L I B R.ARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS C5-79-/ III. KiST. SURVEY CT7HIS BOOK is printed from photographic plates of the Original Copy of this GUIDE, which was printed in St. Louis in 1848. This original copy is on file in the HISTORIAN'S OF- FICE LIBRARY. (Signed) A. WILLIAM LUND Assistant Historian Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints THE LATTER-DAY SAINTS' EMIGRANTS' GUIDE: BEING A TABLE OF DISTANCES, SHOWING ALL THE SPRINGS, CRFEKS, RIVERS, HILLS, MOUNTAINS, CAMPING PL ..CES, AND ALL OTHER NOTABLE PLACES. FROM COUNCIL BLUFFS, TO THE VALLEY OF THE GREAT SALT LAKE. ALSO, THE LATITUDES, LONGITUDES AND ALTITUDES OP THE PROMINENT POINTS ON THE ROUTE. TOGETHER WITH REMARKS ON THE NATURE OF THE LAND, TIMBER, GRASS, &c. THE WHOLE ROUTE HAVING BEEN CAREFULLY MEASURED BY A ROADOME- TER, AND THE DISTANCE FROM POINT TO POINT, IN ENGLISH MILES, ACCURATELY SHOWN. BY W. CLAYTON. ST. LOUIS: MO. REPUBLICAN STEAM POWER TRESS CHAMBERS & KNAPP, 1848. Copy EIGHT secured, by W. CLAYTOS, in the Clerk'a Office of the District Court of the United States for the District of Missouri. PREFACE, When the author first compiled the following work, it was not with a design to publish it, although well aware of the advantages which emigrants, traveling to the VALLEY OF TUB GREAT SALT LAKE, would continually realize by having it in their possession. However, there were so many who ap- plied for copies of it and the labor of writing a copy being considerable, as well as requiring much time it was con- cluded to publish it in its present form, by which means it can be afforded at a price which will bring it within reach of any person wishing to have it. Many works have been published, and maps exhibited for the instruction of emigrants, but none which ever pretended to set forth the particulars contained in this work, so far as regards the route from Council Bluffs to the Great Salt Lake. The distances from point to point are shown as near as a Roadbmeter can measure ; and by this means the traveler can know, each day, the kind of country lying before him, and how far he must go in order to find a suitable place to camp at night. Emigrants have lost many o their teams m the neighbor- hood of the Alkali lakes, in consequence of not knowing the distance from any one of these lakes to good water. By pay- ing attention to the remarks in this work, a person need run . no risk, inasmuch as all the Alkali lakes, which are near the , road, are mentioned and, also, the places where an encamp- ment can be formed with safety. The author feels a delicacy in saying much in favor of the "^ " Guide,'* but is well aware that, when its merits have been tested by experience, no person will repent of having pur- chased it. It is, therefore, submitted cheerfully to the con- sideration of an intelligent public. AUTHOR. St. Louis, Mo., Uth March, 1848. EXPLANATION. In the following table, the large type shows the prominent points and places which will naturally be noticed by the emi- grant. The first column of figures shows the distance from point to point, in English miles. The second column of figures shows the total distance of each point to Winter Quarters ; and the, third column, the total distance of each point to the Temple Block, in the CITY OF THE GREAT SALT LAKE. As, for example : How far is it from Winter Quarters to Pappea ? Answer, (page' 5, second line) 18 miles. How far from Pappea to the Elk Horn river ? Answer, (page 5, second and third lines) 9 miles, &c. Again : How far is it from Raw Hide Creek to Fort John ? Answer, (page 11, last line) 12 miles. How far is Fort John from Winter Quarters ? Answer, (p. 12, first line) 522 miles. How far is Fort John from the City of the Great Salt Lake ? Answer, (p. 12, third column of figures) 509 miles. The small type, in this table, contains the various remdrks touching the nature of the road, lands, and its adaptation for camping purposes, &c. For example : What is said concerning the " La Bonte river ?" Page 13, second line. Answer. " It is a good place to camp being plenty of tim- ber, grass and water" the necessaries for camping purposes, rfttd consequently can be depended on. But, if thought advisa- ble to go a little further, " there is a good camping place a mile further," consequently you have choice of the two good places, within one mile of each other. What is said of a branch of the La. Bonte ? Page 13, third line. Jlnswzr. " Doubtful about water ;" consequently not safe to depend on for a camp ground. It is also said that the " banks are steep," which shows that it is not very good to cross, &c. EMIGRANTS' GUIDE. PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. Diar. miles. FROM W QRS. miles. FROM CofGSL miles. Winter Quarters, Lat. 41 18' 53" 1031 The road good, but very crocked, following the ridges and passing over a continual succession of hills and hoi lows. Pappea, ten feet wide, high banks. 18 18 1013 dome timber on the creek, but it is difficult to water teams. Alter this, the road IB crooked and uneven to the Kile Horn. Elk Horn, nine rods wide, three feet deep. 9 27 1004 Current rather swift, and not very pleasant to ferry. Plenty of timber on its banks. (See Note 1.) Creek, ten feet wide, steep banks. 1 271 1003* This creek has a good bridge over it, but little timber on the banks. There la a high post, erected near the bridge, for a guide to it. Platte river and Liberty Pole. m 39 992 Plenty of timber, but you will probably have to go to the river lor water distance about a quarter of a mile The nearest and best road to water is round the east point of the timber. Small Lake (narrow) south side the road. 3 42 988* No timber on the Lake. Circular Lake, or pond, close to the road. (south.) 3 43* 987! No timber. In the neighborhood of this, the road runs alongside a number of small lakes, or ponds, foi two miles ; but there is little timber nrar them. R. R. and T., road joins the river, Lat. 41 27' 5" - ' - 9 524 9781 This is a point where a branch of the river rum round nn island, on which is plenty of timber. Not mucl water in the channel, but plenty for camping purposes. Indian Grave, north side the road. 74 591 97H This is a large pile of earth, about eighty yards north of the road R. R. and T., road joins the river. ^ 60J 9701 Plenty of timber and water, without leaving the road Shell creek, 12 feet^vwde, three feet deep. 2 62i 96SI This creek is bridged, and a few rods lower is a placr to ford Plenty of timber on it. After this you will probn- bly find no water for twelve miles, without .turning con- Biderably from the road. Small lake, south side of the road. 51 68 963 Plenty of water in the Spring season, but none in Bummer. It was entirely dry, October 18, 1847. PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DIST. miles. frKOM WQ.RS. miles. From CofGSL miles. R. and R., road joins the river. - 62 74* 956| After this point you will have four or five miles of heavy, sandy road. Long Lake, south side the road. - i 75 956 There is a little timber where this lake joins the river, and it is a pood camping place. Forks of road to new and old Pawnee vil- lages. - - 6* SOi 950i The left hand road IcVds to the Pawnee location of 3847 ; t'ao other to the old village. The latter is your route. Lake, south of the road. ... ft 81 950 Plenty of timber close to the road. The banks of the lake are high, but there is a small pond near, where teams can water. Loup Fork lake and timber. 