1^?'^ ' "^ J ^^- 4 ^^^s^ :
Melrose to Edinburgh, 32 miles,
Mclrose to Branksome, fj tittles,
Branksonie to Carlisle, jj" miles.
\J S V '\^
MATTHEWS, NOPTHflliP 4 CO., ART-PRINTINS WORKS, BUFFALO, N.
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL.
$oem, in Six Cantos*
SIR WALTER SCOTT.
MARGARET ANDREWS ALLEN.
PUBLISHED BY GINN AND COMPANY.
Entered according to Act of Congress, In tbe year 1887, by
MARGARET ANDREWS ALLEN,
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
ELECTUOTYPED BY J. S. CUSHING & Co., BOSTON.
r~nHE text of the poem has been carefully compared
with various editions of the " Lay of the Last Min-
strel," the earliest used being that of 1813. The notes
are chiefly abridged from Scott's own, merely using
such as are necessary to enable the reader to enjoy the
poem understandingly, and are not intended for critical
The map gives the principal localities mentioned in
the poem, with their relation to the more important
cities, such as Edinburgh and Carlisle, and the adjacent
counties of England.
THE RIGHT HOXORABLE
CHARLES, EARL OF DALKEITH,
IS INSCRIBED BY THE AUTHOR.
The Poem now oft^red to the public is intended to illustrate the customs
and manners which anciently prevailed Qn the Borders of England and
Scotland. The inhabitants, 'Hvlnglnii'StTrfe partly pastoral and partly war-
like, and combining habits of constant depredation with the influence of a
rude spirit of chivalry, were often engaged in scenes highly susceptible of
poetical ornament. 1 As the description of scenery and manners was more
the object of the Author than a combined and regular narrative, the plan
of the ancient metrical romance was adopted, which allows greater latitude
in this respect than would be consistent with the dignity of a regular poem.
The same model offered other facilities, as it permits an occasional altera-
tion of measure, which, in some degree, authorizes the changes of rhythm
in the text. The machinery also, adopted from popular belief, would have
seemed puerile in a Poem which did not partake of the rudeness of the old
Ballad, or Metrica^ / Romance. %
For these reasons, the Poena was put into the mouth of an ancient Min-
strel, the last of the race, who, as he is supposed to have survived the Revo-
lution, might have caught somewhat of the refinement of modern poetry,
without losing the simplicity of his original model. The date of the tale
itself is about the middle of the sixteenth century, when most of the per-
sonages actually flourished. The time occupied by the action is three nights
and three days.
THE way was long, the wind was cold,
The Minstrel was infirm and old ;
His withered cheek, and tresses gray,
Seemed to have known a better day ;
The harp, his sole remaining joy, 5
Was carried by an orphan boy.
The last of all the bards was he,
Who sung of Border chivalry ;
For, well-a-day ! their date was fled, .
His tuneful brethren all were dead ; 10
And he, neglected and oppressed,
Wished to be with them, and at rest.
No more, on prancing palfrey borne,
He carolled, light as lark at morn ;
No longer courted and caressed, 15
High placed in hall, a welcome guest,
He poured, to lord and lady gay,
The unpremeditated lay :
r Old times were changed, old manners gone,
A stranger filled the Stuart's throne ; 20
The bigots of the iron time
Had called his harmless art a crime.
A wandering harper, scorned and poor,
He begged his bread from door to door ;
And tuned, to please a peasant's ear, 25
The harp, a king had loved to hear.
He passed where Newark's stately tower
Looks out from Yarrow's birchen bower :
The Minstrel gazed with wishful eye
No humbler resting-place was nigh ; 30
With hesitating step, at last,
The embattled portal-arch he passed,
Whose ponderous grate, and massy bar,
Had oft rolled back the tide of war,
But never closed the iron door 35
Against the desolate and poor.
The Duchess marked his weary pace,
His timid mien, and reverend face,
And bade her page the menials tell,
That they should tend the old man well : 40
For she had known adversity,
Though born in such a high degree ;
In pride of power, in beauty's bloom,
Had wept o'er Monmouth's bloody tomb.
When kindness had his wants supplied, 45
And the old man was gratified,
Began to rise his minstrel pride ;
And he began to talk, anon,
Of good Earl Francis, dead and gone,
37. Duchess. Anna, Duchess of Buccleuch and Monmouth, represen-
tative of the ancient lords of Buccleuch and widow of James, Duke of
Monmouth, who was beheaded in 1685.
49. Earl Francis. Francis Scott, Earl of Buccleuch, father of the
And of Earl Walter, rest him God ! 50
A braver ne'er to battle rode ;
And how full many a tale he knew,
Of the old warriors of Buccleuch :
And, would the noble Duchess deign
To listen to an old man's strain, 55
Though stiff his hand, his voice though weak,
He thought even yet, the sooth to speak,
That, if she loved the harp to hear,
He could make music to her ear.
The humble boon was soon obtained ; eo
The Aged Minstrel audience gained.
But when he reached the room of state,
Where she, with all her ladies, sate,
Perchance he wished his boon denied,
For, when to tune his harp he tried, 65
i His trembling hand had lost the ease
Which marks security to please ;
And scenes, long past, of joy and pain,
Came wildering o'er his aged brain
He tried to tune his harp in vain. 70
The pitying Duchess praised its chime,
And gave him heart and gave him time,
Till every string's according glee
Was blended into harmony.
And then, he said, he would full fain 75
. >He could recall an ancient strain,
He never thought to sing again.
It was not framed for village churls,
But for high dames and mighty earls ;
50. Earl Walter. Walter, Earl of Buccleuch, grandfather of the Duchess.
He had played it to King Charles the Good, go
When he kept court at Holyrood ;
And much he wished, yet feared, to try
The long-forgotten melody.
Amid the strings his fingers strayed,
And an uncertain warbling made, 85
And oft he shook his hoary head.
But when he caught the measure wild,
The old man raised his face, and smiled,
And lightened up his faded eye,
With all a poet's ecstasy ! 90
In varying cadence, soft or strong,
He swept the sounding chords along :
The present scene, the future lot,
His toils, his wants, were all forgot :
Cold diffidence, and age's frost, 95
In the fall tide of song were lost ;
Each blank, in faithless memory void,
The poet's glowing thought supplied ;
And while his harp responsive "rung,
'Twas thus the LATEST MINSTREL sung. 100
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTEEL.
THE feast was over in Branksome tower,
And the Ladye had gone to her secret bower;
Her bower, that was guarded by word and by spell,
Deadly to hear, and deadly to tell
Jesu Maria, shield us well ! 5
No living wight, save the Ladye alone,
Had dared to cross the thresholcU&tone.
The tables were drawn, it was idlesse all ;
Knight, and page, and household squire,
Loitered through the lofty hall, 10
Or crowded round the ample fire.
The stag-hounds, weary with the chase,
Lay stretched upon the rushy floor,
And urged, in dreams, the forest race,
From Teviot-stone to Eskdale-moor. 15
1. Branksome tower. This castle was situated on the Teviot, three
miles above Hawick, and was the principal seat of the Buccleuch family.
13. Kushy floor. In the sixteenth century, floors were strewed with
rushes instead of covered with carpets.
14 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO
Nine-and-twenty knights of fame
Hung their shields in Branksome Hall ;
Nine-and-twenty squires of name
Brought them their steeds from bower to stall :
Nine-and-twenty yeomen tall 20
Waited, duteous, on them all :
They were all knights of mettle true,
Kinsmen to the bold Buccleuch.
Ten of them were sheathed in steel,
With belted sword, and spur on heel : 25
They quitted not their harness bright,
Neither by day, nor yet by night :
They lay down to rest
With corslet laced,
Pillowed on buckler cold and hard ; 30
They carved at the meal
With gloves of steel,
And they drank ihe red wine through the helmet barred.
Ten squires, ten yeomen, mail-clad men,
Waited the beck of the warders ten ; 35
Thirty steeds, both fleet and wight,
Stood saddled in stable day and night,
16. Knights of fame. The ancient barons of Buccleuch retained in their
household, at Branksome, a number of gentlemen of their own name, who
held lands from their chief for the military service of watching and ward-
ing his castle.
CANTO i. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 15
Barbed with frontlet of steel, I trow,
And with Jedwood-axe at saddle-bow ;
A hundred more fed free in stall : 40
Such was the custom of Branksome Hall.
Why do these steeds stand ready dight?
Why watch these warriors, armed, by night ?
They watch, to hear the bloodhound baying;
They watch, to hear the war-horn braying ; 45
To see St. George's red cross streaming,
To see the midnight beacon gleaming ;
They watch, against Southern force and guile,
Lest Scroop, or Howard, or Percy's powers,
Threaten Branksome's lordly towers, 50
From Warkworth, or Naworth, or merry Carlisle.
Such is the custom of Branksome Hall.
Many a valiant knight is here ;
But he, the Chieftain of them all,
His sword hangs rustling on the wall, 55
Beside his broken spear.
Bards long shall tell,
How Lord Walter fell!
When startled burghers fled, afar,
39. Jedwood-axe. A sort of partizan or halbert, used by horsemen.
42. Dight. Caparisoned.
50. Threaten Branksome's lordly towers. Being a Border castle,
Branksome was often exposed to attacks from the English.
58. Lord Walter. A Scott of Buccleuch and warden of the west marches
of Scotland. He was killed by the Kerrs in the streets of Edinburgh.
16 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO i.
The furies of the Border war ; 60
When the streets of high Dunedin
Saw lances gleam, and falchions redden,
And heard the slogan's deadly yell
Then the Chief of Branksome fell.
Can piety the discord heal, 65
Or stanch the death-feud's enmity ?
Can Christian love, can patriot zeal,
Can love of blessed charity ?
No ! vainly to each holy shrine, -
In mutual pilgrimage, they drew; 70
Implored, in vain, the grace divine
For chiefs, their own red falchions slew:
While Cessford owns the rule of Car,
While Ettrick boasts the line of Scott,
The slaughtered chiefs, the mortal jar, 75
The havoc of the feudal war,
Shall never, never be forgot I
In sorrow, o'er Lord Walter's bier
The warlike foresters had bent ;
And many a flower, and many a tear, go
Old Teviot% maids and matrons lent:
But o'er her warrior's bloody bier
61. Dunedin. Edinburgh.
63. Slogan. War-cry of a Border clan.
70. Mutual pilgrimage. To stanch the feud between the Scotts and
Kerrs or Cars, also a powerful Border family. There was a bond executed
in 1529 between the heads of the clans, binding themselves to perform
reciprocally the four principal pilgrimages of Scotland, for the benefit of
those of the opposite party who had fallen in the quarrel.
OUTLINE OF CANTO FIRST.
Tnrs canto opens with a description of life in Branksome Castle.
Then it tells of the death of Branksome's chief, Lord Walter, who
was slain by the Kerrs in the streets of Edinburgh, shortly before
the events of the poem are supposed to take place. His wife rules
in his stead, as the Lady of Branksome, and brings to her aid the
spirits of earth and air.
While her retainers are feasting in the great hall of the castle,
the lady sits alone in " Lord David's western tower," listening to
the mountain and river spirits, as they talk of the fate of her house
as decreed by the stars. She learns that no good fortune will come
to the house of Branksome, till she consents to the marriage of her
daughter Margaret and Lord Cranstoun of Teviotdale, with whom
her clan, the Scotts, have a feud.
Descending to the hall, where her little boy is playing among
her retainers, she summons William of Deloraine, ordering him to
ride on his swiftest steed to Melrose Abbey, and bring her the
book of magic from Michael Scott's grave. She hopes by the
powerful spells contained therein, to thwart the plans of the spirits
of earth and air, and the fortune decreed by the stars.
The canto closes with a spirited description of William of Delo-
raine's night ride to Melrose Abbey.
CANTO i. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 17
The Ladye dropped nor flower nor tear!
Vengeance, deep-broodiug o'er the slain,
Had locked the source of softer woe ; g5
And burning pride, and high disdain,
Forbade the rising tear to flow ;
Until, amid his sorrowing clan,
Her son lisped from the nurse's knee
" And, if I live to be a man, go
My father's death revenged shall be!"
Then fast the mother's tears did seek
To dew the infant's kindling cheek.
All loose her negligent attire,
All loose her golden hair, 95
Hung Margaret o'er her slaughtered sire,
And wept in wild despair.
But not alone the bitter tear
Had filial grief supplied ;
For hopeless love, and anxious fear, 100
Had lent their mingled tide :
Nor in her mother's altered eye
Dared she to look for sympathy.
Her lover, 'gainst her father's clan,
With Car in arms had stood, 105
When Mathouse-burn to Melrose ran,
All purple with their blood.
And well she knew, her mother dread,
Before Lord Cranstoun she should wed,
Would see her on her dying bed. no
109. Lord Cranstoun. The Cranstoun s were an ancient Border family
of Teviotdale, at this time at feud with the Scotts,
18 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO i.
Of noble race the Ladye came ;
Her father was a clerk of fame,
Of Bethune's line of Picardie :
He learned the art, that none may name,
In Padua, far beyond the sea. us
Men said, he changed his mortal frame
of map mystery;
or when, in studious mood, he paced
St. Andrew's cloistered hall,
His form no darkening shadow traced 120
Upon the sunny wall 1
And of his skill, as bards avow,
He taught that Ladye fair,
Till to her bidding she could bow
The viewless forms of air. 125
And now she sits in secret bower,
In old Lord David's western tower,
And listens to a heavy sound,
That moans the mossy turrets round.
Is it the roar of Teviot's tide, iso
That chafes against the scaur's red side ?
Is it the wind that swings the oaks ?
113. Bethune. A noble family of French origin.
115. Padua. A city in Italy, long supposed by the French peasants to be
the chief school of necromancy.
120. No darkening shadow. It is supposed that students of necro-
mancy must run through a subterranean hall, when the devil will catch the
hindermost or his shadow, if he runs very swiftly. Those who have thus
lost their shadows always prove the best magicians.
131. Scaur. A precipitous bank of earth.
CANTO i. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 11)
Is it the echo from the rocks?
What may it be, the heavy sound
That moans old Branksome's turrets round? 135
At the sullen, moaning sound,
The ban-dogs bay and howl ;
And, from the turrets round,
Loud whoops the startled owl.
In the hall, both squire and knight no
Swore that a storm was near,
And looked forth to view the night ;
But the night was still and clear !
From the sound of Teviot's tide,
Chafing with the mountain's side, 145
From the groan of the wind-swung oak,
From the sullen echo of the rock,
From the voice of the coming storm,
The Ladye knew it well !
It was the Spirit of the Flood that spoke, 150
And he called on the Spirit of the Fell.
"Sleepest thou, brother?"
" Brother, nay
On my hills the moonbeams play
20 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO i.
From Craik-eross to Skelfhill-pen, 155
By every rill, in every glen,
Merry elves their morrice pacing,
To aerial minstrelsy,
\ [Emerald rings on brown heath tracing,
Trip it deft and merrily. leo
Up, and mark their nimble feet !
Up, and list their music sweet ! "
" Tears of an imprisoned maiden
Mix with my polluted stream :
Margaret of Branksome, sorrow-laden, 155
Mourns beneath the moon's pale beam.
Tell me, thou who viewest the stars,
When shall cease these feudal jars?
What shall be the maiden's fate ?
Who shall be the maiden's mate ? " 170
" Arthur's slow wain his course doth roll,
In utter darkness, round the pole;
The Northern Bear lowers black and grim :
Orion's studded belt is dim ;
Twinkling faint, and distant far, 175
Shimmers through mist each planet star ;
111 may I read their high decree :
But no kind influence deign they shower
CANTO i. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 21
On Teviot's tide, and Branksome's tower,
Till pride be quelled, and love be free." iso
The unearthly voices ceast,
And the heavy sound was still;
It died on the river's breast,
It died on the side of the hill.
But round Lord David's tower 185
The sound still floated near ;
For it rung in the Ladye's bower,
And it rung in the Ladye's ear.
She raised her stately head,
And her heart throbbed high with pride : 190
" Your mountains shall bend,
And your streams ascend, '
Ere Margaret be our foeman's bride ! "
The Ladye sought the lofty hall,
Where many a bold retainer lay, 195
And, with jocund din, among them all,
Her son pursued his infant play.
A fancied moss-trooper, the boy
The truncheon of a spear bestrode,
And round the hall, right merrily, 200
In mimic foray rode.
Even bearded knights, in arms grown old,
Share in his frolic gambols bore,
Albeit their hearts, of rugged mould,
198. Moss-trooper. This was the usual name for a marauder upon the
Border. Their thieving inroads were called forays.
22 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO i.
Were stubborn as the steel they wore. 205
For the gray warriors prophesied,
How the brave boy, in future war,
Should tame the Unicorn's pride,
Exalt the Crescents and the Star.
The Ladye forgot her purpose high, 210
One moment, and no more ;
One moment gazed with a mother's eye,
As she paused at the arched door.
Then, from amid the armed train,
She called to her William of Deloraine. 215
A stark moss-trooping Scott was he,
As e'er couched Border lance by knee :
Through Solway sands, through Tarras moss,
Blindfold, he knew the paths to cross;
By wily turns, by desperate bounds, 220
Had baffled Percy's best bloodhounds ;
In Eske, or Liddel, fords were none,
But he would ride them, one by one;
Alike to him was time or tide,
December's snow, or July's pride : 225
209. Unicorn and Crescent and Star. The coat of arms of the Kerrs
contained three unicorns' heads, while that of the Scotts bore a star between
215. William of Deloraine. A kinsman and vassal of the house of
221. Percy's best bloodhounds. Bloodhounds were often used both by
the Scotch and English to pursue marauders across the Border.
222. Eske and Liddel. Rivers of Scotland near the Border.
CAXTO i. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTKEL. 23
Alike to him was tide, or time,
Moonless midnight, or matin prime :
Steady of heart, and stout of hand,
As ever drove prey from Cumberland ;
Five times outlawed had he been, 230
By England's king and Scotland's queen.
" Sir William of Deloraine. good at need,
Mount thee on the wightest steed;
Spare not to spur, nor stint to ride,
Until thou come to fair Tweedside ; . 235
And in Melrose's holy pile
Seek thou the Monk of St. Mary's aisle.
Greet the father well from me ;
Say, that the fated hour is come,
And to-night he shall watch with thee, 240
To win the treasure of the tomb :
For this will be St. Michael's night,
And though stars be dini the moon is bright ;
And the cross of bloody red
Will point to the grave of the mighty dead. 245
. " What he gives thee, see thou keep ;
Stay not thou for food or sleep :
Be it scroll, or be it book,
Into it, knight, thou must not look;
229. Cumberland. A county of England bordering on Scotland.
236. Melrose. The finest abbey in Scotland, now one of the most beau-
tiful ruins on the Tweed.
245. Mighty dead. Michael Scott, a powerful magician.
24 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO i.
If thou readest, thou art lorn ! 250
Better hadst thou ne'er been born."
" O swiftly can speed my dapple-gray steed,
Which drinks of the Teviot clear ;
Ere break of day," the warrior 'gan say,
" Again will I be here : 255
And safer by none may thy errand be done,
Than, noble dame, by me ;
Letter nor line know I never a one,
Were't my neck-verse at Hairibee."
Soon in his saddle sate he fast, 200
And soon the steep descent he past,
Soon crossed the sounding barbican,
And soon the Teviot side he won.
Eastward the wooded path he rode ;
Green hazels o'er his basnet nod : 205
He passed the Peel of Goldiland,
And crossed old Borth wick's roaring strand ;
Dimly he viewed the Moat-hill's mound,
Where Druid shades still flitted round ;
In Hawick twinkled many a light ; 270
Behind him soon they set in night ;
259. Hairibee. The place of execution for the Border marauders at
266. Peel. A Border tower.
268. Moat-hill mound. An artificial mount near Hawick, which was
prohably used in ancient times as an assembling place for a national coun-
cil of the adjacent tribes.
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 25
And soon he spurred his courser keen
Beneath the tower of Hazeldean.
The clattering hoofs the watchmen mark;
" Stand, ho I thou courier of the dark." 275
" For Branksome, ho ! " the knight rejoined.
And left the friendly tower behind.
He turned him now from Teviotside,
And, guided by the tinkling rill,
Northward the dark ascent did ride, 280
And gained the moor at Horseliehill ;
Broad on the left before him lay,
For many a mile, the Roman way.
A moment now, he slacked his speed,
A moment breathed his panting steed ; 285
Drew saddle-girth and corslet-band,
And loosened in the sheath his brand.
On Minto-crags the moonbeams glint,
.Where Barnhill hewed his bed of flint ;
Who flung his outlawed limbs to rest, 290
Where falcons hang their giddy nest,
Mid cliffs, from whence his eagle eye
For many a league his prey could spy ;
Cliffs, doubling, on their echoes borne,
273. Hazeldean. An estate belonging to a family of Scotts.
283. Koman way. An old Roman road crossing a part of Roxburghshire.
287. Brand. Sword.
288. Minto-crags. A group of crags rising above the vale of the Teviot.
Barnhill is said to have been an outlaw who inhabited a tower at the base of
these crags. A small platform high among the crags is called Barnhill's bed.
28 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTHEL. CANTO i
The terrors of the robber's horn ; 295
Cliffs, which, for many a later year,
The warbling Doric reed shall hear,
When some sad swain shall teach the grove,
H Ambition is no cure for love.
