little attention to the nasal sound of the JVwill ex- 
plain a seemingly strange phenomenon in the Ionic dia- 
lect of the Greek language the change of Ae%utvro, 
AzyoiVTQ, (Le^ahito, Legmnto) into Az%atct,ro, Azyoiuroy 
{Lextiiiito, Legoiqto) t and so in many other instances, 
where the place of the N is supplied by a vowel. I say, 
the nasal sound of the N will explain this: for, let a 
Frenchman utter the word Lexainto in the same manner as 
if it were a French word, i. c. giving to the A r the same 
nasal sound as it has in Craintif, Point it, &c : let him be 
heard by an Englishman whose ear is yet unacquainted 
with any other pronunciation than that of his own native 
language; and the latter, if he attempt to commit the word 
to paper, will hardly know whether to write the Ionic Lex- 
aid to or the common Lexuinto. 

And, that the Ionic Lcxuiato, though making an addi- 
tional syllable in poetry, probably retaii-cd in prose the 
or nearl the same sound as the common Lexainto? 

Ecthlipsis. 169 

is, I conceive, fairly presumable from what we have an 
opportunity of observing in some modern languages, which 
may (in this respect at least) be considered merely as dif- 
ferent dialects of the old Roman. 

The Latin word Pcrmissio, for example, is written 
PcnnissiON by the French, who pronounce the final N 
with a nasal sound very different from what it receives in 
English. Instead of the termination ON, the Portuguese, 
somewhat in the Ionic fashion, write AO, to which they 
give a nasal sound so nearly resembling that of the French 
ON, that an untutored English ear could not perhaps 
at all distinguish the Portuguese PermssiAO from the 
French PermissiO N ; although a man of nice discrimi- 
nating organ, like Homer, might find in the AO either 
two syllables as in the Ionic LeccAIAto, or only one as in 
the common Lc.vAIXfo, according as either might better 
suit the exigencies of his versification. 


As a further proof that both Greeks and Romans very 
slightly pronounced the final A, or (more correctly speak- 
ing) hardly pronounced it at all, we may observe that 
Greek proper names in ON sometimes lost the N in Latin, 
sometimes retained it, without the slightest appearance of 
either rule or reason for its retention in one case, and its 
omission in another *, as Plato, Pluto, Draco, Laco, 
Solo??, Sicyon, Themison, Aristogiton ; whereas, on the 
other hand, the Greeks, like the modern French, uniform- 
ly added the N to Roman names terminating in O, as 

* Except where the poets occasionally wrote Platou, Pluton, &c. to 
save the from elision before a vowel ; in which cases, they probably 
gave to the N a more full and perfect sound, as the French do in their 
article Un in a similar position. 

170 Ecthttpsis.. 

y Scipio, Cicero Karaw, 2i#*M*, Ki&egav. Now 
these variations in orthography could never have taken 
place on both sides, unless both nations agreed in pro- 
nouncing the final TV so slightly as to make little or no dif- 
ference whether it were written or not: and, in short, the 
only mode of approximating them in this instance, is to sup- 
pose that they both pronounced the N as it is now pro- 
nounced by the French. 

Connected with the pronunciation of the final N, it 
may be well to notice an assertion made by some learned 
critics, that we ought to write 2Y2-2r^, not 2Y- 
2r^w,a or 2YN-2r^ao, and so in similar cases, wherever 
2YN comes before 2 in composition. But a due atten- 
tion to the nasal sound of the N will show us that it is no 
more necessary to write 2Y2-2r^a than Ka>^a22 or 
A;a22 or KX^o-^22 for Clemens, which the Greeks 
wrote KX?7^ since the N was so slightly pronounced at 
the end of the syllable, that the word must have sounded 
nearly alike whether written 2YN-2r^/^wt or 
(as the Latin Trans-no or Tra-no] whereas 
would have quite altered the pronunciation, would have 
required a strong and disagreeable effort of the voice to 
utter the 22, before the T, and have introduced an addi- 
tional hissing, which, to the delicate ears of the Greeks, 
would have proved no very grateful alteration, though the 
objection did not lie so strong against the poetic duplica- 
tion of the 2 between two voiccls, as in Aa^cc^erar^ 
Ctffcr*/, &c. 

Respecting Ka>^aN2 and KaX^a2, I refer the reader 
to- Clarke on Iliad A, 8(), and to Leedes in his edition of 
Kuster on the Middle Voice. At the same time I own 

feyself astonished at the interpretation which the learned 


s. 17 1 

and ingenious Mr. Lecdcs seems to have giver, to the remark 
of Vclius Longus, " Scqucuda est nonnumquam elegant ia 
" eruditonun, quod quasdam Htcras levitatis caussa omi- 
runt, ficiff Cicero, (jiii Foresia ct Ilorleda si/it N 
" liter A dicebai :" on which Air. Lecdes observes that " this 
" is not so much assigning a reason, as telling us Cicero 
" wrote icithtsUt one" understanding the word "levitatix^ 
I presume, wlei'itatis, levity, or affectation in the man 
instead of lev-it at is (or Icrcitatis) soft easy smoothness in 
the utterance*, when un-encu inhered with the drawling nasal 
sound of the N. There is no contradiction between the 
word " drawling" here and the word " slight" in page 
163. In both places I Hp a; relatively, justly considering 
the nasal sound as slight, when compared with our pro- 
nunciation of the JV, - yet &'43vlwg, wheii compared 
with its total omission. 

It was another peculiarity in the Roman pronunciation, 
which gave room for the elision or apocope of the final S 
(noticed in page ]()'), which so frequently occurs in the. 
writings of the early poets, and prevailed even to the com- 
mencement of the Augustan HTU. The fact is, that the 
early Romans, like the modern French, did not in all 
cases pronounce the final *S', as we learn from Cicero, 
Orator, lf)l " Qulnetiatn . . . quod jam sithruxticum 
vide fur, ollm autem po litiu s . . . corum verborum, quorum 

* In this -ruse the term if us i-ctniuiiiis, de Syllabi-. 3 ~* 

Syilttbas, qua; rite metro couiinuiut lieroico, 

C:iptns ut nious ftMx .hat. di;putaias uttuli 

\ L-rbi')us, sano moflorum quo sonora Iciitas 

Ad(ik;i styh gublevarrt siccioris tedium. 
Klsrwhere lie says (de Syil. 6'79) 

Clonsonam non A' jugabit, quin r .fino /?;*' str.J 

172 Ecthllpsis. 

e&dem- erant po.strcma di(( litcrce quce su-ut in Optumus, 
post remain lit cram detrahebant, nisi vocalis insequebatur. 
Ita non erat ojfensio in bersibtte, quam mine Jughtnt 
pocta noi'i : ita enim loquebamiir *, Qui est omnibu' 
princeps, non Omnibus princeps, et Vita ilia dignu' lo- 
coque, non Dignus." 

To the same purpose Quintilian observes " Qute fuit 
caussa Scrvio subtrahends S literce, quoties ultima cssct, 
alidque consonantc susciperetur" 9, 4. 

But, as the French mostly pronounce the final S when 
immediately followed by a vowel for example, Nous 
alldmcs (sounded Nooz allaiii) the Romans appear to 
have clone the same, if not in all cases, at least very fre- 
quently; thus saving the preceding vowel from elision as 
in Vulcanus in the following line of Ennius, besides ob- 
viating a disagreeable hiatus, as Vulcawtf Apollo. 
Mercurit7$, JOI/T, Neptu/z^, Vulcani^, Apollo. 

Before consonants, it appears to have been at first op- 
tional with the poets either to pronounce the final S, and 
make the syllable long, as in Mercurius and Nept units in 
the line above quoted or not to pronounce it, and thus 
retain the syllable short, as in J0r>", or Jor/jt. About 
the commencement of the Augustan a?ra, the rule seems to 
have been established that the final S should always be 
pronounced in poetry, as well before consonants as before 
vowels. Accordingly, wherever, in the versification of 
that or succeeding ages, we find a naturally short syllable 
ending in S placed before a word beginning with a conso- 

* Instead of loquebamur, we ought, 1 presume, to read 
a? dctrahcbant above. 

Ecthlipsis. 173 

nant, such syllable is invariably made long by the pronun- 
ciation of the two consonants. 

Nor was it the final ti only which was thus omitted. la 
the body of words also, that consonant was sometimes either 
wholly suppressed, or (to use an expression of Quinti- 
lian) " obscured" in the pronunciation, as we see in 
Ctismwue, softened to Caancena Casmilla, to Ca- 
milla, &c, 

Et quas commemorant Casmcenas esse . . . (Enmus. 

Non te deficient nostrae memorare Canuviia'. (Tibullus. 
Sustulit exsilio comitem, matrisque vocavit 
Nomine CasmilUc, mutata parte, Cftmillant** (VirgiL 

In this, too, the Romans resembled our Gallic neigh- 
bours; those of the northern parts of France pronouncing 
Notre, T'^otre, Paynes,, Ecu, Etabllr, while those 
of the South say Nostre, Vcmtre, Pasques, Espee, EXCU, 
Establir, still retaining the *S' 3 agreeably to the practice 
which universally prevailed in former days|. 

* On tliis change in the name, Professor Hoyne very properly makes 
the following remark " Tribuit poet a patris roluntati, quod cmoUlta 
pronuntiat'w serioribus telatibns atfalit, ut, pro Casaiillo, Camillas, pro 
Casmilla, Camilla diceretur." 

f And which still prevails in many English words borrowed from the 
French at a remote period, when the S (not final) was invariably pro- 
nounced, as, for example, Escutcheon, from Efscusson, now Ectisso/i 
Enquire, from Escuicr, now Ecuicr the name Vortcscue, from /'MV/, 
now Ecu. 'I'he name, Grotrenor, is no exception : for, in the original, 
gros icncur (great hunlsman, or master of the hounds), the S, 
final, xvas not pronounced. 

] 74 Systole. 

SECT. LL Systole. 

$ystola prtecipitat positu re/ origine fangam. 

By Systole, a syllable naturally long is made short, or a 
syllable, which ought to become long by position, is pre- 
served short, as Helen' for Vidcs-ne, in which the E is 
naturally long SatTn for Satis- ne, in which the short 
syllable 77*9 should become long by position Hodie for 
Hoc die J\Iuithnodis for Multlsmodis (Seepage ido). 
Vota caclunt. Vldcn ut trepidantibus advoletalis? (TibuLL 
Satin' 1 est id rNescio, liercle: tantum jussu' sum. 22. (Tcr. 
Sera niinis vita est crastina : vive iwdic. (Martial. 

Ducerc multimodis voces, et flectere cant us. (Lucretiu*. 

Ah, Ad, Ob, Sub, Re, which are naturally short, but 
would, when compounded with Jacio, be rendered long 
by position, are sometimes made to retain their original 
.quantity, by the elision of the J. 

Turpc putas dbici, quod sit miserarrdus, arnicmn. (Or id. 
Siquid nostratuis adicit vexatio rebus. (^lartiaL 

Cur annos obicis ? pugiuu cur arguor impoi*? (Clandian. 
Ipse manu subicit gladios, ac tela ministrat. (Lucan. 

. . . Tela. manu; re/cUquQ canes in vulnus hiantes. (Statins. 

It might perhaps be supposed that all these compounds 
are from Ico, not from Jacio ; and the supposition would 
be countenanced by an assertion of Priscian, if 'that as- 
sertion were true, viz. that Ico has the / short in the pro 


sent. But it so happens that the / is long, as appears by 

the following examples 

. . . Telis infesto ml Icere musca caput. (Catullus. 

. . . Emicat in partem sanguis, unde 'icimur ictu. (Lucret. 

Besides, if Obicis above were from Ico, and the / of lea 

short, the noun Obc.v (which evidently springs from the 

same root with the verb Qbtcu) would always have the 

first syllable short, and could not be written Objex, as it 

was most commonly used by the poets, e. gr. 

Intus se vasti Proteus tegit objict saxi. (Virgil. 

In some other compounds. Ad and Ob are preserved short 
before consonants, by the elision of the /) or B. (See 
page 27.) 

Et formidatus nautis ftperitur Apollo. (J' r irgit. 

Stantibus exstat aquis, operitur ab aequorc moto. (Ovid. 
Pleraque ditferat, et pra^ensin tempus omit tat. (Horace. 

Concerning Palus, with the US short, in Horace, Art 
Poet. 6J, see page 1 37. 

In Virgil, JEn. 2, 7T4, and a^uin in book 3, 48, all 
the printed editions give us the following line - 
Obstupui, tffeteruntque comw, et vox faucibus haesit 
in which we are directed to pronounce the middle syllable 
of StetrrHHt short, and to call such shortening a Systole. 
I have no objection to that elegant Greek name: but at 
the same time I consider the shortening of the syllable in 
question as a gross violation of prosody. Upon the- 
strength, however, of this Steterunt, and of Tulerunt in 
Eclogue 4, 6l, editors and commentators have introduced 
many similar systoles of the penultima of the preterperfect 
tense into verses wliere they had found in the manuscript 


copies either the pluperfect indicative or the perfect sub- 
junctive. It becomes therefore necessary to examine thi& 
passage with a little more attention than it would otherwise 

All modern editors acknowledge that many ancient ma- 
nuscripts here give the pluperfect titetcrant. Uut I may 
perhaps be told that many also give Stetenint -- that the 
latter is a very ancient reading, and quoted by some old 
commentator. All this, however, is not sufficient to prove 
the word genuine, since we learn from AGellius, that, so 
far back as seventeen hundred years ago, the writings of 
the Roman classics were already corrupted and falsified, 
not only by the casual errors of copyists, but by the deli- 
berate perversions of meddling and mistaken critics* 
("faki ct audaces emcndatorcs" lib. 2, 14) who boldly 
altered every thing that was too elegant or exquisite for 
their own unrefined taste. In many other passages of the 
same author, we have abundant proof of the fact, and see 
occasional appeals made to older manuscripts, particularly 
in book 1, 21, where he informs us, that almost every 
one ("plcriqiic omncs") read Ainaro in Georg. 2, 247, 
although it was incontestably proved that Virgil had written 
Amaror, after the example of Lucretius *. 

Hence it appears that the bare antiquity of a reading is 
not alone sufficient to prove it genuine: and, with respect 
to quotations by ancient commentators, we may fairly 

* Lib. 4-, 225, and again, 6, 030, where the same sentence is repeated 

Denique in os salsi vcnit humor srcpe saporis, 
Quom mure versamur propter; dilutaque contra 
Quoru tuimur misceri absiuthiu, tangit amaror. 

Systole. 177 

Estimate the degree of credit due to their accuracy, from 
the following sample of Donatus, to whose authority we 
are indebted for Tuleritnt above mentioned. 

Donatus sat down as a professed commentator on Te- 
rence. That poet had translated his Phormio from a 
Greek comedy entitled E*tiix*ofi&n, which he mentions 
in the Prologue, verse 26. Here, however, instead of 
Epidicazomenen, some copyist, unacquainted with the ori- 
ginal piece, had erroneously written Epidicazomenon, 
which was the title of a quite different drama: whereupon 
the critic, instead of supposing, as he ought to have sup- 
posed, that the transcriber had committed a mistake, 
gravely informs his readers that Terence himself was guilty 
of the blunder in misnaming the Greek play as if, truly, 
the poet, who had translated the comedy, could have been 
ignorant of its title ! 

Such being the case with regard to ancient manuscripts 
and ancient commentators and the old copies of Virgil 
giving b&bStcterant and Stctentnt it must ultimately 
rest with every modern reader to determine for himself 
which of the two appears the more likely to have been ori- 
ginally written by the poet. 

Now, every man of taste acknowledges a conspicuous 
beauty in that passage (Georg. 1, 330) where, by using a 
past instead of a present tense 

. Fugere ferae; et mortalia corda 

Per gentes humilis strarit pavor 

Virgil makes his reader outstrip the rapidity of time itself, 
and leave the present moment behind him, to survey, not 
the act taking place, but its consequences after it 

A A 

178 Systole. 

In like manner, Ovid, Fast. 3, 29 
Ignibus Iliads aderam, cum lapsa capillis 

Decidit ante sacros lanea vitta focos. 
Inde dua3 pariter (visu rnirabile !) palmre 

Sur gunt. Ex illis altera major erat, 
Et gravibus ramis totum proteverat orbem, 
Contigeratque nova sidera summa coma. 

Here we are not delayed to mark the progressive growth 
of the tree : at a bound we overleap that interval, and at 
once with astonishment behold it already risen and spread 
to the enormous size described. 

What, then, if we were to suppose that Virgil really 
intended the pluperfect Steterant in the same way ? " My 
" hair had bristled up I stood petrified, 1 ' &c. Thus 
we shall see JEneas's hair, not in the act of rising, but al- 
ready risen on end, himself standing aghast and motion- 
less. Exactly so has Ovid combined these two effects of 
horror, Epist.' 16, 67 

Obstupui, gelidusque comas erexerat horror 
not Erexit : and in the same manner, Fast. 2, 502 

lletulit ille gradus; hornterantque comae 
which elegant reading, though authorised by old manu- 
scripts, has been altered by modern editors to Horruerunt. 
But let us see how, in another place, Ovid thus varies the 
tenses with picturesque effect 

Intremuity ramisque sonuni sine flamine mods 

Alta dcdit quercus. Pavido mini membra timore 

Hornterant, stabantqbz coma?. Tamen oscula terras 

lloboribusque dali. {Met. 7, 629. 

Here the imperfect Stabant presents to my fancy exactly 
the same image as the pluperfect Steterant in the con- 
tistcd passage of Virgil: because the verb Sto (as is well 

Systole. ,179 

known to every scholar) signifies not only to stand, or tu 
be in a standing posture, but also to take stand, or to rise 
to an erect position; whence Steteram, like the Greek 
pluperfect g/Vr^av, is in many cases equivalent to Stabam, 
the former marking the first motion, the latter the conti^ 
nued state consequent on it. Thus, in Silius Italicus, 3, 
128, Steterant conveys the same idea as Stabant 
Jamque adeo egressi steterant in litore primo, 
Et promota ratis, pendentibus arbore nautis, 
Aptabat sensim pulsanti carbasa vento. 
Thus, too, in Jineid 12, 271, Constllcrant (they had 
taken their stand) only expresses with greater elegance the 
same fact as Const abant (they stood, or were standing) : 
and the same remark applies to Const iterant in Ovid, Art, 
2, 129 and Constiterat, Met. 4, 485*. 

Thus likewise the pluperfect Oderam is equivalent to 

* The following passages, in addition to those above noticed, may 
prove not unacceptable to some of my readers. 

Non in Thrticiis fiLmi dccernimus oris ; 

Nee super Alpheas umbrantja Mxnala ripas 

L'onstitimvs: non hie Tegeen Argosque t.cmur. (Claudian, B. Get. 574. 

Const Iterat quocumque modo, s.pcctabat ad lo. (Ovid. Met. 1, 628. 

Ut se letifero aenslt clurescere visu, 

( Et steteratja.m picne lapis) Quo verfimiir ? inquit. (Cl mutton, Gig. 97 

Tola [portions] crat in specirm Pienis digesta columnibj 
Inter quas Danai femina turba senis 

Atquc arani circum steterant armenta, JMyrpuis 
Quatuor artificis, vivida signa, boves. 

Turn medium claro surgcbat marmore templum. (Pra.pcrtlus^ 2, 31, 3. 

Optavitque locam regno: nondum Ilium et arces 

Pergnmea} steterant : habit almit vallibus imis. (Vivit t lEn.3, 10p. 
To which add Ovid, Ep. 1, 34- Virgil, jEn. 2, 253 Plautus, Aniph. 
5, 1, 11 Lucan, 1, 207 Juvenal, 12, pi. 

180 Systole. 

Odlo habebam Noveram to Scicbam (allowing for the 
different meaning of the two verbs) Memineram to 
Memorid tenebam i. e. I had conceived a hatred, and I 
still continued to harbour it I had acquired a knowledge, 
and I still continued to retain it I had committed to 
memory, and I still continued to remember exactly like 
the English vulgarism, and the elegant G racism, " I have 
got" xtxrqfJMt, meaning, " I have acquired, and I now 
possess" "I had got" szezrvpyv) signifying, "I had 
acquired, and I then possessed or was in possession of/* 

Almost every page of the classics, notwithstanding the 
alterations made by copyists and commentators, still fur- 
nishes examples of the pluperfect tense elegantly used to ex- 
press what might, with a slight tint of difference in the idea, 
have been very properly described by the perfect or imper- 
fect ; and equally numerous are the instances of the per- 
fect tense employed where the present would have answered 
the purpose. Thus Gerebat arcum would h#ve conveyed 
the same idea as Suspenderat arcum in -/En. 1, 322: and, 
in the next line, the picture contained in Dederat comam 
dlffundcrc rent Is would have been equally presented to the 
reader's imagination by the imperfect tense, Sparsijluebant 
capillL- But the following examples will more clearly 
illustrate the point in question. 
Terrarum, quascumque vident Occasus et Ortus, 
Xos duo turba sumus: jfosscdit camera pontus. 

(Ovid, Met. I, 354. 

Acrisioneas Proilus posscdcrat arces. (Ovid, Met. 5, 239. 
Tnstat atrox; et aclhuc, quamvis posscdcrlt oinnern 
Italiam, extreme sedeat quodlitorc Magnus, 
Communem tamen essedolet. (Lucat?, 2, 658. 

Systole. 181 

In these passages, let Posseditbc changed to possidet, 
Possedtrat to possidebat, Possedcrlt to possideat ; and 
the sense will, in the end, he the same, viz. Possedit, has 
taken possession Possidct, has or holds possession 
and so in the other cases. 

Whoever has duly noticed such changes of tense in read- 
ing the poets, will, I trust, agree with me that Virgil 
really intended thus elegantly to use the pluperfect Stete- 
rant, and that we entirely owe the pretended systole to 
those "falxi et audaccs emendatores," who, not feeling the 
beauty of the expression, and looking only for cold gram- 
matic uniformity of tense, altered it to Steterunt. In 
like manner, whoever attentively considers the pluperfect 
Tiller ant of old manuscripts, in Eel. 3, 61, where we now 
see Titlerunt on the authority of Donatus and compares 
the passage with other examples of the pluperfect which 
cannot be altered will, I believe, agree that the tense 
is far from ohjectionable in poetry, though perhaps not 
productive of additional beauty in that particular place, 
and though the idea might have been expressed in prose 
by the preterperfect. Thus, too, w-here we now read 
Dedcntnt in Horace, Epist. 1, 4, 7, ancient manuscript5 
give Ded&ranti perfectly according with Eras in the pre- 
ceding line, as Dedcrunt would accord with the present 

?, if the poet had employed it. 

In other places where old manuscripts also have the 
pluperfect, commentators and editors have introduced the 
following prcterperfects Terrucnint, Prabuerunt, J//.v- 
ciieriitif; Fiicruut, Profuerunt, Pollucrunt, Annuerunt. 
Mollicriuit, Finierunt, Vagicrunt, Audierunt, Quasicrunt. 
I have carefully examined all the passages whence these- 
pretended instances of systole are quoted; and I find that. 

182 Systole. 

in every one of them the measure of the verse will equally 
admit a spondee as a dactyl : wherefore, without stopping 
to dispute the propriety of the alterations, (which, by the 
way, I am far from willing to acknowledge) it is sufficient 
to observe, that, with less violence to prosody, we might 
recur to synaeresis, instead of systole, and pronounce 
TerrJVerunt, AudYenmt, &c. &c. as TenlFia, PitW'ita, 
VindemYator, and NasidYcni, noticed in page 150. 

With respect to Excidcrunt, Ovid, Ep. 12, 71 Ex- 
fulcr unt, Ep. 14, 72 Contigcrunf, Fast. 1, 592 
Abscidcrunt, Statius, Theb. 5, ^74 Exciderunt, 3, 302 
Consiitcrunt, JEneid, 3, 6*81 we find that old manuscripts 
give in all those passages the pluperfect indicative, or the 
perfect subjunctive: and, upon examination, I think it 
will be acknowledged, that, in most of them, the reading 
which the commentators have rejected is absolutely pre- 
ferable in point of elegance, and, in the others, at least 
unobjectionable. As to Einerunt> which Donatus seems 
to .have found in his manuscript of Terence, Eun. prol. 20, 
if he did not himself alter the passage and Abierunt hi 
Phffidrus, 4, 19, 16 I submit to any good judge of 
pure latinity, whether Emerant and Abiertnt be not more 
elegant in themselves, setting prosody out of the question. 

I do not, however, mean to assert that a systole never 
took place in the pen ultima of the preterperfect, since I 
find a few instances in which it is not impassible that the 
authors themselves might have inadvertently been guilty of 
that breach of the laws of prosody, unless perhaps they 
intended a syncope of the penultima or antepenultiina, 
which, in fact, would not have been more harsh than 
many other examples of syncope observable in the poets. 
All that I mean is to caution youth against admitting such 

Diastole. 183 

Violation of quantity in every place where commentators 
have thought proper to introduce it, any more than they 
would consent to alter the harmonious lines of Milton, 
Pope, Addison, c. for the sake of unnecessarily thrust- 
ing in a mis-accented word that happened to occur in 
Spenser or Shakspeare. And a consideration which for- 
bids us to believe that the poets so freely sported with this 
systole, is, that we find them (as will appear under the 
following head of " Diastole'' 9 ') unwilling, without unavoid- 
able necessity, to violate the quantity of a syllable even in a 
proper name, where such licence would have been much 
more excusable than in the common grammatical termina- 
tions, which were familiar to every mails ear, 

SECT. LI I. Ectasis, or Diastole. 
Ectasis cjcienditque brevem, duplicatqiie element-urn. 

By Ectasis or Diastole, a syllable naturally short is 
rendered long, as 

Cum socios nostros mandisset impiu' Cyclops. (Z/t\ And. 
Oinnis cura viris uter csset induperator. (Ennius. 

But, in the more polished ages, the poets rarely used 
the licence of Diastole, . except for the sake of accommo- 
dating to their metre such proper names (particularly those 
of many syllables) as could not otherwise have been intro- 
duced into their lines; e. ST. 


Sunt etiam amirittz'* vites, firmissima vina. {Virgil. 

Hanc tibi Pr'iamidcs initto, Ledasa, salutem. (Ovid. 

Et domus intact^ te tremit arabice. (Properiius. 

Ilarus ab It alii tantum mare navita transit. (Ovid. 

Perhaps, however, in the instances here quoted, as well 
as in some others which might be added to the number, 
we should be nearer to the truth in supposing that those 
vowels were in reality common, than in presuming that the 
poets had lengthened syllables which were in their own 
nature essentially short: for we find Horace and Ovid and 
Martial and llutilius explicitly complaining of their inability 
to adapt certain names to the measure of their verse; which 
names, by the way, they might have made to flow very 
smoothly and harmoniously in their lines, if they had en- 

* Thus, likewise, Ausonius, Epist. 17, 29 

Solus qui Chium miscet et aminettm. 

But the first syllable of this word (as well as the second and third) 
is naturally short, as we see in the following verse 

Umbra necat teneras airiincas (8) - 

quoted by Terentianus (de Metr, 284-) from Septimius Serenus if 1 
do not mistake the poet's name for Terentianus clearly applies both 
names to one and the same person; though our " Corpus Poetarum," on 
the authority of Petrus Crinitus, maies Septimius a different person froin 
Serenus. But P. Crinitus proved llytoself no conjuror, when, giving an 
account of Septimius, he committed the following most egregious and 
truly laughable blunder. Septimius having written a poem in a species 
of verse consisting of a dactylic hepUtliemiineris, as 

Inquit amicus ager domino (10) 

and Terentianus having' first quoted four linc-s from that poem, and after- 
ward shown how those lines might le lengthened into hexameters, by add- 
ing two feet and a half at the end of each verse P. Crinitus deliberately 
gives us those patch-work hexameters as the <ienuim production of Sep- 
timius ! ! ! and this blunder has been very faithfully copied into our 
precious " Corpus Pottarum," on \\\.. -me remarks under the 

head t>f " Ivntc a Minorc" Appe> 

Diastole. 185 

joyed the supposed privilege of converting long syllables 
into short, and short inlo long, at pleasure. 

See Horace, Sat. 1, 5, 87 
Alansuri oppidulo, quod versu dicere non cst 

Martini, book <), epig. 12, respecting the name Earinus, 
of which the first syllable is short 
Xomen nobile, molie, delicatum, 
Versu dicere non rudi volebani: 
Sed tu, syllaba contumax, rcpugnas. 
Dicunt Elarinon tamen poetze, 
Sed Graeci, quibus est nihil negatum .... 
Nobis non licet esse tarn disertis .... 

Ovid (Pontica, 3, 12, o), addressing his friend Tuti- 
cauus, in whose name the first and third syllables are long, 
and the second short - 
Lex pedis officio, naturaque nominis, obstat: 

Quaque meos adeas, est via null a > modes. 

Rutilius (Itinerar. 419) makes a similar complaint 
Optarem verum complecti carmine nomen: 

Sed quosdam refugit regula dura pedes. 

Nay, long before these polished writers, and at a period 
when the Roman poetry was yet very uncouth and rugged, 
old Lucilius said, 

Servorurn festu* dies est, 

Quern plane hexametro versu non dicere possis. 

The particle Ttc, indeed, naturally short, is made long 
in many compound words, as Religio, Reliquiae, Re- 
liquus, Reperit, Retuiit, Rcpulit, Recidit, Reducere. 
Rtligioue patrum multos servaia per annos. (Virgil. 

Troas, reliquias Danaum atque immitis Achillei. (VirgiL 
Namquam id re licit o reparari ternpore posset. (Lucretius. 

B B 

186 Diastole. 

Et res hasredem repent ilia suum. (Ovid. 

Rttulit acceptos, regale nurnisma, Philippos. (Horace. 
Rcpiilit a Libycis immensum syrtibus sequor. (Lucan. 

Ter male sublato P&jft'i etisC manus. (Ovid. 

Dj tibi dent capta classem reducere Troja. (Horace. 

Some people assert, that, in such cases, the consonant 
ought to be doubled after the RE, making Retligio, llep- 
perit, &c. But the most celebrated modern editors, as 
Burman, Professor lleyne, Mr. Wakefield, c. have 
printed all such words with the single consonant, on the 
authority of the ancient grammarians, who declare that 
such was the genuine orthography of the old Romans. We 
must, however, except the verb Reddo, which is in all 
cases to be written with double D : and, although the 
Romans did not, in such instances as those above quoted, 
write the words with a double consonant, we can hardly 
doubt, that, in pronunciation, they laid an emphasis on 
the single consonant, producing probably the same effect 
to the ear as if it had been actually doubled. 

The same remark applies to Quafuor wherever we find 
its first syllable long: for, that it is naturally short, ap- 
pears from the two following quotations, as also from its 
derivatives, Quater, Qu&terni, Quadrupes, Quadrans, 
Quadrat us, &c. 

Cedunt ter quatuor de ccelo corpora sancta . . . (Ennius. 
Quatuor* ideo separavi, quinta quod sit rarior. 36. 


* By the way, if we had not other evidence to establish the fact, 
this verse of Terentianus could not alone be admitted as proof, because 
we might, consistently with the metre, scan Quatuor Idea, making a 
synseresis in Icfco, as he frequently doe:s in Quia. And perhaps indeed 
Terentianus so intended it: for I have not observed that he elsewhere 
makes the A short in Quatuor, though he often uses the word. 

Final Sy I! a ble of a Verse. 187 

SECT. LIII. Final Syllable of a Verse. 
Syllaba cujusvis erit ultima car minis anceps. 

The final syllable of every verse (except the anapsestic 
and the Ionic a minor e) may be either long or short at the 
option of the poet: that is to say, although the measure 
require a long sellable, a short may he used in its stead; 
and a long may be used where a short is required as in 
the following verses, where the short syllable MA stands 
in lieu of a long, and the long syllable CU instead of a 

"Sanguineaque manu crepitantia concutit arMA. (Ovid. 
Non eget Mauri jactii is, nee arCU. 37- (Horace. 

The fact is, that the final syllable of every verse (except 
as above excepted) is always supposed to be long being 
either long by nature, or rendered so by the pause which 
takes place at the termination of the line: on which sub- 
ject, Terentianus thus expresses himself (de Metr. 59) 

Debit a nam spatii red-pit quasi tempora versus, 
Dumjungit hnis consequcns exordium. 

Omnibus in metris hoc jam retinere memento. 

In fine non obesse pro longd brevem. 

To the same purpose, Cicero, (Orator, 217) " Pos- 
trema syllaba brevis an longa sit, ne in versu quidem re- 
fert." So likewise Quintihan (9,4) .... " quamvis ha- 
beatur indijferens ultima : neque enim ignore, injine pro 
longd accipi brevem, quod videtur aliquid vacanti tempori, 
ex eo quod insequitur, accedere" 

188 Synaphefa. 

The nature of the exception in the cases of the ana- 
paestic and the Ionic a minor e will be explained under the 
heads of those verses. 

SECT. LIV. Synapheia. 
Cppulat irrupto versus Synapheia tcnore. 

Syuapheia is the connexion or linking of verses together, 
so as to make them run on in continuation, as if the matter 
were not divided into separate verses ; in consequence of 
which connexion, the initial syllable of a succeeding verse 
(lik.e the initial syllable of a word in the body of a verse) 
has an influence on the final syllable of the preceding 
affecting it by the concourse of consonants, by ecthlipsis, 
and by synalrephe. 

It was particularly in the anapaestic verse, and the Ionic 
a minors that the Synapheia prevailed; and, in these, the 
poets paid strict attention to it. In other species of verse, 
however, it also occasionally took place, at least to a 
limited extent. The following examples will explain its 

Praeceps silvas montesqueyi/gZ* 

Citus Actaeon, agilique magis 

Pede per saltus et saxa vagus, 

Metuit niotas Zephyris phi mas. 14. (Seneca. 

Here the Synapkeid causes the short final syllables of 

it) Magis, and Vagus, to become long by position 

Synapheia. 189 

before the initial consonants in the subsequent lines. (See 
" Anap(8tic^ Appendix, No. 14.) 

Magnaos$a lacerti-|-^we 

Apparent homini (or hominis ?}.... (Ennius. 

Et spumas miscent argenti, vivaque sulphu-|-ra, 
Idagasque pices. (J r irgiL 

Et potest piurale " Qui" lector aliquis credere faci-|-/e, 
Ac siinul, c. 36. (Tercntianus. 

Cur facunda parum deco-|-?'0 

Inter vcrbacadit lingua silentio ? 46, 44. (Horace. 

Jamque, iter emensi, turres et tecta Latin o-\-rum 
Ardua cernebant juvenes. (Virgil. 

In these examples, the writers, availing themselves of the 
Synapheia, subjected the syllables que, le, ra, ro, and 
rum, to elision before the initial vowels in the subsequent 
verses. But it will be observed, that, in these and most 
other cases * where the Synapheia takes effect, there is little 
or no pause at the end of the line. In the following pas- 
sage, however, Catullus made it to operate after the com- 
pletion of a sentence 

Flammeum video veni-|-re. 
Ite, concinite in modum. 46. 

By means of the Synapheia, a word was sometimes di- 
vided between two verses. In the Greek dramatic cho- 
ruses, this is common in Latin poetry, more rare. 
Examples, however, do occur, as, for instance, 
Age. si stramentis incubet unde- 

O ' 

-octoginta annos natus. (Horace. 

But here, and in three other examples which Horace 

furnishes, (Sat. 1, 2, 62 Epist. 2, 2, 188 Art. 290) 

* I speak not here of the anapaestic or Ionic. 

190 Prosthesis Apharesis. 

it is worthy of remark that the division, in each case, is 
made between the members of a compound word, not be- 
tween the syllables of a simple word, as in the Greek 
dramatists *. 

SECT. LV. Prosthesis Apharesis. 
Prosthesis apponit fronti, quod Aphaeresis aufert. 

The addition of a letter or syllable at the beginning of a 
word is called a Prosthesis, as Gnatus for Natus, Tetuli 
forTuli; though perhaps we might with greater propriety 
consider Natus and Tuli as formed by aphaeresis from the 
original Gnatus and Tetuli the former derived from 
Tsvvuv or Tivopctt, the latter having a regular augment, as 
many other verbs, in imitation of the Greek mode. 

The cutting off the first letter or syllable of a word is 
called an Aph&resis, as 'st for Est -\ and, instead of Sca- 
mander andSmaragdus, Camanderand Maragdus t as these 
words ought to be written, when immediately preceded by a 
vowel which the metre requires to be short J : ex. gr. 
Testis erit magni virtutibus unda Camandri. (Catullus. 
Tu poteras virides pennis hebetart? maragdos. (Ovid. 

* With respect to the Sapphic, I endeavour to account for the con- 
nexion in a different manner. See " $afjpJu," Appendix, No. 37- 

f And, in English, the word 'Squire, for Esquire 'Drawing-room, 
for fPitndr owing-room, 

J Falkeuburg, in his edition of Nonnus, says, *' In MSS. quoties- 
curaque Scoma'ndri fit mentio, Ka/xavJpo? exstat." 

Syncope. 191 

in both which passages, however, the S is usually, though 
improperly, retained, as it also is hi many others where it 

ought to be omitted. 

SECT. LVI. Syncope Epenthesis, 
Syncopa de media tullif, quod Epenthesis infert. 

Syncope strikes out a letter or syllable from the middle 
of a word, as Ejctemplo, Denuo, Panum, Poplus > Vixet, 
for Ex-tempulo, De-novo (or De-nowo\ Pcenorum, Po- 
pulus, Vixisset VencficuSi for Venenificus Mars (or 
Motors) for Muvors or Mawors Juventus and Virtus, 
for Jirccnitus and Writ us Voluptas, for Volupitas 
Voluntas, for Volentiias* -- Magistri, Libri, Nigri, and 

* The E and tlie U being easily interchanged, as in Fac'iendus, Fa- 
ciundus, and oilier participles of the "future" in DUS, as they are 
commonly called, though improperly, since they equally belong to the 
present tense: e. gr. 

Clamos ad coelum vofcvndu' per aethera mugit. (Ennivs. 

Turne, quod optunti divuin promittere nemo 

Auderet, vohenda dies, en, attulit ultro. (Virgil. 

as we say, in English, the " rolling years." Oriundvs, the participle 
from Oy/or, is not future; neither is Secu/idus, the participle of Sequor, 
i. e. Sequundus, "following" only altered in the spelling, as Stqviitus, 
Scr.utus, but formed in the same manner from Sequor, as the present par- 
ticiple Labundus, in the following passage, is formed from the verb 

Ac ubi, curvo litore latrans, 

Unda sub undis labunda souit. (Accius, fr. 585. 



other such genitives, for Magisteri, Liheri, 

Calfacio, for Calefacio Surpui, for Surripui Opra, 

for Opera Porgo, for Porrigo Lamna, for Lamina 

Jutro, for Juvtro Stiptndium or Stippendium, for 


.... Quae me surpucrat mihi. 46. {Horace. 

.... Quibit, pro factis, reddere 0/>r< p'etium. (Ennius. 

Cingite fronde comas, et pocula porgite dextris. (Virgil. 

Ut crepet in nostris aurea lamna toris. (Martial. 

.... Non, ita me Divi, vera gemunt, juerint. (Catullus. 

Pceni stippendia pendunt. (Ennius. 

Indomito nee dira ferens stippendia tauro . . . (Catullus. 
for so the word ought undoubtedly to be written in both 
these passages, and in every other place where the first 
syllable is long. If spelled with a single P, it must be 
short, agreeably to its derivation from Stiff 
Tu tamen, auspicium si sit stfpis utile, quaoris. (Or id. 
and accordingly we find it short in Sidonius Apollinaris, 8, 
9, 47 

Aulas Susidis ut tenere culmen 

Possit foedere sub stipcndiali. 38. 

In Horace, Epod. 17, 36, it is of no consequence whether 
we read it longer short the verse equally admitting a 
spondee or an iambus where its first two syllables stand. 
Typanuru, in Catullus, 6l, y, cannot with propriety Le 
considered as a syncope for Tympanum being regularly 
formed from Tsrvsra and Tvpirezvov itself being formed 
from Twctvov by an epenthesis of the Af. 

Nor is Vwckmitor the syncopated offspring of Vinde- 
miafor, which is formed from the verb Vnidcm'w but of 
Vindcmiitor^ from Vindemia, as Portitor, Janitor, T'i- 
7iitur, Funditor, from so many nouns. 
Carpebat raras serus vindemitor uvas. (Seneca. 

Sj/hcopc. 193 

In the following line of Lucretius, 6, 974- 
. . . Unique ntum; nam setigeris subus acre venenurn est . 
and again in verse 977, the word Subus, being formed by 
a simple syncope of the / from Snibus, retains the U 
short, as it \vas before : whereas that vowel is long in 
which is formed in a different manner, as shown 

in page 4& 

In some compound words, where two vowels meet at the 
junction of the parts, the first of the two vowels sometimes 
suffers syncope, as in Semianhnis, Scmi/iowo, Seiniobolus, 
SemiadapvrtitSy Semihiansi Suaveolens, &c. 
Frigidior glacie, sem'atiimisipjG fui. (Ovid. 

Haec inter Lapithas et sern homines Centauros . . . (Grid. 
Sem'oboli duplum est obolus, quern pondere duplo . . . 

(Fan n ins. 

Obliquum capiat scniudaperta latus. (Ovid. 

Sem'lriante labello. 48. (Catullus. 

Suavoleniis arnaraci. 46'. (Catullus. 

So the words must be pronounced at least, if not written ; 
for, if the two vowels were joined by synocresis, the syllable 
would necessarily become long. The case is the same 
with Magnopere, and Tantoperc. 

The preterites of verbs, in many cases, suffered syncope. 
I here give several examples, which may be compared 
with those in page 7o, and others that will occur in 

Scripsti, Conscripstij Prccscripsti, Siibrepsti, Erepscmus t 
Carpse, Sumpse, Consumpse, Consumpsti, Ccpsc, Percepset, 
i, Sensti, Misti, Promisti, Amisti, Pro?nisse ) Elissc, 
Ad-miss c y Decesse, Recesset, 'Dlxti, Intdlexti, 
* hkexti, Prospextiy Aspexti, Luxtly Abduxtl, Adduxti, In- 
ij Subduxti, Instruxti, Depinxti, DevinxtL Emwi.rtL 

o c 

194 Epenthesis. 

Immersti, Tersti, Exdusti, Conclussem, Percusti, Faxein, 
fnterdixcm, Revixti, Exstinxti, Exstinxem, Intellexes, 
Dixe, IlluxCy Illexe, Advexe, Circumspexe, Surrexe, 
Abstract) Prospexe, Despexc, Acccstis. 

From these examples (all found in classic authors) it 
will be observed that the contraction is formed, first by 
striking out IS, as Script(i&)ti, Scrips ti, Dlx(\s)ti, 
Dixti ; next, by changing CS or OS to X, as Objec(\&)- 
sem, Objec'sem, Objexem, and so, if any poet had chosen 
to contract Colltg(is)sem, Colleg'sem, Colle.rem ; finally, 
by striking out a redundant S, if one should remain after 
these operations, as Percuss(is}ti, Percuss 1 ti, Percusti 
Exstinx^is^sem, Exstinx^sein, Exstinxcm. And, as we 
here see Promisse, Etisse, Drclsse, Admisse, Decesse* Re- 
cesset, we may not unreasonably suppose, that, by a similar 
syncope, Ennius wrote Suasset or Suaxct (i. e. Suasisset} 
where we now read Suadet, in that passage which I have 
quoted from him in page 2. 

Epenthesis is the insertion of a letter or syllable into the 
T)ody of a word, as Alituum for Alitum, to accommodate 
the poet with a dactyl in alitu Seditio, Redimo, Redeo, 
to avoid the disagreeable hiatus which must have occurred, 
if the words had been written Se-itio, Re-emo, Re-co 
Pluvi, Furi, Admrci, Gcnuri, to lengthen the short U of 
Plui, Fui, Adnul, Gcnui; for which change in the quan- 
tity, see the reasons assigned in page 151. 
Nam rus ut ibat forte, ut multum pluverat ... 22. (Pltiuf. 

^ . , ^lagua quom lassu' diei 

Parti ffwisset, de summis rebu 1 geruudis. (Ennius, 

Adnuvit sese mecum decernerc ferro. (Ennius. 

Apocope Paragogc T??icsis. 1 95 

Saturno, quem Coelu' geniait. (Ennius. 

In like manner, Clili'cbat for Cliiebat, Ennius, Ann. 
1, IS. 

SECT. LVIL Apocope Paragoge. 
Apocope demit Jinem, quem dat Paragoge. 

Apocope strikes off the final letter or syllable of a word, 
as Men\ Puer, Prosper, for Mene, Puerus, Prosptrus 

- Seu (or Sew) for Sii'e (Shce or Seice) Nat (or 
for Neve (or Ntwe). 

Paragoge adds a letter or syllable at the end, as Amarier, 
Docerier, Legier, Audiricr, for the infinitives Amari, Do- 
cert, Legi, Aadirl. 
At Venulus, dicto parens, \\&faricr infit. (l r irgil. 

SECT. LVIII. Tmesis. 
Per Tmesim inseritur medio vox alt era vocis. 

A Tmesis is the separation of a word into two, for th'e 
purpose of inserting another word between the separated 
parts, as in the following examples. 


Tails Hyperboreo Sept em- subjecta -trioni . . . (I'icgil, 
Languid ior porro disjectis, dls- que -sipatis, (Lucretius. 
...Conlaxat, rare- que -facit lateramina vasis. (Lucretius. 
Dissidio potis est sejungi, sc- que -gregari. (Lucretius. 
Caetera de genere hoc, inter- qmecumque -pretantur . . . . 


Flaec eadem nobis, vane- que -coloria fila . . . (Nemesian. 
In all these examples, the Tmesis, as the reader will not 
fail to observe, is between the members of compound 
words ; and it was in compound words alone that it usually 
took place. Ennius, however, having occasion to dash 
out a warrior's brains, thus split his skull with picturesque 
effect*, Annal. 6, 14 

. Sajco cere- comminuit -brum ! ! ! 

