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Plaza de America. Parque Maria Luisa 
Place de America. Parc de Maria Luisa 
Square of America. Maria Luisa park 

La postal de 

carte ßQß\ 
The friendsh' 


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L. DOMINGUEZ, S.A.- Tel. 95/437 97 05 - SEVILLA «tj» 

) FISA ESCUDO DE ORO, S.A. - Barcelona - Printed in Spain 
Dep Legal B. 9526XXXIV 



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Bernard C. Mitscherlich 

."^. Juni 1939 

bv^trlfft dac von Ih.-n ßeatühlono Bild (Slevoct 

^irr^l;r?f'^,^°^^'^'^^t -i<=h m Kaccol und 
.11 '-r Gin.^ -lu AdrooGon ; 

Honciechc Lt-ndorbibliothok 

Toi,: (05^61) 30 42 166 

Propylcion Vorlag Str, I9. 

•i'ol.: (0%i; 7 ;^7 P6 . ^ 

Dr.phll. Wornor Do'^de 
»VilholaehöhGr Alloe '27 
Toi.: (Oi;6l) Z 37 91 

, (Do.'i hc.t mit Ihera korro.cpqndiort) 
Dp. Lica Dehler • 
Holan " ?<t X :& ■ 

Tel.: (0!>Gi; 3 üi> -1 

(nibliothokarin In* dorüunctc'.btoi' u'^ 
aor ler Ir^chon Lande, :bibllo.thok) ' ' 

P-of. Dr. whrl;;toph"f;ohler 

Macjzln - ? 
Toi.: (0%l) 37 :35'^7 " ' 

(Moolichpr i:oic0 auch nf.t der ' 
Lan :o'.blbliothjI: verbunden) 



FROM THE DESK OF 2k» JUIll 1939 

Bernard C. Mitscherlich 

betrifft das von ihm gestohlene Bild (Slevogt ?) 

Farbfotografie befindet sich in Kassel und 
hier sind die Adressen : 

Hessische Landesbibliothek 

D-3500 Kassel 

Tel.: (O56I; 80 k2 166 

Propyläen Verlag 

Hansa Str. 19 

Tel.: (0561) 7 k7 26 

Dr.phil. Werner Doede 
Wilhelrashöher Allee 32? 
Tel.: (0%1) 3 87 91 

CDodi hat mit ihera korrespondiert) 

Dr. Lisa Gehler 

fioland ^ <2/ 5 

Tel.: (0561) 3 ^3 91 

(Bibliothekarin in deijKunstabteilung 
der Hessischen Landesbibliothek) 

Prof. Dr. Christoph Uehler 

Magjzin - 2 
Tel.: (0361) 87 35 37 

(Möglicher Weise auch mit der 

Landesbibliothek verbunden) 



January 21, 1989 

Dear Bernie, 

as I told you thic afternoon (5:00 P.K,§ whan yqu called m^ from 
across the hall that today is "Füll Moon" andrfend'to be lunatic. 
I,too, may be slightly affected by the moon but the request I shall 
submit today is only a repetition of what I have said when the moon 
was still slim. 

Would you kindly introduce me to your girl-^friend, It will 
take a few rainutes in our living room. All that matters is to look 
at her and to know her real first narae ("Anya" was only my dnvention). 
She resembles that girl from 63 years ago ^o ( My first question to 
her requires that I meet her alone for a brief conversation : I do 
have to know her 'work schedule" so that my planned meetings with her 
would not ±n[ife i:e with your both togetherness. 

I want her to carry messages to you from me which, besides being 
"essential" (as already mentioned) will amaze you. It will not be easy 
for nie to train her for that task. There are two a-ipects to her^ person- 
ailty. People nv/ho knov: her from casiVl^ contact are not Äw^'Sr.r.¥'^' by 
her . Sh'^ '... lac .--Inc social grace and is onga;;';Gd in baci hc.bits v;h^.ch 
ahe does not b 111,3 into your room (thank God). Qn tho othür hand, hör 
mentality - as knov.n to you and to mc - can overwhelm any obsorver. For 
her years, i-.he is too raature. Unlike ^'■ou v:ho was always pampcred in 
childhood she experienced (and still IgI doing it} a rou^-h environment 
v/hich makes üeoule grov/ up fast in defense of her heavy lot. And that 
ma.' -l'C explain her lack of manners and her inc-^ination cowards tricks 
which she does not mastor (as told you before). As to raeeting her she 
has the two advantages of possessing the keyn to my door and being slight- 
ly familiär with my ajKart.'i:ent . Conversation (i»;iH" not be r-imple as v-f/u f 

well as'^can and she loves to listen to the jokes of Charlie though by 

her -elf she is not exactly humourous. 

In spite of all the obstacles I should meet her soon considering 
my age (also referred to earlier;. You have had eno igh time to talk my 
reiaiGj^est over with her. Please, let me know as soon as feasible. I 
thank you in advance. 

\ ^^.^ :;'rA'xw^-^ 



Su (10/J|/«8) 

Bernie, ^^^^^^^j^ 

tomorrow (Mondf^y) I 
have to get up at 8:30 A.M. . 
the cleanirg woman is Coming 
at 11:00 A.M. 

The lairtp ir the living room 
will have to be reprired. 

Sleep well 

)\(S l'>0 



I ^4 

•I ^ 

June 14, 1988 - after midnight 

Dear Bernie, 

since my birthday (May 31) "Dodi" (= Miss Theodora 
Zander) is physically dying. Her mind has been dead since the 
before mentioned date - when, as I left her, she tried to say 
"so long" - as she is unable to speak a word. V.hen I Visit her 
on Tuesday and Thursday her body is lying in her bed in the room 
no. 502, Frank Pavilion, Jewish Home & Hospital for the Aged, 
120 West 107th Street; I am still bringing her beautiful flowers 
and I even am filling the papercups with'Hawaian Punch. If the 
nurse*s aid whom I know very well is setting up her body in the 
bed, Düdi can drink the punch. She even seems to enjoy it. Yet 
they (nurses) took her eye-glasses away from her (she was born 
near^ sighted) and thus I do not recognize where she can see me . 
Her fingers are still moving and if my fingers are touching hers 
she seems to react. But still - her body is withering away until 
her heartmuscle stops to tick. V/hen, no ome can say. 

The social worker in Charge of her well-being - a Miss Guts- 
wyler, an jJnglish spearing Swiss-German crippled lady - is aware 
of the Situation and has a copy of Dodi's "Last Will" in which 
she demanded how she wants to be crenrated. But we all have to 
wait until the physicians declare that she is "dead" . Then her 
body will be transported to a Jewish funeral home ( Riverside , 76th 
Street and Amsterdam Ave.) and the people who know m.e and did the 
same with Gretel's body will of course carry out Dodi*s last wish. 
The only problem left is: how to reach Dodi's brother Ernst. To- 
day I found on the nighttable next to Dodi*s bed a letter from 
him from Berlin (Germany), dated June 6, in which he writes that 
he will be leaving Germany on June 27 (originally he planned to 
move from Germany to Spain) two months laterybecause in Germany 
the weather is bad (cold and r/^aining) and intolerable for his 
sick wife. Yet - in Berlin he can be reached by phone while in 
Spain he has no telephone and the social worker wants to talk 
to a blood-related person before she surrender? Dodi*s body. 

Well, you see my point. Since ca. March 1 I ampiaving problems 
like that on my mind. Therefore, when speaking to you, I am en- 
gaging in "very small talk" like ^4^ii^ from "Red Apple". \^4^^a^ 

Berni^, June 14,1988 « 2 - 

can I say. Neither could you help me in my serious Situation 
nor can I aid you in your certair^ly equally difficult problems. 

By the time I shall be leaning New York for Germany, i.e. 
on July 20 (you will get a detailed report on my this year's 
journey to Germany) things will be slreedy much better. The 
Stars warned me, thai until June 24 I shall meet such situations 
as now (the for Gemini important planet "Mercury" is retrograde 
until then) and from. that date on everything which I am planning 
is working out well. 

I do hope that today's rest in your room has strengthened 
you for your labor in White Plains on Wednesday, Thursday and 
Friday. ( If Thursday *s expected thunderstorm should turn out 
to^ be too bad, I shall skip my Visit with Dodi; on Friday at 
3 P.M. I shall have to meet my dentist.) 



JIamJ\ . 

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\ . 

Bernie , 

Februpry 12, 1988 

the two people who vlsited me or; fteds- 
nesday at an inconvenient tiroe (8 P.ivj. short- 
ly after your return froir Office, expecting a 
call froir Charlie) were t Mrs . Rosalie Blau - 
Appraiser, Estate Liquidation, 820 Ft. Vv- sh- 
ington Ave, - and her son Richard (dealing in 
rare coins). They will, beginring next week, 
moving belongings out of Dodi's apartaent - 
a Job, two years overdue. These people (not 
too attractive) were recomirended to me by my 
bookseller. !four father used to do business 
with another lady but I selected Ujts. Blau for 
oiher connections such as Leo-Baeck- Institute 

How their activitic s in 310 West 101«'^ 
Street will affert me I do not know yet. They 
only mentioned t me that evening that they 
will bring certain things from Dodi's apart- 
ment to mine. After their Job in Dodi's 
place is done I shall ask them to move a few 
things in my apartment. The reason for it is 
the following : 

1 was hoping that a few things in my 
apartment which belonged to Gretel ^^JJ^^^^f^^ 
bloses in the closets of your room) and ^are 
still belonging to Dpdi would be handled by 
Edith, But Edith refuses on obvious grounds 


Bernie (2/12/88) 

- 2 - 

to come here. I asked her for this help be- 
cause she knows my apartment and, after all, 
Is emotionally attached to Gretel and empathlc 
towards the dlsaster of Dodl. 

Now, when Edith decllned t do me that 
favor, I have had to find another Solution. 
I do ihink that Mrs. Blau and her son may 
help me in rearrangin^ things in my closets. 
Eventually you should benefit from the work 
in my place because I find it intolerable 
that you have not enough space in your room 
for han ing up your pants and äxExxsx suits. 

That ^K should give you some idea what's 
going arcund 11 F. Have a good Valentine- .5: 
Presidential Day weekend! 

(Mo) January 11, 1988 

Dear Bernie, /today Marcy called me two times tothe telephone: 
at 7:00 PM and at 11:15 PM. As is her custom, she did not 
speak at all; she merely wanted to check when, in the evening, 
I go out and return from "Olympia" and "Red Apple", The hours 
jibed roughly with the time I was giving you at 8:30 PM./ On 
Sunday evening I too fead planned to returnrat 10: 30 af ter 
having had my supper and done my errands. However, the con- 
dition of the streets after the blizzard were such that I have 
had to change my plans. This way I came home 1/2 hour too 
early and caused her and you some embarrassement • My eaaly 
return home was no trick./ There is a German proverb : "Was 
Haenschen nicht lernt, Hans wird es nimmer mehr". In transla- 
tion it sounds thus : "What little Johnny did not learn as a 
C-^;'<^**-W child, John, when grown up, will no longer learn" . Marcy has 

~ \y!>Vi-*>^ i^'v^-u. .A-^ had aap4-e tirme to get acquainted with my basic moral attitude 

between July 27 and August 4, 1987. Then she did not observe a^ 

that, by natural disposition, I an straightf orward though polite 
T-feat I have been all my life and now, thst it comes to an end, 
I shall not change.^ With no regards to Marcy but with love 
to you 

* That "What" in the proverb Stands for such character features 
as decency, honesty, reliability. 



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Sa (10/10/87) 


Dear Bernie, 

many thanks for your today's letter and 
the fascinating photos from your trip to Sim- 
babwe. I looked at them superf lirially but 
long enough to bündle them in ?wo groups - 
■KJKxl the ones reporting the objects of your 
trip (landscapes, animals, natives tec.) and 
the others where you appear (I think they are 

attractive,too) . 

At the moment, I suggest that we leave 

them on the table in the living room unless 

you want to show them to friends. Some time 

you may find the leisure to explain the 

pictures to me. 

Most pressing to me are at this point 
two appointments in the coming week : (1) 
on We (10/14) the r out ine Visit with Dr. 
Weiss from whom I shall get also my second 
flu shot L what about your ?]. On Thurs 
(10/1!)) I shall See the eye doctor to dis- 
cuss with him the Operation of my left eye. 
The operatior was planned for Oc tober; as 
soon as I shall have the date and place I 
shall let you know. 

Minor things that I have to take of 
right now yoi; will notice in the appart- 
ment. Sorry. that I dould not invite you 
to dinner last night. I expected confu- 
sion at "Olympia"; there was more than I 


anticipated.yet I got roy fright fish and 
siJbseq ently slept 9 hors (I got up at ü 
11:50 AM. ). 

Uy Impression was that you must have 
rested well in the past night though you 
have had to prepare your own meal. 


Sa, 9/13/87 


Dear Bernie, 

v*^ • 


v" \ 

many many thanlcs for letting me have 
my privacy yesterday. To my surprise I 
aocomplished everything I had planned 
to do (unpacking my suitcases, sorting 
the mail which you collected for me so 
carefully - special thanks for that,too). 

Please, remember that there will be 
no hot water tomorrow aorning - when you 
want to get your shower. However, some- 
times they warn us and then the water 
will not be turned off until 10 A.M. 

I intend to go tonight to "Olympia" 
in spite of the rain. Perhaps, I shall 

The weatherman expect a sunny and 
warm day on Monday (in the 70 *s). Dre ss 

1 would have liked to get you tnkl 
things from the Supermarket, Yet, the 
weather will hardly permit it. 




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7 A .M 

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Ti I rr T 


A. M. D. G, 

Fordham Preparatory School 

Qraduation Sxercises 

The Rbv. Laurence J. McGini;ey, S.J 

President of Fordham University 



June 18, 1959 

8:30 P.M. 






Salutatory Edward V. Tucker, '59 


Valedictory Gerald J. McLaughlin, '59 



Address to the Graduates 
The Rev. Laurence J. McGinley, SJ. 

President of Fordham University 

Recessional The Fordham Renn 


> < 


DiPLOMAS OF Graduation are awartled to the tollowing students who have successfully com- 
pleted the prescribed four years' course in Fordham Preparatory Schcx)!, thereby fulfilling the 
requirements of the Regents of the University ol" the State ot New York. 

John Joseph Acampora 
t*CAESAR Blair Adams 

William Henry Andrus 
t Robert J. Armbruster 
*RicHARD Louis Arvedlund 
t*GERALD J. Ams 

Warren G. Babilot 

John Peter Barkaus 

James C. Barrett 

John Joseph Bernauer, Jr. 

* Bruce G. Bott 
Pasquale James Bottigliehi 

•J* Michael J. Bozzone 
y Peter Francis Brady 
William Joseph BREnuNc 

Joseph A. Brunner 
ohn Burr Buckman, ni 
^iTo Michael Buffa 
t Kennth f. Burke 
t*jAME8 M. Callahan 


James I. Campion 
t* Robert M. Cantales 
t Robert W. Carlton 
*Tomas O. Carrillo, J». 

Bernard Joseph Carroll 

Eugene Patrick Carroll 
•William Joseph Caspary 

Kenneth Patrick Casper 
t*JoHN Patrick Charde 

Denis J. Cleary 
t* Michael T. Collins 

William Thomas Collins, III 

William Francis Considine 

Michael James Conway 

John Denis Cowan 

Brian James Gross 


Douglas Edward Cummings 
John F. Cunningham 

* Edward P. Curcio 
HuGH Francis Curley 

*Thomas J. Delaney 
t* Robert Henry DeLaurentis 

John A. DelNegro 
t Edward C Dempsey 
t*MicHAEL John Domas 
Joseph Francis Donohuk 

Sohn Bernard Duffy 
OHN Dordan Duffy 
ohn Joseph Eagan, III 
t* Howard LmJVWrence English 

Joseph Anthony Fallon 
t James Sylvester Fay 

Julius F. X. Fiorillo 
t William Patrick Frank 
t John A. Gibbons 
t John J. Gillick 
t*RoBERT Michael Grassi 

Gerald George Griffitiis 
t*CHESTER Thomas Grzanka 
t*ANTHONY Christopher Guida 
*RocER James Hackett 

Malcolm Edward Hair 

John Thomas Hallig^vn 

William C. Hardy 
*ViNCENT C. Hayes 
t John Joseph Healy 


Thomas A. Hedgecock 
Edward Joseph Horgan 
JoHN J. Horgan 
t Thomas Joseph Hubschman 


t*THOMAs Joseph Imperato 

t*JoHN J. Jetzt 

John Edward Kelly 
Martin Christopher Kelly 
Richard P. Kelly 
John William Keogh 
„ Richard A. La Bue 


t Carlo Patrick Lanzano 
Donald Patrick Larkin 
John Andrew Larkin 
John Baptist Lazzari, Jr. 

t Richard W. LoCascio 
Joseph Francisco Lopez 

t*PAUL Peter Maffei 
Richard James Mäher 
Thomas Richard Mäher 
* Gerald Patrick Mangan 


Francis Br.ucü McCallon 
John Charles McCarroll 

"^'^;\7 AKREN p. McGarty 
Stephen Joseph McGeady 
William John McGee, III 
John Thomas McGirl 
John P. McGoldrick 

t*GERALD Thomas McLaughlin 
Robert H. McLoughun 
James J. McMahon 
Kevin Sean McNallv 


t*JoHN Joseph Miller 
Bernard C. Mitscherlich 
joel plerpont morkan, vi 

Myles James AIullen 

t John E. Naclerio, Jr. 
* Richard Maurice Neville 
Richard Anthony Nicholls 
VViLLiAM Joseph Nihan 
James W. O'Callaghan 
Donald James O'Connok 

t*HuGH Kevin O'Donnell 
William P. O'Kourke 

(••Kenneth Eugene O'Sullivan 
Charles H. Packowski 

t George Francis Pavarini 
Thomas Francis Perdisait 
John J. Phelan, IU 
Paul A. Philbin 
Anthony Ralph Pisani 
Donald J. Portfouo 
George N. Poulos 
Richard Michael Prait 
Richard A. Pregiato 

t* Frederick Joseph Radl 
Bartholomew Rahilly 


t* Frank J. Reysen, Jr. 
•Alfred Joseph Riccarui 

Frank Michael Richter 
t* Henry Martin Rivera 

Richard Vincent Romer 

Michael Robert PvYan 

William A. Sabatini 
t Richard Gordon Sariore 

Michael J. Savage 
f Richard G. Scarpelli 
t*RoBERT Lawrence Scully 

Charles A. Serra 

Thomas F. Smith 
•Helmut Emil Soika 
t*Ross Worthington Strait, Jr. 

William Eugene Sullivan 
t*jAMEs G. Sweeney 

John P. Sweeney 


Richard L). Thompson 

James C Tierney 
t*JoHN Patrick Tramontano, Ju. 

Francis J. Tubridy 
t* Edward Vincent Tucker 
t William John Twohig 
t*JoHN Mader Viertl 
•Paul J. Visconti 

Kevin William Voli"/ 
f^PAUL F. Wasielewskx 

Michael A. Wolfe 

Harold V. Zehner, Jr. 

The asterisk indlcates those students, who have maint?ined an average of 85% er over 
during the four years. The cross indicates those who were in the Classical or Scientific 
Honors Program. 

Tm tm mh 



Roger K. Bugge, '60 
Gabriel J. Lopez, '60 
J. Kevin Dorsey, '60 

Thomas P. Hemnann, '60 
William j. Kilgus, '60 
Peter J. Roche, '60 

Robert W. Vülani, '60 


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(ML (Jönü yz? 

New York, Janutry 17, 1908 

Dear Christine, 

I was pleased to learn that *'E'' and Christ- 
opher visited you (and your epileptic cjit) for 
one week , January 3 through January 10. Ä-'ust 
you have enjoyed tbese days, cold as they were 

On Sunday (1/5/88) at 5 PM JirniTiy plcked the 
two men up ana most prob ab ly drove then up to 
Bolton Lanaing; it must have been late in the 
evenir.g when they arrived« *•£** lookea very 
tired when he left here though he has had al- 
ready a long weekena (three days) behind hiir. 

On the subsequant Sunday ( 1/10/88) he re- 
turned to me at 5? 30 ?M af ter having delivered 
Christopher at his hoine. "E" was in high sj ir- 
its and, after a brief pause in hie reo , call- 
ed t^iHxcy to teil her about the success of his 

Christine, I suppose tht^t you must have re- 
ceived my Xmas card (it was not the one I had 
selected for vou 1^ years ago - the usual rush 
of the season; and the fotos attached to the 
Card, Do you think that you nay reply to my 
questions concerning the pictures ? I should 
very ir.uch ajpreciate it. 


P«5« I attach a copy of my letter for Uarcy 
enclosed in t:n addressed envelope - 
X aii certain that she will like to be 
faailiar with my letter to you. 

June 25, 1988 

Dear Christine, 

attached I am sendinf; you the itinerary of my journey to 
Germany, July 20 - Sept. 08. 

Essentigtlly, it is identicsl with the one for my trip v:ith 
Marcy which, unf ortun: tely, did not v/ork out so well. As to my 
companion in 1988 ! "E" did meet her in our apartment vt the 
begi ning of March. Gloria, a second courin of xnine, was of 
coirse VQry much iznpresred by "E". VJhen she came to N.Y. at 
the enci of February, it was a pres>ing family affair which she 
had to discuss vith me since i iixn. the oldest in her fair?ily,to > . 
Also, she has been suffering from the impos^^ible Minnesota cliir- 
ate and had to consult a physician here. At that time we did 
not mention my annual "Kur** in Germany; this plan developcd 

Your letter of June 14 gave me much joy. I was really pleas- 
ed that you lilced the collection of your photographs - I never 
knew that I possepsed them. Now, this collection raised your 
curiosity about myrelf cna your family. In reply to that je- 
sire I would sugg( st the following ! 

After my returr home (Sept. 8) I shall transmit to you a copy 
of an extensive published biography of mine. It was prirtea in 
"International Biograph: cal Dictionary of Central European £mi- 
gr^s 1933-1945", Voi. XI, part 2: L-2 / The Arts, Sciences, and 
Literature. LK.G.Saur: ] München, :Tev; York, London, Paris 1983 • 
My biography appeards on cols. 1096-1097. ?»hen sending yov the 
TU>^^ ^v\^ printed text I shall add typed explar.ations ? as eveiy **\Tho'3 
xv^?tuA^v>^twn^ V/ho'*, this dictio nary uses so many abbreviations that it is use- 
^•A *>v^ ful for the readerTto get acouainted with the statem.ents. 

As soon as you have finished studying these facts - some are 
the answers to the questions yoi.. have r&is( d in your letter - I 
shall reply to some cuestions which ycu heve put forth in your 
letter and which are outside my printed record. Ihey are : (1) 
How I met Gretel ? ; (2) ^'as "Oma" (= Eischen) married twice ? - 
No, you confused your mother (Anna) with your grandmother; Anna 
WCS married for the first J;ime with Frflf^X Seligmann - I have a 
tt'Cavv^C^'^ collection of pictures of Twhich you should keep for Christopher; 
- v^^vt^»)^ (3) How did Gretels father - Bernhard Heim.^:nn - dye of ? It was 
"^^^ pv*^) ® cruel brain stroke which I sh-^ll have to explain to you: (4) 

.j^ivA/^ vvv Your father "Eilhard" was adopted by his grrndaparents ;«iit scher- 
lich (Freiburg i.Br.) but Eili was brought up by the parents of 
his mother in Strassburg (Alraoe); (5) The mother of Eili W!^s 
not xfitaptssl a "beroness" but descended from an old Hessian fami- 
ly (dating back to c. 1500) by the name "Rühle". In Trar.kfurt a 
park was calied after her family. 

Finally, I want to address more present 5',nd urgent issues 
which you have enumerated in your letter : 


Christine, June 25,1988 - 2 • 

(1) What will happen if I am in an emergency ? : I wonder« 
One of the reasons for taking *•£•* into my horre war exactly that 
there waa a person who I or other people could turn to. Now, 
that he is no longer cor.r.( cted v/lth Lorraine Marshall - he ended 
that Position on April 15 - there are ajpsranetly tv/o alterna- 
tives ■; 

(a) "The Vestchester Road Runner", 209 E. Post Road, 
White Plains, N.Y.; Tel.! (9U) 682-0637 or 

(b) Charley Bevier i (914) 328 - 8467 

(2) As to your homw ? I understand that o^^ June Ist you re- 
ceived a iather large amount of money frorr which 

(a) you paid the first mortgage of your house and 

(b) bought for "E" a new oar in whlch he will travel 
together with Christopher in this country; "E" mentioned at ran- 
doffi temporary stops in Salt Lake City, Utah, where friends of 
hinj whom he met last year in Zimbabwe are living; Los Angeles 
where there are other friends besides Vincent; also iCnoxville, 
Tenn. - In connection with the new aut mobile : what will "E" 

de with the bycicle he had stored in 9üO V.est End Ave. *nd now 
put yt in JiiTiiny's car who was driving hlm up to Blton Landing ? 

(3) As to your plans to coice to IT.Y. ? I would suggest thft 
you make pl^ns for the early autumn (October) after I am back 

T^Aj und aoing a lot of business with the laj^er of Dodi and zny^elf . 

Then we can talk about all the ropicr I have enumeratod in my 

Please, give my regards to "C" and Christopher and 
accept es i Iways 



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New York, April 16, 1968 

Dear Christine, 

your warm letter from past Thursday was pro- 
bably an unnecesf^ary answer to my picture jost- 
carci of last Sunday. 

Today you will see that I did not exsgger- 
ate when telling you how difficult it was to 
uecioe which snapshots I shä)uld send you. I fin- 
ally decljed that fron: heaps of fanily pictures 
you should have the one? concerninf: you rlone. 
Since most of them have docuirentßry value I 
further concluded to serd you the «napshots to- 
gether wlth a magni led detail of your fairily 
tree by registered mail, 

It would be valuable for us both if some 
day you would coirect my chronizisation. I 
thought ?.o after you did it at Chris tmas when 
recei/ing the first impetuously chosen samples. 
I Yiever realized how many pictures of you I po 
sess (and will get be lost 


e* am 

Do not worry so much about roy health. Vheth- 
ei I can fit a iviay Visit of yours Into my crowd- 
ed schedule seems to be dubious. Ihus, let us 
be in contact by mail - you rnow, I air not good 
on the telephone« 

Go on enjoyin^- this Spring - es the weather- 
iran and all my acquaintances think, it is a rare 
event in this country. 


Hw)/^ c^f^^Z' f w- , 1 1? <?^ 


New York, March 23fl981 

A» Christlnn Wasser, nie Mitscherllcb - FAJilLY THEE 

Hans Helmann 

b« ülsenach (Oermany) 

d. (in B'orld fax I) 
Dachowo 2/17/15 

Anni - her name in 1 
her birthcertiflcate^ 
It was changed to 
"Anna" durln^r her 
baptisin (probab- 
ly, 19M) 

Ann! Helmann 

b. Frankfurt (Main) 

d* Orecnwlch (Conn) 

Franz Sellgxsann 

b# Frankfurt (Main) 

d. Fr^mkfurt (Main) 

Oretel Helmann 

b« Frankfurt (iJaln) 


i — 

Silhard Wilhelm Mitscherlich 

b. Freiburg (Ereisgau) 
(Genuany) 8/24/01 

d. Stanford (Conn.) 


Bernard £• 

b# Hew toxk 1939 
d. • • «• 

Bemard Lilhard Jx» 



b, Hew York 


♦ Edith nie Lang;iahr 

b. Kirchheiffi/tleckar 
(Oermany) 12/17/42 

Anna Christ Ina 

b« New j^ork 


Middlename at birth 
and baptisin '^Kilhard 
Jx»"* (nicknajned •*£•) 
was changed af ter birth 
of youfigest son to 
•Christopher" and ap- 
pears since then in docu- 1 
ments as Bemard C* Mitscherlich' 

88 to children of •!:• ♦ 
Edith see next page 

W\JBH'«.'*i'/^u.'\' .^JS»»-"" 

A. Chris tlna Wasser «- Faxnlly tree ^ 2 - 

Bemard E. Mltschorlich ♦ Edith n6e Langjahr 

Bernard Jr» Marcel Ann Dawn torie Chriatopher 

b» New York b« New York b. Stamford b» Stamford 
4/4/63 5/21/64 6/11/69 3/6/72 


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Lake Shore Drive • Bolton Landing. New York 12814 • 518/644/2500 

J) a/yiJ ay^u^-^J^-ii^ ^ x^ 

'^6^ j4: 

'nJ— 4) üKM 

4-aLm, .n laL froni ^roperl. 


Year round Dutch Chalet w/10 a. in Bolton, 630' rd. ft. 1 

a. pond. Has separate apt '1 19,500 

110 a. in Bolton including entire mtn. top. Tremendous 

Views of Lake George, Trout Lake and Schroon River 1 10,000 

17 a. 1000' rd. frtge. Brook. Approved bidg. lot. Can be 

lumbered 33,500 

1 a. beautifui residential lot next to park, possible lake 

view. Town water & sewer 33,500 

125' Lake shore. 3 acres beautifui bIdg. lot. Clear, deep water. 150.000 

Approx. 4 acres. Res. bIdg. lot, magnificent 125' lake shore 150,000 

500+ a., town of Putnan). Magnificent lake views, 3 acre 

zoning 450,000 

Two '/2 acre bIdg. lots. Beach and dock rights each 65,000 

220' rd. front., IVi acres on 9N, highly visible, suitable for 

many uses 95,000 

Two 2.3 acre lots, breathtaking views of Lake George and 

mountains, easily accessible each 60,000 

75 acres in Bolton Landing. Tremendous lake and 

mountain views. 3 a. zoned 235,000 

Beautifui residerttial bIdg. lots Lake George. Walk to 

beach and school 29.500 

Residential bIdg. lot with pond in Lake George. Walk to 

beach and school. Can besubdivided 49,900 

Modular home in Bolton 2/3 acres, mtn. views, brook, 

excellent buy at 64,500 

Duplex 100' prime lake shore, sandy beach, dock, fabulous 

View 350,000 

Motel, 330' Store front. Developable, high density, 

commercially zoned 485,000 

Approved res. bIdg. lots, 2 mi. from Gore Mountain 1 1 - 17,000 

Lake Luzerne, 100 a. mountain. Beautifui views. Can be 

subdivided 75.000 

117' Lake George shoreline, wonderfui bIdg. lot 190,000 

35+ surveyed acres in Bolton, magnificent lake views. 

Excellent Investment for developer 200,000 

4 cottages, 1 acre, 112' on Lake George with dock, terms 395,000 







<^e// cSini cReah 


Box 540, Lake Shore Drive 
Bolton Landing, New York 12814 



Lake George Guide Page 23 

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New York» March 23, 1983 

Dear Christine, 

our letters crossrd. Yours of March 
15 arrived today, mine of March 21, dis- 
patched as "special deliwry" mail, went 
out yesterday. 

As you will have noted, our thoughts 
concerning a meeting, also crosscd. You 
are by now aware what my conditions for 
our get together are. They have to be 
slightly inÄdified. 

[ Just yesterday 1,'r. Miller told me 

\ that he h&s stored an entire suitcase with 

\ garrcents of your mother in a wardrobe in 

[ Gretel's room. This most probably heavy 

[ piece together with some other items that 

-T- you may want to take home mvy miike your 

lji*v baggage a bit heavy whenTare leaving the 

city. Therefore, it icight seeic to be ad- 
visable if ilr. Ronning, at the end of our 
meeting, were to drive you back. 

Perhaps, this piece of inforaation 
will make it easier to determine the time 
of your Coming here - pleasot don't delay 
it too much. 

With best regards and wishes 

yours , 


H'»' ■Wf'l'VL I ■ 


T ^^vt 

r ^<Hv 

New York, March 21, 1985 f. 

(Begirnlng of Spring - Two I 

Months after Gretel*a 

death) [ 

Lear Christine, 

I have to thank you still for your touching lincs of Janu- 
ary 24 and February 6. In turn, I am sendlng you attached a 
copy of my announcement of Gretel's death in the N.Y. Times. 
You msy note that you were mentloned as the only person oÄ 
her maternal family. 

The purpose of iny today's letter is to alert you to the 
fact thet we shall have to get together pretty soon for two to 
three days . I would suggest that you stay in my apartment ; I 
can offer you a place for sleeping on the couch in the living 
room. ünless you have a lady friend in New York with vchom you 
should like to stay« 

Mr* Ronning may take you to New York in his car prior to 
our meeting or fetch you at the end of it. However, it is out 
of the question that you come to the city as his escort on one 
of his "business meetings in Long Island and then be waiting for 
a call tvvm hini or some such arrangement. 

We do have to discusr such a variety of subjects that re- 
quire your undivided attention. I am even not surr that we 
shall be able to resolve all questions which have come up after 
I spoke with the lawyer who will draw up the testsment. A second 
meeting may b come necessary. Needless to say thct all ejtpen- 
ses you will incur in the course of our meetings, such as bus 
fares for example, will be borne by me. 

Think my request over as quickly as possible and let me 
know the dates thatjyou best at your earliest convenience. To 
make plans for the rearrangement of my aportment turned out to 
be more C'cmplicated than I expected and the time for your ap- 
pearance runs out quickly. On many decisions concerning be- 
longings which I have to abandon f o have of course prio^ ity 
over all other recipients. 

Exiecting an early written reply and wishing you good luok 
in your present endeavors, please accept best regards 


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Howie Birthday (2/3/82 = ^Sthm) 

Howard !• Wasser 
Lake Shore Drive 
Bolton Landing, N.Y. 12814 

Hoping that you enjoyed the snow and ice in the 
country and that you are^looking forward to beauti- 
ful Spring and Suirmier with iheir attend^nt pleasur- 

es- Gretel & Seff 

L Birthday Greetings / For Howie L To wish you 
happimess on your birthd-y and through the Coming 
yearj G.& S. 




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New York, March 23» 1981 

Dear Christina, 

attached I am sending you a collectlon of tabulations and 
coples of snapshots from our own collectlon of famlly pictures. 
The implicatlons of the enclosed samples are the followlng t 

A. Christina' s Family Tree : thls Is rnerely a segment of 
a much larger tree (In my possesslon); Its purpose Is to serve 
as a gulde for slftlng family pictures ^t several generatlons 
whlch you will be shown in the future, The enclosed segment 
embraces excluslvely the children and grandchildren of your 

B« Christina' 8 Chlldhood (9 months - 11 years) Pictures t 
please, let me know which one you own or whlch one you would 
like to get from us (if we can force ourselves to part with 
them at all or at this moment ) • 

C. Two samples of the 1955 r.erios of snapshots (which are 
more numerous than the others) t (1) Your parents with Oma and 
(2) you in your nine years old beauty. 

To give an idea of the expanslveness of our family pictures ' 
the ones listed under "B** above represent a not yet exhausted 
group "1** of the family photos. Startin.r at present with yours 
(group F of the total collection) , we shall work our wjiy back to 
the earliest photos of your mother and your aunt (group A) and 
then to those of vour mother either alone or with her respective 
husbands (group C; . 

I would of course bc most happy to receive some reply to my 
letter (questlons), improbable as the lattcr seems to be. Still, 
try ! 

And give Howie our love and accept the rjprmest greetings 
from Gretel and 


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^•1»^ — II imi.w^^m^^^'^m-'^^^i^v^mmmMAw^^m'Jf- 


June 1, 1976 

Cear Howle, dear Christine, 

man/, many thanks for your visit on Sun- 
day, the most wonderful present at the occa- 
sion of my 71st birthday, and the telephone 
oonnections finder, an equally marvellous 
gift to be placed ntxt to our living roo» 
phone and final ly for your charming birthday 
Card with the friendly wishes froHs you three. 
Please, transmit to your father my gratitude 
for his good thoughts» 

As always yours» 

And not to forget the delicious Cookies« 






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25B VS?-? 

.:. ■ ■'•' '. ^'7 ■• ■ "1 »" '1? ''^ 

VVhenever an uncle's 

As special as you 

Any greeting for him 

Has to be special, too, 

So this brings best wishes 

And lots of love 

Because you're an uncle 

Who's thought the world of. 


tTj^ a^A 



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600 WesT 2181« Street 
New York 

LORRAInC 9-3663 

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For Christine (birthday 9/8/64) 

Yet our thought,if we may stress, 
is on next year and your success 
in studies and what eise you start : 
"Good luck" to you - from our heart ! 



( 1 /■ 1 



<JtdnLL/MxA^ /Ih. } /lixJiAJL. 



ommencemenl C^xerci&e& 

Monday, the eighteenth of May 

Dne thousand nine hundred and sixty-four J^'r^ W • t ?-<X 


The Most Reverend Joseph M. Pernicone, J.C.D., D.D. 
Auxiliary to the Cardinal Archbishop of New Yor\ 







Elizabeth Seton School March 

S, Constantino Yon 


Thou Art So Fair Arranged by Boris Ryb}{a 

The Class of Nineteen Hundred and Sixty-four 

Mary Elizabeth McBride 



The Most Reverend Joseph M. Pernicone, J.C.D., D.D. 

Beatrice Rose Catenacci 

The Heavens Are Declaring Ludwig van Beethoven 

The Class of Nineteen Hundred and Sixty-four 



The Most Reverend Joseph M. Pernicone, J.C.D., D.D. 

The National Anthem 


Ensemble , 


.i •- --nr^ 

SJne LjraduateA 

Marlene Anne Acosta 
Morella Alvarez 
Susana Alvarez 
Judith Ann Balint 
Maria Elizabeth Barbieri 
Katherine Frances Bird 
Joan Mary Brown 
Jacqueline Ann Campion 
Beatrice Rose Catenacci 
Gertrude Patricia Clark 
Jean Perpetua Corcoran 
Jeanette Theresa Darby 
Barbara Evelyn Deane 
Lillian Mary De Marco 
Patricia Ann Doyle 
Denise Roberta Dunlavy 
Gayle Victoria Fallerman 
Monica-Jane Mary Foody 
Janet Sheffield Halsey 
Elizabeth Isaias 
Paula Ann Kenel 

Jane Elizabeth Kennedy 
Jan Adele Kindermann 
Doris Marie Lange 
Patricia Ann Libutti 
Miriam Ruth Long 
Mary Elizabeth McBride 
Barbara Ann Meyer 
Anna Christina Mitscherlich 
Kathleen Florence O'Connor 
Patricia Ann O'Donnell 
Kathleen Evelyn O'Rourke 
Irene Mary Piekarz 
Emilie-Mary Puzio 
Jane Frances Seligman 
Palma Jean Sylvestri 
Barbara Lynn Tracy 
Isabelle Grace Trevisani 
Joan Francine Urband 
Joanne Celeste Vialotti 
Nancy Elizabeth Ward 
Joan Margaret Weisman 



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March 25 f 1988 

Uear Dawn, 

would you be good enough to 
give the attfcched letters to Marcy ? They 
^rrivecL at Bad Orb after ..arcy had already 

Also please teil her that I nm fe llng 
very badly about thls Inexcusable delay of 
2-eturning her mall, fhat apparently happen- 
ed was that upon my return horoe presslng day- 
to~day business In my Mew York base of Oper- 
ations I forgot Marcy's escapade in Gerirany 
nu her adventilrous flight froc^ there. 


Many thanks for your kindness and best 
wlshes for a happy Easter ! 

attached : 

three letters 
*iüressed to ^arcy 

jjr« Josef Souaek 

900 ;'^est End Ave,; 11 F 

New York, N.Y. 10025 

September 24, 1987 

Miss iviarcele uiltscherllch 
29 Scofleld Road, no. 2 
Gtamford, CT 06906 

Marc/ t 

Attached I am sending you the letter^ fror your frlends 
which arrived at the hotel in Bad Orb after your er.cape. 

As I told your father in my letter to him, dated August 
23, I opened the letters addressed to you since i was curious 
about the people you are associated with at hoire. By open- 
ing the leyyers I violated your ri^rht to privacy which is an 
illegal and punish&ble act. If you feel iike it, you can 
sue me for it. 

AS I also told your father, I had copies inade of the first 
two letters ( the second from Mat I was not able to deciiher) 
with the Intention to circulatc them among people who have a 
right to share with me the knowledge about your acquaintances. 

In tum, I 
resulting froin 
am vi Hing to s 
t 500.00 in cas 
Gepten;ber which 
% 1,692.00, dat 
whor^e salary wa 
1 500 check is 
far greateö che 
tired teacher. 

shall sue yourfor a financial Obligation to me 
your breach of contract (re! companionship) . I 
ettle your debt out of court if you hand ire 
h. This sum would represent your rent for 

I advanced to you in my r/HT check of 
ed July 13. For Tom - an affluent executive 
s raised three times in this year elone - a 
a minor (tay deductible) expense while my by 
ck was quite an effort for an impoveri'-hed re- 

With greetings 

encl . 3 letters 

Dr* Josef Soudek 

900 V^est Ena Ave.; 11 F 

New York, N.Y. 10025 

November 15, 1987 

De&r Edith, 

thus far I have kept you out of my life with "E" . 
two people are sharing an apartment frlctions are to be 
expected. I am. certaln that I can cope wlth them and I 



to have succeeded. 

i;;ith Marcy so prominently In the plcture things have 
changed. t^ow, I need your advlce and eventually your help« 

Attached I am sendlng you a copy of my letter to "E", 
dated August 23,1987* Needless to say that I did nox; re- 
celve any reply« He Is a busy exeoutlve who needs, when 
com ns hoffie froin work, relaxatlon and not confor.tatlon. 
'^'hat hls reaotlon to ?^arcy*3 escapade In Gern^any Is, I 



know « 


The more I am curious to learn what you thou ht ab out 
tbls aifffalr after her escape. At the beglrning of cur pre- 
paratioß^s for the journey li^arcy assured me that you were 
"excited" about It; that zneant (In her limited vocabulary) 
that you were apparently expectinr an enrichmcnt of her 
Personality by this unlcue opportunlty« 


ly own conclusion as to her personality I stated In my 
letter. Marcy belongs where the "action** is. Geraany, Its 
people, art and history and I (re: Information about her 
patcrnal family) did not fit Into her mental horizon. One 
of her playmates at the "Black Goose Grill" dlsmis: ed that 
experlence so aptly with a pungent tertr;. 

I should very much appreclate any Information or com- 
ment on ray letter. You may of course teil her that I sent 
you a copy of lt. 

Eest thanks in advance and greetings from 


Dr. Josef Soudek 

900 West End Ave.; 11 

New York, If.y. 10025 

September 24, 1987 

Miss Marcele Mltscherlich 
29 Scofield Road, no. 2 
Stamford, CT 06906 

Marcy t 

Attached I am sending you the letters from your friends 
which arrived at the hotel in Bad Orb after your escape. 

As I told your father in my letter to him, dated August 
23, I opened the letters addressed to you since I was curious 
about the people you are associated with at home. By open- 
ing the leyyers I violated your right to privacy which is an 
illegal and punishable act. If you feel like it, you can 
sue me for it. 

As I also told your father, I had copies made of the first 
two letters ( the second from Mat I was not able to decipher) 
with the Intention to circulate them among people who have a 
right to share with me the knowledge about your acquaintances. 

In turn, I shall sue yourfor a financial Obligation to me 
resulting from your breach of contract (re: companionship) . I 
am willing to settle your debt out of court if you hand me 
$ 500.00 in cash. This sum would represent your rent for 
September which I advanced to you in my MHT check of 
$ 1,692.00, dated July 13- For Tom - an affluent executive 
whose salary was raised three times in this year alone - a 
$ 500 check is a minor (tax deductible) expense while my by 
far greatai* check was quite an effort for an impoverished re- 
tired teacher. 

With greetings 

encl. 3 letters 

Mrs. Edith llitscherlich LDraftJ 


Dear Edith, 

thus far I have kept you out of my iife with "E" and bis 
family. If two people are sharing an apartment ftietiöns are 
to be expected. I was certain that I can cope with them and 
I seemed to have succeeded. 

With Marcy so prominently in the picture things have changed. 
Now . I need your advice and eventually your help. ^ e rhsip sr-^u- 

Attached I am sending you a copy of my letter to "E". iNeed- 
less to say that I did not receive any reply. He is a busy ex- 


ecutive who needs when Coming' from ^work relaxation and not con- 

>■.'.' o. 

frontation. What his reaction to her e-scapade in Germany is I 
would not know. 

Howjg3^5T,/ I am curious to learn what you thought about this 
affair after her escape fxoBB-üe-n&Änry . At the beginning of our 
preparations for the journey &«e aSsured me that you were '•ex- 
cited" about it; that meantfin her limited vocabulary^that you 
?®^®apparently expecting an enrichment of her personality by 
this unique opportunity to- experienc-e th# bae^kg2;^und'-'^^--]a4»r 
bo t h faiKi3r4eB . a i; . j $ ""^ 

My own conclusion 1 stated in my letter. ! Germany, its peöfle, 
art and history and I (res Information ebout her paternal 
family) did not fit into her mental horizon;i Öne of her play- 
mates at the »»Black Goose Grill" dismissed that experience so 
aptly with a pungent term. 

I should very much appreciate any Information or comment A-i^wv 
on my letter .XÄOa^ffWA. f' ^*^' 

(Marcy belongs where the "action" is. 

v^-^You may of course teil her that I sent you a copy of it. 
Best thanks in advance and gre etings from 

2.4^ wAbiAif^crT^^a AVE. 

ATT. ^^ ü>A. 

A &/X6T I/O- 


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Diamond Point, 20 .Juli 1965 

Lieber Eili, 

mit gleicher Post schicke ich Dir ein 
kleines BUohlein,da8 Dir hoffentlich dir beab~ 
siohtigte Freude «achen wird« 

Es 3ind awei lateinische Koniinentare (leoti* 
onea) zu den oft übermütigen roemlschen Dich- 
tern Catull und Properz von Deinem Ahnen Chris- 
tian Wilhel« Mitscherllch. Er hat sie offenbar 
noch als Jüngerer Mann und als ausserordentli- 
cher Professor in Goettingen geschrieben, wo »ie 
1786 erschienen sind. Aber in den; kleinen "erk- 
chen deutet sich schon der bedeutende Gelehrte 
an, der dann spaeter die beiden Beende über die 
Dichtungen des Ovid schrieb, die ich oft zu Ra- 
te ziehe als Vorbild philologischer und heute 
noch nicht übertroffener Exaktheit und Viel- 
seitigkeit gründlichen Wissens« 

Wie Christisn Wilhel« im Vorwort zu seinen 
gelehrten Studien (datiert August 1886) sagt, 
sei er zwar mehr zustaendig für den griechi- 
schen (im Mittelalter und in der Renaissance 
oft lateinisch übersetzten) Dichter Statius, 
aber die alten gedruckten Ausgaben, Kommentare 
und Handschriften von Catull und Properz in 
der Universitaet Goettingen und die Anleitung 
seiner Lehrer Henk ynd Wernsdorf haetten ihn 
veranlasst, sich mit den beiden roemischen Dich- 
tern zu beschaef tigen,dle offenbar Statius zum 
Vorbild nahmen und den er deshalb In der Ur- 
sprache zur Erklaerung heranzog. 

p l^l«l« »^ ■ ■* 

Ich fand das BUchlein ia Katalog eints be- 
wanderten und bescheidenen Antiquars und erhielt 
es zum GlUok noch zur rechten Zelt für Deinen 
Geburtstag» Wie sagte doch (islt kleiner Kodifi- 
kation) Goethe ? '•Was Du ererbt von Deinen Vae- 
tern hast,genles8 esium es zu besitzen". 

Alle anderen guten Dinge für 's koiDBende 
Jahr - Gesundheit, Zufriedenheit und Erfolg - 
kann Ich Dir leider nicht beilegen; tber Ich 
wünsche sie Dir vom Herzen. 





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Christine Mitscherlich 

600 WEST 218 STREET 

NEW YORK 34. N. Y. 



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Dlaniond Po int, H. Y. , August 27,1963 

Dear Christino , 

I feel very badly thfit I did not anawer yotir letter »ooner. I 
was 80 pleased to hear from you ad to leorn what croascs your mindj 
It is indeed a lot and no refidy anf^wers? ean bo ^iven to your thought« 
ful queotions« 

As to the Colleges to apply to,I think it avistible to select 
Falrlelgh Dicicenson,^ü# and Pace# I do not know whet makes you 
think that Fairleigh Dlckinson is most in your reaoh; but I suppose 
you have reasons to beli ve so# AI.«:©,! think it worthwhile to try 
K.y.Ü* and to expose yourself to an interview if only as your right- 
ly observed,to get experience in coping with thezr. I still asstuce 
that you stand a good Chance with N.U#Ü. ,unles5 they have changed 
their policy of admission* Finally,as to PGce# From what I hnve 
heard about this place - I do hsve oolleagues v/ho taught there - it 
is not at all an inferior Institution . One disadvantage is its loca- 
tion and the lack of a csiinpus; but thls5,at the same tiine,is an ad- 
vantage to you because to go there would not involve coropunting to 
the same e^rtent as would bc the CEse,if you werr enrolled in one of 
the Colleges on Long Island • For reasons whe have considered Adelphi 
would be most prob?:bly preferable to L.I.Ü. Pcrhaps,a thorough look 
at the expenses connected with attending a College roay decide the 
TangXns of the three Colleges I should put highest on the list« 

If Fairleigh Dickinson wants a 300 wordr sketch of your life, 
be sure that they read it. What they would like to know is whf ther 
you have a meaningful rcotivation to go to College like preparing for 
a career» Statements of this sort do not bind you to a specific cur- 
riculum unless you Baaintain that it is Chemistry or Teaching that 
you are after and even then you do not lose the lilerty of changing 
your mind* Furtherirore,you may be frank, with out being aggressive, in 
pointing out that you did not feel to have been in an approprif^te 
environrr^ent in yoiur high school and that you think you could have 
done better elsowhere. Then, you should mention that you were raised 
by parents with more than high school education - that your mother 

• 2 - 

had prepared to study mediclne and that your father,de8cending from 
a famlly aboimding In talent» In varlous fields,!» restoring works 
of art (dealing in them belng aecondary) - and that you also faintly 
reroeiDber an uncle being professor of Econoslos at Queens College« 
In Short, that oulture Is more to you than a word In the dlctlonnary« 

Concernlng the choice betwccn Geometry and E^iglish Coicposition, 
you Biay have to inqulre about it yoursrlf ,beforc? I phall have a chan« 
c© to do so upon luy return to the city. General ly,there Is graat 
stresö these days on all things related to l<latheajntiCs^; but then, 
Snglish Composition Is slso regarded as an import^nt qualitficatlon* 
Slnoe you iirc good in the latter area and Kay raise your average by 
taking a course of this sort,I would decide in fsvor of itpUnless 
more Math» is regulred. 

Xhere axe indeed so many things we shall hav© to ponder and X 
shall be most happy to do that at the first opportunity. How^summer 
draws to an end - the calendar says so, but theclimste indicßtes dif- 
ferently s nee the beginning of July when w© have had one cold wave 
after the other - and I shall take soire tiine off,aw«;y from here^to 
rast and that ir«eans,far from my typewriter I was poun^^ing for two 
solid months and the books. ßretöl will stay on here and continuc 
with her recovery from city life; she looks again healthy ^n^ strong 
after doing her chores on the fann and brerthing the mountaln air» 
Edith (Miss Patrick) is also in good form but Bernic,although un- 
changed in his pleasant ways^cannot keep up with the vigor of the 
people around hia« They all remember you and want to be remembered 
to you. 

About one week ago^a pleasant youn mfin^then v;i^?catloning at Scroon 
Lke,was stoiping in our place and inquiring whether you were here« 
It so happened that Gretel was with Edith in Warrensburg and I oould 
not be of much help,remembering only,st his return Visit, that you 
had planned to be possibly in this area in August* I mas in the midd- 
le of my work and I Bjust have cut a stränge figure^unshfven rnd in 
sloppy attire as I aa while sitting at my typev/riter» He believed 
me,generously,that I as your unclc. I trust that you have oxplained 
to hiiE meanwhile the circuciStancep which cor.pelled me to be at first 

« "« w- - -^- 

- 3 - 

distrustful and also not very hospitable to him^being alone in the 
housc and imprepared for a vißitor» 

Let lae hope that you have had a good tlae thlr stiininer, study ing 
notwithstanding,and that you oairie out of thia season refresfeed and 
In high splrits. Give my love to everybody • the family h«s grown 
too big to be cited individually - and take your j^hare?.(not the 
sDsallest) of my good thoughts of everybody and^of course,of Gretel*ö 

Fondly yovLTSf 

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BRÜSSEL, Paulus Theodorus van ^ri.f'J) Flowerpiece 

(1754-1795) ^Lt^xJLJ^ ^2225) 

Printed in Great Britain for the Trustees 

^^ CO/n Adp c, c^ .cMI / 

Luo OLmu^^<^n'UL 






Lotte Schiff 

5gXI5X3E5v»Ä»X>argcsNüt New York 34, N. Y. 

580 iVe3t 215 3t. 

Meine lieben Gretel und Seff , 

^ unter der Zahl der Gr=Jtu- 
lanten zn Euerm Jubiläum will ioh nicht fehlen ^sondern 
Euch von Herzen dazu Pjratulieren und das Allerbeste für 
eine gluckliche Zukunft in Gesundheit und Wohlera;ehen 

" Many Happy Returns " 
lasst sich bei der Einmaligkeit Eueres Festes ja nicht 
sagen, aber ich hoffe und wünsche Euch, dass Ihr - und 
mit Euch die ganze Familie - die Goldene in Glueck und 
Verliebtheit feiern konnti 

Ich habe Euch ein ganz klei- 
nes Andenken n-n diese meine Gluckwunsche zugedacht, doch 
kann es leider erst srnter kommen. Durch meine Inanspruch- 
nahme ist Einkaufen ein Zeitproblem, was ich in diesem 
Fall bald zu losen hoffe. 

^ Feiert schon, lasst E^:ch 
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600 W»st 21R Street 

New York,N.Y. 

ür, Josef Soudpk 

c/o T/iss ?Aith Patrick 

Dipmond Point, N.Y. 






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New York 



Lieber Seff : 

Die »»Bekenntnisse des hl.Avgvstin" sind 

(l) mir wohl bekannt vnd Dv brauchst sie mir 
nicht schicken 


(2)/ mir nicht bekar.nt vnd ich möchte sie gern 
hab en 

fa)/in englischer Sprache, weil ich sie 

dann gleich bekommen kann , . { 

(b) in deutscher Sprache, weil es mir nicht 
eilt I 

(3) mir nicht bekannt und ich machte sie auch 
nicht kennen lernen. 

Deinen Brief habe ich erhalten; daß Du an 
mich denkst 

(l)| ist sehr lieb von Dir und wird geschätzt 

(2) wäre mir noch lieber, wenn Du ein Moskito- 
netz beigelegt hättest 

(3) interessiert mich nicht sehr 

Mit freundlichen Grüßen, 




7< Y« 


1 jiUla <7<>^*^u^*^ '^€<^aL^^>C>-^^ 




; XX k<x^ ^ ^^^-^^^ -^'oCl. /t^d^ 


-^■^■- .- —V- y*^*.'ow«' 

A.Mitsch^rlich /a^^ 

^00 West 218 Streat (^juL 3 \^^ 




3 CENTS 3 

Dr. Josef Sovdek 

e/o Miss Edith Patrick 

Diamond Point,N. I« 

it G2?8>5 ^/^ 




k» - 

Phons: (212) BO 3-ieo0 



113-14 72nd ROAD 


Prof. Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 i/^/est üind Avenue 
New York, N.Y, 10025 

29. Mai 1970 

Sehr reehrter Herr Dr. Soudek, 

Ich hielt es aus zwei Gruenden fuer unnoetip und zwecklos, 
auf Ihren Brief vom 27« Oktober 1969 zu antworten. erstens hatten 
Sie sich mit unserem '^nterbevollrnaecfitirten HA Dr. Schmidt-ivnatz 
unmittelbar in Verbindung gevsetzt und zweitens sind schriftliche 
j^rklaerunpen ueber die von Ihnen angeschnittenen Fragen ueber die 
deutsche rtechtsanwaltspebuehrenordnung nutzlos, da Sie ganz ver- 
staendlicnerweise darueber, einschl. der auf diesem Gebiete 
wandten fcecnniscien Ausdruecke, nicht informiert sind. 


Aus einer Mitteilung von RA Dr. Schmidt -Unat z ersehe ich, 
dass nunmehr die Auszahlungen an -^ie als Testamentsvollstrecker 
der Frau iiilse Heimann und - hinsichtlich seiner Gebuehren - an ihn 
saemtlich vollzogen sind. 

Sie haben erhalten von der Beaoerde 
und als Gebuehrenzuschuss gemaess 
dem Urteil , DM 827.12 

minus Gerichtskosten 213. 'i^O 

DM 16.190.00 


(DM 610. 32 von RA S'^hmidt-ivnatz am 

6.i|.1970 auf Ihr Konto bei der 
iiif f ektenbank uebe erwiesen. ) 

DM IÖ.800.32 

Sie haben an Dr. 
und zwar auf unser bef 
langdauernden Arbeit, 
mit ihm nur ein iiirfolg 
bart war. In dieser n'i 
8. Juni 196[j., in dem o 
einverstanden erklaere 
vollmaechtigten he ranz 
Interessen mit 5% des 
ses Briefes sandton wi 
gen *Jahr, 

Schmidt-Knatz als Honorar DM 2.000,- gezahlt, 
uerworten wegen der ungawoehnlich grossen und 
die mit diesem -t^rozess verbunden war, obwohl 
shonorar von ^'Yo, also rund DM 1.000,- verein- 
nsicht verweise ich auf Ihren Brief vom 
ie sich ausdruecklich mit unserem Vorschlag 
n, "einen Frankfurter Anwalts als Unterbe- 
uziehen und ihm fuer die '• ahrnehmun^' unserer 
^^rfolpshonorars au vergueten". ^ine Kopie die- 
r Ihnen auf Ihren Wunscn, glaube ich, im vori- 

- 2 - 

Das Honorar fuer unsere Dienste allein - ohne Korrespondenz 
anwalt - betraept 1^% des von der Benoerde gezaalten Betrages; 

15% von DM 18.800,32 
Barauslagen fuer Auslands- 
portl und Photokopten seit 
l%k 4?10.i|0 oder 

DM 2.820,- 


DM 2.859.72 = 4 783. U8 

Ich bitte -^ie um Ihren SchecK: ueber diesen Betrar an meine 
neue, am Kopf des Briefes vermerkte Adresse. 

Mit bestem Gpiiss 




Moses & Haas 




PHONE. S61-2787 

Prof. Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 West ii^nd Avenue 
New York, iM.Y. 10025 

k. Februar 1970 

Betr.: RE Else Helmann Erben 
- Ogigemaelde - 

Sehr geehrter Herr i:'rofQssor ^oudek, 

trotz unseres Schreibens vom ?• Januar 1970 
steht immer noch unsere Honorarrechnung vom 6.10.1969 
ueber DM 2,768,22 zur Zahlung; offen. 

Sie haben schon vor laenperer Zelt die Entschaedlgungs- 
zahlunp- erhalten, so dass wir heute erwarten duerfen, dass 
Sie fuer Begleichung unserer Honorars umgehend Sorge tragen 

Mit vorzuegllcher Hochachtung 


c/c Mr. 3c Mrs. Mltscherllch 


Moses & Haas 




PHONEi S61-8727 

?• Januar 1970 

Prof. Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 West ^i^nd Avenue 
Wew York, iN[.Y. 10025 

Betr.: HS Else lieimann brben 

Sehr geehrter Herr Professor Soudek, 

nach unseren Auf zeiohnunp-en steht noch unsere ^osten- 
rechnunr vom 6.10.1969 ueber OM 2.766,22 zur Zahlung offen. 

Wir bitten um Begleichung. 




Dt* Joaef Soud«k 
900 W^tt £n(ä Avenue 
New Xork^ N.Y. 10025 

6« Kov6i&b«r 1969 

Widerruf der der Flr»« Hoset & Haas* 
50 Brcad Street, New York, N.Y. 10004 
erteilten Volliüacht aur Vertretung In 
Verfahren auf Grund des i^iedergutBiach- 
ung© - und Kntcchaedl^un^sgesetaes vor 
Behoerden und gegenüber Banken» 

lierföit erklaere Ich als Teetainentsvollstrecker der 
Erbengemeinachaft nach Freu Else Helroenn (Testaments- 
vollstreckeraeugnls de» ius&tsgerlchts FrankfurtAialn 
vom 12»3#1960, Akz. 51 VI 2049/50 - in 51 VI 514/60), 
dass ich die der Firma Moses St HRa», 50 Broadstreet, 
Hew York, IJ»Y« 10004 ais 11. April i960 erteilte Voll- 
wioht zEit sofortiger Wirkung widerrufe. 

Die Vollmacht gab den IU>rren uoses und Haas die Be- 
fusnis, Verfahrens- und Unterbevollisöechtigte zu bestell 
len, für mich auf Grtind des '; iederfrutmachun/zcs> und Snt - 
schaediEun^^SKesetgee und nach dem Lastenausgleichges:: tz 
austeheride oder in Zukunft erwachsende Ansprüche au er- 
heben und mich in Verfahren vor Gerichten una Sehoerden 
eowie gegenüber irivatpersonen und Bginken zu vertreten. 

Dr. Josef 3oudek 
900 V'est l^nd Avenue 
New York, N.Y, 10025 

27 • Oktober 1969 


Dr. Frits i'oses 

70-20 Auatin '.treet 

Forest Hills, :!//. 11375 

Betr.« RS-5achc Sldt Heimann Erben - Ihre Schrei^ 
ben voK f' •10.69 - Ihr Zeichent Buchh/Ha 

Sehr geehrter Herr Dr. iioses, 

Ich kOEsire heute zurück auf Ihr Schreiben voa 6.10.69 un^S die 
Kodtonberechnung voir gleichen Datum. 

Ea faellt tnir schwer, Ihrer Xoetenberechnun^ au folgen oder 
sie gar sls "...rledigung meines Schreibens vom 21.9 #69" anauneh- 
man. Ich hatte naetdich in deir besagten Schreiben festgestelltf 
dass ich in Keinen Akten kein Schreib vm von rtir fmuen k:mn, in 
deiL ich einem 15;-^ igen Honorar für Sie zugestlmiit habe, las von 
Ihnen berechnete Honorj.r von DU 2.728,50 ist also nicht, wie Sie 
sagen oder Ihre Buchhaltung behauptet, des "vereinbarte* Honorar. 


ir.idt-fwnats setzen Sie 

"£^x aie Bemühungen von lierxn iÄA HXm 
einen Betr&g von DU 1.200, — ein. V:le aus der Abschrift seines 
Briefes an Sie voc 1.10.69, die Sie irir freu'-'dlichst beilegten, 
hervorgeht, hat Herr Dr. SchKidt-Knatz ein Honorar von :.;M 2.000,— 
als für seine Taetigkeit angemessen erachtet. Obwohl die klammer 
die Gebühren festzusetzen hat und sich erst daraus ergeben v;lrü, 
wieviel ihxr: nach Ansicht der üsinimer zusteht, hat Herr Dr. Schmidt« 
Knetz d±^ Berechnung einer dreif/^chen Gebühr belsi iel^v/^dse on^e" 
noii.en. Dann würden ihm DU 1*654, — zustehen, zu öonen wir ihm 
zusnetzlich die Ucisatzste er unu ^^vosten aunzuzahlen haetten, also 
etwa BM 2.0ü0, — . Davon v^iXrcent \iir beim Beispiel au bleiben, 
DM 800,-- von dtr Oegenseite bezahlt weruen. Die von Herrn Dr. 
SchiBidt-ilnats berechneten DU 1.200,— waeren also die ihn betref- 
fenden hy p 1 h c t i r- c he n Anwr.lts kosten, die wir wirklich zu tragen 
haetten. .-i-^ konnten sie aber nicht als endgültige AÜffer in 
eine x^ostenabrechnung einsetzen. 

X\ürm Sie es -ber taten, dann haetten Sie eine gleiche Berech- 
nung für das nicht vereinbarte 15,^ ige Honorar f^r Sie s Ibst an- 
stellen iriU::^sen. Auch Sie werden die Haelfte der von (iex tiumner 
angeset2;ten Anwrilts kosten erhalten, '/ss irmer dieser Betrag sein 
wird - nehmen wir beispielsv^^eise an? DM 800,-- -, hnetten ::ie 
ihn von ihrem Honorar abziehen müssen. Das aber haben Sic nicht 

Sie haben auch keine Stellung zu deir. Vorschlag von Herrn Dr. 

Schcidt-fCnatz genommen, dass die ;i:rben nach Frau Else Hoimann 
ihn eriLaechtigen moegen, aas vorgeschlggene Honorar von DU 
2Q00J,— bei der Ueberv/eisun^ des den Krben zugesprochenen Be- 

Dt» Soudelc, richrelben von: 27.10 »69 - 2 • 

txagn In Ahzut zn bringen« Wie ich aus deia Schreiben von Herrn 
ÜT* Sc}midt'^:Jn, entnonmen habe, sind die DU 18»190,— suf ei- 
neci imacr-i.onto (ich vennute auf uns lautend) bei seiner Bank 
eingegangen Ich kann mir nicht denken, döse Sie etv/- s dagegen 
einzuwenüön haben, wenn wir Ut.rm Dr. Schißidt-/.nat2i erKj.echtigen, 
diesen Betrag nach Abzug: seines Honorars an unsere ..onten bei der 
Deut chen ]^ffecten« und Wechsel-Bank in Fran.kfurt (kain) z\x Ubi^r- 
weisen» Umgekehrt vvird er uns den Betrag vergüten, den ihm ai<^ 
Oberfinanzdirektion al«3 Haelfte der von dar ■varjrcr fest^e-etzten 
Anwalt »gebühren auszahlen vfird. 

AUS d9n auf unseren »-Konten von Rt^xm Br. C.chEiQt-..Mata über- 
wiesenen Bötraegen koenncn wir unter üme tuenden Ihnen Ihr Honorar 
auBSohlen. Ich hatte auf dioi^^eir. Verfahren in ßieinen: Brief an Sie 
voii- 21 •9.69 als Vorauasetaung j e^^^-licher iiahlung an Sie bestanden. 

Uit bestell Gruss, 


Moses & Haas 




PHONSi 261.87S7 

Dr, Josef cioudek 
900 West ^nd Avenue 

6. Oktober 1969 

Betr.: RE-Sache nilse Heimann iirben 

Sehr peehrter Herr -^r. -^oudek: 

In Erledigung Ihres Schreibens vom 21,9.1969 ueberreichen wir 
Ihnen in der Anlage: 

1) unsere Kostenrechnung- ueber 

2) Schreiben der Herren RA Schmidt- Knatz, 
Frankfurt, vom,Ib9, deren Kosten 
Kosten in den beiden Verfahren betre^Tend: 
DM 2.000,- minus DM 800,- vom Land zu er- 
wartender Anvjalts kos tenzuschuss 

DM 2.768,22 

" 1>200,- 
DM 3,968.22 

Zur Auszahlung kommen insgesamt DM 16,190,- 
./. Oesamthonorare u. Auslagen " 3,968.22 
verbleiben den ^irben DM 114,221,78 

bitte, teilen Sie uns mit, wohin der iMettobetrag ueberwiesen 
werden soll. Sofern auf das J^onto bei der x^ffecten - und Wechsel- 
bank in i^'raakfurtA-^ain ^bitten wir um Angabe der ^'vonto-^^iumraer fuer 
die ^pbengeme inschaf t. 


- Mo chä ch tung s yo 1 1 

Dr. FR^!^Z SCH^m-KKAH 
GERilÄkD LlHiü^iMiiR 

Rr.rjri^c:nvv3l'0 und Notare 

Frarikfüit a. M., > :-vri©n»tr. 2 
Telefon ib77SA 


Prankfurt am Main, den 1. Oktober 1969 

Attorneys at Lav/ 

70-20 Aubtiri otroet 

Forest ilillü, liew York 11373/U3A 

Sehr geehrter Herr Kollege ! 

In der Hackerütattun^ssache Else H e i m a n n 
bestäti^ö ich den Eingang Ihres ochreibena vom 
24. 9.1969 nebL5t beigefügten Anlagen. 

Vorweg erlaube ich ui 
ich mich uit Ihrem Vo 
It). 6.64 beiiuglich de 
nicht einverstanden e 
ich ciein ocnreiben vo 
war Gchon daiücila in k 
welcher ürDeitöULif ang 
der ^andantschaf t ver 
dieaer keineswegs ein 
Sache, die nach mehr 
zu einem für unsere u 
Ergebnis geführt nat, 
DM 2.000, — zuzüglich 
für meine 'füLi^keit a 

r darauf hinzuweisen, daß 
rschiag laut üchreibexi von 
r Abgeltung neiner liem'ihungen 
rklürc habe. Dieserhalb bitte 
iü 7.7.64 zu vergleichen. Es 
einer V.'eise vorauszusehen, 

Liit der Währung der Interessen 
bunden war* Unter Berücksichtigung 
fach gelagerten iiückerstcttungs- 
als vierjährigen Bemühungen 
andantschaf t erfreulichen 

ncilte ich ein lionorar von 

Auslagen und Unisatzsteuer 

.s angemessen. 

Ein Betrag dieser Größenordnung dürfte die Auftrag- 
geber nicht all zu erheblich belasten, da die 
hälftigen Gebühren nach der Rechtsanwaltsgebuhren- 

ordnung von der Gegenseite 



sind, ^bekanntlich 

hat die Kammer festzusetzen, ob sie in diesem Palle 
zwei oder drei volle Gebühren für angemessen hält. 
Bei drei vollen Gebühren würde sich ein Betrag von 
DM 1.654, — ergeben und demgemäß üie ÜÜlfte iiiervon 
rund DM 300, — betragen. 

Ich schlage deshalb vor, es mögen unsere Auftraggeber 
mich ermächtigen, das vorgenannte Honorar von der auf 
meinem Anderkonto bereits eingegangenen bumme von 
DM 18.190, — in Abzug zu bringen und den verbleibenden 
Betrag alsdann auf das mir noch anzugebende Konto zu 
Überweisen. In.igleicher V/eise werde ich dann verfahren, 
sobald die von der Gegenseite zu erstattenden Kosten 
bei mir eingehen. 

Ausfertigung des Erf üllungsbescheides der OPD Prankfurt/Main 
vom 2. 9.1969 füge ich bei. 

Mit kollegialer Plochachtung 

Dr. Josef Soudek 

900 West End Avenue 

New York, n.Y. 10025, 21, Sept. 1969 

Sehr geehrter Herr Dr. inäoses, 

Ihr Brief vom 9.9» ist über Diamond Point geleitet und mir 
von üort aus hierher nachgeschickt worden. 

Frau Mitscherlich ist noch immer in Diamond Point und ich 
hatte bisher keine Gelegenheit, mit ihr den Inhalt Ihres Schrei- 
bens zu besprechen. ich im Folgenden sage, stellt daher mei- 
ne eigene Laeiniing dar und ist für üie Erbengemeinschaft nicht 
bindend. Wir sind uns nur darin einig, dass wir keine Stellung 
zu dem Beschluss aer V^iedergutmachungskammer des Landgerichts in 
Frankfurt nehmen koennen bis die Kosten- und Honorarfrage zu un- 
serer Zufriedenheit beantwortet ist. 

In Ihrem Schreiben htiben Sie uns den im Beschluss erwaehnten 
Geschaeftswert erklaert, wofür wir Ihnen d;^nken. Ihre Antworten 
auf unsere Fragen nach den uns aus dem Beschluss erwachsenden Kos- 
ten und den Honoraren der Anwaelte sind dagegen un^ulaenglich und 
bedürfen weiterer Klaerung. 

1* Die '♦Kosten des Verfahrens"? Auf Seite 1 des Beschlusses 
stellt aas Landgericht fest! "3«) Von den Kosten des Verfahrens 
tragen aie Parteien jeder die Haelfte.** Anliegend reiche ich Ihn- 
en die uns überlassene Ko^ ie des Beschlusses zur ick, sodass Sie 
den Vdrtlaut des Beschlusses nachprüfen koennen. Da im. spaeteren 
Text auf diesen Punkt nicht m-ehr Bezug genommen v.ird, werden Sie 
wohl in Frankfurt zurückf ragen müssen, um. uns den genauen Betrag 
angeben zu koennen. Ihre Vermutung, dass^'sich bei den "Kosten des 
Verfahrens" um die nach der deutschen Gebührentabelle festgesetz- 
ten Anwalts ico st en handelt, leuchtet mir ein. dagegen verstehe ich 
nicht, wieso die Kosten, wie Sie sagen, "über die DM 17.000, — 
hinaus gezahlt werden müssen'*. %ennf wie der Beschluss lautet, 
die P rteiön je zur Haelfte aie Kosten zu tragen haben, mUsste 
der Antragsgegner (das Deutsche Reich, vertreten durch die Ober- 
finanzdirektion) nur die Haelfte der Ihnen und Herrn Dr. Schmidt- 
Knatz nach der deutschen Gebührentabelle zustehenden Honorare zah- 
len, waehrend wir aie andere Haelfte zu zahlen haetten. ii.:it an- 
deren Worten? die Hr elfte der Anwsltskosten würden wir aus den 
uns zugesprochenen DM 17 #000, — zu begleichen hsben. Die Berech- 
nung aer vom. Landgericht erwaehnten Kosten ist daher, entgegen 
Ihrer Annahme, von groesttem. Interesse für uns. 

2» Yienn meine Überlegungen zutreffen, schulden wir Ihnen 
und Herrn Dr. Schmidt-Knatz Honorare, die vom Landgericht gemaess 
der deutschen Gebührentabelle festgestellt werden. Erst wenn ich 
die vom Landgericht berechneten Ziffern sehe, kann ich beurteilen, 
ob Ihre Berechnung der Anwalt shOnörf:re und der zusaetzlichen Spe- 
sen korrekt ist. Zu di'^sem Punkt Ihres Schreibens moechte ich 
drei weitere Überlegungen hinzufügen; 

Dr* Goudek, Schreiben vom 21. 9.69 

- 2 • 

(a) Bezuglich der Honorare für Sie una Herrn Dr# 
Schmidt-Knatz beziehen Sie sich auf ein Schreiben von mir vom 
8 #6 #64, in dem ich einer Abmachung zugestiinint haben soll, dass 
Sie 15^' und Herr Dr. Schmidt-Knatz 5^' des Rückerstattungsbetra- 
ges als Honorar erhalten werden • In meinen Akten finde ich kei- 
ne Kopie eines Schreibens von mir an Sie vom 8.6 ♦64. Ich waere 
Ihnen daher sehr verbunden, -^'.'enn Sie nir ein Photos tat meines 
Schreibens zugeenglich machen wollten. Aber selbst vienn ich 
mich dan>als wirklich mit einer solchen Honorarberechnung einver- 
standen erklaert heben sollte, Vvürde ich sie jetzt in Frage stel- 
len aus Gr^inden, üie ich Ihnen nach Einsicht in mein Schreiben 
erklaeren -^'erde . 





mir s 




(b) Auch was Sie bezüglich Auslagen Ihrerseits una die 
Honorar von Herrn Dr. Schmidt-Knatz zu berücksichtigende 
ertsteuer sagen,! :t mir nicht verstserdlir-^h. F 11s nach 
kanischen Recht ein am.erikanischer Anwalt das Recht haben 
e, Spesen über das Hiknorar hinaus zu berechnen, rr.üssten Sie 
chon einschlaegige Auskunft über die hiesige Gebührenordnung 
* Ebenso moechte ich Aufklaerung dErüber erhalten, was aie 
che Gebührenordnung bezüglich der Mehrr.erts teuer auf ein 
tshonorar vorsieht . 

(c) In Ihrem Brief vom 9 «9 »69 sagen Sie, dass **von dem 
Erloes von DM 17.000, — das Honorar von Dr. Schm-idt-xCnatz und 
von uns abgezogen wird " .^ nach Ihrer Meinung, zieht diese 
Honorare ab ? Und wie wird dieser Abzug durchgeführt werden ? 
Nach meiner Vorstellung vm de , falls wir den i3eschluss des Land- 
gerichts annehm.en sollen, der Hückerstatt-ungsbetrag von der Ober- 
finanzdirektion an die Konten- von Josef 8c Gretel Soudek (2/3) und 
von Frau Mitscherlich (1/3) bei der Deutv--chen Effecten- und \Vech- 
sel-£.ank in Frankfurt überwiesen werden. Nur unter der Bedingung » 
dass aie Auszahlung in dieser Veise durchgeführt wird , koe^men 
viir dem Beachluss zustinimen. Aus den uns auf unsere Konten in 
Frankfurt überv^iesenen Betriegen werde n wir dann Ihnen una Herrn 
Dr. Schm.idt-dnatz die Honorare zuzüglich der erwsehnten Spesen 
und Mehrwertsteuer, falls sie rechtm^aessig von uns zu tragen sind, 
rusz hlen. Bsbei haben Sie die ^ßhl, ob Sie Ihr Honorar una die 
Vergütung von Spesen in DM oder in Dollars bekommen 'tollen. 

Mit bestem Gruss, 

Dr* Josef Soudek 
900 Test Ena Avenue 
IJew York, lUX. 10025 

?1. Septecbf^r 1969 

Herrn Hechtsanwalt 
Dr. Tranz Schmidt- 
6 Frankfurt (■.!aln) 
Marien Strasse 2 

Gehr geehrter Herr Dr* Ochciidt-Knatz ! 

i^unlDei überreiche ich ihnen Kopien ciine;- Schreibens von 
Herrn Dr. ...oses an mich voir. 9 .9 «69 und meiner iintowrt voe 
2i#9«69 2ur gefaelligen waa vertraulichen i<enntnisnahine. 

Auf Seite 2 meines Schreibens tmter 2,a erwaehne ich, 
dass ich Beaenken habe gegenüber einer angeblichen Verein- 
barung der Anwaltshonorore, vvonach aie Firma Äioses <k Fiaas 
15'^ und Sie 5> aes Kücicerstattungsbctrages erhalten sollen. 
Lu'inaestens seit Oktober 19:^^6 haben Sie allein unsere Rucker- 
stuttungssache bearbeite,: t und die Firnsa Moses & Haas hat nur 
Eotendien te geleistet. Aber ,uch vorher ist der Fall h?-upt- 
saechlich von dei:; verstorbenen Herrn Dr. Haas mit meiner und 
Ihrer Unterstützung bearbeitet worden und Herr Dr» Moses hat 
nur gelegentlich aie ihn; vorgelegten Unterl; gen weitergelei- 
tet. Dk.q alles v^ürae ich vorbringen, fallo die Honorare nxcht 
ni.:ch der deutschen Gebü/renorünun.o; berechnet vvürd< 


liiit vorzüglicher Hochachtung, 


Moses 6l Haas 




PHONE. 261-2727 

9. September 19ö9 

^rof. Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 West iind Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10025 

Betr.: HE nach Else Heimann 

Sehr geehrter Herr Professor Soudek, 

Die Fragen, die Sie in Ihrem Brief vom b.9.69 stellen, 
beziehen sich nicht darauf, ob der beschluss des Lü Frankfurt/Main 
anzunehmen oder ob gegen ihn Beschwerde einzulegen ist, sondern le- 
diglich auf das Honorar. 

Was die i^eschwerde betrifft, so wissen ^ie aus meinem Brief 
vom 15. ö. 1969, dass ich der Ansicht bin, dass eine Beschwerde nicht 
in Frage kommt. Anderer -Ansicht kann man nur sein, wenn man glaubt, 
dass die Entziehung der anderen Kunstwerke, als die Tiepolos, von 
uns zur Zufriedenheit des (j^erichts bewiesen werden kann. Was die 
Hoehe des Wertes der Tiepolos betrifft, so hat das Gericht das 
Outachten des Sachvers taendigen uebernommen, gegen das ^ie auf un- 
sere Anfrage keine Einwendungen hatten. 

Zur Beschleunigung der Angelegenheit wuerde ich empfehlen, 
dass -^ie umgehend uns Ihre Stellungnahme bekannt geben, so dass 
ohne /erzoegerung die weiteren Schritte zur Auszahlung eingeleitet 
werden koennen, iA/as -*-hre ^^'ragen betrifft, so ist zu sagen: 

1) Geschaef tswert bedeutet, dass die hosten fuer Gericht und 
Anwaelte auf der Grundlage des Geschaef tswertes berechnet werden. 
Der Betrag von DM 31.750,- ist der Gesamtbetrag des Wertes aller 

2) Von dem Erloes von DM I7.OOO,- wird das Honorar von Dr. ^chmidt- 
Knatz und von uns abgezogen. Dr. ^chraidt-Knatz erhaelt 5^, wir er- 
halten 15^ (siehe Ihr Schreiben an uns vom 8.0,1961+). Tatsaechliche 
Auslagen sind ebenfalls zu ersetzen. Diese «i^etragen fuer uns ca. 

# 20,-; fuer Dr. Schmidt-ünatz betragen sie die deutsche Mehrwert- 
steuer, die er zahlen muss, sonst unbedeutende Betraege fuer Porti. 

Was die Bezugnahme in dem Beschluss auf die "Kosten des Ver- 
fahrens" betrifft, so duerfte es sich dabei um ^nwaltskosten der 
Parteien gemaess der deutscnen ^ebuehrentabelle handeln. Da ich den 
Beschluss nicht vor mir habe, kann ich genaues nicht sagen. Jedoch 
sind diese Kosten, di^^ueber die DM 17.000,- hinaus gezahlt werden 
muessen, ^etraege, die Dp, »^chmidt-Knatz und uns fuer ihn und uns 
gezahlt werden. Unter diesen '-'mstaenden duerfte Sie die Berechnung, 
die ich ohne den -^eschluss nicht machen koennte, nicht interessieren. 

Ich bitte ^ie um umgehende St6l4.ung nähme und Ruecksendung des 
Beschlusses, da wir keine Kopie ^j^rv^^ekt^^alten haben. 






Cr# Josef Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10025 

zur Zelt (bis zum 10 «9 #69)1 
c/o Miss Edith Patrick 
Diamond Point, N.Y. 12824 

6. September 1969 

Sehr geehrter Herr Dr, Moses t 

Bei meiner Rückkehr von einer laengeren Europareise fand ich 
Ihr Schreiben vom 15»8«69 mit der beigelegten Kopie des Beschlus- 
ses der Wiedergutmachungskammer des Landgerichts Frankfurt vom 

Ich habe Ihren Vorschlag und den Beschluss der Wiedergutmach- 
ungskanmer inzwir chen mit Herrn und Frau Mitscherllch eingehend 
besprochen. Wir koennen zu beiden so lange keine Stellung nehmen 
bis zwei Punkte, die teilweise durch den Beschluss aufgeworfen 
werden, nicht voellig gekleert sind: 

(1) V/as bedeutet der in dem Beschluss erwaehnte '*Geschaefts- 
wert von DM 31.750, - " (Punkt 4 auf Seite 1) ? 

(2) Wieviel wird uns von den uns zuerkannten DM 17.000, - an 
Kosten aller Art abgezogen werden ? V/ir denken d'bei an zwei Ar- 
ten von Kosten« 

(a) die Haelfte der Kosten des Verfahrens (Punkt 3 auf 
Seite 1 des Beschlusses) und 

(b) die uns von Ihnen und anderen Anwaelten wie Herrn 
Dy* Schmidt-Knatz berechneten Honorare, 

Ich waere Ihnen daher sehr verbunden, wenn Sie uns über diese 
Punkte aufklaeren wollten. 

Die Kopie des Beschlusses werde ich Ihnen zurückreichen, so- 
bald wir das Studium der schwer verstaendlichen und verwickelten 
"Begründung" beendet haben. 

Ihrer Antwort entgegensehend, verbleibe ich 

mit bestem Gruss, 


Moses & Haas 


ruAz.«««» 70-20 AUSTIN STREET 


15, August 1969 

Prof. Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 V'est End Avenue 
New York, N.Y. IOO25 

Betr.: RE nach "Else Helmann 
Sehr geehrter Herr Professor Soudek: 

Das Gericht hat in der Rueckerstattungssache wegen der 
Bilder DK I7.OO0,- zuerkannt, und zwar wegen Entziehung der 
Tiepolos . 

Ich bin der Ansicht, dass eine Beschwerde gegen den 
Beschluss nicht in Frage komtnt . 

Ich bitte um Ihre umgehende Stellungnahme und auf alle 
/ Paelle Ruecksendung des Beschlusses. 

Mit..bestem Gruss 

Anlage: Beschluss der WG LG Frankfurt vom 31«7«1969, 

Dr. Schiridt-Knatz 
6.Aug 1969 

hat die VS/iedergutmachungskammer des Landgerichts Frankfurt 

(Main) am 31. 7. 1969 . ' 


1.) Der Antragsgegner wird verurteilt, an den Antrag- 

17.000. - (DM siebzehntausend DM ) 
nach lujassgabe des Bundesrückerstattungsgesetzes 
zu zahlen. 

2.) Wegen der weitergehenden Ansprüche wird der Antrag 
zurückgewiesen . 

3.) Von den Kosten des Verfahrens tragen die Parteien 
jeder die Haelfte. 

4.) Der Geschaef tswert wird auf 31.750, - DM festgesetzt. 

- Gründe - 






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WU 2120 (H) 

Wi-FrBh-16 483 M 
ZAA 345 577 

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das Dtutsche )^. eich, 
Tertrettn duroh die überfinanadirektion 
Frankjfurt/i-'tain , Adickeaallee 32, 
- H 15 416 - Antr&ga^egPT« 

hut die "iederguxniaciiUj:i..;8kai4i:iex ien La.^jd(,erichtö Frankfurt 
(i4ain) am [^^ 7 , 1o;C^ 

beB Ch lu98en: 

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'■l,) Der AntraetRgegner wird verurteilt, aii den Antraf- 

,-'■ etriü er 

V[ . ÖOO a ~ jl i (sieb ''C'^i'^n t aua üb a uh ) 

Ä;;\'*-'y^?«/':''' naoh Haßgab« dos »uiidesrück-eratattiuigsgese t^^eo 

'' '" '\'.^.'4'Sjv^!^-- 2^ zahlen. 

^' ■^',>v'''- 'i'K^tVV^» ) We^eti der weitergehenden Anaprüohe wii^d dei itra^' 

"'''•'.'"^' . v''r '!' '^i^'^^" Burückßewieser} . 

■ ,_ ■ Vr^:;:v';;^|'f3.)' Von d«n Kosten de« Ve.;-f, ,*;renj3 tra^von die rarteroü 
■^. '''/;■/' 'trJ%'^-: Jeder die '^ilfte, 

•.;,■'•'• .'.,S?^'i-fM^^#).';il>«r UeBeh?i,ft8WGrt wird auf '51.7^0,- JH festgesetzt. 

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:-c:'M. ,i.imm'mmp- 1 

In der RüokerstattungeBache 

d«a Prof«88ors Dr« Jostf S o u d « k , 900 vVest Knd Avenue, | 

I«w York, N.Y*, 10025, USA., , 

- al« T«0tauent0TOllBtreok«r im Nachlaß 

Elsa H e i m a n n gab. Schiff - , 

.» An trage teil er s . 

Prog.BtT» t Raohtsanwälta Dr. Frans Sohmidt-KnatB 
und Grarhard Lindhaimar, 
Frankfurt /Main, Marianetr.a, 


II IM iMm 

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Der Antrag« tttUev ist d«r TeatajMntayollstreolwr über d«n 
KaotaXai der am Il»7«1959 la Staate New York Terstorbenesa 
XLaa Helaann geb» Sohlff » im folgenden Srblaaeerin genannt. 
Sie war ftide 1933 wegen der raeaieohen Terfolgung duroh das 
VS^BegiiM aua frankfurl/Maln naoh Hew Tork auagewandert« 
Ihr lAuragegat wurde erst abgefertigt, ala aie ])eutaohland 
aehon Terlaaaen hatte* Ihr damaliger BeroUmäohtigter in 
frankfurl/Main wai;^Xri diesem Yerf «ihren ala Zeugan yemoBmena 
Steuerberater Dor* Muno« Dieser reiohte am 16«1«1939 sugleieh 
mit dstt Thuaigagutlisten u.a. eine « Sohätsung dea Herrn Sttle 
über Oenälde" an die Beriaens teile 8 in frankfurt/^faijti mit 
dem Antrag auf die Auafuhrgenehmigung des Uaumgagutea^ Aua 
den Listen ergibt aioh, daas alle diejenigen Gemälde yer» 
schickt werden sollten, um deren Rückerstattung ea hier geht 
lult .nusna-hüiß" üip-üitoii. v;./el.gcnf--lde von Tiepolo (Bl. 16 d.JDe- 

Die JohJdt-zuns d^s Eev-T^n- l^tt:Jdx< Jt^xi.idet aioh nicht mehr bei 
den Devioenakten. Aua anderen Verfaliren ist der Kaunmer be - 
kanntf dass der bereits Yerstorbene WilhelaEttle« Inhaber 
dea iKXinsthauses Wilhelm Ettle" in Yrankfur t/Main, a.Zt. ala 
Saohreratändiger der Devisenstelle fungierte. Als soloher be* 
gutaohtete er Kunatgegenatände Ton Emigranten auf ihren 
"nationalen Kunstwort" • Sofern sein Outaohten dies bestätigte, 
wurde die Mitnahme des betreffenden EXmstwerks nioht genehmigt, 
es oxuSte vielmehr im deutsohon Kunsthandel verwertet werden. 

Am 23*7 .1939 genehmigte die Devisenstelle das Umzugsgut (Bl. 
'^^ T^G-^. Akten), das Jedooh nooh bis 194o bei DGUizas lagerte 

(31. ?7 Dev. Akten). 

Am 2.'.'. 12 . 1958 meldei.e die IiirblasGerin r-'ickerotit-tUri/.ry^'-'^^'-'tllche 
.-uoipx'uöjikfc LL-a . wegen Verlustes "einea.^ Kunstü'.![iji:;lL;r. " ;in, be- 
SOhlagnahmt in der Wohnung (der :^ahjj£uuii3rln). .''ran! •"nrt /I.:nin 
BOhmerstr. 33 als deuteohes Kulturgut" ( Bl. 2 Amtsaktüiiy . 

Der Anmeldung fügte sie eine Aufstellung (B1.7) bei, in der 
sie die eineeinen (Gemälde der beaohlagnahmten Kunst saianlung 
aufgeführt hatte. Aunserdem erwähnt die Rrblaa serin, dass 

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daaq hd0H weitere Kiuj.stf:ö/'0]i8 1. i.d(; ^uö cLolj Vürsiuidr^rti^eii 
LlJTt beschlagnahmt worden wilreu und dr;ß der Lift :H den 
Umzugagut opäter in Trieat zur Vcratelgcrung v/.urc. ' , 

Mit üohrlftaatz vom 23.8.1962 trug der AntragetGllorvortrotcr 
tüT seine inzwischen verstorbene Vollmachtgeb6i*ln untor Be- 
zugnahme auf deren handsohrirtlloheif Informationen ( In 
Fotokopie Bl. 63 a, 161 ff der AmtaAkten) vor, daae oa ßioh 
bei dem aus dem vorsandf ortigen Lift nachtrüglioh beijoiilag- 
nahmten Gemälden um zwei Worke von Ilepolo geiiandelt hütto. 

Der Antragsgegner hat dem /Uiapruoh wlderaprochsn* Eine Ent- 
ziehung der Kunatsarimlung ael nicht nachgewleaeni ÄLe nooh 
ih den Umzugsgutliften vom Januar 1939 aufgeführten Gemälden 
könnten nicht achon Im öoptember 1938 beschlagnahmt wordtn 
sein, und die in der Umgugsgutliste überhaupt nloht aufge« 
führten Gemälde könnten sich nicht Im Lift befiinden haben* 

Daraufhin hat der Antragatellervertreter seinen Vortrag , i 
icorrißlepti Der betagt gewesenen ilpblaaserln sei ein Irrtum 
unterlaufen und es müßten die Gemälde von Tlepolo in der ' 
vnoiinung, alle anderen jedoch aus dem Lift beschlagnahmt worden 
aein. Da die Tlepoloa die wertvollaten Stücke gewesen selent 
könne ohne weiteres unterstellt werden, daB sie Deutsohlazid 
als "i^tionalea Kulturgut" nicht hätten verlaaaen dürfen« 

luoh dem iat der Antragsgognor entgegengetreteni Sine ! 
3e a lU. abnähme der Kunstgegenoti-nde kijne nach der allr^emeinen 
r^benserfahrung vor der am 31 »12 •1938 erfolgten Auswanderung 
^ezw. vor einer Ausbürgcriing der Erbiaea orin nicht In Betracht» 
tis könne nur davon ausgegangen werden, daas die Erblasserin 
uaoh den damaligen DevioenbOütlinnLint::en von der Ausfuhr aus- 
/,eöorilüssene Kunstgegennt^Jide, wem? i^b^rhaupt, an den Kunst- 
rirmdel ver äusserte. 

M)r Anlragatellorvcrtr'. tor Iiat imtor Yorla^^i einer eldea- 
^ta^tj-iohen Vornichorui^r, des oc}'wie.''/.rco'^uieB der Drblasof.-rin 
hierauf entgegnet, die (reg tapo habe hei ior ;,>rb?.äjnori>i alo 
Zch'öt-zr^ei^terin der J^rnnkfui^ii^cr- j;t;Mi5.:<2Ät<^2. ^^^l,^t oii.t; Diirc-. 
suQh-ixn^?. äurohiie fahrt und hierbei auQ-h Auri.;><;-^;ü.v. eri^tj-initi?^ l^^:.- 
.^/rbiss.serin entaüt^;en, 
Man(_:,elB ^utlipiier Einit_\ia]^_; liat u.-.tü x..-;ind^?Gaii]t für Vormö^^ens- 




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Ver7n>.;^ona:!:on trol le ?aicl loci .!r,':utn.'.'.Liiiuit'''. •M.r, ;,',c1jo durcli 30- 
8chlui3 von r.O.2»1907 v/ der /vjanta.?. "-luriß r<:u. riln y^tiiincr 
vcnvleson« Dioae hat dlt) borolts ^'^nv •Tionr. Dcvl ao?x\]'-(.o:i 
-48 96/38-und die /Uctcn der i:rit'^.chi.dli'^,unf",oboiiördn/i Vlcobr;Jc?: 
Az.i - 359o8 - boirjezo^'on ujid '.lom /vji'-.rri.^ftGllc^r 'iuI'^^ü^.-iIh.^ , 
die gesamte Korrennondenz dor '^rblaorjr^ri: boiii'.^'lich U^oa 
Uiazu^sgutea vorsulc^^eii, 77r;.'5 ^ouchchcr: Icit, r-^r?-.f r liL dic-t 
Kojamer ala Zeugon Dr. r.tuno vcmorancn und bei den :3achvcr- 
■tiindigen Dr, Eloh ein Giiti^ohten *'bcr de:. Wiederbcacliarf^in::*.- 
wert der streitigen öemiildo eingeliolt« 

Der Antragsteller hat Einwc-mde gc^o^- darj Out ;chtcr j'ioht o.r^ 
hoben, -^s halb davon auszugehen iot, daan or den voii diesein 
geschützten Wert der Kunstnojmliuig, insgerüant 31.75o.- DM 
verlangt. ' ' 

Der Antragggegner hat geltend gemacht, dana auch die beiden 
TlepolOü im Un.:ugsgut £^ev;eöer. sein kö2inton, ohne auf der 
Liste SU erscheinen. Er verbleibt bei seinem Antrag auf Zu- 
rückweisung , weil eine Entziehung nicht nachgevrieoen sei. 

Nachdem die gemäß 5 27 Abs. 4 BRUa, Art. 67 REO erforÄorliohe 
mündliche Verhandlung vor der Kammer stattgefiuidon hat, kann 
Im übrigen entsprechend den Vorochrifton ber das Verfahren 
der Ppeiwilllgen Gerichtsbarkeit entacl-iiedon werdexi, wobei 
der Inhalt ßer gesamten Akten zugrunde liegt. 

Der form- und fristgereoht :u^' ^"xldote I^LckGratattungsaiispruch 
iBt begründet, soweit dlo Entziehung der beiden Oel^',emalde 
von Tiepolo geltend gemaoht wird. Im übri^^cn i^t er zuirtiokzu- 

Die Kammer erachtet filr erwiesen, dnac die Iv. vjler ^Inte der 
Devisenakteii aufgeführten Kunstgogcnatrlndo pich im U.%ri^»- 
gut befunden hatten, die dort nioht :mf geführton Gogenatiinde 
hingegen nicht. 

D^T 1938 unter dem Druck dor Verfolgung r;ov/l3!?enhaft luid oorg- 
fi^tlg angefertigten Un.'^ugs/'Mtliote kommt, v/ic dor Antrag- 
steller ohne weiteres einrauint, entncheidende Beweiskraft 
711. Infolgedessen befanden aich jümtlicho Gemi'lde nit Aus- 

naiiiiie der beiden Tiepoloe i:;i i'r.:3Uf^orut. JJfii' ;;c^iicki;al 
clf.'cer beiden drirnpAtfl una g. r :,o..i' ror/VTar diiicr 

7< : rj;QUa.e:).cn vorl;aifcn, w;i'.(^. i'.r. (*^:fn».m unir..^vie i:a"H'n'?[ei:f?jil.i:b.J. 
läßt sich aufgrund eindeu^:! •.?!' iiv.\n:±im nicht l'ejtüxell^'i]. 

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y«flt steht noTf das« die Erblaseerin die Gomuldcaa. iilur^-, 
4«r«ii HUokeretattuJ^s hier verlangt wird» beeeasen hatte, 
Dam wijrd duroh die Derlsenakten» durch ihre orgclAzondon £r^ , ^ 
klänmgen (B1.63 a» 161 AmtsAlct.) und die ihres Schwieger- 
sohns« Xilhard Uitsoherlioh belegt und von dem Antragsgegner 
nioht angSBWsifelt« 
?sst steht weiterhin, dass die LYblass'^rin die Crenriaoaarmlunß 
singsIrtlBt hattSf die beiden Tiepoloe, weil sie sie nicht 
■it dSB Uasugsgut mit in die Emigration mitnehiaen konnte» 
die sndersni wsil ksin StUok des gesamten Umziigsguts die 
Arblasssrinv^sn TTSA srrsiohts. Soweit nicht noch vor Absendiing 
Ctegenstände in Leuteohland ontnonunen wurden (z.B. Tafelsilber» 
SohreibmaschinSf Hähmaschins und anderes nach dem Inhalt der 
Devisenakten) mBts der Lift als durch Waseereinwirkung hava- 
riertes Gut Anfang 1941 in j?riest versteigert werden (Korr^3-> 
pondsn« Bl, 16 - 29 d.A.)« r .. 

£in BUokerstattungsanspruoh wsgsn der im Lift bsfindlioh g** 
wessASn G^emälds wäre nur dann gegeben, wenn diese naohträglioh 
ebenso wie das 2afslsllber und die sonstigen in ddn Deviseiw 
akten erwöJmtsn Gegenstände entnonmien worden wärest I2is Srb-* 
lasserin hat zwar naohtrögliohe Entnahme von aemälden aus 
dem Lift behauptet und Eluard Mltscherlioh dies vom Ilörensagsn 
versichert* Beweiswert koimnt dem jedoch nicht su* Denn dis 
Erblasserin war ssur Zeit der Abf ertigiuig ihres Jmsugsguts 
nicht nehr in Deutschland i Sie emißrlcrte am 21.12.193Ö und 
erreichte New York 29.12.1933 (vergl. B1.7 der B- Akten) • 

Vsnn die Oemälde, wie die Erblasserin behauptet hatte, aus dsm 
Utaizugsgut beschlagnahmt worden NTaren« so hö.tte sie hiervon 
mir fiohriftlioh erfahren höimen «so vte Ihr z.B. ür* Muno 
die Silberabgabs und die Verweigerung der Erlaubnis zur Mit- 
nahme von Schreibmaschine und ITiUimaschiino nit-getellt ^latte 
(vergl* Korrespondems B1.42 und 45 Ädr AratsaJctan) • Anhalts- 
p}jpaik% dafür» dass die Erblasserin hlcrfiber Nachi»lo}iten empfangen 
hätte sind nicht gegeben. Eine bloße Vermutung der lieflchilagnalune 
der Gemälde besitzt keinen Loweiancrt. II tto dlo .Irblasaerln 
eine Hachricht Iilerübor in den USA orhialtcn, deuai vrilro der 
Vc?rluat dieses Bowel oinit Lg !& nicht verfolgungsbe dingt und 
könnte nicht Im Rahmen des Art. 49 IU'jG iiu Gminton dec ;^ntrag- 

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M« iMohtrttKlioliit ftitBAiSM d«r a«Bäld« wmb 4«b Uaiugsgu^ ist 
«Im nioh-l iiaohc««lM«ii« Sie i«t au«h nlohtg wl« der Antrag- 
•t«ll«JPTtrtr«t«r Balnt» dtataAll» nahallttgend« wall die £rb» 
Immmmrin (T«rgl« XI 165 AMt«<»Akt.} anaonatan dia (CranaporV- 
flnaa nloht wagan dar Harauanahaa Ton Btfoham aondem Ton 
daa «alt wartvoUaraa g^tf^nn aiia daa hanrmriartan Lift und 
Uabaraandung an ala^aaohilaban hätta* 

Ha Torgalatta Korraapandana tat imrollatändig, (Torgl* Bl« 
Xd9 ABt»>JürWat 16 • 19 KaoMeraktai^ Bad dia £rblaaaailn 
aniar «agan dav lUaliay nicht auah wagan andarav Baatandtaila 
ilura« Uaaa^HEutaa ia glaiahan Sinna gaachrlaban hatta« ist 
niolit aiiaauaphliatan« Abar aaXbat wann danvl^ wäira, ao übaih- 
■aagt dar tob A&tracatallarrartratar gaaogana Sohl«! nicht« 
Bann ohna jada alihara Kanntnla daa 2uat«ndaa daa lifta konnta 
dia Brblaaaarin jadanfalXa bei fauchtigkaitaachädan nicht 
annahmen, daA dia BUohar noch die Yeraandung lohnten» wohingegen 
aia andereraeita ohne waiteraa annahnen konntat daaa dia Borsal* 
lau» und Steingut** Olaa« und Kriatallaaohan (B1.13 in den Ba* 
Tiaenakten) auiaindeat die Peuohtigkeiteaohäden überdauert hat-> 
tan« Wazm die Erblaaaerin alao daToh aiuigegangen war, daaa 
ihre Bücher die Teraandung noch lohnten, dann aprioht diaa 
tu» aind Mitteilimg an aia über den Ziuitand ihrea IMzugagutea 
nicht aber dafür, daaa die Gemälde aohon in TrankTurt/Uain 
Ter dar Abaanduag dam Ua;:ugagut entnoxoman geweaen aein mOIten, 
dann inabaaondera aia alnd den Verderb durch Waaeereohadan 

aaagCaetjBt.F'ir (üerer, '''a.;.;. i.,i eine rluckei ^^ . ■ •'-t^ir^'; ■ iciit re."eri... 

IX. Waa die beiden Gemälde Ton Tiepolo anlangt, ao eteht feat, 

daa« aia nicht Baa tandteil dea Unzugagutea waren. Die Möglich- 
keit, d&aa- die Brblaaeerin Yon aioh aua die Gemälde nloht in 
die Sndgration mitsunebmen aioh enteohloaeen und ele in irgend- 
eiBcrwaiec TeräuOert hätte, aoheldet naoh der Überzeugung der 
Xasner auat Ble Grblaaaerln beaaB auaweiallch der Beylaenakten 
In Beutaohland ein grofiee YormOgen, daec ele <-eowelt ea nloht« 
nämlich In Höhe von 25 ^, durch dlo RGiohofluohto teuer auf- 
gezehrt vrurde, der drjäif.on ÜevieenbeetiLuniai^en In Deutsch- 
land^naheisu vollirtili.cU^j :.:ur cklriacoM iJußto«j>.g » .i-r.ziire was 
zur 7,^1% der ^^x:y^:u•>d■ r\ .>.,', .uvr i.rblaööfarin nacih- rsi:$it. Jevi.-.eru. 
bOQtl:.jjiui;-oii i:i r^i: Erai-r ivign rdt^önoninen WeriP($n- ::;oi-i1;c, vzar 
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mt9lk\ m TtrMtti«mt •oBd^m ■!• 9lm B«ataxidt«il d*« Illurag»«» 
gut«« in dl» lalgrtttimi jdtmmelnMii« «a mf dl««« W«l«« «i«h 
i«n B««t«iidt«ll Ihr«« T«V!HBf«n« «& i:nsi«tg«g«ii«tind«aDL «3rh«lt«n 
SU MliMBa. T»9 Oruid dAfOvt dai «1« dl«« gl«l«lnrDhl nloht 
i^ionMMht b«tt«t l«*! naoli d«y tfb«n«iiiKtaii d«r XKmmv^ In «in«n 
WLBi$pi%ltwk Toa Qrg«B«n d«« iatv«f«g«cn«r« sa «ttoli«nf w«l«Ji«« 
WK%m9 BcvO^nlohtlsaBi d«y «yl«loh't«rt«n l«««l«fttluning d«« 
irt«49 XM mf «In« lnt«l«)iiaic hlnfOhrtt flmur f«hlt In d«n 
l«Tl«tt«]tt«n da« •ia'la«h'l«n d«« Baofareratäadigca Bttl«» d««««n 
ZalMlt^m«h J«da«li «a« d«a •oas'llg«n Saatarerhaltf laa^«ond«r« 
«Das d«a 9«Tl««nalrlr«n a1il«l%«n. 

11« Xrbla«a«rln hatt« an d«r 8t«ll« d«r TAMUf«gutllat«» an 
w«l«h«» dl« 0«aäld« aafgafOhrt «Ind (BI« l€)^duroli «inoi 
ha»da«hrlttllah«n T«ya«t*k auf daa Outaohtan lilng«wl««en» 
Bl«««« Oataoht«n «tamt« al«o au« der Z«lt Tor d«B 21*12«19^f 
sa w«lo)i«a Zeitpunkt «1« Oeutsahland T«rla««en hatt«. Ihr 
Hlnir«l« und dl« Sa'laaohe» da«« dl« Aiufohr otan« 8tr«iohung 
d«r 0«»flld« g«n«hnlat wurd«, erglbif daaa dl« Sohätaung Sttl« 

für dl« to dffl BnllfWJlitffl Mrf89f myt^ gfffWflif ^^ ^^ 
ftp|ila««erin gttn«tlg wart d.h. SIrU.« hatt« al« nlaht aXa 

national« Künatwart« d«klarlert. And«r«ra«lt« «rglbt dl« 
fataaoh«9 da«« dl« Srbla«««rln ua dl« Auafuhr dar fl«polo« 
nloht naohg««uoht hatt«# da«« ln»ow«lt daa Outaohtan Bttl« 
d«n natlonalaa Eanatw«rt b««tätlgt«t w«nn nloht die Oastapo 
dl« (l«BäXd« TOB Sl«poXo» wie Xl£hard lütaoherllah all«rdlng« 
nnr Toa HOr«naag«n in ««Inar «ld«««tattlloh«n Teraloherong 
«aa iuadya«lr c«braoht hatt«i b««ohXagnahst hätt«. Lat«t«ra« 
war« okM walt«r«« ala Bntaiahung au werten. 
Abav ^IhM /itaan dl« Brhlaaoerln inaoweit geirrt haben aollte» 
Indaa «1« die Saroheuofaung l«r G^atapo alt d«n Maflnahwan äi^m 
Saohroratändlgan der Sariaana teile Bttl« in d«r £rinn«rung 
davah«inand«r g«braoht hatte» liegt eine gemäA }} 2a» 16 BRUO 
dan Antragagagner sub Sohadanaeraata rerpf lichtende Batsiehung 
Ter^ BafOr» daaa die Uaatände dea Terluatea der Geaälde aua 
dar WohnoBg dar Erblaaaerin nicht richtig in Erinnerung geblie- 
ben waren» «prloht die Tataaohe» daaa ihr die Tätigkeit dea 
Bttla in dlaaea Zuaammenhang Töllig zM entfÜlen warf aie hatte 
Ihn In ihrem Wiedergutmaohungayerfahren nirgendwo erwähnt. 

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Xb VjftU« d«r Sohätsunc A«r Zl«polO0 dnroh Ettl« Ist d«Ton 
•ttjiracehimt iai er lhr«n nationalen Kunatwerl featgastellt 
hatta ubA da^gaaMi ihr« Tevwerlunc !■ deutsehan Kunathand«!. 
Andamfalla hätte die 2rl^laaaerln die Auaftüur der OeaAIde 

Ue Kanaer hat bereita in Ihrem reohtalcräf tlgen Beaohlufl 
TOOi X2.lo.1966 (WIK 1895 X ) entaohleden« dafl eine Auflasse 
aar ferttaiavua^^aa deutsohan Kunathundel einen ?all dey 
»italehttag i. 3. daa I 2 a BBIiG daratellt. In dem Yorfahren 
fix 1891 X hatte ein Beamter der Derieena teile Terkaufaanf* 
la^a evteiltf allerdinga ohma eine beetiamte Kunathandlun« 

m unaerem falle iat davon auasogehan» daaa Bttle ala Saohp. 
Tesvlämdigar dar Seriaenatelle die Teräaierung an die XmeV 
handlnwi Xttle heetiaat und Torgenonmen hatte* Denn diea 
aar daa fttr ^mn 8aah\reretäadigen Sttle tjl^ieoha TerhallMa« 
daaa tr in aaineoi sehriftllohen Outaohtan hier ähnlian^^n 
dam Yalle Boaanthal (Aoeaug aue dam Deyiaenaktan B1.47 varnT^T 
iktan) davgaatellt haben dürfte« Aua der 8ieht der Xrblaaaarin 
war «a die fortaahaa ihrer Gemälde doroh einen Funktionär 

lar Amtragaf ofBor rttmrl eint daao aiao Teräaaeeroaf dar €0» 

■älda Ton tiapolo an den deataohan Xinnathandel naheliegt« 

Xavan iat aaoh der Vebemeugnag der Xaoanr bei KunatwerlDea 

«"nationalen Wertea« jeden falla eoit Erlai der ereohvertan 

Barlaembaatl m a ua ge n Tom 12 •12*1998 aneiugehen. 

fXda Ton Xttla in aeinem Outaohtan B1.47 d.A« erwähnte "Ter- 
ovdnang der Xlnloterlen** vom 6 •6*1999 enthält nloht dan mai«> 
gablioSan Seitpunkt« Bie KsjnmBV konnte eine Verordnung oder 
elnan miniatariellen TSrleJ dieaea Datiusa au dem Koj^pleoc 
"nationale Ximatwerte** nloht auafindlg maohon« Ea baataht 

deahalb die UOgliohkelt» daaa daa von £ttle aitlerte ]2atua 

nloht autrifftf: 

Wann aber die orawungen« Yeräaaaerung der Oamälde fon Xiopolo 
an dan deuteohiUi Kunathandel nahellegtf dann kann der Anaprueh 
auf BU^erotattung nieht daran aoheitemt daaa aua OrUndan 
der TerfolgonK Blxiaelhelten hlerau nloht mehr featgeatellt 
werden können und auoh die Brblaaaerln aelbat wlderapruoha- 
Yolle und unklare Angaben geiaaoht hatte. Vleliaehr hat die 
Kammor gem. Art. 49 il'-Cr v.'i^r.-^'J^ der verfol-'iiJi/^cbecliiißten Beweis- 

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ISSSlVxi''^ ^*>^ >>*^^ A*i^ bekannt«! X61Itt]rtlT»T«rfolfiiii#nuühuüia«n 
und Baeh 4#a besonderen Indlaien dleeee Vallee wakhreaheinXlali-» 
•ten Oeeehehenseblftaf sagrunde su legen*^ ^ ^ 
iüB wnhreehelnlleheten lat die erewoBKene Teränierung der beiden 
SIepoloe an Sttle, Sei Sttle eelbet die TeriMeerung en die 
ihm gehörende Euaethandlnng duroh seine gutaehtlielui Stellung- 
nalme Ton der Brblasserin erzwungen hatte» ändert niolits an 
der H aftmg dee Antragsgegners gern« } 2a BBaO« denn Sttle 
«aar als Saehrerstöndiger der ]>eyisenstelle nit aatliehsn Be* 
fugnissen Tereehen« Ues Jedenfalls ergibt sein geriohtsbe» 
kennt in einer Vlelsahl Ton Vtllen geübtes Terhalten« dai 
auf Bl*47 ^•r Oeriehteakten eieh doka»entiert und Ton der 
DeviseBStelXe anextennt wurde« Bae wäre offisiell nieht 
Bögliah gewesen« wenn es nioht den Willen der Organe des in» 
tragsgegners entsptoehsoi hätte« eodass Sttle als deesen Baeh- 
waltev anfsitfassen ist# der in Surne dee intragsgegners« wenn 
aneh sn seinea t^rteil gehandelt hatte« Bad der An.ragsgegner 
einem eigessen Terteil dureh eine Bntziehung gen.} 2 a Brtta 
erstrebt haben HOitet iet nieht erforderlieh« 
Ben Antragsteller war deshalb der Ton den Saohrerständlgem 
ersiittelte Wiederbeeehaffungswert der beiden entsogensan 
Ziepeies per l«4«19ld gen« | 16 des Bva# BosusptreehMU 

aie Vebenentseheidungen beruhen auf | 27 Abe« 4 BrUd« Art« 
dSt 72 BXdt ii 91«92 Z3P0« die Iji aadkersttttangsrerf ahren 
eBtsprdohende AnwenduBg finden« 





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70-2Ü At'.stin Stre»! 
FoTtst lüllf, N.Y. 11378 






Sohmldt-Knats ^ Llndhelaer 

P r a nkf ur t/Ma In 
Harianatr, 2 

22. April 1969 

Batr.! RS-Saohe Blaa Helmann 

Sehr geehrter Herr Kollege s 

loh bitte zu enteohuldlgenp dmaa loh auf Ihren Brief ▼•& 
18.3*1969 nicht gleloh geantwortet habe» loh glaubte, daea 
nichts Neue« zum Tatbestand beigetragen werden konnte p und daaa# 
vas Immer an Wldersprueohen gesagt worden sein mag« gana erklaav* 
lloh duroh den Zeltablauf und «las Alter der ^rau Helmann lat* 
Ueberdles Ist es fuer die Frage, ob eine Entziehung erfolgtat 

glelohgueltlg welohe ^erslon richtig lat. Lediglich fuer die 
Frage wie die Entziehung erfolgte, lat dieser Punkt von BadautUQSt 
l.a.W.f verschiedene Versionen moegen Im allgemeinen dan Bavela* 
wert der Ü^rklaorung beelntraechtlgen. ^as aber Ist hier aaa dan 
angegebenen Uruenden nicht der Fall. 

loh habe jetzt die eidesstattliche Vers, von Herrn Mltaahar* 
lloh und Herrn Soudek com 27*6.1966» Ihnen nlt Brief r^m 26*6 »46 
gesandt, mit dem Gutachten des Herrn iilch vom 16.1 »69 ▼•PgltallMi» 
Eb scheint mir, dass das üutaohtan von Herrn Eloh dan Bavala^ iMäm 
Frau Helmann die Bilder tataaeohlloh beaeasen hat, sehr Torataarlil« 
Die Beschreibung der Bilder durah Herrn Mltsoherlloh atlant offttti» 
bar uebereln nlt der eigenen Xenntnla des Herrn £loh aabor die 111* 
der der betreffenden Maler« ^^^^ 

Ihr Brief vom l^.i|.69 lalgt alt, dass die Mlohtelnaaii4im| at 
neuen ^ohrlf tsatzea tataaeohlloh rlohtl|( war, lunlndaat wall IIa 
offanalohtlloh In der Verhandlung aahr geaohlokt dan Tatbaa%an4 
arklaart haben. Ich danke, wir Bueaaan nunmehr auf dla Intaahal* 
dang dar Berlohteratatterln warten» 

Mit kollegialer Hoehaohtung 




_9chtsor.,vaite und Notare 

^''''^*V,!,on2in^°"'''- ' ?r«nlrfurt/M.. den 15.4.69 Sl/Stk 

Moses 4 Haas 
Attorneys at Law 

70-20 Austin Street 

Forest Hills, New York 11375 /USA 


'' f 



Betr. ; R£-Sache Else Heimann - 

Sehr geehrter Herr Kollege ! 

In der Rüokerstattungssache Nachlaß Else Heimann 
wurde heute vor der Berichterstatterin der Wieder- 
gutmachung skammer über das Beweisergebnis verhandelt. 

Der Termins Vertreter der OFD brachte nunmehr vor, es 
sei nicht erwiesen, daß der seinerzeitige "Kunstbe- 
auftragte" Ettle, von dem im Schriftsatz der OFD 
vom 10.3.69 Abs. 1 die Rede ist, für das Deutsche 
Reich bzw. die Gestapo tätig geworden sei, er könne 
auch von der Verfolgten beauftragt gewesen sein. 
Ich habe demgegenüber darauf hingewiesen, daß nicht 
der mindeste Anlaß dafür vorliege, anzunehmen, daß 
ein verfolgter Eigentümer namhafter Ölgemälde von 
sich aus an eine Person herantrete, die im Interesse 
des Reiches nach bester Möglichkeit bestrebt sei, 
derartige Kulturgüter dAm berechtigten Eigentümer zu 
entziehen. Im übrigen verwies ich auf die eindeutige 
Aussage des seinerzeitigen Devisenberaters, Dr. Muno, 
der aus Verglei oh sf allen wüßt«, daß allein in seiner 
Praxis eine Mehrzahl von Fällen sich zugetragen habeVt 
in denen die Gestapo durch Vermittlung ihres Vertrauens^ 
mannes in der Devisenstelle sofort von sich aus vorge- 
gangen war, um namhafte Bilder vom Versemd durch Umzugs- 
zug auszuschließen. Abgesehen davon handele es sich bei 
dem ersten Akt der Entziehung, nämlich der Wegnahme von 
Bildern aus der Wohnung BÖhmerstraße» zweifelsfrei niobt 
um eine Mitwirkung des"Kunstsaohverständigen" Ettle, 
sondern um eine Konfiskation duroh die G-estapo, die 
F durch Nachforschung naob den finanziellen Mitteln der 

I Loge anläßlich des Besuchs in der Wohnung auf die Bilder 

l aufmerksam geworden war. 

Ich habe den Eindruck, daß die Berichterstatterin von 
dem neuerlichen Einwand der OFD nicht überzeugt worden 

Es wird eine Entsobeidung schriftlich ergehen. 

Mit kollegialer Hocbaobtung 


Moses & Haas 




PHONE. 261-2727 

2k* Maerz 1969 

Prof. Josef Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 

Sehr geehrter Herr Professor Soudek: 

Wunschgemaess erhalten Sie in der Anlage Ihre Original' 
testamente zurueck, und zwar: 

a) Joseph Soudek 

b) Gretel Soudek 

datiert 31. Maerz 19L|.l 
" 21. Maerz 19l|l 

Sobald diese Testamente ungueltig werden, bitten wir um 
Mitteilung, damit wir die Akten bei uns vernichten k oennen. 

Mit be^teja-ö^us 






Dr. Josef Soudek 
90ü West Knd Avenue 
New York, lUY. 10025 

26. Februar 1969 

Uosea A Haas 
Attorneys at Law 
70*20 Au'^tln 3treet 
Forest Hills, IUI. 11375 

Betr.t RE Else Heimann Erben 

Sehr geehrter Herr Dr. Moses J 

Anliegend reiche ich Ihnen mit Dimk zurück die Abschrif- 
ten des Briefes von Herrn Dr. Schroidt-Knatz und des ihm bei- 
gelegten Gutachtens von Herrn Dr. Paul Kich von? Städelschen 
Kunstinstitut in Frankfurt für df^s Landgeri^^ht über die 
Wiederbeschaffungswerte {1#4.!56) der Frau Heiirann entzogen- 
en Bilder. 

