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Full text of "The Latter-Day Saints' emigrants' guide : being a table of distances, showing all the springs, creeks, rivers, hills, mountains ... from Council Bluffs to the valley of the Great Salt Lake ..."

L I B R.ARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY 
OF ILLINOIS 



C5-79-/ 



III. KiST. SURVEY 



CT7HIS BOOK is printed from 
photographic plates of the 
Original Copy of this GUIDE, 
which was printed in St. Louis 
in 1848. This original copy is 
on file in the HISTORIAN'S OF- 
FICE LIBRARY. 

(Signed) A. WILLIAM LUND 

Assistant Historian 

Church of Jesus Christ of 

Latter-day Saints 




THE 

LATTER-DAY SAINTS' 

EMIGRANTS' GUIDE: 



BEING A 



TABLE OF DISTANCES, 

SHOWING ALL THE 

SPRINGS, CRFEKS, RIVERS, HILLS, MOUNTAINS, 

CAMPING PL ..CES, AND ALL OTHER NOTABLE PLACES. 

FROM COUNCIL BLUFFS, 

TO THE 

VALLEY OF THE GREAT SALT LAKE. 

ALSO, THE 

LATITUDES, LONGITUDES AND ALTITUDES 

OP THE PROMINENT POINTS ON THE ROUTE. 

TOGETHER WITH REMARKS ON THE NATURE OF THE LAND, 
TIMBER, GRASS, &c. 

THE WHOLE ROUTE HAVING BEEN CAREFULLY MEASURED BY A ROADOME- 

TER, AND THE DISTANCE FROM POINT TO POINT, IN 

ENGLISH MILES, ACCURATELY SHOWN. 



BY W. CLAYTON. 



ST. LOUIS: 

MO. REPUBLICAN STEAM POWER TRESS CHAMBERS & KNAPP, 

1848. 



Copy EIGHT secured, by W. CLAYTOS, in the Clerk'a Office of the District 
Court of the United States for the District of Missouri. 



PREFACE, 

When the author first compiled the following work, it was 
not with a design to publish it, although well aware of the 
advantages which emigrants, traveling to the VALLEY OF TUB 
GREAT SALT LAKE, would continually realize by having it 
in their possession. However, there were so many who ap- 
plied for copies of it and the labor of writing a copy being 
considerable, as well as requiring much time it was con- 
cluded to publish it in its present form, by which means it 
can be afforded at a price which will bring it within reach of 
any person wishing to have it. 

Many works have been published, and maps exhibited for 
the instruction of emigrants, but none which ever pretended 
to set forth the particulars contained in this work, so far as 
regards the route from Council Bluffs to the Great Salt Lake. 
The distances from point to point are shown as near as a 
Roadbmeter can measure ; and by this means the traveler can 
know, each day, the kind of country lying before him, and 
how far he must go in order to find a suitable place to camp at 
night. 

Emigrants have lost many o their teams m the neighbor- 
hood of the Alkali lakes, in consequence of not knowing the 
distance from any one of these lakes to good water. By pay- 
ing attention to the remarks in this work, a person need run 
. no risk, inasmuch as all the Alkali lakes, which are near the 
, road, are mentioned and, also, the places where an encamp- 
ment can be formed with safety. 

The author feels a delicacy in saying much in favor of the 
"^ " Guide,'* but is well aware that, when its merits have been 
tested by experience, no person will repent of having pur- 
chased it. It is, therefore, submitted cheerfully to the con- 
sideration of an intelligent public. 

AUTHOR. 

St. Louis, Mo., Uth March, 1848. 



EXPLANATION. 

In the following table, the large type shows the prominent 
points and places which will naturally be noticed by the emi- 
grant. The first column of figures shows the distance from 
point to point, in English miles. The second column of figures 
shows the total distance of each point to Winter Quarters ; 
and the, third column, the total distance of each point to the 
Temple Block, in the CITY OF THE GREAT SALT LAKE. As, 
for example : 

How far is it from Winter Quarters to Pappea ? 

Answer, (page' 5, second line) 18 miles. 

How far from Pappea to the Elk Horn river ? 

Answer, (page 5, second and third lines) 9 miles, &c. 

Again : How far is it from Raw Hide Creek to Fort John ? 

Answer, (page 11, last line) 12 miles. 

How far is Fort John from Winter Quarters ? 

Answer, (p. 12, first line) 522 miles. 

How far is Fort John from the City of the Great Salt Lake ? 

Answer, (p. 12, third column of figures) 509 miles. 

The small type, in this table, contains the various remdrks 
touching the nature of the road, lands, and its adaptation for 
camping purposes, &c. For example : 

What is said concerning the " La Bonte river ?" Page 13, 
second line. 

Answer. " It is a good place to camp being plenty of tim- 
ber, grass and water" the necessaries for camping purposes, 
rfttd consequently can be depended on. But, if thought advisa- 
ble to go a little further, " there is a good camping place a mile 
further," consequently you have choice of the two good places, 
within one mile of each other. 

What is said of a branch of the La. Bonte ? Page 13, 
third line. 

Jlnswzr. " Doubtful about water ;" consequently not safe to 
depend on for a camp ground. It is also said that the " banks 
are steep," which shows that it is not very good to cross, &c. 



EMIGRANTS' GUIDE. 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. Diar. 
miles. 


FROM 
W QRS. 
miles. 


FROM 
CofGSL 
miles. 


Winter Quarters, Lat. 41 18' 53" 






1031 


The road good, but very crocked, following the ridges 








and passing over a continual succession of hills and hoi 








lows. 








Pappea, ten feet wide, high banks. 


18 


18 


1013 


dome timber on the creek, but it is difficult to water 








teams. Alter this, the road IB crooked and uneven to the 








Kile Horn. 








Elk Horn, nine rods wide, three feet deep. 


9 


27 


1004 


Current rather swift, and not very pleasant to ferry. 








Plenty of timber on its banks. (See Note 1.) 








Creek, ten feet wide, steep banks. 


1 


271 


1003* 


This creek has a good bridge over it, but little timber 








on the banks. There la a high post, erected near the 








bridge, for a guide to it. 








Platte river and Liberty Pole. 


m 


39 


992 


Plenty of timber, but you will probably have to go 








to the river lor water distance about a quarter of a mile 








The nearest and best road to water is round the east 








point of the timber. 








Small Lake (narrow) south side the road. 


3 


42 


988* 


No timber on the Lake. 








Circular Lake, or pond, close to the road. 








(south.) 


3 


43* 


987! 


No timber. In the neighborhood of this, the road 








runs alongside a number of small lakes, or ponds, foi 








two miles ; but there is little timber nrar them. 








R. R. and T., road joins the river, Lat. 41 








27' 5" - ' - 


9 


524 


9781 


This is a point where a branch of the river rum 








round nn island, on which is plenty of timber. Not mucl 








water in the channel, but plenty for camping purposes. 








Indian Grave, north side the road. 


74 


591 


97H 


This is a large pile of earth, about eighty yards north 








of the road 








R. R. and T., road joins the river. 


^ 


60J 


9701 


Plenty of timber and water, without leaving the road 








Shell creek, 12 feet^vwde, three feet deep. 


2 


62i 


96SI 


This creek is bridged, and a few rods lower is a placr 
to ford Plenty of timber on it. After this you will probn- 








bly find no water for twelve miles, without .turning con- 
Biderably from the road. 








Small lake, south side of the road. 