5 86 945 Opposite to where "the Pawnees were located, in the Spring of 1847, and is a good place to camp Lake and timber, south of the road. 8* 94* 9362 Looking-glass creek, 16 feet wide, 2 deep. There is a poor bridge over this creek. It Is, howr 1 95* 935$ ver, not difficult to ford. Plenty of timber on and near it Long Lake, south side the road. - 2 97* 9331 Some timber on the south bank, but none on the north wide. Beaver river, 25 feet wide, 2 feet deep : Lat. 41 25' 13"; Long. 98 0' 15". 6| 1033 927* Plenty of good timber on both sides. There are two fording places. The upper one is good goinp in, but steep on the opposite side. The lower one not good going down, but good on the other side. Plumb creek, five feet wide : Lat. 41 24' 29"; Altitude, 1,090 feet. - 61 110$ 920! On this creek the okl Pawnee mission station stands, but is not a very pood place to camp, being ner the Paw- nee cornfields. The creek was dry, October 16, 1847. Ash creek, 12 feet wide, one foot deep. 21 113 918 Some timber, but not a very good chance to camp. Ford of the Loup Fork : Lat. 41 22' 37" Long. 98 11' 0". H 114* 9161 This is the pioneer's ford, but is considered not so good as the upper ford. River about 300 yards wide. Old Pawnee village. ,.- 1 1141 916* Formerly occupied by the Grand Pawnee and Tappa bandst^ but burned by the Sioux, in the Fall of 1846. Cedar creek, 8 rods wide, 2 feet deep. - Ij 116* 9141 Some timber, and plenty of willow. After this, th road runs on the bottom, throush high grass for som distance, and gradually rises to higher land. Road descends to low>lad again. 3 119* 9111 You will now find some deep ravines to cress, bu none difficult. Road leaves the river, and turns up a ravine li 121 910 After ascendinq; the hipher land, the road is good am level, except crossing the deep, dry ravines. Road descends into a rayine. 1213 9095 You travel up this ravine a quarter of a mile, mostl through high grass. PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. I From i From WQBS. CofGSL miles. I miles. Old Pawnee village, south side the road. 51 127 904 On the banks of the Loup Fork, but mostly de utroyed. Road descends from the bluffs. ^ 127^ 903$ After descending here, you cross a creek twelve feet wide, and one foot deep banks soft, but not difficult. You thcu travel through high grass and small bushes. Road ascends the bluffs. - - - * 1271 903* After traveling about four miles, then turning left from the road, so as to strike the timber you sec ahead where it meets the river, the road can be shortened at least a half mile. i Upper ford of the Loup Fork. - You will find the water in some places near 3 feet 6 1333 897* deep, and will have to travel down the river about half a mile, to avoid deep hoics, and lind a good place to get out. (See Notc2.) Road ascends the bluffs. - - - 51 1391 891 2 After ascending the bluffs you will find a heavy, sandy road for five or six miles. Prairie creek, 12 feet wide 1 feet deep. 18 1571 873-1 Plenty ef water ani grass, but no timber. Banks. some soft and miry. By taking a south-west course from this creek, you would strike Wood rive"r six oreight miles above the old crossing place, find thence crossing to the Platto, by a course a little west of couth, the road may be shortened at least five miles. Dry creek. - 1 158! 872,} " ..... i 159 872 Main Platte river. - 6 1651 865* You do not come within two miles of the river, until Wi arrive at Wood river. ood riv^r, 12 feet wide, one foot deep. 3 169* 8611 Plenty of timber, and a good place to camp. Bank? descending, steep, and some soft but good going out The road ;iow generally runsfrom one to two miles distant 1'rara the main Pintle. Road descends to lower land. 14 183* 8472 The road now runs near the timber for two miles The grass is high, and a good chance to tamp, without turning off the road. Road ascends to higher land. 2 185* 8451 You will probably have to turn off the road some, for the next camping place. Deep ravine steep descent. 221 208 823 (( U __ _ * 208* 8222- Two and a quarter miles beyond this, is a good plac.- to camp, there being plenty of grass and water, on a low bench, about twenty reds south of the road. There is, how- ever, no timber but willow. Deep dry creek. - - - - 3<1 2111 819* No timber on it. Creek or slough, south side the road. - 11 213^ 817-5 Plenty of willows and grass, but doubtful for water. Deep, dry creek. - 4* 2173 813* The hi-ad of Grand Island is about opposite to this creek, but the road now runs 80 far from the river, we could not ascertain exactly. PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. I From WQns. miles.l miles. From CofGSL miles. lm creek. - - - , - Deep banks, plenty of timber, but no water, October 9, 1847. Road leaves the river near timber. This is a pretty good camping place. Buffalo creek, south- side the road. A wide creek, with deep banks, but no timber ex- cept a few willow bushes. The road runs alongside thh creek for three and a halt' miles. Crossing of Buffalo creek. - R. and R., road runs near the river. Pretty good chance to camp. R. and R., road runs near the river. P16nty of buffalo-grass, and short prairie-grass. Plenty of timber on an island, close by. "VVillow Lake, south of the road. - Good place to water teams, but no timber for camp ing purposes. Ptah Lake, south of the road. The lake is long and very crooked. About a mile be< foro you arrive at it, the road runs near the river a little piece, then leaves it again. Deep, dry creek. - - Low, sandy bluffs, extending to the river. R. and R. near the Sandy Bluffs : Latitude 410'47". .... After leaving this plnce, the road leaves the river, and runs near the foot of the bluffs, to avoid a bad swamp. You will not strike the river for sixteen miles, but will have no difficulty in finding feed and water. Skunk creek, six feet wide. Crossing of Skunk creek. - Banks some soft, but not difficult. No timber. Lake or marsh, south of the road. Lake, south of the road. - Plenty of grass and water, but no timber 1 nearer than five or six miles. Good spring of cold water. - At the foot of the bluffs, north of the road, and at the head of the Pawnee swamps. Low, sandy bluffs. - This is opposite to the junction of the north and aouth fdrks of Platte river. Lat. 41 7' 44" ; Long. 100 47' 15" ; Altitude, 2,685 feet. Carrion creek, 10 feet wide, one foot deep. Good place for grass, but no timber near. R. R. and T., road, river and timber. - Good place to camp. Last timber on north side the river. You will find no more timber on the north side the river for two hundred miles, except one lone tree. Your only dependence ior fuel will be buftklo chips and drill wood. Wide, deep creek. - - Plenty of water, October 4, 1847. The banks are high tut not bad to cross. 