Antithesis Metathc 

Nonnumquam Antithcsi mutatnr lit era^ ut Oi; 
Cumproprid migrat de sede, Metathesis csto. 

By Antithesis, one letter is substituted for another, as 
Olli for ILli Pub lie us for Poplicus, i. e. Populicus 

* After having supped, 1 presume, with Scipio, and indulged in an 
glass the best apology which the case will admit (Sec Horace, 
pitt. 1, 19, 7) for the exploit was quite too ludicrous for the .vc- 
briety of serious composition, whatever allowance might be made for the 
satirist Lucilius, who, in his light careless scribbling, took similar liber- 
ties, as we learn from Ausonius, who thought necessary to apologise 
for thus imitating his example, though in a familiar epistle to a friend 

Villa Lucani- sic potieris -actl. (Epitit. 5, 34. 
Martial was more excusable in dividing Argilctum (I, 118), because 

Metathesis. 197 

/"<;///, J'ultis, for J'W/, folfis, which are only abbreviations 
of rb///, Colitis Forcm for Fu'reni y i.e. Fuercw, from 

By Metathesis^ the order of the letters in a word is 
changed, as Corcodilus for Crocodilits- though I ought 
rather to say the reverse, since we have good reason to 
believe that CorcodUus was the original word, and Croco- 
dilus (like the English Crud, for Curd) only the offspring 
of vulgar corruption*, adopted by the poets to suit their 
versification. In the subjoined passages, the metre will 
not admit the vulgar spelling, Croco-, though we com- 
monly see it in print 

. . . Acorcodills ne rapiantur, traditum est. 22. (Phf&ftUf. 
SiCwrcodilus: Quamhbet Jambeotio. 22. (P/iadrus. 
.... Niliacus habeat corcodilus angusta. 3. {MartiaL 

In the following, Juvenal availed himself of the vulga- 
rism, to suit his verse 
.... yEgyptus portenta col at ? Crocodiloii adorat . . . 

To Metathesis we arc indebted for Mivtum, which i/ 
only Micstum, for Misctitm, i. e. Miscitum, the regular, 
though obsolete, supine of Misceo f. 

Eftremus, too, and Post-remits, and Supremus, cvt- 

there existed o. traditionary talc (JEnrid* 8. 345), which made a coin- 
pound word of what, in its origin, v;as probably Argilletum, the Ctay- 
Jitld, or Clay -pit. 

* Gudius declares, that, in the best, ancient MSS, he found Corco-f 
dilits, not only in poetry, whore the metre required it, but also in prose 
authors. The cause of the corruption is obvious: iho \vords Kpoxo? and 
AnXog were familiar to every Grecian car; and it was as easy and natu- 
ral tor a Greek vulgarian to pervert Corcvdilos into Crocodiles, as for an 
English vulgarian to corrupt Asparagus into Sparrow-grass. 

f Thus we hear, in English, the vulgar Ah or Ax, fur Ask, 

198 Metathesis. 

dcntly appear to be the offspring of Metathesis. Ori- 
ginally, I presume, Extents, Posterns, Supcrus, gave 
Exterrimus, Postcrrimus, Super rimus, as Nigerrimits, 
Prosperrimus, Sec. These, being first reduced, by syn- 
cope, to Evtcr'mus* Postcr'mus, Super mus, were after- 
ward changed, by Metathesis, to their present form, Ex- 
tremuSy Postremus, Supreinus : and this accounts for their 
having a long E in the penultima, instead of the short 7, 
which we see in other superlatives. 

In the following examples - 

. . . Librorumque tuos, docte Menandre, sales. (Proper t. 
Quod cupis, hoc nautae metuunt, Leandre, natare. (Ovid. 
Tu quoque cognosces in me, Meleagre, sororem. (Ovid. 
and other vocatives in RE, from nominatives usually writ- 
ten with ER in Latin, the RE is commonly attributed to 
Metathesis but erroneously, since they are in reality the 
proper vocatives from the original Greek names, Menan- 
drosy Sec. And, as we find several examples of the Greek 
vocative in RE instead of the Latin ER, I conceive it 
would be perfectly consistent with propriety to write in the 
same manner Cassandrc, Alc'andre, Thersandre, Terpan- 
dre, Pisandre, Alemndre, Antipatre*. 

* Here followed, in my former edition, a remark, occasioned by a 
singular incident which occurred at a bookseller's in Paternoster-Row, 
and which would furnish a vc ry curious literary anecdote: but I forbear 
tq relate it, as the relation might appear invidious. The remark, how- 
ever, may be preserved: it can do no harm " Antipatcr, though 
" erroneously attributed by our dictionaries to the third declension, /x- 
14 clusivcly belongs to the second, being written in Greek Antipatros, 
" and declined like Alexandras. (See Q. Curt. 10, 26 Justin, J2, 12 
" Cicero, Oflic. 2, 14 Lucian, Demostlt. Encom. 28 Pausanias, 
** Bccot. p. 553 and the Greek Anthologia, in almost every page.)" 

A P P E N D 1 X. 


A Foot is a part of a verse, and contains two or more 
syllables, as here exemplified. 

Spondee, two long, as fnndunt* 

Pyrrichitis, two short bonu*.- 

Troch&us, or Chorceus, one Ions; and one short - armd. 

Iambus, one short and one long - ci\ 
Mdlosxus, three long - contendiiiit. 

TribrachyS) three short - - fdc 

Dactyl^ one long and two short corpora. 

Anapfest, two short and one long - - capiiint. 

Amphibrachys, one long between two short tiniorc. 

Bacchius, one short and two long* Cat-.- 

AntibacchiuS) two long and one short '\ RomTuiuy. 

Cfeticus, or ) - 

I one short between two long garnitnf. 
Amphimaccr, ) 

These are, correctly speaking, the only real feet; those 

*fSo Quhililian, Q, 4, and Ruffinus, de Coinp. 20: but Tt. 
dcPv-'dibus, 52, reveres lh nui- .ug Roma/;-. ;, and 

nes the dntibacchius. 



which follow being, more properly, measures, or combi- 
nations of the simple feet*. 

Dispomleiis, a double Spondee - conftlxcrunt. 

Proceleusmaticus, a double Pyrrichius < abiete. 

Dichor&us, a double Choraeus or Trochaeus, - dlxtrat'is. 
Di-iambuS) a double Iambus. amaverant. 

Cfioriambtis, a Troehaeus and an Iambus - terr'/f leant. 
AntispastuS) an Iambus and a Trochaeus - adhteslsse. 
lonicus a majors f, a Spondee and a Pyrrichius - correximi'is. 
lonicus a minor e, a Pyrrichius and a Spondee adamant es. 
Pceon J, a Trochaeus and a Pyrrichius tt'Mpuribiis. 

2, an Iambus and a Pyrrichius pottnfla. 

3, a Pyrrichius and a Trochajus ariimatii.*. 

4, a Pyrrichius and an Iambus cMeritas. 

Epitrltus 1, an Iambus and a Spondee - amavvrunt. 

2, a Trochaeus and a Spondee - por fit ores. 

3, a Spondee and an Iambus - discord I as. 

4, a Spondee and a Trochceus - addiijfi$ti& 

an Iambus and a Creticus - aber raver ant. 


A Verse is a .single line of poetry. A Distich is a 
couplet, or two verses,.- A 'ITeniistich is, properly speak- 
ing, a half verse: yet the name is commonly applied to 
either portion of u hexameter verse divide! at \\\e penthc* 
mimeris, as 

* Quidquid cniin supra tres -iuribus cst pedibus, 

Quintilian, 9, 4-. 

f- Culled also lonicus major by Marius Victorinus, \vbo, in like i 1 
ner, calls the other lonicus minor. 


.Ere cierc viros || marternqne accendcrc caiitu. (Hrgil. 
A verse wanting one syllable at the end to make the 
complete measure is called Catalectic a verse wanting 
Uvo, Brachycatalectic. 

A verse having a redundant syllable or foot is called 
Hypercatalectic or Hyper meter. 

A verse containing its exact measure, without either de- 
ficiency or redundancy 7 , is called Acatalcctic. 

\ verse wanting a syllable at the beginning is, called 

In Latin poetry, verses are not usually measured by the 
number of syllables, as in English, but by the number of 
feet, or the length of time required to pronounce them. 
Now, a long syllable being equal in time to two .^hort 
the word tardis y for example, to the word celcribus it 
becomes, in many cases, indifferent what the number of 
syllables is, provided that they all together fill up, but da 
not exceed, the time allotted for the harmonious utterance 
of the line. Hence the Latin poetry admits a beautiful 
and unceasing variety, of which our language is much less 
susccptihle, though we often see an English line where two 
short syllables are accounted for one long, as in the words 
Echoing, Bellowing, &c. 

Verses are of different lengths; some consisting of two 
feet, others of three, four, five, c. as will severally ap- 
pear under each of the following heads. 

Various are the species of verse, sometimes denominated 
from the foot or measure which chiefly predominates in 
them, as Dactylic, Auapastic, Iambic, Trochaic, Chori- 
ambic, Ionic sometimes from the number of feet or 
measures which they contain, as Octonarius, $enarius, 
Jlexamcter, Pentameter, Tetrameter, Trimeter, Dimeter 

p D 

202 (I.) Hexameter. 

sometimes from a noted or favorite author who used a 
particular species, as Sapphic, Anacreontic, Alcaic, Hip- 
ponactiC) &c. -sometimes from other circumstances as 
will be noticed in the sequel. 

Dactylic Verses. 
(No. 1 *.) Hexameter. 

Hexametrum constat pedibus sex. Dactylus horum 
Esse solet quintus, Spondeus in ordine sextus: 
Spondeus reliquas sedes, vel Dactylus, implet. 
Interdum quinto gaudet gravitas Spondeo. 

The Heroic or Hexameter verse consists of six feet, of 
which the fifth is a dactyl, and the sixth a spondee : each 
of the preceding four may be either a dactyl or a spondee, 
at the poet's choice. The following scale shows its con- 





at tilba | terribi-|-lem soni-|-tum prociil | a5re ca-|-noro . . . 


int5n-|-sl cri-|-nes Idn-j-ga cer-|-vlce flti-|-ebant. (Tibullus. 
Sometimes, in a solemn or majestic or mournful de- 
scription, the slow heavy spondee takes the place of the 

* In the series of Numbers here begun, an accidental circumstance 
has caused some irregularity, not observed until too late for correction. 
I have made so many numerical references to the different species of 
verse in the preceding pages (which are already printed), that I cannot 
now make any alteration without creating very great confusion, and 
renderin'g those references wholly useless ; whereas the irregularity in 
question cannot be productive of any inconvenience. 

(1.) Hexameter. 203 

dactyl as the fifth foot; from which circumstance, such 
verses are called Spondaic, as 

Cara deum soboles, magnum Jovis | lncre-\ -\nzi\tum. (J^irg. 
Constitit, atque oculis Phrygia aginina | arcum-\-spexit. 

Acre nee vacuo pendentia Maa so -|-lea. (Martial. 

But the frequent recurrence of spondaic lines is dis- 
gusting and tiresome : witness the Nupt. Pel. et Thet. of 
Catullus, who perfectly crushes his reader with the weight 
of his heavy leaden spondaics, of which he has given, on 
an average, one for every fourteen lines of the ordinary 

Some prosodians say that the proceleusmaticus and the 
anapaest are occasionally admitted into the hexameter 
verse, instead of the spondee or dactyl, as 

Tcniiia \ nee lana? .... (Firgil, Geo. i, 398. 

Flitvw-\-rum rex Eridanus .... (Ibid. 482. 

but others deny the assertion, and maintain that we ought 
to read Temciti as a dact\l, and Fltiwyo- as a Spondee. 
I prefer the latter opinion, and have given my reasons and 
authorities, under the head of " Synaresis" p. 151. It 
is not to be denied, however, that there does occur an ex- 
ample of the anapaest in Ennius, Phaget. 9, viz. 
Mtltinurun*, turdum, merulamque, umbramque marinam 
and, in the same author, Ann. 7, 10, we find the fol- 
lowing verse 

Capitibus nutantes pinus, rectasque cupressus 
in which, some scholars read CtiplttbiC as a proceleusma- 
ticus, though others may probably be inclined to read it as 
a daetyl, by syncope, Ccip'tibu. 

For a more minute account of this species of verse, see 
" Analysis of the Hexameter" 

204 (2.) Hexameter Jlfeiunts. (3.) Prlapean. 

(No. 2.) Hexameter Melurus. 

This is the ordinary hexameter in every respect, except 
that the sixth foot is an iambus, instead of a spondee, as 
Dirige odorisequos ad certa cubilia canes. (Lh\ Andronlcus. 
Tgusg y zpfuywav, onus tdov aiohov OOIN *. (Homer. 

It is, however, to be considered rather as a vicious and 
defective hexameter, than as a distinct species of verse, 
though Livius Andronicus designedly wrote such lines, 
which he alternately mixed with perfect hexameters. But 
they have all, except two, perished in the wreck of time * 
and we have no great reason to regret the loss. 

(No. 3.) Prlapean. 

The Prlapean being usually accounted a dactylic verse, 
I here introduce it as such, though contrary to my own 
opinion. It is (we are told) the common Hexameter, 
so constructed, as to be divisible into two portions of three 
feet each ; as, for example, the following 
Tertfct pars patrl data || pars data tcrtia niatri- 
which, though intended by the author (Catullus) for a 
heroic line, would nevertheless have been deemed a Pria- 
pean by the ancient grammarians; since \ve learirfrom Te- 
rentianus that they condemned some of Virgil's lines as 
Priapean : e. gr. 
Cui non dictus Flylas puer || et Latonia Delos? (Geo. 3, 6. 

But, when the Priapean metre was professedly used 
(which vv^ generally on light subjects), the firstfoot, as 

* Some scholars thiflk, and perhaps with good reason, that, instead 
of making a Mciurus> we ought here to^pronounce oopkin. 

(3.) Priupean. 


likewise tiie fourth, was most commonly a trochee, often 
however a spondee, but rarely a dactyl the second almost 
always a dactyl the third, though sometimes a dactyl, 
much more frequently an amphimacer*. The sub- 
joined scale, with two examples from Catullus, will suffi- 
ciently show its construction as a hexameter. 







*m >S U 

o c6-;-loniu ] qu cilpls || ponte j ludere j longo. 
in fos-j-sfi Ligii-j-ri jucet || supper-j-natu se'-j-curf. 

Such is the received idea of the Priapean. To me, how- 
ever, instead of one dactylic verse, each of those lines evi- 
dently appears to be two choriainbics, viz. a Glyconic 
Xo. 46), and a Pherecratic (No. 48), thus 
6 co-j-ioniH, qua; ! cupis 

Ponte | iTidere 16n-|-go 
In fos-l-sa Ligiirl j jacet 

Supper-'- nata secu-!-ri - 

a combination, used by Catullus himself at the close of 
each strophe or stanza, in both of his choriarubic odesf; 
as 7 for example 

Cinge tempora flonbus 
Suav'olentis amaraci : 
Flainmeum cape : hptus hue, 
II ac re -\-nl, nrc to \ gcrens 

Lute- '-urn pcdc soc--cnm. (59, 6. 

* Torentianus mentions the third foot being sometimes a sponcke; hut 
I do not find a single instance of it in the three Priapean poems of Catullus. 

f Horace, too, in five of his odes, (lib. 1, 5 1, 14- 1, 21 
3 ? 7. 4., 1.3) closei his stanza with two such cfcorianibics, but in re- 

106 (3.) Priapean. 

6 LFitonm, max i mi 

Magna progenies Jovis, 

Quam ma-\-ter propt De-\-liam 

Depo-\'S~ivit * oli-\-vatn. (32, 4. 
Nobody has ever pretended to deny that the two con- 
cluding verses of each stanza, as well as those preceding, 
are Choriambics. Yet those two verses, if written in a 
single line, will precisely be what is commonly called one 
Priapean verse, viz. 

Hue ve-|-ni nive-|-6 gerens | lute-|-iim pede | soccum. 
Quam ma-|-ter prope | Delia in | depo-|-sivit 6-|-livam. 

Now, to me it appears a strange inconsistency, that 
the very self-same metre, without the variation of a single 
syllable, should, in one page of Catullus, be accounted 
two Choriambic Trimeters, arid, in another, a single Dac- 
tylic Hexameter. Whatever it is, it is the same -in both 
places. In the odes, it is undeniably choriambic metre: 
choriambic, therefore, it must be, where-ever it is found. 
But, exclusive of the evidence arising from these odes, the 
very construction of the Priapean verse (as it is called) 
furnishes a strong objection to its admission into the class 
of dactylics; the adoption of the two trochees in the first 
and fourth places, and the introduction of an amphimacer 
into the third, being liberties altogether unusual in Dac- 
tylic Hexameters, and such, indeed, as tend to confound 
all metre. On the other hand, if the lines be acknow- 
ledged as Choriambic, all difficulty immediately vanishes : 
the trochees will be perfectly in character; and the last 

versed order ; the Phcrecratic being placed be fore the Glyconic, 
Whatever may by the fate of Catullus'S choriambics, those of Horace, 
.at least, cannot be called Priapean. 

* In page 151, I Wive given a reason for supposing (hat We ought 
here to read Dcpotwcit, i. e. DeposuMt* 


(4.) Pentameter. 207 

syllabic of the third foot, being then the iinal syllable of a 
verse, may indifferently be either long or short. 

I shall have occasion to say a few words more on the 
subject of the Priapean in Nos. 46 and 53. Meantime I 
beg leave to describe it as Choriambic, consisting of alter- 
nate Glyconics and Pherecratics, Nos. 46 and 48. 

(No. 4.) Pentameter. 

Pentametro sunt quinque pedes, quorum unus et alter 
Dactylns aut Spondeus erit : sed tertius esto 
Semper Spondeus ; subeatque duplex anaprestus. 

The Pentameter verse consists of five feet. The first 
and second may be either Dactyl or Spondee at pleasure: 
the third must always be a Spondee ; the fourth and fifth, 





Te te'ne-l-am m6ri-|-ens de-|-ficien-|-te maim, 
et mul-|-t6s Il-|-llc Hec-|-toriis es-|-se piita. (Ovid. 

That this was considered by the ancients as the proper 
mode of scanning the Pentameter, is evident from Quin- 
tilian, who mentions the Spondee as the middle foot (" in 
pentametri media spondeo . ..." 9, 4) and the Anapaest 
as terminating the line ( i( anap<estiis .... qui .... pen- 

tametri finis" ibid.) to say nothing of Ovid, Am. 1, 

1, as being less explicit. 
Among the moderns, however, it is more usual to scan 

the Pentameter otherwise, viz. to make, first, two feet, as 

20S (4.) Pentameter. 

in the former case next a semifoot finally two duct}}*, 
followed by another semifoot, thus 

Te tene-j-am mori-]-ens || defici-|-ente miVj-nu. 
et miil-J-tos Il-j-lic || Hectonis j esse pu-|-ta. 
which method has at least one advantage for the modern 
writer of Latin poetry, that, by means of it, his ear will 
more certainly guard him against the casual neglect of the 
penthemimeral caesura, which will be presently noticed. 
Nor is this mode of scanning a modern invention : for it 
can boast of considerable antiquity; and, whether known 
or not in the days of Quintilian, at least it was known and 
acknowledged by Terentianus, as well as the other (De 
Metris, 33.) --To those, therefore, who prefer it, I pre- 
sent Alvarez's rule, in lieu of mine 
" Pentametro sunt qitinqne pede,s. Spondeus, et alter 
" Dactylus, arbitrlo vatk duo pr'una tencbunt. 
<c Long a subit Caesura : tenet loca proximo, duplex 
< Dactylus ; ac tandem metrum Cccsura coronat" 

It is to be observed that the Pentameter must be so con- 
structed, as to have the caesura after the penthcmimeris, 
and thus be divisible into equal portions, of two feet and 
a half each ; the middle spondee being composed of a semi- 
foot remaining at the end of a preceding word, and a semi- 
foot from the beginning of the word succeeding: other- 
wise it will not be a legitimate Pentameter, as we learn 
from Quintilian, 9, 4 "in medio pentamctri spondeo, 
qu'1 nisi alterius verbifine, alterius initio constet, \ersum 
non efficltr Agreeably to which rule, the following line 
is condemned by Terentianus, as not being a proper Pen- 

Inter nostros gent ill* oberrat equus.. 

(4.) Pentameter. 209 

From him also we learn that the ancient grammarians 
were not agreed as to the propriety of a short syllable being 
lengthened by the caesura in the middle of the Pentameter 
a liberty which he himself condemns, De Metris, 46. 
And it is worthy of remark, that not a single instance of 
the practice occurs in the Pentameters of Callimachus: nor 
have I, in upwards of eleven thousand Pentameters from 
the pen of Ovid, observed, on examination, above a dozen 
unquestionable examples of it * unless any one should 
insist on my adding to the number a few of the subjunctive 
RIS, and two of Poteris : but, with respect to these 
latter, see the remark on Poterimus, in page 71. See 
likewise some remarks on the Pentameter, in No 53. 

'ihe pentameter does not agreeably terminate with a 
word of three syllables. Ovid generally concludes it with 
a dissyllabic. A word of four syllables, however, stands 
very well at the close, as 

Vastatum fines iverat Assyrios. (Catullus. 

and some examples occur of the latter hemistich consisting 
wholly of a single word, to which no objection can be made 

* They are as follow 

Uncle petam frafm, unde parentis opem ? (Ep. 17, 228. 

Militia est opens altera digna tui. (Ep. 17, 256. 

Hac Helle perils, hac ego laedor aqua. (Ep, 19, 128. 

Nee, quae praeteril*, hora redire potest. (Art. 3, 63. 

In liquidum redi7 aetbera Martis equis. (Remed. 6. 

. . . Educat: at sangz/zs ille sororis erat. (Fast. 6, 488. 

Et longo peri/* arida facta situ. (Trist. 3, 14, 36". 

Quod precibus peri;* ambitiosa suis, (Trist. 4, 3, 68. 
Thessalicamque adi# hospes Acbillis humum. (Pont. 1, 3, 74. 

. . . Illo, quod subiz* ^Esone natus, onus. (Pont. 1, 4, 46. 

Si modo, qui perilf, ille perire potest. (Pont. 3, 11, 44. 

Eupolis hoc peril/, et nova nupta, modo. (Ibis, 532. 


210 (5 A.) JEolic Pentameter. 

on the score of harmony, except hy those who sacrifice the 
ancient quantity to modern accent : e. gr. 
Bellerophonteis solidtudimbus. (Rutilius. 

. . . . Audet falsiparens Amphitryoniades. (Catullus. 

.... Qui laxet nodos Amphitryomadcs. (Rutilius. 

Sometimes entire poems were composed in pentameter 
verse, as, for instance, one of twenty-eight lines in Mar- 
tianus Capella, lib. 9, and another, of seven, in Ausonius, 
Sept Sap. 7. 

Some pentameters are easily convertible into trimeter 
Iambics (No. 22), as 

Exemplum cana simus uterque coma. (Tibullus. 

uter-\-que ca-\-na si-\~mus eX'\-emplum \ coma. 
Movisset vultus moesta figura tuos. (Ovid. 

Figu-\-r% vul-\~tus m<x-\-sta mv-\-vlsstt \ ti'ws. 
Felices cantus ore sonante dedit. (Tibullus. 

te can-\-tits o-\-re fe-\-llcts \ dedif. 

(No. 5 A.) JEolic Pentameter. 

The JEollc Pentameter (so called, no doubt, from the 
" JEolian . maid" who invented it*) consists of four 
dactyls preceded by a spondee, a trochee, or an iambus |, 

Cordi \ quando fuisse sKbi canit atthida. (Terentianus. 

^'-|-dit tuba tembilem sonitum procul. (Terentianus. 
o$ dv-\-$guv <pgtvug svfAtzgtog vxodoLfAvarctt. (Theocritus. 

The twenty-ninth Idyl of Theocritus is in this metre 
O/"i>0> &> <p?ht veil, Xgeraf > %cx,i 

* Genuit doctissima Sappho. (Terentianus, de Metr. 428. 

f Sometimes the first foot was a dactyl. Theocritus has two ex- 
amples of it in twenty-five verses. 

(5 6.) Phahecian Pentameter. 211 

(Xo. 5 B.) Phaltftian Pentameter. 

This metre (which I call Phakecian upon the authority 
of Terentianus) consists of a dactylic penthemimeris (page 
141) and a Dactylic Dimeter, or Adonic (No. 13), as 
Vise-|-bat gell-|-da:> || side^a | brumrc. (Boethius. 

Jam niinc, | blanda, me-|-16s || carpe, Dt-|-one. 

(Martianus Capella. 

and it maybe formed from the Hexameter verse by striking 
out the fourth foot and the latter half of the third, thus 

at re-|-gina gra-|-vi A saucia | curfi. (Virgil. 

[et vulgi] 

Conse-|-der^ dii-|-ces A stante co-|-rona. (Ovid. 

Terentianus scans it as a pentameter, thus 
Vlse-|-bat geli-j-da3 si-j-dr1 | brumre. 
But, if these Phalaecians were all thus constructed without 
variation, they might fairly be considered as Choriambic, 
and scanned as Catalectic Tetrameters, viz. 
Vise- 1- bat gelidae | sidera bru-|-ma3. 

They are, however, here classed as Dactylic, partly be- 
cause Terentianus (de Metr. 226) and Ausonius (Epist 4, 
88) both agree in forming this verse from the Hexameter, 
but more particularly because it admits variations which 
better accord with Dactylic than with Choriambic metre*, 

* But, if Terentianus's description is to be understood exclusitety, 
those varieties \vill constitute one or more different species of verse from 
that which he describes as the Phalaecian Pentameter: for he expressly 
requires the first foot to be a spondee, and the second a dactyl * 
Si m0if*/xif}$ tajis praemissa tome sit, 
Qu primo spondeon habet, mox dactylon addit ; 

1212- (5 B.) Phal&cian Pentameter. 

Heu! quam | prcecipt-] ti || mersa pr6-|~fundo 
Mens hebct, \ et, propri-|-a || luce re-|-licta, 
Tendit in \ e,r/er-|-aas II ir te-| nebras, 
Terre-|-nis qtioti-|-es || flMbus j acta 
Crcsat m \ ~immen-\-sum \\ noxia cura 1 
Hie qu6n-|-fM?ft c?-j-lo || liber a-|-perto, &c. (Boethius. 
So far, the variations are only those which are usual in 
the Hexameter ; and the first member of the verse is still 
a proper dactylic penthemimeris. But I further observe, 
that, like the ^Eolic Pentameter (No. 5 A), this Phakecian 
admits a trochee in the first place ; as, for instance, 
.... arvii \ mfit tn-|-tes ; || quasque" Mae-|-6tis 
allii'l It gen-|-tes || frlgida | fluctu; 

Quasque \ despec-|-tat || verttce | siimmd .... (Seneca. 
and, besides the trochee, Boethius uses the iambus in the 
first and second places : e. gr. 
Hie e-| mm cau-|-sas || cernere | promptum est: 
Illic | laten-\-tes \\ pectora | turbant. 
Cuncta, | qusi ra-| ra * |] pr6vhit | ffitas, 
Stupet, \ cumt subi-|-tis, || mobile | vulgus. (Lib. 4, 5. 

Turn, post semipedem, &c. (De Metris, 220; 

Boethius, however, makes no distinction, but indiscriminately uses 
the different varieties in the same poem, without any regard to uni- 
formkv in the distribution. 

* The short final syllable of Rara is made long by the power of the 
caesura, without the aid of the subsequent PR. In two short pieces in 
this metre, Boethius has two other examples of short syllables so length- 
ened at the close of the penthemimeris, as is common in HeKameter 
verse. Seepage 14-1. 

f In the only copy of Boethius which I have an opportunity of con- 
sulting that in the Corpus Poetarum I find stupetque subitis: but I 
presume the reader will agree with me in believing, that, instead of Que, 
Boethius wrote Cwnj " together with . . . ," or " j well as . . . ." 

(6.) Tetram. aprlore. (7.) Tetram. a posteriore. 2 1 3 

(No. 6.) Tetrameter apriore. 

The Tetrameter a priore consists of the first four feet 
of the ordinary hexameter, with this only difference, that 
the fourth foot is always a dactyl. 




Pende'at ex humens dul-|-c7s chelys. (Pomponiits* 

NimbosTsque polus stetit | imbribus. (Boe thins, 

Dicebas In me ma-\-tertera> (Aiisonius, 

Te Tyrrhena, puer, rapu-|-J^ mdnus. (Seneca. 

This metre was frequently used in tragic choruses. 

(No. 7.) Tetrameter a posteriore. 

The Tetrameter a posteriore consists of the last four feet 
of a hexameter, as 

Certtis enlm promlsit a polio. (Horace. 

un5 mentis cernit in Ictu, 

Queesint, qu3 fiiennt, venientque. (Boethius. 

Ibimus, 6 so en, c6mit<!sque. (Horace. 

Like the hexameter, this species of verse admits a spon- 
dee, instead of a dactyl, for the penultimate foot. But, in 
this case, to prevent the line from becoming too prosaic, 
the second foot ought to be a dactyl, as the fourth ought to 
be in a spondaic hexameter : e. gr. 
.... Mensd-|-rew cohi-\-bent, ar-|-chyta . . . (Horace. 

214 (8.) Tetram. Meiurus. (<).}Tetram. Acephalus. 

(No. 8.) Tetrameter Meiurus, or Faliscan. 

This metre consists of the last four feet of the hexameter 
meiur-us (No. 2), that is to say, the last four feet of an 
ordinary hexameter, except that the concluding foot is an 
iambus, instead of a spondee. 

Vitis et ulmiis viti si mill | cant. (* Septimius Serenus. 

Qui serere Inge 1 nu urn volet | agrum, 
Liberal iirva prms it\\.ii-\-cibus 9 
Fiilce rubos filicemque r-\-secat, 
ut nova f fruge gravis Ceres | eat, (Boethius. 

It is to be observed that the dactyl was preferred in the 
first three places, though the spondee was nevertheless ad- 
missible into the first and second. 

(No. 9.) Tetrameter Acephalus. 

The Acephalous Tetrameter (if I may venture to use 
the term which I do not know that I am authorised to 
do) is in reality the same as the catalectic anapeestic. I 
refer, therefore, to " Anapcestic," No. 15; only observing 
here, that, if the metre in question be considered as dac- 
tylic, it is the tetrameter aposteriore (No. 7), wanting the 
first semifoot, as 

Fe-f llx nimi-|-um prior | tas. (Boethius. 

tibi | cognita | soli. (Martlanus Capdla. 

* See the remark in page 184. 

t Nova is in the nominative, agreeing with Ceres, i. e. " newly intro- 


(10.) TetrameterCatalectlc. (1 1.) Trimeter. 215 

Dapi-|-bfts jam | rite pa-|-ratis. (Prudentius, 

Fiinctimi lau- -,lar de'-'-cebit. (Aitsonius. 

all which verses, however, are reducible to the anapaestic 
measure, as will appear under No. 15; and, in fact, Teren- 
tianus considers this metre as anapaestic. 

(No. 10.) Tetrameter Catalectlc. 

The Tetrameter Catalectlc consists of a heroic heph- 
themimeris (page 141), or the tetrameter a prior e (No. 6') 
wanting a semi foot at the end, as 

Si bene | mi faci-|-as, memi-|-ni. (Septlmlus Serenus. 

unus e-|-nim re-|-rum pater | est (Boethius. 

Sint fera | gentibus | indomi-|-tis 

Prandia | de nece | quadrupe-|-dum. (Prudentius* 

Hie clau- -sit mem-j-brls ani-|-mos. (Boethius. 

omne homi-j-num genus in ter-|-rls. {Boethius. 

Here it is to be observed, that, although Beethius mixes 
spondees with the dactyls, it was more usual to employ all 
dactyls. Prudentius, for example, has two hymns, con- 
taining four hundred and twenty verses Damasus, one, 
of twenty-four Ausonius, two shorter pieces Teren- 
tianus, a short quotation, with a couple of lines of his 
own and, in all these, there occurs not a single spondee. 

The Tetrameter Catalectlc is sometimes found mixed, 
in tragic choruses, with verses of different construction. 

(No. 11.) Dactylic Trimeter. 

This name might be given to such verses as the fol- 

(12.) Trim. Catal. Archilochian.* (13.) Adonic. * 

Allies [ te duc | gesserit. (Horace. 

Gratd | Pyrrha sub | antro. (Horace. 

But they are, with greater propriety, included in the 
class of choriambics *, where see them, the former, under 

"Gli/conic," No. 46 the latter, under " Pherecratic," 
No. 48. 

(No. 12.) Trimeter Catalectic Archilochian. 

The Trimeter Catalectic is a heroic penthemimeris, 

arbor i-|-busq ue co-|-mae. (Horace. 

and such is the construction uniformly observed by Horace, 
viz. two dactyls, and a semifoot. Ausonius, however, who 
has a poem of fifty-seven lines, all in this metre, sometimes 
made the first foot a spondee, and, in two instances, used 
a spondee also in the second place : but the spondee, in 
either case, is a disparagement to the verse, particularly in 
the latter. 

D0cn-|-n exigu-|-us. (Ausonius. 

ct //-|-#er/Z-|-na. (Ausonius. 

(No. 13.) Dactylic Dimeter^ or Adonic. 

The Adonic verse consists of two feet, the first a dactyl, 
the other a spondee, as 
Visere | montes. (Horace. 

* Indeed I do not know that Miles te duce gesserit could correctly be 
accounted a legitimate Dactylic Trimeter, as not being a regular comma 
or segment of a legitimate Hexameter constructed with the proper 
caesura. See No. 53. 

(14.) Anapastic Dimeter. 2 1 7 

The Adonic is usually joined to the Sapphic or trochaic 
pentameter (No. 37). In odes, one Adonic is annexed to 
three Sapphics, to form the strophe or stanza. In tragic 
choruses, it is arbitrarily added to any number of Sapphics, 
without regard to uniformity, as may be seen in Seneca, 
(Edip. act 1, Troas, act 4, Here. Fur. act 3, Thyest. act 3. 

We seldom find the Adonic employed, except thus in 
conjunction with the Sapphic. But Terentianus Maurus 
(de Aletr. 439) informs us that Sappho wrote entire, poems 
in this short measure all now unfortunately lost. Te- 
rentianus himself has also left us a short piece of thq kind; 
and another, of thirty-one successive Adonics, occurs in 
Boethius, lib. ], metr. 7. 


(No. 14.) Anapaestic Dimeter. 

The Dimeter Anap&stic consists of two anapaestic mea- 
sures. The anapaestic measure consists of two feet pro- 
perly, of two anapassts, as 

ululas-|-se canes. (Seneca. 

But the first foot was very frequently changed to a dactyl, 
often to a spondee the latter, frequently to a spondee, 
rarely to a dactyl, at least by the Latin poets *. 

* In all the Anapaestics of those tragedies handed down to us under 
the name of Seneca, only two examples occur of the dactyl in the second 
place ; and these are both in the worst of the plays, the Octavia, 28p, 
and 778. In the reliques of the earlier Roman tragedians, we find two 
others, and only two, viz. in Accius, 570, and 588: and, although 
Boethius allowed himself a greater latitude in that respect than his pre- 
decessors of more polished times, not more than nine are found in all 

F F 

218 (14.) Anapastic Dimeter. 

The Latin anapaestic measure, therefore, is as follows 

and the Anapaestic Dimeter, consequently, this - 

Here it is to be observed, that, in all the dimeter and 
monometer Latin Anapaestics which 1 have been able to 
discover, from the Augustan age, downward, each mea- 
sure (with only one solitary exception that 1 have yet no- 
ticed *) uniformly and invariably terminates with a word, 
so that they may, with equal convenience, be written and 
read in lines of one, two, or more measures, without oc- 
casioning, in any one instance (except that one in Au- 
sonius), the division of a word by the difference of arrange- 
ment f- The tragic Anapasstics, however, were not con- 
sidered as regular definite ^verses confined to a certain uni- 
form length, but as unfettered series or paragraphs J, which 

bis Anapasstics, amounting to upwards of three hundred measures. 
The Greek dramatists, however, admitted, in every station, not only 
the dactyl, but also (though rarely) the proceleusmatic, as observed by 
the ancient scholiast on Aristophanes, Plut.486 

* Viz. in Ausonius, Professores, 21. 

f This is not the case in the Greek dramatists, whose Anapjestics oc- 
sionally present to us a word divided between two measures, and even 
between two verses, as they are commonly arranged in dimeters. In 
the fragments also of Ennius and Accius, the measure does not always 
terminate with a word. 

t Terentianus Maurus, speaking first of the Ionic a minore (No. 
52) says 

(14.) Anapastic Dimeter. 

the poet extended, by synapheia, to any length that suited 
his convenience suddenly breaking off at the close of a 
period, or a pause in the sense and leaving at the end au 
incomplete measure, a single foot, or a semifoot after 
this, beginning a new series or paragraph, running on as be- 
fore, and again abruptly terminating in the same manner 
only taking care, in the course of each series or para- 
graph, that the final syllable of every anapast, if not na- 
turally long, should, by means of the synaphtla y be ren- 
dered long by the concourse of consonants*. But, in 
every case, whether of a complete or broken foot at the 
conclusion of a series or paragraph, the final syllable might 
indifferently be either long or short. 

The following quotations from Seneca will exemplify 
the effects of the Synapheia, and other particularities above 
noticed. ' 


Non versibus istud, numero aut pedum, coarctant : 

Sed continue carmine quia pedesgemelli 

Urgent brevibus (tot numero jugando) longag, 

Idcirco vocari voluerunt ffwaQew 
and then immediately adds - 

Anapasticafiunt itidemptr trwaQtw. 

Versus tamen et non minus inde comparatur, 

Qui scepe pedes tres habeat, vel ille plures, 

Catalectica quos syllaba terminal ; frequenter 

Solet integer anapcestus et in fine locari. (De PcJ. 1 53, 
* Because (as observed by Dr, Clarke in a note on Iliad A, 51) tha 
anapaest, consisting of two short syllables followed by one long, receives 
greater emphasis of pronunciation upon the final syllable than any other 
foot ; and the pause at the termination of the verse is not sufficient for 
that purpose, unless the syllable be otherwise long, or stand at the con- 
plusion of a sentence. 

220 (14.) Anapastic Dimeter. 

teretes || propere/ | laqu5s. (Hippol. 45. 

coeli dum sulcat iter, 
Tenuit Latins Daedalus oras, 
^Nullique dedlt nomina ponto. 
Sed, dum \6\ucres vincere veras 
Icarus audet, patruTsque puer 
Despicit alas, Phoeboque volat 
Proximus ipsi, dedit ignoto 
Nomina ponto. (Here. (Et. 683. 

nos dura sorte creates, 

Seu perdidi??2z79 solem misen, . . 

Sive expulimiis ! 

abeant questus, &c. (Thyestes, 880. 

........ Me crudeli 

Sorte parentes raptos proh^?^ 

Lugere timor, fratrisque neeem 

Deflere vetat*, 

In quo futrat spes una mi hi, 

Totque malorum breve ^olamen. (Qctavia y 64. 

Complete m&niis : hoc ex Troja 

Surnpsisse \icef. Cadat ex hiimem 

Vestis apertis: utrumque t&gat 

Suffulta I'dtils. Jam nuda voccint 

Pectora dextras. Nunc, nunc vires 

Exprome, dolor, \\tiias. (Troas, 103. 

But, though the Anapaestics are conveniently divisible 
into dimeters, I cannot find that any one of the Latin 
poets (except perhaps Ausonius in a single instance which 

* I have thought it proper to break off the series here at vefaf, though 

1 see it continued unbroken in the edition of Seneca which now lies be- 
fore me. 

(14.) Anapccstlc Dimeter. 221 

I shall presently notice) ever proposed to himself that par- 
ticular length of line, as a regular formal verse. They all 
appear (at least from the Augustan age, downward) to have 
intended their Anapaestics for single measures, or mono- 
meters, leaving to the reader to connect or disjoin them 
as the sense might require, or his own judgement dictate. 
In the dramatic Anapaestics, indeed, regular uniformity of 
line is wholly out of the "question: nor is it always attain- 
able where we find the Anapaestics employed in detached 
poems. For example, Seneca the philosopher has an Ana- 
paestic piece consisting of an odd number of measures, 
which consequently could not have been intended for re- 
gular dimeters : and Boethius, although he has two poems, 
each consisting of an even number, has two others contain- 
ing odd numbers. With respect to Ausonius of two 
Anapaestic pieces transmitted to us by him, viz. Professores, 
6 and 21, the former being mutilated, we cannot tell what 
number it originally contained: the other is singular in its 
kind, and claims particular notice. It is divided into pen- 
tameters, if I may so venture to call them : for each series, 
or paragraph, or strophe, or stanza or whatever else 
the reader may choose to term it contains exactly five 
measures : and there are eight of these paragraphs. I here 
give a specimen, divided as I find it in print 
Tu quoque in aevum, Crispe, futui urn 
Mcesti venies commemoratus 

Munere threni ; 
Qui primaevos fandique rudes 
Elementorum prinria docebas 

Signa novorum ; 
Creditus olim fervere mero, 
Ut Virgilii Flaccique locis 
JEmula ferres. 


(15.) Anapastic Dimeter Catalectic. 

Here it is to be observed, that, in all the eight divisions 
of this poem, the third line, or fifth measure, uniformly 
consists of a dactyl and spondee, which combination of feet 
is known to constitute an Adonic verse : " consequently" 
(some of my readers may say) "Ausonius wrote the poem 
in strophes of two Anapaestic dimeters, and one Adonic." 
Perhaps so. But, if the union of dactyl and spondee prove 
these fifth measures to be Adonic, one half, perhaps, of 
all the Latin Anapaestics in existence will be Adonics : 'so 
frequently does the measure consist of a dactyl followed by 
a spondee. Each of my readers will form his own judge- 
ment : for my part, I conceive that Ausonius intended the 
whole for Anapaestics, whether we may choose to read them 
as monometers, dimeters, or pentameters. 

(No. 15.) Anapczstic Dimeter Catalectic. 

Unlike to the preceding, the Catalectic Dimeter is a 
regular verse of definite length, consisting of three feet, 
properly anapaests, followed by a Catalectic syllable. But 
the spondee was admissible into the first and second 

"1 2 1 3 

Ilote't om-|-nia clr-| culiis an-|-m. (Martianus Capella. 

Ft fox \ nimmm | prior ae-|-tas. (Boet hilts. 

Dapibus \jarn n-|-te para-|-tls. (Prudentius. 

Functum \ lairda-\-re dece-|-bit. (Ausonius. 

These lines, however, may all be scanned as dactylic, 

(16.) AnapGstic Manometer. 

Rotet | omnia | circulus | annl. 

IT'-'-lix nlmi-|-um prior | c^tas. 

Dupi-j-blis jam | rite pa-|-ratis. 

Fun-|-ctum lau-|-dare de-|-cebit. 

in which case, the verse will be an acephalous dactylic 

tetrameter a postcriore, as described under No. 9 : and, 

in all the poems of this construction, written by Boethius, 

Prudentius, Martianus Capella, and Ausonius, there is 

not a single line which \ve are compelled to scan otherwise 

than as dactylic; though it is certain that the ancients 

considered and scanned such verses as anapasstics *. 

(No. 16.) Anapaestic Monometer. 

The Monometer Anap&stic is simply the anapaestic mea- 
sure of two feet, already noticed in No. 14, viz. 

It has there been shown that the Anapaestic Dimeters 
may all be read as Monometers. It here remains to ob- 
serve that those poems of Seneca and Ausonius, which are 
usually printed as Monometers, may equally be read as Di- 

* Caetera pars superest, " Mea tibta dice re versus." 
Haec juncta frequentius edet 
Anaptestica dulcia metra, 
Cuicumquelibebit, ut istos, 
Triplices dare sic anapaestos .... 
Erit ultima syllaba post tres, 
Catalectica quse perhibetur. (Terentianus, de Metr. 92. 

(17-) Archelulic Anapastic. 

meters or continued paragraphs, without any greater in- 
convenience in this case than in that of the tragic Ana- 
psestics* See No. 14, page 221. 

Fundite fletus; 

Edite planctus ; 

Fingite luctus. 

Resonet tristi 

Clamore forum. 

Cecidit pulchre 

Cordatus homo, 

Quo non alius 

Fuit in toto 

Fortior orbe. (Seneca. 

O flos juvenum, 

Spes laeta patris, 

Nee certa tuse 

Data res patrias; 

Non mansuris 

Ornate bonis; 


Raptusque simul, 


Velut herba solet, 

Rhetor Alethi. (Ausonius. 

(No. 17.) Archebulic Anap&stic. 

This species of verse (denominated from its inventor, 
Archebulus) consists of four anapaests, followed by a Bac- 
chius, thus 

(18.) Anapcestic Tetrameter Catalectic. 225 
Tibi na--scitur om--n^ pcus, | tlbi cre-|-sct ho?dus. 

Gnri | d&ttir au-]-ctor huic | vtus ar-j-che'bulus. 

I do not know of any poems now extant in this metre. 

(No. 18.) Anapastic Tetrameter Catalectic. 

The Catalectlc Tetrameter consists of seven feet (pro- 
perly, anapaests) and a catalectic syllable. But the apa- 
pagst is every- where alterable to a spondee or dactyl, and 
sometimes to a proceleusmatic. 

This metre is familiar to the readers of Aristophanes * : 
but I do not recollect to have any-where seen an example 
of it in Latin. To frame a verse of the kind, \ve have 
only to prefix to thq common dactylic hexameter a foot and 
a half ; as follows 


It ap^idis- \-slma qua- | -driipe'dan- [ - 
quati't un-|-gtila cam-|-pum. 

Pulchtr-\-Timti, re-|-gia S6-|-lXs 
-t^ c61um-|-nis. 

putrem | s5nitu J 
subli-]-mibus al-| 

* From that poet's partiality to this species of verse, we might not 
improperly denominate it Aristophanic : but the ancient scholiast simply 
calls it Catalytic Tetrameter ; and that name aptly describes it. 