51 


68 


963 


Plenty of water in the Spring season, but none in 








Bummer. It was entirely dry, October 18, 1847. 









PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DIST. 
miles. 


frKOM 
WQ.RS. 

miles. 


From 
CofGSL 

miles. 


R. and R., road joins the river. - 


62 


74* 


956| 


After this point you will have four or five miles of 








heavy, sandy road. 








Long Lake, south side the road. - 


i 


75 


956 


There is a little timber where this lake joins the river, 
and it is a pood camping place. 








Forks of road to new and old Pawnee vil- 








lages. - - 


6* 


SOi 


950i 


The left hand road IcVds to the Pawnee location of 








3847 ; t'ao other to the old village. The latter is your route. 

Lake, south of the road. ... 


ft 


81 


950 


Plenty of timber close to the road. The banks of the 








lake are high, but there is a small pond near, where 








teams can water. 








Loup Fork lake and timber. 


5 


86 


945 


Opposite to where "the Pawnees were located, in the 








Spring of 1847, and is a good place to camp 

Lake and timber, south of the road. 


8* 


94* 


9362 


Looking-glass creek, 16 feet wide, 2 deep. 

There is a poor bridge over this creek. It Is, howr 


1 


95* 


935$ 


ver, not difficult to ford. Plenty of timber on and near it 








Long Lake, south side the road. - 


2 


97* 


9331 


Some timber on the south bank, but none on the north 








wide. 








Beaver river, 25 feet wide, 2 feet deep : 








Lat. 41 25' 13"; Long. 98 0' 15". 


6| 


1033 


927* 


Plenty of good timber on both sides. There are two 








fording places. The upper one is good goinp in, but steep 
on the opposite side. The lower one not good going down, 








but good on the other side. 








Plumb creek, five feet wide : Lat. 41 24' 








29"; Altitude, 1,090 feet. - 


61 


110$ 


920! 


On this creek the okl Pawnee mission station stands, 








but is not a very pood place to camp, being ner the Paw- 
nee cornfields. The creek was dry, October 16, 1847. 








Ash creek, 12 feet wide, one foot deep. 


21 


113 


918 


Some timber, but not a very good chance to camp. 








Ford of the Loup Fork : Lat. 41 22' 37" 








Long. 98 11' 0". 


H 


114* 


9161 


This is the pioneer's ford, but is considered not so 








good as the upper ford. River about 300 yards wide. 

Old Pawnee village. ,.- 


1 


1141 


916* 


Formerly occupied by the Grand Pawnee and Tappa 








bandst^ but burned by the Sioux, in the Fall of 1846. 








Cedar creek, 8 rods wide, 2 feet deep. - 


Ij 


116* 


9141 


Some timber, and plenty of willow. After this, th 








road runs on the bottom, throush high grass for som 








distance, and gradually rises to higher land. 

Road descends to low>lad again. 


3 


119* 


9111 


You will now find some deep ravines to cress, bu 








none difficult. 








Road leaves the river, and turns up a ravine 


li 


121 


910 


After ascendinq; the hipher land, the road is good am 








level, except crossing the deep, dry ravines. 








Road descends into a rayine. 




1213 


9095 


You travel up this ravine a quarter of a mile, mostl 








through high grass. 









PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. 



I From i From 
WQBS. CofGSL 
miles. I miles. 



Old Pawnee village, south side the road. 


51 


127 


904 


On the banks of the Loup Fork, but mostly de 








utroyed. 








Road descends from the bluffs. 


^ 


127^ 


903$ 


After descending here, you cross a creek twelve feet 








wide, and one foot deep banks soft, but not difficult. 
You thcu travel through high grass and small bushes. 








Road ascends the bluffs. - - - 


* 


1271 


903* 


After traveling about four miles, then turning left 








from the road, so as to strike the timber you sec ahead 








where it meets the river, the road can be shortened at 








least a half mile. 






i 


Upper ford of the Loup Fork. - 

You will find the water in some places near 3 feet 


6 


1333 


897* 


deep, and will have to travel down the river about half a 








mile, to avoid deep hoics, and lind a good place to get out. 








(See Notc2.) 








Road ascends the bluffs. - - - 


51 


1391 


891 2 


After ascending the bluffs you will find a heavy, sandy 
road for five or six miles. 








Prairie creek, 12 feet wide 1 feet deep. 


18 


1571 


873-1 


Plenty ef water ani grass, but no timber. Banks. 








some soft and miry. By taking a south-west course from 








this creek, you would strike Wood rive"r six oreight miles 








above the old crossing place, find thence crossing to the 








Platto, by a course a little west of couth, the road may be 








shortened at least five miles. 








Dry creek. - 


1 


158! 


872,} 


" ..... 


i 


159 


872 


Main Platte river. - 


6 


1651 


865* 


You do not come within two miles of the river, until 








Wi arrive at Wood river. 








ood riv^r, 12 feet wide, one foot deep. 


3 


169* 


8611 


Plenty of timber, and a good place to camp. Bank? 








descending, steep, and some soft but good going out 
The road ;iow generally runsfrom one to two miles distant 








1'rara the main Pintle. 








Road descends to lower land. 


14 


183* 


8472 


The road now runs near the timber for two miles 








The grass is high, and a good chance to tamp, without 








turning off the road. 








Road ascends to higher land. 


2 


185* 


8451 


You will probably have to turn off the road some, for 








the next camping place. 








Deep ravine steep descent. 


221 


208 


823 


(( U __ _ 


* 


208* 


8222- 


Two and a quarter miles beyond this, is a good plac.- 








to camp, there being plenty of grass and water, on a low 








bench, about twenty reds south of the road. There is, how- 








ever, no timber but willow. 








Deep dry creek. - - - - 


3<1 


2111 


819* 


No timber on it. 








Creek or slough, south side the road. - 


11 


213^ 


817-5 


Plenty of willows and grass, but doubtful for water. 

Deep, dry creek. - 


4* 


2173 


813* 


The hi-ad of Grand Island is about opposite to this 








creek, but the road now runs 80 far from the river, we 








could not ascertain exactly. 









PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. 



I From 
WQns. 
miles.l miles. 



From 

CofGSL 
miles. 



lm creek. - - - , - 

Deep banks, plenty of timber, but no water, October 
9, 1847. 

Road leaves the river near timber. 

This is a pretty good camping place. 

Buffalo creek, south- side the road. 

A wide creek, with deep banks, but no timber ex- 
cept a few willow bushes. The road runs alongside thh 
creek for three and a halt' miles. 

Crossing of Buffalo creek. - 

R. and R., road runs near the river. 

Pretty good chance to camp. 

R. and R., road runs near the river. 

P16nty of buffalo-grass, and short prairie-grass. Plenty 
of timber on an island, close by. 

"VVillow Lake, south of the road. - 

Good place to water teams, but no timber for camp 
ing purposes. 

Ptah Lake, south of the road. 

The lake is long and very crooked. About a mile be< 
foro you arrive at it, the road runs near the river a little 
piece, then leaves it again. 

Deep, dry creek. - - 

Low, sandy bluffs, extending to the river. 
R. and R. near the Sandy Bluffs : Latitude 
410'47". .... 

After leaving this plnce, the road leaves the river, and 
runs near the foot of the bluffs, to avoid a bad swamp. 
You will not strike the river for sixteen miles, but will 
have no difficulty in finding feed and water. 

Skunk creek, six feet wide. 
Crossing of Skunk creek. - 

Banks some soft, but not difficult. No timber. 