Unchallenged, thence passed Deloraine 300
To ancient Riddel's fair domain,
Where Aill, from mountains freed,
Down from the lakes did raving come ;
Each wave was crested with tawny foam,
Like the mane of a chestnut steed. 305
In vairi ! no torrent, deep or broad,
Might bar the bold moss-trooper's road.
At the first plunge the horse sunk low,
And the water broke o'er the saddle-bow;
Above the foaming tide, I ween, 310
Scarce half the charger's neck was seen ;
For he was barded from counter to tail,
And the rider was armed complete in mail;
Never heavier man and horse
Stemmed a midnight torrent's force. 315
The warrior's very plume, I say,
Was daggled by the dashing spray ;
Yet, through good heart, and our Ladye's grace,
At length he gained the landing-place.
301. The family of Riddel or Ryedale long held a barony about half
way between Branksome and Melrose.
302. Aill. A small stream flowing into the Teviot.
312. Barded. Applied to a horse accoutered in armor.
CANTO i. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTKEL. 27
Now Bowden Moor the march-man won, 320
And sternly shook his plumed head,
As glanced his eye o'er Halidon ;
For on his soul the slaughter red
Of that unhallowed morn arose,
When first the Scott and Car were foes, 325
When royal James beheld the fray,
Prize to the victor of the day ;
When Home and Douglas, in the van,
Bore down Buccleuch's retiring clan,
Till gallant Cessford's heart-blood dear 330
Reeked on dark Elliot's Border spear.
In bitter mood he spurred fast,
And soon the hated heath was past ;
And far beneath, in lustre wan,
Old Melros' rose, and fair Tweed ran : 335
Like some tall rock, with lichens gray,
Seemed, dimly huge, the dark Abbaye.
When Hawick he passed, had curfew rung,
Now midnight lauds were in Melrose sung.
The sound, upon the fitful gale, 340
In solemn wise did rise and fail,
320. March-man. Borderer.
322. Halidon. The ancient seat of the Kerrs of Cessford. A little to the
northward is the battle-field on which the Douglases, assisted by the Kerrs,
contended as to which should have possession of King James. Elliot, a
retainer of Buccleuch, killed Cessford, one of the Kerrs.
338. Curfew. Eight o'clock bell.
339. Midnight lauds. Midnight service of the Catholic church.
28 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO I.
Like that wild harp, whose magic tone
Is wakened by the winds jilon e._
But when Melrose he reached, 'twas silence all ;
He meetly stabled his steed in stall, 345
And sought the convent's lonely wall.
HERE paused the harp; and with its swell
The Master's fire and courage fell :
Dejectedly, and low, he bowed,
And, gazing timid on the crowd, 350
He seemed to seek, in every eye,
If they approved his minstrelsy :
And, diffident of present praise,
Somewhat he spoke of former days,
And how old age, and wandering long, 355
Had done his hand and harp some wrong.
The Duchess, and her daughters fair,
And every gentle ladye there,
Each after each, in due degree,
Gave praises to his melody; 360
His hand was true, his voice was clear,
And much they longed the rest to hear.
Encouraged thus, the Aged Man,
After meet rest, again began.
OUTLINE OF CANTO SECOND.
THE description of Melrose Abbey by moonlight, opening this
canto, is familiar to many who are not acquainted with the rest of
the poem, as one of the finest poetical descriptions ever given of
Melrose. It is said that Scott wrote it before he had ever seen
Melrose by moonlight.
William of Deloraine thinks little of the beauty of the scene,
knocks with his dagger at the wicket, is admitted by the porter
and led to the cell of the ancient monk, to whom he tells his errand.
The request for Michael Scott's book stirs the monk's recollections
of his youthful days, " when he was a warrior bold, and fought in
Spain and Italy." He tells Deloraine of his past life and the won-
derful magic of his friend, Michael Scott. They sit among the
tombs, waiting for the bell to toll one, when they are to open the
grave of the wizard. Deloraine lifts the ponderous stone, and then
follows a wonderful description of the wizard's appearance, and
the weird effect of the chapel, as seen in the glorious light that
bursts from the tomb. As Deloraine remounts his horse, the
precious book safe within his corslet, his courage, shaken by the
night's adventures, begins to revive. He says his " Ave Mary," and
hastens on his homeward road.
In the same early morning, Fair Margaret and Lord Cranstoun
have a meeting in a grove near Branksome. But their talk is sud-
denly interrupted by the baron's page, a goblin, whose story is here
told. He warns them of approaching danger, and Cranstoun mounts
and rides away, while Margaret flees to the castle.
IF thou wouldst view fair Melrose aright,
Go visit it by the pale moonlight ;
For the gay beams of lightsome day
Gild, but to flout, the ruins gray.
When the broken arches are black in night, 5
And each shafted oriel glimmers white ;
When the cold light's uncertain shower
Streams on the ruined central tower ;
When buttress and buttress, alternately,
Seem framed of ebon and ivory ; 10
When silver edges the imagery,
And the scrolls that teach thee to Kve and die ;
When distant Tweed is heard to rave,
And the owlet to hoot o'er the dead man's grave,
Then go but go alone the while 15
Then view St. David's ruined pile :
And, home returning, soothty swear,
Was never scene so sad and fair!
Short halt did Deloraine make there;
Little recked he of the scene so fair. 20
With dagger's hilt, on the wicket strong-,
He struck full loud, and struck full long.
16. David the First of Scotland was sainted for founding Melrose and
CANTO ii. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 31
The porter hurried to the gate
" Who knocks so loud, and knocks so late ? "
" From Branksome I," the warrior cried ; 25
And straight the wicket opened wide :
For Branksorne's chiefs had in battle stood,
To fence the rights of fair Melrose ;
And lands and livings, many a rood,
Had gifted the shrine for their souls' repose, so
Bold Deloraine his errand said ;
The porter bent his humble head ;
With torch in hand, and feet unshod,
And noiseless step, the path he trod ;
The arched cloisters, far and wide, 35
Rang to the warrior's clanking stride ;
Till, stooping low his lofty crest,
He entered the cell of the ancient priest,
And lifted his barred aventayle,
To hail the Monk of St. Mary's aisle. 40
"The Layde of Branksome greets thee by me;
Says, that the fated hour is come,
And that to-night I shall watch with thee,
To win the treasure of the tomb."
From sackcloth couch the Monk arose, 45
With toil his stiffened limbs he reared;
30. Souls' repose. The Buccleuch family conferred many benefits upon
Melrose Abbey, in order that masses should be sung for the souls of their
39. Aventayle. Visor of a helmet.
32 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO 11.
A hundred years had flung their snows
On his thin locks and floating beard.
And strangely on the Knight looked he,
And his blue eyes gleamed wild and wide ; 50
"And, dar'st thou, warrior! seek to see
What heaven and hell alike would hide ?
My breast, in belt of iron pent,
With shirt of hair and scourge of thorn ;
For threescore years, in penance spent, 55
My knees those flinty stones have worn ;
Yet all too little to atone
For knowing what should ne'er be known.
Wouldst thou thy every future year
In ceaseless prayer and penance drie, GO
Yet wait thy latter end with fear
Then, daring warrior, follow me ! "
" Penance, father, will I none ;
Prayer know I hardly one ,
For mass or prayer can I rarely tarry, 65
Save to patter an Ave Mary,
When I ride on a Border foray :
Other prayer can I none ;
So speed me my errand, and let me be gone."
Again on the Knight looked the Churchman old, 70
And again he sighed heavily ;
67. Foray. Plundering expedition.
CANTO ii. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 33
For he had himself been a warrior bold,
And fought in Spain and Italy.
And he thought on the days that were long since by,
When his limbs were strong, and his courage was
Now, slow and faint, he led the way,
Where, cloistered round, the garden lay ;
The pillared arches were over their head,
And beneath their feet were the bones of the dead.
Spreading herbs, and flowerets bright, 80
Glistened with the dew of night ;
Nor herb, nor floweret glistened there,
But was carved in the cloister-arches as fair.
The Monk gazed long on the lovely moon,
Then into the night he looked forth ; 85
And red and bright the streamers light
Were dancing in the glowing north.
So had he seen, in fair Castile,
The youth in glittering squadrons start;
Suddenly the flying jennet wheel, 90
And hurl the unexpected dart.
He knew, by the streamers that shot so bright,
That spirits were riding the northern light.
By a steel-clenched postern door,
They entered now the chancel tall ; 05
The darkened roof rose high aloof
90. Jennet. A small Spanish horse.
34 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO n.
On pillars, lofty, and light, and small ;
The key-stone, that locked each ribbed aisle,
Was a fleur-de-lys, or a quatre-feuille ;
The corbells were carved grotesque and grim ; 100
And the pillars, with clustered shafts so trim,
With base and with capital flourished around,
Seemed bundles of lances which garlands had bound.
Full many a scutcheon and banner, riven,
Shook to the cold night-wind of heaven, 105
Around the screened altar's pale ;
And there the dying lamps did burn
Before thy low and lonely urn,
O gallant Chief of Otterburne,
And thine, dark Knight of Liddesdale ! no
O fading honors of the dead !
O high ambition, lowly laid !
The moon on the east oriel shone,
Through slender shafts of shapely stone,
By foliaged tracery combined ; 115
Thou wouldst have thought some fairy's hand,
'Twixt poplars straight, the osier wand,
99. Fleur-de-lys and Quatre-feuille. The first, a three-parted orna-
ment, belonging to the arms of France. The second, a four-leaved ornament.
100. Corbells. The projections from which arches spring.
109. Chief of Otterburne. James, Earl of Douglas, slain at Otterburne.
110. Knight of Liddesdale. William Douglas, slain while hunting in
113. Oriel. The eastern window of Melrose Abbey, a beautiful specimen
of pure Gothic architecture.
CANTO ii. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 35
In many a freakish knot, had twined ;
Then framed a spell, when the work was done,
And changed the willow-wreaths to stone. 120
The silver light, so pale and faint,
Showed many a prophet, and many a saint,
Whose image on the glass was dyed ;
Full in the midst, his Cross of Red
Triumphant Michael brandished, 125
And trampled the Apostate's pride.
The moonbeam kissed the holy pane,
And threw on the pavement a bloody stain.
They sate them down on a marble stone,
A Scottish monarch slept below ; 130
Thus spoke the Monk, in solemn tone :
" I was not always a man of woe ;
For Paynim countries I have trod,
And fought beneath the Cross of God ;
Now, strange to my eyes thine arms appear, 135
And their iron clang sounds strange to my ear.
"In these far climes, it was my lot
To meet the wondrous Michael -Scott;
A wizard of such dreaded fame,
That when, in Salamanca's cave, 140
130. A Scottish monarch. Alexander II.
133. Paynim. Heathen.
138. Michael Scott, of Balwearie, a man of great learning and sup-
posed to be a magician by his contemporaries, lived in the thirteenth
century, but in this poem he is placed at a later date.
140. Salamanca. There were schools for teaching the sciences supposed
to involve magic, in a cavern at Salamanca in Spain.
36 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO 11.
Him listed his magic wand to wave,
The bells would ring in Notre Dame !
Some of his skill he taught to me ;
And, Warrior, I could say to thee
The words that cleft Eildon hills in three, 145
And bridled the Tweed with a curb of stone :
But to speak them were a deadly sin ;
And for having but thought them my heart within,
A treble penance must be done.
" When Michael lay on his dying bed, 150
His conscience was awakened;
He bethought him of his sinful deed,
And he gave me a sign to come with speed :
I was in Spain when the morning rose,
But I stood by his bed ere evening close. 155
The words may not again be said,
That he spoke to me, on death-bed laid ;
They would rend this Abbaye's massy nave,
And pile it in heaps above his grave.
'^Ijswore to bury his Mighty Book, 160
That never mortal might therein look ;
And never to tell where it was hid,
Save at the chief of Branksome's need ;
And when that need was passed and o'er,
Again the volume to restore. 165
142. Notre Dame. Cathedral in Paris.
145. Eildon hills. These hills were cleft in three, and a dam-head built
across the Tweed at Kelso, each in a single night, by a spirit under Michael
CANTO ii. LAY OF THE LAST MIN STEEL. 87
I buried him on St. Michael's night,
When the bell tolled one, and the moon was bright,
And I dug his chamber among the dead,
When the floor of the chancel was stained red,
That his patron's Cross might over him wave, 170
And scare the fiends from the Wizard's grave.
" It was a night of woe and dread,
When Michael in the tomb I laid;
Strange sounds along the chancel passed,
The banners waved without a blast," - 175
Still spoke the Monk, when the bell tolled one !
I tell you, that a braver man
Than William of Deloraine, good at need,
Against a foe ne'er spurred a steed ;
Yet somewhat was he chilled with dread, iso
And his hair did bristle upon his head.
" Lo, Warrior ! now, the Cross of Red
Points to the grave of the mighty dead ;
^Within it burnsji wondrous light,
To chase the spirits that love the night: 185
That lamp shall burn unquenchably,
Until the eternal doom shall be."
Slow moved the Monk to the broad flag-stone,
Which the bloody Cross was traced upon :
He pointed to a secret nook; 190
An iron bar the warrior took ;
And the Monk made a sign, with his withered hand,
The grave's huge portal to expand.
38 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO n.
With beating heart to the task he went ;
His sinewy frame o'er the grave-stone bent ; 195
With bar of iron heaved amain,
Till the toil-drops fell from his brows, like rain.
It was by dint of passing strength,
That he moved the massy stone at length.
I would you had been there, to see 200
How the light broke forth so gloriously,
Streamed upward to the chancel roof,
And through the galleries far aloof !
No earthly flame blazed e'er so bright :
It shone like heaven's own blessed light ; 205
And, issuing from the tomb,
Showed the Monk's cowl, and visage pale,
Danced on the dark-brow'd Warrior's mail,
And kissed his waving plume.
Before their eyes the Wizard lay, 210
As if he had not been dead a day.
His hoary beard in silver rolled,
He seemed some seventy winters old ;
A palmer's amice wrapped him round,
With a wrought Spanish Baldric bound, 215
Like a pilgrim from beyond the sea :
His left hand held-his Book of Might ;
A silver cross was in his right ;
207. Cowl. Hood.
214. Amice. Flowing cloak worn by pilgrims (palmers).
215. Baldric. Belt worn over the shoulder.
217. Book of Might. Book of magic.
CANTO ii. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 39
The lamp was placed beside his knee :
High and majestic was his look, 220
At which the fellest fiends had shook,
And all unruffled was his face:
They trusted his soul had gotten grace.
Often had William of Deloraine
Rode through the battle's bloody plain, 225
And trampled down the warriors slain,
And neither known remorse nor awe ;
Yet now remorse and awe he own'd ;
His breath came thick, his head swam round,
When this strange scene of death he saw. 230
Bewildered and unnerved he stood,
And the priest prayed fervently, and loud :
With eyes averted prayed he;
He might not endure the sight to see,
Of the man he had loved so brotherly, 235
And when the Priest his death-prayer had prayed,
Thus unto Deloraine he said :
"Now speed thee what thou hast to do,
Or, Warrior, we may dearly rue ;
For those thou mayest not look upon, 2 i0
Are gathering fast round the yawning stone ! "
Then Deloraine, in terror, took
From the cold hand the Mighty Book,
With iron clasped, and with iron bound :
221. Fellest. Most powerful.
40 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO n.
He thought, as he took it, the dead man frowned ; 245
But the glare of the sepulchral light,
Perchance, had dazzled the warrior's sight.
When the huge stone sunk o'er the tomb,
The night returned, in double gloom ;
For the moon had gone down, and the stars were few 250
And, as the Knight and Priest withdrew,
With wavering steps and dizzy brain,
They hardly might the postern gain.
'Tis said, as through the aisles they passed,
They heard strange noises on the blast ; 255
And through the cloister-galleries small,
Which at mid height thread the chancel wall,
Loud sobs, and laughter louder, ran,
And voices, unlike the voice of man ;
As if the fiends kept holiday, 2(>o
Because these spells were brought to day.
I cannot tell how the truth may be ;
I say the tale as 'twas saidJxDjne. . &
" Now, hie thee hence," the Father said,
" And, when we are on death-bed laid, 205
O may our dear Ladye, and sweet St. John,
Forgive our souls for the deed we have done."
The Monk returned him to his cell,
And many a prayer and penance sped ;
When the convent met at the noontide bell 270
The Monk of St. Mary's aisle was dead !
CAXTO ii. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 41
Before the cross was the body laid,
With hands clasped fast, as if still he prayed.
The Knight breathed free in the morning wind,
And strove his hardihood to find : 275
He was glad when he passed the tombstones gray
Which girdle round the fair Abbaye ;
For the mystic Book, to his bosom prest,
Felt like a load upon his breast ;
And his joints, with nerves of iron twined, 280
Shook, like the aspen leaves in wind.
Full fain was he when the dawn of day
Began to brighten Cheviot gray ;
He joyed to see the cheerful light,
And he said Ave Mary, as well as he might. 285
The sun had brightened Cheviot gray,
The sun had brightened the Carter's side;
And soon beneath the rising day
Smiled Branksome towers and Teviot's tide.
The wild birds told their warbling tale, 290
And wakened every flower that blows ;
And peeped forth the violet pale,
And spread her breast the mountain rose ;
And lovelier than the rose so red,
Yet paler than the violet pale, 295
283. Cheviot J Is. Hills between England and Scotland.
287. Carter. I mountain among the Cheviot hills.
42 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO n.
She early left her sleepless bed,
The fairest maid of Teviotdale.
Why does fair Margaret so early awake,
And don her kirtle so hastilie ;
And the silken knots, which in hurry she would
Why tremble her slender fingers to tie ;
Why does she stop, and look often around,
As she glides down the secret stair;
And why does she pat the shaggy blood-hound,
As he rouses him up from his lair ; 305
And, though she passes the postern alone,
Why is not the watchman's bugle blown ?
The ladye steps in doubt and dread,
Lest her watchful mother hear her tread;
The ladye caresses the rough blood-hound, 310
Lest his voice should waken the castle round ;
The watchman's bugle is not blown,
For he was her foster-father's son ;
And she glides through the greenwood at dawn of light,
To meet Baron Henry, her own true Knight. 315
The Knight and Ladye fair are met,
And under the hawthorn's boughs are set :
A fairer pair were never seen
To meet beneath the hawthorn green.
CANTO ii. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTKEL. 43
He was stately, and young, and tall ;
Dreaded in battle, and loved in hall:
And she, when love, scarce told, scarce hid,
Lent to her cheek a livelier red ;
When the half sigh her swelling breast
Against the silken ribbon pressed ; 325
When her blue eyes their secret told,
Though shaded by her locks of gold
Where would you find the peerless fair,
With Margaret of Branksome might compare ?
And now, fair dames, methinks I see 330
You listen to my minstrelsy ;
Your waving locks ye backward throw,
And sidelong bend your necks of snow :
Ye ween to hear a melting tale,
Of two true lovers in a dale ; 335
Arid how the Knight, with tender fire,
To paint his faithful passion strove ;
Swore he might at her feet expire,
But never, never cease to love ;
And how she blushed, and how she sighed, 340
And half consenting, half denied,
And said that she would die a maid :
Yet, might the bloody feud be stayed,
Henry of Cranstoun, and only he,
Margaret of Branksome's choice should be. 345
334. Ween. Think.
44 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO n.
Alas ! fair dames, your hopes are vain !
My harp has lost the enchanting strain;
Its lightness would my age reprove :
My hairs are gray, my limbs are old,
My heart is dead, my veins are cold : 350
I may not, must not, sing of love.
Beneath an oak, mossed o'er by eld,
The Baron's Dwarf his courser held,
And held his crested helm and spear:
That Dwarf was scarcely an earthly man, 355
If the tales were true, that of him ran
Through all the Border far and near.
'Twas sad, when the Baron a hunting rode
Through Reedsdale's glens, but rarely trod,
He heard a voice ciy, u Lost ! lost ! lost ! " 3#o
And, like tennis-ball by raquet tossed,
A leap, of thirty feet and three,
Made from the gorse this elfin shape,
Distorted like some dwarfish ape,
And lighted at Lord Cranstoun's knee. 365
Lord Cranstoun was some whit dismayed:
'Tis said that five good miles he rade,
To rid him of his company ;
But where he rode one mile, the Dwarf ran four,
And the Dwarf was first at the castle door. 370
352. Eld. Old age.
363. Gorse. A small shrub.
CANTO ii. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 45
Use lessens marvel, it is said.
This elfish. Dwarf with the Baron staid :
Little he ate, and less he spoke,
Nor mingled with the menial flock ;
And oft apart his arms he tossed, 375
And often muttered, " Lost ! lost! lost ! "
He was waspish, arch, and litherlie,
But well Lord Cranstotm served he:
And he of his service was full fain ;
For once he had been ta'en or slain, sso
An' it had not been for his ministry.
All, between Home and Hermitage,
Talked of Lord Cranstoun's Goblin Page.
For the Baron went on pilgrimage,
And took with him this elvish page, 335
To Mary's chapel of the Lowes :
For there, beside Our Ladye's lake,
An offering he had sworn to make,
And he would pay his vows.
But the Ladye of Branksome gathered a band 390
Of the best that would ride at her command :
The trysting-place was Newark Lee.