Entschuldigen Sie bitte die Verzoegerung in meiner Rück- 
gabe der Schriftstücke. Ich habe sie natürlich er'-t Herrn 
und Frau Miti-cherlich zum sorgfaeltigen Studium überlassen 
und wir haben die Angaben von Herrn Dr. Eich mit unseren 
eigenen Aufzeichnungen über die Wertobjekte verglichen; das 
hat begreiflicher Weise einige Zeit in Anspruch genommen. 

Mit besteir Gruss, 



Moses & Haas 




PHONE. 261-2727 

6. Februar 1969 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 //est ind Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 1002$ 

Betr.: RE Else Helmann Erben 

Sehr geehrter Herr Dr. Soudek: 

Anliegend sende ich Ihnen Kopie des Briefes unseres 
Korrespondenzanwalts mit dem Gutachten. Das Gutachten erbitten 
wir nach Kenntnis zurueck, da auch wir es Herrn Dr. ^chmidt-Knatz 
zurueckgeben muessen. 

Ob die Oberfinanzdirektion anbeissen wird, bleibt abzuwarten. 

Mit b estem Gi»uss 

PM/Ha . 

Or, Josef Soudtk 
900 teat ^nd Avenue 
New York, N.T. 10025 

4. Februftr 1969 

Moses Sc. Haas 

70-20 Austin Str'^et 

Forest Hills, N.y. 11375 

Betr.: Ihr Schroibon vom 15,11.68: Te8t«menti 
Ihr«? 3rhr'?ib*>n vom 9.12.68 und 29.1.69: 
Hiick'^rstPttungssrche Kls»» IIf^imf»nn Frben 
F'iitzofT'^ne Bild«»r 

Sehr gG«?iirter H»'rr Jr. «^oses: 

loh bestätige Ihnen d«nk(?na d«?n Erhalt Ihres Schreib'^ns vom 15.11, 
68, der Abschrift eines em 4.12.^8 pn Sie /^ericht'?ten Schr^ib'^ns von 
H'^rrn IJr. Fronz 3chmiit~KnPtz , die Sie mir ßm 9,12.68 zugehen ließen, 
und schließlich Ihres Schrf'ibens vom 29.1,69 en mich, dem eine Kopie 
Ihres 3c/ir»ibens an -lic? Hechts? nw^lte 3chxLidt-Knf tz -Sc Lindheimer vom 
gleichen Jptum beig'?lt?j;t tjpt, 

1. Zu Ihrem 3chr''iben vom 15.11,^?8: 3^»i Jurchsicnt meiner Akten 
stellte icii fast, dPß 3i'? mir sein:>rzeit zwei Testfiment'i fiusg'^f-rbeit'^t 
hfibfn: des f?r3t5> nm 150,8.37 und dns zweite nm 31.3.41, Ich vermute, 
dr3 sich Ihre» /nfrüife ^if dffs letzt-^re bezieht. In Rücksicht d^rp.uf, 
dftß sich seit 1941 so vieles geändert hat und ein neues Test^uient Über- 
fall if^ ist, möcüte ich Sie bitten, mir das in Ihrem Spfe b'finalicne 

Te s t« Jü'^ n t zurück ?: u s nd*» n. 

2. Zur Abschrift des Schreibons von !I'»rrn Dr, F. Schuiidt-Kn^^tz 
vom 4.12,68: Aus dem Schr^^ib'^n von Hf»rrn Jr, Schmidt-Knetz sph ich zu 
seiner Befriedigung, daß die De/«rbeitung ies Antrags auf ^ieaergutm^ch- 
ung der Frsu H«»imann entzogenen Bilder wieder in Oang gekommen ist. 
Sein B-»richt über die Verhandlung vor der Wied^rgutm^chungskemiaer des 
Frankfurter Landfrerichts hat mich natürlich s^^hr interessi<^rt. 

3. Zu Ihrem Schreiben vom 29.1.69: Wie ich aus Ihrem Schreiben 
ers^^he, hrt das Landgericht den von Herrn Jr. Sciimidt-Knatz vorgeschla- 
genen Kunst^Srchverstänaigen (Herrn Jr. Paul '^ich vom Städelschen ivUnst- 
institut in Frankfurt) beauftragt, ein Gutachten über den Wert der entzo- 
genen Gemälde abzugeben. Hier wieder hat es mich interessiert, von Ihnen 
zu erfahren, daß (l) die Heranziehung des Srohverst&ndigen darauf schlies- 
sen läßt, daß des Gericht die Entziehung der Bilder als erwiesen ansieht 
(wohl aufgrund der im Bericht vom 4,12,68 erwähnten Aussagen von Herrn 

Dr. Muno) ; daß aber (2) das Gericht seine Ansicht wieder ändern kenn, 
und daß (3) die Erstattung des Gutachtens des Sachverständigen längere 
Zeit in Anspruch nehmen kann, Ihren Vorbedrcht bezüglich des zweiten 
Punktes haben Sie ja ruch in Ihrem Schreiben an Jlerrn Jr. Schmidt-Kna tz, 
von dem Sie mir eine Kopie beigelegt haben, zum Ausdrucik gebrrcht. 

Mit bestem Gruß, 


Moses & Haas 




PHONE. 261-2727 

29. Januar 1969 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 v/est End Avenue 
New York, N.I. i0025 

Betr.: RE Else Heimann Erben 

Sehr geehrter Herr Professor Soudek: 

Die muendliche Gerichtsverhandlung vom 3-12.68 (siehe den 
Ihnen gesandten Durchschlag des Briefes unseres Korrespondenz- 
anwalts vom U. 12,68) hat offenbar Erfolg gehabt. 

Das Gericht hat einen Sachverstaendigen Dr. Paul Eich, wissen- 
schaftlicher Assistent am Staedelschen Kunstinstitut in Frankfurt am 
Main, beauftrag ein Gutachten ueber den Wert der von uns als ent- 
zogen#as- genannten Gemaeide abzugeben. Das bedeutet, dass das Ge- 
richt die Entziehung als erwiesen ansieht. Es steht dem Gericht 
aber frei, diese Ansicht immer noch zu aendern. 

Es duerfte laengdre Zeit dauern, bis das Gutachten erstattet 
wird. Nach Erstattung werden Sie von uns hoeren. 

Mit vorzuegliciier Hochachtung 

(7 ^ / 


29. Januar 1969 


Rechtsanwaelte u. Notare 
Schmldt-Knatz ^ Llndheimer 


Frankfurt am Main 
Marlenstr. 2 

Betr.: HE Else Helraann Erben 



Sehr geehrte Herren Kollegen: 

Wir danken Ihnen fuer Ihren Brief vom I4. 12. 1968 und die 
verschiedenen, danach gesandten Kopien. 

Ihre Verhandlung am 3.12.68 scheint sehr erfolgreich 
gewesen zu sein. Ich hoffe nur, dass das Crerlcht in der 
Endbesetzung die Ent»o h e iäung en ebenfalls anerkennen wird. 

Mit kollegialer Hochachtung 

FM/Ha . 




•• »»1^ 



' lärm 


•• i. 

•Frankfurt am Main, d«n 27.1.1969 Sl/Stk 

Moses & Haas 

Attorney at Law 

50 Bfoad Street 

New York N.Y. 10004/üSA 

Sehr geehrter Herr Kollege I 

In der Rückerstattungssaohe H e i m a n n ist ülser- 
• • r' ' raschend schnell von dem Sachverständigen ein Gutachten 
/ erstattet worden. Ich überreiche es mit der Bitte mn 
^,^ ,^.. Rückgabejind ggf. Stellungnahme, 

Das Gutachten kommt zu einem Gesamtwert von IXl 30.570, — , 
wobei ich bei Position 2 den Mittelwert von IM 1.000. — 
zugrunde gelegt habe. Ich glaube, daß dies ein sehr 
guter Erfolg werden kann, falls sich die Oberfinanzdi- 
rektion aui^ den Boden dieses Gutachtens stellt. Unter 
Berücksichtigung der noch vor kurzer Zeit durchaus sotawa- 
chen Aussichten in dieser Rückerstattungssache zu eineiB 
zufriedenstellenden Ergebnis zu gelangen, dürfte mit dit- 
sem Gutachten auch die Erwartung der Mandant Schaft unter 
Berücksichtigung der außergewöhnlich schwierigen Beweit- 
läge und bei objektiver Beurteilung weit übertroffen 
werden . 

Mit freundlichen kollegialen Grüßen 

Or. Scl»mfdl-Kniii 




>. -6 FRANKhURT 70 

JLn das Landgericht 

- Wiedargutraachungakaoiner 

6grankfurt /"Main 

16. 1. 69 


i < 



Batr. ; Küokeretattun^eaach« Prof. Dr. Soudtk ( Kaohlas» Holnaim) •/. 

DüUteches Reich, Wik 212o (H) 
B»gugt B«vrei8be80hlu8 8 am 18. 12. 19^8 


In der RUokerstattungasaoht Prof. Soudtk ( Baohlaas HoisMum ) 

•/. Douteohes Kelch soll ein Gutaohten Über die Wiederb«oehafftta|(9^ 

werte von 3 ölblldemt 4 Miniaturen und 2 Aquarelle per 1. 4. 1936 

erstellt werden. Da weder die Bilder nooh Potos der Bilder 

8ur Verfügung stehen, können die Zueehreibungen und Srhaltuai^su- 

etände nioht überprüft werden. 

So handelt sich um folgende Bilden 

1. Oarl Priedrioh Leasing « Die Pluoht **! Oel 

2. Ohr. J. Schütz • 2 Pferde», Ool 

3. Breithand " Kind •♦ Aquarell 

4. Omaglio, Demenioo, Landeohaftf Aquarell 
3« 4 Miniaturen 

6. Claude Lorrain, Landeohaft, Oel 

7* diOTaimi Bat. Tiepolo, 2 Oelokiszen. 

Ix ffiff^ yy;^f<^^lo^ Leaei^ (IQ96 - :^^^y^, fj^y yX^9^t" 
Meaes Bild wird in den aeriohteakte» auf den Bl. 7t 63 a, I44flil 
»2)ie fluoht ", auf Bl. 184 " Die SutfUhruag** und in des DotIm» • 
aMe 4d69/36 Bl. 16 » EitterfMutr " gtMumt. laoh der Berlaaaalrl« 
vmr das Oenälde mit C.f .L 1841 aoaacnunlert und datiert. 
In den K talog einer Auaetellmig der Werke Leeelage, B^rllm 
1680 let ein Bild unter Hr. 186 oha« Naaaaagabe und Batienag 
aufgeführt t daa den Titel " antftOmiac" ( Waltber und Hildegmi?) 
fuhrt. Oaneint aind Walther ron Aqultami«» und Hildeguad ran B«v» 
guadt die yom Hofe dea RunaenkOaige fliahea. Fr. tob Boettiehev« 
Malezw«rke dea 19. Jahrhunderte, Breedea, 1893 Bd. 1, 8. 846 Ir*99 
aeant s%rei Bilder von Leeelag aus de« Jahr 1841 mit dea fital 
» Walter u. Hildegund''. Sa iet durahaae aöglioh, daae dae Bild 
der Sanalung Heiiaann eine Paaeung dieaee fheaaa war, und daae 
aueh die Beseiohnung ** Ritte rpaar * durahaae su Reoht baetaht. 

- I - 

•■>■■ ■ i -i 


1f, }*^ 


« t • 

Blld«r Leasings •iii4 ntcM ••hx^ gtfrftc^t Jtdooh b««t«ht 
für dit r«ixitn Landsoteft«» •!& grtt»0«r«a Int«r«a«« al« fttr 
romantlsohe Bohlld«ruiig«n. D h«r wird man fUr diessa Bild 
keinen höheren v^iederbeeohaffungeirert annehmen können 
als BM 2«3oo^^ 

j. Chr. ^ Schütz^ " 2 Pf^^t" 

Aus den Akten geht nicht klar herrer» um velohen Kaier 

es sich handelt. Auf Bl. 7 der Oeriohtsakten wird er 

mit den abgekUrsten Tomamen Oli* 0* ( Ohrist ian Oeorg, ee 

gibt 3 Maler dieses lamemstl^X^g ^ 1791| 173B - 1823|Ide^ • Xdtl)t 

auf Bl. 182 Chr. J. ( aiehtMtlinnreieen)i auf Bl. 184 

Theodor SohUtz ( riehtigi fh^qfjiff Sehüa, ld3o ** 19eo) mA 

in dem Devisanakte 4896/96 Bl^^jy^ B. SohUts ( wahreeheimliah 

Heimrloh SohUts« Tiermaler im XQBehea» geb. in Offeabael^l« 

1873). Vaoh der Beeohreibnag des Bildes auf Bl. 134 fiftlt 

Chr. a. SohUts oder ein anderer des gleiohen Bameae aaei 

da sie alle als ausgeeprooheae Laadeobaf temaler bekaaat 

geworden sind. Von den beidea rerbleibeadea Malern Theetey 

Sohtts uad Reinrioh SehUts würde letsterer als Tieraalev aa 

eheeten Im r 'age koomea, dajbij^ JBeeohreibitng aaoh mut U« 

184 die beiden Pferde deutlieh das Bild beherreehea 

and die Laadeohaft eiae aur aatergeordaete Bolle epielt« 

la dieeea Falle wUrde maa dea Viederbeeohaffuagewerl 

per 1« 4« 1956 voa 

für gerechtfertigt halten. 

Sollte ee sioh Jedooh am ein Bild rea Theodor SohUs kaaAeXat 

wäre ein Wiederbesohaffungswert rea M l#laa.^ 


Dieser Maler ist kaum im BuideX« Hea irird ihm aaseevlmab 
yraakfarts weniger bewerten als liier am Ort* fttr eiae Wieder» 
beeoliarfttag hätte maa 1996 ia fzmakfurlylf. M I5e>«> 
aafweaden müssen. 



io» 3)oaenleio> 

Die in den Akten auftauoheade Setoeibaag " Oraaglie " eekaiat 
amf eiaea Lesefehler sarttoksufOhrta sa seia. Ia XUaetler* 
lexikoB Yon Thieae - Beoker iet eia XOaetler aameae*0»Mi^lie* 
aieht aufgeführt. D%t Bame des Kttaatlere ist Bemeaiee Qaaglie» 

« 1 • 


- 3 - 

Dieses Bild ist in der Deviaeaalcte 4696/30 Bl. 16 
nioht aufgeführt . Bs wird aioh ua ein Aquarell des 1766 in MUnebea 
geborenen Malers "Domenico Quaglio handeln. 

Der v;iodei'bo'johnffun.r3wert würde im Jahre 1956 DM 3oo«" 

li e t vii^Q n hl v/ ö ii . 

5. 4 I^ 1 f e n o e i rirn In ia t u re n , Po r t rät s 

Auf Bl. lo4 vferdön dioae 4 Bildnieee als Port rata der 
Biedermeierzeit um lo5o charakterisiert. Da sie ohne Kinatlemaaen 
auf^'efUhrt ;3ind, durch den aie aus der Menge der auf uns 
gelcommenen .Bioderrneiex'-Mlniiitiiren he raua^^e hoben würden, wird 
raan als V/idderbenohaffungewert fUr 1956 DM 32o>«» 

schätzen m'is^jen. 

- j 

■ 1 •' I 

6. Claude Lorrain (16oo - 1682) > Landeohaft. 

In der Oerichtsakte Bl . 185 wird das Bild als elgenhändigss Werk 

des Claude Lorrain beschrieben, gleiohaeitl4 wird jedooh die 

Sinsohränkung gemacht, dass es von anderer Seite als 3ohule 

deB Claude angeeehen würde. Ühter dieser letzteren BeseiohBiuig 

wird es auch in der Deviaenakte 4896/38 Bl . 16 geführt. 

Aue dieser versohiedenen Beurteilung ist zv erkennen, dass •• 

sich keinesfalls um einen mit Sicherheit anerkannten Lorraim 

handelte, Co wird man auch den Wiederbesohaffungswert für 

das Bild eines guten, aber anonymen Lorrain - Nachfolgers odty 

laohahmers einsetzen müssen, der 1956 für DM DM 9»QQ0«'*> 

SU bekommen war. 

■ • <i 

'i •;.« I 

7. aiovanni Battista Tiepolo (1696 - 177o), 2 ölsklzaen, Pan^ASta) 

Brunnenszenen ^ 

Auf Bl. 165 der Oerlohtsakte wird angenommen, dass es sieh bai 
diesen beiden Bildern um Studien au den Malereien« die TiepoXo 
in der Würzburger Residenz ausführte, handeln solle. Diese An* 
nähme las st dich durch die W ndmaXeireien nioht erhärtent 

1. gibt es in d^r Würzburger Residenz keine ausgesprochenen Brumnaa- 

2. ist es unwahrscheinlich , dass Torbereitende Studien glelok 
als Pendants angefertigt wurden« 

Überhaupt lot di^aos Thema in dem übrigen Wark des Malers ein 
attsgesproohener Vusueneeiter. Dooh ist ohne die ülskizaan au 
kennen ausser den vorgebrachten Bedanken gegen die Zusohreibumg 
an Tiepolo nichta einzuwenden« 

- 4 - 


- 4 - 

Den -^lederbeachaffungswtrt mUaat« 

man f jr I956 

für boide ölaki:::zon zusammen feBtlagtn. 

PH 17.000.» 


{ D . Kich ) 

^r. >...„ i, 

.i^^Aj9 TTii a^iji r . 

...AJtite....^. U.< /.-it 

.vw*-^^' /-^■iD : 


Dr. Franz Schmidt-KnaGZ 

Pf in, den 4. 12,1963 

hose 3 Sc Haas 
Liew York, i^.Y 

Sehr geehrter Herr Kollegel 



In der Rückerstattungssache Else Helraann-Erben wurde 
im Termin vom 3.ds, vor der Wi e de rgutmachungska ramer des 
hiesigen Landgerichts als Zeuge der frühere Steuerberater 
der Erblasserin, Dr, i4uno, vernoirjinen. Sachdienlich war 
vor allem seine Aussgae, wonach ihm aus eigener Wissenschaft 
bekannt sei, dass seinerzeit die Gestapo sowohl aus Wohnunren 
Verfolgter als auch aus verpackten Umzugsgütarn G-egenst'ände 
kulturellen Wertes entnommen habe. Ob dies bei Fpau Heimann 
der Fall gewesen sei, kö er nicht sagen, dies aber auch 
nicht ausschliessen. Er schilderte alsdann noch die Verfah- 
rensweise eiuer besti[Timten Vertrauensperson der *-^estapo, die 
in der damaligen Devisenstelle tätig gewesen ist mit Namen 
Stippler. Dieser habe sehr gute Beziehunp-:en zur Gestapo 
unterhalten. Er habe diese au(ih aus persönlichen Gründen 
zu Einsätzen bewegen können. 

Immerhin hat sich auch in Würdigung mines erneuten münd- 
lichen VorLragea bei der Kamiaer dann die Meinung gebildet, 
es wäre zu prüfen, ob ein Sachverständigengutachten über 
den Wert der entzogenen Bilder von Frau Heiiaann einzuholen sei 
Ich habe daraufhin mich erboten, innerhalb von 2 Wochen eire 
Kehrzahl von Sachverständigen in Vorschlag zu brinp-en. 

Wie ich inzwischen feststellen musste, so sind Sachverstän- 
dige auf diesem Gebiete i^r, doch hoffe ich wenigstens zwei 
ausfindig zu machen und vorschlagen zu köniien» 

Ich glaube, dieses Ergebnis des vorgenaiint en Termins ist 
wider Erwarten erfreulich« 

Ueber den Fortgang berichte ich alsoald. 

Mit koll. Begrüssuhg 

gez. Schmift-Knatz 


ff f , ,' , 

>- I ^.. . >'>♦ 

Fc;cst ijiis, N.Y. 11375 

7 ' 


Moses & Haas 




November 15, 1968. 

PHONS. 861-2787 

Dr. and l^irs. J. ooudek 
900 ttest End Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10025 

Dear Dr. and i'-irs. ioudek, 

We have a testament of yours In cur safe deposit 
box. It was executed years ago. Please inform us in 
writing whether it is still in ei'fect, and we shall 
retain it, or if not, whether we shall destroy or 
return it to you. 

Verysincerelv yours, 


.1 ' 

I, JOSEPH SOUDEK, of tha Borough of MAnhattan, 
City and State of New York, do h©reby maka, publleh and 
declare this as and for my Last Will and Teitament, hareby 
expreasly revoking and annulllng all foz^mer willa and codocils 
by me at any tlme heretofore made« 

FIRST i I dlreot that my Just dcbts and 
funeral expanaes be paid as soon as practioable after my 

SECOKDt I glva, daviae and baquaath all my 
proper ty, of whatsoever natura and wherasoaTer «Ituatad, to 
my wife, ÖRETEL SOUDEK, naa HEIMANN, and appolnt my sald wifa 
soxe Exacutrlx ^.r ». WUl ^nd .ir,ot t^t an. .. not 
requirad to giva any bond or othar sacurlty as such Exacutrlx. 

THIRD: In tha avant that my aaid wife 

should pradecaase ma or die wlth ma in a Joint accidants 

(a) I giva and baquaath unto my Exacutora, 

hareinaftar namad, the siam of Eight Thousand Dollars ($8^000) 

in trust to safely keap and invast tha sama and to kaap tha i 

sama invastad and to raoaira thA income and Profits tharaof 

and to apply tha nat amount of tha sama to ELSE HEIMANN, I 

naa SCHIPP, mothar of my wifa, GRETEL, rasiding at 23 rua 

da la Bienfaisanca, Paris 8 E, Franca, for and during her 

natural lifa, and I do haraby authorlza and empowar my sald 

Exacutors and/or Srustaas to pay to ELSE HEIMANN from tha 

corpus of Said trust harain craatad tha whola tharaof or 

such amounts of monay from tima to tlma as thay in thair 

sola disoration may daam advisabla. tJpon tha daath of said 

ELSE HEIMANN, proTidad this trust shall not hava tarminatad 

soonar, I giva and baquaath tha prinoipal of said trust than 

ramaining to tha sistar of my wifa, ANNI SELIGMANN, naa HEIMANN, 

. J 

' .n ■ ^■» 

r^slding At 85 ruo d« X« Bl#iirftlsmno«^ Paris 8 E, Franc«« 
and my siatar, 3KSTE RT7DNIK« zf SOüDEK, raaiding at 
ü, SaaltOTnj XZ76, Prag VII, Ciaoboaloirakla, in äqual aharaa» 
or if aithar ahouXd hava pradaoaaaad KLSE HEIMANN to tha sur« 
▼iyor« or if naithar ahoiad hava survivad ELSE HEIMANN to 

DR. HELMUTH S PRINZ of Raw York or hia naxt of kin, 


Howarar, if mj notbar- in*law, 
ELSE HSIMANN« ahoiild pradacaaaa ma, thia tnuit aball fail 
and tha amount whioh wouXd hava baan raquirad to aatabXiah 
tha truat bacoma part of my rasiduary eatata» 

(b) I diract that all tha rast, raaidua 
and ramaindar of my aatata^ of whataoarar nattira and whara« 
BoeYBT aituatad« ba dividad into throa (3) aqua! parts, 
aurvira me« or into aa many äqual parta aa tha numbar of tha 
aforamantionad partiaa i^o aay aurriva m», and I gira« 
daviae and baquaath aaoh and all of aald parta to my 
Exacutora, haralnaftar namad« in truat to aafaXy kaap and 
invaat tha aama and to kaap tha aama invaatad and to raoaiva 
tha ranta« intaraat and profita tharaof and to apply and pay 
tha ranta, intaraat and profita aftar pa^nxiant of all nacas« 
aary and propar chargaa, from aach ona of aaid parta to aaoh 
of tha partiaa namad haratofora« to wit, ELSE HEB^ANN, ANNI 
SBLXaMANN and GRSTE RUDNIK« or aa many aa may hava aurriTad 
m», during tha Xifa of aaoh| and I haraby authoriia and 
ampowar my aaid Ezaoutora and/or Truataaa to pay to tha 
lifo banafieiariaa from tha prinoipaX of aaoh truat harain 
craatad tha whoXa tharaof or auch amounta of monay from tima 
to tioba aa thay in thair aoXa discration may daam adviaabXa« 
Upon tha daath of any of tha aaid Xifa banafieiariaa tha 
prinoipaX of the truat oraated for tha uaa of tha daoaaaad 
banafioiary« if thara ba any stiXX ramaining at auch tima« 



• 4, 

•hall go absolutely and foptTer to th© other life banefl- 
ciaries In equal parte^ share and share allke« ITpon tha 
death of one of tho two survlvlng benef Iclarlea the prlnclpal 
of the truat», created for thelr usa, If thera be anj still 
remalnlng, «hall go abaolutely and foraver to tha laat 

(c) I hereby nominat© and appoint 
FRITZ !/iOSES and DR, HELMTTTH SPRINZ, or the aurvlvor of them, 
Executora and Truatoea under thla my Will, 

(d) I authorlze and empower ray Kmacutora 
and Trustoea to retain and continue in thelr absolute 
dlscretlon any seouritiea and other Investment! whlch I may 
own or In whlch I may b© intereated at the tlm© of my death 
and to aell, diapos© of or convert the aam© or ap.y part 
thereof and to make re Investments at such tlmes and In such 
manner and upon such terms as my sald Ezecutora and Truatees 
may deem advlsable without restrlctlona to such securltles 

as are authorlzed by the laws of the State of New York. 
I further authorla© and empower my sald Exacutors and/or 
Trustees tc seil and convey for the purpose of dlvislon or 
for Converting real eatate into peraonalty or for any other 
proper purpoae the whole or any part of my real ©stat© at 
public or at private sale^ upon such teznns and condltions 
as to credit or otherwlse as they deem proper^ and upon such 
sale or sales to make a good and suffioient conveyance of 
th© property thus sold) and also to mortgago the same and 
to extend exlstlng mortgagas thereon and to exeoute and 
deliver bonds^ morftgagas, extension agreer ents and any and 
all Instruments for such purpose upon such terms and 
condltions as my sald Exeoutors or Trustees may deam best; 


• * 

and to exeouta and dallTar laaiaa of tha tama, or any part 
tharaof 9 upon such tarma and oonditlons aa thay may daam 
adTlaabXaj and to bprrow rron tlaa to tlma for whataoavar 
pxirpoaaa thay may daam naoaaaary monias upon thalr bond aa 
Exaeutort and/or Truitaaa haraundar saourad by mortgag« or 
mortgagas on any raaX or parsonal proparty« 

(a) I baraby diraot that If in pursiumoa 
of any of tha provlslons of thl« my Will my Exaoutora or my 
Tmstaaa shall dlvida my astata or any part tharaof into 
fraetlonaX tharas or parti, thay ahaXI In so dolng uaa thalr 
own unoontroXXad judgmant and abaoXuta dlaeration wlth 
ratpaot to tha sama^ and thalr daolslon wlth raapaot to suoh 
Proportion and YaXua, althar of tha whoXa or any part of my 
aald aatata» «haXX ba flnaX and conoXuaiya, and thay shaXX not 
in any aT«nt ba haXd parsonaXXy aooountabXa or rasponalbXa ! 
for any arror of Judgmant wlth raspeot tharato» I furthar 
authorise and ampowar my sald Exaeutori and/or Truitaas, 
in making such dlvialons or dlstributiona, whathar tha aame 
ba praXialnary^ partiaX or flnaX, to make the sama in thalr 
absoXuta dlaoration In apacia or klnd wlthout oonvartlng 
tha whoXe or any part of my aald raalduary aatate Into aaah 
and wlthout raquirlng authority or conaant ao to do of any i 
party in Intaraat^ In whioh avant my aald Exaoutora and | 
Truataaa ahaXX not ba XiabXa or raaponaibXa to my aald 
aatata or to any paraona banaflciaXXy Intaraatad tharain« 
j (f ) It ia my wiXX that naithar of aald 

' Exaoutora and/or Truataaa ahaXX ba XiabXa for tha act of 


tha othar« 

(g) I haraby diraot that xny aald Exaeu* 
tora ahaXX not^ nor ahaXX my Truataaa^ or tha aubatltiAtes or 



iVuocasaors to any of mj Trusttes, be requirad to glT« any 
bond or bonds Tor th« faithful performano« of thair r«sp«otlT« 
dutlas hareundar^ by raaaon of non^raaidanoa or by any othar 


thla my Laat Will and Taatamant (oonaiating of flTa pagaa on 
wblch I bara aignad ay naaa) baraunto aat my band and aaaX 

thla SÖth day of Augaat^ 1957, 




Slgnad, Malad, publiabad and daclarad by tha abova namad 


teatator aa and for hla Laat Will and Taatamant in tha 

l^raaanoe of ua and aaoh of ua who at hia raquaat and in hia 

praaanca and in tha praaanoa of aaoh othar hava haraunto 

aubacribad our naaaa aa witneaaaa thia 30th day of Auguat^ 

il ^ • ' 


t signed) ,, T.flRI.TA i^fil^g 



( s igned) r;Fi(^TIi].F, QQWll^ 

raaiding at 601 w, 115 St., N,Y.C. 

raaiding at 611 West 148 St,, N.Y.C. 



Iding at 51 Clark St,, B*klyn, N,Y> 





Dr. Josef Soudek 
9üü vvast Encl Avenue 
New York, !UY. Xüo25 

18. Jirnl 19^8 


Dr. Fritz Ivloses 
50 Broad Street 
New :irork, N.r. 10004 

Betr.t Ihre Schreiben void 19.3.68; 
1.5»6a5 9»$«68 und 12.6. f8 

Sehr geehrter Herr Dr^ I^oses t 

Ich k'^mtne heute zurück auf Ihre 'Schreiben, die ich in 
den vergangenen drei Monaten von Ihnen erhalten habe. 

Die Unterbrechung unserer Korrespondenz war tollweigie 
bedlng^t durch den in IhreiB Schreiben vom 1.5.^8 angekiin- 
dienten Umzu^ Ihres Büros. Vir haben Ihnen wunr^rbgemf^ess 
Bx: 9. 5 »^'8 eine Potin geschickt, die unr die von Ihnen in 
Ihrem Schreiben vom gleichen Datum r\ngogelene:n Akten der 
abgeßchlossenen Äiedergutirachungefaelle von Herrn und ?'rau 
Mltscherlich und von den Erben nach Frau iill^e Reimann über« 
bracht hat. Haben Sie besten Bank für die Rückgabe der 

In Ihrem V^ohreiben von5 1.5.68 erwaehnten Sie, da^s Sie 
uns n?:.oh Abschluss Ihres UKZugs Ende vorigen Monats Ihre 
neue /\dresse ani^ebcn werden. In Rück:^icht darauf hjFibe ich 
bisher Bit deinen Ant^/^orten auf die früheren Schreiben zu- 
rückgehalten. Da aber Ihr jüngstes Schreiben voir. 12.6.68 
Ihre alt© Adresse zeigt, richte ich aeine heutigen Antwor* 
ten dorihin in der Annahme, dass sie Sie dort erreichen 

Meine Antworten beziehen sich auf Ihre Schreiben voas 
19. 3*68 betreffend den Ausbildung3i?chaden meiner Frau und 
vOBi 12.6.68 betreffend den Lastenausgleich für Slj?e und 
Sadie Ilelm'mn Erben. Um Ihnen die Einordnung seiner i^nt*- 
worten in die entsprechenden Akten zu erleichtern, achrol- 
be ich Ihnen zwei gesonderte Briefe, die ich dieser allge- 
Bieinen übersieht über unsere Korrespondenz beilege. 

Hier ßo echte ich nur kurz einen Punkt in Ihrem Schrei- 
ben vom 12.6.66 erwaehnen, der den Lßs:tcnauf«glcich im die 
Erben von Frau £lse Heijnann betrifft. Ihn in laeineßi bei- 
gelegten Brief bezüglich dieser Angelegenheit zu behandeln 
waere m.K. unzweckzuaessig, well er meine Antwort unnoetig 
komplizieren ^ürde. Sie teilten mir in dem erwaehnten 
Schreiben irlt, dass Ihnen Frau I.;itacherlioh nm 14.5*68 
geschrieben hat und da5?s Sie Ihr nach Beendigung Ihre-^- um- 


■^^••V " • »|Wii»iV^lf " ■ ■ ■ "' ■■••"■•' ■-'—'• -^^ • "^ ■■■! ■ I^^MOTH^^^^l^pvmHMIMilliB^ 

Dr.Goudek, Schreiben voni Iß. 6,68 - 2 - 

aujfTs antworten weiden, 

Soweit mir bekannt ist, hat Frau f^it cherlich in ihren 
Schreiben verschiedene Bedenken über Ihre Abrechnung der 
aus deK- LastcnauHgleich der Erben^ec^einschaft nach Frau El- 
ae Heimann orflossenen Betraege erhoben. Die Aufteilung 
dieser Betraege unter den kitglied^^rn der arbenKeaeinsohaft 
iftt von Ihnen gib 14 •10.66 fect^ele|?t worden ur-d entsprechen- 
de Schecks i-mrden von Ihnen an die drei Krbcn überwiesen. 
Als Tet5taKent3VOll$trecker habe ich einstweilen keinr- Aen- 
derung »n der Verteilung der BetrriPi^e vorgenommen« Da? wird 
er^t ger!eh€?hent v?enn die Bedenken von Frnü L'lt'^ herlich über 
die iirt dea Abzugs Ihres Honor.^*rs und über die Verteilung 
der Hestbetraege unter den Krben durch Ihre Ant\«ort isur Zu- 
friedenheit von Frau kit'5 eher lieh 2ser streut sind. loh sehe 
keinen Grund, mich in die Korrespondenis zwischen Frau Mit- 
öcherlich und Ihnen einzuschalten. Ausserdem sind, wie nie 
in Ihrem Schreiben vom 12.6.68 berrerken, noch nicht alle Be- 
tr^ae^e aus dem 'chuldenAusgleieh eingegangen. Ein verfrühter 
Schritt Keinerseits wacre nur geeignet, neue Verwicklungen 
her tiUf aub e . i c hwo e r en . 

iiit v'erweifj auf lEeine j^^f-Gi beigelegten Schreiben verbl.'?ibe 


mit vorzuglicher Hochachtung. 

2 Anlagen 

Dr* Josef Soudek 
900 fest End Avenue 
New York, K.Z. 10025 

18, Juni 1968 


üx. Fritz L'.oseö 

50 Brcad Street 

New York, N.Y« 10004 

Betr.J Ausbildungsrchaden Gretel 

Sehr geehrter Herr Dr* «üoses 

In Ihrer Schreiben voß 19«3»66 t 3 11 ton 31e aiir mit, dass 
Sie auf Ihr Schreiben an die Behoerde In "ile^baden vom 5,2* 
68 eine Zeitwert , datiert 13*2 •68, rjphalten haben, aus deir 
hervorg'lng, dass ich irich selbst mit der Behoerde in Verbin- 
dung gesetzt und von Ihr eine Ant'^rort erhalten habe* 

Bis 2Uiß Srhalt Ihres 'ichrelbens vom 19 »3 war mir nicht 

bekannt« da?.s Sie am 



der Behoerde ge;? ehr leben haben» Ich 

haire von Ihnen keine Kopie Ihres Schreiben?, bekoccsien vj\6. ich 
weise daher nicht, waruu^ Sie sich an ITlesbadcn gewandt haben» 
Ich k-ann nur vesrtputen, dar-s Sie von der Behoerde erfahren 
wollten, ob in der ßeirbeitung des Antrags meiner Frau auf 
Entschaedigung für Berufsschäden weitere Fort.^ chritte genacbt 
worden sind. 

Vit meiner eigenen Koi-respondens iDlt 'vllesb- ^^n hatte es 
folgende Bswftndtnis, Ich habe aa 20. 11 •67 dorthin geschrie- 
ben^ uffi mich nach dem 3t and der Bearbeitung des Berufs Scha- 
dens meiner Fr?m zu erkundigen. '\)^r eusschlief^sliche Grund 
für diese Rückfrage war der, Ihren wiederholten diesbezügli- 
chen Anfragen Nachdr- ck 2U verleihen • Die Behoerde antworte- 
te mir anE! 22.11.67, fiber der Brief kaß^eerpt Snde Februar in 
xsx%in^n Besitz, da er zuerst versehentlich falsch adressiert 
wer und dann erst am 19.1.68 an meine Adre;vse geschickt wurde. 
Die /mtwort 6i^r Behoerde i^/sr die gleiche, die 31: auf Ihre 
ßjehrfachen Rückfragen bekopimen hatten, naer lieh dasß ^%x An- 
trag noch lu:iBer in Bearbeitung sei. 

Ihnen ge stellt ?mrde. In Ihrer Antwort vom 13. 12,67 klaer- 
ten 31e mich dahingehend suf , dass ein solcher Antrag nicht 
gestellt au werden brauchte» 

loh gab ffdch daher mit Ihrer Au kun t und iKlt ^.%x der Be- 
hoerde zufrieden! Ich nehrre deshalb an, dass die I^earbeltung 
des Antrags Keiner Frau noch nicht beendet ist und da s wir 

Dr. Souuek, Sohreiben (2) vobj 18,6 ,68 

- 2 - 

bedauerlicher Welse weiter auf einen Be cheld wr^rten müssen. 

In der Hoffnung, dass Sic meine Auskunft bcfrieulgen wird, 
verbleibe ich 

irlt vorzüglicher Hoohacbtung, 

ÜY^ Josef Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
New York, H.r. 1CÜ25 

18. Juni 1968 


Dr, Fritz loses 

5ü Broad Street 

New York, H.Yo 10004 

Betr»5 Lastenaus^leich- EIj^ö Heißsann 

Sehr geehrter ^err Dr. i;Oses ? 

Ich bestaetige Ihnen dankend den Krh' It Ihre? Schreibens 
vom 12 «6 .GS und der zwei ihrr; beigelegten Kopien des Bescheids 
des Ausgleichsaöits in Frankfurt a/M vom 26 «4 #69 über den neu 
errechneten Grundbetrag, der den am 25^8*65 errechneten Grund- 
betras \m DM 1.900, — über;;>teigt» 

Alis Ihrer Erklaerun^ den Bejsoheids entnehir.e ich, das» die der 
Erbengeßieinschaft nach Frau Else Heirrinan weiter austehenaen 
DU 1.900,-- ab 1.1,72 zur Auszahlung können und dass sie at) 
1.1.67 Kit 4% verzinst werden. 

leb sebe keinen Gi-und, wesh'?lb ich Sie R^it der Auszahlung 
und Überweisung dieses Betrags belasten soll* Ich moecbte an- 
nehmen, dac^s JTiir das Aus^rl eich samt den genannten Betrag zuhb 
anfje,p':?ben Zeitpunkt (1.1.72) auf Verlanretn auf E;ein Konto bei 
dar Deutschen ...ffecten- urici V^echsel Bank in Frankfurt odv^r auf 
ifiein tConto bei der First national City Bank in Ne^v York über- 
'veisen wird. Jedenfalls danke ich Ihnen für Ihr freundliches 
Angebot, ßsir in dieser Sache behifliihh sein ^u wollen* 

Ss mag 3ie interes ieren zu erfshrf^n, d^rs mir der Bescheid 
des Ausgleichsairts bezüglich des jsusactz^ichen Grundbotrai;^» 
kcines'Äefs überraschend karr:. Am 6. 3 »68 sandte mir das Aua- 
gleichsa&t die Kopie einer^ Schreibens an Sie vor 12.2.68, .?us 
deEQ ich entnahm, da:-» das Veri?!Oo-gcn von Frau Heißimn neu be- 
rechnet 'Hurde mit dem Ergebnis, dass es hoaber war als ursprüng- 
lich angesetzt (DM 26.000 gegenüber DU 12.500) und da* s die 
fiauptentschaedigung an die irben^^emeinf^chaft nach Frau Klse 
auf Grund des 19« Aenderungsges taes neu festgesetzt werden 
musste (^eite 3f Absata 5) ^ Das Ausgleichsamt legte mir nahe, 
ü'ich deshalb silt Ihnen in Verbindung zu setzen und von Ihnen 
zu erfahren, was in dieser Angftäiegenheit noch zu unternehmen 
Bei. Angesichts der inzwischen geplanten Verlegung Ihrfe^r^ Büros 
war es leid>}r nicht moeglioh, dem Vor." ohlag de« /urites Folge zu 
IclEten. Ihr Schreiben vom 12.6.68 zeif^t pir^ d^^*^« das Aut von 
sich aus die ileuberechnung vorgenoirmen hat u^it derrt von Ihnen 
mir mitgeteilten Ergebnis, 

l^it vorzüglicher Hochachtung; ^ 








-1 - 





^ .£ 

•» 5 








• °> 

■fi -c 

-j •> 

■a £ 
^ § 



Stadt Frankfurt am Main 

Der Magistrat 
- Ausgloichsamt — 
An Jlic Hfe-r»:^. 

I Gz.; %.,l:^.z B ^.JH^l 

6 Frankfurt am Main, den . 
Borckhoussfroße 1-3 


19 ^^ 

Ausfertigung für 


e KU 



iVJO T't. 'i'.'iw' '' ■"• 

I. Unmltlelbar Geschädigter: 

wohnhaft - zuletzt - in 

Ar^: 7,Vr ^ 

' Gesamtbsscheid 

über die Zuerkcnnung von Kouptcntschädigung 
"' '- r-- nach dem Lcstenausgleichsgesctz 

(Nome, Vorname; bei Frauen auch GeburMname) 

New Yü r li. X; ^ 

(Poj»'»i?2ch!, Wohnort, Strrßa und HausnummerJ 

II. Antragsboreditigter am I.April 1952: 

i"-' wohnhaft - zuletzt - in 

«^ . O; 


(Nene, Vorname; bei Frauen auch Geburfsnome) 
(Posfleitzahl, Wohnort, Straße und Hcusnumn-.erj 

'il'/y . : " .r>" : 1-v .'•, •> O '' 

\\\. Antrugitcller (soweit nicht personengleich mit I oder II): 

(Nonie, Vorname; bei Frauen auch Geburfiname) (Postleitzahl, Wohnort, Straße und Housnummer) 

2. i oaa^, k.,...§xekk...5.^1?A....!i«^ifvv3.!:.n _ ^l)^J.$s\Jhl !1:V. ^ W .;^:^i.E^cl: R^^t 

3. lir. iiiö^ol^K^ Tov^f ^ ^ 

^ ■••#•#•>•■ aa »*• ■■••^•■•■■«••••••«••aa aaaaaabaa*aaaa*«»**aaaaaa ••^••••■•••••••••■••«•••■••••••••a«a«a»«*««a***«******a***«**«*««*«saaa***«i»*«**'>a*****aw*s*«****aa***a»s«'**aa •••••«••■••*«••■ aa ■■■ — »«— — ^^»»»»^^j »■■■■»»^a^ 


4. ... 

5. ... 



■ Bei A b w s n d n (Kr i ogsgofongono i i/ Vormißton usw.) 8 Antrag ist gostcüt füf d en u n t er ' "!"''^ ^"zf:. c 

■- Geponn le n v o g , , wohnh a ft in ; 

{Ziff.} (Nr.) 

1 U. TT G efiQfvftt on von .. » .w 

,^... , w o hnh olt- 

(2iff.) (Nr.) 

' , .' ,:.' <-' . ■*: A. Zuerkennung des Anspruchs auf Hauptentschädigung 

Ober die beonfrogte Zuerkennung von Hauptentschädigung nach dem Lastenausgleichsgesetz ergeht » " c u f G -Wfh J-da y- Bs Mhrt«»??- 

4Jbe&cHeid - Gesamtbescheid -: 

doo - AA >o^to»g{»fr6wfr»c hu6606 vom „ - folgender — S«*€ 

1. Die Antragsberechtigung nadi § 229 -4-2 30 -• § 23öa^.§-g5'4- Ab9 .' J-- LAG liegt vor. 

2. Der unmittelbar Geschädigte wird nach dem für seinen -^ V ap tr ^ bungs s ch odei^ — Kriegssachschaden ^- Ostsc he den - ■ 
aus Teil B der Anlage — >-^ 1 a ... - sidi ergebenden 

Schadensbetrag .....5.1.:J..i!r..}^ RM in die S ch a d en s g r u p pe ?A .._ {Sdiaden bis ....§.?..l.?.!ii'..! RM) 

eingestuft. - Die beim Schadensbetrag nicht berudcsichtigfen Schäden an Sparanlagsn betregen .._ .T. 



Formblatt LA 16-67 

3. Aus — dem Schadensbetrag — « und — dea.SchnrIpn an Spcironlggen (§ 249a LAG — 
errechnet sich für den am 1. April 1952 Antragsberechflgten (II) — nach Teil C der An- 
lage — J — - und.«- 1a... -—- in Ver bi nd u n g n iU-Anlogo^— ~-2 2a— ein Endgrund- 

betrag von 

Hiervon v/urden bereits mit Bescheidnen} vom .*;..^.,!...r...' .^...„..„..J^ zuerkannt — . 

Durch diesen Bescheid v/erden zuerkannt 

% 0, öüO .- 


^ DM 


Darin ist ein Mehrgrundbetrag nach § 250 Abs. 5 LAG enthalten von /...L3. IZ. DM 

^gesa mt zu erk a nnte Endg r u ndbetr og-s et z t sic h -nunmehc-ous-^inero-AUgrundbetrog-lf rGherep-Endgrundbetrogirn^inFve^ 

des § 250 Abs. 5 LAG) von insgesamt .'....*. DM und. 

DM zusammen. ') 

»m-MeHfgrund betrag von insgesamt 


—• Die Anlage Jt:^ 

— des Bescheides vom ist nunmehr auch Anlage zu diesem Bescheid. — 

4. Zu dem Endgrundbetrag tritt ein Zinszuschlag von 1 vom Hundert für jedes angefangene Kalendervierteljahr 

— Der Zinszuschlag wird — für den Altgrundbotrag — ab 1. Januar 1953 — ^ab -m 

— und — für den Mehrgrundbelrag — ob 1. Januar 1967') -—-ob — — gewährt. — 

)a-Schöde n v o r d e m 1 . J a nu a r 19 53 und n ach- d e^«-3^U-Oez6mbef-l-952-eingetfeten-5fndr-wird-der~Endgrundbetrog-für jje 
Gewährung des Zinszuschlags aufgeteilt. Hierzu wird auf — Nr. 12 der Anlage 1 — und — Nr^JJ^^sr-ArvIoge't'aT^ . *) — 
verwiesen. — -' - 


5. Bei Teilbescheiden 
weiterer Bescheid 

endgültigen Hauptentschädigung bleibt vorbehalten; hierüber ergeht 

6. Bei Erbfällen nach dem 31. März 1952: „■...... I 

Dieser Bescheid wirkt auch für und gegen diejenigen Erben (Erbeserben) des nach dem 31. März 1952 verstorbenen Anirags- 
berechtigten, die einen Antrag ouf Zuerkennung von Hauptentschädigung nicht gestellt haben. 



J* - JV' 

.k^ I ■ Ö. Begründung 



. f> 

• '.<■• •.'. y 




Die Voraussetzungen des § 243 des Gesetzes über den Lcstenansglcidi (LAG) über die Gewährung der Hauptentschädigung sind 

Durdi unanfeditbaren ^ Teil ^^-^JCesamL-r^ Bescheid nach dem Gesetz über die Feststellung von Vertreibungs schaden und Kriegs- 
sachschäden vom 21. April 1952 in der Fassung vom 3, Mai 1967 (FG) wurden Schäden in der aus Teil B der Anlage 1 — die Bestand- 
teil dieser Begründung ist — ersichtlichen Höhe festgestellt. _ 

Wegen der Zusammenfassung der Schäden (§ 245 LAG) und der Berechnung des Grundbetrages (§§ 246 ff. LAG) xtnrd auf die 
Anlage 1 Bezug genommen. 

Soweit Spareinlagen im. Sinne § 249a LAG zu berücksichtigen waren, ergibt sich die Berechnung des Sparerzuschlagss aus der dann 
beigefügten Anlage 2. 

Dementsprechend war gemäß § 250 LAG der sich aus §§ 243 — 249a LAG ergebende Grundbetrag als Haitptentsdiädigung zuzu- 
erkennen, was hiermit gesdiehen ist. 


. 1 

C. Belehrung über Rechtsbehclf 

■'.h''. '-^y* *■' **''■ 




Gegen diesen Bescheid kann binnen eines Monats nach Zustellung, vom Vertreter der Interessen des Aüsgleichsfonds binnen eines 
Monats nach Bekanntgabe, Beschwerde bei dem .'..'..:.■" . ..; -- . - , .,,^., 

Beschwerdeousschuß für den Lastenausgieich, 6 Frankfurt am Main, Barckhausstraße 1 -3 

eingelegt werden. 

Die Beschwerde soll beim Ausgleichsamt eingereicht werden-; die Frist ist jedodi auch gewehrt, wenn die Beschwerde rechtzeitig 
unmittelbar bei dem Beschwerdeausschuß eingereicht wird. Die Beschwerde kann scnrifHich oder zur Niederschrift angebracht 
werden und Ist zu begründen. Sofern die Begründung nicht gleichzeitig mit der Beschwerde erfolgt, kann sie In angemessener, 
gegebenenfalls festzusetzender Frist nachgeholt werden. j> , 

Ein Rechtsbehelf gegen diesen Bescheid ist nicht gegeben, soweit durch vorangegangene Bescheide, deren Betröge in diesem Be- 
scheid lediglich wiederholt sind, bereits entschieden ist. 

Ein von einem Beteiligten eingelegter Rechtsbehelf wirkt für und gegen olle übrigen Beteiligten. ^- ^ 

Die Einlegung eines Rechtsbehelfs hat aufschiebende Wirkung. : .. ' 


Nichhtutraffondes ilrelcheri - .^ . ^ 

') Nur ousfOllen, wenn sich in einem früheren Bescheid ouf der Grundlage des 19. ÄndG LAG bereits ein Mehrgrundbefrog ergeben hof. ' 

*) Sind did Spötschädsn nach dem 31. Dezember 1952, aber vor dem 1. Jonuar 1967 eingetrefnn, sind die Worte .- und - Nr. 11 der Anlage 1 o . . . -' lu 
streichen. FOr den Verzinsungsbeginn, der in diesen Fällen für den auf Früh- und Spdtschäden entfallenden Mehrgrundbetrag gleich ist (1. Januar 1967), ist 
insoweit die den Mehrgrundoetrcg enthaltende Textzeile der Nr. 4 maßgebend. 

Formblatt LA 16-67 

I - __ .i.. - . .A 

D. Aufteilung bei ErbföIIo.n nach dorn 31. März 1952 
Erben (Erbeserben) des Antragsberechtigten am 1. April 1952 (II) sind: 

Nam«, Vorname: "* wohnhaf» in: 

i.^.k.4....?..'^;.[^.'^ .„ .". -. .M.5..'^,...y.9.':.JV. 

1 i.cj.VAiA..(^.^....Ai':t^.L....^...... ...^. 1.....1. .!^ y..... 

8 ..l).l.:..l!j?.V^<?l.?;.k+...J..^.!^^J ....'. J..!.:..„„l...l.l !:.. .'r..... L..II..I 





.Ü...!..k)*;.i.n ...Jec^ f!r^^i2i!:.L:.^^.'l If::^.:.....^.?.::^:^ i%!!}f..,.}.lS.l 

5. .. 





Diese Aufteiluna wird der Erfüllung der Hauptentsrhädigung so lange zugrunde gelegt, als nicht dem Ausgleichsamt gegenüber 
eine andere Ajflcilung nachgewiesen wird. 

E. Erfüllung dei A.nspruchs auf Hcuptentschcdigung 

1. Die Zuerkennung des Anspruchs ouf Hauptentschädigung entnölt nicht zugleich eine Entscheidung über die Erfüllung dieses 
Anspruchs, über jede Erfüllung v/ird später, gesondert entschieden; sie muß jedoch bis spätestens 31. März 1979 abgeschlossen 
sein. Aus diesem Bescheid über die Zuerkennung der Hauptentschädigung kann noch nicht entnommen werden, dafJ d*2r zu- 
erkannte Betrag auch in dieser Hohe erfüllt wird. Die wichtigsten Besonderheiten, die die Höhe der Erfüllung beeinflussen, 
sind nachfolgend oufgefOhrt. Daher können Vermögensdispositionen in Erwartung der Erfüllung in aller Reg^l erst nach Er- 
teilung des ErfüÜungsbeschsides getroffen werden. 

2. Reihenfolge und Umfang der Erfüllung richten sich (vorbehaltlich Nr. 3 bis 8) nach der „Weisung über die Erfüllung des 
Anspruchs auf Hauptcntschädigong (HE-Weisung)" cies Präsidenion des Bundesausgieichsarntes. Vorbehaltlich einer ander- 
weitigen Regelung du^ch Rechtsverordnung können Ansprüche auf den Mehrgrundbetrag einschiießlicli des dorcuf entfallenden 
Zinszuschlcgs nach i 252 Aus. 5 LAG nicht vor dsm 1. Jcnuar 1972 erfüllt werden; das gilt nicht in den hciiea Jer Nr. 3 bis 5. 

3.' Wenn dem Antragsteller (lll) oder einem der unter 1 oder II aufgeführten oder einem sonstigen Rechtsvorgänger ein Auf- 
baudarlehen gevänrt worden ist, wird dieses out den Anspruch auf Hauptentschädigur.g nach Unanfechtbarkeit oder Rechts- 
kraft dieses Bsscheides mit besonderem Umwandlungsbescheid ongerechnet (§ 253 LAG). Aufbaudarlehen nach § 254 Abs, 3 
LAG für den Bau einer Miet- oder Genossenschaftswohnung werden nur auf Antrag angerechnet. 

4. Zahlungen an Unterhaltshilfe nach LAG oder SHG sowie an Entschädigungsrente, die dem unmittelbar Geschädigten (I) oder 
seinen Rechtsnachfolgern wegen Vermögensschäden oder Existenzverlust gewährt werden oder wurden, werden auf den An- 
spruch auf Hauptentschädigung mit besonderem Anrechnungsbescheid angerechnet (§§ 278a, 2S3 und 283a LAG). 

5. Bestehen oder entstehen Rückforderungsansprüche, können sie mit dem Anspruch auf Hauptentschädigung verrechnet wer- 
den (z. B. nach § 350o LAG). 

6. Wenn ein Aufbaudpriehen oder in der Vergangenheit Kriegsschadenrente gewährt worden ist oder Forderungen zu verrech- 
nen sind, setzt eine Erfüllung die Erteilung eines Umwandlungs-, Anrechnungs- oder Verrechnunqsbescheides voraus. Angerech- 
net werden auch dsn Aufbaudarlehen {Nr. 3) und der Kriegssdiadenrente (Nr. 4) entsprechende Leistungen. 

—7: — N nch do rv- U fvter 
gewährt — an 

ies-AuscUekhiomt&s—— wir< 

Bei laufendem Bezug von Kriegssch adenrentj 


zuletzt — wohnh_gfL_in— 
>p+ent5ciT{jd I g u ngTTür die Erfüllung nicht oder nur in beschränktem Um- 

8. Die Erfüllung des Anspruchs auf Hauptentschädigung kenn von demjenigen, der für einen Abwesenden die Zuerkennung 
der Hauptentschädigung nach § 234 Abs. 2 LAG beantragt hat, nicht verlangt werden (§ 251 Abs. 3 LAG). 

9. Eine diesem Bescheid vorangegangene Abrechnur^ von Erföllungsbeträgen (insbesondere die Aufteilung des Erfüllungs- 
betrags ouf Zinszuschläge und Grundbetrag) wird durch diesen Zuerkennungsbescheid nicht berührt. 


Je eine Ausfertigung erhalten: 

Im Auftrage 


Formblott LA 16-67 










jx — 

s o 

e j< 

3 C 

e o 

TS Li. 

w -o 


C! o 

o — 

•O -O 

o — 

2 i 


Anlage 1 - a — b — c 

zum — Bes€!>€4d — Te»t!>0&<,h«4d — Gisamtbcschcid 
über die Zuerkennung von Hauptsntschcdigung 

Antrcgsteller: t^.» ^..S^.k'f.rl.vtU .. ^..,^..'>..'\.^. *:>..-,.^.- 

wohnhaft in : Nl.Cyv/ \ ^J..]s 


Bereciinung des Gruntlbetrags 

einschließlich des A^ehrgrundbetrags^) 


.i,j,n..: H ^li::^^! 


A. Sthadensfestsfeilung 

Wegen der Sc'iadensfesfstellung wird auf den Feststellungsbescheid vom /...~r...' '1.<.....C ;.._.:•?..'. r.. 



B. Zusammcnfcssung der Schadensfs.rtstellung 

1. Hinsichtlich der Zusammenfassung der festgestellten Schäden des unmittelbar Geschädigten für die Berechnung der Hauptent- 
schädigurig nach §§ 242, 243, 245 LAG wird auf Anlage 1 — (vgl. Anlage zum Bescheid über die Zuerkennung von 

Hauptentschädigung vom r'.'r. ^. /..... ..'. ,.) — verwiesen. . . 

Der sich danach ergebende Schodensbetrag von .t...^.'./. .. S'.,'.!'^ RM 

wird 6ei- Berechnung des sich noch dem 19. AndG LAG ergebenden Endgrundbetrags und des darin 
enthaltenen Mehrgrundbefrags nach Teil C unverändert /ügrundegelegt. 

C. Berechnung das Endgrundbefrags urid des darin enthallcnen Mehrgrundbefrags 



2. Nach dem Schadensbetrog (vgl. B) wird der unmittelbar Geschädigte in die Schadensgruppe ..^. eingestuft. 

Ausgangsgrur.dbetrag nach § 246 LAG (19. AndG LAG) mithin .' .^ '.?^ 

3. Kürzungen des G r u n d b e t r a g s : ". ■ •• 
o) noch § 249 Abs. 1 LAG ' . •■•■■^. - • • ' ' • . - 

Vermögen am 21. 6. 1948 - '^^..^.," '"^..Ll. DM 

. Davon ab 40 V.H - l..^. :.^..^5'.Z DM 

tndvermogsn f..:* : DM 

Ausgangsgrundbetrag + ___ h..^.y9'^^:.~. DM = ,'!'..!*......'....r..r..'.T DM 

Vermögen am 21. 6. 1943 — 


1^' /lo.- 



doppelter Erhöhungsbetrag 
noch § 246 Abs. 2 LAG ^) . . 

2,.^:.^.^.^::..,. DM 

+ : nJ^:^l? RM 

+ ^.-^^.^rDM 


Anfangsvermögen . 

Kürzungsbetrag ;..... 

höchsten» jedoch 50 v. H. des Vermögens am 21. 6. 1948 


DM :2 = - 






b) nach §249 Abs. 2 LAG 

Entschcdigungszahlungen für festgestellte 

Wiederbescharfungskosten für Wirt- 
schaftsgüter, die durch Kriegsereignisse 
erneut verlorengegangen sind .... 

und Währung 


auf DM 

1 Ü » C C C •- 




'j y. 


Höchstbetrag der Kürzung: 

Ausgcngsgrundbetrcg (Nr. 2) 

Ausgcngsgrundbetrag ohne Berücksichti- 
gung der teilentschädigte.T Schäden . . 






verbleibender Grundbetrag 

Qlo ^CO0■- 


Vordruck BAA 14,64a— 67 



4. Teilung de; G r u ii d b e f r j g s bei Erbfüllon vor dem ). April 1952 (§ 247 LAG): 

Der inj nc.«choid tu II angegebene Ariiprucliiboicditigtü ist Eibe des vor dern 1. April 1952 

verstorbenen unrnitiolbür Ccschädigfen (Nr. 5 des F'^stsJellungsbescheidj) zu ? Anteil- von 

dem verijjeibcndon Grundbetrag (Nr. 3) enifoMcn demnach auf Ihn 

5. Zuschlag zum Grundbetrag (Q 248 LAG) — Entwur^eL-ngsruschlag für om 1. A^prü 1932 
antragsbere:hIiglo Heimatvoririebenc, Sowjotzonennüchtling:; (§§ 3, 4 BYFG), die bis zum 31. Do- 
zember 1959 sfän-Jigör: A'-ifcntholt im Bundesgebiet einrdtÜeßlich Berlin (West) genommen haben, 
und für bis 1. April 1952 evukulfcil^ Kriagssaohgoschadigte ohne neue Lebens nrundlago — 

10 V. H ' ^ 

Summe .... 

6. Verminderung des Grundbetrogs nadi § 249 Abs. 3 LAG'') 

a) um de:y Zeitweft der Ermäßigung der Vermögensabgabe nach §§ 39 bis 47 LAG; 

~v.H. von "^ DM^)= " ^ DM 

b) um drs 33fcc!ie des Hcobsetzungibetrags der Vermögensabgabe roch § 47a LAG: 

33 X " DM = + - Z ^DM 

c) um da?: l/faJ^ie des Minderungsbetrags der Vermögensobgabe nach § 47b LAG: 

17 X DM = + DM 

.^?:.^.^.t:. DM 



l^ G i C C - Q »^ 



bleiben ... 

7. S p a r fc r z u s c h ' c g gemäß § 24yG LAG nach der Berechnung in7^nlags — 2 — 2a 

(bei Erbföüen vor dem 1. April 1952: .:. Anteil wie in Nr. 4) *) +. 

■,,,■:(■• • .tf Summs 

Aufgerundet auf volle 10 DM (§ 250 Abs. .2 LAG] . .....'.. 

8 Abzüge nacn — § 5 Abs. 4 der 11. LeistungsCV-L/, — - ^Jr. 16 Buchst, c HE-Saaimelrundschreibea 

1,0 c CO ■ 





2:y!9.Zz DM 


9. Eni.-'jrundbetriJ3 öo^ f-Icuptenfschüdigu;ig nach § 250 Abs. 5 LAG 

Darin enthalrcnar Altgn;ncbttratj nach Anlage 1 (vgl. Nr. 1) 

Melirgrunriböirug .nach § 250 Abs. 5 LAG .... 

D. Auftsiluna cJcs iMoIirgrundbctrags bei Früh- und Spöfscbän'cn") 

10. c) Mehrgruodbetrag dar Hcuptentschödigung für Früh- und Spätschäden (Endsumme Nr. 9) . . 

b) Für Schäden, die nach dem Ergebnis der Schadensfestste'lung bis zum 31. Dezember 1952 ent- 
standen ä'\:>6 (Frühsclicdin), ergibt sich nach Anlöge 1 — b — c — ein rechnerischer Mehrgrund- 
betrag vo.-- , .. 




- .o- 



•■'■::: l 



c) als Unterschledsbstrüg, der auf den Spä'schaden entfällt, verbleiben 








11. Der ZInszujcIilag ist gernäß § 250 Abs. 4 und 5 L.AG zu gev/chren ■• - , 

a) ob 1. Jonutir 19^7 

für einen Teil des Mehrgrundbetrags (Frühschäden nach Nr. 10 Buchst, b) von . . . ... 

' b) cb / ,. . - . 

' für einen Teü des Mehrgrundbetrags (Spätschäden nach Nr. 10 Buchst, c) von 


Niehfzutrsffende-: sfreichen 

') Bei Z'.jsanPi°p.tr2ff3n vc"' Früh- und Späfschädon -isf der Inso.veif erforisriichen Berech.Tjng des ouf den f^rühschads.n entfaihnden Mehrgrundbetrcgs c!s 

Bezei"."injr,g ibzcjefzeo J',r FiOhschcden aüsin' (vgl. icaoch Fußnotd 6j. 

») EnffälU bei Schcderib-.fräjen bis 72C0 RM. 

') In Er'ofciilen zwischen iji'n 20. 6. 1943 und dem 1. 4. 1952 isf unfor a, b und c iew-iüs nur der auf den Anjoruchiberechtigtün entfa'lende Anteil einaesct::» 
;§ 3 der 9. Leiätunc:DV-'.A). 

*) Fcl's Va'mogen sov. o!.i in Berlin (Was?) eis auch im üb'-igon E'jndeS'jejiit b^^Iügen v/ar, Ist de: ZeiSve-t in der Begründung gssor.cert berech.-sel. 

') Hat sich der Spareri-jschl-jg infoige Kürzung nach § 2-i9a Abs. 1 3af; 2 LAG cuf Gryrd des 19. AndG LAG gelindert, hcidr:;ir as sich insoweit u.t einen 

Mehrgrundbetrag (Meh-grundbetra.gsanteil) im Simo des § 250 Abs. 5 LAG. 
•) Eine Aufteilung komm! nur dann in B(i*rach', wenn dsr Spbtschadon ncch dem 31. Dezember 19i£ö eingetreten ist, da nu- insoweit der Mehrgrundberrag für 

Frül\- und Spätschäden eHen unferjdvedlichsn Verzinsungsoeginn hct. 

Vordruck BAA 14ö4a-67 





Moses 8c Haas 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 10004 



May 9. 1968 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 West ßnd Avenue 
Wew York, N.Y. 10025 

Dear Dr. Soudek: 

Enclosed we are sendlng you the compensatlon flies 
re^arding you, Mr» and Mrs . Mitscherllch, and als6 the 
heirs of Else Heimann, 

We are retaining the restitution flle concernlng Mrs. Else 
Helmann wlth regard to the plctures because thls matter Is 
still pending. 

The same applies to the compensatlon file of Mrs. ^retl 
Soudek, in whlch case the claim for educatlon is not yet 
completed. We do not know its exact status because you dld 
not reply to our letter of March 19, 1968, 

Very r>lnc 



ancls . 

pi V JVH^'fT- ^mw^^w^m^m^^ 

Dr« Josef Soudek 
900 W«3t LXid Avenue 
U^w York, n.X. 10025 

May 8, 1968 

Moses t^ Haas 
Attomeys at Law 
50 Br ad Street 
Ilew York, >J.Y, 10004 

Grentle&en t 

Ref erring to your letter of ^ny 1, 1968 we want you 
to know that we are vory rcuch interested in all letters 
and doctunents in your po8sesr>ion ooncemin^ the Geru^an 
restitution and coiepensation claisis of i^rs« Else F» Hei- 
ßiann, the helrs of the decessed Mrs» Heimann, Dr. Jonef 
Soudek, Mrs. Grotel Soudek, Mrs. Anna Mitscherlich and 
Mr. Eilhard ilitscherlicb. 

This letter iö to authoriae you to give the m&^^Bengex 
Said papers and docuBsents« 

?^ith best thanks for your courtesy, 

Rincerely your?^. 

Dt* Joref Soudek 

Repräsentative of the heirs 
after Urs. Heimann (Erben** 

Mrs. Gretcl Soudek 

Urs. Anna l»itacherlich 

Ut* Eilhard Mit scher lieh 


Moses & H aa s 



NEW YORK, N. Y. 10004 



1. i^ay 1966 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Our flies relatlnp to the German restltution and comüensatlon 
Claims which we handled for you and whlcb are now completed contaln 
certaln papers In whlch you may be interested and whlch should be 
kept by you and not be destroyed, sucb as the communlcatlonsto and 
from the German authorltles, We, therefore, would llke to turn them 
over to you. 

Plea5?e come to our Office after you have telephoned us, 
so that we may glve you these papers. Your call Is necessary not 
only because It Is not practlcable to send these papers throuph the 
mall, but also because you yourself should declde whlch o^ the papers 
you are Interested In and whlch may be destroyed. 

As we shall move wlth our Office by the end of thls month - 
you will be Informed of our new address later - It Is necessary 
that you get In touch wlth us at once so that the flies be p-lven 
to you not later than wlthln the next 2 weeks. 

Best regards. 

rely jÄurs , 


PM/Ha . 

Ür* Josef Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
Hew York, N.Yo 10025 

19. Jtml 1967 

Widerruf der der Firma Moses & Haa», 
50 Broad 3treet, New York, lUY. 10004 
erteilten Vollujacht zur Vertretung in 
Verfahren nach deci Lastenausgleichsge- 
setz vor Behoerden tmd gegenüber Banken. 

Hiermit erklaere ich ala Testamentsvollstrecker der 
Erbengemeinschaft nach Frau Else Heimann (Testaments- 
Vollstreckerzeugnis des Amtsgerichts Frankfurt/t^iain 
vom 12» 3.1960, Akz. 51 VI 2049/50 ~ in 51 VI 514/60), 
dass ich die der Firma Moses & Haas, 50 Broadstreet, 
New York, N^Y. 10004 am 8. Februar 1965 erteilte Voll- 
macht mit sofortiger Wirkxmg widerrufe* 

Die Vollmacht gab den Herren Moses und Haas die Be- 
fugnis, Verfahrens- und Unterbevollmaechtigte zu bestel- 
len, für mich auf Grund des Wiedergutmachungs- und Iilnt- 
schaedigungsgesetzes und nach dam Lastenaus^leichgesetz 
zustehende oder in Zxikunft erwachsende Ansprüche zu er- 
heben und mich in Verfahren vor Gerichten und Behoerden 
sowie gegenüber Privatpersonen und Banken zu vertreten« 







')«*•. 'iiblic, State of Nc'V '■ 
l:tö.41 777625 Queens : 
f ■ '^i«'fl io No.yrorkCounti 

^^i -^f^^AyJjut^ 



JUN 2 1967 

■v^«s *. --'h' / GENERALKONSUUT DER 
^/) ^^ r yc.t'.^^^^ .ßUNDESREPUßUK OEüTSCHLANp 



Gesehen im Generalkonsulat der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in New York 

zur Legalisation der vorstehenden Unterschrift d^s öffentlo Not^ 
Hans Herifeld 

fjitv^ Vor*^ Im Staat New 

New York, den 

bei m C e ncrafkonsülat dor Bundf-^pühilk Dsut schland In 
New YorlC WaW^fjfRiäM^^tz ermächtigt 
gemäß § 37a Konsulargesetz ermächtigt. 


ausschliesslich für Zwecke 
der Wiedergutmachung von in 
der Zeit von 1933-1943 aus 
nationalsozialistischen Mass- 
nahmen erwachsenen Benachteili- 

Rtp 22/61 




MosKs <S: n 

A A S 

A r r<) u \ i:^ s a i i \n\ 
.-,() n woA 1) s ri< 1. 1: I 

\KW ^ ORK I, N. Y. 

( AHLl. ADDKi:ss 

y u j :^H v:j 

XI. Mal 1967 

■'-''. ' ' ' '.' r^ r t- 

>.">r,*^r joudek 

rrii-'n ri-. 

Uli • r';-ci '. .,>cu^le K": 

.;-'ir haben auf unser ochireiben vom lO« Oktober 1966 
In dar Sacne der AI tsparerentschaed igum: (Dresdner ßanK) • 
an-i aiif unser Schreiben 'vo-^: 3« April "196? iri der LAG 3ache 
(Zinsen auf ochulriverschreibunf an) von innen. Keine i^acnricht 
erria '.. ten. ■ , 

i^'uer die ürledu'unf der Sache' be' der Dresdner Bank 
f^telit noch das nonorar f u r uns offen. Die Dresdner r3ank 
>-;at wiederholt gebeten, das Konto aufzuloesen und wir haben 
da'Lor file i-an^ boauf tra^- 1 ,' dein betrajE." von D:'-' 'lij.?,?! 
nuT' das Konr.o der 'irben bei der deutschen :!.ffecten- und 
c^C'ise i bank: e 1 nzuzar;len. 

Sobald wir. die Gutschrift der Jif fec tenbank haben, 
vjerdfjr) wir uns r-rlauben 1'^% Honorar, fuer uns zu entnehmen, 
und zwar 

15/1 aus DM 353.-2 (sieh- unse.r 
schreiben an Sie vom 10.10.66.) 

DM 53.0? 

^33 AOiito fuer die' j^rben • be 1 der r,f fectenbank in 
rra::^:furc ist nup ein JurcngangsKonto. Geiaer k.qennea auf. diesem 
ivonto nur fuer ganz kurze Zeit stehen bleiben. Wie wir Ihnen am 
3. April 196? mitteilten, stehen jetzt DA S^UO,- und DM khl .21 minus 
JA $3.07 darriuf . 

.Vir- bitten umpehend u^, I^acnricrit, wohin das Geld ueber- 
wiese»! uRrd^rj soll un i an wen. y>/enn wir bis zum 2I4. . Mai 196? von 
ihnen ke i ne . i^-5C: irl 2ht hab-n , werden wir dar. ueld.nach hier trans- 
ferloreii larse:^ und Ihnen, Herr Dr. Soudek als -i-'estaments Voll- 
strecker, den ^cneck einsenden. . — 


P>S. Wenn Sie jedoch bei Irgend einer deutschen Bank ein Prl 
konto errichten wollen (äuc wessen Nanien auch Iramer) bl] 
wir um Nachricht und Aufgabe des Kontos , damit Betraegfll 


M O S E S & II A A S 



NEW YORK 1. N. Y. 

UANOVIK J .-lU l^' 


^al 1967 

Mr. '^ Mrs. Josef ioudek 
90 ü 'Je s t :.n d /' v e nu. e 

p 1 d (' r f 

cl i -:■ :•. rb ne n n & c r i r. 1 s e n c i maii n 

■ ^nnr ^^^^ 

Her-r' ua : Fr-a.: ooudek: 

'tiir haben auf unser Schreiben vom 10, Oktober 1966 
in der Sache der Altsparerentschaed igung (Dresdner Bank) 
und auf unser Schreiben vo-^i 3« April 196? in der LAG Sache 
(Zinsen auf Schuldverschreibungen) von ihnen Keine Nachricht 

Fuer die ärledlgun^ der Sache be^ der Jresdner Bank 
steht noch das :ionorQ.r fu?r uns offen. Die Dresdner riank 
hat wiederholt gebeten, d as Konto aufzuloesen und wir haben 
daher die Bank beauftragt, den Betrag von DM \^[\] »2.1 
auf das Konto der 5rben bei der deutschen ::iiffecten- und 
Vvechselbank einzuzahlen. . ., ' 

Sobald wir die Outschrift der, lif fectenbank haben, 
werden wir uns erlauben l5% Honorar fuer uns zu entnehmen, 
und zwar 

\S% aus DM 353«^^^2 (sieh-^ unser 
schreiben an^Sie vom 10,10. 66) 

DiM $3 .07 

^as Konto fuer die ^rben bei der Effectenbank in 
FranKfurt ist nur ein iJurcrigangsKonto • Gelder koennen auf diesem 
ivonto nur fuer ganz kurze Zeit stehen bleiben. Wie wir Ikuien am 
3. April 1967 mitteilten, stehen jetzt DM «^l+O,- und DM 14.^7.21 minus 
DM 53.07 darauf, 

Wir bitten umgehend um Machricht, wohin das Geld ueber- 
wiesen v/erden soll und an wen, Wenn wir bis zum 2[| , Mai 1967 von 
Ihnen keine i^achricht hab'M:i^ werden wir das Geld nach hier trans- 
ferieren lassen und Ihnen, Herr Dr. Soudek als Testamentsvoll- 
strecker, den Scheck einsenden. - 

Mit xVorzu. 




P»S. Wenn Sie jedoch bei Irgend einer deutschen Bank ein 
konto errichten wollen (auc wessen Namen auch Irumer) 
wir um Naohrlcht und Auf gate des Kontos» damit Be tri 

20. April 1967 

An den 


6200 Wiesbaden 
Ä' ebenstelle: 
Wllhelxnstr. 18 

Betr.: Entschädlguhgssache Prof. "^r. Josef Soudek 

V 4 - 48977/05/A./-/SOU. 

Sehr geehrte ^rren: 

Wir bJütätlgexi Ihre Zuschrift vom 19.4.1967. 

Sa trifft zu, dasa durch den gerichtlichen Ver- 
gleich vom 28»6.1961 die jetzt beanspruchte zusätzliche 
Entschädigung bereits in voller Höhe zuerkannt worden ist 
Die 3 war bei Abfassunp unseres Antrages vom 10.6.1966 
übersehen worden. Wir bitten, dies zu entschuldigen und 
nehirien hiermit den Antrag zurück. 

Mit vorzügllchor Hochachtung 


Der Regierungspräsident 

\ in Wiesbaden 

-Entscha igungsbehörde- 
V 4 - 48977/05'' A/-/SOU. 




6200 Wiesbaden, den 1^1 J^?^^^^ 19 

Wilhelinstraße 32 • Telefon 3 9581 

Nebenstelle: Wilhelmstr. 18 

Sprechtag ausnahmslos nur noch Mittwoch von 9-12 Uhr 

In der Antwort bitte vorstehendes 
Geschäftszeidien u. Datunn angeben 

Herren ^Rechtsanwälte 
Moses & Haas 

50 ^road Street 

New York 4 N>Y, -USA- 

Betr, : fintschädigungssache Prof« Dr. Josef Soudek , 

Bezug: Ihr Schreiben vom 2.3.1967 

Sehr geehrte Herren Rechtsanwälte! 

In vorbezeichneter Sache muss ich Ihnen leider mitteilen, dass mir 
Ihr Schreiben vom 10.6.1966, auf das Sie sich in o.g. *^chreiben 
beziehen, unverständlich geblieben ist. Sie beziehen sich dabei 
lediglich auf meinen -Bescheid vom 19 »7.1960 und lassen den Vergleich 
vor dem Landgericht Wiesbaden vom 29.6.1961, mit dem weitere Ent= 
Schädigung in Höhe von DM 7.995 •- gewährt wurde, völlig ausser Be= 
tracht. Ich darf darauf hinweisen, dass die von Ihnen begehrte 
Verlängerung des Entschädigungszeitraumes in vollem Umfang in 
dem genannten Vergleich berücksichtigt worden ist. 

Unter diesen Umständen bitte ich, Ihre Auffassung überprüfen zu 
wollen und eine entsprechende Stellungnahme zu den Akten zu geben. 

Mit vorzüglicher Hochachtung 
Im Auftrag 

( Scharf 


An den 

Her»rn Recierungspreeslder.ten 

(62) Wiesbaden 

2. Maorz 196? 

Betr»,: Berufsschäden Prof« Dr. Joaef Soudek 
V U (I^W) UP977/Og/AA/3ou 

Sehr £^eehrte Forren: 

Wir nehtion ^eEU^' auf unseren Anfrag vom 
10, Juni 1966 auf -^ahlun^; weitar^jr DM 7.^95»-« 

Da wir auf flleseii *'*ntra^ bisher nichts von 
ihnen ^eVioe'^''t hnbcn, erlauben wir uns die /*nfrafc:e, 
wann .nlt der Bearbeitung und dem Erlas s eines Be- 
scheides (f^irec^.iiet werderi kaaa. 

Mit vorzuegl Icher Hochachtung 



Moses 6c Haas 






10. Oktober 1966 

Dr. J. Soudeck 

900 West End Avenue 

New York, N#Y. 10025 


Sehr geehrter Herr ^. Soudek: 

Die Dresdner Bank in Frankfurt hat sich jetzt 
bereit erklärt, Ihre Verfügungsbefugnis über das dort 
bestehende Konto des Nachlasses Eis e Heiniann anzuerkennen, 
nachdem wir der Bank eine Ausfertigung des Sie als Testa- 
mentsvollstrecker ausweisenden Rü-^e Schlusses vorgelegt 
haben. s hanaelt sich um einen ^etrag von DM 355,82 
zuzüglich ö% Zinsen ab 28*10.1964 ( Zinsen bis dahin sind 
in dem Guthaben bereits enthalteni» 

Wegen des Transf ers ■ des Betrages werden wir das 
Erforderliche veranlassen, sobald Sie uns den beiliegenden 
Entwurf mit Ihrer Unterschrift versehen zurückgesandt haben» 





In der Rü-3ache wegen der entzogenen Bilder hat die OPD 
Prankfurt einen Schriftsatz folgenden Iiahalts eingereicht« 


Der Zeuge Mitscherlich bekundet in seiner e.V. vom 
27»6.66, dass er aus gelegentlichen Berichten der 
^erfolgten wisse, dass 7 Bilder und 4 Miniaturen beschlag- 
nahmt wurden, und zwar teils in der Wohnung Böhraerstrasse 
und zum '^'eil aus dem bereits versandfertigen Lift» 

Zeuge selbst ist bereits Anfang 1938 ausgewandert. Gegen 
eine Beschlagnahme von Vermögensgegenständen aus dem ümzugs- 
gut spricht jedoch die Tatsache, dass die damals sehr genau 
geführten Devisenakten keine Hinweise über eine Herausnahme 
enthalten. Es kann daher mit grösster Wahrscheinlichkeit 
davon ausgegangen werden, dass die im Umzugsgut aufgeführten 
Oelgemälde und Miniaturen nicht der Beschlagnahme anheim- 
gefallen sind. 

- 2 - 

Bezüglich des Bildes "Die Flucht" sowie der beiden Oelgemälde 

Brunne nszenen" fehlt es nach wie vor an der Vermutung einer 
Entziehung. Möglicherweise könnten die Bilder auch zum Kauf 
dem Kunsthandel angeboten worden sein« 

Beweismittel, die auf eine Beschlagnahme schliessen könnte , 
sind jedenfalls bisher nicht beigebracht worden. Auch die 
oben erwähnte e.V. ist insoweit nicht ausreichend. 
Die in den diess.Schrelben vom 8.6,1965 und 9.9.1965 abge- 
gebene Stellungnahme kann daher leider nicht geändert werden." 

Wir bitten um Ihre und die Stellungnahme von Frau 
Mitscherllch Und fügen für diese A bschrif t bei. 


I mm* ^ 1. 



10» Jual 1966 

üxi den 


RegiorungsprÄsi dentan 
• äritachädi luifisbahör ie 

62 W 1 e 3 b a i e n 

Betr.: Beruf sjchaion Proff ör. Josof .ioudek 
Aktz»! V 4 (16VJ) 4B977/05/aA/3ou 

oehr geehrte jtierren: 

Wir beantra an unt3r Be7.ugaahiae auf Art«III»,^Jl) 
§ 75 BäG n.F» in VeriDiiidun^ mit § 12 (2) der iieben en 
Aö a dar un^. 3 Verordnung zur 5»DV-BSG., 

dem A3G wegen ->cha :ens lu beruflichen Fortkommen 
Üb :*r den ihm aurch Bescheid vom 19.7.1960 zuer- 
kaniiten Betrag von DK 1.599»- hinaus eine weitere 
Kapitalent Schädigung von Dn 7«995»- zu gewähron« 

In dem Bescheid vom 19«7«1960 ist der Ent- 
schädigung sz ei träum bis 30.9.1936 begrenzt worden, da 
Ast» in Jen folgenden Jahren bis 1942 im Durchschniot bei 
einem Umstellung,; .:kurs in hohe dos amtlichen '.Vecha ^Ikurses 
zwischen Ki^i 8. /und 9«CüO«- iährlich v.r dient habe und da alt 
bi3 auf eine geringfügige Differenz im Rahmen des Vergleichs« 
einkoniraens von RM ci»640«- gt^blieben sei. 

Diese -«• est st eilung fand ihre Begründung in 
§ 75 BJIO a.F», /onach eine Lebsnagrundlage dann vorliegt, 
weini sie uem Verfolgten und seinen unter haltsbor chtlgten 
Familienangehörigen eine Lebensführung ermöglichet, die 
Perjonen mit gleicher oder ähnlicher Beruf ssiusb 11 düng 
"in der ^^egel" haben* In der Bescheidbegründung heisst es 
hierzu, dass AJt» schon frühzeitig nach seiner Auswand rung 
ein Erwerbseinkommen gehabt habe, das sogar höher gewesen 
sei als das in seiner früheren Stellung bezogene Sinkomraen« 

Auf Grund dieser Feststelluniien hat die Entschädi- 
gungsbohörde die Erlangung der ausreichenden -^ebensgrundlage 
bereits am 1.10.1936 angenomiTien, und zwar in Ueborelnstlmraung 
miu der Rechtsprechung des BGH ( Siehe Brunn-i^b^natreit 
Anm. 6 zu § 76 und die dort zitierten Entscheidum en. ) 


- 2 - 

DiesQ Kachtsprechuag Ist durch die ^eaetzesÄnierung Uborholt,— 
(^o auch Brttuxi-iiebsn^trelt a.a«0^,-und es ist nicht mehr 
zulässig, zu Gunsten odf^r zu üngunjten des Verfolt^t'^n von 
den Tabellenaätzen abzuweichen« 

3el Zugrundolegun?: Uej^s^ Sätze hat \3t . nur im Jahro 
1937 das Vergloichseinkorimen von R.\ ö,640«- un Ri4 4öb.- Üb r- 
schrieben« Damit hat iit. joioch nicht "nachhaltig** dio 
aujrelcheiide Lebens Grundlage wieder erreicht, da er in >3n 
folgenden ö Jahren ständig weniger verdient hat als das 
Var gl i c hs o i nk oianie n« 

In den Jahren 1938 und 1939 ent:ipra:h :a3 Dollarerwerbs- 
sinkoiiüiien des bei einem Umrechnun skurs vo^ 2,49 
Ri^x Ö.487.- bzw. Ri^i b.252.- jährlich und blieb damit RM 153»- 
bzw, Ri'I 3öB»« unter dorn Ver^^leichsoinkoirLaen* 

Im Jahre 1940 v^orde Ist. am 31.Ö. 3o Jahro alt. Das 
V'erglöichseinkoiumen für dieses Jahr beläuft sich diher auf 
Ri'i 9. 480.- ( 5 i^ionate ä'Hh 720.- und 7 nonate k Ri'i 840.-). 
Dem^e^^e, enüb'^r betrug bei eii^em umrochiiunrslrurs von 2#50 
das iirworbseinkorruion des Äse. RH 7.90C»-, 

PUr 1941 und 1942 beiträgt das Vergleichseinkornirien 
R^i 10«080.-. In di : 3en beiden Jahren hat .^SL. bei einem 
ümreohAiun^ skurs von 2.50 Wi B.054.- bzw. RM 9«34B,80 v-ar- 

Die zusätzliche rlapitalent Schädigung für die ^.f^lteren 
75 i'Aonat3 dsr Ent Schädigung. szeit beträgt Rh 533#- monatlich, 
insgoswuiat R>i 39.975.- • DH 7«995.- . 

Mt vorzüglichnr Hochachtung 

j • m 

Erkl 8. rung 

Als Testß'idn tsvollstre^ k<^r des ITechlflgaea von "^r«^u 
B\sf) H ö 1 m a n n,,rflb. Scht:^f , «rlrl^^'e ich, 
ö^ris d1.e Erblf^sserln an 21.6.1948 keine Ve'^rnHp-er. g- 
wert^ besoi.^en h^ t, Pb-^es^hen von "^'olfiör den Vernörent^- 

!• Bin B|t>)ikruthR^6n von HM l.V^^^.no b'=^l a^r 

Dr'^adner ^^ank In r'^'r^nlc^u'^t, •^'-•s wohl v^r^'^h^^ntlloh 
von Deutach^n Helrh nicht Pia Judenverm^^ren nlnr<^- 
zorret war, . . 


RM 2^QÖ»^-^?le4rh3«3rh" tz an weis untren von 1943, ^He 
e'^-^nfolli be..' der-j^reauner Bnnk in Prrvikfurt 
<;'^tt'fb^v;nhrt .wsren üri<5 nicht beachlr.fniRh^t worrien 3*.nd. 

Mein 'rngt".-nentg'-yQll3trorW^2;eufnl3 ist vo i '^■nta'^fl^'icht 
in Prri kfurt a-i'*(ft4.n «m 12^5,1960 unter dem Aktenzeichen 
51 VI. 2049/59 ^^>j^3 ,^79>e'']. 1 1 . 

Subac-^ibed r\xvl 3\7orn to 

before me this D^y of June. 1966 

!;ouery ^abÜÄ. 


Moses <Sc Haas 




Prof. Josef Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
New York 25, N .Y. 



26. Mai 1964 

Betr.: Rücke r statt unf, nach Else Heimann 

^ehr geehrter Herr Dr. Soudek, 

wir bestätigen Ihr Schreiben vom 20. Mai, glauben aber 
nicht, dass wir bei Abfassung eines Entwurfs für die eidesstattl. 
Versicherung ohne weiteres von der Annahme ausgehen können, dass 
die Listen schon vor September 1938 angefertigt worden sind. Die 
Aufstellung enthält zuviele ^inzelgegenstände, die nicht aufgeführt 
worden wären, wenn es sich nicht um zur Verpackung fertiges Umzugs- 
gut gehandelt hätte (z.B. 4 Rollen ^losettpapier, 2 Stangen Kernseife, 
2 Pakete Seifenflocken, etc.). 

Zusammen mit dieser Umzugs gutliste scheinen auch 2 Listen 
betreffend Reisegepäck eingereicht worden zu sein, das bestimmt erst 
unmittelbar vor der Abreise gepackt sein kann. Am Schlüsse der Reise- 
cepäckliste, die mit BM 1.738,85 abschliesst, ist auch vermerkt: 
"Dazu Liste 3 TSnzugsgut RM 1.365,37" - Gesaratbetrag RM 3.104,22. 
Diese Liste 3 ist eine der drei Umzugsgutlisten. Die Liste 1 enthält 
die hier fraglichen Bilder. 

Amtsakten nebst 
sehen, um festzus 
ob sich daraus d 
Ettle vorliegt, 
Frankfurt/Main e 
Anwälte, die uns 
vertreten, eine 
Frankfurt notwen 
folf^shonorar von 


diesen Umständen halten wir es für zweckmässig, die 
den dazu gehörigen beigezogenen ^e Visenakten einzu- 
teilen, welche Original unterlagen vorhanden sind, 
ie Daten der Einreichung ergeben, ob das Gutachten 
usw. Die Einsichtnahme müsste durch einen Anwalt in 
r folgen. Wir glauben, dass wir mit einem der Ffm 

auch in anderen Verfahren als Unterbevollmächtigte 
Vereinbarung dahin treffen können, dass für die in 
dig werdende Wahrnehmung Ihrer Interessen ein Er- 

5% erfällt. Wir bitten um Ihre Zustimmungserklärung 





Dei fe ^gierungspräsident 

■^ in Wiesbaden 

- Entschädigungsbehörde- 

DV-c-5- 48977/0 5/ a/-/^o^ 

® Wiesbaden, den 12 . .. MärZ 19 62 

Wilhelmstraße 32 ■ Tel. 2 36 25, 2 76 72 u. 2 9701 
Sprechtag ausnahmslos nur noch Mittwoch von 9—12 Uhr 

In der Antwort bitte vorstehendes 
Gesdiäftszeichen u. Datum angeben 


Moses & Haas 

50 ßroad Street 

New York 4, N.Y« 


Betr. : Entschädigungssache nach dem EEG- des Er. Josef S o u d e k 
Bezug; Ihr Schreiben vom 28. 2. 1962 - Buchh/Ha, 

Sehr geehrte Herren Rechtsanwälte! 

Auf das o.a. Bezugschreiben teile ich Ihnen mit, daß ich bereits 
am 23. 10 o 1961 die Staatskasse - Buchhalterei 7 - in Wiesbaden 
beauftragt habe, den Ihrem I.iandanten zugesprochenen Entschädi- 
gungsbetrag von EM 554,95 an ihn direkt unter seiner Anschrift 
in New York zu transferieren. Ihr Mandant müßte demnach längst 
in den Besitz des Geldes gekommen sein. 

Mit vorzüglicher Hochachtung 
Im Auftrag 

28, lebrunr 1962 

An den 

lifL t acii M i;-, uxi.r.bbo h"5 r da 
Wies i) a d e n 

3etr»: Bescheid vom 10. Okt. 196/i / Dr. .Tosef Soudek 
V 4 - 4o£V//0üA-/3qu» 

Sehr geelirte Ilerrent 

Dia öuT obi "on Bescheid zuf^eaprochenen D.^-^ 654,95 
sind ■'»ach tuisoro;. J'aatiitellungen noch nicht zur Auszahlung 

lUlu ^laor'oiri JChr'Olton vom 2G. Aupiiit 1960 hnben 
wir Ibion rAt.'^iitallt, äasa der i-Inndant nin ^'*U3l?^nder-DM-Itonto 
Hr. 453 500/110 bei der Dontschon "^ffectan- u. Werhaelbank 
In Frankfurt ai;i .löin, ^v^'-laerstr. 30 imt. 

Vfir bitten h'iriich uia liachprUfunp:, '.iBmi und wie 
Auii2a..lun::; erfolgt ist. 'esten •'-'ank. 

Hit vorzüeüicher Hochachtunp, 


/(t 62g ^ 


S6\3dii CMi^öA Sex^ '^\^l^ 



' ^W P'iP^l^f^i^W 

"^"■IV« ^TVBiii MPmui^ii^l ipi, ■■ I i^^i vnai 

March 31, 1981 

Dear Larry, 

this letter will impress you as prepostereoBsas 
ter to which It relates. 

the mat- 

ILy lines of today are, believe it or not, a reply to yours 

dated September 16, 1980. Six roonths or more have gone by 

since you have written me • Admitted : I am a poor correspon- 

dent and I have always been it. But not this bad. 

^Tiat happened - and this is the preposterous matter - is 
that only a f ew days ago I f ound your package A^ith the xerox 
copy of Langholm' s book on Price and Value besides another 
xerox copy and the above mentioned letter. It arrived at 
least one month before my return from my most recent journey 
to Germany (October 17) and it was buried under one of the 
piles of mail waiting for me. Though I went to Germany to re- 
cover from a bad winter (1979/80), for some reasons to be re- 
lated at another time I came home pretty much exhausted. 

Therefore I did not thoroughly search the mail and thus 
something escaped my eyes which when I finally discovered it 
left me speechless in a dual sense : How could you evergone [h^f^ 
to such length of generosity as you have done by having this 
book xeroxed for me ? To say "thank you" would be an offense; 
reciprocity for such gift is unimaginable. 

Vi'ithout it I would have missed for a long time to come a 
study which - in my opirjion and as far as this highly specializ- 
ed field ist concerned - must be considered as one of the most 
important and almost movwimental achievement'i . Enthusiastic as 
John W. Baldwin of John Hopkins (whoro I so highly resiect re- 
gardless of his benevolent attitude towr^rd my Aristotle study 
in the Transactions of the Philosophical Society) writes about 
Langholm* s book in SPECULUM, October 1980, pp. 807-809, I would 
go even further than he did. All about that as soon as we be- 
gin to discourse on your questions as to topics of that book 
which you have raised in your letter. 

Also, would you kindly bring me up-to-date on that matter 
of Mrs. Pribram's intrdäQtttion to her husbnnd's book ? \'.hen 
you are speaking of your collaboration with Karen on Mises aid 
you refer to her article on »»Economic Calculation" in Economic 
Inquiry (Oct. 1980) ? She has sent me an offprint but 4 have 
not answered yet. ^ 


Please, accept graciously my today 's lines and greetings 

yours as always, 

Döbson College 

Groduore Progroms 

Dobson PQrk(NVellesley) 
Mossochusetts 02157 
Coble: Bobcoll 

September 16, 1980 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
New York, N.Y. 

Dear Josef, 

I am enclosing a copy of Odd Langholm Price and Value 
in the Aristotelian Tradition. It is an important 

source book of quotations especially on the varying 
translatioiB of "indigentia" from which the germ of 
varying intellectual traditions emerged. 

I need translations of several important passages if 
the book is to help me find such distinctions as 
"intensive" versus "extensive" demand filtering 
into the study of law. More about this later after 
you have had some time to look this over. 

Thank you for the Information on Pribram. I shall 

have more to report to you later about the book's progress. 

Mrs. Pribram is torn between having me atf empt 

a Short introduction and writing it herseif. The publisher 

prefers a fellow economist and so I must please the 

widow without compromising my own Standards. Helpl 

Karen and I tried out hands at prepar'ting a Joint venture. 

We presented a paper on Mises at the joint-meeting of the 

AEA and History of Thought Society. It was not easy 

to work together in this way The paper was good considering 

the logistical problems but I think only one of us can 

hope to work it over for publication and send it to the 

comment. I suppose you never tried the 

approach-s-it is tr.icky at times. 

^/ay^ /^^J ^'^'^ ^\oLj^ ir) 
Soudel/ and I look forward to your 

this 'research can be of value to 

US in pursuing more recent (i.e., 17th Century) 

intellecutal traditions. Also, would you break 

the various scholastic traditions according to the 

criteria Langholm has used? 

other for final 
Joint authorshi] 

Regards to Mrs . 
t'thoughts about 

. Mc 

iobson College is an Affirmorive Acfion/Equol Opporfunity Employer 

New York, April 22,1980 

Dear Larry, 

having been swamped by Import ant irail in the past few days my 
reply to your stimulating letter of April 11 is regrettably delayed 
as are my heartfelt thanks for the surprising batch of articles soine- 
how related to my essay on Aristotle'? theory of exchange. V/hile deep- 
ly iirmersed in my research on Renal' sence Aristotelianism, I ignored 
the literature which was growing on and around my challenge to econ- 
omists and classical rcholars to rethink the theses on economic sub- 
jects Aristotle presented - after a pause of one millenium - for the 
past 800 years to scholars of varying persuapions* The more I am 
gra'weful to you that you made some English v;ritten samples available 
to m.e. For the time being I needed '»urgently** the one article by 
Lowry because I wfs unaware of it vvhen an economist fron: Omaha, Nebr., 
askt d me for some clarif ication and inforrration concerning my studies 
of Bruni*s Latin Econor.ics versicn. which Lowry had irenticned. About 
all that at another time when both of us feel a bit rrore relaxed. 

At present 1 better address myself to two of your questions in 
your letters concerning the posthunous work by Ksrl Pribram (prononn- 
ced s Prshibram) • Yes, I did know him and of him; we were fellow 
countrymien, i.e. both of us were born in Bohemia. He hailed from a 
very highly esteemed Jev;ish family (mostly physicians) in Prague 
v/here he also studied jurisprudence of which Econom.ics was reouired 
special fiele. I/Vell trained in economic theory o'" the "Vienna" type 
at about the tim.e of Boehm-Bawerk (another of our fellow countrym.en) , 
he turned like the latter toward government Services preferring in- 
i-t'^v, ip/ ternai traue in the Commerce DepartQient of thr Habsburg Monarchy and 
reflected verv vmch on mercantilist thought (if you need Information, 
please ask me ) . My wife believes to remember that before his emigra- 
tion to this country (1933) he w-is connected v;ith my alma mater (Frank- 
furt/Main); we must, apart from meetings in other places, have'^him there 
and I recollect vaguely his spouse, Incidentplly, you v/ill find in- 
f orn ation on his activities in thi^ country in the 1956 Handbook of 
the A«£.A . (Review, vol. 47, no.4 (July,1957), 239)";! He was close 
to those in the Brookings Institute who were engagea in studies of 
foreign trade policies; besides writing on such matters he was ponder- 
ing philoscphical aspects of economic science . That he was extremely 
erudite goes without saying; unlike others in his position he was 
uncommonly modest and often appeared to be ruite withdrawn. 

JTow, to the Latin Quotation from Botero. Your trensl- tion is cor- 
rect. I leafed through my copy of Botero 's »'The Reason of Stete" in 
the translation by 7;aley (London, 1956) but I wf^s unable to tri ce the 
expression virtus nutrivita . The adverb "nutritiva** i? not clnsrical 
Letin; there it v;ould be "nutritoria" . It is probrbly medieval Lat- 
in though Botero liked to quote Roman classics, not always successful- 
ly. The contradistinction referred to goes back to ancient Greek mor- 
al philosophy but wr s extensly dcbated by the Schoolmi^pn. 

>v ::.^ 

Soudek, letter of 4/22/80 

- 2 - 

h 1 1 1 

Regarding your forthcorcing lecture on Mandevllle pt the Hunting- 
ton Library I would think that a spirit of cosmopolitlanism pervades 
the entire Jy^5-1945 liternture on internrtionrl Cooperation of which 
you must h;.ve seen pretty much at Tufts. Since this literfture now 
has been worked into the special asiects of all texts on "Internation- 
al Economics" (see Eco 25 at Queens), it might be ?;holesome to go 
back to one of the earliest thinkers on this issue, viz. Gunar I^lyrdal, 
An International Economy (M.Y«, 1956), particularly ^ince Myrdal was 
accustomeu to deliberrte economic issues in their history-of-economic- 
thought perspective. Perhaps, you may link up the menfioned book by 
I^iyrdal with his earlier on the »»Political Element.. " 1932 (if it 
should have been translated) and his later "Beyond the Weifare State", 
New York, i960. 

With greetings frorr. house to house 
ful coping v;ith your manifold tasks, 

and best wishes for a success- 

yours as always, 

Dabson College 

Dobson Pork (Wellesley) 
Mossochusetts 02157 
Coble: Dobcoll 

April 11, 1980 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
New York, NY 

Dr Josef Soudek: 

It is now a month since I received your "urgent" note and since 
Pride myself on having neary every article (in English) in my files, I simply 
have no adequate excuse for not writing sooner. I have however been traveling 
extensively both lecturing government bureaucrats about how the market System 
works and presenting professional papers and so on. This and several secretarial 
turnovers have left me deluged with work. I seriously hope that this tardiness 
will not dissuade your from asking for me or my staff to get you anything of 
this nature. I shall guarantee you a quicker delivery time in the future. 

I read your Bruni work with great admiration. What puzzles me is 
exactly what did the manuscript say about economics and did it mislead 
scholars about Aristotle's economics? 

I also recently read two of Viner's works that have been published 
posthumously. The first is published by the American Philosophical Society 
(your group--no?) and consists of several first-rate lectures he delivered at 
Yale in the sixties. I especially was taken in by Viner's claim that Hobbes 
influenced the ^ansenists who in turn influenced Mandeville. The other work 
by Viner is reprinted as a special issue of H.O.P.E which traces the early 
Church fathers position on charity, property and so on. One highlight is the • 
last chapter taking to pieces the We^er claim that there was something implied 4Av/y ( J*^^^ 
in the Protestant concept of "calling" that promoted capitalism. According to 
Viner no^ne referred to this connection in the seyenteenth Century although 
there was speculation about what it is about the >protestant countries that aids 
them in trade. I shall send you acopy of a rough and ready Conference paper 
I am reading this Friday (18 Aprils) to the History of Economic Society. Please 
read it with the tentative nature of some of the conclusionj in mind. 

I am preparing a paper on Mandeville for a very important seminar at 
the Huntington Library in L.A. this Fall (October) . Any leads at all wo^uld 
be helpful . I am especially interested in the development of the Austrian 
school and the general notion of cosmopolitaA^which is a species of liberalism 
but as I am finding it is a rare speci,es indeed. Cosmopolitan sentiments 
abound in Hume and Smith but is ther /kny such thing as a really cosmopolitan 
economist who puts world economic welfare above national advantage? 

Dobson College is an Affirmarive Action/Equcl Opportunity Employer 

Dr. Josef Soudek 


April 11, 1980 

I am special outside editor for Johns Hopkins for a book that 
Karl Pribram left after bis passing many years ago. Did you know Pribram? 
Parts of the manuscript go into great detail about scholastic and later 
thought. The footnotes are sometines the most valuable part because of all 
the foreign source references. I am enclosing a copy of my letter to the 
editor Tom where the -are asking me if the Latin is correct. Could you 
send me a quick verdict as to whether the words make sense? 

Good luck on the J.E.L. piece. You should prepare a rejoinder, 
it would be so good to see you reclaim some ground on these issues. 

Best wishes to Mrs. Soudek. 

Encls . 

Sinöerely , 

S. Moss 

I I 

March 11, 1980 

Dear Larry, 

I have to thank you still for sending me an offprint of 
your stimulating article on audio-visuel aids in the teach- 
ing of Economic from the Journal of Economic Literature (Sept. 
79). I was axnazed at the plentiful störe of iraterial accessib- 
le to teachers on all levels and I was equ? lly enriched by 
your observations of the available filirs. Thirty years ago 
I attenipted to use filnis in my course on International Econ- 
omics (Eco 25). After a brief periad of expcriirenfefttion I 
had to give up this attractive approarh t my audience was not 
receptive for this as yet unknc;wn way of learning (or rather 
disturbed by the impossibility of taking class notes, their 
main source of preparing for exams Lthe only process of learn - 
ing they were able to grasp]). 

Today I am writing you to ask you for a very great favor : 
Could you possibly send ire a xerox copy of the article by 5. 
Todd Lowry on '*Recent Literature in Greek Economic Thought", 
Journal of Economic Literatu re, XVII, 1 (March 1979), pp. ? 
[one footnote is on p. 65]. As I do not know how irany pages 
are to be xeroxed, I may possibly ask for too much (pardon me !) 
A Short while c~go a fellov; econorrist in a midwestern university 
wanted to get some inf orm';tion from ir.e on matters treated in 
the article (with which I .,m unf amiliar). Biginning with my 
retirement (1971) I discontinued subscribing to most Journals - 
as you know I am spending every year three sumrrer months in 
Europe for the sake of my health (including prepar- tions for 
the jou: ney and re-acclimatization to the city, I am practical- 
ly five months absent from New York) - and in Winter, even a 
fairly mild one as the just ending, I am not allowcd to go utj 
to Columbia Library (which is a near intolerable restriction; . 
Theref:re, I have to beg for your help - v/here eise could I 
find it at my age ? 

With wärmest thanks in advance for your kindness and with 
friendliest greetings from us both, 

your as always, 

•^•«^^■v • ■«■ IP »P'"» ■ ■•«" 11 

mmiimamww^^wwrm p ■ 1 1 «i«pm^Rpiqw^^m(^ 


* I 

December 4,1979 

Dear Larry, 

the envelope with an assortment of printed matters should have 

arrived together with or shortly efter this letter. By mistake the 

sequence was reversed and I therefcre have to explain the meaning 
of the three items : 

(1) The offprint represents an occaslonel paper ("A 15th Century 
Humanistic Bestseller"), a sequel to my study on the mss. tradltion 
of Bruni's Latin Version of the (pseudo-) Aristotelian Economics; 
this study has become meanwhile, as I was assured and I observed on 
my annual Europe journeys, a "classic" in the literature on ms, tra- 
dition. Only one point was understandably overlooked by non-Econ- 
omists. Tor this reason I inserted into the offprint 

(2) A xerotx copy of the last page of my "study" in which I point- 
ed out that the pseudo-Aristotelian work had, outside the German "Cam- 
eralists", no direct connection with the modern soience of "Po litical 
Economy" which originated in the middle of the l6th Century in Italy 
and France. I even know the hour of its birth which I determined 

in a thorough research paper; I did not publish it yet because a quali« 
fied Renaissance scholar pointed out to me that in this paper I pre- 
supp«sed in my readers more knowledge of the philosophy and philology 
of that tirre than can be expected. Whether I can fill that void (with 
so many unpublished research papers lying around) I do not know; but 
I made sure that you and Äaren will get to see it in due tiine. 

(3) The fascinating article from the N.Y. Times on Hayek^s (in 
Germe-ny still "von Hayek") views on modern conservatism may have been 
noted by you; I sent a copy of it to you and Karen (who was unaware 
of it) in the event that you have missed to read it. 

A fourth item I did not enclose ! it contains German excerpts 
from the jrefagesbf Hayek to the Memoirs by L. (von) Mises which he 
had written after his arrival in NvY. The book has been puMished 
recently in Germany and I shall order it for me (and my friends) after 
the holiday. Then, early in January,. I shall translate the excerpts 
from Hayek* s preface for Karen and you. When she visited with us 
on Thanksgiving - and thereby acouainting us with her se-^uctive 
daughter - she was surprised to hear about the memoirs of Ivlises. I 
wanted to know whether she or you are aware of them or knew whether 
they have been translated or are even in the process of being pub- 
lished in English. I recuested her to get in touch with you on this 

- 2 • 

All these things were on the point of belng xnailed to you both 
wlth my comments in the Spring before my departure for Europe in 
the middle of July» Exactly then microbes attacked my body and 
the antibioticiim which ate them up sapped my strength more than 
the little biests. Thus I carried in my head my good intentions 
and thoughts of you both when I spent one month in a Bavarian spa 
and the remi^inder of my trip on meetings with old friends in Germany 
and Englcnd. I strained myself to do all this but at age 74 one oan 
not say how many more journeys one oan undertake in the renaining 

Hoping to hear from you and also to read such pleamurable treat- 
ises as the one on Hobbes (which I failed to acknowledge for reasons 
simil.'ir to the ones mentioned) I remain with regards to Barbara and 
from Gretel 

yours as alwnys, 


New York, December 21, 1976 

Dear Larry, 

during the Thanksgivijig weekend Karen and 
Jjer husbf:nd vlsited wlth us# It was a great 
joy to my wife (Gretel) and myself to see them 
and, slnce Jessica suffered trom a cold thrt 
day and couid not be presented, to see at least 
pictures of her taken by her father« I have had 
a long talk wlth Karen, partly touching on your 
corrKon Interentsj and I begged her to teil you 
what I have c nf ided to her about the disasters 
in my life during the past 1^ months, Perhaps, 
she done that already* 

Speaking about "pictures^" ? in the perface 
of your Longfield book you mention Jushua is a 
"handsome* kid. Do you think, Gretel nd myself 
ffay get a picture of hirc ? We would apprecl? te 
it and no less, if another one of Barbara - who» 
I never itet - and/or L&rry could be attached 
to it, 

Right after my return from Surope I looked 
at your book, caressing it as if it were dq^jt brain- 
child ana not iiours. 1 read again the touching 

Inscriptlon which Gretel had copied for me 
and -- what a surprise ! - tho printed ack- 
nowledgment of my role In your llfe. Gretel 
had overlooked It when flrrt leafing through 
the entire book and belng so overwhelaed by 
your Inscrlptlön, Now, we have seen it and 
we both thank you frozn the bottoir: of my heart 
that you have had your acknowledgrrent print- 
ed. Karen will explain to you, why this is 
so Important to us - 

X am still working off mo'mt^dns of u^ anf» 
swered mall, docuirents and typescrlptr ao- 
cumulat d over the past five Konthß. As 
soon as thi3 will be over I shall wrlte you 
about Scholar ly topics which are on our aolnd. 
Probably, shortly after Chris tmas. 

Eeanwhile, with wa:mest greetings from us 
both to Barbara and you I reirsln 

yours as always, 

Dr. Joeef Soudek 

at preeent : Hotel Weleeee Haus 

D-7847 isadenweiler/ German^ (Ped.Rep.) 

September 10,1976 

Dear Larry , 

Mre. Soudek just wrote me tlat you have eent me a copy of 
your Longfield hook with a moet tpuching ineciiption. Becauee 
of my ateence from home the hookB was forwarded from my houee 
to my wife*8 address in the country (Gretel Soudek, c/o Edith 
Patrick, Diamond Point, N.Y. 12824). The arrival of your hook 
repreeented to me a very significant event (though not unexpect- 
ed ) and your inscription a very highly appreciated gift. Many , 
many thanks for >>oth. 

As my present address indicatee, I am staying in that very 
spa in the Black Porest which I am visiting for the third con- 
secutive ^ear in order to get some relief of my chronic afflic- 
tions (emphyaema, arthritis). Last year (summer 1975) I have 
had to forgo the kind of treatnents which I am receiving now 
because then I ^^as hospitalized and eventually operated in the 
reknown Univereity Clinic of the hear^y equally famous town of 
Prei^urg/Breisgau (where once Erasmus resided for some time). 
In a few daye I shall be leaving for an extended trip through Ba- 
varia from wheie, by the end of October, I shall return to H,Y. 
via Prankfurt and London. 

As also mentioned, my wife sta^s during that time in upstate 
N.y. in a farmhouse near Lake George. There she went (for almost 
30 years) every summer with me and only in the past 7 years alone 
eince she has been una'^^le to travel as much as I still do. Yet 
this ;> ear she is spending hei time up there in the country to re- 
cover from a most unfortunüte mishap on July 4th. Early in ihe 
morning of that day she slipped in her bedrcom an:; broke her left 
Upper legbone (ordinarily called a "broken hip"). Por almost five 
weeks ehe was, after an aj parently successful Operation, confined 
to bed in St. Luke 's Hospital (near Columbia University) und er most 
dismal circumst^nces. Besides caiing for cur apartment, I visited 
her daily and thue would hardl^ find time to prepare my annual 
trip to Europe. It was a eort of miracle that I finally was in a 
Position of leaving H.Y. after getting her up to the country. 

This misfortune was (for the time being) the last in a long 
chain of disasters in my wiie's and in my own family - dieasters 

of euch tragic dimeneione that I lost (figuratively ) m^' facult^ of 
communicating with an^one except memhere of the f amil^ . I tried 
ever^r'thing poesiMe to comfort m^ wife in her fully Juetified dee- 
pair, ^et I was una>le to prevent her "accident". I do mention all 
this to make ^ou underetand m^ enforced eilence in the paet monthe 
and to ^eg ^our forgiveneee, Lver and ever again I read your let- 
ter and the attbched material from your pen ^ut I was lacking the 
etrength of anewering ^ouj peihaps, I would have found the worde 
to formulate m^ reaction to ^^our writing hut I did not have the 
heart of relating m^^ misfortune. I realize that ^ou, as ever^>ody 
eise, hae to carry his own Wurden; luckily, you are ;/Oung enough 
to cope with the hurdlee of personal life. 

Now, that I have at least hinted at what interrupted my cor- 
respondence with you I do hope that, after my return home, we may 
continue where we left off. Would you do me the favor of inform- 
ing Karen a^out what I just wrote ? She, too, did not hear from 
me or even receive the me . copy of her Locke "book which I had in- 
tended to return to her with my comments, I feel very ^adly a^out 
it. Though I have rightfully not heard from her I do hope that 
she ie enjoying her haVy daughter. 

Vl/ith "best wishes for the eucce e of your "book and kindest re- 
garde, of course from ue >Qth, to Barbara and ^ou I remain 

youre ae alwaye, 





January 14, 1976 



Professor Josef Soudek 

900 West End Avenue 

New York, New York 10025 

Dear Josef: 

Thank you and Mrs. Soudek for your warm seasons greeting and also for 
your letter of 28 December. I wish you both the best for the coming year 
and am relieved to hear that your kidney attack did not require an Operation 
though I know how painful it is waiting around for it to pass. It must 
have been a trying ordeal for you indeed and such a dreadful way to visit 
Germany. Let us hope that you have paid your dues for many more years of 
productive scholarship. 

In several months time I shall send you the first edition of Mountifort 
Longfield: Ireland's First Professor of Political Economy (LaSalle, 111., 
Green Hill, 1976). This is a great and exciting event for me and certainly 
repre sents the accomplishment of a long and cherished goal . I think the 
book Wndff well and will be favorably reviewed. The publisher will only 
print 1000-1500 copies buf^^with advertisements in History of Political Economy 
and the Journal of Political Economy this printing should prove adequate. 
I think the influence of my Interpretation will be gradual , first editions 
of textbooks like Spiegel will take notice and then individuals at a later 
date will return to consult the original. At any rate while not bowing 
to the fashions of the profession^ I did make publication of my writing 
harder but I think the "quality control" I have maintained made it worth 
the effort and extra difficulty in finding a publisher. 

My work on the Austrian School now occupies a good portion of my 
research time and actually represents for me the third phase of my academi 
career. What has happened is that with the presentation of the Nobel 
prize to Hayek a variety of research foundations have decided to fund 
research on the Austrian writers and so I was picked to manage a series 
of books entitled "Studies in Economic Theory"^the publisher is Sheed 
and Ward of Kansas City/? My interest in the Austrian School dates to my 
College years when I studied with Mises and befriended Rothbard. Through 
the years I have studied a variety of school s of thought and am now con- 
vinced that the Austrian School can be revived if (and only if?) it 
broadens its base and makes common cause with the writings of economists _ 
who emphasize the "coordination of activities" ^ T^^ot^ ssential featur^of 
a successful economic System rather than the maximization of some Statis- 
tical index (e.g., Shackle, Buchanen and Alchian) . 

I have already brought three manuscripts into gallies and six books 
should be published by summer. I shall send you the ads on the series in 

Professor Josef Soudek 
January 14, 1976 
Page 2 

time but I do want to teil you about my translation project. At present 
I am courting donors for the purpose of hiring a translator andj)ringing 
out the writings of the middle-period Austrian writers such as Jlly, 
Schams, and Strigl . At present I am working on the translation of 
three important ess'^^s by Mises written between 1920-1931 and which 
reveal a sophisticated mastery of the cash balance (i.e., neo-Wicksellian) 
approach. Whatever the verdict about the future vital ity of the Austrian , 
School I do think their contribution will final ly receive the attention/^'-t;<^,"^'^/' 
it deserves. 

In my journey's through the Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie (circa 
1920's-30's) I think I saw your name on several occasions. Any personal 
prejudices or remembrances you might have on this period will help me 
tremendously at this point. Whose thought is most important? Was the 
Zeitschrift. . . an semi-official organ of the Austrian 's? Would Schmoller 's 
Yahr^uch accept their stuf f. Was your work on cycles strongly influenced 
by the notion that an increase in the money supply produces discoordinating 
distortions in relative prices? 

I shall enclose some materials which might interest you but more 
important I look forward to any reflections you might have on the develop- 
ment of economic thought between the wars in Germany-Austria. 

Best wishes for a prosperous New Year. 



reifte S. Moss 

Dr. Si Mrs. Laiirence S. Moss 
531 Ist Street 
Charlottesville, Va. 22901 

(together with New Year greetings) 

December 28, 1975 

Dear Larry, 

the pleasantly excltlng new? of the Conference on Austrian 
Eoonoffiic Theory reached me still in Surope, shortly before my 
departure froir. Munich (October IG), Mrs. Soudek, distrxisting 
the mail, did not send me the prospectus but intlmated briefly 
the bighlights of the Conference. Needless to say that I should 
have liked to attend the meeting but, even if things had gone 
well, this would have been impossible in view of the time sched- 
ule of my ^'vacationa*' . 

But things did not go well this time. On my flight to Zürich 
by the middle of July I suffered a kidney atteck (a tiny stone 
did not find the proper way of leaving my body) and thus I spcnt 
ffiost of my stay in Germany - meant to alleviate my asscrted chron- 
ic afflications of a different kind - in the hospital. The tor- 
ture of nearly unbearatle pains culminated late in August in a 
surgical rerooval of the misplaced particle. My wife was unawsre 
of all that (she needed her traditional recreation at the up-state 
farm which I did not want to interfere with). Yet after she had 
learned the truth upon my return she could only cooperate with 
my physicianB in making me rest, You miist have senred my Situa- 
tion (or was it blßck magic ?) because you expressed in your charm- 
ing inscription on the Conference announcement your concern for 
my health. 

Presuming that I have as we31 recovered as is to be expected 
in a man of my age (70) and met the maior part of my oblirations 
re.sulting from such experience I ^n graduelly turn to my Schol- 
ar ly pursuits again. Thus, I may refer to the initial Statement 
of your inscription that you will assess me of the intentions of 
the meeting as expressed in your opening lecture at the Conference. 
Karen, also completely unaware of my health condition, wrote me 
an extensive letter and filled in a part of the background of the 
Conference. Yet, I very much should like to know aore about "'j'/hat 
you are up to" (as you put it). 

May I express this desire as an opening salute for 1976 which 
by all discernible signs promises to become a most fulfilling year 
for your aspirations ? Or so I hope for you and myself , remaining 

as always your 


At Ramada Inn, Charlottesville, Virginia 

Program and Schedule of Events 

% OCTOBER 18-19, 1975 

lr>^ . 2:15 -4:15 P.M. 

9:00-10:15A. M. 
10:30 -12:30 P.M. 