Lake or marsh, south of the road. 
Lake, south of the road. - 

Plenty of grass and water, but no timber 1 nearer than 
five or six miles. 

Good spring of cold water. - 

At the foot of the bluffs, north of the road, and at the 
head of the Pawnee swamps. 

Low, sandy bluffs. - 

This is opposite to the junction of the north and aouth 
fdrks of Platte river. Lat. 41 7' 44" ; Long. 100 47' 15" ; 
Altitude, 2,685 feet. 

Carrion creek, 10 feet wide, one foot deep. 

Good place for grass, but no timber near. 

R. R. and T., road, river and timber. - 

Good place to camp. 

Last timber on north side the river. 

You will find no more timber on the north side the 
river for two hundred miles, except one lone tree. Your 
only dependence ior fuel will be buftklo chips and drill 
wood. 

Wide, deep creek. - - 

Plenty of water, October 4, 1847. The banks are high 
tut not bad to cross. 



62 



51 



14 
3 



i* 



41 



221 

2271 
228* 

2311 
239* 

244 
251i 
259* 



2611 
2753 

2781 



2801 
286* 

287* 
2881 



293 



294* 



2971 
302i 
306* 



810 

803* 
8021 



799* 
7911 



7792 
7711 



769* 
755* 

752* 



750* 
7441 

7433 
742i 

738 
7361 



733* 

728* 
7241 

722$ 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS, 



I From 
WQRS, 
mues.i miles. 



From 
CofGSL 

miles. 



R. R. and lake, road and river near a bayou. 

Opposite to this place are several islands, covered 
with willow bushes, which will answer for fuel, and there 
is little difficulty in getting to it. 

Black mud creek. - 

Plenty of water, October 3, 1847, but little feed for 
teams. 

R. and R., road joins the river. - 

After this, the road again leaves the river, until you 
arrive at the north Bluff JTork. Road good, but poor feed. 

Small creek. - 

Steep banks, but very little water. 

North Bluff Fork, 6 rods wide, 2 feet deep. 

Swift current, muddy water, low banks, quick-sand 
bottom, but not bad to cross. Poor place for grass. 

Sandy Bluffs, east foot. ... 

The road over these bluffs is very crooked, but no 
bad. If a road cim be made up the bed of the rivr, it 
would save at least two miles travel. 

Sandy Bluffs, west foot. ... 

By following the foot of the bluffs, after this, the road 
may be shortened at least a mile, and be equally as good a 
road asr to follow the river. 

2d. Sandy Bluffs, east foot. ... 

These bluffs are hard on teams, being mostly soft sand 

2d. Sandy Bluffs, west foot. 

Bluff Creek, 4 feet wide, 1 foot deep. - 

After this, the road maybe made considerably shorter 
by following; the foot of the bluffs. 

3d. Sandy Bluffs, east foot. - 

These bluffs are sandy, and heavy on teams. Near the 
west side you will find several steep places to descend, bui 
not difficult, the sand being soft. 

Small creek, running between the bluffs. 

Many small Lizards on the sandy places, but they ap 
pear to be perfectly harmless. 

Sandy Bluffs, west foot. ... 
Bluff Spring and small creek 200 yards, 
and one a quarter of a mile. - ' - 

In the neighborhood of these creeks the land ii 
swampy and soft. The road was made close to the bluffs 
to avoid the swamps. 

Petite creek, 4 feet wide, 9 inches deep. 

Plenty of water, some muddy, October 1, 18-17. i,ati 
rude 410 iy 5 p". 

Picanninni creek, 3 feet wide. 

Good spring water, and plentiful, October 1. 1847. 

Goose creek, 30 feet wide, 3 inches deep. 

After crossing this, you pass over a low range oi 
bluffs, very sandy, but only a quarter ot a mile wide; then 
you descend on the bottom land again, but will find it so 
and springy. 

Small spring creek. - 

J.:ny springs of cold water at the foot of the bluffs. 

Small creek, 4 feet wide. ... 

Plenty of clear cold water, October J, 18-17. 



li 



44 



14 



64 



14 



3091 



3111 
3131 

3174 
3201 



3224 



3261 



3301 

332 
3324 



3381 
3401 
341 



342 



343^ 
344 



3454 

346:} 



721* 

7194 
.7174 

7131 
7104 

7081 
7044 

7004 

699 

698! 



6924 
6904 
690 

689 

6871 
687 

6851 
684* 



10 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DIST. 
rrvles 


From 
W Qns. 
miles. 


From 
CofGSL 

miles. 


Duck-weed creek, 10 feet wide. - 


* 


3463 


684* 


Abundance of rood, cold spring water, Get 1, 1847. 








Shoal stream, 3 feet wide. - 


2 


3483 


682* 


Dry, October 1, 1847. 








Rattlesnake creek, 20 feet wide, 1$ ft. deep. 


33 


352i 


678$ 


Swift current, sandy bottom, but not bad to cross. 








Cedar Bluffs. 


H 


354 


677 


On\the south side the river. Lat. 41 13' 44" Long. 








101 52' 








Creek, six feet wide. - 


5 


359 


672 


Water plenty, September 30, 1847. Land.tn thia neigh- 








borhood, sandy. 








Creek, four feet wide. ... 


J 


359i 


67H 


Plenty of water, September 30, 1347. 








Crooked Creek, five feet wide. - 


4 


3593 


671* 


Plenty of water, September 30, J847. 

Camp Creek, eight feet wide. 


4 


3633 


667* 


Two creeks here, about the same size, but a few rodt 








apart water cold and plenty, September 30, 1847. Nt 
doubt they rise from springs. 








Creek, three feet wide. - 


4 


3673 


663* 


Plenty of water, May 20. but dry, September 30, 1847. 








Pond Creek, four feet wide. 


* 


368 


663 


Dry, September 30, near the river, but further north 








nmnv ponds and tall grass. 

Wolf Creek, 20 feet wide. - 


13 


369^ 


661i 


At the east foot ot Sandy Blufls. which are bad to 








cro?s, you will probably have to double teams, if heavy 








loaded. 








Sandy Bluffs, west foot. ... 


3 


370* 


6603 


Two hundred yard further, is a creek five feet wide. 

Watch Creek, 8 feet wide, and 2 feet deep. 


31 


3733 


657* 


After this, the road runs pretty near the river banks, 
to avoid seme swamps near the blufi's. 

" Lone Tree," north side the river. 




378 


653 


About three hundred yards south from the road. 

Ash Hollow, south side the river. 


23 


3803 


650* 


So named from a grove of Ash timber growing on it. 








It occupies a space of about fifteen or twenty acres, and 








ia surrourded by hiph bluffs. 








Castle Creek, 6 rods wide, 2 feet deep. 


3 


3833 


647* 


Swift current, quick-sand bottom, water muddy. Low 








bank?, but not eood to cross, on account of quick-sand*. 








Castle Bluffs, south side the river. 


4* 


388 


643 


You cross no more creeks of water, until you arrive 








at Crab creek, twenty-five and a half miles_from here. 








The road good, except in one place, where you travel 








three-fourths of a mile over sand. 








Sand Hill creek, 12 feet wide, south side 








the road. ..... 


3 


3883 


642* 


Near some sandy mounds, on the north side the road 








Creek or slough. .... 


ii 


390* 


6403 


Dry. 








Creek or slough. 


7i 


3973 


633* 


.Dry. 




"~ 




Sandy Bluffs, east foot. ... 


3 


4003 


630* 



11 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. 



DlST. 

miles. 



