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Full text of "L'éclaircissement de la langue française; suivi de la grammaire giles du Guez; publiés par F. Génin"

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7^ 



COLLECTION 



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DOCUMENTS INEDITS 

SLR L'HISTOIRE DE FRANCE 



PIBI.IES PAR I.BS SOINS 



DU MINISTRE DR L'INSTRUCTION PUBLIQUE. 



DEUXIEME SERIE. 
HISTOIRE DES LETTRES ET DES SCIENCES. 



Ç'«^;r. 



L'ECLAIRCISSEMENT 



DE 



LA LANGUE FRANCALSE 

^ - PAR JEAN PALSGRAVE, 

SUIVI DE LA GRAMMAIRE DE GILES DU GUEZ. 

PUBLIÉS POLK LA PKEMIÈKL FOIS EN FKANCL 

PAR F. GÉNIN. 




PARIS. 

IMPRIMERIE NATIONALE. 



MDCCCLir. 



PC 
3il02 




INTRODUCTION. 



Les origines de notre langue, depuis neuf siècles quelle 
existe, sinon davantage, attendent encore leur historien. De 
tous ceux qui ont touché cette matière, le plus célèbre est 
Henri Estienne, qui passe pour un grand philologue en fran- 
çais; cependant Henri Estienne ne possède sur les sources de 
la langue française que des notions incomplètes et trop souvent 
erronées. Il est, comme son siècle, infatué de l'amour du grec 
et du latin, et ne s'avise pas de remonter pour les langues 
modernes plus haut que cette merveilleuse renaissance, qui 
prétend se rattacher sans intermédiaire à la divine antiquité. 
Car entre la renaissance et l'antiquité il n'y a rien eu; l'intel- 
ligence humaine a cessé de fonctionner; tout ce qui s'est produit 
dans cet intervalle ne mérite que le mépris et l'oubli. 

Et c'est justement dans les ténèbres de cet intervalle que se 
cachent les origines de notre langue. Henri Estienne et tout 
ce qui l'a suivi n'a connu qu'une langue de seconde formation, 
sous laquelle personne ne soupçonnait une langue native et 
fortement imprégnée de génie national. Personne par con- 
séquent ne songeait à creuser pour la découvrir, et si par 
hasard quelque vestige mal effacé du français originel se lais- 
sait apercevoir à travers la couche d'alluvion, les gens de grec 



2 INTRODUCTION. 

enfarinés, au lieu de creuser à la racine, s'efforçaient de le faire 

disparaître, en criant : faute de français! faute de français! 

C'est surtout à l'italianisme que Henri Estienne fait la guerre ; 
en principe il a raison; mais il a le tort de voir des italianismes 
partout, et, faute de savoir l'histoire de la langue, de s'appuyer 
dans ses corrections et dans ses étymologies sur un empirisme 
sans logique, ou bien sur de véritables erreurs. Je doute qu'on 
le surprenne jamais à se faire un argument de quelque texte 
du xn* ou du xiif siècle; toutes ses autorités, s'il ne les fait 
venir de l'Athènes ou de la Rome classiques, il les demande à 
ses contemporains français ou étrangers; quant au moyen âge, 
il ne soupçonne pas qu'on puisse lui emprunter rien. Et nous 
voyons tous les jours Henri Estienne cité comme la lumière 
de la philologie française. 

On commence pourtant à sentir la nécessité de remonter 
flans l'étude du français plus haut que le xvi" siècle. La 
grammaire de Palsgrave que nous publions est un monu- 
ment placé sur la limite de deux âges. Composé dans les 
premières années du xvi° siècle avec l'érudition de la lin du 
XV*, ce livre présente de la langue française à cette époque 
l'inventaire complet et authentique, scellé, pour ainsi dire, 
sous l'autorité d'écrivains illustres, qui tous florissaient avant 
le règne de François I"; ainsi, parmi ces auteurs cités à l'appui 
des règles, il ne faut pas chercher le nom de Marot, qui est 
trop jeune; mais vous rencontrerez invoqués à chaque pas ses 
aînés, Lemaire de Belges, Alain Chartier et l'évêque d'Angou- 
lême, Ociavien de Saint-Gelais. La grammaire de Palsgrave 
a l'avantage de renfermer un dictionnaire et, de plus, d'insti- 
tuer une comparaison perpétuelle entre deux idiomes voisins, 
l'anglais et le français. Ce n'est point une grammaire de l'an- 
cien langage, mais c'est un excellent point de départ et le 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

plus avancé possible, pour se diriger des frontières de la langue 
moderne vers notre langue primitive. 

Au surplus, les circonstances qui déterminèrent la compo- 
sition de ce livre donneront une idée du soin que l'auteur y 
doit avoir apporté, en même temps qu'elles seront la garantie 
du talent de cet auteur et de la confiance qu'il mérite. 

Le peu qu'on sait de la vie de Palsgrave se trouve rassemblé 
dans la Biographie dramaticjue, de David Erskine Baker'. Voici 
la traduction de cette notice : 

Palsgrave (Jean). Ce savant écrivain florissait sous Henry VII et 
Henry VIII ; il reçut son éducation grammaticale à Londres , sa ville 
natale. Il étudia la logique et la philosophie à Cambridge, où il prit le 
grade de bachelier ès-arts, après quoi il se rendit à Paris. Il y consacra 
quelques années à l'étude de la philosophie et des sciences en général, se 
lit recevoir maître ès-arts, et acquit du français une connaissance telle- 
ment approfondie , qu'en 1 5 1 Zi , lors de la négociation d'un mariage entre 
Louis XII de France et la princesse Marie, sœur d'Henry VIII d'Angle- 
teiTe , Palsgrave fut choisi pour enseigner le français à la future reine de 
France; mais la mort de Louis XII ayant suivi de près son second mariage , 
Palsgrave rentra en Angleterre avec sa belle élève. Il devint le maître de 
français à la mode parmi la jeune noblesse, obtint un bon bénéfice ecclé- 
siastique et fut porté sur la liste des chapelains ordinaires du roi. 

En i53i, il séjourna quelque temps à Oxford; l'année suivante, f uni- 
versité de cette ville le reçut maître ès-arts, comme avait fait l'université 
de Paris, et de plus lui conféra quelques jours après le titre de bachelier 
en théologie. 

A cette époque il était tenu en haute estime pour son savoir. Un fait 
très-remarquable, c'est que Palsgrave, un Anglais, fut le premier qui ré- 
duisit la langue française sous des règles grammaticales et tenta de la lixer 
par l'autorité des exemples. Il exécuta celte entreprise avec autant d'habi- 

L'article consacré à Palsgrave dan» la Granarnaire et une description du 
iei Anecdotes of lilerature and scarce books , volume. Pour les détails biographiques, 
de Beloe , n'esl qu'une suite d'exirails de Beloe renvoie à Baker. 



M 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

leté que de succès dans le grand ouvrage en cette langue ' qu'il fit paraître 
à Londres sous ce titre : L'Esclarcissement de la langue française, i53o; un 
épais in-folio divisé en trois livres , précédés d'une grande introduction en 
anglais : si bien que la nation française , aujourd'hui si orgueilleuse de 
l'universalité de sa langue , paraît en avoir l'obligation à notre pays. 

Toutefois, ce livre n'eût pas justifié la présence de cet article dans le 
nôtre, si Paisgrave n'eût traduit en anglais une comédie latine d'Acolastus, 
œuvre d'un certain Guillaume Fullcnius, son contemporain, et qui demeu- 
rait alors à la Haye en Hollande. 

Les dates de la naissance et de la mort de Paisgrave sont des détails sur 
lesquels je n'ai pu me procurer aucun indice. Toutefois, par le rapproche- 
ment de plusieurs circonstances, je ne puis le supposer âgé de moins de 
soixante ans lorsqu'il donna cette traduction de la comédie d'Acolastus . ce 
fut en 1 54o. {Biographia dramatica, by David Erskine Baker, t. I, p. 348.) 

Pits, qui, pour la partie litléraire, a copié la courte notice 
de Jean Baie, ajoute sur les mœurs et la capacité de Paisgrave 
quelques renseignements dont il n'indique pas la source et 
dont je lui laisse la responsabilité : 

Jean Paisgrave, Anglais, natif de Londres. La nature lui avait libérale- 
ment départi ses dons : heureux génie, mémoire imperturbable, élocution 
facile, une modestie et une modération d'âme dignes d'éloges. Parvenu à 
l'âge mûr, il se distinguait du commun des hommes par la gravité, la pru- 
dence et une dignité de maintien qu'il savait allier avec le charme des 
manières et une merveilleuse affabilité. 

Après avoir approfondi dans son pays les humanités et abordé les élé- 
ments de la philosophie , Paisgrave voyagea en France et s'alla perfectionner 
à l'université de Paris. En même temps qu'il y cultivait la philosophie , il s'ap- 
pliquait à l'étude de la langue française, et avec un tel succès, que, de re- 
tour en Angleterre , il se vit apprécié par tous les personnages de distinction; 
son habileté le fit nommer maître de français de la princesse Marie, fille 

J'ai conservé l'espèce d'amphibologie erreur malérielle qui prouve que Baker 

du texte, m that language ; maiis il n'est n'avait jamais vu un exemplaire de ce livre 

pas douteux que, dans la pensée de l'au- rarissime. Il a été induit en erreur par le 

leur, ces mois ne signifient en français : titre. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

d'Henry VII , alors promise au roi de France Louis XII. Cette position lui 
fit négliger les autres parties de ses connaissances. Il composa , soit pour la 
princesse Marie , soit pour ses Mécènes de la haute noblesse : 

Les Illastrations de la langue française , commençant : «The difficulté of 
«the frenche tongue. » Un livre'. — Annotations aux verbes. «When they 
« shewe or déclare a dede to be done. » Un livre '. — Annotations aux par- 
ticipes. «The same worde in our tongue.» Un livre'. — ■ Épîtres à divers. 
Un livre *. — Il traduisit en anglais la comédie d'Acolastus. 

Je ne trouve point indiqués d'autres ouvrages de lui^. Il florissait en 
I 53o , sous le règne d'Henry VIII. 

Kennet dit que Palsgrave fut nommé par l'archevêque 
Cranmer à la cure de Saint-Dunstan , à Londres, en i553. 
On ne sait pas la date précise de sa mort, mais il est certain 
qu'il avait obtenu, en i5i/l, la prébende de Portpoole, dans 
l'église de Saint-Paul^; or nous voyons cette même prébende 
transférée, le 12 septembre i554, à Edmund Beygotte, per 
morlem Joh. Palsgrave (Wood, Athenœ Oxonienses) . On est donc 
fondé à croire que Palsgrave mourut en 1 554- * 

A ces renseignements sur la personne de l'auteur on peut 
ajouter quelques particularités relatives à l'ouvrage que nous 
fournit l'épître dédicatoire à Henry VIII. 

Palsgrave, lorsqu'il songea à composer son livre, prit pour 
modèle le plan de la Grammaire grecque de Théodore de 
Gaza, qui jouissait alors dans les écoles de la plus haute 






' P. XV de la présente édition. 

' P. 378. 

' P- 787. 

* Ce sont les lettres qui sont au com- 
mencement de la Grammaire. 

' Cependant Palsgrave dit, à la fin de 
son troisième livre : «Vous remarquerez 
que, de toutes les langues du monde, le 
français est la plus riche en proverbes, en 
adages dont le sens obscur renferme une 



grande sagesse; mais je remets à en parler 
lorsque, avec la grâce de Dieu, je réali- 
serai le projet de faire sur cette madère 
un traité spécial. » 

Palsgrave a-t-il réalisé ce projet ? Je 
n'en trouve aucun indice. Beloe {Anecd. 
of lit. etc. VI, 35o) ne croit pas que le 
Traité des proverbes français de Palsgrave 
ait jamais paru. 

* Newcoarl's liepertoriam. 



INTRODUCTION. 

réputation '. Quoique son biographe lui donne, et que lui- 
même s'attribue la gloire d'avoir le premier réduit la langue 
française à des règles fixes, il reconnaît cependant qu'il avait 
eu des devanciers, et des devanciers habiles; il leur rend 
hommage et profitera, dit-il, de leurs travaux en s'efforçant 
de les compléter. A cet effet, il n'a négligé aucun soin : il a 
recherché tous les livres où la grammaire française a été traitée, 
soit par des auteurs morts depuis longtemps ( longe afore my 
dayes), soit par des contemporains. Ces circonstances ajoutent 
un nouveau prix au travail de Palsgrave. 

Il ne consistait d'abord qu'en deux livres, l'un pour la pro- 
nonciation, l'autre pour la grammaire proprement dite. En 
cet état, l'auteur l'offrit à ses bienfaiteurs le duc et la duchesse 
de Suffolk, qui lui persuadèrent que le roi en accepterait la 
dédicace. La duchesse de Suffolk était cette sœur d'Henry VIIJ, 
cette princesse Marie, ancienne élève de Palsgrave, veuve de 
notre Louis Xll après trois mois de mariage, et remariée à 
Charles Brandon, ami d'enfance de son frère, créé duc de 
Suffolk en i5i3. Par leur conseil et pour se rendre plus 
digne de la faveur qu'il ambitionnait, Palsgrave, non-seule- 
ment ajoute à son ouvrage un lexique comparatif des deux 
langues qui n'entrait pas dans son premier plan, mais il l'aug- 
mente aussi d'un troisième livre servant de commentaire au 
second, à l'exemple de Théodore de Gaza. 

Il imprima son ouvrage à ses frais, et Henry VIII, à qui il 
en offrit la dédicace, lui accorda un privilège pour sept ans. 

Cette gloire revendiquée par les Anglais, d'avoir les pre- 
miers écrit sur la grammaire française, ne serait, à tout prendre, 
qu'un hommage rendu à la France; car si nos voisins avaient 

' Voy. Baillet, Jiigem. des savants, t. Il, p. 6o3. — Théodore Gaza était mort en lijS, 
cinquante-deux, ans avant l'apparition de la Grammaire de Palsgrave. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

attendu d'un peuple étranger la première grammaire anglaise, 
peut-être l'attendraient-ils encore. Mais enfin, il ne faut pas 
laisser croire que la France ait poussé l'indifférence pour sa 
propre langue au point qu'elle n'eût jamais songé à se faire une 
grammaire lorsque Palsgrave s'en avisa pour elle. Avant Pals- 
grave, Geoffroy Tory de Bourges s'en était occupé et avait 
tracé le plan d'un vaste travail d'ensemble, dont son Champ 
Jleury, publié en 1629, un an avant le livre de Palsgrave, n'est 
que l'introduction. Dans son Epistre aux lecteurs de ce présent 
livre, Geoffroy Tory s'écrie: 

devotz amateurs de bonnes lettres, pieust à Dieu que quelque noble 
cueur s'employast à mettre et ordonner par reigie nostre langaige François! 
Ce seroit moyen que maints milliers d'hommes se esvertueroient à souvent 
user de belles et bonnes paroles. S'il n'y est mis et ordonné, on trouvera 
que de cinquante en cinquante ans la langue Françoise, pour la plus grande 
part , sera changée et pervertie. 

Et dans le début de son premier livre : 

Je suis content estre le premier petit indice à exciter quelque noble 
esperit qui se esvertuera davantage , comme firent les Grecs jadis et les 
Romains , mettre et ordonner la langue Françoise à certaine reigie de pro- 
nuncer et bien parler. Pieust à Dieu que quelque noble seigneur voulust 
proposer gages et beaux dons à ceulx qui ce porroient bien Faire ! (Fol. 1 ° v°.) 

Voilà sans doute un appel assez chaleureux aux bons esprits 
capables de l'entendre et d'y répondre. Geoffroy Tory ne se 
lasse pas d'insister; il montre le mal et combien le remède est 
urgent. Il signale avec indignation comme corrupteurs de la 
langue française «les inventeurs et forgeurs de mots : Si tels 
forgeurs ne sont ruffiens, je ne les estime guères meilleurs! » 
Et tout de suite, pour justifier sa colère et fépithète dont il 
vient de les gratifier, il cite des échantillons de leur style (dont, 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

par parenthèse, Rabelais s'est emparé pour les mettre dans la 

bouche de son Escholier limousin), puis il conclut : 

Pai- quoy, je vous prie, donnons nous tous courage les uns aux aultres 
et nous esveillons à la piuifier (la langue). Toutes choses ont eu commen- 
cement; quand l'un ti-aitera des lettres et l'autre des vocales ^ ung tiers 
viendra qui desclarera les dictions, et puis encore ung aultre surviendra qui 
ordonnera la belle oraison. Par ainsi on trouvera que peu à peu on passera 
chemin; si bien qu'on viendra aux grans champs poétiques et rhétoriques 
plains de belles, bonnes et odoriférentes fleurs de parler et dire honneste- 
ment et facilement tout ce qu'on voudra. 

Geoffroy Tory, prêchant d'exemple , prend pour sa part de 
travail les lettres de l'alphabet; c'est l'objet de son livre inti- 
tulé Champ jleury. Mais avant de quitter les idées générales pour 
aborder son sujet particulier, il dessine rapidement le travail 
de chacune des parties de ce bel ensemble dont il conçoit l'idée. 
Il veut mettre dans le bon chemin ses futurs collaborateurs. 
Ainsi, parlant d'une grammaire à faire, il indique un canon 
d'auteurs. Le xix* siècle ne sera sans doute pas fâche de con- 
naître les auteurs qu'on proposait comme classiques à la fin 
du XV*, et dont les œuvres devaient servir d'autorité et de textes 
de langue : 

Qui se voidroit en ce bien fonder, à mon avis , porroit user des œuvres 
de Pierre de S' Cloct et des œuvres de Jehan li Nevelois^, qui ont descrit 
la vie d'Alexandre le Grand en longue ligne que l'autheur qui a composé 
en prose le Jea des eschets, dit estre de douze syllabes et appelée rithme 
Alexandrine , pourceque, comme dit est, la vie d'Alexandre en est descrite. 

Iceulx deux susdits autheurs ont en leur stile une grande majesté de 
langage ancien, et croy que s'ils eussent eu le temps en fleur de bonnes 
lectres comme il est aujourd'huy, qu'ils eussent excédé tous autheurs grecs 

' Il faut sans doute lire syllabes , ou teur du Roman de Renard, a fait, en colla- 
vocables ? boration avec Jean le Nivelois, une branche 

' Pierre ou Perrot de Sain t-Cloud, au- du. romain d'Alexandre. 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

et latins. Ils ont, dis-je, en leurs compositions don accomply de toute 
grâce en fleurs de rhétorique et poésie ancienne; jaçoit que Jehan Le Maire 
ne face aucune mention d'iceulx, toutesfois si a il pris et emprunté d'eidx 
la plus grande part de son bon langage, comme on porroit bien voir en 
la lecture que on feroit attentivement es œuvres des ungs et des aultres. 

On porroit aussi user des œuvres de Chrestien de Troyes , et ce en 
son Chevalier à l'cspée et en son Parceval, qu'il dédia au comte Phelippe 
de Flandres. — On porroit user pareillement de Hugon de Mery, en son 
Tornoy de l'Antéchrist^. — Tout pareillement aussi de Raoul ^, en son Ro- 
ulant des Elles. — Paysant de Mesieres n'est pas à déprécier, qui faict maintz 
beaux et bons petits coupletz, et entre les aultres en sa Maie sansfrein^. 
— J'ai nagueres veu et tenu tous ces susditz révérentz et anciens autheurs 
escritz en parchemin, que mon seigneiu- et bon amy frère René Massé, 
de Vendosme , chroniqueur du roy *, m'a liberallement et de bon cueur 
monstre. Il en use si bien à parfaire les chroniques de France , que je puis 
honnestement dire de luy : 

Cedite, Romani scriptores, cedite, Graii : 
Nescio quid majus nascitur Iliade. 

«Arrière, arrière, autheurs grecs et latins! De René Massé naisl chose plus belle 
et grande que le Iliade ! 

On porroit en oultre user des œuvres de Arnoul Graban et de Simon 
Graban son frère. Dantes Aligerius, Florentin, comme dict mon susdict 
bon amy frère René Massé , faict honorable mention dudict Arnoul Gra- 



' Le Tournoiement de l'Antéchrist, par 
Hugues de Méry-sur-Seine , a été publié 
par M. P. Tarbé, dans sa Collection de 
poêles champenois. 

Ce passage est visiblement inspiré par 
les vers suivants : 

Molt mis grant peine à eschiver 
Les dis Raoul et Crcstien , 
Qu'onques bouche de crestien 
Ne dist si bien com il disoient , 
Mais quanqu'il distrcnt il prenoient 
Le bel françois trestout à plain , 

Si com il lor venoit à main 

Se j'ai trové aucun espi 



Apres ia main as mestiviers , 
Je l'ai glané molt volentier». 

Hugues de Méry , le Toaraotement 
de l'Antecritt y p. io4. 

' Raoul de Houdan. 

^ Celle pièce est imprimée dans le Nou- 
veau recueil de Fabliaux et Contes publié 
par Méon, t. I, p. i. L'auteur s'y nomme 
Paient de Maisieres, Legrand d'Aussy écrit 
Paysans de Maisieres. (Voyez Fabliaux ou 
Contes, t. I, p. 79, éd. de iSag.) 

' Sur frère Macé, bénédictin de Ven- 
dôme, voy. la Biogr. univ. t. XXVI, p. 34 



10 INTRODUCTION. 

ban, et d iceluy Arnoul ay veu, en lYglise des Bernardins de Paris, ung 

tableau auquel y a une oraison de la vierge Marie qui se commance : « En 

protestant »; et les premières lettres des versetz du dernier couplect 

contiennent son nom et surnom, qui sont Arnoîdas Grabans me (sic). 

Qui porroit finer des œuvres de Nesson', ce seroit ung grand plaisir 
pour user du douv langage qui y est contenu. Je n'en ay veu que une 
oraison à la Vierge Marie, qui se treuve imprimée dedans le Calendrier 
des bergiers de première impression ^ ; la dernière impression ne le con- 
tient pas , ne scay pourquoy. 

Alain Chartier et Georges Chastelain, chevalier, sont autheurs dignes 
desquels on face fréquente lecture, car ilz sont très plains de langage moult 
seignorial et héroïque. 

Les Lunettes des princes pareillement sont bonnes pour le doulx langage 
qui y est contenu'. 

On porroit semblablement bien user des belles chroniques de France 
que mon seigneur Crétin*, nagueres chroniqueur du roy, a si bien faictes, 



' Nesson (Pierre), officier de Jean de 
Bourbon, lequel ayant été fait prisonnier 
à la bataille d'AzincourI , Nesson lui en- 
voya, en Angleterre, le Lay de la guerre, 
dont Duchesne cite un fragment dans ses 
notes sur Alain Chartier. Sa fille poétisait 
aussi, au témoignage de J. Bouchel : 

Je n'oubiieray la subtille Jeanette 
Fille à Nesson , qui de rime tant nette 
Sut bien user. 

' Le Calendrier des bergers, ouvrage ano- 
nyme, est un poème didactique distribué 
par couplets. Chacune des bergères arri- 
vant de l'empire du prêtre Jean des Indes 
en chante un, sur l'Arithmétique, sur 
l'Hôtel-Dieu, les Planètes, etc. 

' Les Lunettes des princes, par Jean Mes- 
chinot, de Nantes, successivement maître 
d'hôtel de plusieurs ducs de Bretagne, mort 
en 1 509. Il a été loué par Marot. Ces Lunettes 
.sont des poésies morales, par exemple : 

Se tu vas à Saint innocent 
Où y a d'ossemens grant tas , 



Ja ne connoistras entre cent 
Les os des gens de grans estas 
D'avec ceulx qu'au monde notas 
En leur vivant pauvres et nus : 
Tous s'en vont d'ond ilz sont venus ! 

' «Le bon Crétin au vers équivoque,» 
comme l'appelle Marot , qui le qualifie 
souverain poète fran<;ais, et lui a bâti une 
magnifique épitaphe : 

Seigneurs passans , comment pourrez vous croire 
De ce tombeau la grand pompe et la gloire .■' etc. 

Crétin était un surnom; le nom vtrilable 
était Guillaume Dubois *. J'en demande 
pardon à ses panégyristes, Marot, G. Tory 
et Jean Lemaire; mais rien ne me paraît 
égaler la platitude laborieuse des vers de 
ce grand homme , raillé par Rabelais sous 
le nom de Raminagrobis. Après avoir été 
trésorier de la Sainte Chapelle de Vin- 
cennts, puis chanire à la Sainte Chapelle 
de Paris , Crelin ou Dubois mourut en 
i5a5, à ce qu'on croit. 

' il dit lui-même : 

Le G (^eat] du Bois, aliaa dit Crktin. 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

que Homère, ne Virgile, ne Dantes n'eurent oncqiies plus d'excellence en 
leur stile. 

(Ici une digression et un rondeau cité, dont une dame 
est l'auteur.) 

S'il est vray que toutes choses ont eu commencement, il est certain 
que la langue grecque, semblablement la latine, ont été quelque temps 
incultes et sans reigle de grammaire, comme est de présent la nostre; mais 
les bons anciens vertueux et studieux ont prins peine et diligence à les 
réduire et mettre à certaine reigle, pour en user honnestement à escripre 
et rédiger les bonnes sciences en mémoire, au prouflit et honneur du bien 
public. [Champ Jlenry, foi. iv, v°.) 

Celte ardeur de Geoffroy Tory dut se communiquer, et 
même au delà des limites de France, car Geoffroy Tory, si peu 
connu de notre temps, était dans le sien célèbre en son pays 
et à l'étranger. Ce qu'il y a de siir, c'est qu'à l'apparition de 
la grammaire de Palsgrave, un certain Léonard Coxe, qui s'in- 
titule principal du collège de Reading, Radingiensis ludi mode- 
rator, après quatre distiques adressés à son compatriote, se 
retourne vers Geoffroy Tory, et lui débite quinze phaleuques, 
dont voici la traduction : 

Docte Geoffroy, il est comblé le vœu si souvent exprimé dans ton 
Champ Jleuri ; car voilà , moyennant des règles dûment autorisées , le 
français enseigné à fond. — Ni Palémoa avec ses successeurs, ni Gaza 
dans son travail achevé, ni aucun de leurs illustres prédécesseurs, n'avaient 
mieux traité de la grammaire grecque ou latine que Palsgrave ne traite 
ici de la française. Il a l'érudition, la clarté et toute la concision compa- 
tible avec sa matière; aussi triomphons-nous, docte Geoffroy, de voir enfin 
comblé le vœu si souvent exprimé dans ton Champ Jîeari. 

Léonard Coxe triomphi* plus modestement et plus conve- 
nablement que David Baker, car il semble reporter sur Geof- 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

froy Tory l'honneur d'avoir évoqué la grammaire de Palsgrave. 
La comparaison des dates semble, il est vrai, ne laisser pas 
beaucoup de vraisemblance à cette supposition, puisque l'ou- 
vrage du Français et celui de l'Anglais ne sont qu'à une année 
d'intervalle; mais ici je dois signaler une singularité qui n'a 
point été remarquée des bibliographes. On lit au frontispice 
la date de i53o, et au dernier feuillet : «achevé d'imprimer 
le 18 juillet i53o »; mais le privilège du roi placé en tête du 
volume est daté « de notre château d'Amphtyll, le 2 septembre, 
l'an de notre règne xxii. » Or, Henry VIII étant parvenu au 
trône en 1609, après Pâques, la vingt-deuxième année de 
son règne est l'année i53i, et le Champ jlenry avait paru au 
commencement de lôag '. Gela fait donc de bon compte un 
intervalle de trois ans; dès lors, le mot de Léonard Coxe a 
une véritable portée , et les coïncidences que Palsgrave s'ap- 
plaudit de rencontrer dans le Champ jleury et V Esclaircissement 
pourraient bien n'être pas aussi fortuites qu'il lui plaît de le 
dire. 

li me paraît certain que l'ouvrage de Palsgrave est antidaté 
sur le frontispice. Pourquoi.^ dans quel intérêt.^ C'est ce qu'il 
est difficile d'expliquer précisément. On peut supposer que les 
diverses parties du livre ont paru l'une après l'autre , que les 
éditeurs ont mis à l'ensemble de l'œuvre la date la plus re- 
culée, tandis que, au contraire, Henry VIII n'a donné le pri- 
vilège qu'à la forme dernière et complète. Cette hypothèse 
pourrait aussi rendre raison de l'absence des feuillets 3o à 35, 
encore qu'il ne paraisse pas y avoir de lacune dans le texte. 
L'impression d'ailleurs a été faite par deux imprimeurs diffé- 
rents, Hawkins et Pynson. Tout cela semble indiquer une 

Le 28 avril lôsg. Le privilège est de 1626, et G. Tory dit lui-même avoir com- 
mencé son livre en 1622 (fol. 1°). 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

exécution partielle, intervertie peut-être, et reprise sur des 
mesures mal calculées. 



Lorsque David Baker écrit que la nation française, aujour- 
d'hui si orgueilleuse de l'universalité de sa langue, paraît en 
avoir l'obligation à l'Angleterre, il raisonne à rebours; la langue 
française n'est pas devenue universelle, parce qu'il a plu à 
l'Anglais Palsgrave d'en composer une grammaire; mais, au 
contraire, Palsgrave a rédigé cette grammaire, parce que la 
langue française était universelle. Cette universalité était un 
fait constaté avant la naissance de Palsgrave, de même que, 
avant lui, d'autres avaient tenté de formuler des règles pour 
faciliter aux étrangers l'étude du français: Vixerc fortes ante 
Agamemnona muUi. 

Palsgrave en désigne nominalement trois, auxquels il recon- 
naît que son travail a de grandes obligations. 

Le premier est Alexandre Barclay, mort en 1 552 , moine de 
l'ordre de saint François, hagiographe et polygraphe, dont 
Pits indique un Traité de la prononciation française , en un seul 
livre, commençant par ces mots : iMuIti ac varii homines litte- 
rati\» Le catalogue de Watt est plus explicite; il donne le 
titre exact d'après lequel l'ouvrage paraît rédigé en anglais: 
« Introductorie ta write and pronounce the frenche; Londres, i 52 i, 
fol., imprimé par Coppland. » Tous mes efforts pour découvrir 
un exemplaire de ce curieux ouvrage ont été inutiles. 

Je n'ai pas même réussi à en découvrir autant sur le second 
de ses contemporains, que Palsgrave appelle Jacobus Vallensis 
et qu'il qualifie instituteur du jeune comte de Lincoln, fils 

' Pits, p. 745. Il ne s'ensuit pas que de traduire; il ne prétend donner que le 
l'ouvrage soit en latin; Pits a l'habitude sens. 



I 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

du duc de INorfolk. Baie ni Pits ne font mention d'aucun nom 
qui ressemble à celui-là; mais de leur silence même je tire 
une induction : tous deux n'ayant admis dans leur recueil que 
des écrivains nés dans la Grande-Bretagne, je suis tenté de 
voir dans Jacobas Vallensis un Français nommé Jacques Duval, 
de Laval, Vallée ou Devallée. 

Le cas est absolument le même pour « le savant clerc maistre 
Giles Dewes, autrefois instituteur de votre noble grâce (le roi 
Henry VIII) pour cette même langue, lequel, à la requête et 
sur les instances de divers grands personnages, a également 
écrit sur cette matière^». Dans un autre passage, Palsgravè 
mentionne un très-ancien texte du Roman de la Rose qui lui 
fut montré « dans la bibliothèque de Guildhall par maistre 
Gyles, jadis maître de français du roi régnant». Baie ni Pits 
ne connaissent Gilles Dewes; parmi les biographes ou bibho- 
graphes français, M. Brunet est le seul qui ait recueilli son 
nom et le titre de son livre ^ : 

Voici, dit M. Brunet, un autre ouvrage moins connu en France que le 
précédent (que la Grammaire de Palsgravè, dont on ne connaît sur le 
continent d'autre exemplaire que celui de la Mazarine) : 

»An Introdactorie for to lerne, to rede, to pronounce and to speake frenche, 
trewly, compiled for the ryghte hygh, excellent and most vertuous lady, 
the lady Mary of England doughter to our moste gracious soveraine lorde 
kyng Henry the eyghte. » 

Grammaire fort rare dont l'auteur , Giles Dewes , est nommé dans un 
acrostiche, au folio Aii. La seconde partie donne des exemples très-curieux; 
on suppose que ce livre a paru en i532. [Manuel du libraire, III, 62 1 .) 

M. Brunet a reproduit le nom de fauteur de cette gram- 
maire tel que le donnent les Anglais. Palsgravè fécrit Dewes; 
Dibdin et la Bibliotheca Grenvilliana, pareillement, et aussi John 

' To the Kynges grâces, p. vu. — ' P. 35. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

Stow, dans son livre intitulé A survay oj the cities oj London; 
bien plus, il est ainsi figuré dans le relevé des nrionuments 
funéraires de la paroisse de Saint-Olave, de Londres; voici 
textuellement cette épitaphe : 

Herelieth GilesDewes, who sometirnes was servant to king Henry the VII 
and king Henry ihe VIII. Cierke of their librairies , and schoole master for the 
frenche tongue to prince Arthur and to the iady Mary , who died 1 535 ^ 

« Cy gît Gilles Dewes, jadis serviteur des rois Henry VII et Henry VIII, 
clerc de leurs bibliothèques et instituteur, pour la langue française, du 
prince Arthur et de madame Marie; mort en 1535.» 

Malgré ces témoignages, il est certain que Dewes est une 
forme altérée, accommodée à l'usage anglais, et que la forme 
véritable est dv Wés. Ainsi l'écrit le prétendu Dewes lui-même, 
non pas dans un, mais dans deux acrostiches, dont je me 
contenterai de rapporter le second, parce qu'il fournit la tra- 
duction latine et par conséquent le sens vulgaire de ce nom 
propre : 

APOLOGIE AUX CORRECTEURS DE TOUTTES ŒUVRES "^ 

G rosses gens de rudes affections , 

I vrongnes bannis de vray sentement, 

L ourdauhz, cocardz, privés d'entendement, 

E n leur gueulée prenant réfections , 

S aouls d'oprobres et de detractions , 

D iront de moy comme ilz font d'aultre gent : 
U oyés icy , quel facteur bel et gent ! 

V ray et pour certain que suis ignorant ; 

V ouloir je ne doy pas laisser pour tant 
E mprendre chose qui fait à priser 

S ans garde prendre à leur despriser. 

' Ancient fanerai monuments, etc., by Cette difficulté vaincue peut servir à ex- 
John Wewer. London, 1637. pliquer la gêne et le peu de sens qu'on 

' Cet acrostiche est double, c'est-à-dire remarque dans cette pièce, 
en anglais et en français interlinéaire. 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

A ulcuiis diront : cecy est mal escript. 
L es aultres après bendant lez sourcilz 
I trouveront très grant faulte d'esprit; 
A ultres pèseront tout come gens subtilz , 
S ur ce donnant leur sentence et advis. 

D ie ung cbescun ce que dire vouldra; 
E n despit du diable et de mal vouUoir, 

V eoir ilz pourront que m'a mis en debvoir 

A bien faire; face mieulx qui sçara : 

D e moy certes ja reprins n'en sera. 

I bésus doncques nous ottroy bien faire , 

S ans voulloir à luy n'a aultre desplaire. 

La réunion de toutes les initiales donne : 

GILES DU WÉS, ALIAS DE VADIS. 

Ni Duwes, ni du Wés ne peut être un nom anglais; celui 
qui le portait déclare d'ailleurs dans son prologue que le fran- 
çais était « sa langue maternelle et naturelle. » D'après cela, il 
ne faut pas de longues réflexions pour restituer au maître de 
français d'Henry VIII la vraie forme de son nom, dans l'or- 
thographe de notre langue: il s'appelait du Guez, de Vadis. 

Nous trouvons dans son dialogue Sur la paix un témoignage 
précis du temps où il composait son livre. Il introduit son 
élève, la princesse Marie, lui reprochant son absence de la 
veille au soir. Le maître s'excuse sur ce qu'il s'est oublié dans 
une agréable compagnie : 

Et sur quoi donc rouloit votre conversation? — Certes, Madame, elle 
estoit de la paix , laquelle (comme on disoit) est criée tant en ce royaume 
d'Engleterre comme de France, et durera tant que ie noble roy Henry, 
vostre père, vivra et le roy Francoys pareillement, avec l'addicion d'ung 
jour. 

La paix jurée dans ces conditions ne peut être que celle 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

de 1627 ^ La princesse Marie avait alors douze ans, et cela 
s'accorde avec ce qu'elle-même dit ailleurs de son jeune âge. 

Ainsi du Guez composait ces dialogues en 1627, et avant 
1 53o Palsgrave avait communication de ses travaux. Ce n'était 
pas encore la grammaire dédiée à la princesse Marie, mais il 
est vraisemblable que du Guez avait commencé par publier 
à l'usage de ses élèves quelques petits traités épars, aujourd'hui 
disparus. 

La Grammaire de du Guez, dans sa rédaction complète et 
définitive, n'a paru qu'après celle de Palsgrave, puisque le 
travail de l'Anglais est l'objet de l'ironie et des sarcasmes, à 
peine voilés, du vieux grammairien français. L'impression de 
ce volume sans date doit être de 1 53 2 ou 1 533. 

On conçoit aisément que la Grammaire de Palsgrave, im- 
posante par l'appareil scientifique de la méthode et par la 
masse du volume, dût effrayer la jeunesse anglaise à qui s'a- 
dressait ce présent. Et il faut bien qu'il en ait été quelque 
chose, puisque la lettre d'André Baynton qui suit le privilège 
du roi, a pour unique objet de combattre cette frayeur. Ne 
vous laissez pas intimider ni décourager par l'extérieur du 
livre, dit André Baynton aux fils de lord Montjoye, ses amis 
de collège, et vous reconnaîtrez qu'un médiocre travail suffit 
pour retirer toute la substance de cet épais in-folio. 

En attendant, il leur en adresse un abrégé. La précaution 
devait ne pas sembler inutile. 

Cette lettre d'André Baynton est-rclle une apologie préven- 
tive suggérée par la conscience de l'auteur, ou bien serait-ce 
une réponse à des attaques répandues dans le public.^ Mais 
ces attaques n'avaient pas dû se produire avant l'apparition 
de l'ouvrage. Nouvelle circonstance à l'appui de l'hypothèse 

' Cf. Lorenz, Summa historiée Gallo-Francicœ , p. 67/1. 

3 



18 INTRODUCTION. 

énoncée plus haut, que le livre a été d'abord publié successi- 
vement par parties détachées, lesquelles ensuite ont été réu- 
nies sous un titre général. 

C'est alors que Gilles du Guez, mécontent de voir exploiter 
par un rival et l'autorité de son nom et le résultat de ses tra- 
vaux, rassemble à son tour ses traités partiels, en fait une 
œuvre d'ensemble, courte, claire, bien digérée, amusante 
même par les dialogues dont il fait suivre son exposé théorique. 
Dans ces dialogues, au nombre de dix, la princesse Marie est 
constamment en scène : tantôt on la suppose recevant un en- 
voyé du roi de France, de l'empereur ou d'un souverain quel- 
conque; tantôt son aumônier lui expose les cérémonies de la 
messe, ou les diverses propriétés des mets, pour conclure au 
choix d'un régime alimentaire. Une autre fois, c'est du Guez 
lui-même qui traite avec elle les points de la métaphysique les 
plus élevés et les plus délicats, par exemple: qu'est-ce que 
l'âme .^ Cette question, examinée sous l'autorité de saint Isidore, 
ne remplit pas moins de onze pages in-quarto. Un entretien 
roule sur la paix; un autre, sur l'amour. Nous voyons dans 
celui-ci que du Guez avait chez la princesse le titre de tréso- 
rier, et de plus que sa royale élève avait coutume de l'appeler 
en badinant son mari d'adoption. Ce petit détail fait connaître 
la situation de notre compatriote à la cour d'Henry VIII : le 
degré de familiarité indique le degré d'estime où il était tenu. 
Au surplus, toute idée d'inconvenance est exclue par l'âge du 
professeur, trop souvent cloué dans son fauteuil par la goutte 
et obligé de manquer sa leçon; il y supplée alors par une 
lettre d'excuse, soit en vers, soit en prose, tirant de sa maladie 
même une occasion d'étude et une nouvelle forme de devoir 
pour son écolière. Morgan, écuyer tranchant de Marie, se 
trouve-t-il dans la gêne avec sa famille? Du Guez fera lire à 



INTRODUCTION. J9 

leur commune maîtresse la requête de Morgan rédigée en ma- 
nière de leçon de français. Il ne manque aucune occasion de 
jeter dans cette jeune âme les semences de pitié, de généro- 
sité, d'honneur, de tous les bons sentiments. 

Il s'attache plus qu'un simple intérêt grammatical à ces exer- 
cices intellectuels d'une enfant de douze ans, fdle d'Henry VIII, 
sœur aînée d'Elisabeth, qui devait être un jour l'épouse de Phi- 
lippe II, et s'appeler, selon la passion des historiens, Marie la 
Catholique ou la sanglante Marie. 

Tel est l'ouvrage que du Guez lance dans le monde, ayant 
bien soin d'inscrire sur le frontispice, non pas son nom, mais 
celui de son auguste élève; le tout accompagné d'une préface 
humble et modeste dans la forme, railleuse et dédaigneuse par 
le fond, et dirigée contre « ces compilateurs qui, comme dit saint 
Jérôme, ont commencé par enseigner avant que d'être savants, » 
ou qui, s'étant rendus savants à force d'étude, se sont ensuite 
ingérés d'inventer des règles infaillibles pour une langue qui 
n'est pas la leur. Poser des règles est un droit qui appartient 
à fort peu de gens :• quant à moi, ajoute-t-il, dont le français 
est la langue maternelle et naturelle, et qui pendant trente ans 
ai fait profession d'instruire dans cette langue des princes, des 
marquis, deux reines et le roi régnant, je n'ai pas encore dé- 
couvert de règles infaillibles; et cependant le roi vient de me 
confier l'éducation française de sa fdle. Palsgrave n'est point 
nommé, mais il est si clairement désigné, qu'il n'est pas pos- 
sible de s'y méprendre : 

Combien que je n'ignore point que plusieurs tant qualifiez es bonnes 
lectres comme aussy élégant en la langue Françoise (au moins pour non 
estre naturel et natif du territoire et pais ) ont composés et escripz règles 
et principes pour introduction en ladite langue , lesquelz peult estre , coine 
tiesmoigne saint Hicrosme à Paulin , ont ensegnés avant que avoir esté 

3. 



20 " INTRODUCTION. 

sçavanU; car ja soit que art soit imitatrice de nature, i'ensuivant de bien 
près, sy ne la peult elle toutefois aconsuivir. Pourquoy iesdictz compila- 
teurs du tout adhérans à icelle , sont par nature en divers lieux cancelléz , 
repris et corrigez. Ne sembleroit ce point chose rare et estrange veoir ung 
François se ingérer et efforcer d'apprendre aux Allemans la langue tyoise , 

voire et qui plus est sur icelle composer règles et principes? 

C'est aultre chose d'ensegnér et d'apprendre par les principes et règles faictz 
par divers expertz aucteurs , par intervalle et diuturnité de long temps bien 
approuvéez, que de première abordée; et n'ayant un langage que moiene- 
ment et comme par en)prant, en voulloir cy pris cy mis non seulement 
ensegnér les aultres, mais aussy composer sur ce règles infallibles, ce que 
sçavoir faire n'est ottroié à bien peu de ceulx qui sont mesme natif dudict 
langage. Car touchant moy mesmes à qui ladicte langue est maternelle et 
naturelle, et qui par l'espase de trente ans et plus me suis entremis (com- 
bien que soie très ignorant) d'ensegnér et apprendre plusieurs grandz princes 
et princesses, corne à feu de noble et recommandée mémoire le prince 
Arthur, le noble roy Henry pour le présent prospereusement régnant, à 
qui Dieu doint vie perpétuelle, les roynes de France et d'Ecosse, avec le 
noble marquis d'Excestre , etc. ; pour laquelle chose accomplir j'ay fait 
mon pouvoir et debvoir de perscruter et cercher tout ce que m'a semblé 
à ce propos servir-, sy n'ai je toutesfois peu trouver règles infallibles (pour 
ce qu'il n'est possible de telles les trouver), c'est à dire telles que puissent 
servir infalliblement come font les règles composées pour apprendre Latin, 
Grec et Hebrieu, et aidtres telz langages-, ce que neantmoins Iesdictz com- 
pilateurs ont entrepris (affm que ne die présumé) de faire, ja soit qu'ilz 
n'aient esté que petit de temps à l'apprendre , etc. 

A la suite de cette préface cruelle par ses réticences mêmes, 
l'auteur expose son plan : 

Ce petit œuvre sera divisé en deux livres dont le premier aura deux 
parties : 

La première partie traitera des règles du langage parlé, des lettres qui 
doivent s'effacer dans la prononciation et pour quel motif. 

La seconde partie traitera des noms, pronoms, adverbes, participes, 
verbes, prépositions et conjonctions, avec des règles fixes pour conjuguer. 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

Cette même partie contiendra cinq ou six formes de conjugaisons d'un 
même verbe. 

Item la conjugaison avec deiix pronoms, avec trois, et enfin la conju- 
gaison de deux verbes accouplés. 

Le second livre traitera des lettres missives en prose et en vers. 

Ensemble plusieurs conversations en forme de dialogue pour recevoir 
un messager de l'empereur, du roi de France ou de tout autre prince. 

Ensemble d'autres conversations des propriétés de divers mets, de 
l'amour, de la paix , de la guerre , de l'exposition de la messe , de la na- 
ture de l'âme humaine, de la division du temps, avec d'autres objets. 

Ce plan est (sauf le lexique) plus étendu que celui de 
Palsgrave, mais il est exécuté sur une échelle très-réduite. 

Un traité de prononciation était le début obligé d'un livre sur 
la grammaire. Gilles du Guez paraît être le premier qui se soit 
avisé de noter le son d'une voyelle par un signe extérieur au 
mot^ Il marque l'accent avec beaucoup de soin et d'exactitude, 
même sur des voyelles où nous ne le mettons pas, et où il serait 
logique de le mettre. Il y avait à son insu dans son procédé le 
germe de toute une réforme. Auparavant, l'accent était noté, 
pour ainsi dire, à l'intérieur du mot, par des consonnes doubles, 
dont le rôle était d'influencer la voyelle précédente en même 
temps qu'elles maintenaient le souvenir de l'étyniologie; ces 
consonnes d'ailleurs étaient muettes dans la prononciation. 
Du moment que l'accent vient en se posant sur une voyelle en 
préciser le son et la quantité, de quoi sert pour le langage la 
double consonne.^ Quand l'usage a prévalu d'écrire avec un ac- 
cent circonflexe même et noces, que signifient Y s dans mesme et 
le p dans nopces? C'est alors que l'hôtel de Rambouillet se met 
à la besogne, et que les précieuses, attentives uniquement au 



M 



' Palsgrave ne l'emploie que pour in- 
diquer la syllabe qui porte l'accent tonique, 
par exemple, il accentue homme, femme. 



dottloreûse , contre, entre, etc. Vid. fol. xix 
de l'édition originale. 



22 INTRODUCTION. 

beau parler et très-insoucieuses de l'étymologie, entreprennent 
d'arracher des mots les lettres inutiles, persuadées qu'elles ac- 
complissent l'œuvre du monde la plus raisonnable, et ne 
suppriment que les traces de l'ancienne barbarie. Il y aurait 
pourtant bien des arguments en faveur du système déchu : 
l'accent ne remplit que la moitié des fonctions de la double 
consonne, puisqu'il ne marque pas l'étymologie; ensuite il 
n'adhère pas assez solidement au mot; il disparaît ou s'intro- 
duit sans motif, et l'écriture, témoin infidèle, corrompt le 
langage. De nos jours, faccent circonflexe ne se met plus sur 
noces; cet o qui était fermé s'est ouvert, et la première syllabe 
de ce congénère de nuptial est devenue brève. Sans compter 
que les précieuses ont opéré au hasard, capricieusement, ap- 
pliquant leur réforme aux mots usuels, et laissant leur an- 
cienne orthographe aux mots analogues auxquels, pour s'en 
, servir plus rarement, elles ne songeaient pas. Pourquoi, par 
exemple, ont-elles supprimé le p de ptisane et non celui de 
psaume? Celui de nepveu et non celui de baptême? C'est qu'elles 
ont agi sans discernement. Au lieu d'un système nouveau et 
incomplet, dont l'illusion a rempli notre langue d'inconsé- 
quences et d'incertitudes, il eût bien mieux valu rechercher, et 
remettre sous les yeux du public, fesprit des lois qui régissaient 
notre premier système d'orthographe : decipimur specie recti. 

Au reste, Gilles du Guez n'avait imaginé la notation exté- 
rieure de l'accent que comme artifice mécanique destiné à 
faciliter aux Anglais l'étude de notre prononciation. Son iilven- 
tion a eu plus de succès et de portée qu'il ne s'y était attendu : 
elle s'est développée * et définitivement installée dans l'ortho- 
graphe française. Si c'est un abus, il est consacré. 

' Du Guez n'a pas inventé l'accent cir- qu'il avait pris la précaution de formuler 
conflexe; il n'en avait pas besoin, puis- la règle de la double consonne, surtout en 



INTRODUCTION. 23 

Tout dans ce petit ouvrage est en harmonie avec cette in- 
vention commode de l'accent; tout y révèle l'homme pratique, 
le maître expérimenté qui tend au but par le plus court chemin : 
mettre l'élève en état de parler dans le moins de temps et avec 
le moins de travail possible. La fortune aussi des deux ouvrages 
fut bien différente : Gilles du Guez on peu d'années fit trois 
éditions' ; Palsgrave ne paraît pas être jamais arrivé à l'honneur 
de la seconde. Du Guez avait, d'une main leste et sûre, esquissé 
la petite grammaire de Lhomond; Palsgrave avait laborieuse- 
ment compilé la Grammaire des grammaires; l'in-folio fut 
étouffé parl'in-iS. Cela se voit souvent dans la littérature, où le 
quatrain de Saint-Aulaire triomphe de la Pucelle de Chapelain. 
Mais la circonstance qui dans son temps décida la défaite 
de Palsgrave, est précisément ce qui nous le rend aujourd'hui 
précieux. Son défaut avec le temps s'est changé en une qualité. 
Où chercherait-on ailleurs cette quantité d'observations par- 
fois minutieuses, je l'accorde, mais toujours intéressantes 
comme la vérité.? cette multitude de faits grammaticaux re- 
cueillis dans toutes les parties de la langue et appuyés d'exem- 
ples tirés des écrivains illustres? Du Guez fut habile, mais 
Palsgrave est savant. Notre compatiiote a sans doute fait da- 
vantage pour les Anglais contemporains de Palsgrave; mais 
Palsgrave à son tour rendra plus de services aux Français 
du XIX* siècle qui se proposent, non pas d'apprendre à parler 

ce qui touche \'s, qui est le cas d'application coliationnées. La meilleure est encore celle 

le plus fréquent. de Godfray : c'est le texte que nous repro- 

' Toutes les trois sans date ; elles sont duisons. 
décrites dans la Bibliolheca GrenvilUana L'édition de Waley ,« newely corrected 

(I, p. 200). L'édition princeps est de God- . and amended, » supprime dans la dédi- 

fray, la seconde est de Bourman , la troi- cace les noms de la reine Anne et de sa 

sième de Waley. Toutes trois se trouvent fille Elisabeth. Henry VIII était sans doute 

dans la Bodléienne, où M. Lorain les a remarié. 



24 INTRODUCTION. 

français, mais d'étudier l'histoire de la langue française; car, 
et c'est une observation essentielle, du Guez n'écrit que pour 
les élèves , et Palsgrave s'est donné la tâche de former non- 
seulement des élèves, mais aussi des maîtres ^ 

Toutefois, cette histoire de notre langue, il ne faut pas s'at- 
tendre à la trouver entière dans le livre de Palsgrave. On se 
tromperait fort de prendre sa grammaire pour une grammaire 
du vieux français, du français primitif. Disons-le tout de suite 
et nettement : Palsgrave ne sait pas le vieux français. Lorsqu'il 
écrivait, la renaissance était commencée; comme un océan 
dont la prise de Constantinople aurait rompu les digues, elle 
avait subitement fait invasion sur TEurope et recouvert de ses 
flots notre ancienne littérature nationale. Quelques points 
émergeaient encore; mais on ne savait plus les rattacher aux 
terres ensevelies. Aujourd'hui qu'ils ont achevé de disparaître, 
c'est déjà beaucoup de nous les signaler et nous les décrire. 
C'est le mérite de Palsgrave de nous dire tout ce qui de son 
temps pouvait encore s'apercevoir; c'est notre tâche de re- 
cueillir ses indications et de redresser ses erreurs, à l'aide 
d'autres renseignements épars, éclairés d'une prudente saga- 
cité. Un ou deux exemples rendront la chose plus sensible. 

Palsgrave rencontre ces vers d'Alain Chartier : 

Luy présentant un aidant cierge 
Afin que je sa grâce accjuierge. 

Il remarque là-dessus que le poëte s'est permis d'altérer le 
mot pour rimer. Il n'en est rien. Palsgrave ignore qu'autrefois 
le g était la caractéristique du subjonctif, et que pas un écri- 
vain du XII* siècle ne manque à l'employer dans cette finale. 

' « . . . .ïhat by the mean of my poore « also be attayned unto by sache as for 
« labours ihe french tonge may hère afler « their lymes iherof shalbe desvrous. • 
« by olhers the more easily he toaght, and ( To the kynges grâce, p. m. ) 



INTRODUCTION. 25 

Palsgrave ressemble ici à ces commentateurs de La Fontaine, 
qui prennent les archaïsmes de leur auteur pour des altéra- 
tions arbitraires suggérées par les besoins de la versification. 
Son erreur du moins nous enseigne que dès la fin du xv' siècle, 
cette forme de subjonctif avait disparu de fusage commun , au 
point que la tradition même en était perdue. 

Une autre fois Palsgrave note dans ses textes de langue ces 
formes gentil damoyselle, cruel défense, de quel part, et autres 
semblables. Il en tire cette conclusion , que certains adjectifs 
peuvent se mettre au masculin avec un substantif féminin : ce 
sont les adjectifs terminés par une /. Puis en observant encore, 
il trouve la même bizarrerie en usage pour l'adjectif grand, 
puisqu'on dit très-bien ma grand mère et c'est grand pitié ; enfin , 
un examen attentif lui découvre l'adjectif vert, qui se met au 
singulier masculin avec le substantif féminin herbe, témoin 
cette phrase de Jean Lemaire : « Paris se mettoit à luicter tout ^ 

nu avecques les plus fors sur l'herbe vert. » 

Palsgrave est ici la dupe d'une illusion : la discordance des 
genres dont il s'étonne n'existe point. Tout adjectif qui en 
latin ne possède que deux terminaisons poulies trois genres, 
c'est-à-dire qui dessert deux genres au moyen d'une seule ter- 
minaison, n'en avait qu'une dans le français primitif ^ A cette 
catégorie appartiennent ^en<j7fs, crudelis, (jualis , grandis , viridis, 
et une multitude d'autres. Cette règle générale donne en trois 
lignes l'explication des prétendues anomalies dont Palsgrave 
a pris la peine de faire un long chapitre, incomplet encore à 
son point de vue, puisqu'il n'y donne pas la liste de ces ad- 
jectifs prétendus privilégiés. 

Mais en compensation de ces fautes qui accusent l'igno- 

' A plus forte raison les terminaisons latines en ens pour les trois genres, qui forment 
le français en ant : vaillant, avenant, etc. 



26 INTRODUCTION, 

rance du siècle plutôt que celle de l'écrivain, combien de 
renseignements d'un prix inestimable sur toutes les parties 
de la grammaire ! Les erreurs de tbéorie de Palsgrave peuvent 
même nous devenir une source d'instruction par la comparai- 
son avec les écrivains d'un âge plus reculé. Les faits dont il 
dépose étaient la vérité de son temps. Voulez- vous en savoir 
davantage? Interrogez des témoins d'un temps antérieur. Son 
abondance, dont un contemporain pouvait avoir le droit de 
se moquer, n'est pas stérile pour nous : 

Cum flueret lutulentus, erat quod toHere velles. 
S'il lui arrive parfois de se tromper, ce n'est pas faute d'avoir 
consulté tous les guides supposés capables de lui enseigner la 
véritable route. 

Palsgrave avec son style lourd et sa phrase embrouillée, in- 
terminable, ne pouvaitavoir l'espriltourné à la malice etprompt 
à l'épigramme comme Gilles du Guez; mais c'est un honnête 
homme, plein de candeur, qui vous déclare les auxiliaires 
de son travail. Il n'a pas fait difficulté de rendre hommage à 
ceux qui vivaient encore; malheureusement il n'a pas cru néces- 
saire de désigner avec la même précision les anciens auteurs 
dont il s'est aidé, gens fort obscurs, sans doute, et dont peut- 
être lui-même ignorait les noms. N'eût-il fait que nous indiquer 
ces sources tellement quellement, nous lui aurions encore une 
grande obligation , car il a existé, il existe perdus dans la poudre 
des bibliothèques des traités sur la langue française qui re- 
montent au XIII* siècle, et peut-être au delà. Ce sont des maté- 
riaux bien indigestes, bien informes, mais dont une critique 
judicieuse parviendrait certainement à tirer parti. En passant 
au creuset tant de prétendues règles, accumulées par l'esprit 
d'analyse qui seul régnait alors, l'esprit de synthèse des temps 
modernes finirait par en dégager quelques principes généraux 



INTRODUCTION. 27 

propres à répandre la lumière sur cette longue route obscure que 
notre langue a suivie, et qui sort des profondeurs du ix* siècle. 
M. Fr. Michel, page i3 de ses Rapports à M. le Ministre de 
l'instraction publique, cite «la Grammaire française et anglaise 
de Walter de Bibelesworth » , manuscrit sur vélin , de la fin du 
XII* siècle, qui se trouve au Musée britannique. L'ouvrage de 
Bibleswortli , qui devait être imprimé à la suite de ces Rap- 
ports, ne s'y trouve pas. Je dois à l'obligeance de M. Cha- 
baille la communication d'une copie de ce traité, qui n'est 
point une grammaire, mais une simple nomenclature, une 
espèce de vocabulaire versifié, divisé selon la mode du temps 
par catégories d'idées ou d'objets. Walter de Biblesworth 
prend l'homme à sa naissance et le suit jusqu'à son mariage, 
en indiquant les termes qui servent à nommer les membres 
du corps humain, puis les termes relatifs à la prière, puis les 
termes du ménage et des métiers, les noms des bêtes et des 
oiseaux, etc., etc. Au surplus, voici textuellement le titre du 
livre qui en présente en même temps l'analyse : 

ARUNDEL, MS. N° 2 20, FOL. 2 9 7 R°'. 

Le treytiz ke moun sire Gauter de Bibelesworthe fist a madame Dyonisie 
de Mounchensy pur aprise de ianguage , co est a saver : 

Du premer temps ke homme nestra , ouweke trestut le langage pur saver 
nurture en sa juvente ; 

Pus, trestut le fraunceys de sa neyssaunce et de membres du cors, 
ouweke kaunt ke il apent de Deus et de orer; 

Pus, tôt le frauncoys com il encourt en âge de husbanderie, cum pur 
arer, rebiner, waretier, semer, sarcher, syer, faucher, carier, batre, moudre, 
pestrer, breser, bracer, hatuefeste arayer; 

' Cf. les Rapports de M. Fr. Michel, autres manuscrits Harléiens ^90 el 7^0. 

p. i4, où l'auteur cite le manuscrit Har- Ainsi il y aurait au moins quatre leçons 

léien 4334 (vél. fin du xii' siècle). La note à comparer, car M. Michel cite aussi un 

indique le manuscrit Ârundel aao, et deux fragment mutilé d'un cinquième manuscr. 

4. 



28 INTRODUCTION. 

Pus, tôt le fraunsoys kaunt a espleyt de chas, ciim de vénerie, pescherie 
en viver ou en estans, checune en sa nature; 

Pus, tôt le frauncoys des bestes et des oyseus, checune assembe [sic) 
pur sa naturele aprise; 

Pus, tôt le fraunsoys de boys, pree, pasture, vergeyer, gardyn , curti- 
lage, ouweke tôt le fraunsoys de flures et des frus ke il i sount; 

E tut issi troveret vus le ordre en parler et reppoundre ke checun gentys 
homme covent saver, dount touzdis troverez vus primes le fraunsoys , 
tropus le engleys suaunt; 

E ke les enfauns pus sunt saver les propertez des choses ke veynt, 
et kaunt dewunt dire moun et ma; soun et sa; le et la; may etjo. 

La copie de M. Chabaille contient huit cent quarante-cinq 
vers de huit syllabes; mais elle paraît incomplète : elle s'arrête 
brusquement après la nomenclature des mets d'un repas. 

Un court extrait suffira pour échantillon : 

Quant le emfes ad tel âge 
ke il seet entendre langage , 
primes en fraunceys ly devez dire 
coment soun cors deyt descrivere , 
pur le ordre aver de moun et ma, 
toun et ta, soun et sa, 
ke en parole seyt meynt a pris 
et de nul aultre escharnys : 
mxi teste , ou m,oun cheef ; 
la grève de moun cheef; 
fêtes ' la qreve au lever 

et mangez h. grive au diner 

meuz vaut ruhye par h 

ke ne feet rupie par p; 

se bourse eust taunt de ruhies 

cum le nées ad de rapies , 

riche sereyt ! etc. 

' Peut-être affetez, c'est-à-dire, arrangez en vous levant la raie qui partage vos 
cheveux {la grève). 



INTRODUCTION. 29 

On peut à la rigueur voir dans ce livre , à côté des nomen- 
clatures qui en sont l'objet principal , un traité de l'orthographe . 
et des homonymes; mais cela ne peut s'appeler une grammaire. 

Les Angio-Normands, dit l'abbé de la Rue, avaient, dès le xui' siècle, 
des livres élémentaires pour l'étude de la langue française. 

On trouve dans la bibliothèque Harléienne, n° 4971, une grammaire 
française et épistolaire pour tous les états-, elle a été écrite sous Edouard I*'. 

Grammaire française en vers français , bibliothèque Harléienne, n° ^go*. 

Cette dernière indication se rapporte à l'ouvrage de Walter 
de Biblesworth, dont nous venons de parler. ' * 

L'autre, dont j'ai sous les yeux quatre copies exécutées sur 
trois manuscrits différents, paraît avoir joui dans le moyen 
âge d'une certaine célébrité. J'en parlerai d'après le manus- 
crit 188 du collège de la Madeleine d'Oxford, qui me semble 
donner le meilleur texte, bien que ce manuscrit, au jugement 
du bibliothécaire M. Coxe, ne soit que du xv* siècle^. 

L'ouvrage se compose de quatre-vingt-dix-huit règles fort 
courtes, rédigées en latin, et souvent accompagnées de quel- 
ques mots français pour montrer l'application de la règle. 

Ces règles ne sont pas toujours suffisamment claires, de 
l'avis même du moyen âge qui s'en servait, puisqu'on trouve 
des exemplaires manuscrits de cette espèce de code où des 
gloses ont été introduites en français; tel est le manuscrit 
harléien 4971» cité par fabbé de la Rue, qui l'estime rédigé 
sous Edouard I", c'est-à-dire entre 1272 et i3o7. 

La distinction des règles par numéros n'y est plus observée 

' De ia Rue, Essais, etc. I, 284. vient les menaces et commencent les mes- 

" « Codex membran. in-fol. , ff. loa, saec. lées et les guerres. » Exempla comprehen- 

x\yia ùaeukuiiius. InstituiionesUnguœgal- dunt commentaria in x prsecepta et in 

licaneBcumonomasticoexempUsquelatinaUn- symbolum, necnon tractalus de vu pec- 

gua anglicanaque edilis. — Tilulus : Ort/io- catis mortalibus. • {Catal Bibl. S. M. 

graphia modernoram. Incipit : « Diccio Magd. p. 86. ) 

gallica , elc • Déficit verbis : « Après ce 



30 INTRODUCTION, 

comme dans le manuscrit 188 du collège de la Madeleine; 
l'ancien texte latin, les traductions partielles, les gloses, tout 
y est confondu. On croira sans peine que de cet ensemble, 
probablement encore altéré par les copistes, ne jaillit pas une 
lumière bien vive. 

Au surplus, quelques extraits feront mieux juger de la na- 
ture et de l'importance de ces recueils. Je choisis les règles 
du manuscrit 188 les plus intéressantes et sur lesquelles règne 
le moins d'obscurité. 

EXTRAITS 

TRADUITS DU MANUSCRIT 1 88 DU COLLÈGE DE LA MADELEINE D'OXFORD. 

Orthographe française et congrue conforme à l'usage moderne ' : 

Règle i . Un mot français mis en écrit , si la première syllabe est en e 
prononcé bouche fermée , demande un i avant cet e. Exemples : lien , 
chien, rien, Pierre, miere , etc. 

R. 2. L'c aigu ne veut pas être précédé de l'i. Ex. : bavez, tenez, lessez. 

R. g. Les verbes terminant leur singulier par t, au pluriel correspondant 
changent ce t en z. Ex. : singulier, il amet, list; pluriel, vous amez, lisez. 

R. 2 1. La lettre s, mise après une voyelle et suivie immédiatement de 
la lettre m, disparaît de la prononciation. Ex. : mandasmes , Jismes , daresmes. 

R. 23. La lettre /, mise après a, e, o, et suivie d'une consonne, se pro- 
nonce comme si c'était un u. Ex. : m'aime, loialment, bel compaigneoan. 

' « Orthographia gallica et congrua in « R. 9. Item verba singularis nunieri 

literis gallicis , dictata secundum usum habencia in singulari , in fine, hanc lite- 

modernorum : ram (, requirunt in piurali hanc literaoi 

« Régula 1 . Diccio gallica dictata ha- z , ut in singulari amet, list, in piurali 

bens primam sillabam vel mediam in e amez, lisez. 

stricto ore pronunciatam , requirit hanc «R. 21. Item, quandocumque hec li- 

Htteramianle e, verbi gratia: bien, chien, tera s scribitur post vocalem , si m imme- 

rien, Piere, miere, et simiiia. diate subsequitur, s non débet sonari, ut 

« R. 2. Quandocumque hec vocalis e pro- mandasmes , Jismes , daresmes. 
nunciatur acute, per se stare débet sine « R. 23. Item, quandocumque liée li- 

hujus I precessione , v. g. : bevez, tenez, tera / ponitur post a, e et 0, si aliquod 

lessez. consonans post l sequitur, l quasi a débet 



INTRODUCTION. 31 

R. 2 5. / entre m et n se change en y , pour obtenir une écriture plus 
lisible, par exemple ; Comyngtoun. 

R. 27. Un mot qui commence par une consonne, venant après un mot 
qui finit par une consonne (dans le courant d'une phrase), la consonne 
finale du premier mot peut s'écrire, mais elle disparaît de la prononciation. 
Ex. : après manger se prononce aprè manger. 

R. 33. Quand l'article le est suivi d'un mot qui ouvre par une consonne 
et précédé du mot en , on peut fondre en et le dans une syncope : el coantee 
pour en le coantee. 

R. 36. Quant, grant, demandant, sachant, et autres semblables, s'écrivent 
par n sans a , mais il faut faire sentir Vu dans la prononciation. 

R. 5o. Une modification d'orthographe est souvent la seule différence 
entre des mots identiques à l'oreille. Ex. : ciel, seel, seul, celée; — coy, 
qaoy; — moal, moel; — cerf, serf; — teindre, tendre, tenir, attendre; — 
esteani, esteyant; — aymer, amer; — foail, fel, féal; — veele, viel, veile, 
ville, vill; — Brahel, Breele; — erde, herde, everde; — essil, haissel, 
essel; — neif, nief; — suef, soef; — boaile, baile, baie, balee; — litter, 
litre; — former, forer, forrer; — rastel, rastuer; — mesure, meseire; — 
piel, peel; — Berziz, Berzy; — grisil, greel, grêle; — tonne, towne; — neym, 
neyn, etc. 



pronuDciari, v. g. : malme, loialment, bel 
compaigneoun. 

■ B. 25. Item, quandocutnque lilera i 
ponitur inler m et n, potest mulari in y 
ut iitera sit legibilior, ut Comyngtoan. 

« R. 27. Item , quandocumque aliqua dic- 
cioiiicipiensaconsonantesequituraliquam 
diccionem terminantem in consonante , in 
rationibus pendentibus, consonans inte- 
rioris diccionis polesl scribi, sed in pro- 
nunciatione non proferri , ut après manger 
débet sonari aprè manger. 

«R. 33. Item, quandocumque hoc »i- 
gnum le scribitiir et consonans immédiate 
subsequitur et en précédât, n potest prae- 
termitli et l adjungi cum e, v. g. : en le 
countee potest scribi el coantee. 

• R. 36. Item iste sillabe seu dicciones 



quant, grant, demandant, sachant, et hu- 
jusmodi debent scribi cum simplici n sine 
u, sed pronuncialione u débet proferri. 

«R. 5o. Item diversilas scriplurae facit 
diiîerentiam aliquam quamvis in voce 
sint consimiles, v. g. : ciel, seel, seal , 
celée; — coy, quoy; — moal, moel; — 
cetf, serf; — teindre, tendre, tenir, at- 
tendre; — esteant, esteyant; — aymer, 
amer; — foail, fel , féal; — veele, viel, 
veile, ville, vill; — brahel, breele; — erde, 
herde, everde; — essil, huissel, essel; — 
neif, nief; — suef, soef; — boaile, baile, 
baie, balee; — litter, litre; — fomier, fo- 
rer, forrer; — rastel, rastuer; — mesure, 
meseire; — piel, peel; — berziz, berzy; 

— grisil, greel, grêle; — tonne, towne; 

— neym, neyn, etc. 



32 INTRODUCTION. 

R. 58. A l'accusatif singulier écrivez me, aux autres cas, moy. 

R. 63. Quand vous demandez quelque chose à quelqu'un, vous pouvez 
dire vous pri, sans je. 

R. 65. Le verbe n'étant pas accompagné de son pronom personnel, 
par exemple , vous prj ou bien m'affy, il faut terminer par y. 

R. 66. Mais ce pronom étant exprimé, l'j grec se change en i simple 
suivi d'un e. Ex. -.je m'aj[Jie,je vous prie. 

R. 6-j. Quelquefois ïs prend la valeur de l'u dans la prononciation; 
ascun, prononcez aucun. 

R. 8i. Vous écrivez quelquefois de en place de od le. Ex. : vous dirra 
de bouche, pour od le bouche. 

R. 82. Écrivez pour traduire le latin cam en français, od ou bien ou. 

R. 83. Ou traduit aussi vel et ubi. 
. R. 85. Réglez le plus possible l'orthographe du français sur celle du 
latin; ainsi de compotum , compte; de septem , sept; de prœbenda, prebendre 
(sic); de opus , œps, etc. 

R. 87. Le français a plusieurs expressions pour rendre l'anglais rééd. 
Ex. : cheval roux, hareng saur, escu de goules , une rose vermaile. 

R. 9a. iV et i se rencontrant au milieu d'un mot, mais appartenant chacun 
à une syllabe différente, le g s'interpose dans l'écriture , sans toutefois se faire 
sentir dans la prononciation. Ex. : benignement, certaignement, etc. 

R. g3. Quand, au milieu d'un mot, une m suit un e ou un i (ces 



" R. 58. Item in accusativo singulari 
scribetur me, in reliquis casibus moy. 

I R. 63. Item, quando petitis aliquid ab 
aliquo, potestis dicere woiw pri, sanzje. 

« R. 65. Item, quando non expresse po- 
nitur signum ante verbum, ut vous pry, 
item pry vei maffy, débet lerminari in y. 

' R. 66. Item, si signum expresse poni- 
tur, tune y mutabitur in i et addelur e, 
com je m'ajfie, je vous prie. 

« R. 67. Item aliquando s .scribitur et u 
sonabitur, ut ascun sonabitur aucun. 

« R. 81. Item aliquando scribetis de in 
loco od le, sicut vous dirra de bouche, pro 
od le bouche. 



» R. 83. Item scribetis o</ vel ou pro cum. 

« R. 83. Item scribetis ou pro vel et ubi. 

« R. 85. Item pro majori parle scribetis 
gallicnm secundum quod scribitur in lati- 
nis, ut compotum, compte; — septem, sept; 
— prœbenda, prebendre; — opus, œps, etc. 

« R. 87. Item habentur diversa verba 
gallica pro isto verbo anglico reed; vide- 
licet rous chival et harang soor; escut de 
goules ; une rose vermaile. 

« R. 92. Item quandocumque n sequitur 
i in média diccione , in diversis sillabis g 
débet inlerponi, ut certaignement , benigne- 
ment; sedg non débet sonari 

• R 93. Item , quandocumque m sequi- 



■f^M 



INTRODUCTION. 33 

voyelles appartenant à deux syllabes différentes) , il faut écrire une s entre 
les deux. Ex. : duresmes.fismes. 

R. 94. Quand, au milieu d'un mot, une m suit un a, il faut les séparer 
par une s; mais cette s n'est point prononcée. Ex. : mandasmes. 

La règle 98'' et dernière n'a rien en soi d'important; elle 
prescrit la manière d'écrire que, soit en abrégé par une seule 
lettre surmontée d'un signe, soit en deux lettres qe; mais im- 
médiatement après on lit ce mot isolé : Colyngburne. 

C'est un nom propre évidemment; mais est-ce le nom de 
l'auteur des règles ou celui du scribe? Je suis de la première 
opinion, parce que là finit le manuel grammatical, mais non 
l'œuvre du copiste, qui se poursuit de la même main. Or si 
ce copiste a voulu signer son travail, il a dû le faire, selon 
l'usage, à la fin, et non pas au milieu du manuscrit. Je crois 
donc qu'on peut désigner ce traité sous le nom de Colyng- 
hurne, quitte à fournir un nouvel argument à la thèse de David 
Baker. 

Le but principal de Colyngburne paraît avoir été de venir 
en aide aux copistes et aux secrétaires écrivant sous la dictée. 
C'est en leur faveur qu'il rédige un manuel de l'orthographe, 
laquelle dès lors n'était pas plus qu'aujourd'hui d'accord avec 
la prononciation. «Gouvernez, leur dit-il, gouvernez -vous 
tant que vous pouvez sur l'étymologie latine; ainsi n'oubliez 
pas de mettre un /) à compte et à sept, qui viennent de 
compotum et de septem. » Mais tout copiste ne sait pas le latin; 
il faut donc venir au secours de l'ignorance par des formules 
empiriques : Y s prend le son de l'a dans ascan; de même 1'/ 
dans loyalment, bel compagnon. On écrit Y s sans la prononcer 

lureveiiindiversissillabisetunadiccione, média sillaba diccionis et m immédiate 
5 débet interponi, ut (ittre*mei,^sme5. subsequitur, s débet interponi , ut man- 

« R. gi. Item, qnandocumque a est in dasm.es, non sonando 5. » 

5 



34 INTRODUCTION. 

dans les mots comme fismes , mandasmes; de même le g dans 
benignement. Du Guez, lui, remarque que le p et le b doivent 
disparaître de la prononciation des mots tels que debte, debvoir; 
qu'une consonne finale n'a de valeur qu'autant que le mot 
suivant commence par une voyelle, autrement elle est muette; 
que dans le groupe st, la dernière consonne, le t, est la seule 
qu'on fasse entendre; Y s en pareil cas ne sert qu'à doubler 
la quantité prosodique de la voyelle qui précède. Cette con- 
sonne s les a tous préoccupés, étant celle qui se représente 
le plus volontiers suivie d'une autre consonne. L'auteur des 
Gloses françaises sur Colyngburne (n° 4971 du Brit. Mus.] 
traduit et commente la règle de son auteur en ces termes : 

Et alefoich escriveretz s en lieu de a , comme ascan et sera soné 

aiican ; et alefoich escriveretz 5 pur bêle escripture , come mesme 

pour même, trescher pour trecher^. 

Ce qui manque à tous ces grammairiens primitifs, ce n'est 
pas la patience, ni l'esprit d'observation, ni même l'exacti- 
tude : c'est l'habitude de rapprocher les faits de même ordre , 
l'art d'y découvrir le principe commun, la loi fondamentale 
qui parfois se déguise dans les applications ; l'art surtout de 
ramasser et d'enfermer toute une série de faits dans la formule 



' Al' fois {à la fois, prononcez alefoaé) 
pour quelquefois , se conserve encore chez 
les paysans picards. M. l'abbé Corblct , 
dans son Glossaire du patois picard , a 
omis celle forme , très-usitée cependant à 
Amiens; il ne donne que alfos, qui est 
une variante de prononciation. Trescher 
n'est autre que le verbe tresser. Us dou- 
blée avait souvent la valeur du ch mo- 
derne. On disait tresser pour danser, par 
allusion aux figures qui s'entrelaçaient. 
Les Latins disaient de même nectere cho- 
ros,neclere brachia. Trescher ou <res5er vient 



du bas latin tricare, que Ducange explique 
implicare, innectere, et qui, retraduit sur 
le français, a fait triscare. A l'entrée de 
Beg-ues vous eussiez vu 

Tresces et baus encontre !ui venir. 

(GarÎD , 11 , p. 196.) 

Contredanses et bals venir à sa rencontre. 

« Tresces et baus, dit l'éditeur, rondes et 
danses. La tresce répondait assez bien au 
tripudium antique, et qui voudrait appro- 
fondir la matière y reconnaîtrait beaucoup 
d'analogie avec notre walse. » Je ne saurais 
partager cette opinion de M. P. Paris. 



INTRODUCTION. 35 

d'une règle générale. La grammaire est pour eux comme un 
faisceau répandu dont ils recueillent les éléments un à un , 
selon que le hasard les leur présente, incapables d'en retrouver 
le lien égaré, ni de suppléer à cette perte : l'esprit philoso- 
phique leur fait complètement défaut. 

Gardons-nous pour cela de les mépriser; mais, à l'aide des 
matériaux qu'ils nous ont préparés, achevons leur entreprise. 
Toutes ces règles partielles sur la prononciation, éparses dans 
les traités compilés du xiii" au xvi' siècle, rapprochez-les, 
comparez-les entre elles et avec les indications que fournit 
encore aujourd'hui l'usage traditionnel ; vous trouverez la 
clef d'une foule d'exceptions qui paraissent au premier coup 
d'œil autant d'atteintes à la logique ; les inconséquences re- 
mises sous leur vrai jour disparaîtront, et vous verrez se dé- 
gager d'elle-même cette règle générale, que dans la vieille 
langue on ne prononçait pas deux consonnes consécutives. 
Quel était donc le rôle de cette double consonne ? Je l'ai dit 
tout à l'heure : elle servait à marquer l'étymologie , et à noter 
l'accent et la quantité à l'intérieur des mots. 

Ce fait très-important pour la musique du langage et pour 
l'appréciation de la poésie, a été durement nié'; mais les 
inductions que je tirais il y a six ans de la pratique moderne, 
aujourd'hui se fortifient des témoignages de la théorie la plus 
ancienne. On écrivait des consonnes consécutives par respect 
de l'étymologie, et, comme dit naïvement le glossateur du 

' Siepe premente deo, fertdens aller opem. M. Génin avec beaucoup de sagacité; et 

Je demande la permission de citer l'opi- les misérables critiques qu'on lui a faites 

nion d'un savant qui ne sera point suspect sur ce point n'ôtent rien à la vérité de sa 

de partialité en ma faveur : démonstration.» (La Chanson d'Antioche, 

« L'éloignement de nos ancêtres pour publiée par M Paulin Paris, Tecliener, 

la prononciation de deux consonnes à la i848, t. II, p. 66.) 
suite l'une de l'autre a été constaté par 



36 INTRODUCTION, 

manuscrit 4971 , «pur bêle escripture, « mais en parlant on 
ne tenait compte que d'une seule. Cette proposition était hier 
un paradoxe, ce sera demain une banalité ^ 



Je terminerai par un vœu dont la réalisation serait à coup 
sûr bien profitable à la philologie française : ce serait que le 
Gouvernement fît rechercher et publier sous ses auspices les 
traités composés sur notre langue dans le cours du moyen 
âge. On découvrirait des matériaux inappréciables dans les 
bibliothèques de France, et surtout dans celles d'Angleterre., 
si riches en livres français de toute nature dès avant la con- 
quête^. On a fait, au grand bénéfice de la langue et de la lit- 
térature latine, un corpus des grammairiens latins; pourquoi 
ne rassemblerait-on pas de même un corpus des grammairiens 
français? Il n'apparaîtrait d'abord qu'un chaos de débris; mais 
de ces débris peu à peu coordonnés par une érudition pa- 
tiente, fouillés par des mains circonspectes et judicieuses, 
sortiraient des paillettes d'un or pur, dont la rareté décuple 
la valeur. Attendra-tron à faire ce recueil d'être à la même 



' Cette prononciation amollie pourrait 
bien être une tradition des Latins. Je ne 
développerai pas ici cette thèse; je me 
contenterai de livrer aux réflexions des es- 
prits sagaces le passage suivant de Cicéron : 

« Impetratum est a consuetudine ut pec- 
« care suavitatis causa liceret, et pomeri- 
« dianas quadrigas dicere quas postmeridia- 
« nos libentius dixerim. » [Oraior. U, 7.) 

* II ne faudrait pas se réduire aux 
ouvrages littéralement inédits ; certaines 
éditions sont, à force de rareté, équiva- 
lentes à des manuscrits. Telle est l'édition 
de Palsgrave , telles sont les trois éditions 



de du Guez, dont l'ouvrage n'a paru dans 
les ventes qu'une seule fois, dans la vente 
de la bibliothèque Brindley, où cet exem- 
plaire fut payé dix-sept guinées *. 

Ainsi je voudrais voir reparaître, dans 
un corpus des grammairiens français, le 
livre d'Alexandre Barclay, un autre ou- 
vrage de Geoffroy le Grammairien ( 1 igo), 

dont parle Pits (p. 679), etc. etc 

Tout cela c'est notre histoire. 

* C'était lYdition de Walley. «This curions and 
u uncommonly pare volume lias only occurred for 
«sale in Briudley's library, wliere it was purchased 
«for scventcen guineas.n [ liihîiotkeca Grenvil. t. H, 
|>. s5i.) 



INTRODUCTION. 37 

distance du siècle de Louis XIV que nous sommes du siècle 
d'Auguste? Ce sera l'aventure des livres sibyllins; car tandis 
que nous marchandons, le temps impitoyable consume tous 
les jours quelque volume. D'ailleurs, si l'histoire des institu- 
tions doit s'écrire à leur déclin, afin de retarder autant que 
possible la décadence commencée, en les retrempant dans 
leurs sources, l'heure paraît venue de s'occuper des origines 
de la langue française : des critiques moroses, des esprits fa- 
ciles à s'alarmer pourraient même déclarer l'urgence; sans 
aller aussi loin, je me bornerais à constater l'opportunité. Ces 
motifs seront-ils trouvés suffisants pour être pris en considéra- 
tion et donner naissance au recueil des grammairiens français.-^ 
Je l'ignore; en tous cas, les deux grammaires de Palsgrave et 
de du Guez dès aujourd'hui servent de pierre d'attente à ce 
monument national. 



L'exemplaire unique en France de la grammaire de Pals- 
grave, appartenant à la bibliothèque Mazarine, ne pouvait 
être dépecé et détruit pour servir à la réimpression de l'ou- 
vrage; il fallait donc le traiter comme un manuscrit des plus 
rares et en faire une transcription pour l'usage de la typogra- 
phie. Ce travail ingrat, fastidieux, qui demandait un temps 
considérable, sans compter la connaissance approfondie de la 
matière et de la langue de l'auteur, mes fonctions administra- 
tives ne me permettaient pas d'y songer; un érudit trop mo- 
deste, de qui l'amitié m'est honorable et précieuse, M. P. Lo- 
rain, ancien recteur de Lyon, a bien voulu s'en charger, et 
me prêter pour cette édition de Palsgrave un concours sans 
lequel il m'eût été à peu près impossible de l'exécuter. Il fal- 
lait conserver dans cette copie toutes les variations, les bizar- 

6 



J« INTRODUCTION. 

relies et même les inconséquences d'une orthographe mohile, 
capricieuse, et parfois en désaccord avec les principes énoncés 
dans le texte. Essayer de rectifier nous eût conduits trop loin; 
nous avons donc porté le scrupule jusqu'à reproduire ce qui, 
dans l'original, pourrait être considéré comme faute d'impres- 
sion, nous fiant à l'intelligence des lecteurs au moins autant 
qu'à la nôtre, et préférant encourir le reproche de fidélité su- 
perstitieuse plutôt que le soupçon d'altérations maladioites, 
dans tous les cas arbitraires. 

Le public savant a encore une autre obligation à M. P. Lo- 
rain. Le Manuel du libraire de M. Brunet nous avait révélé 
l'existence d'une grammaire de Gilles Dewes, dont il ne paraît 
pas qu'il existe en Fiance un seul exemplaire; M. Lorain, 
dans un voyage qu'il fit à Oxford, ayant vu ce livre à la Bod- 
léienne, prit la peine de le transcrire aussi scrupuleusement 
qu'il avait fait le Palsgrave, et, de retour à Paris, il fit au Mi- 
nistère présent de sa copie, afin que j'en pusse enrichir ma 
publication. Ce sont des procédés qu'il suffit d'énoncer; ils 
deviennent chaque jour plus rares dans la littérature, et, pour 
ma part, j'v ai été d'autant plus sensible qu'on m'y avait moins 
accoutumé. 

Les contradictions d'orthographe sont encore plus fréquentes 
dans le texte de Dewes ou du Guez que dans celui de Palsgrave. 
Je fais cette remarque afin que ces fautes, tantôt d'omission, 
tantôt de commission, ne soient imputées ni aux éditeurs, ni 
aux typographes modernes. Le lecteur doit se bien persuader, 
contrairement au témoignage de ses yeux, qu'il a entre les 
mains des éditions faites en Angleterre, au commencement 
du XVI'' siècle. 

F. GKNIN. 






^ 




^i^kjmjt^ 



k^ .jfml^j^l 



rt»^«'/'|'U\Çk>' 









^LESCLAR^ 

ICISSEMENT DE LA LAN; 
Çiwfvancopfrj totnpofepav maifhc 

natyf i>e tlonbice / 
et gra6uc 6c 

NEQVE, LVNA, PER, 
N OC T E M. 

M G 
^ p <V 

Anno uerbi* mcarnad. 
M.D.XXX. 






LBONARDI COXî RadingienHi ludt 
tnoderatoris , Ad OallicsIingtNt 
ftudîofos, Carmen, 

7A I> L I C A quiTquis amas, axade uerba Consaù , 
I Et paricer certis iungere diâa modi's , 
NuUa (it in toto mcnda ut (crmone rcpcrta, 
Pro uero Gallo, qui'n facile ip(e probes , 
Hsc euolue meî Palgrauî fcripta diferti , ' 

Iriis linguam normis ufque polire {lude« 
Sic u niîretur laudet£| urbs doda loquentem 
Lutecia» indigenam iur^c ec eGfe fuum • 

CEIVSDEM COXI ad erudi'tum uîrutn G Ec 
FRIDVM TROY de Burges Gallum , Camp i 
Flori'di authorem, que îlle fua lingua champ Fleury 
uocatf nomine omnium Anglorum» Phaleutium. 

AMPO Q.VOD totîesGefn'dedoâc 
In florcnte tuo cupîfti, habemus. 
Nam iub legibus hîcbene approbatîs 
Sermo Galiicus ecce perdocecur. 
Non rem grammacicam Palsmon antc 
Tra<flarat melius (aU latînis, 
Quotquoc floruerant ue poderotum , 
Nec Grsct's melius putaco Ga2am« 
IndruxiiTe fuos Itbris policîs, 
Seu quocquot prsetio prius fuere, 
Quam nunc Gallica îde nofter Tradft. 
Eftdoâus.facilis, breuisc^ quantum 
Res pcrmittit, et inde nos ouamus, 
Campo quod totîes G E F R I D £ dode 
In filorente tuo cupiftî, habentcs . 



ÏHE AUTHOURS EPISTELL 



TO THE KYNGES GRACE. 



TO THE MOST HYGH AND PCYSSANT PRINCE KYNG HENRY THE EYGHT 
• BY THE GRACE OF GOD, 

KYNG OF ENGLANDE AND OF FRANCE , 

DEFENSOR OF THE FAYTH, AND LORDE OF IRELANDE , 

JOHN PALSGRAVE, 

HIS MOST HUMBLE AND MOST OBEISSAUNT SUBJECT AND DAYLY ORATOCR , 

DESYRETH LONG DUBANCE OF GOOD LYFE , 

AND PBOSPERODS FELICITE. 



Desirous to do some humble service unto the nobilite 
of this victorîous reaime, and universally unto ail other 
estâtes of thismy nalyfe countrey, aftei I was commaunded 
by your most redouted hyghnesse, to instruct the right 
excellent princes , your most dere and most entirely belov- 
ed suster quene Mary douagier of France , in the frenche 
tonge. As one whiche had conceyved some lytelle hope and 
confidence, that there had chaunsed me a convenient occa- 



,1 ÏHE AUTHOURS EPISTELL 

sion , by i ayson of that charge , to employé my labours 
about the thyng whiche myght, in tyrae to come, be unto 
your noble grâce an évident argument artd déclaration of 
the towardnesse of my moste humble and most obeissaunt 
hert, in the accomplysshement of any your hyghnesses 
most dradde commandementes. I oftymes began thus to 
consider and debate willi my selfe. This lyke charge hâve 
dyvers others had afore my dayes, and raany others 
undouted shall also herafter bestovve theyr tyme in suche 
lyke studious exercise. Whiche thyng amongest others hath 
bene a great occasion, that many sondry clerkes bave for 
theyr tyme taken theyr penne in hande, and to shewe 
theyr good willes and towarde diligence, suffi ciently to 
acquite them on theyr behalfes, wherby they myght of the 
princes our soveraynes most renoumed progenitours, and 
other hygh estâtes of this noble reaime, whom for theyr 
tymes^ï this exercise they served, worthely attayne some 
lytel thanke aijd favour, some thyng hâve they in writyng 
lefte behynde them, concernyng unto this mater, for the 
ease and fortheraunce, as v^ell of suche as shulde in lyke 
charge after them succède, as of them whiche from tyme 
to tyme in that tongwere to be instructed. Wherfore, syns 
it hath pleased our most redouted soverayne, to commyt 
unto me of others the most unworthy and unsufficient this 
lyke roume and exercise. I shall also by theyr exemple, 
endevour me for my party, of thismy nécessite, by reason of 
his highnesses pleasure and most drad commandement, to 
make some lytell towardnesse unto vertue, and takyng 
light and érudition of theyr studious labours , whiche in 



TO THE KYNGES GRACE. m 

this mater before me, hâve taken paynes to write. I shali 
assaye some small thyng to adde by my poore diligence, 
wherby, nat onely I may the more sufFyciently acquite me 
in my charge, but also, that by mean of my poore labours 
taken on this occasion, the frenche tonge may herafter 
by others the more easely be taught , and also be attayned 
unto by suche, as for their tymes therof shalbe desyrous. 
Abidyng therfore upon this my intended purpose, I dyd 
my eiFectuail devoire to ensertche out suche bokes, as had 
by others of this mater before my tyme ben compyled , 
6f whiche undouted, after enquery and ensertche made 
for them , dyvers came unto my bandes, as weli suche 
whose authours be yet amongest us lyveng, as suche 
whiche were of this mater by other sondrie persons longe 
afore my dayes composed. And perceyvyng, that they ail 
by one accorde and agrément , chefely treated of two thynges , 
whiche they juged unto suche of our nation, as were mynd- 
ed to leme that langage, of ali others to be most chefely 
requisyte, thàt is to saye, howe the Frenche tong ought 
to be pronounced, and to shewe wherin their trewe Ana- 
logie dyd rest, so that after a frenche worde were ones 
unto us knowen, we myght wotte for the kepynge of trewe 
congruite in that thonge (if the worde of hym selfe were 
varyable) how to welde hym, in bis cases, gendre, nom- 
bres , modes , tenses , and persons. I also on my partie , 
dyde my poore dilygence in two sondrie bookes, (usyng 
suche order, as semed unto my poore jugement, for that 
mater most convenyent) to entreate and write of the selfe 
thynges, Whiche after I had (so as it wolde be) fynisshed: 



IV THE AUTHOURS EPISTELL 

nat èstemyng the symplenesse of my pbore labours in that 
behalfe, in any wise worthy lo come before your highnesses 
presens. I offred them unto your noble grâces sayde most 
dere and most entierly beloved Suster,.and to the highly 
renoumed prince Charles Brandon duke of Suffolke, her 
moost worthy espouse, supposyng it unto me largely to be 
sufFycient, if my poore labours myght unto iheir grâces, 
to whom for their manyfolde benefytes I was so highly 
bounden, in any parte be acceptable. But whan they had 
thorowly visyted my said two bokes, of their great good- 
nesse and synguler favour tovardes me, moche more ès- 
temyng them than they in dede were worthy, their grâces 
dyde than put me in a farther hope and conforte, that 
your highnesse, whiche of your great bountnousnesse and 
notable benignyte, nat onely encorage well doers in anv 
kynde of verlue, to encrease and to do better, but also 
gratiously dissymule your most humble subjectes errours, 
to conforte them to amende , and afterwarde be more dily- 
gent , wolde nat refuse benignely and in good parte to 
accept the thyng, wherof your noble grâce was the meer 
causer and very chefe occasion, so I, on my partie, to 
make my pore gyfte some lytell thing more acceptable, 
wolde yet in this mater take a farther dilygence, and wolde 
assay, if I coulde by the order of the letters fyrst set forthe 
in our tonge, and than declared in Frenche, sette out 
worde for worde and phrasis for phrases , alFyrmynge that 
though my labours were some thynge commodius for an 
introduction towardes the better attaynyng of thys lan- 
gage, yet were they nat fully sufficient for any of our 



TO THE RYNGES GRACE. v 

nation, by his owne study, to attayne the Frenche tonge 
by, except after their trewe prononciation and arte Gram- 
maticall ones knowen , we niyght bave pienty of frenche 
wordes also, to expresse our myndes withall. Whose good 
advertisementes and pleasures, accordyng to my most 
bounden duetie to obey. But most especiaily, above ail 
other thynges, desyrous to leave some lytell monument 
unto your noble grâces postérité, howe that some tyme 
it stode with your highnesses pleasure, that I your most 
humble and most obeissaunt subjecte shuîde employ my 
tyme about this study and exercise. I bave nat onely as- 
sayde so to mary our tonge and the french togider, that there 
shulde fewe wordes in comparison of bothe the tonges be 
wantyng, nor phrases where the tonges diffre, and hâve 
nat worde for worde be unsetforthe, and by examples ex- 
pressed, but farthermore, folowyngthe orderof Theodorus 
Gaza, in his grammer of the Greke tonge, I hâve also 
added unto my former labours a thirde boke, whiche is a 
very comment and exposytour unto my seconde. So that 
the accidentes , unto the partes of reason in the Frenche 
tong, and other préceptes grammaticall , whiche I bave but 
brefely and in a generaltee touched in my seconde boke, 
and so, as unto an Introduction dothe suffise, in my said 
thirde boke consequently and in due ordre be declared, 
dilated, and sette forthe at the lenght. Wherin, most high 
and mighty prince, howe soever veyllable my poore dily- 
gence hath ben, were it nat that the great and weighty 
affayres, whiche continually without intermyssion lye under 
the orderyng of your most puyssaunt septre rovall , at ail 



VI THE AUTHOURS EPISTELL 

tymes, require the présence of your most gratious eye, 
wherby my most symple labours of small and utterly no 
condigne importaunce cou! de gete no leyser convenyent 
by your highnesses most profounde jugement to be loked 
upon , by the generall testymony and commen reporte of 
ail maner persons, whiche hâve ben admylted unto your 
most gratious speche, natonely your most humble subjectes, 
but also the ambassadours of ail outwarde princes , of ail 
other persons, whiche at this présent tyme be lyveng, with 
in the boundes of your right ample domynions, it shulde 
hâve ben to me most highly requisyte, to hâve raade my 
most instaunt sute , for the benygne advyse of your noble 
grâces moste expert opynion in this behalfe, afore I shulde 
hâve dared to take upon me, to dedycate this my poore 
labours unto your highnesse, whiche in the Frenche tonge, 
amongest your noble grâces other manyfolde sortes of ex- 
cellent erudytion and lytterature, hâve also in this tonge 
so clere and parfite a sight, lest that myne audacite for 
want of dewe circumspection , myght in any point oÊFende 
your hyghnesse. But with ail dewe humylite and most 
lowly obeissaunce, I submytte bothe me and my poore 
labours unto your noble grâces most bénigne correction , 
protestyng no maner thynge in my hole worke, to be eyther 
well or sufficiently done, but that whiche your highnesse, 
as most worthy juge and clere discerner in this behalfe, 
shall vouchsafe to alowe and approve. Onely of this thyng 
puttyng your highnesse in remembra unce, that where as 
besydesthe great nombre of clerkes, whiche before season 
of this mater hâve written nowe sithe the beginnyng of 



TO THE KYNGES GRACE. vu 

your most fortunate and most prosperous raigne, the right 
vertuous and excellent prince Thomas late duke of North- 
folke hath commanded the studious clerke Alexandre Bar- 
kelay to embusy hym selfe about this exercyse , and that 
my sayd synguler good lorde Charles duke of Sufiblke, 
by cause that my poore labours required a longre tracte 
of tyme, hath also in the meane season encouraged maister 
Petrus Vallensys, scole maister to bis excellent yong sonne 
the Erle of Lyncolne , to shewe bis lernynge and opinion 
in this behalfe, and that the synguler clerke, maister Gyles 
Dewes somtyme instructeur to your noble grâce in this 
selfe tong, at the especiall instaunce and request of dy- 
vers of your bighe estâtes and noble men, hath also for bis 
partye written in this matter. If any one of us ail , whiche 
syns the begynnyng of your said well fortuned raygne, of 
this thyng bave written, or we ail amongest us, bave by 
our diligent labours nowe at the last, brought the frenche 
tong under any rules certayn and préceptes granimaticall , 
lyke as the other thre parfite tonges be, we bave nat onely 
done the thyng whiche by your noble grâces progenitours , 
of ail antiquité so moche hath ben desyred, that besydes 
ail other maner polycies by them essayd, whiche myght 
serve to the advauncement and fordrance of that purpose, 
they never cessed to encorage suche clerkes as were in 
theyr tymes, to prove and essay what they by theyr dy- 
ligence in this matter myght do. But also under the stu- 
dyous tyme of your most prosperous raigne , in whiche 
ail ingénions exercises thus hyghly do habounde, we bave 
hère within the lymites of your most fortunat obevssance 



vm THE AUTHOURS EPISTELL 

and domynionSj done the thynge whiche by ihe testimojiy 
of the excellent clerke, maister Geffray Troy de Bourges (a 
late writer of the frenche nation) in his boke intituled 
Champ-Fleurj, was never yet amongest them of that con- 
trayes selfe hetherto so moche as ones effectually attempted. 
In so moche that the sayd clerke, about the beginnyng of 
his boke, spekyng of Hercules Gallicus or François, and 
shewynge the naturall inclination that the frenche men 
hâve unto éloquence and facundite , and howe theyr tong 
for the most generall is corrupted for want of rules and 
préceptes grammaticall, and whisshynge that some studious 
clerke shulde, by mean of his exhortation nowe take the 
thyng in hande, and fardermore rehersyng the names of 
suche authours whiche he estemeth in the frenche tong 
to be most excellent, and which he wolde chefely shulde 
be over visyted and thorowe studyed, to gather theyr gram- 
maticall rules ont of, he hath fortuned to name suche and 
the very same whiche my chaunce hath ben, for the auc- 
torysyng and corroboratyng of my said thyrde boke with 
ail, chefely to alledge, to folowe and to ieane unto. Wherby, 
most hyghe and puissaunt prince, my most entyrely ho- 
noured and most redouled souveraygne, amongest the other 
manifolde hyghe benifites, whiche by yourmost provident 
cure and diligent circumspection, you dayly mynister unto 
your most humble and most obeissaunt subjectes, and 
amongest the other manifolde sortes of érudition and litté- 
rature, whiche by your hyghnesses most amyable exhor- 
tation , and especially by évident exemple in your owne 
noble person, as moche flourishe nowe under your ryght 



TO THE KYNGES GRACE. ix 

ample dominions, as thorowe the residewe of Europa, y ou 
hâve also procured and provided for them the parfit know- 
lege of the frenche tong, of ail antiquité by your noble 
progenitours so moche covited and desired, and, by this 
mean where as your sayd subjectes for your manifolde 
great benifites unto them shewed, be as moche bounden 
unto yoiu" noble grâce, as ever were subjectes unto theyr 
liège and soverayne lorde, by reason of this great commo- 
dité, procured also by your hyghnesse, that they may nowe 
in the tyme of your most happy raigne, thus easely attayne 
unto the frenche tong, and for so moche as it hath pleased 
your hyghnesse of your most excellent goodnesse, thus 
benygnely and thankfully to accept my poore labours 
employed in this behalfe, your noble grâce hath y et more 
highlye and more largely bounden, both them, and of 
ail others lyvyng most especially me, to pray for your 
prospérons estate long to endure, in ail félicite and worldly 
welth amongest us. 



AMEN. 



X THE KYNGES GRACES PRYVILEGE. 

HERE FOLOWETH THE COPT OF THE KYNGES GRACES PRYVILEGE, GRAUNTED DNTO THE ADTHOUR 

FOR THE SPACE OF SEVYN YEHES. 

Henry , by the grâce of God, kynge of Englande and of France, defensor 
of the faythe , and lorde of Irelande , to ail maner our officers , mynysters 
and subjectes gretynge. Where as our tnisty and ryght welbeloved subjecte 
maister John Palsgrave , iipon occasion that we aforc this season gave hym 
in commandement, to teche our most dere and most entierly beloved 
suster quene Mary douagere of France in the frenche tong, halh made a 
boke entituled and called, Lesclarcissement de la langue francope , whiche 
evidently appereth unto us and our counsaile , to be made whith a great 
and long continued dyligence, and to be very necessarye, profitable and 
expédient, as well for the bryngyng up of the youth of our nobylite, as for 
ail other maner parsons our subjectes to attayne the parfyte knowlege of 
the frenche tong by, whiche sayd boke, our sayd welbeloved subject, 
besydes bis great labours, paynes and tyme there about employed, he hath 
also, at his proper coste and charge put in prynt, we greatly moved and 
stered by dewe consyderation of his sayd long tyme and great dyligence 
about this good and very necessarye purpose employed, and also of his sayd 
great costes and charges bestowed about the imprintyng of the same, bave 
liberally and benignely graunted unto the sayd maister Palsgrave our favo- 
rable letters of privilège, concernyng his sayd boke, cailed Lesclarcissement 
de la langue francoyse , for the space and terme of sevyn yeres next and im- 
medyatly after the date hereof enswyng , straytly chargyng and commandyng , 
ail maner our subjectes, boke sellars or other, whiche medell with the fayte 
of prynlyng or sellyng of bokes, that they ne none of them, nother print 
nor cause to be prynted , nother within this our reaime , nor elswhere out 
of our reaime any nombre of bokes, after the copy of the sayd Lesclarcisse- 
ment, nor after any maner tables, or other part or portion of the sayd boke, 
nor bye no maner hole bokes , nor part of them , whiche shalbe prynted any 
where out of oiu" reaime , by any other princes subjectes , upon payne of 
our hygh displeasure and confiscation and forfaycture of ail maner suche 
bokes , outher printed or bought , contrary to this our pleasiu-e , of the va- 
lewe of whiche bokes accordyngly and justly praysyd, we wyll our said 
subjectes in this behalfe offendyng, shall paye the one halfe for our use unto 



-»"' 



THE KYNGES GRACES PRYVILEGE. xi 

the next officer of justice adjoynyng unto the place where the bokes shall 
fortune so to be founde, and the other halfe to go to the use and profyte 
of our sayd welbeloved subject maister John Palsgrave, wyllyng and or- 
daynyng forthermore that, in case any maner alien or stranger, mediyng 
with the faite of printyng or bokesellyng, or any other parsone, bring any 
maner bokes printed after the sayd maister Palsgraves copy, or any parte 
thereof, in to this our reaime hère to make sale and utterance of them, 
duryng the sayd terme and space of vu yeres, that he or they shall ron in 
suche lyke losse and penalte, as we bave hère afore ordayned of our owne 
subjectes, for suche is our utter wyll and pleasure in this behalfe. Yeven 
under our sygnet , at our maner of Amptbyll , the seconde day of septem- 
ber, the xxii yere of our raygne. 

ANDREWE BAYNTON, TO THE RYGHT NOBLE AND EXCELLENT YONG GENTILMEN, 

MY LORDE THOMAS HAWARDE, MY LORDE GERALDE, 

AND MAISTER CHARLES BLONT, 

SONNE AND HEYRE TO THE LORDE MONTJOYE, HfS LATE SCOLE FELOWES. 

Where as I perceyve by y our ryght lovyng letters that divers parsons, 
whiche were moche desyrous of our maisters Escîarcàsement de la langue 
francoyse, afore he had presented it to the kynges hyghnesse, nowe that 
his boke is publisshed , and to be had amongest the printars, whan they 
loke upon the greatnesse of the volume, they be therby in party discou- 
raged , and thynke that the more the worke is in bygnesse , the greattar 
labours must of the lernars be therto required. But 1 am sure , that you 
whiche hère in knowe our maisters hole intente and consydcration , hâve 
at the fuU satisfied and quieted ail suche parsons whiche you bave herde 
under that maner reason , for as you bave well by hym parceyved , he hath 
willyngly and a purpose, moved of good and tendre zèle, taken in this 
matter the greattar paynes upon him, to ease and forther ail maner par- 
sons of our nation, whiche be desyrous of that langayge, of theyr great 
paynes and studies , whiche eis of nécessite must nedes bave ben required 
in this behalfe. And where as , afore his tyme , men of our nation dyd in 
maner dispayre that the frenche tong coulde ever by any meanes be got- 
ten, saufe onely by an importune and long continued exercise, and that 



xir THE EPISTELL 

begon in young and tender âge, our maister hath hère in done so moche 
that he that wyll seke may fynde, and in a brefe tyme attayne to his utterest 
desyre , and that nat oneiy concernyng the parfyte knowlege and redy use 
of the tong, but also brefly and with smale payne to gete theyr naturall 
pronunciatyon , whiche hère, afore season, hath ben supposed amongest 
us in maner a thyng inipossyble, howe be it hère in to knowlege the wery 
truthe, rather it is to be supposed that suche of our nation as shaii eiFec- 
tualiy be desyrous of the frenche tong , shail thynke his boke to ly teli and 
in some thynges to moche abreviate, than in any one poynt superfluously 
to moche, whan after the rules of ryght pronunciation , and the préceptes 
grammatical! of this tong ones knowen , whiche two thynges in comparison 
to the hole volume be contayned in a ryght smale space, and than to 
practyse thèse raies for to enjoye the frute of them, shall fortune by theyr 
owne studye to translate any sentence or matter out of our tong in to frenche, 
and shall parchaunce loke for a worde amongeste the vocabulistes , whiche 
shulde serve for theyr purpose , and shall nat strayght and ail redy at bande 
fynde out the thyng they loke for. But to ease and satisfye the lernar in 
that behalfe, our maister, as you knowe, hath often shewed us two gene- 
rall rules. one, nat onely expédient for this purpose, but also brefly to 
bave a greal plenty of substantives and adjectives in the frenche tong, 
for, if any nowne of many syllables used in our tong approche any thyng 
towarde latine, commenly that worde is also frenche , for lyke as the frenche 
men borowe theyr wordes immediatly of the latines, so do we borowe a 
great nomber of our substantives and adjectives immediatly of the frenche 
men, whiche thyng for substantives, he declareth some thyng at the length, 
in his tbyrde boke , in the lv , lvi and lvii chapiters , before the table of 
substantives, and for adjectives in his sayd thyrde boke, in his annotacions 
upon the vi accident belongyng unto adjectives, whiche be set next before 
the table. And yet hâve we fardermore , as he hath evidenly proved unto 
us, a great nombre of olher substantives and adjectives, whiche in dede 
be very frenche wordes, saufe that our Englyshe tong hath some thyng 
altred theyr later terminations , but after theyr trewe orthographie and 
ryght pronunciatyon be ones knowen, they be by any parson of our tong 
parceyved, and also lerned atones, and that for ever after. So that, if the 
lernar, whan he begynneth to practise, shall fortune to mysse of any worde 



OF ANDREWE BAYNTON. xui 

in the tables of substantives or adjectives, lette hym fyrst bave recours 
unto tbis gênerai rule , afore be judge tbe tables unsufficient. An other 
rule be batb also gyven us, tbat, if any parte of specbe fortune to be unset 
out in bis owne table, let tbe lernar seke out an otber of lyke sens and 
sy ngnify cation , be it nowne, verbe, adverbe, or any olber parte of specbe 
tbat is wantyng , and be shaJl by tbat meanes be compitently satisfyed , and 
so be able to make fortb the sentence tbat be sball for tbe tyme fortune to 
bave in bande. Howe be it as you bave berde our maister dyvers tymes 
say, wbere as it is above a tbousande yeres sens clerkes bave laboured to 
set fortb tbe latin tong, and dayly yet in tbat kynde of study fynde matter 
ynougb to exercyse tbeyr wittes with ail, wbere by continually, they whicbe 
succède indevour tbem some tbyng to adde unto tbe diligence of suche as 
were before tbem , lyke as to our maisters selfe for bis partie in tbat bebalfe 
batb cbaunsed, for, after he bad in commandement by our most redouted 
soveraygne, to instructe tbe duke of Ricbemontes grâce, in tbe latin tong, 
be brougbt ail the hole Analogie of tbe Romane specbe, into ix letters, 
tbat is to say, tbeyr fyve vowelles, and M, N , R, S, consonantes, whicbe 
tbyng was never, as yet, of no clerke tbat be wotteth of afore his tyme 
observed: savyng tbat Marcus Varro whicbe was in TuUyes tyme, in his 
thyrde boke de Analogia, in very darke and brefe wordes, sbeweth tbat 
Aristotles Parmensius and Dionisius Sidonius , supposed tbat suche a tbyng 
was possible to be brougbt to passe of the Greke tong. It is than no mar- 
veyle, tbougbe tbis volume of oure maysters , whiche leaveth nothynge 
unattempted tbat ought to be desyred, for the grammaticall perfection of 
the frenche tonge , and therto dothe his dyligence , to déclare worde for 
wordc , and phrasys for phrasis , thorowe bothe tbe tonges , do nat in every 
poynt utterly suflîse and satisfy. Sens he hath ben tbe first outher of our 
nation or of the french menues selfe, tbat batb so farre waded in ail 
maner tbinges necessary to reduce tbat tong under rules certayne. And of 
howe great a difficulty it is amongest so many tbousande wordes , in bothe 
tbe tonges to foresee , tbat utterly none be wantyng , seyng tbat be batb 
also ben tbe first, which in tbat kynde of exercise hath begon to labour, 
suche as bave studie in tbe tbre parfyte tonges, and bave expérience howe 
tbeyr vocabulistes , whiche bave ben of so many yeres, and by so sondry 
clerkes agatheryng, and yet to tbis day fiiHy do nat satisfy, can in this 



ife 



XIV THE EPISTELL OF ANDREWE BAYNTON. 

behalfe suffyciently décerne. But as touchyng his rules, howe the frenche 
tong ought to be pronounsed , and to knowe the parfyte Analogie and con- 
gruite of the frenche tong, that is to saye, to décerne the changes whiche 
happen in thaï langage, by reason of diversité, in case, gender, nomber, 
mode, tens, and parson, and to knowe by some certayne examples, howe 
^o conjugale theyr verbes parfyte, and what verbes be with them anomales, 
and whiche be defectives, by cause his labours can in no wyse be profitable 
to no maner parson, except he bave in ail thèse thynges, at the leest some 
général! knoweledge, or ever he can be hable by his owne studye, to trans- 
late any sentence out of our tong in to frenche; to do unto ail maner 
parsones of our natyon desyrous to bave the frenche tong, y et a farther 
and more thankefuU pleasure , he hath brought ail the pythe and effect 
of his two fyrst bokes in to a very smale roume and quantité, whiche com- 
pendious tractyse if it be but ones rede over, the iernar shall incontinently 
hâve so évident and clere a lyght in the frenche tong, that he shall 
for ever after be paste ail maner mystrust or discourayge 
in this behalfe , and parcey ve evydently, that a lytell 
labour shall suffyse hym to bave the full frute 
and commodité of this his hole volume, 
of whiche brefe traictise so moche 
expédient and commodyous 
for this purpose , 
I sende you 
hère 
a copy. 



A BREFE INTRODUCTION 

OF THE AUTHOUR 

FOR THE MORE PARFYTE DNDERSTANDYNG OF HIS FYRST AND SECONDE BOKES 

HERE FOLOWYNG. 

The diffyculte of the frenche tong, whiche maketh it so harde 
to be lerned by them of our nation, resteth chefely in thre 
thynges : in the diversyte of pronunciation, that is betwene us 
and them : in theyr analogie and maner of congruite, where 
in they be moche more parfyte and exquisyte than we be, and 
moche more approche towardes the parfection of the latin tong 
than we do : and thyrdly in theyr propertes of spekyng, where 
in theyr phrasys be dyfFerent frome ours, and letteth us that, 
thoughe we shulde gyve worde for worde, yet the sens shulde 
moche differ betwene our tong and theyrs. Of whiche thre 
thynges hère brefely and by maner of an introduction to en- 
treate, the frenchemen in theyr pronunciation do chefly regarde 
and covet thre thynges : to be armonious in theyr speking : 
to be brefe and sodayne in soundyng of theyr wordes, avoyd- 
yng ail maner of harshenesse in theyr pronunciation : and 
thirdly to gyve every worde that they abyde and reste upon , 
theyr most audible sounde. To be armonious in theyr spekyng, 
they use one thyng which none other nation dothe, but onely 
they, that is to say, they make a maner of modulation inwardly, 
for they forme certayne of theyr vowelles in theyr brest, and 
suiFre nat the sounde of them to passe out by the mouthe, but 
to assende from the brest straight upto thepalate ofthe mouth, 
and so by reflection yssueth the sounde of them by the nose. 
To be brefe and sodayne, and to avoyde ail maner harshenesse, 
whiche myght happen whan many consonantes come betwene 
the vowelles, if they ail shulde hâve theyr distyncte sounde, 



xvr THE INTRODUCTION, 

most commenly they never use to sounde past one onely con- 
sonant betwene two vowelles, though for kepyng of trewe 
orthographie, they use to write as many cousonantes as the la- 
tine wordes hâve, whiche theyr frenche wordes corne out of, 
and, for the same cause, they gyve somtyme unto theyr cou- 
sonantes but a sleight and remisshe sounde, and farre more 
dyversly pronounce them than the latines do. To gyve every 
worde that they abyde upon his most audible sounde, where 
as in the Greke tong, the accent hath thre dyvers places, that 
is to say, the last syllable, the last save çne, and the thyrde 
syllable from the ende, and in the latin tong, at the leest hath 
twayne, thatis to say, the last syllable save one, or the thyrde 
syllable from thende, the frenche men judgyng a worde to be 
most parfaytly herde, whan his last end is sounded hyghest, 
use generally to gyve theyr accent upon the last syllable onely, 
except whan they make modulation inwardly, for than gyveng 
theyr accent upon the last syllable save one, and at the last 
syllable of suche wordes , they sodaynly depresse theyr voyce 
agayne, formyng the wowell in the brest, as I hâve afore 
discribed. But to the intent that thèse thynges used of the 
frenche men in theyr pronounciation , and ail others concern- 
yng the very grounde of theyr analogie, may nat semé utterly 
fortuyt and done by chaunce, but rather by some secret 
mystery gyven by maner of a syngular priviledge unto this 
most christened nation, let us se howe ternarius numerus, 
that is to say , the nombre of thre, whiche of ail other is most 
parfyte, excellent, and also mystycall, dothe secretly with 
them, and thorowly worke in this behalfe. 

FOR THE SOUNDÏNG OF THEYR VOWELLES. 

Where as I hâve sayd that, to be the more armonious, they 



;**i- 



THE INTRODUCTION. xvn 

makea maner of modulation inwardly, that thyng happeneth 
in the soundyng of thre of theyr vowelles onely , A, E and 0, 
and that nat universally , but onely so often as they come before 
M or N in one syllable, or whan E is in the îast syllable, the 
worde nat havyng his accent upon hym, remyttyng the 1er- 
narfor examples, by cause of brevite, unto the seconde, thyrde 
and fyfth chapiters of my fyrst boke, so that thèse thre letters 
M, N or E fynall, nat havyng the accent upon hym, be the 
very and onely causes why thèse thre vowelles A, E, 0, be 
formed in the brest and sounded by the nose. And for so mo- 
che as of necessyte, to forme the différent sounde of those thre 
vowelles they must nedes, at theyr fyrst formyng open theyr 
mowth more or lesse, yet whan the vowell ones formed in the 
brest ascendeth upwardes and must hâve Af or N sounded with 
hym, they bryng theyr chawes togetherwardes agayne, and, 
in so doyng, they semé to sound an f/, and make in maner of 
A and 0, diphthonges, whiche happeneth by rayson of closyng 
of theyr mowth agayne, to come to the places where M and N 
be formed, but chefely by cause no parte of the vowell, at his 
expressyng, shulde passe forlh by the mowth, whereas els the 
frenchemen sounde the same thre vowelles in ail thynges lyke 
as the Italiens do, or we of our nation, whiche sounde our 
vowelles aryght, and, as for in theyr vowell I is no difficulty 
nor différence from the Italien sounde, savyng that so often as 
thèse thre letters /// or Ign come before any of the fyrst thre 
vowels A, E OT 0, they sounde an I brefely and confusely 
betwene the Iast consonant and the vowell folowyng, where as 
in dede none is written, for examples remyttyng the lernar to 
the sevynth chapiters of my fyrst boke, whiche soundynge of 
/, where he is nat written, they recompence in theyr U , for 
thoughe they wryte hym after thèse thre consonantes F, G, 



xvm THE INTRODUCTION, 

and Q, yet do they onely sounde the vowell next folowing U, 
as I déclare in the ix chapiter of the fyrst boke. So that, for the 
raost generalte, the frenche men sounde ail theyr fyve vo\velles 
lyke as the Italiens do , except onely theyr U, whiche ever so 
often as they use for a vowell alone, hath with them suche a 
sounde as we gyve tins diphthong ew in our tong in thèse 
wordes, rewe an herbe, a mewe for a hawke, a clewe of threde. 

FOR THE SOCNDYNG OF THEYR DIPHTHONGES. 

And as touchyng theyr diphthonges, besydes the sixe whi- 
che be formed by addyng of the two last vowelles unto the 
thre fyrst, as ai, ei, oi, an, eu, oa, they make also a sevynth by 
addyng of the two last vowelles together ui, unto whiche they 
gyve suche a sounde as we do unto wy in thèse wordes , a swyne, 
I Iwyne, I dwyne, soundyng u and y together, and nat dis- 
tynctly, and as for the other sixe hâve suche sounde with them 
as they hâve in latin, except thre, for in stede of ai, they 
sounde most commenly ei, and for oi they sounde oe and for 
au they sounde most commenly ow, as we do in thèse wordes, a 
bowe, a crowe, a snowe, remyttyng also the lernar for the more 
certaynte herof unto my sayd fyrst boke, where I speke of the 
diphthonges. Ail whiche diversyte, used by them in soundyng 
of theyr vowelles and diphthonges, an accusturaed erre may 
evidently observe that they thus do apurpose, nat onely to be 
the more armonious and playsant in soundyng of theyr wordes , 
but also to avoyde ail maner difformyte whiche myght happen 
by reason of any barbarous sounde. Whiche thynge so moche 
they studye to observe that they preferre it sometyme before 
theyr congruite, as I shewe herafter in my seconde introduc- 
tion, where I speke of theyr grammaticall concordes. And for 
the same cause, to avoyde the concurrence of séparât vowelles 



THE INTRODUCTION. xix 

in distyncte wordes,they be more curious in the observyng ol 
the fygure called Apostrophe, than the Grekes be thenj selfe, 
as I déclare from the xlix chapiter consequently to the lv in 
my fiyrst boke. 

FOR THE SOUNDYNG OF THEYR CONSONANTES. 

And nowe as touchyng the seconde poynte whiche is to be 
brefe and sodayne vithout any maner of harshenesse in theyr 
pronounciation , what consonantes so ever they write in any 
worde for the kepyng of trewe orthographie, yet so moche covyt 
they in redyng or spekyng to bave ail theyr vowelles and di- 
phthonges clerly herde, that betwene two vowelles, whether 
they chaunce in one worde alone, or as one worde fortuneth to 
folowe after an other, they never sounde but one consonant ato- 
nes, in so moche that, if two différent consonantes, that is to 
say, nat beyng both of one sorte, corne together betwene two 
vowelles, they levé the fyrst of them unsounded, and if thre 
consonantes come together, they ever levé two of the fyrst 
unsounded, puttyng hère in, as I bave sayd, no différence, 
whether the consonantes thus come together in one worde alone, 
or as the wordes do folowe one anotlier, for many tymes theyr 
wordes ende in two consonantes, by cause they take awaye the 
last vowell of the latin worde, as corps commeth of corpus, 
temps of tempus, and suche lyke; whiche two consonantes 
shalbe lefte unsounded, if the next worde folowyng begyn with 
a consonant, as well as if thre consonantes shuld fortune to 
come together in a worde by hym selfe. But yet in this thyng 
to shewe also that they forget nat theyr ternarius numerus of 
ail theyr consonantes, they bave from this rule privyleged 
onely thre. M, JS and R, whiche never lèse theyr sounde, 
where so ever they be founde written, except onely N, whan 

c. 



XX THE INTRODUCTION, 

he commelh in the thyrde parson plurell of verbes after E, for 
the particuler certaynte also of this tliyng remyttyng the lernar 
to the XXV, XXVI, xxvii and xxviii chapitres of the fyrst boke. 
So that where as afore season this seyng of consonantes written 
for kepyng of trewe orthographie , and levyng of them un- 
sounded in pronounciation, hath semed unto us of our nation 
a thyng of so great diffyculte, by cause we never hetherto had 
no maner rule to staye us in this behalfe, that unneth an im- 
portune labour, and that taken in youth by a hole yere or 
twayne, was sufiFycient by use to attayne herunto. In so moche 
that where as there be hunderdes in this reaime, whiche with 
a ly tell labour employ ed and by the ayde of latyn , do so par- 
fytly understande this tonge that they be able to translate at 
the fyrst syght any thyng out of the frenche tong in to ours, 
yet hâve they thought the thing so strange to levé the conso- 
nantes unsounded, whiche they sawe written in suche bokes 
as they studyed, that they hâve utterly neglected the frenche 
menues maner of pronounciation, and so rede frenche as theyr 
fantasy or opinion dyde lede them, and, by that meanes par- 
ceyvyng in them selfe a want and swarvyngfrom the trewth, 
whiche they wot nat howe to amende, utterly levé to speke 
or exercyse the langayge, as a thyng whiche they dispayre of, 
where as nowe the very grounde and consyderation of the 
frenche men in this behalfe ones knowen, it hath ben prov- 
ed by expérience that it is but a senyghtes labour, or, at the 
moste, a fourtnyghtes to lerne this poyntconcernyng to theyr 
pronounciatyon an to be sure herof for ever. 



FOR THE KEPYNG OF TREWE ACCENT. 



And nowe to speke of theyr thyrde poynt, where I bave shewed 
that the frenchemen studye to gyve every worde, that they 



THE INTRODUCTION. xxi 

abide and reste upon, theyr most audible sounde. The hole 
reason of theyr accent is grounded chefely upon thre poyntes : 
fyrst, there is no worde of one syllable whiche with them hath 
any accent , or that they use to pause upon , and that is one 
great cause why theyr tong semeth to us so brefe and sodayn 
and so harde to be understanded whan it is spoken, especially 
of theyr paysantes or commen people; for, thoughe there 
come never so many wordes of one syllable together, they 
pronounce them nat distinctly a sonder as the latines do, but 
sounde them ail under one voyce and tenour, and never rest 
nor pause upon any of them, except the commyng next unto 
a poynt be the cause therof; seconde, every worde of many 
syllables hath bis accent upon the last syllable, but yet that 
nat withstandynge they use upon no suche worde to pause, 
except the commyng next unto a poynt be the causer therof: 
and this is one great thyng whiche inclineth the frenchemen 
so moche to pronounce the latin tong amysse, whiche contrary 
never gyve theyr accent on the last syllable. The thyrde 
poynt is but an exception from the seconde : for, whan the 
last syllable of a frenche worde endeth in E, the syllable next 
afore liim must hâve the accent, and yet is nat this rule ever 
generall. For if a frenche worde ende in TE or hâve Z after 
E, or be a prétérit partyciple of the fyrst conjugation, he 
shall bave bis accent upon the last syllable, accordyng to the 
seconde rule : for the more certayne knowledge ^Iso liere of 
remyttyng the lernar to the lvi chapiter and the resydewe 
next folowyng unto the lx chapiter of my fyrst boke. 

WHAN A VOWELL SHALBE PRONOONCED LONG OR SHORT. 

But as touchyng to wknowe han a vowell shalbe with them 
longe or short in bis pronounciation , I suppose there be no tong 



xxn THE INTRODUCTION, 

that hath hère in a more playn and symple consyderation tlian 
the frenche men hâve. For, whan ihey levé any consonant or 
consonantes unsounded, whiche folowe a vowell that shulde 
hâve the accent, if they pause upon hym by reason of commyng 
* next unto a poynt, he shalbe long in pronounciation. So that 
there is no vowell with them, whiche of hymselfe is long in 
theyr ton g, for the more particuler knoledge hère of remyttyng 
the lernar also to the lxii chapiter of my fyrst boke, and as for 
Encletica I note no mo but onely the primative pronownes 
of the fyrst and seconde parsones syngular, whan they folowe 
the verbe that they do governe. So that albe it that the fren- 
chemennes pronounciation be never so différent from others, 
in so moche that it hath gyven occasion to clerkes of other 
nations to say theyr pleasure of the tong, yet, if the consyde- 
rations whiche hath moved them so to do be indifferently con- 
sydred, they ryse nat upon a barbarous rudenesse, but rather 
of a great curiosyte to make theyr speche more commendable, 
but that ail other nations do in dede so moche esteme it, and 
that as well christened as hethen, that impute I rather unto 
the secret force of this ternarius numerus, whiche thoughe it 
hath hère some thyng appered concernyng their pronouncia- 
tion , it shal moche more evidently hère consequently appere 
in ail the chefe groundes of theyr analogie, whiche they hâve 
invented proper and peculyer to themselfe; for thoughe the 
great nombre of theyr vocables be evidently deryved forth of 
latin, and that in dede they lerned at the fyrst with the latin 
wordes the latin analogie, and in many thinges yet do folowe 
them , as shall hère consequently appere , yet is theyr analogie 
nowe at thèse dayes farre différent from them, as I shall hère 
also next folowyng déclare. 



THE INTRODUCTION OF THE AUTHOUR 

TO HIS SECONDE BOKE. 

The frenche men use onely xxiii letters, suche and the same 
whiche the latines hâve; for /f with them is nat onely a sygne 
of aspiration , but also hath oftentymes the strength and 
power of a consonant, as I déclare in the xxxiii chapiter of 
my fyrst boke, and howe they oftetymes write H, at the begyn- 
nyng of theyr wordes, forkepyng of trewe orthographie, and 
yet sounde hym nat, I hâve in the same boke declared in 
the XX chapiter, where also I shewe in what wordes of the 
frenche tong H hath his aspiration, and howe seldome the 
frenche tong useth nowe this lelter K, I déclare in the xxxv 
chapiter of the same boke. Thèse xxiii letters be devyded in 
to thre dyvers sortes, for besydes theyr vowelles, theyr con- 
sonantes be devyded in to mutes and liquides or semivocalles, 
whiche consonantes hâve, in the frenche tong, dyvers maners 
of soundyng, lyke as I déclare of every of them particulerly 
in my fyrst boke after theyr order. But in the namyng of tlie 
sayd consonantes the frenche men diffre from the latin tong, 
for where as the latines in soundynge of the mutes begyn 
with the letters selfe, and ende in E, sayng BE, CE, DE, etc., 
the frenche men , in the stede of E, sounde oy and name them 
BOY, COY, DOY, etc., and where as the latines in soundyng 
of theyr liquides or semi vowelles begyn with E, and ende 
with them, saynge EL, EM, EN , the frenchemen double the 
liquide or semi vocale and adde also an other E and name 
them ELLE, EMME, ENNE, gevyng the accent upon the 
fyrst E and, at the last E, depressyng theyr voyce; but in 



XXIV THE INTRODUCTION, 

thèse thynges it is nat greatly materiall to be to curyous, and 
therfore I passe over to speke thorowly there of. Of thèse let- 
ters, lyke as it is in ail tonges, be made syllables, of syllables 
wordes, of wordes sentences or reasons. 

OF THE IX PARTES OF REASON IN A 6ENERALTE. 

Partes of reason , if we shall hère in tâke example of the 
Romayns, they hâve thryse m, for, besydes the viii partes of 
speche commen betwene them and the latines, ihat is to say, 
nowne, pronowne, verbe, participle, preposytion, adverbe, 
conjunction and interjection, they bave also a nynth part of 
reason whiche I call article, borowyng the name of the Grekes. 

OF THE ARTICLE. 

Articles they bave but twayne, ung and le, and they bave 
but two accidentes, as I déclare in the begynnyng of the 
seconde boke. 

OF THE NOWNE SDBSTANTIVE. 

Nownes substantives hâve thre chefe accidentes, gender, 
nombre, and parson. 

TO KNOWE THE CENDER OF SCBSTANTIVES. 

Genders they hâve thre, the masculyn, feminyn, and the 
commyn both to the masculyn and femenyn. Causes whiche 
move them to use a substantive of the masculyne gender be 
thre, signifycation , termination, and commyng out of a latin 
nowne of the newter gender, endyng in um. Diversytes of sy- 
gnifications, whiche move them to make a substantyve of the 
masculyne gender be of thre sortes. For, if the substantyvje 



THE INTRODUCTION. xxv 

betoken any name belongyng onely to man, or be the name 
of any he beest, or be the name of any tree, they use ail suche 
substantyves onely of the masculyne gender, as roy, cheual, 
chesne. Terminations, whiche move to use a substantyve of the 
masculyne gender, be in a generalte ail, savyng onely E, so 
that, if a substantive in the frenche tong ende in any vowell, 
diphthong or consonant, except onely E, he shalbe of the mas- 
culyne gender, and the exceptions be butfewe, as appereth in 
the seconde boke, but chefly in the thyrde, and yet, thoughe 
theyr substantyve ende in Ë, if he come out of a latin substantyve 
endyngin um, they use hym also of the masculyne gender, as 
consile, édifice, domicile, be used with them asmasculynes, for 
they come oiedificium, consilium, domiciliam, and so of suche lyke. 
Sygnifycations , whiche move them to make a substantive of 
the feminyn gender, be also of thre sortes : for, if a substan- 
tyve betoken any name that belongcth onely to women, or be 
the name of any she beest, or the name of any frute, they 
use ever ail suche substantives of the feminyn gender, as royne, 
jument, poyre. Terminations, whiche move them to make a sub- 
stantyve of the feminyn gender, is chefely E : whiche rule is 
generall unto thèse thre sortes also, pronownes, adjectyves and 
participles, for the féminins of ail thèse thre partes ende in 
E, as I shall hère after in theyr places more plainly déclare; 
but for substantives tliis rule halh many exceptions, as I dé- 
clare at the lenglh in my thyrde boke, in my annotations 
upon the fyrst accident belongyng to substantives : of the 
commen gender, 1 bave noted onely but syx substantyves in 
this tong as venjue, adultère, esclaue, guyde, garde, anàhoste, as 
I déclare in my thyrde boke. 



XXVI THE INTRODUCTION. 



OF THE SECONDE ACCIDENT NOMBRE. 



Nombres, if we shiilde herein be curyous as the Grekes be, 
they hâve also thre, for, besydes the syngular nombre and the 
plureil commyn betwene them and the latines, they use to 
expresse ail suche substantyves as we in our tong circumlocute 
by payres, by one onely worde in the plurel letter, as for a 
payre of hosen , a payre of tonges, a payre of spectacles, they 
say unes chances, unes tenailles, unes lunettes, as I déclare in the 
LUI chapiter of the thyrde boke, before the table of substan- 
tyves. But now^e to speke of theyr two nombres most gene- 
rally used with them, albeit that theyr synguler nombre 
hath a great meyny of dyvers terminations, yet bave they ex- 
cepted thre letters in whiche there is no substantyve endyng 
.in theyr tong, that is to say. A, 0, and K, but in what letter 
so ever theyr syngular nombre ende in, for the expressyng 
of theyr plureil nombre they hâve but onely thre letters. S, 
X, Z, whiche they adde to the terminations of the syngular 
nombre, and so moche kepe they thèse thre onely letters to 
serve for theyr plureil nombres, that, if any substantyve in 
theyr tong, in bis syngular nombre, ende in any of thèse thre 
letters S, X, Z, than is the synguler nombre and the plurel of 
ail suche nownes with them ail one, for the more particuler 
knowledge of this matter rcmittyng the lernar to the annota- 
tions upon the seconde accident belongyng to substantyves in 
the thyrde boke. Howbeit for so moche as the chefest poynt, 
whiche concerneth the kepynge of trewe congruyte in thls 
tong, resteth upon the knowledge of the gendre and nombre 
of the substantyve, forbycause that with hym must agre the 
adjectyve, the pronowne and the participle, as I shall her- 
after in this introduction more playnly déclare, whan I speke 



THE INTRODUCTION. xxvu 

of theyr congruite. Besydes ail the rules written upon thèse 
two accidentes in the sayd thyrde boke, I hâve y et also, for 
the more farther easyng of the iernar, in the table of substan- 
tives, after every substantyve, set forth also his gendre, and 
the letter of his plurell nombre, that he may atones herin be 
satisfyed. 

OF THE THïaO ACCIDENT PARSON. 

Where as this tong hath thre parsones in bothe the nombres 
of theyr verbes, as the latines hâve, every substantyve is onely 
of the thyrde parson, that is to say, whan he is nominatyve 
case to any verbe, the verbe to agre with him must ever be 
of the thyrde parson, as I shall more playnly déclare amongest 
the concordes. 

OF THE NOWNE ADJECTIVE. 

Nownes adjectives bave also thre chefe accidentes, gendre, 
nombre, and comparation. 

or THE GEKDRE OF ADJECTIVES. 

Gendres : adjecty ves bave thre, the masculyne, feminyn and 
commen to the masculyn and feminyn. The masculyn gendre 
thoughe he bave never so sondry termynations, yet except 
they nat onely the threletters A, 0, and K, in whiche no sub- 
stantyve endeth, but also they except other thre letters, B, P, 
and Z; so that in thèse syxe termynations endeth no mascu- 
lyne adjectyve syngular. The feminyn gendre of ail adjectyves 
endeth ever in E, formed ont of his masculyne by addyng of 
E unto his last ende, for the more particular knowledge of 
this mater remyttyng the Iernar to the annotacions upon the 
fyrst accident belongynge to adjectives in the thyrde boke. Of 
the commen gendre be ail adjectives whiche in theyr mascu- 



o. 



xxviii THE INTRODUCTION. 

lyne gendre ende in E, for than isthe masculyne and feniinyn 

both one in this ton g. 

OF THE ACCIDENT NOMBRE BELONGYNG TO ADJECTYVES. 

Nombres : they hâve also twayne, the synguler nombre and 
the plurell. In the synguler nombre, nownes adjectyves bave 
as many sondry termy nations as nownes substantyves hâve, sa- 
vynge that, as I bave sayd in B, P, and Z, endeth no syngular 
adjectyve. The plurell nombre hath onely the letters fynall, S, 
X, and Z, added unlo the letters of the syngular, lyke as they 
forme tlie plurelles of theyr substantyves. In so moche that, if 
any masculyne adjectyve, in bis syngular nombre ende in S or 
X, the syngular and plurell is ail one, and every feminyn plurell 
endeth in S, added to the E fynall of bis syngular, remittyngthe 
lernar for the particulers herof unto my annotations upon the 
seconde accident belongyngto adjectyves in the thyrde boke. 
Howbeit in this thyng also to ease the lernar, 1 bave, in the 
table of adjectyves, set forthe the gendre and nombre of every 
adjectyve as he commeth in order in the table of adjectyves. 

OF THE COMPABATION OF ADJECTYVES. 

Adjectyves hâve thre degrees of comparation , lyke as they 
bave in our tong or in latin, but with this différence, where 
as we and the latines forme our comparatives and superla- 
tyves out of our posytives, by addyng of certayne letters to bis 
ende, the frenche men kepe theyr adjectyve everunchanged, 
and, by addyng of plus before hym , make theyr posytive ', and 
by addyng of le plus, or some pronowne dirivatyve, forme 
theyr superlative, as I déclare in the seconde boke, in the 
fourth accident belongyng to nownes adjectyves. 

* Sans doute comparatyve. 



THE INTRODUCTION. xxix 

OF THE PRONOWNES. 

Of pronownes there be thre chefe sortes, primityves, deri- 
vatyves, and demonstratyves. Pronownes primityves be fyve, 
je, tu, se, nous, vous, and of them be derived olher v, mon, ton, 
son, nostre, vostre, ail x wordes beyng of suche syngnifycation 
as they be in latin. Pronownes demonstratyves they hâve but 
thre il, le and on or len. We may also contayne under the pro- 
nowne other thre dyvers sortes : relatyves as (jui or lequel; 
interrogatyves as qui, and numeralles as vng, deux, troys, etc. 
And I speke also amongest the pronownes in my seconde 
boke of nownes partityves and distributyves as tout, uul, aal- 
cun, quelqun, chascun, etc. 

OF THE ACCIDENTES BELONGYNG TO PRONOWNES. 

Pronownes hâve nat onely the thre accidentes belongyng 
unto substantyves, thatis to say, gendre, nombre and parson, 
but also other thre accidentes, case, declination and compo- 
sytion. But for so moche as thèse accidentes be not generally 
commen unto ail pronownes, I shall hère brefly speke of 
suche pronownes as be declyned in this tong, for the resydue 
remittyng the lernar to my seconde boke, the xxxiii lefe' where 
I speke brefly of the pronownes in this tong. 

OF THE THRE DECLYNATIONS OF PRONOWNES. 

I fynde no maner partes of speche whiche be declyned in 
this tong, that is to say, bave case, gendre and nombre but 
onely the pronownes whiche be of thre sortes. 

OF THE FYRST DECLYNATION. 

Pronownes of the fyrst declynation be two :je and tu, whiche 

' Pag- 74. 



XXX THE INTRODUCTION, 

be of the commyn gendre and syngular nombre onely, and 
bave but thre cases, nominatyve, accusatyve and oblique, as, 
je, me, moy: tu, te, toy. 



OF THE SECONDE DECLYNATION. 



Of the seconde declynation is onely se, whiche beyng of 
the commen gendre hath both his nombres , but he wanteth 
his nominatyve cases, lyke as sui doth in latin, as se, soy syn- 
gular, and se, soy plurell. 



OF THE THÏRDE DECLINATION. 



Of the thyrde declination they bave but onely il, with his 
féminin elle, whose declynation doth moche more approche 
towardes the parfection of the latin tong ; for, besydes that 
they bave distyncte gendres and nombres, they bave also 
un cases synguler and un plurell, that is to say, the nomina- 
tyve case, the datyve case, the accusatyve case, and the 
oblique case, as il luy, le liiy, Hz leur, les eulx, elle luy, la elle, 
elles leur, les elles : and of ail the other sortes of pronownes for 
the more particuler knowlege of them remittyng the lernar to 
my seconde boke, but specially to my thyrde boke, where I 
speke of the pronownes and the use of them at the lengtb, 
and shewe whiche verbes in this tong do governe the datyve 
case of il and elle. 



OF THE VERBE. 



Of verbes in the frenche tong be two dyvers sortes, for 
some be parsonall and some be imparsonall. Verbes parsonall 
be of thre sortes, parfyte, anomales, and defectyves. Verbes 
parfyte be of thre dyvers sortes, actyves, passyves and meanes. 
Verbes actyves hâve m divers conjugations. 



THE INTRODUCTION. xxxi 



OF THE FYRST CONJDGATION. 



The fyrst is chefly ruled by E, saufe that in his diflynites 
be torneth into A, and batb bis tbre cbefe rotes, that bis to say, 
bis thème, his prétérit participle, and bis présent infynityve 
ever of many syliables, and ail tbre of equal syllables, as, je 
parle, jay parlé, parler. 



OF THE SECONDE CONJCGATION. 



The seconde , thorowe ali his conjugation is booUy ruled 
by Y, and batb bis cbefe rotes also ever of many syllables and 
equal as je conuertis, jay conaerty, conuertyr, and after thèse 
two conjugations be ruled mo than tbre partes of foure of 
tbe parfyte verbes in tbis tong. 



OF THE THÏRDE CONJUGATION. 



The tbyrde batb bis thème most commenly in S, and in 
maner ever of one syllable, except be be a compounde, and 
than his symple is but of one syllable, and bis seconde rote 
is somtyme of one syllable, somtyme of many , and somtyme 
changeth bis last vowell from tbe vowell of tbe thème, and bis 
thyrde rote is ever of many syllables endyng in re or myr, as 
je voys, jay veu, veoyr. Je prens, jay prins, prendre. Je dis, jay dit, 
dire, simples; and ye revoys, jay reveu, reveoyr. Je reprens, jay 
reprins, reprendre. Je redis, jay redit, redire, compoundes. Con- 
jugation is tbe dyvers alteryng of tbe last ende of a thème, 
by reason of thèse tbre accidentes, mode, tens and declination 
parsonall. 



OF THE VI MODES. 



Modes : every parfyte verbe batb vi, tbe indicatyve, impe- 
ratyve, optatyve or potenciall, tbe subjunctyve, tbe condi- 



xxxn THE INTRODUCTION, 

cionall, and the infynityve, of whiche the tlire fyrst serve to 
niake a parfyte sentence by one verbe alone, the other thre 
be used whan a verbe is nat the principall verbe in a sentence, 
but dependeth upon some other verbe, as je parle, parle, bien 
parle je, voulés vous que je parle, si je parle je me repentiraj, je 
doybs parler. 

OF THE SYXE TIMES IN THE MODES. 

In thèse syxe modes be dyvers tymes, in some mo, in some 
fewer, but the indicatyve mode, besydes the thre generall dis- 
tinctions of tyme, présent, pariytly past, and to come, devy- 
deth yet the tyme past in to other thre dyvers tymes, impar- 
fytly past, indiffynitly past, and more than parfytly past. 

OF THE FORMATION OF THEYR TYMES. 

Thèse tymes be formed out of theyr thèmes by addyng of 
certayne letters or syllables to theyr endes, in whiche for the 
fyrst conjugation, by cause the thème endeth in E, if the addi- 
tion begyn with a vowell , the E fynall of the thème is taken 
away. The additions fynall be thèse syxe : OYE, AY, RAY, E, 
SE, ROYE, and theyr présent infynityves hâve but only thre 
terminations ER, IR, OR, RE, and the indiffynite indicatyve 
of the ihyrde conjugation endeth ever in S, havyng before S 
one of thèse thre letters J, U or N, and the prétérit participle 
of the same conjugation endeth outher in S, with Jor A'^ before 
hym , or in one of thèse thre letters T, U or Y. 

OF THEYR DECLINATION PARSONALL OF THEYR TYMES. 