G C 

(22.) Iambic Trimeter. 

d2S fir-|-ma virum-j-qu cano | Trojie j qui pri-| 

-mils ab 6-|-ris .... 
Vifidan-\-t2, Ti-|-tyre, tu | pattilre | recubans | sub teg-j 

-mine fa-|-gi, 
Secu-\-riis sil-j-vestrem | teniil | musum | medita-|-ris ave-j 


It is to be noted, however, that, although such addi- 
tion of a foot and half will convert any dactylic hexameter 
into this species of Anapaestic, the reverse is not always 
practicable : for, if one of these Anapaestics contain either 
a dactyl or a proceleusmatic any-where except in the first 
station, we cannot, by cutting off a foot and half, reduce 
the verse to dactylic metre. 


(No. 22.) Iambic Trimeter. 

Iambic verses take their name from the Iambus, which, 
in pure Iambics, was the only foot admitted ; and they are 
scanned by measures of two feet ; it having been usual, 
in reciting them, to make a little pause at the termination 
of. every second foot, with an emphasis on its final syl- 
lable *. 

* Speaking of the Trimeter, Terentianus (de Melr. 473) says 
Sed ter feritur : hinc trimetrus dicitur, 
Scandendo blnos quod pedcs conjimgimus 
and again, de Metr. 527 

Ilc-roicus quare pcdes per singulos, 
At iste binos, scanditur, causam loquar. 
Spondeon etenim quia recepit impari 
Tantumloco, vel dactylum, aut contrarium. 

(22,) Iambic, Trimeter. "$&7 

The Trhmter Iambic (called likewise Senarlus from 
the number of its feet) consists of three measures, or six 
feet, properly all iambi ; and the c<exnra most commonly 
(though not always) takes place after the fifth semi- 
foot *, as .^ 
Phase-j-lus il-l|-le, quern | vide-||-tYs ; lios-j-pXtcs 


But the pure Iambic was rarely used: and the spondee 
was allowed to take the place of the iambus in the first, 
third, and fifth feet, for the purpose of giving to the verse 
a greater degree of weight and dignity, as observed by Ho- 
race, Art. Poi j t. 255 and also for another ireason, which 
Horace has not told us that is, the extreme difficulty of 
producing any considerable number of good verses, when 
the poet was debarred the use of any word containing 
two successive long syllables, unless he elided the latter 
or two short, unless the second were either elided, or made 

Secundo iamburn nos riecesse est leddere, 

(Qui sedis hujus jura semper obtinet) 

Scandendo et illic ponere assuetam /noram, 

Quam pollicis sonore, vel plausu pedis, 

Discriminare, qui decent a item, solent. 

Si primus ergo pes earn sumet morara, 

Ubi jam receptum est subdere heroos pedes, 

V^rsum videbor non tenere iambicum. 

Sed r quia secundo iiunquain iambus pellitur, 

Morani necess^ est is secundo reddere, 

Et caeteris qui sunt secundo compares, 
non timebd nequis herous cadat. 
.'it trimetrus, qui fuit seuarius. 

' r l 'lv ion is inaccurate in this place, us we cannot find an 

exact semifoot in a pure the short syllable being less 
than Ijalr', uu-.i tLe long syllable more. But the reader wiU excuse the 

Iambic Trimeter. 

long by position *. Thus we see that Horace himself, 
though much affecting pure Iambics in his Epodes, was 
frequently obliged to transgress the narrow bounds of the 
pure Iambic metre even in those short pieces. 

The admission of the spondee was not the only innova- 
tion. A further liberty was taken that of dividing the 
double time of one long syllable into two single times, or 
two short syllables. Thus, for the iambus, of three times, 
was substituted a tribrachys, in every station except the 
sixth, because, there, the final syllable being lengthened 
by the longer pause at the termination of the line, a tri- 
brachys would in fact be equal to an anapaest, containing 
fbur times, instead of three. For the spondee, of four 
times, was substituted a dactyl or an anapaest, and some- 
times, in the first station, a proceleusmaticus. 

The scale of the mixed Trimeter Iambic is therefore as 



* Nam mox poetae (ne nimis secans brevis 
Lex hcec ia.nbi verba pauca admjlteret, 
Bum parvalongam semper alterno gradq 
Urget, nee aptis exprimi verbis sinit 
Sensus, aperte dissideritc regula) 
Spondeon, tt quos iste pes ex se creat, 
Admiscuerunt, impari tarnen loeo ; 
Pedemque primuni, tertium, quintum quoque, 
Juvere paullo syllable majoribus. ( Tfrentianus t de Aletr. 

(22.) Iambic Trimeter. 2 

But, though the spondee was admitted into three sta- 
tions, the iambus was still retained in the others, viz. the 
second, fourth, and sixth. And the reason why these 
latter were reserved for the iambus in preference to the 
former, was probably this that, by placing the spondee 
first and making the iambus to follow, such arrangement 
would give greater emphasis to the concluding syllable of 
each measure, on which the ictus and pause took place; 
the difference of time causing the ear to be more sensibly 
affected when the long syllable is immediately preceded by 
a short, than when two long syllables stand together : 
e. gr. 

Comes | mhw-\-re sum | /#^7-|-rus in metn. (Horace. 

Vix ip-j-M ftf/j-|-turn, vix j adhitc \ credo malum. (Seneca. 
Seri 1 dant /;#-|-nas tiir-|-j9e*jto-|-Bhentia. (Phadrus. 

Terentianus, however, (as the reader has seen in a pre- 
ceding note) reverses this order of things, and supposes the 
pause to take place on the second foot of each measure 
because it is an iambus, not a spondee, &c. But I humbly 
conceive that the poets who originally wrote in pure Iambics 
before the spondee was introduced, knew how to recite 
their verses with proper pauses and emphasis; and that 
the mode of recitation which they established, was after- 
ward the law that regulated the admission or exclusion of 
the spondee at particular stages of the verse. 

In tragedy, the pure Iambic was disapproved, as too 
light and flippant for the gravity and dignity of the heroic 
theme * ; for which reason, the spondee, dactyl, and ana- 

* Culpatur autem versus in tragocdiis, 
Et rarus intrat, ex iambis omnibus, 
Ut ille contra qui secundo et talibus 
ponc!eon, aut quern comparcm, receperit. 

, de Metr. 508 

S30 (22.) Iambic Trimeter. 

pzest, were freely used in the first, third, and fifth places. 
In i\ie fifth, particularly, the tragic poets were extremely 
averse to the iambus, which so rarely occurs, that we 
might almost consider it as wholly exiled from that station ; 
though it is not the fact, as asserted by some prosodians, 
that an iambus in the fifth place never occurs iu Seneca's 
tragedies. Here follow eight examples from them * : but 
I own it would be difficult, if not impossible, to find an- 
other in the whole volume; for, with respect to Polyxena 
in the Troas, 1<)5, the poet probably intended it to be 
pronounced Ptilyxena (i. e. Poolyxena), as Pulydamas, 
noticed in page 35. 

Sparsus cruore Caucasus Promethei. (Medea, 708. 

.... Sasvitque frustra : plusque, quam sat tst, furit. 

(CEdipus^ 970. 

Tune obruta atque eversa Trojd co^cidit. (Troas, 417. 
.... His alta fupes, cujus e ctfcwmine .... (Troas, 1081. 
Jam Lerna retro cessit, et Phoromdes . . . (Tkyestes, 115. 
.... Excepit omnis. Hinc petrae Capharides .... 

(Here. (Et. 804. 

Mortem tnetu consumpsit, etpiirum sui . . . . (Ibid. 811. 
.... Tenuit cadaver, Hac manu, inquif, hue ferar .... 

(Ibid. 813. 

From what we have above seen, I presume, that, when- 
ever, in a tragic Iambic, the first, third, or fifth foot (of 
two syllables) has the first syllable common (as mbram t 
ftagran-, patri, in the subjoined examples) we ought in 
general to lengthen such syllable, and make the foot a 

* A few also occur in the fragments of the earlier tragedians, who, 
though not fond of an iambus in the fifth place, appear to hav* 
averse to it than their succcf 

25.) Iambic Trimeter. 231 

spondee more particularly the fifth, on account of the 
tragic poets' marked aversion to an iambus in the fifth place. 
In the third, indeed, the occasion will rarely occur, be- 
cause the first syllable of that foot most commonly termi- 
nates a word ; the cccsura taking place after the fifth semi- 
foot, as observed in page 227. 

Vlbrans \ corusca fulmen ^Etnaeum manu. (Seneca. 

Vastam | rogo | flagran-\-te corripiat trabem. (Seneca.' 
Pax al-|-ta rur-|-sus Hec-|-toris \patri \ fuit. (Seneca. 

This attention appears the more necessary, if the verse 
do not otherwise contain two spondees, or feet equiva- 
lent to them. But, on the other hand, should such am- 
biguous foot occur in a verse of Horace or Catullus, we 
ought probably to consider it as an iambus. 

In comedy, satire, and fable, the poets indulged them- 
selves with a much greater latitude than the tragic writers. 
They admitted the spondee (and its equivalents the dactyl 
and anaprest) into the second and fourth places, not con- 
fining themselves to the iambus, except in the sixth * : 
e. gr. 

An ut | matrd-\-ri& ornata phaleris pelagiis .... (Petronius. 
Tuo | pala-[-to clau-|-$j?,y prt-j-vo pascitur. (Petronius. 

JEquuin est [ ~induc-\-re nup-\~tain vcn-\-tum textilem ? 


* Sed qui pedestres fabulas socco premnnt, 
Ut, quae loquuntur, sumpta ue vita putes, 
Vitant iambon tn.ct bus fc.pondai'cis, 
Et in secundo et castens a?que locis ; 
Fidemque lictiscum prr/ci raut t^i.-ulis. 
In metra peccant arte, non insciti \, 
Ne sint sonora verba c , 

Paullumque rursus a solutis difl'^rant. (Terentianus, de Metr. 512. 

(22.) Iambic Trimeter. 

Peri-[-culo-]-sam fe-\-c~tt 7wW2-|-cinam lupo. 
Est ar-|-fl?/j0-|-num c[Utt-\-dam jRo~|-mae natio. (Phcedrus. 
Rex ur-j-bis, e-|-jus ex-|-/>riw-j-di gratia . , , . (Phtfdrus. 
igno-\-tos fal-\-llt ; no-\-tis est \ deri-|-sul. (Phcedrus. 

Often, moreover, in these familiar compositions, al- 
though the verse does contain more than the one final 
iambus, the others are placed in the spondaic stations : 

e. gr. 

.... odo-\-rem quas jucundum late spargeret. (Phcedrus. 
Sin au-|-tem doc-\-tus z/-|-lis occurrit labor . . . (Phadrus. 
Pares \ dum non | sint ves-j-tras for-|-f/Y z7-|-dini. (Ph&drus. 

But, although, in these and several other passages, 
Phaedrus lowered his verses as near to the level of prose as 
he well could do it consistently with even the semblance of 
versification, he has not, in a single instance, neglected to 
terminate the line with an iambus : for, with respect to 
Impexerunt (3, 8), Caper unt (4, 15), and Abierunt 
(4, 19), they cannot be quoted as examples to the con- 
trary, since grammarians admit a systole in such termina- 
tions and, besides, we ought probably to read Inspex- 
erAnt, CcepwAnt, Abler Int. See page 182. 

The Trimeter Iambic is sometimes convertible .into a 
dactylic pentameter : e. gr. 
Paterna rura bobus exercet suis. (Horace. 
Exercet bobus rura paterna suis. 
Prdviditille rnaximus mundi parens. (Seneca* 
Providit mundi maximus ille parens. 
Paterna puero bella monstrabat senex. (Seneca* 
Monstrabat puero bella paterna sencx. 

23. Season. 

(No. 23.) Scazon, or Choliambiis. 

The Scazon or Choliambus (lame Iambic) is only the 
Trimeter Iambic (No. 22) with a spondee instead of an 
iambus for the sixth foot. But, lest the verse should be- 
come too lame and heavy if a spondee were admitted into 
the fifth place also, the poets were generally attentive to 
have the concluding spondee immediately preceded by an 
iambus* as, in spondaic hexameters, we usually find 
the fourth foot a dactyl for the same reason. In every 
other respect, the Scazon exactly resembles the commoi* 
Trimeter Iambic, and admits the same variations. 
Bvi-[-stt6-|-t, sed | puden-j-fer It \ retro. (Virgil 

5 quid | solu-|-tis est | bsi-\-tTus \ curls ? (Catullus. 

amethys-|-tmas~|-que mull- j-erurn \vdcat \ vestes. (Martial* 
Suffeniis Ist, Vare, quern pr6be nosti, 
Homo est venustus et dicax et urbanus, 
Idemqu^ longe plurfmos facit versus. 
Puto esse ^go illi millia aut d^cem aut plura 
Perscrlpta, nee sic, fit fit, in palimpsesto 
Rtlatd f : charta? region, novl libri, 

* - Cavendum est, ne licentid suetd 
Spondeon, aut qui procreanturex illo, 

Ban putemus posse nunc loco quinto ; } 

Ke deprehens* quatuor simul longaj 
Parum sonoro fine destruant versum ; 
Nam dactyluni paremve quid tibi dicam ? 
Quum tantum iambus hoc loco probe poni, 
Aliusque nullus rite possit admitti. (Terentiaiws, de Metr. 687, 
t Instead ofRelata, I conceive that Catullus here wrote Releta, irom 
di*fi&urcd with correction* and alterations in the foul 
H H 

34 (24) Saiurnian. 

Novi umbilici, 15ra r libra, membrana 
Directa plurnbo, et putiVico omiVia ajqaafa, (Catullus. 

This species of verse is also called the Hipponactic Tri- 
meter, from the virulent poet Hipponax, who invented it. 
After ln> example,, it was employed in railing and ridicule; 
for whic(i purposes it was much used by Martial, occasio- 
nally also by. Catullus, by Virgil in his Catalecta, and by 
other poets. 

.The Scazon is sometimes convertible into a dactylic pen> 
tameter, and vice versa : e. gr. 
Etesse ttistem me me us vetat Peetus. (Martial. 
Et tristemPtfius me metis esse vetat. 
Nee tu de tarrto crede minora viro. (Pedo. 
Nee tu minora crede de viro tan to. 

(No. Z^ Satiirnian. 

The Seturnian, if considered as a single verse, is aiv 
Iambic Trimeter Hypermeter, but with a violation of the 
Iambic law, in admiiting a spondee into the fourth sta- 
tion, as 

copy, or, as we commonly say, blotted, scored, and interim cd. Every 
scholar knows that the particle RE, besides denoting repetition, means 
also to undo the prior effect of the verb with which it is combined, as we 
see in Virgil's " Fixit leges pretio,. aique rclix-it" and in Terence's use of 
this self-same verb Relco, though in a different acceptation, viz. " Re- 
levi dolia omnia" Heaut. 3, 1,51. To seise Catullus's idea, let us 
first premise the. action of Leo, i. e, to blot out, or efface : then Relco will 
signify to undo that blotting out or efacing in other words, to write 
the lines anctv, or to insert the corrections. Thus Relcta will make per- 
fectly good sense in unison with the context; which is more than can be 
said of Relata. 

5, } Iambic Tetrameter. .235' 

et NaVj-vio || poe-|-*rt i-7c || feiTmt 

Cum sa>|-pe laj-||-dercn-|-f#r, es-|| 

Dabunt | malum || Metel-H' JVS-j-v'io j ppe-jr^'- 

Terentianus, however, scans it otherwise, in two com- 
via fa, the first Iambic, the latter Trocbaic, thus 
Dabunt | malum | Metel-|-li |J Na?vi-|-o pd-|-etae. 

Probably, indeed, it was intended by the authors for 
two separate verses, viz. a Catalectic Dimeter Iambic, (No. 
32) and an Ithyphallic (No. 41) thus 
Dabunt | malum | Metel-|-li 

Na3vi-|-o po-|-eta3 

which division saves all breach of rule ; the final syllable of 
each verse being indifferently long or short. 

(No. 25.) Iambic Tetrameter, or Octonarius. 


The Iambic Tetrameter, called also Quadratus, and, 
from the number of its feet, Octonarius, consists of four 
measures, or eight feet properly, all iambi, but subject 
to the same variations as the Trimeter Iambic, No. 22; 
so that, by prefixing or subjoining one measure to a com- 
mon Iambic Trimeter, we convert it into an Octonarius^ 
as here shown in a verse from Horace, Epod. 16 
ab ho.-.-\-tibus jj velut | pr6fu-|j-git ex-j-secra-j|-ti'i cl-|-v'itas. 
Velut | profu-ll-gitex-j-sdcrri-iJ-Uici-l-vitas || ab hds-\-fibm. 

Of this metre, often used by the comic writers *, the 
following examples will be sufficient, 

* The learUed Mr. Dawes, in bis Misceil. r 'rit. says " Hoc genus 
soli videntur coraici, iiquc non nisi Latini, adhibuisse :" and, although 
the verse whicli I qaote from an angieut tragic fragment (consisting, 

236 (26.) Iambic Tetrameter Catalectic. 

dest | Sdest || fax ob-|-volu-||-ta san-|-gu]fneat-||~queincen-| 

-dio. (Fragm. vet. trag. 

Sane j p61 Is-||-ta te-|-mulen-||-ta est muli-|-er et |[ temera-] 

-ria. ( Terence. 

Nunc hie | dies || attain | vitam ad-jj-fert, ali-|-5s m6-|| 

-res pds-|-tulat. (Terence. 

Patere-|-tur : nam || quern fer-j-ret, si |j paren-j-tem non || 

ferret j siium ? (Terence. 

Len5 j sum, fate-|j-or, per-|-nicies | commu-j-nis ado-j] 

-lescen-|-tifum. ( Terence. 

1115s j qui dant, || eos | derl-|j-des; qui | delu-j'-dunt, de-| 

-peris. (PLautus. 

Nequld | propter |j tiiam | fidem || decep-j-ta pate-|i-retur j 

Cujus I nunc mifse-|i-re spes | opes-[j-que sunt | In te u-j| 

-no omnes | sit?e, (Terence, 

(No. 26.) Iambic Tetrameter Catalectic. 

The Tetrameter Catalectic (called likewise Hippovactic 
from its inventor, Hipponax) is the Tetrameter or Octo- 
narius, No. 25, deprived of its final syllable. In other 
words, to the common Trimeter Iambic let us subjoin a 
foot and half, i. e. an iambus and an odd syllable ; and we 
produce a Hipponactic Tetrameter, as exemplified in thq 
following verse from Horace, Epod. 15, 2 

however, of only two lines) ?eems to indicate that the early tragedians 
were not wholly unused to this metre, it is certain that not one example 
of the kind occurs in the entire collection of tragedies handed down 
to us under the name of Seneca: nor, from the early tragedians them- 
gelves, do I find more than the single distich here noticed. 


(2fi.) Iambic Tetrameter Catakctlc. 237 

Suls | etip-j|-sa Ro-|-m;i v -"-nbus j riilt ij perlt-\-<]uc. 

In strict propriety, its seven feet ought to be all iambi, 

II emit- 1 -te pal- 1| -Rum | mihl || m^utn | quod In-jj-vftla-jstl. 


But the pure Iambic was rarely used, for the reason al- 
leged in page 227, insomuch that the piece of Catullus 
from which the preceding example is quoted, though con- 
lined to thirteen lines, has only five of that small number 
pure Iambics; the same variations being admissible here as 
in the Trimeter and Tetrameter, Nos. 22 and 25 ; and the 
comic writers, who sometimes used this species of verse, 
took as great liberties with it as with those just mentioned 
observing, however, to make the seventh foot an iambus. 
Deprtn'\~s% na-||-vis in | marl || t'M-|-riien-||-te ven-|to. 


Quum de j v'ia || mulicr \ aves || ostcn-\-dit 6s-||-citrin-j-tcs. 


Non pos-|-.5wfz satT j| narra-j-r^ quos || ludos | pr&buc-l 
-rts In-j-tus. (Terence. 

Nostra-\-\>\. cu\-\\-pa f(ici~\-mus ut || malos | e.rpedi-\\ 
-at es-| se. (Terence. 

Aristophanes has entire scenes in this metre, which cer- 
tainly is very light and lively, as appears by those few 
verses in which modern accent is not made to destroy an- 
cient quantity : for example, the following from his Plutus, 

' rij i}dopct,l, JtOLl TSgTTOtACtl, KClt @OV}*OfAGC,l 

and this of Catullus 

Idemque, Thalle, turbida rapacior procella. 

23% (27-) Iamb. Trim. Aceph. (28.) Iamb. Trim. CataL 

(No. 7.) Iambic Trimeter Acephalus. 

The Acephalous Trimeter (called also Archilockian, 
from the poet Archilochus, who used it*) is the common 
Trimeter Iambic (No. 22) deprived of its first syllabi 
the following lines curtailed from Horace. 
oc-|-ciden^|-tisus-|-quead ul-j|-tiinuui | sinum. (Epod. 1, 13. 
6 j de'd-j|-rum quld-j-quid in || coelo | regis . . . (Epod. 5, 1. 

(No. 28.) - Iambic Trimeter Catalectic. 

The Catalectic Trimeter is the common Trimeter (No. 
22) wanting the final syllable : that is to say, it consists 
of five feet (properly, all iambi) followed by a catalectic 
syllable, as 

V6ca-|-tiis at-jj-que non j voca j .|-tus au-|-dit. (Horace. 
Pius | fide-||-lis In-j-nocens || pudl-|-cus. (Prudtntius* 

Like the common Trimeter, it admits the spondee into 
the first and third places, but not into the fifth, which would 
render the verse too heavy and prosaic. 
Trahunt-|-que sic-\\-cas ma-\-cinn& \\ cari-|-nas. (Horace. 
Nonnul-\-\& quer-||-cw sunt \ cava-||-ta et ul-|-mo. (Prud. 

Terentianus prefers to scan this kind of verse as part 
of an Iambic Trimeter, with three trochees following, 

Trah Lint-j-que sic-j-cas || machi-|-na' ca-|-rinas 
because the verse to which it is subjoined by Horace (Sol- 
vitur acris hiems, &c.) terminates with three trochees. 
The reason is somewhat curious: but the point is of little 

* Terentianus, de Metris, 707. 

(29- ) Iambic Dimeter. 


importance. It is more important to observe that it is not 
necessary (as asserted in a modern prosody) to make the 
third foot invariably a spondee : for, although Horace, in 
the fourth ode of his first book, has ten of these verses, 
which all happen to have a spondee in the third station, 
yet that is not the case in Od. 2, 1 8, where he uses the 
same metre: nor is it the case in Prudentius's Preface to 
his Pcri-Steph. or his Passio Petri et Pauli, which two 
pieces were evidently written in imitation of those two of 

This species of verse is likewise called Archilockian, 
from the poet Archilochus. 

(No. 29.) Iambic Dimeter. 

The Dimeter Iambic consists of two measures, or four 
feet, properly all iambi, as 
Perun-|-xt hoc j ia-|sonem. (Horace. 

But it admits the same variations as the Trimeter*, 

1 2 3 1 4 

Fortu-|-na ndn |l mutat | genus, 
fist eg6 | vtels-||-sim rl-j-sero. 

( Horace. 

* Horace, however, much more frequently employs a spondee than 
any other foot in the third place ; which agrees with the practice of the 
tragic poets in \\ivjifth of the Trimeter, noticed in page 230. 

240 (29-) Iambic Dimeter. 

MerYtls j repen-||-det con-J-grua. (Prudentiuf* 

Vfde-j-re prope-||-rantes | dornum. (Horace. 

Jnm mel-j-la de || scoptills | flaunt. (Prudentius. 

animu-j-la vagii-||-la' blan-|-dula, 
Hospes | comes-||-que c6r-|-poris, 
Quic nunc | ubl-||-bis in | loca, 
Pallid ii-j-la, ngi-||-da *, nu-j-dula? 

Nee, ut | soles, |] dabis | jocos. (Adrianus, ap. Spartlaji. 
Although Horace has not used this metre except in con* 
junction with verses of a different kind, other authors 
wrote entire poems in it, as Prudentius (who has Dimeter 
hymns, each consisting of several hundred lines), St. Am- 
brose, Pope Damasus, Sedulius, Venantius Honorius 
Fortunatus, &c. But not one of those writers paid any 
greater regard to Synapheia than Terentianus, whom Mr. 
Davves censures for his neglect of it t. Indeed, I cannot 

* I give this verse as I find it in the Variorum edition of the Historic 
Avust<e Scriptortb ; though I think I have somewhere seen it other- 
wise, viz. 

Pa]iiuu-|-la, fr7~\\-gida, nu-j-diila 

which some of my readers will probably prefer. But, if Adrian did 
intend the idea conveyed by Rigida, we may fairly presume, that, as 
he made all the other epithets diminutives, so, in this case, he wrote 
Rigidulai which the metre will very properly admit, thus 
Palli(lu-|-la, rigi-\\-d:da, uu |-dula. 

f"Hic observure libet, licentiam, qua utitur Terentianus iambici 
dimetri in fin'. 1 , quatenus scilicet syliabam ibi brevem producit a voce 
sequente neutiquam adjutam, poetas Grascos nunquam sibi permisisse. 
Ab omni enim licentia iidem temperabant iu dimetris (prout jam dis- 
pertiri solent) cum anapajsticis turn trochaicis. Nempe dnrretn cujus- 
cumque generis continuo carmine per ay*^ear ciecurrunt, usquedum ad 
versum catalecticum, quo omne systeuia claudatur, deventum sit.'* 
Miacell. Cut. p. 30. 

129. Iambic Dimeter. 241 

discover that any Latin poet ever regarded it in Iambic 
Dimeters. Alphius Avitus, for example, is highly com- 
mended by Terentianus, as author of several entire vo- 
lumes of excellent Dimeters: and, as Alphius lived near 
to the Augustan* age, we might naturally expect in him 
greater purity and accuracy than in his later successors : 
yet he too, equally with the others, disregarded the Syna- 
pheia, as appears by the following quotation from his very 
scanty remains 

Spatianclo paullatim tra///Y 
Hostilis ad valli latus 

for the // of Hostilis cannot here perform the office of 
a consonant to lengthen the final syllable ofTrahit*. 

The liturgy of the church of Rome has several hymns in 
this metre, as 

Vexilla regis prodeunt 

attributed by some to St. Ambrose, by others to V. II. 

This species of verse is also called the Archilochian 
Dimeter, from the poet Archilochus who invented it, and 
used it (as we learn from Terentianus} in those bitter in- 
vectives by which he drove the unfortunate Lycambes and 
his daughter to hang themselves. From an existing frag- 
ment of his villanous lampoon, it appears that he em- 
ployed the Trimeter and Dimeter alternately, as Horace, 
after his example, has combined them in several of his 
Epodes the sixth, for example, where he threatens Cas- 
sins with a lecture in the true Archilochian style. 

* Although the aspiration sometimes had the effect of lengthening a 
preceding short syllable in Greek poetry, I do not find that it ever pos- 
sessed that power in Latin : for, as far as my observation reaches, in 
every case where such power might be suspected, the effect is equally 
producible by the canura t without any additional aid. See pages J5 
aiy] J3Q. 

I I 

(30.) Iamb. -Dim. Hyperm.^ (31.) Iamb. Dim. Aceph. 

(No. 30.) Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter. 

The Dimeter Hypermeter, called likewise Archilochian, 
is the Iambic Dimeter (No. 29) with an additional syl- 
lable at the end, as 

Rede-|-git ad || veros | timo-||-m. (Horace, 

6rna-|-re pul-||-vlnar | deo-\\-rum. (Horace, 

Horace makes frequent use of this metre in conjunction 
ivith the Alcaic (No. 55) : and it is worthy of remark that 
he always has the third foot a spondee, unless we except 
this one verse 

Disjecta non levi ruina (Od. 2, 19, 15) 
where, however, some MSS. have leni, 

(No, 31.) Iambic Dimeter Acephalus. 

The Acephalous Dimeter is the Dimeter Iambic, No* 
29, wanting the first syllable, as 

Non | ebur || neque au-|-reum .... (Horace. 

Do-|-na con-||-scien-l-tta3. (Prudentius. 

Horace and Prudentius made no variations, but uni- 
formly employed the iambus, in the few lines they have 
left us in this metre which, by the way, might be con- 
sidered as Catalectic Trochaic Dimeters (No. 40), and 
thus scanned 

Non e'-|-biir n-||-que aur^-|-um .... 
Dona | consci'-!|-enti-|-JE 

But Terentianus (De Metris, 738) expressly calls this 
species of verse $n Acephalous Dimeter Iambic. 

2.) Iambic Dimeter Catalectic. 243 

(No. 32.) Iambic Dimeter Catalectic, or Anacreontic. 

The Catalectic Dimeter, called also Dimeter Claudus 
but better known by the name of Anacreontic* from the 
poet Anacreon, whose charming little songs in this metre 
have for ever ennobled it is the Dimeter Iambic (No. 
29) wanting the final syllable. It consists, properly, of 
three iambi, and a Catalectic syllable, as 

anus | re'coc-||-ta vi-|-no, 

Tremen-|-tibus || label- -lis. (Petronius. 

It admits, however, the tribrachys, spondee, and anaprcst 
into the first station, but suffers no variation in the third 

*oTo<ra j <pgoy-l-tni> y-|-Xa/. (Anacreon. 

Lex h&c \ data est j| cadu-j-cis, 

Deo | juben-||-t, rnem-|-bris, 

tit fewi-|-pret || Iab5-j-rem 

Med1ca-\-bihs \\ v6lup-|-tas. (Prudentius. 
It is to be observed, however, that here are, according 
to some of the ancients, two different species of verse. 
Terentianus, in treating of the Catalectic Dimeter Iambic, 
and quoting examples, has them all beginning with an 
iambus or spondee. Of those beginning with an anapaest 
he makes a distinct class, observing (de Metris, 1J41) 

* I here speak only of what I have observed in Latin : for, in the 
Greek Anacreontics, the spondee was sometimes admitted into the 
third place: witness a long po- m of Paulus Silentiarius in the Antho- 
logia. But, to me, those spondaic lines appear intolerably heavy and 
prosaic, when compared with the light easy fluency of the others. 
Anacreon himself has very few of the kind; nor does one occur in the 
poem of Theocritus on the death of Adonis, 

244 (32*) Iambic Dimeter Catalectic. 

that they were, by some persons, considered as trochaic, 
and scanned as a pyrrichius and three trochees, thus 

Medi-|-cabj-|-lls vo-|-luptas. 

It is of little consequence whether we consider and scan 
them as Iambic or Trochaic, where we find an entire poem 
consisting of such verses, as some of the odes of Anacreon, 
Sidonius Apollinaris, lib. 9, epist. 13, and Boethius, 3, 7 
to which let me add a piece in Claudian (Nupt. Hon. 
Fescen.) where he makes stanzas of three such lines fol- 
lowed by a Choriambic Tetrameter (No. 43) thus 
Age, cuncta nuptiali 
Redimita vere tellus, 
Celebra toros heriles : 

Omne nemus cum fluviis, omne canat profundum. 
But, where we find the initial anapaest promiscuously 
blended with the initial iambus and spondee as in many 
.of Anacreon's odes, in Martianus Capella, lib. p/, and 
Prudentius, Cathemer. 6 it were preposterous to view 
some lines as Iambic and others as Trochaic, when we can 
trace neither design nor regularity in the distribution, and 
when it evidently appears that the author intended them all 
for the same metre ; though the case might have been dif- 
ferent in the chorus to Act 4 of Seneca's Medea it being 
usual, in tragic choruses, to blend various kinds of verse. 

In a fragment of Sappho, some editors give us the lines 
thus divided, or rather joined 

cvri ^vvupcu zgsxsiv rov iirrbv, 

How they mean such verse to be scanned, particularly 
the middle portion (r/ Jywfyxtff dog /S^aJ/Vav), I cannot 
tell. But I conceive that each of those lines was intended 

(34.) GaUiambus. 

tor two separate verses, Catalectic Dimeter Iambics, like 
those of Anacreon, as in fact they are given by other edi- 
tors, viz. 



Whether Sappho intentionally alternated the initial ana- 
paest with the initial iambus, or whether this \vas purely 
the effect of chance, I pretend not to determine. 

(No. 34.) GaUiambus. 

The Galliambus (so denominated from the Galll t or 
priests of Cytale, by whom it was used) consists of a Ca- 
talectic Dimeter Iambic (No. 32) beginning with a spondee 
or anapaest, and followed by another such Dimeter want- 
ing the last syllable ; the catalr-ctic syllable at the end of 
the first Dimeter being long. Thus J:o frame examples, 
after the manner of Terentianus, from two of the verses 
quoted under No. 32 we shall have 
Lex hctc \ data cst [c$du-\-cis \\ Icxhd'C \ data cst \ cadu 
JM%dtca-\-b1lis | rolup-\-tas |j m$dica-\-VHTs \ -colilp 
the caesura uniformly taking place at the end of the first 

The verse, however, admits some variations, viz. 

But it is to be observed, that, to render the strains more 

246 (36.) Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic. 

suitable to the voices of those effeminate singers, the ana- 
paest was generally preferred to the spondee in both divi- 
sions of the verse, particularly the latter and that the 
penultimate foot of the whole line was most commonly a 
tribrachys. Indeed, in a Galliambic poem of Catullus, 
containing near a hundred verses, there are only five which 
have not the tribrachys in that station. Here follow a 
few examples from him. 

Super al-j-ta vec-j-tiis a-ftys || cele'rl | rate ma-]-rYa . . . 
ubi capi'-J-ta MaVJ-nades j vl || jaciunt | heden-|-gerse. 
Vindem j citus ad-j-it i-j-dam j| properan-j-te pede chorus, 


Trochaic verses bear a near affinity to Iambic : for, as 
single short and long syllables alternately recur in the pure 
Iambic and pure Trochaic, the addition or retrenchment 
of a syllable at the beginning of a pure Iambic line renders 
it pure Trochaic, and the addition or retrenchment of a 
syllable at the beginning of a pure Trochaic line renders it 
pure Iambic with the deficiency (or redundancy) of a 
syllable, in each case, at the end of the verse. 

(No. 26.) Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic. 

The Catalectic Trochaic Tetrameter (or Octonarius) 
consists of seven feet (properly all trochees) followed by a 
catalectic svllable, as 

(36.) Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectlc. 247 

6 be-' r atus | ortus | ille, || virgti j cum pu-|-erpe-|-ra .... 


JUSSLIS | est in-]-ermis j lie: || puriis j ire | jussiis | est. . 


Itis, in fact, only the Iambic Octonarius (No. 25) want- 
ing the first syllable : for, if we prefix a syllable to either of 
these .lines, it becomes Iambic : e. gr. 
Ttr 6| bea-|-tus 6r-|-tiisil-|-le, vlr-|-go cum | puer-|-pera . .. 
And, by cutting oif the first foot of the Trochaic, and one 
long or two short syllables of the second (amounting, in 
all, to five Times} we reduce it to an Iambic Trimeter, 
No. 22, as, for example - 
iner-|-mis I-j-re, pii-|-rus i-|-re jus-j-sus est. 

Consequently we may convert any Trimeter Iambic into 
a Catalectic Trochaic Octonarius, by prefixing to it an 
amphimacer in other words, a long syllable and an 
iambus, equal to five Times as, to instance in a verse 
from Horace, Epod. 1 6 
Patr'\-a vel-j-ut pro-Ufugit || exse-|-crata | cM-|-tas. 

But the pure Trochaic very rarely occurs* : and this 
metre admits the spondee into the even places, cor- 
responding with the odd places in the Iambic, as appears 
by the following verse, first scanned as Trochaic, and then 
reduce^l, by defalcation, to an Iambic Trimeter 
Pulchri-|-z79 mul-\-td pa-|-rrtn || quam a--\-ari \ nob:(-|-lem. 

Multo \ para-|-n quam \ crea- ( -rI wo-j-bilem. 

* So rarely, indeed, that it cost me a good deal of time and trouble 
to find even the two examples which I have quoted: and 1 venture to 
jay that it would not be easy to find a third. 

/48 (36.) Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic. 

It also allows the solution of the trochee into a tribraches, 
in every station except the seventh *. 

Dtf??tf j-j-des, co-|-ite: | vestras |i hlcdi'-j-esqu?e-|-rlt ma-|-niis. 


Esto \plac1dus, | et quY-|-etIs|j Martf-|-bus se-|-dem fo-[-ve. 

Itc, | nymphac : | ptist'Cit \ arm, || fer-|-atus | est a-|-mor. 


Necpo-|-testdl-|-phth5ngus j alitcr\\ e du-|-abus Hte-|-rls: . . 


Et chu-|-lybs at-|-tnta | eolla || grdvibus \ ambit | clrcu-|-lls, 

(Prudent his. 

Yel s^-|-quentem | qua! pri-|-6ns || sa^pe | similis \ edi'-j-tur. 


It further admits (as is the case in Iambics) the solution 
of the spondee into a dactyl or anapaest: but the dactyl so 
rarely occurs in the fourth place, that I have not been able 
to find more than the one very aukward example which I 
here quote ; whereas the anapaest frequently occupies that 

Fa eta | no$, eti^im pro-j-bata, || pangi-j-miis mi-|-racu-[-la. 


Ante j vocables \o-\-catiir, ut \\ In SLv|-quenti | sylla--ba... 

(Ter en t Janus. 

'Ncc Sa-J4us no-j-bls sa-;-liitI j| jam esse, | si c;////-!-at, po-| 
-test. (Plant us. 

* It is to be observed, however, that the tribr;ichys very rarely 
occurs in the sixth place. Indeed I do not believe, that, in addition to 
the example which 1 quote, the whole Corpus Pottarum can furnish an- 
other, except perhaps from a comic writer. 

.) Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectlc. 249 

*6-\-licus z7-|-sus re-j-format, || etdi-j-gammdn 

Bis ti-j-bl v6-|-calis j ctidcm \\ prajbct j lisiim i conso-'-nl'. 


Rura ] fecun-|-dFit vo-j-luptas : jj rura I T"cntrtm \senti-\-lmt. 


Notwithstanding any or all of these variations, the verse 
is still reducible to Iambic metre, by retrenching five Times 
at the beginning. 

This metre was much used in hymn?, for which indeed 
it is well calculated being grand and sonorous, as we 
may occasionally perceive, when we happen to meet with 
a verse which we can read without suffering our English 
accent to destroy the quantity : e. gr. 

Macte, judex mortuorum, || macte, re"x vive"ntium. (Prud. 
Scaude coeli te*mpla, virgo, || digna tanto foedere. (M. Capel. 
Solve vocem, mens, sonoram ; |] s61ve iinguam mobilem. 

E'cce, Cajsar niinc triiimphat, || qui subegit Gallias. 

(Militcs, ap. Sueton* 

llomtilfcuas ipsa fecit || ciim Sabinis miptias. (Catullus. 

Terra, co^lum, fossa ponti, j[ tnnarerum itic}tfnh&:C Prudent. 
Membra pannis fnvoluta || virgo mater alligat. (F". H. Fort. 

It was also used in tragedy : but the whole collection of 
Roman tragedies which have reached our times, does not 
contain more than twenty-two lines of the kind and these 
not in choruses viz. twelve in the fourth act of the 
Medea, and ten in the second of the (Edipus. Teren- 
tianus found it convenient for didactic composition hav- 
ing employed nearly nine hundred of these Trochaics in his 
treatises on /fc*fa and Feet. 

Iv K 

250 (36.) Trochaic Tetrameter Catuhctk* 
The scale is as follows 









w w 
y v 

* W V 

w w 

- V M 


But the comic writers took equal liberties with this as 
with the Iambic, introducing the spondee and its equiva- 
lents into the Trochaic places *. 

In all the examples above quoted, the c&sura (as the 
reader may have observed) uniformly takes place at the 
termination of the fourth foot (corresponding with the fifth 
semifoot in the Trimeter Iambic ^ See page 227) thus di- 
viding the verse into a complete dimeter and a catalectic 
dimeter. This division was invariably observed, and was 
calculated, no doubt, to suit the convenience of the choir 
* the one side singing the complete dimeter, the other 
the catalectic. The circumstance, however, has been pro- 
ductive of error on the part of copyists and editors, who 
have, in many cases, given the verses actually divided, each 
into two lines, thus 

Scripta sunt ccelo duorum 

Martyrum vocabula, 

Aureis quae Christus illio 

Adnotavit literis 

in which form the Trochaic hymns of Prudentius are exhi-^ 
bited in the Corpus Poetarum* 

* In sorpe very few instances in serious composition, I have observed 
that a stray spondee (and, in one or two cases, an equivalent dactvl) 
had crept into a trochaic station; but, considering these as unlicensed 
encroachments both on Trochaic and Iambic ground, 1 have not thought 
proper to notice them jn the scale. 

(37.) Sapphic. 251 

(No. 37.) Sapphic. 

The Sapphic verse * (so denominated from the poetess 
Sappho, who invented it) consists of five feet, viz. a 
trochee, a spondee, a dactyl, and two more trochees, as 
Deflu-j-It sax- ! t -Is ;tgi-|-tatus | humor. (Horace. 

But Sappho, and (after her example) Catullus, some- 
times made the second foot a trochee, as 
Hat A/-|-0 5o-|-AoTXo, hitrffOfAKt <rs. {Sappho. 

Pauca | nunti-\-&te mese puellae. (Catullus. 

In this, however, she was not even once imitated by 
Horace, who improved upon her invention, and has, in 
most cases, (though not in all) happily surpassed Sappho 
herself in the melodious suavity and soft easy fluency of his 
lines. Without a single exception, he invariably adheres 

* It may justly be deemed a singular and unaccountable circumstance, 
that Terentianus, who more than once mentions Sappho in terms of 
high encomium (" doctissima Sappho " u praclara poetria, Sappho ") 
and who notices other kinds of verse invented by her should never 
once in his whole book make the slightest mention of this species, by far 
the most elegant of her creation; though he particularises every other 
form of verse, of which he could ficd even a single example in Latin. 
To add to our surprise, we have not from his pen a single Sapphic line, 
though he evidently displays an ambition to prove that he could com- 
pose in every known metre, without exception. From these considera- 
tions, I to a certainty conclude that Terentianus's work has not come 
down to us perfect, but that it has been mutilated of at least so much as 
related to the Sapphic: for it is utterly incredible that be could have 
overlooked it, especially as he was well acquainted with the works of 
Horace, and distinctly notices that h ption aiul 

of various kinds fcf metre 

(370 Sapphic. 

to that form of the Sapphic which has the second foot a 

Of three such verses, with the addition of one Adonic 
(No. 13), Sappho composed her strophe or stanza; in 
which practice she was followed by Catullus, Horace, and 
others thus 

inte-J-ger vl-|-te, scele-|-rlsque | purus, 


Non e-j-get Maii J -rI jacu-|-lls ne'e | arcu, 

Nee ve-|-nena-|-tis gravi-]-da sa-|-glttis, 

Fusc, pha-]-retra. (Horace. 

But sometimes the Adonic was irregularly subjoined 
to any indefinite number of Sapphics, without regard to 
uniformity in the distribution, as in the choruses of Se- 
neca's Thyestes, Act 3, Hercules (Etaeus, Act 4, and 
Hercules Furens, Act 3. On other occasions, the Sap- 
phics were continued in un-interrupted succession, termi- 
nating as they had begun, without the addition of an Adonic 
even at the end, as in Boethius, 2, 6, and Seneca's Troas, 
Act 4. 

It greatly conduces to the sweetness and harmony of the 
Sapphic verse to make the cccsura at the fifth gem i fool, as 
above marked in the stanza quoted from Horace. The 
effect will be more strikingly perceptible on a comparison 
of those lines with the following, in which that nicety was 

Qui, sedens adversus, identidem te ) 

o c -r ! 

oeu Sacas, sagittiterosque Parthos ) 

Quindecim Diana preces A'irorum \ 

Liberunr munivit iter, daturus > (Horace* 

Ha3C Jovem sen tire, Deosque cunctos . . . . ) 

(37.) Sapphic. 253 

The beauty of the Sapphic metre will be sensibly felt by 
every reader of the following lines, in which our English 
accent happens not to clash with the quantity 
Dive, quern proles Niobaja magnce 
Vindicem lingua?, Tityosque raptor .... (Horace. 
Caesaris visens monimenta inagni. (Catullus. 
.... Sapphico suadet modulata veVsu. (Ausonius. 
Sponte confectos tenueinus urtus. (Prudeutius. 
There is one feature prominently conspicuous in the 
Sapphic form of versification I mean the division of a 
word between two lines. In other species of Latin verxe 
(for I except the Ionics by Synapheia, as well as the Greek 
anapacsti cs) we see, at most, a redundant syllable at the 
end of one line absorbed by a vowel at the beginning of the 
next, as noticed under " Synalocphe" " Ecthlipsis" and 
" Synaplma" in. pages 161, 162, and 189 or a com- 
pound word divided into its constituent parts, each having 
its own distinct meaning, as, in Horace, 


-quodque caput (Epist. 2, 2, 188- 

quid inter- 

-est y in matrona. . . . (Sat. 1, 2, 62 
and so in every other case which has fallen under my ob- 
servation. But, in the Sapphic, we see simple words di- 
vided into parts, separately void of all meaning, as 
Gallicum Rhenum, horribiles et ulti- 

- mosque Britannos. (Catullus, 11, 12. 


Labitur ripa, Jove non probante, ILV- 

-onus amnis. (Horace, Od. 1, 2, 19. 

254* (37.) Sapphic. 