45 -2:00 P.M. 

Social Hour; coffee and danish 

Lecture: "On the History and Defini- 
tion of the Austrian School," Laurence S. 
Moss (University of Virginia) 

Luncheon Büffet 

4:30 -5:30 P.M. 

5:30 -6:15 P.M. 
6:30 -10:00 P.M. 

Panel discussion: "Austrian Economic 
Theory as a Critique of Current Areas 
of Analysis/' Dominic Armentano (Un- 
iversity of Hartford) Gerald P. O' Driscoll 
(University of Iowa), Roger W. Garrison 
(University of Virginia), Mario J. Rizzo 
(University of Chicago) 

Free time (swimming in indoor pool) 

Cocktail Hour 

Banquet dinner and guest lecturer: 
"The Didactic Function of Economic 
Theory: The Austrians and their Alter- 
natives," James Buchanan (Virginia Poly- 
technic Institute) 


7:00 A. M. - 9:00 A.M. Breakfast 

10:30 -12:30 P.M. 

12:45 -2:00 P.M. 

Afternoon activities: 

Panel Discussion: "The Political Econ- 
omy of the Austrian School,'" 
Murray N. Rothbard (Polytechnic Insti- 
tute of New York) 

Israel M. Kirzner (New York University) 
Ludwig M. Lachmann (New York Uni- 

Special Luncheon 

Informal touring of Thomas Jefferson's 
home and the historic part of the Univer- 
sity of Virginia 



In Order to attend the Conference you must write to: Professor 
Laurence S. Moss, Department of Economics, University of Vir- 
ginia, Charlottesville, Va. 22903 and request a personal invitation 
(which includes all meals and one night's accomodation). The 
Conference is sponsored by the Charles Koch Foundation and all 
requests for invitations must be made in writing before 5 OCT- 
OBER 1975. 

■ 11 1,1 ff ■ 1^1 IH 

•w ■*■ 

■^ »^ r"" "^ p' V 


Kay 25, 1974 

Dear Larry, 

irany, ©any thanks for senuln^ re so proirpt- 
ly an offprint of your article on Isaac Butt in 
the 1973 Fall issue of H.O.P.E. Although 1 re- 
mexTiber the article in its kü;« shape, I wonder 
how it will reau in the ciefinitive piinted forn. 
At any rate, the offprint vill be a veluable ad- 
dition to my collect ion of ^iossiana. 

T.'hi-l leafing through a heap of notes and 
newspaper clippin,e:s these days, X care across 
the news iten in the N.Y. Tiires of one year ggo 
hich I had saved for you« Korever, my memory 
did not serve me right this tiire. irof. Bl ck 
rcceived a notable grant frod the Ford Founda- 
tion, but for a purpose different frosn the one 
X thought to remember. Attached I am sending 
you a xerox copy of the ncws item nevertheless. 

Yet another thou.p*ht occurred to me as I was 
ponderin. , how to raise the güitrantee of S 2500 
rhich the üniversity Press at Dublin dem nds 
(thir> kind of insurrnce or subsidy has beconie a 
fad Euro] ean publi.'hers when offered a ms. 
by a^ American author - as I know froir - recent 
rather painful experience). Have you ev r con- 
sid red the "Social 3cience Kesearch Council" 
(230 Park Avenue, N.Y., N.Y. 10017) ? The Coun- 
cil hat, aaong others, a **C0Ea£ittee on Faculty 
hesearch Grants". I do not know v/ho the pre ent 
chairnan of this corrimittee is nor whether the 
subsidy needed by you would comc into the .-juris- 

dictlon of this conmittee» Perhfips, you know 
somebüdy at the Council or ono of your collcagu- 
es is in touch with it. The Council turned re- 
ccntly to ßree studies and Dr. Wlthers received 
several travel grants to Latin America from the 
subcoirw-ittee for this area; yet the person, Dr. 
'*ithers knov/s there would not te your man. How- 
evei ,you can refer to Dr* Withers if you feel 
like (I received a grant froE the Council soiue 
30 years ago and the ^rerent staff jßembers may 
have forgotten me, though they ere sonding me 
re^rularly their (news) Items ) ^ One way to ap- 
proach the Coxmcil, if you have n-^ bettcr one, 
is to write to Mi-ss Eleanor C. If^bell, staff 
assüciaie, anü ask her for advice such as v^heth- 
er a personal visit at the Council would be ad- 
visable while you iire in the !T«Y. area and rho 
at prer-^ent the econon.lst on the mentioned coni- 
mittee is. 

Meamvhile, let*s go on searching our mlnd 
and keeping our chins up. With best wishes 
for a useful outcome of our efforts and your 


yours as always, 

J.une 10, 1973 

p. 63 

Ford Foundation Awards 
$250,000 for Study by Irish 

Specl«l to Th,f New York Times 

' BELFAST, Northern Ireland, 
June 2 — The Queen's University 
of Belfast has been awarded a 
grant of $250,000 by the Ford 
Foundation for research in so- 
cial sciencp in Northern Ire- 
land and the Irish Repubüc 
over tho next three years. 

The award was announced by 
Prof. R. D. C. Black, head of 
t.he department of economics 
at the Queen's University. He 
Said that all six Irish univer- 

sities and Iheir Colleges would 
participate in studies of the 
economic and social issues 
raised by the recent entry of 
Britain and the Irish Republic 
into the European Economic 

Professor Black will head a 
committee of economists, soci- 
ologists and political scientists 
from Northern Ireland and the 
Republic (hat will supervise the 

He Said that he hoped that 
the research would "give people 
the kind of basis which could 
be helpful in disQUSsion and 

May 11, 1974 

Dear Larry f 

( »AMJU 

what a wonderful surprise it was to receive your bulky pack- 
Bfy.e containlng thc voluir.lnous 1974 Spring Issue (no.5) of the 
Virginia Essays in Economic 8 witb your erticle on "Some Public 
Choice Aspects of Hobbes's Political Thought", the syll;;bus of 
your Spring 1975 seminar on the Austrien School and, most of all, 
your personal lettor bringlng rre up to d^ te on your work and far- 
flung planso 

Many, many thanks for your coiEn.nnations, for the outpoiirings 
of your mind and for the tpuching inscription on the cover of 
the Virginia Essays > In fact, an overdue letter to you was al- 
ready on my irind and it would have been written one of these days 
since, v/ith the onrush of Spring, my body ^;nd mind are beglnning 
to function again almost normally» Ky intended letter would have 
been a reply to (1) your letter of Älarch 29» 1973 (?) in which 
you have raised a host of intellectual issucs and also dlr^cussed 
plans for the publication of your doctoral dissertttion and (2) 
the announcement of your wizadry in producing, together with Bar- 
bara, Joshua Louis who, I flgured out, will be one year ola in 
eight ;.¥ üks froit now. Hip arrival laf^t year was celebrated in 
mind by Mrs. Soudek (who had received the announcement of J«L. 's 
arrivel at the end of September 1973 in Diamond Point, N.Y. and 
transmitted tc me its pleasant content at once to äiirope) and by 
myself with no little pride of your versatile skills« Now, not 
all your coirmunications r ceived in the pest year foutdated °nd 
they, together with the recent ones, wj 11 be answered in an ex- 
tensive letter to be written within the next fortnight. 

The purpose of todays lines is ~ beside? expressin^ my heart- 
feit thanks for the past and recent letters - to provlde you wAth 
a fevv facts as to my present Status and plans for the Coming sum- 
mer» As already indicated, the health of my wife and of myself 
is at the moment better than for a long time* This winter was, 
however^ strenuouß for me f practically since my return from 
last year*s Europe-journey (June 15-Octobei^5) I was plagued by 
some mysterious infection (no flu, thanks Heaven) first of my 
respiratory and then my digestive System (not to mention arthritis^ 
e»physema and the like for the tre atmen t of which I am spending 
the sunjmers in Surope)« Fortunately, my wife was spared the an- 
nual attack of flu and thus was able to take good care of me^ 
Neverthelcss, I shall go to Europe again - this vear for three 
months only (middle of July to roiddle of Oc tober; - v,'hile my wife 
will be spending the in traditional farhion on the farm 
in the Adirondacks (c/o Miss Edith Petrick, Diamond Point, N»Y, 
12824)» If you oan arrange to come to Long Besch before July 
15, then my wife and I would be able to meet y m, lovely Barbara 
and the amazing Joshua Louis« Will you let me know soon, wheth- 
er such meeting is feasible ? 

- 2 • 

Now, a fev/ brief reinrrks 
and of the attached papers ? 

as to the content of your letter 

(1) doctoral dlssertation : I still maintaln that every 
effort ought to be made that you have it published by the Irish 
ünlversity Press and/or Kelly rather than seriallzed In articles. 
Somewhere I saw it announced that R.CD« Black vvill edit a series 
on the history of Irish economics; unluckily, at the monsent I 
cannot locate the newspaper clipping which I saved for you* 
Plcase, vvait, unless you knov- about thet matter ; 

(2) your arjicle on Longfield's vnlue theory t I was glad to 
learn that it will be published eventually after the agony you 
have gone through with the **readers** for H.O.P.E. ; 

(3) your article on Burr ? Karen told me, when visiting with 
me last Christmas, that it has been published in the Autunm 1973 
issue of H>Q>P»£» Since my subscription to H»O.P«E, has lapsed 
while I was in Europe (I shall stralghten that matter out before 
leaving for this suirmer's trip), I have not seen the article« Do 
you happen to have an offprint of it which you could spare (of 
course, nicely inscribed) ? ; 

(4) your planned work on the Austrian School i was pleasant 
news to icec I shall cominent on this project in my next letter t 
a group of generc 1 and principal issue s has to be t#ught over 
ere yoti eirbark on further research« But it is gooa that, in pre~ 
paration for your project, you will attend that Conference in N.H» 
In June in the presence of so many still living Austrian luminar'- 
ies and also read in Atlanta a paper on Mises*s '*Monetary Theory" 
(what an assigninent ! ~ you remeisber that I consider this as one 
of his most valuable contributions to Modem Economics but also 
one which, when to be presented, calls rather for a bock than a 
compressed paper). I sincerely hope th^t your paper, together 
with the others, will be published either in a separate volunie of 
essays or at le? st in the Journal of the Southern Economic Assn «; 

(5) your articles on Hobbes and your semlnar syllabus s will 
be studied soon most thoroughly and the requested comments on them 
forwarded to you in the foreseeable future« 

Until my comments will have materislized in my forthcoming 
letter, pleasc, accept the best wishes for further satisfactory 
progress in your work, and most friendly r( gards to Barbara and 
yourself from my wife and 

yours as always, 








-< "• r • 

ir ' •■* 

, '-0 ■ =^'> 

•fTU « 


May 7, 1974 -^' -'' r r '-- 

: ". ' ^ 


« ^t 

Professor Joseph Soudek 

West End ^v^nue - . , .-• 

Neiv York City, N.Y. 

- . ^ , ,- . - ,».,.• 

Dear J^oe , -'•' ' ■ ' ' 

Too much time hss passed bet-een 
our last corresDo^derce and I do höre 
vours rrd ^'^rs. ^-^ude^^'s hpaltb is at its 
best decr>ite thp trials of citv 1-ife. 
■^ am er^closi'^ß!; a copv of mv recert '^-'iper 
on Hobbes which 1 sus^^ct vou ^all be 
interested ir aside from the fact th-t • 
one of "'ouAipast stu^Jerts ^-rote it. The 
iournal vhich FKKixxFÄxj?:k?cxi?3f35y presentlv 
irclud es the text is a local one , and 
a second copv is beirp* corsidered b^- the ^i' 
editors of H.Q.P.E. . (Incidentlv, the "■ • 
Lor/?field article or bis vflue throrv vill 
arpesr tv/o issues fror: now) • 

• . - r f 

Mv Lonp-field book is still circulating 

f3m')rg the ^ublis'^.ers who havp ^ f-^r.^ness for» 
hoprd *np" the text bevond the ^urrtion if 
ordlr-arv decercv. Irish liniv. ^reps will 
Dublish it if I cah find ar ^nerican publisher 
who will purehase 3CC cories (in other vords 
-'-rish ^reps wants someo'^e to wSubsi^ife the 
book for the amoOn.t of v2,550. ) Of course 
I do not believe th't my book vill be thrt 
restricted in sales rnd thepefore at ^^eiiey^s 
promDtin^ I sent him the manuscrint( reca] led 
from -'■relanji. He ivS now beirpr noncomrr.ittal 
about it all ^nH I am now co'^sidering 
breakinp; it into ^'ournal -rticles. ' " 

As vou no doribt realize mv -'^bilitv - 
to reniir in the ecadem-^'c '''orld dene^s uno^ 
the quantit-"- of nublicftions I -^ ccumul -te ' - ' 
(book review5do not coijnt) . One book V70uld 


of coUrse do the 4rick bwt in the absence of 
+-.he book I must -ccumul^te an arsenal of • •• 
publicatlons, ^^'hat this me^ns is that 
a premium is rttrched to nro,"iects thft take 
but a vear to conoplete P-nr^ a disc^unt on "' . 
all others. The aca-^emic '-'orld is in a • 
bad State as the 1er st schol rly among us 


"^ t- .'^f\,T^ 

fr V 

- -i r . 

r^-. . 



- ■ «v 

rise to the top. I do think times v'ill 
im^rove -ithin thr next fi^e ^ears rnd - 

e CO Id tr-lk fbout th5-s further rt ?i 
later dPte if ^'ou wiwSh. • i '' "^^^ * ' '- 

As ffr sf mv relst.ions vith H.OP.E. 
go I rm somethinF rrrroxim- 1 ini?: b ree:ul-fc 
cortributor. I am rioi>^p^ a itpview ^^rticle 
(not a book review) on ^rrual Hollarder^s 
mpssive ^be Econonics o^ Adam ^'^itl?*'. 

I will send vou a corA thWy v^- ote to 
m^e asklrfg for tbe rp^ie''' and I ofcourse 
bave enloved thf^ e'^i b^ost a? ^ Iv^f-vc- . 
^ • I Infeend to Fneed tbe next tv/o 
vears on the ^^ustrian ^c^ool and its 
co'^tribution. I am enclOvSinff the 
Seminar course i shsll rive at '^i^irinia 
in the '■^nrin^ of 1975 i^ honor of "' ' 
vor. Inises another of my beloved teachers. 
I have re'tricted b^^ bibl ?/c^raphy to 
^nglish sources but still have ^pr.mitted 




~H - 

rm;ch of v-'^^lue. -'■^n"''' suf^c^rstl ons 
you mav h.FVP on cour^e co^ te'^t will 
be much sr^rreci ted, Besi^'es ^ 


the course itself , I shall ^f rticip' te 
in two everts of ßireat moment: first, 
I am invited as a nartici^ant to rttenfi 
a corifprence or Austrian ^c^norics to 
be held ^ in H.H. this ^une. Six 
davs irithp nresence of Havek, I, Kirzner, 
. Lachmann, and ^^othbard rromis^ to be 
stiMmul-ting. Ir 9ctober I shall ' -- 
deliver a r^aoer before the Southern " " 
. ■'^conomics Association on vor ^'^ises* 
moretarv theorv. T^js shal] be 
P»J0 I -i?T^ a parel Hevoted to ^'^ises^ co^tribution 
8n^ the other s^eaVers -''^clude'" 
Bai]mp:rrth on ^-^ises' poli^ical economv, 
^■^^thbard on ^-^isevs' ecoromic calcul'tion 
chcllerre, Kirzner or ^'^ises^ ca-^it-^l ' '" 
theorv, tq^Blf P-nö Fritz l-^r-chlup vrill -^ 

chair the narel. This xvill be held in 
Atlanta and I am excited about ^roinp;. 


V -t- 





I hope i hrire n^t boreH von vith th^e 
detcils of my acade'-ic life. ^lease v;rite 
to me and teil ne what -^'our. are doing, etc. 
I shall be "^ n N.Y. nart of the vSiimmfr 
resi^img o~r. Long ^each ^orp: Isl-nd, viith 
my tclented ard chfrming son, Joshua Louis, 
and beloved com^anion Brrbfra, T^ere nust 
be a wav we can all meet for lurch, You 
are a Mew Yorker and I hold vou resDonsible 
for nicking a -^öturdav aft'^rnnon srot, I'll 
call vQu in ^uly (v/il^ vou t-^-^vel thi? summf-r?) 
•^ remain 

vourp itruly, 





^^prch 2Q, 1973 

Dear Josef, 

Th:}nk ^'lu for tr-king the tliUL^ im miii r^sdi*f^ rny 
L?^ -^field rrrner v^ith such care and kind concern, I have 
tnker vour annotated copy -^nd placed it in my ^onp-field- 
book*.tray awriting rny füll enerh^ies ir a v-pek or so (after 
midternis etc.). -»- plan to use mapry of your stvlistic 
chr:np,es (pf'rhans mist) and certeinly check -^ut that 
rf ference to th'^ aucti :)p idea :.n ^erior, I 
it in the OüÜir'e once -- ^ shall cbf-ck my copy 30on, 

^our corriment on,^ev and his nep'lected irif^uerce 

think I saw 

'/ll& pot onlv true but^/lomev/hrt nisturbin^ to Tie , •'■his 
is the ^ne'!'"'serious o/Irhissim in mv ■^^ons-'^f ield work. I Y\r^ 
relied t^o heavily on secondsry source material v.hen 
it c:>mes to Say thou2:h I 'nFve -^yself rc^ad everything 
he wrote !^ that is now transla'ted, - Oven have the 
Cpurs ^oinru<^t 


1^ ^oc 

it Politi^ue ^' n my office but have 

not stuiubled trir:)U'-'h it, I-'y napf-r ^n Israc Butt (v;bich 
vou have seen) does include discussion of Sav based on 
mv ivm readlni^s — v«- 1 des'nte mv readinirj; I have not 
been ^onvineed that L^nF^ie}ld's erse*-tial ci^^tributions 
are in anv \':ay der^err^.ert ir^ the -"'rerchm-n, -^s y du can 
surrdse, I brlieve that Say brcame pr^ imnortant ipf^luence 
on the value theorv of the Irish econonists i^Ttf'^r I^j-^rfield 
via Eutt, 

■'" r vou have had a c^-\prcf to 1 lok at my r-ent Charter 
v')u w5 11 notice a n-^te to -Irrens [ His in^iuence on 
i ^pp'f iel^' and vice vfrsa is ev^n ^rrater that I have noted 
but I am r:)t as vpt prenared to teil th^ rvholf story« 

'"here T hhall imr>rove my manu^^cript nrior ti nublic^tion 
is with regard to L^u^erdale and L^p^rf i^if^ ^tTieorv of profit-iv 
have ^^ou evrr seen Lf^uf^'erdale^ s discussii 

rp.r] nro^ijctl ^'itv? IMl bf g^lad to send vou 

u a^ cot 

Chi n es 




if Vfrom --'althns comes the dem/'-'d schedule and l^auderdalß 
the pro^uctivitv theorv of profit and^togetVuvr v^e p"et •i^O'^ 'ffe Id* s 
n on-^dcav-dian theory of income distribution; thgn ^-orton 
Pc'-'^lin is right about a Lsuderdale-I-^althus tr-dition^ but 
>rong ^^ not including Longfield. I have ircluded a note 
on this Doint in the text of mv manscrint but have not 
developed this in much detail. ^^i^^t 

^^s V ou have r^robably noticed im my v.'riting I try to 
stay away from Drovi^ing a ffeneral taiSBöh^-survey type of 
account of the historv of econo^nic thought, it is not 
that - don^t like to ^'eneralize and nhilosophize -- '-'ho 
doesn^t — but I feel that our field has been damaged too 
much so by this ^chumprterian a^pror' eh. ^chumpöLer coi.ld 







get H'-ray i-ith it , you can /^et eway vjith it, I «m tv/enty-eigl^t 

snö can^t, -^n a certal^ sense I b^ve rot earned the 
rifrht to set dov/n my p-eneral ref lections--this wil^ corne 
kuKt löter, For the oresent I sav very little without 
a foDtncte and documer-tation in my holster« ^-rus the v/hole of this die;re5sion is th^t I have beer, sketch^ on 
^ay^s irflurrce because I bave not b*"-en able to f'pd 
r.nvthinR conrlusive ^'lout 'h-t irflufnce. I vjüj bov/ever 
adr^ ? rote sl-ovirp, how Lor field^s Definition if ec">no.Acs 
follows Sav ard ■ .it '"v^ately. 

The Fall 1972 isr-ue of 

T T 

. 1 

is '^acked füll of 

eood work on tbe "marginal revolution". ^^e fr;reatest 
gern of all is Jaffferivork on L. b'alras md role 
in marranal econor.ics. -ne of th^ ;^rticles also maintrins 
that ^-enrer was a bdjt more accomnlished in rr.r^thernrtics 
that has bitberto been susnected. Bo y')U bave f'-iis 
issue? Triey are selling ife ser.arately' but 1 cat.ainly 
bope thft ;''Ou^bave not let your svibscri^tion lanse, (Beware 
of tbe H.O.b.E. staff thev do not let you know your 
subscription has exr^ired and thev Just' stop sending the 
magazir e^, ' " - 

I bave la^ard r^ot a t/'ing about iXK iny Lonr.rield 
surply and demand naper rnd the attitude of rny rnDDymous 
critico. I can ai.^ure ^kxt vou that even if they accept 
it -. T/111 alter f'ie text so as to incorporate your 
su/::f':ested improvenents especiallv v/here they sharpen 
my argu'-ent. 

Hartwell has sent me a KHfe note stating that 
he has a "cuite b,opeful letter back fron the Irish 
university ^ress'' but that is all tkRxxsxy... . . 

Qi^ long Auth^r s Que-Btionäre was enclosed to firid out 
about r.y degrees etc. It does nit ask for people who 
sunrort my ^/ork so -T b.ave no reaso^ to give them your 
n5^me| '"hat do vou Ishvnk of the -^Ish Univ^er.'^itv Press? 
•'»bat does this form 
3 gre^-^t dea]? I c8t 


/vre thev Interested" moderately -"^^ 

It loo'-^s 

1 Jke I P-m back to"^V,. /'title "I^oüntifort Lo-gfield: Irel-'-d^s 

hardly stand the su_spen6e 

P — ~T^''" •"■-" '■'-' ■' ^^ ? title "i--oun 
irst Professor of 'f r^Utic^l Ecnomv''. 

Virginia bas r prewed bv contrfct for -^rotb^r three 
year^ rpriod so I 'ex^ect to be arou^^pt ^^'^^ urtil 


e -nring )f 19"77/, This is ofcn^rse good news. -ith 
two course - ''ter,^ ^-chedule I bave time for resemch. 






As far e research goes, I am ^'oing some v^ork on the history 

of stfitivStics ^''ith re^prH to the ^evel::>pr.erit^ of econor.ics, . 

^^ctur^lly I am even nore imnresse'i '• ith Sir '"illiftm ?etty iJbJ"^* 

thct I have ever been oefore, Lftv/in in bis ^ i^ i g: i i is . . ._ .. _..-^ Ccr^ -^ 

is very un-'ind to Vi im- -nd ^^*rrx hes distorted him,-^^ i etty' s ^ 

secrch for a "p^r" between ] and end labor v/as presented as 

a ^'dirression^* but actually -oes to the heart of his stvle 

of Politicel ^'rithrnetic. If the subsnstence wage could 

be measured in acres of land (by ^'iscovering the nuaiber of 

Units oi land recuired to produce the "easiest gotten food") 
tliev by survfving the ountrv one could mf^then. ticallv 
deduce either a] the maximum number of inhfbitants the 
c -»untr^^ was beDable of supporting or b) the number of j^^^ 

■inhabitants rictuallv in the coi;ntry (a ^ipcKX pepul^r jj^^^'^ö 
question araong Pol, ^n-^ithmetici^ns fax up untill the (vJ-^^ 
Ic^COVs cnd the actuel t-king of ^epul^tion census^-"; or 
c)the difference between fexÄXst a ard b representing 

the so-called ap- "regete sumlus or a^-gregr-te rent '^ 

which maV-es rossible the growth of towns and cities (enter . ,vyi/ ^^^^7?' y^ 
Cantillonli, Batur^lly I do not as vet know vheter ^^^^J W^^'T 
^ettv was :''nter.csted in a, b ^v c, c-^nd it mav betjie„__ — --'^^^'^^^ T^^^*^^ 
case thet he was ipter<^sted in ^-r-^''T''^^~lrTTrlTave-'TrnFem ui^^ ' c^'^'* 
thouFhts on this nroblem '* n mnths to core, t^^-' \ 

I s^^ also doirg worV on '^Y^.'^^^bs HobV^es and the ^ {/'' 
e'ereral lot^icrl structure -^f contr ' cterian thought, ^s 
you know 1 was romin' ted for a i'rtioral Humanities ^'-v;ard 
for ^ummer Rese-rch on this topicK but this year the State 
cut back on Pederal Fwevenues so a I am out 2,C0C dollcrs. 
I still get "■^^ usual "'aculty ^^llowship ^so summer v.ill not 
be a comr^lr'e financial r'isaster. 

^nough about me and my esc^'^a^'es. "^ell me c'-:bout vourself, 
^-re you still working on the transrri«- si on of manuscrints 
around Eurone? You must take advantcge of the K.C.P.S, 
Journal and publish some of vour ov/n thou^hts about l. 
the history of our science. /'2^.^. t»-^ ^.^ <><!i*-^^^- s^^6,.^ -; ^j^>^ '^ 

Regards to I-'-rs. S^udek and - iifc look f orv^r rd to 
your renly, 



New York, March 4, 1973 

Dear Larry, 

Many thanks for your toiichinf: letler of February 23 v/hich af- 
forded me Eost of the rec;uested clrirlficatlonr, . In a later re- 
sponse to this letter I shall say more a"bout your answers, 

Today I shall be taking up i oint tbree of our correr>i ondence, 
vi2. your lengthy study on »»Llountifort ton field'n Suiply and De- 
irand Theory of Price ..." whicb, ris you will see, I read very at- 
tentivexy and, v^hßt you v^ill not see, v.-ith greatest suöpence r.nd 
enjoyiEent. Attacbed I am returnlrg; the ccpy of tbe f3tudy hich 
you icindly rnailed ine in Hoveniber (can you spt;re another clean copy 
for my ov/n use ?) with t'vvo sets of note on my part. 

(1) ^'Suggest Ions" t tbey a 
ter le£:ibility and tbey are re 
I aK subnitting to you for con 
to ir^e more concJse or fellciti 
icisrrjs" in any way, merely nlt 
forget - I never do - that you 
matter resisting fecile presen 
you a helping band; no hard fe 
own words or accept a third so 
suit ;d for the job than I am. 

re v/ritten with bell point for bot- 
ally meant to be what the terrr implies» 
sider: tion forirulritions v.hich ai i ear 
cus than your ov/n. They cre not '^crit- 
ernr*tiver to your exprescions« Dcn*t 

arc handling a hlghly complex subject 
t.^tion. All I want to do is to o 'f er 
elings will ari-e if you stick to your 
lution »ugge^te:. by somoone better 

(2) i'iiarginal notes : they are wrltten in pencil md contain sug- 
gestions concern ng Substantive mattars relative to the dev .lopn-ent 
of econoTiiic thought. Quite often I found doetrinos apparently de- 
rived froffi J.B. Say without your stating so explicitely. (Incident- 
ally t in my opinion Say remains until today the most underr .ted econ« 
onist '.nd influenae in 19th Century literature; v.hile still teaching, 
i was looking desperately for a di'-ciple v;ho could fill this gap Las 
you do now fo LongfieldJ - a job which, however, reouires such fl;- 
ency in French as Jaffee brou,£:ht to his work on Walras). 

(3) Acknowledgrüents in the unnumbered note ( ) on page 1 t Be- 
fore you finally will submit your poper to a Journal (K.ö.P.i^. ?), 
the list of pcrsons will have grown to such length as in your Butt 
paper, Howev r, if you intend to retoin the first narics - Soudek, 
Dorfman, Sinon - then you should be more specific as the sortjassist- 
ance these three people have givcn you for the r,sko of historical 
correctness as well as of the autobiogrnphical significance such 
notes possess for l.nter generations. (One day, Laurcnce lloss may 
easily become the topic of a doctoral dissertntion !)• Mirdful of 
these circumstancos, I would suggest a tor^t like this t **I want to 
express my thanks to Professorp Jocef Soudek, Joreph Dorfman and the 
late iUatthew Sim.on* Prof. Soudek firr>t drew my attention to Long- 
fielü ;nd the need of a new study on him; Prof • supcrviscd 
my dissertation on Longfield named belov/ and extended to c.e asbist- 
ance at every stage of its progress; the lr.te Prof. Simon provided 
valu:":.ble suggertions for an earlier draft of this paper..«.". .'.hile 
making this surgestion (m.ore it Is not) I realize that the plcnned 
introduction to your book will have the story in greater Ic gth; 

- 2 - 

you wrote me most charniingly about It in your Irtter of Februr^ry 
6. iet, .just as the article woulü be an aipetizer for your book 
80 would thir- riote be a piece In anticlpation of the Xntrociuction 
to your bock, 

VVith all good wishes for the progress of your work and wana- 
est greetings froir house to house, 

yours SiS alivays, 





Febru^ry ?3 , ^l^/l^*^?- 


^> 0*= 


Thsnk vou for vnur le^tfr of Feh, 17, 1^73. ^ 
^m hastening this replv to_si':^lv cl-rify some r^rabif^uities 
XBQ in rav earlirr letters. ^ sh^ll follov/ vour mold r-rd 
f^rswer >'our fluerries in th<^ orddr in v/hich the^'' -ppecred. 


H;^rtv/ell has verbslly committed himsr If to ^^rite sn 
introduction. I heve rn?de th^t cornnrion Vnovledge eround 
my depcrtment iKxxkxx ^nd thus it would be rf;thfr clurasy 
Tor him to "b^ck out'\ ^-Iso -^^-rtwell is s truly r^edicfted 
and ;'"ener^>us human bein^; my only urc^rtointy is f-s to 
the Contents of the introduction. I '/.-ovld like him to 
write ab:)ut the hiv^torical-sociel situction lÖCC-lc^7C, 
etc., rnd whv Lo-P-ric] d \s rrclysis would be of r-T'tereat 
to economic bistorians as v/ell as our breed. I selected 
Bartwell because I wfnt i-o'-'^field ^ s name_^known to as 
Wide an academic conir.^.unitv as Dossible. -^"uture c:)rrö?. 

:or^ to say about this man and rny 
t]iin> ^^:>u v/ould love him; he is . 

rel- tion 


sch^lar (oriP"inal1v an Australian and^^chool 


will have 
to him. 

I^uronean ^^^...i u.c x x /,, ^ -,..... r..^ . v ^i. --^v^.-, ..-a.^^, ^>..w^.^.. 
I teacher^^ subspque^.tly p-'itor/ of Journal o" i-co. ~-istorv, 
' »MtkK2i;iy now^'videlv knovm scholar of^'^rnustrir 1 revolution. 
He is pro-IIayek in his "'nternret-.tion an^' s"^7T:ir);-thetic to 
capitalism ^as -palnft socialism) as a mean.^ of prererving 
individual libfrtv ^^nd r.iakinfr the ru st of resoörces.) 


Publisber ^''-elley is r^ot out of t" e ^uestion. 
{ sre f} below) niay br of some belp but inasruch 
Kelley li^tens to '^or^^'^En pv.^ ^orfman has not as y^t 
suFFested Hx that I v'rite to "elley, I am con^used 
about how r^r.r^. when to annro^cb him, It mr-' be "^ hat 
^orfman a) wants me to find a ^nive^^sity Dress (and 
I would Drefer this) and b) will suff^i:est Kelley when 
all seems "lost. Op fY.e other band, Kellev is now 

a subsidiary of a i^ew yersev nub. firm and Kelley- the"* 

man may not have the pov-'er tQ make unil:-teral decisions 

as it v/as in the old davs. i'or-'^man mayKnov; that Drofi.t 

it v/as in the old days. ^ü'or-'^m^ 
maximization 's t^e now HfceKplley s nri^.ary motiv-tion 
and wants to s^ve me a disarpointment . ^'inally, it 
may be the case thft ^ ^rfman Is si^ply waiting for me 

to ask him, I am somev/hat hesitart about asking for 







V- ^ favors of this type end have not dore so to 


i^ith a fDrinal let.ter 
publisher shouldC'^^et a 'i'örm letter^lSD 

Dorfmah l^as not sunplied me 

because^Äö' publisher should!^ ,_ 

indicatqt/- that my book is circulating like 
^'script".' Instead he recominends that I '^uote bim 
as Sc^ying "ickKxs:^5!rxarx3f x^k?ry2t±35XErtxJ5±aR:j^xRKxf kxxxt 

the b')ok is an ^^out st^nd irig , coi.iTiEribnsive trec-tmt- nt 
of a long-nef^lected nineteenth Century ^rish ecororriic 
theorist/^ Cprtc-^>ly he is very f lettering. 


-y ^rticle on B^tt is siered rr^(^ ^ealed and T-ill 
arpear in the Fall 1973 issue oi ft^gg . ■'•he rnelodrama 
Surround s rny Lonf^field '^eper on surpTy an-^, deraan'' 
— this is vhat thev want ti he. revised. ■'•he probiem 

is that my v)äper iipr was ^ritten before Bov-ey's art 


and I have revised the naper and sent it back by 

ref erring to Bov/elv over and over aeain. ••ho is 

so opposed to mv sunnly ^nd demand 23? paoer on Longfield? 

I don^t know, ^ould it be Black? Bleck xKi^KKKKal 

was my anonymous critic on my Butt naper. He suggested 

that 1 consult two other pamohlets written by 

'^utt which I did and I addea some footnote material. 

-„^ %^ \^ - . . J. ., -^^ 1. %^ _fc N.^ -.- A » X^ *- VA "*-* -^^ «M V_^ v^.t.'N^ .*. -^ -^ ^^ t. I. -^ -^ «^ • . . ^- «rf ' . ^ •>. ■■— .a. 9 

He finally acceoted the naper bec^use I do substr-ntit te 
his earlier work about the existence of a Utility thpory 
tradition in value theory at H!ririty *^ollegei ^ublin. 
3o my ^utt naper was v/ritten vith ^-l ^cbv;eitzer \s y^/ .K 

^o my 



n mind. 
co^-f^enial to Blr-ck, 

SU p p ly -n d de manc], 
^n the one band 

ro 1 :)ns:er 

insists t}u"t ^onFfield had a diminishing marg, Utility 
theorv but says 'hat his "'ntensity of demand" does 
iraply something more. I fl-^tly diaagree, ^^"'^ overäll 
Point of vie^A/ is tliat But^ more than B^ngfield^ 
rnade Utility an essential element of -'■rish value the^r^^, 
i^ongfield was trying to purse it from the v a ^i t a prob lemj/ 
If Black is the one giving this hard time (I don^t th ink '/^ 
this paner was sent to Biack^'^-hough the revised copy 
^. [ ( . mav ^* be sent to get s lJgTl another "outsi^le opinion" — 
'^^ this is done xxMxkÄXJf f^u:' te frecuently) ssKxif xksxwiii 
and if he is instrumental in gett^>g it refused ^hen 






I can predict -"os reaction to my book zral 

a publisher who v/ould send him the manuscript. Black 

was not very ^"^enerous when I needed his 'Dissertation 

rjU Ciiisttime around -nd he is very much Viner-like in 

his ~wor> ^^ sugpests that he Is a hard man to nlease. 
To date I don^t bave anv idea about Black and the 








liklihood of^him foresta 
-'■f fipything ^ shouü say 
But ?^ain, the Butt r>ape 
thesis than mAr ^«-ork on i^ 
Utility theory issue Is 
o th er ;' our n p 1 s^, but M . 3 . "" 
and I really need this o 
I thank vou for encO'Tc^T 
and I Shell do so if H.O 

X I ii . ^ . r- . ^ . Oe S '"i Ot, WuH 

X)a^Kr nPolysls then I \vi 
follow your Instructions 
"le) • •'"he paper rnust be 
and 1 shall sit ti^ht vd 

Hing my ^-^orkx on I^onrfield. 
thc^t he acceDxed rn^ Butt ^^ener. 
r was a very different tvpe of 
on^field and 1 think tne 
of prime imnort-nce. '^'here -re 
• E. is t he iiournal of my field 
utlet of ex^ression right »'ow, 
inp; rne to seek othcr .iournals 

refuses the manuscript. 


ant ^ongfield^s supply ard demand 
11 consider revising it Rnö 
(vvhich you oromiLed to send to 
scaled down to only f-.n app^ tizer 
th the seco>^d che nter waiti'^g 

for the wiole book to be nublished/^ HOTS- /)>4c<..*ao« 


I /.f ve ä Student outside right nov? and rriust 
end with one last rem^r!:. Your last letter left rae abs^lutely 
el- ted anö hopeful about the future, *hank vou. 

irce ely, 

P.S. I löok ^orv/f^rd to vour next letter. 

T ■" 

New York, Fobruary 17, 1973 

Dear Larry, 

four dayE «go I receivod the announced typeecrlpt of your book 
on Longfiold baeed on your doctoral dlssertation. Proceding it, on 
Nove.Tiber 27, I recelved a bulgH. envelope containlng the typescripts 
of your three articles on (1) feaac Butt, (2) Mountifort Longfleld'ß 
Supply and Demand Theory of PriCQ, and (3) Private Property Anarchlcm, 
I was deeply irapreßsed by tho prodigiour; volurae of your literary Out- 
put and -nont grateful for your sending me copies of your vritlngs. 

The flret onvelo 
I thank you so belat 
riffordftd mo a first 
you hr'ivc Kettled do. 
for your elaborate 1 
tached, viz. (1) tho 
raent of Economic Tho 
article on "The Pred 
edltor for a partial 
in so connectlng the 

pe alr>o carried a letter d;'tcd Nove :iber 2^, 1972. 
edly but no lecs heartily for thic epistle v/hich 
glimpse at your Bcholarly thoughtß and plane nince 
n in Virginia. And jur.t ac much I am thanking you 
Otter of February 6, 1973 "^ith tho two itemß at- 

ßyllobUG of your graduate cource on the Dovelop- 
ught and (2) the xoroxed copy of Harlan Bo ley'c 
ecessor« of Jevone", scnt to you by the H.O.P.E, 

revlGlon of your Isaac Butt orticle (am I right 
se t vo piecer. ?)• 

In both lottcrs you have rained so many differcnt points that to- 
day I i'ihall take up only a few which ßoem to me more urgont than oth- 
ers (which does not involve cvaluation of tholr öignificance) . 

To begin ; ith ßolnt one : your "magnum opus" - thus far. I pre- 
eurne tho »»definitive" title of it iß "Mountifort Longfield'c Contr^k- 
bution to Econo:nicB and its Place in the Development of British Econ- 
omic Thought" rather than the earli&r one "Mountifort Longfield: Ire- 
land^s Fir.'^t Profer sor of Economicn". H re arc the circumotances cur- 
rounding the fate of your book v/hich I would like you to clarify for 
mo : 

(1) The prefacc by Prof. Hartwell : I take it from your more re- 
cent letter that Prof. Hartwoll haß agroed (i.e. cornmitted himoelf) 
to vrite a preface or introduction to the book. If that is so, thcn 
thin fact 'ould have rome bearing on nunberc 2 and 3 belo.v, 

(2) Tho procpective publisher ; ThuG far you have mentionod and 
only once (in your l.tter of Iste November) the pOBSibility of "capt- 
uring" an Irir.h pubÜGhor as Hartwell cu;:geoted. You v/ere then not 
too ßanguino about thic chance» Hov/evor, to judgo it by the experien- 
ce of a forrser Gtudcnt of mine (Irene H. Butter), it Ib not go absurd 
a poc -ibility as it firct may appear. Mro. Butter ^'rote at Spengler* s 
Suggestion a doctoral di^certation on Dutch Economics covoring the pe- 
riod 1800-1870 and got some years aftcr her graduation from Duke (1969) 
a dictinguished Dutch publi:'her (Martinurt Nijhoff) interectod in it by 
that Gort of "chanco" Hart voll was obviously thinking of. For the lat- 
ter purpoGO it may bo advisable to go back to the original title of 

the book. Apnrt from thii; "chance" : is Augur;tu6 Kelly entiroly out of 
the ouection ? Would you knov or morely think that Black v/ould be a 
hindrnce to Kelly considering your book for pubication ? Unlesü you 


- 2 - 

had a negative reply frora Kelly, I .ould think that Black* e edltion of 
Lonsficld /ould call ior a compleraontary ßtudy like yourf; not:vlthstand- 
ing what Black raay havo -vritten in terms of introductione to hiß edition 
and bofore. Furthcrraore, havo you evor conculted Dorf man as to have your 
oxtfmded dls^-ertatlon publiehed ? Dorfman hcis good connections among pub- 
lit'h. rs and not only .vith the Colurcbia U, Pre:-s and ho v.ould certainly 
lend you hiß rupport after having accepted your diüsertation. Along the 
same line ao a try .ith an Irißh publioher • oul 1 be a knock at the door 
of the Oxford Univcrnlty Preßß, namely local patriotiom, 

(3) Endorcemcnt of your book : I .onder .hat Dorfman* s reaction hae 
bocn to your rcquer-t for Buch lettor as you havo had in raind. If Hart- 
woll ^ritoß tho preface, then you would not noed more of an ondorcement 
at the beginning of dealing?: ith publinhers. Dorman anc; myf^elf fshould 
como later into the play, If .-^t all. Ordinarily, if publiGhere can bo 
brou^iht to the point of con.sidering to onter upon a publiehing venture, 

then they rhov the typeccript to ono or t 
without divulging their idontity to you» 
erß I Ghatl say more in the next point of 

"read- rs" pf their o\vn choice 
On "Kugget5tionc" by these read- 
my today*G Ictter, 

(if) Breaking up your book into ceparote chartere : You were mention- 
ing thi.^ poüsibllity in your lotter from NoveitwicT and again in your re- 
cent lettor. An you probably l«iO'.v, I am ».|Av*»i^ this procedura , auch 
aß I approciate the impatienco of a young author. To get a firr.t book 
into the precs may take coraparativoly long tlme anc that peculiar "Chan- 
ce" I cpoko of before, Yot, v/hy not wait rather than have one or tv;o 
chapterG printed and let it go at that ? If you want to fill the time 
of waiting, an article like the one you have vritten already and have 
Cent me in November (no, (2) in the firct paragraph) ^vas the proper thing 
to do. I have read the artlclo carefully and provided it nith some sug- 
goetionc for ro. orklng it; thic eseay would ctand a thorough roviGion 
if you were to use it aß a "e^top ßap^^ meaeure, You are v/hetting tlio ap- 
petite of the schol<-3rly audicnco v.'ithout giving away too rauch of the Gub- 
ßtance of your book, Yot, vhy concidoring H.O»P.E, again for this ar- 
ticle ? Karen v.horn I arked about it at Chrißtmas maintained that your 
roai>on for thit: thought vms the fact that thero are not too many outletß 
for articles of thir:^ .sort« Would not "Economica" be a proper place for 
your efi;:?ay on Longfiold*£^ price theory aß it was beforc for ano of Black* s 
articloe ? Or the "Quarterly for Political Economy" ? 

My Point t.vo (nnd la? t for today) concerns your study on Isaac Butt. 
What I would like to knov/ about it and whot I rhould like to add by way 
of commonting on its "fato" ie the fol.loving : 

(1) Acceptance of it by H.O^P.E. i In your Ictter frora November you 
told me that the article was accepted for the Fall 1973 ii^ßue. Karen 
confirnied your ctatament. Then, in your recent lotter, you vere uttcr- 
ing loubt« ae to the acceptance in vieiv of reviolonf: -hich the editor, 
probably proraptod by one of his "readors", deraandcd; araong them that ^♦vc* 
bring one cection of your article in line ,rith Marian Bovley'c eseay on 
Jevon;^*8 PrcdeceerjorG (see belo?f). You said you hcAVC complied v;lth the 
request, Then, v/hy ühould H.O»P.ii). not stick to its original corüraitraent ? 
In your place, I would not givo up thiß opportunity and got thic point 
of acceptance clarified. And that brings me to the 8ore field of "read- 
ers» GUij-gestionB", 

^•W '»™lf '■!»•' ' 

- 3 - 

(2) Ur.0fulner,y and foily of "readorr" j Unlike European editorc, 
American editorc roly vory hoavily on tho exporti e of alleged "au- 
thoritio!?". The ref:uit Is the guncrally lowor lovei ani often com- 
plöto lack of originality In American contributlonp tc the Social 
ScienceF az cornpared to the European one:?. In tho bo; t of circum- 
BtancoG, concurronce of editor and hir> readers makor: Tor groator 
ßraoothne::^ of prorontation and style and abnonce of cloppinoio in 
factual Information than you vould find in Europo but al^o eagernesa 
on th€3 part of authorf: to conform v/ith .rhot hae. bocn ?aid by "oxperts** 
(s holdors of chairs in tho reopoctivo diaciplino ho dicpo. e of ap- 
X^ointLientn a:; churchmon in ülev.itod position; do of benflcey). Seen 
in thir hnrch and cynical light , one rnay Just ae vell accopt tfU. a.:- 
vicü t'jiven by Alb;rt Sch.citzor in hin autobiography to tho novicoe: tt^xff- 
alv/ays "agroe" vith f^C^u^ cunerior until tho young ncholar has climbod 
up to the rung of (tonured; associate profo«..orc:;hip, Aftor.vardn, the 
author can and ought to afford the licenre of discord, Don't let the 
commonts by H.O.P.E. oditor and hi?-^ advir-'?rr. make you "cry** (as you 
claimed they have done); Junt laugh thora off an^I t i: t your pen to 
tho point v.hore your conGciönco creako. 

(3) Recor..:iendation of Bo.loy^ß article 
just characteriX-:d and cor.'i:non "GUj.'jojjtion 
to you becciuce it supportf3 your ov;n theci 
thun far unkno n to me;'»ith the Game deli 
al gloGses ivtroij.'ving ho v well the saliont 
werk wore takon. What you could do and, 
is to add to your refcronce to her Nastau 
that Miro 3o,'ley (a) hae adrailtedly hift 
Longfield and (b) iü thus no': concurring 


incidentally, is onc of those Jeven 

startlcd Jovons go often in roflecting on 
whlch the rediGcovcry of Qor;ien ir. morely 

standG in contrai-t to the 
g" in that it v/ac point od out 

I read Bov/ley»B article^ 
ght aß your freouent margiW'- 

featuroß of Longfield* s 
I rurniice, actuaily have done 

Senior book the ob^^^ervation 
cd her position vis-ä-vis 

ith your ov;n Interpretation, 
sonian coincidencet- .vhich 

hin O'An accomplishments (lor 

one though h:pectacular example). 

Manv more point r? yo|*havo touchod u, on vvill be belabor(.d in a GUb- 
ßcquent letter, This ono has to be fini."y:hed no-.v for a varict;; of rea- 
sons, among them ray perennial health tribulations» But I do want to 
mention yet to you that my vife enjoyed no end your aeüitation ubout 
the relation betv/een you and me (for her thir> i?. an old and choriched 
Gtory ;.'hich I shall relate to you next tiino) and your good ne-^c about 
Barbora *r! pre.ient anc future role in your lifo, Wo both, my vife and 
would love to mcet her and no Igkg yourself whom my vife kno. g only 
frora my many rcpeatsdly told anectodes« For the time being , please, 
accept these greetingc and good vVisheG from houre to hour,o and, if con- 
dition;:= allo;, honor soon ith a reply 


yourc as alvvays, 





Febrödtry 6, 1973 

Dear Josef, 

Thank you and Mrs . Soudek for that lovely Seasons card . 
i was especially sorry to hear about the strain of city lige 
and even more appalled that the two of you continue to endure 
it. There are several areas with'^^a pleasant train fide fram 
to Columbia that do offer an attractive style of 3jVimg. The corstraints 
on your mobility could be overcome by Consulting a rental agent/ 
who will handle these matters for you ^ I know that this is 
easy for me to say, inasmuch as I am younger, but still your own 
health and well-being ought to Come before any allegience you 
owe to the upper West SJde. Please forgive me if my adv^ce 
seems out of order, but I do look forward to many more years 
of your friendship and advice^ and am frankly Jflealous of any 
environmental factors that might impair your physical stamina. 

Recaibäy I have grown somewhat nostalgic and pensive about 
the last ten years of my lif e , You and perhaps only three other 
scholars (Herbeftf, Mises, and Rothbard ) have had such a profound 
effect ClDon my life that if I ever write my autobiography I 
shall entitle it "Four Who Made a Revolution®. Of the four, if 
I had to üick the one who it transformed me into a productive 
member of the intellectual Community, I would have to choose 
you. In this sense I ow^A^n enormous amount of gratitmde 
and sincere thanks . To wnatever extent I approach the ideal 
of pure scholarship to that extent I reflect your influence. 

What puzzled me the most (upon looking back) is the 
fact that the true character of our relationship was not 
always obvious to me. I do not think that during 1963-^ 
you expected to remember my name past the next Semester and 
certainly not for the next ten years! I admired you and 
your work greatly but I always feit sl/5ighted in the sense 
that you distributed those «oveted grades not in accordance 
with "corrective justice" but in accordance with "distributive 
justive" and thus my C or B was really equivalent to another's 
A. What Puzzles me (and also some of your other 'best' students ) 
is whether your really believed that the Phoenix crowd was 
actually endowed with a burning taste for academic debate. 
Personally I have always considered my other profession 
as a magician and entertainer more demanding thaKI mast c^^^S^ 
"traditional" skills. You theory of justice when applied 
to the distribution of grades has Always Ditt.zled me and 
perhaps someway Jfoujt will in^aiL explain it to me. Whatever 
you did a^ "worked" in the sense that I was orovoked into 
proving my abilities to you and somehow or other out of 
the Chaos of my teenage life emerged an individual with a 
passion for economic theory and doctrine. 







How did you know how to handle me? How did you know what 
type of treatment would be best for me in the long run? You 
did know and I am forever in your debt. For many years I have 
gone ap^j^ffidfe* along thinking that 'Dr. Soudek misunderstood me" ^^z 
that you 'cWnsulted my (ffollege records to learn that I was sl/ 
transfer Student from night school and judged me on that basisl 
But now I am convinsred that regardless of your original motives 
you were the first professor to really take an interest in me 
and my abilities, To require that College Professors be 
forbidden from entering into emotional relationship« with their 
students and that they merely dispense short-answer tests 
and take an average of the grades is , in my Äpinion, to 
subvert the very essence of a successful student-teacher 
relationshio, For many years I have be guilty of misjudging j ^L 
the Ar first professor who took an interest in me as^ human/ ° 
being and as a potential scholar. ^ — ^ 

1 make these confessions to you now because my Longfield 
work has rftached a plateau in its long devej-onm.ent . I have 
just fininhed the manuscript of a full-lengmK bock entitled 
Mountifort Longfield *s Contributionx to Economies^ttjaccs^t and 
its Place in the Development of British Economic Thought . 
Professor Max Hartwell of Oxford Univ, has agreed to write 
the introduction inasmuch as I see no reason to bürden you 
with this task — I will be more than happy if you would 
read the manuscript and make some general observations • 
I have already written to Dorfman for a letter of endorsement 
which I shall zerox when I begin my search for a publisher, 
I would like your endorsement also in the form af a "to whom 
it may concern letter,..", such a note simply informs the 
publisher that you think the manuscript is worthy of publication 
it does not commit you agree with my treatment, etc. 

My book is a revised edition of the basic analysis of 
my dissertailon plus a long final chapter on Longfield's 
policy-oriented work on land reform, wtc. In the final 

chapter I have included some observations on why Longfield 



came haä to reject Locket theory of property when that 

is applied to land titles, I have alteady sent a copy of 
this chapter to hhk Kkren for reference. It is my opinion 
that within the so-called "laissez-faire" school there is 
a fundamental cleavage between two types of justifications 
of private property; the LockeHH natural rights doctrine and 
the Bentham utilitarian docirine. I would not say that the 
two approaches are inconsistent with one another but they 
do represent radically distinct points of emphasis. A 
Bethamite-type is a completely different type of free-market 
advocate than a neo-Lockean-type. It is almost like W, James' 
distinction between "soft hearted" and 'hard headed* philosophers . 
But all of this belongs most properly to another work. 

I originally looked forward to the day wheh I would send 






you a published copy of my book and you would find evidence 

of my indebtedness to you on the acknowledge/'^'page • That day 

will hopefully be soon but just in case my work goes unappreciated 

or there is a long delay in reaching the other side of a printing 

press, I have taken the liberty of making you a copy of the 

book and mailed it in two parts to your N.Y. gfaress (West End ave/) . 

Please accept it as a temporary version of my book and let us 

hope that I can soon replace it with a final version in hard cover. 

The second chapter ä>f the book is a revised version of 
my paper on Longfield's supply and demand theory now in your 
possession« The reason it had to be revised is that Bowley 
decided to pubjishK an article entitled "The predecessors 
of Jevons — the Revolution that Wasn't". She now Claims that 1) 
Longfield did not try to link "intensity of demand" with marginal 
Utility; that 2) the utility tradition in economics is carried 
forth in the Wealth of Nations and 3) that Say by ind^tifying 
"price" aft^ the measure of utility shunted the car of economics 
on the wrong track by obscuring the öistinction between 
marginal and tital utility. Thus Bowley of 1972 is a different 
Bov^y from the one I discuss in that chapter. So the 
of H.O.P.E, promply returned my paper requesting that 
it in the light of Bowley 's recent contribution. The 

I revise 

forrections bring JkhKxtwo Bowely's work in line with my own 
and you see that she has actually come around to adopt my 
poätion though of course we have never corresponded, etc. 
I have sent a revised copy of the^^^paper back to H.O.P.E. 
magazine and hope the Duke crowd APublish it, I really 
thought that they would be delighted with my approach but 
I am not quite certain that they are sending it to readers 
who are capable of appreciatffing the quality of the work. 
Some of the comments I have received make me want to 
cry^ but if not H.O.P.E.then I shall send it Älsewhere. 
This I do not want to do because we must support H.O.P.E.-- 
this magazine will do more for the history of economic 
thought than 100,000 dollars of Ford Foundation money, 
I shall always respect the editors etc., for the great 
Service that they have done for cur specialty etc. 

As you know I tried my best to link Longfield to 
some of the early utility theorists but with not much 
success. Although Longfield makes several brilliant 
contributions to bis the utility doctrine they are not 
essential to his major set of contributions. The analytic 
structure of his theory of distribution reflec-^his 
supply and demand approach to markets (inelastic supply 
juxtaposed with elastic demand). The supply and demand 
approach owes to Malthus and like Malthus it was a way 
of defining an elastic demand curve without stopping to 
consider the utility considerations that in turn exfSain 
demand. The major influenc« ^n Longfield come out of 
law and probably Locke and Bentham. Locke's Essay was 






required reading at Trinity College, and there is more here 
than I in fact know about/ Perh(>Äs in future correspondence 
you can help me on these questions. 

I am enclosing a copy of Bowley's recent article for 
your study, (Incidently if there are any Journal articles 
you want let me know and I'll be gxi^xts glad to get them 
to you -- it is really no trouble inasmuch as I practically 
have a zerox machine in my Office and cur department has a 
private library of Journals besides what is available at the 
library) . 

There is an 
and have a baby" 
negotiating a ho 
myself shall be 
Life has so much 
every moment exe 
so that Barbara 
a lovely time we 
talented human b 
worth to US both 

old Cuban saying "Write a book, plant a tree, 
, ^ks Well the book is written and I am 
use and most important of all, Barbara and 
parent5 sometime in July. This move to 
has made all the difference in cur lives, 

to offer one that I have vowed to make 
iting, I only wish we could all meet sometime 
and I could meet you and Mrs , Soudek. What 

could have« Barbara is an exceptionally 
eing and cur association has proved of great 

There is much more that l)30uld teil you, Forgive my 
"tariH "train of thought" app^oach to letter writing byt 
if typing paper came in rolls I would not know where to 
stop, A final wor« on economic thought at the Univ, of 
Virginia — we are probably second to Duke, John Whittaker 
has just published his book on the early life and work of 
Marshall and it is füll of doctrine, history, etc. Whittaker 
is a high powpred mathematical economiet who is quite a 
fine historian of doctrine as well, The two qualities 
when fused together make him an appropriate Student of 
Marshall's writings ( I think Macmillan is the publisher), 
I am handling the graduate course on the history of ,/ 
economic theory -jIh and am enclosing my ruiiJiai^;. ll'L l . ^^o-^^^'^^xx auiu^y^^ 
1 have just discussed the Soudek-Gordon controversy 
about Aristotle and really find Gordon 's position somewhat 
misleading. I do not like the way he pulls quotations 
from a variety of texts and disregards thed problem 
of "justice" and how it applied to exchange, Hollander 's 
supporting article is marred by the fact that it is really 
a ppÄer about St, Thomas and not what its -^itle suggests, 
You must not let Gordon have the last woröi How about 
a nrnttm^R challenge to Gordon in the form «ir of a reiteration 
of jrour basic thesis,' 

You shoiik^eceive my Longfield manuscript within two 
weeks, Let me know if for some reason it doesn*t arrive -- 
I have takug taken the precaution of having it mailed 
"registered" , 

Regaöds to Mrs , Soudek. 







November 24, 1972 

Ceär oosef , 

I hope thät thd s leter flnds vou and I-^rs, ^oudek 
well and eager to enjoy this Thanksgiving holiday, I 
fllso hope thc3t your sumrr,pr vas as enjoyable as ours w»-<i 
and provided you v^ith its intended efieKt^, 

Here are three rapers tbat I have done in the 
past few months. The Isaac Butt has been ^ccented 
'for H.O.P.E. (Fall/73), the Lon^-field on value 
I subrr.itted to H.3.I.E. anö do not as yet have 
a reoly, and the third on ^rarchism ivS a P^P^^i^yiaJo/» 
thst I delivered before the C.K.A. a fe^- 'rm^s ago. 
>^s you can 5=^ee, the ^bspnce of Im.Y.C. has not 
impalred my literarv effortsl 

iny '.nrk on Lonpifi^ld is recring completion 
-- at least th^ additional be'^efits from another 
month^s work are not aot to ^xx con'.pensc?te me for 
the costs involved (I literally think in t ^ese 
termsllll) I have a well organized tenfl echolarly 
book cslled "I'-ountifort Lonpfield: Ireland^s 
^^irst -^^rofessor of Economics'' • ProfeFSor I-'^ax 
Hartwell of Oxford (former editor of Journal 
of Economic liistory) has taken some interest 
in the work ann th'inks thf re niiftiht bü-^some che nee j; ^^^ 
of car^turing an Irish nub'isher. ^1 shalTT'inish ^ 
the book bv ^anuarv and nersorallv reconcile mvself 
to the fact that unless ^ break it un irto Journal 
articles I am not going to ^et it published. '' Nq 
big market, no publisher--that is the final test 
of the denise of the non-utilitarian -oriented 
educational business. 

At present I am studving calculus and its 
historical development, 1 am especiaily curious 
about the link-uns bet"'een the study of motion 
and the studv of value. Have vou seen a study 
by Ernest A. Moody, "Galileo an^ Avem^ace" 
in Journal of Historv of lHea>^ , vol . XII, if 
y§u haven^t seen it and ^"'ant me to zerox mv copv 
1 shall. ^ 



^^erards to ^'Vs, Soudek anH nlease v/rite soon. 




Prof. Lavrence Mosg 
c/o Mr. S.'^muel Mosko"/itz 
156-10 Juv.'el Avenue 
Flu::hins, N.Y. 1136? (^^) 


6^?2. Ba<ü Orb 
Kurparkctraße I5 


Dear Larry, 

my wife reportcd to rac in great detail the lengthy conversation 
';;hich she had vith you on July 19, Thankc for your thou jhtfulness 
of calling my home and of letting me in on your doings and plans. I 
was 60 ha r-py to learn that you still liko your nev environment, that 
you are pubiehing tho re ults of your thour;hts and searcheB and that 
you are about to travel vith your v/ife in Europe which chould stiraula- 
te you in a variety of ways. 

As to the tv.'o articlGs v/hich you mentioncd to my ".ife, I think 
the best v/ould be to send me offprints right aftcr November 1 to my 
home - the secretarie: claorify everything, except firct class mail, 
ac. "rjunk" (ref erring mainly to pubiichers' announcement^)» 'iVarmect 
thanks in advance for your kindness* 

You expressed the decire to meet me while on your trip through 
Europe, erpecially in the three weeks v/hich you are planning to spend 
in Germany ond mainiy, I underctand, near Munich« Ae my wife indicat- 
ed to you already, :uch mecting v/culd be hard to arrani^e, At prerent, 
until AugUGt 15, I Ghali be in thic place for my annual treatments; 
it is a .-nodest spa near Frankfurt vvhcre I lived for eo many years 
(vvithC'Ut being av.'are of thi;i spa 'vhich then was tiny as vell as con- 
fined to people of my orenont age and therefore a far cry frora my 
then youthfui mind ) . After my departure I rhall be trave ling in 
He.' se T seriou^ly, to "rect up" from the Gtrenuous treatmentr - and 
then in Southern Germany, priraarily ne::ir the Bodensee and the old city 
of Constanco, Sightseeing there is only one part of my preoccucation, 
the other ic moeting .vith ch.larc dedicated as I am to medieval and 
Renai.- sance studio s, The latter purpo e of my trip Ig yct in the pro- 
of timing and theref re I carmot predict, .hen I sha 1 1 be ;;.here« 

(-.veren» t 


ac c o rc ing t o my iv i f e ' s re po r t , 
you there beforo ?) and, I preFjum 

ill als 

come to England 
Gome tirae in Lon- 

don - a city .hich I inten e l.y love, Whiie there, you ßhould make an 
effort to get in tauch ith Mark Blaug v.'ho, as you uiidoubtedly knov. , 
has been for year£; connected v;ith the Londen School of Econoii.ics .hich, 

at any rate, In vorth your Visit, On my annual r.tays in London (now 
for the fourth time, thln October) I was too busy with other mattcrs, 
among them faraily afiairs and virito /.ith old friendc, to find the 
tirae for searchinc for Mark. If you ^hould cee him, pleace^rhira my T v^^ 
regardG, You iil not be loct for Bubject matters to diccucs; in *" 
recent yearc he applied his fine niind to the economics oi education 
(but I nevor found the leicure to read the rer.'ultr of his: deLibera- 
tions) • 

I truGt that Mr;-. Moss has accomplich-..d in her course .vhat che 
aet out to do and yuu utilized your ctay at Flu£;hing to avail your- 
celf of the N.Y. libr.-ri. ug .hich are an invaluable asset. It ir one 
of the fev. thingc that tied me to the city .hich other.i e repo ' led 
me in rscont yearr anc- did a lot of härm to ray health; yet I did not 
get aroun ! to ceriously preparing my relocation, I raerely thought a 
lot about it hile .vinding up my affairs ..ith tho College (ray booko 
though not my papcra are still in ray Office) and \;ith govornmcnt 
agcncicT, If I should finally move, you -.vill hear about it. Prior 
to that data, \ve do have othcr co nmon intcrects .vhich re;;uire conimuni- 
cation of the one or the othcr sort, 

Let rae wirh you both a nlearant and enricnjfing trip throu^ih Europe 
and a ret rn to your native chores* 

Yours as alwayg , 




December 20, 1971 

Dear Prof. ««^oudek, 







fv ) 

Best re^arr^s to you snd your wife 
ovpr the hoÜHfvs. Barbara and 1 are 
xk har^oilv settled into one of the most 
exciting wavs of life we have ever 
encountered, P-^rties, lectures, 
close associations between faculty and 
students all cortribute to the absolute 
beaHtv ef one of the most bo o u t i f ^ 1 Uc^ tryu, 
^niversities ir America. This is ^ 
Drobably the last refuere of academic . 
erentlemen in America among the better 
schools. l^ast nipht ve went to a black - 
tie dance ^*dth the facultv, etc. Cars 
can be left unlocked without an ovrrriding 
(i.e., Daranoid) *^ew York fear of being 
robbed. Checks can be cabhed simnly 
bv stating t I am a member of the ^niv. 
of Va." 

Mv own v'ork is comirg nicely. 
I finished a book called Tetrm Pro.iects 
in Economic Statistics and sent it to 
two interested publishers. (Incidently, 
Paul Fischer is my co-author) • ^ne of 
my colleagues this semester was ^^ax 
Hartwpil ( aö editor of the Journal of 
Economic ^istorv from Oxford who visitsA«^ 
for one semester each year) . He twisted 
my arm into seeing my dissBrtation and 
mentioned sorr^ething about preparing it . 
for Dublication vrhich I am now corsidering/'y 
I plan to do a short paner on how the Cj>^'^J<Xin^^ 
maFinal uwtility theorv of imputation ^^A 
was naseed on from J.B. Say to -^saac ^^Mj^^ 
Butt via K. Longfield. I promise to (/A-*^^^^'-^' 

send you a copv for criticism, Butt 
was no doubt 'luite we^l versed in bis 
Aristotle but -^ hesitate to explore 
these co^nections>-ith my somewhat 
limited backff:round -'r. tb^s^areas. 
Perbeps you can sup;gest sometbing 

Barbara i? also doin?^ nicely, 
sbe is finisbinF College and takiner 
some brilliant courses. ^"/ithout a 
doubt our College i^ one of the finest 
in tbe ^ountry ( ^ audited several of 
ber lectures) • 

I am teacbiner the Grf=duate level 
bis of thoufi^bt from Aris. to Karx tbis 
Srring. I plan to givp tbe same lectures 
( improved of course) tbat 1 gl;ve to tbe 
KT underrrads except to use tbe original 
works as readings, Bid you know tbat 
bis. of tbougm is re^uired for a Pb.D. 
My colleague'>Willism Breit; *fe one of 
tbe finest teachers and colleagues ^ 
bave met. ^is recent book Academ ic 
^cribblers is an en.^ovable treatment 
of modern American Strands of tbought 
and is begimning to seil ruite well. 
His dicsertation was ^n tbe Wage |j^nd 
^octrine so you can see bow w^ v^^^w^ 
comülement one anotber ^vti^^=^ff€¥ti 




Kav 4 recommend a book v/bicb you 
must not miss for nure i^tellectual 
Stimulation*. Jamps Bucbannan^s 
Cpst and Cboice « Markbam Press. 
Here we bave perbars tbe only''comprehensive 
review of tbe objectivist vs. subiectivist 
notions of cost and tbeir relevan^e^jto — • f,/u.ib^ 



modern "empirical" economics.- Bucbannan 
(wbo was a former professor be^^e — be /^y 
is now at Virg. Polvtecb, Institute) 
bas written a stimulating tbeoretical 
book whicb navs tribute to tbe labors 
(no nun intended) of tbe modern Utility 
tbeorists like Tviirlb-, ^^^i^es, Rotbbard , etc. 






'^"he book begins with a general review of 
the Problem of velue as set up b^^ Smith 
and how Hie rdo-A^Ull-i'^rrshsll moved one 
way whiie Wicksteed-Robbins^^^ises etc. 
moved anothrr way. Youk would find 
this Short book enjovable reading. 

Please vrite to me *her vou have 
the tine. You advice ar^r^ a p si st an ce 
ha¥ proved invaluable to me^^fm' i ~~ 
look for^vard to our future corresron^ence. 


Laufe'nce S.JVioss 

o/o Miss Kdith Patriok 

Jiamond Point, M.T. 12824, 3«pt*mb«r 3, 1967 

üear Larry, 

I hftv» to thank you still for your good l»tt*r of August 27. Fortu- 
nataly, your handwriting, unlik» my own, is so l«gibla that it did not 
disturb ae rtading your l«ttar, but to Xearn tbat your typ«writ*r was 
stolf^n griaTod aa vary auch. 

Many tbanks also for the most intarasting oatalogua of tha Johnson 
Raprints with tha listing of tho Aoschar book (whioh I must buy, tha high 
price notwithstanding) ana for two oth»r graat fnvors you dia ma. I r^-- 
oaived ©bout ona nonth ago from K©ll©y an advanc» print of his most r9^ 
cant cfitalogua of his raprints whioh I nt?ad<?d to bring aa up to deta and 
also th» Q, C. book oollaction and than, thenks to your intarvantion, tha 
oopy of Marx* 8 '^Contribution'*, whioh /mbara« uBd sant raa promptly (l in- 
formed him of that) »nd whioh was rasting paacafully in tho Japertmant 
becaasa **80mobody*' had decided that this parcal was no urgent mail. I 
presums that Lprry Roth has told you «bout tha oonfusion osus^d by this 
dolay in the Paul Klappar Library. 

Your discov^ry of an rntir« literrtura on the Malthus-Longfiald- 
Kaarn-Marsbffll tradition in tha Scottish Journal of Politicfl Fconony 
WAS most int« rasting, Wa shall discuss th© signif iofinca of it for your 
own research. Your dißcovery proved ono© mora what I know for aom» timt 
from my own w:rk, i.«. that Sootland and its notabl« culture is less 
known in this oountry than th© civil izstion of soma tiny baokward Island 
in thff Pfoifio. This in its-lf oalls for radical corraction, 

I am writing this lettwr in hast». Thraa waaks ago my publishar 
aent mo *he copyadit©d ms. of my very axtensiva aonograph on tha hand- 
written copies (l5th Century) of Leonardo üruni' s Latin vf?r8ion of the 
pseudo-Zriatotalian Economics for a final ravision. Of oouraa, with « 
deadlina of 3ept«?mb r 5, si^t by th# printar. This work was baokbraak- 
ing and I barely mada th» data. Hon I shall laava here immadiately aft- 
»r tha L^bordaywa'fkffnd to gat aoma raal r^st in the i^igher Adirondacks 
from m^ typawrittr fmdL from an onooaing attaok of hay fever. Shortly ba- 
fora tha l^a 11 term bagins, I shall bo back in tha city. 

Then, wa shall saa ona another and I am lüoking forward to it vary 
epg*?rly, »Vith all good wishas, 

your 8 as alwajry, 




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April 4, 1984 


Dear Kuth, 

you can hardly ima^^ine how iruch I relish- 
cd your Valentine greetings v.ith the pictures 
of yourself with Koss and your sons (David, 
Wayne. Scott) and their lovely wifes (Barbarr., 
Laura;, not to forget your (or Rosses) dog. 

I feit badly that I was uneble to recljro- 
cate the telepl one call froxn Ross sbortly after 
Iroas. ?^ithout Gretel (whorr I lost on Janufiry 
21,1985 through incurable leukeinla at age 75) 
I cannot operate the machine and our Con Edison 
Office is not efficient in finding a nunaber in 
Toronto. Can't you give it to me occasionally ? 
I war^ deeply touchec by the attempt of Ross 
to talk to ir.c. 

So - you have a f :ur day weckend on your 
birthday ? 7,e have all sorts of holidayL^ but 
not this one. instead we have had to bear the 
worst Winter I can reniembcir and the most cruel 
Winds torms; while I ain writing, one is hitting 
my Windows . 

Dear Ruth, v/hat better can I wish you but 
that life should go on bertowing on you su<-h 
blessings as your husband ana children ? Soon 
I shall write you more extensively, also about 
Gretel - this is not a suitrble topic for your 
birthday, except her attachnient to all of you. 


S^ ,/9s-y 




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Ruth Murray, Toronto 

Decen-jber 29fl981 

De er Ruth, 

your Christmasgreeting, though deleyed 
by our post Office, was greatly appreciat- 
ed and no less your very lovely letter - the 
Eskico boy at the head of the pai er probably 
Standing for the expected showless cold. Vhat 
ever your weather finally wts I ^' ould not know 
but I am certain that you enjoycd the fainlly 
gathering. We had no snow elther and the pre- 
ceöing min stopped in time for the feast. 

As to your story of Scott : it seems that 
hls journey to and in Europe was very siinil- 
ar to mlne* I too spent three months in Ger- 
many (midale of July to middle of October) 
and I too had to cancel mv intended excursion 
to England (mainly London; from where I had 
planned to return home. Yet it was not the 
love bug that made me change my plans (such 
motivations are lying behlnd me for uite 
some time). It was merely the intolerable 
weather over there (I mean Nothern Kurope). 
After my eure at a spa in the high Black For- 
est (unluckily too high for my condition), 
where I saw the sun at least occasionally, 
during the following period of resting from 
the strsins of treatments in the middle of 
Germany (not far from Fr':inkfurt where Gretel 
was born) it was raining incessantly for five 
weekSf the rain Coming steadily from the 
United Kingdom. Thus literally soackod wet 

- 2 - 


dlögiisted I returned home to be unlted 
with Gretel who had gone through the same 
rain storms on the farm in upstf te New York 
as I did« 

Though the weither in the city vas not 
too engairing, our ph/sicifin could at least 
lift thf functioning of our bodies and our 
spirits v'ith Vitamin injections. Sufficient« 
1/ strengthened I got then busy with Christ- 
mas mail - the Murra/s were of course on 
the list, too - but tl e promised lettcr con- 
cerning the lovely family pictures you have 
sent US last year did not materi/ lize . Hope- 
fully, soon it will. 

Until then please accept our good 
though ts and best wishes from 


Ross & Ruth Murray - Toronto 


Dear Ruth and Ros?, all Christmas-Mail was delayed 
this year. But your mail was certainly worth the 
waitlng. Your card 9was?? beautiful, the letter 
of Ruth was heartwarming ,and the f our pictures of 
the family weie precious. Soon we shall write and 

teil you our gues^es as to the identity of each per- 
son in the pictures. 




M. ^ 



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New York, April 2, 1980 

Dear Ruth, 

we do not know how inany days it t^Uces 
a letter from New York to arrive at Toron- 
to. If we are lucky then our warnest wish- 
es at the occfcsion of your birthday (April 
7th) should be in your hands on that dpy. 
Perhaps, though we doubt it, our Easter 
greetings will also come in time for Easter 
Sunday as they will be mailed together wlth 
these special wishes for you. 

At any rate, you mny see from both Cards 
that we are thin^^ing of you and your family. 
Your happiness in the corrjiencing new year 
of your life will, after rll, be tight up 
closely with that of your 
merely know that David is 
for you did not mention a 
It not be high time that you, 
girlish age, be a gr* ndmother 

sons and • • 
married but 
even et 

? v;e 


Such and similar joys we are wishing 
you for the year to be/?in and a happy tirth- 
day to Start with which has rlwrys been and 
is this year, too, remembered by 


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April 27, 1978 

Dear Ruth, 

your letter of April 10 was both, a saddening and a cheer- 
ing up message. If one has lived long enough as Gretel and X 
did - Gretel is now 70 and I shall soon be 73 years of age - 
one knows that life has both sides to it, a dark one and a 
light one. The attached xerox copy of a letter of mine will 
be inore explanatory on this point« 

But first : we were most distressed to learn that our dear 
Blanche Alexander should no longer be on earth. Hers wasjful- 
filled life, as you said yourself, and to see so irany off Springs 
grow up, in itself must have been for her a tremendous source 
of satisfaction, Yet, we shall iniss her just as you do. 

And now to the lighter side of your present life : We were 
pleased no end to read that Boss and you will embark on a long 
overdue trip through the United Kingdom (at least Scotland and 
England), most probably on a six weeks arrangement. I assure 
you that - moody weather and other unpredictable circumstcnces 
notwithstanding - it will be an experience worth a lifetime of 
memorivs. Since the summer of 1969 I was several times in Eng- 
land and I was always wishing very intensely to see Gcotland 
too - David will intimate to you what mementos of the founder 
of modern Econoirics, a born Scotsman, I would have liked to Vis- 
it there - , but then, England (mainly the Eestcoast) was iirimed- 
iately more important for my purposes. Fortunately, every tirre 
I was able to spend a few days in London, for me the most excit- 
ing and endearing metropolis I have ever seen (unlike e.g. Paris). 
Had it not been for the Snglish climate (I am suffering from a 
mild though sometimes very painful arthritis), I should have 
settled there after finishing my professional job in New York. 
Last year (1977) I stayed in an uncommonly windswept London for 
10 days (October 6 - 16); this year London happens to be not on 
my European itinerary. But presuring, as I do, that you will be 
on a prograinmed six weeks tour in the United Kingdon, there might 
be a merit in your telling me (if you should know it yourself) 
the hotel (with address, of courre) in which you will be lodging 
there and during what period. One never knows, how my plans may 
be changed, once I am in Europe. At any rate, our thoughts will 
follow you and, as far as London goes, my Imagination. 

Finally, concerning the attached xerox copy of a letter of 
mine to "Bea" (identified in a note to the letter) : This copy 
was the "letter" I was hinting at in our Christmas Greetings and 
Birthdp.y Wishes. The last portion of the letter relates to the 

• 2 - 

before mentloneü "darker slde' of life and a copy of such letter 
was hardly sulted to accompany greetlngs a* ruch pleasant occa- 
sions as Christinas, Easter or birthdays. Tor the greater part I 
reported in the letter to »'Bea" - who, llke myself, Is suffering 
froin emphysema - about the treatments I am receiving annually In 
Germany for the relief from this chronic allment« Only In the clos- 
Ing Paragraph (encircled In red) I dctailed the trlals we, Gretel 
and myself, have had to undergo in the years 1975 - 19^7 and which 
we dld not disclose to our friends outslde the city. äÄy belated 
•»confession" will explaln to you to sonne extent why a pla^ined trip 
to Toronto, at least on my part, dld not materlelize, However, 
nelthrr such plan nor our thought? of you and your farrily werde 

The more we were so pleased to learn from your recent letter 
that you conceived of our occaslonal greetlngs as tokens of a still 
livcly friendshlp between you and us« l^eedless to say that we would 
welcome a word from you in reply to this cor.munlcation or other- 
wise • 

Meanwhile, keep well and accept wärmest wishes for yourself, 
Ross and the rest of the famlly from Gretel and 




*.^. We also should appreclate it very much to get a more 
recent pict-^re of you {alone or together with Ross and/or the fam- 
lly); after all, it is some time ago that we have seen you in per- 
son and it is reasonable to expect that you - now a mother of three 
grown-up sons and at least of one daughter-ln-law and^a carefully 
hidden age - should have changed your appearance. 


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Bea (« Beatrice) Schwartz was untll recently (she retlred on 
February 1, 1978) the secretary of the chairman of the Econ- 
Offilcs Department at Queens College of the City üniversity of 
New York (CÜNY); through her I kept in contact wlth 

Professor William Hamovitch (a bom Canadian who received his 
training at Montreal) is my successor as chairman of the Queens 
College Economics Department with whom I have had to remain in 
contact through his secretary; in this connection I had plann- 
ed to send him three offprints of 

»»A Fifteenth-Century Humanistic Bestseller [Brtini's Latin Ver- 
sion of the pseudo-Aristotelian Oeconomica]" in "Philosophy and 
Humanism", Renaissance Essays in Honor of Paul Oskar Kristeller 
(Leiden [Holland] « Brill, 1976), pp. 129 - 143 (a sequel of 
my »»Bruni and his Public"). 


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New York, April 3, 1975 

Dear Ruth, 

we have to thank you still for your gracious lines and your 
kind wishes for our Christmas, We we^e so heppy to hear about 
your family and to learn that you finally have acquired a daugh- 
ter, even if only '*in law**. She should have brightened your 
holiday cna enlivened the spirit of your house. 

Ve should have liked to requite your greetings at once or, 
if possible, even to anticipate them by the cxpression of our 
good thoughts of you all. But as it happened, the niril poured 
down on us (instead of the snow) and we were inundated so quick- 
ly that we have had to give up our Intention of reciprocating 
promptly» After all, snon I shall be 70 years <ff age while Gre- 
tel is still trailing by 30 months tehind re. Yet we do not 
coTint the tiine but the blepr>ings tha eiie ours ? we both are 
enjoying my retirement (now four years in effect) and this with 
our five senses still intact. The winter in Ilew York was mild; 
in fact, too much so as we have had no snow orr cold waves« Gre- 
tel was enviously thinking of you up North, particularljr those 
of you at Burks Falls who must have had plenty of snow. V. int er 
began seriously only one month ago when in fact 3prin/- should 
have st. rted. But why should the weather be more normal than 
the inhabitants of this earth ? The contlnuous cris s in all 
four Corners of the globe £re indeed depressing and frustrj';ting 
in so far as we cannot do anythly:^'- to alleviate them. 

The more v/e are thankful that we ;-:re in comparatively satis- 
factory health» Gretel war most probiibly still benefiting from 
the strength she had accumulrted during the sunmer on the farm. 
I, in contrast, was bothered from all sorts of minor discomforts 
during the v/inter - a season I do not take as well as Gretel does. 
But my main weak spots, arthritis and emphysema, i re not worsen- 
ing and are being made more bearnble through my annual trips to 
Lurope» Last suFicer I spent one entire month (August) at Baden- 
weiler, L aplendid spa right at the foot of the Black Forest en- 
joying the envigorating alr from the rourtains anc woodf^« Before 
and after this stay for inten£?ive treatments I wa? trovelling in 
quiet places in Southern Germany where the atr osphere is still 
clean and I finally left ?Jurope by the rriddle of üc tober from. 
Zürich which I had not seen for 36 years« In addition to thcse 
leisurly pursuits during the hot months I am, vhen home, still 
at work on scientific projects (only refraining from teaching 

on which my physicians were 
ment) • 

f romiln^ Et the time of my rotire- 

Perhaps that will give you an idet of the changes that have 
have oocurred in our life since the unf orgettable days at Lake 
Bernard. What has not changed at all is our attachment to you, 
dear Ruth, and to your family 6n all generations. And that is 
the reason why I x ostponed my response t:^ your cheerinr Christ- 
mias-leiter not to Easter but to your birthday. iäay it be as hap- 
py a one as we wish it to be and m>ay the new year of your life 

he as fulfllling as the test ones in your pest« 

Give our regards to everyone v/ho rexrembers us and take the 
best one yourself from 

yours as always, 

Deceiyber 21, 1970 

Uear Ruth, 

Many thonlcs for your ^ood lines for Christ- 
xnaas ?.e were sorry to hear thst your nrother was 
in the hosi^ital sorr;© tirre t:£0 and that yoii are 
üubious ',?/hether she can manage her houre by her- 
seif, But if that v;as her wißh, I thinir you 
shoulci let her cio it. 

Of course, that Aubrvy's wife was hospitaliz- 

ea at th. sace time ana in the s&i,:;€' place, nuf5t 
have put a strain on you; /et she is (we suipos^) 
still younß and she shoulu ^ei over •/;h: tev r ail- 
Eient she was sufferirig from ßiore easily. 

On the other hand, your mer: seein jto cause you 
less worry, flow Gretel was envyirg f-oss ant; Scott 
for tjbaüing on siiov '^hile putting the lights on 
the tree in front of your house; .-e h^ve hr:u no 
snow in the city thus far. If r^cott is a bit on 
the ficKle side, don't take that too serious; he 
is siill a boy amd the youngest of all vhich in 
itself is enough to get spolled. 

From US you will hear more Gfter the holidays. 
"e both were away froir the city froro the niciüle 
of July to the ciidüle of üctober; Gretel w?!S up 
on the farEi to recover fron a hara year - the 
last of ffiy 26 of Services at the College - and I 
was ag- in in Gerciany, but this tlBse in the orth- 
exn part bec u: e the physicians thought the treat- 
Kcnts therc would be iLore e "^'ective than the ones 
I have had last year« But after corrdng h :me, v;e 
both found it dif l'icul . to revtijust to the city 
and I, in particular, \ aK not quite as well as ^ 
I expected to be« But then, i do have prepare *^to 
for retirement which v.ill stert actually in Feb- 

r7'-»»i»W-"^— »■•" 

iir.ini'i >••■>«.">■ \»"/^ • 

YUBTy and which should give f?e xrore lelsure for 

corresi^ondence. Kight now, i have got to finlsh 

E leamed paier bcfore the end of the year anu 

that adus to the other burdens. 

So, ilease, be patient and rcceit meanuhile, 
for yourself and your farily, all good thougbts 
and *vi5-hes fron Gre tel Q.nü 

yoT rs, 





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A C>-L<-e-./ 

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1 ■ 

N»w Törk, j«c»«b»r 17,1968 

You hiiT» not h«erd froa at« for e long tiae. My 
l«tt9r plann»d for thia suamer In r»ply to yoor lines 
of last ChristffiPs dii not afit^rif lis«. 

It was of cours» th« unrel^sting prvssar» of work 
whicii followed a» iato cur staj in th^ country,too; 
but It wf^s not thifl nlona. In fac» of tha accuauiet- 
«d fatigu« throngh unabat^^d professional strain and 
tha axoiting »v<»nta in tu» nntion ay haalth gaya way 
and ao I just aitddlea throagh th^ patt twalT«? aonths. 
In tha not too distant fatar», perhaps toon aft^r tha 
tJrn of tha year, you aay leara of aoiae aor«» plaasant 
daTelopa'^nts in my lif». 

At prasant I aa confining ays*lf to thas«? graet- 
ing« born froa fr^quönt thoughta concorning you ana 
your faaily, particularly Hess' unsatisfactory physio- 
al oondition, and froa the desira to lat you knovr 
that wa both are reaeab^ring you st this S'i^fiäon as 
auch as in th« thrao othars, 

ITith kind^st ragerda to Hoas «nd your boys 

fonttly yours. 

rnnr " ■ %%yi •■• ^ *'■"" i «^ww^Tw^'^w-rw^^i^» ■ r 

Deceznber 20,1967 


De?^r Ruth, 

Many th-nics for your good liries. They 
cheered and grleved us at the sarre time. 

Te were so saddened t-^ leern thnt Boss 
has not been well for the past six months. 
Ordinär ily, one should recover reasily from 
an appendectomy (as we both know from experl- 
ence; anu one does, provided that It is fol'- 
lowed by a period of rest, But if Ross drives 
himself so hard as you sald, then of course 
the pay-off cocies Ister and It is the more 
painful» Ve hope you can con ince him that 
the present rest, inconvenlent as It might be 
to him, will restore his health if afterward 
he only would restrj in his ambition^^ for a 
while« .'e have little doubt thf t he will ac- 
complish bis goal event ally; if not at once, 
then a bit later» A delay does not matter so 
much vvhile you are still young whlle good 
health is iiuportant at ?5ll, Perhr'^ps, 
he can see our point. At any rate, we ^*fif?h 
for the sake of you all that he s'^on will get 
over his iroißentary weakness ? nd th' t h' will 
be able to res\U23e his activities refxeshed 
but c&utiously 30 as to makc the Coming year 
a happier for himself rtnd for his fair ily» 

Ön the other hand, your report about your 
sons sounded e cellent anvi we were the happier 
alout their gratifying progress. You and Ross 
have every reason to be proud of such flne 
chiluren; we gladly share your you about them« 


lliat you werc telling us ab out the chsnges 
around Lake Bemr^rd Intere^^ted ur smch indeed. 
You ßj; y be sure thßt we are 5 tili dreanilng of 
visitin/^ the new cottnges one d::/ '^ird to de «so 
tegcthcr wlth you* Let's hope cur ir;utu?^l dre^m 
will corce truc In the not so dl ?^ taut future, 

You bave not heard froic ur- foi' some time. 
It ivas certainly not for£retfulness on our part* 
The sole reason for my silence was the fact 
that I was terribly busy for the past tT.o years» 
■hat kept me so occupied I sh.^'ll teil you as 
acori as I have a breathing spell« Pleese, have 
sorr>e patience ivitb itq» At least, we reror^lned 
v.'ell in Gpite of ro much hüstle and bustle, 

For the monent, tßke our warinest thou hts 
which keep w.:;ndering in your direction and f-ll 
good A'ishes for a pieasimt boliday inö the best 
of iuck in the coiEinj,' year. 

Kindest regards to r.ll of you froin Gretel 

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Diamond Point, N.Y., September 4, 


Dear Ruth, 

Your letter frono early June gave us so much joy thtt I rrr reßlly 
sorry for replying to it so late. 

Ve were so happy to hear from you and to ret a re^ ort ßbout the 
entlre fair.ily which soundcd vcxy goöd inueed. That Rosa has chan^Pjed 
his Position at the beginninip* of the year was first r^te nev;s to us; 
we were iiKSt a^ tiafied to learn that the period of adjustnient to his 
new place - an event,trying for everyone and at all tir? s - wps over 
at the tiire of your writing ar-d apparently with good success. That 
David went so far Morth sounded quite exciting to us; you may reme»- 
ber that we are perennial ly dreaiting of a trip to the iludson Bay tmd 
we surinlsc that It nsust be at least this fnr north that David has been 
stc^tioned. V- do hopo that you could nffford spcnding one wcek with 
him in the Sumirer as you had planned,if only to see that there are 
girl?. there, beslues be;.rs,and that he had o rood tiroe with the foriDcr« 
Wayne most probably did bettor on his exaros than you feared when writ- 
in^^- US :inü Scott, we in: ginc,en.)oyö being coddlcd by ev-^ryone. It is 
about tir;.e that we saw a picture of him; would you consider our wish ? 

AlsOjit vas good news to us to leam from you that your mother is 
doin^rr well tm6 th* t in late Spring and early Guirjrer she apparently was 
visited by practically all her grnndchlldren besides by Aubrcy and 
Mary as well as by you and Ross. The 3ir.ithe3,we vould gue5S,nre any- 
how nearby all yoar round. Thus,all parties concerned should be aatis- 
fied \tith the present arrangement. 

Then you viere 7a-iting,you had ^ust rcturned fror, your four day 
stay at Ottawa, and every word reflccted the stinjulrtlon of this ex- 
cujr^ion to your Cfipital City* te really are adislring your initiative 
in undertaking all these journeys ?md we sincerrly hope that next ye^r 
we shiill bönafit from it whon you are p'^/lnp; an overaue vinit to I^'ew 
York - overdue,that is,froir: our viewpoint# We suppof^e you will arrange 
your trip so th- t you will also havo a ,f^liini.<3e of the V/orld*s Fair 
which we have not seen yet. If all goes well,then we shall take a look 
at It be^'oro we can .)oin you at this occ-ision. Unlii<e you and Ross, 
we have been lately very euch bound to our home and th?;t is probably 
another ^vay of aaylng thit we havo gro-n oldor rs'id roKevhat sluggish, 
in our actions at least if not in our thought-^ and wisbes. 

Sven if we ahould try hiding the fact that we vre going on in years 
our renp ctive familiea do not let u^ f In May -^nd June \ve 
were incessantly celebrating pleesant occasions in Grctel's familyt 
our nephew (now '?2),the son of Gretcl's ^iisteryi^ini-hed Collage and, 
shortly before the t, he became fa ther of a second child,thus m. icing us 
oncc rcore ^^randaunt and graaduncle ,and our nieoe (now lB),the daughter 
of Gretel*s sister,graduated from High Sohool and will now nater Col- 

• 2 - 

lege. Thls strlng of enjoyable eventf^ added to the tradltional pres- 
surt of a crotf^ded schedule in my piofefsionfel life at that tinie of 
yetiX. In the courae of this comitvotion I missed «cndlng cur birthday 
grcetinf^s to lioss^üiuch as we v/ere thinKing oT it; jt^lease, teil him, 
hcv f.orry v;e are for this Omission. 

At the beirinning of July we were moving up to the 
Adirondacüs whers we wer® spending our sunaer^as has 
in so irany years,ar\d from where I air writin^ you. Gre 
thic. activity in farm life,mainly tending sßall anima 
ing busy in the fresh irountain air,to strengthen her 
enruing rilrie aionths ir^i the cityj to our pleasure ,sh^. 
well in the year past. I,in turn^rasre good use of the 
in my studies anci ;vriting. 7;'e shall rar. ain here until 
teaiber and then,upon our return to the clty,begln ano 
ceric yoar. V.e bf:ve not givcn i;p hops o'' changir.g thi 
forseeable future|for one sev«äßon at Iob- t,rnd,wheneve 
thou^:bt, thcr Cntario t.. our r:ir.d 'jvith all the p 
tions of years ^one by. 

farm in the 
become our habit 
tcl still needs 
Is ana thus keep- 
health for the 
took them quite 
bucolic Qtiietude 
the end of 3ep- 
ther he tic ada- 
s routine in the 
r we ponder that 
lea&ant recollec- 

Keeptwell,Huth,give our regards to Ross Bnd take the forest thou^hti] 







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Diamond Polnt,iUY#, August 26,1963 

D%ar Ruth, 

i have to th'csnk you still for your good lettcr of July 14 which 
was forw.'irded here to our surii;er place • vi'hen it arrived I was in the 
aiddle of strenuous ivork and I h^^ve not Interrupt ed it until now, 
Gretel,in turn, was busy with her ohoreß on thc form enu with rest- 

We ap; reciated it very iruch thfi you tolo up so m^my inte esting 
details about your very active life then. I prer^tune that by now you 
have returncd froc. Burks Falls v-ith your tv;o boys. W©ll,we cnn see 
that it ip somewhat diffiicult to find a good Solution ^ or your iroth- 
er* problem. In a way,lt is undcrstpndrble thrt r^he does not want 
to niove from her place and to live with one of her children • it 
v/ould r: ise all sorts of complic^-stions on both side?. On the other 
handjshe ciCnnot cxpect her children to live with her; sll of you 
havo fh.mxyicv- on your own &nd thur rriore than Visits are out of the 
question. Perh? ps,while you werc up therG,evidently with your sister 
and Aubrcy,you might hnve thought up soine way out of this dilemana. 

Eut is not your sisler livipg pretty clof:e to your mother ? ?>e 
werc quite surprised to learn that she is now studying and prepor- 
Ing for a teachinr carc^er» It is so long agOithst we fcet the Smith- 
es; but we think to remember that they hßve h* d !* t ler»st tv^o daught- 
ers* Coe:v this then mean^that her children are now old enought<>o 
give her sufficient time for pursuing her studies ? Kecently,! have 
had aciong my students a nuicber of woir.en in their Ij^te 30 's and earlyj 
40 *s with youjigsters in : chool who decided to continue their College 
education and to enter somc such career as your si5ter plane to do. 
I found them good students vho really enjoyed to be back in clf^ss- 
rcon' and to prepnre for a professlon on their own. 

You did not mention Aubrey: if you write us neyt tin:e,don't for- 
get to teil US QOiaethin^: about him* Is he still in Niagara Falls ? 
te so often think of hi!T;,particularly if we are seelng here a young 
man,a g ißse warden who lives near this farm -find sorrehow reseinble» 
Aubrey in vrrious wrys« 

Also surprising to us caise your ir.ertion that Drvid v;ent to New 
Mexico» W- s it for caniping or in connection with school activities ? 
He niust be quite soase young man by now. I did not know th' t he was 
not too fond of girl.n; but this is normal for a serious young m?:.n 
of his age and one dry he moy wore than make up for it, Whr>t was 
his probleE with the foot ball teazn ? Is he not fond of sports - I 
always thoiight the contrary - and perhapß bookish ? 

How are Tf*ayne and Scott Coming along ? Scott rriust h^ve hnd a 
wonderful time up at Burks Falls, bcing so young ^n6 probsbly codd- 
led by everybody,cost of all by his grendr^other. 

- 2 - 

But the great Sensation, by now,will of course be Koss. You never 
exi lalried to us in what caiacity Ross was undertaklng his fasclnat- 
Ing irip. Aas it as a tourist or was he both,on a buslness trip and, 
?»'hat cannot be avolded on such occosion,ß vlslföor to thst erea that 
recently has becoire so much a vogue In trsvelling ? At any rate, he 
iDUst hsve beheld seine views and now can narrrte endlessly about the 
various impref^sions he had gntherr.d on h±^ lourney, 

Not ffiuch is to be reported about ourselves« The oper^itlon I have 
had rr,öntioned to you in Spring left nie a little more tired than I 
first realized. But in Spring, although my load at the College was 
reduced,X feit roore fatigued th^n usual end thu:^ ,when the end of 
the academic year came around,I decided that we would take a more 
oonser^rative course this surnnier than originally planned. Gretel too 
was somewhat worn out after all the family affairs I also had spoken 
of anü cfter so many months in the city attending,as rhc did,her 
husband's health. Thus,we wcnt again to the farni in the Adirondacks 
as so many years before,althou^h only at the beginning of July. 

The suir.mer was very uneven; July was very hot and AUißrust very 
cold. We were shivering when thinking of what kind of weather you 
iDust hove h.^d up in Burkr. Falls with the cold wave,s iroving rifrht 
through the country and on thcir way townrds us* I was v/orklng so 
hard tc coinplete one of my projects I have had in preparation l'or 
some ye^rs» It glued me to my typei^riter all the time while Gretel 
relaxed in this bucolic environrnent as she Is in the habit to do so 
as to strengthen her own health which was in need of some fortifica- 
tion, Mow,as the calendar inJicates - we would not know by the cli- 
mate which is rough and like autursn - surnEer is gone. I shall take 
a little rest,away from here - c?nd that rae^ns,für from my typewri- 
ter and the books -»before returning to the; city. Gretel v;ill stay 
another Eonth here so as to round out her recovery ♦ 

Please,write soon againi we rre so ha; py to hear froni you» Give 
our regards to Ross and all others in the f?:ißiily mentioned tma take 
the f endest thoughts froK Gretel and 



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(>yv^l .-G^it) -£>L^ ^ i(_,uUL^ -py^^ynn^ M^^y-o^ 



r- J.^»,^^-i 

-.♦c ^. 


May 9th,1963 

Dear Ruth» 

Your good letter of April 9 remained unans- 
wered for one month. Please,forglve us» 

I set out at once to write you and then agsln 
and figairijbut I was hardly able to say what I 
wanted to» The news of your father's death came 
to US so iauch as a shock and we were really lost 
für words* 01* course,we can iztagine,how terrible 
ii mxBt liave hit you to hear about it after you 
have had spoken to hiro the samo evening. Only 
much li^ter one can feel gratltude if a good man 
like your father was saved illness when the in- 
evitiiblö call came. We feel your aorrow vvith you 
and your mother and all those who are missing 
him as much as we ure. 

Easter wee'c was quite hectic with us as was 
the time prior to it. v?e v/cre expecting a baby 
in the Taüilly; it came on 'j^aster Sund'iy« Our only 
nephew,the son of Gretel's 8ister,married late 
last stuijuer and it was his v\ife,our acquired 
niöce (age 18),who gave birth to a son« This com- 
in« Sunday he will be T^aptized, 

hinter was harsh here,pcrhr-ps oven a 1: it more 
»0 than in Canada. Gretel tooir it well and she 
stayed all the time in the city. I was not so 
well. Late i-rst Ilovcmber I underv/ent soice sur- 
geiy in the kospital anu,although the maiter was 
not serious,I did not recuperate fully until 
3aster. Therefore my silence. 

We were happy with the good news ab out Ross 
and your boys« Is it not exciting to thlnk that 
Ross will go to Greecc in surmer ? If David, at 
the sanie tiine,will be in llew Mexico, then you will 
be alone with Y/ayne nnd Scott* Will you join your 
mothör at home or stay in your house ? But whhre- 
ever you will be,it seer s that Scott will feeep 
you plc-rsently busy* 


hope we shall hear from you soon and also 
about your plans. iv.eanwhile,;riv< our best regards 
to Ho'^s and cccept kinuest thou^^hts froi 

yours , 


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Ü9BT Kuth, 

Uay lü,1959 

fr© do hop© yery mach th«t you irill carry o it your 
pood Intention of coraing to New York for th© coming week- 
end 88 you hfive written in your Christmas lc»tter. ffe are 
looking forifftrd to at lepst hearing your voice ana^per- 
bops,<>ven seeing you in person. uur t©lepriOne numb ?r is 
ACademy 2-7206. 


I did not reply to your pl©P8Biit anncuncement ft once 
bec^ 130 I had no idea in Jecenber whather you will findi 
US both in New Zork. J*^ortunately,Gretel nra able to stay 
with US 8ince ah© left the country l^st November. Kecent 
chockr-ups hftve srxown th^t she has been restored to heelth 
pg^'in after almost two years of treptment. öut she will 
hrve to tßke a gooa rest in surmer which we plan to apend 
again in up-st^te Be^ York, Tha3,our trip to Cpnada will 
hare to be postpondd for the time being. 

üf© were so hpppy with the ]Dictures of Uani»! and 
Wayne, You can be really proud of your tvro sons and Ross 
ought to b© satiafied tu«t they are looking much like 
himr.elf. Also we wore delightod to learn th?>t Ross has 
mr de good prorress with his o?7n profe -sionpl plans whi;;h 
we nöT^er iüubt-?d he would do. Jo the Alexanders still re- 
ffiember us ? Well,we shall ^ive your o ir personal i;^re©t- 
in/?s for them whf?n we shall sreak to ©ach otner. 

JVaiting impatier.tly to hearing a,c:ain yoar voice 
have missed for so long a time, 


fündly yuirs, 

fMi. Cxes ■?//[ SoSfT souüefe: CcHZCT/OfJ- "Xijll /L— 

hA^cH 1%T- /vove nß^ I9j^s~ 



N^ujl^hN , fHiU 9 a. 

. ■ n 



Phil Newman*s Chapter [lll] on The Middle Ages 

The Medieval Environment • 

Bell,A History of Economic Thought, 60-69 

v;ith reference to Henri Pirenne, Economic and Social History 

and " " Medieval Cities 

The RediF^covery of Aristotle 

H.Rashdall,The Universities of Europe in the Midäle Ages,ed,by 
F.M.Powicke & A.B.Emden. Oxford: University Press, 1936; 
vol.l, pp. 351-560 

St. Thomas Aouinas 

Roll, 45-47; E.V/hittaker,Schools and Streams of Economic Thought, 
(Chicago, 1960), 16-18 

On Property 

E.Whittaker,A History of Economic Ider-.s (New York, 1943) ,185-186 
B.W.Dempsey,The Functional Economy (Prentice-Hall, 1958) ,164-183 

On Value and Price 

Roll, 46-47; James A. Gherity, Economic Thought (Nev^^ York:Random- 
House, 1965) ,4-41 (Dempsey, *Just Price* and De Roover,*The Concept 
of the Just Price' ) 

On Usury 

Roll, 47-51 (best presentation) ; Whittaker,A History, 518-523 
On IJoney (Nicholas Oresme) 

Roll, 51-52; A. E. Monroe, Early Economic Thought (Cambridge, 1924) ,81 ff 
The Decline of Scholasticism 

(1) Late Scholastics 
Schumpet er, History, 94-104 

(2) The Reformation 

Whittaker,Schools and Streams, 20-30; R.Lekachman (ed),The Vari- 
eties of Economics, vol.l (N.Y.rMeridian Books, 1962) ,68-112 

Phil Newman,Chapter II Mlddle Ages 

The Medieval Environment 

The Rediscovery of Aristotle. 

St. Thomas Aquinas 

On Property 

L Blank] 



jEl^ 14 

J3_r 18 
19 - 20 

[On Value Theory] 

21 - 23 



24 - 29 



[Biel & Late Scholr ptics J 




32 - 34 


[The Salamanca School] 

35 - 36 


The Decline of Scholasticism 

36 - 40 



- • ■ ■■■■- --i 










Th« Mediäval Environment 

It ia difficult to glve i* e huiy iiufi - nitio BF 
((ßAi£^ r[ i^i the term •Middle Aeas*. Older historical texte 

usual jCive the inclusive dates of this period ae 
476 B.C. to 1433 B.C., the date of the Fall of 
Constantinople • The Encyclopedia Britannica defines 
the period as that betwen the middle of the fifth to 
the Middle of the fifteenth Century. 

Because of the Barbarian invasions^ ancient cult;ure 
and thou^ht were largely destroyed and Standards had 
to be adapted to untutored minds« There was little 
original thinkingi on economics or^philosophy in 
general; inen were content to gi^n what fragments they 
could from thoir Grecian herita^^e and learn by rote« 
It is this period» particularly the earlier oo untrieo 
which have been cnlled the Mark ages'« To construct 
the histoiy and institutions of 1000 years, is obvi- 
ously ifflpor.sible in a book of this length. We must 




howevor give attention to those medleval institutlons 
and conditions which Influenoed the economic thoiight 
of these ten oenturies. And It is of oourse redicu- 
lous to think that there was no economic thought in 
the world bef ore Smith and Ricardo* Perhaps th« 
Problems of that time were different from ourSf per- 
haps %km econoxaic problems were interwined with 
legal, philosophical, and religious ones» but they 
existed» and were studied and analyzed vvith the 
tools of the day. 

For our purposest the s tady of the evolution 
of economic thou^^ht, it is convenient to divide this 
very long perl od of timeMinto two parts, the firat 
up to 1200 and thesecond» from 1200 to Ij^OO. During 
the first period there was a long process of confliet 
and synthesis between» Christian theology» Roman law^ 
Germanic custom and Greek philosophy* After 1200 9 the 
barbarian invasions had largely ceased and the people 
of Suropet including the invaders now settled down 
in their new homes had started on building nations 


and «von empires* The maln conc^rn of the thinkers 
of the tiine was the ^uiiainistrative systea» or rathert 
the arts of government* 

During the reiigious revivai of the eleventh 
Century the monastic Orders were reformed» The 
great popes of this time were also intereated in 
improvement of church govorninent and admlnis trat Ion 
and in the relationship between the Church and the 
rlsing kings and emperers« Both the popes and 
emp^^rsy in their desire for centraüzed control and 
administrative cohesion wi thin their domains were 
frustrated by the decentraiizing and atomistic 
effects of the feudal system which have come about 
as an aftermath of continued barbari£ui invasions« 
All Surope was split up into countless unitSf eaoh 
self-contained and even susceptible to further 
disintegration« The feudal lord was a petty sove- 
rsign in his doiaain and hiß vassals looked to hlmf 
and to no natlon-state for protection. The feudal 


holdings or fief.varied in size from a few manors 


to an empire but they had the same things in oommon« 
There was a rigid division for society by classi each 
with its own rights and duties« Instead of slayr^ry, 
as in ancient Oreece and Homei serfs, bound to th« 
land by feudal oath, worked the land* Artisans» 
often or^ranized into guilds, provided goods and sor* 
vices in the towne. 

The one unifyin^ influence in this chaotic 
era was the Catholic Church, which became more and 
more institutionalized and power ful with greater 
proper ty in Innd than most emperors, and with inany 
weaithy monastic Orders. Above all, the Church had 
a monopoly on education* Christian philosophy was 
the only form taucht in the universities of Kurope« 
St. Thomas was a university professor as well as a 
Saint and a cleric» He founded a school based on 
his doctrines and the influence of this school -*- 

usually calledi Scholastic or Canonist 


well past the Middle Ages, lu faul ^^»^^-Ätt» be^ir 

Li at the UnivoiBitj/ uf - 

eut üf lluti 

• • I 


inetittt tl^n» It should b« pointed out at thla 

time, that not all Scholastics thought alika on all 
probloms; sometiraes the Thoioists and the followers 
of Duns ScotuB differed.^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ «xampU 

Still» there was a thread of conslstency in 
all their writinga. liTaturully, as clericSf they 
were interested in problema of social Justics« Thia 
was an aspect of Christian athics v^/hich as we will 
seei was heavily interlarded with Ariatotean philoso- 
phy. Like Aristotla» St* Thomas tried to adapt tha 
teachings of the ideaistlc and fervent^ Pathos of tha 
Church to the realities of his own time« 

The Rediscovery of Aristotla 


Until tha twalfth Century there was little 
evidence of Oreek influence on the philosophy and 
thought of the Middle Ages« However, Aristotlean 
philosophy had been given a haven by Arab and Hebrew 
scholarst and through themt slowly crept into the 
oinds of the Christian West, By the thirteenth 


Century, it had so thoroughly permeated the thinicin^:» 
of the great Catholic thinki«^ that what amountt^d to 
a revolution In theolo/ric 1 thought took place» The 
jt^ result of this ferment was the synthesis of Chris- 
tian and Greek (Aristolean) philosophy into one great 

The principaX gpea t^ archicitects of this 
synthesis were; Albertus Magnus and hia great pupil 
St. Thomas Aguinas, both of the Aaerican Order» and 
Orosseteste» Alexander of Haies, St« Bonauentura, 
and Seens Scotus, all of the Aas^loan Order« These 
men found in the Aristotelean System a nade-to-order, 
and suberbly organized body of thought in sympathy 
with their own* Aristotle was adopted aa their own, 
and of ten is referred to in their writin^s as 'The 
Philosopher*, as if there were no other* 

I ^> 

To a considerable extent, scholaster intelleo- 
tual labors were direct^ to an exposition of Aristotelean 
doctrine and commentaries thereon. This will be 
cle^rly shown when we examine the more important 
teachings of the greaest of scholastic thinkers • 

St* Thomas A 





St. Thomas Aqtinas (1226-1274) 

The clearest and most profound expooltion 
of ffloral and politlcal phllosophy was given in th« 
thlrteenth Century by St. Thomas Aquinas in his 
monumental work SummaTheoloKia • which was nothing 
less than an attempt to fit into one comprehensiv« 
System the sum of man's knowledge in his own day» 

Aquinas was inf luenced in his views on ths 
nature of the sta e» proparty, exchange and Justice 
by his study of Aristotle« ^he son of a Neopoiitan 
noble of royal blood» he beca;iie acquainted with the 
Arabic tranalations of Aristotle*s works which were 
used extensively at the neighboring court of Frederick 
II in Sicily, which seemed to be a center of culture 
and a |)ridge to Arabic knowledge at the time* Lateri 
he Joined the Dominican Ordert and taught at various 
time in I fa pl ee Cologne S and Paris* 

His great contribution, the Summa Theolo/a^ica , 
was an attempt to harmonize Christianity with Aristo- 
telian philosophy* 


It WAS dl ficult tu reconclle the tradltlon«! 
averalon of Ui# Church to bur^ln«;-'^, acqulsltlon, and 
Intereat wifh the needo of the growing bour^eolule 
of the towns. The ^ro«th jmd t/Hde, and, to aom« extent, 
82iali-3C.ile inUuetry» darin/»' ihn later MiddXe Age« 
wrouf-ht ch'inc!(58 in a r,jcldty that hud previously oeen 
(ioain ited aiciturialy by f'judal iandholders» and 
öpirituiiliy by tho Church. 'ihe uveraion of the 
Church to bu.'^iness mid uioney ionaing became laore and 
rao e incongruoua ao the property of the Church grewp 
»nd «s it bociae an im ort an t borrovver and ieader^ 
of aoney« 

Conaequ^ntly, although 3t. Thoraas* teachingi 
possens a core of medievalism, they are rather 
advanced in oonie aep^cta. He held, for eynople» 
that priv ste property is beßt, not because of 
any n^»turnl lav, but boc^uöe it has beon proved 
best throii^^h exp^rienco. But whliti the ownership 
of /;5)ods j5hould be >rivate, the right to uee theee 
g..>od8 3houXd bo held in coiomon» so th^it the needy 


may have thelr »hure. Comnerce and tr^d« are 

aor.^.liy lewfui orily If pMrsuad fcr a lav.fui «nd, «uch 
as the secklng of nodest f:Hin for livßllhood or th© 
acqui«itlon of f,ain which Is ragardei, not i« an 
extorted prolit, but as & reward for thc merchant*s 

Qhargin^: xntorest on ioaus ia moruxiy «rong 
becfiuse payownt is oxactod tgr use which is insepu- 
rable from the tnine usea - zaüney. ^^isOf a ptraoa 
is entltled to iiicoae oniy becauae he iaöor» or 
böcause he risks »om^ithing; oinc«? a borrovver t^alaa 
as a fruit of hl» cm labor, not aa fruit of th« 
loan, and sine?* landlag aoney is not conslder^d a 
risky Internst cnnnot be limtlfled. All i^oods and 
eo^raodltiaa nunt be sol 2 at *,he Ju«t price, deflned a« 
one Ahich will ^aable a selljr to ixialntHin the cufito- 
lapry stand rd of llvinr of hin claaa. 

In KO'ipinß vvith hl« principle that th« usufruct 
of all ^:ood» ahould dc ahared in coiimon, St. Thomaa 
drdw ihe furthfr ooncliJslon CMat t,he noödy hav© a 



"natur-l*' right to superfiuouG income« Both 

Church and State must be af^alust poverty becHus« 
it oauses 30 many sias aad crimes* 

^hls is the briefost ot suinmaries of 
Thomlst teachlngs. Sevaral important toplcs "dll 
be trented later on. 

It is la>:»oasible in ono chapter to examin« 
fully the illuainatin^; coanentavies in aany fields 
by St. Thomas. The li^nglish tranolation of hie 
Summa Theolo/^ica aione runs ^,o some twenty volumes, 
whiie the Irench edition of his cOiiipIote worlce» by 
Frette and tfare» runs to thirty-four voiuaes« 

In the rollo> iu^ pa^^esi we shail atteiipt to 
8ot forth Thouiistic tonchiti^a on the social and 
econoiaic probioms of his timo» und e^;peci<Aii^ oa 
propQrtyt usury» exchan^':e« and price. 

J/ References to Sumraa ^heoloÄ^iol herein are to the 
ßn^lish Trr.nslAtion by the Snglish American 
Fathera (3 parts in 20 volu-Ties, London 1911-1925. 
Horeafter referred to as Suiama). 

In the folXowlng excerpts on varlous oconomlo 
subject by St, Thonuaa, Ariatotelean Inf lu *nce I0 ovi- 
dont« One hao only to com )aro then with the «xoerpts 
from Aristotle in our preeedinf: eha ter to see this* 

First t the e Is the preferenc<3 for agrlcuiture 
and the dlstruat of trade mid t raders. St. Thomas 
advisGß ruiors of st t s th-xt an Influx of tradesman 
will resüit in economic vuln^rablllty in ti^^ie of war» 
moral corruption, nnd phy^icil slackne^^s, This 
preference for the sturdy yeoiaan coes bac/c to the 
Graoks and is found iauch Im ter on in the wrltings of 
the Physiocrats^Aquinaa has th^s to say on this subject 1 

It is aore admirMüla that a State should 
ponßer,3 an abund .nee of richos from its own 
soil thtm through coinmorc^i« For the ütaie 
which noeda a numbor of merchunte to maintain 
its suosistence is linble to be injured in wctr 
through a shorta^'e of food if coaaunic itions 
are in any way icipeded* Moreovor, the influx 
of 8trangf?rs corrupts the morals of many of 
the Citizens ••• whereast if the Citizens 
themselves to couLaercSf a door is opened to 
m^iny vices« For ..hen the desire of merchants 
is inclinod ßro'itly to ff in, cupldity is 
aroused in the hoarts of d^iny Citizens« ••« For 
the pureuit of a znerchrint is as contrary as 
püBsiblo to milit.iry exertlon« for aerohants 
abstain from labour' , and whiie they enjoy the 
good thinra of lii j^ they bocome soft in aind 
and their budies are rendered ttenk. and unsuit- 
able for military exercises. J/ 

J/ De He^^imino Principum, ii.3« 


Whlle agriculturo io to h% proferred to trad« 
howovort St. Thom/is statas tfvit tradlng for galn is 
Qo sin and not llief:al if the reault nt gain is used 

for 80219 worthy end. In facti if a man 


trad« to assur« his oountry th« necoositioa of life» 
it may indood be praiseworthy - a Just r«ward for his 
labor« In the worda of the Saint t 

* *Trads ia Justly deaerving of blaosi 
bec une, conaldared in itsdlff it satiaflss 
the greed for gain» which knows no litaitf 
and t nds to inflnity, Hanco tradin^, conai- 
dered in itseif» haa a ctTtain debaaement 
attuching thoreto» in ro far as, by its very 
UiturSf i^ does not impXy a virtuoua or 
n^iceTsary end. NevorthelöLS ^ain» which is 
the end of traüine» thou/^h not iiaplying, by 
its nature, anyt'iin^ virtuoua or nece&^ary, 
does not» in itseif, eonnote anythin^ ainful 
or contrary to vir tue; wherefore not hing 
prevonts (cain from being directed to soae 
noceaaary or even virtuoua end, and thus 
tr iding becomea lawfuX» Thua, for inatance, 
a mtm oay int 3nd the moderate ^ain which he 
seeka to acquiro by traüinc for the upkeep 
of hia household, or for tho assiatance of 
the needyi or arain, a cma may tak;e to trade 
for 9ome public advanta^-e - for instance, 
leot hia country lack the necesaaries of life 
and seok gain, not as an end, but aa payaent 
for hia labor*. ^/ 


Smmaa , 9^. Gf%. II. ii. 77,4 


While it is trutt that the Catholio Churoh 

emph&sizad the dlgnity of labor and the ein of sioth, 
It rccoijnizedi th«t dlfforent ^)aople had diffaront 
ttilents, and could serve Cod and th©lr fdliow men by 
dolrv? the ^vork for v/hioh they were best fitted« Mental 
labor was equal nonorable and noae aen must b« reli«ved 
of the need for phy.'slcnl Inbor so th it they could 
conc<?ntrate on the actlvltios for whlch they were best 
eulted. To quote St. Thomas t 

*Becau8e .Ciiny thln^cs are necessary to 
huojDn llfe, v.lth vhlch one laan c^-mot provlde 
hlmselfi it ia nöceasary that diffe ent 
thln^s shuuld be done by dlfferent peoplei 
therefore soae are tiliers of the r^oilf soiae 
are ralsera of oattle» some are bulldersf 
and so on| and, because hujmn life doea not 
simpiy a,an corpor )1 thin^Si but still Qore 
Spiritual thin^s, therefore it is nocessary 
that r.ome peopld should be released from Che 
care of attondin^ to temporal matters. This 
diatribution of differant Offices aaongst 
differont people is in accordanc«i^ with Dlvine 
providsnce'. j/ 

2/ Summa, O^.Ctt. lii. 134 


BecKus« of this baslc inequality of ment •0£M 
are deatined to be slave and others to dlrect then« 
Thi« WAS the «ssence of Arl8totl«*8 teachlnp8 on the 
subject and St« Thomas foXlowa his intollectual aaat^r 
on thia subject aa on many othera» In hla wordsi 

Hatura daoroos that thera nhould ba 
gradaa in man as in othar thinga* Wa aea thia 
in the eiaiaentSf a suparior and an infariori 
we aea in ev try mlxcure that aoiaa ona alamant 
pradomlnatea« ••• Für we aae thia also in tha 
raiation of tha body and tha Jiind, aad in tha 
powers of the mlnd cx)mpHrad with ona anothar; 
bec iU3a some ara ordainad towards ordaring and 
movin^:» auch aa the undaratandlnfj and the 
will; othera to aerving« So ahould it ba among 
moni '»nd thus it ia provad that Qoma are alavea 
aocordin^j; to natura« Some laciC reaaon through 
aome defect of mituro; and such ought to ba 
aubjected to servile worka becauae thay C'innot 
uso thcir reaaon, and thia is aiiied tha 
natural law« • J/ 

Howevor, St» Thomas alao followa the doctrina 
of St» Auguatine v^ho hold that the Institution of ilavery 
had ita ori^in in original ain, by which aanhood loat 
its right to fraedom. All thia waa in accord with tha 
dominant thouf^ht of antiquity« For axamplet in Roman 

law, thero is the principle that alavery ia the rasult 


of conqueat, the confuered becBme alavea aa the price 
for their livea« 


De Regimine Principum, ii« 10« 


A v^iTd ot oaution oust bo interpaaed at this t 
an using tb« fflMÜ Thff*^^^^ *• * baaie toure«« First 

of nJilf the fiioiiü is preoicely «^t it8 nane indioat^s^ a 
eoapendluQi an apltga«! a resuaa« The treatnant^lSi thera« 
fora» eoaplata but cgnpraasadf iVidieaJL prinoiples^ laid 
down wlth tha groataet ecjngiQy af axpras&ijn^ aust ba raad 
wltb aara lort tha bravlty laa<2 ui^ to ballave th^t tha 
subjdcte troäitad are nat Im, wtf^tant« 

eacortdl/y the imttUkf ^^^ writton lata in st, Thottas* 
lifo and ropraf nts, thy «f jr^o, Mc a xtu^o thought» But 
f or tha r^usa rrias^ it als^ presuiiposae kno^t^lod^a sjf bis 
m-TliiT wrltinr:^. 6t. fhjoac doos not hasltate to quota 
hls oyn a^^rll^^r «^jrks as soure^a and autlioritlas« Xt would 
ba 1». osslbla^ tha^^afa^a, to attanpt to foUow St« Thosas* 
thou^ht In tha iiUfiiafk wlthjut refarrin^: to othar yritlnga 
of hla» cbiafly, tha fniBn^intlfirlfin ^ 4rlatotlas* StMca 
and tha PoIitieg^ V 

J^ Raf ar^ncaa to tiia ftftffmi "^ ^^^-^^^f^ heroln ara to tha 
^4iii«h Trunsiatiün by tha ijngllsh Dgmlnioun Fathara 
(3 Ports in SO volufflaai l«ondgn I911*ll>f6« Haraaftar 
rafarrad to uß 

On Proper ty 

Scholaatlc terichlng cortalnly did not 

advocate cojiaunal property but it «qually opp08#d 
the unr#gulatod uaa of property. Prop«rty, th#y 
feit, should b« private, but It shouid b« freely 
ahared and uaed in a manner not adverae to the 
public intereat. 