Declination parsonall serveth to shewe howe the fyrst par- 
son syngular of a tens is changed by reason of his seconde 
and thyrde parson synguler, and by reason of his fyrst, se- 
conde and thyrde parsons plurell. Of thèse fyve parsons the 



THE INTRODUCTION. xxxiii 

seconde syngular endeth ever in S, the thyrde syngular som- 
tyme in A, somtyme in E, but most commenly in T. The fyrst 
parson plurell endeth most commenly in ONS, and somtyme 
in ES; the seconde plurell endeth ever in EZ, and the thyrde 
parson plurell ever in NT, with E or before N : for the par- 
ticular déclaration of ail thèse thynges remyttyng the lernar 
to the xxxix' leffe in the seconde boke, where I conjugate je 
parle and je conuertis at the length , and consequently shewe 
the rules by example oîjefays, howe to conjugate the verbes 
of the thyrde conjugation. 

OF THE VERBES PASSIVES. 

Verbes passyves in the frenche tong be circumlocuted tho- 
rowe ail theyr modes, tenses, and declination parsonall, with 
the modes, tenses and parsons oîje suis, put before theyr par- 
tyciples prétérit, lyke as we do, in our tong, circumlocute 
our verbes passyves with the modes, tenses, nombres, and 
parsons of 1 am and our partyciples prétérit. As, where we 
say I am loved, thou art loved, he is loved; I was loved, thou 
wast loved, he was loved, etc. So say theyye suis aymé, tu es 
aymé , il est aymé ; je estoye aymé, ta estoys aymé, il estoyt 
aymé, etc., but with this différence, for theyr participle prété- 
rit altereth his gendre and nombre, accordyng to the nomi- 
natyve case to the tenses oije suis, though our participle re- 
mayne ever unchanged, as I déclare more at length in my 
seconde boke the li leffe ^. 

OF THE MEAN VERBES. 

The mean verbes hâve also thre dyvers sortes of conjuga- 
tions where in they chefly folowe and be ruled by the 
vowelles of the verbes actives, for the fyrst conjugation of 

' Pag. 88-93. — ' Pag. 126. 



..•'S* 



XXXIV THE INTRODUCTION, 

mean verbes is cliefly ruled by E, the seconde by 1, both of 
many syllables, and the tliyrde hatb bis thème but of one syl- 
lable, lyke as I bave afore shewed in the verbes actyves. But 
thèse mean verbes in theyr conjugatyng differ from verbes 
actyves in thre thynges: in theyr sygnifycation, in the circum- 
locutyng of theyr prétérit tenses, and in theyr declination 
parsonail. In signifycatyon, for where as the verbes actyves 
betokyng some acte to passe from the doer without forth, by 
whiche acte some other thyng doth suffre. The acte of the 
mean verbes passeth nat from the doar, but retourneth to the 
doars selfe agayne, or is done within the parsone of the doars 
selfe : so that commenly ali suche verbes as be used in the 
latin tong, lyke neuters or déponentes, be used in this tong 
lyke mean verbes. They diffre also from verbes actyves in cir- 
cumlocutyng of theyr prétérit tenses, for, Avhere as ail the 
prétérit tenses of verbes actyves, savyngthe two indifiynites, 
and the prêter imparfyte tens, by circumlocutyng with cer- 
tayne tenses of this verbe Je ay, and theyr prétérit participle , 
lyke as we in our tong do circumlocut ail out prétérit tenses , 
save our prêter imparfyte tens, with the tenses of this verbe 
I bave, and our participle prétérit, as for I bave spoken, I had 
spoken, etc. They say jay parlé, jauoye parlé, etc., in theyr 
mean verbes they circumlocute ail those prétérit tenses with 
the tenses o[ je suis and theyr prétérit participle, changyng 
the gendre and nombre of the participle lyke unto the gendre 
and nombre of the nominatyve case to the tenses oï je suis, 
lyke as thoughe they were passy ves , where as the participle 
used in the tenses of verbes actyves aïter je ay remayneth in 
maner ever unchanged. They diffre also thyrdely from verbes 
actyves in theyr declination parsonail, for, where as the ac- 
tyves bave but the pronowne or substantyve before the verbe, 



THE INTRODUCTION. xxxv 

as je parle, tu parles, il parle, ung homme parle, in mean verbes 
to sygnyfye thatlhe acte retournetli to the doar agayne, they 
double the pronowne, and in the thyrde parsones use recipro- 
cation, as Je me maruaille, tu te maruailles, il se maruaille, ung 
homme se maruaille, etc. "Ail whiche différences of conjugation 
betwene the actyve verbes and theyr meanes I déclare at length 
in my seconde boke the xlviii lefe ^ , by the examples of je me 
fie, andye men esbahis, anàje menfuis. 



OF THE VERBES ANOMALES. 



Verbes anomales in the frenche tong I not but thre,ye ay, 
conjugate in the seconde boke' the xlv lefe^ and je men nas, 
conjugale in the seconde boke the l lefe^, whiche in this tong 
bave the very propertes of verbes anomales, for where as ail 
the parfyte verbes of the frenche tong, thorowe ail theyr hole 
conjugation, kepe styll, in ail theyr modes, tenses, nombres, 
and parsons, the fyrst letters of theyr thème ever unchanged, 
thèse thre verbes do nat so, for je ay tourneth bis a in to e, as 
je eus, je ay eu, cjue je eusse, and in one place into o, as Hz ont : 
and je suis changeth his s somtyme in lof, as je fus, gue je fusse, 
and somtyme into e, as je estoye, estre : and je vas tourneth his 
consonant somtyme into a, as nous allons, je alloye, aller, som- 
tyme in to j, as Je iray, and this changyng from the fyrst letters 
of the thème happeneth thorowe ail the tong, as I bave sayd, in 
thèse thre verbes onely. And as for verbes neutropassyves, I 
fynde none in ail the tong saufe onely Je nays, whose sygni- 
fycation and also conjugation I bave set forth in the seconde 
boke Li lefe \ 

OF THE VERBES IMPARFYTE OR DEFECTYVES. 

And of verbes imparfyte or defectyves there be thre dyvers 

' Pag. iiA-121. — ' Pag. 107. — ' Pag. laS. — ' Pag. 127. 

E. 



XXXVI THE INTRODUCTION, 

sortes : for some want but a tens or twayne in some of theyr 
modes, as je puk wanteth his présent imparatyve and liis pré- 
sent optatyve, as I déclare in the seconde boke, the xliiii lefe ', 
and some want theyr présent and indiffinit optatyve, savyng 
onely the thyrde parson synguler, as* vueille Dieu and voulsist 
Dieu, and no more, as I déclare in the seconde boke, in the 
same lefe. And some be yet more deffectyves, for they want 
ail theyr prétérit tenses as je seuls ( I am wont ) , for he bo- 
roweth ail bis preterites that be circumlocuted oije accoustume 
or je aprens, sayng y'aj accoustume or jay aprins, as I déclare in 
the seconde boke, the xliiii lefe^. But where as in the same lefe, 
immediatly after je seuls, is shewed that je enseuelis is also a 
verbe deffectyve that thyng passed my correctours bandes, or 
I was ware therof, for je ensevelis is a parfyte verbe of the 
seconde conjugation, and sygnifyeth to sowe up a cors in bis 
wyndyng shete, and je enterre is also a parfyte verbe of thefyrst 
conjugation, and sygnifyeth to bury one in the erth. Of the 
thyrde sort of verbes deffectyves be the verbes imparson ailes in 
the tong, for verbes imparsonalles bave no more but the thyrde 
parsone syngular onely thorowe ail their modes and tenses, as I 
déclare in the lu lefe^ of the seconde boke. Verbes imparsonalles 
lyke as they be defectyves in theyr parsons, so want they one of 
the thre conjugations, for, after the seconde conj ugation is conju- 
gate no verbe imparsonall in theyr tong, as I déclare in the se- 
conde boke the lui lefe *. And albeit that ail thèse thynges hère 
shewed in this introduclyon, concernyng the verbes, do moche 
more playnly appere in the seconde boke, and specially in the 
thyrde, yet in this thyng bothe to ease and quiet the lernar, ï 
bave in the table of verbes shewed the conjugation of every verbe 
in this tong in his place, as he commeth in ordre; in so moche 

' Pag. 106. — ' Pag. io3 — ' Pag. 139. — ' Pag. 129. 



THE INTRODUCTION. xxxvn 

that if any verbe be of the thyrde conjugation , I set out ail his 
rotes and tenses, wherin the lernar myglit hâve any difficulty, 
as the latin grammariens havedone the preterites and supines 
of suche verbes as in that tong be of any dilTycultye. 



OF THE PARTICYPLE. 



Participles thistong hath buttwayne, the présent participle 
actyve, whlche ever endeth in ant, what so ever conjugation 
the verbe be of, as parlant, conuertissant and faysant; and the 
prétérit participle passyve, whiche, for the fyrst conjugation 
endeth ever in E, havyng the accent upon that E, for the 
seconde ever in Y, and the thyrde endeth outher in S, with / or 
N before S, or in one of thèse thre letters T, U or Y. 

OF THE ACCIDENTES BELONGVNG TO THESE TWO PARTICIPLES. 

Présent participles hâve no mo accidentes but onely nombre 
and gendre, as parlant,parlans: conuertissant, comiertissans : faysant, 
faisans, whiche serve to bejoynedunto allmanezsubstantyves 
masculyneor feminynewithoutany fartherchangyng,by cause 
ail suche participles be of the commen gendre, so that élégant, 
elegans : élégante, élégantes and suche lyke, whiche in this tong 
bave two distincte gendres, be adjectyves and no présent par- 
ticiples. Passyve participles bave two gendres distinctes and two 
nombres, as parlé, parlez, parlée, parlées : conuerty, conuertys : con- 
uertée, connertées : faict , faictz :faicte,faictes. And thus, as I sup- 
pose, I bave hère sufflciently declaredhow the analogie of the 
french tong, thorowe ail theyr partes déclinable, is chefly 
grounded upon this ternarius numerus , for the knowledge of 
theyr partes indeclynable remyttyng the lernar to the seconde 
boke, but especially to their tables in the thirde boke : onely 
hère touchyng that, lyke as we out of our adjectyves forme our 



XXXVIII THE INTRODUCTION, 

adverbes of qualité by addyng to of ly, as of good goodly, fayre 
fayrely and suche lyke, so the frencbe men of theyr feminyne 
- adjectyves forme theyr adverbes of qualité by addynge to of 
ment, as of bonne bonnement, of belle bellement, etc. 

OF THE THRE CONCORDES OF GRAMMAR IN THE FRENCHE TONG. 

As touchyng theyr congruite wherby they joyne theyr ad- 
jectyves, pronownes, and participles unto substantyves or pro- 
nownes, whan they stande for substantyves, and theyr verbes 
unto theyr nominatyve cases , and theyr relatyves unto theyr 
antécédentes, they therin be moche moreparfyte than we be, 
and moche more resemble the latine tong : In so moche that , 
lyke as the latines bave thre concordes of grammar, that is to 
say, betwene the substantyve and the adjectyve, betwene the 
nominatyve case and the verbe , and betwene the relatyve and 
his antécédent, the frenche tonghath the selfe and the same, 
but with this différence : for, where as theyr substantyves 

• hâve no cases, therfore ail theyr thre sortes of adjectyves bave 
none, and so they agre onely in gendre and nombre, but 
theyr verbes agre with theyr nominatyve cases in nombre and 
parsone, in ail thynges, lyke as they do in latin, and so do 
theyr relatyves with theyr antécédentes in thre, gendre, nom- 
bre and parson. Andso mociie attayne they towardes the par- 
fection of the latine tonge in this thyng that they use also con- 
ceptyon, bothe in gendre and parsone. And in one thynge 
they passe the latines, for they cause theyr participle prétérit, 
after the tenses of ye ay, to agre with the accusatyve case that 

j is governed of hym, and nat with the nominatyve case that 
goth before hym, as I déclare in my seconde boke in the liiii 
lefe\ where I speke of the participle But yet so moche do the 

' Pag. 137. 



THE INTRODUCTION. xxxix 

frenchmen covyte to avoyde ail maner displesaunt sounde 
in tlieyr pronounciation , that they prefer it somtyme afore 
theyr congruyte, (as I hâve afore touched) in so moche that, 
if they must joyne any of the thre fyrst pronownes derivatyves 
with a feminyne substantyve begynnyng with a vowell, they use 
nat ma, ta, sa, but mon, ton, son, to avoyde the yvell sounde 
of the two vowelles, if they shulde be sounded one after an 
other, as I déclare in the seconde boke, the xxxvi lefe', and for 
the same cause, breke they somtyme the congruite betwene the 
substantyve and the adjectyve, as I déclare in the adjectyve, 
in the thyrde boke : of thèse other concordes and conceptions 
for examples remyttyng the lernar to the seconde boke, to 
theyr places , but specially to the thyrde boke. 

OF THE DIFFERENCES OF PHRASYS BETWENE ODR TONG AND THE FRENCHE TONG. 

And nowe hère somthyng to speke of the thyrde and last 
thyng where in our tong and the frenche speche differeth. 
The phrasys of our tong and theyrs differeth chefely in thre 
thynges. Fyrst : bycause they hâve somtyme mo wordes in a 
sentence than we bave in the same, whiche happenetli partly 
by cause they bave thre wordes to expresse the name of a 
thyng whiche we expresse by one word alone, as where we 
say a poUaxe, they say vng beccj de Jaaîcon, and contrary by 
cause we hâve mo wordes than they, as for « holde thy pece » 
they say : tay toy. Seconde : by cause, whan we use a verbe 
as parsonall, they use the same verbe as imparsonall, as for « I 
« caze nat » they say : il ne men chault, and, for « I must », il me 
fault, and suche lyke. And thirdly by cause, thoughe we gyve 
worde for worde out of out tong in to theyrs , y et we shall nat 
expresse the sence that they mean in theyr tong, whiche 

' Pag. 80. 



XL THE INTRODUCTION, 

thyng somthynge here in a generalte to expresse, I shall conse- 
quently shewe tlie différent use betwene us and them thorowe 
ail theyr ix partes of speche. 

OF THE PHRASYS BELONGYNG TO THE ARTICLE. 

Thouglie we use a ever before our substantyves in the syn- 
gular nombre , they use vncj in the plurell nombre , if the sub- 
stantyve of hym selfe be plurell, as vues nopces : vues lettres. 

OF THE PHRASYS BELONGYNG TO THE SUBSTANTYVES. 

Where we use to name dyvers thynges by payres, as a payre 
of belowes, a payre of sysers, they use them by one worde in 
the plurell lettre with the article plurell , as vncjz snjjletz : vncjz 
ciseletz. Also where as we semé to hâve a genityve case, for 
so moche as, by adding of is to our substantyve, we sygnifye 
possessyon, as my maisteris gowne, my ladyis boke, whiche 
with us contrevailleth as moche as the gowne of my maister, 
the boke of my lady, they hâve no suche fynall addition to sy- 
gnifye possessyon in theyr tong, and yet farthermore they 
take awaye the preposytion and say, la robbe mon maistre : le 
livre ma dame. And thyrdely, where as we adde any wordes for 
a différence to any substantyve, we put the différence before, 
and say a winde myll, a weddercocke, a fyer pan, and suche 
lyke, they torne the order contrary , and adde this preposytion 
a, as vng cachet au vent : vncj moulin au vent : vnepoille a feu. 

OF THE PHRASYS BELONGYNG TO ADJECTYVES. 

Where we put our adjectyve before the substantyve, whan 
he is put to hym by cause of a différence , and say a whyte 
hors, a rounde cappe, a long gowne, they torne the order and 
say vng chenal blanc, vng bonet rond, vne robbe longue. Also 



THE INTRODUCTION. xu 

where as we make comparison by adding of certayne letters to 
the ende of our posytives , as whyte, whyter, whytest : blacke, 
blacker, blackest, they kepe the adjectyve unchanged, and 
adde plus or le plus before hym, as I hâve afore declared in the 
thyrde accident of adjectyves. 

OP THE PHRASYS BELON6YNG TO PRONOWNES. 

Where we use to put our pronownes primityves after the 
verbes that governe them and say : I love hym, he beteth me, 
I défende her, they say : je le ayme, il me bat, je la deffens. Put- 
tyng ever the pronowne of the accusatyve case before the 
verbe that governeth hym, Also where as we use our pro- 
nownes possessyves, whan we betoken an acte or hurte to be 
done to a parson, as he hath hurle my bande, thou burnest 
thy hère, he shali breke his necke, they torne the possessyve 
into his primityve, and in his stede use the article le, as il ma 
blessé la mayn, tu te brusles les cheneulx, il se rompera le col, 
usyng in the thyrde parson reciprocation, whiche in thistong 
is moche more precisely used ihan in latin , and as for dou- 
blyng of the pronowne in the declynation parsonall of mean 
verbes I bave afore spoken there of. 

OF THE PHRASYS BELONGYNG TO VERBES. 

Somtyme in afifyrmation they put en before the verbe, more 
than we hâve in our tong in the same sentence, as for he is 
fledde, they saye : il sen est enjuy. Also in négation they use 
one of thèse thre wordes,pa5, point or mye, more than we bave 
in our tong, as for I wylnat do it, they saye : je ne leferay pas, 
or point. But mye is an olde Romant worde and nowe is out of 
use, as I déclare in my seconde boke, the xlvi lefe \ in the ix ac- 

' Pag. 1 1 o. 



♦ 



xui THE INTRODUCTION, 

cident. There be also other sortes of phrasys betwene our tong 
and theyrs whiche happcn by reason of the verbes, as for I 
can nat do withall, tbey say : je ne puis mais ; and suche other 
whiche were to long hère to make rehersall of , for I suppose 
they be nat so fewe as nerehande a thowsande, and therfore, 
for the certayne knoledge of them, I remyt the lernar to the 
table of verbes where ail suche phrasys be set out at the lengtli 
after, as they corne in order. 

OF THE PHRASYS BELONGYNG TO PARTICIPEES. 

The frenche tong dyvers tymes, in the stede of our parti- 
ciple, useth the prétérit parfyte tens of the infynityve mode, 
as, where we say : is this my rewarde for servyngof you trew- 
ly, they say : est cecy mon (juerdon pour vous auoir loyallement 
seruy : For the particuler knowledge of this thyng remyttyng 
the lernar sjjecially to my thyrde boke, where I speke of ihese 
thynges at the length , and howe they use somtyme to agre 
theyrparticiple with the accusatyve case of the pronowne, whan 
he is governed of the nominatyve case, to the tenses oije ay, I 
déclare in the seconde boke, the lhii lefe\ in the v accident 
belongyng to participles. 

OF THE PHRASYS BELONGYNG UNTO PREPOSITIONS. 

For to the, in the , and of the, beyng two distyncte wordes in 
our tong, they use au, du, and ou, aux, des, and es, as I déclare 
in my seconde boke the lv lefe ^, in the fourlh accident belong- 
yng unto preposytions. And whan we shewe a thing to bave 
more or lesse of any substance, they use to adde theyr préposi- 
tion Je, more than we in our tong bave in the same sentence, as 
for moche payne, lesse connyng, more bred, lytell wyne, they 

' Pag. i36. — ' Pag. i4o. 



THE INTRODUCTION. xuu 

say : beaucoup de peine, moyns de science, plus de payn, peu de vyn, 
as I déclare in tlie sayd second boke, the lvi lefe \ in the v ac- 
cident belongyng to preposytions. Andhowe somtyme ihey levé 
out de where we use of in our long, I hâve afore touclied in the 
phrasys belongyng to substantyves , and déclare it in the se- 
conde boke in the sayd v accident belongyng to preposytions. 

OF THE PHRASYS BELONGYNG TO THE ADVERBES. 

Whan they use any adverbe of comparation with (fue, fo- 
lowinge hym, sygnifiyng than, theyr verbe must bave ne be- 
fore hym , though we use nat in our tong to put nat before our 
verbe, as for more than I say, lesse than I deserve, better than 
he dolh, they say : plus que je ne dis, moins que je ne mérite, mieulx 
cfuil ne fait, as I déclare in the seconde boke, the lviii lefe^, in 
the accidentes particuler belongyng to adverbes : and, in the 
same accident, I déclare also that, if any adverbe in hymselfe 
contayne a playne négation, or sygnifie dimynisshyng or pri- 
vation, the verbe in the frenche tong shall bave ne before hym, 
though we put nat this worde nat before our verbe in the same 
sentence, as, where we say : I shall never se hym, it pleaseth 
me nothyng, I love hym but a lytell, they say : je ne le verray 
jamais, il ne me plait en riens, je ne laime guaires. Theyr be also 
dyvers other sortes of phrasys betwene our tong and theyrs, 
by reason that they and we expresse the sence of one selfe ad- 
verbe by farre différent wordes, wliiche were hère to longe to 
be rehersed, for at the leest they be nat moche under a thow- 
sande, but unto the lernar it is no diffiyculte to corne to the 
very parfyte knowledge and use of them ail, for they raay 
easely be founde out under the question that they belong, to 
make answere unto in the table of adverbes. 

' Pag. i4i. — ' Pag. 147. 



xLrv THE INTRODUCTION. 

OF THE PHRASYS BELONGYNG CNTO THE CONJUNCTYONS AND INTERJECTYONS. 

Phrasis generall betwene our tong and theyrs, concernyng 
theyr conjunclyons or interjectyons I fynde none, but of par- 
ticular phrasys there is a great nombre, as may appere to the 
lernar in the table of conjunctyons in the thyrde boke. 

A CONCLDSYON OF THE ADTHOCR CONCERNYNG THESE TWO INTRODUCTYONS. 

Thus bave I hère for an introduction suffycientiy declared 
the thre chefe thynges where in the frenche tong so moche 
difl'ereth from ours, and semeth unto them at our natyon so 
barde to corne by, whiche introductyon , if it be attentyfly over 
redde, and the conjugation of the thre parfyte verbes in the 
seconde boke, je parle, je conuertis anà je fais, and the thre verbes 
anomales je ay, je^uis and je menvas, parfytly conned without 
boke , the lernar may than, by the helpe of my tables, by bis 
own study be able to translate any matter or sentence he wyll 
out of our tong in to frenche, and so incontynente accustome 
hym to bave theyr commen speche, whiche by this meanes 
with a lytell study is sone attayned unto. But if any of our 
nation be desyrous to be exquisyt in the frenche tong, and by 
traycte of tyme, covyte to come unto suche parfyle knowledge 
therin that he may be able to do servyce in the faict of secre- 
tarishype or other wyse in to those partyes lo bave farther 
charge, or to use amongest them the fait of marchandyse, let 
hym rede over ail the thre bokes by order, and he shall evi- 
dently parceyve that the fruyt of bis labour shall farre passe 
any traveyle , which shalbe nedefull or requisyte to be there 
about employed. 



HERE FOLOWETH THE CHAPITERS CONTAYNED IN THIS FYRST BOKE, 
AND WHAT MATTERS THEY ENTREAT OF. 

Capitula. 

Wherin trewe soundyng of ihe frenche long restelh i. 

The soundyng of this vowell A n. 

The soundyng of ihis vowell E ni. 

The soundyng of this vowell / un. 

The soundyng of this vowell v. 

The soundyng of this vowell U vi. 

In what wordes this vowell / shalbe sounded where he his nat written vu. 

In what wordes this vowell U shalbe sounded where he his nat written vin. 

In what wordes this vowell U is written in , where he is lefte unsounded ix. 

Howe many diphthonges iheyr be in the frenche tong, and by what meanes it shalbe 

knoven in the frenche vocabuler whan / and t/be vowelles, and whan ihey be 

consonantes x. 

The soundyng of this diphthong ai xi. 

The soundyng of this diphthong ei xn. 

The soundyng of this diphthong oi xiii. 

The soundyng of this diphthong au xiiii. 

The soundyng of ihis diphthong eu xv. 

The soundyng of this diphthong ou xvi. 

The soundyng of this diphthong ui, whiche is onely propre to the frenche long. xvii. 

What différence is in sounde betwene / and Y xviii. 

That no vowellc is left unsounded, thoughe there come never so many to gether 

in a frenche worde xix. 

The 80undynge of this letter H, whan he hath his aspiration and whan nat, and 

what is ment by aspiration xx. 

Howe many wordes there be in the frenche tong , whiche havyng H written at 

theyr begynnyng gyve hym his aspiration xxi. 

Whan H commyng before a vowell in the mean syllables shall bave his aspiration , 

and whan nat xxii. 

Howe ch, ph and th be sounded in the frenche tong xxiii. 

To knowe howe the consonantes oughte to be sounded in the frenche tonge . . . xxiiii . 
1 ■' A generall rule for the trewe soundyng of consonantes, as they come to gether 

n in the fyrst syllables of any frenche worde by him selfe xxv. 

Syxe generall rules for the trewe soundynge of consonantes , as they come in the 

mean syllables of frenche wordes xxvi. 

Sevyn generall rules for the trewe soundyng of consonantes, as they come to- 

gelher folowyng the last vowelles of frenche wordes, sounded by themselfe. . xxvii. 



^- 



Wr 



xLvi THE TABLE OF THE CHAPITERS 

Capitol*. 

The declaralion of thèse général! rules by the example of this consonant B. . xxviii. 

The soundyng particular and proper to this consonant C xxix. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant D xxx. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant F. xxxi. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant G xxxn. 

Of this letter H, whan he hath the power or strength of a consonant , and whan 

nat xxxm. 

The 'Soundyng of J, whan he his a consonant xxxiiii. 

The soundyng of this consonant K, whiche in maner is never used in the frenche 

tong XXXV. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant L xxxvi. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant M xxxvii. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant N. xxxvm. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant P xxxix. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant Q xl. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant R xli. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant S xlii. 

What wordes in the frenche tong sounde theyr s distinctly, coœmyng in the 

mean syllables, contrary to the gênerai rules above rehersed xlhi. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant T, XLiiù. 

The soundyng of V whan he is a consonant xlv. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant X xlvi. 

The soundyng particular of this consonant Z xlvii. 

Foure generall rules for ihe Irewe redyng of frenche wordes, as they comc toge- 

ther in sentences xlviii. 

Whan E, beyng the last letter in frenche wordc, the next worde folowyng be- 

ginyng with a vowell, shalbe left unsounded and whan nat xlix. 

What wordes there be in the frenche long endyng in £ or ^ , whiche in writyng 

also levé out theyr E or A , and joyne theyr consonantes to the vowell of the 

wordes folowyng l. 

What pronownes ende in E or A, whiche in writyng levé oui theyr vowell and 

joyne theyr consonantes to the wordes folowyng li. 

Whan preposytions levé out theyr E in writyng and joyne theyr consonant or 

letters to the word folowyng lu. 

What adverbes levé out theyr E in writyng and' joyne their consonant to the 

worde folowyng lui. 

What conjunctyons levé out theyr E in writyng and joyne theyr consonant to 

the worde folowyng luu. 

Of le and la whiche, though ihey be comprehended under none of the latin 

VIII parles of speche , ycl also folowe this rule Lv. 

To kepe Irewe accent in the frenche tong, and what this worde accent sygnifyeth. lvi. 
That no worde of one sillable in the frenche tong hath any accent lvii. 



CONTAYNED IN THE FYRST BOKE. xlvii 

That ail ihe wordes in ihe frenche long beyng of many syllables liave tlieyr 

accent, oulher on llieyi' laste syllable or on iheyr lasle syllable saufe one. . . . LViii. 

What wordes there be in tlie frenche tong, whiche in writyng be lyke, and by 
reason of dyvers accent, liave dyvers sygnifycations lix. 

What wordes in the frenche tong hâve theyr accent on theyr last syllables save 
one Lx. 

What wordes in the frenche tong bave theyr accent on theyr laste syllables lxi. 

To knowe whan a vowell shalbe long in pronounciation, and whan nat, and to 
shewe what is ment therby, by example of wordes in our tong lxii. 

Example of sentences where A shalbe long in pronounciation lxiii. 

Example where E , beyng the last vowell of a worde, shalbe long in pronouncia- 
tion LXIIII. 

Example where E, commyng in the last syllable saufe one , shalbe long in pro- 

nounciatyon lxv. 

Example where /, beyng the laste vowell in a worde, shalbe long in pronoun- 

ciatyon » • ■ ■ lxvi. 

Example where 0, beyng the laste vowell in a worde, shalbe long in pronoun- 

ciatyon i.xvii, 

To shewe by example the great différence betwene the writyng of the frenche 

tong and the soundyng of it, in redyng and spekyng lxviii. 

Example howe prose shulde be sounded , by the begynnyng of the Quadrilogue 

of Alain Chartier lxix. 

Example howe thynges wrilten in ryme shulde be sounded, by the begynnyng 

of the Exyle of Alayn Chartier lxx. 

Another example of Prose rehersed in the xxxi chapiter of the fyrst boke Des 

illustrations de Gaule, where Jehan le Maire bringelh in Pallas spekyng to 

Paris Lxxi. 

Another example in ryme of Guillaume de Lorris , wliiche begynneth the Romant 

of the Rose thus lxxii 

Two causes why I hâve gyven exampie of thèse ihre auclhours specially above 

ail olhers lxxiii. 



LAUCTEUR 



EN RENDANT MERCIS A MAISTRE. 



A tout chascun il fault rendre son deu , 

T ei que de droict et rayson y appent. 

H onneur aux grans , rcuerence a uerlu , 

O ultre ce amour, a cil qui nous apprent. 

M ais en adversité , aussi sentent , 

A tous couraige pitoyable porter, 

S il est amy, adonc le fault monstrer. 

A lors bien a le prend occasion, 

R endre du bien pour le bien acquis. 

V ng noble cucur remply deffection 

N e peult souffrir que son amy mal mis, 

D oybue périr, ayns baille son aduis, 

E t pour iuy parle, et luy enuoye du sien, 

L e loyal amy passe tout aultre rien. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



THE FYRST BOKE, 

WHERIN THE TRUE SOWNDYNGE OF THE FRENCHE TONGE 

RESTETH. 

CAPITULUM PRIMUM. 



Régula 
sec and a. 



The Irue soundynge of thc frenche tonge resteth in gyvyng to Régula prima, 
every frenche worde by hymselfe his naturali frenche sounde, and 
in soundynge frenche wordes, as thev corne to gether in sentences, 
lyke as the frenchemen use to do. 

The true soundynge of every frenche worde by hymselfe resteth 
in gyvyng unto every vowell, diphthonge and consonant with whiche 
they be written, theyr true frenche sounde, and in leavynge suche 
consonantes unsounded as be used with them to be written for the 
kepynge of true orthographie, and yel in redynge and spekyng be 
left unsounded. 

The true soundyng of frenche wordes, as ihey corne to gether in 
sentences, is to gyve to every worde his true accent, and to every 
vowell his juste tyme of pronunciatiou longe or shorte, and in the 
leavynge of suche vowels or consonantes unsounded beynge the last 
letters of frenche wordes, by reason of the letters that the wordes 
nexte folowynge them begynne with, as the frenche tonge useth to 
do. But as for vowelles in frenche wordes by them selfe there is none 



Régula tertia. 



2 LESCLARCISSEMËNT 

written but they be sounded either distinctly or shortly and confusely 

(save somtyme v) as shall hère after appere. 



THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS VOWELL A. 
CAPITULUM II. 



Régula prima. 



Régula 
seciinda. 



Exceptio 

a 

secunda régula. 



Eiceptio 
secunda. 



A in the frenche tonge hath Iwo dy verse soundes, for somtyme 
they somide hym iyke as we do in our tonge, and somtyme they 
sounde hym Iyke this diphthong au and a lyttell in the noose. 

The soundyng of a whiche is most generally used through out the 
frenche tonge, is suche as we use with us where the best englysshe 
is spoken, whiche is Iyke as the Italians sounde a, or they with us 
that pronounce the latine tonge aryght. 

If m or n folowe nexte after a in a frenche worde , ail in one syl- 
lable, than a shall be sounded Iyke this diphthong au, and somethyng 
in the noose, as thèse wordes ambre, chambre, mander, amant, tant, 
quant, parlant, regardant, shall in redynge and spekynge be sownded 
aumbre, chaumbre, maunder, amaunt, taunt, qaaanl, parlaunt, regar- 
daant, soundyng the a Iyke au and somethynge in the noose , and so 
of ail suche other. 

But this rule hath one exception , for if the syllable next folowynge 
of any suche wordes begynne also with a Iyke consonant, that is to 
say, with another m or n, as in thèse wordes Jlàmme , gamme, bannyr, 
tanny, in ail suche a shalbe sounded Iyke the gênerai! soundynge of 
a and nat as I bave hère afore declared. 

Excepte also that any of thèse ihre letters c g or p folowe nexte 
after them belongynge to the same vowell that they do, as blanc, sang, 
champ and suche Iyke, for in ail suche a shalbe sounded after bis most 
generall sounde, and nat Iyke au; and as for âme, dame, lame, rdne, 
and ail suche Iyke shall sownde theyr a after the generall sowndynge 
of a, and nat Iyke au, though m or n folowe next after the a, for, as 
I bave sayd hère before, that rule is nat kept but where as a and m 
or n come both to gether in one syllable. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 3 

Aa l fynde nat wrilten to getlier through ali the frenche long, save 
onely in thèse wordes aàge, aagér, aaysér, and the wordes that corne 
of them : yet Jehan le Mayre useth to writte them eayge and eaygér, 
but where so ever in any writtyng aa shall fortune to come to gether, 
every of them shall hâve his distinct sounde, after the generall 
soundynge of a, accordyng as I hâve hère declâred. 



Reguia lertia 



THE SOWNDYNGE OF THIS VOWELL E. 
CAPITCLUM III. 



E in the frenche tong liath thi^e dy verse sowndes, for somtyme 
they sownde hym lyke as we do in our tonge in thèse wordes « a beere, 
« a beest, a peere, a beene, » and suche lyke. Sometyme they sounde 
hym lyke an a and a lyttell in the noose , and sometyme almost lyke 
an and very moche in the noose. 

The sowndyng of e whiche is most generally kepte with them , is 
suche as we gyve to e in our tong in thèse wordes above rehersed, 
that is to say lyke as the Italians sounde e or they with us that pro- 
nounce the latine tong aright : so thaï e in frenche hath never suche 
a sownde as we use to gyve hym in thèse wordes : « a bee suche as 
« maketh honny; a beere to laye a deed corps on; a peere a make or 
" a felowe, » and as we sounde dyvers of our pronownes endynge in e, 
as «we, me, the, he, she, » and suche lyke; for suche a kynde of 
soundynge both in frenche and latine , is allmoste the ryght pronoun- 
ciation of i, as shall hère after appere. 

If m or n folovve nexte after e ail in oiie syllable, than e shall be 
sounded lyke an italian a and some thynge in the noose, so that for 
thèse wordes thus written emblcr, amendrir, endementiérs, humblement, 
and suche lyke, in redynge and spekynge they sounde amhler, aman- 
drir, andemanliers , humblemanl , and so of ail suche other, and this 
sounde also they gyve unto e, though the nexte syllable folovvynge 
begynne also with an other m or n, as femme, mienne, tienne, sienne, be 
sounded with them famme, mianne, tianne, sianne, and so of ail suche 



Régula prima. 



Reguia 
secunda. 



Rezula tertia. 



Exceptio 
a tertia régula 



4 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

other. As for démener, dénoter, bénédiction, tenement, and suche lyke shall 
nat sounde the e in theyr fyrste syllables lyke a , thoughe m or n folowe 
next after them : for, as I hâve sayde, tliis ruie holdeth nat but where 
as e and m or n come ail together in one syllable. 

But yet nat unyversally thvough ail the frenche tong, where e 
conuneth next afore m or n in one syllable, he shall bave the sounde 
of a, for where as the thyrde parsonnes plurelles of verbes actyves 
in the frenche tonge, almost in every of theyr modes and tenses in 
writtynge ende in ent, as ayment, aymôyent, aymérent, aymerôyent, ay~ 
massent, conuertissent , conaerlissoyent , conueriirent , conuertirôyent , con~ 
uertissent. disent, disôyent, dirent, dirôyent, dissent, in redynge or spe- 
kynge they sounde ail suche thus aymet, aymoyet, aymeret, aymeroyet, 
aymasset. conuertisset , conuerlissoyet , conuertiret, conuertiroyet , conuer- 
tissel. diset, disoyet, diret, diroyet, disset, leavynge the n in ail suche 
uusownded , and pronounsynge the e after the moste generall sown- 
dynge of e. 
Régula quarta. But where as dyvcrse thyrde parsones syngular of verbes end in 
ent, as well personall as il prent, il rcnt, il sent, as impersonall as il co- 
ulent, il deuient, il apariieni , il luy souuyent, ail suche shall folowe the 
rule of e comynge before m or n in one syllable , and in redynge or 
spekynge be sounded, ilprant, ilrant, il sant, and so of the resydue 
and ail suche lyke. 

If e be the laste vowell in a frenche worde beynge of many syl- 
lables, eyther alone or with an 5 folowynge hym, the worde nat ha- 
vyng bis accent upon the same e, than shall he in tliat place be sounded 
almoste lyke an o and very moche in the noose, as thèse wordes, 
homme , femme , honéste, parle, hommes , femmes , honéstes, avécques, shall 
bave theyr laste e sounded in maner lyke an o, as hommo,femmo, ho- 
nesto, parlo. hommos , femmos , honestos, avecquos; so that, if the reder 
lyft iip bis voyce upon the syllable that commeth nexte before the 
same e, and sodaynly depresse bis voyce whan he cometh to the soun- 
dynge of hym , and also sounde hym very ntioche in the noose, he 
shall sounde e beyng written in tbis place accordyng as the Frenche- 



Regula quinta. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. f) 

men do. Whiche upon this warnynge if the lerner wyll observe by 
ihe frenche mens spekynge, he shall easely perceyve. 

But if e be the last letter of a frenche worde eyther beyng of one Excepiio 
syllable or of niany, havynge his accent upon the same e, than shall ^**"'" "^ ^' ' 
he in ail suche wordes be sounded after the most generall soundyng 
of e, and nat as I bave hère afore described, as in the wordes beyng 
of one syllable in this sentence : il me lefaict de bon gré,- and in thèse 
wordes of niany syllables bonlé, beaallé, parlé, regardé,- and in ail other 
of lyke sort, there e shalbe sounded after the most generall soundyng of 
e, and nat almost lyke an o or any thynge in the noose; whiche cometli 
by reason that in ail suche wordes the accent falleth upon the sanie e. 
And of this sort also is ciprés, excès, exprés, procès, and suche lyke, 
tkoughe s folowe after e, bycause theyr accent is upon the same e, 
as shall hère after in his place appere. But whiche wordes in the 
frenche tonge endyngc in e bave theyr accent upon the same e and 
whiche upon the syllable that cométh nexte before hym il shall hère 
after appere in the chaplcis accent. 

And hère it is to be noted that e in this place , that is to say, bevnge Régula seita. 
the last letter in a frenche worde, may nat utterly be left unsounded 
(except the worde folowyng be cause of it) as we do for the most 
part in our tong in nowyse, for that writtyng of e and nat soundynge 
of hym bave we taken of the saxon tong, or rather douche tong : 
whiche, if we woli rede or speke frenche naturaiJv, we must nedes 
amende. 

If ee come to gether in a frenche worde in the ineane syllables, Regulasepiima. 
whiche often bappenneth , a.s prééminence , beér, hecr, neemént, uergondee- 
mént, and suche lyke, in ail suche wordes both ee shall hâve theyr 
distinct sounde by them selfe after the most generall soundyng of e. 

If ee come to gether in the last ende of a frenche worde, whiche Régula ociava. 
happennetl) in dyverse substantyves, as matinée, vesprée, soyrce, and 
suche lyke, and also in ail the femyne genders of participles of the 
fyrst conjugation in the frenche tong, as aymée, parlée, gardée, tor- 
mentée, troublée, and suche lyke, in ail suche the fyrst e shall bave bis 



6 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

sounde after the most generall soundyngc of e, havyng the accent of 
the worde upon hym, and the last e shalbe soiinded almost iyke an o, 
accordyng to the ruie hère afore declared. 



THE SOWNDYNG OF THIS VOWELL l. 
CAPITULUM IV. 



Régula 
seconda. 



Régula prima. /, in the frenche tong hath i i dyverse nianers of soundynges. The 

soundyng of i, which is most generally used in the frenche tong, is 
like as the Italians sounde i, and suche with us as sounde the latine 
tong aright, whiche is almost as we sounde e in thèse wordes « a bee a 
« Aie, a beere for a deed corps, a peere a felowe, a fee a rewarde, » 
a litell more soundynge towardes i, as we sounde i with us. 

If i be the first letter in a frenche worde or the laste, he shall, in 
those twO places, be sounded Iyke as we do this letter y in thèse 
wordes with us, « by and by, a spye, a flye, awry, » and suche other, 
in whiche places, in those frenche bokes as be diligently imprinted 
they use to writte this letter y. But whether the frenche worde be 
written with i or y, in thèse two places he shalbe sounded as I bave 
shewed hère in this rule , as in ymage, conaerty, ydole, estourdy, in 
whiche the y hath suche sounde as we wolde gyve hym in our tonge. 

Régula lertia. J i to come to gether in a frenche worde I fynde used of none 
auctor save onely of Jehan le Maire whiche useth to viritte festijér, 
christijén , glorifijér, specifijér, magnijijér, whiche Alayn Chartier wolde 
writie festoyer, cristièn, glorifier, spécifier, magnifier, whiche orthogra- 
phye 1 more commende : for, as I shall hère after déclare, it is agaynst 
the nature of the frenche tonge to hâve ii come to gether, eyther both 
as vowels, or the lîrst as consonant belongynge to the i folowyng. 



THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS VOWEL O. 
CAPITULUM V. 



Régula prima. in the frenche tong hath two divers nianers of soundynges. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 7 

The soundyng of o, whiche is mot generall with them is lyke as we 
sounde o in thèse wordes in our tonge « a boore , a soore , a coore » 
and such lyke, that is to say, lyke as the Italians sounde o, or they 
with us that sounde the latine tong aright. 

If m or n foiowe next after o in a franche worde both in one syl- 
lable, than shall the o be soimded almost lyke this diphthonge ou 
and some thyng in the noose : as thèse wordes mon, ton, son, renom 
shalbe sownded moun, loun, soun, renoum and so of ali sache other; 
and in like wyse shall o be sownded though the next syllable folo- 
wynge begynne with an other m or n, as in thèse wordes home, somme, 
bonne, tonnerre, whiche they sounde hoame, boune, soamme, toanner; 
and so of suche other. 



Régula 
secunda. 



THE SOU.NDYNGE OF THIS VOWEL U. 
CAPITULUM VI. 



U, in the frenche tong, where so ever he is a vowel by hymselfe, 
shall be sownded like as we sownde ew in thèse wordes in our tong: 
« rewe an herbe , a mew for a hauke , a clew of threde , » and suche 
lyke , restyng upon the pronounsyng of hym , as for thèse wordes : plus , 
nul, fus, user, humble, uertà, they sounde plevas, nevul, fevus, évaser, 
hevumble, uertevu, and so in ail other wordes where u is a vowel by 
hym selfe alone : so that in the soundynge of this vowel they diiferre 
both from the latine tong and from us. And as for w is no letter used 
in the frenche tong, but belongeth to the saxon tong of whom we 
hâve taken it, and therfore as impertinent I passe it over. 



Régula unica. 



IN WHAT WORDES THIS VOWEL / SHALBE SOUNDED WHERE HE IS NAT 

WRITTEN. 

CAPITDLUM VII. 

Besydes the diverse soundynges of thèse fyve vowels in the frenche Régula prima 
tong where as they be written, they sounde this vowel i somtyme 



Reguia 
secundo. 



"Exceplio. 



Regulaqiiarla. 



8 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

shortlv and confusely where he is nat written. For whiche thynge it 
is to be noted that whan soever the lui letters illa, ille or illo come 
to gilher in a nowne substantive or in a verbe, the i nat havyng an o 
commynge next before bym, they use to sounde an i shortiy and con- 
fusely betwene the last / and the vowel folovvyng, albe it that in 
writtyng they expresse none suche, as thèse wordes, ribaudaille , faille , 
bailler, gaillàrt, neillàrt, billùrt , faeille , fille , cheuille, qaocqiiille, ardil- 
lon, basiillôn, covillôn, and suche hke in redyng or spekynge they 
sounde thus : ribaadaillic, faillie, baillier, gailliart, ueilliart, billiarl, 
fueillic, fillie, cheuillie, quocquillie, ardillion, bastillion, covillion; but, 
as I hâve sayd, if the i hâve an o commyng next before hym, in ail 
suche wordes they sounde none i after the letter /; so thaï, thèse 
nownes substantyves moylle, uoille, toille, and suche iyke he except 
from this rule. 

And note that, thougli in thèse wordes above rehersed this vowell i 
be sounded where lie is nat written, that thyng shall nothynge do in 
the ahei"}'nge of the accent of any suche wordes no more than thoughe 
he were nat sounded at ail : for in that thyng the reder shall regarde 
how they be written onely. Except also from this rule aille whiche 
soundeth none i after bis lalter /. 

Also wlian so ever thèse m letters yna, (jne or gno corne to gyther, 
eyther in a nowne substantive or in a verbe , the reder shall sounde 
an i shortiy and confusely betwene the n and the vowel folowynge, 
as for: gaignà, seigneur, mignon, champignon, uergoignc, mainliéngne, 
charoigne : he shall sounde, gaignia , seignieur, mignion, champinion , 
uergoignie, cliaroignie, maintiengnie , nat chaungynge therfore the ac- 
cent, no more than though the sayd i were unsounded. 

But from this rule be excepted thèse two substantyves signe and 
régne, with theyr verbes signer and régner, whiche with ail that be 
formed of them the reder shall sounde as they be written onely. 

Also ail wordes in the frenche tong whiche in writtyng ende in 
âge shall in redyng and spekyng sounde an ; betwene a and g, as 
though that a were this diphthong ai; as for langage, heretàge, sage, 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 9 

dammàge , bocquàge, apprentissage , they sounde langaaige , heritaige, 
saige, dammaige, bocquaige , apprentissaige , and so of ail suche lyke 
excepte rage. And noie that many tymes I fynde suche nownes 
whiche hâve the i in vvritting betwene the a and g, but, whether 
he be written or nat, in redyng or spekyng lie shalbe sounded , ac- 
cordyng as I hâve here shewed by exainple. 

fN WHAT WORDES THIS VOWEL U SHALBE SOUNDED WHERE HE IS NAT 

WRITTEN. 
CAPITULOM VIU. 

Whan soever ;« or n lolowe next after any of thèse n vowelles a Régula prima, 
or both in one syllabîe, than shall the reder sounde an u betwene 
the said vowels and m and n as though the vowell were a diphthonge , 
as ambre, tant, nom, mon shalbe sounded aumbre, taunt, noam, moun, 
accordyng as I bave shewed here before, whan I spake of the soun- 
dynge of the sayd vowelles. 

Also whan soever ihis worde ex commeth in the composicion of Régula 
any worde in the frenche tong or at the begynnynge of a worde, 
the reder shall sounde an a betwene the sayd eand x, as for exemple, 
expérience, expédient, exprimer, they sounde eaxemple, eaxperiense, 
euxpedient, eaxprimer : but if e come before x in mean syllables, they 
kepe nat this rule as in texte, complexiùn, annexer, for, in suche, there 
is no u sounded betwene the e and x. 

IN WHAT WORDES THIS VOWELL V IS WRITTEN WHERE HE IS LEFT UNSOUNDED. 

CAPITULUM IX. 

Whan V foloweth ^ in a frenche worde , a vowell comyng next after Régula prima. 
them, than shall u be left unsounded, and the q sounded with the 
vowel folowynge shall bave suche sounde as we gyve to k commynge 
before vowelles in our tong : as wbere as thèse wordes euésque, 
quartier, quant, quinze, qui, quarésme, in writtyng bave this vowell u 
commyng betwene theyr q and the vowell folowyng, in redyng or 



Régula 
secunda. 



Regiih tertia. 



Eiceptio 
» Icrtia reçtula. 



10 LESGLARCISSEMENT 

spekyng they shalbe sounded eueske, karticr, kanl, kinze, ki, karesme, 
and so of ail suche lyke in the frenche long. 

Also whan soever a foloweth ^f in a frenche worde, a wowel 
comyng next after them, in ail suche wordes the a shalbe left un- 
sounded, and the g shall hâve suche sounde, commynge heîore e or 
i, as he hath in latine commyng before a, or o, or h, as guaittér, 
gaarrant, giiéspe, guise, longue, langue, shalbe sounded : gaitler, gar- 
rant, gespe, gyse, nal jespe , jise; longe, lange, nat lonje, lanje. Except 
from this rule a gve (ii wordes), and agve, the femine gender of aga, 
and the verbe that is made of hym aguisér, and this worde ambigve, 
and ail that be formed of hym, as ambigveux, ambigvyte, whiche ail 
gyve unto h bis distinct sounde. 

Also whan soever a foloweth next after/ in a frenche worde, the 
vowel next folowyng bcyngnat an i, the a, accordyng as I bave sayd, 
shalbe left unsounded , and the /sounded distinctly witb the vowell 
folowynge, as /veille, briefve, bretifve, hatifve shalbe sounded /eiV/e, 
briefe, brelife, hatife, and so of ail suche other. 

But if i folowe next after u, than shall that « and i be sounded 
both distinctly, as yt5jr,/(;j'/j/" shalbe sounded as they be written, so 
that in this worde fvytifve the fyrst u shalbe sounded by reason that 
i foloweth hym, and the seconde « shalbe left unsounded accordyng 
to the rule. 



HOW MANY DIPHTHONGES THERE BE IN THE FRENCHE TONG, 

AND BY WHAT MEANES IT SHALBE KNOWEN IN THE FRENCHE VOCABULAR 

WHAN / AND t«E VOWELS AND WHAN THEY BE CONSONANTES. 

CAPITULUM X. 



Reguia prima. Of these vowelles above rehersed be made in the frenche tong 
VII diphthonges, that is to saye : ai, ei, oi : au, en, ou and ui, whiche 
is onely propre to the frenche tong. As for œ and œ, whiche be 
written in latine and nat sounded, it is nat material to speke of them 
in this purpose, for the frenchemen observe no suche kynde of or- 
thographie in theyr tong. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 11 

And note that nat ever whan thèse vowels corne togeder in this Reg"!» 

" secunua. 

ordre, that is to say, a, e and o, before i and a, they shalbe sounded 
lyke diphthonges : for somtyme i and a commyng after thèse vowelles 
hâve theyr distinct sounde by them selfe, and oftenlymes they be 
consonantes and than shall hâve suche sounde as shall hereafter 
appere. Whiche thyng, for by cause that in the myddell syllables 
where many vowelies corne togelher, eyther alone or with some 
one consonant with them, it myght cause a great doubt unto them 
that be desirous to lerne whether that i and w be vowelles and 
shulde be joyned to the vowelles goyng before them, and make 
with them diphthonges, orcls spelled with the vowels folowyng as 
consonantes, or hâve theyr distmct sounde by themself. 

For the avoydynge of this doubte, let the Icrnar, whan he fyndeth ^eg"'» '«^tia. 
a worde in any auctor wherof he is uncertayne, resort unto the 
frenche vocabular, and fyndyng out the same worde after the ordre 
of a, b, c, let hym marke howe the worde whyche he slandeth in 
doute of is there written; for, if i and a be vowelies, they shalbe 
written with thèse caracters j and v : and, if they be consonantes, 
they shalbe written with thèse characters i, a, and whan they be 
vowelles, if they bave theyr distinct sounde, and be nat part of a 
diphthong, they shall bave n prickes over theyr heed, thus y, v, as 
shall in thèse wordes folowynge appere by example. 

Example of wordes where i and v be vowelles and belong to the 
vowell goyng before them: sayôn, payén, layette, gâye, avôst, eâve , 
eaveûx, hévre, mévre, mevrier. 

Example where i and a be consonantes and shall belonge to the 
vowelles folowynge : ajeunir, ajourner, gajér, bourjôn , haalberjôn, 
auoyr, auoyne, aaortyne, pôvre, œvare, hàare, naarer, learyér. 

Exampie where i and v bave theyr distinct sounde horyon, ayde, 
hayr, bevryav, amer, oysyav ; as for hayoye, croyoye, ovyoye, and suche 
lyke where many vowels come to gether by reason of the formation 
of tenses, ail though that I expresse them nat in the vocabular, 
yet the lemer shall knowe howe to sounde ail suche by reason of 



12 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

the rules that 1 shall gyve for ihe formation of Icnses, as shall more 
playnly appere in the thyrde boke. And as for ail suche wordes as 
begynne eyther with i or v, havyng a vowel next folowyng the sayd 
i or tt, can never make any confusion to the ierner with what carac- 
ters se ever they be written. For generally, throughe out ail the 
frenche tonge , whan any worde begynneth eyther with i or u, ihe 
next letter immediatly folowyng beyng a vowell, the sayd i and u be 
ever consonantes; except begynnyng with i, yarér to make or waxe 
dronken, and suche as come of hym and fuoire for yvery : in whiche 
the j is a vowel, and the a next folowyng them a consonant : and 
as for juer for wynter, his true orthographie is with an h , and except 
begynnyng with v onely, vydér to go out or voyde, whiche I fynde 
written uvydér, where the fyrst v is a consonant and the seconde a 
vowell. By reason wherof the Ierner maye also be sure thaï, whan 
composicion is made with any of thèse wordes begynnyng with i or 
V, and theyr preposicions, as resjoyr, auUenér, the i and v shall ever 
be consonantes, as they were afore in the simple; so that the i be- 
fore and the v before i be consonantes in thèse compounde wordes, 
by cause theyr simples beyojrand uilenér. But, yet in thèse places, 
lest the Ierner shulde accustome any mispionunciation , I shall use 
ever the caracters afore mencioned. But if a frenche worde bave no 
mo vowelles in hym but one onely diphthonge , in ail suche wordes 
it can make no confusion , howsoever the vowelles of the sayd di- 
phthonges be written, save that in ayde, pays, and boys, eche of the 
vowelles maketh a distinct sillable by it selfe; and so inhayr, (to hâte) 
whiche as often as a and i come to gether in his conjugatyng, they 
make distinct sillables. 

THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS DIPHTHONG AL 
CAPITULUM XI. 

Régula unica. Ai in the frenche tong is sounded lyke as we sounde « ay » in thèse 
wordes in our tong « rayne, payne, fayne, disdayne, » that is to say, 
a distinctly and the i shortly and confusely. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 13 

Except in thèse wordes pays, ajde, hayr, in whiche i hath his dis- Exccptio prima, 
tinct soiinde by hym selfe , as shall by his writtyng in the vocabuiar 
appere. 

Except also the fyrst parsones singular of the future tenses of 
verbes actives in the frenche tonge, for, where as ail suche univer- 
sally ende in ray, whan they be written, as diray, feray, parleray, con- 
uertiray, in redyng and spekyng in suche contrays as theyr tonge is 
inost parfit, they say direy, ferey, parterey, conuertirey , soundyng the 
a Ivke the most generall sounde of e : and so of ail suche other. 



Exceptio 
secunda. 



THE SOUiNDYNG OF THIS DIPHTHONG El. 
CAPITULCM XI!. 



Ei universally through out ail the frenche tong shalbe sounded Régula unica. 
like as he is with us in thèse wordes « obey, a sley, a grey, » that is 
lo say, the e to bave his distinct sounde and the i to be sounded 
shortly and confusely as conseil , uermeil : and so of ail suche other. 



THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS DIPHTHONG OY. 
CAPITULUM XIII. 



Rcgula 
secunda. 



Oi in the frenche tonge hath ii diverse soundes, for sometyme it Régula prima. 
is sounded lyke as we sounde oy in thèse wordes « a boye, a froyse, 
« coye, » and suche lyke, and somtyme they sounde the i of oy almost 
lyke an a. 

The generall soundyng of oi is suche in frenche as I bave shevved 
by example in our tong, so that thèse wordes oyndre, joyndre, poyndre, 
moytie, moyen, roy, moy, loy, be sownded with them lyke as we wolde 
sounde them in our tonge. 

If s, t or X folowe next after oy in a worde of one syllable, in ail Régula ténia. 
suche the i shalbe sounded in maner lyke an a, as for boys, foys, soyt, 
croyst, uoix, croyx, they sounde boas,foas, soat, croast, uoax, croax : 
and in like wyse, in wordes of many sillables if oj be the last vowels 



14 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

of the wordes, havyng s or t folowyng them, ail suche shall soundc 

theyr i of oj lyke an a, as aincoys , francoys , disoyt, lisoyt , jasoyt , 

shalbe sounded aincoas, francoas, disoat, lisoat, jasoat : and so of ail 

suche other. But o and a, in ail suche wordes, shalbe sounded as 

though they also made a diphthong , and nat distinctly by them 

selfe. 

Exceptio. Except from this rule this worde 6oja; for boxe , in whiche o and i 

hâve eche theyr distinct sounde. 
Régula quarta. Also wlian SO ever oy cometh in the meane syllables of a worde 
havyng r or l immediatly folowyng hym, the i of oy shalbe sounded 
almost lyke an a; as (jloyre, croyre , mcmoyre , uictoyre. poille, uoille, 
poillon, shalbe sounded gloare , croare , memoare , uictoare, poalle , 
uoalle, poallon, and so of ail other. 

Exceptio. And as for royne they sounde it reyne, changyng the sounde of o 

into e, but the changyng of o into e of this diphthong oy I fynde 
onely in this worde. 

THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS DIPHTHONG AV. 
CAPITULUM XIIII. 

Régula unica. Aa in the frenclic tonge shalbe sounded lyke as we sounde hym 

in thèse wordes in our tonge, « a dawe, a mawe, an hawe. » 
Exceptio. Except where a frenche worde begynneth with this diphthong aa, 

as in thèse wordes, avlcùn, àvltre, av, avssi, avx, and auctevr, and 
ail suche lyke, in whiche they sounde the a almost lyke an o : and as 
for in amer, a and v be distinct syllables, as shall appere by bis writ- 
tyng in the frenche vocabular. 

THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS DIPHTHONG EU 
CAPITULUM XV. 

Eu in the frenche tong hath two dyver.se soundynges, for some- 
tyme they sounde hym lyke as we do in our tonge in thèse wordes 



Régula 
secuntla. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 15 

" a clewe , a shrewe , a fewe , » and somtyme like as we do in thèse 
wordes « trewe , glew , rewe , a mewe. » 

The soundyng of eu whiche is most gênerai in the frenche tong, is Régula prima, 
suche as I hâve shewed by example in thèse wordes « a dewe , a 
« shrewe , a fewe , » that is to saye, lyke as the Italians sounde eu, or 
they with us that pronounce the latine tonge aryght, as evrévx, irévx, 
liev, Diev. 

If eu be the laste letters in a frenche worde , eyther alone or 
with an s folowynge , the worde beyng eyther a nowne adj active or a 
participle or the indiffinite tense of any verbe, then shall eu be 
soiinded as 1 bave shewed by exaraple in thèse wordes : « trewe, glewe, 
« rewe , a mewe. » 

Example of nownes adjectives, of whiche adjectives Jehan le Maire 
leaveth the e unwritten, iyke as they shulde in dede be written as 
fourchév, barbév, bovssév, torlév. 

Example of participles, as decév, recév, bév, esmoîév, dev, crev, repév. 

Example of indiffinite tenses, as decévs, recévs, bèvs, crévs, repévs, 
with ail other nombres and parsons of them, whiche participles and 
indiffinite tenses also after the true perfection of the tonge shulde be 
written onely with v and so I often fynde them : but in decus, reçus, 
deçà, reçu, lest the reder shvilde gyve unto c before u the sounde of 
k, they bave added also e, and in the other rather by cause of simi- 
litude than for any trewe soundynge; for u alone hath suche a sounde, 
as I bave afore declared; but this shall in the thyrde boke, whan I 
speke of the formation of tenses, moi'e playnly appere. 



THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS DIPHTHONG OU. 
CAPITULUM XVI. 



Ou, in the frenche tong shalbe sounded lyke as the Italians sounde Régula unica. 
this vowell a, or they with us that soimde the latine tong aright, that 
is to say , almost as we sounde hym in thèse - wordes , « a cowe , a 
« mowe, a sowe, » as oùltre, sovdajn, ovbliér: and so of suche other. 



16 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



THE SOUNDYNGE OF THIS DIPHTHONGE UI, 
WHICHE IS ONLY PROPRE TO THE FRENCHE TONGE. 

CAPITULUM XVII. 

Régula unica. For as moche as u and i corne often together in ihe frenche tonge, 
where as the u hath with them his distinct sounde , and the i is sounded 
shortly and confusely, whiche is the propreté of a diphthonge, I reken 
Hi also among the diphthonges in the frenche tong, whiche, whan 
they corne to gether, shalle hâve suche a sounde in Irenche wordes 
as we gyve hym in thèse wordes in our tong : « a swyne , I dwyne , I 
«twyne, » so that thèse wordes agvysér, agvyllôn, condvyre, dedvyre, 
avjourdhvy, meslivy, and ail suche lyke shail sounde theyr u and i 
shortly to gether, as we do in our tong in the woi'des I hâve gyven 
example of, and nat eche of them distinctly by hymselfe, as we of 
our tong be inclined to sounde them, whiche wolde rather say av- 
jourdhvy, dedvyl , sanfcondvyt, soundyng them both shortly to gether. 
And so of ail suche other. 

WHAT DIFFERENCE IN SOUNDE IS BETWENE / AND Y. 
CAPITCLUM XVIII. 

Régula unica. The writtyuge of j and y in any frenche worde , eyther alone or as 

part of a diphthong, causeth no différence in sounde contrary to the 
ruies that I hâve hère afore rehersed , save that y, where he is writ- 
ten alone without an other vowell, eyther beyng the fyrst letter of a 
worde or the laste, shall bave suche a sounde as I bave shewed 
before , where I bave spoken of the soundynge of tbis vowell i. 



Régula unica. 



THAT NO VOWELL IS LEFT UNSOUNDEÛ, 
THOUGH THERE COME NEVER SO MANY TO GETHER IN A FRENCHE WORDE. 

CAPITULUM XIX. 

Thoughe there come never so many vowelles to gether in a frenche 
worde, or that a worde be made onely of vowelles as ovyoye, hayoye, 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. . 17 

and dyverse suche other, yet in ail suche wordes every vowel that 
they be written with must be sounded, eytber distinctly or confusely, 
accordyng to the ruies that I bave hereafore gyven ; so that where 
as we , in our tong , that bave nat lerned how to rede the frenche 
tong, use to sounde mon per, ma mer, un hom, anfem, for mon père, 
ma mère, ung homme, une femme, and also use to sounde premerment, 
dovsment, tendérment, for primieremént, dovlcemènt, tendrement, errynge 
both in the true soundyng of the vowelles and aiso in the accent : 
we must leave that kynde of redyng and pronounsynge , if we woii 
sounde the frenche tong aright. For, as I bave sayd, there is no vo- 
well written in a frenche worde, but, whan he bis red or spoken by 
bym selfe, he must bave bis sounde short or distinct, after the rules 
that I bave hereafore rebersed. But as for qaesse for que est ce, and 
quessy for que est ce cy, vbere in writtyng the letters be chaunged, 
that is nat used of any proved auctor, but onely of suche as writte 
farcis and contrefait the vulgare speche. And this for the trewe soun- 
dynge of vowels and diphtbonges in the frenche tonge I suppose to 
be sufficient. And bowe tbeyr consonantes ougbt to be sounded it sball 
hereafter appere ; but fyrst f sball speke of the soundyng of this 
letter //, apart by bymselfe. 

THE SOUNDYNGE OF THIS LETTER H. WHAN HE HATH HIS ASPIRATION, 

AND WHAN HE HATH IT NAT, AND WHAT IS MENT BY ASPIRATION. 

CAPITULUM XX. 

This letter h, where he is written in frenche wordes, bath somtynie Régula unica. 
suche a sounde as we use to gyve bym in thèse wordes in our tong : 
« hâve, halred, bens, hart, burt, hobby, » and suche lyke, and than 
be bath bis aspiration : and somtyme he is written in frenche wordes 
and bath no sounde at ail, no more than he bath with us in thèse 
wordes : « bonest , honoiu", habundaunce , habitacion, » and suche iike , 
in whiche h is written and nat sounded with us. Whiche thynge also 
happenneth in the frenche tonge , in ail suche wordes as be deducted 
ont of latin wordes whiche be written with h and sounde bym nat 

3 



18 . LESCLARCISSEMENT 

in that toilg, as in thèse wordes : habit, herbe, homicide, hôste, humble, 
the h shall nat hâve his aspiration , for the latin wordes that they 
come of, though they writte h, sounde it nat, as apereth by habitas, 
herba, homicida , hospes, humilis; and so of ail suche other. And to 
make the lerner sure of this thyng in the frenche tong, I shall 
reherse in ordre ail theyr wordes whiche havyng h at theyr be- 
gynnyng , gyve hym his aspiration : so that , if A be written in any 
worde nat conteyned among thèse, the reder may be sure that he 
shal nat hâve his aspiration , and that the h is written only for kepyng 
of true orthographie and nat to be sounded. 



HERE AFTER FOLOWE ALL SUCHE WORDES IN THE FRENCHE TONG 
AS HAVYNG // WRITTEN AT THEYR BEGYNNYNGE GYVE HYM HIS ASPIRACION. 

CAPITULUM XXI. 

Régula prima. Notynge fyrst that ail propre names begynnynge with an h gyve 
hym his aspiration, as Henry, Haét, Hûges. 

Hanettôn. Haterèl. Herciér. Hohhyn. Hovssévre. 

Hànte. Hastereàv. Hérdre. Hochélte. Hovx. 

Hanter. 



H ANTE A. 



Hache. 

Hacher. 

Hachél. 

Hacquenée. 

Haye. 

Hàyne. 

Hayneûx. 

Hayr. 

Hàyre. 

Hayt. 

Hay^ér. 

Haytyé. 

Hàle. 

Halebàrde. 

Halér. 

HaUttèr. 

HdUr. 

Hamassôn. 

Hameàv. 

Hameix. 

Hanàp. 

Hanche. 



Hantise. 

Happer. 

Haras. 

Hurccllér. 

Hardy. 

HardilUn. 

Harcnc. 

Harengiére. 

Haréngue. 

Hariàs. 

Haricot 

Hariér. 

Harnoys. 

Harô. 

Harpe. 

Harpye. 

Harpày. 

Hart. 

Hasârt. 

Hàste. 

Hastér. 



Haterèl. 

Hastereàv. 

HatiJ. 

Havbàns. 

Havberjàn. 

Havbért. 

Hàue. 

Havre. 

Hannyr. 

Havlt. 

HavUéar. 

Hazàrd. 

Hazardér. 

H ANTE li. 

Headlme. 

Hemée. 

Helâs. 

Hennyr. 

Hérault. 

Herbergiér. 

Hérce. 

Hercér. 

Hercié. 



Herciér. 

Hirdre. 

Hericôn. 

Hérisson. 

Herissir. 

Heràn. 

Hérpe. 

Héstre. 

Hévre a boris 

hced. 
Hevrt. 
Hevrtér. 
Hévse. 
Hevsir. 

H ANTE /. 

Hybàv. 
Hydevx. 
Hyérre. 
Hyre. 

H ANTE 0. 

Hobér. 
Hobreàv. 



Hobbyn. 

Hochétte. 

Hocqaetdn. 

Hoydv. 

HoUélte. 

Hongnér. 

Honnyr. 

Honte. 

Hovrs. 

Hontêr. 

Hotte. 

Hovllér. 

H6ve. 

Hovér. 

Hovlélte. 

Hàvppe. 

Hovppelànde 

Hàvrl. 

Hovs. 

Hovsedv. 

Hovsétte. 

Hovspaillér. 

Hàvsse. 

Hovssér. 



H ANTE V. 

Hvàn. 

Huche. 

Huchèr. 

Hue hier. 

Hiicqae. 

Haée. 

Huer. 

Hviboûst. 

Hviér. 

Humer. 

Hûne. 

Huppe. 

Happer. 

Hure. 

Hariér. 

Hartér. 

HurtebilUr. 

Hatyn. 

Heurt. 

Hutyner. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 19 

And it is to be noted that nat only thèse wordes above rehersed give Régula 
ther h bis aspiration, but also ail tbe wordes wbicbe, after tbe forma- 
tion of verbes in tbe frencbe tonge, be derlved of them, whiche, after 
tbe lernar batli red tbe seconde boke, shal easely inougb be perseved. 

WHAN H COMMYNG BEFORE A VOWELL 
IN THE MEANE SILLABLES SHALL HAVE HIS ASPIRATION AND WHAN NAT. 

CAPITULCM XXII. 

Whan so ever composicion is made with any of tbese wordes Régula prima. 
above rebersed, and tbe preposicions in tbe frencbe tong, tbe h sball 
kepe bis aspiration styll, as in tbese wordes ahontér, dchontér, enhan- 
tér, enhazardér, dehovsér, dehors, tbe h sball kepe bis aspiration styil, 
and so of sucbe otber. 

Also wban so ever sucbe a worde is compounde witb any prepo- 
sicion as soundetb bis h in latine, or wban so ever h is written in 
tbe mean sillables, nat commyng before a perfect worde of tbe fren- 
cbe tong, but onely beyng a part of a worde, in ail sucbe wordes h 
.sball bave bis aspiration. 

Exampie of sucbe wordes wbere tbe latine worde kepetb bis aspi- 
ration, as cnhortér, adhérence, compréhension. 

Example wbere h is written afore a syllable onely or a wbicbe be 
of no signification, as trahyr, esbahir, behùvrs, chathvdn, bahàs and su- 
cbe lyke, in ail wbicbe h sball bave bis aspiration. 

But whan tbere is composicion made of prépositions and sucbe 
wordes as bave h written for tbe kepyng of true orthographie, by 
cause tbe latine worde is written with h, and y et in frencbe they sounde 
hym nat, ail sucbe wordes comyng in composition leave theyr h un- 
sounded also, as çnhabitér, sarhabundér, deshonéste and ail sucbe lyke. 



Régula 
secunda. 



Régula tertia. 



HOWE CH. PH AND TH BE SOUNDED IN THE FRENGHE TONGE. 
CAPIÏULUM XXIH. ' 



Ch, whiche is verv moche used in tbe frencbe tonge, is sounded Régula prima, 

3. 



Régula 
secunda. 



Régula tertia. 



20 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

with them lyke as sh is wilh us in thèse wordes : « a shaare, a shert, 
« a shyn, a shoo; » so that ch in no vvise shalbe sounded with them like 
as we sounde hym where as we writte hym in our tong, as in thèse 
wordes : <> a chaare , a cheeke , a chynne , a chorle , » and suche lyke ; and 
therfore ch written with them in thèse wordes : chambre, chandéille, 
chose, chemise, hache, richesse, duchesse, chère, charité, shalbe sounded : 
shambre, shandeille, shose, shemise, hashe, rishesse, dushesse, shiefe, sha- 
riie. And so of ail other wordes where ch is written through the 
frenche tong, whiche the lerner must nedes note , for we be moche 
inclined to sounde ch amysse. But as for estomàch havynge ch in the 
laste ende, I fynde used of none auctorbut onely in Jehan le Maire; 
whiche Alayn Chartier and ail other writte estomac, for ch is no ter- 
mination for any frenche worde to ende in. 

Ph and ih be never founde written in the frenche tong but in 
sviche wordes as they borowe out of the greke tong, of whiche they 
sounde ph lyke/, whiche is in dede bis true sounde, as for sphère, 
prophète, phavtasie, prophesie, they sounde sfere, projeté, fantasie, 
profesie. 

As for th it is in maner agaynste the nature of theyr tonge to gyve 
hym suche sounde as the Grekes do , no more than they can sownde 
the wordes of our tonge whiche we writte with th; so that for théolo- 
gie, théorique, theophile, mathcmaticque, diphthôngue , orthographie , they 
sounde : teologie, teoricque, teophile, matcmaticque , diphtongue, ortogra- 
phie, soundyng t in the stede of th. And as for righévr, uighévr, and 
suche lyke whiche I finde in Jehan le Maire, I do nat greatly ap- 
prove tke orthographie of them, so that I wolde both writte them 
and Sound them without any h; for in Alayne Chartier and ail other 
auctors I fynde them written uigvevr, rigvevr. And as for thoreàv soun- 
deth bis aspiration with the o and nat with the t goyng before , whiche 
I wold rather writte toreàv without an h. 

And this for the true soundynge of ^ , as farre as concerneth the 
frenche tong , I suppose to be sufTicient. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 21 

TO KNOWE HOVV CONSONANTES OUGHT TO BE SOUNDED IN THE FRENCHE 

TONGE. 
CAPITULUM XXIIII. 

Nowe that I hâve declared howe the vowelles and diphthonges of Régula unica. 

the frenche tonge ought to be sounded, and also whan h shall hâve 

his aspiration and whan nat, resteth to shewe and déclare howe 

they sounde theyr consonantes, and what consonantes they use to 

writte for the kepynge of true orthographie, and yet in redyTQgç or 

spekyngthey sounde them nat. For the shewynge of whiche thynge, 

I shall fyrst by certayne generall rules expresse howe ail maner con- 

sonauntes shulde be sounded, as they be written in any worde by 

hymselfe, both in theyr fyrste syllables, meane syllables, and last syl- 

lables. And after, intreat particularly of the sowndynge of every con- 

sonant by hymselfe, referrynge the lernar to the generall rules, where 

as they folowe them; and ail suche particular sounde as any of theym 

hath I shal in his place, whan I speke of hym apart, déclare it at 

length. And after, I wyll shewe howe frenche wordes sounde theyr 

consonantes, as they corne to gether in sentences. 

A GENERALE RULE FOR THE TRUE SOUNDVNG OF CONSONANTES 

AS THEY COME TO GETHER 

IN THE FYRST SYLLABLES OF ANY FRENCHE WORDE BY HYMSELFE. 

CAPITCLUM XXV. 

Whan so ever at the begynnyng of a frenche worde, afore the Reguia prima, 
vowell, there commeth eyther one consonant or ii, they shal ever in 
that place bave theyr distinct sounde, suche as the latine tonge useth 
to gyve them, as baniére, cause, dàrt, famine, garçon, jàvne, mayn. 
nation, payn, quant, raine, sain, tant, scabélle, plàyndre, clamévr, 
cràynle, zélé, zodiaque, in whiche the consonantes afore the fyrst 
vowell bave suche sounde as they bave in latine, or as we wolde 
sounde them in our tonge. 

Excepte ps whiche they sounde but s, sayeng for psâlme, psaltére. Exceptio prima. 



Exceptio 
.secunda. 



Exceptio lertia. 



Régula 
secunda. 



22 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

saline, saltcrc, by cause they can nat gyve ps, whiche is a greke letter, 

his triie sounde. 

Except also x, if he be the fyrste letter of a worde, as xenotrophe , 
xjlobahôme, whiche they sounde but s, sa.y enge senotrophe , sylobalsome, 
for they can nat gyve x, whiche is also a greke letter, is true sownde. 

Except also this verbe scauôir and ail the modes and tenses of hym , 
in whiche they sounde 5 and c lyke s onely, sayeng saiioir, as for 
science, descendre, and suche other in the frenche tong, they sounde 
also theyr se but like s, for they can nat gyve se in latine wordes theyr 
trewe Roniayn sounde. 

And note ihat it is nat the nature of the frenche tonge to hâve 
niany consonantes at the begynnynge of theyr wordes to corne before 
the vowell, so that, for the most part, where as the latine worde 
hath II consonantes or m commyng before the vowel, in the frenche 
worde that is taken out of the latine, they use to put re or e at the 
begynnynge of the worde before thèse consonantes, so that, where 
the Latins say sptendeo, scribo, stringo, sfudeo, scandahim, schola, scu- 
tam, species, spada , spero , spiritus , siabulum , siella, slola, they say resplen- 
dir, escripre, estrâyndre, estadiér, esclandre, escale, escà, espèce, espée, 
espérer, espirit, estàble, esioille, eslàlle, and so for the most part of ail 
suche like. So that I fynde nat in the frenche tong any aiictor that 
hath a worde havyng m consonantes before his first vowel, save only 
in Jehan le Maire whiche useth splendeur and strideur : but I juge hym 
among other vvriters in the frenche tong to be like as amonge latine 
auctors lemed men judge Apuleius. But what my judgement is of 
hym shall in my prologue upon the seconde boke more playnly 
appere. 

SIX GENERAL RlJLES FOR THE TRUE SOUNDYNG OF CONSONANTES, AS THEY COME 

IN THE MEAN.SILLABLES OF FRENCHE WORDES. 

CAPITULIJM XXVI. 



Régula prima. Fyrst. m, n, r, X and z commyng in the meane syllables of frenche 

wordes lèse never the^i sounde. 



Excepiic. 



Keguia 
seconda. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 23 

Except X in this worde déxtre and suche other : and therfore I ex- 
cept thèse fyve letters from thèse other fyve rules that I shall gyve 
hère after. 

Seconde. Whan se ever ii consonantes conie to gether, hoth of one 
sort, they shall both hâve theyr distinct sounde, as accoler, addition, 
affoler, aggreaér, allegvér, ammonestér, annedv, appliquer, arrovsér, as- 
saillir, attendre. 

Thyrde. Whan so ever two consonantis corne to gether in any Régula ténia. 
meane siliable, both belongyng to the vowell folowing, they shall 
eche of them bave theyr distinct sounde, as noble, acre, sôvpte, 
dôvble. 

Fourth. Whan so ever two consonantis come to gether, of whiche Régula quaria. 
the first belongeth to the vowel that goeth before, and the next to 
the vowel folowyng, the fyrst of them only shalbe left unsounded, 
as sovldain, Ivictér, dicton, ad,jugér, digne, multitude, despéns, respii, 
shalbe sounded soudain, hiiter, diton, ajuger, dine, moutitude, dépens, 
répit, and so of ail suche other. 

Fyft. Whan so ever m consonantis come to gether betwene u vo- 
welles, of whiche the fyrst belongeth to the vowel goynge before. 
and the other ii to the vowell folowyng, the fyrst only shalbe lett 
unsounded, as ovltre, assoûldre, tiltre, epistre, substance shalbe soun- 
ded ovtre, assovdre, titre, epitre, sustance, and so of ail suche other. 

Syxt. Whan so ever m consonantis come to gether, of whiche two 
belong to the vowel that goeth before, and but one to the vowell 
folowyng, both the fyrst shalbe left unsounded or one of them, if 
the other be m, n or r as scovlptùre, niovlctàre, dompter, samptvévx. 
shalbe sovmded scoatare, movture, domter, sumteux. 

And note that by thèse rules it doth appere that some m conso- 
nantes may bave theyr distinct sounde, though they come together 
in mean sillables, as in thèse wordes simple, oncle, payndre . fayndre , 
and suche like, for theyr fyrst consonant must nedes be sounded 
by cause of the fyrst rule and the other ii by cause of the thyrde 
rule. 



Régula quinta. 



Régula sexta. 



Régula septinia. 



24 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Reguia octava. Note also that in the mean siilables of frenche wordes, there co- 
meth never past m consonantis to gether at ones betwene ii vowelles. 



Hegula 
secunda. 



SEVEN GENERALL RULES FOR THE TRUE SOUNDYNGE OF CONSONANTES, AS THEY 
COME TO GETHER, FOLOWYNG THE LAST VOWELS OF FRENCHE WORDES OF 
MANY SILLABLES, OR FOLOWYNG THE VOWELS OF SUCHE WORDES AS BE 
BlîT OF ONE SYLLABLE ONELY. 

CAPITULUM XXVII. 

Reguia prima. Fyrst. m, fi , OT r, comniyng after the last vowel in a frenche worde 
lèse never theyr sounde, whether they corne alone, or hâve other 
consonantes joyned with them : but m chaungeth his sounde into n, 
as in champs and temps, and suche lyke, vvhere he is joyned afore p 
in one sillable, and in certayne other, as I shall hère after touche. 

Seconde, s, x or z, beyng the last letters in a frenche worde, lèse 
never theyr sounde, if the worde next folowingbe natthe cause the- 
rof, as shall hère after appere. And therfore thèse vi letters be except 
from the rules folowyng : m, n, r ever; and s, x and z, whan they be 
the laste letters of frenche wordes by them selfe. 

Recula lertla. Thyrde. Whan so ever a frenche worde hath but one consonant 

onely after his last vowel, the consonant shalbe but remissely sounded , 
as anéc, soyf.fil, beavcoiip, moi, shalbe sounded in maner aue, soy, fi, 
heavcou, mo; how be it, the consonant shall hâve some lyttell sounde. 
But '\{ t or p folowe a or e, they shall hâve theyr distinct sounde, as 
chat, debât, diicàt, combat, hanàp, décret, regret, entremet; and so of 
ail suche other. 

Régula quaria. Fourth. If a freuche worde bave ii consonantes folowyng his vowel, 
of whiche the fyrst is m, n or r, and the last neyther s, x nor z, the 
laste consonant shalbe remissely sounded, and in maner left unsoun- 
ded, as plomb, blanc, sourd, sang, champ, mort, whiche shalbe sounded 
^ plom, blan, sovr, san, cham, mor; how be it, the consonant shall bave a 
littel sounde. 

Régula quiiiia. Fift. Whan SO ever a frenche worde endeth in n consonantes of 
whiche the fyrst consonant is neyther m, n nor r, than shal the fyrst 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 25 

ofthem twayne be utterly left unsounded, as soubz, sacz, nevdz, serfz, 
fdz, molz, lovps, coups, quoqz,fist, melz,faalt, toult, vvhiche shalbe 
sounded sovz, saz, nevz, serz,fiz, moz, lovs, covs, quoz, fit, mez,faut, 
tout. 

Syxt. Whan so ever a frenche worde endeth in m consonantes of Régula sexia. 
whiche the fyrst is m, n or r, ihan shall the consonant that cometh 
in the myddes of the thre be utterly left unsounded, as corps, champs, 
blancz, haslardz, whiche shalbe sounded cors, chams, hlans, bastars. 

Seventh. Whan so ever a frenche worde endeth in m consonantes, Régula septlma. 
of whiche none of them is m, n or r, than shall the two fyrst be left 
unsounded, as savllz , faiclz , dictz, defàultz, shalbe sounded savz,faiz, 
diz, defauz. And note that by the ii fyrst rules appereth that thèse 
wordes clarôns, barons, mors, noms, and suche lyke shalle sounde both 
theyr consonantes whiche folowe theyr last vowelles. 

Note also that there can never come past ni consonantes after the Régula octava. 
last vowel in a frenche worde : 

And that thèse vu gênerai rules be to déclare how frenche wordes Régula nona. 
commyng next to a poynt in any sentence shall be sounded : for whan 
they come before other wordes* of any sentence and must be sounded 
with them, there is farther considération to be had, as shall hère 
after appere. 

But for so moche as diverse consonantes in theyr sovindyng folowe 
thèse generall rules in every condicion , (that is to say, eyther bave 
suche sounde as they bave in the latine tong, orels be remissely 
sounded or left unsounded, accordyng as thèse sayd rules do déclare) 
and that dyverse other bave a sounde moche diflerent from the latine 
tong, and bave also in the frenche tong nat always one sounde, I shall 
reherse al the consonantes used in the frenche tong after the ordre 
of a, b, c; and suche as in every condicion foiow thèse generall rules, 
I shall brevely passe them over, referryng the lernar in ail suche to 
the gênerai rules; and suche as bave any other diversité in sounde 
or particular exception , I shal déclare it in every of theyr places at 
length. And for by cause the b differeth nothyng froni the generall 



26 LESCLÂRCISSEMENT 

rules above rehersed, I shali by example of hym shewe the lernar 
howe he shall in lyke wyse apply the generall rules to the other. con- 
sonantes that in lyke wyse differre nothyng from thena. 

A DECLARACION OF THESE GENERALL RULES BY THE EXAMPLE OF THIS 

CONSONANT B. 

CAPITULIJM XXVIU. 

Régula prima. If 6 be the fyrst letter in a frenche worde, eyther alone or with 
an other consonaunt with hym, he shall in that place be sounded lyke 
as he is in the latine tong or in our tong, accordyng as I hâve shewed 
in the fyrst gênerai rule of the soundyng of the fyrst syllables , as bàtre, 
bénigne, bigame, bonté, bvissôn, blanc, bragvér, and ail sache lyke 
shalbe sounded in frenche like as they be in latine. 

If II bb corne to gether in the mean syllables, than, accordyng to 
the seconde rule of meane syllables, eche of theym shall hâve theyr 
distinct sounde, as rabblér. 

If 6 joyned with an other consonant belong both to the vowell fo- 
lowinge, than shal b, accordyng to the thyrde rule there, bave his 
distinct sounde, as noble, sobre, dôvble. 

If b and an other consonant come to gether in the mean syllable, 
the b belongyng to the vowell that goetli before, than, accordyng to 
the un rule, there he shalbe left xmsounded , as sovbdain, double, 
shalbe sounded .çovdoj'n, rfov/e. 

Regulaqninta. If6 bc one ofthe iH consonantcs commyng betwene iivowels,the 
b belongyng to the vowell that goeth before , than , accordyng to the 
fyft rule there, he onely shalbe left unsounded, as substance shalbe 
sounded sastance. 

Régula sexu. If 6, where there is m consonantes commyng betwene ii vowelles, 

be one of the ii belongyng to the vowell that goeth before, than, 
accordyng to the vi rule there , b shalbe left unsounded , as sovbstrayt , 
sovbstrayrc shalbe sounded sovstrait, sovstraire. 
Régula septima. Also if any frenche worde ende in 6 onely, as I remembre none, than, 
accordyng to the m rule of last syllables, he shuld be remissely sounded. 



Régula 
jecnnda. 



Régula tertia. 



Régula quarta . 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 27 

If a frenche worde ende in b, the next letter goyng before keyng Régula octava. 
m, R or r, than, accordyng to the nu rule there, he shalbe remissely 
sounded and in maner left ixnsounded as plomb, colomb. 

If a frenche worde ende in ii consonantes, b beyng the fyrst, than, Régula nona. 
accordyng to the fyft nde there, he shalbe left unsounded as des- 
sôubz. And so of the other ii rules foUowynge there , if b shall fortune 
to corne in any worde in suche ordre as the rides speke of. And this 
applyenge of this consonaunt b to the rules above rehersed I wolde - 
the lernar shulde diligently note, for lyke as I thiuke it but super- 
fluous to kepe suche ordre in ail other consonantes whiche folowe 
the generall rules, so thynke I it necessary ofone to gyve a playne 
example , for I may the better be short whan I come to the residue , 
save onely where nede is. 

THE SOUNDYNG PARTICULAR AxND PROPRE TO THIS CONSONANT C. 

CAPIT0L13M XXIX. 



C commynge next before the vowelles in the frenche tonge hath Régula prima. 
two diverse soundes : for c comyng before e or i shalbe sounded with 
them lyke as he were an s, as for cendres, cent, ceynctàre, cire, ciel, 
ciercle, cité, they sounde sendres, sent, seinclure, sire, siel, siercle, site; 
and so of ail suche other, lyke as the Latins do. 

C commyng before a, o or u shal bave the sounde of k, as câvse, Régula 
côste, custode, shalbe sounded kavse, Icosfe, kustode. 

Except where c commeth before a or o in the formation of suche Exceptio prima, 
tenses as come of verbes of the fyrst conjugation in the frenche 
tonge, havynge c before er in theyr infmitive mode; for, in ail suche 
tenses, through al theyr nombres and parsons, c shall hâve the sounde 
of 5; as where as of corroucér commeth after the formation of tenses 
,in the frenche tonge corrovcôye, corrovcày , corrovcànt; and oî groncér, 
groncàye, groncây, groncànt; despeccr, despecôye, despecày, despecànt. In 
al suche, c comyng before oye, ay or ant shall bave the sounde of 5, 
and nat of k. But many tymes I fynde in suche tenses an e added next 

4. 



Eiceptio 
secunda. 



Regala tertia. 



28 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

aftei' the c, as lacer, laceôye, laceây, laceànt, whiche ihey use to writte 

to shewe that c in suche verbes may nat bave the sounde of k. 

Except also ibese two présent tensesje recôysetje decôys, bycavised 
they be formed o( recipio anddecipio, wbicbe shulde make decas and 
ay deçà; reçus and ay reçu. But, lest the redar shulde gyve ctbe sounde 
of k, they use to adde an e, as I bave afore touched wbere I spake of 
the diphlhong ev; — and tbis novvne leçon, by cause of leciio; — and 
thèse wordes hère after folowyng : Ca, eitber by bymselfe , or whan he 
is compounde with other wordes, as deçà, piecà, deslorsencà, orcd, and 
suche lyke; — and rançon rançonner, csiancôn estanconnér, façon façonner, 
limaçon, hamacon, plancôn, arcôn, hericôn, garçon, suspecon, chancôn, 
tencôn, aincôys , francoys , and câyndre, whiche I wolde writte céyndre : 
in whiche and ail the wordes formed oftheym c commyng bcfore a 
or shall bave the sounde of s , and nat of k. 

And note that like as they sounde c alone, commyng before e or /, 
like an s, so do they whan s is joyned unto hym, as sceptre, science, 
and ail suche like, so as I bave touched in the xxv chaptre. In ail other 
wordes in the frenche tonge howe c ought to be sounded, whan he 
is joyned with other consonanles, I bave sufficiently sbewed in the 
generall rides above rehersed, and declared by example of tins con- 
sonant b. 

THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS CONSONANT D. 
CAPITULUM XXX. 



Régula unica. D in ail maner thynges confermeth hym to the gênerai rules above 

rehersed, so that I se no particular thyng wherof to warne the 1er- 
uar, save that they sounde nat d of ad in thèse wordes adultère, adop- 
tion, adoulcér, like th, as we of our tonge do in thèse wordes of la- 
tine ath athjuuandum, for ad adjavandum corruptly : for, in ail wordes 
where d bath bis distinct sounde , he shalbe sounded lyke as the la- 
tine tong soundeth d. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



29 



THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS CONSONANT F. 
CAPITULUM XXXI. 



F, how soever he bis written in any frenche wordes, foloweth the Régula unica. 
generall rules above rebersed witbout any exception. 



THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS CONSONANT G. 
CAPITULUM XXXIl. 



Régula 
secunda. 



G commynge next before the vowels in the frenche tong batb ii Régula prima. 
divers soundes, for g commyng before e or i shalbe sounded with 
them bke i, whan he is a consonant, as gendre, gingembre, shalbe soun- 
ded jendre, jinjembre. 

G commyng before a, o or a shall hâve suche sounde as he hath 
in latin in thèse wordes, gaiidium, Gomorra, gala, whiche is almost 
lyke a k. 

Except where <] commeth before a or o, in the formation of suche Exceptio prima, 
tenses as corne of verbes of the fyrst conjugation in the frenche tong, 
havynge g before er in theyr infinitive mode : for in ail suche tenses, 
ihrough ail theyr nombres and parsons, g shali bave the sounde of i 
whan he is a consonant, as where as of songer, after the formation 
of tenses in frenche, is formed songoje, songay, songant; of oubliger, ou- 
bligoyc, oubligay, oabliganl; and oï corriger, corrif^ye, corrigay, corri- 
gant. In ail suche, g commyng before oye, ay or ant, shall bave the 
sound of i, whan he is a consonant, and nat as he hath in the latin 
tong. Howbeit, for the most part, through out ail the frenche tong, 
in ail suche tenses ï fynde an e written betwene the g and the a or o 
folowyng, as songeoye, songeay, songeant; oubligeoye, oubligeay, oubîi- 
geant; corrigeoye, corrigeay, corrigeant; whiche they do lest the redar 
shuide sounde g in suche tenses amysse. Lyke as they writte for men- 
gûs and mengàsse, mengeas and mengeusse; and so of al suche where 
as by reason of conjugation g and a shuide come to gether, so oft as 
the infinitive mode endeth in ger, where as, if the rules of formation 



Exceptio 
secunda. 



30 LESGLARCISSEMENT 

of tenses in this tonge were kept, there shiilde none e be written : for, 
like asthey say : assorbér, assorbôye, assorbày; corrovcér, corrovcoye, cor- 
rovcày; tarder, tardôye, tardây ; truffer, traff'ôye, truffây; covlér, covlôye, 
covlày; aymér, aymôye, aymây; acharner, acharnoyc, acharnày; harpér, 
harpôye, harpây; danser, dansôye, dansây; hevrtér, hevrtôye, hevrlày, ke- 
pyng alway before oye and ay ibe consonant that commeth before er 
in the infinitive mode, so shulde we by lyke reason writte songer, 
songôye, somjày. But of thèse two I sbal speke more at length in theyr 
place in the thirde boke. 

Except also g conimynge before o in tliese wordes boargùys, bour- 
gôyse, bourgôn, liavlbergôn, dongôn. How be it, many tymes I fynde 
thèse wordes written with an e betwene the g and o, and sometyme 
with i (the consonant) in the place oi g. 



Régula prima. 



Régula 
secunda. 



OF THIS LETTER //, WHAN HE HAS THE POWER OF A CONSONANT, 

AND WHAN NAT. 

CAPITULUM XXXUl. 

Though it appere sulFiciently , where as I spake of k before, that he 
is no consonant in the frenche tong, but onely an addynge of a stron- 
ger sounde to the vowell that foloweth hym, yet, if h come in the 
mean syllables of a frenche worde havyng bis aspiration, the syllable 
next commyng before hym endynge in a consonant, than shali h bave 
the power of a consonant and cause ihe consonant belongyng to the 
vowel that goth before to be left unsounded, accordyng to the un 
rule of mean sillables, as eshoutér, deshontér, desliovsér, tréshavU, shalbe 
sounded, ehonler, delionter, deliovser, trehavlt. 

But if h commyng in the mean syllables bave nat bis aspiration, 
than he changeth nothing the sounde of the consonant goyng before 
hym, no more than if he were nat written, as in treshonevre ^ , desho- 
néste, déshabituer, and suche like, in whiche the s hath bis distinct 
sounde. And lyke power hath h havynge his aspiration, whan he is 
the fyrste letter of a frenche worde. For where as wordes that be writ- 

' Probablement il faut lire treshoneste. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 31 

ten witb h nat havynge his aspiration admilteth certaine wordes com- 
myng before them to be joyned to them in writtyng as wel as wordes 
begynnyng with vowelles, a.s dhonnévr, lliômme, Ihabit, in suche wordes 
as bave tbeyr aspiration we can not do so, no more than tbougb 
tbey began vvitii consonantes; so ihat we can nat say dhonie, Ihayne, 
Iheavlnie, but de honte, la hàyne, le heâvlme, by cause tbat in tbese iast 
wordes h bath bis aspiration. But of tbis tbyng I suppose in tbis place 
sufficient to warne tbe lemar, for I shall bere after, in tbe seconde 
rule of tbe lv cbaptre in tbis boke, speke more tberof at lengtb. 

THE SOUNDYNG OF I, WHAN IlE HIS A CONSONANT. 
CAPITULUM XXXini. 

7, wban he is a consonant, sball bave sucbe sounde in frenche Régula unica. 
wordes as he bath in latine in thèse wordes janas, jecar, jocandas, 
jadex, witbout any exception. And note tbat, like as i beynge a con- 
sonant is never founde in latine cominyng before i a vowell, no more 
is lie in tbe frenche tong. As for in ail otber tbynges i beyng a conso- 
nant foloweth tbe gênerai rules above rebei'sed : bow be it, be is ne- 
ver left unsounded, for he ever belongeth to the vowell tbat foloweth 
hym. 



THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS CONSONANT K, VVHICHE IN MANER IS NEVER USED 

IN THE FRENCHE TONGE. 
CAPITULUM XXXV. 

K, wbere so ever be is founde written in the frenche tonge, Régula unica. 
shalbe sounded like as he is in latine, whiche is only in propre 
names commyng out of tbe Greke or doutche tong, and in thèse nii 
wordes Kyrielle, kyrie, kalénde and kalendriér, whiche also in dede 
be taken out of Greke wordes; so that the very true frenche tong of it- 
selfe useth never k, but eyther c, q, cq or qu before the vowels. And 
therfore I se no cause wby karesme or karolle shulde be written 
with a k, seyng the latine worde that karesme cometh ofqaadragesima. 



32 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

whiche is written with a 9 in latine, and that oneiy ones 1 fynde ka- 
rolle written with a /c in Jehan le Maire , whiche the Romant of the Rose 
^ ever writtetb with c. How he it, in the olde Romant long k was ever 
used in the stede oî qu, and of c or cq; but sache kynde of writtyng 
the newe frenche tong hath clerely lefte. But where as there is a 
boke that goeth about in this reaime, intitled The introductory to 
wrilte and pronoance frenche, compiled by Alexander Barcley, in 
whiche k is moche used and many olher thynges also by hym af- 
firmed conti-ary to my sayenges in this boke, and specially in my 
seconde, where I shall assaye to expresse the declinations and conju- 
gatynges with the other congruiles observed in the frenche tonge, 
I suppose it sufficient to warne the lernar that I hâve red over that 
boke at length , and what myn opinion is iherin it shall well inough 
apere in my bokes selfe, though I make therof no ferther expresse 
mencion, save that I bave sene an olde boke written in parchement, in 
maner in ail thynkes like to bis sayd introductory, whiche, by con- 
jecture, was natunwritten ibis hundred yeres. I wot nat if he happe- 
ned to fortune upon suche an other : for, whan it was commaunded 
that the grammar maisters shulde teche the youth of England joyntly 
latin with frenche, there were diverse suche bokes divysed: wheru- 
pon, as Isvippose,began one great occasyoh why we of England sounde 
the latyn tong so corruptly, whiche bave as good a tonge to sounde 
ail maner speches parfîtely as any other nacyon in Europa. 

THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS COiNSONANT L. 
CAPnULUM XXXVl. 

Régula unica. L in ail thynges foloweth the generall rules above rebersed, with- 
out any maner exception. 

THE SOUNDYNGE OF THIS CONSONANT M. 
CAPITULCM XXXVII. 

Régula prima. M, in the frenche tong hath thre dyvers soundes. The soundyng 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 33 

of m that is niost generall is suche as he hath in the latyn tong or in 
our tong. 

If m folowe any of thèse thre vowelles a, e or o, ail in one syllable, 
he shalhe sounded somthyng in the nose, as I hâve before declared 
where I hâve shewed the soundyng of the sayd thre vovyelles. 

If m, foiowyng a vowell, corne before b, p or sp, he shalbe sounded 
in the nose and almost lyke an n, as in thèse wordes plomb, colomb, 
champ, dompter, circumspection, and suche lyke : whiche in partie I 
hâve hère before touched in the xxvii chapiter ; and that m leseth 
never his soimde, whersoever he be written, I bave sufficiently decla- 
red in the generall rules. 



Régula 
secunda. 



Régula tertia. 



THE SOUNDYNGE OF THIS CONSONANT ^. 
CAPITCLUM XXXVIll. 



N, in the frenche tong, hath two dyvers soundes. The soundyng of Régula prima. 
n that is moost generall is suche as is in latyne or in our tonge. 

If n folowe any of thèse thre vowelles a, e or o, ail in one syllable, 
he shalbe sounded somthyng in the nose, as I bave before declared 
where I bave spoken of the sayd thre vowelles. 

That n leseth never his sounde, nother in the first nor meane syl- 
lables, nor in the last syllables, I bave afore declared in the generall 
rules. 

But it is nat to be forgoten that n, in the last syllable of the thirde 
parsons plurelles of verbes endyng in ent, is ever lefte unsounded, ac- 
cordyng as I bave afore declared where I spake of the true soundyng 
of e. 

THE SOUNDYNGE OF THIS CONSONANT P. 
CAPITCLUM XXXIX. 



Régula 
secunda. 



Régula tertia. 



Eiceptio. 



P in ail thynges folovveth the generall rules above rehersed without ReguU unie», 
any maner exception. 



34 



lÈsclarcissement 



THE SOONDYNGE OF THIS CONSONANT Q. 
CAPITULUM Xf.. 



Régula unica. Q in the frenche tonge shalbe sounded lyke as he is in latyn 
without any exception or diflycultie, so that it be noted what I 
hâve sayd before, whan I spake of q comynge before « ; and note that 
he never cometh so that he leseth bis sounde. 



THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS CONSONANT fi. 
CAPITULUM XLI. 



Régula unicB. R, in the frenche tonge, shalbe soiuided as he is in latyn withont 
any exception, so that, where as they of Parys sounde somtyme r 
lyke z, sayeng pazys for parys, pazisien for parisien , chaize for chayre , 
mazy for mary and sache lyke, in that thyng I wolde nat hâve them 
folowed, albeit that in ail this worke I moost folowe the Parisyens 
and the counti-eys that be conteygned betwene the ryver of Seyne 
and the ryver of Loyrre, which the Romayns called somtyme Gallya 
Celtica : for within that space is contayned the herte of Fraunce, 
where the tonge is at this day moost parfyte, and hath of moost 
auncyente so contynued. So that I tliynke it but superfluous and unto 
the lernar but a nedelesse confusyon to shewe the dyversite of pro- 
nuncyacion of the other frontier countreys, seyng that, besydes the 
thousandes that bave written sythe Alayn Charliers dayes, whiche in 
maner bave left none auctours written in the latyn tonge untransla- 
ted, there is no man, of what parte of Fraunce so ever he be borne, 
if he desyre that bis writyngcs sliulde be had in any estymacion, but 
he writeth in suche language as they speke within the boundes that 
I bave before rehersed. Nor there is no man that is a mynister of 
theyr common welth, outher as a capitayne, or in oflyce of iudica- 
toure, or as a famous preachour, but, where soever bis abyding be, 
he speketh the pai'fyte frenche : in so moche that the Heynowers and 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 35 

they of Romant Brabante , and ail other nacyons usynge the kynde of 
speclie nowe called Vallon or Romant, thoii^çhe in pronunciation they 
folowe moche the said old Romant tonge, lyke as the Pycardes, 
Liegeoys and Ardenoyes do, yet in writynge, as well concernynge 
their judiciail causes as any other thyng made by any of them of 
their owne invencyon, or in the letters missyves of suche as be se- 
creatores in the sayd countreis, they folowe in wriltyng, as nere as 
they may, the very true ortography and congi-uite of the parfyte 
frenche tonge; and onely suche be had in estymacion and bave charge 
commytted to them as be able so to do. But if there were dyversite 
in writyng amongest them of the frenche tonge, lyke as there were 
somtyme among the Grekes dialecla, so that every man wrote in bis 
owne tonge , lyke as the grekes somtyme dyd , or that the Romani 
of the Rose, whiche undouted is a syngular auctour, were nowe at 
thèse dayes imprinted in the olde Romant tong wherin it was made, 
as dothe appere by a boke in the library of Gyldehall in London, 
whiche mayster Gylles, somtyme scole maysterto our soverayne nowe 
raygning in the frenche tong, shewed me, I coude than be contented, 
and il were for that auctours sake onely to shewe the différence bi- 
Iwene iholde Romant long and the right french long. But I se that 
they whiche bave corrected and pul to printe ihe sayde auctour of 
the Romaynt of the Rose bave donc as moche as myght lye in them 
to distroy the olde Romant tonge whiche il was written in, and to 
make it in suche frenche as is nowe used; so that, if be nat hère and 
there where, for kepynge of the ryme, the wordes stande unallred 
as they were first written, a man shulde scarsely parceyve that ever 
it was written first in the Romant tong. Howbeit, I confesse that as it 
was first written in the Romani tonge, it halh a marveylous grâce, 
and who soever understandelh the true frenche tonge shall with 
small labour also understande that auctour or any other suche lyke. 
But of thèse ihynges I defarre to speke any more at tins tyme, and 
retourne to déclare the soundynge of the resydue of thé consonantes. 



36 



LESGLARCISSEMENT 



Régula 
secunda. 



THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS CONSONANT S. 
CAPITULUM XLII. 

Régula prima. S in the frenche tonge hath two dy\'ers soundes. The soundynge 
of s whiche is moost generall in frenche , is suche as is in latyn or in 
oure tonge : so that s in thèse wordes obéissance, astronome, las, santé, 
and in ail suche, is sounded in ail the thre tonges alyke. 

If a syngle s corne hytwene two vowelles in the meane syllables of 
a frenche worde by hymselfe, he shall in that place ever be sounded 
lyke an z, so that for disant , faisant , trésor, resôrt, maison, they sounde 
dizant, faizant, trezor, rezorl, maizon, and so of ail suche lyke. But if 
a frenche worde begyn with s, a vowell folowyng hym, thoughe the 
worde that cometh next before ende also in a vowell, those two vo- 
welles shall nat cause 5 to be sounded lyke an z, but lyke bis generall 
sounde. 

Régula tertia. And in ail other thynges s confirmeth him to generall rules above 
rehersed, save that in thèse wordes hère folowyng, 5 comyng in the 
meane syllables, contrarie to the sayd ndes, shall bave bis distincte 
sounde. 



THE WORDES WHICHE SOUNDE THEIR S DISTINCTELY, COMYNG IN THE MEANE 
SYLLABLES, CONTRARIE TO THE GENERALL RULES ABOVE REHERSED. 

CAPITULUM XLIII. 



Régula prima. 


Apostat. 


Bastillàn. 


Constituer. 


Digestion. 


Distinguer. 


Esplrit. 




Astroloijir. 


BastilUr. 


Construire. 


Digestes. 


Distraire. 


Estimer. 




Aspirer. 


Bestialité. 


Circamspection. 


Discorder. 


Distribuer. 


Estomaquer. 




Ayréste. 


Bistocquér. 


Castéde. 


Discret. 


Domestique. 


Estradiot. 




Assister. 






Discuter. 




Existence. 




Aspic. , 


Caheslân. 




Dispenser. 


Escabeâv. 




- 


Administrer. 


Chaste. 


Désister. 


Disparsér. 


Esclave. 


Fastidieux. 




Asteàre. 


Coiisistoyre. 


Desperér. 


Disparér. 


Escorpiôn. 


Festival. 




Astrasér. 


C:ru:tànt. 


Désespérer. 


Disposer. 


Especidl. 


FestiviU*. 




Astuce. 


Conspirer. 


Destinée. 


Disputer. 


Espèce. 


Frisque. 






Constellation. 


Destruction '. 


Distinctir. 


Espalgne. 


Frustrer. 




BasiiUe. 


Consterner. 


Détestable. 


Distance. 


Espérer. 






' But nat deslruire. — ' But nal /este. 









DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



37 



Hisloyre. 



Illustrer. 

Indiscret. 

Industrie. 

Instruire. 

Instance. 

Instant. 

Instituer. 

Instrument. 

Invesliç/uèr. 



Investiture ' . 

Majesté. 

Misté. 

Mistére. 

Mistion. 

Molester. 

Monastère. 



Obstânt. 



Obstination. 

Obscarcér. 

Offusquer. 

Ostentér. 

Ostrûce. 

Obstacle. 



Pésle. 
Pestilence. 
Perspicacité. 
Postérieur. 



Prosterner. 

Postale. 

Prédestiner, 

Prospérer. 

Pronostiquer. 

Questionner. 

Qaestuévx. 

Question. 

Recrastinér. 



Résister. 
Restituer. 
Robuste. 
Rustre. 

Sinistre. 

Substance. 

Substentâcle. 



Testament. 
Triste. 



And note that nat onely thèse wordes above rehersed, but also of 
the verbes ail their tenses and other wordes fourmed of them, and of 
the nownes substantyves or adjectyves ail the wordes that be fourmed 
of them, sounde s in their meane syllables, contrai'ie to the generall 
rule afore rehersed. For where as there is any exception, I bave tou- 
ched it hère in bis place. 



Régula 
secunda. 



THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS CONSONANT T. 
CAPITULUM XLIIII. 



Regala 
secunda. 



T also hatb two dyvers soundes. The gênerai sounde of t is suche Roguia prima, 
as the latyns gyve hym, or we in our tong, as tant, ter, tien, ton, 
tvmber, sounde their t lyke as we wolde sounde hym. 

If t be written in frenche nownes endyng in tion, for the kepynge 
of true ortography, bycause they come of latyn nownes verballes end- 
yng in tio, as of correctio correction, subjectio subjection, reformatio re- 
formadoii, and so of ail other verballes, the t of tion shalbe sounded 
lykc a c, for the frenchemen can nat sounde nownes verballes end- 
yng in tion accordyng as the ytalyens do their nownes endyng in tio. 

And note that this worde et, whiche signilieth and, is never Régula ténia. 
sounded in the frenche tonge but e , wheder the worde folowynge 
begyn with a vowell or with a consonant. 

Note also that this worde est, whiche signifieth is, if the next worde Régula quaria. 

' Nat vestir llie verbe, nor vestement. — ' Begynning with N I fynde none. 



38 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

folowyng begyn with a consonant, shalbe sounded but e : if ihe next 
worde folowyng begyn with a vowell, it shall be sounded et, but ne- 
ver est soundyng 5, nor eth, soundynge i lyke ih, for / bath ne ver no 
suche sounde in the frenche tonge. And in ail otber thynges / confir- 
meth bym to the generall rules hère before rehersed. 

THE SOUNDYNG OF V, WHAN HE HIS A CONSONANT. 
CAPITULUM XLV. 

Régula prima. V, whan he is a consonant, shall be sounded in frenche lyke as he 

is in latyn in thèse wordes uanitas, uenio, uindicta, aoluntas, that is 
to saye almost lyke an/. 
Régula And note that v beyng a consonant cometh never so in a frenche 

secuada. i i i i i i ■ i 

worde that he leseth his sounde. 

THE SOUNDYNG OF THIS CONSONANT X 
CAPITULUM XLVI. 

Régula prima. X thorowout thc frenche tonge hath suche a sounde as they gyve 
to 5 with them, whan he cometh bytvvene two vowelles, that is to 
saye lyke as the latyns do sounde z in thèse wordes zona, zodiacus, 
Elizabet : so that thèse wordes in frenche jduar/e, perplexité, cheuâvlx, 
beàulx, shall be sounded youz/e, perplezite, cheuavlz, beauz; wherbv 
appereth that thèse wordes exemple, expérience, exécuter, and suche 
lyke, where the worde begynncth with ex, shalbe sounded evzemple, 
evzperience, evzecater; for, as I bave shevved afore , this worde ex 
hath ever an v sounded, though he be nat written,bytwene the eand 
X, and the x by this rule shalbe sounded lyke an z. 
Régula And note that x shall never be sounded in frenche lyke as he is in 

latyn, or as we wolde do in our tonge, in no wyse, but lyke an z, as 
I hère before bave descrybed. In ail other thynges x foloweth the 
generall rules above rehersed. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



39 



THE SOUNDYiNG OF THIS CONSONANT Z. 
CAPITULUM XLVn. 



Z ihorowe ail the frenche tonge shalbe sounded lyke as he is in Régula unica. 
latyn or in our tonge, that is to saye lyke s, whan he cometh in a 
frenche worde bytwene two vowelles; so that z in thèse wordes zélé, 
zodidcgae, bréze, hazàrt, quatorze, quinze, dez, vietz, secz, the z shall 
be sounded lyke as he shulde be in the latyn tonge or in our tonge. 
In ail other thynges z confirmeth hym to the generall rules above re- 
hersed. And this for the trewe soundynge of consonantes as they 
corne toguyder in frenche wordes by themselfe, I suppose to be sufli- 
cient. 



FODRE GENERALL RULES FOR THE TRUE REDYNG OF FRENCHE WORDF^ , 

AS THEY COME TOGUYDER IN SENTENCES. 

CAPITULUM XLVllI. 

First. Every frenche worde comynge next unto a poynt, whether Régula prima. 
it be suche as the Latins call punctum planum thus made ( . ) , where the 
nexte worde commonly begynneth with a great letter, or with sxiche 
as the Latins call comma tliiis made (:), or vmjula thus made (,), al 
suche wordes shal sounde theyr last letters distinctly or remissely, 
accordyng to the rules hère afore rehersed : and so shal ail the last 
wordes in the lynes of suche thynges as be made in ryme. 

Seconde. If a frenche worde ende in a vowell or diphthong, the 
next worde folowyng begynnyng also with a vowell or diphthong, both 
the vowels and diphthonges shal bave theyr distinct sounde. 

Except some tyme wordes endyng in e or a wherof I wyl hereafter Exceptio unica. 
speke. 

Thirde. If a frenche worde ende in a consonant, the next worde 
folowyng begynnyng with a vowel or diphthong, or contrary, the 
worde goyng befoi-e ende in a vowel or diphthong, the next worde 
folowynge begynninge with a consonant, ail the vowels, diphthonges 
and consonantes shall bave theyr distinct sounde. 



Régula 
secunda. 



Régula tertia. 



40 LESCLARCISSEMENt 

Régula quarta. Fouith. If a frenche worde ende in a consonant or consonantes, 
the next worde folowyng begynnyng also with a consonant or conso- 
nantes, they shalbe sounded or left unsounded accordyng to the 
rules hère afore rehersed : as well as though they came to gether in 
one worde by hym selfe, that is to saye m, n and r, shall never lèse 
their sounde. And if the worde goyng before ende in any other con- 
sonant, he shal lèse bis sounde by reason that the worde folowynge 
begynneth also with a consonant, ail though they be both of lyke 
kynde. And also if the worde goyng before ende in u or m, he shal 
lèse them ail, if the consonant or consonantes of the worde folowyng 
be of suche nature, accordyng to the rules hère afore rehersed : as 
thèse wordes commyng next to gether sans cause, soubz covleur, ung 
combat tel, faictz plaisans , suis sayn, shalbe red and sounded san 
cause, sov covlevr, un comba tel, fai plaisans, svi sayn. And so of ail 
other, though xx suche wordes both endyng and begynnyng with 
consonantes shulde fortune to folowe one an other in a sentence. 
And hère upon it ryseth why the frenche tong semeth unto other 
nations so short and sodayne in pronounsyng; for after they bave taken 
away the consonantes, as wel from the particular wordes by them 
selfe as. from theyr last endes by reason of the wordes folowyng, 
they joyne the vowels of the wordes that go before to the consonan- 
tes of the wordes folowynge in redyng and spekyng without any 
pausyng , save only by kepyng of the accent : as though fyve or syx 
wordes or somtyme mo made but one worde : vhiche thyng, though 
it inake that tong more hard to be atteyned, yet it maketh it more 
pleasant to the eare : for they put avay ail maner consonantes, as often 
as they shulde make any harshe sounde, or let theyr sentences to flowe 
and be fuU in soundyng : vhiche thyng 1 shal hère after déclare playnly 
by example. But nowe to shewe whan e or a beyng the last letters in 
frenche wordes, shalbe left unsounded. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 41 

WHAN E BEYNG THE LAST LETTER IN A FRENCHE WORDE, THE NEXT WORDE 
FOLOWYNG BEGYNNYNG WITH A VOWELL, SHALBE LEFT UNSOUNDED, 

AND WHAN NAT. 

CAPITULUM XLIX. 

Whan any frenche worde endyng in e, and havyng his accent Régula prima, 
upon the same e comnieth next before an other worde begynnyng 
with a vowel, both the e and the vôwel folowyng shal hâve theyr 
distinct sounde : whiche happenneth in certaine nownes endyng in te, 
and al the participles masculyne of the fyrst conjugation, as in the 
chapters of accent more playnly shal appere ; and in ail the féminine 
participles of what conjugation so ever they be , though they bave 
nat theyr accent upon the same e, yet shal e in ail suche kepe his 
sounde styll, nat withstandyng any vowel that the worde folowyng 
doth begyn with, as pour sa bonté il est aymé, et a bon droit. Pour sa 
bonté elle est aymèe, et a bon droit. Elle sen fut partye aaant que je ne 
sceùsse riens, in whiche the last e is sounded nat withstandyng the 
vowels of the next wordes folowynge. 

But if a frenche worde ende in e, nat havynge his accent upon Régula 
the same e nor beyng a femine participle , the next worde folowynge '*'"" *' 
begynnyng also with a vowel, eyther alone or in a diphthong, or with h 
nat havyng his aspiration, than shal the e of the worde so goyng be- 
fore lèse his soimde, and the consonant comyng before e be joyned 
in soimd to the vowel folowyng , as though they made both but 
one worde. 

Except (as I hâve sayd) the commyng before a poynt cause the Exceptio. 
contrary, as this sentence // a trovue une aultre dame belle et gracievse 
shall in redyng and spekyng be sounded : // a trouue un aultre dame 
bellegracieuse; and so of ail other. 






42 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

WHAT WORDES THERE BE IN THE FRENCHE TONG ENDYNG IN E OR <4. 

WHICHE IN WRITTYNG ALSO LEAVE OUT THEYR EOR 4, 

AND JOYNE THEYR CONSONANTES TO THE VOWELL OF THE WORDES FOLOWYNG. 

CAPITULCM L. 

Régula. There be certaine wordes in tlie frenche tong endyng in e and 

some fewe endyng in a, whiche nat onely in redyng or spekynge 
leave theyr vowels unsounded, but also, whan so ever they writte 
them in any sentence, they leave out theyr last vowel, and joyne the 
last consonant or letters commyng next before the vowel to the vowel 
of the nextworde folowyng orunto ^, if the worde next folowyng be- 
ginne with h nat havyng bis aspiration, as though they were the lîrst 
letters of the worde folowyng, whiche ntiyght cause a great dout to 
the lemer, whan he shulde fynde no worde so written in the frenche 
vocabular ; or paradventure , if he founde a worde written with suche 
letters, it myght be of a far différent signification from the ryght 
worde in dede , whiche of hym selfe begynneth with a vowell : and 
therfore I shall hère consequently reherse ail the wordes in the frenche 
tong that be of that sort : notyng first that in nownes , verbes, parti- 
ciples and interjections of the frenche tong there be no wordes that 
be of this sort. 

WHAT PRONOWNES ENDE IN E OR i, WHICHE IN WRITTYNG LEAVE OUT 

THEYR VOWEL, 
AND JOYNE THEYR CONSONANTES TO THE WORDES FOLOWYNG. 

CAPITULUM LI. 

Régula prima. Pronownes of the frenche tonge of this sort there be viii : je, me, 
te, le, la, se, ce and que for quid. Je, as forye ajme,je endure, they 
writte jayme, jendure, leavyng out the e oîje, and joynyng the conso- 
nant to the vowel of the verbe folowyng. And in lyke wyse for je me 
habite, il me àyme, il me endure, they writte and sownde thusy'e mha- 
bite, il mayme, il mendure; and also (or je te àyme, je te endure : je 
tayme,je tendure; and (ot je le àyme, je le endure :je layme, je lendare: 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 43 

and for il se âyme, il se endure: il sayme, il sendure. And for ce est they 
say cest. And for que auéz uoas, quauez uous. But as for ella tort for elle 
a tort and suche like, is only used of suche as writte in ryme; like as . 
they joyne tel and quel and suche other adjectives endyng in el to 
nownes of the femine gendre, as tel paour, quel amour, mortel plàye, 
mémoire perpétuel, wherof I shall speke more in the thirde hoke ; 
whiche I wolde the lemer shulde wel note ; or though I shall hère 
aller in the seconde and thyrde bokes writte the verbes from the 
pronownes, and nownes from theyr articles, and in like wyse also 
ever the other partes of speche that folow this rule, by cause I wold 
the lerner shidde the more distinctly perceve one worde by an other : 
yet if he writte them in any sentence, he must in every poynt 
kepe this rule , accordyng as I in this place déclare unto hym. And 
note that this kinde of writtyng they use specially whan the verbe 
beginneth with a, e or o, and but seldome or never with verbes be- 
gynnyng with i or u; for before suche they use, for the most part, 
to writte thèse pronownes at length. 

But where as in maner of ail suche auctors as use to writte in ryme Régula 

r f 1 1 / -17 secunda. 

1 fynde used gy or ge, sayeng nayge,ferayge, se gy ossâsse la main tendre, 
and suche lyke, for je y, nay je , feray je, changyng the i of ye in g, 
whiche thyng whan they writte in prose they use nat. And I can se 
no cause why they shulde change the letter but by cause it is agaynst 
the nature of the frenche tonge to hâve twoyy' orjy or yj to corne 
immediatly togyder, as I bave somthynge afore touched. 

Except where the first person of the preterimperfectens endeth Exccptio. 
in yoye, asfvyôye, ouyôye, and suche like : for sythe ail suche, in their 
first and seconde persons plurell, ende in yons andye^;, we must nedes 
hâve two u come toguyder, and sayefuyyons, fuyyez, oayyons, ouyyes; 
for if he wrote but one i, we shulde confounde the persons of this 
tens with the same persons of their presentenses. 



44 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



WHAT PREPOSITIONS LEAVE OUT THEIR E IN WRITYNGE, 
AND JOYNE THEIR CONSONANTES OR LETTERS TO THE WORDE FOLOWYNG. 

CAPITULDM LU. 



Régula unica. Prepositions of tliis sorte be foure : contre, entre, de, and re whiche 

is onely used in composition. Contre, as for contre eulx, contre elles, 
contre hommes, contre âme, they write contreulx, contrelles, contrhommes, 
contrame. Entre, as for entre éulx, entre elles, entre àultres, they write 
entrealx, entrelles, entraaltres, which also they use in composityon 
with entre and verbes begynnynge with vowelles, as for entre aymér, 
entre cspousér : entraymer, entrespoaser. De, as for de or, de argent, de 
auécques, de homme, de anôyr, de âme: they write dor, dargent, da- 
aecques, dhomme, dauoyr, dame. Re, whiche, as I hâve sayde, they 
use onely in composytion with verbes as for re auôyr, re appellér, re 
amender : rauoir, rapellér, remander, and so of suche lyke. 

WHAT ADVERBES LEAVE OUT THEIR E IN WRITYNG 

AND JOYNE THEHl CONSONANT TO THE WORDES FOLOWYNG. 

CAPITDLDM LUI. 

Régula unica. Of adverbes in the frenche tonge beyng of this sorte I fynde no 
mo but ne and que for than : as ior je ne dyme,je ne endure, je ne ose, 
they write ye nayme, je nendure, je nose : and for non plus que a moy, 
moyns que a ung àaltre, ains que aymér, they write non plus qua moy, 
^ moyns qua ung aultre, ains quaymer, and so of suche lyke. But whan 
the verbe beginneth with i or v, they use ne on this maner but sel- 
dome. And as for jusquavmourir, jusquadix, and suche lyke used of 
suche authours as write in ryme ior jusques av mourir, jûsques a dix, 
it is nat by reason of this rule, no more than encor used for encore, or 
hom or com for home or côme, and suche lyke, whiche auctors do ra- 
ther by a lycence poetycall than for the advoyding of any yuell 
sounde. For thoughe the oldeRomayne tonge use many suche wordes, 
the trewe frenche tonge leaveth never the e of suche wordes onwrit- 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 45 

ten, thoughe they may be lefte unsounded, accordyng to the rules 
afore rehersed. 

WHAT CONJUNCTIONS LEAVE OUT THEIR E IN WRITYNG, AND JOYNE 

THEIR CONSONANTES TO THE WORDE FOLOWYNG. 

CAPITULUM LUIl. 

Conjunctions in the frenche tonge of this sorte I fynde but se, Régula unica. 
whiche is often tymes written si, as for si aulcun, se elle, si il, they 
Write saalcan, selle, sil; and so of suche other. 



OF LE AND LA. WHICHE, THOUGH THEY BE COMPREHENDED UNDER NONE 
OF THE LATYN VIII PARTES OF SPECHE, YET ALSO FOLOWE THIS RULE. 

CAPITULUM LV. 

Besydes thèse wordes above rehersed there be two other whiche Régula prima, 
hâve the same propertie , that is to saye le and la , whiche I hâve nat 
rehersed under any of the viii partes of speche of the lalyn tonge ; 
for the iatyns hâve no suche wordes , but we in our tonge bave wordes 
of lyke signification, whiche is this worde the: as where they saye in 
frenche le maistre, la dame, we saye in our tonge the mayster, the lady; 
so that this worde the, with us, counter vayleth bothe le and la. And 
therfore, sythe the latyn tonge hath no suche wordes and that the 
frenche tong hath certayne other that be of lyke sorte, I shall, in the 
seconde boke, where I make rehersall of the partes of speche in the 
frenche tonge, call them articles, borowyng a name for tliem of the 
Grekes, whiche also bave wordes of lyke signifycation and propertie 
intheir tonge. Bulnowe to shewe howethe sayde le and la folowe this 
rule, le, as for le abbé, le ennemy, le home, le habit, le innocent, le oyél, 
le vsaige, they write labbe, lennemy, linnocent, Ihomme, Ihabit, loyel, 
lasage, and so of ail oiher : la, as for la abbèsse, la enuie, laymàge, la 
oaertàre, la vniôn, la habitation, la habitude, they write labbesse, lenuie, 
lymage, loauertare, Ivnion, Ihabitation, Ihabitade, and so of ail suche 
other. 

And note that, where as I bave, in ail this chapiter, gyven example Régula 

secunda. 



r- 



46 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

of h, whan he hath nat his aspiration, I meane therby thaï h, whan 
he hath his aspiration, is excepted from this rule. For he hath than 
the power of a consonant, as I hâve shewed before, so that, though I 
maye write for la habitation, la habitude, la humilité, Ihabitation , Iha- 
bitude, Ihumilite, by cause h hath nat his aspiration, I can nat write 
Ihayne, Ihevrt, Iheaulme, for la hayne, le heurt, la heaulme; for the h 
in thèse wordes is aspirate, as apereth by my rules herafore de- 
clared. And therfore so often as / conmeth before h havyng his aspira- 
cion, as I fynde hym somtyme in Alayn Chartier, it is the errour of 
the printers whiche knowe nat their owne tonge. And this différence 
appereth evydently in this worde hevre, whiche havynge his aspira- 
tyon betokeneth a Boores heed : havyng it nat, it betokeneth an houre ; 
so that Ihevre betokeneth the hour and nat the boores heed, for I 
must nedes, in that signifycation, write le hevre. And this for the 
trewe soundyng of vowelies, diphthonges and consonantes in the 
franche tonge, botlie in the frenche wordes by themselfe and as 
they come toguyder in sentences, I suppose to be suffycient. 

TO KEPE TRUE ACCENT IN THE FRENCHE TONGE, 

AND WHAT THIS WORDE ACCENT SIGNIFIETH. 

CAPITULUM LVI. 

Régula unicd. Accent in the frenche tonge is a lyftinge up of the voyce upon 
some wordes or syllables in a sentence, above the resydue of the 
other wordes or syllables in the same sentence, so that what soever 
worde or syllable, as they come toguyder in any sentence, be sowned 
higher than the other wordes or syllables in the same sentence, upon 
them is the accent. And upon whiche wordes or syllables the redar 
shall lyfte up his voyce and upon whiche nat, it shall hère after 
appere. And note that sucbe lyftynge up of the voyce happeneth 
ever by reason of some vowell or diphthonge, never by reason of 
any consonant. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANGOYSE. 47 

THAT NO WORDE OF ONE «YLLABLE IN THE FRENCHE TONGE 
HATH ANY ACCENT. 

CAPITULUM LVIl. 

Generally there is no worde of one syllable in the frenche tonge Régula prima. 
that hath any accent, except the comyng next unto a poynt be the 
cause of it; so that, whan a worde or two or thre or mo, beyng 
but of one syllable, folowe one another, the redar shall sounde 
them ail under one tenour, and never rest upon them nor lyft up bis 
voice, tyll he come to the next worde of many syllables that fo- 
loweth, as il a ung corps fort amiable, ta dis vray maynienànt, shalbe 
sounded in redyng and spekyng il avncor fort amiable, tv dis vray- 
mantenànt, lyfting nat up the voyce but upon the seconde a oî amiable 
and mayntendnt onely. And so of ail other of one syllable thorowe the 
frenche tonge. 

But if it happe that ail the wordes in a sentence be of one syl- Régula 
lable, than shall they be ail reed shortely togyder, tyll the redar 
come to that worde of one syllable that cometh next unto the poynt, 
and there shall he lifte up bis voyce and pause , rather by reason of 
the poynt, as I hâve sayd, that next folowe, than by reason of the 
wordes selfe; as shall appere by example in thèse sentences : de son 
bon gré, il me afaict tort; je ne scay pas que cést, quil veult de moy; car 
mon las cuéar, pour vous se meurt. And al suche other shalbe soimded 
in redyng and spekyng : desonbongré ilmafaitôrt : jenesaypaquecét qui 
ueudemoy: Car monlacueùr pourvoasemeùrt, lyftyng nat up the voyce but 
at gre, tort, cest, moy, caear and meurt. And so of ail suche other. And 
this is an other great cause why the frenche tong semeth so brefe 
and sodayne in pronounciation, and so harde to be perceyved by a 
lernar. 

And note that in al interrogations and answeres they use to sounde 
the last vowel hyghest without pausyng, tyll they come therunto : 
excepte the last worde ende in e, and wyll bave bis accent upon the 



secuada 



48 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

last sillable commyng before : but ever ihe last worde shalbe sounded 
hyghest, as le Roy, ou sert ua il? Combien me baillez nous? and so of 
ail suche other. 



THAT ALL THE WORDES IN THE FRENCHE TONGE BEYNG OF MANY SILLABLES 

HAVE THEYR ACCENT EYTHER ON THEYR LAST SILLABLES, 

OR ON THEYR LAST SILLABLES SAVE ONE. 

CAPITULUM LVUI. 

Régula prima. Generally ail the wordes of many sillables in the frenche tong 
bave theyr accent eyther on theyr last sillable, that is to say, sounde 
the iaste vowell or diphthong that they be written with, hygher than 
the other vowels or diphthonges commyng before them in the same 
worde; orels they bave theyr accent on the last sillable save one, that 
is to say, sounde that vowell or diphthong, that is the last save one, 
hygher than any other in the same worde commyng before hym. And 
whan the redar hath lyft up bis voyce at the soundyng of the said 
vowel or diphthong, he shal, whan he commeth to the last sillable, 
depresse his voyce agayne; so that there is no worde through out 
ail the frenche tonge that hath his accent eyther on the thyrde sil- 
lable or on the forth syllable from the last, like as diverse wordes 
bave in other tonges, but, as I bave sayd, eyther on the very last 
sillable, orels on the next sillable onely. 
Régula And note that there is no worde in the frenche tong but he hath 

his place of accent certaine , and hath it nat nowe upon on sillable , 
nowe upon an other. 
Exceptio. Except diversité in signification causeth it where the worde in 

writtyng is alone, as I shall hère after déclare , rehersyng suche wordes 
in the frenche tong as be of this sort. 



.<,. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



49 



7f 



Exceptio 
secunda. 



WHAT WORDES THERE BE IN THE FRENCHE TONGE WHICHE IN WRITTYNGE 

DE LYKE, 
AND BY REASON OF DYVERSE ACCENT HAVE DIVERSE SIGNIFICATIONS. 

CAPITULUM LIX. 

Generally ail the verbes of the fyrst conjugacion in the frenche tong Excepuo prima. 
hâve theyr fyrst parsons singular of the présent tense in the indicatyve 
mode and theyr partyciple prétérit written with lyke letters ; onely the 
dy versite of accent sheweth the dyfTerence , as I shali hère after déclare . 

Also nownes in the frenche tonge there be diverse of this sort, as 
péché betokeneth syn, pèche a pèche, a kynde of fruité : costé, a syde; 
caste, a rybbe : posté, a pasty ; poste, paaste to baake wiith: fossé, a dytche 
aboutatowne;/()55e, a pytte : conté, an erledome; conte, an erle : cure, 
a cure a personage ; curé, a curate a parson : bàle, a baie of any marchan- 
dise ; bolé, a baies a precioustone : marche, a bondes or a marke betwene 
contrey and contrey; morchè, a bai'gen or a marketstede or cheepe, 
as good cheepe, bon morchié : porenté, a kyndred; porénte, a kynswo- 
man : clére, cliere ; cleré, clary a kynde of wyne : père, a father; peré, 
perya kynde of drynkerpi'e, a pye byrde ; /Jie, a foote, whiche I wolde 
wr'itte pied : planchera planke a brydge; planché, the florth of any thyng 
that is bourded : âpres, sharpe, in plurali; après, afterwarde : fille, a 
daughter;^//e, a spyndel with threde upon it, or a baye for coonys. 
And of this sort I fynde fewe suche other. 

WHAT WORDES IN THE FRENCHE TONGE 

HAVE THEYR ACCENT ON THEYR LAST SYLLABLE SAVE ONE. 

CAPITULUM LX. 



Generally throug out ail the frenche tonge ail maner of wordes of 
many syllables, what partes of speche so ever they be, if they ende 
in e or in es, they shall bave theyr accent on theyr last syliable save 
one, as homme, femme, dovlovrevse , contre, entre, ôaltre, àyme (whan 
he is the fyrst parsone of the présent tense) aymoye, conuertie, aymée, 
aymâsse , oymeroye, a lencôntre , comme, hommes, femmes, dovlovrevses , 
oymées, auécques, dôncques; and so of ail other. So that the redar 

7 



Régula unica. 



50 LESCLARCISSEMENT ' 

shall in ail suche wordes lyfte up his voyce whan he commeth to 
the vowell or diphthong next afore e or es, and whan he commeth to 
the soundynge of them, sodayniy depresse his voyce agayne; whiche 
sodayne fall of the voyce at the soundyng of the sayd e or es causeth 
that e, commyng in that place, is sounded in a meane voyce betwene 
e and o and moche in the nose : as the lernar shall easely perceyve , if 
he assay to sounde the wordes that I hâve here rehersed for example , 
accordynge as I hâve here and in his place before described. But this 
gênerai rule hath two exceptions. 
Exccptio prima. Fyrst. For ail suclie nownes in the frenche tonge as ende in te 
whose englysshe also with us endeth in te, by cause we use the same 
wordes in our tonge, or whose englysshe endeth in heed as godheed, 
manheed, or in nesse as goodnesse, fayrenesse, al suche nownes in 
the frenche tong with theyr plurell nombres shall hâve theyr accent 
on theyr lasl sillable, as charité, humanité, deité, bonté , beavlté : cha- 
ntez, deitéz, hamanitéz, bontéz, beavlléz; and so of ail suche lyke. But 
in other wordes, to theym that be lerned , to expresse this thynge 
more playnely, ail suche substantives as in the latine tonge ende in tas, 
especially if they be suche as the logiciens call abstractes, the frenche 
worde that is formed of any suche, if he ende in te, shal bave his ac- 
cent upon the same te : as for by cause that out of thèse abstractes bo- 
nitas , ueritas, deitas, humanitas be formed thèse frenche nownes bonté, 
uerité, deité, humanité, they shall, accordynge as I bave here declared, 
hâve theyr accent on theyr last sillable ; and so of ail such lyke. And 
in lyke wyse, by cause that of œstas, ciaitas, pietas, paapertas,he 
formed esté, cité, pitié, poureté, though they be none abstractes, yet 
by cause they come of nownes endyng in tas, they folowe this rule. 
And of this sort also I fynde thèse nownes folowyng, congé, dicté, 
traicté, whiche Alayn Chartier writteth congié, dictié , traictié , like 
as he writteth planchié, marchié and pechié, for planché, marché and 
péché. And also thèse nownes sarlimé , eschauldé, degré, euesché, ar- 
cheuesché, abbé, priovré, laicté, and fewe suche other. And of this sort 
be excès, procès and après, though they ende in es. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 51 

But where as there be diverse wordes in the frenche tong whiche 
ende in te that be nat formed of nownes in latine endyng in tas, as 
honte, hàvlte, and femine adjectives, as côvrte , forte , and also femynyne 
participles, Sisfàicte, dicte, ail suche wordes folowe the generall rule 
of frenche wordes endyng in e, and bave tbeyr accent on the last sil- 
lable save one. 

Seconde. For ail the participles prétérit of the fyrst conjugation in 
the frenche tonge with theyr plurell nombres shal bave theyr accent 
on the laste syllable, lyke as I hâve some thyng touched hère afore, as 
regardé, aymé, ordonné; regardez, ayméz, ordonnez; and so of ail suche 
other. 

And note that , where as the prêter perfect temps actyve and passyve 
in the frenche tonge is circumloquuted by thèse verbes ay and suis , 
and the participles prétérit of the verbe, so that in verbes of the fyrste 
conjugation they say ay aymé, ay regardé; suis aymé, sais regardé, and 
so of ail other : in ail suche tenses the participle of the mascvdyne 
gender bave theyr accent on theyr laste syllable ; as for theyr femy- 
nine genders folowe the common rule, as I touched in the trewe 
sowndyng of this vowel e, as aymée, regardée, and so of al other. 



Exceptio. 



Exceptio 
secunda. 



Régula 
secuoda. 



WHAT WORDES IN THE FRENCHE TONGE 

HAVE THEYR ACCENT ON THEYR LAST SILLABLE. 

CAPITULUM LXI. 



Generally through out ail the frenche tonge , ail maner of wordes Régula unica. 
of many sillables, in what letter soever they ende, be it vowel, 
diphthong or consonant, if they be none suche as I bave made men- 
tion of in the rules hère next before, that is to say, ende nat in e 
nor es, as the plurel nombres of suche nownes whose singlers ende 
in e: ail suche wordes shal bave theyr accent on theyr last sillable, 
as aymù , aymày, aimé, beàv, colômh, aaéc, accord, bretif, Diév, desdaing, 
joîy, conuerly, chenal, renom, poyssôn, parôy, beavcovp, cordelier, appren- 
tis, honorablement, uaincù, covrtàvlx, bontéz; and the seconde parsons 
plureis of al verbes whiche ever sbulde ende in ez with an z, for a 



Exceptio prima. 



Exceptio 
secunda. 



52 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

différence from theyr singiar nombres, whan they ende in es : so that 
of ail suche vvordes as ende in es in sounde, the writtynge of an s or 
z after the e declareth the diversité of accent , and where the redar 
shulde gyve the accent; for ail that ende in ez hâve theyr accent upon 
theyr last sillable. 

Except from this rule the thyrde persons plurels of al verbes end- 
yng in ent, as àyment, aymoyent , aymérent, aymeroyent , aymàssent, 
and so of ail suche other, whiche ail hâve theyr accent on theyr last 
syllable save one, though they ende in t and that the n, in ail suche, 
shalbe lefte unsounded , as 1 hâve hère afore in diverse places de- 
clared. 

Except also the seconde parsons plurels of the indefmit tenses of 
the indicatif mode in verbes of the frenche tong of what conjuga- 
cion so ever they be, as parlàstez , conuertîstez , disiez, and so of al 
suche lyke : whiche, though they ende in tcz, yet they bave theyr 
accent on theyr last sillable save one. And this to kepe true accent in 
the frenche tonge I suppose to be sufEcient. 



Rerola prima. 



Régula 
secunda. 



TO KNOWE WHAN A VOWELL SHALBE LONGE IN PRONOUNCIATION , 

AND WHAN NAT, AND TO SHEWE 

WHAT IS MENT THERBY BY EXAMPLE IN CERTAYNE WORDES OF OUR TONG. 

CAPITULUM LXII. 

Lyke as we in our tong gyve our vowels somtyme so long pro- 
nounciation that, for the expressyng of suche sounde as we gyve 
them, we double the vowel in writtyng, as doth appere in thèse 
wordes « a baare caape, aleene beere, a soore boore : » so happeneth 
it many tymes that the frenche men rest upon the soundyng of theyr 
vowels and gyve them , where they be written alone , suche long pro- 
nounciation as we use to do , whan we double them in writtyng in 
our tong; for the declaryng of whiche thyng thre thynges be to be 
presupposed. 

Fyrst. That this long pronounciation is gyven onely unto theyr 
vowels whan they corne alone by themselfe, and nat whan they be 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 53 

joyned to gyther in diphthonges , for diphthonges shall ever kepe 
suche amaner of soundyng as I hâve before declared, where I spake 
of them. 

Seconde. There is no vowel in the frenche tong whiche of his Régula lenia. 
owne nature is longe in pronoimciation , save onely v, whose kynde 
of sounde I hâve afore declared in his place. Except it be the finall 
vowelles of ail indefinite tenses , whether they be of one syllable as 
dis, fis, bus, tins, or of many as maaldis , forjfis , fays , corrampùs, and 
suche like : for they be ever long in soundyng, in what place so ever 
they come in a sentence. So that the causes why any of the other 
vowelles be longar in pronounciacion at one tyme that at an other be m : 
firste, by reason that the vowel fortuneth next unto a poynt in any 
sentence. Seconde, that the accent of the worde falleth upon the 
same vowell. And thirdly , by reason that eyther a consonant or ii of 
diverse sortes folowe the same vowel : so that al thèse m thynges 
must be concurrant to cause a vowell in the frenche tong to bave 
suche a longe pronounciacion, as I hâve afore described. 

Thirde, if m, n or r, eylher alone or joyned with any other con- Régula quarta. 
sonantes , folowe next after a wowell or ii consonantes beyng both of 
one sort commyng so as I hâve hère afore described, they let the 
vowell that he shall nat be long in pronounciacion, but folowe the 
common sort of pronounciation like as they shidde bave in the la- 
tine tonge , or hke as we wolde gyve them in our tong. And thèse m 
thynges supposed, it is easy to the lernar to discerne whiche vowell 
shalbe longe in pronounciation, and whiche nat. How be it by example 
I shall more playnly déclare this thynge. 

EXAMPLE OF SENTENCES WHERE A SIIALL BE LONGE IN PRONOUNCIATION. 

In thèse sentences : cest ang terrible cas. Je ne le ferdy pas. Il a abatû 
son mcist. Il lui bailla conseil, qu'il y regarddst, and in ail suche lyke, 
in thèse wordes cas, pas, mast and regardasl, by cause a cometh nexte 
unto the poynt, and hath a consonant or two folowyng hym, and 
that the accent is upon the same a, they shalbe sounded as we wolde 



54 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

do in englisshe if they were written caas, paas, maast, regardaast; 

and so of ail other. 

Except where the worde endynge in a hath eyther t or p alone fo- 
iowyng the same a, for in ail sache wordes, bicause the sayd t or p 
must hâve his distynct soirnde, accordynge as I hâve in the generall 
rules of laste syllables declared, the a shalbe sounded short, like 
as we wolde sounde hym in our tong, as in thèse sentences : // a 
batù son chat. Allons veoir le combat. Il boyt en son hanâp, the a shalhe 
sounded short. How be it hanap is olde romant, though I fynde it 
used in Froissart. 

EXAMPLE WHERE E BEYNG THE LAST VOWEI-L OF A WORDE SHALBE LONGE 

IN PRONOUNCIATION. 

In thèse sentences : Cest ang grant jeveùr aux déz. Les Romàyns ont 
uaincus les Grecz. Il afaict de grans crualtéz. On luy a oste quatre citez, 
e of thèse wordes dez, grecz, crualtéz, citez, by cause he commeth in 
suche ordre and place as I bave before described, shalbe sounded as 
though they were written deez, gréez, crualleez, citeez; and so of ail 
other. 

EXAMPLE WHERE E COMYNG IN THE LAST SYLLABLE SAVE ONE SHALBE LONG 

IN PRONOUNCIATION. 

In thèse sentences : Elle a une maluâise teste. Cest une belle béste. Je 
leferày a uostre requéste. Cest ung homme fort honéste. Dieu nous doint 
bon uéspre. Il est bon a déxtre : e in thèse wordes teste, béste, requéste, 
honéste, uéspre, déxtre shalbe sounded as thoug they were written 
teeste, beeste, requeeste, honeeste, ueespre, deextre; and-so in al suche 
like. And though two the laste wordes have r folowynge theyr e, he 
letteth nat the e to be long in sounde, for he is nat joyned to the 
vowell that the accent falleth of. 