.... non gemmis neque purpura 

-nale, nee auro. (Horace, Od. 2, 16, 7. 
These divisions * are made after the example of Sappho 
herself, who has three such within the short compass of 
eleven stanzas remaining to us from her pen, viz. 
......... ... AI0E- 


............ BOMBET- 

-2IN y axout pot 

and it is remarkable that such division occurs only between 
the third Sapphic and the concluding Adonic f. Now, if 
there were not some peculiarity in the nature of these two 
lines, which the two preceding Sapphics do not possess, 
we might reasonably expect to see the practice of dividing 
words equally adopted in the anterior part of the stanza; 
which, however, is not the case. And let me add, that, 
if the division of words (other than compounds, as above 

* I lay no stress on Inter-Iunia, Od. 1, 25, 11, E-lidere, Od. 3,27, 
59, JvTg-roque Iiwidet, Od. 4, 2, 23, or Omnium Ilia, in Catullus, 11, 
49, because these may be considered as not extraordinary cases, being 
only such as we occasionally see in other species of verse. 

f With respect to Numero beatorum Eximit, (Horace, Od. 2, 2, 18) 
it presents nothing more thaw a common elision of a supernumerary final 
syllable, as in Virgil's Tecta Latinoruw Ardua, TEn. 7, 160 : and, in 
that other passage (Od.4, 2, 1) 

Pindarum quisquis studet annular!, 

there exists no greater necessity for making three syllables of lulus o: 
Y-ulus, than for making four of Julius orl'ulius, in Epist, 1, 3, 1. 

(37.) Sapphic. 25 j 

noticed) had been allowable, there was no necessity for 
Ovid to make such lamentation respecting the difficulty of 
versifying the name of his friend Tuticanus *, since he 
might so easily have cut the name in two, placing Tuti- at 
the end of one line, and -cane at the beginning of the next; 
which, however, he declares himself ashamed to do, even 
in a familiar epistle. In short, the cause of that seeming 
peculiarity in the Sapphic appears to me to be simply this 
that neither Sappho nor Catullus nor Horace ever in- 
tended the stanza to consist of four separate verses, but 
wrote it as three, viz. two five-foot Sapphics, and one of 
seven feet (the fifth foot of the long verse being indiscri- 
minately either a spondee or a trochee) thus 

Iliae dum se nimium querenti 

Jactat ultorem, vagus et sinistra 
Labitur ripa, Jove non probante, uxorius amnis. 

The Sapphic verse may, in some cases, be converted 
into a Phalaecian (No. 38) or an Alcaic (No. 55) as the 
reader will see under " Phalcecian" 

* Quominus in nostris ponaris, amice, iibellis, . 

Nominis efficitur conditione tui . . 
Lex pedis oflicio naturaque nominis obstant ; 

Quaque meos adeas, est via nulla, modos. 
Nam pudet in geminosita nomenjindere versus, 

Desinat ut prior hoc, incipiatque minor. 
Et pudeat, si te, qua syllaba parte moratur, 

Arctius appellern, Tuficanumque vocem. 
Nee potes in versum Tuttcani more venire, 

Fiat ut e longa syllaba piima brevis ; 
Ait preducatur, quae nuuc correptius exit, 

Et sit porrecta longa secunda niord. 
UK ego si vitiis ausim corrumpere nomen, 

Ridear, et mento pt-ctus hubere neger. (Pont. 4, 12. 

256 (38.) Phalacian. 

(No. 38.) Phalacian. 

The Phal&cian verse (denominated from the poet Pha- 
facius*') consists of five feet, viz. a spondee, a dactyl, 
and three trochees, as 

Non est \ viverc, | sed va-|-ler, | vita. (Martial. 

illlc I Siixoriit | co3rii-|-lum vi-|- debts. (Sidon. Apollinaris. 
Hoc ju-|-vit, juvat, | et di-j-ii jii-]-vabit. (Petronius. 

Sometimes the first foot was made an iambus or a tro- 
chee, as 

ff;;?7-|-cos medi-j-cdsque j c5nvo-]-cate. (Catullus. 

Tota \ mlllia | me de-|-cem p6-|-p6scit. (Catullus. 

But that liberty was very rarely taken by the poets pos- 
terior to Catullus. In Statius, for instance, not a single 
example of it -occurs in upwards of four hundred and fifty 
lines in Prudentius, not one in above two hundred and 
sixty- not one in Ausonius not one in Martial, who has 
more than two thousand verses in this metre: and Sidonius 
Apollinaris, in upwards of twelve hundred Phaloecians, 
has not above two that can be proved : and these are in 
proper names. -- I have thought necessary to be thus par- 
ticular, for the sake of removing any doubt which might 
be entertained respecting the quantity of certain words, for 
which Phaluccian lines -are quoted as authorities in different 

parts of this work. 

Catullus has, in some instances, spoiled the elegance and 

harmony of this measure by introducing a heavy spondee 
into the second place: e. gr. 

Te cain--jo wa~--sivimus minore. 


So Terentianus writes the paine. (See wider No. 

(39.) Trochaic Dimeter. 257 

But his example was not imitated by his more polished 

The Phalaecian is frequently called Hendecasyllabic (or 
ver.-.e of eleven syllables) : but that name does not exclu- 
sively belong to it, since there are other species of verse 
to which it is equally applicable as, for instance, the 
Sapphic (No. 37) and the Alcaic (No. 5o) which not only 
contain the like number of syllables, but also in like pro- 
portion of long to short, so that the same words sometimes 
may, indifferent positions, become either a Phalaecian, a 
Sapphic, or an Alcaic : ex. gr. 
PhaL) Suminum | nee metu-j-as di-j-em, nc | optes. 


Sapph.)Nec d? -\-ern snm-\-mum metu-\-as, nZc \ optes. 
Ale.) Siimmum \ nee op~\-tes || nee mttuas \ diem. 
and in like manner the following 

NullI | te faci-|-as ni-|-mls so-| dalem. (Martial. 

Quod nul-j-ll cali-jrcem tii-|-um pro-|-plnas, (Martial. 

(No. 39.) Trochaic Dimeter, 

The Trochaic Dimeter consists of four feet, properly all 
trochees, as 

Non fa-'-cit quod | optat ipse. (Bo? thius.. 
But, like the Catalectic Tetrameter (No. 36), which ad^ 
mits the spondee into the even places, the Dimeter admits 
k into the secqnd station : e. gr. 

ore | turvo I commi-'-nantcs. (Bol'th'tiix. 
In many instances, where authors never intended it, co- 
pyists and editors have presented us with the appearance of 
Trochaic Dimeters, by dividing the Catuleclic Tetrameter 

L L 

251 (40.) Trochaic Dimtter Catahctic. 

into two short lines, as noticed in page 250. But that is 
not the case in Bocfhius (4, 2), where the Trochaic Di- 
meter was actually intended, and is alternated with ths, 
Choriambic, No. 48, thus 

Quos vl-j-des se-|-dere | celso 

S6hl | culmlne re-|-ges, 
Piirpu-|-rfi cl'i-j-r5s ni-l-tente, 

Seprcs j tristibus ar mis, &c. 

Terentianus (de Metr. 114 1) mentions another kind of 
Trochaic Dimeter, consisting of a pyrrichius and threfe 
trochees, as 

Deus | ex De-|-o peT-|-ennYs. (Prudentius. 
But I have shown, in page 243, that this is only a varied 
form of the Anacreontic, or C'atalectic Dimeter Iambic, 
No. 32, to be thus scanned 

Deiis ex | Deo j peren-|-nis. 

(No. 40.) -r Trochaic Dimeter Catakctl*. 

The Catakctic Dimeter Trochaic (if such verse 
ever intended) consists of three feet, properly all trochees, 
and a catalectjc syllable, as 

Non e-j-bur ne-|-que aur^-[-um .... (Horace. 
Dona | consn-j-enu'-|-ag. (Prudentius. 
In fact it is precisely the same as the Acephalous Dimeter 
Iambic (No. 3J), only differently scanned; for which, 
reason, I here quote, as examples, the same lines which 1 
have already given, as Iambics, in No. 31*. 

* It is of no consequence, whether they bin considered as Iambics or 
Trochaics; so close is the affinity between the two classes; the Trochaic* 
being, in reality, only acephalous Iambic, as shown in pages 24G an^ 

(41.) Ithy phallic. 259 

In the second station, it admits the spondee, the dactyl 
and likewise, I presume, the equivalent anapaest, though 
I do not find an example of the latter. 

Leitfs | tic m$di-\-cum flu-]-ens 

Aura*, | nee i?e;*-|-gens la-|-tus, 

Ducat | lntr$pi-\-fc\m ra-j-tem : 

TutS | me wtV/?-|-a vtSJ-hat 

Vita | 6fcc/7r-|-rens vi-|-a. (Seneca, OEdip. 887. 
These lines may all be scanned as Iambic : and those 
which have the dactyl, mignt be considered as Choriambie, 
No. 46, did they not occur in a chorus where there is not 
any mixture of different metres, such as we frequently find 
in- those productions. 

(No. 41.) Phallic, or Ithy phallic. 

The Phallic or Ithyphatlic verse consists of three tro- 
chees, as 

Bacch | Bacch* | Bacchg. (Terentlanus. 
In this metre, though mentioned by Terentianus as well 
known, I do not find that there now exists any composition 
in Latin, unless perhaps the Archiloctiian (No. 56), which 
is a very long line indeed, was intended for two verses, viz. a 
Dactylic Tetrameter a priore (No. 6) and an Ithyphallic, 

SolvMr j acrfs hi-|-ems gra-j-ta vlc 
Verts | et Fa-|-v5ni. (Horace. 

To this idea, however, there is an objection, which see 
under No. 5ft 

260 (4?,) Choriamb. Pent am. (43.) Choriamb. Tetram. 


Choriambic verses are so denominated from the foot 
^or measure) which predominates in them, viz. the cho- 
riambus, compounded of a choree (or trochee) and an 
iambus, as Tant&lldd, 

(No. 42.) Choriambic Pentameter. 

The Choriambic Pentameter consists of a spondee, three 
choriambi, and an iambus, as 

Til nc | qua?sieris, | scirenefas, | quern mihi, quern | ti'bi... 

Nullam, | Vare", sacra j vlte prius [ sevens ar-|-borem. 


Alphe-|-ne immemor, at-|-que unartimls [ false soda-|-libus. 

In this metre Theocritus wrote his twenty-eighth Idyl 

(No. 43.) Ckoriambic Tetrameter. 

This species of verse consists of three choriambi, and ft 
Bacchius (i.e. an iambus and along syllable) as 
Jan pater, | Jane tuens, [ dive 1 biceps, | biformis. 

(Septimius Serenus. 

Tu ben si [ Sluid facias, [ uon mmKnis-|-s6 fas est. ( 

(45.) Chorlamllc Tetrameter. 

omne nernus j cam fiuvns, | dinne" canat | proTundum *. 

(Claudia n. 
Fiimida quid | turtcremls j an! paret | favillls. (Mart. Cap. 

But it admitted variations; each of the three choriambi 
being changeable to other feet of equal time : e. gr. 
Cui resera-|-/rt mug^unt \ aurea clau-[-stra mundi. (Sercnus. 
Tibi vctiis (i-\-ra calirit tfZ#-|-rigined J sacello. (Screnus. 

This metre was called Phaltecian, from the poet Pha- 
l&cius, who used it in some of his compositions f. 

Horace made an alteration, but certainly not an im- 
provement, in this form of verse, by substituting a spondee, 
instead of the iambus, in the first measure, viz. 
, . . Te deos o-j-ro, Sybaiin j cur properes | amando. . . . 

(Oa\ 1, 8- 

for this I conceive him to have intended as a single verse. 
If divided into two lines, making with the preceding verse 
a stanza of three, as we see it in some editions, thus 
Lydia, die, per o nines 
Te deos oro, Sybariu 
Cur properes amando ... 

the third line will be a Choriambic Dimeter (No. 49) like 
the first. But this, by the way, is a combination unprece- 
dented in Horace, who has not in any instance made a 
stanza of two verses of the same kind, with one of a dif- 
ferent species interposed ; but who, in twelve other odes, 
uses a short Choriambic followed by a longer. With re- 

* In tke common editions of Claudian, this verso, and eight others 
of the same kind, accompanying it, (Nupt. lion, ct Mar. Fcsccnn.) are 
improperly divided, each into two lines (Nos. 50 and lj)) thub 
Omne nemus cum fluviis, 
Omnc canat prohmdum. 

) Hoc Cereri mttro cantasse Phal&cius hjmnos 
Dicitur; hiocmetron dixere Phattcion istud. (Tct'CKtianus, Mctr. \63- 

262 (44.) Asclcpladlc Tetrameter. 

spect to the second line, Te deos, &c. if given as a ho- 
riambic, it is one of mongrel kind having the penultima and 
antepenultima both short ; which is not the case in any of 
the legitimate species of Choriambks. Treating of the 
Tetrameter which is the subject of this section, Terentianirs 
observes, " Nee enim claudit clioriambits honestc." (De 
Metr. 162) Whatever may have been the ground of this 
objection to a final choriambus m the Tetrameter, the 
ancients appear to have entertained an equal aversion to it 
in all the other forms of Choriambic metre, not one of 
which terminates with a choriambus. Lest, therefore, the 
division of Horace's line should produce a monster un- 
known to ancient Rome, let us be content to read it as 
single verse 

. . . Te deos oro, Sybarin cur properes amando . . . 
Jiolding ourselves at liberty to consider it as a lame 
ambic Tetrameter. 

(No. 44.) Asclepiadic Tetrameter. 

The Asclepiadic Tetrameter (so called from the poef 
Asclepiades) consists of a spondee, two choriambi, and an 
iambus, as 

Ma3ee-|-nas iitavis || edite" re-j-g'ibus. (Horace. 

Non il-|-lum potnmt || flgere cus-|-pides. (Seneca. 

Hostis | dlrus adcst || cum diice per-|-fd6. (Prudentius. 

Such is the form invariably observed by Horace by Se- 
neca, in near two hundred lines and by Prudentius, in 
above two hundred and fifty* Sometimes, however, 
though very rarely, the first foot was made a dactyl, as 
. . . J^z//-|-um, et miseros libera mors vocet. (Seneca. 
Omn1ge-\~i\tim genitor regnamovensDeum. (Mart.Capella* 

(46.) Chorlambk Trimeter. 263 

and, if the text be correct (which is rather doubtful) Mar- 
tianus Capella has, in three instances, made the second foot 
a Molossus (- - -). 

The c&sura takes place at the end of the first chori- 
ambus ; which circumstance facilitates the scansion of this 
metre as a Dactylic Pentameter wanting the last syllable, 

Ma?ce-}-nas &ta-|-vls || edtt | regtbtts 
and we learn from Terentianus that many of his contem- 
poraries were accustomed so tq 3can it; though he himself 
condemns the practice. 

(No. 45.) <*- Vi&bat gelidce sidera brymce. (Boethius. 

I should be inclined to consider this and all similar 
yerses as Choriambic, an<J to scan them as Catalectic Te- 
trameters, thus 

Vlse-|-bat g*Hd | sldra brii-|-ma3 
were I not prevented by considerations which I have ex- 
plained in No. 5 B, where I have classed this metre as 
Dactylic, under the title of " Phalcecian Pentameter." 

(No. 46.) Choriambic Trimeter, or Gly conic* 

The Glyconic verse (so called from the poet Glyco) con- 
gists of a spondee, a choi iambus, and an iambus, as 

Sic te | diva pdtens | Cypri .... {Horace. 
But the first foot was sometimes varied to an iambua 
or a trochee : e. gr. 

Btims | cred^ fuga-|-c!bus. (Boethius. 
ImplicHt ar-|-b6rt5. (Catultw* 

26*4 (46. ) Choriambic Trimeter. 

Horace, however, who was very fond of the Glyconic, 
and has often employed it, invariably adheres to the spon- 
dee, except in one solitary instance, viz. 

.... Ignis |,Iiiacas dornos. (Od. 1, J J, So. 
This species of verse, when it has a spondee in the first 
place, might be scanned as a Dactylic Trimeter. See 
No. 11. 

The Glyconic verse, fbllowed by a Pheredratic (No. 
48), produces what is called the Priapean (No. 3), as 
will appear on thus dividing a Priapean of Catullus 
6 co-|-ion'fa, qure | cupis 

Ponte | ludere 16n-|-go 

or thus joining two of his Choriambics a Glyconic and a 
Pherecratic with which combination he closes each 
strophe or stanza in his two choriambic odes. 
Dux bo-|-nB Vene |-rls, bom |j cdhjii- -gator a-i|-moris. 

By a similar junction of each distich into a single line, 
the following unmanly effusion of Maecenas given to us, 
and undoubtedly intended by him, as ChoriambiG maj 
be read as Priapean. By the way, this fragment is the 
only specimen I recollect to have seen of alternate Gly- 
conies and Pherecratics continued in regular succession 
except in what are called Priapeans ; to which class some 
of my readers may probably chpose to refer these lines of 

Debilem lacitd manu, 

Debilem pedr, coxa: 
Tuber adstriic glbberum : 
Lubricos quate dentes: 
Vita duin superest, be'ne est. 

Hanc inYhi, vel a'cutam, 

Si das, sustineo crucem . .,. (ap.Scnccum, Kjrist. 101. 
Priapean? (No. 3.) 

48.) Chor iambic Trimeter Catalectic. 265 

(No. 47.) Te dcos oro, Sybarin a spurious 

metre, produced by the improper division of Horace's lame 
Tetrameter into two lines. . See No. 43, page 26*1. 

(Xo. 48.) Chor iambic Trimeter Catalectic, or Phere- 


The Pherecratic verse (so-called from the poet Phere- 
crates) is the Glyconic (No. 46) deprived of its final syi 
lable. It consists of a spondee, a choriambus, and a cata- 
lectic syllable, as 

.... Grato Pyrrha. sub an-|-tro. (Horace. 
and, when thus composed, it might be scanned as a Dac- 
tylic Trimeter. See No. 11. 

But the first foot was sometimes a trochee or an anapaest, 
rarely an iambus. 

Ttcta \ frugibus ex-|-ples. (Catullus. 

Doniims \ pressus inl-|-quls. (Boe thins. 

P#e/-|-laiqu Ccina-|-mus. (Catullus. 

Anacreon, in a short Pherecratic ode, 

A I Moy0-a/ rov iLpura, 

the only one of the kind which we have from his pen 
uses the spondee alone in the first place; though the ana- 
paest likewise occurs in some Pherecratic lines which we 
see occasionally interspersed in some other of his pieces. 
Horace, who has employed this metre in six of his 
odes, uniformly makes the first foot a spondee. His 
friend Maecenas was more partial to the trochee, as appears 
by the few lines of his composition quoted in the preceding 

page. Martian us Capella preferred the spondee: e. giv. 

M M 

266 (49.) Choriambic Dimeter. 

Temriit noctis honorem: 

Prafert aritra subulci: 

Durd It rupe quiescit; 

Et, post regna Tonantis, 

Stramen dulcius herbae est. (Lib. 9. 
The Pherecratic, subjoined to the Glyconic (No. 
produces what is commonly called the Priapean (No. 3), 
as I have shown under " Priapean" and " Glycomc." 

(No. 49.) Choriambic Dimeter. 

The Choriambic Dimeter consists of a choriambus and 
a Bacchius, as 

Lydta, die, | pr omnes .... (Horace. 

I cannot find a single Latin line in this metre, except the 
one here quoted, with seven others accompanying it in the 
same ode, and a dozen in Terentianus. But the appear- 
ance of it, as 

omne 1 canat | profundum 

is produced in some editions by an improper division of 
the Choriambic Tetrameter, No, 43, into two lines. See 
No. 43, page 261. 

(No. 50.) omne utmiis \ cum JluvTis a spurious 
metre, produced by the improper division (just noticed) of 
the Choriambic Tetrameter, No. 43, into two lines. See 
No. 43, page 261. 

(5 1 .) Tonic a Major*, 267 


tonic verses are of two kinds, the Ionic a majorc and 
the Ionic a minore, called likewise lonicus Major and 
lonicus Minor, and so denominated from the feet or mea- 
sures, of which they are respectively composed. 

(No. 51.) Ionic a Majors or Sotadic. 

The Ionic a major e (called Sotadic from the poetSotades, 
who wrote much in this metre) is composed of that foot or 
measure called the Ionic a majore^ which consists of a 
spondee and a pyrrichius, as cdnvertfmiis. 

The verse contains three of these measures, and a half*, 
that is to say, three times the Ionic a major e, with a spon- 
dee added at the end of the line, for the sake of a more full 
and pleasing sound f thus, 
Vocalta | qurcdam mmo-|-rant, consbna | quondam. 

Quiitn prima bre>|~vis, longa de~|-in, tert'ia | longa. 


Thus constituted, the verse is a kind of choriambic, as 
will appear by the following division - 

* Metron pedibus uamque tribus semipedem aptat. 

(TcrentianvS) de Metris, 356. 

Spondeus erit terminus hujus tibi versus, (Ibid,370. 
f A?ro ^iif-wro; autem brevior quod est secundis, 
Versus male ue desinat, adhibentur in imo, 
Quas prima pedis portio lungas habet ambas, 
Itu versus erit de tribus, et smipede uno. 

(Terentianus, dt Ped. l68* 

268 (51.) Ionic a Majore. 

Quum | prim brevis | longa dein | tertia lon-|-ga 

and, by the addition of another syllable at each end, it 

would become a Choriambic Pentarneier (No. 4lj), like 


Tu ne | quresieris, | scire ne"fas, | quern mthY, quern | tibi . . . 

Nam quum | prima brevis, | longa dein, | tertia lon-| 


But the verse admitted several variations in the three 
Ionic feet. One, in particular, seemed to be a favorite 
with the writers in this metre, as tending to give greater 
softness and harmony to the otherwise stiff and monotonous 
line, viz. the change of the thircj measure to a ditrpchee, 


Ter corripu-|-i terribi-|-/m nianu /^-[-pennem. (Petronius. 
Has cum gemi-|-na compede | dtdicat CY/-|-tenas, 
Saturne, ti-j-bi Zoi'lus, | annulos pri- |-ores. (Martial. 
The same variation also took place in the other two 
Ionic feet or measures, as 

v <ru(>gO'-vri$, rovro 

.Alter sonus | atque ttmpo-\-rum nota variata. (Terentianus. 
It is worthy of remark, however, that, in enumerating 
the trochees which this verse will admit, Terentianus does 
not at all notice \hejirst foot or measure, as alterable to a 
ditrochee : and indeed, in about three hundred Sotadics of 
his own, he has only one example of a ditrochee in the 
first place, viz. de Lit. 96 

Sold co72,s#-[-nans ipsa fit, ut prius notasti 
unless perhaps \ve should find another in the following 
verse (de Literis, 195) for it may be scanned in two 
different ways 

Sic Patroclon \ olim Hectorea manu perisse or 

,S7c Patrodon \ olim, &c. 


(51.) Ionic a Mojo re. 


But the example of Sotades is sufficient authority for the 
initial ditrochee. 

By a further variation, cither of the long syllables in 
each of the three Ionic measures might be resolved into 
two short; which resolution was considered as an improve- 
ment* : but it does not appear that both the long syllables 
were ever thus resolved at the same time. 
Pcdc tend lit, \ cursum addite, convolatc plantu. (Pet ran. 
s c-\ rit consiniilis pedis figura. (Terentiamis. 

Solet integer anapastiis tt \ in fine locari. (Tkrentianus. 
Ilunc effici-|-ef, Minucins I ut quis vocitetur. {Terentiartut. 
Catalexis enim dicitur j ea clausulu \ versus. (Terent ianus. 
Fcrruin timui, quod trepi-Wu male dabat \ usum. (Petron. 

The scheme of the Ionic a inajore will therefore be as 

1 I 2 34 

But, the Ionic a majore not being (like the Ionic a 
minor e) subject to the laws of synapheia, the final syllable 
(as in the hexameter, c.) may be short, without a con- 
course of consonants to make it long, or may terminate in 
a vowel or M un-elided before a vowel at the beginning of 
the next line as we see by numerous examples in 
Tercntianus, and a few likewise in a fragment of eight lines 
from the pen of Sotades, which is found in the Pocta Mi- 
nor es Gfaci, P a g e 4.97- 

* Nam quo fuerint crebrius hi pedes minuti, 

Vibrare soiiuui versiculos inagts vidcmus. (Tcrcntian. de Metr, 334. 

270 (oSL) Ionic a Minors 

(No. 52.) Ionic a Minor e*. 

The Ionic a minor e is entirely composed of that foot or 
measure called the Ionic a minore, which consists of a 
pyrrichius and a spondee, as Dociussent. It is not con- 
fined to any particular number of feet or measures f , but 
but may (like the Anapaestics, No. 14) be extended to any 
length, provided only, that, with due attention to synapheia, 
the final syllable of the spondee in each measure be either 
naturally long, or made long by the concourse of con- 
sonants J and that each sentence or period terminate 

* The Dauphin editor of Horace gives the name of Sotadic to the 
Ionic a minore: but I do not see upon what authority; for it does not 
appear that Sotades ever wrote in this metre. His favorite measure 
was the Ionic a majore: and the near affinity of the two Ionics probably 
ga've rise to the error. 

f Terentianus (De Fed. 15'.J) says 

ATT tteffffovoq autern cu'i nomen indiderunty 

In nomine sic est " Dlomtatt." Mnp autem 

Kon versibus istud, numero ant pedum, coarctant : 

Sed, continue carmine quia pedes gemelli 

Urgent brevibus (tot numerojugando) longas, 

Idcirco vocari voluerunt ffwotQiiew 

in which passage the word Urgent being liable to misconstruction, it 
may be well to observe, that, in speaking elsewhere of the iambus, in 
which the short syllable precedes the long, he says, " L\irva lungam 
urget." To return to the Ionic, he again observes 

ATT' gXa<7<7oyo? illam revocabit synapheian, 

Binis brevibus quae totidem jugare longas 

Ex ordine semper solet, et tenert legem, 

Non versus ut ullo niuncro pcdum regutitr, 

Sed carminis orsum peragat debita finis. (De Metris, 35p. 
I Itabinne variantur, neque cedunt repetit^ 

Vice lorgae brevibus per synapheian. (Tercaftoxtt, de Metr. 3^0* 

(52.) Ionic a Minor e. 271 

with a complete measure, having the spondee for its close* 
both which rules we see observed by Horace in his 
Ionic production, Od. 3, 12. 

If divided into separate verses, we have a better reason 
for the division into lines of four measures, than for any 
other, viz. that such division alone will equally suit 
Ionic poem of Horace above mentioned, and another in 
the same metre, presented to us by Martian us Cape!!*, 
Jib. 4. cap. ult. Horace's piece consists of forty mea- 
sures: that of M. Capella con tains forty-four ; and none 
of the other divisions, proposed by different critics, will 
suit these different numbers ; whereas they are both di- 
visible by four. Indeed, that M. Capella (unacquainted, 
perhaps, with the nature of the synapheia in this species of 
composition, or regardless of such nicety) actually intended 
his Ionics for tetrameter verses, is pretty evident from this 
circumstance, that they cannot be made to run on by syna- 
pheia, in any other form, whether differently divided, or 
undivided : for, in three of the lines, the final syllable is 
short, without any concourse of consonants to make it 
long; and a fourth terminates in am, un-elided before a 
vowel at the beginning of the next line. 

It appears, therefore, that Horace's Ionics may very 
safely be divided as I here give them, and as Mr. Cuning* 
ham divided them near a century ago. 

* Sensum quoties terminal, aut carmina fiuit, 
Longas ratio est ponere, non breves, in imo, 
Pes integer ut sit geminus, siraulque in aure 
JJulcem sonituin tempora longiora linquant. 

(Tercntianvs, de Pad. 1 64. 

272 (^2.) Ionic a Minor?* 

Miserarum est neque amori dare ludum, neque clulci 
Mala vino la vere, autexanimari mctuentes 
PatriHB verbera lingua?. Tibi qualuin Cythereae 
Puerales, tibi tolas, opcrosaequc Minervse 
Studium aufert, Neobule, Liparoei nitor Ilebri, 
Simul unctos Tiber! nis humeros lavit in undis*, 
Eques ipso mclior Belierophonte, neque pugno 
Neque segni pede victus; catus idem per apertum 
Fugientes agitato grege cervos jaculari, et 
Celer arcto latitantem fruticeto excipere aprutn. 

Terentianus presents to us a few lines in this measure, 
which I here quote, together \vith the introductory verses 
in a different metre the Ionic a major 'e the whole 
divided as I find them in the Corpus Poetarum, com- 
moiiiy (but, I think, erroneously f) attributed to Maittaire. 

* It is truly astonishing that the Dauphin editor should object to the 
position of this line, as (in his opinion) deranging the order of things, 
and placing the act of bathing before the field exercises, which always 
preceded it! But the transposition of the words does not alter the 
grammatic construction, which is clearly and simply this " Sinvdl ille 
(eques, &r. c.) lavit," i. e. When he (after having displayed his feats of 
horsemanship, &c.) has laved his limbs inTiber's stream. It is time that 
those Dauphin editions were banished from our schools, as they long have 
been from the schools of France or, at least, that the textwerecorrected 
from better editions'. 

-f Though Maittaire wrote a dedication for the book, as he might 
have written a prologue to another man's p^y he has not given the 
slightest hint of his being the editor : aud, it is clearly evident to me that 
neither he HUT any scholar had any concern or agency in the editorship of 
the volumes, which are-. merely ;i servile re-impression from existing 
editions, of which even the grossest typographic errors are faithfully 
copied. To instance in Claudi m, the folio' -Vie blunders (with 

2.) Ionic a Minorc. 273 

The figures which I have prefixed to the lines, show, at 

one view, the number of measures contained in each. 

Speaking of the Ionic a minor e, Terentianus says (.de 

Metris, 338) 

Sed, quale metrmn continuet, nunc referemus. 

Dixi " Dldmt'dcni' pedis hujus esse formam. 

In carmine sic est: Diumcdcm mb'do magnum 

4 De a fecit, dta belli dtittiinutrijc, Phrygds dm/its 

4 ut in limits suptrarct : pat nils agmind campls 

4 Jdciitrunt data Icto : & pavldl, tergdquc dantcs, 
3 PC t icr unt t repidti ma n Ha Troja. 

5 Si'mtll leg sonantes ntimeros et N6bul d^dit uno 
3 J\16dulatus lepide carmine Fiaccus : 

numerous others which I forbear to notice) are most accurately copied 
into our Corpus Poctannn from Dan. Elzevir's small Amsterdam edition 
of l677. Eridam (tor Eridani) 4 Cons. II. 17 Viribus (i-itibus) L. 
Stil. 2, 199 Festa (Vesta} ib. 3, 169 Domitos (domitor) ib. 33 
Rotanti (roranti) 6 Cons. H. iGl, and again R. Pros. 2, 122 Astalil 
(a*t alii] Nupt. H. & M. 213 Manet (monet} ib. 236 Parct (par 
et) In Eutr. 2, 297 Qui (qu*) ib. 4-4-5 Parvus (prams) ib. 496 
Vices (i-ircs) B. Get. 1, 108 &tatt (a at ate) ib. 3*2 SecunJam 
(j^cundam) Prob. & Ol. Cons. 203 Terra (tctra) In Hut'. 1,27- 
But, Ohe ! jam satis est, ohe, libcllc ! otherwise I could fill a whole page 
with such elegancies from Claudian alone, without searching other 
parts of the volumes for such beauties as that most extraordinary spe- 
cimen, noticed in page J84-, or for such instances of careful accuracy 
as 1 have casually observed in Ausonius, Epist. 17, where the two fol- 
lowing lines (the eighth and ninth) are wholly omitted 

Quotque super terram sidera zodiaci. 
Quot commissa viris liomana Albanoquefata. 

It were devoutly to be wished that some spirited enterprising book- 
seller would oblige the classic world with a correct publication of the 
Corpus Poetarum, from the best modern editions. 

N N 

274 (52.) Ionic a Minor t. 

3 Mi&rarum est neque dmori dart ludiim, 

3 Nequ$ dulcl maid vmo Idvere, aut ex- 

4 -driimari^ mttttentcs pdtru&verbZra lingua. 

3 M blnae vriantur ; neque cedunt 

4 Re'pe'tita vtee Idngre brevibus per synapheiam. 

In this arrangement there is no appearance of regularity 
or design ; wherefore it is needless to make any remark 
on it. And, with respect to the distribution into uniform 
decapodia (or paragraphs of ten feet, or measures) adopted 
by Dr. Bentley in Horace's Ionics, it cannot here be ad- 
mitted ; because, to begin from Dea fecit, the divisions 
would very aukwardly occur in the places where I have 
inserted the -&: if we begin from Diomedem modo mag- 
nuni y they will occur yet more aukwardly after Campis, 
Vino, and Long<e leaving moreover a remnant of two 
measures at the conclusion : and, in either case, the final 
syllable of Lingua will be left exposed to elision, contrary 
to the law of synapheia. Indeed Terentianus evidently 
appears to have had no idea of those decapodia. Other- 
wise lie would have noticed them as well as the synapheia. 
He would likewise have made his own exemplification * an 
xact decapodion arid allotted another to the remark, 
Simili lege y &c. Then, after quoting a decapodion from 
Horace (which he has accidentally done, because the sense 

* Dr. Bentley has expressed a doubt whether this passage be the 
production of Terentianus, or of Septimius Serenus. How he came to 
think of Serenns, I cannot possibly conceive; the context not affording 
even the slightest ground of suspicion that he was the author of these 
lines. . They evidently appear to have been penned by Tefentianus him- 
self, who intended them (I presume) for a sort of sumtriary of the fifth 
book of the Iliad, as he has elsewhere given, for an exemplification of 
the Adonic verse, a summary of. the ^nei'd, avowedly his own compo- 

(53.) Dactylico-Iambic. (54.) lambico- Dactylic. 275 

happened to terminate in that * compass), he would have 
extended his concluding remark, Ita bince, &c. to the 
same length, making, in all, four exact decapodia. But 
he has done nothing of all this: neither can we even divide 
his Ionics into uniform Tetrameters, on account of the 
elision in Lingua. It remains then to suppose that Te- 
rentianus who acknowledges no set number of feet, no 
measure or limit, other than the writer's convenience 
intended his Ionics for four separate paragraphs of casual 
and indefinite length, without any greater regard to uni- 
formity in that respect, than was paid to it in the Ana- 
pzestic series in dramatic choruses. (See " Anap&stic" 
No, 14.) 


la this class I comprise those species of verse which are 
^composed of tw.o members taken from different classes, as, 
for .example, 

Sol vi tar ficrfs htems grata vfc || verfs et Favoni 
of which the firs.t member is Dactylic the latter, Tro- 


(No. 53.) Dactylieo- Iambic. 
(No. 54.) lambico-Dactylic. 

Terentianus considers, as a single verse, the following in 

2?6 (.53.) Dacfylico-Iambic. (54.) lambico-Dactylic. 

Horace, Epod. 11, which may, in that case, be called 

.... Scrib^re versfctilds, |j amore 1 perculsum gravT 

and likewise this, in Epod. 13, which consists of the same 
members as the preceding, only in reversed order and 
may be termed lambico-Dactylic 

Nivesqu deducunt J6vem: || nunc mare, nunc stlure . . . 
It is, however, more usual, and perhaps more proper, 
to divide each of them into two separate verses the 

(#) S.cnbe're versiculos, 
(/;) amore perculsum gravT 

the latter, 

() Nivt'sque deducunt Jo vein : 

(ff) Nunc mare, nunc siliiae 

in each of which cases, the verse (_a) will be a Dactylic 
Trimeter Catalectic, No. 12 and (ft) an Iambic Dime- 
ter, No. 29. 

To the union of the two members or verses into one 
line, exists this objection, that such combination will pro- 
duce, in those two odes, no fewer than eight examples of 
poetic licence, in lengthening short syllables, or preserving 
vowels from elision, vjz. 

Epod. J 1. Inachia fure/?J, silvis, &c. 

Arguit, et late R E petitus . . . 

Libera consili^, nee . . . 

Eervidiore mcRO arcana . . . 

Vincere mpliiti amor . . . 
Epod. 13. Reducet in sedem viC/1 Nunc, &c. 

Levare diris pectoTx^ solicitudinibus. 

Findunt Scamandri flumiAV/, lubricus . , 

(53.) Daciylico-Iambic. (54.) lambko- Dactylic. 277 

These are such liberties as Horace rarely allowed him- 


self in his lyric compositions : for, in all his other odes, 
the only examples which occur, are the following* 
Perrupit Achcronta Herculeus labor. 44. (Od. 1, 3, 36. 
. . . Certa sede rmtfe/ ; humor et in genas. 44. (1, 13, 6. 
. . . Angulus ridct, ubi non Hynietto ... 37. (2, 6, 14. 
Caeca ilmct aliunde fata. 53. (2, 13, 16\ 
Si figlt adamantines . . . .46. (3, 24, 5. 
Ossibus ct capi/I inhumatto. 7. (i, 8, 24. 
Et Esquiliwrf'f alites. 29. (Epod. 5, 100. 
. . . Thflei'cio Aquilone sonant. Rapiamus, amici ... (13, 4. 
Now, as Horace so sparingly uses the poetic licence in 
his other lyric productions, it seems hardly probable that 
he should so unsparingly abuse it in those two. But, on 
the other hand, an idea was entertained, that, in verses 
composed of two commata^ the final syllable of the firs< 

* I do not count Od. 2, 20, 13, or 3, 16, 26*, because, in the 
former passage, the approved reading is 

Jan) Daeduleo tut lor Icaro 
and, in the latter, 

.... quidquid arat non pigrr Appulus 

whioh is perfectly consonant to Horace's phraseology in another place, 
viz. Od. 1, 15, 26 

Sth.enelus scions 

Pugna?, sive opus est imreritare equis, 

No?i auriga pigr. 

f The^E may here be either short or long (page 159) and trie f- ot 
either an iambus or a spondee : but Horace more frequently uses the 
spondee than the iambus in the third station of the Iambic Dimeter 

(page 239). 

J.ACo/wwais a segment or portion of a metre, taken from the be- 
ginning or the end, as, for example, the dactylic pentliemimerlt 
(- w w r u -) Titjrc, tu patuli or the concluding portion of the Hexa- 

278 (53.) Dactytico-Iambic. (o4. ) lamlico-Dactylic. 

comma, like the final syllable of a verse, might indifferently 
be either shorter long. Concerning the Priapean (No. 3) 
Terentianus observes 

Nolunt hunc incolumem ergo ; 

Sed de commatibus tradunt constare duobus. 

(de Melr. 1026. 

Nee mirabere syllabag fin em com mate primo . . . 
Nam, quia commata bina sunt, sumunt ambo supremos. 

(Ib. 1039- 

. Quum 

Primi commatis ultima fiat libera legis. (Ib. 1092. 

and, of the Dactylic Pen.tameter 

Scandunt penjametrum, duo sint quasi commata, quidam, 

Ut pedibus binis semipedes superent. (de Metr. 29- 
.Quidam (quia gemino const at de comma te versus) 

Ciudere comma prius non tirnuere brevi .... 
Nam referre nihil, sit qualis syllaba fini ; 

Comma t ague hoc ips urn juris habere v.olunt. 

(Ib. 57 63. 

The Priapean, however, instead of being a single Pac- 
tyl.ic verse of two commata, is in reality two distinct .Cho- 
riambic verses, as I have shown in pages 20.5 ainJ 24 ; 
and the icjea which some people (yuidani) are said to have 
entertained of the Dactylic Fen tame ter ; seems to have 

meter (- --) Tegnnne fagi Lo ih which segments are independently 
Xised as distinct metres; the former being the Archilochian Trimeter Ca- 
talectic, No. 12 the latter, the Adonic, No, JJ, via. 

. . . arbori-|-f'usque co-j-ma>. J2. (Horact. 

Terruit | urbem. 13. (Horace. 
Such portion of a metre was also called Tome, and sometimes 

(53.) Dactylico-Iambic. (54.) lambico-Dactylic. 279 

arisen from a misconception of the effect of the common 
c<zsura (page 139), which would have equally lengthened 
a short syllable in the third semifoot as in the fifth where, 
after all, it is very rare to find a short syllahle, as I have 
shown in page 0^ ; though, if Ovid and other elegeiac 
poets had co-incided in opinion with those quidam, we 
might expect to find as frequent examples of short syl- 
lables in the fifth semifoot as at the close of the line. Be- 
sides, if the commata enjoyed the privilege attributed to 
them in the lines of Terentianus above quoted, why do we 
not see its effects in the Galliambic metre, No. 34, and 
the Archilochian Heptameter, No. 56? In Catullus's 
Galliambic poem, of ninety-three lines, there occurs not a 
single verse which has not the final syllable of the first di- 
vision either naturally long, or rendered long by the con- 
course of consonants; though Catullus is well known to 
have unscrupulously availed himself of every admissible 
licence. In the Archilochian Heptameter, the first mem- 
ber terminates with a dactyl, as the first of the Priapean is 
said to terminate: but unlike to the Priapean, which 
very frequently has the final syllable of that pretended 
dactyl long the Archilochian always terminates its first 
member with a proper legitimate dactyl having the final 
syllable short. This is invariably the case in Horace, in 
J>octhius, and in Prudentius, who has used that metre in 
two of his poems, one of which contains above a hundred 
Archilochian HepUmeters. 

I conclude on the subject, by submitting to the reader, 
whether the decision, which allows both members or com- 
mata of a verse or metre equally to enjoy the privilege of 
neutrality in their final syllables, be not in fact equivalent 

2 80 (55. ) Greater Aleak. 

to an acknowledgement that they are, to all intents and 
purposes, two separate verses. 

(No. 55.) j Greater Alcaic. 

This metre is a compound of the simple Iambic and the 
Choriauibic. It consists of an Iambic measure (i. e. two 
feet, properly both iambi) and a long catalectic syllable, 
followed by a choriambus and an iambus ; the ccesura 
uniformly taking place after the catalectic syllable : e. gr. 
Vides j ut al-| ta || stet nYve can-j-d'fdum .... (Horace. 
Venus | re"ver-|-siim j| spernat ado-J-nidem. (Claudian. 

But the first foot of the iambic portion is, of course, al- 
terable to a spondee 

o mci-\-tre pul-|-chra | fllia pul-|-chrfor. (Horace. 

Viet urn \ fate-|-tur || Delos ap6l-|-linem. (Claudlan. 

Cttles-\-tis ar-j-cls |j nobilis in-]-cola. (Prudmtius. 

Horace much more frequently has a spondee than an 
iambus in the first place; and Prudentius, always a 

The Alcaic is sometimes scanned to make two dactyls of 
the latter colon, thus 

Vides | ut al-'-ta || stet mrt \ candidum. 

Although Horace who has made greater use of this 
metre in his lyric compositions, than of any other never 
employed it, except in conjunction with two other species 
of verse (Nos. 30 and 58) other writers have composed 
entire poems in it alone, as Prudentius, who has a long 
piece entirely consisting of unmixed Alcaics, Peri-Steph. 

(56.) Archilochian Heptameter. 

14 and Claudian, a shorter production, In Nupt. Honor. 

The Alcaic verse is sometimes convertible into a Sapphic 
(No. 37) or a Phalascian (No. 38) as shown under " P/ta- 

(No. 56.) Dactylico-Trochaic fleptameter> or Archi- 

The Archilochian Hcptaineter consists of two members, 
the first a Dactylic Tetrameter a prior e, No. 6, the latter 
an Ithyphallic, No. 41 in other words, the first division 
contains four feet from the beginning of the Dactylic Hexa- 
meter, the fourth being always a dactyl the latter por- 
tion consists of three trochees: e. gr. 
Solvitiir | acri's hi-j-ems gra-j-ta vice || veris | et Fa-|-von?. 


Quam vart-|-Is ter-j-ras ani-j-mrdi y a || perme-|-ant ft-|-guris. 


Festus a-|-postoli-j-ci no-|-bls red'it || hie di-|-es tr!-|-umphi. 


It is somewhat remarkable, that, although each of the 
first three feet may be either dactyl or spondee at pleasure, 
Prudentius has invariably made the first and second dac- 
tyls, and the third a spondee, in every verse of this kind 
which we have from his pen amounting to near a hun- 
dred and forty. Neither Horace nor Boethius regarded 
uniformity in that respect. 

As Horace and Boethius always have the casura be- 


232 (57.}I)actylico-TrochaicHeptameterAcephalus. 

tween the dactylic and trochaic portions of this metre, 
and as the line is immoderately long, I should have been 
tempted to think that it was intended for two distinct 
verses, thus 

SolvYtur | acris hi-|-ems gra-|-ta vk (No. 6.) 
Yens | et Fa-|-vonl. (No. 41.) 

but I observe in Prudentius several lines which cannot be 
so divided without splitting words ; and Terentianus no- 
tices this metre as a single verse. See some remarks on it 
in page 279. 

Although Horace has not used the Heptameter except 
in conjunction with a verse of different kind, Boethius 
and Prudentius have poems entirely consisting of unmixed 

(No. 57.) DactylkO'Trochaic Heptameter Acephalus. 

This metre (for which I do not find any name) consists 
of an Acephalous Dactylic Tetrameter a posteriore (No. 
9) and an Ithyphallic (No. 41) as 
Mea I tibia j dlcere | versus || destf-|-tlt La-]-tinos. 


It was probably intended for two separate verses 
Mea | tibia | dlcere | versus 

Desti-|-tlt La-|-tlnos 

but that is a question of very little importance, as there 
are not, I believe, any lines extant in this metre, except 
about half a dozen employed by Terentianus in describ- 

(58.) Lesser Alcaic. (5Q.} An unclassed Metre. 283 

ing and exemplifying it. He mentions it as a single 

(Xo. 58.) Dactylico-Trochaic Tetrameter, or Lesser 


This .metre consists of two dactyls followed by two 
trochees, as 

Levy# | pers5nti-|-er | siixa. (Horace. 
Luxuri-[-6 Nero | saevi-|-entis. (Boethius. 

f (No. 59-) An unclassed Metre. 

In Terentianus (de Pedibus, 106) we find, as an exr 
amplification of the proceleusmatic foot, a verse ofjjfteen 
short syllables, viz. 