Wat of Harden came thither amain,
And thither came John of Thirlestaine,
And thither came William of Deloraine ; 395
377. Litherlie. Mischievous.
379. Fain. Glad.
392. Trysting-place. Gathering-place.
46 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO 11.
There were three hundred spears and three.
Through Douglas-burn, up Yarrow stream,
Their horses prance, their lances gleam.
They came to St. Mary's lake ere day ;
But the chapel was void, and the Baron away. 400
They burned the chapel for very rage,
And cursed Lord Cranstoun's Goblin Page.
And now, in Branksome's good greenwood,
As under the aged oak he stood,
The Baron's courser pricks his ears, 405
As if a distant noise he hears.
The Dwarf waves his long lean arm on high,
And signs to the lovers to part and fly ;
No time was then to vow or sigh.
Fair Margaret, through the hazel grove, 410
Flew like the startled cushat-dove :
The Dwarf the stirrup held and rein;
Vaulted the Knight on his steed amain,
And, pondering deep that morning's scene,
Rode eastward through the hawthorns green. 415
WHILE thus he poured the lengthened tale,
The Minstrel's voice began to fail :
Full slyly smiled the observant page,
And gave the withered hand of age
A goblet, crowned with mighty wine, 420
The blood of Velez' scorched vine.
He raised the silver cup on high,
411. Cushat-dove. Wood pigeon.
CANTO ii. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 47
And, while the big drop filled his eye,
Prayed God to bless the Duchess long,
And all who cheered a son of song. 425
The attending maidens smiled to see
How long, how deep, how zealously,
The precious juice the Minstrel quaffed;
And he, emboldened by the draught,
Looked gayly back to them, and laughed. 430
The cordial nectar of the bowl
Swelled his old veins, and cheered his soul ;
A lighter, livelier prelude ran,
Ere thus his tale again began.
OUTLINE OF CANTO THIRD.
LORD CRANSTOUN has scarcely time to don his helmet, when he
meets William of Deloraine, hastening homeward from his night's
errand. The fight between the two foemen is short and fierce, and
Deloraine is left senseless on the field. But Deloraine is the kins-
man of Fair Margaret, and Cranstoun will not leave him to die. He
bids his page to stanch the wound and take him to Branksome
Castle. Cranstoun himself hurries away from this dangerous
neighborhood. Upon unfastening Deloraine's corslet, the dwarf
espies the book. He smears the cover with the Borderer's blood,
Christian blood having power over magic opens the book, and
reads one short spell. But he is suddenly felled to the ground by
an unseen hand, and the book shuts faster than it was before.
Then he obeys his master's command and carries Deloraine even
to the door of the Lady's secret bower, disguising himself and his
burden by magic. In passing out he sees the little boy, the heir of
Branksome, and under the guise of a comrade leads him to the
woods to play. As they cross a running stream, his magic disguise
is destroyed, and he assumes his goblin shape and flees away into
the forest, leaving the child alone. The boy is found by an English
archer, who, delighted at so great a prize as the heir of Bticcleuch,
carries him to Lord Dacre, one of the English wardens of the
border. In the meantime, the goblin page takes the form of the
boy at Branksome Castle, and prevents his loss being known.
As night approaches, Fair Margaret, sitting alone on the castle
turret, suddenly espies a beacon fire toward the Border land on the
south. Then follows a spirited description of the preparations for
AND said I that my limbs were old ;
And said I that my blood was cold,
And that my kindly fire was fled,
And my poor withered heart was dead,
And that I might riot sing of love ? 5
How could I, to the dearest theme
That ever warmed a minstrel's dream,
So foul, so false, a recreant prove !
How could I name love's very name,
Nor wake my heart to notes of flame ! 10
In peace, Love tunes the shepherd's reed;
In war, he mounts the warrior's steed;
In halls, in gay attire is seen ;
In hamlets, dances on the green.
Love rules the court, the camp, the grove, 15
And men below, and saints above ;
For love is heaven, and heaven is love.
So thought Lord Cranstoun, as I ween,
While, pondering deep the tender scene,
He rode through Branksome's hawthorn green. 20
But the Page shouted wild and shrill
50 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO in.
And scarce kis helmet could he don,
When downward from the shady hill
A stately knight came pricking on.
That warrior's steed, so dapple-gra} r , 25
Was dark with sweat, and splashed with clay ;
His armor red with many a stain :
He seemed in such a weary plight,
As if he had ridden the livelong night ;
For it was William of Deloraine. 30
But no whit weary did he seem,
When, dancing in the sunny beam,
He marked the crane on the Baron's crest ;
For his ready spear was in his rest.
Few were the words, and stern and high, 35
That marked the foemau's feudal hate ;
For question fierce, and proud reply,
Gave signal soon of dire debate.
Their very coursers seemed to know
That each was other's mortal foe ; 40
And snorted fire, when wheeled around,
To give each knight his vantage ground.
In rapid round the Baron bent ;
He sighed a sigh, and prayed a prayer :
The prayer was to his patron saint, 45
The sigh was to his ladye fair.
33. Crest. The ornament on the top of the helmet. The Cranstoun's
crest was a crane, in allusion to their name.
CANTO in. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 51
Stout Deloraine nor sighed, nor prayed,
Nor saint, nor ladye, called to aid ;
But he stooped his head, and couched his spear,
And spurred his steed to full career. 50
The meeting of these champions proud
Seemed like the bursting thunder-cloud.
Stern was the dint the Borderer lent !
The stately Baron backwards bent ;
Bent backwards to his horse's tail, 55
And his plumes went scattering on the gale ;
The tough ash spear, so stout and true,
Into a thousand flinders flew.
But Cranstoun's lance, of more avail,
Pierced through, like silk, the Borderer's mail;
Through shield, and jack, and acton passed,
Deep in his bosom broke at last.
Still sate the warrior saddle-fast,
Till, stumbling in the mortal shock,
Down went the steed, the girthing broke, 65
Hurled on a heap lay man and horse.
The Baron onward passed his course;
Nor knew so giddy rolled his brain
His foe lay stretched upon the plain.
But when he reined his courser round, 70
And saw his foeman on the ground
61. Jack. A coat of mail. Acton. A leather jacket worn under a
coat of mail.
52 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO in.
Lie senseless as the bloody clay,
He bade his page to stanch the wound,
And there beside the warrior stay,
And tend him in his doubtful state, 75
And lead him to Branksome castle-gate :
His noble mind was inly moved
For the kinsman of the maid he loved.
"This shalt thou do without delay;
No longer here myself may stay ; 80
Unless the swifter I speed away,
Short shrift will be at my dying day."
Away in speed Lord Cranstoun rode ;
The Goblin Page behind abode :
His lord's command he ne'er withstood, 85
Though small his pleasure to do good.
As the corslet off he took,
The Dwarf espied the Mighty Book !
Much he marvelled, a Knight of pride
Like a book-bosomed priest should ride : 90
He thought not to search or stanch the wound,
Until the secret he had found.
The iron band, the iron clasp,
Resisted long the elfin grasp ;
For when the first he had undone, 95
87. Corslet. Breastplate.
90. Book-bosomed priest. Friars were wont to travel from Melrose
to Jedburg to perform various religious services, carrying the mass-book
in their bosoms.
CANTO in. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 53
It closed as he the next begun.
Those iron clasps, that iron band,
Would not yield to unchristened hand,
Till he smeared the cover o'er
With the Borderer's curdled gore ; 100
A moment then the volume spread,
And one short spell therein he read.
It had much of glamour might,
Could make a layde seem a knight ;
The cobwebs on a dungeon wall, 105
Seem tapestry in lordly hall ;
A nut-shell seem a gilded barge,
A sheeling seem a palace large,
And youth seem age, and age seem youth
All was delusion, naught was truth. no
He had not read another spell,
When on his cheek a buffet fell,
So fierce, it stretched him on the plain,
Beside the wounded Deloraine.
From the ground he rose dismayed, us
And shook his huge and matted head;
One word he muttered, and no more,
" Man of age, thou smitest sore ! "
No more the Elfin Page durst try
Into the wondrous Book to pry ; 120
The clasps, though smeared with Christian gore,
103. Glamour. Magic.
108. Sheeling. Shepherd's hut.
121. Christian gore. Christian blood (gore) could break any magic
54 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTIIEL. CANTO in.
Shut faster than they were before.
He hid it underneath his cloak.
Now, if you ask who gave the stroke,
I cannot tell, so mot I thrive ; 125
It was not given by man alive.
Unwillingly himself he addressed,
To do his master's high behest :
He lifted up the living corse,
And laid it on the weary horse ; 130
He led him into Branksome Plall,
Before the beards of the warders all,
And each did after swear and say,
There only passed a wain of hay.
He took him to Lord David's tower, 135
Even to the Ladye's secret bower ;
And, but that stronger spells were spread,
And the door might not be opened,
He had laid him on her very bed.
Whate'er he did of gramarye, 140
Was always done maliciously :
He flung the warrior on the ground,
And the blood welled freshly from the wound.
As he repassed the outer court,
He spied the fair young child at sport: 145
He thought to train him to the wood ;
For, at a word, be it understood,
125. Mot. Might. 140. Gramarye. Magic. 140. Train. Entice.
CANTO in. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 55
He was always for ill, and never for good.
Seemed to the boy, some comrade gay
Led him forth to the woods to play ; 150
On the drawbridge the warders stout
Saw a terrier and lurcher passing out.
He led the boy o'er bank and fell,
Until they came to a woodland brook ;
The running stream dissolved the spell, 155
And his own elvish shape he took. ,< , ,
Could he have had his pleasure vilde,
He had crippled the joints of the noble child ;
Or, with his fingers long and lean,
Had strangled him in fiendish spleen : 160
But his awful mother he had in dread,
And also his power was limited ;
So he but scowled on the startled child,
And darted through the forest wild ;
The woodland brook he bounding crossed, 105
.And laughed, and shouted, " Lost ! lost ! lost ! "
Full sore amazed at the wondrous change,
And frightened, as a child might be,
At the wild yell and visage strange,
Arid the dark words of gramarye, 170
The child, amidst the forest bower,
Stood rooted like a lilye flower ;
And when at length, with trembling pace,
152. Lurcher. A kind of hunting dog.
155. Spell. A running stream destroys all magic.
56 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTEEL. CANTO in.
He sought to find where Branksome lay,
He feared to see that grisly face 175
Glare from some thicket on his way.
Thus, starting oft, he journeyed on,
And deeper in the wood is gone,
For aye the more he sought his way,
The farther still he went astray, iso
Until he heard the mountains round
Ring to the baying of a hound.
And hark ! and hark ! the deep-mouthed bark
Comes nigher still, and nigher ;
Bursts on the path a dark blood-hound, 185
His tawny muzzle tracked the ground,
And his red eye shot fire.
Soon as the wildered child saw he,
He flew at him right furiouslie.
I ween you would have seen with joy 190
The bearing of the gallant boy,
When, worthy of his no^le sire,
His wet cheek glowed 'twixt fear and ire !
He faced the blood-hound manfully,
And held his little bat on high ; 195
So fierce he struck, the dog, afraid,
At cautious distance hoarsely bayed.
But still in act to spring ;
When dashed an archer through the glade,
And when he saw the hound was stayed, 200
He drew his tough bow-string ;
But a rough voice cried, u Shoot not, hoy !
Ho ! shoot not, Edward 'tis a boy ! "
CANTO in. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 57
The speaker issued from the wood,
And checked his fellow's surly mood, 205
And quelled the ban-dog's ire :
He was an English yeoman good,
And born in Lancashire.
Well could he hit a fallow-deer
Five hundred feet him fro ; 210
With hand more true, and eye more clear,
No archer bended bow.
His coal-black hair, shorn round and close,
Set off his sun-burned face ;
Old England's sign, St. George's cross, 215
His barret-cap did grace ;
His bugle-horn hung by his side,
All in a wolf -skin baldric tied ;
And his short falchion, sharp and clear,
Had pierced the throat of many a deer. 220
His kirtle, made of forest green,
Reached scantly to his knee ;
And, at his belt, of arrows keen
A furbished sheaf bore he ;
His buckler scarce in breadth a span, 225
No longer fence had he ;
He never counted him a man,
208. Ban-dog. Fierce dog one that needs to be bound.
219. Falchion. Sword.
221. Kirtle. Tunic.
224. Sheaf. Bundle. 226. Fence. Defence.
58 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTKEL. CANTO in.
Would strike below the knee.
His slackened bow was in his hand,
And the leash, that was his blood-hound's band. 230
He would not do the fair child harm,
But held him with his powerful arm,
That he might neither fight nor flee ;
For when the Red-Cross spied he,
The boy strove long and violently. 235
" Now, by St. George," the archer cries,
" Edward, me thinks we have a prize !
This boy's fair face, and courage free,
Shows he is come of high degree."
" Yes ! I am come of high degree, 240
For I am the heir of bold Buccleuch ;
And, if thou dost not set me free,
False Southron, thou shalt dearly rue !
For Walter of Harden shall come with speed,
And William of Deloraine, good at need, 245
And every Scott from Esk to Tweed ;
And, if thou dost not let me go,
Despite thy arrows, and thy bow,
I'll have thee hanged to feed the crow ! "
" Gramercy, for thy good-will, fair boy ! 250
My mind was never set so high ;
250. Gramercy. Thanks.
CANTO in. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 59
But if thou art chief of such a clan,
And art the son of such a man,
And ever comest to thy command,
Our wardens had need to keep in good order 255
My bow of yew to a hazel wand,
Thou'lt make them work upon the Border.
Meantime be pleased to come with me,
For good Lord Dacre shalt thou see ;
I think our work is well begun, 260
When we have taken thy father's son."
Although the child was led away,
In Branksome still he seemed to stay,
For so the Dwarf his part did play ;
And, in the shape of that young boy, 265
He wrought the castle much annoy.
The comrades of the young Buccleuch
He pinched, and beat, and overthrew ;
Nay, some of them he well-nigh slew.
He tore Dame Maudlin's silken tire ; 270
And, as Sym Hall stood by the fire,
He lighted the match of his bandolier,
And woefully scorched the hackbuteer.
It may hardly be thought, or said,
The mischief that the urchin made, 275
Till many of the castle guessed,
That the young Baron was possessed.
255. Wardens. Officers having authority on the Border.
270. Tire. Head-dress.
272. Bandelier. Belt for carrying ammunition.
273. Hackbuteer. A soldier armed with a hackbut, a kind of heavy
60 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL.
Well I ween, the charm he held
The noble Ladye had soon dispelled ;
But she was deeply busied then 280
To tend the wounded Deloraine.
Much she wondered to find him lie,
On the stone threshold stretched along ;
She thought some spirit of the sky
Had done the bold moss-trooper wrong, 285
Because, despite her precept dread,
Perchance he in the Book had read ;
But the broken lance in his bosom stood,
And it was earthly steel and wood.
She drew the splinter from the wound, 290
And with a charm she stanched the blood ;
She bade the gash be cleansed and bound :
No longer by his couch she stood ;
But she had ta'en the broken lance,
And washed it from the clotted gore, 295
And salved the splinter ,o'er and o'er.
William of Deloraine in trance,
Whene'er she turned it round and round,
Twisted, as if she galled his wound.
Then to her maidens she did say, 300
That he should be whole man and sound,
Within the course of a night and day.
296. Salved the splinter. Some persons were supposed to possess a
sort of sympathetic powder with which they could cure a wound by merely
anointing the weapon which inflicted it.
CANTO in. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTKEL. 61
Full long she toiled ; for she did rue
Mishap to friend so stout and true.
So passed the day the evening fell, 305
'Twas near the time of curfew bell;
The air was mild, the wind was calm,
The stream was smooth, the dew was balm ;
E'en the rude watchman, on the tower,
Enjoyed and blessed the lovely hour. 310
Far more fair Margaret loved and blessed
The hour of silence and of rest.
On the high turret sitting lone,
She waked at times the lute's soft tone ;
Touched^, wild note, and all between 315
Thought of the bower of hawthorns green ;
Her golden hair streamed free from band,
Her fair cheek rested on her hand,
Her blue eyes sought the west afar,
For lovers love the western star. 320
Is yon the star, o'er Penchryst Pen,
That rises slowly to her ken,
And, spreading broad its wavering light,-
Shakes its loose tresses on the night ?
Is yon red glare the western star? 325
O, 'tis the beacon-blaze of war !
321. Pen. Hill.
32G. Beacon. Signal fire, giving warning of the approach of an enemy.
Such fires formed a sort of telegraphic communication between the Border
fSf LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO HI.
Scarce could she draw her tightened breath ;
For well she knew the fire of death !
The warder viewed it blazing strong,
And blew his war-note loud and long, 330
Till, at the high and haughty sound,
Rock, wood, and river, rung around.
The blast alarmed the festal hall,
And startled forth the warriors all :
Far downward, in the castle-yard, 305
Full many a torch and cresset glared ;
And helms and plumes, confusedly tossed,
Were in the blaze half-seen, half-lost ;
And spears in wild disorder shook,
Like reeds beside a frozen brook. 340
The Seneschal, whose silver hair
Was reddened by the torches' glare,
Stood in the midst, with gesture proud,
And issued forth his mandates loud.
"On Penchryst glows a bale of fire, 345
And three are kindling on Priesthaughswire ;
Ride out, ride out,
The foe to scout !
Mount, mount for Branksome, every man !
329. Warder. Watchman.
336. Cresset. A sort of lantern attached to a pole.
341. Seneschal. Principal officer of the household.
345. Bale. Beacon ; one fire gave warning of the enemy, two that they
were coming indeed, and four that they were in great force.
349. Mount for Branksome. The gathering-cry of the Scotts.
CANTO in. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 63
Thou, Todrig, warn the Johnstone clan, 350
That ever are true arid stout.
Ye need not send to Liddesdale ;
For, when they see the blazing bale,
Elliots and Armstrongs never fail.
Ride, Alton, ride, for death and life, 355
And warn the warden of the strife.
Youncj Gilbert, let our beacon blaze,
Our kin, and clan, and friends, to raise."
Fair Margaret, from the turret head,
Heard, far below, the coursers' tread, 360
While loud the harness rung,
As to their seats with clamor dread,
The ready horsemen sprung ;
And trampling hoofs, and iron coats,
And leaders' voices, mingled notes, 365
And out ! and out !
In hasty route,
The horsemen galloped forth ;
Dispersing to the south to scout,
And east, and west, and north, 370
To view their coming enemies,
And warn their vassals and allies.
The ready page, with hurried hand,
Awaked the need-fire's slumbering brand,
And ruddy blushed the heaven : 375
For a sheet of flame, from the turret high,
574. Need-fire. Beacon.
04 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO in.
Waved like a blood-flag on the sky,
All flaring and uneven,
And soon a score of fires, I ween,
From height, and hill, and cliff, were seen ; 3$)
Each with warlike tidings fraught :
Each from each the signal caught ;
Each after each they glanced to sight,
As stars arise upon the night.
They gleamed on many a dusky tarn, 385
Flaunted by the lonely earn;
On many a cairn's gray pyramid,
Where urns of mighty chiefs lie hid ;
Till high Dunedin the blazes saw,
From Soltra and Dumpender Law ; 390
And Lothian heard the Regent's order,
That all should bowne them for the Border.
The livelong night in Branksome rang
The ceaseless sound of steel ;
The castle-bell, with backward clang, 395
Sent forth the larum peal ;
Was frequent heard the heavy jar,
Where massy stone and iron bar
Were piled on echoing keep and tower,
385. Tarn. Mountain lake.
386. Earn. Eagle.
5587. Cairn. Pile of loose stones, often found on the summit of Scottish
hills, and supposed mostly to be sepulchral monuments.
390. Soltra and Dumpender Law. Two hills.
391. Lothian. The division of Scotland which includes Edinburgh.
392. Bowne. Make ready.
399. Keep. Donjon, the strongest part of an old castle.
CANTO in. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 65
To whelm the foe with deadly shower ; 400
Was frequent heard the changing guard,
And watchword from the sleepless ward;
While, wearied by the endless din,
Blood-hound and ban-dog yelled within.
The noble Dame, amid the broil, 405
Shared the gray Seneschal's high toil,
And spoke of danger with a smile ;
Cheered the young knights, and council sage
Held with the chiefs of riper age.
No tidings of the foe were brought, 410
Nor of his numbers knew they aught,
Nor in what time the truce he sought.
Some said, that there were thousands ten,
And others weened that it was naught
But Leven Clans, or Tynedale merf, 415
Who came to gather in black-mail ;
And Liddesdale, with small avail,
Might drive them lightly back agen.
So passed the anxious night away,
And welcome was the peep of day. 420
CEASED the high sound the listening throng
Applaud the Master of the Song ;
And marvel much, in helpless age,
So hard should be his pilgrimage.
Had he no friend no daughter dear, 425
415. Leven Clans, or Tynedale men. Borderers on a pillaging expedition.
410. Black-mail. Protection money exacted by freebooters.
66 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO in.
His wandering toil to share and cheer ;
No son, to be his father's stay,
And guide him on the rugged way? -
" Aye ! once he had but he was dead ! "
Upon the harp he stooped his head, 430
And busied himself the strings withal,
To hide the tear, that fain would fall.
In solemn measure, soft and slow,
Arose a father's notes of woe.