Howevvir, thore wore niany Chrlatiaa a^icts 
in the Miü-ile Agea vho advocated coiiLaunai property 
and diötivuvfod rivatu property righta, but thelr 
taachtft£Ae A-ere conüidored heretlcai. Chief aiaong 
theae 8:cta >?i^rQ the ÄiJ^lgenaes , the Vaudiia, the 
Apoatoli wid vhe FiatiCölll, and of courae laonaatic 
ordera heid m11 prc»*>ert,/ in coa»üon# 

St. Thoaaa hiiiyself follow« Ariatotle in 
/holding that proper ty should be prlvtely held but 
uaed for t^lc conmon bonefit. On the ©ubject of 
the use of property he haa thua to aayt 

.•.•• The S5Cond thln^ that ia compe- 
tent to laan with regard to «Cernal 
thinga ia thelr uae. In thla rea- 
pect man ought to poaseaa externaX 


thin^s not as hls owni but aa coizunon 
so that to wit» he is ready to coa- 
auaicat« theo to othera in thoir need" J/ 

Lik« Aristotlo, Amnlaa thought that the 
Institution of private proper ty was the most 
practical and workable aethod of raobilizin^^ and 
utilizing laau-^rial resources for the coraiaon ^ood» 
Thesöf Droperty ri^;hts wer« not absolute, but 
conditional on bein^^ ußed for the bonefit of 
sxjiety» If a property ownor was aisuain^ hls 
property in an un-Christian way, he oould be 
forced to a.nd his ways, and as a last re3ort his 
property could be expropriated for the comaon 

In other words the Catholic philcsophers 
advocated a coi&murilty of users of Lhe vforld's {^oods 
handed down by God for all His childron, but tole- 
rated privo^te property if it was usod for househoXd 

1/ guaaiL « Oj*T^U. II ii, 66, 2 . See, Ibid II. ii. 
IIB, 4 on the ain of avarice, "Money Grubber" 
and "miser** are ancient terias of approbriun» 

znaintQn^incoi charity und good works. Th« Greciaa 

influonc« in this attituda Is cloarly apparent« 

The Church 

, offe 

oursü, was a large property 

ov.nsr itself in the Mlddle Ag^Sy so it has been 



accused of hypoeri^ in its attitudes towards 
private property. Catholic writers defend a^ainst thia otisr 
Charge by poiniine out that the ecoleaiasticai estates 
were often oentars of charity and alues - giving* 



How«v«r, tho ri^ht to proper ty in th« 
Thosiistlo schMMi was n«ver absoluta« Ths worda* 
goods war« to ba sharad by all-^ccording to thalr 
Station. Tha proparty hoidar was a trustee and ha 
Bust ba opan-handed and oharitabla« In caaas of 
dira nacassity» tha poor could taka tha proparty 
of anothar sacratly and not ba quitly^of thaft. 

To quota St* Thoaast 

Tha othar relavion to axtarnai things 
is tnelr uso and aa far as this gofsst no man ought 
to have anything propar to hiaself but all in 
coinmon so that thus oach oiay coomunicate aäisiiy 
to anothar hia necassl '^ias. Hance says tha 
ApostlSf "Charfra the rieh of this worXd not to ba 
haughty or to sat their hopa on tha uncertainty 
of richas. ••• To do good, to ba rieh in guod 
workSf to ba open-*handad and genarjus«** ••• And 
tharafore tha Jlvlsion of foods tfiat ,r jcaeds 
from hunn^m law caunot coiüa in tho way oT oan's 
naad of boin^, reliaved out of auch goods« ••• To usa 
tha proporty of anothar , taking it sacretly in a 
casa of axtroma naod Cixiinot» propa-ly speaking, 
ba oharactarlzad ao thaft* J/ ^ 

1/ Sumaa Theolor.ica « 2a, taa» q. 66. 



The prlce :>ald must be sufficleat to oalntain 

the producer accordia^ to hl« Station in life» During 
tho Middle Ag#8 the guilds wer© aechanisms for 
re/^lating Output, quality» and prioo. Tb« citios 
also went in for price and wage fixing on ft consider- 
able scHie. On th« othor hund there wats le^:ialatlon 
ÄgainBt nöonopolies, beciuee they rmiaed pricea hl>'her 
than they otherwiae ^ juld be, 

But how was one to det rmine vvhat the firsi just 
prlce wael So^ie writers haa said that the Just prioe 

was the maricot ,>riCG at that ti^ao and place. But 

thdt doeenU teil ua how this cousonsus of what the 

price shüuld be de-vt^lopa. 

In at lo^st ono ;)a»iiHge St. Thoaaü appe ra to 


follow Ariototle almost vorüatioii and to f^rope towards 
a labor th<rory of vaiue. "e ^o b^iCK to Aristotle 
ex^a l03 üf the exch m^e of «hoes for houaes when St. 
Thorflee aayai 

Juatice will be aerved if ao many 
shoea be ivon in ex Chance Tor a hüuae or 
the food aa tiie builder or the fanaer exoeeda 
tlKi cobbler in labour a.iu coats ••• The «irta 
will be deatroyed if the woricaan v.ho haa jjade 


Bome articlo does not rooeiv« for it 
anothor articio sliallar In quantlty 
and quaXity. One xoan's labour aust 
be compared wlth tinoth^r^s If th» 
•xchan/^e is to be just. ^Z 

J/ 3. Thoaiae, Oj^era Ooniat Sancti Thomae Aqulnatl» 
In Ariatotelis* 

Uctlo VIII, 171, Lactlo VII, 16ö. 

; > 

St. Thoraas • arvilysis was not Oärriod farther, 
and la f ar fron, a w«llHlevalopsd labor theory of valu«. 

St. Thomas enjoys a hii-^her authorlty among 
Cathüllca than any other wrltar on social subjJCtSt 
•speciaily since his Views were endorsed by Pope Lso 

XIII in his encyclical Aetsrni i^atris in 1379. 

-'7- . •■ .^ C'/ /- ^ ^^- - ■>^^' ^" --^ ' • ^^-^ 

Th^ * PA#Wt|yB»^Q ft QS # fto* ¥ Byfr eatest and üiost authori- 

tative üf the Scholaotic writers, Schoiasticisa did 

not end with St. Thomas. As a matter of fact it was 

the later Scholastlcs who aade a greater contribution 

to economic analysis In the modern senae. 

It is difflcult to do Justice to Scholastlc 
thought between the fourteenth and aeventeenth Century 
becsjuae it ms the product of ;:iiany persona in many 
places. In the later periods, there are questions 
whether certain writers were Scholastics or Sfereaa4> 

^ » 

irlists, since the two streana of thou^ht oonverged in 
the seventeonth Century. 

Perhaps, it ia best t,^ Single out a few of the 
more röpröswatative Schoiastic writers of the post- 
Thozoiist era and trexat them in some detail. 

♦ • 



The Scholaotic taachiiv^'S on usury ar« not 

1 2 

unique. Both tho H«brew and Uohasimedan roXlgions 

prohibit uaury and as ose have seeut Arlatotle oon8i<- 

dered reoney 8taril«t ^md a aere mediuia of «xchang« 

and measure of value« Thua, to take uaury for monay 

was to seil «ihat does not exist. Aqulnas reasona 

alouf?: muoh tho saiae lines as la shown by the followlng 

axcerpt f roa Sumraa Thaologlai 

• • * 

Wow laonay, according to tha 
Philosopher ••• waa invented chiefly for tha 
purp 08a of axchf^nf^ei and comiequeatiy tha 
proper and prlncipaX uae of laonoy is ita 
conaumptlon or alianation whereby it is sunic 
in exciiange« ^^ence it ia by its very natura 
uniawful to taka payaent for the uso of 
money lüntf whlch payiaont ia inown as uaury s 
and Juat as a nan la bjund to reatore other 
iXl-gotten ^^oodö, so is ha bound to roatoro 
tha money which he haa taican in ueury* ••• ^ 

J/ For ajcample 8 ae the Old Taataitwntf ßxodua. XXII» 2^, 
and Lev. XXV, 35« It was Cündaianad atrongly by 
miny of the oropheta of the Old Teataraent* aee» o.g. 
Esak, xviii, 13f Jor. XV, 10, ?a xlv, 5 cix 11, 
oxvii 5 ?rov, xxviii, 8 Hes, xvlil, 8. However, tha 
iaking of interest ffoai fureigners i8 permittad 
(Daut. XXIII, 19). 

^ For Mualim prohibltlon of usury aee Koran, ii, 30. 

Jj/ In both Creaoe and Hoae, howevar, the tsücin^; of 

interest was porioltted by civil law «hlie condemned 
by philoBophara and looraliata* 

4/ Suimna , Op.Clt. II li, 73, 

How«v9r, Mm oiay rcnt out a hous« whil« 

retaining ownership, and aako a Charge » reatf for th« 

une of th« hous«. To A^lnas th« ••loan'* or rental 

of a funig^bX« |^t$, was not a loan at all but really 

a aal«. The re for« It was the portant in ^udgln^ any 

tranaactlon to set» whethor it was a loan (autuum) or 

another kind of contract. It was the form of contractu 

not the p«tt«"Of interest charged which deter^ained 


üsury was any incroraent, whether large or 
insif^ificant» on a muttttui , or strai^^ht loan. Conaa- 
quintly, it is not a mattar of rate, but a aatter of 
contract. Usury strictly speaking was present only in 
a loan, »vhether expXicit (or open) or impiicit or 
conoealea unaer the fora of another contract. Thi» ia 
rarely eaphasized enough and ia of great theoretical 
and practica 1 ia.^ortance« The acholaatic definition 
enabled the bankers to elude the usury prohibition by 
operating on the exchange« They argued, and the 
theologians agraed, that a oambium (the »nirchaae of a 

• • 


bin of «xchaii^«) was not a mutuvm and, hencot ther« 
was no usury* Of oourse, interest was conesaied in 
the exchan^e rates, but the th^ologians eith«r did 
not flfnare out how thls was done or clossd thelr «yss« 

In my cäsoi we now know sxaotly how the merchants nade 

a Profit by specuiatlng on the sxchangs« 

Jh -iv'! I 

J/ In civil law a legai dlatinction was made between 

thoss thla^s which are coosumed in uss (res fungibiles) 
and those not so consumod (ros non-fungibles). 

2/ I ans deeply indobted to Profecsor Raymond de Roover 
for brin«r;lng this polnt to loy attention. 

I • 


the 0t«rllity of moti^^ ^ aad of the aviX of lacücing 
aoney for Iho saK9 of m^iking money* 

Howevorf the soholastic traders were abie to 
aiake subtle distinctloos which permitted repaymeat 
of a 8um larf;er than the principal borrowed« It was 
common practice to attach a clause to the original 
loan contract that a penaity be <)aid if the loan ^naa 
not paid on time. Thia r^ractice was called poena 
Conventionalis and was considered perfectly propar. 

There were othor exe ptions to the prohlbition 
a^^ainat usury. Ono ^as c iied daranuia emergens» wfiore 
the lender suffers an actual loss as the result of a 
loan. In such a Situation» says St. Thoxoas, the 
lendor is entitled to compensation. 

A londer aay without sin ontar an 
agroeaont with the borrovver for coapensition 
for the losa he incurs of somethin^^ he ou/rht 
to h.i e» for thls is not to seil the use of 
money» but to avoid a loss. It loay also 
happon thr t the borrower avoids a greater 
loss than the lender incurs» wherefore the 
borrovver aay repay the lender with what hs 
has gained. j/ 

1/ Summa , Op. Cit. II. ii. 78f2, ad. 1. 

( • 

^ 28. 
Ther« Is ooa« confualon amoiv: the ^hoia:;tlC8 

BM to whether prohibitlon of usury applied to ioans 

for productlvo purposei}« It la signifiCMnt t^ it this 

qu<;3tion «ms not «ettied until 174p by an dncy«lio««l 

of Popo Benedict XIV, 

It apptars that the t'Uln^ of interont v^a 
falrly prev lent in spite of two - lo^^ical «xhort tions 
ThU3, a decree of the Latorn Council of 1179 «tron^rly 
condQmned uaury stating that "almoat in ev^ry placot 
the criuje of usury had become so prevalent that aiany 
people rive up all other buriiness and becoiüe usurers, 
as if it were lawful**« And in 1 311 the Council of 

Vienna declared all civii^ logialation in favour of 

usury null and void. 


Prior to Aj(uAnau3t the theologiana oppoaed 
usiury on tho sai^e ground as the Bible imd the Xorani 
it was he who placed the Opposition on a philesophioal 
plane and related it to the Aristotelean conc^pts of 

J/ On thi3 3oe, George 0*Brien, Aja^t^aay on 'itoillevul 
^con^aii? -IflL-CWiif, f (London ^ 1 9i?0^pa(;e 1 62 • 

2/ Ibid. 174-175. 


Another Situation whore interest was porialtt«d 

was where the lender « by makin^; the ioant lost an 
opportualty to mojte a profit eise«''here. Thls typ« 
of transactlon waa oaiied luorua oeesavia« 

llor«ovdr, the lendoa aic:ht receive whatever 
paym^int the borrower mlt^ht be AÜllng to mixiei over 
and abovG the principal, as a toicon of gratltude. 
Says St* Thomas: 

Repaymont for a favour may be done in 
two ways. *In one way, as a debt of Justloei 
aud to such a debt a ioan m^xy be bound by a 
fixed contract; and Its amount Is meaaured 
according to the favour recilved* Whereforo 
the bo rower of money, or oAy such thing the 
use of which is its consuaptiont is not bound 
to repriy more than he recoivod in Ioan; and 
onsequcntly it is ur^inat Justice if he is 
obliged to pay baci^ aore. In another vmy a 
man* 8 obiiv?^tion to r^p^iyment for favour 
recoived is basod on a debt of friendship, 
and the natura of the debt depends more oa 
the feeliniiK with vvhich the f vour was con« 
ferrod th^in on the qua^tion of the favour 
itself« Thi3 deot does not carry with it a 
civil Obligation» involving a icind of nsosssity 
that would excludo the spont'>neous nature of 
such a repayment* J/ 

J/ Sunaa , Op* Cit* II. ii« 73, 2, ad« 2. 


Acoording to Blei, an important Scholastlo 
writer» tho just price ffl<^y be fix«d by th« rul«r 
by roforence to labor» costf the «tat« of th« 
aarketi und other cons iderat Ions auch as ris/c and 
danger« Labor cost wa an important eleiaent 
in price and wa^ e fixing» especiaXiy in the pre* 
capitaiisl econouiy of the 'ifiiddle Ages where labor 
cost was A large pe centage of total ooat* But* 
the Scholastio Doctars, notably Biel, Lanqvusteint 
and , Bernardine of Sie^a recognized that labor 
roat is only ono of the factors that detenained the 
value of a good* 

1/ ^olicitudo et periculua, IV, XV, p. 10, 





In the thirteenth Century thore was a 

gretdt chtxnge in Schola tlc thinklng on the jsubject 
of money and public fin mcu Prior thlnklng on 
th«so ßubjecta had beon falrly primitive and based 
In larg« part on Arlatotelenn dlcta, It was a 
subject that St. Thomas treated very briofly In tha 
Summa, and ha tJid not go far bayond a st^^temant 
that ha agraed wlth tha Phll6»ophar. 

As l8 usual Interaat in raonatary probieas 
Incraased ^is monay re^laced bar t er aior^ ind iöora 
and asp3ci&lly whan cortain Frarich Kln^js — noiabif^ 
Philip the Fair (i) incrya;>ad hia poraonal ravonuas 
by dabasin^ tha curraacy. Batwoen ^3"J0 aad 13^5 
theo wtiro awaepine flucüuation» in the vi^iuc of 
the currency -nd ih:.s Cüupiöd v.ith the tnea prev-lent 
CJStOQ öf fixiu45 pi iCiiö IlQF necesaitiei; , c^uaad 
auch econoiaic dls>tri88« 

The Soholastic thinkor Burld^^n praaentad 
an axcollant ftn9ly^i8 of the naturc and functlons 

I • 


of i&oney but he stoopod Short of rdooia.aeadation8 
to the soverelgn on fiscal poXicy« This wa« 
done by Hlcholaa Oresmo i Binhop of LisieuXi whoso 
treatlse on /aonetary policy may be conaldared the 
flrot comp lote economic laono^r^iph In the modern 
senee« J/ 

On^ of the merlts of thls work, ia, thatf 
althou{jh the wrlter was a 3cholastlc Doctop the 
treatise is almost devoid of theological - phiioso* 
phic il flavor» He traced the ovolution of iüoney 
from fflea&ureiQont by weieht to laprinteci coinage 
issued by the «overeign in böhalf of all the 
p^ple üf hie n tioa* ^he vory raison d'etre of 
money, reaeons ^esoiGf is to ^erve the convenience 
of Society» Thörefure tho soverelgn holde hls 
Aonopoly over the isnue of i^ioney in trust and 
cannot tamper wi th tho currency for other than 

Konetarua » Sosoe echolars« notably HoFcher, 
öonaider Ordsxae the best oconomist «^aoni^ all 
the Scholastic wrltera, Othera, esoocially 
Schnapetes, rate hia loss highly« See, 
Hlatory of dconoaic Analysis , page 


compeiling and uoavoidable cauoes, Ch^nge in the 
viilue of tha currency laust bo kept to a ainioma» 
I^qually condomnod aro arbltrary ch-inges in the 
form, tho v<ol ht, or the .-antorial (matal) of the 
coln^igo. ^old and allvor are the only worthy 
mcJtila for coin-^ge and the ratio between thom rauat 
bo anint iaed unlos;: there is a change in the 
V ilue of eithor jf tho two preciouo aetala. 

While th€s ruler has the ri^ht to iaaue 
currency he does s:) only in the role of the executor 
of a pu^^lic fanction. An arbitrrry ch^^n^^e in the 
v»lue of monsy renu Uinf fro.Ti hia i\xcf:li^ -ith the 
currencv wHi have ;;:any harjiful effccts, sinc^r it 
amoantß to an unreMr.cnr.ble tax* Morcover bad 
aoney tends to drive rood r^ioney out of circul^; tion. 
Her«! Oreöü.€ appeart *%) have antlclpt.t«?d the 
foraulation of Crechaa's Lar, *hlch ©tatos the s^me 
thinu twü centuries later» 

• • 

Gabriel Bidi (143^ tu I4i3)« profMsor at . 

the Univ rsity of Tuebingen 18 rQin^r^nd ixn the last 

of the ^chülaalc writers by asaoy authoritle!», notably 

Röscher. As a nattor of fact Schoioslciam rec<?lvcd 

a nov. lease on llvo In the sixteenth Century r;ith the 

foun;^ltV^ of the no-called "School of Salasaanca** by 

Francisco de Vltorli, He tau.:ht at the Unlv^rslty of 

S«ls«aanca fro;n 1526 to 1M4, ^md hls mny dlsclples 

apread the new Spaniah doctrlnes to Portugal, Italy 

and the Low Countrles. He was also a great authorlty 

in tho ilolds of govern;>?nt and lntern''Jtlonal 


An im ort int follo^«»r of de Vltorisa v«« Luis d# 
Molina (1535—1601) long a profesnor of theology at the 
Univgrsity of 'vora in .Portugal. Others v.ore Xieon ird de 
LeyQ (I#es£ilus]| 1554-1623)t ^^a Juan de Lu^o ( 1563**1660)« 

Tho later ^choli^stics a^heroü to the thaory that 
Utility was the Chief deter;nlmmt of v «lue and the just 
prico. Thoy all believed in the quroitity thoory of 
laoney, perhaps bec iuee prlce^s in Spaln seenied to rlse and 
fnll ?jith the quantlty of bullion r<5C ived from her 
Aaerlcän colonies* hile non^ of thoa v#ould deviate 


openly froai the authorllea liko St* Thomaa Aqulaasy 
thay went Into B^my fielUs thAt -he aiaat^r dld not 
Cover In d#tail anJ they du^^ Inlo the f :*cts about th« 
business practlces of thelr day an^J aga. All of theo 
were m^^talists and re rar ded d«baa»iaf»nt a« irasioral, They 
had auch the snmQ oplnion of devluatiun; they recognized 
its evlls but not Ita advntt^.o». They held to the 
quantity theory of isoney« These doctrinea and beliefa 
were not tho aonopoly of the l^ter vicholastics; v»e 
sh^ll find iiome of the^t occurin^ as late aa the tirtie 
of John öturt ^11. 

'^hile conäefinin^ uaury ^^nd a(greein^j ^th St« 
Thoaas that *aoney was sterile* soiae of the Inter 
Scholasics, notably ^lina, recoi^nized that capital 
was *the .nerch'ints tool** <<ithoul it one could not 
enter bu3ines«| hence it could cofaaand a price* 

Ifa^ p9gUa9 Qf SchQlaftlclfltt 

When we speak of the decline of ocholasicisu vie 
are referrin to the '^ntlre phiioaophical sy^^tea of 
!leo-Ariatot«^lean dectrine rath«r than to their 
economics whlch w aa only one, and not the moat importoatf 
part of their entira in'ellectual apparatus. The/ new 


outlook of *;he Renaissance h'ul sapped a good deal of 
Its stren^th. Thsy cid not faoe up to the naad of 
ov^»rhaullnf thtslr nyine rmd antlquated philosophy to 
ke^p pac3 Kiifi ths new dlflcovsries in experi mental 
science and thair '>hllo»ophy went the aame wny as their 
antlquated chesiistry« physics and medlcine« The 
Reforra^tion of courset dld nothln^ to streng then their 

ÜDfit impor^ant tha times «^re cfmnglng» Nation 
States ^rs springin^* up all over riuropo, and a coo- 
aerciai revolution was t kin^ place« Actuaily, the 
decline of Schola- ticism frora the fourteonth to the 
seventeenth c^nturios, almost pcir^illels tho rise of 

2/ The beat study of the ^^^laiaanca 8chool is, r^srjorie 
Grlc^^Hutchinson, The SchooX of SaXaaanca i Headimts 
in Spanioh ^onetary Higf ory . ^544>160!S>. Qx ford/fhe 
Clarendon l^eßs, 19S>2« 

2/ By fßr the beit .source on Molina, Lesslus *nd Uxgo is 
Bernard " . Pempsey Internst and Usury . New York and 
Lonion» 1943« 

2/ On the decliae of Scholasiciavi see esp^^cially, see 
Maurice De T^oulf» Hiatorv of Madi^val f>hilQ«Qohy. 


36» . 

Thl8 ±8 not t3 aa/ that nero antlllstlo ideas 

0ompl6t«ly 8upplrint«d tho f^llosophy of 4rlstotla fmiX 
^« Thomas -^'.any of their ooncepts v?re handod dovn 
thDugh th« Natural L«v philo sophora^^^Grotlu«, Pufendorf 
and Ilutohaaon to tho Ph/sioorata and to Ada:n z^'nlth« 

And In thö Twjntleth Contur/, thd graat Jasuit 
aoon3.iii£t9 Hainrlcli P^ach Cvonotructad an integratod 

ac m^alc the-^ry ba£od ^n /vrl t >taldan»Ti.>nil8tlc r^il2.c:K>* 


phy« tlnfortunatel/i hls mork, ±s not Known to auyiy 

öinsli5h*£.paakln3 9or)no.iiats« Th^^ra has jJLso baan a 
Nao-Thoraaat philosophloal ra^rlval at tha iJhlverolt;/ ?>l* 
Chicago in tha laJO«« vith ioiti^r ^dlar^ as thtj Illrji 

2/ Hugo Orotius (Huigh da Orootf 16^^3-1646) was a f iw>;s 
tfuriati ^08o achiairas^nta Vera priifiirll/ in t. 
fioldö oi' intomational law« ^onoaio subjaots aro only 
pariphally daalt with in hlt. vritin/^a "aaval vol. 
Fulandorf (1623-1694 )# a profossor at JlaHolbaryi 

Lurd« ind Barlin^ vas a followar of Grntlus« l^i^a 
Da Jura : atitraa ät Ganttiim (167'^) syjJton itisaTU 
social acienca oT th«) I^atur iX law philo acphor& u^d 


he glve« !«uch njory attantion to aoono'ilca th^m Orotius 
did« T^ike tha ^0hola8ti0S| th«^ natural law philo j^opliera 
abiootiva Was a compr^ansiva thaory oi humein boha'v'ior 
in all oi ita ranifioations« V^& last of tho trinltyi 
^raauis Hutohaaon (I69i«17lrö) ir« parhara bast inv^^ym aa 
tho tjaohar of Ada'« r:mith aa pr^faaaor of philocophy 
at tha ünivarfiity o£ Glasgow« Hia moat Import vo t« 
a rystan) ox* .Horal Philosoph/i waa pabliahad po £^tha:iour»l7 
in 1766]f» 



Moreovert th^ue h' 8 be^n an «xtended controrersfly • 
8inc9 the publia? tlon of llax w#ber*s Th» Protest^mt iSthic 
ftr^rf the Soirit nf Caait liBiii on v.h^th-r aodftrn capltalleai * 
could hrave come Into bolng without the Protö«tant R#for- 
a^tion« *n<3 the ror,ult mt äroppinr. of thoolo^^lc «1 bar« 
a^inst intereat and usury,-^ 

Ali thls pulls US Away from the m^Jitnatr^iua of our 
narrativot which pass«s from a consiätration of Schilaal« 
cisji to MarC'^tilism -it thia point« 

2/ ho doctrln-:« of t.h» eminent Jesuit cc;^aomi8l« Heinrich 

esch ar9 not well kaown In the United Dtate^i even in 
Catholic circluö. :his hlntus has been partly fiiiel by 
the raono^rriph by 'Ichird .^« -^icaJiy , :he ICconoaics of 
Heinrich each « { l'earey Holt and Co, Ne*^ York, VJ52.) 
eo alüo the articie on ?(J8Ch in the ncycioi^edia of the 
.^'Oclftl ^cionces by Coe^tz 3rlef8. Hls most linportant 
wor IcG f av-i 1 1 ' : b le only In f^eraaan aret ^lborall^mus, t^ciaJ| ^ 
i iitus. agd christliche Caaellachaftaordnjn i ^f ,« .<^ vola 
»r^flberr 1 Br.s Herder, r396-99) and : he iaün(j:2Kjntai 
Lohrbuch rer Ca^^lonal - je>fuao;qio (5 vola. t-reiber^ i« 
^^r. Herdor, 190^1ja3) 

2/ The aoat strikin^; attemot to for.tiulite a theory of 
religlon» cind social an i economic Isajea was that of 
the Oerma 1 econocilst sociologlst and Hintorian. -^x eoer 
in 1904 f when he pubilshed hla io 'r.j t ^stanlsc^ e tt^i. ^ 
ur^^or gelst des a ijtaliiaus {in ^^rchi v fuer oclalv^isset^ ^ 
«chaft und ' >cialpolitikt Vols. X^X ( f )j/, ) and Xa 1 ( 1 ^0^» 1 
rtn^llsh translation by iaicott i'arsonSf 7he -g'rotectaat 
Bthic and the >pirlt of Capitallaa C üondon, 1'i30)» änJther 
claosic, baaically In St^reearant with eber is UH.rawneyt 

elipion and the Riae of apltallsa . (iioadün,1926)ik>th 
feit that PDOtostantiam built up a new »ystea of 
belief 8 and behavior In which economic Individualiem and 
oapitalism were able to flourish« Vor attacka on the 


• b«r-^«ivrney theefs, ••• 

ihe followlngt H«t«:^ob9rtsont 

amorld^e, 1933; ^ 
Hpitallsq « 

conomic 4orala 

March 11,1965 

D«ar Phil, 

I read with great interest the draft of your chapter on 
Greek Economic Thought. It is an excellent plece of exposltion 
and It will serve the intended purpose better than the various 
recent publications in the field. 

I shall soon return the typescript with my suggestions for 
reformulation of some observntions and corrections of some ob- 
vious errors. Also,I shall bring your bibliographical references 
up to date and since this part involves some researoh my answer 
has been dela/ed. 

To complicate things further,! was nursing a flu when I re- 
ceived your letter at the beginning of the present Spring term 
and I am only gradually recupereting« But you will hear fröre me 
as early as possible* 


f ' 

•*^'^ j Pho-ne. 42 391-95 

/ ^ Grams: ARTHSANDAN 

National Council of Applied Economic Research 







f^ I 




•■,' » / 

X-,3' l! 














Phone: 273791-98 

Grams : AKIHSAI 

Na ticnal Council cf Applied Economic Research 



l^ a/*^ ^ ^ 

New York, April 21,1965 

Dear Phil, 

Thankp for your llnes of April 7. If you sre leaving New Delhi 
at Bbout May Ist there is reßlly no point in ay sending you your 
typescript with »y detailed cornnsents which are running up to 12 

Another consideration in favor of holding my cotricents ready 
for you until after your rt turn herc is the fact that I referred 
you to literature which most probj^bly is not in your reach there 
and is siniple to procura here. In one instance I have gone to the 
length of copying excörpts from books so that you mny either find 
a better formulation for what you intendcd to sey or even parapharase 
them for a revised text. 

Wishing you a pleasant and safe voyage home, 









11, Iridraprafithn Hs nie, 

M':w I)1«:lhi.j, india. 





eJ'z^f^^ A^ 


/js^Z^"* — 

^ ^i_/ ^^^^ 





t..> ^ 




\ ' 



*r f 


Greek Econoraics (Ne^-vman) . ' - 

A.M, Andreades, A History of Greek Public Finance.^ Cambridge? Harvard 

Press, 1933 - Translator, chapter on Xenophon 


G(ustave) Glotz,Ancieit Greece at Work, iNew York 1926 - French 

original, translator 

J. Toutain,The Economio Life of the Ancient World - Date, 

place, translator of *L'econnomie antinue ' ,Evol.h-uin. 
XX,Pe.ris 1927 l' > U-^Uu^,^ y^ ^' ^^^...^-y^^u , ii^Aj^ 

[Cambridge History - Economic Hiptory of Ancient Greece] 


«0 *-»• 

f"oc TA ' K) "3"^ 

nt JCv 



h^-^^l Xh^yrJ:. vvt^ -^ Co . . ^ So ; -"^ '1 ■ 4 4 • ^C-w^f » ^ 20 



''^'^ '^^-»-»-V^rvv^ fe t^^-. "U A/M :S ^J'^U'U-'C-t ^'V»-w^ ^ 

'n ^ 



f-V-»rt ^'»VA ^-Vl^^-^- ' "^ -^^ iM . "i^ . 1^-H^-C 

'"^>^ t \5<^ ^'-^1X4^ Cl-W^^, 

^^^^^^■^^Wv '^ 


^--^t-n- . ^e^ 2^^ isa. 4_j^ ^,M^ . 

A^^iA . » > O 


t-Kw^ iCiöO [X'^^^O 

References in Newman's chapter II to he checked 


»*Again,a thing is more desirable if,when added to a lesser good, 
! it makes the whole a greateÄ good. Likewise,also you should nudge 
my means of subtraction: for the thing upon whose subtraction the 
remainder is a lesser good may be taken to be a greatei good,which- 
ever it be who^e subtraction makes the remainder a lesser good." 
_ Liber Topicorum (tr.W.A. Pickard-Cambridge; from the works of 

__ Aristotle,Ross ed. Oxford) Book III, eh. 35, ür^ ^g p * 1 18 -b. 

Aiv 2b2i A.M. Andreades, A History of Greek Public Finance. Cambridge: 

„ Harvard University Press, 19 53 L Bell, p. 668 J 


jln>^.*J' Aiwi^>^iU-^ i^>c?-^37. 

■^»-»-<^. X . - ^- *-^ (.'-l^i^i^ II ;;v^--K-wvu^ 


^- l<"«'..| , ^ «^ll 


«rn« •*««.■•*« «^ 

Stagee of Oreek Economic Development 

The kge of Colontzation (ca. 600 B.C. - 650 B.C.) 

"The emigration of coloniBte^together v/lth the ImportHtion of 
food,e'.eed the preseure of over-population. But the expansion of 
foreign commerce c^e^^ted n«w teneione. In order to Increaee the 
exports of olive oil and wine needed to pa^ for the Imports of fish 
and gr ilr:,Greek fiirmerß conoentrated more find more on the develop- 
ment of oilve grovee Jind vlneyeards. In thie enterprlse the wealthier 
f ärmere had a great advant tge,for they could afford the long 'ind 
coetiy procese of nurturing slow-growing olive trees until theg 
reached the fruit-he ring ßtage, Many poor fermerö^however, could not 
stfxnd euch expense <md borrowed exteneively from their wealthier 
neighbors, 2fnhe dhivüAdör exacted heavy iliteret>t,the borrower found 
it hard to meet hiß obligition, If he defaulted,he lost his property 
enä eometimes p^irt of hie pereonil freedom ae well, for he and hie 
family were often forced to work off the debt by luboring in the 
lender* 8 vineyfcird. The introduction of metallic coine further com- 
plio?ted the frirm problem« Mciny f.r^ers were long biffled by the new 
money ind frequently so undereetim 'ted ite value that they took far 
too little in exchange for the crops sold at market. 

Impoversthed frirmers were not the only dißcontencjed Oreeks. The 
growth of foreign trade produoed two öignificant new social groupe: 
a businesö class of merch?ints, Khipov/ners^weavers, potter ßtond black- 
emiths; 'ind a working clasB of etevedoDee and setnaen. Both these 
groups were restleee and pushingi both reeented the concentration 
of political power in the aristocracy of well-to-do l^mdowncrs." 

Crane Brinton,John B. Chr ißt opher, Hoher t Lee Wolff , 

A Hißtory of Civiliz ition . Volume I. Englewood Cliffß: 
Prentice-Hall Inc. 19!?5,p.55 

The Age of Tyranny (ca. 650 B.C. - 500 B.C.) 

Tr^meitlon from the Age of Colonization to the Age of the City- 
Statee: Political ind economic reforme by euch tjirants as Braco, > 
Selon, Pißitr tue 'md Cleietheneß with the attempt to balance the 
po.vere of the landed orictocracy »impoveriehed fiirmere fmä business 


■■««■I B^V«« W» 

m 'i "J»»^ 

Stti^eß of Öreek Economic Development - 2 - 

The Age of City-States (500 B.C, - 338 B.C.) 

A. the emergence of agricultural-oligarchic Sparta rjoidi commerclal- 
»♦deinocr?itlc*' Athens: Spnirtfi,ruled by ßoldler-citizenß (5-105^» 

of the Population) ,had a working population (helots) ou'.niimber- 
Ing the Citizens by IjJO .nd "neighborß»* (perioikoi). The 
helotö »'were bounö to the land niid,ln iddition to being farm 
laborere, icted ae the perßonal servantß of the Spaxt ms ,.• 
Some of the perioikoi wero f irmers; othere were engaged in 
min mg and in trride -.mä the otheB eeggirr buoineßs activities 
of the City.»' (Ibid, ,p.56) . 

B. The City-St tte of Atbhne : 

1. Soci il ßtratification s In the Age of Periclee Athene had 
a totfil popul tion of about 359 1 000. Included in fchis jotal were 
170,000 Citizens (of whom about 30,000 were adult mnlos and there- 
fore had effective citizenjfthip) ,115 t 000 ßlaves and 30,000 metioß. 
••The meticB were resident aliens .««Becjuse of their busineee con- 
nection :!bro'd,they controlled the city'e lucrative shipping :md im- 
porting and,ooneequently ,they nearly dominated the Atheni?^ji economy« 
.•. The ßl xveß c?ijne largely from Aßia Minor nnd the lande '.iroundtja^e 
Blick Se • ,where they had been obtrined through trade or piratical 
r^iide. Their lot v-^ried v/idely« The haplewe cre ituree who worked in 
the Bolver mineö south of Athene ouffered almost every brutality. 
They were manacled tnd overworked,examplee of Ariototle'e heartlees 
definition of a elave ae »a tool with life in it» . Yet elsewhere in 
the Atheni'in ©tute,especially on the city itself,the elaveß were 
well tre ted-r Often they were accepted ^.q füll membere of the m»ß4 
ter*B houBehold,a8 old froid truated ftomily retainerß,?:ind l:ter gain- 
ed freedom with the ; tatue of metics." (ibid., p. 62) 

?• The Athenirm Empire: '»The epringboe^rd of Ätheni-n inperialieir 
.., was tlse need to protect the Aege^m islands rind the Q-reek coaetal 
citiee from future Perßiaxi attacks. Ab the etrongeat mfiritimc State, 
Atfeiai.e headed an alliance of more than 200 city-ötatee ••• The al- 
liance wae calle the Delian Confederation .•• In practica, it becfime 
an Atheni'in empire bec-iuee Athene outdiet-mced J^e otherr; so m^^rked- 

Stage. of Greek Kconomic Develoi^ment 

- 3 - 

ly In nav il und conmierctal strength, Athens oupplie the ehlpe for 
the Confeder^/.tlon; the money to oper-ite them came from leoeer statse 
th t lacked the reeourcee? to develop their inöivldual fleets. ... 
ünder Perl des, Athene dropped the fiction of belng merel^ the firet 
among equ^lß, The trc^Bury of the Confeder^tion was removed from 
Deloß to Athene in 454 B.C. Perlclee groupe the '.llied etcitee Into 
provinces to f'Cllltnte the collection of the tribute money. Coins 
etamped wlth the owl were the comj«on medium of exchange within the 
Confederatlon. Athhne negotir.ted f ivorable tr^id-. agi^eemente with the 
allies ••• Imperlall6m,of coTrrBe>may bring advantageö to the eub^ect 
Btatee. Hhe sateilites of Athens did rotfiin eome eelf-govornment in 
purely local .f faire; they öhtired in Atheniexi proeperity^ <md they 
secured more effective protection -igalnet foreign aggrestors.** 

3. EverydJicy Life : *'In the city^and still iriore on the f arm, Greek 
f^inilies rii-de for themselvea the ^i^jre necest:jitieo of lifo. The women 
of the houühüld ground flour,bnked bread,ßpun thread,wove cioth, nnd 
mit md sewed gormenta for the f-mily. In the whole of Athene onl^ 
one establißhment employed laore th^m a hundred workmen. Small busi- 
nesß w '0 the rule. Perfumer» md Jewelers catered to the wealthy 
few; nö potter8,t.mner8,and Bhoemokera furnlohed the mt?n of ordina- 
ry me'inft with the few artlclee hie family did not make nt home.** 
(ibid., 76-77). 

Phil Newman's Chapter [lll] ort The Mlddle A««8 

The Medleval Environment 

Bell.A Hlftory of Economic Thoii^ht,60-69 

wlth reference to Henri Plrenne, Economic and Social History 

and •• * Medleval Cltlea 

The Rftdif covery of Arlstotle 

H«Ra8hdall,The Unlversitles of Europe in the Mlddle A^e8,ed«by 
F.M.Powlcke & A#B.En?den. OxfordtUnivorslty Press, 1936; 
vol.l, pp, 351-360 

St .Thomas Aqulnas 

Roll, 45-47; E#Whlttaker,Schools and Streains of Economic Thought, 
(Chicago, 1960), 16-18 

On Property 

E,V/hittaker,A History of Economic Ideas (New York,1943)f 185-186 
I3,W,Deffipsey,The Functional Economy {Prentioe-Hall,195ö) ,164-183 

On Value and Price 

Roll, 46-47; James A» Gherity, Economic Thought (New YorktRandom- 
House, 1965), 4-41 (Dempsey, Must Pice* and De Roover,*The Concept 
of the Just Prloe* ) 

On Üsury 

Roll, 47-51 (best prar^ent^tion); 7lliittßker,A History, 518-523 
On ÄiOney (Nicholas üresme) 

Roll, 51-52; A.E »Monroe, Early Economic Thought (Cambridge, 1924) ,81 fl 
The Decline of Scholaaticism 

(1) Late Scholastios 
Schumpeter, History, 94-104 

(2) The Reformation 

i;fhittalccr,Schools and Stre/ms, 20-30; R.Lekachiran (ed),The Vari- 
eties of Economics, vol.l (N^Y.tMeridian Books, 1962) ,68-112 

Phil Newman's Chapter on Middle Ages 

The Medieval Environment 

Bell,A History of Economic Thought, 60-69 

with reference to Henri Pirenne, Economic and Social History 

" " Medieval Cities 

The Rediscovery of Aristotle 

H.Rashdall,The Universities of Europe in th*^ Middle Ages,edited 
by F.M.Pov/icke Sc A.B.Emden. Oxford University Press, 1936 
vol.l, pp. 351-360 

St. Thomas Aquinas 

Roll, 45-47; E.Whittaker,Schools and Streams of Economic Thought, 
(Chicago, i960), 16-18 

On Property 

E.Whittaker,A History of Economic Ideas (New York, 1943) ,185-186 
B.W.Derapsey,The Functional Economy (Prentice-Hpll, 1958) ,164-183 

On Value and Price 

Roll, 46-47; James A.Gherity, Economic Thought, New York: Random-House 
1965,pp«4-41 (Dempsey,Just Price & De Roover,The Concept of the 
Just Price) 

On Usury 

Roll, 47-51 ("best presentation) ; Whittaker,A History, 518-523 

On Money (Nicholas Oresme) 

Roll, 51-52; A.E. Monroe, Early Economic Thought (Cambridge, 1924 ff.) 
81 ff.; 

The Decline of Scholasticism 

(1) Late Scholastics 
Schumpeter, History, 94 - 104 

(2) The Reformation 

Whittaker,Schools and Streams, 20-30 ; R.Lekachman, The Varieties 

of Economics, vol.l (N.Y. , Meridian Books, 1962) ,68-112 

■H«i^^^Wiw»»r«'*'»"' •^■- ■ •■ iin wBW^^'^~Y^ 

900 West Snd Avenue 

New York, lUY. 10025, November 15,1965 

Dear Phil, 

attached I am sendlng you the oarbon copy of your chapter II 
(The Blrth of Econorolos) and my comments on it. I truat you will 
get from my notes as much as you would have gotten from a conver- 
sation wlth me. 

Still, I am sorry that I was unable to see you over the weck- 
end» On Friday I have had to attend various roeetingr> concerning 
some urgent College matters whlle on Saturday and Sunday I had 
to meet with various people in ordcr to dlscusa a ms, of roinc 
which I am preparing for pubiication. Weekend meetings of the 
latter klnd will keep me busy most probably until the end of this 

Please,sive my regards to Mrs.Nevvmsn. I should have liked to 
exchange a few words with her just as I enjoyed speaking to you 
over the phone on Friday. 

Should my notes not be explicit ©nough or raise questions 
which I did not anticipate,kindly drop me a line and I shall 
reply in writing as fast as circmnstances permit. 

With best wishes, 


Kotee on Phil Newman'B draft of Chapter II: The Blrth of Economics 

pDLg«8 1-2: Introductlon ; must be rewi'ltten and the present generali 

zatione muBt be re$»l ced b> a "dynaraic*' preoentation of 
Oreek economic conditions; ßimply paraphraee the reliab- 
le Bummar^' by Brinton of the economic aspecte of ancient 
Greek civilization based mainly on M»Rostovtzev, Histor^ 
of the Anc ent World >vol«I (Oxford: The Clarendon Jt^esB, 
1926). AlßO refcr to H.D.Kltto, Th Oreeks (Penguin Bookc 
1951) »the work of recognized Knglioh scholar of "coneer- 
vitive*' persuaeion; his anal^eie althovgh opinionated 
iß competent and challenging. 

page 1 : Paragraph 2 anc note 1 

Ähen referring to the houoehold a& the unit of economic 
activity note that the Oreek term for houßehold ie **oikoe** 
(not *'oeconomiCUB*' which is the Oreco-l atin term for the 
household manuger) Jind the Oreek term for the science of 

hou ehold mn,n;igement io "odkonomia" • 

In the note to tniß pai^agraph you may refer to the article 
by K.Singer ,• Oekonomia: An Intiuiry into BegÄimings of Econ- 
omic Thou ht fand Lfjüigüage» , Kyklos ,vol.9 (1958) ,pp. 29-54. 
In thie study Singer ciarified the very involved etkymolo- 
gy of the word "oikonomia** and itß use by öreek writere in 
the la r:e 5th Century B.C. - De:-ete the reference to Arie«* 
totle's coi.cept of **chrematistic8" which ßhould be treated 
eithor in the euggeßted note on page 3 or even later in a 
brief chapGer on Aristotle's taeory of the science of econ- 
omic ©• 

page 3j I<ote at the end of the firet sentence ** ...and Ariototle»* 

The beot review of öreek economic thought is Albert A#Ire- 
ver» A ajstor^ of Oreek ji^conomic Phoiight , Chicago, 1916. Also 
very valu ble is the book by M. X<. W . Laietner » Greek Economice 
1923; it ie^collection of excerpts from Greek economic writ 
ingß in English trimelation with an informative introduc^ 
tion by the editor (it ie not a history of Greek economic 


Noteo on Phil Kewman^e chapter II 

conditioiiß, HB ^ou preöumed). 

- 2 - 

Second pfu:»agrapii: 

Contrfir^ to what you ßaidjOreek philosophers had a concept 
of Kconomics as a sep^^irate dlßcipline. Xenophon developed 
it ?i8 the ßcience of houeefiold man?:i^ement in hie OeconomicuB 

(a Socratic dialogue,referred to later) and Aristotle accept*! 

eä ae the 'Economics proper* (ae diötinguihä d from 'the ort 

of acquisition' = ChrematietictO in hie Politics^ hoolc I, 

In a peeudo-ArißtoteÜMn tre^itise titled Economic 8 (Oeconomi- 

ca ) , luthored paxtly by immedi te dieciples of Aristotle, thie 

disoipline wne treat<?d in the senee Xenophon had given thie 

branch of knowledge. In addition to these three claeeical 

treatises on ßconomics there exi ted an entire Oeconomioa 

liter ^.ture,partly writteia in the Heilenic ;ic period. On thie 

liter ture eee Tröver,op.cit. ,pp,l?6-128. However,it is cor- 

rect to ßr^y, ts you did in the subeeguent p^vra^aph, that a 

conBiÄeraole amount of obaerv • feiono aid cornmentß on topics 

now bclonging to the science of Jäconomice ie to be found in 

öreek cl-iseical literature on moral philosophy without boingl 

identified as probiemc pertdinin^;; to the discipiine of Bcon-| 


page 2: Note on the li terature on economic hißtory of Ancient Oreece: 

G.M. Calhount The Business Life of Ancient Athene >Chicago ,1926 
G^Glotg, Ancient Greece -it Work , Kew York 1926 (English nrane- 

lation hf the work by an eminent Frtsnch scholar) 
J.Toiitain, The Economic Life of the Ancient World ,r^ev; York, 1930 
J^Haeebroek» Trade and Politi cs in Ancient öreece »London, 19 33 
(Engiish translation of a noted work by a G-erman "conser- 
vative*' hietorian,Dimilar in orientation to iCitto) 

You may insert here the book by Rosto^tzev which de als very 
extensive 1^ with economic history but eliminate the work by 
Will;'xmo¥itz-Moell€>ndorf which iß not accessible to the fiverage 
Americiin rapider • 



■ « ^Vf «^ 


Notes on Phil Newinan*s chapter II 

page 4 I After "Parairoimt ••• a/^es»* note 

2 vols» 

The Dialofrurs of Plato . Translrted by B.Jowctt. New 

York: Rancloa Houße,1937 

A^E, Taylor t Plg tot The Man and his Work , New York! 
&'eridlr:in B»ek8,1955 

K. Barker, The PQl:^ 1f^,ftrl Th ou^ht of Plato and Arlstotle , 
New Yorkt Dover Publicntion.^ ,19*39 (originally 10669^/ 
1906, rev. 1947) 

page 16 

page 17 i 

note on works by and on lenophon 

Xenophon * s vVorks . Greek origin.'^! with ii^ngllsh trans- 
Intions on th oppositc p??.ges by C«L.Brown3on,E»C. 
Marohant and others. Loeb Classical Llbrnry, 7 vols# 

London, 1914-1925 

[Delete thc Dakyns transl' tion,the Holden annctated 
Greek text of the Oeconomicus and ZurborgAs edltlon 
of the Revenuen; alro K.SSuencher' !^ other»-/! e interest- 
Ing vStudyJ 

E,Delebecnue,Elssai sur la vie de Xinophon', Ktudea 

et conüser.talres, vol»25 (Paris, 1957) iThe most reoent 

study on life and works of Xenophon,giveB llfe dates 

G.Vogel, Die Qekonomlk den Xenophon « Eine Vorarbeit zur 
Geschichte der griechischen Ockonomlk « Erlf^nger Dlss« 
1895 LSuporsedes the study by V.Brents] 

^onc,the OeconomicHs , a Socratlc dialogue,really ••• hls 
dealth." In hls celebrated Gyropaedla ,a novel on the edu| 
catlon of a prlnce so often Imltated in enrly roodern 
tlines^he touched upon the dlvislon of Inbor and In hls 
aieroorabllla ,recollectlonr^ of Socrates,he credlted hls 
teacher with reflectlons on the usefulness of a good 
educatlon for the prospectlve mairagcr of a household 
(IV,1; VI, 4), 

note 2t The reference to ioehlBjann,although a classic, 


w^m^mw^mm I 

I" ■• ■ ■W^»'— ^»■^'^■■•»PlPWi^W»^^ 

Notes on Phil Newman's chaptcr II 

- 3 - 

might be replaced by a rcf erc noe toA.M.Andireades ,A_Hist£-| 
ry of Greek Public Flnrnce ( C.N.Brown) , Cambridge 

a leernod modern Grcek ec:noBist whosc work is available 
in English and therefore more «ßsily nccessible. 

page 18t öhould be followed by a bricf sketoh of Xenophon's de- 

mand of a lar^cr population and the ensulng blessings of 
more extensive division of labor an outlined in th« Cyro * 
paedla tVIII»2 with reference to the observ tions by Marx 
on this passage ( Capital I [l/iodern ed»,p«4Ü2,note l]). - 
Acceitable expositions in F «A«Nef f t F.conomic doctrines t 
(Hew York, 1950), 29-30 and J.FtBellt A Hiatory of Economic 
Thou^^ht (New York, 1953) ,43. 

page 19? 'lote at the end of the first paragraph 

The 5asic Works of Aristotle . Ed.R.McKeon. New York! 
Eandoffi House,1941 L^^ost easily accessiblej baeed on the 
Oxford Translation, finished 1931, but ebridßed cxcept f03| 
Politios Version by Jowett and iCthics Version by W.D« 
Boss who also edited the Oxford serles] 

T>>D«Ro98, Aristotle t A ooroplete exposition of hls vvorks 
D.rid thou/^ht . Her Yorkt Meridian Books,1959 L Original 
ed. London, 1923; most populär and easily acoessible. Thal 
I happen to disagree with his Ethies trrnelation and In- 
terpretation does not iratterj 

StBarkert The Politioal Thou/^ht of Plato and Aristotle » 
New York, 1959 

D«Q#Ritchle, 'Aristotle *, Pal;cravf* 3 Dictionary of Politi -' 
cal JccnoKiy ,! (London: Macznillan, 1923; reprint 
53-55 iThe best brief exposition of /iristotle's poll- 
tical and economic doctrinejby an outstandlng Knglish 
Scholar; only disadvantaget technical terms in Greekfl 

U.S. (Harvrad U.Press) ,1933, pp. 381-391 L= Appendix 
III: Xenophon*r Vectagilia (=Revenues)] 

Roteß on Phil Kewman'o chapter II • 4 - 

page 22 i Note 1 

The citation Polltloe , Op.clt. 11,1 le not clear. If you 

are referrlng to finy eepcirate printed Issue of the Jowett 

tranBlcition,then Polltics 11,1 will denote book II, chapter 

1. The Op#cit, ifter Polltics would infer a reference to 

a collection of Arietotle's v;ork8 in trfinelation; in the 

Oxford 3er iee of tranelations the Jowett Version ie vol* 

X (10). - Later when citing Barker »ß trfoißlation of the 

PoliticB as in the note on p.30 you may add to hooks and 

chaptere the paglnation 13^3 b 7 « folio ^5111) 13?3f b 

a iixi^ßgkx9i!^xxwx.Z9 i 7 » Une 7 which ie the traditional 

reference to the Oreek text of Aristotle'ß works ae edit- 

ed by Immanuel Bekker for the Berlin (Pruseion) Aoadeipy 

'md pubiished in I83I (eee my explanation of this cita^ 

tion in ns^' eseay ,p.46,note 2). Barker uaes this pagina- 

tion in his Politice vereion in place of the conventional 

modern pagin .tion aaidkSffeix&tttat Roes in his Ethics veraion. 
uses exclusively the Bekker pagination. 

page 27: ♦'arißtocratic bif-s In Aristotle'B outlook*' : Aristotle was 
not an inristrcrat l?y birth or outlook but a "middle claes 
man** Coming from a f^imily of physicians und trained for 
thie profe£!eion; at best, hie attitudes ivould be comparable 
to a ßoman patrician, Purthermore , Aristotle was happily 
married to the daughter of a former slave -uid this fact 
defies an^ accueation of a ^eneral biasj he CfJirefully die- 
tinguißhed between "born slaves** fvnd elavee by clrcumstan- 
cee. On the vfjxious forme of slavery in Athens cf, my Quo- 
tation from Brinton <^Lnd then you may decide of what form 
Aristotle was poseibly thinking when he wrote the cited 

page 261 lines 6-9 ''of pr#-marginal utility theory" 

line 10 •♦disquißitions" instead of ♦'commentariee" which 
in this caoe v/ould imply commentfaries by others 
euch ae scholaBtics on hie text 

M 'f IPI .1 1 , 

I rrX T*»- .JS 

^'otes on Phil Kawinan*ß ch-^.pter II 

- 5 • 

lines 11-12 I^ Suggestion *'To him,vr:lue was connected 
with dem^nd for a product -^nd with the labor that 
created it" • Thie iß e. lese conimittal etatement 
thiT^n i© your foriirulation; I ehe 11 explain the com- 
mitment of your preeent aentence in ray gloscee to 
note on p»34- 

page 29: note 1 iSthica 1133 b 4-10. If you txre referring to the 
Eos8 vereion then you may safely replace hie Xatin title 
l:,^thica l»icomachea with Kicomachean Ethics tranalated hy 
W.D.Roee, V, 5 {=« Book V.chapter 5), 1133 b 4-10 (« £i£| 
1133fÄtoife^f lineß 4-10), - To etate at least once 
that you txre referring to the Kicomachean Ethics (» Bthice 
dedioated by Aristotle to his son and heir Kicomachue) ie 
neceseary because there exist two other workß on Ethioe 
by Aristotle, the JBudemicin Ethics and the Magna Moralia 
containing oomewhat different theories»alBO on ßubjects 
pertinent to your discunaion, After a firet mention of 
Nie omaohe an £thi c e , the reference JBthics euffioee« 

p^ige 30; note 2 Polltics . The translation by Barker ie valuable 
for his introciuction and running comnient^iries; the text 
of hie vereion aboimds with interpolatione which although 
made recognizable through p^urantheseB (see above) remain 
problematical to the initiated ccholc^u*. 

page 31 1 note 1 Rhetoric » I, 7 136J;, a 24-30 - Heret Rhetoric in- 
etead of the Latin title Rhetorica is sufficient although 
there exists another work on rhetoricß called Rhetorica 
ad AlexP4idrum known to üjid ueed by scholare 

page 30f note 2 (contlnued) Politics (Sir Emest Borker'a trans- 
lation), VII, 1 1325 b 6-10 [Ignorc the 7 after b beoausc 
thie nucieral refera to Barker 's paragraphs (i#e« § 7) whicl^ 
is another way of counting the text] 



• ^' "' if^fm^^mmmtm^^^^f* 


- 6 • 

Notes on Phil Newinan*s chapter II 

pagc 52 t note 1 l^oplcg 1X1,3 118 ^ 17-19 ^^Is paeeage in the 
TopiCB ( Toplca) is quoted from the tranelation by W.A. 
Plckard-Cambridge in l^he »vorks of Ari8totle ,ed»BOBB,vol»l 
(Oxford, 1920) 

page 33 t Ethlcs V,5 1133 a 5-28 - Here you are ualng Welldon's 
translatlon ond thls shotild he xnpde clerir as it dlff ers 
somewhat from the Hoss Version« 

page 34? 

"As divrrse authoritißs as St.Thomes Aqulnas, Joseph Schiim- 
peter and Karl Marx have read a lahor cost theory of valu€ 
into Aristotle's wordo 

• • • 

My sug^estiont "Aa diverse authorities as St.Thoirtas Aqiiln- 
as and Karl Marx have read a cost of production theory of 
valuc [st •Thomas] or the inoeptlon of a labor theory of 
value [the only value theory that,for Marx,deserved thls 
namej into Aristotlc*8 words**« 

Leove out Schuirpeter slnoe he was no autBority on Arlstot- 
le and also varclllated in his Interpretation of what Aris 
totle was alming at« In his older Economic Doctrlnfi .nnd 
Method [published in Gcrrorn in 1914],Snßlißh translf tion 
by K.Aris (Kev York, 1954), p#12 Schnmpeter wrotet "»As he 
[ArlAtotleJ based his theory on the fact of hnman wants, 
he arrived at a purely subjective theory of economic 
value •••'*. Later,in his History of Economic AnalysiS t 
(New York, 1954), p«6l, he statedt "And since Aristotle dld 
not offer any theory of exchan^e value or prioc,those 
historians concluded that he rcu^t have had in mind some 
mysterlous übjective or Absolute Value of things that is 

intrinslcally inherent in thcm 

• * • 


chUEpeter dld not 

identlfy "those historians" but had apparently in mind, 
If not Marx himself,then authors influenced by hlm llke 
Eric Roll, 

Note 1 J Perhaps you want to bring in here Gchumpetcr's 
later interpretatiom with whioh I happen to agree. Viner 
in reviewlng Schumpeter's History ( The American I^conoir.ic 

«^^•■■V m -^r- 

Notes on Phil Newfxnan's chapter II 

- 7 - 

Review, vol. 46, no»5 (Dec. 1954) ,901) refer» to my artlole 
as an Interpretation along llnes of the Austrlan utlllty 
theory Lwhlch I neye,r dld] but had no Solution clther ex- 
cept that he doubted thet Arlstotle had almer at a labor- 
cost theory • - As the title of my essny Indioates,! cred*l 
Ited Arlstotle wlth a theory of exchange only. If you 
want to take exceptlon to my view - whlch I do not mXnd 
In the least - please State that I showed In part V 
(pp«64*'65) thatffollowlng 3t »Thomas and later J.St.Mlll, 
a labor-cont theory or a labor theory of value wa^ Imput-l 
ed Into the Ethlos text mainly by phllologlsts and histo-| 
rlanß, Spengler In hls artlole in the Southern Economic 
J ournal (clted by you on p.36) spent 10 paffes on an af- 
firmative revlew of my essay Lthat you niay sklp; I am re- 
latlng It to you for your Information onlyj, - However, 
you may uotc a recent artlole by Barry J «Gor don, 'Arls- 
totle and the Development of Value Theory * , Ihe Quftrterly 
Journal of £Cvmomlo3 ,vol.78tno,l (F€bruary,1964) ,115-128 
In whlch the author agrees wlth my Interpretation of the 
Et hl CS pasßöge partly but thlnkp that I ovcrlooked passag| 
es In the Rhetorlc and Polltlcs and thus mlrsed to see 
that Arlstotle conslderrd labor cost vs a determlnant of 
value. Gordon took notlce of my reference to thls probleml 
as treated by Arlstotle as a "theory of labor value" 
(my essay, pp ♦60-61) but he dld not grasp my hint to Adam 
Smlth's "labor command theory", Now,no econorolst slnce 
Ricardo v^ould ever confound any morc the Irbor theory of 
value wlth the Irbor command theory and thls Is what I 
Implied In m.y remark. I am surc you vlll find a way to 
correctly sunanarlze the pre?ent status of thls p( rennlal 

page 39* " ••• Clements of both utlllty theory ^nd labor co?t 
theory •••" - Thls is Gordon 's vlewpolnt 

• • • 

" ..• influence on the lab">r theory has been /^reater 

- I would thlnk that the Influence of Arl^^totilian doc* 

Notes on Phil Newoan^s chnptcr II 

- 8 • 

trlne on the labor theory of value by way of the scholas« 
tic cost-of-productlon theory was more direct and con- 
scious that on the Utility theory • IIowever,E«Kauder, 
•Lüenger'ö Unpublished Papers* [GermanJt V/eltwirtschaftli " 
ohes Archiv , vol. 89 (3ept. 1962) ,1*28 found th?:t Men^er's 
theory of the social scionces (in the xinpublished papers, 
now in Japan) "is an ontology in the manner of Ari^itotle* 
I could add a few more lnrtf;ncGs indioating that Uen^^r 
was aware of this influenae . 

pa^G 40t 
page 41? 

page 42t 

paf« 43« 

page 44t 

note Polltioa 1,9 1257 a 40-41 

note It Ibid., 1257 b 1-14 - I csnnot recognize the 
translation but I suppose it is i'elldon'sj I wished you 
would use Jowett*s or B?^rker*ö versions since Welldon 
translßted so freely,for the sake of a inistaken flB^ncy, 
that he practJcally paraphtased sentc nee» and took partic 
ular liberty with torms and notions important 'or the 
econoirist . 

note 2t Ibid., 1257 b 17-22 

^Q^® 1' Politica [instead of ISid.],I,10 1258 a 38 * 
1258 b 7 

note It Politics 1,11 1259 a 9-18 

note It Ibid., 1259 a 21-23 - There Arlstotlc uses ex- 
pressly the term "ffionoioly* 

note 2t 1259 a 23-30 

^(^Q2£Sr ^([-^ OosBT ^ouDfx <^OLLec-r (0^/ JL / ^ ) 4 


'^^^ /^7ej- Du^v /^o 

/VfTSC'W /TtfOHt^S O 

'■ \ 




College of Business Administration 

December 19, 1979 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10025 

Dear Professor Soudek: 

It was a distinct and rewarding pleasure to talk with you yester- 
day morning re the pseudo-Aristotelian Oeconomica and the origin of "oeco- 
nomie politique. " In that regard, I enclose a photocopy of my brief note 
on my earlier (Feb. 1977) paper (presented at the MVEA, St. Louis, 2/26/77) 
and a subsequent first-go at a revision of that paper as per the title "On 
the Origin, Renaissance, and Recrudescence of Oikonomia Politike,^^ to be 
presented at the forthcoming meeting of the Midsouth Academy of Economists 
(Feb. 14-16, 1980). At this time, I will forego my initial Impulse to in- 
flict upon you. the original Working Paper , which runs some 87 pages and 
might just unduly complicate matters. 

Essentially, what I have done is (1) identified, specified and 
documented three separate occurrences of the terminology/designation/etc. 
pol. oikon. in the Greek literature of the 4th - Ist centuries B.C., in the 
specific forms noted; and, (2) identified and documented the earliest-known 
"renaissance" of that terminology (in modern-language dress) in (a) the 
text of Mayerne-Turquet's La monarchie aristo-democratique (Paris, 1611) 
and, on the heels thereon, (b) Montchretien' s Traicte de l'Oeconomie poli- 
tique (Rouen, 1615). — (3) The recent "recrudescence" of "pol. econ." is 
no particular problem, and irrelevant to our purpose here. 

Now, m^ question has been: (A) What happened to this terminology/ 
designation/etc. between its — to me — last-known occurrence in the Greek 
(Philodemus, at Naples) ca. 80 B.C., and this "renaissance" some 1,700 years 
later; i.e., did it "go Underground," "drop out of existence," etc.; or, why 
do we not find in the best Latin lexicons the citation of any appearance 
whatsoever of the equivalent ^^civilis oeconomia" (whence, e.g., A, Genovese 
might have transliterated his titular D' economia civile, Naples, 1765)? 
(B) Was Montchretien' s "reinvention of this wheel," his effective reintro- 
duction of this designation into common parlance strictly "an eleventh-hour 
stroke of genius"; or, is it possible/likely that he — and/or Mayerne - Tur- 
quet — did have access to one of the versions of t\i& ECON. -II, within his 
known tempero-spatio purview which could be identified (viz. , Etaples-1506; 
and, Basel-1548 — secundum Susemihl, 1887)? (C) Or, was there a medium 
(were there media) which preserved and conveyed — transliterated from the 
Greek to the Latin, to the French, Italian, etc. — the term/phrase/etc. in 
question, but which have been simply overlooked by the lexicographers and 
especially the historians of economic thought and language? 

Your 1968 study has certainly shed tremendous light in these last 
regards. Obviously, if "oikon. pol."/"civ. oecon."/etc. went Underground 
before, they were resurrected and widely disseminated considerably in ad- 
vance of the works of Montchr. and his lesser-known countryman. The like- 
lihood that Montchr. did plagiarize his title from ps.-Arist. is thus much 

2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2850 

Nitsch -Soudek, 12/19/79 — 2 

Now, what I would kike to see is one of those Latin translations 
of Book II, especially the opening "chapter 1," wherein (Ist par.) the 
the 3 requirements for "Right adiiilnistration of a household" (Tbv olkovo- 
yeCv yeXXovTct . . . ) are first specified, and then (par. 2nd) where * the 
four main types of such administrations* (OLKOvoyLau 6c euau xeooapeo ... ) 
are designated, whence these four (3aauXux?i aaTpuTiLK^i TioXLTLMTi uöLWTLxn) 
are further compared and contrasted in various respects in turn. 

The point here is that, for whatever it might be worth, in the 
original Greek text (following Armstrong and Susemihl) we never see the 
adjective-noun linkage directly, in that second paragraph or subsequently. 
That is, we do not actually see the specific, explicit form "oLMOVoyuct 
TioXuTLxf^ / TToXuTLxh OLMOVOMba," though Armstrong renders "The administra- 
tion of a free State" and Forster (THE WORKS OF ARISTOTLE, Oxford, 1921) 
"Royal Economy," "Satrapic Economy," "Political Economy," etc.; and, sub- 
sequently A. Andreades (1933) and Rostovtzeff (1941) have formulated "no- 
XtTLM?i OLKOvoyua" and "oLHOVoyua tioXltukti, ouKOVoyLa BaauXLxn, etc." — re- 

Perhaps most intriguing and — I think — equally significant for 
my purposes, you note (your pages 71-72) that Oresme translated the Econom- 
ics into French (for Chas. V, 1371-74) "from the Latin translation by Du- 
rand d*Auvergne . . . ," which would make this, then, the so-far earliest- 
known rendering of the original "oikon. pol." ("civ. oecon."?) into a mod- 
ern language, I would presume in the form "Yconomie polithique" — in keep- 
ing with the spellings as per your p. 72-top and fn. 11. This, in turn, 
would mean that Montchr. was preceded by 240 years in his own language and 
in his own place of publication (Rouen) , though Oresme 's was a private/per- 
sonal - library translation, and apparently not published or (widely) circu- 
lated. As best I can teil, I could perhaps obtain a xerox copy of the pas- 
sages I want from the Durand-Latin from the Columbia University Library (as 
per your p. 135, see. 2); and, it might seem, from your fn. 11, p. 72, that 
Albert D. Menut edited a version of Oresme *s French thereof in/as vol. 47, 
pt. 5 of the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society (1957). 

You emphasized yesterday that Bruni never rendered the Book II / 
OIKON. B (per Armstrong) in which I*m interested, though you indicate (your 
p. 52) that he did "a commentary on Book_II as adapted by him." I presume 
(as per your 'Appendix I,' that should have been "Book III as adapted by 
him." Thus, you could liot have seen his Version of the Book II I'm inter- 
ested in. However, you also note that you have given "a detailed descrip- 
tion of the translatio vetus in Scriptorium^ XII (1958)," from which I in- 
fer that you might have seen a microfilm copy of it, including the Book II 
(cf. your p. 64, n. 5). Perhaps you took a transcript of or some notes on 
that which contain the critical passages of the introductory / theoretical- 
analytical chap. i; or, perhaps you have some such of/on Durand' s transla- 
tion/recension which would reveal that Latin transliteration/rendering/ 
formulation of "Oikonomiai . . . politike etc." Whatever of this nature 
you might have and be willing and able to send on to me would be extremely 
crucial, and most appreciated. (I enclose a xerox copy of Armstrong' s 
Loeb Library translation to eliminate any doubt as to the critical pas- 
sages in question.) Otherwise, and simultaneously, it seems I should ap- 
proach the Columbia University Library which holds a copy of the transla- 
tion by Durand ("Plimpton 17: IV, 8") as you indicate (p. 135, see. 2) with 

Nltsch -Soudek, 12/20/79 — 3 

my request. At the same time, I will check out the reference on Oreseme's 
French trans. which you give in your n. 11, p. 72 — i.e. "Menut (ed.), etc." 
— to See what it may bear. Finally, and perhaps of some interest — and if 
not already known to — you, I managed to run down the following contempo- 
raneous and seemingly very comp lernen tary study to your own: "Durandus de 
Alvernia, Nicolaus von Oresme und Leonardo Bruni. Zu den Übersetzungen 
der pseudo-aristotelischen Ökonomik," Archiv für Kulturgeschichte , 1968, 
50/2, pp. 200-239, as listed in the International Guide to Medieval Stud- 
les . Vol. 8-9, 8/2-3, p. 33, #458. This was the best I could do here in 
cur library. 

I'm sure I have by now exhausted your patience and lost your in- 
terest, but your study has been the only real lead and light shed on the 
subject of my interest in this area that I have come across (thanks to 
Lowry's article) in the last two years, though my immediate research in- 
terests during that time were elsewhere. Just on the basis of your paper, 
however, I think I can — and will have to — revise my earlier "conclusion" 
re Montchrestien's "reinvention of the wheel." For, even if the much more 
populär and widely-circulated Bruni translation did not contain that Book 
II from which he could have "lifted" the key term in his title, it does 
seem that he very well could have had access to either (or both) that 2nd- 
most populär " recensio Durandi , 1295" or (and) "the older translatio vetus , 
ca. 1280," as you note (pp. 63-64). Thus, my new and revised conclusion 
will at least be much more open to this possibibility (if not likelihood) . 
— The "Jacques Lefevre d*Etaples work first published by Henry Estienne 
at Paris in 1506 etc." as noted by you (pp. 92-93) is particularly intri- 
guing in this connection, and I compare Franciscus Susemihl's fn. 21, pp. 
IX-X of his recension, ARISTOTELIS . . . OECONOMICA (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 
1887), to wit: "Haec quidem iam ante complura saecula primus vidit lacobus 
Faber Stapulensis anno MDVI," viz. that the "secundum librum" was not the 
work of Aristotle or the writer of Book I (which Menut makes redundant).* 

I have requested our library to order the two copies (microfilm) 
of the Durand translation of the Bibl. Apost. Vaticana collection from 
Saint Louis U. duplication thereof, and have located a copy of Menut' s ed. 
of Oresme's French trans. at the U. Nebraska - Lincoln library — hoping it*s 
in on the shelf. But, since my paper is due to the discussant on Jan. 15, 
I'm seeking whatever "quick fix" on these Lat./Fr. trans. of Bk. II, eh. i 
I can find. 

I thank you very much again for your already very informative dis- 
closures over the phone day before yesterday, and would be most obliged and 
further indebted for whatever additional Information (materials, documenta- 
tions, etc.) you could provide. Obviously, you would receive prominent ac- 
knowledgements in my paper, i.e. beyond the use and citation of your study; 
and, at the more mundane level, should any out-of-pocket expenses on your 
part be involved, I would be happy to reimburse. 

*P»S. To my disappointment, and as you could 
have advised if I would have known to ask, 
I discovered that neither did Oresme trans- 
late Book II; so, I'm back to "square one" 
in that regard. (TON, 12/21/79) 

Very sincerely. 


' Jcon 

Thomas 0. Nitsch, Ph.D. 
Professor of Economics 
AER, Dec. 1978, 290(1) 

Tel.! (212) AC 2 - 7206 

Dear Professor Nitsch, 

December 27fl979 

I thank you very much indeed for your enthusing letter of 
December 19 and the attached photostatic coples of your note 
on your investigation of the ^'Origin of 'Political Economy"* 
(The Journal of Eccnonics, III (1977), 243) and of your more 
extensive paper "On the Origin, Renaissance, 'nd Recrudescense 
of 'Political Economy* " (including your addendum as of Decem- 
ber 18). 

Be sure that evrry word you are writing is as stimulatlng 
for my mind as was our telephone conversation of Decenber 18. 
I am (ana I was at that time) terribly sorry that I had to cut 
Short our (for me as well rewarding) rewarding converpatlon. 
What you could not know and I did not care to explain is the 
foct that I am suffering from a light rmphysema (not unusual 
with a man of my age [74]) : neither my lung nor my physician 
would permit ifLe to speak too long over the phone. Therefore, 
I asked you to seno me your laper or just to Jot down your 
questions which I would try to answer as fast as pos.sible. 

Since I am under pressure of urrent correspond 
all sorts of business vhich even a retiree has to 
shall briefly comment on your letter so that you c 
ever knowleuge I am capable of transmitting in has 
February meeting of the Midsouth Acrdemy of Econoir: 
the li^trature on the Latin trr.nslf tions of the OE 
are well advised to use the article of my friend G 
the Archiv für Kulturgeschichte and as to the cont 
and its Greek origin or. what Rostovtzeff has writt 

ence and of 
Lttend to, I 
an use what- 
te at the mid- 
ists. As to 
COlJOiaCA you 
oldb runner in 
ent of bock II 
en in 1941. 

y/hether iSfiontchr^tien has known the French tr.^nslfition of the 
Oeconoiriica I & III (in the modern classifiCc tion) by Oresme is 
hard tc say. My friend Menut edited the Oresme text fror mss., 
but the text was printed in Paris by Antoine V^r^rd in 1489. 
There existed later J rench translations such as the one by Gabri- 
el Bunin (?), published at Paris by Michel de Vascosan in 155A 
and fic\nally a version by Estienne de La Boetie, pullsihed in 
16üO by Claude Morel. The mentiored versions have no bearing 
on book II of the Oeconomica; so you may ignore them for the 
time being. Later I shall say more rbout it. 

Soudek-Nitsch, Decejjiber 27,79 

- 2 - 

-UV V >l^i 

As to the medleval anonymous Version ( translatio vetus ), you 
have not to order a microfilm of one of the Vatican mss. froin 
St. Louis. If you were confronted with the ?ection that inter- 
ests you, you would have to find a medievalist who c? n read me- 
dieval Latin mss. (there f:re not too xnDny around). It is much 
easier to look up a modern printed edition of ,the text which you 
may find in "Aristote - Le Second Livre de l'Economique*' by B.A. 
Van Groningen. Leyde, 1935, pp» 18 - 50. The passage thct con- 
cerns you fills just two pages (18-19). If you have difficult- 
ies in procuring a copy of the "bock (the Lincoln Library should 
have it; I could xerox the passage for you and rush it through 
the mail. Van Groningen cites on p. 17 as one of his eourses 
for his te:<tual edition the famous edition prepared by Jul# Mar- 
tienus Rota, pubilihed by Junta at Venice in 1558; this Version 
circulrted very widely. (Therefore, i would xerox for you the 
pp. 17-19). Yet much more porular than this medieval. Latin tr^ns« 
lation of book II and the one published by Lefevre d'Etaples • 
frequently printed until the mlddle of the 1540 's - wss the an- 
not: tcd Latin translation by the Germrn humanist Joachim Camor- 
arius [iCellerm.eister, 1500 - 1574 J, a friend of Melanchthon. His 
work - öeconomica scripta, quae extant titulo Aristotelis L ! J in 
Sermonem Lat* conversa i: explicata. adiunctaque eis interpretatio 
Oeconomici libri Xenonphontis LsicJ - appeared for the first time 
in Leipzig, put out by the renowned publisher Vo- gelin in 1564 
and went through mu'my rex-rints. The text is contained in Vol. 5 
of the classical Aristotle edition of the Prussian Academy of 
1850. It is also printed in Aristotelis Opera Ominia / T. II, 765- 
779. The portion of the text which is most importjnt for you - 
Caput I, esp. no. 5 on "Oeconomda civilis" - fills pp. 765-'765. 
Again, if this text is not readily available to you I can xerox 
and mail it to you. 

Finally, I am attaching an offprint of my 3CRIPT0RIÜM article 
for your use. There, on pp. 267 - 268 you will find in the mark- 
ed Paragraph why, in my opinion, Bruni like Durandus before him 
translated only books I and III (which both called liber secu d - 

Hoping that my lines may satisfy your most pressing needs 
and with kindest regards I reir.: in 



December 31, 1979 


Dee.r Professor Mltsch, 


at second thought it occurred to ire that the copies of the 
texts which I had suggested to you in my letter of December 27 
would not reach you before January 15 • 

Therefore, I am taking the liberty of transmitting to you, 
without your request, by mail xerox copies of 

(1) the text of the second book tff the medieval translation 
(translatio vetus) as prepared by Van Groningen; 

(2) the translation of the genuine book II of the Üeconcmica 
by Jacques LefeVre d'Etaples (lacobus Faber); the xerox copy of 
this text comes from an OPERA OOIA edition, printed in Lyons in 
1549 (this is not in contradiction to the staterrent in my letter 
that Lefevre's edition ceased to ai pear in the 1540 's; I was re- 
f erring tc separate editio' s of his translriion; fron: 1542 until 
1563 his Version was included in oertain Collections of L^'.tln Ver« 
sions of Aristotle's Works (Opera Oitnia) which were put out in 
Basel and Lyons); 

(3) the translation by Joachiicus Caerarius with hir. coKUien- 
tary in the Paris 1886 edition of the OPERA OMNIA. 

Please, accept these copies as a Nev; Year's gift together 
with the best wiehes for a good progress of your labors in the 
Coming year 


sincerely yours, 

"T^^^^^ljJJSJmii'l I "" ' 




College of Business Administration 

January 2, 1980 






Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10025 

Dear Professor Soudek, 

Your letter came as a veritable gold mine. Both of the works 
and relevant passages/portions which you cite — i.e., (1) the modern 
printed edition of the translatio vetus , ed. Van Groningen, Leyde, 1933, 
pp. 18-19; and, (2) the annotated Latin trans. per Camerarius, Leipzig, 
1564, as in Vol. 3 of the classical Arist. ed. of the Prussian Academy 
of 1830, as printed in Arist. Opera Omnia , Paris 1886, T. II, pp. 763- 
765. If you would be so kind to obtain and forward me xerox cc. of those 
texts (with title pages) and the pages cited, I would be most indebted. 
This together with the invaluable info. already contained in your letter 
would literally make my lif e and work complete — at least for the time 

What I have done — I just returned for a couple of days out of 
town, and got yours in this P.M. 's check into my Stack of accumulated 
mail — is recheck our own holdings again, especially for the Opera Omnia , 
which sounded the most familiär. Serendipitously, I just came up with 
the following which includes a Latin trans. of "my" Book II: OPERUM 
ARISTOTELIS, Tomus II. Liborum Aristo telis qui non Extant, Fragmenta 
quaedam. Vols. 1 & 2. Aureliae Allobrogum, Apud Petrum de la Rouiere, 
M. DCVI. This is an original (1606) edition in our "Rare Book Room," 
and has "yellowed," etc. to the point where it is barely readable; but, 
was an extraordinary find for my purposes, thanks to your encouraging 
remarks and "lead." (Don't think I haven' t searched hours over at that 
library, including the assistance of my scripture-scholar colleague in 
the Theology Dept. , who knows our collection and sources about as well 
as anyone in this disciplinary area.) 

I could try the U. of Nebr. -Lincoln again, but don't think I 
would come across those earlier works — I have very carefully searched 
their card catalogue, as well. Incidentally, we do have a medievalist 
here who can read the Medieval Latin. (Creighton is a Jesuit Institu- 
tion, and every now and then, in the library and among our faculty, I 
run across one of those "rare birds" I need.) But, as long as I can 
get the modern (script) version of the original "oikonomiai . . . bas- 
ilike satripike politike idiotike " (which my now-discovered version 
renders: "... administrationis domesticae, . . . : Regia, satrapica, 
civilis, privata." — I had predicted the transliterational "politica" 
rather than the more "Roman" "civilis"), that will be quite adequate — 
at this point, at least. Thus, with the photocopied (two) versions 
you would send me, that would give me three altogether to support my 
point that this Book II certainly could have been available to Mont- 
chretien when he was preparing his Traicte for pi^lication in 1615. 

2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2850 y -^ 

jpoi •«•<^mM«ivip< \m>' •» ■•■ 

January 7, 1980 

Dear Professor Mltsch, 

Your letter of January 2 and my letter of December 31 with 
the attached xerox cooles have crossed. I do hope that my let- 
ter has reached you meamvhile and I do heg your forgiveness for 
my misspelling your name (a Freudian slip which I shall explain 
at some other occasion) • 

However, I do have to correct myself on two more serious 
matters : 

(1) I was wrong when I insisted that Aureliae Allobrogum was 
the Latin äquivalent of Strasbourg (Alsace, Fr/.nce), In fact, the 
two Latin words stand for Geneva (Switzerland) . Why I should 
have slipped in this connection, I shall also clarify at a later 

(2) On the xerox copy of the Camerarius transl- tion fror the 
1866 Paris edition of the OPEKA OMNIA I should have marked the 
Paragraph 5 in sr all letters insterd of the one in large letters. 
The former is the text of the translation by Camerarius while the 
1: tter is the paraphrasing conn.entary by Silvester £/;aurus which h>*, 
originally printed in Rome in 1666. 

New that everything that came up in our letters and telephone 
conversetions has been straightened out b^ fore your January 15 
deadline, I can briefly explain my difficulties with the texts 
in the modern Paris edition. The editor, Cardinal Ehrle , had 
the earlier Latin Renaissance transletlons used by Ikiaurus sub- 
stituted by those Latin versions which in the 19th Century were 
reg- rded as most reliacle; as to the Oeconoirica I and II it was 
the one by Cam.erarius. Since I posse' s and I have at hand the 
1666 Rome edition I could ersily verify my statrment. 

I also have in my library a legible copy of the 1606 Geneva 
edition, put out by Petrus de la Rouiere. Tome II (vol. 2) con- 
tains on the pages 587 - 602 the Greek text of book II and next 
to it the translation by Camerarius • It is titled "Aristotelis 
De cura rei familiarisij. seu edm^inistratione domestica. Liber 
Secundus, Caput I" • (V.Tiereas in the Pt^ris edition the chapter 
is further subdivided into articles, in the Geneva edition this 
subdivision is absent.) The portion of book II which interests 
you (Qui rem domesticam quampiam vero modo administraturus e-^t 
••• X ••• quae tractanda aliquis sueepprtlt), i.e. article 1 in 
the Paris edition, is to be found on p. 587 (right col.), 1.10 
through p. 588 (left col.), 1. 11 (from the bottom). 

Soudek-Nitsch, January 7, 1980 

- 2 - 

Again ref erring to your le ter of January 2, it should 

have gratifled you to see that in the translatio vetus the 

Greek "oikonorla politik?" was rendered with **Ycono: is polit" 

All that is left for the time heing is to wish you good 
luck with your colleagues and to accept friendly greetings 


sincerely yours, 

January 9, 198Ü 

Dear Professor Nitsch, 

Attached I am sending you xerox copies of the Camerarlus 
Version of Oeconomica II in the 1606 Geneva Aristotelis OPERA 
edition published "by Petrus de la Rouiere. It is difficult to 
do justice to such fine print on a xerox machine, I tried three to render as faithful a picture of p. 587 and decided in 
favor of the white one in which the following page is not shin- 
ing through; my other attempts are enclosed too so tj^at you may 
have your ovm choice as to v.hich copy would serve best your pur- 
poses. Of course, in midtov.n I could have gotten an enlarged 
and clear photostat of the prges (but not in the original format), 
but travelling there would postponed the mailing of the 
finished product. 

In my letter of the 7th (which should be in your hands mean- 
while) I described for you the Camerarius version. To roe it was 
always a puzzle that as scholarly a man as he should have stuck 
to the traditional title of this pseudo-Aristotelian work where- 
as Lef^vre d'Etaples has had the right instinct of giving the 
genuine book II the title "Oeconomiae publicae"T 

You mentioned in your yesterday's telephone call that you 
are intending to cite my articles concerning the OeconoiBica« 
Since by now you are aware of (1) my brief essay in SCKIPTüRIUM 
and of (2) my lengthy discourse on "Leonardo Bruni and His Pub- 
lic" - both listed in the bio^rraphical sketch in "American lüen 
and Women of Science" - I rhpuld add (3) a third one titled 
^A Fifteenth-Century Humanirtic Beststeiler** which is a sequel 
and coKplementation (partly also a correction) of my survey of 
mss. in iterr; 2. (A sort of off print of this article is enclosed). 
It has no significcnce for your research but it may be of inter- 
est to a reader of your publication who shares cur fascination 
with this Strange piece of quasi-economic literature. 

Trusting that by now we have surmounted all deadlines set 
for papers in the February Association meeting and v;ishing you 
good luck with your colleagues I remain 

sincerely yours, 

/ •• 




i ■^. 

4 • 

1 i 

'• ' ..• 

Or, Gunnar Stollberg 
Am Gottesberg 27 • 
4800 Bielefeld 1 

t ■>■ 

\ ♦ 



t. ' I 

February 19, 198o 

ft •••■ 

f« : ^ 




> •. ' 

• % 

Professor Thomas Otto Nitsch 
College of Business Administration 
Creighton University • " ' 

25oo California Street 
ümaha, Nebraska 68178 ' '. ' 

Dear Professor Nit 'sch, 

Thank you very much for your most interesting paper on "political ' , 

economy", I take it largely as a laudatio of my essay. f/sanv^hile 

I did not follow up my studies in this field, because I em working 

on a booklet about the trade unions, and the rationalization of 

industry during the Weimar Republic, 

In your paper you do not look into the causes responsible for the 

fact that our term did not experience q renaiSsance during the 

Middle Ages (pp. 5, 22). You put this question only as to cjur 

Century (p. '^Sj. You trace the fate of Aristotle's works, --?nd with 

them that of our term up to the 17th Century. 

In your !€irgumentation you concentrate too much oh Montchrttien, I am 

afraid, and you appear to pass by Maycrne too quickly, I suspect 

our term to have been more widespread within the French language 

of that timn, because 

a) neithGr f/riycrne nor Montchretien see a necessity to define it, 

b) thcy usc our tnrm in diffcrcnt ways, as I found out in my essay. 
Therefore I find it both interesting and even necessary, to look 
for furth'er cvidence of "political economy" during the 17th Century, 
if we want to get an answcr to the question why Theophrast's term 
underwent a renaissance in that time. . ' 
Finolly may I draw your attention to Prof, Paul Moraux, who is in 
chanje of Berlin' s Free University* s archives keeping Aristotle's 
works, Hb might be able to give you further hints on the rtite 

of the Stoqirite's works during the Middle Aqes, 

1 ■ ^. 

f^' i' ' -f ' 

i • 

f - 

• • ■■> ■ 

' ''' ■• : ^ 

• . •' .{.: 
. . . t 

» */. 

• > 



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t '•' 

- 2 - 


Yours very sinceroly 

. » 

^-•■■i UuM^-./ 

SiTx XA V «■'" 


f^,S. Concerning your Gerrnan translatlon of "political economy" otc. 
on p, ^, I would suggest to put "Sozialkonomik", or "Sozialökonorflie", 
or "Politische Ökonomie"/ "Politische Ökonomik", or "politische 
WirtschaftsLchre" etc. 


I i 

/ * 


-»■ i « ■■■ ■ ' ' 


»> r 

Ji\r- ^ 



^z. %.^1- 





< \ 



Thomas 0. Nitsch, 'On the Origin, Renaissance and Recrudescense 

of PüLITIKE OIKONÜI«:iS. Creighton University 
Faculty Working Paper, February 15, 1980 



Stollberg, ''Zur Geschichte des Begriff? 'Politische Ökonomie'", 

Jahrbücjier für Nationaloekonoirie und Statistik, CXCII (192), 
1 (1977|), pp. 1-35 Lstollterg : Bielefeld through 

Jürgen Backhaus : Konstanz 
Working Paper, Notes, pp, vi/vii 

■ ♦ 


o '■■■•'1' 



S. Todd Lowry, »»Recent Literature on Greek Economic Thought", 
Journal of Economic Literature, XVII, 1 (1979), 

Working P?\per, Notes, pp. ii/iii 

*^«^r'..m**^*''^?'*— ^'^■■*<^»*'— ■**iJW^t*»'»*'"**»*«n*'W*-)>^^ m^^«*%t»».«**«jf»<»* , 

Aristote,Econom.ique. Texte etabli par B.A.van Groningen et A, 
Wartelle, rp^^^^^^^ ^^ annot^ par a. Wartelle. Paris : Les 

Beiles Lettres 1968. XXXI, 110 S. (Col. des univ. de 
France.) 18 F. [Buch I und II von van Groningen, A. War- 
. teile besorgte lat. Text des Euch IIl] 

Review : Hermann Goldbrunner in GNOlv^ON, Band 42 (1970) LC.H. 
Beck' sehe Verlagsbuchhandlung, L/iünchen], S. 336-3^9 

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College ot Business Administration 

yc^*-*-^ 'Z ^ ^^^ -o-*»^ ■f^^'^i 

2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2850 



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College of Business Administration 

May 28, 1980 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10025 

Dear Dr. Soudek: 

I hope you are experiencing greater physical comfort and enjoying better 
climatic conditions than when I called last Saturday. Mainly, I wanted to just 
inform you that my sabbatical had been approved here, and that "that System was 
'Go*." Now, I am submltting my application to the National Endowment for the 
Humanities for an Independent Study and Research Fellowship (as per the enclos- 
ures) which requires, inter alia, three letters of recommendation, in accord- 
ance with their norms as indicated on p. 8 of the booklet. For these I have 
selected (1) Dr. Ludwig H. Mai (my former major professor, subsequent depart- 
ment chairman and very dear friend at St. Mary's University — maybe you've seen 
MISTS FAST AND PRESENT; Littlefield, Adams & Co.; 1975— who alone is responsi- 
ble for inflicting me and my penchant for the history of thought on the profes- 
sion initially) , (2) Dr. Bruce J. Malina (my friend, colleague and sometimes 
collaborator but always at least silent partner in the Theology Dept. here, 
who is always my primary and ultimate translator in the Greek, Latin and Ital- 
ian; and, hence, the one at Creighton most familiär with my work during the 
past decade) , and — most naturally — (3) yourself as the "tutor, guide and 
counselor /host professor and repositor and keeper of the wisdom, knowledge 
and precious works" under whom and which I wish and propose to study. 

Please note mainly, at this point, that your recommendation should be 
mailed to them as close to June 2, as possible — for better or worse, that is 
the absolute post-marking deadline for my application. You see enclosed the 
first draft of my "Project Description: Background, Basic Proposal and the 
more Complete/Detailed Description proper." Certainly, this is no polished 
document, but I think it touches all the bases and may enable you to write a 
more meaningful recommendation; as time permits, I will refine and revise. 

Also I enclose for your (more leisurely) perusal the following: (1) a 
first-draft of the adaptation of my paper presented at the Midsouth meetings 
last Feb., which will appear in a forthcoming (1980) issue of the MIDSOUTH 
JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS: Annais and Proceedings (IV), as soon as I wrap up the 
revision/adaptation and have it photo-ready typed; (2) the "official word" 
from my dean indicating appropriate C.U. administration approval of my sabba- 
tical; and, (3) the original proposal submitted to the Curriculum Committee 
of the College of Business Administration (who are advisory to the Dean) , and 
subsequently by the Dean to the Academic Vice President — together with a 
very illegible copy of the "Minutes" of that meeting indicating unanimous ap- 
proval and related sentiments expressed jointly and severally by the members. 

Please note that my sabbatical trip to N.Y. is not in any way (materi- 
ally) contingent on the reception of such a fellowship; but, it would be very 
delectable "icing on the cake," and a veri table "feather in my cap" if I could 
land it or one such. Thus, for "Insurance," I would still like to hear any 
suggestions you might have as to "receptive"/"relevant" (and generous?) foun- 

2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2850 

Nitsch -Soudek, 5/28/80 — page 2 

dations or other sources you mlght have in mind. 

Incidentally, I thought you mlght just be interested to know — if you 
do not already — that, as I*ve discovered in ray recent re-researches, your 
(shall we say?) "seminal" article, "Aristotle^s Theory of Exchange," has been 
cited by no less than Karl Polanyl in his "Aristotle Discovers the Economy" 
(1955), and more-most recently by Barry Gordon in his ECONOMIC ANALYSIS BEFORE 
ADAM SMITH (Barnes & Noble, 1975, pp. 62-65), S. Todd Lowry in his "Recent Llt- 
erature on Anclent Greek Economic Thought" (JOUR. OF ECON. LIT., XVIl/1979, 1/ 
March, p. 69, where H. W. Spiegel is said to * f ollow your Interpretation*) and 
Scott Meikle in his "Aristotle and the Political Economy of the Polis" (JOUR. 
OF HELLENIC STUD. , XCIX/1979, p. 58n) , of which I think I sent you a photocopy. 

Well, that 's enough of all that and a bit more for now. 

Very best regards to 
you and Mrs. Soudek, 


^V^^m^^ niiii^ipi 

"■»^'■^iw^w^w^wip^ww^»" ii wf^n^wmmmm^^w^' w^'^m^r^^. m'v < ^^m^^^m .«^ 



♦ V Division of Fellowships 
^National Endowment for the Humanities 

806 15th Street, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20506 

[Letter of recommendation for Prof. Nitsch, 

mailed June 2, 1980] 








I urge you strongly to extend as much help ar> is in your power to 
the Protect of research which Prof« Nitsch has submitted for your con- 
sideration, I can hardly think of a project nore worthy of your sup- 
poj^t than this« 

/5f\s you know fror: his application, Prof. Mit seh wp.nt^ to trace the 
^rigin of the conceit of "Political Econony** which suddenly sprang up 
in F^ench literature around 1615 (Montchr^tien) . and withiri 160 years 
waiB' i'ully developed by Jaires Steuart and Adam Smith, the 2nglish found- 
^s of the "Classical School" of Econoirics (1776 • 1848). While puzz- 
ling over this concept and its Greek nane (oikononda politike), Prof. 
Llitsch, like many other historians of economic thought including myself , 
becaae curious, how this Greek term should have been applied to a science 
not knov;n at the time when this term was first used (140 B.C.). In eager- 
.ly studying the economic and historical literature he found himself con- 
fronteu with a problem, no economist is adequotely prepr^red for coping 
with t to tra e the history of the socalled Book II of the pseudo-Aris- 
totelian Economics v/here this terir occurred. 

To follow up the tradition of this book of the spurious Aristotelian 
work (consisting of three books) an economist would need scme humanistic 
background (reaaing knowledge of Greek and Latin) besides some knowledge 
of medili*val ana Rena-^ssance learning. In the course of his research, 
Prof. Nitsch discovered that there was a scholnr who had command ikf both 
areas - Econociics and Humanlties (the latter denotlng the trauitior. of 
/^ristotelran works in the I^iiddle Ages and Early Modern Times). This 
Scholar happened to be myself. 

After he got in tpuch with me in hurriedly exprnding : n earlier paper 
on this topic for a meeting of scholnrs I provlded him hastily with the 
needed Information. 5oon he found out that he would have to digg deep- 
er to acquire the knowledge contained in my own pufclished work and in 
related literature. To do that, I suggested that he should apply for 
a sabbflal leave (which he wan granted; and do resoarch in libraries 
on the East Coast where he would find, with my help, the sources v;hich 

Lilease, see next page] 

page 2 

he needed for an answer to bis question concernlng the orig-in of the con- 
cei^t of Tolitical Economy". 

In the six roonths exchnnge of scholarly Inf orination by ir.ail and phone 
(December 1979 through Eay 1980) I becairie deeily imprcss;^d with the 
breadth o'' his knowledge in so many areas of cur conxnon science (Econ- 
omlcs) anü Its subsidiaries like Liatheinatics thr.t I have had little doubt 
that he would r-rrive at tenable concluslons if he h-d only the time to 
read and to a^ i^ly his rudimentary ssk humanistic backgr und (reading knowl- 
edge of Greek and Lttin) to his mastery of the hi- tory of econon.ic thought. 
I was equally impressed with his ener^'y of i ursuing his tasK and with his 
fluency in presenting his thought ■= -ind the results of his studies. Once 
he is determined to corrplete a well reserirched papor, he will finish it 
in the shortest possible time. Finally and ir.ost importantly, his quest- 
ions, his judgments and his propositions betr* y the maturity of a well 
trained anu shari. mind as one woulu expect in a scholar of his age« 

While workirig in libraries he most probably will need funds for having 
material ^hotocGiied, for assistance of secretaries ana gradu? te students 
etc. I am sure that x'rof. Nitsch will be able to secify hir> needs better 
ixn than i can do; whatever he requested fron my own highly specalized 
library he of course received without expense. 

Given the tiine, the opportunity to acquire the indicated knowledge 
and to rece ve some financial hell in doing so,I see no reason why he 
should not turn out or.e or more papers which would qualify for publication 
in reputed scientific Journals. 

June 1, 1980 
Dr. Josef Soudek, Professor Emeritus of Economics, 
xxxxxxxxxxxxx Queens College of the City University of New York, 

Flushing, N.Y. 11367 


June 2, 1980 

Dear Professor Nitsch, 

Today I r,ent a long and strong letter of rocomrendation 
to the "National Endownient for th- Humanities" in War,hington. 
Äiy letter was as close to the suggest^d date (June **) as pos- 
lible; 1 was unable to vrito it earlier since your first class 
packa^^ü, mailed on Uay 28, errived here on the 31st. 

I am quite hopeful that the "Endowment" will come forth 
some financial assistance; if so, it will he indeed that "feath 
er in your cap" of which I was thinking when I suggesttd such 
application« The only other Fund thrt occurred to rric as a fea- 
sible source of aid was the "Social Science Research Council" 
that xn.ukes grants-in-aid availible in n sirrilar fashion. Tmt 
1 think you should let things rest vvith th(! "Endowment" for 
the present. 


Your action concernirig tbe apxlication for financial aid 
the other steps you have taken on the Creighton cemplus in- 
dicate to me that you were on the right psth. First, I was sur- 
prir^cd that you were planning to do soire teaching during yjur 
sabbatical leave; here, on the East Gorst, "gainful einploment" 
in that period v;ould be unlawful. Also, I noted with pleasure 
that you have gathered useful inf orirption aboul Fordhar. üniver- 
sity as the dominant Jesuit Institution of high< r lenrning in 
our arer and about the existence of several Catholic collef^es 
in and around H^anhattan. Almost one week ago I mailed to you 
two maps of the (monstrous) "Metropolitan Area" with the ad- 
jacent countics in the three~st? te corner of thir section of 
the ii;ast Coast, There you might find the o.ct location of 
the "schools" in Manhattan and notice that e.g« Fordham Univer- 
sity has spread • 11 ovor the metropolitan area; it has now a 
School of Business ^idministr; tion not far froir Columbia Univer- 
j:;ity " something that was new to me • Formerly thir- section 
was downtown near City Hall. 

Many thanks also for your refere^.ce to several coimnentp on 
my essay on "Aristotle*s Theory of Exchange". At some later 
occasion you will hear more about that from me. There has a 
veritable literature grown up on and around this articlc in 
sever 1 languages of which I heer from friends and sludentsj 
the coiiiments not alays comp lime t- ry, particularly in the 
philologicrl camp, ßut this was to be exj.ected from a challeng- 

- 2 - 

ing re-interpretation of a text which classicfil scholars were 
unable to cope with. Yet It was not wrltten for therr. but for 
Biy fellow economists. 

For the tlme being we are suiferinr here from a minor »»heat 
wave" which to you would a. perr not noteworthy compared with 
whrt Mebrvska ir.ust have gone throngh in the p' st weeks. Iloping 
for an imi rovement of weather and for good news from you 
main, with greetings from tos. Goudek, 

yours FiP alwrxys , 

I re- 



College of Business Administration 

June 2, 1980 

Dr. Soudek, 

In the event you might not have yet submitted your letter of recommen- 
dation re. roy application for an Independent Research Fellowship from the NEH, 
or for your peace of mind in the event you "heroically" did so, I enclose the 
finished Version of the Curriculum Vitae, etc. — which is a bit more tolerable, 
I think you will agree. 

This has been a real challenge for me — the first such grant application 
— outside of a more conventional one to Traveller* s Life Insurance, and the more 
mundane ones for the G.E programs in Economics of my earlier career. Even if it 
does not bear pecuniary fruit, it has served some Substantive purpose — I'm 
certain. I hope it finds your approval, as an official Statement of my plans. 

Meanwhile, I will wrap up the adaptation of my "On the Origin, Renats- - 
sance, and Recrudescence" paper for — it looks like now — the Dec. 1980 issue 
of the MIDSOUTH JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS / Annais . My MBA 759 — Seminar in Economics 
on "Economic Growth, Inflation and Unemployment" got underway already on May 19 
(it meets twice a week for 3 hrs. on Monday and Thurs. evenings) , but really 
haven't been able to put my heart in it so far. Perhaps, with this NEH deadline 
— hopefully — met, I can now salvage the remaining six weeks of the Seminar, giv- 
ing them more of that "positive-science" material they're seeking. We'll see. 

Hope this finds you and Mrs. Soudek bearing up under all adversities (tak- 
ing my characteristically short-run pessimistic tack) , and promise to keep you 
abreast of developments on my part. 

Thanks again for all your most helpful and encouraging efforts and input 
into my work to date. For one who's "cried in the wilderness" (which we whites 
made it) out here for so long, your informed and understanding ear has been a 
true blessing. So may you be blessed. 



-^ ^^/ cicc 4^^ m-oJ ^ 

.yZ^^ ^-y^'^i 


2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2850 




College of Business Administration 

June 6, 1980 

Dr. Soudek, 

As mentioned in my last, I did receive the packet of two maps; 
and, I find them most helpful and encouraging — exactly the way maps make 
things appear, l'm sure, until one enters the "real terrain." But, seri- 
ously, these will be a great aid, and do remove considerable of the uncer- 
tainty and speculation. Now, I must thank you likewise for your most en- 
couraging and enthusing letter which arrived this A.M. 

Exactly as you commented, the Bus. Ad. College Executive Committee 
expressed serious negative concern re my proposal to give a seminar or what- 
ever in "exchange" for living/working space and board, e.g.; although, as 
one (a CPA Accounting Prof., no less!) recognized, such would also provide 
me an experience to try my ideas out on a graduate group at a better/larger 
university, my only opportunity at the graduate level here being the MBA 
759 — Economics Seminar and the INR — 725 Seminar in Comparative Economic 
Systems, both of which are only on an occasional basis (INR = the M. A. in 
International Relations program) — both of which incline more to the "pro- 
fessional" than to the "academic" side of things. Anyhow, rest assured 
that that was one of those "flares" I shot up to see what kind of a reaction 
I would get at this end. As I wanted to impress upon them, I could — but do 
not want to — stand to lose or be penalized financially in doing my sabbati- 
cal in the genuine manner of schole , rather than as many here do — viz. sign 
up for programs, coursework, etc. at the University of Nebraska Lincoln, or 
merely work on a textbook or whatever right here on campus or at home, be- 
cause they can' t af ford to live at two places so to speak. 

Also my thoughts concur with yours re the alternative (s) to a NEH 
fellowship, and most of all thank you for reminding me of the SSRC. I have 
the National Science Foundation forms on hand, as sent upon my personal re- 
quest by the Assoc. Program Director for Economics — the NEH and NSF repre- 
sentatives were on campus here, as a matter of fact, the day or so preceding 
the Exec. Cme. meeting. So, my idea now is to "sit tight" for awhile, and 
"let things rest with the 'Endowment' for the present." After the big rush 
and push to meet that June 2, deadline on that application, l'm ready for a 
more relzxed pace at more purely scholarly pursuits! I haven' t heard from 
my old Prof. , Dr. Mai in San Antonio», yet but Bruce Malina here had his rec- 
ommendation written and mailed the day before I sent in my application. So, 
assuming they received everything, I have only to sit back and relax. 

Meanwhile, in addition to wrapping up the two papers (monograph and 
article) I mentioned, I am submitting the enclosed proposal to present a pa- 
per at such as the Midwest Economics Associaiton (which just sent out its 
"Call"), I4idsouth Academy of Economists, Southwestern Social Science Associa- 
tion / Economics, Missouri Valley Econ. Assn., Rocky Mountain Soc. Sei. Assn., 
and Association for Social Economics. This project/paper, related to both 
my researches into Smith-Marx-et al. on "Alienation" and to the — if we may 
— "Aristotelian" origins of 'political economy, has been sticking in my craw 
for some time now, and I don' t think it would bog me down too much to write 
up the ideas I think l've already pretty well formulated in the matter (in- 
cluding, e.g., Rousseau's "Contrat social," Hegel's "bürgerliche Gesellschaft" 

2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2850 

Nitsch -Soudek, 6/6/80 — p. 2 

and Ferguson' s "Civil Society " men as at least flrst-cousins to Smith' s 
Homo Mercantilus or emporlkon zSon . 

Well, that's enough of all this for now. I have just done the first 
draft of one of those "Exhibits" you remarked about. This one is entitled 
"Mi lestones/ Landmarks in the Renaissance of Politike Oikonomia , of which 
'Rohentwurf' I enclose a copy for your leisurely inspection. One thing one 
of your letters (1/9/80) really helped me out on in this regard was a cryptic 
comment in a footnote of Stollberg' s (of Bielefeld) article, where he muses 
(p. 4, n. 14) to the effect that "whether or not the term 'oeconomia publica' 
of the 16th Cent, was a partial synonym with that of 'political economy' of 
the 17th Cent, remains to be seen/revealed. " Now, that "oeconomica publica 
of the 16th Cent." hits like a holt out of the blue; for, even though he re- 
fers US ahead to his fn. 40 (p. 10), he explicates nor documents this point 
no further anywhere. Thus, when you remarked about lacobo Faber Stapulensi/ 
Interprete having the right instincts to title the Oecon. II "Oeconomiae 
Publicae," and that Version you noted made its rounds from 1506 -1549 et seq., 
I knew he must somehow or other be ref erring to the Oecon. II / Faber-Stap. 
Thus, you see in the first row. If Montchrestien did nothing eise, he clearly 
equated the "Oeconomie politique" in his last-minutely revised title with 
"ceste mesnagerie publique" which Röscher remarks about in his Geschichte der 
National-Oekonomik in Deutschland (München: R. Oldenbourg, 1874), p. 185n, 
and which we find on p. 32 of the Funk-Brentano ed. of Montchr.'s Treatise . 
This raises that question — perhaps purely moot and insignificant, perhaps 
not — of the relationship between "public" and "political" economy once again. 
Well, I Started to close at the first of this paragraph, and will now carry 
out that Intention. 

The weather here is truly miserable. High 80s to low 90s and pro- 

bably somewhere around 95% relative humidity! May you and the Mrs. be enjoy- 

ing better by now. Had tornado warnings night before last and this A.M. 
But that season should be over ere too long, hopefully. 




ColliHiD o( fUisinoss A(i 




(Follow-up of 8/14) 8/15/80 

Dr. Soudek, 

At your Suggestion, I have submitted order form 
for: Vaugn, Karen I. 

'John Locke's Economic Theorizing (etc.)' — giv- 

ing this description in absence of title. 
Univ. of Chicago Press, 1980/79. 
And, leave that in the good hands of our librarians. 

As to requesting the materials you specify from 
the "Institut de Rech, et d'Hist. des Textes" in Paris, 
my present reaction is this: as I indicate in my pa- 
per (at least as it is now revised) , it was actually 
Garnier (1852) who — even though he was aware of and 
actually cited Böckh's Staatshaushaltung (in noting 
the literal meaning of pol. econ'y. as per that German 
rendering) — originally attributed the earllest findable 
employment of the term to Montchrestien, further noting 
how remarkable it was (1) that the Traicte' was initially 
approved under the original title Traic. oecon. du trafic , 
(2) et que le terme d ' oeconomie politique ne se trouve 
pas dans le texte. Also, though I ' ve never seen a copy 
of the T615 original, (1) I don't think there is an "In- 
tro/Pref." as you might have in mind in suggesting ob- 

taining a reproduction of the Ist chap. , while (2) any- 
such footnote references to the literature as are found 
in Funck-Brentano' s 1889 republlcation/edltlon are de- 
monstrably those provided by that editor from, e.g. , 
Aristotelian works (edltions) publlshed after 1615. I 
conclude that the most we can glean/milk/mine from the 
Traic te^ , therefore, is that the Oeconomie politique in 
the title equates with "cette mesnagerie publique" in 
the text, as noted in F.-B.'s "Intro. ," and earlier by 
Röscher ( Gesch. der N.-Oe . in Dl ., 1874) — who, again, 
followed Garnier 's lead. Thus, unless you have something 
eise in mind by "omissions" — of which please inform if 
so — I will probably hold off on this until we can secure 
an original version of the Traicte or reproduction there- 
of in one of the regional libraries next Spring-Summer. 
Auf Wiedersehen! ., — T~Z^ a / 

^!jOO Ccilifoinia SlfL'i't Uftijtwi, N , 

• kj Ü8r;8 (402) 14Ü .'8',-,ü 


♦ ~ 

i'liIIi.'.;.. i)t ii . 

August 13, 1980 

Dear Dr. Soudek, 

Hope this catches up with you enjoying more agreeable climatic 
conditions than when you left NYC and arrived in Frankf urt/Munich. I 
did much appreciate vpiry miirh your two letters and accompanying packet, 
which greeted me on my return from a "mini-vacatlon" with my wife's 
folks in Geneva, Nebraska. This followed, after a few days back at my 
"salt mine," our quasl-annual "pilgrimage" to my l.ome territory of San 
Antonio, Texas and vicinity for a pleasant — though miserably bot and/or 
humid — vacation with my aunts, uncles and cousins (my younger brother 
resides in Baton Rouge and my mother here in Omaha), and Dr. and Mrs. 
Mai. Often, if not most often, without air conditioning during the day- 
time (we always enjoyed it during the sleoping hours) , we managed to 
survive — surprisingly , none of our 4 children (Jessica, 16; Sarah, 14; 
Rebecca, 12; Carl, 8.83) seemed to be bothered too much by it, putting 
the shoe on the other foot of their being somewhat dismayed at my wife's 
and my ongoing complaints. On the less selfish (though not completely 
unselfish, given the future course of the CPI) side, we were disheartened 
by the heavy agricultural toll the prolonged drought had taken down there, 
with an estimated loss of $2 billion in Texas alone as of the time we 
were there (July 15-29), with some 38 straight days of never-under 100° 
in Dallas and vicinity. Hurricane "Allen" has now brought at least some 
'temporarv relief to that Situation, but with its own cost and keeping 
in mind the crops etc. that were beyond redemption. 

I don't know exactly when 1 v>;ill get around to your latest "as- 
signment." Suffice it to say, it v\;ill hold me for a while. Am in the 
throes of completing the revision and proofreading final copy of the re- 
vised/adapted version of my presented paper at the Midsouth last Feb. for 
publication (in Ännals and Proceedings section) in Dec. issue of MIDSOUTH 
JL. OF EGONS. I enclose a couple of those "exhibits" (a 'tableau' and a 
'matrix') for your perusal. The longer "tableau" is an updated and more 
complete representation of the data pertaining to the "renaissance" of the 
term which originally appeared in pp. 18-20 — this version both extending 
that list and pulling it more together. The appendixed "Morphological Ma- 
trix" (I here debated between that choice of terms and " Orthograph ical , " 
but decided "Morpho." more appropriate) is really the tip of quite an ice- 
berg my daughter Jessica (a junior, now, in high school who leans toward 
the classics — Latin, to date — and archaeology) worked up out of the OED, 
mainly. A problem not quite settled is the actual extent to which such 
expressions as "economia publica" (and its transliteral equivalents) , 
"economia naxionale" (etc.), "Volkswirthschaf t" and "Economie sociale" — 
which latter two have been equated in the ENCICLOPEDIA UNIVERSAL ILUSTRA- 
DA'S rendering of Rau's 1826/33 title GrundsHtze der Volkswirthschaf ts- 
lehre as Principios de Economia social (EUI/E-A, XVIIl/ii, sub "Economia") 
— were truly synonymous. Stollberg of Bielefeld has raised this question 
in bis 1977 art. regarding "public" and "political" — specifically , the 
",oeconomia publica' of the I6th cent. with the »politischen Ökonomie' of 
the 17th cent., etc." (n. 14) — but gives no further hint or clue as to an 

,00 c ,i:iMi!iia !-h*'-i ()rii;ili .. Nrhr.isK ;t 081 /H ('1 ü/) 440 2H50 

i j 

i 1 

• I 


Nitsch -Soudek, 8/13-14/80 ~ page 2 

answer. I didn't even get his reference to that "oeconomla publica of the 
16th Cent." untll, by sheer serendipity in re-readlng yours to me of 1/9/80, 
I re-ran across your supplying me Lefevre's (generic) tltling of the OECON. 
II, where the Oeconomiae Publlcae obviously embrace the regal/royal, satrap- 
Ical/provincial, and the political/civil(civical) . However, the good Dr. 
Gunnar S. himself provides no such reference or citation in his cryptic 
footnote remark. This same (publlc-political) relationship would clearly 
he just the opposite today, when 'Public Economy ' is virtually synomymous 
with 'Public Finance (including public-expenditure , as well as revenue/debt , 
analysis),' while 'Political Economy' — in its contemporary "recrudescence" 
has resumed/retained its (more generic) 18th-19th Century connotation(s) . 

(Incidentally, and on the lighter side, it just recurred to me that 
the "trouble" which several people voiced with my title "Origin, Renaissance, 
etc." was not with the orthographical matter of the 'IIOMTIKH OIKONOMIA' at 
the tail end, as I invariably suspected and blurted out whenever the person 
said "I've got a question/problem with the meaning of/in your title." Rather, 
it went no further than "recrudescence"! That is, those admitting it, were 
stumped there, already, and apparently didn't even bother with the pol, oikon . 
Substantive! Thought you might just appreciate that.) 

Meanwhile, I appreciate very much the of f set /photostat . copy of Dr. 
Goldbrunner' s art. on the 'Durandus/Oresme/Bruni Translations of the ps.-Arist. 
Economics ' in the L(1968)2 issue of A. f .K. you include, but should disabuse 
you of any idea that my reading comprehension of his (or anyone eise's genuine) 
"Gerraan diction" is anything but the spot tiest/sketchiest . However, without 
the expert assistance of one of my technical translators, I gather his point in 
the relevant regard is that the "TV" did, indeed, predate the "RD," as per the 
"Varum" atop his S.219 re the continued restriction of the "Barbarism" to the 
second Book by^ the RD and the subseqDcnt versions based thereon; and, that the 
original anonymous (Latin) base — the TV (?) — from which this excision was made 
hailed from the time-frame of 1280 - 1264/60, as per your most recently stated 
reckoning ("Fif teenth-Century Humanistic Bestseller," opening paragraph) and 
Gb's remark mid-text his S.207 re the 'plausible Explanation' for dating the 
Ökonomik / oeconomica qua the TV prior to 1270/67 — and, I guess, despite his 
subsequent (S.218) assertion re the demonstrability "for sure, that in Paris 
( around 1280 a translation of the Economics neither existed nor was known, usv." 
/ No doubt you, in short order and shrift, can clear up the mess I've now made 
/ of this after spending no mean amount of time on it, dictionary and all. 

Thanks, many-times also, for the reference to the serial "Ren. Lat. 
Arist. Comment." by Ch. H. Lohr (SJ) in the XXVIII( 1975 ,Winter)4 and XXIX(1976, 
Winter) 4 issues of the REN. QTRLY. , which I have now at band, and Standing ap- 
prised of your recommendations of the works by J.E. Sandys (on Camerarius) and 
Rice (leading off the "Lit." on Faber Stap.), the coverage of whom by Lohr is 
truly spectacular. Much more intriguing and pregnant from an immediate stand- 
point, however, is Iphr's citation of "W. Röscher, Geschichte der National - 
oekonomik in Deutschland (Munich, 1874)," just prior to Sandys in re Camerar- 
ius. For, Röscher it was who, following the lead of the Frenchman Garnier 
(1852) and ostensibly (allegedly, by me) ignoring that of his mentor Aug. Böckh 
— whose classic, Staatshaushaltung der Athener of 1817 et seq. he cites on sev- 
eral occasions in his own earlier Ansichten of 1849 et seq. — re- / further ad- 
vances the "Montchrestien-first" thesis. I shall now have to re^cquire that 
very significant work by Röscher — which, as I have noted, was followed in turn 
by J.K. Ingram, no less, and cited thereby in the further hardening of that 
"fact" — and see exactly what he has to say about Camerarius on those pp. 52-54 

Nitsch -Soudek, 8/14/80, page 3 



noted. This Information, along with Garnier 's having also cited Böckh's 
"classic" (whence missing the same boat as the — perhaps not-so-blind — pupil 
Röscher), I now propose to include in an "Epilogue" to my (revised/up-dated 
/adapted) Progress Report . 