62 51 14 3 i* 41 221 2271 228* 2311 239* 244 251i 259* 2611 2753 2781 2801 286* 287* 2881 293 294* 2971 302i 306* 810 803* 8021 799* 7911 7792 7711 769* 755* 752* 750* 7441 7433 742i 738 7361 733* 728* 7241 722$ PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS, I From WQRS, mues.i miles. From CofGSL miles. R. R. and lake, road and river near a bayou. Opposite to this place are several islands, covered with willow bushes, which will answer for fuel, and there is little difficulty in getting to it. Black mud creek. - Plenty of water, October 3, 1847, but little feed for teams. R. and R., road joins the river. - After this, the road again leaves the river, until you arrive at the north Bluff JTork. Road good, but poor feed. Small creek. - Steep banks, but very little water. North Bluff Fork, 6 rods wide, 2 feet deep. Swift current, muddy water, low banks, quick-sand bottom, but not bad to cross. Poor place for grass. Sandy Bluffs, east foot. ... The road over these bluffs is very crooked, but no bad. If a road cim be made up the bed of the rivr, it would save at least two miles travel. Sandy Bluffs, west foot. ... By following the foot of the bluffs, after this, the road may be shortened at least a mile, and be equally as good a road asr to follow the river. 2d. Sandy Bluffs, east foot. ... These bluffs are hard on teams, being mostly soft sand 2d. Sandy Bluffs, west foot. Bluff Creek, 4 feet wide, 1 foot deep. - After this, the road maybe made considerably shorter by following; the foot of the bluffs. 3d. Sandy Bluffs, east foot. - These bluffs are sandy, and heavy on teams. Near the west side you will find several steep places to descend, bui not difficult, the sand being soft. Small creek, running between the bluffs. Many small Lizards on the sandy places, but they ap pear to be perfectly harmless. Sandy Bluffs, west foot. ... Bluff Spring and small creek 200 yards, and one a quarter of a mile. - ' - In the neighborhood of these creeks the land ii swampy and soft. The road was made close to the bluffs to avoid the swamps. Petite creek, 4 feet wide, 9 inches deep. Plenty of water, some muddy, October 1, 18-17. i,ati rude 410 iy 5 p". Picanninni creek, 3 feet wide. Good spring water, and plentiful, October 1. 1847. Goose creek, 30 feet wide, 3 inches deep. After crossing this, you pass over a low range oi bluffs, very sandy, but only a quarter ot a mile wide; then you descend on the bottom land again, but will find it so and springy. Small spring creek. - J.:ny springs of cold water at the foot of the bluffs. Small creek, 4 feet wide. ... Plenty of clear cold water, October J, 18-17. li 44 14 64 14 3091 3111 3131 3174 3201 3224 3261 3301 332 3324 3381 3401 341 342 343^ 344 3454 346:} 721* 7194 .7174 7131 7104 7081 7044 7004 699 698! 6924 6904 690 689 6871 687 6851 684* 10 PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DIST. rrvles From W Qns. miles. From CofGSL miles. Duck-weed creek, 10 feet wide. - * 3463 684* Abundance of rood, cold spring water, Get 1, 1847. Shoal stream, 3 feet wide. - 2 3483 682* Dry, October 1, 1847. Rattlesnake creek, 20 feet wide, 1$ ft. deep. 33 352i 678$ Swift current, sandy bottom, but not bad to cross. Cedar Bluffs. H 354 677 On\the south side the river. Lat. 41 13' 44" Long. 101 52' Creek, six feet wide. - 5 359 672 Water plenty, September 30, 1847. Land.tn thia neigh- borhood, sandy. Creek, four feet wide. ... J 359i 67H Plenty of water, September 30, 1347. Crooked Creek, five feet wide. - 4 3593 671* Plenty of water, September 30, J847. Camp Creek, eight feet wide. 4 3633 667* Two creeks here, about the same size, but a few rodt apart water cold and plenty, September 30, 1847. Nt doubt they rise from springs. Creek, three feet wide. - 4 3673 663* Plenty of water, May 20. but dry, September 30, 1847. Pond Creek, four feet wide. * 368 663 Dry, September 30, near the river, but further north nmnv ponds and tall grass. Wolf Creek, 20 feet wide. - 13 369^ 661i At the east foot ot Sandy Blufls. which are bad to cro?s, you will probably have to double teams, if heavy loaded. Sandy Bluffs, west foot. ... 3 370* 6603 Two hundred yard further, is a creek five feet wide. Watch Creek, 8 feet wide, and 2 feet deep. 31 3733 657* After this, the road runs pretty near the river banks, to avoid seme swamps near the blufi's. " Lone Tree," north side the river. 378 653 About three hundred yards south from the road. Ash Hollow, south side the river. 23 3803 650* So named from a grove of Ash timber growing on it. It occupies a space of about fifteen or twenty acres, and ia surrourded by hiph bluffs. Castle Creek, 6 rods wide, 2 feet deep. 3 3833 647* Swift current, quick-sand bottom, water muddy. Low bank?, but not eood to cross, on account of quick-sand*. Castle Bluffs, south side the river. 4* 388 643 You cross no more creeks of water, until you arrive at Crab creek, twenty-five and a half miles_from here. The road good, except in one place, where you travel three-fourths of a mile over sand. Sand Hill creek, 12 feet wide, south side the road. ..... 3 3883 642* Near some sandy mounds, on the north side the road Creek or slough. .... ii 390* 6403 Dry. Creek or slough. 7i 3973 633* .Dry. "~ Sandy Bluffs, east foot. ... 3 4003 630* 11 PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DlST. miles. From WQ*3. miles. From CofGSL milea. Sandy Bluffs, west foot. - Dry creek. - .... Dry do. ..... Dry creek, 30 feet wide. - The road runs near the river, from here to Crab creek. Crab Creek, 20 feet wide, very shoal. - Two miles further you will see some high bluffs on the right. By ascending one of the highest you will aee Chimney Rock, to the west. Small lake, south of the road. Good chance to camp, without turning from the road. Cobble Hills, east foot. ... You cross three dry creeks before you arrive here, and then you travel over another range of sandy bluffs ascent pretty steep, but not very sandy. Cobble Hills, west foot. .... After you descend on the low land, you. will find it mostly sandy for ten miles, and in some places' very heavy drawing. "Ancient Bluff Ruins," north side the road. Latitude 41 33' 3". - Resembling the ruins of ancient castles, fortifications, &c. ; but visitors must be cautious, on account of the many rattle-snakrs lurking round, and concealed in the clefts of the bluflfd. R. and R., road joins the river. - Good place to camp. After this, the road runs near the river, until you arrive at the next low sandy ridges. Low sandy bluffs, east foot. Low sandy bluffs, west foot. After this, the land for several miles, is soft in wet weather, but good traveling in dry weather. " Chimney Rock," (meridian) south side the river. - - - - - The higher land now begins to be sandy and barren. Many Prickly-pears nd Wild Sage, which continue mostly through the remainder of the journey. Scott's Bluffs, (mer.) south side the river. The road here is near enouah to the river to camp Lat. of meridian. 