SWEET Teviot ! on thy silver Jide
The glaring bale-fires blaze no more;
No longer steel-clad warriors ride
Along thy wild and willowed shore :
Where'er thou wind'st, by dale or hill, 5
All, all is peaceful, all is still,
As if thy waves, since Time was born,
Since first they rolled their way to Tweed,
Had only heard the shepherd's reed,
Nor started at the bugle-horn. 10
Unlike the tide of human time,
Which, though it change in ceaseless flow,
Retains each grief, retains each crime,
Its earliest course was doomed to know,
And, darker as it downward bears, ir,
Is stained with past and present tears.
Low as that tide has ebbed with me,
It still reflects to memory's eye
The hour, my brave, my only boy,
Fell by the side of great Dundee. -c
Why, when the volleying musket played
20. Dundee. John Graham, Viscount of Dundee, slain in the battle o.
70 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO ir.
Against the bloody Highland blade,
Why was not I beside him laid !
Enough he died the death of fame ;
Enough he died with conquering Grseme. 25
Now, over Border dale and fell,
Full wide ancf far was terror spread ;
For pathless march, and mountain cell,
The peasant left his lowly shed.
The frightened flocks and herds were pent 30
Beneath the peel's rude battlement ;
And maids and matrons dropped the tear,
While ready warriors seized the spear.
From Branksome's towers, the watchman's eye
Dun wreaths of distant smoke can spy, 35
Which, curling in the rising sun,
Showed southern ravage was begun.
Now loud the heedful gate-ward cried
" Prepare ye all for blows and blood !
Watt Tinlinn, from the Liddel-side, 40
Comes wading through the flood.
Full oft the Tynedale sn ateliers knock
At his lone gate, and prove the lock;
It was but last St. Barnabright
They sieged him a whole summer night, 45
25. Grseme. An abbreviation of Graham.
40. Liddel-side. Watt Tinlinn was a retainer of the Buccleuch family,
who held for his service a small tower on the frontier of Liddesdale.
42. Tynedale snatchers. A class of Border robbers.
CANTO iv. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 71
But fled at morning; well they knew,
In vain he never twanged the yew.
Eight sharp has been the evening shower,
That drove him from his Lid del tower ;
And by my faith," the gate-ward said, so
" I think 'twill prove a Warden-Raid."
While thus he spoke, the bold yeoman
Entered the echoing barbican.
He led a small and shaggy nag,
That through a bog, from hag to hag, 55
Could bound like any Billhope stag :
It bore his wife and children twain ;
A half-clothed serf was all their train :
His wife, stout, ruddy, and dark-browed,
Of silver brooch and bracelet proud, GO
Laughed to her friends among the crowd.
He was of stature passing tall,
But sparely formed, and lean withal :
A battered morion on his brow ;
A leathern jack, as fence enow, 65
On his broad shoulders loosely hung ;
A border-axe behind was slung;
His spear, six Scottish ells in length,
Seemed newly dyed with gore ;
47. Twanged the yew. Fired his bow made of yew.
51. Warden-Raid. An inroad commanded by the warden in person.
53. Barbican. Tower at the entrance of a fortification.
55. Hag to hag. Broken ground in a bog.
56. Billhope. A place in Liddesdale, famous among hunters for buck
58. Serf. Bondman.
64. Morion. Steel cap.
72 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO IT.
His shafts and bow, of wondrous strength, 70
His hardy partner bore.
Thus to the Ladje did Tinlinn show
The tidings of the English foe :
" Belted Will Howard is marching here,
And hot Lord Dacre, with many a spear, 75
And all the German hackbut-men,
Who have long lain at Askertain :
They crossed the Liddel at curfew hour,
And burned my little lonely tower;
The fiend receive their souls therefor ! 80
It had not been burned this year and more.
Barn-yard and dwelling, blazing bright,
Served to guide me on my flight ;
But I was chased the livelong night.
Black John of Akeshaw, and Fergus Graeme, 35
Fast upon my traces came,
Until I turned at Priesthaugh-Scrogg,
And shot their horses in the bog,
Slew Fergus with my lance outright
I had him long at high despite : 90
He drove my cows last Pastern's night."
Now weary scouts from Liddesdale,
Fast hurrying in, confirmed the tale ;
74. Belted Will Howard. Lord William Howard, third son of the Duke
of Norfolk, and warden of the West Marches.
76. Hackbut-men. German musketeers.
91. Drove my cows. Stole his herds. Eastern night. The night be-
CAXTO iv. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 73
As far as they could judge by ken, .
Three hours would bring to Teviot's strand 95
Three thousand armed Englishmen.
Meanwhile, full many a warlike band,
From Teviot, Aill, and Ettrick shade,
Came in, their Chiefs defence to aid.
There was saddling and mounting in haste, 10
There was pricking o'er moor and lea ;
He that was last at the trysting-place,
Was but lightl} 7 held of his gay ladye.
From fair St. Mary's silver wave,
From dreary Gamescleuch's dusky height, 105
His ready lances Thirlestane brave
Arrayed beneath a banner bright.
The treasured fleur-de-luce he claims
To wreath his shield, since royal James,
Encamped by Fala's mossy wave, no
The proud distinction grateful gave,
For faith 'mid feudal jars ;
What time, save Thirlestane alone,
Of Scotland's stubborn barons none
Would march to southern wars; 115
And hence, in fair remembrance worn,
100. There was saddling, etc. These lines, ending with 103, are not in
the first edition. They are in that of 1813, and also in later ones.
10(5. Thirlestane. When James had assembled his nobility at Fala, in
the south of Scotland, to invade England, and was disappointed at their
refusal to follow him, Sir John Scott of Thirlestane alone declared himself
ready to follow the king wherever he should lead. In gratitude for this,
James granted his family a charter of arms, a border of fiear-de-luce with
a bundle of spears for a crest, and the motto, " Ready, aye ready."
74 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO iv.
Yon sheaf of spears his crest has borne :
Hence his high motto shines revealed,
" Ready, aye ready," for the field.
An aged knight, to danger steeled, 120
With many a moss-trooper, came on :
And azure in a golden field,
The stars and crescent graced his shield,
Without the bend of Murdieston.
Wide lay his lands round Oakwood-tower, 125
And wide round haunted Castle-Ower ;
High over Borthwick's mountain flood,
His wood-embosomed mansion stood ;
In the dark glen, so deep below,
The herds of plundered England low ; 130
His bold retainers' daily food,
And bought with danger, blows, and blood.
Marauding chief! his sole delight
The moonlight raid, the morning fight ;
Not even the Flower of Yarrow's charms, 135
In youth, might tame his rage for arms ;
And still, in age, he spurned at rest,
And still his brows the helmet pressed,
Albeit the blanched locks below
Were white as Dinlay's spotless snow : 140
Five stately warriors drew the sword
Before their father's band ;
124. Murdieston. Walter Scott of Harden, descendant of a younger
branch of the Buccleuch family, before they acquired the estate of Murdies-
ton. He was a renowned Border freebooter.
135. Slower of Yarrow. Mary, wife of Walter Scott of Harden.
CANTO iv. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 75
A braver knight than Harden's lord
Ne'er belted on a brand.
Scotts of Eskdale, a stalwart band, 145
Came trooping down the Todshawhill;
By the sword they won their land,
And by their sword they hold it still.
Hearken, Ladye, to the tale,
How thy sires won fair Eksdale. 150
Earl Morton was lord of that valley fair,
The Beattisons were his vassals there.
The Earl was gentle, and mild of mood,
The vassals were warlike, arid fierce, and rude ;
High of heart, and haughty of word, 155
Little they reck'd of a tame liege lord.
The Earl into fair Eskdale came,
Homage and seignory to claim :
Of Gilbert the Galliard a heriot he sought,
Saying, " Give thy best steed, as a vassal ought." 16
" Dear to me is my bonny white steed,
Oft has he help'd me at pinch of need;
Lord and Earl though thou be, I trow,
I can rein Bucksfoot better than thou."
Word on word gave fuel to fire, 165
Till so highly blazed the Beattison's ire,
But that the Earl the flight had ta'en,
158. Seignory. The right which a feudal superior has in the property
of his tenants.
159. Galliard. Gay young man. Heriot. The feudal superior in cer-
tain cases was entitled to the best horse of the vassal, in the name of
76 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO iv.
The vassals there their lord had slain.
Sore he plied both whip and spur,
As he urged his steed through Eksdale muir ; no
And it fell down a weary weight,
Just on the threshold of Branksorae gate.
The Earl was a wrathful man to see,
Full fain avenged would he be.
In haste to Branksome's lord he spoke, 175
Saying " Take these traitors to thy yoke ;
For a cast of hawks, and a purse of gold,
All Eskdale I'll sell thee, to have and to hold :
Beshrew thy heart, of the Beattisons' clan
If thou leavest on Eske a landed man ; IHO
But spare Woodkerrick's lands alone,
For he lent me his horse to escape upon."
A glad man then was Branksorne bold,
Down he rlung him the purse of gold ;
To Eskdale soon he spurr'd amain, 185
And with him five hundred riders has ta'en.
He left his merrymen in the midst of the hill,
And bade them hold them close and still;
And alone he winded to the plain,
To meet with the Galliard and all his train. 190
To Gilbert the Galliard thus he said :
" Know thou me for thy liege-lord and head ;
Deal not with me as with Morton tame,
For Scotts play best at the roughest game.
Give me in peace my heriot due, 195
Thy bonny white steed, or thou shalt rue.
CANTO iv. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 77
If my horn I three times wind,
Eskdale shall long ha've the sound in mind."
Loudly the Beattison laughed in scorn ;
" Little care we for thy winded horn. 200
Ne'er shall it be the Galliard's lot,
To yield his steed to a haughty Scott.
Wend thou to Branksome back on foot,
With rusty spur and miry boot."
He blew his bugle so loud and hoarse, 205
That the dun deer started at fair Craikcross ;
He blew again so loud and clear,
Through the gray mountain-mist there did lances ap-
And the third blast rang with such a din,
That the echoes answered from Pentoun-linn, 210
And all his riders came lightly in.
Then had you seen a gallant shock,
When saddles were emptied, and lances broke.
For each scornful word the Galliard had said
A Beattison on the field was laid. 215
His own good sword the chieftain drew,
And he bore the Galliard through and through;
Where the Beattisons' blood mixed with the rill,
The Galliard's-Haugh men call it still.
The Scotts have scatter'd the Beattison clan, 220
In Eskdale they left but one landed man.
The valley of Eske, from the mouth to the source,
Was lost and won for that bonny white horse.
78 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO iv.
Whitslade the Hawk, and Headshaw came,
And warriors more than I may name ; 225
From Yarrow-cleuch to Hindhaugh-swair,
From Woodhouselie to Chester-glen,
Trooped man and horse, and bow and spear ;
Their gathering word was Bellenden.
And better hearts o'er Border sod 230
To siege or rescue never rode.
The Ladye marked the aids come in,
And high her heart of pride arose ;
She bade her youthful son attend,
That he might know his father's friend, 235
- And learn to face his foes.
" The boy is ripe to look on war ;
I saw him draw a cross-bow stiff,
And his true arrow struck afar
The raven's nest upon the cliff; 240
The Red Cross, on a southern breast,
Is broader than the raven's nest :
Thou, Whitslade, shalt teach him his weapon to wield,
And o'er him hold his father's shield."
Well may you think, the wily Page 245
Cared not to face the Ladye sage. +-*"
He counterfeited childish fear, jf
And shrieked, and shed full marry a tear,
229. Bellenden. Bellenden is situated near the head of Bortwick water,
nearly in the centre of the possessions of the Scotts, and hence was fre-
quently used as their place of rendezvous and their gathering word.
CANTO iv. 'LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 79
And moaned and plained in manner wild.
The attendants to the Ladye told, 250
Some fairy, sure, had changed the child,
That wont to be so free and bold.
Then wrathful was the noble dame ;
She blushed blood-red for very shame :
" Hence ! ere the clan his faintness view ; 255
Hence with the weakling to Buccleuch !
Watt Tinlinn, thou shalt be his guide
To Rangleburn's lonely side.
Sure some fell fiend has cursed our line,
That coward should e'er be son of mine ! " 260
A heavy task Watt Tinlinn had,
To guide the counterfeited lad.
Soon as his palfre} r felt the weight
Of that ill-omened elvish freight,
He bolted, sprung, and reared amain, 265
Nor heeded bit, nor curb, nor rein.
It cost Watt Tinlinn mickle toil
To drive him but a Scottish mile ;
But, as a shallow brook they crossed,
The elf, amid the running stream, 270
Hie figure changed, like form in dream,
And fled, and shouted, " Lost ! lost ! lost ! "
Full fast the urchin ran and laughed,
But faster still ^ cloth-yard shaft
Whistled from startled Tinlinn's yew, 275
And pierced his shoulder through and through.
267. Mickle. Much.
80 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO iv.
Although the imp might not be slain,
And though the wound soon healed again,
Yet, as he ran, he yelled for pain ;
And Watt of Tinlinn, much aghast, 280
Rode back to Branksome fiery fast.
Soon on the hill's steep verge he stood,
That looks o'er Branksome's towers and wood ;
And martial murmurs, from below,
Proclaimed the approaching southern foe. 285
Through the dark wood, in mingled tone,
Were border-pipes and bugles blown ;
The coursers' neighing lie could ken,
And measured tread of marching men ;
While broke at times the solemn hum, 290
The Almayn's sullen kettle-drum ;
And banners tall, of crkuson sheen,
Above the copse appear ;
And, glistening through the hawthorns green,
Shine helm, and shield, and spear. 295
Light forayers first, to view the ground,
Spurred their fleet coursers loosely round.
Behind, in close array and fast,
The Kendal archers, all in green,
Obedient to the bugle blast, 300
Advancing from the wood are seen.
To back and guard the archer band,
291. Almayn. German.
CANTO iv. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 81
Lord Dacre's bill-men were at hand ;
A hardy race, on Irthing bred,
With kirtles white, and crosses red, 305
Arrayed beneath the banner tall
That streamed o'er Acre's conquered wall ;
And minstrels, as they marched in order,
Played, "Noble Lord Dacre, he dwells on the
Behind the English bill and bow, 310
The mercenaries, firm and slow,
Moved on to fight, in dark array,
By Conrad led of Wolfenstein,
Who brought the band from distant Rhine,
And sold their blood for foreign pay. 315
The camp their home, their law the sword,
They knew no country, owned no lord.
They were not armed like England's sons,
But bore the leven-darting guns ;
Buff-coats, all frounced and 'broidered o'er, 320
And morsing-horns and scarfs they wore :
Each better knee was bared, to aid
The warriors in the escalade ;
303. Bill. Battle-axe fixed on a pole.
304. Irthing. A river in Cumberland, England.
307. Acre's conquered wall. The family of Dacre derive their name
from the exploits of one of their ancestors at the siege of Acre.
311. Mercenaries. Foreign troops whose services are bought.
319. Leven. Lightning.
321. Morsing-horns. Powder flasks.
322. Better knee. Right knee.
323. Escalade. Scaling the walls.
82 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTKEL. CANTO iv.
All, as they marched, in rugged tongue,.
Songs of Teutonic feuds they sung. 325
But louder still the clamor grew,
And louder still the minstrels blew,
When, from beneath the greenwood tree,
Rode forth Lord Howard's chivalry ;
His men-at-arms, with glaive and spear, 330
Brought up the battle's glittering rear.
There many a youthful knight, full keen
To gain his spurs, in arms were seen ;
With favor in his crest, or glove,
Memorial of his ladye-love. 335
So rode they forth in fair array,
Till full their lengthened lines display;
Then called a halt, and made a stand,
And cried, " St. George, for merry England ! "
Now every English eye, intent, 340
On Branksome's armed towers was bent:
So near they were, that they might know
The straining harsh of each cross-bow;
On battlement and bartizan
Gleamed axe, and spear, and partisan: 345
Falcon and culver, on each tower,
330. Glaive. Broadsword.
333. To gain his spurs. To win the order of knighthood.
344. Bartizan. A small overhanging turret.
345. Partisan. A kind of halberd or long-handled battle-axe.
346. Falcon and culver. Ancient pieces of artillery.
CANTO iv. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 83
Stood prompt their deadly hail to shower;
And flashing armor frequent broke
From eddying whirls of sable smoke
Where, upon tower and turret head, 350
The seething pitch and molten lead
Reeked, like a witch's cauldron red.
While yet they gaze, the bridges fall,
The wicket opes, and from the wall
Rides forth the hoary Seneschal. 355
Armed he rode, all save the head.
His white beard o'er his breastplate spread ;
Unbroke by age, erect his seat,
He ruled his eager courser's gait ;
Forced him, with chastened fire, to prance, 300
And, high curvetting, slow advance :
In sign of truce, his better hand
Displayed a peeled willow-wand ;
His squire, attending in the rear,
Bore high a gauntlet on a spear. 305
When they espied him riding out,
Lord Howard and Lord Dacre stout
Sped to the front of their array,
To hear what this old knight should say.
" Ye English warden lords, of you 370
Demands the Ladye of Buccleuch,
351 . Seething pitch and molten lead. For pouring on the heads of the
365. A gauntlet on a spear. The emblem of faith among the ancient
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO iv.
Why, 'gainst the truce of Border-tide,
In hostile guise ye dare to ride,
With Kendal bow, and Gilsland brand,
And all your mercenary band, 375
Upon the bounds of fair Scotland?
My Ladye reads you swith return ;
And, if but one poor straw you burn,
Or do our towers so much molest,
As scare one swallow from her nest, aso
St. Mary ! but we'll light a brand,
Shall warm your hearths in Cumberland."
A wrathful man was Ducre's lord,
But calmer Howard took the word:
" May't please thy Dame, Sir Seneschal, 355
To seek the castle's outward wall;
Our pursuivant-at-arms shall show,
Both why we came, and when we go."
The message sped, the noble Dame
To the wall's outward circle came ; 390
Each chief around leaned on his spear,
To see the pursuivant appear.
All in Lord Howard's livery dressed,
The lion argent decked his breast;
He led a boy of blooming hue 395
O sight to meet a mother's view !
It was the heir of great Buccleuch.
374. Gilsland. A part of Cumberland.
377. Swith. Quickly.
387. Pursuivant-at-arms. An attendant on the heralds.
394. The lion argent. The badge of the Howards,
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 85
Obeisance meet the herald made,
And thus his master's will he said.
" It irks, high Dame, my noble Lords, 400
'Gainst ladye fair to draw their swords ;
But yet they may not tamely see,
All through the western wardenry,
Your law-contemning kinsmen ride,
And burn and spoil the Border-side; 405
And ill beseems your rank and birth
To make your towers a Semens-firth.
We claim from thee, William of Deloraine,
That he may suffer march-treason pain :
It was but last St. Cuthbert's even 410
He pricked to Stapleton on Leven,
Harried the lands of Richard Musgrave,
And slew his brother by dint of glaive.
Then, since a lone and widowed Dame
These restless riders may not tame, 415
Either receive within thy towers
Two hundred of my master's powers,
Or straight they sound their warrison,
And storm and spoil thy garrison ;
Arid this fair boy, to London led, 420
Shall good King Edward's page be bred."
407. Flemens-firth. Asylum for outla\vs.
409. March-treason. The name given to various infringements of
Border law: among others, making hostile incursions across the Border in
time of peace.
412. Harried. Plundered.
418. Warrison. Note of assault.
86 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO IT.
He ceased and loud the boy did cry,
And stretched his little arms on high ;
Implored for aid each well-known face,
And strove to seek the Dame's embrace. 425
A moment changed that Ladye's cheer,
Gushed to her eye the unbidden tear ;
She gazed upon the leaders round,
And dark and sad each warrior frowned ;
Then, deep within her sobbing breast 450
She locked the struggling sigh to rest ;
Unaltered and collected stood,
And thus replied, in dauntless mood.
" Say to your Lords of high emprize,
Who war on woman and on boys, 435
That either William of Deloraine
Will cleanse him, by oath, of march-treason stain,
Or else he will the combat take
'Gainst Musgrave, for his honor's sake.
No knight in Cumberland so good, 440
But William may count with him kin and blood.
Knighthood he took of Douglas' sword,
When English blood swelled Ancram ford ;
434. Emprize. Enterprise.
437. By oath. In doubtful cases the innocence of Border criminals was
occasionally referred to their own oath.
442. Knighthood he took, etc. The dignity of knighthood could be
conferred by one who himself possessed it, upon any squire who was found
to merit the honor of chivalry.
443. Ancram ford. A battle in which the Scotch defeated the English
CANTO iv. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 87
And but that Lord Daere's steed was wight,
And bare him ably in the flight, 445
Himself had seen him dubbed a knight.
For the young heir of Branksome's line,
God be his aid, and God be mine ;
Through me no friend shall meet his doom ;
Here while I live, no foe finds room. 450
Then, if thy Lords their purpose urge,
Take our defiance loud and high;
Our slogan is their lyke-wake dirge,
Our moat, the grave where they shall lie."
Proud she looked round, applause to claim 455
Then lightened Thirlestane's eye of flame ;
His bugle Watt of Harden blew ;
Pensils and pennons wide were flung,
To heaven the Border slogan rung,
" St. Mary for the young Buccleuch! " <MQ
The English war-cry answered wide,
And forward bent each southern spear ;
Each Kendal archer made a stride,
And drew the bow-string to his ear :
Each minstrel's war-note loud was blown ; 405
But, ere a gray-goose shaft had flown,
A horseman galloped from the rear.