Pent abi't av?pe:dis ani'mula l^p6rYs 
on which he remarks 

Hunc nos pedibus scandere convenit jugatis: 
Et trimeter erit : tribrachys in fine resistet. 
I have not reduced it to any particular class or species of 
verse, but leave the reader to follow his own judgement in 
classifying it, as well as the following trifle of Ausonius, 
tthich I give exactly as I find it in the Corpus Poet arum, 
though I do not believe the fourth line to be correct, 
etamita Ve"neria prope'rite'r obilt; 
mela mbdiftcii iecui6, 

284- (59.) An unclassed Metre. 

CMs tiff placidiila siipera vtgeat, 
Cderfpes* et adeat Itfca tacita erebi. 

(Parentalia, 27. 

* Ausonius elsewhere makes the final syllahle short in the compounds 
of Pes, viz. 

Quibipes et quadrupes foret, et tripes, omnia solus. (Idyll. 11, 3^. 
So likewise Prudentius 

Non recipit natura hominis, modo quadrupes ills 

Non bit, et erecto spectet coelestia valtu . . . . ,' (4potfi. 3, 35, 


Of the Hexameter. 

WITH respect to the most advantageous combination 
of feet to compose a hexameter verse, no general rule can 
be given, which is not liable to a thousand exceptions: for, 
though alternate dactyls and spondees be pleasing in oife 
line, a different distribution will be equally captivating 
in the next and another, dissimilar to either of fhe for- 
mer, will have its charm in a third. In short, harmonious 
variety is the object to be pursued : for, the most happy 
arrangement of words that could possibly be devised, 
would pall upon the ear, if repeated through a few succes- 
pive verses*. But such monotony is easily avoided: the 

* Here be it observed, once for all -wherever I give my opinion 

that a word of this or that kind may, consistently with harmony, be 

placed in such or such position wherever I say that such or such verse 

to me appears happy in its structure I uniformly speak with a view to 

the real quantity of the syllables, not to what is called accent. I have 

no objection to any man's accenting the words according to his own 

judgement or fancy: and, whatever may be his system of accentuation, 

J shall not presume to condemn it as wrong. But, if the accent be so 

managed as to confound the quantity, and to transform an iambus to a 

trochee, as bono to bono an anapaest to a dactyl, as studio to studio, 

&c. &c, in that case, the words and verses no longer present the 

$ame sounds on which I have given an opinion : and 1 request that no 

ppinion, expressed in these pages, may be applied to any word or verje 

86 Analysis of the Hexameter. 

infinite diversity in the length and quantity of Latin words 
not only allows but even compels the poet to vary his mea- 
sure in every line. Hence, whenever he undertakes to 
describe a slow lingering motion, or to handle a grave or 
solemn or melancholy subject, he can, by the weight of 
heavy spondees, retard the march of his lines, and thus 
longer detain the picture in his reader's view: when he 
wishes to express haste, rapidity, confusion, impetuosity, 
ungovernable passion, he readily finds a number of light 
dactyls to give wings to his verse: when pomp, grandeur, 
and magnificence, are his theme, he is never at a loss for 
two or three dactyls to make a noble entry, with one or 
two spondees following in their train. 

But, however happy the choice of feet may be in other 
^respects, neither beauty nor harmony can result from the 
combination, without a due attention to the c&stira* 

The term C&mra is used by grammarians in two accep- 
tations first, as applied to whole yerses secondly, as 
Applied to single feet. 

Jn the former acceptation, the Casura (or Tome*) 

pronounced otherwise than with its proper quantity the short syllables 
pronounced short the long syllables, long. And this I particularly 
wish to be observed whenever there is question of the longer words, of 
four, five, six, seven syllables. If the reader shall pronounce any 
verse or word with any other than its true quantity, and shall, in that 
altered state, apply to it any opinion that I have given, he will pervert 
my language, and make it say what I have neither said nor meant to 

* The term Tome is likewise applied to the segment or portion of 3 
verse regularly divided in a particular part. Thus 

Tltyre, tupatulfe 
Js called a Heroic Tome; and 

Quarum qua forma pulcherrma, 
a Bucolic Tome as explained in the subsequent pages. 

Analysis of the Hexameter. Q 87 

means the division of a verse into two portions or members, 
affording a little pause or rest for the voice, in some con- 
venient part, where the pause may take place without injury 
to the sense or harmony of the line, as 
Tantae molis enit -$' Romanam condere gen tern. (Virgil. 
Errabant, acti fatis, & maria omnia circum. (Virgil. 

from which examples, it appears that the C&sura is not 
exclusively confined to a. particular part of the Hexameter 
verse, as is the case in the Pentameter, which (like the 
modern English and French Alexandrine*) is invariably 
divided by the Caesura into two equal portions. 

The Ccesura the most approved in heroic poetry was 
that which took place after the penthemimeris^ (page 141 ); 

* But not our decasyllabic or heroic verse, which, like the Latin 
Hexameter, varies its C*sura: e. gr. 

Of man's first disobedience, -CS and the fruit 

Of that forbidden tree, 3 whose mortal taste 

Brought death into the world, $ and all our woe, 

With loss of Eden, -C5 till one greater man 

Restore us, -C3 and regain the blissful seat, 

Sing, heav'nly Muse, &c, (Milton. 

f- On this subject, the following remark occurs in AGellius, 18, 15 
" Marcus Varro scripsit, observdsse sese in versu hexametro, quod omni* 
modo quint us sc wipes verbumjiniret" Dr. Bentley has taken pains to 
prove the inaccuracy of Varro's observation, by the practice of Lu- 
cretius and Catullus, his contemporaries, who have not observed that 
rule : and Mr, Dawes has undertaken to refute Dr. Bentley's argument, 
by showing that Varro was born before Catullus and Lucretius, though 
they died before him ; whence it may be supposed that he had written 
the above quoted remark previous to the publication of their poems. 
Whether Varro did or did not read Lucretius or Catullus to say no- 
thing of Homer, Hesiod, and other Greek poets, all equally inobser- 
vant of the penthemimeral caesura he certainly read Ennius: and, in 
the remaining fragments of Ennius which have reached our times, there 

288 Analysis of the Hexameter, 

and this was particularly distinguished as THE Heroic 
C(zsura (Tome heroica) e. gr. 

at domus j Inter-|-or * regali splendida luxu . . . (Virgil. 
Julius, | a mag-|-no * demissurn nomen lulo. (Virgil. 
Pnesen^|-temque v-|-rls * intentant omnia mortem. (Virg. 
Luctan-|-tes ven-|-tos, -* tempestatesque sonoras. (Virgil. 
Instead, however, of the c&sura at the exact peiithe- 
mimeris, a different division was equally admitted as he- 
roic, which took place after a trochee * in the third foot : 
e. gr. 

Effjfg'i-j-em statii-|-ere, * nefas quae triste piaret. (Virgil. 
Tecta me-j-tu peti-|-ere : *^ riiunt de inontibus amnes. 

Cum soci-|-is tiar\-toque, -^ pcnatibus, et magnis dis. 

Sed vo-|-tis pr$ci-\-b usque ** jtibent exposcere pacem. 

Infan-|-duiii, re^glnfy ^ jiibes reriovare dolorem. (Virg. 

appear above fifty examples of the fifth semifoot not terminating a word : 
that is to say, that, on an average, every tenth hexameter of Ennius, 
now extant, contradicts the assertion attributed to Varro. Could 
Varro, so famed for his learning and accuracy, have made an unfound- 
ed assertion, which every school-boy in Rome was capable of disproving ? 
Rather let us suppose that Varro's words have not been correctly trans- 
mitted to us but that they have, in some way or other, been mis- 
stated, so as to make him say what he never intended. 

* A trochee may occur, as part of a dactyl, in each of the five dac- 
tylic stations of the Hexameter. The first, third, and fifth trochees 
are found in the following line 
NZmque me -\-irum cer-\-tlque pe-[-des nume-\-rusque co-|-ercent. 

the second and fourth appear in this other 

a\i\-\-cesque re-|-vlsere | natos. (Lucan. 


Analysis oj\the Hexameter. 2 89 

Ter, frus-|-tra com-\-prens(i, & manus effugit imago. (Vir. 

On this division, see the remarks in a subsequent page, 
under " The third foot" 

The Ccesura after thte hephthemimeris was also approved 
as heroic, viz. 

Inde to-j-ro pater | JEne-|-tf$ * sic orsus ab alto. (VirgiL 
Clamo*j-res si'mul j hoiTen-|-</0$ * ad sidera tollit. (Virgil. 
I'luctTbiis 1 oppres-j-sos Tro-|-tf$, -^ coelique ruin&. (Virgil. 
Ilia do-|-16s dl-j-rumqu n-\-fas -& in pectore versat. 


Dum sta-j-bftt reg-j-no Incolu \-mis, -& regumque vigebat 
Conciliis. (Virgil. 

[lie re-'-glt dic-j-tls iini-|-w5^, -^ et pectora mulcet. (VirgiL 

The (Jusnra after the third foot, dividing the verse ex- 
actly into halves, was utterly disapproved, as giving to the 
line a certain levity unsuitc'd to heroic themes, and de- 
grading it to a Priapean. (Sec No. 3.) Of the Hexame- 
ter so divided, Ter en ti an us says (de Metr. 1023,-28,-44) 
QL.I tamen heroon foctis indignus habetur; 
Xatuque tome media est versa non apta severo . . . 

eteniin sonus indicat esse hunc lusibus aptum . * . 
\'crsu.s ergo magrstri vocant hos Priapeos 
and he instances in the following line of Virgil, which was 
condemned, as Priapean 
Cul non ! dlctus lljA-las pi'itir, \ -^ et Latonia Delos? 

(Geo. 3, 6. 

But Virgil does not appear to have felt so violent an anti- 
pathy to the middle cresura, as those learned magistri en- 
tertained ; since he did not scruple occasionally to use it in 
other passages besides that above quoted* ; for example 

* It is worth v of remark., thnt the verse which Terenliiinus has 

P P 

2$0 Analysis of the Hexameter. 

Exple-j-rl mcn-j-tem mquit 9 \ * ardescitque tuendo. 

(JEn. 1, 717. 
Ills lacry-j-mls vl-|-tam damiis, \ * et miserescimus ultro. 

(2, 145. 
Portici-|-bus lon-j-gls flight, \ * et vacua atria lustrat. 

(2, 528. 
Avul-j-siimque hume-j-ris capiit, | * et sine nomine corpus. 

(2, 558. 

It must, however, be acknowledged, that the magistri 
though perhaps too fastidious in condemning such verses as 
un-heroic were certainly right in preferring the pent/it- 

singled out to bear the Priapcan stigma, should occur, not in the un- 
revised pages of the /Eneid, but at the opening of a book of the Georgics: 
for, though not written in the same lofty strain as the JEneid .which 
latter poem, notwithstanding an occasional unpolished line, evidently 
displays a material improvement in the poet's versification yet the 
Georgics received his last corrections., his finishing polish : and it is 
hardly probable, in such case, that he would, in the very exordium of 
one of his books, suffer a line to remain, which was not perfectly jusii*' 
nable. Let me add, that, on opening Statius for a different purpose, I 
casually observe the three following examples within the compass of ft 
single page, viz. Silv. lib. 2, cann. 1, 20, 25, 81 

Specta-]-tumque ur-|-bi see/us, \ -dl et puerile feretruni. 

VIx tenu-|*I sum-) -Us emus, \ *C^ offendique tcnendo. 

Amplex-|-usque si- |-nu fttl/t, \ -CH et genuisso putavit. 
And Statius, though inferior to Virgil in genius and judgement, was not 
inferior to him incorrectness of ear and certainly not a careless or 
slovenly poet, as -his verses would sufliciently testify, even without that 
evidence which he has himself afforded to us, of the twelve years em- 
ployed by him in composing and polishing the twelve books of his 

O mihi v.ssenos multum vigilata per annos 
Ihebai (Thcb. 12, 821. 

Analysis of the Hexameter. 29 1 

numeral or hephthemimeral ccesur'a to the middle di- 

The Ccrsura between the fourth and fifth feet was con- 
sidered by grammarians as peculiarly adapted to pastoral 
poetry more particularly (I conceive) when the fourth 
foot was a dactyl * : and it was therefore termed the Bu- 
colic Casura (Tome bucolicd) e. gr. 
Stantvitu-|-li, et tene-|-rls m\i-\- gift bus \ * aera complent. 

( A eWC-v /,'///. 

Idas | lanigc-|-ri d.6irii-\-nus grcgis, * Astacus horti. 

Communis Paphie dea sideris -* et dea floris. (Ausonius. 
and it is certain that such division (whether from chance or 
design) very frequently occurs in the pastorals of Theo- 
critus, I3ion, and Moschus. Virgil, however, appears 
to have entertained no partiality to the Bucolic Cccsura 
if indeed that distinction was at all known in his time : for, 
although he professedly took Theocritus for his model, 
and prides himself in the imitation f, he did not think 
proper to imitate the Sicilian bard in the structure of 
his lines. In the pastorals of Calphurnius and Ne- 
mesia.n, two contemporary poets, who wrote about three 
centuries posterior to Virgil, some readers may perhaps 
fancy they perceive something like an appearance of at- 
tention to what was called the Bucolic Ccexura: but 
I confess / cannot discover sufficient of it to convince 

* In particularising the dactyl here, I do not kno\v that I am t min- 
tenanced by any ancient grammarian. But, in tho- ut Theo- 

critus which have the Bucolic Carsura, the fourth loot most commonly is 
a dactyl. 

-f I'rima St/racosio dignata est ludere versa 

Nustra, nee erubuit ailvas habitare, Thalia. (Eel. 6, I. 

292 Analysis of the Hexameter. 

me that they actually studied it, or considered it as in 
any \vise contributive to the beauty of pastoral composi- 
tion. Ausonius, who flourished about a century later 
than they, makes indeed incidental mention of the Tome 
Bucolica (Epist. 4, 88) : but I cannot see that he paid 
any particular attention to it in his Idyls, which do not, in 
that respect, differ from his other poems. In fact, it as 
frequently happens in the heroic as in the pastoral verses of 
the Latin poets, that the fourth foot terminates a word : 
and, of the lines so constructed, there is hardly one in a 
thousand which has not a caesura in the third or fourth foot; 
so that, on examination, the Tome Bucolica will not prove 
to be more peculiarly characteristic of pastoral than of 
heroic poetry: and though the term may (like Penthemi- 
meris, c.) be conveniently used as a name to designate 
a particular division or a particular portion of the hexa- 
meter verse for which purpose alone it w r as used by 
Ausonius no further consequence attaches to it. 

In the second acceptation, the Caesura means " the 
division or separation which takes place in a foot, when 
that foot is composed of syllables belonging to separate 
words," as observed in Sect. 46", where its nature and 
effects are explained. In the latter sense alone I mean to 
use it in the remaining pages of this Analysis, in which I 
propose separately to view each foot of the Hexameter in 
successive order: and, whenever I have occasion to men- 
tion the division of the w<% I shuU employ the other 
term, Tome*. 

* Not thereby meaning to establish a distinction between two word; 
perfectly synonymous, but simply \vishing to avoid circumlocution or 

Analysis of th e Hexameter. 

A due attention to the Ccesura is essentially necessary to 
the beauty and harmony of versification. A verse in which 
it is neglected in which the isolated feet seem to shun all 
society with each other, and the words singly and sullenly 
stalk on in stiff procession is uncouth in the extreme, 
and wholly void of all poetic grace; as, for example, 
Sparsls j hastis [ late | campus | splendet et j horret. (Eunius. 
Disper-j-ge hpstcs, | distnjhe, j dlduc, | dMdc', | differ. 

Xon me | moribus j ilia, se'd j hcrbls, | Tmproba | vicit. 


On the other hand, the frequent recurrence of the 
Ccesura which, while it breaks the feet, tends to link 
the words with each other - greatly contributes to the 
smooth easy fluency and harmony of the verse : and this 
effect is equally produced, whether the division take place 
after a semi foot, or after a trochee * : e. gr. 
J,onga di-|-cs homi-|-nl docii-|-it pa-|-rere le-|-6nes. (7'ibull. 
Jsec tuinu-|-lum cii-|-ro : scpe-j-llt na-|-tura rc-|-llctos. 

Quid frau-|-drircju-|-vat vi-| r tcm cre-|-scentibus | uvls ? 


Pcrsa-|-rum statii-j-It I3;iby-j-16na Sc-j-mlrumis | urbem. 

{Proper tins. 
Te spec-|-tcm, su-|-pirma.mi-]-hi quum | veneYit | hora. 

Jura si-j-lcnt m(^-|-st^quc ta-j-cent sui^ | vlndtc^ | leges. 


* Wlien I speak of a trpchec in this and the subsequent pages, I 
a solid trochee, consisting of a single word, or the last two syllables of 
a word not a seinifoot joined with a short monosyllable. The mono- 
syllables will be separately noticed in trcatin^of the several feet. 

Analysis of the Hexameter^ 

Note, however, th:it, if two successive trochees occur 
in the second and third feet, they will, in general, produce 
a disagreeahle effect, giving to the verse a flippant desul- 
tory motion, extremely, unpleasing to a poetic ear : as, for 

Vos quoque j si grift \i-\- clefts, aquai dulcis alumnrp, 
Quiim c\ii-\-more p'd-\-rat'ts manes fundere voces. (Cicero. 
Ergo \\m-\-g~isquc \r\ii-\-glsquc viri mine gloria claret. 


Quurti te \jnssit \\li-\-berc ptiellamcornua Juno. (Propcrt. 
Et grdvi-\-ora \c-\-ptndit miquis pensa quasillis. (P roper t. 

The result will be nearly as disagreeable, if two trochees 
occur in the third and fourth feet: e. gr. 
Intere-'-a sol | cdbif* r-\-cess}'l\ii infera noctis. [Erinlus. 
. . . Incl-j dunt: M-\-hilst(i \n"-\-altu s^curibu' cacdiint. 


. . . Pruden-'ptem. qul ] 'mUl{n\(')-\~qiuvc tacereve posset 


But the effect is more conspicuously striking in the fol- 
lowing verse of Homer (Iliad, "S^, Il6) which, however, 
has, in that place, its peculiar beauty, as well depit 
the broken irregular march of men and nmles up hill and 
down dale, over rough and over smooth. 
Pollci d' '<\.n-\-Tintitj kat-i-t7/v/c7, par-|-^7;^^ tc, | dochmia 
t' Million. 

In another place, too, Homer has most happily em- 
ployed the aid of trochees to describe Sisyphus's huge stone 
bounding and thundering down the hill, Od. A, .697 
A ufts e\)-\-cltd p-[-rfoe/c kii-!-lIndeto | la Ms analcles. 

Nor has Virgil less happily used the second and third 

* So in print. Perhaps Fj:iiius \vrotc ulmu\ 

Analysis of the Hexameter. 295 

trochees in the following passage, which finely expresses 
the tumultuous impetuosity of the warring winds 
Incubuere mari, totumque a sedibus imis 
Una Y.\i-\-rusque \u-\-tusquc riiunt, creberque procellis 
Afrieus. (A'ln. 1, S5. 

These, however, are extraordinary cases, and not to 
be taken as models for imitation on common occasions. 

But two successive trochees may agreeably occur in the 
first and second feet, as 

d'rc ci-\-erc viros, Martemque accendere cantu. (Virgil, 
utqiic ere- -masse- siium fertur sub stipite natuin . . . (Ovid. 
or in the fourth and fifth, as 

Ergo | desYdi-'-ain qui-\-cil?nguc vo-\-cuv'i't amorem...(Ot?iW. 
Et glau-|-cas s;!li-:-ccs, ciisi-\-amque cro-j-cwMyMerubentem. 


Three trochees likewise, or four, may advantageously be 
placed in different positions, viz. 
anna pi*6-|-cul Q.\\\*-\-rusque v'i-j-rum ml-l-ratur inanes. 


Lee t 'tis t-j-driinaVJ-i dd*\~natHt \\6-\-nore tnumphl. (Statins. 
Taliii | voce re-j-fert, (3 | tcrquc quii-\-terqi(e bcati. (Virgil. 
'Dulcis et ! altd qui-[-es, placi-|-cV^</z^ simillima morti. 


C unique su-\-perba fo-|-ret Baby-|-lon spoli-|-^/^r/ tropaeis... 


On these combinations it may be proper to observe, that, 
as far as we can judge from the practice of the Latin poets, 
they strongly reprobated a junction of the second and third 
trochees, or of the third and fourth ; for very few ex- 
amples of either are to be found. The combination of the 
fourth M& fifth occurs much more frequently, though not 
near so often as that of the first and secund. That of the 

S$6 Anal of Hezam. first Foot. 

first, third, and fifth, seems to have been universally ap- 
proved and admired, as it frequently appears in every spe- 
cies of hexameter composition. Of J'our trochees, placed 
conformably to my idea, I cannot here produce an in- 
stance; and I have reason to believe that it would not be 
easy to find one : but the following line, pieced together 
from two hemistichs of Virgil, will sufficiently answer the 
purpose of exemplification 

anna vi-\-rumgue ca j-no . . . f \-\~d unique ve-.-hebtit oronten. 
From t lie general structure of the Hexameter, let us now 
proceed to examine each individual foot 

The first foot, 

if a dactyl, may very well consist of a single word, as 
Regia \ Soils erat sublimibus altacolumnis. (Oi'id. 

or a monosyllable and a word of two short syllables 
Si mttl | cum vestris valuissent vota, Pelasgi. (Ovid. 

or a trochee and a short monosyllable 
Lena per \ innumeros iret pictura penates. (Claitdian. 

or part of a word, leaving a semifoot or a trochee for the 
succeeding foot 

"db&gi-\*iur densa caligine mersa vetustas. (Slllus. 

wiper i-\-bsa Fames, leto vicina Senectus. (Claiidian* 

or part of a word which furnishes the entire penthe- 

EeUero-\-phonte-\-as indignaretur habenas. (Claudian. 
Ape7i-\-)ririico~\-l( bellator filius Auni. (FirgiL 

a)nphitry-\-oriia-\-des, aut torvo Jupiter ore. (Pe 

or a trochee, and part of the ensuing word 

Anal of First Foot. 297 

Colla dt-\-u gravibus frustra tentata lacertis. (Ltrcan. 

ardtt ab-\-~irt fuga, dulcesque relinquere terras. (Virgil. 

?// Cle-\-oncc-\-l projecit terga leonis. (Litcan. 

ipsa vd-l'lublti -\-tas libratum sustinet orbem. (Ovid. 

or a monosyllable, and part of the word following 
It vacu-\-os moesto lustraruntlumine montes.(F^/, Flaccus. 
Hos abo-\-lert metus magici jubet ordine sacri. (Statius. 
et Phd&-\-thonft-\-& perpessus damna ruinse. (Claudian. 
Te Lac2-\-dcL'7nurii-\-d velat toga lota Galeso. (Martial. 

Sometimes, but neither always nor often, three mono- 
syllables, or two monosyllables joined with the first syllable 
of the subsequent word, here stand tolerably well ; and 
that is as much as can be said in favor of such combina- 
tions: e. gr. 

ct ttit )'/2 | Hesperio collapsas sanguine gentes. (Litcan. 
Turn bis ad \ occasum, bis se convertit ad ortum. (Ovid. 
Turn fit ti-\-dor vini plagse mactabilis instar. (Lucretius. 
Sicnia-\-more Venus simulacris ludit amantes. (Lucretius. 

If the foot be a spondee, it may agreeably consist of 
part of a word, leaving a semifoot or a trochee for part of 
the second foot, as 

Mortci~\-les visus* medio sermone reliquit. (Virgil. 

VentO'\-rum rabies motis exasperat undis. (Ovid. 

Expcc-\-tata diu vix tandem lamina tollit. (Catullus. 

or of a monosyllable, and part of the subsequent word 

These words remind me of another passage in Virgil, JEo. 5, 

Adspice; namque omnem, qua* mine obducta tuenti 

Mortales hebetat visus tibi, et kumida circum 

Caligat, nube,m eripiam 
which, from conjecture, I am tempted to read as follows 

298 Anal, of Ilcxam. First Foot. 

At lau-\-rus bona signa dedit : gaudete, coloni. (Tibitllus. 
Et qu<-\-cumque fagant collectas flamina nubes. (Ovid. 
N~illn'\-tenta-\-tum Selius, nil linquit inausum. (Martial. 
S~ic am-\-pfii6}ii-\-tf pulcher sudore palaestrce. (Claudian. 

of of two monosyllables 

At non | magnanimi perculsit pectora Bruti. (Lucan. 

O lu,v\ Dardania?! spes o fidissima Teucrum! (Virgil. 

At me | turn primum sasvus circumstetit horror. (Virgil. 

It may also consist of a single detached word; though 
that is, in general, less pleasing than the spondee of two 
monosyllables, and for this reason The accent being 
laid on the first syllable of the former, places the word, as 
it were, at a greater distance from the context, and causes 
a kind of breach in the continuity of the line: whereas, in 
the case of two monosyllables, the accent is divided be- 
tween both ; and the second of them, particularly if an 
emphatic word, receives a stress in the utterance, which 
protracts the duration of its time, and thus, in a manner^ 
connects it with the second foot. The difference will be 
sensibly felt in the two following lines, which have their 
first feet nearly similar in sound, and each alike followed 
by a trochee 

dcres \ ess viros, cum dura proelia gente. (Virgil. 

Nee ris \ ant vident: accepta cladequeruntur. (Claudian. 

Adspice; namque omnem, quse nunc obducta tuenti, 

Mortales hebttans visas, tibi lumina circum 

Caligat, nubem eripiarn 

and my conjecture is partly countenanced by the various readings, K- 
mina and lumina^ noticed in Professor Hcyne's edition. The word 
heletans, being written hebetas, might, by a hasty or ignorant scrib?, 
have easily been mistaken for hcbetat. 

Anal, of Hex am. First Foot: 299 

There are, however, numerous cases, in which the 
detached spondee of a single word is perfectly consistent 
with beauty and harmony, especially where that word bears 
any particular emphasis, as 

11 fa rent \ Argolici dejecto lumine manes. (Statiyf. 

Fieb'is : | non tua sunt duro praecordia ferro 

Vincta; nee in tenero stat tibi corde silex. (Tibullus. 
Stabut | tatidici prope sa?va altaria vatis 
Moestus adhuc .... (Statius. 

Quant os \ ille virum niagnam Mavortis ad urbem 
Campus aget gemitus ! . . . . (Virgil. 

.... Forte cava dum personal aequora concha, 
Dewens, \ et cantu vocat in certamina divos .... (VirgiL 
Dtmens ! \ qui nimbos, et non imitabile fulmen, 
JEre etcornipedum pulsu simularet* equorum. (Virgil. 

In the following passages, the isolated spondee pro- 
duces a grand and impressive effect. 
ingens \ visa duci Patrise trepidantis imago, 
Clara per obscuram, vultu moestissima, noctem. (Lucan. 
Vox quoque per lucos vuigo exaudita silentes 
ingcns, \ et simulacra modis palientia iniris. (Virgil. 

* Simularet, which appears to be the reading of some respectable 
JUSS. is here restored to its station, as better agreeing in tense with Ibat 
and Poscebat, whether we choose to understand those verbs as implying 
the constant habit of transgression, or as moreover describing the offender 
in the * try act of transgressing at the moment when Jupiter checked 
him in the midst of his triumphant career, by suddenly inflicting on him 
a public and exemplary punishment of his impiety. If Virgil had, on 
this occasion, at all used the pluperfect, he would have written Simuldsset, 
not SimuldraL Every scholar knows that the subjunctive is elegantly 
combined with the relative, to express the cause, reason, motive* as 
here, " Infatuate wretch! to attempt mimicking" &c. 

300 Anal, of Htxam* Second Foot. 

It is beautifully introduced by Virgil, in conjunction 
with other spondees, to describe the slow funereal march of 
a weeping train of warriors bearing the lifeless corse of their 
young fellow-soldier 

At Lausum socii exanimem super arma ferebant 
Flentes, \ Ingentem atque Ingenti vulnere victum. 

The second foot 

may agreeably consist of a semifoot or a trochee remaining 
from the first foot, with part of a word which runs into the 
third foot, and completes the penthemimeris, as 
Ingen-|-fes arii-\-nws angusto in pectcre versant. (Vir^iL 
Oi ur*-\-rtnt den-\~so tibi Troades agmine matres. (Ovid. 
Et pem-|-/7,y to- -to divisos orbe Biitannos. (Virgil. 

Et bel-|-/I rab2-\-es, et amor successit habendi. (VirgiL 
*E>xm-\-turfefi-\-tas, armisque potentius sequum est. 

Fastus \n-\-est pul-\-chris, sequjturque superbia forniam. 


iCon \n-\-suetd gra-\-*ces tentabunt pabula fetas. (VirgiL 
Pacife-'-r^2^ ma-\-im ramum prgetenditolivae. (Virgil. 
Orba pa-l-/^^^ su-\-o quicumque volumina tangis. (Ovid. 

In general there ought to he no pause or division in 
the sense immediately after the trochee in the second foot : 
but, in the following passage of Virgil, the pause, and the 
suspension of the voice on the short syllable terminating 
the long word conr-spex-e-rti, produce a very fine effect* 
Turn pietate gravern ac mentis si forte virum quern; 
Consptx-flre, silent, arrectisque auribus adstant. 

(Mn. 1, 156, 

The secpnd foot may also pleasingly consist of a mono* 
syllable or an independent trochee, connected in like roan? 

Anal, of Hcxam. Second Foot. SOI 

ncr with part of a word which completes the penthemi- 

meris: e. gr. 

Litora | turn pa tfi-\-<z y lacrymans, portusque relinquo. 


Excipit, j acfes-\*$os opibus solatur amicis. (VirgiL 

At ulit | Ipse *vi -\-ris optatum casus honorem. (Virgil. 
Qualis | spe itf-|-tf depi ensus in aggere serpens. (Virgil. 

or of a scmifoot and a long monosyllable which is more 
nearly connected in sense with the following than with the 
preceding word; as, for instance, 
Temp us e*|-r#, quo \ prlma quies mortalibus cegris . . , . 


Solque su-|-0 pro \ parte fovet, tribuitque calorem. (Lucret. 
Te Me-\-dus, te mot Us Arabs, te Seres adorent. (Claitdian. 
Maocipi-|-f?i tot \ regna tenet, tot distrahit urbes? 


Si metu-j-J^, si \ pravli cupis, si daceris ir. (Claudian, 
Ah ! quoti-[-(?^ per \ saxa canum latratibus acta est! (Ovid. 

But, if the monosyllable be more nearly connected with 
the preceding word and more particularly if it require 
or admit a pause at the end of the foot it produces a bad 
effect, as 
Aut pere-|-*7/2J res \ exustae torrentibus auris. (Lucretius. 

A caesura is indispensably requisite in the second foot, 
if there be not one in the third : but no disadvantage at- 
tends the absence of the caesura from the second, when it 
consists of the first part of a word which runs out into the 
third foot, and completes the penthemimeris : e. gr. 
Pristina | rest*itit-\-atii, Phrygias ad stamina matres. (Claud. 
Olli | sUbri-\-dens hominum rerumque repertor. (Virgil. 
Tenditad | ~itaU-\-am supplex Aurora potentem. (Claudian, 

Anal, of Hexam. Second Foot. 

Pulcher, et | urba-\-n(Z cupiens exercitus umbras. (Claud. 
Quani cum | sanguine-\'0 sequitur Bellona flagello. (Firg. 

or when the second foot consists of the middle part of a 
long word, which begins in the first, and runs into the 
third, to complete the penthemimeris, as 
JLustrat Hy-\-perb6rt-\-as, Delphis cessantibus, aras. 


Haeret m-\-ex])le-\-tum lacrymans, ac talia fatur. (Virgil. 
Et con-\-jura-\-ti veniunt ad classica venti. (Claudian. 
. . . Post Phac '-\-thonte-\~os vidisse dolentius ignes. (Ovid. 
O con-\-sanguine-\-'isfe\ixauctoribus anne ! (Claudian. 
Androge-\-onH-\-& poeiias exsolvere caddis. (Catullus. 

Bot, when there is no caesura in the second foot, and 
Che foot terminates a word, the effect is ungraceful: as, for 

Deinde vo-\-luptas \ est e succo in fine palatt. (Lucretius. 
Scilicet [ omnibus \ est labor impendendus ; et omnes .... 

Jnde vo-\-luntas \ fit; neque enira facere incipit ullarn .... 


Et mem-\-brat~r/n \ vitalem deperdere sensum. (Lucretius* 
Sed tamen | anm \ jam labuntur tempore toto. (Cicero. 
Inde re-\-trorsum \ reddit se, et convertiteodem. (Lucret. 
Quod non | omnia \ sic poterant conjuncta manere. (Lucr\ 
Nequiti-I*a occlcpat\ os, petulantia, prodigitasque.(Zw6'/7^. 
Veruin | stmlna \ multimodis immixta latere . . . (Lucret. 
Vox ob-\-tiinditiir, \ atque aures confusa penetrat. (Lucret. 
Quidve tri-\-ptctora \ tergemini vis Geryona'i ? (Lucretius. 
Et Baby-\-loiuca \ magnifico splendore rigantur. (Lucret. 
Imniemo-\-rafrilt \ per spatium transcurrere posse. (Lucret. 

be tempted to express nearly equal dislike to a 

Anal of If exam. Second Foot. 303 

word of two short syllables terminating the foot, with a 
pause immediately after it, as in the following line of Vir- 
gil, /En. 2, 30 

Classibus | hie Ideas; \ * hie acies certare solebant 
were I not apprehensive that the reader would tax me with 
presumption and want of taste, in disapproving a combina- 
tion to which Virgil appears to have felt little objection *. 
-To avoid the reader's censure, therefore, I content my- 
self with simply observing, that the short dissyllabic, ter- 
minating the foot, pleases me much better, when it has 
little or no pause immediately after it, but is followed either 
by a monosyllable, with the Tome at the penthemimeris or 
the hephthemimeris, as 
Nee mini ] mors gravis \ est, * posituro morte dolores. 

. . . Diceret, j haec me ft \ sunt : -* veteres, migrate coloni. 


Ilia mi-j-hi dtimiis \ est: -& vobis erit hospita tellus. (Ovid. 
Dcgene-|-ras : scelus \ est pie-|-tas * in conjuge Tereo. 


* In the second book alone of the JEneid, besides the example above 
quoted, we find eight others, in verses 23, 29, 104, 12:5, 200, 229, 
300, 465. The last of these the reader will probably admire, viz. 

Turrim in prcecipiti stantem : 

couvellimus altis 

Sedibus, impulimusque. Ea lapsa repente ruinam 
Cum soni-|-tu trakit,\ *& et Dana{im super agmina late 

In the suspense, of the word trahit thus followed by a pause, he will 
fancy he beholds the destructive ruin yet impending in air, before it 
reach the combatants beneath. Ushered in by so beautiful a sample 
of imitative harmony as ca lapsa repente ruinam y it will, no doubt, ap- 
pear to him the more picturesque. 

304 Anal, of Hexam. Second Foot* 

or by a trochee without pause in the third foot, and the 
Tome Sit the hephthemimeris, as 
Bisqui-[-nos &ilet \ ~ille di-|-es, * tectusque recusat. . . . 

At Iacry-|*mas sine [ flnl de-|-di, * rupique capillos. 


Jamque ade-[-o sttper\ units e-j-ram, ** cum lirnina Vestae... 


Tu, geni-j-tor, cape \ sacra ma-j-nu, * patriosque penates. 

Parva me-[-4 sine \ matre fu-[-ii-^ pater arma ferehat. 

Nee dubi-[-is eft \ slgna dedit Tritouia monstris. (VirgiL 

or by a single word which runs out into the fourth foot, 
tnth the Tome at the hephthemimeriF, as 
Nunc ani-j-mis opus, \ JEne-\-a 9 ^ nunc pectore firmo. 


Sarpe-|-don, 772^^ | progeni-\'es : -^ etiam sua Turnum . . . 

Nunc posi-j-tis ntiviis \ CJCUVt-l-is, & nitidusque juventa. 


Insta-j-mus tamen \ im?nemo-\-7*es, ^* caecique furore..(Fi7 % ^. 
Horribi-|-li super \ adspec-\-tu -^ mortalibus instans. 


Two short monosyllables do not always stand here to 
advantage, as 
Quaprop-j-teryy/ ut \ hinc nobis simulacra genantur. 


* . , In specu-|-lis/^ ut \ in laeva videatur, eo quod .... 


Anal of llcxam. Second Foot. 305 

Vet the following line of Ovid (Met. 1, 431) is perfectly 
free from objection 

Concipi-j-unt; ct ub \ his oriutttur duncta duobus 
for, in consequence of the pause after Concipiunt y and the 
Tome and pause after //*>, the three words, ct lib his, glide 
smoothly off as a single word of three Syllables, accented 
on the last. It would be easy to produce other examples 
equally unexceptionable : whence the reader will perceive 
that the objection lies, not so much against the moriosyl* 
lables themselves, as against the manner in which they 
happen to be connected with the other parts of the verse. 

A single short monosyllable, terminating the foot, is not 
graceful ; as, for example, 

Utili-|-tatis 6b \ officium potuisse creari. (Lucretius. 

Exter-J-rentur, ct \ ex somno, quasi mentibu' capti .... 


. . . Ejici-|-atur, ct \ introrsum pars abdita cedat. (Lucre t. 
. . . Cuncta \\-\-dentur: at \ assiduo in $unt omnia motu. 


Yet a verse of similar construction to this last, with a pause 
after the second trochee, produces, in one particular case, 
a very good effect happily picturing the eager effort, and 
consequent disappointment 
Ac velut in somnis, oculos ubi languida pressit 
Nocte qui^s, necquidquam avidos extendere cursus 
Velle vi-\-dvmur ; * ct \ in mediis conatibus cegri 
Succidimus. {JEneid, 12, 90S. 

A short monosyllable, however, stands very well in the 
middle of the foot, before a word which leaves a trochee 
for the third foot : e. gr. 

K ft 

SOS Audi of Hexam. Third Foot. 

Nobili-|-tas sub a-\- more j ace t: miserere priorum. (Ovid. 
Ilia pa-|-tres Kn h6-\-nore pio, matrcsque, tuetur. (Ovid. 
Sed probi-|*tas et $-\-paca quies, et sordida numquani 
Gaudia. (Statius. 

Nor will it be unpleasing before a word which leaves a 

semifoot completing the penthemirneris, as 
Greve-[~runt tt 6-\-pes et opum furiosa cupido. (Ovid. 

Non beneconveniunt, nee in una sede morantur, 
Wajes-|-tas et a-\-mdr : sceptri gravitate relicta .... (Ovid. 

The third foot. 

In the third foot, the caesura, though not absolutely in- 
dispensable, is extremely desirable, as powerfully contribu- 
tive to the harmony and easy fluency of the line ; the pen- 
themimeral caesura (or Heroic Tome, page 287) being that 
which most advantageously divides the verse for the reader's 
convenience, and enables him, in the utterance, to do 
equal justice to both members of it, without losing his 
breath or straining his voice in either. The truth of thid 
remark will be evident on a comparison of the two follow- 
ing lines the first having the Tome and pause at the pen- 
thernimeris, the other at the hephthemimeris 
Flamma-|-rumque glo-|-bos^ liquefactaque volvere saxa. 


Degene-[-remqae Ne-|-optole-|-mum 4* narrare memento. 


It is not here understood that every verse should uni- 
formly be divided at the penthemimeris : such uniformity 
would prove tiresome and disgusting. It is only meant 
that the penthemimeral Tome should more frequently occur 
than any one of the other divisions. 

Anal, of Ilt.vam. Third faot^ 30? 

The third foot, then, in general, most advantageously 
consists of a semifoot remaining from the second, and part 
of a word which runs out into the fourth, as 
Nee te | po3nite-|-<7/ du-\-rds subiisse labores. (Tibullus. 
Te vigi-|-lans OCU-|-//A', dm- \-rno te nocte, videbam. (Ovid. 
Halcyo-|-num ta-|-/,v -ccn-\-to$a per sequora questus. (Pedo. 
Et tenu-|-it no-\-jtras n urn c -\-rosiis lioratius aures. (Ovid. 
Qualia | pcilien-|-/,y fl-|-clinant lilia culmos. (Statins. 
Mollia | secu \-rcc ptra-\-gtbant otia inentes. (Ovid. 

Continu-|-um simi-|-/I ser-\-vanfia lege tenorem. (Claud. 
Voivis in-|-exhau-|-6'/tf rcde-\-untia secula cursu.(Cltiudian. 

It may also very well consist of a remaining semifoot, 
a short monosyllable, and the initial syllable of a subsequent 
word, as 

Una do-|-mus v\-\-rts %t o-\-nus susceperat urbis. (Ovid. 
Quam sua | liber-|-^7^ ad ho-\-nesta coegerat arma. (Ovid, 
Litora voce re-|-^/^^ sub tf-]-/rojwt?jacentia Phoebo. (Ovid. 
Frange, pu-|-er, cala-|-wo^ <tt ?-\-narits desere IMusas. 

Digtule-|-ratque gra-|-rw in i-\-done(i tempora po>nas. 


A trochee in the third foot will be either pleasing or dis- 
agreeable, according to the manner in which it stands con- 
nected with the other feet. If there be a pause immedi- 
ately after the trochee, the effect is, in general, unpleasing, 
because the voice, which would find an agreeable rest on a 
long semifoot, is disagreeably suspended on a short syl- 
lable : e. gr. 

Turn con-|-dens pater | dstra,-** po"-|-los quoque lumine 
lustrans. (Hilarius. 

Subrui-|-tur na-|-fwr#, * do-|-lor quam cpnsequitur rem. 

508 Anal, of Hex am. Third Foot. 

TJlcus e-|-nim vi-\#oZsciti * t| inveterascitalendo.(Zt/cr<tf. 
Consili-|-um quoque [ majus, "& t | auctior est animi vis. 


Sometimes, however, under peculiar circumstances, 
such construction is productive of beauty, as 
Obstupu-|~itsimul | ?p$t, -** sinful perculsus Achates, (Vlrg. 
Litora | deseru-|-;'tf : * lutetsub classibus aequor. (Virgil. 
Appa-|-retdomus| 'mtiis, "^ t atria longa patescunt. (Virg. 
in the first of which examples, the pendent trochee is well 
adapted to pouitray the suspense of astonishment ; while> 
in the two latter, we willingly stop short, to look forward, 
as it were and survey, in the one case, the fleet gradu- 
ally receding from our view in the other, the spacious 
hall, and long range of apartments, far extending in the 
back ground of the picture. 

In the following passage of Ovid, likewise, the pendein 
trochee produces a very fine effect 
Obstupuit forma Joye natus; et, aethere pendens, 
Non secus exarsit, quam cum Balearica plumbum 
Funda ja-|-cit : volat j llli'id^ * et incandescit eundo. 
The pause of suspense after Illud gives the reader an oppor- 
tunity of following the ball with his eye, in its extensive 
range through the air. 

But, on ordinary occasions, the par requires that there 
be no pause immediately after the trochee in this place, 
and jthaj; the verse have a caesura at the trihemimeris, with 
another at tjie hephthemimeris divjding it, as it were, 
into three portions, and thus affording, if not an actual 
pause, a^t least a little ease to the voice, at the third semi- 

again at the seventh, as 

patri-|-i, * pur-\-g(rii<s a-|-gros, ^purgamus agrestes. 


Anal, of Hcxaw. Third Foot. 
Sed prope-|-ref, & ne ! re Id ca-|-dant, ^ unrivquc rcsidant. 

Prima te-j-nct, * pi^u*{-5*7g#3 vtf-j-lat " 72 iVeniituque se- 
en ndo. (I'ir^iL 

Appa-j-ret -^ Cama-[*r///a pro-j-cul, * campiquc (loloi. 


Sometimes, however, the cassura at the trihcmimcns 
may very well be dispensed with, particularly it' the first 
foot be a dactyl, followed by a pause, as 
Rest'ifitj | $ Kurydi-\'Ccnque su-^ani, ^ jam luce sub 


Iminemor, heu ! victusqtie animj. respexit .... (Jlrgil. 
$ ocade-\-j'~itqitc\si-\-n'as, & cum nomine, Troja. 

and, in the subjoined examples, which have neither a 
pause after the first foot nor a caesura at the trihctntmcrix, 
the structure produces a very beautiful effect 
........... nee sulum vulgus inani 

Perculsum terrore pavet, sed curia, et ipsi 
^dibits cxsildtre piitres. (Lucau, 1, 482. 
Inde, ubi clara dedit sonitum tulm, iinibus omnes, 
Hand itwrd, pros Hue re sins. (J-'irgil, ^En. 5, 140. 

. . urijet ab alto 


urfaiKibusqm siit'isqut Notus, pecqrique, sinister. 

(Geo. 1, 444. 

the first finely describing the sudden emotion of the terrified 
assembly the second, the start and rapid movement of 
the competitors eagerly pushing forward for the prize the 
last, the irresistible impetuosity of the storm. 

In the following instance, too, the result is equally 
pleasing, though in a di lie rent way 
............... namque sepulcrum 

wcifiit \ 5ppar\-rcrc Jh'anorfo. (J' T *rz7, Eel. 9, 60. 

3 i Anal, of Hexam* Third Foot. 

the lengthening infinitive up-pa-re-re happily painting the 
distance, as the flying away of the voice in the short final 
E expresses the iaintness, of the object just discovered in 
remote perspective. 

In the subjoined passage, likewise, a word of the same 
measure in the same position lias a good effect in describ- 
ing the state of a ship tottering on the edge of a sand- 

Namque inflicta vadis, dorso dum pendet iniqucy 
Anceps | su$ten-\-tata diu, fluctusque fatigat, 
Solvitur. (JEneid, 10, 304. 

The third foot does not agreeably terminate a word of 
two short syllables with a pause after it or a word of two 
long syllables with or without a pause or, in any case, a 
longer word, of whatever form : e. gr. 
Jnde ge-|-nus du|-rum stimus, \& experiensque laborum. 