41 50' 52". ; Long. 10 J 20'. Spring Creek, 10 feet wide, 8 inches deep. South of the road. You do not cross it, but travel halt n mile alongside. Good water, and many trout in it. R. and R., road runs near the river. Good chance to camp. Low sandy bluffs, north side the road. - You travel at the foot of these bluffs, but will find the road snndy and heavy on teams. Creek, about 200 yards south of road. - By ascending one of the highest bluffs near, you have ft view of " Laramie Peak" in the Black Hills. Timber, north side the river. Road here about a quarter of a mile from the river after this, generally from one to two miles distant. The rood, to Lnrnmie. very sandy. " Raw Hide" creek, 1 rod wide. : 1'lenty of water, June 1st, but dry, Sept. 15, 1847. i i i 4 3 14 5 24 14 10* 7 1 14* 19* 4 12* 21 2 11* 4014 4024 406* 4094 4101 415* 4171 419 437 438 452* 472 476 488^ 4914 4934 510 6291 629* 6281 6241 6211 620* 615* 6134 612 601* 594 593 578* 559 555 542| 5391 5371 5264 521 U, Or 1U-. 12 PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DIST. miles. from WQR9. miles. From CofGSL miles. '* Fort John" or JLaramie ford. - The fort lays about one and a half milea weet from the river. The ford is good in low water. River 108 yards wide. (See Note 3.) Steep hill to descend. ... The descent being over rock, and very eteep, makes It dangerous to wagons, but it is not lengthy. Steep hill to ascend and descend. * In traveling over this hill, you will find the road rocky in places, and about half way over there is a sudden turn in the road over rough rocks, which is dangerous to wag- ons, if care is not taken. Road leaves the river. ... At this point, the road bends to the south-west, leaving the river. You will not come to the river banks again for eighty miles. " Warm Springs," Lat. 42 15' 6". - This is a very strong spring of clear water, but it ie warmer than river water, at all seasons of the year Very steep bluff, half a mile up. - Before arriving at this, you pass through a narrow ra- vine, between bluffs. The ascent is unpleasant, on ac- count of cobble stones. " Porter's Rock," left of the road. A mile beyond this, you descend to the lower land again. The descent is steep, lengthy and sandy. Bitter Creek and Cold Spring. This was dry, September 13. Here is plenty of timber, and if there is no water, you will find plenty three and a half miles further. Bitter Creeksecond crossing. - Bend in the road. .... Road turns south about two hundred yards, to avoid ft deep ravine, then back again the same distance. Dead Timber creek, 10 feet wide. Plenty of timber, grass and water. Creek, south side the road. You don't cross this creek, but go just above it. It is a flood chance to camp. Small creek and spring : Lat. 42 2V 51" Not safe to depend on lor a camping place. Little grass and not much waterdry, September 13, 1847. Steep hill, quarter mile up. Pleasant view of the surrounding country from the summit. The descent steep in several places, and many cobble stones in the road. "Horse Creek" and Heber's Spring. - The spring lays a little to the right of the road, at the edge of timber. If it is dry. there is water in the creek, about one hundred yards north from this spring. Bluff |ths of a mile to the summit. Difficult to ascend on account of six or seven steep places, where you will probably have to double teams. Small creek : Lat. 42 29' 58". - After crossing this, you cross five others, about a mile apart, but none of them safe to depend on for a camping place, being little grass, and ICES (if any) water. 12 7* 522 509 U 1* 41 4* 529* 5331 534i 536* 542* u 73 I 5* 2* 547* 549* 550 551* 559* 559^ 565 567i 5691 5011 497* 496* 4941 493* 4881 484* 4831 4811 481 479* 4711 471* 466 463* 461* PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS DIST, miles. Frem I From WQRS.ICoiGSL miles. I miles. 5th small creek from the last. After crossing this, you ascend a high bluff, the top of which is a succession of hilte and hollows iur five miles. The road is good, but crooked. La Bonte" river, 30 feet wide, 2 ft. deep. Good place to camp plenty of timber, grws, and water. There is also a good chance, a mile further. Plenty of wild mint on the creek. Branch of La Bonte, 10 feet wide, 18 inch- es deep. - Doubtful about water. Steep banks. You have now traveled near a mile over this dark, red sand, and will find It continue three and a half miles further. Very small creek. - Little chance for grass, and less for water. One mile beyond this, you ngcend another bluff, but the road is tol- erebly straight and good. Look out for toads with horn* and tails. Very small creek. * Very poor chance for camping. Very small creek. - The rond runs down the channel of this creek, near two hundred yards, but there is little grass on it. A La Prele river, one rod wide, 2 ft. deep. Current rapid good place to camp. Land between creeks mostly sandy and barren. Road from here to the Platte very uneven, being & succession of hills and hollows. Small creek. - No place to camp doubtful for water. Box Elder creek, 5 feet wide. Clear water, and plenty but not much grass. Np1 very good to cross, banks being steep. Some timber on it. Fourche Boise river, 30 feet wide, 2 feet, deep: Lat. 42 51' 5". Current rapid. Plenty of good grass and timber. North fork of Platte river. - Not much grass here. You will now find a sandy roac 1 nnd heavy traveling. " Deer Creek," 30 feet wide, two feet deep : Lat. 42 52' 50": Altitude, 4,864 feet Lovely place to camp. Swift current, clear water and abundance of fish. Nice grove of timber on the banks, and a coal mine about a quarter of a mile up. on the east side. After this, you will find eandy roods for nine miles but not much grass. Deep hollow, or ravine steep banks. - Sudden bend in the road. ... To avoid a deep ravine. Grove of timber on the banks of the river. Good chance to camp. Lat. 42 51' 47". Crooked, muddy creek, 12 ft. wide, 1 deep. Not good to croeE steep banks. Plenty of grass, but no wood. Muddy creek, 3 feet wide. - Soft banks and ba I to cross. Considerable small Urn her, but little grass. After thia, good but crooked road. Deep gulf. 43 574i 456* 6* 6* 4* 4 5 2 51 1 1 51 5821 5871 594 600* 6003 602* 606 6071 6103 6143 6193 622* 628 629 630 6351 638$ 448* 443* 437 4301 430* 4281 4241 423^ 420* 416* 411* 4081 403 402 401 395* 3921 14 PROMINENT POINT3 AND REMARKS. DIST. miles. From WQRS. miles From CofGSL milee. Creek, two feet wide. ... 