444. Wight. Fleet. '
453. Lyke-wake dirge. Dirge sung wtiile watching a corpse.
458. Pensils. Little streamers, shaped like swallow-tails, attached to
the lance of a knight.
88 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO IT.
"Ah! noble Lords! " he, breathless, said,
44 What treason has your march betrayed?
What make you here, from aid so far, . 470
Before you walls, around you war ?
Your foemen triu-mph in the thought,
That in the toils the lion's caught.
Already on dark Ruberslaw
The Douglas holds his weapon-schaw : 475
The lances, waving in his train,
Clothe the dun heath like autumn grain,
And on the Liddel's northern strand,
To bar retreat to Cumberland,
Lord Maxwell ranks his merry-men good, 430
Beneath the eagle and the rood ;
And Jedwood, Eske, and Teviotdale,
Have to proud Angus come ;
And all the Merse and Lauderdale
Have risen with haughty Home. 485
An exile from Northumberland,
In Liddesdale I've wandered long;
But still my heart was with merry England,
And cannot brook my country's wrong,
And hard I've spurred all night to show 490
The mustering of the coming foe."
" And let them come ! " fierce Dacre cried ;
" For soon yon crest, my father's pride,
474. Kuberslaw. A raountaia in Scotland, about half way between
Branksome Castle and Melrose Abbey.
475. Weapon-schaw. The military array of a country, literally a show-
ing of weapons.
CANTO iv. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 89
That swept the shores of Judah's sea,
And waved in gales of Galilee, 495
From Branksome's highest towers displayed,
Shall mock the rescue's lingering aid !
Level each harquebuss on row;
Draw, merry archers, draw the bow;
Up, bill-men, to the walls, and cry, 500
Dacre for England, win or die ! "
" Yet hear," quoth Howard, " calmly hear,
Nor deem my words the words of fear :
For who in field or foray slack
Saw the blanche lion e'er fall back ? 505
But thus to risk our Border flower
In strife against a kingdom's power,
Ten thousand Scots 'gainst thousands three,
Certes, were desperate policy.
Nay, take the terms the Ladye made, 510
Ere conscious of the advancing aid :
Let Musgrave meet fierce Deloraine
In single fight; and if he gain,
He gains for us ; but if he's crossed,
'Tis but a single warrior lost: 515
The rest, retreating as they came,
Avoid defeat, and death, and shame."
Ill could the haughty Dacre brook
His brother-warden's sage rebuke ;
505. Blanche lion. The cognizance of the Howards.
90 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO iv.
And yet his forward step he staid, 520
And slow and sullenly obeyed :
But ne'er again the Border side
Did these two lords in friendship ride ;
And this slight discontent, men say,
Cost blood upon another day. 595
The pursuivant-at-arms again
Before the castle took his stand ;
His trumpet called, with parleying strain,
The leaders of the Scottish band ;
And he defied, in Musgrave's right, 530
Stout Deloraine to single fight ;
A gauntlet at their feet he laid,
And thus the terms of fight he said :
"If in the lists good Musgrave's sword
Vanquish the knight of Deloraine, 535
Your youthful chieftain, Branksome's lord,
Shall hostage for his clan remain :
If Deloraine foil good Musgrave,
The boy his liberty shall have.
Howe'er it falls, the English band, 540
Unharming Scots, by Scots unharmed,
In peaceful march like men unarmed,
Shall straight retreat to Cumberland."
Unconscious of the near relief,
The proffer pleased each Scottish chief, 545
Though much the Ladye sage gainsayed ;
For though their hearts were brave and true,
CANTO iv. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 91
From Jedwood's recent sack they knew
How tardy was the Regent's aid ;
And you may guess the noble Dame 550
Durst not the secret prescience own,
Sprung from the art she might not name,
By which the comimg help was known.
Closed was the compact, and agreed
That lists should be inclosed with speed 555
Beneath the castle on a lawn :
They fixed the morrow for the strife,
On foot, with Scottish axe and knife,
At the fourth hour from peep of dawn ;
When Deloraine, from sickness freed, ' 560
Or else a champion in his stead,
Should for himself and chieftain stand,
Against stout Musgrave, hand to hand.
I know right well, that, in their lay,
Full many minstrels sing and say, 565
Such combat should be made on horse,
On foaming steed, in full career,
With brand to aid, when as the spear
Should shiver in the course :
But he, the jovial Harper taught 570
548. Jedwood. The same as Jedburgh, Jedworth, or Jeddart. It was
sacked and burned at least seven times during the international wars of
551. Prescience. Knowledge of future events.
555. Lists. Field of combat.
568. Brand. Sword.
570. The jovial Harper. Rattling, roaring Willie, a noted border
minstrel. He killed Sweet Milk, called the bard of Reull, in a duel, and
was executed for the crime at Jedburg.
92 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO iv.
Me, yet a youth, how it was fought,
In guise which now I say :
He knew each ordinance and clause
Of black Lord Archibald's battle laws,
In the old Douglas' day. 575
He brooked not, he, that scoffing tongue
Should tax his minstrelsy with wrong,
Or call his song untrue ;
For this when they the goblet plied,
And such rude taunt had chafed his pride, 5^0
The bard of Reull he slew.
On Teviot's side, in fight they stood,
And tuneful hands were stained with blood ;
Where still the thorn's white branches wave
Memorial o'er his rival's grave. 585
Why should I tell the rigid doom,
That dragged my master to his tomb ;
How Ousenam's maidens tore their hair,
Wept till their eyes were dead and dim,
And wrung their hands for love of him, 590
Who died at Jedwood Air?
He died ! his scholars, one by one,
To the cold silent grave are gone ;
And I, alas ! survive alone,
To muse o'er rivalries of yore, 595
And grieve that I shall hear no more
The strains, with envy heard before ;
For, with my minstrel brethren fled,
My jealousy of song is dead.
588. Ousenam's maidens. Those who lived on the banks of the Ouse.
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTKEL. 93
HE paused : the listening dames again GOO
Applaud the hoary Minstrel's strain ;
With many a word of kindly cheer,
In pity half, and half sincere,
Marvelled the Duchess how so well
His legendary song could tell 605
Of ancient deeds, so long forgot ;
Of feuds, whose memory was not ;
Of forests, now laid waste and bare ;
Of towers, which harbor now the hare ;
Of manners, long since changed and gone ; eio
Of chiefs, who under their gray stone
So long had slept, that fickle Fame
Had blotted from her rolls their name,
And twined round some new minion's head
The fading wreath for which they bled ; ^15
In sooth, 'twas strange, this old man's verse
Could call them from their marble hearse.
The Harper smiled, well pleased ; for ne'er
Was flattery lost on poet's ear :
A simple race ! they waste their toil 520
For the vain tribute of a smile ;
E'en when in age their flame expires,
Her dulcet breath can fan its fires :
Their drooping fancy wakes at praise,
And strives to trim the short-lived blaze. 625
Smiled then, well-pleased, the Aged Man,
And thus his tale continued ran.
OUTLINE OF CANTO FIFTH.
THE truce is scarcely concluded, when the martial bands that
have come to the aid of Branksome are seen advancing. The senes-
chal goes out to meet them, tells them of the truce and the pro-
posed combat, and begs them in the Lady's name, to accept the
hospitality of Branksome Castle, and witness the encounter. The
English are treated with like courtesy, and all feast together in the
great hall of the castle till late in the night.
Fair Margaret soon retires from the revels, and seeks her cham-
ber, but she can find no rest from anxious thoughts. At length
after a troubled sleep, she wakes just as the day is dawning, and
looking from her window, sees Lord Cranstoun in the court below.
The goblin has disguised him as a knight from Hermitage, but no
disguise can blind the eyes of Margaret. Soon he enters her bower.
In the morning there is great dispute among the clansmen as to
who has the best right to fight in place of the-wounded Deloraine.
Suddenly Deloraine himself appears in complete armor, and thus
solves the difficulty. The combat is fierce but short, and Musgrave
lies mortally wounded on the field. When all is over "a half-
naked, ghastly man " rushes into the lists, and is known by all as
the true Deloraine. The champion, who in Deloraine's armor has
won the fight, is Lord Cranstoun. He leads the boy to his mother
and kneels at her feet, but it is only after the intercession of the
English lords, and also of her own clan, that the Lady deigns to
notice him, forego the old feud, and consent to his betrothal to
Fair Margaret. Before Delaraine leaves the field, he pronounces a
long eulogy and lament over his fallen enemy.
CALL it not vain : they do not err,
Who say, that, when the Poet dies,
Mute Nature mourns her worshipper,
And celebrates his obsequies ;
Who say, tall cliff, and cavern lone, 5
For the departed bard make moan ;
That mountains weep in crystal rill ;
That flowers in tears of balm distil ;
Through his loved groves that breezes sigh,
And oaks, in deeper groan, reply ; 10
And rivers teach their rushing wave
To murmur dirges round his grave.
Not that, in sooth, o'er mortal urn
Those things inanimate can mourn;
But that the stream, the wood, the gale, 15
Is vocal with the plaintive wail
Of those who, else forgotten long,
Lived in the poet's faithful song,
And, with the poet's parting breath,
Whose memory feels a second death. 20
The maid's pale shade, who wails her lot,
That love, true love, should be forgot,
From rose and hawthorn shakes the tear
96 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO v.
Upon the gentle minstrel's bier :
The phantom knight, his glory fled, 25
Mourns o'er the fields he heaped with dead ;
Mounts the wild blast that sweeps amain,
And shrieks along the battle-plain :
The chief whose antique crownlet long
Still sparkled in the feudal song, 30
Now from the mountain's misty throne,
Sees, in thanedom once his own,
His ashes undistinguished lie,
His place, his power, his memory die :
His groans the lonely caverns fill, 35
His tears of rage impel the rill ;
All mourn the minstrel's harp unstrung,
'Their name unknown, their praise unsung.
Scarcely the hot assault was staid,
The terms of truce were scarcely made, 40
When they could spy, from Branksome's towers,
The advancing march of martial powers ;
Thick clouds of dust afar appeared,
And trampling steeds were faintly heard ;
Bright spears, above the columns dun, 45
Glanced momentary to the sun ;
And feudal banners fair displayed
The bands that moved to Branksome's aid.
'Vails not to tell each hardy clan,
From the fair Middle Marches came ; 50
CANTO v. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTKEL. 97
The Bloody Heart blazed in the van,
Announcing Douglas, dreaded name !
'Vails not to tell what steeds did spurn,
Where the Seven Spears of Wedderburn
Their men in battle-order set ; 55
And Swinton laid the lance in rest,
That tamed of yore the sparkling crest
Of Clarence's Plantagenet.
Nor lists, I say, what hundreds more,
From the rich Merse and Lam mer more, 60
And Tweed's fair borders, to the war,
Beneath the crest of old Dunbar,
And Hepburn's mingled banners come,
Down the steep mountain glittering far,
And shouting still, "A Home ! a Home ! " 65
Now squire and knight, from Branksome sent,
On many a courteous message went ;
To every chief and lord they paid
Meet thanks for prompt and powerful aid ;
And told them, how a truce was made, 70
51. Bloody Heart. Cognizance of the house of Douglas, assumed from
the time of good Lord James Douglas, -to whose keeping Robert Bruce
committed his heart to be carried to the Holy Land.
54. Seven Spears of Wedderburn. The seven sons of Sir David Home
58. Clarence Plantagenet. At the battle of Bouge in France, Thomas,
Duke of Clarence, brother of Henry V., was unhorsed by Sir John Swinton,
who distinguished him from the other knights by a coronet set with pre->
cious stones which he wore around his helmet.
65. A Home! The Earls of Home were descendants of the Dunbars,
ancient Earls of March. Their war-cry was " A Home! a Home!" The
Hepburns, a powerful family of East Lothian, were usually in close alliance
98 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO v.
And how a day of fight was ta'en
'Twixt Musgrave arid stout Deloraine ;
And how the Ladye prayed them dear,
That all would stay the fight to see,
And deign, in love and courtesy, 75
To taste of Branksome cheer.
Nor, while they bade to feast each Scot,
Were England's noble Lords forgot ;
Himself, the hoary Seneschal,
Rode forth, in seemly terms to call so
Those gallant foes to Branksome Hall.
Accepted Howard, than whom knight
Was never dubbed, more bold in fight ;
Nor, when from war and armor free,
More famed for stately courtesy : 85
But angry Dacre rather chose
In his pavilion to repose.
Now, noble Dame, perchance you ask
How these two hostile armies met !
Deeming it were no easy task 90
To keep the truce which here was set ;
Where martial spirits, all on fire,
Breathed only blood and mortal ire.
By mutual inroads, mutual blows,
By habit, and by nation, foes, 95
They met on Teviot's strand :
They met, and sate them mingled down,
Without a threat, without a frown,
As brothers meet in foreign land:
The hands, the spear that lately grasped, 100
CANTO v. LAY OF THE LAST MINST11EL. 99
Still in the mailed gauntlet clasped,
Were interchanged in greeting dear ;
Visors were raised, and faces shown,
And many a friend, to friend made known,
Partook of social cheer. 105
Some drove the jolly bowl about ;
With dice and draughts some chased the day ;
And some, with many a merry shout,
In riot, revelry, and rout,
Pursued the foot-ball play. no
Yet be it known, had bugles blown,
Or sign of war been seen ;
Those bands, so fair together ranged,
Those hands, so frankly interchanged,
Had dyed with gore the green : us
The merry shout by Teviot-side
Had sunk in war-cries wild and wide,
And in the groan of death ;
And whingers, now in friendship bare,
The social meal to part and share, 120
Had found a bloody sheath.
'Twixt truce and war, such sudden change
Was not unfrequent, nor held strange,
In the old Border-day ;
But yet on Branksome's towers and town, 125
In peaceful merriment, sunk down
The sun's declining ray.
119. Whingers. A sort of knife or poniard.
100 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO v.
The blithesome signs of wassel gay
Decayed not with the dying day ;
Soon through the latticed windows tall, 130
Of lofty Branksome's lordly hall,
Divided square by shafts of stone,
Huge flakes of ruddy lustre shone ;
Nor less the gilded rafters rang,
With merry harp and beakers' clang ; 135
And frequent, on the darkening plain,
Loud hollo, whoop, or whistle ran,
As bands, their stragglers to regain,
Give the shrill watchword of their clan ;
And revellers, o'er their bowls, proclaim 140
Douglas' or Dacre's conquering name.
Less frequent heard, and fainter still,
At length the various clamors died ;
And you might hear, from Branksome hill,
No sound but Teviot's rushing tide ; 145
Save, when the changing sentinel
The challenge of his watch could tell ;
And save, where, through the dark profound,
The clanging axe and hammer's sound
Rung from the nether lawn ; 150
For many a busy hand toiled there,
Strong pales to shape, and beams to square,
The lists' dread barriers to prepare,
Against the morrow's dawn.
128. Wassel. Festivity. 135. Beakers. Drinkiug-glasses.
CANTO v. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 101
Margaret from hall did soon retreat, 155
Despite the Dame's reproving eye,
Nor marked she, as she left her seat,
Full many a stifled sigh :
For many a noble warrior strove
To win the flower of Teviot's love, ieo
And many a bold ally.
With throbbing head and anxious heart,
All in her lonely bower apart,
In broken sleep she lay :
By times, from silken couch she rose ; 165
While yet the bannered hosts repose,
She viewed the dawning day :
Of all the hundreds sunk to rest,
First woke the loveliest and the best.
She gazed upon the inner court, 170
Which in the tower's tall shadow lay ;
Where coursers' clang, and stamp, and snort,
Had rung the livelong yesterday ;
Now still as death ; till, stalking slow,
The jingling spurs announced his tread, 175
A stately warrior passed below ;
But when he raised his plumed head
Blessed Mary ! can it be ?
Secure, as if in Ousenarn bowers,
He walks through Branksome's hostile towers 180
179. Ousenam's bowers. The domain of Lord Cranstoun on the banks
of the Ouse.
102 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO v.
With fearless step and free.
She dare not sign, she dare not speak
Oh ! if one page's slumbers break,
His blood the price must pay I
Not all the pearls Queen Mary wears, 135
Not Margaret's yet more precious tears,
Shall buy his life a day.
Yet was his hazard small for well
You may bethink ^ou of the spell
Of that sly urchin Page ; !90
This to his lord he did impart
And made him seem, by glamour art,
A knight from Hermitage.
Unchallenged, thus, the warder's post,
The court, unchallenged, thus he crossed, 195
For all the vassalage :
But, O ! what magic's quaint disguise
Could blind fair Margaret's azure eyes !
She started from her seat ;
While with surprise and fear she strove, 200
And both could scarcely master love
Lord Henry's at her feet.
Oft have I mused, what purpose bad
That foul malicious urchin had
To bring this meeting round ; 205
For happy love's a heavenly sight,
And by a vile malignant sprite
In such no joy is found :
CANTO v. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 103
And oft I've deemed, perchance he thought
Their erring passion might have wrought 210
Sorrow, and sin, and shame ;
And death to Cranstoun's gallant Knight,
And to the gentle Ladye bright,
Disgrace, and loss of fame.
But earthly spirit could not tell 215
The heart of them that loved so well ;
True love's the gift which God has given
To man alone beneath the heaven.
It is not Fantasy's hot fire,
Whose wishes, soon as granted, fly; 220
It liveth not in fierce desire,
With dead desire it doth not die :
It is the secret sympathy,
The silver link, the silken tie, ^
Which heart to heart, and mind to mind, 225
In body and in soul can bind.
Now leave we Margaret and her Knight,
To tell you* of the approaching fight.
Their warning blast the bugles blew,
The pipe's shrill port aroused each clan ; 230
In haste, the deadly strife to view,
The trooping warriors eager ran :
Thick round the lists their lances stood,
Like blasted pines in Ettrick wood ;
To Branksome many a look they threw, 235
The combatants' approach to view,
And bandied many a word of boast,
About the knight each favored most.
104 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO v.
Meantime full anxious was the Dame ;
For now arose disputed claim, 240
Of who should fight for Deloraine,
'Twixt Harden and 'twixt Thirlestane :
They 'gan to reckon kin and rent,
And frowning brow on brow was bent ;
But yet not long the strife for, lo ! 245
Himself, the Knight pf Deloraine,
Strong, as it seemed, and free from pain,
In armor sheathed from top to toe,
Appeared, and craved the combat due.
The Dame her charm successful knew, 250
And the fierce chiefs their claims withdrew.
When for the lists they sought the plain,
The stately Ladye's silken rein
Did noble Howard hold ;
Unarmed by her side he walked, 255
And much, in courteous phrase, they talked
Of feats of arms of old.
Costly his garb, his Flemish ruff
Fell o'er his doublet, shaped of buff,
With satin slashed, and lined ; 260
Tawny his boot, and gold his spur,
His cloak was all of Poland fur,
His hose with silver twined ;
His Bilboa blade, by Marchmen felt,
259. Buff. A material so tough as to resist the blows of a sword.
264. Bilboa blade. A Spanish sword, so called because Bilboa in Spain
was famous for its manufacture of fine steel.
CANTO v. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 105
Hung in a broad and studded belt ; 265
Hence, in rude phrase, the Borderers still
Called noble Howard, Belted Will.
Behind Lord Howard and the Dame,
Fair Margaret on her palfrey came,
Whose foot-cloth swept the ground ; 270
White was her wimple, and her veil,
And her loose locks a chaplet pale
Of whitest roses bound ;
The lordly Angus, by her side,
In courtesy to cheer her tried ; 275
Without his aid, her hand in vain
Had strove to guide her broidered rein.
He deemed, she shuddered at the sight
Of warriors met for mortal fight ;
But cause of terror, all unguessed, 280
Was fluttering in her gentle breast,
When, in their chairs of crimson placed,
The Dame and she the barriers graced.
Prize of the field, the young Buccleuch,
An English knight led forth to view ; 285
Scarce rued the boy his present plight,
So much he longed to see the fight.
Within the lists, in knightly pride,
High Home and haughty Dacre ride ;
Their leading staffs of steel they wield, 290
As marshals of the mortal field :
271. Wimple. A plaited kerchief.
106 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO v.
While to each knight their care assigned
Like vantage of the sun and wind.
Then heralds hoarse did loud proclaim,
In king and queen, and wardens' name, 295
That none, while lasts the strife,
Should dare, by look, or sign, or word,
Aid to a champion to afford,
On peril of his life ;
And not a breath the silence broke, 200
Till thus the alternate heralds spoke :
" Here standeth Richard of Musgrave,
Good knight and true, and freely born,
Amends from Deloraine to crave,
For foul despiteous scathe and scorn. 305
He sayeth, that William of Deloraine
Is traitor false by Border laws ;
This with his sword he will maintain,
So help him God, and his good cause ! "
" Here standeth William of Deloraine, 310
Good knight and true, of noble strain,
Who sayeth, that foul treason's stain,
Since he bore arms, ne'er soiled his coat ;
And that, so help him God above,
305. Scathe. Injury.
CANTO v. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 107
He will on Musgrave's body prove, 315
He lies most foully in his throat."
" Forward, brave champions, to the fight!