Finally, and I should really with-hold all comment here, as I have 
not done any justice whatsoever to your seininal (1952) art. , "Arist.'s Th. of 
Exchge. ," let me nonetheless venture/prof fer the following remarks for what- 
ever merit and interest the may have in your eyes. Arist.'s position in the 
Ethics of the need for 'equivalence' in exchange, whence Thos. Aq.'s "Just 
Price" etc. , I am directly aware of , and the thesis that the evaluations were 
in terms of relative usefulness (subjective, objective?) and/or need (ditto?) 
as advanced (recited) by lexander Gray (DVPT. EGON. DOCT. ; Longmans etc., 
1933; pp. 27-29) likewise. However, ever since I began teaching the Hist. of 
Econ. Thot. in Fall '61, using Gray as textbook and relying on A.E. Monroe '^s 
(ed.) EARLY ECON. THOT. (Harvard, 1948) for convenient excerpts from Jowett's 
transla. (and, l'd say now, occasionally misleading/overly-ethnocentric ren- 
derln)t^) of Arist.'s Pol. & Nie. Eth. (Bk.V), I have been of the mind that this 
passage (V,v,3-16) conveys the notion or "implication throughout . . . that in 
the final analysis things will exchange for one anotlier according to their 
labor content," as I then penned in the blank space on p. 29 of my copy of 
Monroe (ed.). Now, after discussing this issue with my cohort and collabora- 
tor Malina (scriptural theology) , I am convinced of (or, at least , inclined 
toward) his view that the "labor content" Involved here is of a "qualitative" 
— vs. "quantitative" — nature and equivalence. That is, e.g. , in his attempt 
to understand the meaning of "subsistence economy" in the context of the OLD 
TESTAMENT, whence the proscription against profit/usury (since, one person's 
being able to rise above ' subsistence' necessitated someone eise's being de- 
pressed therabelow; and the same for city- / nation-states) , Malina has come 
to the concliision that "status" is the key concept or criterion. That is, a 
cobbler/oikodomos/f armer, to mis Arist. and the O.T. , would become impoverished 
if and when he would be depressed below his Status (nature?). Thus, Thos. Aq. 
and his notion that justice is served when a person's remuneration (wage) is 
in accord with his super- naturally ordained Station in life, etc. Such hier- 
archical relativism, I must admit, is disturbingly elitist (Calvinistic?) to a 
person like me; but, it has enabled me — I think — to make the most meaningful 
sense out of "Aristotle's Theory of Exchange" possible to date. Now, this will 
provide you with one more heretical baloon of mine to pop as time permits and 
spirit moves. 

I will let you know whai I come up with upon returning to Röscher 's 
Geschichte (perhaps I will go to Lincoln tomorrow, as they are hounding me on 
several books needing to be renewed). Meanwhile, I hope this finds the Indo- 
European climate smiling more favorably on you by now wherever you may be — 
as we have here experienced a nice, steady, drought-breaking rain all morning 
long; after a recorded 1.9" last Mon./Tues. to boot. As a last word, I only 
mention to you the name of a former very close schoolmate and friend of mine, 
Wolf gang D(ietrich). Hudler, originally from Lindau (Bodensee), then/now in 
München /Frank fürt who would respond enthusiastically (I would surely hope) 
were you to be able to find him by phone there (he should also still be rather 
well-heeled and positioned, though much too politico-economically Conservative 
anymore for my blood). However, l'm sure you' 11 be much too busy for such, 
anyhow. May your stay and travels be relaxing, refreshing and rewarding. 

With kindest sentiments. 

I C'J^^^ 


College of Bus. Admln. , CREIGHTON UNIV., Omaha, Aug. 1980 

Exhibit ( Tableau ) to appear in T. 0. Nitsch, "On tho Origin, Renaissance, and 
Recrudescence of Politike Oikonomia ," to be submitted to MIDSO.JOUR. EGONS. 

M i 1 cstont -s and Landmarks in the Renaissance of Politike Oikonomia as "Oeconomle politique" &c. 


1506-A9 — 

1611 — 
1615 -- 

166 2 
1672/91 — 
1681 — 
1686 -- 
1712 — 

1740 ~ 


~ regia /satrapica / civilis 
"au citoyen en nostre 
oeconomie politique 
= mesnagerie publique" 
" OEconomies d' Es tat , do- 
rnest iquos , politiques , 
fic." = StaatswTrtlischaft 
"qualla conducuiit soli 
ooconomiae poli ticac^^ 
" Political Oeconomlos " 
= politike oikonomiai 
" Püblick Oeconomy ^ (and) 
Policy to Peace, Plenty" 
*' ,oeconomiam politicamt 
. . .is not Wirtschaft,'" 
"In the Dispositions of 
Society, the civil CEcon- 
omy is formed in a chain 
as well as the natural." 
"the publick expense can 
ncver be too accurately 
computed. . . ; for as in 
private life, so in 
political oeconomy , ..." 
"not fprudentiae oecono- 
miae privatae\ but * pub- 
licae ^ is taught today" 
"Economia Civile, Econo- 
Tcda Pubblica, or simply 
Economia^' = "commercio" 
" staatswirthschaft , oder — 
systematische Abhandlung 
aller Oekonomi sehen- und 
"Discours sur V üconomie — 
politigue" = "medley of 
econoraics and politics" 
"Philosophie rurale ou 
economi e generale et pol- 
itique de 1' agriculture" 
= " tconomiques " of 1769. 
1763 — 'economia politica / pubb- — 
lica' in econ. (finance, 
hlstory, et commercio). 
"Economia civil e" ("eco- 
nomia pubblica" ) trans.l- 
"bürgerliche Oekonomie" \ 
"Principles of Political — 
Oeconomy " = "The Science 
of Domestic policy ..." 
"s Uli' economia pubblica" — 
(ou "economic publique") 
" di economia pubblica " = — 
"Economic publique in his 
Sciences camerales course 
" economia politica " = — 

"Economie politique" 
"all' economia nazionale" 
=■- "Volkswirthschaftslehre" 
"Ahrogö des princi pcs de — 

^ ' <-''^' -'onomie poli tique " = 
"a . . . synoptlcal tabula" 
"Elömcnts de la politique — > 
ou Recherches sur les 
vrais principes de 2'^ 
6conomie sociale " 

— " D(} 1 1 ' economi a nazionale " — 

— "Table raisoneo d' princi- — 
/x 'S . . . f^con omi n polit [fiuo " 

1754-64 — 
1755/58 — 

1763/69 — 


176 7 

1768 — 

1769/ — 

1771 — 

1771 — 

17721 — 

1773/78 — 


User; Medium/Context; Etc. Referee/Source(cf . /cp. ) 

Soudek, 1968, 92-93; and 
Soudek-Nitsch of 1/9/80. 
King, 1947, 230-31; and, 
Stollberg, 1977, 4-5. 
Funck-Brentano, "Intro," 
äMontchretien (48, XXIII) 
Garnier, 1852(i). 303-4; 
Rau, 1833, 22-23; Schum- 
peter, 169; Mal, 217-18. 
Stollberg, 1977, 6-7; 
Schumpeter, 202n, 109; K 
Petty (ed. Hüll), I, 181; 
Stollberg, 1977, 7-8. 
Petty (ed. Hüll), II, 481; 
Stollberg (n. 31) silent. 
Stoll. , 7n; Schum. , 283n; 
Mai,201;Cossa,*93, 205 +. 
TIONARY (1884 - 1928), 
1933, s.v. " Economy ," V, 
36; Compact Ed., p. 831. 
OX.ENG.DICT., sub " Polit - 
ical , 6. phrases"; THE 
(London: W. Pickering, 
1825), vol. X, 127-28. 

Lefevre d'Etaples / titling 
Mayerne-Turquet; text, MON- 
Montchr.; rev. title , TRAIC- 
Sully (Bethune); in title, 
H. Conring; in text, ",DE 
Petty; text, POLITICAL AN- 
ATOMY OF I RELAND, 1899 ed. 
Petty; intro. to ''Dublin 
Bills of Morality, 1681." 
V. Schröder; text, FÜRST- 
J. Addison, Sir R. Steele, 
et al.; text, THE SPECTA- 
TOR, 1711-14 (1863,1891), 
No. 404, p. 1. 
Lord Westmoreland; text, 
"Debate on the State of 
Tlie Army," House of Lords, 
Dec. 9, 1740, as reported 
by Samuel Johnson (1787). 
Gottlieb Schumann; text, 
A. Genovese; lectures on 
commerce and mecanique at 
the University of Naples. 
Johann Heinrich von Justi; 
title; 2 vols. , Leipzig, 
1755 [mlsdated by Bell, 
loc. cit. ]; 2nd ed. , 1758. 
Rousseau; tit. art. GRANDE 
ENCYCLOPEDIE of 1755, as 
characterized by Ch. Gide. 
Mirabeau, Victor Riquetti, 
Marquis de; titles of his 
"best"/'most physiocratic' 
= 'pure (economics) ' works. 
P. Verrl; in text, MEMORIE 
A. Genovesl; title (text), 
J. Steuart; title, AN IN- 
P. Verri; title, MEMORIE 
C. Beccaria; text & title, 
Lectures on Economy y Milan 
P. Verri; title, MEDITAZI- 
ONI SÜLL' EC. POL. (Livorno) 
G.m. Ortes; title, ERRORI 
Baden, K. Friedrich v. (de) ; 
title art. , EPHEMERIDES DU 
CITOYEN (weekly, 1765-66)1 
Buat-Nan9ay, Louis-Gabriel ■ 
/title of work in 6 vols., 
Paris(?),1773; London. '78. 
[Mistrans. /Lalor(69,87n) . ] 
G.M. Ortes; title (CoHsa ) - 
Dupont fle Nemours; title - 
hlH rev )f Baden (1772)f 

- Stollberg (85,8), fn. 31. 

- Cossa, 1892('93), 69(59), 
258-59(235-36); Garnier, 
1852, part 1, 309-11. 

- Cossa, 1893, 236-37; Rau, 
1833, 28; A.E. Monroe, 
1924, 377; Bell, 94n. 

- Gide and Rist, 21; Gar- 
nier, pt. 1, 300n; Stoll- 
berg, 4-5 (econ. varlant). 

- Cossa, 1893, 260; Stoll- 
berg, 9; Gide and Rist, 
23n; Ingram, 1915, 65. 
H. Higgs (56,11,777). 

- Garnier, part i, 309n; 
POL. ECON'Y., III. 619. 

- Cossa, 1893, 236; Rau, 
1833, 29 (glving title 
of 1776 German trans.). 

- OX. ENG. DICT., s.v. 
"Economy , 1.3, Politi- 
cal,"; Garnler, 1, 311. 

- Cossa, 1893. 281; PAL- 

- Cossa, 1893, 279-80,59; 
Garnier, part 1, 311; 
Schumpeter, 179-81. 

- Garnier, i,311;C08sa, '93, 
282-83; Schumpeter, 178. 

- Cosfla, '93, 283f; PDPE, 
III, 43f; Rau, 1833. 5, 11. 

- Schumpeter, 225-28; Cos- 
sa. '93, 272; Inp.rnm, ' 15, 
78; Garnier. 1. 311-12. 

- Röscher. 1886, 35n-36n; 
1369f; Garnier, 11. 

- (19.284); R/iu (64,11). 
Coasn (19.295; 18. 272f); 
Garnler (25.311-12). 













Journal of Economlcs , III (1977), 241. 

. "On the Orlgin, Renaissance, and Recrudescance of uoXtToxh oi.KovoiiUo: 

A Pro- 





gross Report," 7th annual meetlng of the Midsouth Academy of Economlsts, Little Rock, 
Feb. 14-16, 1980; Fac. Work. Pnp. (CBA/CU, Omnlin), 1980, 47 + xxl pp. 

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Public Affairs, St. Mnrv's Univorsity of San Antonio, Mnrch l"), 1974. 

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Be Maxlmlzed: An Integrative Approach," 55th -^.nii. mtg. Southwestern Social 
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Oser, Jacob, and William C. Blanchfield. The i.vo_ii.iti «»n of hr onomic Thou |;.i-, ■ 
York, et alibi: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 

Science Associ- 

^1 - (12) pp. 

3d ed. New 

1 , ' > 

(OED) Oxford English Dictiona ry (1884-1928). Oxfo.-' ['niversity Press, ]'■' 
(PDPE) Palgrave's Dictionar y o f Political Economy (189^-10), rev. cd. by 
26. Reprint ed. New York: Aup.ustus M. Kelley, 1963. Voluiiics I, JI anc! 
Pcrry, Arthur Latham. Elements oF Polt ti e il Fconomy. New York: Charles :k:ribner, 1866, 
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Philodemus. Philodemi Volumi na Klietorica , II, ed. S. Sudhaus. Lelpsif.: Teubner, 1896. 

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" '" ' " ' 'Pp.'T-40; !-30'." 

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zig and Heidelberg: C. F. Winter, 1861; 3d ed., 1978, Vol. 1. 
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man ed. by John 
. Oxford, 1941. 

. Grundl agen der Natio nalökonomie. 18t h ed. 

. Pri nciples o f Poli tical Economy , trans. from the l JLh (1877) 

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Mulrhead. London et alibi: Longmans, Green and Co.; 1897. Volume II. 

Ajl[)lMl<l i > 

The following mntrlx will provldo tlic rt-nilcr with s(»n)c' IdiM (if i In- iii(if,ii.. • . » 
ibilitic'S of and for the occiirrcMice o\' "po l i t i ca 1 iconomv" and synduvninus -^v 

(irlpanal politikc oikonnmia throu^i;!! tlu* I,ai i ii/Roman and tlu- primihn imu, > 
Here, the initial row (0) Is to be tlioiu'.ht o\' as tlu« Icft-Iiand ( o 1 1 üin , , i 

"economy(l_cs) ," whence the Frencfi-on-Frencli 'Oecoiindc .. ' (',s t at , ' e.j-,., w. i! 
ornvations In (0,2) and (1,1), the German "hürp,erl i <;.(. ( h'- o lonii c" translati ,. 
) by those in (0,3) and (2,3), etc. Tlie Mst is t l».roiij'Ji , bi.t: not exhausiiv. 

I • C I' r f i .•> I • l'!(| II i y ' 

i; la . ■ 
! hv ) 

Miirplu)loj'i cal Matrix re "Political Kconeuiv" and l'cj,5i 

"•• ---^ — " — '— -^- — '-^^ — "'^~~~\ ' :^»— 




4 . IT^LIAN 

■) !,AT!N/ <>. .;KKFK/ V ■' ■ ^' 

ROMAN H^:LLliNIC V.^\ f- 


Econoraie ' 




Ovc ... . 







Ycor .M.- 




IcOi»» o^y < t 


Economique } 




Clxononi k' :. 









Yconomique ; 

schat ts lehre 

econooil pj. 

I'ol iticald 

. - — .— < 



I'olli tic r : 

Pol i tic(k[e 

Poli t ique 

I'ol i t i sehe? 

I'ol i tica 

I'ol itlca 


Pol ii f ('V 

Pdl i tique (ke) 


PoLv: i 


\ politikä 

Ci (v^) . . 1 •' ^ 


, Civile 


Ci vi le 

( , i V i 1 i s 

'. /poliii 

S: I. 

C i V i c ( k f e 



Ci vi ca 

C i V i V . . 

Stat e(- 




S; atcs(- 

d' Hlstat 


d i State 



( C i t V ; i e ) * 


(StadLs -) 

• (Citt.^) 


/ [JC1 1 1 :■ 


['ii!)l ic(k e 

»ffrnt I ich 

I'ul-.l ItM 

ii~i!/ > ,- ;■< >.s' 

Publi' ( 

Piih 1 i (v)q_iie 



(Staats -) 

Pubhl ii a 

Po, vu; li e.a 

/■:,..■■;„ • 





i'((.,,.-i.! ■ 

National (1 
(Social / 

du peuple 

Nat(z) ional(- 
(Soc[z]ial / 

di popolü 

Po'il ica 


(Socialis /; othnikos 
Societalis) (koinos) 

Naci (_')'•( 1 ' 
na 11 / 
(Social 1 , 
Social. •' 
Socio tat, ' 

*In all other cases here, in the earlier as well as the Latin, where the "u" form wa.; 

"v" is otherwise iised 

rtiially used (in place of the "v," as e.g. "cyuill" and "ciuilis"), the 

cre. Nor is the earlier English preference for "y" in place of "i" always picked up here, a;; 

n the case of "Cytie" as used in connection with "Cyuyle Polycy" in a 1494 work. 

S ources : The Oxford English Dictionary ; A Diction ary of th e Older Scott ish Tonj^ue, ed. Win. A 
raigie, et al. (The University of Chicago Press, 1937-75), Vol. I-Pt. XXVll; Lexi con Ma nuale 
(1 Scriptores Mediae et Infimae Latinis , par W.-H. M. D'Arnis (Paris: Garnier Fratres, etc.; 
890), esp. "Populicus," p. 1744; et al. 

(Prepared by Tliomas 0. Nitsch, 
with the assistance of Jessica 
M. Nitsch /ÄRA; Creighton Uni- 
versity, July 1, 1980.) 


























♦ 1. 

♦ 2. 

♦ 3. 






Andreades, A. M. A Hlstory of Greek Public Flnance , Vol. I, rev. and enlarged ed. trans. 
by Carroll N. Brown. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Unlverslty Press, 1933. 

Aristote. Le Second LI vre de l'Economlque , ed. B. A. Van Groningen, Leyde: A. W. Sljth- 
off, 1933. (The so-called translatio vetus, dating to the 13th Century or ca. 1280.) 
Arlstotelis. Oeconomlarum / Llber Secundus, trans. lacobo Stapulensl, in A ristotelis Stagl- 
ritae Operum , Tomas Secundus. Lugundl (Lyons): loannem Frelloniura, M.D. XI.IX (1549). 

. Oeconomicorum , trans. Joachimo Camerario, in Aristotelis Opera Omnia , Tomus II. 

Paris: P. Lethielleux, 1886. (Original publication, Leipzig: Voegelin, 1564.) 
. OlkonomikOn /Oeconomica , trans. loachimo Camer(ario), in Open Aristotelis , 

Aureliae Allobrogum (Geneva): Petrum de la Rouiere, M.DCVI (I/Jö). 

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Tomus II. 


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ie Staatshaushalt- 
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iity Press, 1939. 

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and New York: Macmlllan and Co., 1893. 

. I ntroduzione allo Studio dell' Economia politica . Mllano: Ulriio Hoepli, 1892. 

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Macgregor (G. Bell and Sons, 1933). Reprint ed. New York: Biblo and Tannen, 1965. 
Heckscher, Eli. Mercantilism , 2d ed., trans. M. Shapiro. Allen- & Unwin, 1965. Vol. Two. 
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Ingram, John Keils. "Böckh, August," in PDPE (//56^nfra), I, 160. 

. History of Political Economy . Rev. ed. London: A. & C. Black, 1915. 

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Leduc, Gaston. "ficonomie, ' ficonomle politique' ," in Larofisse du XXe Si^cle , 1930, III, 42. 
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)0. . "On tlie Origin of 'Political Economy': A Termi nologlcal Idec.lofJ cal Note," The 



February 25, 1980 

Dear Professor Nitsch, 

I have to thank you still for sending me on Jsnuary 27 your 
working paper "On the Origin etc." and I de so fron the bottom 
of iLy heart« 

Until cur first so pleas?^nt telephone conversrtion I had never 
heard of this term ("working paper") and I was, therefore, no lit-e 
tle puzzled at to what It may mean* Now that I have it in front 
of me I do not only grasp the essence of this device but even en- 
vy you of being able to make such good use of it. ^ln institutions 
of higher learning on the Säst Coast this valuable instruBient is 
"!:3nknown. How much trouble vvould it have saved me while I was 
ehairman of my department; candidates for promotion, e.g., had no 
way of proving their Claim of '*productive scholarf^hip" beciuse they 
had "literally" nothing to show to me as proof of their supposed 

You, being in a different category, gave me an admirable lesson 
as how your research developed, vjhot your sources of information 
weie and what you have added to your already impressive knowledge 
since cur regrettably too brief acc^ivai&taKö© • I was of course de- 
lighted to note that your Libr^^ry and the Alumni Association of 
your College lent you a most helpful hand in preparing the "Exhib- 
its" - a term, equally unknovm to me fron: the educational process - 
which, in such attractive presentation, should have impressed your 
colleagues at the meeting in Little Rock. And - between us - let 
me assume that your Dean was equally aghast at seeing such material 
whiÄ you were perapred to submit to your colleagues at home and 
et Little Rock. 

In the Short span of cur knowing each other I gnthered that 
you are not a person given to flattery. Thus, I am accepting 
gladly and gratefully your acknowledgment of my assistance for 
whatever it was worth. At my age one is sincerely pleased to be 
still of some use to one 's colleagues, particularly in such in* 
volved matters into which you have manouvered your seif. I do 
hope that cur **dialogue" will go on in whatever way the circum- 
stances permit. 

Yet prior to such exchanges of thoughts and information I 
harbor the hope that you will let me know as soon as your other 
professional burdens allow how the recent additions to your "work- 
ing paper" were received by your colleagues at the meeting. 

To my lines of today I am adding an offprint of my essay on 

Letter of Dr. Soudek to Prof. ITitsch, Feb. 25,80 

• 2 - 

"Leonardo Brunl anä His Public". In future correspondenoe It 
should be easier for you to refer to it when the occasion arises. 

Again, best thanlcs and warinest wishes for good progress 
of your labors of love from 

yours I 




College of Business Administration 

March 4, 1980 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
New York, N. Y. 10025 

Dear Dr. Soudek: 

I have just returned (last Sat. p.m.) from the Missouri Valley 
Economic Association meeting in Memphis, where I was a discussant of 
Professor Earl F. Beach*s (McGill U. , Montreal) paper, "(A) Theory of 
Economic Change. " In a way and initially, it was a paper that should 
not have been accepted, perhaps, thus obviating any such "Discussion"; 
but, as it turned out, including his revisions following my earlier 
summary reaction, we had a healthy give-and-take, and his 're-revision* 
and my "Corament" (also as appropriately revised) might see the light of 
print in The Journal of Economics — and, I emphasize, might. 

Now, with that latter and more minor item — along with a few 
other carry-overs from the MVEA sessions — essentially behind me (at 
least for the time being), it was with real pleasure that I received . 
your most kind remarks (and offset of 1968 essay) in yesterday after- " 
noon's mail, and delight that I finally got around to reading them this 
post-noon. What you had to say re such "Working Papers" medium is, to 
say the utleast, most gratifying and encouraging. Have no fear that 
your letter will pass under the careful scrutiny of my Dean, who has 
put his faith, not only in my particular and not exactly "MBA - type" 
project, but in the merit of such * in-house semi/quasi publications* 
as well. Thus, e.g., I enclose a copy of my just-presented "Comment" 
for you to get some idea of the f lexibility and breadth-of-scope of — 
may we glorify a bit? — this *literary form.* Any such presentation I^ 
make sails between those FWP covers; because, I refuse to get up in 
front of a serious audience with a few notes scrawled on a program — 
at least when I*ve had the paper sufficiently in advance — and present 
these as a "Discussion." Also, unfortunately, I*m afraid I must con- 
fess that, along with temptation more generally, flattery is one of 
those very- f ew addictives te which I*ve known myself to succumb! 

Also, I am now able to provide you with a little better copy 
— appearance-wise and errata-wise — of that same FWP than the one you 
have from the first "batch." Also, I enclose a copy of the response 
from Gunnar Stollberg in Bielefeld to another out of that batch which 
I sent him more or less simultaneously. Actually, I am afraid that I 
still did not do his original paper the füll justice it deserves, due to 
constraints of time which I faced, involving the need to have my good 
friend Ernst Brehm or another such "angel" do more complete translation 
thereof for me. But, I think his critical remarks are no doubt well ta- 
ken; and, since I have several copies of his 1977 art. — which came out 
simultaneously with my original "On the Origin of P. E." — I take the 
liberty of sending you one to see what, in your "schole ," you can and 
might wish to make of it; i.e., what points therein you think I should 
incorporate into my present " Working Paper" and how, where, etc. 

2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2850 



Nitsch -Soudek, 3/4/80 — page 2 

Now, with these preliminaries out of the way and a little further 
time for reflection and conslderation behind, I come to the matter which 
has really been on and in back of my mind for some time in the revision & 
updating of my original (197 7) effort, and in discovering your interest & 
considerable contributions to, and collection of valuable literary works 
in, this area in the process; viz. , after teaching, researching, etc. at 
Creighton for some 17 years (1960-63, 1966-80) now, and the 3 intervening 
ones elsewhere, I am ready to take my very first sabbatical — I think (I 
hate to rush into anything that momentous!). The Dean et al. have been 
after me to do this — with my tenure, scholarly interests, etc. — during the 
past 5 or so years that our University — and particularly our Bus. Ad. Col- 
lege which is seeking accreditation of the MBA program by the American As- 
sembly of Collegiate Schools of Business under great pressure to secure 
same — has instituted the sabbatical program on a more serious, systematic 
basis. However, in this narrow field of "ours," as you would well under- 
stand, Short of getting a year off with travel expenses to an appropriate 
European / American-university library — and similarly for the translations 
etc. I would need along with it — there^s not much eise to do but "fake it" 
out with such "Working Papers," * Substantive Notes,' and — hopefully — a 
decent article or monograph. 

It was thus, when I learned of your retained interest and (seem- 
ingly) Virtual monopoly on the avant-garde position on the Ps.-Arist. ECO- 
NOMICA and of the materials you've assembled, that I had the idea of tak- 
ing my sabbatical #1 next Spring (1981), and spending a good part thereof 
(2-3 months?) "in residence" with you in New York. I haven't really com- 
pletely thought this through, but what I provisionally have in mind is, 
inter alia, and with your kind permission, assistance, etc.: (1) making — 
perhaps extensive — photocopies of relevant original materials in your col- 
lection which would not (readily) be available to me otherwise; (2) avail- 
ing myself of your personal knowledge, experience, etc. first-hand as to 
(a) what needs to be yet done in this area ( the more immediate agenda, 
priorities, etc. ), (b) what direction, outlet-form, etc. my effort should 
take by that time (perhaps some likely vehicles/ journals/etc. of which you 
may — but I would not — be aware to bring out some of this stuff in its cur- 
rent stage of development, in installment / part-by-part form, etc. , and 
(c) other such assistance, advice, etc. you might provide to one such as I 
who has more good ideas, does more research, and writes more half-baked / 
semi-finished / "Rohentwurf" papers with less "respectable" publications 
therefrom than anyone eise I (and probably you as well) know; and, (3) at 
the same time, avail myself of some of the more fertile libraries (e.g., 
Columbia U.) in the area, perhaps as well as making contact with other 
scholars in that — or other — vicinity(ies) with whom you might be able 
and willing to put me in touch. This, of course, is not a very rigorously 
formulated "Project Statement"; but, I think it has the major components 
of same, and the major elements of what — to my understanding — a real 
academic sabbatical is, or should be, about. 

I certainly would not want to unduly prevail or overly impose on 
your good offices and already more-than-generously provided assistance.* 
Yet, I feel that I could save myself a lot of time and effort by taking 
advantage of a knowledge of the path(s) that you have already explored. 
I might also foresee, in the event you might be interested, a co-authored 
paper or two coming out of this. I am fully aware that you need no für- 


Nitsch - Soudek, 3/4/80 — page 3 

ther feathers of this sort in your cap, and that it might be the last sort 
of thing you want. But, I*m sure with yourself, as with me, there*s more 
to this research than just mining the Pseudo-Aristotelian OIKONOMIKÖN for 
all — if not even a bit more — than it*s worth. As I explained to the au- 
dience at our MAE Session, m^ interest in the history of economics is my 
interest in the future of economics — in the appropriate nature, scope 6f 
method of economics. Particularly did I extol and advocate languages/lin- 
guistics/etc. as appropriate and liberalizing tools of our art/science; 
and, just on the basis of my meagre dabblings therein — as with the mathe- 
matics thereof a little more extensively earlier and still — was I able to 
bemoan with something more than a mere hostility toward rigour the "illib- 
eralizing"/stultifying/etc. nature of the mathematization of economics. 
As I put it, we in economics have allowed this foreign Import to determine 
our very national boundaries — what is, and what isn't, economic in scope, 
nature, etc. Not a few in the audience, I can say, sat up and took notice 
at these editorial prolegomena, with my paper laid aside until I had them 
off my ehest. Needless to say, it was then sufficient — as far as I, and 
I hope they, were concerned — to highlight the paper which they had in 
hand to further peruse and pursue if they were then so motivated. 

Well, again I*ve rambled on much too long at your expense. I 
would most appreciate your mulling my "proposition" over and reflecting on 
it at your leisure and seriously, letting me then know what you think of — 
or whether you "approve/disapprove" of — the "concept," as such things are 
nowadays put. The Dean has already reduced my teaching schedule to 6 hrs. 
(2 courses and prep's) for the coming Fall semester, which should — and is 
specifically designed to — allow me to wrap up a few items "in the mill" 
(the monograph I have 2/3-3/4 rewritten and ready for printing on "The 
Smithian / Unsmithian Nature of Marx' s Concept of Alienation," to be put 
out by our Bus. Ad. College; a revision/reduced-form of my FWP "On the Or- 
igin, Renaissance, etc." for — unrefereed — publication in the Midsouth Jl. 
of Eco. ; and, possibly, my recent "Comment" revised/reduced form for the 
Jl. of Eco. ) and get things sorted out and together for such a sabbatical 
in New York, should it meet with your approval. 

Thus, 1*11 shut this down now, and will await your initial re- 
sponse to the proposed "concept." Or, if you have something definite and 
specific to venture without further Adieu, that would be helpful too, as 
the sooner I put my proposal (formal application) in here the better. 
Actually, I think we are supposed to have these in a year or so in advance 
— for planning and replacement, etc. purposes — if the administration wants 
to be strict about it. And, should you not be "available" for such an in- 
teraction (&,» I certainly have no hard-and-fast idea on the length of time 
I would actually stay, or be able to spend, in N.Y. ; though, I would think 
at least a month on the low side), I would surely understand. So, I leave 
it at this for the time being. 


/*And, incidentally, when I said ■in 
residence'" above (pg. 2, par. 2d), I 
meant in the academic sense — i.e., 
that I*d be on my own for living res- 
idence or quarters./ 

Very sincerely. 


Thomas 0. Nitsch 
Prof. of Economics 

'■■^ jiJI«ii|fMlviM>fl . i'-'^-W 


March 24, 1980 

Dcar Professor Nitsch, 

since for another week er so I shall be work- 
ing under high pressure and abominable cliiratic 
conditions (rain- & snowstorms) and I therefore 
shall not be able to do justice to your delight- 
ful letter of March 4 (besides the valuable cop- 
ies) , I am jotting dovm these hasty lines so as 
to give your thoughts soroe (hopefully right) di- 

Plcüse, prepere for a srbbatical leave in the 
Coming year (whether a one-term or two-term one, 
only you can decide). In your planninr consider 
that you 

(1) want to spend it on the Eastcoast with 
N«Y«C. in the center and Washington, Philadelphia, 
New Haven (Yale) and Cambridge, Mass. (Harvard; in 
easy reach; 

(2) arrange it for a tiire when I arr best funct- 
ioning (April 1 through July 1); between the midd- 
le of July ana the middle of üctober I got to go 
to Europe for relief of my em^hysema; 

(3) includc in your tlans the application for 

a grant or financial aid from ei i her a nationwide, 
or, if that exists, a re^-^ional foundation since 
you niost probably have to meet family obligations 
(may I know which one for the sake of advicing 
you ?). In my intended more explicit letter I 
shall name those fbundations I have experience 

You touohed upon so many thought provoking but 
difficult to handle points that I rather postpone 
my answer for my next letter. 

Ldeanwhile, good luck and Happy Easter Greetinx^s 
from Mrs. Soudek and 

yours as alweys. 



College of Business Administration 

January 2, 1981 

Dear Dr. Soudek: 

I hope this finds you and Mrs. S. enjoying not too unfavorable health 
and distasteful weather. We, at last check and report, are all in fairly decent 
shape healthwise, and are in the midst of a second "Winter-storm watch." Tlie 
last turned out bitter cold, but not excessive snow; on this, we wait and see. 

Enclosed you will find relevant excerpts from the ACLS "Grant-in-Ald 
application" which l'm submitting as of this mailing, and which I mentioned to 
Mrs, S. on phone last week, You will no doubt note that it is exceeding the 
December 15, deadline; on which I was given an extension when I called them on 
Dec. 13th to inform I thought they had included the application forms with the 
brochure in the envelope they had sent me some time ago. So, they put these 
forms in the mail — postmarked the 14th, and arriving here some 4/5 days later, 
with the understanding that I would (obviously) not be making that deadline. 
They "suggest" that we "urge" our "referees to submit their confidential reports 
not later than ten days after they have received your request," 

As you will note by my "N.B." at bottom-right of p. 3, I stipulate an 
alternative request for photocopying funds alone, which is what you had advised 
in the first place, hoping this might not be too much out of the ordinary. Per- 
haps I should only have asked for that in the first place, as I*m pretty sure I 
could get a $1,000 or so research stipend internally, in addition to the travel 
expenses to present the paper at the HES meeting. Maybe again I*m being too 
pretentious/ambidious . 

Enclosed, also, is a photocopy of a photocopy (sample) which the library 
here is making from my microfilm (from Royal Library, Copenhagen) of Montchre- 
tien's Traicte , 1615 original. Can (could) you make heads or tails of such a 
copy? A xerox copy of the copy the library is making would come out a bit more 
ledgible; or, if needs be, I could send you the original as made by the library 
— which has been a considerable task for them, as that * introductory chapter' 
runs 178 pages, and they have to make 2 pages for 1 because of the blown-up size 
of the microfilm Version, Whatever you say on this, I will oblige. That is, I 
could well send you the copy made by the library, and keep the xerox thereof for 
myself; to make the latter will not be as problematic, as a legal-size sheet can 
be used. 

Very best of wishes for Good Health and Much Happiness in 1982 to both 
of You. And, please do write when time permits and spirit moves, 

Appreciatively, as always. 


2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2850 

fc" «» 



College of Business Administration 

February 17, 1981 

Dear Dr. Soudek, 

Please forgive me for not having been in touch with you for some time 
now, but the press of work has been particularly heavy. My brother visited us 
from Baton Roung during the Xmas holidays, so I didn't get started on the pa- 
per ("On Human Nature Presuppositions in Economics: The 'Men' of Adam Smith, 
Karl Marx et al,") which I presented at the Midsouth Academy of Economists 
Feb. 5-7 in Memphis until about Jan. 5. And, by now, you know the nature and 
extent of my 'Working Papers,' Also, I presented a "Comment" on a paper which 
a Student of mine presented at the ODE session there (on "Inflation and the 
Rationality of Investing in Projects with a Negative Net Present Value") , for 
which I now prepare an Integration and revision for Submission to Management 
Accounting , a monthly to which the holder of our Begley Chair in Accounting has 
just been appointed a member of the editorial board and asked us to submit our 
paper for consideration through him, I guess all that latter sounds a bit mun- 
dane in comparison with the "identity problems" of homo oeconomicus , politicus , 
socioeconomicus , et al. and with the quest for oeconomia politica/civilis etc. 
during the Interregnum between politikg oikonomia (324 - 80 B.C.) and oeconomie 
politique, Staatswirthschaf t , &cT 1611/15 sqq. ; but, there are matters of "nuus 
& bolts," "bread & butter," etc. 

I do enclose a copy of my latest effort in the area of History of Eco- 
nomics (HOE) . My immediate task now (af ter winding up on the nuts-and-bolts 
paper) is to reduce this to a (1) version for publication in the Midsouth Jour. 
of Economics /Annais (for which I actually contemplate a Part I, covering Ari- 
stotle*s homo politicus probably through Marx's/Cicero* s " homo socialis animale " 
— the ground I actually managed to highlight in my actual presentation — to then 
be followed by a Part II, reviewing these "predecessors"/"forerunners" of homi- 
nes oeconomicus proper, socioeconomicus et, finally, the Nitsch-Malina-et al, 
construct of homoeconomicus humanus yet to be made presentable for a decent un- 
veiling, and then presenting the latter); and, then, (2) 12-page version to be 
circulated among the membership of the History of Economics Society (HOES) in 
advance of my presentation thereof at their annual meetings at Michigan State 
U. in Fast Lansing, 1-3 June 1981. Thankfully, I will be able to discuss this 
further with you before that latter — and certainly most significant/prestigious 
presentation which I will have made in the HOE (or any other) area to date, it 
might be "objectively" held — with you before the delivery date. Right now, I 
plan to re-title it slightly (and, hopefully, even more meaningf ully) : "Human 
Nature Presuppositions in Economics: HOE, Wither Goest Thou?" The double play 
involved, if it is not obvious, is that HOE = History of Economics and Homo 
OEconomicus — the payof f of being able to dabble in a f ew languages ! I tried 
about three times previously to make a presentation before this Organization — 
my papers on, first, the Origin, and then the Origin/Renaissance/Recrudescence 
of P.E. — but never to any avail. Somewhat like the companion Journal, History 
of Political Economy (which is lovingly called HOPF ) , it seems, to this group 
the history of economics (proper) only "really" begins about a Century ago — 
perhaps this is an exaggeration, but they certainly do not seem to be deeply 
and lastingly interested in anything too much before Smith et les Oeconomistes, 
However, I stand most ready to be completely disabused of any misimpression I 
may have in this regard. 

2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 681 78 (402)449-2850 

Nitsch-Soudek, 2/17/81 — page 2 

Otherwise, I shall busy myself now readying for my scheduled visit to 
your "lovely city" and vicinity, April 1 - July 1. In this regard, my applica- 
tion for the National Endowment for the Humanities grant application was turned 
down; and, we have called them asking for a füll review and critique, which 
they have promised to send in due course — that was for an $11,000 / 6 months 
stipend, as you may recall. At the same time, my application for a 1-year, 
$26,000+ grant from the National Science Foundation is still under considera- 
tion by them; but, I am even less hopeful there than I was with the NEH — the 
latter informed that they only funded 1/9 of the proposals submitted this year. 
My pessimism is that if the proposal was not "humanistic" enough for the NEH — 
and, even though I did my best to "scientize" it in the revision (as I had to 
"artify" previously) — neither will it now be "scientific" enough for the NSF. 
At any rate, I enclose a copy of (some parts of) that latter application for 
your scrutiny; I didn*t send you a copy earlier as I did of the NEH proposal, 
since they were not asking for letters of recommendation in this case. 

My immediate problem right now comes down to finding a furnished room 
for the 3-month period I plan to be in NYC and environs. I have contacted the 
International House at 500 Riverside Drive (which I am told is in Walking dis- 
tance to your residence and Columbia U. , e.g.)> and they will send me an ap- 
plication to fill out for quarters beginning May 5th to the end of my stay; 
they cannot accommodate me before then, as they are full-up and the semester 
at Columbia does not end until May 9. Also, I have just talked to Rev. Daniel 
J. O'Brien, the Minister of the Jesuit Community at Fordham U. (whom my close 
friend and colleague Bob Apostol here had met at the recent meetings of the 
Catholic Philosophical Association) , this morning, and he assures me that every 
available dorm room and other possible quarters at Fordham is likewise taken. 
But, he will check around for me , and get back to me with whatever Information 
in this regard he can scare up. I do hate to bring this problem to your door- 
step, but I certainly would appreciate very much your keeping an eye and ear 
open for me in this regard, Assuming the NSF grant is also denied, in addi- 
tion to my regulär Spring (to which I am automatically entitled by virtue of 
sabbatical leave Status) and Summer (which my Dean has graciously arranged for 
me at the rate of one undergraduate and one MBA course) salaries, I have only 
been able to secure an additional $1,450 ($950 from the College of Business 
Administration; $500 from the Graduate School) from the University for all my 
extraordinary living and travel expenses. So, though I do have some personal 
funds to fall back on for this purpose, I will be on a rather restricted bud- 
get. (I shall try to arrange my visit to the Pontifical Institute of Medieval 
Studies in Toronto to coincide with my presentation before the HOES June 1-3, 
so I can get the expenses there included in my special expenses to present the 
paper.) I really have no idea just how much my room, board and local/area 
transportation will come to; and, I can live pretty cheaply; but, I hope I can 
afford the whole 3-month period planned. (Personally, I had counted on a bit 
more help from Creighton; but, the $1,450, plus the füll Summer-School salary 
for research leave to finalize and publish my monograph on Adam Smith, Karl 
Marx and "Alienation," was the most I could come up with after appeals to the 
Deans of Bus. Ad. and the Grad. Seh, and the Academic Vice-President, 

I look forward to hearing from you as to how and what you are doing 
these days, I have no particular plans for further work on our project at this 
time, until I wind up the "Inflation and Negative Net Present Values" and "Hu- 
man Nature Presuppositions" papers. So, with very best regards to you and T A<^\ 
Mrs, Soudek, I remain very faithfully, and in sincere antlci.'^atton, ^^-"'i^^^^ K lAy^t*^ 

New York, March 8» 1981 

Dear Professor Nltsch, 

I have to thank you still for your letter of February 17 
to which were attached (1) the sumniary of your project to be 
wor«-ed7cluring your sebbaticnl leave, (2) your working paper 
"Qn Human Natura Presuppositlons In Economics" as presented 
at the Jiidsouth Acadeiny of Econoirdsts on Januarv 5, (5) a 
summary of the pnper : The "Men'» of Econorr.ics L3 pagesj and 
(4) the önru>uncement by the Creighton's Institut on Alienation 
on three m^ings and duly noted that in the second one (March 
10) you, the Initiator, will act as moderator« 

Before commenting on the working paper (item 2) and its 
sunjiEary (item 3) I want to say something as to the practical 
issues connected with your stay in New York city. It would be 
splenüid if you could secure a room at the "International House" 
it is indeed located ideally for us both - for the tiire from 
May 9th through June 29th# Then you will have seven weeks 
ahead of you. In this stretch of time you can accomplish a 
good deal since your projectt d resenrch has been well plrmned 
and we shall be able to discußs your progren«? in short sequence. 
In suggesting this tirring I assuire that (1) the NSF grant will 
not corue forth, (2) you forgo the planned appearance at the an- 
nual meeting of HOES at Lansin/r on June 1-3, and (3) you post- 
pone your visit to the Pontifical Institute of i^iedioval Studirs 
in Toronto until the end of your stay here, Toronto then being 
a stop-over on your flight home« ihe remainder of your sabbat- 
ical leave can then be utilized for working up whatever you have 
collected in New York city and its vicinity. 

i^nd now as to my assumptions : First, as things are Stand- 
ing nov;, any grant from NSF, no matter how small, is unlikely 
to materialize unless you can prove that your research would be 
essential for enhancing our national defense potential. In ad- 
ditlon, the amounts you were applying for at t^e iJEH and NSF 
are the customary hand-outs for Nobelprize laurefstes« People 
of our minute stature may request modest financial aids in the 
ränge of B 500 to $ 750 from e.g. the ACLS or from one of its 
mcffiber organizations. Your chances of re. eiving such sums will 
quite promptly increase after only the first segment of your 
projected study on the "Origin** has been published. Secondly, 
I do not see any point in submitting the teyt or even the sum- 
mary of your most recent working paper on "Human Nature Pre- 
suppositlons" td roembers of HOES for presentation on its an- 
nual meeting at üiichigan State University in June 1981. In its 
present form such ] aper would be rejectcd again; afler our pre- 

- 2 • 

liminary discusslons of your sabbatlcal research at band, I shall 
try to explaln to you, why your chances there ore so slim. The 
"Huiran Natur** paper, fascinating as It sounds to me, would have 
to be reshaped and shortened to become palat^ble to such Organi- 
zation as HÜES» My remarks on that matter will, I hope, also 
help to pradicate some of your prejudices concerning HüPE and its 
supposed predeliction for pre-^Adamite" Economics (as my pupil M. 
Blaug calls the pre-classical stnges of our sclence), 

On the susceptibility of the üdidsouth Journal Qf c^conomics 
for your "Human Nature** paper I cannot speak since I am not fa- 
miliar with the Journal anö its policies« Should you have more 
luck with the editors of that Journal, then I would advise you 
to rework your paper after you have completPd your preparation 
of a new draft of the **Origin" (i,e, after July 1) or before 
your arrival here and the results of first feelers in this di- 
rection« V.hen I suggested that you should plan a trip to Toron- 
to until after having worked here, then I was guided by the as- 
sumj[;tion that this will be a (in my opinion, very useful) visit - 
even without delivering a paper, Perhaps i shall be able to men- 
tion to you another stop-over on your way back from Toronto to 
Omaha which might bear fruit of another sort. 

I am certain that several Ideas concerning your work will 
come to my mind, before and even more so after your arrival here. 
At any rate, accept these lines as a first and preliminary re- 
action to your package and its covering letter« I am sorry that 
I was unable to reply more promptly. But just in the past three 
weeks an entire assortment of ''emergencies" such as illnesses in 
the family - briefly, the pleasures of senior Citizens - kept me 
on my toes and away from the typewriter. No doubt you will ap- 
preciate my apology. 

Wishing you good luck in winding up your professional obliga- 
tions and sending you and Mrs. Nitsch wärmest regards fror- us 
both, I remain 

as always yours, 

• » 




I^arch 1981 

•^y - 3 June 

Toi All participants, History of Scononics Society neeting, 31 

I ! 

PVopi: \hrren J. Sanuels 

Ehclosed ycoi will find r.aterial listing the participants (and thej 
addresses), titles of papers, and date and tirje of yaar session« 

It is ir.perative that papers be sent to all panel rr.enbers, especially, of 
course, the discupsants*, at the sar.e tine that the papers are sent to r.e 
for reproduction and di?tribution. Tb^t date is very socnj rlease serd 
both the tr-felve-page and an;^"" longer version of tlie paper« , 

Sessicns var:^'' sor-e-.-jhat in lenfrth and fornat b-jit the general rule sho-jld be 
15-20 ninutes f er each paper to be sir-.r^rized, not read, and 10 ninutes 
for each discv.psant« This should r^rriit q-iite ai-^le •Line Ter discussicn 
and exchan~9 of •/l.e-'.-rs, all conferor.ce Trereri^trants ha^/in^ recelved tr.e 
papers in advance, -j1<^c ssants :^y concentrate their cci'L'-ierts out f^ho-jild 
at least tcuch on all er .;03t papers given at the session. The chair- 
person has the job of policin': the session and also the oppcrt'jnity to 
participate as a dir:cv.'^sant« The parer autncrs also rjxy ser'/e as further 
"discussants" d'iring the final part cf the session. 

The HES b-isiness .eetin':; will be U-5pn on 31 --^y» At Tpn on 31 '-^y there 
will be an illustrated lecture on late 19th cent-^ry social and political 
Cartoons« The final sessions end at noon on 3 «June« 

I look f on-rard to seeinp; you here and thank you in advarxe for your 
participation, especially yovr Cooperation in neeting the ceadlines which 
will perrdt tiie Organization ci tr.e rjeetings to s- cceed. 

MSU is an Affirmativ* Action/Equal Opportunity Institution 


1 Jun^l-Sprn 

Craig >fcDonougü, Keene State College, New Hampshire 

i "The Impact of Ideolo^ on the Interpretation of Bconociic ThoToght" 
Anghel N. Rugina, Northeastem University, Boston 

"Tho Rroblen of 'Anonalies' in Science with Application to Econoilcs'* 
Warren S« Grainm, Washington State University 

"Logic, l-Sstaphor and Paradox: Econcrdc Anaüysis and the Bicaneral Mind* 

Richard G. Fritz and Judy M, Frits, University of Central Florida, Clrlando 

"A Structuralist Approach to Kethods in Econcnic Science: The Gase 
of Rroduction" 

Themas 0. Nitsch, Creigliton University, Chaha 

"Hinan Nature Presuppositions in Econcmics: The 'Ifen' of Smith, 
Iferx, et al" 

Bette Polkiiighc(m, California State University, Sacrainento 

! ''Jane 1-arcet ar.d I-illic-int Fawcett: Two Popularizers of Political 

Tvr • Econony** 

DisC'JSsion ^ 

Robert Solo, l-E-chigan State University 

Charles ?• Blitch, Old DonLnion University 

David Levy, National Planning Association 

James R« Wible, University of riaine, Qrono 

Dudley Dillard, University of >aryland 

Ellen PVankel Paul, Hocver Institution 

Charles P. Blitch, OH Dominion University 


Ellen Frankel Paul 
Hoover Institution 
Stanford, CA 9U30i 

Anghel N« Rugina 
2hS Mose Hill Road 
Jamaica Flain, MA 02130 

Dadley DLHard 


University of läryland 

College Park, MD 207h2 

Janeg R» Wible 

University of I-aine 
Grono, 1-3 Ohh69 

Bette Polkinghom 


Calif • State University 

Sacranento, Ca 95819 

David Levy 

National Planning ^^ssn. 
1606 !:ew Hampshire Ave, LW 
Washington, X 20009 

Charles P. Eütch 


Cid Dordnion University 

Norfolk, VA 23508 

Warren S. Graima 

Econonics- ^ 

VJashington State University 
Pullnan, WA 9916U 

Rd, G. & Judy !•!• Fritz 

Econonics t 

lÄiiversity of Central Florida 

Orlando, Fla. 32816 

Thonas 0. ■ Titsch 


Creighton University 

Cnaha, Nebraska 68178 

Robert Solo 


lichigan ^tate University 

East Lansing, I-U US82U 

Craig McDonough 


Keene State College 

Keene, NH 03li31 




College of Business Administration 

March 12, 1981 

Dear Dr. Soudek, 

I was, of course, very pleased to recelve yours of March 8, in this morn- 
ing's mail, Not that I was overly anxious; but, though I know you stay busy and 
have many more other things to do than pore over and respond to all the half- 
baked scribblings I send you, I was hoping to hear from you by this week, First 
off, let me say that I hope the "*emergencies* " have been resolved or otherwise 
removed from the scene, and those "pleasures of senior Citizens" are now no 
longer being "enjoyed." (Perhaps it is a "sick" story, but I recall an aunt of 
mine telling me she called up a great aunt on this one occasion and asked her, 
"Autnie Maude, how are you doing?" Tlie G.A. responded, "Oh, l'm enjoying ill 
health as usual!" And, Auntie Maude meant every word of that, I think; as she 
always went to great — masochistic — lengths in explaining her illnesses.) 

Now, with respect to your suggested revisions of ray time-schedule , work- 
agenda, and planned itinerary, it seems I was not too clear — thanks to the sheer 
volume of materials I unloaded, no doubt, and my incurably "Germanic" style — in 
regards to the Situation with the History of Economics Society, Actually, my 
paper — on the basis of the same 1-page abstract I submitted to the Midsouth ear- 
lier — was accepted for presentation (see enclosed xerox from Samuels, following 
up the original notification of acceptance and request for 12-page Version) al- 
ready when I wrote you on Feb. 17, What I then had to do was to reduce that 
original ("Working Paper") version to a 12-page Version for circulation among 
the participants at the HOES meetings, May 31 - June 3, and file that with W.J. 
Samuels b^ April 1. At present, I have reduced that original version to some 
15 pages, comprised of a 4-page 'Intro,' per l-i-spacing and 11 remaining pages 
(incl. *Concl.') single-spaced. Thus, obviously my problem remaining is to prune 
down that ' Intro.* and perhaps some other less necessary baggage. 

Otherwise, if I read you correctly, you are saying that the 7 weeks you 
specify May 9 - July 1 should be quite ample for the agenda I have planned, in- 
cluding — I presume — at least three of the five or so library Visits indicated. 
Since I do still plan to present the paper at the HOES on June 1, as it is now 
stipulated, I will probably reschedule my departure-arrival/Omaha-NYC for May 1, 
Assuming I can get into the International House — I have called them twice, most 
recently following up with a written request for application forms; but, to date, 
still no response — on or about April 9-15 (the actual ränge they specif ied) , I 
have a couple of options — people I know in Brooklyn — where I can stay until the 
IH room would be available. Thus, to allow for the HOES meetings etc., I have 
replanned to depart/arrive May 1, or one month later, 

As you most soberingly note, my grant applications to NEH and NSF were, 
perhaps, a "bit" pretentious, grandiose, etc. However, in part at least, that 
was due to the grants-woman here, who is accustomed to writing applications for 
our faculty in the health-sciences areas, where they think and act big! So, as 
you suggest, my expectations shall not soar! Otherwise, I should have made 
clear that publication of (first half) of my "Working Paper" in the Annais sec- 
tion of the MJE is virtually automatic, requiring only conformance of the paper 
to their style of referencing, etc. and payment of any per-page overage. Also, 

2500 California Street Omaha. Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2850 

Nitsch -Soudek, 3/12/81 — page 2 

my special trip to East Lansing for presentation of the paper and attendance at 
those meetings will be separately covered by ray College; that is, I should not 
have to include that in such financial assistance (viz. the $1,450 already allo- 
cated) as has now been budgeted for me by the College of Bus. Admin. and the 
College of Arts & Sciences (the latter by the Dean of the Graduate School). 

I hope the above slight re-revision of our plans will meet with your ap- 
proval, as I do look forward to presenting the 15-20 minute oral summary of my 
paper — note that it is not to be read verbatim — and to have advantage of the ex- 
pert criticism Dillard, in particular, and the other participants as well, will 
be able to afford. This time, I think, the discussant will show up ! If I get 
picked to pieces and put in my place, so it should happen and there I should be. 

P.S.: I hope you understand I meant nothing 
personal in such regards as yours and 
that of your Student, M.Blaug; as, in 
fact, I have cited him before as one 
among the precious (seemingly) few 
remaining who consider Mercantilism 
as the (possible, if not likely) be- 
ginning of "*modern' political econ- 


" "economic science," or what- 
ever the respectability designation 
actually is supposed to be. 

With very best wishes for 
the health and well-being 
of you and Mrs. Soudek, 



2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2850 

March 21, 1981 

Dear Prof. Nitsch, 

Your letter of March 12 cheered us no 
end ! Your participation in the HOES meet- 
ing between May 31 and June 3 was a most 
pleasant surprise and heartily welcomed by 
US. This was hardly to be expected from 
your previous letter; yet my instinct prov- 
ed right once niore (see what I sald about 
the "f ascinating»* toplc of your paper) . 

In these circumstances you should come 
to New York City by May 1 and, if not work- 
able otherwise, lodge with your friends in 
Brooklyn. Apart from that, let the itiner- 
ary stand as we put it down on paper. 

?;e hope that you and your family are al- 
right, particularly now that Spring has fin* 
ally arrived. With us the "senior sorrovvs" 
remain unchanged but they do not prevent us 
froffi sending you and yours our wärmest greet- 

Yours as alwa/s, 



College of Business Administration 

March 27, 1981 

Dr. Soudek, 

Your encouraging lines were most appreciated. Perhaps you will not 
believe your eyes, but that is an exactly 12-page Version of the 54-page paper 
you earlier saw. I hope that doen*t imply 42 pages of redundancy in the 
original ! 

^^^vy>vvA- ^y travel plans are now revised as follows. I shall depart Omaha and 

1 — ' arrive at La Guardia on Tues. [May 1 28th (arr. 2:30 p.m.). This I am locked into 
unless I want to lose $58 on my airline ticket (I have the super-saver rate of 
$278, vs. $490 regulär and $235 for Greyhound — all round-trip). I have in- 
formed my friend*s cousins (Pilar and John Smith at 2035 E. 36th St. in Bklyn.) 
of this change, which suits them fine. Actually, I have a back-up temporary 
residence in Brooklyn, with a Jose Bosch, an undergraduate Student at St. Mary 's 
U. with whom I was closely acquainted during the period 1963-66. So, I seem 
well set until I could move into the International House May 9 (when the Semes- 
ter ends at Columbia) - 15th (when they expect rooms actually available) , or 
- possibly sooner in case of early vacation. I talked to their admissions person 
since I wrote you last, and she sounded like there would be no problem securing 
a room for my expected period of stay, probably at the current ränge of $180- 
$225 per. month. This way, I shall perhaps plan to extend the back end of my 
stay to, say, July 7, or so, hitting the other Libraries, Washington, D.C., etc. 
then. There 's no problem in changing my return airline schedule sans penalty. 

With respect to the HOES meeting and return via the Pontifical Inst, of 
Med. Studies, I am scheduling airline trip NY to East Lansing May 31 (Sun.) PM, 
staying for last Session ("Aristotelian Economics") on Wed. June 3, whence on 
to Toronto viz bus (or train) , and then flying back from there to NY, say, Sat, 
June 6, PM, 

Thus, things seem to be falling satisfactorily into place. My only prob- 
lem with respect to the HOES-Toronto jaunt is to try to stay as close as possible 
to the travel expense they would allow me to go from Omaha to East Lansing and 
back, though my Dean is not too fusy about these things in my case. And, with 
the current postponement, I do have a little more time to tidy up loose ends and 
make advance preparations , etc. 

With all best wishes to you and Mrs. S., 


2500 California Street Omaha. Nebraska 681 78 (402)449-2850 


Tel.! 222-7206 
Dear Professor Nitsch, 

April 7, 1981 

we are looking forward to welcoming you 
to New York City after your arrlval at La Guar- 
die Airport on Tuesäay, April 28, 2i 30 PM. 

Today we contaoted Mr. John Francis Smith 
at Brooklyn and we shall reiDain in touch with 
him in Order to work out preliminary cominuting 
schemcs between hia neighborhood - we are hardly 
acquainted with Brooklyn - and certain points 
in Manhattan« Right now I would suggest that 
you are trying to reach us by phone on V»ednes- 
day, April 29» after 2 P.M. If we do not respond 
to your first, please repent it 15 Minutes 
later and preferably use the fo]lowing ringing 
Signal t ---/---/«-- , 

Before leaving Omaha kindly remember two 
iteros t 

(1) To take along snapshots of your family, 
your house, a guide(book) of Creighton Univer- 
sity and some pictures of Omaha ; 

(2) Also bring along, besides sorre Identifi- 
cation with a recent picture of you, a letter 
from Dean Carrica stf.ting that you are on sab- 
batical leave for research on steciulized topics 
in the field of the History of Economic Thought. 
The more impressive the stationary that the Dean 
will use the more effective it will be when rc- 
questlng admission to University librcries or 
their special collections. This ii the regreat- 
table way on the East coast. Introductions to 
person.^, e.g. at Forham University you will 
carry along, anyhow. 

All other things will be discussed and sett- 
led by words of mouth after your arrival. 

With best wishes for your trip and friendliest 
greetings from house to house, 

yours , 

• J 

Mr. John Francis Smith (cousin of friend of Nitsch) 
2035 East 36th Street 
Brooklyn, N.y. 11234 (Tel.: 339-0219) 

Tel.t 222 - 7206 

April 7, 1981 

Dear Mr. Smith, 

I thank you ever 
your address. 

so much for giving us the zip code of 

Prof. Nitsch from Omaha alluded in his most reeent let- 
ter to me that in the first two weeks of his stay in New York 
he might dwell elther with you or with Mr. Jos^ Bosch, n 
friend of his since undergraduete days in Ohio (in the early 
60 's) who appears to live near-by. 

At any rate, what I should like to learn from you are pos- 
sible connections of your area with Manhattan, more specifical- 
lyt what subway or bus lines would get him fairly safely from 
any Station in your area to Fifth Avenue & 42nd Street (N.Y. 
Public Library) and to my house (West End Avenue, corner 104 th 
Street). On Broadway, around the corner from my house, there 
is an IRT Station- Though we have been living in Greater New 
York for 45 years, we (shame on us !) have not been in Brook- 
lyn for the past 30 years. Much less do we know, how to com- 
mute with your borough. 

Would you be so kind as to give us a ring ? Except for 
Tuesday and Thursday, we are ordinarily home past 6 P»M» until 
whatever your latest hour is or on weekends normally in the 
afternoons after 3 P.M. Since v;e do not know what time would 
be most convenient for you, let*s just try to find a mutually 
sntisfactory time for the indicated conversation. Should Mrs. 
Soudek answer the phone, please proceed freely; due to an xin- 
pleasant breathing problem on my part I have to request her 
frequently to act as a mediator. 

With wärmest thanks in advance 

yours sincerely, 


Area Code 402, 536-2852 



April 20, 1981 

Dr. Soudek: 

I have yours of Apr. 7th in band, and will seriously try 
to follow your Instructions and requests to the letter. Today, 
I am having Omaha Chamber of Commerce send you direct (hopefully) 
some representative scenes and related materials pertaining to 
our fair city. I am not a camera buff , so my own personal files 
on such would be skimpy at best. Those should arrive at or be- 
fore the time I do (they can only send them 3rd class, but still 
that*s safer than my standing the chance of f orgetting) . 

Otherwise, I intended to have some family portraits taken 
uesterday with my Mother-in-Lav/s Polaroid at her home in Geneva 
NE, where we spent the Easter holidays, but weather etc. (rainy- 
chilly) didn't cooperate. So, will work either on taking some 
at home — incl. of our house, yard, etc. — or assembling recent 
ones from our files. It is so thoughtful and personable of you 
to make such requests. 

The Dean will — following draft I suggested — have typed 
and sign several copies of the type of introductory/certificatory 
letter you suggest. Also, I have just had made a new C.U. Faculty 
I.D. card which should also be of some general help. I hope the 
stationery will suffice, as ours is just not very impressive. 
Personally, l've complained about the very cheap quality of that 
which we use, but it's a University-wide policy and decision, and 
the Dean goes along with it. 

Things have been and remain just a bit hectic here. Actually, 
the presentation and 12-page reduction of the original 54-page 
paper at the History of Economics Society infringed more than I 
originally envisioned on my time here; but, I certainly did not 
want to pass up that opportunity, after trying for the previous 
5 years to make one there. Also, it helped me modify that original 
Version sufficiently to submit it as a refereed article to the 
Midso . Jour . Econ ' s . — which, if not acceptable as such, will auto- 
matically go into Paers and Proceedings section anyhow. Only 
thing now is to get final-typed copy of that done, plus 750-word 
book review for Jour. Econ ^ s (MVEA) . 


,,.,r^*J .- 

It is interesting that your "ringing signal" corresponds 
identically to the one I have instituted with my (paternal) 
Aunt in San Antonio, about your age as a matter of fact and 
being an "old maid" — guess such terminology is now considered 
"sexist," but I don*t know what the acceptable synonym is. 

It was also most thoughtful of you to have made contact 
with John F. Smith in Brooklyn. You don*t know how much such 
considerations mean to me as I hurriedly, inef ficiently, etc. 
try to make necessary preparations for this first sabbatical 

I don*t think anything eise need be said at this time, and 
will make the telephone contact as you suggest on Wed., Apr. 
29, p.m. — my flight arrives, as I recall, at 2:30, so it might 
be as late as 4-5 that afternoon. 


Office Memorandum 


TO : Dr. Jean L. Carrlca, Dean 

College of Business Administration 
FI.OM : Dr. Thomas 0. Nitsch, Professor of Econoraics 

College of Business Administration 
SÜBJBCT: Application for Sabbatical Leave Spring-Summer 1981. 

DATB: April 1, 1980 

A. Curriculum Vitae (Attached) 

B. Nature & Scope of Sabbatical Program : Research /writing in further pursuit of 
my investigations into "The Origin, Renaissance, and Recrudescence of Politike 
Oikonomia'' (see CBA/CU Fac. Work. Pap, of l/lOlll & 1/30/80 and TJE/1977 "Note" 
enclosed), culminating in a Journal article, monograph or other appropriate 
form of scholarly publication. 

The highlight and centerpiece of the proposed program would be the 3-month 
period I plan to spend "in residence" with Dr. Josef Soudek in the Bronx, New 
York (see his letter of "approval" enclosed) , with access to kindred scholars 
and {more importantly» perhaps) and relevant libraries at universities in that 
immediate locale (e.g. , Fordham) and surrounding East-Coast area — e.g. , New 
Haven (Yale), Boston (Harvard, B.C.), Philadelphia (Penn.), Washington (Ameri- 
can, Catholic, Georgetown), as well as N.Y.C. proper and environs (New School 
for Social Research, St. John*s, et al.) — which are in easy reach. 

Dr. Soudek is Emeritus Professor and Chairman of the Department of Econom- 
ics, Queens College, City University of New York. He lives in "active retirement" 
in his home at 900 West End Avenue (the Bronx), New York, N.Y. He is, by his own 
very modest and genuinely humble admission, "the expert" on Medieval-Renaissance 
Latin (and — to a lesser extent, perhaps — French) translations/editions/etc. of the 
Pseudo-Aristotelian OIKONOMIKßN/OECONO^ICA/YCONOMIQUE, as per my FWP of 1/30/80, 
pp. 23-30. Evidences/specimens of his own scholarship are also enclosed here. 

More Specific Objectives/Activities . — As I noted in my initial letter-of- 
proposition / proposal to Dr. Soudek (dated 3/4/80, cc. enclosed), the following 
include — but do not necessarily exhaust — the particulars I had in mind: 

(1) making photocopies of relevant materials from, what he assures me, is a ra- 
ther complete personal library and collection of otherwise rare and inaccessible 
(Originals and/or copies of) primary and secondary/source works in the area of 
Medieval-Renaissance translations/redactions/etc. of the Ps.-Arist. ECONOMICS; 

(2) availing myself directly of his personal knowledge, experience, and exper- 
tise — llnguistic and Substantive — in this area, including his judgment and ad- 
vlce as to (a) what needs yet to be done (i.e., the more immediate and longer- 
range agenda) re his own and related research/writing; (b) what particular di- 
rection, outlet-form, etc. m^ effort should take in accordance with that (those) 
agenda (s), including — very importantly — Journals and other scholarly outlets/ 
vehicles of which he might be aware and "plugged into" for purposes of bringing 
out to a wider audience than currently my work in its current stage of prepara- 
tion; and, (c) other assistance, advice and counsel he might provide to a per- 
son such as myself with a wealth-and-welter of "working papers" but paucity of 
"hard publications" to show for the Substantive and extensive "original/basic" 
research which I have done in this area heretofore largely unexplored by econo- 
mlsts proper; 

Nltsch -Carrica, A/1/80 — page 2 

(3) at the same time, availing myself of some of the more fertile libraries 
(e.g., Columbia U. , which holds a copy of the ' translatlo Durandus * qua "Plimp- 
ton 17:IV,8) in the area, as well — perhaps — as making contact wlth other 
scholars in that (or other) vicinity(ies) with whom he might have close ties. 

I have also mentioned to Dr. Soudek the possibility of a co-authored paper 
or two emanating from our interaction during the proposed two- / three-month per- 
iod (respecting his preference for the time-frame of April 1 - July 1) I would 
spend there, but I do not include this as a def inite/explicit objective. 

C. Supporting Documents 

1. Evidence/speciments of wcholarship / work-corapleted on the subject (encl.)- 

a. "On the Origin of *Political Economy* : A Terminological-Ideological 
Note," presented at the 13th annual Conference of the Missouri Valley 
Economic Association, St. Louis, February 24-26, 1977; also, in Faculty 
Working Papers , College of Business Administration, Creighton University, 
February 20, 1977 — c + 57 + xvii pp. , incl. tab. cont. (analytical) . 

b. Ibid., in the form of a "substantive note," The Journal of Economics , 
vol. III, 1977. 

c. "On the Origin, Renaissance, and Recrudescence of nOAITIKH OIKONOMIA," 
presented at the 7th annual meeting of the Midsouth Academy of Econo- 
mists, Little Rock, February 14-16, 1980; also, in FWP, CBA/CU, January 
30, 1980 — 47 + xxi pp. , incl. exhibits (currently being adapted, under 
subtitle: 'A Progress Report') for publication in the Annais and Pro - 
ceedings /Midsouth Journal of Economics , Vol. 4 (July/December) , 1980. 

2. Correspondence between Nitsch and Soudek (Nitsch-Soudek, 3/4/80; Soudek- 
Nitsch, 3/24/80) inaugurating and affirming proposed sabbatical program. 

3. In addition, I shall ask Dr. Soudek to submit a special letter in support 
of this proposal; and/or, submit the "intended more explicit letter" he 
refers to in his of March 24. 

4. Off-campus Location: Here I propose to explore the possibility of secur- 
ing quarters (living and/or working) perhaps at such a sister instution 
as Fordham U. , which is also located in the Bronx. In this connection, 
e.g., I might propose to offer a special evening seminar in the history 
of economics, in "barter exchange" for room (incl. office) and board. 

D. Considerations of Departmental Adjustments for Covering Courses 

Normally, I would teach one (1) section of ECO 305 — Intermediate Macro- 
economics and two (2) of ECO 105 — Introductory Macroeconoraics during the 
Spring Semester. Professor Robertson can, and has, taught the ECO 305 course; 
which, at the same time, is closely related to his ECO/FIN 321, offered annually 
In tlie Fall. AI ternatively, Dr. Peppers and/or Murthy and/or Funk would be ca- 
pablc of covering the 305 section. The question would be who would "suffer the 
least hardship" in making the special preparation. Otherwise, to handle the two 
ECO 105 sectlons, someone might be brought in (from the graduate program at UNL; 
or, assumlng appropriate academic credentials, UNO or a local enterprise) on a 
temporary/part-time basis. Certainly, no one who more or less regularly teaches 
such a core upper-dlvision course as ECO 305 wants to feel essentially/entirely 
"expendable. " However, for purposes of such a sabbatical-leave on a one-shot 
hasls, some "second-best" Solution should be feasible. 


I . 

Nitsch-Carrlca, 4/1/80 — page 3 

E. Sources of Funds durlng Sabbatlcal Perlod 

In addition to my regulär salary entitlement, I am preparlng to apply 
for an individual (faculty) research grant from both (1) the National Science 
Foundation, Division of the Social Sciences - Economics, and (2) the National 
Endowment for the Humanities (History of Economics) , as per exploratory dis- 
cussions with their respective representatives today in the Rigge Science 
aiidltorium. In addition, I shall make application for (3) a Faculty Research 
Fellowship Award for the Summer of 1981 with to the Graduate School (CU). 
Flnally, as indicated above (item //C.4), I will explore the possibility of a 
concurrent appointment (Spring/Summer *80) to offer, e.g. , a special seminar 
(perhaps during the Spring-Summer interterm) in the history of economics at 
a university in the N.Y.C. vicinity (such as Fordham, St. John*s, inter alia) 
as a financial expedient as well as being ancillary to my special research/ 
writing project. 

F. Addenda 

1. Additional supporting docuraents enclosed: 

a. Letter from Dr. Gunnar Stollberg, Bielefeld, West-Germany, in re the 
copy of my "On the Origin, Recrudescence, etc." paper which I sent 
him; as noted in the latter (fn. 6, pp. vi-vii) , he and I had done 
kindred research and published separately but simultaneously (1977) 
on this same subject — both unbeknownst to one another at the time. 

b. Letter from Dr. Soudek in response to the copy of the same fVP which 
I had sent him (his of 2/25/80). 

c. Selected pubications of Dr. Soudek, as noted in section B supra. 

2. Dr. Bruce J. Malina, Department of Theology (CU) , has consented to serve 
as a reference in support of this application, should that be desired. 
Along with Dr. Soudek, he would be the person most intimately acquainted 
with the nature and significance of my research in this area. 

Respectfully submitted, 

^/ ^ ' ''^ / 

Thomas 0. Nitsch, Ph.D. 
Professor of Economics 



Thomas 0. Nitsch* 

In an earlier and Initial effort, I noted and proceeded to demonstrate (howso) that: 
"For over a Century now, historians of economics have been wont to credit the early French mer- 
cantilist Antoyne Montchretien with the invention/first-known-use/etc. of the term/phrase/des- 
ignation 'political economy' — if not, simultaneously, the creation of the 'science* itself — 
with the publication of his Traicte de l'Oeconomie politique at Rouen in 1615" (01.01; 01.02, 
1 & i-ii). My flrst act in the present effort and "Progress Report" is to extend that time- 
frame aback some twenty-two years — effectively, from Roscher's 1874 werk (02.01, 185-86) — to 
Include Joseph Garnler' s 1852 proclamation that: "The earliest writing in which we are able 
to find the name of Economie politique is . . . [the] Traicte de l'oeconomie politique^ par An- 
toyne de Montchretien" (03.01, 306). Thus, I open the present effort, duly noting that (more) 
original assignation: "A bit over a Century and a quarter has passed, now, since Joseph Gar- 
nler (1852) proclalmed for his countryman . . . the first-known use of the term 'political econ- 
omy .. . " (01.03, 1). 

Now, in both efforts, I go on to note that, "while few have shared the enthusiasm of 
his redactor (Funk-Brentano) at Paris in 1889 that, in this same feil swoop, Montchretien 
created the science as well as its name, and the terminological 'first' so attributed to him 
has been tempered and qualified in various ways . . . , no one has seriously and effectively 
challenged head-on the Montchretien-(if-anyone)-first proposition within the history of eco- 
nomic thought proper" (01.3, 1; 01.1, 1). In all, I have called attention to some twenty-odd 
scholars/works within — or attending — the history of economics which have followed unwaver- 
in^Uy in the (independently-planted ?) footsteps of Garnier and Röscher — the latter who, by 
virtue of his special knowledge of prominent works by both Böckh and Rau, it is pointed out, 
"certalnly should have known better" (01.3, 1-ii; 01.1, xxi-xxiv) . These latter include, em- 
incMitly/promlnently: (1) Gide, who earlier (OA.Ol) might have thought he was picking up on 
a 'special admission' by Cossa (05.01, 61) but was merely airing (indirectly) Garnier's assig- 
nation rather than any such concession by Cossa himself, and subsequently (04.02, 3-5; 04.03, 
21-23) presents Montchretien' s "invention" simply as a matter of fact; (2) Ingram, who cites 
Röscher in this connection proper (06.01, 357; 06.02, 44-45), but would have done better to 
have examined more carefully the classic study he cites by the eminent subject of his biograph- 
ical article of 1894-99 (06.03) so that he might have been able to correct his (and Roscher's) 
earlier misattribution; (3) Cole (07.01, 114; 07.02. 84), who follows Funk-Brentano (08, XXIII) 
uncritically, and is followed — with a "probably" qualification — by Bell (09.01, 81), and — most 
reccntly and uncritically — by Oser and Blanchfield (10, 10 and 26); (4) the Oxford English Dic- 
i ionarq (s.v. "political"); (5) Leduc (12, 42) and Rattl (13, 724), among other raodern-language 
"-■n. yclopedists"; (6) Mai (55, 160; specifying "introduced") and Hutchison (56, 8), among prom- 
inent U.S. reference books; (7) Lowry (14, 81-82), the most recent perpetrator, who should have 
rc<i(' Andreados (loc. cit.) just a bit more carefully, as we shall see presently; and, (8) vari- 
ous others as noted also, e.g., and not so by King's 'minor correction' (15) of 1947. Simul- 
taneously, among those who qualify, temper or treat in some oblique/allusive/insinuative fash- 
ion Montchretien' s (possible/probable/apparent/alleged/etc. "first"), the following, inter ali- 
os, are noted: (a) George (16, 67) and Gray (17, 80-81; cit. Funk-Brentano ed.), according al- 
leged first-use of term/phrase, as with — most recently — Roth (18, 32); (b) Heckscher (19, 114), 
Whittaker (20.01, 286; 2C.02, 39), Scuct (21, 21-22), and Schumpetcr (22, 167-68), according 
actual/probable/apparent first-use in title of a book, with JAS "waffling" a bit earlier (22, 
21) in attributlng the 'baptism' of "our science" as "political economy" to "a not very signif- 
Icant writer of the seventeenth Century whose work owes an undeserved immortality to this fact" 
— and, cp. Gide (04.02, 3-4) — while he might have demonstrated, then and there, the purely gra- 
tuitoiis nature of the Claims by Funk-Brentano et al. had he pursued Böckh as cited (22, 426n; & 
cf. 23,406); and (c) the masters, past and present, of Insinuation/ innuendo without admission/ 
conccHsion, Cossa (05.01, 61 and 190-91; 05.02, 42) and Spiegel (23, 94-95 and 172), either or 
of whom, had he paid more (less) attention to primary (secondary) sources, could have laid bare 
I Ik- c'Mscntial 'reinvention of the wheel' in that "otherwise undistinguished book written by a 
Krc'iuli . . . poet and hardware manufacturer" as Spiegel put it down (loc. cit., et cf, 667). 

*l'r()foHHor of Economics, College of Business Administration, Creighton University. The present 
' l'ro>',rcM.'j Ri'port' is adapted from the paper of the same title prented at the 7th ann. mtg. of 
tlif M.A.K. (01.03). In the interest of space and the reader's patience, much explanatory/docu- 
r>< iit at Jonal notatlon lins bccn omitted, while copies of the original remain available to the de- 
•;lr..iis r<M(k'r upon roquest. Grateful acknowledgement is hcreby made of the generous and expert 

• .• i- t.uKc rcndored by the following (all of the Creighton faculty) in translating and helplng 
milock fhc mcanlng of crltlcal pnsKages from various forelgn-language (classical and modern) 

onrcr.i: Kriin« J. Mal Ina (Theology), Ernst J. Brchm (Modern Languagcs), and Donald R. Babin 
(HI()( iiciiilMtry) ; tl>e wrtter assumea final rosponsibill ty , howevor, for what the reader gets. 



There are exceptions, however, and thls tlme around the author had to be even more pre- 
clse and cautlous In framing the "Montchretien-(if-anyone)-first" tendency. To begin with, 
numerous scholars outslde the history of economlcs proper, as well as perhaps raore than a few 
therein, have been aware of particularly one of the three anclent employments of the term to 
be presented shortly. Thus Böckh's (Boeck's) Staatshaushaltung der Athener (Public Economy of 
the Athcnians) of 1817/18-1857 and Rau's Ansichten der Volkswirthschaft of 1821 — the latter, 
^•g., p. 3 — glve Virtual translatlons of the critlcal passage from the Ath-3rd Century B.C. 
Pseudo-Aristotelian OIKONOMIKJ^N B which contalns the most prominent of the three known instan- 
ces of occurrence; and, in Boeck's case, this from the Greek to German and thence French/Eng- 
lish/Italian — editions/translations as noted by Lamb (in 40, "Preface") and Andreades (24, 
199). The ranks of those who actually "knew but didn't know" — i.e., were availed of the an- 
cient (Aristotelian) employment but not (apparently) of the Montchretien-first claim — expand 
to include (here, sticking closely to the history of economic thought proper): Aug. Souchon, 
in his Les Theories economiques dans la Grece antique of 1898, who could have disabused Ingram 
and Ashley (25, 392) — op. cit. per Souchon (39.01, 5nn> — of their uncritical acceptance of 
the Funk-Brentano /Röscher claim(s); E. Simey, in his "Economic Theory among the Greeks and 
Romans" (26, 463), and cf. Zeller's "paltry-pedantry" put-down (27, 498-99) of the same ' trea- 
tlae on economlcs composed by Aristotle,' which philologist' s own professional pedantry seems 
to have mlsinf luenced unduly the history/historians of economlcs in this connectlon; Trever 
(28, 127-28) — actually a classical scholar whose tutoring in economlcs came too exclusively 
from the "Science-of-Wealth" school, as I noted earlier (01.01, 32-33) — who also could have 
set Ingram (cf. 27, 159, s.v.) straight on the "true" origin of "political economy"; Singer 
(29, 35 and 53), who, careful investigatlon shows, double-furables the matter by using a sec- 
ondary source — viz. , Littre, loc. cit. — in the case of Montchretien, thereby thinking he 
is quoting the latter when he is quoting the source and missing Funk-Brentano' s claim — which 
he could readily have disputed — in the process; and, finally, most recently and prominently, 
Tozzi (30, 23-33, 203-4, passim) , who, among this group, gives the Ps.-Arist. OIKON. B its 
fairest deserts. Most salient, but little noticed anymore, among the historians of economlcs 
in this particular connectlon, however, are Espinas, who, having earlier cited "le Traite de 
1' economique'* as one of the three works — the other two being "la Politique^' et "la Morale" — 
to st'c for "la doctrine economique d'Aristote", subsequently credits none other than his own 
countrynunn' 3 *^Traicte d' Sconomie politiquey dedicated in 1615 . . . , [as] the first coupling of 
the science of economic facts and the art of management [les diriger] bearing the name which 
prevails in France . . . chosen by the author precisely for opposing modern economy . . . from 
that of anclent times ..." (31-, 47n, 147-48, and cf. 8 supra) , rauch in the fashion of Funk- 
Brentano/Roscher; and, most adroitly, incisively and — seemingly — obscurely, Perry, who sorted 
and spelled it all out a Century ago and even earlier (32.01, 12; 32.02, 4-5) as follows: 
and thus this name [Pol i t ical Economy] , under which the science has mostly gone since 
Antolne de Montchristien issued his book with this title . . .in 1613 [sie], has been of 
some hlnderance to the proper unfolding and understanding of the subject; especially as 
Aristotle . . . first used this name in a different and political sense. . . . [Whence:] 
Aristotle . '. . has sometimes been called the father of Political Economy. He was not 
the father of the thing, but only of the name. He was the first to employ the expres- 
sion which has ever since [sie] been used to designate the science. He wrote a trea- 
tise entitled "Economlcs," . . . Aristotle, whatever his merits in other directions, 
can be regarded neither as the founder of, nor a very important contributor to, the 
science upon which he has the honor of conferring the name. [A.L.P., 1880 and '66.] 
With tliis, one may ask, was Perry writing in a vaccuum in that whole (latter) 22-page Chapter 
I, "History of the Science"? Otherwise, how did he miss one of those 'Montchretien-first' 
Claims floating around? But, miss it he, et multi alii, obviously did. Finally, along side 
the history of economlcs, and among the socioeconomic historiographers who "knew but . . . ," 
we must note, most prominently, Rostovtzeff (33, 74-75), Hasebroeck (34, 25); lesserly, the 
well-known works (dates, places) by H. Michell (2d ed., 1957), H. Bolkestein (Leiden, 1958), 
and L. R. Lind's "Economic Man in Anclent Athens" in The Classical Journal, XXV (Oct. 1939); 
and, with special Irony and recency, Finley (35, 20-21), explicitly purporting to be speak- 
ing "lexicographically," first makes significant reference to "the second book of of the psue- 
do -Aristotelian Oikonomikos [sic] , and then, in the next breath, opines that "it was the 
Frcnch, apparently, who first made a practice of speaking of l'economie politique," as if the 
Peripatetics, e.g., would have used such a modern-French expressioni We shall see, however, 
that the "anclent" Greek ^'oikonomia politike'* was probably not nearly so Isolated "in the 
whole of siirviving anclent writing" as our apparently unlexlcographed writer here supposes. 

Finally, since my last effort, I have the following "new discoveries" in this area to 
rc'port: (1) the very parallel and contemporary article, "Towards a History of the Term "Po- 
litical Economy," by Dr. Gunnar Stollberg of Bielefeld, West-Germany, who learned of my ini- 
tial prcsentntlon at the MVEA in 1977 (01.01) from a fellow West-German at the same meetings 
ind was klnd cnough to send me a copy of his complementary effort (36); and, (2) the 1947 note 
on "The Orlgln of the Term 'Political Economy'" by an American scholar, James E. King (15,01), 
Kratc'fully brouj'.ht to my attention by Stollberg' s paper, which proposes and makes no more than 
the modi'Ht "correc tion" that Montchretien was anticipated by four years by his countryman, 
LoiiIh Turqiu't de Maycrne, who used the very same expression of "oeconomie politique" in the 
courHo of his Monarchie aristo-ddmocratique published at Paris in 1611 (15,01, 231; cf. 37.01 
And 38.01). King suggests, and Stollberg has emphasized (his to me of 2/19/80), that the ex- 
pression was probably In more widespread current usage within the French language of that 
tlmc, as would hnve been "certainly appropriate to the complexion" thereof (King), and as evi- 
denced by the fact that "neither Maycrne nor Montchretien see a necessity to define it" (GS - 




** ^^^*^Ww ^^^r^^^^^pt*^^^^'W^^W'^>^%pi^^B|^J-y^^^^p|^^^^^^^^^^^^^^w^^y%«B^^^i^pj y^^f^^W 

-■ f <tm,»< 'e ^.. ;^.i.AU*<ai.*k«si'*iä'«i^.'.-;-*i4:.' ' 

TON, 2/80). Stollberg, as was the main focus of his "update" of Garnier* s semlnal (1852) ar- 
tlcle, further emphaslzes the dlfferential meanings attached to thls Identlcal expression by 
Mayerne (the "political variant") and Montchrestien (the "economic/wlrtschaf tiichen sense") 
In their respectlve contexts (36, 3-7); and, at the same tlnve, proffers both the fact that, 
and a plausible reason why, "the term political economy was not wide-spread in antiquity, al- 
though there certainly existed polis-econoraies," which — we shall show — Is, in point of fact, 
at least contestable, if not essentially misconstructive. Being more linguistically and geneo- 
logically focused, the present study finds it more interesting that Montchretien' s employment 
of the term is soley restricted to the title of his work, which latter — as Funk-Brentano em- 
phaslzes — was an eleventh-hour switch from the original Traicte oeconomique du Trafict which 
latter is still given in the "Privilege du Roy" signed at Paris 12 August 1615 (08, xxiii and 
371-72). Simply, did Montchretien pull some sort of "fast one," as Andreades suggests (24, 
81-82); specifically, did he "purloin" his key-term from the 4th-3rd cent. B.C. Peripatetic 
OIKON. B, given his thorough knowledge of Greek (24, 81) and the presently-established fact 
that the number of possible editions of that OIKON. B in circulation in the relevant spatio- 
temporal frame is exponentially greater than the present writer initially recognized and some- 
what crroneously — viz. the OIKON. A and B were translated by lacobo Lefövre d' (of/ from ) Staples 
and rirst i)ubli8hed at Paris in 1506, whence republished in a collection at Basel in 1548, as 
Süiidek has now (57.03, 92-93; Soudek-Nitsch of 12/31/79) enhanced my earlier understanding (Ol. 
02; 01.01, 44) of a critical note of Susemihl's (49.03,ix-x) — reported. We here conclude, in 
this particular regard, that vhile, as the new evidence has shown, the possibilities of Mont- 
chretien (and Mayerne-Turquet) having been availed of one of those Medieval versions of the 
ps.-Arist. OECONOMICA are considerably greater than originally indicated, the actual likeli- 
hood that he did so avail himself and/or "lift" therefrom the key-term in his title seems — 
upon careful scrutiny and reflection — about as remote as before. That is, we reconclude here 
that, if Montchretien did only (ef fectively) "relnvent the wheel," he did so without (direct) 
assistance of the OIKON. B (OECON. II). 

Having shown and noted in these previous eesays (01.01; 01.02) — which include, as well, 
a still earlier paper (01.04, i, fn. 1), where I "tempered" the Montchrötien-first claim with 
"the fact that the author of Book II of 'Aristotle*s' Oikonomikon . . . distinguished between . . . 
oikonomia idiotike . . . and . . . oikonomia politikey whence 1' oeconomie politique^" etc.; and, 
which now must be compared with that of Stollberg (36, 2-7) in points of both spirit and letter 
— that the term "political economy" definitely had its origin (invention, first-known use) in 
no less than three (then-regarded) essentially separate and unrelated Greek works of the 4th/ 
3rd - Ist centuries B.C., that celebrated usage by Montchretien (and now adding Mayerne-Turquet, 
along with the enhanced likelihood of still others unknown/unidentified/uncelebrated as yet) is 
now viewed as, more accurately and properly, the ''Renaissance of tioXltlm?) otKOvovJba. " This, in 
turn, brought to the floor four-square the question which had been broached but explicitly es- 
chcwed earlier, viz. "that of the existence of a direct lineage of terminologlcal-ideological 
cvolutlon and development from these original . . . usages and works up to and including the Mer- 
cantilist - Cameralist writers on the Continent and in England" (01.01, 3);^ that is, what hap- 
pcned to the expression and the concept of " PolOikon !' after its latest-known "ancient" appear- 
ance at Naples ca. 80 B.C. and this nascent "Renaissance" at Paris/Rouen in 1611/15, whence the 
verltable exponential growth in usage thereafter? The logical hypothesis was that the next en- 
counter therewith would be in some such Latin transliteration as ''oeconomia political" whence 
''civilis ooconomia" and then to the known French, Italian ("economia politica/civile/pubblica") 
and Gcrman/English/Etc. equivalentö and variants of the original "vetero-mercantilist" term- 
concopt during that rebirth and vigorous childhood in the Mercantilist/Kameralist era of ca. 
1576-1775 — actually culminating, most significantly and appropriately, with Sir James Steu- 
art's Principics of Political Oeononomy in 1767. Moreover, to recapture some of the original 
spirit of timeliness and (contemporary) "relevance" which actually has motivated and continues 
to insplre the present Student 's efforts, and as well to enhance the parallelism (while avoid- 
1 .;; unneces'^ary competitior.) v/lt'- Dr. Stollberg' s companion Kontribution, the recent "Recru- 
ilescence" of the term — as it transited into "Primary Designation Emeritus" Status between the 
apponrnnce of Macleod' s/Marshall' s/Seager' s/et al.'s Elements/Principles/Introduction/etc. . . . 
Economic 3 in the years 1881/ 1890/ 1904/et seq., the conceptual reduction to match the termino- 
logicnl truncation being performed ef fectively by Irving Fisher in 1912-15 (42, 1) and the es- 
pecially symbolic publlcation (posthumously) of Ingram' s A History of Political Economy in the 
form of a "New & Enlarged Edition" at the hands of two American Professors of Political Econo- 
my in 1915 marking, perhaps, the effective retirement of the old name with the "old view" — we 
have wltnesscd slnce the mid-1960's is given due note. This, however — and the related cycle: 
"blrth/aHcendcncy/dominance" of the original oi^onomiJce^ön;) - oeconomica - "Oeconomickes" - etc. 
((Hi.i "IdLötikT' oikonomia" or "private economy") from its Hcsiodic-Socratic-Aristotelian roots 
througli ItH Scholastic-Medieval revitalization into its eclipse with the "rebirth" of "politi- 
cal oeconomy" and, flnally, after the abortive effort of ^les Oeconomistes' (alias "Physiocra- 
tcs") to eradlcate tho quallfying politique without simultaneously eliminating the (natural- 
law/ordcr) soclal-scientific nature of the discipllne, thls "new wine" giving way to and mak- 
Ing ItH abode in the "old bottle" unttl the release provided by Marshall et al. — is assigned 
to serondary (and tertiary) concern and consideration in the present effort. 

^Substantively, this development has been provided by Gordon (43), though one finds 
his ncglect/lgnorance of the ps.-Arist. OECON. — the inclusion/consideration of which might at 

The Orlgin; "PolOikon" in the Ath - Ist Centurles B.C. 

Liddell and Scott, in their well-known Lexicon (44, 1204), note two specific instances 
in the Ath and Ist centuries B.C., respectively, in which the terra oikonomia — literaily, the 
manageraent/administration/law-and-ordering of a household or estate — was explicitly qualified 
and applied to the operation(s) of a polis or city-state. The first is attributed to the At- 
tic orator /logographos Dinarchus, and appears in a speech "Against Demosthenes," vnritten and 
delivered at Athens in 323 B.C. (45, 161-69). In submitting his charges of corrpution and 
derellction against the famous statesman on trial, our "ghost-accuser" addresses the following 
query to the Athenians empaneled: "Do you wish to keep someone who has proved himself untrust- 
worthy in the af fairs of war (polemikais praxesin) , and useless in city-state household admin- 
istrations ( polin oikonomiais) y . . . ?" (45, 244/245). The second instance of occurrence noted 
is in the essay Concerning Rhetoric" by the Epicurean "empiricist" Philodemus at Naples ca. 80 
B.C. (46.01,2-3). Again, we have a less-than-ideal performer, and in similar f unctional/occu- 
patlonal/disciplinary areas, under scrutiny, though this time an allen: "The one spoken of 
deals craftily, like something naturally unsuitable; because, whether he sought legislation 
(nomothesias) or generalship (strategias) or city-state household adrainistration ( politikes oi- 
konomias) , the foreign wiseman saw nothing as yet of the wisdom of the good (tön sophias aga- 
thön) nor considered of which evlls was his neighbor guilty, of which he himself" (46.02, 32). 

Before passing on to the third and most prominent (known, if not even celebrated) earll- 
er use of our terra, let us just consider briefly the signification thereof in these two "iso- 
lated" instances of occurrence in the later 4th and earlier Ist centuries B.C. Specifically, 
what was the meaning of "political econoray(ies)" in these two contexts? Firstly, we note the 
common coraparisons with the "military art"/"warfare" (strategia / polemike) y and — in the later 
occurrence — similarly with "law-giving" (nomothesia) y as functions/disciplines/etc. requiring 
a certain character of, and expertise in, behavior (uprightness, prudence, adeptness, and the 
llke are the "natural" and acquired traits and talents implied). Further, when we look fur- 
ther into the "business of the city" in which Demosthenes was found to be so "useless"/unfit 
iachreston) y we find the same pre-eminent statesman (politikos) and orator (logographos) being 
charged as follows, and in addition to his (alleged) financial negligence and raisconduct in 
the so-called "Harpalus Affair" proper: (1) the supplying of no "triremes" or galley-ships 
for trade and war, (2) the building of no dockyards, (3) the erection of no buildings in the 
emporium "or in the city, or anywhere eise in the country . . . and [thereby, in general] neg- 
lecting to pursue the interests of the people (hyper tou demou) y" alias the "interests of the 
state/society/public (hyper tön koinS)" (45, 242-45 and 238-43). Certainly, 21 centuries af- 
tcrwards, Adam Smith, in both his positive analysis of "the Mercantile System" and normative 
model of "the obvious and simple System of natural liberty" (alias, laissez-faire capitalism) , 
had some such (public, social) functions, objective and ends in view when he wrote, at the 
very outset and conclusion of that Book IV, "Of Systems of political CEconomy" , respectively: 
Political oeconomy, considered as a branch of the science of a statesman or legislator 
(noAuTOHOS n voyodcTns), proposes two distinct objects: first, to provido a plentiful re- 
venuc or subsistence for the people (önyos), . . . ; and secondly, to supply the State or 
Commonwealth (n(5XLS n tö 6nyc5auov/KOLvöv) with a revenue sufficient for the public (6ny<^- 
aLos/MÖLVos) Services. It proposes to enrich (tiXoutuCw) both the people and the sovereign. 

All Systems either of preference or of restraint . . . being thus completely taken away, 
the obvious and simple System of natural liberty establishes itself of its own accord. ... 
The sovereign is completely discharged from . . . the duty of superintending the industry of 
private people, and of directing it towards the employments raost suitable to the interest 
of soclety (uttt,p töv houv^). . . .the sovereign has only three duties to attend to . . . : 
first, the duty of protecting the society from the violence and Invasion of other independ- 
ent socletles; secondly, the dutty . . . of establishing an exact adrainistration of justice; 
and, thirdly, the duty of erecting and maintaining certain public works and . . . institu- 
tions, which it can never be for the interest of any individual . . . to erect and maintain; 
because the profit ((LipeXt'u) = opheleö) could never repay the expence to any individual . . . , 
though it may frequently do rauch more than repay it to a great society. (47, 397 and 651) 
Thus, where Smith would draw the llne between his "very iraportant science . . . properly called 
Political (I':(:()noiiiy"--and that of 'M. Quesnai' and "The CEconomists" as well (47, 642-43) — on the 
one band, and 'his Mercantilism' and the ' Vetero-mercantillsm' of Dinarchns-Üt^mosthenes — and^ 
as wfll, that of "Solon and sixth-century Athens" earlier, as depicted by Gordon (A3, 7-10 et 
passiiii) — on the other, is precisely this: the deterraination of how rauch and on what particular 
public Horvlct's/works/etc. the sovereign should spend is, apart frora any strictly positive ben- 
oflts/cost nnalyses, a matter for the (prudential) art of politics (politikön) ; the deterraina- 
tion of how most efficiently to finance (through public debt and/or taxation) , and/or, in terras 
"^ poHJt Ive B/C analysis, perhaps, of which socioeconoraic projects should be undertaken, is the 
approprlnte task of the science of "political oeconoray" — or, per the Physiotrats and more ef- 
flcaclously Marshall, siraply "Economics" — as is further brought out in Book V, "Of the Revenue 
and, Hiibordlnately, 'Expences' of the Sovereign or Coramonwealth, " whencc N.H., o.g., the so- 
cial B/C atialysis applied to "the Institutions for the Education of the Youtli" (A7, 734-40). 

Icnst havf prcventod hlm from associating Aristotle with Plato in the casentlal cquatlon of a 
\!\ryy hoiiHc'hold with a small city-state (hcnce, of oikonomikc with politikö)y whon It was the 
Sta^l rl tc, flrst-off, and his loyal dlsciple (probably Tlieophrastus) subscqurntly (post 322 B. 
C), who i'HKavfd to clarlfy the natura l dlfforcncc bctwcen oikor. (oikonomiki^) k.ii pol in (jH)li- 
tikr) . See: Cordon (43, 34), Plato (48. 13), and Aristotle (50, 1252a; 49, J26-29 et 323). 


Aristotelis OECONOMICA , — We thus come to the thlrd, mdst prominent and — outslde the 
hlstory of economics proper — even celebrated employment of our termlnology. As noted by the 
same Liddell and Scott, this appears In a "treatlse on public financey ascribed to Arlstotle" 
(AA, 1204). Thls Is the original (genuine) Book II {Liher Secundus) of three separate works 
under the generlc title "ta oikonomika" (OIKONOMIKfiN) whlch have come down to us under Arlsto- 
tle' s narae, Book I of whlch derlves largely from the latter' s Politics (IIOAITIKSiN) and Xeno- 
phon's Economist (OIKONOMIKOZ) and Is attrlbuted by Phllodemus to the Staglrite's successor 
Theophrastus In 322-287 B.C. Accordlng to Andreades (24, 86-88), who makes the most sense on 
the matter, "our" Book II, the Introductory/prefatory "chapter 1" of whlch raight well have been 
Independently authored In the 4th Century, "has probably come down to us by an epltlmator of 
the 3rd Century"; and, contrary to who would have us belleve that It Is "un-" as well as merely 
"pseudo-Arlstotellan, " the same has documented that — whlle thusly "apocryphal" as per Suchon, 
e.g. — the work was clearly sollclted and vlrtually "commissloned" by Arlstotle In hls Politics 
and unmlstakably foreshadowed thereby In hls Rhetorlcs . As to the nature and scope of thls Li- 
ter Secundus, none to the present wrlter's knowledge has Improved slgnlflcantly — If at all — on 
Boeckh's announcement : "In the (Economics. . . the subject of public economy (Staatshaushalt" 
ung) Is, In the raanner of Arlstotle, sclentlflcally, but very brlefly, treated" (23, 5). That 
Is, In that llteral sense of "State' s-householdlng," the ways and means In princlple and prac- 
tise of ralslng funds for varlous "public" purposes, the regulatlon of the coinage, balanclng 
of the budget, etc. of the "realm" — thls Is "the sclence of public economy," admlttedly In an 
"Imperfect" form at that tlme, as best exempllfied by the OIKON. B . We will, however, not say 
more about the general character and specific contents of thls tract — whlch is readlly avalla- 
ble In varlous edltlons and translatlons for the reader to peruse directly; and, as well, Is 
authorltatlvely treated by Rostovtzeff and Tozzl, as already noted above. In addition to Andre- 
ades, Boeckh and — In a special way, as noted by Susemihl (49.03, Vn) — Rau (54,01, 8 nn.), 
Rather, here we merely render {trans Ute rate) the crltical openlng paragraphs from that brlef 
(theoretlcal-analytlcal / "speculatlve") "chap. 1" as follows (49. Ol/. 02/. 03, 1345b:7-19): 

Rlght adminlstratlon of a household (ton oikonomein) demands In the first place famlll- 
arlty wlth the localltles whereln we work; In the second place, good natural endowments; 
and In the thlrd, an uprlght and Industrlous way of llfe. For the lack of any one of 
these quallflcatlons will Involve many fallures In the occupatlon one takcs in band. 

Economics / household-admlnlstratlons (oikonomiai) y however, are four, accordingly as 
to be divlded by type (for we shall dlscover the others falling under these): klngly/ 
royal (basilike) , satrapical/provincial (satrapike) , polltlcal/clty-statical (politike) , 
and Idlotlcal/prlvate (idiötike) . Of these, the greatest (megiste) and the simplest Is 
the kingly/regal, the most varlegated and easlsest is the polltical, . . . (etc.) 
Pursulng the analysis here, and the practlcal examples from actual hlstorical episodes (the 
latter pertalnlng excluslve to "public" economles — I.e., oikonomiai basilike , satrapike , 
kai politike) recounted by the author of "chap. 11," one would have to regard this as without 
doubt the prototype of what Is perhaps most aptly conveyed by the German Camoralwissenschaft, 
as, e.g., per Röscher (2.01, 185; 2.02, 95-101), In whlch flrst-clted contexL (fn. 2) appears 
tlie slgnlflcant trlbute to Montchretlen whlch was, in tum, plcked up by Ingram — Inter allos. 
Thus, as we shall see further In the next sectlon, when we compare "the scope & nature" 
treatment of "polltical oeconomy" of the "last of the mercantilists" wlth that of "household- 
administration" proper (qua h5 oikonomike) of the early-Peripatetlc author of Book I of the 
same OIKON., do we find striklng parallels between the politike (or, more generically, perhaps, 
koinc/dcmotike) oikonomia of these "anclents" and that whlch Gide, e.g., would regard as "pre- 
modern" polltical economy — i.e., between thelr "Vetero -mercantlllsm/CameralisiTius" and that of 
or pertalnlng to the natlon- states of the era ca. 1475-1776. Moreover, when we consider the 
several users of that ^'PolOikon" expression or termlnology in that 300-year span of antlqulty, 
we find some interesting connectlons. Specif ically, our orator and author of "A'ata Dcmosthen- 
ov.^t*' we are told by Burtt In hls "Life of Dinarchus" (45, 161-62), studied under Theophrastus 
at Athens, probably around 342-336 B.C.; and, it is this same Theophrastus, "who succeeded 
Ailstotle as he..o of the Pcrlpatctlc r.chool in 322 B.C.," as Armstrong notes in hls "Introduc- 
Llon, to whom "Uu- Epicurean Phllodemus (a contemporary of Cicero)" attribuled tlio authorship 
dl "tho fIrst Hiiük" of that same *' 'Oeconomica' . . . current in Greek under Aristotle's name" 
(49.01, 32 3). Now, whlle Zeller in modern-tlmes asslgned it to Eudemus, the mutual Student of 
Arlstotle and Theophrastus, we would still have a somewhat "cozy club" here, wliichevor way It 
actually went; since, ^^ we are told by Rackham In hls "Introduction" to Aristotle's Eudemian 
Ethics (50.02, 190), It is thls same dlsclple "who followed hls doctrine most closely" — as 
suggc'sted by tlie title of that work. Thus, it would seem, that Phllodemus wlio used the expres- 
sion "politikös oikonomias" at Naples ca. 80 B.C., mlght well have had an eye on our Book II, 
at the same tlme he had a band in assignlng authorship to Book I; whlle, our Dinarchus of the 
expression "polin oikonomiais" at Athens In 323 B.C., employed the same some 18-12 years after 
he had studied under Theophrastus (mentor of Eudemus as well) in the same polis. Given these 
facts, It would seem further both that (1) the "poloikon'' expression/torminolor.y was more com- 
mon In thoHc "ancient" times and places— at least among the Peripatetlcs and tlieir students of 
that now-known period of 323 -ca. 80 B.C., if not among ot noAXol "down on the street" — than 
Stollh.Tg (who neglects Dinarchus but footnotes "an Inscrlption out of [aus] llallkarnassos" of 
the Ird Cent. B.C. as cited by Llddcll and Scott, loc. clt.) when he informs "that the term po- 
litische Ökonomie was not widesprcad in antlqulty, even thouth there certalnJy existed polls - 
economles" (36, 2-3, fn. 9); and, (2) Flnley's remark regarding the "Isolation in the whole of 
survlvlng ancient wrltlng" of the "half a dozen paragraphs" (containlng and) regarding that 
same '' I 'rconomio politiquc'' of whlch "it was the French, apparently, who flrst made a practlce 
of speaklng" [I] must be tempered/rejected accordingly (35, 20-21). 


The Renaissance of noXuTux^i Ol-kovoulo 

I There secms no problem, now, in asslgning the renaissance of "Polltlcal Economy" to — we 
I had better say now — these two French authors of the early 17th Century, Mayerne-Turquet and A. 
I Montchrestien. And, the terra "renaissance" bears very literally a double entendre in our case. 
I For, a verltable "reblrth of ^ politike oikonomia Callas: ycononda politica, administratio do- 
I mestica / dispensatio civilis) dld conimence and ensue from thls tlme and place forward and out- 
I ward; and, as Spiegel has 'down-scaled' Montchretien in this regard (23, 94-95), both of our 
I revivalists were (nonetheless) 'Men of the Renaissance' in the usual sense of that expression. 
I Following Stollberg's advice (his of 2/19/80), I here accord a bit more attention to Mayerne- 
I Turquet, and render that critical passage from page 158 of his La monarchie aristodemocratique 
I of 1611 as reproduced in the original French by King (37.01, 231) as follows: 
I Let US show (Monsträs) here the sovereign/supreme power (puissance souveraine) of a 
I Single exercise in equity on persons free and distinct — araong whom, nevertheless, by 
I certain marks we denote that some are nobles and others aren't, have not attained that 
I civil degree — to whom we propose as a final aim/end/object (but) to the Citizens in our 
I political economy (oeconomie politique) y wherein it is given to each and everyone the 
I causes and means of succeeding by virtue and knowledge, the door is not closed nor ac- 
I cess barred to anyone to honest employments/undertakings (charges) & public managements 
I (maniements puhlics) , according to his capacity and reach (portee) , to improve/better 
I (raeliorer) his condition, which is an equality [of opportunity / TON] required of true 
I Royal and paternal government ; where the intentions and the management (m-snagement) do 
I not tend to be for the benefit (coiranodit^) of one person only, or to satisfy (contenter) 

the appetites of a few people, but for the ease/comfort (l'aise) and profit of all, as 
I rauch for him who commands, that for those who obey. 

Here, literally, "political econoray" = "nation-state household-raanagement," alias "public man- 
ageraent (maniement/mesnagement) ," of/by a royal and patemal government, providing for the 
equal advantage (opportunity and profit) of each and every (sibling) Citizen. At once we may 
compare and contrast this with the pseudo-Aristotelian OIKON. I's ' Introductory Chapter,' in 
the opening paragraph of which the distinction between the otherwise similar arts of oikonomi- 
ke kai politike is noted "that whereas the government of a nation is that of many rulers (pol- 
lön archontön) f that of a houshold is a monarchy (monarchia)" (1343a: 1-5); and, with the "In- 
troduction" of that Inquiry into the Principles of Political Oeconomy of "the last of the Mer- 
cantillsts" some 21 centuries after the Aristotelian tract and 156 years post Mayerne-Turquet , 
wherein we are informed: "What oeconomy is in a family, political oeconomy is in a State: 
with these essential differences however, that in a State there are no servants, all are chil- 
dren ..." (51, 2). The further difference noted here by Steuart is "that a family may be 
formed when and how a man pleases, and he may establish what plan of oeconomy he thinks fit; 
but States are found formed, and the oeconomy of these depends upon a thousand circumstances. " 
To Aristotle, and the disciple-author of the OIKON. A, of course, the raajority of the subjects 
of the (fully-developed) oikos were servants/slaves (= "douloi": 50.01, 1254a -55b; 49, 335- 
39); but, by contrast in the latter regard, economics and politics are dif ferentiated from the 
other arts which are sibdivided as between the making and the using of things (e.g., a lyre) as 
follows: "the function of politics/statecraft is both to constitute a city in the beginning, 
and_alHo when it has come into being to use it rightly; whence it is clear it must be the 
function of economics too both to acquire (ktesasthai) a household and also to make use of it" 
(49,326/327;5O.01, 1343a:5-9). When we next read in Steuart, however, that once "the statesman" 
(qua '"monarch" etc.) has adapted his "political oeconomy. . . to the spirit, iranners, habits, 
and customs of the people" — i.e., has, in the spirit and letter of the opening lines of the 
OIKON. B, ' familiarized himself with the territory' and conformed his regime to the Status quo 
as found — it is the next phase of this "great art . . . to model these circumstances so, as to 
be able to introduce a set of new and more useful institutions," we conclude that the differ- 
ence between the political reconstitution he is articulating and the initial assembling (syste- 
sasthai) of a polis contemplated by our pseudo-Aristotle is oerhaps not very essential. We may 
tiius conclude here that, in agret^ment with Stollberg and contra KJng (36, 4, incl. fn. 15; 37, ; 
v2Jl), Mayerne-Turquet' s "oeconomie politique" undoubtedly signified "public affairs (,Gemeinwe-^ 
son') and not , the relationship of the State, and economy'" — although one could read out of 
the above passage from M-T, wherein the author outlines the ideal of a prince who recognizes 
the princlple of equity in regard to commoners as well as nobles in his normative synthesis of 
the three Aristotelian forms of government (36, 4), the scenario of an economic subsphere — as 
It were, perhaps even a functioning System of manufacture and commerce — with a certain life of 
Its own, but with obvious (subordinating) relationships to the state/sovereign. Whichever way 
one wnnts to express the substance here, the mold is mercantilist. 

Now, to our more famous (infamous) reviver — and, heretofore, commonly-regarded origina- 
tor — of the term/plirase/etc. , viz. Antoyne de Montchretien, Sieur de Watteville, etc. How do 
we fit hlm into all of this. First, as we have noted and as might be generally recognized, the 
expression "oeconomie politique" never appears once in his text; only, as an obvious eleventh- 
liour swltch from his original *^occonomique du Trafic," in the title of his Traicte. The mean- 
Inj; of that term, the discipline (art and sclence) which it designates, however, is, as both 
Funk-Brentano (08, xxiii-xxiv ff.) and Rosclier (02.01, 185-86n) have so prominently stressed, 
quite clcar: viz., "public household-management ," as we obtain this from the celebrated pass- 
age wherein the author rebukes Aristotle and Xenophon for separating oeconomie from police, and 
thertiby dismembering from the whole its prlncipal part, and then voices his amazement at the 
r.laring, Incredible and unforgivable partlcular neglect on their part as follows (08, 31-32): 
For my part, I cannot help but be astounded at their political treatises, which they have 



wrltten »o dlllgently, that they have overlooked/omltted (oublle) thls mosnagerie publique, 
to whlch the necessltles and charges of the State oblige foremostly the paylng of attention 
(a quoy les necessltes et charges de l'Estat obligent d'avoir prlncipalement egard) . 
And, thls same "public household-management'V'mesnagerle publique," as Röscher notes, Is pre- 
clsely what Is meant by the German "Staatswirthschaft;" but, not, as Funk-Brentano has misin- 
formed, "die Volkswirthschaft'' (08, xxiv; 2.01, 185n) —i.e., ''das Volk'' and "der Staat" are 
not synonymous.^ It is also, mutatis mutandis, very rauch what the author of the OIKON. B had 
in mind, and similarly Dinarchus and Philodemus as well, with their "PolOikon/' which Boeckh 
has perhaps captured most descriptively in his Germanic "Staatshaushaltung" or "Statehousehold- 
(keep-)lng. For, as we have polnted out (01.05,41-43), no less with the mercantilists proper 
(Montchrestien - Steuart) than with those vetero-mercantilists (ps.Arist.-Dinarchus-Philodemus) , 
nor than with Aristotelis Stagiritus than with Adam Smith, the "objective function to be maxi- 
mized" was not ultimately/suf f iciently the "wealth (ploutos) of the nation- / city-state (oikos) 
but rather the "public interest/good/consumption/subsistence/welfare" — as Montchretien (obse- 
quiously) put it, "the immortal glory of our Majesties, (and) the good of our subjects in gen- 
eral and each one in particular . . . (or) the public Utility" (08, 3-4); or, as the author of 
the OIKON. A had it, 'the health and well-he±ng / hygieia kai euemeria of all the members of the 
household (Oikos)^ and of book II' s chap. i would add with appropriate emphasis in the case of 
he politike oikonomikey 'of the city-state household,' and including the same slaves and free- 
raen et alios (49, 342-51). If one wants to be purely Aristotelian-Smithian about it, the "ma- 
terial object" is wealth (ploutos)', the "formal," health-and-welfare (hygieia-kai-euemeria) -^ 
alias "the good lif e" / "to eu zgn" (50.03, 2-5; 49.01, 326/327, 47.01, 352,397,625). 

Before further documenting and tracking the renaissance of our terra, as marked now with 
the contemporaneous "initiating" efforts of our two Frenchmen, we again address the questlon of 
"originality," particularly on the part of Montchretien. That is, in light of the "new" evi- 
dence unearthed since my last effort, what is the likelihood that Montchretien purloined his 
revised title-term frora, in particular, the OIKON. B, to put the matter bluntly? There seeras 
no way to encloak the latter' s 'last-minute brain child' with the aura of total innocence which 
Mayerne's textual employraent seems to enjoy. Andreades, noting that Montchretien was thorough- 
ly conversant in Greek and with the "Greeks," contends that he knew füll well and fully intend- 
ed the iraport of his ideologically — and, Ashley would eraphasize, praxeologically — self-serving 
title-switch (24, 81-82;25. 02, 266-67) . in that same place, while the inference could be drawn 
that Andreades virtually accuses the sinister Montchretien of lifting his title from "Book II 
of the Oeconomica," the point he is actually making is that an examination of that work would 
have prevented (especially) Adam Smith et discupulis sui frora retaining the mercantilist des- 
ignation "political oeconomy" and applying it to the new science of economics proper which they 
were forging and perfecting, although they (at least in principio) sought to expose the error 
of "the continual Intervention of the State in matters of social economy," i.e. of the doctrine 
of Montchretien et al. Moreover, it remains true that the only "Aristotelian" works clearly 
alluded to in the Traicte are the Stagirite's Politikön and Xenophon's Oikonomikos, which to- 
gether constituted the basis for Book I of the OIKON., and which latter — accordingly — perpet- 
uates the same clear division between economics and politics that Montchretien refutes in the 
quotation above (08» 17-22, 138-39, 175). Those passages show that Montchretien was rauch raore 
of a mind with Plato on the ecnoraics-politics relationship than with Aristotle; and, unless he 
was totally dishonest and unscrupulus, certainly had Montchretien been availed of the OIKON. B 
he could not have faulted "Aristote" for ignoring the interdependence of the political and the 
economic "arts," nay of the Substantive Integration of the two. Finally, a careful perusal of 
the Traicte will also reveal that it was the vetero-raercantilist merchant and Athenian magis- 
trate Solon who was much the more our Mercantilist' s idol and model as a sagacious and effec- 
tive Promoter of the 'welfare of the human society' than were such "political philosophers" as 
'l*Aristote et Xenophon,' as I indicated earlier and reraind here (8, 35, 119-23; 1.01, 44-45). 

^Kirznor (52, 85-87) has rcmarked on the peculiarly Cerman character and nature-&-9Cope 
- »i^'nüicance of the terin Volk:^wirt(h)schaft, suggesting that it would more readi- 
iy cquate with "social " than with "political economy," which — in fact — has been used in a Span- 
Ish rcndering of Rau's 1833/26 title Volkswirthschaft as "Economia social" (53, 2824). The 
Problem with thls is that the literal German equivalents (exemplified by F. Wieser' s Sozialöko- 
nom} k qua the Theorie der gesellschaftlichen Wirtschaft / Theory of Social Economy of 1914-24/27 
and G. Cassel's Theoretische Sozi albkonomie / Theory of Social Economy of 1918-21/32) have been 
uscd extensively in their own right during the last Century, as further noted and/or exempli- 
fied in/by, inter alios: A. Wagner, Grundlegung der politischen Oekonomie (3d ed. , Grundlagen 
der Volkswirtschaft, Ist half-vol. ; Leipzig, 1892); H. Dietzel's Ueber das Verhültniss der 
Volkswirtschaftslehre zur Socialwirtschaftslehre (1882; Berlin, 1881) as in his Theoretische 
Socialökonomik (Leipzig, 1895) and Kirzner (52, 194); and, Schumpeter (22, 2 In). Withal, the 
orlj',inal authorities in these semantical / nature-&-scope issues remain — besides Garnier — the 
Gcrmans Rau (54b, 1-19), who equates "political economy" with "public economics" {"öffentliche 
Wirtsch.iftslchre"), deflned as "political econoraics (Staatswirthschaftslehrc) in the wider lit- 
eral sonse" (p. 2), and Stresses, e.g. , that while "the practical part of political Oeconomy 
(or 'economic politics') is a part of political science, die Volkswirthschaftslohre is not" 
(////15,22); and, Röscher (2.03, 34-47; 2.02, 87-101), where the original German Volkswirtshafts- 
lehiv is made synonymous with Nationalökonomik — as "Nationalökonomie = Volkswirthschaft" — wlvlle 
the traoHlator (somewhat llberally) equates "national" and "Political" together with "public" 
econoniy(Ics) — the correspondlng "politische" and "öffentlich" ("public") not .nppearlng in the 
original, although Volk = "people" and "public" (fr. publique) probably derlves from the same 
Latin root populus = "people." Semantical snarls are vicious circles, it seems. 

At tue sarae tlme, the posslbliltles or opportunities regarding Montchr^tien' s appropria- 
— or, as Andreades (24, 81-82) would have It, exproprlatlon — and transliteration of pseudo-Ar- 
istotle's "itoXoTtM?! oUovoiita" into his "l'Oeconomie politique" have literally "mushroomed" in 
the Interval slnce my earller effort. For, as Josef Soudek has shown and noted, the original 

Socond Book" or genuine Über secundus of the pseudo-/Vristotellan Oeconomicu^ though not so 
nuK h nn the genuine Booka I and IT, uas qulte prominent among certaln clrcle.s of Icarnlng and 
lianu'tl;;, and incrcaslngly so, from the later-Medleval - carly-Renalssance pcrlods.^ Spcciflc- 
• illy, from ca. 1280, the date wliicli Soudek assi^ns to the so-called translat-io vetus (57.03, 
63; 57.02, 266), through the prominent translatlon/lnterpretatlon of lacobo Faber Stapulensi 
whlch dominated the scene in various editlons and re-editions from Paris - Basel /Lyons in the 
years 1506-1542/63 (57.03, 89-93; S-N: 12/31/79) , and — f inally ~ the exceedingly populär and 
seemlngly ublquitous translatio (et interpretatio) -Camerario whlch first appeared in Leipzig in 
1564 and subsequently — and, perhaps most slgnificantly, for present purposes — in an undoubt- 
edly most populär reprint edltion at Geneva in 1606, our Liber Secundus of ARISTOTELIS (STAGI- 
RITAE) dCONOMICORUM (OECONOMIARUM) was "popplng up and floating around," as it were, with vir- 
tually exponentially increasing frequency and circulation in the certaln purview of Montchres- 
tien's known sphere of Operations (Caen - Rouen - London - Holland - Ousonne-sur-Lolre) in the per- 
lod ca. 1592 -1611. Thus, when he married that "rieh Norman widow", established his hardware 
factory at 0-s-L, and then and there penned his Traicte in that 1610-15 time-frame, the ink was 
hardly dry, so to speak, on that very populär OPERVM ARISTOTELIS / Tomvs II containing the OCko- 
vopuMtöv qua Oeconomica per "loachlmo Camer. interpr." brought out at "AVRELIAE ALLOBROGVM, Apud 
Petrum de la Rouiere /M. DCVT. " — i.e. , in Geneva, at Peter on the Rouiere's, in 1606 — just 
some 4-5 years before and 183 miles / 295 kilometers S/ESE away from the tlme and place of the 
manufacture (assembly?) of the Sieur de Watteville*« most (in) famous "software" product. 

Now, what if Montchrestien had had access — and we do not preclude that possibility — to 
one or raore of these medieval Greco-Lation versions of the OECONOMICA II? Had he laid his eyes 
on one (or more) , what would he have seen? This, in terms of the essentials of the critical 
Passage, for present purposes, we reproduce below, starting with (1) the original Greek, as it 
appeared in the translatio Canierario re-edition of 1606; then, (2) the Latin rendering of the 
translatio vetus of the late 13th cent. , a la the orthography of the 1933 van Groningen ed.; 
(3) the original Latin of "Jacobo Stapulensi Interprete" (Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples), as it ap- 
peared at Lyons in 1549; and, (4) the Latin rendering by Camerario per the 1606 re-edition. 