14 640 391 No place to camp. Muddy creek, 5 feet wide, 1$ feet deep. 1 641 390 No chance to camp. 2 ravines, near together : Lat. 42 51 r 44 f/ . 3 644 387 Opposite here there is a fording place, where compa- nies generally have forded the river. Creek five feet wide. ... 3 647 384 Abundance of nsh, early in the season, but little grass. tind no timber. Upper Platte ferry and ford. 14 648$ 3824 Plenty of feed and some timber on both sides the river (See Note 4.) Lat 42 5(y 18". ^ Altitude 4,875 feet. Road turns south, and rises a long hill. - 7 6554 3754 Ascent gradual. Many singular looking rocks on the couth side. Descent rough and crooked. Towards tht foot, road very uneven. Mineral spring and lake.. ... 54 661 370 Considered poisonous. No bad taste to the water, un- less the cattle trample in it. In that case it becomes black, and is doubtless poisonous. No timber near. Rock avenue and steep descent. - 74 6684 3624 The road here passes between high rocks, forming kind of avenue or gateway, for a quarter of a mile. Alkali swamps and springs. . This ought to be avoided as a camping ground it it 2 670i 3604 a small valley, surrounded by high bluffs. The land ex- ceeding miry, and emells bad. There i a creek of gooo 1 water north-west. No timber and little grass. Next mile, rotigh road. Small stream of clear spring water. 4 6744 3564 Good camping place. Plenty of grass, but no wood. Willow Spring." .... 2| 6774 3533 About three rods west of the road, at the foot of wil- low bushes. Water cold and good grass plenty, but creek some miry. Prospect Hill," (summit.) 1 6784 3521 Pleasant view of the surrounding country, to the Fwect Water mountains. 34 6S14 3494 Plenty of grass, but little water. A mile further is t, hill, both steep ascending and descending. Creek, 300 yards south of road. - 11 683* .347* Plenty of grass, but no wood. Small creek, left of the road. 2? 6851 3454 Grass plentiful, but doubtful for water, and no wood The road runs alongside this creek fer half a mile. Grease-wood creek, 6 feet wide 1 ft. deep. U 6874 3434 Very little grass, and no fuel but wild sage. Roao from here to the Sweet Water sandy, and very heavy. Alkali springs and lakes. - 64 >6933 3374 Here gather your Salersetus from a lake, west of the rofid. Land swampy, and emells bad. Water poisonous <; Sweet-water river," 8 rods wide, 2 ft. deep. ..... . 44 698 333 Swift current good water. Grass plentiful, but little timber. (See Note 5") 15 PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DIST. miles. From WQB8 miles. From CofGSL miles. Independence Rock and ford. j 698 3324 On the north side of the river about six hundree yards lonp, and a hundred and twenty vrlde, composed o hard Granite. (See Note 5.) Kl 7H4. 397 A little west from the rond. The river here passe PS Ivt O< f between perpendicular rocks four hundred feet high. This is a curiosity worthy of a traveler's notice. Creek two feet wide. - ... i 704 326* Not good to cross. The road runs near the rive banks for ten miles after this. Creek, 6 feet wide. - i 705 326 Good to croes. Water and grass plenty, but lack timber. You will find grass all along on the banks of th river, but very little wood. Deep ravine and creek. ... 64 711; 3191 Plenty of grass and water, but no wood. Deep ravine and creek. ... i 712 319 Doubtful for water. Road leaves the river : Lit. 42 28' 25". 3 715 316 Road after this, candy and heavy, and passes over high bluff. Land barren for seven and a half miles (See Note 6.) Alkali Lake j 715 315* On the left of the road. \J A V'2 Sage creek. ..... 42 720 3103 No grass. High banks. Doubtful for water, but Wild Sage plentiful. One and three-quarter miles further you arrive on the river banks again. Creek, three feet wide. ... 4 7244 3061 Doubtful for water, but the road runs close to the river. High gravelly bluff. - Xelt of the road, and a very good place to camp. Bitter-cotton-wood creek. - - - 14 7253 727 305| 304 Doubtful for water and grass. Some timber on it. Af- ter this, the road leaves the river for eix miles. Road arrives at the river. - 64 733- 2973 Leave the old road and ford the river. - j 733 2 297 By fording here, the rand is shorter, nnd you avoic much very heavy, sandy road. Lat. 42 31' 20". Road turns between the' rocky ridges. - li 735 296 After this, you ford the river twice but it is easily forded. Then the road leaves the river again. Ford No. 4 good camping place. 8 743 288 Alter this, the road leaves the river again, and you will probably find no water fit to drink for sixteen and a half miles. Ice Spring. ..... 63 7481 2824 This is on a low, swampy spot of land on the right of the road. Ice may generally be Ibund, by digging down ftbpnt two fcet ; There'are two alkali lakes a little further. Alkali springs. - .... On the left of the road 4 749 282 Steep descent from the bluffs . 9 758-A 272$ Ford of Sweet-water, No. 5. 1 ^59* 271 Plenty of good grass and willow bushes. River about three roda wide, nnd two feet deep. 16 PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DlST. miles From WQns. miles. From CofGSL miles. Creek a rod wide. ... * 7591 271* Doubtful for water. Bluff or hill, 1$ miles to summit. * 760 271 The ascent gradual, though steep in some places. Road joins the river, and fords it. 3 7631 267S The river is forded here, to avoid crossing the next high, eandy ridge, making the road much better, and some ahorter. j nv\ 0/^17 2 *UTT <6U / River banks and stream, 25 feet wide. - * 764 2661 This appears to he a branch of the river, running round a piece of land, about a quarter of ft mile wide. Creek, two feet wide : Lat. 42 28' 36". 3 767* 263^ A good cold spring, a little to the right of the road and a soft BW amp just below, but it is a good place to camp Road leaves the river. ... 2 769i 261J Good camping place. After this, the road winds around And over a succession of hilla and hollows, for three miles. Rough, rocky ridges. - - , - 2d 772 259 Dangerous to wagons, and ought to be crossed with care. Soft swamp and very small creek. 3 775 256 No place to camp. Creek, a foot wide. .... 11 7761 254* Creek, two feet wide. - - 4 777 254 Strawberry creek, five feet wide. 2 779 252 Plenty of grass and water, and some willows. Good place to camp. There is a poplar grove about a mile below. Quaking-aspen creek. ... This rises in a small grove of timber on the south side the road, but is not safe to depend on for water. 1 780 251 Branch of Sweet-water, 2 rods wide, two feet deep. ..... 21 7821 248* Good place to camp. Water good and cold. Grasr and willows, plenty. Willow creek, 8 feet wide, 2 feet deep. 2* 785 246 Good camping place for grass, water and willows. The ford is near three rode wide. Sweet-water, 3 rods wide, 3 feet deep. 42 7891 241* Good place to camp. After traveling seven miles be- yond this, and passing between the Twin mounds, you will find a good camping place a quarter of a mile north of the road. SOUTH PASS, or summit of dividing ridge. 91 799 231 This is the dividing ridge between the waters of the Atlantic and Pacific. Altitude, 7.085 feet. Pacific creek and springs. - 3 02* 228| Abundance of grass any where for a mile. Good water, and plenty ot Wild Sage for fuel. Pacific creek (crossing) three feet wide: Lat. 42 18' 58": Long. 108 40' 0". ia 804 227 Not good to cross Pretty good place to camp, except for wood. After you leave here you will find a good road, but very little water. Dry Sandy. ..... 9 813 218 The water brackish, and not good for cattle. Very little grass, but no wood. 17 PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DIST. miles. From W. Qua miles. From CofGSL miles. Junction of California and Oregon roads. 6 819 212' Take the. left band road. Good road a tew miles, after- wards sandy and heavy. Little Sandy, 20 feet wide, 2| feet deep. 73 8263 204* Muddy water swift current. Plenty of willows and wild sage. Abundance of grass down the stream. Af'tei this, barren and sandy land. , Big Sandy, 7 rods wide, 2 feet deep : Lat. 42 6' 42". - 8* 835 196 Good chance to camp. A few miles further, you will find a short piece of rough road, over rocks and cobble etones. No grass or water after this for near 1? miles. Big Sandy. - . . 17 852 179 Good chance to camp. After this, barren, aandy land. nd heavy road till you arrive at Green river. Green river ford, 16 rods wide. - 10 862 169 Gpod camping any where on the banks, and plenty ol timber. It is not difficult fording in low water; but if too high to ford, the best crossing place is upstream. Latitude 2 miles above 41 5V 37"; Long. 109 30'. Alt. 6,000 feet. Good camping place on Green river. li 863^ 1671 Plenty of grass here. But no other very good chance to camp on this side the river. Road leaves Green river. ... 3* 867 164 No grass nor water after this for fifteen and a haH miles. Land rolling, barren mostly sandy, and several eteep places to pass. * Black's fork, 6 rods wide, 2 feet deep. - " 15^ 882* 148$ Good chance to camp, and a nice place, though not much timber. Ham's fork, 3 rods wide, 2 feet deep. - 33 886* 144| Eapid current, cold water, plenty of bunch grass ane willows, and is a good camp ground. Black's fork again. .... 13 888 143 Not much grass, but plenty of "willows. You will now nave some uneven road, with many ravines. Small creek, 2 feet wide. ... 103 8983 132* No grass, and probably no water. Black's fork, third time. ... 2 .9003 130* After crossing you will find a good camping place Plenty of bunch grass ; also, wild flax. Black's fork, fourth time. ... 2* 903 128 You ford again at a good camping plaee. Stream 2 rods wide, 2 feet deep. 23 9053 125* Very swift current, and plenty of bunch grass. Roar' pretty rough after this. Stream good camping place at a bend. You do not cros the stream, but there is a good camp ing place, where the road pa&ses A bend of thft crrek. 3* 909* 1211 " Fort Bridger: " Lat. 41 19' 13" j Long. 110 5'; Altitude, 6,665 feet. 8* 917| 113$ You cross fourtfuehing creeks, within bulf a mile, be- fore you rr&ch the Fort, and by traveling half a mile be yondthe Fort, yon will cross three others, and then find a good place to oomp. The Fort is composed of four log houfcs nnd a smal' enclosure for horses. Land exceeding rich- water cold and good, and considerable timber 18 PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. Cold Springs, on the right side the road. Thcro is timber here, and it is a pretty good camping DIST. miles From miles. From CofGSL milea. Small creek and springs. ... No feed here, and no place to camp. Summit of High Ridge: Lat. 41 16' IF. After this, you travel several miles on tolerably level land, then you descend to lower land by a steep, tedious route. Muddy Fork, 12 feet wide. Plenty of bunch grass and willows. Water clear, and not bad tasted. After this, you will probably find no good water lor eleven miles. Copperas, or Soda Spring. ... Left of the road at the foot ot a hill. The road now begins to ascend another high ridge. Summit of Ridge : Altitude 7,315 feet. The descent is lengthy, and some tedious. About half way down you pass over rough rocks, and the pass being narrow, makes it dangerous to wagons. Copperas, or Soda Spring. - Cattle will drink this water, and there is plenty of grass around it. A little further the road turns to the left and passes down a narrow ravine. Spring of good water, south side the road. This is surrounded by high grass, close to the creek Bide. There is another spring a little further on thenoith ide the road, which will probably be the last water yoi will find till you arrive at Sulphur creek. East foot of dividing ridge. - Dividing ridge between the watera of the Colorado and Great Basin. Ascent very steep and crooked narrow summit and steep descending. After this, crooked road between mountains. Altitude of ridge, 7,700 feet. Sulphur creek, 10 feet wide. . - Plenty of grass and some willows ; also, small cedar lit the foot of the mountain. (See Note 7.) Bear river, 6 rods wide, 2 feet deep. - Swift current clear co"ld water; plenty of timber and prass. Altitude t ford, 6,836 feet. Summit of Ridge. .... Half a mile further you cross a small ridge, then de Bcend into, and travel down a nice narrow bottom, where Is plenty of gnjss. Spring of clear, cold water. On the south side the creek, about two rods from the road. The spring "is deep water clear, cold and good. Perhaps it will not be easy to find, being aurrounded by high grass. Yellow creek, cross at foot of rocky blufis. You will eoon cross this jigain, and about a mile fur- ther you ascend another long ridge, the ascent being pretty ereep and tedious. Summit of Ridge. - Descent pretty steep. About three-fourths of a mile down from the Kumn.it, is a spring of good cold water, OE the left of the rood. 6* H II 9231 925 926 934* 936 937 941 a 106 105 ii 21 II 950* 953 9541 959i 961* 95 94 891 88* 822 802 78 76* in 691 19 PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. IKrom i From WQRS. CofGSL .miles. 1 miles. Cache Cave and head of Echo creek: Al titude, 6,070 feet. ... 3 65 66 Cave in the bluffs north. Several springs along th road, before you arrive here, and one, a quarter of a mil eouth from the Cave. Plenty of grass, aad a good plac to camp. Cold spring, on the right of the road. - 2 967 64 This also i.s a good place to camp, being plenty of grae Cold spring, south side the road. - 2 J 969 61| At the foot of a high hill. Good place to camp. Afte this, you travel down a narrow ravine, between big mountains, till you arrive at Weber river. Noc much dl ficulty for camping down it. 1% 970 60$ Steep on both banks. After this, you will cross Ech creek a number of times, but in no place very difficult. Red fork of Weber river : Alt. 5,301 feet 16 986 44$ There is a good camping place a mile before you ar rive here. Also, almost any where on the b'anks of th river. Plenty of timber. The stream abounds with epotte trout. Weber river ford, 4 rods wide, 2 ft. deep 4 990* 40$ Good to ford. Plenty of grass and timber on both fides the river. Pratt's Pass, to avoid the Kanyon. j 991 40 The Kanyon is a few miles below, where the river runs between high mountains of rocks. Some emigrants have passed through, bat it is dangerous. East foot of Long hill. ... ] 992 39 There is a email creek descends down the hollow, up which the road is made. There are several epriugs near the road. Bridge (over the creek.) ... 2* .994* 361 Not a bad place to camp. Summit of Ridge. .... 21 9961 34i The country west looks rough and mountainous. The descent is not pleasant, being mostly on the side hill. Small creek, left of the road. 11 998| 32} Good place to camp. Plenty of grass, water nnd wil- lows. The road here turns north a quarter of a mile, then west, and ascends a stnep hill. Kanvon creek, 1 rod wide, 1 foot deep : Lat. 40 54' 7". .... 21 OOH 291 You have to croee this creek thirteen timea, besides two bad wamps. The road is dangerous to wagons, on account of der ee, high bu?hes, fees, und short turns in the road. Goo'l pl^ce to camp. (See Note 9.). Leave Kanyon creek* ... 8 009* 211 Here you turn to the right, and begin to ascend the highest mountain you cross in the whole journey. You travel through timber, some on side hi Us, and crosa the crek a number of times. Small spring, left of the road. 3 012* 181 You will probably find water in several places, but it is ulncTtain where, as it runs but * little way in a place, and then sinks in the eerh. Summit of mountain : Altitude. 7,245 feet. 1 013i 17| You have now a view of the south part of the Valley of the Great Salt Lake. The descent is etccp, leugtby. nd todioua, on account of stamps in the road. 20 PROMINENT POINTS AND REMARKS. DlST. miles, From | From QBS. CofGSL miles. I miles. Bridge over a deep ravine. - This is dangerous to cross, and a wagon may be easily upset. The road lays through a foreat of email timber, and is unpleasant traveling. Brown's creek and spring. - Not a bad place to camp, but there is a much better one, half a mile lower down. Cold spring on Brown's creek. - Within a rod of the road, on the east side, under a grove of Black Birch bushes. Good place to camp, but uome miry. Good camping any where for two miles lower. Leave Brown's creek. ... You now ascend another high mountain, by a steep and crooked road. On both sides this mountain, there are many Serviceberry bushes. Summit of last ridge. - The descent is very steep, all the way, till you arrive on the banks of Last creek. Last creek. ..... You cross this creek nineteen times. Several ef the crossings are difficult. There are several side hills which require care in teamsters. Three camping places on it but the road is rough. Mouth of the Kanyon. ... You now enter the Valley ef the Salt Lake. The road at the mouth of the Kanyon bad, and rough with stumps Afterwards, descending and good. CITY OP THE GREAT SALT LAKE. 1014 10141 1019* 1020* 1021 1026 1031 17 16* 13* Hi 101 10 The city is^ located within three miles of the mountains, which enclose the east side of the valley wjthin three miles of the Utah outlet, and twenty-two miles of the Salt Lake. The land is gradually sloping, from the mountain to within, a .mile of the Outlet, and is of a black, loose, sandy nature. A Stream of water rushes from the mountains east of the city, and, at the upper part, it divides in two branches, both of which pass through the city to the Outlet. The water is good, and very cold, and abundance for mill purposes, or for irrigation. The air is good and pure, sweetened by the healthy breezes from the Salt Lake. The grass is rich and plentiful, and well filled with rushes, and the passes in the mountains afford abundance of good timber, mostly balsam Fir. The valley is about forty miles long, and from twenty to twenty-five miles wide. It is beautifully surrounded on the west, south, and east by high mountains. Salt Lake extends from a point a little south of west, from the city, to about eighty miles north, forming the north-western boundary of the 21 valley. There are two sulphur springs a mile and a half north from the *TEMPLE BLOCK ; the water is salt, and a little warmer than blood : two miles further north there is a sulphur spring of boiling water. There is not much land on the north part of the valley fit for cultivation ; but the east side is well adapted for farming, being well watered by several large creeks, and the soil beautiful. The land on the west of the Utah Outlet, is also good for farming, and easily irrigated from the south end of the Outlet. The latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes are copied from the observations and calculations made by Elder O. PRATT. The variation of the magnetic needle, at the City of the Great Salt Lake, 15 47' 23" east, as determined on the 30th July, A. D. 1847, by the mean of several observations, and calculations of the Sun's Azimuths and Altitudes, * Latitude of northern boundary of Temple Block, 40 45' 44". Longitude of do. do. do. 111 26' 34". Altitude of do. do. do. 4,300 feet. 22 NOTES. NOTE i. If the Elk Horn river is fordable, you leave the main road a mile before you strike the river, and turn north. After leaving the road three-fourths of a mile, you will cross a very bad creek or slough, being soft and miry; but, by throwing in long grass, it will be good crossing. You then travel three-fourths of a mile further, and arrive at the ford. You will go up stream when fording, and gradually come nearer to the opposite shore, till you strike a piece of low land on the west side j you then pass by a narrow, crooked road, through the timber, till you arrive on the open prairie. You will then see a post erected in near a south direction, about a mile distant. Go straight to that post, and you will find a good bridge over the creek and there, again strike the main 'Toad. From .here, you have before you near five hundred miles travel over a flat, level country, and a good road, with the exception of several sandy bluffs mentioned herein. The road generally runs from one to two miles from the Platte river, but not too far to turn off to camp in case of necessity. All camping places, which lay near the road, are mentioned in this work. You will find near two hundred miles without timber, but in that region you will find plenty of buffalo chips, which are a good substitute for fuel. Buffalo are numerous after you arrive at the head of Grand Island, and continue two hundred miles. NOTE it. The descent to the ford is steep, and at the bottom very sandy. Your best chance to ford will, probably, be to enter the river opposite to where you descend from the bluff; then go near a straight course, but inclining a little down stream, till more than half way over, when you will find a sand-bar. Follow this, down stream near half a mile, and you will then see a good place to go out on the south side. In this river the channels often change the old ones fill up, and new ones are made hence, the wisdom and necessity of hav- ing several men go across on horses, to find the best route, be- fore you attempt to take wagons over. If this precaution is not taken, you may plunge your wagons from a sand-bar into a deep hole, and do much damage. If you ford up stream, and come out higher than where you enter, after crossing, strike for the bluffs, in a direction a very little west of south, till you arrive on the old road. On arriving at Prairie creek, if you take a south-west course, a short day's drive will bring you to Wood river, six or eight miles above where the old road crosses; and by keep- ing the same course after crossing Wood river, yon will strike 23 the Platte ten or twelve miles above where Wood river emp- ties into it. By this means the road would be shortened at least five miles, and probably much more. NOTE in. Fort "John, or Laramie," lays about one and a half miles from the river, in near a south-west course, and is composed of a trading establishment, and about twelve houses, enclosed by a wall eleven feet high. The wall and houses arc built of adobes, or Spanish brick. It is situated on the Lara- mie Fork, and is a pleasant location : the latitude of the Fort is 42 12' 13"; longitude 104 IP 53", and altitude above the sea, 4,090 feet. After leaving here you begin to cross the "Black Hills," and will find rough roads, high ridges, and mostly barren country. There is, however, not much diffi- culty in finding good camping places, each day's travel, by ob- serving the annexed table. There is a road follows the river, instead of crossing the Black Hills, and it is represented as being as near, and much better traveling if the river is fordable. By following this road you have to cross the river three times extra, but will find plenty of grass, wood, and water. If the river is fordable at Laramie. it is fordable at those three places, and you can go that route safely. NOTE iv. The best place to ford will probably be a little below the bend in the river. After this you have fifty miles to travel, which is dangerous to teams, on account of Alkali springs. Great care should be taken to avoid them, by select- ing a camping place where none of these springs are near. NOTE v. In low water the river is easily forded opposite to the Rook Independence ; but, if not fordable here, a good place can be found a mile higher up the river. Independence Rock is one of the curiosities to be seen on the road, mostly on account of its peculiar shape and magni- tude. There^are many names of visitors painted in various places, on the south-east corner. At this corner most travelers appear to have gone up to view the top ; but there is a much better place on the north side, about half way from end to end. Latitude l\ miles below 42 30' 16". The road along the Sweet Water is mostly sandy and heavy traveling. You will find many steep places, and as you ap- proach the Rocky Mountains, you will find some high hills to travel over. After crossing the mountains the country is level, but still barren, and, if possible, more sandy. You will have to make some long drives to obtain water for camping. There is great lack of timber, from the Upper Platte ferry 'to Fort Bridger, 24 and in fact scarcely any kind but willows. In all this region the willows and wild sage form your chief ingredient for fuel. NOTE vi. It is supposed that a good road can be made here, by following the banks of the river. If so, these high bluffs, and much sandy road, would be avoided. NOTE vn. At the foot of the mountain, on the south side the road, and at the edge of the creek, there is a strortg sulphur spring. A little above the spring, on the side of the moun- tain, is a bed of stone coal. At the foot of the bluff, west of where you cross the creek, is a noble spring of pure, cold water ; and about a mile from this place, in a south-west course, is a " Tar," or " Oil Spring," covering a surface of several rods of ground. There is a wagon trail runs within a short distance of it. It is situated in a small hollow, on the left of the wagon trail, at a point where the trail rises a,higher bench of land. When the oil can be obtained free from sand, it is useful to oil wagons. It gives a nice polish to gun-stocks, and has been proved to be highly beneficial when applied to sores on horses, cattle, &c. NOTE viii. From the summit of this ridge, you will see to the west, a ridge of high, rough, peaked rocks. The road runs at the south foot of that ridge, and there crosses Yellow creek. From the place where you now stand, the road runs through a beautiful narrow valley, surrounded by gently rolling hills, and is pretty straight and pleasant traveling, till you ar- rive at that ridge of rocks. There is little difficulty in finding a good camping place, between here and the ridge in view, ex- cept for fuel, which is scarce. There are several springs of good water along the creek. NOTE ix. On this creek is a very rough piece of road ; the bushes are high, and road narrow, in consequence of which wagon coVers are liable to be torn, and bows broke. There are many short turns in it, where wagon tongues are liable to be broke* Some of the crossing places are bad. There is a good camping place where first you strike the creek one about half way up, and one a quarter of a mile before you leave the creek. The ascent up the next mountain is both lengthy and tedi- ous, mostly through high timber, and there are many stumps in the road. It is a chance whether you will find any water till you descend on the west side. From this creek to the valley is decidedly the worst piece of road on the whole journey, but the distance is short, and by using care and patience, it is easily accomplished.