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Coc6haR ]Tnui}jn. TheBooh 

of Hymns of tlie Ancient Church 
of Ireland, 

Fasciculus I. 


I. The Hymn of St. Sechnall in Praise of St. Patrick. 
II. The Hymn of St. Ultan in Praise of St. Brigid. 

III. The Hjann of St. Cummain Fota in Praise of the Apostles, 

IV. The Hymn of St. Mugint. 



a2Rítí) ^Translatíon aníi iEotes, 

By James Henthorn Todd, D.D., M.E.I.A., F.S.A., 

Senior Fellow of Trinity College, and Treasnrer of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. 


^ríntct) at ti^c Caníbcrsitg i^rcgg, 




OL'BLl.V : 

^rímcfi at t\)t ©nibcrsito ^rtss, 

BY M. H. OILI,. 


This Voliime being only the first Part or FasciciUus of a larger work, the uanies of Members are iiot printed on the 
back of the title-page, whic'h will be replaced by a permanent titlc-page when the book is completed. 

The Editor is indebted to Mr. O'Xeill for tiie drawing from Avhicli tlie Irish heading, iu the ancieut characters of thc 
Book of Ivells, has been engraved ; also for the Vigaiette, representing the Hand of God, restored from the south-east 
Cross of ;Monasterboice (erected at the close of the ninth or early in the tenth centurv), where it occurs at the lower angle 
of the right arra, as if sustaining or supporting the Cross. — (See O'NeiU's " Crosses of Ireland," Plate 15.) An excellent 
cast of this Cross was exhibited in the Dubliu Exhibition, ia 1853, and is now in the Crjstal Palace at Sydenham. 

The hand issuing from the Clouds, and surrounded by a nhnhus or glorj', is one of the most ancient emblems of Deitv, 
and especially of the First Person of the Blossed Trinity. Several examples of it will be found in the Iconographie Chritienne, 
and Annales Arehi'olotjiqnes of Didron. Speaking of one instance, which occurs iu a Liber Precnm, a jMS. of the ninth 
centun,', in thc Bibliothéque Pioyale, this learned author says : — " Ces mains sont la plus ancienne représeutation du Pére. 
Par respect, par une sorte de dogme religieux, . . . on ne montra du Pére qu' une main bénisante, sans nimbe d'abord, 
avec un nimbc crucifére ensuite." — Icon. Chrít. (^Hist. de Bieu), p. 56; Ann. Arch. tom i. p. 16. 

The Hand is especially introduced in the ancient representations of our Saviour's sufFerings and passion ; and frequentlv 
also in pictures of the mártyrs tnd confessors, to denote the divine grace and support given to them in their sufferings. 
" Au jardia des oliviers" (says the author jxist quoted) " lorsque le Sauveur, abattu par ime tristesse siu-humaine, s'écrie, Mon 
Pére dídournez de moi ee caliee, une main sort du ciel, la mahi du Pére, qui bénit son fils, et le console. Lorsfiue sur la croix 
JÉsus, prét a mourír, jette a son Pére ces paroles désesperées, Mon Dieu, Mon Dieu, povrquoi mavez voiis alandonné ! 
ou apercoit se dessiuer, sur le sommet de la croix, une main qui bénit, et qui est la main du Pére. Enfin lorsque JÉsus 
remonte au ciel, aprés sa passion, et tenant en main sa croix de résurrection, son Pére lui tcnd la main droite, et l'aide en 
qiielque sorte á s'élever. Ce dernier sujet . . . est expUqué par ces deux vers d'Alcuin, placés précisément sous une 
Ascension peinte, 

Dexteea quíe Patris mundum ditione gutiernat 
Et Xatum ca;Ios proprium transvexit in altos." 

—Icon. Chret.. pp. 215, 214. 

And compare the woodcuts on pp. 210, 212, 216, &c. of the same work. 

This explanation accounts for the occuiTence of this ancient emblem on the Cross of Monasterboice and other similar 
monuments in Ireland : and it mav also serve as an apology for the introduction of it as a VJgnette, on the title-p.ige of 
the present work. 

Fébruary, 1855. 

J. H. T. 


misH arch.í;ological and celtic societi. 


|aírott : 

^wsiíríttl : 
His Grace the Duke op Leinster. 

The Most Noble the Marquis of Kildare, M. R. I. A. 

The Eight Hon. the Earl of Dunravex, M. E. I. A. 

The Eight Hon. Lord Talbot De Malahide, M. R. I. A. 

Very Eev. L. F. Eenehan, D. D., President of Majnooth CoHege. 

Cotmtií : 

Eugene Currt, M. R. I. A. 1 Patrick V. Fitzpatrick, Esq. 

Eev. Thomas Farrellt. John C. O'Callaghan, Esq. 

Eev. Charles Graves, D.D., F.T.C.D., I John O'Donovan, LL. D., M. E. L A. 

M. E. I. A. j George Petrie, LL. D., V. P., M. E. L A. 

Rev. James Graves, A. B. j Rev. William Reeves, D. D., M. R. I. A. 

Rev. Matthew Kelly. j Rev. Cuarles Russell, D. D. 

Thomas A. Larcom, Lieut.-Colonel R. E., \ Joseph H. Smith, M. R. I. A. 

M. R. L A. I WiLLiAM R. WiLDE, F. R. C. S. L, M. R. I. A. 

C«asurer : 
Aquilla Smitu, M. D., M. R. I. A. 

^tmtuxm : 
J. H. ToDD, D. D.. S. F. T. C. D. I John T. Gilbert, Esq. 


0]\IE years ago the Eclitor of the present vohime 
proposed to the Council of the Irish Arch^olo- 
GiCAL SociETY to priiit, with the assistance of his 
learned friend, Dr. Reeves, the celebrated Liber 
Hymnonim, now preserved in the Librarv of 
Trinity College, Dublin. 
This beautiful MS., which cannot be assigned to a later date than 
the ninth or tenth century, inay safely be pronounced one of the 
most venerable monuments of Christian antiquity now remaining in 
Europe. It preserves to us a considerable portion of the ritual of 
the Church of Ireland, as it existed before the Enghsh Conquest, and 
before the attempt to establish uniformity with the Church of Eng- 
land by the introduction of the Salisbury use into Ireland, in the 
t^N'elfth century. 

A large number of the Hymns which it contains have iiever beeii 
published, and are wholly unkno^^ai to the learned. The Latin Hymns 
are accompanied throughout by a gloss, partly Latin and partly Irish, 
and scholia, very interesting in a philological point of view ; whilst 
those of them which are written in the Irish language are, setting 
aside their historical importance, most valuable, from their great anti- 
quity, to the student of Celtic literature. 


2 Advertifiement. 

r.ut thc iiilien'nt diíticulties of thc work, as wcU as its expense, 
havc hithcrto deterred the Editor aiid the Society froin procecding 
with tlu' j)ul»lication. It was a.scertained also, that an ancient copy 
of it, which liad fonnerly belonged to the Franciscan Monaster)' at 
Donegal, is preserved in the Libraiy of St. Isidore's College at Rome, 
and as a second copy would necessarily be of essential serv^ce in sup- 
plying the defects, and correcting the obscurities or the errors, of the 
Dublin MS., it was thought desirable to wait until an attempt had 
W'(.'\\ made to get access to the MS. at St. Isidore's. 

l'ime, however, is going on, and every year's delay is fraught 
with danger. The death of any one of the eminent Irish scholars, 
who have been so long engaged in the study of our ancient records, 
would render it impossible to bring out the work, at least the Irish 
portion of it, witli the same fulness of illustration and accuracy whicli 
may now be attained. It seems desirable, therefore, to delay no 
longer the publication of this most important monument of our eccle- 
siastical historj'. Although the possession of another copy would, no 
doubt, be an immense advantage, yet it is better that the work should 
be edited from a single manuscrii^t tlian not at all ; and if at any 
future time we should be permitted to examine the copy now at 
Rome, it will be easv to givi- thc results of the collation iii ;ni Ap- 

Iidiucnced by these considcrations, the Editor took occasioii, from 
tiie uiiioii of the Archa'ological and Celtic Societies, to propose to 
the Council the immediate publication of this important work ; and, 
to iiicct tiic oi)jection on the score of expense, he suggested the expe- 
dieiit ofprinting it in parts or fasciculi, to be brought out from time 
to timc, as thc funds at the dis])osal of the Society may permit. 

Tiic volumc iiow ])resente(l to the Society is tiie íirst instalmeiit, 
isstied in j>ursuance of this de.sign. It contains the text of the H^Tnns 
cxactly as it stands in tlic L'ilnr líijmnoruiii, without any attempt at 
ciiiciidation, cvcii wiicrc tiiciv is a manifest error of the scribe ; and 

Advertisenient. 3 

this part of the work has been printed in a type which, althou;i:h it 
does not pretend to be a fac-simile, will give the reader a very correct 
idea of the characters in which the MS. is written. 

The gloss has been printed, not over the words or down the mar- 
gin, as in the original (for this would be attended with considerable 
and needless expense), but separately, or in the Notes, in a manner 
which it is hoped avíU be suíficiently clear and accessible to the scho- 
lar ; — and this is all that the Editor has aimed at. 

The Notes are confined to the elucidation of the text, the verifi- 
cation of obscure references, the explanation of obsolete words, and 
the collection of such various readings as have resulted from the col- 
lation of other copies of the several Hymns, whenever such were 
accessible. When longer iUustrations are necessary, they are given 
at the end of each Hymn, in the form of an Appendix, or Additional 
Notes ; and it has been thought desirable to place these at the end of 
each Hjann, instead of at the end of the volume, in order that each 
fasciculus may be, as far as possible, complete in itself ; and that the 
whole work, Avhen finished and brought together, may be found to 
have proceeded on an uniform plan. 

It has not been thought necessary to add to the bulk of the work 
by giving English translations of the Latin portions of it ; but the 
Irish Hymns, notes, and giosses, are everywhere accompanied by an 
English translation. In tlie original MS. every word, whether Irish 
or Latin, is written in the only character known to the scribes of the 
time, namely, that which is now preserved in Ireland onl}^, and which 
is kno"svn as the Irish letter. But in printing those glosses or scholia 
which are in Latin, it has been thought advisable, as superseding the 
necessity of an interpretation, to employ the ordinary Roman type, 
the Irish words or scntences which occur in the gloss being unilbrmly 
printed in tlie Irish character, and followed by an Enghsh translíition. 

The contents of the book will be more fitly described, and its age 
and character discussed, when tlie whole is completed. It should 

B 2 

4 Advertisement. 

1)«' oljservecl, however, that although it is properly described as an 
Antiphonary, or 13ook of HjTims, it contahis, nevertheless, several 
prose documents, such as the Epistle of our Lord to Abgarus, Iving 
of Edessa, the Prayer of St. Jolin with whicli he rendered hannless 
the poisoned cup, Scq. 

In the present edition each Hymn or prose document is printed 
separately, and is preceded by a special introduction, pointing out 
the autliorities, printed or manuscript, which have been employed 
in the illustration of it, with such remarks on its age und authorship 
as may seem to the Editor to be necessary. 

The Editor is under deep obligations to Mr. Eugene Curry, with- 
out Avhose assistance the present work could not have been under- 
taken. He has also to return thanks to Dr. O'Donovan, and to the 
Kev. Dr. Reeves, of Ballymena, for much valuable information and 
many important suggestions during the progress of the work. 

Special thanks are due to the Hon. Algernon Herbert, for many 
acute and leamed remarks, of which the Editor has availed himself 
in several places. 

J. H. T. 


( 7 ) 


npHE foUowing Hymn wasíirst published by Colgan, in 164"] { Trias Thaum. 
-■- p, 2 1 o) ; biit he has not said írom what manuscript authority he derived 
his text. It Avas afterwards printed by Sir James Ware, in the.Appendix to 
his Opuscula S. Patricii {16^6), from a MS. which had belonged to the Con- 
veut of the Fi'anciscan Friars of Donegal, but was then in the library of 
Archbishop Ussher^ Ware had also, as he tells us, a MS. of later date 
(" manu recentiori exarato"), from which he has given some varíous readings 
in his margin-. 

The Hymn was next printed in 1713, in the Antiphonarium Benchorense, 
published by Muratori, from a MS. of the eighth century^, Avritten in the 
Monastery of Bangor, county of Down, and now preserved in the Amíjrosian 
Library, Milan. 

It was also reprinted from the editions of Ware and Colgan, by Dr. Joa- 
chim Laur. Villanueva, in his Opuscula S. Patricii, Dublin, 1835 (Append. 
No. II., p. 307). This learned writer, however, did not make use of anv 
independent manuscript authority. It has been published also, copied exactly 
from Ware's edition, in the Bibliotheca Patrum of Gallandius, tom. x. p. 183. 

The text of the present edition is printed exactly as it stands in the Liber 
Hifmnorum of Trinity College, DublLn, the various readings of another manii- 

' " DescriiJtus ille Hjmnus alphabeticus, ex aliquas lectiones ad murginem apponere visiini 

antiquo MS. HjTxinorum, olim ad conventum fuit." — Ibid^ p. 151. This second copy wa!< 

ordinis minorum de observantia Donegalliae certainly not that preserved in the Leahhnr 

pertinente, nunc in Bibliotheca instructissima Breac. 

Usseriana asservato." — S. Patr. Opusc. p. 150. ' Muratori, Anecd. Ambros. tora. iv. pp. 1 27 

2 "Est et aliud hujus Hymni exemplar, é -159: Patav. 1713 ; Opere, tom. xi. part iii. 

quo, licet manu recentiori exarato, variantes pp. 217-251 : Arezzo^ i770- 

8 Th^. Ilijjiin of S. Sechnall. 

icript copy, and of thc above-named printed editions, being given in the Noten. 
This gecond MS. of the Iiynin i;; preserved in the Leahhar lireur, or " SpecUled 
Book," a grcat BiMwthtra of varions ancicnt works in the Irish liin^'ua;;e, 
chict1y ecclcsiastical, now in the Libniry of the Koyal Irish Acadeniy. Although 
written in thc latter part of the thirteenth or beginning of thc fourteenth cen- 
tury, this copy was evidcntly transcribed from an oldcr MS., and represents a 
text of a much carlier date. The text of the Hymn, both in the Liher Hym- 
nurum and in the Leabhar Breac, is accompanied by a gloss and scholia, which 
are now printed íbr the first time. In some places, especially in the Liber 
Hijnintfriinu the gloss is obliteratetl, and is now illegible ; in such cases, the 
hiatus is marked by dots. In a few instances, where the defect has been re- 
stored by conjecture; the words supplied are included between brackets. 

It sccms highly probablc that thc MS. of thc Liher Hymnorum, quoted 
repeatedly by Colgan, and from which he published the Hymn oí" St. Sech- 
niill, was the same which is now preserved in the Franciscan College of 
St. I.>idore, at Rome. That ^MS. belonged to the Convent of Donegal, with 
which Colgan was associatcd, and it is noAV fomid in a ibreign Franciscan con- 
vent connected with Ireland, and in company with other MSS. which were 
Mndoul)tedly in Colgan's hands. 

Thc same volume may also possibly be the authority to wliich Sir James 
Ware refers, and from which he derived his text of this Hymn, for he states 
di:ítinctly that the MS. which he employed was formerly in the possession of 
thc Convent of Donegal. 

There arc, howevcr, some difficulties in the way of tliis opinion ; there is 
no evidence to show that the MS. now at St. Isidore's was ever a part of the 
library of Archbishoi) Ussher, a^ Ware tells us was the case with the MS. he 
used ; which ^vas, he says, oUm the property of the convent oí' fríars minors of 
Donegal, but was then, when he wrote, in the Ussher Library, — '■^nunc in 
Bibliotheca instructissima Usseriana conservato." 

Again, the text, as printcd by Ware, does not agrce with that edited by 
Colgan as exactly as it might be expected to do, if they had both copied the 
same MS., but neither does it agree exactly with that of the Dublin Liber 
Hijmnnrnm ; so that, cven though wc should sui)posc this latter MS., of which 
\ve have no evidencc, to havc bclonged to thc Convcnt of Donegal before it 
came into the possession of Archbishop Ussher, it would not follow that it 
wíis the MS. to which Warc refcrs. ít must, howcvcr, be observed that too 

The Hymn of S. Sechnall. 


much stress ought not to be placed on discrepancies of thia nature, as the 
grcater part of them may havc arisen from careless printing, in which Colgan's 
book abounds, or from inattention to the charactcrs and contractions of the MS. 
On the other hand, it is to be borne in mind that Archbishop Ussher ap- 
pcars to have had in his possession, or at least to have had access to, another 
copy of the Irish Tltpnnarium, which may have been that from which Ware 
transcribed the Hymn. In the Epistle to Vossius, prefixed to his book " De 
Romanae Ecclesiae 8ymbolo apostolico vetere," Ussher speaks of a " Codex 
vetustissimus hymnorum, partim Latino, partim Hibernico sermone scripto- 
rum," as being then in his possession ; from this MS. he cites a passage in which 
the Athanasian Creed is said to have been composed by three bishops at the 
Nicene Council ; and another in which the Te Deum is ascribed to one Nicetas. 
Neither of these statements is to be found in the Dublin Liber Hymnorum, 
where the Te Deum is inscribed : " Haíc est laus sanctae Trinitatis, quam Au- 
gustinus et Ambrosius composuit." The inference, therefore, is, that Ussher 
had before him a second copy of the Hymnarium ; whether tliis was or was 
not the MS. now preserved at Home, we have no means of determining. It 
would be interesting to know if that MS. asserts Nicetas to be the author of 
the Te Deum. 

To avoid repetitions, the foregoing MSS. and printed editions have been 
referred to in the notes by letters of the alphabet, as follows : — 

The Liber Hymnorum, H. 

The Leabhar Breac, B. 

Colgan, C. 

Muratori's edition of the Antiphonarium Benchorense, M. 

Ware, W. 

Villanueva, V. 

The Hymns and other documents preserved in the Liber Hymnomm are, 
for the most part, preceded each by an historical Introduction, giving the 
name of the author, with the date and occasion on which each was composed. 
No such Introduction, however, is prefixed to the following Hymn, which is 
the first in the volume, and has only the title (in rubric), " Incipit ymnus 
sci Patricii episcopi Scotorum" '. In Colgan's MS., however, there was a Pre- 

' In the Antiphonarium Benchorense, in prefaces, the title of this Hjmn is " Hymniis 
■vvhich there are no historical arguments or sancti Patritii Magistri Scotorum." 


lo 'l'he llijmn of S. Sechnall. 

facc, of which hc has «íivcn a Lutin translation, proba]jly abridpjcd ; and thc 
copv oftho íívinn in the T.etthhtir Bretic has also one, ncvcr Ix'forc publishcd, 
which wiU bc found, with an English translation and somc cxplanatory rcmarUs, 
in the Additional Notcs. 

Thc ornamcntcd lcttcr A, with which the Hymn in thc ^IS. be^ins, wa.s 
originallv a very bcautiful and claboratc spccimcn of ancicnt calligraphy, run- 
ning down thc wholc margin of thc pagc. It has suffcred, howcvcr, very much 
])y age and rough usage, and is in many placcs quite oblitcratcd ; this circum- 
stancc, togcther with its inconvcnicnt lcngth, has rendcrcd it impossible to 
procurc a satisítictory fac-similc oí"it, and thcrefore a lcttcr, in a simllar style 
of art, from the Book of Kclls, has been substituted for it. AU the othcr 
ornamentcd lcttcrs in thc following pagcs are, howcvcr, cxact reprcscntations 
of thc illuminations of thc Libcr Hymnorum, from drawings by Dr. AquiUa 
Smith. In the original they are coloured with yellow, bluc, and grccn. 

Somc furthcr rcmarks on thc following Hyran, which are deemed necessary 
for its illustration, will be found in the Additional Notes. 

iNCipir: q.mNUS saNCUi pauRicii 
episcopi scoropum. 

&i3^1J0lUe oiiiNes mnaNces Deinii saMcca meT?ica 
uiríi iN cliríisco beaci parríicn episcopi 

Cfviomot)o boNinn ob accinn siTnulacim aNselis 
peTípeccamque pRopcer? uicam aequacui? aposcolis 

eaca chnisci cuscooic maNOaca in omNibus 5 

cuiLis operja rjepiiLscNC clarja iNcerj homiNes 

saNccumque cmus sequuNcuri e;cempLum mir^ipicum 
uNDe ec iN celis pacnem masNipicaNC DomiNum 

Gloss. H. — I. Sancta merita.—.i. sancta opera. 2. Patricii. — .i. patris chium. Episcopi. — .i. super- 
speculator iuterpretatur. 3. Bonum ob actum. — .i. caritatis et predicatiouis vel ieiunii et orationis. 
Angelis. — .i. sanctis, ut dicitur [erunt sicut] an[geli]. 5. Custodit. — .i. Patricius. Omnihus. — .i. operibiis. 
6. Refulgent. — .i. ut tlicitur in euangelio sicluceat [lux vestra coram hominibus . . . .] 7. Cujus. — .i. Pa- 
tricii. Sequuntur. — .i. homines. Exemplum. — .i. ut dicitur exemplum dedi vobis ut quemadmodimi [ego feci 
vobis ita et vos] fociatis. 8. /n celis. — .i. in ecclesiis. Magnificant. — .i. bonis operibus .... interioris .... 

Gloss. B. — 2. Patricii. — .i. qvd sedet ad latus regis, vel pater ci\-iura ; patricius nomen 5paib la pOTiiaiUi 
[nomen gradus apud Romanos] qui patricium regit. 3. Bonum. — Propter. Simulatur. — Simiho, .i. cop- 
Tnailignn .1. bicnnlaignii [I compare, assimilate]. 4. Apostolis. — Apostohis .i. missus interpretatur. 
5. Custódit. — .i. Patricius. Mandata. — .i. evangelii. Omnibus. — .i. operibus. 6. Clara. — .i. insna [won- 
drou.s]. Inter homines. — .i. pia bamib [before men]. 7. Sequuntur. — .i. horaines. Exemplum. — Ut 
dicitur, sic luceat lux vestra corara hominibus ut videant opera bona vestra, et glorilicent patrem vestruni 
qui in celis est. 8. Magnificant — .i. magnura facientes homines, in nomine Domini. 

1. Deum. — Dominum, C, wliich ■would 2. Patricii — Patrici, M. 

be inconsistent with the rhythm, unlesg 3. Simulatur. — Similatur, W. M. V. 

we read it Domnum, as a dissyllable. There is a gloss over this word in H., 

C 2 

12 Tlijmnns S. Secimdini in laudem S. Patricii. 

/^onsratis in Dci nnionc cc piDc iniiiiobií.is 

sii])CR cnicni cDipicnnin iir pcrnus ccclcsia 


ciiiusqiic a])osroLariiiii a dco sonncus esc 

iM cuius ])ORcac aDiiensiis iNpcT?ni uou pRcualeNC 

pniimis iltuni elc5ic uc doccrcc baTíbanas 
nanoNcs uc piscaricc \)qti DoccRiNae líecia 

uc De scculo CRcDeNces CTíahenec ao snaciani 
DoniiNunicfue seqiieReNCUTí seDem ao aechcT^iani 


Gu)SS. H. — 9. Constans. — .i. cst vel fuit. 16. HequerentuT. — .i. doctrina. 

GiX)SS. B. — 9. C'onstan». — .i. fuit. Fide. — .i. Triuitati.i, ut dicit Paulus, fratres stabiles estote, et rl. 
10. Quem. — .i. Pctrurn. Petrus. — Ut dieitur, tu es Petrus, et super hanc petrani editjcabo eccle.'<iain 
meam. Petrus agnoscens interpretatur, quicunque ergo in regnum celeste intrare de.siderat, agnoscat Deum 
per tidem, ut Petni.-*. 1 3. Illum. — .i. Patricium. Barbaras. — .i. alienas interpretantur, quia .siut alieni 
a Romana lingua. 14. Piscaret. — .i. pisco, secundum veteres ; piscor, piscaris, est hodie. 15, Gratiam. — .i. 
ad fidem, vel cele.stiuin. 16. Ad atheriam. — .i. ad celestem sedem. 

which. however, is so obliterated, as to 
be now illegible. 

5. Beata. — Beati, V. 

8. Magnijicant. — Magnificat Deuin, C. : 
Maguificant Deum, V. Magnificanl is pro- 
bably the true reading, if there be an allu- 
sion to Matt. v. 16, where the older Latin 
versions appear to have read magnificeivt 
for glorificent, and the passage is so quoted 
by many of the Fathers [^see Sabatier, in 
loc.'\ "He[Patrick] keeps the blessed 
commands of Christ in all things. flis 
good work8 shine illustrious amongst men. 
Tliey [men] foUow his holy and wonderful 
example, and thus magnify as iheir Lord 
the Father who is in heaven." The gloss 
over magnificant in II. was a long one, 
ruuning down the margin, but it is now so 
efFaced that the three words above given 
are ali that are now legible. 

9. Timore. — Amore, C. 

10. Quem. — Quae, M. Petrus. — Petruni, 
C. M. V. W. With the readiug Petrus 
the meaning will be, "upon whom, as a 
second Peter, the Church is built ;" or, 
" as it is upon Peter," if we read Petrum. 
The interpretation, " Petrus, agnoscens," 
in the Gloss B., is from St. Jerome (Z)e 
nominibus Ilebraicis). 11. Cujus<]ue. — Scil. 

12. Cujus. — Quem, C. Po7-t(P. — Porta, 
W. V. Adversus. — Adversum, M. The 
word adversus must here be taken as a 
substantive for adversitates, and citjus must 
be referred to ecclesia as its antecedent. 
" The Church, whose apostleship Patrick 
has reccived from God, to whose damage 
or injury the gates of hell prevail not." 

14. Ut piscaret. — Et piscaret, M. Ut 
piscaretur, C. V., which would destroy 



Hymnus S. Secundini in laudem S. Patricii. 

lecca chT^isci calcNca ueNDic euaNselica 
qime hiberjNas iNcerj scNces ciim usuris e;ci5ic 

Nainsn luniis laboms riiin opcRae pRecium 

cum chRisco TíesNi celescis possessuHus sauDium 

iDelis Dei miNiscer? iNsisuiscrue nuncius 
aposcoLicum e;cemplum ponmamque pT?aebec boNis 

cfui cam uerjbis cfuam ec pacns pLebi pRaeDicac Dei 
uc cfuem Diccis nom coNuer^cic accu prjouocec boNo 

Gloss. B. — 17. Talenta.—Á. maudata. 19. Navigii.—.-\. in iinpumu fa na heclaifi [viz. of the 
navigatioa of the Church]. 20. Cum Christo. — Sicut dominus ait m evangeho, ubi corpus fuerit iUic con- 
gregabuntur aqiiile, ac si diceret aperte, ubi fuerit Christus secundum carnem, ibi erunt justi, et sic cum 
ipse \leg. ipso] enmt in celo semper. 22. Prabet bonis. — .1. ppecepc -\ popcecul [bj' precept aiid 
teaching]. 24. Dictis. — .1. O ppecepc [by precept]. Provocet.—.\. ad fidem. Bono. — .i. suo. 

the rhjthm. The allusion is evidently to 
Matt. iv. 19 ; Mark, i. 17 : " The Lord 
hath chosen him to teach barbarous na- 
tions ; to íish with the nets of doctrine, 
so as to draw from the world unto grace 
those who shall follow the Lord, &c." 

15. Ut Et, M. 

16. Dominumque. — Dominum qui, M. 
This reading is an evident improvement 
to the sense. 

18. Hibernas Euernas, B. ; Ibernas, V. 

Usuris. — Usura, W. 

19. Navigii. — Navigiis, M. ; Navigi, B. 
On this word B. has the following mar- 
ginal note : Ipe in muip in bidi ppec- 
naipc. Ipi 111 noei m eclaip. Ipe m 
luamaipe popceclait) t)op beip bo pupc 
becliat). Ipe m popc bechat) uica pep- 
pecua. " The sea is the present world. 
The ship is the Church. The pilot is the 
preacher, who brings her to the port of life. 
The port is the life that is perpetual." 

The construction of vv. 19, 20. is very dif- 
ficult and obscure ; tum seems used for d. 
It is probable that there is some corrup- 
tion in this stanza, which the MSS. do not 
enable us to correct. 2'«?^. — Doniinum, 
C. This reading makes no sense, and is 
inconsistent with the rhythm; the Cjpyist 
seems to have mistaken cuni for Dnm. 

20. Possessurus. — Possedit, C. V. The 
allusion in this distich is evidently to the 
parable of the talents : " He sells [or trades 
with] the chosen talents of Christ men- 
tioned in the Gospel, which he exacts 
with usury [spiritual usury] amongst the 
Irish clans ; and, as the reward of this 
voyage, as well as of his work or labour, 
he will hereafter possess, Avith Christ, the 
joy of the kingdom of heaven." 

22. Apostolicum. — Apostolium, V. PrcB- 
bet bonis — C. omits prcebet ; V. omits bonis. 

zi.Et Omit,W.V. P/é6í._0mit, C. 

Dei. — Dominura, W. V. 

14 Uyiniiu.s S. Secundim in landeni S. Patricii. 

toTíiam habcr c\iTn clinisco hoíioncin líi scculo 
cfiii ab oniinbiis iic Dci iicTicnacun augcCus 



cfiicm Dcus misic ur paulum aD scuccs aposcoLum 
iir liomiNibus Ducacum pT^acbcrícc tícjtio Dci 

nmilis Dci ob Tnecum spTTíicu cc corjpoTíc 
su])CT? crucm boTTum ob accum T^cquiescic DomiTius 

cuiuscfuc lusca lu caTíuc chnisci porícac sci^maca 
ni cuius sola susccucaus sLoRiacuií lu ctíucc 

Gloss. H 25. Habet. — .i. Patricius. Seculo. — .L hoc. 26. Omnibus. — .i. homlnibas. 27. Ut 

Paulum. — .i. sicut Paulos misus est ad gt;ntes, ita Patricius ad gentes Scotorum misus est. 29. HumilU. — 
.i. fuit. Ob metum. — .i. pne timore. 31. Cujuttjue. — .i. Christi. Sligmata. — .1. na Tiiinna, .i. virtutem 

sic onis et Paulus, Christi [Hjrto stigmata et vulnera domini nostri sicque compono 

32. Sustentans.— .\. ap poloins. 

Gloss. B. — 25. Seculo. — .i. hoc. 27. Quem Deus. — .i. sicut Deus misit Paulum ad gentes, ita Patri- 
ciom Scotis. 29. Ob metum. — .i. prse timore. 31. Cujusque. — .i. Patricii, vel Christi. 32. /n crwce. — 
.1. hi cpoich na poóaibe [in the cross of contempt]. 

24. Aclu. — Fructu, M. 

26. Omnibus. — Hominibus, B. 

27. Ut Omit, B. 

28. Hominibus. — Omnibus, V. Duca- 
tum. — B. has the following note on this 
word : .1. a uepbo t)UCO, t)u;ti, t)u;c, 
Ducip, 1 T '^•^o <^o nt)ene Duco, t)ucap, 
t)ucacup ap ngabail chepca. Oucacup 
t)an amm rpcn popDeilb pangabap pop 
.1111. niull, -| ipe pin pil puno. " From 
the verb duco, ducis, comes dux, ducis, and 
in like manner duco, ducas, produces du- 
catus, in a passive signification. Ducatus, 
therefore, is a noun substantive, after the 
form which is found in the fourth declen- 
sion ; and this istheword that occurshere." 
Du Cange (Glossar. Ducatus, 5) shows that 
theword hasbeen used in thesense oísafe 
cnnduct, guidance, which is evidently its 
meaning in the text. 

30. Requiescit. — Eequiescet, B. 

31. Justa. — Juxta, C. ; sua, W. The 
allusion here is to Gal. vi. 17. If we refer 
cujusque to Christ, as the gloss suggests, 
there is an apparent tautology, and the 
preposition in is needlessly repeated in 
ver. 32. The meaning seems to be, that 
Patriclc, "in his righteous flesh, bearsthe 
marks of Christ, and whilst bearing his 
own cross, glories only in the cross of 
Christ." The gloss in H. is but partly 

^i.Sustentans. — Sustentante, C.V. Sus- 
tendans, B. The gloss in H. is ap po- 
loins, enduring, sustaining. It will be 
understood that where the gloss is iu 
Irish, without being followed by any Eng- 
lish translation, the Irish is a literal trans- 
lation of the Latin. In cruce. — Cruce, C. V. 
Ilere in is necessary to the metre. If the 



Hymnus S. Secundini in laudem S. Patricii. i ^ 

iTipiseR cneDeNces pascic Dapibus celescibus 
Nc qiii iiiDeNCun ciim cliRisco in ina DcpiciaMC 

quibus CTJosac uc paucs ucuba cuauselica 35 

m cuius inuLcipLicaucuR uc TnaNNa m niauibus 

ascain cfui cuscoDic caRNem ob amonem Domini 
Cfuam carjuem cempLum pariauic saNccocfue spinicui 

a cfuo coNScaucerí cum muuDis possiDecuR accibus 
cp-iam uc hosciam placeucem uiuam opperíc DomiNo 40 

Gloss. H. — 33. Dapibus. — .i. predicatíonis. 36. Manna. — .1. ap popbcipcaige [increasing, gromng]. 
39. Constanter. — [Quia] non cli.scedit ab iUo Spiritu. 40. Quam. — .i. caruem. Offert. — .i. iu virtutibus, 
in castltate et veritate, et esse absque morte peccati. 

Gloss. B. — 33. Impiger. — .1. epCQit). Dapihus. — .i. príedicationibus. 34. Videntur. — .L immuinn- 
cepap Cpiopc [in Christ's favour, or friendship]. In via. — .i. in fide. 36. In cu/us. — Sine sensu in 
est hic. Manna. — .i. Manna ebraice; quid est hoc latine dicitur. 37. Qui. — .i. Patricius. Ob. — .i. ap. 
38. Sanctoque. — Supervacuum est que hic. A quo. — .i. Spiritu. 39. Constanter. — Quia non discedit ab 
iUo Spiritu. 40. Quum. — .i. caruem. Placentem — .i. Deo non hominibus. Vivam. — .i. virtutibiis. Offert. 
— .i. in castitate et veritate, et esse absque morte peccati. 

in before cujus 'm this line be omitted, — See Exod. xvi. 18. 
cuius inust be read as a trissylable. 37. Kastam qui. — Castum qui, B. Cas- 

■i,i\.. Videntur. — Ridentur, W. An evi- tamque,C. IhQ Liber Hijmnorum h&s Ú\e 

dent mistake. Deficiant Deficient, B. following note written as a gloss over tliis 

The allusion is to Matt. xv. 32. line, and continued down the margin : — 

35. Ut Omit, C. V. "Ut dicit apostolus, unusquisque suum 

36. In cuius. — W. and V. omití'ra, which corpus servando castum Deo sanctificet et 
would require that cuius should be read honoret . . . ." The remainder is illegible. 
as a trissjllable. Manna. — The Irish The allusion is to i Thess. iv. 4. 

gloss in H. over this word appears to have 38. Sanctoque. — The gloss B. asserts 

been intended for the word multiplicantur. that the que is here superfluous ; but it 

There is a double reference both to our is necessary for the metre. The construc- 

Lord's miracle and also to the manna in tion is, no doubt, very rude, but the 

the wilderness, — " Full of zeal, he feeds meaning seems to be, " which flesh he 

the faithful with celestial repasts ; lest hath also prepared as a temple for the 

those who are seen with Christ should Holy Ghost ;" or, " [for Christ] and for 

faint by the way. To whom he gives as the Holy Ghost." 

loaves the words of the Gospel, which are 40. Ut. — Et, M. B. Ut, however, is 

multiplied in their hands like the manna." evidently the true reading. 



líi/naius S. Secundini in laudem S. Pairicii. 

iinicnqiie iiumoi ucccNSum inscns ciiaNSclicum 
in cdNOclabno lcuarum rori pulscNS scculo 

ciuiras i?c5is muNica supna inoNcem possica 
coi^ia iN Cfua csc iiui^ra cpiam oomiruis possiocc 

a;cimus NaNcpic ui ncsNo cclonum uocabicun 4í 

cpN cfuoo ucRbis ooccc sacRis paccis aoimplec boNis 

boNo pRcceoic e;cemplo poRmamcfue pioclium 
muNOocfuc iN coROc liabcc ao oeum piouciam 

Gloss. H. — 41. Lumenque. — Lux sapientiíe orta mundci. 42. Canddahro. — CJandelabrum, quasi f[erens] 
candelam, vel labrum candelie. Tuti. — Vel toto, inter veteres. 43. Civitas. — .i. ecclesia sancta. Regis. — 
.i. Chri.sti. Munita. — .i. \-irtutibus. 45. Maxitnus. — .i. valde magnu.s, vel de suo genere, .i. honorabili:>. 
Celorum. — .L in eccle.-ia sancta. 46. Adiwplet. — .1. implebat actu qiiicquid sermone docebat. 48. Mun- 
dofjue. — Ut dicitur beati niuntli corde, quuniam ipsi Deum videbunt. B. — 41. Lumenque. — Isidonis dicit. Lux substantia est, lumen quod a luce manet, .i. can- 
dor. 42. Candelahro. — i. candelabruin, secunduni Isidorum, quasi labrum candela;. Toti. — Vel toto 
inter veteres. 43. Civitas. — .i est. Regis. — .i. Patricii. Monttm. — .i. mons fructuosus est Christus. 
44 Copia. — .i. virtutum. Jn qua. — .i. civitate. 45. Maximus. — i. peroptimus, vel permagnus, vel maxi- 
mus sui generis. 46. Adimplet. — .i. in Ci f ein ut Grigorio dictum est [the same tliing that is said of 
Gregorj']. implebat actu quicquid sermone docebat ; sic Patricio contingit. 48. Mundoque. — .1. ipin 
chTHbe slan [in the pure heart]. 

41. Lumenque. — The gloss B. quotes cognise this as the older reading. 
Isidore of SeviUe: Etymol. lib. xiii. c. 10. 43. Civitas — The author of the gloss 
•• Lux, ipsa substantia : lumen, quod a in H. has mistaken the meaning of this 
luce manat, i. e. candor lucis. Sed hoc passage. Patrick, not the Church, is here 
confundunt auctores." In the margin of compared to "a fortified city of a king, 
B. there is this note : — " Lumenque, .1. lu- set upon a hiU, wherein is great abun- 
men sapientia; elevavit mundo; ut dicitur dance, whereof the Lord is owner." 

in evangelio, nemo accendit lucernam ^^.Est. — Et, C. Dominus. — Deus, W.V. 

nisi ponat eam super candelabrum, ut Inconsistent with the metre. As the text 

luceat omnibus, qui in domu sunt, nisi stands, the accent is on the second sjlla- 

filius dei qui est Jesus Christus.'' ble of Dominus. 

42. Candelabro. — Isidore is here again 45. i\"an<^we. — Namque, C. M. W. : quo- 
quoted in the gloss B., but not exactly. que, V. 

His words are : — " Candelabrum a can- 46. Adimpht. — The gloss in 11., as also 

delis dictum, quasi candelaferum, quod that in B., cite a line from the epitaph 

candelam ferat." Etymol. lib. xx. c. 10. on S. Gregory's tomb, as given by Bede 

Toti. — Toto, M. The gloss seems to re- {lILst. Eccl. lib. ii. c. i), and by Joannes 



Hymnus S. Secundini in laudem S. Pairicii. 17 

0111CM t)oiiiiMi aiiOeNcerj aNNiiNciac scNcibus 
(fiiibiis laiiacni saliins aeceRNaTn t)ac snanain 50 

prjo cfiioRnin onar OeLiccis aD Deiiin cfuociDie 
])no cfiiibiis iir Deo Di^Nas iinmolaccfue hosnas 

iiiNeni pi^o DiniNa lese iiinNDi spcRNic sLoRiam 
cfne cnNcca ao cnius meNsam esnmac cisciLia 

nec iNsnncNn mouecuR muNDi hnius pulmine ss 

seD 111 aoneRSis laecacuR cum prjo chr^isco pancuR 

Gloss. H.— 52. líostias i. spiritiiales. 54. QHe.—\t:\ qui. Cuncta.—A. miuiera. Mensam 1. 

t)OCliOTinip [by measurement]. * 

Gloss. B. — 49. Audenter.—.l co bana [boldlj']. 50. Lavacri.—.i. babtismi, babtisma grpece ; tinctio 

latine dicitur ; in qua tinctione omnes sordes, tum origmales, tum actuales, lavantur. 51. Quorum 

.i. gentium. 52. Hostias i. ut dicitur, Christus hostia et sacerdos; hostia secundum carnem, sacerdos. 

secundum spiritimi ; ofFerebatiu- secimdum camem. 54. Cuncta i. mimera. Ad cujus. — .1. Ie<j-is. 

Ciscilia — Ambrosius dicit, supercQium, .i. super habundantia. Cilon verbum Graecum quod interpretatur 

Jiabundautia. 55. Ingruenti L on Cf aigneTi pospach no pocpomba [by noisj- or heavj- thunder]. 

56. In adversis i. in tribulationibus. Lcetatur — .i. qui. Patitur .1. hic est qul patitur pro Christ-i, 

qui abnegat semetipsiun et tollit crucem suam cotidie. 

Diaconus {Vit. S. Greg. lib. iv. c. 68): ought to be taken in the sense oí memu- 

" Implebatque actu, quicquid sermone docebat, ram : " He despises all the glorv of the 

Esset ut exemplum, mystica verba loquens." world, for the sake of the divine law ; in 

47. Precedit — Procedit, C. Formam- comparison of which he also estimates all 
que. — Formaque, C V. things as chaff." But perhaps we ought 

48. Deum. — Dominum, C. to read, — " Cuncta ad cujus mensuram," 
^g.NomenDomini. — Nomenque Dei, M. omitting "que." Ciscilia. — Quisquilias, 

Annuntiat — Adnuntiat, M. C. V. Quisquilia, M. W. I have not been 

50. Lavacri. — Lavacris, M. able to verifj the reference to " Ambro- 

51. Quorum. — Quarum, W. V. B. De- sius" in the gloss B. On the left-hand 
lictis. — Dilictis, B. Deum — Dominum, C. margin of H. is this note : " Ciscilia est, ut 
Qiiotidie. — Om. V. Cotidie, B. M. dicit Hieronytíius in tractatu Isaise pro- 

52. Immolaique Tmolatque, B. In fetae, Ciscilia sunt purgamenta frumenti, 

this passage ut and que seem both redun- .i. cdic [chaff] ; ut Isidorus dicit, Ciscilis 

dant, yet both are required by the metre. sunt stipulse inmixta; surculis etfoliis ari- 

54. Que. — Qui, M. W. V. Ciijus — Ejus, dis,sunt autem purgamentaterrarumquod 
W. V. Christi, C. Mensam. — The Irish est verius." I cannot find the passage 
gloss in H. seems to mean that this word here quoted in the Commentary of St. Je- 




TJi/mnus S. Secundini in laxidem S. Patricii. 

asron botiiis cic piocOs 5RC51S ciiaNseLici 
(fiicni Dciis oci cíc^ir cusroomc populiim 

suanicfuc pasccnc plcbcTn Diuiuis oosmanbus 

])no cfua ao chnisri c;ccnipluni suain cnaoiDir aniiiiain (,o 

ucni i)no incnins saluacon pnouc^cic poucipiccni 
ur m cclcsci inoNcnec clenicos miLicia 

celescem cfuibus auMouam cROsac cum uescibus 
cfuoD iM DiuiMis implecuR sacRiscfue appacibus 

G1.OSS. H. — 63. Annonam. — .1. lon [provioion] .i. ab hora noiia tUcta. 64. Affuttbus. — .i. for, faris. 
i. precc'ptis dei. 

Gloss. B. — 57. Pastor honus. — .i. pastor bonus est qiii est secundum Cbristuui. qui dixit, Ego suni 
)iastor bona^, qui pono aniniam meam pro ovibus meis. 39. Pascere — .1. rio pappat» [or satiate fwith 
f<K)d)]. Dogmatibus. — Dogma, .i. preceptum. 60. Qua. — .i. plebe, .i. sicut dicit apostolu.s, utinam ana- 

thema essem pro fratribus meis. 62. Clericos. — .i. sortiales. 63. Annonam 1. loon [provision]. 

64. Affatibus. — .i. for, faris, fatus ; affor, affaris, affatus. 

rome on Isaiah, but in his Commentarj 
on Amos, viii. 6, he has the words, "Quis- 
quilias et purgamenta frumenti vendatis 
pauperibus." The other quotation is from 
Isidorus Hispalensis {Orig. xvii. c. 6) : — 
" Quisquiliíe stipulse immixta: surculis et 
foliis aridis. Sunt autem purgamenta 
terrarum." In the right-hand margin of 
H. there is this note : — Cipcilium .1. bporh 
iiel bpochpcoa .1. PPP^ ^^ cuipit) ino 
íuppce t)o chum [npe]. Mo cipcannan 
.1. caeici^ Copmaic bui Cuinn. Cannan 
nomen eiup, -\ ip toe po [cumJDaiset) .1. 
oincilcaip no bic bap caipp 111 mil po 
[mapb]cha ant). Mo cipcilium .1. bpae 
.1. cilium ciumaip in bpae. Cipcibum 
in[pinna] jlenaip paip,-| bpipip, -| quot) 
uepiup epc. 1 t)in cipet) t)ib pein [lie] 
III mipce la pacpaic in compapacione 
oiiiine le^ip. " Cúcilium, .1. bpoch, a 

particle, or bpochpcoa, i. e. the rubbish 
■\vhich the sea casts on the shore. Or Cis- 
cannan, i. e. the winnowing sheet of Cor- 
mac, grandson of Conn. Cannan was its 
name, and it was made of the cilcas [long 
coarse hair] which grew on the bellies of 
the animals that were lciUed there. Or 
Ciscilium, i. e. eyelid ; i. e. Cilium is the 
edge of the eyelid ; Ciscilium, tbe bair 
that adheres to it and breaks it : and 
this is more true. But whichever of these 
it may be, it does not matter for Patriclí, 
in comparison of the divine law." The 
Cormac mentioned in this curious note is 
the celebrated Cormac Mac Art. King of 
Ireland, who died A. D. 266, according to 
the chronology of the Four Masters. 

55. Fulmine. — Flumine, W. V. 

56. Cum. — The gloss over laitalur in B. 
was, perhaps, intended to have been over 



Hymnus S. Secundini m laudem S. Patricil. 19 

C51S NUNCius iNuicaNs CReDcNces aD Niipcias c-, 

cfui OTíNacuR uescimcNco Nupciale inoucus 

qui celesce auRic uiNum in uasis ceLescibus 
pnopiNaNsque Dei plebem spmicuali pocuLo 

acRum iNUCNic cesauRum sacRO in uolumiNe 
saluacoRisgue in caRNc Diecacem pRcuiDic 70 

quem cesauRum emic saNccis penpecciscfue mcRicis 
isRael uocacuR huius aNima uidcns Deum 

Gi-oss. H. — 65. Nvptias. — .i. regni celestis. 67. In vasis. — .i. in sanctis. 68. Propinansque. — .1. on 
X10 bailet) [wliat was distributed]. Spiiititali. — .i. doctrina. 69. Sacrum. — .1, Deuin. Tesaurum. — 
.i. Christum. Volumine. — .i. in evangelio. 70. Dietatem. — .i. ciuia eredidit Christiim filiimi Dei esse secun- 
dum divinitatem. 71. Meritis. — .i. jejimio et oratione et elimoisina et predicatione Domini. 72. Israel. 
— .i. vir mente videns Deum. 

Gloss. B. — 65. Nuptias. — id est, regni celestis, ut dicitur, vos similes estote hominibus expectantibu.- 
dominum suum quando revertatm- ad nuptias, ut cimi venerit et pulsaverit, statim aperiant ei. 67. P'imim. 
— .i. ^-inum doctrine evangelii. In vasis. — .i. in sanctis. 68. Propinansque. — .1. on t)0 balet) [what 
was distributed] propino per unum .n. scribitur, ut Eotiscus dicit. 69. Tesaurnm. — .i. Christum, vel pra'- 
niium, vel misterium evangelii. Volumine. — .i. in scriptura divina, vel in evangelio. 70. Lietatem. — .i. 
quia credidit Christum tilium Dei esse secimdum divinitatem. 7 r. Tesaurum .i. regnum celeste. 

cum, indicating another reading, " Qui 6i.Aurit. — Haurit, M. C. W. Y. Vi- 

pro Christo," for " Cum pro Christo." num. — In the margin ot' B. tliere is the 

^j. Ac. — Et, M. Evangelici. — Evange- following note on this word : — " Beda 

licíe, B. dicit, Bria vas vinarium est; unde ebrius 

60. Tradidit Tradit, M. This reading est qui de bria bibit, sobrius e contrario 

is necessary for the metre, and more con- dicitur, qui quasi sibrius, i. sine bria, i. 

sistent with the style of the Avriter, who sine vino." I have not been able to find 

puts all the acts of Patrick in the present this passage in the printed works of Bede. 
tense. 68. Propinans. — The gloss on this word 

62. Militia. — Militiaj, C, which is pro- in B. quotes "Eotiscus," that is, I pre- 

bably a mistake of the press. The word sume, Eutyches or Eutvchus, the gram- 

militia was frequently used for office, dig- marian ; but in his work De discernendis 

nity, ministry. — See Du Cange in v. 3Iiles. conjugationibus, as edited by Putscliius, I 

65. Nuptias. — This is an evident allu- do not find the words here quoted. Spi- 

sion to thcparable of the Marriage Feast, rituali pocido Spiritale poculum, INI 

in Matt. xxii. ; but the gloss in B. seems to Spiritali poculo, W. V. 

understand it as referring to Luke, xii. 36. 70. Dieiatem Pietatem, C. Deitatem, 

66. Nuptiale. — Nuptiali, M. W. C. B. V. M. W. V. This last is evidently the true 



Hymnus S. Secundini in laudem S. Patvicii. 

■csris Doniini piDcli? in lcjc carliolica 
ciiius ucTíba su?ir oiuinis couDica onaculis 

uc luimauc ])urT?cur cauucs cssacquc a ucniiubus 
scD celcscc salLiuurun saponc ao iiicninam 


cTíus culroT? cc UTS15U1S asTíi cuauscLici 
cuius scmiua uiDcucun cIitíisci cuausclia 

Cfuac Diuiuo scT?ir oríc in auRcs pT?uDcuriuiii 
cfuonumcruc coT^oa ac thcuccs saucco oT^ac spiRicu 


Gr-oss. H. — 74. Condita. — .1. failci [isdlted] a verbo quod est condio, condis, iiii. conjug. 75. Essae- 
que. — .1. cnairlie [eaten, gnawedj a verbo quod est edo, edor, essus essa, essum. particijái passivi. l'er- 
'nibus. — .i. scientia'. 77. Agri i. cordis. 80. Arat. — .1. aijnt). 

Guss. B. — 73. Testis. — .i. est. Fidelis 1. caipipe [faithful]. Catholica .i. univL-rsalis inter- 

pretatur. 74. Condita. — .1. f ailce [salted], a verbo condio, condis, po|i 1111. clTOibne [of the fourth con- 

jugatiun]. ■j^.PiUrent 1. a verbo putro. pop cec choibne [of the tirst conjugation]. 76. Celeste. — 

.i. doctrina Dei. Sapore. — .i. corporis et anime. 77. Verus. — .i. est Patricius. Agri. — .i. agcr est corpora 
tjdi-liuni. 78. Semina. — .i. senien est precepta evangclii. 79. Prudentium. — .1. prudentia quasi proviiU-iitÍH. 

reading. Pmvidii. — Pervidit, C. Pervi- 
det, M. 

72. hrael. — Israhel, M, llisrael, B. 
IIujus. — Ejus, B. Aniiaa. — St. Jerume, 
in tlie book De interpretatione nominmii 
Ilebraicorum (it' it be his), explains the 
name Isi-ael, — " Vir, aut mens, videns 
Deuin,'" as if it had been in the Hebrew — 

bs ns") ttr^s 

But he afterwards retracts this, and gives 
the true meaning, " princeps cum Deo." 
(Quojsí. Ilebr. m Gen. xxxii. 27, 28.) In 
ihe Greelí interpretations of Hebrew 
names, published by Vallarsius {Opp. S. 
/lieron. toin iii. part 2), soine of which 
iire attributed to Origen, Israel is ex- 
plained vovs ú/jtiv Oro't'. Tliere is tho 
foUowing note in B. over tliis word : — 
Ippuel inoapa can ip oepiUaebach, et 
uir pugnans cum Dco interpr. in can cle 

ip rpe i'iUaebach, 1 ip uir uidens deuui 
interpr. " Israel is sometimes a dissjl- 
lable, and signifies vir pugnans cum Deo ; 
another time it is a trisyllable, and sig- 
nifies vir videns Deum.'''' 

74. Condita. — Candida, M. 

75. Putrent. — Putant, M. Essaeque. — 
Esícque, C. Escaque, W. V. Aesseque, M. 
In B. there is the foUowing note on thÍ3 
w'ord : — .1. essus, a verbo edo, et edor, 
a céi'ca ; essum et essus ap anjabail 
chepca ; poDlap cenunl inci .1. essus, 
essa, essum. " Essus is from the verb edo 
and edor, in the passivo. Essum and essus 
the passive participle. The genders change 
iii it thus, essus, essa, essum.'" 

76. Celeste Coelesti, ^í. W. A'. Á'al- 

Unntur. — Alleautur, M. Salientur, C. 
Sallientur, W. V. The allusiou is evi- 
dently to Matt. v. 13. Ad vidimam. — In 



Hymnus S. Secundini in laudem S. Patricil 

ps illiiin sibi le^ic in ccunis iiicaRiuni 
qin Dc seniiNO capciuos libenac senuicio 

plenosque oe scRuicuce quos ReDemic homiNuni 
iNNumeROS Oe %ahuU obsoluec oomiNio 

QL06S. H 8i. Illum.—.\. Patricium. Legit.—A. elegit. In terris.—.l iii ecclesiis. 82. Le geinino. 

.i. diaboli et inaloruin hoininuni. 84. Zabuli. — .1. Diabuli. 

Gloss B — 81. Christus.—.i. Christus, GriBce ; Misias, Hebraice; Uiictus, Latiue, dicitur. 84. Zabuli. 
— .i. zabuíus, de consiliariis interpretatur. Obsolvet.—.\. comt)enmach [protectiug]. 

order that they may prove an acceptable 
offering. Cf. Mark, ix. 49, 50. 

78. Evangelia. — Evangelii, C. 

79. Bivino. — Divina, B. 

80. Quorumque. — Quorum quoque, M. 

■ 81. iie^'íí.— Elegit, M. W. V. Vicarium. 

In H. there is the following note on 

this word: — 1. peccaipe, 110 coib^eoip, 
no coriiapba, ap ippet) abeip Cipine in 
epipcola oe gpabibiip ponianopum,coni 
he uicapnip pep bip bap ep]>i coinici]' 
pop in cadipai5 cen co ci in comic 
. . . ge [^forte leg. comep cum pe^e]; ui- 
capiup oei eppom : "i. e. vicarius means 
a tax gatherer ; or a governor ; or a suc- 
cessor [of one in authority] ; for it is so 
Cirine [St. Jerome] says in Ejnstola de 
gradihus Eoitianorum, that the vicarius is 
a man who is over the city in the absence 
of the comes., whilst the comes goes with 
the king. In like manner he [Patrick] 
is vicarius Dei.'''' 

I have not been able to discover the 
epistle de gradibus Romanorum here quo • 
ted under the name of St. Jerome. It is 
evidently some spurious work of an age 
much later than Jerome's time. Du 
Cange in voce says, — " Vicarius sequiori- 
bus sebulis [sc. post Caroli M. tempora] 

dictus est, qui vice Comitis, aut alterius 
judicis partes exequitur in pagis, vel mi- 
noribus oppidis; Gallis Viguier.'^'' 

la B, we have a similar note : — 1. corii- 
apba quo'o hip. t)icic in epipcola t)e 
5pat)ibup pomanopum, conio he uica- 
piup in pep bip bap aeppi combicip pop 
pin cachpai5 céin [co ci] comep a pe- 
5e[?]. Ipein pe;c.i. beup. Ipe comeí% 
.1. ;cpp. Ipe uicapiup, .1. pacpiciup. t)it) 
uicup .1. pich uici. 1 ina conbene uica- 
piup: "i. e. a successor, quod Hieronymus 
dicit in epistola de gradibus Eomanorum, 
that vicarius is the man who is instead of 
the comes over the city until the comes 
returns from the king [ ?]. Thus [in the 
figurative language of the hymn], the 
king is God ; the comes is Christ ; the 
vicarius is Patrick. There is a word, vicus, 
i. e. pich uici, the land of the viUage, and 
from it vicarius may be derived." 

82. Qui. — Quem, C. V. Captivos. — 
Captivum, C, V. 

84. Zabuli. — Stabuli, W. Du Cange 
in voce cites numerous authorities for the 
use of zábulus for diabolus, to whicli add 
the Alphabetical Hymn of St. Isidore of 
Seville {Opp. p. 239). Zabulus occurs in 
Lactantius, De mort. persecutorurn, c. xvi. 


Hijmmis S. Secundini in laudem S. Patricii. 


mnos cinii apocalipsi psalínoscfiic catjrac Dci »? 

(fiiosffiic ao cDipicaNDiini oci rnaccac populmn 

quam lcscni m cniNicare sacRi crcdic NomiNis 
rnibiiscfuc ])crsonis UNam Doccccfue subscaNnam 

Gloss. II 86. Tractat. — .1. iniluat)it). 87. Quam Ugem. — .1. mop ni ópeceT' lesem facpi 

nominip, qnot) err rpiniraj' [a. great thinf;, that he believes the law of the sacred Name, which is tiie 
Trinitv]. 88. Docetque. — Supenacua est que hic. 

Gloss. B 85. Vmnos. — .i. laude!». 86. Tractat. — .1. imluabic falmum i (^mnum 1 abcolipp 

t)o chumcach popuicpine. 87. Quam hgan. — .1. mop ni ópet^ep lesem pacpi nommip cfuotj 
epc Cpmicap. 88. Docetque. — Supen-acua eijt que hic. 

The gloss in B. appears to derive diaholus 
from cia and fiovX^ ; or, perhaps, the 
nieaning is, that diábolm is here to be 
understood of evil counsellors. Ohsolvet. 
— Obsolvit, B. W. Absolvit, M. C. V. 

86. Tradat. — -The Gloss. H. explains 
this word by the Irish imluat)it), " he 
puts in motion, announces, publishes ;" 
and the Gloss B., using the same word, 
says, — " He publishes thc Psalm, and 
Hyran, and Apocalypse, to build up the 
people of God." The words popuirpine 
are very obscure, but I take them to 
mean popuil cpme, " the people of the 
Trinity," or " the people of God," as in 
the Latin. Tractare signifies " concio- 
nari, exponere, explicare disserendo" CDu 
Cange, Gloss. Tractare, 2); and Tractator 
"qui de rebus scriis doctc et eruditetrac- 
tat, scribit, loquitur, disputat." " Trac- 
tatores dicti praesertim librorum sacrorum 
interpretes, qui de rebus sacris tractant." 
(Du Cange, in v.) 

87. Quam Quem, V. C. 

88. Trihusque Tribuque, B. 

89. Et Ac. B. 

90. Sine intermissione. — Ovcr this word 

we find the following note in H., — " Au- 
gustinus dicit, si quis in unaquaque hora 
certa tempora orandi observat sine inter- 
missione orat. .1. celebpat) cecb cpacho 
[celebrates at all the [canonical] hours]. 
And in B., — " Augustinus dicit, si in 
unaquaque die certa tempora celebratio- 
nis observaverit, sine intermissione orat." 
The passage of St. Augustine here re- 
ferred to is probably the following, — De 
Hceres. n. 57 (ed. Bened. t. viii. col. 19), 
where, speaking of the Euchita; or Mas- 
saliani, he says, — " Nam cum Dominus 
dixerit Oportet semper orare, et non deficere; 
et apostolus Sine intermissione orate, quod 
sanissime sic accipitur, ut nulio die inter- 
mittantur certa tempora orandi; &c." 

91. Percepturus. — Praicepturus, W. 
Premium. — Prajmia, C. 

92. Regnahit. — Regnavit, B. In B. there 
is the following note over this word : — 
" .i. regnabit Patricius supcr Scotos in 
die judicii; ut dicitur Apostolis, sedebitis 
et vos super .xii. sedes, judicantes .xii. tri- 
bus Israel." This is an allusion to the 
privilege granted to S. Patrick of being 
himself the Judge of the Irish péople, in 


Hymnus S. Secundini in laudem S. Patricii 23 

ONQ DomiMi pneciNccus Dicbus ec Noccibus 
siMC iNceRiTiissiONe DeuTivoRac DoiniNuni yo 

cuius iNscNCis LaboRis pcRcepcunus pRemiuiTi 
cuni aposcolis Re^Mabic saNccus super? isRael 

auDice omues 

in Ttiemopia ecepna epic ujfcup 
ab auDicione mala non cimebiu. 

pacpicn lauoep pempep Dicamup 
uc nop cum illo Depenoac oeup. 

hibepnenfep omnep clamanr ao re puepi 
ueni pancce pacpicii faluop nop pacepe. 

Gloss. H— 89. Zona.—A. castitate. Biebus.—.l in prosperis. Noctibus. — i. in advei-sis. 92. Super 
hrael. — .i. super aiiimas videntes Deuni. 

Gloss. B.— 89. Zona.—.\. castitiite. Precinctus.—.^- nnchimcelca [suiTounded]. 

the Day of Judgment : — Thus the angel 
who appeared to him in the bush, and 
announced to him, " datíB sunt tibi peti- 
tiones quas petisti," adds "Quarta petitio 
est, ut Hibernienses omnes in die judicii ■ 
a te judicentur, ut videlicet eos quibus 
Apostolus fuisti, judices; sicut dictum 
est a Domino ad Apostolos ; sedebitis 
super sedes duodecim, judicantes dxiode- 
cim tribus Israel." — Vit. S. Patr. auctore 
Probo, lib. ii. c. 33. The author of the 
Hymn, however, knew nothing of this 
legend; he says merely that Patrick, "as 
the reward of his great labour, shall reign 
with the Apostles a saint over Israel." 
Sanctus. — Sanctis, W. V. Israel. — Is- 
rahel, i\I. 

Audite omnes. — Audite et rl., B. These 
are the words with which the Hymn be- 
gins, and are added here according to the 
usual practice in all collections of Irisli 
poems, to mark the end of the Hymn, and 
to show that the verses that foUow are no 
part of it. 

In memoria eterna The three forego- 

ing verses or antiphons, although Avritten 
by the original scribe of the Liber Hijm- 
norum, and at the same time as the rest 
of the Hymn, are not in the round capi- 
tal letters of the text, but in an angu- 
lar character, which occurs repeatedly 
throughout the volume, and which we 
have endeavoured to represent by a dif- 


JJi/innns S. Secundini in laudem S. Patricii. 

fcrence of type. Thc Crst of these anti- 
phons is from Ps. cxi. 7 ; and the last is 
taken from thc story told by thc biogra- 
phers of St. Patrick, of his having heard, 
when in Britain (or, according to others, 
at Rome), the voice of Irish children, 
crying "Veni sancte puer Patricii, et 
inter nos ambula." See Vit. Trtpart., 
part i. c. 30 ; Jocel. c. 20 ; and Fiech's 
Hymn, where the scholiast, as printed hy 
Colgan (Tr. Th. p. 5), has tliis note : — 
" Ipse Celestinus, quando ordinabatur Pa- 
tricius, audiebat vocem infantium eum 
advocantium. Infantes autem de quibus 
hic sermo est, vocabantur Crebrea et 
Lessa [called Lassara, Vit. Trip. ii. 86] 
duae filiae Gleranni filii [Cumijnenii ; et 
hodie coluntur ut sanctae, et ab ipso Pa- 
tricio erant baptizatíe : et in Ecclesia de 
Forcland juxta Muadium fluvium ad occi- 
dentem, requiescunt. Quaj autem tunc 
in ventre matris existentes dicebant erant 
ha;c, Hihernienses omnes clamant ad te. Et 
hsec sajpius ab eis decantata audiebantur 
per Hiberniam totam, vel usque ad ipsos 

These antiphons are doubtless a por- 
tion of some ancient office of St. Patrick; 
but they vary considerably in the MSS. 

and editions of this Hymn. In the Antiph. 
Benchorense, they are given thus : 

" Patricius episcopus, oret pro nobis omnibuíi. 
Ut (leleantiu- protinus, peccata que commisimun. 

Patricii laudes semper dicamus, 
Ut nos cum illo semper vivamus." 

In ihe Leabhar Breac thefirst two only 
are given, as in the text, that beginning 
Hihernenses omnes being omitted ; and the 
word " Op." i. e. Oratio, or Oremus, being 
inserted before In memoria eterna. 

In Colgan's edition they are given 
thus : — 

•' Patrieii laiides semper dicam [read dicamus] 
Ut nos cum illo defendat Deus. 

Hibemenses omnes clamant ad te puerí, 
Veni Sancte Patrici, salvos nos facere. 

Patricius sanctus episcopus oretpro nobis omnibuí. 
Ut deleantur protinus peccata que commisimus." 

Ware's copy does not appear to have 
had them at all, or at least he does not 
give them. 

In H. there is the foUowing gloss : — 
Justus. — .i. Patricius, vel unusquisque. 
Ah auditione mala. — i. Ite maledicti in 
ignem eternum. 

Ut nos cum illo. — .i. Hibernenses. 

( ^5 ) 



The historical Preface to the Hijmn. 

THE copy of this Hjmn, with which the Liber Hjmnorura begins, has no historical 
introduction or argument, such as we find prefixed to the great majority of the 
other Hymns in that MS. The initial letter is most elaj3orately ornamented, and 
occupies the whole of the left-hand margin of the page; there is also the rubrical 
title (of which there is no other example in the book) — " Incipit Ymnns Sc'i Patricii 
episcopi Scotorum.'''' It is probable, however, that the MS. may have lost a leaf at the 
beginning in which the Preface was contained. 

Colgan's copy had a Preface, which he has published in aLatin translation, under 
the title of " Pra^fatio veteris anonimi." — Trias. Thaimiat., p. 21 1. It has been thouo-ht 
desirable to insert this preface here, as Colgan's work is now extremely scarce and 


AuDiTE OMNEs, &c. Seciindinus filiiis Restituti, de Longobardis Italiaj, et Darercae sororis S. Patricii, 
composuit hunc Hymnura. Secundinus Romanum nomen ejus fiiit: sed illud Hibemi verterunt iu Sech- 
nald. Locus in quo erat compositus, est Ecclesia Domnach-Sechnaild. i. Basilica Secundini, appellata. Tem- 
pore Loegarii filii Neill, Hiberniíe regis, fuit compositus. Vel in S. Patricii encomium, vel causa pacis inter 
ipsum et S. Secundinum reconciliandaí, fertur compositus. Cum enim quadam \-ice quidam alii viri Sancti, 
quorum ipse inteifuit familiari colloquio, S. Patricium magnis encomiis extollerent, S. Secundinus dixisse 
fertur : — Ita Patricius esset optimus, nisi charitatem parum pradicaret ; per hoc solum intendens, si 
S. Fatricius piam liberalitatem, seu bonorum temporalium in pios usus elargitionera praedicasset, multo 
plures possessiones et praedia in usus et dotationem eccle^iarum prona populi devotione fore conferenda. Sed 
verbum illud ut prolatum est, delatum ad ejus aures, displicuit Patricio verae charitatis tj-po, et eximio 
cultori ; qui et respondit : — Propter charitatem, parcius charitatem príedico; nam post me multi viri exi- 
miis meritis et sanctitate illustres in hac insula florebunt, qui populi piis elargitionibus et obsequiis indige- 
bimt, quibus et ea ego relinquo. Tunc agnita culpá, et petitá veniíi, Patri, vero charitatis speculo, recon- 
ciliatus filius, composuit hunc Hvmnum, qui primus in Hibernia et secundum ordinem Alphabeticum 
factus est. Viginti tribus capitulis seu rhythmis constat ; et rhythmus quisque quatuor lineis : linea vero 


26 The Hijmn of St. Sechnall. [Notea. 

quindoiini svUuliis. Ilviniio iiini loniposito S. Socundinuí*, volt'ns illiini .S. ratricio ostcndere, ait : lljm- 
nuin c-oinposui, iii Imidi'in cuju.sdain viri .sancti, ndliuc in cnrne dcgcntis, f|ucin dignetur Vestra 
I'nteniita,s audire. S. ratricius respondit se quidcm libcnter audire Doniinum laudari iii operibus .servo- 
rum suonim, seu fnia- ipse ol» merita scr\-orum oi>rratiir. S. vero Secundinu.s, .silentio [>ra'teriens primum istius 
Hyinni versiculum, in fiuo noinen S. ratricii continetur (ne forte Maf^istri, laudcs humanas exf^si, indigna- 
tionem incurrercf), a secundo incepit, cujus iniliuin est, Beata Christi cuntodil mandata iu oninibus. ¥a 
sic iu recitatione lij-mni progreditur, nsíiue ad alium ver^um, qui incipit Alajimus in regno ccelorum. S. 
vero Patricius, hoc audieiis, ait ; Quomodo de homine dici potest quod sit Maximus in regno calorum i 
S. Secundinus resi>ondit, Pro positivo hic ponitur superlativus. Postea Hymno usque ad finem recitato, 
insinuavit illuin in laudem ipsiiis viri Dei fuisse a se compositum, devotamque se expectare mercedem. Verus 
popularis aura; spretor, licet factum di.splicuerit, nolens tainen pii discipuli devotum reprobare stndium, re- 
spondit se ex clementia Salvatoris expcctare eam mcrcedcni, ut quicunque maneet vesperi illura IIymnuin 
«levote recitarit, fcclicem exitum et piajinium gloria; accepturus sit. Ilanc, inquit Secundinus, mercedem 
accepto : scd quia Flvmnus longus est, nec facile quisquc potcst totum memoriíe commendare, optarem 
eandem gratiam coneedenflam, eius partem recitanti. Conseqnetur etiam, inquit Patricius, recitans tres 
posteriores ejus versus &c." 

The copy of this Hymn, preserved in the Leabiiar breac, is also preceded by a similar 
Preface or Introduction in the Irish language, which has never hitherto been published. 
It is essentially the same as that translated by Colgan, but it contains also some matter, 
which was either not to be found in Colgan's copy, or which he may have deemed it 
expedient to omit'\ It is, therefore, here given in the original, together with an 
English translation, without any mutilation; and some notes are added, to render it 
more intelligible to the reader. 

Qubice omnff. Locup huinr inini .1. Doni- Audite omnes. Locus hujus Hvmni, .i. Domh- 

nach SechnfiiU. -[ ipe m Scchnall pni X)o nach ScchnaiU''. And it was that saine Seachuall 

jiiTjnc hunc ininuni bo pacpaic. that composcd this nj-mn in houonr of Patrick. 

Pacpaic unioppo, bo bpccnaib li-Cp- Now Patrick, in his origin, ■■■vas of the Britons "f 

i-luaiíje a bunaOar. Calpupnt) anun o Ercluaide'". Calpurn was the name of his ftither; 

uchap. pocait) ainm a penachap, tieocliain Fotaid'' the name of his graiulfather, who was a dea- 

(iccomnaic pme. Conchcpp, umoppo, a nia- con. Conchess'' was his mother, Lupait and Tigris 

caip. tupaic -[ rigpip, a t)i piaip. his two sisters. 

bacap t)in, .uii. nomma pop pacpaic .1. Patrick had four names ; viz. Succat was his name 

Succac a ainni ic a chupcisib. Cochpigc with his parents. Cothriglief was his name wheii 

' To omit. — Colgan's version of the Preface end.s ■' Fotaid. — Or Potitius. 

with '• &c.," which sf'cms to iinplv some onús • •' Conchess Probablv Concessa. 

sioiw. * Cothrighe. — Thc author of tho very anciení 

'• Domnach Sechnaill. — Tliat i.s, "The place where Lifc of St. Patrick, which Colgan has placed second 

iliis Hjnnn was composcd was Domhníich Scch- (and which he attributes to a junior Patrick, a dis- 

naill," tliu Dominica, or Church of St. Seachnall, ciple of the great St. Patrick), writes this name 

now Dunshauglilin, in thc county of Mcatb. Quadriga. Ile says, c. 12, " IIlic [sc. in regione 

' Ercluaide. — Or Alcluait, the Rock of Clyde. Dalaradia] Quadrigoc nomen accepit, quia equorum 

.Scc Colgan, Tr. Thaum., p. 170, col. 2, 11. 2. quatuor domibus serviebat. Et erat quadrinomius : 


The Historical Preface. 


o (111111) t)ia ni-bui oc posnnm bo ce.rh]iup. 
lllagonuip o uinin o J5ep'ii('ii- ])acpicuip a 
ainni a papa Cclcpcmo. 

pochunt), umoppo, cuit)ccca pacpaic m 
eipmn. Ip amlait) po popcoemnacaip .1. 
Seachc mec Seócmaibe pij bpecan bacap 
pop longap, co pup opcucap aipmopicc le- 
cha. t)o ecomnacuip b]iemm t)o bpecnaib 
h-epcUuibe boib m can pm 1 n-Qipmoipc Le- 
cha. Ojicu li-ipuit)iu Culpupn muc pocait) 
achaip pucpuic, -| po jubut) lapum pucpaic 
-| a bi piuip anbpin. Dollocup lupum mec 
Seócmait)epop muip bocumm n-epenn. 'Re- 
Tiaip lupum [Lnpuic] mbpm .1. h-i Conullib 
Hlupcemni, -| pencup pucpuic ppiu lllíbuc 
mucui buum 1 n-Ddl upuit)e-] ppia u chpiup 
m-bpuchup, 1 po penpuc a bi píuip 1 Conul- 
bb niuppcemnib, -| ni mu picip boib. 

Cechpup, umoppo, pop cennuig-pim pá- 
cpoic, 1 oen bíbpit^eniiliuc. conib up pm po 
écpam m n-umm ip Cochpige. lappin ní po 
posnab-pum bo chechapcpeib. Oc connuipc, 
umoppo, míliuc cop bu mog ipepuch h-e, pop 
cenbuis 6n cpíup uile, copup pó^nub bó a 
oenup co cenb .uíí. m-bliuban, po bep nu 
n-ebpuibe, -] pó cep mop n-imnib h-i n-bích- 
puib plébi lllip 1 n-Dul upuibe, oc mgaipe 
mucc Tlliliuc. 

Cecmuic cpu co n-uccu TllUiuc pip n-tíib- 

lie was scrving four [master.s]. Magoniua^ was Iií.m 
name given by St. German. I'atricius was his nann' 
given by Pope Celestine. 

Tlie cause'' of PatricUs coming to Erinn. This is 
the way it happened ; viz. the seven sons of Secht- 
maidhe, king of Britain, that were in banishmeDt, 
ravaged Armoric-Leatha. They happened to come 
upon a parly of the Britons of Ercluaide on tliat 
occasion in Armoric- Leatha. Calpum, son of P'd- 
thaid, Patrick's father, was killed there, and Pa- 
trick and his two sisters were taken captive there. 
The sons of Sechtmaidlie went afterwards over the 
sea to Erinn ; and Lupait was sold there in Conaille 
Muirtheimhne ; and Patrick was sold to Miliuc, son 
of Ua Buain, in Dal-Araidhe, and to his three bro- 
thcrs ; and they sold his two sisters in Conaille 
Muirtheimhue, but tliey did not know it.' 

Four persons purchased Patrick, and IVIiliuc was 
one of them ; and frora this he had the name of 
Cothrighe. Afterwards he did not sen-e four houses ; 
but when Miliuc saw that he was a faithful servant, 
he purchased him from the other three, so that he 
served him alone to the end of seven vears, accord- 
ing to the custom of the Hebrews ; and he suffered 
much hardship in the wilderness of Sliabh ilis in 
Dal Araidhe, tending the swine of Miliuc. 

It happened at that time that Mihuc saw a vi- 

nam primum Succet vocatus est : a serviendo vero 
quatuor domibus Quotirche vocabulum sumpsit, et eis 
quatuor divitibus cum omni cordis devotione servi- 
vit." SeeColgan, Tr. Th. p. 17, note 15. See also 
the Tripartite Life, lib. i. c. 17 (ibid. p. 119). 
S. Fiech, in his Hymn on the Life of St. Patrick, 
gives the same interpretation of this B^me : 

bucup ile Cocpaige 
ceocup cpebe biu posiiub. 

All wcre [called] Cothraighe 
Who served four families. 

And sce the scholiast's note on this passagc, n. 6. 

g Magonius. — The scholiast on St. Fiech's hymn 
interprets this name, "magis agens quam caeteri 
nionachi." — C'olgan. uhi svpra. 

h The cause. — This is apparently from the Tri- 
partite Life, 1. i. c. 16; where, however, the King 
of Britain is called Fectmagius. The old scholiast 
on the hymn of St. Fiech (n. 5) also gives this King 
or Septimius, is probably the tnie name. The Irish 
p and p are easily confounded. Probus (i. 1 2) calls 
him RethmitHs. 

' They did not hnow it. — "Nec Patricius quid- 
quam de sororum, nec íIIíb de fratris serv'itute scive- 
runt." — Vit. Trip., ubi supra. 



The Hymn of St. Sechnall. 

[NOTB ▲. 

éibe .1. 1 boplpf co n-ncca Cotpise t)o f i- 
bechc chuice ip in ccch ippcibu, •] lappnp 
í^einet) uap a óint), i ap n pponaib, -\ op o 
éluoppoib, m baploip tio po moich in loppop 
paip bio lopcub, oóc pop int»apb-puni uub, 
T ni po epéoibiTjepcop t)o h-f. Q moc -) o 
mgen, umoppo, bocop m oen lepoib ppipp 
po loipc m cene lac, co n-bepna luaich bib 
-\ co po eppebepcap m soech in luoicli pm 
po Cipmn. 

X\o goipmeb lopom Cochpise bo niiliuc 
rop inbip bó o pfp -| po uc Cocpise bpeich 
puppi .1. In cene ac óonnaipcipiu inbum-po, 
ipep no cpinóci inbpm bpuchnaisep mbum- 
pa. 1 ipi pm popóonub-pa buicpiu lapcain •] nf 
chpecpep-cu. Do moc. umoppo, ocup c-m- 
Tjen cpecpic pibe i nop loipcpe cene in pacho 


In can cpo po senaip in ci noem pacpoic 
ippeb pucab h-e cup in moc ball clapenech 
nio boicpeb. Jop'Qiiup a oinm m c-pocoipc, 
-[ noco poibe upci ocoi op a n-bepnob m 
boicpeb, co capucbi Itíim no noiben bap pin 
calmain, co canic upci opp, •] lououic Sopic- 

sioní ; viz. he thoiight he saw Cothrif;he come to him 
into the where he wa'*, and a flame of fire wa.s 
is.suing up from his head, and froin his no.strild, and 
from hi.s ears, and he [Mihuc] thought that the 
flame broke upon him to bum him, but he drove 
it from him, and it did not hann him. HLs son and 
his daughter, however, who were in the same bed 
with him, were bumt by that fire, and reduced to 
ashes, and the wind .scattered those ashes all over 

Cothrighe was immediatelv called in by MiHuc, 
who told him his vision ; and Cothrighe gave the 
interpretation of it as follows : — The fire which thou 
sawest on me is the Faith of the Trinitv, which bunis 
within me : and it is this faith which I shall hereafter 
preach imto thee, but thou wilt not beheve. Thy 
son, however, and thy daughter, they will believe, 
and the fire of grace sball consume them. 

At the time when the same St. Patrick was bom 
he was brought to the blind, flat-faccd youth to be 
baptized''. Gorianus was the name of ihe Priest ; 
and he had no water wherewith to perform thebap- 
tism, so he brought both the infaat's hands' over 
the ground, and water came out of it, et lavavit 

J Saw a Fixion. — The storj' of Miliuc's vision, as 
liere given, is evident]y from the second Life in 
Colgan's CoUection, c. 15; .seealso Jocehn (Vit. 6ta), 
c. 14, and tiie Tripartite Life, Hb. i. c. 20. 

^ To be haptized. — This curious story of St. Pa- 
trick'3 bapti.sra is told in the second and third of 
the lives in Colgan's CoUectinn, nearly as above; 
aiid in both those Lives the bHnd, flat-faced man 
(lubulala facie, i. e. wilhout nose) is expre.ssly 
said to have been a priest. The fourth Life calls 
him " a certain saint, blind from his birth" (ad 
quemdam sanctum virum a nalivitate cwcuin), and 
tclLs the same storj- of tlie fnintain, the baptism, 
and the restoration of the blind man's sight, and of 
liis imme<liate1y acqniring a knowlcdge of letters, so 
as to read Ihe baptismal oflice. Jocelin gives the 
miracle of the fountain, ofthe restoralion of sight, 
and of the knowledgc of lettcrs iminediately conferred 
u{>oD the bliiid man ; but he cxpress]y statcs, that 

the infant Patricfc had been baptized before, and that 
the blind man was a lajTiian, — "Sicut e.xteriori bene- 
ficio eífeclus fuerat videns de cxco, sic iiiteriori gra- 
tia Uteratus de laico.'" — Jocel., c. 2 {ap. Colgan. 
p. 65). The Tripartite Life tells tlie story of the 
baptism as in the text, but calls the blind man 
merely quendam virum sanctum, and says notliing 
of the flat face, or of his biing a priest. IIis name 
is variously written, Gormias, Gormas, Guornias. — 
See Colgan's uote, Trias Th., p. 16, col. 2, n. 3. In 
the to.xt he is called a youth ; tlie word used is mac, 
wliich comniOnlv íignifies a son, but dcnotes also 
puer juvenis ; and he is also here expre8sly said to 
have been a priest, and to have baptized St. Patrick. 
' The infanVa hands. — " De manu infantis sig- 
num cniciá in terra posuit." — Vit. 2da, c. 3. Caelestis 
gratia; motas stimulo, appreheusa infantis ni.inii, 
crucia signum humo impressit." — Vit. Trip., 1. i. 
c. 4. 


The Historical Preface. 


nur paciciTi ruom, 1 po cporlaióce a poifc 
bó Rippn, -| po aipleg m ni-baicliir, in cf nap 
póglaimm liccip piam. 

Cempup haucem, .1. loe^aipe mac Méill 
P15 epenn. Caupa, ap molat) pacpaic, dp 
apbepc Sechnall ppi pacpaic, cum ho 
Sén-pamolabbuic. apbepcpacpaic.níh-aa 
bam-pa mo molat> mi bechait>. Di;cic Sech- 
nall. Non incepposaui'ucpum paciam, peb 
qxianbo paciam. Di;cic pacpaic, pi paciap 
uenic cempup .1. ap po picip pacpaic pob 
pocup aimmpep a ecpechca. 

Sechnall .1. mac Tiepcicuci, ipe bo pigne 
hunc imnum bo pacpaic ; ap balca eppeom 
bo pacpaic, i piliup popopip pacpaic h-e 
beop, i bo l-ongbapbaib Lecha bo ; uc bi;cic 
eochaib ua piannucan. 

Sechnall mac uí boipb m buaba. 
buaibpep m-becha. 
bo pil glan gaipg gile bacha 
Longbaipb Lecha. 

Lonsobapbi bicci punc eo quob habenc 
longam bapbam. 

Secunbmup pecanp bilicca aliopum uel 
pecebenp ippe a biliccip mcepppecacup. 

In can cpa boí Sechnall oc benam mb 
immum-pi, ip anb bo pala oenach bo benam 
h-i uappab SechnaiU, co n-bechup o Sech- 

Gorianus faciem suam ; and then his eye8 were 
opened, and he read the baptismal oíBce, — the man 
that had nevcr leamed a letter. 

Tempus autem"' ; viz. when Loeghaire, son of 
Niall, was king of Erinn. Causa" to praise 
Patrick. Sechnall said to Patrick, " When shall I 
niake a hymn of praise for thee." Patrick said, " I 
desire not to be so praised during my life." Sechnall 
answercd, "Noninterrogaviutrum faciam,sedquando 
faciam." Patrick said, " Si facias venit tempus," i. e. 
because Patrick knew that the time of his [Sech- 
nall's] death Avas at hand". 

Sechnall, viz. the sou of Restitutus, was he who 
made this Hymn in honour of Patrick ; for he was 
a disciple of Patrick, and he was also the son of 
Patrick's sister ; and he was of the Longohards of 
Letha, ut dixit Eochaidh O'FlannaganP. 

Sechnall, son of Ua Baird, the gifted, 
The most gifted of living men, 
Of the race of the pure, fierce, white-coloured 
Longobards of Letha. 

Longobardi dicti sunt eo quod habent longam 

Secundinus, secans delicta alioruin, vel secedens 
a delictis, iuterpretatur. 

Now, at the time when Sechnall was composingthis 
hjTnn, it happened that a fair was about to be held 
at Sechnall's'" place, and SechnaU weut to prohibit 

■" Tempus Thatis, the time when the hymn was 


" Causa. — That is, tbe cause or object of writing 
the hymn. 

o At hand. — This answer of St. Patrick is thus 
given by Jocelin, c. 177 : — " Si tamen id omnino 
cordi tuo intixum fuerit, quod facere disponis, fac 
citius, quia mors tibi adest in januis. Omuium 
enim episcoporum, qiú sunt in Ilibernia, de seculo 
primus migrabis." — Cf. Vit. Trip., Part iii. c. 89. 
{Colgan. p. 165). 

p Eochaidh CFlannagan — This writer is quoted 
by the Four Masters at the year 987 ; and they re- 
cord liis death at a. t>. 1003, where they call him 

" Archimieach of Lis Aoidhedh [the fort of guests], 
of Armagh, and of Cluan Fiachna [now Clonfeacle], 
and historian of Ireland (paoi pencupa saoibel)." 

1 Longum barbam This is the interpretation 

which Paulus Diaconus (^De gestis Longobardorum, 
lib. i. c. 9), gives as certain. But otliers maiutain 
that the name Longobard signifies, more probably. 
Long-spear, the word Barde bemg a spear or bat- 
tle-axe iu the Teutonic dialects. — Vid. Not. ad 
Vit. S. Antonini Abb. Surrent. ex antiquis Lectioni- 
bus Eccl. SuiTent. (Acta SS. Bohmd. 14 Feb.. 
p. 796, D.). 

f At SechnalVs place.—\. e. within the sacred pre- 
cincta of Dunshaughlin. 


llie llijmn of St. Sechnall. 


nall Oia caipmerc •] ni bepnat» FO'P- lu'l> 
Sechnall pop a aip lappm t cuapcaib a luma 
co Dia, copo pluic m ruluni .;c. caippciu .11f. 
t))b, cum puip etfuicibup, ec cecepi in pugain 

Uel )kicc cpc CGupo .i. ap in cocpob t)0 pac 
pochnall pop j^ncpaic .1. Po pep pacpaic 
minbab ocn .1. a lasec ppicchap beipcc. O 
po chualu cpu pocpuic nipem X)o luib co 
SechnuU. ocup peps mop paip. 1p anbpibe 
po piachc pe SechnuU oipppenn aóc bul bo 
óupp Cpipc, in can ic cuup bó pucpuic 
no cmcóc t)on buile -| peps mop puip ppia 
SechnuU. pacboip lapam, SechnuU in et)- 
paipcpoppin ulcoip,-) plechcaipbopacpaic. 
Do puc cpa pucpuic in cappuc caipip, -[ 
cuapcuib Dia in calmam imme hmc ■) mhe 
co na epóocig bo. Cit) pomba bam, op Sech- 
naU. Cia h-oen puc ol pacpaic, bipcipci na 
pu comuU-pu, ap niani óomuUuimpeu t)eipcc, 
nm bibbu chimmna De. "Rop picip mo Dia 
bpucliai ip up Óeipcc nu ppicchaim ap cic- 
puc mic bechait» popc me in hanc inpolum -\ 
picpuic alepp a posnum ub homnibup. Ni 
con pecappa pin op SechnaU nacli up lapcu 
bo pignip. 

it, and it woa not done bo for bim*. Sechnall then 
rutumed back, and raiscd his hands to God, and the 
earth swallowed up tliirteen chariots of Ihem, cum 
suis cquitibus, et cateri in fugani exierunt. 

Vel ha;c est causa' ; i. e. from the attack that 
Sechnall made upon Patrick, viz. [when he said] 
" Patrick is a good man, except iu one thing, viz. 
that he preaches almsgivings so little." When 
Patrick heard this, he went to Sechnall, and he was 
in great wrath. It was when Sechnall had finished 
the, except taking the Bodv of, that 
he heard that Patrick had arrived at the place, 
and that he was in great wrath against Sechnall. 
Sechnall, thcrefore, leaves the oblation upon the altar, 
and prostrates himself to Patrick. Patricfc, how- 
ever, drove the chariot over him, but God raised the 
groimd aroimd him hinc et inde, that he should not 
be iujured. " Whv hast thou done so to me?" said 
Sechnall. "Who then is the man," said Patrick, 
" who said that I did not preach almsgiving ? 
for if I preach not ahiisgiving, I am the enemv of 
God's Testament. But God, my judge, knoweth, 
that it is for charity that I preach it not, because there 
shall come after me into this island Children of Life", 
and they shall have need for its being exercised 
by all." " I did not know'," said Sechnall, " that 
it was not from laxity thou didst so." 

* For him. — i. e. his interference availed nothing 
to put an end to the fair. See the account of this 
given in the Tripartite Life, Part iii. c. 90. 

» Jltcc est causa i. e. this is another account 

of the occasion on which the hymn was composed. 
See the storj* of this misunderstanding between Pa- 
trick and Sechnall. .Tocelin. c. 176, 177, Trifjart, 
Part iii. c. 88. But we have here several curious 
particulars not mcntioned in any of the Lives as 
published by Colgaii. 

" Childrin of Life In the Irish preface to the 

hjTnn ^'^i'mnum dicat lurba fratrum" in a sub- 
sequent part of this work, the same words, mcic 
bcchuit), are used iu tlie geueral sense of Chris- 
tiani. \n oiie of St. Patri(k's prophecies he is re- 
presented as having predicted St. Kieran as " qui- 

dem_/i7íai eiííS nondum natus." — Jocel.,c. 113, Fit. 
Tripart., lib. ii. c. 25 (where, {orjiufius, read filius), 
and in another St. Cohnan Ela is foretold under the 
same title. Cf Jocel. c. 96 and 98. Patrick himself 
is called " a certain Child of Life," in this Preface. 
See next page. Illuc beca, a child of hfe, signi- 
fied a righteous man ; muc baip, a cliild of death, 
a wicked nian. 

' / did not liuow. — St. Patrick iu his defence of 
hiinsclf (as givcu above), is made to say, that if he 
had asked for otferings or laiid to be given to the 
Church, he woidd have obtained all the property 
of the couutry, and have lefl nothing to the Chris- 
tiana that were to come after him. And the Angel 
say8 to him, " All, nevertheles.s, is thiuc, cveu though 
it be giveu to thy successors." 


The Historical Preface. 


IS ant)rin arbepc m c-amsel ppia pa- 
cpaic, bit) lacpu rm uilc. Oo fionrac cpa 
nch anbpn, pacpaic i Seclinall, -| cen ba- 
cop [ac] ciaócam rnnchell na pelgi po 
chualucap clair amgel oc cancam nntnon 
IDpaipc ip iTi eclaip, -] ipreb po canpac m 
n-nnmon t)ia ban coppach, 

Sancci uenice chpipci coppup, ecc. 

Conib o pem lUe cuncap m Gipmn m nnim- 
pa m can cia^ap bo chupp Cpii'c. 

Ocup no paib pacpaic lap pm Sechnall co 
ríóim pop cenb neich t)0 chaippib poil i 
pecaip i niapcipe aile, ap m cuppacub bo 
pac paip, 1 ice pm caippe pilec m Qpt) ma- 
cho h-1 pcpm poil -\ pecaip. 

O pu pcaich cpa bo Sechnall m molub-pa 
t)0 benani, luib bia caippenab t)o pacpaic. 
In can po piacc Sechnall co pacpaic apbepc 
ppipp, ITlolat) t)o pignep bia apaile mac 
bechat),ipailbam ecpecct)uicpiuppipp. Qp- 
bepc pacpaic, mochen molat) pip niumcipe 
Dé. Ipe cpa coppach bo ^ar, Sechnall pop a 
immon .1. beaca Chpipci cupcobic, a\\ na po 
cucab pacpaic [bia aipe] cia bia n-bepnaú 
m c-immon co caippeb a sabail. In canbm, 
po paib Sechnall, lllapcimup nam(|\]e m 
h-illoc, ■] bvtic, cmbap bap mapcimup homo 
in pesno celopum . Dipcic Sechnall, ppo pop- 
piciuo epc hic. Mo ip bo ilib a cheneoil pen 
boppoipce. Ip maich in ppecpa ol pacpaic. 

Then tbe Angel said to Patrick, " .iVl] tliese shall 
be thine." Tbey made peace then, Patrick and 
Sechnall. And as they were going round the ceme- 
tery, they heard a choir of Angels cbanting a hymn 
at the Oflertory in the churcb, and what th(-y 
cbaiitcd was the hynin whose beginning is — 

Sancti venite, Christi corpus, &c. 

So tbat from that time to the present tbat bymn is 
chanted in Erinn when tbe Body of Cbrist is re- 

And Patrick, after tbis, sent Sechnall to liome 
for portions of tbe relics of Paul and Peter, and 
other martyrs, in consequence of the accusation he bad 
made agaiust bim. And tbese are the relics"' which 
arenow in Ardmacha, in tbe shrine of Paid andPeter. 

Now, when Secbnall bad finisbed tbis Hvmn, he 
went to sbow it to Patrick ; and when be bad reached 
Patrick, he said to bim, " I bave composed a hvmn 
in honour of a certain Cbild of Life, — I wisb tbat tbou 
wouldest listen to it." Patrick answered, " I wel- 
come tbe praise of a man of the people of God." But 
tbe beginning" tbat Secbnall gave to the bjTnn was. 
Beata Christi custodit, in order tbat Patrick sbould 
not know in whose houour the hymn was made. 
until be bad finished it. But wben Secbnall re- 
peated, Maximm namque in regno calorum, Patrick 
moved from place to place, and said, " How can a 
man be greatest in tbe kiugdom of beaven ?" Secb- 
nall said, " Pro positivoT est bic ; or it is because be 
excelled great nmnbers of bis own race." " Tbe 
answer is good," said Patrick. 

« These are the relics Jocelin makes St. Patrick 

liimself go to Eome for tbese relics, and the Tripartite 
Life adds tbat be constituted S. Secundinus Ai-cbbi- 
sbop of Armagh diuringhisabseuce. SeeIíoteD,p. 44. 

* The beginning. — i. e. be omitted tbe first stanza 
in whicb Patrick was named. 

y Pro positivo. — Colgan's version of tbe Preface 
to this bvran, gives tbis passage tbus — " S. Secun- 
dinus respondit, Pro positivo hic ponitur superla- 

tivus.''' But tlie text seems to be taken from tlie 
Tripartite Life (Part. iii. c. 91), where tbe storv i^ 
tbus told in Colgan s version — " Quo audito S. Pa- 
tricius é loco stirgens, et in via progrediens, petiit 
a Secundino, quomodo de homine diceret Maximus 

in regno ccelorum. Secimdinus respon- 

dit se non vocare Maximum Ubera comparatione 
facta quoad omnes absolute, sed propositive [read. 
pro pusitivo'\ inquit, sive respective, ved quod phi- 


Thc llijmn of St. Sechnall. 

[K0TE A. 

In ran rjia porcaich pc Scchnallm c-ini- 
mon bo sabail, ip ant) bo pochc pcp ocup 
ben co m-bmb leo bo patpaic .1. spuch -\ 
imm. bcpa nomen uipi, "i bpig nomcn mu- 
liepip. Clpbcpc ])nr])(iic, rcch olpe h-i 
n-j5cbrhap pm ppomb m nimmun-pa ni bm 
repca m-btbanb. Ocup rcch nua, umoppa, 
h-1 n-5cbrhap ])iiiup, biuit) roppumapiirpaic 
co nocmaib cpcnn anO immc. Oniail po poill- 
piset) pin bo Cholman ela, ■] alup cum eo, -\ 
(imailpopoiUpisebbo Choemgein cum puip, 
in ran ranic ap int) eclaip bm bomnaig ip in 
ppamnrech, ab imnum hunc conrauir. pa- 
cpiciup cum mulrip parpibup appapauic ei 
T rep cunrauir. Cc runc quibam pculcup 
T>i;cic. Cup canimup hanc imnum pic. "] 
Oi^cicCoemsein, ni maich pm olpe qum appa- 
puic enim nobip pucpiciup cum puip bip- 
cipuli]^ ([uanbiu cancabamup imnum. 

Wlien Sichnall had finishcd r<K:iting the hvmn, 
tlicrc came tlicn a nian and a wonian' ha\'ing food 
with them for Patrick, viz. cheese and butter. 
Bera was the name of the man, and Brígh the name 
of the woman. Then Patrick said, " The house," 
said he, '' in which this Hymn is sung before dinner, 
there shall be no scarcitj' of food in it." And the 
new' in which it is sung before occupation the 
watchirig of Patrick and of tlie saints uf Ireland shall 
be thcre about it ; as the same was revealed to Col- 
man Ela, and to others with him ; and as it was re- 
vealed to Coemhghin [Kevin] and his monfcs, when 
he came out of the church on Sunday into the refec- 
tory, and sang this hjmin*'. And Patrick, with 
manv fathers, appeared to him, and he sang it three 
times. And then a certain foohsh one said, " Why 
do we sing this hyiiin thus ?" Aud Coemlighin said, 
" That is not good," said he, " for Patrick with his 
disciples were visible to us, so long as we were sing- 
ing tliis Hymn." 

Tihus generis suiprceceUit, Brítonum vel Scotorum." 
— Colgan. p. 166. That is to say, the superlativc 
degree is used instead of the positive, maximus for 
inagnus. Or else he is said to be maximus, rela- 
tively to others of his race, i. e. grcatest of the Bri- 
tons or Scots. See tbe Gloss on this passage of the 
Hymn, which is evidentlv taken from this explana- 

' A man and a womaii See the Trij^. Life, 

Part iiL c. 94. 

• The new house. — i. e. the house built since Pa- 
tricfc's tirae, the house of the prcsent day, shall have 
the protection of Patríck and of his companions, the 
saints of Ireland, according to tlie revelations made 
to St. Cohuan Kla aiid to St. Ke^-in. The following 
is the storj' alluded to as told in the Life of St. Col- 
man Ela {Colgan. ubi supr., p. 210) — " Beatus 
senex Colnianus cantabat cum suis fratríbus Hym- 
nura Sancti Patrícii Archiepiscopi Hibernia;, et bea- 
tu8 Patrícius ante tempus S. Colraani multb annis 
migravit ad Christum. Venit<|ue S. Patricius de 
caelo, et stelit in medio fratrum cuntantiuin suum 
hvninum. Et videns S. Cohnanus solus sanctum 

Patricium, jussit ter cantari hymnum. Admirantes 
fratres, unus, senior ex illis, dixit ad S. Colnianum, 
Adsunt nobis alia spiritualia cantica. cur igitur mo- 
remur in uno tota die ? S. Colmanus ait iUi, Vere 
bone senior ; beatissimus noster Patricius stabat in 
medio nostri benedicens nos, usque dum audi^-it 
verbum increpationis tuíe ; sed tuiic illico evanuit 
ex oculis meis, — et ideo jussi ter Hvmnuin cantari. 
Hoc audiens iUe senior displicuit sibí et pcenitentiam 

*> Sang this Hgrnn. — The following is the account 
given in the Life of St. Kevin (c. 23) of the cir- 
cumstance here alluded to : — " Quadam nocte 
S. Coemgenus cum suis monachis hymnum S. Pa- 
tricii cantabant ; repente autem B. Coemgenus ad- 
miratus tacuit, et suos tribus vicibus Hymnum can- 
tare jussit. IIymno tertia vice deposito, benedixit 
eis S. Patricius. Quibus interrogautibus cur jussit 
liymnum cantari tcr, ipse vero tacens, exposuit eis, 
dicens. S. Patronus noster Patricius, cujus hym- 
niim canta-stií, stabat in pavimento, suffultus ba- 
culo ; et benedixit nobis a carmine cessautibus." — 
Colgan. ubi snpra. 


The Historical Preface. 


O jio iMaclic m c-iininuii bo sabail, afbeTic 
Sechnall, alos bain-ra op pe. T?ocbia ol \ia- 
cpaic, .1. allm lá pil in anno, a cliubep t»e 
aniniabuf peccacopuni bo t)ul bociRnnni 
nniie g\\ m n-unmon bo benam. Ni geb-f a fm 
op Sechnall, op ip bec liumm, i ip maich m 
molat). Tíocpia, ol pacpaic, allm 16 pil pop 
cappal t)0 cochaiU, allín pecctach t)o bul 
bochum mme, ap m n-imou Ni geb, op Sech- 
nall, ap cia h-ipepach na bepa laip m coi- 
bep piTi bocumm nmie, cen co mola peppm 
(no pep) amail cuppa ecip. Rocpia, ol pa- 
cpoic, moppepriup ca6a bapbam, -] .,x. ba pfp 
caca pachapn bochumm nune bo peccca- 
chaib epenn. Ipbec, op Sechnall. Rocpia, ol 
Pacpaic, cac oen ^ebup po li^e i po epgi t)o 
Dul t)0 chumm mme. Ni seb-pa pm op Sech- 
nall, ap ip mop m c-nnmun, 1 ní cach conic- 
pa a mebpu^ut). Qpach uile, ol pacpaic, ap 
nacpi CGibcelu bebmachu t»e. Peospaciap, 
op Sechnall. 

t)o paipngepc m c-amgel bo pacpaic pop 
pm cpuaich, m cecna .i. nem t»on ci gebap 
po lige 1 po ep5i na cpi caipicelu t^ebmcha 
be, uc epc 

Imun t>o x\e-^(x h-icbiu, 
bit) luipech bicen bo cach. 

AVlu-n tlic recitation of the Ilvmn was concludeil. 
Seclinall .said, " I must have the reward for it," said 
lie. " Thou shalt have it," said Patrick, " the 
numher of days that are in a year, the same numhcr 
of souls of sinners shall go to heaven, for the mak- 
ing of this IIymn." " I wiU not accept that," 
said Sechnal), " for I think that too little, and the 
praise is good." "Thou shalt have then," said 
Patricfc, " the numher of the hairs that are on the 
casuLa'' of thy cowl, the same number of sinners to 
go to heaven, for tlie Hymn." " I will not accept it," 
said Sechnall, "for who is the beUever who would 
not take that numher to heaveu, aUhough he were 
not praised by myself, nor by any one, as thou art." 
"Thou shalthave," saidPatrick, "sevenevervThurs- 
day, and twelve every Saturday, to go to heaven, of 
the sinners of Erinn." " It is too little," said Sech- 
nall. " Thou shalt have," said Patrick, " every one 
to go to heaven who sings it lying down and rising 
up." " I will not accept that," said SechnaU, " for tlic 
Hymn is long, and it is not every one that can com- 
mit it to memory." " Its whole grace then," said 
Patrick, " shall be upon the last three stanzas of it." 
" Deo gratias," said Sechnall. 