From 
WQ*3. 

miles. 



From 

CofGSL 

milea. 



Sandy Bluffs, west foot. - 

Dry creek. - .... 

Dry do. ..... 

Dry creek, 30 feet wide. - 

The road runs near the river, from here to Crab creek. 

Crab Creek, 20 feet wide, very shoal. - 

Two miles further you will see some high bluffs on 
the right. By ascending one of the highest you will aee 
Chimney Rock, to the west. 

Small lake, south of the road. 

Good chance to camp, without turning from the road. 

Cobble Hills, east foot. ... 

You cross three dry creeks before you arrive here, 
and then you travel over another range of sandy bluffs 
ascent pretty steep, but not very sandy. 

Cobble Hills, west foot. .... 

After you descend on the low land, you. will find it 
mostly sandy for ten miles, and in some places' very heavy 
drawing. 

"Ancient Bluff Ruins," north side the road. 
Latitude 41 33' 3". - 

Resembling the ruins of ancient castles, fortifications, 
&c. ; but visitors must be cautious, on account of the 
many rattle-snakrs lurking round, and concealed in the 
clefts of the bluflfd. 

R. and R., road joins the river. - 

Good place to camp. After this, the road runs near 
the river, until you arrive at the next low sandy ridges. 

Low sandy bluffs, east foot. 
Low sandy bluffs, west foot. 

After this, the land for several miles, is soft in wet 
weather, but good traveling in dry weather. 

" Chimney Rock," (meridian) south side 
the river. - - - - - 

The higher land now begins to be sandy and barren. 
Many Prickly-pears nd Wild Sage, which continue mostly 
through the remainder of the journey. 

Scott's Bluffs, (mer.) south side the river. 

The road here is near enouah to the river to camp 
Lat. of meridian. 41 50' 52". ; Long. 10 J 20'. 

Spring Creek, 10 feet wide, 8 inches deep. 

South of the road. You do not cross it, but travel halt 
n mile alongside. Good water, and many trout in it. 

R. and R., road runs near the river. 

Good chance to camp. 

Low sandy bluffs, north side the road. - 

You travel at the foot of these bluffs, but will find the 
road snndy and heavy on teams. 

Creek, about 200 yards south of road. - 

By ascending one of the highest bluffs near, you have 
ft view of " Laramie Peak" in the Black Hills. 

Timber, north side the river. 

Road here about a quarter of a mile from the river 
after this, generally from one to two miles distant. The 
rood, to Lnrnmie. very sandy. 

" Raw Hide" creek, 1 rod wide. : 

1'lenty of water, June 1st, but dry, Sept. 15, 1847. 



i 

i 

i 
4 

3 

14 
5 

24 

14 

10* 

7 
1 

14* 

19* 

4 

12* 
21 

2 
11* 



4014 



4024 
406* 

4094 



4101 
415* 

4171 
419 



437 
438 



452* 

472 
476 

488^ 
4914 

4934 



510 



6291 
629* 
6281 
6241 

6211 



620* 
615* 

6134 

612 

601* 

594 
593 

578* 

559 
555 

542| 
5391 

5371 
5264 

521 



U, Or 1U-. 



12 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. 



DIST. 
miles. 



from 
WQR9. 
miles. 



From 
CofGSL 

miles. 



'* Fort John" or JLaramie ford. - 

The fort lays about one and a half milea weet from 
the river. The ford is good in low water. River 108 yards 
wide. (See Note 3.) 

Steep hill to descend. ... 

The descent being over rock, and very eteep, makes 
It dangerous to wagons, but it is not lengthy. 

Steep hill to ascend and descend. 

* In traveling over this hill, you will find the road rocky 
in places, and about half way over there is a sudden turn 
in the road over rough rocks, which is dangerous to wag- 
ons, if care is not taken. 

Road leaves the river. ... 

At this point, the road bends to the south-west, leaving 
the river. You will not come to the river banks again for 
eighty miles. 

" Warm Springs," Lat. 42 15' 6". - 

This is a very strong spring of clear water, but it ie 
warmer than river water, at all seasons of the year 

Very steep bluff, half a mile up. - 

Before arriving at this, you pass through a narrow ra- 
vine, between bluffs. The ascent is unpleasant, on ac- 
count of cobble stones. 

" Porter's Rock," left of the road. 

A mile beyond this, you descend to the lower land 
again. The descent is steep, lengthy and sandy. 

Bitter Creek and Cold Spring. 

This was dry, September 13. Here is plenty of timber, 
and if there is no water, you will find plenty three and a 
half miles further. 

Bitter Creeksecond crossing. - 
Bend in the road. .... 

Road turns south about two hundred yards, to avoid 
ft deep ravine, then back again the same distance. 

Dead Timber creek, 10 feet wide. 

Plenty of timber, grass and water. 

Creek, south side the road. 

You don't cross this creek, but go just above it. It is 
a flood chance to camp. 

Small creek and spring : Lat. 42 2V 51" 

Not safe to depend on lor a camping place. Little 
grass and not much waterdry, September 13, 1847. 

Steep hill, quarter mile up. 

Pleasant view of the surrounding country from the 
summit. The descent steep in several places, and many 
cobble stones in the road. 

"Horse Creek" and Heber's Spring. - 

The spring lays a little to the right of the road, at the 
edge of timber. If it is dry. there is water in the creek, 
about one hundred yards north from this spring. 

Bluff |ths of a mile to the summit. 

Difficult to ascend on account of six or seven steep 
places, where you will probably have to double teams. 

Small creek : Lat. 42 29' 58". - 

After crossing this, you cross five others, about a mile 
apart, but none of them safe to depend on for a camping 
place, being little grass, and ICES (if any) water. 



12 



7* 



522 509 



U 
1* 

41 

4* 



529* 
5331 



534i 



536* 



542* 



u 

73 
I 

5* 
2* 



547* 
549* 

550 
551* 

559* 
559^ 

565 

567i 
5691 



5011 
497* 

496* 

4941 
493* 

4881 
484* 

4831 
4811 

481 
479* 

4711 
471* 

466 

463* 
461* 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS 



DIST, 
miles. 



Frem I From 
WQRS.ICoiGSL 
miles. I miles. 



5th small creek from the last. 

After crossing this, you ascend a high bluff, the top of 
which is a succession of hilte and hollows iur five miles. 
The road is good, but crooked. 

La Bonte" river, 30 feet wide, 2 ft. deep. 

Good place to camp plenty of timber, grws, and 
water. There is also a good chance, a mile further. Plenty 
of wild mint on the creek. 

Branch of La Bonte, 10 feet wide, 18 inch- 
es deep. - 

Doubtful about water. Steep banks. You have now 
traveled near a mile over this dark, red sand, and will find 
It continue three and a half miles further. 

Very small creek. - 

Little chance for grass, and less for water. One mile 
beyond this, you ngcend another bluff, but the road is tol- 
erebly straight and good. Look out for toads with horn* 
and tails. 

Very small creek. * 

Very poor chance for camping. 

Very small creek. - 

The rond runs down the channel of this creek, near 
two hundred yards, but there is little grass on it. 

A La Prele river, one rod wide, 2 ft. deep. 

Current rapid good place to camp. Land between 
creeks mostly sandy and barren. Road from here to the 
Platte very uneven, being & succession of hills and hollows. 

Small creek. - 

No place to camp doubtful for water. 

Box Elder creek, 5 feet wide. 

Clear water, and plenty but not much grass. Np1 
very good to cross, banks being steep. Some timber on it. 