Acrior j ad pug-|-nam redif, \ & et vim suscitat ira. (VirgiL 
Ft pi-j-gi'i \M-\-ctx mag is> \ # et cunctantior actus. (I+ucr* 
Nee ven-ptorum | ftamina \ flando suda secundent. (LuclL 
At con-j-tra, si j mollia \ sint primordia rerum. (Lucretius* 
.... Appa-j-rent, et j longe \ divulsi licet, ingens 


.... Quae flue-l-ret -na-^tfi ra \ vi, varieque volaret. (Lucr. 
.... Kt qua^-j-cumque c6-\'lorihu \ sunt conjuncta, ne- 
cesseest. (Lucretius, 

and verses thus divided in the exact middle were uttevly re* 
probated by ancient grammarians, who accounted then), 
not heroic, but Priapean, as already observed in page 
89.- Virgil, however, has many lines of similar struc? 
tureto that above quoted: from which single circumstance 
(though I am very far from admiring them) I suspect that 
the majority of the Roman readers thought less harshly of 

Anal of Hc.iarn. Third Foot. S i I 

them, than those rigid grammarians ; or Virgil would have 
been more careful to avoid the censure which must other- 
wise have attached to his verses. It is somewhat remark- 
able, on the other hand, that Lucretius whose pages 
exhibit every conceivable form of coarse, rugged, uncouth 
versification * -has very few lines constructed like that of 

Virgil above. 

But this structure, however censurable on common oc- 
casions, has, in some cases, its peculiar charm, as, for 
example, in the following passage, JEn. 2, 52$ 
Portici-|-bus \on-\-gis fitg it, |4$ et vacua atria lustrat 

* But, rude as is the poetry of Lucretius, a very exquisite pleasure 
may be derived from it, when used as u foil to set oft' the more elegant 
productions of Virgil, Ovid, &c. Indeed, no man will ever fully per- 
ceive and relish the superior beauties of Virgil's or Ovid'j versification, 
till he have once or twice patiently perused the six books of Lucretius. 
On returning from kis rugged lines of strung syllables to the polished 
verses of the others, he will enjoy the delightful sensations of a bewil- 
dered traveler, who, after having painfully forced his way through 
thorny brakes, suddenly emerges into a highly cultivated Eden, where, 
at every step, he discovers new charms, which would otherwise have 
escaped his notice, and which are now rendered more striking by the 
contrast with the former dreary scene. On the other hand, is there a 
youth, who, relishing the beauties of Virgil's versification, regrets that 
his lines are not all equally polished, all equally harmonious ? Let him 
read Claudian: and, when he is thoroughly disgusted (as he soon will 
be) with Claudian's unvarying efforts at labored polish and turgid pom- 
posity, he will, on returning to Virgil, acknowledge that the M.mtiuw 
bard has designedly blended his more and his less polished lines with all 
the art of a first-rate painter, who knew that the judicious combination of 
light and shade can alone produce a good picture; while Claudian, like 
some of the Chinese daubers, covered his canvass all over with 
without a due admixture of shade to temper and qualify it. 

3 1 2 Anal, of Hcxam. Third Foot. 

When the Tome takes place at the penthemimeri's, and 
there is no pause at the close of the third foot, not the 
slightest objection can be made to- its terminating a dissyl- 
labic word : e. gr. 

Utde-|*sint vi-|-res, 4$ tamcti\est . laudanda voluntas. (Orid. 
Non radi-j-i so-|-/7$, -& ricquc \ lucida teladiei. (Lucretius. 
Etsemel | emis-|-.9wwz -^ volat \ irrevocabile verbum. (Ho?\ 
Si dam-|-nis va\y(-\-dum $' qutat \ exsaturare dolorein. 


Nimbo-]-rum in patri-j-aw, <O idea \ feta furentibus Austria 

IIa3C ego | vatici- -?wr, ^ qiiiu \ sum deceptus ab illo. 

Fortu-j-nata do-j-;;7^, & m6d6 \ sit tibi fidus amicus ! 

(Proper tins. 
Funera j pro sa-|-cm $ fibi \ sunt ducenda triumphis. 

Eripit | inter-]-d/7;;?, 45 mtidd | dat, medicina salutem.(Ot^V/. 

The same is the case, if the Tome occur at the hephthe- 
mimeris : for example 
Nonmihi | Dulichi-|-/77// dtimiis \ est, -& Ithaceve, Sameve. 

Sed sine \ faneri-[-^z7^ clip lit \ hoc, 4$ sine honore sepulcri..* 

Nee probi-j-tate tu-|-d/ pr^ior \ est -^ aut Herculis uxor .... 


It may also agreeably terminate with a long monosyl- 
lable the Tome, arid pause being at the penthemimeris, 
Nee pro-|-sunt ele-|-gi, & me \ carminis auctor Apollo. 


Anal of Hexam, TJnrd Foot. 3 1 3 

Contcm-|-nuntque fa-\-rds, $ et \ frigida tecta relinquunt. 


Non ar-|-mata tra-|-//<?;w, $ ^ | pacis habentia vultum. 


Haec laque-|-o volu-|-crc\y, $ //dfc | captat arundine pisces. 


Pertulit | intre pi-'. -#<;,? ^/ | fata novissima vultus. (Ovid. 
But, if there be not a pause at the penthea)imeris, the 
third foot terminating with a long monosyllable has an 
aukward and unpleasing effect and still worse, if it con- 
sist of two long monosyllables * ; as, for instance 
Tanto | mobili-|-or vis \ et dominantior haecest. (Lucretius. 
Prima ca-|-loris e-j-tt/wz /wrs, | et postremarigoris. (Liter et. 
Ponderis | amis-|-* r/, | possint stare in inani. (Lucretius. 
Labitur j intere-|-tf res, \ et vadimonia fiunt. (Lucretius. 
Terra, su-|-pra se | qiue stint, \ concutit omnia motu. 

Aut con-j-tractis | ~in se partibus obbrutescat. (Lucretius. 

Two short monosyllables, however, stand very well after 
the penthemimeral Tome and pause : e. gr, 
Scindit | se nu-!-&?, -^ et ui \ aethera purgat apertum.(FiV,g-. 
A Chio-|-ne sa\-\-ttm y & v2l ab \ Helide, disce pudorem. 


Tot mala | sum pas-|-^^7^, -C^ qu6t in \ aethere sidera lucent. 


Hanc ego | suspici-|-c/?, <& et ab \ hac Capitolia cernens. 


* The disagreeable effect, produced by an assemblage of long mono- 
syllables, is strikingly conspicuous in the following verse of Lucretius 
if ixrse I may venture to call it 

Hlnc \\\\iK-par vis ut non'slc esse potis sit. (5, 
S S 

AnaL of Hexam. Fourth Foot. 

The Fourth Foot. 

However pleasing the effect of the caesura in general, 
there is not the smallest necessity for it in the fourth foot, if 
there be a caesura at the penthemimeris : but, if not, a 
caesura is here indispensably requisite. 

In a verse which has the penthemimeral caesura, the 
fourth foot may agreeably consist of 

1. The remaining syllables of a word begun in the 
third, as 

At domus | interi-|-or C re-\-gaH, \ splendida luxu. (Virgil. 
Asper e-|-quus du-|-ris con-\-tiinditur \ ora lupatis.(0t;/W. 
Et mu-j-tata su-j-os 4$ requi-\-erunt \ flumina cursus. (Virg, 
Flamma-|-rumque g\o-\-bos^lfyue-[-factaque \ volvere saxa. 


Perfu-|-dit lacry- j-mis, -C$ et a-\-perto \ pectore fovit (Ovid. 
Tu licet | erro-j-ris^ sub ^\-mag1ne \ crimen pbumbres. 


2. A separate word making the complete foot, as 
Tyrrhe-|-noque bo-j-ves & In \fiuniirii \ lavit Iberos. 

Sunt ali-j-is scrip-|-ta3, -^ qu^ibus | ale a \ luditur, artes. 

Spumeus | et fer-|-vens, * t ab | obfice \ soevior, ibat. 


In this case, a dactyl is most commonly preferable, as 
giving more spirit and animation to the verse. Yet, or\ 
many occasions, the detached spondee has here its pecul ar 
merit producing a very good effect, particularly where 
the word itself is emphatic : and it is advantageously 
employed in expressing consequence, dignity, solemnity, 

Anal of Hexam. Fourth Foot,. 315 

anxiety, or in describing serious, grand, awful, terrific 
objects : e. gr. 

Acres | esse vi-j-ros, * cum | dura \ proelia gente. (Virgil. 
Martis e-|-qui biju-|-ges, * et | magm \ currus Achillis. 

Secre-|-tosque pi-|-os, * his ] dantem \ jura Catonem. 


Quique pi-|-i va-|-tes, * et | Phcebo \ digna locuti. (VirgiL 
Sensit, | laeta do-|-lis, * et | formed \ conscia, conjux. 

Has ex J more da-|-pes, * hanc \tanfi \ numinis aram . . . 


ter saxea tentat 

Limina | necquid-[-quam ; * ter \fessus \ valle resedit. 

.... Deseru-|-isse ra-|-tes : -^ stetit | acri \ fixa dolore. 

Exci-|-sum Eubo'i-|-cae latus | ingens \ rupis in antrum. 


Nee vim | tela fe-j-runt: * licet | ingen<s [janitor antro 
Sternum latrans exsangues terreat umbras. (VirgiL 

3. Part of a word which runs out into the fifth foot 
Jam piger, | et lon-|-go * jact | exar--matus ab a3vo. 


Omnis ad | arma ru-j-des * ager | exsiimu^-lawt alumnos. 

Multo-|-rumque fu-|-it & spes | mwdi-\-osa procorum. 

Sed fugit I intere-|-a, fugtt | irrepa-\-raMZ tempus. 


316 Anal, of Hexam. Fourth Foot. 

4. Part of a word begun in the third foot, and running 
out into the fifth 

Ferre do-l-mum vi-j-vos * In^-fagnan-^tesque solebat. 

Attenu-|-arat o-j-pes ; * sed ni-\-atteriii-\-atci manebat. . . 

Tritice-j-as mes-|-ses * et ln-\-e#pug-\-nab%l2 gramen. 


5. A trochee and a short monosyllable, as 

Ut, qui | paca-|-to * statu-|-mf in \ orbe colurnnas .... 

Ceu modo | carceri-| bus -^* &l'\~missus In \ arva solutis. 


Stantibus j exstat a-|-quis, -^ o\&-\-rltiir ab \ a3quore moto. 

Adde lo-|-ci speci-j-em ^* ncc \frcfade nee \ arbore tecti. 

LiveatJ infan-|-dum J ^ Hcet | argos et \ aspera Juno. (Sfat. 

6. A trochee and the first syllable of a word which runs 
out into the fifth foot, as 

Aurea | secu-j-ra * cum | pace re- -nastitur a3tas. (Calph. 

Nos quoque | praeteri-j-tos -^ sine | labe per-\-egimus 

annos. (Ovid. 

Roran-|-tesque co-j-mas-^ 1 a \frontc re-\-movit ad aures. 


Et jam | steila-|-rum ^* sub-|-//^ cti-\-cgtrat agmen.(Ot;/W. 
Ultima | posse-|-dit, ** s8ii-\-dumgu& co-\-ercint orbem. 


7. A remaining semifoot, or an independent long mo- 

Anal, of He .ram. Fourth Fout. 517 

nos^'llable, and part of a word which runs out into the 

fifth foot 

Jain non | finiti-[-mo * Mar-|-/7s ter -\-ror movetur. 

Ibat, et | Alcme-j-nae * pvze-\-dam rtfc-\-rebat ovanti. 

(C I audian. 
Te duce j magnifi-|-cas * Asi-j-< per-\-speximiis urbes. 

Est avus, j aethere-|-um * qui \jert ccr-\-wabi{$ axem. 


Sed pree-1-standus a-|-mor, -^ res | non ope~\-rosa volenti. 


8. A remaining semifoot, or an independent mono- 
syllable, and a long monosyllable closely connected in 
sense with the word immediately following 
Ipsius | ante ocu-j-los -O in-\-gtn* a \ vertice pontus .... 


Nec con-|-tentus e-j-o, -^ mis-j-$I dc \ gente Molossa .... 

Altera | pars vi-|-vit, -^ rudis | cst pars \ altera tellus. 


Non dare, | suspec-|-tum : & pudor j cst, qu~t j suadeat illinc. 


in which examples, the close connexion between the words 
a vertice. de gcnte, pars altera *, qui suadeat, causes the 
monosyllable, in each instance, particularly the preposition, 
to glide off, without any stress of accent, as smoothly 

In the following verse of Claudian, Nupt. Hon. rt Mar. i?43 

HiEc modo crescent!, plena; par altera luna; 

the connexion being not quite so intimate between par and altera, the 
reader will perceive that it makf*, though a slight, yet a perceptible, 
difference in the -accentuation and march of the line. 

3 1 8 AnaL of Hexam. Fourth Foot. 

as if it were actually incorporated with the subsequent 
word. But the case is different, when the monosyl- 
lable is in any manner disjoined, or receives any tinphasi$ 
of pronunciation, as in the following line of Virgil, /En, 
5, 280 

Tali [ remigi-[-o n&-\-vls .ve j tarda movebat 
which, through the want of. connexion between se and 
tarda^ and the stress unavoidably laid on se^ moves much 
more heavily although that very heaviness is here a 
merit, as imitating the slow unwieldy motion of the disabled 

But this other verse of the same poet, Geo. 2, 43 
Non, mini | si Iin-|-guaecen-|-j7?w slnt, \ oraque centum 
cannot equally plead the merit of imitative harmony to 
compensate its heaviness : and I confess I am very far 
from admiring it, though Virgil made no scruple of re- 
peating it verbatim et literatim in ^En. 6, 625. 

9. A remaining semifoot or an independent long mono- 
syllable, and a word of two short syllables 

Cursibus | obli-|-quis Om-|-f<?r tua \ regna fluentent.(OwV 
Cur ego 1 solici-|-t * p6\i-\-am mca \ carmina cura? (Ovid* 
Cressa, ma-|-nus tol-j-lens, $ rata j sint sita \ vota, pre- 
catur. (Ovid. 

Expedi-|-am dic-|-tis, $ et | te tua \ fata docebo. (Virgil. 
Si tamen | intere- -a, C^ quid 'in [ h~is egti \ perditus oris . . . 


10. A remaining semifoot, or along monosyllable, with 
a short monosyllable, and the first syllable of a word which 
runs out into the fifth foot 

Srepe pa-|-ter dix-|-it, ^* studI-|-w7W fjuHd Mi-[-ufili> tentas? 


Anal, of Hey am. Fowth Foot. 319 

Et deus | huma-|-na-* lus-|-*ro sub t-\-magiriG terras. 


Fieri |-das, pue-|-ri, -9* doc \-tos et a-\-matt> poetas.(7Y6w/. 
Js T on me j Chaoni-j-e *& vm-\'Cant in a-\-more colurnbae. 

(Proper tins. 
pigna qui-|-dan faci-j-es, * pro | qua vel $b-\-~trt Achilles. 

Et quot | Troja tu-|-lit, -^ v^tus | et qutit a-\-chai& formas. 

(Proper tins. 

Kon docet | hoc om-|-nes, * scd | quos rite ^n-\-trtid 
tanbt. (Tibullus. 

11. A remaining semifoot and two short monosyllables 
or, not amiss, one long and two short monosyllables 
Utque pe-|-ti vi-|-dit jiive-|-^ew tot &b \ hostibus unum. 


.... Tnque pe-|-des abi-|-it:-^ no-|-wew, qutid et \ ante, 

ren^ansit. (Ovid. 

Ipse do-j-cet, quid a-|-gam: * fas j est It ab \ hoste doceri. 

When there is a trochee in the third foot, the fourth 
pught, by all means, to have the hephthemimeral caesura, 
Jamque ci-|-bo v\-\-twque gra-j-t 1 ^, -^ 5ow-|-noque jacebant 

Et par-|-vam ce\e-\-brarc do-\-m urn, & re/t;-j-resque penates. 


and, in such case, it agreeably admits various forms of 
construction : e. gr. 
In quo-j-rum subi-|-r \o-\-cum: */r0-|-desque dolique. 

Vota ta-J-men teti-|-m? de-|-c/5, ^* ^V/-|-gere parentes. 



Anal of Hexam. Fourth Foot. 

Sed timu-l-it, ne \fort% sa-|-cr 

Dulce ru--bens, vm-\-diqu$ ge-l-nas-** spec- -tabilis tevo. 


Capti-|-vo mori-\-bundu6- hu-\-mum & <ft#-|-demate pulses. 


Edomi-|-tis vehe-[-7 % f#r z-\-quis, -* ct in \ asre trementem... 

| ignibus aether... 

ruuique decebat. 
Mixtavi-|-ris, tur-| male fre-^-mlt : ^dat t^-J-untibus enses. 

(Statius. * 

insula contra. ( 
^Ic itur ad astra. 

Turn pri-|-mum subi-|-e;'c 


iiacte no-|-va vir-|- 



But, although no objection lie against the monosyllable 
Sic in the last quoted verse or against any other mono- 
syllable in the same station, preceded in like manner by a 
pau,se, and equally connected with the following words - 
the case is widely different, if the monosyllable have the 
pause after, it, and be more nearly connected with the 
preceding part of the verse, as in the following lines of 
Lucretius, which, from those circumstances, are quite 
horrid - 
Unde om-[-nes im-\-tura cre-.|-ef res> -*| auctet alatque. 

Usque ade-|-o 

cre-.-ef res> - 
ve-\-nit vox, 

in- que -pedita. 

The want of the hephthenaimeral caesura (after a trochee 
in the third foot) is a serious* disparagement to the verse, 

Anal of Hexam. Fourth Foot. 22 1 

which thus has no caesura at either the fifth or the severith 
semi foot: e. gr. 

Quasdamus|utili-|-/5#,$ e-\-oriiln \ pnemia causa. (Lucretius. 
PrtEtere-|-a quae-j-cumque' \e-\-trtstu-\-le amovct aetas . . . 

Qua cur-|-sum \v\\-\- ttisquS gu-[-/;rwtf-j-torque vocabant. 


Inter j sequas \prlma, po-|-fe,9?2#-j-que insinuetur. (Lucr. 
Quoque mo-|-do d\s-\-t?'acta red-|-Jre? ui \ ordia prima. 

Ut nos-|-tris tume-\-facta s\i-\-ptrbiat \ Umbria libris*. 

(Proper tins * 

The following line of Virgil, however 
...Praecipi-|-tant; $u&-\'dcntqut3i-\-derifia siderasomnos 
though not calculated to call forth our admiration or ap- 
plause is rendered less objectionable than that of Pro- 
pertius, by the pause at the trihemimeris, and the spondee 
in the second place. But, though such structure may 
sometimes be admissible, that is, in general^ the highest 
praise we can bestow on it. In some particular cases, ne- 
vertheless, it may have a very good effect, as in the two 
following examples, which every judicious reader will ap- 
Aspicit | hos, ut ] forte ^QA-pendercit \ sethere mater. 


Ilia, ma-|-nus ut \fortc \^-\- tender at \ in maris undas . . . 


* Some of my readers may probably censure me for censuring this 
line, and conceive its rampant march well adapted to express the proud 
exultation of triumph. 1 consent, provided they allow, that, on any 
common occasion, a verse of similar structure would be ungraceful and 

T T 

322 Anal, of He.ram. Fourth Foot. 

In this passage of Virgil, too 

Continue, vends surgentibus, aut freta ponti 
Inci^i-\-unt agi-\-tata tii-\-mescerc 
the structure of the latter line is very happy, and well cal- 
culated to represent the heaving motion and swell of the 
agitated deep. 

And, although, in verses constructed like the follow- 

Et simi-|-li for-|-?w7^ m-\-dcbant \ saepe figura. (Lucretius. 
Turn Theti-|-di pater | lpsejii-\-gandum \ Pelea sensit. 


the spondee thus terminating a trisyllabic word after the 
trochee in the third foot, renders the line very lame and 
heavy yet, in the subjoined verse of Lucretius, that 
very lameness becomes a conspicuous beauty, as more 
expressively picturing the disappointed effort of the fallen 
soldier, who, yet unconscious of the loss of his leg by a 
sudden and violent stroke, attempts to rise, and again falls 
to the ground 
Inde alius co-\'?iatur tid-\-cmptd \ surgere crure. (3, 652. 

Virgil, too, by a verse of similar structure, has most 
successfully made the sound an echo to the sense, where, 
describing the sturdy exertions of the Cyclopes in forging 
the bolts for Jupiter, he says (Geo. 4, 1?4) 
Illi inter sese multa vi brachia tollunt 
In numerum, verstf ntque te-\-nac~i forcYp ferrum. 

The effect of the elision and of the tardy spondees, and 
of the expressive monosyllable Vi, (or JVEE*\ in the first 

* The affinity in sound between the Roman V and our W has been 
noticed in page 0. It here remains to observe that the long / in Latin 
is pronounced by all the other nations of Europe as ire proriounce .the 
long E or EE. 

Anal, of Hcxam. Fifth Foot. S2S 

line, will be felt by every reader, as admirably painting 
the slow laborious efforts in heaving the ponderous sledges: 
but the beauty of the second which exactly imitates the 
din of those sledges, as they fall thundering in successive 
and regular order will be more sensibly felt by those, 
who, reading it according to quantity, place the accent on 
the final syllable of numerum, than by those who pro- 
nounce the word with the prose accent, numerum. 
Virgil himself appears to have been highly pleased with 
the effect of these combinations, since (with the exception 
of the concluding word alone) he copied the 'whole passage 
verbatim into the JEneid, 8, 452. 


requires no ca3sura. On the contrary, a caesura at the 
ennehemimeris is, in general, a disparagement to any ex- 
cept a spondaic line : e. gr. 
Materi-|-es ut |suppedi-|-tet vo,-\-bus * r^-j-randis. 


Propter e-|-gesta-]-tem lin-j-gua?, et re-l-rww^* ntivi*] 
-tatem. (Lucretius. 

The fifth foot admits fewer varieties in its construction 
than any of the preceding feet. It may elegantly con- 
sist of 

1. An entire separate word, as 

Flebiset | arsu-j-ro posi-|-tiim me, | Delia, \ lecto. (TibulL 
Nunquam | pigra fu-j-it nos-j-tiis tua | gratia \ rebus. 


Candida | pollu-j-tos comi-|-tatur | curia \ fasces. (Claudian. 
Navita | tranquil-Ulo mode-|-rabitiir | (cquore \ pinum. 


Anal, of Hex am. Fifth Foot* 

Utque pe-|-ti vi-|-dit juve-j-nem t5t db | kdsfibus \ unurn. 

JEdibus j in rnedi-|-is, nu-j-doque sub j Athens \ axe. 

. A trochee, joined with either a short monosyllable or 
the first syllable of the ensuing word, as 
Fraxinus j in sil-j-vis pul-|-cherrima, | p'inus 7>n \ hortis. 


Bara qui-j-dem faci-j-e, sed | rapor j art% c^-|-nendi.(Oi'/W. 
Nubibus I assidu-|-is pluvi-|-oque m&-\-desclt ab \ Austro. 

Nee Tela-j-mpn abe-J-rat, mag-j-nive cre-\-ator -|-chillis. 

IIa3c ego ] vatici-]-nor, quia | sum $t-\-ceptus ab \ illo. 


Adde me-|-rum, vi-j-noque no-j-vqs -cotn-l-pesce </o-j-lores. 

Etmedi-j-am tule-j-rat gres-j-sus rs&-|-pf$ ptr \ urbem. 

Scilicet I aequore-|os plus | est domu-j-I^e J5rz-|-tannos. 

Ex hume-j -ris medi-|-os coma | depen-|-^/eZ>^ In \ armos. 

Pulvere-j-umque so-|-lum pede | pulsa-|-rerc iz-j-sulco. 

Nascitur | Autoly-|-cus, fur-|-tum Ing^ni'|-o^^ ad \ omne. 


Illic, | quam lau-j-des, erit j 6iftc-j-p$# ro-|-luntas. .(Ovid. 
Secre-j-tos col-|-les, et^n-l-ambiti-l-oi'fl cu-\-\Qb&t...(Ovid. 

To these examples let me add a very beautiful passage ; 
from the Metamorphoses, 13, 123 

Anal of Hexam. Fifth Foot. 325 

FinieratTelamone satus; vuigiquc secutum 
Ultima murmur erat; donee Laertius heros 
Adstitit, atqueoculos, paullum tellure moratos, 
Sustuiit | ad proce-j-res, ex~\-specta-\-toqu& resolvit 
Ora sono 

in which it is easier to feel than to describe the impressive 
effect Qfex-spcc-ta-toqut', so happily significant of the so- 
lemn pause of silent suspense and expectation, which in- 
tervened between the orator's rising and the opening of his 

3. The three concluding syllables of a word begun in the 
fourth or third footy as 

Terra, pi-]-laesimi-j lis, nul-|-lo f \\\-\-ciniint \ nixa. (Qvid. 
Tempora | labun-|-tur, taci-|-tisque s-\-nescimus \ annis. 

Somnia, | quag ve-|-ras a>]-quent irni-\-tamine j formas. 


Xunc fron-|-dent sil-|-va3, nunc ) formd'\-s~iss^mus \ annus, 


Verba mi-j-ser frus-|-tranon \profidi-\-tnfid \ perdo. (Ovid. 
At tu, | de rapi-j-dis im-j-mansue-|-^9/7e | ventis. (O^id. 
Gratia j Dis ! fe-|-lix et in-|-t'xcu-|-6Y///e' j tempus. (Ovid. 

A spondee occasionally takes place of the dactyl in the 
fifth station, as observed in page 202; in which case a 
caesura is here no disparagement to the verse, if the spondee 
itself be not objectionable : e, gr. 

Qurcque re-j-gis Gol-j-gos, quse-|-que ld'al\-\-ilm$ fron~\ 

-dosu m. ( Catullus 

Egres-|-sus cur-j-vis e j litori-j-iw^ * Pi-j-raoei *. (CatulL 

* A synaeresis of the El takes place here in P/r*ci, as in O 
page 140\ 

326 Anal, of H exam. Fifth Foot. 

But, if the spondee terminate a word, the verse is horrid, 
as this of Ennius, Ann. ,5,3 

Iluma-[-ni mu-|-ns Al-l-bam c\n\-\-erunt \ Longam 
and the following, from Lucretius, 2, 309 - 
Omnia j cum re-j-rum pri-j-mordia | slnt In \ motu 
which is much better calculated to describe a state of torpid 
immobility, than of active and incessant motion. 

And here it is to be observed, that, whenever the fifth 
foot is a spondee, the fourth ought to be a dactyl * : other- 
wise three successive spondees in the latter hemistich render 
the verse dull and heavy. 

Sometimes the fifth and sixth feet together consist of a 


single word, as 

Non cau-j-ponan- -tes bel-|-lum, sed | belli g$-\-r antes. 


Snot igi-[-tur soli-j-da pri- -mordia j slmplict -\-tute. (Liter . 
Elee-j-tos juve-|-nes simul | et decus | mn-up-\-tarum. 

In these examples, however, and in several others which 

* The 'poets were generally attentive to this particular; though we 
sometimes meet with lines in which the rule is not observed, as, for 
example, the following, which, by the way, are no better than heavy 
unmusical prose 

Phasidos ad fluctus et fines a^etcos. (Catullus. 

. . . lleiiia, fulgent! splendent auro itque argento. (Catullus. 

(Jives Roman! tune fact! sunt Campani. (Ennivs* 
Some critics, however, discover a beauty in a very heavy line of Virgil, 
Chough not quite so heavy and prosaic as those just quoted, since it has 
;iot more than foui -spondees continued in succession, viz. 

A it leaves ocieas lento ducuiit argento. 

But, for my part, I should not have thought the line worse, if it had 
terminated with acr?as arglnto; the two spondees being amply suf- 

Anal, of Ihxam. Fifth Foot. 327 

might be quoted, those long words terminating the line 
have little claim to praise*. But, on particular occasions, 
to express slowness of motion, grief, anxiety, consterna- 
tion, dismay, surprise, astonishment or to describe a 
grand, majestic, vast, sublime, awful, terrific object 
they are very advantageously employed, and produce a very 
happy and impressive effect : e. gr. 
Ille, ut conspectu in medio, turbatus, inermis, 
Constitit, atque oculis Phrygia agmina ] circum^-spcvit...-. 


Qualibus incensam jactastis mente pnellam 
Fluctibus, in flavo ssepe hospite | suspl-\-rantem ? (CatulL 
yEquoreae monstrum Nereides j admi^\-rantts. (Catullus. 
Pictarumque jacent fera corpora | p ant ht-^r arum. (Ovid. 
Acre nee vacuo pendentia | Mauso-\-lea. (Martial. 

Aericeque Alpes, et nubifer | apcn-^mnus^. (Ovid. 

* And still less the two longer words in these lines of Ennius 
Hostem qui feriet, mihi erit CartkagtHtensis^ 
Quisquis erit, cujatis erit. (Annal. 8, 15. 
Bcllipotentes sunt magi', qnam sapienfipotentes. (6, 5. 
f *Io\vever grand the effect of *4pettiiimtx in this verse, it does not 
here present to my mind so sublime an image, as in Virgil, ^En. 12, 

Quantus Athos, aut quantus Eryx, aut ipse, coruscis 
Quum fremit ilicibus, quantus, gaudetque nivali 
Venice se attollens pater | apen-\-riinvs ad | auras. 

Is it, that, in Virgil the word being in the middle of the hemistich 
the voice still continues rising on the third syllable of Apcnninus, and 
thus exalts its summit to a greater and yet greater elevation while, in 
Ovid, the voice; begins to fall after the second syllable, before we have 
reached that height ? Whatever the cause may be, old Apennine, to 
my imagination, rears his towering head considerably higher in Virgil's 
line than in that of Ovid. 

328 Anal, of Hexam. Fifth Foot. 

nee brachia longo 

Margine terrarurn porrexerat [ amp k~i-\-t rite *. (Ovid. 

* * * in inagno clamor ftirit ( ampliithe-\-atro. (Martial. 
Annuit invicto coelestum numine rector ; 
Quo nutu t tellus atque horrida j CA>ntremi'i-\-erunt 
JEquora, concussitquc micantia sidera mundus. (Catullus* 

Of two short monosyllables in the fifth foot very few 
examples occur. I quote, however, a couple from Lu- 
Nidor enim penetrat, qua succus j -non it >';z | artus. 

(2, 682. 

Cum similis toto terrarum | non sit ni \ orbe. (<2, 543. 
on which it may appear capricious in me to observe, that 

* To me this appears as happy a line as any that we have from the 
pen of Ovid. The reader \viil sensibly feel the effect of the lengthening 
words here following each other in un-interrupied succession each 
exceeding the former either iu its time or its number of syllables and 
thus extending the prospect to immeasurable distance. 

t Instead of the common reading, time ct, I have here ventured to 
substitute ?iittu, which I presume few of my readers will hesitate to 
adopt as the genuine text. Thus Virgil, JEn. 9, 106, and 10, 115 

Annuity et totum niitu tremefecit Olympum 
and likewise Ovid, Fast. 2, 489 

Jupiter annuerut : nutu tremefactus uterque 
Est polus; etcceli pondera sensit Atlas. 

After the grand images presented in the foregoing quotations, I am 
almost ashamed to introduce so mean and ignoble a picture as that of a 
sod-hopping rustic : but this is the only place where I can properly no- 
tice the following line of Virgil, Eel. 5, 73 

Saltantes Satyros imitabitur alphesib(us 

which isjustly entitled to praise, as a good specimen of imitative har- 
monywell representing the rude gambols of the lusty clown, and 
shaking the earth beneath his heavy tread. 

Anal of Htxam. ~ Suth Foot. 

lion lit Vn artus hurts my ear, while nun sit in orbe does 
not. But -non sit can easily be pronounced as a single 1 
word accented on the first syllable, like adsit, itisit, or 
possit ; whereas, in non //, the >7, being a more emphatic 
word than sit, requires greater stress of pronunciation, 
and the division is more sensibly felt; which naturally 
renders the foot more heavy in this case than in the 

The sixth foot 

ought, in general, to consist of an entire single word, or 
'the two remaining syllables of a trisyllabic word begun in 
the fifth foot, as 

Auro | pulsa fi-|-des, au-j-ro ve-|-nalia \jura. (Propdrilms. 
pugnan-|-di cupi-|-das ac-|-cendit | voce 

A caesura in this foot, causing the verse to terminate 
with a monosyllable, is, for the most part, ungraceful, 
Corpori-|-bus cce-|-cis igi-|-tur na-J-tura ge-\-rlt * res. 

Adju-|-tamur e-|-nitn dubi-[-o procul [ atque ali-|-fi?r^ t itw. 

An pecu-' r des ali-j-as di-j-vinitus | insinu-|-e^ -^ sc. (Lucr. 

Sometimes, nevertheless, a final monosyllable produces 
a very good effect, as 
Turn pie-j-tate gra-'-vem ac meri-|-tis si | forte vi-| 

-rum QUEM 

Conspexere, silent, arrectisque auribus adstant. (Virgil, 
and particularly if it be a striking emphatic word, as 

u u 

330 Anal of Hexam. Sixth loot. 

re-j-nides-1-cit tel-j-lus; sub^rterque, vi-j-rum VI, 
Excitur pedibus sonitus. (Lucretius. 

In juve-j-nes cer-|-to sic | impete | vulnifi-|-cus SUS 
Fertur .... (Ovid, 

Sternitur, j exani-|-misque, tre-]-mens pro-|-cumbit hu-| 

-mi BOS. (Virgil, 

Franguntur remi: turn prora avertit, et undis 
Dat latus: | insequi-|-tur cumu-|-lo prae-|-ruptus a-| 

-quse MONS. (Virgil. 

And though less interesting than the ox above, or the 
Calydonian boar the tiny mouse is exhibited to advan- 
tage in that well-known verse of Horace 
Parturi-|-ent mon-|-tes : nas-|-cetur | ridicu-|-Ius MUS- 
where the final monosyllable rendered the more striking 
and conspicuous by the necessary effort of the voice to ac- 
cent it forms a truly laughable contrast with the pom- 
pous beginning of the line, 

These, however, are particular cases: and, though 
some others might easily be added, which are either lau- 
dable, or, at least, tolerable yet, on ordinary occasions, 
the final monosyllable is not entitled to praise. 

Two monosyllables, of course, can hardly merit com- 
mendation, as 
Augmine | vel gran-|-di vel | parvo [ denique | dum sit. 

Et quoni-|-am plarj-gae quod-|-dam genus | excipit | In se. 

Nee con-j-tra pug-[-nant, in [ promptu | cognita | qua stint.. 


But they are much Jess objectionable, and even pass 

Anal. ofHexam. Redundant Syllabi 331 

very well, when the first of them is an emphatic word, a ; nd 
the latter, not being emphatic, requires little stress of ac- 
cent as, for example, the word Est, which is perhaps 
the only monosyllable that makes a tolerable conclusion in 
this case : e. gr. 

Grammati-j-ci cer-j-tan-t, et ad-j-huc sub | judice | l~is tst. 


Si mala | condide-|-rit in | quern quis | carmina, [jus est, 
Judiciumque. (Horace. 

Seu teme-j-re exspec-|-to, si-|-ve id con-|-tingere \fas est. 


. . . PreEcipi-|-tant cu-|-rae, tur-j-bataque | funere j mens est. 


Quod superest hasc sunt spolia, et de rege superbo 
Primiti-|-ae; mani-|-busque me-[-is Me-j-zentius j face' est. 


Redundant Syllable. 

At the termination of the verse, a redundant syllable, 
elided before a vowel at the beginning of the next line, 
sometimes produces a very fine effect; the unusual stress, 
laid, in that case, on the second syllable of the spondee, 
and the continuation of the two verses by synapheia, to- 
gether tending to enlarge and magnify the object : e. gr. 
Et magnos membrorum artus, magna ossa la-|-certos-|-ytfe* 
Exuit. (JEneid, 5, 422. 

k This passage is an imitation of that quoted from Ennius in page 

. Magna ossa la-|-certi-|-jwc 

ai noticed by Macrobius, 6, 1, in hi* enuiusratiwi of varipus passages, for 

332 Anal, of Ilex am* Redundant Syllable* 

Jamque, iter emensi, turresac tecta La-|-tino-|-rww 
Ardua cernebant juvenes. (jn. 7, 160. 

Prata, arva, ingentes silvas, saltusque, pa-|-ludes-|-^we 

Usque ad Hyperboreos, etmare ad Oceanum. (Catullus. 

But, to produce this effect, the second syllable of the 
spondee must be really long, either by its own nature or by 
the concourse of consonants ; for the Arbutus horrida, in 
Georg. 2, 69, is a quite different affair. With respect to 
the additional emphasis on the syllable in question, the 
reader will the more sensibly feel its force and effect, on a 
comparison of the preceding quotations with the lines here 
following; the syllables, -tos-, -no-, and -des- y being ne- 
cessarily pronounced with greater emphasis in those than 
in these, 

Tfrachiaque, et nudos media plus parte. lacertos* (Ovid. 
Monfibus ignotum Rutulis, coeloque Latino. (Juvenal. 
Bosporos et Tanais superant, Scythicaeque paludes. (Orid. 

In the following passage, JEheid, 6] 60% 
Quos super atra. silex, jamjain lapsura, ca-[-denti-|-^we 
Immiuet assivnilis 

although the ; redundancy .and synapheia do, not tend to 
aijdpliiy the object, yet they are productive of beautiful 
eftect presenting to our imagination a lively image of 
the. huge stone in such a state of critical suspension as leads 
us momentarily to expect its fall. 

Other examples will occur in reading: but, where there 
is not some striking image to be produced by this poetic 


which Virgil was indebted to his predecessors. It appears indeed 
that the Mantuan bard wiis highly pleased with the effect of Enniub's 
hemistich, since he thought it worthy of being so closely imitated iu au 
uitereftitig description iu the-^Eneid. 

Anal, of IfavaM. Lon g IVorch. 333 

licence, it cannot be considered as adding any beauty to 
the versification rather, indeed, the contrary. 

Long Words. 

In addition to the detached observations, scattered 
through the preceding pages, on the collocation of words 
of different lengths and quantities, it may not be amiss 
here to s;ive a collective view of the various positions which 
they may severally occupy in the hexameter verse. But I 
shall content myself with adducing examples of each de- 
scription of words in those positions alone where they ap- 
pear to the best advantage, without quoting lines in which 
they are differently, but less advantageously, placed*. 

* For example, under the first form of five- syllable words (--*-}, 
I take no notice of the following position, though seen in Virgil 

Degene-j-remque Ne-\-optolt:-\~7nu7n narrare memento - 
because, though the word may be tolerated in that station, it cannot 
be considered as advantageously placed there leaving the vorse with- 
out a csesura either at the trihtmimcris or the penthemimeris without 
even a trochee in the third foot. Let the reader only compare that 
verse with the following 

Vidi ipse furentem 

Cjede Ne-\-optoli>'\-m*~m, C8 geminosque in limine Atridas 
and he will, I presume, not condemn me for having omitted to point 
out every position in which a word does happen to occur in the poets, or 
in which a hero with a long name might be forcibly exhibited, but not 
more at his ease than in the pillory : e. gr. 

Degene-|-rem nar-|-rare Ne -\-optole-\-mum memor esto 
Degene-|-remque pa-|-tri nar-|-rare Ne-\-optole-\-mtim tu 
Sis, Trojane, memor. 

Neither will he regret the omission of such forms as IntcrficTenta and 
supcr'mjicienteSi though Ennius ventured to introduce words o.f similar 
measure into verses, noticed in page 327. 

334 Anal of Hexcftn. Long Words. 

i Words of two or three syllables requiring no additional 
notice in this place, I limit my remarks to those of greater 
length : and, in the examples adduced, I consider due or 
Ve as a constituent syllable of the word to which it is joined; 
its effect being the same, in point of euphony or cacophony, 
as if it were inseparable. Wherefore, when I say that c.vau- 
dierant y for instance, cannot be admitted into more than two 
places, I would not be understood to mean that it cannot, 
with the addition of Qiie or Fe, allowably assume a dif- 
ferent station : for, with either of those appendages, I ac- 
count it as a word of sir syllables, like Ignofrilitate, which 
is admissible into another part of the line, as will appear 
in the course of these remarks. 

A word of four syllables, 

1 (- - - -), as ttmanfibiis, may laudably stand in two 
positions * 
Distule-|-ratque gra-|-ves in i-\-donZa \ tempora pcenas. 

Jam sube-|-unt an~|-ni fragi-|-les, et in-\-crfior \ aetas. . 


o ^ * . v ) ? as dticllmtnta, in four 
Et d6cii'\-nienta da-|-mus ; qua simus origine nati. (Ovid. 
Vota ta-|-men t$fi-\-g ~ere d-|-os, tetigere parentes. (Ovid. 
Ille qui-|-dem to-|- tarn fremv-\-bu ndus 6b-|-ambul at JEtnam. 


Cum procul | insa-|-ne trahe-j-rent Phae-\-th!Jnta qua-[ 
-drigae. (Claudian. 

* Sometimes in a third. See two examples in page 321, 

Anal, of H&ram. Long Words. 335 

3 (- ), as amaverunt, in one 

Vitta co-\-trct-\-bat positos sine lege capillos. (Ovid. 

4 .(* * - -), as trcpidantcs, in one 

Protinus | JEoli-|-is aqiti-\-lontm \ claudit in antris. (Ovid. 

5 (-""), as concipitint, in three * 
Purpurc-^-um viridi genuit de caespite florem. (Ovid. 
Ardua | Caucast-\-o nutat de vertice pinus. (Claudian* 
Turn Biti-|-as dedit | lucrtpi-\-tans : ille hnpiger hausit . . . 


6 (- - w w ), as pugnanttbus, in two 

Cumque su-j-o de-j-mens e&*\-ftlltt&T j ambitus auro. 

A urea j submove-|-ant rapi-[-dos um-\-briicitla \ soles. 


7 (- - - ^ ? as cf>nftix~isse, in two f 
vixpcc-\-tura dornos, venturaque desuper urbi. (Virgil. 
]Et soci-j-am ple-|-bemnon | lndig-\-n7ita potestas. (Claud. 

8 ( ), as contendentes, in t\vo 

Jsec c~ir-\-cumfu-\-so pendebatin acre tellus. (Ovid. 

Alia pe-|-tit gradi-j-ens juga j nobilis | aen-\-mni. (Petron. 

A word of five syllables, 

1 (w - ~ .), as recond"idvrant, is admissible in one 
positron only 

In a spondaic verse, it may agreeably occupy another station, viz. 

Pro mol-|-li vio-|-la, pro | purpiire-\-o narcisso .... (Virgil. 
f And, on some particular occasions, a third, as shown in pages 
309 and 310. 

336 Anal of Hexam. Long Words. 

Axis in~\-dccldii-\-us, gemina clarissimus Arcto. (Lucan. 

2 ( ---- ), as adoraturos, in one, viz. as the final 
word of a spondaic verse, though I cannot produce an 

3 (w .. . - w) ? as ynexperrectiis, in one 

Ut puer, | et vacu-J-is utyn-\-di>ser~\-vatii$inherbis.(Ovid. 

4 (* w . w w) ? as crepltaiitia, in two 

Jnvi-|-tat som-|-nos crtpi-\-tanftbus \ unda lapillis. (Ovid. 
Frondibus | orna-|-bant, qua3 ) nunc Capi-\-tdtt# \ gemmis, 

5 (w w --- ^ as Ym1 tat ores, in one 

pii- \-latri-\-ces infestavere catervee. (Claudian. 

- w w w ? as sscat, n two 

Sanguine- -oque rubens descendit lupiter imbre. (Petron. 
Ante Jo-|-vem pas-j-sis stetit | lnv?di'\-d$a qapillis. (Ovid. 

7 (---), as Inge mi'u ssentj in one 
Molibus | aequore-|-is con-|-cluditur | amp1iithe-\-atrum. 

(Rut il ins. 

S (- - w w -), as exaUdierant, in one f 
Vos ser-\-pentige-\-m& in se fera bella dedistis. (Ovid. 

* Sometimes advantageously in a third, as noticed m page 309. 
f With a slight pause at the trikemimeris, it might well stand in an- 
other position, thus 

- v - I - -CS scr-]-penttee-\-tiis u | - | - - 

but I cannot produce a classic example ; for Virgil's 

Det motus inc ompositos . . . (Geo. 1, 350) 

is not exactly such as I have in view, however well it may, in that 
z-j-t . suit the rude artless motions of the dancing rustic. 

AnaL of Hexam. Long Words, 337 

9 (- - , w) ? as dccrescenfibus, in one 
ex-|-specta* -tas dabat | a dml -\-rantt 'bus \ umbras. (Of id. 

10 ( ----- ), as Insultavere, in one 

Persides | arca-l-num su-\-sp~ira-\-vcre calorem. (Claudian. 

\\ ( ----- ^ as Indtploratos, in one - 
intem-VpcsfiA-va turbantes festa Minervii. (Ovid. 

A word of six syllables, 

1 (w - w w - w) ? as abhorrueratis, caii stand well in one 
place only, as 

Secre-|-tos mon-|-tes et m-\-amtiti-\-osa colebat . . ..(Ovid. 

2 (~ --- w w) as indbservabiliSt in one 

Vis dare | majus ad- -hue et m-\-enar-\-rabile \ munus ? 


3 (^ v - w -) 5 a s si'tperinficiant) in one. 
Queis amy-\-th atim-\-us nequeat certare 

4 (^ w . . . ^ as manifestlwert, in one 
Insidi-|-as pro- -det, marii-l-festa-^bltque latentem, (Ovid. 

5 (M ^ . P. - -), as si'tpcrimpencfentes, in one = 
Tempe, | quae sil-|-va3 cin-j-gunt super- -imptn-\-dentts. 


n one * 
Atque Ara-|-bum popu-|-lus sua | desptili \-averat \ arma. 