Interpr. Camer. TRANSL. VETUS Jac. (Faber) Stap. Translatio Cairerario [Arist . 

etOLTeaaap e s : 
noXuTuxh , 

?320BC /1506AD 

Yconomi e autem 
sunt quattor: 
politica , 
ca. 1280/ 1933 

Dispensationes au- 
tem sunt quatuor: 
regia, satrapica, 
quae ^ praefector- 
ia: ciuilis , 
§ priuata, 
- 1549 - 

Süt (sunt) autem for- 
mae adminlstrationis 
domesticae ... quator: 
Regia, satrapica, 
civilis , 

- 1606 - 






resp. , 

passim) ] 

What we have here, of course, is the increasing Latinization of the original oikonomia politike 
from the mere transliterative form of yconomia politica ^ through the civilis dispensatio and 
even more explicit civilis administratio domestica at the end of the medieval epoch. Literally 
and appositively, the above in turn transl(iter)ate: "Economies / Dispensations (managements , 
stewardship«, &c.) / civil-domestic/household-administrations, however, are four: . . . political 
/civil, Idiotie/private," here being as literal as possible and focusing on the modern dichoto- 
my of civil/polltical vs. private/Idiotie. Now, f inally, as Soudek notes, it was interestingly 
(and literally) "the Metal-worker from Staples" (Lefövre d'Etaples), rather than the 'scholarly 
Joachim Camerarius of Kellermeister (1500-1574),' who "had the right instinct of giving the 
Kc-nulne book II the title 'Oeconomiae publicae*" (S-N: 1/9/80, 12/27/79) . Camerarius, while cor- 
r(>ctly interpreting "(Economia civilis" and the other two "public" or 'non-private' forms (for- 
mae non privatae) y had proffered a title for the Liber Secundus as "De cura rei familiarls, seu 
odministratione domestica" — i.e., "Of the care for family matters/affairs/thlngs, or domestic/ 
household administration. " For one knowing Greek (and/or Latin), it certainly would not have 
bf^m anywhat of a giant terminological/ideological leap from the original ouMOvoyua TtoXtTUx?J of 
our pseudo-Aristotle per Camerario seu al . (via the yconomia politica of "that ancient Latin 
!-r Ion dating from the 13th cent." or otherwise) to the "Oeconowie politique / mesnagerie pub- 
lique" of Montchrestien, particularly given Lef&vre's more generic designation as just noted. 

original, although Volk = "people" and "public" (fr. publique) probably derives from the same 
Latin root populus E "people." Semantical snarls are invariably vicious circles, it seeras. 

^Especially (57.01), but also (57.02; 57.03) and Soudek -Nitsch of 12/27/79 et seq. (de- 
noted "S-N:dated" hereinaf ter) ; and, cp. Menut (58), whence Soudek (57.01, 72n) . Lowry, whose 
fn. 3 (14, 66) tipped the present writer off on Soudek' s centerpiece (57.01), was perhaps "mis- 
steered around" the genuine Book II whose second paragraph contains the oikonomia politike ex- 
pression by virtue of the fact that the Bruni Version follows the "recensio Durandi " (= ' trans - 
latio Mocrbecke ') and omits this book of the original 3-volume Aristotelian corpus bearing the 
generic OIKON. /OECON. title. Yet , when his eyes feil on those critical "pp. 81-82" of Andreas 
Andreades he cites (14, 65n) , how could Lowry be so oblivious to either/both (1) the opening 
sentence of that section "(c) Meaning of the Terra 'Political Economy'" — viz. "Aristotle calls 
the public finance of the Greek eitles a city (or State) economy (hoXltlx?! ouxovoyLa)" — and/or, 
thon, (2) further down, the remark that "a reading of Book II of the Oeconomica [to whlch A.A. 
next devotes a special "Appendix"! would have prevented . . . the economists of the Occident from 

maklng such an egregious error fas using] . . . the terra political economy (TtoXuTLxh oCxovoyua) 
In a sense different from that which it actually has" (24, 81-82, 83-88), as to so underinform 
in thnt self-same fn. 3 that "Andreades traced the terra political economy to Antoine Montchr^- 
tlcn's Trnitc ... in 1615," when the latter literally traced it to "about the end of the 4th or 
llu« ht'^'JnninR of the 3rd Century," B.C. (24, 87)1 Llke Röscher - Ingram, Spiey'.al et al. before, 
wIm) explicit access to such a prominent and rcveallng (secondary, if not primary) source, 
wliv, li/ivliii' rvcH to Hee , . . . ? 

den 15. Juni 1981 

Lieber und geehrter Herr Dr. Goldbrunner, 

in diesen Tagen sollten Sie, fr. 11s die Portaerrter auf 
beiden Seiten des Ozeans zur Mitarbeit geneigt sind, einen 
Brief von Herrn Prof. Dr. Thomas 0. Nitsch erhalten. Da er 
Sie uno Ihre wissenschaftliche Taetigkeit durch mich kennt 
und ich ihn- auch Ihre Adressen (im Institut und daheim) gab, 
moechte ich seine Zeilen ergaenzen und mich seinen Bitten an- 

Herr Dr. Nitsch, Professor of Econorics und Chairman 
des Econon.i s Department in the School of Business Administra- 
tion of (the Jesuit) Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska 
steht schon seit 18 Monaten in regem Ged?mkenaustau8ch mit mir. 
Vir sind beide auf dem Spezialgebiet der History of Economic 
Thought ta tig. Unter anddrem versucht er die Entwicklung des 
Konzepts der »^Politischen Oekonomie" - das 1617 zum ersten Mal 
auf dem Titelblatt eines merkantilistischen Traktnts von Antoine 
de Montchr^tien (dem bekannten fra-^zoesischen Theaterdichter^ 
"zuf aeilig" erscheint - auf den Begriff der "Political JEconom.y" 
(Oikonoffiia politike) in der Einleitung zum zweiten Buch der 
pseudo-aristotelischen Oekonomik zurückzuführen, v.enn ich auch 
nicht voellig mit seiner Gedankenführung über eins tiiriEie, pflichte 
ich Prof. Nitsch darin bei, dass sich in einer etwas verv^'ickelt- 
en Form eine lose Kausalbeziehung zwischen den beiden Begriffen 
herstellen laesst. 7«ie iirmer das versucht wird, setzt es beim 
Autor dieser Hypothese und bei seiner Zuhoererschaf t eine Kennt- 
nis der griechisch-lateinischen Tradition der Oeconomica II 
voraus. Als Prof. Nitsch von meinen Studien über Brunis Ver- 
sion der beiden Bücher (I,Iil) des pseudo-aristotel sehen erk- 
es erfuhr (seltsamer Veise sind mehr Junge Oekonom;en hi rzulande 
an meinen Untersuchungen interessiert als ich es je erwartet 
hatte), sah ich, dass ihm und seinen Kollegen in der üniversitaet 
jeae Vertrautheit mit dem Werk und mit der Literatur darüber ab- 
ging. Ausserdem merkte ich bald, dass die Bibliotheksverhc.elt- 
nisse in Omaha für seie Studien unzulf englich sine und so legte 
ich ihm nahe, ein sabbatical leave zu beantragen, waehrend dem 
er in New lork alle primaeren und sekundaeren Quellen für sei- 
ne Untersuchung finden würde. Er tat es auch unter erheblichen 
persoenlichen und finanziellen Opfern. Seit Anfang Mai hat er 
mit Bienenfleiss ein eindrucksvoll umf r; ngreiches Material zu- 
sammengetragen • 

Noch ehe er nach Nevv' York kam, h'^ t er eine andere methodo- 
logische Studie begonnen zusammen mit einem« langjaehi igen Preund, 

». — - V* 

TON /^NEH Art)licatlon — Fellovship for Independent Study and Research , 1/15-7/15/81. 


11. Polltlcal Economy: Origin - Renaissance — A Terminological-Ideological Study (TITLE) 


12. From my undergraduate days forward, I have maintained an abiding int eres t in the history, 
nature, and scope of economics. In graduate school at Ohio State (coursework - prelims, 
1954-58; dissertation, 1958-63), and subsequently in completing my dissertation and de- 
veloping further my teaching and research interests, this got sorted out into questions 
such as the "art ys\ science," "normative vs. positive," etc. character of economics, 
along with related questions of "inductive vs. deductive *science*," the proper role of 
mathematics and statistics given the "true" nature of the discipline, and so on. How- 
ever, it wasn't until rather recently that, in auditing a colleague's course in — of all 
t?hings ! — New Testament Morality, and subsequently collaborating with him on a paper O ) , 
that I was really exposed to the power of languages (comparative languages, linguistics) 
as a most powerful, liberating tool in my attempt to get a handle — for my sake and that 
of many dlssatisfied, "groaning" others — on the "nature and scope" problem. At the same 
time, I must call attention to a remark made by James Farmer, then national director of 
CORE, in an address on the impact of Africa on the U. S. civil rights movement back in 
the early '60s, that "a people without a past can have no future." This, applied to my 
discipline of economics, has taken on increasingly profound meaning during the last dec- 
ade or so that I have been so heavily involved in the history of economic thought and 
language — both teaching and research, and including the course I give in comparative 
economic Systems as well as that in the Development of Political Economy (2^). 

In the course of my researches into what I prefer to call, and at various places have 
called (the scientific art and artful science) of "Human Economycs" (sie), I note — and 
have duly noted — that the discipline which for the better part of a Century now has gone 
under the banner of simply "economics," has — in the past — sailed under that of (par- 
ticularly) "political economy" (^conomie politique, economia civile, Staatswirtschaft) 
and (second-mostly) "social economy (ics)" (^conomie sociale, sozialökonomik/gesell- 
schaftliche Wirtschaft, etc.), with due allowance for such things as the French penchant 
— perhaps — for maintaining "economie politique," the so very uniquely German "Volkswirt- 
schaft" (literally, "people's economy," with a queer relationship with, e.g., "economia 
pubbllca"), and other departures from the "rule." Variously, these and innumerable var- 
iations on and variants of perhaps essentially the same theme ("oeconomie d* Es tat," "na- 
tlonal-oekonomik," "sozial-wirthschaft," politische Oekonomie,") etc. have attempted to 
better convey or more sharply clarify the scope and nature of the normative/positive, 
art/science, etc. of the basic discipline and/or special facet thereof which their em- 
ployer and/or formulator had in mind. Often, pages have been spent consldering the di- 
verse expressions, shades of meaning, distinctions with/without differences, with the 
reader — and, likely as well, the author — still not completely clear as to whether, e.g.» 
volkswirthschaft " national-oekonomik = politische oekonomie and so on. Invariably, it 
seems, the snarl turns out to be semantic; and, the circle vicious. Or does it? 

Most historians of economics, for a Century and a quarter now, have bccn convinced, 
or at lenst have remained content with the contention, that it was the early French 
"merc/intlllst" Antoine de Montchrestien (or Antoyne de Montchretien) who nctually 
coinod the expression "political economy" — or was the first known to use it; whence, 
perhaps, at least in the title of a book — with the publication of hls T raictd de l'Oe- 
conom lo politique at Rouen in 1615. Enthusiasts, including the Traictd's edltor and 
rcpubllHher at Paris in 1889, claim that, in this same stroke of genius and feil swoop, 
MontchrcHtlcn not only created the name of the "science" but the latter Jtself as well;, 
and, the Issue of whether that "'mercantilist' political economy" which dominated the 
scene from ca. 1575 - 1775 was really "economics"/"political economy" In tlie modern (sci- 
entiric) sense, or some at best "pre-modern" art-form thereof remalns current. And, if 
nothln« eise, Jcttisoning the adjective(s) "political" ("social," "national," etc.) was 

• \ 


intended to llberate the discipllne for "scientlzatlon," to the point where one modern 
Scholar of a more "actlvist'VKeyneslan bent remarked of Keynes' restorative impact in 
making economics "once again a science of the Wealth of Nations and the art of Political 
of Political Economy" (3). 

In preceding efforts ( 4^) , I have discovered, rediscovered and reported what classi- 
cists, historiographers and a veritable handful of "econoraists" / historians-of-econom- 
ics proper have known (at least collectively, and literally) for ages and centuries; 
namely, that the terminology/expression "political economy" was "kicking around" for 
some 17-19 centuries before the otherwise "hardware manufacturer and minor (second- 
rate) Norman poet" — and a less illustrious, or at least infamous, countryman who, it 
was "revealed" some 30 years prior to my efforts (_5) , "scooped" Montchretien by no 
less than four years, though the former' s lamp was hidden in his text — curiously and 
perhaps even sinisterly changed his title after the "Privilege du Roy" had already 
been granted from the more commonplace or inocuous "Traict^ oeconomique du Trafic " to 
that of much greater Import and distinction — in the minds of many if not most histo- 
rians of economics, the Frenchman's only or main claim to fame. Simultaneously with 
my published "Note," and upon hearing of the more extensive Version originally pre- 
sented, a West-German scholar honored me with a copy of his freshly-published study 
along similar lines (6^), which — inter alia — seemed to proceed from the same tips and 
clues provided by Liddell and Scott' s prominent Greek-English Lexicon , and brought to 
the present Student* s attention the 1947 "revelation" by King as well as riveting the 
same on the seminal article by Garnier (1852) and a critical usage of "Political Oeco- 
nomy" by Pötty (1672) as other sources treated had noted earlier (Cossa, 1893/92; 
Röscher, 1878/86). And, while devoting significant attention to what the present au- 
thor has most recently dubbed the "recrudescence" of p.e. , one aspect of this overall 
Problem which the present writer stressed earlier and continues to is the almost total 
obliviousness of econoraists, on the one hand, and classicists/historiogrnphers, on the 
other, who cite directly pertinent works on both sides of the matter, without any ef- 
fective recognition of either or both (1) the "Montchretien-first" claim, and (2) the 
ample evidence (in both primary and secondary sources cited) that he actually rein- 
vented the wheel. Another aspect upon which Stollberg remains essentially silent is 
the at least Intriguing question of whether this "reinvention of the wheel" by Mont- 
chretien was entirely "innocent" vis-a-vis particularly the (pseudo-)Aristotelian opus 
most promlnently and eminently bearing the politike oikonomia designation; or, whether, 
as one modern scholar raight seem to be accusing (_7 ) , the crafty Renaissance figure, 
with his thorough knowledge of Greek and the Greeks (Aristotle, Xenophon, et al.), ac- 
tually "lifted" his revised title directly from an available Greco-Latin version known 
to be in his vicinity at the time. In my latest effort (8^), while I note that the pos - 
sibilities of such plagiarism are now known to have been exponentially greater than I 
was previously aware, the probabilities remain — as much as before, if not more so — that 
the reinvention was without (direct) benefit of the pseudo-Aristotelian OJkonomlkSn B. 

Now, perhaps most significantly in connection with my own revived and revised "Pro- 
gresH Report" of late (1980) , ^in pr^paring that up-date and continuation of 4ny ba»lc- J^ 
interoHt and abldlng-eoneerii-i«— thi^-ar ca (9^) » ^ I ran across an article wbich I'm almost 
poHltlve was an adaptation of a paper presented at the very meetings where my proposal 
to present my 1977 "Note" was first rejected ( 9 ). But, more to the point, this "sur- 
vey" article contained the most pregnant reference to the centerpiece work of Josef 
Soudek (10), which figured so promlnently in my up-dated effort, my fortbcoming sabba- 
tlcal in the Spring-Summer of 1981, and the current application. First, the bearcr of 
what turned out to be my good news turned out to be the most recent of who saw, 
but f]l(l not see, who got so close but remained so far, and thus contlnued to pcrpetuate 
the Montchrtltlen- first "fact" within the history of economics, and this contemporane- 
ously wllh the publicntlon of an "Hellcnic study" the title of which Ih nl least in- 
trlKulMK In the present context (_n). Then, at the doorstep to the real truth in this 
regard, he leaves us with a general Statement and supportive footnote concerning "the 


well-known Influence of of the classical herlgage on Western thought" as evidenced In the präs- 
ent case by Soudek*s statistlcs on the varlous "edltions of Brunl's translation of the (pseu- 
do-) Aristotellan Economlcs" (12) — which most populär translation, Soudek is the first to note» 
dld not contain the genuine Liber Secundus wherein politikg oikonomia is treated by name (13) . 

Now, in preparing my latest paper and following up on the lead provided by Lowry*s foot- 
note and bibliographical 'References, ' I formed what has tumed out to be a most rewarding and 
valuable relationship with Dr. Josef Soudek, over the phone and in our various mail correspond- 
ences since last December late. This led to the proposal that I plan a sabbatical "in resi- 
dence" with him next Spring-Summer (1981), especially during the period April 1 - July 1, for 
the purposes to be stated. Professor Soudek is, inter alia, "the expert" on medleval Latin 
translations of the (pseudo-)Aristotelian Oeconomica , and assures me that he has in his home* 
library (he has been Professor Emeritus of Economics, Queens College, C.U.N.Y. since 1971) in 
One form or another Originals and/or copies of any and all the relevant medieval - early renais- 
sance editions of the Llber Primus and (genuine) Liber Secundus thereof in which my iramediate 

Thus, what I have proposed to do, and Dr. Soudek and my University have now approved, 
is to spend up to three months under Dr. Soudek' s tutelage and guidance (1) reviewing and mak- 
ing photo-copies of such works and portions thereof which he has on band and are relevant to 
my raore immediate and longer ränge objectives; (2) visiting such libraries in the more immedi- 
ate locale (particularly, Columbia U.) and surrounding East-Coast area (e.g., Yale, Harvard) 
as he may recommend for purposes of locating and researching in their rieh collections in the 
history of economics, historiography and the classics rare but relevant volumes which are only 
accessible out here on a usually very inconvenient and sometimes expensive Inter-library loan 
basis (Harvard charged us once $8.00 for the loan of a not-too-rare Hegelian volurae for three 
days!); and, (3) availing myself directly of Dr. Soudek* s personal knowledge, experience and 
expertise — linguistic / formal-technical and Substantive — in this area, including his judgment 
and advice as to (a) what needs yet to be done possibly in terms of his own and related re- 
search and writing, (b) what particular direction and outlet-form(s) my effort should take in 
accordance with that agenda and in terms of scholarly Journals etc. with which he has connec- 
tions for purposes of bring to a wider audience than I have so far been able to do my own ef- 
forts as they progress, and (c) other laborers in this vineyard with whom he might be able to 
put me in touch directly during my "in residence" visit there in person or over the phone. 

Ideally, I would spend the füll three months of April, May and June — which Professor 
Soudek has specified because of personal health problems — there with him in quarters I would 
have to obtain and provide for myself. The time of the Spring (1981) semester prior to that — 
i.e., January 15-March 31 — I would spend in preparation, obviously, in an effort to pinpoint 
further my objectives and needs, identify and prioritize more precisely those items and areas 
where I could most vitally utilize Professor Soudek* s personal expertise, library materials, 
etc. lipon returning to Creighton, July 1, I would utilize the remainder of the Summer — up 
to ca. Aug. 20 — to "collect my thoughts," organize my "newly-mined raw materials" and semi- 
finished products, and begin first-drafting the publication to come of all this. 

Pcrhaps I have only alluded to lastly, here, or "bottom-lined" to use the Jargon of 
business administration, what I should have put "up front." That is, perhaps I thought need- 
less to say, I do plan, intend and expect some sort of "major" publication to emerge from this 
effort. The appropriate Journals of which I am aware at this point include, but are not re- 
strlcted to, the following: (A) THE JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE (American Economic Asso- 
ciation, Auarterly); (B) HISTORY OF POLITICAL ECONOMY (Duke University Press, Quarterly) ; (C) 
KYKLOS, international social science quarterly, which has carried — e.g. — a relevant art. ( 14 ) 
which both could have cleared up but adds to the confusion on the "pseudo-Aristotle vs. Ant. 
d'Montchr. Ist" issue: (D) REVIEW OF SOCIAL ECONOMY (thrice per year by the Association for 
Social Economics), which also brought out a significant/seminal article by Barry Gordon (15) ; 
(E) SOUnnCKN I<:C0N0MIC Journal (quarterly, Souther Economic Association) which has proven very 
recc'ptivc to history-of-economics studies; and, outside economics and social/political economy 
"proper," e.g. (n) JOURNAL OF MODERN HISTORY, which carried the original King (1947) art. cit. , 
(b) JOURNAL OF THE HISTORY OF IDEAS, which I have had occasion to cite in a similar connec- 
tlon (16), and (c) wliile I would not be so pretentious as to suggest somethinj.', so far afield 
iiH SCKIPTORIUM where appears his own seminal contribution (17) , (more) appropriate literary 
outlets which Dr. Soudek would recommend. 


-4 - 

Description of the Proposed Study Proper 

In the light of the foregoing, I now address more directly the specific 
points stipulated in the booklet (pp. 7-8). Firstly, the proposed prograra of 
study will be further specified in terms of the schedule to be followed outlined 
below. Secondly, the questions to be explored are actually two-fold: (1) Sub- 
stantive, and (2) programmatic. Substantively, (a) the validity of Stollberg* s 
recent conclusion (1977, 3) regarding the nonreceptivity of "the pseudo -Aristo- 
telian term political economy in the late middle-ages"; (b) the existence of an 
identifiable/documentable (more or less) direct lineage from Philodemus at Na- 
ples ca. 80 B.C. (and/or his forerunners, Dinarcus and the pseudo-Aristotle of 
the OIKON. B) to the two French-renaissance figures Montchretien and/or Mayeme- 
Turquet, along with other possible "revivalists"; (c) what was the actual histo- 
rical process experienced by the pseudo-Aristotelian Oeconomica I and II as they 
made their way from the last identifiable point in "classical antiquity" (in- 
cluding Philodemus' attribution of authorship) to the "doorsteps" of Montchre- 
tien, Mayeme-Turquet et al. , constitute the three main problematics — although, 
if my experience so far is any guide, others as intriguing will emerge in the 
course of pursuing these. Programmatically, as already noted above, the major 
questlon is the direction which my efforts should take from the present juncture 
— notably, whether or not to pursue further the "renaissance of 'politlke oiko- 
nomia*" in the 17th cent. or earlier in works and languages in addition to those 
of Montchretien and Mayeme-Turquet as Stollberg has suggested (his to me of 
10/16/77 and 2/19/80), e.g., or to devote more attention now to the "recrudes- 
cence" phase of the overall history in question, as Dr. Soudek might suggest, 
or other more immediate and longer-range "agenda" items he might envision. 

In approaching the Substantive questions , the following are proposed in 
Order: (a) follow up on Stollberg* s reference (1977, n. 12) to Wagner ( Das Bild 
der Frühen Ökonomik , 1969) as recommended (his to me of 10/16/77), along with 
further linguistic exploration of the *oeconomia -politia* relationsliip in the 
middle ages; (b) here, it seems, the ps.-Arist. Oeconomica (esp. Lib. II) and 
the process by which it "came down" to the Renaissance figures, as Soudek would 
be able to illuminate authoritatively and to recommend further authority on, re- 
matns the key and chief clue; whence, (c). My 'intended line(s) of thought on 
these* are, respectively: (a) "politica ( civilis too?) oeconomia" might well 
have been an essentially redundant expression, as Stollberg suggests; (b) if 
this existence lies other than in (c), I will be lucky if I can identify several 
functionally-related "milestones" or "benchmark-works" along that way; and, (c) 


I am optlmlstlc that Soudek will be able to shed more signlficant llght on thls 
than he, Menut, Susemihl et al. (18) have feit it necessary and/or been able to 
do to date, and/or that the libraries at Harvard, Yale, Columbia, et alibi will 
furnish (directly or indirectly) the Interim, Susemihl - Soudek/Menut special- 
Ized studies noted by Andreades (1933, 83nn). 

The current State of the study is more or less indicated by the above 
"Background" and enclosed "Progress Report" (1980), but I should further add 
that, in addition to the publication of an adapted version of that paper ( 19) , 
the present effort fits logically (or at least chronologically) into the 
second stage of the sequence of (1) origin(s), (2) origin(s) -renaissance, and 
(3) origin(s) -renaissance and recrudescence of "pol. oikon." (I still down- 
play that "recrudescence" phase as essentially contemporary/recent history, 
comparatively seif -evident and unneedful of careful deraonstration, although 
very roeaningful from the point of view of the "relevance" of the present study 
and the futuristic orientation/thrust which it bears.) 

The schedule to be followed during the tenure of the fellowship, as al- 

ready indicated above, would be basically as follows: 

1) February 15 -March 31 — preparatory Operations at Creighton University, 
Including (a) readying of materials to be shipped, (b) further Identification 
and refinement of study objectives and targets, and (c) 

2) April 1-June 30 — "in-residence" period with Dr. Soudek in Manhattan, 
N.Y., including (a) "understudy," (b) library-visitation/research, and (c) con- 
tacting of related scholars aspects noted above. 

3) July 1 - August 15 — assimilation, sorting-out, consolidation and reflec- 
tion period back on campus at Creighton, including: (a) ordering and filing of 
materials collected, (b) drafting the "short report detailing your research ac- 
complisliments when your sabbatical is terminated" as requested by my College 
and University (Dean*s Memo of 5/15/80), and (c) commencement of writing the 
article in mind for publication. 

As to point A, and as already indicated, my basic concem and long-range 
objective is the formulation — out of the raw materials and semi-finished pro- 
ducts of political & social economy(ics) — of a definition, nature & scope for 
an artful science /scientific art that might most meaningfully and adequately 
be designated "Human Economycs." As we have noted previously (Nitsch-Malina, 
1973), this involves enrichment from cognate disciplines such as humanistic psy- 
chology (personology) , and the New (Liberation) Theology (Philosophy) , as well 
as the more traditional cognate areas of social philosophy and history, sociolo- 
gy and anthropology, and linguistics (comparative languages) . Subsequent and 


comp lernen tary to the. present effort, the author plans the completion of a com- 
panion/parallel one on the "History (Origin, etc.) of *' Economic sociale / Social 
Economics /etc.*," which is conventionally regarded as a relatively recent or 
modern phenomenon, but has a rieh and variegated history dating back (termino- 
logically) at least to Buat-Nan^ay h Paris in 1773; and, which, equally contra- 
conventionally, is not exactly the strictly European and largely non-American 
intellectual development (terminologically) that has been' suggested (20) . 

The broader implications of the present study (B) have to do with such 
issues as (1) how historical facts become such, (2) how the tempero-/ethnocen- 
tricity which creeps into secondary sources (e.g.. Forster* s and Armstrong* s 
normative /positive assessments of the contents/authorship of the Oecon. II) is 
picked up, in turn, by still raore specifically influential tertiary ones (e.g., 
Siegel, 1971) (21) , and (3) the hazzards of relying on such secondary and ter- 
tiary sources when the "originals" are readily available , along with (4) the 
(purportedly) liberalizing nature of languages/linguistics vs. mathematics/sta- 
tistics as a "tool" discipline in the caee of • the social science of Economics. 

As to the relationship of ray work and this proposal to the efforts of 
'*other scholars in the field" (C), I will first define "the field" as the His- 
tory of Economics / Political Economy, as both broadly and more narrowly con- 
strued. In the former case, most historians and their "histories" of economics 
give very short, if any, shrift to the "ancient" and medieval phases — e.g., 
specifying the "Economic Practices of Biblical Times, "as if no thought/theory/ 
etc. were involved, and generally emphasizing the "noneconomic" nature of their 
'*economics" (22) . More narrowly, the comparative effort of Stollberg (1977) is 
more concerned with establishing the earlier, dual-variant nature of "political 
economy" (e.g., the "political variant" of Mayerne-Turquet vs. the "economic" 
one of Montchrestien) , and the multi-variant nature thereof in modern times, 
whereas I am more concerned with establishing the continuity and integrity of 
the terminology and corresponding ideality, for prophetic or "futurizing" pur- 
poses. The work of Soudek et al., on the other band, is concerned primarily 
with the (pseudo-)Aristotelian Oeconomica , as such, the various medieval Greco- 
Latin editions/translations and renaissance/modern-language versions, rather 
than with the same specifically as the "vehicle of conveyance" or "common 
source" of "politike oikonomia" whence it experienced its rebirth as "oeconomia 
politique," "Staatswirthschaf t," "economia civile," etc. 

As the first sabbatical leave I have taken in twenty (twenty-five, in- 
cluding graduate school) years of continuous College teaching and research. 

• » ' » 


as my flrst real opportunity to directly share interests and experiences with 
an establlshed scholar in the field (other than at annual meetings, where the 
concem with such "ancient'V'medieval" economics really doesn*t prevail) in 
some fifteen years during which my own interest in the history of economics 
has fully come to the fore, along with just "getting away from it all" (viz., 
the routine teaching, comraittee and coramunity-service activities which have 
infringed on ray true leisure — oxoX^i — during that same period, this proposed 
program of study I would expect to contribute materially to "the improvement 
of (ray) professional competence" (D) . 

As to to "E. the location where the study will be conducted," etc., I 
have already indicated Manhattan / New York City as the primary base of Opera- 
tions during the three-raonth period away from Creighton, which should assure 
the "access to archives," etjt. as posed. 

In terms of my "ability to read . . . and understand any foreign languages 
needed for the proposed study," I can answer this as adeguate both in that (a) 
the primary mission of my trip to New York is to collect relevant materials and 
to avail myself of the expertise (including his interpretatlftn of certain cri- 
tical passages in primary and secondary sources which have not yet been resolved 
to my satisfaction) Dr. Soudek can provide directly, and (b) while a better per- 
sonal command of the languages directly involved (Greek, Latin, French, Gerraan, 
Italian and — more incidentally — Spanish) would make ray task rauch lighter, I 
have experienced no difficulty here at Creighton in securing the Cooperation of 
faculty in the Philosophy and Theology departraents, as well as the Classical 
and Modem Languages, in providing the requisite translations (usually as liter- 
al as possible) from which I do the final interpretations. Otherwise, I have 
a good dictionary reading knowledge in Spanish, fair-middling in French, and 
remain about 25% self-reliant in Greek, Latin, German and Italian. 

Finally, as to points G and H, while it may well be that in the future 
a university press or other publisher specializing in the history of economics 
(or ideas) might be interested in the overall enterprise (i.e., "The Origin, 
Renaissance, and Recrudescence — or, simply, the History — of *Political Econ- 
omy") , there is currently no reason to expect that this particular aspect (i.e., 
"Origin - Renaissance" research) 'Vlll result in a commercially profitable publi- 
catlon;" nor, will the applicant be connected with any other Endowraent-funded 
project during any part of the period of tenure requested for the fellowship. 


— Nitsch and Bruce J. Malina, "Toward Human Economy," presented at the 
32nd annual meeting of the Association for Social Economics, New York, Dec. 27- 
29, 1973; Faculty Worklng Papers , College of Business Administration, Creighton 
University, 12/25/73, 69 + (9»nn) pp. — *Abstract' in "Notes," REVIEW OF SOCIAL 
ECONOMY, XXXII, 1 (April, 1974), 124. 


— Corapanion efforts employed jointly in these courses include: Nitsch 

and Malina, "The Development of Economycs and the Objective Function to Be Maxi- 
mized: An Integrative Approach," presented at the 55 th annual meeting of the 
Southwestern Social Science Association, Dallas, Mar. 30 -Apr. 2, 1977 ( Fac. 
Work. Pap. , qua cit. supra, 4/17/77; 51 + XI pp.); Nitsch, "Alienation: The 
Neglected Rousseau-Smith-Marx Connections," JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, V (1979), 33- 
38; and, idem, "On the Smithian vs. Unsmithian Nature of Marx*s Concept/Analy- 
sis of Alienation," presented at the 43d annual meeting of the Midwest Economics 
Association, Chicago, Apr. 5-7, 1979 (FWP, etc., 68 pp.; forthcoming as CoBA/CU 
Monograph , Fall 1980). Also, see "Biographical Listing of Members," AMERICAN 
ECONOMIC REVIEW, LXVIII, 6 (Dec. 1978), p. 290(1) for specification of appli- 
cant's "Res. Interest " as "Origin, renaissance & recrudescence of pol. economy." 

— Alvin H. Hansen, THE AMERICAN ECONOMY (McGraw-Hill, 1957), p.l75. 


— "Toward Human Economycs: A Search for Meaning," presented at the March 

15, 1974 meeting of the Institute of International and Public Affairs, St. Mary*s 
University (San Antonio), p. i, fn. 1; "On the Origin of 'Political Economy*: A 
Terminological-Ideological Note," presented at the 13th annual Conference of the 
Missouri Valley Economic Association, St. Louis, Feb. 24-26, 1977 (Fl;^, etc., 
2/20/77, c + 57 + xxvii pp.); and, "On the Origin of *Political Economy': A . . . 
Note," JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, III (1977), 243. 

— James E. King, "The Origin of the Term 'Political Economy, 
MODERN HI STORY, XX, 3 (Sept. 1948), 230-31. 



- Gunnar Stollberg, "Zur Geschichte des Begriffs , Politische Ökonomie*," 

— A. M. Andreades, A HISTORY OF GREEK PUBLIC FINANCE (VOL. I), trans. 
C. N. Brown (Harvard University Press, 1933), pp. 81-82. 


— "On the Origin, Renaissance, and Recrudescence of IIoXutuk?! OuKOVoyua: 
A Progress Report," presented at the 7th annual meeting of the Midsouth Academy 
of Economists, Little Rock, Feb. 14-16 (Fac. Work. Pap. , etc., 1/30/80; copy en- 
closed) , pp. 40-43. 


— S. Todd Lowry, "Recent Literature on Ancient Greek Economic Thought," 
JOURNAL OF EOCNOMIC LITERATURE, XVII, 1 (March 1979), 65-86, esp. fn. *, p. 65. 

— "Leonardo Bruni and His Public: A Statistical and Interpretative 
Study of His Annotated Latin Version of the (Pseudo-)Aristotelian E conomics ," in 
of Nebraska Press, 1968), pp. 49-136. 

~ Scott Meilke, "Aristotle and the Political Economy of tho Polls," JOUR- 
NAL OF HELLENIC STUDIES, XCIX (1979), 57-73— whlch deals more narrowly with the 
"valuc-theory" of Aristotle as found in "the Ethics and Politics " (ibid., 57). 

♦ . . » 



— Lowry, art. clt., p. 66, incl. fn. 3. 


— Soudek, op. cit., p. 52; et idem, "The Genesis and Tradition of Leo- 
nardo Bruni's Annotated Latin Version of the (Pseudo-)Aristotelian Economics ," 
SCRIPTORIUM, XII, 2 (1958), 260-68, esp. pp. 260-61 and 265. 


— Kurt Singer, "Oikonomia: An Inquiry into Beginnings of Economic 

Thought and Language," KYKLOS, XI, 1 (1958), 29-57, esp. pp. 35 and 53; and, 
cf. Nitsch, 1979 (encl.), p. iii (iten E) . 

— Barry Gordon, "Aristotle and Hesiod: The Economic Problem in Greek 
Thought," REVIEW OF SOCIAL ECONOMY, XXI, 2 (Sept., 1963), and cp. his ECONOMIC 

/Harper & Row Publishers; 1975), which, while filling a significant void, suf- 
fers in some equally critical respects, as I/we have shown (Nitsch, V\J? , 2/20/77, 
pp. xiv-xv; Nitsch-Malina, FWP , 4/17/77, p. 33 and "Appendix," 'Model -IV*). 

— Nitsch, "Alienation: The Neglected Rousseau-Smith-Marx Connection," 
Fac. Work. Pap. , CoBA, Creighton U. , 1/30/79, p. 66. 

— Cf . n. 14 supra. 

■^ F. Susemihl, ARISTOTELIS QUAE FERUNTUR OECONOMICA (Leipzig, 1887), pp. 
v-xvi; A. D. Menut, "Maistre Nicole Oresme: Le Li vre de Yconomlquc d'Aristote," 
1957), pp. 785-88; Andreades, op. cit. n. 7 supra, pp. 83-88; E. S. Forster 
(trans.), Oeconomica , THE WORKS OF ARISTOTLE (Oxford University Press, 1921), 
"Preface"; and, G. C. Armstrong (trans.), ARISTOTLE OECONOMICA (Harvard Univer- 
sity Press, 1947), pp. 323-25. 

Forthcoming in MIDSOUTH JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS, Annais and Proceedings , 

IV (1980). 


— See/cf . : B. Showler, "Social Economics: A Branch or New Roots?," 

"The aiallenge of Social Economics," in idem (ed.), SOCIAL ECONOMICS FOR THE 
1970'S (New York: Dunellen Publishing Co., 1970), 'The Emerging Field of Social 
Economics,' pp. 8-10; Wilhelm Röscher, GRUISIDLAGEN DER NATIONALÖKONOMIE (18th ed.; 
Stuttgart, 1886), pp. 35-36, n. 1; "Buat-Nan^ay," GRAND DICTIONNAIRE UNIVERSEL 
DUE XIXE SlfeCLE (Paris, 1867), Vol. II, pp. 1369-70; and, Joseph A. Schumpeter, 
HISTORY OF ECONOMIC ANALYSIS (Oxford University Press, 1954), p. 21n. 


— Forster and Armstrong, loc. cit. (respectively) n. 18 supra; and, H. 

W. Spiegel, THE GROWTH OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT (Prentice-Hall, 1971), p. 667(1). 

— J. F. Bell, A HISTORY OF ECONOMIC THOUGHT (Ronald Press Co., 1953), 
Chap. 2; Schumpeter, op. cit. n. 20 supra, Pts. I and II passim; et cf. Karl 
Polanyi, "Aristotle Discovers the Economy (1957)," in PRIMITIVE, ARCHAIC, AND 
MODERN ECONOMIES: ESSAYS OF KARL POLANYI, ed. G. Dalton (Beacon Press, 1971), 
esp. p. 78n. 



., ^ . -L oClcf>«Ct FOUNDATION 

Cover Page 

(Infi 4i»> the moit ipecific onu koown, i.e. pfog'anr», divition. e'c ) 

Social and Economic Science: History 
and Philosophy of Science/Economics* 








Crclp.hton University, College of Business Administration, Department of Econonics 


2'iOO California Street, Omnha» NE 68178 


rT^üCSTEö AMÖöT^r 

noAuTLHn OLMOvouua - oeconomie politique: From the Orlgin to 
the Renaissance of Political Econony (ca. 80 B.C. - 1611/15 A.D.) 

pröposed duration 





Thomas 0. Nitsch 






College of Business Administra- 
tion, Creighton University 






402/449-2887 or 



June, 1963 


CHECK HERE □ (S«e CFR T.tie 13. P.vt 121 io' Det.nM.onO 

* ;.iil>ini\<inn o* r>r>N .md o (''«•« pfi^ it.-»H ■IvOlnnt.l'y »iHvV'll not .1 "'•<•» ••i'» 0"l"'>"i/.'>tiO" l^l>g<bil>Tv 'O' •" A^J»'(\ Mowv*' »H^y 

D Animal Weifare D Human Subjects D National Environmental Policy Act 

D Marine Mammal Protection 

D Endangered Species 
n Histofical Sites 

D Pollution Control 

D Research Invoivmg Recombinant DNA 

DPropnetary and Pnvileged Information 



Till >m. LS (). Nitsch 


* / /uryPtCC^ U. A-VU?^ 


I ' r «> r i' s nor of Economic s 




Miclmel C, . Morrison, S.J. 




Acndemic Vice President 


//- fY- rä 






*A1 l VC ly: Social Sciences 632-5972/632-5968. 

**Essentially, but not exactly the same; thls is more extensive in scope. 


f^ ^^ ^ 'W^ nONAIHF PIIRSFIf 


Kentucky Department of Labor 


Rcgulations have become an increasingly 
spotlighted but resented - sourcc of aliena- 
tiüM today. However. regulation is also a moral 
issue. It sliould be carefully explored in its 
relationships to the economy. society and 
statutory law. 

The degree of fairness of the regulatory 
funclion can provide an indicator of how 
healthy a deniocracy is, since, by definition, it 
seeks to relate special interests to the common 

Some key moral aspects of regulation are 
appropriateness, realism, fairness and the 
employment of right reason or prudence. 

The presentation of Henry C. Mayer is 
Cü-sponsorcd hy the College of Business 
Administration, whose support made his visit 

Panel of Respondents 

Mark F. Baggio, Junior 
Business Administration 

William F. Corcoran, Economics 

University of Nebraska at Omaha 

J. Patrick Murray, Philosophy 

Creighton University 

Moderator: Bette N. Evans, Political Science 
Creighton University 

Thursday, Febrary 19, 1981 

Rigge Lecture Hall 

Creighton University 

8 p .m . 




The University of Nebraska Lincoln 


The capitalist economic system is under 
challenge on many fronts but the latest charge 
is being led by groups challenging capitalism's 
distribution of income when inflation is con- 
centrated in necessities, food, energy and 
shclter. This challenge niay be more severe to 
the capitalist system than the challenge of 
the depression of the 1930s. 

This lecture focuses upon capitalism of the 
1980s and the forces shaping its development. 
Can capitalism survive the social changes and 
pressures resulting from the substantial influx 
o( women into the labor force. Can it solve the 
question of income distribution whiJe reducing 
the size of the public sector within the contcxt 
enunciated by the new Reagan administration? 
Can it survive the challenge of resource shortage 
and resource cartels -of Japan, Inc.- of the 
American political system? If the capitalist 
System is to survive the 1980s, a distinction 
between income distribution issues and 
economic issues is required. 

Panel of Respondents 

Joan E. Disis, Junior 

Arts and Sciences 

Louis DeGrazia, Philosophy 

Nebraska Wesleyan University 

Wallace C. Petersen, Economics 
University of Nebraska-Lincoln 

Moderator: Thomas 0. Nitsch, Economics 
Creighton University 

Wednesday, March 18, 1981 

Ahmanson Law Center 

Creighton University 

8 p.m. 


Creighton University 


The last decade has seen a simultaneous 
development of new regulatory programs while 
the public perception of the regulator as "on 
the back of the individual has grown. These 
twin developments embody a paradoxical 
public support for and hostility to regulation. 
This paradox is rendered more acute since the 
growing hostility to regulation comes at the 
end of a period of expanded public participa- 
tion in the regulatory process which is designed 
to close the distance between the regulator and 
the Community. The resolution of the paradox 
of simultaneous expansion and hostility will be 
niy goal. The paradox of regulation has two 
components. An unresolved tension with our 
politics between the view (hat government is 
Creative and the view that it is sterile simulta- 
neously proniotes governmental Solutions 
and rejection of such soIutions. It also induces 
a fragmentation of political values that makes 
consensus on wliat counts as succcssful 
regulation unattainable. 

Panel of Respondents 

John J. Cavanaugh 

U.S.H.R., 2nd Dist. of Nebraska, 76-80 

Orville E. Lanham 

Bellevue College 

Elaine A. Young 

Senior, Arts and Science 

Moderator: William L. Blizek 

University of Nebraska at Omaha 

Tuesday, April 7, 1981 

Ahmanson Law Center 

Creighton University 

8 p.m. 

. . . Nothing can be more certain than that 
every man born in slavery is born for slavery. 
Slavcs lose everything in their chains, even 
the desire of escaping from them: they love 
their servitude .... 

- Jean Jacques Rousseau, Tlfc*» Social Contract 

An immediate consequence of the fact that 
man i^ estranged from the product of his 
labour. from his life-activity, from his species 
being is the estrangement of man from man. 
If a 'man is confronted by himself, he is 
confronted by the other man. What applies to 
a man's relation to his work, to the product of 
his labour and to himself. also holds of a man's 
relation to the other man's labour and object 
of labour. 

- Karl Marx. Economic and Philosophie 
Manuscripts of 18A4 

I apprehend . . . the doctor as listening to the 
Sounds of my tx)dy, feeling my body with his 
body. and immediately what was designated as 
something lived becomes designated as a thing 
outside my subjectivity, in the midst of a 
World which is not mine. My body is 
designated as alienated. 

- Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness 



Our task is to generate a ccnsciousness of the 
various forms of alienation confronting people 
today so that we may better understand our 
predicament and cope with the complex 
Problems that intensify our sense of alienation. 

Robert Z. Apostol 
Director, Institute on Alienation 
Creighton University 
Omaha. Nebraska 68178 

— Art work by Mory Moncuto. 

This program is made possible with the Cooperation 
and assistance of the Philsophy Society. 










Background: Current State of Knowledge and Research 
PolitikS Oikonomia and Economic Science 
Objectives, Plan and Further Alm of the Work 






Birth, Marital/Parental Status 

Higher Education 

Full-Time Academic Positions 

University and College Committee Appointments 

Professional At'f iliations (including Posts Held) 

Professional Honors 

Biographical Listings 

Paid Consultantships 

Comiminity Services 

Publications, 1976- 1980/81 






Consultant Services 
Materials and Supplies 
Publication Costs 



1. "On the Origin of *Political Economy* : A Terminological-Ideological Note," 
from The Journal of Economics , III, 1977. 

2. "On the Origin, Renaissance, and Recrudescence of Politike Oikonomia: A 
Progress Report," forthcoming in the Midsouth Jorunal of Economics, 1980. 

I • 










F Y. 


Crci^hton University, College of Business Administration 


Department of Economlcs 
2500 California Street 
Omaha, NE 68178 


Thomas 0. Nitsch 


noAuTLxn OLHOvoiJua - occonomie politiquo: Frora the Origin to the 
Renaissance of Political Economy (ca. 80 B.C. - 1611/15 A.D.) 


Kor a füll three centuries of its history Economics sailed under the banner of Political Econ - 
omy. Historians of economics have rather unanimously regarded Antoyne de Montchretien as the 
origniator of that designation — if not simultaneously the science itself — with the publication 
of his Traicte de l'Oeconomie politique in 1615. In recent efforts, the present writer has 
ostablished that both the term and the discipline can be traced back to three Hellenic tracts 

f the 4th-lst centrueis B.C. whose politike oikonomia exhibited a "vetero-Mercantilist/Camer- 
alist" conception of the science much as Montchretien' s Treatise represented the Mercantilism 
propor of the 16th-18th centuries. Despite the striking sirailarities between those "original" 
formulations and their "renaissance" with Montchretien (et al.), however, any specific lincage 

-i'.g. via 'ci vilis oeconomia ' — or direct connection involved remains to be established. The 
t »duci'd-form "Economics" having (re)ascended and reigned during the modern period (1880-date), 
the premodern designation(s) "political economy (public economics)" has (have) experienced a 
iemonstrable "recrudescence" since the mid-1960s, the real meaning and significance of which 
remain unclear. While the history of a science — or some special facet thereof — may be consid- 
L'rcd a "raerit good" in and of itself, it is hoped that the present study can shed sorae "nature 
-and-scope" light on this recrudescence by illuminating that pathway from the " Pol. Oikon ." of 
^23-80? B.C. to "l'Oeconomie politique"/"Staatswirthschaf t"/"Economia pubblica"/6c. of 1611/15 
-1767 et seq. of which others have been totally unaware or too quick to deny or explain away. 

1. Proposal Foldcr 3. Division of Grants & Contracts 5. Principal Investigator 

2. Program Suspense 4. Science Informanon Exchange 6. Off. of Govt. & Pub. Progs. 

N'".f t 


Background: Current State of Knowledge and Research 

In earlier efforts I have established and reported (42, A3 ■ 1977a, b) that the 
term and concept "political economy," which for a Century and a quarter historians 
of economics have regarded as the creation of Antoyne de Montchretien with the 
publication of his Traicte de l'Oeconomie politigue at Rouen in 1615, is found in 
three separate tracts of "ancient" Greek literature of the late-Ath to early-lst 
centuries B.C. The specific formulations, indicating "vetero -Mercantilis t/Camer- 
alist" uses, and their respective places and dates (B.C.) of occurrence are: " tea 
polin oikonomiais ," Athens, 323; * politike oikonomia , ' Athens 320-280 or 260/50- 
200 (depending: Andreades, p. 87; Susemihl, ed. 6, p. XII); and, " politikes oiko - 
nomias ," Naples, ca. 80. While a contemporary West Gerraan scholar (Stollberg, 
1977) has regarded (two of) tliese as essentially sporadic occurrences and Finley 
(1975) speaks of "the Isolation in the whole of surviving ancient writing" of the 
"half a dozen paragraphs" constituting that second and most prominent appearauce 
and treatment of " PolOikon ," the present investigator has shown most recently (44, 
45 = 1980a, b) that the term and concept were no less a Standard element of Peripa- 
tetic thought than was the "pseudo-Aristotelian" OIKONOMIKßN B a genuinely and 
authentically Aristotelian work substantively as well as (pseudo-)nominally. 

With this established, the reappearance (alias "invention"/"f irst known use"/ 
etc.) of politike oikonomia in the title of Montchretien' s Treatise (and, more ob- 
scurely, in the text of a 1611 work by a countryman, as per King in 1949) — whence, 
in the titles/texts of some 25 other works I have documented to date (45 = 1980b), 
and up to the effective redefinition of the term and institutionalization thereof 
as the designation of the "modern" science of Economics by Adam Smith with his 
Woa lth of Nations in 17 76* — becomes proper ly regarded as the rcnaissance of the 
term/concept. Stipulating and defining the term/science no less than three tiraes 
in the course of his Wealth , Smith ( cum Steuart) secured that designation therefor 
and forthwith tili the re-emergence of the reduced-form "Economics" qua "the Sci- 
ence of Wealth" which has prevailed to the present day (Nitsch: 42, p. 54; 44, 
pp. 4, ix-x; 45, n. 5). And, finally, as also most recently noted (Nitsch, 1980a, 
b), in as much as "political economy" did not entirely vanish from the scene dur- 
ing this reign (ca. 1915 to date) of "economics" as its replacement, the recent 
(mid-1960s to date) recrudescence of the earlier form is a documentable phenomenon 
now to be reckoned with in terms of possible reascendency and all that might imply 
(Nitsch, 1980a, b; Stollberg, 79; Mitchell/1968, Kade/1973, et al. as in 79, 1-2.) 

That last-suggested enterprise, however, timely and readily pursued as it 
might be, is a chapter pending insofar as the present investigator is concerned. 
For, there remains a substantially unfilled void in the present historical devel- 
opment of "political economy" ( qua the science of "public * finance* /'economy ' ," 
"Staatshaushaltung"/"Cameralwissenschaf t ," or whatever), and that is the period 
dating from its last "ancient" appearance at Naples, ca. 80 B.C. to its French re- 
birth ca. 1611-15. Thus, e.g., while one finds all three of the " PolOikon" uses 
cited in Liddell-Scott 's Greek-English Lexicon (31), he/she searches in vain for 

*Just how the title Principles of Political Oeconomy was pre-empted by a 
fellow Scot (Steuart, 78) nine years prior, leaving Smith with the more descrip- 
tive but less formal N ature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations Surrogate, is 
still a matter of some historical interest (cf. Nitsch, 1977d, esp. pp. 4-6). 

>-*4-*^ -'.T . - 

*fc la— I,.-. ~-m 

the Latin(-Engllsh) counterparts thercc^f — such as Lewis and Short (30), the Ox- 
ford Latin Dictionnry (Fasciclc II, 19' 9), and Facciolatus and Forcellinus (82, 
et cp. 16) — for sucli phrases as tlie siiply transliterated (phonetic) " oe(y)co~ 
nomia politica/publ ica" and/or the morc Latinized " civilis oeconomia ." Rather, 
the dosest one comes is the tantilizing entry in Facciolati and Forcellini 
(82, s.v. "Civilis"): "Civilis scientia. poli tical economy . h.e. quae docet 
rationem reipublicae gerendac, et inter civis vivendi (i.e., that which teach- 
es the science of conductinp public affairs and of life among Citizens)." The 
present writer has not yet bccn able to lay liold of either the 1720 (Lyons/Ba- 
tavia) or 1725 (Paris) edition of the work by Quintilian ("I.2.C.15 ad fin" ) 
cited there nnd furthcr specificd in tlie "Index Auctorum et Editionum." But, 
the Loeb edition of Quintilian's I nstituto Or atoria gives only "scientiae ci- 
vilis" as "the science of politics" which Cicero, we are thcre told, equated 
witli "pliilosophy/sapicnt ia," a dcpartmcnt of which "rhetoric/oratoria" consti- 
tuted (31, Vol. 1, II. XV. 33, at pp. 31A/315; oL cf. Cicero, 12, I.v.6-7). Ra- 
ther, as othcr ed i t ions/translations of this same citation (50, I, p. 348, iC33; 
52, I, p. 146, //33) also show, that whole chapter xv of book II of tliis work Is 
devoted to the definition of "Rhctorice" and not to 'civilis scientia as polit- 
ical economy ' as there or anywhere eise defined. 

Neither Stollberg (79) nor any of tlie other few wlio have recognized the 
Aristotelian/Peripatetic invcntion and oarly 17th-ccntury French renaissance 
(Montchrestien' s reinvention) of the term/concept simultaneously (e.g. Perry, 
1866/1881) have attacked this problcm, while others who were jointly aware of 
pseudo-Aristotle and Montcliret ien and their respcctive oikononia politikc and 
o economic politigue (esp. Lowry, 1979, pp. 65, 68; Spiegel, 1971, pp. 94-95, 
172 and 667/"O ccono mica"; and, Espinas, 1891, pp. 47n — cit. "Aristote, le 
T raitc de l'Gconom iguo — and 8, 147-48) simply fall to sce any connection what- 
socver. Rather, Stollberg (p. 3), e.g., offers an explanation of why "the 
pseudo-Aristotelian term/concept (Begriff) politische Ökonomie was not re- 
ceived in the late Middle Agos," despite two particularly auspicious/conducive 
circumstances. "The reason for this nonreception," as that scholar sees it, 
is "the fact that already in late antiquity politia meant ' State administra- 
tion* (.Staatsverwaltung')," whence "tlie reference to the polis disappeared. " 

In the course of the present research and anotiier concurrent one in the 
history of economics (re Karl Marx, Adam Smith, et al. on 'Alienation* ) , the 
present writer (1979a-c) has become well aware of how such "facts" become such 
— viz., primarily by the proccsscs of repctition and recitation, the hardening 
effect being a function furthcr of "time." Thus, rather than accept the ex- 
planation offered by Stollberg ipso facto, even though that "partial synonym" 
rclationship may be indisputable , the present investigation takes it as an hy- 
pothesis to be tested and one requiring such further corroboration. 

Politike Oikonomia and Economic Science 

Nuch likc NontchroL ien' s 'rraict c* , which historians of economics have rc- 
garded as of intcrcst primarily as a representative — if not very original — mer- 
cantilist tract affording valtiablc factual accounts of commerce and industry in 
Western Europe at the time, the über secundu s of the (pseudo-)Aristotelian Oe- 
conomica / Economics has beon regarded for the most part by philologists and — in 
the few cases whcnso — historians of economics alike as being "light" — if at all 
bearing on — theory and analysis and thus of interest chiefly — if not exclusive- 
ly — for its rather lengthy separately-authored "chapter ii'^ coraprised entirely 


of "a collect Ion of anecdotes LelllnR nf che mcans, fair er foul, by which 
vnrious rulers atui j;overnmonts filUvi llicir t rcnsurics" (Armstronp in 12, p. 
323 — et cp. Spiegel, i>. 666/"Oec' onomic. T"; SiiiK'y, p. 463; Trever, pp. 127-29). 
Continues tho samc nuthoritv (Armstrong,)* 

llie Chief inlercst of thcsc "footnotcs to liistory" i?? tUo opportunity 

tliey afford for comparinr, nnciont and modern treatment of such matters 

as currency, taxntion, and Insurance (in 12, p. 32A). 
Similarly, also, as Montchrcticn lia.s bcen "provec^' to have bccn totally un- 
original and a Virtual plaßiarist (9. Ashley, pp. 263-67), our poor pseudo- 
Aristotles of thc über secundu s are not even accorded appropriate credit for 
the unoriginality they no doubt wanted, with vnrious modern scliolars (e.g. 
Souchon, pp. 28n, 106, 111-12; Zeller, pp. 498-99; Armstrong, loc. cit.) deny- 
ing the Aristotelian authenticity and genuincncss of both such theory/analysis 
as might be admitted and of the quality of anecdotes — "certainly unworthy of 
the great moralist" (Armstrong) — whicii the author of chapter ii related. 

Quite different, liowcvcr, is thc assessment of (1) tlic German economic 
hisLoriographer A. Boeckh (1817-52), (2) the s(^cioeconomic historioprapher and 
phllologist M. Rostovtzeff (1904-41), and (3) tlie modern Grcck econonist A. 
Andreades (1928/33). In tiieir classic works, thcse noted scholars remark and 
appraise as follows regarding that Book II of the Economics : * 

1) "As regards tlic sciencc of public economy, it was certainly, among 
the ancients, in an inperfcct State. ... In the (l^conomics . . . the 
subject of public economy is, in the manner of Aristotle, scientif ically , 
but very briefly, treated; '* (12. Boeckli, p. 5.) Elsewhere (pp. 406-8), 
the author treats in detail (paraphrase and commcntary) "the introduction 
to the work on Political CEconomy , ascribed to Aristotle." 

2) "One of tue most interesting products of Grcek spcculativc thougl^t 
combined with practical sagacity is the sccond book of the 'Economics' 
ascribed to Aristotle. . . . Still more valuable [than the 'collection of 
financial measures and devices' recounted in the main part], howcver, is 
the Short prefnce in which tho author givcs an acute and exhaustive Class- 
ification of the principal forms of economic and financial Organization 
then ['tl\e fourtli Century' B.C.] existing — the first attempt at a theory 
of finance." (Rostovtzeff, p. 42f.) 

3) "In the first chapter a keen scientific spirit has dictated the 
dif ferentiation into the four economics royal, satrapic, political (qua 

' f re.e-state' or 'city-state * ) , and private economy , — and. . . great sound- 
ness of judgment is shown in the few details which are given and the sub- 
jects that remain for consideration are defined most correctly .... The 
second chapter . . . may be regarded, thcrefore, as aiming at the art of 
public finance. Tlie first . . . , on the contrary, though very brief , con- 
stitutes an ntttMiipt at a scientific invcst i r,ation of finance and may, in 
fact, 1)0 regarded as the first appcarance of the science as such." (An- 
dreades, pp. 84-85; emphasis supplied.) 

*Most recently and potentialiy pertinently. Heikle (1979) essays to 
demonstrate tlie positive-scientif ic and theoretical-analytical nature, scope 
and method of "Aristotle's 'economic' thought (34, p. 57) as contained in the 
Nicomachean Ethics and the Politics . Wliile the latter served as the direct 
basis of the liber primus of the Economics and virtually "commissioned" our 
Book II thereof, Heikle excludes from his analysis of Aristotle's "political 
economy of the polis" that very Oeconomica II wherein politikc oikonomia is 
first designated as such and tiion carefully distinguished from the two othcr 
forms of "public economy" (royal and satrapic), on the onehand, and from 

m» #••••. -. 

The modernity and current relevanre of that Book II and its introductory 
"theory'V'analysis" chapter were well percelved by Andreades when he wrote: 
It is particularly noticeable that the Oeconomica [Book II] deals with a 
question which even today separates the orthodox school of political econ- 
omy from the other schools, tliat is, the question whether public expenditure 
ought or ought not to ^e included within the ränge of public finance. This 
question it answers, I believe rightly, in the affirmative. (1, p. 84.) 

In his classic Theory of Public Finance , Musgrave notes his reluctance 
"to refer to this book as a study in the theory of public finance," explaining: 
The Problems, to a large dcgree, are not those of finance. Thcy are Prob- 
lems in resource use and income distr ibution, rather than liquidity or In- 
vestment earnings. Thus, it might have been better to describe this as an 
examination of the theory of public economy , following the useful German 
concept of Staatswirtschaft. (40, p. vi; emphasis in original.) 
It is pertinent to note in this connection that the original German title of 
August Böckh's classic was Staatshaushaltung der Athener . That same "State- 
householding" or "State-housekeeping" equates precisely with the "Staatswirt (h)- 
schaft" ("nation-state economy," alias "politische Ökonomie") Musgrave stipu- 
lates.* The prototype of this science/designation is found in Johann H. von 
J w s t i ' s Staatswirthschaf t oder systemat i sche Abi uin dlung aller ökonomischen und 
Cameralwissenschaf ten , 1755 (2d ed., Leipzig, 1768) — sec/cp. Spiegel (76, pp. 
695-96, Schumpeter (67, pp. 171-72ff), and especially Stollberg (79, pp. 16-17). 

Especially significant here is Musgrave's emphasis there ("Preface") and 
throughout his treatise on "resource use" and the "provision for (= securing the 
satisfaction of) public wants" vs. production ("public production management") 
as such. Accordingly, his central organon and chief analytical contribution is 
"A Multiple Theory of the Public Household . " And, when the present writer asked 
him just prior to his 1959 publication date if he had not better adopted the an- 
alogy of government as a "firm or production unit" (since it employs labor etc. 
to produce national-defense etc. goods and Services), Musgrave was positive that 
the "household or consumpt ion unit" is the proper model. After some twenty odd 
ycars of employing the Musgrave paradigm in my Public Finance courses and partic- 
ularly in light of my recent researches into the "origins" of economic theory, I 
heartily agree. As it turns out, Musgrave's theory of public economy qua Staats- 
wirtschaft is also very Aristotelian. For, to Aristotle oikonomia (prudent ad- 
ministration of a household) is concerned primarily and properly with the use of 
goods, and only secondarily and incidentally with their acquisition and actual 
production — whence, e.g., slave-acquisition belongs to "the art of war".** 

the "private" or "domestic," on the other. Thus, Meikle obviously has a precon- 
ception re the nature, scope and method of the "science" of political economy to 
bcgin with; and/or, in liis attempt to meet the objects of his criticism (M.I. Fin- 
Icy and Karl Polanyi) on their own grounds, focuses exclusively on those two most 
prominent works of Aristotle proper, perhaps a victim of Finley's damning by 
faint praise of the (pseudo-) Aristotelian OIKONOMIKf^N itself (71, pp. 20ff). 

*The German " Wirt (h) schaf t" is translated "economy," but means literally 
" house-head ship," " inn-keeper ship," etc. 

**See/cf. the Politics (I, passim) , Eudemian and Nicomachean Ethics (I.iii 
and Vl.v-viii, respectively) , and Oeconomica (I.i, II. i); Gordon (23, pp. 3Aff), 
Singer (69). As to just how Aristotelian that household/ oikos model/analogy is , 
See Hannah Arendt, "What Was Authority?," in Authority , ed. Carl J. Friedrich 
(Harvard Univ. Press, 1958), esp. pp. 82-87. As to where the analogy ceases, see 
the same Politics (I.i,ii.21) and Oeconomica (I.i), and cp. Steuart (78, p. 2). 

Such a literal reinterpretation of cconomy as the "prudent use" vs. the 
"efficient production" of goods ( chremata to Aristotle) has far-reaching conse- 
quences for the future of Economics as the science thereof. Thus, e.g., when we 
recognize the ozone layer as one of those unproduced chremata which has to be used 
properly, the militation therefor no longer remains the exclusive preserve of the 
"hard" scientists; and, when we relate agri culture to the prudent use and proper 
care of the land and its Underground water reserves (which it is most literally 
concerned with) , we might come up with socially more beneflcial "solutions" than 
via "free agribus iness " which focuses narrowly on "productive efficiency," the 
ultimate yardstick for which is after-tax profits. The significance of such 
publications of a study like the prcscnt is not to be miniraized. Doing "their 
thlng" to a fault, econoraists have been trying to predict the prlme rate day 
after tomorrow, while the energy crisis slipped up entirely on their blind 
side. It is indeed unfortunate that the Science of Scarcity has in effect 
"delineated out" fuel and other critical shortages. 

The distinguishing feature of modern/conteraporary public finance (economy) 
is the very inclusion of public expenditure — a la Sarauelson's "Pure Theory" of 
1945/55 (59/60) and/or the more "operational" Benefit/Cost or Project-Evaluation — 
analysis in academe during the past quarter-century. Similarly, in the discipline 
of private (corpornte/managcrial) finance, it was in 1962 that the first textbook 
taking the qualitatively novel approach of including the analysis of whether or 
not and Investment expenditure should be undertaken — raher than merely how best 
to finance it, given that it will be — or "capital budgeting" was published by 
Weston (86). In its second edition, the authors opened (87, p. v) prophetically : 
"The field of finance is undergoing significant change. The emphasis on acquisi- 
tion of funds has been extended to a consideration of the effective use of funds. 
. . ." In the public sector, then Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara had 
introduced the Planning/Programming/Budgeting System into the DOD in 1961; in 
1965, President Johnson ordered this System — the heart and core of which was cost- 
ef fectiveness and benef its/costs analyses — extended to all civilian departnents 
and agencies (65, Schultze, p. 1). Since this time, a vertibale spate of treatises, 
manuals, textbooks, etc. on the subject(s) of public/private investment-expenditure 
(project-evaluation) analysis and capital budgeting have appeared. 

Contemporary Public/Government Finance — aliases Public Economics , as per Lief 
Johansen (Amsterdam/Chicago, 1965); The Public Economy , William Henderson and 
Helen Cameron (Random House, 1969); and, more specifically and in the Aristotelian- 
Musgravian vein. Public Microeconomics , as per Neil M. Singer (Little, Brown; 1972, 
1976) — still includes the same questions and issues of taxation and debt (i.e., how 
and how best to raise revenues for and fund given public outlays, projects and 
programs) than economists and their textbooks from Adam Smith and Book V of his 
Wcalth down through Schultz and Harris' 8th (64) and Groves' 7th (24, Bish, p.iv) 
have traditionally treated. And, it is true, after the two stipulations regarding 
the dctermination and control of public expenditures (undcr royal, .ind just after 
private, economy) in the introductory/ theory chapter of the Ooconomica II, we hear 
nothing more about that side of the budgeting process from our pseudo-Aristotles, 
other than specifying the need/use to which the funds raised in each of the 
anectotes were to be put. However, when we examine and consider that work in the 
total context including " ten polin oikonomiais " of Dinarchus, the Student of the 
same Theophrastus who was the probable author of the Oeconomica I, and the 
" politikes oikonomias " of Philodemus, who so attributed that Oeconomica I to 
begin with, the outlines of a definite vetero-Mercantilist/Cameralist concept of 

«-«• *--»■«««''■-.- - «r«TM 

"oeconomie polltique'V'niesnagerie publique" (Montchrestien) , "political/publlck 
oeconomy" (Petty-Steuart) , "Staatswirthschaf t" (von Justi) , and "economia politica/ 
pubblica" (Verri) . With Hansen' s hailing of the Employment Act of 19A6 as the 
"Magna Carta of Economic Planning" in the U.S. and of J.M. Keynes as the person who, 
"more than any other economist of our tirae, has helped to rescue economics from the 
negative position to which it had fallen to become once again a science of the 
Wealth of Nations and the art of Political Economy" (26, Chap. 5 and p. 175) as 
prophesies on the way to being fulfilled, perhaps a new (neo-Mercantilistlc?) 
science of politike oikonomikc is in order, if not underway. If so, certainly a 
more complete and adcquate knowlcdge and understanding of the history thereof can 
help US both illuminate and prepare the way. 

In light of this background, the unilluminated and unwritten history of 
"political (public) economy" from Greek antiquity up until its French renaissance 
remains a significant gap in our knowledge and understanding of the evolution and 
developraent of eonomics as a social science and "public art." It is this hiatus 
or inadequacy which the specific project proposed here would essay to fill and 

Objectives, Plan and Further Aim of the Work 

In the atterapt to establish the raissing linkage and actual lineage from the 
Hellenic triad of 323-80 B.C. up to the doorstep(s) of Montchretien (and his 
countryman Louis Turquet de Mayerne) in Ousonne-sur-Loire (and Paris) in the 
(combined) period 1610-15 — a very populär Graeco-Latin edition of the collected 
works of Aristotle (including the Oikonomikön B/ Oeconomica II, trans. Joachim© 
Camerario) had just appeared at Geneva in 1606, while another populär version 
(trans. Jacques Lefevre d'^taples/lacobo Faber Stapulensis) had been published, 
reprinted and republished variously from 1506/Paris - 1549/Lyons and 1542-63/ 
Basel-Lyons (Nitsch, 1979a, pp. 26-27; Soudek, 1968, pp. 92-93)— the proposed 
study will pursue and explore the following questions and lines of thought. 

1. Did the term political economy actually vanish from the scene during this 
Interim period, as Garnier' s seminal study (1852) implies and Stollberg now more 
knowledgably holds? Is the " civilis scientia " as eraployed by Cicero (ca. 87 A.D.) 
and/or Quintilian (ca. 88-ca. 98 A.D.) — also M.C. Fronto, Corrcspondence , to L. 
Verus, 165 A.D. — the equivalent of "political economy" as stipulated and defined 
by Facciolatus and Forcellinus (ed. J. Baily, 1928)? I still search for the 
simple transliteration "oeconomia politica" as the likely earliest/f irst take-off 
from the original Greek, whence "civilis oeconomia," "oeconomia civica," etc. 

2. Is it sufficiently sure, as Stollberg contends, that the partial synonym 
relationship between "oeconomia" and "politia" accounts for the (alleged) disap- 
pcarance of "the pseudo-Aristotelian term political economy by the late middle 
ages"? llc has suggostcd a thoroupji searcli of "the Komnncc languages" for "bctter 
cvidcnce" to the contrary (Stollberg to Nitsch, 10/16/77). 

3. Does the Oeconomica II constitute the conveyance medium which brought the 
politike oikonomia of those ancients, with whom and whose language Montchretien 

is reputed to have been so conversant (Andreades, 1933, p. 81), down to his doorstep 
and writing desk? Accordingly, are there "milestones" or "century marks," as it 
were, to be found in a path from Philodemus' handling of that corpus to the most 
populär collection of Aristotle's works put out at Geneva, e*g., in 1606? 


A. Can we find any (more) real iraport on the part(s) of the politike oiko- 
nomia, yconomica politlca , and civilis oc^conoroica of Graeco-Roman "antiquity" to 
Medieval/Renaissance-Indoeuropean corners of thought and stages of action for 
the current Status and future course of the presently "recrudescing" Political 
(Public) Economy(ics)? 

5. In terms of the interaction between social and intellectual forces, were 
there significant existential changes in the Indo-European environment during the 
Interim period between 323-80 B.C. and 1611/15 A.D. which would explain the (appar- 
ent) disappearance of Political Econoray (the designation and/or the discipline), 
e.g., as that is known to have happened in terms of the terminology (the "political" 
/"politlque" was dropped) in France in the time of the Restoration Government In the 
early nineteenth Century (Gide and Rist, pp. 122-23n)? 

6. In terms of the nature, scope and method aspects of (thls) social science, 
what light does the present study shed on such matters as (a) how "facts" (such as 
Montchretien's being the virtually undisputed creator of "political economy" as far 
as historians of economics over the past 125 years are concerned) become such, when 
outside (and even inside) the discipline proper others often directly associated 
with the perpetrators "know better"; (b) the effect which the tools and Instruments 
(especially, here, linguistics vs. raathematics) imported into and applied within 
the discipline have on its own "national boundaries" — the hypothesis in this case 
being that matheraatics has served to constrict and contract, linguistics to expand 
and liberate, the scope and nature of economics. 

To pursue these questions, I have secured a sabbatical leave for the Spring- 
Sumraer 1981 acaderaic period, primarily to spend the April 1-July 1 segraent thereof 
"in residence" with and under the tutelage of Dr. Josef Soudek in (Manhattan) 
New York. Professor Soudek is perhaps the leading authority on medieval/renais- 
sance Latin translations/editions of the (pseudo-)Aristotelian Economics , and has 
assured me, e.g., that his personal library conrains all the versions — with the 
valuable commentaries, glosses, explicits, etc. — of the genuine Second Book thereof 
which I would need most pivotally for my purposes. At the same time, I will take 
advantage of the excellent history-of-economics and related classical-works 
collcctions for which such university libraries in the area as Harvard, Yale and 
Columbia are noted. The proposed schedule follows. 

Stage 1 : January 15-March 31 — Preparatory Operations at Creighton, including 
further Identification and refinement of study/research objectives and targets, 
readying of materials to be shipped, finalizing bibliographical items to be sought 
in the area university libraries, etc. 

Stage 2 : April 1-June 30 — In-residence period with Soudek, availaing myself 
of his knowledge and expertise in this area (i.e., of medieval/renaissance Graeco- 
Latin versions of the Occonomic a II, which rcmains the prime candidate as the 
"convcyance medium" in the present caso) , his advice and counsel as to the "un- 
finished agenda" that I might be able to address in light of the work I have done 
so far and the research to be completed under the proposal, his personal acquaint- 
ance and contacts with kindred spirits and other "laborers in the vineyard" (such 
as Albert D. Menut and Hermann Goldbrunner) , his recommendations as to the appro- 
priate/likely outlets for publication of the completed research. I would also 
regard it as a significant part of this phase to make photocopies of all such 
materials as I would need in completing and writing up the research on my return 
to Creighton. 

- t. 

St.T^e 3: 

July 1, 1981 - Marcli 31, '982— I^'riod for collcction of thoughts. 

Organization of new materials and Intcgr'tion chcrof into thc studv as it thcn 
Stands, and writing up the rcsearch proj'.'ct for Submission for publication of the 
first "major" or most "rcspectable" art iclc/monograph to emerge from my on-going 
efforts in this area to date. The Journals now considered for Submission include: 
History of Political Economy (Duke University Press), Kyklos (International Journal 
for Social Science), Revi ew o f Social Economy (Association for Social Econoraics), 
Journal of Economic Issues (Association for Evolutionary Economics) , Journal of 
the History of Ideas . Therc also will be Winter and Spring (1982) national and 
regional professional meetings to whicli preliminary drafts and/or abstracts of the 
new research and/or aspects thereof will be subnitted for presentation. 

If the author has a Single, overriding and ultimate goal in vicw, it is a 
rewriting of the History of Economics which would, inter alia, (1) pay much more 
attention to the "ancicnts" and thc intcrvening 1 Incagc/linkage from thcm to the 
Mcrcantl list/Camcral ist and othcrwisc "pro-Classical" political cconomlsts; (2) 
focus on the continuity and unifying Clements among the various Individuais and 
"schools" usually carcfully dist inguishcd fro m onc another over tirae and Space; 
and, relatedly, (3) focus more on what each thinker/school regarded as thc propoer 
"object" of the discipline, hence its true naturo, scope and appropriate raethod. 
As against such a recent "rewriting" as that porformed by E. K. Hvmt in his His - 
tory of Economic Tliough t: A Critical Perspect ive (Wadswortli, 1979) wherein "Cri- 
tical" means "Marxist"/"Marxian," tlie prcsent "revision"/"reformulation" would be 
regarded as "radical" in the sense of going back to, unearthing and fieshing out 
the true "roots" of modern/conremporary economics/political, including Biblical 
(Old and New Testament) as well as Graeco-Roman origins. Cf. Nitsch-Malina, 1977. 


Mcanwhile, thoup,h thc rcsearch proj^oscd licrc focvises on the history of 
'political cconomv' duriiif; thc "Interim" ancicnl-rcnn issance intcrval, the i 
diäte contcxt of tliat phasc rcmains "Thc Origin, Renaissance, and Rccrudescenc 
of 'Political Economy' ( qua ) An Essay in the History, Nature and Scope of Eco- 
nomics." Or, if an alias is desircd: "From thc 'Ancient' via the *Pre-Modern' 
to the 'New' Political Economy." Sucli will be thc title and scope of the major 
publication envisioned upon completion of thc prcsent project, thereby comple- 
menting it on a coequal basis with the efforts of Singer (69), Mitchell (37), 
Gordon (23, but here including as well a seminal article*) , Stollberg (79), and 
Lowry (32). 

*Barry Gordon, "Aristotle and Hesiod: Tlie Economic Problem in Greek 
Thought," Review of Social Economy , XXI, 2 (September, 1963.), 147-56. 


II ,\»m\imiifimmHtmtm 















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Leyde: A.W. Sijthoff, 1933; orig., Translatlo Vetus , ca. 1264. 

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Barnes & Noble/Harper & Row, 1975. 

24. Groves, Harold M. , and Robert L. Bish. FINANCING GOVERNMENT. 7th ed. 
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28. Kade, Gerhard. "Politische Ökonomie— Heute, " in POLITISCHE ÖKONOMIE. Ed. 
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31. Liddell, Henry George, and Robert Scott. A GREEK-ENGLISH LEXICON. New 
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38. Montchre(es)tien, Antoy(i)ne de. TRAICTß DE L'OECONOMIE POLITIQUE (1615). 
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39. Mundorf, Hans Dieter. "Der Ausdruck , Politische Ökonomie* u. s. Geschich- 
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. "On the Origin of 'Political Economy' : A Terminological-Ideo- 

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.. 1 


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I ' 


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Ed. Siegfried Sudhaus. Vol 

*Additional (related) publications/papers of the applicant (1979a, b,c) 
are given in the Biographical Sketch below. 


•• '4 

Sub j . ; 

Auth . : 
Date : 


Thomas 0. Nitsch, Professor of Economlcs (OSL) , Creighton University 
Omaha, Nebraska; February 3, 1981 — Re: MAE, 8th, Memphis, 2/5-7/81 

THEME — Much as 'man has always created God in his own image and likeness, ' 
so has "econowycs" (political , social, etc) always fashioned 
(fancied) its "men." 




"Homo oeconomlcus " proper, or "Economic Man" as such, was not a Smithian 
invention or construct. Adam Smith* s "man" was, strictly speaking, " homo mercan- 
tilus ," an empirikon zöon , a "comercial-society" = "civilized society" (CS) man. 
In "consequence of a certain propensity in human nature, . . , the propensity to 
truck, barter, and exchange one thing for another, . . . every man . . . becomes 
in some measure a merchant, and the society itself grows to be what is properly 
a commercial society. ... in a civilized and commercial society, ..." (WN, I, 
iijiv; V,i.II,3; 13,22,736). Thus, while Smith had in mind a merchant motivated 
by "self-love" and led by "an invisible hand" under "an exact administration of 
justice" by the sovereign, naturally , he did not posit nor speak of an "Economic 
Man," or Latinized counterpart, as such. 

Strictly speaking, "Economic Man" means "household-management" or "house- 
hold law-and-ordering" man, much as Aristotle's homo politicus or politikon zöon 
was and was meant to be, by nature and literally, a "city-state" man. (Nature 
pertains to birth, strictly what one is born to be or become; nurture, to how or 
what one is fed or nursed; culture, to how one is brought up, raised, cultivated, 
Often, however, as in Smith, e.g., "nature" is merely used to refer to something 
which is taken as given, not to be further explored or explained; which is, for 
/-' ""älH.— f«:actical or mentionable purposes, humanly unalterable. ) To Äristotle, that 
/ which >s- prior in time (e.g., the household or oikos) is inferior in nature to 

thatc''which comes later in time (the city-state or polis, constituted by an assem- 
,ji5^ge of villages and many households) and is qualitatively superior in nature — 
as the Good Life (" to eu zen ") is to mere life ( zöe ) . 

Intermediate between the "political man (animal,being)" of Äristotle et 
al. and the "Homo Politicoeconomicus " of Mercantilism, were "homo scholasticus " 
or "Medieval-Roman-Catholic (MeRC) Man" and "Protestant-Ethic or Calvinist/Puri- 
tanlst (PE / CP) Man" — the Men, respectively, of Thomas Acquinas et al. and of 
the Wostminster Confession of 1647 per Max Weber. Much as this latter — as a Ra- 
tional Materialistic/Worldly Asceticism (RM/WA) individual — was the spiritual/ 
theological ancestor/counterpart of Smith* s homo mercantilus and what came to 
be dubbcd " homo oeconomicus " proper, so was the former the veterotype of " homo 
soc loeconomicus . " The PE sanctioned individualistic productive-wealth (capital) 
acqulsltion and accumulation without limit , the logical precedent for the same 
on the part of nations, whence Mercantilism, thence Smith et al. and Classical 
political economy. MeRC blessed poverty, remaining in one*s Station, and wealth 
(private property) as long as put to good use in the Service of fellow-man and 
the Church or Christas mission. Both Systems were basically other-worldly ori- 
ented, but with opposing views as to how the here-and-now (this world) is to be 
used. Both MeRC man and PE/CP man were supernaturally determined (SN) men. 

The homo politicoeconomicus of Mercantilism, or "the Mercantile System," 
was also born into a partlcular class or Station of life — prince, artisan, mer- 
chant, etc. Basically, however, the hol polloi were subjects, naturally moti- 
vated by self-lnterest and the sovereign or "statesman" was by benevolence or 
publ ic-splrl todncss. If the sovereign were not manipulating the markey mechan- 
Ism, however, they could not achieve their own best interests materially etc. 

-2 - 

Marx's answer to tho egolstlc, commodity-produclng/markot-exchanglnR, 
Roblnsonadean figure of Rousseau-Smith/Rlcardo-Hegel and varlously-designatod 
CS (commorclal / civill;£cd / clvLl - soclety) or bG/S (btlrgerliche-Gesellschaf t 
or bourgeols-Soclety) Man(n), and to Aristotle's politlkon zoon as well, was 
simply " homo sociale anlmal , " putting Cicero* s concept and two of bis words Into 
y Marx*s pen. For, as he wrfte In the original German but was not fully translated 
into the most populär and recent English versions, "Man Is by nature (von Natur) 
. . . a social anlmal (ein gesellschaftliches Thier)" — Kapital , I, xiii(xl) . 1867/73. 
Earlier and perhaps most baslcally, Marx designated man a "specles-being" ( Gatungs- 
wesen ) ; whence, before Arlstotle^s " politlkon zöon " or "stadt-bUrger" ("town -Citi- 
zen") became too confining, the same was regarded as expresslng a mode of belng 
above or beyond a merely "gregarlous Anlmal" ("geselliges Thier") — Econ.-Phllos. 
Mss. d. 1844 ; Grundrisse , 1857-58, Now, lingulstlcally and perhaps very meanlng- 
fully here, the dosest Greek term for "social" (soclety) Is kolnonlkos ( kotn ö nla , 
kolnon » Community, Commonwealth) — cf. Aristotle, Polltlcs , 1.1.8-12 = 1252b:28- 
1253a :40. Since Tönnies " Gemeinschaft und Gesellschaft " (1887) or "Community vs. 
Society" distinction did not appear until Marx had effectively laid bis pen to 
rest (1873/75), perhaps the dosest he could get to " Communal ( ist ) Man" or "gemein- 
schaftliches (istische) Mann" was "Social (Animal) Man." Nonetheless, that "Commun- 
al (kommunistisch - gesellschaftliche = Communist Society) Man" would have been the 
utmo st -natural man according to Karl Marx, truly Marxian man, as the most human- 
liberated, dealienated, integrated person/species-being/creature imaginable. 

Best known — ostensibly, at least — and in a sense most generlc of the lot is, 
of course, old homo oeconomicus himself , or the "Economic Man" proper. Sired and 
bred by Adam Smith and David Ricardo, nursed and reared by N.W. Senior and partlcu- 
larly J.S, Mill, J.E. Cairnes and W. Bagehot, hoe * s christening or baptism as such 
apparently came only with John Neville Keynes* Scope and Method of Political Econ- 
omy and/or Alfred Marshall* s Principles of Economics , both of 1890; " homo oeconomi- 
cus " appearing perhaps for the first time in Pareto*s Manual of Political Economy 
Ital. orig., 1906, ////21-27; et cf. Schumpeter, HEA , p. 887n). Otherwise, we seem 
beholden to Menger* s 1881 ( Grundsätze / Principles ) formulation of " Wirtschaftende 
Menschen (Mann)" or "Economizing Men (Man)," who would certainly be "Economic Men" 
and fit the füll bill of hoe (ibid., chaps. II, III; et cf. J.F. Bell HET, eh. 16). 
Whether conceived as interacting with blackberries, a fellow-islander or — via bis 
London/Liverpool broker — the international foreign-exchange/commodity market (s), 
this (Robinsonadian) Economic Man , as purely theoretical/hypothetlcal/abstract/sup- 
positional a construction as he may have (with J.S. Mill et seq., at least) expli- 
citly been stipulated and specified to be, was and ever has been just as selfish, 
hedonistic, materialistic, greedy, rational-calculating/optimizing-maximizlng a 
critter as one could — and most do — imagine. In bis quasi-hoe dress, he come out 
to be considerably more humane (and, even a bit human, I might add) , when, as per 
Marshall most expressly earlier, and de Graaff (TWE, 1957) and Musgrave (TPF, 1959) 
more recently and rigorously, we specify alter *s well(ill)being as an argument in 
ego*s Utility or welfare function, alter = family, friend(s), or society at large. 


Homo socioeconomicus , or Social-economyc(s) Man, is, in the Modern Roman 
Catholic (MoRC) and Welfare + Institutional Economics sense(s), a more creature by 
both (re)birth and baptism. While the term/concept of fconomle sociale date back 
at least as far as Buat-Nan<;ay*s 1773 title equating the "true principles" thereof 
with the "elements of politics," and — e.g. — was preferred by J.B. Say (1828) to the 
more conventional "ßconomie politique," the moral-theological origins of fis/SE qua 
"Economic politique chr^tienne" (Villeneuve-Bargemont , 1837) date back to such noms 
et ecoles as de Coux (1832), Le Play (1856), and work their way up through the so- 
called "Social Encyclicals" (non ex cathedra ) and works/systems of H. Pesch, S.J. 
in Germany, V. Fallon, S.J. in France, et al. in the *20s-30s and down to the Cath- 
olic Economic Association (now Association for Social Economics) and its Review of 

-3 - 

Social Economy , 1:1 - March, 1943 (cf. Gide-Rist, t r. Ri chard s, HED,2d, 1948 >pp. 514- 
534, Simultaneously, in a Joint attempt to universalize and purify Political Econ- 
omy (Staatswirthschaft, politiäche Oekonomie; Economia politica; etc.) from and of 
any nationalistic (chauvinistic) and/or statistic taint or aspect, and perhaps 
harking back to Say's concern and preference, Social Economy(ics) , gesellschaft- 
liche Wirtschaft, Sozialökonomik, usv. qua a positive social science was adopted 
(G-R,pp.393,21,764-65;Schumpeter,pp.21,85-86,784-85n). Quite illustrative of 
this latter thrust was G. Cassel*s Theoretische Sozialtfkonomie of 1918/21 (tr. Bar- 
ron, The Theory of Social Economy , 1923/31; esp.pp.vii-vlii) , as preceded by F.F. 
V. Wieser *s Theorie der gesellschaftlichen Wirtschaft as Part II of Max Weber et 
al.'s Grundrlss der Sozialökonomik (1914,1924) and yet H. Dletzel*s Theoretische 
Socialökonomlk (LeipzigiC, F.Winter, 1895) . Such were in stark contrast to the ex- 
pllcitly normative (qua "Weifare Economlcs") and/or "institutional" works of J.M, 
Clark (e.g. hls Preface to Social Economlcs , ed.M. Abramovitz/E.Glnzberg, 1936) , H.R. 
Bowen ( Toward Social Economy , 1948) and R.T. Bye ( Social Economy and the Prlce Sys- 
tem , 1950). Wlth works llke S. Worland's Scholasticism and Weifare Economlcs (UND,. 
1967) and K. Cochran's presldential "Why A Social Economlcs?" before the ASE (Aug. 
30,1978; RSE , XXXVII: 1 ,4/79) , one can trace the heart-and-core of 'Social Economycs* 
In thls country directly to the works of such Modern Roman Cathollcs (MoRC) as the 
two Jesults already noted — vlz. Pesch, Lehr b . d . Na t lonalökonomle , cum "Imprimatur / 
Impriml potest," I-V, 1914-24, et cf. Mulchay,S. J. , Econs.Heln.Pesch ,Holt , 1952; and, 
Fallon, Prlnclpes d'^conomle sociale , cum "Imprimatur" et benedlcta dl "E.Card.Pa- 
celli" (subsq. Plus XII), 1921-44 — and then harmonize — If not (fully) integrate — 
the same wlththe "Cid" Weifare Economlcs of Pigou et al., if not (as fully) the 
"New" as per K. Arrow and de Graaff, on the one hand, and (Neo-) Institutlonallsra, 
on the other. Thus, from apologetlc/"llberallstlc" (Physiocratlc/Classlcal) orlglns 
at the hands of Buat (cf. K.Marx, TSV , Moscow/Progress, Pt. I, 1963/69, p. 381) , Say and 
hls dlsclple B. Dunoyer ( Nouveau tralte d'econoroie sociale , 1830; cf. Wm. Röscher, 
Grundl . d . Natlonalökon . , 1 8te , 1886 , p . 36 ) , via "Social Catholiclsm" or "Neo-Thomlsm" 
alias "Solldarlsm," 'Voluntary Assoclatlonalism* — a la Pesch) of a reformist but 
still qualitatlvely dlfferent nature, and as now (conveniently/essentially?) mar- 
rled wlth Welfare/Instltutlonal economlcs, dld Contemporary (Catholic) Social Eco- 
nomycs In thls country evolve and does It now stand. In England, the trlp was ap- 

parently slmllar, if more "secular," as typifled by (earlier) Wm, Ellis* Outllnes 
of Social Economy (1846), J.H. Jones' Social Economlcs (LondoniMethuen, 1920) ; and, 
(moreAmost) recently and promlnently, W. Hagenbuch' s Social Economlcs (Cambridge, 
1958) and the eatabllshment of the International Institute of Social Economlcs and 
commonccment of Its Internal Journal of Social Economlcs at Hüll, Yorkshlre in 1974 
(Vol. l,No. 1) , and note especially the "Edltorlal" and lead article, "Social Econom- 
lcs: a Branch or New Roots?" by Brian Showler. (Cf oesp. ,L. Walras, EPE , tr.Jaffe.) 

In hls Inqulry, Showler noted the work needlng to be done (includlng the re- 
formulatlon of "'neo-lnstltutional' economlcs") "If 'homo economicus' is to be re- 
placed by 'homo soclo-economlcus' " (p.U). Just earlier, Bruce Malina and I ("Tow- 
Human Economy," 12/25,29/73; as per R^, XXXII: 1/Aprll, 1974, p. 124) had examlned one 
such homo socloeconomlcus or Social Economic Man (scrlp.clt. , 1973, pp. 18-28) , and 
sought an even more human-economlc system and person than "Social Economy(ics)" and 
Its Man (thelr men). But, rather than proceed from "the system" to the "human per- 
son (and/or, alternative, from the "theory" to the "reality," the "science" to the 
"art," etc.), wo proceeded from "human" to "economy." We query: "What Is human 
belng being (and becomlng) human?" Whlch system, whose model, best fits? The Tab- 
Icnu economlque or biochemlcal analogy of Quesnay (1756), the pure general-equllib. 
physlcü-mathematlcal/Newtonlan-mechanlcal system of Walras (esp. vs. hls ^conomle 
social e qua "une science morale"; ^l.d'fcon.pol.pure ,3d, 1896,p.61,passlm) ; the 
KoynoMlan-Klclnlan macroeconometric or the Leontleflan (and more biologlcal) Input- 
Output. N.B. Both involve matrices; whence, to humanize f^ to demathematlze. But, 
as in N-M/ 1973-77 our quest for Human Economycs et homoeconomicus humanu s goes on. 





Thomas 0. Nitsch 

Professor of Economics 

Creighton University 

For at least a Century and a quarter now, hlstorlans of economics 
(et al.) have been wont to regard — if anyone — the early French mercantlllst 
writer Antoyne de Montchretien as the actual coiner or earliest-known user 
of the term/phrase/etc. *political economy* with the publicatlon of his 
TRAICTE DE L'OECONOMIE POLITIOUE at Rouen In 1615. And while (l.a) none 

of the others noted here have shared quite the same enthuslasm and added 


clalm of the Tralcte*s edltor-republlsher at Paris some 2-7 centuries later 

that thls event marked simultaneously the *creation of the science so desig- 
nated' as well, and (l.b) some have tempered and otherwise qualified Mont- 
chretien' s "terminological first" as a probable/apparent/alleged/etc. fact 
and/or further restrlcted it to the title of a book or work, it nevertheless 
rcmains that (2.a) this author and his tract have continued to be recognized 
ns at least a representative and noteworthy — if not very original ahd sys- 
tematic — exponent and exposition of Mercantilist doctrine together with — and 

not insignificantly for present purposes — the Traicte's being recommended as 

a valuable source-book/work for economic historians, while — most notably 

and conspicuously — (2.b) the validity of the "fact" or contention that this 

otherwise "(minor/second-rate) poet"/"dueller"/"hardware manufacturer"/etc. 

was the actual inventor or first-known employer of the word/designation/etc. 

in quostlon has never been seriously questloned, challenged head-on, or ex- 

plicitly disputed by even his harsher critlcs and more severe detractors who 

treat this polnt in a rather begrudging and/or elllptical fashion when at 


least two of the same were in a rather direct and opportune position to 
handily strlp thelr subject of "his only merit" and his "medlocre Perfor- 
mance" or "otherwise undistinguished book" of — accordingly — Its only dis- 

tlnctlon . Finally, we note here — for the sake of completeness and giving 

credit where it*s due — that, whlle a sllghtly earlier actual employment of 

the same term by a somewhat more obscure countryman — vlz., "oeconomie poli- 

tlque" by Louis de Mayerne-Turquet in his La monarchie aristod^roocratique 

publlshed at Paris in 1611 — was already brought to light some thirty years 

ago, this disclosure seems to have gone entirely unnoticed by the histo- 

rlans of economics who have persisted in perpetuating the "Montchretien-(if 

-anyone)-First" fact or attribution — whether Montchretien, who was residing 

and writing his Traicte at Ousson sur Loire only some ninety miles South of 

Paris at that very time, had access to Mayerne-Turquet 's work and "lifted" 

therefrom the key term in his title is a matter for further exploration. 

Now, as regards the purely linguistic-origination issue, the sali- 

ent and documentable fact is that the terminology in question was used on at 

Icast three separate occasions and appears in as many instances in extant 

Greek literature f rom the Ath - Ist centuries B.C. , in the specific forms 

and chronologically as follows: "tkJXuv OLKOVoy uaus", 323/24; noAUTUMn ol-xo- 
vopua, 250/60-200; and, "noXuTLKns OLxovoviuas", ca. 80 — wherein each case, 
as we shall further see, these expressions are used to designate a very spe- 
cial sphere and mode of official activity which may without any reservatlon 
be called "vetero-mercantilist/cameralist. " Moreover, and equally signifi- 
cant from a Substantive Standpoint, it is in the introductory chapter of Book 
II of the early-Peripatetic OIKONOMIKfiN, where the second-mentioned instance 
of occurrence is found, that — according to the earliest and still unsurpa.ssed 
nuthorlty in the matter — "the subject of public economy is, in the mnnner of 
Aristotlc, sclentlfically, but very briefly treated." Other interestlng nnd 


intrigulng facts attach to the flrst two books — a thlrd was added later — of 
thls Aristotelian Economlcs in the present connection, to wit: (1) they are 
known to have cropped up on at least two occasions within a hundred years in 
the Reographical purvlew of Montchretien* s actlvitles as a Student, drama- 
tlst, and businessman (vlz. , at Etaples, an Inlet town on the Engllsh Chan- 
nel some 80 mlles N.N.E. of Rouen — through whlch he mlght mlght have passed 
durlng his escape from Caen to England in 1605 and/or bis return tour via 
Holland to Normandy where he arrived some five years later — in 1506; and 
then, in 1548 at Basel, some 225 miles west of Ousonne sur Loire where he 
set up bis hardware factory in 1612), which — togetber with his demonstrated 
knowledge of Arlstotle, Xenophon, et al. — might suggest a bit of plagiarism 
In tbis connection, of which an uncareful reading of one account would even 
lead the reader to believe he was actually being accused; (2) they have been 
the object and subject of numerous and prominent re-editions, translations, 
and — now more especially Book II — serious investigatlons by philologists and 
economic hlstoriographers during the last 150 years, which — given the associ- 
ations, cross-references, etc. between and among these scholars and several 
of the more lllustrlous of our same historians of economics, including actual 
cltations thereby of the former editions/translations of the original work 
and/or of the special treatments thereof — lends a further dimension to the 
Rcncral curiosity Involved here; and, (3) much like the Traicte itself, the 
Chief — if not the only — merit of this second book has typically been found 
or held to lie primarily — if not exclusively — in its economic-historical 
content, and not (with the exception of a small band of "enthusiasts") in 
anything approaching an original and significant and/or authentically Aristo- 
telian contribution to economic sclence/theory/analysis. While the possl- 
b1 H ty of plagiarism on Montchretien* s part raised above is more readily set- 
tled, tlie second question of "Why, having eyes to see, . . . ?" our historians 


of economlcs and these other dlsclpllnarlans — familiär as they have been 
wlth the works of one another — have missed all the cues and clues and thus 
passed up the many available opportunities to establish the true origin(s) 
and/or actual earllest-known employment(s) of *political economy* « 'oecono- 
mle politique' = * politiki oikonomia * is more puzzling. Thirdly, there is 
an even more problematical and Substantive issue, which has to do — almost 
Inevitably and invariably, it seems — with the very nature and scope of Eco- 
nomics/Economy/"Economycs" itself — whether prefixed "Political," "Social," 
etc. or unprefixed. The essence of this, of course, is the age-old and per- 
haps essentially — or at least existentially — moot question, always lurking 
in the shadows if not gnawing at the ramparts, of Ar t-vs. Science /Theory-vs. - 
Practice/Analysis-vs.-Doctrine/Etc. Particularly germane here is that b oth 
"Pseiido-Arlstotle' s" Oikonomikön — the more analytical but equally normatively 
-oriented Book I as well as the more historical-factual Book II — and Montchre- 
tien's Traicte — along with the more systematically-organized and/or "original" 
Mercantilist/Cameralist treatises right down through Sir James Steuart*s Prin - 
of Political Oeconomy (1767) of a Century and a half later — have been so com- 
pletely ignored and/or relegated to the Status of pre-/non-economlcs and/or 
' p^t'modern' /' impure' /'nonscientific* political economy by historians of econo- 
omlcs particularly during the last 60 years. Whatever attention is paid to 
the "Greeks" is to Aristotle's Politics and Ethics (usually not even bothering 
to speclfy Nicomachean ; since, presumably, the^ Eüderiiian is totally inconse- 
quentlal), Plato's Republic and Laws cum the anonymous/Pseudo-Platonic Eryxias 
(but not his Statesman) , and Xenophon's Ways and Means or Poroi and Economist 
(and occasionally his Cyropaedia ) ; with only two exceptions, however, no men- 
tion whatsoever is to be found of the Single Arlstotelian opus devoted exclu- 
sively to, and comlng down to us under the very title of, Oikonomikön — which 

is not only translated literally but is actually transliterated Economics — 


even In those works (both treates and anthologles) devoted excluslvely to 


early/anclent/pre-Adamite economic thought/analysis or economlsts. (And, 
here, Schumpeter derves singllng out for special admonishment, it would seem, 
and as he was earlier in a similar fashion on a directly related point by a 
noted economic anthropologist, for passing over — in bis specific dlscussions 
of both "Aristotle's Analytic Performance" and "Aristotle's *Pure* Economics" 
— this most distinctively-'pure' Economics — especially Book I, which was most 
prohably wrltten by Aristotle's distinguished protegee, Theophrastus, hlmself 
— of the Stagirite that one can find; for, just three pages prior to these 
dlscussions he had cited the celebrated 1898 work by Souchon which, in the 
latter' s "Introduction," devotes a special — though, admittedly, not very en- 
thusing — note to "a treatise on *l*Economique' formerly attrlbuted to Aris- 
totle /p. 28, fn. ^7"; and, while that note was — on the net — deprecative of 
the work in question, such a scholar as Schumpeter might have been expected 
to check out the original or a more prlraary source and/or to at least com- 
pare Böckh on the matter.) Legitimate and Substantive questions definitely 
arisC, it would seem, concerning the why and wherefore of this selective in- 
attentiveness especially on the part of our more and lese distinguished his- 
torians of economics. Specifically, why is Aristotle's economics sought for 
only in bis Politics and Ethics ; and/or, why are secondary sources taken for 
granted when they regard the Oikonomikon as either or both non-economics and 
non-Aristotelian? Had not non-economists devoted so much attention to this 
work, one would certainly hesitate — and probably decide not — to make such an 
issue over its relative neglect within our discipline proper. Finally, in 
this connection, given this neglect and as well that of — signif icantly — lexi- 
cographical sources whose business it is to delve into the origins etc. of 
such terms as the one in question, the question arises as to how such a 
"fact" as the "Montchretien-(if-anyone-)f irst" becomes a fact; and here, 
tho fact that it is essentially an "insular" fact seems to hold the answer. 

- 6 - 

Nov, once ve demons träte» document and examine further theHe 
ouch earller appearances and usages of the term In questlon (vhich ihould 
Indlcate that, contrary to a most recent oplnion on the matter, thli termln- 

ology was then much more in vogue than the scholar advanclng that oplnion 

would have us believe ), a considerable mystery remains. Thia is the fact 

that, apart from one misleading but prominent lexicographical aource, after 

these three appearances and employmenta of this terrainology in the original 

Greek forma, we seero to search in vain for any aubsequent instances of occur- 

rence importantly in such possible Latin formulations as civilis / politica / 

publica oeconomia « Rather, if the appropriate lexicons, etymological 

dictlonaries, etc. are any reliable idnication, it would seem that — after 

its latest knovn occurrence in the Greek at Milan during the earller part 

of the Ist cent. B. C. — the terminology in questlon vanishes from the Indo- 

European linguistic scene, only to find its renaissance or rebirth at Paris- 

Rouen in the early 17th cent. A. D. , or some 17 centuries later, in the 

form "oeconomie politique." (Researched & written, Fall - Spring, 1977-78.) 

Addendum (12/18/79) . — Now, as a recent article by Todd Lowry (JOUR. 
EGON. LIT., XVII, March 1979, p. 66, n. 3) has noted, and the earller study 
U. of Nebraska Press, 1968, pp. 49-136) cited there has shown, the (pseudo-) 
Aristotle*s OIKONOMIKON, particularly in the form of Durand? s translation/ 
recenslon compl. 1295, was widely circulated "among scholars and educated 
layroen alike" (ibid. pp. 51-52) during the post-1270 medieval-renaissance 
period(s). Given this "new" — to the present diletante, at least — light 
on the Situation, it becomes increasingly plauslble~lf not quite likely — 
that Montchrestien (whom Lowry gathers from his reading of Andreades is 
" still the earllest-fcnown user of "the term political economy " — art. clt., 
n. 2, p. 65) latched onto one of the extant copies floating around, from 
whence he ingeniously "coined" his title. Similarly, e.g. , we may note 
the similarities between Sully's (Duc de, Maximilien de B^thune) title, 
Mcmoires des sages et royales oeconomies, d'6stat, domestiques , politiques, 
Gt militaires ^® Henri le Grand( 16 38) et the OIKON. B, I, 2nd par. 


*The present paper derives largely from the author's ear- 
lier "On the Origin of 'Political Economy': A Terminological- 
Ideological Note," presented and circulated at the Thirteenth 
Annual Conference of the Missouri Valley Economic Association, 
St. Louis, Mo., February 24-26, 1977--available in Faculty Work - 
ing Papers , College of Business Administration, Creighton Uni- 
versity (Omaha, NE 68178), dated February 20, 1977. The follow- 
ing (all of Creighton University) were most generous in providing 
critical translations, interpretations, and/or sources of Classi- 
cal and/or modern- language texts without which these papers would 
have been essentially infeasible: Bruce J. Malina — a Virtual col- 
laborator and not so silent a partner — and Thomas A. Hoff man, S.J. 
(Theology) ; Roland J. Reichmuth, S.J. (Classical Language); Robert 
Z. Apostol — my ever patient and always available "sounding board" 
— and Vern R. Walker (Philosophy) ; Ernst J. Brehm — whose ear was 
bent and German-English pen was lent for many hours — , Andreas 
Gommermann, and Louise Meca (Modern Languages) ; Eduarde Lamanna 
(a graduate Student in the International Relations Program whose 
native tongue rendered a very crucial recent Italian treatise) ; 
and Neil Cahill, S.J. (Economics, without whose knowledge of Latin 
a vital "lead" to at least a remote possibility of plagiarism on 
Montchrdtien* s part would have been completely missed). The au- 
thor, however, accepts major responsibility--for better or worse 
— of the final English renderings and economic exegeses involved. 
Lastly but not leastly, the writer is indebted to Professor Henry 
W. Spiegel 's copious "Bibliographical Notes" to Chapters 1 and 2 
of his op. cit. (infra, n. 2) which provided a veritable mother 
lode of secondary sources that enabled an almost sine-qua-non di- 
mention to the present effort, in light of which that scholar may 
no doubt seem somewhat ungratefully maligned on several occasions 
in the pages which follow; so, to HWS @ CU from ton @ cu, Pace! 

See, e.g.: (1) Joseph Garnier, "De l'Origine et de la Fili- 
ation du Mot ficonomie politique etc.," Journal des Economistes / 
Revue de la Science economigue etc. (Paris: Chez Guillaumin, Li- 
brairie) , XXXII (May-August 1852), esp. p. 306; (2.a) Wilhelm 



Röscher, Geschichte der Natlonal-Oekonomlk In Deutschland (München: R. 
Oldenbourg, 1874), p. 185, n. 2, and cf. (2.b) Idem, Grundlagen der National - 
ökonomie (Ist ed., 1854), 18th ed. (Stuttgart: J. G. Cotta'schen Buchhand- 
lung, 1886) 2d chap. , "Place of National Economics In the Clrcle of the re- 
lated Sciences," esp. pp. 35-36, n. 1; (3) Th. Funck Brentano's "Introductlon" 

^ le 

to hls edltlon of the Tralcte (Paris: E. Plön, Nourrltt et C , 1889; also, 

Paris: Marcel Rivlere, n.d.), p. XXIII; (A.a) John Keils Ingram, "Polltlcal 
Economy," Encyclopaedla Brltannlca , 9th ed., 1885 (reprlnt ed.; Chicago: R. 
S. Peale & Co., 1891), p. 357, and/or (4.b) idem, A Hlstory of Polltlcal Econ- 
omy , New & Enlarged Edition (London: A. & C. Black, 1915), pp. 44-45; (5) W. 
J. Ashley, An Introductlon to Engllsh Economic Hlstory and Theory , 4th ed., 
1909 (reprlnt ed.; Augustus M. Kelley, Publlshers, 1966), pp. 392 and 474 
(n. 51); (6) Charles Gide, Prlnclples of Polltlcal Economy (Ist French ed., 
1883), trans. from the 23d French ed. by Ernest F. Row, Boston, 1924 (reprlnt 
ed.; New York: AMS Press, 1971), pp. 2-5; (7) Heinrich Pesch, S.J., Lehrbuch 
der Nationalökonomie , Vol. II, 2d and 3d, new and enlarged ed. (Frieburg: 
Herder & Co., 1920), pp. 47-48(n.l); (8) Othmar Spann, The Hlstory of Eco- 
nomics , trans. from the 19 th German ed. by Eden and Cedar Paul (New York: 
W. W. Norton and Company, 1931), p. 37; (9.a) Charles Woolsey Cole, French 
Mercnntillsm before Colbert (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1931). 
esp. pp. 113-15 incl. nn. , and/or (9.b) idem, Colbert and a Century of French 
Mercantllism (Mornlngside Heights, N.Y.: Columbia University Press, esp. pp. 
83-85 Incl. nn.; (10) Paul Harsin, "Montchretien, Antoine de," Encyclopaedla 
of the Social Sciences (1933; reissue ed., New York: The Macmlllan Company, 
1937), Vol. IX, p. 636; (11) Charles Gide and Charles Rist, A Hlstory of Eco - 
n omic Doctrlnes , Second Engllsh Edition, trans. R. Richards (Boston, etc.: 
D. C. Heath and Co., 1948 et seq.), pp. 21-23; (12) Anna Maria Rattl, "Mont- 
chrestlen, Antoine de," Enciclopedia Italiana dl Scienze, Lettere ed Artl 
(Roma: Instituto della Enciclopedia Italiana, 1951), Vol. XXIII, p. 724; 
(13. a) Ludwig H. Mai, On the Formation of Polltlcal Economy (n.p.: Astra 
Center for Social Science Studies, 1969), p. 25, and/or (13. b) idem, A Prlmer 
on Development of Economic Thought (San Antonio, Tex. : Institute of Interna- 
tional and Public Affairs, St. Mary's University, 1974), p. 25, and/or (13. c) 
Iflom, Men and Ideas in Economics: A Dictlonary of World Economista Paat a nd 
Proscnt (Totowa, N.J.: Littlefleld, Adams & Co., 1975), p. 160: (14) Frank 
Amandus Neff, Economic Doctrlnes (Wichita, Kan. : McGuln Publishing Company, 
1946), p. 60; (15) Jacob Oser and William C. Blanchfield, The Evolution of 
Economic- Thou ght , 3d cd. (New York, etc.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1975), 


p. 10; (16) William K. Hutchinson, History of Economic Analysis: A Guide to 
Information Sources (Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1976), p. 9, #22; (17) 
Gas ton Leduc, " Economle polltlque ," subart, under "ECONOMIE," LAROUSSE DU 
XX^ SIEGLE, 6 vols., 38644 Artlcles, etc. (Paris: Llbralrle Larousse, 1930), 
Vol. III, p. 42, col. 2, whlch opens "Ce terme a ete employe pour la premiere 
fols par un auteur fran9al9, Antolne de Montchrestlen, au debut du XVII® sie- 
de, etc." (N.B.: Thls Is not to be confused wlth the subart. " Economle poll - 
tuque et sociale " by Marcel Bezan9on whlch appears in an apparently earller 
and less extensive — "38618 Artlcles" — Issue of ibid. /same place, publlsher, 
and dat£7, loc. clt. , where no mentlon of the premier employment of "economle 
polltlque" nor of "Montchrestlen" Is found.); and, (18) * the ultlmate author- 
Ity,* The Oxford Engllsh Dlctlonary (London: Oxford Unlverslty Press, 1933; 
reprlnt ed., 1970), Vol. VII, s.v. "Polltlcal," *A.6, Phrases,' p. 1075, col. 
1, and cf. Vol. I, "General Conslderatlons," § IV. 

As clted by Garnler (loc. clt., n. 1) the title, etc. of the original 
edltlon of the Tralcte ran as follows: " Tralcte de 1* ceconomie polltlque , 
dedle au roy et a la reine mere du roy, par Antoyne de Montchretlen, sleur 
de Vatevllle. A Rouen, chez Jean Osmont, dans la court du Palais, 1615, avec 
prlvllege du roy . Deux tomes in 4-0 jolnts en un." (Along wlth — seemlngly, 
at least — all of the rest of the wrlters since that republlcatlon, we follow 
here — and all subsequent cltatlons are of — the Funck-Brentano edltlon; whlch, 
is, albelt, a somewhat abrldged — though, otherwise, presumably verbatlm — Ver- 
sion of the original, with extensive explanatory notes, literary references, 
a "Tableau Analytique de la Doctrine de Montchretlen" — pp. 389-95 — etc. sup- 
plled and appended by the edltor.) Garnler seems to be the flrst in time to 
make the termlnologlcal "flrst" claim for Montchretlen, and is clted in thls 
regard subsequently — e.g, — by Luigi Cossa, (19. a) Introduzione allo Studio 
dell* Economia Politica (Milano: Ulrlco Hoepli, Edltore-Librajo della Real 
Casa; 1892), "Parte Teorica," chap. flve, 'Denominations and Definitions of 
Polltlcal Economy,' pg. 72, where the author concludes bis dlscusslon of *De- 
nominazloni , ' with the reslgnatlon that, "For want of any better locution/ex- 
pression/saylng, it seems opportune/advisable/expedient to stick with that of 
economia politica , whlch is found on the tltle-page of a book on Politica Eco- 
nomica publlshed in 1615 by Montchretlen de Vatteville, etc."; and, cf. Idem, 
(19. b) An Introductlon to the Study of Polltlcal Economy , rev. by the author 
and trans. from the Italian by Louis Dyer (London: Macmillan and Co., 1893), 
p. 61 — to wlt: "Nothing better having suggested Itself, we may be content 
wlth the torm POLITICAL ECONOMY, whlch occurs on the tltle-page of a book on 


polltlcal economv publlshed In 1615 by Montchretlen de Watteville, etc."; 

but, nothing further, It is to be noted, is mentioned by Cossa about this 

latter author or bis work to Warrant the "speclally admitted" attribution 

made by Gide (b.l), as cited and quoted in n. 2, infra. Röscher — as cited 

supra, (2.a) and (2.b) — may have been relying on Garnier, but gives no expli- 

cit indication that he was in either place; thus, given that his Grundlagen 

appeared originally only two years after Garnier' s article (1854 vs. 1852), 

he might well have established the claim for Montchretlen independently; but, 

as WG shall see presently, by 1874 — and even 20 or 25 years earlier — he could 

and should have known soraewhat better when he noted in his Geschichte (loc. 

cit.) in re "The coiranencement of systematic and historical Volkswirthschaf ts- 

lehre in Germany" as follows; 

Man 's attention was unwittingly drawn to the brink of this Integration 
/i.e., of the various domestic (national) household furnishings and In- 
struments handled by the (separate) ministers, which the modern fiscal-/ 
financial-science — now sketched out from the people's-/social-economical 
Viewpoint and thereby rendered more systematic and natural — treats as 
the coordination of the individual Offices? by Montchretlen de Watte- 
ville, in having published in 1615 his Traicte de l*oeconomie politique . 
This title alone was at that time a great scientific gain, since even 
Bacon understood under Economics only the doctrine of family-econoray ; 
Dendlng Montchretlen, it is from Aristotle and Xenophon forwards that we 
cannot have the hanging-together of_the two, house- and state-economy, 
cette mcnagerie publique (p. 44. /F.-B. ed., pp. 31-32, reads: "ceste 
mesnagerie publique," Montchr. having just controverted "l*opinion d* 
Aristote et de Xenophon" — presumably as against Plato — that "l'oeconomie" 
and "la police" were two (naturally) dlstinct types of activity, himself 
maintaining "that the science of acquiring goods . . . is common to repub- 
lics as well as to families."7. 

It Is obviously this passage — though uncited — from his authority (Röscher) 

that Ingram was referring to some 10 and then 40 years later when he wrote 

— (4.a) and (4.b), loc. cit. (and cf. supra, pp. 354 and 34, respectively) — 

under the heading of "Second Modern Phase: Mercantilism" as follows: 

The first systematic treatise on our science which proceeded from a 
French author was the Traite de l'^conomie Politique , published by 
Montchretlen de Watteville (or Vasteville) in 1615. The use of the 
title, says Röscher, now for the first time given to the science, was 
In Itself an Important Service, since even Bacon understood by "Econo- 
mia" only the theory of domestic management. 

Aside from his editor, Funck-Brentano, and the latter 's follower, Cole — 

(9.a)/(9.b) supra — along with P. Lavalley (as per Schumpeter, op. cit. infra, 

p. 168) and possibly Dessaix (as cited by Harsin, (10) supra), the foregolng 

remnrks by Röscher and Ingram constitute as high an accolade as Montchretlen 

hns rcccived on his dual terminological-substantive contrbution to the science 

— ns an examlnatlon of the works next cited (n. 2) would most clearly reveal. 


In the examples clted in the present regard, the followlng notatlons 
will be used In deslgnatlng the character of the respective writer's attribu- 
tion to Montchretlen: (1) in respect the author*s degree of certalnty and/or 
expllcltness, A = "actual," P^ « "probable," a^/s^ ■ "apparent"/"seemlng," e_lo^ • 
"elllptlcal"/"obllque," and 1 - "insinuated/implled"; (ii) as to what Montchr. 
was, U =» inventor/creator/(unqualified)first-user, and K » first-/earliest- 
known -user; (iil) as to whatiof, t « the word/term/phrase/etc. itself, and 
T = the same but as restricted to the title of a book/work/etc. — to which 
further descriptions/evaluations/etc. by the authors themselves re Montchr. 
and/or the Traicte (along with further coiranents by the present writer) will be 
added verbatlm. Thus, see, e.g.: (l.a) W. J. Ashley*s review of "Traicte de 
etc. . . . Avec Introduction et Notes par Th. Funck-Brentano, etc." first ap- 

pearing in the English Historical Review , VI (1891), 779, as reprinted in his 
Surveys Historie and Economic (1900; reprint ed., New York: Augustus M. Kel- 
ley, Publishers, 1966), "Economic Opinion," *Montchre''tien, * pp. 263-67 /Ä-U-T , 
pp. 263-64; but, reading on "there is hardly a Single argument or proposal in 
the 'Traicte' which is not derived from earlier writers" (viz. primarily Bodin 
and then Laffemas, pp. 26A-66) while, also, Ashley finds — pp. 266-67 — "one sig- 
nificant fact about Montchretlen* s book which would seem to cast no little 
H^ht on his own character: It is that the industry for which • . . (he) first 
asks protection — . . . to which he devotes more space than to others certainly 
more important — was the hardware trade, . . . (which) was, as it happens, his own 
business," though Ashley does conclude that while "Montchretlen was not 'a 
great economist,' his book . . , affords a great deal of Information as to the 
conditlons of commerce and manufactures, and it shows the directlon in which 
economic forces were going" (p. 267)7, but cf. (l.b) Idem, "MONTCHRfllEN, An- 
toyne de (c . 1576- 1621), Palgrave's Dictionary of Polltical Economy , rev. ed. 
by Henry Higgs (1925-26; reprint ed., New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1963), 
Vol. II, pp. 808-9 /where, now, s-U-T and vs. his earlier (1888) assessment of 
A-U-t "on its tltle-page" as in (5) of n. 2 supra?; (2) C. Gide, "French 
Scliool of Polltical Economy," ibid. (i.e., PDPE , II), pp. 154-55 /Ä-U-T ; but, 
perhaps also A-U-t as in (6) and (11) of n. 2, supra; so, we quote verbatlm: 

It Is now generally agreed that it was in France that polltical economy 
first saw the llght and even recelved its name; for the first book bear- 
Ing the title of Kconomle Polltlque is that by Antoine de MONTCHR^.TIEN, 
T raicte d'f^.conomie politlque , 1615. (Thls fact is specially admitted by 
Cossa, on page 61 of his Introduction to the study of Polltical Economy , 
English translation.) Unfortunately the title of Montchretlen' s book is 

practlcally the only portlon that has deserved to survlve, but that 
was certainly a beginning. 

* t 


The questlon here Is what "fact" Is Gide ref erring to? Three are posslble; 

and, as was Indlcated In n. 2 aupra, Cossa — (19.a)/(19.b) , loc. clt., nor 

anywhere eise thereln where Montchrltlen Is referred to — 'specially admlts* 

none of them. Indeed, Gide would here seem to be gullty of the same "national 

predjudlce" of whlch Cossa accuses a partlcular "class of wrlters (whlch) at- 

trlbutes the foundlng of the sclence to Indlvldual Itallan, French, or Engllsh 

wrlters of the slxteenth and centurles, as, for example, to (Inter alll clt.) 