Fourche Boise river, 30 feet wide, 2 feet, 
deep: Lat. 42 51' 5". 

Current rapid. Plenty of good grass and timber. 

North fork of Platte river. - 

Not much grass here. You will now find a sandy roac 1 
nnd heavy traveling. 

" Deer Creek," 30 feet wide, two feet deep : 
Lat. 42 52' 50": Altitude, 4,864 feet 

Lovely place to camp. Swift current, clear water 
and abundance of fish. Nice grove of timber on the banks, 
and a coal mine about a quarter of a mile up. on the east 
side. After this, you will find eandy roods for nine miles 
but not much grass. 

Deep hollow, or ravine steep banks. - 
Sudden bend in the road. ... 

To avoid a deep ravine. 

Grove of timber on the banks of the river. 

Good chance to camp. Lat. 42 51' 47". 

Crooked, muddy creek, 12 ft. wide, 1 deep. 

Not good to croeE steep banks. Plenty of grass, but 
no wood. 

Muddy creek, 3 feet wide. - 

Soft banks and ba I to cross. Considerable small Urn 
her, but little grass. After thia, good but crooked road. 

Deep gulf. 



43 574i 456* 



6* 



6* 



4* 



4 
5 

2 
51 

1 
1 

51 



5821 

5871 
594 

600* 
6003 

602* 

606 
6071 

6103 
6143 

6193 



622* 
628 

629 
630 

6351 
638$ 



448* 

443* 
437 

4301 
430* 

4281 

4241 
423^ 

420* 
416* 

411* 

4081 
403 

402 
401 

395* 
3921 



14 



PROMINENT POINT3 AND REMARKS. 


DIST. 
miles. 


From 

WQRS. 

miles 


From 
CofGSL 

milee. 


Creek, two feet wide. ... 


14 


640 


391 


No place to camp. 

Muddy creek, 5 feet wide, 1$ feet deep. 


1 


641 


390 


No chance to camp. 








2 ravines, near together : Lat. 42 51 r 44 f/ . 


3 


644 


387 


Opposite here there is a fording place, where compa- 
nies generally have forded the river. 








Creek five feet wide. ... 


3 


647 


384 


Abundance of nsh, early in the season, but little grass. 








tind no timber. 








Upper Platte ferry and ford. 


14 


648$ 


3824 


Plenty of feed and some timber on both sides the river 
(See Note 4.) Lat 42 5(y 18". ^ Altitude 4,875 feet. 








Road turns south, and rises a long hill. - 


7 


6554 


3754 


Ascent gradual. Many singular looking rocks on the 
couth side. Descent rough and crooked. Towards tht 








foot, road very uneven. 








Mineral spring and lake.. ... 


54 


661 


370 


Considered poisonous. No bad taste to the water, un- 
less the cattle trample in it. In that case it becomes black, 
and is doubtless poisonous. No timber near. 








Rock avenue and steep descent. - 


74 


6684 


3624 


The road here passes between high rocks, forming 
kind of avenue or gateway, for a quarter of a mile. 








Alkali swamps and springs. . 

This ought to be avoided as a camping ground it it 


2 


670i 


3604 


a small valley, surrounded by high bluffs. The land ex- 








ceeding miry, and emells bad. There i a creek of gooo 1 








water north-west. No timber and little grass. Next mile, 








rotigh road. 








Small stream of clear spring water. 


4 


6744 


3564 


Good camping place. Plenty of grass, but no wood. 








Willow Spring." .... 


2| 


6774 


3533 


About three rods west of the road, at the foot of wil- 








low bushes. Water cold and good grass plenty, but creek 








some miry. 








Prospect Hill," (summit.) 


1 


6784 


3521 


Pleasant view of the surrounding country, to the 








Fwect Water mountains. 










34 


6S14 


3494 


Plenty of grass, but little water. A mile further is t, 








hill, both steep ascending and descending. 

Creek, 300 yards south of road. - 


11 


683* 


.347* 


Plenty of grass, but no wood. 








Small creek, left of the road. 


2? 


6851 


3454 


Grass plentiful, but doubtful for water, and no wood 








The road runs alongside this creek fer half a mile. 








Grease-wood creek, 6 feet wide 1 ft. deep. 


U 


6874 


3434 


Very little grass, and no fuel but wild sage. Roao 
from here to the Sweet Water sandy, and very heavy. 

Alkali springs and lakes. - 


64 


>6933 


3374 


Here gather your Salersetus from a lake, west of the 








rofid. Land swampy, and emells bad. Water poisonous 








<; Sweet-water river," 8 rods wide, 2 ft. 








deep. ..... 


. 44 


698 


333 


Swift current good water. Grass plentiful, but little 








timber. (See Note 5") 









15 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. 


DIST. 
miles. 


From 
WQB8 

miles. 


From 
CofGSL 
miles. 


Independence Rock and ford. 


j 


698 


3324 


On the north side of the river about six hundree 








yards lonp, and a hundred and twenty vrlde, composed o 








hard Granite. (See Note 5.) 










Kl 


7H4. 


397 


A little west from the rond. The river here passe 


PS 


Ivt 


O< f 


between perpendicular rocks four hundred feet high. 








This is a curiosity worthy of a traveler's notice. 








Creek two feet wide. - ... 


i 


704 


326* 


Not good to cross. The road runs near the rive 








banks for ten miles after this. 








Creek, 6 feet wide. - 


i 


705 


326 


Good to croes. Water and grass plenty, but lack 








timber. You will find grass all along on the banks of th 








river, but very little wood. 








Deep ravine and creek. ... 


64 


711; 


3191 


Plenty of grass and water, but no wood. 

Deep ravine and creek. ... 


i 


712 


319 


Doubtful for water. 








Road leaves the river : Lit. 42 28' 25". 


3 


715 


316 


Road after this, candy and heavy, and passes over 
high bluff. Land barren for seven and a half miles 








(See Note 6.) 








Alkali Lake 


j 


715 


315* 


On the left of the road. 






\J A V'2 


Sage creek. ..... 


42 


720 


3103 


No grass. High banks. Doubtful for water, but Wild 








Sage plentiful. One and three-quarter miles further you 
arrive on the river banks again. 








Creek, three feet wide. ... 


4 


7244 


3061 


Doubtful for water, but the road runs close to the 








river. 








High gravelly bluff. - 

Xelt of the road, and a very good place to camp. 

Bitter-cotton-wood creek. - - - 


14 


7253 

727 


305| 
304 


Doubtful for water and grass. Some timber on it. Af- 








ter this, the road leaves the river for eix miles. 








Road arrives at the river. - 


64 


733- 


2973 


Leave the old road and ford the river. - 


j 


733 2 


297 


By fording here, the rand is shorter, nnd you avoic 








much very heavy, sandy road. Lat. 42 31' 20". 








Road turns between the' rocky ridges. - 


li 


735 


296 


After this, you ford the river twice but it is easily 
forded. Then the road leaves the river again. 

Ford No. 4 good camping place. 


8 


743 


288 


Alter this, the road leaves the river again, and you 








will probably find no water fit to drink for sixteen and a 
half miles. 








Ice Spring. ..... 


63 


7481 


2824 


This is on a low, swampy spot of land on the right 
of the road. Ice may generally be Ibund, by digging down 
ftbpnt two fcet ; There'are two alkali lakes a little further. 








Alkali springs. - .... 

On the left of the road 


4 


749 


282 


Steep descent from the bluffs . 