Sound trumpets ! "
" God defend the right ! "
Then, Teviot ! how thine echoes rang, 320
When bugle-sound and trumpet-clang
Let loose the martial foes,
And in mid list, with shield poised high,
And measured step and wary eye,
The combatants did close. 325
Ill would it suit your gentle ear,
Ye lovely listeners, to hear
How to the axe the helms did sound,
And blood poured down from many a wound ;
For desperate \vas the strife, and long, 330
And either warrior fierce and strong.
But, were each dame a listening knight,
I well could tell how warriors fight;
For I have seen war's lightning flashing,
Seen the claymore with bayonet clashing, 335
Seen through red blood the war-horse dashing,
And scorned, amid the reeling strife,
To yield a step for death or life.
335. Claymore. A large, two-handed sword, used by the Highlanders
108 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO v.
'Tis done, 'tis done ! that fatal blow
Has stretched him on the bloody plain; 340
He strives to rise Brave Musgrave, no !
Thence never shalt thou rise again !
He chokes in blood some friendly hand
Undo the visor's barred band,
Unfix the gorget's iron clasp, 345
And give him room for life to gasp !
O, bootless aid ! haste, holy Friar,
Haste, ere the sinner shall expire !
Of all his guilt let him be shriven,
And smooth his path from earth to heaven. 350
In haste the holy Friar sped ;
His naked foot was dyed with red,
As through the lists he ran ;
Unmindful of the shouts on high,
That hailed the conqueror's victory, 355
He raised the dying man ;
Loose waved his silver beard and hair,
As o'er him he kneeled down in prayer ;
And still the crucifix on high
He holds before his darkening eye ; 300
And still he bends an anxious ear,
His faltering penitence to hear ;
Still props him from the bloody sod,
Still, even when soul and body part,
344. Visor. Armor which protects the face.
345. Gorget. Armor which protects the neck.
CANTO v. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTliEL. 109
Pours ghostly comfort on his heart, 365
And bids him trust in God !
Unheard he prays ; the death pang's o'er
Richard of Musgrave breathes no more.
As if exhausted in the fight,
Or musing o'er the piteous sight, 370
The silent victor stands;
His beaver did he not unclasp,
Marked not the shouts, felt not the grasp
Of gratulating hands.
When lo ! strange cries of wild surprise, 375
Mingled with seeming terror, rise
Among the Scottish bands ;
And all, amid the thronged array,
In panic haste gave open way
To a half-naked ghastly man, sso
Who downward from the castle ran ;
He crossed the barriers at a bound,
And wild and haggard looked around,
As dizzy, and in pain ;
And all, upon the armed ground, 385
Knew William of Deloraine !
Each ladye sprung from seat with speed ;
Vaulted each marshal from his steed ;
" And who art thou," they cried,
" Who hast this battle fought and won ? " 390
His plumed helm was soon undone
" Cranstoun of Teviotside !
372. Beaver. The mouthpiece of the helmet.
110 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTKEL. CANTO v.
For this fair prize I've fought and won,"
And to the Ladye led her son.
Full oft the rescued boy she kissed, 395
And often pressed him to her breast,
For, under all her dauntless show,
Her heart had throbbed at every blow ;
Yet not Lord Cranstoun deigned she greet,
Though low he kneeled at her feet. 400
Me lists not tell what words were made,
What Douglas, Home, and Howard said
For Howard was a generous foe
And how the clan united prayed,
The Ladye would the feud forego, 405
And deign to bless the nuptial hour
Of Cranstoun's Lord and Teviot's Flower.
She looked to river, looked to hill,
Thought on the Spirit's prophecy,
Then broke her silence stern and still, 410
"Not you, but Fate, has vanquished me ;
Their influence kindly stars may shower
On Teviot's tide and Branksome's tower,
For pride is quelled, and love is free."
She took fair Margaret by the hand, 415
Who, breathless, trembling, scarce might stand,
That hand to Cranstoun's lord gave she.
" As I am true to thee and thine,
401. Lists. Desires.
CANTO v. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. Ill
Do thou be true to mejind mine !
This clasp of love our bond shall be ; 420
For this is your betrothing day,
And all these noble lords shall stay,
To grace it with their company.'*
All as they left the listed plain,
Much of the story she did gain : 425
How Cranstoun fought with Deloraine,
And of his Page, and of the Book,
Which from the wounded knight he took ;
And how he sought her castle high,
That morn, by help of grarnarye ; 430
How, in Sir William's armor dight,
Stolen by his Page, while slept the knight,
He took on him the single fight.
But half his tale he left unsaid,
And lingered till he joined the maid. 435
Cared not the Ladye to betray
Her mystic arts in view of day ;
But well she thought, ere midnight came,
Of that strange Page the pride to tame,
From his foul hands the Book to save, 440
And send it back to Michael's grave.
Needs not to tell each tender word
'Twixt Margaret and 'twixt Cranstoun's lord ;
Nor how she told of former woes,
Arid how her bosom fell and rose, 445
While he and Musgrave bandied blows
Needs not these lovers' joys to tell ;
One day, fair maids, you'll know them well.
112 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL.
William of Deloraine, some chance
Had wakened from his deathlike trance ; 450
And taught that, in the listed plain,
Another, in his arms and shield,
Against fierce Musgrave axe did wield,
Under the name of Deloraine.
Hence, to the field, unarmed, he ran, 455
And hence his presence scared the clan,
Who held him for some fleeting wraith,
And not a man of blood and breath.
Not much this new ally he loved,
Yet, when he saw what hap had proved, 460
He greeted him right heartilie :
He would not waken old debate,
For he was void of rancorous hate,
Though rude, and scant of courtesy;
In raids he spilt but seldom blood, 465
Unless when men-at-arms withstood,
Or, as was meet, for deadly feud.
He ne'er bore grudge for stalwart blow,
Ta'en in fair fight from gallant foe :
And so 'twas seen of him, e'en now, 470
When on dead Musgrave he looked down ;
Grief darkened on his rugged brow,
Though half disguised with a frown ;
And thus, while sorrow bent his head,
His foeman's epitaph he made. 475
457. Fleeting wraith. Spectral apparition of a living person.
CANTO v. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 113
" Now, Richard Musgrave, liest thou here !
I ween, my deadly enemy ;
For if I slew thy brother dear,
Thou slewest a sister's son to me ;
And when I lay in dungeon dark, 480
Of Naworth Castle, long months three,
Till ransomed for a thousand mark,
Dark Musgrave, it was long of thee.
And, Musgrave, could our fight be tried,
And thou wert now alive, as I, 485
No mortal man should us divide,
Till one, or both of us, did die :
Yet, rest thee God ! for well I know,
I ne'er shall find a nobler foe.
In all the northern counties here, 490
Whose word is, Snafle, spur, and spear,
Thou wert the best to follow gear.
'Twas pleasure, as we looked behind,
To see how thou the chase could wind,
Cheer the dark blood-hound on his way, 495
And with the bugle rouse the fray !
I'd give the lands of Deloraine,
Dark Musgrave were alive again."
So mourned he, till Lord Dacre's band
Were bowning back to Cumberland. 500
491. Snafle, spur, and spear. The blazoii of the Border marauders,
living between the Ouse and Berwick.
495. Blood-hound. The Border marauders were often tracked by
114 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO v.
They raised brave Musgrave from the field,
And laid him on his bloody shield ;
On levelled lances, four and four,
By turns, the noble burden bore :
Before, at times, upon the gale, 505
Was heard the Minstrel's plaintive wail ;
Behind, four priests, in sable stole,
Sung requiem for the warrior's soul :
Around, the horsemen slowly rode ;
With trailing pikes the spearmen trod ; 510
And thus the gallant knight they bore,
Through Liddesdale, to Leven's shore ;
Thence to Holme Coltrame's lofty nave,
And laid him in his father's grave.
THE harp's wild notes, though hushed the song, 515
The mimic march of death prolong ;
Now seems it far, and now a-near,
Now meets, and now eludes the ear ;
Now seems some mountain side to sweep,
Now faintly dies in valley deep ; 520
Seems now as if the Minstrel's wail,
Now the sad requiem loads the gale ;
Last, o'er the warrior's closing grave,
Rung the full choir in choral stave.
After due pause they bade him tell, 525
Why he who touched the harp so well,
Should thus, with ill-rewarded toil,
Wander a poor and thankless soil,
When the more generous southern land
Would well requite his skilful hand. 530
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 115
The Aged Harper, howsoe'er
His only friend, his harp, was dear,
Liked not to hear it ranked so high
Above his flowing poesy ;
Less liked he still, that scornful jeer 535
Misprized the land he loved so dear ;
High was the sound, as thus again
The bard resumed his minstrel strain.
OUTLINE OF CANTO SIXTH.
THIS canto opens with the bard's invocation to Caledonia. Then
we have a description of the betrothal and the feast which follows.
Through all this merry-making, the goblin page never loses a
chance for mischief, starts quarrels among the guests, and, not for-
getting the grudge he bears to Watt Tinlinn, first enrages him by
taunting jests, and then pierces his knee to the bone with his
bodkin. At length the Lady, to quell the growing tumult, bids
the minstrels " tune their lay," and their songs bring back harmony
and good cheer. The guests do not mark the gathering gloom,
till a strange horror creeps over them, and the elfin page falls to the
ground muttering, "Found! found! found!" Then follows a peal
of thunder and a vivid flash of lightning, and the elfin page is seen
no more. In the glare of the lightning, some of the guests have
seen an arm, and some the waving of a gown, but Deloraine is trans-
fixed with terror, for he has seen the wizard Michael Scott, just as
he had seen him in his grave at Melrose Abbey. The terrified com-
pany at first can scarcely speak ; but at length Lord Angus breaks
the fearful silence by vowing to make a pilgrimage for the rest of
Michael's soul. Each of the company follows in turn, making a
vow to his patron saint, to perform a pilgrimage for the repose of
Michael Scott's soul. The noble Lady in dismay, renounces forever
her magic arts. Then follows a description of the pilgrim train of
knights with naked feet and sackcloth vest, with priest and taper
and holy banner and solemn hymns for the dead, as they seek
Melrose's holy shrine.
Here ends the story, but the minstrel is a wanderer no longer.
Close beside Newark Castle he is given a humble home, where he
loves to show hospitality to poor wanderers, and cheer all who pass
his door with the songs of chivalry.
BREATHES there the man with soul so dead,
Who never to himself hath said,
This is my own, my native land !
Whose heart hath ne'er within him burned,
As home his footsteps he hath turned, 5
From wandering on a foreign strand !
If such there breathe, go, mark him well.
For him no Minstrel raptures swell ;
High though his titles, proud his name,
Boundless his wealth as wish can claim ; 10
Despite those titles, power, and pelf,
The wretch, concentered all in self,
Living, shall forfeit fair renown,
And, doubly dying, shall go down
To the vile dust, from whence he sprung, 15
Unwept, unhonored, and unsung.
O Caledonia ! stern and wild,
Meet nurse for a poetic child !
Land of brown heath and shaggy wood,
Land of the mountain and the flood, 20
Land of my sires ! what mortal hand
Can e'er untie the filial band,
That knits me to thy rugged strand !
Still, as I view each well-known scene,
118 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO vi.
Think what is now, and what hath been, 2 5
Seems as, to me, of all bereft,
Sole friends, thy woods and streams were left,
And thus I love them better still,
Even in extremity of ill.
By Yarrow's stream still let me stray, 30
Though none should guide my feeble way ;
Still feel the breeze down Ettrick break,
Although it chill my withered cheek ;
Still lay my head by Teviot stone,
Though there, forgotten and alone, 35
The Bard may draw his parting groan.
Not scorned like me ! to Branksome Hall
The Minstrels came, at festive call ;
Trooping they came, from near and far,
The jovial priests of mirth and war ; 40
Alike for feast and fight prepared,
Battle and banquet both they shared.
Of late, before each martial clan,
They blew their death-note in the van,
But now, for every merry mate, 45
Rose the portcullis' iron grate ;
They sound the pipe, they strike the string,
They dance, they revel, and they sing,
Till the rude turrets shake and ring.
Me lists not at this tide declare so
The splendor of a spousal rite,
46. Portcullis. A frame-work of timbers interlaced in the shape of a
harrow, which could be lowered to close a gateway.
CANTO vi. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 119
How mustered in the chapel fair
Both maid and matron, squire and knight ;
Me lists not tell of owches rare,
Of mantles green, and braided hair, 55
And kirtles furred with miniver;
What plumage waved the altar round,
How spurs, and ringing chainlets, sound :
And hard it were for bard to speak
The changeful hue of Margaret's cheek ; 60
That lovely hue, which comes and flies,
As awe and shame alternate rise !
Some bards have sung, the Ladye high
Chapel or altar came not nigh ;
Nor durst the rites of spousal grace, 65
So much she feared, each holy place.
False slanders these : I trust right well,
She wrought not by forbidden spell ;
For mighty words and signs have powe*r
O'er sprites in planetary hour: 70
Yet scarce I praise their venturous part,
Who tamper with such dangerous art.
But this for faithful truth I say:
The Ladye by the altar stood,
Of sable velvet her array, 75
And on her head a crimson hood,
With pearls embroidered and entwined,
Guarded with gold, with ermine lined;
A merlin sat upon her wrist,
Held by a leash of silken twist. 80
54. Owches. Jewels. 56. Miniver. Ermine.
79. Merlin. Sparrow-hawk, often carried by ladies of rank.
120 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO vi.
The spousal rites were ended soon :
'Twas now the merry hour of noon,
And in the lofty arched hall
Was spread the gorgeous festival.
Steward and squire, with heedful haste, 8r>
Marshalled the rank of every guest ;
Pages, with ready blade, were there,
The mighty meal to carve and share :
O'er capon, heron-shew, and crane,
And princely peacock's gilded train, 90
And o'er the boar-head, garnished brave,
And cygnet from St. Mary's wave ;
O'er ptarmigan and venison,
The priest had spoke his benison.
Then rose the riot and the din, 95
Above, beneath, without, within !
For from the lofty balcony,
Rung trumpet, shalm, and psaltery;
Their clanging bowls old warriors quaffed,
Loudly they spoke, and loudly laughed ; 100
Whispered young knights, in tone more mild,
To ladies fair, and ladies smiled.
The hooded hawks, high perched on beam,
The clamor joined with whistling scream,
And flapped their wings, arid shook their bells, 105
In concert with the stag-hounds' yells.
91. Boar-head. The boar's head and the peacock were considered the
appropriate dishes for occasions of ceremony in chivalrous times.
92. Cygnet. Swan. St. Mary's Lake, at the head waters of the Yarrow,
was noted as a great resort for wild swans.
98. Shalm. An ancient wind instrument, somewhat like the clarionet.
CANTO vi. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 121
Round go the flasks of ruddy wine,
From Bordeaux, Orleans, or the Rhine ;
Their tasks the busy sewers ply,
And all is mirth and revelry. no
The Goblin Page, omitting still
No opportunity of ill,
Strove now, while blood ran hot and high, '
To rouse debate and jealousy ;
Till Conrad, lord of Wolfenstein, 115
By nature fierce, and warm with wine,
And now in humor highly crossed,
About some steeds his band had lost,
High words to words succeeding still,
Smote, with his gauntlet, stout Hunthill ; 120
A hot and hardy Rutherford,
Whom men called Dickon Draw-the-Sword.
He took it on the Page's saye,
Hunthill had driven these steeds away.
Then Howard, Home, and Douglas rose, 125
The kindling discord to compose :
Stern Rutherford right little said,
But bit his glove, and shook his head.
A fortnight thence, in Ingle wood,
Stout Conrad, cold, and drenched in blood, 120
His bosom gored with many a wound,
Was by a woodman's lyme-dog found;
Unknown the manner of his death,
128. Bit his glove. To bite the thumb or the glove was considered a
pledge of mortal vengeance.
132. Lyme-dog. A dog led by a band or string.
122 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTftEL. CANTO vi.
Gone was his brand, both sword and sheath ;
But ever from that time, 'twas said 135
That Dickon wore a Cologne blade.
The Dwarf, who feared his master's eye
Might his foul treachery espie,
Now sought the castle buttery,
Where many a yeoman, bold and free, 140
Revelled as merrily and well
As those that sat in lordly selle.
Watt Tinlinn, there, did frankly raise
The pledge to Arthur Fire-the-Braes ;
And he, as by his breeding bound, 145
To Howard's merry-men sent it round.
To quit them, on the English side,
Red Roland Forster loudly cried,
"A deep carouse to yon fair bride ! "
At every pledge, from vat and pail, 150
Foamed forth, in floods, the nut-brown ale ;
While shout the riders every one,
Such day of mirth ne'er cheered their clan,
Since old Buccleuch the name did gain,
When in the cleuch the buck was ta'en. 155
The wily Page, with vengeful thought,
Remembered him of Tinlinn's yew,
144. Arthur Fire-the-Braes. One of the Elliots of Liddesdale.
154. Buccleuch. This name was given to one of the early members of
that family, by the king of Scotland, for his great skill in capturing, in a
cleuch or valley, a buck that had distanced all the other hunters.
CANTO vi. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTKEL. 123
And swore, it should be dearly bought,
Tiiat ever he the arrow drew.
First, he the yeoman did molest, 160
With bitter gibe and taunting jest ;
Told, how he fled at Solway strife,
And how Hob Armstrong cheered his wife.
Then, shunning still his powerful arm,
At unawares he wrought him harm ; 165
From trencher stole his choicest cheer,
Dashed from his lips his can of beer,
Then, to his knee sly creeping on,
With bodkin pierced him to the bone :
The venomed wound, and festering joint, no
Long after rued that bodkin's point.
The startled yeoman swore and spurned,
And board and flagons overturned ;
Riot and clamor wild began ;
Back to the hall the urchin ran ; 175
Took in a darkling nook his post,
And grinned and muttered, " Lost ! lost ! lost ! "
By this, the Dame, lest further fray
Should mar the concord of the day,
Had bid the Minsjbrels tune their lay. iso
And first stept forth old Albert Grseme,
The Minstrel of that ancient name :
Was none who struck the harp so well,
Within the land Debateable ;
Well friended too, his hardy kin, 135
184. Land Debateable. Border land claimed by both England and
124 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO vi.
Whoever lost, were sure to win ;
They sought the beeves, that made their broth,
In Scotland and in England both.
In homely guise, as nature bade,
His simple song the Borderer sajd. 190
It was an English ladye brig n't, >
(The sun shines fair OIT Carlisle wall,)
And she would marry a Scottish knight,
For Love will still be lord of all.
Blithely they saw the rising sun, 195
When he shone fair on Carlisle wall,
But they were sad ere day was done,
Though Love was still the lord of all.
Her sire gave brooch and jewel fine,
Where the sun shines fair on Carlisle wall ; 200
Her brother gave but a flask of wine,
For ire that Love was lord of all.
For she had lands, both meadow and lee,
Where the sun shines fair on Carlisle wall,
And he swore her death, ere he would see 205
*A Scottish knight the lord of all !
That wine she had not tasted well,
(The sun shines fair on Carlisle wall ; )
When dead, in her true love'.s arms, she fell,
For Love was still the lord of all. 210
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 125
He pierced her brother to the heart,
Where the sun shines fair on Carlisle wall ;
So perish all, would true love part,
That Love may still be lord of all !
And then he took the cross divine, 215
Where the sun shines fair on Carlisle wall,
And died for her sake in Palestine,
So Love was still the lord of all.
Now all ye lovers that faithful prove,
(The sun shines fair on Carlisle wall,) 220
Pray for their souls, who died for love,
For Love shall still be lord of all !
As ended Albert's simple lay,
Arose a bard of loftier port ;
For sonnet, rhyme, and roundelay, 225
Renowned in haughty Henry's court:
There rung thy harp, unrivalled long,
Fitztraver of the silver song.
The gentle Surrey loved his lyre
Who has not heard of Surrey's fame? 230
His was the hero's soul of fire,
And his the bard's immortal name,
'And his was love, exalted, high
By all the glow of chivalry.
They sought, together, climes afar, 235
And oft, within some olive grove,
126 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO vi.
When evening came, with twinkling star,
They sung of Surrey's absent love.
His step the Italian peasant staid,
And deemed, that spirits from on high, 240
Round where some hermit saint was laid,
Were breathing heavenly melody ;
So sweet did heart and voice combine
To praise the name of Geraldine.
Fitztraver ! O what tongue may say 245
The pangs thy faithful bosom knew,
When Surrey, of the deathless lay,
Ungrateful Tudor's sentence slew?
Regardless of the tyrant's frown,
His harp called wrath and vengeance down. 250
He left, for Naworth's iron towers,
Windsor's green glades, and courtly bowers,
And, faithful to his patron's name,
With Howard still Fitztraver came ;
Lord William's foremost favorite he, 255
And chief of all his minstrelsy.
'Twas All-Souls' eve, and Surrey's heart beat high,
He heard the midnight-bell with anxious start,
Which told the mystic hour, approaching nigh,
248. Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, was beheaded on Tower Hill,
1546, by order of Henry VIII.
CANTO vi. LAY OF TIIK LAST M1NSTKEL. 127
When wise Cornelius promised, by his art, 2150
To show to him the ladye of his heart,
Albeit betwixt them roared the ocean grim ;
Yet so the sage had hight to play his part,
That he should see her form in life and limb,
And mark, if still she loved, and still she thought
of him. 2.35
Dark was the vaulted room of gramarye,
To which the wizard led the gallant knight,
Save that before a mirror, huge and high,
A hallowed taper shed a glimmering light
On mystic implements of magic might, 270
On cross, and character, and talisman,
And almagest, and altar, nothing bright:
For fitful was the lustre, pale and wan,
As watch-light, by the bed of some departing man.