* . . -) ? as tlrfificaverunt) in one 

^-j-(>^ fugeret fortuna pettates. (/^i Flaccus* 
x x 

338 Anal, of Hcxani. Elisions. 

8 (-- * w - w) f as IgrivbWtute, in one 

Adde se-l-nem Tati-j-um, Ju-\-ridriicti'\-lasqu2 Falisco^. 


9 ( --- w w -), as apennjmgtnce, in one 

ige -\-rns cultas pastoribus aras. (Claudlan. 

10 ( --- - w w )> as ~inconsolabUis, in one 
Ne 1 fugi-j-ens se-|-clis db-\-rivis-\-centibiis \ setas . . .(Catull. 

A word of seven syllables, 
1 (. w w - o w -) ? as amphitryoniddeSy may stand in one 

position, as 

timp}ritry-\-Tiriia-\-dt:s, aut torvo Jupiter ore. (Petromut. 

2 ^w - w w - w w) 5 as Inexsaturabilis, in one 
Juno-|-nisgravis | iraet *in-\-t*vsat ii-\-rtibile \ pectus. (Firg. 

3 ( w - w w - *.) ? as snperlnciibiiere, in one 
Armige-j-rumque Jo-|-vis, C5^^e-|-r?)V/-|-^"/^/d columbas. 


are in general injurious to harmony; and their frequent 
recurrence is very disagreeable: for which reason, Virgil 
designedly disfigured with such blemishes the verse in which 
he wished to represent the deformity of the grim Cyclops, 
whose hideous figure was rendered still more revolting by 
the effects of his late wound 

Monstn^j horrendMTW inform* ingens* .... 
The following line, which admits not a similar apology 

* It is probable, however, that the elisions did not appear so harsh 
to tliti gtotnastt, as they da to us, or we should notfiud so many of them 

Anal, of IIexam< Elisions. 339 

for the elision?, is absolutely detestable *. It was intended 
by Catullus for a dactylic pentameter; though, if we had 

in the writings of their best poets; even the lyric pieces of Horace not 
being free from them. No doubt, they so managed them in pronuncia- 
tion, as to do away a great part of the apparent harshness. From the 
nasal sound which they gave to the final M (page lo'o) it is evident thai 
they could get over the ecthlipsis of AM or UM without either wholly 
suppressing the syllable in either case, or fully pronouncing it and 
yet not exceed the due time allotted to the verse or foot. In si/nataphe, 
too, they might have so blended the concurrent vowels, as to produce 
similar effect. The Italians are very frequently obliged to do this hi- 
their poetry ; and tee, likewise, have towetigics, though more rarely, oc- 
casion to do it in ours : e. gr. 

Exile or ignoiri;/j/ or bonds or pain. (Parad. Lost, 2, 207. 
Still, however, it is pretty clear that elisions were considered by the 
Romans, as, in some degree at least, objectionable ; otherwise Glaudiau 
would not have been so remarkably studious to avoid them. 

* But, if the reader wish to see a much more striking specimen oi 
multiplied elisions, he will find it in a curious couplet, composed by a 
noble lord now living. 1 here quote it, together with eight lines of my 
own, on occasion of the noble author's giving rne the words 
transposecJ, to be reduced into a distich. The reader will perceive that 
I am indebted for my idea to that epigram in the Anthologia, 2, 24, 1 

XA* arrav ac^J 


Nycticorax ! letale prius cantare solebas : 

At tibi jam cavea-s, improbe nycticorax ! 
Nobilis, en, magico mactatte carmine vutes, 

Securosque dehinc nosjubet esse tui. 
Iliscere si posthac ausis, cit.0 poena sequetur : 

Hoc semel audito carmine, nullus eris 
" Sii'um en\m ego 7/M'e habfo Ingciiium atquc ainmum a&perum 

am on : 
" Mitque zpsum haud jurat h'inc JUG asp'icere, In spcculo hoc." 

I nunc, nycticorax ! et, si stipis, usque taceto ; 
Vuce tua mrgis hocc' exilialu metron. 

340 Anal, of Hexam. Elisions. 

found it singly quoted, without the author's name, or any 
intimation of its being from a poet, we should never have 
suspected that it was a verse of any kind *. 
Quam modo qul me \\num ztcjue uriicum 'dmlcum habiiit 

* More musical lines may be found in the midst of prose, where no 
verse was intended : e. gr. 

[oi'a-]-rum rerum studio Caiilinas incepta probabant. (Sallust. 
- Cnaei Pompeii veteres f idosque clientes. (Sallust. 
Hsec iibl dicta dedlt, strlngit gladium, cuneoque 
Facto, per m.edios .... (Livy. 

. . . Post natos homines, ut, cum privatus oblsset .... (Nepos. 
Nos, In Graiorum vlrtutibus exponendls .... (Nepos. 
.... armeniaque amissd, ac rursus utraque recepta. (Suetonius. 
ex arce augiiuum capientibus off iciebat. (Vol. Max. 8, 5, 1. 
, . . Ille quldem major, sed rnulto Illustrtor, atque .... (Nepos. 
. . . Duxlsset, summosque dfices partim repuilsset . . . (Nepos. 
Vos omnes, quT doctorum doctissimi adestis. (Mficrob. Sat. 7, 3. 
Aut prudentia major inest, aut non mediocris 
Utilitas. (Cicero, Of. 1, 42. 

I could readily extend this collection to a considerable length, were I 
disposed to insult the understanding of my reader by such unprofitable 
trifling. But I forbear, though, in the single work from which I have 
last quoted, I see noted in the margin above twenty hexameters (rough 
or smooth) which casually struck me in reading casually, I say; 
for I never have intentionally watched to make such petty discoveries, 
which will, at first sight, force themselves upon any reader who has a 
competent knowledge of quantity and versification ? as, what English 
reader, wppse ear is attuned to poetic numbers, can even cursorily 
glance his eye over the pages of Dodsley's Economy of Human Life, wit}}- 
put detecting in them frequent verses of various kinds ? 


THE different species of metre, used by Horace in his lyric composi- 
tions, are twenty, viz. 

1. The common Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, as 
Laudabunt altt claram Rliodon, aut Mitjlcntn. Lib. 1, od. 7. 

2. Dactylic Tetrameter a posteriorc, No. 7 
Mobtlfbus pom an a rtp7s. 1, 7. 

3. Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic, No. 12 
Flumina prcetercunt. 4, 7. 

4. Adonic, No. 13 
I'tsere monies. \, 2. 

5. Trimeter Iambic, No. 22 

Rvgcs, tuum laborc quidjuveni meo. epod. 1. 

US. Iambic Trimeter Catalectic, No. 28 
Me a reriidet in do/no lacuiwr. 2, 18. 

7. Iambic Dimeter, No. 29 
Queruntur in silvis arts. epod. 2. 

8. Archilochian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30 

Lcnesque sub noctcm susurri. 1, 9. 

Q. Acephalous Dimeter Iambic, No. 31 
Ron cbur tuque aur cum .... 2, 15. 

10. Sapphic, Xo. 37 

Jam satis Urns, nfi^s atque dirce .... 1, 2. 

1 1 . Choriambic Pentameter, No. 42 

Tu rie qiuwris, scltx ncfas, (jutm mitn, fjutm tib~. . . . 1, 11. 

Roratian Metre?. 

12. Choriambic Tetrameter, with a variation, No. 43 
T deos or 0^ Syburln cur properes ainando .... 1, 8, 

13. Asclepiadic Choriambic Tetrameter, No. 44 
Mactnas atavu edite regibus. 1, 1. 

14. Glyconic, No. 46 

Slctl Diva po tens Cypri .... 1, 3. 

15. Pherecratic, No. 48 

.... Grata, Pjrrha, sub antro. 1, 5. 

lt. Choriambic Dimeter, No. 49 
Lyd u ia, die, per omncs .... 1, 8. 

17. Ionic arninore, No. 52 

filiserarwn 1st neqitc amort dare ludum, neque didci . . . . 3,12. 

18. Greater Alcaic, No. 55 

o matre pulchra fiKa pulchrior. 1 , 16. 

19. Archilochian Heptameter, No. 56 
Sofcitiir acris luems grata i-ici veris et Favoni. I* 4. 

20. Lesser Alcaic, No. 58 
Ntcveteresagitanturomi. 1, 9. 

The various forms, in which he has employed those metres either sepa- 
rate or in conjunction, are nineteen, viz. 

1. Two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilochian Iambic Dimeter 
Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, No. 58. This appears to 
have been Horace's favorite form, as we find it in thirty-seven of his 
odes, viz. 

Vidss, ut aha stet nive candidum .... Lib. 1 , 9, 

O matre pule lira filia pulckrior . k . . 1, 16. 

Vciox amcenum scepe Lucretilem .... 1, 11. 

Musis amtcus t tristitiam et mctus .... I, 26. 

Katisinusum l&tititt scyphls . . . . 1, 27. 

,Icci, bcQtis nunc Arabum invidcs .... 1, 29. 

Quid dedication poscit Apollinem . . . .1, ."I. 

Parcus Dcorum cultor et infrequent .... 1, '34. 

Diva, gratum qua regit Antium . . . . 1, 35. 

,A*uic cst btbendum, mine pcde libcro .... 1, S7. 

Horatlan Metre** 345 

frlolittn ex Wttcllo consult: civicum . . . . 2, 1* 
IF.qiiam memento rebus in arditis .... 2, 3. 
Jfondum subacidfcrrcjagum valet .... 2, 5. 
Oscepe mecum tcmpus in idtimuin .... 2, 7. 
Non semper imbres nubibus hispidos .... 2, 9, 
Said bdlicosiis Cantabcr aut Scythes . ... 2* 11. 
I lie ct nefasto teposuit die .... 2, 13. 
FJieu .' fuqaces, Postwne, Postume .... 2, 1 4. 
Jampauca uratro jugcra region . . . . 2, 15. 
L'ur me querelis exunimas tuis .... 2, 17. 
Bacchum in remotis carminu rupibus .... 2, 19. 
J\ ? 07i usitatd nee tenuiferar . . ^ . 2, 20. 
Odi profanum Tulgus, et arcco. 3, 1. 
Jtngustam, amid, pauperism pati .... 3, 2. 
Jitstum ft tenacein prcpositi tirurn .... 3, 3. 
Descende ccclo, ct die, age, tibia .... 3, 4. 

Cor/o tonatitem credidimus Jovein . , . . 3, 5. 

Dciicta majoruin immeritus lues .... 3, 6. 

JEli retusto nobilis ab Lamo .... 3, 17. 

nata mecum consule Manlio .... 3, 21. 

O/o supinas si tukris manus .... 3, 23. 

Fiji puellis nuper idoneus .... 3, 26. 

Tt/rrhena regum progenies, tibi . . . . 3> 29. 

Quakm minist rum fulminis al item .... 4, 4. 

Nt forte credas interitura, qu& .... 4, 9. 

Qua cura patrum,, quave Quiritium .... 4, 14. 

Phoebus -volentem prcelia me loqui .... 4, 15. 

2. Next in favor with him was the following combination three, 
Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, No. 13; in which form he 
posed twenty-six odes, viz. 

Jam satis terris nivis atque dir& .... I, 2. 

Mcrcurifacunde, vtpos Atlantis . . . . 1, 1O. 

^uemvirv.mautJieroalyrd,vdacn .... 1, 12. 
Vile potabis modicis Sabinum . . . . i, 2C. 

Integer vita, see Icrisquc purus .... I, 22. 

Parciujf June fas watiwit Jfenestraii . ... 1, 25. 

344- ' Horatian Metres. 

O Venus, rcgina Cnidi, Paphique .... 1, 3(X 

Poscimus, siquid vacui sub umbra .... 1, 32* 

Persicos odi, puer, apparatus. 1, 38. 

Nullus argento color est, avaris . . . . 2, f , 

Ne sit ancilla tibi amor pudori . ... 2, 4* 

Septimi Gades aditvre mecum ....2,6. 

Vila si juris tibi pejcrati .... 2, 8. 

Rectius rives , Licini, neque altwn .... 2, 10. 

Otium Divos rogat in patenti .... 2, 16. 
Martiis ccckbs quid again calendis .... 3, 8. 
Meivuri, nam te docilis magistro .... 3, 1 1 . 
Herculis ritu modo diet us, o plebs . . . . 3, 14. 
Faune, nymphammfugientum amator .... 3, 1 $. 
JVbn vides, quanta movcas periclo .... 3, 20. 
Montium custos nemorumque, rirgo . ... 3, 22. 
Impios parrte recinentis omen .... 3, 27. 
Pindarum quisquis studet ccmulari .... 4, 2, 
Dive, quern proles Niobfta magncc .... 4, 6. 
fist mihi nonum superantis annum . ... 4, 11. 
Phtebe, silrarumqite potens Diana .... Carm. Saec. 
3. One Glyconic, No. 46, and one Asclepiadic, No. 44 ; which 
combination occurs in twelve of his odes * 
Sic te Diva potens Cypri .... 1, 3. 
Cumtu, Lydia, Telephi .... 1, 13. 
Mater sceva Cupid inum .... 1, 19. 
jEf thure et fidibus juvat .... 1, 36. 
Donee gratus erum tibi .... 3, 9. 
Uxorpauperis Ibyd .... 3, 1 5. 
Quantum distet ab Inncho .... 3, 19. 
Intactis opulentior .... 3, 24. 
Suome, Bacche, rapis tui .... 3, 25. 

* Each of those twelve odes contains an even number of vores r divisible by four ; 
ami, in several of them, the iense uniformly terminates with the fourth line: whence 
the reader may perhaps conclude that Horace intended the strophe or sUnzm to consist 
cf four versus. 


Horatlan Metres. 345 

Festo quid potius die .... 3, 28, 
Intermissa, Venus, dlu . . . . 4, 1. 
2uem tu, Melpomene, semel .... 4, 3. 

4. One Iambic Trimeter, No. 22, and one Iambic Dimeter, No. 29; 
in -which form we see tat of his Epodes 

Ibis Liburnis inter alta navium . . . Epod. 1. 
Beatus ille, qui procul negotiis .... 2. 
Parentis olim siquis impia manu .... 3. 
Lupis et agnis quanta sortito obtigit .... 4. 
At, o Deorum quidquid in ccelo regis .... 5^ 
$uid immerentes hospites Texas, canis .... 6. 
Quo, quo, sceksti, ruitis? aut cur dcxteris .... 7. 
Rogare longo putidam te scsculo .... 8. 
Quando repostum Cacubum ad festas dapes .... 9. 
Mala soluta navis exit alite .... 10. 

5. Three Asclepiadics, No. 44, and one Glyconic, No. 46 ex- 
emplified in nine odes 

Scriberis Vario fortis, et hostium .... Lib. 1, 6*. 
Pastor quum traheret perfreta navibus .... 1, 15. 
2uis desiderio sit pudor aut modus .... 1, f4. 
Albi, ne doleasplus nimioj memor .... 1, 33. 
Nolis longafercc bella Numantite ; ... 2, 12. 
Extremum Tanaim si biberes, Lyce .... 3, 10i 
Inclusam Danaen turris ahcnea .... 3, 16. 
Divis orte bonis t optime Romula .... 4, 5. 
Jam veris comites, quce tnare lemperant .... 4, 12. 

6. Two Asclepiadicsy No. 44, one Pherecratic; No. 48, and one 
Glyconic, No. 46 an arrangement adopted in seven of his 

2uis mult a gracilis t e puer in rosd .... 1, 5. 
O navis, referent in mare te novi .... 1, 14. 
Dianam, tenercs, dicite, virgines. \, 21. 
Vitas hinnuko me similis, Chios .... 1, 23. 
Quidfles, Asterief quern tibi candidi .... 3, 7. 
Ofons Blandusice splendid tor vitro .... 3, 13. 
Audivere, Lycc f Di mea vota, DC .... 4, 1 3. 

y Y 

Horatian Metres. 

7. The Asclepiadic, No. 44, without any addition in three. 

Maecenas atavis edite rcgibuj .... 1, 1. 
Exegi manimentum ff-re perennius. 3, 30. 
Donarem patents, grataq ue commodus ... 4, 8. 

8. One Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and one Dactylic Tetrameter a 
posteriore No. 7, in three odes 

Laudabunt alii claram Rhodon, aut Mitylenen .... 1,7. 
Te marts et term, numeroque car entis arena .... 1, 28. 
Quid till vis, &c. Epod. 12. 

9. The 'Choriambic Pentameter, No. 42, used alone, in three 

Tu ne quasieris, scire nefas, quern miki, quern tibi .... 1, 11. 
Nullam, Vare, sacra vite prius sevens arborem .... 1, 18. 
crudelis adhuc, et Veneris mune.ribus potens .... 4, 1 0. 

10. One Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and one Iambic Dimeter, 
No. 29, combined in two of his productions 

Mollis inertia cur tantam dijfuderit imis .... Epod. 14. 
Nox erat, el ccelo fulgebat lunasereno .... Epod. 15. 

11. The Iambic Trimeter, No. 22, unmixed with any other species 
of verse 

Jam jam ejficaci do manus scitnticE. Epod. 17. 
Quid obscratis auribus fundis prects? Epod. 18. 

12. One Choriambic Dimeter, No. 49, and one Choriambic Tetra- 
meter, No. 43, in one instance only 

Lydia, die, per omnes .... Lib. 1, 8. 

13. One Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and one Iambic Trimeter, No. 
22 a single example 

Alterajam teritur bdlis civil ibus atas. Epod. 16. 

14. One Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and one Dactylic Trimeter 
Catalectic, No. 12, in one ode 

Diffugere nives : rcdeunt jam gramina cautpis .... 4, 7. 

15. One Dactylic Hexameter, No. ], one Iambic Dimeter, No^ 
29, and one Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic, No. 12 occurring only in 
one piece 

JJorrida tenipestas c&lum contraxit ; et imbres .... Epod. 13. 

Herat ian Metres. 347 

16. One Iambic Trimeter, No. 22, one Dactylic Trimeter Cata- 
lectic, No. 12, and one Iambic Dimeter, No. 29 only once 

Petti, nihil me, sicut antea, juvat . . . , Epod. 11. 

17. One Archilodiian Heptameter, No. 56, and one Iambic Trime- 
ter Catalectic, No. 28 - a single example 

Solritur acris /items grata vice veris, et Favoni .... 1, 4. 

18. One Iambic Dimeter Acephalus, No. 31, and one Iambic Tri- 
meter Catalectic, No. 28 in one ode 

Non ebur, neque aurewn .... 2, 18. 

19. The Ionic a minorc, No. 52, in one instance only 
JWiseramm est neque innori dare ludum, neque dulci .... 3, 12. 




Containing, in alphabetic order, the Jirsf words of each 
Ode, the species qf Metre which compose it, and a 
reference to the No. in the, Appendix where each 
metre is explained. 

l, veiusto, lib. 3, 17} These two odes are in the same metre, con- 
memento, 2, 3 3 sisting of two greater Alcaics, No. 55, 
one Archilochian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one 
lesser Alcaic, No. 58. 

Albi, nedoleas, lib. 1, 33 three Asclepiadics, No. 44, and one Gly- 
conic, No. 46. 

Alter a jam tcritur, epod. 16 one Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and 
one Iambic Trimeter, No. 22. 

Augustan, amid, lib. 3, 2 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archi- 
lochian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Al- 
caic, No. 58. 

At, o Dsorum, epod. 5 one Iambic Trimeter, No. 22, and one 
Iambic Dimeter, No. 29. 

Metrical Key to the Odes of Horace. 349 

Audi-cere, Lyce, lib. 4, 1 3 two Asclepiadics, No. 44, one Pherecratic, 

No. 48, and one Glyconic, No. 46. 
JBa&kum in remotis, lib. 2, 1 9 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archi- 

lochwn Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 0, and one lesser A Icuic, 

No. 58. 
"Beams ille, epod. 2 one Trimeter Iambic, No. 22, and one Dimeter 

Iambic, No. 29. 

Casio supinas, lib. 3, 23 ) two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Arcbilo- 
Ccrio tonantcm, 3, 5 ) chian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, 

and onr lesser Alcaic, No. 58. 
um tu, Lydia, lib. 1, 13 one Glyconic, No. 46, and one Ascle- 

piadic, No. 44. 
Cur me querelis, lib. 2, 17 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archi- 

lochian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, 

No. 58. 

Ddictamcjorwiiy lib. 3, 6 1 t\vo greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Arcbilo- 
Desccnde cxlo, lib. 3, 4 \ chian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 

30, and one lesser Alcaic, No. 58. 

Dianam, tenera;, Lb. 1, 21 two Asclepiadics, No. 44, one Phere- 
cratic, No. 48, and one Glyconic, No. 46. 
DiffugSre nives, lib. 4, 7 one Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and one 

Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic, No. 12. 
Dive, quern proles, lib. 4, 6 three Sapphics., No. 37, and one 

Adonic, No. 13. 
Divis orte bonis, lib. 4. 5 three Asclepiadics, No. 44, and pne Gly 

conic, No. 46. 

Donarem pateras, lib. 4, 8 all Asclepiadics, No. 44. 
Donee grains cram tibi, lib. 3, 9 one Glyconic, No. 46, and one 

Asclepiadic, No. 44. 
Eheu ! fugaces, lib. 2, 14 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archi- 

lochian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, 

No. 58. 
Estmihi nonum, lib. 4, 1 1 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 

JLt thure et ftdibus, lib. 1, 36 one Glyconic, No, 46, and one Ascle- 
piadic, No. 44. 

3*0 Metrical Key 

Exeqi monimentwn, lib. 3, 30 all Asclepiadics, No. 44. 

Mxtremum Tanaim, lib. 3, 10 three Asclepiadics, No. 44, and one 

Glyconic, No. 46. 
J?aune, nympharum, lib. 3, 18 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one 

Adonic, No. 13. 
Festo quid potius die, lib. 3, 28 one Glyconic, No. 46, and one Ascle- 

piadic, No. 44. 
Herculis ritu, lib. 3, 14 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 
Horrida tempestas, epod. 13 one Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, one 

Iambic Dimeter, No. 29, and one Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic, 

No. 12. 

Ibis Liburnis, epod. 1 one Trimeter Iambic, No. 22, and one Dime- 
ter Iambic, No. 29. 

Jeer, beatis, lib. 1, 29 ) two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilo^ 
Ilk et nefasto, 2, 13) chian Iambic Dimeter Hyperrneter, No. 

30, and one lesser Alcaic, No. 58. 
Impios parrcc, lib. 3, 27 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 
Indusam Danaen, lib. 3, 16 three Asclepiadics, No. 44, and one 

Glyconic, No. 46. 
Intactis opulentior, lib. 3, 24 one Glyconic, No. 46, and one Ascle- 

piadic, No. 44. 
Integer mt<, lib. 1, 22 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 
Jntcrmissa, Venus, diu, lib. 4, 1 one Glyconic, No. 46, and one 

Asclepiadic, No. 44. 

Jamjamefficaci, epod. 17 all Trimeter Iambics, No. 22. 
Jam pauca aratro, lib. 2, 15 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Ar- 

chilochian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Al- 
caic, No. 58. 
'Jam satis terra, lib. 1, 2 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 
Jttm vert's comites, lib. 4, 12 three Asclepiadics, No. 44, and one 

Glycohic, No. 46. 

to the Odes of Horace. 35 1 

Justwn ft tenacem, lib. 3, 3 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archi- 
locbian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, 
No. *8. 
Laudulmnt alii, lib. 1, 7 one Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and one 

Dactylic Tetrameter a posteriore, No. 7. 
Lupis et agnis, epod. 4 one Iambic Trimeter, No. 22, and one Iambic 

Dimeter, No. 29. 
Lydia, die, per omnes, lib. 1, 8 * one Cboriambic Dimeter, No. 49, 

L;nd one Choi-iambic Tetrameter, No. 43. 
M&tnas atavis, lib, 1, I all Asclepiadic, No. 44. 
Muldsoluta, epod. 10 one Iambic Trimeter, No. 22, and one Iambic 

Dimeter, No. 29. 
Martiis ccclebs, lib. 3, 8 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 
Mater scrva Cupid inum, lib. 1, 19 one Glyconic, No. 46, and one 

Asckpiadic, No. 44. 

Mcrcurifacunde, lib. 1, 10) three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 
Jllercuri, nam ie, lib. 3, 1 1 ) No. 13. 
Miseruruin est, lib. 3, 12 Ionic a minore, No. 52. 
MolUs inertia, epod. 14 one Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and one 

Iambic Dimeter, No. 29. 
Montiwn custos, lib. 3, 22 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 

Moium t?r Metello, lib. 2, 1 "\ two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilo- 
Musisamicus, lib. 1, 26 f chian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, 
Nat is in usum, lib. 1, 27 C No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, No. 
Ne forte crcdas, lib. 4, 9 J 58. 
Ne sit ancillce, lib. 2, 4 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 
Xoli* longa fera, lib. 2, 12 three Asclepiadics, No. 44, and one 

Glyconic, No. 46. 

Nondum subactd, lib. 2, 5 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilo- 
chian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, 
No. 53. 

Non ebur, neque aurcum, lib. 2, 18 one Iambic Dimeter Acephalu?, 
No. 31, and one Iambic Trimeter Catalectic, No. 28. 

352 Metrical Key 

Won semper imbrcs, Kb. 2, 9 ) two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archi- 
tfonusitata, lib. 2, 20 ) locbian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, 

No. "0, and one lesser Alcaic, No. 58. 
yon rides quanty lib. 3, 20 three Sapphics, No. 31, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 
Naxerzt, epod. 15 one Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and one Iambic 

Dimeter, No. 29. 
Ait/AiMi, Vare, sacra, lib. 1, 18 all Choriambic Pentameters, No-. 

JfiiHus argento, lib. 2, 2 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic/ 

No. 13. 
Nuac est bibendum, lib, 1, 37 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Ar- 

chilochian Iambic Dimeter Hypenneter, No. 30, and one lesser Al- 
caic, No. 58. 

Ocmddis adhuc, lib. 4, 10 all Choriambic Pentameters, No. 42. 
O Dirct, gratum, lib. 1, 35 two greater Alt aics, No. 55, one Archi- 
' lochian Iambic Dimeier Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, 

No. 58. 
Ofons Jttandusicc, lib. 3, IS two Asclepiadics, No. 44, one Phere- 

cratic, No. 48, and one Glyconic, No. 46. 

O matre pulchrd, lib. 1, 1 6 ) two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilo- 
Onaiamecum, lib. 3, 2! } chian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 

30, and one lesser Alcaic, No. 58. 
navis, referent, lib. 1 , 14 two Asclepiadics, No. 44, one Phere- 

cratic, No. 48, and one Glyconic, No. 46. 
O scEpc inecum, lib. 2, 7 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilo- 

chian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, 

No. 58. 
Venus, regina t lib. 1, 30 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 
Odi prqfanum, lib. 3, I two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilochian 

Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, 

No. 58. 

Qtium Divot, lib. 2, 16 | three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

r, lib. 2, 1 6 ) three Sap] 
tas, lib. 1, 25) No. 13. 

to the Odes of Horace. S53 

Parcu* Deonm, lib. 1, 34 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilo- 

chian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one leaser Alcaic, 

No. 53. 

:is olim, epod. 3 one Trimeter Iambic, No. 22, and one Di* 

liie'.er Iambic, No. 2!*. 
Pastor yuum trulteret, lib. 1, 15- three Asclepiadice, No. 44, and 

one Glyconic, No. 46. 
fersicos odi, lib. 1, 38 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No. 13. 

Petti, nilulmc, epod. 11 one Trimeter Iambic, No. 22, one Dac- 
tylic Trimeter Catalectic, No. 12, and one Dimeter Iambic, 

No. 29. 
Phoebe, siharumque, carm. ssec. three Sapphics, No. 37, and one 

Adonic, No. 13. 
Phxbus vokntem, lib. 4, 15 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archi- 

locliian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, 

No. 58. 

Pindarum quisauis, lib. 4, 2 \ three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 
Poscimus,si(jidd,\ib. 1,32 ) No. 13. 

Qua cura patrum, lib. 4, 147 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archi- 
Quulem ministrwn, lib. 4, 4 $ lochian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, 

No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, No. 58. 
Quando repox'um, epod. 9 one Iambic Trimeter, No. 22, and one 

Iambic Dimeter, No. 29. 

Quantum disttt ab InacJio, lib. 3, 19") one Glyconic, No. 46, and one 
Quern tu, JMcipcnum, lib. 4, 3 j .Asclepiadic, No. 44. 

&ucm virum aut 7/eroa, lib. 1, 12 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one 

Adonic, No. 13. 

Quid bdlicosus, lib. 2, 1 1 *J> two greater Alcaics, No. 55, oTie Archi* 
Suid dcdicMum, lib. 1, 31 3 lochian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, 

No. 30, and one lesser Ai-aic, No 58. 
Quid fas, Asterie, lib. 3, 7 two Asclepiadics, No. 44, one Phere- 

cratic, No. 48, end one Glyconic, No. 46. 

Quid immerentcs, epod. 6 6rte. Iambic Trimeter, No. 22, and one 
ic Dinaeter, No. 29. 

Z Z 

354 Metrical Key 

Quid obseratis, epod. IS all Trimeter Iambics, No. 2f . 

Quid tibi vis, epod. 12 one Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and one 
Dactylic Tetrameter apostcriore, No. 7. 

Suis dcsidcrio, lib. 1, 24 three Asclepiadics, No. 44, aad one Gly- 
conic, No. 46. 

Stuis multd gracilis, lib. 1, 5 two Asclepiadics, No. 44, one Phere- 
cratic, No. 48, and one Glyconic, No. 46. 

Quo me, Bacche, lib. 3, 25 one Glyconic, No. 46, and one Ascle- 
piadic. No. 44. 

Quo, quo, sceksti, epod. 7 one Iambic Trimeter, No. 22, and one 
Iambic Dimeter, No. 29. 

Rcctius vives, lib. 2, 10 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 
No. 13. 

Rogarelongo, epod. 8 one Trimeter Iambic, No. 22, and one Dime- 
ter Iambic, No. 29. 

Scriberis Vario, lib. 1,6 three Asclepiadics, No. 44, and one Gly- 
conic, No. 46. 

Septimi Gades, lib. 2, 6 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic* 
No. 13. 

Sic te Diva potent Cypri, lib. 1, 3 one Glyconic, No. 46, and one 
Asclepiadic, No. 44. 

Soh-itur acris hiems, lib. 1,4 one Archilochian Heptameter, No. 56, 
and one Iambic Trimeter Catalectic, No. 28. 

Te maris et terra, lib. 1, 28 one Dactylic Hexameter, No. 1, and one 
Dactylic Tetrameter a posteriore, No. 7. 

Tu m quasieris, lib. 1, 11 all Choriambic Pentameters, No. 42. 

Tyrrhena regum, lib. 3, 29 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilo- 
chian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, 
No. 58. 

'Vila si juris, lib. 2, 8.' three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 
No. 13. 

.Uxor puupcris Ibyci, lib. 3, 15 one Glyconic, No. 46, and one Ascle- 
piadic, No, 44. 

Vdo.i - anicenuni, lib. 1, 17? two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilo- 
Vidcs, utaltd, lib. 1, 9 3 chi an Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 
30, and one kser Alcaic, No. 58. 

to the Odes of Horace. 

Vile potabis, lib. I, 20 three Sapphics, No. 37, and one Adonic, 

No, 13. 
Vitas binnulco, lib. 1, 23 two Asclepiadics, No. 44, one Pherecrati,c, 

No. 48, and one Glyconic, No. 46. 
Vixi puellis, lib. 3, 26 two greater Alcaics, No. 55, one Archilo- 

chian Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, No. 30, and one lesser Alcaic, 

No. 58. 

The following pages contain 


Of the Declensions and Conjugations, with the Quantify 
marked on each Syllable. 

In the first and second pages, it appeared advisable not 
to crowd the lines tou much, by declining every noun at 

full length, but to notice such cases alone of the second 
or other succeeding nouns under each declension, as differ 

from the first example^ either in quantity or termi- 

S5S First Declension. 



ZD (ai) 

















* . 



* * 







. .. 






















Sec ond Declension. 













] <faght-&T 







7-7- ** J -Ifc - 

C/^- .. 1US* 1 ... 

Virgil-i\is ... ... ... I .., 

2ened-os ... ... n 

Ath-os o 6 on (o) cs o 

P^/?/.?-us ... ... ... u 

Ue^w-'iim ... ... um um 

Plural. I orum is 6s i Is 

& a a 

Orpheus and such other names being ranked undw the 
second and third declensions, both forms are here giver* 

Norn. Gen. Dat. Ace. Voc. Abl. 

el eo e'-um ... eo 
cost & (ei) <& eu 

* Unliis in proe. See page 6. 

f According to the Ionic dialect, the genitive, dative, and accusative^ 
tiiay be eos, -ex, ^ea. (pages 10 and 83.) 


Third Declension. 357 


Nam. Gen. 
Nub-zs ts 

Nai-ds <id-$\ 



5 iid-i* 






a (<?e< 


?^?. 82 

Cap ys 
























cS ... 






. i 





Me tarn o rphos- . . . 

.. . 




. 129. 












:,)u l( ) 





















Fifth Declension 











t ei(e) 





f Afuc/& better made long than short. 

I For the reason of Fidel, opel, Rcl, tee page 6. 




tu ; ... 


tuT sul 

mthi (mi) 

tibi sibi 


te se 




te se 



nost-rum, -rj 

vest-rum, -rl 

no bis 








file, Iste, Ipse. 


iid, um 

I ae 




orum arum 






um tun 

tid, um 

6s as 


5 a 




*s ea 


n e'a 




eorum ^arum 




ils, els ... 


e-um -am 


eos <^as 






^5 ea 


ils, els ... 


idem, gadem, Idem; genit. ejusdem: the other cases 
like those of Is, ea", Id. 



hie haic hoc* 


hulcf ... 

hunc hanc hoc* 

hoc hac hoc 



hte hrcc 

harum horum 



quT quaj quod 


quem quamquod 
quo qua quo 

qui quai 

quorum quiiruai quorum 

quibus, qutTis, quls ... 

quos quas quce 

quibus, queis, quls ... 

Norn, quis qute quid, quod ) The other cases like those of 
Ace. quem quam quid, qu6d j Qui, qare, quod. 

Si quis, Ncqilis, aliqms. 
Sins:. Plur. ^ 

Norn, -quis -qua -quid, -qu5d 
Ace. -quem -quam -quid, -qu6d 

-qui -qute 
-quos -quas 


The other cases like those of Quis or Qui, 



IUH tii-urn 
^r ra rum 

Voc. ml m&i me-um 

Gen. rl raj rl 

* See page 107. 

t Respecting Huic and ciiT, sfc pages 9-V and J 17. 

first Conjugation* 



pres. o 




imperf. abanv 

, abas 



perf. av-1 




plup, ay-cram 




Jut. iibo 





a^ ato 

. > 

ate, atoti5 

pres. em 




imp erf. arem 




perf. av-erim 




plitp. av-issem 




fut. av-^rS 



eri tis 







erunt, ere 



an to 



are 1 av-isse* an-di, 
ans at-urus. 


-do at-um, -a 

Pint Conjugation. 



pres. 8r 

imperf. abar 

fut. abdr 



pres. r 

imperf. arer 


arYs, ar^ atur 

amtnl antur 

abarYs, abar^ abatur 

abamYni abantiir 

ab^ris, abdr^ ab'itur 

abfrirfni abuntur 

, at6r 
anrfni, amlfnor antdr 



arerYs, arer^ 


an (arfr) at-iis andus 


Indie, perfect, asti, at (page 102)> astts, arunt 

ptuperf. aram, 8$c. 

Subj. perfect, arim, 8$c. \ 

pluperf. assem, $c. 

future. ar<5, fyc. 

Infn* perf. ass. 

Note that the verb Do has the first Increment short* 
See page 63. 

3 A 

Second Conjugation. 



imperf. ebam 

perf. ii-I 

plup. ii-eVam 

fut. ebS 




pres. am 

imperf. erem 

perf. u-^rim 

plup. ti-issem 

fut. ti-ero 


Infinitive, &$c. 

u-Isse end!, -d5 it-um, -u- ens !t-iiru^ 










erunt, ere 









e, etS 


ete, etot^ 






















Second Conjugation. 



pres. eftr 

imperf. ebar 

Jut. eb6r 



pres. ear 

imperf. err 


erfs, er 








ebrs, eb^r^ 




, etor 
cmini, emtn5r 


ereris, erer^ 


Injinitive, 8$c. 

erl (erir) Yt-iis endus 

of verbs forming the preterperfect in EVI. 

Indie, perf. estl, estis, erunt 

plup. eram, $c. (Seepage 65.) 

Subj. perf. erim, 8$c. 
plup. essem, c. 
Jut. erS, cS'C. 

Infm, perf. esse. 


Third Conjugation, 


pres. o s 

tails ftte 

imperf. ebam ebas 

ebamus ebatfs 

ferf. I istl 

tails Istfs 

plup. ^ram ^ras 

^ramiis ^ratts 

Jut. am es 

emus iptlfs 






pre$. am 

imperf. ^r.em 

perf. ^rim 

jut. ro 














Third Conjugation. 


pres* or 

imperf. ebar 

Jut. ar 




pres. ur 

imperf. rer 


Sris, ere Itur 

'tainl untur 

ebaris, rbare ebatiir 

ebaminl ebantur 

ers, er^ etur 

ere, Itor 

ans, are 
a mini 





)it-us end us 

The final syllables of the verbs in -IO of the third 
conjugation have the same quantity as those of the verbs 
in -O preceded by a consonant. In those persons which 
have the additional I before A, E, O, or U, the I is of 
course short, agreeably to the general rule, page 4. 

The contractions of preterites in -El r l resemble those 
given under the second conjugation : preterites in -IFF 
&re contracted like those of the fourth. 



Fourth Conjugation. 


pres. \o 






imperf. *ebam 






perf. Iv-i 





erunt, ere 

plup. Iv-erarn 














I, ItS 



ite, itot^ 



pres. jam 






imperf. irem 






perf. iv-fcrim 






plup. Iv-issem 






fut. lv-ro 







iv-iss^ endl, -dS- It-um, -u, 

* Antique Juture. ibl IbTs IbU 
Il)imu5 Ibitts ibant 

Fourth Conjugation. 



pres. tor 

imperf. lebar 




Iris, Ire* 


febaris, iebar 





Ire, Itor 
irnini, Iminor 

pres. far Karfs, lare 

lamur lamml 

imperf. Irer Irer is, 

Iremur Iremini 

Infinitive, $c. 

In Ctrier} It-us 






Indie, imperf. Ibam, 8$c. 

perf. W, nsti Isti, lit Itf, 

Ist'fs, lerunt lere. 

Subjunc.perf. tdrim, (T. 

j5/z(p. iissern Issem, CT. 
/Mf. ier5, ^c. 
Infinit.perf. nsse 1 Iss^. 
Passive, indie, imperf. Ibar, <(?. 

* Antique future. Ibor iberis, Iberc ibitiif 

Ibimiir Ibimnu ibuntur 

t Secpag* J02. 

368 SUM and t 




pres. sum 






imperf. eratn 






perf. fin 





f uerunt, fuer6 

plup. fueram 






ftit. era 








^s, estS 


este, estot^ 



pres. sim (si em) 

sis (s^ies) 

sit (si$t) 

slmtis (siemus) 

sitis (sfcfii) 

slnt (stenf) 

imperf. essem 






for em 



fo remits 



perf. fu^rim 






phfp. fiiissem 






fut. fuero 






Infinitive, fyc. 

ess^, f iiiss^, f( 

J7*^, fiituriis. 

* See the remarks on this future, in pages 71 and 


t 79. 

A in Orphea and such accusatives, 

A, Doric voc'. of first declension, 81. 

A Greek vocatives in A, from 
AS, of third declension, 81, 82. 

A in the singular increment of first 
declension, 45. 

A, increment of third declension, 46. 

A, increment of third from nominb- 
tives in A or AS, 47 

A, plural increment of nouns, 59. 

A, imcrtment of verbs 9 62. 

A, terminating first member of c'o'm* 
pound word, 28. 

A, the preposition, in composition t 

Ab in composition, 27. 

Abax, abac is, 47. 

Abicio, abjicio, 174. 

Abiegnae, ab-yegnce, 149. 

Abierunt in Phccdrus, Question of 
systole in, 1 82. 

Abies, 123. 

Abiete, ab-yete, 149. 

Abit, preterite, 102. 

Abs-cidi, ab-scidi, 37. 

ABUS, dat. and all. of first declen- 
sion, 59. 

Academia, 9. 

Acatalectic verses, 201. 

Accent, 165 Reading by accent, 
142, 285 Difficulty of ascertain- 
ing the genuine ancient accent, 141. 

Acephalous verses, 20 1 . 

Achaia* 8. 

Achelous, 8. 

Achille, vocative, 87, 

Acutus, 41. 

Adeo, 100. 

Adicio, adjicio, 174. 

Adii, adi, 147. 

Adipsos, 28. 

Adjectives in EUS from Greek 
proper na??ies, 8. 

Adnuvi, 151, 194. 

Adoneus, 158. 

Adonic verse, 216. 

Ador, adoris, 56. 

Adrian's address to his scful, 240, 

jEeta, vocative, 83. 

jEggeon, ^Egaeonis, 55. 

^goceros, 133. 

yneas, 8. 

Aer, 8, 118 Aeris, 49. 

./Ether, 118 oetheris, 49. 

^Ethiops, ^Ethiopis, 57. 

JEolic pentameter, 210. 

Agamemnon, Agarnemnonis, 55. 

Agnitus, 21. 

Agori, agon is, 55. 

Agri-cultura, 30. 

Agyieus, 12. 

A I, genitive, 7, 45. 

Aio, aiunt their number of sylla* 
bks, 13, 145. 

Ajax, Aiax, 13. 

AL, Nouns masculine ending in 
their increment, 46. 

Alacer, 16. 

Alalcouienea, 102. 

Alcaic, the greater, 280. 

the lesser, 283. 

Alexandria, 9. 

Alexandrine verse, English tire- 
French, 287. 

Alioquin. 35. 

Alios, Syn<sre$i$ in, 147. 




Alituura, xix, 1 9 4-. 

Alius, genitive, 7. 

Allobrox, Allobrogis, 51. 

Alpha, Beta, %c. 86. 

Altar, 117. 

AUerius, 7. 

Alveo, Synarcsis in, 146. 

Ama, a mac amas, amais, U. 

Amarier, 195. 

Amathus, 136. 

Amazon, 13 - Amazonis, 55. 

Ambeo, 23. 

Ambitio, 23. 

Ambitus, 21, 23. 

Ambulacrum, 1 9. 

Amilcar, 1 16. Variation in its 

increment, 46. 
Amineae vites, 184. 
AN, Greek accusative from AS, 

114 from A, 116. 

Greek vocatives in AN from AS, 


Anacreontic rers<?, 243. 
Analysis of the Hexameter, 285. 
Anapaestic verses. 

Dimeter, 217. 

Dimeter Catalectic, 222. 

Monometer, 223. 

Archebulic, 224. 

Tetrameter Catalectic, 225, 
Anas, 121 anaiis, 46. 
Androgeos, 132. 

Anima and animus, distinction be- 
tween, 18. 
Animabus, 59. 

Animosus, animal, animatus, 18. 
Annibal, 108 Variation in its 

increment, 46. 

Annuerunt, AnnwerunfJ. 53. 
Antea, 80. 
Anteambulo, 148. 
Ant'eat, 11. 
Antehac, 148. 
Anteire, 14. 
Anthrax, anthracis, 4-7 

Antiochla r 9. 

Antipater, 198. 

Antithesis, 196. 

Aonides, 8. 

Apamea, 9. 

Aperio, 27, 175. 

Aphseresis, 190. 

Apium, apum, 146. 

Apocope, 195. 

Appendix, append!* is, 53. 

All, Nouns masculine ending in 

their increment, 46. 
Arabia, 184. 
Arabs, Arabis, 48. 
Aranei, Synaresis in, 1 47. 
Aratrum, 1 9. 
Arbor, arboris, 57, 
Archebulic verse, 224. 
Archilochian verses. 

Dactylic Trimeter Catalectic, 

Dimeter Tambic, 241. 

Iambic Dimeter Hypermeter, 

Acephalous Trimeter Iambic, 

Iambic Trimeter Catalectic, 238. 

Heptameter, 281, 279. 
Arctophylax, Arctophylacis, 47. 
Arcubus, 61. 
Areopagus, 33. 
Argiletum, 196. 
Argonauta, 33. 
Aries, 123. 
Ariete, ar-yete, 149. 
Arion, Arionis, 55. 
Arithmetica, 17. 
ARIUS, adjectives in, 146. 
ARUM, gen. pi. of first declension, 


Aruum, arvum, 155. 
AS fmal, 120. 
AS, antique genitive, 121. 
Asclepiadic horiambic Tetraine- 

ter, 269. 



Asdrubal, 108 Variation in its 

increment, 46. 

AST, Greek dat. and all plural, 92. 
Aspiration Its power in Greek 

poetry, 241. 

AT in contracted preterites, 102. 
A tax, Atacis, 47. 
Atcr, IS. 

Athos, 132 A tho, A then, 116. 
Atla, vocative, 81. 
Atlas, 17. 

Atrax, Atracis, 47. 
Attagen, 114. 

AU- Sound of this diphthong, 154. 
Audaces vitrei ? 47. 
Audierunt, aud-yerunt, 181. 
Audis, audiis audi, audie, 11. 
Augment in preterites, 36, 37. 
Aulai, 7. 
Ausim, 76. 
Ausis, 131. 

Auspex, Awispex, Aw'spex, 3. 
A \\, preterite of first conjugation, 62. 
Avium, Aw-yurn, 151. 
Axim, 76. 
% final, 102. 
Bacchar, baccharis, 46. 
Baccheus, Bacche'ius, 156. 
Baiae. 13. 

Bebryx, Bebryeis, 54. 
Bene, 89. 
Bentley, Dr. his accentuation, 


Bethlem, 17. 
Bibi, 36. 
Bibliopola, 33, 
Biceps, 30. 
BJsgae, 30. 
Bijugus, 13, 
Birnus, 31. 
Bipes, 284. 
Bis, 127. 

Bobus, how formed, 11, 43. 
Bombyx, bombycisj 52. 
Bos, 132 bovis, 57. 

Bubus, how formed, 11, 43- 

Bucolic caesura, 286, 291. 

BUNDUS Remark on adjec- 
tives terminating in, 18. 

C its sound, 1. 
C final, 106. 

Cadmeus, Cadmeiua, 157. 

Caesarea, 9. 

Cicsura, 138, 286 its power, 139. 

in the middle of the penta- 
meter, 209. 

in English heroic verse, 287. 

Caieta, 13. 

Cai'us, trisyllabic, 7 dissyllabic, 
10, 13. 

Calcba, Chalchan, vocat. 81, 82. 


Calix, calicis, 52. 

Calyx, calycis, 52. 

Camander, Scamander, 190* 

Cappadox, Cappadocis, 57, 

Car, Caris, 47. 

Casmilla, Camilla, 173. 

Casmeenae, Camcenae, 173. 

Castor, Castoris, 56. 

Catalectic verses, 201. 

Cato, 95 Catonis, 54. 

Cayneas, 3. 

Causidicus, 22. 

Cave, 88. 

Cecidi, 37 Cecldi, 2.3, 

Cecrops, Cecropis, 57. 

Celeber, 16. 

Celtiber, 1 1 8 Celtiberi, 45, 

Centaurea, 8. 

Cepheos, 9. 

Cercops, Cercopis, 57. 

Cere- comniinuit -brum, 190. 

Ceres, 123, 124, 214. 

Ceruus, cervus, 155. 

Cervical, 109. 

Cete, plural, 89. 

Chalybs, Chalybis, 5 ). 

Charisi, 92. 

Chirograph am 34 

Chlamys, chlamydis, 50. 

372 Index. 

Choliambus, 233. Comedo, .comedoni?, 55. 

Choenix, choenicis, $2. Comma, what, 277. 

Chorea, 9. Comparative degree of adjectives 
Choriambic verses. increment, 57. 

Pentameter, 260. jCompendi-faeio, 30. 

Phalaecian Tetrameter, 260. Compes, compedis, 49. 

Asclepiadic Tetrameter, 2.62. Compos, 1 3 3 - compoiis, 57. 

Catalectic Tetrameter, 263. Compound metres, 275. 

Trimeter, 263. Compound words, 21. 

Another Trimeter, the lesser Al- Concitus, 39 -^- Concltus, 40. 

caic, xx. Conjunx, conjux, 165. 

Trimeter Catalectic, 265. Cpnnubium, 23. 

Dimeter, 266. Consonants- their classification, 1. 
Christian poets? disregard of prosody, Rouble consonants, 2 - lengthen 

110. preceding vowel, 13. 

Cicatrix, cicatricis, 52. Final consonant supposed to be 

Cilix, Cilicis, 52. doubled at the ccesura, 141. 

Cimex, cimicis, 50. Consul, 108 consulis, 58. 

Cimmerion, gen. pi. 114. Contabefacio, 29. 

Cinefactus, 28. Contra, 86. 
Circum in composition before a Conturbat, preterite, 104. 

vowel, 111. Copyists, remarks on, 176. 

Circumdare, 62. Cor, 119. 
Cities, denominated from name$ of Corax, coracis, 47. 

persons, 9. Corpus Poetarum Its inaccuracy, 
Citum, 39 Cltum, 40. 184, 272, viii, xvi. 

Civitatium, civitatum, 146. Cos, cotis, 54. 

Clamos, 132. Coturnix, coturnieis, 52. 
Claudian's versification, 3 1 1 r- His .jCoxendis, coxendicis, 52, 

aversion to elisions, 339. Cras, 120. 

Clemens, K?^^t, 112. Crassus's expedition, 3. 

Climax, climacis, 47. Crater, 1 1 7 -- crateris, 49. 

Clio, 8. Creat, preterite, 103. 

Cluvebam, 151, 195. Creditum, 43. 

Crevi, 36. Crinitus, Petrus, 184. 

CoaluerinC Syngresis in, 147. .Crocodilus, corcodilus, 197, 

Coarctet, Synceresis in, 147. Crux, crucis, 58. 

Cochlear, 16. Cui, 94, 146, 148. 

Codex, codicis, 50. Cujas, cujatis, 46. 

.Ccetus, how formed, 147. Cujus, 13. 

Cogito, how formed, 147. Currii, dative, 10 J. 

Cognitus, 21. Currum, curruum, 147. 

,Cogo, how formed, 147. Custos, 133 custodis, 54. 

Coinquinari, Synxresis in, 147. Cyclops, Cyclopis, 57. 

,Colax, colacis, 47. .Cycnus, 17. 

Colon, ?7V2gjj. ^ ' Cytberea/Cythereia, 9. 



1) final, 102. 
Dactylic verses. 

Hexameter, 202. 

Hexameter Meiurus, 204. 

Priapean, 204. 

Common Pentameter, 207. 

yEolic Pentameter, 210. 

Phalaecian Pentameter, 211. 

Tetrameter a priore, 213. 

Tetrameter a poster lore, 213. 

Tetrameter Meiurus, 214. 

Tetrameter Acephalus, 2 1 4. 

Tetrameter Catalectic, 215. 

Trimeter, 215. 

Trimeter Catalectic, 216. 

Pimeter, 216. 
Pactylic.o-Iambic verse, 275. 
DGedaleu?, 9. 

Damasus's rhiming hymn, 165. 
Daphne, Daphnis, 17. 
Daphnon, 1 14 daplmonis, 55. 
Darius, 8. 

Pat urn, 39 'its compounds, 42. 
Dauphin editions of the Classics, re- 

marks on, 140, 272. 
De in composition, 24. 
Decapodia, 274. 
Dederunt in Horace Question of 

systole in, 1 $ 1 . 
Dedi, how formed, 36. 
Deero, Synaresis in, 148. 
Deest, 148, 149. 
Dehinc, 143. 
Dehortatur, 149. 
Deinde, 148. 
Dejero, 21. 
Delphin, delphinis, 5i. 
Demo Its formation, 1 1. 
Demosthenes, vocative, 126. 
Denariis, Synccresis in, 146. 
Denuo, de hovo, 191. 
Deposivi or depoauyi, 151. 
Derivatives, 18. 

Desiderative verbs in URIC, 20. 
Desipio, 22. 
pi in composition, 24. 

Diaeresis, 153. 

Diana, 8. 

Diastole, 183. 

Dido its genitive, 135, 133. 

Die, antique genitive. 

Pies, antique genitive, ' 

Dimeter - 

Dactylic, 216. 
Anapaestic, 217. 

Catalectic, 222. 

Iambic, 239. 

Hypermeter, 242. 

Acephalus, 242. 

Catalectic, 243. 

Trochaic, 257. 

Catalectic, 253. 

Choriambic, 266. 
Diphthong what, 2. 
Diphthong 7 supposed latent, 1 1. 
Diphthongs their quantity, 9. 
Diphthong short before vowel, 159. 
Diphthongs resolved into two syl- 
lables, 156. 
Dirimo, 24. 
Dis, 130 Ditis, 51. 
Disertus, 24. 
Distich, what, 200. 
Ditrochee, final, grateful to Roman, 

ears, 72. 
Division of a word between two 

verses, 189, 253. 
Do, its quantity, 97. 

its increment, 63. 
Doctum, dokitum, 20. 
Documentum, 1, 19. 
Dog's burki?iir, 1 54. 
Dolops, Dolopis, 57. 
Dornu, dative, 26. 
Donatus's comments on Terence, 177, 
Dos, 132 clotis, 54. 
Double letters, 2. 

Double letter lengthens preceding 

vowel, 13. 

' Drawing- room, 190. 
Dryasi, 92. 
Pucenti, 30. 



Dummodo, 99. 

Duodecies, Syn&resis in, 1 47. 

Duodeni, 35. 

Duplex, 30. 

PUS, Participle passive in, 191. 

Dux, ducis, 58. 

Dwelt, dwelled, dweli'd, 20. 

E and U interchangeable, 191. 

E final, 86. 

E, contracted gen. *nd dat. qf fifth 
declension, 87. 

E, Greek neuter plural, 88. 

E, increment of third declension, 48. 

E, plural increment of nouns, 59. 

E, verbal increment, 63 before 
R, 64 6r/ore RAM, RIM, 
HO, 65. 

E, terminating first member of com- 
pound "word, 29. 

E, in words of Greek origin, re- 
solved into El, 8, 156. 

E, the preposition, in competition, 24. 

EA, Greek accusative quantity of 
the E, 10, 83. 

Eadem, Synaresis in, 145. 

Earinus, 185. 

Eliur, eboris, 5-6. 

EBl)S, dat. and abl of fifth de- 
clension, 59. 

Ecqui?, 153. 

Kctasis, 183. 

Ecthlipsis, 1 10, 162. See Elision. 

Ego, 98. 

Ei, Syn&resis in, 146. 

El of fifth declension, 6. 

Eia, 8!. 

Elegia, 8 Flegei'a, 156. 

HAjJtTfL'ftW, 1 7. 

Elision. Final vowel elided, 158. 
Rot elided, 15, 159. 
M and its vowel elided, 110, 162. 
M not elided, 111, 160. 
Vowel elided in body of compound 

word, 11, 13, 193. 
Elision at the end of a verse, 161, 
162, 189. 

Ejfcct of Elisions in poetry, 338. 
Emendations, pretended, of classic 

authors, 176. 
Emerunt in Terence Question of 

systole in, 182. 
En, 114. 

EN, Greek accusative, 1 1 4. 
Ennehemimeris, 141. 
Ens, participle of Sum, 125. 
Enyo, 8. 

EOS,genit. quantity of the E, 10. 
Eosdem, Syn&rcsis in, 1 45. 
Equidem, 28. 
Epenthesis, 194. 
Epigrammaton, gen. pi. 114. 
ER, Greek nouns ending in, 117 

their increment, 49. 
Eram, what mood and tense, 77. 
Erimus, eritis, 71. 
Ero, what mood and tense, 71, 77. 
ERUM, gen. pi. of fifth declension^ 

ERUNT of preterite Question of 

systole in, 175. 
Eryx, Erycis, 52. 
ES>fo!fl/, 121. 

ES of nouns increasing short, 123. 
ES, genitive of fifth declension, 122. 
ES, Greek nouns ending in, 122, 

125 their increment, 49. 
ES, Greek vocative singular, 126. 
ES, Greek plural, 125. 
Es, thou ART, 124 E^, thou 

EATEST, ibid. 
Escit or essit, 77. 
Escutcheon, 173. 
Esquire, 173. 
Esse, Essem what mcod and 

tense, 77. 
Essit or escit, 77. 
Esurio, 21. 
Esurus 39. 

Ethcsi, dat. and abl. plural, 92. 
Etiam its quantity, 1 12. 
ETUM in supine, how formed, 2, 




EU, Greek diphthong Diaresis 

of, 158. 
Eurypylus, 35. 

KUS, nom. in Orpheus, Sfc. 12, 1 58. 
EUS, adject ire from Greek proper 

names, 8. 

F.Vander, EVadne, Sfc. 152. 
Evoluisse, evolvi&te, 153. 
Excltus, 39 excitus, 40. 
Exo3, 133. 

Kxtemplo, ex tempulo, 191. 
Extremus, exterrimus, 197. 
Fac, 106. 

Facio, Verbs compounded ivith, 28. 
Facul, 103 
Facundus, 18. verse, 2-14. 
Fame, 87. 
Familia, 18. 
Familias, genitive, 121. 
Famul, 108. 
Far, 117. 
Farier, 195. 
Fas, 120 Fas, fans, 164. 

Fatidicus, 21. 

Fax, facia, 47. 

Faxim, 76. 

Faxis, 131. 

Fecundi calicrs, Remark on 52. 

Fecundus, whence derived, 1 8. 

Feet Their na?nes and quantity, 

Fel, 108. 

Felix, felicis, 52. 

Femina, whence derived, 1 8. 

Fert, Fertis, 16. 

Fetus, Fetura their derivation, 

Fide, contracted dative, 87. 

Fidei, 6. 

Fidi, from findo, 36. 

Filix, filicis, 52. 

Final syllable of a verse, 187 of 
a comma, 278. 

Fio, 5, 6. 

Fio, vtrbs compounded ivith, 28. 

Flos, 132 Florin, 54. 

Flown, flowen, flow'n, 44-. 

Huviorum, fluw-yorum, 151. 

Fomes, 20. 

Forem, fucrem, 197. 

Foresia, forensia, 171. 

Fornix, fornicis, 52. 

Fortescue, 173. 

Foilissima Tyndaridarum, 60: 

Fortuity, fortwitus, 150. 

Fremebundus. 1 8. 

Frux, frugis, 58. 

Fugere ferae, 177. 

Fumal Neptunia Troja, 104, 

Fur, 117 furis, 58. 

Furfur, furfuris, 58. 

Funbuntkis, 1 8. 

Futum, 39. 

Future pluperfect tense, 74, 

Fuvi, 151, 194. 

O Its sound, I . 

Galatia, 8. 

Galliambus, 245, 279. 

Gavisus, 41. 

Gemebundus, 1 8. 

Generat, preterite, 103. 

Genua, genwa, 151. 

Genuvi, 151, 194. 

Geographus, 34. 

Geometres, 34. 

Gerund in DO, 96. 

GINTA, termination, 85. 

Glis, 130 Gliri?, 51. 

Glyconic verse, 263. 

Gnatus, natus, 190. 

Graius, trisyllabic 7 dissyllabic, 
10, 13. 

Gratis, grains, 130. 

Grex, gregis, 49. 

Grosvenor, 173. 

Gryps, gryphis, 51. 

H, accounted by some as a conso- 
nant, 1 . 

has not the power of a consonant 
in position, 5, 15, 16. 

Hjeres, hasredis, 49. 


Halcyon, halcycnis, 55. 

Halec, halecis, 49. 

Halter, i 17 halteris, 50. 

Hamadryasi, 92. 

Hanc, ham-ce, 163. 

Harpax, harpagos, 47. 

Harpyia, 12- Harpyia, 158. 

iiarum, 59. 

Hebrew names in EL, their incre- 
ment, 49. 

Hector, 116 Hectoris, 56. 

Hemistich, what, 200. 

Hendecasyllabic verse, 257. 

Hepar, its increment, 46. 

Hephthemimeris, 141. 

Heptameter, Archilochian, 279. 

Acephalus, 282. 

Hercule, 90. 

Here, adverb, 90. 

Heroic caesura, 286, 288, 306. 

Heroism, 93. 

Heroon, 114. 

Heu not elided, 159. 

Hexameter verse, 202. 

Hexameter Meiurus, 204. 

Hexameter, ANALYSIS of tlie, 

Hie, pronoun, 107. 

Hie and itte their relation to their 
antecedents, 135. 

Hippocrene, 44. 

Hipponactic verses. 
Scazon, 234. 

Iambic Tetrameter Catalectic, 

Histrix, histricis, 52. 

Hoc, nom. and accus. 107. 

Hodie, 35, 174. 

Homo, 98. 

his odes, 348. 

Horatian metres, 341. 

Horizon, 13. 

Hortesia, Hortensia, 171. 

Horum, 59. 

Huic, 148. 


Hujus, 13. 

Hunc, hum-ce, 163. 
Hymen, 4, 114 Hymenis, 49. 
H ymn of Pope Damasus, 165. 
Hypercatalectic verses, 201. 
Hypermeter verses. 201. 
, its sound in Latin, 322. 

changed to Y; 149. 
, in Greek words j always a vowel, 3. 
filial, 91. 

in gen. and voc. Jutl, 1 1. 
, Greek dative, 92. 
, increment of third declension, 50. 
, increment of third from IX, 51. 
, plural increment of nouns, 60. 
I, verbal increment, 63. 
I terminating fir at member of com- 
pound Latin word, 30 of Greek 

word, 33. 
Iambic verses. 

Trimeter, 227. ' 

Scazon, 233. 

Saturnian, 234. 

Tetrameter, 235. 

Trimeter Acephalus, 238. 

Catalectic, 238. 

Dimeter, 239. 

Hypermeter, 242> 

Acephalus, 242. 

Catalectic, 243. 

Galliambus, 245. 
lambico- Dactylic verse, 275. 
lapyx, lapygis, 52. 
Irtson, lasonis, 55. 
Iber, 1 1 8 Iberi, 45 Iberis, 49, 
Ibidem, 32. 
Ibus, 61. 
Ichneumon, 17. 
Ico It* quantity, 174. 
Ictus in rehearsing poetry, 229. 
Idcirco, 99. 
Idem, 30. 
Ideo, 100. 
lesus, 138. 

Ignavus, in-gnavus, 164. 
li, iidem, Synceresis in f 148, 



Ilicet, 31. 

llionea, 9, 

ll ; ihyia, 12. 

Illabefactus, 28. 

Illico, 100. 

Jmbecillus, 21. 

Imino, 99. 

Impos, 133 impotis, 57. 

Irnpune, 89. 


of noam, 43. 

of first declension, 45* 

of second, 45. 

of third, in A, 46. 

from A and AS, 47, 

in E, 48. 

m I ami Y, 50. 

of third from IX and YX, 51. 

in O of third, 54. 

in U of third, 57. 

j'/'ow nouns m US, 58. 

plural increment of nouns, 58. 

2n A, E, O, 59. 

in I and U, 60. 

Increment of verbs, 6 1 . 

t A, 62. 

*Vi E, 63, before R, 64 be- 
fore RAM, HIM, RO, 65. 

in I, 65. 

in O, 79. 

in U, 79. 
Incus, incudis, 58. 
Index, indicis, 50. 
Imlu, 101. 
Indugredi, 30. 
Induperator, 30. 
Inferne, 89. 
Initium, 19. 
Innuba, 21. 
Inops, inopis, 57. 
Instita Institor, 40. 
Insuetus, 153. 
Insulae lonio in magno, 159. 
Intercus, intercutis, 58. 
Interea, 80. 
Involucrum, 19, 

lo, 7. 
Ionic verses 

a majore, 267. 

a minore, 270. 
Iracundus, 1 8. 
IS final, 127. 

?iom. of nouns increasing Jong, 

Latin plural of third declension, 

128 Greek plural, 129. 
ISI, Greek dat. and all plural, 92. 
Istunc, Ltum-ce, 164. 
IT in contracted preterites, 102, 
Italia, 184. 
I thy phallic verse, 259. 
ITUM in supines from I VI, 41 . 

from UI, 42. 
Insitio, 43. 
Itum/row Eo, 39 its compounds, 


IU8 genitive, 6. 
I VI, prc-teritc of verbs, 66. 
J its nature and sound, 2, 155. 

J lengthens preceding vowel in the 
same word, 1 3 not in a 
preceding word, 1 4. 

J read as I, a separate syllable, 


Jam, i-am, 112, 155. 
Jubar, jubaris, 46. 
Jucundus, Juvicundus, 11. 
Juero, 192. 

Jugum, compounds of, IS. 
Juli,/or Julii and Julie, 11. 
Junius, Juvenius, 11. 
Jupiter, Jovi'pater, 11. 
Jure jurando Jura juranda, 14. 
Jusso, future pluperfect, 74. 
Justitium, 40. 
Juventus, Juvenitus, 191. 
Juxta, 86, 

Ka^av?, Ka^a?, 170. 
Key (Metrical) to Horace's odes, 


Known, knowen, know'n, 44. 
, 129. 



L final, 108 Hebrew names, 

Labos, 132. 

Labundus, 191. 

Laco or Lacon, Laconis, 55. 

Lacubus, 60. 

Laertes, 8. 

Lagopus, 34. 

Laodice, 8. 

Laodicea, 9 

Lar, 118 Laris, 46. 

Larix, laricis, 52. 

Larua, larva, 155. 

Later, lateris, 49. 

Latous, 8. 

Latus, lateris, 49. 

Lavacrum, 19. 

Leandre, 198. 

Lebes, lebetis, 49. 

Lectum, legitum, 20. 

Leeward, 152. 

Asyotvro, AiyotocTo, 168. 

Lemniasi, 92. 

Leodocus, 34. 

Lepor, leporis, 54. 

Lepus, leporis, 57. 

Letters their classification, 1 

Aj;*jyTo, AsfataTo, 168. 

Lex, legis, 49. 

Licence, poetic, rarely used in 

race's odes, 277. 
Lichen, lichenis, 49. 
Lien, Henis, 49. 
Li go, ligonis, 55. 
Ligus, Liguris, 58. 
Lingo, Lingonis, 56. 
Liquefacio, 28. 
.Liquids, 2. 
Litum, 39. 

Locuples, locuplctis, 49. 
Lodix, lodicis, 52. 
Lucretius's Tersificatioji, 311. 
Lucri-facio, 30. 
Luculentus, lukilentus, 1. 
Ludibundus, 1 8. 
Ludi-magister, 30. 

109. Luiturus, 42. 

Lurco, lurconis, 55. 

Lux, lucis, 58. 

M Its nasal sound, 2, 1G3. 

M and N Their similarity of 
sound, 163. 

M final, 110. 
Maecenas Remarkable verses of 

his, 264. 
Maeotis, 11. 
Magn'opere, 11, 193. 
Maia, Maius, 13, 153. 
INlaittaire Whether he edited the 

Major, 13 majoris, 57. 
Male, 89. 
Malea, 9. 
Maledicus, 22. 
Malimus, 66. 
Malumus, 79. 
Mansues, mansuetis, 49. 
Manu, dative, 11, 101. 
Manus, genitive, 11. 
Maragdus, Smaragdus, 190. 
Mars, Mavors, 191. 
Mas, 120 maris, 46. 
Mastix, mastichis, 53. 
Mastix, mastigis, 53. 
Mausoleum, 9. 
Mebercule, 148. 

Dactylic Hexameter, 204. 

Dactylic Tetrameter, 214. 
Mel, 108. 
Melampu, 101. 
Melampus, 137. 
Mele, plural, 89. 
Meleagre, 198, 
Melior, melioris, 57. 
Memini/roM meno, 77. 
Memor, memoris, 57. 
Menandre, 198, 
Meno, memini, 77. 
Merces, mercedis, 49. 
Metamorphoseon, gen. plur. \ 1 4. 



"Metrical Key to Horaces odes, 348. 

Metutus, 41. 

Mi, dative, 93. 

Michael, 109 Michaelis, 49. 

Miluus, 153. 

Minoidi, Greek dative, 92. 

Minotaurtis, 34. 

Miscuerunt, Miscwerupt, 181. 

Mixtum, Misc'tum, 197. 

Mobilis, Mowibilis, 20. 

Modo, 99. 

Monimentuin, 19. 

Monometer anapaestic, 223. 

INIonuments, from proper names of 

persons, 9. 

Mos, 132 movis, 55. 
Motum, mowitum, 20. 
Mulier, 117 Mulieris, 49. 
Multi'modis, 163, 174. 
Murmur, murmuris, 58. 
Musarum, 59. 
Museum, 8. 
Mutes, 1. 

Mute and liquid- their effect 

on preceding vowel, 16. 
N Its nasal sound, 2. 

N and M Their similarity of 
sound, 163. 

N omitted in writing, 165. 

N omitted by Cicero in middle of 
words, 171. 

N, though not written, retaining 
its power of lengthening a pre- 
ceding vowel, by position, 83. 

N final, arbitrarily omitted or re- 
tained by Romans in Grefk 
names, 1 69. added by Greeks 
to Roman names in O, 170. 

N changed to A in Ionic dialect > 

N//, 113. 
Nar, 117 Naris, 47. 
Nasidienus, Nasid-yenus, 31, 150. 
Natrix, i^tf increment, 53. 
Navium celerrimus, 60. 

Ne, wJty long in some compounds, 

short in others, 29. 
Neapolis, 28. 
Necesse, 29. 
Nectar, nectaris, 46. 
Kefas, 28, 29 Nefas, nefans, 


Nemeeusj, Nemee'ias, 157. 
Nemo, nemmis, 50. 
Nenu, 101. 

Nepos, 133 nepotis, 55. 
Nequain, 29. 
Nequidquam, 29. 
Nequitur, 67. 
Nereis, 157. 
Nescis, 130. 
Nesis, Nesidis, 51. 
Nestor, Nestoris, 56. 
Neu, 195. 
Nicostratus, 34. 

Nisi, 91. 

Nix, nivis, 52. 

Nobiscum, Cicero's remark on> 164. 

Noli mus, 66. 

Nostras, nostratis, 46. 

Nudiustertius, Nunc dies tertius, 


Nuptum, nubitum, 20. 
Nycticorax, nycticoracis, 47. 
O changed to U, 3, 44. 

O, increment of third declension, 

O, plural increment of nouns, 59. 

O, Greek nom. fern. its geni- 
tive, 134. 

O, verbal increment, 79. 

O terminating first member of 
compound Greek word, 33 
of Latin word, 35. 

O final, 95. 
O, interjection, 97 not elided, 

Ob in composition, 27. 



Obex, objex, 175. 

Obicio, objicio, 174. 

Oblitero, 21. 

Obrutus, 39. 

Obstetrix, 40. 

Iambic, 235. 
Iambic Catalectic, 236. 
Trochaic Catalectic, 246. 

CEdipus, 137 CEdipodi?, 57. 

CEnophorum, 33. 

Ohe, 7. 

Oilei Syn&resis of the El, 1 46. 

Olli, 196. 

Omitto, 27, 175. 

Omnia, Synxresis in, 1 60. 

ON, Greek accusative, *115-- 
Greek genitive plur. 114. 

Onyx, onychis, 52. 

Operio, 27, 175. 

Operum pulcberrimus, 60. 

O$n, 204. 

OpSj opis, 57. 

OR adjectives comparative 
their increment, 51. 
Greek nouns in OR, their incre- 
ment, 56. 
Oreades, 8. 

Oresta, vocative, 83. 

Orion, 114 Orionis, 55. 

Oritbyia, 12. 

Oriundus, 191. 

Orphea quantity of the A, 83 
Syn&resis, 146. 

Orphei, Greek dative, 92. 

ORUM, gen. pi. of second declen- 
sion, 59. 

Os, 132 Oris, 56. 

Os, ossis, 133. 

OS, final, 132. Greek nom. sing. 
133 genitive, 133 Attic ge- 
nitive, 134. 

Owl's hooting, 154. 

Pactum, Panctum, 164. 

Pagaseus, Pagase'iu?, 9. 

PakemoTi, Falaemonis, 55. 


Palla, Pallan, vocative of third, 


Palladi, Greek dative, 92. 
Palus, 137 paludis, 58. 
Pan, 114. 
Panacea, 8. 
Panax, panacis, 47. 
Panchaia, 8. 
Pango, Pago, 165. 
Pantbu, 101. 
Pan thus, 137. 
Papyrus, 4. 
Par, 118 Paris, 46. 

Parer.tium, parentum, 146. 
Paries, 123. 

Parietibus, par-yetibus, 149. 
Pars mihi pacis erit (prses ?) 37. 
Participles prater ire, English 

contraction of, 44. 
Parturio, 21. 
Paruus, parvus, 155. 
Passum, pansuin, 164. 
Passum, passuam, 147., passed, pass'd, 20. 
Pastiii? mala gramina, 125. 
Patefacio, 29. 
Pause at termination cf verse, 187. 

Pause between words, 139. 
Pejero, 21. 

Pejor, 13 pejoris, 57. 
Pelage, plural, 89. 
Pelopeus, Pelope'ius, 9. 
Penetrat, preterite, 103. 

Common Dactylic, 207, 278. 

yolic, 210. 

Pbaleecian Dactylic, 21 1. 

Trochaic Sgpphic, 251. 

Trochaic FVlleecian, 256. 

Choriaihbic, 260. 
Penthernitneris, 141. 
Pepedi, 38. 
Peperisset or peperissit in Terence^ 

Perdix, perdicis, 52. 



Peregre, PereoTinu*, 22. 
:f, 103. 
Pei . .at, preterite, 104. 

P. . ^, 

. : HClSj D L* . 

Pei " > ' . .v.vz's z/t, 158. 

i^r . : Us, 50. 

- " fa, 49 Its com- 


n 36. 
;t.e, 62. 

Petit, preterite, 103. 
Phsetbon dissyllabic, 145, 161. 

Trochaic Pentameter (the common 

Chorl .n:bic Tetrameter, 260. 
Dactylic Pentameter, 211. 

PI \-ersc, 259. 

Pheiveratic verse, 265. 

inon, Philemonis, 55. 

Phc&beus, Pboebeius, 156. 

PLu-cysor Pborcyn, Phorcynis, 51. 
. Pbrygiij 52. 

Phyiax, phylacis, 47. 

I'sstrix, pistricis, 52. 

Pituita, Pitwita, 150. 

Pix, picis, 52. 

Platanon, platanonis-, 55. 

Platqa, 9. 

Plato, Platon, 114, 169 Pla- 
tonis, 55. 

Plebs, plebis, 49. 

Plebis-scitum, 39. 

PJias, Pleias, 157. 

Pluperfect subjunctive used in fu- 
ture sense, 78. 

Plus, 138. 

Pluton, 169. 

Pluvi, 151, 194. 

Pol, 108. 

Politus, 42. 

Pollex, poliicis, 50. 

Pollux, Pollucis, 58. 

Polydamas, Pulydamas, 35. 

Polydecta, vocative, 83. 

Polypus, Polypus, 35, 137 Po- 
ly podis, 57. 

Polyxena, Pulyxena, 22O. 
Po 1 meridiem, 163. 
Pompei, Synarcsis in, 147. 
Pompeius, 7, 10. 
Poplicus, 3. 
Poplus, Populus, 191. 
Porro, 99. 
Port.ubus, 61. 
Position, 13. 

Possideo Its meaning, 180. 
Possiraus, 66. 
Possis, 130. 
Possnmus, 79. 
Posted, 80. 
Postilla, 80. 
Postremo, 99. 

Postremus, Posterrimu?, 197. 
Hcvs, compounds of, 137 their 

increment, 57. 

Proe before vowel in composition^ 1 1. 
Praebuerunt, Pwfebwenuit, 181. 
Praecox, prrecocis, 57. 
Prsegnas, Proegnans, 164-. 
PrtBsul, prcesulis, 58. 
Practerea, 80. 

Prepositions in composition, 23. 
Preterites oftiuo syllables, 36* 

Preterites doubling first syllable, 

Preterites of verbs, Syncope in, 

Preterites of all Latin verbs ori- 
ginally alike, 152. 
Priapean ctfsura, 289, 310. 
Priapean verse, 204, 264, 278. 
Principium, princip-yum, 150. 
Pro in composition, 25, 26. 
Procne, 17. 
Procnessos, 17. 
Proculcius, 10. 
Profecto, 100. 

Profuerunt, Profvverunt, iSl. 
Proh, 97. 


Promo 7/5 formation, 1 1 . 

Pronuba, 21. 

Propago, 26, xvii. 

Prorutus, 39. 

Proserpina, 26. 

Prosthesis, I'O. 

Prudentius's disregard of prosody, 

Psopbis, Psophidis, 51. 

Pubiicus, poplicus, 196. 

Puer, puerus, 45. 

Pus, 136 puris, 58. 

Puta (puto) in Persius, 19. 

Pyrrhus's inscription, 1 02. 

Qtiadratus, or Tetrameter Iambic, 


Quadrigae, 30. 
Quadrijugus, 14. 
Quadrimus, 31. 
Quadrtipes, 30, 284. 
Quamobrem, 16. 
Quandoque, 35. 
Quandoquidein, 35. 
Quantity Poets uni-:iUing to rio- 
iate it ercn in proper names, 1 85, 
255 Christian writers less 
fcrupulons, 110 Heading by 
quantity, 143, 166, 285, viii. 
Quantus, Quam-tus, 163. 
Quarum, 59. 
Quasi, 91. 
Quatuor, 186. 
Quia, 81 Synaresis in, 146, 


Quibus, 60. 
Quidam, 31. 
Quies, quietis, 49. 
Quilibet, 31. 
Quin, 114. 
Quiris, Quiritis, 51. 
Quitum, 39. 
Quivis, 31. 
Quo or quom ? 82. 
Quomodo, 99. 

Quoniam Its quantity, 112. 
Quorum, 59. 

Quotidie, Quotidianus, 31. 

Quotiens, Quoties, 1 65. 

R final, 116. 

Rarefacio, 29. 

Ratum, 39. 

Re, in composition, 24. 

made long in some compound* , 1 S.5. 
Its meaning in composition, 234. 
RE, Greek vocative, instead of Latin 

EK, 198. 

Rebus, re i bus, 11, 60. 
Recensitus, 42. 
Record, 4. 
Reddo, 186. 
Redeo, 194. 
Ifcdimo, 194. 
l^efert, 24. 
Rei, 6. 

Rei, Synccresis in, 146. 
Reice, Syna-resis in, 1'16. 
Reicio, rejicio, 174. 
Rejicio, 14. 
Relata/or Releta, 233. 
Relicuus, 153, 185. 
Ren, 114 renis, 49. 
Kerutn, 59. 

added to superlatives, 59. 
Responde, respondere, of third con- 
jugation, 88, 146. 
Respondeamus, Synccresis in, 146. 
Restaverit, 36. 
Retro, 99. 

HIM, future termination, 73. 
RIMUS and RITIS subjunctive, 


Rex, regis, 49. 
Rhetor, rlieloris, 56. 
Rhime in Latin- poetry, 165. 
Rhinoceros, iliinocerotis, 55. 
Rhodopeue, Rhodope'ius, 157. 
Rhceteus, llhceteius, 157. 
Ros, 132 roris, 54. 
Ruiturus, 42. 
Ruptum, ruinpiturn, 20. 
Rus, 139. 
Rutum, Rutus, 39. 

Index. 383 

$ 9 initial, followed byC, P, orT Semianimis, Sem'animis, 11, 193. 

its power, x. 15. Semihians, Sem'hians, 193. 

Final S elided, 162. Semihomo, Sem'homo, 193. 

rinal S not pronounced, 2, 165, Semiobolus, Sem'obolus, 193. 

171. Semisopitus, 21. 

When first generally pronounced Semivowels, 1, 2. 

in poetry, 172. Semodius, 29. 

S omitted in pronunciation by Senarius, or Trimeter Iambic, 227. 

French, 173. Seno, Senonis, 56. 

retained by English in French Separ, separis, 47. 

< words, 173. Seps, sepis, 49. 

Sacerdos, sacerdotis, 55. Ser, 118. 

Sal, 109 Salis, 46. Sero, 99, 

Salamis, Sa'aminis, 51. Seruus, Semis, 155. 

Salix, salicis, 52. Servitus, 139. 

Saluber, 16. Sen, 152, 195. 

Salus, 136. Shown, showen, sbow'n, 44. 

Samnis, 131 Samnitis, 51. Sicyon, Sicyonis, 55. 

Sandix, sandicis, 54. Sidon, sidonis, 55. 

Sapphic verses Silua, Silva, 153. 

.-Eolic Dactylic Pentameter, 2 1 0. Simo, Simonis, 55. 

Another species, 244. Siinus, Sitis, 66. 

Trochaic Pentameter, 251. Sindon, Sindonis, 55. 

Sas, 126. Siquidem, 30. 

Satin', 115, 174. Siquis, 30. 

Satio, satioms, 43. Siren, 1 14 Sirenis, 49. 

Saturn, 39 Its compounds, 43. Sis, Sies, 130. 

Satur, Saturus, 45. Situm, 39. 

Saturnian vcr*e, 234. Sive, Siwe, 152. 

Saxo, Saxon is, 56. Smaragdus, Maragdus, 190. 

Scamander, Camander, 190. Srnilax, smilacis, 47. 

Scazon, 233 Remark on it, 100. Sol, solis, 54. 

Sehcenobates, 33. Sol ins, 6. 

Scidi, 36. Solon, Solon i*, 55. 

Scilicet, 31. Solstitiuin, 40. 

Scobs, scobis, 57. Soluo, Solvo, 153. 

Scriptum, Sciibitum, 20. Sos, 147. 

Scrobs, scrobis, 57. Sotadic verse, 267. 

Scylleus, Scylleius, 157. Soter, soteris, 49. 

Se, the particle, in composition, 24. Spadix, spadicis, 52. 

Se, for Sex, in composition, 29. Spado, spadonis, 55. 

Secundus, Sequundus, 191, Spei, 6. 

Sedecim, 29. Splen, 114. 

Seditio, 194. Spopondi, 37. 

Selibra, 29. 'Squire, 190. 

Seineleu-s Semeltius, 157. Stabilis, 40. 

Semestris, 29. Stabuium, 40. 
Seitiiadupertus, Sem'adapertus, 193. 



v, 17. 
Statim, 40. 
Static, 40. 

Statius, Remarks or., .290. 
Stator, 40. 
Staturus, 40. 
Status, 40. 
Statutus, 41. 

Stellio, SynMesis in, 146, 160. 
Steteruntque comae, in Virgil, 175. 
Steti, hoiv formed, 36. 
Steward, Sti-ivard, 152. 
Stipendium, 192. 
Stips, stipis, 50. 
StitUm, 40. 

Sto its meaning, 178. 

its quantity, 97. 

Sto, stet<, and stavi, 36. 
Strix, strigis, 52. 
Sty rax, styracis, 47. 
Styx, Stygta, 52. 
Suadent, 153. 
Suasetor Suasset, 2, 194. 
Suaveolens, Suav'olena, 1^3. 
Subicio, subjicio, 174. 
Subiit. Cum gravius dorso subiit 

onus, 140. 
Subit, preterite, 103. 
Submosses, or submossis, in Horace, 


Subnuba, 23. 
Subus, 193. 
Suesco, 153. 
Surnus, 79. 

Suos, Synccrcsis in, 147. 
Super at, preterite, 103. 
Superne, 89. 
Supines of second and third conj. 

their supposed irregularity ac- 
counted for, 19. 

Supines of two syllables, 38. 

Polysyllabic Supines, 4 1 . 

Supines in etum, hoiv formed, 38. 
Suppar, supparis, 47. 
Supremus, Superrimus, 197. 
Sus, 138. 

Syllables their quantity, 3, 4. 

Roman mode of dividing .syllables, 

Final syllable of averse, 187 

of a comma, 278. 
SynaTtsis, 145. 

Synaloephe, 158. See Elision. 
Synapheia, 161, 188, 220, 240, 

253, 270, 331. 
Syncope, 191. 
Syphnx, Syphacis, 48. 

SvcrTy,aa, 1 70. 
Systole, 174. 
T .//H/, 102. 

TA, Greek rocatii'sfromTES, $3. 
Tabefacio, 29. 

Tables of declensions and conjuga- 
tions, 356. 
Tango, Tago, 165. 
Tantidem, 31. 
Tantopere, 193. 
Tantus, Tam-tus, 163. 
Tapes, tay^c f is, 49. 
Taygetuji, 8. 
Tc X ^, 17. 
Tecmejsa, 17. 

Tegumentum, tegimenlum, 1. 
Tellus, 136 telluns, 58. 
Tempe, 89. 
Temples from proper namss of 

persons, 9. 

Tenuia, Tenwia, 151. 
Tcnuiore, ten-wiore, 150, 
Tenuius, ten-wius, 149. 
Tepcfacio, 29. 
Terentianus Maurus Whether his 

work be perfect, 251. 
Terrai, 7. 

Terruerunt, Terrwerunt, 181. 
Tethyi, Greek dative, 93. 

Anapaestic, Catalectic, 225. 

Dactylic, a priore, 213. 

Dactylic, a posteriore, 2 1 3 . 

Dactylic Meiuru?, 2 1 4. 

Dactylic Acephalus, 214. 




Dactylic, Catalectic, 215. 

Iambic, 235. 

Iambic, Catalectic, 236. 

Choriambic Asclepiadic, 262. 

Chbriambic Phalaeoiart, 260. 

Choriambic, Catalectic, 263. 

Dactylico-Trochaic, 283. 
Tetuli, Tuli, ISO. 
Thalia, 8. 

Theba'is of Statins, 290. 
Theocritus'fi versification, 291. 
Theodosiu?, Theudosius, 152. 
Theodotus, Theudotus, 152. 
Thessalonica, Thessalonicians, 33. 
Thesea, 9. 

Thoa, Goxy, vocative^ 82. 
Thrasybulus, 35. 
"Threcius, Threicius, 8, 157. 
Thressa, Threissa, 157. 
Thus, 136. 
Th vesta, vocative, 83. 
Tibereius, 9. 
Tibicen, 30. 
Tigris, plural, 129. 
Time &f. syllables, 4. 
Tiro, tironis, 54. 
Titan, 114. 
Tmesis, 195. 
Tome, 278, 286. 
- Toreumata, 47. 
Totiens, Toties, 165. 
Totus, 19. 
Totus jfrowi Tot, 1 8. 
Towns, from proper names ef per- 
sons, 9. 
Trans Words compounded with 

Trans, 165, 167. 
Trapes, trapetis, 49. 
Ti.renti, 28. 
Tribunal, 109. 
Tribus, (JO. 
Tricetil, 32. 
Triceps, 30. 
Triduurn, 31. 
Trigtsimus, 32. 


Trig-inta, 32. 
Trihemimeris, 140, 

Choriambic, 263. 

Another Choriambic, the Lesser 
Alcaic, xx. 

Choriambic, Catalectic, 265. 

Dactylic, 215. 

Dactylic, Catalectic, 216. 

Iambic, 226. 

Iambic, Acephalus, 238. 

Iambic, Catalectic, 238. 

Iambic, Hypermeter, 234. 
Trimus, 31. 
Tripes, 184. 

Tripus, 137 tripodis, 57. 
Tristitias, genitive, 121. 
Troas, 8. 
Troasin, 93. 
Trochaic verses 

Tetrameter Catalectic, 246. 

Sapphic Pentameter, 251. 

Phalaecian' Pentameter, 251. 

Dimeter, 257. 

Dimeter Catalectic, 258. 

Phallic, 259. 
Trochee, as part of a dactyl, 288, 


Troia, 153. 
Tro'ius, 8. 
Tros, 132. 
Tubicen, 30. 
Tulerunt Question of Systole in, 


Tuli, 36. 

Turtur, turturis, 58. 
Tusus, Tunsus, 83. 
Tuticanus, 185, 255. 
Tydeos, 9. 

Typanura, Tympanum, 192. 
Typhoeo Symcrrsis of the EG, 


Typhoeus, 1 2. 
U Its sound, 3, 35, 44, 153, 


U tuid E interchangeable, 191. 



U and I interchangeable, 1 . 

U substituted/or 6, 3, 44. 

changed to W, 149. 

terminating frst member of com- 
pound ivord, 30. 

increment of third declension, 57. 

/row nowtts in US, 58. 

contracted dat. of fourth declension, 
11, 26, 101. 

plural increment of nouns, 60. 

verbal increment, 19. 
final U, 100. 
Ubi, 93, 
Ubicumque, 31. 
Ubique, 31. 
Ubi vis, 31. 

Ulciscor, ulco, or ulcio, 75. 
UM/or IUM, gm. pJ. of third de- 
clension, 146. 

/or UUM, gen. pi. of fourth de- 
clension, 147. 

URIO, verbs ending in, 20. 
URUS in future participle, 79. 
US, genit. of fourth, whence f owned, 


final US, 135. 
Uti, adverb, 93. 
Utinam, 93. 
Utique, 93. 
Utrius, 6. 
UTUM in dissyllabic supines, 39. 

m polysyllabic, 4 1 . 
UW z o?? syllable, 151. 
V I/,v affinity to W, 3, 11, 44, 

153, 191. 

<s?oe,s ??0 lengthen preceding syllable, 

improper in Greek words, 152. 
Vacefio, 29. 
Vale, 88. 
Varix, varicis, 52. 
Varro's remark on the kezametcr, 


Vas, vaclb, 46. 
Vas, vasis, 120. 
Vectigal, 109. 

Ve'ius, 7. 

Velim, velis, 65. 

Velimus, 66. 

Veiox, velocis, 54. 

Veneficus, 29, 191. 

Venumdare, 62. 

Venumdatus, 22. 

Ver, 117 veris, 49. 

Verbs agreement in quantity be- 
tween second persons singular and 
plural, 67. 

Vero, 99. 

Veronensium, Synasresis in, 146. 

Verse, what, 200. 

Various denominations of verses, 


Latin verses, how measured, 201 . 
Verses occurring in prose, 340. 

Verubus, 60. 

Vervex, vervecis, 49. 

Vibex, vibicis, 51. 

Victrix, victricis, 52. 

Victu, dative, 101. 

Vide, 88. 

Videlicet, 29. 

Viden', 115, 174. 

Vietis, Synccresis in, 147> 

Vietus, 39. 

Vindemiator, vindem-yator, 31, 

Vindem'itor, 11, 192. 

Vindex, vindicis, 50. 

Vinitor, 192. 

Vir, virus, 45. 

Virgil His versification, 311. 

Viridium, viridum, 146. 

Virtus, viritus, 191 Virtutis, 58, 

Volt, voltis, 3, 197. 

Voluccr, 1 6. 

Volucris, 16. 

Volumus, 79. 

Voluo, Volvo, 153. 

Voluutas, Volenlitas, 191. 

Voluptas, Voinpitas, 191. 

Volutabrum, 19. 

Volvundus, 191. 

Index. 387 

Vowi-l?, 1. Vulteius, 7. 

Long vowel equal to two short, *W following U, 11, 151. 

159. X Its sound and power, 2, 13, 
1'uwt'l before vowel in Latin words, xiv. 

5. Y, increment of third declension, 50. 
in Greek words, 8, 156, 157. increment from YX, 51. 

short vowel rendered long by two Y terminating first member of com- 

consonants following, 13. pound word, 34-. 

common before mute and liquid, 1 6. Final Y, 91. 

long vowel not rendered a/tort by YI, a diphthong, 12. 

mute and liquid, 17. YS, final, 91. 

Elision of vowels See Elisiop. Z Its sound and power, 2, 13, 
Vox, vocis, 54. xiv. 

Viilt, vultis, 3, V c 7, 


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