9 


758-A 


272$ 


Ford of Sweet-water, No. 5. 


1 


^59* 


271 


Plenty of good grass and willow bushes. River about 








three roda wide, nnd two feet deep. 









16 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. 


DlST. 

miles 


From 
WQns. 

miles. 


From 
CofGSL 

miles. 


Creek a rod wide. ... 


* 


7591 


271* 


Doubtful for water. 








Bluff or hill, 1$ miles to summit. 


* 


760 


271 


The ascent gradual, though steep in some places. 

Road joins the river, and fords it. 


3 


7631 


267S 


The river is forded here, to avoid crossing the next 








high, eandy ridge, making the road much better, and some 








ahorter. 










j 


nv\ 


0/^17 




2 


*UTT 


<6U / 


River banks and stream, 25 feet wide. - 


* 


764 


2661 


This appears to he a branch of the river, running 








round a piece of land, about a quarter of ft mile wide. 

Creek, two feet wide : Lat. 42 28' 36". 


3 


767* 


263^ 


A good cold spring, a little to the right of the road 
and a soft BW amp just below, but it is a good place to camp 








Road leaves the river. ... 


2 


769i 


261J 


Good camping place. After this, the road winds around 








And over a succession of hilla and hollows, for three miles. 








Rough, rocky ridges. - - , - 


2d 


772 


259 


Dangerous to wagons, and ought to be crossed with 








care. 








Soft swamp and very small creek. 


3 


775 


256 


No place to camp. 








Creek, a foot wide. .... 


11 


7761 


254* 


Creek, two feet wide. - - 


4 


777 


254 


Strawberry creek, five feet wide. 


2 


779 


252 


Plenty of grass and water, and some willows. Good 








place to camp. There is a poplar grove about a mile below. 








Quaking-aspen creek. ... 

This rises in a small grove of timber on the south side 
the road, but is not safe to depend on for water. 


1 


780 


251 


Branch of Sweet-water, 2 rods wide, two 








feet deep. ..... 


21 


7821 


248* 


Good place to camp. Water good and cold. Grasr 








and willows, plenty. 








Willow creek, 8 feet wide, 2 feet deep. 


2* 


785 


246 


Good camping place for grass, water and willows. 








The ford is near three rode wide. 








Sweet-water, 3 rods wide, 3 feet deep. 


42 


7891 


241* 


Good place to camp. After traveling seven miles be- 








yond this, and passing between the Twin mounds, you 








will find a good camping place a quarter of a mile north 








of the road. 

SOUTH PASS, or summit of dividing ridge. 


91 


799 


231 


This is the dividing ridge between the waters of the 








Atlantic and Pacific. Altitude, 7.085 feet. 








Pacific creek and springs. - 


3 


02* 


228| 


Abundance of grass any where for a mile. Good 








water, and plenty ot Wild Sage for fuel. 








Pacific creek (crossing) three feet wide: 








Lat. 42 18' 58": Long. 108 40' 0". 


ia 


804 


227 


Not good to cross Pretty good place to camp, except 








for wood. After you leave here you will find a good road, 
but very little water. 








Dry Sandy. ..... 


9 


813 


218 


The water brackish, and not good for cattle. Very 








little grass, but no wood. 









17 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DIST. 
miles. 


From 
W. Qua 

miles. 


From 
CofGSL 

miles. 


Junction of California and Oregon roads. 


6 


819 


212' 


Take the. left band road. Good road a tew miles, after- 








wards sandy and heavy. 








Little Sandy, 20 feet wide, 2| feet deep. 


73 


8263 


204* 


Muddy water swift current. Plenty of willows and 
wild sage. Abundance of grass down the stream. Af'tei 








this, barren and sandy land. , 








Big Sandy, 7 rods wide, 2 feet deep : Lat. 








42 6' 42". - 


8* 


835 


196 


Good chance to camp. A few miles further, you will 








find a short piece of rough road, over rocks and cobble 








etones. No grass or water after this for near 1? miles. 








Big Sandy. - . . 


17 


852 


179 


Good chance to camp. After this, barren, aandy land. 








nd heavy road till you arrive at Green river. 








Green river ford, 16 rods wide. - 


10 


862 


169 


Gpod camping any where on the banks, and plenty ol 
timber. It is not difficult fording in low water; but if too 








high to ford, the best crossing place is upstream. Latitude 
2 miles above 41 5V 37"; Long. 109 30'. Alt. 6,000 feet. 








Good camping place on Green river. 


li 


863^ 


1671 


Plenty of grass here. But no other very good chance 








to camp on this side the river. 








Road leaves Green river. ... 


3* 


867 


164 


No grass nor water after this for fifteen and a haH 








miles. Land rolling, barren mostly sandy, and several 








eteep places to pass. 


* 






Black's fork, 6 rods wide, 2 feet deep. - 


" 15^ 


882* 


148$ 


Good chance to camp, and a nice place, though not 
much timber. 








Ham's fork, 3 rods wide, 2 feet deep. - 


33 


886* 


144| 


Eapid current, cold water, plenty of bunch grass ane 
willows, and is a good camp ground. 

Black's fork again. .... 


13 


888 


143 


Not much grass, but plenty of "willows. You will now 
nave some uneven road, with many ravines. 








Small creek, 2 feet wide. ... 


103 


8983 


132* 


No grass, and probably no water. 








Black's fork, third time. ... 


2 


.9003 


130* 


After crossing you will find a good camping place 
Plenty of bunch grass ; also, wild flax. 








Black's fork, fourth time. ... 


2* 


903 


128 


You ford again at a good camping plaee. 








Stream 2 rods wide, 2 feet deep. 


23 


9053 


125* 


Very swift current, and plenty of bunch grass. Roar' 








pretty rough after this. 








Stream good camping place at a bend. 

You do not cros the stream, but there is a good camp 
ing place, where the road pa&ses A bend of thft crrek. 


3* 


909* 


1211 


" Fort Bridger: " Lat. 41 19' 13" j Long. 








110 5'; Altitude, 6,665 feet. 


8* 


917| 


113$ 


You cross fourtfuehing creeks, within bulf a mile, be- 
fore you rr&ch the Fort, and by traveling half a mile be 








yondthe Fort, yon will cross three others, and then find 








a good place to oomp. 








The Fort is composed of four log houfcs nnd a smal' 
enclosure for horses. Land exceeding rich- water cold 








and good, and considerable timber 









18 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. 



Cold Springs, on the right side the road. 

Thcro is timber here, and it is a pretty good camping 



DIST. 

miles 



From 
miles. 



From 

CofGSL 

milea. 



Small creek and springs. ... 

No feed here, and no place to camp. 

Summit of High Ridge: Lat. 41 16' IF. 

After this, you travel several miles on tolerably level 
land, then you descend to lower land by a steep, tedious 
route. 

Muddy Fork, 12 feet wide. 

Plenty of bunch grass and willows. Water clear, and 
not bad tasted. After this, you will probably find no good 
water lor eleven miles. 

Copperas, or Soda Spring. ... 

Left of the road at the foot ot a hill. The road now 
begins to ascend another high ridge. 

Summit of Ridge : Altitude 7,315 feet. 

The descent is lengthy, and some tedious. About half 
way down you pass over rough rocks, and the pass being 
narrow, makes it dangerous to wagons. 

Copperas, or Soda Spring. - 

Cattle will drink this water, and there is plenty of 
grass around it. A little further the road turns to the left 
and passes down a narrow ravine. 