And note that in suche wordes as have theyr accent on theyr last 
syllable save one, the accent may as well fall upon any of the other 
vowelles as upon e. Upon a, as il est bien àspre. tout ua en gàst. Upon 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 55 

i, as il nest pas digne, il a bon tiltre. Upon o, as baille le a mon hôste.je 
sais tout uôstre; in whiche wordes the sayd a, i and o, by cause they 
corne in suche place and ordre as I hâve afore described, they shaibe 
sounded aaspre, gaast, diigne, tiiltre, hooste, uoostre. So that a great 
cause why the vowell is longe in pronounciation is bycause that, ac- 
cordyng to the rules above declared, the consonant next folowynge 
hym is left unsounded. And, by lyke reason, in wordes of one syl- 
lable where one consonant onely foloweth the vowell, he shaibe so 
remyssely sounded that in maner he shall nothyng be barde. 

EXAMPLE WHERE / BEYNGE THE LAST VOWELL SHAL BE LONGE 
IN PRONOCNCIATION. 

In thèse sentences : Plus que je ne dis. Dieu scait quelle chiére il fist. 
Je làyme comme monfilz. Adonc elle enrovgist. Parainsi Iheretiqae se con- 
aertist: The i of thèse wordes dis , jist , jilz , enrovgist, conuertist, shaibe 
sounded diis,jiist,fiilz, enrovgiist, conaertiist. And so of ail suche lyke. 

EXAMPLE WHERE BEYNG THE LAST VOWELL SHAL BE LONGE 
IN PRONODNCIATION. 

In thèse sentences : Apportez moy nng fagot. Que je parle a luy troiz 
môtz. Il a avide tous les pôtz. Nous sommez maintenant en avôst : The o of 
thèse -wordes fagot, motz, potz, avost shaibe sounded /a^oo<, mooiz, 
pootz, avoost; and so of ail suche other. And this for the knowledge 
whan the wowels in the frenche tonge be longe in pronounciation 
and whan nat, I suppose to be sufhcient. 

TO SHEWE BY EXAMPLB THE GREAT DIFFERENCE BETWENE THE WRITTYNGE 

OF THE FRENCHE TONG 
AND THE SOUNDYNG OF IT IN REDYNG AND SPEKYNG. 

CAPITULUM LXIII. 

Al be it that I bave in the chapters conteyned in this présent boke 
sufficiently declared wberin the true soundyng of the frenche tong 
consisteth , and what great diflerence there is betwene the writtynge 



56 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

of it after the observyng of theyr orthographie and the soundyng 
of the same in redyng and spekyng, Yet to shewe this notable diffé- 
rence to the lernar more plainly at the eie, and to make a par- 
fect and complet recapitulacion , and callyng agayne to memorie of 
ail the rules gyven by me in this présent boke, I shall shewe hère 
howe suche auctors as I estyme to be most excellent in the frenche 
tonge begynne theyr bokes, as well suche as hâve written in ryme as 
they that hâve written in prose , and after writte the same sentences 
in every thyng, accordyng as they use to sounde the wordes in redyng 
and spekyng. And for the more playn settyng out hereof , I shall fyrst 
writtfe a lyne in every condicion lyke as they do, and after immediatly 
writte the same line accoi'dynge as it shulde be sounded lyke as by 
my rules in this présent boke I bave declared. So that the often red- 
yng of thèse examples and conferryng of one lyne to an other shalbe 
to hym that hath ones accustomed to rede this boke a meanes to 
imprint al the rules contayned in the same in fast memory, and cause 
hym to sounde the frenche tong in ail maner thynges like as the 
frenchemen do themselfe, where as the tong is of it selfe most perfit. 

EXAMPLE HOWE PROSE SHULDE BE SOUNDED BY THE BEGYNNYNG 
OF THE QUADRILOGUE OF ALAIN CHARTIER. 

A la ires hanlte et excellente majesté des princes, 
AlatrehdutoeeuzseHântomajestédeprinsos , 

a la très honnoree magnificence des nobles, 
alatresovnnoréomanifisénsodenôbles , 

circumspection de clercz et bonne industrie du peuple francoy s , 
sirkevnspesiovndeclérzeetbovnindevstriedevpévplofraunsoâs, 

Alayn Chartier humble secrétaire du roy nostre sire, 
Alaynshartiérévmblosecretâyrodevroynôtrosiro, 

et de mon tresredoubte seigneur monseigneur le régent, 
edemountreredoutéseynievrmounseynievrlerejânl, 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 

loingtain imitateur des orateurs, salât. 
lointévnvmilatévrdesoratévrsalévt. 



57 



En crainte de Dieu, me humiliant soubz la juste cognoissance de ses jagemens ; 
ancrâyntodedievmevmiliântsovlajevstoconoassavnsodesejévgemàns; 

et retournant a sa miséricorde soubz la poincture de sa punition, 
eretournâvntasamizericôrdosovlapoyntévrodesapevnisiovn, 

came les haultes dignitez des seigneuries soyent establies, 
côvmmolehéutodinitédeseynievriessôoyetetablios, 

soabz la diuine et infinie puissance gai les esleve en jlorisant prospérité , 
sovladivinoeinfiniopuissâvnsôkileselieueanflorissâvnprosperité, 

et gbrieuse renommée il est a croire et tenir Jîrmement, 
egloriévzorenovmtnéoiletacrôareetenirfirmemànt, 

que ainsi que leurs commencemens et leurs croyssances, 
kainsikelevrcovmmansemànselevrcroassâvnsos, 

sont maintenues et adressées par la diuine prudence , 
sounmayntenevoseadresscoparladiuinoprevddnso, 

ainsi est leur fin et leur determinement par sentence donnée ou hault, 
aynsielevrfinelevrdeterminemânparsantânsodovnnéoouhaût, 

conseil de la souuerayne sapience gui les aulcuns verse du hault throsne, 
covnséyde]asovuerâynosapiànsokilesovkevnuérsodevhavtr6ne, 

et imperialle seigneurie en la basse fosse de seruitude , 
eimperiâlloseynyevrioanlabàssofôssodeseruitévdo, 

et de magnificence en raine etfaict des vainqueurs vaincus , 
edemanifisansoanrevynoefaydeuaynkévruaynkélis, 

et ceulx obéir par crainte qui commander soaloyent par aactorite. 
eseûzobeyrparcrâyntokicovmavndérsovlôyeparoutorité. 

By this example appereth evidently that the différence betwene 
the writtyng of the frenche tong and soundyng of it in redyng and 
spekyng is vei-y great; but to shewe the lernar yet more playnly in 

8 



58 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

what places of this boke thèse rules be rehersed wherby I bave de- 
clared upon what occasions ihis great alteracion cometh , I shall 
shew the lernar howe many of the sayd rules be used in the seconde 
line, and lymyt the chaptres where I make mencion of them. Fyrst : 
the seconde line is written 

alatrehàatoeeazsellàntomajestédeprinsos, 

without any maner distinction betwene worde and worde, wherby 
I déclare the brefnesse that the frenche tong useth in soundyng of 
theyr wordes, whiche in redynge and spekynge never cesse or pause, 
tyl they come at suche worde where the poynl shulde be : as I hâve 
declared in the xlviii chaptre, in the un rule of the same. 

Second. Ail the wordes of one syllable be joyned in writtyng to 
the wordes of many syllables as though they were partes of them, to 
déclare that there is no worde in the frenche tong of one syllable 
whiche of bis owne nature hath any accent, but is joyned in sounde 
to the next worde folowyng hym of many syllables, accordyng as I 
hâve declared in the lvii chaptre , in the fyrst rule of the same. 

Thirde. The s of très is left unwritten bycause that h havyng bis 
aspiration hath the power of a consonant, as I hâve shewed in the 
\xxiii chaptre, in the fyrst rule of the same. 

Fourth. The / of this worde hault is left unwritten to déclare that 
/ so comyng before an olher consonant is left with them unsounded, 
as I bave declared in the xxvi chap., in the un gênerai rule of mean 
sillables. 

Fyft. There is a stryke above the hed of au, by cause the accent of 
the worde is there, accordyng as appereth in the i.x chaptre, in the 
fyrst rule. 

Sext. The e of haulte is written like an o, bycause that e beynge the 
last letter shalbe sounded almost like an o, and moche in the noose, 
as appereth in the m chaptre and the v rule of the same. 

Seventh. Why the t of et is left unwritten I bave shewed in the 
XLiiii chaptre, in the thirde rule. 



'*# 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 59 

Eight. Why I hâve written an h betwene the e and x of excellente 
I hâve shewed in the viii chaptre and the seconde rule. 

Nynth. Why x is chaunged into z I hâve declared in the xlvi chaptre 
and the fyrst rule. 

Tenth. Why I hâve tomed the c of excellente in to 5 I hâve de- 
clared in the xxix chaptre, the fyrst rule. 

Leventh. Why I hâve tourned e commynge before n into a I hâve 
shewed in the m chaptre and the m rule. 

Twelfeth. Why the accent is upon a of eazsellànte I hâve shewed 
hère afore in the fyfte nombre. 

Thretene. Why e is changed into o I bave also shewed hère before 
in the vi nombre. 

Fourtene. Why the s of this worde majesté is written contrarie to 
the VI generall rules of meane sillables (in the xxvi chaptre) appereth 
in the xliii chaptre, amonge the wordes begynnyng with m. 

Fyftene. Why the last e of majesté is lefte unchaunged appereth in 
the thirde chaptre, in the exception from the fyft rxde. 

Sixtene. Why the accent of majesté is upon the last e appereth in 
the LX chaptre, in thé fyrst exception. 

Seventene. Why the s of des is left unwritten appereth by the xlviii 
chaptre, in the fourlh rule. 

Eyghtene. Why the accent is upon i in princes I bave shewed hère 
before in the fyft nombre. 

Nynetene. Why c of princes is tourned into s I bave before touched 
in the xi nombre. 

XX. Why e is tourned into o I bave afore declared in the vi nombre. 

XXL Why the s comyng next the poynt is left written I bave afore 
shewed in the xlix chaptre, and howe he shulde be sounded I bave 
shewed in the xxvii chaptre, in the thirde rule. 

So that if the lernar wyll accustome hym to marke a sentence as it 
is written in any auctor, and writte it with suche vowels and consonantes 
as they use to sounde in redyng and spekyng, it shalbe a very spedy 
mean to come to the true and perfect soundyng of the frenche tonge. 

8. 



60 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

EXAMPLE HOWE THYNGES WRITTEN IN RYME SHCLDE BE SOUNDED , 
BY THE BEGYNNYNGE OF THE EXILE OF ALAYNE CHARTIER. 

For the true pronounsyng of thynges writlen in ryme, it is to be 
noted that the last wordes of the lynes shall ever sounde theyr con- 
sonantes whiche folowe after theyr last vowels, accordyng as I hâve 
afore declared in the xxvu chaptre , whether the poyntes of the sen- 
tences fail upon the same wordes or nat; that is to say, the redar 
shal gyve al thèse wordes suche sounde as I hâve shewed that frenche 
wordes must hâve whan they be red by themselfe : by cause that , by 
the distinct soundyng of suche wordes, the kynde of ryme, wherof 
there is many sondry sortes used in the frenche tong, is clerely dis- 
cemed and by the herer perceyved. 

Au diziesme an, de mon doalant exil, 
Avdiziemavndemovndovlâvntevzil , 

Après maint daeil, et maint mortel péril, 
Apremayndveil.emaynmortéperil , 

Et les dangiers quay jusques cy passez 
Eledavngiérkayjevkesy passez 

Dontjay saffert grâces a Dieu assez, 
Dovnjaysevfférgrdsesadievassés , 

Na pas gramment es cronicques lisoye 
Napagravmmântecronickolizôye 

Et es haulxfaictz des anciens visoye 
eehavfaidesavnsiânuizôy e 

Qui aa premier noble France fondèrent , 
KiavpremiérnôbleFràvnsefovndéret, 

Ceulx en vertu tellement abondèrent , 
Sevzanuertévtellemântabovndéret, 

Qae da pays furent vrays possesseurs , 
Kedepaysfévreuraypossessévrs , 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 61 

Et lont laisse a leurs bons successeurs, 
Elounlaysséalevrbovnsevksessévrs , 

Qui tant leurs meurs et leurs doctrines creurent, 
Kitavnlevrmévrselevrdotrinecreiiret, 

Et se firent honnorer et aymer, 
Esefiretovnnoréreaytnér, 

Craindre et douhter de ca et de la mer, 
Créyndroedovtérdesâedelamér, 

Justes enfaictz socourans leurs amys, 
Jévstosanfâisocovrâvnlevrsamys , 

Durs aux mauluais, et fiers aux ennemys, 
Devrsaumavuâys.efiersauzannemys, 

Ardans d'honneur, et haulx entreprenneurs 
Ardâvndovnnévr,ehavzantreprannévrs 

Regnans par droit, eureux et glorieux, 
Renâvnpardroâtevrévzegloriévz . 

Et contre tous, fors et victorieux, 
Econtrelovforseuitoriévz , 

Or ont règne en grant prospérité, 
Orovnrenéangrâvnprosperité , 

Par maintenir justice et équité, 
Parmaintenirjevstisoeekité , 

Et ont laisse après mainte victoire, 
Eovnlaysséaprémântouitôare , 

Les pays en paix, en haultesse, et en gloyre 
Lepaysanpâyxanhâvtessoeanglôâre, 

Et noz pères, qui deuant nous nasguirent, 
Enopérekideuàvnovnakiret , 

En ce hon temps durèrent et vesguirent 
Ansobon lande vréreteuekiret , 



68. LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Et passèrent le cours de leur aage , 
Epassérelecovrdelevraâge , 

Sears de leurs corps en repos de courage, 
Sevrsdolevrcôrsanrepôdecovrâige, 

Las nous chetifs en malle heure nez, 
LanovshetizanmâHoévronéz , 

Aaons este a naistre destinez , 
Auôvnsetéanâytrodetinez , 

Quant le hault pris du royalme dechiet, 
KavnlehavpridevToyâmodeshiet , 

Et nostre honneur a grief reproache chiet. 
Enôtreovnnévragriereprôvsheshiet. 

ANOTHER EXAMPLE OF PROSE REHERSED IN TIIE XXXI CHAPTRE OF THE FYRST BOKE 

DES ILLUSTRACIONS DE GAULE, WHERE JEHAN LE MAIRE BRYNGETH 

IN PALLAS SPEKYNGE TO PARIS. 

Enfant de bonne indole , et de très ingénieuse nature , 
Anfâvndebôvnnindôlo.edetresingenievzonatévro, 

lequel je cognois par la démonstration de ta phisonomie , 
lekéjeconôaparlademovnstratiôvndetafizonomfo , 

estre flexible a toute docilité, et a la compréhension du hault savoir 
etroflezibleatôvtodosilité.ealocovmprehansiôvndevhavsauoir 

que les dieux mesmes ont en leur espargne, 
keledievmémesovntanlevrepârgnie, 

puisque ton vueil est ores en balance, ton pie prest a desmarcher, 
puiketovnuveiletôresanbalàvnse,tovnpieprelademarshér, 

Pour tirer ung chemin ou aulire , et les yeulx de ta pensée extérieure , 
pourtirérevnshemynovôutro.elesyevzdetapanséointeriévro , 

Vacillent en lelection des choses dijférentes , 
vasilletanlelesiôvndeshôzedifferântos , 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 63 

prens a ceste heure tonploy non ejfassable, 
pransasétoévrotovnploynovneffassâble, 

imbue le vaisseau de ta noble ame de liqueur prudente et vertueuse, 
imbévoleuaisseâudetanôblâmodelikévrprevdântoeuertevévze, 

et depainctz les tablettes de ta haulte perspicacité de couleurs 
ed epainzletabléttodetahâvtoperspicasi tédecovlévrs , 

précieuses et immortelles , et en ce faisant séjourne les pupilles, 
presiévzoseimmortéllos.eansefayzâvnsejôvrnolepevpillos, 

de ta circomspection discrète ou miroyr de ma speciosite céleste. 
detasircovnspesiôvndiscrétoovmirôardemaspesiozitéseléto. 

Nauentare poynt la précieuse galee de ton eaige fleurissant 
Nauavntévropoantlapresiévsogaléôdetovneéigeflevrissâvnt 

au vent d'ambicion sinistre, et de gloyre vayne et desmesuree , 
ovuandavmbisiôvnsinistro,edegloarovàynoedemezevréo, 

ny en la tormente de négoces rayneux . Euite leperilz de tirannicqae cruaalte, 
nyanlatormântodenegôsorevynévz . Evitoleperizdetirannickecrevavté , 

les destroitz dauarice insaciable, et le naafraige inconsidéré doffencion de voysins. 
ledetrôazdavarisoinsasiâblo.elenavfraigoinconsiderédoffensiôvndeuoazins. 

Ne tabandonne poynt a la nayt de terrienne amour, et ne te fie 
Netabavndônnopoântalanevytdeterriànnoam6vr,enetefie 

en hbscurte dignorance mondaine, Fuy le gouffre de villaine lubricité, 
anlobskevrtédiiiorâvnsomovndalno . Fvylegôvffrodeuiilâynelevbrisité , 

donne toy garde des rochiers de cupidité effrénée, de la grave 
dôvnnotoygdrdoderoshiérsdekeypiditéeffrenéodelagrévo 

doultrecaidance , et de la plaige doultraige sanguinolent. 
dovtrokvidâvnso.edelaplâigodovtrâigosankinolânt. 



64 



LESGLARCISSEMENT 



EXAMPLE HOW GUYLLAM DE LORRIS BEGAK 
HIS ROMANT OF THE ROSE IN THE OLDE 
ROMANT TONG. 

Maintes gens dient qae en songes 
Na se fables non et menchonges 
Mez on peut teb songes songier 
Qui ne sont mie menchongier 
Ains sont apries bien apurant 
Si en puis bien traire a garant 
Un aucteur qui ot nom Macrobes 
Qui ne tint pas songes à lobes 
Ainschoys descrist la aision 
Qui aaint au roy Cypion, etc. 



EX AMPLE HOW THE SAME BOKE IS NOWE 
TOURNED INTO THE NEWE FRENCHE 
T0N6. 

Maintes gentes dient que en songes 
Mâintojandietkansôvngos 

Ne sont qae fables et mensonges 
Nesovnkofôblesemansongos 

Mais on peult telz songes songier 
Maysovnpevttezsôvngosovngiér 

Qae ne sont mye mensongier 
Kenesovnmyomansovngiér 

Ayns sont après bien apparant 
Aynsovntaprebienapparavnt, etc. 



FINIS. 

Thus ende I of my m bokes the fyrst, in whiche I hâve, as wel by 
rule as by example, sufficiently deciared howe the frenche tong in 
redyng and spekyng ought to be pronounsed. In the often redyng of 
whiche boke if the lemar be studious, notyng specially what I bave 
sayde (concemyng this matter) in nay prologue, and therto exercise 
hymselfe, accordyng to suche consayles as I hâve in the sayd pro- 
logue and boke deciared, he shal undouted attayne to the right and 
naturall pronounciation of this sayde tonge. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 65 



THE SECONDE BOKE. 



In the frenche tong be ix partes of speche , article, nowne, pronowne, 
verbe, parliciple, adverbe, préposition, conjonction and interjection. Of 
whiche v be declined , that is to say varie their last letters : article , 
nowne, pronowne, verbe and participle. And the other iiii be iinde- 
clined, that is to say remayne unvaried in their last letters for ail ma- 
ners of spekyng. ' - 

OF THE ARTICLE. 

Articles they hâve but ii, vng a, and le the, whiche be thus de- 
clined : 

The masculine singular vng, the masculine plurell vngz. 
The féminine singular me, the féminine plurel mes. 
The masculine singular le, the masculine plurel les. 
The féminine singular la, the féminine plurel les. 

THE II ACCIDENTES BELONGYNG TO ARTICLES. 

So that articles bave ii accidentes, gender and nombre, whiche they 
alter after the gender and nombre of the substantive that they belonge 
unto. 

But howe le and la lèse tlieyr vowels, comyng next before adjec- Régula prima, 
tives or substantives begynnyng with voweis or with h nat havyng 
bis aspiracion , I hâve in the iv chaptre of the first boke alredy de- 
clared. 

And howe vng is joyned to féminine substantives begynnyng with Régula 
a vowel or with h nat havyng bis aspiration , for to avoyde the harshe 
sounde of two vowels together, shall hère after in the thirde boke, 
whan I speke agayne of the article, appere. 

9 



secunda 



66 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Divisio 
nominis. 



Descriptio 
substantivorum. 



OF THE NOWNE. 

Of nownes some be substantives, of whiche I wyl fyrst entreat, and 
some be adjectives, of wbom I wyll hère after speke. 

Nownes substantives be suche as wyl bave one of the ii articles 
before them, as seignévr, dame, père, fille be substantives: for we may 
say vng seignévr a lorde, vne dame a lady, le père the father, la fille 
the daughter. 

Substantyves hâve vi accidentes: gender, nombre, parson, dériva- 
tion, composicion and decUnation. 



THE FYRST ACCIDENT. 



Régula prima. 



Régula 
secundii. 



Exceptiones. 



Genders be ii : the masculine gender and the féminine. 

The masculine gender by reason of signification , as Henry Harry, 
roy king, and ail other names of dignities, offices or craftes belon- 
gynge onely to men. 

By reason of terniination : for ail other substantives whose gender 
can nat be knowen by bis signification , endyng in any vowel or di- 
phthong, except e. And also the most parte of substantives endyng 
in any consonant be of the masculine gender. 

Except endyng in vowelles, mercy and uertû; and in diphlhonges , lay, 
peàu,foy and loy. 

The femynine gendre by reason of signification, as Catherine Ka- 
theryne, roync queen; and ail other names of dignyteis, ofTyces or 
craftes belongyng onely to women. 

By reason of termynation : for the moost parte of ail substantyves end- 
ynge in e, and certayne endyng in consonantes be of the femyne gender. 
Régula quarta- Aud notc that thcrc is no substantyve in this tonge but he is of 
the masculyne gendre, or of the femynine certaynly. 

Save that I fynde sixe used of the commen gendre lyke as homo is 
in latyne : and other sixe used of their auctours incertaynly, sometyme 
as masculynes, sometyme as femynines : and therfore I calle theyni 
of the doutfull gendre. 



Régula tertia. 



Ëxceptiones 
dua;. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 67 

And as for neutre gendre they hâve none, resemblyng therin the Régula quinta. 
hebrevv tonge, whiche also hâve no mo but the sayd two genders 
hère expressed. 

So that in maner ail substantyves of the neutre gendre in latyne be Régula sexia. 
in this tonge of the masculyne gendre, ail thoughe they ende in e, 
especially if their latyne worde ende in um, as consile, miracle be 
masculynes, for they corne of consilium and miraculam; and so in ma- 
ner of ail suche lyke. But thèse thynges shall herafter in my annota- 
tions upon this accydent, in the thirde booke , more playnly and at the 
length appere. 



THE SECONDE ACCIDENT. 



Régula 
sccunda. 



Régula tertia. 



Nombres they bave two: the synguler nombre and the plurell. Régula prima. 

The synguler nombre hath as many sondrie terminatyons as there 
be sondrie vowelles, diphthonges or consonantes finall with them used. 

Except of vowelles a and o and of consonantes onely k, for in thèse Exceptio. 
thre letters endeth no substantyve in this tonge. 

The plurell nombre endeth ever in s, xorz, what soever termyna- 
tion the synguler nombre ende in, as mercy, aigneâv, lovp make for 
theyrplurels mercjs, aigneàvx, loapz. 

And al substantives whose singular nombres ende in any of thèse m 
letters hâve theyr singular nombre and plurel ail one , as corps , paix 
and nez may serve indifferently for both nombres. 

And al that ende in e , nat havyng their accent upon the same e in Régula quana. 
theyr singular nombre , by addyng to of s forme theyr plurels, as homme . 
hommes. 

And note that diverse substantives in this tong be used in the plu- 
rel nombre onely. 

Notyng hère also that, though the substantives of this tong alter 
theyr last letters by reason of theyr diverse nombre that they serve 
for, accordyng as I bave hère shewed by example, yet there is no 
substantive in the tong but he kepetb bis first letters styl, what 
nombre soever he stande for, save onely 021/, for an eie, whiche ma- 

9- 



Régula quinta. 



Régula sexta. 



68 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

keth for his plurel nombre yéulx, changyng botli his firsl and last let- 
ters. But ail thèse thynges shal in nay annotacions upon this accident , 
in ihe thyrde boke, more playnly appere. 



THE THIRDE ACCIDENT. 



Régula unica. Persones they hâve but onely the thirde in eche of thèse two 
nombres, that is to saye, suche worde of the verbe as agreeth with il, 
agreeth with ail substantyves of the synguler nombre; and suche 
worde of verbe as agreeth with Hz, agreeth with ail substantyves 
of the plurell nombre. As lyke as they saye : il parle, he speketh; ib 
parlent, they speke, so say they: vng homme parle, a man speketh; les 
hommes parlent, the men speke. 



THE FOURTHE ACCIDENT. 



Quœ forniantiir Dcrivatyon OT formation, that is to saye, substantyves somtyme be 

a substanlivis. » i p i i ri i - ' i 

loiu-med ot other substantyves , as oi pomme, an apipie , pommier, anappie 
tre; of tencévr, a man chyder, tencerésse, a woman chider; of covsturiér, 
a tayllyour, coastariére, atayllom-s wyfe or a woman tayllyour; oHeôn, 
a lyon, leonceâv, a lytell lyon; of liare, aboke, liarét, a lytell boke; of 
femme, n wornan , femmétte , a lytell woman; oî Jehan, John, Jehannét, 
■ yonge or lytell Johan ; of matyn , a momyng , matynée, a momynge tyde ; 
of corde, a corde , cordaige , store or plentie of cordes ; of amy, a frende , 
amytye, frendshyppe; of ribavlt, a rybaude, rihavldàille , a companyor 
plentie of rybaudes; of helistre, a man beggar, belistrésse, a woman 
beggar. 
Qtue Somtyme they be fourmed of adjectyves, as of bon, good, bonté, 

a jecivis. goodnesse; oi covrte, shorte, covrtàvlt, a courtail, a horse. 
Qn«a verbis. Somtyme they be foxu-med of verbes, as of parlôye, I dyde speke, 
^ parlévr, a man spekar and parlement a spekyng; of engendrér,\o begette, 
engendrévre , a begettynge. 

THE V ACCIDENT. 

Composytion , for where as dyvers substantyves be symple , that is 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 69 

to saye, be nat compounde witli any other wordes as, homme, femme 
and suche lyke, niany in the tong be compounde, some of two wordes 
unparfyte , as dymdnche; some of two wordes of whiche the first onelye 
isunparfyte, as licôl; some of two parfyte wordes, as beaupére, savf 
condvyl ; some be expressed by thre wordes of whiche the myddle is 
a preposytion, as becq defavlcôn. 



THE SIXTE ACCIDENT. 



Declynation in substantyves is none other thyng but thexpressyng 
what différence there is bytwene the termynations of the synguler 
nombre and the plureil , by addyng of an artycle or an adjectyve , and 
an artycle of suche gendre and nombre as the substanty ve requyreth ; 
for cases in substantyves the frenche tong hath none , as vng bon homme, 
vne bonne femme; les bons hommes, les bonnes femmes. 

And note that suche gendre and nombre as the substantyve is of , Régula prima, 
suche lyke gendre and nombre shall the article, adjective, pronowne 
and participle passyve be of : so that in the well knowynge of the 
gendre of the substantyve , whose gendre ail thèse four partes of speche 
must folowe , and in the true formacion of the plureil nombres of 
the sayde fyve partes of speche ont of their syngulers resteth no 
small parte of congruife and certayne of knowledge howe to kepe true 
orthography in this tonge. And therfore of ail thèse thynges I shall 
in the thirde boke , in their places , more at length entreate. 

OF THE NOWNE ADJECTIVE. 

Nownes adjectyves be suche in this tong as maye bave with us er Descriptio 
and est added to their endes, whan we make comparyson in our 
tong; as blanc, noyr, blev be adjectyves in frenche, for we saye: 
white , whyter, whitest ; blacke^ blacker, blackest ; blewe , blewer, 
blewest. 

Adjectyves bave sevyn accidentes : gendre, nombre, agreyng with 
their substantyves, comparation, declynacion, deryvation and order. 



adjectivomin. 



70 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



THE FIRST ACCIDENT. 



Exceptio. 



Reguia 

secunda. 

Reguia tertia. 



Reguia prima. Gendei's be two : the masculine gendre, whiche hath as many 
sondrie terminations as iheii" substanlives hâve. 

Save that in a, o, oy, b, k, p and z endeth no masculyne adjec- 
tyve in this tonge. 

The femyne gendre endeth ever in e. 

So that ail adjectives whose masculyn gendre endeth in e, hâve 
their mascidynes and femynines ail one ; as of thèse mascidyne ad- 
jectives blanc white, tardif slovte , be formed thèse femynines blanche, 
tardifve. And thèse adjectyves, large, triste , sobre , and ail suche lyke, 
remayne ever unchamiged, what soever gendre iheir substantyve 
be of. But howe ail other femyne adjectyves be formed out of their 
masculynes I shall herafter in my annotations upon this accident , in 
the thirde boke, déclare. 



THE SECONDE ACCIDENT. 



Reguia prima. Nombres be two, the singuler nombre, as hardj, beàv, layt : the 
plurell nombre, as hardys, beàvx, laytz. 

So that in what terminacion soever their synguler nombres ende 
in, their plurell nombres ende ever in s, x or z, lyke as their subs- 
tantyves do. And ail adjectives endyng in e in theyr synguler nombre, 
by addyng to of s form their plurelles. 

And aU that ende in s or in a; in their synguler nombres, ende in 
the same letters without any chaungyng in their plurell nombres ; and 
that none ende in z I bave hère before shewed in the lirste accident, 
as gros, hontévx , joyévx , and ail suche lyke, without any chaungyng 
serve indifferently for bothe the nombres. But howe every plurell 
nombre is formed out of his synguler I shall in my annotacions upon 
this accident, in the thirde boke, more playnly déclare. 



Régula 
secunda. 



Régula tertia. 



THE THIRDE ACCIDENT. 

Reguia unica. Agreynge with their substantyves for suche gender and nombre as 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. Tl" 

the substantyve is, suche lykegender and nombre shall the adjectyve 
be of: as vng bon homme, une bonne femme; les bons hommes, les bonnes 
femmes. But what congi-uite they use bitwene their substantives and 
adjectyves, and wbal adjectyves in theyr masculyne terminalions wyll 
be joyned with femyne substantyves, and also howe the masculyne 
gendre conceyveth the femine, shall herafter in the thirde boke, in 
this place, more plainly apere. 



THE FOURTHE ACCIDENT. 



Gomparation. The posityve tliat is ever the adjectives selle, as Régula prima. 
blanc, noyr,fort; the comparatyve addeth to bis posityve plus, without 
any chaungyng of the adjectyves selfe, for any expressyng of compa- 
ratyon, as ^/«i blanc, plus noyr, plus fort. 

The superlatyve addeth to bis comparatyve one of thèse sixe Régula 
wordes : le, mon, ton, son, nostre, vostre, leur, of suche gendre and 
nombre as the adjective representeth , without also any chaungyng of 
the adjectyves selfe, by reason that he standeth for the superlatyve 
degré; as, le plus blanc, le plus noyr, le plus fort; mon plus blanc, ma 
plus blanche, mes plus blancz, mes plus blanches; and so of ail other 
adjectyves in their tong. 

And note that the superlatyve degré in this tong is never expressed Régula lertia. 
but by the addyng of one of thèse sixe wordes onely to plus, so that 
nul plus blanc, vng plus blanc, deux plus blancz, riens plus blanc and 
ail suche lyke be comparatyves and no superlatyves. By reason 
wherof appereth that, in this thynge, our tong is moche more parfyte 
and more resembleth the latyne tonge , for we saye : white, whiter, 
vvhytest: blacke, blacker, blackest: stronge, stronger, strongest, ex- 
pressyng tbe degrees of comparyson by addyng of certayne letters to 
thende of our adjectyves. 

Except froni this rule bon, whose comparatyve is meillévr; but his 
superlatyve addelh one of the sixe wordes ip meillévr, as le meillévr, 
mon meillévr : Maludys , whose comparatyve is pire, and for his super- 
latyve he addeth to pire one of thèse sixe wordes, as mon pire, ton 



Kxceptiones. 



72 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

pire, etc. But I fynde also oftymes used plus malvâys and le plus mal- 
vâys, after the commen rule. Grant also hath for his comparatyve 
greignévr, and le greignévr for his superlatyve : how beit I fynde of- 
tymes used plus grant and le plus grant. Of whiche sorte is also petit, 
whose comparatyve I fynde môyndre and his superlatyve le môyndre; but 
for the most parte they use plus petit and le plus petit, after the com- 
men rule. And note that so often as they wyll extende or dyminysshe 
the qualyte of any thynge, without makyng of comparyson therof to 
another, they use to add thèse wordes before their adjectyves, trop, 
fort, moult, ires, peu, guàyres, gôvtte and suche lyke; as trop bon to 
good,fort bon very good, moult bon moche good, très bon right good, 
peu bon smally good, guàyres bon but a lytell good, etc. But thèse 
thynges shall in the thirde boke, in this place, more playnly appere. 



THE V ACCIDENT. 



Régula 
secunda. 



Régula prima. Declynacion as tlîus : the masculyn singuler blanc, the masculyne 

phuell blancz : the femynine synguler blanche, the femynine plurell 
blànchez : whiche lyke declination serveth in his degrees of compa- 
rision, as plus blanc, plus blancz; plus blanche, plus blànchez; le plus blanc, 
le plus blancz; le plus blanche, le plus blànchez. 

So that every nowne adjective in this tong hath un distinct wordes 
whiche he altereth after the gender and nombre of the substantyve 
that they be joyned withall. 

Excepiio prima. Except adjectyves whose masculines singulars ende in s ot x : for 
they bave but m distinct wordes, by cause theyr singular and plurell, 
in the masculin gender, ende both alike. 

And ail adjectives whose masculin syngular endeth in e : for ail 
suche bave but ii distinct wordes, for so moche as theyr masculyne 
and femine singular be both one , and to forme theyr plurels they adde 
but onely s to theyr singular, as by my rules hère afore, in the fyrst 
and seconde accident, declared, doth appere. 

Exceptio terlia. Except also these II comparatives meillévr and greignévr, whiche 
without any changyng serve for both the genders where, after my ge- 



Exceptio 
secunda. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 73 

neral rule, theyr féminines shuide ende in e. But thèse thynges shall 
hereafter in myn annotations upon this accident, in the thyrde boke, 
more playnely appere. 



THE VI ACCIDENT. 



Dérivation or formation of adjectyves, tbat is to saye, adjectyves 
somtyme be formed of substantyves, as of barbe, barbu, oîeâve, eavéux. 

Somtyme of participles of the présent tense, as of honovrânt, ho- 
novrâble. 

Somtyme of latine adjectives endynge in icas, as oi magnijlcas, ma- 
gnificq. 

Somtyme of adjectives in latine endyng in iuus , as of sensitiaus, 
sensitif. 

Sometyme of other frenche adjectives, as oi grande, grandét. 

Somtyme of theyr nownes numeralles, as of deux, deuxiesme. 

Somtyme of latine adjectives andynge in inus, as of cristallinus , 
cristallyn. 

Sometyme of latine adjectyves endynge in i7i5, &so( juaenilis,juaenil. 

Somtyme of latine adjectives endynge in abilis, as of affabilis, af- 
fable. 

Somtyme of adjectyves endyng in aïis, as of animalis, animal. 

But thèse thynges and also howe of divers latine adjectives endyng 
in dus and dis be formed adjectyves endyng in t, as wbere the latins 
say frigidas , grandis, they say/royl, grant, shall hère after in my an- 
notacions upon this accident more playnly appere. 



Quœ 
a substantivis. 



Àb adjectivis 
in icus. 



Ab adjectiv'n 
iiunieraiibus. 

Ab adjectivis 
in inus, 

in ilis, 
in abilit. 



in alis. 
Régula. 



THE vu ACCIDENT, 



Order betwene the substantyve and the adjectyve contrary to our 
tong : for where as we say a whyte horse, a blacke horse, a whyte 
cappe, a rounde cappe, a long gowne, a short gowne, they say ung 
cheval blanc, ung cheval noyr, ung bonét blanc, ung bonét ront, une robe 
longue, une robe courte. But hère of I shall more speke in the thvrde 
boke, in this place. 



Régula. 



10 



74 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



OF THE PRONOWNE. 

Descriptio Pronowiies be suche as, standynge in the stede of substantives, may 

goveme verbes to be of lyke nombre and parson with them, as je, tu 
and il be pronownes, for we may say : je parle, ta parles, il parle. 



Divisio 
pronominum. 



THE DIVISION OF PRONOWNES. 

Of pronownes some be primitives, some be derivatives, some be 
interrogatyves, some be relatyves, and some be demonstratyves : unto 
whiche I joyne, by cause of lykenesse in nature, parti lyves, distribu- 
tyves and numeralles : for ail that be conteyned under any of thèse 
sortes may stande in the stede of substantives and governe verbes to 
be of suche lyke nombre and parsone as they be. Except pronownes 
derivatyves whiche folowe rather the nature of adjectyves and must 
nedes bave some substantyve to be joyned unto. But of thèse diverse 
sortes of pronownes howe many sondry wordes be contayned under 
eche of them, and what they signifie in englisshe, and also what ac- 
cidentes belonge unto them, shal hère after in this présent chaptre 
appere in theyr ordre. 

HOWE MANY BE PRIMITIVES. 

Primitives be viii : je I; ta thou; il he; elle she; len, Ion or on a 
man, betokenyng a parson uncertayne; se hym or her; noa^ we; aoas 
you; Hz they men; elles they women, and se them men or women. 

HOWE MANY BE DERIVATIVES. 

Derivatives be xii : mon myne; ton thyne; son bis; nôstre our; uôsire 
your; leur theyr, with the adjectives derived of them : le myén myn 
owne; le tyén thyne ovrae; le syén bis owne; le nôstre our owne; le 
uôstre your owne; le levr theyr owne. 

HOWE MANY BE INTEUROGATYVES. 

Interrogatives be m : qui who , quel what maner, and que what. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 75 

HOWE MANY BE RELATYVES. 

Relatives be ii : qui whiche, and le quel the whiche. 

HOWE MANY BE DEMONSTRATIVES. 

Démonstratives simple is onely ce, whiche signyfieth in cm' tong 
somtyme this, somtyme that, somtyme they and somtyme it, ac- 
cordyng as the sentence lequireth. 

Compoundes of him be vi : cecy this hère, cela that hère, cil or 
celuy havyng qui folowynge hym , as cil qui or celuy qui he that ; mÊ 

without qui he, or this same : and of hym ycelay this selfe same, ces- 
tuy this same : and of hym ycestuy this selfe same. 

HOWE MANY DE PARTITIVES AND DISTRIBUTIVES. 

Pai'titives and distribulives be thèse : avlcàn any man or some man; 
quelcûn some man or some body ; chascùn every man or eche ; nessûny 
no body or no man; nul no or none , and of hym nullvy no body; tout 
ail, and of hym treslout ail to gether or al hoUy; tel suche, and of 
hym avtél suche an other, and ytél suche selfe ; àvltre other, and of 
hym avllrvy an other body; quelque some; quicônques who soever; 
maynt many; plusieurs many. 

WHICHE BE NUMERALLES. 

ISumeralles, as vng, deux, troys, quàttre, cinq, six, sept, hvyt, nevj, 
dix, onze, dôvze, tréyze, quatorze, quinze, seize, dixetsépt, dixethvyt, 
dixeinévf, vingt, trente, quarante, cinquante, etc. But of thèse in the 
thirde boke, in this place, I shall atthe length entreate. 

And note that, thoughe it ofte happen that a substantyve beynge Régula. 
nominatyve case to a verbe hath no mo wordes before hym but one 
of the two artycles, or one of the pronownes derivatyves, or one of 
thèse partityves, dystributyves or numeralles, yet, if he bave an ad- 
jectyve, he must nedes also bave one of thèse wordes to; as though 
I maye saye le màistre, mon màistre, chascùn mâisîre , troys mâistres, 

10. 



16 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

and than adde a verbe, I can nat saye bon màistre , saige màistre, but 
I must nedes also bave one of tbese wordes comynge before tbe ad- 
jectyve, whiche order is never broken, nother in tbe frencbe tonge 
nor yet in ours. In so mocbe tbat if a préposition also corne before 
a substantyve bavyng any of tbese wordes before hym, tbe préposi- 
tion must ever corne fardest from tbe substantyve, rs par nul mal en- 
gin by none yvell crafte ; pour mon bon màistre or my good maister, 
wbicbe order is ever kept on botbe tbe tonges. 

Pronownes primityves bave viii accidentes : nombre, person, go- 
vernyng of tbe verbe, gender, declynacion witb dyversite of cases , 
order contrarie to oure tonge, doublynge wban tbe acte of tbe verbe 
retournetb to tbe doer agayne, and composition witb mesmes. 



THE FIRST ACCIDENT. 



Nombres be twayne , the singular and tbe pku-ell. Of tbe singuler 
nombre be \uije, tu, il, elle, len, Ion, on and se; of tbe pbirell nombre 
be the resydue nous, vous, Hz , elles and se. 



THE SECONDE ACCIDENT. 



Persons be tbre in ecbe of tbese two nombres : tbe first person 
singuleryc, tbe seconde tu, tbe tbirde person il, elle, len. Ion, on and 
se. Tbe first person plurell nous, the seconde vous, the tbirde Hz, elles 
and se. 

THE THIRDE ACCIDENT- 

Governyng of tbe verbe. For suche nombre and persone as tbe pro- 
nowne is of, suche lyke nombre and persone shall the verbe be of. 
As, to ye serveth parlerày; to tu, parleras; to il, elle, len, Ion, or on, 
parlera , and so in lykewise of the pbirell nombre : to nous serveth par- 
lerons; to vous, parlerez; to Hz or elles, parleront. 

TIIi: FOURTH ACCIDENT. 

Dyversite of gendre is expressed onely in pronownes of the thirdé 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 77 

persone, as i7 he , elle she, Hz they men, elles they women : ail the 
resydue may serve indyfferently for both gendres, and expresse as 
well maies as females, 

THE V ACCIDENT. 

Declynation with diversyte of cases , for thoughe ail the resydue of 
iheir partes declynable reniayne unchaunged, wheder they corne be- 
fore verbes of after verbes, or after any other of the partes that be 
undeclynable , thèse pronownes primilyves bave a worde which ser- 
veth whan they governe a verbe, and Iwo, somtyme distincte, whan 
theybe governed of verbes, and a fourth whan they folowe after any 
of the other partes that be undeclyned. Let us therfore call the firste 
the nominatyve case that governeth the verbe : the seconde, the ac- 
cusatyve case governed of some verbes; the thirde, the datyve case 
governed of some other verbes : and the fourth , the oblyque case 
governed ofall other partes; whiche supposed, howe they be declined 
shall hereafter consequently appere. 

HOWE THESE PRIMITWES BE OECLYNED. 

The nominatyve case ye, the accusatyve and datyve me me, the 
oblyque case moy me. 

The nominatyve case ta, the accusatyve and datyve te, the oblyque 
case toy the. 

The nominatyve masculyne and synguler il, ihe accusatyve case le 
hym, the dative by reason of some verbes Ivy him, the oblyque case 
Ivy him. 

The nominatyve case femyne and synguler elle, the accusatyve case 
la her, the datyve case by reason of some verbes Ivy her, the oblyque 
case elle her. 

The nominatyve case of se, in bis synguler nombre, wanteth : the ac- 
cusatyve case 5e hym or her, the oblyque case soy hym or her, whiche 
is used whan the acte of the verbe retourneth to the doer agayne. 

And as for len, Ion, and on, «ois and vovs remayne undeclyned, and, Régula. 
without any changyng, serve for ail maner of spekyng, wherby apereth 



78 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

thaï , sythe we hâve in our tonge we , whiche serveth for the nominatyve 
case, and us, whiche serveth for an accusatyve case or obiyque case, 
as we love , he loveth us; for us. In this worde our tong is more parfyte. 

The nominatyve case raasculyne and plureil Hz; the accusatyve 
case les ihem , the datyve case, by reason of some verbes, levr theni , 
the obiyque case cvlx ihem. 

The nominatyve case feniyn and plureil elles , thaccusatyve case les 
them, the datyve case, by reason of some verbes, levr them, the 
obiyque case elles. 

The nominatyve case also oï se, in bis plureil nombre wanteth ; the 
accusatyve case se them, men or women, the obiyque soy them, men 
or women, whiche also is never used but whan the acte of the verbe 
retourneth to the doer agayne. 

But whan thèse cases shalbe used and whan riat, I shall in my an- 
notacions upon this accident, in the tbirde boke, at the lenglb déclare. 
For in the true usynge of thèse cases restetli a great parte of the con- 
gruyte of this tonge. 



rUE SIX'IE ACCIDENT. 



Order contrarie lo our tonge; for where as the accusatyve cases 
of our pronownes folowe our verbes of whiche they be govemed , as 
lie loveth me, I love ihe, he loveth us, we love them, in the frenche 
tonge, the accusatyves of iheir pronownes primityves must corne ever 
nexte before their verbes, so that they say : il me àymc, je te àyme , 
il nous àyme, novs les aymùns, and so of ail other; whiclie order with 
them is never broken. 
Régula. But howe the accusatyve cases of thèse pronownes primityves end- 

yng in e or a lèse nat onely their e in soundyng, but also in writyng, 
and joyne their consonantes to the letter of the verbe that they come 
before if he begyn with a vowell, I bave before in the first boke, 
in the lv chapiter ail redy declared; so that, thoughe I bave written 
or shall hereafter write il me àyme, je le àymc, and suche like dis- 
tinctely to shewe the lernar howe thèse accusatyve cases come be^. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 79 

fore their verbes, they be ever written il màyme, je tàyme , il làyme, 
and so forthe of ail other verbes, as I bave before in the sayd lv cha- 
piter at the length declared. 



THE SEVENTH ACCIDENT. 



Doublyng , whan the acte of the verbe returneth to te doer 
agayne. For, thoughe we saye I dye, thou dyest, he dyeth : they 
saye je me mévrs, tu te mèvrs, il se mévrt, puttyng for the most parte 
the accusatyve case of the pronowne before the verbe, more than 
we use in our tong in the same sentence; whiche thyng they use in 
maner thorowe ail the modes, tenses, nombres and persons of ail 
suche verbes in the frenche tonge as I call meanes, iike as shall he- 
rafter appere by the conjugatyng of them. But whiche verbes in the 
frenche tonge be mère meanes, or whiche maye be used as meanes, 
and whiche nat, shall herafter more playnly appere. 

THE EIGHT ACCIDENT. 

Composition or rather apposytion of this worde mésmes to the no- 
minatyve cases but especially to the oblyque cases of thèse pronownes 
as^e mésmes I myselfe; moy mésmes my selfe; tu mésmes thou thy selfe; 
il mésmes he hymseife; Ivy mésmes hym selfe; and so of the resydue : 
elles mésmes, soy mésmes, novs mésmes, uovs mésmes, Hz mésmes, elles 
mésmes, levr mésmes, evlx mésmes , elles mésmes. 

OF THE PRONOWNES DERIVATYVES. 

The pronownes derivatyves bave tre accidentes, gendre, nombre, 
declinatyon, by whiche their gendre and nombre is expressed, and 
resolucyon in to their primityves. 

THE DECLYNYNG OF THE PRONOWNES DERIVATYVES EXPRESSING III 
OF THEYR ACCIDENTES. 

The masculine singular mon, the féminine singular ma. 
The masculine and féminine plureil mes. 



80 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

The masculine singular ton, the féminine singular ta. 

The masculine and féminine plurell tes. 

The masculine singular son, the féminine singular sa. 

The masculine and féminine plurell ses. 

The masculine and féminine singular nôstre, the masculine and 
féminine plurell noz. 

The masculine and féminine singular uôstre, the mas. and fem. 
plu. uoz. 

The masculine and féminine sing. leur, the mas. and fem. pi. leurs. 
Régula. And note that if a féminine substantive or bis adjective begyn with 

a vowel or with h , nat havyng his aspiration , they use nat before 
them ma, ta, sa, but mon, ton, son, for the avoydynge of the harshe 
sounde of ii vowels together, as I shal in the thirde boke more 
playnly déclare. 

THE IIII ACCIDENT. 

Resolvyng into theyr primitives. For where as we say : he hurteth 
my hande; I eut my fynger; she dyd put out her eie; they say : he 
me hurteth the hande; I me eut the fynger; she her dyd put out the eie. 
But hereof I shal in tins place, in the thyrde boke, more at the length 
intreat : in this place I thinke sufficient to wame the lernar hereof, 
by cause the kinde of spekyng is moche différent from our tong. 

And the adjectives that be formed of them be thus declyned. 

Le mien, la mienne; les miens, les miennes. 

Le tien, la tienne; les tiens, les tiennes. 

Le sien, la sienne; les siens, les siennes. 

Le nôstre, la nôstre; les noz; le uôstre, la uôstre, les uoz. 

Le leur, la leur, les leurs : so that, in this signification, the article 
le is ever put before thèse adjectives , of suche , gender and nombre 
as the adjective requireth. 

THE DECLINYNG OF THE TRONOWNES INTERROGATIVES. 

Of the pronownes interrogatives qui remayneth undeclyned, for 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 81 

al maner of spekyng, though that this worde « who » in ourtong hath 
an oblique « whom. » Quel is thus declyned : the masculine singular 
quel, the féminine singular quelle. 

The masculine plurel quelz, the féminine plurell quelles. 

Que also remayneth undeclined , save that he hath an oblique case 
quoy. 

And note that qui and que be never used but in the singular Régula, 
nombre only. 

THE DECLY.NYNG OF THE PRONOWNES RELATVVES. 

Of the pronownes relatives qui, without any declination or chang- 
yng, serveth indifferently for ail genders and nombres ; le quel is thus 
declyned le quel, la quelle, les quelz, les quelles, that is to say, lyke 
quel the interrogative , addyng to this article le. 

But whan we shal use qui, and whan quel with the article before 
hym, shall in the thirde boke, in this place, playnely appere. 

THE DECLYNYNG OF THE PRONOWNES DEMONSTRATIVES. 

Of the pronownes démonstratives ce is thus declyned. 

The masculine singular where the substantive or adjective begyn- 
neth with a consonant ce : where they begyn with a vowel or with 
h nat havyng bis aspiration cesl. The masculine plurell ces; the fémi- 
nine singular ceste; the féminine plurell céstes. But this thyng shall 
in the thyrde boke more playnly appere. 

THE DECLYNYNG OF HIS COMPOUNDES. 

The masculine singular cecy, the masculine plurel cescf. 
The féminine singular cestecy, the féminine plurel cescj. 
The masculine singular cela, the masculine plurel ceslà. 
The féminine singvdar cestelà, the féminine plurel ceslà. 
The masculine singular cil or celvy (whiche I fynde used indiffe- 
rently), the masculine plurel cevlx. 

The féminine singular celle, the féminine plurel celles. 

11 



82 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

The masculyne singular ycelvy, the masculine plurel ycévlx. 
The féminine singular y celle, the féminine plurel y celles. 
And as for cestvf and ycestvj remayne undeclyned and serve but 
for the singular nombre onely. 

THE DECLINYNG OF THE PARTITIVES AND DISTBIBUTIVES. 

The masculine singular avlcûn, the masculine plurell avlcàns. 

The féminine singular avlcùne, the féminine plurel avlcûnes. 

The masculine singular quelcùn, the féminine singular quelcàne, 
the plurel nombre wanteth. 

The masculine singular chascùn, the masculine plurel chascùns. 

The féminine singular chascùne, the féminine plurel chascùnes. 

The masculine singular nessùng, the masculine plurel nessùngz. 

The féminine singular nessàne, the féminine plurel nessûnes. 

The masculine singular nul, the masculine plurel nulz. 

The féminine singular ««//e, the féminine plurel nulles, but nullvy 
remayneth undeclyned. 

The masculine singular tovt, the masculine plurel lovs. 

The féminine singular tôvte, the féminine plurel tôvtes. Whiche 
lyke declination serveth to trestôut. 

The mascidine singular tel, the masculine plurel telz, and of some 
auctors I fynde used tiéalx. 

The féminine singular lélle, the féminine plurel telles. Whiche 
lyke maner of declination serveth to avtél and ytél. 

The masculine and féminine singular àvltre, the mascuHne and fé- 
minine plurel àvltres : but avltrvy remayneth undeclyned. 

The masculine and féminine singular quelque, the masculine and 
féminine plurell quelques. 

The mascidine singular quelconques , the masculine plurel quelz- 
cônques. 

The féminine singular 9ae//ecôn(/He5, the femm. TpiuTelquellescônques. 

The masculine singiUar maynt, the masculine plurell maynts. 

The féminine singular màynte, the féminine plurel màyntes. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 83 

And as for plusieurs remayneth undeclyned. 

And howe of the numerals may be formed certayne adjectives end- 
yng in esme, as of vng vniésine, devx devsiésme, troys troysiésme, quàttre 
quatriésme, I hâve afore touched in the vi accident of adjectives, and 
shal at the length of ail thynges , aswel belongyng to the use of nom- 
bres as to the same partitives and distributives , in the thyrde boke, 
in this place, sufficiently intreat. 

OF THE VERBE. 

Verbes be suche as of theyr owne nature betoken doyng or suf- Descriptio 
feryng, and havyng joyned unto them any of the pronownes primi- 
tives, may make a perfit reason, as^e àyme I love : ta parles thou spe- 
kest : il court he ronneth : je svis batiï I am beaten : ta es regardé thou 
art behelde : il plévt it raynneth. 

Of verbes some be actyves, some be meanes, and some be pas- Divisio verbi. 
syves ; and agayne some be parsonal, and some be imparsonals. 

Verbes actives be suche as betoken some dede to passe from the Activa quae. 
doar, as je bas, I béate -.je regarde, 1 beholde. 

Verbes meanes be suche as signifie no dede to passe from the Media qu». 
doer without forth, but expresse the acte to retourne to the doar 
agayne, as je me mevrs I dye -.je me maruàille I marvayle. 

Verbes passyves be suche as betoken sufFernynge, as je svis batà, Passivaqu». 
I am beaten : je suis regardé I am behelde. 

Verbes personalles be suche as in every of theyr tenses bave as Personalia quœ. 
many sondrye parsones in both the nombres, as shall appere after 
that je parle hath. 

Verbes imparsonalles be suche as through al theyr tenses bave impersonalia 
but the thyrde parson singular onely. 

Verbes actives parsonals bave x accidentes, mode, tens, circumlo- 
cutyng of the pretertenses, nombre, parson, conjugation, formation, 
composition, addynge of sillabical adjections in affirmation and néga- 
tion and order différent from our tong in interrogations. 



1 1 . 



84 LESCLARCISSEMENT 



THE FYRST ACCIDENT. - 



Modes ihey hâve vu, the indicative mode whiche they use whan 
they shewe or teil a thyng to be done, as je parle I speke. 

The subjunctive mode whiche they ever use folowyng an other 
verbe, and addyng this worde que before hym, as uovléz uovs que je 
parle, wyl you that I speke. 

The potenciall mode by whiche they use lo expresse wyll or myght 
to do a dede, asjeparlerôye, I wolde, shulde or myght speke. 

The imperatyve mode whiche they use whan they commande a 
dede to be done, as parle speke. 

The optative mode whiche they use whan they wisshe a dede to 
be done, a.s bien parle il, wel speke he or well myght he speke. 

The condicionai mode whiche they use whan they expresse condi- 
cion if a dede be to be done, as sy je parle, if I speke. 

The infinitive mode whiche they use whan we use to put to be- 
fore a verbe, as parler io speke. 



THE SECONDE ACCIDENT. 



Tenses or tymes they hâve in every of thèse modes, in some mo 
and in some fewer. 

The indicatyve mode hath sixe tenses. The présent tens, as je parle 
I speke. The prêter imperfit tens, asye parlôye 1 dyd speke. The in- 
diffinite tens, as je parlày, I spake. The preterperfit tens, as je ay 
parlé I bave spoken. The preterplusperht tens, asjavôye parlé I had 
spoken. The future tens, as je parlerày l shall speke. 

The subjunctyve mode hath fyve tenses. The présent tense, as que 
je parle that I speke. The indiffinite tens, as que je parlasse, that I 
wolde speke, shulde speke or myght speke, wolde bave spoken, 
shulde bave spoken, or myght bave spoken or had spoken : whiche 
dyversites of signification is ever lymytted by the verbe that goeth 
before que, by whom may easely be gathered for whiche of thèse en- 
glysshes the frenche indiffinite tens serveth. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 85 

The preterparfil tens, as (jue je àye parlé that I hâve spoken. * 

The preterpiusperfit tens, as que je évsse parlé ihat I had spoken. 

The future tens, as (jue je avrày parlé that I shall hâve spoken. 

The potenciall mode hath two tenses : whiche, al be it that they 
signifie rather a maner and an affection in doyng of a dede than 
any directe tyme , yet let us call je parlerôye I wolde speke , shulde 
speke, or myght speke, the présent tense : and^e avrôye parlé, I shulde 
hâve spoken , wolde hâve spoken or myght hâve spoken , the prêter 
parfit tens. 

The imperative mode hath ii tenses, whiche lie boroweth of the 
other modes hère afore l'ehersed. His présent tens boroweth his par- 
sones of the same tenses in the indicative and subjunctive mode, as 
parle speke. The future tens, whiche boroweth al his parsons of the 
présent tens of the subjunctive mode, as que je parle let me speke. 

The optative mode boroweth also his ii tenses of the siibjunctive : 
the présent tens, as bien parlé il well speke he or wel myght he speke; 
the indiffinit tens, as bien parldst il well myght he bave spoken or 
shuld bave spoken. 

The condicional mode boroveth al the tenses of the indicative mode, 
the subjunctive mode and the potencial mode, save only the pré- 
sent tens of the subjunctive mode ; and to hymselfe propre he hath 
no tens in this tong, as sy je parle, si je parlôye, sy je parlày, sy jay 
parlé, sy jauôye parlé, si je parlerdy, sy je parlasse, sy jâye parlé, si 
j évsse parlé, si je avrày parlé, si je parlerôye, si je avrôye parlé. 

The infinitive mode hath ii tenses : the présent tens as parler to 
speke : the preterparfit tens, as aaoyr parlé to bave spoken. 

And note that, though vve use indifferently in our tong « I dyd Régula. 
speke or I speke, « in the frenche tong, betwene the preterperfit tens 
and the indiffmite tens there is a great différence, as I shal more 
playnely in the thyrde boke, in this place, déclare. 



86 LESCLARCISSEMENT 



THE THYRDE ACCIDENT. 



Circumlocutyng of al the preterlenses ; for ail the preterperfit 
tenses and preterplusperfit tenses of al verbes actives in the frenche 
long and the future tens of al subjunctive modes be circumlocuted 
with the tenses of je ay and the participle prétérit, like as by the 
same tenses o{ je parle I hâve hère gyven example. 
Régula. And note that the participle prétérit after the tenses oï je ay re- 

mayneth for the most part unchanged, what soever nombre or par- 
son the tenses of ^e ay represent, as by the examples of ail the m con- 
jugations hère after playnly shal appere. But of this thyng I shal bave 
better occasion to speke hei-e after, and specially in the thyrde boke, 
in the chapter of participles. 

TUE FOURTU ACCIDENT. 

Nombres be ii in eche of thèse tenses, except the tenses of the 



nfinitive mode, the singular nombre and the plurell. 



THE FÏFT ACCIDENT. 



Parsons in eche of thèse ii nombres be m , the first singular whiche 
serveth only forye : the seconde singular whiche serveth only for ta : 
the thirde, whiche serveth for ail other pronownes partitives, dis- 
tributives and numerals, and ail substantives , whan he speke but of 
one. 

The fyrst parson plurell whiche serveth onely for novs : the se- 
conde plurel whiche serveth onely for uovs : the thyrde parson plu- 
rel whiche serveth for ail other pronownes partityves, distributyves, 
and numerals, and also ail substantyves, whan we speke of many. 
Régula. And note that eche of the tenses , in every of the sayde modes, hath 

in distinct wordes in bis singular nombre and m in bis plurell to serve 
,j, to the wordes hère afore rehersed : save, as I bave sayde, that the 

infinitive mode hath neyther nombre nor parson , and that the pré- 
sent tens of the imperatyve mode wanteth bis first parson singular. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 87 

The présent and indiffinit tenses of the optative mode is most co- 
monly used in the ihyrde parsones onely, howe be it they may hâve 
al theyr nombres and parsones. 



THE VI ACCIDENT. 



Conjugations be m. The fyrst conjugation, through al bis conju- 
gatyng, is ever of many sillables, and hath bis présent tens and par- 
ticiple prétérit endyng in e beyng ail one in wrytting and differynge 
onely in accent, and bis infinitive mode endyng ever in er, al m 
wordes beyng of eqiiall syllables, as je parle , jay parlé , parler. 

And note that of this conjugation be mo than balfe of the verbes Régula. 
parsonals in the frenche tonge. The seconde conjugation is ever also 
of many sillables, and hath bis présent tens endyng in is , bis parti- 
ciple prétérit in y, and bis infmityve mode in yr, ail m wordes beyng 
of equal sillables., asye conuerlis, jay conuerty, conaertfr. 

And thèse for the most part be circumlocuted in our tong with « I Régula. 
make » or « I waxe, » b.s je blanchis I make or waxe whyte : je noyrcis I 
make or waxe blacke : and so in maner of al other colours hiay be 
formed a verbe of this conjugation, 

The thyrde conjugation hath bis présent tens in maner ever endyng 
in s , sometyme of one syllable , as je bas I béate : je tens I bende : 
je romps I breke : je mets I put; sometyme of many syllables, and 
suche for the most part be compoundes of other verbes of this con- 
jugation that be of one syllable , as je combàs I fygbt : jenténs I un- 
derstande : je corromps I corrupte : jentreméts I meddyll ; whose in- 
diffinite tenses ende ever also in s havynge before s eyther j, in, ev, 
or V, as jefs, je prins, je recévs, je bévs, sometyme of one syllable , 
sometyme of many. And theyr participles prétérit ende ever in s, t, 
V or y, as jay prins, jay dit, jay batu, jay recév, jay dormf, sometyme 
of one syllable , sometyme of many. Theyr infinité modes ende eyther 
in re or in yr, ever of many syllables, as bàtre , tendre, corrompre, 
mettre , dormfr. 

An approbacion of al thèse rules bereafore rebersed by tbexemple Régula. 



88 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

of je parle, je conuertis a.nd je fais, whose conjugatynge tbrough al 
their modes, tenses, nombres, and parsons, shallhere, accordyng 
to the sayd ruies, consequently appere. 

THE FYRST CONJUGATION. 

OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 

THE PRESENT TENS. 

I speke. Je parle tu parles il parle, novs parlons uovs parlez Hz parlent. 

THE PRETER IMPARFIT TENS. 

I dyd speke. Je parlôye tu parloys il parlôyt, novs parlions uous parliez Hz parlaient. 

THE INDIFFINIT TENS. 

I spake. Je parlày tu parlas il parla, novs parlàsmes uous parlàstez ils parlèrent. 

THE PRETER PARFIT TENS. 

ihave.spoken. Jay parlé tu as parlé il a parlé, novs auons parlé uous avez parlé Hz 
ont parlé. 

THE PRETER PLUPERFIT TENS. 

I had spoken. Jauôye parlé tu aaoys parlé il aaôyt parlé, novs auiôns parlé uous auiez 
parlé Hz auôyent parlé. 

THE FUTURE TENS. 

ishall speke. Je parlerày tu parleras il parlera, novs parlerons uous parlerez Hz 

parleront. 

OF THE SUBJONCTYVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENS. 

Thati speke. Que je parle que tu parles qu'il parle, que novs parlions que uous par- 

liez quilz parlent. 

THE INDIFFINIT TENS. 

Thaï I spake. Que je parlasse que tu parlasses quH parlàst, que novs parlissions que 

uous parlissiéz quilz parlassent. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 89 



THE PRETEH PEfiFIT TENS. 



Que je àye parlé que tu dyes parlé quil ayt parlé, que novs ayons parlé That 

, i« •! I, I have spoken. 

que nous ayez parle quilz ayent parle. 



THE PRETERPLCPARFIT TEXS. 



Que je évsse parlé que tu évsses parlé quil evsl parlé, que novs evssiôns TLat 

I / • ' I , •! , . I , I had spoken. 

parte que uous evssiez parle quitz eussent parle. 

THE FUTURE TENS. 

Que je avrây parlé que tu avrds parlé quil avrà parlé, que novs avrôns That 

parlé que uous avréz parlé quilz avrônt parlé. spoken. 

OF THE POTENCIALL MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENS. 

Je parlerôye tu parlerôys il parlerôyt, nous parlerions uous parleriez Hz i shulde speke. 
parlerôyent. 

THE PRETER PERFIT TENS. 

Je avrôye parlé tu avrôys parlé il avrôyt parlé , nous avriôns parlé uous l shulde have 
avriéz parlé Hz avràyent parlé. ''''° *"' 

OF THE IMPERATIVE MODE. 
TUE PRESENT TENS. 

Parlé or parlé tu, parlé il, parlons or parlons nous, parlez or parlez Speke. 
uous, parlent OT parlent Hz. 

THE FUTURE TENS. 

Que je parle que tu parles quil parle, que nous parlions que uous par- Letme speke. 
liez quilz parlent. 

OF THE OPTATIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENS. 

Bien parlé je bien parles tu bien parle il, bien parlions nous bien parliez Wei may 
uous bien parlent Hz. "P* *' 



90 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



THE INDIFFINITE TENS. 



Wel myght 
I speke. 



If I spekc. 



Bien parlasse je bien parlasses ta bien parlàst il , bien parlissions nous 
bien partissiez uovs bien parlassent Hz. 

The signe of the condicional mode used before the présent lens 
of the indicative mode , as 

Si je parle si tu parles sil parle, si nous parlons si vous parlez silz 
parlent, and so in lyke wyse usyng si Lefore ail the nombres and 
parsons of ail the tenses of the indicative mode, subjunctive mode , 
except his présent tens, and ail the tenses of the potencial mode, 
accordyng as the englisshe shall require, and as I hâve afore re- 
hersed. 



OK THE INFINITIVE MODE. 

To speke. ^ The présent tens parler, the preterparfit tens avoyr parlé. 

THE SECONDE CONJUGATION. 

OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENS. 

I convert. Je conuertîs tu conuertys il conuertit, nous conuertissuns uous conuertis- 

sés Hz conuertissént. 



THE PRETERPARFIT TENS. 



I dyd convert. Je conuerlissôye ta conuertissôys il conaertissôyt, nous conuertissiôns uous 
conuertissiéz Hz conuertissôyent. 



THE INDIFEINIT TENS. 



I converted. Je conuertis tu conuertys il conuertit, nous conuertismes nous conuertistes 

Hz conuertirent . 



THE PRETER PARFIT TE.\S. 



I have Jay conuerty ta as conaerty il a conaertf, nous auôns conuerty uous aaéz 

converted. , ■, , 

conuerty Hz ont conuerty. 



f 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 91 



THE PRETER PLUPARFIT TENS. 



Jauùye conuertj tu auôys conuerty il auôyt convertj, nous auiôns con- \ had 

• / , . j , converted. 

verty uousaaiez conuerty ils auoyent conuerty. 



THE FUTURE TENS. 



Je conuertirây tu conuertirâs il conuertirà, nous conuertirôns uous con- i sball couvert. 
uertirés Hz conuertirônt. 



OF THE SDBJUNCTIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENS. 



Que je conaertye que tu comiertfes quil conuertye, que nous conuertyôns That l convert. 
que uous conuertyéz quilz conuertyent. 



THE INDIfriNIT TENS. 



Que je conuertisse que tu conuertisses quil conuertist, que nous conuer- Thaï 

. ., . . , ., ., . I converted. 

tissions que uous conuertissiez quilz conuertissent. 

THE PRETER PARFIT TENS. 

Que je dye conuerty que tu àyes conuerty quil ayt conuerty, que nous That l hâve 
ayons conuerty que uous ayez conuerty quilz àyent conuertj. 

THE PRETERPLUPERFIT TENS. 

Quejévsse conuerty que ta évsses conuerty quil evst conuerty, que nous That i had 
evssiôns conuerty que uous evssiez conuerty quilz évssent conuertjr. 

THE FUTURE TENS. 

Que javrày conuerty que tu avràs conuerty quil avrà conuertjr, que nous That 

avrôns conuerty que uous àvrez conuerty quilz avrônt conuertj. converted*.* 

OF THE POTENCIAL MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENS. 

Je conuertirôye tu conuerlirôys il conuertirôyt, nous conuertiriôns uous i shulde 
conuertiriez Hz conuertirây enl. conver . 

13. 



92 



LËSCLARCISSEMENT 



I sliulde liave 
convertcd. 



Convert. 



Let me convert. 



Wel may 

I convert. 



Wel mygfat 
I convert. 



To convert. 
Régula. 



THE PRETEnPEF.FIT TENS. 

Javrôye conuertf ta avrôis conuerty il avràjl conaerty, nous avriôns 
conaerty voas avriez conaerty Hz avrôyent conuerty. 

0¥ THE IMPERATIVE MODE. 

THE PRESENT TENS. 

Conuertys or conaertys tu, conuertye or conuertfe il, conuertissôns or 
conuertissôns'nous , conuertissez or conuerthsez uoas, conuertient or con- 
uertîent Hz. 

THE FUTURE TENS. 

Que je conuertje que ta conuerty es quil conuertye, que nous conuer- 
tiôns que uous conuertyez quilz conuertyent. 

OF THE OPTAJIVE MODE. 
*> THE PRESENT TENS. 

Bien conuertye je bien conuerties tu bien conuertye il, bien conuer- 
tyôns nous bien conuertyez aous bien conuertyent Hz. 

THE INDIFFINIT TENS. 

Bien conaertisse je, bien conuertisses ta, bien conuertist il, bien con- 
uertissiôns nous, bien conaertissiez nous, bien conuertissent Hz. 

The use of si before the lenses I hâve afore shewed in the conju- 
gatyng of je parle. 

OF THE INFINITIVE MODE. 

The présent tens conaertyr, the preterperfit tens auàyr conuerty. 

And note that after thexemple of thèse ii verbes the lernar may 
know howe to conjugale mo than ni partes of nii of the verbes ac- 
tives parsonal in the frenche tong : and that a great deale more cer- 
taynly than the verbes of the Greke or Latin tong may be lerned by 
any exemples that be gyven of them. For the frenche tonge useth ne- 
ver augmentation neyther chronical nor sillabical in theyr fyrst sil- 
lables as the Grekes use to do through ail theyr prétérit tenses , nor 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 93 

mutation from one vowell to another by reason of composicion, like 
as the Latins do : nor, in the mean siilables, any changyng of conso- 
nantes other than the présent tons hath , as the Grekes moche use : 
nor sondrie terminations of the prétérit tenses lyke as the Latins use ; 
for the fyrst and mean siilables of ail verbes of thèse ii conjugations 
remayne ever unchanged, save that I fynde sixe verbes whiche hav- 
yng in the m parsons of theyr singular nombre, in theyr présent 
tenses, this diphthong ev, change it through ail the residue of theyr 
conjugatynge into ov, as I shall hère after in this boke touche, and 
in my thyrde boke at the length déclare. So that havynge any parson 
of a verbe of eyther of thèse ii conjugations, if the lernar can perfitly 
thèse two exemples, he may easely fynde out the first parson of the 
présent tense of the indicatyve mode and than conjugate theym through 
al theyr modes, tenses, nombres and parsons by addyng of suche 
terminations to the sayde fyrst parson as he fyndeth added to in /e 
parle, and je conuertys. ■ 

OF THE THYKDE CONJUGATION. 

In verbes of theyr thyrde conjugation I fynde a litell more difficul- 
tie : howe be it, by certayne generall rules of this conjugation also to 
brynge the lernar to a certaynte, x rules be to be noted. 

TEN GENERAL RULES TO INSTRUCT THE LERNAR HOWE HE MAY BE SLRE 

TO CONJUGATE ALL VERBES ACTIVES PARSONALS OF THE THYRDE 

CONJUGATION IN THIS TONG. 

Fyrst of the présent tens of the indicative mode the fyrst and se- Régula prima. 
conde parsons singular be ever lyke endyng in s, and the thyrde par- 
son singular is formed of them by changyng s into t: so that, havyng 
the first parson singular of this tense , this rule serveth for the other 
two parsons. But in the thre parsons plurel of the same tens I fynde 
no generall certaynte in the vowelles and consonantes that they put 
before ons, ez and ent : howbeit, for the most parte, the seconde and 



94 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

thirde persons plurell kepe ever the same vowelles and consonantes 
before es and ent that the first persone plurell hath before ons. 

Example where the letters of the thre persons plurell before their 
small terminations be dyfferent : nous faisons, uovs /dictez, Hz font. Noas 
disons , uovs dictez , Hz disent. Novs bevuôns, uovs bevuéz, Hz bôyvent. 

Example where the sayde letters be lyke: novs prennôns, uovs pren- 
néz, Hz prennent. Novs mettons, uovs mettez, Hz mettent. Nous mordons, 
uovs mordez, Hz mordent. So that, for the most parte, it shall suffice if 
I hereafter, in the table of verbes, expresse the first persons singuler 
and plurell of this tense onely. Howbeit somtyme it shall be nedefull 
to sette forth as well the first persone singuler as ail the thre per- 
sons plurell distinctly, for so moche as I can nat conteyne thèse said 
persons under any generall rule certayne. 
Kcguia Seconde. The fyrst parson singular of the prêter imperfit tens of 

the indicatyve mode is ever foi-med of the fyrst parson plurell of the 
présent tens of the same mode, by changyng of ons into oye, as oïfay- 
sôns is ïormed. faisôye , of disons disôye, of bevuôns bevùye, oî prennôns 
prennôye, and ail suche be conjugate lyke parlôye or convertissôye. So 
that havyng the fyrst parson singular of this tens, the other parsones 
may easely be conjugate by example of the other conjugations. 
Régula tertia. Thyrde. Of the indiflfinite tense of this mode the fyrst and seconde 

parsones singular be ever lyke endyng in 5, as I bave afore touched; 
and the thyrde parson singular is formed of them by changyng of s 
into t, havyng before s and / eyther y, v, ev or in , as I bave aiso afore 
declared : and bis m parsons plurell ende in smes, stez and rent, like 
as the same parsons do in the fyrst and seconde conjugations, havyng 
ever before the sayd terminations the vowel or diphthong of theyr 
singular nombre, if there come a vowel or diphthong immediatly be- 
fore theyr 5; if there come an n before s than they adde to d before 
rent, as je dys, tu dys, H dit, novs dismes, uovs distez, Hz dirent. Je fis, 
tu fys, H fit, novs fismes, uovsfistez, Hz firent. Je bus, tu bus, H bat, 
novs bûsmes, uovs bùstez, Hz burent. Je decévs, tu decévs, il decévt, novs 
decévsmes, uovs decévstes, Hz decévrent. Je prins, tu prins, H print, novs 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 95 

prinsmcs, uovs prînslez, Us prindrent. So that onely the fyrst parson sin- 
gular of this lens is uncertayne, but, that ones had, the lernar may be 
certayn by this rule to forme the resiclue of al his parsons in both 
nombres. 

And note that often tymes it happenneth that the singular nombre of Régula. 
this tense is lyke the singular nombre of the présent tense in the same 
mode, specially in the seconde conjugation, as appereth by^e conaertys. 

Fourtl). Syns al the preterparfit and pluparfit tenses of al modes Régula quarta. 
and also the future tens of every subjunctive mode of ai verbes ac- 
tives parsonals be circumlocuted with the tenses of ye ay and the par- 
ticiple prétérit, as 1 afore declared and shewed by example oi je parle 
And je conuertis, in al thèse tenses is no maner difficulté; but, the par- 
ticiple prétérit ones had, the lemar may conjugate ail thèse tenses by 
thexemple of the other ii conjugations, as by cause the participle pré- 
térit o{ je fais \s faict, I must say jay f aie t, jaiiôye faict, jdye faict, 
jévsse faict, je avrdy faict, javrôye faict, auoyr faict, puttyng suche 
and as many tenses of je ay before faict as I bave donc before parlé 
and conaertj'. 

Fyft. Onely tlie fyrst parson singular of the future tens in this Régula quinta. 
mode is imcertayne, but, that ones knowen, he may certaynly be con- 
jugate by thexemple of Je parlerây,je conuertyrày , as ferày , feras , fera, 
ferons , ferez , feront : and lyke as o(je parlerày is formed parleràye, so 
of the fyrst parsone singular of this tense is ever formed the fyrst 
parson syngular of the présent tens of the potencial mode : whiche 
parson ones knowen, al his other parsons may easely be conjugate by 
exemple of parterùye as of ferây is formed ferôye by changyng of ray 
into roye, and conjugale ferôye, ferôys, ferôyt, ferions, feriez, ferôyent; 
of prendrày, prendrôye, prendrôys, prendrôyt, prendrions, prendriez, 
prendrôyent; and so of al other. 

Sixt. The fyrst and thyrde parsons singular of the présent tens of Régula scxta. 
the subjunctive mode be ever like endynge in e, and the seconde 
parson syngular addeth to s. The fyrst and seconde parsons plurell 
change e of the fyrst parson singidar into ions and iez. The thyrde 



96 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

parson pliirell addeth nt to the fyrst parson singular. So that onely 
the fyrst parson singular of this tense is uncertayne : whiche ones 
hadde, hovve the residue shulde be formed I hâve shewed the 1er- 
nar in this rule, as if he ones knowe that the fyrst parson singular 
of thistens is que je face, he may knowe by my rule that he maketh 
que tu faces, quilfâce, que novsfaciôns, que uovs faciéz, quilz fâcent, 
and in likewyse, que je die, que tu dies, quil die, que novs diôns, que 
uovs diéz, quilz dient, puttynge no consonant before ions and iez, ex- 
cept the fyrst parson singular bave one, as que je préigne, que tu 
préignes, quil préigne, que novs preignons, que uovs preignéz, quilz préignent. 

Régula septima. Seventh. By the addynge of thèse sixe terminations se, ses, t, siôns, 
siéz, sent, to the fyrst parson singular of the indifQnit tens in the in- 
dicatyve mode, the lernar shal forme the same tens in the subjunc- 
tive mode, in ail his nombres and parsons, as of ye fis is formed je 
fisse, tu fisses, ilfist, novs fissions , uovs fissiez, Hz fissent. And in like 
wyse of^e recévs, is formed ye recévsse, tu recévsses, il recévst, novs 
recevssiùns, uovs recevssiéz, Hz recévssent : and oî je prins, je prinsse, 
tu prinsses, il prinst, novs prinssiôns, uovs prinssiéz, Hz prinssent: and of 
je tins, je tinsse, ta tinsses, il tinst, novs tinssions, uovs tinssiez, Hz tins- 
sent, kepynge ever, in this tens, before the terminations, the vowell of 
the same tense in the indicatyve mode and n also , if the sayde tense 
hâve n. 

Régula octava. Eyght. Of the présent tens of the imperative mode the thirde 
parsons singidar and plurel be ever lyke the same parsons in like 
tens of the subjunctyve mode, and the fyrst and seconde parsons plu- 
rell be ever lyke the same parsons of like tens in the indicative mode, 
so that onely the seconde parson singular is uncertayne. Howe be it, 
for the most part, the seconde parson singular of this tens is like the 
same parson of the présent tens in the indicatyve mode : so that so 
often as the seconde parsone singular of this tens is like the same 
parson of the présent tens in the indicatyve mode, 1 shall, in the 
table of verbes, leave this parsone unrehersed, remyttyng the lernar 
to this generall rule ; and, whan he differreth from the sayd seconde 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 97 

parson, I shal expresse hym in the table of verbes next before the 
infinitive mode. But of this thyng I shall in my annotacions upon this 
VIII rule, in my thirde boke, intreat more at length. So that after the 
lernar knowe ones that the seconde parson singidar of this tense is 
fay, he may be sure, by this rule, that he is thus conjugate/aj, /âce, 
faysons , faictéz , fàceni : And in like wyse dy, dye, disons, dictez, dfenf; 
pren, préigne, prennôns, prennéz, préignent. 

Nynth. the future tense of the imperative mode and the présent Régula nona. 
tens of the optatyve mode be ever like to the présent tense of the 
subjunctive mode; and the undiffinite tense of the optatyve mode is 
lyke the same tens in the subjunctive mode. And the condicional 
mode , in this conjugation , is used before suche and so many tenses 
as he is in the other ii conjugations without any maner change. 

Tenth. the présent tens of the infinitivemode is ever also uncertayne. Régula décima. 

APPROBATIONS AND APPLYENG OF THESE TEN GENERAL RULES 
BY THE CONJUGATYNGE OF JE PAYS. 

OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENS. 

Je fais, ta fais, il fait, novs faisons, aovs faictéz, Hz font. In whiche 
tens the fyrst parsone singular and ail the m parsons plurei be un- 
certayne; andhowe the seconde andthyrde parsons singular be formed 
appereth in the fyrst of the ten generall rules. 

THE PRETER IMPERFIT TENSE. 

Jefaisôye, tufaisôys, ilfaisôyt, novs faisions , aovs faisiez, ilzfaisôyent. 
Whose fyrst parson singular is formed oi faisons, whiche is the first 
parson plurei of the présent tense, by changyng of ons into oye. And 
theother parsons be varled like parlôye or conaertissôye , havyng before 
oye, oys, oyt, ions, iéz, ôyent, the vowel or consonant that commeth 
before ons in the sayd fyrst parson plurei, as I bave declared in the 
seconde of the x generall rules. 

i3 



98 LESCLARCISSEMENT 



THE INDIFFINITE TENSE. 



Je fis fia fis, il fit, novs fisnies , uovsfistez, Hz firent. Whose fyrst par- 
son singular only is uncertayne, whlche ones knowen, howe the re- 
sidue of bis parsons shiilde be formed I bave siiffîciently declared in 
tbe thyrde of tbe x generall rules. 



THE PRETER PERFIT TENSE. 



Jayfaict, tu asfaict, il a f aie t, novs auônsfaict, uovs auézfaict, Hz 
ontfaict. Varyenge onely tbe tenses of^e ay and kepyng styll tbe par- 
ticiple uncbanged, as I bave, in tbe fourlb of tbe x gênerai rules and 
also in tbe rule of the tbyrde accident of verbes actives parsonal, de- 
clared. 



THE PRETERPLUSPERFIT TENSE. 



Jauôye faict , tu auôysfaict, il auôytfaict, novs auiànsfaict, aovs aaiéz 
faicl, Hz auôyent faict y accordyng to tbe sayd foiirtb rule. 



THE FUTURE TENSE. 



Jeferày, tu feras, il fera, novs ferons, uovs ferez, Hz feront. Wbose 
fyrst parsone singular only is uncertayne, wbicbe ones knowen, ail 
tbe otber parsons be formed lyke parlerây, puttyng in tbe stede of ray 
Ibr tbe otber parsons ras, ra, rons, rez and ront, witb sucbe vowels 
and consonantes as corne before ray in tbe fyrst parson singular, ac- 
cordyng as I bave declared in tbe fyft of tbe x gênerai rules. 



OF THE SUBJUNGTYVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENS. 



Que je face, que lu faces, (juilfàce, que novs faciôns, que uovsfaciéZi 
quilz fàcent. Wbose fyrst parson singular onely is uncertayne, wbicbe 
ones knowen , bowe the residue of bis parsons sbulde be formed I 
bave sufficiently declared in tbe vi of tbe x gênerai rules, puttyng ever 
before es, ions, iéz and ent sucbe vowels and consonantes as come 
before e in tbe sayd fyrst parson syngular. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANÇOISE. 99 



THE INDÎFINITE TENS. 



Que je fisse, que tu fisses, qu'il fist, que novs fissions , que uovs fissiez t- 
quilz fissent. Whose first parson singular howe he is ever formed of 
the first parson singular of the indiffinite tense of the indicative, and 
to suche vowel as cometli before s in the indicative mode addeth se, 
ses, st, siôns , siéz , sent, I hâve in the vu of the x gênerai rules playnly 
declared. 



THE PRETER PERFIT TENS. 



Que jAye faict , que tu àyesfaict, quil àyefaict, que novs ayons faict , 
que uovs ayez faict, qailz àyent faict, conjugate accordyng as I hâve in 
the fourth of the x gênerai rules playnly declared. 



THE PHETERPLtJSPEHFlT TENSE. 



Que je évsse faict, que tu évsses faict, quil evst faict, que novs evssiôns 
faict, que uovs evssiéz faict , quilz cvssent faict, conjugate accordyng as 
in the sayde fourth rule I hâve declared. 



THE FDTLRE TENSE. 



Que je avrày faict, que tu avrds faict, quil avrà faict, que novs avrons 
faict, que uovs avréz faict, quilz avrônt faict, conjugate accordynge as 
I hâve in the sayd fourth rule declared. 



OF THE POTENCIAL MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENS. 



Jeferôye, tuferoys, il feràyt, novs ferions, uovs feriez, ilzferôyent, 
whose fyrst parson singular is formed of the fyrst parson singular of 
the future tens in the indicative mode, by changyng of ray into roye; 
and howe he kepeth the same letter before rôye, roys, royt, rions, 
riez, rayent that the sayde future hath before ray, I hâve declared in 
the fyft of the ten generall rules. 



i3. 



100 LESCLARCISSEMENT 



THE PRETERPERFIT TENSE. 



Javràje faict , tu avrôysfaict, il avrôytfaict, nous avriàns faict , uovs 
avriéz faict, Hz avrôy eut faict, conjugale accordyng as I hâve in the 
sayd fourth ruie declared. 



OF THE IMPERATIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 



Fay or fay tu, face or face il, faysôns or faysùiis novs, faictéz or 
faictéz uovs,fàcent or fàcenl Hz. Whose seconde parson singular onely 
Is uncertayne , and the thyrde parsones singuiar and plurell lyke the 
sanie parsones of the présent tense of the subjunctive mode, and the 
fyrst and seconde parson phirell, lyke the same parsons of the pré- 
sent tense of the indlcatyve mode , accordyng as I hâve in the eyght 
of the X generall rules sufficiently declared. 



THE FUTDRE TENSE. 

Que je face , que tufâces, quilfàce, que novs facions , que uovs faciéz , 
quilzfâcent, lyke the présent tense of the subjunctive mode, differyng 
only in signification : for, in the one, que je face signifieth that I do; 
and in the other : let me do , accordyng as I bave in the nynth of the x 
gênerai rules afore declared. 

OF THE OPTATIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 

Bien face je , bien faces ta, bien face il, bien facions novs, bien faciéz 
uovs, bien fàcent Hz, in ail thyng like the same tense of the subjunc- 
tive mode, accordyng as I hâve touchedinthe nynth of the x gênerai 
rules. 

THE INDIFFINITE TENSE- 

Bien fisse je, bien fisses ta, bien fist il, bien fissions novs, bien fissiez 
uovs, bien fissent Hz, in ail thyng like the same tense of the subjunc- 
tive mode, accordynge to the sayd nynth rule. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 101 

OF THE POTENTIALL iMODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE LYKE THE PRESENT OK THE INDICATIVE. 

Sijefays, si tafays, silfait, si novs faisons , si uovs faictéz, silzfont. 
And so sijefaisàye, sijejys, sijayfaict, si jauôye faict , sijeferày, si 
je fisse, si jàye faict, si je évsse faict, si javrây faict, sijeferôye, sijav- 
rôye faict, accordynge as the englysshe requireth, puttynge si before 
ail the nombres and persons of the sayd tenses, lyke as I hâve donc 
hère, in the présent tense of the indicative mode, so as I bave declared 
in the nyntb of the x gênerai rules. 

OF THE INFINITIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 

Faire , wiche is uncertayne , accordyng as I dyd in the x rule 
touche. 

THE PRETER PIrRFIT TENSË. 

Aaoyr faict, accordyng as I shewed in the fourth of the x gênerai Régula prima. 
rules. 

So that by thèse x gênerai rules and applyeng of them , as for 
exemple to the conjugatyng oî je fais, appereth that in some verbes 
of tbis thirde conjugation , there be vni of theyr parsons , besides 
theyr participle prétérit and infinitive mode, whiche can nat be 
brought under any gênerai rule certayne. But for to conjugate the 
most part of ail suche verbes as be conteyned under tbis conjugation, 
it shal suffice if the lernar may knowe onely v of theyr parsons besides 
theyr said participle prétérit and infinitive mode. So that, thèse vu 
wordes or at the most x ones Icnowen, the lernar may, by the helpe 
of thèse said x gênerai rules, conjugate every verbe of tbis conjuga- 
tion completely through the residue of tbis modes, tenses, nombres 
and parsons, like as I bave hère done je fais. Wherfore in this thyng 
also to bryng the lernar unto a certaynte, in the table of verbes 
whiche shalbe in the thyrde boke , so often as any verbe of this con- 



■■*- 



Régula 
secunda. 



Recula tertia. 



Régula quarta. 



102 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

jugation shal afler the order of a 6' c fortune to corne in place, I shal 
reherse thèse sayd vu wordes or x at the most, as I hâve hère, in 
the said x gênerai rules, made niencion of them for the residue of 
theyr hole conjugatyng; remittyng the lernar to my sayd generall 
rules, whiche vvell studied I am certayne shalbe sufificient. 

And note that there is none of the sayd x gênerai rules so univer- 
sally certayne but that some fewe exceptions I fynde agaynst them , 
as shal in my thyrde boke, whan the sayd x rules come in place, to 
be spoken of, more playnely appere, but they be very fewe. And so 
often as any verbe of this conjugation shal fortune to come in ques- 
tion , if the lernar do resort to the table of verbes, he shal there fynde 
al suche exceptions as far as concerneth to that verbe set oui in or- 
der. But, to be certayne of this thyng through al the verbes of the 
tong, let the lernar resort to myn annotations upon thèse x generall 
rules in the thyrde boke, and he shall there clerely be satisfied of 
al thyng that concerneth the perfection of the tonge in this behaife. 

Note also that thèse m conjugations be so utterly distinct amonge 
them selfe that there is no verbe that hath his tenses sometyme like 
one of them and somtyme lyke an other, save onely je ménge I eate , 
whiche through al his other tenses beyng conjugale like je parle , 
maketh for his indiffinit tenses ye mengàs, whiche I fynde writteny'e 
mengévs, and que je mengùsse or mengévsse conjugale like the thyrde 
conjugation, where, if he folowed the rule, he shulde make je mengày 
or je mangeày, and je mengàsse ormengeàsse; and je meaccôrs, whiche 
in his présent tenses of the indicative mode and imperative mode 
foloweth the thirde conjugation ; in al his other tenses he is conjugale 
like je me fie, &nd je parle. And a fewe other wherof I shal make men- 
tion in my thyrde boke, in my annotations upon this note. 

Note also that, as far as I bave hitherto noted, there is no verbe 
active parsonai in this tong but he hath as many sondry modes, 
tenses, nombres and parsons as je parle, je conaertys a.nd je fais bave, 
excepte je sévis l am wont, andjensevelys I buried : whiche howe many 
modes and tenses they hâve 1 shall hère expresse. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 103 

OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 

Je sevh, tu sevls. il sevlt, nous savions, vous saviez, Hz sevlent. lam wont. 

THE PRETER PERFIT TENSE. 

Je savlàye forined of savions after the seconde of the x gênerai rules. i was wont. 

THE INDIFFINITE TENSE. 

Je sovlàs, lu sovlàs, il sovlùt, novs sovlùsmes, vovs sovlustéz, ils sov- Iwaswont. 
lurent. 

THE INKINITYVE MODE. 

Savlôyr. 

And mo tenses, nombres or parsons this verbe hatb nat; so that for To be wonte. 
I bave be wont, I bad be wont, and I sbalbe wont, they say jay aprins 
or jay acovstamé , jaaôye aprins, and so forth in otber modes, borow- 
ynge tbe tenses of je ay and tbese participles aprins or acovstamé. 

OF THE INDICATYVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE MODES. 
THE INDIFFINITE TENSE. 

Je enseuelis, ta enseuelis, il enseuelit, novs enseuelismes , uovs enseue- iburied. 
listez, Hz enseuelirent. Que jenseuelisse , que tu enseuelissis. 

THE PHETERPEHFIT AND Pl.USPEBFIT TENSES THHOUG ALI. THE MODES. 

^s jay ensevcly, jaaôye enseaely, que jàye enseaely, que jévsse ense- l hâve or haddt 
uely, que javray enseaely, javroye enseaely. 

THE JNFINITIVE MODE. Toburie. 

Ensevelir. 

So tbat for the other tenses they use the tenses of ^c enterre, 
whiche is of tbe fyrst conjugation. 

And therfore of ail tbe verbes actives personall I cali onely tbese 
twayne in the frencbe tong verbes defectives. 

Note also that tbe mean sillables of verbes, natwithstandyng theyr Régula quima. 



Régula sexta. 



104 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

conjugalyng, remayne ever unchanged, save that certayne verbes of 
the fyrst conjugation change ev of theyr présent tens into ov, like as 
I hâve afore touched, as^e plèvre, je dcmévre, je trévue ; nous plovrùns, 
nous demovrôns, nous trovuons, and so kepyng ov through ail theyr 
conjugatyng beside. Except also certayne verbes of the thyrde conju- 
gation whiche in some tenses bave a, and in some e, as ye apérs, 
je apparôye, j apparus, jay apparu, je apperày, que jappére, and fewe 
lyke, of whiche in the thyrde boke I wyl speke in this place more 
at length. 

Note also that for so moche as thèse m verbes je aevlx I wil , je 
puis I may, and^e doits I owe, come often in use in this tong, and 
that in the formation of some of theyr parsons they do alter from 
the X gênerai rules, and farthermore want somtyme of theyr parsons, 
and somtyme a hole mode, like as the verbes defectives in this tong 
do, I thinke it necessarie to shewe hère in this place howe thèse 
sayd III verbes be conjugate, where it shalbe requisit, conjugatyng 
tliem at the length, and where as they folowe the sayd x gênerai 
rules, to remit the lernar to them. 



OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 



I wy». 

I dyd wyl. 
I wolde. 

I hâve wyld. 
I sha) wil. 



Je uveil or je aevlx, ta uevlx, il aevlt, novs uovlôns, uovs aovléz, 
Hz uévllent. 

Je uovlàye, formed of uovlôns, conjugate lyke parlôye. 

Je uovlûs, ta uovlàs, il uovlàt, novs uovlùsmes, uovs uovlustéz, Hz 
uov lurent. 

Jay uovlu, jauôye aovlû , lyke jay parlé jauôye parlé. 

Je uovldrày, tu uovldràs, etc. kepyng d before the terminations of 
this tense. 



OF THE SCBJCNCTIVE MODE. 



That I wyll. Que je uveille, que tu uveilles, qu'il uveîlle, que novs uveillôns, etc. 

Thaiiwylled. Que je uovlsisse , whiche, if be folowed the rule, shulde make 

uovlùsse, conjugate uovhisses, uovlsist, uovlsissiôns , uovlsissiéz, uovlsissent. 



DE LA LANGUE FRAKCOYSE. 105 

Que jàye aovlû, etc. que jévsse uovlà etc. que javrày uovlà etc. lyke Thatihave 
as m other verbes. 

OF THE POTENCIAL MODE. 

Je uovldrôye formed of uovldrày, conjugate lyke parlerôye, javrôye i wolde. 
uovlû, etc. , 

OF THE IMPERATIVE MODE. 

Uevlx, uveille, uovlôns, uovléz, uveillent. Wyll. 

Que je uveille, que lu uveilles, qu'il uveille, que novs uveilliôns, que Let me wiH. 
aovs uveilliéz, qu'ils uveillent. 

OF THE OPTATIVE MODE. 

Diev uveille, uovlsist Dieu, used onely in the thyrde parsones sin- God wyl. 

gular. Wolde to God. 

And of the condicional mode is no difficulté. 

THE INFINITIVE MODE. 

Uovloir and auoyr uovlà. To wyl. 

OF THE indicative MODE. 

Je puys or je pevlx, tu puys, il pevlt, novs povôns, nous povéz, Hz i may. 
pévuent. 

Je povôye, etc. je pevs, tu pevs, il pevt, nous peusmes, uous pevstéz, idydmow, 

, ormyght. 

ils pevrent. 

Jay pev, etc. jauôye peu, etc. je povrrdy, etc. ihavemowe. 



OF the subjcnctyve mode. 

THE PRESENT TENS (wanteth). 

The indiffinite shulde make je pévsse, and so Alayn Chartier and i myght, 
Frossart useth theym : but I fynde more in use je puysse, tu puysses, myght. 

ilpuist or pufsse, etc. que je aye pev, etc. que j eusse pev , etc. que javrày 
pev, etc. 

OF THE POTENTIALL MODE. 

Je pourrùye, etc. je avrôye pev, etc. Ishuide mowe. 

i4 



106 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

THE IMPERATIVE MODE (wanteth). 

OF THE OPTATIVE MODE. 

THE PRESENT TENSE (wanteth). 
THE INDIFFINITE. 

Welmighti. Bien puisse je, bien puisses ta, bien paisse il, bien puissions novs, etc. 

THE INFINITIVE MODE. 

To mowe. Povuoyr and auoyr pev. 

OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 

lowe. Je doybs, tu doybs, il doybt, novs deaàns, aovs deuéz, ils dôyuent. 

I ought. Je deuôye, etc. je devs, ta devs, il devt, novs dévsmes, aovs déustez, 

ils devrent. 

Jay dev, etc. jaaôye dev. 
I shal owe. Je deuerày, tu deueràs, etc. 

OF THE SUBJONCTIVE MODE. 

Thaï I owe. Que je dôye, que tadôyes, qu'il dôye, que novs doyiôns, que aovs doyiéz, 

qu'ils dôyent. 
Thati ought Que je dévsse, que tu dévsses, quil devst, que novs devssiôns, etc. 

Que jàye dev, etc. que jévsse dev, etc. que javrày dev, que tu avràs 
dev, etc. 

OF THE POTENCIAL MODE. 

ishuideowe. Je deaerôye , tu deaerôys, etc. javrôye dev, tu avrôys dev, etc.... 

THE IMPERATIVE MODE AND OPTATIVE. 

Come seldome or never in use. If they do, howe they be formed 
appereth in the x generall rides. 

THE INFINITIVE MODE. 

To owe. Debuoyr and auoyr dev. 

Régula sepiima. Nole also that generally through eut al this tong ail maner verbes, 
whether they be actives or meanes, kepe through altheyr modes, tenses, 
nombres and parsons, one selfe letter at theyr begynnyng, howe so 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 107 

ever theyr latter terminations be varied , for expressyng of theyr di- 
verse modes, tenses and parsons. So that the selfe letter ihat the fyrst 
parsone of the présent tense in the indicative mode hath, the selfe 
letter is kept through out al his conjugatyng. Except onely m , je ay 
I hâve ; je men uas I go ; and je svis I am , of whiche howe je ay alte- 
reth his fyrst letter a into o and e, shallhere by his conjugatynge ap- 
pere, differryng to speke of the other twayne, tyll I shall come to 
speke of verbes meanes and verbes passives in this tong. 

THE CONJUGATYNG OF JE ^K I HAVE. 

Je ay, ta as, il a, novs auôns, uovs aaéz, Hz ont. i hâve. 

Je auôye, tu auôys, il aaôyt, novs aaiôns, aovs auiéz, Hz auôyent. i had. 

Je evs, ta evs, il evt, novs évsmes, uovs évstez, Hz évrent. i had. 

Jay ev, ta as eu, il a ev, etc., je auôye ev, ta auôys ev, il aaôyt ev, etc. i bave had. 

Je avrày, tu avràs, il avrà, novs avrôns, aovs avréz, Hz avrônt. • ishalhave. 

Que je âye, que tu àyes, quil ayt or quil àye (for I fynde both in That F hâve. 
use), que novs ayons, que uovs ayez, qailz àyent. 

Que jévsse, que ta évsses, quil evst, que novs evssiôns, que uovs evs- That i had. 
siéz, qailz évssent. 

Que j àye ev, que tu àyes ev, quil ayt ev, etc., que je évsse ev, que tu Thatlshai 

; •/ t i ■ ' 1 t •! ' have had. 

evsses ev, qail evst ev, etc. que je avray ev, que ta avras ev, qau avra 
ev, etc. 

Je avrôye, tu avrôys, il avrôyt, novs avriôns, aovs avriéz, Hz avrôyent. i shuldhave. 

Que je avrôye ev, que tu avrôys ev, etc. 

Ay tu, ayt il, auôns, auéz, àyent. Have. 

Que je àye, que ta àyes, quil ayt, que novs ayons, que uovs ayez, Letmehave. 
quilz àyent. 

Bien àye, bien àyes, bien ayt or bien àye, etc. bien évsse, bien Wel myght 
eusses, etc. ' '"'^''■ 

Si je ay, si je auôye, si je evs, si jay ev, etc. iflhave. 

Auofr, aaojr eu. To have. 

Note also that, though the Latins have many other sortes of Régula octava. 
verbes personnalles, besydes actives, as neuters, déponentes, com- 

i4. 



108 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

mons, neutre, passives and suche other, in this tong I comprehende 
al maner verbes personals under the verbe active or the meane : and 
yet ail theyr meane verbes foiowe one of thèse m conjugations , as 
shall hère after immediatly appere. For ail theyr verbes passives be 
circumlocuted with the tenses of ^e svis, and theyr participle prété- 
rit (whiche I therfore may also call passyve) havyng no maner con- 
jugation propre unto themselfe , like as the prêter perfit and plusper- 
fit tenses, with the futm-e of the subjunctive mode of al theyr verbes 
actives be circumlocuted with the tenses of ye ay and the same par- 
ticiple, and hâve unto them no conjugatyng propre, as the other 
tenses bave. So that havyng well thèse iii verbes, ye parle, je conuer- 
tys,je fais and the x gênerai rules hère afore rehersed, the iernar 
may be sure howe to conjugate ail the verbes personnalles of this 
tonge wherof I bave nat hère made expresse mencion; for eyther 
they be comprehended under the fyrst and seconde conjugations, 
and than thexamples of je parle and je conuertp is sufEcient to con- 
jugate them by: orels they be comprehended under the thyrde con- 
jugation, and than havyng vu wordes or at the most x wordes that 
be uncertayne, whiche the lerner shalbe sure to fynde out in the 
table of verbes, thèse sayd x gênerai rules and example of je fays 
shall sufficiently helpe hym in ail them : for if any verbe happen in 
some one parsone or tense to be excepted, whiche be very fewe, I 
shal in the sayd table, whan I reherce the sayd vu or x wordes, 
make there of also expresse mention at length , and nowe to speke of the 
residue of the x accidentes belongyng to verbes actives parsonalles. 



THE vu ACCIDENT. 



Formation. For somtyme verbes be formed of substantyves, as of 
mérite mériter, of mur emmurer, terre enterrer, of pôvldre empovldrér, of 
chemyn cheminer, of bras embrasser, and suche lyke. Some be formed 
of adjectives, as of blanche blanchjr, nofre noyrcfr, rôvge rovgir, gâvne 
gavnîr, dôvlce adovlcyr, meisgre ameisgrir. 
Régula prima. And notc that, for the most part, ail suche in oiu" tong be circum- 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 109 

locuted with « I make » or « I wax » and our adjective, as blanchyrï make 
or waxe whyte : Noyrcîrlmake orwaxe blacke, as I hâve afore touched 
whan I shewed that al suche verbes were of the seconde conjugation, 
Some be formed of adverbes, as of près approvchér, of loyng es- 
loyngnér. 



THE VIII ACCIDENT. 



Composition. For some be symple and nat compounde of any other 
worde, as dyre, faire, mettre, aeoyr, ovyr, seôyr, dormfr, and suche iike. 
Some be compoimde with an imperfit worde whiche by hymselfe 
signifieth nothyng in the frenche tong and yet greatly altreth the 
verbe from bis signification whan he is a simple, as mes and for; 
whiche in our tong we also use, save that we call mes mys, as dire 
is to say, mesdire to myssay '.faire to do, mesfaire to mysdo; not that 
before ail verbes we maye put mes, but where soever he is thus used, 
he thus altreth the signification of the simple; /or, as faire to do, for- 
faire to forfait or fordo; clorre to schutte , /orc/orre to schutte ont or 
forschut. 

And note that thèse sortes of composicion be more used in the Régula. 
Romant of the Rose and of Alayn Chartier than they be of suche as 
hâve written syth theyr tyme. 

Some be compounde of substantives comynge before them, as 
mayntenyr to mayntayne. Some be compounde of adjectives com- 
mynge before them. Some be compounde of preposicions commynge 
before them, as entendre, soabzméttre , povraeoir, contredire. As for ins- 
tavrér, conclàrre, attendre, substituer be holbly taken out of the latin 
tong, and ai suche hâve ever hke signification in this tong as they 
bave in latin. 

Some be compounde of adverbes commynge before them , as mal- 
dire to curse, bienuiegnér to welcome. 

THE IX ACCIDENT. 

Addyng of syllabicall adjections in affirmation and négation. 



110 LESCLARCISSEMENT 



IN AFFIRMATION. 



For often tymes they put en next before theyr verbes, whan they 
affirme a thyng to be done, whan he signifieth nothyng, but onely is 
as a signe of affirmation used rather to make the sentence more fuUe 
in soimde to the eare than for any nécessite. And yet before some 
verbes they use hym twyse for the sayd consyderation , as : uovs en 
avréz, nen parlez plus, il sen est en cille, il sen est en fovy, and suche 
lyke, where the sence is alone if I leave en out and say : aovs avréz, 
ne parlez plus, il sest allé, il sestfovy. 



IN NEGACION. 



For, where as they put ne before theyr verbes, so often as they 
expresse négation , like as we use « nat » in our tong aftec oiu" verbes. 
They put also after theyr verbes pas, poynt or mye, whiche of theym- 
selfe signifye nothyng, but onely be as signes of négation. 
Régula. Howe be it, it is nat in the spekars pleasure to use one of the 

sayd III wordes or nat, lyke as it is of en in theyr affirmations, for in 
maner there is no verbe that hath ne afore hym, but he must hâve 
eyther pas, poynt or mye after hym. 

And note that betwene pas and poynt is no maner différence, but 
it is in the spekars or writtars élection whether he wyll use the one 
or the other, but as for mfe is an olde Rommant worde and nowe 
out of use where the ryght frenche is spoken. 



THE X ACCIDENT. 



Order. Différent from our tonge in interrogations; for where as 
we, whan we aske a question of a nowne substantive, whether he 
betoken a propre name or nat, use in maner ever to put the sayd sub- 
stantive as the last worde of the interrogation, as : whyther goeth the 
king? Where is Charles? Is my gowne clene.»* Hâve you sadled my 
horse ? In the frenche tonge they name the substantyve fyrst and 
demande theyr question of hym afterwarde, as le roy ou sen ua il? 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 111 

Charles ou est il? Ma robe est-elle nette? Mon cheval lavez aovs selle? 
And though this order be sometyme broken, the surer way is, for 
savyng the right grâce of the tong, to use suche order in questions 
demaunded by substantives as I bave hère shewed. How be it in 
questions demaunded by pronownes, the pronowne in the frenche 
sentence is ever the last worde, whether he be se in our tong or nat, 
as : whither go you? Ou allez uous? Whan shal he corne ? Quant uien- 
drâ il ? Where dwell they ? Ou demévrent Hz ? Howe be it they say for 
is he come ? est il uenà ? Ant therfore more certaynly I differ to speke 
of this malter tyl I shall come in the thyrde boke in this place. 

OF THE VERBES MEANES. 

Whiche be verbes meanes, in this tong, I bave in a generalte al re- 
dy declared, imto whom 1 bave gyven this name for ii causes. One for 
so moche as determynatly they betoken neytlier action nor passion, 
for, where as the doar and sufferer ought to be distinct parsons, the 
acte of thèse verbes retourneth ever to the doar agayne. An other for, 
where as of every veriie whiche signifieth an acte to be done without 
forth may be circumlocuted a passive with the tenses oî je svis and 
theyr participle prétérit, whiche shal in dede betoken sufferyng by 
the act of some parson without forth , in suche verbes as be meanes 
we can nat do so. But thèse thynges shal in the thirde boke in this 
place more playnly appere. Howe be it some thynge more playnely 
hère to shewe the lemar howe he shall knowe suche verbes as in the 
frenche tong be used as meanes. 

In maner generally ail suche verbes as signifie a parsone to do Régula. 
an acte eyther with bis mynde, hole body or any part therof, of 
whiche the dede retourneth to the doar selfe agayne, and betoken 
none acte to passe from hym without forth , al suche verbes in this 
tong be used as meanes. 

EXAMPLE OF SUCHE VERBES AS SIGNIFIE THE ACTES OF THE MYNDE. 

I marvayle, I wonder, I trust, I dispaire, I rejoyce, I take though. 



112 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

I doubt, I agrée, I consent, I complayne, I waxe angrye, I waxe sorie, 
I waxe prowde, and in maner ail suche verbes as signifie any passion 
of pleasure or displeasure to the mynde. 

EXAMPLE OF SUCHE VERBES AS SIGNIFIE THE ACTES OF THE HOLE BODV. 

I lye dovme , I aryse , I bowe downe , I stande up , I go , I walke , 
I move , I flye away, I dye , I ryse from dethe , and in maner al suche 
verbes as signifie the hole body to be in occupacion , and the acte ta- 
keth bis effect in the body selfe. 

EXAMPLE OF SUCHE VERBES AS SIGNIFIE THE PARTICULAR ACTES 
OF THE PARTES OF ON ES BODY. 

I mocke , I laugh , I syt downe , I leane , I knele , I holde my peace , 
I crye out, Ifi^owne, and suche lyke. Whiche verbes greatly differ 
from I see, I heere, I feele, I smell, I bandel, I pusshe, I stryke, I 
beholde, I call, and suche other, though thèse actes be also donc 
with the partes of ones body. For the fyrst signifie none acte to passe 
from the doar without forth, and the other betoken that there is 
some other thyng that is seen, herd, felt, smelled, handled, pus- 
shed, stryken, behelde or called. But for so moche as this rule is 
nat so utteiiy gênerai, but that I fynde exceptions in al thèse sayd 
III sortes of verbes : for I fyndy'e pénce, je songe, je monte, je descéns 
and certayne other whiche, thoughe they signifie the actes of the 
mynde or body and betoken no dede without forth , yet they be ever 
used in this tonge as actives. And farther more that, where as we 
hâve one worde, the frenchemen use circumlocution and somtyme 
contrary, where we use circumlocution, the frenchemen bave one 
onely worde, as where we say « I stande, » they say^e me tiens debout: 
and where we say « I holde my peace , » they say : je me iays. 

To brynge the lernar out of ail maner doubtes whiche verbes in 
this tong, besydes them that I bave hère rehersed, be used as meanes 
and whiche nat, and also whiche be circumlocuted and whiche be 
expressed by one onely worde, I shall more playnely déclare this 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 113 

thynge in the thyrde boke in this place , but specially in the table of 
verbes, where after the order of a, b, c, so often as any verbe of 
our tong shall fortune to corne in place, it sball appere in the frenche 
verbe nat onely what conjugation he is of, but also wbether he be 
used in theyr tong as a meane or nat, and wbether he be circumlo- 
cuted in our tong or in theyrs , orels be expressed in both the tonges 
or in one of them by one onely worde. 

Verbes meanes bave xi accidentes , of whiche ix be suche and the 
selfe same that verbes actives bave, that is to say, mode, tense, 
nombre, parson, conjugation, formation, composicion, addynge of 
syllabicall adjections and order différent from our tong in interro- 
gations. 

In the thyrde accident, that is to say, circumlocutynge of the prê- 
ter tenses they difFer moche from verbes actives : for where as verbes 
actives circumlocute theyr preterperfit and plus perfit tenses throughe 
ail theyr modes, and the future tense of the subjunctive mode, with 
the tenses oïje ay and the participle prétérit , ail verbes meanes cir- 
cumlocute ail the same tenses with the tenses of Je sais, and the same 
participle with a farther différence also. For where as the participle 
prétérit, joyned to the tenses oîje ay, remayneth in maner ever un- 
changed, as I bave afore in the fyrst note of the thyrde accident be- 
longynge to verbes actives alredy declared, whan he is joyned to the 
tenses oi je suis, he altretli bis gender and nombre, accordyng to the 
gender and nombre of the nominatyve case that governeth the sayd 
tenses oije sais. 

And note that, though the tenses o(je sais beof farre différent si- Régula, 
gnification from the tenses of je ay, yet so often as any of his tenses 
is put before a participle of a meane verbe , they bave the selfe same 
signification that the tenses of jfe ay bave, as shal hère after in theyr 
conjugatynge playnely appere. 

The XI accident, by whiche also they differ from verbes actives, is 
doublyng of the pronowne , for in token that the act of ail suche verbes 
retorneth to the doar agayne, they put for the most part before every 



114 LESCLARGISSEMENT 

of theyr fyrst and seconde parsons the accusative case of the pro- 
nowne that governeth them, and before ihe thyrde parsons as well 
singular as plurel se, what soever pronowne or substantive be nomi- 
natife case to any suche verbe : whiche thyng playnely by example to 
déclare unto tbe lernar I shali bere immediatly conjugale yV me fie, 
je meeshahfs, and je menfufs. 
Régula. Notyng first that, though I double the pronowne before every 

parson of them for exemple, I fynde them many tymes used withoiit 
any suche doublyng and in ail thynges lyke actives, especially in 
theyr fyrst and seconde parsons : but in theyr thyrde parsons of both 
the nombres I fynde them very seldome used without se before them, 
as I shal in the thyrde boke in this place more playnely déclare. 

THE CONJUGATVNG OR JE ME FIE. WHOSE FINAL TERMfNATIONS ARE 

CHANGE D AFTER JE PARLE, 

AND ARE LYKE THE FIRST CONJUGATION OF VERBES ACTYVES. 



I trust. 



I dyd trust. 



I trasted. 



1 hâve trasted. 



1 hâve trusted. 



OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 



Je me fie, tu te fies, il se fie, novs novs fions, uovs uovs fiez, Hz se 
fient. 



THE PRETER IMPERFITE TENSE. 



Je me fiôye, ta te fiôyes, ilsefiàyt, novs novs fijàns , uovs uovsfijéz, Hz 
sefiàyent. 

THE INDIFPINITE TENSE. 

Je mefdy, ta tefiàs, ilsefià, novs novsfiàsmes, uovs uovsfiastéz, Hz 
se fièrent. 

THE PRETER PERFITE TENSE MASCULINE. 

Je me suis fie, tu ten es fie, il sen est fie, novs novs sommes fiez, uovs 
uovs estez fiez, Hz sen sont fiez. 

THE PRETER PERFIT TENSE FEMININE. 

Je me suis fiée, tu ten es fiée, elle sen est fiée, novs novs sommes fiées, 
uovs uovs estez fiées, elles sen sont fiées. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 115 

And note that the preterperfit and the preterplusperfit tenses of Régula. 
al meane verbes, and the future tense of the subjunctive mode varye 
theyr participle, accordynge as I bave afore shewed by rule, and hère 
declared by example : and therfore in the other tenses, by cause of 
brevite , 1 wyl shew onely howe the fyrst parsons alter theyr gender 
and nombre. 



THE PRETEK PLUSPERFIT TENSE. 



Je mestôyefie, tu testôyesfie, il sestùytfîe, novs novs estions fiéz, uovs i hadde tmsted. 
uovs estiez fiez, Hz sestàyent fiéz. Je mestôye fiée , novs novs estions fiéez. 



THE FUTURE TENSE. 



Je mefierày, tu te fieras, il se fiera, novs novs fierons, uovs uovs fierez, isbal trust. 
Hz se fieront. 



OF THE SUBJUNCTYVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 



Que je méfie, que tu te fies, quil se fie, que novs novsfijôns, que uovs Tbati trust. 
uovs fijéz, quilz se fient. 



THE INDIFFINITE TENSE. 



Que je méfiasse, que tu te fiasses, quil sefiâst, que novs novs fijssiôns , Tbat l trusted, 

«. ., ., -, , , shulde.wolde 

que uovs uovs jijssiez , quilz se fiassent. or myght trust. 

THE PRETER PERFIT TENSE MASCULINE AND FEMININE. 

Que je me sôyefie, que tu te sôyesfie, quil se soytfie, que novs novs Thati hâve 
soyons fiéz, que uovs uovs soyez fiéz, quilz se soyent fiéz. Que je me sôye 
fiée, etc. 

THE PRETER PLUSPERFIT TENSE MASCULINE AND FEMININE. 

Que je me fusse fie, que tu te fusses fie, quil se fustfie, que novs novs ThatI had 
fussions fiéz, que uovs uovs fussiez fUz , quilz se fussent fiéz. Que je me '"^"''^ ' 
fasse fiée, etc. 



i5. 



116 LESCLARCISSEMENT 



OF THE POTENCIAL MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 



I shulde trust. Je me fierôye, tu te fieroys, il se fieràyt, novs novs fierions , uovs uovs 
fieriez, Hz sejieràyent. 

THE PRETERPERFIT TENSE MASCULINE AND FEMININE. 

I shulde hâve Je me seràyefie, tu te seràysfie, il se serôytfie, novs novs serions fiéz, 
uovs uovs seriez fiez, Hz se seroyentfièz. Je me serôyefiée, etc. 

OF THE IMPERATIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 

Trust thon. Te fie toy , se fie il, novs fions novs, uovs fiéz uovs, se fient Hz. 

THE FUTURE TENSE. 

Let me trust. Que je méfie, que tu te fies, quilsefie, que novs novs fiions, que uovs 

uovs fiiez, quilz se fient. 

OF THE OPTATIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 

Wel may Bien me fie je, bien te fies tu, bien se fie il, bien nous fiions novs, bien 

uovs fiiez uovs, bien se fient Hz. 

THE INDIFFINITE TENSE. 

Weli myght Bien me fiasse je, bien te fiasses tu, bien se fiàst il, bien novsfiissiàns 



I trust. 



novs, bien uovs fissiez uovs, bien se fiassent Hz. 



OF THE CONDICIONAL MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 

If I trust. Si je méfie, si tu te fies, sil se fie, si novs novs fions, si uovs uovs fiéz, 

s'ilz se fient. And so of the other tenses, and as many as si may be 
joyned unto in je parle. 

OF THE INFINITIVE MODE. 

For to trust. The présent tense pour méfier, for to trust; pour mavofrfie, for to 

hâve trusted. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 117 

THE CONJUGATYiNG OF JE ME ESBAHYS, 

WHOSE FINAL TERMINATIOxNS ARE CHANGED AFTER JE CONVERTYS 

AND ARE LIKE THE SECONDE CONJUGATION OF VERBES ACTYVES. 

OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 

THE PRESENT TENSE. 

Je me esbahjs, tu te esbahys, il se esbahyt, novs novs esbahissôns , uovs i wonder. 
uovs esbahisséz, Hz se esbahissent. 

THE PRETER IMPEHFIT TENSE. 

Je men esbahissôye , tu te esbahissôys, il se esbahissôyt, novs novs esba- i did wonder. 
hissions, uovs uovs esbahissiéz, Hz se esbahissoyent. 

THE INDIFFINITE TENSE. 

Je men esbahfs, tu ten esbahys, il se esbahyt, novs novs esbahismes , uovs i wondred. 
uovs esbahistéz, Hz se esbahirent. 

THE PRETER PERFIT TENSE MASCULINE AND FEMININE. 

Je me suis esbahy, tu tes esbahf, il sest esbahf, novs novs sommes es- i hâve wondred. 
bahfz, uous uovs estez esbahyz, Hz se sont esbahjz. Je me suis esbahye, etc. 

THE PRETER PLtSPERFIT TENSE MASC. AND FEMINE. 

Je mestôye esbahy, tu testôyes esbahy, il sestôyt esbahy , novs novs estions l had wondred. 
esbahyz, uovs uovs estiez esbahfz, ils sestoyent esbahjs. Je mestôye esba- 
hye, etc. 

THE FUTURE TENSE. 

Je men esbahirày, tu tesbahiràs, il se esbahirà, novs novs esbahirons, ishalwondre. 
uovs uovs esbahiréz, Hz se esbahirônt. 

OF THE SUBJDNCTIVE MODE. 
TBE PRESENT TENSE. 

Que je mesbahje, que tu tesbahfes, quil sesbahfe, que novs novs esba- That l wonder. 
hiôns, que uovs uovs esbahjez, quilz se esbahyent. 



118 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Thall wondred. 



That I bave 
wondred. 



That I had 
wondred. 



That 1 shall 
hâve wondred. 



I shuide 
wonder. 



I «hulde hâve 
wondred. 



Wondre. 



Let me wondre. 



TUE INDIFFINITE TENSE. 

Que je nien esbahisse, que tu tesbalihses, quil seshahist, que novs novs 
esbahissiôns , que uovs uovs esbahissiéz, quitz sesbahjssent. 

THE PRETEBPERFIT TENSE, MASC. AND FEMINE. 

Que je me sôye esbahjf, que tu te sôyes esbahy, quil se soyt esbahy, que 
novs novs soyons esbahys, que uovs uovs soyez esbahy z, quilz se sôyent es- 
bahy z. Que je me sôye esbahfe , etc. 

THE PRETERPLUSPEHFITE TENSE, MASCULINE AND FEMINE. 

Que je me fusse esbahy, que tu te fusses esbahf, quil sefust esbahy, que 
novs novs fussions esbahys, que uovs uovs fussiez esbahy z, quilz se fussent 
esbahyz. Que je me fusse esbahje, etc. 

THE FUTORE TENSE MASC. AND FEMINE. 

Que je me serày esbahf, que tu te seras esbahy, quil se sera esbahy, que 
novs novs serons esbahfz, que uovs uovs serez esbahfz , quilz se seront esba- 
hjz. Que je me serày esbahy e, etc. 

OF THE POTENTIAL MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 

Je me esbahyrôye, tu te esbahiràys, il se esbahyrôyt, novs novs esbahy- 
rions, uovs uovs esbahiriéz, Hz se esbahy rayent. 

THE PRETER PERFIT TENSE MASCULINE AND FEMINE. 

Je me serày e csbahf, tu te serày s eshahj, il se serày t esbahy, novs novs 
seriàns esbahys, uovs uovs seriez esbahys, Hz se seroyent esbahys. Je me se- 
rôye esbahye, etc. 

OF THE IMPARATïVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE. 

Te esbahis toy, se esbahye il, novs esbahissàns nous, uovs esbahisséz 
uovs, sesbahihent Hz. 

Que je me esbahye, tu te esbahyes, il se esbahfe, que novs novs esbahyons , 
uovs uovs esbahyez, Hz se esbahfent. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 119 

OF THE OPTATYVE MODE. 

THE PRESENT TENS. 

Bien me eshahje je, bien te esbahies tu, bien se esbahie il, bien novs Weli maye 
esbahyons nous, bien uovs esbahiéz uovs, bien se esbahyent Hz. 

THE INDIFFINIT TENS. 

Bien me esbahysseje, bien te esbahisses tu, bien se esbahyst H, bien novs Well migiit 
esbahyssôns novs, bien uovs esbahysséz uovs, bien se esbahyssênt Hz. 

THE CONDICIONALL MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENS. 

Si je mesbahys, si tu tesbahys, sil sesbahyst, si novs novs esbahissôns, Yfiwondre. 
si uovs uovs esbahissez, silz sesbahfssent , and se forthe of the other 
lenses. 

OF THE INFINITYVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT AND PRETERPARFITENS. 

Pour mesbahjfr lo wondre, pour mestre esbahj for to hâve wondred. For to wondre. 

THE CONJUGATYNG OF JE MEN FUYS, 

WHOSE FINALL TERMYNATIONS BE CHAUNGED AFTER JK PAYS. AND IS 

LYKE THE THIRDE CONJUGATION OF VERBES ACTYVES. 

OF THE INDICATYVE MODE. 
THE PRESENTENS. 

Je menfvys (1 flye), tu tenfuys, il senfvyt, novs novs fuyons, uovs uovs i nye. 

fvyéz, Hz senfvyent. 

THE PRETER lUPARFITENS. 

Je menfuyôye, tu tenfuyùys, il senfuyôyt, novs novsfuyyôns, uovs uovs idyd fiye. 
fuyyéz, Hz sen fuyôyent. 

THE INDIFFINIT TENS. 

Je menfvys, tu tenfvys, H senfvyt, novs novsfvysmes, uovs uovs fvystez, i fledde. 
Hz sen fvyrent. 



120 LESCLARCISSEMENT 



THE PRETERPABFITENS M ASC. AND FEMY. 



iliavefled. Je mcTi svisfvy, tu ten esfvy, ilsenestfvy, novs novs sommes fvyz , uovs 

uovs estez fvyz, Hz sert sontfvyz. Je men suisfvye, etc. 



THE PRETERPLUSPARFITENS MASC. AND FEMY. 



I hadfled. Je mestôyejvf, tu testôysfvy, il sestôytfvy, novs novs estions fvyz , uovs 

uovs estiez fvyz, Hz sestôyentfvyz. Je mestôye fvye , etc. 



THE FUTURTENS. 



ishaHflye. Je menfvyrày, tu tenfvyràs, il sen fvyrà, novs novsfvyrôns, uovs uovs 

fvyréz, Hz senfvyrônt. 



OF THE SUBJDNCTÏVE MODE. 



THE PRESENTENS. 



Thatiflye. Que je men fvye, que tu tenfvyes, quil sen fvye, que novs novs fuyions, 

que uovs uovs fvyéz , quilz senfvyent. 



THE INDIFFINIT Tï;NS. 



That I fled. Que je men fvfsse , tu tenfvysses, ilsenfvyst, novs novs fvyssiôns , uovs 

uovs fvyssiéz , Hz sen fùyssent. 



THE PRETERPARFIT TENS MASC. AND FEMY. 



Tha.tihave Q^e je me soyefvy, tu te sôyesfvy, il se soytfvy, novs novs soyons fùys. 



fledde. 



Hoa5 nous soyez fvys, Hz se sôyentfvys. 



THE PHETERPLUSPARFIT TENS. 



That I Lad Que je menfûssc fvy, tu ten fusses fùy, H sen fust fvy, que novs novs 

fvissiôns fàyz, uovs uovs fuissiez fvyz, ils se fuissent fùy z. 



THE FUTURE TENSE. 



That I shal Je me serây fvy, tu te seras fùy, il se sera fvy, nous nous serons fùys, 

hâve fledde. , ,.,.. .. , ^ y.. 

UOVS uovs serez jvyz, iiz se seront Jvyz. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 121 



OF THE POTENCIALL MODE. 
THE PRESENTENS. 



Je menfvyroye, tu tenfvyrôys, il sen fvyrôyt , novs novs fvyrions , uoiis l shiHde fly. 
nous fvyriéz, Hz sen fvy rayent. 

THE PRETERPARFITENS. 

Je me serôyefvy, ta te serôysjvy, il seserôytjvy, nous nous serions fvjs,. i shulde hâve 
nous uoas seriez jvf s , Hz se seràyentfvjz. 

OF THE IMPERATÏVE MODE. 
THE PRESENTENS. 

Ten fvf toi, sen fvje il, novs fvyàns novs, uovs fvyéz nous, sen Flye. 

fvyent Hz. 

THE FUTDRETENS. 

Que je men fvfe, tu tenfvjes, il sen fvy e, que nous nous fvyàns, uovs Lct me flye. 
uovs fvyéz, Hz sen fvyent. 

OF THE OPTATYVE MODE. 
THE PRESENTENS. 

Bien me fvye je, bien tefvyes tu, bien senfvye il, bien nous fvyàns nous, Well maye 
bien uovs fvy iéz uovs, bien senfvjent Hz. ^* 

THE INDIPFINITTENS. 

Bien men fvy sse , bien tenfvysses, bien sen fvyst, bien nous fvyssiàns Well miglu 
nous, bien uovs fvyssiéz uovs, bien senfvyssent Hz. ^^^ * ' 

OF THE CONDICIONALL MODE. 
THE PRESENTENS. 

Si je men Jvfs, si tu ten fvys, sil sen Jvf t, si nous nous fvyons, si uovs Yfiflye. 
uous fvyéz, silz sen fbjfent, etc. 

OF THE INFINITYVE MODK. 
THE PRESENTENS AND PRETERPARF. 

Pour me fvfr, pour méstre fvy. To iiye. 



122 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Régula. And note that suche maner of conjugatyng as I hâve liere shewed, 

that the frenche tong useth in their meanes, suche lyke maner of 
conjugatyng use they of ail verbes actyves, whiche, of their owne na- 
ture, shulde slgnify an acte to passe from the doar without forthe, so 
often as they wyll signify the same acte to retourne to the doar 
agayne : vvhich maner of reciprocation we expresse in our tong by 
puttyng of thèse wordes after our verbes actives « my self, thy self, 
' his or her self, our self, your self, their selfe »; as I couvert is a verbe 
actyve signifyeng thacte of convertyng to passe from the doar, and 
that there is some body without forthe that is converted, but if I 
wyll adde any of thèse wordes after the verbe and signifie that the 
acte of convertyng retourneth to the doar agayne, I must use me, te, 
se, novs, uovs, and se before the parsons of the frenche verbe, as for 
I couvert my selfe, thou convertest thy selfe, he converteth hym selfe 
or she herselfe, we couvert ourselfe, you couvert your selfe, they 
couvert theem selfe, they saye Je me conaertys, ta te conuertys, il se 
conuertyt, elle se conuertyt, novs novs comiertissôns , uovs uovs conuertisséz , 
Hz se conuertîssent : and so thorowe ail the other modes , tenses , nombres 
and parsons of^e conuertys, lyke as I bave gyven exemple of Je mesbahys. 

Régula. And though, whan they use a verbe active in the active sens, they 

circumlocute his prétérit tens with the tenses of jr'e ay, and the par- 
ticiple, as dothe afore appere by the said /e conaertys, and the other 
two verbes actyves, yet so ofte as we sliall use any verbe actyve in 
this sens, we shal circumlocute the sayd prétérit tenses with the 
tenses of je suis, and the participle in every ihyng, as I bave afore 
declared that verbes meanes do. So that for I bave converted my 
selfe, I had converted my selfe, that I bave converted my selfe, that 
I had converted my selfe, that I shall hâve converted my selfe, I 
shuide bave converted my selfe, they saye je me suis conuer(y,je mes- 
tôye conuerty, que je me sàye conuerly, que je me fisse conuerly, que je 
me serày conuerty, je me serôye conuerty; usyng the participle after the 
tenses of je suis, in ail thynges, accordyng as l bave before shewe.d 
that they do in verbes meanes. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 123 

Note also that, amongest suche verbes as, of their owne nature, be 
verye meanes , I fynde none that be anormale , save onely je men 
uas, as I bave afore toucbed, whicbe I wyll also conjugate, as I bave 
done the otber verbes meanes, nat that bis parsones be never used 
without doublynge of the pronowne , but by cause that, for the moost 
parte tbey be so used, for the more certayntie howe this verbe 
sbuide also be used referryng the lemar to this place in the thirde 
boke. 

THE CONJUGATÏNG OF JE MEN VAS. THOROWE ÀLL HIS MODES, 
TENSES, NOMBRES AND PARSONS. 

Je men aas, tu ten uas, il sert ua, novs novs allons, uovs uovs allez, 
Hz sen uont. 

Je men allàye, tu ten alloys, il sen allôyt, novs novs allions, nous uovs 
alliez, Hz sen allôyent. 

Je men allày, tu ten allas, il sen alla, novs novs allàsmes, uovs uovs 
allàstez, Hz sen allèrent. 

Je men suis en allé, tu ten es en allé, il sen est en allé, novs novs 
sommes allez, uovs uovs estez allez, Hz sen sont en allez. 

Je mestôye allé, tu testôys allé, il sestàyt allé, novs novs estions allez, 
uovs uovs estiez allez, Hz sestôyent allez. 

Je men yrày, tu ten yrâs , il sen yrâ , novs novs yrôns , uovs uovs yréz , 
Hz sen yrént. 

Que je uàyse or que je men aille, que tu uôyses or que tu ten ailles, 
quil sen uôyse or quil sen aille, que novs novs aillions, que uovs uovs 
ailliez, quilz sen uôysent or quilz sen aillent. 

Que je men allasse, que tu ten allasses, quil sen allâst, que novs novs 
allissiôns, que uovs uovs allissiéz, quilz sen allassent. 

Que je me sôye allé, que ta te sôyes allé, quil se soyt en allé, que 
novs novs soyons allez, que uovs uovs soyez allez, quilz se soient allez. . 

Que je me fusse allé, tu te fusses allé, il se fust en allé, novs novs 
fuissions allez, uovs uovs fuissiez allez, Hz se fuissent allez. 

Que je me serày allé, tu te seras allé, il se sera allé, novs novs serons 
allez, uovs uovs serés allez, Hz se seront allez. 

16. 



Régula. 



r go. 
I (lyd go. 
I wenl. 
I hâve gone. 
1 had goue. 
I shail go. 
That I go. 

That 1 went. 



That I havc 
gone. 

That I had 

gone. 

That I shal 
hâve gone. 



124 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

ishuldego. Je men yrôye, tu ten yràyes, il sen yrôyt, novs novs yriôns, uovs uovs 

y riez, Hz sen y rayent. 
I shuide hâve Je me serôye allé, tu te serôys allé, il se serait allé, novs novs serions 
allez, uovs uovs seriez allez, Hz se serôyent allez. 
Go. Va, aille il, allons nous, allez uovs, sen aillent Hz. 

Let me go. Que je men aille, que tu ten ailles, quil sen aille, que novs novs ail- 

lions, uovs uovs ailliez, Hz sen aillent. 
Wellmayelgo. Bien aille je, bien ailles tu, bien aille il, bien aillions novs, bien ailliez 

uovs, bien aillent Hz. 
Wellmi^htloo. Q^c bien allasse je, bien allasses tu, bien allàst H, bien allissiôns novs, 
bien allissiéz uovs, bien allassent Hz. 
Yfigo. S^ j^ ™^" "<^*j *' t^ t^^ ««*> *'^ *^" Ha, si novs novs allons, si uovs 

uovs allez, sHz sen uont, etc. 
To go. Aller, éstre allé. 

Regala. And note that, where as I hâve afore some pai-sons of this verbe 

added en twyse, and afore some but ones, and for some other lefte 
hym out, I this hâve donc onely to warne the lernar that ail thèse 
thre maners of spekynge they use, differrynge to certifie hym in this 
behalfe tyll I shall corne to my annotacyons upon the ix accident of 
verbes actyves parsonals, in the thirde boke. 

OF THE VERBE PASSYVE. 

Verbes passyves be suche as of their owne nature betoken suffring 
lyke as I hâve afore touched as I am beaten, I am boimde, I am 
greved, I am hiule and suche lyke. 

Verbes passyves in this tong hâve no certen conjugacyon no more 
than they bave with us in our tong , for like as we circumlocute our 
verbes passives with the tenses of I am, and the participles prété- 
rit of our verbes actyves, sayeng : I am loved, I was loved, I bave 
ben loved, I had ben loved, I shalhe loved and so forthe, joynyng 
the other modes and tenses of " I am » to our sayd participles, so say 
they with themye suis aymé, jestôye aymé, je fus aymé, jay esté aymé. 



\ 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 125 

javôye esté aymé, je serày aymé, joynyng the participle prétérit ol the 
verbe actyve to the modes, tenses, nombres and parsons oï je suis. 

WHOSK COMPLET CONJUGATION HERE IMMEDfATLY FOLOWETH. 

Je svys, tu es, il est, novs sommes, novs estez, Hz sont. 

Jestôye, ta estôys, il estôyt, novs estions, uovs estiez, Hz estôyent. 

Je fus, tu fus, il fut, novsfàsmes, uovsfustéz, Hz furent. 

Jay este, tu as este, il a este, novs aaôns este, uovs auéz este, etc. 

Jaaôye este, tu auôys este, il auoyt este, novs aaiôns este, etc. 

Je serày, tu seras, il sera, novs serons, uovs serez, Hz seront. 

Que je sôye, que ta sôyes, quil soyt, que novs soyons, que uovs soyez, 
quilz sôyent. 

Que je fusse, que ta f tisses, quilfast, que novs fassions, que uovs fus- 
siez, quilz fassent. 

Que je àye este, que tu âyes este, quil ayt este, que novs ayons este, etc. 

Que je évsse este, que ta évsses este, quil evst este, que novs evssiôns 
este, etc. 

Que javrày este, que ta avrds este, quil avrà este, que nous avrons 
este, etc. 

Je seràye, tu serôys, il seràyt, novs serions, uovs seriez, Hz seràyent. 

Javràye este, ta avrôys este, il avrôyt este, novs avriôns este, uovs, etc. 

Suys, soyt, soyons, soyez, sôyent. 

Bien soye, bien soys, bien soyt, bien soyons, bien soyez, bien sôyent. 

Bien fusse je, bien fusses tu, bienfust H, bien fussions novs, bien fassiez 
uovs, bien fussent Hz. 

Si je sais, si ta es, sil est, si novs sommes, si aovs estes, etc. 

Estre, auôyr este. 

And note that, for the tnie circumlocutyng of verbes passives in 
this tong, the Icrnar must call agayn to mynde wliat I hâve said hère 
afore, in the thirde accident of mean verbes, where I shewed that 
suche gender and nombre as the nominative case is, that commeth 
before any of the parsons of jf'e suis, of suche lyke gender and nom- 



I am. 

I was. 

I was. 

I liave ben. 

I liad bcn. 

I shal be. 

That r be. 

That I were. 

ThatI bave ben. 
Thaï I had ben. 

That I shali 
hâve ben. 

I shuldc be. 

I shulde 

hâve ben. 

Be. 

Wel be I. 
Welmyghtlbe. 

Ifibc. 

Tobc. 

Régula prima. 



126 LESCLARCISSEMENÏ 

ber shall the participle be whiche foloweth any of the sayd parsons; 
for suche like congruite is observed belwene ail participles passives 
and the nominative cases that governe the tenses of ^e suis, so often 
as by the sayd tenses and participles we expresse passion in this tong, 
as shal by the tenses of the indicative mode of ^e sais, joyned to this 
participle conuertf, more playnly be expressed. 



OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 
THE PRESENT TENSE PASSIVE. 



The masculine singular. Je suis conueriy, tu es conuertf, il est con- 
uerty. 

The masc. plur. Novs sommes conuertiz, uovs estez conuertiz, Hz sont 
conuertiz. 

The féminine sing. Je suis conuertf e, tu es conuertye, elle est con- 
uertye. 

The fe. pi. Novs sommes conuerties, uovs estez conuerties, elles sont 
conuerties. 



THE PRETER IMPARFIT TENSE PASSIVE. 



The mas. sing. Jestôye conuerty, tu estôys conuerty, il estôyt conuertf. 

The ma. plm'. Novs estions conuertiz, uovs estiez conuertiz, ilzestàyent 
conuertiz. 

The fem. sing. Jestôye conuertf e, tu estôys conuertf e, elle estôyt con- 
uertye- 

The fe. pi. Novs estions conuerties, uovs estiez conuerties, elles estôyent 
conuerties. 



THE INDIFFINITE TENSE PASSIVE. 



The mascu. sing. Je fus conuertf, ta fus conuertf, il fut conuertf. 
The mascu. plu. Novs fùsmes conuertf z, uovs fàstez conuertf z, etc. 
The fem. sing. Je fus conuertf e, tu fus conuertf e, elle fut conuertf e. 
The fem. plu. Novs fùsmes conuerties, uovs fàstez conuerties, etc. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 

THE PRETER PERFIT TENSE. 



127 



Jay este conucrty , jay este connertie, novs avons este conuertiz, novs 
auôns este conuerties. 



THE PRETER PLBSPERFIT TENSE. 



Jauôye este conaerty, jauôje este conuertfe, novs auiôns este conuertiz, 
novs avions este conuerties. 



THE FUTURE TENSE. 



Régula 
secunda. 



Régula ^ertia. 



Je serày conuerty, je serày conuertie, novs serons conuertiz, novs serons 
conuerties. 

And so through al the other modes and tenses of ^'e suis, changyng 
the gender and nombre of the participle , whan he foloweth any of 
them, as I hâve hère by the tenses of thindicative mode clerely de- 
clared. 

But howe ail maner participles forme theyr masculine genders out 
of theyr féminines, and theyr plurel nombres out of theyr singulars, 
shal hère after in the chapter of participles more playnly appere. 

Note also that the infinitive mode of al verbes actives may signifie 
both action and passion, as the sence shal require, as I shal, in the 
thirde boke, in his place, more playnly déclare. 

And that there be many infinitive modes whiche come of verbes Régula quarta 
passives onely, as encéyndre oï je suis encéynte, endormyr of je suis en- 
dormy, and suche lyke : they say natye encéyns, je endors, in the active 
sence. 

Note also that, where as I hâve sayd that this maner of circuin- Régula quima. 
locutyng of verbes passives is gênerai through al the french tong, 1 
fynde exception onely in je nays, whiche beyng conjugate lïke je fays , 
and alteryng his final terminations , as though he were of the thyrde 
conjugation of verbes actives, save in his prêter tenses, hath the signi- 
fication of a verbe passive , as by his conjugatyng shal hère conse- 
quently appere. 

Je nays, ta nays, il nayst, novs naissons, uovs naissez, Hz naissent. lam borne. 



I was born. 

I was born. 

I hâve be born. 
I )iad be b. 

I shalbe b. 

Thaï I be b. 



That I shuld 
hâve bcn be. 

That I bave 
ben borne. 

That 1 had 
ben borne. 
That I shal 
bave be b. 
] shulde 
be borne. 

I shulde bave 
bc b. 

Be liorne. 
Let me be b. 



Wel be I b. 



Well rayght 
I be borne. 



To be borne. 

To bave 
ben borne. 



128 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Je naissàye, tu naissàys, il naissôyt, novs naissions, uovs naissiez, ils 
naissùyent. 

Je nasquis, tu nasqaîs, il nasquit, novs nasquîsmes , uovs nasquistez, Hz 
nasqairent. 

Jay este ne,jay este née, novs sommes nez, nous sommes nées. 

Jauôye este ne, jauôye este née (like the same tenses in other verbes 
passives). 

Je naistrây, tu naistràs, il naisirà, novs naistrons, uovs naistréz, Hz 
naistrùnt. 

Que je naisse, tu naisses, il naisse, que novs naissions, que uovs naissiez, 
quils naissent. 

Que Je nasquisse, que tu nasquisses, quil nasquist, que novs nasquissiôns , 
que uovs nasquissiéz , quilz nasquissent. 

Que je âye este ne, que tu àyes este née, que nom ayons este nez, que 
uovs ayez este nées. 

Que jévsse este ne, que novs evssiôns este nez, que jévsse este née, etc. 

Que jdvray este ne, que je âvray este née, que novs avrôns este nez, etc. 

Je naistràye, tu naistrôys, il naistrôyt, novs naistriôns, uovs naistriéz, 
ils naistrôyent. 

Je avrôye este ne, novs avriôns este nez, javrôye este née. 

Nays, naisse, naissons, naissez, naissent. 

Que je naisse, que tu naisses, quil naisse, que novs naissions, que uovs 
naissiez, quilz naissent. 

Bien naisse je, bien naisses tu, bien naisse il, bien naissions novs, bien 
naissiez uovs, bien naissent 'Hz. 

Bien nasquisse je, bien nasquisses tu, bien nasquist il, bien nasquissiôns 
novs, bien nasquissiéz uovs, bien nasquissent Hz. 

Naystre. 

Aaôyr este ne. 



Régula seita. But of the use and signification of this verbe I shal more speke 

hère after in the thyrde boke, in this place, onely notyng hère, that 
I fynd in maner ail thèse tenses circumlocuted after the gênerai rule 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 129 

of verbes passives, as je suis ne,jestôje ne, je fus ne, je scrày ne, que 
je sôye ne, que je fusse ne, and je serèye ne. But other tenses be more 
iised of approved auctours. 