. . . Montchretlen," whence — lest there be any doubt — we find later on where 

the " orman poet" — though not "second-rate poet," as he was Introduced by 

Ashley In hls PDPE art. — Is taken up "among the lesser polltlcal wrlters" the 

marginal note, "Montchretlen not the father of economlcs" (same "Eng. trans.," 

pp. 126 and 190, respectlvely) . The only thlng Cossa "speclally admltted" 

on that "page 61" Is — after hls conslderatlon of alternative appelatlons whlch 

have been applied to the dlsclpllne, such as Clvll/Publlc/Soclal (and even In- 

dustrlal) Economlcs, State/National Economy, "economic sclence or ECONO>fY," 

and slmply "economlcs" (pp. 58-61) — contalned in hls concludlng justificatlon 

of hls own declslon to stick wlth and opt for "polltlcal economy," to wlt: 

Nothing better havlng suggested Itself, we may be content wlth the term 
POLITICAL ECONOMY, whlch occurs on the tltle-page of a book on polltlcal 
economy publlshed in 1615 by Montchretlen de Wattevllle, whlch was em- 
ployed by Steuert in 1767, by Verri in 1731, and was accepted by Adam 
Smith in 1776. Adam Smith' s example has secured the general adoptlon of 
polltlcal economy as the prevalent name, notably in England, France, 
Italy, and America, where thls deslgnation is unlversally recognlsed In 
all works on the sclence Itself, and in all places where It is taught 
publlcly or privately. (Period. ) 

Those familiär wlth the major works of Gide — esp., (6) and (11) as in n. 1 

above — will no doubt recognlze thls whole dlscusslon as somewhat of a red 

herring. For there (loc. clt.) — perhaps no less chauvlnlstlcally but (pre- 

sumably) not gullty of "the confuslon . . . between general oplnlons about 

economic phenomena . . .and theoretlcal ideas" whlch Cossa (op. clt., p. 126) 

held to be the second reason for the "remarkable dlfference of oplnlon among 

economic historlans as to the orlgins of the sclence" — it Is unmlstakably 

clear that the true father and founders of "pure polltlcal economy " /"economic 

science"/"the sclence of Polltlcal Economy" were Quesnay and the Physlocrats 

(or, as they preferred, "les Economlstes") ; thus, e.g., he wams and Informs: 

But we must beware of regardlng thls date (1615), whlch saw the baptlsm 
of polltlcal economy, as the date also of Its blrth. As a study of facts, 
polltical economy goes back to a far earller date, and, as a sclence . . . 
It Is more modern. — (6), as in n. 1 supra, p. 4. 

It Is not too much to say that thls (i.e., Quesnay's three essays in 
t^^^ Grand Encyclopedic of 1756, '57 and '58) marks the beginning of a 

• r w ij i' !■ 


J. A. Schumpeter, HIST. EGON. ANAL. (Oxford U. Press, 1954), pp. 167- 
68; H. W. Spiegel, GROWTH EGON. THOÜGHT (Prentice-Hall, 1971), pp. 94-95, 172. 

James E. King, "The Orlgln of the Term 'Polltlcal Economy, 
MODERN HIST., XX, 3 (Sept. 1948), 230-31. 



AMERIGANA (Madrid: Espasa Galpe, S.A.; 1908; 1958), Vol. XXXIII, p. 1311(1); et 
(Paris: Administration du Grand Dictionnaire Universel, 1873), Vol. X, p. 1383 
(2-3) — shed further light on this "French historian and political writer" (b. 
Lyon, ca. 1550; d. Paris, 1618) and his "ouvrages" (incl., significantly as well, 
hls TRAITfi DES N^GOCES ET TRAFIGS EN GONTRATS ETG., Genfeve, 1599) which may show 
a 'Mayerne - Montchrestien* connection . 

^Augustus Boeckh, THE PUBLIG EGONOMY OF THE ATHENIANS, trans. A. Lamb 
(Boston: Little, Brown and Go.; London: Sampson, Low, Son and Go.; 1857), p. 5. 

(Paris: Librairie de la Soci^t^ du Recueil Ge'neral des Lois et des Arrfets, 1898), 
p. 28; G. Gyril Armstrong, "Introduction," in ARISTOTLE, OEGONOMIGA, trans. Arm- 
strong (Gambridge, Mass.: Harvard U. Press; London: William Heinemann Ltd.; 
1947), pp. 323-24; and, H. W. Spiegel, op. cit. (1971) as in n. 1 supra, p. 667. 


Here, without füll documentation, we just note M. L. W. Laistner, GREEK 
KCONOMTCS (N.Y.: E. P. Dutton, 1923); A. E. Monroe, EARLY EGONOMIG THOUGHT (Har- 
vard U. Press, 1948 (Monroe - editor) ; and, Barry Gordon, EGONOMIG ANALYSIS BE- 
FORE ADAM SMITH (Barnes & Noble, 1975), who really goofs in specifying agreement 
between Aristotle and Plato that the management of a large private estate is no 
different from the government of a small city-state, as per his pp. 32-39. 

Gunnar Stollberg, "Zur Geschichte des Begriffs , Politische Ökonomie,*" 

The dosest thing the present writer has been able to come to this is 
"civilis scientiae," as in GIGERO, DE INVENTIONE; ETCOP. AL. , (ed.) trans. H. M. 
Hubbell (Harvard U. et Heinemann Ltd., 1949), pp. 14/15, //6; et cf. THE UNIVERSAL 
don: Sumptibus Baldwin et Gradock; et Guielmi Pickering; MDGGGXXVIII) , Vol. I, p. 
375(2), s.v. "Givilis, le," to wit: "Givilis scientia. political economy . h.e. 
quae docet rationem reipublicae gerendae, et inter cives vivendi. Gic(ero) ." 

J. SoudeJc, 15.6.81 

- 2 • 

dem Rev. Bruce Malina (Prof. of Theology) , der biblische Theologie 
in Creighton lehrt. Der Gegenstand ist die philosophische Begründ- 
ung eines neuen Typs der Wirtschaftswissenschaft, der gemeinhin als 
"Gozialoekonomik" bezeichnet wird. Prof. Nitsch hat bereits Ende 
Mai auf einem j aehrlichen Kongress der Society for thc History of 
Economic Thought in East Lansing, Michigan, einige Ergebnisse sei- 
ner Untersuchung vorgetragen und vvurde nun eingeladen, auf einem 
internationalen Kongress von Volkswirtschaftern in Jerusalem weite- 
re Einzelheiten seiner Forschung darzulegen. Rev. Bruce Malina 
haelt sich in aiesem Frühjahr und Sommer in Jerusalem zu Studien- 
zwecken auf unü kann Prof. lUtsch eine Hand reichen. Nun ergab es 
sich, dass Prof. Nitsch auf seinem Flug von New York nach Israel 
in Rom eine Pause machen kann. Da er noch nie in Suropa war (er 
ist 50 Jahr alt), moechte er gern in Rom Station machen und viel- 
leicht von dort aus auch Bibliotheken in Venedig besichtigen. 

Vienn er Glück haette und Sie Mitte August in Rom warren, waere 
er sehr dankbar, Sie in Ihreir: Institut besuchen und seine Ideen be- 
züglich der Oeconomica II mit Ihnen besprechen zu dürfen. Wenn 
sich der x^lan eines 6 taegigen Aufenthalts in Italien zusammen mit 
einem Besuch bei Ihnen verwirklichen Hesse, waere seine Universi- 
taet bereit, ihm bei der Finanzierung des kostspieligen Unterneh- 
mens unter uie Arme zu greifen. Leider kam die Idee eines Flugs 
nach Israel über Italien erot vor ein paar Tagen auf, sonst haette 
ich Ihnen schon laengst von seinem Vorhaben berichtet. 

Mein heutiger Brief ist schon zu lang ge-orden, um auch nur 
kurz von meinen eigenen Plaenen zu berichten, ich beabsichtige, 
im kommenden Sommer und Frühherbst (16.7. -^ 20.10.) wieder in 
Deutschland zu sein und nach einer Kur in Bad Dürrheim, wo meine 
Atembeschvveruen unu Kreislaufs toerungen behandelt -.verden sollen, 
in Hegensburg eine Pause zu mahhen. Dabei würde ich Mitte Septem- 
ber diesmal auch Landshut wiedersehen. Darüber und über meine 
Gründe, Ihnen für viele erwiesene Güte meinen Dank auszusprechen, 
werde ich ein ander ü^al berichten. 

Einstweilen bitte ich Sie, meine Zumutungen bezüglich Herrn 
Prof. Nitsch zu erwaegen und aninee besten V.ünsche für Sie und 
Ihre Familie entgegenzunehmen von meiner Frau, die sich wie immer 
auf dm Land nahe der kanadischen Grenze erholen wird, und 

Ihrem ergebenen 



Area Code 402, ^36-28)2 

July 9, 1981 

Dear Dr. & Mrs, Soudek, 

Arrived Omaha about 11 Tues, , without incident, 
except slight delay in getting from our only stop in Des 
Moines to here (25 min. flying time!). Rather than maintain 
the crew that brought us all the way from New York, we had 
to wait for a different one from Denver that was an hour 
late in leaving there, 

Now, the Problem is resettling in here with all my 
new materials and the back-log of mail etc. which has accumu- 
lated in my absence. Dutifully, Dr. Goldbrunner had mailed a 
xerox copy of his letter here. In that regard, I am increas- 
ingly inclined to leave my travel plans as set, taking my 
chances on libraries etc. when I get to Rome. 

On my way back to the I-house the other evening, I 
stopped into Butler Library and found that they did hold a 
ALTERA, edidit Laurentius Minio-Paluello, Bruges-Paris, Des- 
clee de Brouwer, 1961, but in their Special Collections (ca- 
talog no. B016.091 /L119 /suppl.). So, that night I packed, 
and then went down to Butler Library Rare-Book Reading Room 
and took the relevant info. from Min.-Pa^. the next morning 
(Tues.), Thus, I feel relatively complete in my researches 
thus far. Actually, I would very much have liked to spend 
as much time with that Suppl. Alt. as I had, proportionally, 
with the pts, I & II in terms of its selective bibliog. — e.g,, 
particularly the works by Franceschini (sp.?) listed there 
and others which might have shed some light on our question 
of whom the principal expert on the Economica might have 
been — but press of time didn* t permit, What I did fund there 
— several items perhaps worthy of special note — I indicate on 
accompanying sheet. 

Otherwise, most pleasant trips to both of you, and 
warm regards from house to house. Look forward to corres- 

ponding and comparing notes on our respective returns^ 
Thanks, again, for everything. Auf Wiedersehen! ^-J^^y/^ 

Office Memaratidum 





JSM (= Josef Soudek of Manhattan)* 

DATE: 7/10/81 

TON (who already has three known Initials, and whose "geography" really 
doesn*t "explain" very much, at least as of this point) 

Selected notes on examination of ARISTOTELES LATINUS DODICES, SUPPLEMENTA 
ALTERA, Edidit Laurentius Minio-Paluello, Bruges-Paris, Descl^e de Brouwer, 
1961; pp. 229, cm. 25x16.8. 

1) In "Nomina et Operum Tituli" index (p. 198), sub "Economica 'Aristotells' , 
Translatio Vetus, Translatio Durandi," readers are instructed to (a) delete codex 
nos. 1661 and 1663 from the TV category and (b) add these to the TD category, while 
(c) as per there and "Addenda" p. 227 (apparently) deleting "5. Yconomica , Kecensio 
Durandi" from cod. no. 1282, (d) adding/substituting "5. Economica , Translatio Vetus" 
— et N.B., _tV vs. £D~thereto(for) and, finally, (e) adding a heretofore unlisted 
codex no. 2158— BIBL. COMMUNALIS MOZZI-BORGETTI , 5. 3. D. 30 (3.C.17; Mazzat. 361) — 
to the Trans. Vet. column and several of such to the "Transl.Dur." column. 

2) In that last regard (l.e), it should be noted, one "J. Soudek, The Genesis 
and Tradition of Leonardo Bruni's Annotated Latin Version of the (Pseudo)Aristotellan 
Economics , p. 266" is — inter alios — cited (p. 14 3n) . In this same regard, and as you 
had indicated, the "Addenda" section opens with the following prefatory note: "Quae 
hie subuntur serius nobis innotuerunt quam ut superiori catalogo inseri possent. 
Gratis agiraus viris doctis O.P. Kristeller, R.W. Hunt, V. Zubor, H.M^_Goldbrunner 
necnon dominae Kopelevic a quibus ea didicimus." 

3) Various addenda/emendata/corrigenda re the previous listings in the Pars 
Prior/Posterior, such as and including (a) the relocation of the Library of Philip 
Hofer (re, e.g., cod. no. 16 containing a TV) » (t>) the (apparent) availability of 
Codices in photocopy form by virtue of such notations as "Phot. (ff. 31-49) : Saul- 
choir, and (c) new designations for certain Codices — all as pertain to those con- 
taining the tr.Vet . 



College of Business Administration 
Office of the Dean 

November 25, 1981 

DeäriDr. and Mrs. Soudek, 



f'^ ^' 

I hope this flnds both of you essentially "recuperated" from your summer 
vafcations, without ascribing any "normative" significance to that latter term. 
Seriously, though, I hope you are both back to health and up to par in your Up- 
town habitat, and was sorry to hear that the weather turned out so lousy for 
both of you — as it sounded — at your respective retreats, Here, and especially 
in Jerusalem, Israel and in Roma-Firenze, I can only say that the weather was 
ideal, as were all the other travel, touring, etc. arrangements — with the 
potentiously drastic exception that I had carefully stored my bags on an other- 
wise empty (Express) train on my right (Rome) track, only to depart briefly and 
find it slowly pulling away from Station, but gaining speed. Finally, I did 
manage to catch it afoot. There were all my mss. notes, etc.! 

As I indicated, I managed three füll (but shorter-summer) days of ms, re- 
search, mainly at the Laurenziana but also at the Nazionale Centrale - Firenze. 
I examined the BML*s (Conv.Sopp.95) , tr./rec. Durandus of lib. I,III 
(Plut.XIII.Sin.Cod.6), tr. (rec.)Aret. (Plut.79,Cod. 18; = Bruni, of course) , and 
two Greek mss. (Plut.81,Cod.5;ibid. ,Cod.21) , on all of which I took fairly care- 
ful and crucial notes; and, with the exception of the last Greek (Cod. 21), all 
of which I have microfilm of the critical folia — 33 ff. ea. was the minimum Or- 
der. As for the BNC-F, there I examined the ms. Aristotelis Ethica , containing 
an important tr./rec. Dur. (Conv.Soppr.A.5.2769) . This and the BML*s , 
e.g., were conflated with one another in the beginnings. But, more importantly, 
this ms. contains a commentary incipit "Jura canonica & leges civiles ??? artes 
collaterales" which may prove to be very suggestive regarding our problem of why 
Durandus did not translate the genuine liber secundus . The relevant folia from 
this ms. I have in photo-print copy, and enclose xerox copies of the ( incipit ) 
^^^ Explicit ff. of the Oeconomica text, whence commences the Jura canonica 
commentary. It will take our paleographer to decipher this. 

As I mentioned to Mrs. S., I also now have the complete 1615 ed. of Mont- 
chretien^s Traicte on microfilm from the Royal Library in Copenhagen (Langholm* s 
tip); and, though I*ve skimmed it on the reader, I do not know yet whether the 
xerox transforms of this will come out black on white or vice versa (as those of 
the microfilms from the Bibl. Med. Lauren. do — i.e., white on black). As to 
the Arabic ms./print, that seems to be a commentary /paraphrase (more than seems) 
rather than textual Version. Do you still want xerox copies of Montchr's. Tr. ? 

Mainly, what I would like to have as soon as time etc. would permit your 
doing it, is the xerox copy of the relevant title-page, and Oecon. I (chap. i) 
and II (chap. i) passages of the Sylburg ed. of the Opera (1587), as you said 
you would provide. Otherwise, I have all the secondary sources / treatises on 
the "transmission of the corpus Aristotelicum" (P. Moraux, very important recent 
article/lecture; Sandys, Vols. I-II; Grayeff , 1974, very important; Zeller, Engl, 
tr., 2 vols.); Shute, 1888; During, 1957; Praechter, 1925; Chroust, 1973; Diog. 
Laertius; Lohr, Traditio ; Geanakoplos = 3 works on Byzantine shcolars; etc., &c). 
I need Sylburg for paper I*m proposing for 1982 HOES conf. as per enclosure. 

2500 California Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)449-2852 



College of Business Administration 

May 22, 1982 

Dear Dr. Soudek, 

I here enclose for your critical examination and — I hope to some extent 
— edification my first effort at pulling together my research and study of last 
Spring and Summer in New York and Florence, Also, are included a couple of 
items which may be of interest to you regarding the Session I was asked (final- 
ly!) to put together for the forthcoming HES meetings at Duke U. 

That "up front" and out of the way (at least for the time being) , let 
me say that I hope this finds you and Mrs, S. enjoying somewhat improved health 
from that which she indicated to me several times over the phone. This should 
be "your time of the year," and I hope the weather back there is not the disap- 
pointment now that it was to you on your trip to Europe last Summe r-Autumn. 
You simply can*t imagine the amount of precipitation that we*ve had here this 
Spring; 15 out of the first 20 days of the month witnessed everything from 
showers to downpours. 

Now, to the matter at hand. I will be putting a research tour on top of 
my attendance and presentation at the HES meetings, Specifically, I will visit 
Washington, D.C. (Library of Congress; possibly Dumbarton Oaks, though that 
might not be too relevant), where l'll stay with my cousin; Harvard University 
(Houghton Library, specifically the Philip Hofer Library, from whom I have se- 
cured special permission to examine the translatio vetus ms. in his collection 
as listed in Lacombe et al., pars I et III); the University of Pennsylvania 
Library (whom l've contacted, and who ' look forward to my visit*); and, lastly, 
Columbia U, Butler Lib. and the New York Public Lib. for some "clean up" Opera- 
tions — at Philadelphia 1*11 stay at one of our Jesuit Colleges, St. Joseph U.; 
and, in Manhattan, probably at the Leo House (possibly Fordham) . 1*11 probably 
not spend more than several days at each place, as I plan to return from D.C. 
on the 16th June. 

I'll probably go to Harvard (where 1*11 stay with a former Student who*s 
in the MBA program there) first, after stopping briefly in D.C, being there 
(Harvard) for perhaps May 31 -June 4; whence, I would plan to swing down through 
New York, or otherwise go on to Philadelphia, and then back to New York. At any 
rate, in the course of this trip, I would like to drop in on you for at least a 
brief visit, if that would be possible. I would keep you posted as my plans de- 
velop, and see to it that we arrange a suitable time. Personally, I*m supposed 
— my doctor*s and wife*s Orders — to make this a bit of a vacation; so, I*m not 
planning too rigidly. 

In the meantime, I shall give you a call to see how this strikes you at 
least provisionally, With very best wishes and gratitude to you and Mrs. S, 

As always. 

California at24th Street Omaha, Nebraska 68178 (402)280-2850 Telex: 910-622-9287 

i i 

C P Y 

New York, July 14, 1982 

Dear Professor Nitsch, 

the weather in cur town has finally reached a shape in which 
it can rival Omaha, though Nebraska remains, in this respect too, 
superior to what New York is able to off er. For my taste, how- 
ever, the heat has become unbearable and thus I am looking for- 
ward to my departure for Gernany on the Coming Tuesday, July 19. 
I shall travel there for three months vvhile Mrs. Soudek vill be 
sptnuing the same time on an olafashioned farm near Lake George. 
Should you for the one or other reason want to reach me, please 
address your mail to my home with the note "please, forward" and 
then it will reach me wherever I should be at the time. 

Today I am sending you ander separate cover an offprint of 
my article on "Aristotle's Theory of Exchange" which I found in 
a dark corner of my archives and which may come handy for future 
references. In connection with this article I want to draw your 
attentionto a just published book by one of my brilliant students, 
Karen 1. Vaughn. It is the first American study on John Lockens 
economic theorizing. Perhaps, your Library will order a copy for 
you and you may enjoy enjoy reaaing, besides the acknowledgments, 
the first 45 pages of that (physically) slim volume. 

Tucked into the offprint of my article you will find a xerox 
copy of Dr. H. Goldbrunner* s essay on the dr^ting of the transla- 
tio vetus and recensio Durandi in which he, in my opinion, success- 
fully, takes issue with Mandonnet and Menut . (I trust Ihat Gold- 
brunner's German diction will not cause you too much effort) . When 
reworking your "Working Paper" on the Qrigin, etc . you should de- 
finitely revise your text on p. 26 accordingly. ^Vi/hile noting hum- 
anistic Latin versions of Oeconomica II, it may be advisable to 
take a look at the Series "Renaissance Latin Aristotle Commentar- 
ies" in the Renai.'^ sance wuarterly authored by Charles H. Lohr 
(known to your friends in the theological faculty as Charles Lohr, 
S.J. and co-editor of the periodical Traditio ) , published by Ford- 
ham University Press). Dr. Lohr lives at present at Freiburg (BrciS' 
gau) and I shall most probably meet him when there in September. 
In the section "Authors C", R.Q. vol. xxviii, no. 4 (Winter 1975), 
p. 696 there is an entry on Camerarius. Since Lohr presents ex- 
haustive literature on the authors, you can select whatever you 
want for your purposes. As to Camerarius, I should suggest to be- 
gin with the authoritative (though not faultless) work my Sandys 
and glance over the ciled passages in Thordike*s classical work. 
For your purposes it should be sufficient to look into the impres- 
sive essay by E.F. Rice, Jr. on "Humanist Aristotelianism in France 
..." and to take not of the reprints of Faber *s translationx of 
the Oeconomica II in Lohr 's Listing of Faber* s works. 

Finally, I should very much appreciate your contacting the 

Nitsch, July/August 1980 

- 2 - 

Paris »»Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes" and reauest 
a microfilm or photostat of the first chapter of Montchr^tien*"'s 
"Traict^". I strongly suspect that Funk-Brentano did some danger- 
ous editing there which has caused so much confusion but should 
not fool US v/hen going down to work. Though the directrice of the 
Institut is no longer there, I found all collaborators very help- 
ful &nd the expense of material provided by then bearable, Yet 
not let interfere your efforts with v/orries about financing; we 
shall find a way out. 

Now that I have given you a sufficient amount of reading to 
sweat about, I am wishing you, Mrs. Nitch and the rest of your 
family some cool retreat and enough relaxation for the Coming 
strains of your scholarship. With "wärmest" greetings, in which 
Mrs. Soudek .joins, 

yours as always. 

c p y 


München, August 8, 1982 

Dear Professor Nitsch, 

attached I am sending you a letter dated July 14 (the day I 
drafted it) the clean copy of which I was unable to type during 
the heatwave (a little above lOOo) that preceded my departure to 

When I arrived at Frankfurt /Main a very rainy and cool atmos- 
phere greeted me. Yet a few days later, the U.S. heatwave follow- 
ed my arrival and though the temperature did not exceed 90^, it 
was too hot in a country where air conditioning is still a little 
applied luxury. Thus I have had to postpone copying the letter 
until shortly before my "Kur" at a spa, one hour traintrip south 
of Munich. My lung needs the treatments as much as do my old bones 
(rather joins; . 


Hoping that you did not lose any time on account of the weath- 
I remain with still "warm" wishes 




C/^l to Ltj^x NEH ~ APPLICATION COVER SHEET ^ <^rt^^^>"^ ^i <^^ Form 0MB- 128.R-O073 

|l. Individual Applicanl/Princi|Mil Projecl Direclor 

*i N.itmr iinfl Miiilinii Address 

II.IM. \ 



Iirst initial) 

Colle ge of Bus iness Administration 

Crelghton University 

Omaha, Nebraska 68178 

Inivl Ihl.Ui'l |zip) 

Professor of Economlcs (Dr.) 

Illli |iiiMlln|l 

I 'I i'li'phcin' 

'402' 449-2850 


U (lili/t'iiship 
1 ta l'SA 2.D()thpr Spccily: 

b. DatR of Birth 

9 13/ 31 

mo day year 

c. Ma)or Field of Study 



d HiKhest Degree Atlained 

Ph.D. 6 , 63 

mo yrar 

(V Kt'lldwships find Ciriinls 
rt;(.eiv»!(l since 1974-75. 

U Yes Öd No 

|3. Proxram To Which Application Is Being Made 

iX K«'lluvv.ships i(»r IndcpiMiiitMit Study ;iud Rusearch 
! 1 Y()un>;t'r 5( Scriiitr 

n Fellowships for 
(iollev!«' Teil« hers 

5 Requfsted Period 

2 15 81 8 15 81 


Xb 12 

I I Hill IUI) il IV VI I ■• IIKI <Ih> V > 

je. AudiencRN (üirect Beneficiaries) 

" Scholars 

'' College teachers 

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61 1: 

7. Requested Amount 


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|For NEH use ONLY) 

Date Received 
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2. Type of Application 

1. X New 2 a Revision 

•3. D Renewal M. D Supplement 

*lf 3 or 4 (abuve) enter previous grant » 

4. Type of AppHcant 

1. X Individual 

*2. O Institution/Qrganir^tion 


Nebr. ^nd 

* If (2) above (inst'orK ) enter 

8. Field of Project 
ECONOMICS (History of) 


|9. Localion Where Project Will Be Completed 

New York, N.Y. 

10. Public Issues Of Project 

II. Topi« (Tille) of Project "PoHtical Economy": From Its Origln(s) as Politike Oikonomia to Its Renais- 
snncc as "Oeconomle polltique," etc. 

12 DeHcription of PropoHed Project (Uo not exceed Space provided) In recent efforts I have establlshed the actual origin 
of "polltical economy" in the Greek literature of the 4th-lst centuries B.C. The usually reputed 
invontion (first known use) thereof by A. Montchretien thus becomes more accurately and proper ly 
its renaissance , and the contemporary resumption thereof its "recrudescence. " I now essay to fill 
in the void between the last knovm appearance of politik^ oikonomia at Naples ca. 80 B.C. and its 
celcbrated reappearance with Montchretien at Rouen in 1615. Toward this end, I have secured a 
sabbatical for the Spring-Summer 1981, to spend the April 1 - July 1 segment thereof "in residence" 
witii Dr. Josef Soudek in Manhattan, N.Y. He is perhaps the expert on medieval-renaissance Latin 
versions of the pseudo-Aristotelian OECONOMICA, the (genuine) Liber Secundus of which is — from all 
Indicatlons — the "conveyance medium" bringing politike oikonomia from its early-Peripatetic origin 
to the veritable "doorstep" — if not writin^', desk(s) — of Montchretien (et al.) of Its reblrth. Dr. 
Soudek assures me that he has in his personal library copies of all extant versions of the Aristo- 
tellan corpus in question, as well as the skill to show me how to utilize these and the related 
m;iterlals I will secure from the excellent relevant collections at Harvard, Yale, Columbiat etc. 

13a llav« yuUNubmilled, ordo youplan tosubmit a similarapplication 
to unoihrr NKII Program? If yes, provide name(ti):|year(s) when 


13b. Have yousubmitted.ordoyou plan tosubmit asiinilarapjplication 
to another government or private enlity? If yes, pirovide name(s): 
|year(s) when applicable} 

Have not submitted elsewhere, but might, 
e.g. , to National Science Foundation. 

iMi'OKiANT- ki;ai) INS ikuciions CAKKn u.i.y hkkoki: C()MI'1,|;TIN(; hi.ocks m «. 1,^) 

14. Authori/ing Official (nam« A mailing address) 

( itil.i .itiiiii 1 i.rrtify th«* slutmifiils [ji-rrin ar«' triu' aiul niricct to 
|Miv kiinw Ii'iIki- .mil hi'liL'l 

iil 1 1> <.il ij.|>li< .ml 

In ; ■•••,L>*Kiii V 

Hin ll.iy \ 1 

15. Inslilulion/Organizatinn (name h. mailing address) 

Crelghton University 
2500 California 
Omaha, NE 68178 

Typir In« /( )rK 

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Curriculum Vitae 


B.B.A. , St. Mary*s Unlverslty of San Antonio, 1953 — maj . , Economlcs. 
Coursework completed on M.S. in Economlcs, Auburn Unlverslty, 1953-5A. 
Ph.D. , Ohio State Unlverslty, 1963 — maj., Econs.; outslde raln. , Soclology. 
Pi5^2£^2ti22' "The Redistributive Irapact of Inflation: An Hlstorlcal and 

Theoretlcal-Methodologlcal Study" (196 3; unpubllshed). 


Tchg. Asst. (1954-55), Asst. Instr. (1955-58), Instructor (1958-60), Ohio State. 
Assistant Professor of Economlcs, Crelthton Unlverslty, 1960-63. 
Aßsoc. Prof. and Graduate Advlser In Economlcs, St. Mary's Unlverslty, 1963-66. 
Assoc. Prof. (1966-69), Professor (1969-), Dept. Chmn. (1975-78), Crelghton U. 
Vlslting Professor of Economlcs, St. Mary's Unlverslty, Summer 1970. 

Acadeinlc Honors/Awards 

DES (Nat'l. Cathollc Hon. Soc), Who*s Who Among Students; St. Mary's ü. '52-53. 

Research and Teachlng Fellowshlps, Aubum Unlverslty, 1953-54. 

Blog. , Amer. Men (and Women) of Sei., Soc. and Beh. Sei. , lOth ed. (1962) et seq 

G.E. program Recent Developments In Applied Eco. , U. Chicago, 1967. 

G.E. program New Dvpts. In the Tchg. of Economlcs, Stanford, 1968. 


Major/Relevant Publlcatlons (Incl. 'Papers Presented / Faculty Worklng Papers') * 

1964, "Schumpeter and Cathollclsm: A Corament," REV. SOCIAL ECONOMY, XXII, 104-10. 
1971, "The Economic Exlgencies of Social Justice," BUS. EDUCA. REV., XXII, 50-57. 
1972» 'On the Nature and Distribution of Power in the Mature (Social) Economy,' 
50th ann. mtg. Southwestern Soc. Sei. Assn., San Antonio, Mar. 30 -Apr. 1. 

1973, ' Toward Human Economy' (wlth Bruce J. Malina), 32nd annual meeting Associa- 
tion for Social Economlcs, New York, D3C. 27-29 — abstract , REV. SOCL. ECONY. 
XXXII (1974), 124; Fac. Work. Pap. , CBA/CU, 12/25/73, 69 + (9) pp. 

1974, 'Toward Human Economycs: A Search for Meanlng,* Institute of International 
and Public Affairs, St. Mary's Unlverslty of San Antonio, March 15. 

1976, "Bicentesimo Anno: The Unfinlshed Agenda," FORUM FOR SOCL. ECONS., Spring. 

1977a, 'On the Origin of "Political Economy": A Terminological-Ideological Note,' 
13th ann. conf. Missouri Valley Econ. Assn., St. Louis, Feb. 24-26; Fac. Work. 
Pap. , CBA/CU, 2/20/77, c + 57 + xxvli pp. 

1977b, 'The Development of Economycs and the Objectlve Function to Be Maximlzed: 
An Integratlve Approach' (with Bruce J. Mal Ina) , 55th ann. mtg. Southwestern 
Soc. Sei. Assn., Dallas, Mar. 30 -Apr. 2; Fac. Work. Pap. , CBA/CU, 4/17/77. 

1977c, "On the Origin of 'Political Economy'," Notes JOUR. OF ECONOMICS, III, 243. 

1979a, "Alienation: The Neglected Rousseau- Smith-Marx Connections," JOURNAL OF 
ECONOMICS, V, 33-38. 

1979b, "On the Smithlan vs. Unsmlthian Nature of Marx's Concept/Analysls of Alien- 
ation," 43d ann. mtg. Midwest Economlcs Association, Chicago, Apr. 5-7; in 
preparation for publlcation as faculty Monograph , CBA/CU, Fall 1980. 

1980, "The Origin, Renaissance, and Recrudescence of Politike Oikonomia: A Pro- 
gress Report," 7th ann. mtg. Midsouth Aeademy of Economlsts, Little Rock, Feb. 
14-16; under adaptation for pub. in MIDSOUTH JOUR. ECONS . /Annais (Dec.> 1980. 

*Papers presented and circulated at meetings but not published are in Single 
quotes; those published or aceepted and In preparation for publlcation, in double 
quotes. Faculty Worklng Papers are available from the College of Business Admin- 
istration, Crelghton Unlverslty, Omaha, NE. 68718. Chronological ordering Is for 
purjposes of citation Infra. 

Background and Descrlptlon of Proposed Study 

Since undergraduate school, I have experienced and nurtured an abldlng 
and deepening interest in the hlstory of economlcs. Thls, I am now convinced, 
emanates from my concern for the future of the dlscipline. In the pursult of 
what I (and Malina) have descrlbed as "a normative-posltlve scientific art and 
artful science called 'Human Economycs*" (1977b), I have undertaken Investlga- 
tlons Into the hlstories of both "social" and "polltlcal" economy(lc8) . Whlle 
I have yet to bring out anythlng In the former (SE) case, I have found, e.g. , 
that the deslgnatlon and dlscipline trace back 150 - 100 years further, and that 
the termlnology has been In much greater currency In thls country, than tends 
to be recoRnlzed. In the latter (PE) regard I have found and noted (1977a,c; 
1980) that, whlle hlstorlans of economlcs have been wont for a Century and a 
quarter now to credit (If anyone) Antolne de Montchrestlen wlth the Inventlon 
(flrsc known use) of the term "polltlcal economy" wlth the publlcatlon of hls 
Tralcj:^ de l'Oeconomle polltlque at Rouen In 1615, that credit really goes to 
the "anclent" Greeks. In a cl«ar "vetero-Mercantlllst/Camerallst", the 
generic ' (polin) politike oikonomia^ appeared on no less than three known occa- 
slons In the Hellenlc llterature of the late 4th to early Ist centurles B.C. 
Thus, what has conventlonally been regarded as the orlgln of "polltlcal econo- 
my" In the early 17th Century Is now seen to be more properly the renalssance 
thereof, whlle the Increaslng contemporary resumptlon of what served as the 
prlmary deslgnatlon for Economlcs durlng the flrst 300 years (1615-1915) of Its 
modern hlstory Is most aptly regarded as the "recrudescence" thereof. 

Certalnly, as Stollberg (1977) has shown and brought to my attention upon 
hearlng of my contemporaneous effort (1977a), the same term (to whlch should be 
added "Staatswlrthschaf t," "economla clvlle," etc.) has been usedto deslgnate 
even qualitatlvely dlfferent Systems of thought and practlce — I.e., Montchres- 
tlen' s "polls" and Sully's "Estat" were not the equlvalent of Arlstotle et al.'s 
"city-state." Hut, the flrst step toward accurate meanlng Is accuracy In what 
was Said, when and where. And, whlle there Is Virtual unanlmlty wlthln the hls- 
tory of economlcs that. In that same act of Publishing hls treatlse under the 
revlsed title rather than the of flclally-approved Tralcte oeconomlque du Traflc , 
Montchr^tlcin did not 'Ijecome at once the creator of the name and of the science' 
as enthuslasts have clalmed, the majorlty concede the slgnlflcance of hls "bap- 
tlzlng" thereof. And, whlle prlde prevented Adam Smith from uslng the same 
Prlnctples of Polltlcal Oeconomy under whlch hls countryman Sir James Steuart 
had publlshed nlne years earller (1767), he made emlnently clear the synonymous 
nature thereof wlth hls Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Natlons (1776-89) and 
flxed that deslgnatlon on the science untll Alfred Marshall successfully Intro- 
duced the reduced-form "Economlcs" 115 years later. 

In thls pursult and these researches to date, the present Student has be- 
come increaslngly convinced that there i^ somethlng In a name, that language i^ 
crltlcal, that there jLs^ no such thlng as a mere semantlcal dlfference. Thus, 
when I translate and Interpret from readlng Arlstotle' s Nlcomachean Ethlcs , Pol- 
Itlcs » and Oeconomlca that economy (Ics) — oikonomia(ik(5)-"-±s a "prudence-art" In- 
volvlng the rlght management of the household or es täte, that chr^mata are the 
"useful things" requlrlng expert and prudent adminlstratlon or utlllzatlon, and 
that klngdoms, satrapies and clty-states have to be ordered slmllarly as the In- 
dlvldual oikos (whence oikonomiai basilike, satrapike, politike , idiötike) ^ then 
I know that Jowett's renderlng of chrematistike as "the art of money-maklng" In 
the P olltlcs (1256a: 1-2) suffers and mlsleads, and that — glven planet earth as 
domlclle of humanklnd — the ozone layer Is one of those ^*chremata." That Is, In 
these ways, Arlstotle can — and perhaps should — be taken seriously and llterally. 


Unfortunately, perhaps Inadvertently but certalnly wlth very selectlve Inatten- 
tlvencss, he is. Thus, e.g. , compare Milton Friedman's essential syllogism, 
"man creates inoney, Inflation Is a monetary phenomenon, ergo Inflations are man- 
made," wlth Aristotle's notlon that money (qua nomisma) ts a human Convention, 
whenco in ae sterile; whlle, the real economlc-growth and unemployment rates are 
natura l phenomena to Friedman, humanly understandable, explicable and predlcta- 
ble, l)ut nonmanipulable by man. Note and compare as well the earlier efforts of 
the Pliysiocrats and Adam Smith to automate the economy by liberating the nuirket- 
place from the manipulation of the "sovereign." To these, in the things that 
really count, Economics is a science qua episteme, just as Forster misrendered 
It (O economica I, 1343a: 1), rather than the prudential art that Aristotle and 
bis disciple intended (ibid, "xexvöv" at 1343a:5-9; Nie. Eth. , VI, v-viii/8). 

As I have noted (1977c), in this almost blind effort to render their dis- 
cipline a pure and true science and positive-theoretical system, economists have 
woefully ignored their own history. Like Sorokin's "new Columbuses," they rein- 
vent the wheel; or, perhaps, invent worse ones. Relatedly, they rely so mach on 
themselves for the extraction of that part of overall intellectual history which 
is "economic," that they no longer know what oikonomike really means . Struggling 
to predict the prime rate day after tomorrow, OPEC and the energy crlsis slip up 
on their "blind side." As I have noted in the present regard ( 1977a, c; 1980), it 
is almost inconceivable how both Röscher (1874 vs. 1849) and Ingram (1915 vs. 
1894-95) who followed him in the matter could completely miss the fact that both 
BÖckh (1817 et seq.) and Rau (1821) had clearly noted the distinction between 
royal ("Staatsoberhauptes"), provincial, city-state ("Stadt, TioXLTUxn") and 
private economy ("Privatwirthschaft") made in that "zweiten Buche der Oekonomik" 
ascribed to Aristotle. Incredible, when Rosher — the pupil of BÖckh — and Ingram — 
the biographer (for Palgrave's Dictionary ) of both Böckh and Rau — could actually 
cite and make special note of the revelant works of both (1817, 1821), yet In- 
gram (1915) could follow and paraphrase Röscher (1874) in proclaiming Montchre- 
tien's "Important Service" of naming the science for the first time in chosing 
his title. Meanwhile, the more obscure A. L. Perry (1866) had cited Aristotle's 
"treatise on 'Economics'," significantly simultaneously denying the Stagirite 
the right to be "called the father of Political Economy" and any repute as "a 
very important contributor to the science upon which he has the honor of confer- 
Ifing the name." Some had eyes to see, but were not heard. 

With the true origin of politike oikonomia (re)established, and its re- 
creation or reintroduction as oeconomie politique by Montchrestien considered 
in th<at light, the renaissance as an exponential growth in the frequency of » and 
lingitLstic variegation in, occurrence is readily documented. Köre readily is 
the eclipse of "Political Economy" and its surrender to "Economics" qua "the 
science of wealth" (Fisher, 1912) around 1915 demonstrated, as the publication 
of the posthumos edition of Ingram' s classic A History of Political Economy was 
to close the books on the history of that science. Similarly, it is easy to at 
least quantify and indicate the variety involved in the contemporary re-emerg- 
ence of "political economy(ics)" which justifies the descriptive "recrudescence" 
as "a new outbreak after a period of of abatement" ( Webster' s New Collegiate ), 
as Stollberg (1977) and my latest effort (1980) show. What remains, and what 
the present proposal is specifically about, is the missing linkage and actual 
lineage from what tums out to be a rather cozy little triad of "ancients" dat- 
Ing from 323-80 B.C. up to the veri table "doorsteps" of Montchr^tien et al. in 
the early-17th to mid-18th Century "renaissance" period. Specifically, the pro- 
posed study will pursue and explore the following questions and lines of thought: 


1. Dld the term polltical economy actually vanlsh from the scene durlng 
thls Interim period, as Garnler* s semlnal study (1852) Implies and Stollberg 
now more knowledgably holds? The Greek-English lexicographers Liddell and 
Scott point US to the three known occurrences of "noX. ouxov." in Hellenic 
antiqulty. The dosest their Latin-English counterparta get us to the direct 
equivalents or adaptatlons we inight expect are Cicero* s "civilem scientiam" 
ca. 87 B.C. and Fronto*s ''civilis scientiae" of 125 A.D. I still search for 
civilis oeconomia, oeconomia politica, etc, 

2„ Is it sufficiently true, as Stollberg explains, that the partial syno- 
nym relatlonship between "oeconomia" and "politia" accounts for the (alleged) ^ 
dlsappearance of "the speudo-Aristotelian term political economy by the late 
middle ages," since otherwise the existential polis-economy formations could 
have given the concept new 11 fe and the oikonomikä were known in the 13th Cen- 
tury? He has suggested a more thorough search of "the Romance languages" for 
"better evidence" to the contrary (Stollberg-Nitsch, 10/16/77). 

3. Does the Oeconomica II constitute the conveyance medium which brought 
the politike oikonomia of those ancients, wlth whom and whose language Mont- 
chr^tien is known or reputed to have been so conyersant, down to his "door- 
step" — or even writing desk? Are there "milestones" or "century marks" to be 
found in a path — perhaps meandering — from Philoderaus' handling of that corpus 
to that most populär Aristotelian collection put out at Geneva, e.g. , in 1606? 

To pursue such questions, I have secured a sabbatical leave for the 
Spring - Summer 1981, primarily to spend the April 1 - July 1 segment thereof "in 
residence" with and under the tutelage of Dr. Josef Soudek in (Manhattan) New 
York. Professor Soudek is perhaps the authority on medieval-renaissance Latin 
translatlons/versions of the (pseudo-)Aristotelian Economics , and assures me his 
personal Library contains all the editions — with the valuable commentaries, etc. 
— of the r.t^nuine Second Book thereof which I would need for my purposes. At the 
same time, I will be taking advantage of the excellent history-of-economics and 
related collections for which such university libraries in the area as Harvard, 
Yale and Columbia are well known. The proposed schedule is as follows: 

L Jan. 15 - Mar. 31 — preparatory Operations at Creighton, including 
further Identification and refinement of study objectives and targets, readying 
of materials to be shipped, etc. 

2. Apr. 1 - June 30 — "in residence" period with Soudek, availing myself 
of hiö expertise in this area, his advice as to the "unfinished agenda" that I 
mlght be able to address, kindred spirits and "laborers in the vineyard" whom I 
should contact, and the most likely outlets for publication of the research. 

I would also regard it as a significant part of this phase to make copies of 
all such materials as I would need in completing and writing up the research 
after my retum. 

3,. July 1 - Aug. 15 — time for reflection, sorting out, etc. back at 
Creighton before the Fall semester commences. This would include the commence- 
ment of writing on what is proposed to be the first "major" or most "respecta- 
ble" publication to emerge from my on-going efforts in this area to date. The 
Journals now considered for Submission include, e.g.: History of Political 
Econom y , Journal of Economic Literature , Kyklos , Review of Social Economy , and 
Journal of the History of Ideas . 

With respect to my foreign language facility(ies) , I am confident that I 
have either the requisite personal competency or the necessary resource person- 
nel — essentially the same as those upon whom I have relied throughout for the 
critical renderings from the Greek, Latin, German, earlier-French and Italien — 




to raake the contrlbution to the historical-philosophlcal aapect of Economlcs — 
to "Human Economycs," If you will — here proposed and described. For one wlth 
my initerests, who has not been able or seen fit to take a sabbatical leave in 
over itwenty years of full-time teaching, Dr. Soudek's approval of my Visit af- 
fords a most unique opportunity to Improve my professional competence. 


Andreades, A. M. A HISTORY OF GREEK PUBLIC FINANCE, Vol. I, rev. and enl. ed., 
trans. C. N. Brown. Harvard University Press, 1933. "Appendix," pp. 83-88. 

Aristotells. OECONOMIARUM , Liber Secundus^ lacobo Stapulensi Interprete, in ARI- 
STOTELIS STAGIRITE OPERÜM, Tomus Secundus . Lugduni (Lyons), M.D.XLIX (1549). 

. OECONOMICORUM , Lib. II, trans. lachimo Camerario, in OPERUM ARISTOTE- 

LIS, Vol. II. Aureliae Allobrogum (Geneva): Petrura de la Rouiere, M.DCVI. 

. IBID. (wlth translator's running commentary or gloss) , Joachimo Camer- 

ario Interprete, in ARISTOTELIS OPERA OMNIA, ed. Silvestro Mauro, S.J. (ca. 
1668), re-ed. Beringer, S.J., Tomus II. Paris: P. Lethielleux, Ed.; 1886. 

. ARISTOTELIS QUAE FERUNTUR OECONOMICA, ed. F. Susemihl. Leipzig, 1887. 

Böckh, August. DIE STAATSHAUSHALTUNG DER ATHENER. Berlin, 1817; 2d ed., 1851. 

Cicero. DE INVENTIONE, trans. H. M. Hubbell. Harvard University Press, 1949. 

II, trans. J. 0. Burtt. Harvard University Press, 1954. 

Fronto, Marcus. "To Marcus Antonius / 165 A.D.," in THE CORRESPONDENCE OF M. COR- 
NELIUS FRONTO, ed. and trans. C. R. Haines, Vol. II. Harvard U. Press, 1920. 

Garnier, Joseph. "De l'Origine du Mot ficonomie politique," JOURNAL DES fiCONO- 
MISTES, XXXII. and XXXIII (1852), pp. 300-16 and 11-23, respectively. 

Ingram, John Keils. "Böckh" and "Rau," in PALGRAVE*S DICTIONARY OF POLITICAL 
ECONOMY (1984-99; 1925-26), s.w. Reprint ed. New York: Kelley, 1963. 

. A HISTORY OF POLITICAL ECONOMY. New & Eni. Ed. London: Black, 1915. 

Lowry, S. Todd. "Recent Literature on Ancient Greek Economic Thought," JOURNAL 
OF ECONOMIC LITERATURE, XVII, 1 (March 1979), 65-86, esp. 'References. ' 

Meikle, Scott. "Aristotle and the Political Economy of the Polis," JOURNAL OF 
HELLENIC STUDIES, XCIX (1979), 58-73. 

ARISTOTE, TRANSAC. AMER. PHILOS. SOG., n.s., XLVII, Pt. 5 (December, 1957). 

Montchretien, Antoyne de. TRAICT^ DE L^OECONOMIE POLITIQUE, ed. Th. Funk - Bren- 
tano. Paris: E. Plön, Nourrit; 1889. (Cf. esp. ed*s. "Intro.," p. XXIII.) 

Stegfried Sudhaus, Vol. II. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1896. 

Rau, ICarl Heinrich. ANSICHTEN DER VOLKSWIRTHSCHAFT. Leipzig: Göschen, 1821. 

Röscher, Wilhelm. "Ueber das Verhältniss der Nationalökonomik zum klassischen 
LICHEN STANDPUNKTE. Leipzig/Heidelberg: Winter'sche, 1861; 3d ed., 1878. 

Soudek, Josef. "The Genesis and Tradition of Leonardo Bruni's Annotated Latin 
Version of the (Pseudo-)Aristotelian Economics," SCRIPTORIUM, XII (1958). 

. "Leonardo Bruni and His Public: A Statistical and Interpretative 

Study of His Annotated Latin Version of the (Pseudo-)Aristotelian Econonom^ 
M, Bowsky. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1968. 

. "A Fifteenth-Century Bestseller," in PHILOSOPHY AND HUMANISM, ed. 

Edward P. Mahoney. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1976. (Update/rev. of 1968 op.) 

Stollberg, Gunnar. "Zur Geschichte des Begriffs »Politische Ökonomie*," JAHR- 

Van Groningen, B. A. (ed.). ARISTOTE, LE SECOND LIVRE DE L'fiCONOMIQUE. Leyde: 
A. W. Sijthoff, 1933. (Modern Version of the translatio vetus of ca. 1280.) 

Wagner, Ferdinand, DAS BILD DER FRÜHEN ÖKONOMIK. Salzburg/München, 1969. 

AR Gl^S" ^ij ooseT SoüdBc cou,^ CT (o^y 




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62 WEST 45th STREET, NEW YORK 36, N. Y. 

Tel. MUrray Hill 2-4672 

Board of Directors 

Nelson P. Mead 

Paul F. Brissenden 

Henry S. Canby 
Assistant Treasurer 

Harry J. Carman 

Walter W. S. Cook 

Horace L. Friess 

Alvin Johnson 

Alphonse B. Miller 

Douglas Moore 

Paul J. Sachs 

Sterling D. Spero 

Else Staudinger 
Executive Director 

Va.y 19, 1952 

Frofessor Josef Soudeic 
900 Westend Avenue 
New York City 

Dear Professor Soudek: 

For a long time v;e have not been in contact regarding Toni Oelsner. 

You will certainly knov/ that some time last year she had several 
attacks and consequently was taken to Belleviie tiospital and frora 
there to Rockland otate Hospital. I learned this only through 
Professor I'irkine-Guetzevitch whom she wrote several times from 
iiockland State Hospital. Professor Tlrkine-Guetzevitch asked me 
urgently to find out whether she could be helped get away from 
there, as this v^'as TJhat she asked him for fervently in her letters. 

I did not feel that I should personally inte27vene, since I could 
not off er any help. Hov:ever, I asked a good friend of mine, !ts, 
i-elly Simon who is the Chief of the Psychiatric Social Service, 
Payne VJhitney Clinic, l^^ew York Hospital, to inquire. Early this 
year she phoned with the doctor at Rockland State Hospital and 
heard üiat Toni Oelsner was still sick and could not be released. 
Now, however, upon her v^ritten request, she received an answer 
of -^»-pril 30 in vjhich Dr. Stanley, Senior Director at Rockland 
State Hospital, wrote her the following: 

"liss Oelsner is being considered for release into her own 
custody and althourh steps have been taken in this direction 
Y/e still do not have a satisfactory plan. Fiss Oelsner is 
Y/ithout any means at present and consequently will require 
financial assistance until she is able to re-establish 
herseif in her field. She was receiving financial help from 
the "'A'elfare Department prior to her admission to thj hospital 
and flatly refuses to consider it at present. Fiss Oelsner 
has no relatives in the City of ^'ew York virho might help her. 
Our social Service Department has been follov/ing Fiss Oelsner 
since her admissißn and it might be best for those of "iss 
Oelsner 's friends who are interested in assisting her to get 
in touch with our Social Sefcvice Department and jointly ■'^vork 
out plans for her dis Charge, " 

y^Tiile Toni Oelsner was in Rockland vfe received a note f it)m the 
Bursar of Columbia üniversity regarding a loan of $50 ' iss Oelsner 
had taken up a year ago and for whidh my cdrarker Dr. Toni Stolper 


- 2 - 

md a Dr. I/arnaret Hothenber^cr, i^om I did ,not knov/, had 
given a ,<-aiaranty. I found Dr. Rothenberger 's address in the 
telephone book and got in touch with her, I discovered that 
she is an old friend of Toni Oelsner's fanily and knew Toni 
since her childhood, Dr. Rothenberger and Toni Ötolper 
together v/ere wiliin,^ to pay lor the loan v/hich is now fully 

I mention this only becaiise I now know tliat Dr. Rothenberger 
knowjToni Oelsner so well. I have written her and r;iven the 
same informpt^on from Rockland State Hospital T.hich I am 
giving you herewith. 

I v/onder whether yoii vrould iike to telephone me one of these 
cays in order to talk the vfhole case over with me. Unfortunately 
my ComiTiittee is in no position to help Toni Oelsner make any 
luture plans. Biit, perhaps in talking things over together, 
and also getting in touch v/ith Dr. itothenberger, we coiild find 
a possibility of assisting the Social Service to make a 
reasonable plan. 

Y^aiting to hear from you, I sfn 

Cordially yours. 

Else Stau ding er 


P.S. Should you have no tjune to telephone at the above number 
du ring the day, you may v;ish to call me at ray home any evening 
after 8:30 p.m. at GRamercy 7-0128. 

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't.'u« tV^Ct., a^ 

322. HVest 107 Street 
N. Y. 25, N. Y. 
10, Juli 1947 

Lieber Herr Dr. Soudek: 

Von Utlca (Associated College«) kam die Nachricht, dass sie fuer 
den Soinir)<>r anscheinend ohne neue Lehrkraft auökommen tmd Jetzt noch nicht 
wissen koennen, wie das Enrollment fuer den Herbst seir^ wird. Aber der 
Ton dos Briefes war so, dass sie mich anstellen, wenn sie jemanden neues 
brauchen. Die Papiere sind an die Central Files zurueckgegangen, sodass 
auch noch von einer anderen Fakultaet etwas kommen kann. Dr. Crook schickte 
mir die Sonderdrucke mit viel Anerkennung, Interesse und Bedauern zurueck| 
haette sie gerne fuer die Bibliothek und zur Benutzimg fuer die Studenten 

George hat mir gesagt, dass mein Artikel "Zur Frage der Umerzie- 
hung • Wirt Schaft siegenden und -Vorurteile" angencimen ist> dass- er aber 
noch ein Weilchen warten tauss, bis er ihn bringen kann. 

Von Leo Baeck bekam ich gestern einen ausserordentlich netten 
Brief. Meint auch, dass er mich von ffueher her kennt und schrieb deshalb 
von "persoenl icher Freude '', muss aber wohl meine Arbeiten in den "Blaetterr 
des J.F.B.^ und in der "Familienforschung" gelesen haben und mich dann mi* 
irgendwelchen Borliner Oe Isners verwechseln. Bedankte sich fuer die "vor- 
treffliche Arbeit .•♦. die ihm Altes in neues Licht gesetzt (habe) und aus 
der manches Neue dankbar erfahren" habe* Ich finde das eine sehr erfi*eull*^ 
che Response, »auch deshalb, weil Bpeck -m meisten mit den deutschen Gemein- 
den in Verbindung ?teht. 

Von der Albert Teachers' Agency wurde mir heute Mitteilung 
wegen Lehrstelle fuer Soziologie und Econoraics 
an dem Johnstown Center of the Univers ity of Pitts burgh gemacht. 

Er schrieb, dass ich wenigstens tinsn Erap '^ohlungsbrief , iA den meine 
Qualifiaierung fuer diese Stelle ausgedrueckt ist, direkt hinschreiben 
lassen moechte, Moeohten Sie das tunj Sie koennen ja erwaehnen, 
dass Wirtschaftsgeschichte mein besonderes Gebiet sei. 

Der Brief ist zu richten an: 
Dr«, C. A» Anderson 
Prof. and Head of Johnstown Center 
University of Pittsburgh 
Johnstown, Pa, 

Ich sprach auf dem American Jewish Conraittee Morris Fine, war frueher Mit- 
herausgeber des Contemporary Jewish Record, hatte ihn dort einmal kennen 
gelernt. Besprach mit Ihm meine jetzige Arbeit, er schlug mir vor, eine 
offizielle Eingabe zu m'^chen, ann aber erst n^ch Labor Day verh^^ndelt wer- 
den. Dr. Maller ist nicht mehr bei den American Jewish Commlbtee. 

Sofia Robibson schlug mir vo», B^-ron um R«t wegen Simmie zu fragen. Ich dachte, 
dass ich die Arbeit sozusagen als eine "Einf^ehrung" oder Einleitung ju einer 
groesseren bezeichnen sollte« 



Sofia Roblnöon schlug mir vor, dlrokt mit Stephen Wise in Verbindimg j\i treten 
(sie fand es ungeheuerlich, einen Brief von ihre zu haben und die Art, »le er 
geschrieben frar). Sie meinie, dass Stephen Wise mit seinen vielen Verbindungen 
behilflich sein kann« 

Sie meinte auch, noch einmal mit Finkelstein, in Bezug auf die Arbeiten des 
"Institutes for Relig^^ous Studies" in Verbindung zu treten, 

Ihre Ratschlaege gingen also dahin, die Leute, die mir schrieben, heranzutre- 
ten, die bestehenden Beziehungen auszunutzen* 

Ich ueberliesö Fine meine CtD'rictilum Vita«, und er wollte sie dem Flowerman 
geben. Bis Jetzt habe ich noch nichts gehoert« 

Ausser dem Job mache ich noch Uebersetzungen, und es bleibt mir wenig Zeit» 

Von dem Staudinger - Committee scheint leider nichts zyi erwarten sein. 

Vielleicht laesst sich mit viel Feinheit und Geschicklichkeit noch «twa« 
bei dem weitlaeufigen Verwandten machen. 

Sollte Tfi^n Finkelstein bei der Pittsburg Universitaet als Referenz angeber.? 
Sbn Er ist durch die Institut8*Verofiffentlichungen ^uch in Soziologen-Kreisen 

Mit guten Wuenschen fuer den Somraerauf enthalt 
und besten Gruessen 


< frv^ O;^^^-*-*'«^. 

!>d2 West 107 Street 
irew Yorl ^5, N. Y. 
;j[ß-ädeiny ^-9791 
6. Septeml>er 19^7 

Lieber Herr Dr. Soudek: 

Ich liabe mich auf dem hiesigen Bürp dj&x Associated 
Colleges erkundigt uad dort erfahreM, daß sie bereits 
fllr zwei der Cöl3qses, das in Utica inbegriffen, eine 
rolle Studentenregistrierung haben. Daraufhin habe 
ich mich ftiese Woche bei Dr. Evelyn Crook, die ich hier 
im FrtJhoahr auf dem Soziologenkongreß sprach, erkundigt, 
wie die Sache st'^'nde. Eine Antwort konnte ich bis Jetzt 
auf diesen Brief noch nicht haben* Nach der Radio- und 
Zeitungsreklame, die ich verfolgte, glaube ich nicut, daß 
die Registrierung schon lange abgeschlossen ist und Äaß 
schon irgendwelche Festlegungen getroffen wurden^ Würden 
Sie Vielleicht so nett wein wollen xind je-tzt einen Bmpf eh^ 
lungsbrief an die Vorsteherin des Department, Dr. Ctook 
schreiben, unter Beziehung darauf, daß Sie von meiner Be- 
werbung und meiner R-ficksprache mit ihr auf dem Soziologea- 
kongreß und meiner späteren Correspondenz|i mit ihr wüßten. 
Ich glaube sicher, daß das der Sache sehr förderlich sein 
könnte. Die Adresse ist: 

Dr. Evelyn B. Crook 

Head of the 

Department of S(J)ciologyfl>i* the Associated Colleges 

Mohawk College 

Utiica, N. Y. 

Es wird wohl auclt gut sein, wenn ich es einrichte, ihr meine 
Sonderdrucke, von denen sie mir damals schrieb, daß sie so 
gern f^ir die Bibliothek behalten häute, zu schicken? 
Dr. Ctook schrieb mir Ende Jxani, daß sie eine Zeitlang 
nicht an ihrem Desk sein würde, und icn war dann noch 
mit dem Head des ökonomischen Departments in Yerbindimg, 
der mir schrieb, daß er in Dr. Crooks Abwesenheit auch 
das Soziologie-Department unter sich habe; dessen Name 
ist Dr. Emile BenoiS-Smullyan. Ich selbst schrieb aber 
an Dr. Crook, weil icn ja mit ihr in persönlicher Verbin- 
dung stand, und ich glaube, daß es das richtigste ist, 
sich zuerst wieder an sie zu wenden. 

Von der Universität Pittdburghi bekam ich Mitte Jul;^ 
einen Brief, daß mein Brief an das Soziologie-Department 
weitergeleitet, wurde, und daß ich in einigen Wochen einen 
Bescheid erhalten w'^rde, der aber bisher noch nicht erfolgte. 

Erhielten Sie eine Anfrage von der üniversity von Bridg^- 
port, wo ich Anfang August zu einem Interview war, aber bis- 
her auch nichts hörte. Diese Universität, im Aufbau vom 
Junior Kollege zum B.A., hat sehr lokalen Charakter, Handels- 
schule und Technikum, während die Associated Colleges Studen- 
ten von überall aus den Staaten haben. Mir gefiel auch 
Dr. Crook weit besser als der "Social Studies Department 
HeadJ' mit dem ich in Bridgeport sprach. Das war Schullehrer. 
Sollie ich mich trotzdem nochmal in Bridgeport erkundigen? 



Außerdem war ich bei Mr. Moe von der Guggenheim-. 
FoundatiOÄ. Aus der Besprechung gewann ich den Eindruck, 
daß meine Chancen weit hesser sind, wenn es mir gelingt, 
eine Lehrstelle zu bekommen, Kfoine Bewerbuaig an sich und 
das Projeict hatte er genau im Gedächtnis und dagte mir, 
daß das Projekt nicht kritisiert worden sei* Er empfail 
mir also durcnaus, mich noch einmal zu bewerben* Ich 
entnahm auch aus der Unterhaltung, wer ihm von weiteren 
Referenzen zusagte. 

Mirkine-GuetzwicA wird erst nächste Woche zurück 


Finkelstein liabe ich noch nicht gesprocheni Ich 
hörte, daß er diese Woche zu einer Tagung geht, und während 
der Feiertags^Zeit k&tn man nicht zu ihm gehen» Aber auf 
jeden Ball kann maxi nur mit bestimmten Arbeitsvorschlägen 
zu ihm gehen« 

Dem Ameriöan ^ewish legte ich meinen Arbeits- 
plan vor, mit dem Vorschlag einen Teil daraus für einen 
Artikel zu bearbeiten, während College-Perlen, mit j^00-500$« 
Das wurde mir so geraten. Von Dr. Plowerman hörte ich 
aber nichts. Dieses Grant wäre aber auch erst eine Sache 
f-fir später, nämlich f'ir das nächste Budget- Jahr. 

Ich habe mich nochmals mit Dr. Fritz Kauf man und Kisch 
von der einbändigen jüdischen Encycxopaiia der »»World-Ency- 
clopedia" in Verbindung gesetzt, und es sind mir einige 
Assignments zugesagt worden. Die zahlen nicht viel, aber 
es ist des Renom^s wegen brauchbar. Ich will versuchen, 
ob ich Kisch dazu gewinnen kann, mit Stephen Wise meinet- 
wegen zu sprechen. Er hat ja viele Verbindungen. 

Ich habe mich auch mit Dr. Lurie in Verbindung gesetzt. 
Es ttrd bei dem Council of Jewish Pederations and Weifare 
Funds ein Institute for Overseas Studies eingerichtet. 
Aber die Sache scheint sich sehr hinauszuziehen. 

Immerhin scheint Äie Sache mit den Associated Colleges 
die beste zu sein, und es wäre gut, wenn sie sich verwirk- 
lichen würde. Icn danke Ihnen im Voraus sehr für einen 
Empfehlungsbrief und bin mit besten Grüßen für Sie und Ihre . 



ix 2 k^ f i>n 

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■tf'y'- » w*'>' j 






601 West 110 St 
Apt. 5JÖ 

New York 25, N.Y. 
14, Februar 19^4 


Lieber Herr Dr. Koudek: 

Icn hoffe setir, daß Ihre Frau ^'iber die 
erste schwere Nachoperationszeit hinüber ist oder 
wenigstens bald darüber hinauskümmt . Leider 
braucht es Ja immer eine lange Weile und sehr 
viel Geduld und Durchhalten. 

In der Zwischenzeit habe ich mir die 
Bewerbungsformulare bei der Golumoia Univers ity 
angesehen. Scholarship Grants werden nur bis zu 
dreißig Jahren gewahrt. Ueber dieses Alter bin 
ich seit einigen Jahren ninaus. Die Tuition Grants 
werden nur auf Empfehlung der FaiLUltät gegeben. 
Es scheint mir deshalb das beste, mich um ein 
Pellowship zu bewerben, und ich glaube auch, daß 
es keine Bedenken gibt, daß es nicht bekommen 
sollte. Meine Freundin Miss Meyer, die ja zur 
Columbia gehört, außerdem Dr. Mahler, Dr. Weinreich 
werden mir Empfehlungsbriefe schreiben. Professor 
Marschak schrieb mir im Sommer eine ganz besonders 
freundliche Gratulationskarte, sodaß ich auch auf 
ihn rechnen kann, selbstverständlich auch auf Pro- 
fes Lor Baron. 

Die Bewerbungen müssen bis zum 1. März 
eingereicht bein. Wie Sie sicher wissen, ist es 
üblich, daß die Empfehlungsbriefe direkt an die 
»♦Secretary of the Univers ity" geschickt werden 
mit dem Vermerk "on the request of ..»« (mein Name). 
Haben Sie meinen besten Dank für Ihre Empfehlung, 
die sicher mit dazu verhelfen wii'd, daß ich endlich 
meine akademische Ausbildung mit dem Ph.D. abscghlies- 
sen kann. 

Mit meinen besterklVünschen für Ihre Frau 
und meinen besten Grüßen 


f »-x^ 


yyi vest lül Street 
ACadeaiy 4-98:58 
New York, N. Y. 
7. Juli 1943 


Lieber Herr Dr. Houdek: 

( ■' 

>jin anderes Kleines Produkt von mir, 
das ich Ihnen zusenden mochte, eine Be- 
sprechung von K;isch's"Yellow Racige in 
History", und das Sie hoflentlich er- 
freuen wird. 

In der Z. vi sehen zeit habe ich mich 
bei dem »'Eniergency Comraitwee" um ein 
Grant beworben, zur Durchführung des 
"Wanderbe^A^egubgs-Arböitsplanes" , den 
ich innen vor einiger Zeit zu lesen 
gab, Elbügen hat sich sehr daf'^r 
interes, iert, und es sind aach einige 
andere Dinge ''.lebhalb im Gange. Ich 
habe mir erlaubt, Sie bei de.'n Committee 
als Referenz anzugeben und setzte Ihr 
Kinverstandnis aafür voraus und v/olite 
Sie in Jnre i'^-rien nicht gern «nit ei nein 
Brxef deswegen beschweren. Meine Ver- 
suche, Sie telefonisch zu erreichen, 
vergangene und diese Woche, waren er- 

Mit bes-cen Grüßen 


, • ' . • » 

< ' 

U^/k4^ Ut\A ßy. Sfin^.,U/u 

'^ i^^-ir^CCc JX**.«** 4-.^ f^-^ ^•,„*,,<^ 04^,WUx^ 



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t>!>'^ West 101 Street 
ACsdeiny 4-9838 
New York, N.Y. 
17. Februar 1945 

r S; 

Lieber Herr Dr. Soudek: 

Ich habe heute mit Herrn Dr. Gaster 
ft'jr Mittwoch Vormittag nächster Woche , ein ''-,-^^t::^ 
Appointment ausgemacht (er hat selbst diese 
Woche Keine Zeit). Es vvürde mir auBerordent- 
iich lieb sein, wenn Gie es sich einrichten 
könnten, daß ich mich vorher mit Ihnen be- 
sprechen kann. V/ie ich Ihnen am Telefon 
sagte, habe icff^'lüit der die Nochkriegs- 
i-)robleme behandelnden volkswirtschaftlichen 
Literatur?- Meade, P.E.Corbett, Post-War Worlds, 
Marschaks Aufsätze in Social Research u.a. 
vertraut gemacht. 

H'öute Morgen sprach ich Mr.Waldman 
vom American Jewish Committee. Er war sehr 
entgegenkommend und will mich mit den ande- 
ren leitenden Herren, die alle gerade außerla 
halb des Büros waren, in "Kerbindung bringen. 

In der nächsten Nummer der YiVo- 
Bleter werde ich ein Autoreferat über meine 
Arbeit in den Jewish CociSLl Studies und eine 
Besprechung von Kiscn's "The Yeilow Eadge in 
History" haben. Der Artikel für das American 
Journal of Sociology ist sehr kurz geplant, 
und ich denke, daß ich ihn sehr bald fertig 
haben werde. 


Es wäre sehr schön, wenn Sie mir 
für Montag oder Dienstag eine Zeit einräumen 
könnten^ Können Sie vielleicht so freund- 
lich sein und mich wissen lassen, wann es 
Ihnen paßt oder bei sich zu Hause oder im 
Büro eine entsprechende Nachrifiht hinter- 

Mit besten Grüßen 





'Y V3 

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Li«b«8 ML«1«1b OeliBsr : 

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fartar Glietto hebe ieh Bieb bersliob gefirevt; baben Sie Tielea Oeak. ( Werden 
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bia ich aaf das Maaaskriyt dea aeaea Artikela feafaaat. 

Waa bat Ibaea Dr. WelBraieh eigeatliob Torgesoblafea ? lob boffb 
Sit IbaoBydaas aoob «abr daraaa ward an wird. 

KoaBeade Woobe werde icb aiebi ia Büro 8ein,aoadarB dabei« Moiae 
TorleavBgaa worbaraiiea. Viel le icb t kaan lob aaiaa Arbeit ai^ einer teleybo- 
aiaoban Uatarhaltaag aat erbraebea. 

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New York, 24. Februar 1957 

Lieber Helnu , 

Dein Wiinsoh,Katherlne St •Hill* s "The Book of the Hand* 
2U bekommen, wird bald in Erfueilimg gehen; wann das genau sein wird, 
kann ich nicht sagen, aber es sollte nicht mehr lang dauern. 

Ich habe mich sofort nach Erhalt Leiner Flugpost karte vom 22. 
Januar mit dem Antiquariat , das Bu mir angegeben hast, in Verbindung 
gesetzt. Hin Junger Mann dort hat mir ueber's Telephon bestaetigt, 
dass die Firma das Buch besitzt, hat aber gelaeugnet »jemals ein Ange- 
bot von $ 2.65 gemacht S4u haben. Lr war aber bereit, es mir fuer $ 4 
netto äu verkaufen. iMach meinen Erfahrungen mit den Buchlaeden in 
der Fourth Avenue war ich ueber diese Auskunft keineswegs erstaiuit ; 
Solididaet ist kein charakteristisches Merkmal dieses Stadtteils. 
Da ich aber wiisste,wiesebr Dir an dem Buch gelegen ist , habe ich das 
Angebot angenommen, ab er seinen Vorschlag, es Lir direkt zu schicken, 
abgelehnt. Kr haette ,ja spaeter behaupten koennen,da^J3 d is Buch ver- 
sandt und ir.p;endwies verloren gegangen ist. Ich liess es mir daher 
nach Hause schicken. Aber ehe er die Guote meines Schecks nachge- 
prueft rmd andere TÄoralische Skrupeln ueberwunden hatte, vergingen ^ 
w-'itcre zw^i ^'ochen. 

Nun ist das Buch in meln^^r Hand - uebrigens ein gutes Exemplar - 
tmd wird bald aur i^ost gehen. Als Grotol aber nur einen Blick in die 
Seiten geworfen hatte, fand sie das Buch so faszinierend , dass sie mich 
bat, es ein paar Tage behalten zu. duerfen. Ich hoffe, dass Du keinen 
Einwand gegen ihren Enthusiasmus fuer Loine V.issenschaft und die dar- 
aus folgende Verzoegorung dor Absendung hast. Sie behauptet , dass Mrs. 
Hill die Handdeutungskunst glaenzend und aeusserst instruktiv darge- 
stellt hat und dass ein Laie viel von ihr lernen koennte. Vielleicht 
kann ich ein anderes Exemplar in einer Bibliothek hier auftreiben und 
sie ueber den Schmerz der Trennung von diesem Exemplar hinwegbringen. 
Ich were jedenfalls das Buch versichert sc: icken und hoffe, dass es 
dann bestiimnt an Dich gelangt. 

Ich war ueberrascht zu lesen, dass Deine Adresse wieder die alte 
in Poriah ist. Hattest Du Dich nicht von Deiner Frau getrennt und 
J)±jh anderswo nieiergelassen ? Das hatte mich seinerzeit sehr betruebt 
und ebenso diesmal, dass Du drei Operationen hinter Dich gebracht hast. 
Du bist doch ein rechter Schleroihl. Aber ich war froh zu hoeren,dass 
Du nun Weder gehen kannst und auch eine finanzielle Basis hast, die 
Dir ausser dem Leben hoffentlich auch D?ine Studien moeglich macht. 

Ueber '^uer aller Schicksal sind wir, wie Du richtig vermutest, 
recht ausfuehrlich unterrichtet. Selbst wenn wir nicht interessiert 
waeren,wuerden wir an dem Verlauf der ''Krise im Nahen Osten" teilneh- 
men. Sie betrifft Ja Euch nicht weniger als uns selbst, nur haben wir 
das Pech, dass wir mit unserer Regierung (die wir persoenlich ni.:ht ge- 
waehlt haben, auch mit einem Auge auf Israel) nicht zufrieden sind. 
Aber nun sind wir einmal at: dem Staat Israel interessiert und so triffti 
uns doppelt, was dort geschieht. Uebrigens ist die Opposition gegen die 
offizielle Politik des Landes weit groesser und populaerer als Ihr 

wmhrsoheinllch aus unserer Presse entnehmen koenat« Selbst die N»Y. 
'•Times*', die bisher wenig fuer den Staat Israel uebrig hatte, ist in- 
zwischen kritisch und sogar parteiisch gewordenjdass sollte ein Baro- 
meter sein fuer die All gerne inst iramung. 

Lass mich beeren, wenn Du das Buch bekommst Mtid auch ueber alles, 
was sich in leinem Loben abspielt. Ueber die allgemeinen Vorgaonge 
sind wir,wi^ gesagt , auf dem Laufenden» 

Mit den besten Gruessen von uns beiden. 

^y\AMAA <*f^ CA/^O^v*, '»^ h'^ <^W>*<. 
\ 1 ^ / 



VRoF^ Dr. 
Oo vV e s T e /y j> /^ L/e: N u' t^ 

- - ^ 

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Tut ?><H)\A or- TAyt H/4^(J) t^ //? Tljt5' 

'' ' / — 



n^nn 'JiainD nx 

Dr. H.P. BEN ARIS D'")« p .S.n l'l 

HAIFA - KIRYAT BIALIK p''?«'^- n'ip - ns'n 

1^ AMAKIM STREET 14 D'»pD57n 'm 

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' I 

Diamond Point ,N.Y. ,10. August 1955 

Lieber Heinz, 

leine beiden Briefe vom 7» Januar und lO.April haben uns ausser— 
ordeiitlich interessiert. Eu hast uns in beiden Briefen ein ungewoehn- 
lieh anschauliches Bild von Deinem und Eurem Leben gegeben, das in sei- 
ner Fuelle einige grosse Linien zeigt. Jede von ihnen waere wert, ver- 
folgt zu v;erden und .vird es v/ohl auch,v/onn wir erst wieder ein paar 
Jahre in Kontakt sein v«/erden. Die Bilder leiner beiden juengsten Kin- 
der zeigen shhon beirn fluechtigsten /aisehn,dass es die Leinen sind; 
die Familienaehnlichkeit ist nicht zu verkennen. Vielen Dank fuer die 
Briefe und Bilder. 

Las Buec herpacket ist noch immer nicht abgegangen, aber wenn wir 
erst in die Stadt 2arueGkkomraen,werd3n wir es schicken. Lie Monate seit 
Jahresbeginn waren einfach zu hektisch;ich will nicht sagen, bchliminer 
als in frueheren Jahren, aber so schlimm wie in den Jahren vor meinem 
Urlaub. Las war das einzige Jahr, in dem ich ausser fuer meine Forsch- 
ung auch etwas Zeit fuer meine Freunde hatte. Nun ist es wieder so wie 
frueher: nur Berufsarbeit und keine Ruhe fuer V^issenschaft oder fuer 
Menschen. In gewisser Hinsicht war es mehr beanspruchend als andere 
Jahre. Nach meiner Kueckkehr vom Urlaub musste ich mein Verwaltung samt 
wieder uebernelimen vaid lu weisst aus eigener Erfahrung , was es heisst, 
ein Amt zu versehen und wieviel Linge sich aufspeichern,w -nn man ihm 
auch nur vorueberg^hend 'en Tuuecken kehrt. Viele Entscheidungen, die 
sich aufschieben liessen,3ind aufgeschoben worden, damit ich sie dann 
treffe. So habe ic^ fu-r moine Abwesenheit zahlen muessen. 

Gretel hat mir vieles d/ihelm abnelanen muossen und sich auch um 
die } gekuemmert. Aber auch sie war mehr als ueblich eingespannt, 
teilweise wegen meiner eigenen Arbeit. Als sie in Deinem letzten Brief 
las,dass lu Spielk.irten haben mo chtest ,hat sie gleich vier Lecks ge- 
sammelt. Freilich werde ich nie nicht abschicken. Du hast naemlich 
nicht daran gedacht, dass die Steuer auf Spielkarten eine beliebte Ein- 
nahmequelle fuer alle Staaten ist und daos Dich dieses "Geschenk" , das 
ich Lir leicht und gerne machen koennte,ein Trojanerhors fuer Lieh wer- 
den wuerde. Es sei denn,Lu kannst mir versichern, dass Lu sie zollfrei 
einfuehren darfst. Dann gehen sie zusammen mit den Buechern ab. 

Bevor Du aber die Buecher bekommst »wirst tiu erst ein kleines Pa- 
cket Kaffee erhalten. Ich habe heute Mirjam Eckstein (Rechov Schatz 5f 
Jerusalem) einen Gutschein geschickt und gebeten, ihn einzuloesen und 
Dir fuer die Haelfte des Betrages Kaffee zu schicken. Nachdem die er- 
sten Sendungen Kaffee verloren geg-jigen waren, habe ich Mirjam einen 
Gutschein zugehen lassen und alles klappte vcrzueglich. Nun will ich 
3ehon,ob diese Loesung - dass ich Euch beiden gleichzeitig den Scrip 
uebermittle - durchfuehrbar ist. Sobald Du die Sendung von Mirjam er- 
haeltst ,1.S3 mich doch wiesen, ob alles glatt abgelaufen ist. 

Es tut mir wirklich leid, dass sich die BuechersendTing so verzoe- 
gert hat. loh hatte gehofft, dass ich nach Ende meines Fruehjahrssomes- 
ters die Buecher «usammenst eilen \md verpacken werde. Aber dann hat 
mir das Fetter 

einen Strich durch die Rechnung gemacht. Wie Du wahrscheinlich aus den 
Nachrichten weisst, durchleben wir in diesem Jahr eine Rekordhifcte. Wie 
ich Dir bereits schrieb , verbringe ich jeden Somnicr im Gebirge, da ich ein- 
fach die normale New Yorker Sommertemperatur nicht ertragen kann« Aber 
diese war unnormal und wir mussten Anfang Juli buchst aoblich aus der Sta( 
fliehen. Aber die Hitze folgte uns hierher und wir hatten Tage und Naech- 
te mit ueber 90 Grad Hitze und ebensoviel Feuchtigkeit ,da3s wir auch hie: 
nur gerade Japsen konnten. Von irgendwelchen •'Ferien*' war sowieso nicht 
die Rede, da das College nur im August geschlossen ist und ich bis dahin 
meine Verwaltung fortfuehren und erreichbar sein muss. iJm nun die Diiige 
nßch Ende des Semesters - fuer das ich mir ein paar private Dinge aufge- 
spart hatte - ganz schlimm zu machen, zog ich mir Ende Mai eine Sehnen- 
scheidenentzuendung im linken Fuss zu. Das Gehen v;ar eine fuerch^^rliche 
Qual und ich raus st o daher ein^^ Rvihe von Besprec.iungen absagen und so viel 
wie moeglich vom Bett mx3 erledigen. Unter solchen Urastaenden war von 
Packen nicht di'" Kode. 

Nun ist der Sommer beinahe schon wieder zu Ende. Sonst war das 
eine Zeit, in der ich mich koerperlich unl nnrvlich ausgeruht »meine wissej 
schaftliche Literatur gelesen luid geschrieben habe. Diesmal habe ich bis 
Anfang dieses iuonats taeglich an meiner r^aebhienc gesessen, um eine unge- 
heure berufliche X!or^espondenz zu erl digen,and nur ein paar T-^ge ausge- 
spannt , um die i^atur zu geniessön,wenn 3ie goniessbar war. Oft bin ich 
zum ?;aldsee nur gegangen, um Eiich abzukuehlenjvon Üenuss war keine Idee. 
Erst seit ein paar Tngün bin ich zu meinem L'aterial zurueckgekehrt ,das 
ich waehrend meines Urlaubs gesammelt habe, um es etwas in Ordnung zu bri] 
gen. Ich habe meine wtudicn voriges Jahr so ploetzlich abbrechen muessen 
und keinen Tag im vergangenen akademischen Jahr dafuer gehabt, dass ich 
wenigstens nlles parat nahen moechte,wcnn ich eines Tages die Müsse fin- 
den werde, es auszuwerten« Sehr erholt werde ich wohl aus diesem Sommer 
nicht zu meiner Koutine Arbeit im September zurueckkehren. 

Lass bald von Dir hoeren und sei herzlich gegruesst von uns 

PORIAH near Tiberia$ 

ISRAEL ' ' , 

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New York,12«De2ember 1954 

Lieber H?in2, 

mit Deinen beiden Briefen vom 3. September und 10. 
November haben wir iins sebr gefreut. Die nusfuehrlichen Schilder- 
ungen In Deinem ersten Brief \ind die beiden Photographien Deiner 
Familie haben uns ein anschauliohes Bild von Eurer Lebens - und 
Deiner Denkweise gegeben, die uns sehr interessieren, ^ir waren 
besonders froh zu hoeren,das8 Deine Frau ihre Operation gut ueber- 
standen hat und ntinxnehr wieder zu Hause und bei der Arbelt ist. 

Nunmehr zu leinen Bitten: Vor einer Woche hat Dir Gretel 
zwei Dosen instant coffee »Marke "George Washington* , per Flugpost 
geschickt. Es war in vieler Hinsicht eine Probesendung und wir 
sind sehr neugierig, wie sie ausgefallen ist. Sie hat Dir instant 
coffee geschickt »weil Du es ausdruecklich erwaehnt hast. Siehst Du 
einen Vorteil in dieser Art von Kaffee im Ver^iloich mit dem uebli- 
chen gemahlenen ? Wir waren uns nicht ganz klar, ob es besser ist, 
den Kaffee selbst mit Flugpost zu senden oder ehsr einen Gutschein, 
loh hatte zuerst an einen Gutschein gedacht, aber mir wurde gessigt , 
d'iss Lebensmittel, die auf Gutschein ausgeliefert werden, von minde- 
rer gualitaet seien. Ist das r cht ig ? Da Du ja in dieser Branche 
bist , solltest Du es beurteilen koennen. Ebenso interessiert mich 
die Zollfrage. Kach Auskueriften,die v;ir hier erhalten haben, sind 
Packete bis zu einem Pfund zollfrei; daher haben wir eines gewaehlt , 
das weniger als ein Pfund wiegt. 

Tir hatten uns seinerzeit schon bei Deiner Schwester erkun- 
digt, aber sie wollte nichts von solchen Sendungen v/issen. Ich bin 
froh, das s Du in dieser Hinsicht k«^inen falschen Stolz h st (es ist 
ja nicht Eur^' Schuld, auf knappe Rationen gesetzt zu sein, sondern 
eine fuer vins recht begreifliche IJo t wendigkeit , der ^;ir gern ab- 
helfen). Jedenfalls hit Gret^^l auch H'aria Eckstoin ein aehnliches 
Packet geschickt (freilich mit dorn uebli^hen gemahlenen Kaffee) und 
nun worden wir sehen, was Eure respektivon Erfahrungen sind. 

Gern schicke ich Dir auch Buecher,wenn Du mir nur sagen willst, 
welcher Art sie sein sollen. Ich habe zwar keine '♦attic*,in der ich 
alte Buecher ablege; und in dem Platz, der lex *attic* entspricht, 
habe ich fast ausschliesslich Buecher ueber Economics,die lieh wahr- 
scheinlich nicht interessieren. Mit der Auswahl schoener Literatur 
habe ich eine andere Schwierigkeit. Ich lese zwar gern, wenn auch 
nur gelegentlich Romane, aber es sind zumeist nur englische Klassiker 
wie Dickens, Thaokeray,Trollope, Austin. Fuer moderne amerikanische 
Romane (Hemingway , Dos Pa3o0s,Faulkner and other S out herners) habe 
ich wenig Sinn, ausser fuer Pearl Bück, Wilder und Traven. Da unser 
Geschmack wahrscheinlich verschieden i3t,musst Du mir schon sagen, 
was Dir zusagt. Koennen es auch Pocket books sein ? Sie sind billiger 
und leichter zu schicken. Oder moechtest Du Buecher populaer-wissen— 
schaftlichen Inh"lts ? Und wenn Ja, in welchem Gebiet ? 

Den Mixer kann ich Dir leider nicht schicken. Weder wir noch 
unsere Freunde haben einen, schon einfach deshalb nicht fweil unsere 

■vp. -iw*«^H^qfr-j: 

Frauen nicht backen oder Knoedel kochen und wir sonst keinen Sinn 
in einem Mixer sehen. Es sind ziemlich teure gadgets (S 20-40) und 
man kann sie nicht second hand kaufen* 

Von den drei Lehrern, die Bu in Deinem zweiten Brief erwaehnst , 
sind mir nur Harmuth und Seiz in Erinnerung und nur der orste eine 
deutliche Gestalt. Ohwohl ich ihm gegenueher eine gev/isse Anhaeng- 
lichkeit habe,h*it es mich doch gefreut, dass er nun in der Ostzone 
lebt und d-imit eine Vergeltung fuer soine Nazisympathien erhalten 

Ks tut rrir Iciijd'iss ich lieh so lang auf eine Antwort und 
eine f3endung hab?^ warten lassen. Aber gleich nach meiner Kueckkehr 
aus meinem Urlaubsjahr fing ein sehr hektisches Semester an;os war 
weniger das Lehren, das ich niir etwas abgehwoehnt hntte,als die Ver- 
waltung meines Departments , die mir heftige Kopfweh vr-rursaohte. Und 
so fanden wir beide kaum Zeit, an irgendetwas anderes als die taeg- 
lichen Aufgaben eines schvvieri^^en i3r'?rufslobens zu denken. 

Lass bald wieder von Dir hoeron und sei aiifs herzlichste 
gegruesst von Gretel und 

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900 West End Avenue 

New York 25, N.Y. ,23. August 1954 

Lieber Heinz, 

mit Leinem Brief vom 10.Maerz,den ich etwa s^8^t^ 
Mitte April erhielt, habe ich mich unglaublich gefreut, 

Zunael^hst haljeich sehr gluecklich,dass Du Deine Operation 
so gut ueberst mden hast. Ich nehme an,da3s Du nunmehr voellig 
hergestellt bist oder wenigstens so weit,das8 Du einigermassen 
arbeiten kannst. Magenge schwuere kenne ich zum Glueck nicht aus 
eigener Erfahrung; aber ich weiss, dass sie unangenehm sind, auch 
wenn der Magen dabei nicht perforiert wird. Wenn es freilich so 
weit kommt, wie es bei Dir gekommen ist, dann ist eine Operation 
wirklich kein Spass. Ich glaube Dir gern, dass Du in aeusserster 
Gefahr geschwebt hast , und rueckschauend kann ich ermessen, was 
fuer eine Beruhigiing Dir das Bewusstsein gegeben ha^^dass Deine 
Lebenslinie Dir einen guten Ausgang dieser Kraftprobe anzeigte. 

Deine Skizze Eures Lebens in den vergangenen tf«linzig Jahren 
und Deiner gegenwaertigen haeuslichen '•Menagerie" hat mich tief 
beeindruckt. Ob Du Dir Namen '•TJllysses** oder ♦'Multatuli" als Mit- 
telnamen beilegen moechtest ,ist Geschmacksache; in jedem Fall hast 
Du in meinen Augen eine solche Anerkennung verdient. In gleichem 
Masse drei so praechtige Kinder, wie Du sie geschildert hast. Deine 
Schwester deutete uns so viel an, aber erst Dein Brief brachte uns 
Dein gegenwaertiges Leben zu anschaulicher Naehe. 

Nun wirst Du erstaunt fragen, warum ich Dir nicht schneller 
geantwortet habe, wenn ich mich mit Deinem Brief so sehr gefreut 
habe. Meine Antwort wird Dir einen kleinen Ausschnitt aus unserer 
Lebensweise geben. Gerade als ich Deinen Brief erhielt »begann ich, 
ein paar Ergebnisse meines Forschungs Jahres zusammenzufassen. Ich 
hatte damals schon etwa 10 Monate in den verschiedensten üniversi- 
ta^isbibliotheken in den nordoestlichen Staaten des Landes Mater- 
ial gesammelt und wollte eine üebersicht über das gewiaHen,was 
mir dabei in die Haende gekommen war. Von Anfang April bis Ende 
Juli arbeitete ich, teils in den New Yosrker Bibliotheken und teils 
daheim, an zwei Manuskripten. Die nervliche Anspannung war recht 
betraechtlich: erstens musste ich mein freies Jahr zum aeussersten 
ausnuetzen \ind zweitens musste ich gefasst sein, dass spaetestens 
im Juli die Hitzewelle eine fruchtbare Arbeit unmoegxich machen 

Damit habe ich Dir die zwei bemerkenswertesten Faktoren un- 
serer Arbeitsweise in diesem Lande gegeben: eine chronische nerv- 
liche Anspanniing, ''deadlines*' zu erreichen, und ein unsagbar miserab- 
les Klima, das gleichmaessi^j-bestaendige Arbeit unmoeglich macht. 
Du wirst mir darauf antworten, dass Euer Klima nicht viel besser 
ist und dass Du insbesondere in einer Gegend lebst, die sich mit 
;mserem Klima messen kann. Ich bin mir dessen durchaus bewusst ; 
aber ich weiss auch,iass Ihr nicht in gleichem Masse an '♦Efficien- 

cy" glaubt wie "wir^^d.!!» an eine iinvemuenftige Anspannung der 
Nervenkraefte ohne Ruecksicht auf Gesundheit und Leistungsvermoe- 
gen. Sobald ich naemlich mit meiner relativen Müsse des sabbtical 
Jahres fertig bin, werde ich Mitte September ein anstrengendes Jahr 
intensiven Lehrens beginnen, das mir nur wenig Zeit zu zeitraubender 
Forschung laesst. In Europa haette ich ueber einen solchen Lebens- 
stil nur meinen Kopf geschuettelt . 

Was ich eben sagte, sollte Lir auch Nahum Glatzer *s seltsames 
Verhalten begreiflich machen. Ich habe ihn im 7/inter waehrend mei- 
nes Aufenthaltes in Boston gesehen und ich kann Dir versichern, dass 
er noch viel schwerer arbeitet als ich. Kuch er hat kaum eine freie 
Minute und als er zuletzt in Israel war,fuoDilte er sich so muede, 
v;ie jeder von uns, wenn er einmal aus diesem Hexenkessel kommt. Seine 
Unfaehigkeit ,Dich zu besuchen, hat wenig damit zu tun,dass er Pro- 
fessor an der Brandeis University ist und in Israel mit den »»Gros- 
sen** des L*mdes verhandelt ; es war einfach Muedigkeit eines chron- 
isch ueberanstrengten Amerikaners, oo einfach sind die Motive un- 
serer ^ort- xmd Schreibkargheit. 

Als Ende Juli die New Yorker Hitzewelle ihren Hoehepxinkt er- 
reicht hatte, verliessen wir fluchtartig die Stadt und verzogen uns 
in die Berge im Norden des Staates New York. Wenn liu einmal hier- 
her kaemest ,waerst Du erstaunt ,dass es aussieht, wie im Taunus oder 
im niedrigen Schwarzwald. Berge ,Waelder, Seen und ein zwar errati- 
sches, ab er immerhin maessiges Klima. Hier verbringen wir jedes Jahr 
mindestens den halben, manchmal den ganzen Sommer in einem typischen 
Farmhaus, das sich an Schoenheit und Laessigkeit (fuer den Staedter, 
der nicht Landwirtschaft betreibt )mit jedem gepflegten Bauernhaus 
in Mitteleuropa vergleichen kann. Nur so koennen wir uns von dem 
hektischen Grosstadt leben erholen und ich kann dann einigermassen 
meine Arbeit fortsetzen. Gretel beteiligt sich auch an der baeuer- 
lichen Wirtschaft ; sie liebt leidenschaftlich Tiere - vor allem Pfer- 
de - ,Feld- imd Gartenbau. 13ie ist noch immer Bildhauerin, aber in 
den letzten Jahren, in denen sie mit Krankenpflege und Haushalt stark 
in Anspruch genommen war, hat sie ihre Kunst etwas vernachlaessigt. 
Auch das war ein Opfer unseres unsinningen Grosstadtlebens. 

Ich bin Dir sehr dankbar, dass Du meinen Brief an Mirjam Eck- 
stein weitergeschickt hast. Sie hat mir sofort geantwortet und ihr 
Brief bestaetigte mir »was Du von ihr gesagt hast: sie scheint fast 
voellig unveraendert ,nur noch etwas mehr in sich zurueckge zogen als 
in jungen Jahren. Sie deutete auch genug von der Familientragoedie 
an, die ihr die "besten Jahre" ihres Lebens verbittert haben. Ihr 
Brief und der Deine ,Anni 's Besuch und Deine kurzen Bemerkungen ueber 
die ♦♦Bodenbacher" haben mir klar gemacht ,wie sehr ich doch noch 
mit meiner Vergangenheit verbunden bin. Ich haette nie gedacht, dass 
ich eine so treue Seele bin. Aber ob ich in einer Kolonie von Bo- 
denbachern leben koennte, scheint mir zwcif elhaf t ; auch darin hat 
sich nichts geaendert in den dreissig Jahren seit ich meine Heimat 
verlassen und sie zweimal mit neuen ••Heimat en" vetauscht habe. 

Lass bald wieder von Dir hoeren, Heinz, und sei aufs herzlichste 
gegruesst von Gretel und 


Tiberloi — Poriah 
P. O. B. 183. Tel 32. Israel 

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32 pa'JD 183 .1 .n 


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900 West End Avenue 

New York 25 »N.Y* , I.Februar 1954 

Lieber Heinz, 

Annl und Ihr Mann waren so gut ,ims waehrend Ihres 
Aufenthaltes In New York anzurufen und sogar zu besuchen und die- 
sem glueoklAohen Umstand verdanken wir es, endlich v/leder von Euch 
allen gehoeort zu haben« Viele Jahre habe Ich vergeblich versucht, 
wenigstens eine Person aus meiner Heimat ausfindig zu machen. Auf 
sehr merkwuerdlgen Umwegen bekam ich auch eines Tages einen Brief 
von Frau Flnl Brada,aber als Ich antworten wollte, brach bei Euch 
der Krieg aus, der die Korrespondenz unmoegllch machte. Dann wurde 
es still, bis ploetzllch ^e±n Maedchen aus meiner Klasse" auftauch- 
te und so viel berichtete, als die ihr knapp bemeesene Zeit erlaub- 

Nun wissen wir, wie Ihr lebt. Sie gab uns in knappen und leb- 
haften Zuegen ein Bild von Deiner Famixle, Deinem Heim, Deiner TaetlJ 
kelt und Deinen Interessen. Sie erzaehlte mir sogar von Deiner um— f 
fangreichen Korrespondenz mit Deinen alten Klassenkameraden, von de 
nen mir manche noch in Erinnerung sind, und natuerllch von Deinem 
Buchmanuskript. Seinen Inhalt kann ich freilich nur erraten, vermu—| 
te aber,dass es sich mit Handlesekunst be schaeft igt , eine Wissen- 
schaft, die in diesem Lande so wenig gedeiht wie die Graphologie; 
von allen Wissenschaften drr Charakter künde (um diese beiden 2wel-| 
ge irgendwie einzuordnen) blueht hier allein die Psychoanalyse 
"und traegt ihren Praktikern goldene Zweige. 

Anni^s Besuch kam in einer fuer mich guenstlgen Zeit tind 
ich bin sehr froh darum. Fuer gewoehnlioh bleibt weder mir noch 
sonst jemandem hier viel Zeit, alte Freundschaften zu pflegen oder 
Erinnerungen einer sehr weit zurueckliegenden Vergangenheit nach— 
zuhaengen. Wir lieben in einem Lande, wo protestantische (oder so- 
gar puritanische) Arbeitsethik Fomm und Rhytmus des taeglichen Le-| 
bens bestimm^mmd das ist der Müsse nicht sehr bekoemmllch.Aber 
dieses Jahr habe ich Ferien von der Hast und geniesse in vollem 
Masse meinen "sabbatical leave". 

Ich bin naemllch,wle Du dieser Bemerkung schon entnommen 
hast, ein Mitglied der akademischen Profession. Seit 12 Jahren leh- 
re ich in einem der New Yokker Colleges Volkswirtschaft und bin 
schon etwas laenger mit der Columbia University,wo ich sowbhl Vor- 
lesungen halte als auch meine Forschungen betreibe, eng verbunden. 
In diesem akademischen Jahr (1953/54) bin ich von meinen Lehrver- 
flichtungen befreit und kann mich dank einem fellowshlp von der 
Ford Foundation ausschliesslich mit Forschung be schaeft igen. Der 
Gegenstand meiner Studien ist ein bestimmter Aspekt der Geschich- 
te der Volkswirtschaftslehre (*Noch einmal wagst du, vielbeweint er 
Schatten, hervor dich an das Tageslicht..*» duerfte wohl Deine Ge- 
dankenassoziation sein, wenn Du dieses liest). Aber war es eigent- 
lich anders zu erwarten, als dass ich eines Tages als professor 
of Economics enden wuerde ? 

Oder vAindert es Dich, dass unser Jugendfreund Norbert (nun- 

mehr Nahtun N.Glatsser) Professor fuer Juedische Gesohlohte an der 
Brandeis üniversity in Boston, Mass. , ist ? Er ist der einzige m#i- 
ner Kindheit s fremde, mit denen ich noch freundschaftlich eng ver- 
bunden bin. Von dem anderen, Alex Gebhardt,der in Florenz lebt, ha- 
be ich nur vor Jahren einen ausfuehrlichen Brief gehabt. Er ist 
leider ein noch schlechterer Briefeschreiber als ichjv/enn es Dich 
interessieren sollte, ihm zu schreiben (presso Rag.Ramalli,Via Ma- 
saccio 276,Firenze) ,wuerdest Du ihm eine grosse Freude machenjnur 
erwarte keine proi^ipte Antwort. Alle anderen meiner Jugendfreunde - 
und es gibt ihrer eine grosse Zahl,:- entstammen noch meiner Frank- 
furter Zeit (ich verliess die ^Fraiokfiirter Zeitung" erst 1935 und 
wanderte 193o hierher aus). Die anderen meiner Kindheits - und 
Jvigendfreunde leben alle in Israel. Von ihnen habe ich durch Anni 
zum ersten Mal seit 17 Jahren gehoert (wenn ich von Frau Brada^s 
missgluecktem Brief absehe). 

Aber Ihr alle habt oft meine Gedanken beschaeftigt und ganz 
besonders meine Freundin Maria. Den letzten Brief, den ich von 
ihr bekam, erhielt ich Ende 1937. Dann bemaechtigte sich unserer 
die V'eltgeschichte (fuer meinen Geschmack: etwas zuviel) und riss 
den schwachen Faden der Korrespondenz ab. Anni wusste ihre Adres- 
se nicht, meinte aber,dass Du wuesstest ,wie ich sie erreichen koenn 
te. Darf ich Dich bitten, ihr den beiliegenden Brief zuzuschicken? 
Du tust mir und uns allen hier einen grossen Gefallen damit. 

T'enn Anni mit ihrer Charakterdeutung ihres Bruders recht 
hat, darf ich von Dir bald eine ausfuehrliche Antwort erwarten» 
Ich freue mich sehr darauf. Wuerdest Du mir bei dieser Gelegen- 
heit auch dte genauen Namen und Adressen von Euch allen geben ? 
Waehrend ich mit konservativer Zaehigkeit ,wie auch in allen an- 
deren Beziehungen, an dem meinen festhalte (ich schreibe sogar mei- 
nen Vornamen noch mit •'f"), haben sich die Euren geaendert und das 
hat meinen erfolglosen Sendboten das Finden so schwer gemacht. 

Mit den herzlichsten Gruessen auch von meiner Frau (es ist 
dieselbe ^Gretel^idie Du von ehedem kennen solltest) 


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NEW YORK. N. Y. 10024 

PHONE: 212-873 4919 

July 7, 1971 

Dr, Soudek 

900 West End Avenue 

Apt. IIF 

New York, N.Y. 

Dear Dr. Soudek: 

Pursuant to the terra, of your tenancy, It is incurabent upon you to leave 
the keys to your apartment wlth the Superintendent to enable hlm to gain 
access to your apartment in emergendies which raay arise, such as leaks, etc, 

If the Super intendt does not havö t e tey to your apartment it raay be 
necessary for hira to break your door open in such an emergency, and we 
wauld hawB to iake you responsibLe for the cost of repair of door. 

It is therefore in your interest that you band a duplicate key orkeys to 
your apertraent to Mr.J* Abraras, your SuperintendeBJb# withoutdelsy. 

Please cooperate with us* It is in lOÜR own interest. 

I\lr« Äbraras has been a Superintendent of the preraises for raany years who 
fcs honest and highly trustworthy» 

Very truly yours. 



NEW YORK. N. Y. 10024 



Sr* Soudek 

900 West End 4ve. Apt. IIF 
New York, N.Y. 

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r»0»Box ^A^Of Bolton Lnnding, !»./• 


ihone 518-Cr8-4634 

tThia is ön a^recrent betv;een Edith Patrick, the vendor and 
Theodore Yund, the vendee to seil and purchase sald property 1/in^ on 
the vT/estly side of Coolidge Hill Roßd in the Town of Bolton and being 
part of the second prrcel of land deecrlbed In the ueeu to the vendor 
dated lec» 31 1 1942 and recorued In the Iti^.TYen County Clerk 's Office 
on üct« 3» 1963 in Book of Decds at pagc 384. 

The purc>.ase price shüll be Dollnrs 45 #000. 00 payr^ble over 
a perlod of 5 years at 7a Interest on the unpaid balnnce» The terms 
shall be set forth upon sig ;ir:g the final agreenent with Gordon Q^r** 
llok at his Office» The tlBse of trsnsfer shall also bc set forth at 
that tiii-e . 

The vendee Theodore Yund hereby glves hii- check in the an-ount 
of Dollars lüO.üü to bind this sgreernt cnd to show bis gooä faith 

in final purchase- 

Michael Terenski 
dated July 18, 1971 


Edith rstrick 

Theodore tund. 

9. August, 1971. 

H«utt kam eim Bri^f von Sckmidt-Knatz: 

Frankfurt 'am Main, den 2 .3»pt*mb»r 1971. 


Sthr ge»krtar Harr Dr, Soudak! 

In Ihrar Kntsohädigungasacha egan das Versioharungsschadans arhaltan Sla anliagi|nd aina Absei 

Schrift das mir am 31. 8, 71 zugastalltan Bascheidas das Ragiarungspräsidantan In Üarmstadt, 

Harr Rachtsanwalt Dr. Sohmidt-Knatz wird nack sainar Rückkahr aus dam Urlaub am 9,9.1971 
omgahand auf dia Sacha zurüokkomman. Mit fraundlichan Grüssan 

.«« • • • . Kann nicht lasan 

Rechtsanwalt als amtl. bast.Vartr.d.RA Dr.3chmid t 


1-./. -.c^ ■ 




in Darmstadt 
VIIl/10 -.W/48977/D5/A~/S0u 

62 Wiesbßdeh den 24. August 1971 

Luisenstrassa 13 

Lö/ Schk. 

Einschreiben gegen Rückschein 

■—'—'■'■■■■ Bescheid 

In dar Entschädigungssache 

Dr Josef S o u d a k, 

geboren am 31. Ifai 1906 in Bodonbach / Böhmen 

wohnhaft: New Y o r k, N. Y. 10025 / USA. 

900 West Rnd Aven««^ 

- Antragstelller- 
^ vertreten durch 

Rechtsanwälte Dr. Frenz SCHMIDT-KNATZ, g^erhard LINDHEIMER 
6FRANKFURT/ Main ,Marienstrasse 2 


hat dar Regierungspräsident in Darmstf^dt als Enschädigungsbehörde in Wiasbaaa n nach dem 
Bundesentschädigungs-Schlussgesatz (BEG-SG) vom 14. 9. 1965 (BGBl.I S.1315 ff) wie folgt* 
antsohiadan: \ 


1. Der Antragstellar hat wegen Schadens im wirtschaftlichen FortkOuoDan durch 
Schädigung an einer Lebensversicherung gemäss §§ 127 ff BEG^-SG Anspruch 
auf eine Kapitalantschädigung in Höhe vo JB61^— DM 

2. Dam Antragsteller steht gemäss § 169 BEG-SG ein zusätzlicher 
Anspruch in Höhe von 60,27 DM zu, 

3. Die Gesamtantschädigung beträgt somit einschliesslich Zinsen 921,27 DM 

(i.W; Naunhudarteinundzwanzig 27/1II Deutsche Mark) — — 

4. Dia Rückforderung etwa nicht 

nT?* ^ 




4. 1)1» Hückford^rung •tmA tkic'at verrtohsat^r Vorleistungen bleibt vorbehalten. 

•( •> 

U 4 - "'' 

5r die 'Pntsoiieidung ergeht gebührenfrei and auslagenfrei, SntBtanaene hosten 

V I 

werden nicht erstattet. 


I, i.f o ■ -. 

^d. I 

1^ -TV 

«. -^ 




U:. *'^ 

ft Vi ^- 

?,y oh 

e r h a 1 t 

■i ■ ■ I I ■- II I I I ■ *•!• - 

• 3 > • 



Der aa Sl M^i 1^05 geborene Antragsteller ist jüdischer Abstammung und gehört su dem 
aus Gründen der Rasse verfolgtem Fersiineakreis. 

Jurch Bescheid vom 19, Juli. 1916 Bl,?Z d.A. ) und durch Vergleich vom 29 Juni 1961 vor 
dem Landgericht Wiesbaden (B1.51 ist dem Antragsteller wegen! Schadens im beruiriiohen 
Fortkommen eine !^nts^?hädigung zuerkannt worden. Ausserdem wurde ihm durch Bescheid vom 
13, Oktober 1961 Entschädigung wegen enstandener Auswandererkoaten »uerkannt, (Bl,65 d,A.) 

iler Antragsteller war Schriftleiter bei der Frakkfurter Societäts-i>ruckerei in Frankfurt 
am 'dfiin und mu^ste seine Tätigkeit bei dieser Firma auf Grund einer Verfü/^ung des Heichs- 
Verbandes der deutschen Prense vom 28. Juni 1935 (B1.15 d.A,) aufgeben ,Rr gelangte deshalb 
am 22, April 1936 in Frankfurt am M^ln sur polizeilichen Abmeldung zwecks Auswand*^rung 
nach ^«ew York /USA (B1.16.d,A,) 

Während seiner beruflichen Tfeti.keit bei der Frankfurter Sücietäts-i)ruckerei war der 
Antragsteller ab I.Januar 1933 durch die V^rsorg^angsanstalt der Jeutschen Presse in einem 
Oruppenversicherungavertrag Nr, L 105/28 bei den Versiehe rungaunternt^hmen AIlienz~Wbens| 
versieh rung-AO, -Concordia OlÄLebensyersichej^ujjgf^ikXJLf pge^f llf^^l^ SxHa^#^röfrl|weil 
Ii*»ir*ij?ir|i4ef|yr^i© •AiiiM»''l'tfe#»ftXiF«Agn«in|fliA-A&)inslte in i-rankfurt am :4Äin,heaöen Uattel 

lftf8Ü9|(tV»«J!ffif¥lOtfdVM 4A«jAfftlfH«|9priiocAt^§^A4cp^fff»^)i5rde in iesbaden ist ^eataös i ie| 

S8^fiSnä6!t2sig4^&h-%f§iräSpfto4J?siefcl?aR^^i»M «JÄ^*9iiii-und Erlebensfall mit Einsohluss 
1599 liJIßM«ÄtMr- »■^cJteltJlriTigZfi«t^yAr§4ch|rw^l)^ 127 ff iiK0-3ö De^^rinaet. 

ä*f5inB*^ae^*?er»J«fil^l4A^«iÄr»^miJM?i9f53«9ftd:Al?8u^b«all? ««' ^^rMüJ. folgender 

Berechnung gem^ias Auskunft und ier zur Verfügung «Testeilten iiereouÄUi»e»i-»tvria/o der 

ÄJf iifftf»i8l«8»*rff§^«»llir^ft#J?l»«.^??5ld9JB J^^Cf }c^^rt8a,«f .Josex i.oudek,ursprünglici* 3.rira,— HM 

= 2,550,— .XÄ.üM- 

iJer jährliche Tarif betreg betrug 13, — äK.iJie Fr&miensahlungen wurden bis sua 30 Juni, 

1936 geleistet* 

Am 31. August 1935 wurde ein Rückkauf swert in üShe von 67,75 HM.wahrsrheinlich nn den 
Versicherten a^isgezahlt. 

Wegen Schaaens an dieser Versichur.g begehrt der ^ntragste"" 1er /ait Antrag vom 8, ^r« 1958 

(B1,6 d.A.) Entschädigung. 

Besüglich aller Rin^elkiitea wird auf den Inhalt der CnscL^laigungsakte v<^rwiesen. 

Rntsche idungsgründe 

Aier *ntrag ist form- und fristgerecht gestellt, §§ 189,190 BEG-/3G, 

Jer Antragsteller Ist verfolgterim Sinnt der» ^ 4 Abs.I li££. iw ihtg^oik sina erfüllt, weil 

der Antragsteller vOx- seiner Auswanderung seinen Wohnsitz in Frankfurt am Main, Hessen Hatte 

i)er Regierungspräsident in Uarmstadt als ''ntscuädiguugsbehOrde in ^Uesbaden ist gemäss § 16) 
§ 185 Abs. 2 Ziff.3 BG0-3G für die l^^ntscneidung zuständig, ' 

Uer Anspruch auf Entschädigung ist gemi^ss ^5 64(l), 127 ff BEö-30 begründet. 
Dia i^öhe der Kntsohädl/^urg ert^ibt sich aus § 126 Abs.l und IMZ l>SQ»3a auf Orund folgender 
Berechnung gemäss Auskunft und der zur Verfügung gestallten BereOiinui^£^««teriaga der 
Alliaas Lebensversicherung-AG. (hl 94 d.A.) 



^ 7.T 


M.[**** f /•.--<*-■: '^^■ 


VtrslRMTUng AllianK Leb»iJ8v©riioh«»run!!j»--A0 

ConoordiA Leb nsv^rsioherangt-Aktl^ngea^^llschaf t 
V«»rB.*- Hr, OL 105/28 

V«r8lch9rung8 8iunm* 3.581, — FUi « • 

Gairinnguthabtn fiktlT «rr^ohn«! 
gfmäs« Cr«8tz vom 24. 12. 1956 
g«aöss 0«8^t» vom 19, 3. 1963 

Alt8pflrerffnt8ChÄiigung »InachlieBslich 4^ Zln8^n 

vom 1.1,1953- 31.12.1969 



2.550, — jil 
851,45 JM 
464 ,— DM 
464 , — m 

96,30 Du 
4,425,75 JM 
4.425,75 Jk 

Hierauf sind ansurvohanan (§128 Ab8,2 BEO): 

a) nicht «»ntriohtata Prämien 

mit Sttaer vom 1.7.35 - 30.6.48« '* 2,028.— HM 

vom 1.7.48 - 31.12.69s: 
b) D r Rückkauf aw»rt P7,75^ RM s 

GamäsB ^ 41 dar 3.uV-B^G»-3G aufgsrandet 

202, 80 Dm 
3.354,— DM 


3.5<S5.58 DM 


861, -«DM 
60,27 DM 

Dia Gasamtentschädigung betrügt somit ainsohlia^slieh Zinsen 

921 ,27 JM. 

Dia Kostanentschtidung baruht auf ^ 207 ßRG-3G. 


Gagen diesan Baschaii könnan Sia g0g9n das Land Hassan, vartratan durch dan Ragiarungs- 
präsidantan - Entschädigungsbahörda -> in Darmstadt ,Klaga arha ban^sowait dar Antrag 
abgalajint wordan ist 

Oia Klaga ist innarhalb «inar Frist von 3, falls Sia im aussar auropäisohan Ausland wohnan. , 
von 6 Monatan sait dar Zustellung dieses Besohaldas beim Landesgaricht in Wiasbadan 

SU erhaben, Dia Erhebung dar Klage erfolgt aurch Einraichung einer Klageschrift bal dam 
vorgenannten Garicht. Durch Rinre lohung ler Klage bai einem andaran Gt^richt oder bei einer 
Bahördawlrd die Klagafrist nicht gewahrt, 

ie Klageschrift muss die lasaiehring der artalan und las garichts, ila bastiarata Angaba das 
Gegenstandes und das Grün las d s »rhobcnan Anspruchs aoTria einen b^^stiamt^n Antrag enthalten. 
Sie ist von Ihnan odar Ihr<»m B©vcl3m^«chti^t€'n «u unt' reelchnanon jADwaltszwart^ b'^staht nicht« 
Die Klageschrift sali in doppalt»>r /usfarligung einf;r»r icht warÄ«?n, 

Im Auftrage 
gai5, Löohal 

Rr>g. 242/69 
EU Rag. 242/62 

Harndck üder J*nnick(^iicht 

la bar) 



Dated at Bolton Liindlng, Nev York, July 20, 1971 
Vendor Edith Patrick 
Vendee Theodore J . rund 

PreBQises all t^ at portion of the real property lying on the westerly 
aide of Coolidge Hill Boad, in the Town of Bolton, Werren County, New 
York and being part of the second parcel of Ifind aescribed in the deed 
to the vendor dated Dec. 31, 1942 and recorded in the Warren County 
Clerkes Office on Oct, 3, 1963 in Book 434 of Deeds at Page 384. 

Purchase Price Dollars 45,000.00 

Terms t Dollars 4,600 upon slgning of this agreement, receipt of which 
is hereby acknowledged; Dollars 5,400 at the time of transfer and 
35,000 by the vendee executing a bond in this eirount to be securod by 
a purchase cioney Eiortgage. Said bond to be payable at Dollars 3,500 
»emi yearly for five years with interest at the rate of 7/». 

Time of Transfer t On or before September 7, 1971 

Place of Transfer ? The Office of Gorcon K. Garlick, Lakeshore Drive, 
Bolton Landing, N.Y» .^. 


IN \^ITNESS WHEIKEOF, the parties to these preseni hereunto ■ 
set thelr hands ano seals the day and year above written» 

In presence of 

Signatare 8 

Kdith Patrick Ll^S.j by hand 

Theodore J. Yund Lli^S.] by hand 

■■J * "«'.llill» üpipipipi iiaiai • I r.ivwi 

Patrick Vendor 


Yund Vendee 
Coniract for Purchase and Säle of 

Dated July ,1971 
Leed to pass 
Dced t be to 


State of riew York 
County of v.arren 

On this day of July 

Nlneieen Hundert and Seventy-ono bcfore me, thc rubscrlber, person« 
ally appeared to n.e personally known to me to be the sarce person des- 
cribed in enü ?/ho executed the f oregolr ^ instruirent and he acknowledg- 
ed to ine that he executed thc sane. 


dritten find counted 

It should be 10;^ down on signing of contract 
$ 5f5cOȟO elther September 1 or October 1, 1971 
, Annual Payment b girmlng on Septcnber 1, 1972 and Interest Quarterly 

at 7 /^ 

^erm of wort^age 5 years 





Area Code BIS 

December 11, 1974 

Mrs. Gretel Soudek 
900 West End Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10025 

Dear Mrs. Soudek: 

Re: Patrick vs. Yund 

I have heard nothing further from Mr. Yund. Since has not made his 
payments as promised we will immediately commence the foreclosure 
action. If he should bring his payments to date while the foreclosure 
action is pending, we can discontinue the action. 

We will keep you advised. 


xc: Miss Edith Patrick 
Coolidge Hill Road 
Diamond Point, N.Y, 

Very truly yours, 
Thomas M. Lawson 

Copy of Ittter from Mr. Lawson to Mr. YuäcL 
arrivAd üct. 11.1974 

Law Offices of 
Lawson <3e Ingalls 

16 Hcrlem Str««t 
Gleiis Fall8,r<ew York,Wew York 12801 

Thoinas M. Lawson p^ ^^ g^^ g^3 

Joiin M Ingalls 

October 8, 1974 

Telephon« 793-3451 
Are|[ Code 518 

Theodore J.Yund 

P.O.Box 648 
Bolton Lending,New York 12814 

Re ; Edith Patrick 
vs. Theodore J.Yilnd 

Dear Mr. Yund; 

We have been retained by Miss Edith Patrick to foreclose the iiortgage excecuted by 

you on August 29,1971. 

Aceording to our computations you have failed to wake principal an d interest payments 
as required by the terms of tne bond and mortgage and that you are in default. 

The figures kept by ivliss Patrick indicate that as of Semptemoer 4, 1973 tii« principal 
balanc© due was the sum of 28, 775.00 and tnat no payments on account of principal 
have been received as required by the terms of the bond and mortgage. 

As of September 1, the prindipal balnce due on the mortgage should have been redueed 
to 14,000.00, Our records indicate thet the principal balance du» is 28,775.00, 

ünless we receive from you within five days a check in the sum of 14,775.00 plus 
interest to September 1, 1974, we will commence the foreclosure actio». 

Very truly yours, 
Thoaas i>a. Lawson 


x.c. Miss Edith Patrick 

Aug. 2. 1976 

I woaXd 11k« tu thaiik yoix tor bi»lng • aidil^^mBn «»t»«*n I^>' son aaa 
BQra^lf.i^« r««lly io tfd on<», für th*r# «r* thln,>^s I do not und^rstena, 

B»fore any f^^r«?«tii#nta »r* oAd« aboit tftis Jullars 2!SuO ^I woili 
lik« to know, wxiy «▼«(• ta# mon»y bürrow»^. I know so lltti« rbcmt th9 
tht buslnoss part. My son n«>a<il9d «varythlng. I only know that for at l»ast 
two y^art , I no long<^r raoelvaa a s^lary trom tn« dorporation. bernia 
on tiu9 othar h^nd, raoalvad many tax banif it«,üaTing ihm Corp. In i^la 
ho»9.. Also a9 taust a^yf» iiaa aoaa iccosa from tiia Curp. sinca h« lUkd 
only a pprttiiaa Job. Yat all Xais lliii oMit naw ba ior^oifn^ 

Piaasa^ao raalna asy nom for ma ti^f^t it was my monay tnat start^a tha Corp 
bougi*t Pll tha initial paintings r^n^X I avan gava my own p^^ to ti^a 
Corp. t'or a &()-50 s^la, whila Barnia ald not contrio^ita a panny. 

Now whan I n»9a help to -at on my faat, wnara is äay son? As Barnia 
knows,! Bm noa in trettaiucus avbt «^ua to ti:;a Aecid«^nt, I do not iJ^y^ 
a üollFrt \25. «nd .'^51. MFstarohar>;a as iied baan agraad by i^arnia's «otuar 
f^nd him to ba paid baok in oionthly installiiiarits «wuloli uas baan pa Id 
Tißtil ^aguat and will ba pa id back av-ry iuonth, ' 

Ko Insurarica uon^y at all n»» coaa. i)ut Cariatlna ana üorria will 
taka a loan to pay off thia sonay to it^arnla and I will pay tiiaa back, 

Tall isy aün,ur.aar lijo aosülutaly ^ circuuiatancas will any oi* my 
paintings ba sola, ha can ao witn als rs ha wislies-1 do not cera. 

Tüa aivisions of tna paintin/^a is nlright. Pla^sa, lat it ba known 
to barnia »ti^et I want ay owa raf^r^nca books back (G :riftan,<tot. , and a 
fair diviaion oi tha r^daa ining f^rt ctooks. It is urgant tot my oisinass. 

X !r70iild lika, Rlso,^natav«r raoords tha Corp. has on my 
Isarnia also zsantions costs incurraa x'or dissolution of tlia Corp.Z would 
lika an *»tiaißt*>. — Is tiiara any moriay at rll in t^a Corp.? This should 
ba saarad. Also wijat about t^a a aipraant? x'aat Üvlsion ^ill ba laada ior tnia^ 

I r»a:i«a that you do not iiava f-n a»9y taak ana* d of you. hut 1 a« 

•w9-y .7rataf\al for your halp and ■»itkout yoti it would liSiva ba«?n aora of e 

tra^jaay tiw^n it rlr^^wdy i». 