Spring of good water, south side the road. 

This is surrounded by high grass, close to the creek 
Bide. There is another spring a little further on thenoith 
ide the road, which will probably be the last water yoi 
will find till you arrive at Sulphur creek. 

East foot of dividing ridge. - 

Dividing ridge between the watera of the Colorado 
and Great Basin. Ascent very steep and crooked narrow 
summit and steep descending. After this, crooked road 
between mountains. Altitude of ridge, 7,700 feet. 

Sulphur creek, 10 feet wide. . - 

Plenty of grass and some willows ; also, small cedar 
lit the foot of the mountain. (See Note 7.) 

Bear river, 6 rods wide, 2 feet deep. - 

Swift current clear co"ld water; plenty of timber and 
prass. Altitude t ford, 6,836 feet. 

Summit of Ridge. .... 

Half a mile further you cross a small ridge, then de 
Bcend into, and travel down a nice narrow bottom, where 
Is plenty of gnjss. 

Spring of clear, cold water. 

On the south side the creek, about two rods from the 
road. The spring "is deep water clear, cold and good. 
Perhaps it will not be easy to find, being aurrounded by 
high grass. 

Yellow creek, cross at foot of rocky blufis. 

You will eoon cross this jigain, and about a mile fur- 
ther you ascend another long ridge, the ascent being pretty 
ereep and tedious. 

Summit of Ridge. - 

Descent pretty steep. About three-fourths of a mile 
down from the Kumn.it, is a spring of good cold water, OE 
the left of the rood. 



6* 
H 



II 



9231 

925 
926 



934* 
936 

937 

941 a 



106 
105 



ii 

21 



II 



950* 
953 

9541 

959i 
961* 



95 
94 

891 

88* 

822 
802 
78 

76* 

in 

691 



19 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. 



IKrom i From 
WQRS. CofGSL 
.miles. 1 miles. 



Cache Cave and head of Echo creek: Al 








titude, 6,070 feet. ... 


3 


65 


66 


Cave in the bluffs north. Several springs along th 








road, before you arrive here, and one, a quarter of a mil 








eouth from the Cave. Plenty of grass, aad a good plac 








to camp. 

Cold spring, on the right of the road. - 


2 


967 


64 


This also i.s a good place to camp, being plenty of grae 








Cold spring, south side the road. - 


2 J 


969 


61| 


At the foot of a high hill. Good place to camp. Afte 








this, you travel down a narrow ravine, between big 








mountains, till you arrive at Weber river. Noc much dl 








ficulty for camping down it. 










1% 


970 


60$ 




Steep on both banks. After this, you will cross Ech 








creek a number of times, but in no place very difficult. 

Red fork of Weber river : Alt. 5,301 feet 


16 


986 


44$ 


There is a good camping place a mile before you ar 








rive here. Also, almost any where on the b'anks of th 








river. Plenty of timber. The stream abounds with epotte 








trout. 








Weber river ford, 4 rods wide, 2 ft. deep 


4 


990* 


40$ 


Good to ford. Plenty of grass and timber on both 








fides the river. 








Pratt's Pass, to avoid the Kanyon. 


j 


991 


40 


The Kanyon is a few miles below, where the river 








runs between high mountains of rocks. Some emigrants 
have passed through, bat it is dangerous. 








East foot of Long hill. ... 


] 


992 


39 


There is a email creek descends down the hollow, up 
which the road is made. There are several epriugs near 
the road. 








Bridge (over the creek.) ... 


2* 


.994* 


361 


Not a bad place to camp. 

Summit of Ridge. .... 


21 


9961 


34i 


The country west looks rough and mountainous. The 
descent is not pleasant, being mostly on the side hill. 








Small creek, left of the road. 


11 


998| 


32} 


Good place to camp. Plenty of grass, water nnd wil- 
lows. The road here turns north a quarter of a mile, then 
west, and ascends a stnep hill. 








Kanvon creek, 1 rod wide, 1 foot deep : 








Lat. 40 54' 7". .... 


21 


OOH 


291 


You have to croee this creek thirteen timea, besides 








two bad wamps. The road is dangerous to wagons, on 
account of der ee, high bu?hes, fees, und short turns in the 








road. Goo'l pl^ce to camp. (See Note 9.). 








Leave Kanyon creek* ... 


8 


009* 


211 


Here you turn to the right, and begin to ascend the 








highest mountain you cross in the whole journey. You 








travel through timber, some on side hi Us, and crosa the 








crek a number of times. 








Small spring, left of the road. 


3 


012* 


181 


You will probably find water in several places, but it 
is ulncTtain where, as it runs but * little way in a place, 








and then sinks in the eerh. 








Summit of mountain : Altitude. 7,245 feet. 


1 


013i 


17| 


You have now a view of the south part of the Valley 
of the Great Salt Lake. The descent is etccp, leugtby. 
nd todioua, on account of stamps in the road. 









20 



PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. 



DlST. 

miles, 



From | From 

QBS. CofGSL 
miles. I miles. 



Bridge over a deep ravine. - 

This is dangerous to cross, and a wagon may be easily 
upset. The road lays through a foreat of email timber, 
and is unpleasant traveling. 

Brown's creek and spring. - 

Not a bad place to camp, but there is a much better 
one, half a mile lower down. 

Cold spring on Brown's creek. - 

Within a rod of the road, on the east side, under a 
grove of Black Birch bushes. Good place to camp, but 
uome miry. Good camping any where for two miles 
lower. 

Leave Brown's creek. ... 

You now ascend another high mountain, by a steep 
and crooked road. On both sides this mountain, there are 
many Serviceberry bushes. 

Summit of last ridge. - 

The descent is very steep, all the way, till you arrive 
on the banks of Last creek. 

Last creek. ..... 

You cross this creek nineteen times. Several ef the 
crossings are difficult. There are several side hills which 
require care in teamsters. Three camping places on it 
but the road is rough. 

Mouth of the Kanyon. ... 

You now enter the Valley ef the Salt Lake. The road 
at the mouth of the Kanyon bad, and rough with stumps 
Afterwards, descending and good. 

CITY OP THE GREAT SALT LAKE. 



1014 
10141 



1019* 

1020* 
1021 

1026 
1031 



17 

16* 
13* 

Hi 

101 
10 



The city is^ located within three miles of the mountains, 
which enclose the east side of the valley wjthin three miles 
of the Utah outlet, and twenty-two miles of the Salt Lake. 
The land is gradually sloping, from the mountain to within, a 
.mile of the Outlet, and is of a black, loose, sandy nature. A 
Stream of water rushes from the mountains east of the city, 
and, at the upper part, it divides in two branches, both of 
which pass through the city to the Outlet. The water is 
good, and very cold, and abundance for mill purposes, or for 
irrigation. The air is good and pure, sweetened by the healthy 
breezes from the Salt Lake. The grass is rich and plentiful, 
and well filled with rushes, and the passes in the mountains 
afford abundance of good timber, mostly balsam Fir. 

The valley is about forty miles long, and from twenty to 
twenty-five miles wide. It is beautifully surrounded on the 
west, south, and east by high mountains. Salt Lake extends 
from a point a little south of west, from the city, to about 
eighty miles north, forming the north-western boundary of the 



21 

valley. There are two sulphur springs a mile and a half north 
from the *TEMPLE BLOCK ; the water is salt, and a little warmer 
than blood : two miles further north there is a sulphur spring 
of boiling water. There is not much land on the north part of 
the valley fit for cultivation ; but the east side is well adapted 
for farming, being well watered by several large creeks, and 
the soil beautiful. The land on the west of the Utah Outlet, 
is also good for farming, and easily irrigated from the south end 
of the Outlet. 

The latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes are copied from 
the observations and calculations made by Elder O. PRATT. 

The variation of the magnetic needle, at the City of the 
Great Salt Lake, 15 47' 23" east, as determined on the 30th 
July, A. D. 1847, by the mean of several observations, and 
calculations of the Sun's Azimuths and Altitudes, 

* Latitude of northern boundary of Temple Block, 40 45' 44". 
Longitude of do. do. do. 111 26' 34". 

Altitude of do. do. do. 4,300 feet. 



22 



NOTES. 

NOTE i. If the Elk Horn river is fordable, you leave the 
main road a mile before you strike the river, and turn north. 
After leaving the road three-fourths of a mile, you will cross 
a very bad creek or slough, being soft and miry; but, by 
throwing in long grass, it will be good crossing. You then 
travel three-fourths of a mile further, and arrive at the ford. 
You will go up stream when fording, and gradually come 
nearer to the opposite shore, till you strike a piece of low land 
on the west side j you then pass by a narrow, crooked road, 
through the timber, till you arrive on the open prairie. You 
will then see a post erected in near a south direction, about 
a mile distant. Go straight to that post, and you will find a 
good bridge over the creek and there, again strike the main 
'Toad. From .here, you have before you near five hundred 
miles travel over a flat, level country, and a good road, with 
the exception of several sandy bluffs mentioned herein. The 
road generally runs from one to two miles from the Platte 
river, but not too far to turn off to camp in case of necessity. 
All camping places, which lay near the road, are mentioned in 
this work. You will find near two hundred miles without 
timber, but in that region you will find plenty of buffalo chips, 
which are a good substitute for fuel. Buffalo are numerous 
after you arrive at the head of Grand Island, and continue two 
hundred miles. 

NOTE it. The descent to the ford is steep, and at the bottom 
very sandy. Your best chance to ford will, probably, be to 
enter the river opposite to where you descend from the bluff; 
then go near a straight course, but inclining a little down 
stream, till more than half way over, when you will find a 
sand-bar. Follow this, down stream near half a mile, and 
you will then see a good place to go out on the south side. In 
this river the channels often change the old ones fill up, and 
new ones are made hence, the wisdom and necessity of hav- 
ing several men go across on horses, to find the best route, be- 
fore you attempt to take wagons over. If this precaution is 
not taken, you may plunge your wagons from a sand-bar into 
a deep hole, and do much damage. If you ford up stream, and 
come out higher than where you enter, after crossing, strike 
for the bluffs, in a direction a very little west of south, till 
you arrive on the old road. 

On arriving at Prairie creek, if you take a south-west 
course, a short day's drive will bring you to Wood river, six 
or eight miles above where the old road crosses; and by keep- 
ing the same course after crossing Wood river, yon will strike 



23 

the Platte ten or twelve miles above where Wood river emp- 
ties into it. By this means the road would be shortened at 
least five miles, and probably much more. 

NOTE in. Fort "John, or Laramie," lays about one and a 
half miles from the river, in near a south-west course, and is 
composed of a trading establishment, and about twelve houses, 
enclosed by a wall eleven feet high. The wall and houses arc 
built of adobes, or Spanish brick. It is situated on the Lara- 
mie Fork, and is a pleasant location : the latitude of the Fort 
is 42 12' 13"; longitude 104 IP 53", and altitude above the 
sea, 4,090 feet. After leaving here you begin to cross the 
"Black Hills," and will find rough roads, high ridges, and 
mostly barren country. There is, however, not much diffi- 
culty in finding good camping places, each day's travel, by ob- 
serving the annexed table. 

There is a road follows the river, instead of crossing the 
Black Hills, and it is represented as being as near, and much 
better traveling if the river is fordable. By following this 
road you have to cross the river three times extra, but will 
find plenty of grass, wood, and water. If the river is fordable 
at Laramie. it is fordable at those three places, and you can go 
that route safely. 

NOTE iv. The best place to ford will probably be a little 
below the bend in the river. After this you have fifty miles 
to travel, which is dangerous to teams, on account of Alkali 
springs. Great care should be taken to avoid them, by select- 
ing a camping place where none of these springs are near. 

NOTE v. In low water the river is easily forded opposite to 
the Rook Independence ; but, if not fordable here, a good place 
can be found a mile higher up the river. 

Independence Rock is one of the curiosities to be seen on 
the road, mostly on account of its peculiar shape and magni- 
tude. There^are many names of visitors painted in various 
places, on the south-east corner. At this corner most travelers 
appear to have gone up to view the top ; but there is a much 
better place on the north side, about half way from end to end. 
Latitude l\ miles below 42 30' 16". 

The road along the Sweet Water is mostly sandy and heavy 
traveling. You will find many steep places, and as you ap- 
proach the Rocky Mountains, you will find some high hills to 
travel over. 

After crossing the mountains the country is level, but still 
barren, and, if possible, more sandy. You will have to make 
some long drives to obtain water for camping. There is great 
lack of timber, from the Upper Platte ferry 'to Fort Bridger, 



24 

and in fact scarcely any kind but willows. In all this region 
the willows and wild sage form your chief ingredient for fuel. 

NOTE vi. It is supposed that a good road can be made here, 
by following the banks of the river. If so, these high bluffs, 
and much sandy road, would be avoided. 

NOTE vn. At the foot of the mountain, on the south side 
the road, and at the edge of the creek, there is a strortg sulphur 
spring. A little above the spring, on the side of the moun- 
tain, is a bed of stone coal. At the foot of the bluff, west of 
where you cross the creek, is a noble spring of pure, cold 
water ; and about a mile from this place, in a south-west 
course, is a " Tar," or " Oil Spring," covering a surface of 
several rods of ground. There is a wagon trail runs within a 
short distance of it. It is situated in a small hollow, on the 
left of the wagon trail, at a point where the trail rises a,higher 
bench of land. 

When the oil can be obtained free from sand, it is useful to 
oil wagons. It gives a nice polish to gun-stocks, and has been 
proved to be highly beneficial when applied to sores on horses, 
cattle, &c. 

NOTE viii. From the summit of this ridge, you will see 
to the west, a ridge of high, rough, peaked rocks. The road 
runs at the south foot of that ridge, and there crosses Yellow 
creek. From the place where you now stand, the road runs 
through a beautiful narrow valley, surrounded by gently rolling 
hills, and is pretty straight and pleasant traveling, till you ar- 
rive at that ridge of rocks. There is little difficulty in finding 
a good camping place, between here and the ridge in view, ex- 
cept for fuel, which is scarce. There are several springs of 
good water along the creek. 

NOTE ix. On this creek is a very rough piece of road ; 
the bushes are high, and road narrow, in consequence of which 
wagon coVers are liable to be torn, and bows broke. There 
are many short turns in it, where wagon tongues are liable to 
be broke* Some of the crossing places are bad. There is a 
good camping place where first you strike the creek one 
about half way up, and one a quarter of a mile before you leave 
the creek. 

The ascent up the next mountain is both lengthy and tedi- 
ous, mostly through high timber, and there are many stumps 
in the road. It is a chance whether you will find any water 
till you descend on the west side. 

From this creek to the valley is decidedly the worst piece 
of road on the whole journey, but the distance is short, and by 
using care and patience, it is easily accomplished.