But soon, within that mirror, huge and high, L >7.">
Was seen a self-emitted light to gleam ;
And forms upon its breast the earl 'gan sp}",
Cloudy and indistinct, as feverish dream ;
Till, slow arranging, and defined, they seem
To form a lordly and a lofty room, 280
Part lighted by a lamp with silver beam,
260. Wise Cornelius. Cornelias Agrippa, the celebrated alchemist. He
is said to have shown to Surrey, by his magic art, a vision of his lady love,
Gerald in e.
'J72. Almagest. A celebrated ancient book containing problems in
geometry and astrology, drawn up by Ptolemy.
128 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO vi.
Placed by a- couch of Agra's silken loom,
And part by moonshine pale, and part was hid in
Fair all the pageant but how passing fair
The slender form, which lay on couch of Ind! 285
O'er her white bosom strayed her hazel hair,
Pale her dear cheek, as if for love she pined ;
All in her night-robe loose, she lay reclined,
And, pensive, read from tablet eburnine
Some strain, that seemed her inmost soul to
find : 290
That favored strain was Surrey's raptured line,
That fair and lovely form, the Ladye Geraldine.
Slow rolled the clouds upon the lovely form,
And swept the goodly vision all away
So royal envy rolled the murky storm 205
O'er my beloved Master's glorious day.
Thou jealous, ruthless tyrant! Heaven repay
On thee, and on thy children's latest line,
The wild caprice of thy despotic sway,
The gory bridal bed, the plundered shrine, 300
The murdered Surrey's blood, the tears of Geraldine.
Both Scots, and Southern chiefs, prolong
Applauses of Fitztraver's song :
289. Eburnine. Ivory,
CANTO vi. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 129
These hated Henry's name as death,
And those still held the ancient faith. ^ 305
Then, from his seat, with loft} r air,
Rose Harold, bard of brave St. Clair ;
St. Clair, who, feasting high at Home,
Plad with that Lord to battle come.
Harold was born where restless seas 310
Howl round the storm-swept Orcades;
Where erst St. Glairs held princely sway,
O'er isle and islet, strait and bay;
Still nods their palace to its fall,
Thy pride and sorrow, fair Kirk wall! 315
Thence oft he marked fierce Pentland rave,
As if grim Odin rode her wave ;
And watched, the whilst, with visage pale,
And throbbing heart, the struggling sail ;
For all of wonderful and wild 320
Had rapture for the lonely child.
And much of wild and wonderful,
In these rude isles, might fancy cull ;
For thither came, in times afar,
S'tern Lochlin's sons of roving war, 325
The Norsemen, trained to spoil and blood,
Skilled to prepare the raven's food ;
Kings of the main their leaders brave,
Their barks the dragons of the wave.
315. Kirkwall. Built by the St. Clairs while Earls of Orkney ; disman-
tled about 1615, on account of being garrisoned against the government.
31G. Pentland. Pentland Firth.
:JL M .). Dragons of the wave. The Scandinavian Vikings, or Sea-rovers,
often had a carved dragon for the figure-head of their ships.
130 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO vi.
And there, in many a stormy vale, 330
The Scald had told his wondrous tale ;
And many a Runic column high
Had witnessed grim idolatry.
And thus had Harold, in his youth,
Learned many a Saga's rhyme uncouth, 335
Of that Sea-Snake, tremendous curled,
Whose monstrous circle girds the world ;
Of those dread Maids, whose hideous yell
Maddens the battle's bloody swell;
Of chiefs, who, guided through the gloom 340
By the pale death-lights of the tomb,
Ransacked the graves of warriors old,
Their falchions wrenched from corpses' hold,
Waked the deaf tomb with war's alarms,
And bade the dead arise to arms ! 345
With war and wonder all on flame,
To Roslin's bowers young Harold came,
Where, by sweet glen and greenwood tree,
He learned a milder minstrelsy ;
Yet something of the Northern spell 350
Mixed with the softer numbers well.
331. Scald. The bard of the Norsemen.
332. Runic column. Column with a Norse inscription.
336. Sea-Snake. The Midgard serpent that the Norsemen supposed
encircled the world, holding his tail in his mouth.
338. Dread Maids. The three maidens, who, according to Norse my-
thology, were sent by Odin, the All-Father, to choose who were to die in
342. Ransacked the graves. The Norse warriors were usually buried
with their weapons. Many of these weapons were of great value, and
tempted plunderers, who, as tradition runs, had fierce battles with the
ghosts of the dead.
CANTO vi. LAY OF THE LAST MLNSTUEL. 131
O listen, listen, ladies gay !
No haughty feat of arms I tell :
Soft is the note, and sad the lay,
That mourns the lovely Rosabelle. 355
" Moor, moor the barge, ye gallant crew !
And, gentle ladye, deign to stay !
Rest thee in Castle Ravensheuch,
Nor tempt the stormy firth to-day.
" The blackening wave is edged with white ; ,%o
To inch and rock the sea-mews fly;
The fishers have heard the Water Sprite,
Whose screams forebode that wreck is nigh.
"Last night the gifted seer did view
A wet shroud swathed round ladye gay ; 305
Then stay thee, Fair, in Ravensheuch :
Why cross the gloomy firth to-day ? "
" 'Tis not because Lord Lindesay's lieu-
To-night at Roslin leads the ball,
But that my Lady e-m other there 370
Sits lonely in her castle-hall.
" 'Tis not because the ring they ride,
And Lindesay at the ring rides well,
355. Rosabelle. This was a family name in the house of St. Clair.
358. Castle Ravensheuch. A castle belonging to the St. Glairs, on a
steep crag overlooking the Firth of Forth.
361. Inch. Isle.
132 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO vi.
Bat that my sire the wine will chide,
If 'tis not filled by Rosabelle." 375
O'er Roslin all that dreary night
A wondrous blaze was seen to gleam ;
'Twas broader than the watch-fire light,
And redder than the bright moonbeam.
It glared on Roslin's castled rock, 3o
It ruddied all the copse-wood glen ;
'Twas seen from Dryden's groves of oak,
And seen from caver ned Hawthorn den.
Seemed all on fire that chapel proud,
Where Roslin's chiefs uncofrmed lie ; 355
Each Baron, for a sable shroud,
Sheathed in his iron panoply.
Seemed all on fire within, around,
Deep sacristy and altar's pale ;
Shone every pillar foliage-bound, syo
And glimmered all the dead men's mail.
Blazed battlement and pinnet high,
Blazed every rose-carved buttress fair
So still they blaze, when fate is nigh
The lordly line of high St. Clair. 395
376. Roslin. Roslin Castle, seven miles southeast of Edinburgh.
384. Seemed all on fire. Koslin chapel is said to appear on fire at the
death of any of the St. Clairs.
387. Iron panoply. The Barons of Roslin, the St. Clairs, were buried
in their armor in a vault beneath the chapel floor.
<AMO vi. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 133
There are twenty of Roslin's barons bold
Lie buried within that* proud chapelle;
Each one the holy vault doth hold
But the sea holds lovely Rosabelle.
And each St. Clair was buried there, 400
With candle, with book, and with knell ;
But the sea-caves rung, and the wild winds sung,
The dirge of lovely Rosabelle.
So sweet was Harold's piteous lay,
Scarce marked the guests the darkened hall, 40:.
Though, long before the sinking day,
A wondrous shade involved them all :
It was not eddying mist or fog,
Drained by the sun from fen or bog;
Of no eclipse had sages told ; 410
And yet, as it came on apace,
Each one could scarce his neighbor's face,
Could scarce his own stretched hand, behold.
A secret horror checked the feast,
And chilled the soul of every guest; 4ir>
Even the high Dame stood half aghast,
She knew some evil on the blast ;
The elfish Page fell to the ground,
And, shuddering, muttered, " Found ! found ! found ! "
Then sudden through the darkened air 4L o
A flash of lightning came ;
So broad, so bright, so red the glare,
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO vi.
The castle seemed yi flame ;
Glanced every rafter of the hall,
Glanced every shield upon the wall; 425
Each trophied beam, each sculptured stone,
Were instant seen, and instant gone;
Full through the guests' bedazzled band
Resistless flashed the levin-brand,
And filled the hall with smouldering smoke, 4,-;o
As on the elfish Page it broke.
It broke, with thunder long and loud,
Dismayed the brave, appalled the proud,
From sea to sea the larum rung;
On Berwick wall, and at Carlisle withal, 4;$
To arms the startled warders sprung.
When ended was the dreadful roar,
The elvish Dwarf was seen no more !
Some heard a voice in Branksome Hall,
Some saw a sight not seen by all ; 440
That dreadful voice was heard by some,
Cry, with loud summons, " GYLBIN, COME ! "
And on the spot where burst the brand,
Just where the Page had flung him down,
Some saw an arm, and some a hand, 41.-,
And some the waving of a gown.
The guests in silence prayed and shook,
And terror dimmed each lofty look:
But none of all the astonished train
Was so dismayed as Deloraine : 450
429. Levin-brand. Thumlcrbolt.
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 135
His blood did freeze, his brain did burn,
'Twas feared his mind would ne'er return ;
For he was speechless, ghastly, wan,
Like him, of whom the story ran,
Who spoke the spectre-hound in Man. 455
At length, by fits, he darkly told,
With broken hint, and shuddering cold
That he had seen right certainly,
A shape with amice wrapped around,
With a ivrought Spanish baldric bound, 4GO
Like a pilgrim from beyond the sea;
And knew but how, it mattered not
It was the wizard, Michael Scott.
The anxious crowd, with horror pale,
All trembling, heard the wondrous tale ; 4^
No sound was made, no word was spoke,
Till noble Angus silence broke ;
And he a solemn sacred plight
Did to St. Bryde of Douglas make,
That he a pilgrimage would take 470
To Mel rose Abbey, for the sake
Of Michael's restless sprite.
Then each, to ease his troubled breast,
To some blessed saint his prayers addressed
Some to St. Modan made their vows, 47-,
Some to St. Mary of the Lowes,
455. Spectre-hound. The Manthe Doog, a black spaniel, supposed to
haunt Peel Castle in the Isle of Man.
469. St. Bryde of Douglas. The favorite saint of the house of Douglas,
and of the Earl of Angus in particular.-
136 LAY. OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO vi.
Some to the Holy Rood of Lisle,
Some to our Lady of the Isle ;
Each did his patron witness make,
That he such pilgrimage would take. 480
And monks should sing, and bells should toll,
All for the weal of Michael's soul.
While vows were ta'en, and prayers were prayed,
'Tis said the noble Dame, dismayed,
Renounced, for aye, dark magic's aid. 485
Naught of the bridal will I tell,
Which after in short space befell ;
Nor how brave sons and daughters fair
Blessed Teviot's Flower and Cranstoun's heir;
After such dreadful scene, 'twere vain 490
To wake the note of mirth again ;
More meet it were to mark the day
Of penitence and prayer divine,
When pilgrim-chiefs, in sad array,
Sought Melrose' holy shrine. 495
With naked foot, and sackcloth vest,
And arms enfolded on his breast,
Did every pilgrim go ;
The standers-by might hear uneath,
Footstep, or voice, or high-drawn breath, 500
Through all the lengthened row :
No lordly look, no martial stride,
499. Uneath. Scarcely.
CANTO vi. LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. 137
Gone was their glory, sunk their pride,
Forgotten their renown ;
Silent and slow, like ghosts, they glide 505
To the high altar's hallowed side,
And there they kneeled them down;
Above the suppliant chieftains wave
The banners of departed brave ;
Beneath the lettered stones were laid r>io
The ashes of their fathers dead ;
From many a garnished niche around,
Stern saints, and tortured martyrs, frowned.
And slow up the dim aisle afar,
With sable cowl and scapular, 515
And snow-white stoles, in order due,
The holy Fathers, two and two,
In long procession came ;
Taper, and host, and book they bare,
And holy banner, flourished fair 520
With the Redeemer's name :
Above the prostrate pilgrim band
The mitred Abbot stretched his hand,
And blessed them as they kneeled :
With holy cross he signed them all, 525
And prayed they might be sage in hall,
And fortunate in field.
Then mass was sung, and prayers were said,
And solemn requiem for the dead ;
And bells tolled out their mighty peal, 5:^0
For the departed spirit's weal ;
And ever in the office close
138 LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL. CANTO vi.
The hymn of intercession rose :
And far the echoing aisles prolong
The awful burden of the song, 535
DIES IR^E, DIES ILLA,
SOLVET S^ECLUM IN FA VILLA,
While the pealing organ rung ;
Were it meet with sacred strain
To close my lay, so light and vain, 540
Thus the holy Fathers sung.
HYMN FOR THE DEAD.
That day of wrath, that dreadful day,
When heaven and earth shall pass away,
What power shall be the sinner's stay?
How shall he meet that dreadful day? 545
When, shrivelling like a parched scroll,
The flaming heavens together roll ;
When louder yet, and yet more dread,
Swells the high trump that wakes the dead ;
O ! on that day, that wrathful day, 550
When man to judgment wakes from clay,
Be THOU the trembling sinner's stay,
Though heaven and earth shall pass away !
HUSHED is the harp the Minstrel gone.
And did he wander forth alone ? 555
Alone, in indigence and age,
To linger out his pilgrimage ?
No close beneath proud Newark's tower,
Arose the Minstrel's lowly bower ;
CANTO vi. LAY OF THE LAST M1NSTKEL. 139
A simple hut; but there was seen 5HO
The little garden hedged with green,
The cheerful hearth, and lattice clean.
There sheltered wanderers, by the blaze,
Oft heard the tale of other days;
For much he loved to ope his door, 505
And give the aid he begged before.
So passed the winter's day; but still,
When summer smiled on sweet Bowhill,
And July's eve, with balmy breath,
Waved the blue-bells on Newark-heath ; 570
When throstles sung in Harehead-shaw,
And corn was green on Carterhaugh,
And ilourished, broad, Blackandro's oak,
The aged Harper's soul awoke !
Then would he sing achievements high, 575
And circumstance of chivalry,
Till the rapt traveller would stay,
Forgetful of the closing day ;
And noble youths, the strain to hear,
Forsook the hunting of the deer ; 580
And Yarrow, as he rolled along,
Bore burden to the Minstrel's song.
INDEX TO NOTES
[THE NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.]
A Home, 97.
An cram, 86.
Anna, Duchess of Buccleuch, 8.
Arthur Fire-the-Braes, 122.
BarnhilPs Bed, 25.
Belted Will Howard, 72.
Better knee, 81.
Bilboa blade, 104.
Bit his glove, 121.
Blanche Lion, 89.
Bloody Heart, <>7,
Book-bosomed priest, 52.
Book of Might, 38.
Branksome Tower, 13.
By oath, 86.
Castle Ravensheuch, 131.
Chief of Otterburn, :>4.
Christian gore, 53.
Clarence Flantagenet, ( J7.
Crescent and Star, 22.
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL.
David I, 30.
Dragons of the wave, 129.
Dread Maids, 130.
Drove my cows, 72.
Dumpenden Law, 64.
Eildon hills, 36.
Fastern night, 72.
Fleeting wraith, 112.
Flemen's firth, 85.
Flower of Yarrow, 74.
Francis Scott, 8.
His form no darkening shadow
Henry Howard, 126.
Iron panoply, 132.
James Douglas, 34.
Kirk wall, 129.
Knighthood he took, 86.
Knight of Liddesdale, 34.
Knights of fame, 14.
Land Debateable, 123.
Leven Clans, 65.
Lion argent, 84.
Lists, 91, 110.
Lord Walter, 15.
March treason, 85.
Michael Scott, 35.
Midnight lauds, 27.
Mighty dead, 23.
Minto's crags, 25.
Moat-hill mound, 24.
Mount for Branksome, 62.
Mutual pilgrimage, 16.
No darkening shadow, 18.
Notre Dame, 36.
Ousenam, 92, 101.
Percy's best blood-hounds, 22.
Ransacked the graves, 130.
Roman way, 25.
Runic column, 130.
Rushy floor, 13.
Salved the splinter, 60.
Scottish Monarch, 35.
Seemed all on fire, 132.
Seething pitch, 83.
Seven spears of Wedderburn, 97.
Snafle, spur, and spear, 113.
Souls' repose, 31.
St. Bryde of Douglas, 135.
The jovial Harper, 91.
Threatened Branksome 's lordly
To gain his spurs, 82.
Twanged the yew, 71.
Tynedale men, 65.
Tynedale snatchers, 70.
LAY OF THE LAST MINSTREL.
Walter Scott, Earl of Succleuch, 8, 15.
Walter Scott of Harden, 74.
Wardeu raid, 71.
William of Deloraine, 22.
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vital essence of the great English
dramatist, and equally qualified by
insight and study to penetrate the
deepest significance of his writings,
it would be difficult to name an Eng-
lish or American scholar who can be
compared with the editor of this
Hudson's Life, Art, and Characters of Shake-
speare (Revised Edition, 1882).
By HENRY N. HUDSON, LL.D., Editor of The Harvard Shakespeare, etc.
In 2 vols. 12mo. 969 pages. Uniform in size with The Harvard Shake-
speare, and matches it in the following bindings :
Retail Price, $4.00 per set.
" " 8.00 "
two volumes contain: The Life of Shakespeare; An
Historical Sketch of the Origin and Growth of the Drama in
England; Shakespeare's Contemporaries; Shakespeare's Art, discus-
sing under this head, Nature and Use of Art, Principles of Art,
Dramatic Composition, Characterization, Humour, Style, Moral
Spirit; Shakespeare's Characters, containing critical discourses on
twenty-five of the Plays.
London Athenaeum : They deserve
to find a place in every library de-
veted to Shakespeare, to editions of
his works, to his biography, or to the
works of commentators.
Hudson's Classical English Reader.
For High Schools, Academies, and the upper grades of Grammar Schools.
12mo. Cloth. 425 pages. Mailing Price, $1.10 ; Introduction, $1.00 ;
Allowance for old book in use, 30 cents.
TT contains selections from Bryant, Burke, Burns, Byron, Car-
lyle, Coleridge, Cowley, Co\vper, Dana, Froude, Gladstone,
Goldsmith, Gray, Helps, Herbert, Hooker, Hurne, Irving, Keble,
Lamb, Landor, Longfellow, Macaulay, Milton, Peabody, Scott,
Shakespeare, Southey, Spenser, Talfourd, Taylor, Webster, Whit-
tier, Wordsworth, and other standard authors, with explanatory
and critical foot-notes. This is a book that seems to merit a place
in every school of advanced grade below the college.
F. J. Child, Prof, of English in
Harvard University : A boy who
knew this book as well as boys who
are good for anything generally know
their readers, might almost be said
to be liberally educated.
Essays on Education, English Studies, and Shake-
By HENRY N. HUDSON, LL.D., the Eminent Shakespearian. Square
16mo. Paper. 118 pages. Mailing Price, 25 cents.
rpHE volume contains : The Preface to the new edition of Ham-
let, An Essay on " English in Schools," " Shakespeare as a
Text-Book," "How to Use Shakespeare in Schools:'
Hudson's Text-Booh of Poetry.
By H. N. HUDSON, LL.D. 12mo. Cloth. 694 pages. Mailing Price,
$1.40 ; Introduction, $1.25.
^ELECTIONS from Wordsworth, Coleridge, Burns, Beattie,
Goldsmith, and Thomson. With sketches of the authors'
lives, and instructive foot-notes, historical and explanatory.
Hudson's Text-Booh of Prose.
By H. N. HUDSON, LL.D. 12mo. Cloth.
$1.40; Introduction, $1.25.
636 pages. Mailing Price,
ROM Burke, Webster, and Bacon. With sketches of the
authors' lives, and foot-notes, historical and explanatory.
HIGHER ENGLISH. 17
Hudson's Selections of Prose and Poetry.
Annotated. 12mo. Paper. Mailing Price of each, 20 cents ; Introduc
tion Price, 15 cents.
Edmund Burke. SECTION 1. Five Speeches and ten Papers. SEC
TION 2. A Sketch of his Life. A Letter to a Noble Lord, and eleven
Daniel Webster. SECTION 1. The Reply to Hayne, and six extracts
SECTION 2. A Sketch of his Life, and extracts from twenty-five
Lord Bacon. A Sketch of his Life, and extracts from thirty Essays.
Wordsworth. SECTION I. Life of Wordsworth, the Prelude, and thirty-
three Poems. SECTION II. Sixty Poems and Sonnets, accompanied
by foot-notes, historical and explanatory.
Coleridge and Burns. Biographies of the Poets, and forty-five Poems.
Add/son and Goldsmith. A Life of each, fifteen Papers from Addison,
and eleven Prose Selections from Goldsmith, with The Deserted Village.
Craik's English of Shakespeare.
Illustrated in a Philological Commentary on Julius Csesar. By GEORGE
L. GRAIK, Queen's College, Belfast. Edited, from the third revised
London edition, by W. J. KOLFE, Cambridge, Mass. 16mo. Cloth. 386
pages. Mailing Price, $1.00 ; Introduction, 90 cents.
A N" exposition in regard both to the language or style of Shake-
speare, and to the English language generally.