OF VERBES IMPERSONALS. 

Verbes impersonals be suche as betokenyng doyng will hâve none 
other nominative case before them but onely il, by reasonwherof they 
bave neyther nombre nor parson, but one onely worde in every of 
theyr tenses suche as il requireth. 

Verbes impersonals bave suche and as many accidentes as verbes 
actyves parsonalles bave, save that nombres and parsones they bave 
iîone, lyke as-I bave hère afore touched. 

IN WHICHE OTHER II ACCIDENTES VERBES IMPERSONALS DIFFER ALSO 
FROM VERBES PARSONALLES. 

In conjugalion and order différent from our tong in interrogations 
they diflfer also from verbes actives parsonals : for al verbes impar- 
sonals be eyther conjugate like the firste parsons singular of the fyrst 
conjugation, or like the same parsons of the thyrde conjugation; so 
that like unto the thyrde parsons of the seconde conjugation is no verbe 
imparsonal conjugate in this tonge. Verbes imparsonals therfore bave 
but onely ii conjugations of whiche the fyrst is lyke il parle, il parlôyt, 
il parla, etc. and the seconde like ilfaict, ilfaisôyt, il fit, etc. for lyke il 
conuertit (as I bave sayd) is no verbe imparsonal conjugate in this tong. 

HOWE VERBES OF THE FYRST CONJUGATION BE VARIED 
BY THE EXAMPLE OF IL TONNE. 

OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 

The présent tense il tonne « it thondereth ». The preterperfit tense 
e7 tonnôyt « it did thonder ». The indiffinite tense «7 tonnd « it thon- 
« dred ». The preterperfit tense il a tonne « it hath thondred ». The 
preterplusperfit tense il auôyt tonne, « it had thondred ». The future 
tense i7 tonnera, « it shal thonder ». 

>7 



130 LESCLARCISSEMENT 



OF THE SUBJDNCTYVE MODE. 



The présent tense qail tonne, that it thonder. The indifïinite tense 
quil tonnàst, that it thondred. The preterperfit tense qail ayt tonne, 
that it hath thondred. The preterplusperfit tense qail evst tonne, that 
it hadde thondred. The future tense qail avrà tonne, that it shal hâve 
thondred. 



OF THE POTENCIAL MODE. 



The présent tense il tonneràyt , it shulde thonder. The future tense 
il àvroyt tonne, it shulde hâve thondred. 



OF THE IMPERATIVE MODE. 



The présent tense tonne, thonder. The future tense qail tonne, let 
it thonder. 



OF THE OPTATIVE MODE. 



The présent tense bien tonne il, well thonder it. The indiffinite 
tense bien tonnàst il, well mought it hâve thondred. 

THE INFINITIVE MODE. 

Tonner, to thonder. Aaôyr tonne, to hâve thondred. 

Régula prima. And note that of this conjugation I fynde but viii other verbes in 
this tong, that is to say, il esclére, it lyghtneth. // tempeste, it stor- 
meth. // uénte, it bloweth. // brvyne, it misleth. // neige, it sneweth. 
Il grésle, it hayleth. Il qéle, it friseth. // desgéle , it thaweth. So 
that I fynde no verbe imparsonall betokenynge any acte or impres- 
sion of the ayre but he is of theyr fyrst conjugation, save onely ilplevt, 
it rayneth, whiche is of theyr seconde conjugation. But as for il faict 
chavlt, il faict froyt, il faict noyr, il faict cler, used as imparsonals for it 
is hotte, it is colde, it is darke, it is clere, and howe they put il faict, 
before diverse other adjectives, that belong nothyng to the qualités 
of the ayer, I shal defer to speke of, tyl I corne to the thyrde boke 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 131 

in this place where I wyll also speke oi il y a, il y auôyt, ilyfui, etc., 
used as imparsonals for ther is, ther was, ther was, etc. 

Note hère also that verbes imparsonals of this conjugation be sel- Régula 
flome or never used in the passive sensé : how be it I may say « the 
« river is frosyn ». 

HOWE VERBES IMPARSONALLES OF THE SECONDE CONJUGACION BE VARIED 
BY THE EXEMPLE OF IL ADVIENT. 

OF THE INDICATIVE MODE. 

The présent tense il adaiént, it happenneth. The prêter imperfit 
tense il adaenôyt, it did happen. The indiffinite tense il aduint, it 
happened. The preterperfit tense il a aduenà, it hath happened. The 
preterplusperfit tense il auôyt aduenà, it had happened. The future 
tense il aduiendrâ, it shal happen. ' 

OF THE SUBJONCTIVE MODE. 

The présent tense quil adaiéngne, that it happen. The indiffinite 
tens quil aduénist, that it might bave happened. The preterperfitens 
qail ayt aduénu, that it hath happened. The preterpluperfitens quil 
evst aduénu, that it had happened. The luturtens quil avrâ aduénu, 
that it shall bave happened. 

OF THE POTENCIALL MODE. 

The presentens il aduiendrôyt, it shulde happen. 

The preterparfitens il avrôyt advenu, it shidde bave happened. 

OF THE IMPARATYVE MODE. 

The presentens aduiéngne, happen. The futurtens qail aduiéngne, 
let it happen. 

OF THE OPTATYVE MODE. 

The presentens bien aduiéngne il, well happen it. 

Te indiffînit tens bien aduinst il, well might it bave happened. 

»7- 



132 LESCLARCISSEMENT 



THE INFINITIVE MODE. 



Aduénir, to happen. Auôyr aduénu, to^have happened. 
Régula teilia. And note that dyvers verbes imparsonals of this seconde conjuga- 
cion may signifie passion, whiche hâve the thirde parsons singuler of 
je suis put before their participle , lyke as by example of il est aduénu 
shall hère consequently appere. 

OF THE INDICATYVE MODE. 

The présentons j7 est aduénu, it is happened. 

The prêter imperfîtens, il estôyt aduénu, it was happ'ened. 

The iudiffinit tens il fut advenu, it was happened. 

The preterperfitens il a esté aduénu, it jliath ben happened. 

The preterplusparfitens il auàyt esté aduénu, it had ben happened. 

The futurtens il sera aduénu, it shalbe happened. 

OF THE SUBJUNCTYVE MODE. 

The présentons quil soyt aduénu, that it be happened. 

The indiffinit tens quil fust aduénu, that it might bave bene hap- 
pened. 

The preterparfitens quil ayt esté aduénu, that it hathben happened. 

The preterplusparfitens quil eust esté aduénu, that it had be hap- 
pened. 

The future tens quil avrà esté aduénu, that it shall bave ben hap- 
pened. 

OF THE POTENCIALL MODE. 

The présentons qu'il seroyt aduénu, that it shulde be happened. 
The preterparfit quilavrôyt esté aduénu, that it shulde bave be hap- 
pened. 

OF THE IMPARATYVE MODE. 

The présentons soyt il aduénu, be it happened. 
The futurtens quil soyt aduénu, lot it bo happened. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 133 



OK THE OPTATYVE MODE. 



The presentens bien soyt il aduéim, well be it happened. 

The indiffinit tens bienfast il adaénu, well had it ben happened. 



OF THE CONDICIONALL MODE. 



The presentens sil est adaénu, and so in lykewise syl estàyt aduénii, 
silfast adaénu, etc. 

OF THE INFINITYVE MODE. 

f 

Estre adaénu, auàyr esté aduénu. 

Note also that dyvers verbes be used in the frenche tonge as im- Régula quana. 
parsonals , and of this seconde conjugacion , whiche we in our tong 
use as verbes parsonalles, for thexpressyng of whiche parsons in 
bothe the nombres they use to adde , bytwene il and their verbe im- 
parsonall, me, te, luy, novs, uovs and levr, by addynge of whiche 
wordes before their verbes imparsonalles they shall counterveyle to 
the nombres and parsons of oiu* sayde verbes parsonalles. As where 
we saye in our tonge» I ytche, thou ytchest, he ytcheth, we ytche, 
« you ytche, they ytche » : the frenchmen saye il me cuyt, il te cuyt, il 
lay cuyt, il novs cuyt, il uovs cuj't, il levr cujt and so in lykewyse, 
for ail the other modes, tenses, nombres and parsons of the sayd 
parsonall verbe : as for « I dyde itche, I itched, I bave itched, I had 
« itched, I shall itche » they say il me cuysôyt, il me caft, il ma cuyt, il 
mavôyt cuj't, il te cuyrà : kepynge il and the tens of the verbe impar- 
sonall ever unchaimged, whiche thynge also shall in the table of 
verbes playnlye be expressed, so often as any suche verbe shall for- 
tune to come in place. Whiche lyke maner of conjugatynge we use 
also with some of our verbes imparsonalles, for lyke as the french- 
men saye il me favlt, il tefavlt, il luyfavlt, il novsfavlt, il aovsfavlt, 
il leur favlt , so saye we « it behoveth me, it behoveth the, itbehoveth 
« hym or her, it behoveth us, it behoveth you, it behoveth them ». 

And note that there is no verbe impersonall but that he hath so Régula quinta. 



134 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

many tenses as il tonne. Il adulent, save that I fynde il affiért used in 
his presentens of thindicatyve mode onely, whiche Alayne Cliartier 
m his Exile uselh in the plurell nombre , as shall in the thirde bote 
appere. 
Régula sexia. Note also that verbes imparsonalles kepe so cerlaynely one ôf thèse 

two conjugacions that they confounde nat their tenses of one with 
another, save that il siet it becometh , beyng of the seconde conju- 
gacyon, hath his prétérit tenses and presentenses of his subjunctyve 
and imparatyve mode like as he were of the first conjugacion, as il 
a sye, quil sye, etc. 
Régula septima. Nole also that there be no verbes imparsonalles that at any tyme 
be used as meanes in this tong for the doublyng of the pronowne, 
supposeth ever the verbe to be parsonall. 

THE SECONDE ACCVDENT : WHERIN VERBES IMPARSONALLES DIFFER 
FROM PABSONALLES. 

In order also contrarie to our tong in interrogations they differ 
from verbes actyves parsonall, for, in ail interrogations made by a 
verbe impersonall, il must folowe the verbe that he governeth, as 
que novsfavlt il, novs cuyrà il, levr somment il : but thèse thynges shall 
in the thirde boke, in this place, more playnly appere. 

OF THE PARTICIPLE. 

Participles be suche in frenche as, in some accidentes, resemble 
unto their verbes, and in some accidentes, unto their nownes adjec- 
tyves. 

Of participles be two sortes : some betoken doyng as ajmânt, par- 
lant, regardant, and suche with us ende ever in yng, as lovyng, 
spekyng, beholdyng. Some betoken suffiyng, as ajme, conHer/}^,/aîcf, 
loved, converted, done. Participles betokenyng doyng hâve thre ac- 
cidentes, formacion, tyme and declynacion with dyversite of gendre 
and nombre. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 135 

THE FIRST ACCIDENT. 

Formacion : for ail participles endyng in anthe fourmed of the lirst 
parsone singuler of the preterimparfitens , by chaungyng of ôye in 
dnt, as oi parlàye, coimertissôye anàfaisôje, be fourmed parlant, con- 
uertissànt and faisant : and so of ali such other in the tong. Except 
onely saichànt whose preterimparfitens is scaaôye ofje scay, I wot or 
I knowe. 

THE SECONDE ACCIDENT. 

Tyme : for ail participles endyng in ant betoken the acte of the 
verbe to be presently in executyng. 

THE THIRDE ACCIDENT. 

Declynation with diversyte of gendre and nombre, as thus : 

The masculyne and ferayn. singuler/>ar/ân/, conuertissdnt, andfaysdnt. 

The masculyn and femyne plurell partâns, conuertissàns , faysàns. 

So that, if any worde declynable in this tong be founde endyng Régula. 
in ant in the synguler nombre, and in ântes in the plurell, they be 
syngulars and plurelles of some femynine adjectyves whose mascu- 
lyne endeth in ant, and of no participle in this tong. Participles be- 
tokenyng sulfring bave fyve accidentes : formation, tyme, termynation, 
declynacion, with diversyte of gendre and nombre, and agreynge 
with the relatyve or some other accusatyve case govemed of the 
verbe. 

THE FIRST ACCIDENT. 

Formation : for ail participles betokenyng suffrynge belongynge to 
the lirst and seconde conjugations- be fourmed of their infynityve 
modes by puttyng awaye of r, as of parler and conuertyr, be formed 
thèse participles aymé and conaerty, but m the participles of the thirde 
conjugation howe they be fourmed I fynde nat so great certayntie. 

THE SECONDE ACCIDENT. 

Tyme : for ail suche, thoughe , whan they be joyned to the tenses 



136 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

ofje suis, betoken suffryng, yet, if they be added lo ihe lenses o( je 
ay, they expresse the tyme that is passed, except in futures of the 
subjiinctyve mode. 

THE THIRDE ACCIDENT. 

Termynacion : for ail participles prétérit, or belokenynge sufFrynge 
ende outher in e, y, s, t or u; as parlé of the first, conuerty of the 
seconde; partj, prins, faict, batà of the thirde, whiche generally by 
addynge to of e forme their femynines, as parlée, conuertye, prinse, 
faicte, batùe, by addyng to of z forme their masculyns plurelles, 
except suche as ende in s, whiche remayne imchaunged : as parlez, 
partyz, prins, faictz, batùz, and, by addyng to of 5 unto their femynes 
forme also their plurels, rs parlées, conuertyes, prinses , faictes , hatàes. 
And this maner of formation of the femyne gendres out of their 
masculynes, and their plurell nombres out of their syngulars, is ge- 
nerall to ail prétérit or passyve particyples in this tonge; so that, if 
they be founde otherwyse written , it is by the erroure of the prin- 
tars. 

THE FOURTHE ACCIDENT. 

Declynation : whiche may appere by the accident hère nexte be- 
fore, as aymè ayméz, aymée ayméez : conuerty conuerty z , conuertye con- 
uertyez : party partyz, partye partyez : prins prins, prinse prinsez : faict 
faictz , faicte faictez : batù batùz, batùe batùez. 

THE FIFTE ACCIDENT. 

Agreyng with the relatyve or with some other accusatyve cases go- 
verned of ihe verbe : For thougb the participle passyve folovyng the 
tenses of je svis is ever of suche gendre and nombre as the pronowne 
or substantyve that bis nominatyve case to the same tenses dothe 
requyre, as I bave sufficiently declared hereafore, whan I shewed 
howe verbes passyves in this tong be circumlocuted, yet whan the 
participle prétérit foloweth the tenses of ye ay, it is nat ever generali 
that he shall remaygne unchaunged, but as I somthyng touched in 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 137 

the note iipon the thirde accident of verbes actyves parsonalles, yf 
the tenses ofje ay hâve a relatyve before them, or governe an accu- 
satyve case eyther of a pronowne or substantyve, the participle, for 
the most parte, shall agrée with the sayd accusative cases in gendre 
and nombre, and in suche sentences nat remayne unchaunged : as 
the letters that I hâve sent you les lettres que jeuovs ay enaoyécs. Helas 
I hâve loved her, hélas je lay aymée. My husband hath béate me, 
mon màry ma batûé; he hath anon taken an arowe, il a tantôst prinse 
vue jlcche. 

But this shall in the thirde boke, in this place, more playnly appere, 
where I wili also déclare howe with their passyve participles , they 
use conception of gendres. Onely in this place it is ynough to warne 
the lemar herof that he maya the better observe it, for there is 
nat a more straunger construction in ail this tonge. 

OF THE PREPOSITION. 



Prépositions be suche as whan soever they corne in any sentence Descripiio 
being dystinct wordes by them selfe, and nat compounde with other, 
they suppose a substantyve or pronowne to corne after them in the 
same sentence wherimto they do belong. 

Prépositions be thus many a to or at; de, of or from; en, in; sur Preposit. xxmi. 
OT sus, upon; souhz, imder; dessus, above; dessôubz, underneth; auéc 
or auécques, with; contre, agaynst; aer$ or enuérs, towardes; selon, 
jouxte, après, after; enuirôn, about; ôvltre, over, beyond or through; 
permy, through; entre, bitwene or amongest; deudnt, before; derrière, 
behynde; pour, for, and par, by; and as for re is never used alone 
but in composition as I hâve afore sayd in the lu chapiter of tlie first 
boke, 

So that this discription is generall to ail thèse xxnn prépositions ReguU. 
and they never be founde belongynge to any of the other partes of 
speche. 

Save that a, de, and pour may corne before infinityve modes, as Exceptio prima. 

i8 



138 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

shall hereafter in the thirde boke , in my annotacions upon the use of 
the infynityve mode, appere. 
Exceptio And save that dessus, dessoùbz, deuànt, derrière and vitre maye 

somlyine be used as adverbes, declaryng or answeryng to a question 
made of the piace where a dede is donc. 

Prépositions bave fyve accidentes. Governyng of the oblique cases 
of pronownes. Commynge fardest from the substantyve. Composi- 
tion with dyvers partes of speche, wbére they be kept hole and 
unchaunged. Confused composition with thèse articles le and les. 
Somtyme addyng, somtyme leavyng awaye of this preposytion de, 
otherwyse than we do, in our tonge, in the same sentences. 

THE FIRST ACCIDENT. 

Governyng of the oblique cases of pronownes. For whan soever 
any of the pronownes primatyves folowe a préposition and is go- 
vemed of hym, they use ever their oblique cases, as pour moy, contre 
toy, a lay, en elle, etc., and so of ail the resydue; whiche I bave som- 
thyng alredy touched in the fyfte accident of pronownes primityves. 

THE SECONDE ACCIDENT. 

Commyng fardest from the substantyve. For if any of the décli- 
nable wordes, article, adjectyve, or pronowne, or two of them, or 
ail thre at ones, come before a substantyve, the préposition must come 
before them ail, and that as well in our tong as in the frenche tong, 
as I bave also afore touched in the rule that foloweth , « whiche be 
« numeralles », folio xxxiiii as for my goodmaster, pour mon bon màistre, 
and so of suche lyke. 
Régula. And note that thèse two accidentes be generall to ail the xxiiii pré- 

positions without any exception. 

THE THIRDE ACCIDENT. 

Composytion. For somtyme prépositions be compounde with sub- 
stantyves, SLSsarsâvlt, entrôeyl, pôvrpris, and suche lyke. Somtyme they 



Régula prima. 



Régula 
secunda. 

Régula tertia. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 139 

be compounde with verbes, as aborder, départir, enterrer, surprendre, 
soabzmétlre , contregardér, entremettre, oultrecvidér, povrueôyr, paraenir, 
rappellér, redire. Somtyme they be compounde with other préposi- 
tions, as dessus, dessôabz, dauécques, enôvltre, depâr, enaprés, encontre, 
deuérs, pardeuânt, parderriére and suche lyke, whiche ali be in maner 
ever used as adverbes, and syldome as prépositions. Somtyme they 
be compounde with adverbes, as deçà, delà, enaaànt, dehors, delors- 
encà, and suche lyke. 

And notethat, of thèse xxiiii prépositions, oneiy ten be used in com- 
position , eyther with verbes, substanty ves , or any of their other partes 
of speche, that is to say : a, de, en, sur, soubz, contre, entre, àaltre, pour, 
par and re, as appereth by thexamples hère afore rehersed; and as 
for any of the other be syldome or never founde in composition. 

So that enuironnér is no compounde verbe, but fourmed of enuirôn, 
lyke as ovltrér is formed of ôultre. 

And as for accvmvlér, abstenir, adjvgér, inuadér, conjôyndre, prépa- 
rer, subjvguér, promettre, and suche lyke be no verbes compoundes of 
the frenche tonge, but holly borowed ont of the latyn, lyke as I bave 
afore touched in the rule which foloweth the vu accident of verbes 
actyves parsonalles. 

Note also that, where as dyvers verbes and substantyves in the Régula quana. 
french tong begyn with des, as deshonést, desdâyng, desméttre, des- 
ployér, despéndre, deshonovrér, and many suche lyke, they be nat com- 
pounde with tlîis preposytion de but of this worde des, whiche out 
of composytion in this sence betokeneth nothynge, no more than do 
thèse wordes mes and for, wherof I bave made mencion in the viii ac- 
cident of verbes actyves parsonalles, whiche worde we also call dis 
in our tonge, whan we borowe any suche verbes or substantyves out» 
of the frenche tong, sayeng « disdayne, dishonest, I dismysse, I dis- 
«playe, I dispende, I dishonour», and suche lyke. 

Note also that e of this préposition en, so often as he is com- Régula quinta 
pounde with any verbe or substantyve begynnyng with b, m or p, 
he chaungeth n into m, as embrasser, emmvrér, empirer, embds. 

18. 



140 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Régula sexu. Aiid howe éfilre and re, whiche be often used in composytion with 

the verbes of this tong, leseth tbeir e, if the verl^e or substantyve fo- 
lowyng begyn with a vowell or with h nat havyng his aspiratyon, 
as entraymér, entrhabitér, rauôyr, rappellér, I hâve alredy declared in 
the LU chapiter in the firste booke. 
Régula septima. Where I also shewed howe de leseth his vowell, whan the worde 
that he is joyned withall begynneth with any of the said letters, as 
dor, dhonéste conversasiàn , davoyr and sache lyke. 



THE FOURTHE ACCIDENT. 



Exceptio. 



Kegala prima. 



Régula 
secunda. 



Confused composition with thèse artycles le and les. For, so often 
as the sentence falleth so that thèse wordes a le, de le, or en le do 
come toguyder, they use for a le to write av, for de le, dv, for en le, 
ov, as for « to the mayster » they saye nat a le mâisire, but av mâistre, 
and in lykewyse nat de le mâistre, but dv mâistre, nor en le mâistre, 
but ov mâistre, and so of suche lyke thorowe ail the tong. 

Except the masculyne substantyve, his adjectyve or pronowne, 
whiche nexte folovveth after this ax-tycle le, begyn with a vowell or 
with h nat havyng his aspyration, for than they take awaye the vowell 
of the artycle, and joyne the / to the vowell or h nexte folowyng, 
kepyng styll the préposition unchaunged : as for « to the abbe, of the 
« man, in the soûle » they say a lâbbe, de Ihômme, en lame, as I bave 
alredy declared in the lv chapiter of the first boke. 

And note that, thoughe they use this confused composytion with 
thèse thre prépositions and the masculyne artycle synguler, they use 
it nat with la, whiche is the femyne artycle singuler, thoughe la do 
lèse his vowell as well as le by reason of the worde folowyng hym, 
•lyke as I bave, in the sayde chapiter of the firste boke, declared; 
so that I shall nat saye av femme, but a la femme, de la femme, en la 
femme. 

But so often as the sentence falleth , so that any of thèse préposi- 
tions do come before this artycle les, wheder he belong to a mascu- 
lyne substantyve or a femyne, they use to compounde thèse prepo- 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 141 

sitions and les confusedly togyder, and tourne a les into avx, de les ■ 
into des, and en les into es, as for a les hommes, de les femmes, en les 
maysôns, they saye avx hommes, des femmes, es maysôns; and so of ail 
suche lyke through ail the tong. 

THE FYFTE ACCYDENT. 

Somtyme addyng, somtyme leavyng out of this préposition de, 
otherwyse than we do in oiir tong in the same sentences. 

Addyng of de, for whansoever they use any of thèse wordes plus, 
môyns, beavcùup, peu, tant or assés before a substantyve, they adde to 
de more than we hâve in our tong in the same sentences, as, where 
we saye « more golde, lesse sylver, moche wytte, lytell discrecion », 
they saye plus dor, môyns dargént, beaucoup dentendémcnt , peu de discré- 
tion , lyke as they saye il composa des liiires , novs trovuerôns des àvltres. 

Leavyng out of de. For where as we saye « my maisters gowne , my 
« ladyes beedes » , whiche countrevayleth as moche as the gowne of my 
maister, the beedes of my lady, they saye la robe mon mâistre, le pa- 
tenôslres ma dame; lyke as they saye il descendit du havlt mont Gordievs, 
il vint jusques avjléuue Armis, but this is nat ever generall, and ther- 
fore I suppose suffycient in this place onely the warne the lernar 
hère of. 

OF THE ADVERBE. 

Adverbes be suche as belongyng unto verbes serve to make dé- 
claration or answere unto suche questyons as be demaunded of a 
dede, and to expresse the tyme, place, maner or some other cyr- 
cumstaunce belongyng to the same. And where as there be sondrie 
sortes of adverbes, I shall hère in this boke reherse a certayne of 
eche sorte, suche as corne moost in use, for the resydue referryng 
the lernar to the table of adverbes in the thirde boke. 

Notyng hère first that, where as ail the other partes of speche in Régula prima, 
this tonge be so utterly distynct one from another that there is no 
worde contayncd under any one of them whiche is contayned under 



Régula 
sccunda. 



Régula tertia. 



142 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

another, in adverbes ihis thynge is nat so precisely kept, for, ihough 
there be some fewe wordes whiche onely be adverbes and contayned 
under none of their otber partes, there be fewe aiso of the said other 
partes but they may be used as adverbes, nat onely wordes alone by 
them selfe, but somtyme two wordes beyng sondrie partes, somtyme 
tlire, ye and somtyme four or fyve, and somtyme hole sentences, as 
matin, bas, fort, avlcvlnefôys , en alemùnt, avsôyr, avjovrdhvy, tout aslévre, 
quant et quant, cest adiré, cest ascavôyr, and many suche iyke, as shaU 
hère consequently in this boke, but specially in the thirde boke, in 
this place, appere. So that if an adverbe semé to be but one worde, 
and in dede be made of many, it shall moche lielpe the lernar to the 
parfite understandyng of them if he can enserche out of what and 
howe many distynct wordes the savd adverbes shulde be made, as 
astévre is made of a céste hévre, depvisnagâjres of de pvis il ny aguâyres, 
of whiche sorte be also certayne other. 

Notyng hère also that, for so moche as many of the adverbes hère 
after folowvng serve to make answere unto suche questyons as be 
demaunded in this tong, I shall hère first shewe by what wordes they 
use to make their interrogations whiche be thèse. 

Quant, whan; ov or ove, where or wheder ; comment, howe; 
combien, howe moche or howe many ; combien de foys or quant de 
fàys, howoften ; en quel endrôyt, wheraboutes ; depvis quant, sithe 
whan ; dont, fromwhens or wherof ; povrquoy, wherfore ; a quoy 
faire, what to do ; par quel moyen, by what meanes; ascavôyr mon 
si , io wytte whyder. As for a qui, to whome ; a quoy, to what 
thyng; de qui, of whom; de quoy, wherof or of what thyng ; en qui, 
in whom ; en quoy, in what thyng, and suche Iyke questyons whiche 
may be demaunded by ail the preposytions , they serve nalr to de- 
maunde a questyon for any dede but of a thyng. 

And note that sucbe maners of interrogatyons diffre from the first. 
For whansoever a questyon is so demaunded that the first worde is 
a préposition, the first worde of the answere must also in maner ever 
be a preposylioQ, as en qui mefierâyje ? En Diev. En quoy le metteràyje? 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCO YSE. 143 

En vôstre bovrse. But in thèse other it is nat so , as shall herafter ap 
père by the divydyng of adverbes in to their dyvers sortes. 

Of adverbes some betoken tyme and serve to déclare or gyve an- Tymewhan. 
swere whan a dede is done, as astévre, mayntendnt, or or ores, nowe; 
a présent, at ihis tyme; tout astévre, evyn nowe; tantost, anon or by 
and by; lors or alors, than ; astévre la, at that tyme; avculne fiys, 
somtyme ; parfàys, nowe and than; nagaayrcs, lately or late a go; 
quant, whan ; devant, before or afore; as devant nànne, devant noél, etc. 
après, after ; as après nànne, après noél, etc. hvy, to day ; which is 
seldom used but in composition , as avjovrdlivy or meslivy , to day ; 
avmàtin, in the momyng ; a niydy, at noone ; avsôyr, at evyn; 
a nvyt, at night; demàyn, to morowe ; après demàyn, two dayes hens 
or two dayes herafter; hyer, yesterday ; devanthyer, two dayes a go; 
màtyn, early; tart, IsLte; jadis, in olde tyme; avtemps jadis, afore- 
season ; tousjôars, alwayes; ônqves, ever -, jamàys or ônqves (whan ne 
commeth before bis verbe), never; and generaliy ail substantyves 
betokenyng tyme, whan they be used as answeres to this ques- 
tion « whan ». 

Some betoken order in tyme , as deshorsmàys , fromhensforthe ; 
doresenavànt , from this tyme forwarde ; incontinent, by and by ; qvant 
et qvant, by and by; sovbddyn, shortly ; viste, shortly or swiftely ; 
premier, first; dernier, laste ; pvis après, afterwarde; ^vw, after; avant, 
or ever ; a la fyn , at the laste ; enconclvsiôn , in conclusion ; and so 
of ail nombres , whan we use them havyng respecte to tyme. 

Some betokenne place, and serve to déclare or aunswere to a 
questyon where a dede is done, as cy or ycf, hère; la, there; par 
cy, by this waye ; par la, by that waye ; en havlt, above ; contremônt, 
upwarde; enihàs, beneth; sas, \kç\ jvs, downe ; ens, whiche is nat 
used but in composition as cyens, hère within ; Ijens or la dedans, 
there within ; a terre, to the gi'ounde ; dedans, within; dehors, without; 
loinq, farrp; delôing , afarre of; près, nere; a lencÔfitre , encontre or 
contre, agaynste ; vis a vis, streight over againste; tovt avplûs près, the 
very next or the next of ail; chez, in the bouse, as chez moy, in my 



144 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

house; àvltre, beyonde or on the otherside; avtàur, about; avlrauérs, 
overthwarte ; and generally ail substantlves betokenyng place , whan 
they be used as answeres to this question «whan». 

Some betoken oïder in place, as devant, before ; derrière, be- 
hynde; de ca, on this syde; de la, beyonde ; avmyliev, in the myd- 
dest; av havll bout, at the upper ende ; av bout demhàs, at the nether 
or lower ende ; av déstre, on the right side ; av senéstre, on the lefte 
syde; du caste, asyde halfe or beslde; premier, firste ; dernier, laste; 
and so of ail nombres, whan we use them havyng respecte to any 
order had in place. 

Some betoken quantité and serve to shewe howe moche a dede 
is, as beaucoup, moche ; pev , lytell ; autant, as moche; tant, so moche; 
davantàige, over and above; demy, halfe; guayres, but a litell ; rycns 
or neànt, nothyng. 

Some betoken quantité wilh tyme and serve to déclare howe longe 
a dede is in doinge, as beaucoup, moche; bonne pièce, a good season; 
long temps a, a good while sithe or a good while a go; guayres, but 
a while ; depuis peu de tems en ca, but a small tyme sithe ; depuis na- 
guayres, but a while a go; jusquesatdnt or jusques a ce, unto the tyme; 
tant, unto the tyme; and generally ail substantyves betokenyng tyme, 
whan they be used as answeres to this question « howe long ». 

Some betoken quantité with nombre and serve to déclare howe 
often a dede is in doyng, as sovuentesfoys , often ; pev sovuént, sildome ; 
mayntesfôys or plusieursféys , manytymes; avlcvnefôys , somtyme ; aultre- 
foys, another tyme or afoi'e tiuie ; nullefôys, notyme; parfôys, nowe 
and than; unefôys, ones ; devxfoys, twise ; troysfôys, thrise ; quattre- 
foys, fourtymes; and so of the resydue of ail nombres, joynyng them 
to this substantive/oj5, wherby maye be made answere to this ques- 
tion « howe often ». 

Some betoken qualité and serve to déclare or answere to a question 
howe a dede is done, as bien, well; mal, yvell ; tellement quellcment, 
so so; entredevx, bitwene twavne. 
Kcgulaquaria. And uote that of every féminine adjective , in the frenche tonge, 



vf 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 145 

may be fornjed an adverbe of quabte by addyng to of ment, as of belle 
bellement, discrète discrètement, but bien and mal be more in use than 
bonnement and mallément. 

And this ruie hath some exceptions wherof I defer lo speke tyll I 
shall corne to the thirde boke in my annotations upon this rule : onely 
hère I suppose it sufficient to warne the lemar that , lyke as we in 
our tong of good forme goodly , of wyse wisely, of discrète discre- 
tely, and so of other adjectives fourming our adverbes of quahte by 
adding to of « ly » , so do the frenchemen to their féminine adjectives 
adde ment. 

Some betoken comparation whiche added before thèse adverbes 
betokenyng qualité serve to compare one dede to another, as plus sai- 
gement more Wise\y , màyns discrètement lesse discretely, and so of ali 
other adverbes betokening qualité , save that mievlx and le mievlx, pis 
and le pis be used without adding of plus; but hereof I shall hereafter 
in the thirde boke, in this place, speke more at length. 

Some betoken véhémence and serve to extende or diminysshe the 
qualité of a dede, without makyng of comparison therof to any other, 
wherof I bave made mencyon in the fourthe rule of the fourthe ac- 
cident belongyng to nownes adjectives, whiche be thèse : trop, fort, 
mpvlt, très, bien, pev, gôvtte, tant, avtànt, davantdige, and suche lyke, 
as trop saigément, to wisely; movlt saigcment, moche wisely ;ybrt saigè- 
ment , very wisely;' très saigément, right wisely; bien saigément, very 
wisely; and so of the resydue. 

Some betoken simylitude and serve to licken one dede to another, 
as comme, as; ansi, so; tout ansi, evyn so; en préslre, lyke a preest; en 
allemant, like an almigne. 

Some betoken ittering or renewlng of adede, as enc(}re, yet ; de re- 
chief, agayne; encore unefôys, yet ones againe. 

Some betoken remytting or slacking of a dede, as tout bellement, 
fayre and softe ; petit a petit, litell and litell ; a peyne, unneth or scarsely ; 
a grant peyne , very scantely; de paovr, leste. 

Some betoken déclaration or makyng playne of a dede that is 

19 



146 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

spoken before, as cest adiré, that is to saye; cest ascavôir, ihat is to 

witte. 

Some betoken affirmation, and serve to affirme a thynge or saye 
« ye » to a question, as ouy, ye ; uôyre, ye; cest mon, it is in dede; ce fait 
mon, it dothe iu dede; si fait si, and thatdothe it, or evyn so dothe it. 
And as for en bowe he is added before their verbes affyrmatives and 
of hym selfe betokeneth nothynge I bave afore declared in the ninte 
accident belongynge to tbe verbes actyves personalies. 

Some betoken négation and serve to denye or saye « nay » to a 
thyng, as non, nay; nenny, nay;ya, in nowise; riens, nothynge ; Jamajs, 
never; ne, nat. And bowe pas, poynt, and mye be but signes of néga- 
tion I bave afore toucbed in tbe sayd ix accident of verbes actives 
personalies. 

Some betoken conjecturing and serve to suppose a dede to be 
done, AS paradueniurc, paradventure or may hapipcn; possible , possible; 
pevlt estre, it maye be; prennes , suppose; mettons le cas, let us put tbe 
case; pose, be it. 

Some betoken confirmation and serve to certifie a dede to be done , 
as certes, certainly ; en effect, in dede ; sansfavlte nulle, without any faile ; 
a la uerite, for a treutb; en bonne foy, in good faithe. 

Some betoken wissbing , as plevst a Diev, wolde to god; Diev le aveille, 
god will it so be. 

Some betoken forbidding that a dede shulde bedone, as««//ewen^, 
in no wise; a Diev ne plaise, god forbede. 

Some betoken exhorting to do a dede, as sus, come of , or bave done ; 
faictez le covrt, be shorte. 

Some betoken cessing from a dede, as hola, ho there. 

Some betoken démonstration and serve to shewe or poynt to a 
dede, as a gardez, hehoide ; uecy or uoyezcy, se hère ; ue la or aoyezlà, 
se there. 

Some betoken excepting, as sans, without or besides; forscjue, ex- 
cepte. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



147 



ACCIDENTES TO ADVERBES GENERALL. 



Accidentes generall unto adverbes I fynde none, save that they go- 
verne the oblique cases of pronownes primitives, lyke as prépositions 
do , as astévre moy, demàyn toy. Ouy moy, nenny toy, and so of the re- 
sydue. 



ACCIDENTES PARTICULAR. 



Particidar. Unto ail adverbes, by whiche one dede is compared to Régula prima, 
another, it is belonging to bave ne cornmyng before the later verbe 
that foloweth this worde que, signifyenge than, more than we bave 
in our tonge in the same sentence, as, where we saye « I thinke more 
« than I saye , I hâve lesse than I deserve , I drinke better than I syng , 
« you daunce worse than you tumble », they sayy'e pense plus que je ne 
dis. Jay môyns que je ne mérite. Je boys mievlz que je ne chante, je danse 
pis que je ne iùmbeK And so of ail other lyke sentences where we use 
to compare one dede to another by plus or moyns, commynge before 
an adverbe of qualité, as il parle plus saigément que uovs ne faictes. Il 
besôigne moyns discrètement que je ne cvidùye. And so of ail other. But 
as for je ne lestéme ne que devx pommes and suche like , where they 
leave out plus, I shall hereof in the thirde boke, in this place, more 
entreate. 

Also ail maner adverbes whiche contayne in themselfe puther a 
playne négation, or signifie dimynisshinge or privation wyll bave ne 
before the verbe, whiche they belongimto, more than we bave in 
our tonge in the same sentence, as where we say « I shall never se 
« hym. I wyll never do it. He pleaseth me nothing. Was ever man so 
" begiled. I love him but a lytell. I se never a whitte. I bave but faire 
1 wordes in payment », they sayey'e ne le verrdy jamdys , je ne le ferày 
ja. Il ne me plait en riens. Onques ne fut homme si trompé. Je ne làyme 
guayres. Je ne uoys gôvtte; je nay fors que, or sinon que, or que belles 
parolles en poyément, and so of ail suche like. 

' 11 faut : uovs dansez pis qae uovs ne Inmbéz. 

'9- 



Régula 
secunda. 



148 LESCLARCISSEMENT 



OF THE CONJUN'CÏION. 



Conjunctions be suche as serve to joyne ail the other partes of 
speche toguyder one with another, and to make one sentence to folowe 
upon another in a mater. 

Of conjunctions some be copulatives and serve to couple lyke partes 
of speche togyder, or to joyne one sentence to another, as et, and; or 
bothe, mays, or ayncoys, but; toatesfôis, nevertheless; avssi, also; tant, 
as well; que, as. Some be disjunctives and serve to départe or sever the 
partes of speche from toguider or one sentence from another, as ov, 
or; ne, nor or nother. Some be continuatives and serve to begyn a 
mater wherupon other sentences must nedes folowe, as comme or la 
ove, wheras; si ainsi est, if it so be; et av regàrt, and as for, or and as 
touchyng; et qvant av surplus, and as touchyng the resydue; av sur- 
■ plus, fardermore or moreover; en ôvltre, fardermore. 

Some be subcontinuatyves whiche serve to contynue a mater whan 
it is alredy begon, or to begyn a mater at the first, as povr autant, for 
so much; dautànt or entant, for so moche or in so moche ;ya sàyt ce, 
albeit; si, so; combien, although; encore, yet; tovtesfàys, neverthelesse ; 
que, vvhose englysshes be « that, than, but », or as like as the sentences 
do requyre. 
Régula. Which worde commeth moreoften in use than any other worde 

in the tong, and may folowe asweil after adverbes as conjimctions. ■ 
And whan so ever he is used, signifîeng « that or than «, lie liath for 
the moost parte a sentence folowynge hym : and therfore I bave hère 
rehersed hym amongest tiie subcontinuatyves and called one of the 
VII modes belongynge to verbes actyves parsonalles, the subjunctyve 
mode or siibcontinuatyve mode. But herof I shall hère after bave 
better occasyon to entreate in the thirde booke, whan I shall speke 
agayne of the said modes , onely in this place supposyng ynough to 
wamc the lernar that que maye folowe after the moost parte of the 
other conjunctions and adverbes. 

Some be causales and sewe to bring in a sentence wherby the 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 149 

cause of a mater spoken of before is expressed, as aj/in ijue, to the 
entent that; car povr (juoy, for vvliye; car, for; povr laquelle cause, for 
the whiche cause; a cause que, bycause that; par (juoy, wherfore, 
wherby. 

Some betoken doutynge, as si, why der; mon, wyder; ascavôir mon, 
to wytte whyder. 

Some betoken condisionyng if a dede be done, as si, if. 

Some betoken contraring, as iovtesfôys, neverthelesse ; combien que, 
albeit; ov avltrément, or elles; car avltrément, for elles; non povr tant, 
notwithstandyng; ce non ohstànt, this natwithstandyng. 

Accidentes generall or particxilar belongyng to conjunctions i iinde 
none , save that they ail goveme the oblique cases of pronownes pri- 
matives , as Ivy et moy, toy ov evlx, ne moy ne elle, and so of the 
resydue. 

OF THE INTERJECTION. 

Interjection be suche as serve to expresse the passyons and the alfec- 
tions of the mynde, of whiche. 

Some betoken callyng, as hay or hav. 

Some betoken askynge, as haa. 

Some betoken perceyving, as ha ha, atat. 

Some betoken an out crye, as haro. 

Some betoken kepyng of scylence, as hovfsche, mom, paix. 

Some betoken warnyng of a daunger, a.s garre, ware. 

Some betoken joye, as ho. 

Some betoken lamentyng, as helas, las, lasse, hee, henny. 

Some betoken marveyling, as a, ôya, dievx, dea. 

Some betoken sorowynge, as o. 

Some betoken abhorringe, as^ or fuy. 

And this for an introduction and in a generalytie to shewe howe 
many partes of speche there be in the frenche tonge and what accy- 
dentes belong unto them , I suppose to be suffycient : endynge thus 



150 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

of my thre bokes ihe seconde , in whiche 1 hâve so opyned ail the 

hole frenche tbng, natwlthstandyng any brevite that I hâve herin used , 

that, if the lerner hâve this seconde boke parfitey, he maye, by the 

helpe of the frenche vocabuler,be sure to understande 

any authoure that is wrilten in the frenche tong 

by his owne studye without any techar : 

except some fewe sentences. 

whiche the lernar shall 

fynde gathered 

in an order 

before the 

be- 

gynnyng of the sayd voca- 

bulyst. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 151 



THE THIRDE BOKE. 



Nowe ihal I hâve in my first boive sliewed howe the franche tong 
in redyng and spekyng ought to be pionounced, and in my seconde 
declared howe many partes of speche the same tong hath, and in a 
generalte intreated of them , as fane as concerneth the declynyng and 
conjugatyng of ail suche partes as vary their last letters, and of the 
other partes whiche remayne unchaunged made a brefe, and, for an 
introduction, sufFycient rehersall, restelh nowe, usyng the same order 
agayne , to shewe , accordyng as I bave afore promysed , more exqui- 
sitely what other accidentes and properlies the sayde partes of speche 
bave; so that the iernar maye be advertised nat onely what gendre 
ail their substanty vas be of (whosa gendre the other declynable partes 
must folowe) , and howe the sayd siUjstantyves forme their phirell 
nombres outof their singidars, and whiche of their substanty ves be 
used in the plurell nombre onely, Ijut also howe the other declynable 
partes forme their plurell nombres outa of their singulars, their femi- 
nynes out of their masculynes, and howe their verbes forme one 
mode and tens out of another, and also whan and whye they use 
somtyme one mode and tens and somtyme another, and fardermore 
what order and congruite they use in the covenable joynyng of every 
of the sayd partes, one with another, as they come togyder in sen- 
tences. After every of whiche partes, so completely eutreated of, shall 
folowe certayne tables contayning ail the wordes in our tong after the 
order of a, b, c, with the frenche wordes joyned unto them, to thentent 
that after the Iernar can, by the helpe of the sayde first boke, pro- 
nounce this frenche tong truely, and, by the meanes of the seconde, 
with the frenche vocabulyst (whiche shall folowe whan the thirde 
boke with bis tables is completely fmisshed) understande any authour 



I 



152 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

that writeth in the sayd tong, by his owne study, without any other 

teacher. 

He maye also, by the helpe of ihis thirde boke and tables therunto 
belongyng, knowe howe to speke any sentence , or truely and parfîtely 
to endyte any mater in the same tong. So that, if he well note the 
préceptes in this thirde boke contayned , and gyve hym to the often 
redyng and dilygcnt observyng of suche authours as in the sayd tong 
be moost excellent, orels, if he be so mynded, do note well the styles 
of suche secretaries as in the fayt of endityng be most approved , he 
shall hère, in this said thirde boke, fynde ail thynges whiche to bave 
the sayd tong in parfection, outher to speke or write in it, maye be 
requyred. 

Notynge hère firste that the order whiche I bave taken in the se- 
conde boke is in this thirde boke so presisely kept agayn, that the 
hole seconde boke maye semé to be but as a table unto this thirde 
boke. For every accident belongyng to the sayd nyne partes of speche 
and rules whiche I bave, in the sayd seconde boke, gyven upon the 
sayd accidentes, shall hère in this thirde boke, in the selfe same or- 
der, be entreated of agayne. Howbeit, for the lernars more spedy ease, 
1 bave hère, before this thirde boke, set forthe the table of ail suche 
maters as in this same boke be contayned. 

ANNOTATIONS UPON THE TWO ARTYCLES AND THE TWO ACCIDENTES 
BELONGYNG TO THEM. 

CAPITULUM UNICUM. 

Vny is never used in his plurell nombre as an artycle but whan 
he belongeth to suche substantyves as be of the plurell nombre 
onely, as vngs sajfletz, a payre of belous : Vues heures, a primer boke : 
and howe many substantyves, in this tong, be used in their plurell 
nombre onely, shall hère after in this boke appere. 

And howe, if a femynine substantyve or his adjectyve begyn with 
a vowell or with /; nat hawnge bis aspiration, than before suche they 






DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 153 

use nat vne, but vng; as vng ame, a soûle; vng amiable dame, anamya- 
ble ladye; vng habitation, an abyding; vng horrible iempeste, an hor- 
rible tempeste, I bave alredy shewed in the seconde boke. And howe 
they use somtyme to joyne vngz to les, and ail the gendres and nom- 
bres of vng to the like gendres and nombres of chascune, sball heraf- 
ter in the ende of the pronowne in tins boke appere. 

And note that, though we never use thisartycle « the >> in any sen- 
tence of our tong but that the frencliemen use ever in the stede 
therof, their article le in such lyke order commyng before the sub- 
stantive as we use hym in our tong, as where we say « the gooiman, 
« ail the men », they say le bon homme, tous les hommes. Of our article « a » 
it is nat ever so, for though we say « many a good man, never a fayre 
« woman, he is a gentylman », and suchelyke, they saye : Maynt bon 
homme, nulle belle femme, il est tout gentil; leavyng out vng, for this 
article vng must ever come before ail declynable partes belongyng to 
any substantyve. 

Note also that , where we say « he is a good man , she is a good wo- 
« man » and suche lyke in the commonspeche, they saye : il est bon homme, 
elle est bonne femme. But suche as be writers use vng in maner ever 
where we use « a » , and for « a » fewe ruynes « a certayne other » they say 
quelque pev de rvynes, quelque pev davltres, usyng for « a », in suche sen- 
tences, quelque; and so of ail other lyke. 

ANNOTATIONS UPON THE FIRST ACCIDENT OF SUBSTANTIVES, AND FIRST 

OF WHAT SUBSTANTYVES THE GENDRE MAY BE KNOWEN, 

BY REASON OF THEIR SIGNIFICATION. 

CAPITULUM PRIMUM. 

First ail proper names, ail names of dignité, office and craftes, 
and also names of kynred or cognation spirituall, belongyng onely 
tomen, be of the masculyn gendre, and the same names belongyng 
onely to women be of the femynin gendre, as Henry, roy, pape, chan- 
cellier, covstvrier, père, pairrayn, Harry, king, pope, chaunceller, tayliour, 
father, godfather; Katherine, rôyne, abesse, chancelliére , covstvriére, 

ao 



154 LËSCLARCISSEMENT 

mère, marràyne, Katheryn, quene, abbesse, chaiincellars wyfe, tayl- 

lours wyfe, mother, god mother. 

Item the names of ail maner trees, whider they bearefrute or nat, 
be of tbe masculyne gendre. 

Except that beare frute, vigne a wyne tree and oliue an olyfe tre; 
but as for oliuier, wbicbe also signifieth an olyfe tre, foloweth the rule. 

Except of other trees and shrobbes espine a blacke thorne; and ronce 
a brainble. 

Item ail names of frutes be of the femyne gendre , as well generall 
as pomme, an apple, and pôyre, a peare, as particuler, as carpendv, a 
pippyn; estrangvillon , a choke peare. 

Except roysin , a raysin or a grape ; biit as for grappe, a cluestre of 
grapes, foloweth the rule. 

Item ail suche substantives whose signification serveth to men onely, 
and fourmeth of them another substanlyve belongyng onely to womeu, 
be of suche gendre as theii' signilication requireth. So that ail now- 
nes verballes endyng in enr be of the masculyne gendre, and ail 
nownes verballes endynge in esse, fourmed of their masculyns, be 
of the femyne gendre, as brodevr, a man brodùrar; broderésse, a wo- 
man brodùrar; tencevr, a man cliyder, tenceresse a woman chyder; 
and so of ail other verballes. And in lykewise ail names of any craftes 
men endyng in ier be of the masculyn gendre and ail tliat be 
fourmed of them endyng in iere, by cause they signifie their wyves or 
women exercisyng the same crafte, be of the femyne gendre, as covs- 
tvrier, a tayllour; covstvriere, a tayllours wyfe or a woman tayllour; 
and so in maner of ail other substantives betokenynge men of crafte. 
And of this sorte be ail suche as ende in oys, beyng formed of the 
names of countreis, whose femynines ende, for the moost parte, in 
oyse, as Francoys, a frenche mun ;Francoyse, a frenche woman. Ànd 
also ail suche as ende in art, of whiche be formed féminins endyng 
in arde, as bastàrt, a man bastarde; bastàrde, a woman bastarde. And 
of other whiche I can nat comprehende under any generall rule be 
thèse folowynge : compaignôn , a man felowe; compaigne, a woman le- 



4 

DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 155 

Jowe; macquereav, a man baude ; macqaerélle, a woman baude; belistre, 
a man beggar; beliterésse, a woman beggar; jaroyyne, a man dron- 
carde; jarésse, a woman droncarde; garcàn, a boy, garce a gyrle; mi- 
gnon, a man in favour; mignonne, a woman in favour; fraw/re, a man 
fraytour; tray tresse, a woman traytresse; larron, a tbefe; larronnésse, 
a woman thefe; peleryn, a man pilgrym; pèlerine, a woman pilgrym; 
serj)ént, a he sarpent; serpente, a she saqjent; hôste, a man hoste; hos- 
tésse, a woman hosXe^préstre, a preest; presterésse, a preestes concu- 
byne;/o/, a he foole;/ô//e, a woman foole; serf, a bondman; serve, 
a bond woman. And suche as ende in art, whose femynines ende in 
arde be of this sorte, as I bave afore toucbed, as braggàrt, a man 
braggar; braggdrde, a woman braggar; gailldrt, a man fresshely be- 
sene; gayllàrde, a woman fresshely besene, and ail suche lyke. 

Item ail names of beestes whiche bave a distyncte name for their 
maie, and another for their female, after their kynde allre their gen- 
dre, of whiche sorte I fynde thèse substanlives folowynge. 

Lyon, a lyon; lyonésse, a lyonesse; leopàrt, a lyparde; leopàrde, a 
she leparde; ovrs, a he beare; ovrse, a she beare; lovp, a he wolfe; 
lovpue, a she wolfe; cerf, a harte; byche, a hynde; dayn, a bucke; 
biche, a doo; cheuerevl, a gote; chieare, a she gote; cheual, à horse; 
jvment, a mare; thoreav, a buU; uache, a cowe; ueràrt, a boore; trvye, 
a sowe; chycn, a dogge; chyénne, a bytche; mvlet, a mulet; mvle, a 
mule; asne, an asse; asnésse, a she asse; leurier, a gray hounde; le- 
uriére, a grayebytche. 

Item ail names of foules whiche bave a distyncte name for their 
maie, and another for their female, after their kynde altre their gen- 
dre, as pan, a pecocke; pannésse, a pehen; cocq, a cocke; geline, a 
benne; cannàrt, a drake; canne, a ducke; gars, a gander; oye, a goose; 
faysànt, a faysantcocke;/aj5â7i^e, a faysant benne; cormerànt, a corme- 
raunt; cormerdnde , a she cormeraunt; tartre, a he turlyll dove; turte- 
rélle, a she turtyll dove. 

Item ail the names of monethes and the four sessons of the yere 
be of the masculyne gendre, as novembre, november; esté, sommar. 

30. 



156 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Item ail names of cyties be of the feminyne gendre. 

Item ail nownes dimynutives folowe the gendre of the substantyve 
that they be fourmed of, as vng lionceav, a lytell lyon; vng cheualét, a 
lytell horse; vne maysonnette, a lytell house; vne chanconnette, a lytell 
song, by cause that, as shall hère afler by myrules appere, cheaâl and 
lyon be of the masculyne gendre and mayson and chancôn of the fe- 
minyne. 

Item ail principal floodes be of the masculyne gendre , and smalle 
ryvers of the feminyne. I call them principall flodes into whiche 
many small ryvers ronneth , as la Sayne, le Rosne, la Vienne, la Char- 
lante. 

Item ail the feestes of the yere be of the femyne gendre , except 
Noël, as Pasques, la Chandelévr, la Pentecôste, la Tous Saynctz, la saynt 
Michélle, and ail suche lyke, for in ail suche they understande feste, 
whiche is of the feminyne gendre. 

Item, if any of the other partes of speche be used for substantives , 
ail suche be ever of the masculyne gendre, as mon possible, mon blanc, 
mon deuànt, mon ryén, mon cuidér, mon pencér, and so of ail other in- 
fynityve modes , whiche often in this tonge be used in the stede of 
substantives , and therfore where the bysshoppe of Angolesme saythe 
in the pystyll of Hipermestra, 

Las que dirày nous estant en céste éstre 
Lavbe dvjovr commença apparoistre, 

the boke wolde be corrected, for estre is of the masculyne gendre. 

And note that certayne substantives I fynde whiche, thoughe they 
be ail one in writynge, y et, by reason of their dyvers signification, 
they alter their gendre , of whiche sorte be thèse substantyves fo- 
lowyng. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



* 
157 



WHAT SUBSTANTIVES BEYNG ALL ONE IN WRITYNG, BY REASON OF THEIR 
DYVERS SIGNIFICATION ALTER THEIR GENDRE. 

CAPITULCM II. 

Vng charboncle, a carboncle, a precious stone, whiche I fynde written es- 

charbonclé. 
Vne charboncle , a carboncle, a sore pestylenciail. 
Vng costé, a syde of a beest or a partie. 

Vne caste, a rybbe of a beest or a coost of a countray. 

Vng cvré, a curate or a parsone of a churche. 

Vne cire, a cure, a parsonage, or a cbarge. 

Vng conte, a taie or a mater that is tolde. 

Vne conté, a countie or a sbire of a countrey. 

Vng compte, is an accompt. 
Vng datte, the date of a writynge, whiche sheweth the day and tyme 

whan a writynge is made. 
Vne datte, a date, a kynde of frute. 

Vng exemple, an example of any thyng. 
Vne exemple, an exemplar for a woman to worke by. 
Vng feste, the rofe of a house, or the wynde beames of a house. 

Vne /este, a feest a hye daye, or an assembly of people at meate. 

Vngjillé, a spyndell with yarneonit.or an baye to catche conyse with. 

Vne fille, a doughter. 

Vng livre, a boke to lerne on. 

Vne livre, a pounde in weight or in money. 

Vng lovche, a goggle eyed man. 

Vne lovche, a ladyli (the olde Romant tonge). 

Vng manche, the bafte of a knyfe or the helve of any edged tôle. 
Vne manche, a sleve of a gowne or any other garment. 
Vng marché, a marketstede or a bargayne. 

Vne marche, a marches or boundes bytwene countrey and counti'ey. 
Vng monstre, a monstre, a wonderfull thyng or forshapen. 
Vne monstre, a mustre of men that go to warre, or a warehoiise to 

shewe ware in. 
Vng movlé, a moulde, to mouide or print a thyng in. 



158 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Vne tnovle, a muskyll, a shell fysshe. 

Vnq paytié, a thrumme of a hatle or suche lyke. 

Vne payne, a peyne, a grefe. 

Vng posté, a pasty. 

Vne poste, paast or battre, or a blette made with ynke. 

Vng péché, a synne or trespas. 

Vne pèche, a pèche, a kynde of frute. 

Vng poyx, a peyse pr a weight. 

Vne poyx, a pees, a kynde of corne, or pytcbe suche as is used in 

shippes. 

Vng poyllé, a canapy to bèare over a prince, or a herse for a deed body. 

Vnepàylle, a fryeng pan to frye any meate in. 

Vng planché, a plancher or a florthe that is boorded. 

Vne planche, a piancke over a bridge. 

Vng pié , a fote of a man or beest. 

Vne pie, a pye a byrde. 

Vng povlcé, a thombe, or the poulce of a mannes arme. 

Vne pàvlce, an ynche of measnre. 

Vng sommé, a slepe or a slombre. 

Vne somme, a somme of money or of any other thyng. 

Vng sorte, a sorte or a company . 

Vne sorte, a facion or maner. 

Vng tayé, a skuU of a mannes heed. 

Vne tàye, a webbe in a mannes eye, or a pyllowe bere. 
Vng temple, a temple , or a churche. 
Vne temple, a temple of a mannes heed. 

Vng testé, a wytnesse that testifyeth in a mater. 

Vne teste, a heed of a man or beest. 

Vng tovr, a tourne or a compassyng about a thyng or a dede. 

Vne tovr, a towre or a stronge holde. 

Vng vis, a face or vysage. 

Vne vis, a wyndingstayre, or a vice of a cuppe, or suche lyke. 

Vng voyllé, a vayle or a thyng to cover ones face, or suche lyke. 

Vne vôylle, a sayle of a shyppe. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 159 

Also déxtre and sinéstre, if they understande pié or costé, be of the 
masculyne gendre , and , if they understande mayn , they be of the fe- 
myn gender. 

TO KNOWE THE GENDRE OF THE RESYDUE OF THE SCJBSTANTIVES IN THE 
FRENCHE TONG, BY REASON OF THEIR TERMYNATIONS. 

CAPITULUM III. 

Of what gendres the resydue of their sidjstantyves be shall hère 
after appere by their terminations, and faste. 

HOWE THE GENDRES OF ALL SUC HE SUBSTANTIVES SHALBE KNOWEN, 

WHICHE, THOUGH THEY ENDE IN DYVERS TERMYNATIONS, 

HAVE BUT ONE SIGNIFICATION. 

CAPITDLUM llll. 

Notynge first that ail suche substantives as be used of sondrie ter- 
minations belongyng ail to one thyng shall, after my rules hère fo- 
ie wynge ,varye their gendre, as uvcil, iiovlôir, and uovlénte hetoken ail 
one thynge, yet uvéil and uovlôir must be of the masculyne gendre, 
and uovlénte of the femyne; and of this sorte used of suche as write 
in prose I fynde thèse folowynge : defàvlt, defavlté, demévr, demevré 
and demevrée, povrpris povrprise, despéns despénse, créspe crespine , dicton 
dictée, dv gtev de la gléve, prc prée, but suche aUthoiu's as write in 
ryme use to varie the terminations of substantives very often, bicause 
of the more just kepyng of their ryme, especially the Romant of the 
Rose, in whose dayes the Romant tong was nat come to suche cer- 
taynte as sith the frenche tonge is, so that it were requisite to loke 
upon other authours that write in prose , or upon suche as bave writ- 
ten sithe Alayn Cliartiers tyme to knowe the right frenche wordes; 
but, as concemynge this purpose, ail suche be of suche gendre as their 
terminations expressetli. 

WHAT SUBSTANTIVES IN THE FRENCHE TONGE BE OF THE COMMYN GENDRE. 

CAPITULUM V. 

Notyng also that, by l'eason of their tenninations, the lernar maye 



160 LESCLARGISSEMENT 

be in certaynte of what gendre every substantyve is, of masculyne or 
femyn, save that they use thèse sixe uéufve, advllére, esclave, gvîde, 
garde and hôste of ihe commyn gendre, lyke as the latyns do homo 
and latro and suche lyke. 

WHAT NOWNES THERE BE IN THE FRENCHE TONG OF UNCERTAYNE 

AND DOUTFULL GENDRE. 

CAPITULUM VI. 

And notyng also that they use thèse sixe, affaire, evangille, mevrs, 
nauire, val, and gent uncertainly, somtyme of the masculyne gendre 
and somtyme of the feminyne. And therfore I wyll nat take upon me 
to name them of any certayne gendre , no more than suche as hâve 
written grammars in the latyn tonge do talpà and dama , and xxi suche 
lyke, whiche they hâve therfore named dahii generis; and that the 
sayde sixe be so uncertaynly used of the authours in the frenche 
tonge, shall hère after by their authorities appere. 

Affayre. — Jehan le Maire en la primiére epistre de lamant vert. 
De te adaertir de tovt le mien affaire. 

Idem alibi : 

Condigne assez selon le triste affaire. 

Levesque dAnguillesme en lespitre de Pénélope. 
Mais Diev juste et honnaire 
A bien pàvraev a ma trescJiaste affaire. 

Le Romant de la Rose , parlant de Virginius. 

Et mievlx ainsi le uovlvt faire 
Que la livrer a pdtte affaire. 

But in the plurell nombre ail authours use affàyre in the masculyne 
gendre onely. 

Evangille. — Le Romant de la Rose parlant de favlx semblant. 

5ur marne je uovs dis sans gvdle 

Se estait le saint evangille. 



Idem : 



Tant svrmonte céste evangille. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 161 

In the plurell nombre ail authours use evangille in the femynin 
gendre. 

Mevrs. — Whiche is onely of the plurell nombre is used of the 
Romant of the Rose, through ail bis boke,of the masculyne gendre, as 
Qui toas les mevrs féminins scavôit. 
Idem : 

Ei toas a ma raison saccordent 
Quant les meurs féminins recôrdent, 

and so through ail bis boke. 

Alayn Chartier, and ail that bave written sithe, use it of the fe- 
myne gendre , save that I fynde in him : 

Que nal ne pèvlt ses mevrs pervers 
Compter, par risme ne par vers. 

Et alibi : 

Qui tovt leur mevrs ndtarélz leur bâillent , 

howbeit naturéh may be saved , as shall hère after appere , and 
pervers he sayde to kepe his ryme wlth uers. 

Navire. — Jehan le Mayre useth doutfuUy somtyme of the femi- 
nyne gendre, which also ail other authours do, and of the mascu- 
lyne gendre dyvers tymes, as : Et armèrent avlcuns petiz nauires. 
And : lavltre roy nommé Athanùs se salaâ en ung petit nanire, et sen 
fvîôit'en Espaigne. 

Val. — Alayn Chartier: 

Apres passày vne postérne 
Ov je trovuày ung triste ual. 

Jehan le Mayre : Si la Rôyne est de ce val transitoire. 

Idem : Qui est auprès dv movnt saynte Bemàrde, et sestendit en la val 
dAvàste jusques a la plaine de Playsànce. 

Idem : Il print et conqucstà la cyte divoyre en la val dAvoste. 

Gent. — In the singuler nombre is used of ail authours in the 
femyne gendre, in the plurell nombre somtyme of the masculyn 



162 LESCLARGISSEMENT 

gendre, but, for the moost parte , also of the femynine. But le Romànt 

jjaythe : 

Telles choses ne font 
Sinon gens folz et de malvais renom . 

Idem : Dvngz et davltres gens. 
LEvesque , en lepistre de Dido : 

Helas ta aas et si cognais assez, 
Que tes gens sont fatigués, et lassez. 

And Johan le Mayre in primo : Assembla vng grant exercite et mar- 
uaillevx peuple de toutes gens puissans , fortz et hardys, et expers en toutes 
sciences. 

BY WHAT REASON THE AUTHOURS IN DYVERS PLACES MAYE BE CORRECTED, 

AND HOWE THEY MAYE BE EXCUSED, WHAN THEY OBSERVE NAT SOMTYME 

THESE RUEES, BYCAUSE OF THEIR RYME : AND HOWE THE FRENCHE 

TONG IS MOCHE CORRUPTED BY THE NEGLYGENCE . 

OF THE PRINTERS. 

CAPITULUM VII. 

. Dyvers pther substantyves there be besydes tbese sixe above rehers- 
ed, whiche I fynde used, somtymes ones, somtyme twyse, of ano- 
ther gehder than the same substantyves be used of ail other au- 
thours that write in the tonge : whiche I defarre to speke of, tyll I 
shall bave occasion to reherse them in their places where I shall speke 
of their terminacions; in whiche places I wyll reherse the sayde au- 
thours sayenges, and correcte them, or at the leest excuse them, by 
cause of the ryme that the authours write in , to thentent that I wolde 
therby gyve the frenchmen occasion to regarde and value of ryght 
the parfection of their owne tonge , in whiche I fynde as constant 
agrément concernyng their genders, as I do in any of the thre tonges 
parfite, greke, hebrieu, or latyn, and to thentent also that the printers 
in Fraunce might use more dilygence that the bokes of their owne 
tonge shulde nat by their oversight be so unparfite. 

But of the very parfection of the frenche tonge in dede , and howe 



DE LA LANGUE FRANGOYSE. 163 

it is corrupted by tlie négligence of suche as medled with the crafte 
of printyng, I sliall defarre to speke tyll my prologue, whiche Iwyll 
Write atthe begynnyng of the frenche vocabular; andnowe to retourne 
toltnowe the gendres of nownes by their terminations. 

HOWE THE GENDRES OF NOWNES MAY BE KNOWEN BY THEIR TERMINATIONS, 
AND FIRST OF SUCHE AS ENDE IN ANY VOWELL, EXCEPT E. 

CAPITULUM VIII. 

First, ail substantyves endyng in any vowell without it be e, whe- 
rof I wyll herafter speke, be of the masculyne gendre, excepte end- 
ynge in y, mercj, and in v, uertù: but as for credo, thoughe they use 
it of the femynin gendre, sayeng la credo', yet it is no frenche worde, 
no more than patenostre or ave, whiche they use in the masculyne 
gendre; and therfore where Johan le Mayre saythe, fe grant palv 
denfer, the booke is corrupte : it wolde be la grant palv. 

HOVE THE GENDRES OF ALL SUBSTANTYVES MAY BE KNOWEN THAT ENDE 

IN ANY DYPHTHONGE. 

CAPITULDM IX. 

AU substantyves endyng in any dyphtong be of the masculyne gen- 
der, except in aj, lay for a last of heryng or suche lyke marchandise : 
in av, peav, a skynne; in oy,foy, faythe, and loy, lawe. 

HOWE THE GENDRES OF THE SUBSTANTYVES MAYE BE KNOWEN THAT ENDE 
IN ANY CONSONANT, EXCEPT N. R, X AND Z. 

CAPIT13LUM X. 

AU substantives endynge in any consonant except n, r, x ànd z (d/ 
whiche foure consonantes I wyll hère after entrent) be of the mascu- 
lyne gendre, except : 

Endyng in c, lembic, a styUatorie; 

In/, clef, a kay; nef, a shippe; noyf, the snowe, as it cleveth upon 
tre branches of trees in winler; frost; soyf, thrust. 

ai . 



164 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

In /, pel, a skynne, whiche is olde Romant, for whiche they say 
nowe peav, lyke as for thorel tJioreav, aignel aigneav, and dyvers suche 
lyke, whiche also Alayn Chartier useth moche. 

Except endynge in s, brebis, a shepe; bov taillis, bubble; chvcas^, a 
cadowe, abyrde;/op, tyme; marm, the mother ; pardris, apartrytche; 
riens, nothynge; caribdis, a perell of the çee; and sovris bothe for a 
mouse and the brawne of a mannes arme , or suche like , with his 
compoundes, chavae sovris, a backe that flyeth aboute, and formys, a 
pysmer. 

Except endyng in /: covrt, a court; mort, dethe ; nayt, a nyght; dent, 
a tothe ; art, a crafte ; hart, a with or wythe ;forést, a forest ; and part, a 
parte, with his compounde plus part, the moost parte. 

But where as agaynst this rule lEvesque dAnguillesme saythe : 

Te tient en suspens 
Dung mesme art quelle fait les serpens, 

it wolde be dune mesme art, for art, as I bave hère shewed, is of the 
feminyne gendre; so that Alayn Chartier, en la balade de Fovgieres, 
where he saythe : 

Sont punys par leur malvais art, 

he shulde bave sayd malaayse, safe for the regarde he had to his 
ryme. But as for les sept ars liberavlx whiche I fynde in Johan le 
Mayre maye be saved , as I shall hereafter déclare , whan I speke of 
adjectyves endyng in /. 

TO KJMOWE THE GENDRE OF ALL SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN N. 

CAPIT13LUM XI. 

Ail substantives endyng in n, havynge i or e commynge before n, 
be of the masculyne gendre, except alphyn,fyn an ende, with his 
compounde perfyn a fynall ende , and mayn bothe for a hande and for 
a queare of paper; as for larrecyn thefte, I bave ones founde used in 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 165 

the femyne gendre, but I wyll nat affirme that it is of that gendre, 
by cause his latyn worde is latrocinium. 

Ail subslantives endyng in on, havyng i commyng next before on, 
beofthe femyne gendre. Excepte millyôn, amyllion; escorpiôn, a scor- 
pyon, a sarpent; aespilion, a holyv/adeTSTprincle; estovrgiôn,iîshe;psal- 
teriôn a psaltrion; and sion, bothe for a jacket and a quicke set, or a 
plant. 

Ail substantives endyng in on, havyng a syngle s before on, be of 
the feminyne gendre, except tison, a fyre brande; blason, a blasyng or 
discryvyng of ons armes ; peson, a wharle for a spyndell; ojson, a goose ; 
iranchaysôn, the gripynge in onsbelly; separaisôn, a particion; son, a 
sounde of a bell or suche another thyng, and poynsàn, bothe for a 
bodken and a vessel of wyne; mesprisôn, mysbehavour. Neverthelesse I 
fynde hym used doutfuUy, but I suppose he foloweth the rule. 

But where as lEvesque Anguellesme, en lepistre de Zenône, saythe : 

Destraira toy, et pais et maysôns 

Tant seront griefz et mortelz ses paysans , 

it vvolde be griefves, but as for mortelz may stande well ynough. 

AU substantyves endyng in on, havyng a double s before on, be 
of the masculyne gendi-e : except /m5on, a shyvering for colde; mavl- 
dission , a curse or cursyng. 

AU substantyves endyng in on , with any other consonant commyng 
before on, be of the masculyne gendre : except /acon, a facyon; leçon, 
a lesson to lerne; chancon, a songe, and plancon, a plancke or yong 
plante. 

But where as I fynde in Alayn Chartier : 

En la belle dame sans mercj ov il luy playst, et bon lay semble, gaer- 
don contrainte et renchiere, it wolde be contraint, for gaerdon is of the 
masculyne gendre, accordinge to my rule. 



166 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

TO KNOWE THE GENDRE OF ALL SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG fN B. 
CAPITULDM XII. 

AU substantyves endyng in ar or erhe of the masculyne gendre, 
excepte mer, the see, and amer, the galle of a beest. 

Ail substantyves endyng in evr, beyng nat nownes verballes, of 
whiche I bave hère afore made mencion, be of the femyne gendre, 
except caevr, a harte; labevr, labour; plevr, a wepynge; honnevr, with 
his compoiinde dislionnevr, dyshonour; and evr, happe or lucke with 
bis compoundes bonevr and malevr, good lucke and yll lucke. 

But where as in Johan le Mayre, in the prologue of his thirde 
boke, I fynde : 

Povr eaiter tout eri'evr fabuhvx , 
and in the sonie authoure : 

Nettoyez et poargez de tout errevr fabulevx , 
I wolde saye toute errevr fabulevse , for errevr is ofthe feminyne gendre, 
accordyng to my rule. 

Ail substantives endyng in ir, or or evr, be of the mascidyne gen- 
dre, except chair, flesshe; major, majour; mj'nor, minour ; amovr, love, 
und paovr, feare. 

But where as the Roinant of the Rose useth clamoar, labour, and 
tristovr, their right termination is in evr, and therfore ciamevr, and 
tristevrhG ofthe femyne gendre, as appereth by my rule next before. 

TO KNOWE THE GENDRE OF SUBSTANTIVES ENDYNG IN X. 
CAPITULUM XIII. 

AU substantyves endyng inx, nat havyng i commynge before x, be 
of the masculyne gendre, except tovx, the coughe; quevx, a whet- 
slone;.and chavlx, lyme to make mortar with. 

AU substantyves endyng in ix, whether the i be a parte of di- 
phthong or nat, be ofthe feminyne gendre, excepte choix, a clioyse. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 167 

TO KNOWE THE GENDRE OF ALL SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN Z. 
CAPITULUM XIIll. 

Ail substantives endyng in z be of the masculyne gendre, except 
retz, a nette. 

TO KNOWE THE GENDRE OF ALL SUBSTANTYVES AS ENDE IN E. 
CAPITULUM XV. 

Nowe that I hâve declared howe the gendre ol ail siJjstantyves in 
the frenche tonge maye be knowen, whlche ende in any vovvell, 
diphthong or consonant, except e, by reason oF their terinination, 
resteth to shewe the gendre of suche substantyves as ende in e, 
whiche I hâve hytherto differred to speke of a parte by themselfe, 
by cause there is so great a nombre of them, in the declaryng of 
whiche thyng to avoyde confusion, I shall after the order of the o, h, 
c, joyne the vowelles and consonantes unto e, and shewe the genders 
of ail suche substantives in their places. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ÊNDYNG IN BE. 
CAPITULUM XVI. 

AU substantyves endyng in be be of the feuiynine gendre, excepte 
verbe, a worde; ^Xià. proverbe , a proverbe. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN /Cfi. 
CAPITULUM XVll. 

AU substantyves endyng in ice be of the masculyne gendre, except 
^"iwrtcc, justyce; malice, malyce, and po/ice, polyce. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN CHE. 
CAPITULUM XVIU. 

AU substantyves endyng in che be of the femyne gendre, excepte 
embûche, an embusshment; porche, a porche, and reproche, reproch- 



168 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

yng; dimanche, sonday; and therfore in the epistell of Dydo where 

the bysshoppe saythe : 

Si tu crains donqaes kl reproclie ov diffame , 
■ Qaon me repvte ton espouse ov ta femme, 

the booke wolde be corrected, for it wolde be le reproche. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN CE, WITH ANY OTHER LETTER BEFORE CE. 

CAPITULUM XIX. 

Ali substantyves endyng in ce, with any other letter conimynge be- 
fore ce, be of the femyne gendre, excepte négoce busynesse, and sci- 
lence scylence. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN DE. 

CAPITULUM XX. 

AU substantyves endyng in de be of the femynine gendre, except 
covlde, an elbowe; eschavldé, a wygge; esclande, a slaundre; exorde, a 
begynninge; gvedde, woode to dye with; remède, a remedy; subside, 
helpe; estade, a furlong. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN EE. 
. _ CAPITULUM XXI. 

AU substantyves endyng in ee, be of the femyne gendre, except 
caducée, virga Mercurii, whiche Johan le Mayre useth in the mascu- 
lyne gendre. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN FE OR IN FFE. 

CAPITULUM XXII. 

AU substantyves endynge in/e or in^e be of the femyne gendre 
without any exception. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN AGE OR AIGE. 
CAPITULUM XXIII. 

AU substantyves endyng in âge or aige, whiche termynation is aU 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 169 

one in the frenche tong, as I hâve touched in the first boke, be of 
the masculyne gendre, except cayge, acsge;ymaige, an ymage ; /j/aigrg, 
a snare, and raige; but advantaige , avauntage, I fynde used doutfully. 
But I wolde suppose hym to be of the masculyne gendre, and therfore 
where lEvesque dAngulIesme savthe : 

Faire de cire maintz ymages 

Semblera cevlx ov elle aevlt dommages , 

the boke wolde be maintes. 

But where as be saythe in thepystell of Dydo, 

Ha que movltfaz cause de mon domaige , 
Quant mefiay en son playsant ymage , 

that proveth nat ymage to be of the masculyne gendre, as shall 
hère after by my rules playnly appere. And that ymage is of the fe- 
myne gendre appereth plainlye in the same epystell by thèse wordes : 
Jay son ymaige paincte au vif et pourtraicte. 

Where as, ifhe were of the masculyne gendre, he wolde bave sayd 
painct et pourtraict. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN GE. WITIl ANY OTHER CONSONENT COMMYNG 

BEFORE GE. 
CAPITULUM XXIIII. 

AU substantyves endyng in ge, with any other letter commyng be- 
fore ge, be of the femyne gendre, except ange, an angell; archange, 
an archangell; chalenge, a challeng; change, a change; cierge, a tapar; 
collège, a colledge; congé, leave; déluge, a floode; eschange, a chaunge; 
gaige, a pledge; herberge, an harborowe; liège, a corke for a slyppar; 
litige, stryfe; loge, a lodge; pleige, a pledge; priuilege, a privylege; 
prodige, a wondre; refuge, helpe; sacrilège, sacrilège; siège, a siège to 
sytte upon, or a siège about a towne; singe, an ape; songe, a dreme; 
sortilège, sortilège; and uovlge, a byll a weapen. 

But where as Alayn Chartier saythe in bis quadrilogue : Regarde 
ma très languerevse affliction, et tu cognoisteras que toutes refuges me 

aa 



170 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

défaillent, the boke wolde be correcled, fer it wolde be que tous 

refuges, for refuge is of the masculyne gendre, accordynge to my 

rule. 

6F SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN lE. 
CAPlTULUM XXV. 

AU substantyves endyng in ie, i beyng a vowell, be of the feinyne 
gendre, excepte barronnye, cheualerye, clergie, congyé, and/oje a ly ver. 
But as for dictye, a dytie; marchyé, for a bargayne or a markestede or 
chepe; planckyé, a plancke; and traictie, a treatyse; though Alayn 
Chartier use to write them with an i before e, they that bave written 
sythe bis tyme use more dicté, marché, planché, and traicté. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN LE, HAVYNG A VOWELL COMMYNG NEXT 

BEFORE LE. 

CAPlTULUM XXVI. 

Ail substantyves endyng in le, bavyng a vowell commyng nexte be- 
fore le, be of the femyne gendre, except balé a baies, a brome or a 
precious stone, and idole an ydole, scrupule a doutynge, stile a style, 
and zèle love or zeie. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN BLE. 
CAPlTULUM XXVIL 

AU substantyves endyng in ble be of the masculyne gendre, except 
bible the byble, chesuble a chesable, estable a stable, and table a table. 
Howe be it I fynde in the bysshope of Anguyllesme : 

Et toat ainsi que les nouuelles blés 
Gresles et tendres de petit vent troublées, 

but aU other authours use ble .in the masculyne gendre , accordyng 
to my rule. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 171 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN CLE. 
CAPiTULUM XXVIII. 

All_^ substantyves endyng in de be of the masculyne gendre, except 
bovticle, a shoppe. 

But where as Alayn Chartier saythe miracle gracievse, and the Ro- 
mant of the Rose : 

Cil voit (jue la chose est a certes 
Et uoit les miracles apertes, 

they hâve bothe used myracle of the femyne gendre for by cause of 
the ryme, where as I ever elles fynde hym of themasculyne gendre, 
accordyng to te generall rule touched in the seconde boke, for bis 
latyn worde is hoc miraculam. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN FLE. 
CAPITCLUM XXIX. 

Substantyves endyng in y/el fynde no mo but escovfle, a kyte a put- 
tocke ; and pantovjle, a slyppar ; whiche be of the femyne gendre. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN GLE. 
CAPITULUM XXX. 

AU substantyves in gle be of the masculyne gendre, excepte aigle, 
an egle; cengle, a gyrthe ; and règle, a rule. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN LIE. 
CAPITULUM XXXI. 

Ail substantyves endynge in lie be of the femyne gendre , excepte 
Capitolle, scrupalle, idollc, domicilie, whiche thre substantives I wolde 
Write with a syngle /, bicause their latyn wordes be written with a 
syngle /; volaille, a company of byrdes flyeng; interaalle, the space 
bytwene two hylles or bitwene two tymes; palle, a pale ; rolle, a rôle ; 
and libelle, a lybell. 

aa. 



172 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

But where as the Romant of the Rose sayth : 

Et regarde il toasjoars a vne estoille 
Si ne court pas tousjours dvng voylle , 

it wolde be une for voylle, for a sayle is ever used of the femynine 
gendre, as I hâve afore declared; for of the latyn worde hoc vélum 
cometh voyle for a vayle which is of the masculyne gendre , accord- 
yng to the generall rule, and the other is used of the feminyne 
gendre by cause of a différence. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN PLE. 
CAPITULUM XXXII. 

Ali subslantyves endyng in pie be of the masculyne gendre, except 
covple, a couple, a payre; and gvimple, a wympyll; and exemple, an 
example. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN SLE. 
CAPITULUM XXXIH. 

AU substanty ves endyng in sle be of the masculyne gendre , except 
esle, a wyng; and gresle, hayle. 

In le with any other consonant I fynde but marie, marie to fatte 
the erthe with, whiche is of the masculyn gendre. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN ME. 
CAPITULUM XXXIIII. 

AU substantyves endynge in me be of the femyne gendre , excepte 
abisme, a depe place ; avrijlame, the chiefe standart of the frenche 
kynge; bavhme, baulme; baptisme, ha^ptym ;blasme,h\sLme; blasphème, 
mispekyng of God; carme, for a calme wether; crime, a synne ; dia- 
dème, a crowne for a prince; diffame, yvell spekyng; esme, for an 
ame or a gessyng; germe, sede ; latiesme, the letany; uolume, a vo- 
lume; psealme, a psalme; phantosme, a fantosy; proesme, a proheme ; 
problème, a problème; royavlme , a reaime; régime, a govemyng; 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 173 

schisme, a scissym or enusion ; syllogisme, a sylogysme ; sparme, mannes 
sede; sophisme, a sophyme; terme, a terme ; thyeme, anantetyme of a 
sermon. 

As for the gendre of apostemc I hâve nat yet observed, but, aller 
the generall rule, it muste be of the masculyne gendre, lyke as ail 
thèse greke wordes hère afore rehersed, by cause the latyns use them 
in the neutre gendre. And therfore Alayn Chartier, in bis quadrilogue 
where be speketh of the treasour of Fraunce , wolde be corrected 
where be saythe : Mais cest vne droicte abisme on tout se font et despent. 
And also in another place of the same boke , where be saythe : Et 
povr ce que les jugemens de Diev sans que riens ne se faict sont vne pro- 
fonde abisme, for abisme is of the masculyne gendre, accordyng to 
myne exception. 



OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN MME. 
CAPITULUM XXXV. 



Ali substantives endyng in mme be of the femyne gendre , except 
heavlme. 



OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN NE. 
CAPITULUM XXXVI. 



Ail substantyves endyng in ne be of the femyne gendre, except 
avlmosne, almesse; cigne, a swanne ; crespine, a cyprès lynyn ciothe ; 
demayne or domayne, demayne landes ; ^une, a faste; infortune, a mys- 
chaunce; quintaine, a quyntayne to juste at; patrimoine, a patrimony ; 
pigne, a combe; règne, a raigne ; signe, a token; throne, a trône, ly- 
come an unicorne beest, and origine a begynnyng, I suppose shuide 
be of the masculyne gendre , but I hâve nat sene it , and therfore 
where Aiayn Chartier saytli in bis quadrilogue : Ainsi croy, que le fleal 
de la diaine justice , qui nous fier t par laduercite présente novs doybt esmov- 
uoir a prendre covraige, povr novs hors jecter de ceste infortune, it wolde 
not be ceste infortune, for infortune is of the masculyne gendre. But 



174 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

as for guigne, I fynde hym doutfuUy used in the Romant of the 

Rose, as : 

Ov s'il a son lahevr gaigne, 

Mays il ne pevt de son gaigne. 

Idem : 

Son don multiple et gaigne 
Quest bien certayn de sa gaigne. 

But the right frenche worde is goyng whiche, by reason of his ter- 
mination , muste nedes be of the masculyne gendre. 



OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN OE. 
CAPITDLLM XXXVll. 



AU substantyves endyng in oe be of the femyne gendre, 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN PE. 
CAPITULUM XXXVIII. 

AU substantyves endyng in y^e be of the femyne gendre, except 
crespe, mancipe and principe. 

In phe I fynde no more but triumphe and epitaphe whiche bothe 
be of the masculyne gendre. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN PE. 
CAPITCLUM XXXIX. 

AU substantyves endyng in re, havyng a vowell commyng next be- 
fore re, outher alone or in a diphthonge, be of the femynyne gendre, 
except adultère, for a man advoUerer and the syn, but adultère for a 
woman advuoulterer must nedes be of the femyne gendre , by cause 
of his signification. 

Excepte also: aduersaire, bréviaire, cemitiere, colire, consistoire, con- 
traire, denaire, empire, exemplaire, yaoire, luminure, martire, miliaire, 
misère, monastère, murmure, offretoire, perjare, presbitoire , purgatoire, re- 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 175 

paire, sanctuaire, salaire, scapulaire , sidère , suaire , territoire , vitupère, for 
ail their latyn wordes ende in um, and be of the neutre gendre. But 
where as Alayn Chartier, in his Quadrilogue, saythe : la murmvre du 
pevple, the booke wolde be corrected, for it wolde be le murmvre, ac- 
cordynge to my rule, and as for the englysshe of thèse substantyves, 
bicause of brevyte I overpasse them, referryng the lernarto the frenche 
vocabular. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN RBE. 
CAPITULUM XL. 

Ail substantyves endyng in rre be of the femyne gendre. 

Except arre, as larre des chatz, the catenvawyng of cattes; bevrre, 
butter; bavbevrre, whey; curre, a charet; levrre, a lure fora hauke, 
or the loke or countenaunce of a parson; foirre, strawe; tonnoyrre, 
thundre; and uoyrre, a glasse to drinke in; for al! their latyn wordes 
also ende in um and be of the neutre gendre. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN SE. 
CAPITULDM XLl. 

AU substantyves that ende in se be of the femyne gendre. 

Except colosse, and that I fynde dyuorse used of the bisshope of 
Anguillesme doutfully, as povr en faire entre nous le divorse. 

Idem. Pçiris Alexandre a envoyé la belle diuorse, but I suppose di- 
uorse rather to be of the masculyne gendre, by cause his latyn worde 
is diuortium. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN TRE. 
CAPITULUM XLII. 

AU substantyves endyng in tre be of the masculyne gendre. 

Except chartre, bothe for a prison and a princes chartre or par- 
done; epystre, a pysteU;/enes<re, a wyndowe; lettre, a letter; and tartre, 
a tarte. As for lovtre, an ottre, I finde in Phebûs, de Déduit de la chasse, 



176 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

used uncertainlye , but, in other aulhours, I note hym to folowe my 

rule. And vvhere as the romant of the Rose saythe : 

Quant apperccvt Ihoirible monstre 

Toute preste a batailler, 

ihe boke wolde bc corrected for accordyng to my generall rule, 
where 1 shewed what substantyves beyng ail one in writyng, by rea- 
son of their dyvers signification, altre their gendre. Monstre for a mons- 
tre is of the masculyne gendre. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN liE, WITH ANY OTHER CONSONANT COMMYNG 

BEFORE RE. 

CAPITULUM XLlIl. 

AU substantyves endyng in re, with any other consonant commynge 
before rc, be of the femyne gendre. 

Except ambre, ambcr; camfre, camfory; chancre, bothe for a lobster 
and fora çanker a disease; chamure, hempe; cjc?re, sydar drinke; coffre, 
a coffer; congre, a congre; degré, a steppe or degré ; esclandre, a slaundre; 
gendre, for a kynde; gre as bon gre, mal gre; gingembre, gynger; govffre, 
a great fall of water or the mouthe of a great hoUowe thynge; haare, 
a havyn; hongre, agelding; Heure, anhare; lucre, wynnyng; mandeglaire, 
a niandrake; malendre, a malandre, a sore; marbre, marble; membre, a 
membre; ojfrc, an ofFrynge, used as yet of the doutefull gendre; op- 
probre, a rebuke; pre, a medowe; repayre, a repayre; «acre, a sacre, a hauke, 
safre; sépulcre, a sépulcre ; simulacre, an ymage ; sulphre, brimstone ; sucre, 
sugar; tirfre, a tygre -, timbre , a tymbre; uespre, an evennyng; and vmbre, 
a shadowe. As for encombre and cojfre I bave nat yet observed what 
gendi'e they be of ; but, where as the Romant of the Rose, in the dis- 
cription of the bouse of Fortune, and the ylande where it is sette, 
useth arbre sixe tymes toguyder in the femyne gendre, the same 
authour and ail other elswhere useth hym accordyng to my rule ; and 
as for pricvré is of the femyne gendi'e accordyng to my rule , though 
1 fynde hym of some writers mysused. 

And note that of the ntiooste parte of thèse substantyves to a latyn 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 177 

man the gendre may bc easely knowen, for so moche as thelr latin 
wordes, accordyng to the generall rule, ende in um and be with them 
of the neutre gendre. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN TE. 
CAPITULUM XLHIl. 

Ail substantyves endyng in te be of the femyne gendre. 

Except acte, an acte; antidote, a recept against a poyson ; arbuste, a 
shrobbe, a lowe tre; cyrcvite, a cyrcute, a goyng or compassynge about 
a thyng; dovbte, a doute; dicté, a dyte of a song; geste, a jest in acte; 
yiste, a lodgyng ; mm/e , a. meryle ; ypocrite, anypocrite; reste, the rest 
that leaveth of a thyng or somme; teste, a wytnesse; traicté, a tracte 
or a treylise; tumulte, a prease of people; conte for a taie. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN TTE. 
CAPITULUM XLV. 

AU substantyves endyng in ite be of the femynine gendre. 



OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN VE, THE V BEYNG A CONSONANT. 
CAPITULUM XLVI. 

AU substantives endyng in ve be of the femyne gendre. 

Except conclave, a parlour; conuyve, a geste; esprevue, a profe; 
oeue, the roughe of a fysshe; gleyve, a v/ea.pyn; Jlevue , a floode. As 
for prévue foloweth the rule, thoughe I fynde hym of some writers 
mysused. 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN VE, THE V BEYNG A VOWELL. 
CAPITULUM XLVII. 

AU substantyves endynge in ve be of the femyne gendre. 
Excepte masque, muske; maisgue, the ronnelles suche as chese is 
made with ; and gve, a place in a ryver where one maye wade over. 

2.S 



178 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

OF SUBSTANTYVES ENDYNG IN XE. 
CAPITULUM XLVIII. 

Substantyves endynge in xe I fynde no more but sixe whiche ail 
be of tbe masculyne gendre. 

TO KNOWE THE GENDRE OF SUCHE SUBSTANTYVES AS BE COMPOUNDE IN THE 

FRENCHE TONGE, AND OF SUCHE ALSO AS BE EXPRESSED BY THRE 

WORDES OF WHICHE THE MYDDLE WORDE IS A PREPOSITION. 

CAPITDLUM XHX. 

Nowe that I hâve declared howe the gendres of ail substantyves in 
tbe frenche tong may be knowen , whiche be wordes alone by them 
selfe , resteth nowe to shewe the gendre of ail suche as be compomxde 
of two wordes or elles be expressed by thre wordes of whiche the 
myddell is a préposition; for the déclaration of whiche thing it is to 
be noted that there be four sortes of compounde substantyves in the 
frenche tonge. 

First. Some be compounde of two wordes, of whiche eche ofthem 
be unparfite by theniselfe , as dimanche, sonday; landj, monday; mardy, 
tuesday ; mercredy, wednisd&y ;juevdy, thursday; uendredy, friday; samedy, 
saturdaye; mydy, noone; and suche lyke. And ail suche be of suche 
gendre as their termination requyreth, excepte dimanche of whiche I 
hâve made mencyon in the substantyves endyng in che. 

Seconde. Some be compounde of two wordes of whiche the last is 
a substantyve distyncte by hym selfe , thoughe the first be unparfyte , 
as printemps , thespringof theyere; bersaull, a quyntine; licol, a halter; 
mynuyt, mydnight; and suche lyke. And ail suche aJso be of suche 
gendre as their later substantyve is alone by hymselfe. 

Thirde. Some be compounde of two wordes of whiche the one is 
a substantyve and the other an adjectyve, as Monsieur, the heyre ap- 
paraunt of Fraunce; Madame, the heyre apparauntes wyfe, or the 
kynges mother; bonhomme, a Tpoore husbande man; bonne femme, apoore 
woman; gentylhômme, a gentyllman; gentyl femme, a gentyll woman; 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 179 

beavpere, a father in lawe or a beaupere a felowe; bellemere, a mother in 
la.we-^ grantpere, agraunt father; meregrant, a graunt mother; and suche 
lyke. And ail suche be of suche gendre as the substantyve, if alone by 
hym selfe, shulde be. 

Fourthe. Some be compounde of two wordes of whiche the one is 
a substantyve , the other somtyme also a substantyve , and somtyme 
some other parte of speche, as garderohe, a wardroppe; portebaffet , 
hethat hath charge of a great mannes plate; savhieconduit, a safe con- 
ducte; ortiegriache , a wylde nettell ; ^Haresme prennan^ shraftyde; sur- 
sault, a sodayne starte; sombresault , a tumblyng caste; barbedieu, the 
sede of dandelyon whiche children call preestes crownes; and su- 
che lyke. And ail suche be of suche gendre as the substantyve is alone 
by hymselfe; but they which be made of two substantyves, as bar- 
bedieu, chausse trappe, shalbe of suche gendre as the later substantyve 
is alone by hymselfe. 

But, if they be expressed by thre wordes of which the myddle worde 
is a préposition, as bec de faulcon, apollax; tablier a femme, a womans 
naperne ; husche a pétrir, a knedynge troughe, and suche lyke, ail suche 
shalbe of suche gendre as the substantyve is that cometh before 
the préposition. And this for to knowe the gendres of ail the sub- 
stantyves , in the frenche tong, bothe symple and of suche as be com- 
pounde, 1 thynke to be sufficient. 

ANNOTATIONS UPON THE SECONDE ACCIDENT OF SUBSTANTYVES, AND FIRST 

WHAT PLURELL NOMBRES ENDE IN S AND HOWE ALL SUCHE 

BE FOURMED OUT OF THEIR SYNGULARS. 

CAPITULUM L. 

AU substantyves endyng in any vowell, by addyng to of s, fourme 
their plurelles, as homme hommes, mercy mercys, uertv uertvs. 

Except suche substantyves as ende in e, havyng their accent upon 
the same e: for ail suche , by addyng to of z, fourme their plurelles, as 
bonté bontez. 

AU substantyves endyng in ay or oy, by addyng to of s, forme their 

a3. 



-t 



180 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

plurelles, as essay essays, esmoy esmoys , excepte loy, whiche maketh loix 
in his plurell nombre by addyng to of x. 

Also ail substantyves endyng in m, n or f, by addyng to of s, forme 
their plurelles, as nom noms, mayson maysons, mur murs, brodeur hro- 
devrs, covp covps : but ail suche substantyves as ende in t or in d, if 
they hâve n or r, commynge nexte before them, by cbaungynge their 
laste letters in to s, fovu"me their plurelles, as accord accors, serment 
sermens, except chant and gant, for whose plurelles, for the most parte, 
they use chantz and gantz by addynge of z. 

WHAT PLURELL NOMBRES ENDE IN X, AND HOWE ALL SUCHE BE FODRMED 
OUT OF THEIR SYNGULARS. 

CAPITULUM LI. 

Ail sidDstantyves endyng in eu, ou, evl or ovl, by addyng to of x, 
foui'me their plurelles, as diev dievx, clov clovx, cheuercvl cheuerevlx, 
povl povlx, genoul genovlx: but where as 1 fynde in Johan le Mayre 
povyl and genovyl, with an i added before the /, that kynde of writinge 
I do nat approve. 

Also ail substantyves endyng in avlt, by chaungyng of / into x, forme 
their plurell nombres, as heravlt heravlx. 

Also ail substantyves endyng in eav, whose olde Roniant worde was 
wont to ende in el , by a:ddyng of / and x to their syngulars fourme 
their plurelles, as thoreav thoreavlx, wherby appereth that we bave 
taken dyvers of our substantyves beyng of thèse sorte out of the olde 
romant tonge , as charnel, hedel, barbel, jouel, bovcl, chastel, mantel, 
fardel, seel and suche lyke, of whiche if their el be tourned into eav, 
maye be made right frenche wordes , as chameav, bedeav, barbeav, etc.; 
whose plurelles howe they be fourmed apperelh hère by my rule. 
But ail that ende in eav or in av, beyng nat fourmed oui of olde Ro- 
mante substantyves, by addynge of x onely, fournie their plurelles, as 
raynceav raynceavx. 

Also ail suljstantyves endyng in al, by addynge to of u to their a 
and to their / an x, fourme their pluielles, as cheval cheuavlx. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 181 

Also ail substantyves endyng in ail, by chaungynge of y into u, 
and addynge to of x, fourme tlieir plurelles , as trauayl trauavlx. 

WHAT PLURELL NOMBRES ENDE IN Z. AND HOWE ALL SUCHE BE FOURMED 

OUT OF THEIR SYNGULERS. 

CAPITULUM LU. 

Ail substantyves endyng in c, in d, a vowell commyng nexte before 
the d. 

Also ail substantyves endyng in/, in çj, in el, beynge a ryght fren- 
che worde, and nat of the olde Romant in il or in ol. 

Also ail substantyves endyng in q, orin /, a vowell commyng next 
before the t, by addynge to oi z, forme their plurelles : as sac sacz, 
parc parez, nyd nydz, piedpiedz, nefnefz, cerf cerf z , jovg jovgz , poyny 
poyngz , fiel fielz , péril perilz , fol folz , cocq cocqz, chat chatz, secret se- 
cretz, mot motz, and ail that ende in e, havyng their accent upon the 
same e, accordyng as I bave hère afore touched. 

And note that, thoughe I fynde thèse rules somtyme broken, I 
impute that to the neglygence or rather ignorance of the printers 
than to the authoms, howe be it the tonge is nat yet so utterly corne 
to bis perfection but that I fynde somtyme diversité amongest the 
authours selfe. 

But w^here as I fynde in Jehan le Mayre estomach and roch for es- 
tomac and roc, in suche writyng he is nat to be folowed. 

WHAT SUBSTANTYVES THERE BE IN THE FRENCHE TONGE, WHICHE HAVE 
THE PLURELL NOMBRE ONELY AND NAT THE SYNGULAR. 

CAPITULUM LUI. 

There be, besydes the substantyves hère above rehersed, certayne 
other in the frenche tong, whiche be of the plxu"ell nombre onely, 
and bave no syngular at ail, other by cause the latyn wordes of whiche 
they be deduced be so used in the latyn tonge, as nopces, ftansaylles , 
uigiles, obsèques, and suche lyke, by cause the latyns saye, nuptie, 
sponsalia, uigilie, obsequie, or elles by cause they signifie suche instru- 



182 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

mentes or tôles as we in our tong use to narae by payres , as ungz suf- 
fletz, ungz pièges, unes lunettes, unes patenostres, by cause we saye in 
oure tonge a payre of bellous, a payre of stockes, a payre of spec- 
tacles, a payre of bedes; and of this sort howe many I fynde in the 
frenche tong shall hère appere , and also what gendre they be of by 
their article put before them, lyke as I sayde I wolde do, whan I 
made mencion of thèse substantyves in the chapiters of the gendres. 



Vnes ancestes , 
Vnes armes, . 
Vnes avlmoires, 
Vnes besaces, 
Vnes belances, 
Vnes brayes, 
Les broches, 
Vnes chausses, 
Vnes cartes, 
Vnes cimballes , 
Vngz siseletz, 
Les consavlx. 

Les complies. 

Les delicez , 
Vnes decrottoyres , 
Vngz degrez, 
Les dispens, 
Vnes escourgez , 
Les escrovelles, 

Les entremîtes , 
Vnes estricguoyres 
Vnes escriptoyres , 
Vnes entraves, 
Vnes estevues, 



a payrè of potte hangynges. 

an armes of a noble man or gentyilman. 

a presse to laye or hang stoffe in. 

a waliet. 

a payre of baians or scales to wey with. 

a payre of sloppes or a payre of brèches. 

of the femyn geridi-e , a disease called the emerodes. 

a payre of hosen. 

a payre of cardes to playe with. 

a payre of symballes, an instrument of musyke. 

a payre of barbours sheyres, 

of the masculyne gendre , the counsaylours about a prince 

or great esta te. 
of the femyne gendre, compiayn, the boiu-of service that 

foloweth evynsong. 
of the femyne gendre, delytes or pieasures. 
a rubbynge brusshe to make clene clothes with. 
a payre of stayres. 

of the masculyne gendre, a cost or charge, 
a scourge, a whyppe. 
of the femyne gendre, a disease called the quynnancy or 

the kynges yvell. 
of the femyne gendre, the bowelles of a beest. 
a payre of pynsons an instrument, 
a pennar and ynke borne, 
a payre of boites of yron for a prisoner. 
a bote bouse or a bayne. 



1 



Vues estovpes, 
Vues Jiansayles , 
Vues forceps , 
Les frontières , 

Vngz govjons , 
Les glandres, 
Vngz gietz, 
Les grâces , 



Les 



gayges, 



Vues hevres, 
Vues endentures , 

Vnes lunettes, 
Vnes lices, 

Vnes lettres , 
Les mevrs. 

Les matynes, 
Vnes monstres. 
Vnes nopces, 
Les noviielles, 
Vnes orgues, 
Vnes obsèques, 



Les ordres, 
Vnes patenostres, 
Vnes paces . 
Vngz picgz , 
Les rayns, 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 183 

a locke of towe or hurdes. 

an assiiryng or handfastynge of folkes to be maryed. 
a payre of shermans sheres. 
of the femyne gendre, the fronters or marches bytwene 

reaime and reaime, 
a payre of fetters for a horse or a man. 
ofthefemynegendre.adiseaseofahorsecalledtheglaunders. 
a payre of gesses for a hauke. 
of the femyne gendre, grâce, suche asissayd at the table 

or thankes. 
of the masculyne gendre, wages, suche as souldyouis or 

hyred folkes bave, 
a primer or a mattyns boke. 
a payre of indentures of covynauntes bytwene partie and 

partie, 
a payre of spectacles, 
a tylte to lerne to juste at, or the barres that compassé a 

justyng place, 
a letter missyfe. 
of the femyne gendre , maners or comlicions : but of hym 

I bave spoken before. 
of the femyne gendre, matyns servyce in the churche. 
a mustre of men that shall go a warfare. 
a weddyng or a maryage. 
of the femyne gendre, tidynges or newes. 
a payre of organs, an instrument of musyke. 
an obit for a deed body ; bow be it I fynde in Jehan le Mayre : 
Si lay furent faitz grantz obsèques, 

but obsèques is of the femyne gendre, 
of the femyne gendre, benêt the first tonsure, 
a payre of beedes to praye with. 
a payre of pastes for the attyre of a womans heed. 
a payre of stockes to punysshe vacabundes. 
of the masculyne gendre, the raynes of the backe, ou- 

ther of man or of beest. 



184 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Les revenues, of the femyne gendre, a rent or lyvelode. 

Vngz sajfletz, a payre of belowes to blowe the fyre with. 

Vnes tables, a payre of tables to write in. 

Vues toarnettes, a payre of wyndynge blades to wynde yai'ne iipon. 

Vnes tenaylles, a payre of tonges. 

Vnes taylles, a payre of taylles, suche as folke use to score upon for 

rekennyng. 
Les terres, of the femynine gendre, rentes or lyvelode of a naan. , 

Les ténèbres , of the femyne gendre , a sodayne darkenesse or tena- 

bles, the servyce in the chiirche, or want of lyght in 

the night season. 
Les aespres, of the femyne gendre, evynsong, servyce in the churche. 

Vnes uerges, a brusshc to brusshe with. 

Les iiigiles, of the fennyne gendre, dirige, servyce for a deed body. 

Les uiures, of the femyne gendre, stoore or provisyon of vitayie. 

As foi" vngz gantz, vngz sovUers, vngz yevlx, nngz bras, and suche 
lyke, though I fynde them used in dyvers auctours, yet I hâve nat 
rehersed them amongest the other of this sorte, bycause we may 
saye vng gant, vng soulier, vng œil, vng bras, which of the other wordes 
we can nat saye without we chaunge the signification. 

And note that natwithstandynge that the lasle lelters of their sub- 
stantyves be altred for the expressyng of their plurell nombres, yet 
the begynnyng of ail substantyves remayneth ever imchaunged, ex- 
cepte œil, whiche in bis plureli makelh yevlx, as I bave afore touched 
in the seconde boke. And tbis for the formation of plurell nombres 
of ail substantyves I suppose to be suflicient. 

ANNOTATrONS UPON THE THIRDE ACCIDENT. 
CAPITULUM LIIII. 

Upon the tbirde accident I fynde nothynge to be noted, save that 
substantyves, used in suche wyse as the latyns do their vocatyves 
cases , bave the seconde persons of the verbes of suche nombres as 
the substantyves be , as of o homme adaisc toy, o hommes amendez mus. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 185 

And note that, if two substantyves or many corne before a verbe 
beynge joyned toguyder with a conjunctyon copulatyve , or elles dis- 
tyncted from a sondre with this stryke (,), the verbe shalbe of the 
pliirell nombre, vvheder the nownes be synguler or plurell. 

Exemple of Alayn Chartier in his Exyle : 

Et qui laisse la cognoissavce de Diev et de son office, povr sviare comme 
les bestes mues ses sevlx delitz, (jrace et sevrte le delayssent, et payne, et 
honte, et misère le povrsvyaent jvsques en uergoignevse fyn. 

Idem in eodem : 

Et se son exemple et son enseignement ne te suffisent, aise comme les- 
cripture te comforte. 

The same authour in his Quadriiogue : 

Désirant la mort qui tant me tarde, que je la regrete chascun jour comme 
celuy qui courrovx , fain et défiance de comfort, mainent doulovrevsement 
a son dernier jour. 

Howe be it suche as write in ryme observe natthis rule, for I fynde 
in the bysshoppe, in the epystle of Phylles to Demophone : 
Et qaav miliev dAthenes la cite 
Soit ton barat et fraude recite, 

for soyent recitez. But, if two substantyves synguler be joyned toguyder 
with a conjvmction disjunctyve, the verbe shalbe of the synguler 
nombre. Alayn Chartier in his Exyle : 

Si polation ou sacrilège estfaicte ou temple, 
and suche lyke. 

ANNOTATIONS UPON THE FOURTHE ACCIDENT, AND FIRST WHAT SUBSTANTYVES 
BE FORMED OUT OF OTHER SUBSTANTYVES. 

CAPITULUM LV. 

Of every substantyve endynge in e, betokenynge the name of any 
frute, maye by fourmed another by chaungyng the e in to ier, wliiche 
shall signifie the tree that beareth the same frute, as o£ pomme, an 
apple ; pommier, an apple tree ; poire, a peare; poirier, a peare tree ; 
cerise, a chery; cerisier, a. chery tree; and so generally of ail other. 

a4 



186 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Excepte noyselte, an hasyll nutte, whose ihe tree is named covldre: 
and more, bothe for a mulbery and a mvilbery tree ; how be it I fynde 
also morier. 

Excepte also roysin, a reysin, whose tre is named uigne : and noix, 
for a walnutte , maketh noier for a walnut tree , chaungyng x into er. 

Also of every masculyne nowne verball in the frenche tong, 
whiche ever ende in evr, maye be fourmed bis femyne verball, by 
chaungynge of evr in into resse, as oi tencevr, tenceressc, but howe the 
masculynes nownes verballes be fourmed shall hère after appere. 

Also of every masculyne substantyves endynge in ier, betokenyng 
the name of a man of crafte, by addynge to of e, maye be fourmed a 
femynine substantyve betokenyng the wyfe of the same craftisman , 
or a woman exercisyng the same crafte, as oï covstarier a tayllyour, 
covsturiere a tayllyour wyfe ; bovlengier a baker , bovlengiere a bakars 
wyfe; and so of ail suche lyke. 

And note that the moost parte of ail suche masculyne substantyves 
be fom-med out of the substantyves whiche betoken the thynge that 
they must occupye or serve for, as of barbe a berde, barbier a bar- 
bour ; of bovrse a purse , boursier, a pursar ; of drap a clothe , dra- 
pier a draper; of pot a potte, pottier a potter; so that, if the first 
substantyve ende in e, by chaungyng of e in to ier, he shall forme 
his name of crafte. 

And if the first substantyve ende in a syngle consonant by doublyng 
of the consonant and addyng to of ier, he shall forme his name of 
craft. But this is nat generall, for I fynde chavssetier a hosyer, coc- 
quetier a hucstar, clovtier a nayle maker, pantier a panter, whiche 
adde a t before ier, for their substantyves that they be fourmed of be 
chavsse, cocque, clov, and pan for payn ; and lingiere addeth to g, and 
as for boulengier a baker , freppier an upholstar, and menuysicr a joy- 
ner, be formed of no substantyve used in the tong. 

And note that ail the handy craftes in the frenche tonge , and also 
dyvers names of offices ende outher in ier as tresourier, a treasourer, 
or in evr, as brodevr, a broderar, or elles they be circumlocuted 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 187 

with thre vvordes of whiche the myddle worde is a preposytion, as 
fayscvr de bahas a lether coofer maker or a bouge maker, faysevr de 
chapperons hoode maker; but escripuayn a scryvenar, maçon a ma- 
sone , charron a whele wright , uigneron a tyllar of vygnes , paynire a 
paynter, tisserant a weaver, mareschal a farrer or a smythe that shoeth 
horses, and apothecaire apothecary, be excepte. 

Also ail diminutyves ende outlier in ceav, as laronceav a iyteli 
thefe, heronceav an hernshawe , or in el, as liuret a Iyteli boke , corpset 
a iyteli body, or in ette, eis femmélte a lylell woman, whose gendre is 
ever suche as the substantyve that they be formed out of, as I hâve 
afore declared. 

And ail that ende in ceav be foiirnied of masculyne substantives 
endyng in on by addyng to of ceav, as lion lionceav. How be il I fynde 
homonceav fourmed of homme, and rainceav, a Iyteli bough, formed of 
rame, differyng in gendre from his priraityve, as I hâve afore touched, 
and garconet, a iyteli boy, oî garçon, and coyschonet, a lyteiipygge, of 
coyschon , and of chancon, a songe, and mayson, a house, chanconette, 
a Iyteli song, and maysonctte, a Iyteli house, by cause they be of the 
femynine gendre. But ail masculyne substantyves endyng in e, by ad- 
dyng to of t, forme their diminutyves, as sygne a signe, signet a synet. 

Ali whiche ende in any other consonant, by addyng to of et, forme 
their diminutyves, as corps corpset, so that ail suche substantyves as 
ende in eav, whose olde Romant worde dyde ende in el, by addynge 
to et to their olde Romant worde , fourme their diminutyves , as ai- 
gneav, aignel, aignelet, a iyteli Ïambe ; oyseav, oysel, oysclet, a iyteli 
byrde ; tonneav, tonnel, tonnelet, a Iyteli tonne, and so of ail the re- 
sydue, and in lykewise ail femyne substantyves endyng in e, by ad- 
dyng to of tte, forme their diminutyves, as oi folle a she foole,/o/- 
lette a iyteli foole ; muse a bagpype , musette a iyteli bagpype ; ail 
other endyng in any other termynation, by addyng to of ette forme 
their diminutyves, as pavr feare, pauorette a iyteli feare, but of brebys 
a shepe, I fynde brebiette a iyteli shepe, for brebisette; and of boitte a 
boxe, boytelette a iyteli boxe; and many I fynde in the termination of 

a4. 



188 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

diminutyves that be none, sls foret a gymlet, chenet an aundyrone, 

and suche lyke. 

And note that they forme diminutyves also of proper names, as 
of Jehan Jehannet, of Jehanne Jehannette, oï Estien Estiennon, of Es- 
tiene Estiennette. 

Also of dyvers' substantyves betokenyng tyme be formed other 
substantyves endyng in ee, whiche signifie the season or the tyde of 
the same tyme, as of an, a yere, année, the space of a yere; oï jovr, a 
daye , jovrnee , the space of a daye; of matyn, a mornyng, matinée, the 
season of a mornyng; of uespre, an evenyng, uesperee, an evenyng tyde; 
of nayt, a night, nuytee, a night tyde; and mo I fynde nat in the tong 
of this sort. 

Also of ail suche substantyves as ende in art, if they betoken any 
condicion to a man belongyng, formera feminyne, by toxu-nyng t in to 
de, as oï hastard bastarde , braggart braggarde , cocqiiart cocqaarde, pail- 
lart paillarde, fetartfeiarde,- and suche lyke wherof I bave spoken hère 
before. 

Also other sortes of formations of substantyves I fynde whiche be 
nothyng so generall nor so certayne , of whiche sorte be suche as ende 
in aige, as of corde cordaige, of baggve baggaige, oï frincl frinctaige, 
oï bende bendayge, and some that ende in tie, as of amy amytie, of 
enemy enemytie, and some that ende in aille, as of ribault ribauldaille , 
cocquyn cocquynaylle , covart covardaylle and peavtraylle, whose symple 
is nat in use , which I fynde in the boke of the four ladyes of Alayn 
Chartier. 

Other sortes of dirivatyons there be wherof I bave made mencion 
hère before , about the begynnyng of the first accident , where I 
shewed howe the gendre of substantyves may be knowen by reason 
of their signification, which, by cause I ean bring under no generall 
ruie, I passe over, reportyng the lemar to the well notyng of the 
same substantives in the sayd place. 

And as for abhomination , consolation , perdition , dissolution, and suche 
lyke , corne directly out of the latyn tong by addyng to onely of n. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 189 

WHAT SUBSTANTYVES BE FOURMED OF ADJECTYVES. 
CAPITULUM LVI. 

Of every adjectyve, in this tong, is fourmed a substantyve suche as 
the latyn call abstractis. But howe they be formed I can observe no 
maner generall rule to be certayne , and therfore I shall defarre to 
speke of every of them tyll they shall corne in place, in the table of 
nownes substantyves. How be it, for the moost parte, ail suche adjec- 
tyves as hâve their masculyne gendre and femyne bothe endynge in 
e, by addyng to of te, forme their abstractis, as of /acAeslacke, lâcheté 
slackenesse; oï amyahle amyable, amyableté amyablesse; but for this 
thynge our tonge is moche more certayne , for in maner ail oure abs- 
tractis ende in nesse, as « fayrnesse , blackenesse, goodnesse, wyse- 
« nesse , folysshenesse « , and so of ail other, except they be suche as we 
take of the frenche tong as humilité, fragilité, graaite, whose right 
englysshe wordes be humblenesse, fraylnesse, sadnesse, after the 
generall nde. 

Also of some femyne adjectyves may be formed substantyves by 
chaungyng of their finall e in to avlt, as of covrte covrtault, lourde 
lovrdault. 

But note ail that ende in ault be nat ever fourmed of suche adjec- 
tyves, for I fynde savlt, bersavlt, and many suche lyke whiche be 
formed of no adjectyves. 

WHAT SUBSTANTYVES BE FORMED OF VERBES. 
CAPITULUM LVII. 

Of every preterimparfitens in the frenche tonge maye be fourmed 
a masculyne verball , by chaungynge oye into evr, as of parloye parleur, 
of dansoye danseur, conuertissoye conueiiisseur. But as for dominateur, 
gubernatear, conducteur, and modérateur, prenunciateresse and suche lyke 
used of Johan le Mayre, they folowe rather the latyn formacion than 
the right frenche tonge. 



190 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Also of every prelerimparfitens maye be fourmed a substantyve 
whose englysshe endeth in yng, by chaungyng of oye in to ement, 
as oï parloje parlement, a spekyng, oî conuertissoye conuertissement , of 
sentoye sentement, and suche lyke. 

I fynde also certayne substantyves fourmed of the infinityve modes 
whiche ende in vre, as o( engendrer engendrvre, of novrir novriture, of 
escripre escripture, of enfler enjlvre, of murmvrer murmvre, of descomfire 
descomfitvre , and suche lyke : but the formation of thèse substantyves 
I can nat bring under a generall rule certayne. 
Régula. And note that it is moche requisyte for the lernar to bave regarde 

to thèse rules wherby I déclare the ryght formation of substantyves 
in the frenche tonge, for the better understandyng of my frenche 
vocabular wherby, if any of thèse substantives whiche after my rules 
be formed of other, happen to be lafte unwritten, if he call to mynde 
my sayd rules, he maye forme ail suche hymselfe : and therfore to 
* put ail suche in the vocabular I reken it but superfluous.' 

ANNOTATIONS UPON THE FYFTE ACCIDENT. 
CAPITULUM LVUI. 

Of substantyves some be symple, as homme, a main; femme, a woman : 
some be compounde , asgentylhomme, a gentlllman; gentylfemme , a gen- 
tylwoman. And of compoundes I fynde so many sondrie sortes as 
1 bave rehersed in my annotations upon the first accident belongyng 
to substantyves , where I shewed howe the gendre of suche substan- 
tyves shulde be knowen. 

And hère it is to be noted that, in the frenche vocabular, every 
substantyve whiche is expressed by thre wordes of whiche the myddle 
worde is a préposition shalbe sette forthe in the worde that cometh 
before the préposition, as bec de favlcon shall folowe after bec and 
chavlderon de mer shall folowe after chavlderon : and therfore, whan 
thelerner hath founde out bec and than favlcon, and yet can nat fynde 
out any worde of suche sence as he loketh for, let hyra tourne backe 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 191 

agayne to bec, and there folowynge he shall fynde the sayde thre 
wordes expressed. But hereof I shall hâve occasion agayne to speke 
in the prologue of the frenche vocabular. 

ANNOTATIONS UPON THE SIXTE ACCIDENT. 
CAPITULUM LIX. 

Where we, in our tonge, use to putte « to oure substantyves whan we 
wyll expresse possessyon, sayeng n a mannes gowne, a woman hose », 
and suche lyke, so that our substantyves semé to hâve a genityve case, 
with them, without any chaungyng of the laste letters of their sub- 
stantyves, suche spekynge is expressed by this préposition a, as where 
we saye « a mannes gowne, a womans hose », they saye robe a homme, 
chavsse a femme; and in lykewise, if we adde the pronowne possessyve 
to any suche substantyve as « this is my maisters gowne, he dyd fette 
« his maisters cloke », they say cest la robe a mon maistre, il alla quérir le 
manteav a son maistre, whiche rule is well to be noted, and howe the 
adjectyves and participles folowethe the gendre and nombre of the 
substantyves, and what congruite they use in thatbehalfe, shall her- 
after, in every of the sayd partes, as they corne in order, more playnly 
appere. 

And nowe that I bave hère, in this tbirde boke, declared at lengtb 
what accidentes and properties belong unto ail the substantyves in 
the frenche tong, I shall hère consequently set forthe what and howe 
many substantyves there be in the same tong, whiche to thentent 
they may of every lemar the more easely be founde, whan he hath 
any sentence or mater to be made out of our tong in to the frenche , 
I shall set forthe ail the englysshe substantyves in our tong, after the 
order of a, b, c, and in the same lyne shewe what substantyve in the 
frenche tonge is of lyke signification. 

And fardermore , for a more helpe and spedy forderyng of the sayd 
lemar, if he be nat parfyte in my rules hcrafore declared, I shall 
expresse in the same lyne what letter the sayd frenche substantyves 



192 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

hâve in their plurell nombres, and what gendre they be of, in the sayd 
frenche tonge, for, if they be of the masculyne gendre, the lernar 
shall fynde after the letter of the plurell nombre m ; if they be of the 
femyne gendre,/. 

And fardermore , if we in our tong bave but one worde whiche 

the frenche tong circumlocuteth with thre or four wordes, of whiche 

one of them is a préposition, I shall set forth the plurell nombre and 

the gendre of the fîrst worde onely, whiche shall sufBce, for the 

other wordes remayn unchaunged for bothe the nombres; as 

where we saye « a pollax » they say bec defavlcon, 

of whiche thre wordes I shall onely sette forthe 

the plurell nombre and gendre of bec, 

as bec defavlcon z, m. For, as 

I hâve sayd, the other 

wordes remayne 

unchaunged, 

and 

so of ail suche 

other. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



THE TABLE OF SDBSTANTIVES. 



193 



A BEFOBE B. 

AbassLednesse — fraievr s , f. 
Abasshment — e$tonnissemenl s. ni. 
Abatement — abatemenl s, m. 
Abbay — abbaye s, f. 
Abbesse — abbesse s, f. 
Abbot — abbé z, m. 
Abyding dwelling — demevre s, f. 
Abyding taryeng — attente s, f. 
Abbomynablenesse — abhominableté z, f. 
Abomyuation — abomination i, f. 
Abhorryng — horrevr s, f. 
Absence — absence s, f. 
Abrevialyon — abréviation s, f. 
Absolution — absolution s, f. 
Abstynence — abstinence s, (. 
Abundaunce — abundance s, (. 
Abusyon — oies, m. 

A BEFORE C. 

Ache in ones bones — govtte s, f. 
Acceptyng — aduev x, m. 
Acquayntaunce — accointance s, f. 
Accordyng — acordance s,f. 
Accusation — accusation s , f. 
Accusyng — acusement j, ni. 
Accorde — acort s , m. 
Acorne mast for swyne — gland z, m. 
Acre of iande — arpent s, m. 
Acte a dede — acte s, m. 
Action in the lawe — action s. f. 
Aclivyte quickenesse — actiuite z, f. 

A BEFOnE D. 

Adamant a precious stonc — aymant s, m. 
Addyr a sarpent — covlevure s, [. 
Addircop or a spinners web — araignée s . f. 
Addis a coupers instrument — dolovere s, (. 
Admyrali on the see — admirai s, m. 
Advauntour bostcr — bobancicr s, m. 
Adventure — adaeniare s, (. 
Advent before Cbristmas — adaent s, m, 
Adversary — aduersaire s, m. 



Adversyte — aduersile z, {. 

Advertysing — aduertence s, f. 

Advyse — advis^ m. 

Advisyng — enhort s, m. 

Advocate a man of lawe — adaocat z, m, 

Advowyng — aduev x, m. 

Advoutrye — advltere s, m. 

Advoutrer — adultre, avoistre (reniant) s, m. 

Advouson ofa benifice — expedatif z, va. 

A BEFOBE F. 

Affadyll a yelowe Iloure — affhdille s, f. 
Affection — affection s, f. 
Affermyng — affirmation s, f. 
Affynite — affinité z, f. 

A BEFORE G. 

Age oidnesse — aage s, f. 
Agydncsse — ancienneté z, {. 
Agglet ofa lace or poynt — fer s, m. 
Agnayle upon ones too — corret z, m. 
Agnus dei — agnns dei s, m. 
Agony distresse — agonie s, f. 
Agrément — apoyntement s, ni. 
Agremony an herbe — aigremojne s, f. 
Ague axes — fyfwe s. (. 

A BEFORE I. 

Aide helpe — aide s, m. 

Aignelet to fasten a claspe in — porte s, f. 

Aire an élément — ayr s, m. 

A BEFORE L. 

Alabaster — alabastre s, m. 

Alebery for a sicke man — chavdeav x, m. 

Alcarayne — arqaemie s, f. 

Alderman — eschcain s, m. 

Aider tree — iiirea» x, m. 

Aie stake — le moy d'une taaerne s, m. 

Aie drinke — govdale s, f. 

Alegant wyne — ■ rosette s, (. 

.\legyauncc — aasselaigc s, m. 

Alley to walke in — alee s, f. 

a5 



194 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Alfyn a man ofthe chesse borde — avljin s, m. 

Aiyaunce — aliance s, f. 

Alyen straunger — alien s, m. 

Alye or aiyaunce — aliance s, f. 

Alysandre an herbe — alisandre s, f. 

AHe an instrument for soulers — alaisne Sj f. 

Alsoulne day — lejovr des morts, m. 

Ml maner wylde foule — uolaille s, f. 

Alhalowen tyde — la tous sainclz, f. 

AUedgynge of a matter — ■ allégation s, f. 

Almaygne a man — alemctit s, m. 

Almaygne a countre — alcmaigne s, f. 

Almery to put meate in — unes almoires, f. 

Aimysdede — avlmosne s, f. 

Almonde fruyte — amande s , f. 

Almonde tre — amandier s, m. 

Almos purse — bovrse avlmosnieres , f. 

Alowaunce for money — alovuance s,{. 

Altération — altération s, f. 

Altercation — altercation s,{. 

Alume to dye colour withall — alam s, f. 

A BEFOBE M. 

Amasynge — stupéfaction s , {. 

Aniatyst a precious stone — amatistc s, f. 

Ambassade — ambassade s, f. 

Amblyng borse — hacquenee s, f. 

Ambrose an berbe — ache ckampeslre s , f. 

Amendes — amende s, f. 

Amendement — amendement s , m. 

Amyablenesse — amiableté z,f. 

Ammyss for a cbannon — avmusse s, f. 

Amytie — amitié s , f. 

Ammell for golde smytbes — esmael z,m. 

Ammellyng — esmaillevre s, f. 

Amner an oflicer — avlmosnier s, m. 

A BEFORE N. 

Ancbre a religions man — anchre s, ni. 
Anchres a religions woman — anchresse s, f. 
Anvelde for a smyth — enclume s, t. 
Angell — ange s, m. 
Angre or flersnesse — félonie s, f. 
Angre cbafyng of mynde — courroux, m. 
Angle rodde — uerge a pescher s, f. 
Angnayle of ones toos — corret i, m. 



Anguyssbe — angoisse s, i'. 
Anguysshfulnesse — angoissetisetè z,î. 
Anclc of the fote — cheuille du pie s, f. 
Ancre of a sliippe — ancre s, f. 
Annys sede — anjs, m. 
Answere to a question — responce s, f. 
Answere of false goddes — oracle s, w. 
Antéchrist — antechrisl z, m. . 

Anteloppe a beest — antelop z, m. 
Anlemme a song — antiesme s, f. 
Anthetyme — thieme s, m. 
Antiphonar a boke — antiphonier s, ni. 
Antiquité — antiquité z, f. 

A BEFORE P. 

Ape beest — cinge s , m. 

Appoyntement — apoinlement s, m. 

Aposlata — apostat z, m. 

Aposlell a saynt — aposire s, m. 

Apostume — aposlume s, tn. 

Apotbecary — apolhecayre s. m. 

Appareyle clothyng — appareil z, m. 

Appeyching — accusement s, m. 

Appeel froni a judge — appcav x, m. 

Apperaunce in a place — aparance s , f. 

Apperyng — apparition s, f. 

Appetyte to meate — appétit z,m. 

Appetyte or lust to a thyng — enuye s, f. 

Apple frute — pomme s, {. 

Apple tree — pommier s, m. 

Apple yarde — plante de pommiers s, t. 

Appiyeng to — adition s, f. 

Aprill moneth — apuril z, m. 

Apron for a man or woman — tablier s, m. 

Aptnesse to lerne — docilité z, f. 

A BEFORE Q. 

Aquarie one of the twelve signes — aguaire 
s, m. 

A BEFORE R. 

Arage an herbe — aroche s, {. 
Araye of men in a felde — ranc z. m. 
Araye apparayle — apareil z, m. 
Araye condicion or case — pojrnt s, m. 
Arbitour a judge — arbitre s, m. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Arbyterment — arbitrement s, m. 

Arcetour — arcien s,ra. 

Archangell — archange s, m. 

Archebysshoppe — archeuesque s, m. 

Archebysshoprike — archeueschè z, m. 

Arche of buylding — arche s, f. 

Archepreest — archeprestre s, f. 

Arcbedeacon — archediacre s, m. 

Archeduke — archedac z, m. 

Arcbedukedome — archedachè z, m. 

Archer a shoter — archier s, va. 

Arcon of the sadell — arcon s, m. 

Arerage — areraige or débet s, m. 

Argile a kynde of erthe — arg'dte s, f. 

Argument — argument s, m. 

Arithmetyke — arithmétique s,{. 

Arme of a man — bras, m. 

Armehole — aiscelle, f. or aiscevl z, m. 

Armes of a nobie man — armes f. 

Armet a heed pesé of harnesse — armet z, m. 

Armye of men of warre — armée s, f. 

Armyng — armatvre 3,i. 

Armyne a beest — ermine s , f. 

Armyns a white furre — ermines . f. 

Armourer a craAesman — armvrier s , m. 

Armour harnesse — armevre s, f. 

Arrowe to shote with — jleche, sujette s, f. 

Arse of a man or beest — cal z, m. 

Arsehole — le trov du cul x , m. 

Arsnycke an herbe — arcenic z, m. 

Arswyspe — torchecul z, m. 

Article of a matter — article s, m. 

Arte a science — art s, f. 

A BEFOnF. S. 

Asshe tree — frcsne s , m. 

Ashwednisday — mercredy de la cendre s, m. 

Assbes of fyre — cendres, f. 

Askyng — demande s, f. 

Askyng for Goddessake — mandiance s, (. 

Aspe tree — tremble s, m. 

Aspecte of planettcs — aspect z, m. 

Aspycke sarpent — aspicq z, m. 

Assaut agaynst a towne — assavlt x , m. 

Asse a he beest — asne s, m. 

Asse a she beest — asnesse s,i. 



FRANCOYSE. 



195 



Assendent in a figure of astronomye — ussen- 

dent s, m. 
Assenycke — arsenicq z, m. 
Assent — consentement s , m. 
Assystaunce — assistance s,{. 
Assistent — assistent s, m. 
Assoyling — absolution s, f. 
Assuraunce — assurance s, f. 
Assuryng — assurément s, m. 
Astate — estât z, m. 
Astonysshednesse — frayevr s, f. 
Astonysshing — estonnissement s, m. 
Astrolaby an instrument— astrolabie s, f. 
Astrologer — astrologien s , m. 
Astrologye an herbe — astrologie s, f. 
Astrology science — astrologie s , f. 
Astronomar — astronomien s, m. 
Astronomy — astronomie s , {. 

A BEFORE T. 

Altendaunce — attendance s, f. 

Atyre for a gentyiwomans heed — atovr s, m. 

Attourney in lawe — procurevr s, m. 

A BEFORE V. 

Avayle — prouffit z, m. 

Avantmurof a towne — auantmvre s, m. 

Avarice covytousnesse — auarice s, f. 

Avaunsyng — auancement s, m. 

Avauntage — auantaige s, m. 

Auotorisyng — avctorisation s , f. 

Auclorite — avctoritè z, f. 

Auctour that maketh a boke — auclevr s, m. 

Audacite — avdace s,{. 

Audyence — audience s,{. 

Audytour — clerc des comptes z, va. 

Aventurousnesse — auentvre s, f. 

Aventure — aduentvre s, (. 

August a moneth — avost z, m. 

Avysement — avisement s, m. 

Aulmoner Ihatgyveth almesse — avlmosnier s^ m. 

Aulter to syng masse on — avltel z, m. 

Avoydaunce — uiydance s, f. 

Avowe — ucv X, m. 

Avouter — avoistre or adultère s, m. 

Avoutryc — adultère s, m. 

25. 



196 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Awe feare — crainte s, (. 
Augrym — cuigorisme s, m. 
Auke stroke — reaers, m. 
Aumbre stone — ambre s, m. 
Aumbrye — unes avlmoyres, f. 
Aunie or marke — esme s. m. 
Aumbry for nieale — avlmaire s, f. 
Auncestour — ancestre s, m. 
Auncyentnesse — ancienneté t, ra. 
Aundyern — chenet z, m. 
Aunt — ianie or ante s , f. 
Aunter — aduentvre s, f. 
Augustyne frère — augvsùn s, m. 

A BEFORE X. 

Axe a loole — hache s, î. 
Aiilnayle — cheuilU daixevl s, f. 
Axillre — aixsevl x, m. 
Axes sickenesse — jieure s, f. 

A BEFonE y. 

A BEFORE z. 

Aiure — azur s, m. 

B BEFORE A. 

Babe tbat children piay with — povppee s, f. 
Bable for a foole — marotte s,{. 
Babler — babillart s, m. 
Baliylling — quacqaet t, m. 
Babwyne beest — baboyn. s, ta. 
Bace golde — or àe tovche s, m. 
Bace playe — jev aux barres s, m. 
Bace fysshe — ung bar s, la. 
Bacon — bacon s, ni. 
Backelar nat maryed — bachelier $, m. 
Backe of a beest — dos, m. 
Backe of a chymney — contrecuevr de la chyminee. 
Backe of the bande — le dessus de la main. 
Backe a beest tbat Qyeth — chavue souris, f. 
Backebyting — detraction s,{. 
Backebonne — eschine s, f. 
Backeburden — portée, charge s, f. 
Backe dore — hiys de derrière, m. 
Badge of a geatyiman — la deaise dang seignevr 
s,{. 



Bagge — sachet z, m.; sac z , m. 

Baggagc — baguaige s, m. 

Baggcpyper — cornemasier s, m. 

Baggc pype — cornemuse s , f. 

Bagge a purse or a fauconners bagge — gihis- 
sière s, t. 

Bayart a horse — bayart s, m. 

Bay of boundes — aboyement de chiens, aboy s, m. 

Bay frule or berry — grayne de lavrier s, t. 

Bay tree — lavrier s, m. 

Bayly an offieer — badlif z, m. 

Baylyshyppc — bailliage s, m, 

Baygne to bath one in — baing z, m. 

Bayte to catche fyssbe — amors, m. 

Bayting ofan horse — repeve s, {. 

Bake meate — uiande en paste s, f. 

Bakc housc — boviengiere s, f. 

Baker of brcdde — bovlengier s, m. 

Balade a soug — balade s, f. 

Balays a prescious stone — balé s, f. 

Balance to waye wilh — balance s, f. 

Balast of a sbyppe — lestage s, m. 

Baidrikc for a ladyes necke — carcan s, m. 

Baie of any marchaundyse — baie s , f. 

Balcngar bote — balengier s, m. 

Bail of tbe cbeke — pommeau de lajove x, m. 

Bail of tbe eye — la prunelle de loyl s, f. ; pu- 
pille s, f. 

Bail to play at lennes witb — estevf z, m. 

Bail tbal is greatler and softer than a tennes 
bail — plotte s , f. 

Balkc of an bouse — pousle s, f. 

Bauike of lande — separaison s, m. 

Basyiike serpent — basilisque s, f. 

Basyle an herbe — basilique s, f. 

Basket — corbeille s , f. 

Basketbearer — hochquetevr s, m. 

Basket makcr — uannier s, m. 

Bassliement — esbahissement s , m. 

Basyn to wassbe in — bassin s, m. 

Bassynet — bassinet s, m. 

Basiardc — basiard s, m. 

Bastarde llourc — folle farine s , f. 

Bastyng of meate — basliment s, m. 

Bastyng of clolbe — bastiment s, ra. 

Batayle — bataille s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



197 



Batche of brcdde — Journée de pain s , f. 

Batte a staffe — baston s, m. 

Balter of flourc — paste s , t. 

Balfouler a takcr of byrdes — pipevr s, ni. 

Batfoulyng — la pipée s, f. 

Bathe or bayne — baing z, m. 

Batyldore — battover a lessiue s, m. 

Batylmcnl of walles — bastimenl s, ni. 

Batylment of a lowne wali — auantmur s, m. 

Baucn great fagottes — favllourde s, f. 

Baudeman — macquereau x , m. 

Baudcwornan — macquerelle s, f. 

Baudrike — carquant s, m. 

BaWnesse want of lieer — chavlueté z, ni. 

Baume an berbe — hauslme s , (. 

Baume oyle — baaslme s, f. 

B BEFORE E. 

Beautie — beavlté z, f. 

Beautifulnesse — beavlté z, l. 

Bec a flye — mouche a miel t,f. 

Bcehyve — ruche s, f. 

Bêche tree — hesire s, m.;f<n) x, m. 

Becke — signe de lateste, s, m. 

Bedde — lit z, m.; couche s, m. 

Bcdde borde — sponde s, f. 

Bedde stede — châlit z, va. 

Beddyng — acconstremenl de lict s, m. 

Bedell — bedeav x, m. 

Beddes lieed — clicuet du lict z, m. 

Beed of stonc or «ode — patenostre s, f. 

Beedman — oralevr s, m. 

Beane corne — feue s, f. 

Befe meate — chair de beuf s, f. 

Begettyng — engendrure s, f. 

Beggarman — belistre s, m. 

Beggar woman — belislresse s, f. 

Beggary — blisterie s,{. 

Bcggyng — mandiance s, {. 

Begyling — tromperie s, t. 

Begynnyng — commencement s, ni. 

Beholdyng — regart s, m. 

Beholder — regardevr s, m. 

Bebest — promesse s, f, 

Behavour — maintien s, m. 

Beyng — essence s,f. 



Beakyn — Jev au guet x, m. 

Becke witb tbe beed — signe de la teste s, m. 

Beckeryng scriniysshe — meslee s, f. 

Beldame — mercgrant s, f. 

Beldyng — édification s, f.; bastiment z, m. 

Bell of snevyll at one,5 nose — rovpie s, f. 

Bell in a steple — cloche s, f. 

Bell founder — fondevr de cloches s, m. 

Bell for a morres — sonnette s, f. 

Bellfray — heavfroy s, t. 

Bell facioned lyke a peare for chyldren lo playe 

witb — poyrette s, (. 
Beily — aenire s, m. 
Bclowes — ungz su£letz aufev, m. 
Belsyre — grant père s, m. 
Belweder a becst — bellin s, m. 
Beame of an bouse — tref s, m. 
Beame of tbe sonne — raye de soleil s, I. 
Beamyng knyfe for a tanner. 
Benche — banc z, m. 
Bende of men — roi te s. f. 
Bcndyng bowyng — arcure s, f. 
Bendyng for a crosbowe — bendage s, m. 
Benefyce — - bénéfice s, m. 
Benêt order — ordres s, f. 
Benyvolence — beniuolcnce s, f. 
Berall fyne glasse — beril z,m. 
Beere driake — bière s, f. 
Berde of man or beest — barbe s,f. 
Beare a be beest — ovrs, m. 
Beare a sbe beest — ovrse s, f. 
Bear warde — gardevrdovrs s, m. 
Beere for deed men — bière j, f. 
Beryengofa corps — enterrement s, m. 
Beryall — sépulture s, t. 
Berry of any tree — graine s, f. 
Beryll a precious slone — beril z , m. 
Berkyng of a dogge — aboyenient s, m. 
Bernacle a byrde — bernac z,m, 
Berne to put corne in — granche s, f. 
Besecbyng — • deprecalion s, f. 
Besynesse labour — labovraige s, f. 
Besynesse occupation — besoigne s,(, 
Besome — balay s, m. ; ramon s, m. 
Bestysshnesse — besterie s, f. 
Beest — beste s , f . 



198 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Beestbearyng bornes — teste a corne s, f. 
Beestes stall — crèche s, F. 
Bestowyng — emplojement s, m. 
Betany an herbe — bettoyne s , (. 
Bethynkyng — appenscmcnt s, m. 
Betyll lo bete clothes witb — battoyr $, m. 
Betlle ablacke flyc — escargot^ z, m. 
Beatyng downe of nien in batayle — abatis. 
Beatyng downe of any buyldynge — (UmoU- 

tion s, t. 
Beatyng — baterie s, [. 
Bever batte — chappeav de bieure x, m. 
BewayJing — deploration s, f. 
Bewrayeng — détection s, t. 
Beautie fayrnesse — beavlté z, f. 
Bcautyfulnesse — speciosité z, f. 

B EEFOUE J. 

Byas of an hose — bias, m. 

Byble — bible s, f. 

Byce a colour — azar s, m. 

Byding taryeng — attente s, (. 

Biggayne a woman tbat lyvetb cbaste — be- 

gvinc s, f. 
Byggen for a chyldes beed — beguyne s , f. 
Bygge corne — far s,vct. 
Bygnesse of any thyng — grandeur s, (. 
Bygnesse quantité — moyson s, (. 
Bygnesse ofones body — corpsage s, m. 
Bygnesse of a thyng in brcad — grossevr s , f. 
Bicker Cghtyng — escarmovche , bescovsse s , f. 
Byldinge — structure s,{.; édifice s, m. 
Bylding agayne — reedijication s, f. 
Byil a lelter — lettre s, f. 
Byle a sore — fronde s, (.; clov x, m. 
Byll of dette — ceduU s, f. 
Byll of a byrde — becq z,m. 
Byli to fyght witb — uotge s,(. 
Bylman in a batayle — halebardier s, m. 
Byll of a mattocke — le manche s, m. 
Byllet shydc of woode — bûchette s, f. 
Byn to kepe breed or corne — hache a pain s, f. 
Byeng — achapt z, m. 
Bypathe — sente 5, f. 
Byrcbe tree — bouUiav x, m. 

' SanF (loitte etcarlot. 



Byrde — ojseav x,m. 

Byrde boite — mail crus , m. 

Byrde lyme — glev x,m. 

Byrlyngyron — unes espinces, f. 

Byrlingof clothe — pinsure s, f. 

Byrthe — naiscance s, f. 

Byrlhe of a man or a woman — natiuité 2 , f. ; 
portée s, f. 

Byssboppe — euesque s, m. 

Bysshoppyng of chyldren — confrmation s, f. 

Bysshoprike — euesché z,Ta. 

Bysshoppes ring — pontifical x,m. 

Bysshoppes crosse — crosse s, f. 

Businesse — affaire s, m. ; empeschement s , m. 

Bysket bredde — biscvit z, m. 

Bytche a slic dogge — chienne s, f. 

Bytche Ihat gothe a saute — lice s , (.; chienne 
chavlde s, f. 

Byting of any beest — morsure s, f. 

Byting of the brideli — rongevre s, f. 

Bytte of a brideli — mors, m. 

Bytternesse — aigrevr s, f. ; amertume s, {,; as- 
presse s, f. 

B BEKOKE L. 

Blabbe — cacijuetevr s, ra. 

Blacke chery — merise s , f. 

Black chery tree — merisier s , m. 

Blacke sope — sauon noir s, m. 

Blacke frère — jacobin s, m. 

Blacke bery — framboise s, (. 

Blacke byrde — estovrneav x, m. 

Black liorse — moreav x, va. 

Blacke byll to fyght — uovlge s, m. 

Blacke smytbe — mareschal x, m. 

Blacke of the eye — le nojr de lojl s, m. 

Blade of corne — le ble uert s, m. 

Blade of a knyfe — alumelle s, f. 

Bladder in a beest — uessie Sj f. 

Blades to wynde yarne on — tovrnettes, f. 

Blâme — blasme s, m. ; covlpe s, f. 

Blayne sore — escharboncle », f. ; uczie s,f. 

Blanket clothe — blanchei z, m. 

Blasphemar — blasphcmcvr s, m.; blasphéma- 

tevr s, m. 
Blasphemyng — blasphème 5, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



199 



Blase of fyre — flamme s, f. 

Blasyng of armes — blason s, m. 

Blasyng starre — commette s,{. 

Blast of wynde — bovffee de uent s, f. 

Blaundrelle an apple — brandureav œ, m. 

Bleke a lyteil fysshe — able s, m. 

Blcche for souters — attrament s,m.;noyr s, m. 

Blemysshe — macule s, f. 

Blessyng — bénédiction s, f. 

Blynde nettell — ovrlie blanche s, f. 

Blyndnesse — auevglerie s , (. 

Blysse — joye s, f. 

Blysfulnesse - — ■ béatitude s, f. 

Blober upon water — bovteillis, f. 

Blode worte herbe. 

Blode of any beest — sang z, m. 

Blode hou n de — limier s, m. 

Blody mensyn sickenesse. 

Blocke of tree — tronchei z, m.; tronc z, m. 

Blocke of tynne — savmon deslain s, m. 

Blocke or byllet — 6i7ot z, m. 

Blome a flour — Jlevr s, f. 

Blossome of a tree — flevr defrvict s, f. 

Blottc with ynke — poste s, f. 

Blottyng — broillerie s, f. 

Biovve on the cheke — jovee s, f. 

Blowbole — jraroigne s, m. 

Blowe wilh onej fysl — siifflet z, m. 

Bluntnesse of anyedged toole — agasseté z, f.; 

agassurc s, f. 
Blustryng of wyndcs — behovrdis, m. 

B BEFORE O. 

Bobet on the heed — covp de poing z, m. 
Bobbyn fora gylke woman — bobin s, t. 
Bocher that kylleth fleshe — bovchier s, m. 
Bochery — bovcherie s, (. 
Body — corps, m. 

Body of a cburche — nef de lesglise z, f. 
Body of a tree. 

Bodkyn instrument — poynson s, m. 
Boye — garçon, jilz s, m. 
Boy of an ancre — boyee s,i. 
Boysluousnesse — roydevr s, f. 
Boke that sbeweth the actes and order in a 
journey — uoyagier s, m. 



Boke — liure s, m. 

Boke othe — jvrement de droict s, m. 

Boke bearer in a ployé — prothocoUe s, m. 

Bokesellar — libraire s, m. 

Bokebynder — relieur de liures s, m. 

Bokeram — bovgueram s, m. 

Bockette for a well — seav x, m. 

Bokette maker — Jaisevr de bahaz s, m. 

Bokyll — blovque s, f. 

Boclcr for defence — blovquier s, m. 

Bolas frute — prunelle s, f. 

Bolas tre — espine noire s, t. 

Boldnesse hardynesse — hardiesse s , f. 

Boledysshe or a bole — jatte s, f. 

Boikyng of the stomake — rovttement s, m. 

Bolstarre — trauersin s, m.; cheuecel z, m. 

Bolsteryng sluHyng — fulsement s, m. 

Boite or shacle — entraue s, f. 

Boite of a dore — uerrovl x, m. 

Bombarde a kynde of a gon — bombarde s, f. 

Bonde a lace — latz, m. 

Bondage — seruitmle s, f. 

Bonde to bynde with — lyen s, m. 

Bondell of russbes — bondeav dejoncz Cj m. 

Bondeman — serf z,m. 

Bonne ofa beest — os, m. 

Bonne fyre — fev de behovrdis x, m. 

Bonet ofa sayie — bonette dung Iref s, f. 

Bonnet maker — bonnettier s, m. 

Bonnet a cappe — ■ bonet z, m. 

Bonnet for a gentylwoman — coguille s, f. 

Bonhom a religiousman — bonhomme s, m. 

Bone a request — requeste s, L 

Bourage herbe — borache s, {. 

Boore beest — sanglier s, m. 

Boore spere — espiev x, m. 

Boores heed — hevre s, f. 

Boores brislell — saye de povrceav s, (. 

Boorde for buylding — ays, m. 

Boorde a table — table s,{. 

Borde clothe — nappe s,î. 

Bourde or game — jev x, m. 

Bourdayne — fais, m. 

Bordell house — bovrdeav x, m. 

Border ofa garment — brodevre s, {. 

Boorder that gothe to borde — commensal x, m. 



2Q0 LESCLARC 

Border rounde about a thyng — brodvtr s, f. 

Bordering of a garment — brodevre s, f. 

Borowe or thorowe fare — boarc z, m. 

Borde knyfe — covteav de escuier x, m. 

Borowe a pledge — pleigc s, m. 

Bosarde byrde — biisart s, m. 

Bosomc of a parsone — seyn s, m. 

Bosse of a bocler — bosse s, f. 

Bosse of a bridell — bosselle s , f. 

Bosse of a gyrdle — ferrevre diine tressovcre s, f. 

fiost crakyng — uanteric s , f 

Boster — uantevr s, m. 

Bostyng — uanlance s,i. 

Botcher of old garmenls — rauavderr s, m. 

Botche a sore — bosse de peslilence s, f. 

Boite to rowe in — nasselle, bateav x, m. 

Botleman — batlelier s, m. 

Bottcll to kepe drinke in — boteille s, (. 

Bottel of baye — bolteav dejayn x, m. 

Botyfelowe — parsomncr s, m. 

Boty that nian of warre take — butin s , m. 

Botiar — bovtellier s, m. 

Bottras of a wali — parlant s, m. 

Bottrye -^ despence s, f. 

Bottome of a sblppe — lasovlc s, f. 

Bottome of any tbyng — fous, m. 

Bollonie of threde — gliceav x, ni.; plotlon de 

Jil s, m. 
Bottes a sickenesse in ahorse — iranchajon 5, ni. 
Boote of ietbcr — houseav x, ta. 
Boothe of canvas — tente s, f. 
Boothe — hanieav x, m. 
Boothe ofbowes — rainée s, L^fveillcc s, f. 
■Boclc ihat beareth the byt — portemors, m. 
Builyon in a womans girdle — clov x, m. 
Boultyng clotbe or bulter — blvteav x, m. 
Boultyng tubbe — husche a bluter s , f. 
Burryon or budde of a tree — germe, burjon s, m. 
Bowe to sbote witb — arc z, m, 
Bowyer that makes bowes — arctiller s, m. 
Bouke of clothes — - buée s , {. 
Bowell gutle — bojaa x, m. 
Bowelles of a man or beest — entrailles, f. 
Bowleyne of a shippe — bolingue s, f. 
Boweshotte the space that one maye shote — 

archee s, f. 



ISSEMENT 

Bowstryng — corde s, f. ; cordeau x, m. 

Bowstryng vasikcr — jaisevr de cordes a lare s, m. 

Boughe branche — rame s, f. 

Bought of the arme — l^ plj du bras s, m. 

Bougettc — bovgette s, f. 

Bougetmaker — faisevr de bahnz s, m. 

Bouge furreromnienis — pcavx de Lonibardie, f. 

Bowle to playe wilh — bovle s,{. 

Bowle to playe at the byles — bille s, f. 

Boulnyng swellyng — injlalion s, f. 

Bounde or marke — bourne s, f. 

Bowre — salle s , f. 

Bourdyng jestyng — joncherie s, f, 

Bousshell measure — boisseav x,m, 

Boustuousncsse — impétuosité z , f. 

Boxeof a messangere — escvisson s, m. 

Boxe for medicyns, or to put any other thyng 

in — boile s, f. 
Boxe trc — boix s, f . 

B BEFORE R. 

Brabiyng — tencerie s, t. 

Brace of an house — bracc s, f. 

Bracelet for a ladies arme — bracellet z, m. 

Bracer to shote witb — brassellet z, m. 

Brace of gray houndes. 

Brache a kynde of houndes — brachel z, m. 

Braggar — fringuereav x, m. 

Brayde or hastynesse of mynde — colle s, f. 

Braydes of a womans heer — tresses, f. 

Brayne — cerneav x,m. 

Brayne of a mannes heed — ceruelle s, f. 

Brayne pan — taje de la teste, crâne s, m. 

Brake au instrument — braje s, f 

Brake ferne that groweth — fasiere s, f. 

Brake in clothe — rentreturc s, f. 

Bramble or brere — ronce s, f. 

Branne of mcale — son s, m. 

Branche ofatree — branche s, f. 

Branched damaske — damars figuré s, ni. 

Brandeof fyre — brandon dejev s, m. 

Brasse metall — arain s, m. 

Brasell tre to dye with — bresd z , m. 

Brasyer — fondeur, brassevr s, m. 

Brauler a chyder — criart s, m. 

Brauling — crierie s, f. ; tencon s, f. ; noise s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



201 



Brawne of a boore — lart 3, m. 

Brawne of the hande — le gras de la main, m. 

Brawne of an arme or legge — la sovris dv bras , f. 

Brawne of ail maner of llesshe — chaymnre s, f.; 
lart s. m. 

Brèche wliere water breke in — brèche j, f. 

Brèche of hosen — braiette, braie,braie, braies s, f. 

Bree of the eye — poil de loiel z, m. 

Bredde locale — pain s, m. 

Bredlhe of any ihyng — largeur s, (. 

Bredyng of byrdes — covuee s, (. 

Brede or squarenesse — croisure s, f. 

Brere that blacke berres growe upon — fram- 
boisier s,ra. 

Brest plate — escreuice s, f. 

Breke of the daye — adjoumement s, m.; laube 
creuant, laube du jour s, f. 

Brekefasl — desjeuner s, m. 

Breking of an aray in a felde — froissis, va. 

Brème fysshe — bresme s, f. 

Brere — ronce s,{. 

Brere or hethe — bruyère s,f. 

Bresea long flye — prestre s, f. 

Brest of a man — Jovrcelle s, f. ; pis, m. 

Brest of a man or beest — poictrine s, f. 

Brethe of a man — alaine s,L 

Brewar of aie — brasseur s, m. 

Bribour — briheur s,ia. 

Bribrye — briberie s, t. 

Bridait — unesnupces, f. ; espoasailles, t. 

Bridell for a horse — bride s, f. 

Bride grome — espoux, m. 

Bride woman — espousee s, f. 

Bridge over a dyke — planche s, f. 

Bridge of stone — pont z, va. 

Bridge of the nose — os du nez, m. 

Brighlnesse — luisance, resplendevr, clarté s,{. 

Bringyng to thraldonie — subjugation s, f. 

Bringyng in of a malter — discours, m. . 

Brinke of any thyng — ior( s, m. ; riae s, (. 

Brine sallevvater — saulmevre s, f. 

Bristell of a boore — saye de pourceav s, t. 

Brittylnesse — fragilité z, f. 

Broche for ones cappe — broche s, (. \ymage s, 
{.; ataiche s, f.\afjicquet z, m. 

Broche wilh a scripture — deuise s, f. 



Broche maker — bambelottier s, m. 
Brocke a beest — taxe s, f. 
Brood of byrdes — covuee doiseaux , niée s, f, 
Broode arrowe — rallion s, m. 
Broode daye — grqMjour s, m. 
Broode axe — hache large, dolovere s, i. 
Broderar — brodevr s, m. 
Broderyng of a garment — broderie s, f. 
Broker bylwene to marchauntes — coureiiers, m. 
Broker that speketh many languages — truche- 
ment s, m. 
Broken meate — fragments, m. 
Brome to swepe with — balay s, m. 
Brome tree — genest s, m. 
Bronde of fyre — tison s, m. 
Broke a lytell water — rvisseav x, m. 
Brosyng or broose — briseare s, t. 
Brothe potage — hrovet z, m. 
Brothe of fysshe or flesshe — bro'vel z, m. 
Brothcll — pailliarde, putayn s, f. 
Brothellcshouse — bordel z,m. 
Brother — frère s, m. 
Brother in lawe — searourge, beau-frere. 
Brotherheed — fraternité, confrairie s, f. 
Brother germayne — frère germain s, m. 
Brother worte herbe. 
Browe above the eye — sourcil z , m. 
Browne bredde — pain bis, m, 
Brunt hastynesse — chavlde colle s, f. 
Brusshe to brusshe with — uerge a nettoyer s, f. 
Brushe to make brusbes on — brvycre s, f. 
Brewes — brovet z, m. 

B BEFOItE U. 

Bubble in the water — bovteille s, i. 

Budde — bovton, bourgon s, m. 

BuDctte — baffee s, f,; covp de poing z,m, 

Budgette — bovgette s, t. 

Bugle beest — bepgle s, m. 

Bugle horne — cor de bevgle s, m. 

Bucke hounde — limonier s , m. 

Buckc beest — dain s, m. 

Buckeram — bovgueram s, m. 

Bucket to drawe water with — seai .r, m. 

Bucke to wasshe clothes in — cvuier s, m. 

Buccle for a shoo — blovgue s, f. 

i6 



202 



Boeder for defeoce — H— ^ l i rr s, va. 

Bail a beest — tanm. tar *, m. 

Bull tbatoommetli froa tbe pope — balte s,{. 

Buliocke — betf s, m. 

Bull rrsshe — /— cj l » w" «i,jwic fafauOe t, wêl. 

Bulwarke — itmk me rt s, m. 

Booche of gariike or soch other — fcoMe », f. 

Banleil — htaim x, m. 

Bu^ «f * taaae or pype — ktmià. z,m. 

Df yng < lt i« wnr , «A w *, f.; Wrrr t, f. 

Bamrng heate — arinr s, f. 

Bumyng of any tliyag — c— it afti » » «. f. 

Burrage berbe — itmmtjttf f. 

Barbie in tke water — imhtUe t, f. 

Bordajne — ;>ori«e *, f.; mMtmn s,'f. 

Borre tfaat devetk lo — g Ulm m s. m. 

Burgesse a man — iearyoù $, ■>. 

Borgesse wyfe — teryoùc », f. 



». 1 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Caytife wretche — ckftif î, m. ; mmUstn », m. 

Cake — fastett x,m. 

Cake of (yite floore made in a print of yron — 

forfre », f. 
Cackelyng bablyng — oacfaet :, m. 
Cail fbrquaylles — c f faitltt !, m. 
Callamynt heriie — cal— hil », a. 
Call for maydeos — reu ^ »oy«, f. 
Caidrone — ckaaUrm », m. 
Caleodre — iminulner t,m. 
OlengeorproTokyng to doatmes— cfcainjc x,f. 
Calfe beest — B«ae x, va. 
CdHeofalegge — ftmmum itUjamke x, m.; 



tofoyakiasbe fetbers — ^baiart 
Bussbell measore — ia iijw i x, m. 
Boakjng — hvit^aàt », ta. 
nmililMial — tmhmckr », f. 
Bnstanle ahjrde. 
BoUe ffaalie — fljt », t 
Balte to sbote at — iatte », f. 
Butteras for a mil — porruat », m. 
Butlocke of a man or beest — fesse ». f. 
Bnttour a bjrde — iatar », m. 
Butter to eale — berrre », m. 
BatterflTC — papUlom », m. 
Butlar — drspaisatnr, 
Batton for a garment — 
Botlrre — itspemct », il 

C BEPOBE A. 

Case to put arowesia — cattoie t, f. 
Case for nedelles — ■jKjiffiir s, m. 
CaUe for a shjf^ — ckaUt », f. 
Cabbyn in a shyppe — cckaa », m. 
Cabbrssbe rote — cAo* jr, m. ; cmias, m. 
Cace to close a thyng io — oatte », f. 
Caddas or cmle — sayeUe », f. 
Caddawe a bjrde — clouas f , f. 
Cade of heerryng — esettde », C 
Cage for a bjrde — cai^ », £. 



Ir mut de lajaaAe z, n. 
Calyoo stone — caHov *,va. 
Callyagaga|ae — MMoaftaa «,L 
Callyng nanrfng — ^iB i rr », f. 
Callyng upon — ùaocatio» t, f. 
Calme styll wbelba- — carme s, m. 
Calstorle — pie de chn s, va. 
Cahr^ipe — ckarssetrappe », f. 
Criver of saulmon — etemme d* laiémoa s, t. 
Cammamyll berbe — ca ïai iHr s, f. 
Camfocie a gamme — caa^n », m. 
CamfoT^e berbe — la graadt tannUt s, t. 
Cammell a beest — ckamiea» x, m. 
Camuse precious stone — dtamakitax, va. 
Canapy to be borne over the sacrament or over 

a kynges beed — paUe », m. 
CaodeU — dUMkBe ». f. 
Candelmasse feest — la t tamiitu », f. 
Candelstycke — duatidia- », an. 
Canell ^iee — caKeUe », f. 
Canndl in tbe streie — rrûiea» dtUrae x,m. 
Cancker sore — cioacne », m. 
Cancker worme — ner de clumcrt », m. 
Cannon lawe — le droit caaoa z, va. 
Canop; — ciel i, m. 
Canidl or shyrer — ckaatÊam x, m. 
Canlell of bredde — étamlem ie ptàa x, m. 
Canvas — cannas , m. 
Car>par — 4o«ii«tt«>r », m. 
Cqipe with a double tnrfe — harttte », C; lao- 

^m de wùdlmm. z, f. 
Cappe — \ivmei :, m. 
Cappe of fenœ — styreMr de mtailie », f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



203 



Cappe of a flayle — liasse danjlaiav s, f. 
Capitayiie — capilaine s, m. 
Capitayns banner — ensigne s, (. 
Captivité — chateuoison s, f. 
Capone fouie — chapon s, m. 
Capuil a horse — rovssin s, m. 
Carracte in priclte soog — minime s, f. 
Ceirawayes smail confetles — draggee s, f. 
Carboncle stone — escharboncle s, m. 

Carboncle a blayne — escharboncle s, f. 

Carde to worlte with — carde s, f. 

Cardynall — cardinal x, m. 

Cardes to play with — cartes , f. 

Carder of wolie — cardevr s, m. 

Carde malcer — cardier s, m. 

Carde, clothe for brides : they use none. 

Carefuinesse — sollicitude s, f. 

Care thought — chagrin s, m. ; soing z, m. 

Carre a carte — chariot z, m. 

Carre a lytell carte with two wheles — char s,va. 

Carryar of staiTe by faorsbacke — noictarier s, m . 

Carryar by carte — charron s. m. 

Carryage — baggaige s, m.; aoicture s, {.; ap- 
port s, m. 

Carrycke a greal shippe — caraque s, (. 

Caryen — charoigne s, (. 

Carkes of a foule — gnmche s, f. 

Carie chorle — uilain s, m. 

Carole a son g — chancon de noel s, f. ; corolle s. f. 

Carpe fysshe — carpe s, {. 

Carpette — tapis, ra. 

Carpen tar ^ cfca/]pen<i<r s, m. 

Carsey clothe — cresy s, m. 

Carter — charrecton s, m.; chartier s, m. 

Carte — charette s, f. 

Carte clout of yron — plalin de fer s, m. 

Carte wright — charron i,m. 

Carte wave — charriere s, f. 

Carte Iode — chartee s, ï. 

Carte rode — ornière s, f. 

Case of lether to put a combe , a recorder or 
any suche lyke thyng in — estuj s, m. 

Case for pynnes or suche like — esplinguier s,m. 

Casket or hamper — escrayn s, m. 

Casket or fosar — escrain s, m. 

Caste or throwe — ject z,m. 



Castell — chiuteav x, va. 

Caste of faaukes — niée doiseaax s, {. 

Catchepole — sergent s, m. 

Castyng to — ■ adition s, f. 

Castyng toppe — toppee s, f. 

Caterpyllarworme — chattepellevse s, {. 

Cathedrall churche — esglise cathedralle s, f. 

Catte a beest — chat z, m. 

Cattistayle herbe — Jallot z, va. 

Catour of a gentylmans bouse — despensier s, m. 

Cattell — bétail z, m. 

Caudell — chaadeax x, m. 

Caudron — chavldiere s, f. 

Cavyllation — caeillation s, f. 

Causion pledge — cavtion s, f. 

Cause — cavse s, f. 

Cautell fleyght — cavielle s,(. 

Causey in a hye way — chavsee z, {. 

C BEFORE E. 

Cedar tree — cèdre », m. 
Cellar for a bedde — ciel de lit z, m. 
Ceale a fysshe — chavlderon de mer s, m. 
Cellandyne herbe — celidoine s, f. 
Celestyn a man of religion — celestin s, m. 
Cell a lytell bouse — demevre s, (. 
Cellar for wyne — cellier s, m. 
Cellerar an oDicer — celerier t, m. 
Cendell thynne lyonen — sendal x, m. 
Cène of clerkes — conuocation s, (. 
Cens — ensent, m. 
Censar — ensensier s, m, 
Centuarie herbe — centaure s,{. 
Ceptre for a kyng — ceplre s, ra. 
Cerclel for a womans beed — ciercle s, m. 
Ceremony — cerimonie s, f. 
Cercle or compassé — cercle t,m. 
Certayntie — certaineté z, f. 
Cessyng — intermission, cessation s, t. 
i Cesterne — puleav x , va. ; cisterne s,{. 

C BEFORE H. 

Chaflie — paille s, {. 

Chaflre ware — marchandise s, f. 

Chafer to heate water in — coquemerl s, m. 

Cbafyngdysshe — eschavjfette s, (. 

26. 



204 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Chafyag frettyng — cale/action s, f. ; eschavffe- 
ture s, {. 

Cbal'yng of the mynde — eschavffoison, stoma- 
chation s, f. 

Chayre to sytte in — chaiere s, f. 

Chayne for ones necke — chaync s, f. 

Cbalenge or clayme — chalenge s , f. 

Chalenger in anyjustyng — assaillant s, m. 

Chalys to syng masse with — calice s, m. 

Chalke — craje s, f. 

Chambre — chambre s, (. 

Chamberer — chambrière, pedisseque s, (. 

Chamberlayne — chambellan s, m. 

Chamlet sylke — camelot z,n\. 

Champyon — champion s, m. 

Chandeilar that maketb chandelles — chande- 
lier s, m. 

Chanelle of a flode — chanel z, m. 

Chanel) of a slreame — le jil de Veave z, va. 

Cbangyng — uariement s, m. 

Chanon a religions man — chanoine s, m. 

Chantyng of songe — renyoiserie s, f. 

Chape of a shethe — bovterolle de gayne s, f. 

Chapell — chapelle s,(, 

Cbapplayne — chappelain s, m. 

Chapelet — chapellet t, m. 

Chapmaa — marchant s, m. ; châtiant s, m. 

Chapiter — chapitre s, m. 

Charcole — charbon s, m. 

Charge — charge s, f. 

Charger a great platter — ung grant plat z , m. 

Charret — carre s, m. 

Charryet — chariot branlant s, m. 

Charyte — charité z, f. 

Charme an enchauntment — charme s, m. 

Chamelhouse — charnière s, f. 

Charter a pardon — grâce s, f. 

Chase of tennys — chasse s, (. 

Chastysiug — chasloiement s, m. 

Chaslyte — chastité z,{. 

Chastuesse of body — chasteté z, (. 

Chatteryng of byrdes — j'^'yn s, m. 

Chafyng of the skynne — rejovlevre s, {. 

Chawe hone — machovere s, f. 
Chaufrayne , a pece of harnesse for a horse — 
chaufroin s, m. 



Chaunce fortune — aduenture s ,(.; accident s, 

m. ; chance s, f. 
Chauncell of a churche — cunr desglise s, m. 
Chauncellar — chancellier s, m. 
Chauncery — chancellerie s, (. 
Chauncynge — aduenant s, va. 
Changer of money — changevr s, m. 
Chaungyng — entrechangement s, m.; «iterarion 

s, f. ; maance s, (. 
Chaunler — chantre s, m. 
Chaunlery — chanterie s,(. 
Cbefe baron of the cschequer — président de 

generaulx s, m. 
Chefe capilayne — gênerai de larmee x, m. 
Cbefe rular of a gally — patron de la galee s, m. 
Cbefe officer of meane estate — maistre es- 

cuier s, m. 
Cbefe origynall — capital x, m. 
Chefe capitayne — cheuetain s, va. 
Chefenesse — singularité z , f. 
Checke a mery taunl — lardon s, m. 
Checker — eschecquier s, va. 
Cheke of a man — jove s,(. 
Cbekynwede herbe — movron s, ta. 
Chekebonne — los de la jove, m. 
Cbekyn — povssein s, va. 
Cheyne — chayne s,(. 
Chepe — marché z, m. 
Chère — acveil z, m. 
Chery frute — cerise s, f. 
Chery tree — cerisier s, m. 
Cherystone — noiav de cerise x, m. 
Cherne to make butter in — bevrrette s , (. 
Chesse borde — tableav aux eschecz x, m. 
Chesloppe a worme — cloporte Sj f. 
Chese — fromage s, va. 

Cbese casten in a molde-/romHiaige déformes, m . 
Cbese cake — gasieav, torleav .r, va. 
Chese rake — caisier afrommages s, va. 
Chese fatte — presse afrommages s, f. 
Chysell a toole for carpentars — siseau x, m. 
Chesyblc for a preest — chasuble s,(. 
Chestayne frute — chestaigne s,{. 
Chestayne tree — chestaignier s, va. 
Chest — coffre s, m. 
Cbestnut frute — chestaigne s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



205 



Cbest of a maii — fovrcclle s, f. ; pis, m. 
Chcvyn a fysshe — cheuenne s, f. 
Chevereil letlier — clieacrotin s, m. 
Chevorell an h,erbe — cerfoil z, m. 
Chevesaunce — cheuisance s, f. 
Chebole a yong ouyon — ciaol z, m. 
Chidyng — altercation, noise , tencon s, f. 
Chefe chauncellar — archichancelier s, m. 
Cliefe chaplayne — archickapelain s, m. 
Cliilaiidre — chilandre s , {. 
Cliylde — enfant s, m. 
Chyldehode — enfance s, (. 
Cliildes ratle to plây with — hochette s, f. 
Chyldcbedde — accovchement i,m. ; gesine s, t. 
Chylde or beest borne aforc the tynie — auor- 

tin 5, ni. 
Chyme of belles — gamme s, f. 
Chymney — chiminee s, f. 
Chynneof a visage — menton s, m. 
Chyne of a beest — eschine s, f. 
Cliyppe of wode — coupiav x, m. 
Chippynges ofbrede — chappelis de pain, m. 
Cbyppyng of oncs bandes or face — gersure s,{. 
Chyve of safron or sucbe lyke. 
Churche wardeyne — gardien s, m. 
Churche — esglise s, t.\monstier s, m. 
Churche yarde — semitiere s, m. 
Churche porlche — auant portail z, m. 
Chyrkyng of byrdes — ji-^gon s, va. 
Chysl a great cofer — arche s, f. 
Chyterlyng — endoile s, f. 
Cbivairy — cheaallerie s, f. 
Chyve an herbe — due s, f. 
Choyse — achoison s, f.; eslite s, f. ; option s, f. 
Cboke pcarc — estranguiUon s, m. 
Chaungyng — transmutation , f. 
Chosar — electevr s, m. 
Chosyng — élection s, f. 
Chougho a yong crowe — corneille s, f. 
Chuffe — boiffe s, m. 
Cburle carie — ailain s, m.; hvdicr s, m. 
Churlysshenesse — rusticité, uillainie s, f. 

C BEFORE y. 

Cyment lo hylde with — ciment s, m. 
Cydar a drinke — cidre s, va. 



Cynders of coles — hreze s, f. 

Cynamome a spyce — cinamome, canelle s, (. 

Cyrcute — pourprise s, f. 

Cyprès a kynde of wode — cyprès s, m. 

Circumsicion — circumsicion s, f. 

Cyrcumstance of a luatter — circamstance s, f. 

Cyprès for a womans necke — crespe s, m. 

Cyprès tree — cyprès s, m. 

Cysme divysion — cisme s, m. 

Citron frute — citron s, m. 

Citron tree — citronnier s, m. 

Cytie — citez , f. 

Cityng of one to the court — adjovrnement 

s, m. 
Cityien of a cytie — citoyen s , m. 
Cyve to syfte with — crible s, m. 
Civyll iawe — droict ciuil z, m. 
Cyves an herbe — dues, f 

C BEFORE L. 

Clamour — clamevr s, f. 

Clappe on the hced — sajfflet z, m. 

Clappe on the necke — colee s, f. 

Clappe with ones hande — bovffèe s, f. 

Clappe of a myll — clacqiut de movlin z,m. 

Clappcr for a bell — battant s, m. 

Clapper of connys — clappier s, m. 

Oappyng or noyse — chapplys, m. 

Clarry wyne — cleré s, f. 

Clarry herbe — tovlte bonne s, f. 

Claryon truinpel — cleron s, m. 

Claspe for a garnnnent — ograffe s, m.; crfi- 
chet z, m. 

Claspe for a boke — fermoier, fermail z, m. 

Clasteryng — cax:tjuet z, la. 

Claricymballes — cimballes s,(. 

Clause — clause s, {. 

Claweof a byrde — ongle s,(. 

Clawe of a man or best — gfipe s, f. 

Clay erthe — aryille s, f. 

Clay pylte — fosse d'argille s, (. 

Clay wall — paroy daryille s, f. 

Clenlynesse — netteté, pureté z, f. 

Clerenesse of any thyng that sbyneth — clar- 
té z, {. 

Clerenesse of welher — sérénité z, f. 



206 

Clergy — clergie s, m. 

Clerke that is lettred — clerc z, m. 

Cierke of the closet — clerc de chappelle t, m. 

Clerke of the kechyn — despencier s, m. 

Clerke of tlie comptes — auditevr s, m. 

Clergy a jiombre of clerkes — clergie s, va. 

Clerkes lernyng — clergise s, (. 

Clevyng to — adiiesion s, (. 

Clewe of thred — (jliceav x, m.; ploton s, m. 

Ctiffe of a hyll — crevx dune moiitaigiie, m. 

Clyfte of any thyng ryven — fente s, (. 

Clyft of a tree — crevx, m. 

Clyft or chyn in any thynge — fendure, fen- 

dasse s, {. 
Clyfte in a wall — brèche s, f 
Clycket of a dore — clicquelte s, f. 
Clyppes — eclypse , recovsse de soleil s,f. 
Clyppar of money — rongevr dor s, m. 
Clodde of erthe — monceav de terre x, va. 
Clocke of a hose. 
Clogge — hillot z, m. 
Cloyster — cloystre s, nj. 
Cloystrer — cloistrier s, m. 
Clocke to shewe the boures — horiioge s, m. 
Clocke maker — horilogier s, m. 
Cloke agarment — manteav x, m. 
Cloke with a hode. 

Close a grounde enclosed — pre s, m. 
Closet for a lady to make her redy in — cham- 

berette Sjf. 
Closyer — clos , m. 
Closyng of a grounde with hedgc or pale — 

closlure s, f. ; cloyson s, f. 
Closes — praerie s , f. 
Closet — chapelle s, f. 
Closyng orshillynge — enclo: , m. 
Clothe woHen — drap z, m. 
Clothe lynen — toylie s, f. 
Clothe maker — drappevr s, m. 
Clothe of golde — drap dor z,m. 
Clothe of tyssue — drap dortrait z, va. 
Clothe ofarras — tapisserie s, (. 
Clothe of sylver — drap dargeat z, m. 
Clothe sacke — bahus, m. 
Clothe to put on a herce whan a inan is bu- 

ryed — poilte s, m. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Clothyng — abillement, parement s, m.; ucs- 

tare s, f.; appareil z, m. 
Clove spyce — clou de girojle x, va. 
Clove of garlyke — teste dail s, (. 
Cloude — nue, nuée s, f. 
Cloute of a ragge of clothe — hation s , m. ; 

torchon s, m. 
Cloute of a sho — ung talon s, m.; ung de- 

uant s, m.; ung debout z,ai. 
Clubbe — massue s, f. ; mace s, f. 
Clewe of yarne or threde — plotton s, m. 
Clustre of grapes — grappe s, f. 

C BEFORE O. 

Coartyng — efforcement s, m. 

Cohhlar — sauctier s, va. 

Cobbylslone — caillou x,ni. 

Cockeatrice a serpent — côcatris, m. 

Cocke a he byrde — coq z , m. 

Cocket a byll of tbe customehouse — estic- 
quette s, f. 

Coccle a reed floure. 

Coccle fysshe — coquille s , (. 

Cockes combe — creste de cocq s, f. 

Codde of a man — coaillon s, m.; boursel- 
te s, f. 

Codde of a beane or pesé — escosse s, (. 

Codde a fysshe — cableav x, m. 

Codiyng frute — pomme cvite s, t. 

Codpese — braiette s, (. 

Codde of a nette — le col dune retz, m. 

Cofer to put stuffe in — cofre s, va. 

Coflyn — grant boiste s, f. 

Coy fe for ones heed — coyfve s, {. 

Coyte to playewith — palet z,va. 

Coyle of stone — bricoteav x, va. 

Coyne money — monaye, pecune s, [. 

Coynar of money — monayevr s, va. 

Coke that selleth meate — cvisinier s, m. 

Cockcbote to rowe with — cocqaet z, m. ; nos- 
selle s, f. 

Cocke of hey — mulon defoyn s , vn. 

Cockerell — cochet z,va. 

Cokell shell — coquille s, f. 

Cokell of the clothe — nev de drap x, va. 

Cockesshote to take wodcockes with — uolee s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



20: 



Cokowe a byrde — qnocquev z, m. 

Cokolde — qaocqttev s, m. 

Cokes vcne. 

Colour for a horse — licol z, m.; collier s, m. 

Colour for a liounde — coUer a chien s, m. 

CoUarforagentylman — coller s,tn,; chaîne s, f. 

Coldnesse — froidure s,f. 

Colour the complexion in a man — colère s, f. ; 

cole Sj f. 
Coles — colis, m. 
Coleworte an herbe — chov x , m. 
Cole of fyre — charbon s, m. 
Colenesse — Jreschevr s, f. 
Colledge house — collège s, m. 
Collégial churche — esglise collegialle s, (. 
Colendre to strayne with — covleresse s, f. 
Collet the seconde order — acolile s, m. 
Collyke a sickenesse — colique s, f. 
Collyer — charbonnier s, m. 
Collar angre — chavlde cole , cole s, f. 
Colloppe meate — oevf au lard x, m. 
Colour, as white or blacke — coulevr s, f. 
Couloured peace — paix fourrée s,(. 
Coulour a fayned matter — coalevr s, t. 
Colcrake — ralissover s, m. 
Coite a yong horse — pollayn s, m. 
Columbyne (loure — cocqaeloarde s, f. 
Commaundement — commandement, edictz,m. 
Combe to kcmbc with — jiiemjne s, m. 
Combe maker — piengnier s, m. 
Combrance distrouble — combrance s , {. 
Comète a slarre — cornette s, f. 
Confortyng — alegement, allégeance s, l. 
Commedy of a cfaristmas playe — commedie 

s,{. 
Commyng nere — approche s, f. 
Commyng to ■ — accès, adaenue s, f. 
Commyng — adaenement, uenue s, f. 
Comynaitic — communalté z,{. 
Commyn sedc — comyn s, m. 
Comnant appoyntment — • conuenant s, m. 
Commissary — commissaire s, ni. 
Commodyte — comodité z, m. 
Common peopie — populaire s, m. 
Common welthe — bien publique s, m.; chose 

publique s, t. 



Common dyet in a mannes house — ordinaire s, m. 

Common standards of a measure — maistresse 
mesure s, L 

Common law — droit commun z, m. 

Conimonesse — communitè z, f. 

Communication — sermon s, m.; communication 
s,{. 

Company — compaignie s, f. 

Company assembled — monde, tourbe s, {. 

Company of lordes — seigneurie, bamaige s, f. 

Company of noble men — consistoire s, m. 

Company of gentylmen — gentillesse s, (. 

Company of knaves — uillainie s, f. 

Company of misérable fofkes -^ mardaille s, f. 

Company of dogges — chiennaille s, f. 

Company or meyny of shippcs — flotte s, f. 

Company of thre — trinité z, f. 

Company about a great man — brigade s, f. ; 
bende s, f. 

Company of wylde foule — uol z, m. 

Companyon a felowe — compaignon s, m. 

Comparyng — comparution s, f. 

Comparison — comparison s, f.; comparution s, f. 

Compas a cercle or rondell — compas, m.; 
cercle s, m. 

Compas for a carpentar — compas,in.;ceme s,f. 

Compassyng of tyme — reuolation s, [. 

Compassynggoyngaboutathyng — circmtions,f. 

Compassyng a matter farre of — circumbages , m . 
Compassion — compassion s , f. ; pitié s , f 
Compellyng — efforcemenl s, m. 
Complayning — querimonie s, t. 
Complaynt — complayntes, m.; plainct z, m. 
Complexion — comjilexion s, f. 
Coniplayne in the churche — compiles. 
Composition — composition s, {. 
Conipremyse — compromis s, m. 
Conception — conception s,{, 
Conceyte — fantaisie s, (. 
Conceyving — conception, f. 
Concludyng — ■ discussion s , (. 
Conclusion brifely doue — somme s, f. 
Conclusion — consequens, conclusion s,{. 
Concorde — concord s, va. 
Concubyne — concubine s,f. 
Condycion — condition s, f. 



208 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Condicyon a pioperlic — propriété z, f. 
Condycions maners — mears , f. 
Condyte of water — Jonlajne s,i. 
Conduyf — onyane s , m, 
Condicyon, a custome or maner — tayche s , f. 
Conduycle of a mater — condaycle s, f. 
Confection — conjection s, f. 
Confederyng — confédération s,(. 
Confessyon — confession s,{. 
Confesseur a goostly father — confessevr s, m. 
ConfyrmatioD — confirmation s, (. 
Confyrming — confirmation s, f. 
Confort — confort s, m.; consolation s, f. 
Confusvon — confusion s, t. 
Congar fysshe — congre s,ia. 
Congrégation — congrégation s, f. 
Cony a beest — conin s, m. 
Conyhole or clapar — taisniere s,{.; terrier s, m. 
Cony garthe — garenne s, f. 
Conjuration — conjuration s, t. 
Connyng scyence — science s, f. 
Conjunction — conjunction s, f. 
Conjecture — conjecture s, f. 
Conquest — conqueste s,(. 
Conquerour — conquesteur, conquerear s, m. 
Conscience — conscience s, f, 
Counsell — secret t,vtt.;aduis m.: consejl z,Ta. 
Counsellyng to any tbyng — instigation , con- 
sultation Sj f. 
Counsell chambre — chambre de parlement s,{. 
Consent — accord, consentement s, m. 
Consentyng to a tbyng — aduev x, m. 
Conserve niadeof llouresor frute — conserae s, f. 
Conservyng — conservation s,{. 
Consydering of a tbyng — circunspeclion s, f. 
Consystorie a courte — consistoire s, m. 
Constable an oflicer — conestable s, m. 
Constablesbyppe — coneslablee s, f. 
Constantnesse — constance s, f. 
Constytution — constitution s,{. 
Constrayning — cohertion s, f. 
Conslraynt — contraincte s, [. 
Consumption — cousumption s, {. 
Contaglousnesse — infection s, f. 
Contemplation — contemplation s, f. 
Conteyning — contenement s, m. 



Contention stryfe — contens s, m. 

Content of a mater — teneur s,{. 

Contentes of writyng — contenue s, f. 

Conterpoynt — contrepoynt s, m. 

Contynuing — continuation s,[. 

Countrey — teritoire s,m.;contree Sj{.\paisjm. 

Contrary parte — partie diverse s,{. 

Contrariousnesse — contrariété z, f. ; contra- 
rienseté z, f. 

Contrition — contrition s, f. 

ControHer — controlleur s, m, 

Conveyeng — conuoyement s,tn. 

Covenaunt — conuenant, pact z, m. 

Cole — charbon s , m. 

Coles sucbe as be gyven in ténèbre wcke — 
afferendons , m. 

Coke — rojliceiir s, m. 

Coke tbat byelb meate to seit agayne — rôtis- 
seur, charcuitier s, m. 

Copc for a preest — cliappe s, f. 

Coupe or coule for capons or other poultric 
ware — caige aux chappons s, (. 

Coppar metall — cviure, souldure s , m. 

Coppy of a boke — double s , ra. 

Copy of any otber tbyng — copye s , f. 

Copyousnesse — copieuselé z, (. 

Coupyli of any thyng — paire, f. 

Copwebbe — araigniee s, f. 

Copras for ynke — couperose s, (. 

Corail stone — coral x, m. 

Corandre a herbe — coriandre s, {. 

Corde — cordeav , corde s, f. 

Corde a lace — cordon s, m. 

Cordiall medicyne — cordial x, m. 

Cordwayner — cordaanier s, m. 

Cordwayncrs threde — chief gros, ra. 

Cordwayne lether — corduain s, va. 

Corellar in reason tbet folowelh another — 
corlaire s, m. 

Corne — ble,frument s, m. 

Core of frute — troignon s, m. 

Cornalyn a pale reed stone — cornaline s, f. 

Cornar — angle s,va.; cornet i, m. 

Correction — correction , punition , discipline s, f. 

Curryour of lether — covrayevr s, m. 

Coriandre sede — coriandre s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



209 



Corke for slyppars — liège s, ui. 

Cormeranta hebyrde — cormerant s, m. 

Cormerant a slie byrde — cormerande s, (. 

Cornet to put spice in — cornet z, m. 

Corner ofa tliing — coing z,m.; canton s, m. 

Corner ofthe eje — coing doeyl z , m. 

Corne felde — champ de ble s, m. 

Cornet a home — cornet z, va. 

Coronation — coronement s, m. 

Corownc — corone s, f. 

Corruption — corruption s, f. 

Corporas for a châles — corporeav x,m. 

Corporation — corporation s, f. 

Corse of a gyrdell — tissu x , m. 

Corse weaver — tissutier s, m. 

Corse a deed body — corps, m. 

Courser of horses — covrtier de chevaulx s, m. 

Corvyser — cordovanier s, m. 

Cosshe a sorie house — caueme s, f. 

Cosyn kynsman — cousin s, m. 

Cosyn kynswoman — cousine s, (. 

Cosyn brolhers children — cousin germain s, m. 

Cost.or costage — covstage s, f. ; dépense s,(.; 

covstz , m. 
Costes charges — Jraiclz, m. 
Cost mary herbe — coste marine s, (. 
Cost of a countrc — couste s,f.\ cousiiere s, f. 
Coslardmongar — Jmyctier s, m. 
Costyousnesse — snmptaositi z,t. 
Cote a byrde. 

Cote with slevesor without sleves — saion s, m. 
Cote for a ladde — jacquette s, f. 
Cote armour — cotte d'armes s, f. 
Cotelar — coutellicr s, m. 
Cotidien axes — fièvre quotidienne s, f. 
Collon for weke — cotton s, la. 
Courbe to courbe a borse with — courbe s,{. 
Cokestole — selle a ricaldes s, f. 
Covent relygious folke — cornent s, m. 
Covcr for a potte — covueleque s, f. 
Coveryng for a boke — chemisette s ,{. 
Coveryng for a bedde — eotiuertoir s, m. 
Coverlet for a bedde — covucrture de lict s.f. 
Covert — recelée s, f. ; covuerture s, f. 
Covetyse — covuoitise s, (. 
Covetousnesse — cupidité z, f. 



Coite a yong horse — povllain s, ni. 

Cowavdnesse — pusillanimité z, (. 

Covvarde — covart s, m. 

Cowardyse — lâcheté z,ï, 

Cowe a beest — uache s, f. 

Couche bedde — couche s, t. 

Cowe house — uacherie s, (. 

Courchefe — qaevuerchief z, m. 

Coupborde — unes almoires, t. 

Coughe disease — tous, f. 

Coide — froit z, m. \ froidure s, f. 

Coldnesse — morjondure s, f. 

Coule for a monke — froc z, m. 

Colynge or makynge colde — réfrigération s, 1. ; 

refroidure s,î. 
Cobbya of an ele or any fysshe — dalle s, f. ; 

tronson s, m. 
Combe of corne a measure — mine s, f. ; mi- 

not z, m. 
Comfyte swete spyce — confie s, f. 
Com forte — confort s, m. 
Counsaylers of a cytie — consavlx, m. 
Count a womans shappe — con s, m. 
Count a rekenning — compte s, m.;jecl z, m. 
Count botche — bosse chancrevse s, {. 
Countynaunce — contenance s, f ; lèvre s, f.; 

geste s, m. ; semblant s, m. ; semblance s, f. 
Countynaunce laughyng — rys, m. 
Counterbase in song — contrebasse s, m. 
Counlerfayt gentylman — genlillatre s, m. 
Counterfayt heer — perreiicque s, f. 
Counterfayling — contrej'aicture s, f. 
Counterpayse — contrepoys s, m. 
Countesse — conlesse s, {. 
Countie an erledome — conté z,i. 
Countyng a somme of money — calculation s, 

f. ; computation s,[. 
Counture — contever s, m. 
Counlers to caste a count with — jecl z, m.-, 

jecton s, m. 
Counter a countyng house — comptoyr s, m. 
Countrey — contrée s, f. 
Counirey man or woman — contreyman. 
Coupar a craftesuian — tonnelier s, m. 
Couple of any thynges — covple s, m. 
Couple of houndes — laisse s, t. 

37 



210 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Coupe for capons — caige à chappons s, f. 
Courbe for a bridell — govrmette s, t. 
Courfewe a ryngyng of belles towarde evenyng 

— covurefev x,m. 
Courar a poste — poste s, m.; covrrevr s, m. 
Courrar of lether — covrayevr s, m. 
Course — covrs, m.; course s, f. 
Course of nieate — assiette s, f. 
Course of a shippe whan she sayleth — 

laisse s, (. 
Cours of order — tovr s, m. 
Course ofronnyng — covrse s, f. 
Course of frute — assiette, jssue de la table. 
Course lowe — tanure s , (. 
Coursar horse — covrsier s, m. 
Coursar of horses — covrtier de chm'oulx. 
Court — court s, f. 

Court where men plede — avditoir s, m. 
Courtall a kynde of gonnes of horses — covr- 

tavlt X, m. 
Courten for a bedde — custode s, f. ; covr- 

tine Sj {. 
Courtery — urbanité, covrtoisie s, f. 
Courtesnesse — bénignité z, (. 
Courture — covrtisan s, m. 
Courtyers — gens de covrt, t. 
Coustrell that wayteth on a speare — covsteil- 

lier s, m. 
Covey of partriches — uolee s, {.; co^mee j, f. 
Covent lofe — miche s, f. 
Coveryng of a sadell — hovsse s,f. 

C BEFOBE R. 

Crabbe fysshe — crabbe s , f. 

Crabbe frute — pomme de boys s, f. 

Craches herbe — - movron s, m. 

Cradell — berseav,hers x, va. 

Cradell bande — bendie de berseav x, m. 

Craker aboster — bobancier s, m. 

Crafte sleyght — malengin s, m.; regnardie s , f. 

Crafte science — art s, m.; artifice s, t. 

Crafte sublylte — asluce s,î. 

Crafte of multypiyeng — alquenemie s , (. 

Crafte of huntyng — uenerie s, f. 

Craftisman — mécanique s, m. 

Craftie felowe — regnart s, m. 



Craftie dcaiyng — trajjicque s, m. 

Cragge — roche s, f. 

Cracke breakyng — fente s, f. 

Crake a bostyng — uanle, uanlerie s, f. 

Craker a boster — aanlevr s, m. 

Crakyng bostyng — uantance s, f. 

Crakyng felowe — cocquart s, m. 

Crackenell — cracquelin s, m. 

Crampe — govte, crampe s, f. 

Crâne colour — gris cendré, m. 

Crâne of a wharfe — grue s, f. 

Crany or ryst — cravasse s, f. 

Crapaude a precious stone — crapaudine s, (. 

Cratcbe for horse or oxen — crèche s, f. 

Créature a poore soûle — créature s, (. 

Crede belue — credo s, va. 

Credence — créance s,f. 

Credytour that trusteth one — créancier s, m. 

Creke where water commeth inat — brèche s, f. 

Creame to eate — crcsme s, f. 

Creame holly oyie — cresme, m. 

Creasc encrease — reuenaes, augmentation s, t. 

Cresses herbe — cresson s, m. 

Cresseut the newe mone as long as it is nat 

rounde — cressant s, m. 
Cresset a lyght — Jlambeav x,in.\ falhl z,va. 

Crest of a helmet — - creste s, f. 

Crest of a house — coypeav de la maison x,m. 

Cruelnesse — felonnie, ferocilté s, {.; cruallé 
z, f. 

Crevés a fysshe — escreuice s, {, 

Crulc or caddas — sajeite s , f. 

Cruse to drinke in — pot de Beavuais z,m. 

Crye noyse — cry s, m. 

Cricke to bende a crosbowe with — crane- 
quin s, m. 

Cricket a worme — cricquet, gresillon s, m. 

Cryeng of people — acclamation s, f. 

Cryeng — braierie, clamevr, crierie s, f. 

Cryeng out of beestes — ululation s, (. 

Cryme an ofience — crime s, va. 

Grymosin colour — cramoisy s, m. 

Crymosen in grayne — cramoisy en graine, 

Crypple — boitei'X, m. 

Crysolite a precious stone — crisolite s, f. 

Crysome for a yong chylde — cresmeav x, m. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



211 



Crystall stone — cristal x, m. 
Christen man — cristien s, m. 
Cfaristen woman — cristienne s, (. 
Christendome — cristienneté z ,{. 
Crystraas a hye feest — Noël z, m. 
Crystmas evyn — nùiU de Noël s, t. 
Crossed frère — frère de Saincte-Croix s, m. 
Crochet in song — crochette s, f. 
Cronycle an bystorie — croniqae s, t. 
Croke — crocq z,m.; crochet z, m. 
Croppe of a byrde — poche s, t. 
Croppe of corne — leuee de terre s,f. 
Crosse — crovi, f. 

Crosse of coyne — la croix d'une pièce d'ar- 
gent, f. 
Crosbowe — arcbalestre s, va. 
Crosse for a bysshoppe — crosse s, f. 
Crosbowe case — carqnas, m. 
Crosbowe maker — arcbaleslrier s, m. 
Crosweke gangeweke — rowajrson s , f . ; roga- 
tions, f. 
Crossyng — croisée s,{. 
Cropar for an horse — crovpiere s, f; culiere de 

cheual s, f. 
Croude an instrument — rebecq z, m. 
Croudar — jeaevr de rebecq s, m. 
Crowe a byrde — corneille s,{. 
Crowne — corone s, f. 
Crowne a pcce of goide — esca s, m. 
Crowne of a preest — corone s, f. 
Crowne of tbe heed — le sommet de la leste z, 

m.; copeav de la teste x, m. 
Crucifixc — crucifix, m. 
Crualte — crualté z, f. 
Cruddes of myike — malles, f. 
Cruelnesse — craalté z, t. 
Crcwet for water or wyne — burette s, f. 
Cromme of bredde — miette , miche de pain s, f. 
Crust of bredde — crovste de pain s,(. 
CrotcLe for a iame man — potence s,f. 

C BEFORE U. 

Cubbe a yong foxe. 

Cubyt a kynde of measure — covldee s, f. 

Cudde of a beest. 

CuOe over ones bande — poignet z, m. 



Cuysshen — cocssyn s,ia. 

Cucke stole — selle a nbanldes s , va. 

Cultar for a ploughe — covltre s, m. 

Culveryng gonne — culuerine s, f. 

Cummyng of a parsone unloked for — surae- 
nue s,(. 

Cupborde of plate or to sette plate upon — buf- 
fet z, va. 

Cuppe to drinke in — covppe s, f.; hanap s, 
va. (Romant. ) 

Cuppe bearer — eschanson s, m. 

Cupborde to putte meate in — dressover s, m. 

Curate — curé z, va. 

Curiousnesse — curieasité z, f. 

Curlewe a byrde — cuAiev, curlis. 

Curlydnesse of ones heer — crespure s, t. 

Curnell of a nutte — amende de noix s, f. 

Currage — covrage s, va. 

Currar a man ibat ronneth — currevr s, m. 

Curre dogge — maslin s, m. 

Curryar of letber — couraievr s, va. 

Curryfavell a flalterar — estrille faaeav x, va. 

Curse — malédiction, mavldisson s, f. 

Cursyng — excomuniment , interdict z, va.!^' ex- 
communication s, {. 
Custarde — dariolle,fian s. 
Custome — stile, covstume, usaige, droit covs- 

tamier. 
Customer tbatuseth to by ware of one — chai- 

lant s, va. 
Customar tbat taketb custome — covstamier s, va, 
Customar of tbe salte — grenetier s, m. 
Cutpurs, coupevr de bourse s, m. 
Cutte or lotie — sort s, va. 
Cultes lo playe with — covrtfestu x, m. 
Cutte a wounde — covppevre s, f. 
Cuttayled beest — qucve courte s, t. 
Cuttynge of asore — incision s,f. 
Cuttyng ofa vyne — serment de uigne s, va. 
Cullar — covstellier s, va. 
Cutter ofthrotes — covpevr de gorges s, va. 

BEFOItE A. 

Dale a lowe place — ualee s, f. 

Daggar — dagve, covrte dagve s, f. ; poignarl s, m. 

Daye — jour s, m. 

37. 



212 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Daylight — adjovrnement s, m. 

Dayrie place — meterie s, t. 

Daysman — arbitre s, m.; composilevr s, m. 

Daysy a floure — marguerite s, f. 

Dalyaunce — déduit z, m. 

DaniDie of a myll — esclase s, f. 

Dammage — damaige s, m. 

Damaske — damars, m. 

Damasynfrute — prune de Damas s, f. 

Dame a lady — dame s, f. 

Damosell a mayde — damoiselle s,{. 

Dampnation — dampnation s,(. 

Dandelyon an herbe — dandelion s, m. 

Daunger ou the see — navfraige s, n\. 

Dangerousnesse — dangerevseté , dangier, f. 

Dapyrnesse propernesse — mignotterie s, f. 

Darcyell — herbe. 

Darkenesse — opaceté s, f. ; ténèbres, (. 

Darte a wcapen — dart s, m. 

Dastarde — estovrdy s, m.; butarin s, m. 

Date a kynde of frute — datte s, f. 

Date in a writyng — date s, m. 

Date tree — dattier s, m. 

Dauber — placquevr s, m. 

Dawe a foule — corneille s, {. 

Dawyng, geltyng of lyfe — resuscitation s, f. 

Daunce — daHce s, f. ; trepade s, m. 

Dauncer — dancevr s, m. 

Daunsyng — balerie, dancerie s, f. 

Daunyng of ihe day — lavlbe dajour s, f. 

Daunger — dangier s, m. 

D BEFOBE E. 

Debate — question s, f. ; contens, m.; sédition 
s, f.-, litige s, m.; débat z, va, ; noyse s j f. 

Debytie — député z, m. 

Decayeng of a thyng — ruine, décadence s, f. ; 
décline s, m. 

Deceyvar, begyiar — deceuevr s, m. 

Deceyving — déception s, f.; deceuance s, f. 

Décembre a moneth — décembre s, m. 

Decesse, departyng — deces, m. 

Déclaration — explication, exposition, déclara- 
tion s, f. 

Déclarer, expounder — declarevr s, m.; expo- 
sevr s, m. 



Declaryng of a noble* mannes stocke — généalo- 
gie s, f. 

Declaryng of a thyng — déclaration s, f. ; osten- 
tation, relation, declarance , elacidation s, f. 

Declaryng of armes — blason s, m. 

Deaken boly orders — diacre s, m. 

Deere — décret i,m. 

Decretall — dccretalle s, f. 

Dede — acte s,m.\Jaict z,va. 

Deed body — corps, va. 

Deed man — dejunct s, va. 

Deed cole — charbon s, m. 

Dedication a feestfuU day — dédicace s, f. 

Deducyng — discovrs, m. 

Deane of a cburche — doyen s, va. 

Défaite — default z. m. ; defavlte s, f. ■,favlte s, f. 

Defaltynesse — Javle s,(, 

Defence — dejension, defence s,{. 

Defender — protectevr, tatevr, defensevr s, m. 

Deferryng — delay s, va. 

Defnesse lacke of heryng — sovrdesse s,(. 

Degree, dignyte — dignité, estât z, m. 

Deyrie bouse — meterie s, (. 

Dey wyfe — meterie s, (. 

Deyntinesse — friandise s, f. 

Delay — delay s, va,; délation s, {. 

Deyntie — deUcatie s, f. ; novueav x, ta.; pré- 
sent s, m. 

Delectablenesse — dclectablctè z,f.; aménité z, (. 

Délectation , pleasure — délectation s, f. 

Delycates, deyntie meates — uiandes délicates. 

Delycatenesse — friandise s, (. 

Delygence — debuoir s, m.; diligence s, f. 

Delygentncsse — diligence s, [. 

Delyte — délectation s, (, 

Delyvcrnesse of body — sovplessc s,(. 

Delyverance — deliverance s, f. 

Demande — demande s,f. 

Demaundyng ofcounsayle — consultation s, f. 

Demeanour — contenement s, m. 

Demycent for a womans gyrdell — demyceinct 
z, va. 

Demyng judgyng — pensement s, va. 

Den a hole in the grounde — caaeme s, f. 

Dcanry — deannerie s, f. 

Denyer of a thynge — escondissevr s, m. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Denyeng of a thyng — redicte s, f.; escondictz, m. 

Departyng froin a place — départie s, f. 

Deparlyngfromlyfe lo Jetbe — trespas, déces,va. 

Departyngeof manand wyfe — répudiation s, f.; 
diuorse s,[. 

Departyng of one thyng from another — sépa- 
ration s, {. 

Depe hole — ahisme s, i. 

Depncsse of any ihyiig — profunditè z, f. 

Depe sloughe — fondrier s, m. 

Depravyng or missayeng by a thyng — depraaa- 
tion s, {. 

Derenesse — chierté z, f. 

Derlyng a man — mignon s, m. 

Derlyng a woman — mignonne s,{. 

Dernell herbe. 

Description — description s,{. 

Deysy floure — marguerite s, f. 

Deceyving — deceuance s, f. 

Deseeyt — baraterie s,{.; déception s, f. ; 60- 
rat z, m. 

Desceitfulnesse — deceuance s, f. 

Desceyvabtenesse — deceuahleté z,(. 

Desceyvar — baratier s, m. 

Descent of iynage — descente s, f. 

Désert wyidernesse — désert s, m. 

Deservyng of rewarde — mérite s, (. 

Desyre or wysshyng — soahait z, m. ; enuie s, f.; 
appétit z, m.; désir s, m.; concupiscence s, f . 

Despyle — despit z, m.; contumeYie s, f. 

Desteny — destinée s,î. 

Destroyeng — deffaict z, ni.; démolition s, (.; 
extermination s, [. 

Destruction — destruction s, f. ; dépopulation s, f. 

Désolation — désolation s, f. 

Desyrer — requerevr s, m. 

Dethe — trespas, m. ; mort s, f. 

Dette — debte s, C 

Detter thatowetha duetie — debtetr s, m. 

Determyner — determinevr s, m. 

Determyning — ierminances, f.; détermination s, (. 

Detraction bacbyting — detraction s, f. 

Detie made inryme — romants,m.;dictons,m. 

Dewe droppes of water — rovsee s, f. 

Devyse — deuise s, f . 

Devyning — deainalion s, f. 



FRANCOYSE. 213 

Divynite — divinité z, {. 

Deridyng, laughyng to skorne — dérision s, l, 

Devisyng — deuis, m. 

Devorsyng of man and wyfe — diuorse s, {. 

Dévotion holynesse — deuotion s, f. 

Devoutnesse — deuotion s, f. 

D BEFORB I. 

Diadème of laureli — laureole s, (. 

Diadème a crowae — diadème s, m. 

Diall to Inowe the houres by the course of the 

sonne — quadrant s, m. 
Diamont stone — diamant s, m. 
Dier of colours — taincturier s, m. 
Dice to playe with — de z,m. 
Dice maker — dessier s, m. 
Diche — fossé z, m. 
Diette — dxette s, f. 

Diffame — diffamcment s, m.; diffame s, f. 
Différence — différence s , {. 
Diffyning — dijjinissement s, m. ; dijinition s, I. 
Digest a boke in lawe — digeste s, (. 
Digestyon — digestion s , t. 
Dignyte — dignité z, f. ; magistrat s, m. 
Dignyle of a prelate — prelature s, f. 
Dignité above another — preheminence s, f. 
Died lawny — tanny garensé s, f. 
Dieng with colour — tainctare s,{. 
Dieng faite or leed — cvuier s, m. 
Digression — digression s, f. 
Dike — fosse s, t. 

Dilygence — attention s, f. ; diligence s, f. 
Dill an herbe — anys, m. 
Dyrae tytbe — disme s, f. 
Dimynisshing — diminution s, f. 
Dynne noyse — bruyt z, m. 
Dint of swerde. 
Diner mealc — disner s, m. 
Diphthonge — diphtiiongae s, f. 
Directyng — adresse s, f. 
Dirige servyce — uigiles, f. 
Disavauntage — desauantaige s , m. 
Discention — uariance s, f. ; discention s, i, 
Discase — mesaise s, f. 
Disconfort — desconfort s, m. 
Disconfortyng — desconfeture s, f. 



214 

Discorde — descord s, m. 
Discordyng — discordance s, f. 



Discrelenesse — discrétion s, f. 

Disdayae — desdaing z,m, 

Dishoneslyng — aaitement s, m. 

Dishonour — dishonear s, m. 

Disshe — escttelle s, f. 

Disshebearer — porUscuelle s, va. 

Disshecloute — souillon s, m.; torchon s, m. 

Discention — discort s, m.; discention s, f. 

Dissimuliiig — fiction s, f. ; dissinialalion s, t. 

Disconfylure — disconfitare s, f. 

Discrétion — discrétion s, {. 

Discussyng — discussion s, f. 

Disobeydience — desoheisance s,f. 

Disorder of a thyng — desbavlx, m. ; desordre s, 
i. ; desordonnance s, î, 

Dissar a scoffer — saigefol z, m. 

Dispeyre — désespérance s, f. 

DispeDce — despence s, f. ; despens, m. 

Dispensation — despensation s, f. 

Displeasure — desplaisyr s,ra.\ indignation s, f. 

Displeasure of mynde — marrisson s, m. 

Displeasyng — : remors, m.; offention s, f. 

Disposytion — disposition s, f. ; govuernement s, 
m.; ordre s,, f. 

Disposition of the flesshe — charnure s, f. 

Disposyng — administration s, f. 

Dispulation — disputation s, f. 

Disarey out of order — desaroy s, m. 

Distafl'e to spynne with — quenouille s,{. 

Distance of place — entredeax, m. 

DistauDce — distance s, f. 

Distaunce debate — débat z, m. 

Distemperauuce — desatemperanee s, f. 

Distrayeng — distraction s, f. 

Distresse — disette s, f. ; effort s, m.; perplexe s, f. 
subuertion s, f.; souffrance s, f. ; destresse Sj 
{.; esmojr s, m.; disette s, f. 

Distrouble — destoarhier s, va. 

Ditany — herbe. 

Ditche — fosse Sj f.; lac z, m.; digue s, f. 

Dytcber — fiy^r s, va,; fossevr s, va. 

Dilie of song — dicton s, m.; dictée s, f. ; mo- 
tet z, m. ; dictie s, f.; diclier s, m. 
Diversy te — diverseté z, (. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Divyding of any thyng — partaige s, m. 
Divell he — diable s, m. 
Divell she — diablesse s, f. 
Divelles worke — diablerie s, f. 
Divellysshnesse — diablerie s, f. 
Disjoynyng — disjunclion s,(. 



D BEFORE 0. 

Doublenesse — duplicité z, f. ; doubleure s, f. 

Doctour — doctevr s, m. 

Doctryne — doctrine s , f. 

Docke a wede — docque s,(. 

Dogge a beest — chien s, va. 

Dogge a mischevous curre — dogue s, va. 

Dogge brere. 

Doggednesse — cruavlté z, {. 

Doggcfysshe' — chien de mer s, m. 

Doggcbee — bourdon s, va. 

Doggestong or horehoside an herbe. 

Doggeslorde — estron de chien s, m. 

Doyng in lawe — action s, f. 

Doyng or makyng — efficient, actiuité s, f. 

Doo a beest — biche s, (. 

Dokelyng — petite canne, cannette s, f.; cannet- 

ton s, va. 
Dole — aulmosne s, f. ; donee s, f. 
Dolefulnesse — tristesse s,(. 
Doulphyn a fysshe — doulphin s, va. 
Doulphyn the frenche kynges eldest sonne — 

doulphin s, va. 
Dôme jugement — jugement s, m. 
Domenesse — mvetté z, {. 
Donge — fiant s, va. 
Dong hyU — aoirie s, t.;Jvmier s,m. 
Donge forke — fourche afian s, f. 
Donge pyke — fourche a fiant s, f. 
Donge carte — chariot a fiant z, va. 
Doppar byrde. 
Dorrey a see fysshe. 
Dore a gâte — huis , va . 
Dormeuse a beest — leyrot z,va. 
Dorneckes. 

Dortour for relygiousmen — dortoyr s, m. 
Doseo a nombre — douzaine s, f. 
Dowary — douaire s,(. 
Doublet — pourpoint s, va. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



215 



Dow ne of any yong byrde — follet z, m. 
Downeof a byrde — poilfolacje z,m. 
Downe fethers — dviiet z, m. 
Downeright stroke • — taille s, f. 
Dove a byrde — coulomb s, m. 
Dove bouse — columbier s, m. 
Dowe rybbe — ratissevr a poste s, î. 
Doughter — Jilk s, f. 
Dougbter in lawe — belle JiUe s, f. 
Doughe troughe — husche a pestrir s, f. 
Douselte a lytell flawiie — darioUe s, f. 
Doute — doatance s, t.; dovbte s, f.; dubita- 

tion s, f. 
Doutfulnesse — ambiguïté z,{.; double s,(. 

D BEFORE R. 

Drabbe — truande, loudiere s, (. 

Drabbe a slutte — mlotiere s, f. 

Dradge spyce — dragée s, f. 

Draffe — dracque s, f. 

Draggons berbe — dragons, m. 

Dragboke — crocq z, va. 

Drake a byrde — canart l, m. 

Drake tbat is tame — anel z, m. 

Dramme measure — dramme s, f. 

Dram a kynde of weight — dragme s, f. 

Drane or humble bee — bourdon s, va. 

Draper — drappier s, m. 

Drapery of wollen clotbe — drapperie s, f. 

Draubridge — pont leajs s, m. 

Draught a prevy — ortraict z, m. 

Draught or pull — traxcl z,va. 

Drawyng nere — accès, m. ; approche s, f. 

Drawyng to — actraict z, m. 

Drawyng of an ymage — portraicture s,{. 

Drawyng toguyder — contraction s, f.; congré- 
gation s, (. 

Drawyng up of water — espuisment s, m. 

Drede fcare — paour s, f. 

Dregges — lie de bière ou de uin s, f. 

Dremar — musart s, m. 

Dreme — -songe s,vn. 

Drepyng of rost meate — la gresse du rost. 

Dressar where meate is served eut at. 

Dressar of gownes or otber gamientes — re- 
gretevr s, va. 



Dressar of wole — rabillevr de layne s, m. 

Dressyng — acovstrement s, m.; dressevrr. 

Drestes of oyle — lie dhaillc s, f. 

Drinesse : — sechesse s, f. 

Drifle crafle — sabtillité s, f. 

Drifte of wether or snowe — undec de playe 

s, f. 
Drighnesse — chaline s, {. 
Drinke — brevuaige s, m. 
Drinke a medycine — brevuaige s, m. 
Driver of a carte — chartier s, m. 
Drivar of a chariot — arrigateur s, m. 
Drivar of cameiles — chamelier s, m. 
Drivell — sovillon s, m. 
Drivelarde a lyer — baueresse s, f. 
Drivelar that driveleth — baueux, m. 
Dromedary a beest — dromedaire s, va. 
Dromslade , sache as almayns use in warre — 

bedon s, va. 
Drone a bagpype — cornemuse s,(. 
Drone bee flye — bourdon s, m. 
Droppe of water or lycour — goutte s, f. 
Dropsy — ydropisie s, f. 
Droppyng of lycour — distillation s, f. 
Droppyng out of a guttar — agout z, m. 
Drosse of mctall — rejus, m. 
Drostynesse — lievseté z,î. 
Drove of beestes — troupeau x, m. 
Drudgea woman servaunt — druge s, f. ; mes- 

chine s,f. 
Dronkarde — yuroigne s, m. 
Dronken woman — yueresse s, ('. 
Dronkennesse — yueresse s, f. 
Drought drie wether — chaline s,f. 

D BEFORE U. 

Duale an herbe. 

Dublet a garment — pourpoint s, m. 

Duchesse — duchesse s, f. 

Duchy — duché z, f. 

Dufhouse — columbier s, m. 

Duke — duc z, m. 

Dukedome — duché z, t. 

Ducke a foule — canne s, f. 

Duke of tbe ryver — cannette s, f. 

Duckelyng — cannetton s, m. 



216 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Duliardle — hoardin s, m.; songeart s, m., bu- 

larin s, m.; lourdault z, m. 
Dulnesse of edge — agassure s, f. 
Duni man that can nat speke — muet 2 ^ m. 
Dunge fyllhe — fient s, m. 
Dunge carte — car a fiant s, m. 
Dungyon of a castell — dongeon s, m. 
Dust or poudre ■ — pouldre s, (. 
Dutie dette — debte s, f. 
Dûtes or eaxction — exaction s, (. 
Dwarfe a lytell parsone — najn s, m. ; najrn- 

tre s, {. 
Dwellar — habitant s, la. 
Dwellyng place — domicilie s, m.; demevre s, f. ; 

habitacle s, m. 

E BEFORE A. 

Eare of a man or beest — oreille s, f. 

Eare of a pot — oreille dung pot s, (.; anse s, f. 

Eare of any vessel — oreille s, f. 

Earwaxe — ordure de loreille s, f. 

Ease resl — aise s, f. ; aisément s, m. 

Easynesse — aisément s, m. 

Easment- — aisément s, m. 

Easler a hye feest — la résurrection nostre sei- 

gnevr s, f. ; Pasqaes , f. 
Easter evyn — samedj de Pasqaes , m.; la ueille 

de Pacque s, m. 

E BEFORE B. 

Ebrewe a langage — hebriev x, m. 

E BEFORE C. 

Eclypse of the sonne and moone — éclipse s, 
f. ; soleil absconsse s,{. 

E BEFORE D. 

Edder — aspicq z, m. ; covhvure s, f. 

Eddercoppe — arraignee s, (. 

Edge of any lole or weapen — trenchant s, m. 

E BEFORE G. 

Egalnesse — eqitipollance s, f. 
Egle a foule — aigle s, m. 
Egernesse bytlernesse — aigrure s, [. 
Egge — œvf z, m. 



Eggeshell — coqae s, {. 

Eglantinc swete brere — églantier s, m. 

Eglantyne tree — avbespin s, m. ; églantier s, m. 

E BEFORE I. 

Eye or egge — œvf z. m. 
Eye to se wilh — œil,jevlx, m. 
Eyelydde — paulpiere s, (. 
Eymbres bote assbes — brasiers, m. 
Eye browes — sourcille s, î. 
Eye tothe — dent oreilliere s, {. 

E BEFORE L. 

Elbowe — coude j, m. 
Ele a fysshe — anguille s, f. 
Elde tree — sus, sureau x, m. 
Eleber a rote — elehere s, {. 
Electyon — option s, f. ; achoison s, f. ; élec- 
tion s, î. 
Elne to meate with — aulne s, (. 
Elegaunce fayre specbe — élégance s,f. 
Elément — élément s, m. 
Elfe or dwarfe — nain s, m. 
Elypbant a beest — eliphant s, m. 
Eime Irec — orme s, m. 
Eloquence — éloquence s, f. 
Eloquentnesse — facunditd z, f. 
Elson for cordwayners — aXesne s, f. 

£ BEFORE M. 

Embassadoure — légat z,xa.\ ambassadevr i,m. 
Embasset — embassade s, [. 
Eme uncle — oncle s, m. 
Embyrday fastyng day — jevne s, m. 
Emeroudes or pylles a sickenesse — les broches 

emmeroides, f. 
Emeraude a precious stone — esmeraulde s,(. 
Emperour — emperevr s, m. 
Empyre — empire s, m. 
Empresse — empresse, emperiere s, (. 

E BEFORE N. 

Encrease — encroissement s, m. 
Encreasyng — encroissement s, m.; croissance 
s, f.; ampliation s, f. ; accroissement s, m. 
Ende of a matter — issue s, (. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Ende of a felde or corner — canton s , m. 
Ende or borde of a thyng — bovrne a, f. 
Ende of any ihyng — fin s, f. 
Ende of an acte or tyme — consammation s, f. 
Endyng — cessation, acheuissance s, f.; dejfine- 

ment s, m.; termination s, t. 
Endyve an herbe — endive s, f. 
Enforcesyng — enforcement s, m.; efforcement 

s, m. 
Encmy — aduersaire , ennemy s, m. 
Enemy woman — ennemie s, f. 
Engendring — engendrvre, genitare s, f. 
Engyn frame — engin s, m. 
Engyn to tbrowe stones — martinet s, m. 
Engyn for warre — pringalle s, f. 
Englysshman — anglais, m. 
Englysshewoman — anglesche s , {. 
Englande — angleterre s,{. 
Enherytauncc — heriiaige s, m. 
Enjoynyng of a thyng — jovissance s, f. 
Ensample — exemple s,(. 
Enrichyng — enrichissement s, m. 
Entent purpose — entente s, f. 
Enterprise — emprinse s, f ; entreprise s, f. 
Entre into a place — entrée s, f. 
Entrye ofa gâte — auantportail z, m. 
Entry into a matter — introite s, m. 
Envy hatered — enuie s, f. 



E BEFOBE P. 



Epystoler at tbe masse - 
Epystle letters myssyve • 



■ epistolier s, m. 
- epistre s, (. 



E BEFORE Q. 

Equaiite evynnesse — egallité z , {. ; eqnalité z,f. 
Equalnesse — eqmperation s,{. 
Equy valence — équivalence s, f. 

E BEFORE R. 

Ere of a man or beest — oreille s, f. 
Ere of corne — espy de ble s , m. 
Ere ofany corne — espy s , m. 
Erle — conte s, m. 
Erldome — conté z, m. 
Ermyne a beest — ermyne s, f. 
Ermyns furre — ermines, f. 



FRANCOYSE. 2J7 

Ernest of a bargayne — arres, f. 
Ernest nat sporte — cvissant s, m. 
Erlbe an élément — (erre s, f. 
Erthen potte — pot de terre s, m. 
Erwygge a worme — persoreille s,{. 

E BEFORE S. 

Especiall coursar — fievr de courser s,f. 

Est a quarter of tbe worlde — orient s , m. 

Elstate a kynde of lyveng that oneis called lo — 
uocation s, î. 

Essaye tast or profe — essaj s, m. 

Estemyng — estimation s, f. 

Estymation a val nation — estimation s, C. 

Estwynde — le ueni de est s, m.; le uent da- 
mant s, m. 

E BEFORE U. 

Evangelyst — euangeliste s, m. 

Evenyng — uespre s, m. ; soir s, m. 

Eventyde — uespree s , f. 

Evensong — nespres, m. 

Evydence declaryng of atbynge — euidence s, f. 

Evyll lucke — malevr s, m. 

Evylfavoured face — grimace s, ï. 

Evyll sayer — maldisant s, m. 

Evyll tourne — maluais tour s, m. 

Evyll — mal x, va. 

Evylnesse — improhiiè z, f. ; malice s , f . 

Evyll wyll — atlajne s,[.; maliuolence s, L; 

maltalent s, m. 
Evennesse — eqaalité z, (. 
Ewe a shepe — brebis, f. 
Ewer to wasshe with — aigvier s, f. 

E BEFORE X. 

Exaction or trybute — exaction s,i. 

Examynacion — examination s, f. 

Exampler for a woman lo worke by — exem- 
ple s, f. 

Example of a boke — copie s, f. 

Example a symililude of a thyng — exemple, 
exemplaire s, m. 

Exaltyng a lyftyng up — exaltation s, f. 

Exchaunge of money — change, eschange s, f. 

Exchaunge ofany thyng — eschange s, (. 

28 



218 

Excedyng — excès, m. 

Excedyng in spence — prodigalité z, f. 

Excedyng in speche — locjuacité z,î. 

Excedyng pleasure — montjoye s, f. 

Exceptyon — exception s, l. 

Exersyse use — exercice s,{. 

Exersysing of the body — exercitalion s, t. 

Excesse — ennrmité z, {.\ excès, fs\.\ aehemen- 
ce s, f. 

Excuse for nat apperyng before a judge — es- 
soine s,L 

Excuse of a faut — excuse s , (.iexcasation s, t. 

Excusyng — excusation s, (. 

Excommunycation — excommvnication s, f. 

Excomunement — excommenge s,{. 

Execution of justyce — exécution s, f. 

Executoure of a testament — executevr s, m. 

Exortation — enhortement s, m. ; exhortation s, f. 

Expences — expences, coustz ,frays , m. 

Experyence — expérience s, t.; practKjue s, f.; 
experiment s, m. 

Exposytion — exposition s, f. 

Expounder of a tliyng — expositevr s, m.; ex- 
posevr s, m. 

Expoundyng — interprétation s, f.; exposition s, f. 

Expressyng declaryng of a matter — explica- 
tion s, (.; expression s, î. 

Extorcyon — • extortion, extorce s, (. 

Extorcioner — torconnier s, n). 

Extremenesse — extrémité z, f. 

F BEFORE A. 

Fable a lyghl laie — fable s, f. 

Face — aisage s, m.; face s, f. 

Fader — père s, m. ; géniteur s, m. 

Faderless chylde — orphelyn s, m. 

Fader in lawe as a man is to his doughters hus- 

bande or to his sonnes wyfe — beau père 

s, m. 
Fader in lawe , as he is that maryeth a wyfe 

whiche hath chyldre by auother man — 

parastre s, va. 
Fader and mother — parents, m. 
Fagot of lyght brusshe — bovrree s, f. 
Fagot of sadder and rounde styckes — cottret 

z, m. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Fagot stycke — haste s,{. 

Fayle an upparmost gannent of a woman — 

faille s, {. 
Fayle or fauite — faille s, t. 
Fayling fautyng — deffailance s, f. 
Fayning — fiction s, f. ; simulation s, f. 
Fayned peace — paix fourrée s, t. 
Faynlnesse of hart — lâcheté de cueur z, f. 
Fayre to bye and sell in — foin s, f. 
Fayresyr — beau sire s, m. 
Fayrespeche — doulcilocqae s, m.; éloquence s, f. 
Fayrnesse — beaultc , formosilé , speciosité z, f. 
.Fayriean elfe — fee s,{. 
Faythe — crédulité, feaulté,foy s, f. 
Fallyng sickenesse — la maladie caducque, le 

mal sainct Jehan x, m. 
Fall — cheute s, f. 
Fallaxe or desceyt — falace s,{. 
Falowelande — terre labourable s, (. 
Falsc bulwarke — barhacane s, f. 
False cast of jouglyng — passe passe s, f. 
Falsheed — faulceté z,£. 
Falsnesse — caulele, faulceté s, L 
False posterne gâte — false posterne s, {. 
Famé nanie — renommée , famé s, f. 
Famyliarite — accointement , priuavllé. 
Fane of a stepie — uirsoet z, m.; betniere s, f. 
Fanne to fanne with — uan s ,m. 
Fanne to blowe with — estovillon s, m. 
Fannell for a preestes arme — fanon s,m. 
Fantasy — phantasie s, f.; phantosme s, m. 
Farcion a dysease of horses — farcin s, m. 
Fardell — fardeav x, m.; fais, m. 
Fare at meate — chiere s, f. 
Farnesse — eslonguer s, f. 
Farte of ones arse — pet z, m. 
Farthyng coyne — ferdin s, m. 
Fasyll of clothe — cassure, casure s, f. 
Fasyon — façon s, f. ; mode s, f . ; taille s , {. 
Fast abstynence — jevne s, m, 
Fastyng — abstinence s, f. 
Fatche corne — vesse s, f.; lentille s, {. 
Fatte in the belly — le molet du uentre z, ta. 
Fathome measure — brasse s,[.; toise s, (. 
Faite a vessell — quevue s, f. 
Fatte to dye in — euaier o taindre s, m. 



1 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



219 



Faite bacon — lart s, m. 

Fatnesse — gresse s, f. ; svjf s, m. 

Fatnesse of the grounde — fertilité z, f. 

Faucet to drawe wyne — Jaucel z, m.; irocAe 
a estovper le uin. 

Fauchyon a vvepen — marguy s, m.; baslon de 
jvif s. m. 

Faucon a liauke — faulcon s, m. 

Faucon a gonne — faucon s, m. 

Fauconner — faulconnier s, m. 

Faulte — covlpe, favlte s, {.\ Jaxlie s, m.; 
uice s, m. 

Falsnesse — favheté z, {. 

Fawne a yong dere — faut, sailUuit s, m.; 
faon s , ra. 

Faveur — fauevr, affection s, f. 

Favouryng — acception s, t. 

Favour of a meane man with a greatman — 
recommendation s, f. 

Faute — faulte s, f. ; démérite s, {. 

Fautynesse — favtuseté z, f. 

Feaultie — feaalté z, [. 

Febiencsse — débilité, flebesse , faiblesse , imbe- 
cilité z,f. 

February a moneth -^février s, f. 
Fec by the yere — certayn s, ni. 
Feanyng — faincte s, î. 
Feanyng dissymulyng — faintise 3, f. 
Feate of armes — faict darmes z , m. 
Feates of armes — faictz darmes. 
Featysshnesse propernesse — feactise s, f. 
Fclcbe a lytell pesé — aesse s, f.; lentille s, f.; 

ueche s , {. 
Fedyng pasture — posture s, (. 
Fcdyng place. 
Fedder — plume s, (. 
Fedderfewe an berbe — espargovtte s,(. 
Fedder of a shafte — empennon s, m. 
Fedderyng of a shafte — coiche s, f. 
Feffement — possession s, f. 
Feynnesse gladnesse — joievteté z,{. 
F.eythe trouthe — foy s, i. 
Feyrie — faee z, f. 

Feiowe in war — compagnon de guerre s, m. 
Feldes enclosed — praerie s, f. 
Felde — champ z, m. 



Felde a batayle — jovrnee z,{. 

Feldefare a byrde. 

Felowshyppe — compaignie s, f. 

Fciyog — sentement s, m. 

Felmongar — megissier s, m. 

Felyng with the bande — tastement s, m. 

Félon a sore — entracq z,m. 

Felyng of any good or grefe — sentement s, m. 

Felnesse — despiterie s, (. 

Fellon a thefe — larron s, m. 

Felony — larrecyn s, m.;felonnie s, f. 

Fell a skyn of a shepe — peav a layne s, t. 

Feltryke an herbe. 

Felt of a batte — fevltre s, m. 

Feiowe a stoute man —fallot z, m. 

Feiowe of égal power — collegat z, m. 

Feiowe man — compaignon s, m. 

Feiowe woman — compaigne s, f. 

Felowsbyppe — société z, {. 

Femall a she — femelle s, f. 

Femetorie an herbe — femetoyre s, f. 

Fenne — marécage s, m. 

Fence — defence s, {. 

Fende a devyll — diable s, m. 

Fenyxe a byrde of Araby — fenix, m. 

Fenell an herbe — fenoil z, m. 

Fenestrall — châssis de toille ou depaupier. 
Fent of a gowne — fente s, (. 
Fearfulnesse — craintivité z, f. ; timidité z, f. 
Ferry man — passevr s, m. ; maistreduport s, m. 
Fearyng — terrification s, (. 
Feare abasshyng — horrevr, paour s, f. 
Feare dred — crainte, cremevr,frayevr s, f. 
Ferry barge — • batleav a passer x, m.; barque , 

barc s, (. 
Feryage — chariage s, m. 
Ferraary — ferme s,L 
Fermary in a monastery — enfermerie s, ù 
Ferme, a lordshippe ferme — meterie s,(. 
Fermour — fermier s, m. 
Ferne an herbe — fevsiere orfougiere s, f. 
Ferne that groweth upon walies. 
Ferthyng — ferdyn s, m. 
Ferventnesse — feruevr s, f. 
Fesant coke — faisant s, m. 
Fesant henoe — faisante s, f. 

28. 



220 

Feest — feste s, f.; conuiue s, m. 
Feslue lo spell with — festev x, m. 
Fetherbedde — licl de plume z, m. 
Felher — plume s, f. 
Fettar for a prisonar — govjons, ni. 
Fetterlocke — serrure a goujons s, {. 
Fewell fyre — fevaille s, m. 
Fevar an agewe — fieure s , f. 
Fevar a foule. 
Fewnesse — parcité :,f. 

F BEFOBE J. 

Fyddell — rebeq z, m. 

Fydlar or crouder — rebecquet z, m. 

Fiersnesse — aigrevr, aasterilé z, {.^Jierté z,(.\ 
félonie s, f. 

Fight for lyfe and dethe — champ mortel s, m. 

Fight — fiomhat, débat z, va. 

Fightyng — conjlict z, m. 

Fighter or warryour — combatevr s, m. 

Figge frute — figue s,{. 

Figge tree — figuier s, m. 

Figure — figure s, f. 

Filberde — noisette franche s, f. 

Filberde tree — noisettier s, m .\franc covldre s, m . 

Fylde where an hoost lyeth — champ s, m. 

Fyilet for a maydens heed — fronteav x, m. 

Fyle an instrument — lime s, f. 

FyUippe with ones fyngar — chicquenode s, f. 

Fylme that coveretb the brayne — taye s, f. 

Filosopher — philosophe s , m. 

Filosophy — philosophie s, (. 

Fylthe a vyle woman — loudiere s, f. 

Fylthe of the eye — chassie s, m. 

Fylthe ofthe nose — morne s, m. 

Filthynesse — sovillevre s,Li uilité z,{.feterdise s,{. 

Finche a byrde — pinçon s, m. 

Findyng of a thyng — inuention s, f. 

Finger — doigt z, m. 

Fingerlyngoflcther — delot z,Tn.;poulcier s, m. 

Finesse of golde or sylver at thé touche — ha- 
ras, m. 

Fynne of a fysshe — barbe de poisson s, f. 

Fynest floure of meale — folle farine s, f. 

Fynysshing — terminance, acheuissance s, f. 

Finyssher — determinevr s, m. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Fyrre a tree — sappin s, m. 

Fyrsbusshe — jovmarin s, m. 

Fyre an élément — fev x, m. 

Fyre forke — fovrche^ a fev s, f. 

Fyre panne — poille a fev s, C. 

Fyre yron to stryke fyre with — fusil z, m. 

Fyre crycket — cricquet z, m. 

Fyre stone — pierre a fev s, f. 

Fyrken — cartal x, m. 

Fyrken a lytell vessell — filette s, t. 

Fyrret a beest — ffrei z, m. 

Fyrmament — Jirmament s, to. 

Fyrst order or tonsure — benêt s, m. 

Fysse catcher — peschevr s, m. 

Fyssher — peschevr s, m. 

Fysshe — poisson s, m. 

Fysshebonne — aresie s, (. 

Fyssbepoole — fosse a poisson s, f. 

Fysshe mongar — poissonnier s, m. 

Fysshing — peschement s, m. 

Fyssheponde or poole — estang z, m. 

Fisnomy — filosomye s, f. 

Fyst a hande — poing z, m. 

Fyest with the arse — uesse s, t. 

Fitche corne — uesse, lentille s, f. 

Fytten — mensonge s , to. ; menterie s, f. 

Fyve leaved grasse. 

F BEFORE L. 

Flag or baner of a felde — guidon s, m. 

Flagge that groweth. 

Flaget — fiacon,fiaccon s, m. 

Flagon — fiaccon , fiaston s , tn. 

Flake of snowe. 

Flame of fyre — flambe de fev s, f 

Flame or blast — fiamesche s, f. 

Flame — flamme s, f. 

Flancke of a beest — flanc, flanche z, m. 

Flappe a stroke — coup de plat z, m. 

Flappe for flyes — chassover a mouches s, m. 

Flappe of a gowné" — cappe s, f. 

Flappe that covereth the wyndepypc — la 

loette de la gorge s, C. 
Flatte pece — tasse s, (. 
Flalerar — flalevr s,m. 
Flateryng — advlation, blandice , flaierie s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



221 



Fiatering of ibe court — blason de covrt s, m. 

Flatnesse — phttevre s, f. 

Flauiie meate — flanel,jlan,jlaon z,ra. 

Flee a lytell beest — puche s, f. 

Flécher — arlilUer s, m. 

Fleame spyttell — jlevme s, f. 

Fleyle for corne — jleav,flael x, m. 

Flemme spylteli — jlevme s, f. 

Flemmyng — Jlammant s, m. 

Flese of woile — toyson de layne s, f. 

Flesslie — chair s, f. 

Flesslie flye — grosse movche s, f. 

Flesshe hoke — croq a chair z,m. 

Flete where water cometh — brèche s, f. 

Flete of shippes — jlotte de nauires s, f. 

Flete a prisone for gentylmen — consergerie s, f. 

Flaie wyfe — liniere s, f. 

Flaxe — lin s, m. 

Fiaxe redy to spynne — fillace s,{. 

Flewe a nette — retz a pécher, f. 

Flye — mâche s, (. 

Flye that bredeth in floures — puce s, f. 

Flyggenesse of byrdes — plumevselè z, f. 

Flyglil of an hauke — uol z, va. 

Flyght a shafte — permet s, m. ; aolet z, m. 

Flyght, flyeng away — jvite s, f. 

Flyght of byrdes — uolee s, f. 

Fiynge of an horse — raade s, f. 

Flyntstone — cailliov bis,caiUiov x,m. 

Flyeng dragon, a long flye — prestres, m. 

Flyxe a diseasc — Jlux de ventre, m.^fojre s, f. 

Flocke — jloc z, m.\jloqtie s, f. 

Flocke of shcpe — troupeau de brebis x, m. 

Floode or streame — Jlvue s, m. 

Floode of thesee — déluge, Jlot z, m.; marée s, f. 

Floode of water that cometh from ihe skye — 

raume deave s, (.•,-undee s, f. 
Floode gale — escluse s, f. 
Florayne a kynde of money — Jlorin s, m. 
Flocke of bestes — troupeau de bestes x, m. 
Flocke of shepe — ovaille s, f. 
Flooke a kynde of pleas — fymande 3,{. 
Flockes of clothe — ■ hovrre s, f. 
Fiorthe of a house — astre s, m. 
Flore of a chambre — planche s, f. 
Floure an herbe — fleur s, f. ; floron s, m. 



Fleure of meale — fine fleur s, f. 

Flourdelyce — fleur de lis s, f. 

Floure of a tasyll that flyeth about ail rounde 

barbedieu x, m. 
Flowyng of waters — flot z, m.\flote s, f. 
Floundre a fysshe — flondre s, f. 

F BEFORE O. 

Focer or a cofer — cojre s, m. 

Fode meate — nourriture Sj f. 

F'oddre — fourrage s , va. 

Foyne with a swerde — estoc z, m. 

Foyns a furre — foynnes, f. 

Foyst tocarry marchaundyse — fusle marchande 
s, f. 

Foyst a bote lyke a gallye — faste s, f. 

Foidc of shepe — parc de brebis z, m. 

Foie — badin s, m.; sot z, va.; fol z, m. 

Foole a coite — poulain s, va. 

Folchardynesse — témérité z, (. 

Folly — musardie , folye , comardie s, f. ; sot- 
tie s, [. 

Folysshnesse — slolidité z, (.■,follevr s, f. 

Folysshnessc, beestysshnesse — besterie s, f. 

Folke people — gent s, f. 

Folowyng of another mannes condycions — 
imitation s, (. 

Folowyng bringyng in — déduction s, f. 

Foome — escume s, f. 

Fondelyng — enfant trovue s, va. 

Fonnell to fyll a bottell or vessel with — aulon- 
noyr s, va. 

Font to christea chyldre in — fons, m. 

Font in a churche — font desglise s, f. 

Foo or enemy — ennemy s, w. 

Foode — alimentation s, (. 

Forbearyng — abstinence s , f. 

Forbydding — deffence s, f. 

Force or outrage — effort s, m. 

Focer a lyttcl cofer — cofret , escrin z, va. 

Foreknowyng of a thyng — prescience s,{. 

Foreshapen beest — monstre s, m. 

Forell for a bokc — couerlevre de Hure s,{. 

Foresight — prouision s, f. 

Foreshout of the sayle in a shyppc — lescoull 
de deuant i,m. 



222 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Foreshippe — deiiant de nauire s, va. 
Foreman of a slioppe — maistre uarlet z,m. 
Forehorse — cheual de deuant x,m. 
Foreryder — rimevr, precursevr, auaiUcourrevr 

s, m. 
Foreseyng — preueance s, f. 

Forde a watryng place — abrvuoyr s , m. 

Forrest — forcst z, f. 
Forefather — deuantcier s, m. 

Forrennara stranger — forayn z, m. 

Foresiglit — regart s, m.; iieve s, f. 

Forfayte — amende s, {,; Jorfaict 2, m. 

Forefather — ancestre s, ta. 

Forfaytour — forfaicture s, f. 

Forge of a smythe — forge s, t. 

Forgetfulnesse — oubliaiice s, f. 

Forelieed — front s, m. 

Forke of yrone — fourche de for s, f. 

Forked heed of an arowe — ciseav x, m. 

Forke — fourche s, f. 

Forme shappe — forme jj f. 

Forme a maner — manière s, f. 

Forme to sytte on — forme s, (. 

Formast parte of the faeed — deuant de la leste 
s, m. 

Formast fyngar — le doigt de deuant z, m. 

Formour or grublyng yron. 

Formast parte of the shyppe — prore s, f. 

Formast parle ofasadell — arcon s, m. 

Forne or frolhe of water — cjcunie s,f. 

Fornesse lo make fyre in — fournaise s, (. 

Forowe in a lande — royere de terre s, f. 

Forsakyng — répudiation s, f. ; abandonnement 
s, m.; désolation s, f.; desercion s, f. 

Forse — ybrce s, f. ; uehemence s, {. 

Forster — uerdier, forestier s, m. 

Forsakyng of relygion — apostasie s, (. 

Forsweryng — parjure s, m. 

Fornication, lechery — fornication s, f. 

Forlheryng — auancement s, m. 

Forinyght — quinze jours, m. 

Foretolhe — deni de deuant s, f. 

Forelop of a shyppe — hune de bourset s, f. 

Fortresse or grounde madestronge — fortifica- 
tion s, (. 

Fortresse a strongeboide — forteresse s, f. 



Fortune — fortune s, f. 

Fortunatncsse — bienhevreti z, f. 

Forwarde of a batayle — auant garde s, f. 

Fote — pied z, m. 

Fote of a pyllar or ymage — sombasse s, (. 

Fote of a stole or of a bedde or of any other 

thyng — pie z , m. 
Foteman to a kyng or to a great man — lac- 

quet z, m. 
Foteman in batayle — piéton s, va. 
Foie steppe — pas, m.; marchepie s, f. 
Fote slole — marchepied s, m. 
Fother of lande. 

Folher of leed — sanlmon de plomb s, m. 
Fowyng beest — foynes,{. 
Foulde for shepe — parc li brebis z, m. 
Foule a byrde — oiseav x, va. 
Fouler — pipevr doiseavx, m. 
Foulnesse — laidevre, laideté z, {. 
Foulnesse of visage — laidevre s, f. 
Founder of a reiygious bouse — fondevr s , m. 
Founder of metall — fondevr s, va. 
Foundacyon of a bouse — bas , fondement s, m. 
Fondement of the arsc — fondement s, va. 
Fountayne a well or springe — fontayne s, t. 
Fourbyssber — fourbyscher s, va. 
Fournysshing or storing — foumitvre s, f. 
Forlonge spacc — eslade s, va. 
Foxe — regnart 3, va, 
Foxe erthe — taisniere s, f. 

F BEFOnE R. 

Frayeng — casiUle s, f. 

Fraye or outrage — ^ffroy, hatin s, m. 

Fraydnesse — esmoy. 

Frayle for fygges — cabas, cabache s, va. 

Fraylnesse — fougiliti , fresletè z, f. 

Fraytour — refoaytoir, refoctoyr s, m. 

Frame or ordynaunce — machine s, f. 

Frame to worke in — métier s, m. 

Francke archer — foanc archier s, m. 

Fraunce, a countre — France s, f. 

Frankensence — fov.nc encens s, m. 

Fransey madnesse — phrenaisie, phrenesie s, f. 

Fraternylie or gylde — confoairie s, f. 

Fraude—- malengin s , m.; fraude s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



223 



Frowardnesse : — peruersités, f. 

Frauncbyse — franchise s,(. 

Fredome, lybertie — franchise s, f. 

Frenesse — franchise, liberté s, f. 

Frecken or freccles in ones face — lentille s, f., 

or brand de Judas. 
Freyght of a shyppe — lefrect, Imiierdune nefz,m. 
Free man — franc homme s, m. 
Freoche spoken in Burgondy — • wallon, s, m. 
Frenche kynges eldest sonne — doulphin s, m. 
Frenche man — François, m. 
Frenche pocke — gorre, grosse uerolle s, f. 
Frende a man — estrangier s, m. 
Frende — amy s, m. 
Frenesse of gyfte — libéralité z, {. 
Frendsliyppe — amitié z, f. 
Freng for a bedde or horsc harnesse — frenge 

s,{. 
Frère or brother — fivre s, m. 
Frère a relygious man — frère s, m. 
Fryse roughe clothe — drap frisé z, m. 
Frenesse — loisibleté z, f. 
Fresshnesse — freschevr, frescheté r, f. 
Fret of golde — frisevr dor s, f 
Fret of a lute. 
Fretyng angre — covrroax, m. ; sfomachation s, 

f. ; calefaction s, {. 
FrewyU of a man or woman — franc arbitre 

s, m. 
Friday — uendredy s, m. 
Frère — religieux, m. 
Frère Augustyne — Augustin s, m. 
Fryeng panne — poille à frire s, f. 
Fry tter pancake — bygnje , fritier s, f, 
Frogge — grenaille s, f. 
Froyse of egges — uovte doevfz s, f. 
Frocke for a carter — garnache s,f. 
Frocke fora monke — frocq, rochet z, m. 
Front — front s, m. 

Fronters orniarchesofcounlrees — frontière s,(. 
Frontlet — fronteav x, m. 
Frothe of an egge — jiette j, f. 
Frothe of the see — escame de mer. 
Frost — gelée z,{. 
Frowardnesse — atayne, obstination s, f. ; per- 

uersiié, proteniité s,(. 



Frounsyng — froncement s, m. 
Fractyon breakyng — fraction s, f. 
Frute — friiict z, tu. ; fruictage s, m. 
Frutefulnesse — fractuevseté z,{. 
Frutrar — fritier s, m. 
Fruirer that seiieth frute — frayctier s, m. 

F BEFORE U. 

Fullar a craftesman — foulon s, m. 

FuHars crafte — mestier défoulions s, m. 

Fulfyllyng — supplément s, m. 

Fulmarde a beest. 

FuH moone — plaine lune s, f. 

FuH power — puissance planiere s, f 

Fulnesse of ihe stoniake — sacieté z, f. 

Furaygation — fumigation s, t. 

Fulnesse — planere s, f. 

Fundacyon of a house — fundement s, m. 

Fundlyng — enfant trouve s, m. -, alumpne s, m. 

Furgone for an ovyn — uavldree z, f. 

Fury that a man is in whan he is chafed — 

chavlde colle , fureur s, L 
Furre of armyns — armines , f. 
Furre — fourrure s, f. 
Furred gowne — robe fourrée s, f. 
Furryar — fourrevr de robes s, m. 
Furlonge — deniy quart de lieve s, m. 
Furmente — potage defruments,m.\fmmenttez', f. 
Fustar that iiiaketh saddell trees — bustier s, m. 
Fustyan — fnlainc s, f. 

G BEFOHE A. 

Garde for a garment — garde s, f 

Garde or kepyng — garde s, f. 

Gaberdyne to ryde with — gauerdine s, f. 

Gable wall. 

Gable rope of a shippe — chable s, f. 

Gadde of yrone — qaarreav de fer x,m. 

Gadde for oxen — esgaillon s, m. 

Gadde bee a flye — bourdon s, m. 

Gadde of steele — quarreav dacier x, m. 

Gaddre as a calfes gadre or a shepes — Z'^''- 

sure de ueaii o» de motton s, f. 
Gagge to sette in ones mouthe — bâillon s, n.. 
Gage a pledge — <;aije s, m.\ plaige s, f. 
Gayler a kepar of a prison — geôlier s, m. 



224 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Gayne or getlyng — acquesl z, m.; eimohiment 

s, m.; gaignc s, {. 
Gaynslaadyng — resistence s, f. 
Gaynesayeng — contrediction, redicle s, t. 
Gaynesse — guyeté z, f. 
Gall of a beest — Jiel z, m. ; orner s, m. 
Gallantyne sauce. 

Gall to make ynke with — noix de galle, f. 
Gallant a man fresshe in appareyle — gai- 

lant s, m. 
Galle a sore — refoulevre s, f. 
GaUey a shyppe — galee z, f. 
Galery to walkc in — galerie s, f. 
Galyngale. 

Gallon , a mesure — gallon s, m.; pot z, m. 
Galowe Iree — gihet z, m.; fourche s, f. 
Gambaude — savll r, m. ; gambanlde s, f. 
Game sporte — jev x,m. 
Game that is wone — pris, ni. 
Gammon of bacon — jambon s, m. 
Gammouthe — gamme s, f. 
Gandre a foule — jars s, m. 
Gange dayes — rovaysons , rogations f. 
Gant byrde. 

Gappe in a hedge — brèche s, f. 
Gappe in a knyfe — hoche s, f. 
Garbage of a foule — petitoye s , f. 
Gardyne place — jardinage s, m. 
Gardyne — jardin s, m. 
Gardevyans — bahus, m. 
Gardyne mynt — meynte s, f. 
Gardynar — jardinier s, m. 
Gargyle in a wall — gargoille s, f. 
Garyson of men of armes — garnison s, f. 
Garlande made of llouires — chuppeav x, ni. 
Garlande — chappeav x , m. 
Garlyke — ail x , va. 
Garment or appareyle — abilUment s, ni.; habit 

z, ta.; acoustrement s, m.; garnement s, m.; 

aestement s, m. 
Garment of lether — pelicon s, m. 
Garner for corne — greniers, m. 
Garnisshing — gamissement s, m. 
Garsshe in wode or in a knyfe — hoche s, f. 
Garler to tye up ones hose — jarretier s, m. 
Gâte — porte s, f. 



Gâte of a place of défense — portai x, m. 
Gatherar of ihe kynges money — collecteur s, ni. 
Gatheryng toguyder — assemblée, corporations,(. 
Gauge to measure wyne with — gauge s, f. 
Gauger of wyne — gaugevr s, m. 
Gaudye of beedes — ■ signeav de patenostre x, m. 
Gauntlet for a bande — gantelet z, m. 

G BEFOBE E. 

Gelder of beestes — chasterevx, m. 

Geldyng a horse — hongre s, m. 

Gelly of any thyng that congeleth — glette s, f. 

Gelly that is made — gelée z, f. 

Gelowe floure — oyllet z, m. 

Gelousy — jalousie s , {. 

Gemetry — géométrie s,L 

Gencyan rote — gentian s, m. 

Genepre tree - — geneure s, m. 

Génération encreasyng — génération s, (■; li- 
gnée s, f. 

Généralité — généralité z , f. 

Genêt of Spaygne — genêt z, m. 

Gentylman with knaves condycions — aille- 
nastre s, m. 

Gentylman — gentilhomme s, m. 

Gentylman of the kynges house — gentilhomme 
de ïhostel. 

Gentylman unmaryed — damoiseau x, m. 

Gentylwoman unmaryed — damoiselle s, (. 

Gentylnesse — genlilesse Sj f. ; bénignité z, (.; 
urbanité z, f. 

Gentylnesse in byrthe or maner — générosité 
z.{. 

Gerfaulcon — sacre s, m. 

Gère clothyng — abillemens, m. 

Gei-mandre herbe — germandre s, (. 

Gerthe for a horse — cengle s, {. 

Gessyng or demnyng — deuinemen/, s, m. 

Gesses for a hauke — getz, m. 

Gest a taie — conte s , m.; passetemps, m. 

Geest an host — hoste s, m. 

Gestar a scoffer — raillevrs, ni. 

Gestyng bourde — bourde s, f. 

Gesture or countenaunce — geste s , f. 

■Geet a blake stone — ja£t j, m. 

Gette a custonie — guise nouuelle s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



225 



Gettar a braggar — fringuereau x, m. 
Gettyng — acquest 2, m. 
Geltyng braggyng — fringuerie s, f. 
Gevyng over a lliyng — résignation s, f. 

G BEFORE I. 

Giaunt — jaihant s, m. 

Gibette — gibet z,m. 

Gyde — guide s, m. 

Giderne — gaydon s, m. 

Gifte — don s, m.; donation s, f. 

Gifle a coHacyon — colation s, f. 

Gilde or brotherheed — confrairie s, f. 

Gyle disceit — dol z, m.; malengin s, m.; 

faulceté z, (.ifàlace s,(. 
Gyll of a fyssbe — joe de poisson s, f. 
Gyllofer a llour — giroajjlec s, f.; oyllet z,va. 
Gylte — trespas, ni. 
Gyltinesse — culpahleté 2, f. 
Gymell song — jumeau x,m. 
Gymletle to perse wyne — foret z, m.; uoille 

de sorbe s, m. 
Gymewe ofa gyrdell — crochet dune troassovrre 

z,m. 
Ginger spyce — gingembre s, m. 
Gynger grate — ratissevr a gingembrr s, m. 
Gyngle geangle — papillotle s, f. 
Gynne to take quayles with — ronnelle s, f. 
Gyrdell — ceincturt s, f. 
Gyrdelar — ceincturier s, m. 
Gyrdell for a purse of the spaynisshe facyon — 

ceinct z, m. 
Gyrdell stede — Jaulx du corps, m. 
Gyrdiron — gril z, m.; grillon s, m. 
Gyrle a wenche — garce s, f. 
Girthe for a saddcil or borse — cengle s, f. 
Gyse a mener — guise s, (. 
Gyserne a weapen — guiseme s, f. 
Gyserne ofa foule — jevsier s, m. 
Gyspen potte — pot de cvir z, m. 
Gysl tbat gothe over the florthe — soliue s, f.; 

giste s, f. 
Gyveng a sentence — judicature s, f. 
Gyves fetters — govjons, m. 
Gyves manacles — enlraues, f. 



G BEFOBE L. 

Gladnesse — joje z, {.; joievseté z, f. ; liesse 
s, f. ; exaltation s, C; hilarité z, f. 

Gladon herbe. 

Glasyer that glaseth windowes — uoirier s, m. 

Glasednesse — uoyroyseté z, t. 

Glasse to loke in — mirover s, m. 

Classe to_glase witb — uoyrre s, m. 

Glasse or many panes of glasse — uoinere s, t. 

Giede a byrde — escoujle s, t. 

Glydar a slyder — glancevr s, m. 

Glenar of corne — glanevr s, m. 

Gleve a weapen • — glayue s, m. 

Glewe — du glev, de la gleve s,{. 

Glewe or past — cole s, {. 

Giymring of lygbt — luevr s, f. ; escler s, m.; 
esclercment s, m. 

Glystre to take a laxe — cristoire s, (. 

Glystering — relucence Sj f. 

Globerde a flye — ung verqai reluit de nnyt. 

Glose ofa texte — glose s, f. 

Glorifyeng or rejoysing — glorijiance s, f. 

Glorie — gloyre s,L 

Gloriousnesse — glorievseU z, (. 

Glorie of vyctorie — triamphe s, m. 

Glotton — glûutton s, m.; gourment s, m. 

Glosyng — adulation, Jlaterie s, f. 

Glottony — gloutonie z, f. ; galosité z, f. 

Glove — gant i, m. 

Glove of mayie — mitaigne de fer s, ). 

Glovar — gantier s, m. 

Glowc worme tbat shynetb by night — «ni; 
aer qui relvit de nuyl. 

Glumme a sowerloke — rechigne s, f. 

G BEFOBE N. 

Gnastyng of the tethc — stridevr s, f. ; grince- 
ment s, m. 
Gnatte a flye — cincelle, singalle s, {. 
Gnawyng or frettyng in the belly — Iranchasoa 



s, m. 



G BEFORE O. 



Goblet a lumpe or a pece — monceau x, m. 

lopin s, m.; chanleaa x, m. 
Goblet to drinke in — gobelet z, m. 

39 



226 

God — diea x, m. 

Godheod — dàt^ 2 , f. 

Goddesse — déesse s, f. 

Godfather — parrain s, m. 

Goodlynesse — beaalté z, {. 

Godmother — marraine s,î. 

Goodnesse — bonté z, (. 

Good ricliesse — substance s, f. 

Goodfriday — le grant uendredy s, m.; le uen- 

dredy aaré z, m. • 
Goddoughter — flliolle s,i. 
Goddespeny — denier a Dieu s , m. 
Godson — JiUiol z , m. 
Goggleyedman — lovclie s, va. 
Goyng — allure s, f. ; aXLte s,f. 
Goyng about — reuolution s, f. 
Goyng out — issue s, f. 
Goyng out of fortresse — saillie s, (. 
Goyng downe — descendue s,{. 
Goyng about tVie busshe — embages, f. 
Goyng toguyder in one r — union s, f. , 
Goyng from a mannes mater — digression s, {. 
Goyon a fysshe — gojon s, m, 
Golde a metall — or j , m. 
Golde balance — poix, Irebuchet z, m. 
Goide Gncbe a byrde — chardonnereau x, m. 
Goldefynar — affineur d'or s, m. 
Golde foyle — papier a or bâta s, m. 
Goldemyne — minière aor s, [. 
Goldemynt. 

Goldesmythe — orfeure, argentier s, m. 
Goldewyerdrawer — tirevr dor s, m. 
Goldeweightes — trebucket z, m. 
Golde berbe — sovcye z,{. 
Goldesmythes sboppe. 
Goidesmythes worke — orfeuerie s, f. 
Goldeoure — covsteau d'or x, m. 
Goulfe of corne , so moche as may lye bytwene 

Ivvo postes, otherwyse a baye. 
Good man — preudhomme s, m. 
Good olde man — bonhomme s, m. 
Good woman — preude femme s, f. 
Good wyfe — tonne femme s, f, 
" Good doucker — pion s, xn. 
Good tourne — ion tour s, m. 
Goodnesse — bonté, debonaireté z, f. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Good wyll — bienuveillance s, f. 

Good frenche speche — francoys. 

Gomme of Ihe telhe — genciae s, f. 

Gomme that goweth on trees — gomme s, f. 

Goodly yonge man — beaajih, m. 

Gonne an ingynne — bombarde s, f. 

Gonge farmer — maislre de basses oevurcs, gai- 

gueron s, m.; cvrevr dortraitz s, m. 
Gonnar — cannonier s , m. 
Gonne maker — fondevr de bombars s, m. 
Gonne stone — plombée s, f. ; boulet z, m.; 

bovle de fonte s, f. 
Gonne poudre maker — faisevr de pouldre a 

cannons s, m. 
Gonge a draught — orirait z, m. 
Gode for a carier — esgaillon s, m. 
Goore of a smocke — poynte de chemise s,{. 
Gorjet of mayle — gorget dacier z.xn. 
Gorrell a great ladde — pautonnier s, m. 
Gourde to drinke in — courge s, f. 
Gose a foule — oye s, (. 
Goseberry — groseille s,[. 
Goseberry busshe — groseillier s, m. 
Gose grece an herbe. 
Gosbauke — avliour s, m. 
Goslynge — oison s , m. 
Gossyppe a man — compère s, m. 
Gossyppe a woman — commère s, f. 
Gospel! — euangile s, m. 
Gospeilar that syngeth tbe gospel). 
Goost — - espirit z, m. 
Goostely father — confessevr s, m. 
Goostlynesse — espiritaelleté Zjt. 
Gossommer, thynges that flye in sommar lyke 

copwebbes. 
Gote a beest — chieure s, t. 
Gottesmylke — laictde chieure z, m. 
Gotteslether — du barocqain s, m. 
Governaunce — govuemance s , f . ; seignevrie 

s,f. 
Governar — govaemevr s, m.; monarque, tec- 

tevr, govuemat. 
Gowne a garment — rote s, f. 
Gourde frute — courge s, (. 
Goûte a disease — govtte s,f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



227 



G BEFORB R. 

Grâce — grâce s, f. 

Graciousnesse — gracievseté z, f. 

Grafte or gryffe of a tree — ente s,(. 

Grajc horse — grison s, m. 

Grayle a boke — gradale s, va. 

Graye a beest — taxe s, m. 

Graye frère — cordelier s, m. 

Graye furre. 

Graye gryseil. 

Graynes spyce — graine de paradis s, (. 

Gramaryon — jramanVn s, m, 

Grammer a scyence — grammaire s, î. 

Graple to graple or claspe shyppes toguyder — 
hauet z, m. 

Grape frute — grappe s, t. 

Grasse or herbe — herbe s, {. 

Grate for bredde — gragevr a payn s, va. 

Grate for gynger — raiissevr, or grageur a gin- 
gembre s, va. 

Grate of a windowe — trelis de fer, m. 

Grate of yroii — irilis , m. 

Grave ofstone — tambe s, f. 

Grave oferthe — fosse s, f. ; sepulchre s, m. 

Gravell — grauier s, m.; sablon s, m. 

Graunlsyre — peregrant s, va. 

Grauntfatbers father — aieul x, m. 

Grantfather grantsyre — grani meul x, m. , or 
atave s, m. 

Grandame — meregrant s, (. 

Grauntmothers mother — aielle s, f. 

Gravyng upon a thyog — inscription s, f. 

GrauDge or a lytell thorpe — hameau x, m. 

Graunge — petit uillage s, m. 

Granche — grange s, f. 

Graunl of promysc — concession s, f. 

Graunt father to ones grêat graant father — 
altave j, ni. 

Graunt — octroy z, ai. 

Great storme — oraige s, m. 

Great pleasure — montjoy s, ni. 

Great wode tymbreto bylde with — maisrien s, m. 

Grèce to go up at or a stayre — degré z, m. 

Grevyng — naissance s, f. 

Greke ofthe nation of Grèce — Grec ;,m. 

Gredy worme ihat in is a dogges tong. 



Grafte yong tre — moleste, ente, greffe s, (. 

Gray hounde — leurier s, m. 

Gray bytche — leuriere s, t. 

Graynebery — gray ne descarlaie s, {. 

Grayne to dye with — pastel z, vn. 

Grefe payne — payne s, f. ; tribalation s, f. ; 
griesue s, f. 

Great quyll — penne s, f. 

Great bearyng out — port s, m. 

Great grauntfather — proaievl x, m. 

Great etar a larcher — • rifflevr, gormant s, m. 

Great depe place in the see — govffre s, m. 

Grayne to dye with whan it is poudre — pas- 
tel z, m. 

Grayne corne — grayne s, m. 

Graynesse — griselé z, {. 

Grement — unanimité s, f.; accord s, va.; accor- 
dance i, f. 

Grene turfe or a sodde — gason s, m. 

Grene fyncbe a byrde. 

Greuenesse — uerdure s, f. 

Grennyng makyng of an yvell couutynaunce — 
grincement s, m.; grimace s, f. 

Gresse herbe — herbe uerte s, (. 

Grese fatnesse ^ jrewe s,{. 

Greshopper — saatreau x , m.; savterelle s,{. 

Great eater — glovtton s, ta.; bnffre s, m. 

Great drinker — biberon s, m. 

Great grauntfather — aievl x, va. 

Great horse a courser — coursier s, va. 

Great graunde mother — aiclU s, f. 

Great faggot or baven — follot z,m. 

Great rude clothe — bureau x, va. 

Great waterpotte — cruche s, (. 

Great too — gros orteil z, m. 

Great hasyll nutte — aueleine s, (. 

Great hounde — alant s, va. 

Great nombre of cordes — cordaige s, f. 

Gretyng — salutation s, f. 

Gretnesse — grandevr, grossesse s, f. 

Grevaunce — greuance s,(, 

Greave or busshe — boscaige s, va. 

Grevousnesse — aggravation s, f.; grief z, m. 

Graffer of plantes — jardinier s, m. 

Grefe — ente s , f. 

Gryffon a beesl — grifon s, va. 

39- 



228 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Grymnessc — grimnevseté Zj (. 

Gryndestone — mevle a agviser s, f. 

Grynde bytwene the thyghe and ihe bclly — 

ayne s, f. 
(îrype a beest — egripe s,f. 
Grypell a hoke — hauet z,m. 
Grete a stayre — ungz degrez, m. 
Grystell of any beesl — tendron s, m. 
Grocer — grossier s , m. ; espicier s, m. 
Groyue of a swyne — g'~'>yng s, m. 
Gronje — uarlet z,m. • 

Gromeofthe chambre — uarlet de chambre z,m. 
Groinell sede. 

Groseuesse of a thyng — rudesse s, f. 
Grote money — gros , m. 
Grove a lytell woode — boscaige s, m.\ chenee 

s, f.; petit boys, m. 
Growyng encreasyng — croissance s, f. 
Grounde erthe — terre s, f. 
Grouad heed of yron — fer esmolu s, m. 
Groundesall an herbe. 
Groundes lyse of any lycour ■ — lie s, f. 
Grounde ivy — hierre s, m. 
Grounde the botome of a foundation of any 

thyng — fondation s , t. 
Grounde soppe in lycoure — payn trempé s, m. 
Grout that serveth lo brewyng , in Fraunce is 

none nsed. 
Grutchyhg — groignement s, m.; murmuralion 

s, f. ; remort, tumalte s, m.; contredaing 

s, m. 

G BEFOHE U. 

Guydyng or conductyng — conduit z, ni. 
Guyse or maner — fax:on s, f., guise s,{.; 

mode s, f. 
(juoipyn of an eie — doUe s, f. 
Guyde to iede one the way — -guide s, m. 
Gjiydyng — régime s, m. 
Guydern a baner in a felde — guidon s, m. 
(iurnardo a fysshe — goumavlt z, m. 
Gutte a bowell — boyau x, m. 
Guttar — gouttière , gouttier s, f. 
Guttar tbat the water ronneth from the con- 

deth — deuide s,{, 
Guttar stone. 



H BEFORE A. 

Haie in a felde for men — tref z, w. 
Haberdassber — mercier s, m. 
Harberger — fourrier du roj s, m. 
Hablenesse — habilité, capacité z, (. 
Habytacion dweiiyng — habitation s,(. 
Habytacle a place — habitacle s, m. 
Habytaunt a dweller — habitant s, m. 
Habundance plentie — habundance s, (. 
Haddocke a fysshe — avnon s, m. 
Hafte of any tôle — manche s, m. 
Haggas a podyng — caliette de mouton s, (. 
Hagge a flame of fyre that shyneth by night — 

furolle s,(. 
Haye a net for connes — bourcettes a chasser, f. 
Hayecocke — mulon defoyn s, m. 
Hayle — gresle s, t. 
Haylife an herbe. 

Hayre for parfite men — hayre s, f. 
Hackeney horse — hacquence z, f. 
Haibarde a wepen — halebarde s, (. 
Halfe of any thyng — moytié z, t. 
Haife pynt a measure — demion s, f. ; chop- 

pine s, {. 
Halfe an hour — demy-hevre s, {. 
Halfe a yere — demy an s, m. 

Halfe an acre — demy arpent s, m. 

Haifenesse — demieté z, f. 

Halfe a pecke — demy quart s, m. 

Halfe penny — maille s, f. 

Halfe suster — sevr utérine s, f. 

Halyday — feste s, t. 

Halywater — eave benoyte s, f. 

Halywaterslocke — benoislier s, ni. 

Halywatersprincle — uespilton s, m.; asper- 
goyr s, m. 

Halter — licol z,m.; cheuestre s, m. 

Halle in a house — salle s, f. 

Hall a long tent in a felde — tente s, f. 

Halmeshouse — aumoniere, maison dieu s,f. 

Halowyng of houndes — hvee s, (. 

Halowyng of a churche — coasecrolion s, (. 

Hamme of the legge — jarret z, m. 

Halsyng — accollee s, f, 

Hammer — marteau x, m. 

Hamper — /joniV dosier s, m.; escrayn s, m. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Handell of a potle or any lyke thyng — ofise s, f. 

Handlyng witb the bande — manienienl s, m. 

Hande — majn s , f. 

Handelyng entreating — Iraictement s, m. 

Hande barowe — ciuiere s, f. 

Handell a fullars instrument. 

Handfull — poignée z, f. 

Hangonner — covlearinier s, ni. 

Handefastyng — fiansailles, f. 

Handesawe — sie a mayn z, f. 

Hande basket — corheillon s, ni. 

Handemayde — chambrière , pedisseque s, f. 

Handeworme — ciron s, m. 

Handekercbefe — moachover s, m. 

Handestrokes — pagniz, m. 

Hangraan — boureaa x, m. 

Hangre a weapen — bracquemart s, m. 

Hangyng forahall orcbambre — tapisserie z, f. 

Hangyngfora bedde — accoastrementdelict s, m. 

Hangyng of an byll — pendant de la mon- 
taiijne s, m. 

Haasell — eslrayne s,f. 

Hansomnesse — adaenantelé z, f. 

Happenyng — aduenant s, m. 

Happe fortune — fortune s, f. ; accident s, m.; 
chanse s,i. 

Happynesse — prospérité z , [. ; bienheureté z,(.; 
evreuseti z,{. 

Harborowe — hoslelaiije, loyis , herberge. 

Hardell — claie s, f. 

Hardynesse — couraiije s, m.; hardiesse s, {. 

Hardnesse in tbe bande or fcte bycause of la- 
bour or straitshowyng — escalvre s, f, 

Hardnesse cruelnesse — dureté z, (. 

Hardnesse — diJicuUé z, f. 

Harde meate or foddre — yrayne s, (. 

Hare a becsl — Heure s, m. 

Harkyng — escoat, escoute, audience s, f. 

Harlotte — paillardes, f ; meretrice s. C; garce 

s, f. ; putayn s , f. 
Harlottrye — paillardjse s, (. 
Harme — dommage s, m.; détriment s, m. 
Harmony melody — armonie s,{. 
Harnesse — hamoys s, m. 
Harncsse of yron — armure dejer s,i. 
Harnesse for tbe armes — armure de brus, f. 



FRANCOYSE. 



229 



Harnesse for the legges — armure de jambes, 

greaes. 
Harnesse for a gyrdelle — ferreure s, f. 
Harnesse for the plougbe horse — hamoys de 

cherue, m. 
Harnesman — armigerc s, m. 
Harnesse for a borsenecke — crinet z, m. 
Harnesse for borses — harnais a cheual, m. 
Harper — harpevr s, m. 
Harpe — harpe s, (. 
Harpestrynge — corde de harpe s, f. ' 
Harte — cuevr s, f. 
Harte a wyide beest — cerf z , m. 
Haraulde of armes — herault s, m. 
Harowe — herce s, f. 
Harowe pynne — cheudle de herse s, f. 
Hartbe of a cbymney — atre s, m.; astre, brase, 

fvier s, m. 
Hartynesse — magnanimité z ,f.; cordialleté z,(. 
Hartysease a floure — menve pensée s, f. 
Hartestrynges — ueines de cuevr, f. 
Hasarde a dyce playe — hasart, azart s, m. 
Harvest season — autumpne, aaton s, m. 
Haselet of a bogge — haste menve s , f. 
Hasell nulte — noysettc s , (. ., avelayne s, f. 
Hasell tree — couldre s, m. 
Haste byeng — haste s, f. 
Hastynesse — /irecipifadon s, f. ; chautdc cote, 

echauf oison s, f.; hastiuité z, f. 
Haspe of a dore — clichette s, {. 
Hatcbe of a sbippe — tdiac z, m. ; tra/tpe s, f. 
Hatcbe of a dore — hecq z, m. 
Hatcbet — hachette s, f. ; hachet z, m. 
Hachette fora manof armes — hasche darmes, f. 
Hatte — chapiau ;r, m. 
Hatte maker — chapelier s, m. 
Hâte batered — hayne s, f. ; indignation s, I. 
Hathe of a sbyppe — trappe s, f. 
Hatred — malavcillance s, t. 
HatteroU — hascerell. 
Hauberde a weapen — halberde s, f. ; havlberl 

z, m. 
Haulbergyn of mayle — aulbergon \, m.; huul- 

berjon s, m. 
Hawe in tbe eye — paille s, f. 
Hautborne — espine blanche s, ï. 



230 



Hawethorne a bery — synnelle 

Hawe frute — sinelle s,(. 

Hawe tree — espine blanche s, f. 

Halfe moone — croissant de la lune Sj m. 

Haunte — fréquentation s, f. 

Hauke merlyon — merle s, f. 

Haulhorne — aulbespin s, m,; espine blanche s, 

f. ; Ro. dessoubz ung aulbespin gisant. 
Havyn — port, haure s, m. 
Hauke — ojsiav de proye x, m. 
Haunchc of a man or beest — hanche s, f. 

H BEFORE E. 

Hced pâte or noie — caboche s, f. 

Heed of a man or beest — teste s, f. 

Heed of a shafte — chief z, m. ;yèr s, m. 

Heed from tbe sholders up — chief z,m. 

Heed cburch — maistresse esglise s, (.■,temple s, m. 

Heed of garlyke — teste dail s,f. 

Heed money — truaige s,{. 

Heed pece of barnesse — armet z, m.\ cha- 

frayn s, m. 
Heedstall of a horse barnesse — testiere s , (. 
Hedge — haye, cep s, f. 
Hedgyng glove — moufle s,(. 
Hedgebogge a beest — hérisson s ,m. 
Hedge sparowe a byrde. 
Hedynesse — uoluntaireté z, f. 
Hepe of money — bloc z,ra. 
Hepe of any thyng — amas z ,m. 
Hepe of strawe — paillievr s, m. 
He ratte — raton s, m. 
Hey beestes meate — foyt >> "'■ 
Hey bouse or lofte — garnieraufoyn s, m. 
Heygbt of any thyng — haaltevr s, f. ; summité 

z, i.\ fustige s, m. 
Heymaker — fenevr s, m . 
Heymower — fauchevr de foyn s,a\. 
Heymowe — taj de foyn, m. 
Heytyme — temps defener, m. 
Heyre to a man tliat dyetb — hoyr s, m. 
Heyre apparaunt — monsieur s, m. 
Heeforde a yong cowe — génisse s, f. 
Healyng of a sore — guerissement s, m. 
Heale of body — santé z, f. 
Heele of tbe fote — ■ talon s, m. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 

S.{. 



Hell where tbe devyH is — enfer s, m. 
Helme of a rotber of a shyppe — le manchcdu 

govuernail z, m. 
Helmet a heed pece — heaume s, m. 
Helpe — adjutoire s, m.; coadjutevr s, m. 
Helpyng — adhérence, aide s,(. 
Heltbe — santé z, f. 
Heltbe of body — ualitude s, f. 
Helve of any tôle — manche s, m. 
Hemme of a garment — ourllet z, m.; bort s, 

m.; lisière s, {. 
Hempsede for byrdes — chavneuys, m. 
Hempe — chamure s ,va. 
Hemmyng or hemme of a garment — oure- 

levre s, f. 
Hemlockes vvedes. 
Henbane an herbe. 
Henchman — paige dhonnevr s, m.; emfant 

dhonnevr s, m. 
Henné a foule — geline s, f. 
Henges of a dore — gont s, m. 
Heape a great quantité — monceau x, m.; 

tas, m. 
Heppe bery of eglantyne — grallecul x, m.; 

cornille s, {, 
Heraulteof armes — herault x, m. 
Heer of tbe heed — ■ cheaevl x, m. 
Heeres of a beestes necke or raaane — en'n s, m. 
Heer of a mannes body — poil z, m. 
Heer cyve — sas, m. 
Herbe — herbe s, f. 
Herber — herbier s, m. 

Herberjour tbat provydeth lodgyng — four- 
rier s, ta. 
Herbe royall. 

Herbe sellar or he that selleth herbes. 
Heerbande a lace — ruban s, m. 
Herboroughe — logis, m, 
Herce for a deed corse of silke — paille s, m. 
Herce a deed body — corps , m. 
Herde of dere — troppeau x, m, 
Herdell made of wode — ■ ctaye s, f. 
Heerdes of hempe — tillage de chamure s, m.: 

estovpes, f. 
Heerryng a fyssbc — harcnc s, m. 
Hearyng, the place wherbywe hère — ovye s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



231 



Herytage — heritauje, s, m. 

Herytike — heritiqae s, va. 

Hermyte — lieremite s, la. 

Herne a foule — héron s, m, 

Hernyst man — homme darmes s, m. 

Herse clotlie — poilU s, ni. 

Hert a beest — cerf z, m. 

Hert of any beest — cvear s, m. 

Hertestong an herbe — langue de cerf s,{. 

Hertesease an herbe — menve pensée s , {. 

Hertstrynges — ueines de cvear, f. 

Herthe of a chymney — aire s, m, 

Hertynesse — cordialleté z,i. 

Hervest season — aatompne s,{. 

Heate — ardevr s,{.; chalevr s, t. 

Heatyng or chafyng — eschajitvre s, f. 

Hetchell for flaxe — serancq, serant s, m. 

Hethe a playne — lande s,(. 

Hethe bussbes — hrvyere s, f. 

Hethynesse — sarazinesme s, f. 

Hewer of stone — taiUevr de pierres, m. 

Hewke a gannent for a woman — surquayne 
s, {.^froc z,m. 

Hewyng of a dere — hvee s, f. 

Hewar that fcttcth the wyndelesse in huntyng 
— hveur s, va. 

Hevyn — ciel, cicalx,m. 

Hevyncsse weyght — pesantevr s, (. 

Hevynesse — tristesse s, f. ; regret z, m. ; amer- 
tume s, f. ; contristation s, (. 

Hevenlynesse — celestialeté z , (. 

H BEFOBE Y. 

Hye place where one maye se about hym — 

cerne s , m. 
Hyebles or herbe that groweth in the water — 

hiebte s, va. 
Hydiousnesse — hideaseié z, f. 
Hyde a skynne — cordovayn s, m. 
Hyding — celée s, (,\ recelée s, (. 
Hyde courte — covr sovueraigne s, (, 
Hye shyppe — caracque s, f. 
Hyre or wages — louage s, m.;lovier s, m. 
Hyll a mountayne — montaigne s, f. 
Hyll loppe — crespe or creste de montaigne s, f. 
Hyliing a coveryng — couuerture s, f. 



Hylte of a swerde — poignée z,f. 
Hylworte an herbe. 

Hyllyngof an bouse — cpvaertare s , (.; leclz, m. 
Hymmc that is song in the churche — hymne 

s. f. 
Hynde caulfe — bichet z, va, 
Hynde — hiche s, f. 

Hynderparte of the necke — caygnon s, m. 
Hynderparteof theheed — fossette de la teste s, (. 
Hynderparte of the jawes — caignon s, m. 
Hynderparte of a saddell — arcon s, m. 
Hynderwarde — garde de derrière s, f. 
Hynderparte of the shyppe — prore s, f. 
Hynderaunce — obstacle s, m. ; perte s, f. ; disu- 

uantaige s,vn.\ détriment s, m. 
Hynesse — sublimité z, f ; haultesse s, {. 
Hyppe of a beest — hanche s, f. 
Hyppe the reed bery of a brere — grattecnl x, m . 
Hyrchen a beest — hérissons, m. 
Hyrdell — claye s, f. 
Hyssing of a serpente — ciflevre s, f. 
Hyve for bées — ruche s, f. 

H BEFOHE 0. 

Hobgobtyng — goblin s, m. ; mavffe s, f. 

Hobby a horse of Irelande — hobyn s, m. 

Hobby a hauke — kobreau x, m. 

Hocke — crocq z, va. 

Hode or cappe — • chaperon s, m. 

Hode maker — faiseur de chaperons s, ni. 

Hofe of a beestes fote — corne s, f. 

Hogge — porc, pourceau x, m. 

Hoggerell a yong shepe. 

Hogges troughe — auge à pourceaux s, f. 

Hoggesheed a vesseil for wyne — demy mvy s, 

va. ; poynson s, va. 
Hoke to catche fysshe with — hamasson s, m. 
Hoke for a womans gowne — o.graffe s, f. 
Hoke of wode great or lyteil — croq z, m. 
Hokednesse — crochuseli z, f. 
Holdeaplaceof fence — pourprises, f. ifort s, m. 
Holdyng of ones peace — silence s, va. 
Holdyng in remembraunce — retenance a, f. 
Holdyng — • rétention s,f. 
Holefoted beest — beste a pie entier s, f. 
Hole io any thyng — trou s, m.; pertuis, m. 



232 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Holcnesse — integrilé z, L; entiereté z, f. 

Holy goost — sainct espirit z, m. 

Hoie that swete or heres cometh out at — pore 

s, m. 
Holy scripture — diuinité z ,{. 
Holly Ire — hous s, ni. 
Holynesse — sainclelé z, f. 
Hoiyhocke wylde malowes. 
Holowe spcre — hovrdon s, m. 
Holownesse of the fote — plmxte du pie s, f. 
Holownesse of the handc — parfont de la mayn 

' 5, m. 
Holownesse of any tliyng — creuseté, conca- 

ttité z, f. 
Holy water sprincle — aspergoyr s , m.\ uespU- 

lon s, m. 
Holythursday — le jour de lassenlion s, m. 
Holsomnesse — aménité z, f. ; sancié z, (. 
Holtc a iylell woodc — petit boys s, m. 
Honest ni an — honune de bien s, m. 

Honestye — honnestelé z, f. 

Hongrynesse — /«/" s> f- ; appétit a manger. 

Homelynesse — priuaallc z, f. 

Homage — hommaiye s, m. 

Honest deaiyag — preudliommie s, f. 

Hony — miel z, va. 

Honny combe — marcq z , ni. 

Honnysuckell — luit ISostre Dame z, m. 

Honour — honnevr s, m. 

Honouryng — ueneration s, f. ; reueration s, f. 

Hole — trov X, m.; perlais, m. 

Hole where the meate gothe downe — gavion 
s, m. 

Hore maister — pailliardiau, putaynier x, m. 

Hoppe upon my thombe — fretillon s, m. 

Hotchepolte — tripotaigc s, m. 

Hoppes for beere — houblon s, m. 

Hope trust — espoir s, m.; espérance s , f. 

Hope the verlue — espérance s, f. 

Hopper of a myll — tremye s, f. 

Hore coppc. 

Horde or heape — monceau x, m. 

Horehounde herbe — langue de chien s, C 

Hore a drabbe — putayn s, (. 

Hotenesse — chakvr s, f. 

Hôte house — esleiues, estvuier s, f. 



Home to blowc with — cor s, m.; cornet z, m.; 

trompe s, f. 
Horne to hunte with — cor s, m. 
Horne — cor s, m.; corne s, f. 
Horner a maker of bornes — cometlier s, m. 
Horneresse a woman — comettiere s, f. 
Horon a herbe. 

Hornkecke a fysshe lyke a mackerell. 
Homes. < 

Hornet a Ilye. 

Horryblenessc — horribleté z , f. 
Horrure — abhominaiion s, f.; hideur s, f. ; hor- 

revr s, f . 
Horse in Gascoync speche — ivucyn s, m. 
Horse a beest — cheual x, va. 
Horse coller — licol z, m. 
Horse combe — estrille s, f. 
Horse bredde — pain a cheual s, m. 
Horse barncsse — liarnoys a cheual, m. 
Horse grasse an herbe. 
Horse kepar — paljronier s, m. 
Horse plome frute — jorroise s, f. 
Horse myll — movlin a cheual s, m. 
Horskepar or ladde of the stable — houspail- 

lier s, m. 
Horsemynt an herbe — calamente s, f. 
Horse shoo — fer de cheual s, nt. 
Horse lytter — Ictiere aux chcuavlx s, (. 
Horse tayle — queve de cheual s, f. 
Horse flesshe colour. 
Horse clothe — covuerture a cheual s, f.; conuer- 

toir s, m. 
Horse lèche , a worme — sansae s, f . 
Horse tamer — domplevrde cheaavlx s, m. 
Horse trapper — hovsse s, f. 
Hoorsnesse of tbe throte — enrovevre s, f. 
Hoorse in Gascoyne speche — roucyn s, m. 
Host of men — armée s, (. 
Hoslager one that is pledgc for another — hos- 

tagier s, m. 
Hostler in an inné — hostelier s, m. 
Hose for ones legges — chavsse s, f. 
Hosyer that maketh hosen — chausettier s, m. 
Hosyn and sliossys — chaussure s, (. 
Hospytall — hospilal x, m. 
Hostry or inné — hostel z, m. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Hostryge a foule — avstrache s, f. 
Hondreth — cent s, m. ; centaine s, f. 
Houlyng o(dogges— hurlements, m.; ulalation s, f. 
Houle a byrde — chathaan s, m. 
House — maison s, f.; domicile, hostel z, m. 
Houseleke a herbe — jombarde s, f. 
House that a mau boldeth — tenement s, m. 
HousholdestuiTe — mevbles, m. 
Housholder — mesnagicr s , m. 
Housbolde folke — maynie z, (. 
Housholde a kynred — famille s, f. 
House evsyDg — les ugovttys. 
House of easment — lasse chambre s, (. 
Hove tbat a chylde is borne in — taye s, f. 
Housetoppe or treetoppe — coypeau de la mai- 
son X, m. 
Housedovc — coulomb s ,m. 
Houre tyme — hevre s, f. 
Hotcbcpotte of many meates — haricot z , m. 
Houade — chien s, m. 
Houpe a great ryng — signet z,ta. 
Houpe for any vessell — cerceau x, m. 
Houpc of a beestes fote — corne s, f. 

H BEFORE U. 

Hucster a man — quocquetier s, m. 

Hucster a woinan — quocquetiere s, f. 

Huke — surquanie s, (.;froc z, m. 

Hulke a shyppe — hevrcque s, f. 

Hull or barckc of a tree — escorce s, f. 

Hull of a beane or pesé — escosse s, f. 

Humblebee — bovrdon s, m. 

Humylite mekenesse — humilité z, f. 

Humour moystnesse — hvmeur s, f. 

Hungre — fain , famine s, f. 

Hunter — braconnier (Ro.) chassevr, uenevrs, m. 

Hurle or tbrowe witb a stone — coup de pierre 

s, m. 
Hurte — détriment s, m.; blessvre s , {. 
Hurt wronge — préjudice s, m. 
Hnsbaademan — lobourevr de uilage s, ni.; 

agricole , puisant z, m. 
Husbande a thrivyng man— mesnagier s, m. 
Husbande that hath wedded a wyfe — mary 

s, m. 
Husbandes brotber — yrere de mon mary s, m. 



FRANCOYSE. 233 

Husbandrie — mesnagerie s , f, ; labouraige s, m.; 

agriculture s, f. 
Husbandes house in the countre or maner place 

— metayrie s, f. 
Hussber of a scole — clerc s, m. 
Huske of frute — escosse s, f. ; escaille s, f. 
Husse a fysshe — rousette s, f. 
Huswyfe — mesnagiere s, f. 
Huswyferie — mesnagerie z,f. 
Hutcbe a chest — cofre s, m. ; huche s, f. 

I BEFORE A. 

lade a dull borse — galier s, m. 

lacynct a preeious stone — jacincte s, f. 

lagge a cuttyng — chicqueture s, f. 

laggednesse — chicqueture s, f. 

laye a byrde —jay s, m. 

layle a common prisone — geolle s, f. 

lacke or whitte nicquel, as I wyll nat gyve you 

a whyt — je ne nous donneray pas ung nie- 

qaet z , m. 
lackct — saion s, m. 
lacket without sleves — hocqueton s, m. 
lacket tbat bath but four quarters — jacquetle s, C. 
lacke barnesse — jacq , jacqae z, m. 
langler — hubillart s, m. ; janglevr s, m. 
langlyng or cbattyng — jonglerie s, f. 
January a moneth — januiers, m. 
Jape a trifyll — truffe s, f. 
Jaquecure a kynde of money — jaquecvevr s, m. 
Jarfaucon a bauke — gerfault x, m. 
lasper a preeious stone — jaspre s, f. 
lavelyn a speare — jauelot z, m. 
laundyce a sickenesse — jaunice s, f. 

I BEFORB C. 



Ice — glace s, f. 

Itcbe — demangevre s, f. 



I BEFOnE D. 

Ideot a foie — sot z,m.;fol z , m. 
Idolater — idolastre s, m. 

I BEFORE E. 

ley to se witb — oeil, yeulx, m. 
lelousy — zelotipie , jalousie s, f. 

3o 



234 

lern mongar — ferron s, m. 
lelnesse — oysiveté z, {. 
leytothe — dent c^lUere s, f. 
leraper tree — geneure s, m. 
lesses for a bauke — get z, m. 
letler a facer — facer, braggart z, m. 
lettar of nyght season — brigvevr s, m. 
lewe wode to luake bowes — fyf^> ■"• 
lewell — joyaa x, m. 

I BEPORE M. 

Image — image s, f. 

Image a broche — devise s, f.; broche s, f. 
Image maker — faisevr dymages s, m. 
Imagination — imagination s, f. 
Imbres bote assbes — brajse s, f. 
Imme tbat is songe — hymne s, f. 
Impacyence angre — impatience s, f. 
Impe a yonge springe. 
Impe or grasse — pasturage s, m. 
Impostume in ones body — apostume s, f. 
Impotentnesse for âge — decrcpitcment s, m. 
Impressyng or printyng of a boke — impres- 
sion s, f. 
Imprisonment — carceration s, 1'. 
Impreparyng — impréparation, enchartrure s,ni. 

I BEFOBE N. 



Inné or hostrye — hostellerie z, f. 
Incarnation — incarnation s, f. 
Incbantre or witche — enchanteur s, m. 
Incbantment or cbarme — charme s, m.; enchan- 
tement s, m. 
Inche measure — poulces, f. 
Inclynation — inclinemeni s, m. 
Inconvenyenl — accident s, m. 
Inclynation to vyce — lascheté z, f. 
Inconstancy unstedfastnesse — inconstance s, f. 
Increase — croissement s, m. 
Increasyng — augmentation s, f. 
Indenture — unes indentures, f 
Inder chambre — garderobe s, f. ; conclave s, f. 
Inderwarde of a castell — cengle de chastel s, m. 
Indygnation disdaynyng — indignation s, f. 
Influence — influence s, f. 
Influence of the starres — constellation s, f. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Infelycite nnhappynesse — infelicilé z, f. 

Infydele nat christened — payn s, m. 

Iniquité — iniquité z, f. 

Injury wrong — injvre s, f. 

Inferyour outher in place or dignyte — inje- 
rievr s, m. 

Inke to Write with — encre s, f. 

Ingratitude, unkyndnesse — engratie s, f. 

Inke borne — cornet a encre z, m. 

Inné to lodge gestes in — giste s, m.; hostelle- 
rie s, f. 

Innocency — innocence s, f. 

Inquyring — enquisition s, f. 

Inquyetnesse of mynde — inqvùetude s, f. 

Insigbt — regart s, ni. 

Inspyration — inspiration s, f. 

Instaunt — movuement s, m. 

Instaunce — instance s, f. 

Insteppe of tbe fote — col du pie z,m.; le des- 
sus du pie s, m. 

Instructyon — instruction s, f. 

Instrument — instrument s, m . 

Instrument for cordwayners — alesne. 

Instrument of musyke — instrument de musique 
s,(. 

Instrument to dygge vynes or safron — hove s, f. 

Instrument of any handy crafte — ovtil z, m. 

Intent — entent, entention, prétexte. 

Intylulyng — inlitulation s, t. 

Interchaungyng — commutation s, f. 

Interditement — inierdissement s, m. 

Intisyng — suasion s, f. 

Interlude — moralité z, f. 

Interprétation — interprétations, l'. 

Intertayning — entretenement s , m. 

Intreatyng — attrait, traicte s, f. 

Inundation of waters — undee s, f. 

Inventyon — inuention s, f. 

Invysiblenesse — inuisibleté z, f. 

Inwarde parte of the thighe— moJde/a cuisse s, in. 



I BEPORE O. 

logelyng caste — passe passe s, f. 
logelour — batellevr s, m. 
loye — joje z , f. 
loyners worke — menvserie s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



235 



loynyng of two joyntes toguyder — joinclure 

s.{. 
loyning of bordes — joincture s, {. 
loynar a craftesman — menvisier s, m. 
Joynt — joyncl s, m. 
Jolynesse — joliueté z, f. 
Johan a proper name — Jehan. 
Jolie of a fysshe — teste s, f. 
lonkette — banquet z, va. 
lourney — aoyage s, m. ; jornee s, (. 
lowell — joyau oc, m. 
lowell house. 
louroay — journée s, f. 
louse of an herbe — jus, m. 

I BEFORE R. 

Irchen a lyttel beest fuH of prickes — héris- 
son s, m. 
Ire — yre s, f. ; maltalent s, m. 
Irkesomnesse — attediation s, f. ; ennvy s, m.; 

fascherie s, f.; envyevselé z, f. 
Irons for prisoners — fers, m. 
Iron — jer s, m. 
Ironruste — ferrvge s, f. 
Iron mongar — ferron s, m. 

I BEFORE S. 

Isope an berbe — ysope s, f. 

Isoppe. 

Issue or stocke — issue s, f. 

1 BEFORE T. 

Itchyng — cvisement s, m. 
Itcbe — demangevre s, f. 

J BEFORE U. 

Jue a man of jurye — jvif z, va. 

Juellar — lapidaire s, m. 

Jugement — arbitrage s, ta.; jviUcation s, f. 

Judycature — jugement s , m. ; sentence s, f. 

Judge— jnge, arbitratevr s , va. ; arbitre s, m.; 

justicier s, va. 
Judge of a towne — escheum s, vn. 
Jvery bone — yaoyre s, va. 
Jvy tree — hierre s, va. 
Jvy berry — gfiyne de hierre s,(. 



July a moneth — juillet z, m. 

Junket or banket — bancquet z, vn. 

June a moneth — Joinj z, va. 

Junyper tree — jenneure s, va. 

Jurisdyction of a lorde — seignevnage s, m. 

Jurisdyction ofa privost — priuosté z, f. 

Jurnall a boke — journal x,m. 

Juse of grapes or any herbes — jas, m. 

Justar with speares — joustevr s, va. 

Justyce right — justice s, {. 

Justyce of peace or quorum, they bave no suche 

oflycers. 
Justyng — toumoy s, ni.;jovste s,f. 
Justynghorse — cheual de jovste x, m. 

K BEPOBE A. 

Kace to put a thyng in — estuy z, m. 

Kake — gasteau x, va. 

Kalstocke — pie de chov z, m. 

Kall for a mayde — retz de soye z,î. 

Kalendre — calendrier s, va. 

Kancre a sore incurable — chxuicre s ,va. 

Karvcrafore a prince — escvler trenchani s, m. 

Karver a craftesman — menvisier s, va. 

Karvyng knyfe — covteau de escvier x, ni. 

Katcbyng ofany thyng — prinse s, f. 

Katte a beest — chat z,m. 

Katterwayng — larre de chatz s, va. 

K BEFORE E. 

Keckes of bumblockes — tviav x,va. 

Key — clef z, f. 

Key to kny tte walles toguyder — clef z, (. 

Kell in a womans belly — taye s, f. 

Kelyng a fysshe — aunon s, va. 

Kempe eele. 

Kerapsler — linihre s, (. 

Kennell for houndes — loge a chiens s, f. 

Kenesse sharpnesse — aspreté z,f. 

Kenet coloure — cendré s , m. 

Kepar of a kynges or a great lordes place — 

consierge s, va. 
Kepar ofany other place — gardian s, ai. 
Kepar of the farmary — enfermier s, m. 
Kepar of a castell — chastelayn s, va. 
Kepar of a close — closier s, m. 

3o. 



236 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Kepar of a place — concierge s, m. 

Kepar of a prison or lordes place — consierge 

s, m. 
Kepyng — obseruation s , f. 
Kepyng of bousLolde — hospitalité z , f. 
Kerchefe — cvevurcchief s, m. 
Kersay — cresey s, m. 
Kettyli a vessell — chaaderon s, m. 
Ketwyng, bringyng forthe of yonge cattes — 

chattement s, m. 

K BEFOHE I. * 

Kybe on ihe hele — mufe s, (. 

Kicben — cvisine s, (. 

Kicke of an horse — ruade s, f. 

Kickes the drie stalke of humlockes or burres — 
tvyav X, m. 

Kydde a beest — chevereau x, m. 

Kydde a fagotte — fahvrde s, f. 

Kydney of a beest — roignon s, m. 

Kigbt a foule — escovjle s, m.; milan s, m. 

Kylderken a vessell — cacque s, f. 

Kyll for malte. 

Kyllhouse. 

Kyllyng of men — mevrtre s, m.; occision s, f. 

Kyranell — quevue s, f. ; quevaetle s, f. 

Kynde entreatyng — acveil z, m. 

Kynde — lingnee s, f.^sexe s, m. 

Kynde of any beest — genre s, m. 

Kyndelyng of fyre — embrasure. 

Kynred — lignaige, progéniture. 

Kynde of daunce — bargeret. 

Kyng — roy s, m. 

Kyng of armes — roy de armes. 

Kyndenesse — debonnaireté z ,{. 

Kyngdome — roialme s, m.; règne s, m. 

Kynges yvell — escrovelles, f. 

Kynges bouse — hostcl du roy z , m. 

Kynred or an ofspring — parenté, consangui- 
nité Zj f. ; parage s, m. 

Kynsfolkcs — parens , m. 

Kynswoman — ajjlne, parente s, f. 

Kynsman — parent s,m.;ajjin s, m. 

Kynsman or countreman. 

Kyppe of iambe a furre. 

Kyrneil of a grene walnut — cemeav x, m. 



Kyrnell of any frute — noyav x, m. ; pépin i, 

m.; le bon s, m. 
Kyrnell or knobbe in the necke or otberwbere 

— glandre s, {. 
Kyrleil a garment — corpset, sarcot s, m.; cotelle 

s. f. 
Kysse — bayser s, m. 
Kysse tbat a wonian gyveth of her sekyng — 

Jrancbaisier s, m. 
Kytcliyn — cvisine s, f. 
Kytlyng — chatlon s,vn. 
Kike — ttiiau x, m. 

K BEFORE N. 

Knacke or toye — friuolle s, f. 

Knave — quocqain s, m. ; aillain s, m. 

Knavysshenesse — uillaynie s, {. 

Kne — genovil, genovLc, m. 

Kne bone or pan — lapallette de genovil s, f. 

Knedyng trougbe — avge a pétrir s, f. ; pannet- 

liere s, f. 
Knelyng — genvjlection s, f. 
Knyfe — covsteau x, m.; covstel Ro. z,m. 
Knigbt of the order of saynt Michaell. 
Knyght of advenlures — cheualier errant s, m. 
Knyght bacheler — cheualier s, m. 
Knyght banneret. 

Knyght in a just or tumey — défendeur s, m. 
Knyghthode — cheualerie z, f. 
Knyttar of cappes — covsturiere de bonetz s, f. ; 

lasseresse s, (. 
Knyttyng toguyder — joinctare s, f. 
Knobbe in a staffe — ne» x, m. 
Knobbe or rysing after a stroke — bigne s, f. 
Knoccle bone — joincte de la hanche s, f. 
Knoccle of a fynger — noynce, joincte s, f. 
Knoppe of a cuppe — pomeaa de coueAeque 

x, m. 
Knoppe of a payre of beedes — hovppe s, f. 
Knoppe wede an herbe. 
Knotin wollen clothe — povtee s, f. 
Knotte — nev,entrenev x,m. 
Knower — cognoissevr s, m. 
Knowledge — cognoissance s, f.; recognoissance , 

scavance s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



237 



K BEFORE O. 

Koo a byrde, 

Kockeafryce sarpcnt — coquatris, m. 
Kocke a foule — coq z, w. 
Kockerell — cachet s, m. 
Kockescombe — creste de coq s, f. 
Kockebote for a shyppe — cocquet z, m. 

L BEFOnE A. 

Lake a standyng waler — lac z,m. 

Labell — horppe s, f. 

Laboure — labevr s, m.; trauail x, va. 

Labourer — labovrevr s, m. 

Labourer of vynes — uitjneron s, m. 

Labouryng of the erthe — cttltiuevre s, f. 

Labourousnesse — laboriosité z, f. 

Lace — lacet z, m. 

Lachet of a sbo — courroye z, f. 

Lâche or snecke of a dore — locqvet z , m. 

Ladde a boye — garson s, m. 

Ladder — eschiel , eschelle s, f. 

Laddes of the stable — hoispalUer s , m. 

Lady — dame s,{. 

Ladydaye in marche — la nostredame en mars. 

Lady maystres — dame dkonnevr s, f. ; govuer- 

nante s, f. 
Lady of présence — damoiselle dhonneur s, f. 
Lady that maryeth nal agayne — dame dovai- 

glere s, f. 
Ladell — cvillier s, va. 
Laylande — terre novacllement labovree s, f. 
Layman — homme maryé s, m. 
Lake a waunte — favhe s, f. 
Lake a dyche — estang z,m. 
Lambe a beest — agneav x, m. 
Lamenessc — mehajgneté z, f. 
Lamentyng — regret z, m. 
Lamentatyon — lamentation s, (. 
Lammas a feest — la sainct Pierre aux liens, f. 
Lamprey a fysshe — lamproye s, f. 
Lancet an instrument — lancette s, f. 
Lansknygbt — lancequenct s, m, 
Lane narowe stretc — rvelle s, f. 
Lande a counlre — contrée z, f. ; lande s, f. 
Landelorde — renlyer s, m. 
Lande — terres, f. 



Language — lanrjage s , m. 

Langdebefe an herbe — langue de bevf s, f. 

Lanarde a hauke — lanier s, m. 

Lanyer of iether — lashiere s,{. 

Lanterne — lanterne s, f. 

Lappe or skyrt — gyron s, m. 

Lapwynke a foule — hvppe s , f. 

Larde fatte bacon — lart, lard z, m. 

Larderhouse — lardier s, m, 

Largegrounde — covrtîl z, m. 

Largenesse — spaciosité, amplitude s, f; lar- 

gevr s, f. ; largesse s, f 
Layre of a grouude — terroy s, m. 
Larke a byrde — alouette s , {. 
Larme in a felde — alarme s, f. 
Lasarhouse — lasdriere s, f. 
Lasar a sickeman — lasdre s, m. 
Lasshe a stroke — covp de Jouet z , m. 
Lasshnesse — laschelé z,{. 
Laske a disease — jluxde uentre, m. 
Lase or bande — lalz, m. 
Laste fora shoo — fovrme s,î. 
Laste of fysshe xii barelles — lay z, f. 
Latche of a dore — cUcquette s, f. ; locqaet 

z, m. 
Latheofwoode — latte s, f 
Lathe maker — faiseur de lattes s, m. 
Laie. 

Latyn m étal I — laion s, m. 
Lattes fora Avindovve — châssis, trelis, va. 
Lalermathc. 
Latyn — latin s, m. 
Laude a prayse — laude s, t. 
Lavell tbat standetli in the myddes of the throt e 

— alovette s, f. 
Lawe — loy s, f. 

Laweof armes — droict darmes z, ni. 
Lawe of nature — droict de nature z, m. 
Lavendre an herbe — lauende s, f. 
Lavendre of Spaygnc — cipres, m. 
Lavendre cottcn — cipres, m. 
Laundre a wassher — laaendiere s, f. 
Laver to wasshe at — lauoyr s, m. 
Laufulnesse — licitité, loysibleté s, f. 
Laughyngto scorne — irrision s, f. 
Laughter — rys,m.; risée s, f. 



'M 



238 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Lawyer that occupyeth the lawe — homme de 

loy s, m. ; homme de robe longue s, m. 
Laumpe — lampe s, f. 
Laumprey a fysshe — lamproye s, (. 
Laumpron a iyttell fysshe — lamprion s, m. 
Launce gay — jaueleyne s, f. 
Launcet to let blode with — lancette s, {. 
Laundre thaï wassheth ciolhes — laaendiere 

s, f. 
Launde a playne — lande s, (. 
Lauoe iyne.n — crespe s, m. 
Laurell tree — lavrier s, m. 
Launterne — lanterne s, f. 
Lavour to wasshe — laaevr s, m. 
Laurell an herbe. 
Laxe — clistere s, ni. 

L BEFORE £. 

Lebarde a beest — leopart s, m. 

Lèche a surgion — servrgien s, m. 

Lechery — lecherie, luxure s, f. 

Lecke worme — sanijsve s, 1. 

Lèche made of flesshe — gelée z ,{. 

Lectuary a uiedicyne — elecluaire s, m. 

Lectuary — lectuaire s, m. 

Lecterne to syng at — levtrajn s, ni. 

Ledge of a dore — barre s, (. 

Ledge of ashelfe — «/)"/» estaye s, m. 

Leed a metall — plomb s, m. 

Leadyng — amenement s, m. 

Leeder of a daunce — aaant dancevr s, m. 

Leader or guyder — condactevr s, m. 

Leeden mail — malliet a plomb z, m. 

Lefetenant — lievtenant s, m. 

Lees pasture — clos de hays, va. 

Leafe of a tree or herbe — foeille s, (. 

Leafe of a boke — foeiUel z, m. 

Leafe of paper — foeille de papier s, f. 

Lefenesse — cheretè z, (. 

Leûe hande — mayn gavche i , f. ; mayn sc- 

nestre. 
Lefe or yvell. 

Leftnesse — gavcheté z, {. 
Lefulnesse — leciteté, loissebleté z, t. 
Lcgalion a message — légation s, t. 
Legge — jambe s,{. 



Legge harnesse — greues, f 

Légale — légat z, m. 

Legge fro the kne lo ihe foie. 

Legelorde — souerayn liège s, m. 

Leage two myle — lieve s, L 

Légende — légende s, f. 

Légion — légion s, (. 

Leyser — loisir 5, m.; uacation s, f. 

Leyoe. 

Leaning to — adhésion Sj(. 

Leke an herbe — porreav x, m. 

Lembyke for a slyllatorie — lembic z, f. 

Lemman — concubine s, f. ; amovreuse s, f 

Lenenessc — maigreté, maigresse s, f. 

Lenenesse of mannes body — maigrise s, (. 

Length of aman — longuevr s, f. ; estant s, ai. 

Lenglh of any Ihyng — longevr s , (. 

Lenarde a byrde — linette s, f 

Leanyng place — apvy s, m. 

Leanyng stoke — appuial x, m. 

Lent a holy tymc — quaresme s, m. 

Leoparde a beest — leopart s, m. 

Leye to take fysshe — nasse a prendre poyson 

s,{. 
Lepe or starte — savlt z, m.; course s, f. 
Lepe a skyppe — sault z, m. 
Lepeyere — bisexie s, f. 
Lepar a sickeman — lasdre s, m. 
Lèpre the sickenesse — lasdrerie z, f. 
Lepe or a basket — corbeille s, f. 
Lernyng or correctyon — discipline s,{. 
Lernyng erudytion — ensignement, Utleralure. 
Leske by the belly — ayne s, f 
Leasshc for a greyhounde — lesse s, f. ; lais, m. 
Lesson — leçon s, f. 
Leiany prayer — letanye z , i. 
Let or leltyng — empeschement s, m.; obstacle 

s, m. 
Letter — lettre s, t.; escripture s, f. 
Lettre of raarke — lettre de martfue s, C 
Leltar or hyndrer — empescheir s, m. 
Letters patentes — lettres patentes, f. 
Lethcr — cvir s, m. 
Lelher hungrye — cvir bovlly s, m. 
Lethcr dyer — taincturier de cvir s, m. 
Leltes an herbe — leclus, f 



V. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



239 



Lettyce a furre — letice s, f. 

Letters of credence — lettres de créance , f. 

Lettyng of blode — seignee s, f. 

Lettyng of any thyng — obhumbration s, f. 

Leude trere — bovrdican s, m. 

Leude worde — entresajn. 

Leudnesse • — mauluaiseté z, f. 

Leave lycence — congé s, m. 

Leven for bredde — leaayn s, m. 

Leure for a Iiauke — levrre s, m. 

Levell a ruler — niaeav x, m. 

Lever of a man or beest — foye s, m. 

Leaver to lyfte with — levier s, m. 

Leveret a yong hare — leueravlt œ , m. 

Leavyng of — intermission s, f. 

L BEFORB I. 

Lyberalyte — liberaleté z, f. 

Lyaunce kynred ■ — aliance s , f. 

Lybertie leave — faculté z, f. ; liberté z, f. 

Lybertic frcdome — franchise s, t. 

Lycorice rote — reclice s, f. 

Lycence leave — licence s, f. 

Lycoure — substance s, f. 

Lycouresman — friant, lechevr s, m. 

Lycouresnesse — friandise s, t. 

Lydde of the eye — paulpiere s, f. 

Lydde of a cuppe or potle — cotaeleque s ,{. 

Lyse of wyne — lyc s, î. 

Lye to wasshe with — lessiae s, f. 

Lye a false taie — baae s, f.; losange s, {.; 
mensonge s, m.; contrevue s, f. 

Lyer — lierre s, m.; mentetr s, m. 

Lyfc — aie s, f. 

Lyftyng up in Lonoure — exaltation s, f. 

Lyftyng up of the voyce — accent s, m. 

Lyght — lamicre s, f. ; Ivevr s, t. 

Lyghier a great bote — batteav x, m.; tronc 
z, m. 

Lyght grene popyngay coloure — uertgay 
z, m. 

Light horse — chenal legier x, m. 

Lightes in the body — ralte s, f. 

Lightnesse of understandyng — facilité d'enten- 
dement z, {. 

Lightnesse quyetnesse — legieretè :, f. 



Lightnyng wban it ihondreth — esclere s, m.; 
coruscation s, f. 

Lightnyng of burdayne — alegement s, m,; 
allégeance s, f. 

Lyeng in chyldebedde — acouchement s, m. 

Lyeng in wayte — aguaylance s, f. 

Likelyhode — aparence s, f. 

Likelynesse — ueresimililude s, f. ; semblableté 
z.f. 

Likelynesse of body — semblance s, f. ; habi- 
tude s, f. 

Likelynesse or towardnesse — indole s, m. 

Likelynesse of a thyng that maye happen — 
possibilité z, t. 

Lynage — lignaige s, m. 

Lynde a tree. 

Lyne a rope — corde s, t. 

Lynen clothe — toille s, f 

Lyngell that souters sowe with — chefgros, m.; 
lignier. 

Lynger to sowe with — poalcier. 

Lynge fysshe — colyn s, m. 

Lynen hose for a carter. 

Lyned gowne — robe doublée s , f. 

Lynyng of a garment — doublevre s, f. 

Lynke — torche i, f. 

Lyon a he beest — lyon s, m. 

Lyonnesse a she beest — leonesse s, (. 

Lyppe — bavlieare s, f. 

Lycoure — li(juevr s, f. 

Lyqiiedncsse — moystevr s, f. 

Lisarde a worme — lisarde s, f. ; tizarde s, I. 

Lyspar that lyspeth — gressievr s, m. 

Lyste on horsebacke — raye Sj m. 

Lysle of clothe — lisière s, f. 

Lyste to juste in — lice de bataille s, f. 

Lyste of the eare — mol de loraylle s, m. 

Lythenesse delyveruesse — souplesse s, (. 

Lytell sfreame — undette s,f. 

Lytcll bell — sonnette , c'ampane s,i. 

Lytell bell for a horselrapper — clochette s, f. 

Lytell broke — n<isselet z, m. 

Lytell chese — fromaige dengelon s, m. 

Lytell bagge — sachet z, m. 

Lytell vyne that beareth grappes — uiynette s, 1'. 

Lytell fynger — petit doigt z, m. 



240 



LESCLARGISSEMENT 



Lytell serpent — serpenteav x, m. 

Lytell porcyon of any thynge — tantinet z, m. 

Lytell coffre a focer — cojrel z, m. 

Lytell shelde — targette s, f. 

Lytell visage — troignetle s, f. 

Lytell vermyne — uerminette s, (. 

Lytell ryver — riaieretle s, f. 

Lytell table — tableau x,m. 

Lytell paresball — estevf z, m. 

Lytell chery — cerlselte s, f. 

Lytell Ïambe — aignelet z, m. 

Lytell lane — alee, raellette i, f. 

Lytell cornar — anglet z, m. 

Lytell bowe — arckelet z, m. 

Lytell guyrdell — ceincturette s, f. 

Lytell songe — chansonnette s, f. 

Lytell pratye thyng — chosetle s, f. 

Lytell boke — libelle, liaret z, m. 

Lytell lodge — logette s, f. 

Lytell hoase — maisonnette s,f. 

Lytell teale — mamellette s, f. 

Lytell flye — mouchette s, f. 

Lytell bote — nassellette s, f. 

Lytell goddes — nimphette s, (. 

Lytell byrde — oyselet z, m. 

Lytell spangle — paillette s, f. 

Lytell sheparde — pastoureau x,m. 

Lytell woode — petit bois, m. 

Lytell fether — plamette s , (. 

Lytell fysshe — poissonnette s, f. 

Lytell boughe — rainceau x, ni. 

Lytell rayne for a borse — regnette s , I'. 

Lytelnesse of degré — petitesse s, f. 

Lylter or strawe — dessoabz, strayne , litliere 

s, f. 
Lyvelode rent — reuenve, mise, reuenves s, f. 
Lyveray gyven of a gentylraan — liaeree s, f. 
Lyveryng podyng — bovdin s, m. 
Lyver of a beest — foye s, m. 
Lyverworte an berbe. 

L BEFOBE 0. 

Lodc for a horse or man — charge s,'(.; portée 

s.{. 
Lode for a carte — chartee z, (. 
Lodge — loge s, (, 



Lodge covered with leaves — fveillee s, f. 
Lodesman of a sbippe — pilotte s, m. 
Lodge made of bowes — hameau x, m. 
Lofte in buyldyng or a stage — estaige s, m. 
Loftc for baye or corne — garnier s, m. ; 

grandie, grange s, f. 
Lofe of bredde — payn s, m. 
Logge of wode — bvche s, (.; sovche s,{. 
Logyssion — logitien s, m. 
Loyne of flessbe — longe s, {. 
Loyterar — trvandeu s, m. 
Loyteryng — trvandise s,{. 
Locke of a dore — serrure s, f. 
Locke of a womans heer — flocquon s, m. 
Lockesniytlie — serrvrier s, m. 
Locke of béer — locquet, crin, z, m. 
Locke of bey or wolle — locquet z, ra. 
Locker of a cupbourde — tirover s, m. 
Lokyng beholdyng — aspect z,m.;esgart s,m. 
Loke — ueve s, f.; regart s, m. 
Lokyng for a thyng — actente s, f. 
Lope to holde a clapse in or a button^ — fer- 

meau x, m. 
LoUar — hérétique s, m. 
Lomé a frame — mestier s, m. 
Lomc claye — argille s, f. 
Lomé a vessell to pulte aie in. 
Londe uniaboured — terre en friche s, f. 
Londe lyvelode — demaine s, m.; terres, (. 
Londes — terres, f. 
Longe wande suche as fauconners use — 

gavlle s, f. 
Longe quyll to socke wyne with — chalemeau 

X, m. 
Longer or ligbtes — poulmon s, m. 
Longe gowne — robe longue s, f. 
Long bowe — arc z , m. 
Longehose. 

Longegonne — Jlevste , coquarde s, t. 
Longe trumpe to sbote rounde pellettes with 

— sarbacane s, t. 
Lopstar a fysshe — chancre s, m. 
Longnesse — longevr s,(. 
Lorde sir — seignevr s, m. 
Lorde a barowne — toron s, m. 
Lordelynesse — • seignorievselé z, {, 



DE LA LANGUE 

Lordshippe — seignevrie z , (. 

Lordshyppe — preheminence s, f. ; domination 

s,{. 
Lorrel or losell — fetart s, m. ; loricart s, m. 
Loreniar Ihat maketb byttes — esperonnier s, m. 
Losse — perle s, f. 
Losange of spyce — losange s , f. 
Losyng — perdition s , f. 
Lothsomnesse — ennvy s, m.; fâcherie s, f. 
Lotie a culte — sort s, ni. 
Lotte or shotte — escot z , m. 
Lover that loveth — amant, amouretx , m. 
Loveache an herbe. 
Loweplace — abjsme s, f. 
Lowe sonday — Quasimodo s , f. 
Lowe water — teave basse s, f. 
Lowlynesse — obéissance s, f. 
Louse a beest — pov x, m. 
Loudnesse — haaltesse s, t. 
Love — zèle s, m. ; amour s, f. ; affection , 

amiableté z,{. 
Loveday to make frendes — appointement s, m. 
Lover a man — amouretu;, va. 
Lover a woman — amourevse s, f. 
Lover of a bail — esclere s, f. 
Lovyng praysing — louenge s, f. 
Lovyng countenaunce — acveil s, m. 
Loure an yvell loke — renfroigne, rechignee s, f. 
Lownesse — bassevr s, f. 
Lowe counlree — plat pais s, m. 
Loupe in atownc, wall or castell — créneau x, m. 
Loupe to holde a button — fermeau x, m . 
Lowring — refroignevre s, f. 
Lowringnesse of tbe wether — somhrerseté s, f. 
Lousynesse — povillerie s,(. 
Louttyng of a cougbe — mugissement s, m. 

L BEFonr. U. 

Luce a fysshe — lus, m. 

Lure for an bauke — levrre s, m. 

Lucke bappe — hevr s, m. 

Luke happe — hevr s, m. 

Lucke wynnyng — encontre s, m. 

Lumpe a gobbet — chanteav x, m. 

Lunge in the body — poulmons, ni. 

Lurcher an exceding eatcr — galiff^re s, m. 



FRANCOYSE. 241 

Lurdayne — lovrdavlt x, m. 

Lurke an herbe. 

Luske a vyle parsone — rihavlt z, m.; esclaue , 

lovrdavlt x, m. 
Lustc as women wilh chylde hâve — enuyce s,î. 
Luste plcasure — delyl z, m.;uoluplé z, f. 
Lute an instrument — lus, lucque s, m. 
Lutestryng — cordeav, cordon de lus, m. 
Lutar — joverrde lus s, m. 

M DEFORE A. 

Maie to put stuffe in — niasle s, (. 

Mare a she beest — jvment s,(. 

Mace for a sergiant — masse s, f. ; mace s, f. 

Mace Spyce — mace s, f. 

Matchc of lyke strength — sorlable s, m. 

Mac(pierell a fysshe — macquerel s, m. 

Maddre an herbe — garence s, f. 

Madnesse folye — enragerie z, f.; rage , amenée, 

forcennerie , raige s, f. 
Magycke a scyence — magicque s, f. 
Magestie — majesté s, f. 
Magistrale dignyte — magistrat z, m. 
Maggotte — uer de. chair s, m. 
Magudcr a stalke of an herbe — chion s, m. 
Mayea moneth — may s, m. 
Maydenwede. 

Maydcn a lover — amovrette s, f. 
Maydc of the mankynde — paceui x, m. 
Mayde of the womankynde — pucelte s, f. 
Mayde a servaunt — ancelle s , f. 
Mayde a servaunt — chambrière s, f. 
Mayde a drudge — meschine s, f. 
Maydenheed virginité — pucellagc s, m. 
Maydes twynnes — jumelles, f. 
Mayle of a lialburjon — maille s, f. 
Mayle that receyvetb the claspe of a gowne inlo 

it — porte s, i. 
Mayle of a hauke — greuelure s, f. 
Maymer of men — mvtilaievr s, m. 
Mayntenaunce — maintenement s, m, 
Mayntenyng — port s, m ; assertion s, f. ; entre- 

tenement s, m.; sapportation s, {.; fulcement 

s, m. 
Maynesayle — papephis, m. 
Maystresse — uoilte s, f. 

3i 



242 



LESCLARGISSEMENT 



Maynelande — terre ferme s, (. 

Majster — maistre s, m. 

Maystresse — maistresse s, f. 

Maystry done by delyvcrnesse — unif tovr de 
souplesse s, m.; apperlise s, (. 

Maker of haye to cockes — entassevr de foyng 
s , m. 

Maker of bosses of bridelles — lormier s, m. 

Maker of naylles — clovtier s, m. 

Maker of horse coUcrs — bovrrellier s, m. 

Maker of lathes — faisevr de lattes s, m. 

Maker of brasen pottes — brasier s, m. 

Maker of Spaynysshe purses — faisevr de bav- 
driers, bavdrier s, m. 

Maker of cardes — cartier s, m. 

Maker of walles — faisevr de pais s, m. 

Maker of engynnes — engignevr s, m. 

Maokerell a fysshe — macqaereav x, m. 

Makyng of a thyng — façon s, f. ; facture s, f. 

Makyng confectyon — confiture s, f. 

Makyng worse a thyng — deprauation s, f. 

Makyng — facyon s, f. 

Makyng redy — parure s, f.; aprest z, m. 

Makyng good of a thyng — aduev x, m.; appro- 
bation s, f. 

Malady a disease — maladie s, f. ; malaise s, f. 

Malandric, sicknesse — malandre s, f. 

Maiarde , a byrde — canart s, m. 

Malandre — malandre s, f. ; serot z, ni. 

Maie or wallet to putte geare in — malle s, f. 

Malencoly — merancolye z, f. 

Maie no female — masle s, m. 

Maie gote — bovc z, m. 

Malyce — malice s, f. 

Malkyn for an ovyn — fovrgon s, ni. 

Mail a havy weapen — massue de plomb , mail- 
let z, m. 

Mail a hammer — maillet z, m. 

Malt — orge parée s, f. 

Malowe an herbe — mavue s, f. 

Mancypie — despensier s, m. 

Man a tbefe — larrons, m.; félon s, m. 

Man enheritour — héritier s, m. 

Man , a persone — homme s, m. 

Man excellyng of his parsonage. — paragon s, m. 

Man beyng a mayde — paceau x, m. 



Man lover — amant s, m. 

Man twise maryed — bigames, m. 

Man borne in Britayne — Brilon s, m. 

Mandrake an herbe — mandeglaire s, f. i 

Man cowarde — couart z, m. 

Man of warre — gens darme s, m. 

Maane of a horse — crine s, f.; crin s, m. 

Man that is handefast — fiance s, f. 

Manner a dwellyng place — maison de plai- 
sance s, f. 

Maner facyon or guyse — façons, f. 

Maner custome — mode, manière s, f. 

Maner or ende — fyn s, f ; acustumance s, f. 

Maners condycions — mevrs, f. 

Maner — manyere s, f. 

Man tliat hath many properties — mixt z, m. 

Man governour — dominatevr s, m. 

Mangnet a precious stone. 

Man of housholde — domesticque s, m. 

Magnificence — magnificence s, f. 

Man that iy veth sole — solitaire s, m . 

Macslar — cocquetier s, m. 

Manhode — humanité z, f. 

Man nourse — novrricier s, m. 

Man pledge — hostagier. 

Manycolours — multicolore. 

Man that kepeth a taverne — tauernier s, m. 

Man of Turkey — Turc z, m. 

Maner condycion — manière s, f. 

Mancypie — manciple s, m. 

Man that forsaketh his order — apostat z, m. 

Man of armes, a horse man — lanœ s, ni. 

Man that is fuU of stryfe — mutyn s, m. , 

Man of lawe — homme de loy s, m. ; homme de 
robe longue s, m. 

Man that counterfayteth a pytuous face — mar- 
mixtevx, m. 

Man of warre — homme de guerre s, m. 

Man that useth magicke — magicien s, m. 

Man that commytteth the synne of Sodome — 
sodomitc s, m. 

Man that rydeth on a genette — genetoire s,m. 

Man that loketh a squynt — lovche s, m. 

Man with a morres pike — picquier s, m. 

Man a venturer — uenturier s, va. 

Man that hath pencion — pencionaire s, m. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANGOYSE. 



243 



Man syngar — chantre s, m. 

Man sheparde — pastevr s, m. 

Mankyadc — genre hunuiyn s, m. 

Manger for a horse — mangoyre s, f. 

Maners condycions — ntevrs, t. 

Mannes yarde — uil z, m. 

Manquellar — mevrlrier s, m. 

Mayme burte — rejoullevre s, f. 

Mantyll — manteau x, m. ; mante s, f. 

Mantyll a gaberdyne — gauerdine s, f. 

Mantyltre of a chymney — manteav dune che- 
minée X , m. 

Mantry of a cbimney — manteav de cheminée. 

Maple tree. 

Marble slone — pierre de marbre s, f. 

Marbie colour. 

Marsball of the hall — mareschalx, ni. 

Marshalshyppe — marchalcee s, t. 

Marchaunt — marchant s, m. 

Marcbaundyse — marchandise s, f. 

Marcbe, a moneth — mars, va. 

Marcbes bylweue Iwo landes — frontières, f. 

Marcury an herbe. 

Mare a she beest — jvment s, f. 

Maresse — palustres, f. ; marescaige s, m. 

Margery perle — nacle s, m. 

Margerome genlyll an herbe — maijolayne s,f.; 
margeline s, f. 

Margyn or brinke of any thyng — borl s, m.; 
riae s, f. 

Maryage — mariage s, m. ; nopces , espousail- 
lcs,{. 

Marygolde a fleur — sousie :, f.; consovkle s. f. 

Mary, a proper name — Marie s, f. 

Mary in a bone — moaelle s, f. 

Marryner — maronniers, m. 

Maryssbe grounde — marescaige s, ni. 

Marke or bounde — marque, borne s, {. 

Marke or token — marque s, f. ; signe, ensigne 
s, m. 

Marke of money — marc dargent s, ni. 

Marke of golde or sylver — marc s, m. 

Marke to selle clotlie witb — seav x, m. 

Marke bytwcne two places — limite s, f. 

Market place — marché s, m. ; halle s, f 

Maiie grounde — marie .s, f. 



Marlyon a bauke — esmerillon s, m. 

Marmoset a beest — marmoset z, m. 

Marnioll a sore — lovp z, m. 

Marques — marquis, m. 

Marquesdom — marquisat z, m. 

Martylmas befe — brezil z, m. 

Marlynel a byrde — martinet z, m. 

Marlerne a beest — martre s, m. 

Martyr — martyr s, m. 

Martyrdome — maTtires,m. 

Marveyle — meruaylle s, f. 

Masar of woode — masiere s, f. ; hanap z, m. 

Masydnesse — musardie s, f. ; desuere s, f. ; ef- 

froy s, m. 
Masclyne brasse. 
Masse that is songe — messe s, f. 
Massyfnesse — solidité z, f. 
Masson — masson s, m. 
Masonrie — massonnerye s, f. 
Maistresse — maistresse s, f. 
Maste of a shippe — mast s, m. 
Maister — maistre s, m. 
Mayster of arte — maistre en ars, m. 
Mayster of the horses — escvier de escvirie s, va. 
Mayster of the benshmen — escvier de pages 

dhonnevr s, m. 
Mayster of a princes prevy kechyn — escvier de 

cvisine s, m. 
Mayster of the revelles — factevr s, m. \fatiste 

s, m. 
Maste for hogges — novriture a povrceaiix s, f, 
Mastyke spyce — mastic s, m. 
Mastyfe dogge — mastin s, m.; dogue s, m. 
Matche of brimstone — mèche s, f. 
Malche to iyght a candell — alamette s, f. 
Matche or weyke of a candell — limignon s, m. 
Matche oflyke sorte — pareil z, m.; pareille s, f. 
Malte of strawe — natte s, f. 
Matte maker — natier s, m. 
Mattyns — malynes, î. 

Matter thaï a man grutcheth at — scrupule s, m. 
Matler tolde before anotber — prémisse s, f. 
Matter of a sore — bove s, f. 
Matter ivhan it is bealed. 
Matter that a man takelh in hande — povr- 

sryte s, f. 

3i. 



sS 



244 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Matter — madtrc s, (.; cas, ni. 

Malter so clere as can nat be avoyded — pa- 

remptoire Sj m. 
Matler that cometh in communication — inci- 
dent s, m. 
Mattocke — hoiav, picq z, m. 
Maîtresse for a bedde — martelas, m. 
Maltresse for a crosbowe — marlehis, m. 
Masciyne corne. 

Maunche présent — briffavlt z, m. 
Mawe of a beest — jovsier s, m. 
Maugry — malgré s, m.; maltalenl s, m, 
Mavys a byrde — mavuis, m. 
Maument — mamosel z, ni. ; poupée s, i. 
Maumenlry — baguenavlde s, f. 
Maundy thursday — j<x<fy absolv s, m. 

M BEFORE E. 

Meale of raeate — repast z, m. 

Mcane of a songe — moyen j, m. 

Measure of tno gallons — sexlier s, m. 

Mecher a lylell ihefe — laronceav x, m. 

Mede drinke — boyllon s, m. 

Mede rewarde — guerdon s, m. 

Medefulnesse — mérite s,f. 

Medycine tbat movelh a man to slepe — sopo- 

rijere s, m. 
Medycine — antidote s, m.; medicjne s, (. 
Medytation — méditation s,(. 
Mcdowe felde — preav x,m.;praierie s, f. 

Medowe swete herbe. 

Mediarfrute — mesple, nejle s, f. 

Mediar tree — mesplier, nejlier s, m. 

.Medley colour — melU s, f. 

Medwyfe — saige femme s , f. 

Megre a sickenesse — maigre s, (. 

Meyre of a towne — govucrnevr s, m. 

Mekenesse — humilité z, f.; clémence, hum- 
blesse s, f. 

Meale of corne — farine s, f. 

Meale of uieate — repast s, m. 

Melancoiy testysnesse — melencolie s, f. 

Melody — melodye z, f. ; modulation, armonie 
s, T. 

Melody played in a mornynge — reueil z, m. 

Melodyousnesse — mélodie s, f. 



Melowuesse — mevretè z, f. 

Membre — membre s, m. 

Meraorye — mémoire s, f. 

Menewe a fysshe — mevnier s, m. 

Mcanyng — pensement s, m. ; pensée z, f. 

Meane awaye — moyen, achoison s, m. 

Mendes for a trespas — amende s, f. 

Meane a parle of a songe — moyen s, m. 

Meny a housbolde — menye z, f. 

Meny of plantes — plantaige s, m. 

Mendycanle an order of frères — mendicant. 

Mendemeut — amendement s, m. 

Men of armes — gens darmes , ni . 

Mentyon — mention s, f 

Mercer — grossier, mercier s, m. 

Mercery — merceryc s , f . 

Mercy — grâce s, f. ; mercy s, f. 

Mercyfulnesse — pilie s, f. 

Mearmayde — serayne s, ï. 

Mère a water — gort s, m. 

Mery taunt — lardon s, m. 

Meryjestea ryddle — sornette s, f. 

Merinesse — joieuseté z, f. 

Meryle a deservyng — mérite s, f. 

Merlyng fyssbe — merlus, m. 

Merlyon a hauke — esmerillon s, m. 

Merle grounde — marie s, f. 

Merser that selleth ware — grossier s , m. 

Mère sauce for flesshe — savlmvre s, f 

Merveyle — mcraaille s, f. 

Message — message s. m. 

Message that an imbassadoure is charged with 

— légation s, f. ; ambassade s , f . 
Mesyll a sicke man — meseav s , m. 
Mesyll the sickenesse — mesellerie s, f 
Messe — messe s, (. 
Messe of meale — mes, plat z, m. 
Messangfcr — messagier s, m. 
Mesllyon corne. * 

Mestlyn. 

Meson sayle of a shyppe — mysayne s, f. 
Mestresse — maistresse s, f. 
Measure of oies or suchelyke — picquolin s, m. 
Measure — mesure s,(. 
Measuryng — dimention s, f. 
Meale ^ — ■ uiandc s,{. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



245 



Meate of any frule — le bon s , m. 

Metall — mctal x,m. 

Mètre verse — mètre s, m, 

Mevyng of ones mynde — concitation s, f. 

Mcvyngofbody — moiuement s, m.; agilalion, 

commotion , motion s, f. 
Mewe for }iaukes — meae s, f. 

M BEFORE I. 

Micliar — hvissonnier s, m. 

Micher a lyteli thefe — iarronceav x, m. 

Mydnighl — mynvyt z, m. 

Mydsonier — fa sainct Jehan s, t. 

Myddle fyngre. 

Myddle or waste of a body — faclx du corps, m. 

Myddle of the day — midj s, m. 

Myddes of a thyng — miliev x, m. 

Myddes porte of a rounde serclc — centre s, m. 

Myddes parle of a channell — le fd dune riuiere. 

Mydnight — minvit z, m. 

Mydrife a beest — enlrailles f. 

Mydsomer — la sainct Jehan s, f. 

Myre dyrte — bove, fange s, f. 

Mignyon — mignon s, m. 

Mignyonnesse — mignotise s, f. 

Migrym a sickenesse — chagrin s, m.; maigre. 

Migbt strengtb — effort s, m. ; puissance s, f. 

Migblynesse — povuoir s, m. 

Migbeimas — la sainct Michelle j, f. 

Migbeil a proper name — Michiel z, m. 

Myidewe — niehle s, f. 

Myldnesse — paisibleté z, (. 

Myle — miliaire s, f. ; demy lieue s, f. 

Myll — movUn s, m. 

Myller — musnier s, m. 

Mylfoyle an berbe. 

Myilyon 3 nombre — milion s , ni. 

MylloD a frute — melon s , m. 

Mylke — laict s, m. 

Mylche cowe — uache a laict s , {. 

Mylstonc — mevlle de movlin s, f. 

Myll trougbe or broke — ange s, f. 

Mylldamnie — escluse de movlin s, {. 

Myllers thombe a fysshe — chabot i , m. 

Myltc ia a beest — ratte s, f. 

Mylle a fysslie — la laicte s, f. ; laicte de poisson. 



Mynde — pensée s, f.; entendement s, m. 

Myne in the grounde — myne s, f. 

Myndfulnesse — pencec s, f. 

Myner under the grounde — pionnier s, m. 

Mynistration — minislration s, f. 

Mynistring. 

Mynistrer of justyce — droicturier s, ni. 

Mynyin in song — minime s, f. 

Mynkes a furre — minques s, f. 

Mynute of an boure — minute s, f. 

Mynster a great churche — maistresse esglise 

s, f. ; monstier s, m. 
Mynstrell — menestrier s, m. 
Mynt money — plate de la monoye s, f. 
Mynl an herbe — mente s, f. 
Mirabolon a frute — niirabolan «, f. 
My racle — miracle s , m. 
Myrre tree — larbre qui porte la mirre. 
Myrre gomme — myrre s , f. 
Myrlbe — liesse s,{. 
Mysbeleve — mescreance s, f. 
Mysbebavour — nusprison s, {. 
Myschaunce — desfortune s, f.j meschance s, f. 
Mysdede — meffaict 2 ,m. 
Mysadventure — maladuenture s, f. 
Mysfortune — desfortane s, (. ; malenconlre s, f. 
Mysknowyng — descognoissance s, f. 
Mysorder — desordonnance s, f. ; désordre 1, m. 
Mysguyding — desroy s, m. 
Myschefe — meschief z, m. 
Misery — niiscrc s, f. 
Mystakyng of a man selfe or niyspride — oui- 

trecvidance s, f. 
Mysease — mesaise s,f. 
Myst in the mornyng — brouillas, m. 
Mystery — mistere s, m. 
Mysusing — abvs,m.; abasion s,ï. 
Myrthejoye — joyeaseté z ,{.; exultation s,i'. 
Mystnist — suspecon s, f. ; snspectinn s, f. 
Mystrustyng — dejjiance s,{. 
Myte the Icest coyne that is — pite s, f. 
Mytein chese — myle s, f. 
Myrtbe pleasure — fesliuité z, f. ; hilarité z, 

f.\joye s,{. 
Mytayne — mitayne s,{.\ mitaigne. 
Myter for a bysshoppe — nàtre s, f. 



246 



LESCLARCJSSEMENT 



Miïtyng toguyder — mixture s, {. 

Mixtion of thynges — mixtion s, î.; confusion s, f. 

M BEFORE 0. 

Mocker a scorner — mocquevr s, m. 
Mockyng or skornyng — dérision s, f. ; itlasion 

s.{. 
Mocquery — mocquerie s, f. 
Mother — nifrr s, f. 
Moder a disease — marry s, m. 
Mother in lawe — marrastre s, f. 
Moderatyon — modération s, (. 
Moderworte — alvjne s,(. 
Modynesse angre — attayne s, t.; ire s, t. 
Mogworte — armoyse s, (. 
Moystnesse — humevr, liquevr, uapevr j, f. 
Moysture — moistevr s, f . ; moisturc s, f. 
Mockendar for chyldre — movchover s, m. 
Molde a forme — moule s, m. 
Molde of the heede — fontaine de la teste s, {. 
Moidyng borde — ais a pestrir s, m. 
Mole a beest — tavlpe s, (. 
Moleyne an herbe. 
Molet a fysshe — mulet t, m. 
Molehyll — motte de terre s, f. 
Mommery — monuMrie s, f. 
Monday — lundy s, m. 
Moone a planet — lune s, f. 
Money coyne — monoye z,{.; pecune s, (. 
Money mynt — plate de la monoye s, f. 
Moneth — moys, m. 

Monke of the charterhouse — chartrevx, m. 
Monke of saynt Benettes order — moync de 

sainct Benoit. 
Monkeyabeest — brouticque s, (.-y marmot z,m. 
Mode in a verbe — mevf z , m. 
Monster a wonder — monstre s, m. 
More a fenne — marescage s, m. 
Morehen — poulie griache s, f. 
Moreyne dethe — mortalité z, f. ; moarine s, f. 
Morell an herbe. 
Morespycke — picque s, (. 
Morfewc a sickenesse. 
Morkyn a beest — auortin s, m. 
Mormall a sore — lovp z, m. 
Morcyde a maner of play — mornijle s, f. 



Mornyng tyde — matinée z, (.; prime s , f. ; ma- 
tin s ,rr\. 

Morowe day — jour s ,m. 

Morsell — morseau x, m. 

Morlalnesse — mortalité z, f. 

Morlar lo stanipe in — mortier s, m. 

Morler for wailes — mortier s, m. 

Morlesse of a house — mortaise s, f. 

Mortesse meate. 

Morte a fysshe. 

Mosse Ihat groweth on trees — movssc s,(. 

Mote a dytcbe — fosse s,{. 

Mote in the sonne — pouldre de solail s , f. 

Mote on a gowne or garment — povtie s, f. 

Mote blast of a borne. 

Mother a bringar forthe — génitrice s , [. 

Mother in lawe — belle mère s, f. 

Motherly woman — matrone s, (. 

Mocion or meving — motion, esmotion s,(. 

Motlcy colour — biguarrure s, f. 

Moton llesshe — mouton s, m. 

Movable goodes — mevbles, m. 

Movabienesse — mobilité z,f. 

Movyng a man to any purpose — persuasion s, 
f ; suasion s,(. 

Mower skorner — mocqaevr s, m. 

Mowe of whetc or haye — malon defoyn s, m. 

Mowe a scorne — move s, f ; moe s, f. 

Mought that eates clolhcs - — uer de drap s, m. 

Mockedar for childre — mouchever s, m. 

Moule a beest — talpe s, f. 

Moultytude — moultilude s, (. 

Moulde a forme — nwulle s, m. 

Moulde of the heed — fontayne de la teste s, f. 

Mounlayns of Italy — Alpes. 

Mountajne a hyll — montaigne s, f. 

Mournyng — gémissement s,m.; pluipgt z,m.; 
dveil z, m. 

Mournyng garment — habit de dveil s, ni. 

Mousealylell beest — sovris, ù; mousse s, f. 

Mousell of a beest — grotng s. m.; moe s, f. 

Mouspece of an oxe — moujle s, f 

Mouseeare an herbe. 

Mousell for a beare or a dogge — movseau x, m . 

Mouselrappe — sovricitre s, f. 

Monthe of a domme beest — gaeullc s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



247 



Mouthc or eolre of a thyng — emboucheure s, f. 
Mouthe of a ryver — boacifue s, f. 
Mouthe of any thyng — bouche s, f. 
Mouthfull — baufre s, f.; Uppee s, f. 

M BEFORE U. 

Mue for haukes — meve s, f. 

Mudde myre — uase s, f. 

Mucke — bove,Jiant s, f. 

Mulbery — more s, f. 

Mulbery tree — marier s, m. 

Mule a she beest — mule s, f. 

Multiplyeng — multiplicaûon s, f. 

Multyplieng of language — altération s, (.-yplail 

z, va. 
Multytude — moullitude s, f. 
Multytude of people — tourbe s, f. 
Mummar — mommetir s, m. 
Munkey, a beest — marmot s, m. 
Murmuryng — murmure s, m. ; remori z, ni. 
Murrey coiour — movrre , cramoysy s, f, 
Murrey coiour or browne — brvnetle s, f. 
Mussberon a tode stoie — champignon s, m. 
Musyke — musicjue s, f. 
Musyng feiowc — masart s, m. 
Musket a lytell bauke — mouchet z, m. 
Muske that smcUeth — musqué s, m. 
Muscle , a fyssbe — movle s, f. 
Muscle shell — quoquUle de movle s, f. 
Muskyn , a proper visage — musquin s, m. 
, Must newe wyne — movst s, m. 
Mustardc — movntarde s, {, 
Mustarde sede — nauette s, f. 
Mustre of barnest men — monstre s, f. 
Mustredevyies coiour — yris mesle s, m. 

N BEFORE A. 

Nape of the uecke — fossette de la teste s, f. 

Nacyon — nacion s, f. 

Nagge a borse — courtaxilt z, m. 

Nayle of yron — clov x, m. 

Nayle of a fyngre — vngle s, f. 

Nayle of woil. 

Nakednesse — nudité z, f. 

Nail for a souter — alesjMe s, f. 

Nall maker — faisevr dalesnes s, m. 



Name famé — famé s, f. 

Name — renom ij m. 

Namyog — appellance s, f. ; appellation s, f. 

Napkyn for tbe nose — nwvchover s, m. 

iXapkyn for a borde — seruiette s,{. 

Nappe a lytell siepe — repos, m. 

Naprie store of lynen — linge s, m. 

Nauquayre a kynde of instrument — naquair s, f. 

Narracion — narration s, f. 

Nat maker — nalier s, m. 

Narownesse — estreissevr s, f. 

Naupe of tbe beed — canneaa de col x, m.; la 

fossette de la teste s,' f. 
Nathe stocke of a whele. 
Nature or likelynesse — indole s, m. 
Nature — nature s, f. 
Nave of a whele — moyevl z, xn. 
Navet rote — nauelte s, f. 
Navyll of tlie belly — nombril z, m. 

N BEFORE E. 

Neble of a womans pappe — tout de la manulle 
s , m. 

Necessyte — soufraité z, f. ; extrémité z, f. 

Nede — besoing z, m. 

Nécessite distresse — destresse s, (. 

Nedynesse — souffretté z, f. 

Nedyll of a shipmans compas — esgaille s, f. 

Nedyll to sowe with — aguille s, i. 

Neglygence- — négligence s, f. ; nonchaillance s, f. 

Neyce , a kynswoman — niepce s, f. 

Neigbbour — uoysin s, m.; proesme s, m.; cou- 
sin s, m. 

Neigbbour woman — uoisine s, f. 

Neighbourhode — uoisineté z, f 

Neyng of a borse — hermisement s, m. 

Necke — col z, m. 

NeccoUer for a woman — gorgias, m. 

Neeke of a garment — coiet z, m. 

Neccoler — collet ;, m. 

Necbande — gorgias, m. 

Necbande for a woman — gorgerette s, f. 

Necke of a cappe — rebras dung bonnet, m. 

Neppc an berbe — herbe de chat s, f. 

Neare of a beest — roignon s, m . 

Nesyng with the nose — estemuemenl s, m. 



248 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Necessary thyng — nécessaire s, m. 

Nest of byrdes — nyd doiseaux s, m. 

Net to catche tyrdes wilh — tonnelle s, f. 

Net to lake fyssbe — relz a pescker, {. 

Neates ledder — cordovayn s, m. 

Neltyll a wede — ortye z, f. 

Nevewe a kynsman — nepuev x, m. 

Newe facyon — la novuelle mode s, f. 

Newe moone — novuelle lune s, f. 

Newe wyne — moust z, m. 

Newe yeres day — le jour de lan s, m. ; le jour 

des traînes, m. 
Newe jette — guise noaetle s, f. 
Newe yeres gyfle — cslrayne s, f. 
Newnesse — novueaxlté z, f. 
New^le a worme — lisarde s, f. 

N BEFOKE I. 

Niceuesse — cointerie s, f. ; nicelé z , f. 

Nyckename — brocqaarl s, m. 

Nigarde or nygon — chiche s, m. 

Nigardoesse — escharcelé z, f.; chichelé z, f. 

Nigardshyppe — parciti z, f. 

Night — nuycl z, f. 

Night crowe — cresserelle s, f. 

Night gnal — singaUe s, t. 

Night watcbe — eschaulnetes. 

Nightyngale — rossignol s, m. ; rossignolet. 

Nightmare — goublin s, m. 

Nygromancer — nigromancien s, m. 

Nigromancy — nigromantie z, {. 

Nimphe a goddes — nimphe s, f. 

Nyt in a mannes heed — lente s, f. 

N BEFOBE O- 

Noble of meney — noble s, m. 
Nobienesse — noblesse s, f. 
Noddle of the beed — coupeaa de la teste x, m. 
Noyeng — nuisance s, f. 
Noyse of people — tunmlte s, m. 
Noyse — brait z, m. 
Noyse frayeng — castiUe s, f. 
Noysomnesse or yrkesomnessc — ennay s, m. 
Nocke of a bowe — oche de lare s, m. 
Nocke of a sbafte — oche de la flesche s, f. ; pe- 
non, coche, loche s, f. 



Nombre of beestes logyder — bestail z, m. 

Nombre — nombre s, m. 

Noone, mydday — none, midy s, m. 

Noetberde or bulberde — bovuier s, m. 

Nonae a relygious womau — nonnain s, f. 

Noppe of wolle or clotbe — coilon de tapis s, m . 

Norisshyng — aliment s, ni.; alimentation s, f. 

Northe — septentrion s, m. 

Northe parte or wynde — byse s, f. ; Je vent byse, 

septentrion s, m. 
Northe starre — pol articque s, m. 
Nose of a man — nez, m. 
Nosegay — boucquet z, m. 
Nosethrill — tendron du nez, m.; narine s, f. 
Notary — nolayre s, m. 
Note of songe — noue s, f. 
Note a marke in a boko — notte s, f. 
Nolhagge a byrde — jaje s, f 
Noveity a deyntie — novuelleté z, f. 
Novembre, a moneth — noucmbre s, m. 
Nourysshyng — nourriture s, f. 
Nouche or broche — afficqaet z, m. 
Novyce a newe relygious persone — nouice s, m. 
Novyce tyme — nouiceme s, m. 
Nombre ofemptie vesselies — Jastailles, f. 
Nombre of precious stones — pierrerii s, f 
Nombre of sommes — sommage s, m. 
Noumbles of a dere or beest — entrailles, f. 
Nouryce tbat fedeth a childe — novrice s, f. 

N BEFORE U. 

Nunnc, a woman relygious — nonnuyn s, f. 
Nutte tree — noyer s, m. 

Nutte tbat growetb on hasylles — noixde boys, f. 
Nutmygge spyce — noyx nutscade , f. 

BEFORE B. 

Obedyence — obéissance s, f. 
Objection an argument — objection s, f. 
Oblygacion — obligation s, f. 
Observaunce — obseruance s, f. 
Observaunt frère — obseruant s, va. 
Observacion — obseruation s, f 
Obsequies dirige — uigiles, f. 
Obstinatyon frowardnesse — obstination s, f. 
Occasyon to pyke a quareli — cauillation s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



249 



Occasyon — occasion s, f. — achoison s, f. 
Occar colour — ocre s, f. 
Occuius chrisli an herbe. 
Occullalyon hidyng — occultation s, f. 
Occupation — occupation 5, f.; entremise s, f. 
Octobre , a moneth — octobre s, m. 
Occur, reed colour — ocre s, m. 
Occupyeng of the mynde — méditation s, f.; slu- 
diosité z , f. 

BEFORE D. 

Odeur savoure — oudevr s, £. 
Odyousnesse — hayneaseté z, f. 

BEFORE F. 

Offall of trees. 

Offence — offence s, f. ; crime, maléfice, mespri- 

son s, f. 
Oflendyng — ojfencion s, f. 
Oflyce — ojice s, m. 
Offycer thaï cesseth the conimon people in 

Fraunce — eslev s, m. 
OITycer — officier s, m. 
Officiai — officiai x, m. 
Offre — cevjfre s, m. 
Ofspringe — lignée z, f. 
Offryng — offrande, ucv s, {. 
Offryng at a masse — offrande s, f. 
Ofspring that cometh of a man — issue s, f. 
OftcJoyng of a thyng — multiplication s, f. 

O BEPORE I. 

Oyle — hville s, f. 

Oyntraent for womens faces — fard z, m. 

Oyiiet bole — ■ oillet z, m. 

Oyntment — oignement s, m.; oynctvre s, f. 

Oystreche fedder — plume daustrvche s, f. 

Oystcr shell, a fysshe — ojstre s, m. 

BEFORE K. 

Oke apple — pomme de chesne s, f. 

Oke tree — chesne s, m. 

Oke plant — plante de chesne s, f. 

BEFORE L. 

Olde man — uievlx, iieillart z, m. 



Olde woman — uielle s, f. 
Oldnesse — uiellesse s, f. ; ajnesse s, f. 
Olypbant, a beest — oliphant s, m. 
Olyve frute — oliue s, f. 
Olyve tree — oliuier s, m. 

O BEFORE N. 

Ondoyng — destruction s, f. 

Onfaylbfulnesse — desloiaullé z, f. 

Onkyndnesse — ingratitude s, f. 

Onquyetnesse — esmoy s, m. 

Onsetleke — porret z, m. 

Oneeyed man — loachet z, m.; louquet z, m. 

One that spylteth moche — crachart z, m. 

One of affinité — affin s, m. 

Ony maner of gonne • — bâton afev s, m. 

Onyon lo eate — oignon s, m. 

Onstedfast hert — cuevr uovlaige s, m. 

BEFORE P. 

Opyn audience — court planiere s, f. 
Opyn semé — covslure a lasche poynl z, f. 
Opyn courte — court planiere s, f. 
Opyn house — maison planiere s, f. 
Opyn warre — gverre ovuerte s, f. 
Opynars a kynde of frute — neffie s, f. 
Opynars tree — neffiier s, m. 
Opynnesse — ovuerture s, f. 
Opynion — opinion s, f. 
Oppressyon of poore peopie — oppresse s, f. 

O BEFORE R. 

Orateur — oratevr s, m. 
Oration — harenguc, oraison s, f. 
Ordynaunce or frame — machine s, f. 
Ordynaunce appareyle — aprestz, m. 
Ordynaunce institution — ordonimnce s, f. 
Order — ordre s, m. 

Order where a thynge is selte — situation s, f. 
Order an arraye in a felde — arroys, m. 
Order dyet in fedyng — diette s, f. 
Ordonyng — ordonance s, f. ; précis, m. 
Ore of a bote — auiron s, m. 
Ore of a shyppe — rame s, ï. 
Orenge , a frute — pomme dorenge s, f. 
Orenge tree — orengier s, m. 

32 



250 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Organ of the eare or hearyng — bvye s, f. 
Organs an instrument — orgre s, f. 
Organ pype — Jlevte dorgre s, f. 
Orient perle — perle oricntalle s, f. 
Origynall begynnyng — original x, m. 
Oriioge , a clockc — horiloge s, f. 
Orison — oraison s, f. 
Ornament — orrtement s, m. 
Ornement, a makyng of men frendes — recon- 
ciliation Sj f. 
Orpyn an herbe — otpyn s, m. 

O BEFORE S. 

Osier a yong wyllowe — osier s, m. 

Osiarde, a place where wyliowes growe — sav- 

soye s, f. 
Osyll , a byrde — estovrneaji x, m. 
Ospringe, a byrde. 
'Ost the sacrament — hostie z, f. 
Ost of men — armée z, f. 
Ostrye — hostelerie s, f. 

Ostrydge , a byrde — avslruche s, f. ; ostrvche, 
Ostrydge felher sellar — plumacier s, m. 
Ostrydge fether — plame davstruche. 

O BEFOBE T. 

Ole corne — auoyne s, (. 
Othe sweryng — serment s, m, 
Ottre , a heest — /ou(re s, m. 
Ottre, a furre — peaux de loutres, f. 

BEFOBE V. 

Overcomyng — desconjiture s, f. 
Overflowyng with water — inundation s, f. 
Oversight — musardie s, f. 
Ouche for a bonnet — ajficquet z, m.; ajjichei 

z. m. 
Ould sayd sawe — prouerbe s, m. 
Oulde house that îs in ruyne — masure s, f. 
Oulde mayde — laberdine s, f. 
Ouche, a jowell — bague s. f. 
Ouïes heed — hvre s , f. 
Ovyn lo balte in — fovr s, m. 
Owner that is in possessyon of thyng — pro- 

priaitaire s, m. 
Outterwarde of a castell — couribasse s, f. 



Outarlyne or parte of a cercle — circumferen- 

ce s, f. 
Outtakyng — exception s, f. 
Ou tas of a feest — octaues , f. 
Outcrye — acclamation, exclamation s, [. 
Outryder — aaant courreur s, m. 
Outiawe — banny z, m. 
Outcrye — Imtyn s, m. 

Outpiace, a corner outof the way — destovrs, m. 
Outcorner or secrète corner — reduyt z, m. 
Outwarde parte of any thynge — superf.ce s, f. 
Outrage — ovltrage s, m. 
Oustell a tôle to worke with — oustil z, m. 

BEFOBE X. 

Oxe a beest — bevf z, m. 

Oxebowe that gothe ahout bis necke — collier 

de bevf z, m. 
Oxeeye an herbe. 
Oxestale — crèche s, f. 

P BEFORE A. 

Paast or glewe — cole s,(. 

Face a goyng — pas, m. 

Pacyence an herbe — pacience s, {. 

Pacyentnesse — pacience s, f. 

Pacyence verlue — pacience s, f. 

Pacyeut a sicke body — pacient s, m. 

Packe — fardeau x, m.; pacquel z, m. 

Pacquet of ietters — pacqaet de lettres, etc. 

z, m. 
Paddocke — crapavlt x, m. 
Packesadyll — batz, bas, m. 
Page a servaunt — page s, ni. 
Pagiant in a playe — mistere s, m. 
Pagyll a cowsloppe. 
Payle a vessell — seau x, m. 
Payment of nioney — poyements,m. 
Payment by driblettes — enlreneve, payement. 
Payment of dette — solution s, f. 
Payne mayne — />"/" de bouche j, ni. 
Payne desease , tourment in payne — payne 

s,(. 
Payne of sickenesse — agonie s, f. 
Panytn an infydele — payen s, m. 
Payre of any thyng — paire s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



251 



Payntyng wilh colours — paintare s, f. 

Payntyng of ones face — farcement s, m. 

Paynter — paintre s, m. 

Payre of indentures — endeittures , f. 

Payre of hose from the kne up — ■ demy chaus- 
ses, f. 

Payre of beedes — paternoslres , m. 

Payre of botes — bottes, f. 

Payre of sioppe hoses — braietles a marinier s, f. 

Payre of burlettes — ânes paces z,{. 

Payre of brigandyns — briyandines, f. 

Payre of curâtes — carace s, f. 

Payre of longes — tenailles, f. 

Payre of fettars — ceps, m. 

Payre of sycers — ciseletz, m. ; forces, f. 

Payre of belowes — soujjletz, m. 

Payre of pynsons — pinces, f. ; eslriquoires, f. 

Payre of spectacles — lunettes, f. 

Payre of stockes — piège, ceps, f. 

Payre of golde weygbtes — poix , trebuchet 
z, m. 

Payre of wynding blades — toarnettes, f. 

Payre of pastes — unes puces , f . 

Payre of tables — unes tubles f.;jev detables,{. 

Payre of smythes tonges — greffes, f. 

Payre of startoppes — hovssettes (. 

Payre of lytell sheres — forcetles, f. 

Payre of cardes to playe with — cartes, f 

Payre of writyng tables — tablettes, f. 

Payre of clarycordes — monocorde, f 

Payre of balances — unes balances, f. 

Paytrell for a borse — poictral x, m. 

Packesadell — bast z, m. 

Palays — palais, m. 

Palate of the mouthe — palais, m. 

Pale of a parke or sucbe lyke — pal z, m. 

Pale before a dore — palis, m. 

Pale a fence — tavldis, m. 

Pale or a stake — piev x, m.; claie s, f. 

Palenesse — palissevr s , f.; pâleur s, f. 

Palfray a beest — pulejroy s, m.\ hacquenee 
s, f. 

Palfrayman — palefrenier s, m. 

Paleron , a pece of harnesse — espalleron s, m. 

Palme of the bande — palme, le creux de la 
mayn s, m. 



Palmesonday — pasqueS jlevry s, f; dimanche 

de blanches. 
Palme tree — palme s, lU. 
Palme for Palmesonday — rameau x, m. 
Palmus cbrisli an herbe. 
Palme the yelowe that growetb on wyllowes — 

chatton s, m. 
Palmers scrippe — escharpe s, f. 
Palsey a disease. 
Paltocke of lether — pellice s, f. 
Paltocke a garment — halcret z, m. 
Paltocke a patche — palleteau x, m. 
Pâment of a strete — pauimenl s, m.;pauee z, f. 
Panche a belly — pance s, t. 
Pancy floure — meuve pencee s, f. 
Pane of furre — panne s, f. 
Pane of a wall — pan de mur s, m. 
Pane of gray furre — panne de gris, f. 
Panne a vessell — poille darrayn s, f. 
Panell of a wall — pan de mur s, m. 
Pannell to ryde on — batz, m.; panneau x, m. 
Pannyer a basket — panier s, m. 
Pange of sickenesse — (rai'cf z,itt. 
Pancake — tovrteau x, m. 
Panges of dethe — les traictz de mort. 
Panther a beest — panthère s, m. 
Panther to catche byrdes with — panneau x, m. 
Panter an oEGcer — pannetier s, m. 
Pantry a house of office — panneterie s, f. 
Pappe meate for cliyldre — boville s, f. 
Pappe a womans breestor other — mamelle s, f. 
Pappeheed — bout de la mamelle z, m. 
Papyr to wrile on — papier s, m. 
Parable — parabole s, f. 
Paradyse — paradys , m. 
Parbrekyng — nomissement s,vn. 
Paramour a man — acoincte. 
Paramour a woman — dame peramour. 
Parceli a porcyon — parcelle s, f. 
Parchemyne — parchemin s, m. 
Parchementmaker — parcluminier s, m. 
Parclos to parte two roumes — séparation s, f, 
Pardon — pardon s, m. 
Pardoner — pardonnier s, m. 
Pardonyng — pardonnance s,{. 
Parfaytnesse — intégrité z, f. 

32. 



I 



s- 



252 LESGLARCISSEMENT 

Parfection — perfection s, f. 

Pariette for walles — hlanchissevre s, f. 

Paryssbe — paroisse s,{. 

Parysshe churche — esglise parochialle s, f. 

Parygshoner, a dwellar in a parysshe — pare- 

cien s, m. 
Paryng of any frule — pelbire s, f. 
Paryng of breed — chapellys, m. 
Paryng, yrone to pare a horsehofe vfith. 
Parytorie somoner — bedeau x, m. 
Parjury — parjure s, m. 
Parke for dere — parc z, m. 
Parcar a man — uerdier s, m. 
Parlyament — parlement s, m. 
Parlour — sallette s, f. 
Parrockea lytell parke — parquet z, m. 
Parsone that is excommunycate — excommenge, 

paliae. 
Parser to bore witb — persover s , m.; foret 

z, m. 
Parsone man or woman — parsonne s, f. 
Parsonage a place — presbitoyre s, m. 
Parcelay an herbe — parsil, parsin s, m. 
Parsone a curate — cvré z, m. 
Parsone y vell favoured — marpault x, m. 
Parte ofany thyng — port s, f. 
Partie — party s, m. 
Partenar that is prevy to a dede — parconniner 

s, m. 
Partie felovve — parsonnier s, m. 
Partetakyng of any thynge — parlicipalion s, {. 
Partyng of any thyng — partaige s, m. 
Partyng of a thyng to many — communion Sjf. 
Partnyt that bredeth under ones arme — mort- 
pou X, ta. 
Partie that sueth agaynst a man — party ad- 

uers. 
Parliculer mater of an authour — passaige 

s.{. 
Pasneppe an herbe. 
Passage of a man of armes — pas, va. 
Passyng measure — ovltraige s, va. 
Passyon weke — sepmaine penevse s, (. 
Paslc for a iady or woman — unes paces, f. 
Paste for bredde — poste s, f. 
Pasty bake meate — pasli z , m. 



Pastyme — passetemps.m.; esbatement s, m. 

Pastler that baketh — pastisier s, m. 

Pastron of an horse — pasturon s, m. 

Pastreo — pasturiaa x,m. 

Pasture fedyng — paslnre s,i. 

Patche or clout — rapeissare s, f. 

Pathe in a waye — sente s, f. ; sentier s, m. 

Patyn of a chaiys — platine s, f. 

Paten for a fote — galoche s . f . 

Patenmaker — patinier s, m. 

Patent ietters — lettres patentes, f. 

Patisyng a Ireatie of peace, as frontier townes 

take one of another — pasiisaige s,f. 
Patriarke — patriarche s, m. 
Patrimony — patrimoine s, m. 
Patrone of a gally — patron de galee s, m. 
Patron a helpar — patron s, m. 
Patron example — patron s, m. 
Patron that hath the right to gyve a benifyce — 

patron s, m. 
Paves to défend one with — panais, m. 
Paweofa beest — patte s, f. 
Pavyllyon — paueillon s. m. 
Pavyngstone — quarreaa x, m.; carreau x, m. 
Paulme of the bande — palme de la main s, f. 
Paument of a strete — paué z, m. 
Paulmer a poore man — blislre s, m. ; blistres- 

se s, f. 
Paume to play at tennys with — paulme. 
Paune of the chesse -~-paonnet z, m. 
Paunchea bely — panse s, f. 
Pause or taryeng — pause s, f. 
Pausyng — interpos, m. 
Pautner — malette s, f. 
Paxe to kysse — paix, f. 

P BEFORE E. 

Peace — paix, f. 

Pease reke — pesiere s, (. 

Peasablenesse — pesibleté z, f. 

Pece a cuppe — fosse s, f. ; hanap z, va. 

Pece or parle of a thyng — pièce s, f 

Pece of steele. 

Peacbe a frute — pesche s, (. 

Peache iree — peschier s, m. 

Pecocke a byrde - — pan s, m.; paon s, m. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



253 



Pectoral!. 

Pedlar — mercerot z, m. 

Peake of a ladyes mournyng heed — biquoqaet 

z, m. 
Pegge of woode — cheuille s, f. 
Pehenne a byrde — panesse s, f. 
Peyce a weyght — peys s, m. ; pesant s, m. 
Peync — pajne s, f. 
Peynfulnesse — penihleté z,f. 
Peynlyng — painctare s, f. 
Peyntar — peyntre s, m. 
Peytrell for a liorse — poictrel z, m. 
Pecke a measare — quart s, m. 
Peele of belles — son de cloches, m. 
Pelé for an ovyn — pelle a four s, f. 
Pelelyr an herbe. 

Pellet a rounde stone — plomme s, f. 
Pellycane a byrde — pélican s, m. 
Penaunce — pénitence s, f ; penance s, f. 
Pensell a lytell baner — banerolle s, f. 
Pencell to paynt with. 

Pensyfenesse — sovcy s, m. ; pencifueté z, f. 
Pencyon — pencion s, f. 
Pendant of a gyrdell — pendant s, m. 
Pendant for carpenters — niueau x, m. 
Penne to write with — plame s, f. 
Penneknyfe — cannyuet s, m. 
Pennar and ynkehorne — escriptoire s, f. 
Pennon a banner — pennon s, m. 
Penny coyne — denier s, m. 
Pennyworte an herbe — poulliot z, m. 
Pennyworthe — denrée s, f. 
Penytauncer — penilancier s, m. 
Penon a lytell baner in a felde — pennon s, m. 
Penneryall an herbe — poulliot z,m. 
Pensy Boure — pensée s, f 
Penthouse of a liouse — appentis, m. 
Pentys over a stall — avuent s, m. 
Pentes or paves — estai, soubtil x, m. 
Peony an herbe. 
Penthatheukes, fyve bokes of Moyses lawe — 

pentathevcon s, m. 
People folkes — pevple s , m. 
Peper spyce — poyure s, m. 
Pepcrquerne — yregoyr a poyure s, ni. 
Perceyvyng — apperceuance s, f.; perception s, f. 



Perceley an herbe — persin s, m. 

Percerblade — estoc z, ra. 

Perche a fysshe — perche s, f. 

Perche for a bauke — perche s, f. 

Perre drinke — peré s, m. 

Perfectyon — perfection s, f. 

Perytorie an herbe. 

Perivyncle a shellfysshe — biyorneau x, m.; 

uineau x, m. 
Peryll — penl z, m. 
Peerle a stone — perle s, f. 
Peerle in the eye — maille s, f. 
Permutacion — permutation s, f. 
Perceveraunce — perceverance s, f. 
Personage — personnaige s, m. 
Persour an instrument — foret :, m.; aibri- 

quet z, m. 
Persuadyng — persuasion s, {. 
Perlrytche a byrde — pardris, f. 
Pece to drinke in — lasse s, f. 
Pesablenesse — lacitarnité z, f. 
Pesé frute — poys, m. 
Pescodde — escosse de poix, f. 
Pestell of flesshe — jambon s, ni. 
Pesteil of wode to slampe with — pestait s, 

va.; pillon s, m. 
Pestcli of yrone — pillon s, m. 
Pestylence — pestilence s, f. ; epidimie s, t. 
Petaunce a small porcion of miate — pitance 

s. f. 
Peter a proper name — Pierre s, m. 
Pely cannon — uicaire s, m. 
Petycote — corset simple, m. ; cotte simple s, f.; 

chemise de blanchet s, (. 
Pety nytie. 

Petygrewe — généalogie s , t. 
Pewke a colour — pers, m. 
Pewter metall — eslain s, m. 
Pewtrer — pottier des tain s, m.; peavltrier s , m. 

P BEFORE H. 

Phylosophie — philosophie s , f. 

Philosopher — philosophe s, m. 

Physike — médecine s, f. 

Physicion — mire s, m. 

Phesycion named in derisyou — mcrdefm s, m. 



254 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Pbesaunt a byrde — faisant s, m. 
Phisnamy a face — phisonomie s, t. 

P BEFOBE I. 

Pyclier — pot de terre z, m. 

Piche for shyppes — pour, f. 

Piche forke — Joirchc fiere s, f, 

Pye a byrde — pie, agache s, f. 

Pyed monke — barnardia s, va. 

Pye a pasty — pasii z, m. 

Pye baker — paticier s, m.; patessoiier s, m. 

Pygge a beest — coychon s, m. 

PignoU a kynde of frute — piynoUe s, f. 

Pygion a byrde — p'gon s, m.; colombette s, f. 

Pyke a fysshe — brochet z,m. 

Pickerell a fysshe — brocheton s, m. 

Pyke ofastaffe — piquant s, m. 

Picke axe — picq , hoiau x, m. ; pique de fer s, f. 

Pyccle sauce — saxlmitre s, f 

Pytche of lethcr — pelice s, f. 

Pyle for a bridge — pilolys, m. 

Pyle of a coyne, the syde bavyng no crosse — 

pile s, (. 
Pyie of clotbes or any olher heape — pUlc s, f. 
Pyle to be set in a fauty grounde — pilot :, m. 
Pyli of a nulle curnell — pellure dune noix, f. 
Pyil of frule — pellei^rc s, f. 
Pyllar a robber — pillcvr s, m.; pillart z, m. 
Pyllar of a churche — piiter, colompne s, f. 
Pyllar — columpne s, f. 
Pyller to do juslyce — estache s, f. 
Pyllary to punysshe men al — pilory s, m. 
Pylgryme — pellerin s, m. 
Pylle for a laxe — pilleuse, pillcvre s, f. 
Pyll of hempe — til z, m. 
Pyllage — pillaigc s, m. 
Pylled as ones heed is — pelle z, m. 
Pyllyngof hempe or anyother thyng — til z,va. 
Pylotlc thaï governelh a shippe — pdot z, m. 
Pyllyon for a woman to ryde on — hovsse à 

Jemme s, {. 
Pyliowc for ones h^ed — oreillier s, m. 
Pyliowe bere — taye doreilUer s, m. 
Pylcher a fysshe — sardine s, f. 
Pyment — piment s, ni. 
Pympernyll an herbe. 



Pymple on a mannes face — pustule s, f. 

Pynapletree — pin s, m. 

Pynne oftymbre — chenille s, f. 

Pyncase — esplintjuier s, m. 

Pynne of yrone — broche de fer s, f. 

Pynne for kerchcfes — esplingue s, {. 

Pynne maker — esplinguier s, m. 

Pynpyllovve lo stycke pynnes on. 

Pynnacle — pinacle s, m. 

Pynaple — pomme de pin s, f. 

Pynfolde — prison aux bestes, f. 

Pynne tree — parquet z,m. 

Pyncase — esplinyuctte s, f. ; esplinguiere. 

Pynyng of a man in prisone lo confesse the 

Iroutbe — torture s, (. 
Pynnyon of a wyng — bout de lesle s, va. 
Piony an herbe. 

Pynsons of yrone — estricqaoyres , f. 
Pynson sho — ca£ignon s, m. 
Pynl measure — choppine s, f. 
Pynlyll a mannes yarde — uit z, m. 
Pype lo pype wilh — flevste s, f. 
Pype of a condyle — deuidover s, m. ; tuyau de 

fontayne x, m. 
Pype a vessell — pipe s, f. 
Pyppe a sickenesse — pepye s, f. 
Pyppen an apple — capendu s, f. 
Pyrry a stormc of wynde — orage s, m. ; bovf- 

fee de uent s, {. 
Pyrne or webslars lome — mestier a tisser s, m. 
Pyspol — pot a pisser s, m. 
Pysse uryne — urine s, {.; escloy s, m. 
Pysmyre a lyteli worme — formys, m. 
Pismyre hill — formiliere s, f. 
Pyslell a letler — espistre s, (. 
Pysteller thaï syngeth the masse. 
Pytche — poix, f. 

Pytauncc — pitance de covuent s, f. 
Pytche forke — fovrche fere s, (. 
Pyteousnesse — pilevsetè z,{. 
Pyle compassyon — pitié s, f. 
Pylle in the grounde — fosse s, {. 
Pytte or weli. 

Pylle in ones cheke or chyn — fossette s, f. 
Pylfall for byrdes — trebovchct z, m. 
Pythe slrength — force s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Pythe of a stalke or of a tree — ciievr s, m. 

P BEFORE L. 

Place — Uev x , m. 

Place or slede — endroit z, m. 

Place closed — parc z, m. 

Place a house — place s, f. 

Place wliere rclykes be — reliquaire s, f. 

Place where foure stretes mete toguyder — • 

carrejour s, m. 
Place where llie sonne shyneth ail day — 

hasle s, m. 
Place where beestes resteth ail night — giste 

s.f. 
Place where is good haukyng -^gibier s, m. 
Place where a man is lodged — herbegerie s, f. 
Place of jugement — prétoire s, m. 
Place where juges sylte — parquet z, m. 
Place where justyce is niynyslred — parle- 
ment a, va. 
Place to flye to rescue — ''ejuge s, va. 
Place nere a churche to walkc in — parais, m. 
Place where any joynt touroeth. 
Place of murther, or where murlher or exé- 
cution is executcd — mevrtressovcre s, (. 
Place where roses growe — rosière s, f. 
Place where hempe groweth — cheneuiere s, (. 
Place where willows growe — sausojre s, f. 

Place where a thyng is sette — situation s, f. 

Place to batlie one in — thermes, (. 

Plage of slckenesse — playe s, {. 

Playe an cnterlude — farce s, f. 

Play sport — corolle s, f. ; déduit, esbat z, m. 

Play at the chesse — jev aux eschiecz x, m. 

Playce a fyssbe — plye s,, f. 

Player or goer upon a corde — batellevr s, m. 

Playe maker — faclevr s, m.;factiste s, m. 

Player in a playe — parsonnage. 

Playne, a grounde that is without hylles — 
planicr, playne s, f. 

Playne felde — plaine terre, lande s, f. ; plaigne 
s,[. 

Playnt complaynyng — plainte s,(. 

Playnesse of any thyng — planevr s, f. 

Playster for walies — piastre s, f. 

Plaster for a sore — emplaistre s, ni. 



FRANCOYSE. 255 

Plasterer that layeth plaster in bylding — plais- 

trier, plastrevr s, m. 
Play tes of a womans heer — tresses, t. ; (rel- 
iure s, {. 
Playte of a gowne — plj z,m. 
Plancher niade cf bordes — planché z, m. 
Plane tree — plane. 
Plane an instrument for joyners — plane s, f. ; 

rabot z, m. 
Planet a starre — planète s, f. 
Planke — planche, planchette s, f. 
Plancke over a water — planchette s, f. 
Plant — plante s^ f 
Plantan an herbe — planteyne s, m. 
Plasshe of a water — jlacquet z, m. 
Plate of a garment — plal,ply s, m. 
Plate of harnesse — plat z, m. 
Plate sylver vessell — uajsselle dargent s, f. 
Plate of any metall — platine, lame s, f. 
Flatter lo eate in — plat z, m. 
Platnesse — plattevr s, f. 
Plesantnesse — plaisance s,i'. 

Plee before a juge — plajl z, m.; plaidoyrie 
s, f. 

Pledge a borowe — plaige s, m. 

Pledge — gt'ige s, n>. 

Pledyng — playdoyrie s, f.-^ plait z, m. 

Playe an cnterlude — farce s,(. 

Playe of sadde matters — moralité z, f. 

Playe nat ernest — jev x, m. 

Playfere — mignon s, m. 

Plesantnesse — aménité z, f. 

Plentie — habundance s, f. ; plainte z, i.\Je- 
cundité z, {.\ fertilité z, t.; opulence s, f.; 
ajlaence s, f. 

Plentuousnesse — plenturevseté z, f. 

Plentyousnesse of people — populosité z, f. 

Plentie of bowes — ramage s, f. 

Plentie of wylde beestes — sauagine s, (. 

Plesaunce — plaisance s,î. 

Pleasure wyll — aveil z, ni. 

Pleasure sporte — esbatement s, m. 

Pleasure — commodité z,{. 

Plyantnesse — ploianlevr s, f. 

Plyte or state — poynt s, m. 

Plombe for a shyppe — plombée s, f. 



256 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Plome a frute — prvne s , f. 

Plome tree — prunier s, ni. 

Ploncket colour — blev x, m. 

Flotte of grounde — picce de terre s, {. 

Ploughe — charcve s, f. 

Plougbe typpe. 

Ploughe betyll — mailUet de chane z, m. 

Ploughe beame — queve de la charue s, f. ; 

mancheron s, m. 
Plowe lande — terre labourée s, f. 
Plowe eare. 

Plowe handeli — manche s, f, 
Plowe start — manche s , f. 
Plowe man — labourevr s, m.; cltarraier s, m, 
Hover a byrde — plovuier s, m. 
Plunibe for a carpenter — riglel z, m. 
Plumbe for a sbyppeman — plomb de sonde z, m. 
Plomel of leed — plommee s, f. 
Plome of oystrydge fethers — plummart s, m. 
Plomniar a craftesmao — plommetr s, m. 

P BEFORE 0. 

Podyng — bovdin s, m. 

Poddell a slougbe — bovrbier s, m. 

Poet a connyng man — poète s, m. 

Poygniet for onessieves — poignet z, m. 

Poynt for oncs bose — esguillelte s, f. 

Poynl an article — poj'nt z, m, 

Poynt mater — esguilletier s, m. 

Poynt of any tbyng — pointe s, (. ; poynté s, m. 

Poynt oftbe sholder — espalleron s, m. 

Poynt a properlie — taiche s, f. 

Poynt of a swerd — poincle dune espee s, f. 

Poyntell or caracte — esplingue de fer s, m. 

Poysy devyse or worde — deaise s, f. 

Poyson — poyson s, f. ; harpoy s, m. 

Poytrell parte of an horse barnesse — poyc- 

trail z , m. 
Poke or bagge — poche s, f. 
Pocke or blayne — bouton s, m. 
Poke frekyns — picquetcvre or picquottevre de 

aerolle s, (. 
Pocke a great pocke — la yorre, la grosse ue- 

rolle s, f. 
Pocke a small — uerolle s, (. 
Pockynesse — fossetlerie s , f. 



Polycy — police s, f. 

Polyssbing makyng smothe of a thynge — po- 

lissure s, f 
Polie beed — corpeau x , m. 
Pôle a staffe — perche s, f. 
Polaxe a weapen — becq defaulcon z, m. 
Pôle or rodde — perche s, {. 
Pôle for fyssbe — uiuier s, m. 
Poled a yonge tode — cauesot z, m. 
Polet tbe blacke thynge that a tode cometh of 

cauesot z, va. 
Pommaundre to smell to — pomendier s, m. 
Porne garnct — pomme de granade s, f 
Pome garnet tree — granadicr s, m. 
Pomell of aswerde — pommeau x, m. 
Pompe tryumphe — triomphe s, m. 
Pompe — tryumphe, bobant s, m.; grandgore 

sj. 
Pompe of a sbyppe — pompe s, t. 
Ponde ofwater — cslang z , m, ; uiuier s, m. 
Polc a standyng water — cslang z , m. 
Ponyssbmcnt — pugnilion s, f. 
Pose in tbe nose — rime s, f 
Pope — pape s, m. 

Popet for chyldre to play with — povpee s, f. 
Popyll tree — pevplier s, m. 
Popple, suche as ryseth whan water or any 

lycour scletb fast — bovitlon s, m. 
Poppy sede or the lierbe — pauot z , m. 
Popyniaye a byrde — papegault z, m.; para- 

quel z, m. 
Popyniaye colour — aertgay s, m. 
Porche of a dore — porche s, m. 
Porcion parte — porcion s, C 
Pore, a small hole suche as tbe swete cometh 

out at — pore s, f. 
Poore man — poure homme, belistre s, m. 
Poorenesse — pouerté z , f. 
Porret yong lekes — porelle s, f. 
Porke flesshe — porc z, m.; chair de pourceau 

z, m. 
Porkepyn a beest — porc espin s, m. 
Porpas a fyssbe — mcrsovyn s, m. 
Portail of waynscot or suche lyke — conter- 

quarrc s, f. 
Porte an bavyn — port s, m. 






DE LA LANGUE 

Porte coullys — barrière covlisse, porie iwlant, j 

(Ro) marche coulyz, coulisse, râteaux, m. 
Porte countenaunce — mantien s, m,; conte- 
nance s, {. 
Portlyncsse — magnificence s, [. 
Porche or an entrye — porche s, f. 
PortenauDce of a beest — f resserre s, t. 
Porter, a kepar of a gale — portier s, m. 
Portyes, a preestes boke — breuiavre s, m. 
Portche of waynscot •^ con(erçuayre s, f. 
Porter of burdens — crochetevr s, m. 
Porcion of a thyng — particularité x, f. 
Portrature — portraycture s,{. 
Pose dysease — caterre s, f. 
Possessyon of a thyng — saisine s, (. 
Possessyon — possession s, f. 
Possessions lyvelode — terres, f. 
Posset of aie and mylke — possetle s, {. 
Possybilyte — possibilité z,(. 
Posnet a lytell polte. 

Post in a shyppe called cabastaync — cabes- 
tain s, m. 

Poste — posté Zj f. ; posteav s, m. 

Posterne a gâte — posterne s, (. 

Postume a sickenesse — apostume s,(. 

Polte a gallon measure — pot z,m. 

Potlanger — escïelle s, f. ; avrillon s, m. 

Pottage — potage s, m.;sovppe s, f. 

Potycary tbat selletb medycins — apothecayre 
s, m. 

Potte hokes — unes ancestes, f. 

Polte bangynges — cremilliere s, f. 

Potycaries reccyt — droguerie, drogue s, f. 

Pottell measure — quarte s, f. 

Pottage suppyng — sovppe s, t. 

Pottage without herbes — potage s,{. 

Potier — potier de terre s, m. 

Potte of brasse or pewter — pot z, m. 

Potlydde for a potte — covuerlecqae s, m. 

Potslycke — batton s. m. 

Poverle — poureté z, (.; sovjraité z, f. 

Pouce of ihe arme — potce s, m. 

Pouche niaker — gibbcsierier s, m. 

Pouche — gibbesiere s. t. 

Poudre — pouldre s, f. 

Poudre^ armynj a furre — peau de ermyns, f. 



FRANCOYSE. 257 

Power — poviioire s, m.; efficace s, C; puissance 
s. f ; posté z, f. 

Poullayne foule — potllaille s, f. 

Poudryng tubbe — salover s, m, 

Poullet — poulet, poucin z, m. 

Poultry — poullaillerie s, f. 

Poumysshe for a scryvenar — pomys, m. 

Poumper frute. 

Ponnde for beestes — prison a bestes, C; par- 
quet z, m. ; emprisonner bestes, va. 

Pounde of weight or money — Hure s, f. 

Poupe for a chylde — povpee z, {. 

Pourgyng — espourgement s, ni. 

Pourtenaunce — appendence s, f. 

Pourveyaunce — pouraeance s, f. 

Pouryvyncle a fysshe — niuiau x, m. 

P BEFORE R. 

Practyse — practicque s, L 

Praclysure — practicien s, m. 

Prayers in a primer — suffrages, m. 

Praye a boty — praye s, f. 

Praye or spoylegotlen in warre — despoville s, (. 

Prayer a man ihat prayeth — prieur s, m. 

Prayer — prière, oraison s, f. 

Prayeng — dcprecation s, f. 

Prayse laude — louenge s, f ; pris, m. 

Praysing — louenge 5, f. ; los, m. 

Prayse made before a great nian or préposition 
— harengue s, f 

Prane a fysshe — saige cocque s, f. 

Pranke — tour s, m.; finesse s, f. 

Pratlynge the speche of yonge chyldren — pa- 
toys, m. 

Practynesse — mignonncrie s, f. 

Preamble — préambule s, m. 

Precyous stone — pierre precievse s, f. 

Precyous thyng — relique s, (. 

Preachyng — sermon s, m. 

Preemynence — prééminence s, f. 

Prefe — prévue s, f. ; esprevue s, [, 

Prejudyce — préjudice s, m. 

Prelate — prélat z, m. 

Premysses tbat cometh in an argument — pré- 
misse s, f. 

Prentyce a man i — apprenti, m. 

33 



258 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Prentyce a woman — apprentisse s, f. 

Prentyce in lawe a lerned man , they use no 
sache order. 

Préparation — apareil z , m.; aprest z, m. 

Preparyng of any thyng — mistcre s,f. 

Preparyng before — preparatiue s, t. 

Prebendary — prébende s , {. ; cKanoine s, m. 

Preest — prestre s, m. 

Prease ofpcople — presse , foulle s, f. 

Preestes concubyne — prestresse s, t. 

Presaunt a gyfte — présent s, m. 

Presse for clothes — presse s, f. 

Presse for grapes — esne s,{.;pressover s, m. 

Presse for cappes — pressevr s, m. 

Presse for lycour — pressover s, m. 

Presydent — président s, m. 

Présent — présent s, m. 

Presentynge of any thynge — présentation s, f. 

Présence — présence s, f. 

Preservyng kepyng — conseruation s, f. 

Pressar of cappes — pressevr de bonet z, m. 

Precious stone — gemme s, {.; pierre pre- 
cievse s, f. 

Presentnesse — présence s, f. 

Pretie countenaunce — minojs, ta. 

Prevyng — prevf z, va.; prévue s, f. 

Prevyledge — preuilege s , m. 

Prevy a draugbt — retraict z, m.; basse cham- 
bre s,î.; ortrait z, va. 

Preventyng — prévention s,{. 

Prevy chambre — chambre secrète s , f. 

Prevy gâte in a towne — faulce posteme s, f. 

Prevy seale — mandement du roy s, va. 

Price estymalion — estime s, f. 

Price — pris, m. 

Price of any thyng — ualuc s, f. 

Pride — orgveil z, m.; ambition s, f. ; aro- 
gance s, f. 

Pride fîersnesse — fierté z, f. 

Pricke of wodde — brochette s, t. 

Pricke to pricke meate — brochette s, f. 

Pricke a marke — marque s, (. 

.Pricke of a thorne — picqiutevre s, f. 

Tricket a yonge dere — saillant s, m. 

Pricke to drive oxen with — ajui'Hon s, m. 

Prickyng — picquotlerie s, f. 



Primer boke — unes hevres, f. 

Primat of the metripolytane — primat t, m. 

Prime — prime s,(. 

Primorose a flour — primerolle s,{. 

Prince — prince s, m. 

Princesse — princesse s, f. > 

Principalnesse — principalité z, t. 

Printe of money. 

Print of an horse fote — esclov x,m. 

Print forbokes — impression s, î,;imprimevre s,(. 

Printer or a scryyenar — cmprimevr s, va. 

Printed leltcr — lettre déforme s, f. 

Printyng of bokes — impression s,f. 

Priour — • prievr s, va. 

Prioresse — prievresse s, m. 

Priore — prioré s, f. 

Prisoner — prisonnier s, va. 

Prison a dongyon — charire s, f. 

Prisone — prison , consierge s, f. 

Prestes crowne that flyeth about in somer — 

barbedieu x, m. 
Privyte — secret z, va. 
Problème — problème s, va. 
Processe — procès, va. 
Processe shewed by wordes — procès uerbal 

X, m. 
Processyon — procession s, f. 
Proclamacyon — proclamation s , f. 
Procuratour — procurevr s, m. 
Procuracyon — procuration s , f. 
Prodygaiite — prodigalité z, f. 
Profe — /""O)/ z, va.; esprevue s, f. 
Profer — œvffre s, {. 
Professyon — profession s,{. 
Profyte — provfit z,va.; émolument s, va,; prev 

X, va. 
Profitablenesse — profitableté z,{. 
Prockesy — procuration s, {. 
Profogue — prologue s, m. 
Promesse — promesse s, (. 
Promysing trouthe piyghtynge — jianceilles , f. 
Promocyon — promocion s, f. 
Propernesse — faictisse , factise s, f. 
Prongge — propreté z, f. 
Prose — prost s , f. 
Properte — propriété z,{. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



259 



Prophet — prophète s, m. 

Prophecy — prophecie s, f. 

Proppe — pie de table, tresteau s, m. 

Proppe of a Iiouse — upvje s, {,; attache s, f. 

Proppe lo undcrset any thyogr—estaye s, f. 

Proporcyon of a beest — lineature s, f. 

Proporcyon — proporcion s, t. 

Preposityon — préposition s, (. 

Prosperyte — prospérité z,(. 

Prothonotary — prothonotaire s, m. 

Protection of the kyiiges — salueyarde s, f. 

Proudnesse — orgueilleaseté 2, f. 

Provender or mengled corne — fovrraige s, m.; 

provende s, f. 
Proverbe — prouerbe s, m. 
Prowesse — proesse s, f. 
Provyder a cater — despencier s, m. 
Provisyon of meate and drinke — uiures, m. 
Provysion of any other thyog — povraoyance s,{. 
Provydence — prouidence s, f. 
Provynce — prouince s, t. 
Provyng — approbation s, f.; prévue s,î. 
Provyncyall — prouincial at.m. 
Prolyng for a promocyon — ambition s, f. 
Prune a kynde of frute — prune s, f. 
Provokyng to angre — irritation s, f. 

P BEFOBE U. 

Puble stone — caillov x, m. 
Puddle a Jyteil water — lac z, m. 
Puddyng — hovdayn s, m. 
Purenesse — nelUté z, f. ; pureté t, f. 
Puffe of wynde — houff.ee s, f. 
Puffyn a fyssbe lyke a teele. 
Puffyng up — inflation s, f. 
Pulce of mannes arme — povx, m. 
Pullayne — povllane s, f. 
Pullet — povlet z, m. 
Pullyng awaye — abstraction s, f. 
Pulpyt to prêche in — pulpitre s, m. 
Puis of a man — povlce s, m. 
Puitrie — povllaillerie j, f. 
Pulter — povllaillier s, ut. 
Pulter tbat bringeth egges — coquetier s, m. 
Punysshing — affliction s, f. ; punition s, f.; 
correction s, f. 



Pumpe of a shyppe — pompe s, f. 
Puple within âge — papille s, f. 
Purce — bource s, f. 
Purcer — boarcier s, m. 
Purchase — pourchas, m. 
Purcyvaunt — messagier s , m. 
Pure white syike — soye bissine s, f. 
Purfyll or hemme of a gowne — bort s, m. 
Purgatorie — purgatoire s, m. 
Purgacion purgyng — pourgaiion s, f. 
PurpuH coloure — pourpre s, m. 
Purpose — povrpos, m.; entente s, f. ; inten- 
tion s, f.; pourpens, va,;poartente s, f. 
Purse of the Spaynisshe facyon — bauldrier s, m. 
Purser — boursier s, m. 
Purser of a shyppe — clerc de nauire s, m. 
Pursnet — resee s, f. 
Purslayne an herbe — povrselayne s, f. 
Pursnet a ragge pece — panneau. 
Pusshyng tbrustyng — rebovtement,povlciire s, f. 
Puttyng backe — repulce s, f. ; rehout z, m. 
Puttocke a byrde — escovjle s, f 

Q BEFOKE UA. 

Quadrant of a great place — 2a basse court. 

Quayre of paper — une main de papier s, f. 

Quayle a byrde — quaille s, f. ; caille s, f. 

Quayntaunce — accoinctance s , f. ; cognois- 
sance s, f. 

Quakyng — tremblement s, m. 

Quantyte — quantité z, f. 

Quantyte of a mannes body — coipalence s , {. 

Quareiyng — castille s, f. ; noyse s, f. 

Quarell an arrowe for warre — garrot z, va. 

Quarell for a crosbowe — uire s, m. ; car- 
reau X, m. 

Quarell a cause of debate — querelle s, f. 

Quarry of stone — qaarriere s, (. 

Quart ineasure — pinte s, f. 

Quartayne axes — jieure quartayne s, f. 

Quarter eygt busshelles — sextier s, m. 

Quarter the fourtbe parte of a thyng — quar- 
tier s, m. 

Quarter of an bour — quart dhevre s, m. 

Quartermayster of a shyppe — 1 contremais- 
tre s, ni. 

33. 



260 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Qnarter of ayere — quart dan aii s, m. 
Quarter of a cerclet — septier. 
Quarter of a fortresse — despans , m. 
Quave myre — foundriere s, f.; civulicre 



f. 



Q BEFOr.E UË. 

Quene lady — rajrne s, f. 

Queane — garse s, f. ; paillarde s , f, ; (jaal- 

riere s, {. 
Querestar — enfant de cuevr s, m. 
Querne for spyce — molinet z, m.; grajover 

a spices , m . 
Quest — mqneste s,î. 
Questyon — question s, {.., demande s, (. 
Quevar to put arrowes in — carcas, m, 
Quere where men syng — cuevr desglise s, m. 

Q BEFOnE UI. 

Quickenesse — soudaineté z,C 

Quickenesse of niynde — uiuacité t, f. 

Quickesylver — uif argent s, m. 

Quyll of a burre or rede — tuyau x , m. 

Quyelnesse — quiétude s,C. 

Quyll or felher — plume s, f. 

Quylte for a bedde — lovdier, covltepoynle s, m.; 
coesle s,{. 

Quyiter — faiseur de lovdiers, m.\ covttepoin- 
lier s, va. 

Quynce a frule — pomme de qaoyn s, {. 

Quynce tree — quoynier s, m. 

Quynce a sickenesse — escrvelles, f. 

QuyssLen to sytleon — cvisseyn s, m. 

Quyiitall a kynde of weiglit — quintal i, m. 

Quyntessence — quinteessence s, f. 

(Juyntyne to juste at — quintayne ajonsler s, f.; 
bersault x, m. 

QuytauDCe a writyng — quitance s , (.; ac- 
quit z, m. 

Quyver for arowes or for a crosbowe — carquas, 
m. ; estay s, m. 

R REFORE A. 

Rabet a yong cony — lappreau x, m. 
Rabat an yrone for a carpentar — rabol z, m. 
Rabetlyng of bordes — rabetlure s, f 
Rabukyng — reuilemenl s, m.; hontaige s, m. 



Radyssbe an herbe — raue s, f 

Radyll of a carte — costee s, f. 

Rache hounde. 

Racke above tlie manger — ratillier s, m. 

Rafter of a bouse — cheaeron s, m. 

Raggeof clothe — haillon s, m.; panneau, dra- 
peau X, m. 

Ragge tbat appereth under a garaient — lam- 
beau X , m. 

Raye clothe — raye s, m. 

Raye fysshe — raye s, (. 

Raye an order — reng , ranc z, m. 

Raye of men in a felde — arroy s, m. 

Rayle of a boothc — treille s, (. 
. Rayle fora wonians necke — crevechief en quat- 
tre doubles z, ni. 

Rayne foule wether — plvye s, f. 

Rayle for a carte — coste s, f 

Raylles barres — lisses, f. 

Raynes of ihe backe — reyns de dos, m. 

Rayler a jestar — raillevr, gavdissevr s, m. 

Raygne the lyme of a kynges duraunce — rè- 
gne s, m. 

Rayment — habillement s, m. ; habit z,m. 

Rayne of a bridell — resne s, ï. 

Raysing up of a thyng — leuee s, f. 

Raysin a frute — roisyn s, m. 

Racke for beestes — ratillier s ,m. 

Rakean instrument — rasieau x, m. 

Rake for the Kenell — rasteau iS, ni. 

Racket to playe at tenues with — racquet z, m. 

Rackyng of a mau to confesse the treuthe — 
torture s, f. 

Rackyng of a borse in liis pacc — racquas- 
sure s, f. 

Ramme a he beest — bellin s, ni. 

Ramme an instrument — engin s, m. 

Ranimer for husbandrie. 

Ramsey an herbe. 

Ranckenesse habundance — fertilité z, f. 

Rancour malyce — rancune s , f.; ramposne s, f. 

Rande of befe — gisie de beuj s, f. 

Râpe an herbe — mauette s, (. 

Rappe a stroke — covp z, m. 

Rase as the rase of Bretaync — rai , m. 

Rascall refuse beest — refus, m. 



# 



DE LA LANGUE 

Rafter or sparre of a house — cheneron s, m. 

Rasour a fysshe. 

Rasour to shave with — rasover s, m. 

Rase a scrapyng ■ — rasure s, C 

Ratte a beest — rat z, m. 

Rates bane — sevriimé s, m. ; riagai x, m. 

Raven thefte — rapine s, f. 

Ravyn a byrde — corbeau x, m. 

Ravyner a bribour — raptevr s, m. 

Ravyng or madnesse — desuerie s, f. 

Ravys of a carie. 

Ravyssyng — rauissaige s, m.; rap s, m. 

Raunsome for a prisoner — ransom s, f. 

Rawe clothe iiat fulled — tirelajiie s, f. 

Rawnesse — criievr s, f.\crudesse s, f. 



FRANCOYSE. 



261 



R BEFORE.E. 



bec 



Rebecke an instrument of musyke - 

z, m. 
Reaime — roialme s, m. 
Reason wytte — raison, discrétion s, f. 
Rebell — mutin s, m.; rébellion s, f. 
Rebellyon — rébellion s, f. ; rebellerie s, f. 
Rebuke — uitupere s, va. 
Rebounde of a bail — bond z, m.; bont s, m. 
Reboundyng — rebond s, m. 
Rebukyng — reprehension s, {. ; reprovclie s, m. 
Receyt — recept z,m.; recepte s,[. 
Receyvyng — réception s, f. 
Receyte of dyvers thynges in a medycine — 

drogges s, f. ; recepte s, t. 
Recluse a relygious man — reclus, m. 
Recluse a relygious woman — recluse s, f. 
Receyver — recepuevr s, m. 
Recorde — tesmoignage , recort s, ni. 
Rekenyng of an acconipte — calculation. 
Recorder a pype — flevte a ix nevf trovs, f. 
Recordyng of byrdes — patois, m. 
Recovery — amendement s, m. 
Recityng of a malter — recitation s , f. 
Reckeiesnesse — noncliailance s, f. 
Recommendation — rccommendation s, ('. 
Recompence — recompence s, f. 
Recréa tyon — récréation s, f. 
Recoveryng — recovuerance s,f. 
Rede to playeorpype with — anche s, f. 



Rede of the fenne — rovseau x, rn. 

Reed berryng — harenc sovrè z, m. 

Rede of a weyght tbe instrument — anche s, I. 

Rede to lyght candelles with — canne s, f. ; 

roseau x, m. 
Rede to wynde yarne on or suchc iyke — tuyau 

X , m. 
Reed breest a byrde — rovgegorge s, (. 
Reed nettyll — orlicgriache s, f. 
Reed gounde sickenesse of chyldren. 
Reednesse — rovgevr s, f. 
Redemar — rcdemptevr s, iri. 
Redy money — argent comptant s, m. 
Rele for yarne — dcuidover s, m. 
Redynease of wytte — ingéniosité z, (. 
Redynesse in doyng of a thyng — practi<fue 

s,i. 
Reflectyng — rejleclion s, f. ; reuerberation s, f. 
Refraynyng — rejraygnaige s, m. 
Refraynt of a balade — refraynt s, m. 
Redynesse — presteté z,{. 
Refuse — refus, m. 
Refuse woH — layne refusée s, f. 
Régent a man of dignyle — régent s, m. 
Régentes wyfc — régente s, (. 
Regyon or countre — climat z, m.; région 

s, f. 
Regyster — registre s, m. 
Regyster of a boke — signet z, m. 
Rehersall — recitation s, f. 
Reherser — recilevr s, m. 
Reyne foule wether — plvye s, f. 
Reyne of a bridell — rayne s, f. 
Reynbowe — arc du ciel z,m. 
Reigner in a kyngdome — regnatevr s, m. 
Reysin frute — roysin s, m. 
Rejoysing — congratulation s, {.■,jouissance s, i. 
Rekenyng — compte s, m. 
Reke of corne — tas de ble s, m. 
Relefe — relief z, m. 
Release forgyvenesse — pardon s, m. 
Releasyng — reluxation s,f. 
Rellysshe a sauour — govst s, m. 
Relygion — religion s, f. 
Relygious man — religieux, m. 
Relygious woman — religievsc s, i. 



I 



262 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Relyke — relique s, (. 

Reame of paper — ranime de papier s, t. 

Remedy — remède s, m. 

Remembraunce — sovuenance i, f. ; commémo- 
ration s, f. ; mention s, f. •,recordalion Sj 
f. ; remembraunce s, (. 

Rendles for a chese — présure s, f. 

Remnant of any thyng — demovrant s, m.; re- 
manant s, m. 

Remyssion — remission s,{.; grâce s, {. 

Removyng — remotion s,{. 

Rendyng. 

Reiige — rovte s, f.; ranc s, m. 

Renger for a baker. 

Renlesse to make chese with — présure s, t. 

Renome the name of a man — renom s, m. 

Rent yerely dette — rente s, f. 

Rent that a lorde taketh of his tenaunt — cen- 
ciere s, {. 

Rentes — reuenves, f. 

Reparacyon — reparution s, f. 

Repaste a meale — repas, m. 

Repar of corne — sievr de ble s, m. 

Repell callyng agayne — repel z, m. 

Repentaunce or contricyon — contrition, re- 
mors, repentence s, f. 

Repentyng — regret z, m.; repentence s , {. 

Repayre a caryer of seefysshe — chassemaree 
s, m. 

Reporte tellyng of a taie — report s, m. 

Representacyon — représentation s, f. 

Reprefe — reprovche s, m. 

Reprovyng — mordacité z,i. 

Rerage or dette — débet z, m. 

Reputacyon — réputation s, f. 

Request — rei/ueste s, f. 

Requyrer or desyrer — reqairevr s, m. 

Rere banket — ratios , m. 

Rere supper — bancquet z , m. 

Rerewarde of men — arrière garde s, f 

Resydence an abyding — résidence s, f. 

Resydue — reVuiue s, f. 

Resty — recours, rescousse s, f. 

Resyning of a thyng — résignation s, f. 

Resortyng to — actraict, recours, m. 

Repayre — resort s, m. 



Resolvynge or discussyuge — résolution s, f. 

Resonablenessc — resonnableté Zf f. 

Respyte — respit z, m. 

Respyte for a tyme — recreance s, f. 

Restilucyon — réparation s, f. 

Rest a pause — pause s, f. 

Rest of the body or mynde — repos, m. ; arrest 

z, m.; reste s, f. 
Restthatleaveth of athynge — demeurant s, m. 
Rest or resydue — demourant s, m. 
Reason — raison s,L\ discrétion s, {. 
Restyng place — pause, stacion s, f. 
Restyng of a sergiaunt — arrest z, m. 
Restoring of a thyng to his place — remise s, [. 
Revar a robber — pillart s, m. 
Revellar — carellevr s, m. 
Revelacyon — reuelation s, f. 
Révérence — reuerence s, f. 
Retynue a company of folkes — tinel z, m. 
Retayning — retenue s, f. 
Rethorique a scycnce — relhorique s, f. 
Returoyng — retour s, m. 
Réveil — esbatement s, m. 
Revyng — repacité z, f. 
Rewarde of meate • — ■ entremetz, m. 
Rewarder — retributevr s, m. 
Rewardyng — rétribution s, f. 
Rewle an instrument — rigle s, f 
Rewarde — guerdon s, m. 
Revengyng — uindication s, f. 
Revfle demeanour — rigle s, f. 
Rewe an herbe — rêve s, f. 
Rewme of the heed — ryme s, f. 

R BEFOBE I. 

Riall coyne — raal, noble a la rose x, m. 

Riall of wyne — fome, brovee,Jlevr z, f. 

Rialte — pompe î, f. 

Rialnesse — royalté z , (. 

Ribaude a man — ribault z, m. 

Ribalde a \voman — ribaulde s, (. 

Ribaldrie — ribauldrie s, f. 

Ribbe a bone — covste s, f. 

Ribbe for flaxe. 

Rybbe skynne. ' 

Rybbe worte an herbe. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



263 



Ryce corne — tys, m. 

Richesse — richesse s, f. ; opulence s, f.; subs- 
tance s, f. ; biens, m.; ckeuance s, f. ; 
finance s, f. 

Ridge of a lande — sente s, f. 

Riddie a harde questyon — demande s, f.; sor- 
nette s, f. 

Ridyng speare — 'jaueline s, f. 

Rye corne — seigle s, m. 

Rveng cyvc. 

Ryfte crany — fente s, f. ; carniau x, m. 

Ryfle in a dore — f endosse s, L;f endure s, (. 

Ryggc of lande — sente s, f. 

Rigge bone — eschine s, f. 

Riggyng of a house — chavlme s, m. 

Right that an host must do to his gest — droit 
dhospitalilé, 

Riglh wysnesse — droyture s, (.; équité z, f. 

Rigbt hande — dextre. 

Right suster — seur germayne s, (. 

Rightnesse — rectitude s, f. 

Rigour — righevr s, f. 

Rymme of a whele or stabbe — peav x, m. 

Rightuousnesse — justice s, f. 

Ryme mètre — risme s, f. 

Ryme the reume of the heed — rime s, f. 

Ryng to weare — annel, anneau x, m. 

Ryng worme. 

Ryng fyngar. 

Ryndeof atree — escorche s, f. 

Ryot — insolence s,{.; rhiotte s, f. 

Ryot prodigall expens — bovbans, m.; prodi- 
galité z, {. 

Ryotter a prodigall feiowe — bobancier s, m.; 
prodigue s, m. 

Russhetbat growetb — jonc z, m. 

Risyng agayne — resource s, f. ; relieuement 
s, m. 

Ryverabroke — ruisseau x,m.; undette s, f. 

Ryver a water — riaiere s, [. 

Ryversyde — riue s, f. 

R BEFORE O. 

Rho bucke a beest. 

Robber on the see — pirate s, ta. 

Robber a tbefe — brigant s, m. 



Robery — roberie s, f. 

Robbyng or reavyng — déprédation s, i.; des- 
troasse s,f. 

Robe a garment — robe s, f. 

Robyn reedbrest — ung râteau x, m.; rouge- 
gorge s, f. 

Robrisshe of a boke — rabriche s, f. 

Robrisshe of stones — plastras, m.; fourniture 
s,{. 

Roche a fysshe — guerdon s, m. 

Rochet a lytell gurnarde — rouget z, m. 

Rochet a surplys — rochet z, m. 

Roche of stone — roche s, f. 

Rode a crosse — crucifix, m. 

Rodde of lande — toyse s, f. 

Rodde a long stycke — gavle s, l'. 

Rodde to béate with — uerge, hovssine s, f. 

Rode a compauy of borsmen — chevauchée 
s.L 

Rofe of an house without — pignon s, m. 

Rofeof an house within — feste s, m. 

Rofe of the niouthe — palet z,in. 

Rofe tree. 

Rofe of baken or befe. 

Rogation weke — la sepmaine des rouaisons, f. 

Roke a byrde — chovcquas, m. 

Rocket an herbe — rocquette s, f. 

Roke of the chesse — foc z, m. 

Rockc to spynne with — quenoille s, f. 

Rocke in the see — roche s, f. 

Rolle a writyng — rolle s, m. 

Rolle of paper — rovlet, rovleau z, m. 

RoUar or rammer of busbandrie. 

Rollar to rôle with — rolle s, f. 

Romauns — romant s, m. 

Roume space — liev x, m.; espace s, f. 

Romayne a man — Romain s, m. 

Romayne a woman — Romayne s, f. 

Rompe of a beest — poiltron, crovpe s,(. 

Ronnyng of chese — maisgre, m. 

Ronnyng orcourse of anythynge — decours, m. 

Rodde of lande — toise s, f. 

Roen colour of an horse — roven s, m. 

Ropar a ropemaker — cordier s, m. 

Rope — cordeau x, m.; corde s, f. 

Ropes in the small guttes. 



264 

Rore trouble — troahle s, m. 

Roryng or scrykyng — cscry s, m. 

Rosecampyon a fleure. 

Rosewatcr — cave rose s,f. 

Rose colour. 

Roseyardc where roses growe — rosier s, m. 

Rose floure — rose s, f. 

Roseniary — rommarin s, m. 

Rosyn — roisiiie s, (. 

Roste mcate — rost s, m. 

Rotte among beestes — movrine s, f. 

Rotlynnesse of any thynge — pourriture s, f. 

Rote of a tree — racine s, C 

Rotes or sedes — drogue s, {. 

Rother of a shyppe — govuernail z, m. 

Roundelet a vessell — rondelle s, f. 

Rower for a bote — auiron s, m. 

Rowe in order — reng z, va. 

Rowell of a spurre — molette dun csperon s, f. ; 

roelle s, f. 
Rowe in a fyssberbelly — oevue s, m. 
Roost for capons or bennes — jeissover s, m. 
RougbncEse — impétuosité z, f. ; rndevr s, f.; 

rudesse s, {. 
Roughe foted dove — coulomb z, m. 
Roughc fyssbe. 
Rounde daunce. 

Roundc a songe — rondeau x, m.; uinlay z,va. 
Roundell — rondeau x, m. 
Roundelet a vesseil for wyne — septier s, m. 
Rounde button — noiau x, m. 
Rounde tothe. 

Rounde buckeler — rodelle s, f. 
Roundnesse — rondeur, rondesse , rotandité z,î. 
Route a company — rovtle s, f. 
Routyng in slepe — romjlevre s, f. 

R BEFOHE U. 

Rubande of sylke — rubant s, m. 
Rubbar for a gowne — decrottoires , f. 
Ruby a precious stone — ruby s, m. 
Rubbyng toguyder — confrication s, f. 
Rudencsse — roidevr s, (. 
Rulfe a fyssbe. 
Ruggydnesse — pellure s, f. 
Ruyne decaycng — ruine s, f. 



LESCLARCISSEiMENT 



Ruler governer — govuerneir s, m.; rectevr s, 

m.; riglcl z, m. 
Ruler for a carpentar — niueau x,xa. 
Ruie order — régime s, m. 
Rulc — reigle s, f. 
Rulc of cannon lawe — canon s, m. 
Rumney wyne — rommenye s, f. 
Runnyng of a wbele — peau. 
Runiour noyse — rumevr s, f. 
Russhe tbat is strawen — jonc r, m. 
Russet — gris, m. 
Rust of yron or any otber metall — enrovillevre 

s,{. 

S BEFORE A. 

Sale of a thyng — achapt : , m. 

Sables a furre — sables, m. 

Sacrament — sacrement s , m. 

Sacrylege — sacrilège s, f. 

Sacryng bell — clochette s, f. 

Sacryngof the masse — sacrement s, m. 

Sacrifyce — sacrifice s, m. 

Sacke to put corne in — sac z, m. 

Sacclotbe — sacqucment s, va, 

Saddle Irce of a saddle — arjon s, at. 

Saddie for a borse — selle s, f. 

Saddleclotbe — hovsse s, (. 

Sadler a maker of saddels — sellier s, m. 

Sadde coloure. 

Sadnesse — seuerilé z, f . ; rassiselé z, f. 

Sadnesse hevynesse — tristesse s, t. 

Safyre a precious stone — saphire s, m. 

Safron spyce — safran s, m. 

Sage an berbe — saulge s, f. 

Saye clothe — serge s, f. 

Sayeng — dit, diltie z, m. 

Sayle of a sbyppe — ttoille, pappepKis, m.; 

baulpri z, m. 
Sayleyarde — uerge de tref s, (. 
Saylyng — nauigaige s, m. 
Saynt a man — sainct i, m. 
Santuary frcdome — franchise s , f. 
Sayntes lyfe — légende s,{. 
Sake, as for goddes sake — amovr s, f. 
Sacre a hauke — sacre s, m. 
Salade of herbes — salade s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



265 



Salandyne an herbe — celidoyne s, f. 

Salet of harnesse — salade s, f. 

Sale of marchandyse — uente s, f. 

Saline of sauiter — pscaulme s, m. 

Saltepeter — salpestre s, m. 

Salle — sel z, m. 

Saltsellar for salle — sellier 's, m. 

Sallry an instrumenl. 

Sallfysshe — morcve s, f. 

Sallyng. 

Salter — grenetier, marchant de sel s, m. 

Sallewaler — saulmevre s, f. or btyme. 

Saltnesse — saline s,{. 

Sauter a boke ■ — psaltier s, m. 

Salowe Iree — sapin s, m. 

Salve for sores — oignement s, m. 

Saiulatyon a gretyng — salulalion s, f. 

Saulmon a fysshe — saulmon s, m. 

Sande to skoure vessell wilh — sablon s, va. 

Sande gravell — sablon, sable s, m. 

Sandepylle — sablonierc s, f. 

Sangler. 

Sanguynary. 

Sanguyn a complexion — sanguin s, m. 

Sanguynesse — sangainevr s, f. 

Sappe of a tree — semé, movelle de larbre s, f. 

Sarce for spyce — sas, m. 

Sargiant an offycer — salhelitc s, m, 

Sarsyn a man — Sarrasin. 

Sarsenet sylke — taffetas, m.; taffetas a cor- 
nettes. 

Sarves tree — alisier s, m. 

Sarves frute — alise s, f. 

Saltcn clolhe of sylke — salin s, m. 

Sallen of bridges — satin de bragis, m. 

Saltyn of cyprès — ostadine s, f. 

Saturday — sammedy s, m. 

Satysfaction — recompence s, f. ; satisfaction 
s,{. 

Sauce — saulce s, (. 

Saucer — saulcier s, m. 

Saudre mclall. 

Sawe an inslrument — sie z, f. ; serre s, f. 

Sawe a proverbe — prouerbe s, m. 

Sawedusl — sicvre dais , f 

Savegarde — savaegarde s,(. 



Saveyne tree — saaine s, f. 

Savyn. 

Savery an herbe — sarriette s, f. 

Saverne. 

Saver good or badde — olevr, odevr s, f. 

Saveconducte — savlfcondait z, m. 

Safenesse — saueté z , f. 

Sauge an herbe — sauge s, f. 

Savyng — savuance s, f. 

Savyour — savluevr s, m. 

Salvation — salaation, savlaegarde s, f. 

Sausedge a podyng — saucisse s, f. 

Sauce alone an herbe. 

Saule of a caslell — assaull z, m. 

Sauter our ladyes psalter — le cliappellet noslrc 

dame z, m. 
Sauter a boke — psaltier s, m. 
Saulrie an instrument. 
Saxifrage an herbe — saxifraige s, f. 

S IlEPORE CA. 

Scabarde of a sworde — fovrreau x, m. 

Scabbe — roigne s, f. 

Scabbe a blayne — bouton s, m. 

Scabyous an herbe — scabievse s, {. 

ScafToide — escharfavlt z , m. 

Scallarde — ligneux, ui. 

Scale of a fysshe — escaille s, f. ; escale de 

poisson. 
Scales to waye with — balances s, f. 
Scale of a ladder — eschellon s, m, 
Scalydnesse — escalerie s, t. 
Scalle a scabbe — teigne s, f. ; teignon s, ni. 
Scallydnesse — roignevseté z, f. 
Scaloppe a fysshe. 
Scaloppe sheli — gaocquille de saint Jacques 

s.r. 

Scantlon ofaclothe — eschantillon s, m. 

Scantnesse — escarcevr s, (. 

Scapellar — scapalaire s, m. 

Scarsnesse — parcilé z,f. 

Scarmony spyce. 

Scarre of a wounde — covslure s, f . ; irasse s,C 

cicatrice s, f. 
Scarre to scar crowes - 
Scariet a reed colour — 



— espovenlail z, m. 
■ escarlalte s, f. 



34 



266 



Scarsncsse or hungre — famine s, f. 

Scarsnesse of any thing — escharceté z, (. 

Scate fysshe — raje s, f. 

Scathe domage — dammaujc s, m. 

Scavenger thaï clenseth streles — hovevr s, m. 

S BEFORE CHA. 

Schadowe — ambre s, m.; umhraitje s, m. 
Shadowe a coverjng — covuert z, m. 
Shadowyng — ohamhralion s, f. 
Shafte lo sliote with — Jlesche s, T. 
Shafte of any edged tôle — manche s, m. 
Shafte of a spere or darle — fast z, m. 
Shagbusshe a gonne — hacqaehutte s, f. 
Schayler that gothe a wrie with his fêle — 

boyteix, m. 
Schaccle for a horse or man — enlraues , f. 
Schale of a nulle — esqaaille s, f. 
Schalraesse a pype — chalemeaa x, ni. 
SchamUes — bovcherie s, f. 
Schame basshedncsse — honte s, f. ; uituperc s, 

m.; hontaige s, va. 
Schainefaslnesse — uergoigne s, f. 
Schanke a legge — jambe s, f. 
Schanke of bouge — fovTTure de caissettes, {. 
Schappe facyon — façon s, {.\ forme s, f. 
Schappc of a man or beesl — lineatnre s,{. 
Schappyng knyfe of soulers — iranchet z ,tn. 
Schappe a sorte — taille s, f. 
Schare of a ploughe — caltre de cherue s, m. 
Schare of a man of a prise of warre tyme — 

butin s, m. 
Scharyng — roignevre s, f. 
Scharman — tondezr s, m. 
Scharmannes poole — prêche a draps. 
Scharpnesse — abilleté, aguiseté z , ï. 
Scharpe ende ôf ihe moone — corne s, f. 
Scharpnesse in maners — aspresse s, t. 
Scharpe speare heed — fer csmolu s, m. 
Scharpe swerde — espee trenchant s, f. 
Schavynge knyfe. 
Schavyng of woode. 
Schave for carpenlers. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Sche lepar — ladresse s , f. 



Sche lyparde 



S DEFonE CHE. 
— leoparde s, f. 



Sche lyon — lionne s, I. 

Scheffe of arrowes — trovsse a Jleches s , f. 

Schefe of corne — gerbe s, f. 

Schedar a spyller — respandetr s, m. 

Sche beare a beesl - — ovrse s, f 

Sche ratte — rate s, (. 

Sche wolfe — loviie s, C 

Sche devyll — diablesse s, f. 

Schedde of an hyll — tertre s, m. 

Schelde to défende with — escuisson s, m. 

Scheldrake a byrde. 

Schelyng of money — sovldz , m. 

Schell of a snayle — cocquiUe s, f. 

Schell of fysshe or frutc — escaille s, f. ; coc- 
quiUe s, (. 

Schellrone of a batayle. 

Schepherdes stafle — hovletle s, f. 

Sehepbeerde — bergier s, m. 

Scliepherdcs house — bourde portable s, f. ■ 

Schepherdes wyfe — bargeronnette s, f. 

Schepe a he beesl — movton s, m. 

Schepe an ewc — brebis, (. 

Schepe cote — bergerie s, [. 

Schepherdes croke — hovlette s, f. 

Schepherdes bagge — pannetiere s, f. 

Schepes louce — pov de movton s, m. 

Schepes fêle — pied de movton s, m. 

Schepes peilet or dong — fient a brebis, m. 

Schepskynne lowed — basannc s, f. 

Schepstarre — lingiere s, f 

Schernians shercs — forceps, t. 

Schere flockes. 

Shered of broken geare — haillion s, m. ; pan- 
niau X, va. 

Sheres for laylyers or cappcrs — ciceaux, m. 

Sheres for shepsters — forces, f. 

Sheres lo clyp ones nayles — forcettes, f. 

Shere Ihursday — jevuedj absolu s, m. 

Shelh of a sworde or hangar — fourreau x, m. ■ 

Sheth of a meale knyfe — gayne s, f. 

Shelh niaker — gaignier s, m. 

Shele for a bedde — drap, linceul .v, m. 

Sheteofpaper — foyllet de papier z, m. 

Shele of a shyppe — escoute s, f. 

Shetyll of a wevar — naaette s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



267 



Shever of bredde — chanleau x, m. 

Sliewe of a thyng to sale — lustre s, m. 

Shewyng — monstrance s, f. ; ostentation s, f. ; 
remonstrance s, f.; demonstrance s, f.; dé- 
monstration s, f. 

S BEFORe CHI. 

Schyde of wode — huche s, [.•■, movle de bi- 
ches, f. 

Schyfte chevesaunce — cheuesance s, f. 

Schyftyng — changement s, m. 

Schynne of the legge — greue s, (. 

Shyngles liyllyng of an house. 

Shynyng — rehicencc s , t.; resplendevr s, f. ; 
luissance s, f. 

Sbynyng of sylke or clothe — lustre s, m. 

Shyppe to sayle in — nef z, m.; nauiere s , {. 

Schyppe of warre — naude guerre x, m. 

Schyppe bote — bateau x, m. 

Scbypowuer — patron dune nauiere s, m. 

Scbyppemaistcr — mais Ire de nauiere s, m. 

Sbypman a maryncr — marinier s, m. 

Shypmans carde — carte s, f. 

Shypwright — charpentier de nauieres, m. 

Sbyre a couutie — conté z , f. 

Shyrenesse tbynnesse — delievre s, f. 

Sbirt for a man — chemise s, f. 

Sbytteicockc — uolant s, m. 

SbytlcH for a wevar — nauette s, f. 

Sbyttelnesse — uariableté z, {. 

Shyver of bredde — chanleau x, m.; lonpin 
de payn s, m. 

S BEFOBE CHO. 

Schoo — sovlier s, m. 

Sho with a longe becke — soulier a povlaine s, m. 

Sbooraaker — cordovanier s, m. 

Shoomakers crafte — cordovanerie s, (. 

Schocke of corne — tas de ble s, m. 

Schowyng of an horse — ferrure s, f. 

Scbowyng borne — clmusscpie s, m. 

Scboppe to worke in — bouticle s, f. 

Scboppe kepar. 

Scbore a waterssyde — ryue s, f. 

Scborte gowne — robe courte s, f. 

Scborte bose — chausse courte s, f. 



Schotte tbat is gathered for a dyner — escot 

z, m. 
Scbortnesse — ' courterr i, f. ; briesveté z, f. 
Scl)otte of an archer — ung traict z, m. 
Scbovelarde a foule — palomme s, f 
Scholyng — sagittation s, f. 
Schotyng weresling — esbanoy s, m. 
Scbovyll an instrument — pelle s, f. 
Scboure of rayne — undee z, (. 
Schortnyng of a tbing — abreuiation s, f. 
Scbout or crye — cry s, m. ; acclamation s, f. 
Scboutyng or crycng — crierie s, f. 
Scholder of nioton — espavlle de movlon. 
Scholder — espavlle s,{. 
Scholder point — la pointe de lespavlle s, f. 

S BEFOBE CHR. 

Scbraftyde — quaresme pregnant s, ni. 

Schraftuisday — mardy gras, m. 

Schrede of clothe — coppeau x, m.; rongnievre 

de drap s, f. 
Scbrefe an ofiicer — preuost z, m. 
Scbrewe an yvell man — manfaaù, m. 
Schrewe an yvell woman — mauluaise s, I. 
Schrifte confessyon — confesse s, f. 
Schrikyng or roring out — escry s, m. 
Scbrimpe a fysshe — creuette s,{. 
Schrine a sayntes tombe — chasse s, f. 
iScbrobbe a busshe — arbrisseau x, m. 
Scbrove thursday — jcvuedy absolu s, m. 
Schroudes of a shyppe — haubans, m. 
Schrultell for a wevar. 
Schyrmysshe — meslee s, [. 

S BEFORE CL. 

Sclaundre — esclaiulre s,C; blasphème s, m.; 

scandale s, m. 
Sclaunderer — blasphematevr s, m.; mavldi- 

sant s, m. 
Sclaunderyng — detraction s, f. 
Sclate stone — ardoyse s, {. 
Sclyce to tourne meate — tournoire s, C 
Sclycer — tournoyre s, {. 

S BEFORE CO. 

Scochen a badge — escuisson s, m. 
34. 



208 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



, f. 



Scoffer or jestar — gaudissevr s, m. 
Scoffyngcs or tryfles — fredaynes, f. 
Scolde — Hojsetx, noisij z, m.; noysiae s, 
Scoldyng or wondring — ckarriuaris, m. 
Scole to lerne chyldre in — escole s, f. 
ScoHer — escalier s, m. 
Scome frothc — escame s, (. 
Scomyog of a pot — escume du pot z, {. 
Scommar that hath holes — escumctte s, f. 
Scons to sette a candell in — lanterne a mayn 

s,{. 
Sconsinaker — lanternier s, m. 
Scope to lade water with. 
Score on a tayle — taylles, f. 
Score in nombre — uingtayiie s, f. 
Scorne a mocke — mocquerie s, f. ; dérision s, (. 
Scorner or raocker — mocqaeir s, m. 
Scornyng or raockyng — illusion s, f. 
Scorpion a serpent — escorpion s, m. 
Scorssyng or escbangyng — eschanye 
Scotlande — Escosse s, f. 
Scottyssheman — Escojssoys s, m. 
Scottell a fyssbe — seiche s , [. 
Scottell bone — os de seiche, m. 
Scoulyon of tbe kcchyn — souillon s, va 
Scourge to béate with — Jouet z, m. 
Scourgyug — affliction s,(. 
Scoute watcbe ^ escout ; , m. ; escoute 



f. 



f. 



S BEFORE CB. 



Screne made of wickers — eslranc s, m. 
Scrybe in a spyrituall court — scribe s, m. 
Scrybe in a temporall court — grejjier s, m. 
Scrytcbe houle a byrde. 
Scryppe for a pylgryme — molette s, f, 
Scrypture on a grave — lame s , f. ; epitaphe 

s, m. 
Scrypture or a boke — escript z, m.; escrip- 

lure s, f. 
Scryvener — escripuayn s, m. 
ScroHe — rolle s, m. ; escripteau x, m. 
Scrowe — rovlet z, in.; rolle s, m. 

S BEFORB eu. 

ScuH barnesse for tbe heed — set/retle s, {.; 
seyret z, m. 



Seuil of a mannes bed — taie de la teste s, I. 

Seuil to rowe witli — auiron s, m. 

ScuUar — batellier s, m. ■ 

Scumme of a potte — escmne s, f. 

Scummer — escumelle s, f. 

Scurfe on oncs becd or body — crasse de la 

teste s, f. ; or du corps, 
Scuttell fyssbe — saiche s, f. 
Scuttell bone — os de saiche s, m. 
Scuttell. 
Scutte. 

S BEFORE E. 

Season tyme — saison s, f. 

Scale to seale with — signet z, m. 

Seale of leed or any other inetall — seau x, m. 

See water — mer s, f. 

Secte a company of one opynion — secte s, f. 

Semewe — moette s, f. 

Seesyde — marine s,{. 

Secbell a bagge — sachet :,m. 

Secole — charbon de terre s, m. 

Seecobbe a byrde — mavue de mer s, t. 

Secrète a prevy place — reqaoj s, m. 

Secrète or bydde tliyng — arcane s,{. 

Secretnesse — secretie s,i. 

Secretarye — secretayre s, va. 

Secrète place — réduit : , m. ; conclaue s, m. 

Sectour — exccuterr s, m. 

Seculer a worldely nian — séculier s, m. 

Seculer a worldly woman — séculière s, f. 

Sedc of herbes — grayne s, f. 

Sede of any tbyng — semence s, L 

Sede tyme. 

Sedgc of tbe fenne. 

Selfewyldnesse — restarderie s,{. 

Sege a prcvy — ortraict z, m. 

Sege before a casteii — siège s, m. 

Segge. 

Seyle of a shyppe — aoille s, f. 

Seyle yarde — uerge de uoille s,(. 

Seyng toguyder of one and other — entreaere 

s.(. 
Seynt Peters worte — herbe a sainct Pierre s,{, 
Seynt of a gyrdeli — tissu x, m. 
Seyntuary an herbe. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



269 



Seynt Jobannes worte — herbe de sainct Jehan 

s,ù 
Seynt Homers worstedde — demj oslade s , f. 
Seyntuarie — franchise s, f. 
Sekcnesse — maladie s, f. ; langevr s , {.; en- 

jirmité z, ï. 
Sekyng or sercbyng — inuestiçjolion s, f. 
Selandyne an herbe — celidoine s, f. 
Seale a fysshe — chaulderon de mer s, m. 
Seaie of ieed — seau x, m. 
Seale a print — seau a-, m. 
Seale horse barnesse. 
Selle for an bermyte — hermilaige s, f. 
Scllar tbat is vauted with stone — caue s, (. 
Sellar unvauted — sellier s, m. 
Sellerar of a relygious place — bovtelier s, m. 
Sellar of a bedde — ciel x, m. 
Selfeheale an herbe. 
Selfewyldenessc — obstiimlion s, f. 
Sellyng of any thyng ' — uendaige s, (. 
Seame measure — demy sestier s, m. 
Searae of corne — demj sestier de hle s, m. 
Seame ofsowyng — covsture s, f. 
Seame of the heed — covsture de la teste s, f. 
Semé for to frye witb — seyn de povrceau s, m. 
Semelynesse — seanteté z, f. 
Semewe a byrde — moette de mer s, f. 
See breame a fysshe. 
Senate — sénat z,m. 
.Senatour — senatevr s, m. 
.Sence tbat smelietb — encens s, m. 
Sencer — encensoir s, m. 
Sendall — sendal x, m. 
Sendyng of a man — enaoje s, m. 
Seene of clerkes — congrégation s, f. 
Senyght — semaine s,{. hvyt jovrs , m. 
Senewe of a beest — nerf z, m. 
Sensualnesse — sensualité z , {. 
Seynt Andries lace — cordon s, m. 
Sentence — sentence s, (. 
Sentenciousnesse. 
Sensualyte — sensualité z,(. 
Septembre a monelb — septembre s, m. 
Sepler for a kyng — scptre s, m. 
Sertche enquyre — enquestc s, f. 
Sertcher — scrchevr s, m. 



Serciet for a brides heed — cèdre s, m. 

Serenesse drinesse — sechevr s, f. 

Sergiauntes mase — masse s, f. 

Sergiaunt — sergent .s, m. 

Sergiant of the coyfe — sergent a la coyffe s, m. 

Sergiant of armes — macier darmes, m. 

Sercle — cercle s, m.; rondeau x, m. 

Seryne a byrde — serin s, m. 

Sermonde — sermon s, m. 

Serymony an observance — cérémonie s, f. 

Seriraony at a mannes buryall — pompe fune- 

ralle s, f. 
Serpent a worme — serpent s, m. 
Seriousnesse — serievseté z, {. 
Servage — seruage s, m. 
Servaunt — seruitevr s, m.; mancipe s, m. 
Servyse frute — alise s, f ; aliellc s, f. 
Scrvyse tree — alisier s, m. 
Servyce that a inferyour onght lo do to his su- 

peryour — obseque s, m. 
Servyce — seraice s, m. 
Servjablenesse — seruiablelè z, f. 
Servyce of meate — entremetz, ni. 
Scssyng tbat a prince setteth in a countrey — 

imposition s, (. 
Season — saison s,f. 
Scssyons an assise — assise s, f. 
Sesterne — cisterne s, f. 
Seate a place — place s, f. ; siège s, m. 
Seate in a taverne — assiette s, f. 
Sette a tree that is newe set — ente s, f. 
Settyng at nought — uilipendence s, f. 
Setwall an herbe — sotoval x, m. 
Sever to meate. 

Sewe of lamprey» — potage de lamproyes s, m. 
Seurtie — sevrté z, f. 
Se wstar — covsluriere s , f. 
Sextry — sexterie s,(. 
Sexten — bedeau x, m. 

S UEFORE I. 

Sicomer frute. 

Sicomour tree. 

Syde of any thyng — rioaige s, m. 

Syde of a fortresse — despans , m . 

Syde of a beest — covsle s, (. 



270 



LESCLARCISSEMENÏ 



Sydenesse — lonyevr s,(. 

Syde of a boke thatis written — jMfjee :, f. 

Syde of a bedde — sponde s , f. 

Syde ofa bote — borl s, m. 

Sydre drinke — cydre s, m. 

Scyence connyng — science s, f. 

Science crafte — art s, f. 

Sydre tree — pommier s, m. 

Syfe to cyfte corne in — crible s, m. 

Signe that ascendclh in hevyn — assendent 

s, m- 
Signe of an inné — enseigne .«, f. 
Signifyeng — signijiance s,( 
Signe a loken — signe s, m.; prodige s, ta. 
Signet — signet z,m. 
Sighe a hastye drawyng of the brethe — 

sovspir s, m. 
Sight — ueve, uision s, f. 
Sight knowledge — perspicasiié z, f. 
Sight of ihe eye — le noyre de loyd s, m. 
Sikernesse — seurté z, f. 
Sickell for corne — Jaacylle s, f. 
Sickenesse — maladie z,(. 
Sickernesse surenesse — assevrance s, (. 
Sicke body — malade s, m.;pacient s, m. 
Sight that disceyveth ones jugement — i7/h- 

sion s, {. 
Sillabie — syllabe s,{. 
Syiier of herbes. 
Silence — silence s, m. 
Sylke — soye s,{. 
Sylke lace — cordon de soye s, m. 
Sylke cbamlet — camelot de soye s, m. 
Silogysme an argument — syllogisme s, in. 
Sylver metall — argent s, m. 
Sylver vessell — uessaille dargenl s, i. 
Symbail an instrument — cimhalles, f. 
Syment for carpenters or for uiasons — sy- 

ment s, m. 
Symilytude a lykciybode — similitude s, I'. 
Symnell bredde — siniiniau x, m. 
Symoniakc — simoniacq :, m. 
Simony — simonie s,f. 
Symple body — itiet z, m. 
Symplenesse — simplesse s , f. 
Synagogge a jewes temple — sinayogue s, f. 



Synaraon spyce — canelle s, f. 

Synders of the fyrc — brayze s, f. 

Synglc gowne — robe sengle s, f. 

Syngie kyrleii — corset simple z , m. 

Syngle man — bachelier s, m. 

Syngle woman a barlot — pulayii s, f. 

Syngar — chantre s, m. 

Synguler pure ihyng — chose drslite s, (. 

Syngulernesse — singvlarité z , (. ■ 

Synguler thyiig — chiefdcvare z, m. 

Synne offence — pechiè z, va. 

Synne of advoutrie — adultère s, m. 

Syngrene or houseleke — jombarde s, f. 

Synfulnesse — malaatie s, f. 

Synewe — nerf z, m. 

Synke to voyde vvater — eavyer s , m. 

Synkefoyie an herbe. 

Synopre colour. 

Synthone an herbe. 

Synter of masonry. 

Synum a vessell — faisclle s, f. 

Syppet a lytell soppe — latin Sj ni. 

Sypres chesl — cojfre de cyprès, m. 

Syon a yong sette. 

Syr — sire s, m. 

Sircumsycion — circumsicion s, f. 

Syruppe — sirop z, m. 

Syse of a mannes body — corpulence s,{. 

Syse where justyce is used — assise s, f. 

Syse waxc candell — bovgec z, [. 

Syse of bredde and aie — maletot z, m. 

Syse for colours — colle de cvir s, f. 

Syse of any thyng — moyson s, f. 

Sycers for barbers — ciseletz, m. 

Syster — sevr s, (. 

Systcr by tUe falher and mothers syde — sevr 

germaine s, f. 
Syster brothers wyfe. 
Syster in lawe — belle sevr s, f. 
Système — busine. 
Sythe to mowe corne with — faulce s, f.; 

faulx, m. 
Syttyng becommyng — adacnant s, ni.; as- 

seant s, m. 
Sytuacion ofa towne — assiete s, f, 
Syun ofa tree — sion s, ui. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



271 



s BEFORE K. 

Skarlet coloiir — escadatte s, f. 

Skeyne of yarne — esciteueau x, m. 

Skeync a knyfe. 

Skeliet with a handell — paillon s, m. 

Skye or welkyn — firmament s, m. 

Skynn of a m an or beest — peau x, f. 

Skynnc of furre — peaa x, f. 

Skynner — pellier s, m. 

Skyppar — saullevr s, m. 

Skyrmysshe or byckerynge — escarmache s, f. 

Skyrte of a garment — hoH s, m.; geron, 

giron s, m. 
Skyrwyt an herbe. 

Skolyon of a kechyn — souillon de cuisine s, m. 
Skrapyng l"''e — ralissover s, m. 
Skrene made of wycars to put bytwene the 

fyre — escrain s , m . ; estrane :,m. 
Skrikyng — escrye z, m. 
Skrytche beule. 

S BEFORE L. 

Slackenesse — lâcheté z, f. 

Slay a wevers tôle. 

Slate stone — ardoyse s,(. 

Slaveryng clolhe for chyldren — bauelte s, f. 

Slaugbtcr — mevrdre s, m.; occision s, f. ; 

tuerie s, (. 
Slede to drawe a thyng upon. 
Sleyght or wyle — rus, m.; cautelle s, (.; en- 

(jaifjnc s, f. 
Sieyght crafte — soubtillité z, (.; piuctiijue s, f. ; 

gauche s,(. 
Slyckpstone — lisse a papier s,{.\ lice s , f. 
Slepe — repos, m.; sommel z, m. 
SIepyng or slombring — somnolence s, f. 
Sleete of snowe. 
SIeve of a gowne or any other garment — 

manche s,{. 
Slewe or syve to syfle with — crible s , m. 
Slyce to tume with — tournovere s, f. 
Siye felowe — musart s, m. 
Slyme of fysshe — lymon s, m. 
Slynesse — finesse s, f. 
Siyng of an borse — ruade s, f. 
Slyng to throwe .slone.s with — funde s, f. 



Siynge made in a shepherdes staffe — fonde 

hollette s, C 
Slyngar. 

Slyppe of an herbe — branche s, (. 
Siyppar for a nian — panlovfle s, f. 
Slyppar for a woman — pattjn s, m. 
Slylte of a womans gowne — fenle s, f. ; dune 

robe a femme. 
Si 00 worme. 

Sloggarde — feltart s, m. 
Slommer — somme s, m.; somneil s, m. 
Sloo frule — prunelle s, f. 
Sioo tree — pninier s, m. 
Sloppe a night gowne — robe de nuit s, f. 
Sloppes hosyn — brayes a marinier, f. 
Sloltc ofadore — locquel z, m. 
Siovyn a knave a rybauJe — ribauldeau x, m, 
Sloven or luske — bovcanier s, m. 
Sloughea myrc — bovrbier s, m.;fange s, t.; 

enfondrevre s, f. 
Slouggysslinesse — paresse s, f. ; tardifueté z, I. 
Sloutite — paresse s, f. 
Slutte — souilliart s, m.; uUotiere s, f. 

S BEFORE M. 

Smacke taste — goust z,m. 

Small lytcll flame — flametle s, f. 

Small baner — pennon s, m. 

Smali nulle — noissette s, f. 

Sraali boule to play with — bille s, f. 

Smali bole in a mannes body — pore s, m. 

Small gulles. 

Smallage an herbe — ache s, f. 

Smalnesse or lyteinesse — petitesse s, f. 

Smeli savour — sentevr s, f. ; Jlayr s, m. 

Smellyng with the Dose — fleorement s, m. 

Smelte a fysshe — esplang s, m. 

Smert akyng — cuisure s, f. 

Smythe for horse — mareschal x, m. 

Sroethy — forge s, {. 

Smytbes cbymney — fournaise s , (. 

Smocke for a woman — chemise a femme s, I. 

Snioke of fyre — jumre z , (. 

Smokyng — fumiere s, f. 

Smokysshnessc — fumcvseté :, t. 

Smoylynesse fylthynesse — honnievr s, f. 



272 

Smutche onones face — barboyllement x, m. 

S BEFORE N. 

Snayle or snayie shell — lymacon s, m. 

Snayle wilhout a shell. 

Snake a serpent — oruier s, m.; aspic z, m. 

Snare — airappe s, f. 

Sneke pose — rime j, f. 

Sneke latche — locqaet :, m.; cticqiielte s. (. 

Snevyll whan it hangeth at ones iiose — rou- 
pie z, f. ; boe s, f. 

Snevyll — morue s, f. 

Snyppe a byrde — ciijoiyne s, f. 

Snofle of a candell — mesche s, f.\limignon s, 
m.; lumignon s, m. 

Snotte of the nose — rovpye z,{. 

Snottynesse — moruevseté r , f. 

Snowe — neige s , )'. 

Snoute a mouthe — museua x , m. 

Snoute of a beest — groing s, m. 

S BEFORE 0. 

Sobbyng — sanglovtement s, m. 

Sobbe that cometh in wepynge — sanglovt z, m. 

Soo a vessel — cvue s, f. 

Sobernesse in condyeions — graaitè :, f. 

Sobernesse leniperauncc — sobresse s, f. ; so- 

breté z,{. 
Socke for ones fote — chausson s, m. 
Socke of a plough — soc de la cherue z, m. 
Socour — secours, va.; ayde s , (.; ayde, con- 

Juge s, m.; rejuge s, m. 
Socours — secovrs, m.; adjatoire s, m. 
Socouryng — secours^ m. ; ayde s, f. 
Softnesse — molesse s, f. ; dovlceté z, f. 
Soyle of grounde — terrover s, m. 
Sojourner — sejoamevr s, m. 
Sokelyng an herbe. 

Sokelyng a vong befe — beste a laid s, f. 
Socket of a candelstycke or suche lyke. 
Sokelyng a yong calfe — besle a laid s, f. 
Solasse comforte — solas, m.; recomfort s, m.; 

solace s, f. 
Sole a fysshe — solle s, f. 
Sole of a fote — plante du pied s, f. 
Sole of a shoo — semelle s, f. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Solemnesse — solempnitè z , f. 

Sollar a chambre — solier s, m. 

Soiler a lofle — garnier s, m. 

Sole a bowe about a beesles necke. 

Soiemnyte — solempnitè z, f. 

Solemnytc at a buryall — funérailles, f. 

Solycityng steryng — sollicitalion s, f. 

Somme of money — assise s, f.; somme s, f. 

Somme or company of any thyng — tas, m. 

Somncrof a spyrituall courte — chicanevr s,w. 

Sompter horse — sommier s, m. 

Sommer — esté z, m. 

Somers or rathcs of a wayne or carte. 

Sommer castell of a shyppe. 

Somersault a lepe of a tombler — soltr- 

sault X, m. 
Sonday — dimanche s, m. 
Sonne that sliyneth — solayl z, m. 
Sonne burnyng — haslc s, m. 
Sonne in lawe — gendre s, m. 
Sonne a naturall chylde — fdz, m. 
Sonde graveli — sablon s, m. 
Sonne beame — ray de soleil s, m. 
Sonne ryse — solail leuant s, m. 
Sonne sette — le soleil nmce s, m. 
Sonne goyng downe — le soleil couchant s, m. 
Sondring of a thyng — remotion s, f. 
Sondrinesse — diuerseté z, (. 
Song of a byrde — chant de boys s, m. 
Song or balade — chant s, m.; motet z, m.; 

cantique s, f. ; chancon s, f. 
Sope to wassbe with — sauon s, m. 
Soppe of bredde — sovppe s, f. 
Soppes instede of potage — sovpe s, f. 
Soper a meale of meate — souper s, va. 
Sophysler — sophiste s, m. 
Sopheme a doutfull questyon — sophisme s, m. 
Sophystrie — sophisterie s, L 
Sorbe a kynde of frute — sorbe s, (. 
Sore a wounde — playe z, f. 
Sorcery — sorcerie s, f. ; escharme s, f. 
Sorell an herbe — oseille s, f. 
Sorell a yonge bucke. 
Sorrell colour of an horse — sorrc( z, va. 
Soryppe — sirop z, m. 
Sorowe — daeil z,va.; regret z, m. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



273 



Sorowing or wayling — deploration s, f. 
Soroufulnesse of hert — angoisse s, f. ; dov- 

levr s, f. 
Sorte a state — sorte s, f. 
Sosse or a rewarde for houndes, whan tliey 

hâve takoD tlieir game — hvuee z, f. 
Soie of a chymney — svye i, f. 
Solydnesse — snyerle z , î. 
Sothesayer — diuinevr s, m. 
Sothenesse — ueritè z, f. 
Souce — Irippes, f. 
Souchener — Suisse s,{. 
Sodayne commyng — svraenve s, f. 
Sodayne crackyng — stridevr s, f. 
Sodayne risyng — sovrsaalt x, m. 
Sodaynnesse — sovdaineté z , f. 
Soudan a prince — sovdan s, m. 
Soudyour — soaldoier s, m. 
Souder metall — poltin s, m. 
Soudrer of raetalles — sovdevr s, m. 

Sowe a becsl — in- je z, f. 

Sowe geidre — chastretx de trvyes, m. 

SouQrauDce — sovffrance , pacience s, f. 

Sower dough — leuayn s, m. 

Sower myike. 

Sowernesse — aygrevr s, (.; amertume s, (. 

Sowe of leed — savmon de plomb s, m. 

Sower — covsevr s, m. 

Sowyng of corne — agriculture s, f. 

Seule of a capon or gose — ame s, f. 

Souldier of a strange lande — auxiliaire s, m. 

Souldicrs wages — soulde s, f. 

Soûle of a man — ame s, (. 

Soulmas daye — le jour des mors. 

Sounde noyse — son s, m. 

Sounde or rebonde of a voyce — ecchô. 

Sounde of a fysshe — cannon s, m. 

Sounde of an instrument or bell — reson- 
nance s, f. ; son s, m. 

Soundyng — sonnerie s, f. 

Sowerdocke an herbe. 

Soufrecan — sujfragan, pénitencier s, ni. 

Sounyng • — pasmoison s, m. 

Souter — sauetier s, m. 

Southe wynde — le uenl davmon. 
Southernwode an herbe — ambrojrse s, f. 



Soutberneworthe. 
Sowethystell an herbe. 
Soveraynte of a kyng — regalité z,f. 
Soveraynte that a lorde or a superiour bath — 
sovuerainté z,i. 

S BEFORE P. 

Space leaser — respit z, m. 
Space of ones body ■ — corpsage s, t. 
Space place or tyme — espace s, f . ; ampli- 
tude s, f. ; montance s, {. 
Space of yeres — années, f. 
Space bytwene the cyes — entroeil s, m. 
Space bytwene the browes — entresovrcil z,m. 
Space of an houre — hevree s, f. 
Space bytwene two tliynges — uoidare s, f. ; 

espace s, f. ; lentredevx, m. 
Space where a payre of stayres be sette — mon- 
tée s, {. 
Space bytwene two thynges — interualle s, m. 
Space of any thyng — spaciosité z, f. 
Space within the innar warde of a castell — 

bassecourt s, f. 
Space bytwene the tethe — entredent s, m. 
Space bytwene the sholders — croysee des es- 

pavles s ,{.■■, entrcspavle s, m. 
Spade to dygge with — bêche s, {.\ Jossoir de 

labourrevr. 
Spanyarde — Espaignol s, m. 
Spayne a countre — Espaigne s, f. 
Spanne of a bande — espavme s, f. 
Spangle — paille s, f. ; paillietie s, f. 
Spangles or store ofspangles — paillietterie s, f. 
Spanyell a dogge — espaignol s, m. 
Spaynisshe bagge — bauldrier s, m. 
Spaynisshe lether — maroquin s, va. 
Sparre of a rofe — chcucron s, m. 
Sparre of a gowne — fente de la robe s, f. 
Sparhauke — espreaicr s, m. 
Sparcle of fyre — estincelle s, (. 
Sparclyng abrode — dispertion s, f. 
Sparowe a byrde — moyniau x, m.; passe- 

ron s, m. 
Sparthe an instrument. 
Spatyll an instrument. 
Spatyll flame — crachat z,m, 

35 



274 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Spaven a sore — sarot z ,m. 

Spawne of a fysshe. 

Speche — langaige s, m. 

Specyalnesse — spécialité z , f. ; especiallelé z,{. 

Spéculation beholding — spéculation s, f. 

Spede lucke — encontre s, m. 

Speculatyon — théorique s, f. 

Spede dyligence or ha^te — diligence s, f. ; 

haste s, f. 
Spedyng or hastyng — expédition s,{. 
Spedynesse — hasiifuetè z, i. 
Specke marke — marcque s, f. 
Speccle in ones face — lenlylh s, f. 
Spekyng toguyder — location s, f. ; parlement 

s, m. 
Spectacle a thyng to beliolde — spectacle s, m. 
Spectacles to se witl» — lunettes, f. 
Spectacle maker — lunetlier s, m. 
Spelder of woode — csclat z, m. 
Spence cost — despence s, f. 
Spens a buttrye — despencier s, va. 
Speere in a hall — l>uffel z, m. 
Speare to ryde with — lance s, f. 
Speare stafle — Jasl de lance s, m. 
Spere worte an berbe. 
Speare poynt an herbe. 
Speareheed ■ — coronet, rocquet z, m. 
Spyce — espices, m. 
Spycecake — gasteau x, m. 
Spyce a kynde — espèce s, f. 
Spyce of the axes. 
Spyder a venomous worme — araigne s, f. ; 

araignie s, f. 
Spye — espye z, m. 
Spygotte — broche a uin ou a lalle s, (.; chante- 

pcllevse s, f, 
Spykenarde spyce — spiquenarde s, (. 
Spyking a nayle — gros clov s, m. 
Spynnage an herbe — espinars, m. 
Spynnar a workewoman — fileresse s, f. 
Spynner or spyder — herignc s, f. 
Spynnerswebbe — araignée z, f.; fd daraigne 

z, m. 
Spyndell with threde — fasee z, f. 
Spyndell without threde — fuseau x, m. 
Spyre of corne — harhe du ble s, f. 



Spyrite — espirit z, m. ; esprit z, m. 

Spyritualte — spiritualleté z,f. 

Spyte of his tcthe — nuwlgrc quil en ayl. 

Spyttell that comcth out of the mouthe — cra- 
chat z, m.; saline s,î. 

Spytte for meate — hrocke a rostyr s, f. 

Spytte full of rost — hastee s, f. 

Spyte — dcspit s, m. 

Spytefulnesse — despitevseté z, f. 

Spyttle liouse — laderye z,(. 

Splenc or melte — ratte s, f. 

The splenc in a man , in a beest the nicUe. 

Splent harnesse for the arme — garde de bras 
s, m. 

Spient for an house — laite. 

Spoyie or praye — desporille s, f. 

Spoylethat isgotten in warfare — despoilte s, f. 

Spoke of a whele — moyevl .x, m. 

Spoke shave or a plane. 

Spolc a wevers instrument. 

Spone to eale meate with — cvillier s, m. 

Sponge — espovnge s, f. 

Sporge an herbe — espovrge s, f 

Sporte myrlhe — sovlas, m.;jev x, m.; esbal z, 
m.; deduict z, m.; eshatement s, m.; 
carolle s, f. 

Spotte — taiclte s, f.; macule s, f. 

Spottyng with colour — taincture s, (. 

Spouse a wyfe — espovsee z, f. 

Spouse the man — mary, espovx, m. 

Spoute of water — govttier s, m. 

Sprette for watermen — picq z, m. 

Spring of a well — sovrce s, f. 

Spreng a yonge tree — jevne sion s, m. 

Spricle for holy water — ucspillion s, m.; as- 
pergeoir s, m. 

Spring of the yere — printemps, m.; prin s, m. 

Springyng by agayne — resovrce s, f. 

Sprincle. 

Sprite a goost — espirit z, m. 

Sprotte a fysshe — esplenc z, m. 

Spruse lether — besane s, f. 

Spudde. 

Spuyng — gomissement s, m,; uovsement s, m. 

Spurre for a horse — esperon s, m. 

Spurryar — esperonnier s, m. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



275 



s BEFORE Q. 

Square — carre s,î. 

Squyer — escuier s, m. 

Squyer for a carpentar — esqnierre s, f. 

Squyer a rule — riglet r, m. 

Squyrrell a beest — escnrevl x, m.; escuireau 

X, m. 
Squyrte a laxe — Joire s, m.; uaua s, m. 
Squyrtan instrument — esguissovere s, f. 

S BEFOKE T. 

Stabbe vvitb a daggar — covp destoc 2, m. 

Stable — estable s, f. 

Stablysshnesse — estableté z, f. 

Stabiysshment — establissement s, m. 

Stacyoner — libraire s, m. 

Stacke of corne — tas de ble s, m. 

Stacke of peese — pesiere s, f. 

Staffe — baston s, m. 

StaiTc to bcare two peyies on, as they do in 

Fraunce — une covrge s, f. 
Slafleslyng madeofaclyfteslycke — ruant s, m. 
Stage playe — maure s, m. 
Stage a scaffolde — estage s, m.; beffroy s, m. 
Stageryng — uasdlaûon s, f. 
Stageryng or leanyng of an bouse — bransle 

s.{. 
Stayre or grece — degré z, m. 
Stake of a bedge or sucbe lyke — piev de haye 

s, m. 
Stake in the water — pilotis, m. 
Stake tbat bearetb up a vyne — sep de uygne 

z, m. 
Stalle before a shoppe — estai z,va. 
Staile of a quere — chaize s, f. 
Stallant a horse — haras, m. 
Stale pyssc — escloy s, m. 
Slale of horsmen in a felde — guectevrs, ni. 
Stale for foules takynge. 
Stalke of a gyllyflour — sion s, m. 
Stalke of a sbafte —fvst z, m. 
Stalke of any frule — lyuei'e s, f. 
Stalume horse — haras, m. 
Stalke of a beane — espiev x, m. 
Stamell fyne worstede — estamine s, f. 
Stamyne — estamine s, f. 



Stanmarcbe an herbe. 

Standert a baner — estandart s, m.; avrijla- 

me s, (. 
Stanchon of a wyndowe — croysee s, f. 
Standart a baner — estandart s, m.; aurijlaine 

s, C, a standart whiche with the french- 

men was had in suche estymacyon as with 

us is saynt Cuthberles baner, wbicbe they 

lost in Flaunders. 
Standart bcrer — portenseigne s, m. 
Standart of mayle — gorgerin s, m. 
Slandyng in doul of a thyng — uacillalion s, f.; 

doutance s, f. 
Standyng pece — couppe s, f. 
Standyng pece with a cover — couppe s, f. 
Standyng place — station s, f. 
Slandyng water — lac z, m. 
Staple of a doore — estaple s, f. 
Slarche for lavtne ^ folle Jlevr 3, f. 
Staare a byrde — estourneav x, m. 
Starre — esloille s, {.; sydere s, m. 
Starkenesse — raideur s, {. 
Starlyng money — blanc eslerlin z, m. 
State condycion — estât z , m. 
State a great man — estât z, m. 
Stately countenaunce — port z,vn. 
Slatelynesse — arrogance s, f. ; bourgoisie s, 

f.; majesté z,{. 
Statue an ymage — statue s, f. 
Stature heyght — tumlteur s, f. 
Statute ordonance — eslatate s, f. 
Statute an ordynaunce — statut z , m. 
Staunche grayne, an herbe. 
Staunchon a proppe — estancon s, f. 
Steale or handell of a staOTe — manche s, m. ; 

hantel s, f. Norman t. 
Stedfasthcholdyng — attention s, f 
Stedfastnesse — fermeté, constance s, f. 
Stede a horse — dextrier, detrier s, m.; rous- 

sin s, m. 
Stethy for a smythe — enclume s, f. 
Stedynesse — estableté, permanableté z, f. 
Steke of flesshe — charbonnee z,(. 
Slele melall — acier s, m. 
Steale of a shafte — fast z, m. 
Stenche or stynke — puanteur s, i. 

35. 



276 



LESCLA1\CISSEMENT 



Stencfae of a prevy — punaisie s, f. 

Stent — portion s, [.; part s,(. 

Stepbrother — beavfrcre,m. 

Step doughter — fillastre s, f. 

Step father — parastre, m. 

Step molher — maraslre s, t. 

Step sustre — belle seur s, f. 

Step son — heavfilz, m. 

Steppe a settyng or gcyng fortbe — pus, m. 

Steppe a print of ones foie — trac z, m. 

Steppe ofaman — pas, va. 

Steppe of an horse — trac z,xa. 

Steppe or stafle of a lader — eschellon s, ta. 

Steppe to steppe upon — planche s, (. 

Stepnessc of a hyll — cliaité z, {. 

Steple of a churche — clochier s, va. 

Stère or roder in a sbyp — gouernail x, m. 

Sterre — estoille s, f. 

Sterre slyme — lymas. 

Steryag or mevyng — commotion s, (. 

Stertyng hole — ung tapynet z, m.; lieu de re- 
fuge s, m. 

Sterne of a shyppe — gouemail x,m. 

Sterisman — goauernevr s, va,; pilot z, ni. 

Stert of frute — queue defrvit s, f. 

Stert of a plow — queue de la chareue s, f. 

Stewe a pounde — viuier s , m. 

Stewe a balli — vnes esteaues , f. 

Stewe a hotehousc — vnes esteuues. 

Stewarde — : maistre Jhostel s, m. 

Stewes a place for common women — bordeau 
X, m. 

Sticliworte an herbe — herbe a bous s, f. 

Sticke or wande — baston s, m.; ganlle s, (. 

Styckelyng a maner of fysshe. 

Styllytory to styll herbes in — chappelle, cka- 
pele s, i. 

Style to go over — eschallier s, m. 

Style a processe — siile s, ni. 

Styllyng or apeysing - — apeisement s, m. 

Styllyng or droppyng of lycour — distillation s, f. 

Styllnessc — quieté z, f. 

Stylt to go on — escache s, f. 

Styng of a bee — esguillon s, m. 

Styng of a serpent or any otlier vernomous 
bee»t — esguillon s, m. 



Stynke — punaisie z,f. ; puanteur s, f. 

Styrryng — agitation s, f. ; esmoy s, f. 

Styrryng of ones niynde — concitation, incita- 
tion, commotion, instigation s, f. 

Styrryng to angre — irritation s, f. 

Styrop leddcr — estriuier s, m. 

Slyrroppe — estricr s, m. 

Styroppe lelbers — estriuieres, f. 

Styrt a iepe — course s, f. 

Stythe for a smytbe — enclume s, f. 

Stywarde — maistre dhostel s, m. 

Stoble of corne — chaume s, m. 

Stodye place to study in — estude s, f. 

Stodyll a toole for a wever — lame de tisserant. 

Stocke kynred — lignée, f. ; lignage s, m.; estoc 
z, m. 

Stokedove — columb, ramier s, m. 

Stocke fysshc, tbey bave none. 

Stocke gyllofer — armorie basturde s, 1. 

Stocke ofwode — tronchet z, m. 

Stockes for bribars — ceps, m. 

Stole to sytte on — selle s, m. 

Stoole for a preest — estoUe s, {. 

Stomacher for ones brest — estoinachier s, m. 

Stoniake — estomac z, m.; poictrinc s, t. 

Stomake in a man or beest — estomac z, m. 

Stondart to mesure bye — maistresse mesure s, i'. 

Stonde a vesseli , tbey bave none. 

Stone — pierre s, f. 

Slondyng water — marre s, f. ; eaue dormant 
s.(. 

Stone croppe an herbe. 

Stone ofaman — couillon s, m. 
— or of a beest — couille s , f. 

Stone a sickenesse — grauelle, pierre s, f. 

Stonde horse — naturel z, m. 

Stonnyshyng abasbing — estonnissement s, m. 

Stoppe ofa lute. 

Stoppe of orgayns or clarycordes. 

Stoppell ofa botell — estonpayl x, m.; eslon- 
peau X, m. 

Stoppyng lettyng — empeschcment s, m. 

Stoppyng ofa tbyng — obumbratioti s, f. 

Store or provisyon — pourueyance s, f. ; pour- 
uiance s , (. ; prouision s,f. 

Store ofborses — monture Sj{. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Store ofpaslure — pasluraige s, va. 
Storyatale — histoyre s,(.; commentaire s, m. 
Storke a byrde — sygoygne s, f. 
Storme of wcdder — oraige s, m.; tempesie s, {'. 

tourbillon s, m. 
Stotte — botteaa x, m. 
Stoulpe before a doore — souche s, f. 
Stournesse — estourdisseure s, f. 
Straglers after an army — bidaulx, m. ; truan- 

daille s, {. 
Strayte dcalyng — rigeur, f. 
Stray wandring — au large. 
Streight bitwene it landes — destroit :, m. 
Streightnesse — rectitude s, f. 
Streight way wilhout stop — route s, f. 
Straunger of farre countre — Jorayn s, m. 
Straubery a frute — frajse s, f. ; freze s, t. 
Straubery an berbe — frajsier s, m. 
Strawe — foirre s, m.; paille s, {. 
Strawe or lytter — destoubz estraine s, f. 
Straughnesse madnesse — amenée s, f. 
Straunger — estrangier s, m. 
Straungnesse — estrangerie z, f . ; eslrangeté 

z. f. 
Stranguyllyon a sicknesse — chavtldepisse s, i. 
Streightnesse rigbtnesse — droicleur s, f. 
Straytncsse narownesse — esiroysseur !,(. 
Strayner to strayne witb — eslamine s, f. 
Strenie of the water — fildeleaae z, m. 
Stremc of any water — gourt s, m. 
Stremar a baner — estandart 2, m. 
Strenghthyng — ratification s, {.; fortification 

s.î. 
Strengthynge of men of armes in a towne — 

garnison s, t. 
Strength — force s, f ; efficace s, {.; uertu 

s. f. 
Strenkyll to cast holy water — uimpilon. 
Stresse a brunt — effort s, m. 
Stretchyng oui of a thyng — estendue s, f. 
Strete in a towne — rue s, f. 
Stretes without the cyte — faulx bourg z , m. 
"Stryfe debate — débat ;, m.; dissention s, f. ; 

estrif s, m.; cstriuee s, f. 
Stryfe noyse — uariance s, L-y contention s, 1. 
Stryfe bytwene two — brigue s, f. 



FRANCOYSE. 277 

Stryfe — rigeur s, {.; sédition x,i'. 

Stryfe who shall do best — estriue a leslriuee 

s.f. 
Stryke to gyve mesure by — roulet a mesuret 

z, m. 
Stryke of corne — une mesure de blee s,f. 
Stryke in a scutchyn — lambeau x, m. 
Stryke of flaxc — poupée de filace s,(. 
Stryke witb a penne — rayere s, f. 
Strykyng agayne — repercussion s, f. 
Strykyng togyder — collision s, f. 
Strynge for an instrument — corde s, f. 
Stryngar — faiseur de cordes a lare s, m. 
Stryppe , stroke or swappe — coup z,m, 
Stryvyng brablyng — rigouraige s, m. 
Stroke in the necke — accollee s, f. 
Stroke or Lnocke — heurt s, m. 
Stroke witb a whip — coup de fouet z, m. 
StroDg bolde — bastile s,{.\ bastillon s, m. 
Strongnesse — force s , {. 
Strugglyng — rigoalaige s, m. 
Strumpet an harlot — putajn s, f. 
Stubble of corne — estouble de blee s, f. 
Stubblenesse or sturdynesse — lourdesse s , f. 
Stubbernesse — contumace s, t. 
Student — esludiant s, m. 
Study occupacion of mynde — esttide s, f. ; 

contemplation s, f. 
Studyousncssc — studiosilé z, f. 
Stufie caryage — aporl, seruage s, f. 
Stuffe for a bedde — acoustrement de lit s, m. 
SlulTe mater to make a thyng of — estoffe s, f. 
Stuffe tbat is in a fardeil — fardage s, f. 
Stuffe of bousbolde — meuble s, m, ; usten- 

cille s, {.; mesnaige s, m. , 

Stuffyng of a purse — boarcee s, f. 
Stuffyng of a saddeil — bourrée s, f. 
Stumpe a sborte stake — estoc z, m. 
Stumpe of a bande — moignon de bras, m. 
Sturgyon a fyssbe — eslurgion s, m. 
Stattar — besgu s, m.; besgue s, f. 
Stewe to kepe fishe in — uiuier s , m. 

S BEFOHE U. 

Swadylbande — bande s,{.; fasse s, t. 
Swagyng — réfrigération s, t. 



278 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Swalowe a byrde — yronde s, {.; aronde s, f. ; 

arondcHe s, f. 
Swanne a byrdc — signe s, va. 
Swarme of bées — troppeau de mouches a miel 

X, m. 
Swartnesse — cslalleure s, f. 
Subburbes the bouses without a cylie or towne 

— fauLv' bourg z, m. 
Subdean of a church — souhzdoyen s, m. 
Subdeacbon — subdiacre s, m. 
Subduyng — subjugation s, {. 
Subjecte or holder of bouse or lande — uassal 

X, ni. 
Subjectyon — subjection s, f. 
Subsedy to the kyng — subside s, m. 
Substaunce rychesse — substance s, f.; richesse 

s, f. ; aaoir s, m ; cheuance s, f. 
Substaunce — prouision, finance s, f. 
Substancialnesse ofany thyng — solidité z, f. 
Subtylnessc — sublillité z , f. 
Successyon of tyme — traict de temps z, m. 
Successour — successeur s, m. 
Swellyng or bolnyng — enflure s, f. 
Swepar of cbymnep — ramoneur de cheminée 

s, m. 
Swerde a wepyn — espee s, f. 
Swerdeberer — porteur despee s, m. 
Sweletunyng — modulation s, f. 
Swette ihal conieth of a man — sueur s, f. 
Swete smell that flowers or spyce dothe gyve 

— flair s, m.; senteur s, f. 
Swetyng an apple — pomme doulce. 
Swetnesse — doulcetè i,f. ; douceur s,{. 
Sufferaunce — suffrance s, {. 
Suffryng of payne — agrauement s, m. 
Suffysaunce — suflisance s, f. 
Suffrage or bcipe — suffrage s, m. 
Suffrage ihe prayers that be in bokcs — snf- 

frages. 
Suffryngliam — pénitencier s, m. 
Sugar swele spyce — sucre s, va. 
Sugar candy — sucre de candye s, va. 
Sugar plate or comfettes — dragée s, f. ; con- 
fite s, f. 
Su^e a byrde. 
Swyce or swycers pype — jleuste àalemant s,f. 



Swyfte worine — lesarde s, f. 

Swyftnesse — uelocité z, f. 

Swynes grease — sayn de pourceau s, m.; gresse 

de porc s, f. 
Swyne — uerrot s, m. ; porc z, m. 
Swynsty or swyne cote — porcherie or porchierie 

s, f. ; tugurion s, m. 
Swyneherde — porchicr s , va. 
Swyne pockes — farcin s, va. 
Swymyng in the bed — bestournement s, m. 
Summar season — este s, m. 
Suraylcr a fauchon — samiterre s, f. 
Sumtar man — mulelicr s, va. 
Sumpter horse — mulet s, va. 
Sumptuousnesse — samtaosité z, f. 
Sunday — dimenche s, m. 
Swonyog a disease — espaumure s, f. 
Sworde for a flaxe wyfe — guinche s, f. 
SupcrCcialyte — superficialité z, f. 
Superfluyte — superfluilé z, f. 
Superyour — supérieur s, va. 
Suppyng for a sicke man — humaige s, f. ; 

humée s, {. 
Suppiycacion — requeste, f. 
Supportyng — assistcnce s, f. ; support s, m. 
Supposyng — conjecture s , t. 
Surety defence — sanuc garde s, f. 
Surety one for anolher — respondant s, m. 
Surfette of meate — excès, va. 
Surgo of the see — uague s, f. 
Surgery — sargerie :, f. 
Surgian — cirurgien s, m. 
Suryng in maryage — fianceailles , f. 
Surname — surnom s, va. 
Surplyce for a preest — surplis, va. 
Suspycion — suspecion s, f. 
Sustaynyng — sustentation s,[. 
Susteynaunce — alimentation s, f. 
Sute of vestmentes — suite s,{. 
Sute at the lawe or court — sieute s, f. 

T BEFORE A. 

Taars a kynd of corn — dragée s, f. 
Tabard a garmenl — manteau x, va. 
Tabarnacle — tabernacle s, va. 
Table for an auter — table dautel s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



279 



Table for an ymage paynted — tableau x , m. 
Table to sette meate on — laUe. s , f. 
Tabour an instrument — taboarin s, m.; ta- 

bour s, va. 
Tache for o gowne — alachc s,[. 
Tackelyng of a shyp — esquippaige s, m. 
Tafata a maner of sylkc — taffetas, m. 

Tayle of a beest or garraent — queue s , f. 

Tayle of wodde — taille de boys, f. 

Tayle or arse — qaeae or cul s, f. 

Tayllyour — coustarier s, m. 

Taynte — condamne s,f. 

Taker of any thyng — prinse s, f 

Takyng away by violence — rapi : , m. ; abs- 
traction s, f. 

Takyng about the necke — accollee s, f. 

Takyng away — ablatif s, m. 

Takyng away of a mannes goodes — destrousse 
s,{. 

Talant of a byrde the hynderclawe — talon 
s, m.; argot z, m. 

Talent or lust — talent s, m. 

Talent — sauear s, f. ; gousl z, m. 

Talent a somme of money — talent s, m. 

Taletellar — emhouchear s, m. ; diseur de fables 
s, m. 

Taie a storie — compte s , (. 

Talowe — sajf z, m. 

Tamar of a horse — courtier de chevaalx , m. 

Tame boore — iierrot z, m. 

Tame gote — cheure s,f. 

Tamenessc — priaetir s, f. 

Tampyon for a gon — tampon s , ni. 

Tanner of ledder — tanneur s, m. 

Tankard a vessell — brocq,pot, broc z , m. 

Tansey an berbc -^ tanasie s, f. 

Tappe or spygote to drawe drinke at — chan- 
tepleure, f. Normant. 

Tapar of waxe — cierge s, m. 

Tappet a clothe — tappis, m. 

Tappyssery worke — tapisserie s, (. 

Tapster — boatelier s, m.; bouliliere s, f. 

Taare a corne lyke a pease — lupins , m. 

Tarefytche a corne — '"p^" •'« m- 

Targe — targe s,f. 

Target — targue s , f. 



Taryaunce abyding — deinoarance s, /. 
Taryaunce termyne — attente, attention s, (. ; 

arrcst z, m. 
Taryer a dogge — chien terrier s, m. 
Tarse of a man or beest — ait z , m. 
Tarte meate — (arte s, f. 
Tarsell an hauke — terslet z, m. 
Tassell thathangethat athyng of sylkeor golde 

— houppe dorée z,(. 
Tassyll burre — chardon s, m. 
Taske in workyng stynt — tache s, ï. 
Taske that a prince gadereth — laulx, m. 
Tast or verdure of wyne — uerdurc s, f. 
Tast — goust z,m. 

Tastyng with the mouthe — govster, ni. 
Taslour a lytell cuppe to tast wyne — lusse a 

gouster le uin s, f. 
Tavernar a wyne sellar — tauernicr s, ni. 
Tavell an instrument for a sylke woman to 

worke with. 
Tall wodde pacte wodde to make bylleltes of — 

taillée s, f. 
Tawny colour — tanny s, m. 
Tawny medley — tanny mesley s, m. 
Taxe or dysme — disme s, f. 

T DEFORE E. 

Teching lerning — enseignement s, ni. 

Tediousnesse — ennui s,m.\ attediation .«, f. 

Tegge or pricket — saillant s, m. 

Teele a byrde — plignon s, m. 

Tele a byrde — plinget z,m. 

Teysyll — chardon s , m. 

Teme of a sermonde — aniiesme s, f. 

Teme of a plough or oxen — atellee s, f. 

Temperaunce — atrempance s, t.; attemperance 

s,f. 
Temperyng — temperure s, f. 
Tempest — tempeste s, (.; turbillon s, m. 
Temple a cburche — temple s, m. 
Temple of the heed — temple s, m. 
Templet a tliynge made of latyn — templele s,(. 
Temptacion — temptation s, f. 
Temptyng — temptatoire s, m. 
Tenaunt — hoste s, m. 
Tenche a fysshe — tenche s, f. 



280 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Tendernesse — mollesse s, f.; tendresse s, {. 

Tendron of a wayne — ceps, m. 

Teneble wednisday — mecredy de la scmayne 

peneuse, mccredy saint s, m. 
Tenement — tenement s, m. 
Tenementes — reuenaes, f. 
Tenyse bail — pelote s, f. 
Tennysplay — jeu de la paiilme x, m. 
Teneur a parte in pricke songe — teneur s, f. 
Tente of a soore — lente s,C 
Tent to lye in the felde — pauillon. 
Tenterhoke — houct z, m. 
Teutar for ciotlie — tend, tende s, f. 
Tercell an bauke — tiercellet z, va. 
Tercyen fevers — jteares terciennes, f. 
Terfysshe. 

Teere of wepyng — larme s, f. 
Terryer a dogge — chien terrier s, m. 
Testament — testament s, m. 
Testynesse or angre — couroax, m.; ire s, f. 
Teslar for a bedde — dossier s, m. 
Tête, pappe or dugge, a womans brest — ma- 
melle s, f. 
Tetbe — dens , f. 

Tewke to make purses of — trelis, m. 
Tewisday — mardj s, m. 
Texte of scrypture — texte s; m. 

T BEFORE H. 

Thacke of a bouse — chaume s, m. 
Thacker — couureur de chaume s, m. 
Tbackyng — couareure s,f. 
Thanke — remercys, f. ; gre, as je uoiis en scay 

bon gre: I can you good tbanke. 
Thankyng — merciement s, m.; congratulation 

s,[. 
Thede a brewars instrument. 
Thefe — laron s, m.; feuillart s, va.\ faiïlart 

s, m. 
Thefe a vyllayne — grieux, m. 
Tbefte — larcin s, m. ; rauyn s, m. 
The vveke afore Ester — la sepmayne peneuse s, (. 
Thicknesse of any thyng — epesseur s, f. 
Tbicke — cuisse s, [. 
Thicket or a forest — boscaige s, m. 
Thyllhorse — limonnier s, m. 



Thyll of a carte — (e lymon s, m. 
Thymbie to sowe with — deyl z, m. 
Thyn cioude in the ayre — nuée , nieble s, f. 
Thyng — chose s, f. 
Thyng agaynst nature — desnaturel s, f 
Thyng beyond the mounlaygne — transmon- 

taigne s, m. 
Thyng by itseife — particularité s, f. 
Thyng layd up in store — repostaille s, f. 
Thing nere one to another — circamuoisin. 
Tbing shewed to mannes eyc — abject z, m. 
Thyng that gyveth lyght — luminaire s, f. 
Thyng tliat bereth sterres — stellijere s, f. 
Thyng that beareth up another — substenlacle 

s.(. 
Thing that foloweth another — séquelle s, f. 
Thyng to casl mctali with — lingot z, m. 
Thyn skynne — tenue peau s, f. 
Thynnesse — tenueurc s, f. 
Thyrde parte of any thyng — tiers, m. 
ThoHe a cartpynne — cheuille de charette s, f. 
Thombe — poulce s, va. 
Thondring — tonnement s , m. 
Thong of ieddar — courroye de cuir, (. ; lasniere 

s,{. 
Thorne — espine s,(. 
Tbornbacke fysshe — raye, [. 

Thornbusshc — espine noire, f. 

Thorowfare — bourgade s,{.; bourc z, m. 

Thorpe — hameau x, va. 

Thought hevynesse — pensijuessc s, (.; soucis, 
m.;soiHg s , m. ; chagrin s, va, 

Thought the laboryng of the mynde — cogita- 
tion s, î.; pensée z, f. ; appencement s, m.; 
cuidance s, f. ; cuiderie s, f. 

Thraldome — subjection s, f. 

Threde — fil or filet z, m. 

Thredeofa garment — filure s, f. 

Threde barenesse — deurear s, f. 

Tbresher of corn — batteur en granche s , m. 

Thresholde — seuil de luys x, m. 

Tbrestyll a byrde — mauais, m. 

Thretnyng — menasses, f. 

Thriftc gayne — proufit z, m. 

Throng of people — estour s, ai.\foulle s, f. 

Throle — gorge s, (.; geulle s, f. 






DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



281 



Throlegolc or tlirotebole — neu de la gorge x, 

m.; gosier s, m. 
Tlirov/fare -^ bourgade s, f.; bourc z, m. 
Throwe a womans disease — undee z , f. 
Tlirowstar — dcaideresse de soye s,{. 
Throwyng asycle disordring — debaux, m. 
Throwyng or castyng — gect z,m. 
Thrum of clothe or threade — payne s, m. 
Tlirusshe a byrde — gryue s, f. 
Thrust — soif z, (. 
Thrustell cocke' — mauluis, m. 
Thwartyng stryfe — rigoalaige s, f. 
Thundre — tonnoyre s, m. 
Thundring — allitonant s, m. 
Thursday — jeudy s, m. 

T BEFORE I. 

Tyde of the waler — marée z, f. 

Tyde of tlie see — jlel z, m.;Jlote s, f. 

Tydetyme — temps, m. 

Tidynges — nomielles, (. 

Tyre for a woman — atour s, m. 

Tyer drinke — amer bruuaige s, m. 

Tygre a beest — lygi"^ s, m. 

Ticke for a fetherbed — coite de lit s, (.; coatil 

z , m.; coustre s, m. 
Tyiar — coaureur de maisons s, m. ; couurier de 

maisons s, m. 
Tyle for bouses — tiealle s, f. 
Tyleniaker — faiseur de tieules s , m. 
Tyllet to wrap clothe in — toyllette s, f. 
TylleuH a kynde of frute — tilleul ;, m. 
Tyll in a chest — chettron s, m. 
Tyllyng of lande — labouraige s, m. ; labour 

s, m.; agriculture s, f. ; calliaer la terre 

s.(. 
Tylman — laboureur de terre s, m. 
Tyll ofan almery — lyette s, f. 
Tylte for justyng — lisses, f. 
Tymbre for a chylde — bedon s, m. 
' Tymbre of furee. 
Tymbre worme. 

Tymbre wode to bylde — masrayne s, f. 
Tyme an herbe — thyme s, f. 
Tyme of a sermonde — thesme s, m. 
Tyme prelixed by nature — période s, m. 



Tyme season — temps, m. ; pièce s, f.; siècle s, m. 
Tympan a dysease in the bely — enjleure s, f. 
Tyncar — chaulderonnier s, m. 
Tynkynge, the sowndyng of metalls, whan they 

be strycken togydcr — tintyn s, m. 
Tynne metall — estayn s, m, 
Tynsyn satten — satyn broché s, m. 
Typpe of a cuppe — queuetie s, f 
Typpc of any thyng — gueuetle s, f. 
Typpet for a preest — cornette s, (. 
Tyraunt — (iront s, m. 
Tyran ny — tyrannye z,f. 
Tyrdell sbepes dong — fient de brebis s, m. 
Tyrfe of a cappe or suclie lyte — rebras, m. 
Tyrettes for a grayhoundes coUer — boucclet- 

tes, f. 
Tyrtyll dove — torterelU s, f. 
Tysan a drinke — tisanne s , f. 
Tythe that a person hath — dxsme s, f. 
Tytle by kynredc — parage s, m. 
Tytle in writyng — tyltre s, m. 
Tytlc right to a thyng — tiltre s, m. 
Tytle to any thyng — querelle s, {. 
Ty tmouse a byrde — musanyere s, (.; mésange 

s, f. 

T BEFORE O, 

Tode — crapault s, m. 

Todde of woll. 

Tode of chcse. 

Tode stole — eschampignon s, m. 

Too of ones fote — orteil z, m. 

Toy a tryfell — trujfe s, (.•,friuolle s, f. 

Toyll for a prince to hunt with — toille s, f. 

Tokyn a gyfle sente to ones frende — ensigne 

s, m.; signacle s, m, 
Token of a tbyng to come — presaige s, in.; 

signe s, m. 
Toile custome — hanse s, f. ; tonliu s, m. 
Tôle an instrument — i^tyl, ostyl z, m. 
Toile house — mayson de decrepte s, f. 
Tombe a grave — tombeau s, m.; tombe .1, f. 
Tonne a vessell — tonneau x, m. 
Tonge of a bee — esguillon s, m. 
Tong of a buckell — hardillon s, m. 
Tong of a balaunce — languette s, f. 

36 



282 

Tongctyed — 901 « le filet, m. 

Tonge to speke with — langue s, f. 

Tonges an instrument — tenailles, f. 

Tonny fyshe. 

Tonnell to fyll wyne with — antonnoyr s, m. 

Tonnell ofa chymney — tayau x, m. 

Toppe for a chylde to play with — sabot z, m.; 

ioapin s, m. 
Toppe for to cast or a castyng toppe — toii/ue 

z, f. ; moyne s, m, 
Toppe of the heed — sommet de la teste, m. 
Toppe of a shyppe — mast s, m. \ hune s, f. 
Toppe of a tree, house, or any suche lyke 

thyng — coupeau x, m. 
Toppe of a hyll — creste dune montaigne s, f. 
Toppe of the shuldre — le coupeau de lespaule 
X, m. 

Toppe of a towre — sommaige s, m. 

Toppyng heeres — lortellces, f. 

Torche to lyght — torche s, f 

Torde ofa dogge — «tronc de chien s, m. 

Torde of a man — merde s, f. 

Torment a storme on the see — tourmente s,{.\ 
tempeste s, f. 

Tornar a craflesmau — tourneur s, m. 

Torne a prancke — tour s, m. 

Tome pyke , suche as lyeth over away — roal- 
Hz, m. 

Tornyng upsodowne — subuercion s, f. 

Toost of breed — tostee z, f. 

Totehyll — montaignelte s, f. 

Tothc — dent s, (. 

Tylter totter a play for chyldre — balenchoeres, f. 

Towell to wype on — toiutyi/e s, f. 

Touche a crafty dede — tour s, m. 

Touche stone to prove golde with — tire s, m.; 
une touche s, f. 

Touchyng with hande — maniement s, m. 

Towe — eslouppes, f. 

Towne — aille s, f. 

Towne house — prétoire s, m. 

Towre — tour s, f. 

Tourney justes — touniay s, m.; estour s, m. 

Tournement an instrument for warre — tour- 
nement s, m. 

Tourques aprecious stone — tourquois s , va. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



T BEFORE R; 

Trace a slreyght way — trace s, f 

Trace horse harnesse — trays, m. 

Trace of any beest — trac z,m. 

Trayne a trappe — atrappe s, f. 

Trayue ofa garment — queue s, f. 

Traytour — traître s, m.; mutyn s, m. 

Tramell to catche fysshe or byrdes — trameaa 

s, m. 
Tramplyoge with fête — marchage s, m.; mar- 

sage s, m. 
Tranquyllyte — tranquillité z,{. 
Trappe to catche myse — souricière s, f. 
Trappe to take rattes — ratière s, t. 
Trappour for a horse — housse s, {. ■ 
Traveyle labour — trauayl x, m. 
Traunce a sickenesse — Irance s, f. 
Treatyse — treatie z, m. 
Treatyse bytwene two princes — Iraicte, m.; 

trete, m. 
Treble of a song — le dessus, ni. 
Treble stryng of an instrument — chanterelle 

s. f. 
Trechery — trccherie s, f. 
Tredyngofa man — marche s, (. 
Tree — arire s, f. 
Trelis for a wyndowe — trelis, m. 
Trenche for men of warre — trenchee z, [. 
Trencher to cute mete on — trenchouer s, m. 
Trencher of bred — trenchouer de pain s, m. 
Trendyll — tournouer s, f. 
Trenket an instrument for a cordwayner — bat- 
ton a torner, m. 
Trentall of masses — trenteyne s, f. 
Tresse of heer — tresse s', f. 
Tresens that is drawen over an estâtes chambre 

— ciel z, m. 
Treyson — trahison s, f. 
Tresourar — tresourier s, m. 
Tresourers clcrke — clerc de finance z, m. 
Tresour — (rfsor ;>■, m. ; cheuance s, f. ; finance 

s, f. ; auoir s, m . ; espergnc s, f . 
Trespasse offcnce — offence s, (. ; crime s, m.; 

delicte s, m.; maléfice s, m.; coulpe s, f. 
Trespasse agaynst the lawe — preuaricateur 

s, m. 



Trespasyng offendyng 
uarication s, f. 

Trestyil for a table — tresteau x , m. 

Treaty of a mater — traicde z , m. 

Treale — trette z,m. 

Trevet witli thre fête — trcpie z,m. 

Trevys to shoe a wylde horse in — Iraimyl a 
chenal, m. 

Treweloves knotte — nea damours x, m. 

Treacle — triade s, m. 

Tryangle tliresquare — triangle s, m. 

Trybulacion grefe — adaersite z,{. 

Trybute — Irihut, péage z, m.; exaction $, f. 

Trybutorie — tribulajre s, m. 

Tryfell — truffe s, C; farfelue s, t.; fatras, m. 

Tryfeil a knacke — friaolle s, f. 

Tryfell a thyng of no value — lobe s, f.; truf- 
fe s. f. 

Tryfelyng — flauelle s, f. 

Tryflynges scoffynges — fredaines, f. 

Tryfoly an herbe — trejle s, m. 

Trynkel a cordwayners toole — bâton a tourner 
soulies s, m. 

Trype — tripe s, f. ; andouille s, f. 

Tryppe in wrastlyng — crochet z, m.;jambet 

z, m. 
Tryppe in wrastellyng — gamboye s, f. 
Trypot a mete made with thre sondry meates 

in it — tripot z, m. 
Tryumphe glorie — Iriumphe s, m. 
Trône — trône s, m.; trosne s, m. 
Trouth plyghtyng — fianceailles ^ f. 
Trotter a horse — trottier s, m. 
Trotters shepes fête — pies de moton, m. 
Trouhlyng vexyng — conturbation s, f. 
Troublyng of ones mynde — distraction s, f. 
Trowell for a mason — truelle s, f. 
Trowe mother — mère patalifue s, f. 
Trough for swyne — auge a pourceau , f. 
Trough for smythes — auge a marichal, C 
Trough a vessell — auge s, (. 
Troute a fysshe — truite s, f. 
Truage , trybute — treuaige s, f. 
Troubler — turbateur s, m. 
Trewes — treuue s, f. 
Trurape to shote pellettes in — sarbatane s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE 

- transgresion s, f. ; prc- 



283 



Trumpe an instrument — cleron s, tn. 

Trumpet — trumpette s, f. ; busine s, f. 

Trumpytar — trompeteur s, m. 

Trunchonof a spere — esclat de lance z, m.; 
tronson s , m. 

Trunchon a worme. 

Trunke for fysshe — boutique a poisson s, f.; na- 
celle s, {. 

Trusse a fardell — fardeau .i; m. 

Trussyng bedde — lit de champ z, m. 

Trussyng of any thyng — troussare s, f. 

Trussyng of stuffe in a fardell — fardage s, m. 

Trust — fance s, {.; confiance s, f. ; confidence 
s, î.; espérance s, f. 

Truslyng belevyng — crédulité z, f. 

Truslynesse — fealte z, f 

Truthe — uerite z, f ; loialie z, f. 

T BEFORE U. 

Tubbe — cuue or cuuette s, f. 

Tuckyng kyrdell — saincture a ecourser s, f. 

Tweiftyde — la lyphayne s, f. 

Tufte of grasse — ■ mouceau de herbe s, f. 

Tufle of béer — mouceau de clieueulx, m. 

Twyble an instrument for carpentars — ber- 

nago s, (. 
Twygge a lytell wande — uerge s, f. 
Twylyght — brune s, f. 
Twynethrede — fil reteurs z , m. 
Twynclyng of an eye — cilement s, ni.; clin 

doeil s, ni. 
Twyn — jumeau x,m. 
Twyniyng — gémeau ar,n». 
Twynnes two chyldren borne at one tyme — 

jumeaulx, m. 
Twysday — mardy s, m. 
Turabe a grave — tumbe s, f. 
Tnmblar — joueur de souplesse s, m. 
Tumrell cart — tumbreaa x, m. 
Tunder boxe — boytte de fusil s, f. 
Tunder to lyght a malche — fusil z, va. 
Tunne — tonneau x, m. 
Tunnel! to fyll wyne — antonnoyr s , m. 
Tunnellofa chymney — ■ tuyau x , ra. 
Tungo of a balaunce — languette de balance , (. 
Tunge of a huckyll — ardillon, m. 

36. 



284 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



TuDge to speke witli — tangue s, f. 

Tuppe a ramme — belin s , m. 

Tiirbutte fysshe — turbot z, m. 

Turdyli sliepes doiige — Jientdc brebis s, m. 

Turret a lytell towre — tourelle s, f. 

Turfe of tbe fcnne — tourbe de terre s, f. 

Turfe flagge sworde — tourbe s, f. 

Turfe of a cappe — rebras, m. 

Turkes bowe — arc turquoys s, m. 

Turkessworde — espee s, f. ; esclamme s, f. 

Turment — tormenl s, m. 

Turmentyllan herbe — loumientine s, f. 

Turmenlour of folkes — satellite s, m. 

Turnar a maker of bolles and dysshes — tor- 

neur, boiselier s, m. 
Turnars crafte — la science dung tourneur s, m. 
Turpentyne — tormentine s, f. 
Turtyll a dove — tur(r« s, m.; tarterelle s, t. 
Tussyllage an herbe. 

Tuske of heer — monceau de cheueulx x, m. 
Tutar — tuteur s, m. 



U BEFORE A. 



abond 



s, m. 



Vacabonde — paatonier s, m. 

Vacacion — uacation s, {. 

Vayne gtorie — uoine gloire s, f. 

Vale or valey — ualee s, f. 

Valeryan an herbe. 

Valewe — uaJeur s, f. 

Value prise — ualue s, f. 

Value of golde or sylver — haras, m. 

Valyantnesse — proesse, f. ; ualiance s, f. 

Vampey of a hose — auani pied z ,m. 

Vanyte — uanite z, f. 

Vauntage — preu s, m.; auanlaige s, m. 

Vauntour or craker — uanteur s, m. 

Vapour — uapear s, f. ; moisteur s, f. 

Varyaunce — uariance s, f. ; dissention s, f. ; 

controuersie s, t.; discorde s, f. 
Varyeng chaungyng — maance s, f. 
Vauntage — auantage s, m.; émolument s, m. 
Vauntpe of a hose — uantpie z, m. 
Vaunt boost — aantance s, f. ; bombance s, f. 



Veche a taare • 



U BEFORE E. 
- uesse s, {. 



Veyle for tbe churcb in lent — custode s, f. 

Veyne — uaync s , f. 

Veele flesshe — aeau x, m. 

Velym parchcment — uelyn s, m. 

Velvet — uelours, m. 

Velvetmaker — ueloustier s, m. 

Vengeaunce — aengeance s, f. ; uindication s, f. 

Venym — uelin s, m. 

Venymousnesse — uelimeitr s, f. 

Venyson — uenayson s, f. 

Venturer on tbe lande — adaenturier s, m. 

Venturer on thesee — pirattc s, m. 

Vcrdyte — uerile s, f. 

Verse mctyr — uers, m. 

Verger that bereth a rodde in the churche — 

sergent de lesglise, ni. 
Vergeous sauce — uerjus, m. 
Vermylon reed colour — uermillon s, m. 
Vermyn — aermine s, f. 
Vernysshe — uernys, m. 
Verse — aers, m. 
Vertue — uertu s,{. 

Venue strengtli — ejficace s, f.; force s, f. 
Vertuousnesse — uertu s, [. 
Vervy n an herbe — aerueyne s, {. 
Vessell plate or pewter — uaisselle s, f. 
Vessel to putte any tbyng in — ■ aaisseau x, va. 
Vestnient — uestemenl s, m. 
Vestmentraaker — chasublier s, m. 
Vestry — reuestoir s, m. 
Vexacion grefe or displeasure — tribulation s, 

f. ; uexation s, (.; dcslourbier s, m. 
Vexar a grevar — turbateur s, m. 
Vexyng or troublyng — conturbation s, f. 

U BEFORE I. 

Vyage ajonrney — uiaige s, m.; uoiage s, m. 

Vyall a glasse — Jiolle s, f. 

Vycare a preest or person — uicaire s, m. 

Vyce synne — uice s, m.; pechie s, m. 

Vyce of a cuppe — uis, f. 

Vyce a tournyng stayre — uis, L 

Vyce to putte in a vessell of wyne to drawe the 

wyne out at — chantepleare s, t. 
Vyciousnesse yvell iyveng — Ubidinosite :,{.; 

luxure s, {. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



285 



Vycrage a preestes house — preshjtoire s, m. 
Vyctorie the upperhande of an enemy — uic- 

ioyre s, f. 
Vygorousnesse — uiyeur s, {. 
Vyle a nougbly person — loricart s, m. 
Vyllage a lytell towne — uiUage s, m. 
Vyllayne or luske — esclaue s, m. 
Vyllayne a cowarde — bidaiilt z, m. 
Vyllany — uillentvye z, f. ; uillement s, ni. 
Vylenesse nothyng clenly — fetardise s, f. 
Vylenesse corrupcyon — corruption s, f. 
Vynegyr sauce — uinaigre s, m. 
Vyne iefe — fijUe de uigne s, f. 
Vyne tree — uigne s, f. 
Vyntenar a marcbaunt of wyne — marchant de 

uin s, m. ; uineilier s, m. 
Vyole a giasse — fiolle s, f. ; uiole s, f. 
Vyolence — uiolence s, f. ; randon s, m. 
Vyolet colour — uiolet z, m.; aioleite s, f. 
Vyolet flour — uiolette de mars s, f. 
Vyrginite — uirginile s, f. 
Vyrgyn — uierge s, f. 
Vyrgyn waxe — cire uierge s,[. 
Vyroll — uiroUe s, f. 
Vysage — uisage s, m. 
Vysar for a mummar — faalx uisaige s, m. 
Vysar of harnes — uisiere dung armel s, f. 
Vysion tïiat appereth in ones slepe — adui- 

sion s, [. 
Vysilyng — uisilance s, f.; uisitation s, f. 
Vytaiie — uîtaille s, f. ; uiares, f. 
Vytayler — uitailler s, m. 
Vytaylles mcte and drinke — (ouïe manière de 

uitailles >,(. 
Vytayler — aiuandier s, m. 
Vyves a diseasc tliat an horse hatli — auiues, f. 

U BEFORE M. 
Umbreli of an heed pece — uisiere s, f. 

U DEFOKE N. 

Dncertenly — incerteinte z, f. 
Unchastnesse — im/mdicilé z, f. 
Uncle by tbe father syde — oncle s, m. 
Unclennesse — imparité z, f. ; ordure s, f. 
Uncourtesnessc — ingratitude s, f. 



Underlyng — serf s, m. 
Undergarment for a woman — seurcot z,'m. 
Under mêle — rcssigner s, m. 
Undermyndyng — subornation s,f. 
Undersberife — uiconte s, m. 
Understandyng — entendement s, m. ; raison s, 

f. ; intellectare s, f. ; sentemeni s, m. 
Undertresourer — financier Sjm. 
Undoyng distroyeng — extermination s, f. ; def- 

faicte s, f. 
Dngentylnesse — inhumanité z, f. 
Ungraciousnesse — maleurete z,(. 
U nhappynesse — infelicite z,f. 
Unycorne a beest — licorne s, f. 
Dnyversyte — uniuersite z, f. 
Unkeli — oncle s, va. 
Unkyndnesse — ingratitude s,(. 
Unrightwysnesse — injure s, f. ; injustice s, I. 
Unsbittyng — deffermure s, f. 
Unstedfastoesse — mobilité z, f.; inconstance 

s.L 
Unsurenesse — deseurete z,i. 
Unworthynesse — indignité z, f. 

U BEFORE O. 

Voyce — uoixfî. 

Voydaunce — uidance s, f. ; deslogement s, m. 

Volym for tbe largenesse of a boke — uo- 

lume s, m. 
Voluptuousnesse — uolapte z,(. 
Vomyte spewyng — vomissement s, ni. 
Vowo — - ucu z, m. 
Vout under the grounde — aoute s,{. 

U BEFORE p. 

Upbraydyng — reprouche s,{. 
Upholdyng — supporlation s,(.;port s, m. 
Upholstar — frippier s , m. 
Uplandyssheman — passant s, m. 
Uplandyssbnesse — ruralite z, f. 
Uppergamient — surquanie s, f. 

[} BEFORE R. 

Urynall — urinai x, m. 
Urynche mylke — maigre s, ni. 
Urchone a beest — herysson s, m. 



-286 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



U BEFORF. S. 

Usage — usaige s, m. 
Use — use s, f. 
Userer — usurier s, m. 
Usery — usure s, i'. 
Usslier — huissier s, m. 

U BEFOHE T. 

Utas of a feest — octuues, f. 

Utterauuce of speclie — pronunciation s, f. 

Utterbarke of a tree — escorche s, f. 

Uttercourt — basse court s , (. 

Utlryiigof anytbyngbyspekyng — prolation s, f. 

Uttiyng or sellyng of ware — uente s, f. 

W BEFORE A. 

Wafyrre ^— gaufre i, f. 

Wafyryron — fer aux gaufres s , m. 

Wafyrmaker — gaufrier s, m. 

Wager — gageure s,-ni. 

Wage or pledge — ^aije *, m. 

Wages — gaiges, m.; touier s, ni.; salaire s, m. 

Wagstert a byrde. 

Wagtayle a byrde — hergerette s , f. 

Waye — chemyn, m. ; uoye z, f. 

Way in a woode syde — sente s, t. 

Waylyng — lamentation s, f. 

Wayre where water is liolde — gort s, ni. 

Wayter — qui baille attendance, m. 

Wayte an instrument — liauhoys, m. 

Wayne a carte — chariot ;, m. 

Wayneman — chariottier s, m. 

Wajour — gageure s, f. 

Wayte trcbie — bassine s, f. 

Wakerobyn an herbe. 

Wakeworte an herbe. 

Wakyng after slepe — reueil z , m. 

Wall — mur s, m.; muraille s, f. 

Wall before tbe wall oe about a towne or cas- 

tell — auantmar s, m. 
Wall of a sbyppe. 
Wall of a slrype — enjleure s, f. 
Wall of bricke — muraille de bricque s, f. 
Wailet or poke — besasse 5, f. ; hesachr s, f. ; 

besace s, f 
Walles of a towre — murailles, f. 



Walke to walke up and downe in — parais , m. 

Walkyngplacc — déambulatoire s, f. 

Wallon tonge — Bornant s, m. 

Walnotte — noyx, f. 

Walnot wban he is eut out of the grene sbell 

— cerneau x, m. 
Walnot tree — noyer s ,m. 
Walworte an herbe. 

Wamlyng of the stomake — esmouuement s, m. 
Wande a rodde — aerge s, f. 
Wande for a horse whan a man rydeth — 

houssine s, f. 
Wangtothe — dent oylliere s, (. 
Wanhope — desespoir s, m.; désespérance s,f. 
Wannes of colour — indeur s, f. 
Want of beauty — laideur s, f. 
Want beest a molle — laulpe s, f. 
Wanton cockeney — mignot s, m.; mignotte s, f. 
Wanton of condicyons — saffre s, m. 
Wantonnesse — lasciuite z, f. ; insolence s, f. 
Warhot a worme — escarbot z,m. 
Warde of a locke — garde s, f. 
Warde of a towne or castell — garde s, f. 
Warde under âge — mineur qui est en luleltc 

s, m. 
Warden — gardian s, m. 
Warder a staffe — baslon s, m. 
Wardroppe or closet — garderobe s, f. 
Wardroppe or a prince — argenterie s, f. 
Wardon tree — poyrier s, m. 
Wardon frute — poire a cuire s, f. ; poire de 

calieu s, f. ; poire de garde s, (.; poire de 

calion s, (. 
Ware chaffre — marchandise s, f. 
Warehouse to shewe marchandyse in — une 

monstre a marchandise s, [. 
Warenesse — rasierse s, f. 
Warrennar — gaarennier s, m. 
Warrcn — garenne s, f. 

Warkehouse for a craftesman — ouuroir s, m. ' 
Warehouse for masons or carpentars — aslil- 

licr s, m. 
Warmnesse — chaleur s^ f. 
. Warnyng — admonestement s, m. ; aduertence 

s, f. ; aduerteurc s, f. ; admonition s, f. ; 

lamonilion s, f.; summation s, f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



287 



Warpe of clolhe — chayne de drap s,{. 
Warre bataylc — (jaerre s, f. 
Warre or knoblie of a tree — iieu s, m. 
Warryeng cursyng — malédiction s,{. 
Warryour a nian of warre — guerroyeur s, m. 
Warte on ones hande — uerbe s, f. ; poyreaii 

X, m. 
Wasshe of water — marre s, f. 
Wassher of gownes — relaaeur s, m. 
VVasshyng betyll — battoaer s, m. 
Wasshyng boll — jatte s, f. 
Waspe — guespe s, f. 
Wast a mydtlle — fauhc de cors, m. 
Wast unprofytable — gast z,m. 
Wasle of a shyppe — cors de nauire s, m. 
Waslyng — consumplion s, f. 
Wastyng distroyng — dépopulation s, (. 
Water — eaa s, f. 
Water berar — porteur deau s, m. 
Water cresses — cresson s, ta. 
Walerlien a byrde ^poulie deaa s, f. 
Wateriecbe ■ — sansue s, f. 
Watermyll — moulin a leaa s, ni. 
Water potte for a table — aiguière s, f 
Water potte for a gardyne — arroasouer s, m. 
Water pompe — aguaticque s, m. 
Water serpent — couleuare deaue s, f. 
Water venyme — herbe s, f. 
Water whele in ones hande — bubette s, f. 
Watche contrary to slepc — esaeiller z, m. 
Watcbe bouse — lieu de guayct x, m. 
Watclie man — homme du guayct s, m. 
Watchet colour — : jaune garance s, i. 
Watche worde — mot du guayt z, m. 
Watchyng lyeng in wayte — daguet z, m. 
Watchyng — agitance s, f. ; resaeil z, m. uigi- 

lance s, {. 
Wave of the see — uague s, (. 
Waxe — cire s, f. 
Waxyng kyrnels — glandes, f. ; glanders, m. 

W BEFORE E. 

Webbe in the eye — laye z , f. 
Webbe of a spydcr — araignée z , f. 
Webbe of a wevar — chayne s, f. 
Webbe ofleed — toye de pelombe z, f. 



Wede hoke — serpHon s, m. 

Wede ciothyng — habillement s, m. 

Wede a wyldc herbe — herbe sauuaige s , 1. 

Wedge of yron — coing de fer s, m. 

Wedge a pledge — jaijc s, m.; pleigc s, m. 

Wedge to cleve wodde with — coing a fendre 

boys, m. 
Weddyng — nopces, f. 
Weddyngor mariage — espoasaiiles, {'. 
Wedyng hoke — cerclier s, m. 
Wcdnisday — mcrcredy s, m. 
Weddcrcocke — cochct deglise s, m.; or cachet 

a aent s, m. 
Wedder a sliepe — mouton s, ni. 
Wedder of the ayre — temps, m. 
Wedlocke maryage — mariage s, m. 
Wedower or vvedowe — uefae s, (. 
Weffe tast — goust z, m. 
Wey or meane — acheison s, m. 
Weybreed an herbe — plantain s, m. 
Wey of chese — maige s, f. 
Weyght or burden — feiz, m. 
Weygbt hevynesse — pesanteur s, C. 
Weighty busynessc — erre s, f. 
Weight to wey witball — poix, m. 
Weightynesse — aggrauation s, f. 
Weke for candels — mèche s, f.; limignon s, m. 
Weykenesse — Jlebesse s, f.; imbécillité z, f. 
Weymentyng — granité z,{. 
Weke a senyght — sepmayne s, f. 
Welcommyng — acueil s, m.; bienuenue s, (. 
Well madc of stone^ — pais, m.; patelle s, f. 
Welle or lepe for fysghe — bouticle s, f. 
Welkyn the skye — firmament s, m. 
Welowc tree — saulx, m. 
Wclt of a garment — ourelet z',m. 
Welte of a shoe — oureleure s, f. 
Welthe — habundance s, f. ; bien s, m, 
Wemme spotte — tache s, f. ; malan s, m. 
Wenche — garse s, f. 
Wenne in the throte — gouoystre .«, m. ; gouis 

tre s, m. 
Wepyn — baston s, m. 
Wepyng — pleur s, va. ; ploralion s, (. 
Were to take fysshe — gort s, m. 
Werynesse or grefe — ennuy s, lii. 



288 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Werynesse — falig'ie s, t.; fatigation s, f. 



Weryng — usure s, f. 

VVerke — oeuure s, f. 

Wert in ones liande — uerbe s, f. 

Wesant the pype — gauion s, m. 

Wesant — gosier s, m. 

Wesyll a beest — bellelte s, (. 

West parte — occident s, m. 

Westerne wynde — le vent daaal s, m . 

Wetenesse — moilleare s, f. ; moisteure s, f. 

Wevar — tysserant s, m. 

Wevar of lynen clothe — > tysserant de toiUe 

s, m. 
Wevars shoppe — ouuragerie z, f. 
Wevyll — garguillon s, m. 
Wevyll that bredeth in malte — calendre s, f. 
Wevyng frame — meslier s, m, 
Wevyng bouse — maison a tisserant s, m. 

W BEFORE H. 

Wbay of butter — babenre s, m. 

Wball a fyssbe — balayne s, f. 

Wharfe by tbe water syde — guay z, m. 

Wharie for a spyndell — peson s, m. 

Whey of chese — maige s, f. 

Wbelebarowe — brouette s, f. 

Whele of a carte — roue s, f. 

Wbele wrigbt — charron s, m. ; qmirron s, m. 

Whele in the hande — hoahetle s, f. ; bubette s, 

f. ; uessie s, f. 
Whelke a fyssbe — limason de mer s, m. 
Whelpe — petit chien s, va. 
Wbete corne — ble s,m.; bled s, m. 
Wbetynbreed — pain bourgois s, m. 
Whetstone — pierre a aguiser s, f. ; queax f. 
Whynne — bruiere s, f. 
Whynnes or hethe — bruiere s, f. 
Whypple tree. 

Wbyppe for e plowman — fouet z, m. 
Whypstocke — manche dang fouet s, m. 
Whyrlbone of ones kne — pallette de ge- 

nouil s, f. 
Whiripole a fissbe — chaudron de mer, m. 
Whirpole a depe place in a ryver, where the 

water tournetb rounde — abysme s, m.; 

goitre s, m. 



Whirlygigge to play with — pyrouelle s, f. 

Wbiriwynde — tourbillon de uent s, m. 

Whisperyng — parler a loreille s, m. 

Whystell — sifflet z, m. 

Whytson evyn — uigille de Penthecouste s, f. 

Whitsontyde — Penthecouste s, f. 

White, a horse of wbite colour — cheaal blanc, 

liart s, m. 
White coiour — blanche couleur s, f. 
White frère — carme s, m. 
Wbite harnesse — blanche armure s, f. 
Whitlether — cuir blanc s, m. 
Wbittawer — pelticr de cuir blanc s, va. 
Wbite lyme — chaulx, va. 
Whitllowe in ones fyngre — poil de chat z, m. 
Whitmete ihey bave no suche worde. 
White of an cgge — laubin dung oeuf, vn. 
Wiiite of the eye — blanc de loyl s, m. 
White plome — prune blanche s, f. 
Wliite sope — sauon blanc s, vn. 
Whitstarre — blanchisseur de toylles, m. 
Wbitnesse — blancheur s, f. 
Whitethorn or hautborn — aubespin s, m. 
Withy to bynde a faggote — hart s, f. 
Whityng fyssbe — merlan s, m. 

W BEFORE I. 

Wyer of yron — fyl de fer z,vn. 

Wyar of brasse — fil darcal, fil de laton, m. 

Wyar drawer — lyrear de fil s, m. 

Wycket — jayc/iet s, m.- 

Wydowe — neuue s, f. 

Wydowe of the Frenche kyng — ta royne blan- 
che s, f. 

Wydnesse — largeur s, f. 

Wydraught — basse chambre s, f. ; orlraicl s, m.; 
reiraict s, m. 

Wyfe or woman — femme s, f. 

Wygge — eschaude s, m. 

Wyckednesse — iniquité s, f. 

Wycker — osier s, va. 

Wyide asse — asne sauuaige s, m. 

Wylde beest — besle sauuaige s, f. 

WyIde boore — porc, sanglier z, m . 

Wylde catte — chat sauuaige z, m. 

Wyidernesse — désert s, m. 



DE LA LANGU 

Wyidc ducke — canne sauuaige s, f.; canne ra- 
nuere s, f. 

Wylde fyre — feu sauuaige x, m.; feu gregois 
X, m. 

Wylde fygge tree — sauaaigc arbre de figge s, m. 

Wylde foule — sauuagine s, f. 

Wylde gose — oye sauuaige s, f. 

Wylde goote — cheuereul x, m. 

Wyldnesse cruelle — férocité s, f. 

Wyldnesse — saauaigete s, f. 

Wyldyng a sower apple — pomme de boys s, f. 

Wylde olyve tree — sauuaige arbre dolive s, ni. 

Wylde tansye — tannasie sauuaige s, f. 

Wylde vyne — uigne sauuaige s, f. 

Wyle disceit — déception s,{.; gauche s, f.; trom- 
perie z, f. ; cautelle s, f. , guille s, f . 

Wyle or slcight — engaigne s, f. 

Wyll — uolente s, f. 

Wyll pleysure — plaisir s, m. 

Wyll, as wilh my good wyll — gre, m. 

Wyll a desyre — talent s, m. 

Wylfulnesse — uotantairete s, f. 

Wylynesse — astuce s, f. 

Wyllowe tree — saulx, m. 

Wymhle or peerser — foret z, m. 

Wymple for a none — guymple s, f. 

Wynde — uent s, m. 

Wyndace for an engya — guyndas, m. 

Wynde beame of a bouse. 

Wyndyng stole — tournetle s, f. 

Wyndyng stayre — ais, f. 

Wyndyng sliete — suaire s, m. 

Wyndyng — uolubilité z, f. 

Wyndmyll — moulin a nent s, m. 

Wyndowe — fenestre s, f. 

Wyndowes that be in a bouse toppe — tu- 
carne s, (. 

Wyndpype — sijpet de gosier z, m. 

Wyne drinke — uin s, m. 

Wyne alygaunt — alegant s, m. 

Wyne sellar — cellier a uin s, m. 

Wyne for a great mannes mouthe — uin de bou- 
che s, m. 

Wyng of a byrde — esle s, f.; aelU s, f. 

Wyng of men in a felde — helle s, f. 

Wynnyng gayne — acquest z, m. 



E FRANCOYSE. 289 

' Wynsyng of an borse — regibement s, m. 
Wynter — jfuer s, m. 
Wynter frute — fi^it de yuer s, va. 
Wynter season — yuernaige s, m. 
Wype a byrde — uppie z,f. 
Wjsshe desyre — souhait z, va. 
Whyssbing for a thjng lost or absent — regret 

z, m. 
Wysdome — sagesse s, f. ; sagacité. 
Wyspe to wype witb — torchon s, m. 
Wifcbe a woman — uaitdoyse, sorcière s, f. 
Witcbe crafte — - sorcerye s, {. 
Withe — une hart de fagote s, f. 
Wbilbdrawyng — abstraction s, f. 
Witboldyng — détention s,{. 
Witbolder — détenteur s, m. 
Wylte — entendement s, m.; sens, va.; intelli- 
gence, ingéniosité s, f. 
Wytnesse or provyng — attestation. 
Wytnesse — tesmoignaige s, va. 
Wyttyng or knowlege — escient, essiatu, m. 

W BEFORE O. 

Wodbynde an herbe. 

Wodcocke — beqaasse i, f. ; uidecoq s, m. 

Wode to dye witb — guedde s, m. 

Wodbacke a byrde. 

Wood or tre that is fallen — mesrayne. 

Wodde to burne — boys, va. 

Wodnian that lyvelb by feilyng wode — boo- 

quillon s, m. 
Woodnesse — rage , forsenerie s, f. 
Woodpecker a byrde — espec z, va. 
Woodrofe an herbe — musguet z , m. 
Woodslale. 
Woodwall an herbe. 
Wolfe — loup z, m. 
Wolfyst — uesse de loup s, f. 
Woll — laync s, L 
Wollpacker — lyreur de layne s, m. 
Woman baude — macquerelle s, f. 
Woraan capper — clicquetiere s, f. 
Woman chamberlayn — chambrière s, I. 
Woman coke — cuisinière s, f. 
Woman cosyn — cousine s, f. 
Woman cowarde — couarde s, f. 

37 



2W 

Woman customer — couslamiere s , f. 
Woman felowe — compaigne s, {. 
Woman gardyner — jardinière s, i. 
Woman gyanl — yiande s, f. 
Woman govcrnour — dominateresse s, (. 
Woman huckester — quoquetiere s, f. 
Woman inheritour — héritière s , f. 
Woman iover — amante s, f. 
\yoman maryner — nuironniere s, f. 
Woman paramour — ainouree s, f. ; accointée s, f. 
Woman preest of a temple — prêtresse s, f. 
Woman reigner in a kyngdome — regnateresse 

s.{. 
Woman shepeheerd — bergère s, i. 
Woman set on pleasure — gaudine s, f. 
Woman syngar — chanteresse s, f. 
Woman stryken in jelousy — jalouse s, f. 
Woman taverner — tauermere s, f. 
Woman ihat is meane for any man — aduo- 

catte s, f. 
Woman that lyeth in cbyide beed — acouchee 

s,f.; gesante s, f. 
Woman that useth magyke — magicienne s,{. 
Woman that seilelh trypes — tripière s, f. 
Woman thefe — laronnesse s, (.; félonne s, f. 
Woman that is bandfast — jiancee s, f. 
Woman that selleth heeryng — harengiere s,{, 
Woman warden — gardianne s,(. 
Woman usber — huissiere s, t. 
Wombe — panse s, f. ; panche s, {. 
Wonder — maraaille s, f. 
Wondring — maraaillant s, m. 
Wonders — raiges, f. 
Wont custome — coustume s, f. 
Wont or custome to an yvell thyng — amorse 

s.î. 
Wo sorowe — tristesse s, {. 
Woodessyde — orirre du boys , f. 
Wolde herbe. 

Worde — mot z, m.; àict z, m.; edict z, m. 
Workc — besoigne s,{. 
Worke made of woH — œuure de layne s, m.; 

lanijice s, f. 
Workeman — ouurier s, m. 
Workewoman — oaueriere s, i. 
Workyng stoie fore a sylkeman — mettier s, m. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Workemanship of a thyng — ouueraige s, m. 
Woride — monde s, m.; siècle s, m.; cercle 

s, m. 
Worme in the belly — uers, m. 
Wormein the hand — ciron s, m. 
Worme in the ertlie - — uers de terre, m. 
Worme etyng wode — boys uermolu, m. 
Wormwode an herbe — aluyne s, f. 
Worship honour — honneur s , m. 
Worshippyng of ydols — idolâtrie s, f. ; culture 

de idolles s, (. 
Worstede — ostade s, (. 
Worte to make aie. 

Worthynesse — prestance s, f . ; noblesse s , f. 
Worte worme. 

Worthynesse of dignyte — dignité z, f. 
Wortes for potage — potage s, m.; poree z, f. 
Wounde a soore — p'ay* z « f- 

W BEFOHE R. 

Wrake of the see — • péril z , ra. 

Wrake ofa shippe — naujraige s, m. 

Wrenche — torche s, {. 

Wrencbe ont of joynt — deboytement s, m.; 

dejoincture s,f. 
Wrenche a wyle — gauche s, f. ; ruse s, (. 
Wrenne a byrde — rattelet z, m. 
Wrest for a harpe — broche de harpe s,f. 
Wrastiyng — layte s, f. 
Wretbe — chetif z, m. ; malostru s, m. ; maajle 

s, m. 
Wretchydnesse — misère s, f. 
Wretbe that gothe rounde — torsurc s, {. 
Wretbe angre — courroux, m.; maltaleni s, m. 
Wretbe of oide cordes dypped in grece and 

pytche, suche as is burned in cressettes 

— toarbiginaahc , m. 
Wrye mouthe — tortemoue s, f. 
Wrincbes or wyles — chariuaris , m. 
Wrinkeli — ply z, m. 
Wrinkell in ones forbeed — fronce s, f. 
Wrinkeli in oues face — raiere s, t. 
Wrist of ones bande — poignet z, m. 
Wrilte in the iawe — remouuemeni s, m. 
Writyng — mandement s, tn.;escripture st f . ; 

escript s, m. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 

Writyng of a thyng — inscription s, f. 
Wronge — tort s, m.; injure s, {. 
Wrongeous dede — tortjait s, m. 



291 



Y BEFORE A. 

Yalowe gy]lofer — jaune girofle s, {. 
Tarde or courte — court s, m. 
Yarde to measure with — uerge s , f. 
Yarde rope for a sayle. 
Yarne tlirede — Jil z,m. 
Yarne wyndell — lomette s, f. 
Yarowe myifoile an herbe — enreue s, f. 
Ydelnesse of wytte — resnerie s, f. 

Y BEFORE E — V. 

Yeldeng — rétribution s, f. 

Yelke of an egge — moyeul x, m.; moeau dung 

oeuf s, ra. 
Yelowe cray fleure. 
Yelowe colonr — jaune couleur s, f. 
Yeman — yeman s, m. 
Yeman of the borse — palfrenier s, m, 
Yeman of the garde — archier de la garde s, m. 
Yere xii monethes — an s, m. 
Yerely profyte that cometh to one — reuenue 

s. f. 
Yerthe quake — tremblement de terre s, in. 
Yest or barme for aie — leueton, m. 
Yeske thaï cometh of the stomake — saiiglout 

z, m. 
Yexing — hocquet z, m, 
Yiande — isle s, f. 
Yoke for an oxe — joug a beaf z,m.; collier a 

beuf s, m. 
Yongman a servaunt — ualeton s, m.; ualle- 

lon s, m.;jouuenceau x,m. 



Yonge iyon a beesl — leonceaa x, m. 

Yonge leke — porreauj porrez, m. 

Yonge haare — leuereau x, m. 

Yonge rabbet — laperiau x', m. 

Yonge ravyn — corbineau x,m. 

Yonge woman — jeune femme s, f. 

Yonge coke — jeune cuisynier s, m. 

Yongest — puisne s, m. 

Yongar borne — maisne. 

Yonge asse — jeune asne s, m. 

Yonge spring tree — jeune sion s, m. 

Yowe to niake bowes of — hyf z, m. 

Youthe — jeunesse s , t. i 

Ypocrisy — ypocrisie s, f. 

Ypocrite — ypocrile s, m. 

Yre wratbe — ire s, f. ; maltalent s, m. 

Yron metali — fer s, m. 

Yssue — sortis<iment s, ra. ; issue s, f. 

Yssues of a court — amendes, f. 

Yssue a place to corne out at — saulture s, f. 

Yvorie — iaoire s, m. 

Z BEFORE A. 

2alandyne an herbe — esclaire s, f. ■ 
Zacharie a propbet — ung prophète s, m. 
Zabulon — estoytjilz de Jacob s, m. 

Z BEFORE E. 

Zebedeus — le père de saint Jaques et de saint 

Johan leuangeliste s, m. 
Zèle love or frenshyp — amour s, m. 
Zelandc a countrey — Zelande s, {. 
Zephirus — le uent de la bize s, m. 
Zodiake — le cercle qui fait tourner le firmament 

par ou le soleil et les planettes font leur 

cours. 



Hère endeth the table of substantyves , and hère after foloweth 
the adjectyve. 



37. 



292 î LESCLARCISSEMENT 

ANNOTACYONS UPON THE FYRST ACCYDENT BELONGYNG TO NOWNES ADJECTYVES , 
AND HOWE TH£Y FORME THEIR FEMYNYNE GENDERS OUT OF THEIR MASCCLYNES. 

Howe adjectyves folowe the genders of sucbe substantyves as they 
belong unto I hâve afore , in the seconde boke , some ihyng touched , 
and sball hère after more playnly expresse. Butbow tbey forme their 
femynin genders eut of their Oîasculyns, caliyng first to reniembraunce 
what generall rules I bave gyven afore in tbis accydent, in tbe sayde 
seconde boke, bere consequently sball appere by order after tbe fynall 
termynations tbat tbe same adjectyves ende in. 

HOWE ALL MASCULYN ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN ANY VOWELL OB DIPHTHONG 
FORME THEIR FEMINYNES. 

AU adjectyves endyng in any vowell or dipbtbong except au by 
addynge to of E forme tbeir femynines, as hardy, hardye; barbu, 
barbue; uray, uraye; gay, gaye; menu, menue; corpsu, corpsue. 

HOWE ALL MA.SCCLYNE ADJECTYVES ENDYNG lîi AU FORME THEIR FEMINYNES. 

Masculyne adjectyves endyng in au I fynde no mo but two, beau 
and nouueau, wbose femynines be belle and nouuelle, formed of bel 
and nouuel, wbicbe yet kepe tbe termynacyon of tbe olde Romant 
tonge, as sball herafter appere. 

HOW MASCULYN ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN ANY CONSONANT FORME THEIR FEMYNINES," 
AND FIRST HOW ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN C FORME THEIR FEMYNINES. 

Ail adjectyves whose masculyne gender endetb in c by addyng to h 
and e forme tbeir femynins, as blanc, blanche; sec, sèche; franc , franche 
and so of ail otber. 

HOWE ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN D FORME THEIR FEMYNINES. 

Masculyn adjectyves endyng in d I fynde none written in tbe frencbe 
tonge afore Joban le Mayres tyme, for Joban de Meun, Alayn Cbar- 
tier, and ail tbat bave written afore twenty yeres passe d, bave more 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 293 

regarded to confyrme them in writyng unto the naturall pronuncia- 
tyon of their tonge, whiche nevei- sounde d, in the ende of a worde, 
but in the stede therof t. But Johan le Mayre and ail suche as hâve 
written sythe his tyme, write ail their adjectyves that be formed of 
latyn adjectyves endyng in dus oi- in dis with a d fynall; as bycause 
the latyns saye roiundus, frigidus, calidus, blundus, profundus, facundus, 
surdus, rigidus, tepidus, uiridis, grandis, cradis, radis, and suche lyke, they 
saye rond,froyd, chauld, blond, parfond, facond, sourd, royd, tied, uerd, 
grand, crud, rad; wherin the orthography of this tyme appereth to 
me amended over. It was of olde tyme for the femynines of ail suche 
adjectyves bave ever ended in de, as ronde , froyde , chaulde, bothe of 
oide tyme and so y et be continued. 

HOWE ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN F FORME THElR FEMYNINES. 

Ali adjectyves whose masculyne gendre endeth in/by addyng to u 
and e forme their femynines, as tardyf maketh tardif ue; liastyf, has- 
tyfae; pensyf, pensyfae; bretyf, bretyfue, and so of ail suche lyke, and 
therfore where as in dyvers bokes the femynynes of suche adjectyves 
be written without /, it is the ignoraunce of the printers whiche 
knowe nat their owne tonge, for generally there is none adjectyve 
of the femynjn gendre but be hath the consonant of his masculyne , 
whiche be is formed out of, except adjectyves endyng in x, whiche 
in their femynines chaunge x intos, by reason of the vowell folowyng, 
whiche is more easlyer sounded with s than with x, as eureux, eureuse, 
and so of suche lyke. 

HOWE ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN G FORME THEIR FEMYNYNES. 

AU adjectyves whose masculyne gendre endeth in g by addyng to 
of u and e forme their femynynes , as long, longue , excepte brehaing, 
whiche maketh brehaingne. 

HOWE ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN L FORME THEIR FEMYNYNES. 

AU adjectyves whose masculyne gendre endeth in / by addyng to / 



294 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

and e forme their femynines, as libéral liberalle; cruel cruelle; isnel, 

isnelle. And so of ail suche lyke. 

HOWE ADJECTYVES ENDÏNG IN A FORME THEIR FEMYNINES. 

AU adjectyves endyng in n, if they hâve e or o commynge before n, 
by addyng of another n and e they forme their femynines, as chris- 
tien christienne ; terrien terrienne; bon bonne; mignon mignonne. If they 
hâve i commyng before n, outher alone or in a dyphthong, by addyng 
to onely of e they forme their femynines, as diain diaine; cheualin 
cheualine; fin fine; uain uaine; uillain aillaine; plain plaine. 

HOWE ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN Q FORME THEIR FEMYNINES. 

AU adjectyves endynge in q, whiche Johan le Mayre writeth ever 
with cq, by addyng to of u and e forme their femynines , as angeliq 
or angelicq angelique or angelicque; diaboliq or diabolicq diabolique or 
diabolicqae, and so of ail suche other as after the latyn formation 
ende in eus, as mirificus, magnificm, etc., whiche I wolde rather forme 
mirifiq, magnifiq, than mirificque, magnificque. 

HOWE ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN R FORME THEIR FEMYNINES. 

AU adjectyves endyng in r by addyng to e forme thejr femynines, 
as dur dure; obscur obscure; pur pure; and so of ail suche lyke. 

HOWE ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN S FORME THEIR FEMYNINES. 

AU adjectyves whose masculyne gendre endeth in s, beyngof one 
syllable, and havyng a or o for their vowell, by addyng to of 5 and e 
forme their femynines, as bas basse; gras grasse; gros grosse. AU other, 
vhider they be of one syllable or of many, by addyng to of e onely 
forme their femynines, as gris grise; gorgias gorgiase; malaais mal- 
uaise. Except espes, whiche maketh espesse. 

HOWE ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN T FORME THEIR FEMYNINES. 

AU adjectyves whose masculyne gender endeth in t, if they bave 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 295 

a consonant commyng next before t, by addynge to onely of e they 
forme their femynines, as suspect maketh suspecte; droict droicte; hault 
haulte; aduenant aduenante; benoist benoiste; court courte, and so o£ 
ail suche lyke , except they be suche as I hâve made mentyon of 
where I shewed that the right frenche tonge hatî none adjectyves 
whose masculyns ende in d, for ail suche frenche adjectyves as be 
formed of latyn adjectyves endynge in dus or in dis, though their 
masculyns ende in t, after the olde maner of orthography, their fe- 
minynes ende in de by chaungyng of t into de, as fwyt froyde, and 
ail other that ende in t, havyng a vowell commyng next before t, by 
addyng of another t and e forme their feminynes, as plat platte: in- 
grat ingratte; net nette; mignot mignotte. 

HOWE ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN O FORME THEIR FEMYNINES. 

AU adjectyves endyng in « by addyng to of e forme theyr femi- 
nynes, as herbu herbue; barbu barbue; crespu crespue; menu menue; but 
in thèse adjectyves I fynde nat the orthography of the frenche tonge 
as yet certayne; for I fynde them written with eu, as herbeu, bar- 
beu, crespeu. How be it I approve more the fyrste maner of writyng, 
and where as I fynde cru for rawe and crue, Johan le Mayre writeth 
it crud and crade, whiche orthography is more trewer, by cause it 
cometh of crudis. And so wolde I rather write nud and nude, by cause 
of nudus, than nu and nue. But as yet the authors do folowe the vul- 
gar tong, for Johan le Mayre sayth : puis après Paris se mettoit a laicter 
tout nu auecques les plus fors sur Iherbe uert. 

HOWB ADJECTYVES ENDYNG IN X FORME THEIR FEMYNINES. 

Ail adjectyves whose masculyn gendre endeth in x, by chaungyng 
X into s, and addyng to of e forme their femynines, as douloureux 
douloureuse; honteux honteuse; terreux terreuse. 

And note that, in what consonant soever the masculyne gender Régula 
ende in, the femynine alwayes endeth in e, except thèse two com- 
paratyves meileur and greigneur, whiche serve bothe for the masculyn 



^. 



296 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

and feminyne , as shall here after appere. Except also grant whiche 
serveth for the most parte for ihe masculyn and femynin, for grande 
is but sildome used, as shall herafter appere. 

Note also tha^hese four adjectyves bel, nouuel, aiel and mal hâve 
also for their méfecidyn gendres beau, nouueau, uieulx and mauluais, 
of whiche the four first be used afore substantyves begynnyng wlth a 
vovvell or with h, nat havyng bis aspiration, as vng bel anneau, ang 
bel homme, ang nouuel estatut, ung ueil homme, ung mal appétit; but 
maulaais is more commenly used before ail substantyves , and maigre 
betokeneth dispyte or magrye , maulaais gre y vel thanke , as je le feray 
maalgre uoz dens; de aostre mescant faict je uous en scay maaluays 
gre. 

Also frais is eut of rule, for after the frenche formation, it shulde 
he frec, and so I fynde hym written in Johan le Mayrë, whiche is 
evydent aswell by the plurell nombre /recz, as by the (emyn freche. 

ANNOTACIONS UPON THE SECONDE ACCIDENT BELONGYNG TO ADJECTYVES, AND 
FIRST WHAT ADJECTYVES HAVE THEIR PLDRELL NOMBRES ENDYNG IN S. 

Ail adjectyves endyng in any vowell, the vowell being alone and 
no parte of a diphthong, by addyng to of 5 forme their plurell nom- 
bres, as triste tristes; hardy hardis; joly jolis; ossu ossas; membni 
membrus. By whiche rule appereth that generally the plurell nombre 
of ail femynine adjectyves in the frenche tonge endeth in s, for (as I 
bave afore declared) their synguler nombre endeth ever in e. 

Also ail adjectyves endynge in eu by addyng to s forme their plu- 
rell, as meneu meneas. 

Also ail adjectyves endyng in n, ror /,^havyng n and r commyng 
before t, hâve their plurell nombres endynge in s, but with this diffe- 
rence : for they that ende in n or r by addynge to of s forme their 
plurell nombres, as uillayn uillayns; plain plains; dur durs; obscur 
obscurs; they that ende in t and bave n or r commynge next before t 
by chaungynge t into 5 forme their plurell nombres, as uaillant uail~ 
lans; expert expers. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 297 

WHAT ADJECTYVES, IN THE FRENCHE TONGE, HAVE THEIR PLURELL NOMBRE 

ENDYNG IN Jf. 

AU adjectyves endynge in au by addynge to of / and x forme their 
plurell nombres, as beau beaulx; nouueau nouueaulx. 

AU adjectyves endynge in al by addynge to of a and x forme their 
plurell nombres, as égal, egaulx; libéral, liberaulx. 

WHAT ADJECTYVES IN THE FRENCHE TONGE HAVE THEIR PLURELL NOMBRES 

ENDYNG IN Z. 

AU adjectyves endyng in any other ietter, that is to say, c, f, g, t, 
nat havyng n nor r commyng before hym, el, il, ol or ul by addyng 
of z forme their plurell nombres, as sec secz; blanc blancz; hastyf 
hastifz; uif uifz; long longz; brehaing brehaingz; discret discretz; petit 
petitz ; ingrat ingratz; cruel cruelz; isnel isnelz; subtyl subtylz; gentil 
gentilz; mol molz ; fol folz ; nul nulz; and so of ail sache lyke. 

ANNOTACIONS UPON THE THIRDE ACCIDENT. * 

vit 

Adjectyves agrée nat onely with substantyves in gendre and nom- 
bre, but also with the pronownes primityves , as je suis blanc (under- 
standyng a man); je sais blanche (understandyng a woman); nous 
sommes blancz (understandyng men); nous sommes blanches (under- 
standyng women). And of the other pronownes lykewyse. 

But nat ever adjectyves shaU alter their termynacions after the AdjectWes in l 
gender and nombre of their substantyves. For ail adjectyves endyng to^femynin 
in / may be joyned in their masculyn termynacions in bothe nombres substantyves. 
unto femynine substantyves, so they come before the sayd substan- 
tyves in order, as vng especial amour, une cruel defence, une gcntyl da- 
moissellc, par especiaalx différences, par cruelz defences, pour gentilz 
damoisselles ; and suche lyke conginiyte use they also with tel and quel, 
as vue tel dame, de quel part, par telz gens, par qaelz meurs. But if 
suche adjectyves come after their femynine substantyves, it is more 
sure to use their femynine termynations, as vng amour especialle, une 

* 38 



Qaelconiiues 

et quelzconques 

what 

iTeminynes. 



Grant what 
feininynes. 



298 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

defence bien cruelle, une damoysselle bien gentille, par différences espe- 
cialles, par defences bien cruelles, une dame telle quelle, ses meurs sont 
telles. How be it I fynde in the prologue of Froissart en memore per- 
pétuel; and in Johan le Mayre les sept ars liberaulx. 

But as for ye uous ay icy attendu toute jour andye uous aymc sur toute 
riens and suche lyke, where toute in his femynin gendre is joyned 
unio jour of the masculyn gendre, and in his femynin unto rien, 
that I fynde onely used bylwene thèse two wordes, and in the syn- 
guler nombre. 

And ail be it that I fynde this rule syldome broken of any authour 
that writeth in prose, yet suche as writeth in ryme use in this thyng 
their lyberte, as best furnyssheth to make the just syllables of their 
ryme. Leuesque dAngoullesnie en lepistre de Medee a Jason 

Et subjuguer par subtilles cautelles 

Les fiers thoreaulx dangerealx et rebelles 

where he bath nat onely used subtilles for subtilz, but also joyned 
rebelles with thoreaulx, whiche in prose were playne incongru and 
covdde nat be saved. And in lykewyse the same auctor in the pystell 
of Hermione : 

Mais QVELLE injure ay je fait a noz dieux 

Dont Hz soient contre nous odieux ; 

Ne QUEL plainte nest ores si contraire 

where he hath used quelle and quel thoughe bothe the substantyves 
be of the femynine gender. 

But as for quelconques and quelz conques I fynde ever used with fe- 
mynine substantyves and never quelle conques nor quellesconques , as 
apereth by Jehan le Mayre in the thirde chapiter of his first boke of 
illustracions : sans faire fraude ou corruption quelconques. 

Also (jrant in his masculyne termynation in bothe his nombres may 
be joyned before substantyves of the femynine gender, as vne (jrant 
pitié, engrans lamentacions ; but after suche substantyves they use alway 
grande, as la risée fust grande : les matières sont grandes : Titea la grande. 



•*: 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 299 

Howe be it I fynde ma mère grani; and suche as write in ryme observe 
nat alwayes this rule ever, for Leuesque en lepistre de Dido saythe : 

Primierem.ent des vndes degette 
Je tay receu en ma grande cite. 

Also they use to joyne vert in bis masculyne singular witb herbe, 
thougb he be of the femynine gender : Jeban le Mayre, Pais après 
Paris se mettait a luicter tout nu auecques les plus fors sur Iherbe vert. 

Note also tbat bon in bis singuler nombre is joyned witb substan- 
tyves of the femynine gender, if they begyn witb a vowel or witb h 
nat havyng bis aspiration, as par bon amour, vne borne habitacion, but 
after their sidjstantyves they use bonne, as mon amour est bonne, cest 
habitacion est bonne. 

And note tbat the masculyn gender conceyveth the femynine in 
tbis tonge lyke as it dothe in the latyn, as appereth by Jeban le Maire 
in the thirde chapter of bis first boke of Illustrations, Quant donques 
le bon père Noe, Sem, Cam et Japhct et leurs femmes, Titea la grande, 
Pandora, Noela et Noegla se virent estre tous seuletz au monde, Hz furent 
ententifz aux euures de mariage, where tous seuletz and ententifs be 
of the masculyn gendre , nat witlistandyng the names of women tbat 
come next in the sentence to them, and in lyke wyse, // paia en ma- 
nière de tribut cent thoreaux et cent vaches blancz. 

But if there come any other substantyves beyng of dyvers gendres, 
rather by reason of their terminacion than by reason of their signi- 
fycation, before any adjectyves, they shall agre in gendre witb their 
next substantyves and in nombre witb the verbe, if there comes a 
verbe bytwene them, els in nomber also witb the next substantyve, 
as apereth by Alayn Chartier in bis exile : Tu vois donques comme 
les règnes et les puissances establyes sans doctrine ou condut: par déraison 
sont non certaines et tirent le roy et le royalme a mort:, where establies 
and certaines be of the femynyn gendre by cause tbat puissances, 
whiche comyth next unto them, is of the feminyn gendre, thougb 
that règnes is of the masculyn gendre , by reason wherof they say 

38. 



Vert 
with herbe. 



Bon 
with femiuynes 

begynning 

with a vowell 

or with h, 

nat havyng 

his aspiracion. 

Concepcion 

used 
in this long. 



Ip 



subslantives 
singular. 



300 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

par délibération generalle et consentement gênerai, par consentement ft 
délibération generalle, par lenhortement et persuasion fraudulente , par la 
persuasion et enhortement fraudaient, joynyng always ihe adjectyve lo 
his next substantyve bothe in gendre and nombre. 
^' And note that, if many adjectyves belonge to one svibstantyfe they 

shall agre with hyni in gendre and nombre, as en vng furieux, mau- 
sade et infertyl désert deau troublée, puante et terreuse. 
One adjective Note also that I fynde moche used of suche as be writers aboute 
with"many ^^^^ tyme to joyne an adjectyve in his plurell nombre to ii substantyves 
of the singuler nombre, as apereth in Johan Mechinot that made les 
lunettes des princes, in his supplication made to the duke of Bretayne : 
a la fureur desquelz a tousjours jusques cy résistée par les bons support et 
aide quil vous a pieu luy faire. 

Note also that, if this rule be founde in any poynte broken in any 
auctour of estymation , it is rather by ignoraunce of the printers that 
knowe nat their owne tonge than defaulte in the auctours selfe , save 
that suche as writeth in ryme, in this behalfe also use their lyberte, 
as apereth by the bysshop in the pystell of Hypermestra : 

Si que depuis, pour toy las qui tant vaulx, 
Jay endure mains paines et traaaulx. 

ANNOTACIONS UPON THE FOURTH ACCIDENT BEL0NGYN6E 
TO NOWNES ADJECTYVES. 

Though I fynde greigneur and moindre used somtyme for the com- 
para tyves of grant and petit, yet more suer it is for a lerner to use 
plus grant and plus petit. But as for meylleur is ever used indifferently, 
and as for intérieur, inférieur, major, minor and suche lyke be rather 
latyn comparatyves than formed after the right frenche tonge. 

And note that, if they wyll extende the qualyte of any thyng 
without makyng of comparyson to another thynge , they use one of 
thèse wordes trop, très, fort, autant, bien, tant, moult, si, dauantage, 
and suche lyke, as trop bon, to good; très bon, ryght good; fort bon, 
very good; bien bon, very good; moult bon, full good; and in lyke 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 301 

wyse, if they wyll dyminysshe the qualyte of a thyng, they use peu, 
gaajres, goutte, and suche iyke, as peu bon, small good, guayres bon, 
but a lytell good ; and Iyke as plus added to an adjectyve makelh 
comparation by augmentyng, se dothe moyns make comparation by 
dyminisshyng , as moyns sage, moyns discret, moyns sobre que luy. ■ - 

ANNOTACYONS UPON THE FYFTHE ACCIDENT BELONGYNGE TO ADJECTYVES. 

Declynation of adjectyves hath ever suche as I bave afore, in the Meilleur 
seconde boke, in this place declared; andtherfore where Alayn Char- ^'" ^"it'ii"'" 
lier sayeth in bis exile : et qui ces te voye vouldroyt fuir pour lesperance temmyncs. 
de meilleure prospérité. And in bis Quadrilogue : en meilleures gardes a 
il de grans pertes, tbe boke wolde be corrected ; for in ail otber auctours 
and in him selfe in ail otber places I fynde meileur and meileurs onely 
used for botbe the gendres, as 1 bave afore declared, but suche as write 
in pyme somtyme breake this rule , as Leuesque in tbe epistyll de Me- 

dea a Jason : 

Car je ne scay auUre voye meilleure 

Fors que me venge ou que bien tostje meure. 

And also of some auctours whiche be nat to be reproved I fynde 
meilleure used wban be is tbe last worde in a sentence , bis substantive 
beyng of the feminyn gendre, as vous debuez conoistre vostre cas et adui- 
ser de deux voies la meilleure. 

ANNOTACYONS UPON THE SYXTHE ACCIDENT. 

Adjectyves endyng in a whiche be formed of substantyves in this 
tonge I fynde no mo but x : barbu, corsu, cornu, herbu, fueillu, fourchu, 
membru, testa, cheueulu, ossu, vellu, becqu, poyllu, whiche be formed 
of barbe, corne, herbe , fueille , fourche , membre, teste, cheueul et poyl, 
and ofve/u and c/ie«e«/«(I fynde no substantyve in use), and they signi- 
fye plenty or store of the substantyve that they be formed of, as barbu, 
plentuously or moche berded; cornu, plentuously or moche horned; 
herbu, plentuously or moche stored of herbes, and so of the resydue. 
And the trewe formacion for kepyng of trewe orthograpby is easy to - 



302 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

be observed, for, if the substanlyve ende in e, the adjectyves chaunge 
e into « : if the substantive ende in a consonant, they double the con- 
sonant and adde to a. And as for crochu, esperdu, pellu, poyntii, re- 
nolu, and suche lyke, be partyciples used somtyme lyke adjectyves, 
and dra, aga, menu, and suche lyke , be primytives and be fourmed of 
none other partes. 

Also lyke as of substantyves in the latyn tonge be formed adjectyves 
endyng in osus, so of the lyke substantyves in frenche be fourmed ad- 
jectyves endyng in eux, lyke as the latyns say of aqua, aquosus, so say- 
the the frenchmen of eaae, eaueux. But if any suche adjectyves in 
the frenche tonge ende in ieux, they be formed of the latyn adjectyve 
endyng in iosus, and nat of any frenche substantyve, as odieux, mali- 
cieux , furieux , ingénieux, and suche lyke, whiche come oi odiosus, ma- 
liciosus , furiosus , ingeniosus; so that ail suche as be formed of their 
frenche substantyves, if the substantyve ende in e, by addynge to ofu 
and X forme their adjectyves, as terre terreux; argille, argilleux ; foire 
foireux. If their substantyves ende in any other termynacion, by addyng 
to of eux they forme their adjectyves, as of paour paoureux; of miel 
mieleux; vertu, vertueux. But I fynde cheualereux , and nat cheualiereux 
formed of cheualier, and uicieux formed rather oïviciosus than of vice. 
Butmany other adjectyves they bave endynge in eux, whiche be other- 
wyse formed than I bave hère rehersed. 

And note that the moste parte of suche adjectyves as ende in eux, 
in the frenche tonge, bave their englysshe adjectyves endyng in ysht 
or in y, as eaueux, wateryshe or watry; pierreux, stony or stonysshe. 

Also of every adjectyve partyciple in the frenche tonge endyng in 
ant may be formed an adjectyve by chaungynge of ant into able, as of 
muant, muable; honorant, honorable; conuertissant , conueriissable; faisant, 
faisable ; fermant , fermable ; and so of ail other whose signifycacion niay 
serve bothe actyvely and passively, as muable, apte or mete or able to 
chaunge, or apte or mete or able to be chaunged : honorable apte or 
mete or able to honour, or apte or mete or able to be honoured. And 
so of ail the resydue. But amiable is rather fourmed of amabilis than ol 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 303 

amant, lyke sls visible , Jlexible , compréhensible , soluble , duisible, vendible 
he formed of latyn adjectyves and nat of any partyciples. 

Note also tliat in this thyng the frenche tonge is moche more par- 
fyte that our tonge is , for where as tliey may forme of every partyciple 
in their tonge an adjectyve endyng in ble, in our tonge we hâve none 
suche , hut must nedes use circumlocution by thèse wordes : apte , mete 
or able , and our infynity ve mode ; save that we hâve admitted as well 
adjectyves of the frenche tonge endyng in able and ible, as commen- 
dable, visible, etc. 

Also of every latyn adjectyve endynge in icus may be formed a 
frenche adjectyve in icq, after Johan le Mayres ortography, or in ic, 
after the more comen ortography, as of magnificus, mirificus, bellicus, 
yallicus, tyrannicus, mathematicas , olimpicus, bacolicus, diabolicus, pu- 
blicus, sophysticas, be formed magnificq, mirificq, bellicq, gallicq, tiran- 
nicq, mathematicq , olimpicq, bucolicq, diabolicq, publicq, sophysticq, 
whiche kynde of formation is moche used of the sayd Johan le 
Mayre. 

Also of latyn adjectyves endyng in iaus be formed adjectyves in 
this tonge endynge in if, as of vegetaliuas, sensytiuus, intellectiuas, mo- 
tiuus , fugitiaus be formed végétatif, sensitif, intelectif, motif, fugitif. 

Also of certayne feminyn termynacions of adjectives I fynde formed 
otlier adjectyves whiche be demynutyves in signyfication by addyng 
to of t, as of grande is formed grandet, oi molle, mollet; oï grosse, gros- 
set; of belle, bellet; oîvermielle, vermillet; but as for loygnet is formed 
of loyng the adverbe. 

Also lyke as of nombres in the latyn tonge be formed adjectyves 
endyng in iuus , betokynge ordre with nombre, so in lykewyse of 
the nombres in the frenche tonge be formed adjectyves of lyke signy- 
ficacion endynge in esme, as of deux, deusiesme. But of thèse I shall 
hâve belter occasyon to speake of in the later ende of the pronowne 
in this boke. 

1 fynde also certayne other formacions of frenche adjectyves out 
of latyn adjectyves, as oî cristallinus , cristallyn; jauenilis , juaenil; dif- 



304 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

cilis, dificil; docilis, docile; amabilis, amable; affabilis, affable; pastoralis, 
pastoral; amiabilis, amiable; bestialis, bestial; and by lyke formacyon of 
seigneur, seigneurial; and certayne endyng in ien, as Junonien, Véné- 
rien, Herculien; whiche, by cause I fynde nat many mo than I hère 
reherse, I suppose to be sufficient onely to warne the lerner of. And 
howe of latyn adjectyves endynge in dus, and in dis, be formed adjec- 
tyves endynge in t, I bave afore touched in the seconde chapiter 
where I spake of adjectyves endyng in d. 

ANNOTACYONS CPON THE SEVENTH ACCIDENT. 

If an adjectyve be joyned with a substantyve, as to put a différence 
or to avoyde confusyon by cause there is dyverse of suche sortes as 
the substantyve signyfieth , than the adjectyve shall ever in the fren- 
che tonge foUowe the substantyve. As if I wolde speake of the sygne 
of horse or suche lyke, by cause some signe may be of a blacke horse 
and some of a whyte, in suche speakyng they use to say le cheual 
blanc, le cheual noir; and in lyke wyse if I wolde speake of breed, for 
by cause there is dyversyte, for thus they saye : payn blanc, pain bis, 
pain tendre, pain rassis, pain bourgois, pain de chapistre. And in al suche 
lyke where the adjectyve hath lyke strength and effecte. 

Hère endeth the rules of the nowne adjectyve. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



305 



THE TABLE OF ADJECTYVES. 



Aagcolde — m. ancien , f. ancienne s; m. viel, 

f. vielle s. 
Aagedlyke — m. senil z, f. senille s. 
Abasshed shamefasle — m. nieux, f. niease s; 

m. conjus, f. conjnse s. 
Abhomynable iotbsome — m. et f. abhominable 

s, m. et f. détestable s. 
Abydyng, conlynuyng in a place — m. résident, 

f. résidente s. 
Able or actylTe — m. habyl z, f. habille s. 
Absent from a place — m. absent s, f. absente s. 
Absolule Avitbout liavyn g respecte to other — 

m, absolut z, i. ahsolute s. 
Acceptable — m. et f. acceptable s. 
Accordable — m. et f. accordable s. 
Accusatyve — m. accusatif -, f. accusatifue s. 
Actyffe redy or quicke in doynge — m. actif z, 

f. actifue s. 
Adjeclyve — ni. adjectif z, f. adjectifue s. 
Adventurouse bardy to put ones selfe in daun- 

ger — m. aduentareux, f. aduenlureuse s. 
Aeygre or sbarpe — m. et f. aigre s. 
Aeryssbo of the nature of tbe ayer — m. ac- 

rin s, {. aeryne s. 
Affectueuse full of alTcctyon or desyre — m. 

affectif z, i. ajfeclifae s. 
Affectionale parcial for kynred or favoure — 

m. affectionne , f. affectionnée s. 
Agréable playsant or consentyng to a tliynge 

ni. et f. agréable s. 
AmasefuU — m. effraieux, f. effraiease s. 
Ambicious to mocbe desyrous of promocion — 

m. ambicieux, f. ambicicuse s. 
Amyabic lovely — ni. et f. amiable s. 
Angelyke of the nature of an angell — m. an- 

gelin s, f. angeline s. 
Anguysshfull — m. angoisseax , f. angoisseuse s. 
Amorous lovyng or belongyng to love — m. 

amoreux, f, amoreuse s. 
Apertaynyng to an answere — m. responsif z , 

i. responsifue s. 
Apte convenyent or uiete — m. et f. conae- 
nable s; m. séant, f. séante s: m. dujf- 



sant s, f. dujsante s; m. décent s, f. dé- 
cente s; oportun, oportane. 

Artyfyciouse full of great crafte and workeman- 
shyp — ni. artificieux, f. artificieuse s. 

Attendable to ones counsaylles — m. ententif : , 
f, ententifue s. 

Avaylabie as a thing that avayleth or profytetli 
— m. et f. vaylable s. 

Avaricyous — m. auaricieux, f. auariviense s. 

Awburnc as ones heare. 

Awkwarde : men rynge aukewarde — on sonne 
en hransle. 

Awkwarde frowardc — m. peruers, (. peruerse. 

Awkwar ieflehanded — m. et f. gauche s. 

Awncyent — m. et f. antique s. 

Awtentyque — m. et f. aatentiijue s. 



Bare power — m. et f. poure s. 
Bare or naked — denae, dénuée. 
Baren as a woman or shc bcest is tbat bea- 
reth nat— m. breliayng z, f. brehayngne s. 
Barren as the erthc is that bringeth forthe no 

fruyte — m. infertil z, (. infertdle s. 
Bablyng — m. babillant, f. babillantes. 
Badde yvel — m. mauluais, f. mauluaise s. 
Bare fote — nu piedz. 
Batell grounde. 

Baudy soyled with fyltlie — m. sallj s, f. sallje s. 
Baudy in wordes or dedes concernyng the vyce 
of the body — m. paillardif z, f. paillar- 
difue s. 
Baulde want of heare — m. et f. chaulue s. 
Beaniyssbe as the sonne is — m. radieux, f. ra- 
dieuse s. 
Beaulyfuli — m. beau or bel beaulx, f. belle s, 

m. et f. venuste s. 
Bestyslie resemblyng to tbe nature of a beest 
— m. brutal aulx, f. brutalle s; m. bestial 
aulx, f. bestialle s; m. sensuel z , {. sen- 
suelle s. 
Beggerishe — m. blislrettx, f. blistrease s. 
Begylefull disfaythfull — ni. cautelleax, f. caii- 
telleuse s. 

39 



306 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Belongyng to a mannes byrthe — m. natal, f. 

nalalle s. 
Belongyng to a shyppe — m. naaal, f. naualle s. 
Belongyng to wytte or smellyage — m. odora- 

tij z, f. odoratifae s. 
Belongyng to Pluto — m. et f. Platonique. 
Belongyng to buryall — ra. sépulcral, f. sepul- 

cralle s. 
Belongyng totyme — m. lemprijz, f. leniprifae s, 
Belongyng to a worde — m. verbal, f. verballe s. 
Belongyng to the springe tyde — m. vemal, f. 

vernalle s. 
Belongyng to the wytte of man — m. intellectif 

z, f. intellectifue s. 
Belongyng to Juno — m. Janonien, f. Juno- 

nienne s. 
Belongyng to arbytrement : — m. et f. arbi- 
traire s. 
Belongyng to a fayrie — m. et f.faee s. 
Belongyng to génération — m. génital, f. geni- 

toile s. 
Belongyng to affynyte — m. ajjinitif z, f. ajji- 

nitifae s. 
Belongyng to mariage — m. conjugal, f. conja- 

galle s. 
Bemooked — m. breneux, f. breneuse s, 
Benyngue — m.benign s,{. bénigne s. 
Benombe of ones lymbes — m. perclus, f. per- 
cluse S. 
Berded — m. barbu s, t. barbue s. 
Beshytten — m. breneux, f. breneuse s. 
Besye occupyed with the mynde to perceyve a 

thing — m. enteniij z, f. ententifue s. 
Beeslyssbe — m. bestial, f. bestialle s. 
Better of value — m. meilleur s, f. meillieare s. 
Beautyfull — m. et f. venaste s. 
Besye occupyed with busynesse — m. empesche, 
f. empesch.ee; m. embesoigne, f. embesoi- 
gncc s. 
Besy malapert or medlyng in maters — m. en- 

tremetteux, f. entremetteuse s. 
Bygge of strength — m. et f. robuste s. 
Bygge of power or myght — m. paissant s, f. 

puissante s. 
Bytter as gall or suche lyke — m. amer s, f. 
amere s. 



Bytter as a crabbe or any fruyle or it be rype 

— ■ m. et f. acerbe s. 
Blacke — m. noir, f. noire s. 
Blackyssbe — m. et f. noyrastre s. 
Blake wan ofcolour — m. et f. blesme s. 
Blameabic — m. et f. coulpable s. 
Bleareeyed as one is where the reed skynue ape- 

reth outwarde — m. raillieux, f. rai7- 
lieuse s. 
Bleareeyed as one is that the corner of his eye 

is fuU of slyme — m. chassieux, f. chas- 
sieuse s. 
Biysfull gladsome — m. joyeux, (.joyeuse s. 
Blysfull happy — m. bieneure, f. hieneuree s. 
Blessed — m. benoist z, {. benoisie s. 
Blewe colour — m. pers, f. perse s.; m. bleu x, 

f. bleue s. 
Blewisshe — m. azurin s, f, azurine s. 
Blynd that can nat se — ni. et f. aueugle s, 
Blysfull, very happy, well fortuned — m. bieneu- 

reux, f. bieneurease s. 
Blody with spottes of blode — enseigne. 
Blody by violence — ensanglante s. 
Blodisshe — m. sanguinolent s, {.sanguinolente s. 
Blo, blewe and grene coloured, as ones body is 

after a drie stroke — m. et f.jaunastre s. 
Biont nat sharpe — m. rabatu s, agasse. 
Blont in maners or rude — m. et f. rude s. 
Boystous slyffe or rude — m. et f. royde s: m. 

lourt s, f. lourde s. 
Bold hardy — m. audacieux, f. audacieuse s; 

m. hardy s,{. hardye s. 
Bonde thrall — m. setf z, (. serue s. 
Bonysshe one tbathath great bones — m.ossu s, 

f. ossue s. 
Bordring to the seesyde — m. marituin s, f. 

maritainne s. 
Bowyd — m. et f. cambre s. 
Bounde in the belye — serre au ventre. 
Bountuous lyberall in gyveng — m. libéral. 

aulx, f. Uberalle s. 
Boxome obedyent — m. obéissant s, f. obéis- 
sante s. 
Brablyng thwarlyng or quarellyng — ni. noy- 

seux, f. noyseuse s. 
Braggyng — m. et f. brague s. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



307 



Braynisshe hedy, folisshe , selfe wylled — m. 

testa s, f. testue s. 
Brauncbed as a tree — m. branchu s, (. bran- 

chue s, 
Brasyn belongyng to brasse. 
Bredde or brought up in a place — m. natif z, 

f. natifue s. 
Brefe shorte in tyme — m. breif z, f. breijue s: 

m. succinct z, f. succincte s. 
Brefe in communycatyon — m. succinct z,{. 

succincte s. 
Bright as the sonne or any thyng tbat shyneth 

— m. cler s, f. clere s. 
Bright glylteryng as metailes do — m. reluy- 

sant s,{, reluy santé s. 
Brimfull — m. plain, (.plaine; m. et f. comble. 
Brimmefierse — m. fier s, î. fiere s. 
Brittle as a thyng that wyll soone breke in 

sondre — m. rompant s,î. rompante s. 
Brittell unstedfast in condycions — m. et f. 

fraille s: m. et (.fragile s. 
Brokyn — m. et f. casse s. 
Brokyn as ones speche is — m. abrupt z, f. 

abrupte s. 
Broken backed — m. et f. ame s. 
Brodeheeded — m. et f. embrabile s. 
Brode — m. et f. large s: m. et f. ample s. 
Browne a colour — m. bran s, f. brune s. 
Browne or duske colour — soubz brun. 
Brute beestysslie — m. et f. braste s. 
Bruted named or famed — m. fameux, f. fa- 
meuse s. 
Bultcd — m. susse s. 
Burnyng — m. ardant s, f. ardante s. 
Bursten — m. rompu s. 
Basshe beered — crespelleux. 



Caduke apte or enclyned to fall — m. caduc z, 
f. caducque s. 

Calme or styll as the wetber is — m. et f. 
canlme s, carme. 

Capcious crafty in wordes to take one in a trap 
— m. captieux, f. captieuse s. 

Care full of thought or pensyfnesse — m. cha- 
grinewv, f. chagrinense s; soigneux, soi- 
gneuse s. 



Cast in love — m. inamoure, f. inamouree s. 
Casuell as a thyng chaunceth to hapyn — m. 

casuel s. 
Celestyall — m. celestiel z, (. celestielle s. 
Certayne — m. certain s, f. certayne s. 
ChargefuU — m. chargeux, f. chargeuse s. 
Chaste good of lyvynge — m. et f. chaste s. 
Chatleryng full of wordes — m. caqueteux, f. 

caqueteuse s. 
Cbauncynge — m. aduenant s, f. aduenante s. 
Chaungeable — m. et f. muable s. 
Chefe soverayne above other — m. premier s, 

f. première s: m. primitif z, f. primilifue s; 

m. souerain s, f. souerayne s, 
Cherefull mery countenaunsed — m. et f. o/ai- 

gre s. 
Cheife or first in doynge of an acte — m. capi- 
tal z, f. capitalle s. 
Cbypped as ones face or bandes is with the 

marche wynde — m. et f. gerce s. 
Chyrle loude — m. sery s, f. serye s. 
Chyveryng as one dothe for colde in an axes or 

otberwyse — va.frilleux, t. frilleuse s. 
Cbopped. 
Churlyshe rude of condycions or maners — m. 

villayn s, f. villayne s, 
Clammy as breed is nat through baken — m. 

pasteux, f. pasteuse s, 
Clene nat foule — m. net z, (. nette s. 
Clenly weil besene — m. gorgias, f. gorgiase s. 
Clere manyfest open to the knowledge — m. 

cler s, {. clere s. 
Clere — m. et f. arcise. 
Clere as the wether is whan it is fayre — m. 

serain, f. serayne s; m. sery s, f. serye s. 
Clere bright — m. cler s, f. clere s; m. claret 

z,f. claretle s; m. et f. esclaire s. 
Clere or évident — m. euident s, f. euidente s. 
Clobysshe boystous onweldy — m. lourt s, (. 

lourde s. 
Close shytte togyther or shytte fast — m. clos, 

f. close s. 
Close or darke as the wether is — m. et f. som- 
bre s. 
Clovyn — m. fendu s, f. fendue s: m. et f. 

fourche s. 

39. 



#'- 



308 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Coy strange or nyse — m. coj s, f. coye s. 

Cokbraynde lyght foie hardye — m. et f. saffre s. 

Coynleuse — m. cointeux, f. cointeiise s. 

Colde sober — m. et f. arrcstc s: m.Jroit z, 
{.froide s. 

Coloured — m.fainlif 2, [.Jaintijae s. 

Coloured lyke flame of fyre — m. ardant s, {. 
ardante s. 

Combersonie that combreth — m. encomhreux , 
f. encombrease s. 

Comely in behavour — m. yracieux, f. gra- 
cieuse s. 

Comely as a garment or atyer is to a person — 
m. aducnant s, f. adacnante s. 

Commen — m. commun s, f. commune s. 

Commen — m. et f. ^iiKiV/uc s. 

Comely fayre — ra. spécieux, f. spécieuse s: m. 
comli s, f. comlie s; m. gentil z, {. gen- 
tille s. 

Commendal)le worthye to be commended — 
m. et f. commendable s. 

Commyng outof the este — m. oriental, (. oricn- 
talle s. 

Commynge — m. aduienant s, f. aduienantc s. 

Compenable — m. social, f. sociulle s. 
-Comparable able or apte to be compared — m. 
et f. comparable s. 

Compased — m. reuola s, f. reuolue s. 

Complyte parfyte — m. complet z, {. complet- 
te s. 

Compendyouse shorte as man is in bis spea- 
kyng or writyng — m. compendieux, f. 
compendieuse s. 

Compreliensyble able to be compreliendcd — 
m. et f. compréhensible s, m. et f. ca- 
pable s. 

Confessed — m. confesse, f. confessée s. 

Confused abassfaed — m. confus, f. confuse s. 

Conséquent folowyng — m. consécutif, f. con- 
secutifue s. 

Constante stedfast in a purpose — m. constant 

s, f. constante s, 
CoDstrayned — va, constraint s , {. constrainte s. 

Conslraynyng — m. contraintif z, f. contrain- 
tifue s. 

Consumed — m. consume, f. consumée s. . 



Contagyouse infectyve — m. contagieux , f. con- 
tagieuse s. 

Contemplatyfe — m. contemplatif z, f. content- 
platifue s. 

Content pleased — m. content s, f. contente s. 

Contynent cbaste of lyvyng — m. et f. pu- 
dique s. 

Contynuall styll duryng or contynuyng — m. 
continuel, f. continuelle, m. et f. perdu- 
rable s. 

Contraryouse to ones entent or purpose — m. 
contrarieux, f. contrarieuse s. 

Conlrary parte or fortune or sucbe lyke — m, 
aduers, f. aduerse s. 

Contryte penytent — m. contrit z, {. contrite s. 

Convenable — m. et f. conuenable s. 

Convenyent ^ — m. oportwi, f. oportune s: m. 
asseant s,L asseante s; va, décent s, f. dé- 
cente s; m. duysant s, (. duy santé s; ni. 
aduenant s, {. aduenante s. 

Convicte of a trespas — m. atteint, f. atteinte s. 

Copyouse full of wordes — ra. verbeux, f. ver- 
beuse s. 

Copyouse plentuouse — m. copieux, f copieuse s. 

Corallyke of the nature of corail — m. coralin 
s, f. coraline s. 

Corrumpable apte or mete to be corrupted — 
m. et f. corrumpable s. 

Corruptyble that may be corrupted — m. et f. 
corruptible s. 

Corcyfe — m. corpsu s, f. corpsue s. 

Corsyfe to fuli of fatnesse — m. corpulent, f. 
corpulente: m. corsu s, f. corsue s. 

Costyfe as a person is tbat is no laxe nor solu- 
ble — m. coustengcux, f. coustengeuse s. 

Costyouse — m. sumptueux, i.sumptueuse s. 

Covetouse — m. auaricieux, f. auariciease s ; 
m. couoiteux, f. couoiteuse s. 

Coverte close — m. couert s, f. couerle s. 

Courrante — m. et f. decourrable s. 

Cowarde — m. recréant s ,{. recréante s, 

Colde — m.froyl z, L froyde s. 

Coragyouse full of corage — m. couraigicux , 
f. couraigicuse s. 

Counterfayte mysshapen — m. contre faict z, 
i, contrefaictc s. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



309 



Course as ciothe is — m. gros, f. grosse s. 

Courtessc gentle — m. courtoys, f. conrtojse 
s; m. benigti s, f. bénigne s. ' 

Crabbed frowarde in condycions • — m. peruers, 
f. peruerse s. 

Crafty disceytfuli — m. caulelleux, f. caulelleu- 
sc s. 

Crafty craftely wrougbt — m. artificieux, f. ar- 
tificieuse s:m.fyn s, f-fyne s. 

Cramosyn colour — m. cramosyn s, f. cramo- 
syne s. 

Crewell nat pytiaWe — m. cruel z, f. cruelle s: 
m. felonneux , C. felonneuse s. 

Cryniynall — m. criminel z, f. criminelle s. 

Crymsyn colour — m. cramosyn s, f. cramoy- 
syne s. 

Cryspe as ones heare is that curleth — m. et f. 
crespe s, m. crespeleux , f. crespelense s. 

Cryspe as an herbe is that is britle — m. rom- 
pant s, î. rompante s. 

Crysten nat heathen — m. cristien s, {. cris- 
tiene s. 

Croked nat slrayght — m. tortu s, f. tortue s. 

Croise backed as a man or bccst is — m. cour- 
be, f. courbée s, 

Crokesbuidred — m, bossu s, t. bossue s. 

Crompled togythcr — m. et f. rouille s. 

Cruell without pytie — m. crueux, f. cruease s ; 
m. cruel z, (. cruelle s. 

Guryall belongyng to the court — ni. curial x, 
f. curialle s. 

Curyouse exquisyte in doynge of a tbyng — m. 
curieux, f. curieuse s. 

Curied — m. et f. crespe s; m. crespcle, f. crcs- 
pelee. 

Cursed yvell — m. et f. anallieme s; m. maul- 
dict z, {. mauldicte s; m.maluais, [. mal- 
aaise s. 

Curtcsse of spcchc — m. et f. affable s. 

Curtesse in maners — m. courtoys, f. courloyse s. 

Custoniablc uscd — m. et f. coustomablc s. 

Daylyc — m. qnolidicn s, f. (juolidienne s; m. 

jonmel z, f. journelle s. 
Daper proper — m. mignon s, (. mignonne s; 
m. godin s, f. godine t. 



Darke without lyght — m. obscur s, f. obscure s. 
Darkesomc — m. ténébreux, f. ténébreuse s. 
Daungerouse — m. dangereux, f. dangereuse s. 
Daungerouse wberof daunger maye ensewe — 

m. dangereux, f. dangereuse s. 
Debonayre — m. f. debonaire s. 
Deceytfuile — m. deceuenx, f. deceueuse s. 
Deeeyvable — m. deceuani s, f. deceuanle s ; m. 

et f. deceuable s. 
Decessed — m. decesse s, f. decessee s. 
Dccd nat aiyve — m. mort s, f. morte s. 
Deedly as a sorowe or sycknesse — m. mortel z, 

f. mortelle s. 
Deedly , as an cnemy or otber thynge tbal pro- 

cureth ones dethe — m. capital x, f. ca- 

pitalle s. 
Deefe as one ihat can nat hère — ni. sourd z, 

f. sourde s. 
Defaulty in blâme for a matter — m. fauteux, 

î.fauleuse s. 
Defeclyvc nat soundc and hole — m.faulleax, 

f. faulteuse s. 
Defensyble — ni. et f. dejensable s. 
Defyled as a thynge that i» soyied — m. polu s, 

f. polue s. 
Dekayeng as buyldyng or suclie lyke — m. 

ruyncnx, f. mineuse s. 
Deynty mouthed — m. friant s, i. friande s. 
Délectable — m. et f. délectable s. 
Delycateas mcate and drinke is — m. delicai z, 

f. delicatlc s. 
Delyciouse daynty mouthed or delycatc . — m. 

délicieux, f. délicieuse s. 
Delytefull that moche delytelh — m. delileux, 

f. delileuse s. 
Delyver of oncs lymmes as tliey that prove 

niastrycs — m. et f. souple s. 
Delyver redy quicke lo do any tbyng — ni. et 

f. agile s: va. et (. dcliuré s. 
Demonstrable — m. et f. demonstrable s. 
Demonstratyfe — m. démonstratif z, f. demons- 

iratifue s. 
Demure or sobre of countenance — m. rassis, 

f. rassise s; m. et f. simple s. 
Depe as the sec or any olber tbyng is — m. par- 
font s, f. parfonde s. 



310 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Dere liefe as one that is beloved — m. chier s, 

f. chiere s. 
Desdaynousc fuil of disdayne — m. desdaignewr, 

f. desdaigneiise s. 
Deryvalyfe — m. deriuatif z, f. Jeriaaliue s. 
Déserte forsaken or lefte inhabit — m. désert 

s, {. déserte s. 
Desyrabie — m. et f. désirable s. 
Desyrouse of honour or promocyon — m. am- 

bicieux, f. ambicieuse s. 
Desyrouse full of desyre to do a tbyng — m. dé- 
sireux, f. désireuse s. 
Desyrouse as one that is sore taken in love or 
suche lyke passyon — m. ardant s, f. ar- 
dante s. 
Desyrouse of vengeance — m. vindicatif s, f. 

vindicalifue s. 
Destynable apoynted tohe onesdestenye — m. 

et f. deslinable s. 
Destytut forsaken — m. lUstilue, f. destituée s. 
Determynahle — m. et f. determinable s. 
Determyned — m. résolu, f. résolue s. 
Détestable that one abhorreth from — m. et f. 

détestable s. 
Detractyng belongyng lo detractyon — ni. et f. 

detractoire s. 
Devoyde without or delyvered of a tbyng — m. 

et f. vuydc s. 
Devoute holy disposed to praye — m. deuot z, 

f. deuotte s. 
Dy vellysshe condycioned or in resemblance lyke 

the dyvell — m. et t. diabolique s. 
Diesmall as a diesmall day. 
Dyfiuse barde to be understande — m. et f. dif- 
fuse s. 
Dygne worthy — m. et f. digne s. 
Dylygent — m. attentif z, f. attentifue s ; m. di- 
ligent s, f. diligente s; m. soigneux, f. soi- 
gneuse s. 
Dyrty with myers — m. boueux, f. boueuse s. 
Disapoyntyng — m, frustratif z, î. fruslratifue s. 
Dyseased sycke — m. et f. malade. 
Disceassed — tn. feu s, (.feue s. 
— kyng Henry iate disceased — le feu roy 

Henry. 
Disceyifull begylefuU — m. caatelhux, {. cau- 



telleuse s; m. frauduleux, (.frauduleuse s; 
m. deceptif z, f. deceptifue s. 
Discrète in judgement or in actes — m, dis- 
cret z, f. discrète s. 
Disceyvable or disceyifull — m. et f. deceuable s. 
Dysdaynouse settyng folkes at naught — m. des- 
daigneux, f. desdaigneuse s; m. fier s, f. 
ficre s. 
Dishonest — m. et f. deshonesie s. 
DispytefuH — m. contumelieux, f. contumelieu- 
sc s: m. et f. despilaire s; m. despileux, 
f. despiteuse s. 
Displeasant, nat lykyng or contentyng — m. 
maulplitisant s, f. maulplaisanie s: m. fa- 
chieiix, t.fachicuse s. 
Displeasant for synne — m. contrit z , (. con- 
trite s. 
Disposed inclyned to a tbyng — m. incline, f. 

inclinée s; m. dispose, f. disposée s. 
Disposed or inclyned to batayle — m. bataille- 

rcux, f. bataillcreuse s. 
Disposed to hâve the stone — m. graaeleux, f. 

graueleuse s. 
Dissolute incontynent of lyvynge — m. dissolu 

z, f. dissolue s. 
Dyvyne — m. diuin s, L diuine s, 
Dyvers sondrye — m. diuers, f. diuerse s. 
Dogged stubburne — m. cruel z , f. cruelle s. 
Dogged awayted — m. poursuiui,(. poursuiuie. 
Doggysshe of ihe condycions or of the nature 

of a dogge — m, chicnin s,chienine s. 
Doughty hardy — m. valcreux, f. valerease s. 
Dorabe that can nat speke — m. muet z, f. 

muette s. 
Dommagyable hurtfull — m. et f. domagyable s. 
Domagyous hurtfull harmfuit — m. domageux, 

f. domageuse s. 
Dolefull soroufuU — m. et f. triste s. 
Dosye in the heed — -m. betourne, f. betournee s. 
Doskysshe of colour -^ m. soub: brun. 
Doulcet swete — m. doulcereux, f. doulcereuse s. 
Double inconstant — m. variant s, C variante s. 
Double nat syngle — m. et f. double s. 
Doubtous — m. douteux, f. douteuse s. 
DowtfuH ihat douteth morethan nedeth — m. 
scrupuleux , (. scrupuleuse s. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Dowtfull uncertayne — . m ambigueux, f. omit- 

gueuse s. 
Dragonysshe of the nature of a dragon — m. et 

f. draconique s. 
Dredfull full of feare — m. cremeu s, f. cre- 

meue s: m, paoureux, f. paoareuse s. 
DredfuH that is to be dradde or feared — m. 

et f. redoubtable s. 
Dresty fuH of drestes — m. lieux, f. lieuse s. 
Drye nat wete — m. sec z, {. sèche s. 
Drivelyug as a yonge chylde — ni. boueux, f. 

baueuse s. 
Dronken — m. et Lyure s. 
Drowsy heavy for slepe or onlusty — m. pesant 

s, (, pesante s. 
Dull of wytte — m. lourt s, f. lourde s. 
Dnll at the spurre as a horse is — m. resdf z, 

f. rcsiijue s. 
Dull of edge — m. et f. agasse s. 
Dunde gray as a horse is. 
Durable — m. et f. durable s. 
Dustye berayed with duste — m. pouluereux, f. 

pouluereuse s. 
Dweilyng taryeng in a place — m. résident s, 

f. résidente s. 

Easy lyght to be donc — m. easy s, f. easie 
s; m. facil z, f. facille s. 

Ebrayke — m. et f. liebraicqne s. 

Egall evyn — m. égal aux, f. egalle s. 

Egar fiers or mody as a wyld beest is — m.fel 
z, i.fclle s. 

Eldyst or first begotten — m. et f. aisne s. 

Elégant fayre spoten — m. clegant s, f. élé- 
gante s. 

Elementall of the nature of the élément — m. 
et f. élémentaire s. 

Eloquent in spekyng — m. éloquent s, f. élo- 
quente s; m.facund, (.Jacunde f, 

Emperyall — m. impérial x, {. imperialU s. 

Empty as a vessell — m. et f. vuyde s. 

Eocreased — m. acru s, f. acrue s. 

Ententyfe busy to do a thynge or to take hede 
to a ihyng — m. ententif z, f. ententijae s. 

Envyouse full of envye — m. enuieax, f. cn- 
uieuse s. 



FRANCOYSE. 311 

Equall evyn of power — m. égal x, f. egalle s. 

Erthye of the nature of the erthe — va. terreux, 
f. terreuse s. 

Erthely belongyng to the erthe — m. terrien s, 
f. terrienne s, 

Esy lyght — m. ayse z, f. aysee s, 

Especyall chiefe — m. especial aux, (. espe- 
cialle s. 

Esterne belongyng to the eest parte — m. orien- 
tal X, f. orientalle s. 

Eternall everlastynge — m. éternel z, f. éter- 
nelle s : m. perpétuel z ,{. perpétuelle 6; m. 
et f, perdurable s. 

Evydent clere — m. euident s, f. euidente s. 

Evyll coloured as Ooure or any other thyng that 
hath loste the beautye — m. et Lfade s. 

Evyll coloured as one is for sicknesse — m. et 
f. blesme s. 

Evyll nat good — m. mal x, f. nwXle s. 

Evyll cursed of condycions — m. maluays, f. 
maluaisc s. 

Evyll named — m. et f. infâme s. 

Evyll to dalye with — m. encombreux, f. en- 
combreuse s. 

Evyn strayght — ni. droict z, f. droicte s. 

Evyn upright — m. et f. Juste s. 

Evyn smothe or equall nat hygher in one place 
than in another — m. vny s, f. vnye s. 

Excedyng passyng mesure or excessife — m. 
excessif z, f. excessifue s. 

Excedyng passyng ail other — m. superlatif z, 
(. superlalifue s. 

Excepte — m. et f. excepte s. 

Excusable that may be excused — m. et f ex- 
cusable s. 

Excellent passyng other — m. excellent s, f. 
excellente s. 

Expresse playne evydent — m. exprès, f. ex- 
presse s. 

Expert well skylled — m. expeii z, f. experte s. 

Eiquisyte curyous in doyng a thyng — m. ex- 
quis, (. exquise s ; m. curieux, f. curieuse s. 

Extrême furthesl of — m. et f. extrême s. 

Extrême in dealyng — m. rigoureux, (. rigou- 
reuse .«; ni. violent s, violente s. ."'■• 






312 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 

m. Jacund s, (■fa- 



Faconde fayre spoken 

cmule s. 
Fayre beautyfull — m. beau or bel, f. belle s. 
ï'ayre as a vvoman or man is of their vysage — 

m. spécieux, f. spécieuse s. 
Fayre spoken — m. et f. emparle s: m. et f. 

bien en langaige s. 
Fayne gladde to do a tbyiig — m. joyeux, f. 

joyeuse s. 
Faynte nat trewe or stedfast — m. Jainctif z. f. 

J'ainctifae s. 
Faynte as one is for sicknesse that faynteth — 

m. tain s, f. vaine s. 
Faynteliarled cowarde — m. et f. lasclie s. 
Faythfull trusty — m. féal x, î. fealle s. 
Fallyng to decay — m. ruineux, f. ruineuse s. 
Faise untrewe — m.fuulx, i. j'aulse s. 
Faiseof promesse — m. renoiant, f. renoiante s. 
Faniyiyer in speclie and kepynge of companye 

— m, familier s, (.familière s. 
Famouse renomed as suche as hâve done great 

actes — m. fameux, t. fameuse s. 
Farre hens or farre of — m. loyngtains, f. loynij- 

tayne s. 
Fast or suer — m. et (.ferme s. 
Fatall belongyng to destynye — m. fatal x, f. 

falalle s. 
Fatte as a man or beest is — m. ijras, (. grasse s. 
Fautve as fruité is that is not sownde — m. 

faulteux, (.faulteuse s. 
Favorable — m. et f. fauorable s. 
Faulty gyîty of an oOfence — m. et f. coulpable s ; 

m. defecteuxj (. defecteuse. 
Fcble nat stronge — m. et f. fyeble s; m. et f. 

débile s ; m. et f. feble. 
FaythfuU trusty — m. féal aulx ,(. fealle s. 
Ferme stedfast — m. et (.ferme s. 
Fearfull as one that is lyghtiy disposed to be 
a frayde — m. craintif z, (. craintif ue s: 
m. et (. doutable s; m. ejfraieux , (. ef- 
fraieuse s ; m. paoureux, (. paoureuse. 
Fearfull a thyng that dothe make one afrayed 
— m. et f. terrible s: m. et f. redoutable s : 
m. et f. espouentable s. 
Festysshe belongyng to a feest — m. festiaal x, 
{.festiualle s. 



Feate or proper of makyng — m. godin s, f. 
godyne s; m. godinet z, (. godinette s ; m. 
coint z, (. cointe s: m. mignon s, (. mi- 
gnonne s; m. et f. fade s; m.faicty s, (. 
faictye s, 
Feldysshe belongynge to the felde — m. et f. 

champestre s. 
Fell or fierse as a person is for modyncsse — 
tn.fel z, (.felle s; m. despit z, f. despite s. 
Fell or felonysslie — m. felonneux, (. felon- 

neuse s. 
Fervent hotte in a cause — m.feruent s, (.fer- 

uente s. 
Fervent fuli of béate — m. chalereux, (. ctiale- 

reuse s. 
Fewe in nombre — pou or peu. 
Fewest — le moyns, indéclinable. 
Fyers fell — m. rigoreux, (. rigoreuse s ; m. fier 

s, (.jiere s; m. hastif z, f. hasiifue s. 
Fylthysshe as mysse women of yll lyvyng — 

m. et f. putairie. 
Fylthysshe as ones eyes be that hâve whyte 
slyme in them — m. chassieux, (. chas- 
sieuse s. 
Fylthy fuU of fylthe or unclenlye — m. villain 

s, f. villaine s. 
Fyne as any worke that issmall and subtylly 

wrought — m. soubtil z, f. soubtille s. 
Fyne as lynen clothe is — ta. fin s, (.fine s; 

m. dclye, f. déliée s. 
Fyrst in order — m. premier s, [.première s. 
Fyrst chefe — m. primitif z, f. primitif ue s. 
First chefe doer of an acte — m. capital x, 

f. capitalle s. 
Fytte as a garment or olher thyngc — m. et f. 

propice s: m. duict z, (. duycte s. 
Flatte as a thyng is that is brode — m. plat z, 

(. plalte s. 
Flatte nosed — m. camus, f. camuse s. 
Fleyng awaye — m. fugitif z, (. fugitif ue s: 

m./urd/ z, (.fuylifve s. 
FIcxyble able to be bowed — m. et f. flexy- 

ble s. 
Flygge as byrdes be — m. plumeu s: f. plu- 

meue s. 
Flyeng — m. volant, f. i'o/a;i(e. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



313 



Fluddysshe belongyng to the fluddc — m.fa- 

uial X, i.JIuuiaUe s, 
Foole hardy, as one that ventureth to farre — 

m. et f. téméraire s. 
Foggy to fuH of waste llcsshe. 
Foolysshe nat wyse — m. sot, f. soile s; m. 

fol, f. folle s. 
Forcyng conslraynynge — m. constraintif z, f. 

constrainlifae s. 
Forgetfull tliat forgetleth shortly — m. obli- 

uieux, f. oblimeuse s. 
Forgyvefuil tliat forgyveth shortly — ra. pardo- 

natf z, f. pardoiiatifue s. 
Forked as a brode arrowe heed — m. et f. bar- 
belé s. 
Forked or braunched — m. brancha s, f. bran- 

chae s. 
Forked cloven — m, fourchu s, t. fourchue s. 
Fortunate happy — m. bienereux , f, bienercuse 

s; m. eureux, f. earease s. 
Fostered or brought up in a place — m. natif z, 

f. natifue s. 
Fowle soyied wilh fylthe — m. orl s, f. orde s. 
Fowle nat fayre of vysage — m. lait z, (. 

lujde s. 
Frayle nat assured of conservacyon — m. et f, 

frailes, m. et (.fragile s. 
Frangyble — m. et i.frangible s. 
Fralernall belongyng to a brother — m. frater- 
nel z, {.fraternelle s. 
Frec of gyfl — m. libéral x, f. liberalle s. 
Free not bownde — m. franc z, î. franche s. 
Free tliat paycth naughl — m. quicl z, f. quic- 

te s. 
Frendefuil — m. et f. amiable s. 
Frencbely belongyng to the countrey of Fraunce 

— m. et f. Gaule s; m. Gallican s, f. Gai- 

licanne s. 
Frenticke, as one that is in a fransye — m. et f. 

freneticque s, 
Fresshe or lussyouse as nieate thaï is nat vveil 

seasoned, or that batb an unplesanteswet- 

nesse in it. — m. et {.fade s. 
Fresshe gorgyouse, gay or well besene — ra. 

gorgias, f. gorgiasc s; m. et {.frisque s: m. 

gaillarl s, {. gaillardes. ' 



Freshe nat salle nor stale — m.frays, {.fre- 

che s. 
Fresshe newly kylled or newly gathered — m. 

récent s, f. récente s. 
Fresshe newe — noueau. 
Fresshe as water is — m.frays, {. frayse s. 
Freatyng as a salve dothe — m. corrosif z, f. 

corrosifue s. 
Frosty resemblyng to the froste — m. geleux , 

f. geleuse s. 
Frowarde — m. peruers, {. peruerse s. 
FruytfuU — m. fructueux, {.fructueuse s. 
Fugylyfe, nat taryenge in a place, but ofte re- 

movyng or flyenge awaye — m. fugitif z , 

(.fugitifue s: m.fuitif z, f.faitifue s. 
Fulfylled — m. complet s, f. coniplette s. 
Full of lycs — m. fabuleux , {.fabuleuse s. 
Full of slrcngth — m. subslancieax , f. substan- 

cieuse s. 
Full or fylled up lo the brymme or plentuousc 

of any thyng — m. plain s, {. plaine s. 
Full, heapcd full as busshelles be witb corne or 

saite — comble. 
Furyouse, madde or woode ■ — m.fureux, {.fu- 

reuse s: m. furieux, {.furieuse s. 



Gay fresshly besene — m. gay s, {. gaye s; bien 
a poynt. 

Gay or gladsome of corage — m. gay s, f. gaye 
s; ra. gay s, f. gayse s. 

Gay, joly — m.joly s,{.jotye s. 

Galante or fresshe in apparayle— m. et {.fris- 
que s. 

Gastfuli as a thynge that movetb one to drede 
— m. et f. espoiicntable s. 

Gelouse mystrustynge — m. jaloux, {.jalouse s. 

Generail — m. gênerai x, f. generalle s. 

Gentyll of condycions — m. généreux, f. géné- 
reuse s: m. gentil z, {. gentille s: m. et f. 
debonaire s. 

Gentyll of byrthe — m. et f. noble s. 

Gerysshe wylde or lyght heeded — m. et {.fa- 
rouche s, 

Gettyng by uniaufuli raeanes — m. qucstueux, 
f. queslueuse s. 

Gettynge — m. acquisitif z, f, acquisilifue s. 



314 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Gylty, fauly oCan ofl'ence — m. et f. coulpable s. 

Gylted as a vessel or any other tliyng is — m. 
et f. doré s. 

Gyven oreuclyned to do any ihynge — m. duict 
X, f. duicte s: m. enclin s, f. encline s. 

Gyven to extorcyon — m. rapineux, f. rapi- 
neuse s. 

Gladde merye — m. joyeux, f. joyeuse s: m. 
bault, {'. baulte s. Ro. 

Gladsome chercfull — m. et f. alaiyre s. 

Glasye of tlie nature of glasse — m. voierreux, 
f. voierreuse s. 

Glytterynge as métal dothe agaynstibe sonne — 
m. reluysant s, f. reluysunie s. 

Glorieuse or fullofgiory, as one is ihat standeth 
to moelle in his owne coneeyle — m. glo- 
rieux, f. glorieuse s. 

Godiy belongyng or resemblyuge to god — m. 
et f. dcificque s; m. deain s, (. deuinc s. 

Gogle eyed — m. et f. louche. 

Good of lyvyng and eonversacion — m. preud, 
f. preade s. 

Good as any tbyng is good — m. bon, f. bonne s. 

Good or geiityie to speke to — m. et f. affa- 
ble s. 

Goodly fresslie in apparayle — m. gaillard s, 
r. gaillarde s; m. bel or beau, f. belle s: m. 
hellet z, f. belletle s. 

Goodynough ihat may be suffered — m. et f. 
passable s. 

Gorgyouse or gaye — ni. gorrier s, I'. gorriere s; 
m. gorgias, f. gorgiasse s. 

Gostely nat bodcly — m. spiritual x, (. spiri- 
iualle s : m. espiriiuel i, f. espirituelle s. 

Gowtye, dyseased witb the gowte — m. goû- 
teux, f. goûteuse s. 

Gracyouse, full of grâce — m. gracieux, f. gra- 
cieuse s. 

Gracyouse in spekyng — ni. facont, f. /o- 
cunde s. 

Graye or russet — m. yiys, f. gryse s. 

Graye or gryselde — m. et f. grisellé. 

Gray colourcd as ones cyes bc — m. voir s, I". 
vairc s. 

Gravely full of gravell — m. grauctcux, f. grauc- 
le^e s; m. areneux s, f. arcncasr s. 



Gravclysshe belongyng to the nature of gravell 

m. areneux, f. areneuse s. 
Greable apte or mete to be agreed — ni. et f. 

agréable s. 
Greate — m. grant s, f. grande s. 
Greate in tbicknesse or rowndnessc — m. gros, 

f. grosse s. 
Great as a woman witb chylde — f. grosse s. 
Gredy covoylousc or to moche dcsyrous of a 

thyng — m. importun s, {. importune s. 
Gredy moche desyrouse of mcate — la. fami- 

leux, f. Jamileuse s. 
Grekyshe, belongyng unto a greke — m. et f. 

grecque s. 
Grene — m. vert s, f. verte s. 
Grenyssbe — m. et f. verdasliv s. 
Grevouse noysome — m. et (. greuable s: m. 

greueux, f. greueuse s. 
Grevouse daungerous — ra. greuain s, f. gre- 

uaine s. 
Griefe — m. grief z, f. griefuc s. 
Grymme of countenance — m. grimmcux, t. 

grimmeuse s. 
Grosse rude of condycions or as clothe — m. et 

f. rude s. 
Grosse, dull of wytte — durdengin. 
Grovelyng — couche a dens. 
Grutcbynge, murmuryng — m. remort s, f. re- 
morde s. 

Hatefull : full of hatred — m. haynenx, f. hay- 
neuse s; m. odieux, f. odieuse s. 

Haboundant — m. planteureux, f. planteureuse s. 

Halfe — m. demy s, f. demye s. 

Haltyng — m. clochant s, {.clochante s. 

Hijppy — m. biencreux, f. bienereasc s; m. eu- 
reux , eureuse s. 

Hardye to enterprise a daungèr — m. audacieux, 
f. audacieuse s; m. auentureux, f. auentu- 
reuse s; m. tiardy s, f. hardye s; m. entre- 
prenant s, f. entreprenante s. 

Harde, as a tbyng tbat is nat softe — m. diuers, 
f. diaerse s; m. dur s, f. dure s. 

Harde, as ooe tliat is a nygarde — m. et f. chi- 
che s. 

Ilarmefull — m. dommagieax, f. dommogieuse s. 



DE LA LANGU 

Hastye, disposed to be angry — m. bouillant s, 
f. bouillante s: m. colericq, f. colericques: 
m. hasiif z, f. hasiifae s; m. ardant s, f. 

ardante s, 
HavvkeDosed — m. bccqu s, f. becque s. 
Hawty as one is that is proude — m. haultain s, 

f. haultaine s. 
Hebrayke, belongyng lo the countrey, specbc 

of Ilebrewe — m. hcbraicq , f. hebraic- 

que s. 
Heedysshe or beedslrongc — m. Usiu s, f. tes- 

tue s. 
Heedstrong seife wyiled — m. et f. effronté s; 

m. estourdi s, {. csloardie. 
Heidyssbe, belongyng to nawte herdes — m. et 

f. bucolique s. 
Hellysshe belongyng to beH — m. et f. lartaric- 

que s ; m. infernal x, f. infernalle s. 
{ielthfull, belongynge to préserve orcoiilynewe 

ones heltbe — m. sayn s, f, sajne s. 
lleapedas ibynges thatbe measured — m. et f. 

comble s. 
Hardc to undersiande — m. difficil s, f. diffi- 

cille s. 
Heary as one is that hath mocbe licare on bis 

heed — m. cheuelu s, f. cheuelue s. 
Heary as one is upon bis bandes or body — 

m. tellu s, f. vellue s; m. poilu s, f. poilue s. 
Heary locked thaï balb syde lockes — m. che- 
uelu s, f. ckeaelae s. 
Herty — m. cordial x, f. cordialle s. 
Hevenly — m. celestiel 2, f. celestielle s; m. et 

f. celcsirc s; m. et f. celique ; m. et f. ce- 
leste s. 
Heavy for slepe — m. et f. aytjraué s, pesant a 

dormir. 
Heavy as goide is or any tbyng that wayeth 

moche — m. massif z, f. massifue s, 
Heavy of weygbt — m. pesant s, f. pesante s ; ni. 

et f. graue s. 
Heavy for sorowe — m. et f. triste s; m. pensif 

z,i. pensif ue s. 
He that hath but one liande — m. manquel z, f. 

manquetle s; m. nuuichet z, f. manchette s. 
He thaï halh the flyxc — m. foyrcux, (■ fiy- 

reuse s. 



E FRANCOYSE. 



315 



He that is boiinde in the beliy — celluy qui est 

serre au ventre. 
Hydyouse terryble or fearfuH — ni. hideux, f. 

liydeuse s. 
Hye or talle — m. liault s, f. haulte s: m. bel, as 

bel homme. 
Hyemyneded — m. orgueilleux, f. orqueillease 

s: m. fiers, (. fierse s. 
Hoften — m. fréquentatif z , ï. frequentatifae s. 
Hyghe in dignyle or beyght — m. eminent s, f. 

eminente s. 
Hyghe mygbty — m. et f. excelse s: m. haidt s, 

f. haulte s. 
Hyghe or hye — m. Iiaultain s, f. haultaine s; 

m. sttblim s, f. sublime s. 
Hylly or fuH of hylles — m. montuctix, f. mon- 

tueuse s; m.montaiqneux, (.montaigneuses. 
Hole ali — m. total x, f. lolallc s. 
Hole parfyle — m. enterin s, f. entérine .?. 
Holy full of devocion' — m. saint z, f. sainctes. 
Holy a feestfuH daye — m. festiuul x, f. festi- 

ualle s. 
Hoiowe as a staffe is or a liyll or any tbyng 

that is nataU sounde — m. creux, f. creuse 

s: m. et f. concaue s. 
Homely saucye lo perte — m. malapert s, mala- 

perte s. 
Homely famylier throngh a quaynted — m. Ja- 

milier s, familière s ; m. et f. priue s. 
Honest of lyvyng — m. et f. preud. 
Honest as any thynge is that is «oundynge lo 

vertue. — m. et f. honeste s. 
Hongrye as one that hath an appelyle lo meate 

m. familenx , (.famileuse s; m. appeticeulx, 

f. appelicease s.; m. familleux , C famil- 

leuse s. 
Honorable — m. el f. honorable s. 
Hoked backed as any toole is that is made 

crokynge — m. crochu s, f. crochue s. 
Hole nat sicke — m. sain s, f. sayne s. 
Hole nat hroken — m. entier s, f. entière s. 
Holesome medcynable — ni. sayn s, f. sayne s. 
Hoory as meate that is kepte to longe — m. 

Jleury s, f. jleurye s. 
Hoory as a man or beesles heare is — m. cha- 

neu s, f. chaneae s. 

40. 



316 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Hotte or hcate— m. chatdl s, f. cliaiildc s. 

Horny made or stored of homes — m, cornu s, 
f. cornue s. 

Horned — m. cornu s, f. cornue s. 

Horryble — m. et f. exécrable s; m. et f. horri- 
ble s. 

Horselyke belongynge to an horse — m. cheua- 
lin s, {. cheualync s. 

Humayne courloysc or belongyng to the na- 
ture of a man — m. humajn s, f. /lu- 
majne s. 

Humble mcke — m, et f. humble s. 

Hurtfuil — m. et f. dommaieiiable s. 



lagged — m. chicqueteux f., chicquetease s. 
Idyil — m. ojseux, f. oyseuse s. 
Ignorante of knowlege — m. ignoraiU s, t. igno- 
rante s, 
III favoured — m. lajrt z, f. layie s. 
Impossybie — m. et f. impossible s. 
Inciyned to batayle — m. bataillereux , f. ba- 

taillercuse s, 
Inciyned to wrathe — m. et f. irascible s, 
Inciyned to any thyng — m. inclin s, f. in- 
cline s; m. duict z , {. daicte s. 
Inconstante nat stedfast of purpose — m. et f. 
fresle s; m. et [.fraelle s; m. inconstant s , 
f. inconstante s. 
Indiffèrent uprigbt — m. indifférant , f. indiffé- 
rante s. 
Inevytable nat able to be avoyded — m. et f. 

ineailahle s. 
Infeclyfe conlagyouse — m. injcclij z, f. infec- 

tifue s ; m. contagieux, f. contagieuse s. 
Infydell — m. mescreanl s, f. mescrcante s. 
Infynyte willioul endc — vn.inJjnY s,(. infmyes. 
Infortunate unhappy — m. et f. infortuné s: m. 

et f. malfortune s. 
Innocent — m. innocent s, f. innocente s. 
Inoppynyon — m. opinatif z,(. opinatifae s. 
Inordynate withoul ordre or measure — m. 

onordonne, f. onordonnee s. 
Inprennable nat able to be taken — ni. et f. in- 

prennable s. 
Insacyable nat able to be salysfyed — m. et f. 
insatiable s. 



Insupportable nat able to be sustayned — m. 

et f. insupportable s. 
Intellectyfe — m. intellectif z, f. inlcllectifue s. 
Intencyonall belongyng to tlte intent — m. in- 

tencionel z, f. intencionelle s. 
Intentyfo bedefull — m. enteniif z, f. enlen- 

tijne s. 
Investygable nat able to be serched — m. et f. 

inucstigable s. 
Invyolable nat able to be broken — m. et f. in- 

uiolahle s. 
Invysible that cannât be sene — m. et f. inui- 

sible s. 

Inwarde — m. et f. intrinsique s. 
JoyfuU blysfuU — m.jojeux, (.joyeuse s; m. 

glorieux, f. glorieuse s. 
Joynynge — m. adjacent s, f. adjacente s. 
Joly or lusty — m. et {./risque s. 
Joly or fiessbe — m. joly s, ùjolye s. 
Joyned togyther — m. conjoint s, f. conjointe s. 
Joyned as a stole or any otLer ihynge is by tbe 

joyners crafte — m.joinct, {. joincte s. 
Jovyen of ihe nature of Jupiter — m. Jouien s, 

Jouienne s. 
Irascyble inciyned or disposed to anger — m. 

et f. irascible s. 
Irksome displaysant that maketh one wery — 
m. Jachieux , f. Jachicuse s; m. fasti- 
dieux, f. fastidieuse s; m. ennuyeux, f. 
ennuyeuse s. 
Irouse angerfuU — m. ireux, f. ireuse s. 
Irrémédiable nat able to be remedyed — m. et 

f. irrémédiable s. 
Irréparable nat able to be recovered — m. et 

f. irréparable s. 
Irrévocable nat able to be called agayne — m. 

et f. irreuocable s. 
Itche or ytcbefull — m. grateux, f. grateuse s. 
Just suer — - m. certain s, f. certaine s: m. et 
{.juste s. 



Kankred as brasse or othcr métal — m.vermolu 

s, f. vermolue s. 
Keene sliarpe — m. et f. aspre s. 
Kynde that rcmcmbreth a good torne — m. 

grat s, f. gratte s. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



317 



Kynde gentie — m. debonair, f. dehonaire s. 
Knottysshe knorisshe or fuli of knottcs — m. 

neueiix, f. neueuse s. 
Kowysslie belongyng lo neate or kene — m. 

bouuin s, f. bouuine s. 

Lame of ail ones lymmes — m. perclus, f. per- 

classe s. 
Lame of one bande — m. manchet z, {. man- 

chctte s. 
Large opeii — m. patent s, f. patente s. 
Large in expence — m. et f. prodigue s. 
Large wyde and brode — m. spacieux, f. spa- 
cieuse s; m. et f. aniple s. 
Large of space — m. et f. large s. 
Laslie nal fist — m. et f. lâche s. 
Laste — m, final x, {. ftnalle s. 
LaufuU — m. et f. licite s; m. et f. loysible s. 
Lauréat aourned with laurel — m. lauréat z, 

f. lauréate s. 
Laxc as one that bath the flyxe or squyrlc — 

m. Joyrcux, {.Joyreuse s. 
Ledyssbe — m. et f. plummee s: m. plummeux, 

f. plummeuse s. 
Leane nal faite — m. et f maigre s. 
Lefe dere — m. cher s, f. chère s. 
Lefte as oncs lefte bande or syde — m. et f. 

sinestre s; m. et f. gauche s. 
Lefull — m. et f. licite s: m. et f. loysible s. 
Letbe dclyver of oncs lymmes — m. et f, sou- 
ple s. 
Leavysshe full of leaves — m.fueilla s, f.fueil- 

lue s. 
Leude of condycions — maluays, f. maluayse s; 
m. villujn s, f. villaync s; m. maalgrancux, 
f. maulgraneusc s. 
Leuke warme or blodde warme — m. et f. 

ticde s. 
Lyberall of gyvyng — m. libéral x, C libérable s. 
Lycorouse or dayniy moutbed — m. f riant s, 

CJriande s. 
Lyefe dere — m. chier s, f chiere s. 
Lygbt or delyver — m. et f. agile s; m. legier s, 

f. legiere s. 
Lygbt bertcd or mcry — ni. et f alaigre s; m. 
et f. alcgre s. 



m. et f. ani 



.ge- 



Lyke or in maner of an angeil 

lique s. 
Lykely evydenl — m. apparents, f. apparente s; 

m. apareni s, f. aparente s. 
Lyke or lyke maner — m. et f parijorme s; m. 

et f. resemblable s. 
Lyke unto hell — m. infernal x, f infernalle s. 
Lykely tbat semetb to be trewe — m. et f. vray- 

semblable s. 
Lykly of countenance — m. et f. semblable s. 
Lympe bault — m. boiteux, f. boiteuse s. 
Lyquyd moyst — m. et f moyste s. 
Lytbe delyver — m. et f. souple s. 
Lytell of quantité — m. petit z, f. petite s. 
Lytell of quantyte in pcces — m. menu s, f. 

menue s. 
Lyvely full of lyfe — m. vif z, f. vifue s: m. 

vital z, f vilalle s, 
Lyver qnycke — m. et f. délivre s. 
Longe taryer. 

Longyng to golde — m. auricn s, f. auriennc s. 
Longe nat shorte — m. long z ,{. longue s. 
Longe lastyng — m. et f. perdurable. 
Longe of tyme — m et f. diiiturne s. 
Longe as a laie is — m. et f. prolixe s. 
Lone onely — m. seul x, f. sealle s. 
Lordelyke belongyng to a lorde — m. seigneu- 
rial X, f seigneurialle s; m. seigneurieux , 
f. sciijneurieuse s. 
Lothe fcarfull — m. espcrdu s, {. esperdue s. 
Lothe sory lo do a tliyng — m. marr)', f. mar- 

rye s. 
Lotbsome — m. et f. abhominable s; m. et f. 

dishoneste s. 
Lovesycke enaniowred — m. énamourée s, f. 

énamourée s. 
Lowde as any voyce or sownde is — m. hault s , 

f. haiilte s; m, sonoreux, (. sonoreuse s. 
Lowe of place, of degré or of nature — m. 
bas, f basse s; m. basset s, f. bassette s. 
Lowe of complexyon — m. et î. fiehle s. 
Lowly — m. obéissant s, f. obeyssante s; m. el 

f . humble s. 
Lowring as tbe wetber'is, wban it is disposcd 

to rayne — m. sombreux, f. sombreuse s. 
Lowsye — m. pouilleux, f. pouilleuse s. 



318 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Lucky fortunate — m. enreax, f. eareuse s. 

Lusty or fresshe in apparayle — m. et (■ /ris- 
que s. 

Lusly delyver or quycke — m. et f. délibère s: 
m. prompt s , (. prompte s: m. et f. ha- 
bille s. 

r 
Maie of the maie kyncle — m. et f. moAe s. 

Maaned as an borse — m. creixm s, f. creinue s. 

Madde — m. farieax,(. furieuse s; m. fol s, f. 
folle s. 

Made of cristall — m. cristallin s, {. cristalline s. 

Maydenlye — m. mVgiinaZ x, (. virginaUe s. 

Maymed. 

Makyng of insurrection — m. séditieux, (. sédi- 
tieuse s. 

Makyng noyse — ni. résonant s,{. résonante s. 

Malyciouse — m. malicieux, f. malicieuse s. 

Malycieuï fuH of malyce — m. rancuneux, f. 
rancuneuse s. 

Malléable. 

Man of tbe churche- — m. et f. ecclesiasticqae s. 

Manfull or manly — m. vaillant s, f. vaillante s. 

Manyfest — m. et f. publicque s: m. exprès, f. 
expresse s. 

Many — m. maint s, f. mainte s. 

Mannysshe or manlyke — m. viril z, f. virille s; 
m. humayn, f. humayne s. 

Marbylyke, of the coloure of marbyll — m. et 
f. marbre s. 

Maryablc. 

Maryne, of the nature of the see — m. marin s, 
f. manne s. 

Mârvaylous — m. et f. entendible s: m. et (. 
merueillable s. 

Massy heavy, wayghty — m. massif z, f mas- 
sif ue s. 

Maaty fatte as swyne be — m. gras ,L grasse s. 

Matche of lykc strength — m. et f. semblable s; 
ta. et f. sortable s. 

Medefull — m. cl f. merilable s. 

Medlynge — m. entreinelleux, {.entremetteuse s. 

Medeynable belongyng to physicke — m. et (. 
medivinable s. 

Meke or gentyll — m. et f. debonaire s; m. et 
f humble s. 



Meke nat wylde — ni. doulx, f. donlce s. 

Meke pityfull — m. clément s, f. clémente s. 

Meete fylte — m. et f. jousie s. 

Mcete convenyent — m. duict z,Lduicte s. 

Melancolyouse full of melancolye — m. melan- 
cholieux, (. melancholieuse s. 

Melodyouse — m. armonicux, f. urmonieu.se s ; 
m. et f. armonicquc s; m. mélodieux, f. mé- 
lodieuse s. 

Melowe as fruyte is — m. mcur s, f. meure s. 

McrcyfuU — m. et f. piteable s: m. miséricor- 
dieux, f. miséricordieuse s. 

Mery lyght — m. joyeux, f. joyeuse s; m. el (, 
alaigre s; m. el f. hailie s. 

Mervaylousc — m. et f. admirable s; m, et (. 
merueillable s. 

Meschante myserable — m. meschani .s, f. mes- 
chanie s. 

Mesurable — m. el f. mesurable s. 

Metallysslie belongynge to inetall — m. et f. 
melallicque s. 

Mêle — m. et f propice s. 

Mevyng stirryng — m. motif z, f. molifue s. 

Meved or inclyned to do a thynge — m. en- 
clin s, f. enclyne s; m. mea s, f. meue s, 

Myerry or dirty , berayed willi dyrte — m. 
boueux, f. boueuse s. 

Mighty hygh — m, et f. excelse s. 

Myghty of power — m. puissant s, f. puis- 
sante s. 

Myghty ofslrenglh — m. fort s, {.forte s. 

Mylde or softe — m. doulcereux , f. doulce- 
reuse s. 

Mylde of chère — m. et f. debonajre s. 

Mylde styll of condycions — m. coy s, f. coye s. 

Mylde of welher — ra. et f. paisible s. 

Mylky of the colour or nature of mylke — m. 
lacteu.x, {. lactcuse s. 

Myndefull — m. pencif z,{.pencifue s. 

Myraculouse niervaylouse — m. miraciileu.x , f. 
miraculeuse s. 

Myrkc or darke — m. brun s, f. brune s; m. 
obscur s, {. obscure s. 

Mysbclevyng — m. mescreant s, f. mescreante s. 

Mysshappen of ones lymmes — m. contrefaict s, 
contrefaicte s. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Myserable wretclied or myscrouse — m. et f. 

misérable s. 
Mysfortunale — m. malearenx , {. maleareuse s. 
Mysprowde — m. arrogant s, f. arrogante s: 

m. oullrecuyde s'{. oallrecuydee s. 
Mysruled — m. mal goaerne s , (. mal gouer- 

née s. 
Moyst nat drie — m. et f. moiste s. 
Mollen awaye — m. résolu s, f. résolue s. 
Mody angerfuil — m. ireux, f. irease s; m. at- 

tajneux, f. altayneiise s; m.Jel z, {.Jelle s. 
Mundayne woddly — m. mondain, f. mondaine. 
Morall — m. moral x, f. moralle s. 
Morlall deedly — m. mortel z , {, morletle s. 
Morlell — idem. 

Motherlyke belongyng to a raother — ro. ma- 
ternel z, f. maternelle s. 
Moiirnyiig — m. pencif z, f. ^encifue s; m. et 

f. morne s. 
Murmuryng, grutcliyngc as folkes that be nat 

contenlcd — m. murmuratif z,î. murmu- 

ratifne s. 
Munay colowre — m. et f. brunctie s. 
Musycall belongyng to musycke — m. masi- 

cul X , f. niusicalle s. 
Mustye as a vcssel is or wyne or any olber vi- 

layle — m. moysy s, f. moysye s. 
Mutable — m. et f. miiablc s. 
Mutuali one wilh another — m. mutuel -, f. 

niatuelle s. 



\aked wlthout clothes — m. neu s, f. ncue s: 
m. nu s, f. nue s: m. nud, f. nue. 

Narrowe or strayte — m esiroict z, f. estroicle s. 

Narrowe as a passage — m. agu s, f. ague s. 

Nalurall colour. 

Nafurlyke — m. naif :, (. naijue s; m. gé- 
nial X, f. genialle s: m. naturel z, f. na- 
turelle s. 

Navygable , a walcr able to be sayled or rowed 
in — m. et f. nauigable s. 

Negiygenl or recklcsse — m. malsoigneux , f. 
malsoijneuse: ni. nonchalant s, (. noncha- 
lante s; m. negljgent s, f. neglygenle s. 

Nedefull — m. hesoigneux , f. besoiqnease s: m. 
expédient s, f. expediente s. 



FRANCOYSE. 319 

Nedye in povertye — m. diseteux, f. diseteuse s; 
m. sujfreteux, f. suffreteuse s. 

Nymble quycke — m. et f. deliure s. 

Nere or joynyng unto — m. adjacent s, f. adja- 
cente s:m.prochayn s , i. prochayne s. 

Newe fresshe — m. nouueau s, f. noaaellc s; 
m. neuf z, f. neufae s; m. resent s, f. re- 
sente s. 

Newe fangled , nat constante and stedy of pur- 
- pose — m. et f . muable s. 

Nygarde — m. auaricieux, f. aaaricieuse s. 

Nymble delyver or quycke of ones lymmcs — 
m. et f. souple s. 

Nyglitysshe or nyghly belongynge to the nyglil 
— m, et f. nocturne s. 

Nyse proper or feate — m. mignot s, f. mi- 
gnotte s; m. coint s, f. cointe s; m. et f^ 
gobe s. Ro. 

Nyse strango — m. et f. nice s; m. nyes, t. 
nyese -s. 

Noble — m. et f. noble s; m. et f. insigne s. 

Noble or slalcly — m. et f. augusie s. 

Noble of bloode or actes — m. et f. noble s. 

Noyouse or noysome — m. et f. greuable s ; 
m. et f nuysible s. 

Noysed named or bnited — m. fameux, (. fa- 
meuse s. 

Noppy as clotbe is lliat batb a grosse woffe — 
m. gros, f. grosse s. 

Noppy as aie is — vigoreux. 

Norissbyng — m. nutritif z, f. nutritifue s. 

Nowe présent — m. et f. moderne s. 



Obedycut obeyeng '■ — m. obedient s, t. obe- 

dicnte s. 
Oblyvyouse forgelfull — m. uhliuieu.r , I. 

obliuieuse s. 
Odyouse hatefull — m. odieux, f. odieasi s; 

ni. harneux, f hayneuse s. 
Of tbe colowre of scarlet. 
Of one mynde — m. et f. vnanime s. 
Olde or aged — m. ancien s, f. ancienne s; in. 

et f. antique s: m. vieul x, f. vieutle s. 
Oncly — m. tt f vnictfue s. 
Oncovered — m. decoucrt s, f. decouerle v. 
Oneeyed — m. et f. borgne s. 



320 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



_*. 



Onehanded — m. manquet s , {. manqaetie s: 
m. manchet s, f. manchette s. 

Opyn manyfest — m. exprès, f. expresse s. 

Opyn nat shytte — m. ouert s, f. ouerle s. 

Orguyllous prowde — m. orgueilleux , f. or- 
gueilleuse s. 

Overcome — m. espris, {, esprise s: m. mat z, 
f. malle s. 

Olde — m. viel z, f. vielle s; m. vieulx , f. 
vieusc s: m. ancien s, (.ancienne s. 

Owndy as heare is. 

Owne — m. et f. propre s. 

Oulragyouse — m. oulragieux , f. oalragieuse s; 
m. criminel z,(. criminelle s. 

Oui of joynle — m. dénoué s, f. d(nouee s. 

Outtaken — m. et f. excepté s. 

Paale of colowre — ra. et f. blesme s ; m. et f. 
palle^ s, 

Pacyenl — m. pascient s, {. j.ascienle s. 

Paynefull that may endure payne — m. et f. 
pénible s. 

Paysible, full of peacc or resl — m. et f. pay- 
sihle s. 

Palpable, apte or mete to be felte — m. et f. 
palpable s. 

Pardurable — m. et f. pardurable s. 

Parfyte — m. perject z, {. perfccle s; m. en- 
tier s, f. entière s. 

Parocbyall, belongyng to a parysshe — m. pa- 
rochial x, f. parochialle s. 

Parpetuelt — m. perpétuel z .[. perpétuelle s. 

Passynge mesure — m. oultrageux , f. oullra- 
gcuse s, 

Passyng other of tbe same sorte — m. superla- 
tif z, f. superlatijue s, 

Passed as tbe tyme is — m. prétérit z , f. prc- 
terite s. 

Passyonate ioclyned sone to be in a passyon. 

Patrymonyall , belongyng to a mannes enhery- 
taunce or patrymony — m. patrimonial x, 
f. patrimonialle s. 

Peasyble — ra. et i.pesihle s; m. et f. pacifique s. 

PeacefuI! — m. et f. pacifique s. 

Pecunyall, belongynge to money — m. pecu- 
nial aulx , {. pecunialle s. 



Paynefull — m. et f. pénible s. 
Pencyfe — m. pcncif z, (. pencifue s. 
Penetratyfe tbat perceth tbrough tbynges — m. 

penetratif z, f. penetralifue s. 
Perelesse — m. nonpareil z, f. nonpareille s. 
Peryllouse, full of peryll — m. périlleux, f. pé- 
rilleuse s. 
Perfecte — m. parfecl s , f. parfecte s. 
Perpétuai! — m. perpétuel z ,{. perpétuelle s. 
Perspeclyfe, beboldyng or regardyng witli the 

eye — m. perspectif z,!'. perspectif ue s. 
Perte saucy or homly — m. malapert s, f. ma- 

laperte s. 
Pertaynyng to the churche — ni. et f. eccle- 

siasticque s. 
Phanlaslykc — m. phanlasiicq z, f. phanlas- 

tique s. 
Phylosopliycall , belongyng to a phylosopber — 

m. philosopha x, f. pinlosophalle s. 
Pyked as a sboe is or suche lyke — m. cornu s, 

f. cornue s, 
Pylled as onc tlial wantèth hearc — ra. pella s, 

f. pellae s. 
Pylled scaied — m. ligneux, f. tigncuse s. 
PytyfuU, that hath pylie — m. ctf. pitiable s; 
m. et f. compassible s: m. clément s, f. 
clémente s; m. pileux, (.piteuse s. 
Pyluouse one that hath pytie. 
PytyfuU or pytuouse as a chaunce that raoveth 
folkes to pytic — m. et f. piteable s: m. 
et f. misérable s. 
Pylhthy, of grcat substance — m.subslancieux, 

f. substanciease s. 
Pythlhy stronge — ra. puissant s, f. puissante s, 
Pylted as a mannes chynne is — ai.fosselu s, 

(.fosselue s, 
Playne as a mater or waye or any other thyng 

is — m, plain s, (plaine s. 
Playntife, the partye tbat playneth beforc a 

judge — m. plaintif z, f. plaintif ue s. 
Platte — m. plat z, (. platte s. 
Plentuouse — m. copieux, (. copieuse s; m, et 
(.féconde s; m. affluent s, (. aj^uente s; 
m. planteureux, f. planteureuse s. 
Plenty of leaves — m. et (. fiieillure s. 
PlentyfuU — m. opulent s, f. opulente s. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Pleasante pro^ire — m. et f. gaillarde s. 

Pleasante — ni. physant s, î. play santé s; m. 
et f. agréable s. 

Pleasante to beholde — m. gracieux, (. gra- 
cieuse s, 

Pleased — m. content s, (. contente s. 

Plyante — m. ploiant s, f. ploiante s. 

Plonketle. 

Plureil , as the plurell nombre — m.plurier s, 
f. pluriere s. 

Poelycall — m. poetical, f. poeticalle s. 

Poeticke in maiiers — m. et f. poétique s. 

Poynted — m. pomeu s, f. pomeae s: m. pointu 
s, f. pointue s. 

Pocky fretcned — va. Jossetteux , {. fossettease s. 

Pompeuse fuH of pompe or pride — m. pom- 
peux, f. pompeuse s. 

Pontyfycall , belongyng to a bysshop — m. 
pontifical x, f. pontiJicaUe s; m. episcopal 
X, episcopalle s. 

Poore nat ryche — m. et f. poure s. 

Porte vaynglorye — m. boubans, f. bouban- 
se s. 

Portly — m. et f. venaste s. 

Possyble — m. et f. possible s. 

Possetyfe — m. positif z,î. positifue s. 

Pratty or feate — m. mignon s, f. mignonne s. 

Pratty iytle — m. petit z, f. petite s. 

Precyouse — m. précieux, f. précieuse s. 

Precyse scrupulously circumspecte — m.precys, 
f. precyse s. 

Prcesllyke, belongyng to a preest — m. sacer- 
dotal X, f. sacerdotalle s. 

Pregnantc of wytte — m. empraignant s, f. em- 
praignante s. 

Preparatyfe — m. preparatif z , f. preparatifuc s. 

Présent nat absent- — m. présent s, (. présente s. 

Prest redy — m. prest z, f. preste s. 

Prevy secreale — m. et f. priue s. 

Pryvyleged — m. exempt s, f. exempte s: m. et 
f. priuitegie s, 

Pryncypall — m. principal s, f. principalle s. 

Private, belongyng to a persons owne selfe — 
m. priaat s, f. priaatte s. 

Privy secrète — m. secret z, î. secrète s. 

Prodygali — m. et f. prodigue s. 



FRANCOYSE. 321 

Profylable — m. et f. proujitable s. 

Prophetycall , belongyng to a prophet — m. et 
f. prophétique s. 

Proper or feate — m. coin* s, f. cointe s; m. 
godin s, f. godine s; m. gentil z, f. gén- 
iale s; m. mignot s, f. mignotle s; m. et 
f. propre s. 

Proper or apte or tbat scrvetb to a purpose — 
m. duict z , C duicte s. 

Proper or synguler — m. exquis, f. exquise s, 

Provokyng or movyng to a thynge — m, inci- 
tatif z, f. incitatifae s. 

Proude — m. ambicieux, f. ambicieuse s; m. 
orgueilleux , f. orgueilleuse s: m. presump- 
taeux, f. presumpluease s; m. fier s, f. 
fiere s. 

Proved or assayed — m. et f. expérimenté s. 

Prowde or stately — m. fier s, f. fiere s. 

Profytable, wherby profyte comelb — m. et f. 
proujftable s. 

Prudent wyse — m. prudent s, f. prudente s. 

Publycke, belongyng to a multytude — m. et 
f. pablicque s. 

Puyssante myghty — m. puissant s, f. puis- 
sante s. 

Puke coloure. 

Purcyfe, shorte wynded or stuffed aboute the 
stomacke — m. pourcif z , î. ponrcifue s. 

Pure or singuler — m. absolu s, [. absolue s; 
m. et f. pure s. 

Purpylle — m. et f. pourpre. 

Purposed or fuU set upon a purpose — m. ré- 
solu s, f. résolue s. 

Purpuryng of the colour of purpyll — m. pur- 
purin s, {. purpurine s. 

Putatyfe, a thynge tliat is tbought — m. puta- 
tif z , f. putatifue s. 

Puttyng backe — m. et f. repuisé s. 

Quaisy as meate or drinke is. — m. dangereux, 

f. dangereuse s. 
Quarry , faite bodyed or great — m. corpulent 

s, f. corpulente s. 
Quenelyke belongynge to a quene — m. regi- 

nal x, f. reginalle s. 
Quycke nat deed — m. vif z,î. vifue s. 

4i 



322 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Quycke to do a thyng hastely — m. soudain s, 
f. soudaine s; m. saillant s, f. saillante s. 

Quycke or delyver of ones lymmes — m. agil 
z, t. atjile s; ni. et f. délibéré s; m. apert 
s, {. aperte s ; m. el f. deliurc s; m. prompt 
s, f. prompte s; m. et f. habjlle s. 

Quycke pregnant of wylle — m. empraignanl s, 
f. enipraignanle s. 

Quycke spyrited — m. el f. esueilU s. 

Quytteorfree — m. exempt s, {.exempte s;m. 
quit z, {. quitte s. 

Ragged • — ni . el f. déchiré s, 

Raynisshe, belongyngto rayne — m. plauial x, 

f. pluuialle s. 
Rammysshe, yll savoured as a man or beesl 

thaï is to rancke. 
Rampysshe as a beest is or a yonge wenche — 

m. ramponneux, f. ramponneusc s. 
Ranke as a nian or beest is that is to lusty. 
Rancke as the grounde is — m. abondant s, f, 

abondante s; m. gras, f. grasse s. 
Rasshe rude or boystous of condycions. 
Ravcnyng — m. arpilleux, f. arpilleuse s. 
Ravyssbyng — ni. et f rauissable s. 
Rawe as meate is — m. cru s,L crue s. 
Rebell inclyned to rebell — m. refie! z, f. re- 
belle s ; m. malineux, f. mutineuse s. 
RebukefuH — m. laidengeux, f. laidengeuse s; 

m, et f. culpable s. 
Recbelesse or forgetfuH — m. nonchaillant s, 

f. nonchaillanle s. 
Redde as ones lyppes of their chekes or as 

>vyne is — ni. vermeil z, f. vermeille s; 

m. et f. rouge s. 
Reed of colowre — m. et f. rouge s. 
Reed heared — m. roux, f. roiwe s. 
Redy or quycke — m. apert s, f. aperte s: m: 

et f. dcliure s-.m.prest z,i. preste s. 
Redy to do any thyng — m. prest :, f. preste s. 
Redolent swete savouryng — m. redolent s, f. 

redolente s. 
Reere as an egge is — m. mol z, f. molle s. 
Refarryngonc to an other — m. relatif z, Ç. re- 

latifue s. 
Rcasonabic — m. et f. raisonable s. 



Reckelesse — m. nonchaillant s, O^nchaillan- 
te s; va. mausoigneux, (. mausoigneuse s. 

Relygyouse, belongyngc to relygion — m. reli- 
gieux, f. religieuse s. 

Repleny.sshed — m. plain s, [.plaine s. 

Reprovable — m. et f. reproué s: m. et f. re- 
prouchable s. 

Reprovyng — m. cl f. reproche s. 

Rescowed socoured — m. rescoux, (. rescouse s. 

Reserved excepte — m. sauf z, f. sanfue s. 

Resolved — résolu s, f. résolue s. 

RestfuH — m. et f tranquille s; m. el (.paisi- 
ble s ; m. et f. pacifique s. 

Restye as a horse is — m. restif z, f. reslifae s. 

Restye as bacon is. 

Relchelesse — m. mausoigneux, f. mausoigneuse 
s: m. chalant s, f. chalante s: m. noncha- 
lant s, f. nonchalante s. 

Relhoricall , belongynge to relboricke — m. 
et f. relhoricque s. 

Ryche of substance — m. cl f riche s : m. opu- 
lent s,L opulente s, 

Rychely arayed — m. gorrier s, f. gorriere s. 

Ryghluouse or ryghtfuH — m. droicturicr s, f. 
droicturiere s. 

Ryght boite up — m. estant s, f. estante s. 

Ryglil juste — m. droict z, f. droicte s. 

Rygorouse , full of rygoure — m. rigoreux, f. 
rigoreuse s. 

Ryotouse — m. rioteux, f. rioteuse s. 

Rype,redy in malers — m. expert s, f. experle s. 

Rype as fruyte is — m. mcur s, f. meure s. 

Ryvyled as ones vysage is for âge — m. et f. 
ride s. 

Rogged vvilh beare — m. poillu s, f. poillue s. 

Royall kynglykc belongyng to a kyng — m. 
roial X, f. roialle s. 

Rocky full of rockes — m. scopuleux, f scopu- 
leuse s. 

Roselykc, of tlie coloure of a rose — m, et f 
rosaicque s. 

R'ten — m. pourry s, f. pourrye s. 

Roughe as course clotbe is — m. et f. rude s. 

Roughe, boystous in dealyng — m. et (.royde s. 

Rounde — m. ront s, f. ronde s. 

Rude or wylde — m. el f. agreste s : m. el f. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



323 



barbare s: m. roid z, f. roiAt s: m. gros, 

f. grosse s. 
Rugged as a beestes heare is — m. pellu s, I'. 

pellae s. 
Raynouse — m. ruineux, f. ruineuse s. 
Rusty — m. rouille s, f. rouillee s. 

Saagewyse — m. eif.saige s; m. elf.sene s. 
Saleable — m. et f. vendible s. 

Sadde bcavy — m. et f. triste s. 

Sadde discrète — m. rassis, f. rassise s. 

Sadde full of gravyle — m. et f. graue s. 

Sadde tawney coloured. 

Safe outofdaunger — in. sauf z, f. saufue s. 

Safronnyssbe of the coloure of safrone — m. 
saffronneux , f, sajTronneuse s. 

Sage wyse — m. et f. saige s. 

Salowe yolowe coloured as ones skynne is for 
sycknesse — m. et (. jaunastre s. 

Salted — m. et f. salé s. 

Sandeblynde. 

Sandy of tbe nature of sande — m. sablonneux, 
f. sablonneuse s. 

Sanguyne of complexyon — m. sanguin s, f. 
sanguine s. 

Savabie — m. et f. saluable s. 

Saucy to perte or boiulye — m. malaperl s, f. 
inalaperle s. 

Saved — m. sauf z, f. saufue s. 

Scabbed — m. roigneux, f. roigneuse s, 

Scaled as fysshe is — m. et f. escale s. 

Scalled, pylled — m. teigneux, f. teigneuse s. 

Scally or scourfy — m. roigneux, f. roigneuse s. 

Scarse , nygarde or nat suflycicnt— m. eschars, 
f. escliarcc s. 

Séante or scarse — m. escars, f. escarse s. 

Scrupulouie, nycc conscyensed — m. scrupu- 
leux, f. scrupuleuse s. 

Sbadowyssbe — m. vmbrageux , f. imbrageuse s. 

Shakynge — m. tremuleni s, (. Irenmlente s. 

Sbamefast — m. vergongneux, f. vergongneuse s. 

Shamefull , full ofsbame — m. honteux, f. hon- 
teuse s; m. luideugcux, f. laidengeuse s. 

Sbamelesse — sans honte. 

Sharpc poynted — m, pointu s, (.pointue s: 
m. et f. aspre s. 



Sbarpe of cuttyng as a wepen — m. agu s, f. 

ague s. 
Sbarpe quycke — ni. et f abille s. 
Sbarpe egar — m. et f. aigre s. 
Sbyftyng cbaungyng — m. changeant s, f. chan 

géante s. 
Sbynynge as tbe sonne is — m. refulgent s, f. 

refulgente s.m.rajanl s, (.rayante s: m. 

reluysant s, (. relujsante s. 
Sbynyng as any metall or tbe waler by reason 

of the sonnebeames — m. transparent s, 

f. transparente s. 
Sbyppisshe belongyng to a sbypman — m. et 

f. nautiijue s. 
Sbyrc nat thycke — m. et f. délie s. 
Sbyrieas onesvoyse is — m. trenchani s, f. Iren- 

chante s. 
Sbyttell nat constant — m. el f. variable s. 
Shorte in iengthe — m. court s, (. courte s: 

m. saccint z, f. succinte s; m. brief :, f. 

briefue s, 
Shorte compendyouse — m. compendieux , f. 

compendieuse s. 
Sborte in tyme — m. brief z, f. briefue s. 
Shorte in communycacions — m. succint z, (. 

succinte s. 
Sbrewed natgood — m. mauluais,(. maaluaise s. 
Sclaunderouse — m. scandeleux, (. scandeleiise s. 
Scornfull — m. et (. dérisoire s. 
Scrupuleuse doubtfull — m. scrupuleux, (. scra- 

puleuse s. 
Secretle — m. secret s, f. secrète s. 
Sicke nat in heltbe — m. et f. malade s. 
Seeyssbe, belongyng to tbe see — m. marin s, 

f. marine s. 
Skiendre nat tbycke — esclendre. 
Selfewylled — m. testu s, f. testue s: ra.peruers, 

f. periierse s. 
Sely or fearfull — m. paoureux, f. paoureusc s. 
Sely wretcbed — m. meschant s, (. meschante s. 
Seraely becooimyngc — m. séant s, (. séante s. 
Syngle as a gowne — m. et f. sangle s. 
Sensuall gyven to vyce — m. épicurien s, (. épi- 
curienne s. 
Sentencyouse — m. sentencieux, f. sentencieuse s. 
Seareas a tre is — m. sec z, (. sèche s. 

4i. 



324 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Seryouse ernest — m. sérieux, f. sérieuse s. 
Serpentyne of the nature of a seqjent — m. co- 
lubrin s, f. colubrinne s; m. serpentyn s, 
f. serpentyne s. 
Servysabie — m. et f. seruiahle s. 
Suer juste — m. certain s, f. cerlayne s. 
Syde longe — na. long z, f. longue s. 
Sycke or dyseased — m. et f. malade s ; m. ma- 
ladif ^, f. maladif ue s. 
Sycker — m. et f. assure s : m. certain s, (. cer- 
taine s. 
Sylverysshe — m. argentin s, f. argentyne s. 
Symple styli — m. et f. simple s. 
Synfull — m. mauluais, f. mauluaise s. 
Synguler or pure — m. absolu s, t. absolue s; 
m. exquis, f. exquise s; m. singulier s,{. 
singulieiv s. 
Synguler — m. souuerain s, f. souueraine s: m. 

singulier s, C. singulière s. 
Synowysshe, belongynge to ones synouse — m. 

et f. arlerique s. 
Syttyng or convenyent — m. asseant s, f. as- 

seante s; m. aduenant s, f. aduenante s. 
Skante nat plentuouse — m. eschars, f. eschar- 

se s. 
Skant nat sufiFycient — m. insujpsant s, f. in- 
suffisante s. 
Skyttysshe as a horse is — m. et (.farouche s. 
Slacke nat fast togyther — m. et f. lasche s. 
Slacke or slowe — m. tardif z, f. tardif ue s. 
Sleight or smotlie — m. alis, f. alise s. 
Sleighty, crafty — m. et f. rusé s. 
Slepy, heavy of slepe — m. sommeilleux, f. som- 

meilleusc s. 
Slepysshe beavy of slepe — m. sommeilleux , f, 

sommeilleuse s. 
Slye, crafty, sublyll — m. cautelleux, f. cautel- 

leuse s. 
Slye wylyc — m. fyn s, f. fyne s. 
Slyder — m. glissant s, (. glissante s. 
Slykker as a paper that is sleked or suche lyke 

— m. alys, f. alyse s. 
Slypper — m. glissant s, f. glissante s. 
Sloggyssbe — m. paresseux, f. paresseuse s; m. 

et f. lasche s; m. et (.lâche s. 
Slombrye slepysshe — m. pesant s, (.pesante s. 



Slottysshc — ■ m. villain s, f. villaine s: m. ort 

s, (. orde s. 
Sloubberde with wepyng — m. et f. esplouré s. 
Slowe or slothfuU — m. et f. lente s; m. tardif 
z, (. tardif ue s; m. paresseux, f. paresseu- 
se s; m. las, (. lasse s. 
Small as a massyfe thing is of quantité — m. 

petit z, (. petite s. 
Small , as a worke tbat is curiouslyVrougtit — 
m. soutif z, f. soutifue s; m. menu s, f. 
menue s. 
Small lyke a fyne tbrede or a heare — m. et f 

dclje s. 
Small as a woman in tbe wastc or a wande — 

m. et f. gresle s. 
Smellyng tbat mayo sone be smelled — m. odo- 

ratif z, f. odoratifue s. 
Smarte swyfte — m. soudajn s, f. soudaine s. 
Smarte or grevouse — m. greuajn s, (, gre- 

uayne s. 
Smarte sharpe — m. et f. aspre s. 
Smokyssbe — la. fumeux, (.fumeuse s. 
Smotbe as tbe vvater is — m. plat s, f. platte s. 
Smotbe as a borde is tliat is well planed — m. 

hony s, f. honye s. 
Smotbe natrougbe — m. souef z, (. souefae s. 
Snevylysshe, fùll of snevyll — m. moraeux, (. 

morucuse s. 
Sobre, styll of condycions and of fewe wordes 

— m. layn s, (. layne s. 
Sobre nat baslye in condycions — m. et f. ares- 
té s. 
Sobre of meate and drinke — m. et f. sobre s. 
Socoured — m. resCoax, f. rescouse s. 
Sodayne — m. repenlin s, (. repentyne s: m. 

soudain s, (. soudaine s. 
Softe of wordes — m. layn s, (. layne s. 
Softespyrited — m. et (. modeste s. 
Softe or mylde — m. doulx, (, doulcc s. 
Softe or swetc — m. donlcereux , (. doulcereuse 

s, ni. doulx, f. doulce s. 
Softe, gentyll of condycions — m. doulx, f. 

doulcc s. 
Softe nat barde — m. mol z, f. molle s. 
Soyled — m. ord z, (. orde s. 
Sole, alone or solytary — m. seul x, (. seulle s. 



DE LA LANGUE 

Solempne hygh — m. sokmnel z , f. solemnel- 

le s. 
Solempne of maners — m. haultayn s,{. haal- 

tayne s. 
Solen nat cherefuU — m. pencifz, f. pencijue s. 
Solytarye — m. et f. solitaire s, monastiqae s. 
Soluble, as one thaï is costyfe — m. et f. 50/- 

lahle s. 
Somtnerlyte, belongyng to the sommer season 

— m. estiual x, f. estiualle s. 
Somwhat blacke — m. noiret, f. noirette s. 
Sondry ordyvers — m. diuers, f. diuerse s; m. 

alternatif z, f. alternadfiie s. 
Sore extrême in deaiyng — m. violent s, f. 

violente s. 
Sory or heavy — m. marrj s, {. marrye s. 
Sooly, fuH of sowte as a chymnay is — m. 

suyeux, f. suyeuse s, 
Sore grevouse — m. et f. moleste s. 
Sore styffe, nat easy lo be moved to pytie — 

m. et f. impiteable s. 
Soroufuii — m. douloureux, f. douloureuse s: 

m. doutant i, f. doutante s; m. contrit s, 

f. contrite s; m. et f. contriste s. 
Sorowfull or carefull — m. ctmgrineux, f. ctia^ 

grineuse s. 
Soverayne, cbefe — m. souerayn s, (.souerayne 

s ; va. ctiirj z, f. cliiejue s. 
Sower as a crabbe is — m. et f. acerbe s. 
Sotlifast Irewe — m. et f. véritable s. 
Sothe trewc — m. et f. véritable s. 
Subtyll — m. sonbtil z, f. soubiilte s. 
Sodayne, hasty of condycions — m. soudayn s, 

f. soudayne s. 
Sower , cursed or sbrewde as a woman is thaf 

lowreth — ni. malgracieux, f. malgra- 
cieuse s. 
Sower as wyne or aie is — m. et f. aygre s. 
Sower of smellyng — m. sur s, f. surre s. 
Sower bytter in taste — m. amer s, f. umere s. 
Sounde or hole — m. entier s, f. entière s. 
Sowndysshe or sowndynge — m. sonoreux, f. 

sonoreuse s; m. résonant s, f. résonante s. 
Sownde or hole — m. sain s, f. sayne s. 
Souple lythe — m. et f. souple s. 
Specyall — m. especial x, f. especialU s. 



FRANCOYSE. 325 

Spedye hasty — m. Itatif z, f. liatifae s. 
Spcchelesse, of fewe wordes — m. musart s, f. 

musarde s. 
Spechelesse that can nat speke — m. muet s, 1. 

muette s, 
Spyrituali — m. spiritual x, f. spiritualle s: m. 

espirituel z, f. espirituelle s. 
Spytefull — m. despiteux, f. despiteuse s. 
Spred abrodo — m. patent s, f. patente s; m. 

diffus, f. diffuse s. 
Square- — m. et f quarré s. 
Stabyll stedfast — m. et f. estabte s; m. et f. 

ferme s, 
Stale as breed or drinke is — m. rassis, f. ras- 
sise s. 
Stale as meale is that bcgynneth to savoure — 

m. viel X, f. vielle s. 
Stancl)e as a sbyppe or bote is that dothe nat 

Iceke — m. cstanclie, f. estuncliee. 
Starke stronge — m. fort s, (.forte s. 
Starke styffe — m. et f, roide s: m. et f. rade s. 
Stately prowde — m. presumptaeux , f. presump- 

tueuse s. 
Stately, convenable toahyghe estate — m.liaul- 

tain s, f. Itaultaiiic s; m. et f. auguste s. 
Stedfast in countenance — m. rassys, f. ras- 

syse s. 
Stedfast in condycions — m. et (.ferme s. 
Stedfast, a thyng that is fastyned — m. et f. 

fixe s. 
Stedyc stedfast — m. el (. ferme s. 
Styred or provoked — m. incité s, f. incitée s. 
Stered or provoked to do a thynge — m. esmeu 
s, f. esmeue s; m. prouocque s, (. prouoc- 
(juée s. 
Steryng or provokyng to do a thyng — m. in- 
citatif z, f. inciiatifue s. 
Sterne gastefull that moveth ooe to be afrayed 

— m. et f. espouentabte s. 
Styffe as a thyng is that wyll nat bowe — m. et 

f. royde s. 
Styffe as ones herte is — m. [dur s, f. dure s. 
Styffe or slowte — m. et f. robuste s. 
Slyll without noyse — m. coy s, (. coye s. 
Styli without spekynge of any wordes — m. et 
f. taciturne s. 



326 



Styll nat medlyng with maters 

Jicque s. 
Styll as the wether is whan no wynde is blow- 

yng a lande — m. layn s, f. layne s. 
Slyll as the wotlier is on the see whan no wyndc 

bloweth — m. et f. cabne s. 
Stynkyng yvell savoured — m. puant s, f. 

puante s. 
Styrred or moved to do a thynge — ni. encline 

s, (. encUnee s. 
Stoburne herted — m. fel z, f. felle s. 
Stony, full of stoces — m. pierreux, f. pier- 
reuse s. 
Stormysshe , stormy as the welher is — m. 

tempesteux , f. lempesteuse s. 
Stoupyng bowyng — m. encline s, (. enclinee s. 
Sloupyng Icanynge forwarde as a man or wo- 

man dothe — m. cambrant s, f. cambrante s. 
Stowre of conversacyon — m . estonrdy s, f. es- 

tourdye s. 
Stowle — m. grant s, f. grande s. 
Stowle or bolde — m. adaentureux, f. adaentu- 

reuse s. ^ 

Slrayghl as ones nose is strayght — m. traclif 

2, f. tractifue s. 
Strayght, ryght in condycions — m. et f. 

juste s. 
Strayght, evyn nat croked — m. droict 2, f. 

droicte s. 
Slrayte narowe nat wyde — m. eslroict z, f. es- 

troicle s. 1 

Slraynyng — m. constraintif z, {. consirainli- 

fue s. 
Strange wylde — m. et f. sauluaige s. 
Slraunge — m. et f. estrange s. 
Strenght full of strength — m. vigoureux, f. tn- 

goureuse s. 
Slryvyng, full of stryfe or debate — m. conten- 
tieux, f. contentiease s. 
Stronge as any thyng is tronge — m. fort s, f. 

forte s. 
Stronge of complexycn — m. et f. robuste s. 
Slurdye or stubburne — m. eslourdj s, f. estour- 

djre s. 
Stoure, rude as course clothe is — m. gros, f. 

grosse s. 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 

— m. et f. paci- 



Subjecle inferyor — m. sabject z, f. subjecte s. 
Suer or fast — m. asseuré s, f. assearée s: m. 

seur s, f. seure s. 
Suer fyxed — m. Jixé s, f. fixée s. 
Substancyall of a grcat and massyfe substance 

— m. subslancieuT, f. sabstancieuse s. 
Substancyall ryche of great substance — m. et 

f. riche s. 

Subtyll — m. subtil z, f. subtyle s. 

Suflyclcnt — m. soufisant s, f. soujisante s. 

Suffyclcnt worthye — m. et f condigne s. 

Suiïrable, apte or niete to be suffered — m. cl 
f. sujfrable s. 

Sulpherus , of the nature of brimslon — m. 
sulphareux, f. sulphureuse s. 

Somptueuse — m. sumplueux , f. sumptueuse s. 

Superflue, excessyve or over moche — m. et f. 
superflue. 

Supernaturall — m. supernaturel z, supernatu- 
relle s. 

Sure cerlayne or fast — ni, seur s, f. seure s. 

Suspecte — m. suspect z, f. suspecte s. 

Suspyciousc — ni. suspicieux f. suspicieuse s; m. 
suspeconneux, f. suspeconnease s. 

Swaltysshc hotte — m. et (.fade s. 

Swarte or swarlysshe, burned blacke — m. et 
f. nojrastre s. 

Swete in tast — m. doulx, f. donlce s. 

Swete in smellyng — m. sucuf z, f. sueuffe s; 
m. rcdolcnt s, f redolente s. 

Swete savoured — m. aromaticq , f. aromatic- 
(jue s. 

Swyfle of pace — m. et f. viste s, vistemerU (ad- 
verbe ) . 

Swyfte as a byrde tbat flyeth — m. isnel z, (. 
isnelle s. 

Tame as a wylde becst is made tame — m. pri- 

uc s, {. priuée, 
Tame as a thyng ihat is brought up in a house 

— m. et f. domeschc s : domesticque. 
Takeu as ones lymmes be by a pulsye thaï he 

can nat styrre — m. perclus, {.percluse s. 
Taken as cliyldernes lymmes be by the fayries 

— m. et {.faée s. 
Taken or overcome — m. espris, f. esprise 5. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



327 



Takyng awaye — m. ahlalifz, f. abladfuc s. 

Talysshe , full of iyes — m. fabuleux, f, fabu- 
leuse s. 

Talle or liye — m. haitlt s, f. Iiaulte s; or bel, 
as bel home s. 

Talowye — m, grasseux, f. crasseuse s. 

Tarie sharpe in taste as vinagre is — ni. et f. 
aiçire s: m. poiijnunt s, {. poujnante s. 

Tedyouse for lengtli as a taie is — m. et f. 
prolixe s. 

Tedyouse or irkesome — ta.fachcax, (.fâcheuse 
s; m. fastidieux , f. fastidieuse s; m. en- 
nuyeux, f. ennuyeuse s, 

Temperatc as the wether is whan it is nouther 
lo holc uor to colde — m.atirempé: m. tem- 
péré s, L tempérée s. 

Tendre as a thyng is that is sonc broken or 
Iiurte — m. et f. tendre. 

Tender as a person thaï is delycate — m. déli- 
cat z, f. delicatte s. ^ 

Tendable, as one that dothe wayte well — m. 
ententif z, f. enlenlifue s. 

Terryble or fearfuU — m. et f. terrible s. 

Testy angrye — m. ireux, f. irease s: m. testa s, 
f. teslae s. 

Tliycke of flesshe — m. corpulent s, f. corpu- 
lente s. 

Thycke nat siender — ni. cspes , f. espesse s; 
m. massif z, f. massifuc s. 

Thycke growen with grasse — m. herbu s, f. 
lierbae s. 

Thycke as Wodde or grasse that growelh thycke 
— ni. dru s, f. drue s. 

Thyng at the ordre of another thyng — m. 1116- 
ject z, {. subjecte s. 

Thyng renued agayne — m. itératif z, f. itéra- 
lifue s. 

Thynne, nat thycke of substaunce — m. et f. 
clendre s. 

Thynne as lycoure is — m. delyé s, f. delyée s ; 
m. et f. tenue s. 

Thorny full of ihonies — m. espineux, f. espi- 
neuse s. 

ThoughlfuU, full of tlioughl or heavynesse — 
m. soucieux, f. soucieuse s; m. pencif z, f. 
pencifue s. 



Thrall or bonde — m. subject z, f. subjecte s. 
Thrcdebare — m. dénué s, f. dénuée s. 
Throted — m. et f. (joryé s. 
Tbvvartynge — m. captieux, l'. captieuse s. 
Tyckyll nat stedy — m. inconstant s, f. incons- 
tante s. 
Tyckely thaï can nat abyde tyckelynge — m. 

catnilleux, f. caluillense s. 
Tymely — m. temprif z, f. temprifue s. 
Toylouse, full of toyie and labour. 
Toothye as one that halh great tethe or pleoly 

of tethe — m. denteax, f. denteuse s. 
Traytcrouse — m. traistereux, C traistereuse s; 

ni. prodicieux , f. prodicieuse s. 
Tremblyng — m. trenialant s, f. tremulante s; m. 

tremblant s, f. tremblante s. 
Trewc or trusty — m. loial x, f. loialle s. 
Trewe nat false — m. et f. véritable s. 
Trewe of sayeng — m. et f. veredicque s. 
Trusty or faythfuU — m.feaul x.feaulle s; m. 

féal s, f. fealle s; m. et (.fiable s. 
Tucked up as ones clolhes is — ni. rebroucé s, 

f. rebroucée s. 
Turned aboute — m. reuolu s, f. reuolue s. 
Twhartynge or contraryeng • — ni. captieux, f. 

captieuse s. 

Vayne or voyde — ni. vayn s, f. layne s. 

Valyante or worlhy — m. vaillant s, f. vaillante 
s: m. preux, f preuse s. 

Varyable nat stedfast — ni. et f. variable s. 

Vegetatyve — m. végétatif z, L végétatif ne s. 

Véhément excedyng — ni. véhément s, f. véhé- 
mente s. 

Venemouse, full of poyson — m. venemcux, 
f. venemeuse s ; m. venimeux , [. veni- 
meuse s. 

Vcneryen belongyng to Venus — m. Vénérien s, 
f. Vénérienne s. 

VerbaH full of wordcs — m. verbal x, f. ver- 
balle s, 

Very good, ybr( bon: vcryest foole, le plus fol: 
to the veryherte, oufyncucur. 

Verytable trewe — m. et f. véritable s. 

Vertueuse — m. vertueux, f. vertueuse s. 

Uglyc — ni. Iiideax, f. hideuse s. 



328 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



Uglysome — m. et f. honjble; m. et f. exécrable s. 

Vyciouse of conversacyon — m. vicieux, f. vi- 
cieuse s: m. dissolu s, f. dissolue s. 

Vyctorious — m. victorieux, f. victorieuse s. 

Vygorouse — m. vigoreux, vigoreuse s. 

Vyle fowle — ni. vUlayn s, f. villwyne s: m. dis- 
solationé s, t. dissolutionée s. 

Vyolent — m. violent s, f. violente s. 

Vyolette — m. et f. violette s. 

Vyrgynall belongynge to a mayde — m. virginal 
X, f. virginalle s. 

Vysyble — m. et f. visible s. 



Unable — m. et f. inhabile s: m. insuffisant s, 
f. insuffisante s. 

Unapte nat mete to a thyng — m. mal conue- 
nant s, f. mal conuenante s. 

Unavysed — m. maladuisé s, f. nialaduisée s. 

Uncertayne — m. incertain s, f. incertajne s; 
m. infinitif s, f. infinilijue s. 

Uuclene — m. impur s, f. impure s. 

Uncomly — m. maladuenant s, f. nmladaenantc f. 

Uncovered — m. nu s,(. nue s; m. dénué s, f. 
dénuée. 

Uncoulh onknowen — m. et f. estrange s. 

Uncourtoyse — m. ingrat s, f. ingratle s. 

Under the groande — sottbzterraine. 

UnfaytlifuH of promesse — ni. desliy)/al x, f. 
desloyaïle s. 

Unfamouse, yvell named — m. et f. infante s. 

Unfortunate — m. et f. malfortuné s. 

UngentyH — m. ingrat s, f. ingratte s; m. inhu- 
main s, f. inhumajne s. 

Ungracyouse, unfortunate — m. malereux, f. 
malereuse s. 

Unhansome — m. et f. mausatU s. 

Unhappy of maners — m. mauluars.f. maul- 
uaise s. 

Unhappy nat fortanate — m. malereux, f. ma- 
lereuse s : va. maluré s, f. malurée s. 

Unharnessed — m. desharnesché , f. desharnes- 
chée s. 

Unholsome — m. malsayn s, f. malsayne s. 

Unhonest — m. et f. deshoneste s. 

Unkynde — m. ingrat s, f. ingratle s. 

Unknowen — m, incogneu s, f. incogneue s. 



Unmery — m. et f. triste s. 

UnlaufuH — m. et f. illicile s. 

Unluokye — m. meschant s, f. meschante s. 

Unamourod — m. et f. énamouré s. 

Unmaryed — m. non mutié, f. non mariée. 

Unoccupyed, nat laboured — m. ojseux, f. oy- 

seuse s, 
Unparfyte — m. imparfecl z , {. imparfecte s. 
Unponysshed — m. impugny s, f. impugnye s. 
Unprofytable — m. et f. inutyle s. 
Unraysonable — m. et f. irraysonnable s. 
Unsledfast of faytlie — m. deslojal x, I. des- 

loyalle s. 
Unstedfast, nat sure — m. inconstant s, f. m- 

constanle s. 
Unswete — m. et f. mal sauouré s. 
Unswolne — m. desgourdy s, (. desgourdye s. 
Untaught rude — m. et f. barbare s. 
Unthrifty — m. et f. prodigue s; m. mausoi- 

gneux, f. mmisoigneuse s. 
Untowarde — m. et f. mausadc s. 
Untrusty — m. desloyal x, f. desloyalle s. 
Unweldye boystouse — m. tourt s, f. lourde s. 
Unwysc — m. et f. peu saige. 
Unworthy — m. indigne, f. indignée s. 
Voyde of none effecte — m. et f. vague s: m. 

vayn s, f. vayne s. 
Voyde empty — m. et f. vuyde s. 
Uplandysshe — m. rural x, f. ruralte s. 
Upright indifierent bytwene party and party, 

and nat alfectionate — m. indiffèrent s, (. 

indifférente s; m. et (.juste s. 
Upright strayght — m. droict s, f. droicle s. 



Wayghty heavy — m. massif z, f. massifae s; 

m. pesant s, f. pesante s. 
Wanne of coloure — m. et f. palle s; m. yn- 

deux, {.yndeuse s; m. et f. blesme s. 
Wanton of condycions — m. et f. saffre s; m. 

mignot z, f. mignotte s; m. friant s, f. 

friande s. 
Ware of expansés. 

Waie sobre — m. rassys, f. rassise s. 
Warfull — m. batailleux, f. batailleuse s. 
Werysshe as meate is that is nat well tastye — 

m. et f. mal sauouré s. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



329 



Warlyke — m. belliqueux, {. belliqueuse s. 
Warme — m. chault s, f. chaulde s. 
Watrysshe — m. eaueux, f. eaueuse s; m. et f. 

aquatique s. 
Waveryng nat constante — m. et f. volaige s. 
Wedded — m.maryd s,f. mariée s. 
Weddyng, beiongyug to maryage — ni. nup- 
tial X, f. nuptialle s. 
Weyke febie — m. et f.foyble s. 
Weyghtfull — m. pondereux, f. ponderease s: 

m. pesant s, [.pesante s, 
Well advysed — m. aduerty s, f. aduertye s. 
Well apparayled or well decked — m. gorrier s, 

f. gorriere s. 
Well becommyng — m. bien aduenant s, f. 

bien aduenante s, 
Well besene — m. gorgias, f. gorgiase s. 
Well boned — m. ossu s, f. ossue s. 
Well fortuned — m. bien euré s, f. bien eurée s. 
Well lykyng — m. et f. bien a poynt. 
Well made — m. et f. gailliarde s. 
Well manered ■ — m. et f. bien moriginé s. 
Well mynded — m. et f. aduoye s, 
Well sene — m. expert s, f. experte s. 
Well spoken — m. bien enlangaigé, f. bien en- 

langaigée s; m. bien emparlé, f. tien em- 

parlée; m. disert, f. diserte, 
Well slomaked — m. bien encouraigé s, {. bien 

encouraigée s. 
Wery — m. las, f. lasse s. 
Westwarde — m. occidental r, f. occidentalle s. 
Westerne, belongynge to tlie westparte — m. 

occidental x, f. occidentalle s. 
Welhvylled — m. de bonne voulenté s. 
Wete — m. moillé s, f. moillée s. 
Wete moyste — m. et f. moyste $, 
Whytyssbe — m. et f. blanchastre s. 
Whyte — m. blanc s, {..blanche s. 
Whyle bcared — m. chennu s, {. chennae s. 
Whole or sowndc — m. entier s, f. entière s, 
Wycked — m. et f. inique s. 
Wyddred as a flourc or herbe is — m. et f. 

Jade s. 
Wyde — m. et f. large s; m. et f. ample s; m. 

spacieux, f. spacieuse s. 
Wyght or stronge — m. fort s, (.forte s. 



Wylde or sbarpe prickyng as a nettyll is — m. 
et f. griasche s. 

Wylde or rude — m. et f. agreste s; va. et f. 
barbare s. 

Wylde as a beest is — m. et f. saunage s. 

Wylde gerysshc — no. et {.forouche s. 

Wylde as a beest or fruyte — m. et f. silues- 
ire s. 

Wylye crafty — m. affreux, f. affreuse s; m. 
fyn s, {./y ne s. 

Wylfull — m. volentif z, f. volentijue s; m. 
volantarieux , f. voluntariense s. 

Wylye — m. caalt s, f. caulte s; m. cautel- 
leux, f. cautellease s. 

Wynnyng gaynyng — m. questaeax, f. qucs- 
tueuse s. 

Wyndye, fuU of wynde — m. venteux, f. ven- 
teuse s. 

Wynteryssbe, belongyng to tbe wynter — m. 
yvemal x, f. yvernalle s. ' 

Wysshynge — m. optatif z, f, optatifue s. 

Wyse — m. et f. sage s; m. prudent s, f. pru- 
dente s. 

Wyse elygant — m. disert s, f. diserte s. 

Wytye in faulte for a thyng — m.faulteux, f. 
faulteuse s. 

Wytty, well wytted — m. ingénieux, f. ingé- 
nieuse s. 

Wytlesse — m. et f. insensé s. 

Without remedy — m, et f. irrémédiable s. 

Wo sorowfull or carefuU — m. douloureux , f. 
douloureuse s. 

Womanly well manered — va.feminal x, f. 
feminalle s. 

Womanysshe, lyke a woman — m. féminin s, 
féminine s. 

Wonderouse — m. et f. maruaillable s. 

WonderfuU — m. miraculeux , f. miraculeuse s; 
m. et f. admirable s. 

Woode or madde — m. fureux, î.fareuse s ,■ 
m. furieux, {.furieuse s. 

Woode or ragynge for bunger — m. et f. af- 
famé s. 

Worldly — m. temporel z, {. temporelle s; m. 
mondayn s, f. mondayne s, 

Worthy of dedes or actes — m. preud, f. preu- 

/4-i 



^J- 



330 LESCLAR 

de s ; m. preux , (. preuse s;m,vuUlant s, 

f. vaillante s. 
Worthy, suffycient — m. et f. condigne s. 
Worihy of disprayse — m. et f. mesprùable s. 
Worthy, ot" great valewe — m. précieux, f. 

précieuse s. 
Wortby to be honoured — m. et f. vénérable s. 
Worihy to be alleged — m. et f. alleguable s. 
Worthy to be laugbed to scorne — m. et f. ridi- 
cule s. 
Worthy of credeuce — m. et f. credable s. 
Worthy to be estemed — m. et f. estimable s. 
Wovyn — m. tysceu s, f. lysceue s. 
Wrenched out of joynl — m. desjoynl *, f. des- 

joynte s. 
Wretched — m. souffreteux, f. souffreteuse s; 

m. et f. misérable s. 
Wrinkeled as ones face is for âge — m et f. 

ridé s. 



CISSEMENT 

. Wrinkeled as oncs face is by makyng of a 
countenance — m. et f. froncé s. 

-WrongfuH — m. injurieux, f. injurieuse s; m. 
et f. sinistre s. 



Ydeot a foole — m. sot s, f. sotte s. 

Ydie — m. oyseux, f. ojseuse s. 

Yelowe — m. et {.jaune s. 

Yelowysshe — m. et f. jaunastre s. 

Yll nat good — m. mal x, f. malle s. 

YH favoured — m. laid z , (. laide s; let s, f. 

lettc s. 
Yonger brother — m. pays ne. 
Yonger syster — f. puys née. 
Yongest ofali ones chyldren — puys nÀ de tous. 
Yonglyke , beiongyug to yonge âge — m. juue- 

nil z, {.juuenille s. 
Yverysshe, of the nature of yverye — m. eJur- 

nyn s,{. ebumyne s. 



Hère endeth the table of the adjectyves, and herafter foloweth 
the pronowne. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 331 

ANNOTACYOïNS UPON THE FIRST ACCYDENT OF PRONOWNES PRIMYTYVES. 

CAPITULUM PRIMUM. 

Onely ihe pronowne of the thirde person hath dyverse wordes 
in bothe the nombres to serve for dyverse genders, whan they be 
used as nomynatyve cases or obliques; ali the resydewe, as well syn- 
guler as plureli, bave but one termynacion, whiche somtyme repre- 
senteth a masculyn subslantyve , somtyme a femynine , but suche 
gendre and nombre as the pronowne standeth for, suche lyke gendi-e 
and nombre shall bis adjectyve be, lyke as I hâve afore touched in 
the thyrde accydent of adjectyves. 

EXEMPLES OF THIS RDLE. 

// est bon, elle est bonne; Hz sont bons, elles sont bonnes; je le regarde, 
understandyng a ma.n; je la regarde, understandyng a woman;ye sais 
blanc, tu es blanc, understandyng masculyn substantyves synguler, 
nous sommes blancz, vous estes blancz, understandyng masculyn plu- 
relles -.je sais blanche, tu es blanche, understandyng femynines syn- 
guler, nous sommes blanches, vous estes blanches, understandynge femy- 
nines plurel. 

ANNOTACYONS UPO.N THE THIRDE ACCIDENT OF PRONOWNES PRIMYTYVES. 

CAPITULUM II. 

Nat onely adjectyves folowe the nombre of the pronowne but also 
verbes, as^e parle, nous parlons, je parleray, nous parlerons, allons for 
allons nous en. 

But were as in comune speche they use to saye : je allons bien, je 
ferons bien, jauons fait ung grant exploit, and suche lyke, joynyng the 
first person plureli of the verbe in toje, whiche is the first person 
singuler, suche kynde of spekyng is used of none auctour approved , 
no more than girons demayn, ginciterons, gimaginons, and suche lyke, 

42. 



332 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

where, by takyng away the e oije, they chaunge the I into g, by cause 
it is agaynst the nature of the franche tonge to hâve any worde be- 
gynnyng with a double /, the first of them beyng a consonant, as 
I hâve afore touched in the first boke. How be it I fynde in ali good 
writynge in ryme , in the stede of ye y, gy. The romant of the Rose : 
Ne caides pas que gy faillisse , ior je y faillisse. Alayne Chartier, in his 

Hospital : 

Jamays nyray plus , gy renonce , 

and Jehan le Mayre, in the seconde Epistyll de \Amant uert : 
Si sommes nous quand bien gy auray pence. 

But in prose I fynde no suche kynde of writyng used amongest good 
auctours. 

ANNOTACYONS UPON THE FYRST ACCYDENT OF PRONOWNES. 
CAPITULUM m. 

Suche nombre and person as the pronowne is, suche lyke nombre 
and person shall the verbe be, as il parlera, Hz parleront. And note 
that for so moche as in maner thorough ai the tenses in every verbe 
parsonai there be four dystincte wordes that serve onefy îor, je, tu, 
nous and vous, they use often to leave the pronowne onwritten, as a 
thyng that may easfy be understande to be included iu the person 
of the verbe, as sy parleray primier, or conterons le demoarant, and 
many suche lyke. 

But, if two pronownes of dyverse gendre corne bothe byfore a 
verbe, they use in ail suche sentences conceptions of persons suche 
in ali poyntes as the latyns use. 

EXEMPLES. 

Je voaldrofs quelle et moy fusmes maries ; eux et vous feriez bonne 
chyere. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 333 

ANNOTACYONS UPON THE FOURTH ACCYDENT, AND TO KNOWE 
WHAN WE SIlALL USE JE. WHAN ME, AND WHAN MOY. 

CAPITULUM IIII. 

Whan so ever we use / in our tong , as nomiiiatyve case to a Régula prima. 
verbe, if the franche tonge use the same verbe as personal, they 
use eyer je. 

EXEMPLE , THE FIRST. 



I love, I speke, I eate.ye ayme, je parle, je mengas,je boys. 

If we use a verbe as a parsonal and they use the same verbe as 
imparsonal, than use they suche lyke maner of spekynge as we do 
by our imparsonalles. 



Régula 
secunda. 



EXEMPLE, THE SECONDE. 



Lyke as we say « it behoveth me , it irketh me » , so say they il me 
J'ault, il me cayl, il me mengeal, though we use them as parsonalles, 
sayeng « I must, I ytche, I smarte ». 

Whan so ever we use « me » in our tonge as governed of a verbe , Régula lenia. 
what so ever case the same verbe requyre in the latin tonge, they 
use ever me. 

EXEMPLE, THE THIRDE. 

He loveth me, he beholdeth me, he telleth me; il mayme, il me 
regarde, il me dit. 

In ail other maners of speakyng , that is to say, after interrogations , Régula quarta. 
answers made by this verbe suis, yteracyons of the pronowne, impa- 
ratyve modes, adverbes, preposytions, conjunctions and interjections, 
whether we use « i » or « me », they use ever moj. 

EXEMPLE, THE FORTHE. 

Who shall go? I; Qui ira? moy. It is I, cest moy. It is I that speake, 
knocke or crye, cest moy qui parle, heurte on crie. I wotte nat I, je 



334 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

ne scay moy. I sawe hyni nat I, je ne le vis pas moy. Helpe me, 
beliolde me, folowe me, ay des moy, regardes moy, saiaes-moy. Nowe I, 
to morowe I, well I, maintenant moy, demayn moy, bien moy. To me, 
wilh me, for me, agaynst me, a moy, auecques moy, pour moy, contre 
moy. He and I, you or I, lay et moy, vous ou moy. There is but I, il 
ny a que moy. Iley me myserable, hej^ moy misérable. 

ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE TU. TE AND TOY. 

CAPITULUM V. 

Régula uniia. The selfe rules that I hâve afore shewed be j'c, me and moy, serve 
in ali maner condycions to knowe whan we shall use tu, te or toy. 

EXEMPLE. 

Thou spelcest, ta parles ; thou must, il tefault; he beholdeth the, 
il te regarde; he meteth the,^ il te rencontre. Qui ira? toy; cest toy; tu 
ne scays toy; aides toy; aseure tof; pour toy; luy et toy; hey toj misérable. 

ÂNNOTACYONS TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE IL, LE AND LVY. 

CAPITULUM VL 

Régula prima. Whan we in our tonge use « he » , as nomynatyve case to a verbe , 
the frenche tonge usynge the same verbe as parsonal, they use ever 
j7 ; if they use the verbe with them as impersonal , they use ever luy, 
as I bave afore shewed in the seconde boke. 



Régula 
secunda. 



EXEMPLE, THE FIRST. 

He loveth, he speketh, he beholdeth, il ayme, il parle, il regarde; 
he must, he ytcheth, he smarteth, il luyfault, il luy cuit, il luy mangut. 

Whan we use « hym » in our tonge after a verbe, as governed of 
the same , if the verbe he suche as of bis owne nature in the latyn 
tonge requyreth an accusatyve case, they use le : if the verbe wyll 
hâve a datyve case, they use lay. 



DE LA LANGUE Fl\ANCOYSE. 335 #f- 

EXEMPLE, THE SECONDE. 

I love hym, I beholde hym,je layme, je le regarde; I mete hym, 
I tell hym, je luy rencontre , je luy dis. 

But for so moche as this rule is very darke for a lerner, and also 
that it is nat generall, for many tymes in the frenclie tonge they use 
luy, whan the latyns use an accusatyve case, I shall in the table of 
verbes, whan I bave rehersecl them and shewed of what conjugacion 
they be, shewe also whether the same verbe wyll hâve le, or la, or 
lay before hym , so often as we use thèse wordes « hym » or « her » be- 
fore the same verbe in our tonge. 

But some tliyng to lede the lerner in this behalfe by a generall Régula teitia. 
rule, whan so ever we use hym or her after a verbe in our tonge 
where the sentence of him selfe may be parfyte without addyng any 
mo wordes therunto, we shall in the frenche tonge use le or la. 

EXEMPLE, THE THIRDE. 

I love hym, I beholde hym, I folowe hym, I se hym, I hère hym, 
je layme, je le regarde, je le sais, je le voys, je los. 

I love her, I beholde her, I folowe her, I se her, I hère her, ye 
layme, je la regarde, je la sais, je la voys, je los. 

But if there be requysite to adde also a substantyve , outher alone Régula quarta. 
or with some other partes of speche after « hym » or « her » or ever 
the sentence can be parfyte , than use they in the stede of « hym » 
and « her » luy. 

EXEMPLE, THE FOURTH. 

In thèse sentences «I tell hym, I make hym, I ordayne hym, I 
« purpose hym, I do him , I tell lier, I make her, I ordayne her, 1 pur- 
« pose her, I do her » , and suche lyke , for so moche as the sentences 
requyre, or they be parfyte, that 1 sholde expresse what I tell or 
make, or ordayne, or purpose, or do hym, or her, I shall before ail 
suche verbes use lay; 



336 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

Régula quinta. So that somc verbes wyll hâve nat onely le or la, but also lay be- 
fore them, by reason tbat in some sence they make a parfyte sen- 
tence without addyng of any other substantyve , in some sence they 
do requyre a substantyve to be expressed. 

EXEMPLE, THE FÏFTHE. 

God made hym, God made her, Dieu le fit, Diea la fit. I made 
liym a gowne, I made her a gowne, je lay fis une robe. 
Régula sexte. So that comenly, whan it is ail one sence to put thèse vvordes 

« hym » « or her » next after a verbe , and than bring in a substantyve 
belongyng tho the same verbe , oreis to put the substantyve next after 
the verbe , and than any of thèse preposycions « to » or « for » before 
the sayd « hym » or « her », in ail suche sentences for « liym » or « lier » 
they use lay. 

EXEMPLE , THE SYXTH. 

Bycause it is ail one sence in our tonge « I make hym a gowne and 
I make a gowne for hym, I tell hym a taie and I tell a taie to hym «, 
therfore they sa.y je lay fais vne robe, Je luy compte ung compte. And, 
by lyke reason, where we say « I am good to hym », they sayje lay suis 
feon; but this thynge, as I bave afore sayd, shall more playnly apere 
in the table of verbes, whan every suche verbe shall come in bis ordre. 
Regulaseptima, Jn ail other maners of spekyng they use ever onely luy, whether we 
use oulher « he « or « hym ». 

EXE.MPLE, THE SEVENTH. 

Qui yra? luy; cest luy; il ne scayt lay; aides luy; asteure luy; pour 
luy; et luy; que luy; hay luy misérable. Hz montèrent a cheual luy, sa 
famé et son train. But howe they use il before ail their verbes impar- 
sonalles, in the frenche tonge, lyke as we use « it » before our impar- 
sonalles, I hâve ail redy touched, and shall hère after apere : and 
where -I fynde par qaoy nul ne pensa que ce fust il, this rule dothe 
rather requyre that we shulde say que ce fust luy, but it is better 
used hère. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 337 

ANNOTÂCÏONS TO KNOWE WHÂN WE SHALL USE ELLE, LA OR LVY. 

CAPITULUM VII. 

Whan so ever we use « she » in our tonge , as nomynative case to Régula prima. 
a verbe whiche is parsonal , in the frenche tonge they use ever elle. 

EXEMPLE, THE FIRST. 

She loveth, she beholdeth , she seeth, elle ayme, elle regarde, elle 
voyt. But where as I fynde of suche as writetH in ryme el for elle, 
that is nat to be folowed in the comen speche. 

Whan they use a verbe impersonal whiche we use as parsonal, Régula 

, 111 secunda. 

where we use « she » they use luy. 

EXEMPLE, THE SECONDE. 

She muste, she ytcheth, she smarteth , il layfaalt, il lay cayt , il 
luy mangut. 

Whan so ever we use « her » in our tonge after a verbe, as governed Régula tertia. 
of the same verbe, if it be none suche as I bave made mencyon of 
hère next before, they use luy; and whan we shall la and whan luy, 
as I bave afore sbewed, shall apere in the table of verbes. 

EXEMPLE , THE THIRDE. . 

I love her, I beholde her, je layme, je la regarde. I mete her, I tell 
her, I counsayle her, je luy rencontre , je luy dis, je luy conseille. 

In ail other raaners of spekyng they use ever elle, save that after Régula quarta. 
imparatyve modes they use la or luy, after the case that the verbe 
requyretb. 

EXEMPLE , THE FOORTH. 

Qui ira? elle; c'est elle; elle ne scait, elle; regarde la; responde luy ; 
asteure elle; pour elle; et elle; que elle; haj! elle misérable. 

43 



338 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



\NNOTACYONS TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE LEN. LON OR ON. 

CAPITULUM VIII. 

As for len, Ion or on be thirde persons singuler in the nomynatyve 
case onely without any declynacion, and do betoken a person uncer- 
tayne , as where we say : « a man may be glad to do any thing for suche 
« a man: one may hâve suche gestes ynowe », showyng no person de- 
termynately, they say : len. Ion or on peult estre bienjoieux défaire riens 
pour vng tel homme : len or Ion peult auoir de telz hostes assés. 

ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE SE AND WHAN SOY, 
IN THE SINGULER NOMBRE. 

CAPITULUM IX. 

Régula prima. Whan so ever we use « hym » or « her » after a verbe in our tonge, 

and governed of the same, if the sence be ail one, whether we adde 
this worde « selfe » to « hym » or « her » ornât, than shall we in frençhe 
use se. 

EXEMPLE. 

He kylled hym with his weapen; she scratched her with her nayles: 
they say in frenche il se tua de son glaiue; elle se gratigna de ses ongles. 
So that, ail be it that it make ail one sence « I kyll me » and « I kyil 
« my selfe , thou hurtest the and thou hurtest thy selfe » , yet it is nat 
ail one sence to say « he kylleth hym » and « he kylleth hym selfe ». 
For 1 may by the first « him » signyfie an other person, but the se- 
conde <i hym » is lymyted by the worde « selfe » , so that we signyfie 
therby that the acte retourneth agayne to the doer. 

And to expresse this différence in the frenche tonge , whan so 
ever they use « hym » of « her » after a verbe meanyng a distyncte 
person from the doer, they use le, or la, or luy, accordyng after the 
construction of the verbe ; and whan they use « hym » or « lier » after 
a verbe meanyng that the acte of the same verbe retourneth to the 
person that was nomynatyve case to the verbe, than use they se or 



Régula 
secunda. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 339 

soy, as the nature of the verbe requyreth. So that the frenche tonge is 
moche more precyse in usyng reciprocacion ihan is the latyn , as shall 
herafter in this accydent apere. 



EXEMPLE. 



He kyiled hym, he behelde hym, she scratched her, she behelde 
her, Aiysander comforted hym, Bersabee bathed her, my master 
advysed hym, my lady apparaylleth her. In ail thèse sentences, if the 
nomynatyve case and the accusatyve stande for distyncte persons , we 
shall use for « hym » le, and for " her » la, if the acte of the verbe re- 
tourne agayne to the doer, and that is ail one person that is ment bothe 
by the nomynatyve case and the accusatyve, we shall use se or soy, as 
the nature of the verbe requyreth, as il le tua, il le regarda, elle la 
gratùjna, elle la regarda, Alisandre le recomforta, Bersabee la baigna, 
mon maistre laduisa, madame lappareylla, meanyng distyncte persons; . 
il se tua, il se regarda, elle se gratigna, elle se regarda, Alisandre se 
comforta, Bersabee se baigna, mon maistre saduisa, madame sapareilla, 
meanyng ail one person. 

In ail other maners of spekynge where it is ail one sence to use Régula tertia. 
« hym » or « her » , oulher alone or to adde this worde « selfe » to the 
sentence, that is so say, after infinityve modes or after adverbes, pre- 
posicions or conjunctions , they use in frenche soy. 



EXEMPLE. 



And that I had sene the Englysshe kyng glorifye hym or glorifye 
hym selfe : et que vôisse le roy anglois soy glorifier; and rather he had 
to suflre hym selfe to perysshe with the comen welth than for the 
same to put him selfe to pareil : et mieulx vouloit soy laisser périr auec 
la chose publique que pour ycelle soy exposer a péril. 

And lyke maner of spekyng use they afore partyciples of the pré- 
sent tens, as pour lesquelles raisons la dicte nymphe soy confiant de la 
grandeur de son origine, attendu que lay estant comme poure serfe et 
esclaue. 

43. 



340 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE NOUS, AND WHAN VOVS. 
CAPITULUM X. 

Régula unica. Wlian we use « we » or (. US » in our tonge, they use ever nous, and 

whan, we use « you » , they use ever vous, in ail maners of spekyng 
witliout any différence ; so ihat in this thyng our tonge is more par- 
fyte than the frenche. For we use « we » as a nomynatyve case, and 
« us » as an accusatyve or an oblique. 

EXEMPLE. 

We love, We speke, he loyeth us, he beholdeth us : nous aymons, 
nous parlons, il nous ayme, il nous regarde; with us and you : auecques 
nous et vous. You love, you speke, he loveth you, he beholdeth you, 
with you and us : vous aymez, vous parlés, il nous ayme, il nous regarde, 
auecques vous et nous. 

TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE ILZ, LES. LEUR OR EVLX. 
CAPITULUM XI. 

Régula prima- Whan so ever we use « they » in our tonge , as nomynatyve case to 
a verbe , understandyng masculyne substantyves , they use ever Hz , 
except « whiche » or « that » coine bytwene the verbe and « they » ; for 
than they use ceulx, as 1 wyll herafter shewe, where I wyll also shewe 
hovve they use somtyme ce for they. 

EXEMPLE. 

They love, they speke, they beholde Hz aynient, Hz parlent, Hz 

regardent. 

Régula Whan so ever we use « them » in our tonge after a verbe as gover- 

secunda. ^^j of the same , if the verbe wyll governe an accusatyve case, they 

use les : if the verbe wyll governe a datyve case , they use leur, whe- 

ther we understande masculyne substantyves or femynine. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



341 



EXEMPLE. 



• We love them, we beholde them : nous les aymons, nous les regar- 
dons. We gyve them, we answere them : nous leur donnons, nous leur 
respondons. 

In ail other maners of spekyng vvhan so ever we use « they « or Régula lenia. 
« them », understandyng masculyn substantyves , they use ever eulx, 
except after imparatyve modes, for than they use les or leur, after 
the case that the verbe requyretli. 



EXEMPLE. 



Qui iront? eulx, ce sont eulx, ils ne scauent eulx, regarde les, responde 
leur, maintenant eulx, pour eulx, et eulx, que eulx, hay! eulx misérables. 



TO KNDWE WHAN WE SHALL USE ELLES. LES OR LEUR. 
CAPITULUM Xir. 



Whan so ever we use « they » , as nomynatyve case to a verbe , Régula pHma. 
understandyng femynine substantyves, they use ever elles, excepte 
« whiche » or « that » come bytwene the verbe and « they » : for than 
they use celles, as shall hère after apere. 



EXEMPLE. 



They love, they speake, they beholde : elles ayment, elles parlent, 
elles regardent. They whiche be good : celles qui sont bonnes. 

Whan we use « them » after a verbe , as govemed of the same 
verbe, they use les or leur, after as the verbe requyreth, as I bave 
hère afore touched , whiche they use also after imparatyve modes. 

EXEMPLE. 

I love them, I beholde them: je les ayme, je les regarde; 1 gyve 
them, I answere them ; je leur donne, je leur respons; beholde them : 
regarde les; answere them : responde leur. 



Régula 
secunda. 



Régula tertia. 



Régula prima. 



Régula 
secunda. 



342 LESCLARGISSEMENT 

In ail other maner of spekynges, whan we use « they » or « them » 
understandyag femynin substantyves , they use ever elles. 



.—■■ ■-..!. 



EXEMPLE. 



Qui iront? elles, ce sont eUes, elles ne scaaent elles, maintenant elles, 
pour elles, et elles, que elles, hay! elles misérables. 

TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE SfL^T) WHAN SOI, 
IN THE PLURELL NOMBRE. 

CAPITULUM XIII. 

Whan so ever we use « them » in our tonge after a 'verbe, as gover- 
ned of the same verbe, if the same sence be alone, whether we adde 
this worde « selfe » or nat, we shall in frenche use se. 

EXEMPLE. 

They kylled them with their weapens : Hz se tuèrent de leur glaiues. 
They scratched them selfe , understanding a femynin substantyve : elles 
se gratignerent; so that the rule that I bave afore gyven serveth to lede 
the lerner in this behalfe. 

In ail other maners of spekyng wliere it is ail one sence to use 
« them » or « them selfe » , whether we understande masculyn substan- 
tyves or femynine , they use ever soy. 

EXEMPLE. 

As they aske no greater happe than to fynde them in bis présence : 
et ne demandent plus grant eur que de soy trouer en sa présence. He 
dyd hym révérence in humbling bim : il layfit la reuerence en soy hu- 
miliant. He hath no cause to marvayle : il na point cause de soy emer- 
ueiller. So that, whan any verbe that is a mère meane is used in bis. 
infynityve mode, they put soy before hym in frenche more than is in 
the same sentence in englysshe : but bere of to speke I shall herafter 
bave more occasyon agayne in the syxth accydent. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



343 



ANNOTACYONS UPON THE FYFTHE ACCYDENT. 
CAPITULUM XIIII. 



Nat onely whan one pronowne followeth the verbe in our tonge , Reguia prima. 
he shall come next byfore the verbe in frenche, but also if there 
come two pronownes with us after the verbe, they shall bothe come 
byfore the verbe with them. But vyhether of the twayne come next 
byfore the verbe maketh no diffyculte , no more than we kepe none 
order in that behalfe in our tonge, and this order is never broken 
in frenche, for it is their maner of spekyng ever to put ail the -pro- 
nownes governed of verbes byfore the verbes that governe them. 



EXEMPLE. 



He shall sende it us : il le nous envolera. We wyll shewe you hym : 
nous vous le monstrerons. I shall gyve hym it : je le luy donneray. We 
shall shewe it them : nous le leur monstrerons. 

Excepte whan a pronowne followeth any imparatyve mode in our 
tonge, for than he shall folowe also the verbe in frenche. 



EXEMPLE. 



Helpe me, beholde hym, tourne you: ajde moy, regarde moy, tournez 



vous. 



Except also interrogations, for in them the pronowne whiçhe is 
nomynatyve case to the verbe shall ever in frenche come after the 
verbe, whether we in our tonge kepe that order or nat. 



EXEMPLE. 



Whyther go you : ou allez vous? howe do you : comment vous portez 
vous? whan go you : quant vous en allez vous? whan wyll you gyve it 
hym : quant luy donnerez vous ? what hâve you sayd to hym : que luy 
aues vous dit? 

By reason wherof, sythe every verbe used as imparsonal in the 



Exceptio. 



Eïceptio. 



Reguia 
secunda. 



344 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

frenche tonge must nedes hâve il for his nomynatyve case, lyke as 
our verbes imparsonalles hâve « it » , the same il shall , in ail interro- 
gations made by any suche verbe used as an imparsonal , come after 
the verbe, though the other pronownes come ever before. 



EXEMPLE. 



What eyleth him : que luyfault il? remembre you nat? ne vous soaient 
il pas? where of shulde he remembre hym? dont lay soaaiendroit il? 

ANNOTACYONS UPON THE SYXTHE ACCYDENT. 
CAPITULIJM XV. 

Régula. Whan so ever we use any verbe whiche, of his owne nature, in the 

frenche tonge, is a mère meane, that is to say that the acte of the 
verbe retourneth to the doer agayne, as I bave some thyng afore 
touched in the seconde boke, and shall herafter, whan I intreate of 
the verbe more playnly, déclare, though we in our tonge use no 
more but onely one pronowne before suche verbes as nomynatyve 
case to them, in the frenche tonge, in the same sentence, they adde 
also the accusatyve case of the same pronowne , expressyng therby 
that the acte of the verbe retourneth agayne to the doer, lyke as we 
do, whan we xise verbes actyves as meanes. 

EXEMPLE. 

I béate me, thou tourmentes the, he chaufeth hym : they say je 
me bats, tu te tourmentes, il se eschauffe, by cause that the pronownes 
that cometh after the verbe expresseth playnly that the acte of the 
verbe retourneth agayne to the doer; so that, though the verbes of 
their owne nature be actyves, yet in this sence we use them as 
meanes. 

So say they for « I dye, thou goest, he walketh, I fare well, you 
« fare yvell », je me meurs, tu ten vas, il se promaine, je me porte bien, 
vous portez mal, and in lyke wyse doublyng the pronowne before ail 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 345 

the persons of any suche verbe, wliiche in tbe frenche tonge is used 
as a mère meane, lyke as I hâve shewed by exemple of the conjuga- 
tyng of ye méfie, in the seconde boke. And what verbes in the frenche 
tonge be used as mère meanes, shall, as they corne in order, apere 
in the table of verbes. 

But for so moche as that it shulde be barde for the lerner, nat 
withstandyng any général! rule that I coulde gyve, suerly to knowe 
whiche verbes be used in the frenche tonge as mère meanes and 
whiche nat, so often as any suche verbe shall fortune to come in 
place in the table of verbes after bis order, I shall shewe that be is a 
mère meane. 



Nota. 



ANNOTACYONS UPON THE SEVENTH ACCYDENT.- 
CAPITULUM XVI. 



Whan so ever we use the nomynatyve case of our pronownes pri- Régula prima. 
mytives and adde this worde « selfe » to them , though we use to adde 
also their pronownes dyrivalyves before « selfe i>, sayeng I my selfe, 
thou thy selfe, be bym selfe, etc. in frenche they use but the nomy- 
natyve case of their primytyves, addyng to onely mesmes. 



EXEMPLE. 



I my selfe sawe it : je mesmes le vis. Thou thy selfe dyddest it : ta 
mesmes le fis. He him selfe shall do it : il mesmes le fera. She ber selfe 
sawe it : elle mesmes le vit. And so forthe nous mesmes, vous mesmes, Hz 
mesmes, elles mesmes. 

In ail other maners of speakyng, that is to say, comyng after verbes, 
preposycions or conjunctions, whan we use to adde this worde « selfe » 
to our pronownes deryvatyves, they adde mesmes to tbe oblique cases 
of their primytyves. 

EXEMPLE. 

I wyll do it my selfe :je le feray moy mesmes. Thou sawest hym thy 
selfe : tn le vis toy mesmes. He shall do it hym selfe : j7 le fera luy mesmes. 



Regala 
sccunda. 



346 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

She made it her selfe : elle lefist elle mesmes. For our selfe : pour nous 
mesmes. Agaynst yoiir selfe : contre vous mesmes. For us aod them selfe 
men : pour nous et eulx mesmes. Agaynst you and them selfe women : 
contre vous et elles mesmes. 
Régula tertia. So that, though it inake ail one sence, whan so ever they use any 
verbe actyve as a meane, outher to use the accusatyve comyng before 
the verbe or their oblique case with mesmes, after the verbe, yet, 
whan they use mesmes, the oblique case muste ever folowe the verbe. 

EXEMPLE. 

Je me ayme,je ayme moy mesmes, tu te eschaufes trop, tu eschaufes toy 
mesmes trop. 

And note ihat mesmes many tymes is joyned to substantyves beyng 
of this signyfycacion , as il fait mention dugne aultre cité de mesmes nom. 
Cest le mesmes aigneau quejay perdu. 

OF THE PRONOWNES DYRIVATYVES, AND FIRST ANNOTACIONS 

UPON THEIR FIRST ACCIDENT. 

CAPITULUM XVII. 

Of thèse oblique cases of pronownes primityves moj, toy, soy, nous, 
vous and leur be formed mon, ton, son, nostre, vostre, leur, whiche be- 
token possessyon , but where as suche as writeth in ryme use no and 
va for nostre and vostre , as 

De guère est bruit , 
Cest no déduit. 

And Alayn Chartier in bis Hospital : 

Plaisir ou deal, paix ou discorde, 
Tient tout au miséricorde. 

In prose and in perfyte comen langage they be but seidome used, 
but for « ours, yours, theirs », used after the tenses ofye suis, they 
use a nous, a vous, a eulx or a elles, as thèse peces be nat yours, or 
none of yours : ces pièces ne sont pas a vous. AU is ours, tout est a nous. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



347 



ANNOTACYONS UPON THE SECONDE ACCTOENT. 
CAPirULUM XVUl. 

Of thèse syxe pronownes deryvatyvesbe formed other syxe : le mien, 
le tien, le sien, le nostre, le vostre, le leur, whiche signyfye in our tonge 
myn owne, as myn owne désire, le mien désir; myn owne espouse, la 
miene espousée ; myn owne whysshes, les miens souhaytz; myn owne 
thoughtes, les mienes pensées; thyn owne power, le tien poaer; their 
owne wylles, les leurs voalentez : le sien, his owne; le quel enfant Priam 
commanda estre occis comme il auoit fait du sien; varyeng the gendre 
and the nombre accordyng to the substantyve that they belonge unto. 

ANNOTACYONS UPON THE THYRDE ACCYDENT. 
CAPITULUM \IX. 

In gendre , accordyng as I bave afore touched in the first dyriva- Régula prima, 
tyves, they shall agre with the substantyve that next folowes them, 
without any regarde havyng to the person where unto any suche 
substantyves belongelh, whether it be « he » or « she », lyke as we 
bave in our tonge, sayeng his gowne, her gowne. 



EXEMPLE OF THIS UULE. 



Thoughe we say her beed, her face, they say son chieffe, sa face, 
usyng son or 5a after the gendre of the substantyve, and so of the 
resydue. 

But if a substantyve, beyng of the femynin gendre, or his adjectyve 
begyn with a vowell, or with h nat havyng his aspiracyon, before ail 
suche they use mon, ton or son, and nat ma, ta or sa, bycause of the 
more full and redy sowndyng. 



Régula 
secunda. 



EXEMPLE OF THIS RCLE. 



My sowie, mon ame; thy frendshyp, ton amitié; his opynion, son 



Régula vnica. 



348 LESCLÂRCISSEMENT 

opinion; my bytter passyon, mon amere passion; the blynded phantasye, 
ton aaeagle phaniasie; his dwellyng, son habitation; thyn horryble dam- 
nacion, ton horrible dampnation. As for mamie, samie, samoar, and suche 
lyke used of the Romant of the Rose, be nat to be folowed, howe be 
it they use in comen speche mamour for mon amour. Alayn Chartier 
in his Quadrilogue approvyng this ruie : 

Mais tu nas pas gecte ton opprobrieuse voix contre les desloialles effu- 
sions de sang. 

Idem in eodem : Quant ion obstination 

ANNOTACYONS UPON THE FOURTH ACCYDENT. 
CAPITULUM XX. 

In nombre also they folowe the nombre of the substantyve that 
they belonge mito, without havyng any regarde to the person, lyke 
as we hawe in our tonge. 



EXEMPLE OF THIS RDLE. 



Though we say my garmentes, my gownes, his horses, her jouais, 
semyng to use our pronowne in the synguler nombre , by cause we 
speke of thynges belongyng but to one person , they say mes habille- 
mens , mes robes, ses cheuaulx, ses baggues. 



ANNOTACYONS UPON THE FYFTHE ACCYDENT. 
CAPITULUM XXL 



Régula prima Whan we expresse dymynisshyng or hurtyng or generally any 

acte to be donc to any parte of a man or beestes body, in ail suche 
sentences, they résolve the pronowne deryvatyve in to his primytyve, 
usynge the article le in the place where the pronowne deryvatyve 
was used in our tonge, of suche gendre and nombre as the substan- 
tyve requyreth, and, whan the acte i-etourneth to the doer agayne, 
« in the stede of thèse pronownes « his, her », or « their », they use in 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 349 

frenche soy, whlche serveth indyfferently for bollie nombres , accor- 
dyng as I hâve afore declared. 



EXEMPLE OF TUIS RULE. 



The hangman dyd fyrst bynde bis eyes and after dyd cutle of bis 
heed : le boureau primier luy benda les yealx et puis hiy couppa la teste. 
The butcher dothe put ont tbelr eyes or ever he cultetb tbeir tbro- 
teS : le boucher leur creue les yeulx auant que leur couppcr les gorges. 
He wassbetb my bandes : il me laua les mains. He rubbetb my 
backe : il mefrota le dos. He claweth my toe : il me gratigne le orteil. 
He tykeletb my sydes : il me catoille les costes. I hâve broken my 
shynne, and thou hast hurt tby bande -.je me suis escorché la greue 
et tu te as blessé la main. To aswage a lytle tbe great burnyng of the 
amorous desyre wbiche burneth my vaynes : pour mitigaer vng peu la 
grant ardeur du désir amoreux qui me brusle les vaynes. His gyrdle brake : 
sa saincture luy rompit. And wban the abbesse sawe that for her beauté 
she shulde be forced, strayght she cutte of her nose : et quant labesse 
vit que pour sa beaulté elle deust estre forcée , promptement elle se couppa 
le nez. And ail her systers dyd the same, affirmyng that they had 
rather suflre their lymmes to be drawen in peces than to consent 
that thelr virgynite shulde be corrupted : et toutes ses seurs firent le 
semblable, affermans quelles se laisseroyent primier les membres tirer en 
pièces que consentir que leur virginité fust corrumpue. 

Jehan le Maire : or recite Bocace, au sixiesme Hure de la généalogie 
des dieux, que dedcns aulcune espace de temps le ventre arondit et enfla 
a la gracieuse nymphe. 

Il se haste pour couper le chemyn. 

But whan \ve use any suche kynde of spekyng by the garmentes, Régula 

goodes or possessyons belongyng to a person, in ail suche sentences, 
they double the selfe pronovvne, usynge first the primatyve and after 
the dyrivatyve. 

EXEMPLE or TUIS ROLE. 

He hath taken away my gowne : il ma oste ma robe. He bath robbed 



350 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

my treasure : il ma derobbé mon trésor. He hath brente my houses and 
distroyed his landes : il ma braslé mes maysons et lay a gasté ses terres. 
He hath dispent my goodes : il ma despendu mes biens. I disprayse his 
labours : je lay disprise ses labeurs. I pay hym his monay : je luy rem- 
bourse ses deniers. 
Régula teriia. But if the signyfycacion of the verbe be suche in the frenche 

tonge tliat he must nedes be circnmlocute in our tonge with a 
substantyve, and signylieth no hurte or harme to be done by any 
person without forthe , ail suche verbes they résolve their pronownes 
in to their primytyves onely. 



EXEMPLE. 



I départ out of my lodgyng : je me desloge. We breake our braynes 
for nought : nous nous escerueillons pour riens. I départe fi-om my wyfe ; 
je me demarie. I holde my peace : je me tays. But, where as we say 
this is myne, they say, cecy est a moy, cesl a moy; and in lyke wyse, 
cest a toy, cest a luy, cest a nous, cest a vous, cest a eulx, tout est a nous. 
Régula quarte. But in any other kynde of spekyng, if we use « myne » or « thyne » 
or any of the other as the laste worde in a sentence, they use le mien, 
le tien and i-o forthe. ' 



EXEMPLE OF THIS RULE. 



I have myne, where is thyne : je af le mien, ou est le tien? under- 
standyng a masculyn substantyve, and in lyke wyse je ay la mienne, 
ou est la tienne ? understandyng a femynine substantyve. 

ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE WHAN OR HOWE WE SHALL 
USE THE PRONOWNES INTERROGATYVES. 

CAPITULUM XXH. 

Régula prima. Whan so ever we demaunde a questyon by any of thèse two 
wordes « who » or « whome » , understandyng a reasonable créature , 
man or woman, in ihe frenche tonge they use ever qui, whiche, as I 
have afore touched, answereth bothe to « who » and « whome ». 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



351 



EXEMPLE OF THIS RDLE. 

Who be they agaynst whome you hâve to warre? Alayn Chartier : 
Qui sont ceulx contre qui vous aués a garroier? \\o is there? qui est la? 
who cometh yonder? qui vient la? who shall go first? qui ira primier? 
to whom shall I make my mone? a qui feray mes complainz? whome 
seke you? qui demandez vous? for whome answere you? pour qui res- 
pondez vous? and so of ail other preposyclons. Whose men be we? 
a qui sommes nous? 

But whan so ever we aske a question by any of thèse woi-des 
« what » or « what maner » , desyTyng to be certyfied of the qualyte 
of a thyng, they use quel or le quel, quelz or les quelz, after the gendre 
and nombre of the substantyve that the questyon is demaunded of. 
But hère is to be called to remembraunce what I sayd afore of quel 
in the thyrde accydent of adjectyves. 

EXEMPLE OF THIS RULE. 

Alayn Chartier : What folkes be you or what hardenesse is in your 

courage? quelles gens estes vous ne quelle dureté a il en voz couraiges? 

what man is this? quel homme est cecj? what woman is she? quelle 

femme est elle? what amyable countenaunce hath she? quel amiable 

contenance a. elle? 

Jehan le Mayre. Quelle hardiesse te meut, o jeune adolescent royal, 
ne quelle fiance présumes tu de mettre la mayn aux nymphes? noble 
déesse, quelle que ta soyes ! o noble goddesse who so ever thou 
mayest be! 

Whan so ever we use to aske a questyon in our tonge by this 
worde « what », nat meanynge to be certyfied of any qualyte belon- 
gyng to a thyng but of the thyng selfe, in ail suche, whan we use 
« what », as nomynatyve case to a verbe, they use que : after prepo- 
sycions or interjectyons they use quoy. 



Régula 
secunda 



Régula terlia. 



352 



LESCLARCISSEMENT 



EXEMPLE OF THIS ROLE. 



What saye you? que diltez vous? what beholde you? gue regardés 
vous? in what shall I put it? en quoy le metlray je? upon what shall I 
leane me? sur quoy mappuyray je? and what? et quoy? or what? or 
quoy ? And infynitely : je ne scay que pencer : 1 watte nat what to 
thynke. ^ 

Régula. Also, for « howe many » I fynde used after thèse suhstantyves gens, 

foys, choses and suche lyke, as quantes gens, quantes foyz, quantes 
choses, etc. , 

ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE THE RELATYVES QWOR QUOY. 
AND WHAN LE QUEL, LA QUELLE. LES QUELZ , LES QUELLES. 

CAPITULUM XXIII. 

Régula prima. Whan so ever in our tonge the verbe is goveined of a relatyve 

whose antécédent cometh before hym in the same sentence, and 
beyng referred tho the selfe substantyve or pronowne , and none 
other spoken of in any sentence .goynge before , in ail suche sentences 
they use ever qui, remaynyng unchanged, what so ever 'gendre or 
nombre the sayd substantyve or pronowne stande for. 

EXEMPLE OF THIS RULE, 

The man whiche begynneth and can nat make an ende , is nat to 
be holden wyse : Le homme qui commence et ne peult point parascheuer, 
il ne se fait point tenir pour sage. And I whiche trusted hym above ail 
men was begyled amongest the first : et je qui mefioie en luy pardessus 
tous me trouaay des premiers trompés. Ali women whiche regarde their 
honour take exemple by her : toutes femmes qui ont regard a leur honneur 
preignent exemple a elles. 

And note that, if there be any other wordes put in the sentence 
bytwene the nomynatyve case and the verbe , this relatyve « whiche » 
shall ever come outher immediately after the substantyve or pronowne 
or els immedyatly before the verbe. 



Régula 
secunda. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 353 



EXEMPLE OF THIS RULE. 



Alayne Chartier. Yet say I that lytle ought he to prayse his byrthe , 
and lesse to desyre the contynuaunce of his lyfe whiche passeth his 
dayes, etc. Encores dije que peu en doybt il priser sa naissance, et moyns 
désirer la continuation de sa vie, qui passe ses jours, etc. Where bvtvvene 
il whiche is to he understande nomynatyve case to doybt, and qui 
and passe, the verbe, cometh dyveise other wordes, but qui cometh 
immedyately before passe. 

But if the sentence fall so that we use a substantyve or a pronowne. Régula tertia. 
and afterwarde « whiche » or « whom » havyng a preposycion before 
them, and after that a substantyve or pronowne and a verbe, tlie 
relatyve beyng referred to the substantyve or pronowne that went 
before any of them in the same sentence , or els that we understande 
the substantyve thyng, though he be nat expressed, in ail suclie 
spekyng they use qaoy, what gendre or nombre so ever the substan- 
tyve serve for. 

EXEMPLE OF THIS RULE. 

The man in whom I dyd put ail my trust : l'homme en quoy je 
mettoye toute ma fiance. But this of whiche I am most abasshed : mays 
ce de quoy je suis le plus esbahy. Whan the yerthe wherupon you 
dwell you can nat socour : quant la terre sur qaoy vovs habitez ne pouez 
pas secourir. For whiche thynge it is more easly to be pardoned to 
the : par qaoy il test de legier plus pardonable. 

ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE LE QUEL. LA QUELLE, 
LES QUELZ OR LES QUELLES. 

CAPITULUM XXIin. 

Whan so ever we use in our tonge « the whiche » as nomynatyve Rcgula prima, 
case to a verbe makyng relacion to a substantyve or pronowne spoken 
of in the sentence next goynge before, in ail suche they use le quel, 
la quelle, les quelz, les quelles, after the gendre and nombre of the 

45 



354 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

sayd antécédent , whether we referre the same antécédent agayne or 
after the relatyve or nat, wliiche kynde of spekyng, thougli it may 
be used indifferently what so eyer maner substantyve the antécédent 
be, yet is moste used where the antécédent is a propre name of a 
person or place. 
But hère i s to 
witli femynine si 
it shuide engendre to moche confusyon. 



Kcgula But hère is to be noled that thoughe quel and quelz may be joyned 

witli femynine substantyve, in this relatyve that rule holdeth nat, for 



EXEMPLE OF THIS RULE. 



Johau le Mayre. Lyke as Anchyses dyd, the whiche incontynent 
after the dede went and vaunted hym : comme fist Anchises, le quel 
incontinent après le fait salla vanter. The whiche great ardour semed 
to smoke : laquelle grant ardeur semhloyt fumer. And than shalte thou 
hâve remerhbraunce of Pegasys the whiche hath tolde the : et lors 
auras remembrance de Pegasis la quelle ta compté, etc. 

And in lykewyse use they le quel, la quelle, les quelz and les quelles, 
whan so ever there conieth a preposycion before the sayd « whiche » 
or « whome » , beyng referred to a substantyve or pronowne goynge in 
the sentence before , whether the same sentence be agayne referred 
or nat. 

But hère is to be hoted what I bave sayd afore on the accident of 
the preposycion in the seconde boke , for as often as a and le cometh 
togyther, they be tourned in to au, and in lykewyse for a les they 
say aux, for en le, ou, for en les, es , for de le, du, and for de les, des, 
but with ail other preposycions the article is written before the rela- 
tyve out at iength. 

EXEMPLES WHERE THE ARTYCLE AND THE PREPOSYCIONS BE CONFUSELY 
COMPOUNDE TOGYTHER. 

The iaste whiche is the moste desyred and to whiche ail the other 
drawe : le dernier qui est le plus désiré et auquel tous les autres tendent. 
My sayenges be adressed to ail noble men to the whiche regarde to 



DE LA LANGUE FRANGOYSE. 355 

their honour is dere : mes ditz sadressent a tons nobles hommes aux quelz 
recjart a leur honneur est chier. After the whiche partes so debated : 
après les quelles parties ainsi debatues. 

EXEMPLE WHERE TIIE ARTYCLE AND THE PREPOSYCION BE WRITTEN AT THE LENGTH. 

In ail the whiche thynges he was obedyent : en toutes les quelles 
choses il estait obéissant. Of the same lordeshyppe under the whiche 
God hath made you to be borne : de celle seigneurie qui soubz la quelle 
Dieu vous a faict naistre. Whiche dyd submytte a great parte of Grèce 
in their subjection, and whiche yet of their name is called Gallo- 
Grecia : qui soabzmirent g rant partie de Grèce en leur subjection, la quelle 
encores de leur nom sappelle Gallo-Grecia. 

ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE HOWE AND WHAN WE SHALL USE THE PRONOWNES 
DEMONSTRATYVES, AND FIRST WHAN WE SHALL USE CE. 

CAPITULUM XXV. 

Whan so ever we use thèse wordes « this » or « liiese » in our tonge 
before a substantyve wherof we bave made mencyon before , or shewyng 
a thynge, they use in frenche ce, of suche gendre and nombre as 
the substantyve requyreth. 

And hère is to be noted that , if a substantyve of the masculyn 
gendre or bis adjectyve begynne wilh a voweil or with h nat havyng 
bis aspyracion, than they use nat ce, but cest, lyke as I bave sliewed, 
whan I declyned ce, in the seconde boke. 

EXEMPLE OF THIS RULE. 

For this way, this bouse, thèse wayes, thèse bouses they saye : 
ce chemyn, ceste mayson, ces chemyns, ces maysons. And for this man, 
this horryble case : cest home, cest horrible cas. Whan so ever we use 
thèse two wordes, it is havyng regarde to the thyng or mater spoken 
of byfore, they use ce est and by abrevyacion cest, as I bave at the 
length declared in the li chapiter of the first boke. 

A5. 



356 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

But, if we use the sayd two wOrdes rather to expresse the qualyle 
of a thyng than a thynge selfe, they use il and nat ce. 



EXEMPLE OF THIS RULE. 



For « it is well sayd, it is myne, it is my desyre », they say : cesl 
bien dict, cest a moy, cest mon désir. And for « it is good, it is naught », 
they say : il est bon, il ne vaalt rien. But where we use « it » before a 
verbe imparsonall or as accusatyve case governed of any verbe par- 
sonall, in ail suche sentences they use il, le or la, as the sentence 
dothe requyre. 



EXEMPLE OF THIS RCLE. 



For « it rayneth , it thondreth , I love it , meanyng a masculyne 
substantyve , I hâte it, meanyng a femynin substantyve », they say : il 
pleut, il tonne, je layme,je la hajs. 

Whan so ever we use to double this worde « that » in our tonge , 
where as unlo the first « that » may be understande the substantyve 
thyng, the seconde that beynge a conjunction, in the stede of the 
first « that » they use ever ce. 



EXEMPLE OF THIS ROLE. 



For I shall helpe hym in ail ihat I may, they say : je layderay en 
tout ce (jne je puis. 

Whan so ever we use thèse two wordes in our tonge, they be 
apoyntyng or shewyng suche thyng as we bave spoken of beyng in 
syght , or whan so ever they make answere to a qucstyon demanded 
of thynges beyng in syght what thynges they be , the frenchemen use , 
for they be, ce sont. But, if we use they be, tellyng or declaring of 
a thyng vvithout shewyng, they use Hz sont, or expowndyng, so that 
the wordes folowyng expownd the wordes that go before. On ot de 
loing les cliquettys de voz harnais. Ce sont voz botellettes. On se resueillc 
au son de voz clercs trompettes. Ce sont vos Jluttes, voz doulcaines et voz 
joyeuses musettes. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 357 

EXEMPLE OF THIS RULE. 

, They be ho men for us : ce ne sont point gens pour nous. They be 
no men that we se comyng, they be shepe : ce ne sont point des gens 
que nous voyons venir, ce sont des brebis. They be of our folkes that 
crosse over the fyldes : ce sont de noz gens qui trauersent les champs. 
They be wyse men, they be fooles : Hz sont saiges gens; Hz sont folz. 

And note that by the ignoraunce of printers I fynde often se writ- 
ten with s for ce written with c, whan he bis used in this sence, by 
cause they tbynke that ce, written with c, in bis singuler nombre, 
shulde nât be joyned with a verbe of the plurell nombre, but their 
tonge is suche in this thynge. 

ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE CECY AND CELA. 

CAPITULUM XXVI. 

Whan so ever we use thèse wordes in our tonge « this » or « that » , 
without a substantyve, where the sence shulde be ail one, whether 
V(e adde this worde « same » or nat to them, they use ever for this cecy 
and for that cela, varyeng ce after the gendre and nombre of the 
substantyve that he belongeth unto , and addynge cy and la to bis 
small termynacion. 

EXEMPLE OF THIS RCLE. 

For gyve me this, or gyve me this same : take away that or that 
same , they saye bailles moy cecy, ostes cela : but if they adde the 
substantyve than put cy and la after the substantyve, they devyde 
cy and la from ce, and put the substantyve bytwene them, as a cest 
homme cy, en ce temps la, pour ceste femme cy, contre ces gens la, et 
je trouve par escript que le roy Priam ne commist jamais cruaulte que 
ceste la. 



358 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE CYL, CELUY. CEVLX, CELLE 

OR CELLES. 

CAPITULUM XXVII. • 

V\ han so ever we use in our tonge thèse vvordes « he that , liym that, 
« slie that, her thatorthem that », understandyng men oi' women, they 
say one of the fyve wordes hère afore rehersed witli qui next folowynge 
liym, of suche gendre and nomhre as the preposycion is that they 
serve for. 

EXEMPLE OF fÙlS RULE. 

For thèse sentences, he that hath his liehh is ryche ynovigh : she 
that is good and fayre nede none other dowrie : 1 wyll fyght agaynst 
him that sayeth the contrary : I wyll gyve it to her that is fayrest : 
they that go a wai-refare hâve a paynfuli lyfe : they that spyn ail 
day wynne but a lytle : I holde with them that deale trewiy : they 
say : cil or celuy qui a sa sancte est ryche assez : celle qui est belle et bonne 
na mestier daultre douayre : je conibatray contre celuy qui disi le con- 
trayre : je le bailleray a celle qui est la plus belle : ceulx qui vont à la 
guerre maynent vie pénible : celles qui filent tout le jour ne gaygnent guayres : 
je loue ceulx qui se mayntiennent loyallement. 

But whan so ever we use « this same » or « that same » , addyng a 
substantyve where of we hâve made mencion byfore, they use cil, 
celuy, ceulx, celle or celles without qui, of suche gendre and nombre 
as the substantyve dothe requyre. 

EXEMPLE OF THIS RCLE. 

Where we say, this same chylde wherof I hâve afore tolde you : this 
same dragon, this same woman, they say : cil or celuy enfant dont je 
vous ay cy deaant compte: celuy dragon, celle femme, etc. 

Jehan le Maire : Duquel , saulue la paix dung chascun , le pouuojr 
non mesurable, joinct aaec le mien, ne semble pas moyns excéder celuy 
de tous les autres dieux et déesses que la clarté du soleil surmonte celle 
de la lune. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 359 

I fynde also thèse kyndes of speking by thèse compounde pro- Régula. 
nownes : le duc de Lancastre et celay de Lorrayne : mays laysser nostre 
loy et prendre celle de Mahon, where celuy and celle includeth le or la, 
and the substantyve that went before, as le duc et la loy. 

ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE WHAN WE SHALL USE CESTVY, YCESTUY, YCELLVY 

OR YCELLE. 

CAPITULUM XXVIII. 

Whan we use this man, they use cestuy, and for this selfe same 
man ycestay, and for this selfe same thyng, of the mascidyne gendre, 
yceluy, ssycelay dragon, yceluy jugement, and for the femynine gendre 
ycelle, asycelle condemnation , this selfe condemnacyon. 

ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE HOWE AND WHAN WE SHALL USE THEIR NOWNES 

PARTYTIVES AND DISTRYBUTYVES, AND WHAT SONDRY MANERS 

OF SPEK.YNGE THEY USE IN THE FRENCHE TONGE , 

WHAN WE USE ANY OF THE SAME WORDES 

IN OUR TONGE, AND FIRST TO KNOWE 

WHAT WORDES THEY HAVE 

FOR ANY. 

CAPITULUM XXIX. 

Whan we use « any » before a substantyve, they use aulcun of suche 
gendre and nombre as the substantyve recpiyreth. 

EXEMPLE. 

If you bave any mater : si vous auez alcune matière. Knowe you 
any remedy : cognoissez vous alcun remède? 

But y fynde somtyme aulcun and aulcune for sonie man or some 
woman or some body, as if you se any man •hère : si vous voyez 
aulcun la. 

For this worde « any » in our tongc'^by sydes aulcun they bave 
also nul, quelcun, quelconque personne , and de, and poynt de, of vvhiche 
the use shall apere by exemple. 



360 LESGLARGISSEMENT 



EXEMPLE. 



And if any man or woman aske : et si nul ou nulle demande. So 
that nul, in ail his gendres and nombres where the verbe hath nat 
ne before him , standeth for any mari, or any woman, or for any, as 
il est pardu sans nul remède : lie his lost without any remedy. // le scait 
faire mieulx que nul autre. If you se any body passe this vvay : si vous 
voyez quelcun passer par ycy. Without fraude or any maner corrupcion : 
sans fraude ne corruption quelconques. Ordonna la feste lespace de trois 
jours continuelz sans inlermission quelconque. So that quelconques , for this 
signyfycacion , must ever be the last worde in the sentence. Hâve you 
any money? auez vous point d'argeiït? sans faire tort a parsonne. So that 
whan we use « any » before a substantyve and enquyre or demaunde if 
we hâve any parte or porcyon therof^ they use ever point de, as for 
any breed, any fyre, any water, point de payn, point de feu, point 
deaue. 

WHAT WORDES THEY HAVE FOR SOME. 

Whan we use some body or some man or woman, they use quel- 
qun or quelqane. 

EXEMPLE. 

There is some body ad the dore : il y a quelqun a luys. Loke if 
you can se some woman : regardez se vous pouez veoir quelcune. 

For this worde, some, in our tonge, besydes quelqun they hâve 
also les vnqz, or les aulcuns, les aultres, les aulcunes, quelque, de and tel. 

EXEMPLE. 

Some say so and some say the contrarye : les vngz disent ainsy, les 
aultres le contraire. é>ome women daunce and some wepe : les vues 
dansent et les aultres pleurent. Les aulcuns tendent afroydeur, les aultres 
a chaleur, et les aultres a attrempance. So that, whan we use to double 
some twyse in our tonge onely in dyverse or contrary sences, they 
use for the first some les vngz, and for the seconde les aultres. By 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 361 

many meanes men fall in to povertie, some by theves, some by for- 
tune of the see, some by fyre , some by prodigall expences : par 
plusieurs moyens tes hommes tambent en poaerté, les aulcuns par larons, 
les aulcuns par fortunes de la mer, les aulcuns par feu, et les aulcuns par 
prodiguement despendre. So that, whan we utter some oftener than 
twyse, they use les aulcuns or les aulcuncs, after the gendre of the 
substantyve, and nat les vngz et les aultres. Some be begyled : les 
aulcuns sont trompez. It is some beest or some tree : cest quelque beste 
ou quelque arbre. So that quelque serveth for unreasonable créatures, 
lyke as quelcun and aulcun for reasonable : how be it I fînde quelque 
fol, quelque prestrei quelque dame, but alwayes the substantyve must 
be expressed. 

Gyve me some breed : Go fette water : baille moy du pain; allez 
quérir de leaue. So that, whan some signyfieth the parte of any thyng, 
they use de. 

Some hath shaven bis berde that is nal very fayre : tel afaict sa 
barbe qui nest gaayres beau. Some speke full swetely that meane fuU 
yvell : tel parle tresdoulcement qui a très maluaise intention. So that 
whan we use some, nat touchyng any certayne person, but speke in 
a generalte , they use tel. I thynke I am as wortliy as suche a man : 
je me pense aussi digne que vng tel. 

THE USE AND SIGNYFICACIONS OF CHASCUN. 

Whan so ever we use in our tonge eche man or every man , they 
use chascun, chascune, chascuns or chascunes, after as we speke of a 
man or a woman of one or of many. 

EXEMPLE. 

Every man ought to do in ail places that whiche he knoweth be- 
cometh hym best : chascan doyt faire en toutes places ce qu'il scayt que 
mieulx luy adulent. After dynner men avaunced them to daunce eche 
man with eche woman : après disner on sauanca de dancer chascun a 
chascune. Every man on his behalfe : chascun en droyt soy. For eche 

46 



362 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

or every joyned to any other substantyve they use chascun, also of 
suche gendre and nombre as the substantyve requyreth. 

But after a preposytlon they use vng chascun, as so moche was 
Paris agréable to every man or every body : tant estait Paris agréable 
a vng chascun. 

EXEMPLE. 

Every byrde, chascun oyseaa : by every light occasyon, par chascune 
légère achoison. 

I fynde also, tout chascun and vng chascun, whiche signyfye eche 
or every also, but with a more expressyng that ail every and ail to- 
gyther do an acte , or that every man , on bis behalfe , dothe enforce 
hymselfe to do any acte. 

EXEMPLE. 

Tout chascun sen deust rejouir; je en droit moy men esjouy; et prindrent 
leurs armures et basions inaasibles, vng chascun qui mieulx mieulx en son 
quartier, par le commandement exprès de Noe leur père. They love to- 
gyther everyche other : Hz sentreayment lang lautre : néant moyns trestout 
chascun. For everychone they use tout chascun or trestout chascun. And 
as for the signyfication of tous shall apere hère immediately : car 
irestous les beaux paremens estoyent desja ostés. 

HOWE MANY SONDRY WÔRDES THEY HAVE FOR NONE AND NO IN OUR TONGE. 

CAPITULUM XXX. 

Whan so ever we use no body, they use nulluy, addynge ne before 
the verbe. 

EXEMPLE. 

No body may abyde his condycions : nulluy ne peult endurer ses 
condicions. I wyll nat do it for no body that lyveth : je ne le feray 
pour nulluy qui vive. I am bownden to no man : je ne suis obligé a 
nulluy. And so after ail other preposycions, as pour nulluy, en nulluy, 
contre nulluy. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 363 

For thèse wordes, no or none, besydes nalluj they hâve aise nul, 
ame, personne, quelconque, nessun, riens, ne poyntde, or pas de: but 
to ail thèse wordes it is generail that the verbe in the sentences 
where they be used shal ever bave ne put before him more than is 
in our tonge in the same sentences, of whiche wordes the use shall 
hère apere by exemple. 

EXEMPLE WHERE AVLIE , NVLZ, NVLLES MAY SIGNYFIE NO MAN , NO WOMAN, 
NO MEN OR NO WOMEN, ACCORDYNG AS THE SENTENCE REQCYRETH. 

JNo man is bounde above bis power : nul nest tenu oultre son pouuer. 
No man demaundeth what he shulde do in bis oflyce : nul ne demande 
que il doyhtfayre en son office. 

EXEMPLE WHERE lïVL IS JOYNED ÏO A SUBSTANTÏVE AND SIGNYFIETH NO OR NONE. 

No love may be greater than the love of the mother to the chylde : 
nulle amour ne peult estre plus (jrande que celle de la mère au filz. For 
there is no graunt made lyberaily, if it be demaunded neglygently : 
car nul octroy ne se faict liberallemcnt sil est demandé nonchaillanment , 
I wene that in trouth there is none suche : je croy que en loyaulté ne 
est nul tel. 

EXEMPLE WHERE AME, OR PERSOyKE BETOKENETH NO MAN OR NO BODY. 

I se no man or no body : je ne voy ame. I wyll do no wronge to 
no bodye : je ne feray tort a personne. There is no body at home : il 
nf a ame a la maison. 

EXEMPLE WHERE QUELCONQUE SIGNYFIETH NO MANER. 

He hath no maner of grâce in hym : il na en luy grâce quelconque. 
Also 1 bave sene no maner auctour : si nay je vea aucteur quelconque, 
So that quelconque signylieth no maner; but as for nessun, and nessune, 
as he maketh no maner chère : il ne fait chiere nessune, and suche 
iyke be nat to be folowed : for nessun is an olde romant worde, 
lyke as néant is , in stede wherof they use ever nowe riens , for they 

/,6. 



364 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

saye nat nowe : je ne le serviraj toute lannée pour néant, but pour 

riens. 

EXEMPLE WHERE NO ALONE SIGNYFIETH NONE. 

1 se no better simylytude : je ne voy meylieure similitude. I se none 
other remedye :je ne voy aullre remède. 

EXEMPLE WIlEliE POINT DE BETOKENETH NO OR NONE. 

I have no breed : je naj point de payn. I bave no money : je nay 
point dargent. I knowe never a man :je ne saiche homme. 

THE USE AND SIGNIFYCACION OF TOUT. TRESTOVT. AND QUANQVE. 

CAPITULUM XXXI. 

Whan we use ail in our tonge they use tout, of suche gendre and 
nombre as the substantyve dothe requyre. 

EXEMPLE. 

With ail my herte , with ail my mygbt : de tout mon cueur, de toute 
ma puissance. But where as tbe Romant sayetb , 

A ceste porte sans séjour 

La muse musant toute jour 

In that tyme he folowed the vulger people whiche joyne toute in 
bis femynyn termynacions to jour, tliough he be of the masculyne 
gendre, in the singuler nombre onely, as they say, il luy défendit sur 
tout riens, though riens be of the feminyn gendre; but they say, tous 
les jours, accordyng to the trewe congruite of the tonge. 

Whan we use al! togyther, or ail that ever there is, they use très- 
tout. 

EXEMPLE. 

Put in ail togyther : mettez trestout dedens. But as for quanque, 
whiche also signyfieth ail togyther or ail that ever, as you lèse ail 
that ever you playe for : vous perdez tout quanque vous jouez, it is a 
worde of the olde Romant speche , and nowe in the pure frenche 
tonge is clere out of use. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. '365 

THE USE AND SIGNYFYCACION OF UNG TEL, TEL. AUTEL, AND ITEL. 

CAPITCLUM XXXIl. 

Whan we use suche in our tonge, they use tel of suche gendre and 
nombre as the subslantyfe dothe requyre. 

EXEMPLE, 

Suche master, suche man : tel maistre, tel varlet. Suche faultes, 
suche paynes : telz crimes, telz paynes. For remembre you suche a 
man or suche a one : vous souuient il dung tel? Knowe you suche a 
woman or suche a one (meanyng a woman) : cognoissez vous vne telle? 
Where we use suche another they use autel, and for suche iyke itel. 

EXEMPLE. 

Was never man had suche an other martyrdome : onques nul neust 
autel martire. Suche Iyke wordes were bytwene them : itelz parolles 
auoyent Hz entre eulx. 

But where as the bysshoppe of Anguiliesme useth moche in the 
pystels of Ovyde tieulx and itieulx for telz and itelz, that worde he 
hath used of his owne naturail tonge , for the ryght frenche tonge is 
rather telz and itelz. And howe tel and telz may be joyned with fe- 
mynine substantyves I hâve afore touched in this thyrde boke, in the 
thirde accydent belongyng to nownes adjectyves. 

THE USE AND SIGNYFYCACION OF AULTRË AND AULTRUY. 
CAPITULUM XXXIII. 

Whan we use other they use aultre, as an other man, vng aultre 
homme : an other woman, vne aultre femme : an other reason for other 
causes, vne aultre raison pour aultre causes : in other maters, en aultre 
matières. But so often as they use an other man or an other body after 
a preposycion, they use aultruy, as do to an other man or body, /aitez 
a autruy : trust nat to moche in an other body, ne vous fiez trop en 
aaltruy : he thynketh to do displeasure lo an other body, il pense faire 
desplaisir a aultruy. 



366 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

THE USE AND SIGNYFYCACION OF QUELCONQUES, AND QUELQUE. 
CAPITULDM XXXIIII. 

Whan we use wliat so ever, they use quelconque, ov qaelzconques , or 
quelque, after the nombre of the substantyve, what so ever gendre 
the substantyve be of , so tbal where as he is declyned in the seconde 
boke quelconque, quelleconque , quelzconques , quelleconques , that was 
done by the errour of the printers, for he foloweth the rule of ad- 
jectyves endyng in /, as, what so ever excuse you alledge, it shall 
nat serve you : quelconque or quelque excusation que vous alliguez, elle 
ne vous seruira de riens. And I wyll be ware to make any maner men- 
cion of it to any créature lyvyng : si je men garderay de faire mencion 
quelconques a personne qui viue. For of them I force nat what so ever 
goddes or demye goddes that they be : car deulx je nay cure, quelque 
dieux or quelconques dieux ou demy dieux que Hz soyent. As for il y a 
quelque vingt ans, for it is aboute xx yere, is onely used in suche 
spekynge with nombres. I fynde also : déesse spécieuse, quelque que 
tasoyes, si men garderay a faire a aultruy mencion quelconques. 

THE USE AND SIGNYFYCACION OF MAINT, AND PLUSIEURS. 
CAPITULCM XXXV. 

Maint and plusieurs signyfye in our tonge many, but with this dif- 
férence : maint ahereth bis gendre and nombre after the substantyve 
that he is joyned unlo, as for many a man, many a woman, many 
men, many women , they say maint homme, mainte femme, maintz 
hommes, maintes femmes ; but plusieurs is ever joyned to substantyves 
of the phirell nombre onely, as plusieurs hommes, plusieurs femmes , 
also plusieurs alone may signyfye many men, as a man liad nede be- 
ware howe he playeth with many men : len se deueroyt bien garder 
comment il se joue a plusieurs. Si y errent les plusieurs. 

Hère endeth the Pronowne , and herafter foloweth 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 



367 



ANNOTACYONS TO KNOWE ALL MANER SORTES OF NUMERALLES IN THE FRENCHE 
TONGE, AND HOWE AND WHAN THEY SHULDE BE USED. 

Of frenche wordes wlierby nombres be expressed there be thre 
dyvers sortes, lyke as I bave in parlye in the seconde boke, as I bave 
had occasions to speke of tbem, allredy toucbed : for by vng , deux, 
troys, quatre and sucbe other they use to rekken bowe many tbynges 
tbere be in any somme togytber. 

And by le premier, le second, le tiers, le quart, and sucbe other 
they use to sbewe in what order or place one thyng is to an other. 

And by vue fojs, deuxfoys, troys foys, and sucbe other they use to 
shewe howe often a dede is done. 

And of ail thèse thre sortes of numeralles what and bowe many 
they bave in the frenche tonge, and bowe they be used, whan one of 
them is joyned with an other, shall bere consequently apere. 

Hère foloweth ail sucbe nombres as the lerned men in Fraunce 
use to somme or reken tbynges by, and by what names and figures 
they be expressed bothe with us and tbem : 



Vng, one, l. 
Deux, twayne, ii. 
Trojs, thre, m. 
Quatre, foure, un. 
Cinq, fyve, v. 
Six, syxc, vr. 
Sept, seven, vu. 
Huyct, eyghl, viii. 
Neuf, nyne, ix. 
Dix, tenne, x. 
Orne, elevyn, xi. 
Douze, twelve, xii. 
Treize, thurtene, xiir. 
Quatorze, fourtene, min. 
Quinze, fyftene, xv. 
Seize, syxtene, xvi. 
Dixsept, sevyntene, xvii. 
Dixfcuycf, eyghtenc, xvill. 



Dixneuf, nyntene, xix. 
Vingt, tweoty, xx. 
Trente, thurty, xxx. 
Quarante, fourty, XL. 
Cinquante, fyfly, L. 
Soyxante, syxty, n. 
Septante, seventy, lxx. 
Octante, eyghly, Lxxx. 
Nonante, nynty, xc. 
Cent, a bundred, c. 
Deuxcens, two hundred, u.c. 
Troys cens , tbre hundred , 

III. c. 
Quatre cens , foure hundred , 

IIII.C. 

Cinq cens, fyve hundred, v.c. 
Six cens, syxe hundred, vi.c. 
Sept cens, sevyn hundred, vu. c. 



Huyct cens , eyght hundred , 

VIII.C. 

Neuf cens, nyne hundred, ix. c. 
Mille, a thousande, m. 
Dur mille, ten thousande, x. .M. 
Vingt mille, twenty thousande, 

XX. M. 

Cent mille, a hundred thou- 
sande, c. M. 

Vng million, a million, x.c. M. 

Dix millions, ten millions. 

Vingt millions, twenty millions. 

Cent millions, a hundred mil- 
lions. 

Vng million de millions, a million 
of millions, etc. 

Dix millions de millions, tenne 
millions of millions. 



Farther nother they nor we hâve no caracters to expresse nombres by. 



368 LESCLARCISSEMENT 

So that suche and as many particuler nombres as inay he made 
bytwene vng and mille, suche and so inany maye be niade bytwene 
mille and vng million, by addyng of mille, imto every of the syngle 
nombres bytwene vng and mille, and agayne suche and as many sondrye 
nombres maye also be made bytwene vng million and vng million de mil- 
lions, by addyng of million to every of the sayd syngle nombres; for, as 
they say vng, deux, dix, onze, vingt, trente, cent, deux cens, neuf cens, so saye 
thev mille, deux mille, dix mille, onze mille, vingt mille, trente mille, cent 
mille, deux cens mille, neuf cens mille, and in lykewyse vng million, deux 
millions, dix millions, onze millions, vingt millions, trente millions, cent 
millions, deux cens millions, neuf cens millions, and by lyke reason, if it 
were possybie to talke of any nombre so great as vng million de millions, 
deux millions de millions, dix millions de millions, onze millions de millions. 

And note that, though there come ne ver so many dyvers nombres in 
one somme togyther, they shall eche folowe other in suche order that 
the grettest shall ever come fyrst in order, and they shal eche folowe 
other, vvithout any conjunction, except the laste nombre be under xx, 
and that the nombre comyng nexte before hym endeth in a consonant, 
for than they use to adde et bytwene the two laste nombres, as cent 
cinquante cincj millions cent cinquante cinq mille cent cinquante cinq hommes. 
And therfore, though we say one and twenty, two and thurty, thre and 
fourty, and so forthe, puttyng the smaller nombre before , they say vingt 
et vng, trente deux, quarante quatre, etc. and in lykewyse cent et vng, deux 
cens et deux, cent et douze, usyng et bytwene vingt, cent and cens, and 
the nombre folowynge, by cause they ende in consonantes. 

Nota also that, ail be it the voulgar people use never, septante, 
octante and nonante, as I shall herafter playnly déclare, yet that the 
lerned men use them and suche as nombres by anglorisme appereth 
by the Romant of the Rose where he bringeth in nature workyng in 
her forge by there wordes : 

Dix ans ou vingt, trente ou quarante, 
Cinquante, soixante oa septante. 
Voire octante, nonante ou cent. 



DE LA LANGUE FRANCOYSE. 

Hère foloweth wherin the voulgar people , 

marchaunte men, and suche as write 

hystories dyffer from the 

maner of nombring 

hère afore re- 

hersed : 



369 



Vng. 


Six viiiglz. 


Dix sept cens. 


Deux. 


Sept vingtz. 


Dix huict cens. 


Troys. 


Haict vmgtz. 


Dix neuf cens. 


Quatre. 


Neuf vingt:. 


Deux mille. 


Ciiuj. 


Deux cens. 


Dix mille. 


Six. 


Onze vingts. 


Vingt mille. 


Sept. 


Douze vingtz. 


Soixante dix mille. 


Haycl. 


Treize vingt