T an sorry.w» can* t cc«a on our wwy noma.ünr car is ovarloaa d and witix 
tha dogs ff na t^a *?ast it is too auch troubla. 

I realize that you,,a8 everybody eise, ,has to carry his own bürden; 
Luckily, you ere young enongh to cope with the hurdles of personal life, 

Nowjtnat I have at least hinted at what interrupted ay correspondence with 
yoti I do höre that, after mf return home, we «ay continue where we left off. 
Woud you do me the fever of informing Karen about what I ust wrote? 3he 
toOjdid not hear from Me or even receive tne ms. Copy ofer her Locke 
books which I had intente to return to her with my conaienta. I feel 
very badly ebout it. Tho gh I have rightfully not heard from her I do hopa 
that she is enjoying her baby dau^^'hter 

With best wishes for the success of your book an kindest regard] 
•^ course from both of us us both, to Barbara and 

yo^ I remPin 

yours as flways, 



38 Jalt Place 
StaafordjConn, Ü6906 

xx:axxxxxxxjc.: xx:acx/jc 
xxxx :x:a x >: xaxxxxxxx oc^xxx. x 

A«gU3t 17,1976 

Dear Wolf: 

I fe#l th* foHowing would bo a fair distribution of th# co«paiiy,8 asaets in 
th« ev«nt of a Iqmidiation« , 

Victory Smoke 
Guided ba the Stars 
Th* Inaian Soout 
Arrival of th« Kuon 
Ideal iz9d Inaian 
The Arbor 

Landsoape witii J#ar 
Venetian Soent 
Cowboy on Horga 

Paintinga to go to Eilhard Mitscherlich 

R. Farrington Elwell 

Orlando Rouland 

Remington Schuylar 

Jaaas C« Mc Kell 

School of Benjamin West 

Ernest Lawson 

Sohool of G. Inness 

Giooomo Guardi 


Pair of 17th Century Italien 

Paintings to go to Bernard C, Mit scherlic h 

Aaa W. Twitchell Portait of Palaer 

Joseph H, Sharp Taos Indian Chief 

Williaa L. Sonntag Mountain Lake 

James C. McKell Old Mtin Kishing 

Edward Borien Cowboy on Horse 

Richard Creifeld Lanscape 

Leon Kno 1 Seif Portrait (sepia) 

Kanaae ifyyatomoto Three Girls 


The Benjamin Franklin is not held 
to my father personally. 

However the corporetion also has a 
ae for a loan I made to the comany 
National Bank demand note for the 
are to be distributed in the abore 
be made to me. If this is not poss 
Guided ba the Stars or the Sharp, 
a» from the aales priee, Then, of 
be worked out« • 

in the inventory of the Company. It belongs 

liability of Jollars 2500. This is due to 
on Oc tober 2 1974 in order th»t a Stata 
same amount could be paiä« If the paintings 
]2ianner a cash payment of iJollars 1,250 should 
ible, a quick sale of a painting, suoh as» 
should be made ana the füll 2,500 paid to 
course, a redistribution of the paintings aast 

T ere will MI also be oosts incurred for the dlssolution of the corporation and 
all consignments su h as Solario mast be re+urned to their owners. 

The First Rsngeley Corporation 

POB 370 < . 

Rangel ey, Main© 04970 

Phone 207 864 3808 

August 23 ,1976 

liear Eili: 

Enclosed a letter from Bernie pertaining to the dissolut ion of the Company 

and distribution of tue assets. 

You will notice that ßemie suggeattX tiiat you receive several Fainting8,which 

you had not expectod to get, There is the question of a loan of Jollara 2500 which 
h© made to the coatpany, We know that he reoeived on stveral occasions more than 
his 505^ share would have him entitled to .^et. But this is water over the dam 
and no matter what we say now,he just hss not got any money to make up for anything, 
Yom will see that the loan of Dollars 2500 to the coiopany was out liüQÜCKf 

into half to account for his share in the Company. 

I do not think it is worth the while at this tiüe to discuss the use of refermce 
books, which you would need more than he. The same goes for paints, brushes, ect. 

I strongly,very strongly suggest that you sign the enclosed letter ACCEPTEJ with you^l 
name and that you return it to him« I do not know wether I could n£X get here in 
Rangeley before returning to Slingerlands. 

I hare retained the original of the letter and will have Office copies made as 

soom as I get close to a good Xerox Mashine* You would not now need to have a copy oa 

made for yourself. I would not atterapt to add or to change anything in this letter« 
We all want bygone to be bygone and that seems to me the proper beginning« 

Herta wrote to you that we would love to have you in Slingerlands for a day or two 
before the children lilXK would drive back witn you to ^^.Y, and we could arrange 
for 8 meeting with Bernie at ur house, if you would wftnt to 

We expect to go home on Sept. 3rd, 
Our best to all of you. 

Copy of l^ront P»g» 

Statt of ii«ir York 
Co*4t/ üf larr B 



On tiiit 
!*il2i«t9«& l^indrtdl nnd 3ov»nt/-0n« 

of Jtily 

th« aubsorlUr, ptrtonftlly *pp»artd 

■' \- 

to •• persoxially known and knows to ot« tUa sano parton dasorioaa in an^}L •xaoutaa 

foragoiag instrumaBt, aad ha 


aknowladgad to aa that ha axaeataa tüa aatta. 

r .V' 

/ , .^ 


V ,!■ 


11 Page of Contract (Copy) 

consiaered e penelty. If no sucia sum is herei-Affr stated this cor.tract shall 
h9 constpued as if this clause wer© not conteined herein. 

The stipulation herein are to apply to and bind heirs,excetutors,suGcessor8 pnd assigns 
of the respectire perties. 

■■ M\. 

Dated at liolton Landing,New York July 20, 1971 

V^naor Edith Patrick 

Vende« Theodore J. Yund 

Premises All tnat portl ^b of the real property lying on tue westerly side of 

Coolidge Hill Road,in the Towm of Bol ton, Warren oounty, I^ew York and being ^J£^ a 

part Ol the second parcel of lend described in tne deed to the vendor aated Jec, 31,1942 

and recoraed in the Warren County Clerkes Office on Oct. 3. 1963 in Book ZIX 434 

Of D eds at Page 384 

Purchase Price JoUars 45.000.00 

Terms Dollars 4. 600 upon signing of this agreeMent,receit of which is hereby acknowledged| 

EPTY 5.400 at tue time of transfer and Jollars 35.000 by the vendee executing a bond 

in this emount to be secured by a purchase money mortgage, Said bond to be payable 

at Do lars 3,500 semi -yeatly for tiim 

by iiand five years with interest at the rate of T^j TY EP 

Time of Transfer; On or before Septembe r 7, 1971 

Place of Transfer; The offic of Gordon £. Gerlick, Lakeshore ^^rive, Bol ton Land ing 



IN WITNES3 WH'^.REOFJ the parties to these present have hereunto set their hands 
and Seals the day year above written. 

In presence of 

Eaith Patrick (L.Sl ) 
Theoaore J, Yund (L.S. ) 

State of New York 

County of iTarren 


Copy of 
Contract for Purchas« anol Salt of 

Patrick Vendrr 



Dat»d July , 
Deed to Pass 
Deed to be to 




18 ? ni naacte on the dete hereinefter mentioned,betweeii the party or tne parti«s 
herein designated as "Vendo** anl tJae party herein aesi,?nated as " Yendee", 

Witnessetfe ,that Vendor herby contrac^s to seil Vendee premises as herinafter des- 
cribedjfor the consideretion and under conditions and with collaterai agreements as 
hercia stated; 
And Vendee hereby contracts to purchase from Vendor premises on the terms herein named. 
All the corenants conditions and provisions herein stipulated to be performed and kept bjr 

Vendor and Vedee respectively are in consiaeration of those to oe performed by the 
other party, 

Vendor shall conway seid premises to Vendee in fee simple, free and clear from all liens, 
rights of dowerp or other incximbrances(unles3 specifiea) by a good and 
sufficie nt deed of conveyance in the usuaS form of warranty deed,except that ÄXiMif 
if Vendor conreys as Executor, Administrator, or (ruardian,or in any Trust Cepacity,the usuai 
detd given in such cases shall be accepted. 

If Vendee gives a mortgage on said premises to secure Vendor any of tha purcüase 

money tnerefor it shall be designated therain as being given for that purp08e;it shall be 

accompanied by tne usual Bond; both shall contain the usual statuaory interest, insurence 

tax, assessmant and receivership clau8es,if Venaor so requires.The mortgage recording tax 

recording fee for the mortgage and the Revenue Stamps on the Bond accoapanying the same 

shall be paid by the mortgagor (tue Vendee herin) es part of the consideration of said 


Vendee is to have possession of the premises on the Day of tranäfer of title unless 

otherwise herein specified. 

All rentöls, insuranceX an interest snell be adjusted pro-rete to tne aay of transfer. 

The buildings on said premises shall be kept insured by Vendor for a sum not less 

than the amount her?inafter stated,until the time of transfer, and any Insurance in case 

of loss Shell be allowed to Vendea,who snall take tne peope rty in accordanca with this 

contract notwithstanding any injury or aestruction of tue said buildin/iS by fire. Said tri 

transfer is to include,without further consiaeration and unless herein otht^rwise stated, al 

all fixtures and appurttenaces now in said premises, incluaing the heating plant and all a 

appliances connected therwith,ranges, Service no t water iieater8,gas fnd electric Chandeli] 

liers and fixtures (excepting portable lamps) oethrooms fixtures a ttached,outside sneaes 

screens ,awnings,storm sash ana storm doors« 

It is mutually coveuanted end agreed tnat in case either party fails to perform the 
covenants or agreements verein stipulated to be performed by sucn party, end any sum 
be herinafter named as "liamages for breach of Contract" , the party so f - iling shall 
«•^ nd will pay to the other tx^e saia 3um,?rhich sum if so named is xiereby fixed and agreed 
as tne lijui^^ated aamages for such failure. and thkt t^^e saae shall in no ev^nt be consii 

1971 Sept. 3S000 
1973 Sept. 30.000 

f . 

f • 

f97« 5 Jflhre 
1974 fü^hr r's dl«» Hälfte aer Z^^it ist vorbei, 

aip :«lfte von 35.0Q0 ist 17.^0 und noch m"hr,dP nur 5000 bezehlt. 

30.000 noch übr^p^.Dfl misste er a so mor en 10,000 und noch mehr zehl-n sonst könnte 
Edith die Moi'tgpge foreclosure 

7 '^v n 3O.00 

10^ ""•»"" '"ist 3.000 
1^ 'Uu;A«.iJOL3. 000 -300- "^30 i).nfirs 

'i. LiU eL'^ ;iiw' «IX i''r 

-1, CO 

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Kühle und Re^en.Hpt sie eine Ahnung! Sie ist noch nicht erholt genug und hatte noch 
keine Zeit , in ihrem Lieprestuhl in der So ne zu sitzen und stricken, wie sie es gern 

. r '-11. ■ ' i tf •• fo .-^-f-i r 

r.'l ^ 

So denke ich ir wes aus und a^nke pn Jemend.Muss mftl ins bett.Es ist schon 
10 ihr, i'^rüh in ich nur einmal ins Bett :ekc .imen am ersten Tag, i 
Mal s^nen, ob dieser ^ rief finkouinit? . , „ 


>: \ 

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10.000 anbezahU 
35.000 bleiben 
5.000 be7ahU 
30.000 bleiben 





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ys. .; 

von 4.S.000 blieben So.JOO ubri^ zu bershlen 


5.Ö00 Sept. 4,1973 Principal 


July 5.1974 
Sept. 30 1973 
Dec. 31.1973 

Dollars 500 ? 

up to Sept. 1 1973 2.450 

Interest up to March 1.197« 

interest .^^rcii 111972 


1. 225 

Interest Oct. 1972 



Abfltrrct of Title 


This üocument hes four pa res 

copxied on Oct. 7.1972 

for th© use of Edith Patrick, Coolidge Hill 

Road, iJinmond Point, i^. Y. 12824 

Th^clore J. Yund 
on tii'? w a^ Cooli^lr^o ^iill Ro«d,?own 
of I olton, '^-flrr n County,i>w ork 

GoTsion K, G?»rlick 
Attorrey rt Lrrr . 

I>>^kasnoro rive 
foltoü 'u^miingjN.Y. ir'PJ4 

r ■;.- 

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1 .■ . . '. 

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— u- — •- .. ■ 

I io hertby certify that I hav» aaf^rohdd tha rwoorda in tha Warran County Clark' 6 
Office by rL^nns of t/.a genaral Indiooß nort in usa in arid off ica,a^^ tha B9yeT»l 
persona, r^emed belovv aa cwncrs^for tha pariod sot oppotit© thair raapactiTa nfuas, 
for Dj'casiLc'sses in forc9,iiönerRl Assi>{nomtnt3,<'i'illa »Unaetisfidd Mortgagas^Shariff' 8 
Certificrteö of 3r lejliomest.esd I^xcwptions, Orders -Ap, ointPd Racoivarsjhoticas of 
Statutory Kor^ rilostlre ,Collector' 8 Bonds, l^oticas of Lis Panden8,i!adaral Tax Liane and 
Sur<?ty on Li6ns,«nd also for tha ton vf^ars last past for unsPtisfiaa Judgaaenta and fc 
for th? throa yepra last ppßt for conditionfll iJalea Contrficta affecting raal proparty 
f-rA for l-ecii^nicö I.iens iücketed Pfftinst tha ownara within that tlme and upon auch 
auch seerch I find the follo-vina; only ramnininf; unaibharge^d end unoancallad of racord ap 
spparentiy sifpcktir.g tha titla to tha premisea describad herein at 
Titla s(?t up f>t r<o. 1 h!>rf»of: . ■; 


E. L. Prtrick 
KdTTin L. Prtrick 
»)avid E. pptrick 
Spreh J, fatrick ) 
Eliza FfitricÜL Cilley 
John K, irtriok 
Eimer i<. fttrick ) 
Kdith Prtrick ) 

from April 9,189-^ 
fröm i3ec. 8, 1891 
froir. LVc. 8, 1891 


to Jec. 
to üct. 
to Cct. 

JC'C, 8, 
fx'om iiecoü, 





12 1891 
4, 1963 
4, 1963 

4. 19r.3 
h^raof . 

./ V 


Fleazar flerrick ftnd 
ii9len i«i. Horrick 

B. L. Patrick 

«larr^nty i)aed 
üated: April 10, 1886 
Ack,: April 10 1885 
Rec: April 10, 1885 
Book 481, Paga 521 

Conve?>y8: All t^at certßin picea, paroal or Ict of land situata, Lylng and baing 
in the Town of Bolton, County of Tfarren rnd otfita of Kaw York, kno'fn rmd distingaiehao 
es Lot No. trrf»nty-3av©n of b Tract of Land lying on the weat aide of Laka George callac 
North W^^st Bay '^ract containinc^ forty- t-ro acr«»8, as tha ai-'ma has been oonvayad and 
racordod in tu*» fiald b ook and loap th »raof filed in tha .Seoratary's Office ot 
our Said 3tat*>. 

Also all that certaln pioca pareel or lot of lend, I.ying in tha Town of Bolton, 



County of Warron, State of New York, known and distinguished as South part of Lot No. 
No. twenty-f^ight of a Tract of land lying on the w»8t side of Lak» Gtorge called Nort 
North WP3t Bay Tract contPininf thirty-clght acres as the same has bean survayed 
RCöording to the field book and map thereof filed in the Secretary's Offioe of 
Our spici StatP. 

No. 2 

Edwin L. Patrick 

i)avid K. Patrick 

Warranty Deed 
üated: üeo 9, 1891 
Ack.: Ueo lü. 1891 
Heo. : Liec.ll, 1891 
Book 64 , Ppf^e 546 

Conveys : Same as Item No, 1 


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t. 6.1071 

Uear Sir, 

may I ask you for your help or advic© with my problems, 

My name is Kdit h Patrick and I live in iJiamond Point, N. jf. 12824. I am 

a farmer,iairy and vec^^tablea. Lietting along in Years (l will bo 80 y^ars 
old in 6 months) it is not easy to keep my farm in as good a condition 

as I always U3"d to do it .But I work very hard to ao the sam« as nay 

ancestors taught inp,b.iilding uo this fara with th^ir own hands and I 

try to keep it in feirly good condition and repair. 

Last Ypar I planned to chan/fe ny hePting from coßl and wood to a furnace, 
so I would not hav© to b 'th^r,carrying coal and havinf^ my wjod cut f r 
me.Therefore I had to s»?!! a piec-^ of my land,my horses uspd for a pasture 
I got 3000 Dollars for it.Instead of a furnace,this monpy I naa to spend 
this moneay for doctor and hospital bills,for feeding my stock »trying 

to repair the dam8ges,the last winter aid to ev^^rything and sinct th» costs 
of living are getting higher, for my most urgent nteds, 

Now at the beginning of September my school taxes were rnised doable 

Asking for an explanation I have been told thet fl|y old agt excemptions have 

been taken away from me since I earned 3000 Dollars in 1970, As much as I 

tried I could not get any satisfactory answer from anybody in this towm 

I am not eble to take any lawyer. s© I was forced to pey thes» taxes 

which RffRin will force me sooner or later to seil part of my land amd 

deprive my animals of their neede grass.end food, which again may raise my 


What Am I going to do? I was born on this farm and I always usea to 

be a farmcr and will be to my last day.The same people who are eating my 

good com and spreading my hom'^made butter on their bread de'^ided, that I 

am 6n unproductiv farmer because I use it for my living instead of making 

a bussiness out of it. I am too old to expand my farm and have to keep it 

small so I can banale it, I am used to be independent and work for my living« 

Do you think it is right to tretat a very Senior Citizen this way? 

I would thak you so much for giving me adviee since as an olaer 

women, having my hands full,tenaing to my farming,am not eble to understand 

this Situation. 

I am very grateful for any adviee You would give to me 

It seems to me that my farm is being taxed as a private home f^r the first t| 
















\ / 


^ / 

























"^ -»^ 


Stpt. 86.1971 

Deer Sir. 

sk for \|^our help or advic» i» my predicaaent. My 

nain« is Eaith 

Mav I ask 
andP*tgitk>Piämoi(ci Point, N.Y. 12824. I am 79 years öld.I aa a farmer^dairy 

and ye^etablas.In i^y aga it is not easy to keap my fara in a good confitAmn 
as I always in ay ] if e usea to do it aa I was taught \y my aacastars .who 
also bilild up\ this smallX fara with tkair owm hanas.andtriad all their life 
to keap it in good coadition and repair« 

Last year I planned to changa ay heatimg froa coal and wood to a fBraaca^so 
T would not iiave to bother carrying coal aad cutting wood. Thara fora I had 
to sali a pi&ca of n^y land,whicn X usea befora to pastvra ayShorsaa, 
TliX I got 3000 Dollars for it. Instead thia aonay üSMXXtlXhad to ba spand on 
hospital and doctors bills andfor faedi; g my stock aad tkrough tha auch hierher 

cost of livinf^ for my urgant meais. 

Now et the beginning of Sept mber ay school taxas wera raisea ttbftbla doubl a 
Askin? fpr an explanatiom I have baea told that mjf old aga excen^ions have 
b an takan^away froa ma sincp I es me d 3000 iJollars a year. As m'ich as I triad 
I coald n^^^any satisfac^ ry answer froa emy body in tnis Oistrict. So I will 
have t J pay tha high r taxes which in tura will forca aa again IM soonar or 
later to sali part of ay landto satisfy tha tax collcrotor which again aay raisa 
ay taxas. 

What aa I going to do7 I always used to ba a faraaar and will ba to my la st day« 
Tha sama paople who ara aating ay good com and spraading ay/^^lf^^aaa buttar 
on thair bread aecidaa tha^ I^as an unpoductir farmer(Whataver that is) and 
it s^ams to ma that ay i^d i» .IjainS^rajraa äXas a privat home instaad of a farm. 

I wj>uld thank you so much for giving aa advisa^sinca I as an oldar womvB 
having my hends full^tending to my farming,am unabla to unciarstand this situationl 

I am 

grate fully yours, 

Rdith Patrick 

■^< ^ A.V c:/ A/'^ 

New york,Deceniber 4,1963 

Dearest Edith, 

We received your both lettrrs of November 15 (with tbe one 
from the Warren County Weifare people) and of November 3ö with the 
vsrious good news about you all. 

I should have answered your first letter more promptly,had 
it not been for the general exciteasents of the past weeka and for 
the hectic pace of our oity life, 

Attached I am retüming to you the letter from Mr •Harris« 
It is obvious from what he snys that he Icnows about the $ 800 fron 
hearsay only^mainly through Mr«Imrie# I think that you can safely 
ignore this letter and any other after that« Of c our se,Mr« Harris 
will try to pressure you into signing the agreerenttbut you need 
not reply to hie letters. Should he begin to threaten, just send 
me the letter so that I can consider what to do# 

We were quite surprised to learn that you still are short 
of water» We have had so many rainfalls in November that otir water 
supply Is normal ggiAn« ün the radio we are listening to what they 
teil US about your weather and we thought that the värious showers 
and the recent snowfalls would have helped. 

It was good to hear that Bernie ond you were over at Walter 's 
house for Thanksgiving and also that Bernie is bettcr. We have had 
no notion that he was not so well recently and it made us sad that 
it should have been this way. Now,v;e feel relieved and do hope that 
he will keep on feeling alright« 

The pleasant news about the newborn calf ,the duoks and even 
the roosters (beoause they are still alive) gave us joy mixed with 
the ever present nostali^gia for everything at Maple Grove Farm. 

We ere as well as one can be in the oity, just busy with the 
thousand things that have to be attended to. 

PleasOtdearest Edith, do not worry about that matter with 
Mr. Harris. I made a copy of his letter rnd I am keeping an eye on 
this unpleasant affair. 

With all good wishes for Bernie and you and loving thoughts 
from Gretel and myself , 

yours as always, 

900 Wttt Snd Av^xra» 

New Tork 26,N.T. ,Octob»r 31,1962 

D«ar»8t Üdith, 

lindlj tiga th« tnolos»d l«tt«r and nall it to tbr.Parry. 

Pl»a8«i8#acl ■• hls rtrply as aoon as you T9oeir9 it. Maanwhila 
I shall h9 In touoh wlth fritnda in th» Social Seourity Adainistration 
h»rt in Order to laarn what wa can do to laaka you aligibla for whatavtr 
banafits nr* ooming to you, 

I am sorry taat I am lata in ay answar and that tbis is »o short 

a latter. But thinga ara hactic at this tima of tba yaar. Gratal and I 

ara wall and so is tbe rast of tha family. Wa do hope that you and ßernia 

hava no spaoial coaplaints.wa so asicii wish you all tba luok you ara dasary- 

With graatings from us all to B0rni9 and you 

loringly yours 



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My dear Edith, 

one almost wished that in June time oame to a stop and that end of 
August would never arrive.To come to you is so much happiness and to 
stay with you is as a dream come true that the sadness of parting with 
you is nearly un"bearable. The ten months betv;een one summer and the 
next are a long interval in which we can do not hing eise but longing 
back for your house that is to us more of a home than onr abode in the 
-city and Jour evf^r inspiring presence and unceasing caress. 

Thern bto no words,at äny tlme, that would exp res sädequateiy our 
feelings of gratitud<^ for your friendship and hospitality. This year 
we sense this lack of words or any other means to conv^y our sentiment 
more keenly than in other years,if that is at all possible. Once more, 
you and your home have performed the miracle of restoring Gretels 
health. Not that I have doubted it t&l^oiJ m?ni^csl^?S^in face of the 
incredulity of mediecal authority. But now that it came to pass it 
appears even to me as something that is hard to grasp. There is no 
other place on ea??fi^Äne?§^£fetel can regain her health and her spirit 
How can one thank for that ? And how could we ever reciprocate your 
generosity of giving her the injections ,no ffiatter how pressing your 
own affairs were ? All we have got to off er is our lQve,sincere grate-| 
fulness and the heart-felt wish that you may en.ioy the fruit s and 
blessings of your good deeds. 'i ^^ •:•?< 

^hat you have done for Gretel,you havp,of course,done for me,too. 
You can imaprine how dovm cast I was when I saw Gretel once more afflic« 
ed by thf^ disrase so well known tö me from the past . I realized that 
there was a eure and I also had no doubt that she would receive its 
benefits in your home. However,it meant waiting and seeing how ^retel 
would respond ?8<^tfi&^b§H?gi^t?^K^§?>^iXy''SÄe^aiÄ^«^!§!S!6 progress an] 
every day my mind grew more .joyous and more relieved. Until in the end| 
I was relaxed and free to turn my thoughts to more pleasant things. 

While watching Gretel 's progress and her sleep,particularly in the 
first weeks,I was sitting over my typewriter. This persistent work 
took my mind off from ^h« brooding about the unalterable facts and 
kept me awake as long as possible in Gretel 's vicinity. That is the 
reason why I so q.uiGkly disappeared in the evening and hid in my room. 


Aretlnus,Oeoonomloa MS — 3 - 

Arundel 373»f«40-52i Pre faoe^books I and II 

Cod.ohart, tS*XV,99 fols« 

Souroa: Catalogua of the Artuidal Ifanuaorlpts in the Library of tha 
College of Anna« London 1629»p« 

Oxford «Bodleian Library 

Digby 130, f» 34-51 1 Prefaoe,book8 I and IliCOiamentary on book I (ooia- 

aamentarlolus ) 

ood.membr* in 4°. a«XV« 90 fola* Italian hand* 

Sourcet Oxford, Quarto Catal. ,IX,137|L«tter of Mr^Hunt 

Edinburgh, Uni versity Library 

119 (L»b,V.l6),f»48**56vt Prefaoe,boolca I and II 

8. XV, 150 fols# 

Soiurcei C,R»Borland,A I^esoriptlve Catalogue of the Weatem ?iSedieval 
Manusoripts in Kdinburgh University Library ,1916, p. 190 


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• 4 

Ootoher 31,1956 

Professor Richard W.Emery 
As8ist?\nt to the Dean of Faoulty 
The College 

Dear Dick : 

In reply to your letter of October 26 speoifying the points In 
the report of the Middle States Association that call for a comment 
on the part of the Economlos Department I like to State the follow- 
ing : 

(1) Statistios on practical aohievement of graduates (37)« I imder- 
stand that immediately after the Visit of the Middle States Com— 

mittee the Direotor of Records hp.s begiin to build up a file of 
our graduates« We are holding in the Department duplicates of the 
index cards and are solle iting Inf orraat Ions about the achievement 
of our graduates from our former students as well as from suoh 
gr oups as the Alumni Association« 

(2) Programs for five elucational and vocational objeotives (58) j 
following the interview Dr#Soudek has had with the person of the 
riddle States Association who studied the Economics Department 
the Department changei the introductory reTnark!> on departmental 
courses in whioh the five objeotives were stated (compare Queens 
College Bulletin for 1954-55, pp. 102-103 and Bulletin for 1955-56, 
p.lJ7 where these five groupings have been deleted). 

(3) Breater election of courses in group one (p»38)i the report refers 
apparently to group A» General Coiarse s (Theory,Uistory and Statist- 
ics) f/hich are to be found on pp« 112-113 in the Bulletin for 1956- 
-57« Of the 9 courses offered in this grcup,only 3 hnve other Econ- 
omlos courses as a prerequisite and 6 courses hnve merely CCl-2 

as a prereguisite. If therefore "lack of prerequisite 3 •♦ appears 
to '♦result in lack of ooherence and coordination*» (p.58),a valid 
oriticism has been made and the Department is s- riously concernei 
to amend the Situation« 

(4) Philosophy,lo^-ic or ethics could be more valuable than foreign 
languiges or non— laboratory soiences (38): Kowhere has the Depart- 
ment stated in writlng that the one type of courses is preferable 
to the other« In actual oral advising,Economics concentrators al— 
ways have been and are advised to elect courses in philosophy,par*- 
tlcul-^rly loglc and ethics« A check on the grouped electives of 
conoentr^tors in Economlos and Accounting will sho?; that thoy in- 
deed have eleoted such courses« As to language courses, the Depart- 
ment h«s no control over required language courses« If in Indivld- 
ual cases students were encouraged to oontinue their studies of 
langu^ges beyond the level of required courses, then it was in view 
of their vactlon^il objeotives (International Economics) or in pre- 
paration for gr duate studios where a more thorough knowledge of 

- 2 • 

oertain languages (rrenoh,Gena&a) Ajerequired. 

(3) Broadening areas of distribution and management arid addltion of 

supervlsed selected field trip» would strengthen theoretlcal traln- 
ing of stiidents (40) t This Suggestion of the person of the Middle 
States Committee who studied the Eonnomios Department appears to 
be neither eduoationally soimd nor consistent with his recommenda- 
tlon under (?)• 

^, The Economlcs Department is gulded by the princlples odf a liber- 
al arts educ^tion and, therefore, stresse» - outslde the purely 
vooatlonal tr^lnlng In Accoimtanoy - a thoroxagh training in 
General Eoonomlca (group A). Specialised cotirses (group B) «ire 
liberally offered - ns the report atates in another context - 
but Student 8 are not enoouraged to speoializo to a gre^xter ax- 
tent as seems oompatible Tvith a general training in Eoonomios 
along the lines of a liberal arts eduoation« 

b. The Department offers a oourse in distribution (Eoo 45 «Market- 
ing) and in a related field (Eco 20iConsuaiier Economics) and some 
Instruction in manegement (Eco 41:Corporation Finanoe). If the 
Department were to expand courses in these areas, the danger woiild| 
arlse that Student s might specinlize in fields that belong prop- 
er ly into a School of Business Administration and that such spe- 
oifillz tlon would dcstroy the liberal arts character of the i>e- 
partment. That would be partioui^xrly true in the case that super- 
vlsed selected field trips were offered, That such field trips - 
ns were undertakon at one time or the other in such courses as 
Eco 15iWoney and Banking, Eco 20jConsumer Economics and Eco 43i 
liÄarketing — "would streg^then theoretioal training" sceras to be 
a questionable supposition. That the autftor of this Suggestion 
apparently has had in mind is that the study of actual business 
l^ractices may AlluBtrate oertain points that have to be made in 
the cl'^ssroom in an abatraot and therefore lesr» impre sive fash- 
ion than i? por^sible in lectures based on field trips • In other 
Tords:lt would enliven the purely theoretlcal study Rnd supple- 
m-^nt it but it olso would dlr.trnct the «Student from conoentrat- 
ing on princlples «nd direct his Intrrest toward detalls that 
are botter left to speciallzed training. 



ho Suggestion is furthermore not consl3tent v.ith the one under 
(2),i,e. that the Department should not stipulate five rigid 
programa with specifieJ educational and vocatlonal objectives, 
One reason for objeotlng to th se programs was that such program«| 
would mMke the Economics Dep.*irtment resemble a School of Businesi 
Administration. Now,if the Department were to brof^den Its offer- 
ings in the sujijgested araas it would de facto lay Itself open 
to the oriticlsm it tried to avold by wlthdrawlng these prograuBs»] 
If e.g. the conoentrator were requlred to take five courses in 
General Economics (group A) and then allowed to eleot three or 
four courses in the fields 8uggested,he would get on top of a 

food general grounding in Eoonomäcs a special training that be— 
ongs into a School of Business Administration. 

The most constjructive Suggestion, from the vlewpoint of the Depart- 
ment seeras to be the one on p.58 (discussed undor 5; concemlng "lack 
of prerequisites tthat ] results in lack of coherence ?md ooordlnation 
in programs", The Department feels that the Economics conoentrator 

- 3 - 

should Indeed be induoed to elect a group of basic courses that 
the Department considers a conditio sine qua non for Eoonomics 
Student 3, Ever since the report h.ns reaohed thc Bep ^rtment »such 
prerequisites «re imdor dellberatlon and soon will be inoluded in 
cur courf^e desoriptions« 

Dr^Soudck who h«is had a protracted discuasion with the person 
study Ing the Eoonomics Dep-^rtment teils me he reccived the 
Impression that the evaluation of the Department was not in the 
best hands. The person assigned to this task is by profession an 
Accountant and has been a formf^r Dean of Schools of Business Ad- 
ministrr-tion. He therefore approached his a':3ignment v;ith precon- 
oeptions that do not quite fit a Department of Eoonomics in a 
Liberal Arts College. 

Yours öincerely. 

Halph G#Ledley,Chairm;m 
Lepartment of Economics 


The Placeraent Bureau 


February 2h, 1956 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
The College 

Dear Joe: 

I have been meaning to get back to you the report on 
some of the nice placements which we have inade for your Eco majors. 
I got a good Job for Myma Paul in advertising research^ and an 
interesting one for Joel Ergas in economic research, and some 
field interviewing viork in Labor Statistics for Paul Calmis. "K^w-v« 

-M^ ^<^^-^ cjc'c- -<:^c^ .J..X^. 

I am writing at this time to teil you about an 
interesting part-time Job in Economics Research for an Investment 
Counselor . The salary is ^1#25 per hour, with work to be done 
on Saturdays. Because this is a good Job, it will be filled 
quickly. If you have an interested upper classman, please refer 
him to me at once* 

With renewed assurance that I am grateful for your 
help in preparing the recommendations that made these good place- 
ments possible, I am 

Sincerely yours, 

Plac emeni^i rec tor 



Lfeich 17, 1955 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
EcorxOiriics Dept. 

The College 

De er Joe: 

The Queens College delegation to tlie United Mations L'odel 
General Assembly v.ou] d like you to brief them on V.ednesdey, LIarch 23id, 
at either äsöö- er 4:0Ü o'clock in BlOl. 

They would like you to discuss the probiert; of ecomorLic developcient 
of backwsrd people especislly e.s it relates to Irarj also the question 
of trade barrisrs and geneial aconomic problerrs thst confront this 
little Near Eastern country. V.ould you also s&y sornetldng to them 
on the general s üb je et cf SUKFED. 

So thbt you rr.ay get the setting cf this topic for discussion, 
let cne say that it belongs to the Corcmittee on Economic and Social 
Ifcj.tters, the outline of vjhich follov.s; 

EconofTiic and Social ?>fetter8 

A. Economic development oi under-developed countries: QUwStion 
of the est£.blishniör.t of a sptcial United Nations fund for 
econoDiic develooii^ent. 

B. Forced Ln.bor : reoort of the Sconoudc and Social Council. 

Thfinking you for your kind Cooperation in this nie.tteri I am 

rdially your 


iihait Dillon 
« s or of Political Science 


1 1 



c^. a^j /isir 

ti»fc % t M .^<* 


1^ ^ 2iü ^i«..-^— -* r*^ .c.,^ Tii-^ 

•iir -:L/t^ .^t^ '*^*^ V '^^ ^^ 

February 20,1955 

Prof.Bwight Durllng,Chalrman 
Cominlttee on Standards in Wrltten 
The College 

and Spoken Engllsh 

Dear Dwight 

I like to Inform you about my recent efforts to make the 
r>tud'=»nts In my depnrtm nt nse the Queens College Handbook on 
Spenklng and Writlng for (Jprerclassmen to the füllest i^ossible 
extent . 

Every torm a few Student s of high s -holastio standing are 

admitted to a ccurse (Economlos 91) in whlch they are writing - 
a research papcr on a topic of their ov/n choice, I made sure 
that every student posoessec a copy of the liandbook and will 
adhcre to the rules set down as closely as is .feasible. At a 
first check, I noticed th^t my studentr> are acquainted v;ith the 
book. Nov;,I shall see to it that they are using it properly. 

Ordinarily these student s are memHbers of the Social Science 
Seminar (S»S.81) >md are presenting written reports to the seminar 
sessions, Again,they will be held to observe the rules of the 
Handbook > In this matter 1 have the füll assist^moe of Prof .Neu- 
rath,the chairman of the Seminar. 

I ehall disüuss the uae of the llandüpok with the raembers 
of my departmont and d. termine,to vvhat ext snt they may induce 
their student s to .npply its rules to term papers» I know that 
all of US are seriously concern:^d about the Standards in stu- 
dents* oral and wrltten expression and v;r^lcome the assistance 
rendored by your Committee. 

Sinoerely yours, 

I>r.Jo«5ef Soudek 
Chairman tPepartment of Economic s 

AR S^es' y^ß ■^oie^ ccuot« coLLC-CTio-^ 



a^a\26ance o.^v3drW1o| 

:>tt. 5. 1971. 

D^ßr ?rof, MirotSo, 

after B9niii»g p oopy oi your l«tt»r trom 
3#pt9i»b«r 1 st to BQr hJtba»4 ü» «a od tu» to aiiaw»r 
you lam»ui»t-ly ob hli b#h«lf and eft*rvtf>riiiiia will 
writa to yon r» soon »9 possibla.H» baa navar reoeivad 
yo^lr lattar iB i}<^c*Mib»r,asking hin to -^rif e raviaw 
of Vrot A] art i). Manut* a aditio» of Nioola Oraasa*! 
La Livra da Polltlquaa a^Aristota. 

Kf* is vory aorry f> r thit unintantad dalay anJi 
Tn^ ia /?oiB/? to writ9 to you «s aoon f» he in nbla to. 

Sinceraly y^uvy, 





/■ i\ 


i. t ;i 

S*pt. 23.1971 

i^eax Prof. Mirollo. 

Youp letter from Sept. lo has )»••. forwardtd to our 

eouBtPy adress. i 

My h U8¥and is at presait in Rurope for reasoni of of his ' 
health.Ate tbf th» presaat aoment he is travalliag.i will try • 
XiKÄJÜÜEXIIlKIJIXUimsend hi« a copy of your letfr bat I a« , 
not so sure th at it will reech hi. in tiae.He will return 
*y SepteMDer 20tii and upon his return to New York he will get 
in touch with you.During the wimter he did not feel tdo well 
and that may have been the reason why he jfl|| Mwas not able 
to answer yowr kind letter. 

Tors most sincerely, 

^ ^ o u £ i^ Q ^ -- c ^i . S^ y / ^ 7 / 

The Renaissance Society of America, 1161 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10027 


ELIZABETH STORY DONNO Columbia University JAMES V. MIROLLO Columbia Univcrsity 


JOSEPHINE WATERS BENNETT Hunter College CURT F. BÜHLER The Picrpont Morgan Library 

PHYLLIS W. G. GORDAN New York City RICHARD C. HARRIER New York University 

PAUL O. KRISTELLER Columbia University RENSSELAER W. LEE Princeton University 

ANTHONY MOLHO Brown University WILLIAM NELSON Columbia University GEORGE B. PARKS Queens College 

RICHARD E. PRIEST New York City JOHN H. RAND ALL, JR. Columbia University 

GUSTAVE REESE New York University EUGENE F. RICE, JR. Columbia University 

WILLIAM SALLOCH Ossining, N.Y. M. A. SHAABER University of Pennsylvania 

September 10, 1971 

Professor Josef Soudek 

900 West End Avenue 

New York, New York 10025 

Dear Professor Soudek: 

Last December we wrote and asked whether or not you 
would be able to write a short review (c. 500 words) of 
Albert D. Menut's editlon of Nicole Oresme's Le Livre de 
Politiques d* Aristote for a forthcoming issue of Renaissance 
Quarterly . Since we have received no reply from you, we 
were wondering if you were interested in doing the review 
or should we assign this book to another reviewer? 

We look forward to hearing from you at your earliest 


James V. Mirollo 


The Renaissance Society of America, 1161 Amsterdam Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10027 


ELIZABETH STORY DONNO Columbia Univcrsity 

JAMES V. M IR OLL O Columbia Univcrsity 


JOSEPHINE WATERS BENNETT Hunter College CURT F. BÜHLER The Pierpont Morgan Library 

PHYLLIS W. G. GORDAN New York City RICHARD C. HARRIER New York Univcrsity 

PAUL O. KRISTELLER Columbia Univcrsity RENSSELAER W. LEE Princeton Univcrsity 

ANTHONY MOLHO Brown Univcrsity WILLIAM NELSON Columbia Univcrsity GEORGE B. PARKS Queens College 

RICHARD E. PRIEST New York City JOHN H. RANDALL, JR. Columbia Univcrsity 

GUSTAVE REESE New York Univcrsity EUGENE F. RICE, JR. Columbia Univcrsity 

WILLIAM SALLOCH Ossining, N.Y. M. A. SHAABER Univcrsity of Pennsylvania 

December 22, 1970 

Professor Josef Soudek 
Department of Economic s 
Queens College 
Flushing, New York 11367 

Dear Professor Soudek: 

Would you be able to write a short review (c. 500 
words) of Albert D. Menut's edltion of Nicole Oresme's 
Le Livre de Politiques d'Arlstote for a forthcoming Issue 
of the Renaissance Quarterly ? We should like it either for 
the Fall issue (deadline May 15) or for the Winter issue 
(deadline September 15), whichever would be most convenient 
for you. 

Sincerely yours, 
James V« Mirollo 


* m I II I 

f^m^ — »^w 


*'V ^' f 





*■»-■ «I ■'»»i»'. 


K. y. 10025 

Janup ry 20,1969 

Professor Riohprd C. Herrier 
35 West 9tli 3tT9t*t 
New York, N. Y. 10011 

Dear Professor Harri«r, 

Would you kindly have a place at dinner reserred 
for me at th«^ Joint meeting of the Renaissance Seainer 
and The Renaissance Society on Friday, Jenuaru24. 

I am sorry for this d^lay of my request. Irwas 
cause! by health difficilties which, in the past Se- 
mester, pr^v^nt^d mo from atteniing the meetings of 
the Seminar, 

Looking forwprd to finally m^-eting you and thank- 
ing you in aavance for your kindness of taking care 
of my request, 

sincorely yours , 

Jr. Josef ooudek 
Associflte iiember of the Seminar 
on the Renaissance 

(A"^'',ji W. 

, 7^^J 

"^^VV*''l-i i--'- rj' 


Decoirber 7,196^9 

Profe^-sor C. Vann Woodwr,rci, Ch-iirmen 

Commlttee of Scholars 

American Coiincil of Learned Societies 

345 Hast 46th Street 

New York, N.Y. 10017 

Dear Professor Vßnn Woodwrrd? 

I am replying to your letter of Hovember 13 in hlch you 
Sipealed for a glft to the 50th Anniversary Fund of the ACL3, 
Please, accept icy sincere apology for not having replied to 
your letter of last Spring in which you drew my attention to 
the present campaign« 

Enclosed I am sending you a check 
contribution to the Fund, I wished I 
a more substantial check and einul.9ted 
schoij:!r5 who donated lecture fees or p 
to the Fund. Ünfortunately, I am not 
stead, in recent »onth?? I hrve »pent a 
in connection with the publicntion of 
mine • nd soine more '^nd heavier ejpense 
are to be expected. 

of ^ ?5»00 as my modest 
could have written out 
the eTample of those 
??rt of their royalties 
receiving either. In- 

goodly suffi of money 
a scholarly study of 
for the sawe purpose 

I am lEentioning this study, titled "Leonardo Bruni and 
HIp Public", contf^ined in pages 49-136 of volume V of the 
Studios on lulediev al r? nd Ren aissance History v/hich was pub- 
li«hed by the Üniveriity of Webr'^^Tks TreTs^in the Summer» 
It was this study, among related prolects still in proce^s, 
for which I reoeivea a grant froro the AOLS in 1959 to cover 
a part of my expenses for iDicrofilir.s and a^sistmce needed 
in my work* I acknowledged the f inanci? 1 p.±€ from the AOLS 
on p. 103 of my study • As soon as I shall be able to do so, 
I shall transmit an offprini of it to the ACLSj the present 
insufficient supply of offprints is not yet ready fcr distri- 
butlon since the aveilable copies are Ir cking the re uired 
identificf:tion ar, offprints from the above mentioned voluxne. 

I trust that you will pppreciate the circum^tnnoes that 
limit my sbility of contributing irore gener usly to a cause 
so close to my heart« 

Yourj' moFt -inoerely, 

Dr. Joref Soudck 
Professor of Sconomics 



345 EAST 46TH STREET, NEW YORK, N. Y. IOOI7 • TELEPHONE: (212) 986-7393 



Daniel Aaron 

Van Meter Arnes 

Rudolph Arnheim 

Jacques Barzun 

Harold J. Berman 

Joseph Blau 

Kenneth E. Boulding 

John O. Brew 

T. Robert S. Broughton 

W. Norman Brown 

Douglas Bush 

Robert F. Byrnes 

Nan Cooke Carpenter 

Frederic G. Cassidy 

R. Taylor Cole 

J Milton Cowan 

Merle CurtI 

John W. Dodds 

Richard M. Dorson 

Gerald F. Else 

John K. Fairbank 

William K. Frankena 

John Hope Franklin 

A. L. Gabriel 

John C. Gerber 

John David Goheen 

Louis Gottschalk 

Donald J. Grout 

Henry Guerlac 

Walter Harrelson 

Chauncy D. Harris 

James D. Hart 

EmilW. Haury 

Archibald A. Hill 

Henry M. Hoenigswald 

Howard Mumford Jones 

Paul Oskar Kristeller 

Hyman Kublin 

Jan LaRue 

Rensselaer W. Lee 

Leon S. LIpson 

Paul L. MacKendrick 

Richard P. McKeon 

Maurice Mandelbaum 

Albert H. Marckwardt 

Robert K. Merton 

George C. Miles 

Samuel H. Monk 

William G. Moulton 

Ernest Nagel 

Marjorie Hope Nicolson 

Walter J. Ong, S.J. 

Herbert H. Paper 

William Riley Parker 

Henri Peyre 

Gordon N. Ray 

Mina S. Rees 

Gustave Reese 

Richard Schlatter 

Thomas A. Sebeok 

Henry Nash Smith 

Robert E. Spiller 

Herman E. Spivey 

George E. Taylor 

Robert G. Turnbull 

Arlin Turner 

W. F. Twaddell 

Robert Wauchope 

Ren6 Weliek 

Lynn White, Jr. 

Aubrey L. Williams 

Harold F. Williamson 

John A. Wilson 

Arthur F. Wright 

Louis B. Wright 

November 13, i960 

Dr. Josef Soudek 
Department of Economics 
Queens College 
Flushing, New York 

Dear Dr. Soudek: 

Last spring I ^f^rote to you about the campaign 
to raise a capital fund of $5,000,000 on which the AOLS 
had embarked and, on behalf of the Committee of Scholars 
vjhose names appear on this letterhead, I appealed to you 
for a gift or pledge to the 50th Anniversary Fund of the 

I am sending you a report of the progress that 
has been made so far toward achieving the campaign goal, 
viith the hope that you -will now be able to make a con- 

Since discussions have nov begun with founda- 
tions it -will be very hei pfui to receive additional 
checks and pledges during the next few weeks. Clearly, 
the stronger the showing of support from scholars 
throughout the country, the better -will be the Council* s 
case -with these potential donors. 

Several scholars -who have contributed decided 
to donate a lecture fee to the PClß or to make a gift 
from royalties. Perhaps you will want to follow these 

All contributions to the Fund are tax deductible, 

Yours sincerely 

C . Vann Woodward 
Chairman of the Committee 


Deceraber 26,1960 

Frof,S,'Iarrl son Thomson 
Unlveroity of Colorado 
Boulder, Colorado 

Dear Professor Thomson; 

I should vory T?iUoh appr*=^ol'i*-e your t 11- 
Ing me the address of Irbl§.Leoore M. Rickeis 
who is listed on pa e 39 of your builetin 
Ko#25 on Progress of Ledieval and Kenaissanoe 
Studles , 

* . * *' ' 

With best thanks in advance , 

siDcerely yours , 


Dr. Josef Soudek 
Ässociate Professor of conoailcs 






« ^ 



1 ' 

. V • 



K©bru«»ry 11,1960 

Professor S.Iierrison Thomson, Kditor 

üaiversity of Colorado 
Beul der, Colorpdo 

i)9ar Professor Thomson, 

Many thanks for your lütter of Jpnußry 2 concerning the forthcoming 
Issu© of the Balletitt «nd for cffording me the Opportunity ot proTiaing 
yoti with data on my part in Reneisaance studies. 

AttPched I em returrilng to you the questionnflire with some pertinent 
datf^ but I want to Pdd a few inforraations on my projects whicJa are too tx- 
tensive for the sppce providod for them in the qaestionnpire. You mpy then 
judge what pfrt.if any,of them would be of use in the littlletin and pttblish 
an edited condens^-tion, 

Sinc9 1952 I have be^>n a contributor to the project on tfediaeval and 
Renaissance Latin Translrtiona ana Corament^rjes (Catalogus Translationum 
et CoBUEentPriorum) of which Prof, P.O. Kristeller is the secretary. I a« spe- 
cial izing on the «edikival am Renaissance Latin translationc of the pseudo- 
Aristotelian Kconomics and of paeu jo-Bryson* s Oeconoaicua . While working, 
during the past 8 years.on my aasignments three specific projects have e- 
volved which are now in different stages of completion: 

(l) ARISTÖTELIS ÜPERA OMNIA. Printed gditions of Aristotle's Collectad Works 
in Latin Translation with a Jeacription of the Works on ^oral Philosophy, 
1483-1668. (This study ,coaprising about 12ü typewritten pagesjis nearly 
completed;two learned Journals have indicated interest in publiahing it 
but it is possible that it might appear a» » raonogrrph. This study was 
undertaken in preparation of project no.2)# 

(8) ARISTwTELIS OECOKOMICA. Printed Edition» of Latin franslations of the 
pseudo-Aristotelian Eoononiios , 1469-1 598. (An annotrted bibl iogrephy ;tha 
first dr^ft haa been comploted but nothing hrs been determined as to place 
and dat^^ of pub} ication^ . 

- 2 - 

KC0K0MIC3. (A study of tht? extflnt mss.of Bruni' s Version (c.2C0) which 
will result in an annotrted listing of th© mss. and an analysis of th© 
origin and ms.trpdition of this Version. This study is well advanced but 
nothing can ps yet he saia about the date of completion or publicrtion, 
The article in SCRIPTüRIJM,mentioned in the ouestionnrire, is e preview 
on some results of my study). 

A large prrt of my resoarch was done iuring e sabbrtical leave (l953~54) 
for which I rec^ived a fellowship from The itind for the Advencement of Eduoa- 
tion (Ford Poundrtion). For thö current acrdemic year (l959-6ü) I wPs ^warded 
p grant~in-Pid ^y thn» American Council of Learned SocietifS .primarily for my 
work on projects (l) nnd (3). 

I hpve not m^de an entry on pßge 2 of your questionnf iro». i shall do so 
Pt a fiture occesion,perh^ps for tho Bulletin r^o.So. In thö course of my work 
I hrv© built 'Jp a quito extensive collection of microfilms eni photostPts of 
texts rel't^d to my studies (primprily of mss. find, prifited editions of Bruni' s 
Economics ver^ion) which I shPll be only too glad to makt? avrilrble to fellow 
scholars, It ?yill bo a long list,ho 'ever. I am already oxchanging sich material 
with P7'of.f,Edw/»rd Crane of Connecticut College »i^er/ London, Conn. ,who is undoubt- 
edly on your roster. I am not rware of pertinent photostPts in the Library of 
Queens Colle;Te;if there are any,I am cvrtain that my colleague in tiie English 
Jep.'rtment, Prüf, George P?^rks,has renorted thv>m to you or will do so« 

Finally,! am attaching a •he^.^k of )^ 2.50 in prepayment of the forth- 
coming Bulletin. 

Most sineerely yours, 

Contributor to the Protect on ?ledlaeval and Eenaissriiice 
Latin Tranalatlons and Cominentarics ,sponsored by Colxuabia 
Unlversity (Secretary :Prof .?#0«Krl8teller) »specialtzing on 
the pseudo-Aristotellan Oeconomlca and Bryson's OccQnognicus # 
ThlB researcli Is In preparation for an inquiry Into the 
inflnonce of Aristotle*9 moral philosophy on the develonment 
of economic thougbt ,a proj^ct first supported by the Fund 
for the Advancrraent of Education In 1953-54 anl slncc then 
oarried on as unsponaored reaearch. 

for: Columbia University - üniversity Bibliography 1955-1956 

February 5,1957 


Cl^S ^//^ :X)Sef ^UDtk COLLBCTlOr^ Jil 2 \ />!- 


OUA/(? WG.o- ^eß. \%S 



Rief; euGeA/e =F, 



Department ofHistory 

June 16, i960 

Professor Josef Soudek 
Department of Economlcs 
Queens College 
Flushing 67, New York 

Dear Mr. Soudek, 



Thank you very much for your letter of May 17, and the offprint you 
enclosed of your article on "The Genesis and Tradition of Leonardo Bruni * s '' 
Annotated Latin Version of the (Pseudo-) Arlstotelian Economics , " from 
Scriptorium . I found them both most interesting and instructive, and I 
look foFward with anticipation to reading more of your work on the 
Oeconomica . I know both Mr. Cranz and Mr. Kristeller well enough to know 
how stimulating it must be to work with them on a project of the sort you 

You have clearly gone much further than I, in studying the Utility of 
Mr. Baron 's ideas on Italian Renaissance history. The study of mine, to 
which Mr. Baron must have referred, was for a commemorative panel discussion 
on Jacob Burckhardt and the Renaissance, which was part of the program of 
the Central Renaissance Conference, at the University of Kansas, this past 
April. My task in that panel was to discuss the continuing Utility of 
Burckhardt 's thought on Renaissance politics. And to demonstrate one kind 
of continuing Utility, I presented a brief comparison of the treatment of 
the Discourses of the Venetian Doge Toramaso Mocenigo which one finds in 
Burckhardt, with the one which one finds in Baron. This comparison was 
a rather cursory one, partly because time did not permit me to develop 
it, partly because I did not have an opportunity to make my own study of 
these Discourses. My paper has been published in the Miscellaneous 
Publications of the Museum of Art, University of Kansas, No. 42. I would 
be glad to send you a copy, if it woüld interest you. But I am afraid 
that it would probably prove to be too superficial to be of much use to you. 

My own really intensive work has been in a later period and in 
different problems. I have become very much interested in Calvinist 
politics, and have done a good deal of work with the manuscripts preserved 
in Geneva. Indeed I was first attracted to Mr. B^ron and became acquainted 
with him because of his fine work on Calvinist politics. Latterly I have 
also become Interested in the economics of the printing industry, and have 
done some work with the manuscript business records of several mid-slxteenth 
Century Printers, notably the Estienne and the Plantin. I enclose 
announcements which summarize some of this work. If problems of this 
sort interest you, I would be glad to send you further Information and 
appropriate offprints. Meanwhile, thank you again for the one you sent me. 


Robert M. Kingdon 

Associate Professor of History 

■' mnmT*'' ''ww^mp 




mmrnmmmfmmmmimmmmmfwi r 

o/o Miss Edith Patrick 
Diamond Point ,N,Y. ,July 1,1960 

Dear MrtKingdoni 

Many thanks for your kind and most instraotive letter of Jime 
16 whioh reaohed me only today in my summer plaoe where I plan to 
spend the next two months on my werk« New York ia just too hot auad 
humid for me to aocomi lish anything there in the summer* 

Your letter proved to me that it was a sheer strike of good 
luck that I responded so promptly to Br.Baron's Suggestion to get 
in touch with you. Although,when writing you,I was under a misap— 
prehension as to your interest3,as I shall explain h^low,it was 
good to getjcven through a misunderstanding,aoq.uainted with your 
real ooncerns« It turried out that you are a man whom 1 should have 
kno m for a long time. 3ut hetter late than never* 

One of my three projects I have mentionad to you and the one 
dosest to completion is a study of the Latin editions of Aristot- 
le»3 OPERA OMNIA published between 1483 and 1668. It is a biblio- 
graphical study consisting -'bf two parts: part II is an annotated 
llst of rill editions grouped according to editiones principes and 
reissue» while part I,a sort of introduotion,presents the history 
of these editions from the viewpoint of the history of ideas aa 
well as the history of the Publishing business involved in develop- 
ing the Latin and Greco-Latin editions of Aristotle's Colleoted 
Works durlng the late Renaissanoe. 

One »eotlon of part I deals with the Geneva Greoo-iatin edi- 
tions published thore between 1590 and 0.1607 by such publishers 
as Guillaume de LaymarietPaul de la Roviere,Crispinus and Stoer* 
The interesting point of the Geneva editions - perhaps (iuite in- 
teresting to you too - is that in these two deoades (1590-1610) 
Geneva held a real monoroly in the production and dissemination 
of Greoo-Latin Aristotle editions. I surmise (without enough doou- 
montary proof) that Geneva at that time must have been a o nter of 
"Calvinist" Aristotle studirs and the publishers there carried on 
a "subversive" Propaganda of these studies not unlik a the Propa- 
ganda of Calvinist political literature you have prosented in your 

- 2 - 

book« The two main edltors of the OPERA OMNIA were the sealous Cal- 
vinist Isaao Casaubon and hls teaoher luliua Paolua LG»Paolo],an 
Italian rellglous refiige«;t:.eir work was done In the *Calvlnlst "*" 
splrit" (a term,! oan define only at some length and I shall do 
se if you are ctirious enough aboiit It). The early Geneva editlons 
were nevor Identifif^d as havlng been publlshed at Genevajeither no 
place of publloatlon was glven on the title page or in the colophon 
or the place of pxibliontlon was f. igned as Lyons, In faot, Lyons - 
then and apparently earlier - sorved merely as a oenter of distribu- 
tion* These oiroumstanoes lent this llterature a "subversive" ohar- 
actcr;not only did it break with the Catholic (Italian) and Lutheran 
(German and German-Swiss) hiimanlstic traditlon of Aristotle Studie» 
bnt it also revolntionized them along '♦Calvinist lines*» 

Here is where your research comes in and where,if you are so 
inclined,oould help ac. Since you have studied the Publishing busi- 
ness of Geneva (chapter IK of your "Geneva and the Coming of the 
Wars of Religion in France*),! v;onder how I oould gct quiokly a 
hold of your monograph ? Has yo\xr University Bookstore a copy or 
would I get it through a New York dealer ? From aarlier disappoint- 
ing experiences I know that books like yours are too fast out of 
print. Also, oould you spare an offprint of your article on the 
Estiennes from '•Aspects de la Propaganda religieuse* or is there 
a q^uick vvay of getting no,28 of the Travaux ? 

I have reason to assume that the first Greoo-Latin Aristotle 
edition put out in Geneva (without indioation of the printing place) 
was prepared by Paul Estienne,the son of Henry II,but not oompleted 
by him since he had fled Geneva by 1590, One fact supporting my hy- 
pothesis of Paul Estienne having prepared the publication is that 
he w^^,8 the broth r-in~law of Isaao Casaubon, the editor of the pio- 
neering 1590 edition, who served him as advisor on classical texts. 
Would you happcn to know llterature on this phase of the Geneva 
Publishing business ? What little inforraatlon I have about it comes 
from the general liter iture and Casaubon biographics,both not speci- 
fic enough on my pointt 

I was very pleas d to see from the description of your APS 

- 3 - 


grant that you are in contaot wlth Raymond de Roover, It was only 
early thls year that I met him in Boston while doing soae llbrary 
researoh at Harvard ;we have commor. Interests In the hlstory of econ- 
omic thought (the springboard of my presont atudiesj, üntil I read 
about it in your skotch,! did not know that he too is intnrested 
In the history of the Publishing business. Soon I shall havc oooa- 
sion to reveal to him that we have this field in oommon and yotir 
friendly mediation, Economists of our bent are always thankful for 
such oontaots 3inoe,within our own profession,we ai^e somewhat isolat- 
ed although a reorentiation is just now in the malcing thanks to de 
Roover and some othrr eoonomists of the same breadth of knowlodge» 

Finally a word of apology» I would not have mclested you with 
a detailed account of my research pro^ects had I not mi sunder st o od 
Dr. Baron. Froro the lett r in which he mentioned your int^rest in 
his work on the literary souroes of the viuattrooento I reoeived the 
mistakfn impression that you are interested in Cooperation among 
Henaissanoe scholars per se and theit you wore about to gather illus- 
trative material fpr such oooperative enterprises,perhap8 for the 
Central Renaissance Conference. I am sorry for this faux pas. 

On the other hand,I am really happy that ay mistake earned me 
your acquaintanoe and perhaps prospective Cooperation. 


ith kindest regardsi 

sinoerely yours, 

Department of History 




July 8, i960 

Professor Josef Soudek 
c/o Miss Edith Patrick 
Diamond Point, New York 

Dear Mr. Soudek: 

Thank you very much for your letter of July 1. I do not have 
the time right now to give it the considered answer it deserves, but 
I shall try to answer your most direct questions. Your work on the 
Calvinist editions of Aristotle strikes me as fascinating, and I look 
forward to finding out more about it. 

You should be able to get a copy of my book f rom Gregory Lounz 
in New York City. You could also get one direct from the publisher: 
the Librairie E. Droz; 8, rue Verdaine; Geneva, Switzerland. They 
maintain an account in New York, and can thus accept payment for books 
in dollar checks. Other books in the same series which contain useful 
information on the Genevan printing industry are Paul Chaix, Recherches 
sur l*imprimerie a Geneve de 1550 a 1561; (t. 16, 195U), and the Aspects 
de la propagande religieuse (t. 28, 1957)» Something more recent is 
E.-H. Kaden, "Ulrich Fugger et son projet de creer ä Geneve une 'libraire* 
publique," Genava (May, 1959), pp. 127-136. Mlle. Droz has published 
something even more recently on printers in La Rochelle, but that, I 
take it, would not be of direct interest to you. 

None of these materials, however, have much, if anything, on 
printing during the period which particularly interests you, from 1590 
to about l607. I do not think immediately of anything that is very 
useful on that period, unless there is something in the later portions 
of A. A. Renouard*s Annales de l^imprimerie des Estienne ou histoire 
de la famille des Estienne ou histoire de la famille des Estienne et de 
ses editions . I have not, however, as yet studied this period very 
carefully myself. Perhaps I shall think of other things later. Cr 
perhaps I can uncover something in Geneva next year. I am to be on 
leave of absence during most of the 196O-I96I academic year, and plan 
to spend a good deal of that time in Geneva. I am leaving Iowa City 
in a couple of weeks, but the office here will forward all mail. 

I am glad to hear that we have yet another mutual acquaintance 
in Raymond de Roover. Please do not apologize for having sent me 

Professor Josef Soudek 


July 8, i960 

that reprint. I found it interesting and useful, even though it is 
not in a f ield in vrhich I have worked very intensively. 


^j A/Uf^ 

Robert M. Kingdon 

c/o Miss Edith Patrick 

Diamond Point ,N.Y. ,July 11,1960 

Professor Robert M. Kingdon 
Department of History 
State üniversity of Iowa 
Iowa City, Iowa 

Bear Mr.Kin^don: 

This morning I received your good lettor of July 8 and the off- 
print of yoxir article on the Estiennes« Many th:Jiks for both. I am 
eager to study your article ;my day was crowded with College mall 
and I had only timc to leaf throngh the fascinntlng pagcs. I erde red 
at once yoiir book from LoTinz tia tho College bockst ore. Although I 
am interestod at pres'^mt in what was probably the last phase of 
Geneva Publishing of classic al texts (you have som^ interesting 
things to say about that too),I necd from youj: writings the ground- 
ing in the beginnings. 

Good that you remlnded me of Renouard's Annales ;thxi3 far I per- 
used them for the Paris publications of the founders of the dynasty 
and n^ver thought of the Geneva phise of the Estiennes, Of course, 
I shall read Chaix and Kaden,too. 

Right now Hr need a few brief advises that should not tax your 
tiae too muchj 

1» I like to submit my list of Geneva Aristotle editions to one of 
your collabcrators in Geneva,M#Paul Chaix or M^Alain Dufoux of 
the Geneva Bibliotheque publique et universitaire« Whlch one of 
the t.vo,in your opinion,would be the right person *? Would you 
kindly give me his title (I found it proper to address librarians 
correctly in this kind of correspondence ) x May I name you as 
my refcrcnce ? 

2* Who is the author of the article on Antoine Vincent >f oll owing 

your own in the Aspects ? Vincent was also involved In the publi- 
cation of Aristotle editions but as a Lyons outpost of the Luther- 
an Basel publisher Oporin. 

3. On page 274 of your Estiennes article you mention the printer 
Bastian Honorat as a creditor of Francois. As far as I remember, 
Baudrier ( Bibliographie Lyonnais ) does not Id-^ntify him. Honorat 

• I IIP " ■ t f H q I ■ -7"i 

f"«^* ^r* I ' mwt^^wwfmtm^wK^^m^ mw iv ^pi 

- 2 - 

once publlshed a ciirlous Lyons edition of Aristotle - a typioal 
(business) oompromlse between Catholic and Lutherim scholarshlp, 
?vOiild you happen to remember where I could find something on 
Honorat ? 

You see v/hat godsend you and your friends are for my v/ork ? 

With best regards, 

sincerely your 3, 





Department of History 

July 15, i960 

Professor Josef Soudek 
c/o Miss Edith Patrick 
Diamond Point, New York 

Dear Mr. Soudek, 

This note is in answer to your letter of J\jly 11, which I was 
T^appy to receive. Since I wrote to you last, I thoijght of one further 
study which might be of use to you: Paul Chaix, Alain Dufour, et 
Gustave Moeckll, "Les livres imprimes ä Gen^ve de 1550 fe 1600," Genava, 
n.s., t. VII (Geneva, 1959), pp. 235-394. It does have a good deal of 
bibliographical information on the period, or rather part of the perlod, 
which interests you. As you will observe by reading Its preface, M. 
Alain Dufour is the man who handled the part of this study on the 
period from 1580 to 1600, and he, acoordingly, would be the logical 
person for you to get in touch with. M. Dufour has resigned his position 
at the Library, and now holc^s an editorial position at the Librairie 
E. Droz; 8, rue Verdaine; Geneva, Swltzerland. Unfortunately I do not 
know his exact title. I have heard him introduced formally as an 
"archiviste-paleographe, " if that is any help to you. He is a good 
personal friend of mine, so it raight help to use my name in writing 
to him. 

M. Paul Chaix has recently been promoted to a directorship at the 
EibliothSque publique et universitaire de Geneve. Again, however, I 
do not know his exact title. He is second or third in command in that 
hierarchy. He is also a personal friend of mine. But his particular 
interest is in printing between 1550 and 1564, so he might not be of as 
much use to you. 

I believe that the author of the article on Antoine Vincent, in 
the Aspects da la Propaganda religieuse , which you ask about, is Mlle. 
E. Droz herseif. This is a subject which interests her particularly, 
and she wrote several of the chapters of the book herseif. 

I cannot at the moment find further information in print on printer 
Bastian Honorat, although I know I have seen his name elsewhere. This 
makes me wonder whether he was a "libraire" rather than an "impriraeur," 
but that is only a guess. 

I hope this information is of use to you. 



Robert M« Kingdon 


1 i 

c/o Miss Edith Patrick 

Diamond Point »R.Y» ,July 19fl960 

Professor Kobert I'.Kingdon 
Department of Hlstory 
State üniversity of l0T»a 
Iowa City, Iowa 

Bear Mr. Kingdon, 

Iteay thanlcs for your prompt and generous reply of Tuly 15 to 
my inquiries auout Geneva bibliof^raphers. Following your Suggestion 
I »ball address my c^ueries to u.«Dufoir and m^^ntion jOu as my referee. 

I wonder whether you oould spare the time,while in Geneva during 
the Coming year,to sear^h in the /irchives d'Ktat für a printiiig per- 
ralssion for the Greco-Latin edition of Aristotle's Collected Works 
(OPERUM ARISTO SLIS,nova editio,(lraece et Latine. ::^d.l3-ac Casaubon) 
which was probably printed by Guillelmus Laemarius [Guillatune de 
layraarie] at iCneva in 1590« The title pages gi/es Lyons as place 
of publication but I think it v/as done to obscure the real place 
the Identification of whlch v/ould have spoiled the säles chcnces in 
Catholic countries* 

Also many thanks for referring me to the colloctiv ly authored 
article in Genava on the Geneva prints in the second half of the I6th 
Century and for the identification of Mlle^Droz as author of the 
article on Antoine Vincent, It is high time that I contact herjl had 
planned to do so for some tlme but I never got around to it« 

Your article on the Estiennes turn^d out to be a gern for my stu~ 
dles on Aristotle editions. In the introduction to my biblior^raphy 
I am dealing with^besides the coritent on moral phiioaophy ,thö Publish- 
ing bus ness vhich promot d these editions and the markets. Your 
study reveals so many relevant data on govemment control nnd Copy- 
right situations v/hich are otherwise inaccesnible. Also some note— 
worthy data on sizes of editions and prices (is there any way to 
give the modern etiu3-val nt of e.g.the livre touiüois for the edifica- 
tion of the lay reader ? - I know ab out the literature on boins but 
hardly anything cf its content)* You v/ill find your writings extensive- 
ly exploited in my study» 

- 2 - 

Somohow I shall find out who Bastian Honorat was, The uncertainty 
as to whether he was a printer,pTilDlisher or even just a bookseller 
seems to be typical for the producers? cf 15th and 16th Century edi- 
tions in my field. !rhe same pcrson appears in one edition as publisher 
and in another as printer and ciroiimstances are pointiiig to the proba- 
bility that he w s also a bookdealer ("Sortiment er*) wor'^ing on a 
comrission ba'^is for a publisher* l.eal publishers-printers like the 
"nstiennes,Juntae and Oporin were apparontly the exceptiouiijthe layrlad 
of outsidars fuiictioned ii. a v::risty o£ ways. 

With kindest regards, 

sincerely yours. 

July 11,1902 

Professor Kugtne ?.Riot,Jr« 
D#pftrt»»iit of Hittory 
Corn»ll ünlTersity 

D«ar Professor Rio*: 

Last fall I saw in the RENAISSANCE NBWS (XIV,3,p.21l) that yon raad 
a paper on »Laf^rra d'Etaplas and Aristotls* bafore tha North Cantral Ra- 
gional Confereno« in liay 1961. I wondar whether your papar has sinca baan 
publishtd or is in the prooass of being publishad« 

I am kaanly interaated in whatever you haya to aay on this topic whioh ' 
is on iqy mind for soma tima and particuli^rly now whil» I am patting on papar 
som« bibliographioal observations on Lef^Tr»*8 Aristotls commenterias* Uxv 
Crans hes told m« long figo about yoar LafWre studiffs,but I tbought that 
I should wait for an announcement of your findings befor» I inquire aboat 
your search, 

If my letter should raach you on castus or at hoae I should rery onoh 
apprsciata it if you wer« to addrass your raply (if any) to my sumaar plaaa 
(o/o Miss Bdith Patrick, i)iainond Point,N,Y.) which is a farm ebore Lak« Gaorga. 
Otherwis»,I am looking forward to haaring from you in the feil. 

With best thanks in adyance, 

sinoerely yours, 

( Dr.Josaf Soudek 
Professor of Soonomios) 




July 13, 1962 

Professor Josef Soudek 
c/o Miss Sdith Patrick 
Diamond Point, New lork 

Dear Professor Soudek: 

I am very interested to know that you are working on Lefevre's 
Aristo telian Gommentaries. I should be very grateful indeed 
if you would send rae offprints vrtien your articlesappear. I 
rayseif am engaged in editing Lefevre's Prefatory Epistles. 
This is alraost finished now and I trust will appear before 
too long. Mjr article on Lefevre and Aristotle is not ready 
for publication yet but I hope to work it up during the Com- 
ing year and I will send you a copy when it comes out. In 
the meantime you may be tiiterested in an article on Lefevre 
and the church fathers which is about to appear in the 196I 
issue of Studies in the Renaissance^ 

Sincerely yoxars, 


Eugene F, Rice, 



14 November 1962 


Dear Professor Soudek, 

I wonder if you would help me on^ a problem I have 
encountered in my work on Lef^vre d'Etaples, It concerns the 
text of his edition of book II of Aristotle's Economlcs, published 
on pp. 168v ff, of the first ed. of 1506 under the title: 
Oeconomlcapubllcariiin Aristo teils llber unus . The translation 
differs very conslderably from the transla'H'o vetus In the ed. 
of Van Groningen, Leiden 1933, pp. 18-30. Lef^vre's Praefatiuncula 
(p. 168v) does not State that he was responsible for this Version; 
and it occured to me that you would probably have investigated 
this problem already, and that I would be well advised to consult 
you before jumping to conclusions. What I should most like to 
know, of course, is whether you think Lefevre was responsible for 
this revision or whether you know earler exampl^s of it. I note 
in Ed Cranz's list of A^istotle eds. a book of Gilbert Grab, De 
differentia et c on venientia politice et economice, Eiusdem insuper 
de crab gg. economice~in vice straminis yulge appellati disputate 
et decise Et Är is to t elis postremo economicarum püblicarui )^ llber 
unus, Paris, J. Petit, s.a. This has the same title L. gives the 
work, but unfortunately I have not been able to consult this book. 

With best wishes. 

Yonrs sincerely, 
Eugene V F. Rice, Jr. 

Josef Soudek 
Queens College 


»©▼•ab#r 19,1962 

'ü99ir Professor Rio», 

Th« Latin ▼•rsion of book II of th« pseudo>-Ari3tot»lian Roonomics 
in L9faTra*8 adition of 1506 puszlas a« as mach as it doas you. It it 
certainly differant from tha translatio vatua and it is aithar a naw 
tranalatlon of tha Graak tazt as known to Lafarra or a huoanistio adap- 
tation of tha translatio vatus. As you obsarvad^Lafarra did not olaia 
that it was his varsionfbut ha was latar oraditad for it^for tha first 
tima,a8 far as I know,by Simon Orynaaus in tha 1538 Latin Basal adition 
of Aristotla' s Collactad Works. 

^^^ EcoHomios oommentary by Gilbartus Crab is basad on tha sam» 
taxts that Lafevra usad in his edition^among tham tha Latin yarsion of 
book II, Naither Cranz nor I found any clua in Grab» s work as to tha 
author of this Version« Ify iiqprassion is that Crab adoptad Lafayra* s 
adition for the purposas of his oommantary ,although ha doas not aay to, 
and that Crab' s book was probably printad af tar 1506. 

Thus far I did not ooma aeroas a print prior to 1506 or a ms. con- 
tflining tha varsion of Kconomios II in Lefevra^a adition. This laayas 
room to tha possibility that Lafevra might ba tha author of tha varaion 
but for varlous raasons I am disinclinad to prasuma so. I hava not aban> 
donad tha hopa to find an answar to this puizla and I oartainly shall 
lat you know it if I should suocaad in my saarch. 

Racantly I raad with graatast intarast your fascinating papar on 
tha study of tha Churoh fathars by li9t9rT9 and his oircla which you kindly 
mantionad to ma in tha summar; your prasantntion adds indaad a graat daal 
and an iBq[>ortant aspact to our scanty knowladga of tha Lafavra oircla. 

With hast wishas, 

8 ino araly yours, 

Notes on Rice*s ms. concerning Lef^vre'e Economic s editioxi 

• .-V 

V^ge I 

•■«inf«« •■•I 

llne lit ^ ..♦ ie aivided •#.♦*- comprlBeß er consiKte of 

line ??5 " •♦• from the later fourth Century.'* - The fol- 
lowing Observation muy be 'dded /quoting m^' text, cited below/t 
**The text ;8 we know it firom the Latin veroion is obviouely not 
the original but, as euggeeted by literary references, a revlöion 
by 'in editor of the first or aecond centiiry A.D. See 7, Roeet 
Arletotclee Peeudepigraphue (Leipzig, lö63) , 644-665* on the re- 
vißion, H* Bloch, "Liber secundus yconomicoruin Arietoteliß** , Ar^ 
chiv für OeBChichte der Philosophie , XXI (1908), 335-351; 441- 
468»" (My Leonxdo Bruni tind Hls Public« p.95f note 20) 

line 25: " •.. öhould be dated after 1372.** - Gauthier in 
his eßsay quoted on the next page (II), further suggestß that the 
trrcnslatio votus m^ty have poBsibly origin?'ted even tfter 1280« 
Do you think it wixrthwhile to expand your text ? 

line 26: ** Burandus of Auvergne at Agnanl ...»* - perh ps: 
Durand of Auvergne (Dur .nd d» Auvergne) ::it the papal court in Ag- 


* • « 

P;:ige II 

line 1: *' • • . a superficial revißion •••** - It would Beom 
aafer to delete "superficial". Or the seijtence mt^ read as fol- 
lovv^s in Order to conform with a reeent ch^mge of mind of the edi- 
tor e of the Aristoteles Latinug ; "Hie text is oi" possibly could 
be '^- reviBion of the tr^jnslatio vetus»" In Aristoteles L?\tinus 

mmmmmmmtiim »iii iii n i m i ii i i i i «MaacMManaaaiMMMaMiiaMsaMMMaMiiBaBHaBiiMMaMMMMaMav 

I (1939) '*nd II (1955) ^nd in the Index to both volumes Dur-^nd'ß 
verision is titled r e c e n s i o Dur :ind i , while L# Minio-Paluello who 
coznpoöed the Index of A.L» I,II, in Aristoteles Latinu s Codices« 
Supplement ;i Altera » (Bruges-Pr'riö,1961) retitled it trnnelatio 
Dur find i , thue giving it the stttus of an independent tranel ition. 
/^y Leonardo Brxini -md Hls Public ,p« 64, note 4/ 

lines 2-10: You are citing etudiee on the two medieval 
Latin versione in v/hich the respective authors <re holding di- 
verse ; nd contradictory views hq to the authorehip and date of 

Notes on Rice 's ms. 

- 2 - 

the two vereione« May it not be advisable to inäic ;te brlefly 
v^'ich what Problem the luthor 1b tre tting md what hiü conclusion 
Iß ? Chuß, M'indonnet attempted to prove that the recensio Dur 'Kdl 
of 1295 iö in f et a work of Wiili^^ja of Moerbeke done before 1267 
/in my odnion, on ibetruse and unconvincingly executed conjecture/» 
Lricombe, ArJL-totele« L -tinue < I (19 39) #75^77 reserved hlA judgment 
on M'-mdonnet'« ßpeculntion (p»77) -^d (p#76fnote 1) rejected Suse- 
mihl'ß contention th-.t the anonymous 3 book transl tio v^^tue io 
the younger one as also M-indonnet maint-iined who dated it ca. 1310. 
I^acombe held th tt the 3 books vercion ie the older one -md that ito 
■^iHuhoT is unknown /in the text preceding your referonce to litera- 
t\ire ;y'0u :re referring to the "firet .«. .-monyiaoue Version", thue 
.^ccepting, ;ö I do, the correctneas or ]Jicombe*s thet^is^ örnbBivnn 
in hifi ötudy (the It <li n tranBl tion of m earlier Btudy of hie, 
written in Geriani -i.v .il ible in the Colurnula üniverBit;y Libr ^^ry ) 
Bot the d te of tho tr- nsli.tio vetus vdiich he considered to be a 
vvork by Moerbeke, aö "before 1?70" . /In a 1 ;ter i.tudy, written in 
1949 nd pubÜBhed in a Sptmish tn^nel-.tion, but ixieluded in the 
(aermixn original in vol. 3 of ör ibminn^s collectiont of monographs 
titled Mittel '.Iter liehe c! Geistesleben (3 volumee) he £?till clun^ 
to his opinion that Moorbeke w-vs the -lUthor of the older verBion 
fmd th.-t it WüAB done "before 1270*" . thie last volime of Ms col- 
lected papers, pubiißhed posthumously , appeared in 1956 and wae 
edited by Ludwig Ott. In Mittelalterlichere Gei^;tesleben , III 
id. Iiudwij^ Ott (Munich,1956), 54 the editor added a footnote 13 
in which he corrected Grnbm-Tinn'e dnting on the barvie of öaufchier's 
ese^jyj»/ Monut accepted Mandonnet*s speculitionö about the author- 
ßhip nd d "ite of the two verrions which, aß eaid before, v >ry frora 
the h^'pothesee of L icombe jind Gr-tbin-'.nn. /It was moot unfortunate 
th't Menut eided //ith Mandomiet^s untenable specul.itioro and I 
told him so with due recpect for his schol srühip imd fine work on 
Oreßme'ß Prench verBionj^ Gauthier was merely concerned ^ith the 
dating of the older tr anslitionj he concluded on the otrength of 
two h-mdwritten copies of coroment ries on the Kthics which con- 
taln referenceß to the EconomicB th':t the fairst medieval versions 

»i««— W— — i II I 

of the aconornics could not have been done before 1272 imd probubl^^ 

Notes on Rice*ß ms. -^ 

after 1?Ö0. /I accepted ae yoxx do^ G iuthier's datlng;^ 

lines 13-14 1 *• *•• '-'-nd coiß\ment:xy on 4 M.'^rch 1420. ♦' - 
coimnent: ry on it or rather *^.nnot tionö to it on 3 (not 4) M-irch 

line 22: d'ter ' ücriptorium, XII (195ö), P60-268** . md 
»'Leonardo Bruni .ind Hie KibliciA Statistical nnd Interpretative 
3tu(ly of HIB Arnot vted L.itin Verräon of the (Pceudo-) Arlf^totellan 
iiconomicö/' Studie s in Medieval :...nd Renaissance Hit^tory^ V (1968)t 

li>. iliiH I 1 I »■! lull m » II I U I i> III iilri »« I «I III I I I l«ll «1 I I M n I I . I I U I IUI»». I M » 11,1,. M l ' ^ -^ ' ' 

49-136 ^provided you oee fit to mention lay later ctud^. 

linee r?-r3: '• ... Birly editionB ... ^tro lietod in (JO, 
nos. ?433-?439»*' - Early printe (or: printB hefore 1500) of Bruni*s 
tr ^nr.l tion //ithout nd v/ith hiö annct-itionö, sGpvir-; f ly .md in 
conj^inction with the Iiir oid verBion »nd v/ith ofcher trr?jislations 
of Arijstoteli n v;orko by Bruni and otherci, GW (ths more common 
form of cittion), noa. 2339-?341, ?367, 237C>-2371, ?433-?439, 

line ?5: " »•♦ Pollvvving the Politica and his comxaent»iry 

on it ..•" - hii- cornrßent'iiry and annot »tions on it 

line ?7: * -•• «vith his own coimBenttries*" - with his own 
comment ries aiä ?:innotations •••• 

<line 28: " *•• volume (fol. 16öv ff.) ..." •* volume (folß, 

P-ige III 

line l! ♦' 

lino 2i " ... Bruni 'fö coiajijent ti»y . . .*' - Bruni *s -innot itions 
on hia vort^ion of h oke I nd III (Bruni' 3 über c.ocundue ) of the 
Oecono>T.ic^:i (fols. 174r-178v). ^'lou may dd, if you soe fit, the 
foiiowlng ob£!8i^v ition: tnd untitled thein ü;xpl?in .tio ae öuggeeted 
by Bi^uni in the pi-ef -ce to hif? tronsl :tion. L^ eeeiiiö to have ae- 
ctjpted and further edited the frequently corrupt texto of the pro« 
f^.ced Bruni Version ^nd of the hiim-miBtio nd-^pt tion of the medi- 

• ♦ ♦ 

Oeconorniovi _public"trum*' - correct: ^'EoonomiFiruin 

mm$mnmmimmmmimmmmm)mmt i| . i ii 1 1 »■ » ii i ii ii m i mmm »i m i n »— «»»y. 

No 'es or. Rice*s ms. 

^ 4 ^ 

ev 1 trarißl/^tion of book II of the Greek origin 1 from rni earlier 
printeö edition of these textj'b;y Gilbort Grab. On this eee Soudek, 
»•Leon'iröo Bruni <^ci Hi£< Public," -pp. 8? ^d note 4, 92 rx^.6 note 

Columbia University in the City of New York 1 New York, N. Y. 10027 



Fayerweather Hall 

' i • 

Dear Professor Soudek, 

Could I bother you for help? In «ncloBe a copy of what I 
trust will be the penultimate draft of my not« on Ari»totle'» economic« 
for my ed. of Lef^vre'e preface. I »hould be moet grateful if you would 
take a look at it and make what eu^gestiont, correctione and addition» 
your superior knowledge dictatee. 

We have missed you at the last few meetings of the seminar, 
POK teils me you are working to meet a deadline; seven so, I hope we shall 
have the pleasure of your Company soon, 

With all good wishes. 

Yours sincerely, 

Su^pn^e Rice 


Josef Soudek 

900 West Bnd Avenue 

Ke\7 York, K,Y. 10025 

Februtiry 17,1968 

Be?^ Jc^ofeBBor Rice, 

I ara quite embarraseed to note that ^ilmoet 10 months 
went by before I got around to comment on your note on 
Arlstotle's Economic 8 for your edition of Lef^vre^e pre- 
face« No account of nQr tribul^ttions in theee past months 
will make 'pology for euch propoßterous delay of ay re- 
ßponee to your request acceptable, 

Chief mong the tribul .tione was a nerve-racking pre- 
parvtion for publici^tion of lay study on the extant mee» of 
^^*^*^^i*® Bconopiics vereion. It will be included in the forth- 
Coming vol. V of the Studies on Mediäval and Renajosanoe 
Hit^tory (title ^nd P'-igee axe ^^iven on page 3 of ipy conments 
on your note) which is suppoeed to appear late this Spring; 
recently I h ive re«d the pageproof of ipy study and I am cit^ 
ing from it. 

I would be dietreßBed to learn that my comments c^^uDe 
too 1 ite for coneideriJtion of the formul ition of your text. 
I wjjtnted so much to be of help to you concerning a matter 
which iB the more confounding the more one knowe about its 
finer points. 

Kesearch on the tradition of Arietotelian worke in Lat- 
in tri'nsl'itions io an excruciating puzzle game in which the 
find of the srnnlleet bit of Information is a strike of good 
luck. It was such Btrike when you, ^fter reuding yoxir p?oer 
on Lef^vre'ß writingB on %sticism in the Seminar, enlighten- 
ed me on the source of information ibout Wolf gang Pratensie. 
Por this Information I feel more deeply indebted to you (one 
dny to be icknowledged in print) than I was ible to express 
on the spot. 

i^ith humblest apologiee ^nd oetit wisshee for your work, 

ßincerely yours, 

Columbia ®nit)f wttp 


NIW YORK «7. N. Y. 


20 3'eb. xsea 

üear Profersor Souc^^y, 


Thank yon -erj- much for your corrF-tions/end 
p6*enda to aiy note on thf flcrr.omi ce. :t ie moet 
^en'rr:- cf vom to h^*-» £oiie -ver ^he st iff uo 
ciref'i'lj, and I sn. grptc^ful. I hopp you will 
fs^'or me with ^r offprint of ''Pnjni' and Xit 
Pvblic« v/hen it eppe arB later thie ycar. I n^ve 
enu/iufciHBwicuii^ mcorporated your commen-;« la zum 
final text. Thö cnd eeeiaß to be in ei^ht. I 
PE at v;ork nov on thin,^e like tablea of f b^.-f viations, 
the biblir>__ra^hy, introduction anC index. If 
all eoeß v;ell ev^n thr copy editin^; will be finished 
before we leave for Europe in June. I hope wc 
shall h?.ve the ^leaBure of i our Company- at the 
Seminar one ley thip spring. 


With all good wiehes, gnd agai:i t.y »^rataful 

Hegarc'r , 







öojdd- CD\\€wa\ i0t3 ^ ../Iß /Pr miß j.i\c - mb t^cy\ 









New York, March 14, 1983 

Bear Michael, 

many thanks for your letter of March 7 (which I just receiv- 
ed) and the promised annonncement of your stay wlth your parents« 

I would suggest to plan for a meetlng in uiy house at some 
day In the perlod between March 28 and April 12. 

As to the bad news concerning your marriage, you have prepar- 
ed me well at our meetlng in Augsburg. That you at least could 
take David with you to see his grandprrentp should be taken by 
you as a small consolati^lHi 

I am sorry that I have to counter your disheartening news 
about Gisela with a very saö one on my part. iärs« Soudek (Gretel) 
has died on January 21 after six months of torterous pains. Her 
death wr.s caused by an incurable leukemla. When I stayed with 
you in Augsburg I was already anxious about her health; her daily 
letters to me from the farm ne^r Lake George had not the customary 
sound of an enjoyable time in the country (which shc loved to luuch) 
and of a humor peculiar to her. Uy only consolation t she still 
celebrated her 75th birthday in deceivingly^good health!J . None 
of her fore'cear? ever lived as long as she did. 

Since the phone number of,parents* hoire is not liste d , we have 

two possibilities to get in touch with one anolher«» Either you 
call me late in the evening, i.e. betwoen 10 - 12 F^ - I am fre- 
quer tly out in daytime - or you can inquire as to my whereabouts 
at the home of an elderly lady (Miss Theodora Zander) who knows 
you from my tales. Her phone number is 749 - 6253« If the phone 
cODiiEunication does not work out in the beginning, just drop me 
a line where I could reach you best. 

lleanwhile, let me look forwnrd to our »oeting, give my regards 
to your parents and accept the best wishes from 

yours as always, 



K^ y. 



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Stoecklin Original-Umweltschutzpapier - hergestellt ohne Gewässerbelastung, Bleichung, Färbung. Papier recycle original 100% @ 

New York, July 5, 1982 

Dear Michael, 

the many positive aspects of your reply to my lettcr quick- 
ly obscured the first reaction of disappointmott about your ab- 
sence from London while I shall be thcre (July 30 to August 7) 
and lodge purposely nenr your domicilo« 

Since you are pleasantly busy in Gcrmany with your research 
and you are planning to travel with your parents to Moravia and 
Slovakia besides being reunited with Gisela and David, I do hate 
to inquire whether we could meet for one weekend apart from your 
family and my friends who are escorting me on my journey, Right 
aftcr my excurslon to London I shall start my "Kur" in Bad Reich- 
enhall/Bavaria and remain there until September 4* Uy address 
there is ? Hotel Panorama, Bader Strasse 3f I)-8230 Bad Reichen- 
hall, Tel.t (08651) 6 10 17 or 6 10 Ol. I should prefer to hear 
from you by mail rather than telephone, because the treatment» 
in the spa are keeping me on the run« If it comes to speaking 
over the phone, let me call you in Bammental under the number 
you gave me . 

If you could possitly afford to see me on a weekend I would 
suggest that we are mcetin^ in Au,fnast at Augsburg. This would 
be roughly equally distant frorr Heidelberg and Reichenhall. My 
choice of the place has vjIso a sclfish reeson : after th< "Kur" 
and two more weeks "I^achkur" in Gritsbach in Rottal (Niederbayern, 
about 50 kE north of Reichenhall) we, my friends and I, intend to 
spenü two weeks in Augsburg for a mental "Nachkur". We were re- 
corrmended to a hotel there and it would be this (Hotel Post) whlch 
I should like to look over bcfore renting room.s there. If you 
could pick a weekend before my "Kur" is over, then we could lodge 
in this place. You would also have to ngree that I cover your 
expenses, including the return trip from Heidelberg to Augsburg; 
I am travelling with a "Eurailpass" and my round trip Reichenhall- 
Augsburg is then nlready paid. An additional reason for inviting 
you to be my guest is the fact that I should like to discuss with 
you some personal matters; therefore. it would be only fair to 
cover your expenses while you are givlng me your auch sought after 
advice. How does my proposition sound to you ? 

Kindly convey friendliest greetings to all people in your 
both f amilies (known and not known to us persona] ly) from my 
wife (Gretel) and 

yours öS always, 






O-^ — 

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Der Luftpostleichtbrief darf nach den Vorschriften des Weltpostvertrages fcefne Einlagen enthaften. 






DOMBILD im DOM zu KÖLN om Rhein 
von Stephan Lochner ( um 1445 ) 


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'j "^^^ ^'^^Ir^ ^lT^ a-v-^> i () ^5'^ po^ci^ Kejck-e^U 



Nachdruck verboten 



New York, June 10, 1982 

Dear Michael, 

If everything goes according to my plans then I shall see 
you and your family in London between July 31 nnd August 6, 82. 
I plan to stay at the Charles Bernard Hotel (5 Frognal, Hanip- 
stead), therefore still nearer to your hone ana to that of my 
friends than l^st time. As far as I can judge the Situation, 
it woulü be more advisable if I were to call you from there - 
my friends are busy during the week and free mainly on Week- 

Thus far I have not acknowledged your 
ber 3, 1980, nor the receipt of the impres 
of your bookstore and of the xeror copy of 
tribution to the Festschrift for Francis C 
choslovaks and the 'Jewish Question' , 1914 
here last suirixner while I was on my annual 
Germany. Every bit of your conjüunicated w 
ing as your discove ry of my study on **The 
siness Cycles" was astounding. Since 1939 
a copy of it without success and you final 
ed by my teacher AtscVul to Dr. Moszkov^ska 
ber) • 

good lines of Decem- 
sive Catalogue No.l 

your fascinating con- 
arsten on "Poles, Cze- 
-1921" which arrived 
journey to and in 
ritings was as touch- 
Social EiTects of Bu- 

I was searching for 
ly came on one present- 

(whomi do not remem- 

Each word of yours was carefully pondered by us, my wife 
(Gretel) and myself , anc the chain of associations has never en- 
ded. That I did not put anything on paper to you was simply 
caused by my most unsatisf actory health in the past two years. 
My stay in Germany last year (miadle of July through miaale of 
Oc tober) was no pleasure; the main purpose of it - a one month 
treatment at Bad Dürrheim (near Freiburg) - may have had better 
results than I feit in the past barbarous Printer - yours in Lon- 
don was torturous enough - and during the subsequent quasi- 
Spring. Thus far we have had not one hot day; in 46 years of 
my residence here I have not seen the like. Neither have I ex- 
perienced a weather like the one in Germany in 1981 t of my 
twenty weeks ther' , ten were rained out and the rains were lit- 
erally torrential. The skles spoiled most of my enjoyment of 
art, as important for my health as the change of climate. Also, 
a planned excursion to London at the conclusion of my journey 
had to be cancelled - for the third tirre in so many years. 

In face of 

prescribed paus 
femained silent 
whatever I have 
conversations t 
that I did not 
Der Monat. Most 
should our "Pos 

all these shenanigans and exccpt for medically 
es I kept nuite occuj ied in those months when I 
(a thought that made me feel uncomfortable) . Yet 
done and thought about would be subjects of our 
o which I am looking forward eagerly. Too bad 
receive Gisela* s article on I«iilosz in the Journal 

probably you did not get around to copy it. Or 
tal Services" have not functioned again ? 

L€t*c> cross our fingers that the meetings as 
me will materialize; the mere thought of them is 

anticipated by 
crucial for me 

Meanwhile, keep as well as is possible these days and accept 
fondest greetings from üretel and 

yours as always. 

, r 

Offprints to Lor.don 12/11/79 

(1) Bruni & His Public; Bestseller (■»■ Ren.Koimrent^.r) 

Dr. & Mr-. Micbael A. Riff 

Inscription: fe-Michael and Gisela in ienewed 

attachment from 

(i) Edith Indig 

Bruni & His Public; Bestseller (f Ren.Eorrirentar) 

Inscr.: Für Eechen und ihre liebenswerten Lieben 

von (Sir) Josef Soudek 


December 7,1979 

Dear Michael, 

I am still wrapped up in thoughts and emotions "brought about 
by our miraculous reunion on October 44. Again and agrin I am ' /* 
telling my wife - Gretel, n6 Heimann, born in Frankfurt/Main and o^ 
on her parental side from Alüllheim, Markgraef lerland, and, besides 
a sculptor, a chauvinistic Czech - the fairy tale about our »»ac- 
cddentEl" meeting and my visit in your home, about Gisela and 

Of course, you will then counter my asrertion with the seeming- 
ly obvious question ! Why did I then not v;rite earlier ? Upon my^ 
return home I was physically and mcntally erhaupted from three 
month travelling, except far one month "Kur" in Bad Wiessee, and 
speaking to more old friends longer than my emphysema permits. But 
at my age (74) one has to gretefully risk such precious occasions 
as my visit in your home. fey^ kft' r six weeks of mere resting, 
suppcrrted by vitanin injections, I have had to turn to the every- 
day afff'irs -»nü to clear up "debts" left behind me when I fled from 
N.Y. in the lirst heatwave (July 15). 

I shall not ansage in eulogizing whet I have seen in Golders- 
green (that will come out from time to time) but rather turn to 
the business at hand. Attached tc my letter there is a biograph- 
ical Sketch of me which should help you to^ollow up the contours 
of a varied life. Any question you care to raise will be answered 
by the biographfi#. Vnder separate cover you will receive copies 
of my study of Bruni's Latin Version of the (pseudo-) Aristotelian 
Economics together with its seouel (not yet listed in the sketch) 
and inserted in the latter a very skillful summary of the non-phil- 
oligiirl results of my endeavours by a Romanist at Marburg (whom 
I never m:t). Again, whatever eise you want to possess of my writ- 
ings (except my first bcok of 19'^9 of which I own Just one copy) 
is yours for the asking. 

This letter p,na 
now disdsined by Arne 
pect from our future 
ous than most mates 
ly rather mine than 
is unlikely. At lea 
visiting my present 
please accept the wa 

the offprints • re, st I hope ( "hofjpf ully" is 
rican writers), a fir?t beginning of much I ex- 

communiCiitions. My wife, gener-lly more cauti- 
are, would want to get you heie for good (probab- 
yours) and I have to explsin to her why this 
st would you hold out a sort of pra^mise of 

location ? Even if you shrink away from that, 
rmest greetings from her and 


Liebe Gisela, 

als mir £/;ichael vor zehn Jahren mitteilte, dass er mit einem 
Frl» Schulz aus Jammenthol verheir; tet sei, konnte ich nur ahnen, 
dar 8 es i?ich um eine Junge Frau von nicht ungewoehnlichem Namen, 
aber gewiss ungewoehnlichen Eigenheiten handelte • V.ichti^^er eis 
alles rnders war mit sein BeglUcktsein. 'licht ahnen konnte ich 
die menschlichen una £^ei tigen Dimensionen Ihrer Persoenlichkeit • 
Ich bin zum Glück verwoehnt in aieser Hinsicht; aber an^e rieht s 
solcher Erscheinung wie Gisela mus^te ich scr on den Atem anhalten 
und tue es auch, wenn ich meiner Frau von Ihnen berichte. Und erst 
recht von Ihrem Sohn und Ihrer beiden grazioeser Beziehung. 

?Tßch all diesen Untertreibungen habe ich einstv;eilen nur eine 
Fra^e t V'ie mann ich durch meine Buchhandlung in Eschv/e/^e (of all 
plc'Ces !) ausser dem "achten Weltwunder" noch andere Geisteskinder 
von Ihnen, einschliesslich über-etzungen, erwerben ? Die Geschichte 
vom Geissenbender Johann laesst einem drs Wae^ser im i^und zusaitmen- 

Ohne Sie belasten zu wollen, dr.trf ich Sie doch fragen, ob Sie 
mir direkt oder durch f^ichael diese Antw rt zugehen lassen würden ? 
Zu Ihren Überlegungen über tschechirche "humoristische" Betrechtung- 
en iron Geschichte vor 1914 werde ich mich auch aeussern. Ich habe 
Ja iiichael gesagt, was ich mir von unserer beideiseitigen Zukunft 

UXt lakonischem Dtrik für Ihre (nicht im üblichen Sinn) eindrucks- 
wolle Gast freuna Schaft und mit herzli hsten Grüssen von meiner 
schon überrumpelten Frau verbleibe ich 


■'<■ .'^»■■»^"#* 




/ /^^ :: , 

•'■ •';'<! Mi 11',' E 

1". 'iifi ; T 

V * '"•-;.-.r*_ ^ '^'* , ■ •■ ', .; 




15 December 4971 
Salgado , Sergipe , Brazil 

Dear Dr. Soudek, 

Here ' s wishing you and your wif e a very happy 
holiday season, 

I hope all is well with you. And I trust that 
you are still at Queens , turning out international 

Here, all is fine. It has "been a most positive 
two-year Peace Corps experience, Recently, I have 
been more busy — with two rural electrification 
projects and one xJachool project. Tiiey and other 
things should keep me going through my last few 
inonths here. 

Steve is now finishing up in Venezuela, as you 
may know. He '11 probably be here soon to spend 
a month or so with us. It will be great tox see 
him again. 

After that, we*d Äoth like to travel some, but 
no plans are definite yet. We'll probably bäth 
be back in the States in the summer, however, and 
back at Columbia in the fall. 

I've managed to keep well up-to-date with the 
international monetary Situation through BBC, 
American SW stations, and a subscription to The 

Again, here*s wishing you all the best these 
holidays and in the coming year ahead. 

Warmly , 



u Hefmana 

Maltezske Namöstl, 15 
traha 1- Malet Strana 
31. June 1969 

jear Professor Soudek, 

Thank you f or your letter of 15 Juno , v/liicli 
arrived today via London. 

!First of all, I very glad to liear that you 
have finally takon a proper sabbatical and are sponding 
it in familiär piirts, Ilov/ever, I ar: rstker sorry not 
to have heard frora you sooner, as I shall not je in 
London until the ond of .Üoptemüer, 

Nüvertheless , it still miglit bo possible lor us 
to nie et in Au Stria or Germany during the last three 
v/oeks Ol July. I am going to Vienna on the lOth to 
mect niy parcnts, v/ho are Coming-; back to Cen.tral Europe, 
sinilarly to you, for tlic fir;:.t time since boforo the 

War. ^ü'rom V/ien, on a'^out the l^th, we 



Germany until the end of t]ie 
still goino; üu 

to ßo to Heidelberg for about a week to visit with 
my girl fricnd and her parents. Then, my parents are 
going to London,2:ii2tx3::c2[SDCSs]ax± whilst I reinain in 

m. nth. ']^l:^^is , if you are 
;o bo in tho Munich area§ loassing through 
Wien or Heidelberg during tho above period, a meeting' 
can easily bc arranged. 

If you forsee any such possibiltty, could you please 
v/rite to me in care of the Am ü :? i c nn , hcpr c s s in Vienna, 
as I am not sure v/here vre shall üo staying. .uj the 
v/ay, hrs Mendha.mftahed me to give you her telephone 

3 you 

can ring ner someoim aur:Ln[_ 

number in London, 
stay thcro. Its is ILA.M 057'^*-« --he is oji extremely 
lively and hospitablo person, v/ith a complctel^' mad 
sense of humour. 

I am hoping to hear from you soon. 


Yours sincercl 

P ! S ! Itinerary : 


IjO-15- h. u. K. Haui^tadt V/ien 

l-6~30- Universitätsstadt Heidelberg 

y --*■ 

JoDcl' üoudek 

. * i 

^. ^ 

at pi'Güo t for a "Kur": 

liotcl Jodcnifllonhof 

817 B-'.d 'i'ölz (i3av..ria), 1:;,G.69 

thiü lütter coiies to you via Mrs. McndlriMri as su^i^ei^ted by 


Vera Ücitniti^er-Jclinük, The purpojo o£ it iü to let you l:nov; 
that I üh..ll be in England bctwecn the middlo of July anu Au- 
l^;uGt in the v. our:.ü of a s^,bbatic..l loi vg \/hich 1 lati üpcndin^;'; 
l.,0;jtl,, ili iJiUX'Ope. <j - . . , 

V/hnn I v/orked on ny itinerary in liarch/April 1 learncd 
t~ rou^h Vcjr.; iroi.: „ oiir r.otiiür that ^.ou v/erc in Pra[;UG; thc d;.tc 
Ol* yoiu? reaum to Lomlon w .s unknown c^nd thUG Ira, HGiidhara su^;- 
(;c.-,ted c.s a (,;o~bat;/uon. It v/..ö i)rGGur:icd, hovA.ver, thv;t you \/ould 
bc in London v;hile I v/oul<. bo thox^ü. In IJnol^vi d I shall bo vis- 
itin(; Oxi'ord (Bodluian Libr.x\y), G.\j..bridce v;nd London 
(J.ritiüii i.u.A)Ui.) and poüsibly Leeds ;/horc a v oui:in of i.iine is 
livino Whcn I v/ould bc in London ±ü not yct; I P^^'~/±J~ v ^ 
sui.e, r.'. Lhcr tuw: rd.s the cnd of niy Lnclish holid y, to ;.it, in)k.X^t» 
Au{^Uüt. An<' I shoula likc it vcry nuch to neot you thoru, noro th .n in liev; xork aiid to t;.lk over a nu bor oX tuin(>j. 

uoulv you, uvion ruccipt ol' uy lineG, t;i3re rae üoirie idea of 
your o\:n plaiiü lor thc Lii.c u der d libur .tion b^ drox)i)inß mg ' 
a liuG to j-iy Gontincnt .1 hea.d(iu:.rtGri-i (ggü ntially a lutoi.r box): 
Frcndcnhcin Kr us, 8 Ijünrhon 22, K .ulb.ichstraße ^\-2 ? 'ilien I 
c.^n Make apx)X'0|'>riate ai?x\:ncv:mcnts _'or i.y ijn{.;liGh vac uion. 

Lüokii:fj- i"ovA..rd to hcxänG i'roi; ^ou, 


Iv/ yG, 

PS, Lei tod thanks . ox^ your Icttor of 12.11.(38 and your i Gv/ 
Ye.ii^G c. rd fro... 1sx\.ü1. \/hy i uid not not :ix»uun(i to roGponding 
to tiici.i, 1 GhiAÜ in detail. 

Dr. Joßof iJoudek 

at prcöGiit (while taliing a "Kur"): 

liotül Jodquüllenhof 

bl7 Bad Tölz (Bavuria), 13.6,69 

t ■' 

'i i 

Je.r i^rü» liondhara, 

('iro. Vera (Lic nitzer) Jolinok, a l'oi'mur ütuckrit of ninc 
(a f . vorito OiiO, 'o£ cüutlic), GU(^:t;ested tiiat 1 should ^^ot in 
tout-h v/lth ^'ou. iiy concc-rn is to e^t. blich cont^^xt \jlth i:i- 
chael RüT, a rioro recunt Student and youn^ fxiend of i.iine. 

When I docid d to opend thirj ye^ir r^ fev; nontyis in Kuropo 
and one of thoi. in Kn, l^.nd - it h i pon d in I'.arch/April - it 
turnod out thc.t Michael had Icft i'or rra^ue. Even i.ic.h,;ox*s 
mothor was not eure \;hc'n he would rt tum to London # O'hus, 
ühe aiid Vura sutse^td th,;t i rcqueat you to eith^r forv/^.rd 
tho t.ncloGcd letter to hin in Pra(;ue or, should he be back 
in London, to Ju^jt haiK: it to hii.i« 

I do plan to be in En(;land betwccn the niddlc of July and 
thc niddlc of Au^just. One v/eek of the four or five of my Knß- 
lish holiday is set aside i.'or London. It \;ould be ni^e to 
aeo iiichael thcn thorc ijj:ia^ if that doos not :L;ount. to you 
liko an impoüition, to Meeting you, too. You c. n iriagine that 
Vor . thought this up i.nd 1 an uticd to trui^t hur judcmoi.t» 

if it is not asküd too i..u-Ji, \;ould you (or, if Idchael 
should be .xoiin", ho) cirop mc a lin. to uy Continental head- 
i,u^i.rtcrü : rreindenhcir) ij?aus, Kaulbachstraße ^2, j ünc hen 2^ ? 
I thun c:.n better plan or Uj d. ya in Knt;-l:ind and in I<on('on in 
pc.r'ticulv r. 

With wärmest th^nks i'or whatuvv.r c on^juadr. i-ion you v/ill 
(jive i:.y iiiFiOdeat ro.uest, 

siiiCürcjly ^ours, 

•k 1 - 

1 i.j 

■ >^ ^ 



(j^SLu^ ;) Sau*a<. WjU^ oSbXj^. 





i4"n nxnn rfjma ,pny nT'py - '^N'^va rnin 


GERMANY, 14th Century I 





.t' ^% 

» »■« ■<ill H ll. . i|li>l l lli » i 

Fiat 2, 

47, Belsize Park, 
London N.W. 3 
12 November 1968 

Oear Professor Soudek, 

If I reniember correctly. 

last wrote to «e Jtist 
my thoughts are almost 


before I left for LondoHo As then 
completely with Czechoslovakia. 

Althoiigh I am tentatlvely schednled to go to Prague 
at the end of Marcli, the thought of going back seems very 
unreal. So many people 1 knew are no longer there and the 
atmosphere, then, was hopef ul , whereas today it is gloomy, 
to say the least. 1, petsonally, cannot finil hope in the 
oontiniied reslstanoe of the Czech government ftl^/JÖ^ople > 
that others do. It always seems to me %ü te^*wi^ful thinking 
to suppose that the Czechs can maintain a unlted front agalnst 
the Russians and, thereby, resist encroachments on thelr llberty. 
The Russians have gone to far to accept limited aims and, further- 
more, there is very little in the hlstories of either the Czechs 
or Slovaks to suggest that Quiillngs candKdKUHK* be found. 

Frora another point of view, the events of August haät 
perhaps brought the history of the Jews of Czechoslovakia 
near its ®"4,4iJt;g^£"* that the majority of xiib Jews remaining 
in the CSSRA nav^ now left. Moreover, it seems that only a very 
small nufflber of young people have stayed behind. This is quite 
easy to see, here in England, whree the ma.iority of Czech 
students are Jewish. Once again events have forced the Jews to 
eraei grate and one wonders whether they will retHurn. 

Yo»ir insights into my work were very helpful and have 
occasioned sorae hard-headed re-thinking on my part. Your 
remarks about the social origin of converts clearly revealed 
one of weaknesses of playing with sociological analys^s- 
tkKxinfatuation wjth the obvious. 

Recently, I have also become interested in the polemAics, 
both inslde and outside the Jewish Community, following the 
Increase of conversions ."just before the First World War. I have 
c^orae accross o ne book, which contains the opplnions of quite 
iT few leading^academic figures, hdaded hy Werner Sombart. 
Although I have not traced them down, there appear numerous 
articles on the sub.iect, if perhaps for the most part in the 
German Press. From what I can now see, the xproblem of Jewish 
baptism seems to have been much more important in Imperial 
Germany, than in Austria and, of course, an analysis of this 
aspect I shall probably include in my thxesis. 

I can well imagine that you are as unhappy as anyone 
about the election of Nixon. One can only hope that Nixon*» 
Presidency will not result in too deep a plunge for America. 
One. cannot help thinking that only Humphrey could have lost 


against Nixon. 

When I know more 

about my plans for the future I shall 

Yovrs , 

uiv X Sita. 11 



c/o Visa Edith Patrick 

Üif^monci Point, N.Y. 1C824 , Jlugust 86,1968 

D»ar Mich«9l» 

M»ny thflnks for your informatir» «nd most int*>r»8ting l»tt»r of Aug- 
ust 19, It is r#plly iftdi that w» ahall not hura th» opportunity of dia- 
ouasing your f^soinating study; so much cam« to z^y mind whan rtading about 
it. It so happen<>d that thla summa r, for » Short wnil», I wra angagad in 
hiatorio/^raphy of my own family and som«? apisonta in it fit into your work. 

The day aftar I r^^civ^d your latt'^r, tha tragady of tha Russian inva- 
aiOTj into th» CS3H became krown. I was üf coursa d<?«p]y 8hak*»n by it and 
80 nPs av^rybody alsa I hrva spok<?n to. itha "glorious rarolution", so auoh 
almir'd by «V9ry thinking parson, will thua come to a halt for an indafi» 
nitf? p*^rio.i pna th* auff'^ring of th© courajc^aous paopla in thpt oountry 
wi31 be- tr^rri>l'^. In the **ni, whf>nev»r that may bt, thay will suooaod, 
thou h at a horrifying prica. 5hy tha Russians committad this blunder, 
to apeak in t'^rms of po'^ar politlca only , is «nothar ouastion fnd tha fur- 
th^r ona is, who is going to gain from it. I s<?a Bonn to ba onc of tha 
b<?nef iciarias. As ff^r as th© Czacha ar» concarnad, it b»cama app>»r©nt taat 
Stalinism is »ore da ply ingrain^d in Rusaian thought on foraign ralationa 
than raoantly aasumad - I am raforring hare to Stalin* s ravaeling quastion 
whan tha rol© of tha Vatiean in international politics was raisad: **How 
many tanka car it put in tha fi-ld ?** - and that tha oultural and psycho- 
logical gap batwa^n C^aohs and Rusßians ia as unbridgaable as Thomas Mas- 
aryk has pointad out i^i his work on Russina civiliza tion. 

T»a all shall hava to pondor thosa questiona. i3ut n^^ today* s linas era 
concorn^d with what you told me ebout your prasant r«aaf>rch. I was glad 
thrt you oorraotad n^y imprf?88iün about tha Tabor »r»», ItKS natural baau- 
ty wfs ncvßr questionad, ßut that it» historicrl paat is «o well prasarv- 
ad rs you daacribe it was naws to me, Farhaps, somatiiing was dona olraady 
b->twaan tha two World tVars and also since 1946 mh9n raports accassibla to 
m© wore scanty. Tharafor»?, I was unaware of tha Jawisü Uusaum thara and 
its archivas» ^qu-lly unknown to ma was th«' material concerni.'.g tha con- 
vorslon of Jaws in tha archives of tha Pragu«? «rchbishopric. I wonder 
whethar it eyor was lookad at, avan saparf icia lly ? Hrd üondy in his book 
on tha Bohamian Jaws to sry anything about thia topic ? I n'^rvT got around 
to r^^ad tha book as much as I wantad to do that, partioilarly in r^cant 

By and l^rg^, your finaings that in tht^ pt^riod of 178Z tili 1900 oon- 
varsions aaong Prague Jaws wera rare and in tha rur«l araas naxt tu nil 
eam»» as no surprisa to ma. I h^va guessas as to tho raasons. /-mongst tham 
are tha "oohasion" of tha Jawish oommunity fn^i tha w<i>ll df?fin-d »tatus of 
Jawft in a static sociaty whcra rapras iva maasuras egainst a minor ity ara 
ftccaptad submissivaly by both sidf?», /Iso, tha paculiar position of tha 
Catholic church in Bohamia mist not be ovarlockad; it oould not afford to 
b«? as a.^grassiva and dominaarlng as in tha Crownlands of tho Hababurg Ea»- 
pir*^' lika in the b th -Austrias, Styria or th» Tyrola. Therefora, convar- 
sion to its fold did not offar too rauch of a mPt*?rial and social ddvantagt, 
if th^t woula hava baan tha motiva for it. 

I woniar whather ona should saaroh too anxiously for suoh rationaliza- 


- 2 - 

tion. But b«for» •«ying something about motlvation, I h^r» to ias^^rt « 
quastlon: ?fhy do you atrta» th<* **3oupg«ol3 origln" of th» oonverta. Whet 
llttl(» I kaow «bout Bohemian Jawa, thf?ra wr^ra, unl Ika among th« Jawa in 
Kpstern Kupop«? ani mu:»h 1 ike «moni? tho Ja.-?« In Southwest G- rmany (ßadan, 
Württ'.'mb rfj, Hessen), from whar* many 13oh'»miPn J*»Ti8h famill*»8 oama, no 
mambffrs of th*^ worXlng 01*^3 3 »nd vapy faw rieh bankara, turnad lrt»r in- 
daatriel lata. 3ome ''Ilofjudon" in thc» aarli^-r pert of th*? p'?pioi studi^d 
by you ftnd bank^Pa-industrii* li^ts lika th» Potanhaka in raora r»cpnt tiiaaa 
plflyad, on a minor aoala, the rola of tha Rothachilds by b'-ing activ- in 
Jawish Community affoirs. In a comijarativwly baokward o-conociy (comparad 
witli Rn?lani or i^rr^nao) in th? Xat» IBth and through th« 19 tu c<#ntury, 
th ' Ja^s W' r» angag^a in both urban and rupal f^rwsa in p»tty trada, in ax- 
ptional cns,>s in such troditional profcasiona rss M(«dicin9, and what sa •!»» 
to m(f: a l^rga axt*>nt, in handi-crafta and professional skills, ganaina or 
protantious (you ara familiär with the law undor which .lawish man had to 
prov? mastor-oraftamanaliip if they wanted to got marriod), My laatarnal 
ßr'^nifpth^r (born 1838) in rur^l ^Jorth—Hast liohemia ('^Egarlana") had to 
submit a cartificata thet ii» had apprentio^d in cabinat-making whan, in 
fpct, he was ang^'gad in farming and cattl»-~^a«^liijg. üy patarnal graat- 
graat-grandfathar rt tha end of tha 18th cantury in tha urban araas of 
North-Kfst üoh«?mia (not far away from Trbor) ©ctually praoticed fantistry 
rhivxh bacaiaa traditional in bis family through tha »^nd of tha pariod stud- 
iad by you. It a^ama to ma that 13onamian Jeva wera mors or loss comfortab- 
la middl© cl'^ss p.opla witbin a semi-faud«! social struotur». 

You str»3sad rightfully th» importanca of intarmf riag«> as an occa- 
sion for ccnversion. In o^y mral motarnal family thia tr^^^nd iid not coai- 
m^nce b^rfora 1905, in my urban patarnal family alraady in tha 1880' s. In 
the form©r, I know of ona case of intarmarriago irher«? oonv»rsion took tha 
opposit«? dlr^ction. A cousin of aay unola, both activa in hops farming, 
ma 'ri' d bis maid ("Ma^^.d") ^ na sha b*>cama a fervently oona-^rvativa Jow^ss 
("ort ho doxy** in tha strlot aenaa of tha torm was not praetio<pd in ßoh^mia), 
This fliust ftavo happen'^d around 1B90. Woula such inst^nce» b© shown in your 
re-aords ? ??5 yaprs later inter^narriagps of icon ana wom»^n bacrma fasnion- 
abla in that family, \rhwthv»r c>nnaat'?d with conv<?rsion of tha aen, I wouXd 
n t knoTT, 'fhat I know, ho av<?r, ia th«t sucü conv rsions w^r» not motiva- 
tad by finy dt'sir»» for social adveRcam-nt but by anot«i*r sooio-psychologi-« 
cal forc(?. As to mon ^>ho in my mat»rnal family wera in exoass of woman 
(thay outnumber^a thaa» in tha rationof 5:l), it was location and envir^n- 
met5t. Those who wrtitei to atay on taa fnrm or in tha rural di3trict,oould 
not find wom'?n suital for thvir milieu; women tenaea towaras tha lerg9T 
citi» 3, lü^irily Fr^gu«^, and war* pretentious (as dascribea by linx lirod in 
bis arrliar novels). i^'urthermore, Jaws in rural praas were living in closa 
00^ tact with tht> populaca (Ghatto-psychology baing unkno'A'n) and thara nas- 
oant C.7.9ch na t.ionaliam with strong anti-Jewish undartcnos (you racollaot 
Th mas Masaryk's fight against them) baga/i to Th«? J'^ws in Boha- 
mia, as you will also ram»mber from Theoior Harzl' s clrssical asaay ebout 
tho ßO;,0fflian Jaws, w rr? identifiad, not withoat raason, with /ustrian "Sar- 
aanir.ation" and corraspondin^';ly hatt^d. Conv-^r^ion »/rs one asoapa from this 
social 03tr5:cisa, tha othar was Zioniam wiiich, in öoh*?mia, almoat elways 
rasultod from an abortiva attei^pt «t *Vssimilp tion'*. As to the wom&n in 
both familif»«, convcrsions occurr^d in oonnaction with intarmarriaga which, 
in turn, was prompt ^d by "rjmantic lov©". i-inally, in th» oitii*s and on 
tha land tha proc»>s8 of aacularisa tion of thou ht was repialy progfassing 
toward th- i?nd of