Notes on Shakspere's Versification, with Appendix on the Verse Tests,
and a short Descriptive Bibliography. By (TEORGE H. BROWNE, A.M.
12mo. Paper. 34 pages. Price, interleaved, 25 cents.
Shakespeare and Chaucer Examinations.
Edited, with some remarks on the " Class-Room Study of Shakespeare,"
by WILLIAM TAYLOR THOM, M.A., Professor of English in Rollins In-
stitute, Va. Square IGmo. Cloth. 346 pages. Mailing Price, $1.10;
for introduction, $1.00.
rrillTS is a revised and enlarged edition of the Two Shakespeare
Examinations, published several years and very much liked by
teachers of English Literature. That book contained two exami-
nations held at Hollins Institute in 1881, on Hamlet; in 1882, on
Macbeth, for the annual prize by the New Shakespeare Society of
England. Besides these, there are in the new edition the Exami-
nations on King Lear (1883), on Othello (1884), on The Merchant
of Venice (1886); a Chaucer Examination (1886), set chiefly by
Professor Child, of Harvard University, and based upon the " Pro-
logue," " The Knight's Tale," and the " Nun's Priest's Tale " ot
the Canterbury Tales , and some additional remarks on the StuJy
of Shakespeare in Schools and in Shakespeare Reading Clubs.
W. M. Baskervill, Prof, in Van-
derbilt University, in the "Nashville
American": Many essays, newspaper
articles, lectures, and papers on the
teaching of English have in the last
ten or fifteen years appeared, but we
do not hesitate to give the palm to
this hook. It is eminently practical.
Professor Thorn has availed himself
of all the hints, suggestions, and
methods offered hy Hale, Hudson, [
Abhott, Rolfe, and others, and hy
means of a burning enthusiasm has,
as every true teacher must do in
order to win the highest success,
shaped theory and practice into a
perfect system of his own, from which ;
he gets the best results. These ex- |
animations give the high-water mark
of the study of English ]n the col-
leges of this country. . . . We heartily
recommend these examinations to
teachers. They are full of sugges-
tive information. They will serve
as admirable models.
Edward S. Joynes, Prof, of Eng-
lish, South Carolina College, Colum-
bia : This beautiful book is an honor
to American scholarship. I hope that
American scholars will show a just
appreciation of it.
Frank Koane, Teacher of English
Literature, High School , LyncJihnrg,
Va. : I found the first edition of this
little book most valuable and sug-
gestive, and from even a cursory
examination I am assured of the en-
hanced value of this one. For teach-
ers and pupils just entering the field
of Shakespearian study, a class
largely on the increase in our land,
this book will be found almost in-
Francis J. Child, Prof, of English,
Jlan-ard University : No one can
fail to see that literature is taught
at the Hollins Institute in a way
altogether admirable. All the papers
show knowledge, taste, and thought,
and if anything remains to be added,
it is that they are all well written.
I agree with the author in all the
important points of his paper on
the study of Shakspere. Literature
is the one indispensable study for
women and for men, and Shakspere
in literature. I mean by Shakspere
about half his plays.
John F. Genung, Prof, of Rhet-
oric, Atnhcrst College : The great
problem in the teaching of English
literature is, how to combine the req-
uisite thoroughness in detail on the
one hand with the larger interest
due to the spirit of the literature on
the other. Professor Thorn's book
outlines a method that, in my judg-
ment, very happily solves this prob-
lem : and the really remarkable
examination papers here published
prove that the method has succeeded.
Arnold's English Literature.
Historical and Critical.
With an Appendix on English Metres, and Summaries of the Different
Literary Periods. By THOMAS ARNOLD, M.A., of University College,
Oxford. American edition. Revised. 12mo. Cloth. 558 pages. Mail-
ing Price, 31.65; Introduction (with or without the following pamphlet),
$1.50; Allowance for old book, 40 cents.
The Anglo-Saxon and Norman Periods have been republished, from
the fourth revised English edition, and can be furnished in paper bind-
ing. Mailing Price, 30 cents; Introduction, 25 cents.
HHHE student of this manual will receive just impressions of the
relative value of names and books, as well as political and re-
ligious influences. Indeed, the adjustment and arrangement of mar
terial are managed with wonderful dexterity and analytic clearness.
H. H. Morgan, Prin. of High
School, St. Louis, Mo.: I should
most fully recommend it to any
one whose interest in literature was
that of the student ; for he would
find much which could otherwise
be obtained only by extensive read-
First Two Books of Milton's Paradise Lost;
and Milton's Lycicfas.
By HOMER B. SPRAGUE, Ph.D., formerly Principal of the Girls' High
School, Boston. 12mo. Cloth. 198 pages. Mailing Price, 55 cents; In-
troduction, 45 cents.
ri^HIS edition furnishes convenient and suggestive notes, with
excellent type and arrangement, and presents an approved
formula for conducting class exercises. It omits fifteen or twenty
William F. Warren, President of] me admirably adapted to its pur-
Boston University : It seems to j pose.
A Hand-Booh of Poetics.
For Students of English Verse. By FRANCIS B. GUMMERE, Ph.D.,
Head Master of the Swain Free School, New Bedford, Mass., and for-
merly Instructor in English in Harvard College. 12mo. Cloth, vi + 250
pages. Mailing Price, $1.10; for Introduction, $1.00.
rpHE book has three divisions, Subject-Matter, Style, Metre.
Each is treated from two points of view, the historical, trac-
ing the growth of different kinds of subject, of expression, or of
rhythm; and the theoretical, stating clearly the principles and
laws of the matter discussed.
F. A. March, Prof, of English Lit-
erature, Lafayette College: An ex-
cellent book : a work of good sense
and good taste, and much learning
in small compass.
J. M. Garnett, Pro/, of English
Literature, University of Virginia :
It has fulfilled my anticipations, and
it supplies a real deficiency in text-
books. I do not know, anywhere iu
English, of a better treatment of tLe
F. J. Child, Prof, of English, Har.
vard College: I think you have an
exceedingly fine book in Mr. Gum-
Outlines of the Art of Expression.
By J. H. GILMORE, Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and English, in the
University of Rochester, N.T. 12mo. Cloth. 117 pages. Mailing Price,
65 cents ; Introduction, 60 cents.
A TREATISE on English Composition and Rhetoric, designed
"^" especially for Academies, High Schools, and the Freshman
Class in Colleges.
Fulton and Trueblood's Choice Readings.
From Popular and Standard Authors.
Compiled and arranged by ROBERT I. FULTON and THOMAS C. TRUE-
BLOOD, Associate Founders and Directors of the University School of
Oratory, Kansas City, Mo., and Teachers of Elocution in the Univ. of
Mich., the Ohio Wesleyan Univ., the Kentucky Univ., and the Missouri
State Univ. 12mo. 722 pages. By Mail, $1.65; Introduction, $1.50.
Presentation edition, stamped cover, full gilt, fine paper, $4.00 retail.
TTS distinctive feature is the number, variety, and interest of
the pieces, classified according to their character, and covering
the entire range of available selections. Indices are given to
the best scenes from all the plays of Shakespeare, 139 choice
readings from the Bible, and 159 hymns, all classified. A com-
plete diagram of the principles of vocal expression is added.
J. W. Churchill, Prof, of Elocu-
tion, Theological Seminary, An-
dover, Mass. : The excellent purpose
of the authors has been very success-
fully accomplished, both in the ex-
pository and illustrative material.
The selections are interesting some-
times through novelty, but more
often because of their intrinsic worth.
Wm. B. Chamberlain, Instructor
in Elocution, Oberlin College, 0.:
They are choice indeed. I think I
do not know of any collection repre-
senting so many good authors and
so well arranged. The indices, espe-
cially that to scenes from Shake-
speare, form a very valuable addition
to the volume. (June 11, 1885.)
HIGHER ENGLISH. 21
Fulton & Trueblood's Chart
Illustrating the Principles of Vocal Expression.
By ROBERT I. FULTON & T. C. TRUEBLOOD, compilers of Fulton &
Trueblood's Choice Readings. Printed on extra tough paper, 3(5 x GO
inches, bound on the edges, and mounted. Retail price, $2.00. Special
introduction terms on application.
rr^IIE chart presents a complete system of. vocal culture and elo-
- cution at a glance, thus avoiding the necessity of turning the
leaves of a book or a series of charts. The principles are scien-
tifically arranged and supplemented with diagrams, exercises, and
The chart is recommended to professional elocutionists, no mat-
ter what school or system they represent ; to all students of vocal
culture and expression, as an invaluable aid in private practice,
suggesting a regular, systematic, and judicious drill the most
imperative condition of success ; and to the teachers in the public
schools, enabling them to develop the voices of children and im-
press upon them the principles of correct expression.
F. H. Sargent, Prin. New York
School of Actin</: I find it an ex-
ceedingly good exposition of the Rush
system of voice training. I shall be
glad to recommend it as I have op-
portunity. (Jan. 14, 1888.)
A Method of English Composition.
By T. WHITING BANCROFT, Professor of Rhetoric and English Litera-
ture in Brown University. 12mo. Cloth. 96 pages. Mailing Price,
55 cents ; Introduction Price, 50 cents.
rplIE author's intention is to furnish to colleges, academies, and
~ high schools a brief system of instruction in the preparation
of essays or compositions. The second part consists of lists of
classified themes, with specimens of plans of compositions, etc.
E. E. Smith, Prof, of English and
History, Purdue University, Lafay-
ette, Ind. : I have used it with an
advanced class to decided advan-
tage. The divisions and the sug-
gestive arrangement of the various
kinds of subjects that may be treated
in essays, orations, .and debates, is
such. I found, as to remove unneces-
sary obstacles, and at the same time
to require thought on the student's
Lee's Graphic Chart of English Literature.
By Y. P. LEE, of Yale College. Printed on tough rnanilla paper 24 x 39
in size. Mailing Price, oO cents; for introduction, 25 cents.
The Leading Facts of English History.
By D. H. MONTGOMERY. New edition. Rewritten and enlarged, with
Maps and Tables. 12mo. Cloth. 448 pages. Mailing Price, $1.25.
Introduction Price, $1.12; Allowance for old book. 40 cents.
rpHE former edition has been rewritten, as it had become evi-
~ dent that a work on the same plan, but more comprehensive,
and better suited to prevailing courses and methods of class-work,
would be still more heartily welcomed.
Important events are treated with greater fulness, and the rela-
tion of English History to that of Europe and the world is carefully
shown. References for further study are added.
The text is in short paragraphs, each with a topical heading in
bold type for the student's use. The headings may be made to
serve the purpose of questions. By simply passing them over, the
reader has a clear, continuous narrative.
The treatment of each reign is closed with a brief summary of
its principal points. Likewise, at the end of each period there is a
section showing the condition of the country, and its progress in
Government, Religion, Military Affairs, Learning and Art, General
Industry, Manners and Customs. These summaries will be found
of the greatest value for reference, review, and fuller study ; but
when the book is used for a brief course, or for general reading,
they may be omitted.
No pains have been spared to make the execution of the work
equal to its plan. Vivid touches here and there betray the author's
mastery of details. Thorough investigation has been made of all
points where there was reason to doubt traditional statements. The
proof-sheets have been carefully read by two experienced high-
school teachers, and also by two college professors of history.
The text is illustrated with fourteen maps, and supplemented
with full genealogical and chronological tables.
It is believed that this book will be acknowledged superior
1. In interest, 2. In accuracy.
3. In judicious selection of matter.
4. In conciseness combined with adequacy.
5. In philosophical insight free from speculation or theorizing.
6. In completeness.
7. In availability as a practical class-room book.
Send for the special circular, from which, are taken
the following Representative Opinions :
Hon. E. J. Phelps, United States
Minister to Great Britain: In my
opinion, the author has done ex-
tremely well a much-needed work,
in presenting in so terse, clear, and
available form the principal points
in that greatest of all histories, the
common property and most useful
study of the English-speaking race.
Professor Goldwin Smith: The
book, besides being very attractive
in appearance, seems to be very suit-
able for the purpose in view, viz., to
present school pupils with a clear
and intelligent idea of the main facts
of English history in connection with
the social and industrial development
of the nation.
E. B. Andrews, Prof, of History,
Brown University : I do not remem-
ber to have seen any book before
which sets forth the leading facts of
English History so succinctly, and
at the same time so interestingly
A. L. Perry, Prof, of Political
Economy, Williams College : I have
never seen anything at all equal to
it for the niche it was intended to fill.
J. B. Clark, Prof, of History, Smith
College : 1 especially like its intro-
duction of matter relating to the life
of the people, in a way that seems to
make the narrative less dry, rather
than more so, as so often happens.
Jas. F. Colby, Prof, of Law and
Political Science, Dartmouth Col-
lege : Its title is a true description of
its contents. Its author shows sense
of proportion, and wisely gives prom-
inence to economic facts and the
development of constitutional prin-
ciples. (Oct. 27, 1887.)
P. V. N. Myers, Pres. of Bclmont
Colleye : The book was an admirable
one as first issued, but the careful
revision and the addition of maps and
tables have added grsatly to its value.
In my judgment it is by far the best
English History for school-room use
now before the public.
W. F. Allen, Prof, of History, Uni-
versity of Wisconsin, Madison : As
I have said in relation to the earlier
edition, the author has succeeded in
an unusual degree in telling the story
of English History in an interesting
and suggestive manner, keeping clear
of the prevailing fault of loading his
pages with unessential names and
dates. (Nov. 22, 1887.)
F. B. Palmer, Ph.D., Prin. of State
Normal School, Fredonia, N.Y.: I
have not examined anything that
seems to me equal to it for a class in
John Fiske, Prof, of History,
Washington University : It seems
to me excellent.
Francis A. Cooke, Teacher of
History, Penn Charter School, Phil-
adelphia, Pa. : My verdict on Mont-
gomery's History is unqualified
approval. I have not seen a text-
book upon English History so well
adapted to school use.
C. B. Gilbert, Prin. of High School,
St. Paul, Minn. : In many respects I
consider it the best text-book on
English History for high schools that
I have seen. Its arrangement is ex-
cellent, its style clear and very at-
tractive. (Nov. 22, 1887.)
Frank E. Pluminer, Prin. of High
School, /Ms Moines, la. : I examined
it very carefully, and pronounce it
the best English History for high-
school use of any with which I am
familiar. (Nov. 29, 1887.)
English History Reader.
By D. H. MONTGOMERY. 12mo. Cloth, xxxiv + 254 pages, with a
colored map. Mailing Price, 85 cents; for introduction, 75 cents.
is the first edition of Montgomery's Leading Facts of Eng-
lish History. The book has clearly demonstrated its value for'
reading purposes, and the price has been reduced to make it gen-
erally available for this use.
W. P. Atkinson, Pro/, of English
and History, Massachusetts Institute
of Technology, Boston: It is that
uncommon kind of book, a readable
short sketch. It is fresh and vigor-
Pilgrims and Puritans.
ous, and the references seem to me
very well selected. I cordially rgc-
ommend it to all students and teach-,
ers of English history.
(Jan. 3, 1886.)
By Miss N. MOORE. Square 16mo. Cloth, viii + 197 pages. Illustrated.
Mailing Price, 70 cents; for introduction, 60 cents.
is a book of easy reading, containing sketches of the early
days of Massachusetts, Massachusetts Indians, the Pilgrims
of Plymouth, English Boston, William Blackstone, John Winthrop,
Extracts from Wood^s New England's Prospect, with notes and
It is intended for children who have not yet begun or are just
beginning the study of United States History, and to supplement
or prepare the way for the ordinary text-book. It has already
been used by children under ten years of age. It is provided with
maps and illustrations.
The Reader's Guide to English History.
By WILLIAM FRANCIS ALLEN, A.M., Professor in the University of
Wisconsin. Long 8vo. Paper. 50 pages. Mailing Price, 30 cents ;
Introduction, 25 cents. The Supplement can be had separately; Mailing
Price-, 10 cents.
nPHE arrangement is that of four parallel columns upon two
opposite pages : the first column giving the English sovereigns ;
the second, histories, biographies, and essays; the third, novels,
poems, and dramas illustrating that period of English history;
the fourth, the same class of works, illustrating contemporary
Washington and His Country.
By WASHINGTON IRVING and JOHN FISKE. 654 pages, including 13
maps. 12mo. Cloth. Mailing price, $1.10 ; for introduction, $1.00.
QUESTIONS, prepared to facilitate the use of the work as a text-book
of United States history will be published in April.
fT^HIS consists of Irving's Life of Washington, judiciously abridged
by John Fiske, and supplemented with an Introduction and a
Continuation by Mr. Fiske that make the work in effect a His-
tory of the United States. It is anticipated that this History
will be cordially welcomed and will exert a great influence upon
present methods and courses of study. It will be found to com-
bine many peculiar excellences.
1. History is taught through biography. This secures the great-
est interest, unity, and clearness, and, at the same time, the greatest
2. The history is presented in a readable outline. The salient
points are fully and vividly set forth, and cannot fail to impress
the memory and the imagination.
3. The pupil has before him in this book the thought and lan-
guage of an acknowledged master of English.
4. The abridging and the supplementing have been done by one
exceptionally competent. The Introduction and the Continuation
are masterly sketches, unequalled by anything hitherto published.
Thus, while acquiring a knowledge of facts and events, the pupil
is gaining a love for history and literature, moulding his diction by
a classic author, and ennobling his character by contemplating one
of the grandest types of humanity. There will be less of mechani-
cal study and more of the real, less committing to memory of
trivial facts, and a firmer grasp of the important ones.
W. E. Buck, Supt. of Schools,
Manchester, N,H. : I cannot think
f another book so desirable for col- M> Balliet> 8vptt of
lateral reading by pupils studying
history in the common schools.
E. H. Russell, Prin. of Normal
School, Worcester, Mass. : I have
for years. I recommend it right and
left without reserve.
Schools, Springfield, Mass.: It can
be used as a text-book on U. S.
History; and as a book for supple-
mentary reading on the subject, I
ordered a supply for class use. It | don't know of anything else equal
seems to me the most noteworthy J to it.
book that has appeared iu this field (Jan. 20, 1888.)
S. T. Button, Supt. of Schools,
New Haven, Ct. : One of the greatest
of Irving' s works, it is indeed a clas-
sic, and this handy edition judi-
ciously condensed and extended will
rank as one of the best school histo-
ries and one of the most suitable
reading-books in the market.
J. A. Graves, Prin. of South
School, Hartford, Ct. : We feel sure
that it will be a valuable and impor-
tant addition to the list of books for
supplementary work in history.
Albert C. Perkins, Prin. of Adel-
pfti Acad., Brooklyn, N.Y. : As a
book to keep within reach of classes
in American history it seems to me
excellent. Indeed, if used as a text-
book in that branch, I believe it must
bring the best results in impressing
on the minds of pupils a sense of the
spirit and genius of our history as
well as the leading facts of it.
Henry P. Emerson, Prin. of High
School, Buffalo, N. Y. : Uniting the
grace of Irving with the strength of
Fiske is a good thought.
F. B. Palmer, Prin. of State Nor-
mal School, Fredonia, N. Y. : I should
think the work of abridgment" ad-
mirably done and the additions judi-
cious, and heartily welcome the work
as likely to revive interest in one
of our best authors and one of the
noblest themes that can be placed
before the young. (Dec. 22, 1887.)
E. T. Tomlinson, Headmaster of
Rutgers Coll. Gram. School, Neio
Brunswick, N.J. : To my mind it
will prove a valuable book for school
purposes. (Jan. 3, 1888.)
0. D. Robinson, Prin. of High
School, Albany, N.Y. : I believe that
it is admirable in every respect for
the objects which the author had in
riew when preparing it. It is his-
tory, biography, and literature of the
very best, all combined.
John G. Wright, Prin. of Union
School, Cooperstown, N. Y. : It is the
happiest thought yet in the way of
an abridged history. (Dec. 20, 1887.)
C. B. Wood, Prin. of High School,
Pittsburgh, Pa. : The book is a gem.
I have placed it in the hands of the
teacher of history, and recommended
it as a book of reference.
E. C. Delano, Ass't Supt. of Schools,
Chicago, III. : It is a charming book,
well fitted for historical and supple-
mentary reading in the advanced
grades of our public schools.
Lewis H. Jones, Supt. of Public
Schools, Indianapolis, Ind. : It seems
to be admirably adapted to secure
two of the most important aims that
are ever reached in historical teach-
ing love of country and love of
good historical reading.
0. T. Bright, Supt. of Public
Schools, Englewood, III. : It seems
to me very valuable as an adjunct in
teaching United States history. I
have seen no other book to compare
with it in value as supplementary to
the study named. (Jan. 23, 1888.)
J. B. Young, Supt. of Public.
Schools, Davenport, la. :' It sets forth
in a simple and captivating style all
the important facts of our country's
history, without burdening its pages
or the mind with valueless detail
wherever it is used. (Feb. 2, 1888.)
E. Stanley, Supt. ofPub'lic Schools,
Lawrence, Kan. : It is a volume of
remarkable merit, written in an ad-
mirable style, full of interest, and
attractive beyond ordinary books.
F. M. Draper, Supt. of Public
Schools, Atchison, Kan. : Something
must be done to correct the faulty
methods of teaching history. I be-
lieve this a step in that direction,
PR Scott, (Sir) Walter
5309 The lay of the last minstrel
PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE
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UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY