Skip to main content

Full text of "Latin Suffixes"

See other formats

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/ 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 





OF 0. C. C. OXFOBD : 



Digitized by 


1 fr g- 6 . 1'Vui/c • . 5~ 

Wmal (sUfm^C 7Uu»L' 

nuxni) BT epomswooDV ahb co. 


Digitized by 



Fqb the full understanding of a language three things are 
essentially necessary : — a knowledge of its inflections^ a 
knowledge of its construction, a knowledge of its words. 
These may be respectively termed inflection-knowledge, 
construction-knowledge, word-knowledge; and it is in 
proportion as these are attained that a language is more 
or less understood. Inflection-knowledge and construc- 
tion-knowledge present neither numerous nor grave diffi- 
culties. The whole of the inflections of a language are 
reducible to one or other of a not large number of given 
forms ; and all that is needful for the understanding of its 
general' construction is comprised within comparatively 
few rules.- But the case is different with regard to word- 
knowledge. Each word of the whole language has to be 
separately stored in the memory, without any aid from clas- 
sification, as in the case of inflection and of construction. 
So that as words are very numerous, there is least assist- 
ance where there is most difficulty. 

To facilitate the acquirement of an intimate and philo- 
sophical word-knowledge of the Latin language is the 
object of the present work. I have written it for the use 
neither of beginners and quite young persons on the one 
hand, nor merely of. more or less advanced students on the 
other ; but of all who, possessing a moderate acquaint- 
ance with Latin, are prepared to bring reflecting minds to 


Digitized by 



the investigation of its statements. The principles enun- 
ciated in it — ^bome out by Bopp and Pott — even if known 
to scholars, have certainly never yet appeared either collec- 
tively, or in the present form. Indeed, there is much about 
them which is, I believe, altogether new. But though 
this IS the case, they are not advanced as mere theory. 
They have been subjected to a test severe in its nature, 
and continued in its duration, having been employed by 
me in writing the Latin-English Dictionary, on which I 
have been engaged for several years, and which is now 
drawing towards comjdetion. By this means I have 
arrived in my own mind at a conviction of their truth ; 
and if they be founded on truth, it will be conceded, I 
think, that they are most important. Without, however, 
entering into any detail of the general plan upon which 
the Dictionary is being written, I would state, that while 
by their aid I have been enabled to throw much ety- 
mological light on numerous words either unexplained, or 
wrongly explained, by lexicographers in general, every 
fresh day*s experience adds to the proof of their sound- 
ness ; and that, while I have occasionally found, and may 
still find, cause for a further development of them, I 
have never yet, in any instance, had occasion either to 
retract or to modify them. 

The way in which I have endeavoured to carry 
out my ol^ct of facilitating the acquirement of a 
word-knowledge of the Latin language, has been by 
reducing its words to certain classes, within one or other 
of which nearly all that have come dawn to us find a 
place. Some few exceptions occur. But it is not diflS- 
eult to assign the reason. Tlie Latin language, as we 
have it, is not a whole. It is but a fragment. We have, 
if a large portion, still, only a portion of it. And, there- 

Digitized by 



fore^ we do not find in the works of the Latin authors that 
have reached us all the words employed by those who 
spoke the Latin tongue. Neither are all its Boots cer- 
tainly known at present. Hence there occasionally oc- 
curs a gap in the process of the formation of words; 
— and conjecture, though usually, based on good and 
sufficient grounds, has sometimes to take the place of ab- 
solute certainty. But the occasions are rare when this 
is the case. Almost every Latin word can be assigned a 
place in a particular class. And it is by this classification 
that a word-knowledge of Latin may be attained in a 
comparatively short time, and with comparatively little 

But to enter more into detail. Words consist of two 
parts ; — a Base and a Suffix.* These are either attached 
immediately to each other, or are united by a Connecting 
Vowel.* In the Base is found the Boot*, which shews 
whence any given word springs, and what is the notion 
at the foundation of it. The Suffix determines what is 
the power of the word in relation to its Boot, and in re- 
lation also to all those other words which spring either 
directly from that Boot, or from other words connected 
with it by a second, third, or even fourth formation.* 
Boots shew how words primarily differ in notion among 
themselves : Suffixes shew in what respect, and to what 
extent, they harmonise. In other words. Boots impart 
the distinctive, or separate, meaning; Suffixes the common, 
or class-, meaning. By the combination of the respective 
powers of the Boot (as included in the Base), and of the 
Suffix, the true Etymological meaning of a word is ob- 
tained. This Etymological meaning in nouns describes, 
for the most part, some quality, or power, or characteristic, 

* See Definitions, p. 5. 
A 3 

Digitized by 



which holds good of a given word ; and which is, furthei*, 
a general idea, of which the common acceptation of the 
word is usually a restricted, or especial, one. To illustrate 
what has been stated. The words mergus and procus are 
respectively composed of the Roots (which are, here, the 
entire Base) merg. and proc, and of the Suffix us. Merg. 
contains in itself the notion of " plunge into water; " proc, 
of ** ask : " — while, in each instance, us has a force akin 
to a present participle active. Hence the foregoing words 
differ as regards the respective Roots merg» and proc: 
they agree as regards the common Suffix us. From these 
Roots they obtain their distinctive meaning : from their 
Suffix their common, or class-, meaning. Combine the 
respective powers of these Roots and of their common 
Suffix, and their true Etymological meanings are obtained ; 
viz. : *^ the one plunging into water" — ^' the one asking." 
These meanings describe, here, a characteristic of that 
thing and person, of which, and whom, they hold generally 
good: the characteristic of the former being, habitually, 
^^ plunging into water ; " of the other, '^ asking." Their re- 
stricted, or especial meanings, are, " a diver," or ^^ sea- 
gull;" — "a wooer" or ** suitor." And hence it may be 
added that on the principle of SuflSxes the language 
becomes self-interpreting. 

Again, as the meaning of every Suffix is settled and 
defined, and as it is applicable to every member of its class, 
the first intention, or, to speak technically, ** the proper 
meaning," of a word is at once discernible. Hence it can 
be immediately seen when " the proper meaning " of a 
word has, and when it has not, reached us in those works 
of Latin authors which we possess. Thus the Suffix tio 
contains the notion of "doing" that, which its Root, as 
comprised in its Base, denotes;— and from the two, com- 

Digitized by 



bined, are obtained abstract substanliveB ; as^ audt-tio, " a 
hearing ; " lec-tioy a " reading ; " and hence it would be ex- 
pected that comd'-tio would signify *^ a supping," etc. ; but 
it has come down to us only in the force of ** a supper- 
room," etc. 

From what has thus been just stated it follows that, as 
it is by the aid of Suffixes **the proper meaning" of a 
word is obtained, its derived — ^that is its **metonymical,'* or 
** figurative" — meanings, if any attach to it, are readily dis- 
covered. Thus auditio sometimes means ^'a thing heard," 
" a lesson," etc. ; lectioy sometimes, " a thing read ; " and 
coenatio, always, " a supper-room," etc. ; all of which are 
tnetonymical meanings. Again ; as jugum denotes ** a 
yoke " made of some substance ; so, when it signifies *^ the 
yoke" either of slavery, or of matrimony, — which is not 
a substance, — it has a figurative meaning. 

Another valuable result obtained from the knowledge 
of Suffixes is the proof that some words, of which, apart 
from this system of study, it can only be affirmed that 
they consist of the same letters arranged in the same 
order, possess a community of Etymological idea, though 
they represent objects in themselves entirely unconnected. 
Take for instance luma, which means, 1. *^a thorn:" 
— 2. "a cloak." What these have in common is not 
readily apparent. They have, however, a common Koot, 
luy "to rend" or "cut;" and a common Suffix, ma, 
which imparts a participial force, either active or passive. 
Hence, is obtained, 1. " The rending " or " cutting 
thing;" "a thorn." 2. "The rent" or "cut thing;" 
I. e. " a square " piece of cloth rent or cut off from a 
larger piece and used as a "cloak," " luma, saffum qua* 
drum;^ Gloss. Isid. 

Again, there are other words, apparently identical in 

▲ 4 

Digitized by 



origin^ which come, however^ from different Boots, either 
with the same, or with different, Suffixes. Take for 
instance, limus, "mud:" limusy ^* a girdle, etc., worn by 
sacrificing priests." Here the Roots are different, the 
Suffix is the same. Limus, " mud," is from the Sanscrit 
Koot liy ^^ to make liquid : " the Suffix is mus^ and has 
here a passive participial force. Hence, li-mus, etymo- 
logically, means, " the thing made liquid;" t. e. " mud," 
** slime," etc Limusy " a girdle, etc," is from the Boot 
%, whence is formed Uff-^g **to bind;" the Suffix is tntis, 
and is here used in an active participial force ; the last 
consonant of lig, the Base of the word, is thrown out 
before the Suffix beginning with a consonantj hence liff- 
Witt*, li-musy "the binding" or " festening thing;" "a 
girdle." Take again lucas, "a grove;" and lucusy 
^* light," the obsolete form, whence comes the ablative 
hicuy used by Terence, Here Boots and Suffixes are 
both different. Lucas ^ " light," is obtained by adding the 
Suffix iLs to the root luc. It means, etymologically, " th^ 
shining thing," i. e. " light." But lueusy " a grove," is 
obtained by adding the Suffix cus to the Boot /k, ^^ to cut," 
etc ; its etymological meaning being " the cut thing," i. e, 
a place in a wood cut or cleared : " a clearing," as dis- 
tinct from a dense wood : for that it is not a wood itself 
is shewn by lavy, who says. Book 24, chap, 3X : ^^ lucus 
frequenti silvd septus.'*^ 

- Corresponding modes of treatment elucidate the struc* 
ture and Etymological powers of Adjectives, Verbs, and 

But further. The great aid . towards obtaining an aq- 
curate knowledge of the quantity of the middle syllables of 
words, derivable from the study of Suffixes, must not be 
plisiied over imnoticed. Attention to thQ Pefinitions, 

Digitized by 



Bules^ and Examples of this work^ will tend greatlj to 
impart a correct pronunciation^ and will increase that 
knowledge of quaatitj which must ever prove of essential 
service^ especially on those occasions when reliance has to 
be placed on the memory alone. 

From what has been stated it will be seen how greatly the 
labour of acquiring a word^knowledge of the language, and 
of pronoimcing it correctly, is diminished by this system. 
The memory is no longer strained with the effort of at- 
tempting to carry with it the force of each separate word. 
The Suffix supplies the clas8**meaning : the word stripped 
of its Suffix supplies the Base — whether Root or Theme — 
which gives the ground-work of the notion : and the two 
combined supply a true Etymological definition of the 
whole word. Neither does this hold good of what is 
termed the classical part of the language alone : — it applies 
equally to the Latinity of every age. 

As to the value of a sound word-knowledge in reading 
Latin authors it is, perhaps, impossible to over-estimate it; 
for it leaves the. mind at liberty to concentrate itself on 
the statements advanced, and enables it to enter into the 
power and propriety of the terms in which the author 
clothes his ideas. Those who have at all deviated from 
the accustomed course of Latin reading, and have turned 
aside from the Classical writings to works in early or late 
Latin, such as Plautui on the one hand and TertulKan on 
the other;-— or to technical works of any kind in any age, 
such as Ccelius Aurelianus^ in medicine ; the Affrimensores, 
in land-surveying ; the Scriptares Ret RuttictB, in agricul* 
tural matters ; the Corpus Jurisy in law ; or Pliny, in natural 
history, — ^know well how often the reader is brought to a 
standstill by words seldom, if ever, found elsewhere. I 
have mysQlf often experienced this check; and never. 

Digitized by 



formerly, did I take up any author in any of the above 
mentioned class of works without feeling convinced that 
I should most probably be compelled to refer to a Dic- 
tionary, and that, perhaps, to little purpose. All diffi- 
culties, however, have vanished since I have mastered 
the principles now brought before the reader ; and if at 
any time I have been perplexed, it has been, not about 
words, but about the author's views arising from some 
obscure mode of expression, or from my insufficient 
acquaintance with the subject of which he has treated. 

But, beyond this, in teaching, no less than in my pri- 
vate studies, I have long tested the value of the principles 
here set forth. I have found that my pupils readily grasp 
and apply them ; taking, at the same time, no small de- 
gree of interest in a system of study which commends 
itself to them by giving a key to the meaning of each word, 
— abridges labour, — ^and, by calling the reasoning powers 
into active play, proves of immense advantage, not merely 
in the acquisition of Latin, where its success has exceeded 
my utmost expectations, but in the pursuit of other 
branches of education, also. 

In conclusion, I would add, that these principles are not 
confined to the Latin Language alone; they are applicable, 
as far as I can trace, to all the other Languages of the 
Indo-European stem. And I feel justified in stating thus 
much, as I have in MS. corresponding works on the 
Greek and English Languages, and have made no incon- 
siderable progress in the treatment of some other Lan- 
guages also. In each instance I have entered fully into 
detail, on the same plan as here employed. The result 
of my investigations and labours will appear from time 
to time as my literary engagements will allow. 

J. T. W. 

London, July, 1858. 

Digitized by 



Chap. L — Adjectives and Substantives which have a Common Origin 
FOR their Suffix. 
„ II. — Suffixes belonging to Adjectives aIiOns. 
„ III. — Suffixes belonging to Substantives alone. 
„ IV. — Suffixes of Verbs. 
„ V. — Suffixes of Adverbs. 


N.6. — Substantival Suffixes are denoted by the letters m., /., or »., which point 
out the gender. Verbal Suffixes are followed by 1, 2» 3, 4» to indicate the conjugation. 
Adverbial Suffixes have Adv. After them. Adjectival Suffixes have merely the termU 
nations of their several genders. 

a, SB,/, and m, 
a-cSus, a-cSa, a-cSam 
a-go, a-gin-is,/., 
al, ar, Neut Subst, 
a-lis, a-le 
a-na, a-nas,/ 
a-neus, a-nSa, a-nSuin 
a-nus, a-na, a-nuin 
aria, a-rise,/! 
a-ris, a-re 
a-rium, a-rii, n. . 
a-rius, a ria, a-riam 
a-rius, a-rii, m. 
a-8, a-ti-s 
a-s, a-ti-8, m. 
a-sco, a-sc€re, 3, . 
a-ti-Iis, a-ti-le 
a-tim^ Advj, .... 

. 19 
. 74 
. 136 
. 115 
. 70 
. 65 
. 50 
. 46 
. 46 
. 69 
. 65 
, 69 
. 65 
. 69 
. 53 

, 65 



a-tl-s ft-tlHi 

. 52 

a-tus, a-ta, a-tum . 

. 42 

a-x, a-c-is . 

. 54 

ber, bra« brum . 

. 28 

ber, br«iv m. 

. 29 

ber, briSff m. 

. 97 

bMi8,bMe . 

. 74 

bra, br-8B,/. . 

. 29 

bris, bre . . 

. 28 

brium, br-ii, n. 

. 29 

brum, br-i, n. . 

. 29 

billa, buJie, m. and/. 

. 29 

bulum, bul-i, n. . 

. 29 

. 77 

bns, ba, bnm 

• • 

. 87 

coFf oTAf omm 

, , 

. 31 

cer, or cris, ere 

• • 

. 31 

oSus, cda* odnm • 

• • 

. 74 

Digitized by 




olto, oYtftre, 1. . 

cius, cia, cium 

CO, care, or cor, cari, 1. 

ere, cr-is, «. 

onmi, er^U ». 

culum, ciil-i, it. . 

cil-lus, cii-la, ctUlum . 

cuius, ciil-i, in. 

onndiis, ennday enndnm 

oas, oa, onm 

ous, ciy m. . 

do, dXn-to,/ 

dus, da, dum 
dus, di, m. . 

e, 6, Adv. from A^, in us 

Sy Adv, from Adj. in is 

€-a-tus, 6-a-ta, 6-a-tum 

8-ber or e-bris, l-bre 

i-bra, l-br-ae,/ . 

e-brum, e-br-i, n. , 

5-bundus, 6-bunda, 6-bunduni 

e-do, e-dm-is,yi • 

e-lis, e-le . 

(el-)Ia, (el-)l8B,/ . 

(el-)lum, (el-)li, it. 

(el-)lus, (©l-)li, m. 

en, inis, nu . 

en-sis, en-se 

e-nus, e-na, enum. 

eo, e-re, 2. 

e-r, fa, rum . 

e-r, 6-ra, S-rum . 

e-r, 6-ri, nt. . 

e-r, or ris, re] 

er, 6r-is, it. . 

€-ris, or e-r, 5-re . 

g-ra, g-rae,/ 

e-r-bus, e-r-ba, e-r-bum 

e-r-na, e-r-nae,^; . 

e»r-nus, e-r-na, e^r-num 

g-ro, S-rare, 1. . , 

e-r-vA, e-r-v8e,/. • 

g-roi^ S-rl, lit. . • • 

. 134 
, 134. 
. 74 
. 133 
. 32 
. 32 
. 32 
. 57 
, 32 
. 78 
. 54 
. 56 

. 114 
. 40 
. 41 

. 136 
. 137 
. 42 
. 28 
. 29 
. 29 
. 77 
. 114 
. 65 
. 58 
. 58 
. 58 
. 88 
. 80 
, 46 
. 119 
. 34 
. 34 
. 35 
. 38 
. Ill 
. 38 
. 35 
. 87 
. 50 
. 46 
. 135 
• 23 
, 85 

es, 1-s, m. and/ . 
cs, e-ti-8 or i-ti-s . 
e-sco, e-scgre, 3. . 
e-sso, e-8s€re, 3. . 
e-s-ter, e-s-tr-is . 

e-stis, e-ste . 
e-s-tra, e-s-tr-e,/ 
e-s-tris, e-s-tria . 
«-tas, e-tat-is,/ . 
6-tro, 6-trare, 1. . 
e-tum, e-ti, n. 
das, to, Siiiii 
e-x, i-c-is,y: 

ffnns, gna, ffnmn 
gro, srxn-is / 

ia, 18B,/ 
i-a-lis, i-a-le 
i-bi-lis, i-bi-le 
i-bulum, i-biil-i, n. 
i-bundos, i-bunda, i-bundum 
i-cer (i-crus), i-cra, i-crum 
i-cSus, i-cSa, i-cSum 
i-cinor, i-cinari, 1. 
i-cito, i-citare, 1. 
i-cius (i-tius), i-cia, i-cinm 
i-co, i-care, 1. 
i-ctilnm, i-ciil-i, n. 
i-culus, i-ciila, i-culnm 
i-culns, i-ciila, i-ciilum, dim, 
i-cundns, i-cunda, i-cundum 
i-cus, i-ca, i-cum . 
i-cus, i-ca, -icum . 
i-do, i-din-is,/. . 
i-dus, i-da, i-dum 
i-ensis, i-ense 
Y-es, Adv. . 
i-es, i-ei,/ . 
i-go, i-gin-is,/ . 
i-l-a-go, i-1-a-ginifl,/. 
i-l-i-go, i-1-i-ginis,/, 
i-lis, i-le 
i-Ub i*le 

Digitized by 




i-lis, i-le . • , 

il-lo, il-Iare, 1. 


(il-)lus, (il-)li, TO. 

i-ma, i-msd,/, 

l-men, i-min-is, n. 

i-mentum, i-menti, it, 

i-mas, i-ma, imam 

i-mos, i-mi, m. 

i-na, i-nsB,/. 

i-na, i-nae,/ 

i»nOp 1-nare, 1. . 

i-nus, i-na^ -inum 

i-nus, i-nai -I -nam 

i-nus, i-ni, m. 

i-nus, i-ni, m. 

Yo, Sre* 3. . 

Yo, Ire, 4. . 

10, ion-is, yi 

i-o, i-on-is, m, 

i-osus, i-osa, i-osnm 

to,lHi . 

YSfl-s, m. andy^ . 

i-s, i-ti-s 

i-sco, i-scSre, 3. . 

i-sso, i-s86re, 3. . 

iBSOylssare, 1. . 

issor, issari, 1. dep^ 

i-tas, i-tat-is,y; 

i-ter, Adv, . 

i-tia, i-tiaB,yi 

i-ties, i-tiei,yi 

i-tim, Adv, . 

Y-tlmiuiy ) 

i-tio, i-tion-is,/. . 

i-ti-8, i-ti-8 . 

i-tims, i- tiva, i-tivum 

i-tius (i-cius) i-tia, i-tium 

i-to, i-tare, 1. 

i-tor, i-tor-is, m. . 

i-tro, i-trare, 1. • 

i-tudo, i-tud-inifl> Jl 

i-tura, i-turse,/. 

i-tns, Adv, . 

i-tus, i-ta, i-tum . 

, ¥-tXma» Y-tlmum 


* 65 

. 132 

. 58 

. 58 

. 39 

. 93 

. 93 

. 39 

. 39 

. 50 

. 50 

. 136 

. 46 

. 46 

. 60 

. 50 

. 119 

. 119 

. 97 

. 88 

. 8a 

. 15 

. 16 

. 52 

. 127 

. 130 

. 131 

. 131 

. 108 

. 138 

. 107 

. 107 

. 141 

. 86 

. 102 

. 52 

. 79 

. 74 

. 124 

. 24 

. 132 

. 108 

. 106 

. 140 

« 42 

i-tufl, i-ti, m, 
i-tfis, i-tu8» m, 
i-tus, i-tuUis,/. 
i-vus, i-ra, i-vum 
ium, ii, n. 

i-x, i-c-is 

i-X, 1.0-18 

la, 1»,/ . 

Latin language, of the 

lentils, lenta, lentum 

Letter changes 

16ns, I5i, m. . 

li-go, li-gin-is,/ 


lo, lare, 1. . 

Inro, Ii, n. . 

Ins, la, Imn 

liui»ll, m. 

ma,maB,/. . 
men,, mln-is» n. 
men-tmn, men*ti, n. 
mina, minsBjf, 
minus* rnXnl^ m. 
me* mOn-le, m. 
mOnYa* mdnYae,/. 
moninm, mdnii, n. 
m&lns, mttli» nu 
mam» mi, n. 
Bftne, ma^ ***"*h • 
miui, mft, m. 

na, n»,/. 
nSuSy nSa, nSum 
ns. Adv. 
nam, nt, n, • 
nns, na, muax 
nas,ni»m. . 

e, ere, 3* 

o, Adv, 

e, dn-Lh m* 

d-lens, ft-lentis 

&-lentus, 5-leBCa,' 5-Ientam 

. 41 
. 104 
. 108 
97, 99, 100 
. 84 
. 54 
. 56 

. 35 
. 1 
. 83 
. 58 
. 115 
. 71 
. 132 
. 67 


















. 83 

. 63 

Digitized by 




(ol.)la,(olOlffi,/. . . 

. 58 

on-ia, on-iae,/. , 

. 88 

ti>nus, ti-na, ti-nnm ' . 

on-ias, on-ii, m. . 

• 88 

tX-nns, tV-na, tl-nnm 

6n-us, 6n-i, nt. 

. 88 

tio, tionis,/. 

or, dr-is, m. 

. Ill 

Um,UB.f. . . . . 

or, 6r-is, n. . ' , 

. Ill 

ti-Tu, ti-TA, tSi^vnat 

5sai, GfMki asnm 

. 82 

tiam, tiiy a. . • 

o-x, o-c-is . . 

. ,54 

tottftre, 1 

ra, rae,/. . 
ris of o-r, re • 

. 35 

. 38 


tra,tr-aB,/. . . . . 


Boot without nom. case 

, 38 

. 135 

-ending . 52 

tr-is, tr-e . . . . 
trix, tr-icig,/ , 
troftrare, 1. 
tram, tri, n. • , • 

rum, ri, n. . , 

. 35 

trus, tr-iis, m. . , 

ms, ra,nim 

. 34 

tudo, tud-inis,/ . 

ruBf rl, m. 

r .35 

turn, ti, n. . . . 

s, Adj. 
s« Subst 

. . .12 

t«&s,ta,tam . . . 

. 13 

tiira,tiir0Bp/. . 

S, ti-s . « 

. 52 

(ttir)-Xo, (tiir)-Ilpe, 4 . 

»a,s8e,/. . 

35, 41 

tas. Adv. . . . 

•eov BoSre, 3. 

. 127 

tiis,tl,m. . . . . 

p-il-lus, s-il-la, s-il-lum 

. 57 


sim, Adv, • 

, 141 

tiis, tiit-is,/. . . 

810, sionis,/. , 
Bis, sis,/ . 

. . . 102 

. 102 

ua,iiae,/. , . . 

eivus, siva, Eimm . 

. 79 

u-bris, u-bre . . . . 

po, sare, 1. . , 

. 124 

ii-cer, or u-cns, u-cre . 

por, sor is, m. 

. 24 

u-cus, u-ca, u-cum 

#so, ssSre, 3. . 

'. 130 

a-cus, ii-ci, m. . . 

s-tram, 8-tri, n. . 

. 24 

u-do, u-din-is,/ . . 

guflSxes, Various Verb* 

a . .133 

ii-go, a-gin-is,/. . . 

8US, sa, sum . 

. 40 

ii-la, ii-l8B,/. . . 
„ „ dim, . 

8US, si, m. . . 

. 35 

fills, SUS,»k . 

. 104 

ii-lens, u-lent-is . 
ii-lentus, u-lenta, ii-lentum . 

ta, t-8B,/. ; . ' . 

. 41, 108 

ii-lis. u-le . . . . 

tftS,tftt-ifll,/ . 

. . . 108 

ti-lo,tt-lftre, 1. . 

^er, Adv. . . 

. . . 138 

ii-lor, ii-lari, 1. dep. . 


. . • 24 

ii-lum, ii-li, n. . . 

ter, tr-i, nu , . 

. . .24 

„ „ • dim. 

t©r or tr-is, tre . 

. . .24, u-la, ii-lum 

ter, tr-is, m. . . - 

. 24 

Il4u8i u-li, m. . . . 

't-Sus, t-Sa, t-8um . 

. 81 

„ ■ „ ' dim. . . . 


. 107 

um, Adv. * . . 

Digitized by 




um, 1. n. 

u-men, u-min-is, «. 
ii-men, tl-min-is, n. 
ii-mentam, u-menti, n. 
ti-mentum, ii-menti, i». 
n-mna, u-mnae,/. 
n-mnus, u-mni, m, 
u-nns, u-ni, m. 
tko, HSre, 3. 
ti-o, ii-on-is, m. 
ur, iir-is, n. 
ur, ur-is, n. 
u-ris, u-r-is,/. 
u-r-nus, u-r-na, u- 
ns, a,iim • 
ns, 1, m. 


us, 6-ris, n. , 
US, S-ris, n. • 
us, ur-is,/. . 
u-tim, Adv, . 
U'tus, u-ta, u-tum 
iius, iia, ilum 

• 111 
. Ul 
. Ill 
. 141 
. 42 

Verbs, Denom. Trans, from Subst 120 

» ,» » >, Adj. 121 

„ M Intrans. „ Subst. 122 

« w I, „ Adj. 123 

▼uSf ▼»« thiii • 2p 

vtiSf ▼!« m 23 

X, c-is,/ 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Latin belongs to that stem of languages which is called, sometimes 
the Japhetic, because of the close affinity existing among the 
several languages of Japhet's descendants; sometimes the Indo- 
European, from those portions of the world in which the chief 
branches of his descendants are located, — viz. India and Europe. 

In many respects the Latin exhibits a close resemblance to the 
Greek language, especiallj to that most ancient form of it known by 
the name of the ^olic Dialect. This arises from the extreme coast 
of South Italy having been early colonised by Greeks. To such an 
extent indeed did this colonisation prevail, that the district of country 
where they settled was called Magna Gracia, It is, therefore, no 
matter of wonder that words should be found in the Greek and 
Latin languages almost identical: as, Greek, irarifjo, fiiirrip, Xiufy, 
yivoQy ^apTTiy flrcVctirt, viwepi : Latin, pater, maters leo, genus, charta, 
sindpiy piper. In some words s represents the aspirate of the Greeks : 
as, Greek, c£, virip ; Latin, sex, super. Further, v at times repre- 
sents in Latin the digamma (f) of the Greeks; i.e. that sound, 
something like our v, or perhaps^ which in the earliest period of the 
Greek language was pronounced before every syllable beginning with 
a vowel ; thus, Greek, ic, ohoc : Latin, vis, vinum. Moreover, in many 
words of Greek origin y represents the Greek v : as, Greek, vfipoc, 
^Yfxiiv, *0^vff(reve 2 Latin, hymnus. Hymen, Ulysses. 

The main cause, however, of the resemblance and connection of the 
two languages is their common affinity to the Sanscrit, which is con- 
sidered the most ancient of the Indo-European stem. And if this is 


Digitized by 



evident in their Boots, it is no less so in the Suffixes employed in 
each of them. The Saffixes of the Latin are alone treated of here. 

What has jnst been said respecting the connection of the Latia and 
Greek languages with the Sanscrit, is not to be regarded as intending 
to conyey the idea, that the ancient Romans and Greeks were ac- 
quainted with what is here considered the parent tongue of the 
Japhetic race. They knew no more of it, than do the modern 
nations of the same wide-spread family. But that connection does 
go far to establish this as a fact — that the Japhetic race, wherever 
they have gone, have carried with them certain elements of language 
which eyidence their mutual relationship, and prove that their several 
tongues have all one common origin. 

In the following pages Sanscrit and Greek roots are occasionally 
given, with the view of elucidating what has been advanced respect- 
ing the close connection of Sanscrit and Greek with Latin. 


S, Sanscrit. 

Gr., Greek. 

V, Root. 

-h, add. 

8=s, equal to. 

«c., scilicet 

obsol., obsolete. 

Primitive, the word from which another is obtsdned. 

Forms in small capitals, in the formation of words, denote Roots ; as, 
AM. root of amo ; fav. root of faveo. 

Forms in common Italic, spaced, represent Themes: as, amo, theme of 
amo ; amato r^is^ theme of amator, 

Latin forms in square brackets, as [defend'ior]^ do not exist ; thej are 
given merely to point out the process of formation. 

Explanations in English, which show how a Latin word corresponds with 
the English term assigned to it, are inserted in square brackets : as, ardlrtm 
[the accomplisher of ploughing], plough ; pometum [the thing supplied with 
fioiit trees], orchard. 

In explanations enclosed in square brackets, [ ], the term " one " 

is employed of living beings ; the term *' thing,** of whatever is inanimate. 

Digitized by 




I. Suffixes'*' are certain etymological elements found at the end of words, 
containing in themselves a particular power, which they impart to all words 
into the composition of which they enter. Thus, the suffix -t» has a present- 
participle power, equivalent to the English 'ing ; and this power is found 
in all words formed by means of it : as, parc-t(«, spar-tn^ ; vag-t£5, wander- 
ing ; coqu-iw, the cook-ing one, cook ; merg-u«, the plung-ti^ one, sea-gull. 

Obt, Suffixes are either Primary or Secondary. Primary Suffixes are 
the original or first forms of the Suffixes. Secondary Suffixes are modifications 
of the Primary, from which they are obtained by letter-changes, elision, or augmentation. 

N.B. In all words capable of inflection, the suffix is that part of the word which alon« 
is inflected. 

II. Roots are either Primary or Secondary. 

1. Primary Roots are parts of language, containing in themselves a 
particular meaning, and from which words, as it were, spring up. They are 
always monosyllabic : as, am. V of amo ; mom. ^/ of moneo ; kbg. V of 
rego; aud. V of audio. 

a. Secondary Roots are those which belong to verbs which have been 
obtained through composition: as, judic. V of judico ssjus + dico; con- 
SEQU. V of conseqvor = con + $equor, 

N.B. The meaning of roots, whether primary or secondary, pervades all words formed 
from them, or from their derivatives. Thus, the meaning of v ^^' (^> that of 
"love*') prevades, (a) words formed immediately from itself, as, am-o, to love; AM-or, 
love ; AM-tcM, loving — hence, a friend : (b) words formed from its derivatives, am- 
a-toTt lover ; AM-a-<rur, she who loves ; AM-a-^ a loving ; am- a lUKt, lovely ; am-oM/S- 
ter, in a loveable manner; AM-ator-cu/tM, a little lover; AM-ic-Y^to, friendship. So 
again with ^JUDIO. (judge): judic-o, to judge; JUDic-tum, judgment; judic'V-o/m, 
belonging to judgment In the foregoing instances the respective forces of the roots 
AM. and juDio. are distinctly traceable. 

in. The Theme is that portion of a word which is common to the whole 
of it afler the terminations of inflection have been withdrawn. 

Themes are either Nominal or Verbal. 

1. A Nominal Theme is the Theme of a Noun: i.e. of either a Substan- 
tive or an Adjective. Thus, mus is the Theme of the substantive mwa; for 

♦ ** Fixed on at the end ; "— firom tuffigo. 
B 2 

Digitized by 



it is common to all its cases after the terminatioiis of inflection have been 
withdrawn : as, mt^-a, mii«-e, inii«-am, etc. In like manner ban is the theme 
of bonus : as, 5an-us, ^oii-a, ^on-um ; 5an-i, ban-n, bamA, etc. (For Verbal 
Themes see below.) 

The Themes of Substantives are given in the following pages according to 
the forms commonly exhibited in Latin Grammars. It must, however, be 
remarked, that the usual mode of inflecting substantives is the result of 
certain changes and contractions. An explanation of these is now given as 
far as they aflect the Genitive case ; for that is all that needs illustration for 
the purpose of the present work. 

1st Declension. 

2nd Declension. 

Kom. tnola. 
Gen. mola-i, 


Nom. domin5'Sy 

Gen. domind-iy 

3rd Dec 


Nom. torqui-St 
Gen. torqui-%'8, 

Nom. nube-Sy 
Gen. nubg-i'S, 

4th Declension. 

5th Declension. 

Nom. gradu'Sj 

Gen. gradU-U, 


Nom. ri'S, Nom. acie'ty 
Gen. rH'U Gen. acie-i. 

Hence it is seen that a vowel ends the theme of a substantive in each de- 
clension — ^viz. a in the 1st declension ; o in the 2nd; fin the 3rd ; u in the 
4th ; e in the 5th. Moreover, in some forms of the 3rd, e is used for i; and in 
some of the 5th, two vowels occur at the end of the theme. In such forma- 
tions of the 3rd declension as (frauds) fraus, fraudis ; (duc-s) dux, ducts ; 
imbery hnbris, etc., the vowel is dropped from the theme in the nominative 

N.B. 1. Whenever reference is here made to this the original theme of sabstantives, 
it is called the ** imcontracted" or ** nnelided** theme. 

N.B. 2. The above remarks are equally applicable to adjectives. 

2. AVerbal Theme is the Theme of a Verb. It is obtained by adding 
to the Boot in'the 1st conjugation, a; in the 2nd, e. Verbs of the third do 
not have a vowel added to the root, and hence have no theme, as distinguished 
from a root. 

VerbalThemes demand particular notice. In the 1st, 2nd, and 4th 
conjugations, and also in such verbs of the 3rd conjugation as end in ib, 
the terminations of the present tense (of which alone there is now need to 
speak) are formed more or less by contraction. 

Digitized by 



The terminations of all the persons of the present tense are exhibited in 
any verb of the third conjugation of which the root ends in a consonant or 
t«. Thus, reg-o, reg-if, reg-t7; reg-imtM, reg-il^,reg-uii/; flu-o, flu-»f, flu-tY; 
flu-imtM, flu-Sif, flu-ttii/. 

am-d-o, onto, 
am-it-is, asnaSf 
am-it-it, canat, 
am'H-imut, amamtw, 
am'&'ltUf amdtis, 
am-H-unt, amant 

vtOH'^-it, monet, 
moH-if-%mu9f monemui, 
mori'S-itis, monetis, 
num-ff-unt, monent. 


aud-i-it, audit, 
aud'iAnuu, audimui, 
iwd-X'Xtis, audUU, 

Thus the verbal themes are found to be, in the instances mentioned above, 
am-a, mon-e^ aud-t; all with a short final vowel. 

N.B. As a root is most easily discoverable from a verb, it is nsual, but merely for the 
sake of simplicity and perspicuity, to refer to the verb all words formed from the root 

IV. Words are either Simple or Compound. 

1. Simple Words are made up of roots and suffixes, as,FAV-or, KOrmen ; 
or of themes and suffixes, as, sarri-tor^ vena-bulum. (See also below, Nos* 
VI., VII.) 

2. Compound Words are explained below at No. XVIII. 

V. That part of a word to which the suffix is attached, whether it be 
root or theme, is called the Base. The name Base is given to it, as being 
the foundation on which the word itself is built up. Thus, fav is the base 
o£fav'Or; ag^ of ag-men; sart% of sarrt'tor; vena^ of vendhulum. 

N^, 1. The base of simple words remains unchanged throughout the whole of the 
process of inflection, except in a few instances of the Perfect Tense, etc., of Verbs, where 
reduplication takes place. 

N,B, 2. A Simple Base is the base obtained from a simple word. A Compound 
Base is the base obtained from a compound word. A Compound Nominal Base is 
the base obtained from a compound word, of which the second member is a Noun. A 
Compound Verbal Base is the base obtained from a compound word, of which the 
second member is a Verb. 

VI. Between a base ending in a consonant and a suffix beginning with a 
consonant, a vowel is sometimes inserted for the purpose of connecting them 
together. This is called a Connecting Vowel: as, lat-i-bidtun ; mon-i-tor. 

Vn. For the sake of the sound, a consonant— termed a Euphonic Con- 
sonant — is sometimes placed between the base and the suffix, or connecting 
vowel and the suffix: as, ItM-trunij mon'S'trum; luC'e'T^na^ hodt-e'r'ntUy 

Vm. The Connecting Vowel is usually i; as, UO-Ubulum; sometimes v, as, 
doC'U'Tnentum ; more rarely e, ta^fen^e'S^tra. 

B 3 

Digitized by 



IX. A long connecting vowel is sometimes found, especially before the 
Suffixes ius and turn belonging to adjectives and substantives : as, ans-a-'ius ; 
galer-i'ttts ; aat-u-tut ; pom^e-tum. From this remark, however, must be 
excluded adverbs in tus, because their suffix has a different origin : ccd-i-tus ; 

X. The short vowel at the end of verbal themes is made long before a 
suffix beginning with a consonant : as, amd^ amdiar; audi, auditor ; flu, flUmen, 

XL When a base ending in a consonant is followed immediately by a 
suffix beginning with a consonant, the final consonant of the base is fre- 
quently thrown out : as, lu-men for luc^men. 

Xn. When a base ending in two consonants is followed immediately by a 
suffix beginning with a consonant, sometimes the latter of these two conso- 
nants is thrown out: as, ffd^men for fulg-men; mr^tor for sarc^tor; 
sometimes the former : as, potes-tas for potens'tas ; egestas for egens-tas, 

Xm. When a base ending in u is followed immediately by a suffix begin- 
ning with a consonant or a single vowel, u remains unchanged, tis^flu'men^ 
flu-i»dtui hut before a suffix beginning with two vowels u becomes uo, as, 
fluv'ius for flu'ius, 

XIV. When a base ending in v is followed immediately by a suffix begin- 
ning with a consonant, v is usually thrown out, if it be preceded by a vowel : 
SLS, fO'inejUum for fov-mentum; but if v be preceded by a consonant it is 
changed into u : as, volu^men for volv^men. Before c and t, also, v is changed 
into tt, though preceded by a vowel : as, au'ceps for av'Cep8;faU'tor for fav'tor. 

XV. A succeeding vowel is sometimes assimilated to a preceding one : as, 
seneC'ta for senic'ta ; semeu'tis for semin^tis. 

XVI. In words formed from substantives of the 2nd declension, e is some- 
times inserted before the final consonant of the base : as, minister'tum for 

XVII. Usually, a derived word follows the quantity of its primitive: as, 
ciV'iles from ciV'is; amlC'itia from dmi-cus. Yet occasional departures from 
this rule occur : as, vadium from vad-o : coU^-a from con and leg'O, 

XVIU. Compound words are formed by joining together, according to 
certain rules, particular portions of simple words, or a complete word and a 
particular portion of a word : as, Tum'fragus, part-i'Ceps, pra'Ses, 

1 Compound words are, for the most part, obtained from two simple 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


words, as in the instances cited above. Very rarely are three simple 
words combined together ; yet there are some few combinations of this kind 
to be found in the long compound names in the comedies of Plautus. 
These, howcTer, are employed for the purpose of amusing the audiences, befbre 
which the comedies were acted, by an imitation of foreign nomenclature : 
Vanihquidorw^ NugipolyloquideB^ Tedigniloquides^ and others. See Plautus, 
Persa, 3, 6, 20 sqq. Cf., also, Comm. ad h. 1. 

2L* Some compound words apparently contain the elements of more than 
two simple words : as, perinfimnu, commonefado. But, in such cases, a 
previous composition has already taken place; and these formations are 
to be considered as simple forms employed in new combinations : thus, the 
previously mentioned words are to be divided into per-infirmus^ commone- 
facio^ not into per-in-Jirmus^ cam'fnane'facio, 

3. Compound Words are either Spurious or Genuine. 

a. Spurious Compound Words are those of which the separate mem- 
bers have, each, a distinct grammatical inflection ; and which, though fre- 
quently connected together in writing, are, nevertheless, no less frequently 
written as distinct words : as, respuhlica and res publica ; ju^randum and 
jus jurandum, A word, even, is occasionally found inserted between the 
members, as, rei toHus pubUca, Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 4 ; jurisque jurandi^ Cic. Cael. 
22, 54 ; while the very order is found inverted in jurando jursy Plautus, 
Pseud. 1, 2, 63. Here, also, must be mentioned words, of which the first 
member is grammatically dependent on the latter member ; as, senatus' 
^onsuUumy veri'Similis. In each of the foregoing instances, the first member 
is a genitive case depending on the latter member, and always remaining 
unchanged in inflection. 

b. Genuine Compound Words are those of which the last member 
alone is inflected. 

The first member, or base, of a Grenuine Compound Word may consist of 
(l) a Substantive ; (a) an Adjective ; (3) a I^eposition ; (ft) an Adverb ; 
(5) an inseparable Particle; (6) a Verb. 

N.B, 1. In uniting the base with the second member a connecting vowel is generally, 
though not always, employed, when the base ends, and the second member begins, 
with a consonant: as, magn-i-hquui, tub-i-cen, part-i-cqM; — prin-cepSiCer-vix^ pul- 
cer. But when the second member beeins with a vowel, no connecting vowel is 
used : as, maffn-arnmus, grand-avus. Also, when assimilation, elision, or commuta- 
tion takes place at the end of a base, no connecting vowel is employed : as, col-Ugo for 
con-hgo; ma-vSh * (contracted into malo) for tneig-vSh; eom-pono for con^pono, 

KB. 2. In treating of Genuine Compound Words, the Base alone is here analysed. 

* In early Latin the verb tnavolo occurs in numerous forms, and is very common 
in Plautus. 

B 4 ' 

Digitized by 



(1.) Base, a Substantive. Theme of the substantive prefixed to secoDd 
member, with or without a connecting Towel. 

adi'ifico^to build : odes; ad'htm: md-i'Jico, 

parti'cepsy partaking : .pars ; part 'is: part* Uceps, 

nau'fragusy shipwrecked : navis ;nav'is: nav-fragus ; wm-fragus, 

lapi^^da, stone-cutter : lapis; lapid-is: ...hpid'Ma ; lapircida*, 

(2.) Base, an Adject ive. Theme prefixed to second member, with or 
without a connecting vowel. 

magni'-loqvus^ magniloquent : „.magnus; magU'i: magfi'i'loqtais. 

gratX-ficor, to gratify : .gratis; grat^i: grat't-ficor, 

grand^cBvus^ of great BQQ : grandis^grand'is: „.,grand'<Bvus. 

tnagn'OnimuSy high-minded: ,.,magnus; magn»i: magn^nimus, 

(3.) Base, aPreposition. The preposition is either prefixed unchanged ; 
as in ab'^o, ad-dico, per-infirrmiSf prtB-nomen^ post-pano, sub~inleUigo : — or, 
its last letter is assimilated to the first letter of the second member ; as, 
coUUgo for con-ligo ; al^ligo for ad-ligo ; inteUigo for inter4ego : — or com- 
mutation takes place in one or more of its letters ; as, au-fiigio for ab^fugio ; 
cam'tnisceo for cum'fnisceo ; ccu'tendo for cum'tendo. 

N,B, See letter changes at p. 9, sqq. 

(4.) Base, an Adverb. The adverb is prefixed immediately to the second 
member ; as, befie'fado, hene-volus. 

(5.) Base, an Inseparable Particle. 

a. Dis remains unaltered before c, q, p^ ty and s with a vowel following ; as, 
dis'cedoy dis^quiro, dis'puio, dis^trtbuo, diS'Sentio. The final s is assimilated 
to a following y,* as, dif-fero for dis-fero : — is sometimes retained, sometimes 
rejected, before/ ; slb^ dis-jicioj dis'jungo ; di-judico, di-jugo : — is changed 
into r in dir'imo for diS'Cmo : — before h is unaltered in dis'hiasco; but 
changed into r in dir-ibeo for dis-hibeo : — is rejected before s with a consonant 
following it ; as, di-sto for dis^sto ; di'Stinguo for dis'Stinguo : and also before 
the remaining consonants ; as, di-'bdlo for dis'baio ; di-duco lor dis'dueo ; 
di'gero for dis-gero : di^ldbor for dis^labor; di-moveo for dis'tnoveo; di- 
numero for dis'numero ; di^rxpio for dis-ripio ; di^veUo for dis^vello, 

NJB. Except in dirimo (see above) this particle is not used before a vowel. 

b. Re, in present tense of verbs, remains unchanged before consonants ; 
as, rc-cttfo, rc'/ero, rc'linquo : — becomes red before vowels ; as, red'OrgWy 
red-eo, red-igo, red»undo : — in some perfect tenses of compound verbs takes 

Digitized by 



the first letter of the perfect of the simple verbs ; as ret'tuU and re'ivli ; 
rep'piUi and re-puli ; rep-peri and re^peri ; ret'tudi and rc'tudi, 

c. Se remains unchanged before consonants ; as, se'dudoy se-grego, se^ 
jungo : — occurs (with the addition of d) before a vowel only once ; in 


d. Ve is found only before consonants ; as, ve-cors^ ve^grandie, ve-paUidus, 

e. In = non (only before substantives, adjectives, and participial adjectives) 
has its final letter changed into m before h and />; as, irH'herJns for in'herhis ; 
im-par for in-par: — is assimilated to a following/, w, or r; as, il-lecttu for 
in-lectus ; im-mitis for in-mitie ; ir-reparahilis for in-reparabilis» 

(6.) Ba8e,ayerb. This occurs only when the second member is facto ; 
the base being in each instance the root of a verb, with a short ^ as con- 
necting vowel; as, are^facio; areo^ ▲&., ar-e'/acio: cale-Jacio, caleo, cal., 
caUe-facio: coruue-facio ; constiesco, coNsn., conBU'e-faeio, 

c. The second member of a Grenuine Compound word determines to 
what part of speech the whole word belongs. 

The second member is subject to all the rules of formation by Sufiixes, in 
the same way as simple words are ; while in some instances it further under- 
goes such letter changes as are given immediately below, and which are more 
or less developed in the several chapters on the suffixes. 



A is interchanged with t ; as, latex for litex. In the second member of 
compound words, ft, long by nature, remains unchanged ; as labor ^ dc'ldbor; 
fdma^ in-'famU: — ft, long by position, sometimes becomes e ; as, harhcL^ tm- 
herbis; aptusy in^eptm; arma^ iU'ermis: sometimes t; as, frangOj per-fringo ; 
tangOy con-Hngo : — ft sometimes remains unchanged; as, dmOf ad'omo; 
potior^ com'patior; sometimes is changed to f; as, capio^ con^ipio. 

M is interchanged with v; as, berbex, vervex :«* becomes J9 before a suffix 
beginning with / ; as, scrip-tor for scrib'tor : — at the end of a base, before a 
following/, becomes sometimes «,* as, au-fero for ab-fero : sometimes/,* as, 
of'fero for ob'fero : sometimes g ; as, sug'gero for svb'gero. 

C is interchanged with g: as, Caius^ Oaius ; cycnua^ cygn^; — with K; 
as. Calendar Kalenda; — with q^ (sometimes written fully qu); as, seciUuSy 
sequtOue; — with t; as, inducue, induJUa; — is also obtamed ftom p; as 
oculus from a/ ot. 

Digitized by 



9 is interchanged with /; as, daenma^ laerima : with r; as, meriiUes for 
medidies : with «; as, CkauiiuM, Clauius : with t; as, mendax for m«n/acar .- — 
at the end of a base, mostly becomes # before a suffix beginning with f ; as, 
defend'triXf defens'trix ; daud-tnanj cknu^rum : — is sometimes assimilated to 
the first letter of pronominal suffixes ; as, quip'piam foTqmd'piam ; quic^quam 
for quid^quam, — In words compounded with ad^ when the second meoiber 
begins with a consonant, d is usually assimilated to such final letter ; as, 
CLc^edo for ad-cedo ; txc-cipio for ad'Cipio ; af'fero for ad-fero ; cig^gredior 
for ad-gredior ; as'ium for ad'wm : but when the second member begins 
with s, followed by a consonant, or with gti, d is sometimes thrown out ; as, 
O'Scendo for ad'scendo ; a^sto for ad'Sto ; a^ipergo for ad'spergo ; a-gndius 
for ad-gndtus. 

■ is interchanged with u ; as, venuS'tus for vener^tus : S is sometimes 
changed into d; as, toga for ti^a; pondus for pendus, from pendo. — S 
sometimes represents a ,* as, bUo for balo, — In the second member of some 
compound words ^ becomes f; as, iu'Spicio from iu'speeio; im-pribno from 
im-premo : but usually it remains unchanged ; as, can'ferOj cori'tremo, tn- 

V. When the second member of compound words b^ins with f, the pre- 
ceding letter of the base, if a consonant, b sometimes assimilated to it ; as, 
af'fero for ad'fero; qf-fero for ob-fero; ef-fero tor ex-fero; dif'fero for 
dii'fero : a preceding ft, however, is changed into » ; as, au^fero for ah^fero : 
but a preceding n remains imchanged ; as, tn-^rmtw, in-festus^ in-feUx, 

O is interchanged with c : see letter O. See also letters 8, 9. Also g^ 
at the end of a base, becomes c before a following t, as, rec^tor from reg-tor; 
jtmc-tura from jung'tura, 

H at the end of a root becomes c before a consonant : as, vec'tis from 
VEH. V of veko. So, also, cer-vix (^rzcer^vic-s for cer^veC'S,') 

X. ¥ is sometimes interchanged with u; as, opHmus and opiumus ; maximus 
and tnaxiimus ; VCbet and lubet ; — with a ; as, latex for litex, — Also i is some- 
times changed into e in the second member of a compound word; as, parti^ 
ceps for parH'Cips ; arti'fex for arti'Jix, 

X. See O. 

& is interchanged with d: seeD: — with r; as Pa/t7ta and Part/ta.*— 
assimilates a preceding n; as, td'lus for un-lus; — a preceding </; as, lapil-lus 
for lapid'lus ; — a preceding r ; as, Ubel»lus for liher'lus. 

M is interchanged with n; eum'dem^ eundem:-^ia inserted in some 

Digitized by 



roots fa forming the present indicative, and tbe tenses springing from it ; 
>v/ CUB., cumb-o ; V bup., rump^. 

nr becomes m before b or p; im^beUis for in-beUis ; im-par for in^par : — is 
assimilated to a succeeding 2, m, or r; U'labor for iri'ldbor; im^mdms for iri' 
mdnis ; ir^rmnpo for in-rumpo : — is inserted in some roots in forming the 
present indicatiye, and the tenses springing from it ; as, a/ fib., find'O ; 

O sometimes becomes u ; as, eqvu8 for eqvos (nom. sing.) : — is interchanged 
with an ; as, plaustrvm^ plostrum. See also B. 

P is put for 6 before suffixes in t; as, scrip'tor for scrib'tar : — is assi- 
milated to a following/; as, of'Jicina for op-ficinoy the syncopated form of 
opi'Jicina: — is sometimes inserted between ms and mt; as, nanpn for 
sumsi ; sumptus for sumtua. 

Q is obtained sometimes from Greek v ; qvinque from frevrt ; eqmu from 
tirvog : also from Greek r ; as, que from re, 

JL is interchanged with 8 ; as, Furiiu, Fuaiw ; labor, labos; kon&r, honos: — 
is assimilated to a following I; peUlicio for per^licio : also to a follpwing s ; 
as, dos'suarius for dor-suarius : — is elided in pe^jero for per-jero, 

» is inserted at the beginning of some words formed from the Greek, and 
commencing with an aspirate ; as, sex from U ; euper from ^irtp : — is inter- 
changed with r : see X : — with t ; as, tefuus, ientus ; exptdsor for expultor : 
— assimilates a preceding d; as, as'Sum for ad'sum: — a preceding 6; as, 
jtU'H for jub'ti ;— a preceding m ; as, pres-ei for preni'si : — a preceding r: 
see &: — a following t in suffix ; as, asseS'Sor for asses'tor, 

T is interchanged with c,d: see C, B : — is assimilated sometimes to e ; 
obseS'Sor for obsee^tor: — tt sometimes becomes ss ; as, mie'Sio for mit-tio, 

V. II is interchanged with t; optumiu, opiXmus; camufex^ camtfex : — is 
changed into %; exeUium for exsviium : — before a suffix beginning with two 
vowels becomes uv; SLsJhtv-iiu for Jlu-ius. 

V at the end of a base, is sometimes thrown out before a suffix beginning 
with a consonant ; as, fo^menium for fov-mentam : — sometimes is changed 
into u ; as, volu'inen for volv-men : au-cepe for av-ceps : — is interchanged 
with b : see B. 

Z = w, g8, V8 ; sometimes />«, ta : as, nex = neC'S ; rex = reg-s ; nix = 
,iv'8 ; proximus for propetmua; nixus for niteus : — is interchanged with m ; 
axis, assis ; Ulixes, Ulysses* 

T is used for Greek v in some words of Greek origin ; as, pyrum from irvpov. 

Digitized by 





I. — s. (NoMNATivB Case-ending.) 

1. Adjectives, formed by adding « (a) to Koots, or to Compound Verbal 
Bases, haye, etymologically, a participial meaning, closely allied to that of 
a present participle ; and, hence, denote a quality, of which the etymological 
meaning is descriptive. But adjectives, formed by adding s to (b) Com- 
pound Nominal Bases, signify '^ having** that, which is implied by those 
bases ; or some quality, of which the etymological meaning is descriptive. 

Ob$. If $ can combine with the final consonant of the Base, it is added to it : as, 
truc-8, irux ; partiequ; bnt, if it cannot, the final consonant of the Base is thrown out ; 
as, ctgfnipcM for capripeds ; nUterieon for nUsericords, 

a. TKVC, akin to S. 1 TRUC truc-^=:iruXy [wishing to kill], 

V DBUH, to wish Y fierce, savage, 

to kill : J 

/>ar«, part; Ipari-is 1 [/?arM-cap-«], "I taking a part, 

capiOf to taie : J cap J [^part-t-cip-sjy V participating, 

part-i-cep'S^ J partaking. 

l>. caper, goat ; . . . 1 c a j!i r - 1 1 ... [capr-x-ped's], 1 [having goat's 
pesy foot : jped'is J capr-i-pe-Sy J feet], goat-footed. 

ndsereovy to pity ; 1 miser \ .. [mwcr-t-cord-«], 1 [having a pi- 
ird-is J miser-t'Cor'S l ' 

cor, heart: Jcord-isj miser-Ucors [^ tying heart], 

merciful, com- 

a« In some few instances the case-ending («) is dropped. (Compare No, 
B. 2. below.) 

▼iffiiOfto be alert vigil viffUy being alert, watchful. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

Ch. I.] 



3. In some few words t euphonic is added to the Base, as appears from 
the oblique cases, though it is not seen in the nominatiye singular. (Com- 
pare below, No. B. 3.) 

to survive : 


. SUPERSTA . . . [superstO'^s^ , ' 
isupersti", ~ 

to-*], I 



1. Substantives formed by adding the nominative case-ending, «, to Roots 
or Compound Verbal Bases, have, etjmologicallj (like Adjectives of this 
class), a participial meaning, descriptive of their character ; and signify 
either, actively, a person or thing ** doing" something; or, passively, some- 
thing '* done : ** or else they have a neuter force, and signify a person or 
thing " being** in that condition, etc^ which the primitive denotes. 

iV.J9. For the retention or elision of the final consonant of the Base, see above No, A. 

GB grU'Sy [the one calling out " gr "], 


su sU'Sy [the one bringing forth, Le. 

prolific one], sow, swine. 

PAUC [^fauc'8'\ , 1 [the eating thing], 

fauxj J throat. 

NEC [nec-s 


JUDic r/twfuj-^], 1 [the judging one], 

\judix\, V judge. • 

judex, J 
CER 1 .-^....[c^rwc-*], 1 [the head - carrying 

V Icervex^y V thing], neck. 

VEcJ cervix, J 

voc [yoC'S],' 


DUG [dtiC'S], ' 


[the ruling one], king. 

to call out "gr": 
S. ^/ su, 
to bring forth : 
FAUC, akin to S. 
VBHACy to eat : 

to kiU : 
to judge : 

CER, akin to Gr. 

Kap'O, head ; 
veho, to carry : ... 
to call : 
to lead : 
to rule : 

-5], 1 [the killing thing], 
J J death, etc. 

REa [reg-s'], 


[the calling thing], voice. 

[the leading one], 

The t reappears in the oblique cases. 

Digitized by 




[Ch. L 

NiY, akin to 6r. 
v/^-w, to snow : 

avis^ bird; 

capioy to take :.... 

to deceive: 
to bloom : 
PET), akin to S. 
V^ PAD, to go 2 
to sit before : 


[mr-«] 1 [the snowing thing], 

niXy J snow. 

a v-is 1 [av-cop-f J, 1 [the one taking a 

CAP J [atf-ct/^«], V bird or birds], bird- 

au-cep'S*t J taker^ fowler- 
FBAUD [/rawrf-*], 1 [the deceiving thing], 

frau'Sy J deceit. 

FLOR [yfo»^«]' 

PED [p«d-*l 

PR£SID [pr«w«/-«], 



[the going thing]^ foot. 

[the blooming 


[the one sitting be- 
fore], a guard ; 
alsoy a president. 

}LBG [%-«], 1 [the thing read (to the 
lexy J people)], bill, law. 

1 FRUG LA^'^li 1 [the thing enjoyed]> 

J frU'Xy J fruit of the earth. 

stipOf I STip stip'S% [the things crowded to- 

to crowd together : j gether ; esp. small heaps of 

coin, hence]^ money, pay, gift, 

leffOf to read 
(to the people) 
to enjoy : 

a. In some Substantives the case-ending («) is dropped ; this especially 
takes place in compound words, of which the last member is obtained from 
the Root of a Verb. 

Mnro, akin to S. 
Vhush, to steal: 
ttiba, trumpet ; .. 
cano, to sound:.. 

Mtrs musy [the stealing one], mouse. 

[ft^-t-caw],"] [the trumpet-sound- 



J [ft«6-t-ct«], J iug one], trumpet- 

tub'uceni^ J er. 

tibioy flute ; \tibi'iB \ ,..[/»6t-t-ca»], 1 [the flute-sounding 

J [ 

canoy to sound :... j can 


%%'can\y 1 [ 
i-ca«], I 

f-cen§, J 

one], flute-player. 

* The i reappears in the oblique cases. 

t Not found usually in nominative case singular ; but employed by Varro de Lingua 
Latina, 5, § 182 ed. MiiUer: " stips, ab oroifi^ fortatsey Graco verbo/^ 

t In ttmcen, ¥ is a connecting vowel. Moreover, it is to be remarked that in the last 
syllable of tubicen, the i, obtained from softening down the a of the root can, reappears 
in the oblique cases : ttiifkHn-U, etc. 

§ In tUncen, the second t is lengthened by the crasis of the short t of the base -mth 
the connecting vowel, short i. Here also, as in tubleen, the t reappears in the oblique 

Digitized by 


Ch. L] adjectives and substantives. — Is. e. 15 

aa, to; 1 [odf-^er], 1 [the things carried to 

ffero* to carry : J...GBBJ off-ger, J (a place)], mound, ^rc. 

3. T euphonic is added to the hase of some suhstantives (as well as adjec- 
tives), as- appears from the oblique cases, though it is not seen in the nomi- 
native singular. (Compare above, No, A. 3.) 

equiui, horse ; legu-i 1 . . . . [«5'ttt-^«], "j [the horse-going one], 

^o, togo: J I J [eguus'], V horseman, rider. 

egue-s*, J 

peSy foot; Iped'is 1 ...[pec^t-^*], 

CO, to go: J I J Ipedi'S'], 


cum, together ;.,,,\com 1 [co»lt-^•«], 

eo, togo: Ji J \^comi'S] 


[the foot-going one], 
footman ; foot-sol- 

[the one going to- 
gether (with ano- 
ther)], companion, 

— .- -1 . 

stOy to Stand : jsta J [^aniistas^, 


ante, before ; "^aw^-tfl^ [aitM'-«to-^-«], 




[the one standing 
before (ano- 
ther in rank)], 
overseer, high- 
priesty etc, 
S./>«rtt, around :'J/>art 1 ,..[j9artW-«],1 [the thing going 

eoy to go : 

round :1/>art 1 ...[j^artW-*],*! [the thing going 
J- y [partw], j- around], wall of a 
J I J \ partes, J house. 


Adjectives of this class have, etjmologicallj, a participial gseaning ; and 
denote some quality of which the etymological meaning is descfiptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Boot of Verbs ; but to the 
Theme of foreign Adjectives, or of Latin Compound Nominal Bases. 

06s. The etymological meaning of adjectives in w is mostly active, yet sometimes 
passiye, when their primitive is active; and always neater when their primitive is 
neater. Bat where tne Saffix is appended to foreign adjectival Bases, or Latin Com- 
poond Nominal Bases, the adjective denotes sometimes ** being," sometimes ** having," 
that, which the base implies. 

* In each of the above instances marked with an asterisk, the t and e reappear in 
the obliqae cases, 
t Hence the Greek preposition mps around. 

Digitized by 




CCh. /. 

jvBfOto to join : • 

COM, akin to S. 
VKAtf^ to love : 
brev, akin to Gr. 
fipax'VQy short : 
leVy akin to Gr. 
Xel-f -ocy smooth : 
lev, akin to S. 
laghut light : 

ifiy not; 

barboy beard: 

iUj not; 

arnMy arms : 

eXf oat of; 

terra, land: 

eXf out of; 

animay life : ...... 

unus, one;.... 

forma, form:. 

...juo. jiig-^ [joiningj, continual^ per- 


'com corn-is, [loving], amiable, courte- 
brev breV'is, [being short], short. 

lev lev'is, [being smooth], smooth. 

lev lev-is, [being light], light. 


\ [in-barb'is'], 1 not having a beard ; 

J im-berb'is, J beardless. 
in 1 [in-arm-is'], 1 not having arms ; 

arm-oruml iu'erm-is, J unarmed. 

[«c-ferr-M], 1 [being out of the 



eX'torr-is, J land], banished. 
ex-anim-is, [being out of life], 

un^t-form-is, having (only) one 

form; uniform. 

tenu, akin to S.\tenu. 
tanu, drawn out : J 

tenu-is, [drawn out], thin, fine. 


1. to, 1-s, m. and/. a. Ss, !-•« m. uid/. 

Substantives of this class have, etymologicallj, a participial meaning, and 
denote some person or thing of which the etymological meaning is descrip- 
tive. They signify either, actively, a person or thing " doing " something ; or, 
passively, soAiething " done :" or else they have a neuter force, and signify a 
person or thing " being *' in that condition, etc., which the primitive denotes. 

They are formed by adding tke Suffix to the Boot of Verbs. 

X. torreo, to burn :...TORR ^orr-t«, [the burning thing], fire- I 


trudo, to thrust : trud trud-is, [the thrusting thing], 

pike, etc, 

audio^ to h^9X : aud ,... om^-w], "I [the hearing thing], 

aur-is, J ear. 

Digitized by 


1^ !■■ 

Ch, I.] ADJECTIYES AND SUBSTANTIVES. — ^iu» a, urn. 17 

»f \ TOBQU •« torqu^Uy [the twisted thing], 

to twist : J twisted chain or collar. 

2. imbOf to cover: ...NUB nub-eSy [the covering thing], 

ftincfo, to beat :,..^.*Ti33>. ...,.,„. tud-e^y [the beating thing]i 

veAo, to carry : ,yej>,,.,, veh-es, [the carrying thing], 

labor, to &\ip: lab •••«.,.... lab-es, [the slipping thing], 

^orcf^o^ to be filthy : S09D sord-es, [the filthy thing], filth, 

«^a/eo, to be filthy: @QUAL squal-es^ [the filthy thing], filth, 


»« to breaks KW.. .♦•....... rwp-^*, [the broken thing], ateep 

rock, etc. 

9truOy to construct: stbit slru-eSy [the constructed thing], 

heap, pile. 

Obs, The yowel te is employed sometimes after guttural sounds at the dose of a Base 
for the purpose of softening the pronunciation of the Suffix ; thus, 

anpo, to squeeze: ang,. .,..,,. ,..,., jong-u^k*, [the squeezing one], snak^ 

us* a, mil. 

Adjectives in us, o, urn, are derived from (1) Verbs, (2) Substantives, (3) 

When derived from Verbs they have a direct participial fotce, generally 
active, yet sometimes passive, when the primitive is active; but neuter 
when the primitive is neuter. When derived from Substantives they denote, 
etymologically, the "having" that which their primitives signify ; from Ad- 
verbs the " being in such a condition,** etc., as those adverbs point out ; and 

* The appellation is descriptive of the winding folds with which the snake encom- 
passes, and squeezes, its victim. 


Digitized by 




[Ch. J. 

in each of these cases, they point out some quality, of which the etymological 
meaning is descriptiye. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root of Verbs and the 
Theme of Substantives ; but to Adrerbs without change in them. 

1. solo, to know : sci sct-us, knowing. 

vagoTy to wander:. ..TAG vag-uSy wandering. 

vivOy to live : viv viv-us, living, alive. 

bene, well i ..,.,..,. \bene 1.. benevol-us, wishing well ; bene- 
voloy to wish :....•. J vol J volent. 

magnusy great ;...lma^n-tl. 
/o^ttor, to speak: Jloqu J 

ncrvt^, ship; Iwav-w 

frangOy to break : J frag 


ovumy egg; 

pariOy to bring 

omniSy all; \omn'is 

vagor, to wander : J vag 

omniSy all; \omn-i8 

vorOy to devour :... j VOR 

peSy foot; ^ped'U 

sequor, to follow : . J sequ 


dicoy to point out : 


magn-i-loqU'Uiy speaking great 
things, or in a lofty style ; 

nav-i-frag-usy causing ship- 

0V'i-par-u$y bringing forth eggs ; 

omn~i'Vag-uSy wandering in all 

omn-i-vor-uSy devouring all things ; 

ped'i-seqU'USy 1 following on 
ped-i'S'Sequ'USy J foot. 
ver'i'diC'USy pointing out what is 

true ; speaking the truth ; 


fldo, to trust : fid fid-usy trusted. 

navt^, ship; \naV'is 1.. nau-frag-usy ship -broken; t, c. 

frangOy to break : J frag J ship- wrecked. 

relinquoy to leave 1 reliqu reltqu-uSy left behind, remaining. 

behind : J 

a. eanor* melody : can or 'is .. canor-uSy [having melody], melo- 
€fecor, grace: decor^is ,,, decor-usy [having grace], grace- 
honor, honour * .„ honor-is.,. honor-ttSy [having honour], 


Digitized by 


Ch. I.] ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTIYES. — ii»,l,et<j. 19 

lingiila, 1 lingul'ce.. /i«^«/-tt*, [having a little tongue], 

little tongue : J somewhat talkative, 

ocfor, scent: odor-is odor-uSy [having scent], odor- 
^opor, sleep: sopor'ts,,. sopor-usy [having sleep], sleepy. 

3. super, above : super-tiSy [being above], upper, 

high, above. 

^.B. The adjective interns is not found ; yet it must have existed, as is shewn by the 
diminutive form intendusy which occurs in post-class. Latinity. 

1. nsy t, m, 2. Uf ee* /. and m. 3. um, 1, «• 

Substantives in us, a, or um have, etymologically, a participial meaning, 
and denote some person or thing, of whom, or which, the etymological mean- 
ing is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root of Yerbs. 

Obs. The etymological meaning is sometimes passive, but more commonly active, 
when the primitive is active ; but it is neuter when the primitive is neuter. 

1. cfiquo, to cook : COQU coqu-uSy [the cooking one], cook. 

wt^^o, to plunge Imerg merg-tiSy [the one plunging into 

into water: J water], diver; sea-gull. 

procoy to ask: proc proc-usy [the asking one], wooer. 

sdno, to sound : son son-usy [the sounding thing], 


luceoy to Bhine : LUC luc-tis*, [the shining thing], 

S. Vlup, to rend: lup lup-us, [the rending one], wolf. 

incuboy to lie upon: incub incub-us, [the thing lying upon], 


STOft {crTop)y V 1 STOR [*<or-t«], 1 [the thing spread out] 

of f^erno, to spread V tor-us^y J couch, 

out : J 

• Found only in Ablative Case. 

\ For the rejection of s compare tono, from the Sanscrit Root ttan, to thunder. 


Digitized by 


20 liATIir BU7FIXES. [Ch. I, 

a. AmdOf to hurl :•• .FUND •..•^^» /kiMf^ [the horling tking^* 


nt^y to grind : ifou mdlnt^ [the grinding ^ing], mill 

tego, to cover: teg [^«7-o]> 1 [tbe covering thing"], a 

tS^-a^f 5- covering; (esp. Boman 
J toga). 

«crt^, to write :—»».sCBiB scrU^-aij [the writing one], 


liceOy to offer for 1 Lie ItC'S-a^lix-a'^f [the one offering 

sale : J for sale], sutler, etc, 

advenio, to come to: abtsk. «•%... 4idven-ay [the one coming to ano- 
ther], stranger. 

conutro, to live with : CONVIV conviv-ay [the one living with 

another], guest. 
transfugiOj to flee 1 tbaksfuo.*. transfug-Oj [the one fleeing 
across : J across], deserter. 

ool=co», with;... 1 co/1 coileg~a^y [the one chosen with 

iSffo, to choose:... J leg J another], colleague. 

s. junffo 9 to join : .... jtfG ••. ». jug-^m, [the joining thing], ^oke 

Tftdo, to go:,,.......TAl> .••.... v^cf-ttm §, [the thing gone 

through], ford ; shallow. 

1. vuMf mLf Tiuii. a. ttus, liaf fimii. 3. i-vas« i-va* i-Tiun. 

a. Fbom Verbs. 

Adjectives of this dass have, etymologically, a participial meaning, either 
active, neuter, or passive. Many of them have a force exactly correspond- 

• Compare in Greek, ^6po5 from <fr«lp«. Aoyo« from Xryw, 

f Scriba and lira are perhaps the only simple masculine substantives of this class : 
compare the others above ; also compare, parriddoy parricide ; matricida, matricide ; 
caZicif/a, inhabitant of heaven; !egirupa, law-breaker; indighia, native. Masculine 
substantives formed immediately from the Greek do not invalidate these remarks, inas- 
much as they do not fall under this rule : as, nauta from veturns ; poeta from 99nT^t (for 
irwuTflf ) ; in both of which instances ta ■* tus, 

t In this word the » is euphonic ; compare ycn-c-»-*m, mon-s-trum, etc., in No. V. B. 

§ Compare coUega and v&dum with their respective Bases, and observe how, in each, 
the quantity of the vowels e and a differs irom the corresponding vowel in the Base. 

Digitized by 


CB.L] ADJECTIVES AND 817BSTAVTXYBS. — vu*. va, ▼mn, etc 21 

ing to the force of tke ptrticiples of the verhs from which thej are 
derived. Others again deaote a quality of which the etjmoh)gical meaning 
is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root. 

Obs, 1. The Primary Suffix U «ta ; bat after any other consonanta than r and ^ 
vus ia changed into uus. 

Obs, 2. When a consonant precedes r, vus even here becomes uus. 

Obs. 3. The adjectiyes mentioned in No, 3 take the Coxmecting Yowel t before the 

l.protSro, to tramplel ...PBOTEB ... proter-vus, [trampling down], 
down : J oppressive ; wanton* 

9roy to plough : *., «,A«..f. ar-vti^ ploughed. 

a. aMVOfov to sit by ; Assm assid-uusy [sitting by], con- 
stantly at or near* 

congruo, to agrees oongr congr-ius, agreeing. 

contingOy to touch ; contio . ... con%-ttiM, touching; adjoining. 

deeidoy to fall down :...d£CID dedd'uusy falling down; de- 

irrigoj to watery ibbig irrig-uus, watering, irrigating. 

noceoy to hurt : .noc ndc-uus^ hurting, hurtfuL 

occidoy to set: occm occid-HuSy setting. 

restdeo^ to remain 1 ...besid resid-uus, [remaining sitting], 

sitting : J remaining behind. 

vdco, to be empty : vac #• vac^Hus, [being empty], empty. 

coBtlnSo, to hold to- 1 ..CONTiN contin-uuSy [held together], 

getheri J joined; continuous* 

consptctQf to l^hold I ...ooKSPiiC .... conspic-iius, [beheld], visible; 


decidoy to cut down : ....decid decid'UuSf cut down, lopped off. 

irrtgoy to water: ibbig irrtg-uttSy watered, irrigated. 

perspicioy to see 1 pebspic . . . persptc-uus, [seen through], 

through : J transparent. 

<», in ; !••»«> 1 ••• ingen-HuSy [brought forth in 

^CTW), to bring forth:/ gen J (a place)], indigenous. 

9. o&do, to fall: GAD cad't'VUSy falling. 

ndceoy to hurt: nog niks-t-vwy hurting, hurtful. 


Digitized by 



rectdOf to fall back : recid .••• recid-i-vus, falling back. 

vacoy to be empty : ••«... yac ••••••• vac-i-vusy being emptj; empty. 

b. Fbom Substahtiyes. 

Adjectives of this class formed from Substantives, denote the '* belonging 
to ** that which their primitives imply. 
They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme. 

1. anniUf year : ann-i ann^uus^ [belonging to a yearj, 


biSy twice ; 1 Ins 1 [ft w-^-,t7fw], "1 [belonging to twice 

diesyday: J di-e* J Ibi^-vus'], f the day], belong- 

bi-d'Uus\f J ing to two days. 

tresy three ; 1 tr i - um^ \ ..[^trt-dt-vus^, "1 belonging to three 

dieSydKj: J di-e* J [/rt-rf-r«s], j- days. 

2. 8estaa» . 1 ces t a t-is ,,.\^tFStdt't-vus'\,\he\ongmg to Bum-- 

summer: J (Bst-UvuSy J mer. 

tempestaSf 1 te mp est a t'isl[tempestat't'Vus'], ^ belonging to (a 

season : J tempest-i-vusy > right) season ; 

J seasonable. 

festuniy festiYal : ,fest4. fest-UvuSy belong to a festival. 

furtuniy 1 furt'i furt-x-vuSy belonging to theft ; 

theft : J stolen, etc, 

sementis, a sowing :„sement-is,. «emenM-rt<^, belonging to sowing. 

votUMy Yow : vot'i vot-i-vtiSy belonging to a yo w ; 


„ wish: „ vot'l'Vtts belonging to a wish; 


• Old Genitive: thus, dte.,.hora8, Virg. G. 1, 208; see Priscian, p. 780, ed. Putsch: 
die exiremum. Sail. Jug. 21, 2 : dU vesperj id. ib. 52, 3 : Gellius, also, 9, 14, 8, gives die as 
the Genitive of dies, 

t Observe in this and the following word the change ofvua into uus, 

X Only used as Substantive, in neuter, triduum — the word spaiium being understood. 

Digitized by 


Ch. L] ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTXVES, — ^iru«, ▼!, etc 23 

1. iraSf Tlf m. 2. uai u8Bf /. 3. e-r-va* a-r«^8B9 /. 

Substantives of this class have, etjmologicallj, a participial meaning. 
They denote persons or things of whom, or which, the etymological mean- 
ing is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix (a) to the Root of Verbs ; (b) to 
the Theme of Substantives, or to Foreign Bases. 

Ohs. The etymological meaning is sometimes active, sometimes passive, when the 
primitive verb is active ; bat it is neuter when the primitive is neuter. When the 
Base is obtained from a noun, the word denotes ** having ** ** belong^g to," or uttering " 
that, which the base signifies. 

a. From Verbs. 

1. alOf to nourish: alvus^ [the nourishing thing], 


clino^ obsolete ; ' 
akin to Gr. icXtVw, 
to incline : 
Bi, akin to 'PY, 
V' of piuty to flow : 

CLIN [^clin-vus'], \ [the inclining thing], 

cU'VuSy J sloping or rising 

Ri ri-vus^ [the flowing thing], river, 


2. UnffOf to lick : ling ling-ua^ [the licking thing], 

stattio, to set up : ...stat stat'ua^ [the thing set up], statue. 

b. From Substantives and Foreign Bases. 

1. eer, akin to Gr. * 
irep-ac, Lat. cornu, 
horn : 

GOB, the sound 
"cor" or "caw:" 

eer eer-vus, [the one having horns], 


COR cor-vtiSy [the one uttering the 

sound " cor " or ** caw "], 
crow, etc. 

a. noz«, night : nod -is noct-ua, [the one belonging to 

night], night-bird, night-owL 

3. mlB, akin to S. "j mm Min-e-r-va*^ [the one having 

man-as ; Gr. fxiv- > mind], the goddess Minerva. 

o£, mind : J 

* Here e is a Connecting Vowel, and r is enphonic, as in he-e-vna, tab^e'r-na, see 
below. No. XIII. B. 


Digitized by 






1. ter, tra, tmm. 
a. ter, or tris, tre. 

3. e-s-ter, or e-s-trls* e-s-^tre. 

Adjectives in /er, etc., denote, etymologicallj *, either, actively, "accom- 
plishing** or "causing ** something, or "by** or "with** something; or, pas- 
sively, " accomplished** or "caused by*' something; and hence they point out 
a quality, of which the etymological meaning is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Boot of Verbs, or Theme of 

Obs. In e-S'ter, e-s-tria, i-s-ter, e and i are Connecting Yoweb, and s is euphonic. 

1. teBdeo, tol TIED [t6Bd'ter\, 1 [[causing disgust]^ 

disgust : 

2. pftlUSy 

marsh : 

3. eampiuh 

a plain : 
horse : 
wool : 



ft. mannsv 





-fer, I 
'triSy J 

noisome^ foul. 

causing a marsh], 

„p a lu d'is ,»,{jpalud-ter\y 

.tcamp'i camp-e-S'tery 1 [caused by a 

camp-e-s-triSy J plain], level. 

.equ-i equ-e-S'tery 1 [caused by a horse], 

equ-e-s-triSf J equestrian. 

.JaH'a lan-C'S'tris, [caused by wool], 


,.st/lv'{s sylv-e-S'teVy 1 [caused by a wood], 



wooded ; woody. 


1. tor, tSr-Ui, m. 

2. sor, sor»ts,4». 

3. l-^tOTf ¥tdr-ls, m, 
ft. tnu, tr-1is, m. [»ian-t-*-fer], 1 [[accomplishing 

mifi'i'S'tery J with the hand]; 


5. l-t«r, ¥-^tr-ls, m, 9. e««"tra» e-s-tr-flDy/. 

6. l-s-ter, 1-s-tr-l, m, lO. tram, tr-t, », 

7. trlx, tr-lols,/. 11. s-tnun, s-tr-1, it. 

8. tra, tr-»,/. 12. i-s-tnuii« l^a-^tr-!* if. 

Substantives of this class denote, etymologically*, either, actively, " the ac- 
complisher of** that which their primitive signifies ; or, passively, " that by 
which** whatever is implied by the primitive "is accomplished'* or "caused"; 
or, reflexively, one, etc,, who " does something for himself,'* etc, 

• Sanscrit tar or tri** to accomplish." 

Digitized by 


Ch. !•] ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTAKTIVES. — tor, tdr^4», etc 25 

They are principally obtiuned from Verbs, and are formed by adding the 
Suffix to the Root or Theme. 

Some few are formed from Substantives. See below, Obs, 2. 

N.JB, In Aos. 8, 5, 6, 12, t is a Connactiiig ToweL In No, 9 e is a ComiectiBgYowel, 
and in No*, 6, 9, 11, 12, s is euphonic. 

to love : 
to fast : 

a ma amd-tort [the accomplisher of loving^ 

Jejuna, jejund-tor, [the accomplisher of fasting], 

one who fasts. 

lego, to 
bequeath : 
to fish: 
to hear : 
to chatter: 
to hoe : 
largior, to 
bestow freely: J 
to favour ; 
to read : 
to rule : 
to write : 
to patch : 
to hoe : 

leg a «... legd-tory [the accomplisher of bequeath- 
ing], one who bequeaths. 
pi sea.., piscd'toTy [the accomplisher of fishing], 

audi^.,* audUtoTy [the accomplisher of hearing], 

garri... garrx-tory [the accomplisher of chatter- 
ing], chatterer. 
Jsarri.., sarri-^oTy [the accomplisher of hoeing], 
"^largi:, largUtory [the accomplisher of bestowing 
freely], one who bestows freely. 

FAV [yiatr-tor], 1 [the accomplisher of favour- 

faU'toTy J ing], favourer. 

LEG [/«»^-tor], 1 [the accomplisher of reading], 

lec'toTy J reader. 

REG [re^-tor], 1 [the accomplisher of ruling], 

rec'tovy J ruler. 

SCBIB, . . . [scrib'tor]* 

SARC [*arc-tor] , 


[the accomplisher of writing], 

[the accomplisher of patch- 
ing], patcher ; cobbler. 

8ABR ^•.[^sarr-tor^, 1 [the accomplisher of hoeing], 
sar-tory J hoer. 

2. obsYdfio, 

{pby sedeo)y 
to besiege : 
to shave : 

"I oft-SED..[o^«c€f-tor 


•-tor], J- 
f-«or, J 

[the accomplisher of besieg- 
ing], besieger. 

tond'torj,'^ [the accomplisher of shaving], 
tons-tor jy I barber. 
[tons-sorjy | 
ton-sor^ J 

Digitized by 




tCa. t 

to drive out: 
to ward off: 

EXPUL...[eayM/-torJ, 1 [the accomplisher of expel- 
, J 

DEFEND.. \defend'tor\ 


ling], expeller. 
fthe accomplisher of 
fending]]^ defender. 


da ftlVtey 

to favour : 
to advise : 
to beget : 

}PAV fav't-tor, [the accomplisher of favouring], 

HON tnon-t'tory [the accomplisher of advising], 


GEN gen-t'tor, [the accomplisher of begetting], 


Obs. 2. Some few substantives of this class are also formed, in imitation of those of 
verbal origin, from substantives, bj adding the Suffix to the Theme, (a) with a as a 
Connecting Vowel, so as to resemble substantives formed from the first conjugation ; 
(b) with, or without, i as a Connecting Vowel, so as to resemble some of the substantives 
formed from the second and third conjugations. 

a. »gnexy old man: sSn-is: sen-a-tor, senator. 

b. oZtvo, olive-tree : oHv-cb: o^v-l-tor, olive-dresser« 

tanua, house-door : jdnu-a: t J^'***"*'"**] I rwYw^r 

janitor, ) Por«^- 

o/tw, garden herbs: dlSr-U: [^/^r-f-tor], ) kitchen gar- 

ol'i'tor*, j dener. 

ft. tdno, Iton tan-t'trus, [the accomplisher of thunder- 

to thunder : J ing], thunder. 

5. aocipio. 1 ACCiP accip-t-ter, [the accomplisher of taking to 

to take to j- self, or seizing], bird of prey ; esp. a 

one's self : J hawk. 

6. MAO. akin 1 mag {^mag-i'S-ter'], [he who makes himself 

^ venerated], master. 

. MAO. akini : 
to S. v^ I 

MA. t, to j 

venerate : J 

7. amOf 

to love : 
to judge: 

la ma ama-trix, [the accomplisher of loving], 

J female lover. 

^judtca.judtcd'trixy [the accomplisher of judging], 

J female j udge. 

* Compare Sp^fex from dpifrYex, 

t Also, to increase, erescere. 

Digitized by 


CJh. 1] ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTIVES. — tor, tdr-la, etc. 27 


to fish : 
to favour : 
to ward off: 
to drive out : 
to shave : 
to advise : 

pisca... pisca-irix, [the accomplisher of fishing], 
female fisher. 

PAV [JaV'triXy'],! [the accomplisher of favour- 

fau-irix, J ing], she who favours. 
[^defend'trix'], 1 [the accomplisher of ward- 
defens'trixy J ing off], female defender. 
, expul'trix, [the accomplisher of driving 
out], female expeller. 

TOND [tond'trix^, \[the accomplisher. of shav- 

tons'trixy J ing], female barber. 
MON mon-i-trixy [the accomplisher of advis- 
ing], monitress. 



06s. 3. Some feminine sabstantives in trix are formed from Babstantives. Compare 
above, Obs. 2. 

janOa, gate : , 

..janu'ce...lJanu'trix'], \ she who keeps the gate. 
janl'trixy } 

to milk : 
to flash : 

....MULG ....[m«/^-/ra], 1 [that by which milking is 

mulc'tra, J accomplished], milk-pail. 
„..fulge ... fulge-tray [the accomplisher of flashing], 

9. raw, akin to Gr.^ AN, 1 fen . •• • fen-e-s-tra, [the accomplisher of 
^ of 0aiV(ii, to show : J showing], window. 

XO. aro, 

to plough: 
to flash : 
to close : 

to scratch : 
to gnaw : 
ruoy to 
throw up : 

to look: 
to see i 


.*.ara ara-trum, [the accomplisher of plough- 
ing], plough. 
^.fulge... fulge-trutn, [the accomplisher of flashing], 

„.CLAjn>....[claud'trum']i\[the accomplisher of clos- 
claus-trumy J ing], bolt ; bar; etc. 

...BAD [rarf-^rttw], I [the accomplisher of scratch- 

ras'trumy J ing], rake. 

...ROD [rarf-^rwi»], 1 [the accomplisher of gnaw- 

roS'trumy J ing], snout; beak. 

...r« ru-iruniy [the accomplisher of throwing 

up], spade. 

...SPEC spec'truniy [that bj which looking is 

caused], apparition ; spectre. 

VTD [rW-/rtii»], 1 [that by which seeing is ac* 

vi'trum, J complished], glass. 

Digitized by 



1. bePf brat bmnu ' 3. S-ber* or, llbrls« S-bre. 

a. brtflt br«« Ik* ^brt«i C*br«« 

Adjectives in her^ etc., have, etymologicallj, a participial meanings and 
denote some quality of which the etjmoloj^ical meaning is deacriptive. From 
the origin f of this Suffiz, ih^ words formed with it denote either ** the 
bringing about " something, or something ** brought about." 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root of Verbs, or the Theme 
of Substantives. 

Ob8. The e in «-(«r, <»£r£f ; and th« « in «-6rts^ are merely Connecting Towels. 

1. oresoo, 1 CRE ,. crc-Jer, 1 [made to increase], fre- 

to increase : J J quent, numerous, 

* Lengthened to ^t^pMrUim in tha following passage of Petrua DkLconvs de Ortu tt 
Obitu Justorum, 1, imt, ecL Mod : j^snjbdictus , . , in partes cUvifum revmxit C€q)ittmunu 
t Sanscrit bhri, Gr. i>4p^v, Lat. /«r-re, ** to bear," etc. 

28 ulun suffixes. COb. l 

mulgeoy 1 ..^.inJLO ••».»[fii«l^-effti«],l [that by which milking is 
to milk : J mMlcirumy J accomplished], milk^paiL 

Oba. 4. The formation of tfUmm from vidimm is very mmsaal. The ordinaiy process 
of formation woold give viatrmm. Compare /v-fl/is fot fud'ttiU. 

U. »io« 1 LU lus-trum, [the accomplisher of expiating], 

to expiate : J expiatory offering. 

/iuoy Iflu ^Jiu'S'trumy [that by which flowing is 

to flow : J accomplished}, calm flow of the sea. 

mdneop 1 MON« mon^s-trum, [the accomplisher of warn- 

to warn : J i^g]* onaen* 

haurtOy Ihaub... [Aawr-^-^rwrn], 1 [the accomplisher of 

to draw: J haU'S-trum, J drawing], machine for 

drawing water. 

12. oapYo« to 1 CAP. [cap-w-^rum*],[the accomplisher of taking I 

take hold of: J hold of], halter. 

Digitized by 


OblI.] adjectives and fiUBSTANTlVES.— ber,1>r-l,eto. 29 

a. AuMUif death : .fun er-is, \Juner-bri$2y \ [bringing deaHi], 

fune-bris, J deadly, fataL 
fanuBy funeral :...,./«««r-M,[/ttW€r-6rt«], "I [brought about by a 

funi'brisy f funerall funeral.; 
J funereal. 

X, a. alUwi, 1 » 8alut'is,[^8alut'ber^^ 1 [bringing about or 

^ "'^ J salu'ber, I causing ^— '^'^'' 

[salut'bris]y T healthy. 

3. CIEL, akin to S. >/1 cel.„ cel-e-ber, 1 [causing to be called 

CRU ; Gr. fcXv-(i) ; Lat. I cel-e-bris^ \ or spoken of], noted ; 
clu-o, to be called or ( J famous ; celebrated, 

spoken of: J 

k. inffeof to mourn : lug... /tf^-t^-^m,^ [produced or brought 

about by mourning], 
[producing mourning], 


&. ber» br-i, m, ft. bnun* br-1, n, 7. bttlum, blU-i, n, 

a. bra, br-ee,/. S. i^bram, e-br-1, n, 8. Y-btilam, Y-bttl-l« n. 

3. i-brsf S-br-se^/. tf • bttla* biU-ee, m- and/. 9. brium, br-il, n, 

Substantiyes of this class denote, etymologically *, a person or thing 
"bringing," or "bearing" something; hence (more commonly) "effecting*' 
or "bringing aboat." something; also, "serving for effecting" or "bringing 
about " something; and, passively, the thing " brought about." 

They are mostly formed from Verbs, by adding the Suffix to their Root 
or Theme. Some few are formed from Substantives by adding the Suffix to 
the Theme. See Obi. 8. 

Ob». 1. In e-hroj g-brum, the e is a Connecting Vowel, as also is i in i-hiUmn, 

Obs. 2. In the fbnns in bui; I is the representative of r, and u is inserted for euphony. 

1. DMio, 1 FAC \_fac'ber\ \ [the one effecting the 

to make : J fd-ber, J making], workman. 

* Sanfcrit bkri, Gr. ^p-cm^, Lat. /er-rc, « to bear," <fc. 

Digitized by 



a. UOf to make level: •••• li li-bre^ [the thing making level], 

level; scale-beam. 

9. UarOf to rub awaj : .. .teb ter-e-brOy [the thing effecting the 

Tabbing awaj]]» gimlet ; borer; 

lateOf to lie hid : LAT lat-e-bra, [the thing effecting the 

lying hid], hiding-place. 

scateo, to bubble up :.«.SGAT seat-e-brci, [the thing effecting the 

bubbling up], bubbling water. 

*• CSX, (:sitpc) root ofl CRi cri'hrum^ [the thing effecting 

cer-noy to sift : J the sifting], sieve. 

JiOy to blow : .fla fla-hrum^ [the thing effecting 

the blowing], blast. 

ventUoy to winnow : •,,^venttla. ventUd-brum, [the thing effecting 

the winnowing], winnowing 

5. tero, to rub awaj : ...teb ter-e-brum, [the thing effecting 

the rubbing away], gimlet; 
borer ; auger. 

cer, akin to Gr. leer eer-e-6r Mm, [the thing carried in 

fcdp-a, head : J the head], brain. 

tf . r&bo, to rave : ....bab [rflft-iM/a],"! [the one bringing 

ra-bukiy I about the raving], 
I a brawler or petti- 
J fogger. 

fariy to speak : fa fa-bula, [the thing brought about 

by speaking]^ tale ; fable. 

7, stOf to stand: sta sta-bulum, [the thing serving for 

standing in], stall; stable. 
venor, to hunt : vend .... vend-bulum, [the thing serving 

for hunting], hunting-spear. 
t/*oeo, to call : voca .... vocd-bulufn, [the thing serving 

for calling], appellation ; word. 

8. inftindoy 1 .INFX7ND ••• infund-ubulum, [the thing effect- 
to pour into : J ing the pouring into], funnel. 

Digitized by 


Ch. 1.3 ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTITES. — oer, era, cram, etc. 31 

^a^eo, to lie hid : lat lat-t-hulum^ [the thing effecting 

the lying hid], hiding-place. 

9. indo, to mock, e^o. :....LUD lud-t-hrtum^ [the thing eflEect- 

ing the mocking], a jest; 

Ohs, 3. Some few substantives mhrum,hr\um occur which are formed firom other 
substantives ; in these the etymological meaning of the Suffix is clearly shown. Such 

candela, candle: candda-i candela-brum*, [that which bears a candle], 

»>dnu«,hand: ......... m<mt(-i« flnantt-Mum, [that which is borne by the 

hand], handle. 

Obs. 4. Br is the part of the foregoing Suffixes, from which the meaning springs. The 
other letters belong to the various genders. See, also, Ohu. 1, 2. 


1. eer, era, eram. «• Y-cer, "1 • *^^«. 

2. oer or cris, ore. f-crus, J ^ 

3. ti-oer, or ii-oris, &-cre. 6. I-ctUus, Y-ottla, Y-oiUum. 

Adjectives in ccr, etc., denote, etymologically f , "doing" or "causing" 
something; or "being made'* or "caused to be*' something; or "being 
made " or " formed for ** something. 

When obtained from Verbs, they are formed by adding the Suffix to the 
Root; but when from Substantives or Adjectives, to the Theme. 

Ohs, The I and u, before some of the following forms, are merely (Connecting Vowels. 

1. poUo, 1 POL [pol'cer], 1 [made polished], 

to polish : J pul'cevy J beautiful. 

2. acuo, 1 AC \ac'cer], -j 

to make pointed : J 5-cer, I ^ , • ^ jt t 

[oc-cm], [ t™*^® pointed], sharp. 

d-cris, I 
medius, middle : „. medt-i \medio-cris, [made middle], mid- 
[medio-t] J dling ; moderate. 

VOL vol-U'ceVy 1 [made or formed for fly- 

voUi'Cris, J ing], flying ; winged. 

3. volo, 1 , 

to fly: J 

♦ Also with the Suffix hru$, in Petr. S. 75 : hie candelabrus. 

"t" From the Sanscrit kara or kri; whence the Latin creo, ** to create," "make," etc. 

Digitized by 



ft. luttiaSf 1 ^iud'i lud-t-cevy 1 causing spxxrt ; that 

sport: J lud'CcruSf f serves for sport; 

J ludicrous. 

B.riaeo, to laugh:......BlD rid-i-ciilusy [making to laugh], 



X. mnLmfCr^m, ft. I««ttliiai» l-oia<4f ik 

a. ore, er-tef «. 6. ouliuh oul-i, m. 

3. ofilnm, otklpiiy n, 

Sabstantives in crtcm, etc^ denote, etjmologically*, that which '' makes " 
or ** causes to do" something; or, that which "is made" or "caused;** or, 
that which " serres for ** something. This latter is their prevalent force. 

They are formed by adding the respective Suffixes sometimes to the 
Theme, sometimes to the Boot of the Verb. Occasionally r is used as a 
Connecting Vowel. 

Ob$, 1. In crum and ere the letters or are the |>art of the saffix out of which the 
meaning arises : urn and e are merely terminations of neater gender. 

Obs, 2. CS/ttm springs firom erum, by changing r into A and by the insertion of the 
vowel « between c and I : cuius is merely the masculine form of culum. 

&• InTolvo* to wrap in: iNVOLV....[»n»o/r-crMw], 1 [that which 

involU'Crum, I serves for wrap- 
j ping in], wrap- 
J per. 

sepettOy to bury 1 septtl .... sepul- crum% [that which serves 

for burying], sepulchre. 

luo, to paj: LU lu-crum, [that which serves for 

paying], gain. 
amhuloy to take a walk :. ambula* ambula-crum, [that which 

serves for taking a walk], 

/at7o, to wash : laviu,^. lavd^crum, [that which serves 

for washing], bath. 

2. UiTolvo, to wrap in : .,....iNVOLV.,..[int7o/r-crc],"| [that which 

involu'crcy > serves for wrap- 
J ping], wrapper. 

* From Sanscrit hara or hri, whence Latin creOt ** to create," etc. 
I For the insertion of A in words, see Gellios, 2, 8. 

Digitized by 


Ch. 10 ADJECTIVES AND SnBSTAKTiy£S.--enim,crl,etc. 33 

S. mlroTf to wonder : mira • • • mira-culumy [that which makes 

to wonder], miracle. 

cceno^ to sup : coRna •« • ccRna-culumy [that which serves 

for supping], supper-room. 

ffvbernoy to steer :.... guberna guhema* culumy [that which 

serves for steering], rudder. 

piOy to appease: pia ...,.• pid-culumy [that which serves 

for appeasing], sin-offering. 

/cro, to carry : fer » fer-culumy [that which serves 

for carrying], bier ; barrow. 

operioy to cover: oper oper-culum, [that which serves 

for covering], cover. 

BA=BA, v^ of /3acvuf, 1 BA ba-culumy [that which serves 

to go : J for going], walking-stick. 

PO=nO, >v/ofirotti(ob-l PO po-culumy [that whic 

sol.), to drink : J for drinking], cup. 

«• ovunbo to lie 1 CUB etib-uciilum, [^thvit which serves 

down : J for lying down], chamber. 

everroy to sweep out : ...kverr.... everr-i-culuniy [that which 

serves . for sweeping out], 


vehoy to carry: »....veh veh-t-culum, [that which serves 

for carrying], carriage ; 

5. BA ^ B A, v^ of (iaiywy 1 BA • ba-culuSy [that which serves 

to go : J for going], walking-stick. 

Obs. 3. The following word a derived from a sabstantiv^. The Suffix is added to the 
Theme of the primitive. 

tabemOf hut: taberna-i ...tabema'Culum, [that which serves 

for a hut], tent. 

N,B. The foregoing word affords an instance of a Soffix added to a Suffix : viz. 
tabertM'Cultan, from tabema ; while tab-ema is obtained by the Suffix ema being added 
to the Boot TAB. See No. XIII. B. S. 

Digitized by 




[Ch. I. 


Xa mSf T9L, nulla 
a. e-r* rat mnu 
9. e-r* h-m. 

5a t-fr^mSf t>A"raf t^->niiii« 

Adjectives of this class have, etymologicallj, a direct participial force, 
and denote a quality of which the etjinological meaning is descriptive. 
They are formed by adding the Suffix to Roots or to the Boot of Verbs. 


.CAM [rflriii-r»/«],l loved; dear 

1. S. ^/ . 

to love : J ca-ruSf J 

/)/eo, tofill: PLE ple-ruSf filled; full 

S. a/ PIT 

to purify : 

GNA, akin to gnosco, 

to know : 

...pu pU'TUSy purified; pure. 

...GNA gnoTUSf knowing. 

2. In* not; 1 1 [tWa^-rt««],l untouched; en- 

tanffo, to touch : J tag J \integ-rus\y I tire. 


to be reluctant : 

'mteg'r]y T 
integ-e-r, J 

1 ...PIG ...[p^-^'w**].") reluctant; un- 



3. libeo s labeo, 

to please one's self 



E/tft-rti*], 1 [pleasing one's 
/tft-r], }- self], free. 

lib-e-r, J 

«• ffSrOy to bear : GEB get' u-lus, bearing ; carrying. 

pateoy to lie open : pat pat-u-lusy lying open. 

stride, to creak : stkid strtd-u-lus, creaking. 

tremOf to tremble : tbbm trem-u-luSy trembling ; tre- 


6t^o, to drink : bib bth-u4u8y drinking, prone 

to drink. 

credoy to believe : cbbd cred-u-ltiSy believing, cre- 

* Hence late Latin Superlative ptjfriiiimtUf Tertull. Hort ad Cast 13« 

Digitized by 


Ch. I.] ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTIVES. — nis, ri, etc. 35 

garrio, to chatter : garr garr»u4usy chattering, 


queror^ to com- \ quer quer^u- lus, complaining, 

plain : J querulous. 

5. S. \/ MA« to increase: ...MA ma-t-u-rus* [increased], 

ripe, mature. 

Obs. 1. The Primary SufSx is ru; « is merely the nominative case-ending. 

Obs. 2. The termination e-r is obtained by casting off the « of rv, and also the 
nominative case-ending s; and by then inserting the Connecting Vowel e before r. 
Compare below, No, IX. A. 

Obs. 8. In it-btSf the u is a Connecting Vowel ; / is obtained by substitating one liquid 
for another : viz. / for r. In t-u-rus, u is a Connecting Vowel, and t is euphonic. 


1. rusv rl, m. 6. e-r* ^rl« m. 11. tonif li« %. 

a. ra, rsB,/. 7. sua. sl« m. &a« tk-lus, ift-U, m. 

3. nmiy rif n, 8. sa, see,/. 13. ift-la, tU8e«/. 

6. £-ra, S-ree,/. 10. la* leeij'. 

Suhstantives in rus, etc., have, etymologicallj, a participial force, and 
denote a person or thing of whoni, or which, the etymological meaning is 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to Roots. 

Obs. 1. The Primary Suffix is r«; s is merelj* the nominative case*ending. 
Obs. 2. In ?-nM, S-ra, e is a Connecting Vowel. 

Obs. 3. The termination e-r is obtained by casting off the « of nc, and also the 
nominative caae-ending s, and by then inserting the Connecting Vowel e immediately 
before the r. 

Obs. 4. In «if«, flo, r is represented by the s. 

Obs. 5. In lus, la, Itan, one liquid is substituted for another : viz. Iforit. The same 
change takes place in u-lus, ^-lot U'lum, in each of which instances the u before the 
Suffix is a Connecting Vowel. 

1. SfVir, akin to MYN, 1 mun Imun-rus^y 1 [the thing warding 

V of a-fxvy'€iy, to 1- mu-ruSy J off], wall (of city)* 

ward of: J 

2.8600, to cut: SEC [5ec-ra], 1 [the cutting thing], 

ser^rOy J saw, 

* From an obsolete elided form, nuUvr, is obtained the superlative maturrimus^ 

D 2 

Digitized by 




[Ch. I. 

to chew : 

to mount ; 

}HAND [Af€im/-2a], 1 [the chewing things, 
[fnan'la]^ f jaw. 

1 SCAND .... [^scand'la], 1 [the mounting thing], 
J L*^^''-^]* f ladder, stairs, etc. 

3. fnleio, 

to support : 
to cut : 

LAB, akin to S. V 
^ of \aiifiavia, to 
take : 
\ to be amazed at : 
FLAG, akin to Or. 
nAHr, ^/of TXiiirtrtay 
to strike : 

FtJLC fulcrum^ [the supporting thing], 

SCALP scalp-rum^ [the catting thing], 


LAB foft-nwM, 1 [the taking thing], 

J lip ; yeesel for liquids. 

STOP ««.««. stup-rufHy [the thing amazed at], 

debauchery, etc. 
FLAG-,— ^. flag-rum^ [the striking thing], 


4. PIT, akin to S. v^PA, 1 pu pu'e-rtcs*^ [the fed one], boy, 

to feed : J son. 

6. PIT, akin to S, ^/ pa, 1 pu pu-e-ra f, [the fed one], girl. 

to feed : 



tf . scalpo» to cut : soalp...... ^oa/p-e-r, [the cutting thing], 


7. PIT, akin to S. a/pa, 1 pu pulsus J, [the fed one], boy, son. 

to feed ; J 

8. PIT, akin to S. V pa, 1 pu pu-sa J, t*he fed one], girl, 

to feed : J daughter. 

9. cirpv, the natural Icuou cucu-lus^ [the one uttering the 

sound, " cucu : " J natural sound "cucu*'], cuckoo. 

* N<m est tamenignorandMmf quod etiam hie 9 . . . vehuiUwni pri^uime 
inveniuntury Priscian, 6, p. 477, ed. Putsch : i,puere. Plant Asm. 2, 8, 2. 

t Antiqtd puellas puerde dic^bantf Suet. Calig. 8. 

i Dice iUampusam .* • . • ]!Tam vere putus iu, Eimius as. Varro de LingnS 
Latina, 7, § 28 ed. Mttller. 

Digitized by 


Ch. L] adjectives and substantives. — ni», ri, etc. 37 

XO« sedeoy to sit: ...•••.. .SED f f^ef-Za], 1 [the sitting thing], 

sel-la, J chair. 

XX. Tineioy to bind : TIKC vinc-lumy Qthe binding thing], 


X2. oinro, to gird : cmG cing-u-lus, [the girding thing] , 


^ngoy to form : fig Jlg-u-hiSy [the forming one], 

oc, akin to Gr. OXI,*) 00 oc-u-lus, [the seeing thing], eye. 

\/ of ObSOl. OV'TOfJiai, 

to see : 

1,1 ( 


&3« r«flro» to rule : .........beg reg-ii-ia, [the ruling thing], rule. 

iego, to cover : teg teg 'ii-la, [the covering thing], tile. 

mus, mouse :...! mu r'is..Smurcap'U-la], 1 [the mouse-tak- 

capiOf to take J oaf Imuscap-U'lajy V ing thing], mouse-* 

mwcip'U'la, J trap. 

ift.amlciOf to clothe : amio amic-ii'lum, [the clothing thing], 

ctn^o, to gird :' omo cing-u-lum^ [the girding thing], 

muSy mouse ; 1 ......mur-M, 1 rmttrc0/>-ff-/um],1 [the mouse- 

capio, to take: J OAP J Imtiscap'U-lumjy > taking thing], 

mu8c%p-u-lumy J mouse trap. 
spedoy to behold :...... speo spec^u-lumy [the beholding thing : 

hence that which serves for 

beholding one's self], mirror, 
^e^o, to cover : «.. teg ieg-u-lum, [the covering thing], 

vtnctc^, to bind : vino vinc-u-luniy [the binding thing], 


Ohs. Substantives of this class, obtained from other sabstantives, are not common. 
They denote the ** having," or ** being made of" or " with '* that, which their primitive 

They are formed bv adding the Suffix to the llieme. 

lanay wool: lan-a lan-g-rmn, [made of wool], 

woollen garment. 

md,honej: , mtll-it [m«tt-fa],) [made with honey], 

fnel-lOf } honey-water. 

D 3 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


1. rlSf or e-r, re. 2. 6-rl«, or e-r, ft-re. 

Adjectives of this class have, etymologically, a participial meaning ; from 
which is obtained some word denoting a quality, of which the etymological 
meaning is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to Roots, or to the Root of Verbs. 

Obs. 1. Words of this formation are very rare. 

1. piittev to Stink: put put-ris, stinking. 

>, 99 99 />t/^-e-r, stinking. 

2. cello (obsoL), to 1 ...cel cel-e-ris, [put in motion], swift. 

pat in motion : J 

„ „ „ ce/-€-r, [put in motion], swift. 

Obs. 2. The Primaiy Suffix is ri; s is merely the nominative case-ending; and the 
? in ^ - r t < is a C!onnecting YoweL 

Obs. 8. The termination e-r is obtained by casting off the i of the Primary Suffix, riy 
and also the nominative case-ending s, and further by inserting e, as a Connecting 
Vowel, before r; &a, ptit-ri$t put-e-r. Compare above, No, VIII. A. Obs. 2. 

1. rto, rl-s,/. 2. A-rU, fi-rlHh/. 

" Substantives of this class, when obtained from other Substantives, signify 
something "having" that — from Verbs, the ** doing" that — which their 
primitives imply. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of Substantives, or 
the Root of Verbs. 

1. aoles, edge : acteW.... acie-ris, [having an edge], axe 

(used in sacrifices). 

Digitized by 


Ch« L] adjectives and substantives, — miui,ma«miiiii« etc. 39 
2. seoo, to cut S£0 

Obs. In U'lity tt is a Connecting YoweL 

;• seoo, to cut S£0 sec-u-ris^ [the cutting thing], 

axe, hatchet. 

Xm miui, m»f mum. 2. i-nnuif i-m»f i-mmn. 

Adjectives in mus^ when derived from Verbs, have, etymologically, a 
participial force, and point out a quality of which the etymological force 
is descriptive. When derived from Substantives they denote the " having " 
that which their primitive denotes. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root of Verbs, or the Theme 
of Substantives. 

N,B, Words of this class are few in number. 

&. alo, to nourish: al aZ-muv, nourishing. 

fero, 1 FBR [/er-mi«], 1 [bearing], 

to bear : J fir-mu9y J strong. 

ferveoy \ FEBV f/erv-ww*], 1 warm. 

to be warm : J \^fer-mus\ V 

for-mus, J 

2. mater, mother : , mat r-is matr-i-muSf having a mo- 
ther still living. 

pater, father : ^.pat r-is patr't-mus, having a father 

still living. 


1. mnMf ml* m. 4. V-miis, X^mU m. 

2. ma, m»,/. 5. l-ma* V-mae,/. 

3a mum, mi, w. 

Substantives in muSy etc., are derived from Verbs, and have, etymo- 
logically, a participial meaning ; and hence, in a derived force, denote some^ 
thing of which the etymological meaning is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root. 

N.B. Words belonging to this class are not nnmerons, and their roots are, for the 
tnoet part, uncertain and obscure. 

i.Pir, akin to 6Y, rootl ...FU ..♦. /u-mus*, [the rushing thing], 

of dviif, and S. /v/ }- smoke. 

DHtr, to rush : 


* The Sanscrit word is dhu-tna$. 
J> 4 

Digitized by 



a. iXAihakin toGr. 1 ....flag IJ^og-tna']^ 1 [the burning tliixig]^ 

^Xcy-'i'ytoburn: J jfiam-ma, J flame. 

/arty to speak : fa ,,.. fa-tna [the spoken thing], 

talk ; report. 

gluboy \ GLUB [^/ti6-m£i], 1 [the pealing off 

to peal off: J glu-ma, J thing], husk ; sbelL 

S. /v/ LU, to cut : LU lU'ftMj [the cutting thing], 

„ „ lu'tna, [the cut thing], kind 

of cloak. 

«puo, tospit: spu spu-mOy [the spit thing], 

foun^ eic, 
struoy to Tsise : stbu stru^ma, [the raised thing], 

(scrofulous) tumour. 

3. pMMo, to feed ; akin 1 ... 
to S. -v/PA, to nourish : J 


. . [pa-mum], 1 [the nourishing 
pd^mum, J or feeding thing], 

4. S. >v/AW. to blow! ...AN 

or breathe : J 

.... an-i-mtiSy [the blowing or 
breathing thing], the vital 

5. S. Ji/ JLV, to blowl ...AN,, an-t-ma, [the blowing or 

or breathe : J breathing thing], air ; breath. 


1. tns, tftf tmicia 

2. dus, da, dmn. 

3. Y-dQS, 1-da, Y-dnm. 
ft. SOS, sa, sum. 

Adjectives in tus, derived from Verbs or Boots, have, etymologically, a 
participial force, and denote a " quality " or " condition " akin to the mean- 
ing of their primitives. Some few are derived from active verbs, and have 
an active, and some a passive force ; but, generally speaking, they spring 
from neuter verbs, and have a neuter force. 

They are foi*med by adding the Suffix to the Hoot. 

Digitized by 


On. 1.3 ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTIYES. — ^tiu,ta«tiim, etc. 41 

06s. The Primary Soffix is tu, s beiug the nominative case-ending. From this dus 
and 9U8 are obtained by changing ttod and *, respectively. In i-dut, f is a Connecting 

X. feroy to bear : fer fer-tus, bearing ; fertile. 

scio, to know: sci sci-tusy knowing; wise. 

2. nud, akin to San-1 nud [nud-dus^ "{[made ashamed; 

scrit nadshy to be j- nu-dus, J hence,] naked, 

ashamed : . J 

fero, to bear: fer [J'er-dus], 1 bearing, pregnant. 

for-dus, J 

3. alffSoy to be cold: «alg .^MMlg-t-duSy cold. 

areoy to be dry: .^ ar ar-t-duSy drj. 

eaUoy to be hot:... gal xsaUl-dHSy hot. 

frigeoy to be cold: prig .frtgl-duSy cold. 

humeoy to be moist: ...huh hum-i-duSy moist. 

luceoy to be bright: •••luc luc-f-dusy bright. 

madeo, to be wet: ......had mad-Udus, wet. 

paUeOy to be pale: pall .palUi-duSy pale. 

rtibeoy to be red: rub rub-i-duSy red. 

tepeo, to be warm: ....tep tep-t-dus, warm. 

turgeOy to be swollen: turg turg-t-duSy swollen. 

rttplo, to hurry 1 rap rap-i-dus \ [hurried along], 

J J rapid. 

disturbed, confused, 

[turned], scared, 

turhoy to disturb: •••...turb Jurb-i-dus 

TBEP, akin to Greek Itrep trep-t-dus 

t/mV-w, to turn : J 

rapto, to tear: rap rop-t-c/t^, tearing. 

4. fuio, to deceive : fal Jal-stiSj deceiving, false. 

cello (p\)so\.)y toputl CBL ceUsuSy • [pu* ib motion (up- 

in motion : J wards)], high. 


1. tns, ti, in* S«tnm»tl««i. S« 4iiSydiyf». 

a. ta« tae,/. 4. l-tns, 1-ti, m, 6. ia« ■»,/. 

Substantives of this class have mostly an active or a passive force. 

They are formed by adding the Su&l to a Boot, or to the Boot of Verbs. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


1. itbteOf to free : libeb lib^-tus^ [the freed oneJ» freed-* 


a. TlTOy to live: viv [t?it?-to], 1 [the lived thing]]* life. 

ri toy J 

S. mlnoTy to project : Mm [min-tum], 1 [the projecting 

men~tumy J thing], chin. 

S. // LI, to dissolve : ..LI [/e-^m], 1 [the dissolving thing], 

le-tum^ J dissolution, death. 

sou, akin to S. -v/lscu scu^tum, [the covering thing], 

TSHHAD, to cover : J shield. ^ 

tegOf to cover : teg [te^-ft<jw], 1 [the covering thing], 

tec'tuni, J roof. 

4. ei&mbo, to lie or 1 CUB cub-UtuSy [the thing leaned upon], 

lean upon : J elbow. 

5. S. -v/ &v« to Ilu lu'dusy [the relaxing thing], 

relax, etc, : J sport, play. 

6. nScSo, to hurt : NOG noc-sa = noa?a, [the hurting 

thing], hurt, harm, injury. 

BIG, akin to c|o/C<('9 to 1 BIG rig^a = rixa, [the contending 

contend J thing], quarrel. 


2. &^tas, ft-ta» ft^^tmn. 5. e-fi.^tiu»9 S-ft.aa« S-ft-tmn. 

Sa i"tiiSi t-^ta* i"^tiiiii« 

Adjectives in tus, etc., derived from Substantives, etymologically signify 
" provided with," or "having** tfiat which the primitive signifies. 
They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme. 

Obs, 1. In d-iu$f i-tusy u-tus, g-a-tuif the a, e, t, and u are respectively Connecting 

N,B. For adjectives of this class, formed from other adjectives, see below, Obs. 2. 

Digitized by 


Ch. 1.] ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTIVES. — tns, tamtam, etc. 43 

* . liteos (bOnor), I Zhdnos-is^y 1 [^hdnos-tusi] 1 furnished with ho- 
honour: J hdnor-is^ J hdnes-tus, V DOur; honoured; 

J honourable. 

dnuSf burden : ...^ ..dnir-is [^iier-fu#]y1 having a burden ; 

[dnes-tus]^ > burdened. 
^f J 

robur, oak: robds'is* ^•.[robos'ius']} 

provided with, or 
made of oak ; 

having guilt; 


scHluSf guilt : sciler-is .... [sceler-tuSf"] 

funusy death : .fu n ir-is .... {Juner-hu], 1 provided with, or 

funeS'iuSf V having death ; 
J t. e. deadly. 
jusy right: .jur'U [/wr-fiw], 1 provided with, or ha- 

jus'tusy Y ving right ; right- 
J ful. 
t^^tM, loveliness : ...vinHr^is ....rt?Ai«r-fM#],l provided with 

[t;^ne«-/tf«], I" loveliness; love- 

vinuS'tuSy J ly, beautiful. 

2. ftia^wing: al-te a/-d-h<«, provided with wings; 


ansa, handle : ans-cR ans-d-tusy provided with, or hav- 
ing, a handle or handles. 

barboy beard : barb'Ce barb-d-tusy having a beard ; 


JimbrtcB (plur.), l/tm6rf-a- 1 fimbrl^d-tuSy having a fringe ; 

fringe: J rum J fringed. 

togay toga: tdg-^ tog-d-tusy having a toga. 

rir^a, twig: virg-ce t;ir^-a-<««, 1 having twigs; 

J made of twigs. 

„ stripe (of a 1 „ " T ^^^'"S stripes ; 

garment): J J i^triped. 

dciiltiSyeye: dcul-i dcul-d'tusy provided with, or 

having, an eye or eyes. 

coTy heart, t. e. mind, 1 c o r d-is card-d-tusy having mind or j udg • 

judgment: J ment; wise; prudent. 

densy tooth : den t^is denl'd-tuSy furnish ed with teeth ; 

/alx, scythe : .fa Ic'-is falc'd-tuSy furnished with a 

scythe; scythed. 

* Sfie foot-note to iir6o«, p. 45. 

Digitized by 



S. ffUfimnif hood: .....^a/er-t ffdler^i'tus, furnished witk a 

hood; hooded. 

autiSf ear : au r-is aurA-tus, furnished with ears. 

mdy honey: melius meU-Utus, having honey. 

pellUy skin : ......ptll'is pell-i-tusy provided with a skin 

or skins, (hence, clad in skins). 

turrisy tower, or \tnrf^is turr^-tuSf provided with a 

turret : J tower, or turret ; turreted. 

4. astnst craft : ^.ast'-us o^^-te-fc^, furnished with craft; 

ctnc^i^, girdle : einet-ms cinct-u-tus, provided with a 

girdle; girded. 
versuSy a turning: ...vers'-m vers^u-tus^ [provided 'with 

turnings], clever ; shrewd, 
cor^tt, horn: corn'^ com-U'tus, furnished with 

horns; horned. 
verUy a pike : v^r-u vir-u-tusy provided with a pike. 

5. mamma, breast: mamm-iB mamm-e-d'tuSf [furnished with 

breasts], large- or full-breasted. 

Obs, 2. Some few adjectives in S'tus, derived irom other adjectives, have a passive 
force, as if they were participles derived from some obsolete verbs of the first conjuga- 
tion. Thej are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme. Such are, — 

aBnu, white: alb-i aBS-tus, [whitened], clothed in white. 

ateTf black: atr^i eOr'd'iuSf [blackened], clothed in black. 

/nJ7u«, dark : pull-i puU-d-tus, [darkened], clothed in dark garments. 

As If from the assumed verbs aBto^ atrOf puUo, of the 1st conjugation. 

1. tain, ti, n, 2. S-tmn, S^ti, n. 

Substantives in turn, or e-tum^ derived from other Substantives denoting 
" things," point out something ** supplied," or ** provided with,'* that, which 
is signified by the primitive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of the primitive. 

Obs, The Primary Suffix is ^um; e is a Connecting Vowel. 

Digitized by 


Oh. I,] ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTIVES. — tiim,tl, etc. 45 

i. arl>os,'l ^ arbds'-is'\ [arbos-tum],^ [thing supplied 

tree : J arbus'tumf > with trees], 

J plantation. 

frutexy \ ....../rM*tc-w..[/r«/tc-ft<»i],1 [thing supplied 

shrab : J fruteC'tum, V with shrubs], 

J shrubbery. 

salix, wilk)W : saltc-is ... salic'tunty [thing supplied with 

willows], willow-bed. 

virgula, slender shoot : virgul^cB.. virgul-tumy [thing supplied 

with slender shoots], shrub- 
bery. ^ 

a. arl»or« tree : arbar^is... arhcr-e-tumy [thing supplied 

with trees], plantation. 

arundoy reed : arundtn-is arundtn-e-tumy [thing supplied 

with reeds], bed of reeds. 

dumus, bramble : dum-i dum -e-ium, [thing supplied 

with brambles], thicket. 

laurus, IsLurel : laur-i laur-i'tumy [thing supplied 

with laurels], laurel-grove. 

myrtusy myT\\Q I myrt-i ... myrt-e'tum, [thing supplied 

with myrtles], myrtle-grove. 

pomus, fruit-tree : .pom-i pdm-e-tumy [thing supplied 

with fruit-trees], orchard. 

rosoy rose-tree : rds-a rds-e- tuniy [thi ng supplied with 

rose-trees], rose-bed. 

rimen, osier: vtmin-is .. vimtn-e-tumy [thing supplied 

with osiers], osier-bed. 

fimtiSy munure : .fim-i ^w-e-fww, [thing supplied with 

manure]^ manure-heap. 

saxum, large stone: ...sax-i sax-e-tumy [thing supplied with 

large stones], stony place. 

* Arbosem pro arbor e antiqui dicebant, et robotem pro robore, Fest. p. 15 ed. 

Digitized by 




1. rnist BAf Biua. 6. 

a. a-niw« ft-na, ft-mmi. ^ 7. 

4. 1-nnSf I-BSv 1-niiia. 9. A-ndiUp 

S. l-nnsv Y-iMf l-nma. 

Adjectives in nus, etc., etymologically, signifj "gifted" or "provided 
with," etc, ; and hence, a " belonging to," their primitive. When, however, 
used in a derived force, those formed from the names of Animals espe- 
ciallj denote the flesh of such Animals ; those from the names of Trees and 
some few other substances point out the material of which any thin^ is 
made; and other words, principally, some quality possessed by their 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of their primitives. 

Obs. 1. Adjectives of this class have, etymologically, a close affinity of meaning to 
those in hcs, etc ; see No, XII. 

Oht. 2. While adjectives in d-n^Sut properly signify *< a belonging" to their primi- 
tives, thej thence have, when used in a derived force, the same meaning as their primitives 
themselves, or even express the conseqaence of belonging to such a class : thus coUeeta- 
tieuSf what is collected — coUectus; but rejectanihitf that is to be rejected, expresses the 
consequence of belonging to the class comprehended under rejectua. 

1. ver, spring: ver-is ver-nus, belonging to spring 


f rater y brother : frat r-is {^fratr-nus] 


matery mother: matr'-is [matr'ntis^^ 


patery father: ,* patr-is [^patr-nus'], 


larixy larch: larxc-is [laric-nus^y 


extirusy outside: extir^i exter-ntiSy belonging to the out- 
side; external. 

tw/^r«*, below : inf^r-i infer-nuSy belonging to below; 

supirusy on high: .... supir^i .•.. super-nusy belonging to that 

which is on high; celestial; 

belonging to a 

brother; fraternal. 

belonging to a mo- 
ther ; maternal. 

belonging to a 
father; paternal. 

belonging to larch; 
of larch. 

Digitized by 



2. mSridies, 1 m^ridi-ei*.. m^ic^-a-ntt^, belonging to mid- 

xnid-day : J day. 

mons, moixniaini mont'is mont-d-nusy belonging to a 

mountain; mountainous. 
opptdumy town : opp td-i.,,.., oppid-d^nus^ belonging to a 


rusitcus (^\ihst.)j9i\ru8tic'i rusiic-d-nus, belonging to a 

rustic : J rustic. 

urbsy city; urb-is urb-d-nusy belonging to a city : 

hence^ polished; urbane. 
mundusy world : mund-i fnund-d-ntis, belonging to the 

world; mundane. 

3. ftlliis, another: dli-us dlt-e-mis, belonging to another. 

4. leoy lion : •• leofi'ts leonA-nuSy belonging to a lion. 

j9ect^ cattle : pecu,., pecu'l-ntLSy belonging to cattle. 

vacca, cow: vacc-ee vacc-i-nus, belonging to a cow; 

vipiray viper : vip er-ce viperA- nus^ belonging to a 


vUulusy calf: vitul-i vitul-i-nusy belonging to a calf. 

saly salt: sdl-is sdl-i-nuSy of or belonging to 

salt ; saline. 
stagnumy stagnant l«^a^n-t .... stagn-i-nuSy belonging to stag- 
water: J nant water, 
mar^, the sea : mar -is mdr-unus, belonging to the 

sea; marine. 
divttSy a deity : div-i div-i-nusy belonging to a deity ; 

masciilus (suhBt)t'\...mascul'i,,. masctd-unust belonging to a 
a male : J male ; masculine, 

y^ml^na^ a female : femin-ce ... femtn-t-ntiSy belonging to a 

female ; feminine. 

ftgiilusy a potter: figul-i ftgul-tnus, also 1 belonging to 

Jigl'l-nuSy J a potter. 

wMcM* (subst), T ...midtc'i .... medic-i-nus, belonging to a 
a. physician : J physician. 

sutor, a cobbler : su tdr-is .... sutor-unusy also 1 belonging to 

sutr-i-ntis, J a cobbler. 

Digitized by 



agnttSy leimh I agn-i affn-i-nuSf helongmg to a 

anaSf dnck: dndUU dndi-l-nus^ belonging' to a 

anseTy goose : anser-is • ^ ans^unusy belonging to a 


drtesy ram : dri ii^is .... ariet-i'nuSy belonging to a ram. 

dstnus, ass : dstn-i dsin-i-nusy belonging to an ass; 


bosy (a head of)l bov-^is bov-t-nusy belonging to cattle. 

cattle : J 

ctiballusy horse: caball-i,... cahall-t-nusy belonging to a 

came/tM, camel : camel-i .,,. camel-i-nusy belonging to a 

canisy dog: cdn-is cdnA-nuSy belonging to a dog; 

iquusy horse : equ-i equ-i-nusy belonging to a horse; 

fSra, wild animal : fir-tB fer-i-nus, belonging to a wild 


8. adaiwi adamant :•„. adatnan t-is adamant-t-nusy belonging to 

adamant; adamantine. 

cidrtiSy a cedar: cedr-i cedr-t-nusy of cedar. 

crystallumy crystal: .. crystall-i . crystall't-nus, of crystal: crys- 
fagusy a beech : f<^9'i fagA-nuSy of beech. 

6. {hocy this) ; 1 hoc 1 [hoc-di-e'r-ntLs] 1 belonging to 

cfies, day : J di-e* J hodi-e-r-nuSy J this day. 

7. dies, day: di-e* di-u-r-nuSy belonging to day; 


no;r, night: noct-is noet-u-rntiSy belonging to 

night ; nocturnal. 

1, a. pdpftlnsv a poplar :.j90/) u /-{.*•. /7^t</-9t«fy *j belonging to a 

popul-neusy j- poplar; of pop- 
J lar. 

* Old Genitive. See above, p. 22. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

Ch. L] adjectives and substantives. — 1 

etc. 49 

quercvLSj oak: •• querc-us.i 

sdlixy willow : salic-is 

ibur^ ivory ;"! tbor-is , 

elephant : J 

.iquerc^usl "| belonging to the 



belonging to wil- 
low; of willow. 

made of ivory ; 
belonging to an 

9. ext^roSf outside : 

coliectuSf collected 
refectus, rejected: , 
subttus, sudden : .. 

supervdcutM, super- 
fluous : 

„^,exter'i,.»,.,[ext€r'd-neus29^ belonging to the 

extT'd-neuSt I outside; exter- 

V nal; t.«. coming 

I from without ; 

J also, strange. 

;... collect'i .... eoUect-d-neuSf belonging to what 

is collected : collected. 

... rejeet'i reject-d-netLS^ belonging to what 

is rejected ; to be rejected. 

... subU'i subit-d^niuSf belonging to what 

i« sudden ; sudden. 

}supervdcu'i supervac-d-neus^ belonging to 
what is superfluous. 

Obs. 3. Some Substantives occar in inus, ina, Inum. Strictly speaking, these are ad- 
iectives in concord with substantives understood. Such are, 

liberttnusy of or pertaining to a freedman : Hbertinus (««. vtr^, a freedman. 

lUtertina {scfenuna)^ a freedwoman. 
mSdlcinus, of or belonging to healing : mecUnna (sc. ars^, the healing art, me- 
„ „ „ (sc, tabertut), [a shop pertain- 

ing to healing], a me- 
dical man's shop or dis- 
„ „ „ (w. re«), fa thing pertaining 

to healing], a remedy. 

siUrtnus, of or belonging to a cobbler : tuirina (sc. qfficind), a cobbler's stalL 

„ (se, an), a cobbler's trade. 

textrinus, of or belonging to weaving : textrina {sc, offinna), a weaver's shop. 

iextnnum (jc, opus^, a weaver's work, 

textrtnutf of or belonging to building : textrinum (absolute). Pa place for build- 
ing], a dockyard. 


Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


Obt. 4. There are also some sabstantives in tjui, ina (derived f^m substantives); 
evidently of an adjectival nature, but which cannot be referred to any known adjective. 
They must, therefore, be regarded as springing from other sources. Such are, 

caml/er, hangman : carmffc-is .. eamific-inat office of hangman. 

diocf or, teacher : doetor-is [<loc<or-iiia], ) learning. 

docir'ima, } 

disefpiilus, scholar : dite^nU-i . . . IdUcipul-ina'], \ instruction,. 

dudpl-tMOj } 
i^feXf -workman I opific'is [<^/ic-vu^, *! work*shop. 

[O^C-tlMl], > 

offic'tna, I 

/>i«cM, fish: .puc'is /nsc-ina, fish-pond. 

/onstor, barber : totutor-i$ ... [tons/or-tna], ) barber's shop. 

tonstr-ina, } 
lanlusj butcher: 2a»l-t. Itau-enot butcher's shop. 

Their adjectival force, and also the greater clearness of their meanings, will be the 
more seen, if, as in the case of Substantives in ale, etc. {^Ch, II. No, I. p. 70), they be re- 
ferred to some assumed adjective, thus : 

car»i/Jc-i»«s, belonging to a hangman: ...] ^^^^""^^ f*^'^' *^* ^®^ ^^ ^«- 

^rdoetor-fjuxl 1 C***^)* *^® pursuit or 
doetr-xntu I ^^®"^® ^^ * teacher ; 
^^ J learning. 

[<fi.,p«-l„«. belonging to. Kholar: .. ] t*^^]' } (^^ttLSr^o^" 

ropiJic-inuB, ") "] \opifiC'Vna\ "J (<edef or tabema), a build - 

1 npfic-inuif Vbelonging to a workman : ... lopfic-inaj, >ing or shop belonging to 
Ijoffic'inus, J J officina, J a workman ; a workshop. 

[p«c-i»«^belongingtoiUh: ] l^^^ ,^^^T" "^"^"^ "' 

[^toTutr-tnus, belonging to a barber: ] tonstr-ina (Jabemd), a barber's shop. 

^fani-eniMjbelonging to a batcher : ] lani-ina {tabema), a butcher's shop. 


1. nus, nl, m. 4. na« nee,/. 7. 1-na« i-nse./. 

2. l-nus, 1-nl, m. 5. O-na, O-nee,/. S. e-r-na« e-r-nee,/. 

3. l-nusv I-nlt m. 6. I-Ba« l-n»v/. 9. niiin» nl, n. 

Substantives in nus^ etc., are obtained partly from Substantives, partly 
from Verbs or Roots. When obtained from Substantives they denote "be- 
longing" to that which their primitive implies ; but when from Verbs or 
Boots, a person or thing "doing" or ** being" that, which such Verb or 
Root points out ; sometimes, even, they denote something " done.'* 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of Substantives, or 
to Roots, whether Primary or Secondary. 

Digitized by 


Oh. L] adjectives AND SUBSTANTIVES.— nii»,iil, etc. 51 

a.. d6mo, to subdue : dom dom-nus^ [the subduing one], 

lord, master. 

2. „ „ dom-i-nuSy [the subduing one], 

lord, master. 

3. conenmbo, 1 CONCUB.... concub-i-nuSy [one lying with 

to lie with : J (another)], bed-fellow. 

4. dttmo, to subdue : dom dom-na, [the subduing one], 

lady, mistress. 

lueeoy to shine: luc [/iic-«a], 1 [the shining thing], 

lu-na, J moon. 

PET,akin toHETjGr. 1 PET pet-na*, 1 [the flying thing], 

Vof TTcVo/iat, to fly: J pen-na, J wing. 

5. membnun, limb, membr-u, menibr-d'nay [the thing belong- 

ing to a limb], membrane. 

6. ddmo, to subdue: dom dom-t-na^ [the subduing one], 

lady, mistress. 

7. luceoy to shine : LUC Luc-t-na^ [the shining one], 


concum&o, to lie with: COKCUB concub-l-nuy [one lying with 

(another)], bed-fellow ; con- 

/orfio, todig: roD fod-i-na^ [the thing dug], pit ; 


rapioy to plunder: ....rap ra/>-t-»a, a plundering. 

riioy to fall to ruin :...RU ruA-na^ a falling to ruin. 

a. lucdo, to shine : luc luc-e-r-nay [the shining thing], 


9. reffOf to rule : REG reg-numy [the thing ruled], 


TIG, akin to S. Vl tig tig-num, [the thing cleft], 

TAKSH, to cleave : J timber. 

* According to Festns this is the old fonn of the word : pennat antiquot fertur ap- 
pdidtepetnaiex Graeco, Fest. Sched. ap. Laetuin, 14, 10. 

B 2 

Digitized by 



Lio, akin to S. ^ 
BAH, to bum: 
FRBy akin to S. V 
DHBi, to hold : 

Lia lignum, [the kindling thing], 

log of wood, fire-wood. 

FRE fre-num^ [the holding thing], 

bit, bridle. 

Ofn, 1. In l-nict, {-»««, l-no, i< no, « ia a Connecting ToweL 
Ofrt. 2. In hicerna, e U a Connecting Towel, r is euphonic. 
Ofrt. 8. For other substantiyes in mm, ino, Inum, see above, iVb. A. Obn. 4, 5. 


1. a-tl-«h ANtX-fl. «• -• tI-0. 6. 1-«I-«h i«tYHk 

a.«HhaNtl-ik S. eHhS-tl-Jhor I-tlHk 7. -i-«h I-«fHk 

Adjectives of this class are formed, properlj, from words denoting ''place," 
and signify *' of,** or '* belonging to,** such place. Sometimes thej are de- 
rived from words denoting ** rank,'* and then they signify "of," or " belong- 
ing to,*' such rank. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme. 

Ohs. The Primary Suffix iuti^t being the nominative case-ending. However, It dis- 
appears oftentimes, ^d even the case-ending « is lost In iVb. 4. 

1. ArdSa* Ardea: Arde^a... Ardi-d-tis*, of, etc, Ardea. 

Arpinum, Arpinum :.„Arpin-i ..' Arpin-d'tis*, of, etc., Arpinum. 

2, a. cnjust of whom ? ..cuj-i cuj-aSy of, etc., what country. 

noster, our: nostr-i.,, nostr-as, of, etc., our country. 

vester, your : vestr-i ,., vestr-as, of, etc., your country. 

belonging to below : 
belonging to above : ^ 

infern-i.. in/em-as, of, etc., the lower 

supern-i. supem-as, of, etc., the upper 

^n^tMm, Antium : Anti^i ... Anti-as, of, etc., Antium, An- 


* Found usually in the elided form, t. e. with the Suffix as {No, 2). 

Digitized by 


Os. T.] ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTAKTIYES. — ft^^Y-s, a-^Y-m etc 53 

l». optimuSy best: optim-i„, optim-aSy of, etc.y what is best; 


primusy first: ,prim-i ,... prim-asy of, etCy what is first 


3. Jaanrentam* 1 Laurent-i »\^Laurent'8]y\o^y etCy Lauren- 

Laurentum: J Lauren-Sy J turn. 

Ttidery Tuder: Tuder-is. Tuder-Sy of, etc^ Tuder. 

TibuTy Tibur: Tibur-u. Tibur-Sy of, eie.y Tibur. 

FHcenum, Picen urn :... Pice n-t ... Picen-Sy of, cfc., Picenum. 

*. var, Nar : Nar-is .... NaVy of, e/c, Nar.* 

s. Ceeref Caere: Carets,,. Cter-e», of, c/o., Caere. 

•. ■ainnlamj 1 . . , iSa m n t-t ..[ 5ainnt-t-fM'], 1 of, «^c., Samni- 

Samniumr^J Samn-utis J urn. 

7. Samnimn, 1 Samni'i..[_Samni'i'8'], 1 of, e^c, Samnium. 

Samnium : J Samn-i-Sy J 


Besides the various Adjectives denoting names of peoples, &c., mentioned 
in No, A. above, and used substantively, there are also various Substantives 
belonging to this class, which were undoubtedly Adjectives originally, though 
they have not come down to us as such in the Latin authors whose writings 
we possess. Properly they denote "locality;" but in a derived force 

maffniuy great : magn-i... magn-aty [belonging to what is 

great]> a magnate, prince. 

>/ PEN, within PEN Pen-aieSf (p\ur.)y [belonging to 

within], Penates. 

Prps, only found as Substantive, and meaniog ** a dweller on the Nar.'' 

B 3 

Digitized by 



1. oiis« ea« cvin. %m fi^i€iuhll«-eafU-eiim. 6. t-z«i-e-iM. 

S« l-ouSf l-eAf I-enm. 

Adjectives in ctu, etc., derived from Verbs, have a participial force, and 
sometimes are identical in meaning with the participles of the verbs, from 
which they are derived ; at other times they betoken a quality of which the 
etymological meaning is descriptive ; sometimes a " being prone ** to do that 
which their primitive describes. When derived from Substantives they 
denote the " having," or a " being prone to ** that, which their primitive 

They are formed by adding the Suffix, to Root?, whether Primary or 
Secondary ; or to the Theme of Substantives. 

Obs. 1. The Primary Suffix is cu-f, of which « is the nominative case-ending; in 
X'CUSt i'cus, u-eu$f l,i,tt, aie Connecting Vowels ; in a j: (^a-c-s), i x (t-c-a), o x 
(O'C'S), a, t, o, are Connectiag Vowels ; while, by the throwing out of the u, x is formed 
by the - ombination of 8 with the preceding c. 

1. nc. akin to S. v^l ...sic sic-ciiSy made dry; dried ; dry. 

cusH, to be made >■ 

dry: J 

2. meddorf to heal : med med-t-cus, healing. 

mordeOy to bite : mord mord't-cus, biting ; snappish. 

3. amo, to love : AM am-i-ctis^ loving ; friendly. 

pwc?co, to feel 1 pud pud-l-ctis, feeling ashamed; 

ashamed : J bashful. 

awto, tolove: am am-t-c2£5, beloved ; dear. 

4. o&do, to fall : CAD cad-u-cus, falling (rare). 

cddo, to fall : cad cad-u-cus, prone to fall. 

5. audSo, to dare : aud aud-a-Xy daring. 

fero, to produce : fer ycr-a-a?, producing ; productive. 

minor, to project ; 1 min min-a-x, projecting; threat- 

to threaten : j ening. 

50^10, to perceive! ...SAG sag-a-x, perceiving keenly; 

keenly : J sagacious. 

sequor, to pursue : ... sequ sequ-a-x, pursui ng. 

sonOy to resound: son son-a-x, resounding. 

y Google 

Os. I.] ADJECTIVES AND SUBSTANTIVES. — ovft, ea, oiim» etc. 55 

ieneo, to hold : ten ten-a'-'Xy holding; tenacious. 

eefo, toeat: ed e^f-a-a^^pronetoeat; gluttonous. 

Jalloy to deceive : fall falUa-Xy prone to deceive ; fal- 

loquory to talk : LOQU Idqu-a- .r, prone to talk ; loqua- 

fnentior,\ ment [»icn^-a-a?],l prone to lie; Ijing. 

to lie : J mend-a-Xy J 

mordeoy to bite : mobd morrf-a-a;, prone to bite ; biting. 

rapio, to snatch: rap ra/?-a-a:, prone to snatch; rapa- 

r^t/o, to watch : vigil vigtl-a-Xy prone to watch; 


vorOy to devour : VOR vdr-a-x, prone to devour; vora- 

capto, to take or 1 cap cap-a-Xy that can take, etc; 

contain : J capacious. 

lingua y tongue : lingu-cB lingu-a-x, [_prone to tongue], 


tf . mlseeo, to mix : Misc misc-i-Xy [mingling], change- 

7. ceUo, to urge along 1 cel ceZ-o-a*, urging one's self along ; 

(obsolete) : j swift. 

y^ro, to bear: fer fer-o-Xy bearing one's self, or 

rushing, onwards; fierce. 

Obs. 2. Substantives are found with some of the above terminations (also in their 
feminine or neuter forms). These are strictly adjectives, and are used substantively 
-with reference to some word to be supplied : as, 

medfeuM, healing, CviA : a physician. 

amtciM, beloved, Cnr) : a friend (beloved by me). 

^ loving, Ivir) : a friend (loving me, &c). 

fnedteOf healing, (<'''') • ^^® healing, or medical art. 

cdox, swift, (navis) : a swift sailing vessel. 

Obs. 3. Some adjectives of this class are also formed from substantives, and denote 
the " pertaining " or ** belonging to " the primitive, and hence some quality attaching to 
or descriptive of it Such are — 

beHunif war: bell-i, Jbell-i-ctts pertaining to war; warlike. 

civis, citizen: civ -is civ-i-cus pertaining to a citizen; civic 

dassis, fleet : class 'is . . .cktss-i-ctts belonging to a fleet. 

domintiSf lord : dom t n -t ...domin-i-cus belonging to a lord. 

gens, nation: .gent -is Ment-i-cus belonging to a nation; national. 

hostiSf enemy : host 'is nost-i-eus belonging to an enemy ; hostile. 

pater, father : .patr- is .ptUr-i-cus belonging to a father ; paternal. 

Obs. 4. There are also some substantives derived from other substantives, which seem 
to have been originally adjectives, but which do not appear in an adjectival form in the 
Latin works that have come down to us. Such are — 

B 4 

Digitized by 



JkUr, A workmtii ifahr-'i /aJbrA-ea, a workman's shop. 

mammtf hand : man -ma .flum-y-ec sleeves of a tanic reachin^^ to the 

hands ; manacles. 

MS, foot: jped'U ,|wf-f-ea .shackle; fetter (for the feet>. 

uetuM, conchs Jeet^i ipcf-f-ea litter; sedan. 

In each of the forssoing instances the word is best explained bj supposing aa adjeis 
tiye (viz. fabriem$, belonging to a faber, or workman ; muMiems, belongm^ to the 
iiMm««, or hand ; ptdUmt, belonging to the pet, or foot ; leetlcua^ belonging to a tectum or 
couch); and by supplying the following substantives: viz., tabema with fidnfea; 
vate$ with aumlos; aOma with mtmHtrnf ** manacles ;" eat&M also with /wclfeti, shackle ; 
aedei wUh iectioa. 

Ob§, 5. From nAer, "red," is obtained mbnea, "red earth;** but this, tLgtdn, is 
rather to be regarded as an adjective (rubHeua, belonging to what is ruber)^ for which 
the word Urra must be supplied. 

Ob». 6. Here, also» must probably be referred adjectives in ^-Ictw, formed firom sub- 
stantives : — 

aqyot 1 Mqua^i ^,^.jaqua-4'\eu», belonging to water; living in 

water : j water ; aquatic 

n/«a,wood: ^t/va-t ....stZva^f-lctcs, belonging to a wood. 

liomM, house: [domu»'(leu»\ ditwnef-f-fcMs, belonging to a house ; domestic. 

rMi^ country: stu-t'leut, belonging to the country ; rostlc 

06«. 7. To this class must also be referred the adjective amtieuSf otherwise written 
(through the change of the c to the kindred qu) «uUiqmu» 

antet before,) ante [on/e-i-cM],'^ belonging to what is before 

(in time) : > ant-i-cus, >in time ; ancient. 

or ant'i-quuSf j 


1. onflf ety flik 3. Zf o-isv/. 8. 1-Zf I-o-to|/. 

a. O-eiuh fl-ciy m. 4. e-<, X-c-lSi/. 

There are also some Substantives of this class, which have, etymologically, 
a participial force. They are Appellative Nouns, of which the etymological 
meaning is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to Boots, or the Eoot of Verbs. 

..MAR mar-cm, Qhe crushing thing], 

large hammer. 

..sue suc-cus, Qhe moistening thing], 

juice, sap. 

1. MAS, akin to S. 

V MRID, to 
crush : 

sue, akin to S. 
v/ siTSH, to be 
moist : 

a.mando* to eat: mand mand-ucusy Qone prone to eat], 


Digitized by 


Ok. 1*3 ADJECTIYES AND BUBSTAKTIYES.*— Infl. Is, tam. etc. 57 

3. WJL, akin to S. 1 fa. f^-Xf [[the shining thing^, torch. 

>s/ BHA, to shine : J 

4k. OORT. akin toS.lcOBT ccrt^e-x^ Qhe split thing]], husk 

v' KRiT, to split : J or shell of fruits ; bark of trees. 

rer^o, totum: vert vert-e-x'^y Qhe turning thing!, 

whirlpool, eddy, etc, 

S. ad, to; \ad 1 .,J[ad'pend-%'x'],'\ [[the thing hang- 

penaeoy to hang: J fend J ap-pend-i-Xy > ing to^, append- 

J age, appendix. 

Obs. Substantives in e-x resume t in the oblique cases. 


Diminutive words denote something small of their kind. 

A. Adjectives. 

1. Ins, la, liim« 3. I*ott-liis, l-cft-la« y-ott-lvm. 

a. ett-lns, ott-lat ottluni. ^ s-il-liis, s-il-Iav s^-lmn. 

Diminutive Adjectives are formed from other Adjectives on the same prin*- 
ciples as Diminutive Substantives are formed from other Substantives. See 
below No. B. 

Obs, The Primary SuflSx is Zm : « is merely the nominative case-ending. In t-U-lus, 
8 is euphonic. 

1. borrVdnSv standing on "j horrtd-i 1 {horrtdd-ltis^y 1 standing 

*'■">■ horrtdii'lus, J a little 
J end ; projecting forth. 

end : V {^horrido-Q f horrtdu-lus, J a little on 

parvus^ smaill : parv-i 


paucus, few: pauc-i 


primus, first: prim'i 

[j)rimO't2 . 

^.^partyd'liis}* \yery small. 
parvu'lusy J 
... {jpaucd'lfis^ 1 very few. 

paucu'luSi J 
... [j9rmo-/i/«[], 1 very first. 
primu'lus, J 

* Sometimes written opftear. 

Digitized by 



aurikts, golden: aurH-i 1... aureo-ltes, somewhat 

fawrco-rj J golden. 

benus, 1 beautiful ; 1 ben-i [ben-lus"], 1 pretty. 

old form > good : J bel-lus, J 

of bonus, J 

miser, wretched: misir-i [inwcr-/t«], l very wretch- 

misel-lus, J ed. 

pulcer, beautiful: pulcr-i ^pulcr-lus'], 1 beautiful Ut- 

\pulcer'lus\y V tie. 

ptilcel-lusy J 
fewer, tender : tin ir-i [tener-lus'], \ somewhat ten- 

tenel'lus, J der. 

06«. From some diminutive adjectives a second diminutive is fonned. (See 
p. 62.) 

iefftw, pretty : bell-i ^i7u- ^ux, pretty little. 

pauxiUta^ very few : pauxill-i pauxiUu-hu, very few indeed. 

a, pauperv poor: paupir-is ... pauper-culus, -poor little. 

3. idTiSf trifling : ...' liv-is Hv-i-culus, Yery infLmg. 

tristiSf sad : tristis : trist-t'CuluSy somewhat sad . 

ft. paaonsf few : pauc-i pauc-s-illus, \ very few. 

pauX'illtis, J 

B. Substantives. 

1, a. Ins, 111 m, d, fi. li-la* H-laB,/. e, y. (el-)liiin9 (el-)!!, n. 

b. ImUfllvM. Y* A-liumftt-llf»* f. (ol-)la, (ol-)l8Br/. 

0. leas, lei, m, e, a. (el-)la«, (el-)ll, m. gr, a. (ll-)la, (ll-)l8D /. 
d, a. ft-lus, ft-li, mr /3. (el-)la, (el-)l8B,/. p. (U-)liim, (il-)ll, n. 

Diminutive Substantives are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of 
Substantives ; but in some cases, as in No, 2, a, to the nominative singular. 

1. The Primary Suffix here is lus, la, lum, according to gender. 

1. a, b. The instances in this class belong to the 2nd declension. If a conso- 
nant precede the unelided Theme of the Substantive, o becomes u before the 

Digitized by 


Ch. 1.3 



Suffix, as shown in equii'lus^ hinnu-lvs, etc. ; but if a yowel, then lus is joined 
to the o, as in filio'lus. Corresponding changes take place for Substantives of 
the Neuter Gender. 

X, a. eavtuSf 1 eqU'i, 

horse : J [cywo-i], 

hinnuSy) hinn^i, 

mule : j [Atn«o-i] , 

hortus, 1 hort'iy 

garden : J [Aor^W], 

servuSy'l serv-i 

slave : J {^servd-t], , 

filtus, 1 filt-i, 

son : J [^^t^-*]> 

radius,! radt-i, 

T&j : J [rac?to-t], 

[^equo'lus^, \ IHtle horse. 
equU'lus, J 

[Atww W«*], 1 little mule. 
hinnu'lus, J 


little garden. 

little slave. 
filld'lusy little son. 
radid'ltis, little raj. 

1, b. oppldnm, town : ... oppid'iy 

rapum, turnip : rap-i, 

horreum, barn : horre'i, 

ingentum, talent : ingeni-i, 

[ingenid't], ^ 
ostium, door : osti-i, 

[^opptdd-lum"], 1 little town. 

oppidu-lum, J 
[rnpO'lum]', 1 little turnip. 

rapu'lunif J 
horred-lum, little barn. 

ingenid'lum, small talent 

ostid'lumy little door. 

1, e. Here lua becomes leus bjr inserting e. The euphonic changes 
mentioned in a, b* here again occur with Substantives of the 2nd declension ; 
those of the 4th take the Suffix immediately after the unelided Theme. 

equus, horse : egU't, 


^m»M5, mule: hinn-i, 


[^egud'leus'], 1 little horse. 
equii'leteSy J 
[^hinno'ieus'], 1 little mule. 
hinnu'leusy J 

Digitized by 


60 LATIH 8nFFJXE& [Oa. L 

aeus^ point; ae-us^ '^aeu-leus, little point. 

If d. «, ^, Y* The Suffix is here added to the elided Theme of words of 
the 1st and 3rd declensions bj means of the Connecting Vowel «. 

l« df a. mdoleac«iiS9 1 ...adolegcent-iSy adoUscent-u-lus, little youth, 
youth : J 

infansy infant: infant'4s„.... infant-u4u8y little infant. 

rexyking: rig-is reg-U'lm^ little (t. e. petty) 


^. ttreftf box: are-m are^-lay little box. 

cistay chest: eUt-tB ci«^*«-/a, little chest. 

literay letter : liter-iB liter-u-lay little letter. 

lufuiy moon: lunr€e lun-^la^ little moon. 

portcLy gate: ,part-{B , port-u^loy little gate. 

radiXy root: rddic-is rddic-u-iay little root. 

voXf voice : vdc-is voc-u-iay little (t. e, feeble) 


y. eaputf head : capU-is eaptt-u-lumy little head. 

If e, a, 3f Y* When the elided Theme ends in uZ, the u becomes e before 
the Suffix : as, ttl-lusy eUlut; vJUoy el-la. 

When the elided Theme ends in r or it, and those letters follow a conso- 
nant, then e is inserted before the r orit, and such r or n becomes assimi- 
lated to the following I: as, r-luSy er-hUy el'ltu; n-luniy en-lum, el-lum. 

When the elided Theme ends in tn, or en^ or er^ the n or r become assimi- 
lated to the following Z, and t is changed into e : as, in-lusy en4usy eldus ; en-loy 
eUla; er-loy el-la. 

If e* a. oatolnsf whelp : ca^-«/-t [^cat-ul-lus^, \little whelp. 

cat-el-iusy J 

dcutusy eye : oe-ul-i, [oc-wZ-Ztw], 1 little eye. 

oc-eUluSy J 

populuSy people : ... pdp-ul-i .....[j9op-w^Z««], 


cultevy knife: .... cult-r-iy 

agevy field : ag-r-iy 

little {u e. low) 

little knife. 


[a^-cr-Zw*], 1 little field. 
€tg-el-lu8y J 

Digitized by 


<5h. I.] 



libery book : lib-r-iy 1 [W-cr-/t«], I little book. 

[W-cr-i], J Itb-eUus, j 

,JaS'in4us\ 1 little ass. 

as-eUluSy J 


USy 1. 

..• a«4ii-f 

little tale, 
little board, 
very little box. 
ver J little chest, 
small metal plate. 

0. fia»^Uat tale : ... fab'uU<B.». [/ab'ul^la]y ' 


tabukty board : tah^til^m ...[to6-«/-fe], 

areula, little box : are^uUm . ..[arc-u/-/a], 

cistulay little chest : cisi^ul-a . .. [ci5^-fi/-/a], ' 

lamina^ 1 ... iam-tn-ce [lam^in^aX 

ijaetal plate : J llam-en-la]^ 


pagtna^l pag4n^{B ...SpagMrlaX' 

page : J [pag-en-lct], 


pattnaf\ pat-in'^ rpat4n-la\ " 

dish : J \jpat'en4a]y 


catena,! cat-iU'ls ,.,.,. [^cat-en^la'},' 

chain: J cat-el-la, 

opera,\ op-er^a [c>p-er-ilfl], 1 little (i.e. slight) 

work : J op-^el-la, J work. 

little page. 

small dish. 

little chain. 

}... flag-r-i, 1 {flag-erAum], 1 little scourge. 
\Jlag'er'%\y f Jtag-eUlum, J 


labrum, 1 lab-r -t, 1 [ lab^erAuni], 

lip : J [^lab-er-i], J lab-elAuniy 

sacrum, 1 sa-cr % \ [^sac-er-lum], 

sacred thing : J [«a-cer-«], J sac-el4um, 

scam-num^ \ ... scam'ti^, 1 {^scam-eu'lum 

bench : J [*c«m-e«-t], J scam-el-lum^ 

little lip. 

[small sacred 
thing], a shrine. 
, 1 small bench. 

1, f. Also when the elided Theme ends in on, on becomes ol before 
the Suffix: as, cn-lti, oUla. 

eorSnm 1 cor-on^is \cor'On''la'], 1 small chaplet. 

chaplet : J cor-oUla, J 

Digitized by 



[Ch. L 

l-f ffy ^y ^' Occasionallj in an elided Theme ending in uL or iii, also in n af^er 
a consonant, ti/, tn, n, become U before the Suffix : as, td-lus, iUlus ; in-lus^ il- 
lus ; n-^tim, il'lum. See above, No, e. 

walking stick: 
pulvinus, cushion : 


pugnusy fistful : 
/s. •ignwBif mark : 

bae-ul-i [bac-ul-lus^y 1 small walking 

hac'il'lusy J stick. 
pulv'tn-i ....[ptf/v-fn-/tt#], 1 small cashion. 
pulv-U-luSy J 
. pug-n-iy l..[p«^-t«-/M*],^ small fistful. 
[pug'in-i\ J 


tignum, beam: tig-n-i, 


pug-il'lusy J 


...[fy^-tn-/»i»], ' 


small mark. 

small beam. 

0&«. From some Diminntives a second Diminatiye is formed according to the fore- 
going rules : 

oaeZ/tM, little ass : cueU-i \ {^aseUd-lus']. 

[««e//ff-i] j asellu-lus, 

eistella, little chest: cistell-a cisteUu-la, 

See also areeUti, dsteBa^ in page 61. 

2. The Suffix here is ciilusy etc., according to gender. 

2, a. When the nominative case singular of Substantives of the 3rd de- 
clension ends in r, or in « as the representative of r, the Suffix is appended 
immediately to the nominative singular witliout any change: as, dmdior, 
drndtor-culus ; flos (Jhr-ii)^ floscubu. In the following exceptions, ciUus is 
added to the unelided Theme. 

Exceptions: — 

linter^ bark : liiUr-iSy \ lintrx' cvlus^ little bark. 

renter, belly : ventr-isj 1 ^?cw/r^cwZlw, little belly. 

[ventri'is]^ j 
o#, bone: oss^is, 1 o^^-cu/um, little bone. 

[pss%'is]y J 

a, a. amator, lover : amator-culuSy little lover. 

fioSy flower: flos-cultiSy little flower. 

fratevy brother : • . frater-culuSy little brother. 

pulvisy dust: pulvis^iiluSy small dust. 

rumor, report : [rM/wor-cw/ewr], "j small report ; 

irumos-eulusj, >• gossip. 
rumtiS'CultM, J 

Digitized by 



tnaier^ mother : mater-cula, little mother. 

sonyTy sister : soror^cula^ little sister. 

f/a:or, wife: uxor-cula^ little wife. 

arboSf tree: [arbos-cala], 1 little tree. 

arhuS'Culay J 

coTy heart : cor~culum, little heart. 

corpus, body : corpus'culum, little body. 

munusygih: munus-culum, little gift. 

filler, swelling : tuher-eulum, small swelling; 


a, 1»« When words of the 3rd declension end in o, Xnis^ m. or f. ; en^ XniSy 
m. ; o, dAt>, m. or f. ; the Suffix is appended to the elided Theme, while the i 
or o, before n, becomes u : as, hamiu'ciUuSj homun-culus ; serman-ciUuSy ser- 


2, b. liomoy 1 
man: J 
pecten, 1 . 
scallop : J 
pugto, 1 
dagger : J 
beginner : 
question : 



. homin-is . . . [Aomm-cu/t/«], 

, .pectiri'is .... [pecHu'Culus'], 

, virgiri'is .... {^virgin-eula ] , 

little man ; 
small scallop. 

1 little maiden. 

small dagger. 

8mall(i.e. idle) 
talk ; rumour. 

,,pugt5n'is ...[pugion-culus'], 

, . sermoTi'is .... [sermon-culus'], 

. . ttron-is [tiron-ctdus^y 1 little beginner. 

Hrun-cUlus, J 
..qu(ESttdn'is,[^qucB8tion'CuIa'], \ little ques- 

qucBstiufi'dila, \ tion. 
. . ration-is . . . ^ration-cula], 1 small reckon- 

ratiun-cHlOy Jing. 

a* e. a, p. In words of the 5th declension the Suffix is appended to the 
elided Theme ; and in such of the 3rd as end in es, to the unelided Theme : 
as, die'Ciila, nube-cula, 

a, o, a. dies* day : die-i dte-cula, little daj. 

plehes, common 1 . . . plehhi plebe-cula little (i. e. petty) 

people: J people; rabble; mob. 

p. nubes, cloud : 

. nub-is, "I .. 
[«m6c-w], J 

nube-cula, little cloud. 

Digitized by 



vulpes,fox: vulp-isy 1... vif/p«-€«^ little fox. 

[r«/pc-M], J 

2« d. In parbyllabic Nouns of the 3rd declension ending in w, is; or e, } 
it ; the Suffix is appended to the unelided Theme : as, igm^cidus^ reii'CvJtum, ! 

fire: ign^is^ 


pisciSf fish : pisc^isy 

4BdiSy house: ad-is, 


pelliSf skin: pelUiSy 

rete,nQti ret-is, 

, igni^cubi 

ignt'CuluSs small fire. 

pisct-culusy little fish. 

€Bd%-cula, small house 

peUi'Culay little skin. 

rett'cUlumy little net; (hence 

2| e. In imparisyllabic Nouns of the 3rd declension where the nominative 
case-ending, t, is attached to a consonant, or where a consonant has been 
omitted before it, the Suffix is added to the unelided Theme : as, pons, pontic 
ctUus ; cos, coti'Cuia, 

pons, bridge : pont-is, 


dens, tooth : dent-is, 


pars, part : jpart-is, 

\par tikis'], 

cos, whetstone: cot-is, 


pontt-culus, little bridge. 
denti-cUltis, little tooth. 
parfi-cula, small part. 
coti-cula, small whetstone. 

a, f. Words of the 4th declension change u of the unelided Theme into i 
before the Suffix : as, artH'Ciilus, art-tcHlus, 

artusf joint : art-us , 

sensus, sentence : .. sens-us, 

verstis, Terse : vers^us, 


anus, old woman : anu-s. 

..[arft<-cw/M«], 1 small joint. 

artH'Culus, J 
..,[sensu'Culus'\,\\iti\.e sentence. 

sensi'ciilus, J 
... [t>er*M-ctt/w*], 1 little verse. 

verst'culus, J 
.[^anu-cula'\, 1 little old woman. 

ant'cula, J 

Digitized by 


Cu. II.] ADJECTIVES. — ft-rlih A-re, etc. 65 

genuy knee : genu {jgenu'culum^, 1 little knee. 

genuculum, J 
comuy horn : comu [comu-ct</tf}»], 1 little horn. 

eomi'culum, J 

Sv 8r* In some words of the 2nd declension the Dimiautive t'Cuhu is 
Ibrmed by inserting f between the Suffix and the Base. 

I^annns, piece 1 pann-i pann-i-cultis^ small piece of 

of cloth : J cloth. 

Obs, 1. The following are irregular formations : — 

ramtu, branch : ramuscvhut little branch. 

avusy grandfather : avunculus, uncle. 

/ur, thief: fumnculus little thief. 

caro^ flesh : carunculaf a small piece of flesh. 

dnmus, house : domunctUa, small house. 

Obs. 2. The following is irregular, both in formation and as to its deviation from the 
gender of the primitive : — 

rana (£), frog : ranunculus (m.), little frog. 




1. a-rls, &-re. ft. I-Ub* Y-le. 7. &-rYiis,ft-rYa,ft.rYiim. 

a. ft-Us, &-le. 8. i-liSff i-le. 8. V-a-lis, Y-A-le. 

3. S-lls, e-le. 6. u-lis, a-le. 9. ft-tl-Us, ft-4;Y-le. 

Adjectives in d^ris, etc., derived from Substantives, point out, etymo- 
logically, what "belongs,*' or "pertains," or "relates," to the primitive; 
and hence, sometimes, what is in accordance with its character. Thus, 
hostilis signifies, properly, " of" or " belonging to the enemy ;" and hence, 
in a derived force, a quality such as an enemy has : " hostile." 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of the primitive. 


Digitized by 



Ob§, 1. The Primary SoAx it rt, « being the nominative case-ending : Hs' is obtained 
from ru, by substitating one liquid for another, viz^ Z for r : riuM is obtained by insert- 
ing « after i in r t « : all other parts of the above Suffixes are either Connecting Vowels 
or angraentations of the Primary Saffix. Those Soffixes in which I occurs are mostly used 
when the Base has no / in it ; if it contains I, then r is mostly substituted : thus, vUa, 
vitdUs ; but, palma, palmaria. Yet when / in the Base is followed immediately by a 
vowel, the I is used in the Suffix : thus, let-um, let-aKa ifiuci-us, flum-aUs, soAfluvi-ad&s ; 
pluvi-a, fium-alu. In the Suffix r i « s, the r is used whether / has preceded it or not — 
as, mUit-arius, anccr-ariut. 

1. palma» a palm : .„ palm-iB palm-d-risy of a palm (in 

lengthy &C.V 

yy a palm-tree: ,, m of a palm-tree. 

puellOy girl: puell-a pueU-a-ris, of or belonging 

to a girL 

^op«/tf«, the people : pdpul-i popul-d-riSy of or belonging 

to the people ; popular. 

vulguSy the com- 1 vulg^i vulg^d-ris, of or belonging 

mon people : J to the common people ; 


ron^tiZ, consul : consul-is coi»tf/-a-rt#, of or belonging 

to a consul ; consular. 

fnf/e^y soldier : mi lit 'is milit'd-ris, of or belonging 

to a soldier ; military. 

2. anoftra* anchor: ... ancor-as ancdr'd-lis^ pertaining to an 


a7t»ti«, year : anu'^i ann-d-lis^ belonging to a 

year ; containing a year, 

aquoy water: aqu-cB ctqu-d-lisy oi or belonging to 


conviva^ a table! convtv-iB conrir-a-Zts, belonging to a 

companion : J table companion ; con- 


matrdnoy a matron : matrdfi'iB matron-d-lis, of or belonging 

to a matron. 

. ndturUy nature : ... ndtiir'<B ndtur-d-lis, of or belonging 

to nature ; natural. 

plUvia^ rain: pluvt'<B plUvi-d-lis, of or belonging 

to rain. 

rtto, life: vtt'€B tnt-d-lis, of or belonging to 

iite; vital. 

Digitized by 


Ch. II.] ADJECTIVES,— *^H», A-re, eta 67 

letuniy death : let'i HM'liSy of or belonging to 

death; deadly. 
Jaium, fate: fai-i /at-a-lis, of or belonging to 

fate ; fatal. 
flumus^ river : flu vl-i fluvi'd-lis^ of or belonging to 

a river. 

comitia (plur.),l cSmtti-orum cJmlh'-a-/if, of or pertaining 

the comitia : J to the comitia. 

augury an augur: .. augiir-is augur-a-lis, of or belonging 

to an augur, 
caro, flesh: carn-is eam-a-lis^ of or belonging 

to flesh ; carnal. 
caputs head: cap it- is capU-d-liSy of or belonging 

to the head. 
corpus, body : corpor^is corpdr-d'-lis^ of or belonging 

to the body ; corporeal, 
/eor^law: leg-is leg-a-liSf of or belonging to 

the law ; legal, 
rear, king: reg-is re^-a-Zif, of or belonging to 

a king ; regal. 
sacerdosy a priest : sacerdot'is ,,., sacerddt-a-lisy of or belong- 
ing to a priest ; sacerdotal. 

3. fidesf faith : fid-ei fid-e-liSy [of or belonging to 

faith], faithful 

4. bttmiis, ground: ••• hum-i hum-t-lis, of or belonging to 

the ground ; low ; humble. 

5. caper, goat: capr-i capr-i-lis, of or belonging to 

a goat. 
ctvis, citizen : civ -is civ-Ulis, of or belonging to a 

citizen ; civil. 
hostis, enemy: host-is host-i-lisy of or belonging to 

an enemy ; hostile. 
juvenisy a youth: ... juvewis juven-i-Usy of or belonging 

to a youth; youthful; 

ovt>, sheep: ov-is oV't-lis, of or belonging to 


F 2 

Digitized by 



pueTfhoji puer'i /wer-l-Zw, of or belonging to 

a boj ; boyish ; puerile, 

servus, slave: serv^i serv-t-lis, of or belonging to 

a slave ; slavish ; servile. 

anus, old woman: • an^us ...•••, an-i-lis^ of or belonging to 

an old woman; old 
womanish; anile. 

6« trXbttSf tribe : trth-us ^rf^-v-Zti, of or belonging to 

a tribe. 

7. aneSrat anchor : ... ancdr'tp aneSr-d-rhUy pertaining to 

an anchor. 

anntis, jesLV I ann-i ann-d-rius, relating to the 


ogua, water: dqu-<B dqu-d-rtus, relating to 


mi^f, soldier : mWtt-is »ifi^f-a-rm«, of or belonging 

to a soldier ; soldier-like ; 

cdrium, leather : ... edrt-i,^ edri-d-rtuSy pertaining to 


ar^enft^w, silver :... argent-i argent-d-rttis, pertaining to 


classisy 1 class-is, 1 ... c/o^^it-a-r^t/^^ pertaining to a 

a fleet : J \classt'is'\ ] fleet. 

j^a^ti^a, a statue : ... stdtu-ce ^/a^-a-riW, pertaining to a 

a statue. 

iumultus, tumult : .. . tumult-tis, 1 tumultu-d-riuSy of or belong- 
\jtumultu^is'\ J ing to tumult. 

vulgtis, the com- 1 vulg-i vulg-d-rms, of or belonging i 

mon people : J to the common people ; 


3. Judex* judge : judic-is judic-ud-lis, of or belonging 

to a judge ; judicial. 

adituSy a going to: adit-us adtt-i'd-lisy of or belonging 

to a going to. 

Digitized by 


Oh. II.] ADJECTIVES. — ft-rlfl, &-re, etc 69 

^. ftqoa, water: dqu»<E aqu-a-ti-lis, of or belonging 

to water. 

JluviuSy river : Jiuvt-i „•., jfiuvi'd^ii'liSf of or belonging 

to a river. 

umbra, shade : umbr-ce umbr-d'ti'lis, [belonging to 

the shade ; hence] retired ; 

Obs. 2. 3omd substantives occur in ariug, aria, arium,lle. Strictly speaking, how- 
ever, these are adjectives, and are used substantively with reference to some word to be 
supplied. (Compare Ch. L JV6, XIII., and Nos, III. and XII. below.) 

a. iBrarius, of or belonging to <es, copper or money. 
€Brdriua {faber), coppersmith, brazier. 

„ (ctvts), citizen paying an <es, as poll-tax. 
or aria {fodind), copper-mine. 

„ (affieina), snkelting-house. 

„ {fonuix), smelting-house. 
isrdj^um {adificium), place where the public money was kept 

b. argentar%u$j of OT belonging to argentum, silver. 
argentdrius (homo), banker. 

„ \faber), silversmith. 

argentaria ^taberria), banker's office. 

„ for*), banker's avocation. 

n \fodvfid), silver mine. 

argentarium (absolute), place for keeping silver ; plate chest. 

c &v\dr%us, oi OT belonging to an aot«, or bird. 
dvHarius (homo), person who keeps birds. 
&vldrium ((BtUJicium), place where birds are kept ; aviary. 

d. cdlumbarius, of or belonging to a columba, or dove. 
columbarius (homo), man who keeps doves. 

columbarium (axHJicium), place where doves are kept ; dove-cote. 

e. pomdrius, of or belonging to /wrnvm, er fhiit. 
pomdrius (homo), fruit-seller. 

pomarium (juedifidum), fruit-house •, stooe-house for fruits. 
„ (absolute), fruit-garden. 

f. 8em%ndrXu9, oi or belonging to semitn, or seed. 
seminarium (absolute), seed-plot. 

g. iabuldrius, of or belonging to a tabuiOf or tablet 
tabularius (homo), keeper of archives ; registrar. 
tabularia (domus), record -office. 

tabuktrium (absolute), archives. 

h. valetudindrius, of or belonging to eaktudo, or iH health. 

vaUtudinarius (homo), person in ill health ; invalid ; valetudinarian. 
vatetudinarium {(oedificium), building for sick people ; sick-room ; infirmary. 

k. vlvdrius, of or belonging to viva, or live animals. 

vivarium (absolute), place for keeping live animals ; park ; preserve ; fish-pond, &c. 

m. eaprilis, of or belonging to a caper, or goat 
caprUe (stabiUum), goat-pen ; fold for goats. 

F 3 

Digitized by 


70 LATIN StrPFlXES. [Ce. IL 

n. e i /t «, of or belonging to an oou, or sheep. 
ifmle {atabSlumy, sheep-pen ; sheep-fold. 

Ob9. 3. There are also neuter substantives ending in a/; or, which are evidently 
the neater gender of adjectives in ttKs and aris, used absolutely, and slightly changed 
by rejecting the final e. Such are, — 

a. animalitf animate, living: xoumal-e : animSi, living thing; animaL 

cSpltaH^ belonging to the head : cdpttdl-e : eapWU [thing belonging to the head], 

head-covering for Roman priests. 
cMfttta/if, belonging to the elbow: evbttal-e: eutlUdl, [thing belonging to the el- 
bow], elbow-cushion. 

p2^?a/M, belonging to a well : ,jmteal-e: pttteHl, [thing belonging to a well], 

stone round well's mouth. 

b.ptt/rtitanff, belonging to a cusUon:/»iiZvtitdr-e:/nf/Hn^&>, [thing belonging to a 

cushion ], couch spread with cushions. 

Obs, 4. There are also some substantives in ale, ar, arXus, avium. His, tie 
evidently of an adjectival nature in an equal degree with the substantives mentioned 
above, Obs, 2, 3 ; but which must be referred to other sources, as there is no adjective, in 
the Latin authors, whose works have come down to us, from which they could be de- 
rived. Such are, 

ramus, a bough: ram-i ram-ale, twig. 

coZar, heel: calc'it, ^ calc-ar, spur. 

polumna, pillar : columti'iB , . column-aHus, a person exposed at the 

Columna Migma,QX put in the pillory. 
„ M eoltemn'orium, a pillar tax ; a stone 

or marble quarry. 
armamenta, implements: ,.,.armament'orvm.,,armamtvi'Wn!iim, an armoury. 

arma, implements : ar m-orum arm-arium, a closet or cupboard. 

planta, plant: plantne pkmt-aHum, a nursery ground. 

6o«, a head of cattle: bdv-is Wj-i/i,, | ^nox-stalL 

» ^''^* lanox-stall. 

» f* bub-tle, ) 

iiquus, horse: iqu-i, ^-ile, a stable for horses. 

eumbo, to lie down: cub cub-ile, a couch. 

gSd^o, to sit: SEP sSd-Ue, a seat or chair. 

/^po, to gather: l£o iSg-arium, pulse; legumes. 

That these are of an adjectival nature, as above stated, appears both from a con-» 
sideration of their meanings, and also from a comparison of them with words whosd 
.primitive is an adjective in existence. Thus, compare calcar with puhnnar; columnd- 
riu8 with argentaflus, &, etc.; pUmtdrttim with s&fiAnarium; bulnle, ^quVe, with 
caprUe, dvUe, And more particularly notice the retention of e in ratnale, cubile, and tedile ; 
and, also, the feminine form bubilis. 

There can be little doubt, when these things are taken into consideration, that the 
foregoing come from adjectives which have disappeared from the written language. 
To this it must be added, that their force becomes more perceptible, when an adjectival 
form is assumed for their origin : thus — 

tram-cUis, belonging to "| f ram-ale, thing belong- 1 ram-ale, twig, 
a bough : J L ing to a bough J 
tcalc'dris, belonging to"! fcalc-are, thing belong-l calc'or, spur, 
the heel ; J L ing to the heel J 

[ eolumn-arius, belonging to a pillar:] column-arius {homo), man exposed, etc 

„ „ column-arium (cbs), pillar money ; a pillar 

„ „ column-arium (absolute), place whence 

materials for pillars were obtained; i.e, 
stone or marble quarry. 

Digitized by 


Ch. II.] ADJECTIVES. — Um, le, etc. 71 

rarma.^.^^ belonging to i^V^^^^^'-J'^^t::^!^'^^^}^'^''^'- 
|-«r».-a««. belonging to implemeou: ]-7„*:- S^^^^ '" '"^'"'' 

rp/ani-ortiM, belonging to plants: -IpUmt-arium (absolute), place for pUntsj 

L J nursery ground. 

tbSvUis or ftwA-i/w, belonging to cattle : Ibub-VU {caiJa), ox-sUU. 
j6^»-t& or W6i/e («teW/um), ox-stalL 

£ gqu'ilis, belonging to a horse : 'jSqu-ile {itabulum), sUble for horses. 

rcu6-t/i», belonging to lying down: icub-iU (absolute), thing pertaining: to 

L J ^y*"S ^"^° » couch. 

r»«a-i/w, pertaining to sitting: liW-tfc (absolute), thing pertaining to sit- 

L J ting ; seat ; chair, etc, 

r/a;r-orri«, belonging to gathering: l^-arlwrn (absolute), thing pertaimng to 

L J gathering ; pulse, legumes. . 


1. Us, le. 3. bY-lU, M-le. 

2. I-lls, Y-le. *. Y-M-lls* X-M-le. 

Adjectives in lis, etc., derived from verbs, denote for the most part 
" possibility ;" i. e. that something can be done. Sometimes, however, they 
have an active force, and denote "the doing" something; sometimes a 
passive force, and denote "that which is done;" sometimes a reflexive 
force, and denote "that which one does to" or " for one's self." 

They are formed by adding the Suffix either to the Root or the Theme of 
the Yerb ; or, else, to the Theme of the Supine. 

Obs, The Primary Suffix is Zi, •, being the nominative case-ending: U$ is, probably, 
only another form of m {No. VIII. Ch. I.). Whatever is found, above, besides /w, is 
merely an augmentation of the Suffix. 

1. penetro. 1 penetra ».. penetrd-lis, penetrating; 

to penetrate : J piercing. 

a. iiffo, to put in 1 ag ag-t-lis, that can be put in 

motion : J motion ; moveable. 

doceo, to tewih : doc doC't-liSy that can be taught; 

easily taught ; teachable. 

fdcio, to do: ¥AC Jac-i-lis, that can be done; 

easily done ; easy. 

frangoy to break: fbaq frag-UiSy that can be broken; 

brittle; fragile. 

V 4 

Digitized by 



ttiOTy tonse: ut ti/-l-/if, that can be used ; use- 

ago^ to put in motion : a& ag-t-lis^ that puts itself in mo- 
tion; agile. 

alo, to nourish : .a It -urn .... aU't-lis, that nourishes ; nou- 

Jero^ to produce : .fert-um,,. fert-t-Us^ that produces ; fer- 

fluOy to flow : .flux-um... Jlux-Ulis, that flows ; fluid. 

volo, to ^j: voldt'Um. void t-t'lis, thsit flies; winged; 


versoy to turn frQ-lversdt'UmyVersdt'i'Us, that turns itself 

quentlj : J frequently ; revolving ; ver- 


^ncfo, to cleave : .fiss-um... fiss-t-lisy that can be cleft; 


^ec^, to bend: ,f lex- um ,.. flex- t-lisy that can be bent; 

pliant ; flexible. 

ahy to nourish : ali-um alt-i'lisy that is nourished ; fat- 

cojtto, to prepare by 1 CO c^«»i •». coct'i-liSy that is prepared by 

fire : J fire ; burnt 

^»^o, to mould : fict-um .,., flct'i-lis, that is moulded; 


3. deleotOf to delight : .., delect a .... delecfd-bt^iSf that delights ; 

delightful ; delectable. 
penetrOy to penetrate : penetra „.. penetrd-ht-lisy that penetrates ; 


fleoy to weep : fle fle-bt-Usy that weeps ; weeping. 

versOy to turn fre- 1 versa versd-bt'lisy that turns itself 

quently : J frequently ; revolving. 

volvOy to roll : yolv [ro/t?-M-/w], 1 that rolls itself; 

volu-bUliSy J revolving. 

fleOy to weep for: fle. fle-bi-lis, that is wept for ; to 

be lamented ; lamentable. 
noscOy to obtain alNO .•••• nd-6We$y that of which a know- 
knowledge : J ledge is obtained ; re- 
nowned ; famous ; noble* 

Digitized by 


C:^. H,] ADJEOTIYES.— lls,le, etc. 73 

valvo, 1 VOLV [t7o/t;-W-/w], 1 that is turned 

to roll : 3 vdlu-bi-lis^ \ round ; made to 

^mo, to love : ama amd-bi-lis, that can beloved; 

lovely ; amiable. 
jyenetro, to ipeneiTVite: penetr a ,., penetrd-bUliSy that can be 

penetrated ; penetrable. 

j^roAo, to prove : •. ,pr6hd probd-bt'lis, that may be 

proved ; probable. 

deleoy to blot out : ^...dele • deli^-bt'lisy that can be blotted 

out ; destructible. 

moveoy 1 fMOY ..•.—••.[wiov-il-Zw], 1 that can be mov- 

to move : y mo-bt-lisy J ed ; moveable. 

. terreo, to frighten : ..tehr lcrr-t-W-/t>, that frightens ; ter- 

horreo, to shudder at: horb. horr-i-bi'liSy that is shuddered 

at; horrible. 

cre^io, to believe : cred cred-t-bi-lis^ that can be be- 
lieved; credible. 

doceo, to teach : •- dog ddc'i-bx-lis^ that can be taught 


fZ^r, to use: •«• ut » ut-trbi'lis, that can be used 


vendOyio^Wi vend vend-i-bt'lis, that can be sold 

saleable ; vendible. 

comprehendoy \co mp re hen s-um, comprehens-t-bt'lis, that can be 

to lay hold of : J laid hold of; comprehen- 


divtdo, to diYidt : divts-^m,.. (UviS't-bhlis, that can be di- 
vided ; divisible. 

Jlecto, to bend : .flex*um .... ^^lex-i-bt-lis, that can be bent ; 


p/rridfo, to applaud : plaus-um.., plattS't-bt-liSyihskt can be ap- 
plauded ; deserving applause. 

Digitized by 




1. eSnSf efof oivm. *. eYus* ela* eYmiLi 

2. ft-elSiiSy ft-edftv ft-eSmn* 5. i-olusy i-ola* i-oYum. 
3. 1-oduSy I-ote» Y-o4Siiiii« : w i^Yiuh i-^Iat i^Imn. 

Adjectives of this class are obtained from Substantiyes, Verbs, and Adjec- 
tives. Here also must be referred a deriyative of the Adverb prope. 

When obtained from Substantives thej denote, etymologicallj, **made 
of,*' or " done by," or " springing *' or *' arising from," their primitive ; and 
hence, sometimes, in a derived force, the *' belonging " or '* pertaining " to 
such primitive. 

When obtained from Yerbs they denote, etymologically, the ** producing;" 
the "being produced by" or "made of;" the "springing from," their 
primitive ; and, hence, point out a quality of which the etymological meaning 
is descriptive. 

When obtained from Adjectives they have the same force as such Adjec- 
tives; the notion of "springing from" here pointing necessarily t6 a 
similarity of character, etc. 

When obtained from an Adverb the Adjective denotes, etymologically, 
" springing from that which is in the condition," e/c, which the Adverb 
signifies ; and, hence, points out a quality of which the etymological meaning 
is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of Substantives, and 
of the Supines of Verbs ; sometimes to the Themes of Verbs ; and by 
eliding the last vowel of prope before the Connecting Vowel of the Suffix. 

Obi, 1. The vowel t, at the beginning of i-t^iuB, and the vowel a, in a-ceus, are 
Connecting Vowels. 

06s. 2. Adjectives in chts are formed from substantives of the 1st declension, by 
adding the Suffix to the unaltered Theme, — as, charta, charta-i, charta^ceus ; bat those 
in a-ceu8 are formed from substantives of other declensions, in imitation, apparently, 
of the preceding formation, — as, papyrus, papyr-i, papyr-a-eeus. 

Obs, 3. The quantity of the Connecting Yowel i in i-cHus (also written i-tlus) is un- 
certain. Words of this class do not commonly occur in poetry ; and where they are 
found, the poets appear to have lengthened or shortened the t, as it suited their purpose. 
Martial (5, 24, 8) has aupposit't-tius ; Terence (Eunuch. 8, 5, 34,) and Juvenal (3, 265) 
have nov-i-ciu8. On the other hand Ovid (Tristia, 4, 10, 46) has aodal-i-tius, Plautus 
(Capt. 4, 2, 48) cuUl-X-Hus; and Juvenal (14, 332), Persius (1, 61), Statins (Silvaa, 
i, 4, 97), have/Ni<r-¥-cit». 

Digitized by 


Cb« II.] ADJECTIVES.— oSns, ote, o«iim, etc 75 

X. oliartaff paper : ...cAar^a-t* charta-ceus^ made of paper. 

ro^a, rose : rosd-i* rosd-ceusy made of roses, 

argilla, d&j : argilld^i* argilld-cetiSy made or con- 
sisting of clay ; clajej. 

galllna^ a do-1 ...gallind-i* gallind-ceuiy [springing 

inestic fowl : J from gallirug]^ belonging 

to domestic fowls ; galli- 
Tnembrdna, skin : ...membrdnd'i*,, membrdnd-^eus, made of 

;^ skin ; also, resembling 

ampulla, flask : a mp ulld'i'^ ampulld-ceusy [springing 

from a flask], resembling 
a flask. 

a. papfmSi paper : ..papyr^i papgr-d-ceus, made of paper. 

hordeum, barley : horde 'i horde-d'Cetis, made of barley. 

3. panis, bread: pan-is pan-t-ceus, made of bread. 

4u natrlOf to nourish inutri nutri- ctus, [producing the 

nourishing or nourish- 
ment]], nourishing. 

6. caementam* 1 ,.,c{sment'i cament'i-eitis, made of 

quarry stone : J quarry stone. 

later, brick : later -is later-i-ctus, made of brick. 

stramentum, sir&w istrament-i ... strameni't-ctiis, made of 


€BdUis,edi\ei adil-is <s(fi7-t-ctt<^, pertaining to an 

trtbunus, tribune : trtbun-i tribun'ucius, pertaining to 

a tribune, 
pa^r^f, senators : ...patr-um patr-i^citis, pertaining to 

senators; patrician. 

novQs^new: nov-i nov-i-cius, new, 

vendlis, for sale : ...vendl'is vendUi-ctus, for sale. 

* Old (JenitiTe Cases, for the common charta, rottB, argiUc^ etc. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


. prope, near : .prop-e prop-i-ttusy [springing from 

that which is near (in feel- 
ing)]], favourable, pro- 

uAwhnto^ioKmY^i advent'um advent-i-ctus, [produced by 

arriving], that has come 
from without. 

comminiscor, to\comment' um . . . comment-i-ciuSy [produced 
devise : J bj devising], devised. 

confefOy to contii-lco lid t'Um coUat-i-ciuSy [produced by 

bute : J contributing], contributed. 

dedo, to Burrender: dedtt'um dedit-i-ctusy [produced by 


inseroy to insert : ,.,insert' um insert-i-ciuSy [produced by 

inserting], inserted. 

st^doy to auh' 1 ...subdit-um subdit^i-citis, [produced by 

stitute : J substituting], substituted. 

supponoy to putlsuppdstt'um .,. supposit'i-citiSyl^prodiicedhy 
in the place of : J putting in the place of], 


' 06«. 4. Substantives occur, which end in some of the foregoing adjectival Suffixes. 
Strictly speaking, however, they are Adjectives, in concord with some word to be 

dedititiua, surrendered. 

deditititu («c. homo), a person who has surrendered. 

novicius, new. 

novicius («c. Aomo), a new comer ; a novice. 

nutritiug, nourishing; also, rearing or bringing up. 

nutrUius (scJ homo), one bringing up (a child) ; tutor. 

nti^rt^ <B, f, (ac madier), one bringing up (a child) ; governess. 

nutriiia, €t,f. (sc mtc/ter), one nourishing (a child) ; nurse. 

nviritiwai, t, n. (absolute), that which is nourishing ; nourishment. 

nutaiHoy OTMM, n. (abflolute), wages for nourishing ; nurses' wages. 


1. tY-Bii0« fX-tta» tl-niim« a. tl-nns, ti-aa* tS-w 

Adjectives in tX-mu, etc., etymologically denote ** belonging to" that, 
which their primitives signify. 

Digitized by 


Oh. II.] ADJEGTIYES. — tV-nns, tY-oa, tl-iiwn, eta 77 

Thej are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root of Verbs, the Theme of 
Substantives, or to Adverbs without change. 

Obs, Words of this kind mostly relate to Time. 

3i. airniu, year: ••• ann-i, 1 anno-ti-nuty of or belonging to 

\jinnd'%\ J a (complete) year, a year old. 

eras, to-morrow: cras'ti-ntis, of or belonging to to-morrow. 

diu, for a long time: ... dtu-H-nus, of or belonging to a long time. 

priSf before "1 pris't^-nus, of or belonging to before; for- 

(obsolete) : J mer ; ancient. 

a. Tesper* evening : vesper^i ... vesper-it-nus, belonging to the 


Matutay Matuta, god- 
dess of morning : 

feror, to bear one's 
self along : 

Matut-a ... \matut-t%'nu$\^ 1 belonging to 

matU'ti-nus, J Matuta; early. 

FER Q/er-<i-ntw]],1 [[belonging to 

fes*tunus*y I bearing one's 

j self along], 

J quick^ rapid. . 

Obs. Probably hester-nutf ater^ut, Mn^/fer-nttt, are to be plaeed in this class; but 
their formation is doubtful. 


1. bniidiui, biinda, Irandimi. 3< Y-bundiiSi Y-bnndmt V«biui4viii. 

Zm S-bundiuiy S-bunda, S-bundmii* 

Adjectives of this class have a strengthened meaning of the Present 
Participle of the Verbs from which they are derived. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root, or to the Verbal 

Obs. Some few adjectives have the direct power of a participle : as, vkabunAu eattra, 
Liv. 25, 13; vitabundus clastem, Sail. Frgm. p. 213 Eritz: nudiiabundu» beUunij 
Justin, 38, 3. 

1. edfflto, to think : ... cogitd eogita-bundus, thinking 

much ; full of thought. 

deliberOf to deli-1 deliberd deliberd-bundut^ d^iberat- 

berate : J ing deeply. 

• Compare /«r-ojr, p. 66, 

Digitized by 



erro, to wander : ... erra erra-bundus, wandering to 

and fro. 

gratuloTf to con-l gratuld grattUa-bundtis^congrBXixlsitr 

gratulate : J ing much. 

A<s«tifo, to hesitate : htesita A<bH^-6«iuImj^ greatly hesi- 

lacrpmOy to weep : laerymS lacryma-bundus, bursting 

into violent weeping. 

miroTy to wonder : mir& mird-bundus, full of wonder. 

wncror, to re- 1 ... venerd ..,* venera-bundus, greatly re- 
verence : J verencing. 

a. fMbno« to mutter : fbem frem-e-bunduSy muttering 


gemo^ to groan : oem gem-e-bunduSf groaning 


3. fttro, to rage : .n fur fur-i-bundus, raging greatly. 

ludo, to play: lud lud-hbundusy playing much. 

mfor, to strive : nit tut-t-bundus, striving 


/)ti(^ee>, to feel shame : pud pud-Ubundus, \^eB.t\j feel- 
ing shame], hashful ; 

lascivto, to he \ lasciv ... 2a»ctt7-t-d«nJi», greatly wan- 
wanton : J toning. 


1. eundiiaf onnda* eandain. 2. Y-emidiiaf Y-emtdrnt Y-emidiiin. 

Adjectives in cundus, f-ctciuftM, denote an "abounding in/* or "having much 
of* that, which their primitive implies. 

They are formed from Verbs by adding the Suffix to the Boot or Verbal 

1. iraaoor, to be 1 iRA ird-cundusy very angry; 

angry : J wrathful. 

farif to speak : fa /d-cundus, that speaks 


Digitized by 


CI^H. 11. ] ABJECTIYES. — tJw9Mf tlva, tiTniiit'eto. 7 9 

juvo, \ juv ^juV'Cundtis^i^ pleasing 

to please : J ju'cundusy }- greatly ; 

J delightful. 

y^, akin to S. 1 Jo jd-cundus^ sporting much; 

^ Dju, to sport : J mirthful. 

vereor, to feel 1 vere vere-cundtUy feeling much 

shame : J shame. 

2. rttbtef to be red : rub rub-t'cundus, very red; 



1. tiTiuh tiira, tlvuMMk* S. T-^tXnUf T^tlira, T-^lFiim. 

Adjectives in tivus, etc., have, etymological ly, a participial force, some- 
times active, sometimes passive : and hence point out a quality of which the 
etymological meaning is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Boot or Verbal Theme. 

Obs, The Primary Suffix is tlv m-« ; the first t in l-M v tc « ia a Connecting Vowel ; 
si VMS arises from assimilation. 

tojoin together:/ conjunc-tivtu, Igether; 

I connect- 

doy to give: i>a da^HvuSj giving. 

adjtciOf \ ADJic [at(/tc-^iri«], "1 added; (hence) 

to add : J adjec-ttvus, J adjective. 

capio, to take : cap cap-tivus, taken ; capt i ve. 

wa*cor, to be born : ,..NA na^tivus, born (in a parti- 
cular place) ; native. 

SA, root preserved 1...SA , sa-tivus, sown, 

in sero to sow : J 

subjunoy I SUB Jic \mbjic'ttvus]y 1 [laid under], 

to ky under: J sub^ec-iivus, J subjective. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


a. atofttoTv I ...ABUT • [abut'tivus\ 1 misapplied ; 

to misapply : J labiis-sivus], > misused. 

(ibu-sivus, J 

3. geno. to beget : gen gen-i-tivus, 


!• en-siSf en-«e« a. Y-en-siSt I-en-se. 

Adjectives in «int, etc., mostly denote "b^ng in" or "belonging t© ** a 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Hieme of Substantives. 

Obs. 1. The Suffix i-entu is xnostl/ found in words derived from names of countries 
or cities. 

1. elrewh circus: cire-i ctrc-ensis, belonging to the cir- 

castrunif camp : castr-i ca^/r-en^, belonging to acamp. 

f^rum,ioT\xm\ .for-i n for-ensis, belonging to the fo- 

Aor/u«, garden : hort-i hort-ensis, belonging to a 


lutum, mud: lut-i lut-ensisy in, or found in, mud. 

nemus, grove : nemd r-is . . . nemor-ensis, belonging to a 


Circeiif Circeii: .....Circei'Orum, Cired'ensiSy belonging to 


Hispdma, Sj^2Lm:.,.,Hispdni'CB., Jrispdm-ensiSf belonging to 


Melitay Malta : MilU-CB Meltt-ensiSf belonging to Mai t a. 

Zm Atb»mxt Athens z.,. At hen^rum, Athen-t-ensiSf belonging to 

Babplon, 'Babylon i.Bdb pi dU'ts , Babpldn-tensiSy belonging to 

Carthago y Carthage : Ca r thdgin^is Carthagin-i-ennSy belonging to 

Rhddosj^ Rhodes : . . . Rhdd'i BAdd-i-ensis, belonging to 


Digitized by 


^H. II.] ADJECTIY£S. — 6as, te, tnn, etc. 81 

Oft». 2. Some sabstantives in «imm are found which evidently were originallj- adfec- 
tives, although in the Latin works that have come down to ufl they do not appear in an 
adjectival form. Such are, — 

a/rfttm, court of houee : atri-u aM-entis, [belonging to court of 

house], keeper of the olriMm. 

commentarius, note-book: comment a rl-t commentSfi-ennt, [belonging to note* 

book], secretary ; registrar. 

/a&r¥ca, work-shop : ,fabr\c-<B fabric-eMU, [belonging to work- 
shop], work-man. 

libeUus, petition: libell-i. Afte/7-«nm, [belonging to petitions], an 

officer who presented petitions to the 
emperors, and registered them. 

^.B. Compare No. I. Obs. 2, and No. XII. Obs. 1, of this Chapter. 


1. Sus, ISa* Sum. 2. t-Sns, t-l^at t-lhun. 

Adjectives me us signify, etymologically, a* ** a pertaining to ** something ; 
hence, in a derived sense, b, **tbe consisting or* something ; o, ''the being 
made" or *' composed of" something; d« "the resembling" something in 
some part of its nature. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of Substantives. 

1, a. eitnu, the citrus 1 Cf7r-t citr-Hus, pertaining to the ci- 

tree: J trus tree. 

corpus^ a body : .... corpdr-is .... cwp^r-^tw, pertaining to abody. 

aer, the air: aer^is (zer-^us, pertaining to the air. 

rosuy a rose: ros-ise ros-^usy pertaining to a rose or 


virgoy a maiden: .... virgtnns .... i;tV^lf»-^u«> belonging to a maid- 

b. bums, a box-tree : bux-i bux-^us, consisting of box-trees. 

iffniSf fire : ig n-is ign-^us, consisting of fire. 

corpusy flesh: corpdr-is .... corpor'^us, consisting of flesh. 

e. ar§r9iitiiin« silver: argent-i argent-^us, made of silver. 

arundOy a reed: arundtn-is . arundin'cus, made of reeds. 

auruniy gold: aur^i aur-^us, made of gold. 

buxus, box- wood :,„bux'i bux-^us, made of box- wood. 


Digitized by 



cUruSf citrus wood: citr-i citr'^uSy made of citrus wood. 

ferrum, iron: ferr-i ferr^^us, made of iron. 

lignum^ wood: lign-i ,. Ogn-^tu, made of wood. 

plumbum^ lead: ..••. plumb-i plumb-^usj made of lead. 

vUrumy glass: vitr-i viir-^us^ made of glass. 

rosci^ a rose: ros-^ ros-itiSf made of roses. 

. gold : aur-i aur-etis, like gold ; gold-colour- 

arundoj a reed: arundin-is arundtU'eus, reed-like. 

ignis, fire : ig n-is igu'ius, fire-like (of colour). 

y, „ „ yy fire-like, resplendent; 

„ „ „ „ fire-like, burning. 

buxusy box- wood : . . . bux'i bux-euSy like box- wood ; pale 


cintSy ashes : cin ir-is ciner-iusy like ashes (in colour) ; 

grey; cinereous. 

a. lUimn, flax : Hn-i lin-t-euSy [[made of flax]], linen. 

Obs, In Kn-t'ius the t is eaphonic. 

1. dftiis, 5sa, Strnmrn a. Y-teiis, Y-Smu I-dsnm* 

Adjectives in osuSyi-osuSy signify the ** being full of,** or "abounding 
in,** that which is denoted by their primitive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of Substantives, mostly 
without the Connecting Vowel f. 

Obs, Words irom the fourth declension of substantives end in ii'osus. The «, 
however, is part of the Theme, and is obtained by inflecting the substantive after the 
original and nncontracted mode : viz., saUua; salt&is, contracted, stdtus. The geni- 
tive anuis, of an old woman, is found in Terence. 

N.B, 1. Mon§trum, on evil omen; monstr-i: monffr-oftM, full of evil omen : monstr''U- 
osuso preternatural ; monstrous. 

The first form above given, viz., moiM^oMM, is formed in the usual way: monstr^ 
ttosus, the other form, is obtained probably from the nncontracted genitive case, and by 
the substitution of « foro; thus, tnonttri^morutrd-i ; monstru-i; whence is obtained 

N.B, 2. The word tempettuotua (abounding in storms, tempestuous) is fomid in late 
Latin once or twice. Its primitive is ten^testat; and therefore it must either be re- 

Digitized by 


Ch. IL] ADJ£CTiy£S.— lentoa, toats. lentiim, etc. 83 

gax<dtod as a wholly irregular form, or elae the formation takes place from the unoon- 
tracted fonn of the genitive, together -with the sabstitation of u for t; and farther, b^ 
the elision of a syllable ; thus, tempeKtatu » tempmUOi'is : whence is obtained tempeataii" 
08US, tea^estatH'Oius : and thence again, by elision, tesipestiS-onif. 

1. eemniiiay trouble:... arumn-a.,, arumn^osuSy full of trouble. 

dnimtiSi courage : ••• dntm'i dnini'dsuSf full of courage. 

artiftcium, art : artifici'i ... arti/tct'OsuSf skilful. 

fTi^entt/m, ability :«.. t»^ en t-i ingifnMsuSj full of ability; 

Zt6tc2b, passion : Itbidin-is..,, libidin-^sus, full of passion; 

an^UiOy ambition i,.,ambUt6n'is {^ambiiidn'Osus'], 1 full of ambi- 

ambUiO'SuSf J tion. 
supersiUiOy super- \sup€rsti-\ [jsuperstttiidh-^sus]^ 1 full of super- 
stition. J tidn-is J superstitw-suSf V stition; su- 

J perstitious. 
actus J the doing of lact-us, 

a thing. J [ac^tt-«>], 

portusy harbour : . ... port-uSy 

saltus, forest : acdt- us, 

vuUuSy expression 1 vult-usy 
of countenance : y[vultU'%s']y 

actU'OsuSy full of the doing of 
a thing ; very active. 

partu-osuSy abounding in har- 

saUu'dsuSy abounding in fo- 

vultU'OsuSy full of or attended 
with much expression of 

a. l&bor» labour : lab 6 r-is lahdrA-dsuSy full of labour ; la- 


1. lentiiSf lentSv leBtom. «. 6-leiui, S-lentU. 

2. 6-lentiuif 6-leBtSv 6-lentiiin. 8. tt-lens* tt-lentU. 

3. tt-lentiuh tt-lentSv tt-lentam. 

Adjectives in lentusy etc., mostly signify ** abounding in** or ** being full 
of** a thing; yet sometimes they denote a " being fit.** 
They are formed from Substantives by adding the Suffix to the Theme. 

Ohs, The Primary Snffix is /entu, « being the nommative case-ending; /en« is ob- 
tained by striking out t and u, and retaining the nominative case-ending «. In u-ltntf 
le m, U'lentus, d-lentus, u and o are merely Connecting Vowels. 

Q 2 

Digitized by 



Lpdettlun, draught: ...pocul-i .... [pdcul4enttis]j 1 fit for drinking; 

pdcii'lenius, J drinkable. 

2. Mutfuls, blood : sanguin-'is sangutn-d-lentus, full of blood. 

vinum, wine: vin-i vin-O'lentus, full of wine; in- 
vis, violence: vi^s vt'O-lenius, violent. 

3. emrpiiSv body corpdr^ %8....\corpdr'U'lentu8] , 1 having a 

corp'U'lentus, > (large) body; 
J corpulent. 

frausy deceit: .fraud -is..., fraud-u^lentus, deceitful. 

^^pe«, riches : dp -urn ^-t«-/enfc«^, rich ; opulent. 

pulvis, dust: pulv^r-is.,., pulver-u-^erUuSy very dusty. 

(urba, disturbance : ..turb-cR turb'u4enttiSyi\})\ of disturbance ; 

esca, food : esc-cB esc-u-lerUus, fit for food; escu- 

po^^, a drinking:. ..../>() ^-t^ pot-u-leniusy fit for drinking ; 


«. Tim violence : vi-s vi'd4efis, violent. 

5. ^es, riches: op'um op-U'lens, rich} opulent. 


Ins, Ittf Ymn. 

Adjectives in in s denote, etymologically, a *' belonging to " some person 
or thing ; but, in a derived force, some quality of which the etymological 
meaning is descriptive. 

They are chiefly obtained from Personal Substantives in tor or tor, though 
occasionally from a few others, and are formed by adding ttt« to the Theme 
of the primitive. 

aocasfttor» an SLC'laccusdtdr'is, accusator'tus, of or belonging 
cuser : J to an accuser. 

Digitized by 


Ch. II;] ADJECTIVES. — ^Xmn, la, Inm. 85 

dl^dior^ a gambler:... a /^a/or-tV.«. aUdtorAui^ of or belonging to 

a gambler. 

amatory a lover: dmdtor-'is*.* amatorAuSy of or belonging to 

a lover : amatory. 

censor^ a censor : censor-is ••.. censorAuSy of or belonging to a 

censor; severe. 
imp^rdtoTy^i {iom'\impirat6r''is impirdtor-iuSy of or belonging 
mander : J to a commander. 

prcetory a praetor: ,,. prtBtor-is ... praidr-tusy of or belonging to 

a praetor. 
nugatory a trifler: ...nuffdtdr-is,.. nugdior-iusy of or belonging to 

a trifler; worthless; nugatory. 

soroTy a sister: sdror-h sdror-iusy of or belonging to a 


tonsory one 1 tonsor-is ... tonsdr-iusy of or belonging to 

wbo shaves : J one who shaves ; tonsoriaL 

uxoTy a wife: uxor-is uxdr-tusy of or belonging to a 

wife ; attached to a wife ; ux- 
dquiloy the north: ... a qut Ion-is . dqutldn4uSy of or belonging to 

the north ; northerly. 

pdtery father: patr-is patr-tus, of or belonging to a 

father; paternal. 

re^, aking: reg-is reg^ttiSy of or belonging to a 

king; regal; royal. 

Obt. 1. Some Substantives in ius, la, turn (principally those fonned from Substan- 
tival Themes ending in tor) are, strictly speaking, Adjectives, and must be referred to 
some Substantive understood. Such are, 

dmatoriMis, of or belonging to ti\„..dmator'%um (medicamenium), an amatory or love po- 
lover; amatory: j tion. 

alSatoHu», of or belonging to a) alSStor-lum (adijieiiim), a gambling-house. 

gamester : j 

a«<It(or¥i<«,of or belonging to a).... atM2t^or-Y«m^(<M2i/!cttim), a place for hearing; an 

hearer ; relating to hearing : I f assembly-room or lecture- hall. 

„ ^absolute), a judicial investigation or 

) hearing of a cause. 
pratoHuSy of or belonging to a) ....prtetor-ius (homo), a man of praetorian rank ; an ex- 
pnetor: f pmtor. 

„ n ..../>r<e<or-lvm (fantorttcm), a prsdtor's tent 

uxoriuSf of or belonging to a) ....uxor-Itun (<es), wife-money; «'. e. a tax laid upon 
wife: I bachelors ; bachelor tax.* 

r^tus, of or belonging to a) ....r^ia (cfomiM), a kingly house; a palace, 
bng; kingly; / 

„ .... » (w6«), a royal city; a capital. 

N.B» Compare above, No, I. 06«. 2. 

* See Festus, p. 379 ed. Mttller. 
G 3 

Digitized by 



OU, 2. To thJB class also belong some proper names in mm, ui. Such are, 

moi, male: mar-u JfoH-ttf fbelonging to a male], Marina. 

octatmt, eighth : oetav-i Oefa«l-««\ [belonging to the eighth], Octa- 

Octool-a j yios, Octavia. 

Obt. 3. Perhaps also here should be pUbced the feminine names of coontries. Sach are, 

Br ita m n it, Briton ; ^ritann-i... Britann-^ country belonging to the Britons; 


Oalhu, a Gaul: Gall-i Gaff-lo, country belonging to the Gauls; Ganl. 

Crr«eiM, a Greek : GrtBc-i. Gr«e-la, country belonging to the Greeks; 



I or. 

Adjectives in C'S-tu denote a quality descriptive of the nature of t-heir 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of Substantives. 

mgeTf country : agv'i .... agr-e'S-Hs, country-like ; rastio. 

cesium^ heaven : cosl'i ccel-e-s-tis, heaven -like ; hea- 

OU. 1. The Suffix is represented by some philologists as being strictly It ; the ^ 
being a Connecting Yowel, and the first « euphonic, wmle the second s is the nominative 

Obi, 2. One great modem philologist, however (Pott), considers sh' to be the Suffix, 
and connects it with the Sanscrit sta, to stand. According to this view, the meaning 
of the above-given words will be, ** standing in the country,** hence, ** rustic,"— ** stand- 
ing in heaven," hence, ** heavenly." If this be so, sUs = Latin Attu, 


\»ttan»m9 Y-tlnuif Y-tYmum. 

By means of the Suffix i-ftmus Adjectives are formed having the force of 
" closely connected with '* or " bordering upon.'* 
They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of Substantives. 

flnlst border : .fin -is fin-t-HmuSy bordering. 

lexy law : legits . . . legA^ttmus^ lawful ; legitimate. 

mare^ sea: m&r'is.,., mar-i-ttmus, connected with, or 

near the sea ; maritime. 

Digitized by 


Ca. II.3 ADJEOTIYES. — tau> bm taUf etc 87 


1. bii«» ba« biun. a. e-r-bns, e-r^-bAt e-r^bmn. 

Adjectiyes in bu'S, etc., according to their etymology*, signify '^tbe 
being " that which their primitire signifies. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to Uie Theme of Adjectlres, to the 
Koot of Verbs, or to Adrerbs themselves. 

Obs. In cte-e-r-bus {No. 2), e is a Connecting Yowel, and r is enphonic. Compare 
lite'e-r-na. Chap, I. No. XIII. B. 8 ; and A 6, Aodt-«-r-nM. 

1. pro, before: .pro pro-bus, Qhat is before^) good> 


superiis,\ super-i super-bus, Qhat is high (in 

high : J mind)^ proud ; haughty. 

2. aetto, to make I AC ac'e-r-bus, Qhat is made 

pointed : J pointed ; bence^ harsh. 


Gntts appears to be a contraction of genus, = gbn, Root of gigno + the 
Suffix Its. There are only some few Adjectives with this termination, which 
ought perhaps to be referred, strictly speaking, to the head of Compound 
Words. Such as are found, however, ending as above, denote, etymolo- 
gically, when derived from Adjectives, the " being born " in the condition 
betokened by the primitive; but when from Substantives, the *^ being 
sprung" from that which the primitive signifies ; and, hence, point out some 
quality of which the etymological meaning is descriptive. 

They are formed from Adjectives by adding the Suffix to ^e Theme. 

N.B. Compare Substantives in ffo, Chap. III., No. XY. 

beniia = bonus, good :..,ben'i ben- i-gnus, [^born good]], bene- 

malus, bad: mal-i mal-i-gnus, []born bad]], malig- 

* Sanscrit, bh^ to be. 
a 4 

Digitized by 



' aper, wild boar : apr-i apr-u-^us*, [[sprung from a 

wild boar], of or belonging 
to a wild boar. 

abies, fir-tree: aite^-w,...[aWe/-^nt«],l [sprung from ; 

abie-gnus, > hence], made 
J from a fir-tree. 

06«. There are two substantiyes ending respectiyely in ^p^u and gwiy which are 
evidently of an adjectival nature : theee are, 

jortoM, separate : priv-i prw^-gnut, [one bom separately, ue. of a 

different stock] ; step-son. 
„ „ ,t priv't-gna, [one bom separately, i.«., of a dif- 

ferent stock] > step-daughter. 




1. o, 5ii-lSf m. 8. oii*Yiia, on-Yi, m, 

a. I-o, Y-5ii-ls««i». tf- on-Ya, on-ln,/. 

3. tt-o» tt-dn-lSf M. 7. en, Yn-ISv m. 

4. 5ii-iaif 5ii*it m. 

Sabstantiyes in o, onis^ etc., haye, etymologically, a participial force, and 
represent agents performing the action of the Verbs from which they^are 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root of Verbs. 

1. bYbOf to drink : bib btb-Of [the drinking one]], 

cachinnor^ to laugh : ..cachinn .... cachinn-Oy the laughing one. 
cotnmilitOf to fight 1 GOMMILIT... commiltt-o^ [the one fighting 
together with ano- [ (in conjunction) with ano- 

ther: J ther], comrade, fellow-sol- 


* At Solinns, 32, 30, the extended form aprugineus is found : h^)popotamos . . . un- 
gulit lifidisj apruginei* dent&uaj cauda tortuota. 

Digitized by 


Ch. IU.] substantives. — o, •B-lii« etc 89 

ee2o, toeat: ed ^(i*o, Qhe eating one]], glutton. 

erro, to wander : ebr err-o^ Qhe wandering one39 


geroy to carry: ger ger-o^ Qhe carrying one], car- 

incuboy to lie upon : ...incub incub-o^ []the one lying upon^y 

guardian of hid treasure; 

lurcai^ to gormandise : lurc lurc-o, [the gormandising one^, 


prtjedovy to plunder :... piled prted-o^ Qhe plundering one], 

plunderer, robber. 

volo^ to be willing: ...vol vol-o*, [the willing one]], vo- 

2. puiiffOt to pierce : pua pug-t-o, [the thing piercing], 


re6e2/o, to make war 1 BEBELL rebeU-t'O^ []the one making 

again : J war again], rebel. 

s. lieittor, to gormandise : hel heUu-Oy [ihe gormandising 

one], gormandiser. 

4. edlo, to cultivate : COL cdl-diP-uSy Qhe cultivating 

one], cultivator, husband- 

5. tBKweot to favour: fav Jav-on-ttitf,[]the favouring one], 

Favonius or the Zephyr. 

6. pelio, to rout: pell PeU-on'ta^ l^the routing one], 

the goddess Pellonia. 

Jiuo, to Aow: flu Flu-ofi'ta, Qhe flowing one], 

a name of Juno. 

7. pectoy to comb : pect pect-^n^ Qhe combing thing], 


Substantives of this class are also formed in imitation of those of verbal 
origin. They denote the " having,*' or ** being endowed with,** that, which 

. * Perhaps only found in plural number, w>&me«. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

90 LATIK BUrriXES. [Ch.111, 

their primitives signify; and are formed by adding the Saffix to the 

I log of wood: cal-HB caUo^ [^one baring log of 

wood ; wood-carrier], sol- 
dier's servant. 

cefUuria, century: centurx^iB, centuri-Oy [one baying a cen- 
tury], centurion. 

6ucca, cheek: hucc-tB bucc»Oy \j>ne having cheeks^, 


caputt head : captt-U..., cdptt-o^ |[one having head^* 


fronSf forehead : fr o n t^is, . . . froni-o^ Qone having forehead J, 


ctcer, chick-pea: ctcer-^i Ctcer-o, |[one having chick- 
pea, t.e.], marked with a 
chick-pea; Cicero. 

labium, lip: I abut labvo^ [^one baying lip], big- 

/on^urttM, long pole:.. /on^ Mr t-t. languri-o, [one having long 

pole], long-shanks. 

nasus, nose : naS'i ....... nas-o {one having nose], big- 
nose, nosey. 

b. lAveraa^ the god-1 Lavern-tE lavemi-Oy [one having, i,e, 
dess of thieyes, La- > under the protection of, La- 

yerna : J verna], thief. 

Zt^t^, stage-play : lud-i lud-i-Oy [one having a stage- 
play], actor. 

muluSf mule I mul-i frnd-i-o, [one having mules], 


restis, rope : res t-is rest-i-^, one having rope], 


o. mel, honey : m ell-is MeH-on-ta, [the one having 

honey], Mellonia, the god- 
dess of honey. 

morbus, disease : tnorb^i Morb-on-ia, [the one haying 

disease], Morbonia, the god- 
dess of disease. 

t^aZ/is, valley : valUis ValUon-ta, [the one having 

valleys], Yallonia, the god- 
dess of valleys. 

Digitized by 


Ch. IIL] substantives. — mlttnm mtei, etc 91 

A. anniisv year : ann-t ^nn-on-Oy [the one having 

the yearl, Annona, the god- 
dess presiding over the year. 

bellum^wsLTi bell-i Belt-on-a^ [the one having 

war], Bellona, the goddess 
of war. 

orbus^ a hereaved \orb'i Orb^on-a^y [the one having 

person : J (t. e. protecting) the he- 

reaved], Orbona, the goddess 
of bereaved parents. 

pomum^ fruit : .pom-i Pdm-on-a^ [the one having 

fruit], Pomona, the goddess 
of fruit. 


Substantives in mXnus^ etc., are mostly derived from Verbs, and are em- 
ployed sometimes in a passive force, and point out a person or thing *^to 
which ** something '* is done ;** sometimes in a reflexive force, and show what 
a person ** does to himself,'* etc. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix immediately to the Root ; or by 
admitting u as a Connecting Vowel between the Suffix and the Root. 

Ohs. 1. Both in sound and meaning the Suffix nAmu is closely related to -fuici^, the 
present participle termination of Gred^ passive and middle verbs. 

1- S, V TAR, to overstep: tar [/ar-»it«tw], 1 [that which is 

ter-minusy > overstepped], 
J boundary. 

geno, 1 gen fgren-minw*], 1 [that which is 

to bring forth : J [jjrem-witniw], I brought forth 

ge-minuSy | (with an- 

J other)], twin. 

a. feo, to give birth : pe fe-mina^ [she who herself gives 

birth], female. 

* In tuteld tunt OrhoncB orbati liberii parenteSf Amob. adv. Gentes, 4, cap. 7 Jin. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

. — "— ^■^^— .. 


s. alo, to nourish : al aUu-mnua^ [he that is non- 

rished], nursling, etc. 

v^r^i to turn: vebt Vert-u-mnus \\iQ who turns 

himself], Vertumnus, the 
god who, hy turning himself, 
effects the changes of the 

to nourish : al at-u-mna, [she that is nourish- 
ed], nursling, etc. 

5. nFT, akin to Gr. 1 ...nept ....[Nept-u-mntuf^y 1 fhe who 

vlTTT'Ofiaif to hathe : J Nept-u-nus^ J hathes^, Nep- 

tune, the sea-god. 

Oh», 2. Most probably here must be referred Camena, with e for I; thiju, 

coMO, to sing: can [can-mlna],l [she who herself sings], muse. 

ca-mena, j 

03<. 8. Some words of this class, in imitation of those of yerbal origin, are derived 
from substantives, and signify '< one belonging to '* that which the primitive denotes. 
They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme. 

ptcicf, \ .ptc-t Pic-u-mnHS, [the one belonging to the jmcms], 

woodpecker : j Picumnns, a Roman deity, the personincation 


piium, \ ,pil'U PtZ-u-mniM, [the one belonging tothep^m], 

javelin : j Pilumnus, a Roman deity, the personification 

of the /n^bim. 

Ctus, \ .port'U8^,.,Port''U-mnu8, [the one belonging to the por^tu], 
boQr:j Portnmnus, a Roman deity, presiding over 



mo, mdn-lSf m, 

Suhstantives in mo, mon t«, have mostly a passive force. 

They are formed by adding the SuflGbc to Boots, or to the Boots of Verbs. 

Obs, 1. The proper Suffix is moHj from which, however, the final n is dropped in the 
nominative singular. 

8EB, akin to S. // 1 seb ser^moy [the thing sounded], 

aVAB^ to sound : J speech. 

Digitized by 


TEMy akin to tem,1 tsk [_iem''mo]f 

^ of Tk\kvia^ to cut : J U-mo^ 

S. vf TAB, to over-l {tar-mo^ 

step : J ter-mo^y 

Ch. IIL] SUBSTANTITBS.— mwif mla-te, ete. 93 

[the thing cut], 
beam ; pole. 

[the thing over** 
stepped], houndarj. 

Obi. 2. PtdmOf pubnonis, is probably the only word in mo(ii)» tmSmi$, remaining in 
tlie Latin language, which has an active force. It is fonn()ji from wijCpum, the 
Ionic form of trnvfim, by transposition of a. and »» and by rejecting •• Thus, vJ^fam, 
irXMfjtMf, frvXfjun ; Latin, pubno. Its meaning is ** that which breathes ;** hence, ** long.** 

Obs, 3. Homo, hominit, is commonly deriyed from humMM, pointing ont, as it were, 
raan's origin — *« the earthbom." Anciently it was written Acno, hemomit ; and homo, 
Tiomonis.'f Hence it has been supposed that, as / is sometimes the representative of A, 
HO = fo, in /b-re, while mo (mon^ is the 8uffiz,-HS0 that the word Ao-mo simply denotes, 
in an intransitive force, " the beug." 


1. meiif mln-iSy n, 8* men-tiiiBf mea*tif ». 

2. Ynneii» Y-4nlii*-ISff n. •• X^nen^tiimy X-4iMB^tl« n. 

3. tt^neuy tt^nln-lSf n, 7< tk-men^tiuiiy tt«4B«aPitif n, 
%m a-4neB9 a^BiXii«-ISv »• •- A-4aeii^tiimy ^HOMm^tU n. 

Substantives in men, etc., have either an active force, and denote a neuter 
agent, i.e. a thing which '* does** or '^ causes'* something; or a passive 
force, and denote that which "is done "or "caused;" or that "by which 
something is effected ;" hence that "serves for something.*' 

They are formed from Verbs by adding the Suffix to the Boot or Theme. 

iVlB. The t in i-men, X-metUum; and the it in u-menf H^mentum, u-men, u-menium, are 
Connecting Yowels. 

1. leTo, to alleviate : leva ,,„ leva-men^ [the alleviating 

thing], alleviation, 
omo, to adorn: orna .... oma-m^n, [the adorning thing], 

veto, to cover : vela .... veld-men, [the covering thing], 

soloTy to console : sold sola-men, [the consoling thing], 

^tto, to flow: .flu Jtu-men, [the flowing thing], 


* Qua reddUus termo eti, Enn. Frgm., p. 69 ed. Yahlen: hortatore bono priusquam 
. ..Jmibus termo, id. ib. 

t Vttlturis in Myhoia mx$erum mande&a^Aemonem, Ennius ap. Prisdan, p. 683 ed. 
Putsch. : voliurui in tpinis miserum mandebat ho man em, Enn. Frgm., p. 23 ed. Yahlen. 

Digitized by 



fulcio^ to support : ,fu lei fnUn-menj [the sapporting 

thing], proiL 
ifioltory to endeavour :* fmoH-men, [the endeavouring 

thing]^ onbrt. 

fulgeOf 1 FULG [/ttj^-men], 1 [the flashing 

to fash: J ftd-men^ J thing], lightning. 

luceoy 1 LUC [luc'fnen]f 1 [theshining thing], 

to shine: J lu-men, J light. 

tegOf to cover : teg teg-tneny [the covering thing], 

noscOf to know : no no-men^ [the thing serving for 

knowing], name, 
vteo, tobind: vi vumeUy [the thing serving for 

binding], twig, osier, etc. 
certOy to contend : cert a certa^meny [the thing con- 
tended], contest 

formidOy to dread : for ml- 1 formidd-meny [the thing dread- 

da J ed], spectre. 

pr<By before, first :1 .prcBfa... prcefa^meny [the thing spoken 

/art, to speak : J first], prerace. 

tentOy to attempt: tenta...^ tenta'tneny [the thing attempt- I 

ed], attempt. 
agoy to put in motion : ...AG ag-men,. [the thing put in mo- i 

tion], armj on march. i 

ex, out: 1 ..ea?-AG ...[ea?fl^-iii«t],l [the thing put I 

ci^o, to put in motion: J exd-meny > in motion out], i 

J swarm of bees. I 

/ran^o, to break : frag frag-men, [the thing broken], j 

fragment. I 

gerOy to produce: geb ger-meriy [the thing produced], 

bud ; shoot. 

serOytQWWi sbr [*cr-«ien], 1 [the thing sown], 

se^meuy J seed. 

sternoy to Btrew : stba stra-men, [the thing strewed], 

straw; litter. 

volvoy to roll: volv [w/»-men], 1 [the thing rolled], 

volu-meny J roll; volume. 

crcuo, to sharpen : ag act^-me^t, [the thing sharpened], 


a. rSro> to direct : .beg re^-t-m^^z, [the directing thing], 

rudder; ruler. 

Digitized by 


Ch. III.] SUBSTANTIVES. — mwif mUi-to, «to. 95 

sed^o^ to settle : bed sedi-men, [the thing settled], 


fe^o, to cover : teo ref^-f-meiiy [the eoYering thing], 

cover; covering. 

doe^o, to teach : doc doc-i-men, [the thing serving 

for teaching], lesson; ex- 

5/>ecu>, to behold : spec spec-t-metiy [the thing serving 

for beholding], mark* 

3. t»«o, to cover : teg re^-tf-ni«n,[theooYering thing], 


cfoc^o, to teach : doc doc-u-meny [the thing serving 

for teaching], lesson; ex- 
^ ample. 

«. leffo, to gather : leg /e;^-t(l-m^,Qhe thing gathered]], 

pulse, legumes. 

5. bon^Mo, to adorn: honesta, honesta-mentuniy [the adorning 

thing]! ornament. 

levo^ to alleviate : leva leva- mentum, [the alleviating 

thing], alleviation. 

iibo, to pour out: liba Ubd-fnentumf [|the thing poured 

out^, libation. 

ornoy to adorn : orna orna'mentufny [the adorning 

thing], ornament. 

«o^, to console : sola sola-mentum^ [the consoling 

thing], consolation. 

velor, to cover : vel&i veld^mentum], the covering 

thing], cover ; covering. 

con6?u>, to season : condt.,,^ condutnentum^ [the seasoning 

thing], seasoning ; condiment. 

fulciOy to support : »fu let fulci- mentum, [the supporting 

thing], prop. 
compleo, to fill up: c ample • comple-mentum, [the thing fill- 
ing up], complement. 

[ ar^tto, to prove : argu argu-mentum^ the thing 

proving], proof. 

FOV [JaV'mentum^,'\ [the warming 

Jo^mentum, V thing], warm 
J application. 

fovea, 1 . 
to warm : J 

Digitized by 



^e^o, to cover : teo teg-mentum^ [the coTering 

thing], cover; covering. 

insiruOf to baild ;1 instru.., instru-mentufn^ [the thing 

constract: J serving for constructing], 

implement; instrument. 

torgueOf 1 tobqu ...[^torqu-mentumji \[the thing 

to hurl : J tor-mentumy J serving for 

hurling], military engine for 
hurling stones, etc. 

vieo^ to bind: vi vt-mentum^ [the thing serving 

for binding], twig; osier, etc, 

€. alo» to nourish : al al't-mentumy [the nourishing 

thing], nourishment. 
sedeoy to settle : srd sed- t-merUumy [the thing set- 
tled], sediment. 

tego, to cover : teg teg-umenttim^ [the covering 

thing], cover; covering. 

7. doeSo, to teach : doc doc'U'fnentum, [the thing 

serving to teach], example. 

moneo, to remind : mok. mon-^'mentum, [the thing 

serving to remind], monu- 

tegOf to cover : teg teg-U'tnentum, [the thing 

serving to cover], cover; 

8. leffOf to gather : leg leg-u-mentum, Qhe thing ga- 

thered^, pulse, legumes. 

0&«. 1 ilfen^um is merely a lengthening of m e n. Inl-men, l-inenl«m; and in 
ii'taenf H-meniumf i and H are merely Connecting Vowels. From the Root teo, the 
following are all formed : TEQ-men, TEQ-i-men, TEG-u-men, TEQ-mentum, TBO-l-menhcfii, 

Ohs. 2. Some Sabstantives in a-menf«m, formed from Adjectives or Substantivest 
belong to this class. The Connecting Vowel, a, seems to point to some Verb, which has 
passed from the written language, as being their Base. 

titer, \ atr-i tUr-a-mentum, [the thing serving for making 

black : J black], ink, etc, 

capiilue, \,,,capiU'i eapUl-a-mentumt [the thing serving for giving 

hair of the head : J hair to the head J, wig. 

ferrumyX .ferr^x ferr'S-mentum, [the thing made of iron], iron 

iron: J tool, efc. 

Digitized by 


Cb. IIL] SUBSTANTIYKS.— ber.tato|lm««,«to. 97 


bar* briBv m, 

The Suffix her*, added to Cardinal Adjectives^ gtres the signification of 
*^ time" to the primitive. Applied in the following instances to the divisions 
of the year, it gives the origin and meaning of the months of September^ 
October^ November^ and December, those having been originally the 7th, 
Bih, 9 th, and 10th months of the Roman year. 

septemy seven ',,„•*,,.. Septem-ber, [seven-time ; i.e. seventh time- 
division of the year], September* 

octo, eight; Octo-ber, [eight-time, i.e. eighth time- 
division of the year], October* 

nove^n, nine : • Ndvem-ber, [nine-time, i.e. ninth time*divi- 

sion of the year], November. 

decern, ten; • Decem-ber, [ten-time, i.e. tenth time-divi- 
sion of the year], December. 


a. Y-es 1-ei,/. 4. Yum, U, m 

With the Suffix ta, etc., are formed Abstract Substantives, which denote 
the performing the action of the Verb, from which they are derived ; and, 
hence, sometimes, in a derived force, the result, f/e., of such action. This 
latter is their most common force. 

They .are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root, or Verbal Theme ; 
occasionally, to the Theme of the Present Participle. 

;l. 1b, not ; 1 t »-£]> ined'ta, a not eating ; fasting. 

edo, to eat : J 

insideo, to sit in: insid .... instd-ta^, [a sitting in a place], 

exciibo, to lie out excub.... excub-tfe^ alyingout (ofdoors)» 

♦ Akin to Sanscrit v&roy Persian Wr, ** time." 
t /nsidiapnina^ SalL ap. Charis. p. 75 ed. Futsch* 


Digitized by 



exseguor, 1 ...exsbqu..... exseqU'UBy [a following (a 

to follow out : J corpse) out (of the house)], 

funeral procession. 
pluOf to rain : plu [p/w-ia], 1 [a raining], rain. 

, vindem 
demo, to take awaj : / grapes], vintage. 

t^n=t7tnuin, grapes; ) ..vtn-DEM... vtn^em-ux, [a taking away of 

abundOv ) jUmndans ..^,abundaHt'-U.».,jaImndant'ta, [^an aboundiDg], 

to abonnd: 5 abnndanoe. 

Jacto, to boast: JaetaMs. ^Jaetamt-is^ ,JaetwU'4e^ a boasting. 

postunif to be able : .potent .pot en t-ie. . .- ^tent-ia, [a being able], power. 

|7roff|i;ift>, to foresee: ^,..,.protiden» .prov%dent''is,<mdent-ia, [a foreseeing], 


a. «)oiiff«ro« 1 ...COKGBB... ron^er-t^«, [a bringing to- 

to bring together : J gether], heap, pile. 

diliw, to wash awaj : ...pii»n ...... diluv-tes, [a washing away], 


effingOy to form : ........ «EF;Fia -. efftg^tes, ^ja^ forming], effigy. 

tf^tf no, to hunger : esur ... tf.sttr-t«f, [a hungering], hunger. 

rdho, to rave: bab rdb-ies, [a raving], rage. 

scabOf to scratch: scab scdh-tes, [a scratching], rough- 
ness (caused by scratching) ; 
itch (causing scratching). 

per, utterly ; 1 . . . p c r, 1 . . . [pernec-tes], 1 [an utter killing], 

neco, takiU: J ... nec J ... perwu;-te«, J destractioiiymin. 

S. eapYo» to take : cap cap-lb, a taki ng. 

con, together; \ ... c<>i«, 1 ... eontag-io, a touching together ; 

iango^ to touch : f ... tag J ... contact 

dUuOy to wash away: ... DiLU......[|^«-ttn, 1 [a washing away], 

dU&V'tOy J inundation. 

exscindoy to destroy: ... Exscro... exsctd-io, a destroying. 

1^0, to choose out: leg legato, [a choosing out], legion* 

obsideo, to besiege: obsid ... obsid-to, a besieging. 

; opinorf to think: OPin opln-to, [a thinking], opinion. 

rego, to direct:.. •••.»...« beg reg-to, [a directing], direction ; 


«» sedlfleoy to build : •...«. j£PIFIC*.. tedifto-ium, {a building, (the 

aot)], building (thing built). 

Digitized by 


Ck. IIL] SUBSTANTnr£8.~Ia,Ii»,«to. 99 

eottoqiiorf to ^onrersc : ,. coLLdQU eolldgu^ium^ {a conrerfiing^l 


confugio, to ^ee 1 ...confug... canfug-ium^ [a fleeing for ro- 

for refuge: J fuge], place of refuge. 

canjungo^ to uQtte: conjuo ... conjug^tum^ a uniting. 

co/i, together; 1... con, II ... contag^lum^ a touching to- 

ton^^9 to touch : J ...tag J geiber; contact 

convivo^ to live together :coNyiy ... convity-ium^ a living together. 

dUuOy to wash away; ...» pim,,.... diluv-him, [a washing awaj], 


disstdeo^ to disagree: ••• dissid .... dissid-ium, [a disagreeing], dis- 

discindo, to rend ^ ...discid ... discid'ium, a rending asunder. 

asunder: j 

exseindoy to rend out: ... exscid... eaudd-ium^ [a rending outj, 

demolition; overthrow. 

excido, to fall out: excid ... excid-ium^ a falling out* 

exsuloy 1 . . .SX6UL . . . {eK9ul'4ufn\, 1 Qa being in exile J, 

to be in exile : J exstl-xumy J exile. 

gaudeOf to rejoice : gattb .., gaud-ium^ [a rejoicing], joy. 

jefunOy to fast: ^8jiw ... jefunAumy a fasting ; fast. 

nuvigoy ijo ^»SLi .......... navig ... navtg'lum^ [a sailing], sailing 

vessel ; ship. 

d€ft, to hate:..... <»> dd-iumy [a hating], hatred. 

prasugWy to forebode :... prasag „ pnasdg^Utmy [a foreboding]. 


studeoy to 2)e busyl ... stud .... stud-iumy [a being busy about 

about a thmg:: J a thing], zeal; study. 

LAB, akin to S. ^ 1 ...lab lab'%um*y [jbl taking; hence, 

LABH, to take : J that which takes], lip. 

Obs, 1. Some Substantiyes of this class in la, let, lo, Ytim, are deriyed from Adjectiyes, 
and point out 4 thing possessed tii the quality, or in the condition, denoted- by the 

They ^ae formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of the primitive. Such are, 

a. m.udax,ho\Ai a«<f2c-«» ....; Mudac-la boldness. 

harbdnu, 1 harb&r'i .&<zrMr-{a...) rudeness ;8ayagene8s;bar^ 

rude, sayage : j J barity. 

cifemens, calm clemtnt-is clementAa ...calmness; clemency. 

roncort, concordant:,., concord-it conoordta ...concord. 

/iJroa:, fierce : feroc-U /troc-la fierceness. 

¥n«r«, unskilled;! inert-U inart-ia ... | unskilfnlness; 

slothful: J j slothfnhiefla. 

* See lalMnany p. S6, 

Digitized by 




[Ch. lit 

liwipt^ indigeat ; f nV/y-if ..^^ JM^Ya 

jwi/ldtu, perfidious :... perfXd-i perfld-la p«rfidy. 

gSperbuaf^TOudi «fij9er6>t .sag^erb-ia pride. 

b. ftarMnu^ > . 

mde ; savage ; 

..» &ar(tfr-t 6ar&^Er-ies... >radeness;8ayageiiea8{ bar- 

) barity. 
,^ pauper "^is ..,paiper-l«fl »,.poYer^. 

eommtm-u . 


-fo > a having in commoa ; par* 

c. communis^ > .. 

common: > J ticipation. 

re&etfu, rebellious : rgbell-u jtbdi-lo a rebelling; rebellion. 

taKs, such; ) tal-ia tal-lo > [a giving such, or like], 

like: } J retaliation. 

,one: ^un-hu un-lo ...onenesa; union; unity; 

bgniffie-i I At^ffc-Yum... beneficence. 

, malefie-i jnSlgfic-^ha^ „„hnxt, harm. 

d. lenefieuSf \ „ 

beneficent ; i 

ptdlSficus, \ .< 

evil-doing : jf 

Obs. 2. Substantives in turn, derived from other Substantives signifying persons, 
and which denote the condition, office, or employment of sucb persons, must also be 
referred to this class. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme. 


Icerdot^ >...«....,. «aeerilo£-i» .,. aacerdot-iumf 
iest : j 

inister, \ ....,...«. mt'nttf r-t [^ministr-%um']t 

inister ; J tninist^-lum^ 

1 ....M..^ manffon-U 

1. eoiHgOf 
colleague t 

fellow ; 



2. gdcerdos^ 
slave- dealer 

coll$g-<B co2Z%|h¥iifli... 1 [condition of a eo/7%a], 

j coUeagueship. 

con80rt'U tontort'ttan, I [condition of a conjort], 

j fellowship. 

exsiil'U [earsuZ-Yum], t [condition of an eartit/], 

ex^'lum, f exile. 

office of a aocenlDs], 

>ffice of a ntmisfer], 
man^ori'lumt ) [employment of a numgo']^ 
a decking out and set- 
ting off of slaves for sale. 


1. mSnYat mSiilaei f. 

Zm WBL9ntamfVk9n1U n. 

Substantives in mdnta, montum^ are derived from (a) Verbs, (b) Ad- 
jectives, and (c) Substantives. When derived from Verbs they denote " the 
doing" that which the Verb signifies, and, hence, that of whicb the original 
meaning is descriptive ; — from Adjectives, " the b«ng'* that which the Ad- 
jective signifies, and, hence, that of which the original meaning is descrip- 
tive; — from Substantives, something "appertaining to** them, and, hence, 
that of which the original meaning is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suflix to the Root of Verb*; but to the 
Theme of Adjectives and Substantives* 

Digitized by 


Cm III.1 SUBSTANTIVES. — mdaYfl, m«BY8B, etc lOl 

Obs, 1. The Suffix tnonXa — num + tag and monlum « num + iunu See above, No. IIL 
and iVb. VI. 

Ofrt. 2. Substantives of this class, when formed from Snbttantiyes, have the Suffix 

X, a. alo, to nourish : al al-t-monia, [a nourishing]^ 

Dourishment, sustenance. 

CER, akin to S. \/1cer ^, cer-i-monia, [a making], cere-^ 

KAB, or KBI9 to make : J mony. 

^eror, to complain :...QUEB • quer-umdnloj a complaining;. 


1». acrlSf sharp: ..« acr-is acr-t-monia, [a being sharp], 


€Bg€r, sick (in mind): agr-i is^r-t-monla, [a being sick in 

mind]^ sorrow, etc. 

castusy chaste: ,^ cast-i cast-umdnia^ [a being chaste], 


parcuSy sparing u ..parent parc-i^mon^ £a being sparing], 


sanctusy sacred : sanct-i^,. sanct-umoniay [a being sacred], 


^m^, sad:.... trist-is ... trtst-umoniay [a being sad], 


9K« a. al«v to nourish: al al-i-moniumy [a nourishing], 

nourishment, sustenance« 

1>. misery wretched :•••. mttfer-t ... miser-i'moniumt [a being 

wretched], wretchedness. 

tristisy sad : trisi-is.... trist-umaniumy [a being sad], 


e. testtof witness: test-is .... test-i'moniumy [the thing ap- 
pertaining to a witness], evi- 
dence, testimony. 

matety mother: matr-is ... matr-i-momumy [the thing ap- 
pertaining to a mother], mar- 
riage, matrimony. 

/7a/er, father : ,....patr-is ... patr-i-moniumy [the thine ap- 
pertaining to a father J, pa- 
ternal fortune ; patrimony. 


Digitized by 




a- •!■• ■!■• / *• sYo, sXdiilav/. tf . tYiiiii« tU, «. 

SubstantiTes ending in ti$^ etc^ are deriyed firomVerbs, and, etymologicallj, 
denote "the act of doing," or "the being," that which the Verbs signify; 
and hence, sometimes, in a derived force, that which is the result of their 
action, or condition. 

They are formed by adding the Snffix sometimes to the Root, sometimes 
to the Theme. 

O&t. 1. The i at the cofltmeneemont of i^ft^ is a Gomtecting Towel 

&• mimliilff to remember : 4..MEN men'tis*^ [a remembering], 

semino, 1 ...semin .. [semin-Hs], la seeding, or sow- 

to seed s J semen-tis J ing. 

reAo, to carry : tec vec-Hs^ [a carrying], pole; 


}ii«to, to mow 1...HET [»i€/-^], la mowing or reap- 

J miS'Hsy Jin 

or reap: J mes-Hsy Jit\g. 

tttBdo, to thrudt r txw [tud-tisl, 


Tus, Sanscrit root, 1 [ft»-/w], 

to sound : J tus-sis, 

[tL thi*tiStifig}, fl 
coughing; cough. 

[a sounding}, a 
coughing; cough. 

3. oav««» to be 1 ...CAY [cat«-^], 1 [a being caatious}, 

cautious: J cau-tio, J caution. 

contemno^ to despise : r.iCONXEM . contem-tio^ a despising. 

Jinffo, 1 .' ..Fia . . • ^ *. [fyf- ^], 1 a formings 

to form : J fic-tiOy J 

jungo^ 1 .♦* juNGf ....[yw«^-rio], 1 a joining. 

to join: func-tw, J 

tegOf ' . . . LEcJ [fc^-rfo], T a reading. 

to read ; 


^ J 

* Terra corpus est, at mentis ignis est, Epicharm. in Enn. Frgm, p.l68 ed. Yahlen: 
isque totus mentis est, id. ib. 
f Strengthened fonn of the Root juo. 

Digitized by 


Ch. hi.] 

SnBSXAKTiy£& — tf s. Us, ete. 


to burn ; 

JtTB .•.[wr-<u>], 1 a burning, 

accldtno^ to call to: ...acc/ama.. accldmd-Hoy a calling to; ac- 

ccsno, tosup: ccena ccend-tio [a supping], sup- 
per- room. 

Ze^o, to send B,n am-llega legd-tio, [the sending of an 

bassador : J ambassador], embassy. 

concursoy to run to^lconcursa, concursd'ttOf a running toge- 

gether : J ther. 

cunctor^ to delay : ....euneta .... cuncia-^tiOy a delaying. 

opinor, to suppose : ...dp in a opind-tta, a supposing. 

«^o, to stand : sta sta-txoj a standing, a stand- 
ing still. 

^racto, handle: ....... ../r a c^a ... trcmtd-tto^ a handling. 

asMfib, to hear : audi audi-tio, a hearing. 

prcBSdffio^ to fore- 

prasdgt , prasdgi'tio, a forebodiDg. 
largt largi-tio, a bestowing freely. 

largior, to- bestow 

freely : 

sarrio^ to hoe: ...... ...#drr^l ...... sarri-Ho, a hoeing. 

eo, to go : «..^i •»• l-ti(0, a going. 

concurro, to mn 
together : 

eongeroj to heap to- 
gether : 

ooifCUR .....[conour-^tb], la running toge- 

concurtto, J ther. 
ooNaBB ..,J[€onger^t%o'\y la heaping toge- 

conges^ttOy J ther. 

4. conrrSdYor* to come "[ CONGRBD ,^.[congred-t{o\^ a coming toge- 

[con^rc*-^fo], |-ther. 

together : 

to go out : 

to send : 


to cleave: 

to dig: 

eongreS'StOy J 

}£GRED [f^^r^cZ-^toJ^l a going out. 
legres-tio'], V 
egres-siOy J 

1 vat ...:.... [fnii'tia], 1 a sending. 
J miS'Ho, J 

}Fii> ..........[^-ifen,l a cleaving. 

fis-sioy J 

Ifod r/bfif-^to], 1 a digging. 

J [/o*-^to], \ 

H 4 

fo&^tOr J 

Digitized by 



to pour out : 

Jundo^ 1 FUD ....r/tM^-HoTl a pouring out« 

erodOf 1 ebod ....... [erod'tio^, ^ a gnaw ing away* 

to gnaw away : J [eros-ito 


ol f 

I J 


S. p9n9f to place: jpos pos-t-tioy a placing. 

iradoy to deliver up:...TRAi> trad't-tto, a delivering up* 

vendOf to sell: vend venJ-t-^to, a selling. 

tf. lute* to go into : INI inuttumf [a going into], a 


com, together ; I com, 1 eomi'tium, fa coming togo- 

C0| togo: J I ... 1^ ther], place of assembly for 

the Romans when voting in 
curuB ; comitium. 

Obi, 2. From meniia (No. 1), mind, mens is obtained by the following process : the t 
in the SofBx, H-t^ is dropped, whence arises ment-s; the t is next dropp^, whence arises 
mens. On a corresponding principle are formed the following Substantives : — wun^r, 
to die; mob, m&r-tUf inor-ti, mor-s, [a dying], death: gino, to beget; oen, gen'tis, 
gen-ts, gen-t, [a begetting ; hence, that which is begotten], family, etc. : mijior, to project ; 
MiN, imn-^ min-U, min-$, moH'S, [a projecting ; hence, that which projects], eminence, 
mountain : fundo, to pour out ; fund *tfund-Hs,fun8-tis, funS'siSyfims-Sy jun-t, fon-s, 
[a pouring out ; hence, that which is poured out, or pours itself out], a fountain : font, 
akin to Sanscrit pamth, to go ; pmU-iU, pon-tU, pon-tSf pon-s, [a going ; hence, that 
which is made for going], a bridge. 

X. tiiSt tAMf m. a. sttSf slis« m, 3. I-ttts, ItOs, «. 

Substantives of this class are chiefly derived from Verbs, and denote, 
etymologically, the ** act of doing," or " the being,'* that which the Verbs 
signify ; and, hence, sometimes, in a derived force, denote something with 
ivhich the etymological meaning is more or less connected. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root or Theme. 

1. ettno, to sing: can can-tuS, a singing; song. 

colo, to 1 COL [co/-^i/*], "I a cultivating. 

cultivate: J cul-tus, J 

* Strengthened form of the Root fud. 

Digitized by 


€M. III.1 

SUBSTANTIVES. — KU, ilU, et<*. 


C€>ntemnOy to despise : .cokteic ... con tem-tusy tk despising. 
jungoy 1 JUNG* ...^Jijung-tui], 1 a joining. 

to join: J junc-tuSy j 

Mro, tolive: tic vic-tusy [a living], food; Vic- 
Jruor, 1 FBUa [frug-tU8']y 1 an enjoying. 

to enjoy : J fruc^tusy J 

ortary to rise : ob « or-tus, a rising* 

orno, to provide : ornd omd-tus, a providing. 

tractOy to handle: tract a «.« /rac^-^ti^, a handling* 

mercovy to traffic: mere a ... mercd-tusy a trafficking. 

yea (obsolete), 1 fe ft^tuSy a bringing forth. 

to bring forth 1 J 

y7eo, to weep : fle fli-tusy a weeping. 

audiOy to hear: audi audi-tuSy a hearing. 

condiOy to preserve 1 co9Mft concff-^ a preserving. 

(fruits) : J 

a. vidSof 

to see : 


to meet together : 

concur roy 

to run together : 


to go out : 

to strike : 



*> J 

viD [rtrf-ZM*], ^ a seeing. 

Jcsongbed ...[con^rerf-ftwl,"! a meeting to- 
\congre8'tu8\y V gether. 
congres'gus, J 

CONCUR [concttr-<««], 1 a running. 

concur^suSy J 

EGRED Tegred'tusX 


}CMD [c€Brf-ft^*], 1 
C€BS'tUSy J 

a going out. 

a striking], cestus. 

3. cr6po» to rattle : crep crep-t-tusy a rattling. 

genoy to beget : gen . « gen • x-tusy a begetting. 

J90R0, to place : pos po*-t-^ii*, [a placing], position. 

^orao, to sound : ......son «on-t-fu«, [a sounding], sound. 

Obs. 1. Sabstantives in a - f u «, derived from other sabstantives, denoting 
persons, and which point out the office or condition of such persons, must also be 
referred to this class. 

* Strengthened form of Root jua. 

Digitized by 




[C^. IIF. 

They are formed by addiag the above Saffix to th« Theme. Thia forraatioB follows 
the analognr of tractatiu, mercatus, omatuSf and kindred words springing firom the Theme 
of Verbs of the 1st ooajugatmi ; and poin^ to the ttqapcmed existence of such Verbs as 
coiuiUo, are; pairotto, m% etc. Wofda of this kind are — 

I ..^on9&l'i» ,^„»„»am»ul-d'tu9 ,„^,,.\ [the office.of a eonsul"}, con- 
J j sniship, consulate. 

i...patron'i pairon-d'tuM ) [the office of a patronus'], 
y patronship. 

\...tribun-i ....^,..Cr>6im-a-fM« >[the office of a ir^mnug'], 

} } tribuneship. 

)«mvlr-t frtwmvir-a-AM ......7 [the office of a triumvir'], 

} } triunTirship* 

in Ofia 1, both in formatioa ad cfaacaetor, are 


consul : 




tribune : 



Obt, 2. Akin totba voflte 

the following : — 

prineep§ , ) .../irfaclp-is prnuf^p^-tu$ 1 [the condition of aprtneqts'], 

• ' r8on:i J • ' - ' 

.s&i-a-tes . 

chief place. 
.1[the office of 
j nate. 

chief person : 

old persons : j 

Ofrf . 3. From princqM, osed in its proper force of an Adjective, is formed an Abstract 
Substantive of a different meaning, viz. : — 

princqM, \ ,„ptineXp-*i» ./> n« cl {p -i-liw > [the condition or state of one who is 

first: j j /TTtac^], pre-eminence, superiority. 


I. tOrttftfireB^/. 


By means of tfcis class of Su&es Abstract Substantives are obtained, 
which denote '^ the act of doing ** that which the primitive implies. 

They are formed bj adding the Suffix to the Root, or Theme of Verbs. 

Ob9. The Suffix is Iwro, etc. ; it is probably closely allied to, if not identical with, 
the future participle in turU'S, with the abandonment of the future meaning. 

1. AOlO. to Cul- 


,,ScoUtura\ *] 

a cultivating. 

a breaking, frac- 

a joining. 

a painting. 

a ttizing. 

tivate ; 
to break : 
to join ? 
to paint : 

to mix : 

...... ••»]riiAQ 




JUNO* ... 

[ ^i<j 

\ .rr.lfMa ■•••>« 

* strengthened from the Root juo. 

t By transposition of «c, instead of rejection of c, mix-tura is obtained. 

Digitized by 


Om. nij SUBSrAKTITES. — tf^lYw^eto. lOl 

^nercor, U> irMc : ...merea^ in#rcd-/iira, a trafficking. 

Jeo (obsolete), to 1 ^ . . .P3fc fi-turc^ a bringing forth. 

bring forth : J 

«arrtOy to hoe : sarri #arrf-#tira, a hoeing. 

tm ff^^noy to beget: ••..,. gen ffen-t-tura^ a begetting. 

jMmo, to put: pod pds'Uturc^ [a pkcing], posi- 


Substantives in iia^ etc., denote the "state** or "quality'* of their 

They are formed from Adjectives and Substantives by adding the Suffix 
to the Theme* 

X. puer.boy? .puer^i puer-Ha^ [[state of the puer^y 


2. ttTftnast avaricious : ...arar-t ' avar-i-tta^ [quality of the 

avarus^t avariee. 
' tana$y hoary: can-t ean-i-^y [state of the canus^y 

Justus^ jttst : • u.t^mt^i .. .•...• just-t-ttOf [quality of theytMfiM], 

IcBhis, joyful : liet-i ..«»««.». kBt-v-Ha, [quality of the latus']^ 

•Kes^iM, sad :.«••«»« r....«ues^-t ^ nuesi'^ita^ [quality of the 

fn€pstii829 sadness. 
mdtuSf bad :....«.. ........inaZ-t .•••.•• mat-i-tta, [quality of the ma- 

ius^ badness ; malice. 
pldnus,ev&M .t^.^.,., plan-i plan-t-tta, [state of the j?/antij; 

evennessj, a plain. 
piuMduSy modesit: i.....pudi&4 pudic-i-tki, [qualify of the/m- 

dicus}j modesty. 
' maUiSfUofti .« ^moU^ moU^i'tia^ [quality of the 

mo//M], softness. 
trisiigf sad: .*.*.. ^r*^.trUtri8 ....«« trist-i-tia, [jqutklitj of the iris* 

tig^f sadness. 

Digitized by 


108 tATiK SCFFlXEa* tCH. ILL 

fitter, black : m^r-i nigfr-i-tia^ [quality of the 

niffer]y blackness. 

piger^ alothfiil : .pigr-i pigr-utiay [quality of the piger2t 


amictM, friend : ai»tc-t....... amte-itiay [quality of the 

amicus], friendship. 

puer,hoy: .puer4 ptkr-i-tiaj [state of the J9u«r], 


S. ttTftnast avaricious: ...arar-t avdr-t-ites, [quality of the 

avarus], avarice. 
canus, hoary: cdn-t •••..... can-t-/ie«, [state of the cant^], 

planus, eyem •••. planet « p/an-t-^te;, [state of the /7/an«« ; 

evenness J, a plain. 
trisiis,B&dt trisUis. irist-i-ttes, [quality of the 

tristis']y sadness. 
piger^ slothful : 'pigr-i ....... pigr-t-iieSf [quality of the 

piger'], slothfulness. 


t. tfts« t&t-l«,/. «. ta, t-ee,/. 7. tudo» tftd-lnis^. 

a. a$-t&i», «-t&t-is»/ 5. tus, tat-ifl,^ S. X-tudo,Y-tad-Xiil«»/. 

3. X-t&s, K-t&t-is,/. tf. ¥-tas, X-tut-is«/. 

Substantives in tas, etc., whether derived from Adjectives or from Sub- 
stantives, denote, sometimes, the *' condition ;'* sometimes, the "state;** 
sometimes, the " quality,'* of the primitive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of the primitive ; 
sometimes with the Connecting Vowels e or i^ but generally without them. 

Obs, 1. The Primary Saffixes are tat -a, and tut-s; in each instance s being merely 
the nominative case-ending. Tas is obtained by removing the second t from tat; ta 
is obtained by removing lM>th the second t and the case-ending s; while ttis ia ob- 
tained by removing, as in the case of tas, the second t; and two arises by adding o 
to tut, and then changing t into d. In S^tas, l-tas, \-ius, i'tudo, S and i are merely Con- 
necting Vowels. 

. Obs, 2. As the terminations t-a§f <u«, are the representatives of tats, tuts, the 
vowels a and u are long. 

1. liber, free : liber-i liber-tas^ [condition of the 

liber], freedom ; liberty. 

JHventsy young : .jUfie n-is, . . . juven-tas, [state of the^tf vents], 

youth ; youthful age. 

Digitized by 


Off. iir] 

jpauper, poor ; 

honourable : 

graceful : 

easy to do ; 
difficult : 

to want: 

to be able : 


to be willing : 

SUBSTAKTIYES. — tftm tUt-ls, eto. 




..pauper^is pauper-tas^ [state of the pau- 
per\ poverty. 

..hone$t4„.\^hone8t'tas],'\ [state of the ho- 
hones-tas, > nestus], honour* 
J ableness. 





Ifacil'tasl 1 
'» J 



i8y \ ...[egent'tas], "j 
egeS'taSf J 

[state of the ve- 

nuseus"], grace* 

[state of the^aci- 
/»], capability. 

[state of the 
- difficilisl diffi. 


state of the egens'], 

potenSf \ [pot€nt-tas\ "j [quality of the 


poten t'is J [poten$'tas 

. . volensy 1 [volent'tas\ 
voien t'is J [volens-ta^, 

potens: ability 
to do], power. 

[quality of the 
volens'^j willing- 

2. anzYiuif anxious : arust-i o^Krl-e-tof, [state of the an.Tm«], 

ebrius, 6iunken : ebr^-i e6r«-e-to«, [state of the e^rtW], 

phUf pious ; .pi-i pue-tas, [q uali ty of the piusjy 

vartttj, various : vart-i vari-e-tasy [condition of the 

rartuf], variety. 

sociusy fellow t aoci'i soct-e-tctSy [condition of the 

soeius^y fellowship ; society. 

s. tttrozy fierce : atroc-is atroc't'tas, [quality of the 

atrox]y fierceness. 

bonus, good : bdn-i bon-t-tasy [quality of the bonus"], 


erudelis, cruel; • cmdel-is •.,, erudel-utasy [quality of the 

crudelis\ cruelty. 

Digitized by 



facUis^ eaisj i - ,facU'is faeH'^utajs^ [quality of the 

faciUs]^ easiness. 

• /«ni5, gentle : Un-is leno^^eu^ [quality of tlie Zntt;], 


5«av», sweet: •••. sww~is suav't-tas, [quality of the 

ncavw], sweetness. 

civis, citizen : civ-is civ -i- tas, [condition of the ctvis]j 


vfV^o, virgin : virgin- is .... virgin-i-tas, [condition of the 

rtr^o], virginity. 

4. jttvSnlig young : JUven-is ..« . . juven-ta^ [state of the juvenis']^ 


senex^ 1 ^, *sentc'is .... [^senicta]^ 1 [state of the sen ex], 

old : J senec-tOy J old age. 

t^t^eo;, avenger : vindic'-is .,.. vindie-ta, [quality of the vin^ 

rfear], vengeance. 

S. jttvSnlSv young ; .jUvMn-is .... juven-tus, [state of ihejuvenis'], 


senex, 1 . . . ; ^sentc-is .... {sentc-tus'], 1 [state of the senex"], 

. old : J senec-tus, J old age. 

vir,msini .....*.rlr-t vir-tus, [quality of the vir], 

nianliness; courage, etc. 

6. servoji, slave : serv-i serv-i-tus^ [condition of the 

servus~\y slavery. 

y, oonBuetafly \ eonsuet-'i .... [cons«et''iudo']y 1 [quality of the 

accustomed: J consue-tudo, f consMetus\ 

J custom. 

honestuSy \ honest-i [honesUtudo'\^'^ [quality of the 

honourable : J hones-tudoy I honesHts], 

I honourabie- 
. J : ness. 

* The old genitive seiAaSf is found in a fragmeot .of Plautus» quoted by Priaeign : 
Senex, senU, ^amvis Plauius,genitivum ejus, 8 e n i ci s, protuUt in Cistellaria; "cUUores, 
leUisiimi vos rtegocioU stnicig soletis esae^" Frisciany 6, p. 724 ed. Fatsdi. 

Digitized by 


Cb. inO SUBSTAlTTiyES. «^ •r«ar-lst etc 111 

inquUtus, unquiet: ... inquiet-i ....[inquiei^udo]y^ [quality of the 

inquie-tudo, > %nquieius\ in« 
J quietude. 
nuinsueiuSy mild: nutnsuet^i ,.,[mansuet-iudo],^ [qualitjofthe 

J mildness. 
soUicUu*^ anxious i ... sollicU-i ^„.\_sollieit'tudo'],'l [quality of the 

soUicUiudo, I ^oHicUns'], 

I anxiety; foU* 
J citude. 

8. Bltnm, high : ah-i . .^ . .« . . . aU-x-iudo^ [coDdidon of Hie 

altus^ height. 

/eni«, gentle : len-is Un-x-iudo, [quality of the 

lenis]^ gentleness. 

latus^hvoBAi Idt-i latt-tudoy '[quality of the 

latus"]^ breadth; (latitude). 

langusy long :••«•«. long-i imtg-x-iudoy [quality of the 

hngus^y length; (U)ngitude). 

magnuMy great : magn-i magn-x- tudo^ [quality of the 

magnus], greatness; magni- 

99inf^ti«, much ; 1 ,..,.. mult-i, '^ tnult'4''tudOf [quality of the 

mulHf many J multo-rum ^ multus"], large number ; mul- 

) titude. . 

sxntxlis, like I sxtntl-is sxmxl'i-tudo, [quality of the 

fimilis]^ likeness ; similitude. 

0^9, Words are occasionally formed from Proper Names to denote the ** condition " or 
** quality '* of a person ; as Appietat, Lenttditas, in Cicero, Fam. 8, 7, 5. 

AfpUu, Apyiua : ,^.j. Appi-L AppH-g-taSf [the quality of an Appios], 

Appiety, or the nobility of an Appms. 

Xen^t/Zitf, Lentuliu : LentHl-i. Leutul-i-taa, Ithe quality of a Lentulus]; 

Lentulity, or the nobility of a Lentulus. 


1. or* 5r-l«f m. 4. a8» 9r»iSp ». tf • iir» tir-l«f n, 

3. 1W9 4r-lSff •. 

Substantives In or, oris, m., are mostly formed from Boots or Verbs, and 
usually denote an abstract quality, akin to the meaning of their &oot or 
Verb. Occasionally, however, they point out a concrete thing, of which 

Digitized by 



their etjnnolc^cal meaning is descripUve. Borne few are obtained from 

Substantives in Sr^ oria^ n^ etc., belong to the same class as those in 
or, dm. m., but are mostlj found to denote concrete things, of which the 
etymological meaning is descriptive. These, also, are mostly formed from 
Boots or Verbs. 

All Substantives of this class, derived from Roots or Verbs, have, etymo- 
logically, a participial force. Such as are obtained from intransitive Roots 
or Verbs have a neuter meaning ; but such as are obtained from transitive 
Roots or Verbs have sometimes an active, sometimes a passive, meaning. 
Those, however, which spring from Substantives denote the " having *' or 
^ being** that, which the primitive signifies. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to Roots, whether Frimary or 
Secondary ; but to the Theme of Substantives. 

1. ttmof to loTB : »....AH am-OTy [a loving^ love. 

yai'co, to favour ; ♦...fav /ar-or, [a favouring], favour. 

Hmeoy to fear : tim ^«iH>r, [a fearing], fear, 

cldmOy to cry out: clam ... cldm-ory [a crying out], clam- 

fiiro, to rage : fub fur^OTy [a raging], rage. 

albeoy to be white; .alb alb-^r, [a being white], white- 

palleOy to be pale ; pah, pall-or, [a being pale] , pale- 


riibeOy to be red: bub rub-or, [a being red], redness. 

«/>/tfnrfco, to be bright : ...SPLEND... splend-ory [a being bright], 


LAB, akin to S. \/l ...lab Idb-or, [a taking or getting; 

LABH; Greek AAB, |^ hence] toil; labour. 

a/ of Xafifiayoh, to 

CRU akin to S.l ...CBU cru'OVy [the running thing], 

^ CRi, whence I- blood running from a wound, 

currOy to run ; J etc. 

lentusy clammy : , lent-i lent-ory [a being clammy], 

clamminess ; stiekinesSii 

a. aequiui* 1 evel :...•• • H-i..* • , agu-OTy [a being leyel], level 

or even surface* . . . 

Digitized by 


Ch. IlL] 

SUBSTANTIVES. — er, 5r»ls, etc. 


9. VXCK akin to S. a/ 
PAC, to bind ; and Gr. 
HAF, V of irriyyvfjLif 
to fasten : 

KEM. akin to Gr. NEM, " 
V of vifjLWf to feed : 

.PIG .pig-n-usj [a binding or 

fastening], pledge ; assu- 

.NEM nem-us [the feeding thing], 

pasture land (among 
forests, etc.) 

•TEN ten-US, [the extended 

thing], springe ; snare. 

TEN, akin to S. a/ tan, " 
and Gr. rctVw, to ex- 
tend : 

PEC, akin to S. >/ PAC, ' 

to bind, fasten-up : 

CORP, akin to S. a/ 

KRLiP, to be made : 

FRIO, akin to Gr.' 

•Pir, a/ of piy-ooi, to 

be cold : 

TEM, akin to TEM, Vl tem tem-p-uSy [the cut thing; 

of TSfjLVijy to cut : J hence] portion of time ; 


fe, to bring forth fe ./«-n-M5*, [the brought- 

forth thing], interest of 
monej lent. 

.PEC pec'USy [the fastened-up 

thing], cattle. 
.CORP corp-us, [the made thing], 

.FRIG ......../r^-M«, [a being cold], cold; 


4. lidOf 




.....FID fid'us^, 1 [a 

L/oiJ-M*], y in 
fad'USy J 

FU, akin to S. v^l fu .yt2-n-tf« [an offering in sa- 

HU, Greek 6w-«, to V crifice ; hence, slaying], 

offer in sacrifice : J death. 

pendOf 1.... ....PEND [pe« J-t«], 1 [a weighing], 

to weigh : J pand-us, J weight. 

olescoy to grow : • • oi.. ol-us, [the growing thing], 

garden herbs. 

5. eOf to go : 

.t-^er J, a going, also, road. 

• Compare in Greek rSKot, interest, from ««, root of tuct«, to bring forth. 

t Fcedus, mtod fidus Ennius scribU dictuffif Yarro de Linguft Xatina, 5, § 86 ed. 

X The Genitive itiris occurs in a Fragment of Nasvins preserved in Priscian : ignoti 
iter is mmus, Priscian, 6, p. 695 ed. Putsch. The Ablative Here is found in Lucretius, 
5, 653 : concusMOS itere,et labefactos aSre mtdto. The usual oblique cases, itineris, etc., 
belong to an obsolete form itiner, which is obtained hy prefixing in to the Suffix er. 


Digitized by 



6. ftilffeof to flash : fulq .fuXg-ur^ [the flashing 

thing], lightning. 

7. catVf akin to S. ^cri, 
to go: 

ju, akin to S. v/ JU, 
to join or bind: 

,.CRU [cr«-tw], 1 [the going 

cf'USy J thing], leg. 

.JU [;«-««], ^ [a 

PU, akin to S. \/ puj,"! PU [pw-«*],1 [the stinking 

to stink; Gr. xv-of, \ p-us, > thing], corrupt 

corrupt matter : J J matter ; pus. 

THU, akin to S. \/ hu, 1 thu [^Am-m*], 1 [the thing 

Gr. Bv-Wy to offer in > th-us, I offered in sa- 

sacrifice: ^ J » I edifice], in- 

J cense. 

Obs, The n in pig-n-us, and /e-n-us ; the t in t-^-er ; and the p in tem-p-us, are euphonic. 


1. do* dXn-lSv/* 3. i-do, I-dYii-ls,/. 

a. e-do, e-dXn-is,/. «. O-do, &-d¥n-ls,/. ' 

Substantives in do^ etc., are formed from Verbs, Adjectives, and Sub- 
stantives. When derived from Intransitive Verbs, or Adjectives, they 
etymologically denote "the being" that, which their primitive implies; and. 
hence, is obtained the name of something of which the etymological meaning 
is descriptive. When derived from Transitive Verbs, they etymologically 
denote '*the doing '* that, which their primitive implies; and hence, again, 
is obtained the name of something of which the etymological meaning is 
descriptive. When derived from Substantives they denote ** the having " 
that, which their primitive implies ; and in this case also is obts^ned the 
name of something of which the etymological meaning is descriptive. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root or Theme of Verhs ; 
but to the Theme of Adjectives and Substantives. 

Obs. 1. Words of this class are mostly Abstract Substantives. Some few, when used in 
a derived meaning, have a concrete force. 

Obs. 2. In e-do, i-doy u-dOf the c, i, u are Connecting Vowels. 

Obs, 3. Probably />rwiwfo, "dread," is obtained by elision from formtd-i-do. 

Digitized by 


Ch. 111.] SUBSTANTIVES. — do, dta-lfl, etc ; fo, fln-is, etc. 115 

X. alMo, to be white : albe alhe-do, [a being white], white- 

liveo, to be livid: live live-do, lividness. 

ntgreoy to be black : nigre .... nigre-do, [a being blaek], 


riibeoj to be red : rub rube-do, [a being red], redness. 

pUtreOy to be rotten : .put re ... putre-do, [a being rotten], rot- 

2. ffrjlTis, heavy : grav-is ... grav-e-doy [a being heavy], 

pinguis, fat: ping u- is . pingu-e-do, [a being fat], fat- 

uro, to nipl UR ur-e-do, [a nipping with cold]» 

with cold : J blighting, blasting (of 


inter, between, 1 inter \ .. intercap-e-do, [a taking be- 

capto, to take : J cap J.. tween], interruption, e#c. 

copto, to take : cap cap-e-do, [a taking; hence, 

concr,\ a thing for taking; a 
bowl (used at sacrifices). 

3. cuplo, to desire: cup cup-i'do, [a desiring], desire. 

libeo, to be pleasing : lib lib-i-do, [a pleasing (one's self)], 

pleasure, inclination, etc. 

4. testa* shell : test-cB.... test-u-do, [a having a shell; 

hence, concrT], one having a 
shell; tortoise. 

hira, empty gut : hi r-m .... htr- u^do, [[a having an empty 

gut; hence, concr.'], one 
having an empty gut; leach. 


1. ffo, ff¥n-is,/. «. u-ffo, 11-ffXii-ia,/. 6. l-l-A-ffo, Y-l-ft-fffo-is,/. 

2. ft-gro, ft-ffln-is,/. 5. 1-i-ffO, 1-I-f In-Ys,/. 7. Y-l-I-f o, X-1-i-ffKn-is, /. 

3. i-ffOp I-ffXn-is,/. 

Substantives of this class, all ending in ^o in the nominative singular, 
present some difficulty as to the origin of the Suffix, and, hence, also, as 

I 2 

Digitized by 




[Ch. in. 

to their strict etymological meaning. It must be borne in mind tHat the true 
Suffix is gin, as appears in the genitive case ; go being obtained by dropping 
the final consonant and by changing t into o. Perhaps the nearest approach 
that can be made to its origin, is attributing to ^tn an affinity to the Greek 
Root TEN, and the Latin Root gen, which is effected by merely substituting 
i for e. Hence, if the Suffix gin is considered as the representative of 
yev-oc or ghi'USj the force of ** a kind of*' attaches to it ; and this it will 
be seen, in the following examples, is often the case. If, however, it be 
considered as representing the Latin verb gen-o^ or the Greek verb yiyvofiai 
(which exhibits yiv in 2nd aorist e-yci^-ofii^v), we may assign it either a 
transitive force, viz., " that which produces'* something : or a passive force, 
viz., that " by which something is produced ;" or " from which something 
springs ;" or, even, something which simply '* exists," or " is." These mean- 
ings also, it will be seen in the under-given examples, no less belong to it. 

Substantives of this dass are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root of 
Verbs, or the Theme of Substantives or Adjectives. 

Ob$. Many words of this class are found, especially several denoting the names of 
plants, which it is, perhaps, almost impossible to trace. All that can well be affirmed of 
them is, that they appear to be remotely connected with some effect produced bj- them, 
or by some natural quality they possess. Such are : — Sd-ago, a plant resemblmg the 
savin tree; tust-l-l-a-go*, the herb "colts-foot," a preparation of which is used for 
coughs; lact'\-l-d-go, a plant called also chamnBdaphney or dwarf-laurel, perhaps from 
some milk-like juice belonging te it ; with several others. 

1. Tlreot to bloom : vnt 

vir-ffOj [the blooming one], 
maiden, virgin. 

,.8imiU(B ... simil-a-gOy 'kindi oi Hmila, 

2. Iter, corn : .farr-is farr-d-go, [several kinds of 

far}, mixed food for cattle. 

ferul-a^ giant-fennel ,.,ferul'€e.,.. feruX-a-go, species q{ ferula. 

lappa, bur : lapp-cR lapp-d-go, kind of lappa. 

milvusy the fishl'/t^-t milv-d-go, kind of milvus, 

gurnard : 

stmtlay fine wheat ' 


vtV, man vir^i i?i>-a-^o, [one in whom manli- 
ness exists], a female of 
spirit and courage. 

lumbuSf loin : ••••••» .Jumb-i •••• lumb-a^o, [that which springs 

from the loins], pain in the 
loins ; lumbago. 

* The Greek word for this plant is fivx^'- 

Digitized by 


Ch. III.] SUBSTANTIVES. — ffo, rYn-ii, etc. 117 

cortum, skin : cori-i cori-a-go^ [that which springs 

from the skin], cutaneous 
disease in animals. 

carrus, waggon : carr-i carr-d-go, [that which is pro- 
duced by waggons], a species 
of outwork or defence made 
by placing waggons close 

IM, ^ of tmttor, 1 ••• IM ini-d-goy [that which springs 

to imitate : J from imitating], image ; 


Jbro, to pierce : fob for-d-go, [that bj which pierc- 
ing is produced], dividing 
thread in a web. 

t^oro, to swallow 1... vob vor-d-go, that by which swal- 

down: J lowing down is produced], 

gulph ; abyss. 

3. pendSov to hang : pekd /lemf-t-^o, [that which produces 

hanging down], name of an 
internal disease. 

rubeo, to be red :..... ...bub rub-vgOy [that which pro- 
duces the being red], rust. 

stribl, akin to "X stribL.,,,. sinbhi-go^ [kind of twisting 

orpipiKoi, twisted : J or perverting of words], 

solecism ; wrong expression. 

verto, to turn : vbbt vert-l-goy [that which pro- 
duces turning], a turning 
round ; vertigo. 

prurioy to itch : pbub prur-l-goy [that by which 

itching is produced]^ the itch. 

celo, to conceal: CBL [cel'%-go'\y^ [that by which con- 

cal'i-goy > cealing is pro- 
J duced], mist. 

ortor, to spring up : ...OB or-i-gOy [that by which spring- 
ing up is produced], origin. 

uroy toburn: ub ur-i-goy [that by which burn- 
ing (passion) is produced], 

me/, honey : mell'is .... mell-i-go, [that by which 

honey is produced], flower- 
juice, from which bees make 


Digitized by 



mentum^ chin: ment'i •.. fn^nM-^o, [that which springs 

from the chin], an eruption 
in lambs^ commencing gene- 
rallj at the chin. 

clauduSy lame: .. elaud-i ••• claud-i^Oy [that bj which the 

being lame is produced], 

surdus, deaf:. surd-i .... surd-i-go, [that by which the 

being deaf is produced], 

ft. lana, wool : lan^m ...... lan'U-go, [kind of wool], soft 

or downy hair. 

aspevy sharp: asper-i ... asper-u-goy [a kind of what 

is sharp], name of a prickly 

0^2^, white: alb-i alb-u-go^ [producing what is 

white], film ; albugo. 

ferrum^ iron I ^ferri ferr-u-gOy [springing from 

iron], rust of iron. 

€e«, copper : ar-is tjer-u-goy [springing from cop- 
per], rust of copper. 

saUuSy salt: sals-i sals-u-go, [springing from that 

which is salt], saltness. 

vesper, evening : vesper^i, * vesper-u-gOy [springing from 

the evening], evening star. 

5. ▼Mum, blemish : viti-i vtii-higOy [kind of blemish], a 

cutaneous disease. 

FU, akin to S. Vl FU yS-M^o, [that produced by the 

DHiJ, to rush : J rushing (of smoke)], soot. 

6. salsiw, salt : sals'i sah-i-UdgOy [springing from 

that which is salt], sdtness. 

7. uveo, to be moist : ,..uv uv-t-l-igoy [thdX which is pro- 

duced by being moist], 

Digitized by 


Cb. IV.] VERBS.- o, are, etc. 119 


l3^ttliM, mlUlf m. 

Substantives of this class have, etymologically, a participial meaning, and 
denote something, of which the etymological meaning is descriptive. 
They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Boot of Verbs. 

[^the doing one], 

Qhe pricking 
thing], goad, 

fiu»io»todo: FAC [^fac'mulus2% 


STiG, akin to STir, 1 stig [stig-mulm], 

V of <rrtf w, to prick : J sH-mulus, 

cu, akin to S. V\ •••cu cw-iwm/m*, [the collected thing], 

TSHi, to collect : J heap, pile, etc. 




1. Off -are. 3, a. o* -Sre. ' 3, e. tto* -ii^re. 

2. £oa-ere« b. YOy-Sre. ft. lo* -Ire 

By means of the Conjugational Suffixes, as above given, added to Roots, 
or to the Themes of Substantives and Adjectives, are obtained Transitive and 
Intransitive Verbs. 

Obs. 1. Verbs formed from Roots maybe termed Pure Verbs: those from Sub- 
stantives and Adjectives are termed Denominative. 

Obs. 2. Deponent Verbs come also under this formation. 

A. PuBB Vebbs. 

Pure Verbs Transitive denote " the doing " of that which is implied in 
their Roots. 

1. AJbB, white: alb-o, to whiten. 

AM, love:.. am-o, to love. 

I 4 

Digitized by 



NEC, kill: neC'O^ to kill. 

YOO^ call: voC'O^ to call. 

a. BASf have: hah-eoy to have. 

MOV, move: ; iitov-«b, to move. 

TOND, shave: toncf-eo, to shave. 

viD, see: ..« vid-eo, to see. 

St a. BZB, drink : 6t6-o, to drink. 

Die, point out (by speech): dic-Oy [to point out (by 

speech)], to say. 

DUG, lead: rfttc-o, to lead. 

SCRIB, write: sctib-Oy to vrrite. 

b. CAP* take: eop-io, to take. 

RAP) snatch: rop-lb, to snatch. 

o. AC, point : ac-uOy to point or sharpen. 

TBiB, distribute: ^ri6-«o, to distribute. 

ft. AUB, hear: au^-tb, to hear. 

HAUR, draw: Aawr-tb, to draw. 

viNC, bind: vtnc-to, to bind. 

B. Denominative Vbebs feom Substantives. 

Denominative Verbs Transitive, formed from Substantives, signify ^ the 
doing ** or ** acting the part of** that which is denoted by their primitives. 

1. nomen, name : nom in-is, . . nomtn-Oy to name. 

semeriy seed: semin-is,... semtn-Oy to seed. 

vulnuSy wound: vulner-is,,, vulner-Oy to wound. 

exy out; I exy \ exstirp-Oy to root out; to ex- 

sHrpSy root: j stirp-is J tirpate. 

ventultiSy a little wind : ventul-i ... ventul-Oj to wind or fan a little; 

to ventilate. 

Digitized by 


Ch. IV.] VERBS. — o,ftre,ete. 121 


comes f companion : ...comit-is,., comit^or, to be a companion to; 

to accompany. 

Jury thief: ..fur-is fur-or, to steal. 

interpreSy 1 inter- "I ...twferprc/-or, to interpret. 

interpreter : J pret-isj 

jaciUumy dart : ,jacul-i jacul-ory to dart. 

osculumykiBa: osciil-i oseuUory to kiss. 

ntUriXy nurse: nutric-is.,. nutric-ory to nurse or rear. 

ft. oostos, guard: custod-is.., custod-tOy to guard. 

Jinisy end : .fin-is fin-io, to end or finish. 

pcenOy punishment : ,,,p(Bn-<B poen-to, 1 to punish. 

pun-ioy J 
vestisy clothing : ves t-is vest-Wy to clothe. 

C. Denominatits Vbbbs from Adjbctiybs. 

Denominatiye Verbs Transitive, formed from Adjectives, signify "to 
make" or "cause" a person or thing to be" of that nature," or "possess 
that quality " which is denoted by their primitives. 

aptiw, fit: apt'i apt-Oy to ^t 

disy rich: dit-is dlt-o, to enrich. 

hehesy blunt: hebet-is,.., hebet-Oy to blunt. 

libery free : liber-i llber-Oy to free, 

nigery black : nig r-L nigr-o, to make black. 

tutusy safe: ,,„Jut-i tut-o, [to make safej, to de* 



misert wretched : miser-i, miser-or, [to make one's self 

wretched about], to lament. 

mutuusy borrowed: ,,,mutii-i mutu-ory [to make borrowed], 

to borrow. 

^^ safe: tut^i tut-ory [to make safe], to de- 

molite, soft: moll-is moll-to, to soften. 

stabilisy firm ; s tab %l-is . . • stabtl-tOy to make firm. 

Digitized by 




A. FusB Vebbs. 

Pure Verbs Intransitive denote the " being engaged in," or " the being," 
that which is implied in their Roots. 

1. CBBP, creak: ••• crep-o, to creak. 

SON, sound: sou-o^ to sound. 

TON, thunder: ton-o, to thunder. 

2. A&Bf white: a^-eo, to be white. 

LUC, light: luc-eOy to be light; to shine. 

3. HlTB, cover : nub-Oj to cover (with a veil). 

REP, creep: rep-o, to creep. 

STREP, resound : ^ strep-o to resound. 

ft. &vo% roar: rug-iOy to roar. 

SAL, leap: «aZ-to, to leap. 

VEN, come: - ven-ioy to come. 

B. DENOMntATiYE Vebbs fbom Stjbstaxtives. 

There are some few Denominative Verbs Intransitive of 1st, 2nd, and 
4th conjugations belonging to this class. 

They denote the " being engaged" or " employed in doing," or " the being " 
that, which is denoted by their primitives. 

There are also several Denominative Verbs Intransitive of the 1st conju- 
gation, Deponent Form. 

They denote " the being " that, or " the behaving like " that, or " the 
occupying one's self with " that, which is denoted by their primitives. 

1. ffermen, bud: germtn-is ..• germm-Oy to bud. 

labor y labour : labor-is labor' o, to labour. 

mUeSy soldi er : miltt-is miUt-Oy to be a soldier. 

* Akin to Sanscrit bu, tonum edere ; the g is inserted to strengthen the root. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

Ch. IV.] VERBS. — o,*re,eto. 123 

2. iios, flower : .flor-is .,,,,. fior-eOy to flower. 

frons, leaf : .frond-is frond-tOy to be in leaf. 

ft. sermsa slave : serv-i serv-to, to be a slave. 


8Dmttii», rival : tsmu-li (Btnul-or, to be a rival. 

ancilla, maid-servant: ancilUce ... ancUl-or, to be a maid-servant 

aiiceps, fowler : auctp-is ... aucip-or, to be a fowler. 

domtnus, lord: domtn-i domm-or, to be a lord. 

ph%ldsdphus,philoBO'\phildsdph-i, philosdph-or, to be a philoso- 
pher: J pher. 

auffur, augur: augur-is .•. augUr-or, to perform the office 

of an augur. 
comix, a crow; comicM .«• comtc^or, to do as a crow; to 

BacchuSy Bacchus: ,.,Bacch-i ... bacch-ory to act like Bacchus; 

to be a bacchanal. 
(rr<»ctt«, a Greek : „.Gr€ec-i grcec-or, to act or live like a 


aqua, water : aqu-a aqu^r, to fetch water. 

jocus, joke : Jdc-i jdc-or, to joke. 

negoHum, business: ...negotui negott-or, to carry on business. 

piscisy&sh: ,pisc-is pi^c-or, to flsh. 

C. Denominative Yebbs fbom Adjectives. 

Some Denominative Verbs Intransitive of the Ist, 2nd, and 4th con- 
jugations, both Active and Deponent forms, are derived from Adjectives. 

They denote " the being of that nature" or " quality " which is expressed 
by their respective primitives. 

1. conoon, agreeing : ,,, concord-is concord-o, to agree. 
jejunuSy fasting: jejun'i ... jejun-Oy to fast. 

pigery dilatory : .pigr-i pigr-o, to be dilatory. 

2. calTiis, bald : calv-i calv-eOy to be bald. 

cdnusy grey : cdn-i can^eo, to be grey. • 

flavuSy yellow : fldv-i fldv-eoy to be yellow. 

Digitized by 



hebeSy blunt: heb-is* ... heb-eo^ to be blunt. 

miser, wretched: mtser-i ••• miser-eo, (to be wretched for 

another,) to pity. 
niger, black : nigr-i • nigr-eOy to be black. 

3. fSroz, fierce : .feroC'is ... /erdc-io, to be fierce. 

superbus, proud : superb-i,,. superb-xoy to be proud. 


. noisy : .......Mrgut-i ... argut-or, to be noisy. 

kptus, joyful : lat-i kB-tor, to rejoice. 

morigertu, complying: mo riger-i. mortger-ovy to comply with. 

pigeTy dilatory : pigr-i pigr-OTy to be dilatory. 

rusticus, belonging Irtt^^te-t ... rtts^tc-or, to belong to, or live 

to the country :... J in, the country. 

tristiSy sad : trist-is trist-oTy to be sad. 

mYs«r» wretched: miser-i ... mtser-eory to be wretched (for 

another), to pity. 

blanduSf flattering : ...bland-i ... ^ncl-tor, to flatter. 

1. to» t&re> 2. so, s&re. 3. Y«to» Y-t&re. 

Verbs of this class are called Frequentative and Intensive Verbs. Ety- 
mologically they denote the ^ doing a thing frequently ;** and hence, in a 
derived meaning, they have an Intensive force, the notion of " energy," 
*• increase," or "violence** being connected with the constant repetition of 
an action. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix, for the most part, to the Root of 
Primitives of the 1st and 2nd conjugations, and to some also of those of the 
3rd conjugation ; but occasionally they are formed from Hoots. 

N.3, For Deponent Verbs of this class, see Obs, 2. 

* The common genitive is hgbSth; Mbis if the old genitive. The old accusative 
hebem is found in Dnnios, p. 63 ed. Vahlen. 

Digitized by 


Ch« IV.] VERBS.— to, tare, etc. 125 

X. aeelplo, to take : accip [accip-^o], 1 to take readily. 

accep'to, J 

cano, to sing : •••..can can-to, to aing with energy. 

trahoy to drag: trac trae^to, to drag violently, 

2. onrrOf to run : CURR rcttrr-to],! to run hither and 

[cwr-to], • thither. 
f^^encfo, to ward off:. ..•••DEPEND... [^c?^nc?-toj,1 to ward off dili- 

dicOy to say: ....Die die-to, to say often. 

gerOy to carry : ger [^er-to], "I to carry often or 

geS'tOy J much. 

/>eWo, to drive PUL />w/-to, I to drive much; to 

and pul'SOy j beat ; batter, etc. 

quattOy to shake: quat [^uaZ-to], 1 to shake violently. 

quaS'SOy J 

3. olftmov to cry out : clam • clam-i-tOy to cry out violently. 

imperOy to command : ....ihper.... imper-t'tOy to command power- 

rdgoy to ask : rog rdg-l-to, to ask much or eagerly. 

vdloy to fly : vol vol-t-tOy toflyhitherand thither. 

domo, to tame : dom ...... dom-t-tOy to tame thoroughly. 

adjiiv'Oy to help : ad juv .... [^adjuv-t-to'}, 1 to help repeatedly. 

CtdjU'tOy J 

cfte^o* (obsol.), to doubt :.DUB dub-i-tOy to doubt much, to 


FLAG, akin to Gr.*] ...flag Jlag-i-to, [to bum with desire ; 

*AEr, >/of ^Xcyw, f hence], to demand strongly, 

to burn : J 

lateoy to lie hid : lat lat-^tOy to lie hid thoroughly. 

paveOy to fear: pav pav-t-tOy to fear greatly. 

agOy to put in motion: ...AG ag-X-tOy to put violently in mo- 

* <« DMbaty dvbUaiy" Festus, p. 67 ed. Mttller. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


cogo^ to gather together I cog co^-t-to,"] to gather frequently 

in the mind: j i- together in the mind; 

J to ponder over. 

nosco, to know : NOSC nasc-i-to, to know well. 

qutsrOf to seek: qujeb q^itBr-t'to, to seek earnestly. 

viso^ to visit : yis vlsJi'to, to visit often. 

„ to look at : „ ,, to look at attentively. 

OAf. 1. /rrito is probably to be regarded as a Frequentative Yerb of the 4th conjuga- 
tion, from irriOj ** to snarl " (as a dog) ; for the proper meaning of the verb is certidnly 
Intransitive. The long t is an anomaly, and seems to result from the 4th conjugation 
usually taking a long vowel in its derivatives. We might, perhaps, even assign its 
formation to the Verbal Theme, instead of the Boot, in which case the t would, according 
to the rules of construction, be long before the Suffix beginning with a consonant. The 
two modes of construction thus suggested are as follows : — 

a. trrto, to snarl (of dogs) : ibb trr-t-to, [to snarl often ; hence, of persons], 

to be exasperated. 

b. ■ n irri trH>fo, „ „ 

Probably this is the only instance of a Frequentative Verb springing from a primitive 
of the 4th conjugation, in what may be called the 1st formation. For an instance of the 
2nd formation, see venttto in Obs. 6. 

Obs, 2. There are some few Frequentative Verbs of the Deponent form. Such are, 
to embrace 

amplector, \ amplect 

j ^ampleet'tor'\,'\ 

J^-rJ'h to «"»'««=« eageriy. 

ampleX'OT, J 

minor, to menace: min mtn-f-tor, to menace strongly. 

smoor, to seek to know : seise sctsc-i-tor, to seek much to know; to 

inquire diligently. 

Obs. 3. All Frequentative Verbs, whether of the Active or Deponent form, are of the 
1st conjugation. 

Obs. 4. In the formation of derivatives from Verbs of the 3rd conjugation, where to 
is suffixed immediately to the Boot, the same euphonic changes take place, as in forming 
the Supine of the primitive. 

Obs. 5. Some Frequentatives, formed by adding to immediately to the Boot of their 
primitives, admit the formation of a Frequentative from themselves. This is done by 
suffixing l-t o to their own Boot. 

accepto, to take readily: accept... accept-Uo, to take very readily. 

canto, to sing with energy: cant cantAto, to sing with great energy. 

c«r«o, to run hither and thither : ...cubs curs-ito, to keep running hither and 


defenso, to ward off diligently : defens... defens-lto, toward off very diligently. 

dicto, to say often: dict dict-lto, to say very often. 

gesto, to carry often, or much:.. gest ^fcsMto, to carry very often, or very much. 

N.B. Frequentatives in ¥fo do not admit of the second Frequentative formation. 

Obs. 6, Some few Frequentative Verbs of what may be termed the second formation 
are found, though the first formation from the Boot of a Verb is not known to be in exis- 
tence. Such are the following : — 

Digitized by 


Ch. IV.] 

VERBS. -- «co« BcSre, etc. 


to stick: 

,.HAR [har-fy)'], 

lUBS- ' 

lego, -J 

to read, > 
to gather: J 
acribo, 1 ... 
to write :j 





has'ito, to stick fast 

■Z^'to"!' I'e^-Wotto read often; to 
«w-wj, > gather eagerly. 


tcr^'ito, to write often. 

r,!^5-'T \ vent-ito, to come often. 

to come 

JV,B. The formation of A<e«o from Juereo, a verb of the 2nd, and of vento from venio, of 
the 4th conjugation, should be marked. 

Obs. 7. Some few Denominative Verbs of this class occur, in imitation of the Verbs 
of pure verbal origin. They are formed by adding i-to to the Themes of Adjectives 
or Substantives. 

debUKs, weak: deb%l-ii <fe6l/-l-to, to weaken. 

infelix, unhappy: infelic-is mfSRc-i'to, to render unhappy. 

nobUis, noble: nobil-it nolfti-X'tOf to ennoble. 

pSriclum, attempt : . 

,.piricl-u pifricl l-tor, to attempt. 


1. soOf seSre. 

2. a-seof a-se^re 

3. e-soOf enioSre. 

4. UaeOf 1 HicSre. 

Verbs with the Suffix sco, etc., are termed Inceptive* or Inchoative 
Verbs. They point out the ** beginning'* of an action or state. 

When derived from Verbs, they are formed by adding *co to the Theme of 
primitives of the Ist, 2nd, or 4th conjugation; but in the 3rd conjugation they 
are formed from the Root, between which and the Suffix the Connecting 
Vowel i is inserted. 

Obs. 1. All Inceptive Verbs are of the 8rd conjugation, whether they are formed from 
Verbs, Substantives, or Adjectives. 

Obs, 2. All Inceptive or Inchoative Verbs end in tco; yet not all Verbs that end in 
SCO are of this class. The following are to be regarded as Simple Verbs formed from 
their own Roots : — 

addlesco, to grow up. 

abdlesco, to cease. 

exdlescOf '\ 

indlesco, >to grow old. 


cresco, to increase. 

Msco, to open the mouth wide. 

noscOf to become acquainted with. 

pascOf to feed cattle. 

quiesco, to rest 

suesco, to accustom one's sel£ 

compesco, to restrain. 

dupescOf to divide. 

disco, to learn. 

posco, to demand. 

scisco, to order or ratify a law. 

* Incipio, to begin ; inchdo, to begin. 

Digitized by 



1. ttmof to love: '. ama ama-scoy to begin to love, 

consudoj to sweat 1 „,consuda,. consuda'Sco^ to begin to sweat 
profusely : J profusely. 

generor, to bel ....genera...... genera-scoy to begin to be pro- 
produced : J duced. 
Wwy to totter: ••• I ah a laba-sco, to begin to totter. 

ftrCOf to be dry : are are-sco, to begin to be dry. 

cdleOj to be warm : .,.eale • cale-^eo, to begin to be warm. 

con^eo, to be silent : contice,,.. contice-scoj to begin to be si- 
langueo, to be lan-1 langue ..,. langue-sco, to begin to be lan- 
guid : J guid. 

palleo, to be pale: .palle palle-sco, to begin to be pale. 

rubeOy to be red : rube rube-scOy to begin to be red. 

vireoy to be green: ^.,v\re vlre-scoy to begin to be green. 

obdormtOy to falll ...obdormi.,, obdormi-scOy to begin to fall 

asleep : J asleep. 

sentxoy to perceive : ...senti senti-scoy to begin to perceive. 

ft. rSmo« to sigh : gem gem-i-scOy to begin to idgh. 

tremoy to tremble: trem... trem-i-sco, to begin to tremble. 

Inceptive Verbs are sometimes derived from Substantives, and signify 
** to begin to have" that, or to " become" that, or " like" that, which is de- 
noted by such Substantives. 

They are formed from the Theme of Substantives by adding to it either 
G'SCOy e- scoy or i'sco; so that the Verbs seem to be formed after primitives 
of the Isty 2d, or drd conjugation. 

a. ptt^Uav girl: puelUce ... puelUa-scOy^ to become a pu- 

ella ; t. e.\y to grow girlish. 

puer, boy: .puer^i puer-a-seo, [to become &pu€r; 

i. e.], to attain boyhood. 

vespery evening: vesper-i vesper-a-scoy to become even- 

acetuMy sour wine: ,„acet'i acH-a-scOy [to become like sour 

wine], to grow sour. 

gelUy ice: geUu gel-ascoy to become or turn to 


Digitized by 


Ch. IV.] y£!tfiS.---=)ieo, scCre^etc. 129 

3. avtocir, tree : # , ai^bS r^u .... arbdr-e-seo, to become a tree . 

aurum, gold:. aur-i aur-e-seo, [to become gold], to 

grow of a gold colour. 

car^o, charcoal : carbon-is,, carbon^e-scoy to become char- 


comu, horn : corn-u com-e-sco, [to become horn], to 

be<;ome hard as horn. 

ex, completely ; 1 .... f ear, 1 ... exaqu-e^scoy to turn completely 
a^tia, water: J \aqU'4B \ to water. 

herbtty a green stalk: herb-ce hefb-e-sco^ to grow into green 


juvenis, a young! .juven-is ... juven^e^sco^iohetom^'^juvenis, 

person : J 

Idpisy stone : ,,.,,,,.,.,Japtd'is ... laptd-e-sco, to become a stone ; 

to be petrified. 

>iojr, night: noct-is woc^c-*co, to T}ecome night ; to 

grow dark. 

j9/»ma, feather : pplum^cB plum-C'ScOy to begin to have 

feathers; to be fledged. 

s^lvoy wood: sylv'CB sylv-e-sco, to become wood; to 

run to wood. 

«. lopiiiiui, a stone: ,*.,.Japill4,.*,, Japill-i'ScOy to become a stone. 

Inceptive Verbs are further derived from Adjectives, and signify to be- 
come of the same quality as their primitive. 

They are formed by adding to the Theme of their Adjectives a-sco, 
C'SCOf OT i'sco; so that these, like such as are formed from Substantives, 
seem to be formed from primitives of the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd conjugation. 

2. t^ner, tender : tener-i tener-a-scoy to grow tender. 

3. HmSLruMf bitter: ,.,amdr'i amdr-esco, to grow bitter. 

claruSy clear: clar-i dar-e-sco, to grow clear. 

dulcify sweet: dulc-is dulc'e-scOy to become sweet. 

nXgery black : nigr-i nigr-e-scOy to become black. 

peryYery; 1 »pery 1 ... /?crcre6r-e-*co, to become very 

crebevy frequent: J crebr4j frequent. 


Digitized by 



♦t«, 1 in, 1 ...[»nrai«?-«-wo], 1 to become 

raucuf, hoarse : J rauc'ij irrauC'C'ScOj J hoarse- 
tener^ tender : tener^i tener-e-scoy to grow tender. 

«• TKtiuitasy old: vetust-is,: vetust-isco, to grow old. 


(tikr)-Io« (tttr)-ire. 

Verbs of this class are called Desiderative Verbs. They express "a 
desire" to do, etc^ somethiDg. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of the Future Parti- 
ciple, and by changing the preceding long u into short tc. 

06«. 1. All Desideratiye YerbB are of the 4th conjugation, and hence end in to. 

Obs. 2. There are some rerbs in urio that are not Desideratives : snch are li^uHot to 
lick ; prurio, to itch ; scaturto, to bubble up, &c Observe also that the u m these 
words is long. 

ccBno, to sup : ..canatu r-us, ccBnatur^io^ to desire to sup. 

dico, to tell: dictur-us.., dictur'to, to desire to tell. 

emOy to bay : emtur-tts,., emtur-w^ to desire to buy. 

edoy to eat : esur-us esur-to, to desire to eat 

lego, to read: lectur-us.^, lectur-ioy to desire to read. 

parioy to hrmg ioTi^ :, p ar tu r'US., partur-tOy to desire to bring 


The following Desideratiyes are obtained from Substantives by adding 
the Suffix to the Theme of the primitive. 

Squusv horse : equ^i .egthiOy to desire a hors^. 

cdtultis, 1 .,,,,catul'L.,.. catul-tOy to desire a whel 

a whelp : J ^ ^^^^ whelps. 


1. ssOf ssSre. 2. e-«so, eHMUte«. 3. Ihwo* Umm^re* 

Verbs in mo, M«re, etc., express "doing" an action "eagerly," and are 
termed Verbs Intensive. 

* Irraueeseo affords an instance of the preposition m losing its force in composi- 

Digitized by 


Cfi. IV. ] y £BBS. — MO» Mfoe, etc. ; Uso. iMftre, etc. 131 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root of Verbs., 

1. lnoSdo» 

to go against : 

video, to see: vid [^rirf-^so], "j to see or look at 

[t7t-wo], f eagerly. 

1 INCED pwcerf-Mo], "1 to go eagerly 

:J ince-sso, J against; to attack. 

wo], 11 
ro], U 
^*, J 

o» to take:.: cap cap-e-sso, to take or catch at 


facioy to do : fac fac-e-ssoy to do eagerly. 

LAC, akin to S. \ lac laC'C-sso, to bite eagerly f; hence, 

A^/ DAC, to bite : J to provoke, exasperate, etc. 

3. peto, to seek after : ... pet pet-UssoXy to seek eagerly after. 


1MM»» iMftre I also, %Mmvtt tMftrl. 

Verbs in isso, tssdre, etc., denote the " imitating,** or " being like," their 
primitives, and may be termed Imitative Verbs. They occur in both a 
Transitive and Intransitive force. 

They are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of Substantives and 

JkttleiUf Athenian :,,,,Attt c-i, Atttc-issOy to imitate an Athe-« 

nian ; Atticize. 

GrcBcuSy Greek : Grac-i .,.. Grcec-isso^ to imitate a Greek ; 


...Sicul'i [_ Siciil'isso^y 1 to imitate a Sici- 

Sidl'isso, Jlian; Sicilize. 

...Com-i. Com-issory to imitate Gomus; 

to revel, etc. 

,,.mdlac .malac'issor, to imitate softness ; 

to render soft or supple. 

Sicilian : 
ComuSy KtHfiocy 
Gomus, the god 
of revels : 
malacy akin to Gr. 
^aXaM^y soft: 

* The force of " to visit," belongs to vUo by metonjmy. 
f Laeetao is used in this, its etymological force, in Colu 
I The form pete$so is equally in use. 

Lacesao is used in this, its etymological force, in Columella, 10. 
K 2 

Digitized by 



pater^ father: .patrUs, patr-isso, to imitate or be like 

a father. 
trulhy trowel: truli-iB ^rw/Z-mo, to fmitate trowelling ; 

to plaster. 


The Suflixes tro, irare, etc., appear akin in origin to Ajectives in fer, 
<rM, etc., and Substantives in tor, torts, etc. They denote the "doing" 
or " causing ** something ; or " doing with " something. 

They are formed from Roots ; or from the Themes of Substantives. 

1. MBdOf 1 ••«...C£D rc€Bd-tro' 

to cut : J icaS'trd 

COS' tro, 

A. ^/ PBV» within : PEN pen-e-tro^ [to make within], to 

3. ealx, heel : ^...calc'is calc-t-tro, £to do with the heel^, 

to kick. 


1. lo, l&re. a. U-Io, U-l&re. 

Verbs of this class are termed Diminutive Verbs. They mostly 
signify to do something "in a slight*' or "insignificant manner,*' or "in 
a slight degree." Sometimes the diminutive force is hardly to be traced. 

They are formied by adding the SuflGlx to the Theme of their primitives. 

Obs. 1. All Diminutive Verbs are of the Ist conjugation. 

068. 2. The part of ^lie Suffix which imparts the diminutive force is the letter I; o is 
the termmation belon^ug to the Verb ; t is a Connecting Vowel ; and for the purpose 
of euphony, and of lengthening the p^nultima, / is doubled : i-U-o, 

N,B, Compare CA. I. No. XVI. 

1. f doiilo, \ FOCtTL \Jbcul'lQ\ 1 to cherish. 

to cherish : J fociUo, | 

2. eonseribo, to write :...CONSORIB.... conscrtb-illo, to scribble, 
canto, to sing: cant cant-illo, to sing in an under- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Ch. IV.] VEBBS.— oOf oAte, etc. 133 

murmuro, to murmur :..murmub.. . . . mvrrjfur'Uloy to murmur a little. 
sorbeOy to sup up :•••... sobb,.. sorbMlo^ to sip up. 

Ol8. 3. Fentulo ** to fan,'* ^C'f is obtained firom ventulus, *< a slight wind.*' See above, 
p. 120. 



Besides the Verbal Suffixes mentioned in iVo<. L~-.VIIL, others are 
found to which an etymological meaning cannot be assigned with any cer- 
tainty. They seem either to supply collateral forms to Verbs with other 
Suffixes, or merely to impart a Verbal power to their Base. The difficulty 
here arises from having to deal with a language that is known to us only 
through writings, and those forming but a portion of a larger number of 
works. In these^it is not to be expected that all the words of the whole lan- 
guage should be employed. Base-forms, it is but reasonable to suppose, have 
in many instances not come down to us, especially those which belong to 
every-day life. Hence arises an obscurity as to formations, which would 
probably be cleared up, had we but the power of listening to what th^ 
Romans said, in addition to our means of studying, in some m^as.ure, what 
they wrote. 


1. coy cftre, or oor* oftrl. a. I-oo, Y-eftre. . 

Verbs of this class are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root of 
Verbs, or to the Theme of Substantives or Adjectives. 

1. alter* I alter'tus aUet'COy 1[jto do something 

other : j alter-cor*, J with another ; 

hence, of conversation], to 
talk, etc, with another ; to 

2. allmft, white. :•••«.... a Z6-t alb^uco, to make white, whiten. 

communisycommon ixommu n-is ... commun- t-co, to make common, 

share, etc, 

niger, black : .nigr-i nigr-t-co, to mal^e black, 


* The meaning of '* to quarrel," etc., is an especial force of this verb. 

Digitized by 



fodiOy to dig : fod fod-t-co^ to dig. 

mordeoj to bite : hord mordi'COf'l to bite. 

99 n »> morS'i'COf J 

veUOf to pluck: yell vell'-i-co^ to pluck. 

AibeOf to be white: ..alb alb-i-co, to be white. 

candeOf to be glit- \ c and cand-t-co^ to be glittering 

tering white : J white. 

elaudeo, to be lame :.claud claud^Uco, to be lame. 

nigreOy to be black :.nigr nigr-i-co, to be black. 

varusy bow-legged :.var4 var-t-^o, to be bow-legged. 


1. cYiiory clnftri. 2. l-«Iii9r, 1-elaftH. 

Verbs of this class are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of 
Substantives, or to a foreign word. 

1. leno, 1 lenon-is [knon-cinor}^ 1 to pander. 

pander : J ieno-cinory J 

to protect. 

patronuSf 1 patron^i ....[^patron-'etnor'], 

protector : J patro'Cinor^ 

sermo, 1 sermon^is ..»J[sermon'e%nor]y 

to converse. 

conversation : J «er»io-ct«or*, 

mantis = 6r. 1 mantis mantis-cinory to prophes 

fjLayriQy prophet : J 

a. vatesp prophet : va t-is vat-t ctnovy to prophesy. 


1. olto, citftre. 2. l-olto, 1-oYtftre. 

Verbs in cito, citare^ etc , are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme 
of Substantives and Adjectives. 

1. oa, 1 or4s [or-ci/o], 1 to gape. 

mouth : J os-cttOy J 

* Sermonari rtaticius videtur, sed rectius: sermocinari crebrhts est, sedcor- 
nqOiuSf Gellins, 17, 2, 17. 

Digitized by 


Ch. IV.] VEBBS. — *-lo, tt-lftre, etc.; rop rftre, etc. 135 

a. febrls, fever : .febr-is febr-t'cUo, to be feverish. 

clarusj distinct: clar^i clar-ucito, to summon dis- 



tt-lOf tt-lftr»f or tt-lorv tt-lftri. - 

Verbs of this class are formed by adding the Suffix to the Theme of 
Substantives and Adjectives ; or, immediately, to Adverbs. 

lutum, mud : lut-i lut-u-loy to bespatter with mud. 

ei = heU ah! ej ej-u-lo *, to exclaim ei, or ah ! 

^ra/M«, pleasing : grat-i grat-u-lovy to say what is 

pleasing ; to congratulate. 

06«. Bubulo, ** to hoot" (as an owl), is formed from bubuius, <<an owl ;" so nidtUor, 
<< to build a nest," from nidului, ** a little nest ;" and others in the same way. 


Verbs of this class are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root of Verbs 
or the Theme of Substantives. 

1. rjkach akin to 6r. 1 flag ftag-rOy to burn or blaze. 

*AEr, a/ of ^Xiyw, \ 
to burn : J 

a. blatlo, to babble: blat blae-e-rOf to babble. 

con, together, "1 ...consid consid-e-ro, [to see together (in 

sidf akin to Gr. lA, the mind)], to review in the 

V of €i^w, obsol., I mind, consider. 

to see : 

dcy augmentative, ' 

sidf akin to Gr. I A, 

>v/ of €t^w, obsol., 

to see : 

recipioy 1 begip recip-e^o^ 1 [to take back], 

..DESm desid-e-ro, [to look at greatly 

-or eagerly], to desire. 

"I RECtP recip-e'TOj 1 | 

to take back : J recup-e-roj J i 

TOL, akin to S. 1 tol toUe-rOy to bear. 

a/ tul, to bear: J 

modus, measure : ,,,,..mod'i. mod'S'rory to set a measure. 

• Also, Transitively, "to bewail." 
K 4 

Digitized by 



too, Inftre. 

Verbs of this class are formed by adding the Suffix to the Root. 

LANC, akin to S. 1 ...lane kmcrimf to tear, to rend. 

V' DANC, to bite 




1. e a. c. 

Adverbs In e point out " the way " or " manner " in which the person or 
thing denoted by the primitive " acts " or " is affected." 

They are formed from Adjectives, and Participial Adjectives^ by adding 
the Suffix to the Theme of their primitives. 

Obs. 1. In forming the Adverbs from Adjectives in er, it must be observed whether or 
not the « is retained in the obliqae cases : thus ieger, agri, makes <Bgre; but liber, lib^i, 
makes libSre. 

1. altas, high: alt^i.. cUt-e, highly; on high. 

modestus, moderate :.. .modes ("i... modest-iy moderately. 

sanusy sound : sdU't sdn-e, soundly. 

vdlidus, strong : valid-i vaiid-e, 1 strongly* 

*vald'^, J 

<»^er, ill: <£grU agr-iyilK 

j9ti/oer, beautiful : pulcr-i ... />tt/cr-e, beautifully. 

/t6«r, free: ••• libev-i...... lH^r-e^ tveieiy. 

tener, tender : .* tener-i ... tener'iy tenderly. 

doctus, learned: doct^i doct'i, learnedly. 

orndtusy orn ate : orndUi . • • orndt-e^ ornately. 

* The form vakU is used in a derived forces viz., ipightily, greatly. 

Digitized by 


Ch. v.] adverbs. — C, etc 137 

a. mainf, bad/. .mdl'U maUe, badly. 

henus *, good : be n-t ben^e^ well. 

ijifernus, 1 infern-i ... infem^iy beneath. 

that is beneath: J 

supemm^ 1 sup e r w-« .^ , supern-Sy above. 

that is above : J 

1. 9h a* nil. S. vin. 4. o. 

Some Neuter Adjectives of the Accusative Singular, and some also of the 
Ablative Singular, are used as Adverbs. These also point out the ^' way ** 
or ^* manner ** in which the person or thing denoted by the primitive is 

1. dlffXollis, difficult : difficile, with difficulty. 

/actlisy easy: factl-e, easily. 

impuniSj nn^nmshed : imj9t2n-e, with impunity. 

stiblimiSy aloft : sublim'Sy lo^ily. 

2. reoensy recent : . . . . . •• • recens, recently. * 

3. oetSmSf other : ceterum, thekt which relates to 

the other. 

multus, much: muliumy much^ 

n imius, excessive : mmtumf excessively. 

paulusy little : patdum, a little ; somewhat. 

plerusque, very many : plerumque, for the most part. 

poHsstmtiSy chief: potisstmum^ chiefly. 

primus, first: jvrmt^m, firstly; in the first 

secundus, secpnd : . • • .^ secundum^ secondly \ ; in the 

second place. 

tertmSy third : ». tertmmy for the third time. 

quartuSy fourth : quartum, for the fourth time. 

4. aroftanih secret ; .. * . . , ^ arcdnoy secretly. 

cttus, quick: citOy quickly. 

* Obsolete fotu^ of bonwk t ^^ this meaning very rare. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 


conitnuusy contiauoos: eoit^nuo, (continuouslj) ; forth- 
with (of time). 

creber^ frequent : cre^ro, frequentlj. 

falsuSf false: /also, falselj. 

graiuUuSy gmtnitous I .•....••• ^ra^tto, gratuitously. 

liquiduSj clear: RquidOy clearly. 

maTtt/e^/uf, manifest : maitt^^to, manifestly. 

necessariusy necessary : necessdriOf necessarily. 

perpetuusy perpetual : perpetuo, perpetually. 

precdrius, obtained by entreaty:... precdrio, by entreaty. 

rorM*, rare : raro, rarely. 

seriuSy serious: serto, seriously. 

auspicdiuSf fortunate: auspicdto, at a fortunate time. 

consulius, deliberated upon : consulio, deliberately. 

c/trec/ii«, direct : directo^ direcdj. 

tterdtuSf done again, or a second 1 tterdto, again ; once more. 

time : J 

merttuSy deserved I merino, deservedly. 

^ optdtus, wished : optdtOy according to one's wish. 

pr€BpardtU8y prepared : prapardto, preparedly. 

1. ter. 2. 1-ter. 

Adverbs in/er, Wer, signify the "way" or "manner" in which the person 
or thing denoted by the primitive ** acts " or ** is affected." 

They are formed from Adjectives following the drd declension. Such as 
have their Theme ending in ^ preceded by a consonant (1) reject the final 
t of their Theme, and then take immediately the Suffix. But such as have 
their Theme ending in any other way (2) mostly take the Connecting Vowel 
f immediately after the Theme before the Suffix. 

1. amaiui, fond : am an t-U [amafU''ter]y 1 fondly. 

aman^ter, J 
convenlensy suitable :.,, conve' 1... [c<mvemenUter\y 1 suitably. 

nient^is j convenien'ter, J 
eleganSy tasteful : e leg a n t-is, . • . [elegant'ter]^ 1 tastefully. 

elegari'tery J 

y Google 

Digitized by > 

Ch. v.] 

ADVERBS. — ter? X-ter. 


sapiens, wise : sapien t'is .... [sapient^Ur], 1 wisely. 

sapien-tery J 
sailers, skilful : sollert-is \_solert'ter], 1 skilfully. 

soler-ter, J 
"vtdlens, violent : v%6lent''%s..,,\y%6lent'ter], 1 violently. 

violen-ter, J 

2. aeer» sharp:... acr-is acr-l-ter, sharply. 

audax, bold :••• auddc-is audaC't-ter, boldly.* 

ce/^r, swift: celer-is cc/er-t-^tr, swiftly. 

concorSy concordant :...c onco rd'is,. . concord-t-ter, concordantly. 

felix, happy : .felt c-is feliC'i-ter, happily. 

ferox, fierce : .feroc-is feroc-p-ter, fiercely. 

gravis, heavy: graves grav-uter, heavily. 

hilaris, cheerful : htla r^is ktlar-uter^ cheerfully. 

par, equal: .partis par-t-ier, equally. 

saluber, healthful : .,,salub r-is salubr-i-ter, healthfully . 

simplex, simple : si mp lic^is, . . . simpltC't-ter, simply. 

uHlis, useful : ut tl-is utU-Uter, usefully. 

Obs, Some Adverbs in tevt i-tery are found which apparently belong to Adjectives in 
us, i. e. which follow the 2nd declension. It is most probable, however, that they are 
formed from Adjectives following the 8rd declension, which have not come down to us 
in the written language. On the same principle must be explained the occurrence of 
adverbs in e, belonging to adjectives which follow the drd declension, thus : — 

[/mtM/uZens], ) fraudulent; ... [/rai«ft«&n*-M],)[/?'aiMitt/en*-ter],) fraudulently. 



miser J 



} Jraudulent'i, 

) drunken: [^temuknt-is'], 

/ temtdent-i, 

) wretched: [tomct-m], 

f miaer-i, 

) excellent: [/>ro6-i»], 

j proh'%, 

) discreet: [fan-M], 

j sau'i. 

) fraudvlen'ter, f 

) Itemulent'ter'ii 
j temtden-ter, 



) prob-%-ter, 

j prob'if 

) san-l'ter, 

J san-e, 

} drunkenly. 
) wretchedly. 

) excellently. 

) discreetly. 

In the same way the construction of the following may be explained, though only the 
adjectival form us is found : durus, hard, durif durtter, hardly ; firmus, nrm, firme, 
Jirmiter, firmly ; humanus, human, humanef hunumtter, humanly ; laraus, abundant, large, 
lar0ter, abundantly ; lucidentus, excellent, luctUente, luculenter, excellently ; turbtUentuSy 
turbulent, turbuiente, turbtdenter, turbulently. 

* ^vc2ac-^, without the Connecting Vowel I, is the form more commonly found in 
Classical Latin. 

Digitized by 



%• tns*. a. i-tos. 

Adverbs in tuSt &c., point out, properly, "whence" any person or^ thing 
comes ; and hence, in a derived force, they denote " origin " and also 
" result." 

When derived from Prepositions, the Suffix is added immediately to such 
Prepositions. But when they are derived from Adjectives or Substantives, 
they are formed from the Theme of such Adjectives or Substantives, between 
which and the Suffix the Connecting Vowel i is introduced. 

!• tB, inside: iti'tus, from the inside* 

sub, beneath: sub^tus, from beneath. 

a. aatlqans, ancient : ,,,antiqu'i„. antiqu-t'tus, [from what is an- 

cient], from ancient times. 

divinus, divine:....... ...rfi>iw-t ... divin-i'tus, [from what is di- 
vine], from heaven. 

humanus,humvji:^,,.,human'i.„ human't-tuSf [from what is 

huoian], humanly. 

cos/um, heaven : ccel'-i <7(»Z*t-^«, from heaven. 

medulla, marrow : medulUce.. medull't-tus, from the marrow ; 


radix, root : radiC'is .,. radic-i-ius, from the root. 

sHrps, root: stirp-is ... stirp-utus^ from the root, ut- 

Ohs, To this class must probably be refeixed the Adverb igitur-; as fur b tus, appa- 

I, (pronomioalroot), this:.... i Ug-i-tur^ from this (cause, etcS), 

therefore, hence, etc. 



Adverbs in X^es, formed f^om Ordinal Adjectives, denote " so many times*' 
as the primitive represents : as, quinqtte, five ; quinqnies, five times. 

* Compare the hardening of the vowel by c m hie, the asperated form of i-c. 

Digitized by VjOOQ iC 

Ch.V.] adverbs.— ^••^tlm, etc. 141 

They are formed from such as end in «, t, o, or m preceded by a vowel, 
by eliding «, or t, or o, or m with its vowel, and then adding the Suffix. But 
in such as are derived from Ordinals in inti or mto, the Suffix is added to 
what remains, as a Base, after the irUi or irUa has been thrown off. 

quinqu'e, five : quinqu'tes, five times. 

seXySix: , ,... «ea?-te«, six times. 

sept-emy seven : sept-Usy seven times. 

oct-o, eight: ocZ-ie^, eight times. 

^ot;-em, nine: nov-te^, nine times. 

dec'cm, ten : ....•> dec-ieSy ten times. 

undec-iniy eleven- : undec'tes, eleven times. 

duodec^imy twelve : dtiodec-iesy twelve times. 

tredec- im, thirteen : tredec'tes, thirteen times. 

cent'Um, hundred : cent'teis, hundred times. 

dtecent4y two hundred : dttcent-tes, two hundred times. 

mill-e, thousand : mill-ies, thousand times. 

vig-intiy twenty : , [r«^-tc»], 1 twenty times. 

vic'ies, J 
trig-intay thirty : . .- [#r^-f «], 1 thirty times. 

tric'tes, J 

quadrcig'inta, forty : quadrdg^tes, forty times. 

quinquag-intay fifty : quinquag-USy fifty times. 

sexag-intay sixty: sexdg-teSy sixty times. 

septuag-intay seventy: septuag-teSy seventy times. 

octog-inta 1 eighty: octog_^teSy l^jhty times. 

nonag-intay ninety : nonag- tes, ninety times. 


1. tlin. 2* Sim. S. ft-ttin. 4. 1-ttliii. 6. fL^lm. 

Adverbs in tiniy etc., denote the " way " or " manner " in which a person or 
thing "acts'* or "is affected." 

When derived from Verbs, they are formed by adding the Suffix to the 
Theme of the 1st Conjugation, but mostly to the Root in the other Conju- 
gations. When derived from Adjectives, or Substantives, they are formed 
by adding the Suffix to the Theme. 

Obs. 1. The Primary Suffix appears to be ti, of which ti-m would be the Accusative 
form in Substantives. It is probable, therefore, that Adverbs in tim, whether derived 

Digitized by 



from Verbs, Adjectiyes, or SabsUutives, are Adverbial Accusatives of Abstract Nouns 
oo longer in use. Some few Substantives in tie exist; and these have properly an 
abstract force : viz., iementiM, a seeding ; meint, a mowing. See p. 102. 

Obs. 2. In order to express as nearly as possible the original force of the adverbs in 
Hm, etc, an assumed English participle has been employed for the purpose, as given in 
several cases within the square brackets; e,g, [by a trooping], [by a squadroning], 
etc., etc. 

1. eito. to speed : cita cUa-Hm^ [by a speeding], 


cuneo, to form like al ct^nea cuned-Hm, [by a formiDg like 

wedge: J a wedge], wedge-formed or 

gravOi to load : grava gravd-tiniy [by a loading], with 


^r^^o, to collect into! ^re^^a grega-tim, [by a collecting 

a flock : J into a flock], in flocks. 

nomiTWy to name : nomtna,.,, nomtnd'timy [by a naming], by 

sepdroy to separate: „.separd,.,.. sepdrd'tim^ [by a separating], 

jf0, to stand: • std std-tim^ [by or in a standing], 

by or in standing ; also, 

mmuo, to lessen : minu ...... mtnu-Hmy [by a lessening], 


carpo, to pluck : carp carp-Hmy [by a plucking], by 

pieces, piece by piece. 
conjungo, to unite : ...conjung ....[con/ttw^-Ziw], 1 [by a uniting], 

conjunc'tiniy J unitedly. 
contemnoy to despise: contem contem-tim, ["[with a despis- 

contemp'timy i ing], with con- 
t tempt. 

prcBy before ; 1 prjeser pr€Bser'tim, [by an arranging 

sero, to arrange : J before], especially. 

/)MW^o, to puncture :...PUNG [_pung'tim]j^ [bj a punctur- 

punc'tiniy I ing], with the 

I point; by stab- 

by a 1 
stric-Hmy J ing], closely. 

>y to draw : trag [/ra^-ft'm], I [by a drawing], 

trac'timy > little by little; 

5^rt«^o, to draw tight : strig [^^n^-fow], 1 [by a tight draw 

c-Hmy J ing], 



J by degrees. 

Digitized by 



con, together; 
ferOy to bring : 
pes, foot; 
tendo, to stretch : 

ADVERBS. — tkB^ etc. 


confer'tim, [bjabringlDg to- 
gether], closely, compactly. 
.,m,ped'ts, 1 ...[ped'C'tend'tim^y 1 [by a foot- 
TEND J ped-e'ten-tim, I stretching], 

j foot by foot; 
J slowly. 
uber, abundant: uber-is uber^Hm, [by a being abund- 
ant], abundantly. 

singuluSy single: singul'i,.,*Mngul'Hmy [by a being single], 

one by one ; singly. 

furtum, "1 ...../ttr/-t [yttr^ft'm], "j [by a secret act- 

J fuT'Hmy > ing], by stealth ; 

J secretly. 

secret action : 

2. oaed^v 

to cut : 

to run : 
to mix : 
PAD (Sanscrit 
root), to go : 


to observe : 


, QXD \c(Bd'-tim\ " 



ctB'Sim, ^ 
...CUR [c«r-«m], ' 

...Misc [mwc-ft'm], 1 [by a mixing], 

^miS'tim, J mixedly. 

...PAD [pad-Hm\ 1 [by agoing], hither 

}j)€iS'tim}y f and thither ; here 

[by a cutting], with 
the edge ; by 

[by a running], 
quickly; swiftly. 


passim, J and there. 

. SENT [sent'timl, 


[by an observing], 
gradually (t. e, so 
that a thing is per- 
> ceived beforehand, 
and does not come 
unexpectedly on 

3. minfitas, minute : ...minut-i minut'd'tim, [by a being made 

small], in little pieces. 
pai///M«, little : .paulUL pauU-a-Hm, [by a being little], 

little by little. 
paullulus, very little: paullul-i,,, paullul-a-tim, [by a being very 

little], very little by very 


* Sometimes formed singtdatm; see below, No, 8. 
t Also, by transposition of $e (cfisx), mixtim. 

Digitized by 



sinffiUus, single: .. ,.,,,8 ingu 14,., *singul'd-iwn^[hjtLheing single}, 

one by one; singly. 

ca^tfroa, a troop : caterV'€B.., caterv-a-tim^ [by a trooping], 

by troops, in companies. 

^tffiK^, class : yener4s .,, gSner-a'tim, [by a claiming], 

by classes, kinds, or species. 

grMuSyBtei^:,..* .grad-us .o grad-a-timy [by a Stepping], 

step by step ; gradually. 

oppidumy^\(j^n\,,^,„opp%d''i ... oppid-a-Hmy [by a towning], 

town by tow^. 

ostium^ a door : ostUi ostt-a-iifn, [by a dooring], from 

door to door. 

promncuiy province:... pro- 1 ... provinct-d'-timy [by a provinc- 
vinct-^j ing], province by province. 

summa, io]^: summ'iB ,,, summ-d-Hmy [by a topping], 


/urma, squadron : turm^tB ... turm-d-tmy [by a squadron- 
ing], by or in squadrons. 

rtctif, street : vic'i vic'd'tim, [by a streeting], 

from street to street. 

*. TlTf man : ... ,„,.., „,.,v Ir^t.k vir-t'timy [by a itoatining], 

man by man. 

6. trYbtiSy a tribe : trib-us trib-u-timy [by a tribing], 

tribe by tribe. 

(^8. 3. AffXH^ is compounded of ad and fiUim (fatim itself being the adverbial 
accusative of the obsolete futis) ; fatim enim abundanter dicimus, unde et affa tint, Serv. 
Virg. M, 1, 123. 

* Sometimes formed svngultim: see above, No, 1. It is also corrupted into nngilla- 
tvn; and thence is obtained ttgUmtim. 





Digitized by 



Digitized by 


Digitized by