The Angel promised the same thing to Patrick 
upon the Cruach'', viz. heaven to everj' one who 
shaU sing the last three stanzas of it at Iviug down. 
and at rising up, as is [said by the poet]. 

A Hymn'', which, if sung wheu alive, 
WUI be a protectiug Lorica iinto all. 

Opt> absicpech pil paip, mope ebpeopum It is in alphabetical order, more Hebrstorumf, sed 

c The casula This seems pai-tly takeii from the 

third Life, c. 88 (Colgan, p. 28), where the storj' is 
thus told: — "Nain postquam hunc hjnmnim fecit 
Sechnall Patricio dixit, (^uid mihi dabis pro mercede 
hujush\Tnni? Disit ei Patriciu.s, Dabitur tibi ut 
secundum numerum fimbriarum casulae tuae omnes 
tecum ad ccelum portes. Dixit SechnaU, Malus 
clericus est qui istum numcrum secum non portet ; 
egometipse hunc numerum mecum portare possum. 
Dixitque Patricius, Quicunque hunc hymnum can- 
taverit in die mortis sua;, infcrnum non possidebit. 
Et hoc SechnaUo placuit." See also Tripart., Part. 

iii. c. 91, where it is probable that Colgan has 
abridged this account of Sechnall's intercession with 
S. Patrick. 

d The C'ruach i. e. upou the celebrated mouii- 

tain called Cruach, or Croagh-Patrick. See the 
third Life, c. 85 and 88, and Probus, Ub. ii. c. 32. 

« A Hymn These lines occur in St. Fiechs 

Hymn, which Colgan has published as the first 
Life of St. Patrick. — Trias Thaum., p. 3, stanza 

f More ITehrceorum. — AUuding to the Alphabe- 
tical Psalms of the Ilebrew Bible. 


34 The Hymn of St. Sechnall [Note b. 

pel) non pcp omnia. Cpi caipJCUla .;c;c. pil non per omnia». Thrcc and twenty capitula are in 

anD; i .tlíf. Ifne in caó catpicul; t .;ru. imI- it; and four lincs In each capitulum ; and fifteen 

labn in ca6 Une. t pi (fuip inuenepic pluf sj-llables in each line; et si quis invenerit plus mi- 

minupue in eo eppop epc. Qcacc Oa inut), nusve, in eo error cst. Thcre are two or thrce places, 

no a cpi h-i pil inunt) jMne penpu pet) caupa which are sine scnsu'', sed causa rithmi, etc. 
pichnii ic. 

Similicubine inocjriptjicencip. aubice celi [It was written] similitudine Movsis' dicentis, 

(pji lotfuapp. 1 Oauit) Diccnnp. aut)ice haec Audite cdi qui hqnar : et David dicentis, Audite 

omnep scncej'. A<rc omnes gentes. 


Ofthe Author ofthe Hymn^ and the Traditions respecting him. 

It would be inconsistent witli the limits and objects of these notes to enter at any 
length into the history of St. Patrick, although many interesting topics of discussion 
are suggested by the curious document published in Note A. 

We shall, therefore, confine our remarks to the notices which that document con- 
tains of the author of the hynin, and of the occasion on which it was composed. 

I. — We are distinctly told that the hymn was Avritten in Domhnach Sechnaill 
(now Dunshaughlin, in Meath), by the St. Sechnall, or Secundinus, from whom that 
place received its name; and that this Sechnall was the son of St. Patrick's sister, by 
her husband Piestitvtus, who was of " the Longobards of Leatha." 

A rann cited from Eochaidh O'Flannagan, Archinneach, or Erenach of Armagh, 
and of Clonfeacle (ob. 1003), calls the father of St. Sechnall, Ua JBaird, i. a grandson 
or descendant of Bard, '' of the race of the pure, fierce, white-coloured Longobards of 

This statement suggests some questions, which can only be here indicated as sub- 
jects for investigation. 

1. Are we to understand that the Longobards had their name frora an ancestor 
called Bard, and not from their long beards, or long spears? 

If so, this would seem to square more nearl^ with the opinion of tht)?e who main- 
tain that the Longobardi were so called from the union of the Lingones and the 

t Sednon per omnia That is, every line does metre. See vv. 19, 31, 47, 52. 

iiot foUow the alphabetital ordcr, but ouIy tlie first ' Similitudine .Moi/sis. — That is, this Ilvmn be- 

Jine of each fpiatrain. gins wlh the words Audite omnes, like tlie Soug of 

•• Sine sentu The mcaiiing seems to be, that Jloses in Deut. x.xxiL, which bcgins Audite cali. 

thereare twoorthree passagcsof thellymn in which and like Ps. xl\-iii. (^Hcbr. xlix.), a Psalni of 

the sense is sacrificed for the 8ake of the rhythm or David which begins Audite hac omnes gentts. 

noteB.] The Author of tJie I-Iymn. 35 

Bardi, a race of Gaul, or of ancicnt 8axonyJ. In an Irish author we might expect to 
find ihe Bardi termed Ui Baird, or Hy Baird, the descendants of Bard. 

It is remarkable, however, that two of St. Patricli's disciples are also spoken of as 
sons of Ua Baird, viz. Comitius, or Connetus (fUius Hua Baird), Bishop of Cluain- 
sean-moil [now Cloushanville, county Iloscommon], and Dabonna (Jilius Tlua Baird), 
Bishop of Cluain-na-manach. — Vit. Trip., lib. ii. c. i8, 19. Aengus the Culdee, in his 
book " Oa the Mothers of the Saints of Ireland" (extant in MS. only), mentions 
Dabonna as one of the sons of St. Patrick's sister, and a brother of St. Sechnall: — 

Lupaic fmp pabpaic macaip .un. mac m Lupait'', sister of Patriclt, was the mother of the 

ui baipt) .1. Sechnall, Nechcant), Dabonna, seven sons of the Ua Baird, i.e. Sechnall, Nechtann, 

TílosopTian, Dapigoc, QupaiUe, Cpuimchip Dabonna, Mogoman, Darigoc, Ausaille, Priest 

Lusnach. Lugnath. 

It does not appear,however, that Comitius, or Connetus, was the son of St.Patrick's 
sister, and of Restitutus, although Colgan (p. 227) seems to assume that such was the 
case, and therefore, attributes to Liemania nine sons in all, adding to the seven enu- 
merated by Aengus, this Comitius, and another named Diarmid, who is expressly 
called the son of Restitutus, and the nephew of St. Patrick, in the Tripartite Life, 
lib. ii. c. 6. 

Perhaps, however, the only reason why Diarmid and Comitius are supposed to be 
the sons of Liemania, is their having been sons of an Hua Baird. All these state- 
ments are obscurities that need further and more patientinvestigation than these remote 
corners of Church history have ever yet received. 

2. But how are we to receive the assertion that St. Patrick's sister, in the fifth cen- 
tury, was the wife of a Longobard of Itahj ; if that be what is meant (as is generally 
supposed) by a Longobard of Leatha, for it is notorious that the Longobards did not 
obtain a settlement in Ita]y until the middle of the sixth century, A. D. 568 ? Are we 
to question this latter date, as Colgan has done, or are we, with Dr. Lanigan, to solve 
the difficulty by a note of admiration, and reject the statement of the Irish authori- 
ties as an ignorant fabrication? 

Before we make choice between these alternatives, some other considerations must 
be taken into accoimt. There is mentiou of Longobards, and of Longobards ofLeatha, 
in a much earlier period of Irish history. 

j Saxonij. — Aliis visu.m est, hanc illis appellatio- tombstone of Lugnath, the last of the seven sons 

nem a Saxonibns, eorum agminibus immixtis, pro- above enumerated, mav still be seen, with its ancient 

venisse; quod 5ardos appellari solitos Saxones tradit Irish inscription, on the island of Inis-an-ghoiU in 

antiquitas. — Alb. Krantz. Danue lib. iv. c. 19. See Lough CoiTÍb, and in that inscription he is expresslv 

also Hoífman, Lezicon, voce Longobardi. stj'led mac Lmenueh, son of Liemania. See 

^ Lupait Colgan shows that Lupait is here an Petrie on the Eound Towers (Trans. H. I. Acad., 

error for Liemania. — Tri. T/utum., p. 225 sq. The vol. xs. p. 164). 



TJie llymn of St. Sechnall. 


The Four Mastcrs tell us that Aengus Olmucadha, King of Ireland, A. M. 3790 
(or 3150, according to 0'Flaherty), gaincd twelve battles over the Longobards, — a 
statenient derivcd from the Leabhar Gabhala,^ on the authority of an ancicnt poem, 
which cclebrates the victories of King Aengus, and records his battles with the Lom- 
bards thus : — 

He gained twelve battles aftenvarda 
In Leatha over the Longobards. 

Ho bpir l)Q cacl» bccc lapcain 
1 leacha pop lonsboiTibaib. 

So that we have here the Longobards in Italy in the year of the world 3790, and an 
Irish king invading their tcrritor^!"" 

To cscape this difficulty, 0'Flaherty" maintains that the Longobardi vanquished by 
Rin'T Aenf^us were a people of North Britain, who are not to be confounded with the 
Longobards or Lombards of the continent of Europe, and that from these British 
Longobards, so called from their bards or poets, and not from their beards, the hus- 
band of St. Patrick's sister was descended. But this hypothesis takes no account of 
the fact, that the same authorities from which we learn the existence of these Longo- 
bards place them in Leatha (wherever that may be), and that there is not the smallest 
evidence to prove that there was ever a people of that name in North Britain.° 

' Leabhar gabhala. — TLe Leabhar Gabhala, or 
líook of Conquests, is a collcclion of bistorical poenis 
and documents of great vabic, and the chief source, 
in fact, of Irish traditional hislorj'. The ^IS. ofit 
here quoted is in the Libnirv of the Roval Irish 
Academv, and is in the handwriting of one of the 
compilers of tlie Annals of the Four Masters. 

>" Thi-ir tffrritory. — It'wiU be obser^ed that the 
Four MastCTs in their Annals do not call these 
Longobards the Longobards of Leatha. Is this an 
pvideiice that tliey werc conscious of the difíicultv ? 

" 0'FIaherly Longobardi a barba Xor\-cgÍ3, Go- 

thi.s et Gerinauis bard dieti, qui e Scandia Danica 
circa an. Domini 382, et Sclavoniam, Istrum, 
Galliain, et Gernianiain per\agati in Pannoniain 
|»er\'enerant, et iiide anno 568, Narsete in Itaham 
avocati Longobardiaj scii Lombardiaj regnum, Ticino 
sede, sibi in Italia condidcrant, fuerunt diversi ab 
his Longobardis Boreahs Britannin^ gente a Bardis 
siiis appf-'Hationem illam desumente, e qua oriundus 
gente Restitutiis S. l'atricii sororius nunc Longo- 
l>ardus, nunc HuabairJ, i. e. e progenie BanH cog- 
nominatiir. — Ogy(j. p. 206. 

■ Snrlh Uritain .\t least iione of the authorities 

which 0'Flaherty has quoted in support of the asser- 
tion give any countenance to the opiuion that the 
Lombards of whom they spolíe were in any way 
different from the people generalh' kuown by that 
iiame Ile cites, for example, the Martyrology of 
Tamhlacht, and the .scholiast of Marianus on thc 
27th November. Of thesc works, preserved in MS. 
in the Burgundian Librarj' at Brussels, I have been 
pennitted by the liberality of the Belgian Goveru- 
ment to take copies. In the 5Iartyrology of Tamh- 
lacht there is a defect from October 1 7 to December 
1 7 ; and the Brussels iIS. has a note stating tliat this 
defcct existed in ''the old book" from which that MS. 
was transcritji-d. Its testiinonv, tiierefore, cannot 
now be ascerUiined, l)Ut the JIartyrology of Ma- 
rianus O'Gorman, at November 27, records the fcast 
of St. Sechnall in tiiese words — 

Sechnall mop nmc u b(iipt). 
Sechnall the great, son of Ua Baird. 
.Vnd thescholiast has the foUowing note: — ODoiii- 
nnch ScoónaiU 1 n-t)cipcepc biH'5;t)o longo- 
bnpbnilj bo, -| Secunbinup a aiiiin, niac bo 
liuihani piup ])acpaic e, -| poboi mappioiii- 
uib in Qpbniaóa. — "Of Doinlinach Scacliiiaill in 


The Longohards qf Leatha. 


ColganP has dealt with this diíficultj entirely with reference to the father of St. Se- 
cundinus, and the existence of Lombards in Italy in the fifth century. After stating 
the objection that the Longobardi had not established themselves in Italy, accordin^ to 
the earlicst computation (that of Sabellicus and Baronius), until a. d. 568, he asserts 
that thc opiiiion of Rrantzius is much more probable, which assigns their mitrration 
from their primitive Scandinavian settlements to the year 382, and that even if it were 
certain that they had not obtained a fixed settlement in Italy before the latter half of 
the sixth century, it is undeniable that they had spread through Sclavonia, Ger- 
many, and Gaul, and he concludes that it is therefore not impossible that the Lom- 
bard Restitutus raay have become acquainted with St. Patrick and his sister in Gaul 
or Britain, or even in ltaly, although his nation had not then obtained a fixed habita- 
tion there. 

the south of Bregia ; he was of the Longobards, 
and Secundhius was his name ; he was the son of 
Liamhan, the sister of Patrick, and he was Primate of 
Arinagh." O'Flahertj' refers also to the MartjTology 
of Donegal, where we find the following notice of 
St. Seachnall at the z^th of November : 

SeachnaU .1. Secuntjinup pTiiomaibh Qpba- 
niaca. ITlac t)o Liamam piup pat)paicc e, 
-| 1 nboihnach Sechnaill i m-bpesaib aca a 
ceaU. QDeip beta pucpaicc leabap ii., cap. 
25, 50 n-t)epnat) pacpaicc ecclaip ip m lonat» 
ippaibe Secunbmup po cpann ÓU1U15 a^ 
upnaigce ma aonap, -\ 50 bpuil t)ealb na 
cpoice ipm mab pm .1. as copap mucno a 
cconnaccaib, aniail cuigcep ap imceccaib 

" Seachnall, i. e. Secundiiius, Primate of Armagh. 
He was the son of Liamhain, Patrick's sister, and his 
church was at Domhnach Sechnaill in Bregia. The 
Life of Patiick, lib. 2, c 25, says \_Vit. Trij)., 1. ii. 
c. 58, Colg., p. 137], that Patrick was erecting a 
church in a place where Secundinus was taking 
pleasure in praving under a tree alone, and the 
figure of the cross is iu that place, i. e. in Tobar- 
mucna in Connaught, as is known from the travels 
of Patrick." 

Here it will be observed therc is no mention what- 
soever of the Lombards, whilst in the passage quoted 
from the Martyrology of Marianus, they are spoken 
of by their usual name, without any mention either 
of North Britaiu or of Leatha. 

The sanie remark appUes to the other authorities 
cited by 0'Flaherty, viz. the Annals of the Four 
Masters at 447 (where we read of the dcath of 
" Secundinus Mac Ua Baird, the son of St. Patrick's 
sister," without any mention of Longobards), and 
the passage from Aenguá the Culdee, oa the Mothers 
of the Saints, which has already been quoted. 
0"Flahcrty refers also to the Tripartite Life of 
S. Patrick, lib. ii. c. 1 8. This is the passage upoii 
which I have already commented, in which Come- 
tius, or Connetus, and Dabonna, are spoken of 
as sons of Ua Baird. It contains no mention of 
Longobards, much less of Longobards of Nortli 

Besides these, 0'Flaherty cites two other authuri- 
ties which I am unable to verifj', namelv, the ^lar- 
tyrology of Cathald Maguire, and that of Cashel. 
No MSS. of these worlís are known to exist in this 

On the whole, then, it would seein that O'FIa- 
herty's assertion of a tribe called Longobards exist- 
ing in North Britain at that early period is a mere 
conjecture, devised to meet a diíBcultv, aiid having 
no other foundation than the fact that Aengus 011- 
mucliadha is said to have madc incursions into the 
countrv of the Picts, in Xorth Britain. 

I' Colgan. — Colgan's words are: — "Sed dices gen- 
tem Longobardorum non extitissetempore S. Patricii : 
nam ipso multis ante annis mortuo, gens haec ex 
Scandinavia, hodie Scandia, Danici vel Norwegici 
imperii regione, i.riraum egressa est anno 686 juxta 

38 Tlie nymn o/ St. Sechndll. [Note b. 

But the authoritics do not say that Restitutus, a Lombard, met Liemania and 
niarried hcr in Italy, for this would have been no very great historical difficulty; what 
they do say is, that her husband was of the race of the Lombards of Italy, implying 
that the Lombards were established there in the fifth century. 

And it is further to be observed, that Colgan's solution of this diíHculty does not 
at all explain the existence of Lombards in Italy in the times of King Aengus Ollmu- 
chadhn, but rather seems to give up that as a hopeless case, for he contents himself 
with showing tbat the Longobards began their migrations in the fourth century, and 
takes no notice of the other difficulty. If he had known of a nation of Longobards, 
settled in North Britain, some centurics before the Christian era, he could not have 
failed to notice what would have been so much to his purpose. 

3. The fact, however, with which we are to grapple, and which cannot be ignored, 
is, that the Irish authorities speak of Longobards of Italy (if Leatha be Italy), as ex- 
isting, not only in the age of St. Patrick, but in that of Aengus OUmuchadha. 

But Leatha^ in the language of ancient Irish authors, often signifies Letavia, or 
Armorica. Tbis was in all probability its original meaning, and it may be doubted 
whether the interpretation Leatha = Lalium = Italia be not a niistake. 

Restitutus, therefore, may have been a Longobard, not of Italy, but of Armorica, 
and the warlike and victorious King Aengus Ollmuchadha may have invaded ths Lom- 
bards in Letavia or Armorica, not in Ital^i. 

I admit, however, tliat we are here met by the same difficulty which is apparently 
fatal to 0'Flaherty's hypot.hesis. We have no evidence of a settlement of Lombards 
in Armorica at the early period which is necessary to save the credit of our Irish 
historical authorities. 

4. It is a further difficulty that the name given to the husband of Liemania is 
Latin, and even Christian in its signification. We find no such names as liestitutus 
among the Pagan Lombards of that age; and therefore there is suspicion that there is 
here some corruption of thehistory,from the imaginations of a later age. But if Patrick's 
heathon name of Succaih was changed into the Latin Patricius, the name of Liemania's 
Lombardic husband may have undergone a similar transformation. Here is matter 
for further investigation and inquiry. 

Saxonem Grammaticum ; vcl saltem, juxta Sabelli- per Sclavoniae, Istri, Germani;p, et Galline fines di- 

cum tt Baronium nun fixit sedem in Italia ante annum vagatam fuisse Potuit autem Rcstitutus 

c68 ; nec ingressa est Pannoniam (ex qua in Italiam maritus Liemania;, vel in Gallia, vel in Britannia, 

erupit), ante annum 525. Respondeo, Saxoncm in vel etiam in Italia, esto ibi gens ejus eo ajvonon ba- 

hoc, quemadmodum et in aliis, fabulis indulsisse. Ve- bitaverit, S. Patricio occurrisse, ejusque sororem in 

riu3 cnim est quod Crantzius scribit, egres.sam esse uxorem accepisse." — Colgan, Actt. Sanctorum (^De 

circaannum 382. Et esto non fixerit sedem in Panno- S. Mele. 6. Febr.), p. 262, n. 17. 
nia aut Italia, ante praídictos annos, certum tamen cst 'i Not in Itali/. — See Irish version of Nennius, 

eam, permultis autea anuis, natalisolo cxccssisse, et Addit. Notcs, No. xi. p. 19. 

NoteB.] The Longohards of Leatha. 39 

5. The historical poem of Eochaidh O'Flannagain describes the Longobards as "purt-, 
fierce, and white-coloured." 

The epithets J9?í?'e fxnáfierce may betaken as words of course, and they are striclly 
in the spirit of the Irish bardic poetry. Rut white-coloured seems to imply something 
historical, and it receives an apparent confirmatioii from the following notices of the 
dress of the ancient Longobards, by Paulus Diaconus (or Warnefridus), himself a 

In one place he represents the son of Turisend, King of the Gepidi, asreproaching 

the Longobards for their custom of wearing it'/u'íe bands or swathes round their legs : — 

Tuncregis alter qui aderat filius, patris sermone stimulatus, Longobardos injuriislacesserecoepit, asserens 

eos, quia suris inferius canclidis utebantur fasciolis, equabus, quibus crurum tenus pedes albi sunt, similes esse, 

dicens : — Fsetulae suut equaj quas simulatis''. 

Again, in describing the dress of tlie ancient Lombards, as represented in a picture 
in the palace of Queen Theudelinda, he speaks of them as wearing loose linen gar- 
ments like those of the Anglo-Saxons. 

In quá picturá manifeste ostenditur quomodo Longobardi eo tempore comam capitis tondebant, vel qualis 
illis vestitus, qualisve habitus erat. Si quidem cervicem usque ad occipitium radentes nudabant, capillos a 
facie usque ad os dimissos liabentes, quos in utramque partem in frontis discrimine dividebant. Vestimenta 
vero e's erant laxa, et maximé linea, qualia Angli-Saxones habere solent, ornata institis latioribus, vario 
colore contextis. Calcei vero eis erant usque ad summum pollicem pene aperti, et alternatim laqueis corri- 
giarum retenti. Postea vero cceperunt hosis uti, super quas equitantes tubrugos birreos mittebant, sed hoc 
de Romanorum consuetudine traxerunt'. 

On the whole, it is possible that there may be found more golden grains of true 
history in these rude and seeming blunders about Longobards of Leatha than would 
at first sight seem probable to the modern reader. 

6. It remains to notice one further mention of Longobards in the Lives of St. Pa- 
trick, although it does not assist us in clearing up the historical diíEculties we have 
been considering. 

The author of the fourth Life in Colgan's collection tells us', that the nine daugh- 
ters of the King of the Longobards, together with a daughter of the King of Britain 
(Regis Britannioe, which may be Brittany or Armorica), leaving their country and 
kindred, came in pilgrimage to St, Patrick, and submitted themselves to his spirituai 
direction in a life of monastic retirement. The same story is told by Jocelyn, but he 
speaks only of " quaedam virgo filia Regis Britannise, cum novem puellis sanctis, qua? 
cum ipsa illuc ad S. Patricium venerat'"'; he does not, however, say that these last 
were the daughters of a Lombard king. 

Not so the author of the Vita Tripartita; speaking of the fame of St. Patrick, which 

f De gestis Longobard, lib. i. c. 24. ' Cap. 88, Tr. Th., p. 46. 

• Ibid., lib. iv. c. 23. " Jocel, c. 165 (Tr. Th., p. loi). 

40 The Hymn of St. Sechnn/l. [note b. 

induced niQny to placc themselves iinder his guidance, in order to leacl, under his direc- 
tions, aholy lifo, hc tells us(iii. c. 73) : — "Non solum inter hos viri plurinii, sed et aliquot 
e.xtiterunt Dco dicataj virgines, cx quibus in primis erant novcm filia? Eegis Longobar- 
dorum, et filia Rcgis Britannisc; qua; cum venisscnt juxta Armacham ad locum Coll-na- 
ningeaii' [thc hazel tree of the Virgins] dictum, miserunt nuntium ad S. Patricium, 
cjus praisentiam salutarcmque instructionem postulantcs." St. Patriclc accedes to 
thcir rcqucst, and having predicted that three of them would die in the place where 
they then were, directs the survivors to repair to a place called Druim Fennedha, there 
to live a life of retiremcnt and heavenly contemplation. 

Hcrc there is no mention of Leatha as the country of these Longobard virgins, 
but their connexion with the daughter of the King of Britain scems to give some in- 
cidental, although remote countenance to the conjecture that Brittany, or Armorica, 
may have been known in ancient times as a seat of the Lombards. 

On the whole, then, it appears that before we reject the statement that St. Seoh- 
nall was descended from the Lombards of Leatha, sonie further inquiries ought to be 
made into the early history of the Longobardic tribes. Is there any ground for suppos- 
ing that they had settled in North Britain, or in Armorica, during thc reign of Aeugus 
Ollmuchadha, or at any time prior to the age of St. Patrick? Or are we to depress 
the chronology of St. Patrick's Life, so as to make it square with the statement that 
his sister was married to a Longobard of Italy ? Or ]astly, are we to assume that this 
notice of the Longobards of Italy is only a mistake of the ancient historians, who, know- 
ing the Lombards of their own day as Lombards of Italy, forgot that they were not 
so in the times of King Aengus and of St. Patrick. 

IL — It remains now to say a few words on the occasionon which the Hymnis said 
to have been written. 

The Lives of St. Patrick, as well as the Preface to the Hvmn in theZcaí'/<«7'^reac, 
give us to understand that St. Secundinus composed the IIymn on the occasion of his 
reconciliation with St. Patrick after their temporary misunderstanding; and that it 
Avas completed a very short time only before the death of its author, an event which 
the Four Masters have recorded at the year 448. 

It must be admitted that the style of the Hymn coincides exactly with this tradi- 
tion; sothatif it was not composed during St. Patrick's lifetime, it mustundoubtedly 
have been written with a view to pass for having been then composed. AU the actions 
of its hero are described in the present tcnse, and in language which clearly implies 
that he was still living. Thus he is said to be kcepiug Christ's commandmcnts — 

Ucata Christi custodit inaudata iu ouiuibus ; 
to be constant in the fcar of God, and immoveable in the faith (v. 9); to be tradi'ng 

' Coll na ningean. — Called Ferta minor by Joceliu, loc. cit. 

NoTE B.j Written in St. PatricTcs Lifetime. 41 

with the talents of the Gospel, and exacting usury upon them from the Irish clans, 
in consequence of which, as the reward of his labour, he will hereafter possess with 
Christ the joy of the kingdom of heaven — 

Cum Christo regni ccclestis possessurus gaudium. 

He is said also to be exhibiting to all good men the form and example of an Apostle, 
aud to be preaching to the people by works as well as by words, provoking to holi- 
ness by his example those whom his words may fail to convince. 

Qui tam verbis, quam et factis, plebi prajdicat Dei, 
Ut quem dictis non convertit, actu provocet bono. 

He is described as humbled by the fear of God, in spirit, as well as in hody; and as 
bearing in his hochj^ like St. Paul, the marks or stigmata of the Lord Jesus (vv. 29-32) ; 
as keeping his fiesh chaste, from love of the Lord, preparing it to be the temple of the 
Holy Ghost, and offering it as a living sacrifice (hostiam vivam), Avell pleasing to God 
(vv. 37-40). He boldly preaches to the Gentiles the Name of the Lord (v. 49); he 
despises all the glory of this world for the sake of God's law (v. 53) ; he stands unmoved 
under the thunder of the world, rejoicing to suíFer affliction for Christ (v. 55-56); he is 
the good and faithful shepherd of the Gospel sheep, chosen by God to watch over His peo- 
ple, and to feed them with holy doctrine (v. 57 and 59) ; Christ has appointed him His 
Vicar on earth (v. 81); he sings the Hymns, the Apocalypse, thePsalms, and explains 
them to the people for their edification (v. 85 --6); he prays without ceasing day and 
night; and lastly, when hereafter he shall receive the reward of his labour, lie ivill 
reign with the Apostles, a saint over Israel, for ever, — 

Cujus ingentis \aboús percepturus príemium 
Cum apostolis regnabit sanctus super Israel. 

It is difficult to suppose this language to have been written except in the lifetime 
of him to whose praise the Hymn is dedicated, unless we assume that the author of 
tbe Hymn, living at a later period, intended to impose it upon the Church as the 
work of a contemporary of St. Patrick. 

The author of the Preface gives a somewhat unamiable view of St. Patrich's cha- 
racter in his account of his wrath against St. Sechnall, and of the manner in which he 
endeavoured to punish his disciple. The Lives of St. Patrick, published by Colgan, 
do not contain any authority for the statement, that St. Sechnall quitted the very 
altar in the most solemn part of the Mass, in order to meet St. Patrick, and cast him- 
self at his feet; that St. Patrick, disregarding this act of reverence for his person, en- 
deavoured, in his wrath, to drive his chariot over the prostrate Sechnall, whose life 
was saved by a sudden miracle, and that a reconciliation was eílected by the interven- 


42 T/ie Hymn of St. Sechnall. [Noteb. 

tion of St. Patrick'8 guardian angel, — and immediately afterwards a choir of angels 
was heard chanting a hymn in the church. These particulars are also omitted in the 
Preface to this IIynin, as it is published by Colgan. 

Nevertheless, in the Tripartite Life we find two instances in which St. Patriclc 
is represented to have driven his chariot in wrath over an offending and prostrate 

The first of these is the case of St. Olcan, Bishop of Rathmuighe, or Arthir-muighe 
(Armoy, county Antrim), who had offended his master by receiving into communion 
Saran, a prince of Dalaradia, whom Patrick had excommunicated. The matter had 
b^en reported to St. Patrick (as the author of the Tripartite Life suggests), with some 
exaggeration^ ; and Olcan, having heard of this misunderstanding, made every haste to 
appease his master's wratli, and when he came in sight of the chariot fell on his knees 
to demand an audience. This was refused, and St. Olcan then cast himself prostrate 
on the public road. The charioteer seeing this, stopped, but was immediately com- 
manded by St. Patrick to drive on^ Ple hesitated to do so, and the delay thus occa- 
sioned led to an explanation, which ended in a prophecy that St. Olcan's church should 
be three times destroyed and polluted with blood, as the punishment of his fault. 

The second case is that of St. Patrick's sister or relative (for the Irish word for 
sister frequeutly signifies a more distant consanguinity), who, although of a religious 
profession (foemina pia et devota et probatae alias sanctitatis), had fallen into sin, and 
broken her vows'. In a word, she had become the mother of a son, who was after- 
wards eminent for sanctity. Repenting, however, of her guilt, with sackcloth and 
ashes, she cast herself prostrate before St. Patrick's chariot in the public road, 
beseeching him to pardon her grievous offence. The saint, however, drove his chariot 
over her. She rose up bruised and injured, and cast herself again before the chariot; 
a second time St. Patrick drove over her. This was repcated a third time; and the 
penitent, having sustained this ordeal, was at length restored to favour*. 

The story told of St. Sechnall in the legend before us is strictly iu the spirit of 
thesc anecdotes, and is apparently fouuded upon them. 

' Exaffgeration Postquamhoc factuni, fortealiter stetisset, severus Senior mandat currum agat, sus- 

íiuam sit gestum, ad aures S. Patricii, qui antea ceptmnque iter prosequatur. Ille humiliter excu- 

Saranum obstinatum et persecutorcm, maledictionis sat, dicens, se non auderc, ne scehis admittat, ad 

jaculo feriit, esset delatum Vit. Trip., p. 147. prostratam, et in viá objectam Episcopi personani 

5 To drice on. — Ad Sanctum ergo Patricium pla- non respiciens. Tunc rigidus magister, &c. — Jhid. 

candum, quanto citius accurrit ; et cum pervenisset ' Drohen her vows. — Quoe, quia incauta non evi- 

in conspectum, geiiuflectendi> paulatim accedit, et ita tavit fugientla virorum consortia, contra Deo couse- 

tandem errati supplex et pa>nitens veniam exposcit ; cratte castitatis propositum pecca\-it. — Fit. Trip. iii. 

quod Sancto Patricio in curru procedenti, et allo- c. 76, p. 163. 

quium neganti prostratum in via pubUca se objecerit. " Resiored tofavour. — Et cum S. .iVntistitem iier 

Cum autem auriga ad talem conspectum curruni agentem, ad cujus prsesentiam ante non audebat 

NoTE c.] Tlie líijmn " Sancti vmite'' 43 


The Fost-Communion IJjjmn, " Sancti venite." 

A VERY interesting part of the legend preserved in the Preface of the Leahliar 
Breac, is that which speaks of a choir of angels, heard in the Church of St. Sechnall, 
chantipg t^e Hymn Sancti Veniíe Christi corpwí,— which Hymn, the writer tells us, 
has ever since been sung in the Irish Church, whilst the communicants are receiving 
the Body of Christ. 

This is curious information, as recording a peculiarity of the Irish ritual at the 
time when the Preface in the Leabhar Breac was written; for it seems reasonable to 
conclude that when the writer speaks of this hymn as being chanted " in Erin''' at 
the Communion, and when he attributes the origin of the custom to the choir of Angels, 
he means to account for a practice then, and for some considerable time before his 
own age, existing in the Irish Churcli. 

And it is remarkable that the Hymn in question is known only from its haviug 
been preserved in an Irish authority, — viz. the Antiphonarium Benchorense^, a fact 
which proves it to be of considerable autiquity, and also to be peculiar to the Church of 
Ireland. It is worthy of notice, however, that this Hymn does not occur in the Dublin 
copy of the Liher Hymnorum, but as that MS. has suíFered mutilation, we cannot infer 
that it never was in the coUection. 

The Hymn is entitled% " Hymnus quando communicarent Sacerdotes,^^ and is as 
follows: — 

Sancti venite, Hoc sacramento 

Christi corpus sumite ; Corporis et sanguinis, 

Sanctum bibentes, Omnes exuti 

Quo redempti sauguinem. Ab infemi faucibus. 

Salvati Christi Dator salutis, 

Corpore et sanguine, Christus filius Dei, 

A quo refecti, Mundum salvavit, 

Laudes dicamus Deo. Ter cruceni et sanguinem. 

accedere, audiret in vicinia esse, ei lachrymis offusa '' Antíphonarium Benchorense — Muratori Op., 

occurrit; et in via i^ublica atite currum ejus se jJro- tom. xi., part 3, p. 224. 

ííej'MiV, tantae offcnsa; veniam deprecans. Vir autem <= /s entitled. — Daniel has printed this ílvuin. 

sanctus curat currum super eam miuari. Et dum Thes. HymnoJ., vol. i. p. 193. He reniarlis upon 

sic protrita resurgit, iteratose antecurrum iu terram the title " Quod hvmno, nobili quadam simplicitate 

prostrata objicit. Idem pia faemina et poenitentiae conspicuo, inscriptum cst, hoc reccntioris a^tatis pi;- 

speculura tertio facit; et tertio rigidus, severusque taverim. Spectat carmen procul dúbio (v. 25, 36, 

pocnitentialis disciplinse Magister curat currum supra e. a.), ad omnes Christianos, qui tunc temporis sub 

jacentem agitari. — Ibid. utraque specie Christum suum acceperunt." 


44 The IIymn of St. Sechnall. [Note d. 

Pro univorsis Sumant scternam 

Immnlatus Dominus, Salutis custodiam. 

Ipsf Sacerdos Sanctorum custos, 
Existit et hostia. ^^^^ ^^^^^ Dominu, 

I^ege proceptum Vita; perennis 

Immolari hostias. Larjptur credentibus. 

Qua adumbrantur „ , . 

^ Coelestem panem 

Di%ina mviteria. -, . • .-u 

•' Dat esunentibu.s, 

Luciá indultor De fonte vivo 

Et salvator omnium, Prebet sitientibus. 

Pncclarani sanclis ., , 

Alpha et omega 
Larcitus est gratiam. _ nt, • » t^ ■ 

" " Chnstus Dominus 

Accedant omnes Venit, venturus 

Pura mente creduli, Judicare homines. 

The Preface in the Leabhar Breac, which has been published in Note A, has been 
supposed by the best Irish scholars, judging from its language and style, to be a com- 
position of about the seventh or eighth century; and it is no small confirmation of its 
claim to this high antiquity that it spealcs of tbis IIymn as still in use in the Irish 
Church. But no trace of the Hymn it is to be found in the Breviaries and Antipho- 
naries of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, used in Ireland, of which several are 
preserved in the Library of Trinity College; nor in the Antiphonary of St. Patrick"s 
Cathedral, Dublin (a MS. of the thirteenth century), in the possession of the Editor. 
The same remark applies also to the Hymn of St. Sechnall. No trace of its use is 
found in any of the ancient ritual books of the Anglo-Irish Church to which the 
Editor has access. 


77/6 Eelics of Armafjh. 

The author of the Preface in the Leabhar Breac appears to intimate that a pilgrim- 
age to Rome was imposed upon St, Sechnall by his oflfended master as a penance for 
his fault; and that " the relics of Paul, Peter, and other martyrs," brought by St. 
Sechnall from Rome on this occasion, were preserved at Armagh down to his own 
time, " in the shrine of Paul and Peter." 

The Lives of St. PatricU nrake no mention of this mission of St. Sechnall, but state 
tliat the relics at Armagh had been, by " a pious theft" [pio astu furtove, sacrorum 
locorum custodibus nescientibus et dormientibus], brought from Rome by Patrick 

NoTE D. The Rdics of Armagh. 45 

hiraself'', who, at an advauced agc, Avas comnianded by an angel to undertaUe ihe 
journey for that express purpose; and who, on his return, deposited them (inter qua; 
erant reliquia^ Apostolorum Petri et Pauli et Stephani Protomartyris, et aliorum plu- 
rimorum martyrum), at Armagh, and constituted that church the Metropolitan See 
of Ireland. This is Jocelin's account. The Tripartite Life adds, tliat Patrick, during 
his absence, constituted St. Sechnall Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland in 
his stead". 

The ancient scholiast on St. Fiech's Hymn states that St. Patrick came to Ireland 
in the íirst year of Pope Sixtus, the successor of Celestinus, and that Sixtus gave hini 
some of the relics of Peter and Paul, with many books, — " Sixtus vero ei [Celestino] 
successit, in cujus primo anno Patricius venit ad Iliberniam; et ipse perhumaniter 
tractavit Patricium, et dedit ipsi partem reliquiarum Petri et Pauli, et libros multos." 

Colgan. p. 5. It would seem, therefore, that St. Patrick, according to these testi- 

monies, brought to Ireland two diflferent sets of relics, first those given to him by Pope 
Sixtus on his coming to Ireland, and secondl^*^, those which he obtained />20 /«<r/o, on 
his visit to Rome at a later period of his life. 

The Tripartite Life tells us further, that, even in the lifetime of St. Patrick, the 
relics of Armagh, from the negligence or fault of their guardians, were lost^, •• ut 
in suo sacrario quajsitas et undique conquisitae nusquam potuerint reperiri," and that 
St. Patrick, knowing that they had been miraculously conveyed away by angels to their 
original depository at Rome, sent messengers to the Sovereigu PontiíF to ask for their 
restoration. It is not said, however, that St. Sechnall was sent on this mission ; the 
relics were sent back with an injunction to keep a stricter watch over them; and we 
are told that this was the origiu of the custom of exhibiting them annually, on certain 
great festivals, to the people. But of this custom the author of the Preface takes no 
notice, although he tells us expressly that the relics brought from Rome by St. Sech- 
nall were preserved at Armagh in his own time. 

In the Gloss of the Felire or Martyrology of Aengus the Culdee, iu the Leahhar 

'' Btj St. Patrich himselj. — Jocel. c. i66 (^Colgan, to liave died before St. Patrick. 

p. 101). Vit. Trip., part. 3, c. 81 (jColgan, p. 164). f Secondly. — The Tripartite Life tells us that tlie.-e 

The Third Life makes also the same statement (c. 84, second relics were in number 365. " Nec soluni 

Colgan, p. 28) — " Post hsec prospero itiiiere per- pretiosa, sed et numerosa erant haec spolia ; con- 

rexit Patricius Romam ; et attulit inde reliquias tinebant enim variorum sanctorum trecentas sex- 

Petri et Pauli Apostolorum, et Stephani Protomar- aginta quinque reli()uias diversas ; inter quas priuci- 

tvris ; et quod his majus est, attuUt Unteamen, super pem locum obtinebat linteamen sacratissimo D. >«'. 

(juod fiiit sangiiis Jesu Chrisli Domini nostri." Jesu Christi sanguine cruentatum, et pars capiUo- 

•^ In his stead. — This is the reason why in the rum Virginis Matris." [Of these, however, the 

ancient lists of the Archbishops of Armagh (see author of our Preface makes no mention.] '• Inter 

Colgan, p. 292) we find the name of St. SecuntUnus eas etiam erant sanctorum Petri et Pauli Apostolo- 

as St. Patricli's immcdiate successor, although the rum," &c — Vit. Trij). iu. c. 82. 

testimony ofaU the authorities mak£S SecmicUnus s Were lost. — See Vit. Tripart.'úi. c. 78. 

46 The Ihjmn of Sf. Sechnall. [Note d. 

Breac, thc commemoration of the relics preserved at the monastery of Tamhlacht, or 
Tallaght, near Dublin, is thus recorded on the ist of October: — 

Peil nocmjit'lci uapal Thofestival of thcnoble holv ruli<'* l't saiiu-relicsj 

in occinipep ccan. [Is cilebrated] in the beginning of October. 

Upon which the interlineary GIoss notes, — .1. caippi muipe 0150 "] na nappcol -\ na 
?iuile mapnp 1 nocni Cpinn apcena po cinolca hi Caiiiluclicu ipin pe pin — i. e. 
" The relics of Mary the Virgin, and of the Apostles, and of all the Martyrs and Saints 
of Erin lilcewise, were collected in Tamhlacht at that time," viz. on the ist of Octo- 
ber. And a note on the lower margin, in a mixture of Latin and Irish, adds: — 

" Adventus reliquiarum Jcsu Christi et Maria? Virginis, et prophetarum et apostolorum [Petri] et Poil 
[Pauli] ; co polc niuipei na nuile no5 -\ mapcip -| na noem apcena. Ocupni can 00 pochca- 
cap caipipecaip-] poil copolcniuipe-|namapcapcmoipepilacpoim LaSechnallcohapl)- 
machai. No ip anO pein po popbanat) pelic llloelpuain hi Camhlachcai. No bm ip bo muin- 
rip rhamlachca cuchcha na caipi -| ip accu accac, ut dicunt alii. Gcbepac apaile ip an Gpt» 
Hlacha ccac istíe reliquiíe 1 pcpin pecaip -\ poil, ocup ipe Sechnall cuc eac anall ad Hiber- 
niam et in hoc die veneruut." 

" The coming of the relics of Jesus Christ, and of Mar^- the Virgin, and of the Prophets, and the Apostles 
Peter and Paul, with the hair of Marj', and [the relics] of all the virgin.s, and martjTS, and saints together. 
And it was then the relics of Peter and Paul, Avith the hair of Jlarj', and of the great martyrs, that were at 
Rorae, were brought by Sechnall to Ard Machai. Or it was then that the relics of Moelruain were celebrated 
at Tamhlacht. Or it was to the family [i. e. the monk.^] of Tamhlacht the relics were given, and it i.s 
there thev are, as others sav. Others sav that it is at Ard Macha these relic.í are, in the shrine of Peter and 
I'aul, and it was Sechnall that brought them together into Ireland, and on this day they arrived," i. e. on th.- 
I st nf October. 

The Felire of Aengus was composcd in the eighth century, and the gloss and scholia, 
in the copy of it preserved in the Leabhar Breac, were added at difFerent times, between 
that period and the fourteenth century, which is the date of the MS. The tradition of 
the relics having been brought to Armagh by St. Sechnall seems tohave been theonly 
one known to the scholiast on the Felire; and we must, therefore, conclude that the 
Lives of St. Patrick (which attribute the importation of the relics to St. Patrick him- 
self) have been since his time interpolated. 

In the Antiphonary of Armagh preserved in the Library of Trinity College, a ma- 
nuscript of the fifteenth century, there is an office for the commemoration of the relics; 
but it contains no allusion to St. Sechnall, or anything throwing light on this subject. 
It does not even state what the relics were. 

On the whole, then, it appears, that, assuming the testimony of all these authorities 
to be true, we have — i. The relics brought to Armagh by St. Patrick at his first 
coming, according to the testimony of the scholiast on St. Fiech's Hymn. 2. Those 
brought by St. Patrick, after his visit to Kome, at an advanced period of his life, as 
recorded by Jocelin and the Tripartite. 3. Those brought by St. Sechnall, as stated 
by the Preface to the IIymn Audite ovxncs, in the Lcahhar Breac, and by the Scholiast 

notee.] The Metre of tlie IJymn. 47 

to the Felire of Aengus. It it reraarlcable, however, that the authoritieswhich men- 
tion the relics brought to Ireland by St. Patrick say nothing of the mission (^f 
St. Sechnall, whilst the authors who spealc of the relics brought by St. Sechnall do 
not appear to be aware of those previously deposited at Armagh by St. Patrick. Is 
this a proof that the Tripartite Life, which is the oldest authority for this last importa- 
tion of relics, Iias been interpolated in the copy which Colgan has translated? The 
Irish Tripartite Life in the British Museum (of which a beautiful copy by Mr. Curry 
is in the Library of thc Royal Irish Academy) has no mention of the relics. 

NoTE E. 
Ofthe Meíre ofthe Hjjmn. 

It must be obviotis to every classical scholar that the metre of this Hymn, if metre 
it can be called, where no quantities are observed, is founded upon the Trochaic tetra- 
meter catalectic. The number af syllables in each verse is the same as in that metre, 
and the ictus^ whicli does not, however, ahvays coincide with the accent, is also the 
same, — falling upon the first syllables of the first, third, fifth, and seventh feet. The 
catalectic syllable also is to be found in every line; and it is remarkable that the second 
syllab!e of the seventh foot is ahvays short. This is the only instance in which pro- 
sody is regularly observed; and there is no example in the Hymn of the violation of 
this rule, except in line 66, whcre we have indutus pronounced indiítus, perhaps by a 
mistake as to the prosody of the word by the author. The elision of vowels, or of 
syllables ending in m, before a vowel, is entirely disregarded, — of this we have in- 
stances in almost every line — 

Aúdi|te om|nés a|mantes || Déum, | sancta | mén|ta 

Víri I in CIiris|tó bejati || Pátri|ci e]píscoÍpi. 

In the words Patricii, in line 2, and Navigii, line 19, we must either read, Fatrici, 
JVavigi, or else Patric-ji, Navig-ji, so as to make three syllables. 

Cvjus appears to have been made a trisyllable in some places by the author, as 
verse 36, 

Cui]us niul]tipli]cantur || ut manjna in manijbus; 

but the transcribers not being accustomed to this, and supposing the line to want a 
syllable, have inserted que or ?«, as in verses 7, 11, 12, 31, 32; nevertheless, cuim is a 
dissyllable in verses 6, 74, 78, where there is no reason to suspect any corrupt tran- 
scription. In line 54 I have no doubt the origiual reading was — 
Cuncta ad cuius mensm-ani a!stimat quisquilla, 

and that the reading quce cuncta arose from mistaking mensuram in a contracted form 
for mensam. If this be so, cuius was here also a dissyllable. 

4« The Ihimn of St. SechnaU. [NoteE. 

In verse 60, if we retain the reading " tradidit," suam must be read as a monosjl- 
lablc, like sxcam; but tradit is probably tlic true reading, for the reason stated in the 
note on that line. So in verse 68, wemust either read fjnriíali, or pronounce " spirituali" 
as if written spirit-wali; for as the rhjthm is to be measured by syllables, and not by 
feet, where no prosody is observcd, we cannot solve such difliculties by the license 
allowed in regular nietre of substituting equivalent feet for each other, as anapasts 
for spondees, tribrachs for trochees, &c. 

Dr. Zeuss, in his late learned work Grammatica Celtica (Lipsiíc, 1853), has some 
valuable remarks on themetre of hymns of thiskind, and notices the existence of irre- 
gular assonances, examples of which are to be found in the hymns of St. Ambrose 
(who is said to have been the first to introduce hymns of this kind into the Church 
Service), and of St. Augustine. He calls attention especially to the alphabetical hymn 
written against the Donatists, by St. Augustine, which is in the popular syllabic 
rhythm, without metre, and of which every line ends in e. 
Abundantia peccatorum solet fratres conturbare ; 
Propter hoc Domiuus noster voluit nos prsemonere ; 
Comparans regnum cotlorum reticulo misso in mare 
Congreganti multos pisces, onine genus hic et inde. Etc. 

Each letter of the alphabet contains twelve lines, and each llne divides itself into 
two members, consisting of eight syllables each. Zeuss, having used the old edition 
of the works of St. Augustine, did not notice a distich, published in the Benedictine 
edition (August. Opp., tom. xi. p. i), which is to be repeated in reciting the hymn 
before each stanza of twelve lines; its lines also end in c, but with a second assonance 

in the penultimate syllable. 

Omnes qui gaudetis de pace 
Modo verum judicate. 
The alphabet extends only from A to V ; but at the end are 30 verses, containing 
an address from the Church, of which St. Augustine says in his Eetractations, " Tres 
vero ultimas [literas] omisi, sed pro eis novissimum quasi epilogum adjunxi, tanquam 
eos mater alloqueretur ecclesia." This Epilogue begins — 

Auilite fratres quod dico, et milii irasci nolite, 
and exhibits the same peculiarity of every line ending in e. 

In this Hymn or Psalm, as it is called, the m is sometimes elided before vowels, 
although not always, and í before vowels (as Zeuss has remarked) is pronounced j, so 
as to make one syllable in such words as abundant-ja, evangel-jum, eccles-jam, dja- 
bolo, tradit-jone, al-jos, &c. We have seen that a similar pronunciation is occasionally 
adopted in the Hymn of St. Sechnall. 

Zeuss has taken notice of the frequent occurrence of assonances in this latter Hymn, 
which he cites from the reprint of it in Gallandus (Bibl. Patr. x. 183). He instances 
in the first two stanzas — 

NoTE F.] The Metre of the H^mn. 49 

Aiulite I omnes | amantes || Deum, sancta merita 

Virí in Cliristo beatí || Patric2 ] episcopi', 

Quomodo homim ob | act«m || similaíwr | angeba, 

Perfectamque propter vitam || | aequaíMr | apostolíí. 

Beato I Christi | custodit | mandata in omnibwí, 
I Cujus I opera refulgent |1 | clara inter | homines 
I Sanctwnque cujus | sequuntur j exempljínt | miriílcMW 

Unde et in coelis patrem || magnificant dominMín. 

It Diay be doubted, however, how far these jingles should be regarded as any part 
of the rule of this species of poetry; for they occur without any regular law, and in 
some stanzas are entirely wanting (e. g. Stroph. C, D.). The fact is, that they were 
not avoided as in the classical Latin poetry, but were rather regarded as a beauty, 
and their recurrence at irregular intervals was therefore allowable, and perhaps sought 
for, although not necessary. 

In the verses which occur at the end of the Hymn the gradual improvement of 
the assonances is observable, — for one copy, probably the more ancient one, reads — 

Patricii laudes semper dicamus 

Ut nos cum illo defendat Deus, 

where the poet was content with an assonance in the single syllable us. But another 
MS. has the improved rhyme on two syllables — 

Patricii laudes semper dicamus 

Ut nos cum illo semper vivamus. 

In this distich it is evident that Patricii must be read Patrici, or Patric-ji. 

In another of these " epilogues" the assonance in every line is in the syllable us : 

Patricius episcopí<s 
Oret pro nobis omni6?<s, 
Ut deleantur protin?/s 
Peccata quse commisimiís. 

The reader wiU fiud a valuable dissertation on the ancient Rhytlimical Latin Hymns 
in Muratori's Antiquitt. lial. Med. JEvi., Dissert. xl. 

NoTE F. 

Ofthe Notice ofthe Hymn in the Booh ofArmagh. Thefourfold honour ofSt. Patrich. 

In addition to what has been said in the ancient Preface (see p. 33) on the subject 

of the privilege or indulgence granted by St. Patrick to those who recite this Hymn, 

or the last three verses of it, it seems desirable to preserve here the curious notice 

of the Hymn found in the MS. called the Canoin Phadruic (Canon of Patrick), or 

Book of Armagh; the word Canon being doubtless used to signify a collection of 

sacred books. 


50 The Hymn of St. Sechnall. [Notef. 

I)r. Gravi's iii liis valuuble paptr on the age of tliis MS., in the Proceedings of the 
Ko}al Irish Acadciny (vol. iii. p. 3 1 6), has shown, witli grc-at probability, that the book 
was written .\. d. 807, and that it is in the handwriting of Ferdomhnach, a celebrated 
scribe of Armagh, who died iu the middle of the ninth century. Ile remarks, how- 
ever, that there are indications throughout the MS., in very many j)lacc'S, ofitshaving 
been transcribed from documents that were even then rcgarded as of great antiquity, 
and which had in several passages become obscure. 

This MS. is supposcd to be the book mentioned by St. Bernard as being the auto- 
graph of St. Patrick ( Vit. S. Malach. c. v.), and the opinion that it was in the hand- 
writing of the Apostle of Ireland prevailed almost to our own times. This opinioii 
probably owed its origin to the name Canon of Patric^, by which the book was com- 
monly known ; but there is grave suspicion that some of the erasures made in the 
volume (although of much more recent date) were intended to prop up this fiction. 
The existence of the opinion, how-ever, in the age of St. Bernard is a singular 
evidence of the antiquity of the MS. ; and it is not improbable that the copy of the 
New Testament which it contains was transcribed frora one of the MSS. brought to 
Ireland by St. Patrick. See what Dr. Petrie has said of this volume, in his learned 
Essay on the Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland (Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy, vol. xx. p. 329). 

Tbe foUowing notice of the Hymn of St. Patrick occurs in this ancient MS., 
fol. 16, a. a. : — 

Pacpiciup pep épf honopem qnacepnum 
omnibup Tiionapcepnr 1 aecleppnp pep co- 
cam hibepnmm bebec habepe .1. epc 

I. SoUenipnicace bopTmcacionip eiup hono- 
papi m met)io uepip pep .ni. t)iep -\ .in. noc- 
cep omm bono cibo pp capneiii cfpi pacpiciup 

9 ueniippec in uica líi liopcium 

II. Oppepcopuim eiup ppoppium in eooem tiie niimolapi. 

III. C^-mnum eiup pep cocum cempup cancape. 
iiii. Cancicum eiup pcoccicum pempep canepe. 

Sic omnip .1111. ipca habepe Oebec ec pet)- 
tji a monachip puip pibi cpii aeclepiam 
9-mnup punbauic uel moncipcepium -| cfui habec 

Colmanalo pu|i,Khicmi ec pcsioncp mulcap .1111. 

ppet)icca habepe bebec in honope. 

This curious notice is valuable from its anticiuity, and proves, beyond all rea- 
souable doubt, that the IIymn was known, and its rccitation enjoined as a pious 
practice, as early as the close of the eighth century, in Ireland. 

The manner of keeping the festival of St. Patrick for three days and three nights, 
• with all good food, exccpt llesh" — oiuni bono cibo prajter caruem — (the fostival 

NoTE V.] The Four Honours of St. Patrict 5 1 

always falling witbiu Lent),— and "as if Patrick had come in life to tbe door,"— quasi 
Patricius ven°isset in vita in hostium [i. e. in ostium]— reminds us of the ancient Jewish 
practice of reserving a seat for Elias at the ceremony of Circumcision, thus calling him 
to witness the exact observance of the Law, or lest he should'- come to announce the 
Advent of Messiah during the solemnity. 

The second mark of respect paid to St. Patrick was a special " offertorium," to 
his honour on the day of his festival. The language is peculiar, " Offertorium ejus 
proprium mmolarr'; but the meaning seems to be, that a special commemoration ot 
him should be made in the Preface of the Mass, beginning " Vere dignum et justum 
est " which in the Gothic and ancient Gallican Missals was termed "Imraolatio Missaí," 
and in which the proper prefaces commemorative of festivals and samts' days are 
ÍDtroduced._See Mabillon, Be Liiurcj. Gallicana, lib. iii. p. 188, sq., and 368-9. 

The distinction between the Hyninus of St. Patrick and his Scottic Cauticum is 
remarkable. The Scottic Canticle, written in the Irish language, and attnbuted to 
St. Patrick himself, is preserved in the Liber Hymnorum, and a more fit opportunity 
will, therefore, occur elsewhere of speahing of it. It was published for the first tmie 
by Dr Petrie, in his valuable paper on the History and Antiquities of 'l ara Hill (1 rans- 
actions of the Koyal Insh Academy, vol. xviii.), and is of undoubted authenticity. 

It will be observed also that the writer of this ancient note speaks of the Hymn 
of Patrick as well known, and as needing no farther or more particular description. 
It can scarcely be doubted that the " Ymnus ejus" is the same which stands first in 
the Liber Hymnorum, a MS. of not much later date than the Book of Armagh, and 
which is there entitled " Ymnus Sancti Patricii episcopi Scotorum." This is a strong 
external evidence in favour of the antiquity and authenticity of the Hymn; and 
when we add to this the internal evidence of authenticity it exhibits,— viz. the style 
of the composition ; the absence of all allusion to the more modern traditions contained 
in the extant lives of St. Patrick; the rude dialect of Latin in which it is composed, 
which, nevertheless, exhibits a certain knowledge of prosody andrhythm; the fact, 
also, that it attributes to its hero no miraculous powers, and does not even seem to 
spea'k of his ordinary success as a missionary, while it assumes throughout that he is 

^Ust he should com..-There may, possibly, be what resembles the letter £, with a dot over it. 

some iutimation here of an expectation that Patrick This frequentl^ occurs in the MS., in the hand.v-ntmg 

would come again to complete the deliverance of his of the original scribe, at passages where there .s 

disciples on which may have been founded the tra- something obscure, or needing emendation. 
dition mentioned by Probus G- "• c 33), th^t Pa- ' Immolari.-lx^ the ancient Life of St. Patnck, 

trick, as thc Apostle of Ireland, is to be the Judge in the Book of Armagh, this word is frequently 

of the Irisb people, according to the promise of our used in the sense of ohlation, or gift. Thus a be- 

Lord to his Apostles, " sedebitis super sedes duode- nefactor is said " immolare regiones," fol. 1 6 ; and 

cira " &c.-See note on line 92 of the Hvmn, p. 22, » immolare filium suum S. Patricio," fol. 9, 10 ; als-. 

mpra. In the margiu of the MS., on the same line " ecclesiam Deo consecratam Patricioque immolare, ' 

with the words " veniisset m uita in liostium," is fol. 17 ; " immolare domum," fol. 1 1, et al. pass. 

H 2 

52 Tlie ITi/mn of St. Sechnall. [note i. 

still living aiid in the flesh, — when, I say, we take into account all these circumstances, 
in conjunction with the distinct mention of the IIymn in so ancicnt an authority, we 
can scarcely doubt the truth of the tradition which ascribes its authorship to a contem- 
porary and disciple of St. Patriclt, whatever opinion we may adopt as to the exact age 
of PatricU himself. 

It is remarUable, however, that the Latin Hymn is described as appointed to be 
sung " per totum tempus," that is, no doubt, during the whole time (the three days 
aud three nights) of the festival of the Apostle, the " solempnitas dormitationis ejus." 
But the Scottic Canticum is to be sung semper. Are we to iufer from this, that this 
Ifttter Song, in the vernacular Irish, was sung daily, or at all times during the year, 
in the ancient Irish monasteries, whilst the other was sung only during the festival 
of St. Patrick "in medio veris?" One reason of this diíFerence raay, probabIy, be, 
that the Scottic Song was the composition of St. Patrick himself, and was intended 
as a protection against the assaults of demons and magicians to the person of him 
who recited it. — See what Dr. Petrie has said of the virtue ascribed to it in bis Essaj 
on the History of Tara Hill. 

The concluding paragraph of the note in the Book of Armagh appears to signify 
that the founder of every monastery or Parochia (a word which seems used in the 
Book of Armagh nearly as Diocese, territorial jurisdiction, monastic appropriation, 
endowment) is entitled to the same honours in his respective monastery, or parish, as 
those which all monasteries and churches throughout all Ireland render to St. Patrick. 
This paragraph niay be translated thus : — 

" In like inaniier everv one who báth founded a church or a mouasterj- ought to have, aud there ought 
to be rendereJ unto him by his monUs, the same four honours ; and he who hath a parish and many regions 
ouglit to have the four aforesaid things in his hoiiour." 

In the margin of this passage, on the sarae line with the words " fundavit vt;l 
monasteriura et qui habet," the original scribe has written — 


wliich may, perhaps, be an allusion to a circumstance told by Jocelin, in his Life of 
St. Patrick, and repeated also, with some variations, in the Tripartito Life, and in the 
Life of St. Colman-Ela. 

Jocelin states that St. Colman-Ela was iu the habit of reciting the Hymn of Pa- 
trick (viz. the Hymn composed by St. Sechnall in honour of St. Patrick), instead of 
the usual hours and psalms ; and tells the story thus : 

" Quidain abbas de discipuli.s S. Patricii, Cohnanus nomine, prajdictuin hvinnum crcbro consuexit 
rcpetcre. t^ui cum conveniretiir a dlscipulis, cur noii potius lioras constitutas, aut Psalmos decantaret, ac 
ilicerent, liymnum semel cantatum sibi debere sulficere, respondit, se dum hymuum cantasset desideratum 
(lilecti sui Patri.s Patricii jugiter vultuin vitli.sse, nec tamen ex illius contemplatione satiari pntiiisse." — 
iSexta Vit. S. Patr. c. 179, p. 104, 

notef.] Repetitíon ofthe Hy7nnby St. Colman-Ela. 53 

The Liíe of St. Colman-Ela, however (see the passage quoted above, p. 32, note), 
and the Tripartite Liíe, mention the circumstance as an cvent that happened on one 
occasion onIy, and do not attribute to the Saint the impropriety of omitting the usual 
ecclesiastical hours. The Tripartite says : 

" Quadam enim vice dum S. Colmanellus curaret illum hyiunum tribas vicibus a fratribus iu refectorio 
decantari, S. Patricius in medio canenlium stetit, ibique mansit donec quidam Laicus, qui adfuit, tajdio 
atfectus, dixerat, Numquid habetis alios Hymnos vel cantiones, quibus Deum laudetis, prseter unicum iHum 
stepius repetitimi? Tunc autem S. Antistes evanuit." — Part iii. c. 92, p. 166. 

It is amusing to observe, tliat Jocelin makes the objection to proceed from the 
whole body of St. Colman's monks; the Life of St. Colman puts it into the mouth of 
one of them (the eldest of them) only, " senior ex illis;" but the Tripartite Life attri- 
butes it to a certain laijman, "quidam Liicus," -who was present, and who was Avearied 
witli the length of the psalmody. 

St. Colman-Ela was said to have been foretold by St. Patrick, and the place where 
his church and monastery was to be built pointed out (Jocelin, c. 96, p. 87). It is 
probable, therefore, that he was known as especially zealous for the honour of St. Pa- 
trick, and that the note in the Book of Armagh, as well as the legend just alluded 
to, may have had its origin from that circunistance; unless we understand the note in 
the Book of Armagh as intended to intiniate that St. Colman-Ela was entitled to 
the same fourfold honour as that giveu to St. Patrick, and that a hymn to his praise 
was tlien extant. 

St. Colman-Ela, so called from Fidh-ela^ the name of the place where his monas- 
tery was built, died, according to the Annals of the Four Masters, a. d. 610. He is 

called Colmanellus, and also Columbauus, in the Latiuized forms of his name, 

Colman and Columba being, in fact, the saine name. 

The following notice of him is given in the Martyrology of Donegal, at the 26th 
of September : 

Colman eala, abb o Lamb ealo a pepaib Cobnan-Eala, abbot of Lanu-cala in Ferceall. 

ceall m lOTicaip llli&e. Oo pllOCC eacóaó iu west Meatb. On his father's side he was of 

nnc ITluipeaÓa t)0 piol eipeitiom l)ó, bo the race of Eochaiilh, son of Muireadach, of the race 

caoib a aéaip, 1 t)eiyibi'iup t)o Colani cille a of Herimon ; and his mother was a sister of S. C'o- 

riiacaip .1. TTlop mgen peiblimiÓ nuc pep- linnb-kille, viz. Mor, daughter of Feidhlimidh, Mtn 

Sapa Cennpat»a, mic ConuiU ^ulban, mic of Fergus Cenn-fada, son of Conall Gulban, son of 

NeiU naoisiaUaij, amail at)eip beca Col- Niall of the Nine Hostages, as the Life of this same 

mam pein, cap. i. Lii. a aeip ancan po pai6 Colman savs, cap. i. He was fifty-two vears old. 

a ppipac t)0chum niTíie. Q. C 610. when his spirit fled to beaven, a.d. 610. 

j Fidh-ela, afterwards Lann-eala, now Lynally, '' Ferceall. — For tlie exact boundaries of this dis- 

near Tullamore, in the Iving's County. — See Ussher's trict, see Dr. O'Donovan's note, Aniials of tlie Four 
Works (by Elrington), vol. vi. p. 530. Masters, a, d. 1216, p. 189. 

( 54 ) 


TIIE following Hymn occurs at the end of a Life of St. Brigid, firít 
pul)lislicd by Colgan, and attributed by him to St. L^tan, Bishop of 
Ardbrccoan, Avho died a. d. 656 or 657. This Life he has printed froni a 
MS. of the tentli or eleventh century, preserved in the Monastery of St.Mag- 
nus, at Ratisbon, in Bavaria, coUatcd with four other MSS.', especially a MS. 
belonging to the Monastery of St. Autbert, in Cambray, and another Avhich 
he received from a monastery in the county of Longford. 

In all these ]\ISS. the work appears to be anonymous, but Colgan is led 
if) attribute it to St. Ultan, principally on the authority of the Preface to the 
following IIymnin the Liher Hijmnorum, which statesthat St. Ultan composed 
a Life of St. Brigid, and is by some supposed to have been the author of this 
ITvmn in her It is, therefore (he argues), most probable that the Life, oí' 
which the Hymn in question appears to be an integral part, is the Lifc coni- 
posed by St. Ultan. The author was certainly an Irishman, for he speaks (in 
the Hvmn) oí" nostra Hibernia ; and he lived in very early time.s, for (in the 
Lií'e of St. Brigid) he speaks of a "parrochia" and monasteiy in the district of 
Siol-Í^Iuredhaigh, in the diocese of Elphin, as being in existence, and dcdicated 

• Four other MSS — Colgan has thus de- Hibemico, et ut videtur ante scxcentos vcl 

scribed these MS.S. : " Unum exemplar liujus septengentos annos exarato : quintum habe- 

vitae ex Codice ^lon. S. Autbertl Cameraci, ab tur in monasterio Dunensi ["? Bruges] in Fhin- 

antiquitatis magno veneratore et indagatori dria. Ex (juibus vel satis facile colligitur 

solerti D. Georgio Colverio, accepimus ; aliud authoris vetustas, cum pleraque ex hls exem- 

ex MS. Monast. Insuhi; Sanctorum in Comi- plaribus sint soripta ante annos qulngentos et 

tatu I^jngfordiíL' in lliberni;c ; 3". cx vetustls ahqua ante septingentos." — Tr. T/iitiiiii. ^.542- 

membranis Cartliusia; Colonlensis ; 4". (juod Thls Life has also Ijcen published by the Bul- 

hic daraus, ex vetustissimo codice Monast. landists (at « Feb.) from a MS. In the Chiu-cli 

S. Magni Ratlsponae in Bavaría, charactere of St. Omer's. 

The Hymn to St. Brhjid. j^ 

to St. Brigicl, wlicn hc wrote, — " nam parrochia est magna hodie S. Brigidaj in 
illis regionibus"^ Some further observations on the authorship oí'the Hjnui 
will be found iu thc Additional Notes. 

It is an alphabctical Iíymn, contalning, however, only thc last three letters, 
X, Y, Z^, together with what is callcd a first verse beginning Audite virgbm 
laudes ; which first verse, both in the Liher Hi/mnorum, and in the Lifc of' 
Brigid published by Colgan, occurs after the three former. 

It is certain that thc Hne Christm in nostra insula was from very earlv times 
regarded as the beginning of the Iíymn, fbr it is so quotcd in an ancient 
collection of hymns which has been written in the beginning of a stiU more 
ancient copy of the Greek Psalter% in Irish characters, preserved in the 
Library of Bále (a. vii. 3). This remarkable MS. the Editor had the privi- 
legc of examining in the summer of 1852. The Psalter cannot bc of later date 
than the ninth or tenth century ; and the Hymns written in the first few leaves 
are in an Irisli hand, not later than the twelfth centmy. The first Hymn is 

that beginning — 

Cantemus in omni die 
Concinantes varie 

which is given at fuU length. Then follows a prayer to the B. V. Mary, 

beginning " Singularis meriti, sola sine exemplo, mater et Virgo Maria." 

Thcn the Hymn — 

Alta audite TA EPrA 

Toto mundo micantia, 
Avhich is also given at fuli length ; and then — 

' In illis regionibus — cap. 9. (Tr. Thaum. ginniug with the letters X, Y, and Z ; so that 

p. 528). Colgan remarks on this passage the repetition of these verses was equivalent 

(n. 7, p 543), " Unde author indicat se vetus- to the repetition of the whole HjTnn. Was it 

tum esse, dum dicit suo tcmpore iUum distric- on this principle that the II}mn to St. Brigid 

tum et ita amplum fuisse ut regiones ad cum contained only the verses beginning with the 

I)ertinerent, et ad S. Brigidam spectasse ; last three letters of the alphabet ? 
quandoquidem a multis secuhs nec tam am- ^ Greeh Psalter — Dr. Iveller has given a 

plus fuerit, nec ad ordinem S. Brigidae spec- fac-simile of the characters used iii this 

laverit." Psalter, in his learned papei', '' Bilder und 

^ X, Y, Z. — The indulgence granted to Schriftziige in den Irischen Manuscripten der 

the repetition of the Iljmn of St. Patrick Schweizerischen BibUotheken," p. 86, and Taf. 

(see above, p. 33) was ultiraately conceded xiii.5. (Mittheilungeu der Antiq. Gesellschaí't 

to the last three verses of it, viz. those be- in Zurich, vii. Baud.) 

56 The TTijmn to St. Brigid. 

ircni, ;r]^ im tiosrrja líisolri qiic iiocacuT?, 

of whicli no niorc than these words arc «livcn, it being evidently then so well 
known that the writcr did not decm it nccessary to transcribe it at length. 

Then íollows the vcr?c : 

Sancta virgo virginum Maria 
Intercedc pro nobis. 
Incipit cpistola salvatoris Domini nostri Iliu Xpi 
ad se . . dgarum. 

Deus meus et pater et filius et spiritus sanctus 
cui omnia subjecta sunt, cui omnis creatura deservit. 

Over the words " sancta vii'go," in the saine handwriting, occurs the word 
" beatissima." 

Thc above is probablj a part of an anclent office, of which the Hymn 
Cliristus i?i nostra insula formed a part ; and it is curious that the Epistlc of 
our Lord to Abgarus appears to have bcen used as a Lesson, which is a singuUir 
])roof of the antiquity of the office. 

lu the Liber Hymnorum the following Ilymn is prcceded by a short Pre- 
face, in, which is here printed cxactly as it stands, except that the 
contractions of the MS. are not preserved. The Hymn is accomjianied by an 
occasional interlineary gloss, now for the first time prlnted, but It has no 
lubrical heading or gcncral title. In Colgau's edition it is entitlcd " Hymnus 
de Brlglda Vlrgine," but whether this tltle was addcd by hlmself, or was found 
by him in the MS. from whlch hc printed, does not appear. 

The carc takcn to ascertaln thc author of cvery Hymn, by prefixlng the 
curious historlcal prcíaccs which occur in thc Liher Hymnorum, was j)robably 
in comiíliance with the a^rd Canon of the second Council of Tours (a. d. 567), 
or wlth somc corresponding ecclesiastical rcgidation whlch was of forcc In Ire- 
land. Thlá canon is as follows : — " Llcet hymno3 Ambroslanos habeamus 
iu canone, tamen quoniam reliquorum sunt allqui, qui digni sunt forma cantari, 
volunms llbentcr amplecti cos praítcrea, quorum auctorum nomina fucriut in 
liminc prajnotata : quoniam qua3 fide constitcrint diccndi ratione non obstant"'. 

' Concil. Labb. et Cossart. tom. v. 863. The the Church of Tours in early times is well 
connexion bctwecn the Church of Ireland and known. 

rpS IN NOSCna. V\mmt) lámman mac echacli irre ÍJO pisni bunc q.niTnjm t)0 bpisir. 
llel if piac pleibce bo pisne. Dicunc aln combat) Lllcan aipbbpeccan t)0 gnec. Gp 
il^c po ccclamarcaii pepca bpi^ce in oén lebop. Qut^ice uipsinip laul)er ipe a chor- 
racli. Opt) aipsicpech paip. Cpé pichim bna bo pigneb. Cpi caibcil anb, i cechpi 
Itni cech caibcil i pe rillaba béc cech líne. 'Oicunc aln combab móp mcimmunra, 
achc ni pailec runb achc cechpi caibcil be, .1. m cec caibcil, -[ r\a cpi caibcil 
bebencha, caupa bpcuicacir- 

ps iN Noscría iNSola que uocacim hibenMia 
osceNsus esc hoTniNibus Tna^cimis minabilibus 
que peRpecic pen peLiceTíi celescis uire uirjsiNeni 
pRecelLeNcem pRO incTíico masNO in niuNOi cinciilo 

niNus isce aNselice summecrue saucre bmsice 5 

paRi NON uaLec omuia umcucum mmabilia 
que NoscRis uuuquam auRibus si sinc pacca auOiumius 
U1S1 pcR iscam uiRSiuem maRie saucce similem 

Gloss.— 7. Si sint facta.—.i. ab alia virgiiie. 8. Similem.— .^. ap 1^1 bpiQic maipe na nsoibel 
[i. e. for Brigid is tlie Marv of the GaecUiel (or Irish)]. 

I . Christus in nostra. — See a translation 
of the Preface, with some observations 
and illustrations, in the Additional Notes. 
It will be observed that there is in this 
Hjníin a rhyrae or assonance in the mid- 
dle and end of each line : insola, Hibernia ; 
hominibwí, mirabiliíws ; feliccm, virgi- 
nm ; merito, circulo, &c. 

6. Fari non valet This passage is pro- 

bably the authority for Ware's assertion 

that St. Ultan wrote an alphahetical nar- 
rative of the miracles of St. Brigid. He 
says, — " Ultanus niac Conchubhair epis- 
copus Ardbracannensis miracula Brigidae 
in unum collegitlibrum, ordine alphabeti- 
co" — De scriptorihus Hibernia?, c. iii. ; but 
the book of miracles was certainly not the 
same as the alphabetical hymn, and was, 
in all probability, in Irish. 

8. Marie sancte. — See the Gloss, and 

58 Hiimnvs in laudcm S. Brigidoe. 

O ONQ sancrc niiLiric saijccos lunibos pncciHSCRc 



consiicuic; Diiinjio uocnmno cfuocíiic scuoio 10 

cousumniaco ccRcaiiiiuc suni])sic palniam uiccoRic 
ncpulscus niasuo splcuoorjc uc sol m cocli cuLimue 

uDicc uin^uns lauDcs saucca cfuocpic mcríica 
]3Cupcccioucm cpiam ]jRomisic umiLiccn impLcuic 
;i-pi macRcm se S]3opoNOic Oiccis ec pecic paccis 15 

bnisioa auc amaca ucri oci Rcsiua 

6pi?;ioa pancra ]"'eoulo y\z m no^T^io au;rilio ur niepeamup 
coponam babe]ie ac leciuiam in conppecuu angelojium in pecula 

Gloss. — 9. Militiee. — .i. contra diabulum et uitia. Lvmbos. — .i. camales voluntates. ii. Ccrtamine. 
— .i. mundi praesentis, ut apo.stolus dicit, certamen bonum ccrtavi, cursum cousumniavi. Palmam. — 

.i. premium. Victorioe. — .L ded et vivis. 1 2. Rcfulgens. — .i. ut dicitur, fulgebunt justi 

sicut sol in regno patris eorura. 13. Latides, vel jura ip coip [or ;ura is the right reading]. Sancta. — 
.1. bpi5ic ant) co 710 pecpab bon Tnepica cip [i. e. Brigid is implied in tliis, so as to answer to the merifa 
below]. 14. Perfectionem. — Coinmat>)ie po coip mt) line [tiiis niav be the correct form of this linc] ; 
.i. perfectionem promisit quam viriliter implebit. 15. Dictis. — Comat) lie po t)na [it mav be this, 
however,] dictis atque factis fecit 16. Regina. — Vel et regina. 

comp. V. 15. In the Additional Note B fourteen only. If we adopt thc reading 

•\vill be found some remarlcs on tbis title given by Colgan, suggested also in the 

given to St. Brigid. Gloss on ver. 15, "dictis atquefactisfecit," 

10. Consuevit. — This line seems imper- the number of syllables in that linewillbe 

fect, as it consists of fourteen instead of corrected, The suggestion ofthescholi- 

sixteensyllables; corwMeí;i< may have been ast's preface (see p. 63), that the Hymn 

read as if of four syllable3, but this would originally consisted of a capitulumíox every 

stiU leave one syllable short. Perhaps letter of the alphabet, isunnecessary. A\- 

we should read " et diurno.'" phabetical poems containing stanzas for 

12. Ut sol in One of Colgan's MSS. the last three letters of the alphabet only 

reads "et velut cceli culmine." were common. See an example, Irish ver- 

i^. Audite. — This stanza cannot have sion ofXennius,lntroá. ip. 10. These three 

been by the same author as the forego- letters were selected because they were a 

ing. Neither the rhythm or assonances, triad, and because they began with the 

nor the metre or numbcr of syllablcs, is symbol or abbreviation for C/iristus. 
exactly observed. Verses 13 and 15 con- 16. Aut amata. — Colgan reads "auto- 

sist of but fifteen syllables, and verse i6of mata," andhehasappcndedtothe wordthe 

Hymnus in laudem S. Brigidce. 


following notc : " Brigida autumata. — In 
Codice Hibernico [i. e., I presume, the MS. 
of the Tertia Vita, which he had obtained 
from thc monastery in the county of Long- 
ford] Antomata : rectius forte automata, 
quse vox significat instrumenta mechanica 
ita subtiliter et artificiose fabricata, ut sua 
sponte, seu se ipsis nuUaque apparente 
causa vel motore moveantur; avjovfiaTov 
enim idem est quod ultroneum, seu suse 
spontis" — {Tr. Thaim., p. 545). He does 
not, however, explain what the meaning 
of the verse wiU be if we adopt this 
reading : — " Brigid of her own will the 
Queen of the true God," seems strange 
theology, if, indeed, it have any meaning. 
But it is singuhir that Colgan (apparently 
without hnowing it) gives, as if it had 
been in his text, what is unquestionably 
the true reading, Brigida autumata : of 

which " aut amata" is evidcntly a corrup- 
tion: — " Brigid, who is esteemed, or be- 
lieved to be, the Queen of the true God." 
In Colgan's copy there is a reference from 
the word Dei to the words "al. C<xlW'' in 
the margin. This is, no doubt, an error 
of the press for Coeli: but ven is inconsis- 
tent with this reading, as wc can scarcely 
suppose the author to have written "verj 
cceli regina." We must therefore regard 
cali as the suggestion of some transcriber 
or scholiast, who did not feel quite satis- 
fied with the phrase " veri Dei Eegina." 

Brigida sancta. — These words seem to 
be the substance of a Collect, or Antiphon, 
in an ancient ofiice of St. Brigid. Colgan 
evidently took them for a distich of the 
Hymn, and has printed them as such (see 
Add, Notes, p. 63). 

I 2 

( 6o ) 



The Preface to the Hymn. 

THE following is a litcral translation of tlie historical Preface or Introduction to 
this Hymn: — 

" Christus in nostra. Ninnidh Laimidan, son of Eochadh, wa3 he who made this Hj-nin in honour 
of Brigid. Or it was Fiach of Slebte that composed it. Dicunt alii, that it was Ultan of Ardbreccan who 
composed it : for it was he that put together the miracles of Brigid in one book. Audite virginis laudes is 
its beginning. The alphabetical order is in it. Moreover he composed it in rhythm. There are three 
chapters in it, and four lines in each chapter, and sixteen syllables in each line. Dicunt alii, that this 
HjTnn was originally long, but that there remain here only four chapters of it, viz. the first chapter. and 
the laat three chapters, causa brevitatis." 

Three writers are here named to whom the authorship of this Hymn was variously 
ascribed. The first is Ninnidh, Ninnidius, or Nennius, surnamed Laimidan [Laim 
iot)hanJ ofthe undefiled hand, from a circumstance recordedin the Lives of St. Brigid. 
His first meeting with her, when a youth, is thus described in the ancient Life which 
Colgan attributes to St. Ultan (cap. 78): — 

" Quadam die S. Brigida cum suis virginibus arabulabat in loco campcstri, et ^idit quendam juvenem 
scholasticum, currentem velociter ; et ait Uli, Juvenb, quo tu curris tam cito. Ille respondit, dicens, Ad 
regnum DeL Dixitque ei Brigida, Utinam merear tecura currere : ora pro rae, ut istud valeam. Respondit 
scholasticus, Tu roga Deum, ut cursus meus non impediatur, et ego vicissim pro te rogabo ut tu et mille 
comites tecum vadant ad regnum Dei. Tunc S. Brigida pro juvene rogavit Dominum : et in illis diebus 
ipse poenitentiam egit, et fuit religiosus iisque ad mortem suani." 

The later lives add to this siniple narrative that the young scholar was Ninnidh, 
8on of Eochaidh, afterwards abbot of Inis-muighe-samh [now Inishmacsaint], an island 
in Loch Erne, and that Brigid on this occasion predicted that from his hand she her- 
self should receive the holy viaticum on the day of her death. On hearing this prophecy 
Ninnidh enclosed his right hand in a brazen (others say a silver) case, which he kept 


Supposed Author of the Hymn. 


continualIy lockecl, lest the hand destined to give the holy Comraunion to St. Brigid 
should ever be defiled by the touch of anything unclean. From this circumstance he 
derived the appellation of " Ninnidh of the undefiled hand"*. 

St. Brigid is supposed to have died a. d. 523, and Ninnidh, as we learn from his 
genealogy, was the fifth in lineal descent from King Loegaire, who flourished in 
the timc of St. Patrick. He may therefore have lived until the middle of the sixth 
century. See his Life collected by Colgan at the i8th of January. 

The second author to whom the Hymn is ascribed is Fiach, Bishop of Sletty, 
the same who composed the Irish poem in praise of St. Patrick, which Colgan has 
published as the first Life of that saint. This author died about A. d. 530. See 
Colgan, Tr. Thaum., pp. 4 and 217. 

The third author is St. Ultan, Bishop of Ardbraccan in Meath, who died at a great 
age A. D. 656. 

The claims of this last author are by Colgan strongly preferred, on the ground that 
he is stated by the ancient scholiast, or author of the Preface, to have composed a Life 
of St. Brigid; and as the ancient Life"' found in the monastery of St. Magnus, atRatis- 

^ Ofthe undefilcd hand. — Thestoiy is thus told by 
the author of the fourth Life, 'which Colfían attributes 
to Anmchad or Animosus — "Ninnidius volens ab 
illa die manum suam mundissimam servare, de qua 
beatissima Brigida príedixit, ut in die exitus sui di- 
vinum viaticum sumeret, fecit circa eam «neam 
arctam manicam cum sera et clavi, ne iUa corpus 
suum tangeret, neque de aliquo immundo taugere- 
tur. Inde agnomen ipse habet : nam Scotice vocatur 
Ninnidh lani glan, quod sonat Latine Ninnidius ma- 
nus mundíe." — Cap. 63, p. 559. According to the 
spelliug of the name in the Liber Hymnorum, the 
etyraology of it is laiii loblian, rather than lam 

^ The ancient Life. — Tn the Library of Trinity 
CoUege, Dublin, tliere is a paper copy of this Life, 
taken in the seventeenth centuiy from an ancientMS. 
in the Cottonian Libraiy. It has been collated 
throughout by Archbishop Ussher in his own hand, 
and various readings added in the margin ; and it 
appears from tlic foUowing autograph note in the 
beginning, that Ussher also was disposed to regard it 
as St. Ultan's. Ile says: " Descripta est Vita ha;c 
Brigidie exantiquo MS' Bihliotheca; Cottonianse, cui 
consimilis, sed aliquanto pleiiior, habetur in vetus- 

tissimo Codice coenobii S. Magni, Canonicorum lie- 
gularium B. Augustini ad pedem pontis Ratisbon» 
iu Bavariá. Ad cujus finem hahetur Hyinnus in 
Laudem Brigidae, cujus initium ' Chmtus in nostra 
insula, Quse vocatur Hibernia, &c.' quem in aliis 
codicibus Ultano iVrdbraccanensi attributum inveni- 
mus virtutum S. Brigidae scriptori, quem hiijus 
Vitte authorem fuisse omnino existimamus. Unde, 
ex Stephani Viti apographo, variantes lectiones ad 
marginem apposuimiis : adcUtis Iiic capitibus iUis 
quíB a codice Cottoniano absunt." 

This MS. does not contain the Hvmu at the end : 
and it also omits several chapters, amongst others 
the foUowáng (adoptingColgan's numbering) — c. 14, 
28, part of c. 46, c. 47, 48, 55, 68, 69, 70, 78, 79. 

The BoUandists have pubUshed this Life as of an 
anonvmous author, without noticing the opinion of 
Colgan that St. Ultan was the author. They have 
edited it from a MS. in the Church of St. Omer's, 
which does not appear to have had the Hymn at the 
end. At least the Editor has made no mention 
whatsoever of the Ilpnn, either at the end of the 
Life, or in his Prolegomena, but passcs it over in 
complcte silence, as if ignoraut of its existence. — 
Actt. Sanctorum. tom i. Febr. p. 1 1 8 sq. 

02 The Hymn to St. Briijid. [Note a. 

boD, contains at tbe end this very IIyran, Colgan draws the double conclusion; first, 
that that Life is the work of St. Ultan alluded to by the sclioliast, and second, that 
St. Ultan was therefure the author of tlie II}mn. lle says: — 

" Porro S. Ultanum essc authorem illius hvmni, ct per conscquens hujus Titse, colligimus ex vetusto 

Scholiastc ejusdcm hjnnni Nam licet ipse ibi dubitct an S. Nennitlius, an S. Fieguí, an potius 

S. Ultanuj sit author i.-.tius hj-mni, colligitur taracn cx vcrbiít ejus S. Ultanum ct hj-mni ct vita; hujus 
authorem ; cum dicat i[)sum et hvmnum in laudem S. Brigidaí, et hvmnus idcm, quem illc citat, 
uno voiumiue habcantur ; el utrumque juxta dicta, ab eodem authore sit conscriptum ; relinquitur quod 
S. Ultanus sit author utrius<|ue, non vero quispiam ex illis aliis, qui nusquam leguntur Vitam S. Brigidíe 
uno vel pluribus libris scripsiíse." — Tr. Thaum., p. 542. 

The scholiast, however, does not say that St. Ultan composed a hyran in praise of 
St. Brigid ; all he does assert is, that St. Ultan brought together into one book the 
niiraclcs of Brigid, and that some have therefore supposed him to be the author of the 
hynin in question. In fact, Colgan's argument rests on a weak foundation; and we 
must content ourselves with leaving the question of the authorship of the Hymn in 
the same ambiguity and doubt in which it is left by the ancient scholiast; a doubt 
•which must also attach itself to the authorship of the Life which Colgan has attri- 
buted to St. Ultan. For it is evident that he builds too much on the circumstance 
that the Hymn before us has been appended to this Life, and written by the ancient 
scribe as if it were a part of it. This appears to have been the case in one MS. only, 
and is certainly not the case in all the MSS. of that Life. Nothing was more common 
than to write such verses at the end of similar works; and an example of this custom is 
exhibited by Colgan himself, who has published from another MS. of this very same 
Life, a quite different set of verses, which were undoubtedly not written by St. Ultan, 
or at least not by the author of the Hymn. 

It would seem that Colgan's MS. of the Liher Hijmnoruni had a Preface to the 
Hvmn before us, which, although for substance the same, differed in some particulars 
from that now published. The following is his account of it {Tr. Thaum., p. 545, 
note 80): — 

"Idem Iljmnus habetur in Codice illo vidgari Hibernico quem nostri Autiquarii Leabhur lomann, 
id est, Liber Hj-mnorum, vocant, in eo enim contiaentur multi hjrani a divcrsis Hibernioe sanctis compositi ; 
et ex eouUimum versum in codice S. Magni desideratum acccpimus ; in eoque huic nostro hvmno vetustus 
Scholiastcs prefigit hoc prohcmium seu argumentum. Sanctus Nennidim laimh-iodfian, id est mundima- 
nut, composuit hvnc htfmnum in laudem S. Brigidce ; rel sanctw Fiegm Sleptensis. Audite Virginis 
laudes est eius inilium ; vd S. L'Uanus de Ardbrecain composuit in S. Brigidce laudem : ipse enim com- 

■• Eaheantur. — There is evidentljr some misprint, scription. He evidently meant to say that the Life 

and very probablv the omission of a line or two in by St Ultan and the Hymn were to be found in 

this passage. Tliis portion of Colgan's worlt is full the same volume. But this statemcnt is not madc 

of tvpographical blunders of thc most carcless de- in thc Preface of the ancient scholiast 

NoTE A.] Additions made to the Hymn. Ct, 

prehendit miracula S. Briffidce uno libro. Ordo ulphábeticus in eo servatur, et ad imitationem rithmi 
Noscarii compositus est. Quatuor sunt in eo capitula et qnatuor linece in singulis capitulis, et sedecim 
syllabeC in qualibet lineih" 

This agrees with the Preface of the Dublin MS., except as to the number of capi- 
tula of which the Hymn is said to consist. The Dublin copy gives two opinions ou 
this point; one is that the Hymn had but three capitula, namely, the three whicli 
begin with the letters X, T, and Z. The other opinion is, that the Hymn had origi- 
nally a capitulum for every letter of the alphabet, but that of these only four now 
remain, viz. that beginning Audite virginis laudes, which was the first, and the three 
beginning with X, Y, and Z, which were the last, all the intervening capitula being 

Colgan's Líber Ihjmnorum, hoAvever, states that the Hymn has four capitula, Avith- 
out noticing any other opinion, and Avithout intimating that it was originally longer, 
or that any of it was omitted or lost. Both Prefaces agree in excluding the lines 
beginning Brigida sancta sedulo, which are therefore no part of the Hymn, but are of 
the nature of an antiphon to be said after the Hymn. 

It must be evident to the critical reader that the stanza Audite is a subsequent 
addition, and that the three preceding stanzas are in fact the Hymn, as stated in the 
Preface to the Dublin copy. The verses Audite, &c., do not obey the laws of the 
metre either as to assonances or number of syllables, and cannot therefore havebeen 
a part of the Hymn to which the other stanzas belonged. 

With respect to the lines Brigida sancta, &c., Colgan tellsus incidenta]ly that they 
do not occur in the ancient Eatisbon MS. from which he edited this Life of St. Brigid. 
They are therefore probably of a later date. In the Dublin MS. they are written as 
prose, although they are evidently verses, and obey the laws of the metre both in 
number of syllables and in the assonances. 

Brigida sancta sedulo || sit nostro in aiixilio 
Ut mereamur corona»» || habere ac líBtitia?» 
In conspectu Angelorum || in secula seculorum. 

Colgan adds the following, which does not occur in the Dublin copy, and which 
has too many syllables to be considered as the fourth line of the stanza: — 
" Christe Jesu, author bonorum, miserere, obsecro. omnium." 

But perhaps we should read, 

" Christe Jesu, author bonorum, miserere, obsecro. Amen." 

To this Colgan adds another short poem, or carmen, as he styles it, of higher pre- 
tensions, and of more elaborate composition. It is found in the MS. of the monastery 
of St. Autbert at Cambray, and is, in that MS. (as Colgan declares) attributed to the 
same author who composed the Life and the Hymn. 


The IIymn to St. Bri(jkL 


Brigi<Li nonu'ii habet, gcmino et dladcmate fulgct, 
(^uaiii culinuis fratrcs, Brígida nomen liabet. 

Virgu fuit Domini, muudo et cruciiixa maDcbat, 
Intus ct cxterius Virgo fuit Domini. 

Des|iiciebat ovans instantis gaudia Vitse, 
Et falsos fastus despicii'bat ovans. 

Horruit et fragiles niundi falL.ntis honores, 

Divitias, ponijias, horruit et fragileí. 
Gaudia iR'rpctua; spectans et pncmia vitK, 

Suscepit certa; gaudia fierpctuse. 
E superis resonat intus cum sedibus Echo 

Tubarum subliniis', e superis resonat 
Mitte beata preces, pro nobi«, Virgo benigna 

Ad Dominum semper mitte beata preces. 

It is diíllcult to suppose that these verses are by the saine author^ who composed 
the rude lines that precede. They do not occur in the Liher Ibjnmorum. 

With respect to the Metre of the Hymn, it is described in both copies of the 
Scholiast's Preface, as consisting of stanzas or capitula of four lines, with sixteen syl- 
lables in each line. But instead of the ■\vords in the Dublin MS., Cpe picliim t)na 
t)0 pi5nel>, which appear to allude to the assonances in the middle and end of each 
line, Colgan's MS. seems to have had a different reading, which he translates, " et ad 
imitationem rithmi Noscarii compositus est." What the Rithmm Noscarius is, the 
Editor is unable to say. Could it be an error of the press for líi/thmus Nostratis, intimat- 
ing that the Irish rules of concord or alliteration in the initial consonants are observed? 
(See O'Donovan's Grammar, p. 413, 414). Thus, ver. i has in, í'nsola, i^ibernia; 
ver, 2 has ostensus est, ho, m, m; ver. 3 has per, per, vi, vi ; ver. 4 has pre, pro, m, 
m, VI, and so on. 


St. Brigid the Mary ofthe Irish. 

In the MS. called the Leahhar Breac, preserved in the Library of thc Eoval Irish 
Academy, there is a panegyric or Life of St. Brigid, containing an abstract of her mira- 
cles, evidently drawn up from the Life which Colgan ascribes to St. Ultan. This piece, 
which, from its language, appears to be a production of not later than the tenth cen- 
tury, was obviously intended as a sort of sermon to be read to the people on the feast 

"* Tubarum suhlimis. — This is obscure. Colgan 
proposes to read, " Cum tuba subliinis," and explains 
itthus: • ' quasi sensus sit, quod iwtat intereessio- 
neni Beata Brigidae, cum resonab't tuba supremi 
Judicii." — Not. 83, p. 545. But coald it not mean 
" the sublime eclio of trumpets ?" A leamed friend 
suggeststhat "certa;," in line 10, ought to be casttp, 
used as a substantive in the sense of nrginis. Ile 
also propoács " turbarum limbis," for tubarum sub- 
limit, in ver. 13. 

» Same author Colgan savs, "IIuic carmini sub- 

scriptum reperio, quod sit ejusdem authoris, qui vitam 
praecedentem et hymnum composuit,'' — Note 82, 
p. 545. It is to be regretted that he did not give 
this suhscriptum just as he found it. We are to 
conclude, it is presumed, that thc MS. of St. Aut- 
bcrt's contains the hvmn Christus in tiostra, as well 
as the C'arme» ; but it would have been interesting 
to kno\v whcther tbis MS. had the supposititious 
stauzas, Audiíc, and Britjida saiicta. 


*S/. Br'ujid tlie Mary of the Trish. 


of St. Brigid. It contains, amongst otlier 
foUowing : — 

Ni poibe ciia nech ba nai|nu, na ba pcli 
int)ar ni noem 05 pm. Ni po msefcap piam 
a lama, nac a coppa, nac a cent), ecip pepaib. 
Ni po bpech bm, piam m ngnuip peppcali. 
Ni po labpa ecip cen loppi l)i. ba hain- 
cech, ba henbac, ba hepnebach, ba poic- 
nech, ba palit) 1 cimnaib t)e, ba cobpait), 
ba humal. bo t)il5et>ach t)epepcach. ba 
compa coipecapcha coimeca chuipp Cpipc. 
ba cempol De. ba pigpuit^e caipipme t)on 
ppipuc noeb a cpit>e ocup a menma. ba 
biuic ppi Dia. ba coppech t)o cposaib. 
ba hécpochc hi pepcaib. Ip aipe pin ipé 
a pamail ecip búlib, colum ecep énaib, 
pinemain Qzejx pebuib, gpian uappennaib. 

ISe a hacaip na noem oigipe, m cachaip 
nemt)a. Ipe a mac Ipu Cpipc, ipe a haice 
m Spipuc noeb. Conit) aipe pin t)0 gni m 
noem ospa na mipbuli mopa biaipmibe 
pi. IS hi popcaisepp t)a cec oen bip lii 
cumca ocup hi nsuapaclic. Ipi cpaechap 
na cebmanna, ip 1 coipnep connóoip ocup 
pep5 in mapa moip. Ipi peo ban caipngep- 
caig Cpipc. Ipi pi5an in t)eipceipc. Ipi 
llluipe na n^oebel. 

praises of lier innumerable virtues, the 

Thcre was not in existence one of more badifiil- 
ness aiid modestv than this holy Virgin. She nevor 
wa.shed her hands, or her feet, or her head, beforc 
nicn. She never looked a man in the face. Sln' 
never spoke without blushing. She was abstinent, 
nnblemished, praycrful, paticnt, joying in the com- 
mandments of God, bcnevolent, humbie, forgiving, 
charitable. She was a consecrated shrine for tlie 
liresen-ation of the Body of Christ. She was a 
Temple of God. Her heart and her mind were a 
resting throne for the Holy Spirit. She was meek 
before God. She was distre.ssed with the wretched. 
She was bright in miracle^. And hence it is that 
her tji)e among created things is the Dove among 
birds ; the Yine among trees ; and the Sun above 
the stars. 

Tlie Father of this holv Virgin was the Heavenlv 
Father ; her Son was Jesus Christ ; her tutor was 
the Ht>ly Spirit. And it was, therefore, that this 
holy Virgin performed those great innimierable 
miracles. It is she that relieves everj' one that is 
in dilliculty and m daiiger. It is she tliat restrains 
the roaring billows, aud the anger of the great sea. 
She is the prophesied woman of Christ. She is the 
Queen of the South. Slie is the Jlarv of the Gaeidhil. 

This panegjric is suíficiently extravagant: — that the Father of St. Brigid is the 
Heavenly Father; that her son is Jesus Christ; that she is the Queen of the South 
(see St. Matt. xii. 42) prophesied of by Christ; that she is the Mary of the Gaeidhil 
or Irish. But the language used iu some other authorities is stiU more strange, and 
seems at first sight to imply that she was the very Mother of Christ Herself, the same 
in form and feature, as if the B. V. Mary had reappeared on earth in the person of 
St. Brigid. Thus, in the third Life, ascribed to St. Ultan, and more at length in the 
Irish Life^, quoted by Colgan, we read : — That when she was quite a child, a certaiu 

f The Irish Life. — The fullowing is Colgan's ver- 
sion of this legend from his Irish Life ; — " Ita vita 
Hibernica S. BrigidíE, c. 12. Quodam die virgo 
quaedam Deo dicata venit ad Dubthacum petens ut 
St. Brigida secum proficisceretur ad quamdam sy- 
nodum Seniorum Lagcniensium congregatam in 

campo Liííe. Tunc in visione erat revelatum cui- 
dam Seniori, qui erat in Synodo, et vocabatur 11 i- 
bams, quod S. JMaria die sequenti erat ventura ad 
istam Svnodum, cujus et speciem et formam aliis 
prtenuntiavit. Sequenti ergo die et illa alia Virgo et 
Brigida venerunt ad Synodum qua; tunc congregata 

66 Tlie Ihjmn to St. Brhjid. [note b. 

holy virgln [or widow] obtained permission to take St. Brigid with lier to a Synod 
of the clergy of Luinstt'r, which was to be held at the place afterwards called Kildare. 
An aged saint, who was j^resent at the Synod, announced to the clcrgy that he had seen 
the B. V. Mary in a vision, and that on the foUowing day she would appear in the midst 
of them. Accorilingly, on the next day, St. Brigid and her companion arrived; and 
the aged saint, when he saw her, inimediately cried out, This is holy I\Iary, whom I 
saw last night in niy vision. " Then all the people gave praise to St. Brigid, on 
account of that name of Mary, which was then given her. And from thence she was 
called the Mary of the Irish." Or, as the author of the Third Life tells the story, — 
" Then the holy nian said, ' This is Mary whom I saw, for I plainly recognise her 
form.' Then all gave glory unto her. asbcing in the shape of Mary." " Tunc omnes 
gloriíicaverunt eam, quasi in typo Mariae"?. 

Here when it is said that Brigid was " in the type of Mary," the raeaning, perhaps, 
may be that she resembled in form and figure the Person of the Blessed Virgin; not 
that she was actually the Blessed Virgin, reappearing upon earth, but that, from the 
close resemblance of her features to those of Mary, and from her having been seen in 
the vision as Mary, and been called by the angel as " Holy Mary that dwells amongst 
you," she was saluted by the assembled Synod as Mary, and was thenceforth regarded 
as " the Mary of the Irish." 

And in like manner other panegyrics give her the attributes of the B. V. Mary ; 
for they call her "Mother of Christ," and " Mother of our Heavenly Lord." Thus, the 
ancient Irish Hymn*' attributed to St. Columkille, but by some to St. Ultan, has the 
following words : 

Do pot)ba innunn ayi colla cifu, Sbe annlliilates tlie sins of tlie flesh in iis — 

m chpoeb co mblachaib, m machaip Ipu, Tliis flowering Tree, this Mother of Jesus, 

int) ip 05 inTiiam co nopbbam abbail, Tlie perfect Virgin, beloved, of sublime dignity, 

biani poep cech mbail) lam noeb t)0 taisnib. I shall be saved at all times by my Leinster Saint. 

erat in loco qui postea Killdaria dicta est. Tunc Sanotus in Synodo donniens vidit visionem, et sur- 

ille sanctus, qui vidit visionem, cum videret Brigi- gens ait, Vidi Mariam, et quendam virum stantem 

(lam venientem, ait : ista est sancta Maria, quse cum ea, qui ait mihi, Pliec est sancta I^Iaria, quse ha- 

mihi hac nocte in visione praeostensa est. Totus bitat inter vos. Et cum híec vir Sanctus narrasset 

populus tunc extoUebat S. Brigidam propter nomen in Synodo, statim supen-enit vidua cuni S. Brigida. 

ilUid, quo ÍMsignita est, MariiB. Kt ab inde vocata Tunc \-ir Satictus dixit, Ilajc est Maria, quam \-idi : 

est Maria Ililjemorum." In the third Life, attri- quia fi)rinain iilius manifeste cognosco. Tunc onines 

huted to St Ultan, the story is told thus: — " lie- gloriticaverunt eani, quasi in tj-po Mariae." — cap. 14. 

ligiosa quaedam vidua in proximo vico habitans, The same story is given also in the Life or Pane- 

postulavit a patre ejus, ut S. Brigida secum iret ad gyric of St. Brigid in the Leabhar Breac. 

.Svnodum qiue collocta erat in canipo Liffi et a patre i^ Maruc. — Cap. 14 (7>. Thaum. p. 528). 

jwrmittitur. At illae egrcisa; suut viam. Tunc vir ^' Irísli IJymn. — This Hymn has been pub. 

NoTE B.] 

St. Brigid the Mary of the Irish. 


And so also St. Brogan Cloen, in his Irish poem', which Colgan has f^rintcd as 
the íirst Life : 

bpigic machcnp mo puTiech 
nuiie, placha peiip cinip. 

Brigit, inother of my Lord 

Of heaven, a Sovereign the best bom. 

In these passages Brigid is strangely spolcen of, not as resmJ/mí/ the Virgin Mary 
in feature, or even in purity and sanctity, but as partalíing with her, in some mystical 
sense, of the prerogative of being Mother of Jesus, "Mother of my Lord of heaven." 
Nevertheless, it is certain that the idea of a reappearance of Mary, in the person 
of St. Brigid, which Avould make them one and the same person, was not in the minds 
of these writers, notwithstanding the extravagance of their language ; for St. Brogan 
Cloen afterwards says : 

In caiUech -peibet) cujipech 
pop pciach ppia pebpa pe^i 
ni puap appec achc lllaipe 
Gt)muneinap mo bpigi. 

The veiled Virgin who drives over the CurrechJ 
Is a sliield against sharp weapons ; 
None was found her eqiial, except Mary, 
Let us put our trust in my strength. 

In the last line there is a play upon the name of St. Brigid, and the Irish word 
ͻr2^/, strength. Andagain: 

Cach po chuala cach po sab, 
po be bennachc bpigce paip, 
bennachc bpisce ocup De, 
pop bon pabac immalle. 

pail t)i chaiUij ippicheb, 
no chopnagup t)om t)ichiU, 
Tnaipe "I pancc bpigic, 
pop apoeppam bun biblinaib. 

Every one that hears, every one that repeats [thispoem], 
The blessing of Brigid be on him ; 
The blessing of Brigid and of God 
Be upon them that recite it together. 

There are two Virgins'* in heaven, 

Who will not give me a forgetful protection, 

Mary, and Saint Brigid, 

Under the protection of them both may we remain. 

Here it is clear that Mary and Brigid are spoken of as two distinct beings, and the 
notion of a reappearance of the former in the person of the latter is excluded. 

The words of the supposed first stanza of the Hymn iu the text (taking the cor- 

lished in a Latin version by Colgan (Tr. Th. 
p. 606, n. 23). It occurs in the Liber IIymnoruin, 
p. 32, from which it is here cited. The Scholiast 
in the Preface states, that St. Columkille is supposed 
to be the author, but he adds, " or it was Ultan of 
Ardbreccan who made this Hymn." 

* Irish poem — This poem occurs in the Liber 
Hi/mnorum, p. 33. I have made the quotations 
from the original, as Colgan's text is fuU of typo- 
graphical errors. 

JJ7ie Currech. — i. e. the Curragh of Rildare. 
The schoUast in a gloss on this word says, " cup- 
pech a cursu equorum dictus est ;" a curious proof 
of the antiquity of its use as a race-course : to which, 
perhaps, some allusion may be intended in the de- 
scription of St. Brigid, as " the Nun (or veiled 
virgin) who drives over the Currech." 

'' Two Virgins. — The word caiUech, here used. 
signifies a veiled or consecrated virgin, a uun, de- 
rived probably froni the LatLu cucullus. 


68 The Ihjninto St. Brujid. [Notk «. 

rected ri-adiiig o( autnmata, for aut amaía) are also remnrlcable : Christi matrem se spopon- 
ilit ; '* she promised, or pledged herself to be Christ's mother, and niade herself so 
by words und decds, Brigid, who is esteenied the Queen of the true God." The Hymn 
itself, bowever (v. 8), is content with the statement that she was a Virgin like to Holy 
MarVi " Mariaí sancta; similem." 

Our Lord has said (St. Matt. xii. 50) that ■whosoever shall do the will of God, " the 
same is His brother, and sister and mother" and this perhaps may be all that is meant 
by St. Brigid's pledging herself to be the Mother of Christ, and mahing herstlf so by 
words and deeds. Colgan explains it thus {Tr. Thaum., p. 622): " Quod a tempore 
juventutis sua; Christum in suo pectore gestabat : nam non solum omnes suas actiones 
in Deum referebat, sed et simul continua nientis elevatione et absque ulla intermis- 
sione, fixa in eum intentione ferebatur. Et hanc esse causam indicat S. Ultanus loco 
proxime citato, dicens, Christi matrem se spopondit, dictis atqve factis fecit." So that, 
according to this explanation, she who by continual elevation of mind, and fixed in- 
tention, Ueeps her thoughts ever upon Christ, may be said to travail with Christ, 
and figuratively to be the Mother of Christ, and so to be, as it were, another Mary. 

This latter prerogative of St. Brigid, to be the Mary of the Irish, Colgan interprets 
thus: "Quod majori fuerit in houore et veneratione apud Hibernos, quam ulla alia 
sancta post beatissimam Virginem Matrem: seu quasi suppari veneratione cum ipsa 
Dei Genitrice." This is certainly softening the matter as much as possible, seeing 
that the ancient authorities place her on an equality with the Blessed Virgin, 
giving to her also the seemingly incommunicable title of Dei Genetrix, and the 
still more unusual one of " Queen of the true God." And, moreover, they state ex- 
pressly that she was called the Mary of the Irish, and recognised as such by an assem- 
bled Synod, in consequence of her personal resemblance to the B. Virgin Mary, whilst 
still a child, and therefore before she was known to the Irish people, or could have 
received any honour or veneration from them'. 

It is curious that the story of theSynod, in a somewhat niodified form, is retained 
in an Oííice"' of St. Brigid, printiíd atParis so late as 1622. In this Office, as reprinted 
by Colgan (App. i. p. 600), the following is part of Lectio v. : 

" Religiosa quíedam faemina postulavit a Patre sua, ut S. Brigida secura exiret ad SjTiodum quse col- 
lecta erat in Campo LiffxM, et a patrc permittitur. Tuiic rir quidam sanctus in Sjniodo domiiens ^idit 
visiouem et surgcns ait, lla'c altera Maria" quaj habitat inter nos.' 

1 yrom them. — See some leamed and curious re- Antiphonarj' of ClondalRin, a MS. of the fourteenth 

n>arks on this subject in Mr. Ilerbcit's Cyclopii century, preserved in the Libran- of Trinity Collegc, 

Christianiis. p. I13 sq., p. 137, p. 141-2. Dublin, B. i. 3. 

'"Aii ojfice 'Hiis Oflice, with some minor vn- " Herc altera Maria. — In the tliird Life the lan- 

ríation«, occuríi, with fuU musical notation, in the guage is: "ILvcesl Maria (without the explanatory 

NoTK 15.] St Brigid the Mary of tlie Irish. 69 

" Jlespon. Virgo acportatur, honor ci amplius cuiuulatur: Synodus instabat, nova Brigida stella inica- 
bat. Sacra cohors plaudit, quia sipuiin crelitus audit. 

" Vers. Pra;sbyter hanc aliam dcnuntiat esse Mariani. Sacra cohors plaudit." 

In the same Office thcre is a hj'mn, of which the first two stanzas are manifestly 
a paraphrase of the verses Christus in nostra insula. They are as follows : 

Christo canaraus gloriam, 
Qui per beatam Brigidam 
Decoravit Hibemiam, 
Vitam dans ejiis lucidam. 

Haec speculum munditiae, 
Quse mundo late clarmt, 
Haec rosa temperantise 
Cujus rá-tus non languit. 

The following Table may throw some light on this subject. It is prefixed to the 
MS. Martyrology of Tamhlacht, preserved in the Burgundian Librarj at Brussels, 

Hi sunt sancti qui erant unius moris et vitse, ut dicunt : — 

Johannes Baptista, Episcopus Ibair. 

Petrus Apostolus, Patricius". 

Paulus Apostolus, Finiian Cluana-liiraird. 

Andreas A., Colum-cille. 

Jacobus A., Finnian Mhuighe-bile. 

Johannes A., Ciaran Cluana. 

PilipusA., Cainneac. 

Bartolomeus A., Brendinus senior. 

Tomas A., Brenainn Cluana ferta. 

Matheus A., Colum Tire da glas. 

Jacobus A., Comgall Bennchair. 

alteru) quíc habitat inter vos :" and these are there persons of Mary and Brigid. It will be observed, 

"iven as the words, not of the saint wlio saw the however, that this extravagance is avoided in the 

vision, but of the angel seen in the vision, who stood Ofiice printed in 1622. 

with the Virgin Mary, and said, not of St. Brigid, " Patricius. — St.Patrickis compared to St. Peter 

but of the B. V. Mary herself, " Haec est Maria quaj in the Hymn of St. Sechnall, line 10, p. 1 2 svpr., 

habitat intcr vos :" thus strangeh' confounding the but elsewhere to Moses; see l'it. Trip. lib. i. c. 37. 

7© The ITymn to St. Drigid. [Not«b. 

Simon A., Molaisi Daimh-insi. 

Tatheus A., Sinchcllus junior. 

Mathias A., Uuadhan Lutlira. 

María, Brigita. 

Martinus, Caemligin Glinni da ladia. 

Antonius monachus, í'eichin Fobbair. 

Augustinus sapiens, Lonngaradh. 

Ambrocius ImnodicusP Mac indecis. 

Job patiens, Munna mac Tulcaiu. 

Jeronimus sapiens, Manchan Leith. 

Clemens Papa, Ciaran Saighre. 

Grigorius Moralium'), Cummini Fota. 

Laurtius [«c] diaconus, Decoin Nesan. 

Beda sapiens, ... Buite niac Bronaigb. 

Ilarius episcopus et sapiens, Sechnall episcopus. 

CorneHus Papa, Maedog Fema. 

Silvester Papa, Adamnan episcopus. 

Bonifacius P., Molaisi Lethglinne. 

Paucomius monachus, Caimin Innsi-cealtra. 

Benedictus caput monachorum Europae, . . . Fintan Cluana eidnech, caput monachorum 

totius Iliberniae. 

Augustinus episcopusAngaloram [«íc], . . . Bairre epjscopus Mumhain agus Conacht 

It wiU be seen that in this parallelism Mary and Brigid go together, as being 
" unius moris et vitae;" but this is a very different idea from thatwhich made Brigid 
the Mary of the Irish, and in some mystical sense a GeoTo/L-os. 

The Editor forbears to make any remarks on the foregoing list, as it would carry 
him too far from the present subject, but opportunities may occur of referring to it 
hereafter; and (as it has never before been published) he thinks it desirable to pre- 
serve it here. 

p Imnodicus i. e. Ilvmnodicus, so called from of the Libri Moralium, or Exposition of the Book of 

his having composed several IIymns. Job. 

1 Moralium. — i. e. Pope Gregorj' the Great, author 

( 7^ ) 


THIS Hjmn in praise of tlie Apostles and Evangelists has never before been 
printed. The historical Preface of the scholiast contains full information 
respecting its author, St. Cummain Fota, or TheTall, whodied a. d. 66 1, and 
it is therefore unnecessary to say more of him here, except that he appears 
to have had a high reputation íbr learning. The Four Masters (at a. d. 661) 
quote a Rann, or short poem, composed on the death of St. Cummam, in 
Avhich he is said to have been the only Irishman qualified to sit in the chair of 
St. Gregory ; and in the parallel between the European and Irish saints (see last 
page), he is also compared to St. Gregory the Great. 

The ílymn bears evident marks of the high antiquity claimed for it ; and 
there seem no reasonable grounds for doubting its authenticity. It is ac- 
companied by a gloss and schoha, which are given under the text, or in the 

The Twelve Apostles are enumerated in the same order in which they occur 
in the teuth chapter of St. Matthew, except that St. Paid is insertcd imme- 
diately after St. Peter, and Madianus, or Matthias, substituted for Judas 
Iscariot. The two Evangelists, SS. Markand Luke, who were not Apostles, 
are then introduced ; after whom come St. Patrick, and the Protomai-tyr St. 

The Hyran consists of stanzas of two lines which have rhymes or asso- 
nances in the last syllable. Each line consists of twelve syllables, and Alleluia 
is rcpeated after each stanza or disticli. Some few exceptions to these rules 
which occur are mentioned in the notes. 

A translation of the scholiast's Preface, with sorae remarhs and ilhistra- 
tions, will be found in the iVdditional Notes. 

CCtchRa niOa. Cunimaini poca mac pioclma pi laTimuman ille pecic hunc <jmnum, t 
m Cunmiam f m pe m^em bo ponai piachna he, cpe mercai, t mceppojauic piann, cuich 
pil ocuc, 1 t)i;cic cuí, 1 l)i;tic pacep, opopcec mopi, ica piac, ap int) msen. Sei» 
tpianrjo nacup epc, t)0 chill lce buccup epc, -\ ibi peliccup epc pop benn chpoippe hi 
cummam bic, inOe biccup epc Commain, i ibibem nucpicup ac boccup epc, i m pepp 
can t)o canbiu, t)onec uemc macep eiup tío uipicant)um eum ob t>onium abbnrip 
lcae, apcicebponi commemc t)o piOe. Co camc la ant) t)on cis, i ni pabai comopba lce 
ipup, T pocum popculauic, -| macep pua bebic ei pmum abbacipe Do ol 0151 app, co 
neppib t)i5 app, co po chaipis comapba lce puippipe cabaipc m ballam bo, conit) nnt) 
pein acpubaipc pe, 

Ua pachaió [na pachaij], 
ce bo bep t)i5 bom bpachaip. 

ip mac piachna, ip hua piachna, 
ip insen piachna a machaip. 

T?o les lappein 1 Copcai^ cop bo pui. Llenic aucem popcea ab pocpem -| at) pacpiam 
.1. co heusanachc lacha lem. Qc bepit» cpa cach ba copmail Cummain bo piachna. 
int)e niTic 

Mi 56 bam ci apbiup, 
ip pocup ap pial ap cpiup, 
ip mo penuchaip m'achaip, 
mo machaip ipi mo piup 

TTIa po genaip mai6 be ulc, 
ip meppe ab pemechait), 
mo piap ipi mo machaip, 
m'achaip ipe mo penachaip. 

Ip pocup in caplonnut), 

am oapa bo mdchappo 

lichip cit) mo mtíchaippe 

pop bpachaip bo bpachappe. 

popcpo pem a lachna, 

ap cupu pem bpachaip bo bparhap. 

Dom apaiU caipbep po bi, 
bo pil piaclipach 5aippiTitii, 
pech ip oa, ip mac bo, 
m ci Cummame b'iachno. 

Cunc piachna pilium Commame cppe, ■) ippe pein bo ponai in immunpa, -| ipe 

pach a benma Cummam bo cliuait» immunism apopcolop co coempat) Domnall mac 
Oeba mic ammepech coi bo chunsib bil^uba bia chmcaib, aj^ ni coemnacnip cena 
pemi, ap buipe a chpibe, -| ipe Cummam po po anmchapa bo. ap bo chuap o DomnaU 
co CoUumciUe bo lappaisib bo cia no sebab bo anmchapaic, no in pe^ab cucipom 
pein paip, unbe bip:ic CoUumciUe, 

In pui bo poisa anbep, 
ip ocai po seba a lep, 

bo bcpa cummam co a cech, 
bo hu alainb anmepech. 

-\ ipc Cummoin po chcpcanab onn pein. 

Hymnus S. Cuminei Loncji. 


IN can imoTiTio t)o cliunil) Commain bo pif f cel Domnaill lap hbenam inb immuin, 
if ann po boi Oomnall ocoi a cliinub ipin C15. Cunc bi;cic Commain, 1n nora, ipl. -] ip 
ann pein po lo be in mbpac copcpa po boi capaip .1. bpac bo ponai a machaip bo 
.1. lann. Cunc bipcic Commain, 

Qpipen, [apipenj emib Domnall e na gab 

na cham peilcepa, pem chail, bpaccan lainne pinne paip. 

Ip aipe t)o chuait) immuingin apopcolop, ■) bo ponai Oomnall coi a chinab lappen 
conepbaipc Cummame, 

In nopa, [in nopa] ipe a po in po call 

po picip Domnall pij ópa .1. Dia uapa ni pe a po in po-pa 

In cempope aucem Domnaill meic Qeba meic Qinmepech bo ponab. Cpe pichim 
umoppo pecic, i ba line cech caibcil, 1 ba piUaba bec cech line. pop canoin pacha 
no pochaiset), Celebpa luba pepciuicacep cuop. 1 nDaipe Calcais bo ponat» in 

GLGbRQ luDQ pescQ cIitíisci squdig 
aposcuLoRinn e;cuLcaNS nieTíiORia 


Lauiculaui pecRi pRinii pasconis 
j pisciuTTi Tíece euaNselii capcoT?is 


Gloss. — I. Celebra. — .i. prsedica. Juda. — .i. confessio, vel íecclesia, necessitas 
metri cuc punt) luba pech luOea [the necessitj of the metre has put Juda here 
instead of JudeaJ. 2. Apostulorum. — .i. misonun. Memoria. — ab. 

V 3. Claviculari. — Over thisword, run- 
^-^ ning down the margin of the MS,, is 
the following note : — ".i. Subauditur 
hic exultans memoria. Unde diriuatur hoc 
nomen on bi ap clauip, clauicula uat)- 
pit)e, pip pappit)e cont)enant) clauicu- 
lapip, up paippioe -\ p. oe, conoenano 
clauiculapiup be, -] ip cubaiO a pail 
hic, quia dixit Christus Tu es Petrus, et 
super hanc petram edificabo fficlesiam 
meam et tibi dabo claues regni celo- 
rum. Petrus agnoscens [dicitur], eo quod 

Christum agnovit, quando interrogauit 
Christus de Petro, Quem vos me dicitis 
esse, et dixit ei, Tu es Christus filius Dei 
uiui. Simon aliud nomen est Petro, quod 
interpretatur oboedieus, [eo quod] oboe- 
diuit Christo usque ad mortem, mortem 
autem crucis; vel desoluens interpreta- 
tur, eo quod desoluebat reos a penis. Pe- 
trus et Andreas et Pilippus ex una ciui- 
tate que uocatur Bezaida fuerunt, et hi 
prirai ex omnibus apostolis Deo credide- 
ruut." It is unnecessary to give any 


Hi/mnus S. Ctiminei Longi. 

niili 5ctiriiim csrjcsi pneccpcoT^is 
iiasis clccri iSTíahcLis scininis 


iiDRcac arqiic pnccaniuR esRcsia 


])asi ]mo cliRisci piDc aDuocaniiNa 

cobicfue coNsobRiMi ooTniNi 
pRcccs aDiuucNC iN scammace seculi 



alleluia lo 

Gloss. — 8. Aduocamina. — .1. na cosapTTiQTiTia Tio na popcachca [the invocations, or the assis- 
tances]. lo. Scammate. — .1. ip int) poi, no ip inl) epsail [i. e. in the field, or in the batlie]. 

translation of this note, except to say that 
the passage which is in Irish tells us 
that clavicularius is derived " frora the 
word clavis; from 'which comes clavicula ; 
from which, by the addition of m, is made 
clavicularis ; from which, by adding us, and 
taking away s, is formed Clavicularius ; 
and that this is the word here used." 
Clavictjlari, therefore, in the text, is for 
clavicularii, the bearer of the keys. St. 
Clement is called " ccelestis clavicularii 
primus successor," by St, Aldhelm, De 
laude Virginit. n. 25 (ed. Giles, p. 27). 
The signiíications given to the namePeírwí 
will be found in the tract attributed to 
St. Jerome, De nominíbus Hebraicis (in 
Act.), wbere Petrus is explained " cogno- 
scens sive dissolvens." The same work is 
also the source of the gloss over the words 
Juda and apostulorum in the text, and of 
the similar explanations of proper names 
which the author of these scholia has gi ven. 

4. Evangelii. — This word must be read 
Evangel-ji, as four syllables. 

5. Pauli. — "Wehaveherethe note, "Pau- 
lu8, humilis, velmitis: ex tribu Beniamin 
ortus est, nutritus uero in Tarso Ciliciíc." 

6. Vasis electi. — Alluding to Act. ix. 
15, and Phil. iii. 5. 

7. Andrece. — On this word there is this 
note, " .i. virilis interpretatur : Cruce 
item pasus est." Pasus for passus. 

8. Alleluia. — Ontheuppermargin of the 
page (p. 6 of the MS.), there is a note on al- 
leluia, thebeginning and end of which have 
been cut off by the binder. AU that now 
remains legible is as follows : " . . . ebraice 
interpretatur Laudate Dominum, vel Láus 
tibi Domine, vel, Saluum me fac Domine. 
Moises primus usus est alleluia, decantans 
contra Amalech in deserto, extensis mani- 
bus ad celum a mane usque ad uesperam, 
et sic deletus est Amalech a filiis Israel ; et 
postea [David] decantauit apud ebreos 
aileluia, causa timoris uidens bestiam in 
Tabor et Hermon, et iterum propter ti- 
morem Abisolon filii sui cantauit . . . ." 

9. Jacohi. — We find here the foUowing 
note: ".i. Zebedei filius, qui subplantator 
vitiorum. Gladio occisus est sub Herode 
tetrarcha, qui primus apostolorum pasus 
est." In the Interpr. nominum Hebrai- 
corum, Jacohus is interpreted "supplan- 
tator" ODly. In this line Jacobi must be 

IIymnus S. Cuminei Longi. 

i/^lmNNis sacni clecci cib iiipaMcia 

cfiii accumbebac spoNsi inccr ubena 

/^nis lainpat)is elocfucNcis piLippi 

opem ORemus príoLe cum ]3crui5iLi 


aRCholomei impeNOamiis Nucibus 
Naci pcNDCNCis acc[uona in Nubibus 






Gloss. — 12. Accumhehat. — .i. in Chaiman Galileas. Sponsi. — i. Christi. 13. Oris lampadis. — .i. os 
lampadis iiiterpretatur .1. ap a heolcha 1 ap eba paeplabpa [because of his skil], and because he 
was of noble speech]. 14. Oremtis. — .i. iii prece. Prole. — .i. tres tilias habuit profetantes in novo tes- 
tamento. 15. Bartholomei. — .i. íilius suspendentis aquas intei'pretatur. Impendamus. — .1. epnem 
ppecep [make prayers]. Nutibus. — .i. potestatibus. 

read as of íbur syllables. 

10. Scammate The arena in wbicla 

gladiators fought, so called from theGreek 
á/cttTTTw, because it was surrounded by a 
fosse. So Isidore, in Glossar. " Scammata, 
areníE ubi athletae luctantur." Tertullian 
says, Ad Mart. c. iii. : " Itaque epistates ves- 
ter Christus Jesus, qui vos spiritu unxit et 
ad hoc scamraa produxit;" and the word 
is frequently applied to the Christian's 
conflict with the world, as by St. Aldhelm, 
"Sed liciorum filis flamma combustis, ath- 
letas Dei, in scammate mundi ritu pales- 
trico agonizantes, a fumigabundis flamma- 
rum globis immunes divina tutela pro- 
texit." — De laud Virginit. n. 36 (ed. Giles, 
p. 48). See also Du Cange, in voc. 

11. Johannis. — Over this word is the 
following note : " .i. gratia Dei, vel in 
quo gratia interpretatur. Sub[intellige] 
adiuvent preces. Hic solus ex omnibus 
discipulis evasit sine martirio e seculo, et 
dormivit in pace." Infantia. — This word 
is to be read infant-ja, as a trisyllable. 

12. Accumhebat — The gloss over this 

word says, "i. in ChannanGalileaí," allud- 
ing to the tradition that St. John was the 
bridegroom at the marriage of Cana in Ga- 
lilee. See Baronius, Annal. a. D. 3 1, n. 30. 
But the allusion of the text seems rather 
to be to St. John, xiii. 23. In the left- 
hand margin is this note — "Matres Jacobi 
et Johannis apostoli Ihu sorores fuerunt, 
unde consubrini Domini dicti sunt." 

13. Pilippi. — Herewe have the note — 
".1. pilippi, tiecoin pein, -\ ipe pein apmep 
Ciinimain inter apostolos [i. e. this waa 
Philip the deacon, and it is he that Cum- 
main numbers among the Apostles] qui 
[in Hiera] polis civitate sepultus est, in- 
certum est autem utrum gladio an cruce 
occisus est." 

14. Prole — The gloss says that he had 
three daughters, but in Act. xxi. 9, we read 
that he had four. This is the old confusion 
between Philip the Evangelist and Philip 
the Apostle, the latter of whom is said to 
have had three daughters, and to have 
been buried with two of theto at Hiera- 
polis. See Euseb. Hist. Eccl. lib. iii. c. 3 1, 



Hymnus S. Cuminei Longi. 


omae ceNOeNns pances it^ren pancliiae 
Nos illumiNec ab<:^ssus scieNcic 

ar)ici giiogue piscali a muNcne 

ooNari ;cpm sequeNcis pnepnoperie 

/^^cc(i]c iciocm lacobi comiNus 

^ pRcccm pccamus subNi;ci alcenius 


alleluia lo 


Gloss. — 17. Parthia. — Parthia nomen [regionis] in oriente, 19. Mathei. — .i. donatus gratia inter- 
pretator. Quoque. — Subintellige petamus precem. 21. Jacobi. — .i. Alphei. Cominm. — .1. cmblUl) 
paip ppipin lacob coipech [i. e. he is to be distinguished from the former James]. 

and V. c. 24, cum Valesii aunott. Ba- 
ron. in Marí^rol. Rom. ad 1 Maii. The 
scholiast was clearly mistaUen when he 
interprets this verse of Philip the deacon; 
for it is evident that the author of the 
Hymn intended Philip the Apostle, inas- 
much as the order of the names (if we al- 
low for the insertion of St. Paul next after 
St. Peter) is identical with that in which 
the Apostles are enumerated, St. Matt. 
X., Madianus (i. e. Matthias) being sub- 
stituted for Judas Iscariot. Nevertheless, 
the description, " Os lampadis eloqttens 
Philippus," seems to designate the dea- 
con, ofwhom St. Augustine says, "Prop- 
ter promptum prffidicationis eloquium, 
evangelista proprie meruit appellari." — 
Serm. 266, n. 4 {Ed. Bened.). The absurd 
interpretation of the name Philip as sig- 
nifying T*Db""'D, os lampadis, is found in 
the Interpr. nominum Ilebr. {in S. Marc). 
15. Bartholomei. — The interpretation 
of this name in the gloss occurs also in the 
tract De nomin. Ilebr. {inAct.). The roots 
intended are "Q filius, n\r\ suspendit, 
and "D aqua. 

16, Nati pendentis. — The foregoing in- 
terpretation of the name is here evidently 
alluded to. Over this line is the note — " .1 
Tnact)e lap pip apcap na upcioe ip na 
nelaib. 1 ce na upciOe lap pianp, na pop- 
cecla. lce ip int) niul in popceclaiDe 
[i. e. the Son of God of a truth is He that 
retains the waters in the clouds. The 
waters, according to the mystical mean- 
ing, are the instruction. The clouds are 
the teachers]. Hic gladio occisus est." 

1 7. Tomae. — Herewehave thefollowing 
note: — " i. qui dicitur Didimus; abisus 
scientiaj interpretatur. Gladio occisus est, 
et corpus eius in Edisa ciuitate est." The 
De nomin. Ilebr. {S. Matt.) has " Thomas, 
abyssus, vel geminus, unde et Gra;ce Di- 
dymus appellatur." Cinn is evidently 
the Hebrew origin here assumed; but 
where did our Irish scholiast get abyssus 
scientio:? Did he intend to make the ter- 
mination 05 ideutical with the Celtic piop, 
Isnowledge, science? The true root is 
DSn, geminus, gemellus, and A/ci;/io9 is no 
more than a Greek translation of the name. 
ParthioE. — See Euseb. iii. c. 1. Clemeut. 

Hij'ninus S. Cuminei Longi. 

r— acliei coca pamosi pen cellijua 
^ ab5ono ttiisi iFiu cum episcoCa. 




imoNis Dicci suapce caNNaNei 
scolain qui ciN^nc asNi Dei saNSUiNe 

ORce pReelecci maOiaNi ineRicis 
sici LocemuR celoRUTn lu eoicis 





Qlqss 23 Taí^ei.— .i. cultor cordis interpretatur : idem et Judas frater Jacobi Alphei. 24. Ab- 

goro — 1 t)m 25. Simonis.—.i. obediens interprctatur. Suapte.—.i. in sua regione vel sua civitate -i 
PiUaba popcopmaiS hi copp [and it adds a syllable in the text]. Cannanei.—.i. stelua interpretatur, 
et a Channa vico dictus est, [ubi] Christus aquam in vinum convertit. 26. Ttnxit.—.i. carnem suam 
in passionem Christi tinxit. 27. Sorte.—.i. in locum Jude. Madiani.—.i. donum Dei, vel judicium 
Dei interpretatur. 28. Siti. — i. positi. Xocemur.— .1. conoTionolcaíi [so that we may be congregated]. 
Editis. — .i. in templis, .i. in secretis, .L in excelsis, vel in celis. 

Recogn. ix. c. 29, and the notes of Cotele- 

19. Fiscali. — Here we have the follow- 
ing note:— ".1. in Tiiainchipca [the trea- 
sure chest] quia íiscus inuenitur .1. cip 
[rent or tribute] fiscalis, vel fiscalis cista, 
no pet)a cipca .1. iccobuc cipa t>o P15 
in Gomuin 110 bit) [or a wooden chest, 
i. e. he used to be collecting tribute for the 
kingof the world]." The RomanEmperor 
was called " King of the World" by the 

21. Cominus. — This line is a sjllable 
short, unltíss we make La-co-bi four syl- 
lables, as it is in v. 9. The meaning seems 
to be, " Let us ask for the prayer of James, 
to be near at hand to us, aided by the 
prayer of the other James." After the 
word comivus, on the same line is the gloss 
1. ;cpo. which would seem to intend, 
" James who is near to Christ." 

22. Suhnixi. — The scholiast here says: 
".i.Debenchu canic coCpipc quam pre- 
dictus, -\ puno po gabcha in Inepupalem 

[i. e. he came later to Christ than the 
aforesaid, and it was then he was elevated 
in Jerusalem] :" that is, James the Less 
was called to the apostleship later than 
James son of Zebedee, and afterwards 
became Bishop of Jerusalem. 

23. Tellura. — The note over this word 
is obscure. "i.capp na huillib calman- 
naib, ap pen cpa peb no pcpibenn -| pic 

ecce pep cellupa .i. pupa [i. e. 

through all lands, for this is the manner 
in which it is written, et sic . . . . ecte 
per tellura, i. e. rura]." The first few 
letters of the word ending . . . ecte are 

24. Ahgoro. — Over this word is the 
gloss .1. ban [i. e. bold, valiant]. It is well 
known that Agbarus, or Abgarus, was not 
a proper name, but the common title of 
all the Kings of Edessa, from the Arabic 
akhar, great. Epistola. — Overthis word is 
thenote ".i. beatus es [the two first words 
of the Epistle to Abgarus]. Nescimus qua 
morte mortuus est." lu the margin is the 

78 Hijmnus S. Cuminei Longi. 

anci c,tcclsi inaNDara iiisrinae 



aiuiuHciaNCis ;ci)iii ala;canDniac 

pDici iicni liicac ciiaTiscligac 
iil^mmi sccfiicNCis iiiRSitiali hononc 


ariíici parríis obsccRcmus TncRica 
iir Dco DiSNa pcRpccRcmus opena 

alleluia 3° 



GLosg. 20. Marci. — ^íarcus excelsus interpretatur : subintellige petamus opem. 30. Annuntxantis. 

.i. predicantis. Alaxandriae. — .i. adverbiiun. 31. Luca. — .i. ipse consurgens intcrpretatur. 32. Vir- 

ginali. .i. quia virgo fuit. Ilic Sirus natione. 33. Patris. — .i. nostrL 

foUowing note :— " Errat hic Cummain quia 
Tatheus portavit epistolam ad Abgarum. 
Sed Annanias cursor ac servus Abgari por- 
tavit et reportavit. Et ipse Tatheus pos- 
tea predicavit ei fidem .i. Abgaro, ut his- 
toria ecclesiastica narrat." This is no 
doubt a reference to Eusebius, where in 
Ruffinus's version, the letter of Abgarus 
is said to have been sent to Jerusalem, 
•' per Ananiam cursorem" — 01" 'Avavi'a 
raxvcpó^ov. — Hist. Eccl. i. 13. 

25. Suapte. — The gloss on this word 
e.xplains it to mean, " in sua regione, vel 
8ua civitate," and adds, " that there is a 
syllable too much in the verse ;" for that 
seems to be the meaning. From this I 
conclude that the scholiast must have read 
sua paiie, which would give a sjUable too 
much, unless we pronounced srta as a mo- 
nos}llable ; suajHe does not seem very 
intelligible. Cannanei. — The gloss on this 
word gives stelus (i. e. zelm), ns the inter- 
pretation of this name, and states also that 
Simon was so called from Caiia of Galilee. 
In this the scholiast foUows St. Jerome, 
who, inhis Commentary on St.Mutt. x. 3, 

says: " Primus scribitur Simon, cogno- 
mento Petrus, ad distinctionem alterius 
Simonis, qui appellatur Chananaeus, de 
vico Chana Galila:a;, ubi aquam Dominus 
in vinum vertit;" and on ver. 4, he says, 
" Chana quippe zelus interpretatur." See 
also Theodoret. in Psal. Ixvii. 28. 

27. Madiani. — In the gloss on this word 
Mathias is interpreted donum Dei, quasi 
n"'"'jní3, and so Mattheus is interpreted 
Donatus above, v. 20, and Gloss v. 19. 
Hesychius explains it cecifpijucvo^. Tbe 
other interpretation, "vel judicium," ap- 
pears to be founded upon the spelling Ma- 
dianus., as if from the Ilebrew )M^. In 
St. Jerome's Interpr. nomin. Ihhr. (in 
Act.), we have, "Madian, in judicio, vel ex 
judicio," which must be intended for Mat- 
thias the Apostle. In this line we must read 
Madiani as three syllables — Mad-ja-ni. 

30. Alexandrice. — Euseb. llist. Eccl. ii. 

31. Evangeliza:. — L e. evangelistaj ; z for 
st. So Zcfaiii, ver. 35, for Stcphani; and 
in the Gloss. v. 25, steltts, for zelus. 

34. Ut Deo digna. — In the upper mar- 


Hu'mnus S. Cuminei Longi. 

QQNcci gepaNi pRinii acquc iTianciRis 
^ prjo iNiniicis ROsaNCis cum suspims 





0TÍU111 saNccorii.ini biua sepcini ualioa 
piauc prjo Nobis scucaca suppnasia 

uibus i^Nica DemoNum lacuLa 
posuNC e;cciN5i uc peR prjopusNacuia 




Gloss. — 35. Zefani. — .i. norma, ebreice ; coronatus, grcce, qui fuit primus martir novi testamenti 
post Christum. 36. liogantis — .i. clicentis, Domine Jesu ne statiias iUislioc in peccatum [cf. Act. vii. 60]. 
40, Per propvgnuculu.—.^. amal bib CTie eriinupu, no cpe cach cliacha [i. e. as it were by 
fortifications, or by battleraents]. 

gin of p. 7, in the MS., is a note, the be- 
ginning and end of which have been cut off 
by the binder. It does not appear to have 
any special reference to the Hymn, except 
as giving a reason for the primacy of St. 
Peter. AU that now remains of it is as 
follows : " . . magna . . . et spatiosa do- 
mus est atrium quia addantur ei .in. por- 
ticus extrinsecus, in boc diversitas .;c. 
apost. et Petrus est, illi fugiunt, quanquam 
procul tamen [ille] sequitur saluatorem, 
et ideo solus principatui eligitur. Amen 
dico uobis quecunque alligaueritis super 
terram erunt ligata et in celo etrl. ag. 
Hic ostenditur quod non potestas alligandi 
et soluendi datur Petro, sed peritia usque- 
quo sciat quis alligandus et solvendus . . " 
This is probably an extract from some 
ancient author. It would be interesting 
to discover from what author it is taken. 

36. Suspiris, for suspiriis. 

37. Bina septim Seventeensaintshave 

been named, viz. thirteen Apostles (in- 
cluding St. Paul),with two evangelists, St. 
Patrick, and St. Stephen. But the follow- 
inggloss, which occurs over the word sep- 

tiiíi, explains that the fourtcen saints here 
intended are the twelve Apostles, with St. 
Paul and St. Stephen, ".i. ;cim. in ba ap- 
pcal bec .i.paulup 1 Scepanup quaravis 
non sit apostolus, -| conabat) he Com- 
mame bo bepat) Plapcum -\ Lucam hic, 
no mapu he t)o pac ip .uiii. ualma ap 
maich aut) [i. xiv., viz. the twelve Apos- 
tles, with Paul, and Stephen, although he 
is not an Apostle. And it may have been 
Commain himself that inserted Mark and 
Luke here; and if it was he that inserted 
them, then octo valida would be the right 
reading in the text]." Here the scholiast 
intimates that the notices of Mark and 
Luke may have been interpolations since 
Cummain's time. But the mention of St. 
Patrick, v. 33, makes the number 17, not 
16, and therefore the proposed reading 
of bina octo, for bina septem, does not re- 
move the difficulty. May it not be that 
the twice seven are the fourteen Apostles, 
viz. the Twelve, St.Paul, and St. Patrick? 
In the versicle at the end, SS. Peter, 
Paul, and Patrick, are mentioned as the 
chief Apostles. 


Ilijmnus S. Cuminei Longi 

T"|.-iiiinara cfiio pcnamiis pcccoT?a 

■ ■ ' nc5i rjcsiianci ab acuo in secula 



lonia pacRi acqiic uhiscnico 
siiiiul RcsnaNci spmicu cum a^io 



iimis hononaci sunc amici cui Deus 
nimis conpoRcacus esc pRincipacus eonum 

celcbna luDa pesca chrjisci sauDia aposcoLoRum 



6p:auDi nop oeup pep mepira apopcolopum opcima 

uc Deleancup peppima nopcpa peccaua plupima 
Pep mepica ec ojiacionep mcepceppionepque 

pancci pecpi ~\ pauli -] pacpicii "] cecepopum 

apopcolopum ac mapcipum omnium 

panccopum ppopiciecup nobip oominup. 

Gloss. — 41. Quo. — Co. 42. Ah eevo. — .i. a principio. 44. Cum agio. — .i. cum sancto, qui agius 
grece sanctus latine dicitur, ut agiographa, .i. sancta scriptura. 45. Honorati. — ,i. ab oruuibus. Amici. 
— amicus dictus est quasi anirai sequus, qui sequalis nobis voluntate coniungitur. 46. Confortatiis. — .i. 
bonis operibus. Eorum. — .i. apostolorum. 

39. lacula. — This word is here of four 
syliables — i-a-cu-la. 

41 Cluo. — Over this word is the gloss 
co, "in order that." 

45. Nimis honorati. — This verse seems 
to have been regarded as a part of the 
Hymn by the transcriber of the MS., as 
appears by his having repeated the first 
iine of the Hymn immediately after it, 
according to a custom already noticed. 
See note, p- 23 supra. It is, however, 
Ps. cxxxviii. 17, with the reading hono- 
rati for honorificati. The absence of the 

metre proves that it was not intended by 
the author as a part of the Hymn. 

Exaudi nos. — This is an Antiphona to 
be recited after the Hymn; it is evidently 
in a rude rhyme. Then follows another 
Antiphon, Prayer, or Collect, in which, 
as already observed, " SS. Peter, Paul, 
and Patrick, and the other Apostles," are 
mentioned together. It is probable that 
we ought to read "et omnium sanctorum," 
or"omniumque sanctorum." Both these 
versicles are in a different character, al- 
though from the pen of the original scribe. 

( 8i ) 



The Schoh'asfs Freface. 

rt'MiE following is a llteral translation of the Preface. The scraps of Latin which the 

JL writer, according to the general practice of Irish ecclesiastics, mixes up with his 

vernacular Gaelic, are also translated, in order that the wholemay read more smoothlj : — 

Celebra Juda. Cummain Fota [tlie Tall], son of Fiachna, King of West Munster, he it was that 
composecl this Hvmn. And this Cummain, it was by his own daughter that Fiachna had him, through a 
fit of di-unkenness^. And he questioned [his daughter] Flann, [sayiug] By whom have you him ? and 
she said, He is thine. And the father said, He ought to die. Be it so, said the daughter. But when he 
was bom, he was brought to Cill Ita [^noio Killeedy], and Tvas left there upon the head of a cross, in a little 
cummain [box or basket], from which he was named Cummain, and was there nursed and taught, and it 
was not known from whence he came, until his mother came to visit him at the house of the Abbess Ita^, for 
she used to come often to him. And she came one day to the house, and the comharb of Ita was not within ; 

■' Drunhenness. — A more modern accoimt states 
that Fiachna intended to lie with Cacht, daughter of 
Maolochtair, son of Aedh Bolg, King of the Decies, 
who was then at his house, on her way to St. Bren- 
nan's Hill, where she was going on a pilgrimage. She 
slept in the same room, and in the same bed, with 
Fiachna's daughter, and it was by mistake, not frora 
di-uiikenucss, that Fiachna committcd the incest of 
whith St. Cummain Fota was the oíispring. This 
version of the story goes on to say that the infant, 
when bom, was exposed in a cummuin, or box, of 
wicker-work, and sent ofiF afloat upou the Abhan 
Mor, or Great River ; that the box, carricd do^N-n by 
the stream, was fuund by Bishop Declan's fisliermen, 
who cariied it to the Bishop ; that the Bishop [who, 
it should be rcmembercd, sucli arc the anachrouisms 
of this version of the stoi-y, was a conteinporary of 

St. Patrick], findingthe child alive,baptizedhim, and 
committed him again to the river, predicting that it 
was reserved for St. Mida (or Ita) to educate the bov : 
that St. Ita, whilst washing her hands at the river, 
observed the floating box, opened it, and, carrying 
the child to the altar, there dedicated him to God, 
uaming him Cummain, from his having been found 
in the box or basket. This storj- occurs in a MS. 
of the eighteenth century, Yery badly written, and 
in very bad niodera Irish, which is prescrved among 
the Betham MSS. (26 a) in the líoyal Irish Aca- 
demv, Dubliu. 

*> The Ahbess Ita. — This has been understood 
(see note *) as if St. Ita herself had been alive 
when the infant St. Cummain was left at her 
church. Dr. Lanigan very fairlv objects that St. 
Ita died in 569. exactly twentv-three vears beforc 



Tlie Ilijmn of St. Cummain Fota. 


and lic asked for a drínk, and his motlier pavc him the chum'' of the abbcss to drliik from ; and he drank 
fr.^in \i And the comharb of Ita rebuked her' for having given him the churn, whereupoa she then said — 

Notice nof, notice not, 

If I givc my brothcr to drink, 

He is the son of Fiachna ; he iá the grandson of Fiachna, 

Fiachna's daughter is hls mothcr. 

Ile afterwards studied in Cork, until he became a Doctorf. And then he retumed to his fathcr and to 
liis country ; i. e. to thc Eogbanacht of Loch Lein". And evcry one then said that Cummain rcsembled 
F'iacbna : whcrefore he said : — 

It is uo falsehood for me, if that be 

saiJ ; 
For near is the relationship of us 

My grandfather is my father, 
My mother is my sister. 

If good be bom of evil, 
It is I that should excel. 
My sisttT is niy mother, 
My father is my grandfather. 

Short is the summing up, 

I am the grandson of thy mother, 

My mother also is accused of guilt 

With the brother of thy brother, 

With thvsdf, Fiachna'', 

For thou art the brother of thv brother. 

To me there is a double relationship 
To the race of Fiachra-Gairrinni', 
For a grandson and a son to hiin 
Is the said Cuinmain to I'iachna 

St. Cummain was bom. But there is nothing in 
the Scholiast's narrative which implies that St. Ita 
herself was alive, although more modem authors 
have represented it so. On the contrary. it is ex- 
pressly said that when St. Cunimain's mother came 
ti) the house of Ita, " St. Ita's comharb," that is, 
St. Ita's successor, or representative, " was not with- 
in ;" which proves that .St. Ila hcrself was not then 
alive, otherwise she could have had no successor as 
abbess in her monastery. See Lanigan's Eccl. Hist. 
ii. p. 399, note 51. 

'-' The churn. — The Latin has sinus, the Irish bal- 
lan, a word which signifios a chum, or vessel for 
holding milk, a wooden drinking-cup, or bowl : and 
Lsidore in his Glassarv intcrprets siniis — "Vas in 
quo ljutyrum confuitur." See Du Cange in voce. 

' Rchiihed her — The version of this storj* in tlie 
Betham MS. (26 a), quoted above, note », repre- 
.senta the fault commilted by St. Cummain's mother 
to have bcen, not that she gave him to drink out of 
the vessel of the abbes.1, but that she gave him milk 
to drink during a season of fasting. 

•' Xoíice not. — Tliis and the following poems are 
written in thc M.S. as prose, without division of the 

lines. But it has been thought better, in printing 
them, to restore the metrical arrangemcut. The re- 
petition of the words Na pacliais, " Xotice not," in 
the first line, is necessary for the metre. It was a 
common practice, when a verse was so constructed, 
to write the word once only. 

^ A Doclor Tlie word is fui, or f aoi, a leamed 

man of the highest dcgree. 

s ICoghanacht of Loch Lein. — i. e. of the Lake 
of Ivillamey. These were descendants of Eoghan 
Mor, eldest son of Oiliol Olum, King of Jlim- 
ster in the second century. See Irish version of 
Xenuius, p. 258, note. 

'' Fiachna. — In the Irish laclina, for a piii- 
aclina, the aspirated p bciiig oniitted, iu accordance 
with the pronunciatioii. So again, in the last of 
these verses, in ci Cuniniame t)iachno, for b' 
phiachno. St. Cummaiu's mother is called lann, 
for piann, in more than one passage of this Preface. 
Tliis (Iropping of the p is very common with Irish 
scribes, and has been the occasion of several mis- 
takcs. The Editor is indcbtcd to Mr. Currj' for this 

' Fiachra-Garrinni. — Fiachna, father of Cum- 

NoTi': A.] 

The Scholiasfs Preface. 


Then Fiachna [acUnowIedgedJ] Cummaiii to bc his son. And it was he [i. c. this Cummain] thatcom- 
poscd this Hymn ; and the cause of composing it was this : — Cummain's having recourse to the help 
of the Apostlcs, to lielp Domhnall'^, son of Aedh, son of Ainmire, to obtaiu the power of shedding tears, to 
seelt forgivcness of his sins ; for lie had not becn able to do so beforc, in consequcncc of the hardness of his 
heart. And tliis Cummam was his spiritual director ; for Domhnall had sent to Columcille' to asfc him 
whom hc sliould take as his spiritual director, or whether he should go to himself to the east [i. e. to IIy, 
or lona]. Wliercfore Columcille said : — 

The Doctor"" wlio shall come from the south, 

It is with him he [Domhnall] shall find what he wants, 

He will bring communion" to liis liouse 

To the excellent grandson of iVinmire. 

And it was Cummain that was prophesied of on that occasion. 

Now when Cummain came to learn DomhnaH's case, after having composed the Hymn, hefound Domh- 
nall bewailing liis sins in the house. Then Cummain said : — 

Now it is", &c. 

And it was then tliat he threw off the crimson cIoak which was around him, that is, a cloak which his 
mother, viz. Flanni', had made for him. Then said Cummain, 

It is therefore, it is therefore, 

That I am not allowed to proceed as I wish, 

Domhnall refuses, he will not put 

The little cIoak of Flann, the fair, upon him. 

niain, was the son of Fiachra-Gairrine. Cummain 
was grandson to Fiachna (being the son of his daugh- 
ter), as well as his son. His uame, therefore, ap- 
peared in two different lines of the family pedigree. 

^ Achnowledged. — This word is supplied from con- 
jecture, as a word or two are illegible in the MS. 
AII that can be read with certainty is given in the 
text (p. 72). Mr. Curry thinks that the letters 
bibic are visible before piliUTn ; if so, perhaps, 
credidit was the obliterated word. 

^ Domhnall. — Ile was Kiug of Ireland fi'om A. D. 
628 to 642. See his Pedigree, Battle ofMagh Ilath, 
ed. by Dr. O'Donovan, p. 326. 

' To ColumciUe. — This saint died no earlierthan 
A. D. 595 [592, Fotir Mastersl. Therefore, the 
meauing, perhaps, may be that Domhuall cousulted 
St. Columcille (which he might have done bcforc 
that year, for Ms father died in 599), and that 
St. Columcille predicted St. Cummain, although this 
latter saint was then an infant, ha^-ing been born 
in 590. It is more probable, however, that when 


Columcille is mentioned, his comharb, or successor, 
is meant, according to the usual way of speaking 
of the Irish, who considered the saint as stiU presid- 
ing over Iiis monastery, however loug after his death, 
and as still spealdng by the mouth of his successor. 

™ The Doctor. — Orleamed man. Thesameword, 
fui, is here used. See above, note'. 

° Communion There seems here to be intended 

a play upon the word Cummain, " communion with 
the Church," and Cummain, the name of the saint 
who was destined to briug this communion to the 
house of Domhnall. 

Now it is. — The commencement onIy of thiá 
Raim or Poem is given, because four lines of it are 
ciuoted at length further on. 

P Flann. — Here again the text has Lunn. the 
initial F being omitted. Tlie verses that foUow 
seem to allude to the ancient custom of putting on 
the raiment of the saint who acted, as your peniten- 
tiarv, in token of submission and humiliation This, 
it seems, Domhnall refused to do. 


84 TJie nymn of St. Cuminain Fota. [Notkb. 

And it was thercforc that he appealcd to tho Apostlcs; and Domhnall wept for his sins aftcr thnt, 
whercupon Cummain saiil, 

Now it i-", now it is, 

Domhnall knows that therc is a king ovcr him, i. c. God aborc him'i ; 

EUs Lord is the Lord abovc, 

His Lord is not this Lord. 

It was in thc timc of Domhnall, son of Aedh, son of Aiumire, it [the Hymn] was composed. And he 
made it in rhjthm ; and there arc two Unes in cach capitulum, and twelve sjUables in cach linc. It was 
founded upon the canon of the Prophets"^, Celebra Juda festivitutes luas. In Daire Calcaigh'* this Hymn 
was made. 


The History and Date of St. Cummain Fota. 
St. Ccmmaix Fota, i. e. the Long, or Tall, is said to have been Bishop of Clonfert, and 
appears to have enjoyed a high reputation for learning and piety. liis death is 
recorded in the Annals of Tighernach twice. First at theyear 661, with the qualifi- 
cation " secundum aliquos;" and afterwards at the following year, whicij is probably 
the true date, in these words: — 

A. D. 662, " Cummine Fota .Ixxii. anno setatis suae mortuus cst." 

From this it follows that St. Cummain Fota must have been born in the year 590, 
or if the former date be adopted, 589. 

Let us see how this will square with the accounts which remain in ancient Irish 
authorities of his genealogy aad history. 

For this purpose it will be necL'Ssary, in the first instance, to bring together the 
authorities, and then to make some remarks upon them. 

I. la laying before the reader the authorities, I shall confine myself to those that 
may be properly called sources, or original authorities: citing them as nearly as pos- 
sible in chronological order. 

\. Aengus the Culdee, iu his book On the Mothers of the Saints of Ireland, pre- 

1 God above him. — Tliis cxplanation is addcd in ' The Prophets. — jUhidiiig to Nahuni, i. 15, 

tbe way of gloss ; it forms no part of the metre. In wherc the 'words " Celebra Juda festivitatcs tuas" 

the laát two Hnes there is a plav on the word po, occur. 

which BÍgnihcs a kinff, or lord, and also ffood, or » Daire Calcaigh. — This was the ancient Pagan 

honour. Il is not easy to tranalate allusions of tbis name of Dcrry, '• thc oak wood of Calcach," a Pagan 

kind ; but the meauing seems to bc, " Uis good, or hcro. It is rcndered Jioboretum Calgaci by Adam- 

summum bonum, is now the Lord abovc ; his God is nan in his Life of St. Columba. Sec Ordnauce 

not now, as fornicrIy, this (carth]y, or sensual) good." Survcy Wemoir of Londonderrv, p. 1 7. 


History and Legends ofhim. 


served in the Book of Lecan (MS. Royal Irish Academj), givcs the following genea- 
logy of St. Cumraain Fota: — 

■Rini m5cn piachna niic piachpac "^m- 
Tiine, micDuach laplaichi, macaip Cuniame 
mic piachna, -| Conisam lllic Daccpba, -i 
5uapi mic Colmam, ] Cpimcliamb cacil 
mic Qet)a Cipp, pig laisen, -| Cuana mic 
Cailcme .). laech Liachmume, "] bpacain 

Eimh, daughtcr of Fiachna, son of Fiachra 
Gairine, son of Duach larlaithi, was the mother of 
Cumaine, son of Fiachna ; and of Comgan Mac Da- 
ccrda ; and of Guari, son of Cohnan ; and of Crim- 
thann Cael, son of Aedh Cirr, King of Leinster ; 
and of Cuana, son of Cailchine, Laech Liathmuine 
[the hero of Liathmuine] ; and of Bracan of Dairinis. 

2. And in his book on the Genealor/ies ofthe Samts, the sarae author gives the 
pedigree thus: — 

" Cuimmine Fota, son of Fiachna, son of Fiachra, son of Duach, son of Waine, son of Cairpre, son of 
Corc, son of Lughaidh, sou of AiHll Flann beg." 

3. The Scholiast on the Felire of Aengus has preserved the foUowing Rann, or 
short historical poem: — 

niugam, mgen pachna pmn, 
machaip Cummame ceoilbmt) ; 
PHTi mugam a maéaip 
peippium Dippi bepbpaéaip 

.1. ba mac .;r. po gcmpac uaice, .i. pc 
heppoic, 1 pe pig, im Cuimm, im Coriisall. 

Mughain, daughter of Fiachna the fair, 
Mother of Cummaine of the sweet tones ; 
This Mughaiu was his mother, 
He to her was brother. 

Twelve sons were bom of her, viz. six bishops 
and six Isiugs, including Cunimin, and Corahgall. 

The six bishops and six kings, however, are not enumerated. 

4. Again, in the Martyrology of Marianus Gorman, at the i2th of November, we 
have the following account of St. Cummain Fota: — 

Cummin Poca mac piachna bo Coga- 
nacc loca lém, Cppcob Cluanapepca bpe- 
namn. G06 a óeb amm bilep, i Dpuim ba- 
licep amm a baile. 

Cummain Fota, sou of í'iachna, of the Eogha- 
nacht of Loch Lein, Bishop of Clonfert Brenainn. 
Aodh was his proper name first, and Druimda- 
Hter was the name of his town. 

5. The Martyrology of Donegal has the same account of St. Cummain in the same 
words, but adds the following: — 

Do pliochc Cuipc mic Luisbech, mic 
Oiliolla piainn bicc, mic piacac inuille- 
cam, mic Cooam moip, mic OilioUa Oluim 

He was of the race of Corc, son of Lughaidh. 
son of OilioU Flann Beg, son of Fiacha MuilleLhan, 
son of Eoghan Mor, sou of OilioU Oluim'. And 

t Oilioll Oluim. — See the Genealogical Table in 
O'Donovan's Battle of Magh Rath, p. 343, from 
which, with the geucalogy above given, we can 

coniplete the pedigree of St. Cummain from his 
ancestor Oilioll Ohiim, King of Munster, who died 
A. D. 234: — thus — Oilioll Oluim, — Eoghanmor. — 


Tlie Ui/mn of St. Cummain Fota. 


Do, -\ l?imh a ftcipbf'UiTi pcin ba mataip l)0, 
nriiail ay poUar in a bctaift. 111 lOc an o§ 
naoriica bo ba buime bo. lcapcap neccna 
a aimnpc an pcppa- P^oicepcaib capsna 
bpcitpe Dc. 

Qeip Cpipc an can po paich a rP'Tnc: bo 
6um nnhe 66 1. 

Qbeip an pcm leabhap mempaim, 05 
labaipc ap bpijic, 1°. Peb. -[ ap pacpaicc 
17" niapc. 50 puibc Cuimin poca copmail a 
mbeapaib t a mbeacaib pc 5r'50ip niopa- 

6. The Four Masters, at the year 661, give the following account of St. Cummain, 
together with a short historical poem on his death: — 

St. Cummine Fota, son of Fiachiia, Bishop of 
Cluain Ferta Brenainn, dled the twelfth day of 
Norember. Cohiian O'Cluasaigh, tutor of Cummine, 
composed these verses : — 

Xever did the Luinneach'' bear on its back. 

Rimh, his siíter, was hcrsclf also his mothcr, as Is 
manifcst in his Lifc. Midhe" [i. e. St. Ita] the holy 
virgin was his nurse. A vessel of leaming ivas 
this man in his timc, a leamcd preacher of the 
Word of God. 

The voar of Christ when he resigned his spirit to 
heaven was 661. 

Tlie old parchment book saj's, in speaking of 
Brigid (ist Febr.), and of Patrick (i^th March), 
that Cummain Fota in his manners and life resem- 
blcd Gregorv Moralium'. 

S. Cummine poba mac piachna eppcop 
Cluana pepca bpenainn, becc, in bapa la 
ne5 bo Nouembep. Cobnan ua Cluapaig, 
oibe Cummine, po paib na pannpa 

Mi beip luimncch pop a bpuim, 
Oe pil llluimnech il Lech Cumn, 
mapban in noi ba piú bo, 
t»o Cumnune mac piachno. 

Tlla bo ceijcbh neach cap niuip, 
peipeaó hi puióe n5pi50ip, 
maó a hCpi n1 buf tjó 
inse Cummine pobo. 

Tno curiiapa lap cCumine, 
on lo po poilseó a ápc, 
coi mo cuil nip nin5aipe& 
bopbsaiU lap nbepach a bapc. 

Of the race of Munster, into Leth Chmnn'', 
A corpse in a boat so precious as he, 
As Cummine soii of Fiachna. 

If any one went across the sea 
To sit in the chair of Gregorj')-, 
If from Ireland, it was not meet for l\iin, 
Except he was Cummine Fota. 

Ah I woe is me after Cummine ! 

From the day that his corpsc was covered in, 
My eyeUds drop tcars, there lias not ceased 
Mouming, since the destruction of hb boat'. 

Fiacha Muilleathan (RingofMunster, A.D. 260), — 
Oilioll Flan beg (King of Munster), — Lugdach-Corc 
(King of Munster), — Cairijre Luaclira, — Maine, — 
Duach larlaithe, — Fiachra-Gahine, — Fiachna, — 
Cummain Fota. 

" Midhe For mo Llha, my Ida, or my Ita. 

Colgan has explained tliismode ofexpressingdevo- 
tion to a saint — Acta SS., p. 71, n. 2, 3. A cor- 
responding iihrase, — Our Lord, Our Lady, My 
God, — is still in usc. 

^ Gregort/ Moraliuni. — See above, p. 70. 

' The Luimneach Tbis was the namc of fhe 

Lower Shannon, from Limerick to the sea. 

» Leth Chuinn. — Conn's half ; the Northern half 
of Ireland. 

>■ The chair of Gregon/. — i. c. to become Pope. 
Gregory the Great was celebrateil amongst the Irish. 
Sec O'Donovan's notc, Four !Masters, A. D. 590, 
and O'Flaliertv's West Connaught, p. 80. 

' Of his boat. — Or, " of his bier." It was the cu3- 
tom to destroy the bier after the interment of the 
corpse. Tbe death of Colman O'Cluasaigh, the 
writer of these verscs, is recorded at the same year 
bv the Four Mastcra. 


Ilístonj and Legends of him. 


7. The following curious story, in which Curamain Fota, Guaire Aidhne, and 
St. Cairaine, of Inis Cealtra, are brought together, is told by ihe Scholiast on the Felire 
of Aengus, and has been loosely translated by Colgan, Acta Sandorum, p. 746. It occurs 
in a note on the twenty-fifth of March, which was the festival of St. Caimin : — 

peachcof bo 5uaipe Qmne 1 bo Chumaín 
pot)a -\ t)o Caimm mnpi Ccalcpa ifm ecclaij'' 
1 nmip Cealcpa pop loó nDeipcc-fteipc, 
e&on m ecclap inóp t»o ponaó Ui Camime 
ann. bacrappoiii 'om 05 cabapc anmcaip- 
t>efa pop 5'^'f'UT?- Illciit; a 5^'ut"P6, ol 
Camime, ció beic maic lac bo lionab na hec- 
claipi 1 ccám. ppeccpaip 5uciipe he, 1 ipe& 
u t)ubaipc, po ba maic bm a lan t>i op i 
bapccacc, -] m ap i^ainc an bomampi, acc 
t)ia cioblacaó pop maiimam t)0 naembaibh, 
-| t)0 eccalpaib, 1 ha sac nech bo lapppaió e 
apcena. Do pat) Dia pnpcacc buic a '^hu- 
aipe, ol Caimme, i bo bepcap buic an cpai- 
leccam bo ponaip bia cubepc ap c'anmam, 
1 pobbia nem lapaim. Qy bui6e bnn, ol 
^uaipe. Cupa imoppo, a Chuimm, aj) 
5uaipe, cib beic maic lac t)0 beic ann. Tto 
paó maic lim, aj\ Cumm, a lan bo leabpaib 
bia coit)ecc t)o aep leisinn, 1 bopiola&bpei- 
t^e De 1 ccluapaib caic bia ccabepc t)o 
lupcc biabail bo cum an coimbet). Cupa 
imoppo, a Chaimme, ol ]^^acc, cibbeicmaic 
lacpa t)0 beic ann. ppeccpaip Caimme lat), 
-] ippeat) a bubaipc, po ba maic lim a.lan 
t)o paec -| t)o galap t)o beic im copp, -] me 
pem occ impulang mo pian. 

IÍ0 ppic imoppo a niompaire o Dia .i. an 
calam bo ^uaipe, i eccna t)0 Cumam poba, 
-| t)o pabab paech, -| galap t)o Chamíne, co- 
nach t)eachat) cnaim t>e ppiapoile 1 ccal- 
mamn, acc po legaó imoppo a peoil -[ a 
pecae pe hamceppaib sach galaip bia mboi 
paip. Co nbeacacap immoppo pop neamh 
uile la nimpaicib ipin ecclaip. piNlS. 

Once upon a time that Guaire Aidline and C'u- 
main Foda, and Caimine of Im's Cealtra, were in tlie 
church of Inis Cealtra in Loch Deirgdheirc, namely, 
the great ciiurch that was built by Caimine there ; 
thev vrerc theu giving spiritual counsel to Guaire. 
"Well, Guaire," said Caimine, "what wouldst 
thou wish to have this church in which we are 
íilledwith?" Guaire answered him and said, "I 
would wish to have it full of gold and silver ; and 
not from covetousness of this world, bnt that I might 
give it for [the good of] my soul to saints and 
churches, and in lilíe manner to every one that would 
ask for it." " God will give thee help, Guaire," 
said Caimine, " and ■will grant thee the expectation 
thou bast formed for the good of thy soul ; and 
hereafter thou shalt possess heaven." " "We are 
thanliful," said Guaire. "But thou, Cumain," 
said Guaire, "what wouldst thou wish to have in 
it?" "I would wish," said Cumain, " to have 
it full of boolis to instruct studious men, and to 
disseminate the word of God into the ears of all : t" 
bring them from followiníi thedevil unto the Lord. " 
" But thou, O Caimine," said they, " what wouldest 
thou wish to have in it ?" Caimine answered 
them and said, " I would wish to have the fuU of it 
of disease and siclsness to be on my body, aud my- 
self to be suffering my pain." 

And so they obtaiucd their wishes from God, viz. 
the earth to Guaire, wisdom to Cumain Foda, and 
siclíness and disease to Caimine, so that not one 
bone of him remaiued united to the other on carth, 
but his flesh dissolved, and his nerves, with the ex- 
cess of every disease that fell upon him. So that 
they all went to heaven according to their wishes 
[expressed] in the church. Finis. 

II. — It remains now to raake some remarks on the foregoing authorities, including 
the Scholiast's Preface in the Liber Hymnorum. 

I. The history of the unhappy lady who was the mother of St. Cummain is obscure 

88 The Hijmn o/ St. Cummain Fota. [Note b. 

and unsatisfactory in almost ovcry particular. Ilor vcry name is given variously. 
The Scholiast of the Liber líi/innorum calls hcr Fhmn, or Lann. Aengus the Culdee 
gives her the name of 7?/m, or Jtimh, and she is also so called in the Martyrology of 
Donegal. Colgan, quoting the former authority, gives her the same name in the Latin- 
ized form Rima^, but adJs, " rectius Mugania,'''' which last is her appellation in the 
ancient Rann preservcd by the Scholiast ou the Felire of St. Aengus. She is also 
called Mughain in the modern interpolated version of her slory, in the Betham MS. 
quoted above, p. 8i, note. The reason of these different appcUations does not appear. 

2. The account given of her sons is also fuU of difficulties. In the extract above 
quoted from Aengus, De Mairibus Sanctoriim, she is said to have been the mother of 
8Íx sons, viz. : 

(i.) Cummaine, or Cummain, the son of her father Fiachna. 

(2.) Comgan-Mac Dace^'da, who was so called, not because he was the son of Da- 
cerda, as might at first sight appear to be the meaning of the words, but (as the title 
is explained) because he was of wealc intellect,' Avith occasional fits of prophetical in- 
spiration, so that he was called Mac da cherda^, the boy or youth of two arts, viz. the 
extreme of folly, and the extreme ofknowledge. He is mentioned in the Life of 
St. Molagga, as printed by Colgan, and in the " Acts ofthe idiots Comdhan (or Comghan) 
and Conall,''^ quoted by the same author'". 

A copy of this last work (but unfortunate]y a very bad one) is preserved in the 
Betham MS. (22 a), in the Library of the Royal Irish Academy; and in it we find 
the following account of Comgan Mac da Cerda: — 

He was the son of Maolochtair, King of the Decies of Munster, and uf Mughain, 
daughter of Fiachna, son of Fiachra Gairine. Some time after his birth, Mughain, stung 
with remorse for the scandal which had arisen from her early history, consultod her son 
Cummain, and by his advice resolved upon separating from licrhusband ]Maolochtair, 
and devoting the rest of her days to seclusion and peuitence. This resolution being 

» Rima. — Colgan. Acta 55., p. 148, n. 4. cheard, i. e. duarum artium accepit, quia nempe niuic 

*• Mac da cherda In the Life of St. Molagga extreme fatuiis, niux sunime prudens." — Colgan, ih. 

(Colgan. Actt. SS., p. 145), he is called " Com- p. 149, n. 8. The belief that idiots are under an 

dhanus cognomento Síac da-chearda,'' and Colgan occasional inspiration from heaven is stiU commou 

tells us: " Lusit in ipso mirabiliter natura, vel in Ireland. 

verius divina voluntas, cujus mirá dispositione ' The sume author. — He says : "Vide plura de 

plcrumque hominis rationis usu seu judicio carentis, ij^so . . . in actis Cumdhani et Conalli idiotarum ; 

aliquando etiam, quando lucida quíedam habuit in- in quibus in apographo quod vidi, inter plura vera, 

ter^'alla, sagacissimi et prudentissimi actus cxerce- quxdam apocrjpha et fabulosa, maxime de. S. De- 

bat responsaque dabat sapientissima, quai veluti daiio ct Molagga referuntur." — Acta SS., p. 149, 

oracula accipicbantur : ct hinc cognomentum da- n. 7. 

Noteb.] History and Legmds ofhim. 89 

accomplished, Macloclitair married another wife, Ailgineach, daughter of Maoldubh, 
"who, after some time, conceived a criminal passion for Comgan, hcr stepson, who was 
remarkable for manly beauty, grace, and accomplishments. lle was insensible to her 
blandishments, and her love was converted into the most deadly hatred. On one occa- 
sion, a fair and assembly having been held by the men of Munster in South Tipperary, 
Comgan carried off the victory iu all the sports and exercises of the day, and won the 
applause of all spectators. Maelochtair's Druid was especially charmed with his 
prowess, and celebrated liis praises above all the rest. The malicious stepmother, see- 
ing this, accostcd the Druid, and said to him, " You are the last person who ought to 
praise Comgan, for he is criminally attached to your wife, and has access to her at his 
pleasure. Observe him when he rides around to receive the congratulations of the 
ladies, and you avíU see that j'our wife regards him with peculiar favour." " If this 
be so," said the Druid, " his power of acquiriiig favour with her or any other woman 
shall cease for ever." Soon after, Comgan arrived at the head of his troop of cavalry, 
and rode around the assembly, according to custom, to receive the congratulatious of 
the fair ladies who were witnesses of his success, and addressed to each some courte- 
ous words; to the Druid's wife amongst the rest. Although the unconscious Com- 
gan in reality paid no more court to her than to others, yet to the Druid's eyes, 
already filled with jealousy, his passing compliment seemed an undoubted confirma- 
tion of all the suspicions with which his mind had been poisoned; and Avhen Comgau 
retired to wash his horses and himself in a neighbouring river, the Druid followed 
him, and suddenly struck him with a magical wand, or, according to another account, 
flung upon him a wisp of straw, over which had been pronounced some fiendish incan- 
tation. The result was, that when Comgan arose from bathing, his flesh burst forth 
in boils and ulcers, and his attendants were forced to carry him to his father's house. 
At the end of the year he had wasted away, his hair fell ofí", his intellect decayed, and 
he became a bald and senseless idiot, keeping company only with the fools and moun- 
tebanks of his father's court. 

Some time after, his half-brother Cummain was invited to accept the primacy of 
Armagh, and having prayed to the Lord, with fasting, for direction in the case, an 
angel appeared to him and repeated two lines of a quatrain, which he Avas directed to 
commit to memory, and then go in search of the person who could supply the other 
two lines, from whom he should receive the advice he sought. Cummain therefore 
■went about repeating the lines to every one, but without finding anybody who could 
complete the quatrain. At length he went to the palace of Maelochtair, to visit his 
brother, whom he found asleep in the Stranger's Hall of the palace. Cummain ad- 
dressed him in verse, repeating two lines, which contained an allusion to hisunhappy 
condition. Comgan answered in two other lines, which corresponded to or rhymed 
with Cummain's, who rcplied by another distich, and so they went on until they had 


Qo The Ili/nm qf St. Cummain Fota. [Notb b. 

arrived at the ninth quatrain, when Cunjraain began the tenth by repeating the verses 
tuught him by the angel, which were these: — 

Seibift ccnnóaip caoji n-buib-6cip5 Tlie smith's-tongs grasp a blatk-rcd bar, 

uiia n-bjicsaib allu uiji^j Upon whidi falLs tlic ponJcrous sledge. 

Comgan immecliately replied: — 

SccinniO rinjitMmn (iji j;nc lcic Sparkles fly upon all sides, 

iina i'có rcinnib nu buil^ Whilst all around the bellows play<'. 

It was then that Cummain gave him the name of Mac da Cerda^ or the youth of 
two arts, or professions, viz. folly and poetry. 

(3.) Guaire, son of Colman, was King of Connaght, and celebrated for his liberality 
and hospitality. Ile died A. D. 662, according to the Four Masters. See his genealogy 
in O'Donovan's l^ihes arid Customs of lly Fiachrach (p. 61, and Geneal. Table). The 
Four Masters, at A. D. 662, quote a Poem in which it is said that the mother of 
Guaire was Cumman, daughter of Dalbronach, who was also the mother of St. Caimin 
of Inis-Cealtra. It is impossible, however, that this Cumman, who is said to have been 
blessed by St. Patrick', and who was the sister of St. Brigid, could have been the 
mother of King Guaire, who died in 662. The same Rann, however, quoted by the 
Four Masters, states that "seven and seventy soris were born of her," 

moijifeifep ap reachcmogac, ap re6 po genaip uaice, 

wliich Colgan qualifies by adding, "nempe ex ejus semine;" and we may therefore 
be permitted to receive with tlie same qualification the statement that she was the 
raother of Guaire. In the list of her sons given by Aengus, in his tract De Matribus 
Sanctorum, wefind the name of Cuimine of Inis-Cealtra, but not that of King Guaire; 
and the entire number of saints who sprang from her (in consequence of St. Patrick 
having blessed her wonib) is said to be seven and forty, — conat) ap pin po ^enetjap 
uaici moippepep ap t)ib picbcib Do naemaib, "so that ou that account [viz. St. 

' Play Thereader will perccive that the rhvme historical talcs or romances. Maolochtair, thclather 

is iu the vowelsof the words &eip5 and leic ; uijit) of Conigan, sccins to liavc bcen a Pagan prince : 

and builó, accoriling to the usage of Irish metre. but if so, he was aftcrwards convertcd to C'hristia- 

HÍ3 being able to iinproAÍse these rhjTíies provcd nity, fortheauthor of thc Irish Life ofSt. Mochuda 

Comgan to be the counsellor indicated by thc angcl tcUs us : — " It was this Madochtair that aftcrwards 

<>f whom Cummain was in search. gave the ground upon which theChurch of Lisniure 

« Mae da Cerda. — The foregoing narrative is was built, to Jlochuda, when he was banished from 

abridgcd from thc original, and isnot tobercgarded Rathan." 

as a translalion : it has been thought word)y ofpre- ' St. Patrick. — SceAengus, "On|the3íothcrs of thu 

ícrvation herc as a specimcn of thc anciciit Irish Saints," in the Booh of Lcacaii. 

NoTE B.] nistory and Legends of him. g i 

Patrick's blessing] there were born of her two score and seven saints." Assuming, 
theu, that these forty-seven (or seventy-seven, if thc other account be adopted) were 
not her immediate children, but only her descendants (as Colgan suggests), it is pro- 
bable that a too literal adherence to the words of the ancient authorities gave rise to 
the opinion that Guaire and Caimin were her sons. Perhaps, also, there was somo 
confusion between the names of Cumine and Caimine, and that the statement that 
Cumine the Long and Guaire had the same mother, was the origin of the mistalce 
that Caimine of Inis-Cealtra was half-brother to Guaire. A similarity or identity of 
name in Irish saints has been a frequent cause of confusion and error. Colgan has 
enumerated more than twenty saints of the name of Cumin, Cumian, Caimin, Cumen, 
&c., all which are, in fact, the same name in different spellings. — Acta SS. p. 59. 

(4.) Crimhthann Cad is also said to have been her son. His father was Aedh Cirr, 
King of Leinster, who died, according to the Four Masters, A. D. 591. 

(5.) Ctóctna, son of Cailchine, or Ailchine, was King or Chief of Fermaighe(Fermoy), 
and was called Laech Liathmhuine, the hero of Liathmhuine, or Cloch Liathmhuine, 
in the parish of Kilgullane, barony of Fermoys. He died, according to the Four Mas- 
ters, A. D. 640, and was celebrated for his hospitality and generosity, in which vir- 
tues he was the rival of Guaire, King of Connaught. He is mentioned in the Life of 
St. Molagga, published by Colgan, and a singular instance is there given of a contest 
of liberality between him and Guaire, to which they were excited by certain Pagan 
Druids for the hope of gain, and which ended in Cuana's being induced by the Druids 
to abandon to plunder and massacre, asan act of generosity 1 1 the town of Carn-chui- 
linn'' and its inhabitants. 

(6.) Brecan of Dairinis. No mention of this saint is made in the Martyrologies, 
nor in Colgan's works, nor is he noticed in the Annals. I am, therefore, unable to 
give any account of him, the passage before us being (so far as I know) the only an- 
cient authority in which his name occurs. There are two islands called Dairinis, 
celebrated as the abode of holy men : one in Munster, near Lismore (which is probably 
that here mentioned as the residence of St. Brecan), the other in Leinster, in the 
region of Hy Cinnselagh, near Wexford. — Colgan. Acta SS. p. 397, n. 7. 

The most suspicious circumstauce in these narratives is the fact that iMumhain 
Rimh, or Flann, the mother of St. Cummain Fota, appears to have had so many hus- 

8 Fermo^.— See O'Donovan's note at A. D. 640, codice Cluanensi, quem Leahhar na huidri vocant" 

Four Mastfi-s. Xhe fragment ofthis MS., now preserved in the 

^ Carn-chmUnn.—Y\t. St. Molagga;, c.x. ap. Col- Library of the Eoyal Irish Academy (if it be the 

gan. Jcta SS. p. 146, who states (p. 149, n. 14), same as tbat referred to by Colgan), does not con- 

that the acts of Cuana, written by his contemporary tain tliis work. There is an account of the death of 

Fiach, -were extant in the book of Clomnacnois in Cuana in the Book of Leinster (MS. iu tlie Librarv 

his time : -" E.\tant hodie in celebri illo et vetusto of Trinity College, DubUn), fol. 199. 

ISI 2 

92 The Hi/mn of St. Cummain Fota. [Notr b. 

bands, and but one son by each of them. The unfortunate event which gave birth to 
St. Cumniain occurrcd (as it would seem) whilst she was still in her father's house, 
and as}'ct unmarried. St. Cummain was born in 589, or 590; it foUows, therefore, that 
Aedh Cirr (the father of Crimhthan Cael), must have been her first husband, asheis 
recorded to have dicd in 591. She was afterwards married to Colman, King of Con- 
naught, and to Cailcliinne, the father of Cuana, chieftain of Fermoy, but in what order 
does not appear, as the dates of their deaths are not preserved. Her fourlh', and 
last husband, if we can trust the romantic history of Mac da Cerda, was Maelochtair, 
King of the Decies of Munster, from whom she was separated, as above related; after 
which she devoted herself to a religious life. 

Her historj, however, although strange and romantic, containsnothing impossible 
or inconsistent; and we may even go so far as to say, that the illegitimacy and irre- 
gularity attributed to St. Cummain's birth, as well as to that of many other British 
and Irish saints, ought to be considered as a remarkable evidence of the substantial 
truth of these narratives ; for it is not to be supposed that writers of mere fiction 
would gratuitoiisly represent those whom they wished to set forth as models of sanc- 
tity and ecclesiastical perfection, to have been born in horrible incest and fornication, 
if they had not been compelled to do so by tbe notorious facts of history''. 

And a little reflection wiU convince the reader that in the age to which thsse nar- 
ratives refer, nothing is more probable than that children born under such irregular 
and criminal circumstances should be devoted to the religious life, and brought up 
in the monasteries. This, in fact, is one of the many evidences of the benign and 
civilizing influence exercised by the Church' over a rude and barbarous age, in which 
Paganism still continued to exist side by side with Christianity, and still retained no 
small influence over both chieftains and people. The child of crirpe, devoted to imme- 
diate death by its unnatural parent, was often saved by some pious hand, or by ma- 
ternal yearning, and conveyed to the nearest religious house, there to be brought up 
in the faith. And hence many who, like St. Cunimain Fota, were the oflfspring of 
fearful guilt, were led to devote themselves, perhaps for that very reason, and with 

' Her fourth. — Tbc fatber of St. Brocan of Dairi- w-itb tbe Britisb and Scottisb sainfs. For cxample, 

nis is not named. If he was diíFerent from those St. Eentigern {Ussher. ib. p. 222), St. Kynedu3, 

whose names are given, tben Maelocbtair was ber -vvhose birth was exactlv similar to that of St. Cum- 

fifth husband. niain (ib. p. 45), St. Faustus, " ex hoiTendo incestu 

'' Facts ofhistorij Many similar instances are to natus" (ib. vol. v. p. 440), and St. Da^-id (Colgan. 

be found in tbc lives of tbe Irish saints. St. Brigid Acta SS. p. 425), may be meutioned to sbow tbat 

herself was bom of a concubine out of wedlock. tbe fact bere noticed was not pcculiar to the saints 

St. Cuthbcrt was tbe offspring of fomication, as was of Ireland.. 

alao St. Ailbe (CWier'* Woihs, vol. vi. p. 333): ' The Chiirch. — See tbecaseof St. German adopt- 

and we sball have occasion to mention others in tbe ing the son of Gortigera, the offspriug of incest. — 

course of this work. The same was also the case Irísh Nennius, p. 91. 

NoTE B.] History and Legends of him. 93 

a view to expiate the stain of tbeir birth, to the most rigid practices of penitence and 

Of the historj of St. Cummain Fota but few facts are preserved. Ile appears to 
have been celebrated for learning, for he is represented to have been named by 
St. Columba, or rather, pcrhaps, the successor of St. Columba in the Abbey of Hy, as 
the director and spiritual adviser of King Domhnall. The legend of Guaire Aidhne 
and St. Camine of Inis-cealtra, above given at length, represents him as wishing to have 
the church filled with boolcs of learning, for the propagation of the Gospel and of 
the Word of God ; and in the parallel between the Irish and European saints (see 
p. 69, supra), he is said to have been similar in lifeand habits, " unius vitae et moris," 
with St. Gregory the Great, the author of the Ltber Moralium. 

He is recorded by the Four Masters to have been Bishop of Clonfert, and from the 
short poem on his death, which they have preserved (see p. 86, supra), it appears 
that he died in the southern half of Ireland, probably in his native country, and with 
his own tribe; and that his body was carried to Leth Chuinn, thenorthern halfoflre- 
land, along the Shannon, to be buried, most probably, at his Cathedral Church at 
Clonfert; for they afterwards tell us, that in 1162 his relics were taken from the 
earth, and placed in a shrine by the clergy of that Cathedral. 

The sarae authority has also informed us (see p. 86) that the tutor of St. Cummain 
was Colman Ua Cluasaigh, who died shortly after his pupil, in the same year, A. D. 661. 

The festival day of St. Cummain Fota in the Caleudar of the ancient Irish Church 
was the izth of Noveraber. 



THIS Hymn is in prose, and is composed in imitation of one of the Peni- 
tential Psalms of David. It lias never bccn príntcd bcfore. 

A translation of the Prcface will bc given in tlie Additional Notes, where 
the occasion on -Nvhich the Hjmn was composed, and the history and date of 
its author, will be discussed. The text in the MS. is not accompanied by any 
interHncary gloss. 

The verscs are numbered in the margin for the convenience of reference, 
although no such numbers occur in the original MS. 

The first verse, Parce Domine, is e^ádently founded upon Joel, ii. 17. 
It occurs (prcceded by the Antiphon Ne reminiscaris) in the Breviary of 
Sarum, and also in the Breviary of Aberdeen, after the seven Penitential 
Psalms ; thus : — " Ne reminiscaris Domine delicta nostra, vel parentum nos- 
trorum, ncque vindictam sumas de pcccatis nostris." The rubríc adds, " Non 
dicitur idterius quando dicitíir in choro, Parce Dominc, parce populo tiio quem 
redemisti precioso sanguinc tuo, ne in ctei'num irascaris nobis ; et ne des haere- 
ditatem tuam in perditioncni, nc in aiternum obliviscaris nobis [s/c]." — Brev. 
Sar. (De Sa7ictis, fol. U.) Puris. (F. Byrckman) 15 16, fol. Brev. Aherdon. 
[reprínt by Tovey] {Psalter. fol. Ixxviii.). Both verses are still retained in 
the Litany of the Anglican Church, but Avithout the clause et ne des hcBredi- 
tatem, &c. In the modern Boman Brcviary the verse Ne reminiscaris ouly 
(which secms to havc becn foundcd on Tobit, iii. 3) occurs as an Antiph, 
before the Penitential Psalnis, thc vcrse Parce Domine being omitted. 

pariCe DÍTC. musmc pecic hunc 9.TnnuTn h\ purfpna. Caupa .1. Pinnen niaise btle 
■ e;cic bo poslaim co lllusinc, 1 Tíióc, -\ Calniach -\ cecepi alu pecum. Opupc 
T\e;c bpecan cunc, ■] habuic piliam .1. Dpupcicc nomen eiup.T t)et)ic eam lesenbo co 
inusmc, 1 amauic illa nióc, -\ t»i;cic pinniano, Cpibuam cibi omnep libpop qnop 
habec THusinc pcpibenbum, pi Rióo bebippep mihi in macpimonium. Cc mipic 
pmnen Calmach at» pe illa nocce in popmam Tíióc,-] cognouic eam, -\ mbe concepcup 
ac nacup epc Lonán cpeoce. Seb Dpupcicc epcimauic quobTíióc eam cosnouic, -\ 
t)i;cic quot) Tiióc pacep eppec pilii. Seb palpum epc, cp:iia Rióc uip^o puic. Ipacup 
efc lHusinc cunc, -] mipic cpienbam puepum m cemplum, 1 bipcic ei pi qnipppiup in 
hac nocce ueniac tío ce m cemplum pepcuce eum pecupe. Ibeo bi;tic qxiia ppiup 
pmnianup pepgebac ab cemplum. Seb camen illa nocce, Dommo mpcigance, ippe 
Triusinc ppiup ecclepie pepuenic,-] pepcuppic eum puep, ppopeca t)icence, Conuep- 
cfcup bolop eiup, 1 m uepcicem ippiup iniqxncap eiup bepcenbec. Cc crunc bi;tic 
Tllu5inc,papce, qiiia pucauic inimicoppopulum populapi. Uel comab aipe bo gnec 
inimmunpa ap na capcaa chin pop mpopul. Tleiambpopiuppecic biamban ngalup. 
l-lel Dauib pecic, uc alu bicunc, peb non uepum, aoc ip huab cucab Dic anselo cuo 
pepcucienci, upque populo cuo. 

QRCe DOTiiiNe pance popuLo cuo quem TieDemisci i 
chRisce saNSuiNc ciio ec non in eceRNum mascems 



epTiecamuR ce DoTniue m oiiiui miseRicouDia cua 2 
uc aupcRacuR puror cuus ec iRa cua a ciuicace 
isca ec De Domu saNcca cua. CJuoNiani peccauiiTius pec- 3 

2. Deprecamur. — This word begins a 
page in the MS., on the upper margin of 
which is a note, of which only a íew words 
are now legible. Like many of the notes 
written on the upper margins in this MS., 
it appears to have had no connoxion with 
the text. It is not worth while, there- 
fore, to collect the scattered fragments of 

it that are still visible, which are of no va- 
lue. ín civitate ista. — The mention of a ci- 
vitas here and in v. 5 seems to imply that 
this Prayer or Psalm was written to de- 
precate the wrath of the Almightj from 
some town or city : and prohably on the 
occasion of a plague, as may be inferred 
from ver. 10. 

g6 Hymnns S. Miuj'mtii 

caiiiniiis nbi DoniiMc cc rii inarus cs Tiobis cc noii csc cpn 

4 cppnsiar nunnini cnani. ScD snppliccnius nc ncniac snjícn nos 
nnscnicoRDia rna Donnnc cfui m nnnicn pcpcncisri niuocanrcs 

5 Donnnuni. G;cclanicnnis uc ncspicias populuni rnuni concul- 
cacuin cr DoLcnccni cc pnoccsas ccmpluin sanccuni cuuni nc 
ob mipiis concaminecun ec miscRcaRis mims appLiccc ciuicaci 

6 cue. Gp:claniamus onincs aD Dommuin Dicenccs. 

Pcccauimus cibi Domme pcccauinius pacicnciam habc in 
nobis cc cnue nos a malis cfue cfuociDic crjcscunc supcn 
s nos. Oiniiccc Domine peccaco populi cui sccunDum mulcicu- 
omcni miscríicorjDic cue. 

9 T^Ropicius puisci pacmbus noscnis pnopicius csco nobis 

10 r ec implcbicuR sloma cua m uniucrísa cua. PecoRDaríe 
Domme Dic anselo cuo pcRCucienci popuLum cuum suppicic. 
coMCcne manum cuam ec cessec mccRFcccio crue snassacuR m 
populo uc Non peRDas omnem aniniani uiuencem. 

►xuTJse Dommc aoiuua nos cc rjcDinie nos prjopcen n. c. 


papce oomine peccancibup ignopce penicencibup mipepepe 
nobip rc po^ancibup paluacop omnium f^ peppice in nop ilui i 
mipepepe. Gmen. 

3« Q"í effugiat. — Conf. Tobit, xiii. 2. magnam, quam ebrei Ninuen appellant." 

4.. InNinuea. — On this word tbere are — Couf. Jona, iii. 3. 
two notes in the margins of tbe MS. ; that 9. In universa tua. — AYe ought evi- 

on the right-hand raargin is as foUows : — dently to read " in univcrsa terra." 
" .i. Ninue civitas magna fuit iteneris 10. Dic angelo. — 2 líeg. xxiv. 16, 21. 

[ítc] trium dierum, que egit penitentiam 11. Propter n. t — That is, "propter 

in predicatione Jonae profeta;, et sic liber- nomen tuum." The short prayer that 

ata est." The note on the left-hand mar- follows is in a differeut character. Pec- 

gin is this: — " Ninuen pulcra interpreta- caniibus, j)C7iite7Uibus, rogantibus, are evi- 

tur. . dum significat. Aliiex nomineNini dently intended to rhyme. 
Beli filii. i. inum urbera condidiruut [s/c] 

( 97 ) 



The Scholiasts Preface. 

THE following is a translation of the Preface, -which, as usual, is a mixture of 
Latin and Irish ; the former language in this instance predominating. It will 
be seen that thismixture of languages extends to proper names; the Celtic form Fin- 
nen, and the Latinized Finniamis, being used indiíFerentlj. 

Parce Dov;< ::. Mjgint mado tíls Hvrnu in Futerua. Tiis cause vras this: — Finnen of Magh Bile 
went to Mugint fov iastvi'ction, and Kioc uná Talmach, and several others ■with him. Drust was King of 
Britaiu then, and had a daughter, viz. Drasticc was her name, and lie gave her to Mugint to be taught to 
read ; and she fc ' i.i lov" -witb Eioc, aiul she said to Finuian, I will give thee all the books which Mugint 
has, that thou mayest tr^nsc iba .íiem, it thou wUt give me Eioc in marriage. And Finnen sent Talmach 
to her that night i;i tbe íc.-m ol' Rloc, and he knew her, and from thence was conceived and born Lonan of 
Treoit. But Drusticc ,-upposed that Rioc had known her, and she said that Rioc was the father of her son. 
But this was false, because Rioc was a virgin. Then Mugint was wroth, and sent a certain youth into the 
Temple, and said to him, "Whosoever comes first unto thee this night into the Temple, smite him with an 
axe. He said this because Finnian was in the habit of going first to the Temple : but notwithstanding, on 
that night, by the pj.-ovidence of the Lord, Mugint húnself went first to the church, and the youth smote 
liim, as the Prophet says : " For his travail shall come [upon his own head], and his wickedness shall fall 
on hi3 own pate."— [Ps. vii. 17.] And then Miigint said Parce, because he thought that the enemies 
would spoU the people. Or, this was the cause why this Hymn was made, that the sin thereof might not 
be visited upon the people. 

Or, Ambrose composed it when he was in sickness. 

Or, David composed it, as others say, but this is not true, although it is from liim are taken [the 
words], Dic angelo tuo percutienti, as far as popnlo tuo. 


0/the Historical Personages mentioned in the Scholiast^s Preface. 

The story of Mugint and his repentance, as told in the Scholiast's Preface, notwith- 
standing the singular circumstances which it details, is confirmed by Irish history 


^8 The Ilnmn of St. Mvrjint. lnvu: u. 

and in its main facts is consistcnt ■willi the chronology of the pnrtics concerned, as 
Avell as with other authcntic traditions. The discreditable conduct which it at- 
tributes to individuals of higli rcputation is, pcrhaps, to be regarded as an argument 
in favour of its substantial truth ; and tlie age of the MS. in which it occurs provea 
it to have been derivcd froni records or traditions of great antiquitj, and not vcry 
far removed from tlie time in which the transactions in question must liave taken placc. 
We shall proceed to examine in detail the history of the personages who figure in 
the story, with a view to determine its probability or authenticitj, and to fix as far 
as possible its chronology. 

I. St. Finneji, or Finnian, of Maghhile. 

The story opens by the stateraent that St. Finnen, or Finnian, of Maghbile, now 
Movilla", in the parish of Newtown-ards, diocese of Down, Avas a student under one 
Mugint, at a place called Futerna ; and that this Mugiut, provoked by the circum- 
stances detailed in the narrative, laid a snare for St. Finnian's life, which ended in 
his recciving himself the wound which was designed for Finnian. 

This story is told in both the lives of St. Finnian, under the continental name of 
Fridianus, or Frigidianus (which have been published by Colgan, at the i8th of March**), 
without any essential difference, except that they omit the adventure of Drustic, as 
well as all mention of Rioc and Talmach ; and they attribute the enmity of Mugint 
a"-ainst St. Finnian to jealousy, arising from the lectures or sermons of St. Finnian 
having been more popular, and better attended than his own. 

These Lives, which were both compiled on the Continent, take for granted that 
Frigidianus, Bishop of Lucca, in Italy, and Finnian of Maghbile, in Ireland, wereone 
and the same person. Whether this be so or not is a question with which we are not 
now concerned. The Irish traditions respecting St. Finnian may have been interwoven 
into the life of a diíTerent person; but it may not be the less certain that the tradi- 
tions so employed are authentic and ancient. *In the present case there cannot be a 
doubt that the story of Mugint told by these Lives is derived from the same source as 
that recorded by the Scholiast of the Book of IIymns. 

The narralives of the two continental Lives are so nearly identical, that it wiU 
suffice to quote the formcr of them, which tells the tale in these words: — 

Igitur diim 15. Fridianus contemplatioiii, orationi, et elemosiuarum largitioni pie intenderet, doctrina 
(luoque non miniina claniit. Unde factum cst quod Magister suus, Mugentius r.ominc, qui in civitate, 

* Movilla. — See Roeves' Eccl. Antiq. of Down and ^ Murch. — Colgan. Ada Sanctorum. pp. 63-;, 

Connor, p. 151. el "1- 


Sf. Finnian of Maghbile. 


qux dicituv Candida, liborales discipliuas e»m docuerat, (ubi etiam dicitur Episcopali oíHeio'' vir sanctus func- 
tus fuisse), excaudeus iracuudia, cuui duobus discipulis suis qui secum remanserant (nam plures ad B. Fridia- 
num audicndum convenerant) machiuatus est, ut ipsuni nocturno silentio dolo perimeret : et quod pa- 
lam in sancto viro et Ecgis filio'' facere non poterat, occulte impleret. Pravitatis ergo consilio firmatus, cum 
securibus ad ostium Ecclesiíe discipuli Mugentii accedunt, diligenter custodientes, ut virum *anctum ante 
omnes ad matutinas surgentem in atrio ecclesiae occiderent, et occulte sepelirent, ne tantum nefas ad cujus- 
quam notitiani perveniret. Sed Angelus Domini, qui ipsum ex divino mandato ecclesiae suae servare vole- 
bat, ei unum de calceamentis abstulit, quod dum circumquaque B. Fridianus aberrando quaereret, Mugen- 
tius ad ostium pervenit ccclcsiaj, ubi ab insidiatoribus B. Fritliaui lcva dextraque percussus interíit. Tandem 
ut prudens recognoscens reatum suum, continuo exclanuivit : Parce Domine, parce poptdo íuo, et ne 
des harediiatem tiiam in opprobritim. Parce bone Fridiane, parce, laqueum paravi, et incidi in eum. Tali 
ergo confessionis compendio in spe salutis Mugentius vitam finivit. 

S. autem Fridianus, quasi alter David, dolens de morte inimici sui, dimissá gente" et patría suá, abiit 
in Hiberniam, et in loco qui vocatur Macbilif, habitum religionis'-' sumpsit, et ut sequentia luce clarius de- 
monstrant, bonis operibus adimplevit." 

The date of St. Finnian is usuallj ascertaiued frora themention of him in the Lives 
of St. Coluinblville^ where \ve read that the dispute betvveen them about a boolc which 
St. Columbkille had borrowed from St. Finnian, and copied without the owner's 

"= Episcopali officio. — This is improbable, aud iu- 
consistent with the story as told by the Scholiast in 
the Book of Hymns, according to which Finnian 
was with Mngint, as a young man, for his educa- 
tion, and not as a rival teacher, much less a bishop, 
at that time. 

•^ Regisfilio St. Fimiian is said to have been 

the sou of a king of Ulster, wliom some continental 
authors call Vltach, mistaking the adjective, which 
signifies of Ulster, for a proper name. — Colgan. 
App. ad Vit. S. Fridiani, c. v. (p 649). His ge- 
nealogy is thus given by Aengus the Culdee, in his 
Geuealogies of the Saints, preserved in the Book of 
Leacan : " Finnbarr of Maghbile" [for so he is often 
called, see Colgan, ib. cap. 1] " was son of Cairpre, 
son of AiliII, £on of Tríchim, sgn of Fiech, son of 
Fiudchadh" [or Imchad, as Colgau has it], " son of 
Bresall, son of Sirchad, son of Fiathach Finn" 
[ of Ireland] " a quo Dal Fiathach." In his 
book De Matribus Sanctorum, the same author 
tells us that St. Finnian's mother was named La- 
sair, which serves to identify him with the St. 
Finan, or 'Winnin, whose life is given by Cap- 
grave, in the Legenda Anglia: (see also Britannia 
Sancta) at loth September (which is also the day at 
which St. Finnian of Maghbile is commcmorated in 


the MartjTologj' of Donegal). Capgrave's St. Win- 
nin is said to have been Irish, and of noble birth, 
his father's uame being Carpreus, and his mother's 

<" Dimissa gente. — This clause seems iuconsistent 
with the words abiit in Hiherniam which follow, 
since it is expressly stated that Hibemia was his 
native countrj-. Colgan (p. 637, n. 6) proposes to 
read per Hiberniam, meaniug that he left his familv 
aud country, viz. Ulster, and went through Ireland 
to Maghbile. But as Muginfs school was certainly 
not in Ireland, a more probable emendation wouUl 
be " dimissa gente et patríá iUá, abiit in Hiberniam," 
which would give a good sense. Besides, it seems 
to have e.'^caped Colgan's recoUection that Movilla 
was in Ulster : and that if Ulster be what is meant 
by bi&_country, Finnian did not quit his countrv 
when he settled at Mo\áIla. 

f Macbili. — Meaning Maghbile, now MovlUa. 

s Habitum religionis. — The second Life published 
by Colgan from a MS. in the Chartreuse of Co- 
logne, reads here, " habitum religionis Canouicorum 
regularium D. Augustini sumpsit." — See Colgan. 
Append. c. 4, p. 646. 

'' St. ColmnhiUe.—See Colgan. App. ad Vit. S. 
Frígidiaui, c. 3. Acta SS. p. 643 sq. 


1 oo The Hymn of St. Mugint. [Noti: b. 

leave, led to the battle of CuUdreiinhne, fouglit A. D. 561 ; at wliicb time, therefore, 
both before and after that evcnt, St. Finnian must have bcen in Ireland. The Lives 
alsotell us that he visited Rome during the Pontificateof Pelagiusl. (A. D. 555-560). 
But thelrish Annals record his death in the year 579'. We cannot therefore fix his 
Bchool days at a period earlicr than 500, or 520. 

A similar result is obtained by an examination of the facts rccordcd in the English 
or British Life of " S. Finanus episcopus et confessor," published by Capgrave, in the 
Legcnda Anglia.'^. This St. Finanus, whom the Welsh called Winnin ("qui et Wal- 
lico nomine Winniuus appellatur"), is identified, as we have seen, with St. Finnian of 
Maghbile, by his genealogy'. It is stated that he was first placed under the instruction 
of Colman, a Bishop, and afterwards sent to Coelanus abbot of Noendrum", who, how- 
ever, foreseing his future emiuence, refused to undertake his further education, and 
at Finnian's own suggestion, sent him away with a British Bishop named Nennio, who 
had just touched at the island of Nendrum, and was about to return to his See, called 
Magnum Monastei-ium. This story is thus told by the biographer: — 

'• Adveniente post haec Colmanno antistite ad erudiendum doeilis puer traditur, cum quo in omni obe- 
dientia et humilitate aliquot annis instructus est Factum est aliquando dum beatus antistes manum suam 
ad sanctum puerum jam legentem" quadam de causa percutiendum ciun flageUo sursum extenderet, angelus 
Domini ipsam in aere suspeusam retinuit. Quo facto Finanus in terra prostratus ait, Pater mi cur me non 
cedis ? Et iUe, Fili hoc volo facere, sed tamen divinitus impeditus sum. Ergo si vis flagellari ail alium 
magistrum ire te oportet ; ego eoim ab hac hora mmquam te corripiam. Et misit eum ad vencrabilem 

'Intheyear 579 TheAnnals ofTighernach, and ^ Legenda Anglice. — I quote from a copy entitled 

Chron. Scotorum, have " Quies Finiani episcopi ne- "Nova Legenda Anglise. Impressa Londonias : in 

potis Fiatach," at A^ D. 579. And the Dublin domo WLnandi de Worde : commorantis ad signum 

MS. of the Ann. of Ulster, at 578, has "Quies solis in vico nuncupato (the flete slrete) Anno dni 

Uinniani [which O'Conor prints erroneouslv Uma- si.coccc.xvi. xxvij die Februarij." The Life of 

niain] episcopi, mic nepotis Fiatach." The Annals St. Fiunian occurs fol. cxlvii. b. 
of Inisfallen give the " Quies Finnia Moigebile," ' Genealogtj. See above, p. 99, note ''. 

under 572. But 579 is evidentlj' the true date. ■" Noendrum, or Nendrum. — Xow Mahee Island, 

Colgan, who had no access to the Annals of Ulster in Strangford Lough, so called from St. Mochaoi, 

or Tighemach, assigns his death to A. D. 595. — Acta its patron saint. Dr. O'Conor, in various passages 

SS. p. 650. Biit Ughelli {ItaUa Sucra, tom. i. p. of the Annals, translates the name of this place 

794) savs that St. Fridian died i^th Jlarch, 578, Aatiim : and the same error has been committed by 

and tbat liis bo-ly w.-s found in the Chiuch of St. Dr. Lanigan and others. Dr. Reeves -^vas the first 

■\'ii.cent, T,u"ca, and translated to a more honourable to asccrtain, and fix bevond all questiou, the true 

tomb on Lhe iSth Xov. 782, on which day Iiis fes- situationof thisoncecelebrated place. — See h\s Eccl. 

lival since oeen Uopt therc. Ussher, identifving Antiquities of Down und Connor, pp. 11, and 

Fiuuian of Maghbile vith St. Winnjni, places his 187 sq. 

return to Ireluiid from Rome at the vear 540. — " Legentem. — The text has legente, but legenlcm 

Inilx Oiron. (^Jfurhí, vol. vi. p. 590). sccms necessarv for the seiise. 

NoTE B.] St. Fíjmian of Maghhile. i o i 

senein Coelanura Xoendrumeusom abbatem, et ut corporis illius ac anima; curam haberet diligenter com- 
mendavit. At ille faciem juvenis iutuens statim dixit, Iste meus nunfiuam crit discipulus, vere enim in 
celo et in tenis honorc et merito longe mo precellit. Nara episcopus erit sapientia clarus, et religione ac 
sanctitate conspicuvis. IIoc audito Finanus prophetico spiritu tactus ait, Nec mora videbitis huc venire 
qucm scquar, ct snb quo erudiar, qui mihi in omnibus necessitatibus succurrat. Et ecce naves quibus 
sauctissiraus poutifex nomine Nennio cum suis inerat de Britannia venientes portiun insulíe" coram mo- 
nasterio tenuerunt. Quibus cum gaudio et honore susceptis, prefati patresP juvenem Fmanum venerabili 
episcopo cum omni diligentia commendarunt. Cum eodem repatriante'i navigavit, et in ejus sede quse 
Magnum vocabatur Monasterium regulas et institutiones monasticae vitae aliquot annis, probus Monachus 
didicit, atque in sanctarum Scriptm-arum paginis non panini proficiens insudavit, et per invocationem nomi- 
nis Chvisti multa miracula fecit." 

It can scarcely be doubted that the Colman here spoken of as the first tutor or 
instructor of St. Finnian, Avas Colman, the founder and first Bishop of the See of 
Dromore, although Ussher (who is followed by Ware and Harris) assigns to that pre- 
late a date that would be inconsistent with this supposition, and consequently distin- 
guishes between Colman the tutor of St. Finnian, whose " floruit" he places at A. D. 
500, and Colman of Dromore, whose hirth he assigns to the year 516. This mistake 
arose from confounding this Colman with St. Colman-ela, as Dr. Lanigan"" has clearly 
shown. But the means of correcting it are at hand. Two facts recorded in the Life 
of St. Colman of Dromore are sufficient for this purpose. The first is, that prior to 
thtí foundation of his church of Dromore, he consulted St. Mac Nissi as to the esact 
site for the foundation, who pointed out to him the district of Magh Cobha^ Now 
Mac Nissi died in 514*, and therefore St. Colman must have ílourished before that 

" InsulcB i. e. of the island of Nendrum. mancaMS. nowat Bmssels. The passage referred to 

P Prefati patres viz. Colman and Coelan. isthis; "Deinde SEepe venerabileraMacnyseumCon- 

1 Repatriante. — The text has repatriantem, which derensem episcopum petiit [Colmanus], qui hospitum 

seems to be a mistate. prajsciens adventum, eis necessaria jussit priEparari. 

^ Dr. Lanigan. — Eccl. Hist. vol. i. p. 431 sq. Ille itaque iUuc perveniens, in omni hilaritate sus- 

Ussher derives the date 0^516 from the statement ceptus est, ibique paucis diebus raansit. Dehinc 

of the biographers of St Patrick, that St. Colmau- inito consilio venerabilem senem, ubi locum ser- 

ela was predicted by the Apostle of Ireland sixty i-iendi Dco fundare deberet, consulit. Qui respon- 

years before his birth. This prophecy having been dit : Voluntas Dei est, ut in finibus Campi Coha 

said to be delivered duriug St. Patricli's visit to tibi construas monasterium." — Cap. i. sect. 3 (^Acta 

Dalaradia in 456 (see Index Chron. in that year), SS. tom. ii. Junii, p. 26). The biographer then 

gives 516 for the birth of St. Cobnan. But sixty states that St. Colman, in accordance with this ora- 

years (as Dr. Reeves has remarked, Eccles. Ant. cle, immediately repaired to the valley pointed out, 

p. 304, n.) was a favomite term for prophecies of and thcre built his church (sedem sibi constituit), 

this nature ; and no chronological inference can be on the banks of the river Locha [now the Lagan']. 
derived from such figures. t In 514. — See what has been said on this date, 

^ Magh Cohha. — See the Life of St. Colman in the Introd. to the Book of Obits 'of Christ Church, 

printed by the Bollandists, 7th Jmie, from a Sala- p. 73. 

102 The Ihjmn of St. Mufi'mt. [Noteb. 

vfar. Usslier is therefore corrcct in fixing the foundation of thc Sce of Dromore at 
thc year 500. 

But sccondly, we rcad also that Colnian, when a boy, was sent by his parents, for 
education", to St. Caylan, Abbot of Nendrum, the very same to whom he afterwards 
trausferrcd his own pupil, St. Finnian, under the circumstances narrated in the Life 
of the lattcr. But, as we shall see presently, Caylan, or Coelan, died in 497, accord- 
iug to Tighernach, so that Colman nnist have bcen under liis instruction some years 
before that date, seeing that, in thc meantime, he had lived to become a teacher of 
youth himself, and to consult hisown venerable master inhisdifficulties respecting his 
pupil Finnian, We must therefore fix Colman's birth^ at 455, or thereabouts, a cen- 
tury before that of St. Colman-ela. 

Coelanus, or Caylanus, the Abbot of Noendrum, was in advanced years, " veuera- 
bilis senex," when Colman sent St. Finnian to him for further instruction. He is 
better known by thc name of Mochaoi% under which form he stiU lives in the modern 
name of his island Noendrum, now inip lllochaoi, or Mahee's Island. Ussher>' states, 
on the authority of the writer of his Acts, that Caolan was afterwards promoted from 
the Abbey of Nendrum to the See of Down, — " ex abbate Dunensem postea in Ultonia 
factum fuisse episcopum significat;" and hence Ware has made hini the first Bishopof 
that See. We have no access now to the Acts or Life to which Ussher refers, and 
therefore are unable to' determine whether this was stated by the author as a fact, and 
not rather as a probable conjecture, which Ussher's use of the word svjnificat would 
seem to imply. However, be this as it may, the statement appears to be incorrect, and 
is not confirmed by other authorities^ 

The Annals of LTlster have recorded the death of Mochaoi at the year 496 (in 
which they are followed by the Four Masters), but they also give 498 from another 
authority. The true date is 497, as in the Annals of Tighernach. It appears that 
Coelan or Mochai was origina]ly a swineherd, and was met by St. Patriclc in one of 
his apoatolical journeys, by whom he was converted to Christiauity aud baptized»; 

"^ For ediication. — " Po.sthsec ad St. Cajlanum ^ Mochaoi. — Seealso Reeves' Eccl. Ilist. of Down 

Nendrumensem abbatcm, ut apud eum literis addis- and Connor, p. 143-4. Thc Sclioliast on Marianus 

ceret, a parentibus traditus est, qui eum diligenter Gorman, at Junc 23, tells us that St. Mochaoi of 

instruxit, et bonis moribus informavit." — Vit. S. Nendrum had becu origiually called Caolan, Cao- 

Colmani, c. i. sect. 3. lon n amni pén. See also the gloss on the Felire 

* Cohnans hirth. — Colman of Dromore is gene- of Aengus, and Martyr. Dungal., eod. die. 
rally called by the Irish authorities Mocholmog, i. e. > Ussher. — Brit. Eccl. Antiq. c. 17 (^JFor/ia, \o\. 

Mo Cohn-og [or Colman-Ojjr], i. e. my-little-Colnian, vi. 529). 

for so the anciciit Irish expresscd their devotion to ' Authnrities. — See Lanigan, Eccl. Ilist. i. p. 

the saint.«, profixing tlie j^ronoun mo, mij, andudding 422, aiid Reeves, loc. cit, 
og, little. See above, p. 86, notc ". ■" Lki}>tized — Vit. Tripart. part i., c. 53. 

noteb.] St Finnian ofMaghhíle. 103 

and as tliis first intervicw wtis before St. Patrick's appearance at Tara, we cannot 
assign to it a later date than 433''. Coc4an was then "adolescens," that is, we niay 
assume, about fourteen or fifteen years of age; he must, thercfore, have been born 
about 420, and consequently was 76 or 78 when he died. 

These dates arequite consistent with the mention which occurs of him in the Lives 
of SS. Cohnan and Finnian, and are in all probability very close to the truth. 

Fi-om tliis it appears that the year 497 or 498 is, probably, the latest date that can 
be assigned to St. Finnian's going into Britain to completehis ecclesiastical or monastic 
education under Bishop Nennio of the Great Monastery. 

This Nennio is identified by Colgan (i Mart. p. 437), with St. Moinennus or Mon- 
nennius (íMoeinnend, Maoinenn, or Moenu, in the Irish Annals), Bishop of Clonfert, 
who, he tells us, " claruit in Ilibernia circa annum 560," and died 570. But if this 
date be correct, it is not possible, or at least it is highly improbable, that this can be 
the same Nennio, who became the tutor of St. Finnian in or before 498. For he was 
then a Bishop, and assuming that he was not less than thirtj years of age in 498, he 
must have been upwards of a century old when he died in 570. 

Colgan has also identified him with the Nennio, IMonennus, or Mancennus (TTIo-l^in- 
nit)h), who is said to havebeen tutor to St. Tighernach of Clones, Bishop of Clogher, as 
also to St. Eoghan or Eugenius, Bishop of Ardstraw, and to St. Enna or Endteus of the 
Aran Islands. But here there is evidently a mistake ; for Tighernach was Bishop of 
Cluaineoais, and is commonly supposed to have succeeded"^ St. jNIac Carthen in the See 
of Clogher in 506. He died in 544, according to the Ann. Tighern., not 550, as Ussher 
has it. Assuming, therefore, that he was thirty years of age when he became a Bishop, 
he must have been born before 476, and, supposing the tutor Nennio or ilonennus to 
have been twenty years older than his pupil, he must have been (if identical with the 
Monennus of March ist) at least 1 I4years old Avhen he died in 570. This is unlikely. 

Again, St. Enna is said to have received the gift of the Aran Isles from ^ngus, King 
of Munster, who died 489 ; before that time he had been some years at Rome, as 
his biographer relates, and had founded a monaster^"^ in Italy. The exact year of 
his death is not recorded by our annalists, but he was alive in 529, when St. Ciaran of 
Clonmacnois visited him in the Aran Isles ; and he lived to 540, or later, as Colgan shows, 
Append. ad Vit. S. Endei, c. 5 (p. 714). If so, he must haA^e lived to the age of 90 

^ Tlian 433. — See Reeves, ibid. p. 188. Act. SS. p. 705, who suggests tliat we oiight u< 

•^ Succeeded. — See Ussher, Iiidex Chron. (Works, read LcBfivum, not Latinum, in consequence of 

vol. vi. p. 582). We are not to suppose, however, -what the auther adds : " Et quidem congrue Latinum 

that there was then any regular diocesan succession monasterium ilhid vocatur, ubi mandatum charita- 

of bishops in Ireland. tis in Deum et in proximum illibate observatur." 

d A Monastery. — '' Monasterium quod Latinum See Colgan. not. 17 in Jlt. S. Fanchecc, i Jan. Acf. 

nominatur erexit." — Vit. S. Endei, c. 6; ap. Colgan. SS. p. 4 . 

1 04 The Ilijmn of St. Mugint. L^oTn b. 

or loo; and consequently liis niaster Nennio (if he was identical with theNennio who 
dicd in 570) must have bccn oí' the improbable age of 120 or 130 when he died. 

Eoghan or Eugenius of Ardstraw was of a somcwhat latcr datc; Ussher gives the 
year 570'", as thc period whcn he " florished" in Ircland ; and if this be correct, he 
can scarci'ly havc had thc sarae tutor as Tighernach and Enna. 

From thcse considerations it follows that we must distinguish between the Moenu 
or Maoincnn, Bishop of Clonfert, the disciple of St. Brendan^ (who died, according to 
the Four Mastcrs, i March, 570), and the Nennio, Mo-Ninnidh, or Mancennus, who 
was the tutor of St. Tigernach and St. Enna. It is, however, very possible that this 
Nennio may have been the same who is mentioned in the Life of St. Finnian, and 
with whom Finnian went to Britain to complete his ecclesiastical education; although 
it is to be observed that the tutor of St. Tigernach is described as havingbeen Abbot 
of Eosnat in Britain (which place is said to have been also called Alba^), whilst the tutor 
of Finnian is styled a Bishop, whose See had the name of Magnum Monasterhim.. 

Colgan, in hisNotes to the Life of St. Fanchea (Jan. i), suggests that Rosnat was 
probably the Vallis Rosin^'', in Wales. But in his notes on St. Moinennus (March i) 
he identifies it with the Magnum Monasterium mentioned in theLife of St. Finnian, 
and makes both to be the Abbey of Bangor in N. Wales; without any reason, except 
that Rosnat is said to have been also called Alba, which agrees with the supposed (but 
erroneous) signification of Ban-chor, albus chorus{Ú\Q true mcaning beiug alius chorus) ; 
and bccause the British writers tell us that Nennius of Bangor was the tutor of St. 

But this last statement is a manifest mistake, confounding the Nennio menlioned 
in the Life of St. Finnian with Nennius the compiler of the Historia Britonum, who 
is commonly, although erroneously', said to have been a monk or Abbot of Bangor, 
but who at all events lived in the middle of the ninth century. 

"■ The year ^10 Colgan (ludex Clrron. p. 831), the sanie as tlie S. Jrainns wlio uUimatclj- síttlod in 

gives the vear 540 as the " floniit" of Eugenius. Britanv, at or near Dola, and dicd thcre aboiit 590, 

But he huilds this date on the assunicd identitv of although in the English Calendar his day was i^th 

Moneunius of IJosnat, with the Moinennus of i June. 

March, who died in 570. p Alha. — " Dcinde B. puer [S. Tighernachus] 

f Disciple of St. Brendan. — Thcre is a reason to hbertati restitutus, S. Monenni disciplinis et nionitis 

Buspect some confusion betweenthe Maineann -Moc- in Rosnatensi monasterio, quod alio nomine Alba 

nean, or Moenne of the Irish Calcndars, whose me- vocatur, diligenter instructus, &c." — Vit. S. Tiyher- 

mory was celebratcd on thc Ealcnds ofMarch, and naclii, c. 3 (citcd by Colgan, Acla SS. p. 438). 

Rloenna or Moena, Latinizcd by Colgan Moenus or '' l'allis Jiosinw. — This was the Yalley in which 

Mainus, whose festival was thc 26th of Februarj'. Mcne^na or St. Da^ád's was erectcd. Sce Colgan's 

Both are said to have been disciplcs of St. Brendan note on Life of St. Da^nd. — Acta SS. p. 430. 

at Cloiifert, and both vvere Bishops. Tlie lattcr is ' Enoneousli/. — See Blr. Ilerbert's Introd. to the 

supposed by Colgan, Acít. SS. p. 413, 414, to be Irish version of Nennius, p. 9. 

NoTic B.] 

St. Finnian of Maghhile. 


I am thcrcfore vcry miich disposed to adopt the opinion of Cressy and Lani^an'', that 
Rosnatum was the celebratcd CancUda^ or Wliitherne, in Galloway : white-aern, or 
white-house, its Saxon appcllation, being derived', as Bede tells us, from the church 
built of white stone by St. Ninian its founder, — the first stone edifice ever seen in that 
country. Thcgreat celebrity of the school or acadcm^'" which flourished there, which 
was frequcnted by a vast number of mouks and scholars, siifficiently accounts for the 
designation of Magnum Monasterium. This conclusion is strengthened by several con- 
siderations: — 

1. The position of Caudida Casa reudered it very accessible to students from the 
north of Ireland; and it is remarkable, as Dr. Lanigan has observed, that almost all 
those who are spoken of as having studied at Rosnat, or Alba, were natives of Ulster. 
It is known that Galloway derived its name from an ancient colony of Gaedhil, or 
Irish, who were early settlers in that country. 

2. The Scholiast of the Boolc of Hymns tells us that the school in which Finnian 
studied under Mugint was at Fiiterna, Avhich is manifestly Whiterna, or Whitern, the 
Wh being represented by iF"". The Civitas qua' dicitur Candida, in the continental 
Lives of St. Finnian published by Colgan, is only another Avay of translating the Saxon 
name, and is evidently identical with Candida Casa. 

'' Cressy and Lunignn See Cressv, Church 

Histori/ of Britanitij (Book xi. c. 15) p. 240, aiid 
Lanigau, Eccl. Hist., vol. i. p. 437. As Lanigan 
iiiaUes no refereuce to Cressj, it woiúd seeni that he 
had arrived at this opinion independently. Comp. 
also Mr. Herbert's Introd. to tlie Trish Nennius, p. J. 
Bede. — Hist. EccL, lib. iii. c. 4. 

'" Academy. — St. Aelred, in his Life of Ninian, 
c. 10 (published by Pinlierton in his VitcB Antiqucc 
Sanctoruni Scotiai), informs us tliat Niuian, iu his 
own lifetime, had established at Whiterne a semi- 
nary of learnlng, where he received the children 
<jf the nobles and gentrv of the countiy in great 
numbers : — " Interea, Beato pontifici plurestam no- 
bile«, quam mediocres, filios suos tradunt sacris literis 
inibuendos, quos scientia erudiebat, et moribus in- 
formabat, &c." It was not unnatiiral that such an 
establishment should have obtained the name of 
Magnum Monasteriiun in comparisonwitlithesmaller 
schools of Coelan, in the island Xoendrum, Colman, 
at Dromore, &c. 

" Represented hrj F. — This pronunciation of the 
aspirated W is still common in manv parts of Ireland, 

where tlie pcasantrv still pronounce the word lehite 
nearly asjic/hf; and the author of Capgrave's Life of 
St. Finnian tells us that in Wales his name was pro- 
nomiced Winnin. See above, p. 99. Although the 
identity of Futema and Whiteme is so obvious, yet 
Colgan suggests (ih. p. 637), that Draim-finn (i. e. 
coUis, sive mons candidus), a church in the county 
Louth, in Ireland, may be meant. His only reason 
is that St. Finnian was at Drum-finn (see O'Doimell, 
Vit. Columhce, lib. ii. c. i), when St. CoIimicUle bor- 
rowed from him the book which was the cause of their 
celebrated dispute. But this conjecture (wbich Col- 
gan himself dismisses with an " ego indecisum relin- 
quo") needs no confulation. It is oiiIy fair, however, 
to notice here, that Colgan's copy of the Book of 
Hj-mns does not appear to have had any mention of 
Futerna, for he quotes the pa.ssage thus : — " Mugen- 
tium Britannum fuisse magistium S. Findiani Mag- 
bilensis .... tradit vetus Scholiastes in Librum 
Hymnorum, ia prsefatione ad hymnum qui incipit 
Parce Domine, parce populo tuo, &c. dicens: — 
Findianus de Maghile exiit studiorum causa ad 
Mugentitim, et Eiochtis et Talniach'is et alii secum.'' 

ic6 The Hymn of St. Mugint. [Noter. 

3, Therc is also niuch j)robabilily in Dr. Lanigan's conjecture that the name of 
Nennio, which is the same as Nennius, and Ninianus, Avas given to the Bishop of the 
Magnum Monasterium, according to the ancicnt custom of naniing the comharb or 
successor aftcr the saint by whom his See was originally founded". And the whole 
spirit of the story confirnis this idca. Colman, finding that Finnian had become his 
superior, and that a miraculous interposition had prevented his exercising over the 
saintly boy the authority of a master, sends hira to the venerable Coelan, who had been 
his own iustructor. Coelan agaiu acknoAvledges his inferiority; and it is resolved 
that no place is \vorthy of recciving so distiuguished a scholar, except the Magnum 
Monasterium, the great academy, or ecclesiastical university of that age and neigh- 
bourhood, the Candida Casa of St. Ninian. And when the Ninian of the day, the 
successor of St. Ninian in the See of Whiterne, was miraculously directed to the very 
gate of St. Coelan's monastery, no further doubt remained as to the destination of 
St. Finnian; and he was at once placed under the care of the British Bishop. 

4. And furthur, it is by no means impossible that Mugint, the name of St. Fin- 
nian's teacher at Whiterne, as given in the Book of Hymns, may be one of the forms of 
Nennio, Mo-nennius, Moinennus, Mangenus, Mancenus, or Mancennus, the appellations 
given him in other authorities. For in Irish names the doubled u, especially when at 
the end of a word, is often represented by nd anánt; so that Mancenn would, viithout 
much difficulty, give Mancend, or Mangent; and if we suppose the syllable Jlan to 
become Aía or J/o (for n before a consonant is often dropped'' in Celtic pronunciation), 
we arrive at the very name givcn by the Scholiast in the Book of Hymns, Jlojent, or 

There is, however, a Maugantius, IMeugant, or Meigant, celebrated in British his- 
tory, and in the hagiology of Wales, who, from the £Ímilarity of name and probable 
coiucidence of date, may, with some plausibility, be suspected to have been the same 
who was the tutor of St. Finnian at Candida Casa. 

This Maugantius, as he is called by GeoíFrey or Galfridus of Monmouth, appears to 
have been onc, and perhaps the chief of Vortigern's twelvc Druids,Bards, orMagi' (for so 
they are called, although professing Christianity). To him especially the King ap- 
plied to have his doubts cleared up as to the possibility of ihe story told by Merlin's 
mother of the supernatural nature of her son's birth'". On this was probably founded 

" Founded. — See above, p. 83, n. '. Xennius, p. 91. Of the Christianitv of the Britons 

1' Often dropped. — 'lhus, the Latin cenímn be- under Vortigen), Galfriihis sajs (/6. c. 13): " Cor- 

comes in Irish, cvd ; argentum, uirgit ; viginti, laipta namque fuerat Christiauitas eorum, tuiuproj)- 

fichit, &c. ter paganos quos rcx iu societatem eoruni posuerat, 

1 Maffi Sec Galf. Monumctensis, Ilist. Uegum tum propter Pehigianam haresim," &c. 

lirit., lib. vi. c. 17. " Vocatis deuique magis suis, ■■ Birth. — '• Admirans itaque rex, jussit Maugan- 

consuluit illos," &c. Afld corapare Irish Version of tium ad se revocari, ut sibi maiiifestaret, si id quod 


Who was St. Mugint ? 


tbeaccouut whicli Lelaud" has givcn usof Maugantius, which has becn copied by Balc, 
Pitseus, Tanner, &c. Maugantius was therefore a contemporary of Vortigern, which 
agrees, as far as chronology is concerned, with the Welsh genealogies, where we read 
that INIeigant (which is perhaps the correct orthography of the name) was the son of 
Gwyndaf Hén' (or the Old), who was the son of Emyr Llydaw, or Ambrose of Leta- 
via, i. e. Armorica, who is said to have been the son of a sister of the celebrated St. 
German", by Aldor, son of Cynfor. 

By the mother's side Meigant was descended froni the Itings or chieftains of 
Morganwg (Glamorganshire); for his father married Gwenonwy, daughter of Meirig, 
King of Morganwg, who succeeded his father Tewdrig^' in that sovereignty A. D. 446. 

mulier dixerat íieri potuisset. Adductus autem Mau- 
gaiitiiis, auditis omnibus ex ordiue, dixit ad Vorte- 
ginium: In libris philosophorum nostrorum, et in 
plurimis historiis reperi," &c — Hist. Reg. Brit., 
ihid. c. 18. Of these books Galfridus mentions 
particularly the works of Apuleius ; and from this, 
without any other evidence, Bale sets him down as 
having written De magia naturaU, lib. i, and^/)K- 
leii expositio. — De Script. i. 47; and in this he is 
followed by Pitseus, p. 89. 

s Leland This account is as follows (Z)e Scrip- 

toribus, c. 28, p. 49) : — " Magantius se neglectum, 
spretum et contemptum putaret, nisi ad numerum 
eruditorum accederet. Certe quantum per me stabit, 
officii meminero. Ad rem igitur. Magantius pe- 
nitiori rerum naturalium cognitioui studebat ; sed 
tanta cum felicitate et successu, ut praiter commu- 
uem philosophorum sortem visus sit sapere : quo 
calcido vel ipsis Britanniaj principibus quam cha- 
rissimus erat, et prascipue Vortigemo regi ; cui, cum 
propter multam in rebus huraanis experientiam, 
tum etiam propter singulare in magia, naturali qui- 
dem illa, judicium, a secretis consiliis fuit. Unde 
et libeutcr crediderim, illum regi suo persuasisse ut 
Merliuiun, iuter magos, id est, sapientes semideum 
accersiret. Xec me interim fugit, midtas circumfeiTÍ 
et nugas et vanitatcs, quaj tantorum virorura elevent 
autoritatem. Sed placeant talia bardis Cambrias in- 
digenis. Ego autem mea scribo tersis auribus, et 
exquisitis nostri saeculi judiciis : non quod legerim 
aliquid a ^lagantio scriptum (qui enim facile potid, 
post tam insignem cladem a Britannia acceptam, 

aliquid ab eo editum, si modo quicquid edidit, inve- 
nire ?), sed ut íidem lectori faciam, insulam non ca- 
ruisse nostram magníc fam» philosophis, ne tum 
quidem, cum Vortigimus et Saxones de imperio cou- 

t Gwgndaf Hm. — Meigant was President or 
Chaplain of the CoUege of St. Illtyd, at Llantwvt- 
major, and afterwards removed to that founded by 
Dubricius atCaerleon. — Rees, Welsh Saints, p. 219. 
lolo MSS. (printed by the Welsh MSS. Society), 
p. 132. In the Aucliau Saint Inijs Pnjdain {lolo 
MSS., p. 100), St. Cyndaf, or Gwyndaf, the father 
of Meigant Hén (see p. 102, Xo. 32, ibid.), is said 
to have beeu "gwr 0' Israel," — an Israelite. What 
tliis may mean is difficult to say : can it really mean 
that Cyndaf was a Jew by birth ? It is remarkable, 
however, that Meigant is here called Hrn, or the 
senior, implymg that there was a jmiior Meigaiit, 
who was possibly the author of the poeras printed 
in the Mgvijriun Archaologi/, vol. i. 59, which tlie 
editors date A. D. 600 to 650. 

" St. Gernian See the Genealogv, Tab. ix., in 

Rees' IFelsh Saints, p. 123, and Tab. xiii. p. 165. 
The date of St. German's death seems very weU 
ascertained to be A. D. 448. See Ussher, Indei 
Chron. {Works, vol. vi. p. 571, Elrington's edit.), 
and lolo MSS., p. 533. 

^' Tewdrig. — Tewdrig flourished, according to 
Professor Rees, between A. D. 440 and 470 : and in 
or about 446 is said to have resigned the sove- 
reigntj' of Glamorgan to his son, Meurig, after which 
he retired to lead a religious life in the solitude of 


io8 The Ihjmn of St. Mwjint. [Noteb. 

It is said ihat Meigant was one of the original students or disciples of St. llltyd, 
or Iltutus, at his College of Llantwyt-inajor", in Glamorganshire, and that he was 
afterwards transferred to Caerluoii, to the academy founded by Dubricius in that city. 
He retired, iu his old age, to Inys EuUi, or Bardsey Island, where he died and lies 

Ilere it is to be observed that the Welsh records make no mention of Meigant hav- 
iug ever been at Candida Casa, and scarcely leave room for his being there, especially 
if he met with his death, or the wound which caused his death, there, as the Legend 
in the Book of Hymns, and in the Lives of St. Fridianus, has it. We can only 
reconcile the two accounts by supposing that his conuexion with the Colleges of 
Lantwyt-major and Caerleon took place in the earlier part of his life; that his 
wound was not immediately mortal, and that he had time to retire to Bardsey to 
complete his repentance, and die in monastic retirement'. On this hypothesis his 
residence at Whiterne must have been subsequent to the year 492, and probably 
from 500 to 520: a date which would square pretty well with the history of St. Fin- 
nian, and of the other Irish saints who are said to have been the pupils of Neunio or 

On the whole, how^ever, I am disposed to think that the Welsh saint, or Druid, 
was never at Whiterne ; and that the Mugint, who is mentioned in the Scholiast's legend 
as the head of the school or academy there in the days of St. Finnian, was the same, 
under a diflferent name (or rather a different form of the name), as the Nennius, Mo- 
nennius, or Mancennus, who is spoken of in the authorities already referred to, — that 
name signifying that he was the comharb or successor of Nennio, or Ninian, in the 
Maguum Monasterium of Whiterne. 

II. St. Rioc or Rifjhocc. 

St. Finnian, when he placed himself under the instruction of Mugint at White- 
herne, is said by the Scholiast to have been accompanied by Rioc and Talmach. We 
must therefore next inquire into the history of these personages. 

Tintern, ilonmouthsliire. Ile was afterwards, how- to Caerleon in 490, or 492, it seems probable tliat 

ever, induced to head his countrj''s troops against the College of Lhintwjt was founJed before, and 

the Saxons, and fell in battie about A. D. 470 — that of Caerleon after that jear Rees' WeUh 

Rees, p. 184- loh MSS., p. 353. Saints, pp. 178-9. Dubricius died in ^22. — Liber 

" Uantwi/t-major Some accounts place the Llundai-ensis, p. 6^2- 

fouudation of tliis college at A. D. 450, which is » Buried. — lolo MSS., p. 132. 

ver}' improbable, if Illtyd was its íirst principal, as ? lietirement lle is supposed to liave bcen the 

all llie authorities state. Others make it 520, which founder of the churches of Llanfeugan [i e. Church 

seems a mistake on the other side. As Diibricius, of Meugan], Brecknockshire ; and there are also 

Bp. of LlaudaflF, its reputed founder, was translated chapels consecrated to his mcniorj', or under his in- 

NoTK B.] History and Date of St: Rioc. 109 

St. Rioc, or Righocc [i. e. Regulus, the diminutive of Rigli, rex"] is said, on the 
íiuthority of Aengus the Culdce'-, to have been a son of St. Patrick's sister Darerca, 
by a Briton, or Welshman, named Conis. He was born in Wales, and afterwards re- 
moved to Ireland, -where he became, ultimately, abbot of Inisbofinn, an island in Lough 
Ribh, in the Shannon, the seat of a celebrated monastery. 

These are the facts of his life, of which (with the exception of his being literally 
St. Patrick's nephew) there appears to be norcasonable doubt; but when we come to 
fix his age, and to date the events in question, we are met by considcrable difiiculties. 

The later Lives of St. Patrick tell us that Rioc arrived in Ireland during his 
uncle's lifetime, and accompanied him in his apostolic journeys as a deacon and keeper 
of his sacred books, being at that time a very young man, and remarkable for the 
natural grace and beauty* of his person. This circumstance tallies with the story 
told by our Scholiast of the violcnt aíFtíCtion which the Pictish priucess Drusticc con- 
ceived for Rioc. 

But if we are right in fixing the year 500 as the earliest probable date of St. Fin* 
nian's residence at Whiterne, Rioc could scarcely have been the companion of St. Pa- 
trick, even as a deacon, and in his earliest youth; for St. Patrick's death is fixed by 
Colgan^, afterUssher, and thebest Irishauthorities, at the year493, thelatest date'' to 
Avhich it can be assigned, even allowing him to have lived to the age of 120. It is 
clear, therefore, that if Rioc had been St. Patrick's deacon before 493, he could not 
have been a student at Whiterne in 500; or at least he must then have been nearly 
forty years of age. 

This difíiculty is increased if we receive the assertion of Colgan'*, that Rioc had 
laboured for inany years with St, Patrick, and had been by him consecrated a Bishop. 

vocation, viz. St. Moughan's, siibject to Llan- he would wish to resemble. Eoghan at once named 

gattwg Feibion Afel, Moumouthshire : and Capel the deacon Rioc, who was at that time — " speciosus 

Meugan, formerly subject to Llandegfan, Anglesey. forma prse filiis hominum in fiuibus iUisdegentium." 

— Rees, Wehh Saints, p. 269. — Vit. S. Patricií, c. 84, ap. Colgan, Tr. Thaum., 

^ Aengus Ihe Culdee. — De Matribus Sanctcrum, p. 84. The same story is told in nearly the same 

quoted by Colgan, not. 26 ad Vit. S. Melis. (6 words by the author of the Tripartite Life, llb. ii. 

Febr.) Actt. SS. p. 263. Sce the original, infra, c. 1 14 sq., and more coucisely in the fourth life, 

p. III. c. 71. — Colff., ib. p. 44. 

'^Beaufij. — Jocelin tells a story of anlrish chief- '' Colgan. — Trias. Th., p. 234. Append. ^ta ad 

tain, Eoghan, son of Niall the Great (see Vit. Vitam S. Patr., cap. 7. 

Tripart., lib. ii. c. 1 14), who had become aconvert <= The latest date. — Dr. Lanigan contends for the 

to Christianity, but was so frightfully defonned, year 465 as the year of St. Patrick's death. — Eccl. 

that he besought St. Patrick to iiitercede with the Hist., vol. i. p. 363. This would strengthen my 

Almighty that his outward form might be chauged argunient ; but it is not necessary for our present 

into a less repulsive shape. St. PatricU, vielding to purpose to go into this question. 

his request, asked him to poiut out some one whom '^ CoJgan " Cum vero multis jam annis iu 

iio Tlte llijmn of St. Mufjint. [Noteb. 

For if hc was a Bishop before St. Patricfc's dcath, that is, before 493, he must have 
been thcn at least thirty ycars old, and therefore must have been upwardsof 60 when 
he went to Wliiterne in 520. 

The same nuthor also asserts, on the authority of Jocelin, that Rioc came to 
Ireland with his brothcrs", Bishops Mel and Mune, in tlie ycar 454; and if we sup- 
pose him to havc bccn thcn ten years old (which is the least thatcan bc assumed), he 
would be 78 in 520, a pcriod of life in which it would scarcely have been possible for 
him to havc involuntarily engaged the aíFc'Ctions of the susceptible Drusticc, however 
great his personal attractions may have bccn in early life. 

For the iirst of these stateraents, that Rioc laboured " many years''' with St. Pa- 
trick, Colgan does not appear to have any authority. But it will follow necessarily, 
if we suppose him to have conie to Ireland in 454, and to have been then at once 
receivcd into the company of St. Patrick's immediatc attendants. 

For the second, that Rioc Avas consccrated a Bishop by St. Patrick, — Colgan quotes 
Jocelin, Aengus the Culdee, the Calendar of Cashel, Marianus Gorman, and the Mar- 
tyrology of Tamhlacht. 

But these authorities merely call him a Bishop without saying by whom he was 
consecrated. We shall examine them in detail. 

1. Jocelin's words (c. 50) are these: " Darerca vero sororum ultinia, mater erat 
episcoporum sanctorum, Md, Eioch^ et Munis, quorum pater dicebatur Conis'''". He 
does not make any distinction of age between these brothers, nor does he say that 
they were all, or any of thcm, consecrated by St, Patrick. StiU he distinctly asserts 
that they were all Bishops, and that they were all companions to St. Patrick in his 
apostolical labours: " Hi similiter in prsedicatione, et itinere B. Patricium comitaban- 
tur, et in locis diversis Pontiíicalcm dignitatem sorticbantur." 

We must recollect, however, that this is the language of a writer of fhelalter end 
of the twelfth century'; and that his tcstimony in a question of chronology is of no 
Aveight in comparison with that of an authority of thc seventh or eighth century. 

2. St. Aengus, a Avriter of the ninth century, would be entitled to more respect if 
vre were quite surc that his works, as \ve now have them, were free from interpola- 

opere Evangelii Sancto Patricio coUaborassct, tan- states gcncrally tliat líioc and his brothers foUoweil 

dera, exjgentibua meritis, ab eodem est episcopus St. Patrick to Ireland. IIis words are : — " Cum 

ordinatus." — Act. SS., p. 267. euim S. Patricius e.\ Britannia in Iliberniam traje- 

<■ frUh his brothera. — Colgan. Acta SS. p. 268, cisset, S. Munis episcopus illum, suosque germanos 

not. 4. fratres S. Melem cpiscopum, et S. Riochum de ínis- 

f Conis Colgan. Tr. Thanm., p. 76. bojinne, secutus cst."' — Fit. Trip., part ii. c. 21. 

« Twelfth centuri/ It is remarlcablc that the This secms to implj- that Muuis, Mcl, aud líioc ac- 

author of the Tripartite Life seems carcfuU}' to avoid conipauied St. l'atriclc to Ireland. The older Lives of 

giving the titlc uf Bishop to St. Kioc, although he St. Patriclv make uo mcntion of Ilioc whatsoevcr. 


Histori/ ancl Date of St. Bioc 

1 1 1 

tion. But cvcn as they stand, liis statement gocs no Axrther than the general title 
oí' Bishop, which he gives to all Darerca's fifteen sons. Ile does not say that Rioc 
was consccrated by St. Patrick, or that he was the corapanion of St. Patriclc in his 
Hiissionary labours; and it is worthy of notice that, although he repeats the title of 
Bisliop beforethe names of Mel, Mclchu, and Munis, he docs not give that title speci- 
alhj to Rioc. IIis words are these: — 

Dapepcafnip pabpuic,Tnaéaip coicn-ep- 
poc nbes, -\ t»a 05, .1: erpo5 ITlael, 1 eppos 
llleldia, eppos lllunip, ^1500 mpebopmbe, 
Cpumame, Hlibnu, ITIogenoc, Loman Qca 
Cpunn, Lupan Duanaipe, -\ Loapnb Chill 
Chunnu a n-bip, Ciapan, Capancoc, Cppoc 
Coluim, bpenamt) Pme, eppoc mac Cailli, 
bpocan, bpocait). Cche, 1 Lalloc o Senlop 
mp mbat)5nu, na t)i CaUis. 

Darerca sister of Patric, was the mother of fifteeu 
Bishops, and of twoVirgins, viz. Bishop Mael, Bishop 
Melchu, Bishop Munis, Rigoc [Rioc] of Inls-bo- 
finne, Crumaine'', Midhnu, Mogenoc, Loman of 
Ath Tvim, Luran-Duanaire', and Loarnn, both of 
Cill Chunnu, Ciaran, Carantoc, Bishop Coluim, 
Brennan Fine, Bishop Mac Cailli, Brocan, Brocaid. 
Eche aud Lalloc of Senlos behind Badgna [i. e. 
west of Slieve Badgna] werc the two nuns'*. 

It is manifest that this passage contains nothing in support of the assertion that 
Rioc was consecrated a Bishop by St. Patrick, or that he accompanied his uncle in his 
apostolic journeys ; moreover, it assigns to Darerca sons, Avho (as we learn from 
other authorities) were not her sons, and therefore it is quite possible that there may 
be error also in the statement that she was the mother (in the literal sense) of St. 
Rioc of Inisbofinne. 

That Rioc's name may have been introduced into this passage by the interpolator 
is the more probable, because, in the Felire or Metrical Martyrology of Aengus, 
Rioc's name does not occur. From this it seems to follow, that in the age of Aengus 
(the beginning of the ninth century), he was not known, or at least not recognised 
as a saint in the Irish Calendar. Had it been otherwise, and had Rioc been at that time 
regarded as a nephew and companion of St. Patrick, it is scarcely to be supposed that 

'' Crumaine. — Colgan reads, " Crumaine of Lec- 

' Luran Duanaire. — Colgan reads, " Lurach- 
Decauaire of Doire Liuain, and Loarn of Kill- 

'' Two nuns. — De Matrihus Sanctorum (in the 
Book ofLecan). That this passage is interpolated is 
plaÍD from the fact, that although it begins by assert- 
ingDarerca to havebeen the mother of fifteenBishops, 
sixteen are mentioned, if not eighteen ; for Colgau 
reduces them to sixteen by making Luran and Dua- 
naire (or, as he reads, " Lurach-Decanaire") one, 
and also by joiuing in the same way Mac Cailli and 

Brocan, or as he has it, " Mochalli-Broccan." 
Jocelin, however (c. 50) tells us that Mogenoc, 
Loman, Brocan, and Brocaid, were the sons of Ti- 
grid, not of Darerca, as Colgan himself confesses 
(^Acta SS.p. 263), astatement which is coufirmedby 
other authorities, especially the Tripartife Life, 
part ii. c. 2. And it is worthy of note that these 
latter authorities make Brocan a distinct personage 
from Mac Cailli. All this is further evidence of in- 
terpolatiou in the existing MSS. of the works of 
Aengus, and shows how little weight should be given 
to such statements, in comparison with so ancient a 
MS. as the Liber Hymnonim. 

1 1 2 The IIymn of St. Mugint. [N'ote n. 

his name could have been omitted in such a work as the Felirc This omission must 
therefore throw very great doubt, not only on the statement of his having lived 
with St. PatricU, but also on his being the son of Darerca'. It is difficult to imagine 
that these facts, if true, could have been unlcnown to the Irish Church in the ninth 

3. With respcct to the Martyrology of Tamhlacht, and that of Marianus Gorman, 
it is remarkable that although both have the name of St. Rioc, under the form Morioc, 
or Tny Rioc (the usual title of respect or devotion given to the saints in Ireland), yet 
neither of them say anything of his being a Bishop, or of his relationship to St. 

Marianus Gorman has these words only, at the ist of August: — 

Tnopioc pop pinb-nem 
Morioc above the starry heavens. 

Upon which there is in the Brussels MS. the following interlineary gloss: — 

eppcop mpi ineic ualmng 
Bishop of Inis meic Ualaing 

where it will be observed, that the title of Bishop is given him by the scholiast or au- 
notator, and not by the original author of the Martyrology. 

The Martyrology of Tamhlacht has his name on tbe same day (ist Aug.) in these 

words : — 

lHopioc mpi lusein 
Morioc of Inis Lugein"". 

And here again there is no mention either of hisrelationship to St. Patrick, or of his 
having been a Bishop, much less of his having been consecrated by St. Patrick. It is 
also worth noting, that in these authorities, although he is callcd a Bishop, nothing 
is said of his having been the son of Darerca. 

^ Son of Darerca. — In another vrork attributed rities ; andyet St. Sechnall, who died in 447, at the 

to Aengus, and extant in MS. in the Book of Lecan, age of 73, is asscrted to be the son of Darerca by the 

" the seven sons of Restitutus the Lombard" are same father as Rioc, although liioc was but a boy 

enumerated in two different places, a circumstance ■nhenMel and Mimis, the sons of Darerca by another 

which gives rise to the suspicion that tbis also is an husband, were Bishops. IIow is it possible to treat 

interpolation. These are " Sechnall, bishop ; Nech- tbese statenients as hiatorj- ? 

tain, Bp. ; Dabonna, priest ; Mogoman, priest ; Da- •>> Inis Lvt/ein. — It appcars from this that the 

rigoc, Bp. [L e. St. Rioc, who is called Darioc, in island known by thc name of Inis bo-finu, iu Loch 

the second copy] ; AusaiUe [Auxilinus] Bp. ; and Ribh, was also called Inis Lvgein, or Island of Lu- 

Lugna [Lugnaid] Bp." — De Sanctorum Geneal. gen, and Inis meic L'alaing, 1. e. island of the son 

Here it wiU be obscn-ed that Rioc is said to be the of Ualang, from which we may infer that Lugen 

son of Restitutus the Lombard, not of Conis the was the son of Ualaug, but nothing more seems to 

Brilon, and there is no mcntion of Mel or Munis, be kuo\vn of these personages — See Colgan. Acta 

the elder brothers of Rioc, according to other outho- S5., p. 26S, n. 11. 

NoTE B ] nistory and Date qf St. Rioc. 1 1 3 

All these circumstances throw great suspicion on the statements in question ; and 
as itison these mainly that Colgan builds in assigning so early a date ^^454 to Rioc's 
arrival in Ireland, it is important to remark, that unless they were more fully estab- 
lished, they cannot for a moment be allowed to weigh against the authority of soearly 
a ]\IS. as the Libcr Hymnorum. 

4. Let us inquire then more particularly how Colgan has arrived at this date. 

The Life of St. Brigid, which Colgan and Ussher attribute to St. Ultan, tells us 
that during her mother's pregnancy two holy Bishops", Mel and Melchu, arrived from 
Britain, and having been hospitably received at the house of her father Dubhtach, 
predicted the future sanctity and fame of the unborn infant. 

Here there is no mention of Rioc, or of any other companion of these Bishops ; 
and the same 6tory, in nearly the same words, and with the same silence as to any 
companion or attendant on the Bishops, is told by Animosus" in his Life of St. Brigid, 
who adds, however, that Mel and Melchu were disciples (he does not £ay nepheivs) of 
St. Patriclc: "ipsi erant discipuli sancti Patricii Archipiscopi, qui tunc pra^dicabat 
verbum Dei in Hibernia," 

But although these Lives say nothing of Rioc, the defect is supplied by JocelinP, 
who tells us (c. 102) that Mel was accompanied by his hrothers Munis and Rioc, when 
he came from Britain into Ireland: and from this Colgan infers, that the date of his 
visit to the house of St. Brigid's parents must also be regarded as the date of St. Rioc's 
arrival in Ireland. 

But theyear 453 or 454 has been fixed upon by Ussher and Colgan'' as the most 
probable date of St. Brigid's birth, allowing her to have lived 70 years, and to have 
died, according to the testimony of the Annals of Ulster, in 523 or 524. 

From these premises it will follow that Rioc came to Ireland Avith his brothers 
Mel, Munis, and Melchu, in the year 453 0^454; and this is the reasoning upon 
which Colgan determines the date of that event. 

The reader, however, will observe that the whole validity of this conclusion de- 
pends on the truth of Jocelin's assertion (an assertion not found in any earlier wri- 
ter), that Rioc was the companion of St. Mel when he arrived in Ireland. Moreover, 
it should be observed that Jocelin, in the very same passage in which he makes tbis 

^ Bishops "In iUis autem diebus, Deo insti- PjoceUn. — HV. 6ía 5". Puír., ap. Cofgan. ií>. p. 88. 

gante, duo sancti episcopi ex Britannia venientes " Magni Yir meriti Mel supra inemoratiis, qui cum 

intravemnt in domum Dubtaclii, quorum alter vo- fratribiis suis vlris sanctissimis, Munio et Eiocho, de 

cabatur Mel, et alter Melchu," &c. — Fií, 3<;i S. Britannia in Iliberniam advenit, ab ipso S. Patricio 

Briff., c. 3. Tr. Thaum., p. 527. in Pontificalen gradum promotus, ipsi ia praedica- 

° Animosus. — Vit. 4ta ap. Colgan. c. 3, ib. p. tione coadjutor extitit." 
546. And see the fifth Life (p. 567) to which the 1 Colgan. — See Ussher, Ind. Chron., in anno 

same remark applies. 453. Colgan. Append. ad Vit. S. Brigid. c. 8 and 9. 


114 The Hymn of St. Mmjint. [Noteb. 

assertion, tells us that St. Mel was consccratcd a Bishop by St. Patriclc; so that hc 
must havc been in Ireland bcfore, or elsc we must alluw a suíílcicnt time for his con- 
secration bctween his arrival in Ircland and his visit to the housc of Dubhtach; unless, 
indecd, we suppose him to have been consecrated by St. PatricU in Wales, whicb can 
8carccly havc bccn intended. 

All this looks so likc a modern embellishment of the story (especiully when we 
observe that Rioc and Munis are mentioned incidcntally in a sort of parenthesb), that 
it secms unsafc to build so much upon it ; and the chronology to which it leads Í3 
incousistent with facts recorded in authoritics of higher antiquity andof much greater 

For it is evident that if Rioc came to Ireland in 454, he could notbavebeen a stu- 
dent in the Academy of Whiterne in 520. So that Jocelin's statement is at variance 
with the narrative of the ancient Scholiast of the Book of Hymns, who lived, most 
probably, in the ninth or tenth century, and copied still older traditions. It is im- 
possible to hesitate a moment when we are compelled to choose between historical facts 
stated by such an authority, and the ohiter dictum of a writer like Jocelin, who ílourished 
at the close of the twelfth century, and was not even a native of Ireland. 

Again, there is a passage in the Life of St. Aedh Mac Bric, Bishop of Rillarc, in 
Meath, which is likewise inconsistent with the early date which Jocelin''s story would 
assign to St. Rioc's arrival in Ireland. 

This prelate died in 588, as we learn from the Four Masters, and other authorities, 
and as, indeed, Colgan himself admits. The following account of him is given in the 
Martyrology of Donegal at the loth of November: — 

QoÓ mac bpic cppcob o c1iiU áip 1 ini6e, Aodh MacBric, Bisbop of Kinare''in Meath, and 

-[ o Shliab Liacc 1 ccip bogame 1 ccenél of Sliabh Liag' in Tir Boghaine in Cincl Conaill. 

Conaill. X)o rlioóc piachaó mic Neill naoi He was of the race of Fiach, son of Niall of the nine 

giallaig t)6. Qoip Cpirc an can po pafó a hostages. The year of Christ when he rcsigned his 

ppipac 1)0 óuiii niTnhc 588. spirit to heaven was 588. 

Colgan,howevcr,has published his Life fromaKilkenny !MS. at the 28th of February. 
It is anonymous, but as Colgan has remarked', was evidently written before the 
year 1000, not only from its rude style, butalso because the writerspeaks of monaste- 
ries as existing in Ireland in his tiine, which certainly did not exist since A. D. 1000. 

This writer tells us that St. Aedh in thc course of his journeyings paid a visit" to 

' Hillare. — A parish near the hill of Uisneacb, G'Donovan, Note to the Four Masiers, at A.D. 5SS. 

barony of Rathconrath, county We.stnieath. ' Ilas rcmarhed. — See his note i, to this Life, 

• Sliahh Liag. — Now Slievelcaguc, baroDy of Acta SS. p. 412. 

Banagh, county of Doncgal, ■\vhcrc the ruins of the " A visif. — IIis words are, cap. 35, " Venit S. 

ancient cliapel of St. Aedh arc still to bc scen. — Acdus Episcopus ad insulam Bofindo id est vacca; 

NoT'- K-J History and Date of St. Rioc. 1 1 5 

St. Rioc, in his monastery of Inis-bo-finne in Locb Ribli, who hospitably enter- 
tained him thero. And the mention of several other historical personages as being 
the contemporarios of St. Aedh clearly shows that this visit must be dated after the 
middle of the sixth century. Thus we read (cap. 3) that St. Aedh, whilststiU a boy, 
wandered into a remote and desert Island, where he found SS. Brendan of Birr and 
Cannech of Achadh-bo sitting in a cell, and studying the Gospels together : and that St. 
Brendan seeing the boy coming, rose up to meet him with the greatest respect and joy, 
predicting his future eminence. Now, St. Brendan died A. D. 571 (see Ussher, In- 
dex Chron.), and St. Cannech', who was born A. D. 5 1 5, died 598. This would bring St. 
Aedh's visit to Inis-bo-finne much later than 530, the year to which Colgan refers it; 
for in 5:30 St. Cannech was but 15 years old (if the dates above given are correct), 
and, therefore, according to the story just quoted, St. Aedh must have been much 
younger ; whereas he was a Bishop when he paid his visit to St. Rioc. 

We must add, therefore, some fifteen or twenty years to Colgan's date in order to 
avoid this diíficulty, which will give 545 or 550, as being, with more probability, the 
year in which Aedh and Rioc met at Inis-bo-finne. 

This is confirmed by the mention of Mughain, queen of Diarmait Mac Fergusa 
Cearbheoil (King of Ireland A. D, 544-565), who was healed by Aedh's prayer, 
(cap. 19). Also by the mention of the celebrated prophet St. Beg mac De (cap. 33) 
who died 557, and of Aedh's visit to St. Lasrian of Daimhinis, or Devenish Island, 
who died, according to the Annals of Ulster, in 570. 

All these considerations prove, beyonda question, that Rioc could not have come 
to Ireland, or been the companion of St. Patrick in 454; but it will be seen that the 
testimony of the ancient Life of St. Aedh coincides with the evidence of the Liber 
Hymnorum in bringing him down to a lower date'', which is strongly confirmed by 
the silence of the ancient Martyrologies. . 

albse, qu£E est in stagno Eighe, et suscepit eum S. dentalem plagam ah Hibernia procul secreta, ser- 

Riocc, abbas iUius loci lionorifice. Monasterium mone Scottico Inis-bo-finde, id est Insula vittilae 

enim claram in iUa insula est, quod ex nomine in- albcB nuncupatur ;" thus confounding the Inis- 

sulae nominatur." Here the writer speaks of the bo-finde of Loch Righ, -with the island of the same 

monasteiy as still in beiug. It Tvas entirely de- nanie ofí" the coast of Connemara. This error he 

stroyed, howcver, by the Danes in 1085. See corrected in his Addenda (p. 1045), biit fell into 

Colgan's notc in loc. another (whicli is continued in the edition of Lond. 

^ St Cannech These are the dates given by the 1687, fol.), by intimating that St. Eioc, abbot of 

Four Masters, aud by Colgan himself. — Acta SS. Inis-bo-finde was not the same who is said to have 

p. 190. been St. Patrick's nephew. He says (p. 1045) : 

» A lower date. — In the first ed. of the Primor- " Quin et aliam ejasdem nominis insuJam (inter 

dia (4° Dubl. 1639) Usslier had said of St. Rioc Connaciam et Lougfordiíe comitatura positam 

(p. 825): " Postea episcopum factum invenio in atque ecclesiasticaj Ardachadensis cpiscopi jurisdic- 

parva illa (a Beda descripta) insula, qu<B ad occi- tioni subditam) Sinei fluminis lacus Loch-rie dic- 


1 1 6 The Ihjmn of St Mugint. [Note b. 

It follows also that Rioc could 8carcely have been the son of Darerca, St. Patriclt'a 
sister, if he was a young man of, say 15 or 20 years of age whcn he accompanicd St. 
Finnian to Candida Casa in 520. For if Darerca was the mother of Mel, who was a 
Bishop in 454, still more, if she was the mother of St. Sechnall, who died at the age 
of 75, according to the Annals of Ulstcr, in 447, she could not, withoiit a miracle, have 
been the mother of St. Rioc : and we havc seen that she is not so called by any authority 
older than Jocelin, a writer of the twelfth centur^^, for theinterpolations of the worlcs 
of Aengus the Culdee are probably even later than that period. 

III. Talmach and his son, St. Lonan of Treoit, or Trifod. 

The name of Talmach, but without any particulars of date or place, occurs in the 
Martyrologies of Tarahlacht, Marianus Gorman, and Donegal, at the i^th of March; 
and again on tbe 26th of February in the Martyrologies of Marianus, and Donegal. 

In the autograph MS. of this latter work, preserved in the Burgundian Library 
at Brussels, there is the following note at the 26th of February: — 

Calmach. Qbeip beóa baippe. cap. 10, Talmach. The Life of Barre, cap. 10, says that 

50 ccuc Calmaé a óeall t)0 Dia -| ho baiiipe, Tahnach gave his chiirch to God and to Barre ; for 

oip baoirmrii ap rcoil baippe illoc Ipce, he was of theschool ofBarre in Loch Ircc; aud I 

-] nieraim gupab é po an Calmac fm. No thinkitAvas this Talmach. Or it was the Talmach 

ipe an Calmach aca 14 111 apc. Oip m pai- who is ou thc 14 of March. For I do not see any 

cim 00 lucc a ccomanma acc lat) apaon. of the same name except these alone. 

Colgan, however, has placed Talmach, the disciple of St. Brendan, at the 26th of 
February, and Talmach, the disciple of St. Barre, at the i^th of March. 

The latter of these having been a student of St. Barre's school at Loch-Eirce, 
must have flourished at the beginning of the seventh ceutury, for Colgan' is of opiuiou 

tus nobis exhibet ; cujus et Riochum quendam, the dillicultics of the story by supposing two of the 

Patricii nepote atate posteriorem, Abbatem extitisse name, and tlierefure that Rioc's beiug the uephew 

S. JEái vit» scriptor hisce verbis prodidit" [he then and conipanion of St. Patrícfc must be regarded as 

quotes the words alreadv given, note ", p. 1 15, su- a fabrication, or at least an error, which originated 

pra]. And so the passage stands in the text of the in more niodem times. 

editiou of 1687, p. 430 ; butin the Addenila to Ihat > Twelfth centiiry. — Darcrca was not an uncom- 

edition, p. 509, it is agaiu correctcd by omittiug mon name. Tlicre was a Darerca (otherwise callcd 

the statemcnt that St. Rioc was a Bishop, aud Moninc), of Cill Sleibhe Cuilliu (Slieve Gulliou, 

also the insiuuation that the abbot of Inis-bo-fiudc now Killca\y, county Armagh), who died in jiS 

waa a different and a later Rioc than the reputed (517 iu Four Jlasteis), whom even Ussherhas con- 

nephew of St. Patricfc. 'VVith this last correction founded with the sister of St Patrick (/«de.r Chron. 

the text has been finally printed in Dr. Elrington'a iu anno 5 1 8). It is possible, that Rioc's mother 

edition of Ussher's Works, vol. vi. p. 382. So that may have been called Darerca, but of tbis we have 

we have thus U.ssher's mature judgment, — first, no evidence. 

that Rioc, abbot of Inis-bo-finne was not a Bishop : ^ Colgan. — Dc S. Talmacho, uot. 4. .-icta SS. 

and 8econdly, that we cannot relieve oursclvcs of p. 607. 

NoTE B.] Talmach and Lonan. 1 1 7 

that St. Barre's scliool could not liave been opened before the ycar 600. If so, this 
Talmach could scarcely have been the same who was the companion of St. Ilioc in 
520 at the Academj of Whiterne. 

Tiie other Talmach, however, must have ílourished in the first half of the sixth 
century, For St. Brendan (whose disciple he was, and who died A. D. 576 or 577), 
founded the Church of Clonfert (according to the Annals of Clonmacnois), in A. D. 558 ; 
and before that he had been for some time in an island in Connaught, as his Life tells 
us, and three years in Britain, where St. Talmach is said to havebeenhis companion: 
so that we cannot assign a much later date than 550 to this Talmach's connexion 
witli St. Brendan. Therefore, so far as Chronology is concerned, he may very well 
have been tlie fellow-student of S. Rioc in 520, and the father of St. Lonan of Trifod. 

Still there is no evidence beyond the ideutity of the name and the possibility of 
the thing, toprove thathe was so. Michael 0'Clery, thecompiler of the Martyrology 
of Donegal, in the passage cited above, says expressly, that he was not aware of any 
others of the name, except the two Talmachs, whose memories are preserved in the Irish 
Calendar at Feb. aóth andMarch i^th. Nevertheless, he speaks of Talmach the father 
of St. Lonan of Trifod, at the ist of November. Are we, therefore, to infer that he 
considered this Talmach as identical with one of the former'? if so, it must be with 
the disciple of St. Brendan, as is evident from what has been said. 0'Clery's words 
are as follows: — 

Qn Lonan p o Cpepot», Ccilmach amm a As to this Lonan of Trifod, Talmach -n-as the 

aca|i, 1 Dupcjnc ingen Cpuipc 1115 bpecani name of his father, and Dustric daughter of Trost 
cuairceipc a mataip, aiiiail an pannfo: — King of North Bi-itain -was his mother— as thls 

poem proves : — 

Cpuipc pi an rpaoip mbep on cpais, Truist liing of the free bay'^ on the strand, 

T?o ccacc aoin msm lomlam. Had one perfect daughter, 

Dupcpic ppi 506 pobail pom, Dustric, she -n'as for every good deed [renowned], 

Tllacaip lonam mic Calmaisli. The mother of Louan sou of Talmach. 

This is clearly the same story which is given by the Scholiast on the Hymn before 
us. But it does not decide who the Talmach was who was the father of St. Lonan, 

» The former. — His meaning, however, may be both in Ireland and Scotland. Is Inbher-on-traigh 

that he lincw of no other saints of the name besides the ancient name of any place iu Scotland ? Or 

the two of whom he had spoken. could Caervantorigum, the Eoman namefor Wigton 

^ Thefree hay. — " Saoir inbher on traigh." Thc and Kirkudbrightshire, be derived from it, quasi Cas- 

free bay on the strand. Inbher, pronounced Inver, trum stqjer litus, or Caer-inbhir-on-traighe ? I 

is a bay into which a river runs, or a long, narrow know how fiillacious such conjectiu:es are, and there- 

neck of the sea resembling a river. The word entei's fore I would only be understood as making a guess 

into the composition of many geographical names for the consideration of scholars. 

1 1 8 The Hymn of St. Mugint. [Note b. 

or whether he was one of the sainta of the same name who wcre commemorated in the 
Calendar"^ of the ancient Chnrch of Ircland. 

It is a singular fact, but not inconsistent with the primitive simplicity of íhe rude 
age to which this legend belongs, that the daughter oí a Pictish king should have been 
sent to learn lctters at the Academy of St. Mugint, along with students of the other 
sex. And I cannot but think that the manner in which the scholiast records this 
fact, without any attempt at apology or explanation, is a strong evidence of the anti- 
quity and authcuticity of the traditions from which he derived his narrative. 

Drust, Durst, or Drest, was the name of several of the Pictish kings. One of 
these Drust, son of Erp, is said to have reigned an h undred years : and in the ninteenth 
year of his reign, we are told St. Patrick arrived in Ireland. This is asserted by the 
Chronicon Pictorum*^. And assuming it to be true, and that the year 432 is the 
year of St. Patrick's mission here intended^, the reign of Drust came to a close A. D. 
513, or thereabouts. But Innes rejects the story of his having reigned 100 years, and 
dates his death, with much greater probability, A. D. 451. 

He was succeeded by Talorc, who reigned four years, and by Nectan, the first 
Christian king, who died in 480, and was foUowed by I)rust Gormoth^. Then comes 
Galam-arbith, or [-etelickj, who reigned fifteen years, according to the Irish text of 
the Pictish Chronicle, and was succeeded, about A.D. 495 or 500, by two Drusts^ or 
Drests, who reigned for a time conjointlv, viz. Drest, son of Budros, and Drest, son of 

Oueorother of these was, therefore, in all probability, the father of Drusticc, who 
was the mother of St. Lonan of Treoit''. At least, it is evident that there is nothing 

■ Calendar. — It ^rill be observed that neither Hist. of Scotland, published by the Siialding C liib, 

Talmach is meutioned iu the ancient Fdire of St. p. 107. He is called Dartguitimoth, an evident 

Aengus the Culdee, composed in the eighth, or be- comiption, in the Ii-ish copy of the Chron. Pictorum. 

ginning of the nmth centurj'. This seems to lead to See Irish Version ofXennius, j). iG^. 

the conclusion that their names were not then in g Two Drusts Irish Version of Xennius, p. 162, 

the Calendar of the Irish Church ; although it must note *. 

be borne in mind that as the metrical rules to which '' Treoit. — Or Trifod, now Trivctt, in the countjr 

^ngus restricted himself allowcd only four lines Meath. The word signifies thrce sods, aud tlie 

to a daj', it is not possible that he could have aimed place received this namc from the circumstance of 

at including more than the principal saints. thrce sods liaving been turned up at the intermeut 

•^ Chronicon Pictorum. — See Irish Version of of Art, son of Conn of the huudrcd battles, in tliis 

Nennius, p. 161. place which had been fonnerlj' callod Dumhaderg- 

" Intended. It is possible, ahhuugli I think not luachra. Ilence came the custom of phicing a sod at 

80 probable, that the year 388, when St. Patrick and the head, and one at each side of the corpse at fimerals, 

hi8 sisters were captured by pirates, and sold as in thc name of the Trmity ; aud the place where Art 

slaves in Ircland, may have been meant. If so, the was buried obtained the name of Cpepoti, three 

ycar of Drust's dcatli would be 469. sods. See tlie noto in the Martyrology of Donegal 

' Dntst Gormoth.—S(iO Innes, Civil und Eccl. at Nov. i ; and the Four Masters at A. D. 1 34. 

^íoTE B.] Conclusion. 


inconsistent with the received Chronology of the Irish and Pictish, or British historjr 
of the period in the legend recorded by our Scholiast. All the personages named in 
it, so far as datcs are concerned, may have been contemporary, and may have talcen 
the parts assigned to them in the narrative. I am, therefore, strongly disposed to re- 
ceive it, as being, in all its main fucts, a narrative of true and authentic history. 

In conclusion, it is ouly necessary to notice the opinion -which the Scholiast states 
was entertained by some, that the author of this Hymn was " Ambrosius ;" that is to 
say, Ambrose of Milan, who was celebrated in Ireland, and was called, as we have seen 
(see p. 70 supra), Hymnodicus, from his having been the author of several ecclesias- 
tical Hymns. But this was probably the guess of some person who dosired to find 
a more dignified author and origin for tlie Hymn than that which the singúlar legend 
told by the Scholiast has assigned to it, and who therefore suggested that Ambrose 
may have composed it " in his sickness," that is, either on some occasion when he 
himself was suíFering from sickness (although no particular mention of any such oc- 
casion occurs in his history), or else during a season of common plague or sickness, 
which would be more in accordance with the words of the Hymn. 

But this opinion is unworthy of any further discussion, and that which attributed 
the Hymn to David stili less so. The Scholiast has, in fact, himself rejected this 
latter opinion as absurd, and has judiciously remarked, that it has no foundation ex- 
cept in the circumstance that the passage at the conclusion of the Hymn, Dic angelo 
tuo percutienti populum, Sufficit, is taken from the words in which the sacred historian 
records the cessation of the plague, which was the consequence of David's sin in 
numbering the people. — 2 Sam. xxiv. 16. 

It cannot, however, be denied, that the subject matter of the Hymn does by no 
means accord with the opinion that it was composed by Mugint as a penitential acknow- 
ledgment of his fault, under the circumstances recorded in the legend told by our 
Scholiast. It contains no allusion to any individual repentance. It makes no indivi- 
dual confession of sin. It is altogether general, deprecating the vengeance of the 
Almighty from the people, or from some cit}^ civitate ista, or monastery (for so civitas 
often signified); and alluding particularly to the fear of a hostile invasion. 

The story of Mugint, Eioc, and Talmach, may, nevertheless, be authentic and true, 
although it be not true that thc Iiymn was coraposed by Mugiut, in reference to those 
transactions, to which, in fact, it makes no allusion Avhatsoever. The Scholiast has 
related a genuine historical tradition, but erred in supposing that the Hymn with 
which he connects it was composed on that occasion. 

I20 The Hijirn of St. Mufjint. [Noteb. 

Postscript. — After the foregoing pages were in type the Editor received from his 
fricnd Dr. Reeves the following reniarlcs on the questions discussed pp. 103-108. 
Although he does not see cause to cancel what he has written, he is anxious that 
the reader should have before him the judgment of a scholar whose opinion is entitled 
to the highest consideration. Ile therefore inscrts Dr. Reeves's communication in 
this place: — • 

"There can be little doubt that the Scholiast intended Whitherna in North Britaiu to be the scene of 
the transaction which he relates. The Saxon name, which Ailredus latinizes Witerna, and is as closely 
representt'd by Futerna as the Irish admits, as well as the introdiiction of the Pictish King's daughter, clearlv 
points to Gallowav. Again, the association of the names Monennius, or Isennio, with a monasterj' called 
Candida or Alba, in the lives of SS. Tighernach, Eugenius, and Enda, indicates that the writers of these 
memoirs had refcrence to the same place. 

'• On the other hand, there is ground for supposing that part of the narrative is drawn from Wales : the 
name Mugint answers so exactly to the Welsh Meugan, and the ' Rosnatense,' or ' Rosnatum monaste- 
rium,' which is given as the alias for Candida, is so like the ' Rosina vallis' in which the church of Me- 
nevia, or St. David's, is situate, that a suspicion arises conceming their identity. St. Da^-id himself was in- 
structed by Paulinus, the Pawl Hén of the Welsh, who had founded a monastery called Ti/- Gwyn ar Dáf, 
or 'White House on the Tave,' now known as Wliitland in Carmarthenshire. Besides, the 'duo Finiani,' 
that is, of Movilla and Clonard, appear at the head of the ' Secundus Ordo' of Irish saints who ' a Davide 
episcopo, et GiUa, et a Doco Britonibus missam acceperunt' (Ussber, Ant. Brit. Ec. xvii. Worhs, vol. vi. 
p. 47 8). In the life of the latter Finian express mention is made of his being in company with SS. David, 
Cathmael, and Gildas, and subsequentlv as attached to a monastery of Cathmael, who was the Cadoc of 
the Welsh, and the Docus of the Irish. I cannot help thinking that there is a confusion of persons and 
places in the legend ; and this custom of coupling the names Monennius and Rosnatum shows itself curiously 
enough in the life of a saint of different nation, sex, and age, namelv, St. Monenna, who is represented in 
one life as sending her disciple Brignat across the the sea to Britain to the island ' de Rostnatensi monasterio,' 
which Conchubran calls Andresie, a spot near Burton-on-Trent. (^Act. SS. Julii, tom. ii. pp. 294 í>, 309 a.) 

" It is also matter for consideration whether the Magnum Monasterium of Capgrave may uot be an equi- 
Talent for the Bancor Vaur of the Welsh." 








AGENERAL MEETING of the Societj was held in the Board 
Room of the Rojal Irish Academj on Fridaj, the 6th of Au- 

gust, 1852, 

The Right Hon. Loed Talbot de Malahide in the Chair. 
The Secretary read the following Report from the Council : 

" At the General Meetlng of the Irish Archseological Society, in December, 
1849, the Council laid beforejou a stateraent of the diíEculties they hadto en- 
counter, owing to the large amount of arrears due to the Society by itsMembers. 

" This circumstance was the occasion of so much embarrassment that the 
Council have been compelled, by the necessity of the case, to act somewhat ir- 
regularly, in abstaining from summoning a public meeting of the Societj ; and 
they have also since that time forborne to make any Report, having, in fact, but 
little to bring before you except a repetition of the complaint, and a statement 
of the eíForts they have made to carry out, notwithstanding, the objects for 
which the Society was founded. 

" Through the munificence of some zealous friends to Ireland and Irish lite- 
rature, the Council have been enabled to keep up the publications of the Society, 
and to present you with the same amount of valuable matter which you have 
hitherto received. 

A "In 

( 2 ) 

" In 1849 t^^ ' Macariac Excidium' was publishcd, with thc valuable and 
voluminous notes of Mr. O'Callaghan, containing a complete guide to a know- 
ledge of the state of Ircland during the cventful strugglc under Jamcs II., 
and refercnces to ahnost all the cxisting authorities for thc history of that 

" This work, howevcr, cxceedcd vcry considcrably in bulk thc amount of 
lettcrpress which could be produced, in a mercantile point of view, as equiva- 
lent to a single subscription, and ought, in fact, to be regarded as a publication 
for two years. Thc cxpense of it would have added greatly to the diíBculties 
of thc Socicty, werc it not for the liberaUty of Dr. Recvcs, who printed, at his 
own sole expense, and presented to the Society as your publication for 1850, 
thc valuable Visitation Roll of Primate Colton, which gives so curious and in- 
structive a plcture of the ecclesiastical condition of thc north of Irciand at the 
closc of the fourteenth century. For this most timely and munificent dona- 
tion the thanks of the Society have already been votcd to Dr. Reeves. 

" In 185 1 the Council were also enabled, without embarrassment to the fimds 
of the Socicty, to present you with a raost interesting volume, containing an 
authentic detail of the labours of Sir William Petty in thc important Survey of 
Ireland, commonly called thc ' Down Survey.' This work had long remained 
in MS., and almost unknown, until the kindness of the Provost and Senior 
Fellows of Trinity College, and of the Marquis of Lansdowne, placed at the dis- 
posal of the Council two valuable copies of it, both coeval with the author, and 
made probably under his inspection. From these the text of your recent pub- 
lication has bcen formed, under the superintcndence of Major Larcom, who has 
himself been practically engaged in a survey of Ireland, from which have 
alrcady rcsulted bcnefits to the landed interests of the country stiU more impor- 
tant than those which followed from Sir W. Pctty's labours. 

" Thus far the Council have succeeded in carrying on thc objects of the 
Society without being compelled to ask for any indulgence from its Members. 
Your publications have appeared regularly, and without any dclay, within the 
ycar í'or which thcy were intcnded ; and they are equal in value and bulk to 
thosc which you wcre in the habit of receiving when the funds of the Society 
were more adequate to its objects, and the prospects of continued support more 

" It was intended that the Leger Book of Gerald, Earl of Eildare, in 15 18, 


( 3 ) 

should havc forraed the publication for the present year : and that \vork was 
actually put to Press. 

" You are aware, from the last Report, that this book was to have beenpub- 
lished at the expense of our excellent Vice-President, the Marquis of Ivildare, 
vsrho munificently proposed to present it to the Society, after the example set by 
Dr. Reeves. But two difficulties intervened. In the first place it was found 
that the publication would have proved more expensive than was originally 
contemplated ; and secondly, it was feared that it could not be of any general 
interest or value, as it contained little more than a rent-roll of the Earl's pro- 
perty, throwing scarcely any light on the history or antiquity of the country 
generally. This latter objection had been foreseen from the first, and it was 
proposed to meet it by engaging our tried friend and ally, Dean Butler, to pre- 
fix to it some historical notices of the Geraldine family, which could not have 
failed to make the publication interesting to every Irishman, and would have 
furnished an opportunity for the publication of several curious historical docu- 
ments hitherto inaccessible or unknown. It was found, however, that this was 
impossible. Dean Butler was unable to procure the necessary permission to 
transcribe such unpublished historical documents as would have given this ad- 
ditional interest to his introduction ; and it seemed unnecessary, as well as in- 
consistent with the objects of the Society, to put forth what was already, for 
substance, in the hands of all students of our history. 

" For these reasons this publication was abandoned. It was thought scarcely 
fair to the Marquis of Ivildare to permit him to spend a large sum of money in 
the printing of a work that was not likely to prove satisfactory to the Members 
of the Society; and, on communicating the difficulty to his Lordship, he ac- 
quiesced at once in the opinion of the Council. But the Marquis did not therefore 
lay aside his wish to benefit the Society. In consenting to relinquish the pub- 
lication of the ' Kildare Book,' for the reasons set before him by the Council, 
the Marquis most kindly signified his intention of contributing 50/. to the funds 
of the Society, to assist in the publication of ' Cormac's Glossary,' 

*' This important work had never been lost sight of, and it now became the 
duty of the Council to direct their exclusive attention to it. It wiU not be ne- 
cessary to repeat what was said in the last Report on this subject. It must 
suffice to remind you of the statement made to the Councilby Dr. Graves, and 
published in that Report, of the difficulties which attend the preparation of such 

A 2 ^ work 

( 4 ) 

a work for the Press.* Thesc difficulties werc increased by the state oí Dr. 
Graves's health, who was ordcred by his medical advisers to abstain for a time 
from all scvere mcntal cxertion, and was, consequcntly, compelled to relinquish 
the labour of edltintr the work. 

*' This task has therefore been committed to Dr. Todd, in conjunction with 
Dr. O'Donovan and Mr. Curry ; and considcrable progress has been made, 
although much stiU remains to be done, in preparing the work for the Press. 

" But, before the Council could feel themselves at liberty to undertake the 
risk of printing such a work, it became necessary to examine into the pecuni- 
ary means at their disposal, in order to guard against incurring a responsibility 
that they would be vmable to meet. 

" It is calculated that the cost of the publication cannot be much less than 
500Í., and consequently it is obviously impossible, with the present small num- 
ber of Members, to give such a work as an equivalent for a single subscrip- 
tion. It was suggested, therefore, to divide it into two parts, and give it as the 
publication for two years. Even this, however, is not very practicable, as the 
liabilities of the Society at present amount to about one hundred and fifty 

" The Council were therefore compelled to pause, and to consider whether 
any modification of the rules of the Society could be made which would have 
the eíFect of increasing the funds at their disposal, or of enabling them to super- 
intend the publication of our ancient literature on more advantageous terms. 

" It had been frequently urged upon the consideration of the Council, that 
the rule which required an entrance fee of 3^. on the admission of every new 
Member operated to the exclusion of many who would otherwise have willingly 
joined the Society. There were, nevertheless, great advantages in that rule, 
and many difliculties in the way of its repeal. 

" After a full consideration of the subject, itwas at length resolved to admit 
Associatc Members under certain conditions ; and the Council agreed to propose 
to the Society certain modifications of its fundaraental rules, intended to carry 
out this resolution. They, therefore, in July, 1851, drew up the foUowing 
statement, a copy of which was sent to every Member of the Society : — 

" ' The 

* This Report will be found bound up with the Macarioe Excidium, or Destruction of Cj'prus, the 
Society's pubUcation for 1849. 

( 5 ) 

" ' The Council are desirous ofproposing to thc Members the foUowing 
alterations in the Fundamental Rules of the Societj, with a view to make the 
Society niore generallj known and more extensively useful. The alterations 
proposed are printed in Italics. 

" ' I. The Society shall consist of Members and Associates. 

" ' II. Thenumbsr of Members shall be limited to 500. The numher of Associates 
shall be unlimited. 

" ' III. The affairs of the Society shall be managed by a Council, consisting of a 
President, three Vice-Presidents, and twelve others, to be elected annually by the 
Society from the Members. 

" ' IV. All Members and Associates shall be elected by the Council, on heing pro- 
posed hy a Memher. 

" ' V. Each Member shall pay four pounds on the first year of his election, and one 
pound every subsequent year. Associates shall pay one pound per annum only, without 
any entrancefee. All subscriptions to be paid in advance, and to become due on the 
first day of January annually. 

" ' VI. Such Members as desire it may become Life Members, on payment of the 
sum of thirteen pounds, or ten pounds (if they have already paid their entrance fee), in 
lieu of the annual subscription. 

" ' VII. Every Member whose subscription is not in arrear shall be entitled to 
receive one copy of each publication of the Society issued subsequently to his admission ; 
and the books printed by the Society shall not be sold to the Public. 

" ' VIII. Associates may hecome Memhers, on signifí/ing their wish to the Council, and 
on payme7it ofthe entrancefee ofthree pounds. 

" 'IX. Associates are entitled to a copy of all puhlications issued hy the Society during 
the year for which they have paid a suhscription. 

" ' X. Associates may hepresent at the meetings ofthe Society, hut cannot speak or vote, 
nor are they eligible on the Council, or to any office in the Society. 

" ' XI. No Member who is three months in arrear of his subscription shall be enti- 
tled to vote, or to any other privileges of a Member ; and any Member who shall be one 
year in arrear shall be considered as having resigned. Associates who are in arrear 
shaU cease, ipso facto, to helong to the Society. 

" ' XII. Any Member or Associate who shall gratuitously edit any book, approved of 
by the Council, shall be entitled to twenty copies of such book, when printed, for his 
own use; and the Council shall, at all times, be ready to receive suggestions relative 
to rare books or manuscripts which may seem worthy of being printed by the Society. 

" ' XIII. 

( 6 ) 

"'XIII. The Council shall have power to appoint oflBcers; and to make By-laws 
not inconsistent with the Fundamental Laws of the Societj. 

" ' XIV. No person shall be elected a Member of the Society until the entrance fee 
and subscription for the current year be paid to the Treasurer or one of the Local 

" ' Thc object of the foregoing alterations is, to extcnd thc uscfulness of the 
Societj, by cnlarging the number of those who are entitlcd to thc Societj's 

" ' The Council beg to inform the Socicty, that " Sir William Petty's Narra- 
tive of his Proceedings in the Survey of Ireland," editcd by Thomas A. Lar- 
COM, EsQ., R. E., is now nearly rcady, and will form the Society's Publication 
for thc ycar 1851- 

" ' CoBMAc's Glossart is also far advanced : some shccts are actually printed 
off, and the whole is ncarly rcady for the Prcss. Its publication has been delayed 
8olely in consequence of the large arrears of subscriptions due by Mcmbers, and 
the small amount of funds in the hands of the Trcasurer. The Council would 
earnestly entreat the zealous co-operationof the Members of the Socicty, and of 
the Irish Public at large, to cnable them to proceed with this most important 
national work. Thcy take this opportunity of returning thanks to the Most 
Noble the Marquis of Rildare, for a donation of fifty pounds in aid of the Pub- 
lication. It is a work, howcver, of extreme difficulty, requiring the greatest 
research and labour on the part of the Editors, and involving considerable ex- 

" ' The Council are aware that the difficulties with which the gentry of Ire- 
land have had to contend for the last few ycars, are, in a great degree, the cause 
of the large arrears of subscriptions due to the Society ; but they beg of the 
Membcrs to consider that it wiU be impossible to carry out the objccts for which 
the Society was founded, unless these arrears can be coUected. They therefore 
enclose in this circular, to each Member whose subscription is in arrear, a state- 
ment of hisaccount, earnestly entreatlng him to liquidate the debt at his carliest 
convenience, in order that thc Council may be able to ascertain what funds they 
can count upon for the future Publications of the Society. 

" * Those Members who havc ceascd to feel any interest in the preservation 
of our ancient literaturc, and who have resolvcd to discontinuc their subscrip- 
tions, wiU greatly oblige by informing the Council of their intentions. 

" ' Thc 

( 7 ) 

" ' The most eíTcctual manner in which Merabers can promote thc intercst of 
thc Society is, by procuring the admission of new Members and Associates. 
The Council will also be happy to receive donations towards the printing of 
Cormac's Glossary, or of any olhcr of the intendcd Publications of the Society. 

" ' Subscriptions are to be paid to the Treasurer, Dr. Aquilla Smith, 121, 
Baggot-street ; or to Edward Clibborn, Esq., Royal Irish Academy, Grafton- 
street, Dublin.' 

" This appeal was circulated not only for the purpose of giving every Mem- 
ber due notice ofthe alterations proposed, but also in the hope ofobtaining 
the opinions of the Members upon that measure, with suggestions for giving 
greater efficiency to the new constitution of the Society. Nevertheless, it is 
remarkable, and not a little discouraging, that in reply to the íbregoing circular 
not so much as one such suggestion was ever received. 

" The question, therefore, now remains for the decision of this meeting, 
whether you wiU sanction the foregoing alterations in the original rules of the 
Society, or whether there are any other modifications of thera that wiU more 
fully meet your views. It seems now pretty certain, from the small number of 
new Members that have joined the Society during the last three years, that 
unless some alteration of the Rules be adopted which wiU have the eíFect of 
increasing your funds, and creating a greater public interest in your proceed- 
ings, the purpose for which the Society was founded cannot be carried out. 

" The next subject of embarrassment to the Council was the publication of 
a volume íbr the present year ; and this led to the necessity of considering 
whether some change ought not to be made generally in the manner of pub- 
lishing the works undertaken by the Society. The small amount of funds at the 
actual disposal of the Council, and the uncertainty attending the collection of 
arrears, rendered it extremely difficult to undertake so large and costly a work 
as ' Corraac's Glossary.' It was therefore proposed to open a subscription for 
that work in particular, and to receive subscriptions for it frora those who were 
not Members of the Society, as well as from those who were. The times, how- 
ever, were unpropitious for such an attempt ; and upon consulting our publishers, 
Messrs. Hodges and Smith, their well-known public spirit induced them to 
make a proposal to the Council for eflfecting the sarae object in another way. 

" They 

( 8 ) 

" Thcy proposc to undertake the whole risk of the publication of ' Cormac's 
Glossary,' and to supply the Socicty with as many copics of the work as raay 
be required for our Mcmbcrs, at the rate of i Ss. a book ; provided they are 
permitted to scU the remaining copies to the public, at a price not less than 
25«. per copy. 

" They have made a similar oíFer with respect to the * Treatise on Ogham 
Wrlting,' which Dr. Graves has prcpared for publication, and which is in fact 
nearly rcady for the Prcss. They agree to print it at their own risk, and to 
fumish the Society with such copies as we may require, at 25 per cent. under 
the selling price of the book to the public 

" Thc Council did not hesitate a moment in accepting, so far as they have 
it in their powcr to do so, this most liberal offer, which they consider highly 
advantageous to the Society. Itinvolves, however, as you wiU observe, a very 
serious question, which deservcs your most careful consideratlon, as it may 
affect very seriously the future welfare of the Socicty. The proposal made by 
Messrs. Hodges and Smith cannot be acccpted without abandoning, in the 
case of the books to which it relates, one of the fundamental rulcs of the Society, 
namely, that our books should not be sold to the public ; and it is open to the 
objection which originally led to that rule being enacted, viz., that the public 
will probably not join the Society as Members, if they can obtain such of our 
books as may seem most interesting by simply ordering them from a book- 

" But when it is considered that few of our Members have joined the 
Society merely to obtain our books, and that their real object, no doubt, was 
to support an institution founded for the preservation and iUustration of the 
ancient literature of Ireland, the Council are of opinion that this objection ought 
not to be allowed to prevail against the manifestadvantage of theproposalmade 
to us by Messrs. Hodges and Smith. Nevertheless, as this proposal involves a 
temporary suspension of one of our fundamental laws, which has hitherto been 
rigidly acted upon by the Society, it is not within the power of the Council to 
close absolutely with Messrs. Hodges and Smith, until their proposal has re- 
ceived the approbation of this gencral mccting. The Council, however, beg 
leave to recommend that proposal to your adoption, as being most liberal and 
public-spirited on the part of the proposers, andas insuring the contlnuance of 
your publications without the risk which must otherwise be encountered, and 


( 9 ) 

whicli, in tlie prcscnt circumstanccs of the Socictj, rausthavc thc círect oí'com- 
pletely paraljzing their exertions. 

" It is intcndcd, if the proposal made by Mcssrs. Hodges and Smith be adop- 
ted and sanctioncd at this mccting, that thc tract on the Oghara Writing, with 
the tronslations and other valuable illustrations coUected by Dr. Graves, shall 
form the publication of the Society for 1852; and as his health is now happily 
restorcd, it is hopcd that this work may be promised as likcly to be ready for 
delivery before the end of the ycar. 

" In the mean time the editors who have undertakcn ' Cormac's Glossary' 
will proceed with their labours, and we trust they may be enabled to bring it 
out before tlie end of 1853, if the arrangemcnt alrcady alluded to with Messrs. 
Hodges and Sraith be approved of by the Socicty. 

" Thc curious tract on the Wars of the Danes in Ireland, which has becn 
prepared for publication by Dr. Todd, is also in a forward statc ; and if the ne- 
cessity for doing so should continue, it is hoped that some sirailar agreement 
with our publishers may be entered into which will enable the editor to put it 
to Press as the Society's publication for 1854. Upon this subject, however, the 
Council wiU have an opportunity of again consulting you, before they come to 
any final conclusion. 

" It will be seen, therefore, that, notwithstanding the difficulties with which 
the Society has been surrounded during the last few years, there is still a fair 
prospect of our being able to continue our publications, if we receive any en- 
couragement frora our Members and from the public. The books which have 
been spoken of are equal, if not superior, in point of interest and literary im- 
portance, to any that have been hitherto published by this or any similar 
Society; and it seems probable that if the Members of the Society could be 
induced to make any exertion, the prospect of possessing such works might 
act as a stronginduccment with many to join the Society, especially as the new 
rulcs, if they should meet with your approbation, will enable many now tojoin 
us wnth whom the entrance fee was formerly an insuperable obstacle. 

" But the Members of the Society must exert themselves for this purpose, to 
induce their friends to become Members or Associates. Unless some such ex- 
ertion be made, the Society raust die a natural death. 

"The Council have also proposed that Dr. Todd and Dr. O'Donovan shall 
be the IIonorary Secretaries of the Society, and Mr, Curry the Assistant Secre- 

B tary ; 




tary; as it is, in fact, upon those gentlemen that the main labour of conducting 
the business and publications of the Society has hitherto fallen. 

" They have also thankfully accepted the kind oíTer of Mr. Clibborn, to 
receive subscriptions from Membcrs, and to be the rcferee to whom noblcmen 
and gentlemen wishing to join the Society may be referred for information. 
But subscriptions will also continue to be received by Messrs. Hodges and 
Smith, and by the Treasurer, Dr. Aquilla Smith. 

" It remains now only to report that since the last General Meeting of the 
Society in December, 1849, ^^ have lost by death the following Members: 

The Earl of Donoughmore. 
The Earl of Dunraven. 
Lieut.-General Robert H. Birch. 
Robert Burrowes, Esq. 
Rev. T. De Vere Conejs. 
.Tames Hamilton, Esq. 
The Very Rev. Edward G. Hudson, 
Dean of Armagh. 

" The following Members have resigned: 

Rev. James Ingram, D. D., President 

of Trinitj' College, Oxford. 
Sir William J. Homan, Bart. 
Rev. John Lingard, D. D. 
Edmund Mac Donnell, Esq. 
W. Reilly, Esq. 

Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel, Bart. 
Colonel William Stewart. 

Rev. William S. Gilly, D. D. 
Sinclair K. Mulholland, Esq. 

The Viscount Courtenay. 
Miss J. M. R. Currer. 
Evelyn P. Shirley, Esq. 

" Within the same period the following new Members have been elected : 

Chief Baron Pigot. 
Florence Mahony, Esq. 
A. M. Reilly, Esq. 
Joseph Hanlv, Esq. 

Terence Donnelly, Esq., New York. 
WiUiam T. Mulvany, Esq. 
John Slevin, Esq., Philadelphia. 
James Slevin, Esq., Philadclphia. 

" The following have signified their wish to become Associates, if the pro- 
posed modifications of our fundamental rules should be sanctioned by the 
Society : 

Miss H. M. C. Shulahan. I John P. Prendergast, Esq. 

Stephen Ram, Esq. | 

" It may be convenient to repeat here what was stated in the last Report, 
that Members of the Society can purchase, by application to the Treasurer, the 
past publications issued by the Society at the following prices : 


( " ) 

Complete scts (to tlic end of 1851), . . • £8 Ss. od. 

Grace's Annals, 080 

Battle of Magh Radi (Moira), .... o 10 o 

Tracts, vol. 2, 0100 

Account of Hy-Many, .......0120 

Obits and Martyrology of Christ Church, . o 12 o 
Register of All Saints, Dublin, ....070 

Account of Hy-Fiachrach, o 12 o 

0'Flaherty's West Connaught, .... o 15 o 
Irish Archaaological Miscellany, ....080 

Irish Version of Nennius, o 15 o 

Clyn's and Dowling's Annals, 080 

Macariae Excidium, 100 

Primate Colton's Visitation (not to be sold). 

Sir Williara Petty's Down Survey, . . . o 15 o 

" The first volume of Tracts relating to Ireland, published in 1841, is out 
of print, with the exception of a few copies reserved for the complete sets of the 
Society's publications. This volume cannot, therefore, be sold, except with a 
complete set." 

"It should be noted that the privilege of purchasing the publications of the 
Society at these reduced rates will belong to Members of the Society only, 
and not to Associates elected under the new rules." 

The Report having been read, it was moved and seconded, and 
resolved unanimouslj, 

" I. That the Report now read be adopted and printed, and a copy oí it 
sent to every Member of the Society." 

The Chairman said they owed a great deal to the Council for 
their attention to the interests of the Societj, and for their admirable 
Report. He could see no objection to the adoption of the proposed 
arrangement with Messrs. Hodges and Smith, as such a course did 
not tie them down to a continuance of the practice in future, if they 
did not think it necessarj. As regarded the Associate Members, he 

B 2 thought 

( »2 ) 

thought thc proposal to adniit thcm on the terms mentioncd was judi- 
cious, and ought to be carried out. The entrance fee, to his own 
knowledge, deterred many persons from becoming Mcmbers ; and 
tlie })ractice was, besides, falUng into disuse with similar Societies in 

The following Resolutions were then moved and seconded, and 
carried unanimously : 

" 2. That the Fundamental Rules of the Society, as proposed and recom- 
mended in the Report, be aJopted, and be henceforth the Fundamental Rules 
of thc Society." 

" 3. That tlieCouncil be authorized to malce thc arrangement with Messrs. 
Hodges and Smith, as recommended in the Report ; and that the thanks of the 
Society be voted to Messrs. Hodges and Smith for their liberal and public-spi- 
rited proposal." 

" 4. That John O'Callaghan, Esq., and the Very Rev. Dr. Renehan, be 
appointed Auditors for the ensuing year, and that their statement of the Ac- 
counts of the Society (to ^ist Deccmber, 1851) be printed as an Appendix to 
the Report." 

" 5. That his Grace the Duke of Leinster be requested to continue to hold 
the Office of President of the Socicty, and that the Most Noble the Marquis of 
Ivildarc, the Right Hon. the Earlof Leitrim, the Right Hon. thcEarl of Dun- 
raven, and Right Hon. Lord Talbot de Malahide, be elected Vice-Presidents 
of the Society." 

" 6. That the following be elected as the Council íbr the ensuing year : 

Eugene Curry, Esq, 
Rev. Charles Graves, D. D. 
Williain E. Hudson, Esq. 
Thomas A. Larcom, Esq. 
John O'Callaghan, Esq." 
.Tohn O'Donovan, Esq., LL. D. 

George Petrie, Esq., LL. D. 

Rev. WiUiam Reeves, D. D. 

Very Rev. Laurence F. Renehan, D. D. 

Aquilla Smith, M. D. 

Joseph Huband Smiti), Esq. 

Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D." 

" 7. That the than^s of the Society be voted to the Most Noble tlie JNlarquis 
of Kildare for his donation of 50/., contributed to the funds of the Society for 
the publication of Cormac's Glossary." 

" That 

( -3 ) 

*' 8. That tlic thanks ofthc Socictj be votcd to the President and Council 
of the Royal Irish Academj, for their kindness in permitting this meeting to 
be hcld in thcir rooms." 

Dr. Tocld having called the attention of the Society to the ope- 
ration of one of tlie new Fundamcntal Rules (No. XL), whereby any 
Member who is one year in arrear will hcnceforth be considered as 
having resigned, the Treasurer was requested to prepare a circular, 
calUng the attention of all Members, and especially of those in arrear, 
to this circumstance ; and it was ordered that the operation of this 
Rule should be suspended until such notice was sent to each Member. 

Dr. Aquilla Smith having remarked, that of the eight new Mem- 
bers elected since the last Report three were Irishmen settled in 
America, Dr. Todd took occasion to mention that a very great inte- 
rest was taken in the proceedings of this Society by our countrymen 
and the descendants of our countrymen in America, and that he was 
in correspondence with the Rev. John O'Hanlon, of the city of Caron- 
dolet, who was exerting himself with great zeal for the formation of 
an auxiliary Society in the United States, to assist us with funds for 
the publication of our ancient Irish literature. 

It was resolved, on the motion of Dr. Todd, seconded by the 
Very Rev. Dr. Renehan, that the thauhs of the Society be voted to 
Mr. O'Hanlon, and that a complete set of the Society's publications 
be presented to him, with the understanding that he is to use it for the 
present according to his discretion, for the promotion of the object he 
has in view, and that he is ultimately to secure its being preserved in 
some public library or other permanent depository in theUnited States. 

It was moved by George Petrie, Esq., and seconded by Dr. Todd, 

" That the thanks of this Meeting be given to Lord Talbot de Malahide for 
his conduct in the Chair on this occasion, and for the warm interest he has 
always taken in the welfare of the Society." 

And then the Society adjourned. 


































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i^atron : 

i^rcgíDcní : 

•Fícc^^rcgíDcntiS : 

The Most Noble the Marquis of Kildare, M. R. I. A. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Leitrim, M. R. I. A. 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Dunraven, M. R. I. A. 
The Right Hon. the Lord Talbot de Malahide, M. R. I. A. 

©ouncíl : 


Rev. Charles Graves, D. D., M. R. L A. 


Thomas A. Larcom, R. E., M. R. L A. 
John C. O'Callaghan, Esq,., M.R. I. A. 
John O'Donovan, LL. D., M. R. L A. 
Geo. Petrie, LL. D., R.H.A., V.P.R.LA. 

Rev. William Reeves, D. D., M. R.L A. 
Very Rev. Laurence F. Renehan, D. D., 

President of St. Patrick's College, I\Iay- 

Aquilla Sjiith, M. D., M. R. I. A. 
J. HuBAND Smith, A. M., M. R. I. A. 
Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D., M. R. L A. 

'STrcagurcr : 
Dr. Aquilla Smith. 

|É?onorarg ^ccrctarUí : 
Rev. J. H. Todd, D. D., and John O'Donovan, LL. D. 

^SSÍStaní ibccrctarg : 





I. Tracts relating to Ireland, vol. i. containing : 

1. The Circuit of Ireland ; by Muircheartach Mac NeiU, Prince of Aileach ; a Poem writtcn in the 

year 942 by Cormacan Eigeas, Chief Poet of the North of Ireland. Edited, with a Translation 
and íTotes, and a Map of the Circuit, by Joiis O'Donovan, LL. D. 

2. " A Brife Description of Ireland, made in the year 1589, by Robert Pavne, vnto xxv. of his 

partners, for whom he is vndertaUer there." Reprinted from the second edition, London, 1590, 
with a Preface and Notes, by Aquilla S>utu, M. D., M. R. I. A. 

II. The Annals of Ireland, by James Grace of Rilliennv. Edited frora the MS. in the Libran,- of Trinity 
College, Dublin, iu the original Latin, with a Translation and Notes, by the Rev. Richard Butler, A. B., 
M. R. I. A. 


L Cach muióVii TJach. The Battle of Magh Rath (Moira), from an ancient MS. in the Librarj' 
of Trinity College, Dublln. Edited in the original Irish, with a Translation and Notes, by John O'Dono- 
VA>i, LL. D. 

II. Tracts relating to Ireland, vol. 11. containing: 

1. " A Treatise of Ireland ; by John Dymmok." Edited from a MS. in the British Museum, with 

Notes, by the Rev. Riciiard Butleií, A. B., M. R. I. A. 

2. The Annals of Multifcmam ; from the original MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Edited by Aquilla Sjiith, M. D., M. R. I. A. 

3. A Statute passed at a Parliament held at Kilkenny, A. D. 1367 ; from a MS. in the British 

Museum. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, by James Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I. A. 


I. An accoimt of the Tribes and Customs of the District of IIy-Many, commonly called 0'Kelly's 
Country, in the Counties of Galway and Roscouimon. Edited from the Book of Lecan in the Library of 
the Royal Irish Academy, in the originallrish; with a Translation and Notes, and a Map of lly-Many, by 


II. The Book of Obits and Martyrology of the Cathedral of the IIolv Trinity, commonly callcd Christ 
Church, Dubliu. Edited frora the original MS. in the Library of Trinity CoUege, Dublin. By the Rev. 
JoiiN CLAuitE Cbosthwaite, A. M., Rector of St. Mary-at-IIill, and St. Andrew Hubbart, London. 
With an Introduction by Jajies IIenthoiuí Todd, D. D., V. P. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity College, 


( 17 ) 


I. Reglstrum Ecclesie Omnium Sanctorum juxta Dublin ; from the original MS. in the Librarv of 
Trinity Collego, Dublin. Edited by the Rev. RiciiAun Butlicr, A. B., M. R. I. A. 

II. An Account of the Tribes and Customs of the District of IIy-Fiachrach, in the Counties of Sligo and 
Mayo. Edited from the Book of Lecan, in the Library of the Royal Irish Acaderay, and from a copy of the 
Mac Firbis MS. in the possession of the Earl of Roden. With a Translation and Notes, and a Map of Hy- 
Fiachrach. By John O'Donovan, LL. D. 


A Description of West or H-Iar Connaught, by Roderic 0'Flaherty, Author of the Ogygia, written 
A. D. 1684. Edited from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin; ■w'ith copious Notes and an 
Appendix. By Jasies Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I. A. 


The Miscellany of the Irish Archseological Society. Vol. I. containing : 

1. An ancient Poem attributed to St. Columblíille, -with a Translation and Notes by John O'Dono- 

VAN, LL. D. 

2. De Concilio Hibemise ; the earliest extant record of a Parliament in Ireland ; vnth Notes by the 

Rev. R. BuTLER. 

3. Copy of the Award as concerning the Tolboll (Dublin) : contributed by Dr. Aquilla Ssuth. 

4. Pedigree of Dr. Dominick Lynch, Regent of the CoUedge of St. Thomas of Aquin, in Seville, 

A. D. 1674: contributed by James Hardhvlííí, Esq. 

5. A Latin Poem, by Dr. John Lynch, Author of Cainbrensis Eversns, in reply to the Question Cur 

in patriam non redis ? Contributed by James Hardulan, Esq. 

6. The Obits of Kilcormick, now Frankfort, Ring's Coimty ; contributed by the Rev. J. H. Todd. 

7. Ancient Testaments : contributed by Dr. Aquilla SanTH. 

8. Autograph Letter of Thady 0'Roddy : with some Notices of the Author by the Rev. J. H. Todd. 

9. Autograph Letter of Oliver Cromwell to his Son, Harry Cromwell, Commander-in-Chief in Ireland : 

contributed by Dr. A. Smith. 

10. The Irish Charters m the Book of Kells, with a Translation and Notes by John O'Donovax, 


1 1 . Original Charter granted by John Lord of Ireland, to the Abbey of Mellifont : contributed by 

Dr. A. Smith. 

12. A Journey to Connaught in 1709 by Dr. Thomas MoljTieaux : contributed by Dr. A. Smitu. 

I J. A Covenant in Irish between Mageoghegan and the Fox ; with a Translation and historical 

Notices of the two Families, by John O'Donovan, LL. D. 
14. The Annals of Ireland, from A. D. 1453 to 1468, translated from a lost Irish origina], by Dudley 

Firbisse; 'with Notes by J. O'Donovan, LL. D. 


( >8 ) 


The Irish Version of the " Historía Britonum" of Nennius, or, as it is called in Irish MSS., Leabap 
bpetnoó, the British Book. Edited from the book of Balimote, collated with copies in the Book of Lecan 
and in tlie Librar}' of Triuity CoUege, Dublin, with a Translation and Notes by Ja,mes IIexthorx Todu, 
D. D., ISL K. I. A., Fellow of Trinity College, &c. ; and Additional Notes and an Introduetion by the Hon. 
Algebjjon Heubeut. 


The Latin Annalists of Ireland ; edited with introductory Remarks and Notes by the Very Rev. Rich- 
AKD BuTLEE, M. R. I. A., Dcan of Clonmacnois,— viz. : 

1 . Tlie Annals of Ireland, by John Clyn, of Kilkenny ; from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, 

Dublin, collated with another in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

2. The Annals of Ireland, by Thady Dowling, Chancellor of Leighlin. From a MS. in the Librarv 

of Trinity College, Dublin. 


MacariíE Excidium, the Destruction of Cyprus ; being a secret History of the Civil War in Ireland, 
imder James II., by Colonel Charles 0'Kelly. Edited in the Latin from a MS. presented by the late Pro- 
fessor M'Cullagh to the Library of the RoyaI Irish Academy ; with a Translation from a MS. of the seven- 
teenth century ; and Notes by Joiin O'C.vllaghan, Esq. 


Acts of Archbishop Colton in his Visitation of the Diocese of Derry, A. D. 1397. Edited from the origi- 
nal RoU, with Introduction and Notes, by Willlvm Ree^-es, D. D., M. R. I. A. 



Sir WiUiam Petty's Narrative of his Proceedings in the Survey of Ireland ; from a MS. in the Library of 
Trinity College, Dublin. Edited, with Notes, by TnoiLis A. Laecom, Esq., R. E., V. P. R. I. A. 


I. A Treatise on the Ogham or Occult Forms of Writing of the ancient Irish ; from a MS. in the 
Library of Trinity College, Dublin ; with a Translatiou and Notes, and Preliminary Dissertation, by the 
Rev. Charles Gbaves, D. D., M. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity College, and Professor of Mathematics in the 
University of Dublin. 

II. Cormac's Glossar}'. Edited by James Henthorn Todd, D. D., M. R. I. A., Senior Fellow of Tri- 
nity College, and Professor of Ilebrew in the University of Dublin ; with a Translation and Notes by John 
O'DoNovAN, LL. D., M. R. I A., Professor of Irish in the Queen's College, Belfast, and Ecgene Cirry, Esq. 


( 19 ) 


The foUowing Worfcs are many of them ready for the Press, and will be undertalien as soon as the funds 
of the Society wiU permit : 

I. The Irish Archxological Miscellany, vol. ii. 

II. The Annals of Ulster. With a Translation and Notes. Edited from a MS. in the Librar}' of 
Trinity College, Dublin, collated with the Translation made for Sir James Ware by Dudley or Duald Mac 
Firbis, aMS. in the British Museum, by James Henthorn Todd, D. D., M. R. I. A., and JonN O'Dono- 
VAN, LL. D., M. R. I. A. 

III. The Annals of Innisfallen ; from a MS. in the Bodleian Librarj-, Oxford ; with a Translation and 
Notes by John O'Donovan, LL. D. 

IV. Ecclesiastical Taxation of Ireland, circ. 1300. Edited from the original Exchequer Eolls in the 
Carlton-Ride Record Office, London, with Notes, by the Rev. William Reeves, D. D., M. R. I. A., of 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

V. The Liber Hymnorum ; from the original MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited 
by the Rev. James Henthoun Todd, D. D., M. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity College, and the Rev. Williaíi 
Reeves, D. D., M. R. I. A. 

VI. Articles of Capitulation and Surrender ofCities, Towns, Castles, Forts, &c., in Ireland, to the 
Parliamentary Forces, from A. D. 1649 to 1654. Edited, with Historical Notices, by James Haedlman, 
Esq., M.R.LA. 

VII. The Genealogy and History of the Saints of Ireland : from the Book of Lecan. Edited, with a 
Translation and Notes, by John O'Donovan, LL. D., and J.vjies Henthorn Todd, D. D. 

VIII. An Account of the Firbolgs and Danes of Ireland, by Duald Mac Firbis, from a IMS. in theLibrary 
of Trimty College, Dublin ; with a Translation and Notes, by John O'Donovan, LL. D. 

IX. bopania. The Origin and History of the Boromean Tribute. Edited from a MS. in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, with a Translation and Notes, by Eugene Cuery, Esq. 

X The Progresses of the Lords Lieutenant in Ireland ; from MSS. in the Library of Trinity CoUege, 
Dublin. Edited by Joseph Huband Smith, A. M., M. R. I. A. 

XI. The Topographical Poems of O'Heerin and O'Duggan ; with Notes by John O'Donov^vn, LL. D. 

XII. CosaÓ 5aoit)eal pe Sa^l'ait). The Wars of the Irish and Danes. Edited, with a Translation 
and Notes, from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, collated with a MS. in the hand^vriting 
of Fr. Michael 0'Clery, now in the Burgundian Library at Brussels. By J^uies Henthoen Todd, D. D., 
and John O'Donovan, LL. D, 

XIII. TheMunicipal Laws of Dublin, from aMS. in the possession of the Lord Mayor and Corporation. 
Edited by the Very Rev. Riohard Butlee, Dean of Clonmacnois. 

In addition to the foregoing projected Publications, there are many important worlcs in the contemplation 
of the Council, which want of funds alone prevents the possibility of their undertaUing, such as the Brehon 
Laws, the Dinnseanchus, the Annals of Connaught, the Annals of Tighernach, the Hagiographical works of 
St. Aengus the Culdee, the Martyrology of Donegal, &c., &c. 


( 20 ) 


I. The Societv sliall consist of Members and Associates. 

II. The number of Jlembers shall be limited to 500. The number of Associates shall be unlimited. 
ni. The affairs of the Societj shall be managed by a Council, consisting of a President, three Vice- 

Presidents, and twelve others, to be elected annually by the Society Crom the Members. 

IV. All Members and Associates shall be elected by the Council, on belng proposed by a Member. 

V. Each Mcmber shall pav four pounds on the first year of his election, and one pound every subsequent 
year. Associates shall pay one pound per annum only, without any entrance fee. All subscriptions to be 
paid in advancc, and to become due on the first day of January annually. 

VI. Such Members as desire it may become Life Members, on payment of the sum of thirteen pounds, 
or ten pounds (if they have alreadv paid their entrance fee), in lieu of the annual subscription. 

VIL Every Member whose subscription is not in arrear shall be entitled to receive one copv of each 
publication of the Society issued subsequently to his admission ; and the books printed by the Society shall 
not be sold to the Public, 

VIII. Associates may become Members, on signifying theúr wlsh to the Council, and on payment of the 
entrance fee of three pounds. 

IX. Associates are entitled to a copy of all publications issued by the Society during the year for which 
they have paid a sabscription. 

X. Associates may be present at the meetings of the Society, but cannot speak or vote ; nor are they 
eligible on the Council, or to any office in the Society. 

XI. Xo Member who is three months in arrear of his subscription shall be entitled to vote, or to any 
other prÍN-ileges of a Member; and any Member who shall be one year in arrear shall be considered as 
having resigned. Associates who are in arrear shall cease, ipso facto, to belong to the Societv. 

XII. Any Member or Associate who shall gratuitously edit any book, approved of by the Council, shall 
be entitled to twenty copies of such book, when printed, for his own use ; and the Council shall, at all times, 
be ready to receive suggestions relative to rare books or manuscripts which may seem worthy of being printed 
by the Society. 

XIIL The Coimcil shall have power to appoint officers ; and to make By-laws not inconsistent with the 
Fundamental Laws of the Society. 

XIV. No person shall be elected a Member of the Society until the entrance fee and subscription for the 
current year be paid to the Treasurer or one of the Local Secretaries. 

Noblemen and Gentlemen desirous of becoming Members of the Society are re- 
quested to communicate with the Rev. De. Todd, Secretari/, Trinitj CoUege, Dublin. 

Subscriptions are to be paid to the Treasurer, Dr. Aquilla Smith, 121, Baggot- 
street ; or to Edward Clibborn, Esq., Koyal Irish Academy, Dawson-street, Dublin. 








AGENERAL MEETING of the Society was held in the Board 
Room of the Royal Irish Academy on Saturday, the ist day 
of April, 1854, 

The Right Hon. Lord Talbot de Malahide, V. P., in the Chair. 

The Secretary read the following Report from the Council : 

" The Council feel cahed upon, on agaln sumraoning a General Meeting of 
the Irish Arch^ological Society, to give sorae accountof the measures they 
have talcen for carrjing out the objects of the Society. 

« It has been aheady stated, in the Report made to our last Annual Meeting, 
that a very large araount of arrears of subscriptions was due to the Society by 
its Merabers. This arrear continues to erabarrass the Society, and has occa- 
sioned great delay in the appearance of the Pubhcations which are in progress. 

" It was the original rule of the Society that the annual subscriptions should 
be paid in advance ; and it is obvious that the enforceraent of this rule is essen- 
tial to the working of the Society. It will be remembered that the noblemen 
and gcntlemen who have undertalcen the responsible duty of superintendmg 
the pubhcations of the Society have no pecuniary interest in thosc pubHcations ; 
they give their time and labour, which to many of them are of great value, gra- 
tuitously ; and it is not fair to them to place them in the disagreeable position 


( 2 ) 

of being unable to foresee at thc beginning ol cach ycar what funds they are 
to have at their disposal. Thc Members of the Socicty cannot expect the 
Council to rendcr tbcmsclvcs pcrsonally rcsponsible to a printcr or publisher 
for the expcnscs of tlie Society's publications. It is, thercforc, quite manifest 
that unless the Council are able to ascertain at the beginning of the year what 
funds are llkely to be availablc, they must neccssarily fcel very reluclant to 
undertalce the responsibility of an expensive publication. 

" This observation is made with a view to refutc an impression which 
appears to prevail amongst some Members of thc Socicty, that they are not 
bound to pay their subscriptions until aftcr thcy had reccivcd the publications 
of ihc year. Thc very reverse is the case ; and it is obvious that on no other 
principle could such a Society as this be carricd on. The Council are not 
bound to publish until thcy have received the subscriptions for the year in 

" At the foundation of the Society hopes were entertaincd that it would 
have received a very liberal support from the nobility and gentry of Ireland ; 
and in this hope the Council undcrtook the publications which have appeared, 
at an expense much greater than the funds at their disposal warrantcd, believ- 
ing that these publications would form thc best advertisement of the Society, 
and in the coníident expectation that the patriotisra of the Irish pcople, and 
their zeal for the preservation of thc language and national literature of Ireland 
would ultimately be awakened on behalf of a Society which had for its object 
the preservation of our history, the publication of the genealogies of our ancient 
families, of the poetry of our bards, and of our hagiological and ecclcsiastical 

" The Council believe that the series of publications which have been issued 
by the Irish Archa3ological Society since its foundation, will bear comparison 
with those of any similar Society for solid historical value, as well as for the 
learning, ability, and accuracy with which they have becn editcd. 

" Nevertheless, these publications have cost more, owing to the circum- 
stanccs ahcady alluded to, than the number of Membcrs actually paying their 
subscriptions would have warranted the Council in expending, if they could 
havc forcsecn the srnall amount of permanent support which the Societv ha? 


( 3 ) 

"In particular, the publicatlon for 1849 ^'^^^ ^een so costly, as compared 
with the number of Membcrs who havc paid thcir subscrlptions for that vear, 
that the Council, as ah-cady intimated in the Report prescnted to you at your 
last General Meeting, felt that it ought to have been divided into two, and 
regarded as a pubHcation for tvvo years. They were in hopcs, however, that 
the arrears due by Members would have been collccted, and that they would 
thus have been enablcd to oíFer this work as the pubhcation of the Society for 
1 849. But in this hope they have been disappointed, and are, therefore, com- 
pelled to make the ' Macariie Excidium' thcir pubHcation for the two years 
1849 ^"^ 1^5°' ti'ansferring ' Archbishop Colton's Visitation of Derry' to the 
year 185 1, and ' Sir WiUiam Petty's Survey of Ireland' to 1852. 

"'The Book of Oghams,' edited by Dr. Graves, will, therefore, be the 
Society's publication for 1853. This work is aheady far advanced, and may 
be expected in a few weeks. The following extract from a letlcr received by 
the Secretary from Dr. Graves will put the Society in possession of the present 
state of this very curious and important work: — 

"'The Irlsh text of the whole work is printed oflf. The translation is also in t}7)e, and 
nearljr ready to be worked off. A considerable portion of the uotes is in type. Six lithographed 
plates, containing fac-siniiles of Ogham inscriptions, are worked off and readv. 

" ' The introductory matter alone remains to be wi-itten, and a few of the notes ; but the 
materials for these portions of the work have been coUected, and nothing now remains except 
to put them into proper shape.' 

" The very great diíficuhies which ' Cormac's Glossary' presents to the 
editor have continued to retard its publication ; but it is satisfactory to be able 
to report that the researches of Dr. O'Donovan and Mr. Curry, in the study of 
the ' Brehon Laws,' are daily throwing light upon the difficult words and 
phrases of the Glossary ; and those gentlemen have strongly advised the editor 
to keep back the publication until the labours of the Brehon Law Commission 
are more advanced. 

"Dr. Todd has, therefore, recommenced his long projected publication of 
the ' Wars of the Danes in Ireland.' Dr. O'Donovan has kindly undcrtaken 
to give him the benefit of his great topographical knowledge of Ireland in 
editing this important work, and is now actually engaged in collecting mate- 
rials for its iUustration. He has also been favoured, by the great liberality ot 

A 2 tho 

( 4 ) 

the Belgian Government, with a loan of the MS., in the handwriting of Michael 
O'Clerj, belonging to the Burgundian Librarjr at Brussels — a MS. which is of 
essential scrvicc in thc formation of the tcxt. 

"If thc Mcmbcrs of thc Socictj, thcrcforc, wiU now givc their support to 
the Council, this very important work will probably be brought out and placed 
in their hands before the close of the present year. 

" Thc Council rcgrct that it is their painful duty to announce to you thal 
no less than eleven Members have bcen lost to the Society by death during 
the past year. Thcir names are as follow: 

William Elliott Iludson, Esq. 
Pierce Maliony, Es(j. 
Andrew ]\Iilliken, Esq. 

George Lewis Snijthe, Esq. 
James Ruddell Todd, Es(i. 

Abraluun Whj'te Baker, Esq. 
Colonel Henrj' Bruen. 
Str ^Montague L. Chapman, Bart. 
.lames Strathem Close, Esq., Q. C. 
Frederiok William Conwaj', Escj. 
Rev. Peter Cooper. 

" And one Member, viz., 

Walter M. Bond, Esí^., 

has resigned. 

" The following new Members have becn clected: 

Henry Grattan, Esq., Life Member. | Charles Compton William Douiville, Esq. 

" Also, the foUowing Associates: 

Robert T. Walsh, Esq. ; aU of New York. 
W. H. Blaauw, Esíj., Secretarv of the 
Sussex Archaíological Society. 

Daniel Devlin, Esq. ; 
.loseph Fisher, Esq. ; 
Thomas Andrews, Es^j. ; and 

"The first four of these have bcen elcctcd as thc first fruits of the efforts 
made in favour of this Society in Amcrlca, as announced in the Report made 
to your last General Meeting. 

" At the last General Meeting of the Society some very important altera- 
tions were made in your Fundamental Laws. Associate Mcmbers were admitted 
to thc privilcge of obtaining your publications, without paying an entrance fee, 
on payment of the annual subscription of lí. a year. 

" This regulation opened the door for another raeasure which the Council 
would now recommend to your adoption, namely, the union of this Society 


( 5 ) 

with tlic Celtic Socictj, undcr tlie name oí' The Irish Ach^eological ani> 
Celtic Societv. 

" The object of both Societies bcing thc same, namely, the publication of 
the raaterials of Irish history, and especially those which exist in the Irish lan- 
o-uage, it is obviously most desirable that the efforts of those who are labouring 
in this cause should be concentrated, and that even the appearance of separation. 
where no real cause of disunion existed, should be avoided. 

" The Celtic Society, at their late General Meeting, have already consented 
to the terms of this union, as previously agreed upon by the Councils of the 
two Societies, and you are now called upon to express your opinions upon this 
measure, and, if it should meet your approval, to adopt the following Fun- 
damental Laws, which are the basis of this union, as the laws of the United 
Society : 


" ' I. The Society shall consist of Members and Associates. 

" ' II. The aiTaii's of the Society shall be managed by a Council, consistmg of a President, 
íive Vice-Presidents, a Treasm-er, two Secretaries, and fourteen others, to be elected anuually 
by the Society from the Members. 

" ' m. All Members and Associates shall be elected by the Coimcil, on being proposed t)y 
a Member ; and no person shall be elected either a Member or an Associate of the Society 
until he has made the requisite payments. 

rV. Each Member shall pay four pounds on the first year of his election, and one pound 
every subsequent year. Associates shall pay one pound per annum only, without any entrance 
fee. AIl subscriptions to be paid in advance, and to become due on the first day of January, 

" ' V. Such Members as desire it may become Life IMembers, on payment of the sum of 
thhteen pounds, or ten pounds (iftheyhave ab-eady paid their entrance íee), in lieu ofthe 
annual subscription. 

" ' VI. Every Member whose subscription is not in arrear shall be entitled to receive one 
copy of each pubUcation of the Society issued subsequeutly to his admission ; and the books 
printed by the Society shall not be sold to the public. 

" ' Vn. Associates may become Members, on signifváng their wish to the Council, and c.n 
payment of the entrance fee of three pounds. 

" ' VIII. Associates shall receive a copy of all publications issued by the Society during the 

year for which they have paid a subscription ; but shall not be entitled to any other pri^-ileges. 

" ' IX. No Member who is thi-ee months in arrear of his subscription shall be entitled to 

vote, or to anv other privileges of a Member : and any INIember who sliall >)e one vear m arrear 


( 6 ) 

.Hliall 1)0 «•oiisidi'ifíl a.s having resigno*!. A.'ssociates wlio arf iii arn-ar .sliall rca.sf, iftao fncto. to 
holonjjf to thc Societv. 

" ' X. Tlio Council shall have powcr to ai^jioiut oliicer.s ; aiid to inalíc Bv-Laws not iiicon- 
sistent with the Fundaincntal Laws of the Societj'.' 

" It is also proposcd by tlie Council, in the cvcnt oí' your adopting tiii.< 
recommendation, tiiat tlic íbllowing noblcmcn and gcntlcmcn sliull constitute 
thc Prcsidcnt, Vicc-Prcsidcnts, Council, and Oíriccrs of the ' Irish Archaeolo- 
gical and Ccltic Society' íor the ensuing year : 


His Grace the Duke of Lcinster. 

t Tln- Noblc thc Marquis of Ivildare, 

M. R. L A. 
Thc llt. Hon. thc í^arl of Lcitrim, M.R.LA. 
t The Right Hon. the Earl of Dunraven, 

y{. R. L A. 


t Tlic Right Hon. Lord Talbot dc Mala- 

hide, M. R. I. A. 
t Ver>' Rev. L. F. Renchan, D. D., l're- 

sident of Ma>Tiooth Collcgc. 


t Eugene Currv, M. R. L A. 

* Rev. Thoiiias Farrell\ . 

t Rcv. Charlcs Graves, D. 1)., F. T. C. I)., 
M. R. L A. 

* Rcv. Jaines Gravcs, A. R. 
» Ri'V. Matthcw Kelly. 

Thomas A. Larcom, Licut.-Col. R. E.. 
M. R. L A. 

* Patriclc V. Fitzpatricfc, Esij. 
John C. O'Callaghan, Esq. 

t John O'Donovan, LL. D., M. R. L A. 
t George Petrie, LL. D., V. P., M. R. L A. 
t Rev. William Recvcs, D. D., M. R. L A. 

* Rev. Charlcs RusscU, D. D. 
Joscith H. Smlth, M. R. I. A. 

* WiUiaiii W. Wilde, F.R. C.S.L 


AíjuiIIa Smith, M. D., M. R. L X. 


J. ir. Tod.l. I). D.. S. F. T. C. D. I * John T. í;ilbcrt, Esíj. 

XoTE. — Tho.-ie marke(l with an a.> worc McinlxTS of the ('«nincil nf tlie Celtic Societv ; the t 
dfiiotc.s ^íenilwTs of the C'ouncils of both Societies. 

"It is agrccd by thc Councll, as onc of the conditions ofunion, that all 
existing IMcmbers of the Celtic Socicty, who are not Mcrabers of the Irish 
Archaiological Society, shall be Associates of the united Society, with the 
privilcL'C of bccoming INIcmbcrs on payment of thc entrance fce of 3/. ; and 


( 7 ) 

Life Membcrs of either Society shall continue to retain their privileges in the 
united Societj. 

" Should it be your pleasure to adopt the recommcndations of the Council, 
and to sanction this union, it wiU becorae the duty of the Council to carry it 
into eftect. A balance-sheet of the existing funds and liabilities of each Society 
wiU be prepared. The liabilities of each Society will be, in the first instance, 
discharged before any union is declared, and thc balance in favour of each 
Society transferred to the crcdit of the united Society, it being understood 
that the existing Treasurers of the Archseological and Celtic Societies shall 
become personally responsible for any liability of their respective Societies, 
incurred before the date of union, which they have not included in the balance- 
sheet of their accounts." 

The following Eesolutions were then moved and seconded, and 
carried imanimouslj : 

" I. That the Report now read be adopted and printed, and a copy of it 
sent to every Member of the Society." 

" 2. That the proposed union of the Irish Archseological and Celtic Societies 
be acrreed to, and that the Council be authorized to take the necessary steps 
for carrying this union into efFect." 

" 3. That the noblemen and gentlemen named in the Report shall be the 
President, Vice-Presidents, Council, and Officers of the Irish Archaeological 
and Celtic Society, for the ensuing year." 

"4. That John O'Callaghan, Esq., and Robert Callwell, Esq., be appointed 
to audit the Treasurer's account for the present year, preparatory to the union 
of the two Societies." 

" 5. That it be suggested to the Council to add to the Fundamental Laws 
of the united Socicty a law which would enable the Society to call public 
attention, when necessary, to the preservation of our ancient architectural and 
other antlquities." 

" 6. That the thanks of the Society be voted to the President and Council of 
the Royal Irish Academy for perraitting this raeeting to be held in their rooms.'" 


]• l i; I. IC A T 1 ()N S OF Tll I-: 80 CI KT V 

FUli TUE YEAR 1841. 
[. TriKt.N rt'latin^ to Ireland, vol. i. containing: 

1. The Circuit oflreland; by Muircheartach Mac Neill, Prince of Aileach : a Poem writton in tlie 

year 942 by Cormacan Eigeas, Chief Poet of the North of IrelancL Edited, with a Trauslatimi 
and Notcs, and a Map of the Circuit, by John O'Doxovan, LL. D. 

2. -.^ Rrifc Deseriptiou of Ireland. made in the vear 1589, by Robert Pavne, vnto x.w. of his 

partners, for whom he is vndertalter there." Reprinted from the .«econd edition, London, 1590. 
with a Preface and Notes, by Atii illa Smith, M. D., M. R. I. A. 
IL The Annal.s of Ireland, by James Grace of Kilkenny. Edited from the MS. in the Library of Trinitv 
CoUege. Dublin, iu the original Latin, with a Translation and Notes, by the Rev. HiCHARn Huti.icb, A. B.. 
M. R. L A. 


I. Carh TTlui?>lii Ttarh. The Battle of Magh Rath (Moira), from an anciVnt MS. in the Librarv 
of Trinity College, Duhlin. Edited in the original Irish, with a Translation and Notes, by Joiim O'Dono- 
VAN, LL. D. 

II. Tracts relating to Treland, vol. 11. containing: 

i. ' X Treatise of Ireland; bj' John Dymmok," Edited from a MS. in the British Miiseum, with 
Notes, by the Yery Rev, Riciiard, A. B., M. R. I. A., Dean of Chmmacnois. 

2. The Annals of Multifernan ; from the original MS. in the Librarj- of Trinity College, Dublin. 

Edited by Aquilla Sjiith, M. D., M. R. I. A. 

3. .\ Statute passed at a Parliament held at Kilkennj-, A D. 1367; from a MS. in the Briti.'ih 

Mu.'seum. Edited, with a Translation and Notes, by Jamks, Esq., M. R. I. A. 


I. An account of the Tribes and Customs of the District of Hy-Many, commonlv called 0'KelIy"s 
<'«)untry, in the Counties of Galway and Roscommon, Edited from the Book of Lecan in the Lil)rary of 
the Hoval Irish Academy, in the original Iri.^h ; with a Translation anil Notes, and a Map of Hy-^Iany. bv 

.loilN (•OoNOVAN, LL. D. 

II. Tlie Book of Obits and Martvrologj' of thc Cathedral of tlie IIo]y Trinitv, commonl^ called Chrií:t 
Clnirili, Dublin. Edited from the original MS. in the Librarj' of Triiiity CoUege, Dublin. I)y the Rev. 
JoiiN ('i,AKKK CKo.sTinvAiTK, A. M., Rector of St. Mary-at-IIill, and St. Andrew Hubbart, I.«ndon. 
With aii Introdiution liy James Hesthorn Tonn, D. D., V. P. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity College, 



I. Registrum Ecclesie Omnium Sanctorum juxta Dublin ; from the original MS- in the Librarv of Trinitv 
College, Dublin. Edited by the Verj- Rev. Richard Butler, A. B., M. R. I. A., Dean of Clonmacnois. 

II. An Account of the Tribes and Customs of the District of Hy-Fiachrach, in the Counties of Sligo 
and Mavo. Edited from the Book of Lecan, in the Librarj- of the Roval Irish Academv, and from a copv 
of the Mac Firbis MS. in the possession of the Earl of Roden. With a Translation and Notes, and a Map 
of Hy-Fiachrach. By Joiix O', LL. D. 


A Description of West or H-Iar Connaught, by Roderic 0'Fkherty, Author of the Ogygia, written 
A. D. 1684. Edited from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin ; with copious Notes and an 
Appendix. By James Hardiman, Esq., M. R. I. A. 

FOR THE YEAil 1846. 

The Mi8cellany of the Irish Archseological Society. VoL I. confaining : 

1. An ancient Poem attributed to St. Columbkille, vnth. a Translation and Notes by Joiix O'Doso- 

NAN, LL. D. 

2. De ConcLlio Hibemiae ; the earliest extant record of a Parliament in Ireland : with Notes by the 

Verv Rev. R. Butler. 

3. Copv of the Award as conceming the Tolboll (Dublin) : contributed by Dr. Aquilla Smith. 

4. Pedigree of Dr. Dominick Lynch, Regent of the CoUedge of St. Thomas of Aquin, in Seville, 

A. D. 1674: contributed by Jajies Hardiman, Esq. 

5. A Latin Poem, by Dr. John Lynch, Author of Cambrensis Eversus, in reph' to the Question Cur 

in patriam non redis ? Contributed by James Hardolín, Esq. 

6. The Obits of Kilcormick, now Franltfort, King's County : contributed by the Rev. J. H. Todd. 

7. Ancient Testaments : contributed by Dr. Aquill^v Smith. 

8. Autograph Letter of Thady 0'Roddy : with some Notices of the Author by the Rev. J. H. Todd. 

9. Autograph Letter of Oliver Cromwell to his Sou, Harn,- Cromwell, Commander-in-Chief in Ireland : 

contributed by Dr. A. Smith. 

10. The Irish Charters in the Book of Kells, with a Translation and Notes by Jonx O'Doxovax, 

LL. D, 

1 1 . Original Charter granted by John Lord of Ireland, to the Abbev of IMelIifont : contributed by 

Dr. A. Smith. 

12. A Journey to Connaught in 1709 by Dr. Thomas Molyneaux : contributed by Dr. A. Sjiith. 

13. A Covenant in Irish between Mageoghegan and the Fox; with a Translation and historical 

Notices of the two Families, by John O'Donovan, LL. D. 

14. The Annals of Ireland, from A. D. 1453 to 1468, translated from a lost Irish original, by Dudley 

Firbisse ; with Notes bj J. O'Donovan, LL. D. 


( 'o ) 


The IrLsh VtTMoii of the " Ilistoria Britonum" of Nennius, or, as it Ls calhíd in Irish MSS., ÍOdbap 
bpeíTidC, thc Uritish Book. Edited from the Book of Balimote, lollated with copies in the Book of Lecan 
and in the Librar}' of Trinity CoUege, Dublin, with a Translation and Notes by Jamhs IIi:xtiiorn Todi), 
D. I>., M. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity Collegp, &c. ; and additional Notes, and an Introduction hv the IIoii. 
\ i.oF.UNON 1 1 F.nnHm". 


The Latin Aniialisf.s of Ireland ; edited with introductory Remarks and Notes by the Very Rcv.» 
Hrxi.ER, M. R. I. A., Dean of Clonmacnois, — viz. : 

1. The Annals of Ireland, by Jobn Cljn, of Kilkenny ; from a JIS. iu the Librarj' of Trinitv College, 

Dublin, collated with auother in the Bodleian Librarj', Oxford. 

2. The Aniial.s of Ireland, by Thady Dowling, Chancellor of Leighlin. Froui a MS. in the Librarv 

of Trinity College, Dublin. 

FOR THE YEARS 1849 AND 1850. 

Macariie Excidium, the Destruction of Cvprus ; being a secret History of the Civil War in Ireland, 
tinder James II., by Colonel Charles O'Rell^. Edited in the Latin from a MS. presented by the late Pro- 
fessor M'Cullagh to tlie Library of the Royal Irish Academy ; with a Translation from a MS. of the seven- 
teenth century ; and Note.s by Joitn O'Callacíhan, Esq. 

FOR THE YEAR i8<;i. 

Acts of Archbishoj) Colton iii his Visitation of the Diocese of Derry, A. D. 1397. Edited froui the 
original Holl, with Infroduction and Notes, by Wili.iaai Reeves, D. I)., JI. H. I. A. 



Sir Williain Petty's Narrative of his Proceedings in tlie Survey of Ireland ; from a MS. in fhe Librarv 
of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited, with Notes, by Thomas A. Larcom, Esq.. R. E., V. P. R. I. A. 


A TreatLse on the Oghani or Occult Fonn.s of Writing of tho ancieiit Irish ; tVom a MS. in the 
Library of Trinity College, Dublin ; with a Translatiou and Notes, aiid Preliiniiiarj' Dis.sertation, bv the 
Rev. CiiAULES GuAVEs, I). D., M. H. I. A., Fellow of 'rrinity College, and Profcssor of Matheinatii s in 
th(> ITniversify of Diiblin. ín the Press. 


1 1 


riie fullowiiifr \Vorks are m!iiiy of tlu'in rcaily for the Press, and wiU be undertaken as soon as the funds 
of the Society wiU permit : — 

I. CoiiTiac's Glossary. Edited by James Hentiiohn Todd, D. D., M. li. I. A., Senior Fellow of 
Trinity CoUege, and Professor of Hebrew in the University of Dublin; with aTranslation and Xotes byJoHX 
O'DoNOVAN, l.L. D., M. R. I. A., Professor of Irish in the Queen's CoUege, Belfast, and Eugexe Cibrv, Esq. 

II. Co5a& 5aoit)cal Tie Sal^l'aib. The Wars of the Irish and Danes. Edited, with a Translatiou 
and Notes, from a MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin, collated with a MS. in the handwriting 
of Fr. Michael 0'Clery, now in the Rurgimdian Librarj' at Brussels. By J.vaiES Henthorn Todd, D. D., 
and JoHN O'DoNOVAN, LL. D. 

III. The Irish Archaeologi«il Miscellany, vol. ii. 

IV. The Annals of Ulster. With a Translation and Notes. Edited from a MS. in the Librarj- of 
Trinity College, Dublin, collated with the Translation made for Sir James Ware by Dudlev or Diiald 
Mac Firbis, a MS. Ln the British Museum, by James Henthoen Todd, D. D., M. R. l. A., and John 
O'DoNOVAN, LL. D., M. R. I. A. 

V. Tlie Annals of Innisfallen ; from a MS. in the Bodleiaii Libraiy, Oxford ; with a Translation and 
Notes by John O'Donov^iíi, LL. D. 

VI. Ecclesiastical Taxation of Irelanrl, circ. 1300. Edited from tlie oríginal Exchequer Rolls in the 
Carlton-Ride Record Office, London, with Notes, by the Rev. William Reeves, D. D., M. R. I. A., <>f 
Trinity College, Dublin. 

VII. The Liber Hyinnorum ; from the origiual MS. in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. Edited 
by the Rev. Jasies Henthorn Todd, D. D., M. R. I. A., FeUow of Trinity CoUege, and the Rev. Willia.m 
Reeves, D. D., M. R. I. A. 

VIII. Articles of Capitulation and Surrender of Cities, Towns, Castles, Forts, &c., in Ireland. to the 
Parliamentary Forces, from A. D. 1649 to 1654. Edited, with Historical Notices, by James Hardi.>l\n, 
E.sq., M. R. I. A. 

IX. The Genealog}- aiid History of the Saints of Ireland : from the Book of Lecan. Edited. witli 
a Translation and Notes, by John O'Donovan, LL. D., and James Henthorn Todd, D. D. 

X. An Account of the Firbolgs and Danes of Irelantl, by Duald JNIac Firbis, from a jMS. in the Librarv 
of Trinity CoUege, Dublin ; with a Tran.slation and Notes, by John O'Donovan, LL. D. 

XI. bopoTna. The Origin and Historj- of the Boromean Tribute. Edited from a MS. in the Libraiy 
of Trinity CoUege, Dublin, with a Translation and Notes, by Ecgene Ciírrv, Esq. 

XII. The Progresses of the Lords Lieutenant in Ireland ; from MSS. in the Library of Trinitv CoUege, 
DubUn. Edited by Joseph Hub^vnd Smitii, A. M., M. R. I. A. 

XIII. The Topographical Poems of O'Heerin and O'Duggan ; with Notes by John O'Donovax. LL. D. 

XIV. The Municipal Laws of Dublin, from a MS. iu the possession of the Lord Mavor and Corporation. 
Edited by the Veiy Rev. Richard Butler. Dean of Clonmacnois. 


( 12 ) 

TliP tirst publicati'm i>f tlip Irisii Ar( h.icoi.oiíu ai. asi> C'hi.tic Sorip.TV, (»r 1854, will l>o tlip 
follDWÍng : — 

llvMXS oi- Tiii'. .\n ITICNT liíisii CliMTn II. .sL'lfcted fioiii tlic Liber lli/muorum, a MS. of tlic nintli ifii- 
tiiry, in tlie Lilirarv of Trinilv Collefre, Dublin. By J.v.mes Hentiioh.n Toi>i>, D. 1)., M. K. I.A., F. S.A.. 
.Spiiior FoUow of Trinitv C'oUc'nc, and I'rofe.-^sor of Ilcbrew in the Univernitv <>f Diiblin, Fellow of tlie 
lloval Sucietv of N'ortiiiTM .\iiti(|ii:irii's of ('o]i('n)iiijr('n. i^e. In tlie l'ri'ss. 

h\ ailditiiiii lo tlie forefíoiii}; projected Publication.s, tbere are nianv important works iii tlie contemplation 
of the Couiicil, ■wliich want of funds alone prevent.s the posaibilitv of their undertaRiní^, such as the Dinii- 
.seanchus, the Annals of Connaught, the Annals of Tighernach, tlie Hagiographieal works of St. Aengus the 
Culdee, the MartjTologv of Donegal, &c. &c. 

Noblemeii and gentlemen de.slrous of becoming Merabers of the Societv are requested to communicate 
witli the Secretarics, Rev. Dr. Todd, and J. T. Ciilbert, Esq., 35, Trinitj CoUege, Dublin. Subscriptions 
will be received by tlie Treasurer, Aquilla Smith, M. D.. and by Fxiward Clibboni, Esri.. Royal Irish 
Academv, Daw.son-street, Dublin. 

QOibhGCíl jTDUllJn. The Book 
of Hymns of the Ancient Church 
of Ireland. 

Fasciculus II. 


V. The Hymn of St.Colman MacUiCluasaigh. 

VI. The Hymn of St. Cuchuimne. 

VII. The Hymn of St. HiLar^ in Praise of Christ. 

VIII. The Hymn of St. Cohnan Mac Murchon, 

in Praise of Michael the Archangel. 

IX. The Hyma of St. Oengus Mac Tipraite in 

Praise of St. Martin. 
X. Gloria in Excclsis Deo. 
XI. The Magnificat, or HjTnn of the Blessed 
XII. The Benedictus, or Hymn of Zacharias. 

XIII. Te Deum Laudamus. 

XIV. The Hymn of St. Columba, " Altus Pro- 

XV. The Hymn of St. Columba, " In te, 

XVI. TheHymnof St.Columba, "NoHPater." 
XVIT. The Prayer of St. John the Erangehst. 
XVIII. The Epistle of Christ to Abgarus, King 
of Edessa. 
XIX. Prefatory Eemarks on the Hymn of 
St. Fiacc, in Praise of St. Patrick. 



SSRit^ ^ranslatíon antí Jíotís, 

By James Henthorn Todd, D. D., M. R. I. A., F. S. A., 

Senior FcUow of Trinity CoUege, and rrfficentor of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. 


^tíntcíi at X\)t íiambcrsítí) '^éxti^, 



\@iimcíi at thc anibersit» 19rtss, 

BY M. II. OlLl.. 




^resibfití : 

^ke-^usií)£nís : 


The Eight Hoií. iHE Eael of Duneaven, M. R. I. A. 

The Eight Hoií. Lokd Talbot De Malahide, M. R. I. A. 

YEKr Rev. C. W. Eussell, D. D., President of Maynooth CoUege. 

Eight Eev. Chaeles Ghaves, D.D., Bishop 

of Limerick. 
Eev. James Graves, A. B., M. E. I. A. 
W. H. Hakdinge, Esa, M.E.LA. 
D. H. Kelly, Esq., M. R. I. A. 
JoHN C. 0'Callagha>', Esq., M. E. I. A, 


Majok-Gen£kal Sir Thomas A. Laecom, 

K.C. B., M. E.LA. 
Eev. AVilliam Eeeves, D.D., M. E. L A, 
AauiLLA Smith, M. D,, M. E, I. A, 
SiR W. E. WiLDE, M.D., Vice-President 

of the Eoyal Irish Academy. 

^£cr£Íarg : 
J. T. Gilbert, M. E. I. A., F. S. A. 

The Bank of Ieeland. 

19, Dawson-street, Dctblin, 
Novemher, 1869. 


This Fasciculus contains all the sheets which the late lamented 
Editor signed for the Press, hefore iU health and other obstaclcs 
internipted the progress of the work. It is issued by direction of the 
Council in its present state, as a second instalment of the publication 
from the Editor's pen ; with the reasonable hope that, as Doctor Todd 
has left some materials for the continuation, and as there are two 
Members of the Society prepared to take up the work where he left ofF, 
another Fasciculus, carrying on the pagination and matter as originally 
proposed, wiU be ready for delivery at no distant period. 

J. T. GiLBERT, Hon. Secretanj. 

19, Dawson-street, Dvblin, 
November, 1869. 



THE íbllowing composition is of the nature of what the ancient Irish 
ecclesiastics called a Luirech^ or Lorica^ i. e., a Hymn to be recited as a 
protection against pestilence, assaults of demons, or other apprehended evils. 
The recitation of such hymns. or prajers, was regarded as the buckling on of 
spiritual armour, and hence they received the name oí Lorica, in allusion 
probably to Eph. vi. 14, seq.,) or rather perhaps to Ps. xci. (Vulg. xc.) 4, 5, 6. 
An example of a hyran of this kind, which is evidently Irish, and is attri- 
buted to one " Lathacan^ Scotigena," will be found in Mone's collection, 
fíymn. Lat. Medii JEvii vol. i. p. 367. 

Of the Colman who is said to have been the author of the following Hymn, 
we know little except what we learn from the Preface of the Scholiast. He 
is there said to have been the son of the grandson of Cluasach ; but who this 
Cluasach was, or what family bore his name, the Editor is unable to say. It 
appears, however, tliat Colman was a Fer-Leghinn, i. e., Lecturer or Profes- 
sor, in the theological school or seminary of Cork, and that the Hymn was 
composed as a protection against the great pestilence which devastated Ire- 
land in the seventh century. This seems to fix the date of its composition 
to shortly before A. D. 664, in which year (according to the chronology of the 
Four Masters) the two sons of Aedh Slaine, Diarmaid and Blathmac, joint 
kings of Ireland, with a great number of eminent saints and ecclesiastics, 
perished in the plague. There can be little doubt that the Colman to whom 

' Lathacan — This is probably the name identify any ofthem with this " Lathacan." 
which in Irish authorities is written Laidh- The Four Masters record the death of a 
geann. Saints of this name are celebrated in Laidhgenn, son of Baeth, of Clonfert Moiua, 
the L-ish Calendars, at Jan. 12, May 20, A. D. 6 0; the Annals of Ulster call hini 
Oct. 23, and Nov. 28 ; but it is not casy to " Laidggenn sapiens mac Baith Bannaigh." 


122 The Hymn of St. Colman. 

this hvir.n is attributcd by thc Scholiast raust be rcgardcd as the same who, 
undcr ihc namc ol' "Colman Ua Cluasaigh," is mcntioncd by thc Four Mastcrs 
as thc tutor of St. Cumniain, or Cumminc Fota, Bishop of Clonfcrt, and author 
of an elcgy on thc dcath of that prclatc, A. D. 66 1, which has becn alrcady 

It is believed that tliis Hymn has never before bccn publishcd, nor has the 
Editor bccn ablc to find any othcr MS. copy of it than that from which it is 
now printed. It is written in a dialcct of Irish, wliich fully confirms the early 
date assigned to it. The Editor has endeavoured, in the Notcs appcndcd to 
the tcxt, to point out the more important grammatical and philological pccu- 
liai'ities of its idiom, and hc takes this opportunity of acknowlcdging his obli- 
gations to Dr. O'Donovan and Mr. Curry. To the former gcntleman he is 
particularly indcbtcd for much valuable philological and grammatical matter 
wliich is cmbodicd in the notes ; and JNIr. Cun'y has givcn essential aid in 
the translation, as well as in deciphering and interprcting the obscm-ities of the 
MS. frora which the text and its gloss have been printed. He has also to re- 
tum thanks to Dr. Reeves for many valuable suggestions. 

* See page 86, supra. The Four Masters fixed, and that it continued with more or less 

fix the death of Colman Ua Cluasaigh at the intensity íov some years. It may, thercfore, 

same year as that of his pupil Cummine Fota be true, that our author composed the hymn 

(viz. A. D GGl) ; whereas the Scholiast's Pre- on the occasion of the plague in which the 

face states that the presenthymnwas composed kings of Ireland perished in G64, although he 

on the occasion of the pestilence in which the himself died of the same plague in 661. See 

líings Diarmaid and Blathmac died, viz. A. D. Dr. Wilde's Report on the Tablcs of Deaths, 

6G4. But it is well known that tlie exact date (Census of Ireland for 1851, vol. v. p. 

of this celebrated plague is not verj' accurately 49 sq. 

SeN De. ColTnaTi tdqc hui Chluarni^ pep legint) CoTicaise ipe t»o pi^ne m iTnmanra hm 
foepab Qj\ m íiibuibechaip po boe ippemip mac nOeba Sl(íne. Gj) popcap imba 
bome m hGpmn m can pem, -\ pobe a nimmac conna póichcip acc cpi n6i immaipe bo 
cech pip m hCpmn .1. a noi bo m6m, 1 a noi bo mm, -| a nof bo chaill. co po chpoipcpec 
maiche pep nCpenn, im meic nOiba Sláne, im pechme pabaip, 1 im Gilepan, -] im TTlan- 
chan Leich, 1 im pochoibe apchena, im huacigub na nbome aj\ bo bechaib cepca bib 
ann ap a nimmeb. Conib aipe pem cuccab m buibechaip poppu. conib be ac baca- 
cap meic Qeba Sláne ipm blmbam pm. -j na ppuiche po ptíibpem -\ aln mulci. 
Dicunc alii combab Cholmun bo gnech uile. acbcpac paipenn aile na bepnai achc 
ba pann be namma 1 m pcol bia bfnaim o pm immach .1. lech pann cech pip bib. 1 
Copcais bo pijneb in-ampfip ba mac Qeba Sltíne .i. blaichmac 1 Oiapmaic ipe .h. 
cuccaic a benma. Cfibm m6p bo pacab pop pipu hCpmn .1. in buibe connaill. 

00 po pipepcap hepenn hule, i co na papcaib achc cech cpep bune m hCpinn 

1 mbechaib. -\ conib bia n-anacul co na pcoil bo pone ap in ceibm pm bo pme 
Colman in nimmunnpa, -| ip ann bo pola bopom a benam m can po chmpcanapcap 

lapcnam co apaile inpe mapa hBpfnn amais pop cecheb m cebmapa co mbeap .1;:. 
[conna] ecuppu icip, ap ni cic ceibm capaip mnunn, uc pepunc pepici, co po 
lappais apaile ben pcol Cholman, ciapen 1 capla boib bul pop fev comab 
ann pem. acjiubaipc Colman, cia pen on cj)a, ol peippom, achc SeN DC : 
lap ippeb po chpiallpacpom bul pop mpib mapa immach pop cecheb pep 
/m nsalup. 

N De DONpe ponDONce Tnac mair^e t?on peCaDaT? 
paoessaTii dun imnocIic cto cTasaTn caTN ciTTiaDaT? 

Lert poss NO ucTnaTLLe tcct? sutDc no sessam 
RuiTíe Nime pt^t cech cuess tsscD accach aDessam 

Gloss. — I. Donfe. — .1. pon pucca leip [may it be given by him]. Fordonte — .1. 

popunb be .1. ci popn [011 us come, i. e. come upon us]. Ron feladar. — .1. Oo pacu 

apial copunb biapbicm [may He put his veil over us for our protection]. 2. Faoessam. — .1. 
paoeppicm rmay protect]. Innocht. — .i. in nocte tribulatioiiis. Cia tiasam. — .1. cepe leach Ciapam 
[wheresoever we go]. Cuin. — i. aluinb [beautifiil]. Timadar. — .1. cib imbai pinn biap bicin .1. 
boné ap fibibin [although numerous, we are to be protected, i. e. he does protect us]. 3. Foss. — 
.1. Cib poppibechc [whctherat rest]. Vtmaille. — .1. eib pop imcechc [whether a going]. 4. Ruire.— 
.1. popi [great King]. Fri. — .1. contra. Adessam. — .1. acchimic [we beseech]. 

I. Sen (7^.— For a translation of thc tional Xotc (p. 132). Thc rcader will 
Preface and of the Hymn, scc the Addi- observe that each line contains fonrteen 



Ili/mnus S. Colmani Mic Ui Cluasaigh. 


5C abcil mcic aoaini licli cnoc oiaT?cobam 5 

RON socnac ar? oia NsaLar? sccip lcch poNiíibich posam 


oc ocus abnaliam isac in mac aoamna 
inimuN cisac an ceomaNN Nach on camLe aoamNo 

ilmc acham cRi ccchRUTí ocus loseph on uasaL 
RON socnac a NcriNaischi co R15 niL aiNsLcch NuasaL 

GiX)ss. — 5. Itffe. — .1. guibmic [we beseech]. Abeil. — .i. luctns. Adaim. — .i. teirenns, vel terrigena, 
vel terra rubra interpretatur. 6. Dia ngalar. — .1. op m galup nt)ian .1. aji m buiOe connaiU [from 

the sudden pestileiice, i. e. from the bnidhe cojinailll. Fogair 1. pospaigep .1. ttone como- 

chium [that gives warniug, i. e. that makes threatening]. 7. Noe — Noe consolatio interpretatur, 
quia per ipsum mundus consolatus est, in reparatione hominum. Abraham. — .i. pater excelsus interpre- 
tatur. Jsac. — .i. risus interpretatur, quia per niiraculum datus est. 8. Jmmun tisat. — i. cipoc 
mimunt) [mav thej- come about us]. Adamna. — .1. abamni, .1. gopca [.i. ihe speUing ought to be 
utjamni, i. e. famine], .i. quia per Adam venit dolor. 9. Athair. — .i. Jacob. Tri cethrur. — .1. xii. pa- 
triarchae. Joseph. — .i. augmentum interpretatur. An vasal. — .1. an uapal pep [the noble man]. 
10. NU ainglech [of many angels] .i. quia [multos] angelos tenet. 

syllablcs ; and that there is rhyme or as- 
sonance betwecn the final syllablcs of 
each line. The word Sen in modem 
Irish signifies luck or prosperity, but in 
the ancient language it is of fre(|uent oc- 
currence in the sense of henedidion, as in 
the Feilire of Aengus, Sen a Cbpipc -mo 
labpa, "Bless, Christ, my lips." Sen 
Oe is the blessing of God, t)e being the 
genitive case of 'Dia, God. Donfe. — This 
Rcems like a futurc, or optative of some 
old vcrb, t)unaim, or Donaim. In the 
Gloss on popt)once, we are told that 
t)e or ce is for ci, come; and, therc- 
fore, the passage is paraphrased thus : 
" May the blessing of God be given by 
Him, may it comc upon us." In more 
raodcm Irish, Sen Oe 50 D-cisiD, op- 
painn 50 t^-cijit). Ron feladar. — Thc 
word pon is a 8ynthetic union of thc 
verbal prcfix po, with inn the accusa- 
tive form of pinn, us. The tcrmination 
at)ap reprcscnts, in the modcm lan- 

guage, the ^rd pcrson plural of the pre- 
tcrite; ■whercas, in pelabap, it Í£ the 
3rd singular prcscnt indicativc active, 
with an optative signification. Dr. O'Do- 
novan mentions epcap, or apcap, as a 
tcrmination of the ^rd person singiilar 
preterite {Gramm. p. 157). But at)ap aa 
a teiTaination of thc ^rd person singular 
present is the ancicnt form of thc vtrb 
deponent; (sce Zeuss, Grammat. Celt., 
p. 444-5). The verb pelaim, or pia- 
laim, is cvidcntly the Latin velare. See 
the Gloss, mac máipe, now usuaUy 
•writtcn TTlac Tíluipe, is thc ordinary Irish 
designation of om- Lord. 

2. Faoessam. — Sce line 52. This word 
is a substantive, and -sve must understand 
somc word signifj-ing give, or grant, to 
obtain the intcrpretation of "May he pro- 
tcct" The tcrmination pam, or piuni, ille, 
ipse, Í8 the cmphatic tcrmination. Zcuss, 
p. 334. paoipeam is stiU uscd to sig- 
nify help, Hutcour. t)un is the ancient 

Hymnus S. Colmani Mic Ui Cluasaigh. 


SNaiDsium moisi Descuisech T^ONSNaiD cnia Tíubnum maine 
icsu aaríON macc amrja DauiD in siLLa DaNa 

Iob cosNapochaiDib sech Na Ncmi RONSNaDa 
pachi piaDac ríONaNsec La seclic maccu mocaba 

oiN bapcaisc aDsLuiNNcm rjop Diciu Dun rjop snoDuD 
csu coN apscalaib Rop Diar^ cobairi pRi ^abuD 

Gloss. — II. Snaidsium. — .1. pon fnabe fmt> [mav he protect us]. Moisi. — .i. aquaticus, interpre- 

tatur, quia de Nilo flumine sumptus est. Ransnaid. — i. populiim Israel. 12. Jesu .1. muc Ntín 

[son of Nuii]. Aaron. — .i. mons fortitudinis interprctatur. Dauid. — .i. fortis manus interpretatur. 
13. Job. — .i. dolens interpretatur. 14. Fiadat. — .1. piaba .1. po tiia, .1. t)m maich [puiba, i.e. po, 

good, and bia, God, the gnod God]. 15. Eoin i. in quo gratia interpretatur. Baptaist. — .i. qui 

Christum baptizavit. Adsluinnem. — .1. apluinbmeic ap capbe)' ppip ni hac laube [we declare our 
love (or reverence) for him in this song of praise]. 16. Apstalaib. — Apostolus Grece, missus interpre- 
tatur Latine. Diar cobair. — .1. cipac t)iap cobaip [may they come to our relief]. 

form of t)uinn, i. e., Do inn, to us. 
Innochc would now be written anochc, 
hac nocte. Zeuss, p. 1 1 30. Tiasam. — Here 
we have the ancient termination of the 
ist person phu'al, am, instcad of the mo- 
dern mít), ormaoit). The am is clearlj 
the Latin amus. The modern Irish to 
express " whercsoever we go" would be, 
cibe dic G t)-céi5mít). 

4. Issecl. — For ip et), est id : et) is the 
ancient neuter form of the pronoun. 
Zeuss, p. 333. Attach. — Or acach, are- 
questor supplication, .1. guióe, O'Clerj. 
Adessam. — This is a ist person plural, 
accoi'ding to the Gloss. 

5. Itge. — Or icce, a fonn of accach, 
V. 4. The interpretations givcn in thc 
Gloss of the proper names Abel and Adam, 
are taken from St. Jcrome. 

6. Hon soerat. — pon, for po inn, see 
Eiote, V. i. The tcrmination poep-ac 
would now be poep-ai&, ^rd person plu- 
ral. Seci^h — Somctimes -WTÍtten cécip, the 
same as the modcm gibe, for 516 be, or 
ció b'e, whatsocver. Fon mhith. — It wiU 

be obsen'cd that here, and in several 
other places in this MS., as lisle, ver. 37, 
hainjliu, ver. 43, the eclipsing m orn is 
markcd with a dot ; and in the Gloss on 
ver. 5, in ^alup nt)ian. 

7. Noe. — The intei'pretations given in 
the Gloss of the proper names, Noe, Abra- 
ham, Isaac, are from St. Jerome. 

8. Tisat. — See above, v. 2, note. Here 
we have the old termination of the ^rd 
person plural, which is now cit). This 
word would now be written cigit), or ciag- 
ait). Lamna. — Bamnatio. The gloss on 
this word seems to consider the prep. a 
an essential part of it ; and tells us that 
abamna, or at)amni, signiíjing famine, 
or hiinger, is derivcd from Adam, because 
by Adam came aU suffei'ing. 

9. Ailme. — For ailim, or ailem. — The 
transposition of the e may possibly be an 
error of the transcribcr. 

II. Snaidsium. — May he protect. Onthe 
termination pium, see note, v. 2. 3Ioisi. 
— Thc gloss intcrprets the name of Moses 
"aquaticus." St. Jerome, more correctly, 

1 20 Hymnus S. Colmani Mic Ui Cluasahjli. 

•rY|aiRc loseph don T?in5nar cc spmicus sccpani 


as cacli 1N5 ooM ponsLaicc caicliTncc aMma iSHaci 

cch manciR ccch Oichnubach ccch Mocb ro bai hiMSCMniMai 
Rop sciach oiiM Dian MunDcsaiLRop saigcchuaM pTíiDemNai 20 


C5cni Tíc^um Tíosamus 111 mosctíis scTímoMibus 
auachr moc a luchclach Diluui cempoTíibus 

Gloss. — 17. Maire. — .5. stilla vel stella maris, interpretatur. Joseph. — .1. aice ipu [the tator (or 

foster-fathor) of Jesu.s]. Don ringrat 1. pon cogpac t)iaTiTianacul [raav th(;y come to our protec- 

tinn]. Spirifns i. anima vel gratia ejus. Stefani. — .i. coronatus interpretatur. 18. Forsiaice. — .1. 

pon puaplaice [may it deliver us]. Taithmet. — .1. pop aichmec [commemorate]. 19. Martir. — 
.i. pro Deo. Dithruhach — [a hermit] .i. proDeo. Noeh. — [saint] .i. pro Deo. Hi ngenmnai. — .i. virg- 

Einitate]. 21. In nostris. — .i. in Scotica lingua, vel huius ymni. 22. Anacht. — .1. m pt poanachc 
Ihe King who saved]. A luchtlach 1. luchc locha, no a luchc l»ul) .1. [his company on tlie water, 

i>r his black company] Noe cum suis tribus íiliis et .iiii. uxores eorum. 

" sumptus ex aqua, sivo assiimptio." The 
interpretations of Aa/ron and of Davtd,, V. 12, although not very correct, 
are from St. Jerome. The interpretation 
oí David, "manus fortis," occurs in Ori- 
gen anrl other ancicnt writcrs, and scems 
to have bcen taken írom "»1, snjficiens, and 
T^, manm — an etymology which cxhibits 
a curious ignorance of Hebrew. Ronsnaid. 
— Le., po inn pnaib, or po pnait) inn, 
tcho protected us. 

13. Sech. — Over, bei/ond, — pncter, ul- 
tra, supra. Zcuss, Gramm. Celt. p. 612. 

14. Fiadat. — This is a very ancient 
word, 8Ígnifying the truc or good God. 
The glosH, as above, is an attcmj^t to givc 
its etymolog5'. The schoUast there tells 
us that piabac is the same as piat)a, 
which Í8 derived from po t)ia, which lu; 
explains Oia maicli, good God — po, 
good ; t)ia, God. — 8ec above, p. 84, 
note •'. 

15. Rop. — Forpo ba, wliich in modern 
Irish is 50 mba, mag /«; be ; where it is 

to bc observcd thut the uncicnt po is the 
equivalent of 50, giving the optative sense, 
and not a merc sign of the prcterite indi- 
cativc. Bitiu. — This word is now t)ít)in, 
or bíoean. 

17. Maire. — The intcrprctation of the 
name of Mary, "stiUa marís," is evidcntly 
founded on the Hebrew form of the name 
Miriam, as if frora "ID, a drop, and D^, 
tlie sea. Stella seems a misspolling oístilla, 
having, so far as I know, no foundation 
in any Hebrew et)Tnology. Eut it occurs 
in aU the editions of St. Jcrome's In- 
terpretatio Nominum Jlebraicorim, where 
we havc the following: — " Mariam ple- 
riquc ffistimant intcrpretari illuminant 
me isti, vel illuminatrix [from the root 
nMl], vel smijrna maris [C~1D], sed 
mihi nequaquam videtur. Melius autem 
ost, ut dicamus sonare cam stellam [read 
stiUam~\ 7naris, sive amarum mare [root 
~l"1D]. Scienduraque quod Maria, sermone 
Syro, domina nuncupetur." Don ring- 
rat. — This is glossed pon co5par, the 

Hymnus S. Colmani Mic TJi Cluasaigh. 

1 27 


clchiset)ecli T?e;c salciTi iNccríco Oe seiTiiNe 
RON soeriQC a aiRNishe ab oitini poRmiDiNe 

,ocer? SOCR1.1S Loch Oi chciN cfui per? seciila habccur? 
► uc Nos omncs pnccamuR LibcrmRc Oisnccur 


bnam Oc ur ua saloai suaiosium Rur?! RousuaOa 
soensum soerius m popuL limpa poncis iN^aba 

Gloss. — 23. Melchisedcch. — .i. rex justitiíB interpretatur. 25. Soerus. — .1. po foepapcap [who 
delivered]. Loth. — .i. declinans, iuterpretatur. Loth niac Aran, mic Thara, frater Sarra [Lot the 
son of Haran, son of Tara, brother ofSara]. 28. Soersum. — .1. po roepa finn [may he rescue us]. 
Limpa. — .1. cohoin abanin [that is a river]. Ingaha. — .1. if in jabub ipabacap sine aqua quando 
venit ex Egypto [.i. the need in which they were without water, when they came out of Egj'pt]. 

t)on, or poTi, beÍBg qi(ocl nos (see note 
on V. 6). The verbs pinspac and co- 
5pac are tbe ^rd pcrson pliu'al pre- 
sent, of which tbe modcm form would 
be pingpait) and cospait). The mcaning 
seems to be, "May they be pleased to come 
to onr protection." Cospaim is to cJioose, 
to will, to desire. 

18. Ignati. — Over this "word is a note 
taken from some ancient martyrology : a 
portion of it has been cut away by the 
binder. What remains is as follows: — 
",i. Ignatius episcopus secundus post 

Petrum in Antiochia primus, et 

passus sub Trajano imperatore. Ignatius 

a leonibus et aliis bestiis . ." 

It mLl be observcd that Ignatius is 
here styled "secundus post Petrum," in- 
stead of " tertius," as in the Roman Mar- 
tyrology, Peb. i. 

zz. A luchtlach. — The gloss on this 
word gives two mcanings of it, derived 
from the double signification of loch, 
which may mcan either water, or hlach. 

23. Rex Salem. — Here in the MS. 
we have thc following note as a gloss : 

" IIieronymus. Aiunt Ebrci hunc csse 
Sem filium 'Eoe ; et supputantes annos 
vitae ipsius .cccc. ostendimt cum usque 
ad Isac vixisse. Alii hunc essc quendam 
Cannaneum et ignotum cujus Ebrei ge- 
nealogiam ignorant. Seeujidum autem 
Augustinum et Origenem, non homo fuit, 
sed angelus Domini. Homo sine patre 
et sine matre et sine genealogia esse 
non potest." And in the margin : " Hi- 
eronymus, Salem, non ut Josephus et 
nostromm omnes arbitrantur, idem est et 
Hiemsalem, sed oppidum iuxta Scitho- 
polim, quod appeUatur Salem, et dicitur 
venisse Jacob in Salem civitatem regionis 
Sichem, quoe est in terra Chanaan." — See 
St. Jerome's Quast. Uehr. in Gen. [in c. 
xiv. 18], and Epist. 73 ad Evangelum, 
de Melchiscdec, n. 2 and 7 (ed. Vallars.), 
in which last place the above extract about 
Salcm occurs nearly vcrbatim. Cf. August. 
Qumt.inlleptat.]jih.\. 74 [inGen.xxv.22]. 
24. Ron soerat. — For po innpoepac a 
aipnighe; in modcmlrísh, ^opopoepaió 
a upnaigée inn, Ma>/ his prai/ers delixer 

128 Hymnus S. Colmnni Mic Ui Cluasaigh. 

RiiRi QNachc níi maccu as iihnn ccncD co TíiiaDi 
ROíi imni amaL no anachc oauio Dc TnaNU solai 3° 

FlaichcíTi uiinc lochanuais anDONROissc Dian cnosi 
uaD lcic suuin pROFCcam uLli lcouum oni 

amal pocDcs m aiuscl canslaic pccnum a sLabT^ciD 
Do TíOiccR DUN DiOT? poTícachc Rop RBiD T^cmuuN ccch TíamT?eiD 

Gloss 29. Rurí.—A. popi [.L Great King]. Anaeht.—.^. po onserccip [.i. saved or protected]. 

31. Flaithem.—.V plaich em [.i. noble sovereign]. Locharnaig.—.\. rolurca [luminous]. Ardon- 
ruigse. 1. Qp po Qipchtre [.i. may he have mercy]. 34. Do roiter.—.i. a Deo. 

25. Sofer. — Hcre our author emplojs 
a Greek word, upon which the scholiast 
has •wTÍtten the following note in the max- 
gin of tlie MS. : " Soter, .i. Ehreice, ihs, 
Grece; Salvator, LatÍBe;" where the 
words "Ebreice" and "Grecc" ought to be 
transposcd. Soerus. — The relative form of 
the prcscnt indicative active, who delivers. 
The gloss says it is put for the pretcrite 
ro soeradar, who delivered. Loth. — 
Interpretcd in the gloss declinans, from St. 
Jerome, but it really means velamen, a 
veil, or covering. Qui per secula. — i. c, 
the Saviour who livcs throughout all ages, 
and is as ablc to deliver us now as he was 
to deliver Lot (cf. 2 Pet. ii. 7), we pray 
him that hc vouchsafe to delivcr us all. 

27. Ahram. — Herc we havc thc gloss: 
" .1. Pater excclsus interprctatur, Ahha 
enim pater, ram, cxcclsus. Abraham pa- 
ter multarum intcrpretatar, ct subintclligc 

2'j. De Ur. — In thc margiu isthc foUow- 
ing note on tliis word: " In Ebreo habctur 
in Ur Chethisim, L in igne Caldeorum, Tra- 
dunt autcm Ebrci cx hac occasionc istius- 
modi fabulam; quod Abraham in igncm 

misus cst, quia ignem adorarc noluerit, 
qucm Caldci colimt, ct Dei auxilio liberatua 
de idulolatri» igne profugcrit : quod in se- 
qucntibus scribitur, egressxim esse Tharam 
cum sobole sua de regione Caldeorum ; pro 
quo in ebreo habetur de incendio Caldeo- 
rum, et missus est Aram adhuc ante con- 
spectum patris sui Thara in igne Calde- 
orum, quod videlicet igncm nollcns adorare 
igne consumptus est. Loquitur autem Do- 
minus postea ad Abram diccns, Ego sum 
qui eduxi te de igne Caldeorum." These 
words occur in St. Jerome's Quast. Uehraic. 
in Gen. xi. 28. 

27. Ronsnada. — For po e pnatjaió, he 
who protected him. 

28. Soersum. — The gloss on this word 
is worthy of notice, as it teUs us that the 
ancient termination pum in verbs, in- 
stances of which frequently occur in this 
HjTun, is the pronoun pinn, we, or us. 
Thus paoeppam, may hc protcct us, ver. 2 ; 
ciaciapam, whcrcvcr we go, vcr. 2 ; 
pnait)piiim, protect ?<s, ver. 11, 27. 

29. Tri maccu. — Hcre we find thc fol- 
lowingnotc: " .1. Scdrac, Misac, Abdinago, 
nomina eorum apud Caldcos ; Annanias, 

Hymnus S. Colmani Mlc Uí Cluasaigh. i 29 

lan piaDac noNColoTnan Noscno opeRC Oisno 35 

RobeTH occa im bich becliait) m paríaDisi tjc^no 


/^niaL soenas lONas paich a b^u miL itioit? moNaT? n^le 

sNaiOsiui^N Des m comcach ctícn scn Dc DoNpe poTíDONce 

o pTTj a piaDa no pm T^oerjchari in suiDise 
rto bec maccaN pLacha De hi cimcuaiT?c Na sculese 


,0 pm a piaDa Tjop piT^ líisam huile sich inD m^ 
sechTíoiseD rioissam hi pLaich Nime cocT^issam 


obbem ccn es hiLlechu la haiNo^iu im bich bechu 

Gloss. — 35. Diarfiadat. — .1. t)ap bia mairh [to our good God]. Rnntolomar. — .1. jiocholc- 
nageiii [we desire]. 38. Tomtach. — 1. coTnaichmech [forgiving]. 39. A fiada. — .i. a be maic)! 
[0 good God]. lioerthar. — .1. poepnichip [let it be granted, or performed]. 40. Muccan. — 
.1. meiccbecca acbalac pocheco|i in sanctitate post baptismum [little children who die imme- 
diati;ly in holiness after baptism]. 41. Sith. — .i. celum. 43. Hillethu. — .1. hi pappmge [in expansion, 
or space]. 

Azarias, Misael, nomiiia eorum apud Ebre- 
os. Et in igne misi sunt ; quia noluenmt 
adorare formam Nabcodonostor." 
30. Ron nain. — Qubd nos protegat. 

32. Nadleie. — Eorna t)0 léic : na, the 
negative relative, " who not;" t)o léic, 
now t)0 lei5 (from leigim, "I leave, or 
permit"). Smim profetam. — Here we bave 
the following note: " .1. Danielem, qui 
bis in Babilonia traditus est leonibus, et 
fuit cum eis in lacu lconum per ebdoma- 
dam plenam sine cibo." 

33. Foedes. — Over this word is thc 
foUowing note : "Herodes Agrippa occi- 
dit Jacobum filium Zebedei, et tradidit 
Petrum iiii. quatei-nionibus in carcerem 
ad custodiendum, et Hberavit cum Domi- 
nus per angelum suum." — poeDep, now 
paoitjep, is the historical prcsent of 
paoióim, I send. 


36. Rohem, and in L 43, robhem, for co 
po be inn, i. e., 50 po be pmn, that we 
may be: in modern Irish, 50 pabamap, 
50 pabamuit), or 50 paib pinn. 

37. lonas. — "We have here this note : 
" .1. Dolens, sive Columba, interpretatur ; 
íilius Amathi et viduae quam suscitaAÍt 
Helias quando hospita\'it apud eam, fu- 
giens Achab regem in tempore famis." — 
See St. Jerome's Prcefat. in Jonam. 

43 . Bethu. — Here an entire line is omit- 
ted in the MS., without any mark of omis- 
sion. In the margin there is a note which 
has been so injured by the plough of thc 
binder, that it is very obscure. "What rc- 
mains is as foUows : — "LechpanD po, 1 
ipeat) apaili in Lechpant) aili occainet) 

t)iacopachc acip t)en- 

galup mapu Lcchpann cech ai t)ib t)o 
ponpac anuap. Moipeat)Cholman mi- 



Hijmnus S. Colmani Mic Ui Cluasaifjh. 

cnais paichi ccn Dibao niní^iL apsraic ano pcr^at) 
camscc li an Naclian ncmDa nia sluas iiDcinna DianscMaD 43 

scn Dc 


cHDacbc poR ci?lam pacnaic coNNoebaib hcncNN iTnTne 
bcNNachc poRsiN cachRissc ociis poR cach piL itioi 

CNNachc poR enCam bnisiD con o^aib hcncNN impe 
cabnaiD huiLc caiN poRsalL bcNDachc pon onoaN bnisce 

Gi-oss. — 44. Reraig. — .1. pojits, no pepts [frreat kings, or noble Uings], .i. qui fuerunt ante diluvium. 
Cendibad. — .i. in pa-na. Ardfegad. — i. ip apt) pegaíj [it is a noble sight] angelorum ct apostolorum. 
45. Tairtet. — .i. huc usque cecinit Colman. 46. For erlam. — eplam, .1. 6p ellam, .1. at)bul ellaiii 
ppi t»eanaim pepca "| mtpbaile [Erlam, i. e. a ready champion, i. e. very ready to perform ■\vonders 
and miracles]. Patraic. — .1. pop m eplam ap parpaic [on the patron ivho is PatricU]. 47. Indi.— 
1. ince [in ii]. 

oppo aonup t)0 pisne in imniunb co 
lunle i popacaib in Lechpann po 
ap po eccomlanpai5t)ia mo checepnpem 
ccomlanai5pe pe amolat) pom ; which 
may bc translated: " This is a half stanza, 
and thero is another, viz., thc remaimng 
hall' stanza, lamenting their coming .... 

out of thc land on account of 

the plague, if it was half a stanza each of 
thcm made all along down. Or it was 
Colman alone who composed the whole 
hymn, andhc lcffc thishalf stanza, so that 
if God should leave him with the loss of 
liis company, His praise should bc h'ft 
deficient by him." Thc meaning of tliis 
last clause seems to be, that if wc supposc 
Colman alone to have composed the hymn, 
he may liave left the stanza deficient de- 
signedly, intending to complete it by an 
rxpression of thantfuhiess or praisc, if he 
and his company should cscape the pesti- 
lence. Jiut if God did not tliink fit to 
preserve them, then the intendcd praises 
of God must rcmain unsimg. Thc for- 

mcr clause is very obscure, becausc dc- 
fective. Perhaps the meaning may be, 
that as each of the scholars made half a 
stanza, one halfstanza would necessarily be 
left deficient, if the number of scholars 
should be diminishcd [by the plague]. 
At all evcnts it is cA'ident that the defect 
is an original one, and was so regarded by 
the ancient scholiast, who has in this note 
given us liis explauation of it. 

45. 8en Be. — These are the words with 
which the hymn begins, placed herc as a 
sort of colophon, according to a custom al- 
ready noticed at p. 23 above. The gloss 
here shows that this was undcrstood by 
the scholiast to have been the end of the 
original Hymn, as it says " Huc usque 
cecinit Cohnan;" and indecd the remainder 
bcars evident marks of having bcen added 
at a later age. See note on linc 51, ]>. 
136, infra. 

50. Columcille. — The gloss on this 
line Í8 an cxplanation of the rcason why 
Colum rcccived tlic appcUatioh of Colum- 


Hymnus S. Colmani Mic Ui Cluasaigh. 

eNDachc pon coLumcilLe coNNoebaib albaii aLLa 
poR aNinaiN aOamNaN aiN T?oLa caiN poRS íia cLaNTm 

OR poesani TÍ15 Na NOuLa comaiTíche NachaN bcT^a 
iN spmiir Noeb TíONbrjocNa ctíiosc i^ONSocTía T^oNscNa 

scN oe 



Openc p|io nobip pancri illi in celip, qiio|ium memopiam paci- 
mup in ceppip, uc Deleanuup oelicca nopcpa pep muocanonem 
pancri nominip cui ihu, -] mipepepe cfui pegnap in pecula peculo- 
pum. Ctmen. 

Gloss. — 50. Colum. — .1. collum ap a biuceóc dictus est [he is calledCollum (Columba), from his 

harmlessness]. Cille. — .i. quia frequenter veniebat ad Dapu nchiU, .1. Gcelai5 bubh 

glaipe guia a tío campum ppo ciuicace ueniec l . . . . epe ec uicebanc 

e;cpeccem [ciljle mbe t»iccur [epc]. Alban.—.]. ppi muip anaip [by the sea on 

the east]. 

cille, or Colum of tlie Chixrch. It is so 
obliterated, that nothing can be read with 
certaintj, except the -svords above givcn, 
■vvhich suffice to show that the substance 
of the note "was the same with that given 
in Irish by the annotator of the Feilire 
of Aengus (in the Leahhar Breac) at the 
9th June, in these words : — Colum ppo 
T'implicicace eiup biccup epc. Cille .i. 
ap chiaohcain comemcc on cill in po 
165 Q fo^^i^ ^' comOail na lenab co- 
mocup. baheaO aobepcippen ecappu, 
in canic ap Colum becni on chill .1. 

Chelaig Cubslaippi hi Cip Lusoach 

1 Cinel Conaill. "He was caUed Colum 
(a dovc), for his simplicity, and Cille (of 

the Church), from his coming frequently 
from the church in which he read his 
Psalms, into the company of the neigh- 
bouring children ; and they uscd to say 
then amongst themselves, ' Has our little 
Colum come from the church' (cill\ i. e., 
from Tulach Dubhglaisse in Lugaidh's 
territory in Cinel Conail." TulachDubh- 
glaisse [now Templedouglas, near Kil- 
macrenan] was the namc of the church 
in which St. Coliuncille was baptized. — 
O'Donnell, Vit. S. Columbm, lib. L c. 25 
(apud Colgan, Triad. Thaum. p. 393). — 
See Adamnan's Life of St. Columba, 
edited by Dr. Eeeves, Appcnd. to Pre- 
face, p. Ixx., Ixxi., notes ' and ". 


( »32 ) 


Translation of the Scholiasfs Preface and of the Uxjmn. 

ri'MíE following is a literal translation of the Preface, and of the forcgoing 
JL Hymn : 

Sen be. Colman, Mac Ui Cluasaigh, Reader of Cork, composed this Hymn, to protect himself from 
tlie buidhechair [jellow pestilence], wliich was [prevalent] in the reign of the sons of Aedh Slane^ For 
the people were very numerous in Erinn at that time; and so great ■were tlieir numbers, that the laud could 
aftbrd but thrice nine ridges to each nian in Erin, viz., nine of bog, nine of field, and nine of wood ; thtrefore 
tlie noblemen of Erin fasted aJong with the sons of Aedh Slane, with Fechinb of Fabhar, and with AileranS 
and with Manchan of Liath'', and with verj- many besides, for the reduction of the population, because of 

• The sons of Aedh Slaine. — Diarmaid and 
lílathmac, the sons of Aedh Slane, reigned con- 
jointlv from A. D. 658 to 664, in -which last vear 
thev died of the great pestilence (Four Masters. 
Keating. 0'Flaherty). On the history of this pesti- 
lence see Dr. O'Conor's note on the Annals of 
Tighernach, Rer. Hib. Script. vol. ii. p. 204- 

>> Fechin. — Of Fabliar, or Fore, in the county of 
\Vestiueaih. See his Liftí in Colgan, at 20th of 
Jan., Actt. SS., p. 130. 

■• Aileran. — This word is somewhat obscure in the 
MS. ; but I think I have correctly deciphered it 
Aileran was of the celebrated school or University of 
Cluain-iraird, now Clonard, in the county of Meath, 
and was suniamed easnaióe, or The Wise. Fle- 
niing, or his Editor, Sirinus, lias published Aileran's 
" Interpretatio nivstica progenitorum D. Jesu 
( hristi," from a MS. in the Monaster}' of St Gall: 
Collectan. Sacr. p. 182, sq. ; and Colgan attributes 
to him the Life of Patrick, which stands fourth 
in his collection ; Trias Thaum., p. 35. 

'' Manchan of Liath. — The Annals of Tighernach 
call him Bishop of Liath, now Liath-Manchaiu, or 
Lemanaghan, in the King's County; a place whicli 
was originaUy called Tuaini nEirc, or Erc"s Tumu- 
lus (^Four Masters, A. D. 645). The word Liath. 
(or Leigh, which is the genitive form of Liath), sig- 
nifies gray, or boggy land. The following interest- 
ing mention of St. Manchan occurs in the Martyr- 
ology of Donegal at January 24: — lllanchtín 
lecti, Tnaclnt)ai75e. Tnella amm a mhacaip 
1 a beifi l)eipí)peca|i .1. 5re^^<^l SP'^i^^rech. 
Qcd aeaglaiptjapabainTn liaclllunclidin^no 
íeit lllanchdin, a nDeolbna mec Cocltíin. 
Qctít) G caipi ipin mbaile cebna 1 pcptn ocú 
ap na cuihbaó 50 beppSQiSí^e le cltíTiaib bon 
let arci(5 1 6 úrha bon leic amuig t)tbpein 
ap na pionnab 50 po &epp5ai5ce. "Manchan 
of Liath, the son of Indaigh [flius Indaigh, Colgan, 
Actt. SS., p. 330, n. 6]. Mella was the name of 
hi3 mother. His two sisters were Grella and Grell- 
«each. His church, which is uamed Liath Maii- 

NoTE.] Translation. 133 

the scarcitj' of food, which was the consequence of their great numbers. And it was on that account ihat 
the huidhechair was sent upon them : so that the sons of Aedh Slane died of it in that year, also the 
learned men above mentioncd, et alii multi. 

Some say tliat it was Cohnan composed the whole of it. Other people say that he composed but two 
stanzas of it onIy, aud that the school'-' made the rest, i. e., each man of them made each a half stanza. 

It was composed in Cork, in the time of the two sons of Aedh Slane, viz., Blaithmac and Diarmaid. 
And this was the occasion on which it was composed : a great plague that was sent upon the men of Erin, 
viz., the buidhe connaill [or yellow plague], which pervaded all Erin, and left only one out of every three 
persons alive in Erin ; and it was to save them [i. e., the survivors], with his own school, from that pei-ti- 
lence, that Colman composed this Hymn. And the place where he happened to compose it was in the 
course of his voyage to a certain island of the sea of Erin, flying abroad from this pestUence, imtil 
there were nine waves between him and the land, for the plague did not extend further, as the learned 
relate. And a certain man of the school of Colman asked what blessing there was for them, in search of 
which they had set out on that journey. Then Colman said, " What blessing dost thou need," said he, 
" but The blessing of Godf?" For what they desired was to go out upon the islands of the sea, to escape 
frora the distemper. 

rriIIE blessing of God come upon us ; may the Son of Mary cover us ; 
-^ May He protcct us this night, wherever we go though great our numbers. 

TTTHETHEE, at rest or ÍQ motion ; whether sitting or standing ; 
^ ' The King of Heaven be against every assault ; this is the supplication that we 
offer up. 

rriHE Prayer of Abel, son of Adam, of Heli and Enoch, be our help ; 5 

-■- May they free us from the sudden pestilence, whatsoever part of the world it 

"VTOE, and Abraham ; Isaac, the admirable son ; 

-^ ^ May they come around us against the pestilence, that we comc not to trouble. 

chain, or Leith Manchain, is in Delbhna Mec Dr. Carte, of the Royal Dublin Society, to make a 

Cochlain. His relics are in the same placc, in a model of it in electrotvpe, which was exhibited in 

shrine that is beautifuUy ornamented, with boards the Antiquarian Department of the Dublin Exhibi- 

in the inside, and bronze on the outside of them, and tion in 1853. This beautiful model is now in the 

splendidly carved." This remarkable shrine still possession of John Lentaigne, Esq., of Dublin. 
exists. It is preserved in the Roman Catholic '' The school — i. e. the school over which he pre- 

chapel at Lemanacliain, although the relics of tlie sided, or his scholars. See note on line 43, svpra. 
saint have long since disappeared from it. It is ^ The blessing of God. — AUuding to the words 

greatly mutilated ; but enough remaiued to enable with which the Hymn begius. 

1 34 ^7í^ ITymn of St. Colman Mac Ui CluasaigJi. [Note. 

TT BESEECH thc fathcr of thricc four pcrsons, and Joseph the illustrious ; 

-*- May thcir prajcre to the noble King of many angels delivcr us. i o 

"|%^AY Moscs thc good leader protcct us, who protected in crossing the Red Sea; 
^ -*- Jesus ; Aaron son of Amra ; David thc bold youth. 

"TOB, with his discases, protcct us against the poison : 
^ Thc prophcts of the Lord guard us, with the seven sons of Maccabaeus. 

TOHN the Baptist we name ; be he our covering, be he our protection : 1 5 

^ Jesus, -with His Apostles, be our help against danger. 

1%/rARY, Joseph, guard us, and the spirit of Stephen ; 

"^ -*- Out of every diflBlcult^ may it deliver us, to invoke the name of Ignatius. 

Tj^ \T]11Y Martyr, evcry Hermit, every Saint who was in chastity, 

-^-^ Be a shield to us, for our defence ; be an aiTow from us against demons. 20 

T) EGEM regum rogamus, in nostris sermonibus, 

"Wlio saved Noe and his company, diluvii temporibus. 

^l/TELCHISEDECH, rex Salem, incerto de semine, 
-*~^-*~ May his prayers deliver us ab omni formidine. 

rriHE Saviour who delivered Lot from the fire, qui per secula habctur, 2 5 

-*- Ut nos omnes, precamur, liberare dignetur. 

\ BEAM from Ilr of the Chaldees ; may the Lord who protected him protect us ; 
■^^ May He save us, who saved the people, when in want of lympha fontis. 

^TIHE Lord, who delivered the three youths from the oven of red fixe, 

-■- Deliver us, as he delivercd David de manu Golia;. 30 

9. The father. — "Thefather of tbrice four," viz., ica lingiia ; or " in this our hjTnn," ín sermonibus 
Israel, the father of the twelve patriarchs. hujus hi/mni. As the original is here partlv Irish 

10. To the noble King, i. e. theirprayers addressed and partly Latin, I have translated the Irish only, 
to the noble King. leaving the Latin lines as they stand in the tcxt. 

18. Mat/ it deliier ««, i. e. may tlie invocation of 23. Incerto. — AUuding to Heb. vii. 3. 

the name of Ignatius deliver ns. 28. Lymphafontis. — Num. xx. 2, sq. 

21. In nostris. — The Gloss on the original of this 29. Red fire. — Litcrally, "from a fumace, or 

passage gives two interpretations of it — either "in oven, of tire ■with reduess: " Cccidcrunt in niedio 

our vemacnlar Scottish or Irish language," m Scot- camino ignis ardentis coUigati." — Dan. iii. 23. 


Translation. 135 

THE noble Sovereign of thc brilliant heaven, may He have mercy on our miserj- : 
Who did not leave suum prophetam ulli leonum ori. 

LIKE as He sent the Angel to deliver Peter from his chains ; 
So may He send to us for our relief : may He make smooth for us, whatsoever 
is not smooth. 


our Lord we submit our will, nostro opcrc digno, 3 5 

That we may be with Him in etemal lifc, in Paradisi regno. 


S He delivered Jonas the prophet from the whale's belly — grcat deed, 
The good King grant us powerful protection; the blessing of God come upon us. 


AY it be true, Lord, may it be truc, that this praycr be granted ; 
That the children of God's kingdom may be around this SchooL 40 

AT it be true, Lord, that it become true, that we all reach the peace of the King, 
That wherever we go, or arrive, we may reach the Kingdom of Heaven. 

THAT we be without age, in endless space, with angels, in life etemaL 

PATRIARCHS, Prophets, without faH, Angels, Apostlcs, glorious vision ! 
Come they with our Heavenly Father ; against hosts of demons to bless us. 45 

seN t)e. 

ABLESSING upon the Patron Patrick, with the saints of Erin around him : 
A blessing upon this city, and upon every one that is therein. 

34. A^oí *moo<A.— Literally, " May every rough- Endless space : literaUy, in broadness, or expan- 

ness [everything that is not smooth, cech n-am- sion. lli [for i. in] léchu, breadth, extent, 

peit»] be made sraooth before us." glossed by paprinse, space, expansion, room. 

37. »7ía?e's 6e%.— Literally, " From the belly 44. Glorious vision.—L\texa]ly, "high-seeing," 

of the great animal," míl, or míol, mÓTi, is the apb-pesct) : which perhaps may mean that angels 

name stiU given to a whale both in Ireland and in and apostles behold us from on high. 

Scotland. 45- Come, i. e. may they come: caipfen is 

40. C/tt7r/r«ío/Go<fí Am^</om, i. e. theangels. the 3rd person plural. Protect us.— Literallv, 

A differout interpretation is given in the Gloss, viz. "be for our blessing," or " protection," biap, 

the spirits of children who die after baptism, before now b'ap, i. e. t>0 ap, for our, pénaÓ, bless- 

the commission of actual sin. ing. 

43. Without age, i. e. -mthout growing old.— • 46. The Patron.—Tho. word translated patron 


Tlie Hijmn of St. Colman Mac Ui Clnasaigh. 


A BLESSING upon the Patron Brigid, with tho virf^ns of Erinn around her, 
■*^ Givc yc all, without guilc, a blcssing upon thc dignity of Brigid. 

A BLESSIXfí on Colum-cillc, with tho saints of Alba along with him, 
"^^ On thc soul of thc purc Adamnan, who put a law on tho clans. 


T T PON thc protcction of the King of thc Elements, a guardianship from which we 
^ cannot bc talcen, 

May thu IIoly Ghost inspire us ; may Christ delivcr us ; may He blcss us. 

seii oe. 

OREXT pro nobis sancti illi in coelis, quorum memoriam facimus in terris, ut dcle- 
antur delicta nostra pcr invocationcm sancti nominis tui Jcsu, et miscrere, qui 
regnas in secula seculorum. Amen. 

*s eplam, which originally, perhaps, sígnified noble, 
but is now applied to the saint who is regarded as 
% patron. The verses which follow from line 46 to 
the end formed no part of the original IIymn, which 
ended at line 45, as isevident from the repetition of 
the first words, Sen be, according to a practice 
that has been already noticed. See p. 23. 

47. This city, L e. this monastery: the place 
in which these additional verses were added. Thus 
the Annals of Ulster (A. D. 806) record the founda- 
tioii of the Colu nbian monasterv of Kells in these 
words: " Constructio novae civitatis Columbaecille 
in Ceninnus." It is in this sense the word is used 
in the Hyran of St. Mugint, w. 2 and 5 (pp. 95, 96 
stipra), a factwhich was overlooked when the nole, 
p. 95, was written. 

49. Ditjnity. — So the word ojil)an is explaiued 

in several ancient Glossaries. Opban .1. uapal 
5pa6, " a noble degree, or dignity" (MS. H. 3,8, p. 
550, Trin. ColL DubL) Opban .1. uapal uc epr 
papu5a& opban .1. paiiu5a& in uapail — "a 
noble person, as, to violate an ordan, is to violate 
(or insult) a noble person." — 0' Davoren, Gloss. 

50. Along with hitn. — Qlle, now imaille. 

51. A law. — Cam, a rule, precept, commandment, 
from canon. This is a remarUable allusion to tlie 
Cain Adamnain (canou, or code of laws drawn up by 
Adamnaii), so froquentlv mentioned in the Annals 
and Brehon Laws ; and proves Ihat these last four 
stanzas must have been added in or after the eighth 
century. For the Cain Adamnani was compiled 
A. D. 697, and Adamnan died A. D. 704. See 
Adamnan's Life of St. Columha, edited by Dr. 
Reeves, p. 178, aud uote ''. 

( ^Z7 ) 


npHE following Hymn has been published by Mone, in his Hymni Latini 
-■- ikíe<f?Y J^ui (vol. ii. p. 383), from a collation ofthree MSS. The first 
is that preserved at Bále, of which some account has already been o-iven, 
p. 55, supra. The second is a MS. of the ninth century, in an Irish hand, now 
at Karlsruhe. The third isa MS. of the eighth century, accordino- to Mone's 
judgment, also preserved at Ivarlsruhe, and written in a French hand. Both 
these Rarlsruhe MSS. belonged íbrmerly to the monastery of Eeichenau. 

The readings of these MSS. are given in the notes : those of the Bále MS. 
are denoted by the letter B. ; and those of the tAvo Earlsruhe MSS. in the 
order in which they are spoken of above, by the letters K. and K. The MS. 
B. has been collaíed by the Editor himself ; but the readings of K. and R. are 
given on the authority of Mone. 

None of these MSS. have the introductory Scholium or Preface, which is 
nowfor the firsttime printed, from the Dublin Liher Hymnorum; but in the 
Codex R. we find the title ''■ Himnus Sancta Marice." 

How far we can depend upon Mone's judgment in the opinion he has 
given of the age of these MSS. seems doubtful; for he assigns the Bále MS. 
to the eighth century, which is at least a century, if not two centuries, older 
than the true date, so far as the Greek Psalter is concerned : and he does not 
seem to have observed that the Hymn Cantemus has been written in a hand 
of about two centuries' later date. Those who are not accustomed to Irish 
MSS. arc vcry naturally disposed to make them older than they really are, 
because the Irish scribes retaincd the old forms of handwriting much longer 
than Continental transcribers. 

The Scholium prefixed to the Hymn identifies the author of it with the 
"Cuchuimne sapiens," Avho is said by our Annalists to have died early in the 


138 The Hijmn of St. Cuchuiiune. 

fin^hth ccntury ; and thc agc of thc MSS. in which thc Ilvmn has licen found 
confirms thc high antiquity thus ascribcd to it. In thc Additional Notc B thc 
Editor has coUcctcd all that he has been able to discover of the history of 

The chissical rcadcr wiU not form a high idea oí' our author's skill in 
Latin prosodv. The foUowing anomalies may be talcen as specimens : — 
Cantemu.'<,\'mQ 1: Utero, line 8; Extttit, line 10; Ilumáne, line 12: Mull- 
rrem, lines l.'i. 14 : Loricam, line 21 ; P'ircB, dírce, line 24. 

CQNC6111US in omni bie. Cuchuimne pccic hunc C^mnum t)o molat) ITlaipe 056. In 
aimpip imojipo Loinsris meicc Oensupa -\ Qt)amnain paccup epc. Incepcum epc 
uepo in guo loco eum pecic. Ipe po chunn abenma bia poepab aj\ in bpoch bea- 
chait) ip pabai. guia coniusem habuic, i m mala uica cum illa puic. no commalj 
t)o pechigut) pemi an eich na bpoachc leip t)ia lesunb t)o spech immolabpa ho 
llc Qbamnan t)i;cic: 

Cuchuimne [Cuchuimne], Tio les puche co bpumne, 
Qllech aile apaca, Tío leic ap a chaiUecba. 

Cuchuimne bi/ic : 

Cuchuimne [Cuchuimne], T?o le^ puche co bpuunne, 
Qllech aile apaca, legpaib leicpib caiUecha. 

QUech naile apaibcui, Legpait) huile conop pui. 
Cpe pichim t)an pecic. -[ pcni. coibcil ann, -\ ba líne m cech coibcil, 1 ;cii. piUaba cech line. 

NUGmUS iN omNi oie concincnccs uqric 
coNclQmQNces oeo OiSNum q-mNum SQNccQe mQRiQe 

is peR choRum hiNC ec inOc collQuOemus mQRiQm 
uc uo;c puLsec omNem QURcm peR iQuOem uicQRiQm 

QRiQ oe CRibu luOQC summi mQccR OomiNi 5 

opoRCUNQm Oeoic cuRQm csrocqnci homiNi 

MaricB. — Maria stiUa maris interpretatxxr ; et signifieat 

Gloss. — I. Varie i. inter duos choros. 

íEclesiam Inventam in amaritudine seculi. 

1. Concinentes. — Concinantes, B. Con- 
cinnantes vaiise, B. E,. 

2. Mariiv. — See tlie note, p. 126, supra. 

3. Chorum. — Corum, B. The ancient 
custom of altcrnate singinff is here alludcd 

to. 4. Collaudemus. — Collaudamus, B. 
Conlaudamus, K. Conlaudemus, R. 

5. Jud(S. — Juda, B. Summi. — Summa, 
B. E. 

6. Egroianii. — This secms an allusion 
T 2 

140 Hymnus S. Cuchuimnei 




QbRicL aDiic;cic iicnbum sinii pacnis paccnno 
quoD conccpruni ec susccpcum in uccro TnaccRNo 

acc csc suiiiiiia liacc csc sancca UIR50 ucncrjabiLis 
quae e;c piDe non necessic scD e;cscecic scabiLis 

uic niacTíi ncc inueNca oncc ncc posc siimlis 
Ncc Dc pRoLc puic pLaue humaNae orisinis 

en mulieneni ec lisnum muNDus pmus pemic 
pei^ muLicRis umcucem aD saLucem rcDuc 


ania maccrí minaNDa pacnem suum cDiDic 15 

pcR qucm acfua lace locus cocus muNDus cncDiDic 


acc coNccpic marísaRecam non sunc uana soniNia 
pRo gua saui cRisciaNi ucndunc sua omuia 

Gloss 7. Verbum. — .i. annuntiationem verbi, .i. ave maria plena gratia. 8. Conceptum — .i. di- 

viua operante jwtentia credentis viscera fecundantur. 13. Lignum — .i. prevaricationis. 15. Patrem. — 
.i. omnium creator de creatura sua procreatur. Fons uitae de riuulo suo oritur. Uitis uera de uirgultu 

.suo nascitur, et iu ligno mortali arbor uitae inseritur, et porta in se virtus ab intirmis portatur. 

17. Margaretam i. Christum. 

to some legcnd, unless ■sve take homini to human nature ( plane). The preceding 

«ig:nify mankind in general. line is not unlike the words of St. An- 

7. Patris. — Prius, B. R. An obvious sclm, quotedby Monc: " X ihil cst aequale 
error. Paterno. — Patcma?, R. ATaria?, nihil nisi Dcus majus Maria." — 

8. Utero. — The second sjllable is here Opp. S. Amelmi, Orat. 51. \_Ed. Bened. 
long. Paris. 1721, p. 281, col. i. E.] 

9. Qme. — Haec fide, R. 15. Maria. — This stanza, \t. 15, 16, is 

10. Extetit. — The second sjllable is omitted by B. Patrem suum. — So in the 
long. Hymn beginning Dies Iceta celehratur 

11. IIuic. — This word is here a dissyl- (Danicl. Thesaur. IIymnol., vol. ii. p. 212' 
lable. Matri. — Matre, R. Inventa. — In- there is the same idea : — 

ventam, R. -'Nova prorsusgenitura 

12. Prole. — Flore, R. Plane. — Plana, R. Creatorem creatura 

Humane originis This appears strange Patrem parit filia." 

languagc, not very consistcnt 'with thc 16. Lotui. — Lota, R. 

doctrine of thc Incamation, if we arc 1 7. Margaretam. — Margaritam, B. Ihnc 

to take the words in their literal meaning — Quaí, R. Mone erroneously gives Qua' 

— that the Blcssed Virgin wasnot of nicrc ;is thc rcading of B. 

IIymnus S. Cuclmimnei. 




■ONicam pen cocutti ce;ccaTn cRisci maceR pecenac 
' quae peuacca cRisci iinonce sonce scaciiin scecenac 

iDuamus aRTTia lucis loTíicaTTi ec saleam 

I uc sinius t)eo pTícpeccT suscepci pcT? TnaniaiTi 

meN aTneu aDiuT^aiTius meTíica pueT?peTíae 
uc Nou possic plainnia piT^ae uos Dmac DecepcTíe 

Gloss. 19. Toreícani.— CoiTiciup hinaip inilibaip [a suitable, long tunic]. Totum.—A. corpus. 

Textam. .1. cen uaim ant> ecip [without any seam iu it at all]. 20. Sorte. — .i. sine partitioue. 21. 

Z^rícam.— Lorica dicta eo quod loris caret. 23. Amen. — i. vere, vel fideliter. Puerpera:. — i. pueruni 
pariens in »tate pueri, id est ia decimo vel iu xi. 24. Pirce.—lG. m nobpiat) gpanna [the uglv 

19. Tonicatn. — Tunicain,K. Matt.Paris. 
Hist. Angl. p. 80, mentions this tradition: 
" A. D. M.CLVi. 'va. pago Parísiacensi, mo- 
uasterio Argentoilo, revelatione di\ina, 
timica Salvatoris iaconsutilis et subcon- 
fusci coloris rcperta est, quam sicut literse 
cum ea repertse indicabant, gloriosa Mater 
ejus fecerat ei dum adhuc puer esset." 
Other authorities tell us that it was 
found in a village called Zaphah, not 
far fi-om Jerusalem, A. D. 593, in the time 
of Pope Gregory I. See Jo. Iperii Chron. 
S. Bertini, part iii. (ap. Martene et Durand. 
TJies. Anecdot. tom. iii. 45 1 E.), and Brevia 
aliquot Chronica {ihid. 1 39 1 . C). But these 
Chronicles mahe no mention of any let- 
ters found with it, or of its ha^-ing been 
wrought by the hands of the B. Virgin. 
Neither is that tradition mentioned by 
Adamnan in his Tract De locis sanctis ; 
but it is adopted by Baronius {Annal. 
A.D. 34, n. cxii.), Benedict XIV. {Be 
Festis Bomini, 1. vii. 91. Opp. tom. ix. p. 
82), and many other theologians. The ear- 
liest Tvriter quoted for this tradition is Eu- 
thyraius Zygabcnus, who says : ''Hanc 

vero tunicam e traditione patrum acce- 
pimus opus fuisse Dei Matris a supe- 
rioribus partibus contextam, veluti sunt 
apud nos capitis aut pedum hyemalia 
operimenta." — Comment. in Quat. Evang. 
in Matt. xxvii. 35 {^Bihl. Patr. Lugdtm., 
tom. xix. p. 588, E.). This author flou- 
rishcd at the bcgiuning of the twelfth 
century ; so that the present IIymn is a 
much older authoritj'. Totum. — Totam, 
B. Christi. — Christo, K. 

21. Loricam. — Luricam, B. Lurica, 
K. M galeam. — Vicarise, E. 

22. Prefecti. — Perfecti, B. 

23. Adjuramus. — Adoramus, K. Ado- 
remus, E. In E. the last two stanzas are 
rcduced to one ; thus : 

" Amen, amen, adoremus, angelis sub testibus, 
Ut fruamur et scribamur litteris coclestibus ;" 

the intervening clauses being omittfd. 
Puerperae. — The gloss on this word seems 
to aUude to the lcgend in the Evange- 
lium de Nativ. Marioe, thc Protevangelium 
Jacohi., &c., that Mary was dedicated to 
God at threc ycars of age, and lived in 
the temple until teu or elevcn years old. 


Ilijiunus S. Cuchuiinnei. 

"V^pi nonicn inuoccnius cui5c(.is sub rcsnbus 
^^ ur. pnuamur? cr scTíi])anum Licenis celescibus. 



Sanccae TTIaiiiae me|iirijni implo|iamup Di^nifpimum 
uc mejiiamup polium habiuape alcippimum. 

Gloss. — 26. Literis. — .i. in memoria Dei. 

24.. Decepere. — Decerpcre, B. 

26. Scripnmur. — Scribamur, B. Thc 
gloss on this verse intimates, that to be 
WTÍtten " literis celestibus" signifies that 
we are written in the meniory of God. 

27. Sancta MaricB. — It is evident that 
in these lines (omitted inR. and K.) there 
is a rudc rhythm, or assonancc, and each 
line consists of eight syllables : — 

•• Sanctas Marise meritum 
Imploramus dignissimum, 
Ut mereamur solium, 
Habitare [Habere, B.] altissimum." 

In the Bálc MS. we find hcre the fol- 

lowing Collect, in the lator liandwrit- 

" Singularis meriti, sola sine exem- 
plo, Mater et Virgo Maria, quam Deus 
ita mente et corpore custodi^át, ut digna 
existes ex qua sibi nostrae redemptionis 
pretium Dei Filius corpus adaptaret ; ob- 
secro te misericordissima pcr quam to- 
tus salvatur mundus, intercede pro me 
spurcissimo, et cunctis iniquitatibus foedo, 
ut qui ex meis iniquitatibus nil aliud dig- 
nus sum quam actomum subire suppli- 
cium, tuis Virgo spendidissima salvatus 
meritis perenne consequar rcgnum." 

( '43 ) 


NoTE A. 

The Scholiasfs Preface. 

ri^^HE tollowing is a translation of the Scholiura or Preface to this Hymn, which is 
JL in the usual mixture of Irish and Latin : — 

Cantemvs in omni die Cuchuimne coniposed this IIymn in praise of the Virgin Marv. Now it 1\'as 

iii the time of Loingsech, son of Oengus^ and of Adamnan, it was composed. It is uncertain, however, in 
what place he composed if. This was the reason why he composed it, to deliver himself from the evil life 
he was leading, quia conjugem'' habuit, et in mala vita cum illa fuit. Or it was to facilitate his progress 
in what he had not vet conipleted of his studies, that he made this praise of Maiy. As Adamnan said : — 

Cuchuinuie, [Cuchuimne'], 

Read learned writings half way''. 
The other half of his career 
He abandoned for his women. 

' Loingsech, son of Oengtis. — He was líing of 
Ireland, according to 0'Flaherty's Clironology, 
from A. D. 695 to 704, and was killed iu the battle 
of Corann, countv of Sligo, in this latter year. Dr. 
O'Conor's Tigiieniach gives 703 as the date of 
ttiis battle, which, however, ought to be 704, for 
he adds : — "iv. id. Julii, vi. hora diei Sabbati hoc 
bellum confectum est." In 704, the 4th of the Ides 
(if .July fell on Saturday ; in 703 on Thursdav : 
tlierefore it is evident that Tighemach intended the 
vear 704. The Four Masters give tlie date 701, 
which is irreconcilable with the day of the week 
im which Tighernach (doubtlcss from soinc ancicnt 
authoritv) tells us the battle was fought. Adam- 
nan died tlie same year, 704. Usslier, Inde.v 

*> Conjvgem. — Meaning, it is to be presumed, 
Concubinam. Vid. Adamnan, /•?<. S. Col. (ed. 
Heeves), pp. 75-77. 

'■ Cuchuimne.—ln the original this word occurs 
bnt once ; but it was evidently intended to be re- 
peated, as the metre requires ; see page 82, supra, 
note ". Dr. O'Donovan overlooked this when he 
printec] these verses iu his edition of the Foiir 
Masters, A. D. 742. 

'I Halfwai/. — Co bpuiinne is literally "to the 
ridge," i. e. to the top or ridge of a liill, which is 
half wav across. The meaning is, that Cuchuimne 
spent one-half of his time in the studv of learned 
autlior.s, or that he had perused one-half of the 
learned writers, when hc abandoncd himself to ai\ 
iriegular life. 

144 The Scholiasfs Prcface. tnotea. 

Cucbuimne said [in replv] — 

Cachuininc [Cucliuinine], 
Read learned writings half wa}-. 
The other half uf his career<^ 
' Ile will read, — he will abandon' women. 


Tlie other half of his career — 

Ile will read them all until he becomes a sage. 

He composed it in rhjthm ; and there are thirteen cbapters in it ; and two lincs in each chapter; aiid 
twelve svUables in eacli line. 

The vcrscs, here attributcd to Adamnan, arc ti*anscribed in a hand of the f'our- 
teenth century, in the margin of the Dublin MS. of the Annals of TJlster, at A. D. 746; 
but arc there attributed, not to Adamnan, but to the Nurse of Cuchuimne : thcv are 
givcn thus : — 

ITluimc Con-cuinme cecinic :- 

CucuimTie [CucuimTie], 
Ro leé fuici co l)puimTie, 
aUech naiU hiQTiaca 
■Ro leici a\\ óaiUeóa. 

an t)0 ConcuimTie iiomboi, 
Impualait» De conit) poi, 
T?o leic catUecha ha paiU 
Ro I015 aluiU apich mboi. 

The Xurse of Cuchuimne sang : — 

Cuchuimne ! [Cuchuimne !] 

He read leamed writings half wav : 

The other half of his career 

He abandoned for women. 

Happj' is it for Cuchoimne, 

Ile has gone forward uutil he has become a sage : 

Ile has abandoned women to ncglect ; 

He has read the other lialf of his victorious life. 

This Bcems to be a morc ancicnt form of this curious distich than either of the two 
tcxts of it which are givcn above, or than that of the Four Masters, at A. D. 742, 
which is as follows, withDr. O'Donovan's translation (thc metrical arrangement bcing 
corrccted to conx-spond with thc above) : — 

' Career The word paca mav be the genitive 

rase of pac, prosperitv, increasc, progress, advance- 
inent ; but Dr. O'Donovan has rendered it "career" 
(Four Maat. A. D. 742), taking it to be paca 
running, racing ; — course, career. 

f He u'ill ubandon. — The plav upon the words 
po lej5 "he read," and po lcic, "he abandoned," 
is evidentljr the point of the íirst stan/.a; aud so in 

Cuchuimne's answer there is a plav upon po U'5, 
" he read," lespait), " he willread," and leispil), 
"he will lcave, dismiss, or abandon." It is not to 
be supposed that these verses can be really the com- 
position of Adamnan ; and accordingly the Dublin 
MS. of the Annals of Ulster attributes them, not to 
Adamnan, but to Cuclmimne's nurse; showing tliat 
he was not known with certaintv to be the author. 


History of Cuchuimne. 


Cucuimne, [CucuiTnne], 
T?o lc5 ruiche co bTiuimne, 
ailech aile ajiTiacha, 
Ro lecc a\\ a chaillecha. 

Ppipccap Cucuimne: — 

■Ro léij r^iche co bTiuimne, 
ailech aile apait) cui, 
Legpait) huile copop pui. 

Cuchuimne, [Cuchuimnc-], 
Read the authors half through ; 
The other half of his career 
He abandoned for his hags. 

Cuchuimne replied : — 

Cuchuimne, [Cuchuimne], 
Read the authors half through ; 
During the other half of his career 
He will read till he become an adept. 

The meaning, however, in all these readings of the couplet is the same : that Cu- 
chuimnc, after spending some years in scholar-like studj, was seduced into a life of 
profligacy ; but that he at length, on the rcmonstrancc of his friends, abandoned his 
vices, and resumed with zeal, for the remainder of his life, the studies becoming an 

The readcr wall not fail to rcmark, that there is grcat internal e'V'idence of truth 
in this record of the weakness of Cuchuimne. No mere inventor of legends would have 
narrated such an event in the life of a wiiter whom hc was quoting as the author of u 
rcligious Hymn. See the remarks already made on this subjcct, p. 92, siipra. 


Hiúorxf of Cuchuimne. 

The information given us in the Preface, or Scholium, preílxed to the Hymn, and 
translatcd in the foregoing note, contains nearly all the information we possess 
respecting Cuchuimne. He is there said to have lived in the reign of Loingscach Mac 
Aengusa (who was King of Ireland, A. D. 695 to 703), and appears to have sm-vived 
that monarch some years. The Annah of Ulster record his death at the year 
746, in these words : "Cu-cumine" [read Cucuimne, as in theDublinMS.] "sapiens 
obiit." Tighemach [Dublin MS.] seems to have made the year 747, and gives 
thc obit thus: " Cuimine sapiens obiit." The Four Masters give the datc 742, 
and translate, apparently from the TJlster Annals, thus : — 

Cucuimne^ eccnaió cosai&e eipi&e l)0 ecc. " Cucuimne, he was a choice sage, died." 

They then quote the same verses which are given by the Scholiast of the l3ook of 
Hymns, attributing them, as that Book docs, to Adamnan. 

s Cucuimne Cuaimmne is the reading in Dr. 

O'Donovan's text, but it seems to be an error of the 

press ; for the JIS. in the Librarv of Trinitv College, 
Dublin, reads Cuctiimne. 


146 The Hymn of St. Cuchuimne. [Notrc. 

From thesc vorscs (see Note A), it appears that Cuchuimno for a time had lcd an 
irrcgular lifc, " quia conjugcm habuit, ct in mala vita cum illíi fuit." But during the 
hitter part of his lifc he rcpcntcd, and thc prcsent Hymn may bc rcccivcd as an cvi- 
dence that his thoughts were sincerely occupied in holy things. His name docs not 
occur in any of thc Irish Calcndars or Martyrologies, notwithstanding which, Colgan 
does not hesitatc to give him the titlc of saitit. ^ 

The name Cu-chuimne [signií^-ing Hound of Memory^'] is not of frequent occur- 
rcnce in Irish Church history, although Cummine, Cummcni, Cummain, ■which arc, 
perhaps, forms of thc samc namc, arc morc frcqucnt. Colgan'' has givcn the following 
account of the author of thisHymn: — " Sanctus Cuchimmeus (qui, addito Jfo more 
Hibemis familiari, potuit Mochumneus appeUari), floruit juste tcmpore Sancti Aidi 
Slcptensis, anno 698 mortui. Hic enim in laudem Deiparse Tirginis composuit Hjtu- 
num, penes me extantem, qui incipit ; 

' Cantemus in omni die, concinnantes varié, 
Conclamantes Deo dignum hymnum S. MaruB.'' 

Et ut colligitur ex argumento eidem Hymno praefixo, author floruit tcmpore Adamnani 
Abbatis, et Longscci Hibcmiaj Rcgis, qui coepit rcgnare anno 694. Tixit tamen 
postea usque ad annura 746, quo Annalcs Ultonicnscs refcrunt Cucumneum Sapientem 
obiisse ; vel saltem usque ad annum 724 [read 742], in qucm ejus mortem referunt 
Quatuor Magistri in Annalibus." — Tr. Thuum., p. 218, h. This, howevcr, the 
rcader will pcrccive, gives us no information beyond what we have already glcancd 
from the authorities cited above: and Colgan has suppressed all mention of Cuchuimne's 
irrcgular lifc, although he declares him to have bccn contcmporary with Adamnan, to 
whom thc vcrscs rcbuking that irrcgularity are, in the Book of Hymns, ascribed. He 
muBÍ, therefore, have eeen those verses. 

NoTE C. 

Maria Stilla Maris. 
Thi; Gloss on thc name Maria (vcr. 2, p. 1 39, supra, and also in the preceding Hymn, 
vcr. 17, p. 126), intcrprets the namc as signifying in Hebrew " Stilla maris," from 
112, a drop, and C, the sea. See abovc, p. 1 26, notc. 

^ Hound of Menwn/. — " Hound" was an honour- mistaken the name." He was speaking of the 

able title amongst the ancient Iríah. The name Maccuthenius, or Mochucumnevs, who is said to 

may perhaps be equivalent to the media;%'al name have written Acts ofSt. Patrich; and he savs that, 

Memorius, or Memorianus. allowing for the Irish custom of prefixing Mo, my, 

''■ Colgan. — Harris (Ware's Writers of Ireland, to the namea of saints, there are two or three saints 

p. 46) has mistaUen this passage of Colgan. Col- whose names are mentioned in Irish historv (of 

gan does not identifv Mocuthenivs with tlie author whom our author is one), any one of whum mav 

of this Hymn, nor docs he 8ay " that Ussher bad have been the biographer of St. Patrick. 

NoTB c.] Maria Stilla Maris. 1 47 

Nothing Í8 morc common in tlie orthographj of Irish MSS. of tlie eightli and fol- 
lowing centurios, than to find e for i, as ancella, for ancilla; antestes, for antides, &c. ; 
and also i for e, as adoliscens, bibliothica, &c. (scc Recves' Pref. to Adamnan's Life of 
Columba, pp. xvi. xvii.) And in the present case it seems ahnost ccrtain that thc 
ancient authors who dcvised this ctjTnology for the Hebrew proper name Miriam, 
(which was Latinized Maria), intended Stilla ma^ris, " a drop of the sea," and not stella, 
" a star of the sea ;" the formcr having some foundation in Hebrew, the latter none. 
And the common confusion in the orthography of the period, together with the general 
ignorance of Hebrew, has lcd to the popular adoption of the more poetical dcsignation 
of " star," instead of " drop," of the sea. Modcm writers, although they vcry gene- 
rally explain this allusion to the sea, as if Maria was derived from thc Latin Ma/re, 
by a ftu-ther confusion, leave stella unexplained See Danicl, Thesaur. Ilymnol., 
tom. i. p. 205. There can be little doubt, therefore, that St. Jerome, when he inter- 
prets Miriam, ''Stella maris" (sce the passagc quoted above, p. 126), wrotc íind meant 
stilla, "a drop of the sea," and that stella is a mistahe of his transcribers or editors. 
Nevertheless, this error has prevailed, and is adopted in many ecclesiaslical hymns in 
use at the prescnt day ; e. g. in the celebrated one — " Ave maris stella, Dei Mater 
alma," which is still retaÍQcd in the Eoman Breviary. And so also in the Hymn 
beginning — " Salve Mater Salvatoris" (Daniel, Thesaur. Hijmnol., tom. ii. p. 83) 
we have the lines — 

" Maria, stella maris, Dignitate singularis, 
Super oinnes ordinaris, Ordines ccelestium." 

And the same interpretation is given to the name by ahnost all medÍEeval writers, of 

whom it may suffice to quote St. Bernard (inHomil. ii. m^exMisstis est, n. 17) "Lo- 

quamur pauca" (he says) " super hoc nomine, quod intcrprctatum Maris stella dicitur, et 
Matri Virgini valde convenienter aptatur. Ipsa namque aptissime sideri comparatur," 
&c. — Opp. Ed. Bened., m. p. 742. 

jSTevertheless, the word stilla was known tothese writers as signiíying "a drop," 
which is evident from the Hynin beginning " felicem genitricem" (Daniel, Thesaur. 
Hxjmnol., ii. p. 205), in which these Hnes occur : — 

" mamilla cujus stilla fuit ejus pabulum, 
Qui dat terraj fructum ferre, pascit omne saeculum." 

It may be observed, that in the interpretations of proper names given in the aneient 
Irish Gospcls called the Book of Xells and the Book of Duitow, preserved in the 
Library of Trinity College, Dublin, Maria is cxplaincd stiUa (not stella) maris. We 
have, lihewise, " Maria stilla maris," Booh of Armagh, fol. ^z, aa. See also line 14 
of the foUomng Hymn, where we read, " Tunc magi stellam secuti," showing that the 
scribe of the Book of HjTnns did not confound stilla and stella. 


( 148 ) 


THIS Hjmn was first published by George Cassander, who says that he 
found it in an ancient volume which contained the rule of St. Benedict, 
and scveral IIymns^ He notes it " incerto auctore." 

It occurs also in the Antiphonarium Benchorense, and has been printed by 
Muratori- from that MS. 

It has also been reprinted recently, from the text of Cassander, by Daniel, 
in hiá Thesaurus Hijmnologicus, vol. i. p. 191. 

In the Bangor Antiphonary this Hymn stands first, with the title 
" Hijmnum^ S. Hilarii de Christo." 

The Preface in the Book of Hymns, now for the first time published, 
cxpressly names St. Hilary of Poictiers, and the authority of these two ancient 
-MSS. is suflBcient to prove that the tradition of the Irish Church attributed 
the authorship of the Hymn to that prelate. 

Bede^ quotes this Hymn in his Tract De arte metrica (cap. 23), and gives 
the first two lines as an example of the " Metrum Trochaicum tetrametrum ;" 
he ascribes it to no author, but simply 8tyles it " Hymnus ille pulcherrimus," 
as if it was thcn well known. 

If the Hymn had been the composition of so celebrated a personage as 

1 '■'■ Hijmns Tíepcrtum in vetustissimo li- mistake, arising from his not understanding 

bro Benedicti regulam cum bymnis contiuente, the contraotion " Hvmn^ ," which is Hijmnus. 

unde et plerosque ahos desumpsimus." — IIis want of famiharity with Irish !MSS. has 

Hymni Eccleáast. (Opp., Paris, 16 16 fol.) led him into several similar errors, and there 

p. 186. is reason to think that he has altered tlie 

í Muratori.— Sec above, p. 7. ancient original speUing of the MS. to bring it 

* Hymnum. — Muratori, in his transcript of intoconforiiiitvwith the receivedorthography. 

the Bangor MS., gives Hijmnum throughout * Beile. — See Additional Note at the end 

a.s a neutcr nominativc. This, no doubt. is a of this Ilvmn. 

The IIymn of St. TTilary. 149 

Hilarj of Poictiers, it is not llkcly that Bede could have been ignorant of the 
fact, or, knowing it, that hc woiild havc omittcd to name the author, inasmuch 
as he gives frequently the names of the authors of thc hymns he quotcs, such 
as Sedulius, Prudentius, St. Ambrose, Paulinus, &c., many of them obscure, 
when coinparcd with St. Hilary of Poicticrs. 

It is to be observed, also, that the Hymn seems to contain allusions to a 
monastic society, and if so, cannot have been the composition of an author 
who lived before the institution of the cocnobitic life in the Westem Church. 
For instance, the first line, " Hymnum dicat turba fratrum ;" line 6^^ " Ante 
lucem turba fratrum concinemus gloriam ;" and line 71, " Ante luccra dccan- 

It may be said that "turba fratrum" does not necessarily imply a society 
of " friars," in the modern sensc of the word. For in the Hymni " Lauda 
Syon Salvatorem," attributed to St. Thomas Aquinas, we have the llnes : — 

" Quem iii sacraj mensa coenaj 
Turbae fratrum duodenae 
Datum non ambigitur." 

where Turbce fratrum evidently signify the tAvelve Apostles ; but St. Tho- 
mas may have adopted the phraseology of a later age, whercin the Apostlcs 
were not unfrequently spoken of as a sort of monastic confraternity ; and the 
passages of the present Hymn, above referred to, plainly spcak ofa Turbafra- 
trum living togctlier, and rising before the dawn, to sing togethcr the praiscs 
of God, in evident allusion to a monastic socicty. 

On the other hand, the fourth Council of Tolcdo- (A. D. 633) spcaks of 
hymns at that time in use in thc Church, " quos bcati Doctores Hilarius et 
Ambrosius ediderunt;" so that thcre were hymns' then attributcd to, or 

1 Iljjmn — Daniel, Thesaur. Hijmnologic, -vvhich -were not to be found in tho Scriptures, 
vol. ii. p. 97. nor of apostolic traditiou : " quos [hj-mnos] 

2 Toledo. — Can. 13 (Ilardouin, Concil., tamen quidem speciahter reprobant, pro eo 
tom. iii. 583 D). quod dc Scripturis sanctorum canonum, vel 

3 Hijmns. — It would scem that there was apostolica traditione non existunt." The 
then a feeling in the Spanish Cliurch not un- Council answers, that the same objection 
like that of the modern English Puritans ; would apply to the prajers, collects, and the 
for the canon of the Council of Toledo here whole litm-gy of the Church, and therefore 
referred to is directed against some who ob- concludes, " excommunicatione plectendi qui 
jected to use in the Church service hymns hj-mnos rejicere fuerint ausi." — uhi supra. 

I ^o 

The Hymn of St. HUary. 

kno\vn to bc the composition oí' St. Hilarj,' which arc no longer known as 
sucli ; and St. Jerome expresslj mentiona a Líber Hijmnorum^ by St. Hilarj', 
as extant in his time'. This, however, would onlv rendcr it more probable 
that a hymn, whose author was unkno\vn, should bc attributed to an author 
who was knowii to have composed hjmns, and whose name stood high in the 
Church. There is, therefore, in the fact that St. Hilarv ^vrote hymns, nothing 
to weaken the force of the arguments above alluded to ; especially when we 
observe that thc style of the present Hymn is rude and unpolished, and in no 
way similar to that of St. Hilary's acknowledged writings*. 

The Legend rccorded in the Scholiast's Preface* seems to connect the Hymn 
with Hilarv of Arles, who flourished in the middle of the fifth century, rather 
than with Hilary of Poictiers. For in his time the monastic life had begun in 
the West, and he is said to have crossed the Alps on foot, in order to plead 
his cause before Pope Leo'^. 

Be this, however, as it may, it is not to be doubted that the present Hymn 
is a composition of great antiquity. Its doctríne is throughout in accordance 
Avith that of the primitive Church, and its language and diction are consistent 
with an carly date. It may probably be assigned to the fifth or sixth 

I S. Hilary. — Isidore, Bishop of SeTÍlle, tom. ii. ed. Vallarsii). 

tells us that St. Hilary, of Poictiers, was the 3 Writings — This seems to have been Mu- 

first Christian author of hj-mns : " Sunt au- ratori's opinion, for in his preface to the An- 

tem Divini IIjTnni, sunt et ingenio humano tiphonarium Benchorense he says : '• At in 

compositi. Ililarius, autem, Gallus, Episco- Hvmno nunc a nobis producto majorem for- 

pus Pictaviensis, eloquentia conspicuus, car- tasse elegantiam desiderabunt nonnulli, ut 

mine floruit primus. Post quem Ambrosius eum S. Hilarioadscribant." — Opere (Arezzo, 

Epificopus, vir magnae glorise in Christo, et in 1770), tom. xi. part 3, p. 222. 

ecclesia clarissiraus doctor,"&c — Isidor. His- í Preface — See p. 162, infra. 

pal.,X>e Oj^ciw, I. c 6, n. 2 (O/i/?. ed.Arevalo, ^ Pope Leo — See Tillemont, Mtmoires, 

tom. vi. p. 369. líoma;, 1802). tom. xv. p. 72 (Vie de S. Hilaire, art. 15), and 

« In his time De viris illustr.^c. 100 ( Opp. the authorities there quoted. 

QmNUTn DlCaC lnlapiup eipifcopur 1 ppincepf ciuicacip gue bicicup piccauip 
pecic hunc C^Tiinum Chpipco in monce 5QP5Q"^' 'OTI comailc na ppamne illic 
icesbaip mb Lacpamt). Ocup lap na clusut) buibe bo t)ia po chmpac m meic 
bfchaib popc conapbac mo cpjam mpancep. amal cappappem bo pacupc boi occo. 
Camic amgel -\ apbepc ppiu. nipi pemcenciam esepicip m mpepnum ibicip. 
esepunc ep^o penicenciam -\ bebic Deup mbulsenciam eip pep ipcam laubem. 
pic nobip conuemc canepe popc ppanbium. 

Qlicep, locup .1. ppecup m peccope moncip louip incep Qlpep m cfua philophi [iíc] ancea 
puepunc. Cempup, "Ualenciani i IJalencip. peppona hilapiup. Caupa .1. Qngelup 
popculauic quanbo uenic at> Supannam upbem cum cpicfncip uipip .1. .c. be 
clepicip, 1 .cc. be laicip. TJnup uepo be clepicip mopcuup epc ppo ppi^ope hiemip, 
1 hilapiup opauic ppo puo monacho. illa aucem nocce an^elup bi;cic ab eum, 
bebec ce pcpucapi pcpipcupap 1 q-mnum pacepe Deo. lUe aucem pecic lupccu 
impepium an^eli, 1 mopcuum pupcicauic pep gpaciam Dei. 

ITIecpum cpoiachum cecpamecpum epc. hic pecipic pponbeum omnibup locip, ppaecep 
cepcium locum, -\ cpochia omnibup locip. in quo aliquanbo cepcio loco ppiopip 
ueppiculi pponbeum pepepiep. uc paccop celi 1 ceppae paccop. -\ uepbip 
pupgac leppae mopbum. Cuppic aucem alcepmp ueppibup ica uc ppiop ueppup 
habeuc pebep .1111. popcepiop uepo .iii. i piUabam. 

(^mnup 5P6*^6' ^a"P mcepppecacup Lacme, uel q-mnup memopia bicicup, picuc m 

ppalcepio 5peco C^mnop cepcmon. hoc epc memop puic nopcpi. 1 ip bo molab De 

in campiub a]^ bip q.nmup -\ ip popbmniup canaip uc Qsupcmup bicic ip na beccabib. 

CJ-mnop ppimum Dauib ppopeca m laubem Dei compopuippe manipepcum 

mNUlTI Dicac curíba pRacRum q-mNum caNcus peRSONec 
cbnisco Rcsi coNCiNeNces LauDem Demus Debicam 

Gloss. — I. Hymnum. — .L laudem. Fratmm. — .i. in Christo. Cantus. — .i. nominati- 

viis. 2. Concinentes. — .i. a verbo concino .1. a comchanam [we sing together]. Demus. 

.i. laudes demus debitas. 

I . Ymnum dicat. — For a trans- 
lation of the Preface, see Addi- 
tional Notc, p. 162. Thc various readings 
of the Antiphonarium. Benchorense have 
been marked B. in the followiníí notcs : 

those of Cassander, C. Fratrum. — Fide- 
lium, B., "which does not suit the mctre. 
Bedc reads Fratrum. See Addit. Xote. 

2. Concinentes. — Concinnentur, B., an 
evidcnt mistakc. Laudem. — Latidcs, B.C. 

152 Hymnns S. Ili/nrli in laudeTn Christi. 

'11 Dci Dc cordc iicTíbuin ru uia cu iicniras 
' irssc uiTí^a ru ucx^nríis rc Iconctii Lcsinius. 




(•^iTiHi i)arnis inous cr n?)iius aii,-^uUmis ru Lapis, 
spousus lOcm cL coí.uinba pUiinina pascoTí lauua. 

l)íjopcris inuciiiiíis uoscrío uarAis saccuLo 
aucc saccLa cu puisci paccon prjimi saccuLi 

acroR cacLi cc ccTínac paccoT? cousrjesacoT? cu maTíis 
omuiumcfue cu cTíeacor? cruae paccR nosci lubec 

1U51111S Tíccepcus membTíis sabRieLis uuncio 
cRcscic albus pnoLe saucca nos moNemuT? CRcDeríe 

cm Nouam ncc aNcc uisam umsiNe pircTípería 
cuuc niasi sccLlam sccuci príinii aDorjauc paTíuulum 

Gloss. — 3. De corde — .i. de secreto Divinitatis. Verhum i. Clius. Via Ut dicitur Egosnm via 

et veritas etvita; et iterum Nemo venit ad patrem nisi per me. 4. Jesse. — .i, genitus. Virga. — Ut 

dicitur Exeat virga de radice iesse. Leonem. — Ut dicitur Vicit leo de tribu iuda. 5. Dextra i. vita 

etema. Mons. — Ut dicitur Erit in novissimis diebus praeparatus mons. Agnus. — .i. Ecce agnus Dei qui 

tollit peccatum mundi. Lapis. — .i. Lapidem quem reproba[verunt ] 6. Sponsus. — .i. sicut 

sponsus procedens de thalamo suo El. — .i. Deus. Columha. — Ut dicitur, Sponsa raea, columba 

mea. Pastor. — i. Ego sum pastor bonus, et iterum, Ego sum ianua per me si quis intraverit salvabitur. 
7. Nostro. — .1. in novo testamento. Secla. — .i. ante omnia saecula. 8. Fuisti — .i. per temetipsum qui es 
sine initio et sine fine. Primi seculi. — .i. mundi creatio in principio, secundum saeculum quando reformabi- 
tur in tine saecidi, aliter primum seculum creatio Adae in principio mundi, secundum seculum formatio 
hominis per Christum. 10. Omniumtjue. — .i. elimentorum; ut dicit Johannes Omnia per ipsura facta sunt. 
.fubet. — .i. lux ct facta est lux. 11. Gabrielts. — i. ave Maria gratia plena, eece concipies et paries 
filiura et vocabis nomen eius Jesum. 12. Albus. — .i. Maria;. 13. Puerpera — .i. puerum prius parens, vel 
in aítate pueri parens Christum, .i. in x". vel in xii". anno. 14. Magi. — .i. quasi magis guari, (|ui philo- 
sopbantur in omni re ; ut est, Ecce magi ab oriente venenmt Hier 

The remainder of this linc, the last six 6. Ideni el. — Idem vel, B. C. Eut tlu 

words of line 3, and thc wholc ofline^, reading "idcmEl" isundoubtedly correct. 

are wanting in B., from a dcfcct in thc MS. El is tlie Hebrew bw, God, as the Gloss 

Dehitam. — Debitas, B. C. expLainsit. (SeeIsidor.Hispal.,^i?y;«o^^., 

5. Dextrn. — In thc margin is the fol- nr. i. n. 3.) 

lowing notc : — " Dcxtra Dei dicitur quia 7. Profetis. — Prophetis, B. C. 

sicut facit aliquis omnia qua; vult per 9. £t terrce. — Ten-a), B, C. 

dcxtcram, sic Dcus Patcr orania fccit pcr 1 1. Galrielis. — Gabricle, C. 

Christum. Idco Columba dicitur proptcr 1 2. Albus. — Evidcntly meaning Altus, 

.simplicitatem suam. Flamma, ut dicitur, as the Gloss provcs. Ahus is the rcading 

Deus mcus flamma dcvorans ct ignis con- of B, C. The rcmainder of this, and 

sumens." thc ncxt four lincs, ai'c effaced in B. 

Hymnus S. Hilarií in lauclem Christi. 



ppcncNCcs cus ec auRuni disnq tíc51 niuNcna 15 

nio;c CTÍOD11 NUNCiacum inuiDcns poccNciac 

'um lubcc panuos NccaRi cunbaíii pccic ijiancmum 
' pencuR iNpaus ocuLcnDus ni6i pLumcN quo pluic 


ui RcpcrjcuR posc eTíoDein nucricnDus Nagarícch 
iiiuLca paiíuus TnuLca aDuLcus sijNa pecic ccLicus 

uac LaccNc ec guae Lcsuncut? coTíam mulcis cescibus 
pRaeDicaNS ceLescc RcsNum Dicca paccis apprjobac 

Gloss. — 15. Offerentes.—A. ap Q cliumbTii TiQ cucc Tín|ipaTn. no ni challa ant) in ueiiru 
[it was for brevity he did not introduce mvrrh ; or it would not fit in the verse], vel quia postea dicetur. 
16. Nunliatum. — .i. opus nascendi. Invidens. — .i. Herodes. Fotentia. — .i. Christi. 17. Jubet. — .i. 
Herodes. i-'arros.— CercciG lin nci iiiac Tiaiberiocherrunblahepoit) [ni-hanl5pa,Quesiion; what 
is the number of the children liere put to death by Herod? Tlie answer isnot difficult] duo milia .c. xl. ut 
Gregorius manifestat in sacramentario. 18. Fertur.—.\. ávLcitm. Quatuor annis fuit Chiistus in Egipto 
fugiens Herodcm. Eliopolis .i. solis civitas, nomen civitatis in qua Christus in Egipto habitavit. Eleos, 
sol, polis, civilas, iiiterpretatur. Ubi ut aiunt in die adventus illius in urbem omnia idula ejus coraminuta 
sunt. Affrodius vero nomen principis illius qui Christum et parentes ejus beuigne suscepit. 19. Refertur. 

— .1. bejia]l [is related]. Post Erodem i. post mortem Herodis. 20. Parvus. — .1. pai-\-uUis. Adultus. 

— .i. an po poiibaiji [as he grew]. Celitus — .i. per virtutem celestem. 21. Qucb latent — .i. in na hi nac 
peppa [the things that are not known]. Leguntur. — .1. na hi po peppa [the things that are known]. 
Testibus. — .i. apostolorum et discipulorum. 

13. Virgine 2>uerpera. — Tirginem puer- [Melchar was the presenter of the gold ; 
peram. C. Caspar brought the costlv frankincense ; 

14. Primi.—ln the upper margin of Patifarsat brought the good]y myrrh ; 

J.1 /, j?i.i,Tirci\- i. And they oíFered them to the roval Lorrt.l 

the page (p. 13 oí the MS.) is a note on • -" 

this word, which is in some places iUe- ^regorius. Auro sapientia designatur. 

gible. The foUowing is aU that can now ^^'^ ^^^^^^ "l^^^ I^^'» incenditur A-irtus 

be deciphered :— " Primi .i. na orationis exprimitui'. Per miiTam camis 

liipSbe [the shepherds] ; vel Primi ex gen-- ^°^*^® mortificatio figuratur. Nos itaque 

tibus hi fuerunt, quia prius ante eos ado- ^^^^ Domino offcramus auriim, ut hunc 

raverant eum pastores, ante xiii ubique regnare fateamur. Offeramus tus 

iuxta turrim Gadder. Molcho eorum ^^ credamus quod is qui in tempore appa- 

scnior qui aurum Dco regi obtulit. Se- ^^^ ^^"^ ^*^ tempora extitit. Offera- 

cundus Caspar iuvenis qui tus Deo obtuUt. ^^^ mirram ut eum quem credimus in sua 

Tertius Pati[farsat qui] mirram homini ^^"iiiitate impassibUem, crcdamus etiam 

obtuUt. TJnde quidam dixit:— ^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^ mortaU carne." This ei- 

melchap nbnachcait) mb oip ; ^^*^^''' ^^^ '"^^^ unimportant varíations, 

Cappap cucc m cup bmioip ; ^^^ ^^ ^"'^^^(í i^ ^^^^ trcatise of St Gre- 

Pacipappac cuc m mip maich ; goi^* the Great, In Eiang., Lib. i. Hom. x. 

Conopcapac Oonb pislaich. (Ed. Bened., tom. i. 1470. C.) Sec a curi- 




Hymnus S. H'darii in laudem Cliristi. 

cbilcs pacic U15CRC cccos liice iLLuTniNac 
ijcRbis puRsac lcpnac monbum Tiiorjcuos ncsuscicar 

1111111111 cfiioo oecnac lOnis Tnocam acfuam lubcc 



mii)riis mcRO tícccncis pTíopiuuaNOo pocuLo 

auc cpjiNO pisce biNO cfuiNCíue pascic mTlia 
ec pcpcTíc pRasmcNca ceuac ceTí caccTíNis coTíUibus 

Qloss. — 25. Idris. — .\. aji Tia uirci lepcpaib [in the -water vessels]. Motari. — .i. a sua natura in 
vinuin. 26. Retentis — .i. hominibus. Propinando. — .1. anbat) pobailce in uaip fin [what had been 

•lislributcd at that time]. Poculo. — .i. fit poculum culum lepcaTi [a vessel]. 27. Pascit. — 

.i. Christus. Milia. — .i. virorum, exceptis mulieribus et parvulis. 

ous Irish pocm on the Tlirco Magi, pub- 
lished by Dr. Keeves from the Gospels of 
Maelbrighte, Proceedings, R. I. Acadenuj, 
Tol. V. p. 47. The custom of oíFering gold, 
frankincense, and myrrh, on the altar, 
on the feast of Epiphanj, is still kept up 
at the roj-al chapcl of St. James's Palace. 
Parndum. — In the left-hand margin is 
this note: — " Pulcherrime munenim sa- 
cramcnta Juvcncus prespiter uno versi- 
culo comprchcndit : — 
' Tus, aurum, mirram, regique, hominique, deoque, 
Dona ferunt.'" 
See Juvenci Historia Evangelica, lib. i. 
Biblioth. Patrum (Lugd. 1667), tom. iv. 
p. 57. F. 

15. rMí,— Thus, C. 

16. Erodii. — Herodi, C. 

17. Tam. — Cum, B. The Gloss gives 
2 1 40 as thc numbcr of the martyred Inno- 
cents, on thc authority of the Sacramcn- 
tary of St. Grcgory. But nothing of the 
kind is to be found in that -svor^, as -we 
now have it. 

18. Oculcndus. — OcculcnduP, B. Occi- 
dcndus, C. 

19. Erodem. — Herodem, B. C. 

20. Cí'litus. — Coclitus, B. C. Multa 
parvus. — Alluding, probably, to themira- 
cles said to have been wrought by our 
Lord during His infancy. See Thilo, Codex 
Apocr. iSÍ. T. (Lips. 1832). I. A. Fabricii, 
Codex Apocr. N. T. (Hamburgi, 1703), 
espGciaIly the Evangelium Infantice. 

21. Quce latent. — Alluding to St. John 
xxi. 25. 

22. Approhat. — Adprobat, B. Dicta 
factis. — In the margin is the foUo«-ing 
note : — "Dictafactis .i. vi^-iíicat mortuos, 
iUuminat cccos." 

23. Facit. — Fecit, B. C. Cecos. — Cse- 
cos, B. Illuminat. — Inliiminat, B. 

24. Morbum. — Bede reads {De arte me- 
trica, c. 23), " Vcrbis purgas lcpra; mor- 
bos," \i\ierQ purgas is an evidcnt mistake. 
Mortuos resuscitat. — In the margin is the 
foUo-wing note : — " Tres tantum homines 
Christus suscitavit, .i. Lazarus, et íilia 
Jari principis sinagoge, atquc fiUus viduac. 
Hi trcs homincs significant peccatíi homi- 
num. FiUa principis, suscitata in cubiculo, 
significat pcccatum cordis. FiUus viducf, 

Hijmnus S. Hilarii in laudem Christi. 


O DuoDeciTTi uiT^os pnobauTC pcT^ quos UTca dtscicut? 


11-|iqoceNs capcus ccnccut? ncc T^epusNONs ducicutí 


oceNs capcus ccnccut? ncc T^epusNONs Ducic 
siscicuTí paLsTS srjassacuR oppeRCNDus poNCTO 


Gloss. — 29. Discumbente 1. ani o Tmaraigeb mt) ule bubeTi [the thing from which the whole com- 

panywas served]. Unde discus dirivatur, .1. miaf [a dish]. Pertulit. — .i. Christus. 30. Viros. — i. apostolos. 
Prohavit. — .i. elegit. Vita.—.\. futura. 3 1. Quis. — .i. apostolis. Judas. — .i. utChristus dixit Unus vestrum 

me traditurus est vel osculum pacis et amoris et mortis est, ut iudas dixit Quemcunque osculatus 

fuero ipse est. 32. Instruuntur. — .1. ab iudeis et sacerdotibus. Misi. — .i. latrones. 33. Innocens. — .i. 
Christus. Tenetur. — .1. ap?5aibchaip [is selzed]. 34. SistUur. — .i. ducitur. Falsis. — .i. verbis vel 
conviciis. Pontio i. prajsidi regis mundi. 

suscitatus in ostio ci\dtatis, significat pec- 
catum verbi prolatum foris. Lazarus, sus- 
eitatus de sepulcro, peccatum 
actionis cum m[orte]." Tliis interpreta- 
tion was common in thc middle ages; and 
may be foimd for substance in St. Gregorj, 
Moral., Lib. iv. 52 {Opp. Ed. Bened., 
tom. i. 125, C.) 

25. Idris. — Hidriis, B. Hjdriis, C. 
Motari. — ^Mutari, B. C. IJnder eacb word 
in this line is a very small letter, 
thus : — 

uinum cfuot) beejior ibpir 

e d d e 

mocapi acfuam lubec 

c b a 

und similar letters occur in the next line, 
and elsewhere in several parts of the MS. 
They are evidently intended to mai'k the 
grammatical order of the words, for the 
sake of persons not familiarly acquainted 
with Latin. Taking the words in the 
order of the letters as above, the line 
reads thus : " Jubet acjuam mutari quod 
deerat vinum hydris." This was pro- 

bably deemed the more necessary in 
this line, because the construction leaves 
it doubtful whether " vinum mutari 
aquam" means " wino to be changed into 
water," or " wat'er to be changed into 

26. Mero retentis. — Moerore tentis, C. 
An erroneous reading, which Daniel has 
inadvertently copied. Propinnando. — 
Propinato, C. Poculo. — Populo, B., pro- 
bably a mistake of Muratori's transcript. 
This is the only word which he could 
read of the line ; and the next two Unes 
were also illegible to him in the MS. 

27. Pane quino. — In the margin is the 
following note : " 'No bich [or it is] binus 
et quinus secundum veteres. Nunc autem 
bini et quini, ut Priscianus dicit." — 
See Priscian, Be Figuris numerorum, c. vi. 
(Opp. ed. Aug. KrieL Lips. 1820, vol. ii. 
p. 398). 

28. Etfefert. — C. gives this linc thus : 
"Et refectis fragmenta ccena) ter quater- 
nis corbibus." Caternis corxiihus in the 


■ 56 

Hymnus S. Hilarií in laudem Christi. 

iscucic obiccca pnacscs Niillinn cr^cnicN inuchic 
scD cuin cuRba lUDcoRum pno salucc cesanis 

iccncMC cliTíiscum uccaNDum cunbis sauccus cnaDicun 
nn])iis ucTíbis snassacur? s])uca pLasT^a suscmcc 


ScauDcT^c cTniccTn lubccun ií<iuoccus pT?o mo^mis 
moTíCc caT^Mis cp.iam scrjcbac morjccTn uicic ominum 40 

^um Dcum cLamone masuo pacT^cTn ])eMDCMS iuuocac 
v-^' moRS sccuca membTía chTíisci La;cac scT^icca uiiicuLa 

Gi,oss. — 35. Objecta. — .1. na cacpai t)Opaca pop CpiOf C [the charges that -nere made auainst 
Christ]. Invenit. — .i. in Christo, ut dicitur Innocens ego sum a sa[nguine] iusti huius. 36. Cesaris. 

— ap ba cocpat) t»Of itje nomen regis [for the name of king was an insult to him] regem esse 

(liccbat. Cessar dictus a cesso [i.e. ca2so] m[atris] utero. 37. lurbis. — .i. iudeorum. Traditur 

.i. Christus. 38. Spnta — .1 na paile [spittle]. Flagrn. — .1. na l^paijle [scourges]. 39. Jnhetvr. 
— .i. a iudeis ut dicitur cruciligate crucifigate. Noxiis. — .1. pro hominibus. 40. Gerelat. — .1. portabat. 
Omnium. — .i. hominum. 41. Clamore. — i. quando dixit Heli Heli et iu manus tuas domine commendo. 
42. Slricta. — .i. nervi corporis Christi. 

text i.s e\-i(iently tin antiquated spellÍQg 
oí' " quatemis corbibus;" •dndfefert is an 
error of transcription fot "refert.'^ Cor- 
vibm. — Over tbis Avord is the following 
note : " Curvus, cponi [crooked, bent] ; 
Corvus, piach [a raven]. Cojjhinus . . 
. . . quod est hic." 

30. Buodecim. — To be read as a 
trisjllublc, which is remarked by the 
scholiast in the following marginal an- 
notation : "Lcge dodecim sine .«. in 

31. QuÍ8. — Qm<?/s [i. e. quibus], B. C, 
which would spoil the mctre. 

32, Mihi. — Missi, B. C. On this word 
there is the foUo^ving curious note in tho 
margin: " Misi. — .1. o Chaiphap ip et) 
po pait)et)pom [i. e. it was by Caiaphas 
he was sent], quia ille sacerdos fuit illius 
iinni, sed causu metri dicit ab Anna, et 
in libris historiarum rcfertur quod .vii. 
fuissent principcs intcr Annam ct Caiíiun, 

sed filia Annas coniux fuit Caifas." Conf. 
S. John, xviii. 13. It is probable that the 
Libri Historiarum here quoted are a gene- 
ral refcrence to the Histories of Josephus, 
which were known in the middle ages 
froni the abridgment under the name of 
Hegcsippus, and the Latiu version as- 
cribed to Euffinus. It appears that there 
were exactly sevcn High Priests (inclu- 
sive) between the first priesthood of Annas 
and that of Caiaphas, in which our Lord 
was crucified. They are thus cnumerated 
by Aug. TomieUi, Annal. Saer., tom. i. 
p. 384(101. Luca), 1757):— 

70. Ananus, qui et Annas, socer CaiaphsB. 
7 I. Ismael, l'abi f. 

72. Eleazar, Anani f. 

73. Simon, Camithi f. 

74. Josephus, qui et Caiaphas. 

75. Iteruni Aimas. 

76. Iterum Caiaphas, sub quo Christus passus est. 

Thc numbcrs signify that Annas was tlic 



Hymnus S. Hilarii in laudem Christi. 

|ela rcTnpli scisa paNDuNc no;c obscunac sacculum 
c;ccicuNcur{ Oc scpuLcnis Ououm cLausa corjpoRa 

Fpuic loseph beacus conpus miRRa pe^licum 
liNchco RuDi Lisacum cum ooLonc couDiOic 




|iLices scRuaRe conpus aNNas pniNceps pi^aecepic 
uc uioerjcc si piíobaRec cliRiscus quoD spopoNDenec 


NScLum Dei CRemeNces uesce amiccum cauDiDa 
cfuo caNDORc cLaRicacis ueLLus uicic scRicum 


Gloss. — 43. Fela. — .i. ut dicitur Ecce velum templi scisum est in duas partes. Nox i. tenebr» 

sanctae sunt super universam terram a sexta hora usque ad nonam horam. 44. Excitvntur. ut dieitur 

Multa corpora sanctorum resurrexerunt post resurrectionem suam, et apparuerunt multis in hierusalem. 
45. Affuit. — .i. venit dives ab arimathea nomine ioseph. 46. liudi — .i. novo. Coudidit. — .i. sepelivit. 

47. Milites. — .i. romanorum. Annas. .i. pro caifa hic iterum annas dicitur. 48. Spoponderet. .i. 

tertia die resurgere, et dicit iterum Solvite templum hoc et in triduo resuscitabo illud, 50. Sericum. .i. 

Sercs .i. nomen gentis a quo et sericum vestimentum 

7oth from Aaron, inclusive; Ismael the 
7ist, &c. 

34. Grassatur. — Grassantur, B. Gras- 
satur, C, who suggests gravatur in the 
inargin. Offerendus. — Oíferentes, B. 

35. Discutit. — This liae and the next 
are omitted in B. Crenmi. — Crimen, C. 

36. Ccesaris. — The Gloss, in a mixture 
of Irish and Latin, tells us that "the name 
of Ivint/ was regarded as an insult by 
the Romans." Some words are illegible ; 
but the meaning seems to be, that the 
name of " Caesar" came to be substituted 
for " King." 

37. Necandum: — Negandum, B. C. 

38. Grassatur. — Grassantur, B. Gra- 
vatur, C. 

39. Crucem. — In the left-hand margin 
there is the íbllo^N'ing note : " Quare 
noluit Dominus alia morte mori nisi 
morte crucis, quia crux magnum miste- 

rium habet. Si enim cnix in tcrra pro- 
iicitur per .nii. cjus partes, .1111. partes 
mimdi demonstrat. In hoc voluit Domi- 
nus demonstrare quod non A'cnit unam 
partem mimdi redimere sed totum huma- 
num genus." A similar interiíretation of 
the four points of the cross is givenin the 
Sermo de Sijmlolo, published Avith the 
works of St. Augustine (Ed. Bened., tom. 
vi. Appcnd. 279 B.) Another note in the 
right-hand margin is as foUows : " Qua- 
tuor ligna fuerunt in cruce Christi, cet)ip 
a cop-] cuppip acensa 1 ^iup in seinb 
t)o pacat) cpeche -\ beche in clap in po 

pcpibat) in cicul [cedar was its 

foot (or shaft), and cj-press was itstongue, 
and dcíd was the piece that went across, 
and birch was the board on which the title 
was AATÍttcn . . . .] 

42. Memhra Christi. — These ai'e the 
only words here legible in B. 

158 Hijmmis S. Hilarii in laudem Christi. 



emoiiic so;cuTn sepulcno sunscNS chT?isrus líiciscn 
liGcc uiDir uiDca nicuca^r liacc ucsac cuni uiDcnir 

cnnuac pninium moucucun saluacoRcm uuicnc 
cfuas saLucac ipsc mcscas compLcc cnisccs sauoio 


ccpic a moRCuis paccnua suscicacum De^ccena 55 

ccRCia Dic ncDissc uuuciac aposcolis 


ox uiDccuR a bcacis cruos pnobauic pT?aciiibus 
cfuoD TJcDisscc ambiscNccs lucncc lauuis clausis 

ac Doccus pnaccepca Lesis Dac Diuiuum spiríicum 
spmicum Dci penpeccum cRiuicacis uiuculum 60 

Gloss. — 51. Demorít .i. angelus remo^-it. Intiger. — .i. corpore et anima. 52. Haecridit. — .i. mira 

opera resurrectionis. Haec. — Eadem opera. 53. Feminae. — .i. Maria Slagdalena et Maria Jacobi, et 
Josetis et Salamona monit;c sunt circa resurrectionem Christi manifestam. 54. Salutat. — .i. benedicit ange- 
lus vel christus. Meatas. — i. tristes mulieres. Gaudio. — .i. resurrectiouis christi. 55. Paterna. — .L 
virtute patris. 56. liedisse. — .i. ad vitam. Kuntiat. — .i. christus per mulieres. 37. Trobamt. — .1. 
elegit, vel bonis operibus, id est spe et fide et caritate. Fratribus. — .i. apostolis. 58. Reditset. — .1. 
resorrexisset. Ambigentes. — .L dubitantes, .i. Tomas et ceteri de resurrectione Christi. 59. Docent. — 

.1. christus. Dat 1. t)0 pac pach m fpipca noeb popaib bia Tnincbapc [He sent the gift of 

the Holv Spirit upon them after Low Sunday] quamvis plenius dedit inpentecostem. 60. Vinculum. — 
.1. na 'po choimnibe combab beba no cechapba. achb cpeaba [that it may not be supposed 
that they are two or four, but three] semper eo quod patrem et filium coniungit, vel vinculum quod 
homines ad deum coniungit. 

43. Scim. — Scissa, B. C. Pandunt. — tenuissima fila neunt, et unde sericum 
Pondcnt, B. C, vestimcntum cfficitur." — Sec Isid. Hispal. 

44. Fxciiimtur.—ExáÍQ.nt\ix, B. C. Ftpnol, lib. xix. c. 27. 

45. Ajfuit. — Adfuit, B. C. Mirra. — 51. Demovit. — Demovet, C. Sepulcro. 
!Myrra, B. C. — There is an erasure before the -vrord 

46. Lintheo. — Linteo, B. C. sepulcro. Pcrhaps the scribe had ori- 

47. Praecepit. — Prajciint, B. C. ginally writtcn "e scpulcro;" but per- 

48. Quod. — Qua), C. Spoponderet. — cci%-ing that the metre "svould not bear 
Spopondcrat, B. C. this addition, he erascdthe "e." Surgens. 

50. VeUus. — In thc margin thcrc is thc — Surgit, C. Intiger. — Intcgcr, B. C. 
foUo^-ing note : " VcUus scricum .1. in 52. Judea mentax. — Judaca mendax, 

cnai pepicDa [L e. the silk-worm cocoon] B. C. Viderit. — Vidcrct, B. C. Thc ncxt 

.1. cenelc ecaij maich pein [i. e. a kind two lines are illegiblc in B. 
of costly cloth] sunt apud cthiopiam et 54. Jilestas. — Mocstas, C. Tristes. — 

indos quidam in arboribus vcrmes, ct Tristeis, C. 
pompiccs appcllantur, qui arancac more 56. Rcdissc. — líediisc, B. Buttliemctrc 

Hymnus S. Hilarií in laudem Christi. 

Pnacccpic cocum pen oRbein bapcigani cncouLos 



iiscica pioe RcucLac ciuccos saucco spmicu 
poNce ciNccos iNNouacos piLios paccos Dci 

Nce Luccm cunba pT?acRUTn concinncttius sLoniaTn 
gua DoccTnuri nos pucurii scTnpiccTíNa secuLa 



oLLt caucus ^aLLi pLausus pT?o;ciTnuTn scnctc Oieni 
Nos caNcaNCcs ec pT^ccaNccs cfuae pucuria cTícOiTnus 


-rv^aicscaccTncpie immcNsaTn coNciNcmus iiíSTCcrj 

I 1 1 auce LucGTn NUNCicTnus cliTíiscum Re^cTn saecuLo 70 

Qj^gg 61. Precepit. — .i. Ite docete omnes gentes baptizantes eos in nomine patris et filii et spiritus 

sancti. 63. Revelat.—.'i. innovat. Tinctos i. baptizatos. 64. Fonte. — .i. babtismi. Innovatos.— 

i OTatia spiritus sancti. 65. Lucem.—.i. diei. Turba.—.i. vocata. Fratrum.—.i. in christo. 66. 
*i>ocemur — Cumbach gnechisi t)0Chercai5 pil hic [It is a verb in a passive form here] ut Prisci- 
anusdicit. i^uíMrí.— Vel os [i. e. vel futuros]. Sem/jiíerna.— .i. apud deum. 67. GW/t can<««.— Sicut 
canit gallus ante lucem sic decet nos cantare ante lucem matutini temporis, vel ante diem iudicii. 68, 
Futura. .1. praemia celestia. 69. Majestatemque. — .i. Dei. 

requires a txisyllable ; so that rediisse must 
have been pronounced "redisse," or "red- 
yissc," whethcr so written or not. 

58. Intret.—lnimt, B. C. Cassander 
puts a comma after redisset, instead of 
after amhigentes : the meaning is, " thcy 
doubted whether he would retum." 

61. Praecepit — Precipit, B. C. Bapti- 
zari. — Baptizare, C. 

6^. Mistica. — ^Mystica, B. C. 

(Í5, Ante lucem. — Part of this line and 
thc wholc of the ncxt are illegible in B. 
Concinncmus. — Concinimus, C. Muratori's 
transcript of B. gives "Concinit," which 
is probably wrong. 

67. Galli cantus. — lu the margin is 
the foUowing note : "GaUi plausus, galU 
cantus. GaUus .1. Gall a candorc. Gal- 

lus .1, caillech [a cock] .i. a galca capitis 
dictus cst. Job dicit Quis dcdit gaUo sci- 

entiam [Job, xxxviii. 36.]" In 

the upper margin there is a note which 
has no connexion with the text, except 
that the mention of the cock's crow 
appears to have suggcstcd St, Peter, It 
is taken from the Qucestiones ex Vet. et 
JVovo Testamento, printed with the works 
of St. Augustine (Ed. Bened., tom. iii, 
Append.), but now acknowledged to be 
spurious. This note is as foUows : "Tunc 
Salvator cam pro se et Petro dari jubet, 
pro omnibus solvisse vidctur; quia vero 
omnes in Salvatore erant causa magisterii, 
ita ct post Salvatorem in Pctro omncs 
continentur. Ipsum enim post se rcliquit 
pastorem. Dcnique dicit iUi, Ecce Sata- 


Hymnus S. Hilarii in laudem Christi. 


Nrc luccTíi DccancaNrcs chmsro t^csi OOTnitio 
cc cíui m Ulinii ríccrc ctícdutíc TícsuaciiTíi cutti co 


LoTíia pacT?! imscnico sloT^Ta utitschico 

iinuL cum saucco spTT^icu in scmpiccT^Tia sccula 

Gloss. — -j i. Decantantes.— Á. liudem. -ji. Regnaturi.—.i. a\mt. Cum eo.— .i. cum chriato. 73. 
Gloria. — i. 8ÍU G'luria. — .i. sit. Unigenito. — .i. filio. 

na.«? expostulavit ut vos vcntilet velut tri- 

ticum, ego autem roga^-i pro te, ne deficiat 

fides tua, et tu conversus confirma jfratres 

tuos. iíanifestum est in Petro omnes 

contineri, rogans enim pro Petro pro om- 

nibus rogasse cognoscitur. Semper enim 

in praeposito populus aut corripitur aut 

laudatur." — Qucest. ex N. Teú. Ixxv. ( Opp. 

S. Aug., tom. iii., Append. p. 73, B.) St. 

Augustine, in one of his acknowledged 

^vritings (lib. iv. ad Bonifacium, c. 4) 

quotes a passage under tbe name of Hi- 

lary (but without saying what Hilarj), 

which is found verbatim in these Questiones. 

This gave rise to the opinion that they 

were by Hilary of Poictiers, which is, 

however, not likely. Cave and others, 

who think Hílary, the Roman deacon, 

undcr Pope Damasus, to have been in- 

tended, are more probably right. On the 

whole, the decision of the Benedictine 

cditors of St. Augustine seems well 

founded — viz., that the Qumtiones were 

compiled at different times, and from the 

works of various authors, and so may 

have included an cxtract from some writer 

named Hilary. The editors say : "Hic nos, 

ut de commentariorum auctore nihil pro- 

niintiemus, juvat in subjectas Quajstiones 

obscr%-arc, MStorum codicum eam a nobis 

deprehensam esse varietatcm, qua; efficere 

possit, ut jam demura revocetur, atque 
invalescat opinio Erasmi et aliorum qui 
primum suspicabantiir non unius hominis 
esse illud Quaestionum opus, in quo eadem 
quae dicta sunt itcrari, et propositis titulis 
rursum tractari eandem quajstionem ; tum 
dissimile diccndi gcnus adhiberi; nec ipsa 
constanter eadem, sed plane contraria dog- 
mata propugnari cemebant." — Ibid.,^. 34. 
Ceillier (Hist. des Auteurs Eccles., tom. xi. 
p. 415) is of the same opinion. He says: 
" Quelques uns ont cru que c'étoit l'ou- 
vrage d'Hilaire, Diacre de l'Eglise Ro- 
maine, sous le Pontificat du Pape Damase. 
On y trouve en effct plusicurs opinions et 
plusieurs maximes exprimées dans les 
mémes termes, que dans le Commentaire 
sur S. Paul, qui porte le nom de cet 
Auteur. Mais U a apparence que toutes ces 
questions ne sont pas d'une méme per- 
sonne," &c. 

68. Cantantes. — Canentes, B. Cante- 
mus, C. 

69. Concinemus. — Concinnemus, B. Con- 
cinimus, C. lugiter. — TJniter, B. C. 

71. Becantantes. — B. reads: "Ante lu- 
cem nuntiemus Christum regcm sacculo." 
C. rcads : " Antc lucem nunciemus Cliris- 
tum rcgcm Domini." 

72. ^/.— Om., B. 

73. Gloria. — C. ha3 only " Gloria, &c." 

Hymnus S. Hilarii in laudem Christi. 


Ue Decer ^.mnu]" Oeii]^ in Sion -j ribi peODecup uocum in 

Cancicip fpipicualibup oileccaci ^.mnop Chpipce conponancep 
canimup cibi cpiibup cua Oomine maiepcap poppic placapi oblaca 
Oeo lauDip liopcia ppipicali pep ce Chpipce lepu paluacop. 

Umcap in cpinicace ce oeppecop Oomme uc me pempep 
cpahap cocum cibi uocum uouepe. 

Te decet. — This antiplion (which is from 
Ps. Ixiv. Vulg.') and thc following col- 
lects are omitted in B. Over the word 
Sion is the gloss, "et non in thethrali- 
bus;" and over the word Rierusalem, 
" quia ibi habitas." The word thethrali- 
hus seems to bc some comipt reading or 
error of the scribe. 

Thc antiphon and collects at thc end 
of this Hymn are in thc angular charac- 
ters alreadj noticed (see pp. 23, 80), but 

in the handwriting of the original scribe. 
The last of these seems to admit of a 
metrical arrangement: — 

" Unitas in Trinitate 
Te deprecor Domine, 
Ut me semper trahas totum, 
Tibi votum vovere." 

In which liaes, however, we must not 
look for any very strict observance of the 
rules of Prosody. Vovere seems to have 
the penultimate short. 

( i62 ) 


Translation of the Preface. 

THE following is a literal translation of the Scholiast's Prcfacc, which is in 
thc usual rude mixtiu'e of Irish and Latin: — 

Ha'jinum Dicat. Hilarjr», bishop and prince^ of the city which is called Pictavis [Poictiers], made 
this hvmn to Christ, in Mount Garganum, after eating his dinner there in the house of the robber. And 
after giving thanks to God, there came the sons of life'' afterwards, so that they werc not larger than 
infants, as it seemed to a priest who was with thera. An angel came and said to them, " Unless you do 
penance, vou shall go to hell." Therefore they did penance, and God gave them pardon (Jndulgentiam), by 
means of this Hymn {per istam laudem). Thus it is our duty to sing after diimer {sic nohis convenit canere 
post prandium'). ' 

Another account: — The place [where this H^mn was written] was a cave on the breast of the Mount 
of Jove', in the Alps, in which philosophers"^ were before. The time was the reign of Valentian [sícj and 

^ Hilary. — A large proportion of this Preface is 
in rude Latin, mixed with sentences of Iris.h. The 
Editor has thought it advisable to translate tlie 
whole into English, adding some few explanatorj- 

*> Prince. — " Hilarius episcopus et princeps civita- 
tis que dicitur Pictavis." St. Hilary was of a noble 
familv of Poictiers, which is, perhaps, the reason 
why lie is here called " princeps." 

■ The sons of life Tliat is Christians; see above 

p. 30, note ". Tlie Editor has not been able to find 
any life of St. Hilary which mentions this strange 
legend. During the Arian persecution he was ba- 
nished (A. D. 356), and took refuge in Phrygia. 
After his recall he visitcd Milan and other parts of 

Italv ; but we find no mention of his having been 
at Mount Garganum, in Apulia, a place which wa.s 
not knomi in Church history for at least a century 
later, when it became sacred as the scene of a re- 
puted apparition of St. Michael the Archangel 
(Baron. ad an. 492, et Martyrol. Rom. ad 8 Maii. 
Actt. SS. BoUand., tom. viii. Sept., p. 58). It is 
not casy to see the point of the story told above nf 
the " sons of hfe" seeming not larger than infants 
to the priest who was with them (or wilh him. i. e. 
with Ililarj', as it might be rendered). It does not 
at first sight appear to have much connexion with the 
duty of saying grace after dinner, which, neverthe- 
less, seems to be intended as its moral, from the 
words " sic nobis convenit canere post prandiiim." 

NOTE. ] 

Translation of the Preface. 


Valens. The person [i. c. the author of thc IIymn] was Ililarius. The cause [i, e. the occasion of writing 
tlie IIymn] was this : an angel demanded it {postulavit), when he came to the city Sufiannaf, with three 
hundrcd nicn, viz., one hundred clerics, and two hundred laymen. But one of the clerics died from the 
cold of the winter, and IIilary prayed for his monke; and that very night an angel said unto him, "It 
behoves thee to search the Scriptures, and compose a hymn to God." And he did as the angel commanded, 
and raised the dead by the grace of God. 

The metre*' is trochaic tetrameter. It receivcs a spondee in all places (except in the third place), and 

■^ Mount ofJove. — This is also a place which was 
not celebrated in ecclesiastical history until long 
after the time of St. Hilary. It is now well known 
to all European tourists under the name of Mount St. 
Bernard, so called from the celebrated monastic Hos- 
pice founded there in the tenth century by St. Ber- 
uard of Menthon, Archdeacon of Aoust, who died 
A. D. 1008. Up to his time the site of the present 
Hospíce was occupied by a pillar stone, and some say 
an image of Jupiter, with an eye of carbuncle, which 
cured diseases, and uttered oracles. This was over- 
thrown by St. Bemard, who founded in its place the 
present monastery. See Actt. SS. Bollandi, ad 15 
Junii. It is not improbable that the fame of this 
event may have influenced the Scholiast, who was 
probably a contemporary of St. Bernard of Menthon, 
in fixing upon the Motis Jovis as the sceneofhis 
legend. He gives the date of St. Hilary with tole- 
rable correctness, when he says that the Hymn was 
composed in the reign of Valentinian and Valens 
(A. D. 364-375). The year 368 is usually given 
as that of St. Hilarj''s death. 

'• Phirosophers. — The original has " philophi," 
which seems a mistake for " philosophi." 

^Susanna This is some corruption : possibly 

Soissons. The Editor has not been able to find this 
story of the hundred clerics and two hundred laymen 
in auy of the Lives of St. Hilarj'. 

s His monh. — In Irish writers the monk of a 
bishop signifies his attendant, or vassaL The word 
does not nece6sarily imply that the person so desig- 
nated was a monk, properly so called. Mr. Curry 
has referred the Editor to the following passage in 
the Leabhar Gahhala of the 0'Clerys, p. 176, where 
Aedh OUan, King of Ireland, is styled the " Gospel 
monk" of Congus, abbotorbishopof Armagh: Con- 
Surcomaíiba pacpaiótDopisni inpannpoGo 

opcfacc Oeba Ollam a Tiianais roTcela 
ini bíogail pdíiaigce a óille, " Congus, successor 
of Patrick, composed the foUowing verse to induce 
Aedh Ollan, his Gospel monh, to avenge the viola- 
tion of his chiirch." This the Four Masters (at 
A. D. 732) understand as implying that Congiis 
was the anmchara or spiritual adviser of Aedh, i. e. 
his Gospel master, so that Aedh would therefore be 
the spiritual monk, i. e. servant or disciple in 
Christ of Congus. The word occurs again, in the 
same sense, p. 200 of the same MS. ; and so, in the 
Brehon Laws, manach [a monk] means a sen-ant 
or slave, as Manach-gobla, a gallows' slave, i. e. a 
person redeemed by purchase or entreaty from the 
gallows, and who became servant or slave for life 
to the person by whom he was redeemed. 

'> The metre. — This paragraph, as already re- 
marked, is from Bede's tract, De Arte metrica, c. 23, 
with some slight variations. Bede's words are as 
follows : — " Metrum trochaicum tetrametrum, quod 
a poetis GrtEcis et Latinis frequentissime ponitur, 
recipit locis omnibus trocheum, spondeum omnibus 
príeter tertium. Currit autem alternis versiculis, 
ita ut prior habeat pedes quatuor, posterior pedes 
tres et syllabam. Hujus exemplum totus hymnus 
ille pulcherrimus : — 

Hymnuni (llcat tiirba fratrum, 
Hymnum cantus personct 
Christo regi concinentes, 
Laudes demus debitas. 

" In quo aliquando et tertio loco prioris versiculi 
spondeum reperies : ut 

Factor coeli teme factor, 
Congregator tu maris. 


Verbis purgas leprse morbos." 



The Hymn of St. Hilanj. 


atrochce iii nll places. In wliich thou maycst somctimcs find a spondoe in the tbird place of a prior' 


Fiictor cali ct torrac fnctor .... 

and — 

Verbis purgat leprac morbuiri. 

Moreover, it runs in alternate verscs, so that the prior verse has four feet, the posterior three, and a 


Tmnus, in Greek, signifies Laus (praise) in Latin ; or Tmnus means MemoryJ, as in the Greek Psal- 
ter, l'mnostestmon, that is, He was mindful of us. And it is of the praise of God especially that a Hymn 
is lawful ; and it is to music it is suug, as Augustin'' says, in the Decades". Hymno3 primum David™ pro- 
pheta [«c] in laudem Dei composuisse manifestum esl. 

' Prior. — ThisHymnha8beenwritten in theMS. 
from which it is now printed, ín lines, not in the 
versiculi of which Bede speaks. Each line consists 
of two versicuH, which Bede calls prior and poste- 

rior, the prior consisting of four feet, the poste- 

rior of three and an half. The third foot of the 
prior versiculus may be a spondee, instead of a 
trochee, of which he gives two examples ; but the 
third foot of the posterior versicle must always be a 

i Memory There seems some strangc confu- 

sion here between the words hymnus and pvrjfiT). 
The passage quoted from "the Greek Psalter" is 
apparently from Ps. cxiii. 20, Sept., Kvpiog 
ui/qffOtic tifiiLv. The scribe having seen the last 
two words written, " mnestesemon," or " mnistesi- 
mon," transformed them into "ymnos testmon," 
retaining the correct translation " memor fuit 

^ Augustin. — The sentiment here quoted from St. 
Augustin is that giveii in Irhh which precedes, not 
the Latin words which follow, this reference ; and 

the passage intended is probably from the Enarr. in 
Ps. Ixxii. I. " Hymni laudes sunt Dei cum cantico ; 
hymm cantus sunt continentes laudem Dei. Si sit 
laus, et non sit Dei, non est hymnus : si sit laus, et 
Dei laus, et non cantetur, non est hymnus." — Opp. 
tom. iv. (Ed. Bened.) p. 753. A similar passage 
occurs, Enarr. in Ps. cxlviii. 17; Ibid. p. 1682; 
see also Isidorus Hispal., Etymol. vi. c. 19, n. 17. 

1 The Decades. — The Commentaries (or " Enar- 
rationes") of St. Augustin on the Psalms were 
anciently divided into fifteen decades. See Cassio- 
dorus (Prolog. in Psalm.), quoted by the Benedic- 
tine editors (Opp. S. Aug., tom. iv. Prafat.) See 
also Isid. Ilispal., Epist. iii. Braulioni Archidiacono, 
" Dum pariter essemus, postulavi te, ut mihi deca- 
dem se."ítam sancti Augustini transmitteies." 

■" David. — " Psallere usum esse primum post 
Moysem David prophetam in magno mysterio prodit 
ecclesia." — Isidor. Hispal., De Officil^ i. c. 5, n. i. 
" Hymnos primum eundem David prophetam con- 
didisse ac cecinisse manifestuni est, deinde et alios 
prophetas." — Ibid., c. 6, n. i. 

( ^65 ) 


THE following Hymn, so far as the Editor knows, has never before been 
printed. It is ascribed in the Prefíice to the three sons of "^lurchu of 
the Connacians," or of Connaught (see Addit. Note), the ehlest of whom 
was Colman a bishop, and the other two Avere priests. 

Two saints called Murchu occur in the Calendars of the L-ish Church. 
One of these, whose day was the 8th of June, is mentioned in the Feilire, or 
Festilogium, of Aengus the Cuhlee, and in that of Marlanus Gorman, but 
without any particulars to indicate his date or history. In the Martyrolofy 
ofTallaght, and in that of Donegal (as also in the gloss on Maiianus Gorman), 
he is called " the son of Hua Mactein," which gives us but little information. 

The other (June 12) is merely named in the Mai'tjrologies ofTallaght 
and Mar. Gorman ; but his name does not occur in the Feilire of Aengus, so 
that he is probably of later date than the former. The Martyrology of Done- 
gal has the following note on his name : — 

Tílupchu.— Qcá TDupcú bo fliocc CoTiaill Murchu There is a Miircliu ofthe race 

Cperhcamne tiiic Neill Naoi-éíullais, 1 aca of Conall Cremlithainn, son of Niall of the 
CilllllupcboTi ip m cCopauin, anaiceCéipe Xine Hostages. And there is a Cill Mur- 
Copamn, o cConnaccaib ; n peg an ípo a dion [or Church of Murchu, now A^z7;Hor^««], 
^ ' in Corann, near Ceis Corainn, in Connaught. 

And see if this is his fcstival. 

This proves that tlie eminent Irish scholar, Michael 0'Clery, the compiler 
of the Martyrology of Donegal, was not able to say avIio the Murchu was 
Avhose festival was celebrated on the i2th of June. He susírests that there 
was a Murchuj a descendant of NiaU of the Nine Hostages : and that there 

1 66 The Hymn of Sf. Colman. 

was also a Murchu (wlio niay, perhaps, havc bccn thc same), to whom a 
church Avas (lcdicatcJ in the barony of CoiTan, near Ceis-Corainn (now 
Ivcshcorran, or Ivcshcorrin), a rcmarkablc hiU in thc county of Sligo. The 
father of Cohnan and his brothcrs, thc rcputcd authors of this Hymn, is said 
to have been bo Chonachchaib, " of the Connaughtmcn," and, therefore, may 
])0ssibly havc bccn thc Murchu of Cill Murchon, situatcd' as just describcd. 
But this is uncertain ; and, indced, has littlc cvidence to support it exccpt the 
idcntity of the name. 

The Four Masters, at A. D. 731, record the dcath of " Colman Mac 
Murchon (or son ofMurchu), abbot ofMaghbile," i.e. Movilla, thc church 
foundcd by St. Finian^, at the head of Strangford Lough, which was occa- 
sionally a bishop's see in the seventh century ; but Dr. Reeves has remarked, 
that from thc year 731 forward (the year at which the Four Masters place Col- 
man's deatli) Movilla is noticed in the Annals as governed by abbots only. 

The Four Masters do not call this Colman, who died 731, a bishop, but 
only abbot ; it does not foUow, however, that he was not a bishop ; and it is 
most probable that he was the Colman Mac Murchon to whom the Scholiast 
has ascribed the authorship of the following Hymn. 

The Editor has not found any othcr copy of it than that in the Liber 
IIymnorum, from which it is now printed. From the anccdotes preservcd in 
the Scholiast's Preface, it is probable that the author and his brothers were 
of the number of the Irish ecclesiastics who, in the eighth and following cen- 
turics, dcvotcd themselves to missionary labour, or monastic retirement, on the 
Contincnt of Europe ; and this may account for the scanty notice of this 
Colman Mac Murchon which remains in thc native records of his country ; 
although the Scholiast tclls us that he afterwards returned to Ireland with 
his brothers — " et postca ad Hiberniam vcncrunt" — where he appears to have 
died Abbot of Movilla. 

• Situated. — It is about two miles E. by • S. Finian — See above, p. 98, and Reeves' 

N. frorn Ballvmote. — Ord. Surv., sheet 33. Eccles. Antiquit. of Doicn and Connor., pp. 
See Colgan, Actt. SS., p. 465, col. i, N". 31. 151, 152. 

IN Cpinicace rp^r mea. Cpi nieicc lHiiíichon t)o Chonnachcaib t>o Tionpat) in molabfa bo 
iníchel. Colman a finreyi i eppcob r'be i facaipc m biap aile. Caupa .1. Dui 
nailichpe bo chorap co ramic ambchme mop pop muip lchc. Co nbeochocap mn 
alaile mpi, -] co canic jopca niop boib. Comb bia poepab ap m gopca pem bo pon- 
l'Qc m molabpa. No ip bo poepab mpe TJóbam ap bemnaib. Qp po boe apaile eppcop 
apmcechcach incipeme sem, 1 mphpancaib aca, 1 popcea ab liibepniam uenepunc. 
ncepcum epc aucem m quo cempope paccup epc. Cpe pichim ban boponab 1 .p:i. 
caipcell beac ann, i ba Imi m cech caibbail, t pe pillaba be^ cechai. Ip po 1 ip- 
7iichmi bo peip m omme bo bir ann. 

CRiMicace spes mea pip:a non in omiNe 
ec arjchaNseLuin oepRecor? michaelein NomiNe 

c sic obuius ac misns mihi Oeo Doccone 
lioi^a ericiis De iiica isca acqiie coRpone 

e me Ducac in amaniim miNiscen iNcnsiae 5 

ipse prjiNceps ceNebríarjum accfne pes siipenoiae 

Diiiconinm snccnRRac michaeLis ec aííchaNseli 
ao me liORa cfna ganDebnNC msci accfne aNseli. 

CÍLOSS. — r. In Trinitate. — .i. trinitas .i. quasi trina unitas. Fixa. — Est vel erit. In omine Ideo 

(lixitnonin ominequia aliquis monachus audiuitvocem avis surg[entis super] pectusmaris, etdixit bonum 

omcii, et tunc Colman dixit In trinitate. Omen, .i. cel [an omen] ab ominor. Non in omine .1. 

pcapaim ppip m cel aj\ a abecchi [I reject augurv, because ofits abomination]. 2. Archungehim. — 
Antíeli .i. nuntii, archangeli, .i. summi nuntii, interpretantur. Hir. [Hieronjmus]. Michaelem. — (Jui 
pnue.'ít Judeis ; vel qui sicut deus interpretatur, eoque in fine seculi aduersus eimi qui se aduersus Deuin 
erexeiit mittendus. 3. Doctore. — .i. de. 5. Amarvm. — .i. locuni, vel in infernum. Inergia. — .i. iniqua- 
operationis sed melius transfigurationis ut iesus dicit quod transfigurat se in angelum hicis. 6. Ipse prin- 
ceps — .i. diabuhis ut apostolus dicit. 7. Adiutorium. — .i. deprecor. Succurrat. — .i. veniat cito. S. 
Jiisti. — .i. anim^ sanctorum. 

I . In Trinitate, — For a translation of 
the Preface, see Addit. Note. Non in 
omine. — The Gloss appears to allude to 
some legend of a bird whicli appearcd on 

the sea, which a monk exoliiimcd was a 
good omen — "Bommi omen:" whm'upoii 
Cohnan repeated the words, " My sure 
liope is in the Trinitv, not in aii omcn." 

i68 IIymnus S. Colmani in laudem S. Michaelis Archangeli. 
LLiim no50 mc DcTniccac niihi CRUces spccies 


unniici scD DcDucar iibi tícsmi nccruics 

31UUCC nie saNccus micheL Diebus ac Noccibus 
iir vnc poimr m bonoríum saNccoRum cousoRCibus. 

• aNCCUs micheL iNccRceDac aDiucoR príobabiLis 

^ piío nie Cfuia sum pcccacoR accu accfue puasiLis 

.ONCcus michcL me DcpcNDac scmpcn suis uinibus 

* aNima csncDicNce cum saNcconum milibus. 


Gloss 9. Illum. — .i. Michaelem. Truces. — i. grandai. 

cifilo sive in terra. 

10. IJhi. — Est. Requies. — .i. sive in 

3. Doctore. — The second sjllable is 
here made short. It is intended, no 
doubt, for Ductore. 

5. Inergim. — For energm. Here used 
for diabolical influence. Pcrsons pos- 
sessed with devils were called Energu- 
nieni. — Comp. 2 Thcs. ii. 9, 11. 

6. Fes Superbice. — Ps, xxxv. 12, rulg. 

7. Et arcJiangeli. — The mctro, as well 
as the sense, of this line woiild be im- 
provcd if et were omitted. Adjutorium 
seems to have bccn pronounced in four 
syllablcs, and Michaelis in thi'cc. 

9. Species. — In the " Fragmentimi Sy- 
nodi Ibemensis" (Martcne, Tlws. Nov. 
Anecd., tom. iv. p. i,sq. ViUanucva, Opusc. 
S. Patricii, p. 169) this word is used to sig- 
niíy theface. " Sanguis Episcopi, vcl cx- 
celsi principis, vcl scribaí, qui ad tcn-am 
cfFunditur, si collirio indiguerit, eum qui 
eflfudcrit sapientes crucifigi judicant, vel 
\-ii. ancillas rcddat. Si in spccie [i. e. if 
the wound be in the face] tcrtiam partcm 
de argento." And again, " Sanguis prcs- 
bytcri qui ad tcrram cffunditur donec col- 

lyrium suffcrt, manus interfectoris ab- 
scindatur, vel dimidium vii. ancillarum 
reddat, si de industria : si autem non dc 
industria, anciUte pretio sanetur. Si ad 
terram non pcrveniat, percussor ancil- 
lam reddat ; si in spccie ejus, tertiam par- 
tem de argento reti-ibuat," &c. If thc 
"svord species be taken in the same sense 
here, the tcxt may, perhaps, be thus trans- 
lated : "I bcscech him not to cast down 
upon me the horrible faces of the enemy, 
but to lead me Tvhcre thcrc is the rest of 
[God's] kingdom." Thc Gloss rcnders 
truces by grandai, or granda, i.e. great, 
large, from grandus for grandis. 

1 1. Adjuvet me. — On the uppcr margin 
of the page (fol. 1 6 a) of thc MS. there is 
a notc, or cxtract, of no intcrest, from 
somc mcdicval author. It has no refercncc 
whatsocver to the text, and is in someplaccs 

13. Probahilis. — Meaning approved, to 
be highh/ laudcd, or approved. 

16. Anima cgrediente. — " May St. Mi- 
chacl, with mpiads of the saints, conti- 



Hymnus S. Colmani in laudem S. Michaelis Archangeli. 1 69 

aNcciis sab^ieL saNccus RaphieL accfue oniNes aNseCi 
NcenceDaNC pRO ine sempeR siinuL cc anchaNseli 

ccHNa possiNc piíescaRe tíc^is rcsni auLia 
uc posscDeam cutti chRisco paríaDisi sauDia 20 

loTíia sic seTTipeT? Deo pacTíi accfue ftLio 
siniuL cum spirjicu saucco in uno consiLio. 

CÍDTUuec nop apchanjelup ^anccup Tmcliel Disnippimup quem 
]iecipepe animap miucac oeup alripFimu}'. 

Gloss. — 17. Gabriel. — .i. fortitudo Dei interpretatur, liapliiel. — .i. medicina Dei interpretatur, eo 

quúd medicinavit tobiam de cecitate. 19. Possint. — .1. angeli et archangeli. Aulia. .i. regia domus. 

Archangelus. — .i. summus nuntius interpretatur. Michel. — ,i, qui sicut Deiis interpretatur. 

nuallj- defend mc by his power [cspcciallv] 
when my soiil is departing [from the 

Adiuuet nos. — These lincs are in a dif- 
fcrent character, but by the original scribe, 
like the similar lines after the other 
HjTnns, of which we have already fre- 
queutly spoken. Over the a in mittat a 

small i is written, indicating a correction 
of the reading, from tnittat to mittit. 
There is evidently a distich with a rude 
rhjTne. The verses may be read thus : — 

" Adjuvet nos archangelus, 
Sanctus Michael dignissimus, 
Quem recipere animas 
Mittat Deu3 altissimus." 


( 17° ) 


Tlie ScholiasVs Preface. 

THE Preface of thc Scholiast is for the most part in Irish, but, as in former 
instances, mixcd with Latin words. Thc Tvholc has bccn hcre translatcd, with- 
out diatinguishiug the phi'ascs that ai'e in Latiu : — 

In Trinitate spes mea. Tlie three sons of Murchu of the Counacians made this Hvnin to ílichael. 
Colman^, the eldest of theni, was a bishop ; the other two were priests. The Cause'' was this : they went 
on a pilgrimage, and a great tempest arose on the Iccian<= sea, and they came to a certain island, and a 
great hmiger came on them, and it was to deliver them from this hunger they composed this IIymn. Or, 
it was to free the island of Rodan'^ from Demons. For there had been a certain transgressing bishop in 
it before that ; and it is in France. And afterwards they went to Ireland. It is uncertain, however, at 
what time this Hymn was composed. It is made in rh\-me, and there are eleven'-' chapters in it, and two 
lines in each chapter, and sixteenf syllables in each line. It isoníí the rhyme is, on account of the oinine 
being in it. 

» Colman. — See what has been already said of 
him in the ÍDtroductory remarks, p. 165. 

•' T/te Cause That is, the occasion on which 

the Hymn was composed. 

•" Iccian Sea. — i. e. the British Ciiannel, Irish 
Xennius, p. 31, n. p. 272 ; Genealogies of Ihj 
Fiachrach, p. 1 8, n. 

' Rodan. — The Editor has not been able to iden- 
tify this island, unless it be the Isle St. Roui, off the 
coast of lJrittany. There is a St. Rodincus, or St. 
Rouin, an Irbhman, whose original name was 
probabIy Rodan. Ile founded the Abbey of Beau- 
lieu iu Argonne, and died A. D. 680, on the 
i7th Sept, at which day his name occurs in the 
Calendar of the Church of Franco. See Menard, 
1. ii., Observatt. in .Varti/rol. licned.. and Mabilloii, 

Act. SS. Bened., where his life is gíven : Sec. iv. 
part ii., App., p. 543. Fenet, 1738. 

'■ Eleven. — The MS. has .;ci. cmpcell bec, 
a niistake for .1. caipcell bec, or .;ei. caipcell, 
' ' eleven chapters." 

f Sixteen This is also a mistake, for the lines 

have only fifteen syllables. But line 7 seems to 
have seventeen syllables, or sixteen if we read 
Michaelis as a trisyllable. But in line 2 Michaelem 
is read in four syllables, and in lines 11, 13, and 
15, where the name Michaol is a dissyllable, it is 
writtcn Michel. 

■í It is on i. — i. e. the rhynic is on the vowcl í, 
as omine, and nomine, ver. i aud 2. Every linc 
has i either in the last or penultimate .«vllable, ex- 
cejit lines 3, 4, where the last svllablc is e. 

( 171 ) 



THIS Hymn has never before been prínted. It is ascribed in the Prefíice 
to Oengus Mac Tipraite, prlest, or abbot, of Cluain Fota Baitain-abha'-, 
a contemporarj of St. Adamnan ; and is said to have been written on the occa- 
sion of Adamnan's visitation of the Columban foundations in Ireland, A. D. 
692 or 697. Oengus, however, lived to A. D. 745, at Avhich year the 
Annals of Ulster record his death in these words: " Mors Oengusa fiHi 
Tipraiti abbatis Cluana Fota ;" as also the Annals of Tighemach, in the words, 
bapp Qen5upa meic Cippaioe Qb Cluanapoca baicam aba, "Deathof Aengus 
son of Tipraide, abbot of Cluain Fota Baitain-abha." The Four Masters alter 
the date given by the earlier annalists to 741. But all these authorities agree 
in styling Oengus Abhot of Chiain Fota Baitain-abha : they probably under- 
stood our Scholiast to have meant uhbdt, -when lie calls him priest of that 

The Hymn is in extremely rude Latinity, and irregular metre, with rhyme 
or assonances at the end of the lines. Nothing is known of the author except 
what is recorded in the Preface, and in the Annals above quoted. His name 
does not occur in the Calendars or Martyrologies of the ancient Churcli of 

1 Cluain Fota Baitain-ahha — Tbis name preserved. One of the earliest bishops ol' 

signifies " the long lawn or meadow of Bai- Clonfad was Etchein, who ordained St. Co- 

tan of the river," now Clonflid, baronv of hmiba — See the Legend, Ohits of Christ 

FarbiU, county of Westmeath. Baitan of Church, Introd., p. liv., and comp. Eeeves' 

the river mav have been the founder ofthe Adamnan. Vit. S. Columhcs, App. to Pref , 

monasterv, or else, perhaps, a chieftain who p. Ixxii. He died A. D. 577 or 578. Four 

was the original owner of the soil ; but no Masters in anno ; Colgan, Act. SS., iithof 

other notice of him appears to have been Feb. ; Lanigan, Ecdes. Hist., vol. ii. p. 125. 

niOríriNC. Ociisup macc cippmce raca|ic cluaTia poca baicari aba ipe bo ponai hunc 
q.mnum. i cluain poca paccup epc. Caupa aucem abamnan boi pop cuaipc cell 
coluim ciUe in hepenn co poachc co uipneach mibe co po japet) bo cech pip spaib 
popp a paba liut) ipin cip ; co puachc in cepuacpa oen^up in aibche pele mapcain. 
ec cimuic ualbe uc pecic hunc q.mnum in honopem mapcini bia poepab. uenic cpci 
oenjup bo chum [na] bala appabapach -| a immun eplam leip. -[ cappap bo 
abamnan mapcan pop a laim beip Oengupa t acpachc cpa abamnan peme. ec 
honopipicauic eum cum opculo ec omnep mipabancup caupam honopip ec t)i,Tic 
Goamnan uc uibic mapcinutn pecum, conib ap mapcan t)o bich immaille ppip t)o 
pac honop t)0. po poepab cpa amlaib pein oensup. ec opcent)ic (^.mnum puum ec 
lauoauic abamnan qmnum ec t)i,iic ^nuip aipmiciu pop in ci gebap ict)ul bo chum 
(\ t)ala no aipechca ocup comat) t)iciu aj\ cech fisalap. ocup nem apa sabnil po Iije 
\\| po eipse. Cpe pichim t)an bo ponat), pe caibt)iU ann -\ ha line cech caibtJiU. 
impecpa ban ann ec non aecfualem numepum piUabapum pmsulae linuie 

QPriNe ce DepTíccoR pno me nosanis pacneín 
chT^iscum ac spiRicuTn saNcciini habcNcein maTíiani 

íarjciNus mmus moríe OT?e lauoauic Deum 
])URo coTíDe cancauic acque amauic eum 

O ^ /-^leccus Dei uiui si^ua sibi saLucis 5 


Douauic Deus pacis masNe acque umcuns 

crjbum Dei Locucus secucus in maNOacis 
umcucibus implecis moncuis T?esuscicacis 

Gloss. — 3. More. — .i. caritatis atque religionis. 7. Locntus. — est. Secutus — i. Deuni. 8. Im- 
pleth ameii. 

1. Martine. — For a translation of the 
Prtíace soe Addit. Notc. 

2. Hnhentcm. — Tliis socm.s hcterodox, 
or at vcrv hadly exprcssed, and 

rudc; for hahentcm agrecs grammatically 

with Spiritum Sanctum, although, of 

coursc, intcnded to agrcc with Christiim. 

8. Impletis. — The (íloss " Amen" on 

Hymnus S. Oengusii Meic Tipraite. 
QaNQNS hoiniNcs CepT^a cuna DupLicc miría 


inasNiciiDiNc iiiala csnccuDiNc Dma 

CU111 DoiTiiNuiii Noscrjuiii passuiTi pno uobis iiiine 
uoLuNcaRic piíoprcR nos DepRccaRc iiiaRciNc 



Sancru^ niapcinup aohuc cacacominu|^ hac me uepce conce;r)c: 

Dicic Dominup omnipocenp. 
Pep mejiica ma]icini pancci acque oijnippmi nop ppecamuji ur 

mepeamup pegnum oei uiui alcippimi. Qmen. 

Gloss. — 9. Duplice. — .i. aniina et corjiore. 10. Magnitudine. — .i. peccati. Egretudine. — . 


Catacominus i. adiutor fidei interpretatur. 

this word is in a more recent hand, and is 
written under, not over, the word. Mor- 
ticis resmcitatis. — Sulp. Severi De Vit. 
B. 3Iartini, c. 5, 6 {Bibl. Patr., tom. vi., 
350 H., 351 A. Lugd. 1677). 

9. Lepra. — Ibid., c. 19 {ubi supr., 353 
A.) Cura duplicc. — With a twofold cure, 
of mind as well as body : convcrting them 
to the faith, as well as healing them of 
bodily diseasc. Cura is here used in the 
sense of cxiratio morbi. 

12. Martine. — The IIymn ends here, as 
we infer from the repctition of the last 
Avord, Martine, which is also the íirst word 
of the Hymn. It is one of the artifices 
of Trish poetrj' to make a poem begin and 
ond with the same word (sce above, p. 23). 
"VVTiat follows is in a diíFercnt character, 
although by the original scribe (see above, 
pages 23, 80, 161). 

Catacominus. — i. e. Catechumenus, a Ca- 
techumen. In the Gloss this word is cx- 

plained adiutor fidei , which is, perhaps, a 
mistake for "auditor fidei." — Isidor. His- 
pal., Et}jmolog., vii. c. 14. The aHusion 
is to the foUowing legend, told by Sulpi- 
tius Severus in his Life of St. Martin : — 
During his militarj^ career, St. Martin 
found one day at the gate of the city of 
Amiens a poor man, naked, and shivering 
with thc intense cold of a more than 
usually severe winter. ííone of the by- 
passers took any notice of the wretched 
suppliant's appeals to their charity ; but 
St. Martin, nioved by compassion, took off 
his own cloak (chlamydem), and drawing 
his sword, divided it into two equal parts, 
one of which he gave to the poor raan. 
At this time St. Martin was only a Cate- 
chumcn, and had not as yct been bap- 
tized, although he was eighteen years 
of age. He entered the city amid the 
jeers of many, who ridiculed his appear- 
ance in his cloak cut short; but thatsame 


Hijmnus S. Oimr/usii Meic Tipraiie. 

night hc saw in a drcam Christ Himsolf, 
flothcd in that \vvy half of tho cloak 
whith had bccn givcn to thc poor man, and 
hciug callcd upon to rccognisc thc gar- 
mcnt, hc hcard jKsrs sav to thc siirround- 
ing angels, "Martin, altliough onlj^ a 
Catcchumcn, hath covercd Mo \dth this 
robc" — ''Noctc igitur insccutá, cum se 
sopori dedissct, vidit Christum clamydis 
suaj, quá texcrat paupcrcm parte vesti- 
tura. Intueri diligcntissimc Dominum, 
vcstcmque quam doderat jubctur agnos- 
cere. Mox ad angclorum circumstantium 
multitudincm, audit Jesum clara voce di- 
contom : Jíartinus, adhuc Catechmne^nis, 
hac Me veste contexit. Vere memor Domi- 
nus dictorum suonim (qui antc prtcdixe- 

rat : Quamdiu fecistix hac uni ex minimis 

ÍHÍiit, mihi fecistÍH), se in paupcrc profcssus 

cst fuissc vostitum," &c. Upon this, St. 

Martin "was immodiatcly baptizcd, but 

continuod almost two ycars longer in thc 

army, to comploto thc term of his militarj- 

servicc. — Sulp. Sevcri, De Vita S. Martini, 

c. 2 {liillioth. Patr., tom. vi., 350 A.) 

Lib. Armac. in Yit. »S. Martini, foL 192, 

"where tho form Catacominm, for Catechu- 

menun, occurs. 

Fer merita. — Thcrc is horo a rhjTnc or 

jingle :— 

"Per merita Jlartini 
Sancti íitque dignissimi 
Nos precamur 
Ut mereamur 
Reprnum Dei vivi altissimi." 

( >75 ) 


The Scholiasfs Freface. 

THE Prefacc, or Argumeut, details a curíous lcgend, which is quite consistcnt 
with the date ah-eady assignod to the author of this HjTnn It is in thc usual 
niixturc of Latin and Irish, and may he translated as follows : — 

Martine. Oengus Mac Tipraite», piiest of Cluain Fota Baitain-abha, was the person who composeil 
this Ilj-nin. It was composed in Cluaii» Fota. The Cause'^ was this : Adamnan was makinghis visitation'- 
of the churches of Cohma-cille in Erinn, when he arrived at Uisneach of Meath ; and everj' man of grade' 
against whom there was any accusation in that country, was summoned to him ; and the proclamation 
reached Oengus on the eve of the festival of Martin; and he feared greatl^", so that he made this Hymn in 
honour of Martin, to deliver himself. Then Oengus came to the assembly on the morrowf, and his Hvmn 
ready with him ; and Martin appeared to Adamaan on the right hand of Oengus, and Adanman rose up 
before him [i. e. before Oengns], and did him honour with a kiss, and all wondered at the cause of the 
honour; and Adamnan said when he saw Martin with him, [i. e. with Oengus], that it was because Martin 
was with him that he gave him this honour. Thus did Oengus deliver himself; and he showed his 
Hvmn, and AJamnau praised the Hymn, and said, An honourable aspect? shall be upon everv one that 

* Oengvs Mac Tipraite. — See what has been 
said of him, p. 171, supra. 

^ The Cause. — That is, the cause or occasion on 
which it was composed. 

• His Visitation. — This fixes the date to A. D. 
692 or 697.— See Reeves' Adamn., p. xlix. Us- 
neach is in the parish of Coniy, diocese of Meath, 
a littlesouth of which, in the parish of Ardmurcher, 
is SuiÓC QúaTÍinain (now Si/onan), "sessio 
Adamnani," which was probably the spot where the 
Tisitatioa or synod alluded to in the text was held. 
— Reeves' Adamnan., App. to Pref., p. Ixv. 

' 0/grade. — That is, evei-y man who was in 
holy orders. 

*^ Hefeared greatly. — Are we to infer from thi.s 
that Oengus was one of those agamst whom some 
accusation had been brought ? If so, his fears mav 
have arisen from the apprehension that justice was 
not aiways to be expected from the ecclesiastical 
tribunals of that period. — See Reevcs' Adamnan, 
lib. iii. c. 3, p. 192, and note '\ 

' On the morrow. — The Irish word is apjiaba- 
pach, which would be now written o Tndiiach; 
a curious instance of the interchange of b and 

s An honourable aspect. — That is, his very out- 
ward appearance shall be such as to command 
respect from all who see him. 


Hymn of St. Oengus Mac Tipraite. 

sings it in going to an asscmblv, or court'', antl it sliall be a protcction against everj- disease, anil 
against poison, to him ■vvho sings it Iving ilown aml rising up. 

It is coniposed in rhvnie; there are six chaptcrs in it, and two lines in each chapter; it b in assonances' ; 
an«i the Unes do not each preserve the same numberJ of svllables. 

^' An assembly or court. — Dala TlO ajiechca. 
Dala (the same ■word used above, where it is said 
that Oengus went to the assemblj', at which he 
was to receive thc judgment of Adamnan) is a 
general term for any meeting ; aipeachc is pro- 
perlv a court or diet of princes, or officials, for 
making laws, or hearing civil causes ; from aipeac, 
a chieftain, or noble. 

' /n assonances. — T?ecpa, repetition of the same 
sound at the end of each liue. 

■ The same number. — The lines have generallj' 

fourteen sj'llables. Verse 2 has sixteen svUables, 
but may be reduced to fourteen, if we elide the 
final svUable of Christum before ac, and pronounce 
Marxam as a dissvUable, Marjam. Verses 8 and 
1 2 have fifteen svllables ; in verse 8, mortuis is pru- 
nonnced as a dissvllable ; and in verse 12, voluntarir 
is pronounced voluntarje, four svllables onlv. But 
in verse 4, the final svllable of atque is not elided 
before amavit. Martinus is apparently pronounced 
Marttnus, with the penultimate short ; and there are 
several other irregularities. 

( ^11 ) 


IT may be convenient to give here a translation of the Scholiast's PrefaceS 
or Introduction, to this well-known Hymn : — 

" Gloria in excelsis. The angels of God sang the first verse of this Hymn on the night of 
the Lord's Nativity. They made it at the Tower of Gabder,' a mile from Jerusalem eastward. 
To make known that He who was then born was the Son of God they made it. In the time 
of Octavin Augustus it was composed. But Ambrose made this Hvmn, from the second verse 
to the end of the Hymn." 

From the notice of this Hymn in the fourth Council of Toledo ( A. D. 633), 
it would seem that the author or authors of it were then unknown : the Council 
(can. 13), speaking ofthose who atthat time objected to the use of all liymns 
of human composition, say : " Hespuant ergo et iUum hymnum ab hominibus 
compositum, quem quotidié publico privatoque ofEcio in fine omnium psalmo- 
rum diclmus, Gloria et honor Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto, in secula secu- 
lorum, Amen. Nam et ille hymnus quem nato in carne Christo Angeli ceci- 
nerunt, Gloria in excelsis Deo, et in terra pax hominihus bonce voluntatis ; et 
reliqua qua? ibi sequuntur ecclesiastici Doctores composuerunt." As Hilary 
and Ambrose had been mentioned just before as the authors of hymns (see 
above, p. 149), it is not likely that the Council would have spoken thus, if 
either of those Fathers had been then reputed the author of this Hymn. 

It is most commonly attributed to St. Hilarj^, of Poictiers, and is entitled, 
" Hymnus S. Hilarii ad Missam" in the Cod. Vatic. 5729 (an ancient INIS. of 

\Preface — AnotherVersion of this Preface 3 To St. IIilary Some have made Popo 

will be found in Addit. Note A at the end Telesphorus (A. D. 150) the author (as Rha- 
ofthisHymn. banus, Amalarius, "Walafridus Strabo, &c.), 

2 The Toxcer of Guhder — See Additional misunderstanding, as itwould seem,the words 
Note B. of the Liher Po7iti^calis, where Telesphorus is 

2 A 


Gloria in Excelsis Deo. 

thc Hicronymian Bible). But as this Hynm Avas in use as a moming hymn 
(7r()0(Tíi;\j) tuiOivij) in tlic Grcek Church^ and is found in a Greck dress in 
the Apostolical Constitutions (Ub. vii. c. 47), Cardinal Thonia.sius' suggests, 
with grcat probability, that St. Hilary was only thc translator, and that he 
had been instrumcntal in bringing it into use in the Western Chiu"ch : 
" Forte hic prinuis hymnum hunc Latinum fccit, primusquc cx Oricnte in 
Occidentcm invexit." 

The Editor has found no authority except that of the Scholiast of the 
Book of Hynm.s, now bcfore us, fur attributing this Hymn to St. Ambrose. 
The reasons already givcn for supposing it more ancient than St. Hilary 
are of equal force against the opinion that St. Ambrose was the author'. 

said to have appointed this IIyinn, or rather, 
jierhaps, only the íirst verse of it, to be sung 
011 the night of Christmas: "Ut IIyinnus An- 
gehcusin nocte Nativitatis Domini diceretur." 
It is remarkable that in the Liturgj' of St. 
.lames only the words of the angels, and not 
tlie remainder of the Hymn, are to be fouiid. 
— J. A. Fabricii, Cod. Apocr. X. 2'., pt. iii. 
tom. ii. p. 64 ; and so also in the Ordo Missce 
tbr Christmas Day, iu the Missale GotJii- 
rum, published by Mabillon, De Liturg. 
Gallicana., pt. iii. p. 192. But Alcuin, IIo- 
norius Augustodunensis, Hugo de St. Yic- 
tore, and many others, maintain that IIilary 
was the author. 

1 Greeh Church See Ussher, De Symholis 

(Works by Elrington, vol. vii. p. 335). It is 
callcdin theGreekChurch ti fityá\ri coKoXoy ia, 
"the great Doxology" (Goar. liituale Graícor., 
p. 54-58). In the Codex Alexandrinus (Edit. 
I3aber,vol. iii. 569) this IIymn isentitled vfivog 
íljOivoq; and in thtí Vatican MS., 5729, "Hym- 
nus Angclorum" (Card. Tliomasii, Psaltcr. 
Opp.eá. A. F. Vezzosi, líoin., 1748, tom. iii. 
p. 616). See also Cave, Hist. Liter., vol. ii., 
Dissert. ii. p. 28, voc. i^Bivoc-, Oxon., fol. 1473. 

á Thomasius Psalter., Opp., loc. cit.; and 

so Alcuin speaks of the Gloria in excelsis as 
having been " auctus et consummatus" by 
St. Hilarj'. Quoted by MabiUon, De Liturg. 
Gallic, p. 29. 

6 The author Mention is made of this 

IIymn in the Treatise De Virginitate, pub- 
lished among the works of St. Athanasius 
(tom.ii., Ed. Bened.) ; and if that tract were 
genuine, this would be a strong argument 
against the opinion that the Hj-mn was of 
Latin origin, or that it had either St. IIilary 
or St. Ambrose for its author. For the Tract 
De Virginitute speaks of tlie IIymn as used 
in the morning, or near morning (vpoq ópOpov), 
by an established custom ; which it could 
scarcely have been in the time of Athanasius, 
if Hilary or Ambrose had bien the author. 
Ilowever, although Bellarmine, Nat. Alexan- 
der, and other learned men, have upheld the 
genuineness of the treatise De Virginitate, 
there is now scarcely any one who does not 
acquiesce in the judgment of the Benedictine 
editors, that it cannot be an authentic work 
of St. Atbanasius — Sec Oudin., De Scripto- 
ribuSi to'U. I. p. 340. 

5^0T?ia IN e^CeLSIS. Onseli bei cecinepuTic ppimuni ueppum huiup q.nini m nocce 
t)ommicae nanuicacif. lc cup gabbep imojipo bo ponpac .1. mile o hiepupa- 
lem paip. bo paiUpisut) imoppo connib macc be m ci po genaip ann bo ponpac 
lie. 1n aimpip occauín augupci t)o ponal). Qmbpopiup aucem pecic hunc 
s^-nnium a pecunbo ueppu upcfue oX) pinem q-mm. 

COPIQ iN e;cceLsis beo ec in ceT?Ra pa;c 
homiNibus boNoe uoCuNcacis 


auOanuis ce beNeOicnnus ce aoonamus ce 
SLoRipicanius ce TnasNipicamus ce 


nacias asimus cibi pnopcen masuam miserjicorí- 

01 am cuam 5 

OomiNc ne;c ceLescis Oeus pacer? omNipoccNs 

omiNc piLi uNiscNice lesu cliRisce 
soNcce spiRicus Dei ec omNes Dicimus amcN 

Gloss. — I. In excehis. — .i. in celis. In terra. — .i. in ecclesia sancta. 2. Bonec vohtntaiis .i' 

eis qui nullunt [nolunt] deum offendere sed placere cogitatione et uerbo et opere. 3. Landamm. .i. [in 

Hita] hac nostra vel in teorica vita. Benedicimus. — i actuaH vita. Adoramus. .i. sub- 

jectione corporis et animaí, .i. totis viribus. 4. Ghrificamus. — .i. corara Deo Patre. Magnificamus. 

.i. corara hominibus bono opere. 

I. Gloria. — For a translation of the 
Preface, see above, p. 177. 

4. Magnifieamm te. — Omitted in the 
tcxt of this Hjmn as now used. 

5. — Misericordiam. — An ancient hand 
has wi-itten in the margin Gloriam. 

6. — Domine rex. — " Domine Deus rex" 
is the reading now. 

7. — Domine fili. — The prescnt text is 


" DomincFili unigcnite Jesu Christe, Do- 
mine Dcus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris. 
Qui toUis peccata mundi, miserere nobis. 
Qui tollis pcccata mundi suscipe depre- 
cationem nostram. Qui sedes ad dexte- 
ram Patris, miserere nobis. Quoniam tu 
solus sanctus, tu solus Dominus, tu solus 
altissimus, Jesu Christe, cum sancto Spi- 
ritu in gloria Dei Patris. Amen." 

1 8o Gloria in E.vcelsis Deo. 


omiNC piLi t)ei pacrjis asNc Dci cfui collis pcccaca muNDi 
iniscríCRC tiobis. lo 

.iisci])c onaciONcm Noscnnm qui scDcs aD Dc;cceT^am pacnis 
' misciícnc riobis DomiNc. 



uoNiam cu soLus saNccus cu soLus DomiNus cu solus 
5I0U10SUS cum s])micu saNcco in sLouia oci jjacRis amcN 

omNi ccmpoRC bcNcDicimus cc ec LauDamus 15 

NomcN cuum in acccRNum cc in secuUim scculi amcN 


iSNanc DomiNc Nocce isca 
siNe ])eccaco nos cuscodirc 


cNCDiccus cs DomiNe Deus pacRum NoscnoRum ec lauDabilc 
ec sLoRiosum NomcN cuum in aeccRNum ec in secuLum se- 
cuLi amcN. 30 

omiNe Deus saLucis meac 
iN Die cLamaui ec noccc coT?am ce 

Gloss. — 13. Tu solus i. per temetipsuin. 15. In omni ternpore. — .i. in prosperis et in adversis. 

16. Nomen. — .i. filium tuum. 17. Nocte. — .i. hujus seculi. 18. Peccato. — .i. sine mortali crimine. 
19. Patrum. — .i. patriarcharum et apostolorum. 20. /n seculum. — .i. hic et in futuro. 22. In die. — 
.i. in prosperis. Nocte. — .i. in tenebris seculi hujus. 

15. In omni tempore. — "VSTiat follows is in the Ambrosian copy of this Hjinn 

an addition, of thc nature of an antiphon, (Thomas., loc. cit.), and is also usually 

like the similar additions at thc cnd of incorporatcd in the Te Deum, hut with the 

thc forcgoing HjTnns ; but in this case it rcadiug dic isto, instcad of nocte ista, as 

is -wTÍttcn in thc same characters as thc above. This pcculiarit}- of the Irish copy 

text. The verse In omni tempore is added secms to show that in the ancicnt Church 

to this Hymn in the copy of it printcd by of Ircland the Hj-mu -was uscd at night ; 

Cardinal Thomasius from thc Ambrosian a fact which is cxpressly stated to have 

Breviary (Psalter. Opp., uhi supr., p. 613), bccn thc casc, in another copy of thc pre- 

but with the variation, " pcr singulos facc, which will bc given in ísWe A, from 

dics [instcad of " in omni tcmpore"] the Leahhar Breac. 

bcnedicimus tc," which is the rcading of 18. Sinepeccato. — Sine peccatÍB. Tho- 

thc modem Vulgatc, Ps. cxliv. 2. mas., loc. cit. 

17. Lignare. — This verse is foimd also 19. Bencdictus. — Dan. iii. 26, Vulg. 

Gloria in Excelsis Deo. 


1 1\I^^^^ onacio mca in coNspcccu cuo 

■ ' ■ iNcLiNa auucm cuaiii ao pncccni mcani oomiNc 

8CUC0 cmcumoabic cc ucnicas cius 
NON cimcbis a cimoRC NoccurjNO 


Gloss. — 24. Precem. — .i. quia in hoc corpore possitns fundo 25. Scuto i. licet in 

errore fuimus quando nox est, non timebis quia habes scutum ueritatis. 26. Timebis .i. a tenebrosa 

sasione inimicorum. 

2 1 . Domine Deus. — This and the next 
clause are from Ps. Ixxxvii. 2, 3, V'ulff. 

25. Scufo. — This clause is from Ps. xc. 
4, 5, Vulff. 

of invasion, attach, unless we suppose a 
mistake of transcription for " tenebrosa 
invasione." The verb Saisire was used 
by Ivo Camotensis in the eleventh centurj, 

26. Timehis. — The gloss over this word which was, probably, about our scholiast'í 
secms to use sasio for saisio, in the sense time. — See Du Cange. 

( i82 ) 



The Scholiast's Pre/ace. 

ATR.AXSLATIOX of the Scholiast's Preface has alrcadj been givcn (p. 177, 
supra). Thcre is, however, another copy of this Preface in the marginal 
notcs to the Felirc of Aengus in the Leabhar Breac (fol. 49 b, in inarg. inf.) a MS. 
bclonging to the Royal Irish Acad.einy. This has bccn probably taken írom another 
copy of thc Book of Hymns, and is worth prcscrving hcre : — 

5topia in epccelrip ^eo. Qinjil t)0 pon- Gloria in excelsis Deo. The angela made the 

rac m pepr coipech Oon inianp 0, oiOce na first verse of this Hvmn, on the night of the Nati- 

5eine. hic cop aOep imoppo 00 ponpac .1. vitv: and in the tower of Ader theymadeit, which 

mile O hiepupalem paip. t)ia poillpiusut) is a mile from Jerusalem, eastwards. To make 

conib mac De incíi posenaip anOOoponpac known that He who was then bom was the Son of 

he. In aimpip hoccauin imoppo Oo ponat) God they made it And in the time of Octavin 

he. Qmbpopiup bm t)0 pome m cuillet) .1. thev made it But Ambrosius made the rcmain- 

a pecunOo ueppu uptfue m pinem laut)ip, der, from the second verse to the end of the hvmn, 

-|C. etc. 

Qmbpopiup pui eppucc ipe t)0 poine hunc Ambrose the leamed bishop, it was he who made 

imnum bo molat> lepu. ocup m oiOche ap this Hymn iu praise of Jesus; and at night it is 

t)ip a cancain. Cpia pichim t)m t)0 ponab. right to sing it. And it is made in rhythm. 

un. capcil inb, ocup .uii. line m cech capicil There are seven chapters in it, and seven lines in 

ocup .uii. piUaeba cecha line. each chapter, and seven syllables in each line. 

It "vrill be obscrAxd, tbat in this version ofthc Prcfacc St. Ambrosc is statcd to 
have bccn thc author of tbo Hymn ; and it is also expressly said that it was the usage 
to sing it at night, which accounts for the alteration nocte ista instead of die isto, al- 
rcady noticcd, p. 180, notc. The concluding paragraph, which tells us that thc H}Tnn 
is in rhj"thm, consisting of sevcn chaj)tcrs, with scvcn lines in cach chaptcr, and scven 
syllable8 in cach line, is an evidcnt niistakc. 

noteb.] The Tower Gabder, or Gadder. 183 


The Tower Gahder, or Gadder. 

Mentioií of tlic Tower Gadder" has alreadj beeu madc, as the scene of the angelical 
\ásion, which apijcared to thc shcphcrds on the night of our Lord's j!s'ati\áty. 

This Tower is statcd in the Scholium, or Preface to the present Hynm, to have been 
a mile from Jerusalcra; but St. Jerome and Tcn. Bcde speak of it as a mile from Bethlc- 
hem, which accords bettcr with the Gospcl narrative. Thc latter says {Comment. in 
Luc. ii. 8) : " Meminit et Micha propheta loci hujus et temporis, dicens, 'JEt tu turris 
gregis nehdosa, filice Sion usque ad te venient, et veniet potestas prima, regnum filice Sion' 
Turris quippe grcgis, quse Hebraice Ader vocatur, mille circitcr passibus a civitate 
Bethleem ad orientem distat, vaticinio sui nominis pastores hos multo ante demon- 
strans ad quam usque filiae Sion, angclicoe videlicet potestatcs, pastoribus apparendo, 

St. Jerome, on Gen. sxxv. 21, says : " Et profectns est Tsrael, et extendit taherna- 
cuhim suum trans turrim Ader. Hunc locum Hcbraji esse volunt ubi postea templum 
ajdificatum est; et turrim Ader, turrim gregis significare, hoc est, congregationis et 
coBtus ; quod et Michaeas propheta testatur, dicens, £t tu turris gregis nehulosa, filia 
Sion, &c. : illoque tempore Jacob trans locum, ubi postea temphim aedificatum est, ha- 
buisse tentoria. Sed si sequamur ordinem viae" [i. e. the order of Jacob's joumev] 
"pastorujn juxta Bethleem locus est, ubi vel angelorum grex in ortu Domini cecinit ; 
vel Jacob pecora sua pavit, loco nomcn imponens : vel quod verius est, quodam vaticinio 
futurum jam tunc mystcrium monstrabatui'." Hcre it will be sccn that St. Jerome 
decides rightly that the Tower Ader, in Genesis, must, from the tenor of the narra- 
tive, have been near Bethlehem, and that the turris gregis nehulosa, mentioned in Mi- 
cah (iv. 8), which the ti-adition of the Jews supposcd to have been the site of thc 
temple, was a different tower, near or in Jerusalcm. Qumt. in Genes. {Opp., tom. iii., 
Edit. Vallarsii, Venet., 1767, col. 361, B. C). In another pkce, describing thc 
travels or pilgrimage of St. Paula, St. Jerome says: "Haudproculinde" [scil. aBeth- 
lehem] "dcsccndit" [Paula] "adtuiTÍm Ader, id est gregis ; juxta quam Jacob 
pavit grcges suos, ct pastores nocte vigilantcs audire mei'uerunt, Gloria in excelsis 
Deo,^^ etc. Epitaph. Pauloe, Epist. cviii. ad Eustochium (Opp., uhi supr., tom. i. col. 
699 D.) 

» Gadder. — In a marginal note on the Hymn Cbrist "juxtaturrim Gadder." — See p. 153 (note 
attributcd to St. IIilary in praise of Christ(No. vii. on line 14). Gahder is aa erroneous form of the 
svprd), the angels are said to have first worshipped name. 

184 Gloria in Ecccelsis Deo. [Noteb. 

Thc tradition of thc Ilcbrcws, alludcd to by St. Jcromc, is probably thc Bame as 
that prcscncd in tho Targum oí' Jonathiin on Gcn. xxxv. 21, whosc words are: — 

y^ n"":rrr'^b C~i!:i ;:pi-"' bi:2T >C;'^T " And Jacob joumeyed, and arosc, and 

^nniS"! S"inS ~n371 sbi:?2b sbnb spread his tents beyond thc towcr of Eder, 

^1102 Sn'*B7a S3V:2 "^binSl INn^ the place whcrc thc King Messiah shaU 

; S'^aV reveal Himsclf, in the cnd of days." 

Hcrc it is evident that thc Migdal Eder, or Tower of Edcr, ncar Bctlilehem, is al- 
ludcd to; for Bethlehcm was knoAvn to the Jcws, even bcfore our Lord's N'ati\'ity, as 
thc predicted birthplace of Mcssiah (Matt. ii. 4-6). But " the place whcre Messiah 
shall reveal Himsclf" was probably takcn to signify the Temple, by thc Jcws who 
commiinicatcd or intcrpreted this tradition to S. Jerome. 

The name "n2?"bi:Q, Tower of Eder (Gen. xxxv. 21, Mic. iv. 8), significs turrh 
gregis, as it is rcndered in the Vulgate Version, and this may, perhaps, have given 
occasion to the tradition that the place so called near Bethlehcm (a watch-towcr 
probably for shepherds) was the place from which the shepherds (Luke ii.) saw 
the vision of angels, that announced the Xativit^. StiU it cannot be doubted, from 
thc testimony of St. Jcrome, and the words of the Targumist abovc quoted, that some 
ancient traditions of the Jews were connected with the place. 

But thcrc were certainly two places so caUcd, one near Bethlchem, wliich, as wc 
have seen, is that mentioned Gen. xxxv. 2 1 ; the other in or near Jerusalem, which is 
e\-idently the place intended, Mic. iv. 8''. 

It appcars, from the passage above quotcd, that Bcde had a diíFerent reading 
of this lattcr text from that of the present Vulgate Vcrsion: "Et tu turris grcgis 
nebulosa, filiae Sion usque ad te venient" [instcad of " Et tu turris gregis nebulosa fiUae 
Sion, ad te venict"], which he interprets, " And as for thee, dark tower of thc 
flock, the daughters of Sion" [i. e. the angels who appearcd to the shephcrdsj " shall 
come to thee." Whcreas, the ViUgate is, " And thou, dark tower of the flock of 
the daughtcT of Zion, it" [i. e. the kingdom] " shaU come to thcc." Thc EngUsh 
vcrsion, foUowing thc Masoretic punctuation, which scparatcs bD27 (rcndcrcd nehulosa 
by the Vulg.) from "llvbl^D, the tower of Edar, is as foUows: — " And thou, O 
towcr of the flock" \_Margin, " tower of Edar"], " the strong hold of the daughtcr 
of Zion, unto thce shaU it come, cvcn thc first dominion." 

But the accentuation foUowcd by the Septuagint and Vulgate scems more probable, 
cxccpt that we ought, perhaps, to takc bD27"~nvblIH2, Migdal-Edar-Ophel, as a 
propcr namc, signifying, " the towcr of Edar Ophel;" thc epithet Ophel (Ca- 
liginosa, Vidg., uvxj^wcijí, LXX., or, as it niay bc also rcndcrcd, "of the hiU"), 

'' Sec Lightfoot, Chorographical Decad., scct. 4, 5 (Work3 by Pitnian, vol. x. p. 221, sq.) 

í^'oT^i^] The Tower Gahder^ or Gadder. 185 

having been, porhaps, addccl to distingiiish it from the Tower of Edar ncar Bcthlehom; 
so that thc mcaning will thcn bc : "And thou, Tower of Edar, of the hiU, of tho 
daughtcr of Zion" [i. e. of Jcrusalcm], " unto thcc shall it come, evcn tho 

That there was a place, and apparcntly a fortification, on, or near to, the walls of 
Jerusalcm, which was called Oj^hel, is o^ádent from 2 Chron. xxvii. 3 (whorc thc 
Hebrew is, " on the waU of the Ophel," bS37n nainn). Comp. 2 Chron. xxxiii. 14, 
Neh. iii. 27, and xi. 21, where in every case the Masoretic punctuation under- 
stands the article, even whcn it is not expressod in the letters. And so Josephus, 
Be Bello Jud., Ub. vi. c. 6, § 3, speaks of this place, Thv 'OcjAúv Ka\ovfievov 
v(/)y^l^av ; so that it seems to have retaincd its name down to the latcst poriod of Jow- 
ish history.— See Eeland. Pdcest., p. 855, who infcrs that Ophel was not a hUl, 
íí-om its not having been so caUed by Josephus. On the other hand, one of the most 
reccnt authoríties on the gcography of the Hol^ Land interprets the word " a sweUing 
mound," from bS2r, to swell. Stanley, Simi and Palestino, App., § 26, p. 490. 

It shouldbeobserved, in conclusion, thatthe Septuagint translators, in Gen. xxxv., 
transpose the mention of Migdal Edar, and make Jacob to have encamped thoro before, 
not after, he came to the place where Eachel died : they have, in fact (if the prosent 
text be correct) inserted ver. 21 after the word Bethel in ver. 16; and they render it 

eTTTj^e Ttjv (TKr]vr]v avTov éwé^eiva 70u Trvp'^fov Tuhép. 

Tt was, probably, from the Septuagint, or from some Ante-Hicronj'mian Latin version 
founded on the Septuagint, that our SchoUast copied his spelling of the name Turris 
Gadder (p. 153, note); for "the Tower oí Gahder,'' in the Preface to the presont 
Hymn, is eYÍdently a corruption of Gadder. But in the Preface, as given in tho 
Leahhar Breac (soe Noto A, p. 182, supra) it is caUed " tho tower Ader,'' as in tho 
modem Latin ViUgate. 

2 B 

( i86 ) 


TIIERE is no need of anv prefatorv remarks to introduce to the reader the 
foUowing Avell-known Hymn, Avhich is taken from St. Luke, i. 46-ci:, 
and has formed a part of the service of the Chui'ch for at least a thousand 

The following is a literal translation of the Scholiast's Preface, Avhich is, 
as usual, in a mixture of Latin and Irish : — 

Magnificat. Mary, the Mother of the Lord, made this Hymn ; and it was in the time of 
Octavianus Augustus shemade it; for in the forty-second year of his empire Christ was bom; 
and it was in a certain mountain city of the mountains' of thetribe of Judah in the ncighbour- 
hood of Jerusalem ; and this was the peculiar city of Zacharias. There John Baptist was 
bom; and it was to that city that jMary came to visit Elizabeth, when she heard that she was 
pregnant, i. e. in the sixth month^. And it was there that speech was restored to Zacharias, 
and that he composed the Benedictus ; and it was then that she composed the Magnificat. And 
this was the cause', viz., Mary came to visit Elizabeth the wife of Zacharias, because she 
heard that she was pregnant aft«r a verj' long barrenness ; for all her relations were visiting 
her. Therefore ^larv entering the door of her house, Ehzabeth said, whilst the babe moved 
in her womb, Behold the mother of my Lord hath come to me. And for this rcason they 
say that John prophesied before he was born ; and then Mary said, Magnijicat ; and at 
that time Mary conceived her Son. 

Thcre is a copy of this Preface in the marginal notes to the Felire of 
Aengus in the Leabhar Breac (fol. 49, b, in marg. inf.), but it is so nearly 
identical Avith that here givcn, that it has not been thought worth Avhile to 
transcribe it. The variations are little more than differences of spelling, or 
thc usc of Irish íbr Latin, and vice versá. 

Of the moiintain.s.—íxe St.Lukc/\. 39. ^ The cause — i.e. the occasion on which 

í Sixth morríh. — St. Luke, i. 36. the IIymn was composed. 

lliaSMlplCaC. Tllapia Tnacep bOTnmi pecic hunc q.niniim. In cempope uepo occouiani 
ausupci pecic. m .;cl. mo enim pecunbo anno impepu eiup chpipcup nacup epc. ocup 
ip m apaile cachpais pliabba hi cpeib luba hi pail hiepupalem, ocup ip i pebe cachip 
bilep gachaip. ibi lohannep bapciQO nacup epc, -i ip bon cachpaigpem canic maipe 
bo pip elicabech m can acchuala a bich alacca .1. ipm c-pepeb míp. Ocup ip mci bo 
pacobep lobpa bo gachap -[ ip mce bo pone cachap benebiccup, -| ip mce bo ponab 
ITlasnipicac. IS G mioppo inpochunb .1. maipe canic bo pip eligabech pecche 
gachaip, ai[\ ic chuala a bich coppach popc longippimam pcepilicacem. Omnep 
enim cognaci eiup uipicabanc. Incpanp epso mapia hopcium bomup puae elicabech 
bi;cic cum mocacione mpancip m ucepo puo, Gn macep bommi uenic ab me 1 ob ib 
bicunc lohannem ppopecappe ancequam nacup eTCfec. -] cunc mapia bi;cic masni- 
picac, 1 m hoc cempope pilium puum mapia concepic. 

^NipiCQU aNiTTia mea t^omiNum 

ec ep^uLcauic spinicus inens m Deo saLii- 

caTii ineo 

nia Tíespe;cic humilicacem aNCilLae snae 
ecce ei^im ex hoc bearam me Oicei^r 
omnes seneT^aciONes 

Gloss I. Anivia. — Ejus anima dominum magnificat qui omnes interioris hominis affectus diviiiis 

laudibus ac servitiis mancipat. 2. Salutari. — .1. ut dicit psalmista Anima mea exultabit Deo et dilec- 
tabitur super salutari suo. 3. Hum.ilitatem. — 1. virginitatem. 

I. Magnifieat. — A translation of the 
Preface has alreadj been given, p. 186. 

3. Uumilitatem. — Under and over this 
line, in the form of a gloss, is the follow- 
ing notc from Bede : ".1. Cujus humilitas 
respicitur recte ab omnibus beata cognomi- 
nanda gratulatur, sicut e contrai'io supcr- 
bia dispecta condenmatur Evae. Ita sicut 

intravit mors in mundum per superbiam 
Euae, per humilitatem Mariíe vitaj pan- 
ditur introitus humano generi." It is re- 
markable that the erroneous interpretation 
of the namc of Eve, wliich occurs in this 
passage, as now piiuted by the editors of 
Bede, is here omitted. The words fol- 
lowing " condemnatiu' Evae" intheprintcd 


i88 Hymnus Beatos Virginis. 




iiiG YQQ\r inibi masna ffiii porcMS csr 
cc SQNCCum NomcN eius 

c iTiiscTíiconDia cius in pnoseNies ec pnoseNies 
nmcNCibiis ciiin 

ccic pocciiciaiii m bnachio suo 
Dispc,ric supcTíbos nieucc conDis sui 


cposuic poccNCcs Dc seDe 
ec e;calcauic humiles 

suTJicuces inipLcuic bouis 
ec Diuices Demisic luaues 

Suscepic isnaeL pueRum suum i.? 

memonaRe misenicoRDiae suae 

(Jloss. 7. Progenies. — .i. in omni gente qui timet eum et operatur iusticiam. 9. Potentiam. — .i. 

r|uia omnia per filium Dei pairis facta sunt, ideo eum brachium dumini dicitur \_sic]. 10. Superbos. — .i. 
tílios diabuli quia initium est omnis peccati superbia. 11. Potentes.—.i. confidentes in uirtute sua. De 

gg^g^ .i. superbia;. 12. Humiles. — i. qui dicunt cum apostolo omnia possumus in Christo. 13. — Esu- 

rientes. — .i. satiabuntur perfecti quia eterna bona esm-iunt. Bonis. — .i. celestibus. 14. Ditntes. — .L qiii 
de terrenis diuitiis superbiunt inanes totius beatitudinis demittentur a domino iu die iudicii. 15. Svscepit. 
— .i. Deus. 

editions are, "id est voe, sive calamitatis genies," was tlie reading of Bede. 

nomine mulctata tabescit." But the 10. Suj)erbo8.—ln the margin tlierc is 

reading of otir iIS. is, probablj, correct, this note : " Commemorat hic beata Maria 

and these words are the addition of some quomodo per omne labentis seculi tompus 

i"Tiorant transcriber, not of Bede. — Cotn- Crcator justus ac misericors et supcrbis re- 

ment. in Luc. i. ( Opp. ed. Giles, x. p. 295). sistere et humilibus dare gratiam consue- 

6. Sanctum nomen. — Over this line is vit." This is, no doubt, from some an- 
the following note frora Bede : " Sanctum cicnt author. Bhpexit. — Dispersit. — 
nomcn ejus vocatur quia singularis cul- Vulg. 

minc potentiaí transcendit omnem creatu- 15. Suscepit. — In the nuirgin is the 

ram." The printed editions of Bede read following note from Bede : " Bene autem 

potenti, but "potentiae" is certainly bct- Domini et Johannis cxortum matres pro- 

ter. The Gloss as givcn abovc on lincs 7 fetando praeveniunt, ut sicut peccatum a 

and 8 is also from Bcde. mulieribus cocpit, ita etiam bona a rauli- 

7. In progenies. — " A progcnic in pro- eribus incipiant, et quae per unius decep- 
gonics" ( Vulg.) ; but "in progenies et pro- tioncm pcriit, duabus ccrtatim proeconan- 

Hymnus Beatce Virglnis. 189 

jcuc Locucus esc at) pacT?es noscros 

) abRaliam cc seiniNi cius uscfuc im sccuLum 

Cíue ma|iia plena ^pacia Donmnu]^ cecum, beneoicca cu incep 
mulie|iei" "] beneoicrup ppuccu]^ uencjiif cui. Spijiiruf panccup 
pupepueniec in ce 1 uipcup alcifpinii obunnbpabic cibi 

Gloss. — 17. Ad patres. — .i. ad patriarchas. i8. Semini. — .i. non carnale sed spiritale semen sig- 
nificat .L filiis promissionis in Christo. 

tibus mundo vita reddatur." — Comm. in from Bede. Unque. — Omitted in Vulg., 

Imc. i. 55. and in the Ante-Hieron. version edited by 

16. Memorare. — Eecordatus, Vulg. Bede Sabatier from the MS. Colbert. 
reads Memorct/ri, and the Ante-Hieron. Ave Mct/ria. — This is in the more angu- 

version (ap. Sabatier) has mcmoriá. lar character, already frcquently spoken 

18. Semini. — The gloss on this word is of, but by thc original scribe. 

( »9° ) 


THIS celcbrated Hymn is taken from St. Lukc i. 67-79 5 ^ut thc tcxt diírcrs 
both from thc Antc-Hieronymian version and the modem Vulgatc. Some 
of the more remarkable variations are given in the Notes. Thc Scholiast's Pre- 
faceis in Latin, withoutany admixture of Irish. It may be thus trauslated : — 

Benedictus Dominus. Zacharias, the father of John Baptist, made this Hjmn (^hanc 
laudeni) to the Lord. And he made it in the time of Octavianus Augustus. The cause was 
this : Zacharias once on a time entered the temple to sacrifice for the people, after the manner 
of a priest, because he was born of the seed of Aaron, and of the course' of Abia in particular. 
It was the lot of his week ; for from the time of David the priests were divided into twenty- 
four different courses-, and each one exercised his ministry from Sabbath to Sabbath. For 
from the time of Aaron to David one succeeded the other^. Zacharias^ then, entering the tem- 
ple, to make an oíTering for himself and for the people, looking to the right, saw the angel Gabriel 
sitting at the horn of the altar, who said to him, Fear not, for I have come not to bring thee 
fear» but jo}-. For Elizabeth shall bring forth unto thee a son, and he shall be called John, 
and be shall be great before God and men. And Zacharias said, IIow shall this be, seeing we 
have passed the time for having children ? The angel answered, If a man were to promise 
thee this, thou mightest doubt hls word ; but I am an angel of God, and I stand in IIis 
presence, and I bring unto thee His words ; and thou oughtest not to doubt what I have said ; 
and, therefore, from this day imtil the boy is bom, thou shalt not speak. And so it was, until 
that which was promiscd had been fulfiUed. For Elizabeth conceived and bare a son, and the 
kinsmen inquircd of his mother concerning the name of the boy, and his mother answcred, 
Ile shall be called John ; but others, contradicting, said that he should be caUed after the 
name of his father. But Elizabeth bade them ask his father to wTÍtc the name of his son. 
Zacharias, therefore, being so called upou, spoke and said*, The boy shall be called John : 
and immediately he praised the Lord, saying, Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel. 

» Course ''De vicce [I.e. de vice] Abia." — See p. 78, note on line 31, supra. 

Luc i r ^ Spohe and said. — This varies from the 

2 Courses " Intercognationes." TheVulg. Gospel narrative. It is curious that in the 

usf'S the word vices. 1 Paral. -xxiv. 19. Book of Armagh thc scrlbe had orIgInally 

* The other " Unus post unum tenebat." writtcn dixit, but crased that word, and sub- 

* Zacharias.—ln thc orlglnal 'SStacharias." stitutcd " scripsit dicens." 

beNeDlCCUS t)OTTllNl.lS. ^achaTnaf pacep lohanTiif bapciga pecic hanc laubem 
boTTiino. In cempopc uepo occauiani augupci pecic. Caupa aucem aliqnantjo pca- 
cliajiiap in cemplum uc mimolapec populo mope pacepbocali mcpauic. quia t>e 
pemine aapon -\ be uicce abia ppecialicep nacup epc. popp eiup pepcimanae puic 
a cempope enim bauit) pacepbocium m ;c;ciiii incepcoónacionep biueppap biuipum 
epc. 1 a pabbaco upcpje at) pabbacum unupquipque minipcepio puo ucebacup. Q 
cempope enim aapon upqxie aX) bauib unup popc unum cenebac. Incpanp ep^o 
pcachapiap m cemplum uc ppo pe -\ populo oppeppec appicienp m t)e;ccepam an- 
gelum sabpielem pebencem in copnu alcapip uibic -\ bicencem pibi Noli cimepe 
guia non ab cimopem cibi appepenbum peb at) ^aubium ueni. Clicabech emm 
papiec cibi pilium -] uocabicup lohannep -\ magnup epic copam beo -| hominibup. i 
pcachapiap t)i,ric cpiomobo piec hoc quoniam ppecepmipepic nop cempup papienbi. 
Qnseluppepponbic, Si homo cibi hoc ppomiccepec bebep uepba eiup bubicape, e^o 
uepo anselup bei pum, -] conpipco m ppepencia eiup, i uepba eiup cibi popco, i non 
bebep bubicape cpje t)i;i:i. -] ob ib ab hac bie upcpie puep napcacup non locpiepip. -| 
ica paccum epc, bonec implecum epc quob ppomiffum epc. Concepic enim elica- 
bech -] pepepic pilium, ec cognaci be nomine puepi macpem eiup mcepposabanc, -\ 
pepponbic macep eiup lohcmnep uocecup. alii uepo concpabicencep bicebanc 
nomine pacpip uocecup. eiicabech aucem bi^ic uc pogapenc pacpem uc pcpibac 
nomen pilii pui. ^achupiap uepo ica posacup locucup 6]^^ 1 bi;cic, uocecup puep 
lohannep. 1 concmuo laubauic bominum bicenbo benebiccup bommup beup ippael. 

eNGOlCUUS ooTmNus Deus isRaeL 
cfuia uisicaiiic ec pecic neOeTnpciONeTn plebis 


c erje;cTc corjuu salucTs uobTS 
TN OoTiuT DauTD pueríi sut 

Gloss. — 2. Visitavit. — .i. plebem hanc •s'isitando suam esse feeit ; quia sua 
fidei sublimitate eam perfeeit. 3. Cornu. — .i. cornu sahitis, firmam celsitudi- 
nein salutis dicit, cornu excedit carnem, et ideo coruu salutis regnum salvatoris 
christi vocatur. 

I. Benedictiis. — For a ti-anslation of Commcntary on St. Luke, cap. i., al- 
the Prefacc, sce last page. The Gloss though the tcxt of the Hj-mn docs not 
has been takcn altogcthcr from Bcde's agrec Avith that given in the pi-iutcd ^\-orks 

'9^ Hymnus Zacharioe. 


iciir {.ociinis csc pcn os saTicconimi 
])nopccaiíuiii siioniiiii fpii ab acuo sumc 

r hbcnainr uos ab imiiiicis uosrnis 
cc Dc inauu oininuni cpn uos odctuinc 

aD pacici 
CC 111 ci 

'D pacicuDaiii TiiiscTíiconDiam cum ])acrjTbus noschts 
mionanc ccscamcuci sui saTicci 


íiimaTTDuTn cfiioD TurjaiiTc aD abrjaham 
]jacTicin uoscnuTn DacuTíUTn sc uobis 


c S11TC CTmorjc Dc Tnauibns iNTmTcoT^UTn uoscnonum 
libcTíaci scRuiamiis iLLi 


sauccicace ec luscicia coTíam Tpso ,5 

OTnuTbus DTcbus mosctíts 


c cu \)WQW prjopeca aLcissTTm uocabenTS 
pT^acTbTS cNiTn auce paciem DoTniui parjaríe UTas eius 

Gi.oss. — 6. Profetariim. — Profetce spocialiter appellati sunt, qui de aduentu Christi manifeste snnt lo- 
cuti. Ah aeio. — .i. ab initio. 7. Liberavit. — .1. filius Dei. 8. De manu. — .i. de potestate. Om- 

nium i. inimicoruni. ÍJui nos odervnt. — i. honiines perversos et immundos spiritus signiíicat. De 

manu quorum et interim spe salvi facti sumus et in futuro reipsa salvandi. 10. Testamenti. — .i. disposuit 

Deus testamentum nos esse liberaturum de semine patriarcharum. 11. Ad Abraham i. fides gentium 

et sacrosanctus ecclesiae cultus est promisus Abrahie, Domino ad eum dicente, In te benedicentur omnes 
gentes terrae. Di.xit Dominus ad David, Cum impleveris dies tuos, ut vadas ad patres tuos, suscitabo 
.semen tuum, et ego ero ei in patrcm, et ipse erit mihi in filium, ipse «dificabit mihi domum. 15. In sanc- 

titnte i. ostendit hic profeta (juomodo Domino ser^-iendum cst, in sanctitate videlicct et iustitia. 17. 

Altissimi. — .i. audiant mansueti quod Christum Dominum quem Johannes profetando praMbit altissimum 
vocat. 18. Praeibis. — .i. in vitam et mortem. I'arare. — .1. ut dLsit parate viam Domini rectas facite 
semitas Domini nostri. f^ias eius. — i. Christi. 

ofthatwritcr. Itscems unncccssarj^tooc- 7. Et liheravit. — This is thc rcading of 

cupyspaceby pointingoutthescvariations, the Ante-Hicronyinian version, instcad of 

or thcabrídgmcntsandomissionsinBcdc's "salutcm cx inimicis nostris," as in thc 

Commcntary, ncccssary to reduco it to an modem Vulgate. — See Sabaticr, in loc. 

interlinear gloss : any rcadcr who has ac- 10. Memorare. — For "memorari." Hcre 

cess to Bedc can makc this comparison our MS. has thc rcading of thc modem 

for himsclf. Vulg. Thc old vcrsion was " ct mcmo- 

6. Ah aevo. — " Qui a scculo sunt pro- ratus cst." 

phetaxum cjus." — /'«A7. 13. De manihns. — "Demanu." — J'idff. 

Hymnus Zacharice. 



t) DaNDam scicNciaTn saLiicis pLcbi eius 
iN ReniisiONcm pcccacoríuiii corutti 


cn uisccrja TniscT^icorjOiac Oct nosctíi 
TN cfinbus uTSTcauTC Nos orjicTTS cx ahzo 

LumTNarjc Iits CfUT tn ccTicbTíTS ec UTnbTía ttiohcts seDeNC 
ao Ottjtscndos pcDcs nosctíos in uto pacTS 

Pue|i aurem cjiefcebac ec conpopcabacup in fpi]iicu ec 
epac in Depepcip locip upcfue ao oiem opcencionip puae ao 

Gloss.— 19. Scientiam.—.i. futuram. 22. Oriens.— i. Ecce vir, inquit profeta, oriens nomen eius. 
qui ideo recte oriens vocatur, qui nobis ortum uerse lucis aperiens, filios noctis et tenebrarum lucis effecit 
filios. 23. niuminare his.—.\. his qui in peccatis et ignorantia! cecitate vixerunt, agnitionis amorisque 
sui radios infundere. 24. Pedes nosíros.— Pedes nostri in viam pacis diriguntur cum actionum nostraruni 
iter per omnia redemptoris nostri gratiae concordat. 

Puer autem. — .i. predicator penitentise futurus, optimum est ut solitudinis aspera sequatur. 

17. Altissimi. — In the gloss on this 
word the allusion to the Arians in. Bede 
is omitted. Bede's words are : " Audiant 
sane Arriani, et eruhescant; audiant 
raansueti, et laBtentur, quod Christum 
Dominum quem Johannes prophetando 
príEÍbat, Altissimum vocat." The allu- 
sion is to Ps. xxxiii. 3, Vulg. 

22. Oriens. — The Gloss refers to Zech. 
vi. 12; and is taken from Bede on Luc. 

23. Sedent — Hcre our MS. foUows the 

modern Vulg. The old version was, "qui 
in tenehris sunt, et in umhra mortis sc- 

24. In via. — In viam. Vulg. 

Puer autem. — This verse, which is from 
St. Luke, i. 80, is in the smaUer charac- 
tcr. It differs from thc modem Yulg. in 
rcading " in spiritu" for spiritu; and 
" desertis locis" for desertis: hut agrees 
with it in reading " ostcnsionis" instí^ad 
of " progressionis," as in the oldcr vcr- 
sion. See Sahatier, in loc. 


( 194 ) 


THIS celebrated Hynin has no Preí'ace, like the othcr Hymns in this 
volume, if we except the short title, " Haec est Laus Sanctaí Trinitatis 
quam Augustinus sanctus, et Ambrosius composuit." 

This is an evideut allusion to the legend, that the hymn was composed at 
the baptism of St. Augustine, one vcrse being uttercd by him, and the next, 
alternately, by St. Ambrose, who baptized him. The earlicst authority for 
this story is believed to be the Chronicle once attributed to Dacius, Bishop of 
Milan, A. D. 527, but now known to be of a much later date, inasmuch as it 
carries on the history to A.D. 1067 {vid. Cave, Hist. Liter., sub Dacio, tom. i. 
}). 511, Oxon. T 740). But from the allusion to it here, it appears that the story 
was more wldely known at that period, and had found its way to Ireland. 

Abbo of Fleuri' attributes the authorship of the Te Deum without hesita- 
tion to St. Hilary of Poictiers. He culls it " Dei palinodia, quam composuit 
Hilarius Pictaviensis episcopus," and suggests that the readiug suscepisti 
(wliich must, therefore, have been ancicnt, and which, it wiU be observed, is 
the reading oí our jNIS.) is erroneous ; fur hc says it ought to be, " Tu ad liber- 
andum suscepturus homiuem," &c. Accordiugly, this has ever since been, or 
at least is now, the received reading, although it is very doubtfid whether the 
old suscepisti was not better. See note on the passage, p. 197, line 23, infra. 

Archbishop Ussher appears to have had in his possession a copv of the 
Irish Book of Hymn3, in whicli the Te Deum was ascribed to one Nicetas^ ; 

i Abbo of Fleuri. — Quotcd by the Bened. and addressed to the English nionks ofhis 

t'ditors of St. Iiihiry's works, Pref., p. vii. order. It is published by MabiUon, Amud., 

n. 22. The passagc occurs in the " Prologus lib. xlix. n. 69, tom. iv. p. 29, and Apjientl.. 

in Abbonis libelhun de (jrammatica," written p. 687. 

by Abbo in the form of a letter on thc occa- * Xicctas. — See above, p. 9 ; and Ussher'í 

sion of his miision to England, A. D. 985, Works, by Ehington, vii. 300. 

Te Deum Laudamus. 195 

and hc adds that, in a Gallican Psalter^, then in the Cotton Library, writtcn 
aboiit the time of Hcnry I. (A.D. 1 100), it is attributcd to St. Nicctius, who 
may, perhaps, be the Bishop of Treves (A.D. 541), or tlic Bishop of Lyons of 
the same name ( A. D, 570), or some other, but probably the same to whom 
the Irish authority attributcd it undcr the name of Nicetas. 

An excellent summary of what has becn written on the question of the 
authorship of this IIymn will bc found in the notes of Mcratus to the Thesaur. 
Sacror. Rituum of Barth. Gavantus, Aurj. Find., 1763, fol., tom. ii.p. 162, s(j. 
See also Daniel, Thesaur. Hijmnol., vol. ii. p. 279, sq. 

In the Antlphonary of Bangor the Te Deum is entitled, " Hymnus in die 
Dominico." The readings of this MS., as edited by Muratori, are marked B. 
in the following Notcs. 

^ Psalter "IiiLatino-Gallicoquoquc psal- verensis Lic intelligendus fuerit ííicetius sive 

terio, circa tempore Henrici I. exarato inscri- Lugdunensis, sive quis alius." — Ihid. This 

bitur iste hymnus Sancti Niceti (Hibernicaí Psalter no longer exists in theremains ofthe 

nostrce traditioni satis consentanee) sive Tre- Cotton Library in the British Museum. 

20 2 


llCC epc laur ranccac rinnicacir quam ausurcinur ranccup ec ambpopur 


^ Lauoace notticn dottiini 

p?— c Deum LauoaTTTus 

\J ce DomiNum coNpicemuT? 

e aeccTíNum pacT?em 
omNis rcT^rja ucNCTíacuR 

'ibT OTiiNes aNselT 

' cibT caelT ec uNTUCTísac pocescaces 

•Tbi hTríuphTN ec garíaphTN 
' iNcessabiLi uoce pT^ocLamaNC DTCcNces 
saNccus saNccus saNccus dottitnus dcus sabaoch 



hoNORc sloTíiac cuae 

Gloss 3. Laudamus. — .i. ore, vel opere. 4. Confitemur. — .L corde. 11. Sanctus. — .i. sanctus 

ter dicitur, quia uuus et triiius est deus. 12. Universa terra. — .i. aeclesia per quadratum orbcni defusa 
non desinit laudare et orare deum. 

1 . Laudate. — This versc prcfixcd to thc 
Te Beum i?, ÍTom Ps, cxii. i., Vulg. It 
occurs íilso in B. 

7. Hiruphin. — In thc margin thcrc is 
the follo'W'ing notc : " Scicndtim cst quod 
hiruphim ct saraphim pcr .m. littcram 
prolata iuxta proprictatcm linguac cbrcae 
masculini sunt ct pluraUs numcri tantum. 

Si autcm per .11. littcram dicantur gracc-a 
siint ct neutri gcncris, ct pluraUs nume- 
ri." In B. "vrc havc " Cherubim et S<'ra- 
phim ;" but Muratori has cvcrj'where 
altered the orthographj of' the MS. 

10. Dicentcs. — Owí. B. and Vulg. But 
it Ls found in thc Vat. MS. 8z, cited by 
Danicl, Thesaur. IIymnol., ii. p. 298. 

Te Deum Laudamus. 


w— e sLoTíiosus aposcoLoRiiin choRus 
yj ce pRopecaRuni CauDabiLis NumeRus 


ce peí? ORbem ceRRaRuni saucca coNpicccuR aecLesia 


e TnaRCiRUTTi caNOioacus Lauoac e;cerícicus 
ce peT? OTibem ccT^RaT^uin saucca 

acRcm immeusae maiescacis cuae 
ueNCRaNDum cuum ucRUTn ec uNiscNicum piLium 

• aNccum cfuogue paRaclicum spiRicum 

* cu Re;c sLoRiae cliRisce 

►u pacRis sempiccRNus es piLius 

^ cu aD LibcRaNDum muuDum suscepisci homiNem 



cu Deuicco moRcis acuLeo 

apcRuisci CReDCNcibus rcsno caeLoRum 

Gloss. — 14. Apostolorum—.i. misorum. 15. Profetarum. — .i. providentium. 16. Martirum. 

.i. fidelium. 

12. Universa terra. — B. also reads uni- 
versa; but the word is omitted in thc Yul- 
gate text of this Hjmn. 

13. Honore.—^o al^o'Q. The common 
text has Majestdtis. 

18. Tua;. — Om. B. Tu(e is omitted 
also in the -í^^iilgate text of this Hymn. 

19. Unigenitum. — The Vulgate text is 
unicum. But B., as also the Cod. Tho- 
masiiAlex., citedby Daniel, uhi supr., read 
unigenitum. B. omits et. 

23. Tu ad liherandum. — The common 
reading is, "Tu, ad liberandum suscep- 
turus homincm," which is rendered in 
the Prayer-Book of the Anglican Church, 
' ' Whcn Thou tookest upon Thee to deli- 
ver man." But " ad liberandum suscep- 
turus hominem" would secm rather to 

mean, "when Thou wast about to take 
upon Thee man [i. e. human nature], for 
the purpose of deliverance, Thou didst 
not abhor," &c. Perhaps the translators 
of the English Prayer-Book may have 
intended the iasertion of a parenthesis, 
"when Thou tookest upon Thee (to deK- 
ver) man, Thou didst not abhor," &c. 
But it would be very difficult to make 
this intelligible in reading. Somc of the 
old English versions which we find in the 
Prímers of the fifteenth century appear to 
have omittcd suscepturus, for they read, 
"Thouwertnotskoymous [squeamish] of 
thc maydcns womb to dclyuer mankind." 
— MaskeU, Mon. Hit.JSccl. Anglic, vol. ii. 
p. 14. Others seem to have connected 
suscepturus and virginis uterum, "Thou 


Te Deum Laudamus. 


n fiD t)c,rrcnani Dci scDcs m gloRia pacnis 
' niDc^r cRcDcRis cssc iiCNCimiis 

'11 ci?50 qiicssiniiis Nobis cuis pamuLis subueNi 
' ffuos pRccioso saNsuiNC RCDemisci 

ceRNani pac cum saNccis cuis sloniam muNenaRi 
saluum pac populum ruum DomiNe 
ec bcNcDic licncDicaci cuae 
ec nese eos ec e;ccoLLe illos uscfue in scculum 


Gloss. — 32. Populum. — .i. christianum. 33. Hereditati. — .1. aeclesiae. 34. Rege.- 
opcríbas. Extolle. — .L defende. In seculum. — .i. in uita aetema. 

.L in bonis 

wcrt no^t skoymes to take the maidencs 
wombe, forto delivermankyncle." — Ibid., 
p. 231. In the Primcr of 1535, as edited 
by Dr. Burton (Three Primers put forth 
in the Reign of JIenry VIIL, Oxford, 1 834, 
p. 82), this verse is thus rendered: "Thou 
(when Thou shouldest take upon Thee our 
nature to deliver man) didst not abhor the 
virgin's womb." It appears from these 
discrepancies that there was anciently a 
difl&culty in the intci-pretation ofthispas- 
sage. — Comp. Daniel, Thesaur. Hijmnol., 
ii. 299. But our MS. agrees with B., 
inserting the word mundum, and giving 
suscepisti for suscepturus. These read- 
ings remove all difficulty, and are very 
probably thc true text : "Thou tookest 
upon Thce man to deliver the world; 
Thou didst not abhor the Virgin's womb : 
Ha^'ing ovcrcome thc sting of dcath, 
Tliou didst opcn the kingdom of heavcn 
to belicvcrs." 

27. Sedes. — Tliis is the modcm read- 
ing. But B. has sedens, which is bcttcr. 
In gloria patris. — It is doubtful whether 

the construction should bc sedes [sedens~\ in 
gloria Fatris — " Thou sittcst at the right 
hand of God in thc glory of the Father," 
or, in gloria Patris judex venturus, " "We 
believe that Thou shalt come, in the glory 
of the Fathcr, to bc our Judge." 

29. Tu. — Te, B., which is also the mo- 
dem text. JVobis. — Omitted in Vulg. text. 
But B. rcads 7iobis. Quessimus. — For 

3 1 . Eternam fac. — The common text, 
as given in the Roman Brcviary, and 
translatcd in the English Prayer-Book, is, 
" ^tema fac cum sanctis tiAs in gloria 
numerari," " Make them to be numbered 
with thy saints, in glory everlasting." 
But B. and all copies of the Te Deum 
which I have seen in any MS. older than 
the sixteenth century, have, " Etema fac 
cum sanctis tuis [B. omits tíiis~\ gloria 
munerari,''^ or "in [or cum] gloria mune- 
rari," which the old English versions 
publishcd by Mr. Maskcll rcndcr, " Make 
hcm to bc rcwardid with thi seyntÍ8 : 
in blisse, with cverlastinge glorie (Mo- 


Te Deum Laudamus. 

cií suíSiiLos t)ies bcNeDicinuis ce 
cc LauoaiTiiis noihcn ciiuin lu aeccRUUin 
cc iN sccuLum scculi. 




iiac OoniiNe iniseríicor?Oia cua siiper? uos 
qucinaOnioOum speRauiinus in ce. 

Gloss. — 35. Per singtdos dies. 
38. iHíaí. — .i. oratio aeclesiae. 

i. in prosperÍ3 et in adversis sine uUo intervalio te benedicimii». 

nim. Rit. ii. 14), or " Make hcm to be 
rewarded with thi seyntis in endeles 
blisse" {ihid., 230, 232); and eveiy one 
acquainted with the black lctter writing 
of the fifteenth ccntury "náll at once see 
how easilj munerari may be mistaken for 
numerari. That munerari is the true read- 
ing, can scarcely, I think, admit of a doubt ; 
but eeternam and gloriam are certaitily cor- 
rupt, and scarcely make sense. We ought, 
evidently, to read eterna and gloria, as in 
B. It is also clear that the English Prayer- 
Eook and older versions have misinter- 
preted this passage by the insertion of 
the word them-: " Make thcm," «&c. ; 
for the construction plainly is, " Quos 
redemisti fac munerari," aud the verse, 
" whom thou hast redeemed," ought 
therefore to be connected with tliat 
which follows, not with that which pre- 
cedes : "We therefore pray Thee help 
Thy servants: make Thou to berewarded 
with Thy saints, in glory cvcrlasting, those 
whom Thou hast rcdcemed with Thy 
precious blood." Daniel says: "Procul 
dubio in hac voce" [munerari'\ "tencs 
scripturam antiquissimam et genuinam. 
Numerari primum occurrit in Brev. Italis 
V. c. in Franc. anni 1495" [i.c. aFrancis- 
can Brc'í'iaij, printed at Venice in that 

year] " et Lg." [by thcse lctters he refers 
to the Ueurcs a lusage de Lengres, printed 
at Troyes, without a date]. "Scculo de- 
cimo sexto ecclesia Bomana in ejusmodi 
litibus interdum 'naXl^ovaa reccntiorcm 
scripturam in tcxtum recepit." — Loc. cit. 
32. Salvum fac. — This is Ps. xxvii. 9. 
Vulg. The Te Deurn, properly so called, 
ends at line 3 1 : all that follows is from 
the Psalms, and, as will be seen (see note 
on line 38), was varied at different times, 
and in diíferent MSS. 

34. In seculum. — Ad seculum, B, The 
common text reads, "in aeternum." 

35. Per singulos. — This is Ps. cxliv. 2, 
Vulg., with the change oíbenedicimus and 
laudamus for lenedicam and laudaho. 

36. In Oiternum. — The common ttxt 
rcads in seculum. B. reads in eternum. 

37. Seculi. B. adds Amen. 

38. Fiat Domine. — Ps. xxxii. 22, Vulg. 
The common text reads, "Fiat misericor- 
dia tua, Domine," but B. agrees with oui- 
MS. Between lines 37 and 38 our MS. 
omits the two verses of the common text, 
" Dignare Domine, die isto, sine peccato 
nos custodirc: miserere nostri Domine, 
miserere nostri;" and affcer v. 38 it also 
omits the vcrse, *' In te Domine speravi : 
non confoadar in íetemum." Aud the 


Te Deum Laudamus. 

Ue pacpem aDopamuf ecepminn. ce pempicepnuTn pilium inuo- 
camup. ceque ppipicum panccurh m una oiuinicacip pubpcancia 
manencem conpicemup. 

Uibi uni Deo in cpinicace Debicap launep -] ^paciaj' pepepimup 
uc ce mceppabili uoce lauoape mepeamup pep ecepna pecula. 

same verses are omitted in B. These are, 
thereforc, in all probability, rnterpolations 
of a latcr date. Thc last is obviouslj 
takcn from Ps. xxxi. i , or Ps. Ixxi. i , and 
Miserere nostri is from Tob. viii. lo ( Vulg.) 
The other verse, Dignare Bomine, occurs, 
as Ussher has rcmarked, in the Greck 
Hgmnus Vespertinus, which hc has pub- 
lished in his Tract. de Sgmholo Romanoi 
Ecclesicc, p. 43 ( JVorks, Eb-ington's edit., 
vol. vii. p. 337); and he might have 
added, that thcre also it is preccdcd by 

thc versc, Per singulos dies, from Ps. 
cxliv. 2. 

Te patrem. — "What foUows, although 
by the same scribe, is in a somewhat 
diffcrcnt and more angular charactcr, 
and was not, thcrcfore, intcudcd as a 
part of the Te JDeum. It docs not occur 
in B. ; but Usshcr found it in his copy of 
thc Liher Hgmnorum, and quotcs it "with- 
out any variation, as abovc, except that 
the concluding words werc in his copy, 
"pcr etema secula seculorum. Amcn." 

( 20I )• 


THE foUowing Hymn was first printed by Colgan from an ancient copy 
of tlie Book of Hymns, supposed to be that whicli is now at St. Isidore's 
in Kome. He tells us that in that MS. it had two Prefaces, partly in Latin 
and partly in Irish, of which he has glven only the substance ; and that there 
were Ar<Tuments prefixed to each stanza, of which he has translated the Irish 
words^ that occurred intermixed with Latin in the original, his object in the 
publication having been historical or religious, not philologicaL It is evident, 
however, that the text of the Hymn, as Colgan has printed it, is in many places 
corrupt, arising from errors of the press, or of transcription, so that there is 
o-reat need of a more correct and careful edition of it. But it unfortunately 
happens that a leaf of the Dublin ]\IS. is lost, which renders the present 
text imperfect from stanza O to X, inclusive : and the only other copy of 
the Hymn to which the Editor has access, — that preserved in the Leahhar 
Breac, a MS. of the fifteenth century, in the Library of the Royal Irish Aca- 
(lemy, — is even still more defective, all being lost after stanza H. We must, 
therefore, still depend upon Colgan's copy for the missing stanzas. 

The Altus of St.Columba, in one account of it, is said to have been composed 
as a penitential exercise for the three battles-, of Avhich he had been the occasion 
in Ireland ; — but a second tradition, recorded also in the Preface, tells us that 
it was an extemporaneous eíFusion. The former account represents it to have 
been composed, after seven years of study, in the Black Church of Derry, 

' Irish words " HjTnnus primus habuit nisi quod qiiffidam hinc inde interjecta ver- 

duas prtefationes, partim Latino, partim IIi- ba Hibernica, reddamus Latina." — Colgan, 

bernico idiomatc pragfixas, quarum summam Triad. Thaum., p. 473. 

tautum hic exhibemus. Singulaí etiara stro- ^ Battles — See Eeeves's Adamnan, p. 253. 

phíE, seu capitula, habent prajfixa sua argu- who quotes the preface as given in the Leahhar 

menta, qus ab aliquo veteri Schohasta viden- Breac ; which wiU be found, with a transla- 

tur adjecta;, in quibus nihil immutavimus, tion, in Addit. Note A. 

2 D 

202 Th ILjmn of St. Columba^ *' Altus Prosator." 

In Ireland : thc latter states that it was uttcred cxtemporaneously in Hy. 
Fcw can doubt that, if we arc to trcat sucli lcgcnds as dcscrvingof criticisni, 
the lurnicr is in evcry point of vicw thc morc proliablc tradition. O'Don- 
ncll' (if we may trust Colgan's version) omits all mention of thc occasion on 
which thc IIymn was composcd. 

It is rcmarkal)lc that the Altus has not been mcntioned by Adanman ; but 
this circumstancc cannot, pcrhaps, be urgcd as an argumcnt against the au- 
thenticityof thc Hymn, bccause the plan of Adamnan's work did not necessa- 
rily rcquirc him to noticc thc writings of St. Columba. If, howcvcr, a mission 
fi-om St. Grcgory the Great to thc distant Abbot of IIy had bccn thc occasion 
of a miraculous composition of this Hymn, — and miraculous it must have bcen, 
if so claborate a production had bcen cxtcmporancous, — it would vcrv naturallv 
havc íldlcn within the scope of St. Adamnan's memoir; and the circumstance 
could scarcely have bcen omittcd by him, if he had known of it. We may, 
therefore, fairly concludc, that this legend, at least, if not thc Hynm itself, 
was unknown to Adamnan. 

But therc is no rcason why we should rcject the former and less marvel- 
lous tradition— that the Hymn, if genuine, was composed in Ireland, before 
St. Columba's removal to Hy ; and it is probablc that the story of a mission 
from liomc to that UUima Tliule of Christcndom, Avith gifts and rcHcs pre- 
sented by Pope Gregory the Great to Columba, was a legend invented after 
the time ofAdamnan. 

The Hymn is written in a rudc Latinity, each strophe of six (or, as in thc 
first stanza, seven) doublc lincs, bcginning with a lctter of the alphabet in 
ordcr ; the metre a species of Trochaic dimctcr, or tctrameter, as Bede calls 
it (see p. 163, note ^), to be scanncd without svnalephe, with a rhymeor asso- 
nance at the cnd of thc lines. Thus the íirst etrophc, dividcd into its lines, 
wiU be as follows : — 

Altus prosltor vetustus, Christus et Sanctus Spiritus. 

Dierum et ingenitus, Coetcmus in gloria 

Erat absque origine, Deitatis perpetua. 

Primortli et crepidinc, Non trcs Deos deproraimus, 

Est et erit in sccula, Scd unum Deum dicimus, 

Seculorum infinita. Salva fide in personis 

Cui est unigenitus Tribus gloriosissirais. 

• O'DonneU Vit. rjuinta S.Cuhimb(P,\á>.i\. See Addit. Xote A, where the passage froni 

V. 20, 21, 'ijt. Colgan, Triud. Thaum., p. 412. O'Donnell is given. 

The Hymn of St. Columha, " Altus Prosator." 203 

Thcrc cannot bc a doubt tliat the IIynin is of considerable antiquity, and 
tliat it is Irish. It quotcs in inany placcs a Latin vcrsion of thc Scripturcs 
older than thc recension of St. Jerome ; it is writtcn in a barbaric style, with 
many words of rare occurrcnce — some of thcm unknown even to the re- 
searches of Du Cangc. Dr. llceves has noticed the word Dialis, which seems 
peculiar to this Hymn and to Adamnan, in thc sense ofdivine, sacred\ Some 
other^ examples will be pointed out in the Notcs. 

In the following pages the Hymn has been printed as in the IMS., with 
two lines in one — the doublc line consisting of sixteen syllables, as stated in 
the ancient Prefacc. 

To each strophe, or stanza, is prefixed a Scholium, containing what thc 
Vetus Scholiasta, as Colgan terms him, calls "TheTitle" and " The Argu- 
ment." The Title is a short summary, in Latin, of the subject treated 
of in the stanza to which it is prefixed. The Argument is a tcxt — 
sometimes two or morc texts — of Scripture, on which the principal thought 
or subject-raattcr of the stanza is founded. Thus The Title of stanza A is, 
" ])e Unitate et Trinitate trium Personarum'' The Argument (Dan. vii.p), 
" Vetustus dierum sedehat svper sedem suam." See these Scholia translatcd 
in Addit. Kote C. 

In the Additional Notes wiU be found thc Preface as given in the Lcahhar 
Breoc, with the Gloss and Scholia of the same MS. ; the Preface, as abridgcd 
and translated into Latin by Colgan from the MS. supposed to be now iu 
Eome; and an attempt to give an English translation of the entirc Hymn. 

In the notes at the bottom of the pages the various readings of Colgan's 
printed copy are niarUed C. ; and those of the MS. fragment in the Leahhar 
Breac are marlced B. 

1 Sec Ileeves, Adamnan. Glossar. in voce. 

2 D2 

LOCIIS hu)ur S-'TiTi' ^>í- Ccmpur aoodin meicc 5abpám 7115 Cllban, ocup Qetxi meicc 
Clmmepecl) pfs beperm. Tnupiciup aucem uel poccap ippe bu pf poman runc. 
Peppo CoUumciUe t>e nobile genepe pcocopum. Columba tjicicup uc ev^ cpcore 
ppubencep picuc peppencep ec pimplicep picuc columbae. Cnupa quia uoluic 
Ijeum lauttope. pep pepcmi annop hunc ^-mnum pcpucanp m nispa ceUula pme 
lumme .1. op chumchit) t)il5ut)a in mat) cacha cule bpemne t>o bpipiut) pop Diapmaic 
mac CepboiU. -\ na cacha aile po bpipce cpe na poóun. Uel uc alii l)icunc, ip co 
hopunn bo ponat) .1. apaile lache po bói columciUe m bt, •] nf bdi nech oca a6c 
bofchfn, -\ ni bof biat) occu acc cpiachap copca. Qpbepc lapum ColumciUe ppi 
btíichm, Do poilcc oisit) hucipliu cucunn int)iu a baichin .1. muincip 5P'5U'P canca- 
cap conapcebaib t)oi>om ; 1 apbepcpom ppi baichín, bf i popp icppichaUiim nu nóesett 
cont)i5uppa bon muiliunn. 5<^'b'í)P«iii pc'p a epe tiiapaile chloich bof ip mt) peclep .1. 
blachnac a humm, •] mupuit) beop, i ip puppi t)0 snichep pomn ipin phpoincig. ba 
cpom cpa lepeom a epe, cont)epna m immunpu cpia opt) aipsicpech, o ca pen con- 
t)ice in mulenn .1. at)iucop lubopancium ic. In can imoppo t)0 pac in céc poca 
ip in mulenn ip unn t)o chuoit) icenn m checna caipciU, ocup ip immaiUe popcuich 
in bolc t)o blich 1 m cimmun t)o benum. Ocup ip co hoponn t)o ponat) pic. 1p m 
choiciut) bliuDam pepcac up .ccccc. lup nsem cpipc t>o chuuit) colum ciUe t)o hi, uc 
betjQ bicic, unno t)ominicoe mcupnacionip .ccccclpcu. quo cempope ^ubepnuculum 
pomani impepii popc lupciniunum lupcmup mmop uccepic. UenicGe liibepnio ppei'- 
picep ec abbup hubicu ec uica monachi mpisnip nomine Columbi bpiconiam ppe- 
bicucupup uepbum Dei ppouinciip pepcimcpionalium piccopum. bput)i aucem 
piliup Tllelchon pesebuc piccop cunc, ec ippe immolauic columbo hf, ubi columbup 
cum eppecannopum .l;c;cui. pepulcup ei'c. Popc uepo .;t;c;ciiii. e,i: cpjo ippe bpiru- 
niam ppet)icacupup at)iic. 

Rucat) cpu m cimmonj'u t)o 5pi5uip poip, icommum nu nuipcet)u cucchu liuat) .1. in cpoip, 
.1. in m6p5em u hummpme, -| immuin na pechcmamc Ro cloimcloipec imoppo nu 
immum. chuipchiOe cpi caipcil ann t)o ponat) Spi^uip .1. hic pubUicup, ocup opbem, 
-\ ua^acup. O t)ochocap imoppo 1 cenn caippenco int) immuni t)o 5pi5Uip, t)o tieo- 
chucup um^il t)e combicip mnupeppom coppoichet) leopeom in caipcel pen, accpai- 
5et) 5pi5uip ap o poinn peom connice pen. O popechet) imoppo pen no pamici]- 
inna hun^il, no paibet) Onu ^P'SU'P» co cupnic incimmun pont)innup jMn. Ro choch- 
U115 rpu 5pi5uip u coibpenu cucupom oppo picippeom ice po chóimchlóipec. arbe- 
pacpom Onu bu hiuc. -| popboe t^il^ut) be. Ocup ucbepit)pom nobbui lochc pop pin 
rimmun a6c a luisec tio molut) m cpfnoic unn pep pe, ciu po moUit) cpiu nu bulib. 
Ocup t)o pouchc in cinchpechut)pm co columciUe, q ipe pein pochun benmu m re 
chpipce. OpD aipsicpech pil hfc mope ebpeo, apmt)ipip cachulcl)U rucat) pocha in 
caipcilpe .1. cpecem oenucut) co poipicm cpeliacat). Cpe pichim t)na t)o ponut), t t)i 
cpnuil puippipioe .1. ujicipicialip -\ uul^upip. Qpcipiciulip ubi piunc cpaisit) comam- 

Híjmnm S. Columhon " A Itus Promtor. 


I'cpba compot)lait)e cocucpuiriTiiap po aippei ceip. t copop pubpcfiuenp ctiUocppe- 
cebencip innacuaplucab. uulgapip inioppo bu imbi impecpa pillab 1 cechpaimchin 
ocup lcrhpann, -\ ipeb 6n pil híc. Sé líne bna m cech caipcuil. -\ .pcui. piUaba cech 
lini cen mocha in cec caipceU. uii. line imoppo anbpoin ap ip molat) be pil annpioe. 
Cubait) t)na inb numuip ecucpummapin ppip na caipcil apchena ap ecucpumma bia 
ppia bulib. Numip pet)a aucem in cpeacupip cpjia pe;c t)iebup paccae punc. 
Opopcec ciculum ec apgumencum e\'\'e ance unumguemcfue capiculum. 
Ropí cpa bliset) gabala huiup (^.mni co pa gabrha quip pocepc Deo ecip cech ba caipciU -\ 
ip be no biat) a pacli paip apip amlaib po chanac ppiup. Qccaac cpa pacha imba pop 
int) immunpa, .1. ainsilippecnapcup ceinbechip ic sabail. Ni pinnpa bemun péc incí 
not) 5éba cech bia. "] ni imt)epcpac bna namaic he ipinb lo in seba. ocup bna ni bia 
bebait) ip in ci^ ihsebchap coónacach. Qnsib bna ap cech rhbap acc ec ppi 
abapc. -] bna ni bia ^opca na noóca ip in pupc in gebcap commenicci aliae mulcae 

ISSG in cicul be unicace 1 rpimcace cpium pepponapum. Ip pi 

iinoppo int) ap^amamc in chanoin poppa pochaiscep in caipcel uc in 

Danielo uel in épaia legicup, Llecupcup biepum pebebac pupep pebem 

puam. Uecupcup Oiepum aecepnup cempopum epac. Uecupcupbiepum 

beup bicicup, ppo mulcicubine biepum ance cfnop beup epac. uel 

ciiiia puic [ance] omnia cempopa. Canoin bna pachaOo beppeom 

ince Cfuia ippe ppopeca puic. Ocup ó Daniul painpiub cuc ap ipe 

po po bebenchu 1 po po poepiu. Ipe bna ColumciUe po po betien- 

chu -| po po poepiu t)o pachib hCpenn. 

L^US príOsicoR uecuscus OieríUTri ec iNscNirus 
CRQC Qbsc[ue ORisiNe pRiTnoROii ec cT?epiDiue 
esc ec erjic m secula seculor^uTu lupiMicQ 
cui esc uuiseNTCus chT^iscus ec sauccus spi- 

coaeceTiTíus lu sLorjia Diecacis perjpecuae 5 
NON cnis Deos Depríomimus seD UTTum Deimi 

salua piDe lu pensoNis cT?ibus sLomosissimis 

Gloss I. Prositor. — .i. genitor, .1. inccibbul .... [the awful . . . ]. Uetus- 

tus. — .i. etemus, .1. pinichip na naimpep, .1. piniu 1 coipech t)iap cempopa [ i. senior 
of the timcs, .i. elder and first of our times]. Dierum. — .i. tcmporum. 2. Ahsque ori- 
ffine. — .1. cen achap no cen buiifit) [without father, or without orifpn]. 3. Secula. 

— .i. futurorum. Seculorum i priBsentium. 4. Unic/enitus. — Primogenitus, quia nemo 

ante ipsum est, unigenitus quia nemo post ipsum est. Christus. — Misias ebraice, Christus 
grece, Unctus latine. 7. Salva. — .i. intigra. 

I. Altm. — For a translation lia or arguments prefixed to each stanziv, 
of the Preface, and of the Scho- see Add. Notes A and C. It will he ob- 


Hi/mnus S. Columbce " Altus Prosator'' 


ISein cicuU De popmacione. 1 1. 5pat)uum. cpibuf ppaecepmirpip non 
pop isnopanciam peb ppo an^upcia copicub ppaecepniipic ISl imoppo 
ino apscimainc. piac lu;t -] pacca epc. 

orios cncainr aíisclos ordincs cc anchaNSclos 
pmnci])ari]iim ac scDiiim porcsranim innruriiim. 
uri uon csscc bonicas onosa ac maicscas lo 

cninicans in omnibus Lansicans munciíibiis 
scD tiabcRCC cclcscia in cfuibus piícuisilia 
oscenDcrjcc masnopcríc possibili Ftinmmc. 

QLOsg. g. Archangelos. — .i. bonos. 9. Sedium. — .L troni. Uirtutium. — .i. causa rithmi. 10. 

(•(i { ut. Bonitat.—.i. benevolentia. Otiosa. — .i. sine operatione. .1. ancach no btniam cen- 

niame boépniut) [dilatorv or lazy, -without giving awav goods]. 12. Haheret. — .i. ut. Ctlestia.—.\. 

elimento vel ministeria. Previgilia 1. napemiaGa •] na honope, .1. cech spab opaiUu [i. e. the 

pre-eminences and honors, i.e. of each more beautiful grade], .i. quasi privata lex. 13. Magnopere. — .1. 
on mópsnim. no in mopsnechet), .i. commóp, .1. ónb aipnep pochmai, .1. on molao pochmai 
t)0 bepac amsil bicencep panccup panccup panccup tjominup [i. e. from the great deed, or 
the great agent, .i. very great, .i. from the glorious testimonv, .i. from the glorious praise which the angels 
give, saying, Holv, Holy, Holy Lord]. 

son-cd that in the Sclioliuin prefixed to 
this stanza, Dan. vii. 9, is quotcd from an 
Ante-Hieronymian version : vetustus, not 
antiquus, dierum. It is curiotis that the 
scholiast seems uncertain whethcr this 
passagc was in Daniel or Isaiah : but the 
words "velinEsaia" -svere probablj- the 
insertion of some transcriber. They oc- 
cur in C, but not in B. Prositor. — Pro- 
sator, C. Prosetor, B. Pmff for is Father, 
Creator, from prosero, to bring forth, beget. 
Thc Gloss explaÍDs the word genitor. The 
Isidorian Glossaries have '' Frosatrix, ge- 
nctri.K." Oj)p. Isidori Hisp., tom. vii. 
[Append., xxiv. p. 483) 4°, Ilomsc, 1803. 
iJierum. — To bc read as a trisyUablc. 

2. Primordii. — Primordio, C. Primor- 
di, B. It must be pronounccd Primordi 
to suit the mctre. Crepidine. — ¥.privh, 
horder, edge, foundation. Crepido is uscd 
t'rcqucntly in the Vulgate, Ex. ii. 5 ; Lev. 
i. 15 ; Judic. vii. 22, et alihi. TheGrcck 

Kpi]7rií is explained, gradus, hasis, ripa, 
fundamentum, Glossar. in Odateueh : ^prj- 
TTicwfia, fundamentim, hasis. Ezck. xliii. 
14. AquiJ.ímá Vulg. 

4. Christus. — The Gloss on this -word is 
from Isidor. Etgmolog., lib. -&\\i. c. 2, 

5. Bietatis. — Deitatis, C. Perpetuae. — 
Perpctua, C. A more rcccnt hand has 
■written " vel a" over thc final ac in thc 
MS. Perpetua is necessary to rhymc with 

6. 7>-í«.— Trcs, C. i)/VmM«.— "Dnm," 
C, an evidcnt mistakc ; for Domi- 
num -n-ould be inconsistont with thc 

7. Salva. — TJndcr this line arc the 
words In ipip chachalacDa .... [thc 

Catholic faith ], -n-ith some other 

words very obscurc, but "which may bc 
rcad 1 pop a inchaib Dompa [may I bc 
on its protcction]. 

Hymmis S. Columbce " Altus Pvosator^ 


De cpanriinópci^ionc .\;t. 5r>at)uuni ppinoipir, ipe in cicul. apmb apoca- 
lipp imoppo t)o bepap nit) apsunianic il) f|'c "í't)i pceUuin be celo cecibipe in 
ceppuni. 1 in eruiu, cfuoinoOo cociOipci tucipep qui mune opiebupip. 



cLi Dc RC5N1 apicc scacioins aM^cLicae 
cLanicacc puacpuLsoms ucNuscacc specimiNis 
supcRbicNOo uucuac Lucipcri queín poRinaueRac 
aposcacacquc aNScLi coDcni Capsu LusubRi 
auccoRis ccNODo;ciae pcRuicacis iriuiDiae 
ceccRis RemaNeNCibus in suis pRiNcipacibus. 

Gloss.— lí. WmíWs.-.i. inSTiee [form, beautv]. i6. L«cí/er.-.i. lucem fercns. Formaverat.-- 
i Deus. n. Apostata=.-.\. rueraat, .1. nu humsil Oipceinmnechu, .1. onbipunD cu.cim [.1. the 

Íansed anJs, .i. from their lamentabx fall]. Lugubn.-.^. choincech [lamentable], .1. uubib 

rein 1 ulnn [from themselves aud others] quia demones suum lapsum lugent. 18. Cenodoxxae. .i. 
nanisllorii vel superbi.B, vel nu slope epcone [tlie commoa glory] nam cenon grece comune latme 

dicitur, .1. ei^con [common] doxia vero gloria. Pervicacis. Pervicax dicitur qui m proposito suo 

verat usque in victoriam. 19. Ceíem.- .i. augelis. 

8. Bonos. — In the Scliolium prelixed to 
this stanza, or capitulum, the text Fiat 
lux is quoted as the record of the crea- 
tion of angels, who are generallj as- 
sumed by divines to have been included 
in the word Light. — See Isidor. Hispal., 
Sentent., Hb. i. c. 10, n. 3, who says, 
" ante omnem creaturam angeH facti sunt, 
dum dictum est, Fiat lux." The nine 
orders or degrees of angels are usually 
enumerated thus : Aiigcli, Archangeli, 
Throni, Dominationes, Virtutes, Princi- 
patus, Potestates, Cherubim, Seraphim. 
Sce Isidor. Hispal., ^íy/«o%., lib. vii. 
c. 5. Of these our author mentions only 
six, omitting three (viz., Dominationes, 
Cherubim, and Seraphim), which the 
Scholiast tells us were omitted, not be- 
causc he was ignorant of thcm, but be- 
cause he found it impossible to bring them 
into the limits of his verse. Thc Gloss 
informs us that the author gave the name 
of sedes to onc of thcse orders, instead of 

throni, and that hc wrote virtutium, in- 
stead of virtutum, for the sake of the 
metre. In the margin there are the fol- 
lowing notes: one in Latin (which the 
Editor has not foimd in the works of Isi- 
(Jore) — " Ante omnem dicm et ante omne 
tempus condidit Deus angelicam creatu- 
ram et informem materiam, Isidorus di- 
cit." The other in Irish:— Ip aipe po 
pechmall hipuphín -\ papaphm pech 
na hí aile apice aca pia o t)oinib lap 
necapsnu "i acpeb. Ipeac po 1. na .i;c. 
n^paopa .1. angeli apchan^eli uipcu- 
cep pocepcacep ppmcipacup Oomma- 
cionep cponi hipuphim -] papaphnn. 
[" The reason he has passed ovcr the Húii- 
phin and Saraphin beyond the othcrs is, 
because they are farther from men in their 
distance and residencc. And these are the 
nine ordcrs, viz., angels, archangcls, vir- 
tues, powers, principalitics, dominions, 
thrones, Hiruphim, and Siu-aphim"]. Or- 
dines Archangelos et ordines, C. 


Hijmnus S. Colitmhco '^ Altns /'rosdfor." 


Dc puina binbiili in nrul .1. tje mocanonc nominip í.ucipcpi m bpaco- 
ncm. ipi imoppo inb ap^amainr, ur cpr in upocalippi Ccce rjpaco puphup 
habenp capica .uii. -\ copnna .,1. t cautxi eiup cpa,Tir pecum cepciam pap- 
ccm pit)Ciium ucl pcellapuin. 

lícico niasNus DcccnRiTnus ccRRibilis cc aMCiCfiuis 20 

cfiii piiir seRi)CMS liibRiciis sapicnnoTí oninibus 
bcsnis cc auiiiiaNribus cci?nac pcTíaciornbus 
ccTíCiani paTícem siDeRum cría^cic secuin lu banachT?uni 
loconuni iNpcTJualiuni DiucT^soríunicpic caTíCCRum 
T?cpu5a ucTíi lumiNis paríasico pnaccipiccs 25 

Q^Qgs 20. Draco. — .i. diabulus. Deterrímus. — .i. pessimus, vel teterrimus, .i. horribiiiss-imu.s. 21. 

Lubricus. .1. plenion [slipperv]. Sapientior 1. cuachliu [more subtle, cunning] bit) [fst] sapientia 

iií boiio et in malo, in bono, utdauid dicit Initium sapientiae etc. [Ps. cx. 10]. in nialo, ut cliristus Perdaiii 
sapientiam sapientium hujus mundi [1 Cor. i. 15]. 22. Animantibus. — .i. animalibus. 23. Tertiam par- 

Igj^ j, de omnibus angelis vel de consentientibus. Siderum. — .i. graduum celestium .i angelorum. 

Barathrum.—.i. in infemum .1. imbaile chpo [i. e. into the citv of death]. 25. Parasito.—.\. onl) 
puippeoip .1. uat) pein o.f puippeop .... [from a mountebank, i. e. of his own accord he is a 
inountebank]. Praecipites. — .1. inna pint)pai5cechat) .1. ipepn [i.e. the precipitous places, viz. hell] 

9. Principattium. — Principatuni, B. Vir- 
tutium. — Virtutum, C. Virtutium, B. 

11. Largitatis. — Largiatatis, B. 

12. P/-eíw>i7í«.— -Piivilegia, C. Privc- 
legia, B. The Gloss assumes the reading 
Pririhgia, ^chxch. is necessary to agrec 
with Celestia. 

1 3. Fatimine. — Fatimini, B. This word 
doos not occur in the dictionarics, nor in 
Du Cange. It sccms to signiíj cxpresnion, 
inanifcdaiion, ^om fator,for, to speak; or 
fateor, to manifest. Sce llccvcs, Adam- 
n<in, Glossar. in voc. Famcn, p. 444. 

1 4. Celi. — For Transmigratione in thc 
Scholium, C. has translationc. Thc -word 
secras to be applicd hcre to thc fall of the 
angels, who are called " tlic ninc orders or 
dcgrces of Prince,'' in rcfircucc, appa- 
rcntly, to thc passagcs of Scripture in 
which Satan is called Prince ( John, xii. 3 1 , 
xiv. 30, xvi. 1 1 ; Eph., ii. 2). 

15. Speciminis Hcre used to denote 

houour, glory, omament, a sense rn which 
thc word occurs in Scncca and Apulcius. 

17. ApostatcB In the margin is this 

note : " Apostata grece, reccssor a íidc 
\'ilis intcrprctatur latinc ; vcl lugubrium 
lignum est supcr quod ctiam avcs starc 
non possunt, ap alemni cucaD uaDpiDe 
pop cech plemon [from its slippeiincss ; 
thc name was givcn from this to ever^-- 
thing slippery] ." Does this note confound 
lugithris and luhricus ? 

1 8. Ccnodoxim. — Interpreted in the Gloss 
inanis gloria, xevij So^^. Isidor. Hisp. uses 
the word : "Miiltos autcm cx eis [mo- 
nachis] ccnodoxiaí morbus commaculat." 
Pe eccl. Officiis., lib. ii. 1 6, n. 1 8. Scc Du 
Cangc, Glossar. in voc. Thc sccond c\\- 
mology, Koivri co^ij, is a mistalíc. The con- 
struction is, "And the apostate angels" 
\_rucrunt, ftil], " by thc same lamentablc 
fallof thc authorof vain glorj-, of obstinatc 
hatc, thc othcrs remainiag in their prin- 
cipalitics." Pervicacis. — Thc Gloss is 
from Isidor. Hispal., £fi/mol., lib. x. 211. 

20. Deterrimus. — Teterrimus, C. An- 
tiquus. — Apoc. xii. 9, XX. 2. 


Ilpnnus S. Columbw '' Altus Frosator." 209 

De CTieacione eliinencopum munOi -| homniip pesencir ea porcea mope 
in cirul. Ipi imoppo int» apóuniuinc. 1n ppincipio pecic lieuc cclum -] 
ceppani uc in genei'i oicicup. 

;ccelsus TnuNOi TnachiNaníi pr^euiDeNS ec aTímoniarn 
cacLuin ec ceríRani peccTíac mar^e ec ac[uas coimiDic 
lieubarium cfuocfue scRmiua uitísuLcotíuiti aT^buscula 
solem LuT^am ac siDCTía i^Mem ac Necessarjia 
aues pisces ec peccona bescias ec aTTimalia 30 

homiuem Demum uescTíe pT^ocoplas-cum pTíaesasmiTie. 

Gloss.— 26. Machinam.—.l mnterhim, .5. massam. .4rmnniam.—.A. in imctiuibbiuf pilecep na 
Oule ri-'tli« liarmonv that is betweeu things created]. 27. Caelnm.—.i. invisibilis omnis creatura. 
Terram.—.\. omnis cre'atura visibilis terra voeatur. Mare. — .i. a maritudine dictuni, vcl a meando. 28. 
Herbarum.—.\. christiis. 30. Bestias. — .i. quicquid ore et ungene [read unguine] sevit, be>tia dicitnr. 
31. /fo?nín«m.— .i. Adam, .i. omnia eleinentaterrena. Frotoplastum. — .i. protos, grsece : prinius, latine : 
plastus, .i. fornintus, .1. m cecchpuca [ihe first created] .i. corpus. Prasagmine.—.^. o plogaipchm- 
nechc [.i. host = leadership]. 

2 1. Lubricus. — In thc margin tliere is tliis word is written .1. ;c. [re^ x], and a 

the following note : " Lubricus a libro, more recent hand has written ;t on thc 

quod est nomen cui oblenita line below. Eefugax is the reading of C. 

scilipcs adhcrere non possunt, Refugas, B. Parasito.—The Gloss take3 

íinitatem omnis lcvis de quo this word to signiíj a buffoon, or mountc • 

quis labitur lubricus dicitur, t)on chpunTi banh. Du Cange has shown that parasitus 

pembice eoin >n a bapp, -] bia cacc was used to signifj a domestic ser^-ant, 

Do snicep m rpipic [from that tree, on who livcs at his master's table. But it is 

whose top there are usualljbii'ds, and from not easv to make seuse from either of 

whose dung silk is made]. The remaindcr these significations in the passage before 

ofthis note is verj'obscure, andtheEditor us. Perhaps we shoiild read jí>í7raf7/60. 

has not succeeded in reading it : it con- The gloss over Prcecipites seems to un- 

cludes withthe words "in barathro, .i. in dcrstand locos. There is evidentlv cor- 

infemo." Liihrum, in the GlossaiT of Pa- ruption in the text. 

pias, is explained "rasilc lignum." The 26. Excelsus. — In the margin is this 

objcct of the first part of this note is note : " . . . . dicit. Oportuit ut terre 

evidcntly to derive the word Lubricus celestis crcatura prece ..." Xothing 

froni the namc of a trcc, so slipperj- that more is legible. It was evidently a passage 

cvcn flies cannot walk on its branchcs. — quoted from some ccclcsiastical writer, 

Sce the Gloss on this passagc ia the Leahhar pcrhaps Bcdc ; but the cditor has not bcen 

Breac, Addit. Note B. able to find it. Armoniam. — Ermoniam, 

22. Feraciorihus. — Ferocioribus, B. C. 

25. Refuga. — Over the last syllable of 27. Ut terratn — Tcrram, C. 


2 lO 

Hymnus S. Columbce " Altus Prosator." 


Ire in ricul, be laut)e bei ab ansclip m quapcu pepia bicencer ronccuf, 
ranccup, panccup, tiominur t)eur rcbaocli. Ipi uil) upsamainc. Cfuunbo 
peci celum -[ ccppam coUoubauepunc me anseli, uc in papiencia palomo- 
nip liicicup. 

ficcis siiiniL siocnibus crhcnis Luiiniiumbus 
collauDaucRuuc ariseli paccuna pRacinmabili 
iiiimcrisae rnoLis Oommuin opipicem celcsnum 
])RCConio LauoabiLe Oebico cc immobilc 35 esRCSio snaces csctíuhc oomiuo 
amoRc cc aRbicmo uon uacu^ae oouaRio. 

Gloss. — 32. Etheris. — .1. mt) echuup [the ether, or air]. 33. Collavdaverunt. — i. me, .i. post- 

qiiam creati sunt angeli dixerunt, sanctus, sanctus, sanctus, domiiius deus sabaoth. 34. Molis i. non 

corporalis moH.s. Opificem. — .1. smmtienmait) [a work doer], .i. opus et faciens. 36. Concentuque — 
.1. on ctiocecul epep^na [with magnificent sinfring together]. Grates. — i. pro gratias, causa rithmi. 
37. Amore. — .i. pra;. Arhitrio. — Arbitrium est pniprium conatus animi. Naturce. — .1. ni m aicniuti po 
chlannaD molati t)e [not in their nature was implauted the praise of God], sed in voiuntate et potestate 
sna, sicut intendit ante ubi dicit amore et arbitrio, ut dicunt, ap comcpaicip facere malum ma m bech 
5pat) t)e OCCU [as thev say that they would have been able to do evil if they had not had the love of God]. 

29. Ac sidera. — Ac sydera, C,,B- ^i 
necessaria. — Et om., B. Ac necessaria, C. 

30. Peccora. — Pecora, C. Et animalia. 
— Et om., C 

3 1 . Prcesagmine. — On this word is the 
Ibllo^'ing note in the margin : " Praísag- 
mine .1. o pemchapchecul .1. chpipci no 
o plo^aipchinnechc .i. o aipchin agmi- 
nis hominum. Prícsagmcn enim a pra)- 
sule ct agmen componitnr. Agmen Dci 
plo5aipchinnechc. co po bai t)o Qt)am 
uc .... dicit .... crea^át. Adam 
uero .... non fuit." Hcre some words 
are illegihle ; but what remains may bc 
thus rcndcrcd : " Prajsagminc, i. e. pro- 
I)hccy," [from praHagire, or prasaffare^, 
"i. c. of Christ, or host = leadership, L e. 
thc bcginning of the host of manliind" 
[Adam being, as it werc, thc leader or 
chicftain of the human racc]. " Praísag- 
menis compounded oí prasul anda(/?nen.'^ 
The remuining words rclating to Adam 

are unintelligible, but may, perhaps, 
receive some light from the Gloss in 
the Leahhar Breac, where we rcad that 
God gave all things to Adam : "Adam 
vero nominibus ea nomina-\dt." This, 
therefore, is the proesagmen, by which 
man bore rule over the inferior animals, 
whethcr -we take that word to signify 
prophecg (exercised in Adam's naming 
all beasts), or to dcnote superioritg, 
j)ower, or pre-eminence, according to 
thc second etymology given of it. See 
Addit. Xote P. 

32. Factis. — The Scholium prefixed to 
this stanza is thus translated: — " This is 
thc Titlc, De laude Bci ah angelis in 
quartaferia, dicentes [_dicentibus, C.] Sanc- 
tus, Sancfus, Sanctus, Dominus Deu^ Sab- 
aoth. This is the Argument, Quando feci 
celum et terram, collaudaveruíit me angeli, 
ut in sapientia Sahmonis dicifur.^' We 
liave here the ancient opinion that the 

Hijmnus S. Columhce ^^" Altus Prosator." 

2 I I 


t)c peccnco at)ae i t)e recunba puina biabuli in pebuccione abac in 
nrul. l|'i mX) ap^umainc, nialebicrup cpip peppcnp cepparn comcl)epii' 
omnibup bicbup uicae, uc in J5cnepi íjicicup. 

nassacis ])ríiims Diiobiis pancMcibns 
seciiNDo Tíuir gabuLus ciiin suis saciLicibus 
cfuonum honrione uuLcuum soNOCfue uoLicaucium 40 

coNsceríNancucurí liomiNcs mccu cenríici pnasiLes 
NON uaLcNccs caRuaLibus haec iNcuei^i uisibus 
cfui NUNC LijaNcuTí pascibus erjsascolorjum Ne;cibus. 

Gloss. — 38. Grassatis. — .i. a diabulo. Seductisque. — .i. ab hora conditionis. Parentihus. — .i. 
Adam et Eva. 39. Secundo. — .i. primo de celo ad terram ; secundo ad infernum. Zabulvs. — .i. diabulus. 
Cum suis. — .i. cum malis suis factoribus. Satilitibus. — Satilis a satis uilis. 40. Quorum. — .i. demonio- 
rum. Volitantium. — Vel demonuni, vel ferarum. 41. Consternarentur. — .1. no pailgipicip [thev would 
have hidden themselves]. Fragiles. — .i. fragilis dicitur eo quod facile fraugi potest. 42. Hac intueri. — 
.i. agmina diabulica uolifantia. 43. Qui. — .i. satiles. Ergastolorum. — .1. na piagcapcap no inna 

n^uncapcap [i. e. the penal dungeons, or tbe wounding dungeons] ergastulum enim opus ex 

.... longum in tempus. 

stars, created on the foui'tli day (Gen. i. 
14-19), were the angels. This opinion 
is founded on Job, xxxviii. 7, Avhich is 
probablj the passage intended by our 
Scholiast, for nothing of the sort occurs in 
the Wisdom of Solomon. St. Gregory 
the Great, in his commentary on the pas- 
sage, says : " Quia enim prima in tempore 
condita natura rationabilium spirituum 
creditur non immerito matutina astra an- 
geli vocantur." — Moral., lib. xxviii. c. 14. 
The Ante-Hieronymian version of Job, 
xxxviii. 7, as given by Sabatier, from the 
MS. Majoris Monast., is as follows : — 
" Quando facta sunt simul sidera, lauda- 
verunt me voce magna omncs angeli mei" 
(which is a literal translation of the Sep- 
tuagint). It will be observed that this 
older version, and notthe presentVulgate, 
has been quoted by our Scholiast. 

35. Laudahile. — Laudabili, C. Immo- 
bile. — Immobili, C. 

38. Grassatis. — Grassareis to torment. 

to assault. See p. 156, line 38, where 
we have, "impiis verbis grassatur." "He 
[Christ] is assailed with impious words." 

39. Secundo. — The Gloss explains that 
the first fall of the Devil was from heaven 
to earth (see lines 20, sq.); the second 
(after the faU of Adam) from eai'th to hell. 
The common opinion of divines is that 
the first fall of Satan took place bcfore the 
creation of man, and immediately after 
his o"s\Ti creation : an inference which some 
deduce from the text, " Ab initio mendax 
fuit." Jo. viii. 44. See Isidor. Hispal. 
Sententiar. i. x. 7. Zalulus, for diabulus, 
as the Gloss exphiins ; írom which M-e may 
infer that when this MS. was transcribed, 
the orthography s for di was becoming 
obscure. Satilitihis Satcllitibus, C. 

41 . Consternarentur. — Constemercntur, 
C, an error probably of the press. The 
Gloss intimates that the constematiou i.'? 
incrcascd by the demons being usuallv 

I 2 

Hymnus S. Columhce ^^ Altus l^iosator.'' 


De cieccione binbuli c,t unicace ongelopum in cicul. Ipi imopjio int) 
apsnmamc cfuoO bicicup in jciieri niulcrjiccc peppenf. Gc in euangclio 
bicicup llaOe pecpo pucanap -] non cempcabip bominum Oeum cuum -| lUi 
poli pepuiep. 

ic subLarus c tiicdio Dciecciis csc a Domiuo 
cuius acRis spaciuin coTisnpacuT? sanLicum 4s 

S^obo uiuisibUnmi runbiDO pcRDuclLium 
Mc malis cjcmpLarjibus imbuci ac scclcríibus 
NuLlis uucfuam ceseucibus sepcis ac paniccibus 
poRuicaneucuR homiucs paLam omuium oculis 

Qloss. 44, Hic. .i. diabiilus. Sublatus. — .i. a praesentia dei, vel ex unitate fratrum. DejecluM. 

.1. pocapcpat) [.L is cast down]. 45. Constipatur. — .1. Imcap [is filled, crowded]. SatiUtum i. 

nanamup [.i. the mercenarj- attendants]. 46. Perduellium. — .1. innan t»ecachacli [of the two battling 
ones]. .i. inter se inuicem seniper, no cach [or battle] contra deum et homines, .i. quasi duobus bellis 
bpllatorum quia duellis bellum .... hostes duellium, .1. nainnt) [enmitv] perduellis inimicus. 47. 

Alalis i. demonum. Exemplarihus 1. ona engpaipib [by their examples]. Imhuti. — .i. homines. 

4«. Stptis. i. sepes lignoruin dicitur, paries autt-m laijidum. 49. Fornicarentur. — i. perdirentur, vel 

peccarent, pro omni peccato fornicaiio punitur. 

43. Ligantur. — Ligatur, C. This read- 
ing agrees better yáúi the Gloss over qui, 
which seems to take qui as singular ; but 
ligantur is evidentlj the true reading, and 
is the reading also of B. Faficibufs. — 
Faucibus, C. Ergastolorum. — 'Ep^aaTTj- 
piov, a príson wherc the convicts aie 
compelled to labour. " Career, vel locus 
ubi damnati marmora secant" — Isidori 
Gloss. Or the íetters -náth wbich prison- 
ers are secured. — Du Cange, in voc. 

44. nic. — There is a mark like this, : — , 
over this word, and a similar mark under 
the word "zabulus" in ver. 39, which 
seem intended to show that hic refers to 
zabulm. Hcnce the Gloss ".i. diabulus" 
is written under Ric, not over it, to avoid 
intcrfering with the grammatical mark. 
DeiectuH. — Diectus, B. 

45. Cujm. — Alluding, probablv, to the 
Apostle's eaying, Eph. ii. 2, " Princcps 
potestatis acris hujus;" the meaning wiil 

then be, " the space of his air [i.e. the 
Devil's air] is filled by a crowd of satel- 
lites." Or perhaps the construction is 
" cujus satellitum;" — "by the crowd of 
whose [i.e. the devil's] satellites the air 
is fillcd or choked up." Satilitum. — 
Satellitum, C. 

46. Perduellium. — The coustruction 
seems to be " Globo tm-bido satellitum 
invisibilium perdueUium." The Gloss 
derivcs duellum from duo and bellum ; 
but Isidore of Seville, on the contrary, 
dcrives bellum from duellum : "postea" 
(he Bay8) "detracta et mutata litera" 
[i. e. detracta litera d, et mutata íí in i] 
" dictum est bcllum." — Eti/molog., lib. 
xviiL c. I, n. 9. 

47. Ne malis. — This seems to be given 
as the reason why the devils are invisible, 
lest, if thcir wickedness were visible, men 
should imitate them, in open shameless- 
uess. Imbuti. — C. omits this word, pro- 

IIymnus S. Columhce " Altus Frosator." 

2 1 -i 

De oo quot) uchiinc nuber aqnar at> cclum. Ip pc in cirul. ISpi inb- 
apsamainc, uc bauio bicic, ebucenp nubcf ab e;ccpemo ceppae. -[ alibi 
t)icic. (fui ppobucic uencop t>c ccpaupip puip. 

vicluiNC Nubcs poHcias e;c poNcibus bRiiiTiaLias 50 

CRibns pnopuNDioTíibus occiani DoORaMcibus 
TiiaRis ccLi cliiiiacibLis cerjuLcis ciníbnnbus 
pRopucuT^as scsicibus uitíiis ec scTiiTiiTíibus 
asicacae pLaTmuibus cesauTíis eincRSCMCibus 
Cfuicfue paLuDes TnaRiMas cuacuauc Tíccipiíocas. 55 

Gloss. — 50. Invehunt 1. conocbac no imapchupic [they raise or caiTy]. Pontias .i. mna 

lipu [theseas]. Brumalias. — .i. briiuia, a brevi motu solis in eo, ip aipe .... mam pech 

apimmut) Ul^ce bruma edax, vel edacitas inteipretatur. 52. Climatibus. — .i. o apbaib [from 
hitih places]. Turhinibus.—.\. o na connaib bubolappaib no o na hachchaib bubslap- 
paib |from the darii-fíreen waves, or froin the dark-greea fields]. 53. Profuturas. — .1. inna hi 

rapmni5pic [those over wliich Ihev wiU pafs]. Segitilus. — .i. bonis hominibus. ^iniis .i. justis. 

Germinibus. — .i. vilibus hominibus. 54. Flaminibus. — .i. ventis. Emergenlibus. — ,i. exahautibus. 
55. Qiiique. — .i. venti. I'aludes. — .i. profundiores fontes vel tesauri, .i. ad falles [? folles] uentorum qui 
sunt in tesauris. Reciprocas. — .1. nahat) .... [the causes .']. 

bably by an error of tlie prcss, for the 
omission ■would be a violation both of the 
metre and sense. 

50. Fontias — The Gloss explains this 
word as if it signified seas, from pontus; 
but it is not found in any of the printed 
Glossaries of mediajval Latinity. Jiruma- 
lias. — Brumalibus, C. Under this word, 
and also vjíú.&c pontias, are two dots, show- 
ing the opinion of the Scholiast that they 
are to be construed togethcr. The Gloss on 
this word is in some places illegible ; it 
givcs the usual etymologies ofBruma, viz. 
quasi hrevissima dies ; or from the Greek 
fipivfia, "edacitas," because in "winter ani- 
mals eat most.— Isid. Hispal., Eti/mol. v. 
XXXV. 6. The Irish words in the Gloss, so 
far as they arc legiblc, scem to indicate 
another derivation, probably that oíHiems, 
ap iTTimut) upce, "from abundance of 
Tvatcr." Isid. llispal., in his Glossary, 

gives the -word Brumalia, -which he ex- 
plains "resinosa pluvia," i. e. fetid rain. 
See also Du Cange, in v. Bromosus. The 
adjective Brumalius is of unusual oceur- 
rence, and was unknowTi to Du Cange. 

51. Occiani. — Oceani, C. JDodrantibus. 
— In this line thcre are dots under trilus, 
profundiorihits, and dodrantihus, showing 
that they are grammaticaUy connected. 
Bodrans is explained by Du Cange, from 
Papias, " tres quoelibet partes, quarta re- 
mota," which is the sense in -which the 
word is used in classical Latin ; but it is 
not easy to see how it can have that sig- 
nification here : " the three deeper three- 
fourths of the occan" is a strauge expres- 
sion, In the margin thcrc is a note which 
is almost wholly illegible, and has been 
partly cut off by thc plough of thc modem 
binder ; it appeai's to be intcnded cliieflv 
to explain dodrans. 


fíj/mmis S. Columhcc " Altns Prosator.'" 

t)e incolepabile penu peccacopum in mpepno in cicul. Ipi inOapsa- 
niainc quob lob bicic Ccce jigancep jcmunc pub atfuip. 

'^(iDiica ac nnaiinica imiiiDicfiic Tiioincnrania 
^ ncsiim pT?escNci slonia nucu dci Dcpossica 

ccce ^isanccs scmcRc sub aqiiis masno uIccrc 
compTíobancuT? inccnDio aDUTíi ac snplicio 
cocicicfuc caríubDibus scTíansuLaci ruTíScncibus 60 

sciLUs obcecci pLuccibus eliDuncuR ec scr^opibus. 

Gloss. — 56. Momentania i. in momentum temporis. 58. Gigantes. — .1. potentes in inferno. Suh 

aquis. — .i. sub unda penarum, .i. poena intolerabili. 59. Comprobantur — .i. in scriptura. Aduri. — .1. 
coloipcicep [to be bumed]. 60. Cocitique. — .1. lechi ippipn [instead of hell]. Carubdibus — i. o na 
paebchopaib [Ona ?] po mapbat), ap mec a anpait) mcpaebchope incamlaijcep bo paeb- 
chopib cocici -| ip chapcait) bo pop ippepnt» [.i. it is by the whiripools they are killed : because of 
the greatness of ihe storm of the whiripool, that are compared to the whirlpools of Cocitus ; and it leads 
to hell]. Strangulaii. — i. retenti. 61. Fluctibus. — .1. 6 na connaib pciUect)aib, .1. o chonnaib 
in cpaebchope Oianit) ainm pcilla, et in Sicilia est, -| apmeic t)na a anpait) beop [i. from the 
waves of Scilla, .i. from the waves of the •nhirlpool whose name is SciUa, and is in Sicily, and in conse- 
quence of the greatness of its swelling likewise]. 

54. Flaminihics. — Over this word, and 
also over emergentihus, are two verticallj 
placed dots (:), slio\ring tliat these -svords 
were to be construed together. The ex- 
i.stence of dots and marks, to show the 
grammatical connexion of the words, is a 
remarkable proof that in the age when the 
Booh oj Ilijmm was transcribed, the Latin 
text of such hymns as that now before us 
was beginning to be obscure. 

56. Tirannica. — Tjrannica, C. Momen- 
tania. — Momentanca, C. 

57. Depossita. — Deposita, C. 

58. Gigautes. — Job, xxvi. 5. 

59. Aduri. — Adusti, C. Suplicio. — 
Supplicio, C. 

60. Cocitiqac. — Quotidieque, C. This 
is a manifest mi.stake of transcription. 
Carubdihus. — Charydibus, C, an error of 
the press for Charghdihus. Turgentihns. 
— Gurgitibus, C. In the margin of the MS. 
thcre is the following note: — " Cocitus .1, 

nomen quarti fluminis in inf emo . [ Quatu- 
or] flumina infemus tenet, id est, Cocitus, 
absque gaudio interpretatur. Strix" [leg. 
Styx] " [tris]titia interpretatur. Flegiton 
[Flegethon] flammeus interpretatur ; et 
Achiron. Vel .iiiL nomina unius fluminis. 
Carubdibus turgentibus. — .i. o na capcib 
cpuacht)aib, no ^apbaib no bpuch- 
acbaib no o na paebchopib bopp 
pat)ai5ic" [.i. from the mountainous, or 
rough or boiling rocks, or from the swel- 
ling whirlpools]. " Strangulati — .i. re- 
tenti, .1. ceócGi t)e pcillip" [held by the 
rocks]. "1 pe pcel popaichmencup hic 
[this is the story that is commemoratcd 
here]. Scilla filia Porci " [Phorcys] "ada- 
mata est a Glauco Deo maris, quod displi- 
cuit Circe filie solis. Scicns autem Circe 
fontem ad quem Scilla quotidie veniebat 
vcnificia fccit. Postquam vcnit Scilla ad 
illum ut lauarct manus fontem, conucrsa 
est statim in bcluam marinam et noluit 

Hymnus S. Columbce " Altus Prosator.^' 



Iti ncul. De Tiiobepacione pluuiae ueniennp e;c lirtonp acfuip nubibur 
ne papicep pluanc. Ípi unoppo int) apsamainc. quot) lob bicic. qui pup- 
penbic atfuap in nubibup, ne papice]i pluanc beoppum. 

isacas aguas Nubibiis pTíecfueMceR CT^ebnac dottiinus 
uc Ne CT?unii)aNC príociMus simuL rjupcis obiicibus 
quai^uin ubcRioríibus ucttis ucLuc ubcT^ibus 
pcDecemciTTi TracaNcibus celli pcT^CT^accus iscius 65 
SellTDTS ac pcríucNCTbus dtuctísts tn ccinporjibus 
usgi.Tam iNpluuNc pLuimNa NUNCfuam DepicicNCTa, 

Gloss.— 62. Crebrat. — .i. pichlaib [drops, filters]. 63. Simul rvptis i. anacabpipci na 

ppicecoippe, no anaca pailpigche na ppicecoippe [the barriers are broken, or the barriers are 
iiiade manifest] .i. ruptis hgationibiis quibus quodanimodo nubibus aqua. 64. Quarum — ,i. imbrium. 

Uherioribus. — .i. pro uberibus hic causa rithmi. 65. Pedeíemtim i. paulatim, .i 

Natantihus i. aquis. Telli. — Tellus telh, secundaí decHnationis, ut Auf^ustinus dicit et masculini gene- 

ris, et potest dici tellus et feminini generis, hic et haíc tellus telluris. Fertractvs—A. cpi pichipi. 66. 

Gellidis. — .i. hiems et ver. Ferventibus. — .i. aistas et autumnus. 67. Usquam i. ubique. Influunt. 

—.1. coippinnic [they well, i. e. burst up as from a well]. Deflcientia.—eoque ex ea tolluntur. 

ad hoinines uenire propter formam suam, 
proiecit se in mare. XJidcns mater Carub- 
dis íiliam suam Scillam in mare nantem, 
exiit in mare ut teneret eam, sed non po- 
tuit, et ffcquenter [ven]tis afíiigebant, 
ut ferunt fabidae, uidens jS'eptunus quod in 
mare .... mittit tridentem in mare et 
statuit eas in scopolos et fisit Scillam in 
Sicilia et Carubdim in Italia cominus et 
uix nautae nauigare possunt inter eas sine 

62. Grehrat. — Crehrare, or Crihrare, is 
to sift ; to drop thxough a chink or fissure. 
Hence it is explained in the Gloss, pich- 
lait), he di'ops, filtcrs. The word is also 
written cribare, and crevare. French, 
crever. See Du Cange, v. Crevare. 

63. Ohiicihus. — Obicibus, C. 

65. Pedetemtim Pedetentim, C. Telli. 

— Terraí, C. The Gloss proves that telU 
was the ancient reading ; for it quotes 
Augustine to sho'w that telluSf telli, of the 

second declension, was masculine; tellus, 
telluris, of the thii'd declen.sion, feminine. 
The Editor has not found anything of tliis 
kind in the works of St. Augustine, nor 
in the spiu'ious work De Graramatica, at- 
tributed to him, and printed in the Appen- 
dix to the Benedictiue edition of his writ- 
ings. It is true that Augustine has a re- 
mark on the male and female powcr of 
the earth, Be Civit. Dei, vii. 23, which 
may perhaps be what our Scholiast al- 
ludes to; but he says nothing about a 
mascuHne tellus, having its genitive telli. 
Speaking of Varro, who made Tellus a god- 
dess, and Telumon a god. He says (Joc. cit. ' : 
" Adhuc respondeatur, quam partem ter- 
rse permeet para mundani animi, ut deum 
faciat Tellimionem. jS'on, inquit, sed 
una eademque terra habet geminam vim, 
et masculinam, quod semina producat ; et 
femininam, quod recipiat atque enutriat: 
inde a \i feminina dictam esse Tellurem, 


Hymnus S. Columhoe ^' Altus Prosator." 


Oe punbamenco ceppe i be abipo ifo m cicul. ip' aucem inb QpsaiiiOinc 
quoxj lob bicic (jui i-ui'penbic ceppani [pupep nilillurn]. Cc abbi bicic 
lllubi' iiuHil)! uiprure Oci concuiecup. n in ppubno qui punl»arci ceppam 
pupcp i'cubibcciccni puum. 

05111 0C1 iiiiíronbos apix'iioiruu 0iuliL>us 
sajbus reniíac cc cmcuí.us abq-ssi 111051100 iuoirus 
suppulra oci lOuina oTnuipoceNcis ualioa -o 

coluinins ucLuc ueccibus euuocni susrciiraiinbus 
pnomouconiis cc mi])ibus soli[Oi]s punoamiiiibus 
ueluc quibusoam bassibus piRmacis immobilibus. 

Gloss.— 68. ^ppendiVHr.— apcaicip [keptup, sustained]. niaíihus.—A. diviiiis. Dius .«ecundiim 

veteresno combat) clioip ann [or that which ought to be in it ] 69. Circulus. 

- 1 int) abip mop in po in clannab bbseb cipcuil [the great abvss, m which was implantcd the 

awofacircle]. Iduma i. manu, iduma ebraice, cinis grece, niauus, latine. /'a/ida.— .i. fortc. 72. 

.... paib. 

law of a circle] 
J'romontoriis. — .1. O 

a masculina Telimonem." Pertractus. — 
Per tractus, C. Isthis. — Thcre is a gloss 
under this word vhicli is now ille- 
gible; it may possibly bclong to tem- 
porihvs, the hist word of the next 

70. Iduma. — Thc Gloss tclls us that 
this is a Hebrew Tívord, signifying the 
hand, and identical Avith the Greek. ciros, 
i. e. x^^Pj ^^^ ^^^ Latia maniis. It is 
evidcntly from 1\ a hand, and scems like 
a corruption of the dual CT', as ciros 
seems taken from the gcnitivc xeiph^, or 
perhaps also from thc plural x^"'/'^^- Tltc 
reraarkable word Iduma is not found ia 
Du Cangc, or in any of thc Glossarics of 
mediajval Latin to which thc Editor has 
access ; and this passage seems to be the 
only Lnstancc of its use as a Latin word, 
iu the scnse of power, titiffht, aufhoriti/. 
It would have bcen whoUy unintcUigible 
but for thc gloss. 

71. Eundcm. — Over this word thcre íb 

the foUowing curious grammatical note : 
" .^,. vel :" the first of thcse marks (^.). 
occurs under the word "globus," and the 
sccond (:) under the word " circulus," in 
line 69 : the mcaning thercfore is, that 
eundem signifies either " cundcm globum" 
or " cundem circulum." In Like manncr 
the mark ( •• ) occurs under iduma, and 
also ujider valida, in line 70; showing 
that ralida is to bc construcd as agrecing 
with iduma. 

72. Promontoriis. — ThcGloss upon this 
word Í8 not lcgible, with the exception 
of the lcttcrs which have been above 
given ; the meaning is, therefore, obscure. 
Pcrhaps thc hiatus may be suppHed by 
rcading, o [na popjpaib, thc Irish trans- 
lation oí promontoriis. Solidis. — Thetext 
in the MS. has solis ; but a coeval hand 
has writtcn solidis in the margin, which 
is ncccssary both for the scnse and the 
metre. Thc lcttcrs 01 have thcrcfore 
bcen addcd, within brackcts, in the text. 


Hymnus S. Columbw ^^Altus Frosator." 217 

De inpepno m imip popico m copbe ceppcie ■] penip eiup -| loco. ipe in 
ricul. Ipi uibapsfmiciinc, epuipci animam meam e;: inpepno [mpepiopi. 
uc in euanscjlio bicicup Sepulcup epc biuep in mpepno. i alibi lce mule- 
bicci m acccpnum i^nem. -] alibi Uepmip eopum non mopicup -[ i^nip eiup 
non e;ccin5[uicup]. 

iilli iiiDecim Dnbinm in inns esse iNpeTínum 
nbi habencnií cenebrjae neRines ac Dmae besciae 75 

ubi 15NIS soLphoTJius aRDeNS FlaTnTnis eDacibus 
ubi T^nsicns honiinnm pLecus ac scniDOT^ DcNcinm 
ubi sehcNNae 5cniicns ccTíRibilis ec aNcicpjus 
ubi aRDOTj plammacicus sicis pamisque hOT?T?iDus 


De laube bei ab anselip m cicuU Ipi imoppo mb apsamamc, acbepap 
m apocalippi,— In cipcuicu cponi uibi pebep .;c;ciiii. peniopep pebencep m 
uepce alba -] capicibup eopum copona aupea uibi. 

mNORum caNCioNibus seDuLo ciNNicNCibus 
CT^opoDis saNccis miLibns aNseloTíum ueríNaNCibns 130 
quacnoTíqxie pLenissimis aNimalibns ocuLis 
cum U151NC1 pelicibus cfuacuori scNioT^ibus 
coTíONQS aDmicccNcibus asNi Dei snb peDibus 
lanDacuR ciíibns uicibus CRinicas eccRNaLibus. 

Gloss — 74. In irnis. — .i. in profundis terrsc. Infernvm — Infernus dicitur quia infra sit. Sicut in 
medio animalis cor, ita infernus in medio terríB est. 75. Tenehrae — .i. tenebrse dictae sunt quia tenent 
umbras. 129. Tinnitntihus. — .1. ambmnigec na cancana [.i. thev liarmonize the songs]. 130. 
Vernantihus. — .1. immenicnigecip uile [which they all used to practise'(?) often]. 131. Animalihvs. — 
.i. evangelistis. 132. Viginti. — .i. cum .xii. patriarchis et xii. profetis, vel cum .sii. profetis et .xii. 
apostolis, vel tigura .iiii. evangelistarum cum .xsiiii. libris veteris legis. 

74. Duhium. — In the margin there is 76. Solphorius Sulphureiis, C. 

this note : " Dubium (piasi duvium, in- 79. Famisque. — In the Irish orthogra- 

certus duarum TÍariun." And so Isid. phv of i for e, famisque stands for fa- 

Jlisp., " Dubius, incertus, quasi duarum mesque, " and hunger," C. reads sitis 

viarum." — Etijmol, x. 77. Infernum — fumusque, a manifest mistake. A leaf 

The Gloss is from Isid. Hisp. FAijmol., of the Dublin copj of the Liler Hjm- 

1. xiv. c. 9: "Inferus appellatur co quod norum is lost after this line. It eon- 

infrasit," and, "Quomodo autemcor ani- tained the stanzas to X, inclusive, 

malis in medio est, ita et infernus in me- which wiU bc found (taken írom Col- 

dio terrse esse perhibetur." These words gan's copy of this Hj-mn) in the Ad- 

occur also in St. Jcrome's Comm. on Jon., ditional Note D. It is greatly to bc 

i. 4. regretted that the MS. of the Liber 

2 F 


Hymnus S. Colunibco ^^Altus Prosator'' 


De iircione iTnpiopum nolencer chiiircuni cpcoeiie. n be gauOio lurco- 
pum in cicul. Ip pt imoppo inrj ap?>nmainc (fuot) Oicicup in apocalippi 

lip i^nip coni'uuicc (lí)ucpi'ainop. -| alibi tticic apopcoUip Tllan- 

pionep mulcae punc apu?) ()ucpcm, -] clipii>cup oicic, In bomu pucpip mei 
mulcae manpionep punc. 

cíii? li^ms pimibiiNDus corisumer aDncRScmios 
jiolcnccs cliRiscuiii cncDCRC Deo ci pacnc uctnssc 
i«)s ueRO cuoCabiiiius obuiani ei pnociuus 
ec sic cum ipso eminus m diucrsis ORDiuibus 
DiSNicacum pno TncTíicis pTícmioTíum pcT?pccuis 
pcRmausuTíi lu sLoRia a sccuIts in sloTíia. 



137. Nos. — .i. 
i. in ictu oculi. 

Gloss.— 135. Consumet. — i. vintlicta a deo patre. Adversarios. — .i. veriti dci. 

geuus humanuin. Evolalimus i. in die iudicii. Obviam. — .i. ma Protinus.- 

138. Cum ipso. — .i. erunt sancti cum Christo post mortem. In diversis. — .i. ut dicitur redd[ere uni- 
cuique] secundum opus suum. 140. Gloria.—.l 'm regno. A seculis. .i, presentibus. In gloria. — i. 

Ilijmnorum now prcserved at tlie College 
of St. Isidore at Rome is \vholly inac- 
cessible to the Editor, as it would have 
doubtless supplied defects of this kind, 
and probablj clearcd up many obscuri- 
ties, cspecially as Colgan has printcd the 
hymn with several inaccuracies, and with 
an entire disrcgard of the Irish peculiari- 
ties of spclling. 

130. 7>-o;ío(?/s.— Tripodiis, C. Vernan- 
tj'hiis. — Vernare is somctimcs used in the 
sense of canere, to sing. See Du Cangc, 
Glossar. in v. Pcrhaps this may be its 
significution here. Thc Irish gloss is ob- 

133. Admittentibm. — For mittentihus, 
evidently for the sake of the mctrc. — 
Apoc, iv. 10. 

134. Trihm ricihm. — Alluding to the 
triple Sanctus. — Apoc, iv. 8. 

135. Zelus. — The Scholiura is as fol- 
lows: — " J)e mtione [vastatione, C.] im- 
piorum nolcntes [nolcntiura, C.] Christum 
credere, et de gaudio jmtorum, is the Title. 

But this is the Argument : quod dicitur 

in Apocalipsi, lis ignis consu- 

met adversarios, et alibi dicit apostolus, 
Mamiones midtae sunt apud Patrem, et 
Christus dicit, In domu Patris mei multas. 
mamiones suntP The passage here quotcd 
from the Apocalypse really occurs Hebr. x. 
27, the scribe having apparcntly mistaken 
Apo-dolm for Apocali/j)sis. A part of the 
first word is illegible ; it is probablj' ter- 
rihilis, frora the first clause of the \ersci. 
Colgan givcs it thus : — " Argum. ut in 
Apocal. Trihus ignihus consmnet adrersa- 
rios.^' But no such words occur in the 
Apoc. The first line of this stanza evi- 
dcntly contains an ancicnt reading : " Ze- 
lus ignis consumct advcrsarios," Avliich 
pccms morc immcdiately taken from the 
Grcek [Trvpoí ^rjXo^) than "ignis a-mu- 
latio," which is the reading of the modem 
Vulgate, as weU as of the Antc-Hicrony- 
mian version, as printcd by Sabatier. Thc 
sccond passage quotcd, Mansiones multai 
sunt apud Patrcm, docs not occur in any 

Hymnus S. Columhce "^ Itus FrosatorJ' 

2 19 

C[iiif pocepc Deo placepe nouii^i'í^o in uempope 
Uajiianp inpi^nibup uepicacip o]"Dinibup 
Gpcrcepuip conuenipro]iibup munoi ppepencip ipciup. 

Oeum pacpem in^emcum celi ac ceppae Dominum 
Qb eoDemcfue pilium pecula anre ppimo^enicum 
Oeumcpie ppipicum pctnccum uepum unum alcippimum 
Inuoco uc au;cilnim mihi opopcunippimum 
Tílinimo ppepcec omnium pibi Depepuiencium 
C[uem ctngelopum milibup conpociabic Dominup. 

of the Apostolical Epistles, and is probablj 
only a repetition of the verse quoted im- 
mediately after from St. Jobn, xiv. 3 : " In 
domuPatris mei multcc mansiones sunty 

138. Cum ipso. — Th.Q allusion is to 
I Thess. iv. 17. 

140. A seculis in gloria. — A seculis in 
secula, C, "which reading seems more pro- 
bable ; the repetition of "in gloria" being 
u manifest bhmder of transcription. 

Quis 'jiotest. — The two follomng stanzas 
aro in the smaller and more angular cha- 
ractcr, which has already been several 
times noticed. C. omits Beo. The Pre- 

face tells us that this triplet is to be sung 
between each "Capitultmi" of theHymn. 
Seo p. 223. 

Novissimo. — Over this •word there is the 
gloss, " .i. infine mundi," with some other 
words now illegible. 

Primogenitum. — A gloss over this word 
is " vel progenitum ;" but this, as well as 
the reading of the text, is ineonsistent 
with the metre. C. reaás genitum. 

Angelorim. — There is a gloss over this 
word which is almost illegible. All that 
can be read with any certaint^ is as fol- 

lows : — " .i. is angeli in 


2 F 2 

( 220 ) 



The Preface to the Hi/mn. 

ri^HE following is a literal translation of the Preface, which, as usual, is in a raix- 
I ture of Latin and Irish : — 

The Place' of this HjTnn was Hí'». The Time« was that of Aedán son of Gabran, King of ^Vlba, and 
of Aed son of Ainmire, King of Erinn. But ^Mauritius or Foccas was then King of the Romans. The 
PersoD'i ^-as Columcille of the noble race of the Scots. He is called Columba, from the text Estote pru- 
dentes sicut serpentet, et simplices sicut Columha. The Cause<^ was because he was desirous of praisirig 
God. For seven years he was searching out this Hymn in the Black CelF without light, i. e. beseeching 
forgiveness for the battle of Cuil Dremue which he had gaiued? over Diarmait son of Cerball'', and the 
other battles that were gained on his account. Vel ut alii dicunt, it was composed extemporaneously ; viz. — 
On a certain day ColumciUe was in Hí, and no one was with him except Boithin, and thev had no food 
except a sieve full of oats. Then said Columcille to Boithin, " Illustrious guests are coming to us to-day. 

• Tlie riace. — i. e. where it was composed. 

h Hi. — Now called lona : a curious mistake, as 
Dr. Reeves has shown, for loua (the adjective 
formed from Uí, or I, its ancient name), properlv 
Insula loua: Reeves' Adamnan, Add. Note D, 
p. 258. 

<• The Time. — Our author fixes the date by 
the reigns of the king of Scotland, Aedan, son 
of Gabran (A. D. 574-606 ; 0'Flaherty, Offi/g. 
P-47 3); the king of Ireland, Aed, son of Ainmire 
(A. D 572-599 ; '^'í^- P-430; ^n*^ ^^^^ Roman em- 
perors, Maurice (A. D. 582-601 ) and Phocas (A. D. 
602 sq.). On the chronologj- of these last the Scho- 
Uast speafcs doubtingly : " Mauritius or Foccas." 
St. Cohimbkille died A.D. 597. before Phocas 
came to the throne. 

'^ Person. — i. e. the author of the Hj-mn. See 
the genealogy of St. Columba, Reeves' Adamnan, 
p. 342 (Geneal. Table). 

" Cause i. e. the occasion on which he com- 

posed the Hymn. 

f Black Cell.—ln Nigra Cellula, called in Irish 
Duibh-regles. This waa a name of St. Colnmba's 
church in Derry in Ireland, Reeves, 16. p. 277, 
Ord. Mem. of Templemore, p, 241, and the Preface 
to this IIymn in the Leabhar Breacc has so inter- 
preted it. See p. 223. 

- Gained. — Lit. " broken." For an account 
of the battle of Cuil-Dreimne, see Reeves, ib. 
p, 247 sq. 

'' Diarmait son of Cerball. — King of Ireland, 
A. D. 544-565. See Reeves, ibid. pp. 67, 68, notcs. 


The Preface to tlie Hymn. 


O Boithin" (namely, the people of Gregory', who came with presents to him), and he said to Boithin, 
" Remain thou hcre ministering to the guests, whilst I go to the mill." He took upon him his burden from 
ofF a ccrtain stone that was in the Eecles'^, Blathnati was its name, and it exists stiU ; and it is upon it that 
divisiou is made iu the refectory"'. However his burden was heavy to him, so that he made this Hymn in 
alphabetical order, from that place until lie arrived at the mill, i. e. Adjutor laborantium", etc, and whcn 
he cast the first charge" into the mill, it was thcn he began the first chapter ; and it was at the same time 
that the grinding of the sack and the composition of tlie Hymn wcre finished. And it was extempora- 
neously it was niade thus. In the year íive hundred and sixty-five after the birth of Christ, Columbcille 
came to Hí, as Bedai' says : "In the year of our Lord's Incarnation, 565, at which time Justinus minor, 
after Justinian, received the government of the Roman Empire, there came to Britain, from Ireland, a 
presbyter and abbot, illustrious by the habit and life of a monk, by iiame Columbusn, to preach the word of 
God to the provineos of the northern Ticts''^ Now Brudi, son of Melcho, was theu king of the Picts, and 
he it was that grantcd'* Hi to Columbus, whcre Columbus was buried, after he had been there seventy-six 
years, and thirty-three after he had gone to Britain to preach. 

Now this Hymn was brought to Gregory to the East, in return for the gifts which were brought from 
him, viz., the Cross', i. e. the Mórgemm" [great gem] was its name ; and the Hymns of the Week^. But thev 
interchanged" the Hymns. Three chapters were put into it, which Gregory made^, viz., Hic suhlatus, and 

' Gregorx). — Meaning Gregory I., who became 
Pope A. D. 590. See Reeves, ihid. pp. 319, 323. 

'' The liecles. — The abbey church of Hí : Reeves, 
ih. p. 276. 

1 Blatlinat. — The Preface to this Hymn in the 
Leabhar Breacc (see p. 223) calls this stone Moel- 
hlatha. Reeves, ib. p. 330. 

"> Refectori/ Ppoincig, Dinner house •.Domus 


° Adjutor laborantium. — This seems to imply 
that St. Columba on this occasion, whilst carrying 
his burden to the miU, composed a hymn beginning 
A djutor laborantium (which does not appear to be 
now extant) ; and that the hymn Altus prosator 
was composed during the grinding of the com. Or 
are we to understand that the Altus was called 
Adjutnr lahorantium ? 

° Charge. — pota. A living word to this day in 
Munster, to denote the feed or handful given from 
time to time to a hand-mill. 

P Beda. — Hist. Eccl. lib. iii. c. 4. 

q Columhus. — By this form of the name he is 
frequently called in Scotlaud to tliis day. And it is 
the correct Latinization of the old Irish Colomb 
gen. Coluimb (Lib. Ardmach.), amasc. a-stem. 

' Picts. — Here thc extract from Bede ends; but 

the remainder of the passage quoted in the Preface, 
and which is in Latin, is abridged from Bede, 
although not in his exact words. 

s Granted. — ^"Immolavit." See Reeves' .4cíani- 
nan, p. 435. 

t The Cross. — See O'Donnell, Vit. S. Columh. 
lib. ii. c. 20 (Colg., Triad. Thaum. p. 412). It 
would seem that this was an altar cross, decorated 
with gems, &c. It seems to have been preserved in 
O'DonnelVs tinie (1532) iu T017 Island, but is not 
uow kuown to exist — Reeves, ibid. p. 319. 

" 3Iórgemm. — SeeReeves, i6íd. pp. 318, 319. 

^ Hymns of the Week. — i. e. a book containing 
hymns for every day of the week. — Reeves, ibid. 
Could this have been a copv of the celebrated Anti- 
phonary of St. Gregory, stiU known by his name ? 
See the Preface to this Hymn in the Leabhar Breacc 
p. 223, infra. 

™ They interchanged. — i. e. the messengers who 
brought the Hvmn to Pope Gregory substituted 
stanzas of Gregory's composition instead of the ori- 
ginal stanzas of the Hymn. The Preface in the 
Leahhar Breacc, and that given by Colgan, repre- 
sent this as having been done to test the miraculous 
powers of St. Gregory. The storj', as given in the 
text, is not so intelligible, and there has probably 

The Hijmn of St. Columba, " Altus ProsatorJ' [Notea. 

(irbem, and Vagatur. Now •wlien tliey bcgan reading? the Ilj-mn to Gregorjr, the Angels of God came, 
and thcy slood luitil that chapter was come to ; Grcgory also stood at that part until that time. But when 
that waa passcd, tlic angcls sat down ; thcn Gregory sat down, and so thc Ilvmn was finished in that 
manncr'. Grcgoi-y tlicn dcniandcd froni theni ' thcir confession, for he knew tliat it was tliey who had in- 
tcrchangcd [the hyinns]. And thev acluiowledgcd tliat it was they, and they were forgiven for it. And 
thev said»' tliat thcrc was no fault in thc Hvinn excci^t the 8canty praise of tlie Trinity which it CDiitaincd 
ptr ae; althougli Ile [tlie Trinitv] was praistd in His creatures. And this triticism rcached ColuinciUe, 
and tliat was the cause of his composing [the Hymn] In Te Christe. 

It is in alphabctical order, aftcr tlie manner of the Hebrews":. It is out of thc Catbolic Faith the 
foundation of this cliapteri was taken, i. e. belief in Unity, with confession of Trimty. And it was made 
in rhvthni ; and there are two varicties'' of that, viz., Ártificialis and vulgaris. " Artificialis," wliere thcre 
are feet of diual tiine and equal division, with an equality iu arsis and thesis^ and so thdt the subscquent 
comcs into thc place of tho preceding in the resolution. " A'^ulgaris," where there is a correspondence in 
svUable.*, and in evcry verse and half versc', aud it is that which is here. 

Xow there are six lines in each chapter, and sixteen svllables in each line, except that in the tirst 
chaptcr there are seven lines, because in it is the Praise of God; for that odd number is suitable coinpared 
with thc othcr chapters, because of the inequality of His creatures'»; but the number six is in the creatures, 
becausc they were made in six days. There ought to be a Title and an Argument before every chapter. • 

been some error of transcription. See O'Donnell, 
loc. cit. c. 2 I . 

s Gregori/ 7nade, — Thc other account (see Col- 
gan, Tr. Thaum. p. 473, and the Preface in the 
Leabhar Breacc, p. 224) states that the messengers 
omitted threc chapters of St. Columba's bymn, and 
substituted three oftheir own composition. 

>■ Reading. — L\tcTa.\W ofshewing ; i.e. submitting 
the hvmn to him for his approval; cciippcnra, 
gen. siiig. of cairpenat». 

' /n that manner. — The mcaning i» explained by 
other versions of this Preface. So long as the 
raessengers rcad the genuine composition of St. Co- 
lumba, thc Angels and the Pope rcmaincd standing, 
the posture of reverence ; when the readers camc to 
the spurious stanzas, the Angels sat down, and the 
Popc also sat. In Colgan's version of the story, the 
Angels are represented as being visible to Gregorj- 
dnring the rccitation of the genuine parts of thc 
hymn only, and the Pope stood in revcrencc to 
them. But when thcv vani.shed at the rcpetition of 
the spurious stanzas, thc Pope sat down. The An- 
gels of course were visiblc to Gregory alonc. " In 
this manner" the hvmn was finishcd ; thc Popc 
standing during thc portions of it that werc rcally 

written by Columba, and sitting down wlien the 
substituted stanzas were recited. 

=> From them. — i. e. from the messengers. 

•^ They said. — Colgan's version and the Preface 
in the Leabhar Breacc represent this as having been 
said by Grcgory, as his judgment upon the Hymn. 
But O'Donnell omits the circumstance altogethcr. 

" Ofthe Hehrews. — i. c. after the manner of the 
alphabetical Psalms of the Hebrew Biblc. 

'' This chapter. — i. c. of the first chapter of the 

^" Two varieties. — Gpnail, a division, or varietv. 

f Arsis and thesis. — 'ApaiQ and Qíaig. ^' Arsis 
est vocis elevatio, id est, initium ; Thesis, vocis po- 
sitio, hoc est, finis." — Isidor. Hispal., Etgmolog. 
lib. iii. c. 20. 

s Halfverse This seems to mean that therc is 

assonance or rhyme in the niiddle of cverv line: as, 
vetusíi/s, ingeniÍHS ; origÍMe, crepidine ; secula, in- 
finita, &c. See the corresponding passage in the 
Prefacc in the Leabhar Breacc, p. 225, infra. 

^ OfHis creatures i. e. as compared with Ilim. 

The first stanza relating to God, and thc remainder 
to IIis creatures, it was fit that the lirst should 
consist of a greater nurabcr of lines. 


The Preface in the " Leahhar Breacc^ 


Now the proper manncr of singing this Hymn is, that Quis potest Deo^ be sung between every two 
chapters: and it is thus that its grace shall be [upon him that sings it], because it was so it was sung at 
first. Now there are manv graces upon this Hymn, viz., Angels present whilst it is sung ; the Devil 
shall not know the path of him wlio sings it everj' day ; and neither shall his enemies perceivc him in thf 
day on wliich he sings it ; and, moreover, there sliall be no strife in the house in whith it is frequently 
sung. It protects against every kind of death, except doath on the pillowJ ; and there shall be neither 
hunger nor nakedness in the place where it is frequently sung : et aliaj multa;'' sunt. 

Thc Prcface in the Leabhar Breacc, fol. 1 09 a, diífers in somc particulars from the 
foregoing. It is as follows, 'uáth a literal translation : 

Qlcup ppopccop. ColumciUe pecic hunc 
q.TriTiUTn Cpuiicaci pep pepcem anuop in 
cellula ni5pa .1. ii^ui búibpeclep mOoipe 
CholuimciUe. rio ip cuhobunb cena bopó- 
nal) uc alíí bicunc .i. Incan poboi Colum- 
ciUe in híí a oenup acc boechín na pappab 
namd. IS anb cpa popaiUpiseb bo Colum- 
ciUe oei5it) bo chibechc chuci .1. ITIoppep- 
piup be mumcip 5T"5*^ni cuncacop cuice- 
pium 6 Roim conai^cabaib leo bo .1. in 
mópgemm ColuimciUe, .1. cpopp eppibe 
inbíu, 1 immunt) na pechcmaine, 1 immunt» 
cec nóibóe ipinceclicmain 1 alia bona. 
Tloiappais cpa ColumciUe bo boechm cib 
bo biub boi p^n choiccenb. Qca, ol boe- 
chin, cpiachap copci ann. pjiichailpiu na 
haisebu a boechin, ol ColumciUe, conóe- 
chabfa bon ihuilenb. lappin gebib cpa 
ColumciUe paip m mboilc bon cloich pil ip- 
in ppoinncig in liíí, 1 ipe a hainm na clochi 
pm, nioelblacha, -\ ponap popdcbab pop 
cac mbiub bobepap poppi. 1p lappin 00 
bul bo ColumciUe bon muilenb ip anb bo- 
pigne m imunn becpo .1. Qbiucop labopan- 
cium. -] ip lapnupb apsicpech aca. 

Incan cpa bopac ColumciUe in cécpoba 

Altns prosetor. Cohimcille fecit hunc hvmnum 
Trinitati per septem annos in cellula nigra, i. in the 
Black Recles in Dcrry of Columcille, or as others 
say, it was composed extemporaueouslv', viz., 
at the titne when Columcille was at Hy alone, 
Boethin only excepted. And it was then revealed 
to ColumciUe that guests were coming to him, viz., 
seven of the people of Gregory who came to him 
from Rome with gifts for him, viz., the Mórgemm"" 
[great gem] of Columcille, that is, a cross, extant 
this day ; aiid the Hymn of the week, and a 
hvmn for everv night of the week, and other g:fts. 
Then Cohimcille asked Boethin how much food 
there was in the kitchen: "There is," said Boethin, 
"a sieve of oats there." " Attend thou to the 
stranger.s, Boethin," said Columcille, "whilst I 
go to the mill." After this Columcille took upon 
him the sack from the stone that is in the refec- 
tory in Hy, and tlie name of that stone is Jloel- 
blatha, and luck was left upon all food that is laid 
upon it. It was after that, when Columcille was 
goingto the mill, that he composed this little hvmn, 
i. e. Adjutor láborantium.'^ ; and it is in alphabetical 
order it is. 

When Columcille had put the first feed Lnto the 

' Quis potest Deo. — This antiphon occurs at the 
end of the Hymn. See p. 219, svpra. 

i On tlie pillow. — i. e. it protects froin all kinds 
of violent doath, but not from ordinary or natural 
death. Cf. Reeves' Adamnan, pp. 37, 44. 

^ Alim mulíce. — i. e. there are many other privi- 
leges, aliae multce pratia, attached to the singing of 

this Hjinn. 

I Extemporaneousli/. — There are here two ac- 
counts : one, that this Ilvmn occupicd its author 
seven years of study ; the other, that it was com- 
posed extemporaneously. Seeabove, p. 220. 

'" Múrgemm. —See above, p. 221. 

" Laborantium. — See above, p. 221, note". 

•^ -4 

l'lie Hijmn of St. Columba, '■'Altus Prosator." [Notea. 

im bel in muilinb ip anb bochuait) hi ccnt) 
int) Qlcup, 1 ip imalle popcais inrimon "oo 
benum ocup inrapbup bo blcich ; -\ n1 cpia 
copaí) pcpucani boponat), pct) pep siuiciam 

In cempope Qetxíin mic ^fbpan pi^ Ql- 
ban, T Qet^a mic Qinmipech pig Cpenn, -| 
palcup Din ba pi Tíómain incanpin. 

Caupa, cpna uoluic t)eum laubape .1. t)o 
cuinóit) Oilpuba bona cpi cachaib boponic 
inCipmn .i.CachCúilenachin inOalQpaibe 
ecappu T Comsall [bcnnchuip] i copnam 
chiUe .1. T?opp copacaip, 1 cach belaig 
pet)a appat) Chluana hlpaipb' 1 cach Cuile 
t)pemne i connacca, ■] ba bo Diapmaic mac 
Cepbaill bopaca afibip. Duccup efc aX) 5pi- 
Sopium, ec pupaci punc minipcpi cpia capi- 
cula oe pe, .1. hic publacup -[ Opbem inppa, 
1 Chpipco be coelip, 1 cpia capicula ppo eip 
inpepuepunc, -[ mmipcpip cancancibup q-m- 
num 5r'5opio> Síi'SoP'ur ^iic puppe;cic, 
t)onec aubipec aliena capicula cpia. Cc 
icepum pebic bonec ppoppia. Suppepcic 
icepum n t)i;cic illip conpicemini fpjob esip- 
cip. llli conpeppepunc, 1 t)i;cic illip cancace 
151CUP q.mnum pecunt)um opbinem a puo 
fiuccope biccum, 1 illi cancauepunc, 1 ille 
popc laut)auic lauOep. Seb t)i;cic, minup 
quam bebuic Deup memopapi in eo memo- 
pacup epc. ppepencep angeln pempep pue- 
punc cfuanbo cancacup, pic uibic ^r'Sopi"? 
angelop. TTlulce punc gpacie q.mni huiup. 
Cfuiptfuip eum cancauepic ppecpjencep 
nuncfuam at) peppecucionem inimicopum 1 

mouth of tlic mill, it wa.s then that he began tbe 
Altus ; and it was at one and the same time that 
the hymn wa.s composed, and the grinding of th»' 
corn ccmipleted ; and it was not as the result of 
study it was composed. sed per r/raliam JJomini. 

[It was composed] in the time of Aedan son of 
Gabhran, King of Alba, and of Aed son of Ain- 
mire, King of Erinn, and Falcus [Pbocas] was tbe 
King of tbe Romans at tbat time. 

The Cause was because be was desirous of firai.s- 
ing God, i. e. to ask forgiveness for tlie three battlc-.s 
which be bad causod in Erinn, viz., tbe battle of Cuil 
Ratbain [Coleraine] in DalAraide, between him and 
Conigall [of Bennchor] contending for a church, viz., 
Ross Torathair ; and tbe battle of Belacb-feda, of 
tbe weir of Clonard ; and tbe battle of Cul Dremne 
inConnacbt; and itwas against Diarmait MacCer- 
baill be fought them both". DuctusP est ad Gre- 
gorium, ct furati sunt ministri'i tria capitula de se, 
viz., ílic sublatus, et Orhem infra, et Christo' de 
cíeHs. Et tria capitula pro eis inseruerunt, et minis- 
tris cantantibus ymnum Grigorio, Grigorius bic 
surrexit, donec audiret aliena capitula tria ; et ite- 
rum sedit donec propria. Surrexit iterum, et dixit 
ilHs Confitemini quod egistis ; illi confesserunt, et 
dixit illis Cantateigitur ymnum secundum ordineni 
a suo auctore dictum ; et illi cantaverunt, et ille 
post laudavit laudes. Sed dixit, ^linus* quam de- 
buit Deus memorari in eo menioratus est. Presentes 
AngeU semper fuerunt quando cantatur ; sic vidit 
Gregorius angelos. Multas sunt gratise bvmni hujus. 
Quisquis eum cantaverit frequenter nunquam ad 
persecutionem inimicorum et demonum eveniet ei 
(luod timet pervenire ; et nesciet diabolus mortem 
ejus. Et liberet ab omni morte absque pretiosa', et 

" Both. — See Rceves' Adamnan, pp. 253-4. 

i' Ductvs. — i. e. Ilymnus ductus est. See abi)vc, 
p. 221. 

1 Ministri. — i. e. tbose who brougbt tlie ITyniu 
to Gregorv. 

' Christo. — In tbe Preface (Book of IIyinns, see 
p. 221, supra), and also in Colgan's Preface, 
the tbird stanza, said to bave been omitted by St. 
Coluinba's messengers, was Vaíjatur ex cUmutico. 

« Minus ThÍ3 is tbe same objection which is 

stated above (p. 222), and in Colgan's Preface (see 
p. 227, infra), that tbe autbor bad uot been sufli- 
cienth' earnest in tbe praise of the Triniiy. 

' Pretiosa Over tbis word is tlie gloss, .1. bap 

pe hcit)apc, "i.e. deatb on tbe j^illow" (see above, 
p. 223). Is tbere an allusion bere to ibe text, 
" Pretiosa in conspectu Doinini mors sanctorum 
ejus," ibe meaning of " abs>iue pretiosa" being " ex- 

XoTií A.] 

Tlie Preface in the " Leahhar BreaccJ' 


betnonuin cucnicr et tfiiob nnicc pcpiie- 
niTie, ■] nerciec l)iabuUir niopceni eiup. Gc 
libepec ab omni moiice abpque ppeciofa, 
-\ non epic m mpepno popc biem lubicu, 
eciampi mala mulca esepic, -\ habebic bi- 
uiciap mulcari longuicubmem peeuli. Opb 
absicpecb bna pil pop innmimiinpo, .1. 
mope ebpeopum. In lín lirep Xnn pil ipni 
ap5icip, ipe l!n capicel pil ipm miun. Ni 
icneppaib bna a caipicel bobepac ebpabi 
allicpe, acc cac licip op a caipicel cu 
popba m immuin. 1 ippeb pobepa pm ap 
aca ciall acaibpeom m omnibup licepapum, 
-[ ipi pin ciall bopeich cpiapna caipcelaib. 
Ipet) imoppo pot)epa bo ebpabaib pechimm 
uipt) alphabeci pui. .i. .;c;cn. liccepae apub 
ebpeop, ap ip ba lebop pop .;t;c. pil 1 pe- 
caplaicc. Ipet) bna pobepa baspegaib .1111. 
licpe .,T,x. accu, .;c. penpup hominip 1 .;t. 
manbacu le^ip 1 .im. euanselia. Ipet) bna 
pobepa t)o Rómancaib .111. licpe .;r;c. accu, 
.1. .;t. penpup hommum beop, ] .;c. manbaca 
^sgip, "1 cpimcnp. 

Cpia pichmim bna boponab incimmonpa, 
■\ acac t)i cpnail poppipitte .1. apci- 
picialip -| uuloopip. apcipicialip epc ubi 
piunc pebep cum cempopibup aecpjip i 
aecfua biuipione -\ cum aecfuo ponbepe, .1. 
api^p 1 cepip, 1 ubi pic pubpecfuenp ppo 
ppecebence m lupe pepolucionip. Ip hi 
imoppo m uul^apip t)u immbí in ppecpai 

non erit in inferno post diem judicii, etiamsi mala 
multa egerit, et habebit divitias multas, et longi- 
tudiiiem seculi. There is alphabetical order iu 
this hymn after the manner of the Hebrews". Tiie 
number of letters in the alphabet is the number 
of ehapters that is in this hymn. It is not, how- 
ever, at the sides of their chapters that the Hebrews 
place their letters, but each letter is over its chapter' 
to the etid of the hymn. And the reason of that 
is, that they have a meaning"' in all their letters 
\Jeg. in omnibus literis eorum], and this is the 
meaning that runs through the chapters. And this 
is the reason why the Hebrcws have followed the 
order of their own alphabet (.1. xxii. litterse apud 
Hebraos), because there are twenty-two books in the 
Old Testament''. But the reason why the Greeks 
have twentv-four letters is, because there are ten 
senses of man, and ten Commandments of the Law, 
and four Gosi)els. And the reason why the Romans 
have three-and-twenty letters is, that there are ten 
senses of man, and ten Commandments of the Law, 
and the Trinity. 

Xow this Hymn is composed in Rhy thm, of which 
tliere aretwokinds, Ártificialis and Vulgaris. The 
Artificialis is where the feet are made -with equal 
times, and ecpial division, and with equal weight, 
viz., arsis and thesis; and where the subsequent is 
for the precedent in the right of resolution. And 
this is the Vúlgaris , where there is correspondence 
of svllables, in quatrains and half quatrains ; and 

cept that death, which is precious in the sight of the 
Lord" (Ps. cxvi. 15), viz., Martyrdom. 

" Hebrews. — See above, p. 222, note <■. 

' Over its chupter The allusion is evidentlj' to 

Ps. cxviii. (Hefc. cxix.), where the acrostical or 
alphabetical order is not in the verses, but in stanzas 
of eight verses ; and the Latin MSS. of the Bible 
usually write the name of the Hebrew letter, Aleph, 
Betu, &c., over each stanza. In Iike manuer, the 
acrosticalletteriu the present Hymn belongs to the 
stanza of six verses, but, as our scholiast remarks, 
is wnttcn, not Ofer, but at the side of tach stanza. 

" A meaning. — i. e. the Hebrew letters have each 
a particular signification : Aleph is an ox ; Beth, a 
house ; Giniel, a camel, &c. ; and the stanzas com- 
mencing with these letters have a meaning corre- 
sponding to the signification of the letters. It 
would be very difficult to justify this theory by ac- 
tual analysis of the Psalm. 

'^ Old Testament. — The Irish is pecaplaicc, 
sometimes written becepleic and pecaplaicc, 
which is not a Celtic word, but probablv a corrup- 
tioii of the Latin vetus lex ; or rather, perhaps, of 
the older base of those words. 


2 20 The Hymn of S. Columba^ ^^Altiis Prosator.'' [Xotea. 

[•ilUit», .1. cecliiuinirtifm, 1 U'cliiumb ; ociip this is whal is in this Ilvinn. Now tliere are six 

irt't) i'in pil ipin iinimin. Sct lininc inioppo lines in everv Capitulum, exccpt tlie first Capitu- 

in unoqiiofpic capicnlo, crcepco ijpinio ca- lum, and si.\teen ,syllable3 in every line; and seven 

piculo ; ocup i't' piUail) .;t. m ciió linc. i lines in the first capitulum. It is fit that there 

.uii. liniap in pjiinio capiculo. Cubail) cpa should be six lines inwhich is narratedall that was 

pénapDaclic bo beich ipna caipcelaib hi finlshed in six day3. And it is fit that there should 

poil innipin bonbulib popopbaicliea cpia be seven lines in that [first] chapter, for this reason, 

penaip. Cubaib inioppo pepcinapbachc because it tells of God, for God is not comparable to 

bo beich ipin chaipciul ap in páchpa. .i. His creatures ; or it signifies the seven gradcs of the 

quob nappac t>e tieo, quob beup inipap efr, Church; orthat the nuniber seven denotes univer- 

cpeacupip puip. uel .ufi. spabup ecclepiae sality; or it signifies the seven gifts of the Holy 

pignipicac, uel cpiot» pepcenapiup uniuep- Ghost. 
picacem pignipicac. uel .uii. bona ppipirup 
pancci pisnipicac, 

'Robe cpa t)li5et> ^abala inb imuinpeo co And the rule for singing this hvmn is, that Qmi* 

posabcha cfuip pocepc, ecip caó bá chaip- potest be sung between every two chapters of it. 

ciul be. Ocup ipbe pin nobiat> a pach paip, Ax\á it is thus that one may have the benefit of it, 

ap ip amlaib pocec apcup. "]pl. for it was thus it was first sung, etc. 

On the lower margin of the page of the Leahhar Breacc, in whicli the foregoing 
Preface occurs, thcre is the foUowing quatrain, in a hand coeval with the MS. : — 

5eib m alcup cobapechc 

Na t)am cepc bo beman bup. 

Nippil salap ipm bich. 

Na cich nu cuippe pop cul., 
Sing the Altus seven times, 

Yield not thy right to the hard:- demon. 

There is no disease in the world, 

No difficultv that it will not banish'. 

Thc íbllowing is Colgan'.s abndgcd translation ofthc Prcface given in his MS., 
wluch is supposcd to be the sume that is now prcscrved in the Collegc of S. Isidore at 
Rome : — 

Locu3, in quo hic IIymnus conipositus erat, est Insula Hiensis. Author S. Columba Kille de nobili genere 
Scotorum. Tempore Aidi lilij Anmirij, Hibernise líegis, et Aidani filij Gaurani, Regis Albaniíe, seu Scotias 
Albicnsis ; fuit compositus. Causa motiva fuit, tíim vt Deus in suis operibus laudetur, túm ad deprecan- 
dam veniam propter tria prxlia inter Hibemiaj Principes conserta, quibus adoriundis S. Columba causam 
pra;buit. Erant ha;c, praeliuni deCuilrathe^i, praelium de Cuilfeadha, et prajlium de Cuile-dreimne. Feruut 
nonnulli S. Coluinbam septem annis materiam hujus Hymni meditatum, antequum ipsum Opusculum com- 
posuerit. AIii veró tradunt ipsum ex tempore iUud composuisse tali occasione. Cúm S. Columba et 
S. Baitheneus die quadam in Insula Hiensi ab alijs sequestrati agereut ; S. Columba ad Baithenum ait ; 

y Hard. — Obdurate, tyrannical, hard-hearted. ' Banish Literally, put behind. 

NoTE A.] The Preface in the " Leahhar BreaccJ' 227 

Fili supcrveiiicnt liodie nobiles et peregrini hospites a, Gregorio Pontifice Summo cum gratis donarijs ad nfis 
missi. TEquum ergó est tantis hospitibus de deccnte refectione provideatur. Et cum posteá virSanctus in- 
telligeret nihil donii reperiri, quo vllo modo etiain niiniis decenter, quam par erat, possent refici, praetervnam 
frumenti mensuram; tunc ipse cucurrit festinus ad vicinum molendinum : et antequíim molendinum injecta 
grana contriverat, vel in farinam resolverat, ipse llymnum absolvit. Ordine Alphabetico IIymnus hic 
compositus est. Quselibet ejus stropha (excepta prima, quae septem constat) sex versiculis, seu lineis con- 
stat ; et singute lineíe sedecim syllabis. Opusculura hoc iam absolutum, fuit ab authore per quosdam dis- 
cipulos prasentatum et oblatum Gregorio Magno Pontifici in recognitionem pretiossissimi donarii (nempe 
Sanctissimre Crucis. quaj Mor-ffheam, id est Magna, seu Pretiosa gemma, vocatur) quod idem Sanctissimus 
Pontifex ante S. CoIumbíE per suos legatos miserat. Pro tribus autem capitulis, seu strophis ejusdem 
Opusculi, á S. Columba compositis ; qui incipiunt ; Hic sublatm t medio, &c. Orbeni infrá vt lcffimus, &c. 
Vaffatur ex climatico, &c. discipuli eius legati sustituerunt tres alios á se compositos, vel animo expis- 
candi summe tunc prajdicatam S. Pontificis virtutem et sanctimoniam ; vel reverit dispositione occulta Divini 
Numinis volentis vtriusque Sancti eximiam virtutem reddere orbi notiorem. Cúm enim Hymnus iUe coram 
Gregorio recitaretur, Angeli Dei recitantes stipabant : quibus visis Pontifex Sanctus é sede assnrgens, in 
pedes se erexit ; et sic stans venerabundus perstitit, donec ad supposititias strophas perventum esset : quibus 
legi coe.ptis Angeli recedebant, ac illis recedentibus Pontifex illicó in sede subsedit. Ac postquám jam tertió 
alternatis vicibus Pontifex ad lectionem supposititiorum capitulorum resedisset, ac ad genuinorum resump- 
tionem assurrexisset ; tandem finita Hymni lectione Gregorius Hvmnum depravatum esse in spiritu recog- 
noscens, missos nuncios adiurat, quatenus fateantur, an ipsi vel alij aliqua in Hymno immutaverint. IIIi 
religione perculsi, suam culpam, miraculo proditam, fatentur, veniamque supplices deprecantur, ac obtinent 
a Clementi Pontifice, qui et Opusculum magnopere laudavit, solumque illud sibi in eo displicere dixit, quod 
author parciús in eo de Trinitate disseruerit, quám optaret. Et ha;c fuit occasio, ob quam S. Columba com- 
posuerit alium subsequentem Hymnum, qui incipit ; In te Christe credentium &c. Plures pié creduntur 
gratia; et virtutes hmc Hymno divinitus concessae. Prima, quod pié eum recitantes, nec á díemone sint in- 
festandi, nec ab hoste vulnerandi, eo die quo eum recitaverint. Secunda, quod a litibus et discordijs domus 
illa sit immunis in qua consueverit recitari. Tertia, quod locus in quo consueuerit recitari, a fame et inopia 
sit prseservandus. Quarta, quod quotidie eum recitans, non aliu quam naturali et placida morte sit interi- 
turus, &c.— Triad. Thaum., p. 473. 

O'Donnell, in his Life of St. Columba, as published in a Latin abridgment by 
Colgan, has also given tbe Legend relating to tbe occasion of composing tbe Altus, in 
a form e\TLdently taken from some copy of tbe Book of Hymns. As Colgan's work is 
veij scarce, and as tbis narrative sbows bow O'DonneU nnderstood some passages of 
the Prefaces, it may be well to insert bis version of the story here : — 

Sanctus Gregorius Papa cúm die quadam Romse in sua Ecclesia sacrosancto interesset Missse sacrificio, 
vidit crucem ligneara Angelorura manibus super altare collocari : quam quidam ex adstantibus Clericis dúm 
inde levare aut alio transferre niterentur, nequaquam loco dimovere potuerunt. Cunctis eam ob rem admi- 
ratione attonitis, summus ipse Pontifex accessit, cruccmque continuó levans; Hsec, infit,palara ad adstantes, 
nec mihi, nec cuipiam vestrum ; sed cuidam Dei servo, cui nomen Columba, extremum orbem incolenti, a 
Deo est destinata! Quare accersitos quosdara Clericos jubet ut se itineri accingant, et demissum cselitús 
donum pr.'cmemorato Christo famulo in Hy insulam perferant. Ijs profectis, et jam Hiensi ccenobio vicinis 
S. Columba de eorum adventu et suscepti itineris causa ab Angelo admonitus ; hac nocte, inquit ad suos, 
venerabiles ad nos hospites Gregorij Papce nuntij divertent: curate igitur iit ijs bene sit de coena provisum. 

2 G 2 

2 28 Tlie Hymn of St. Columba, ^^Altus Prosator'' [Xoteb. 

l'aiiló post ciim illi advcnissent, nihilquc in Monastcrio rcpertum, (\\\><i\ taiiiis hospitibus dignum erat ap- 
poni, pneter unum subcineritium panem, et pocuhim unum vini in usum sarriíicij reservatum ; vir Sanctus 
eam ob rem vcrecundatus, illa ipsa ailferri jussa in Christi nomine benedixit, et iam hospitibus apposita, 
l'hristo annuente sic multiplicavit, ut hospitibus totique famillaí reficiendis abunde sulTcccrint. Porró 
nunlii Pontiticis commis.«um donum viro Sancto con.-iguarunt ; estque iUud celebre monumentura quod in 
Torachia occidua HibcrniaB insula (cujus supra mentio saspiús facta est) in memoriara Columbíe asseruatum 
Crux magna vu1g6 appellatur. 

Post hajc S. Columba tres í; suis discipulis Ilomam ablcgavit, qui rythmum quem in SanctissimsB 
Trinitatis laudem ipse composuerat paucis verbis multa obstrusiora sacra; scripturx mvsteria complexus, 
Sancto Gregorio Magno prxsentarent. Xuntii ergo Romam perlati priusqúam creditam opellam Pontifici 
porrexerant, tria ex eius medio capitula, substitutis totidem, fiure ipsi fuerant comnienti, temerí' expunxe- 
ruut, experimentum scilicet ea re facturi an Gregorius cujus tum fama sanctitatis increbuerat, supposititia 
metra h reliquis discemeret; vel an pari laudi utraque commendaret Rjthmum itaque sic interpolatum 
cum Sancto Antistiti praesentassent, et coram eo, eique assistente purpuratorum coroua iussi legere crjepis- 
sent Magnus Pontifex se in pedes erexit, sicque venerabuudus perstitit, donec ad apochripha illa capitula 
perventum erat : quibus legi cocptis, continuó resedit ; sed iam perlectis iterato surgens, reliqua stans ex- 
cepit. Ad híec admirati í|uidam praesentium optimatum, cúm insuetae et aliquantisiier interruptaí venera- 
tionis causam sciscitarentur ; respondit Pontifex se ideó, dúm Rvthmi initium perlegeretur, stetisse, quod 
intereu Angelos Sanctos stipasse legentiura latera conspexisset ; posteu vero subsedisse, quód boni Genii 
aliquantisper disparuissent ; iisque iterum se venerabundum surrexisse, et in eo situ in finem perseverasse. 
Ad hajc audita nuntii simul admiratione attoniti, simul etiam religione perculsi, suam imposturam, certam 
scilicet interruptoe Angelorum priEseutise causam humiliter fassi, temeritatis veniam obtinuerunt á Clementi 
Pontifice ; qui et oblatum rythmum magiiopere laudauit, ct authorem Apostolicaj sedis indultis auctum, 
suo nomine salutari mandauit. — Triad. Thaum., p. 412. 

The Gloss in the Leahhar Breacc. 
As tlie various readings of tlie tcxt, or rather fragment of the tcxt, of this Hvmn, 
Ijrcservcd in the Leahhar Breacc^, have been ab:cady fiilly givcn in thc notcs, it 'will 
only be necessary to publish here the intcrlincar Gloss which occurs in that MS. It 
is quite diíferent from the Gloss in thc Liher líijmmrum, although in somc placcs thcy 
coincidc, as if takcn from some common source. It is necessarj to state that this 
fragmcnt cuntains onlv the stanzas or '* Capitula" A to H, inclusive. The numbers 
refer to the Hnes of the Hynin. 

I. Mtus'^. bit) bna alcup "| almup hic plumt) huaiple, ec ibeo ponicup liic, ap j^luint)ib 
liuaiple acup iple t)0 uc cicepo t)icic alcum mapc ec alcum celum. Qlmup imoppo 

* Leabhar ^reacc— "SpecWed Book," in Old shown by the correspondiug word in VVelsh, viz., 

Irish lcbap bpecc. Theadjective Breacc hasge- brych, where the ch has certainly arisen from the 

nerallv hitherto bten spelt Breac, incorrectly, how- combination cc, as in iechnit (sanitas), Old Irish 

evcr ; the ancient orthograpby was hrecc, as is lcc ; bichan (parvus), 0. Ir. becc ; pechawt 

noteb.] The Gloss in tlie ^^ Leabhar Breacc^ 229 

liuaiflc concum ropnoip. ["Now altus and almus both denote nobility: and thcrefore it 

(viz. altus) is put here, for it denotes iiigh and low, as Cicero s:iys, Altum mare, et aUum Cfjelum. 

Alnius signifies nobleness only."] 
Prosetor''. In the margin is this note, "Seminator, vitis; sertor, agri; sator, horti ; sero, sevi, statum 

[leg. satiun] ; urainor, idem ; sator; prosero, vi, prositatum ; incop contieni [the tor raalces] 

Vetustus'K .i. qui sperit [^a. fuerat] ante tcmpore. 
Dierum. dies .i. a dividendo lucem a tenebris. 

2. Absqve origine. .i. Deus Pater origine erat prius in tempore. 

Primordi. .1. quando in forma venit, vel materia uniuscuiusque rei in masa \leg. massa]. 

Crepidine'^. .1. cen popcenb [without end], ap posabap crepido hic m copc cpich no ceTi- 
pocha [for crepido is sometimes found to signifv cnd or termination], ut in lege dicitur s[acerdos 
decurrere faciet] sanguinem ad crepidinem altaris, id est, ad fundamentura [Lev. i. 15]. 

3. Est et erit^. .i. non proprie dicitur de deo erat, vel erit, sed tantura est, quia presens est ; sed eliraenta 

erant ante, quia ut augustinus alt erant in notitia dei et non erant sua natura. 

4. Cui est-. .i. nemo potest esse est. 

Christus. .i. misias in cbreo, christus in greco, unctus in latino 

5. Coeternus^\ .i. ut dicitur genuit verbum omni raodo simile sibi qua locutio patris est filius ut dlcitdauid 

semel locutus est [Ps. Ixi. 12] id est filium unum genuit. 

6. Non tris. .i. si dicamus tris personas unum esse deum confitemur, si unum deum confitemur tris personas 

credimus, .i. utdicit hironimu&' si unus sol est in intigra cum luce etcalore, ita cst sol deus pater, lux 
est filius, calor est spiritus sanctus. 

8. Creavit. Deus .i. altus prosetor. 

Angelos. .i. angelus grece. maloch, ebreice. nuntius, latine. 

9. Sedium. .i. tronum [read thronorum]. 

10. Uti. .i. prout. 

Bonitas. .i. Dei beneuolentia. Otiosa. .1. beaich no t)ímáin. .1. cen mame beipniub [lazy or 
idle, i. e. not to bestow wealth]. 

11. Trinitatis. .i. trinitas quasi trina unitas. 

(peccat-um), 0. Ir. peccat) ; mgngch (frequens), ^ Vetustus. — The word sperit in this Gloss seeras 

0. Ir. memcc; and the other examples given by a mistake. Perhapswe should read/aiV, orfuerat. 

Zeuss, Gramm. Celtica, i. 173. "^ Crepidine. — See the note on this word, p. 206, 

^ Altiis. — This is an attempt to explain why supra. 

altus, not almus, is used in the Hymn : altus f Est et erit. — The Editor has been unable to 

having a more extensive signification. find the words here quoted from St. Augustine. 

<= Prosetor. — This note is intended to give the s Cui est. — The reference is probably to Exod. iii. 

etymology of Prosator. It explains that we use 14, "Nemo potest esse est." 

seminator, of a vine ; sertor, of land ; and sator, of h Coeternus. — The interpretation here given to 

a garden. Uminor ought probably to be seminor. the words, "serael locutus est," will be found in 

There is e\-idently some corruption ; but the mean- St. Augustine ; Enarr. in Ps. Ixi. 12, '• Apud se serael 

ing seems to be that, as from sero, sevi, satum, Deus locutus est, quia ununi Verbum genuit Deus." 

comes sator, so also from prosero, prosevi, prosa- ' Hironimus. — The Editor has not found this pas- 

tum, we have the noun iu tor, " prosator." sage in St. Jerome's worlis. 


The Ihjmn of St Columba, ^^Altus Frosator.'' [Note b. 

iMrgiatatii. .1. nj)!]' Ol'lobap |ioboi l)Ui Fpio níjúli [because God was munificent to liis 

12. JJaberet. Ut. 

Celetlia. .i. misterio, vel elimenta. 

Privelegia. [sic] .1. pomial) Tio bcprciisut) 011511 fccli Tia bfili aiichenci [tbe great digiiitj- or 
iUustriousness of angels above all the other creatures]. 

13. Magnopcre. .1. inniopsnechie [leg. immópsnechil), which is an exact translation of marrnopere]. 
Fatimini. .1. onbf op peceop [from the word/eíeor (i. e.fateor or /o/or)]. 

14. Celi. .1. Celum a celsitudine sua nomen rectisime accepit. 
Apice. Apicem dicit. .i. culmen regni aut summitatem. 

15. Venustate. i. quaíi honorabilitate. Speciminis, i. na belbi, no m gnée [of the countenance, or 

outward appearance]. 
J.ucifer. i. lucem ferens. 
Formaverat. i. deus. 

16. Apottatceqve. .1. nanbipceinmnech [the fallen ones] apostata grece: recessor a fide vel viles [read 

vilis] interpretatur. 
Lugubri. .1. lugubri. i. flebili. i. immopbuba tioibpim uobeppin -\ t)ona touilib apcena uaip po- 
mell caipmcechc angelopum lac [.1. in great melancholy to themselves, aud to other crea- 
tures also, because the transgression of the angels deceived them]. 
iS. Cenodoxiae. .i. ceno, uanae, doxia grece gloria interpretatur. .1. 111 bepmaic pfp [of the perpetual 
oblivion], a diabulo contra hominem. 

19. Ceteris. .i. angeli perfecti. 

/n suis principatibus. .i. in proposito suo perseverant in celo. 

20. Draco. .1. diabulus, duplex consiliator interpretatur ; dia, Grece, duo, latine; bulus, Grece, consilia- 

tor, latine. 

2 1 . Serpens. .1. in aplach popábam [the tempting of Adam]. 

21. Lubricus. .i. lubricus, eoque ibi labitur, lubrum .1. cpant) in opience pop na lenain cuile ap a 

(p)lémni pel) cabenc, -j bobepap uab ap cac plemon -| eóin bíce m abaip -| ip X)\a 
caccpibe bosnichet) in pipic [i. e. a tree in the East on which flies stick because of ius 
lubricitj', sed cadent, and from it the name is given to everything slipperv ; and it is from the 
dung of birds that live in its top that the silk was manufactured]. 
Sapientior. .i. sapientia fit in bono et in malo, in bono ut dicitur, initium sapientie timor domini, ut 
dicit christus, perdam sapientiam sapientium huius mundi, vel sapientia bupbbu [follv], ut dicit 
sapientia hujus mundi. 

22. Bestiis. .i. beatia ab essu [from eating] more feriatatis [sfc] dicta est 
Terrae. .i. terra dicta est a torrento, eoque commouentiura gressibus atteritur. 
Ferocioribus. .i. ferox eoque feriatatem exerceat. 

23. Terliam partem. .i. graduum celestium. 
Siderum. .i. angelorum. 

Traxit. .i. draco. 

Harathntm. .i. in puteum .i. quasi voratrum .i. uorago ut circirius [?] dicit, Baratrum .i. hintus tcrre .i. 
putcreus in profundo maris et tcrrc. Baratrum .1. loc lUáicep penopi 1 ni ceUsirhep ay co 
bdp. i bobepap uat) fx\\ cach gpaim apchena [i. e. a place into which old people are cast, 
tliey are not lct out of it till death, and the name is given from it to every kind of incarceration 

xoTiíB.i The Gloss in the '■'' Leahhar Breacc^ 231 

24. Infernalium. .i. in putcum. 

Carcerum. .i. isidorus dicit eo quod homines coercentur. [^Etijmol. lib. v. c. 27, xv. c. 2.] 

25. Refugas. .1. elachcha [i. deserters]. 
Veri luminis. .i. christi. 

Parasito. .1. parasita, puippeoip no bíiecaipe no bpenchuchi [i. parasita, a buflfoon or deluder, 

or a stinking pond, den, or dungeon]. 
Precipites. .1. innac[p]apcapci a biabulo [i. e. cast dowa by the devil]. 

26. Excelsus. .i. deus .i. quasi valde excelsus. 

Machinam. 1. inmaip no in chuichech [the mass, or the machine]. 

Armoniam. .1. mcimchuibbiup pil ecip na buile [the harmony which is between the creatures], 
ut dicit boetiusJ, .1, buine o bume [between man and man] et cetera. 

27. Celuni et terram. .i. pro omni creatura uisibile, vel corpus. 
Mare. .i. seculum vel scribtura. 

Aquas. mapaic, ebraice; maron, grece; mare, latine dicitur ; aquas dicuntur tribulationes seculi, 
vel doctrina scribturíe. 

28. Herbarum. .1. herba quasi serpa, eo quod serpit. 

Virgultorum. .1. mnacaille no mnapuba [i. e. of the wood, or of the forest]. 
Arbuscula. .1. na pualapcacha. 
2g. Solem. .i. christum. 
Lunam. .i. ecclesiam. 
Sidera. .i. justi. 

Ignem. .1. uindicte vel gratiae, et preces sancti. 
Bestias. .i. ferociores seculi, ut dicitur, quicquid ore bibit bestia nominatur. 

31. Hominem. .i. adam vel christum. Z)emam .1. pabeoib. 
Regere. .1. omnia elimenta. 

Protoplastum. .1. cecchpuca [first-formed], protos, grece; primus, latine; plastum, grece; forma- 
tum latine dicitur ; vel protoplastum grece, corpus latine dicitur. 

32. Etheris. .1. mecheoip [of the ether, or air]. 

33. Conlaudaverunt. Postquam creati sunt dicentes, sanctus, sauctus, sanctus dominus deus sabaotb. 
Prcemirubili. .1, apmnoppeb nbepmaip [i. e. on the great operator]. 

34. Molis. Non corporalis molis. 

PresagmineK Presagmine .1. o chaipcecul no oplosoipóemcechc [leg. plo5 aipchembechc] 
ap ppepul 1 asmen pilanb -\ ippeb pempoboi boabam [i.e. from instruction, or from host- 
leadership : for presul a.ná agmen are in it; and that is what was Adam's] uc biric cic dona- 
vit deus cunccta. Adam vero nominibus ea nominavit. 

Opificem. .1. gnmibenmaib. .i. opus et faciens. 

35. Preconio. .1. ónbupbonail mí^lbclmige. .i. [from the praiseful exclamation] sanctus sanctus 

sanctus domiuus deus sabaoth. 

36. Concentuque. .1. on caipchecul épcpsno [i. e. from the illustrious instruction], 
Grates. pro gratias, sed causa rithmi. 

Boetius. — The Editor has not succeeded in veri- blunder for cip, i. e. cipme, or Hieronymus, for 

fving this reference. so the Irish call St. Jerome ; but the Editor has 

^ Presagmine. — In tlie Gloss on this word, cic not found the words quoted in any of St. Jeromes 

seems as if intended for Cicero, but is possibly a writings. 

232 Tln: Hijmn of St. Columha^ ^'Altiis I'rosator" [Noik d. 

37. Aiiiorf. .'}. pro. 

Arbitrio. .i. arbitrium cst proprium \^sic'\ conatus anime. 

fsatura. .1. [iit] iiindtiaicniut) iiocliltiniuit) liiolcit) bú [(not) in tlieir naturo was the of 
(ioil planted], sed ia voluntute et postetate [potestate] sua, sicut ostendit aute, ubi dixit, aniore et 
arbitrio, quod dicit augustinus natura quas nec recipit miuus nec plus quam (juod ab origine trahit. 
non invitus ergo laudante doiuiuum sed ex voluntate. 

38. Grasatis. .i. a diabulo. 
Primis duobus. i. adam et eua. 

39. Zabulus. .1. pocul 5pect)a [a Grcek word], de consiliariis interpretatur, vel iufirmus lop gcnnaicli 

110 coniat) t)on pocul a]^ tnabulup bosnechea gabulup rpia. .g. a .t). ciiia chercat;, or 
zabnlus, was made from the word diabulus, througli z from d [i. e. by chaiiging d to z], through cou- 
traction [lit. cuttiug-down]. 

40. Quorum. .1. demoniorum. 

41. Constemareniur. .1. T\a palóicip [what they concealed] quia iuvisibiles sunt demones. 
Frogiles. .1. fragilis dicit eo quod facile frangi potest. 

42. Non valeutes. .1. na paiUriSCip [i. e. what they revealed]. 
Hec intueri. .1. agmina diabalitica, vel carectera et volitantia. 

43. Fascibus. Fascibus .1. innasiininib .1. nia connnib aniail spinne .1. cac coinont) bib muluc 

pamsnupca aniail gpnine [i. e. inthe bundles, i. e. iu thcir comonds [assemblics?] likebundles, 
i. e. each comond of them in its propcr place like a bimdle. 

44. Suhlatus. .1. diabulas, .i. a conspectu dei vel ex imitate. 

45. Cujus. .i. diabuli. 

Constipatur. .1. blucaiji no líncap [i. e. is closed, or is filled]. 
Satilitum. .1. nanamup [i. e. of the soldiers]. 

46. Globo. .1. o chuaipc no o buibm [i. e. by a circle, or by a crowd]. 

rerduellium. .1. mnanbechacli, inter seipsos invicem semper, no cach contra dcum ct ho- 
mines. Duellum .i. quasi duobus bellis bellatoi-um .i. qui bellis bellum interpretatur vel liostis ut 
cic dixit. Alitcr perduellium. .1. naincibe, quia fit perduellis inimicus. 

47. Exemplaribua. .1. o énópophlb bemonuiTi [i. e. from the examples(?) of donions]. 
Imbuti. .1. popcchi. 

48. Septis. -i. septus a quo septis est, semper labidum [read lapidum] est. Septus autem lignorum. .i. cus- 

tudias angelicas et uirtutes christi significat. 

49. FornicarentuT. .i. perdirentur, pro omni peccato fornicatio ponitur hic, .i. quia non delarent [sie'] ho- 

mines peccata sua si uide[rentur]. 

On tlic lowcr margin of this pago (109 h) occurs tho following (]uatrain : — 

puil cpmi, puil rpmi 
nablesoip bobochc t)e bf : 
t>nnint)a babechait) cipe, 
cepachc ocup dibele. 

There are three things, therc are three things 
That are uiilawful to the poor of thc living God : 
Thaiiklcssncss for thcir life, whatsoever it be, 
Dissatisfaction and íiíte/e (|)recipilaiKy?) 

NoTnC.] Translation of tlie ITymn, S^-c. 233 


Translation of the Hijmn, and of the Scholia prefixed to ííh several Stanzas. 

In the following attempt to translate tliis Hjmn, the Editor is not at all sure that hc 
has always succeeded in expressing the author's meaningj. The Latinity is extremely 
rude, and the readings in some places cornipt ; nevertheless, the translation, and notes 
appended to it, may possibly be an assistance to some rcaders : — 

Capitulum A. 
The Title'' is, De unitate et Trinitate trium personurum, and the Argument is the Canon [i. e. the text of 
Scripture] upon which the Capituhim is founded, as is read in Daniel [vii. 9] or in Isaias [vi. i ?], Vetustns 
dierum sedehat super sedem suam. Vetustus dierum £etemus temporuiti erat. Vetustus dierum Deus dici- 
tur, pro multitudiue dierum ante quos Deus erat ; vel quia fuit [per] omnia tempora. It is the canon of a 
prophet he gives in it, quia ipse propheta erat ; and it is from Daniel in particular he takes it, becaiise 
he -(vas the latest and noblest: but Colum-cille was the latest and uoblest of the prophets of Erinn. 

The High Father, the Aucient of Days, and unbegotten, 

Was without origin of begiuning, and foundation' ; 

Is and shall be to infinite ages of ages ; 

With whom is Christ the Only-begotten, and the Holy Ghost 

Coeternal iu the glory of the everlasting Godhead : 5 

We preach'" not three Gods, but we sav there is one God, 

Saving our faith iu three most glorious Persons. 

Capitulum B. 
This is the Title», De formatione novem graduum, tribus prsetermissis, non per iguorantiam, sed pro 
angustia capituli pretermisit. But the Argument is, Fiat lux et facta est :— 
Ile created the good Angels, Archangels, and the Orders 
Of Principalities", and Thrones, Powers and Virtues 

j i»/eanm<7.— Dr. John Smith, Minister of Camp- narum if he in ncul [this is the Title]. In 

belton, in his Life of St. Columba (Edinb. 1798), iiiioppo in apgcnnamc [this, however, is the Ar- 

has given in his Appendix (p. 137) a very loose gument], ut dicitur in Danelio [sic], Eece videbam 

poetical paraphrase of this IIymn, which, however, sedespossita et vetustus dierum sedebat super sedem 

throws no light on its philological difficulties, and suam." 

can scarcely be called a translation. ' Foundation.— Crepido may signify ' founda- 

'' The Title Colgan has abridged the Scholium tion;' and therefore ahsque crepidine, 'withoutanv- 

thus: "Titulusest; De Vnitate et Trinitate perso- thing to stand on,' 'self-dependent.' See note, 

narum. Argumcntum veró ex iUo Danielis vel p. 206. But perhaps it mav also siguifv 'breach," 

Isaiíe : Fetustmdierum sedebat super sedem suam." 'interval,' 'fissure.' See Du Cange, in voc, and 

See note, p. 206, supra. The Leabhar Breacc has, comparetheuseof theword cre6rare, hue62(p. 215, 

" De unitate et Trinitate Dietatis [sic] trium perso- supra, and uote). 



The Hymn of St. Colurnba^ " Altus Frosator" [Note c. 

That the Goodness and llajesty of the Trinity might not be iuactiveP lo 

In all functions of bountifulness, 

But might have something whcreby to show fortli 

Celestial privilegesi largely in all possible expression. 


De transmigratione' novem graduum principis, tliis is the Title. But it is from the Apocalj-pse the 
Argument is taken, i.e. Vidi Stellam de celo cccidisse in terram : et in Esaia, Quomodo cecidisti Lucifer, 
ijui mane oriebarit. 

From f he summit of the kingdom of heaven, of angelic rank, 

From the brightness of effulgence, from the loveliness of beauty, 15 

Lucifer, whom God had made, fell by being proud, 

And the apostate angels, -with the same mournful fall 

Of the author of vain-glory, and of obstinate envy ; 

The rest remaining in their Principalities. 

>" We preach. — " Depromimus," we put forward,' 
' we propound,' or 'teach. ' 

n This is the Title. — Colgan gives the Scholium 
thus : " Tit. Dc formatione novem graduum Ange- 
lorum, tribus praitermissis : non per ignorantiam, 
sed per augustiam capituli príetermissis. Argu- 
mentum ex illo, Fiat lux etfacta est." The Scbo- 
lium in the Leábhar Breacc is as foUows: " De 
formatione .ix. graduum, tribus prsetermissis, ipe 
in cicul [this is the Title]. Ipi iTnoppo in 
cipgainainc [this, however, is the Argument], 
Quod in Genesi dicitur, Fiat lux etfacta est lux." 

•> Principalitics. — The readingof C, "Archange- 
los et ordines," has been adopted iu the translation. 
See p. 207, note. See Col. i. 16: " Sive throni, 
sive dominationes, sive principatus, sive potestates." 

Vulg. Our anthor nses sedes for throni, for the 

sake of his metre. See note, p. 207, supra. 

p Jnactive. — " Uti non esset bonitas otiosa." 
These words occur in the Treatise, De Ecclesiasticis 
Dogmatihus, which is attributed to Gennadius of 
Marseilles (Ceillier, Hist. des Auteurs Eccl. xv. 475), 
and which has also been published in the worlcs of 
St. Augustine (Ed. Bened. viii. App. p. 75), and of 
Isidore of Seville ( i't/. Roma:, 1803, tom. vii. App. 
No. 13). The words of this Treatise, which our 
authoT evidently borrowed, are as foUows: — "In 
principio creavit Dcus coclum et tcrram, et aquam 

ex nihilo. Et quum adhuc tenebrae ipsam aqnam 
occultarent, et aqua terram absconderet, facti sunt 
angeli, et omnes coilestes virtutes, ut non esset 
otiosa Dei honitas, sed baberet, in quibus ante 
spatia bonitatem suam ostenderet," &c. — c. 10. 
On the author and antiquity of the book, De 
Eccl. Dogmatihus, see the Isidoriana, tom. ii. of 
the AVorks of S. Isidore (supr. cit.), p. 31, cap. 83, 
n. 10, sq. 

1 Privileges. — The reading Privilegia is here 
adopted, for the reason assigned in the note on 
line 12, p. 208. It has been found impossible to 
make the lines of the translation coincide with 
those of the original, and there seemed no object 
in attempting to be so rigidlv literal. 

■■ De transmigratione Colgan reads: "Tit. De 

translatione novem graduum principis. Argumentum 
ex illo Apocalipsis, Vidi stellam de calo cecidisse. 
Et ex Isaia. Quomodo cecidisti Lucifer, qui mane 
orieharis." The Scholium in the Leahhar Breace is, 
" De transmigratione .ix. graduum angdorum, vel 
de peccato Adae, ipe m rirul [this is the Title]. 
Ifi imoppo m opoumainr [this, however, is the 
Argument], quod dicitur in Apocalipsi, J'idi Stel- 
lam cecidisse in terram. Et in Essia dicitur, Quo- 
modo Lucifer cecidisti mane oriebaris." The pas- 
sages of Scripture quoted are Apoc. ix. i, and Is. 
xiv. 12. See the notes on this Capitulum. p. 208. 


Translation of the Hymn^ Sfc 


Capituluji D. 

De ruina^ Diaboli, ia the Tiúe : i.e. De mutatione nominia Luciferi in Draconem. And tliis is the 
Argument, ut est in Apocalypsi, Ecce Draco Rufus habens capita septem, et cornua deeem, et cauda eju» 
traxit secum tertiam partem siderum vel stellarum [Apoc. xii. 3]. 

The Dragon, great, raost foul, terrible and old, 20 

Who was the slippery serpent, more wise 

Than all the beasts and fiercer' animals of the earth, 

Drew with him the third part of the stars, 

Into the pit of infernal places, and of diverse prisons, 

Deserters^ of the true Light, cast headlong^ by the parasite. 25 

Capitulum E. 

De creatione elementorum mundi et liominis regentis ea postea more, is the Titlc. Andthisis the Ar- 
gument: In principio fecit Deus celum et terram, ut iii Genesi dicitur [Gen. i. i]. 

The Most High" in His foresight had made the structure and harmony of the world, 

The Heavens and the Earth, founded the sea and waters, 

The buds also of grasses, the twigs of shrubs, 

The sun, moon, and stars, the fire and necessary things, 

Birds, fishes, and cattle, beasts, and aniraaLs. 30 

Lastlv, the first-createdy raan, to rule with pre-eminence. 

« De ritina. — Colgan gives the Scholium thus: 
" Tit. De ruina Diaboli. Argumen. vt est in Apoca- 
lypsi, Ecce Draco magnus, rufus, habens capita 
septem et cornva decem : et cauda ejus traxit tertiam 
partem sgderum seu stellarum." The Scholium in 
B. is, "De ruina diabuli vel de motatione \sic'] no- 
minis Luciferi in Draconem, Ece [ííc] Draco ru- 
phus habens .vii. capita et .x. cornua, et cauda ejus 
trasit tertiam partem." 

t Fiercer. — B. and C. rea,á ferocioribus, which is 
foUowed in the translation. 

>» Deserters. — The reading of B. is here adopted, 
refugas, the acc. pl. of refuga, in apposition \rith 
tertiam partem (line 23) : — " He drew with him the 
third part, &c., who were deserters, &c." 

" Cast headlong The Editor is by no means sure 

that he has translated this passage rightly : he has 
left the word parasite untranslated, because he knows 
not how to render it consistently with the Gloss (see 
p. 209, supra, note on 1. 25). He is verv much dis- 


posed to adopt the coujecturalreading/joraííjso, and 
to translate, " cast down from paradise." Or per- 
haps the meaning may be, " cast down from being 
(in a good sense) a parasite," i. e. a servant entitled 
to sit at his master's table. 

*! The Title. — C. omits mundi. For " postea 
more," C. reads "postea more regis;" and B., "ea 
more regis," omitting "postea." The insertion of 
regis is necessary to the sensc. In C. and B. the 
words, " ut in Genesi dicitur," are before, not after, 
the quotation. 

^ Most High. — The Latin is Excelsus, but the 
GIoss in the Leabhar Breacc is, " .i. Deus .i. quasi 
valde excelsus." The construction evidently is. 
"Excelsus [Deus] prajvidens fecerat" — the Most 
High in His Providence, &c. 

> First created. — So protoplastum is evidentlv to 
be understood. The animals were brought to Adam 
to be named, as a symbol of his pre-eminence and su- 
perioritv. See the note on Pra:sagmine, p. 2 10, supru. 



The ILjmn of St. Columba, '■'' Altus Prosator." [Xotec. 


'riiis Í9 the Title', fíe LaudeDei ab anpeli» in tjnarta feria dicentet\ Sanctus, Sanctui, Sanctus, Domi- 
Hu$, Deus Sahaoth. This is the Argument, Quando feci celum et terram, coUaudaverunt tne angeli. ut in 
Sapientia Salomonis'' dicitur. 

The stars, the luminaries of the ether, being made together 

■\Vith wondrous structure' ; the angels joined in praising 

The Lord of the immense mass, the Architect of the heav'enly bodies. 

With glorious, mcet, and unceasing*' praise, 35 

And with noble concent gave thanks to the Ix)rd, 

In love and free will, not from endowment of nature*. 

Cai'itclcm G. 

De peccato Adtt, et de secunda ruina Diahnli in seductione Ada, is the Titlef. This is the Argument, 
Maledictus eris serpens, terram comederis omnihus diehus vitce, ut in Genesi dicitur [Gen. iii. 14]. 

Our fírst two parents having been assailed and seduced, 

The Devil falls a second time?, with his satellites, 

(That, by the horror of whose countenances, aud their noise as they fly, 40 

Frail men terrified by fear might be aíFrighted, 

Unable with bodily sight to look on these things), 

Who'» are now boxmd with the ties' and bonds of their prison-houses. 

' Title. — See the note, pp. 210, 211. 

* Dicentei. — It is so also in B. ; Colgan has cor- 
rected it into dicentibus. 

*" Sapientia Salamonis. — See the note, p. 211, 
supra. Both B. and C. put the clanse " ut in Sa- 
pientia Solomoiiis dicitur" before, not after, the 
quotation, "Quando feci celum," &c. It is re- 
markable that S. Gregory Nazianzen (Orat. xix. 
tom. i. p. 373, Ed. liened.) quotes a passage from 
Job as the words of Solomou (ró '2o\ofiijjvTO(;), 
which tbe Benedictine editors suppose to be a 
mistake: " Lapsus memoriá hic videtur Gregorius" 
(they 8ay) "dum Salomoni tribuit verba quoe in 
libro Job occurrunt;" but others see iu this a con- 
fírmation of the o|>inion that Solomon was the author 
or translatorof the Book of Job. — Ilardouin, C/iro- 
nol. Vet. Ttst. (Opp. Select., M. Amslel. 1709, p. 
533). The ediloris not aware of any other instance 
of the Book of Job being cited under thc nanie of 
Sajnentia Salomonis. 

"^ Wondrous structure. — " Factis factura praími- 
rabili," seems to be tlie connexion. 

J Unceasing. — This seems to be the meaning of 
immohile: immovable praise is unceasing, ever- 
lasting praLse. 

« Necessitij of nature " Donario," gift or en- 

doAvment of naturo. Their was the result of 
love and free will, not arising from any natural or- 
ganization or necessity. See the Gloss, p. 210. 

f The Title C. has only, " Tit. De peccato Adse, 

Argum., ut in Genesi dicitur, Maledicta serpens com- 
edes, terram omnibus diebus vita tucB." B. gives 
the Scholium thus : "Ife in Cicul [this is the 
Title], De peccato Adae. Ip hi int) upsanicmc 
[this is tiie Argiinient], quod in Genesi dicitur J/n- 
ledictus esse [«íc] setpens.'" "See Gen. iii. 14. 

8 A second time. — See note, p 211. 

•» ffho. — i. e. the Devil and his sateilites. 

' Ties. — " Fascis" seems here uscd in the sense of 
fascia, a tie or ligature. 


Translation of the Hymn^ S^'c. 


Capituluji II. 
be ejeetione DiahuU ex unifate angelorum, is the TitleJ. But thia Í3 the Argument, what !a said in 
Genesis, Maledicte serpens. And in the Gospel is said, Fade retro Satanas [Mat. iii. 10], et non temptabis 
Dominum Deum tuum et illi soli servies [Mat. iii. 7]. 

He, taken from the midst'', is cast down by the Lord, 

And the space' of thc air is thickly fiUed 45 

With the turbid crowd of his rebellious satellites 

Invisible, — lest men infectcd by their evil examples and crimes, 

No screens or walls ever hiding them, 

Should openly commit fornication™ before the eyes of all. 

Capitulum I. 
De eo quod vehunt nubes aquas ad celum, this is the Titlci. And this is the Argument, as David savs, 
Educens nuhes ah extremo terra ; and elsewhere he savs, Qui producit ventos de thesauris suis. 

The clouds carry the wintry floods from the springs, 5° 

From the three" deeper regions of the ocean sea, 

To the climates of heaven, in azure whirlwinds ; 

[Floodsi'] which are to become profitable to thc crops, vincyards, and buds, 

[The clouds] being driven by the winds issuing from their treasure-houses, 

And whichi empty in turns the pools of the sea. 55 

j Title. — C. gives "the Argument" thus: "Ar- 
gum. vt in Genesi dicitur; Maledicta [sic] serpens 
comedes terram omnihus diebus, ^c. Et vt in Evan- 
gelio ; Vade retró sathana, Sfc." 

•< The midst. — i.e. from the midst of the an- 
gels, or of heaven. The Gloss in B. explains it, 
" .1. a conspectu Dei, vel unitate." 

1 And the space. — "Cujus" is pavaphrased, and 
his, as best expressing the meaning. See the note, 
p. 212. 

>" Fornication. — The Gloss explains that forni- 
carentur here signifies " perdirentur" — lest men 
should destroy themselves after the example of the 
devils; or that fornication is put for all sin — " pro 
omni peccato fornicatio ponitur." 

n Title C. reads, " De eis qui vehunt aquas ad 

celum ;" and for " et alibi dicit" C. has " et vt idem 
alibi dicit." The words quoted, however, occur in 
the same passage, Ps. cxxxiv. 7, Vidff. 

" The three. — It does not appear why our au- 
thor speaks of "three" dodrantes of the sea; even 

though that word be used in the general sense of a 
region or division of the ocean, which the Editor 
has assumed to be its meaning here, iii order to 
escape the difficulty of a literal translation. See the 
note, p. 213. He has also taken "occiani" as in 
apposition with " maris ;" or perhaps we raight 
translate, " the sea of ocean." 

P [F/oocís.] — The word "profuturas" must agree 
with "pontias," and "agitataj" with "nubes." To 
express this in English it was necessarv to repeat 
the words floods and cloitds here given within 

q And which. — The Gloss tells us that " quique" 
refers to "venti." If so, the antecedent "flamini- 
bus" would have required " quoeqne ;" and as this 
woiild be as consistent with the metre as " qnique," 
it is strange that our author should have adopted 
the latter, if he had meant flaminibus to be the an- 
tecedent. It seems to the Editor more probable 
that the reference is to the word " fontibus" (line 50), 
as " nubes" and "pontias" in the «ame line were just 


TJie Thjmn of St. Colu.nha, " Altus Prosator:' [Notk c. 

Capitulum K. 
De intolerabiti paena peccatorum, Í3 the Title'. This is the Argument, quod Job dicit, Ecee Gigantes 
ijemunt luh afjuii [Job, xxvi. 5]. 

The tottering and tjTannical and tomporary present glory 

Of the world and of kings, set aside' by the will of God, 

Lo ! the giants are justlv doomed' to groan under waters 

With great torment; to be burnt up wilh fire and punishraent, 

And smothered with the swelling Charybdis's° of Cocytus, 60 

Overwhelmed with Scylla'3, are dashed to pieces with waves and rocks'. 

CAPiTui.rM L. 
The Title" is, De mnderatione pluricc venientis ex ligatis aquis nuhilus ne pariter fluant. And this is 
the Argument, quod Job dicit, Qui suspenJit aquas in nuhihus ne pariter fluant deorsum [Job, xxvi. 8]. 

The Lord drops down continually the waters bound np in the clouds, 

Lest they should break forth all at once, bursting their barriers, 

From whose^ verj' fertilizing streams, gradually flowing, 

As from udders, through the regions of this earth, 65 

Cold and warmr at different seasons, 

The never-failing rivers are constantly flowing in- 

before disposed of. Thns the first three lines of this 
stanza are a statement of the author's notion of the 
natural phenomenon of rain. The clouds carrv up 
to heaven, from the fouutains of the great deep, the 
waters — whose oses he then proceeds in the next 
three lines to explain : they are carried up, in order 
that they may become profitable to the crops and 
vegetation of the earth ; the clouds are driven and 
carried about by the winds ; and the springs or foun- 
tains of the ocean, being thus alternately exhausted 
and replenished, produce the reciprocal Úux and re- 
flux of the tides. If this interpretation be correct, 
we have here a cnrious ancient philosophical theory 
of the cause of the tides. 

' Title. — Colgan gives the Scholium thus: " Tix. 
De intolerabili píjena peccatorum inflnita. Argu- 
mentum vt in Libro Job dicitur, Ecce Gigantes ge- 
munt suh aquis." 

Set aside. — i. e. their glory being set aside, 
"Gloria nutu Dci deposita." 

» Juitlg doomed. — " Comprobantur," liu are ap- 
proved : that is, it is evident to ail tbat their 

doom is just. The meaning seems to be, that the 
antediluvian giants, who were supposed to be kings, 
havinghad their temporal worldly glory put an end 
to by the just judgment of God, were cast into hell. 

" Charghdis's. — It is necessary to retain the 
words, Charybdis, Cocytua, and Scvlla, because they 
seem to have been intentionallv used by our author 
as mythologically coimected with the punishment of 
the giants in helL 

'^ Rochs. — " Scropibus," apparently for scrupis, 
rough or sharp stones. 

" The Title, — Colgan gives the Scholium thus : 
"De moderatione pluviae vehementis- Argumen- 
tum, vt in libro lob dicitur, Qui suspendit aquas in 
nuhihus, ne pariter fluant." 

^ From whose. — i. e. of the waters, for quarum 
can only refer to aquas. The waters bound up in 
the clouds are, as it were, the breasts, or uddera, 
from which the rirers of the earth are supplied. 

5^ Cold and warm. — i. e. from whosc fertilizing 
streams, which are cold and warm at different 

notec.] Translation of the Hymn^ S(C. 239 

Capitulum M. 
De fundamento terra et de abisso, this is the Title^ And this is the Argument, quod Job dicit, Qui 
suspendit terratn [super nihiluni]. Et alibi dicit, Moles mundi virtute JDei continetur. Et in Psalmo, 
Qui fundasti terram super stahilitatem suam. 

By the Divine powers of the great God are siistained 

The globe of Eartli, aud tbe established^ circle of the great abj'ss. 

The strong hand'^ of the omnipotent God 70 

Supporting on columns, as on beams sustaining the same"^ ; 

The promontories and rocks, on solid foundations'', 

Iraraovable as on certain strengthened bases. 

Capituluji N. 
De inferno in imis posito in corde terra et penis ejus et loco, this is the Title'^. And this is the Argii- 
ment, Eruisti animam meam ex inferno \inferiori. Ut in Evangjelio dicitur. Sepultus est dives in 
inferno. Et allbi Ite Maledicti in eternum ignem. Et alibi Vermis eorum non moritur, et iffnis eius non 

To no man seemeth it doubtful that Hell is in the lowest places, 

Where are darkness, worms, and dreadful beasts, 75 

Where is sulphureous fire blazing with consuming flames, 

Where are the groans of men, weeping, and gnashing of teeth. 

Where is the terrible and ancientf wail of Gehenna. 

Where is the fiery horrid buming of thirst and hunger. 

Capitulum 0. 
TheTitle? is, Ofthe inhabitants of Hell, who from very shame bow down inthe name oftheLord. The 

' Tlie Title. — ^The Scholium, as given by Colgan, '' On solid foundations. — i. e. resting on solid 

is as follows : " TiT. De fundamento terríB, et de foundations ; an ablative absolute. 
abys30. Argumen. vt in Libro lob : Qui suspendit ^ Title. — -The words and parts of words supplied 

terram s'.ipru nihilum. Et vt in eodem alibi, Moles in brackets are obscure in the MS. Colgan gives 

mundi virtute Dei continentur. Et vt in Psalmo, the Scholium thus : " Tit. De infemo in imis po- 

Fundasti terram super stabilitatem suam." The sito in corde terrae, et pcenis ejus, ac loco. Argu- 

passages quoted are Job, xxvi. 7, and Ps. ciii. 5. mentum vt in Psalmo: Et eruisti animam meam ex 

The second passage is quoted as from the Book of infemo inferiori. Et in Evangelio : Sepultus est in 

Job. The reader will observe the Irish orthography Inferno. Etalibi; Ite Maledictiinigmem ceternum.'" 

" abiso" for abi/sso, and " molis" for moles. Tlie passages of Scripture referred to arc, Ps. Ixxxv. 

* Established. — " Inditus," appointed, fixed, 13 ; Luc. xvi. 22 ; Matt. xxv. 41 ; Marc. ix. 48. 
settled. f Ancient. — Or perhaps antiquus may be used in 

b Stronghand. — See notes, p. 216, above. Suf- the sense of perpetual, usual, constant. 
fulta seeras to be used here in an activc sense — s Title. — This and tbe seven following stanzas 

" supporting." are suppUed from Colgan, a leaf being lost in tlie 

<-■ The same.—Scú. the globe of earth. Dublin MS. See above, p. 217, and ííote D. 

240 The TTijmn of St. Cohunba, ^' Altus Prosator:' [Xotec. 

Argunient, as in thc Apocalypse [read in the Apostle(Phil. il. 9)], Donavit illi nomen, quod e$t super 
omne nomcn, ^c. And as in the same [Apoc. v. i], Fidi librum in dextra sedentis super thronum, ifc. 

Below Ihe earth'', as we read, we know there are dwellera 80 

Whose knee in praver' oft bomleth to the Lord, 

To whom it is impossible to unroU the book written, 

And sealedJ with [seveii] seals, 

Wliich He'' had opeued, and so became victorioua, 

FulfíllÍDg the prophesied pre-eminence' of His adveiit. 85 

Capitulum P. 
The Title is, De Paradiso Adce, id est, loco deliciarum. The Argument, as is said in Genesis, Planta- 
verat Paradisum volupta[tis'] a principio [Gen. ii. 8]. And in the Apocalvpse [ii. 7], Dabo ei manducare 
de ligno quinto [leg. cite], quod est in Paradiso Dei mei. Aud again [xxii. 2], Ex utraque parte ftumi- 
nis lignum vita, afferens duodecim fructus per singulos menses, etfolia ligni in curationem geníium. 

That Paradise was planted by the Lord from the beginning, 

We read in the most noble beginning of Genesis, 

From whose fountain four rivcrs are flowing, 

And in whose flowery midst is placed-" the tree of life, 

Whose leaves bringing health to the Gentiles do not fall, 90 

Whose joys° are anspeakable aud abundant. 

Capitulum Q. 

The Title" is, De ascensione Mot/sis ad Dominum in monte Sinai; as is said in the Law, Mogses ascen- 
dit, et descendit gloria ejus super montem Sinai [Exod. xxiv. 15, 16]. Or the more correct TiUe is, De 

'' Below the earth. — This seems founded on míno, vcr. 81. But the construction is obscure, and 

Apoc. v. 3 : " No man in heaven, or in earth, or tbe text probably corrupt — " Which [book] He the 

under the earth, could open the book ;" and cf. v. sanie Lord had opened, by -which [book] He had 

13; also Phil. ii. 10. In the <í</e they are spoken become Conqueror" — T'ícíor, alluding to Apoc. v. 5: 

of as the " incolae inferni qui vel rubore flectunt in " Ecce vicit Leo de tribu Juda," &c. 

nomine Domini." ' Pre-eminence. — " Praesagmina." See p. 209. 

' Inprayer. — This word seems here to be an supra, and note, p. 210; also Add. Note B, p. 23. 

adverb; "precario flectit," bends praverwise, or in But it is probable that "prícsagmen" is here used 

prayer. in the sense of prophecv: "fulfiUing the propheti- 

J Sealed. — Colgan gives this line imperfectly cal predictions of His coming." 

thus : — "^ Is placed. — "Cujus ct tua" in Colgan's text, 

"Ob signatum signaculis .... monitis;" which makes no sense, is corrected in his errata to 

the intermediate words having doubtless been illegi- "cujiis et situm," and thc line has been translated 

ble in the MS. Perhaps the hiatus may be thus accordingly. 

supplicd: " ^Vltose joifs. — For "cujus inenarrabiles" in the 

"ObsignatumsignaculisseptcmUcctpncmonitls." original of this line, as given by Colgan, perhaps 

" Although haring bcen forewamed and caUed upon to we should read " cujus suut innarrabiles." 

do so."— Apoc. V. 2. " Title. — Tlie second version of the Title and Ar- 

i- /r/itc/i Jle. — "Idem" seems to refer to Do- gument hcre givcn is a proof of the antiquity of the 

notec.] Ti'anslation of the Hymn^ Sfc. 241 

mirabilibtís gloricB advenlus Domini in montem. But thc Argunient is, Facta sunt tonitrua, et voces, et 
fulgura, et terrco motus [Apoc. Xvi. i8j. 

Wlio hath ascended to Sinai, the appointedP mountain of the Lord ? 

Who hath heard the tliunders beyond measure resounding ? 

Who the clang of thc enormous trumpetT roaring? 

Who hath seen also the lightnings flashing around ? 95 

Who the lamps'' and darts and falhng rocks ? 

Who but Moses the judge of the people of Israel ? 

Capituluji R. 
The Title is, De Die judicii, et nominihus ejus. The Argument, what Zephaniah say3, .hirta est dies 
Domini magnus et velox nimis, Sfc. [Zeph. i. 14-16]. 

The day of the Lord, of the King of Kings most righteous, is at hand : 

A day of wrath and vengeance, of darkness and cloud ; 

And a day of wonderful strong thunders ; 100 

A day of trouble also, of grief and sadness ; 

In which shall cease the love and desire of women, 

And the strife of men, and the lust of this world. 

Capitulcm S. 
The Title is, De tremebundu prasentia Dei, in die judicii. The Argument, as in the second Epistle to 
the Corinthians [v. 10], Oportet 7ios omnes siare ante Tribunal Christi, ^c. And as is said inthe Gospel, 
Filiun hominis venturus est in gloria sua, tunc reddet unicuique secundum opera sua [Matt. xvi. 27]. 

We shall be standing trembling before the judgment-seat of the Lord ; 

And we shall give an account of all our deeds ; 105 

Beholding also our crimes laid open before our sight, 

And the books of conscience opened before us, 

We shall break forth into most bitter weeping and spbs, 

The necessary matter^ of working being withdrawn. 

Capitulum T. 
The Title is, De resurrcctione prolis AdcR. The Argument, as in the Apocalypse [read in the Apostle 
(i Thes. iv. 16)], Ipse Dominus ut in jussu, et in voce Archangeli in tuba descendet de ccelo. Aud again 
[Apoc. X. 7], In diebus vocis septimi angeli, ciim coeperit iuba canere, consiimmabitur mysterium Dei. 

Hvmn, showing that several ancient copies of it ing. See p. 245, infra. 

were in circulation before the MS. from which Col- ■■ The lamps. — AJIuding to Esod. xx. 18. 

gan edited it was written. * The necessart/ matter. — The meaning is ob- 

p Appointed. — " Condictuni." SoGen. x^ai. 14, scure; the author probably intended to say that 

" Juxta condictum revertar ad te." there shall then no longer be any power of doing 

q Trumpet. — Lit. "the clang of the trumpet," or good or evil : and so no place for repentance; there 

" the clang of the enormitj- of the trumpet." Per- being no longer auy " materia operandi" — no means 

strepere, not perstrepercc, is probablv the true read- of making amends. 


242 ^'/'<? Uymn of St. Colainha^ ^^ Altus Prosator" [Xote c. 

The trumpet of the first Arclmngel soundiiig wondrous things, i lo 

Thc strongest cloiaters, anJ cemetcries', sball burst, 

The melting cold" of the men of this present world, 

The bones gathering together from all sides to their joints, 

The ethereal souls mefting the same, 

And retuming again to their due mansions. 1 15 

Capitulum U. 

The Title b, De íribus sideribus, thronos septem significantibus. The Argument, as in the Book of 
Job, Quifecit Oriona, et interiora Austri [Job, ix. 9]. Xumquid Luciferum et Vesperum in tempora 
eerta constituisti [Job, xxxviii. 32]. 

[This Capitulum is so corrupt in Colgan's Editiou of the IIymn, that the Editor does nct venture 
to attempt a translation. See Note D.] 

Capitiluji X. 
TLe Title is, De die judicii et prafulgente ligno crucis. The Argument, as in the Apocalvpse [vi. 15, 
16'', Abscondent se in speluncis et petris montium ; et tunc dicent montibus. super nos cadite. And in 
the Gospel [Matt. xxiv. 29], Statim post turbationem dierum iUorum sol obscurabitur, et luna non dabit 
lumen suum, et stellce cadent de ccelo. 

Christ the IMost High Lord coming down from Heaven, 
The most glorious sign and banner of the Cross shall shiuc, 
# And the two principal luminaries being struck, 

The stars shall fall to the earth, as fruit from the fig-tree, - 125 

And the compass of the world shall be as the burning of a fumace, 
Then shall the hosts hide themselves in the caves of the mountains. 

Capitulum Y. 
De Laude Dei \_Domini. C.] ab angelis, is the Title. Biit this is the Argument, what is said in the 
Apocalvpse [iv. 4], In circuitu throni vidi sedes, xxiv. seniores, sedentes in veste alba et capitibus eorum 
corona aurea vidi. 

By the chaunting of hvmns contiuuallv resounding 

Thousands of Angels singing in holy dances' ; 1 30 

t Cemeteriei. — See DuCange, iu v., Polyandrum, Perhapswe should read "hominem ;" and translate, 

I'olyandrium. "Tlie cold of this present world, uielting [i. e. dis- 

» The cold. — This line is vcry obscure, and the solviiig or destroying] man, sliall burst tlie cloisters 

readings probablv corrupt. Is the word frigora and cemeteries." The transLition given above is 

the subject or object of erumpent f And is liques- an atleinpt to render literally the existing text ; it 

centia a participle ?— if so, what is the coustruction? assumes /rt^ora to be the object of erumpent. 

" Liquescentia " occurs in Du Cangc as a substan- ' Dances. — " Tropodiis," perhaps for íri>urfÍM, as 

tive, in the sense of " apparentia, vel defectus, vel in C,— a word which is used in the Vulg., Esth. viii. 

liquiditas." But this gives no verv good sense. 16, to deuote " dances" as a manifestation of joy. 

noteC.] Translation of the TTynLn^ S^'C. 243 

And the four Aiiiinals fiill of eyes, 

Witli the four-and-twenty blessed elders, 

Casting their crowns under the feet of the Lamb of God, 

The Trinitv is praised, with three eternal repetitions". 

Capitulum Z. 
De ustione impiorum nolentes [sic] Christum credere, et de gaudio justorum, is the Title. But this is the 
Ai'gument, what is said in the Apocalypse [read "in the Apostle"], Terribilis ignis consumet adversa- 
rios [Hebr. x. 27]. And elsewhere the Apostle" says Mansiones multa snnt apud Patrem ; and Christ 
says, In domu Patris mei multce mansiones sunt [John, xiv. 3]. 

The furious indignation of fire shall devour the adversaries, 135 

Who refuse to believe that Christ is come from God the Father, 

JBut we shall flyy forthwith to meet Hira, 

And so shall we be with Ilim in various orders of dignities 

According to the perpetual merits of our rewards, 

To remain in glory, for ever and ever^ 14° 

At tlie end of tlie IIymn are two AntipJions, in tlie same metre as tlie Hymn itself, 
and probably coeval with it, or nearly so. The former of these, as the Preface tells 
us, is to be sung, in reciting the IIymn, after each Stanza or Capitulum ; but no men- 
tion is made of the second, The former is therefore certaiuly older than this Preface ; 
the lattor probably more modern, although it is also evidently Tery ancient. 
The former may be translated thus : — 

Who can please God, in this last time? 
When the noted marks of truth are changed, 
Except the despisers of this present world. 

The second Antiphon is an express invocation of the Trinitv, and was probably in- 
tended to be used instead of the former, íq order to mcet the objcction -vvhich had been 
made*, that the author, in this H^mn, had not dwelt suíficientlv on the praises of the 
Trinity. See the next Hymn. 

"gaudium, honor, et tripudium." Vernantihus is audierit per tantum spatium, quo posset dici Pater 

rendered " singing." See Du Cange, in voc, who noster.'' 

cites, in proof of this signitication, a passage from ^^ Repetitions. — "'Vices," ehanges, alluding to the 

the Life of St. Peter, afierwards Pope Celestine V. " Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus." — Apoc. iv. 8. 

(Acta SS. tom. iv. Maii, p. 423); wheretheword is ^ The Apostle. — See above, note, p. 218. 

applied to the jinging of angels, a great company of ? JVe shallpj. — This seems founded on i Thess. 

whom was seen by the Saint in vision: "et in ore iv. 13-17. 

cujusque illorum erant iosíe rubeae, et cum illis ro- '^ For ever and ever — The reading of C. is here 

sis vernabant dilectabiliter nimis ; ita quod post- adopted. See p. 219, notc. 

quam excitatus fuisset a somno, cantum illum => Made.—This objection is stated in the Preface 

2 12 

2 44 27«,' Hi/mn of St. Columba^ '''•Altus Prosator.''^ [Noted. 

This sccoud Antiphon may bc thus translated : — 

God the Father, unbegotten, Lord of heaven and earth, 

And the Son, bcgotten of Him, before all worlds, 

And the Holy Ghost, one, true, most High God, 

I invoke ; that He may give most ready help, 

To me the least of all His servants, 

Whom the Lord hath made one vrith the myriads of Angels'*. 


TJie Stanzas missing in the Duhlin Coprj ofthe Liber Hijmnorum. 

The follo"v\'ing are the Stanzas wanting in the Dublin MS. úi conscquence of the loss 
of oue leaf, as already mentioncd, p. 217, note on line 79. As thc Editor has no access 
to any other copy of this Hymn except that printed by Colgan in the Trias Thauma- 
txmja, and as that w'ork is now very scarce, hc has thought fit to preserve the missing 
stanzas hcre, although Colgan's text is full of inaccuracies and errors of the press, some 
of which will be corrected, wherever the correction is obvious and certain ; and some 
other conjectural emendations will be suggested in the notcs : — 


TiT. De incolis infirmi, qui vel rubore flectunt in nomine Domini. Argumentum'= ; ut in ApocaUpsi ; 
Donavit illi nomen, quod est super omne nomen, áfc. Et ut in eadem, Vidi librum in dextra sedentis 
super thronum, Sfc. 

irbem infra, ut legimus'', incolas esse novimus, 80 

Quorum genu praicario'' frequentcr flectit Domino, 
Quibusque impossibile librum scriptum revolveref, 

Obsignatum? signaculis monitis, 

Quem idem resignaverat, per quem victor extiterat, 

Explens sui pra;sagmina adventus prophetalia. S5 

TiT. De Paradiso Adas, id est, loco deliciarum. Argisi.'' Ut in Genesi dicitur ; Plantaverat Paradi- 

(see p. 222), " And thev said that there was no '^ Prtecario. — See above, p. 240, notc. 

fault in the IIymn, exccpt the 3canty praise of thc ' Revohere — The Vulgate has "aperire librum." 

Trinity which it contained per se," &c. Sabaticr does not mention the reading revulvere, 

•' AngeU Perhaps alluding to Mark, xii. 25. which seems to be ancient, from its agreement with 

' Argumentum. — The first passage here quoted as the original roll form of books. 

froni the Apocalypse, is really from Phil. ii. 9, by a ? Obsignatum — See the conjectural emendation 

nustake that often occurs of " Apoc." for "Apostle." of this line alrcadv proposed, note, <p. 240, supra. 

The second is from Apoc. v. i. '' Argumentum. — Colgan gives the first quotation 

«' Ut legimus. — Alludiiig to Pbil. ii. lo; Apoc. from the Apocalypse thus : "Dabo ei nianducare dc 

V. 3, 13. ligno quinto," which is an obvious error of tran- 

NoTE D.] The Stanzas missing in the Duhlin Copy. 245 

sum volupfatis a princtpio. Et in Apocalipsi : Baho ei manducare de ligno quinto [leg. vitce] quod est in 
paradiso Dei mei. Et alibi, Ex utraqne parte fluminis lignum vitcB afferens duodecim fruetus per singu- 
los menses, et folia ligni in curationem gentium. 

"PJlantatum a proheniio Paradisum a Domino 
-"- Legimus in Primordio Genesis nobilissimo. 

Cujus ex fonte flumina quatuor sunt manantia, 

Cujus et' situm florido lignura vitae est medio 

Cujus non cadunt folia'' gentibus salutifera oo 

Cujus inenarrabiles' delicix ac fertiles. 

TiT. De ascensione Jtfoi/sis^ ad Dominum in monte Sinai. Argum. Quod in Lege dicitur, Moyses 
ascendit, et descendiV^ gloria ejus super montem Sinai. Vel verior titulus est, De mirahilibus glorim ad- 
ventus Domini in montem. Argumextom vero, Facta sunt tonitrua et voces, et fulgura, et terrce motus. 

luis ad condictum Domini montem conscendit Sinal, 

>Quis audivit tonitrua supra modum sonantia? 

Quis clangorem" perstreperae enormitatis buccina ? 

Quis quoque vidit fulgura in gyro coruscantia ? 05 

Quis lampades et jacula, saxaque collidentia ? 

Príeter Israelitici Moysen judicem populi? 



TiT. De die Judicii et nominihus ejus. Arguji. Quod Sophonias dixit, Juxta est dies Domini magnus, 
et velox nimis ; dies illa, dies irce, et furoris, et angvstice ; die calamitatis et miserice; dies tenehrarum et 
caliginis ; dies nehulce et turbinis ; dies tuhce et clangoris. 

I egis regum rectissimi, prope est dies Doraini ; 
-'Dies irae et vindictae, tenebrarum et nebulffi ; 
Diesqixe mirabilium tonitruorum fortium ; 100 

Dies quoque angustise, mccroris ac tristitias ; 
In quo cessabit ;nulierum amor et desiderium, 
Hominumque contentio, mundi hujus et cupidoP. 

scription for " de ligno vitíe," vitis having been pro- the press, ■which he has corrected as above in his Er- 

bably mistaken for tto. Manducare is an ancient rata. 

rcading, for which the modern Vulgate has edere, ' Inenarrahiles. — See note, p. 240. 

Apoc. ii. 7. The " Commontary on the Apoca- >» Mogsis. — Colgan prints Magsis, which is evi- 

lypse," printed with the worlcs of St. Augustine, dently an error of the press. 

reads manducare. In the other passage of the « Descendit. — Colgan puta a full stop after this 

Apocalypse referred to (xxii. 2), the raodern Vul- word, which of course is also an error of the press. 

gate reads saniiatem for curationem, which last is <> Quis clangorem. — Colgan prints this line thus : 

the reading of the ante-Hieronymian version, and is "Quis clangorem derstremere ormitatis bucciníe," 

80 quoted by St. IIilary and St. Ambrose. See Sa- but he corrects it in his Errafa as above : where 

batier, in loco. perstreperce seems to be an adjective agreeing with 

' Cujus et. — Colgan has printed this line thus : buccina:, unless we sbould read perstrepere. See 

"Cujus et tua florido lignum vitaj est medio," above, p. 241, note. 

but he corrects it as above in his ^rraía. p Cupido. — The penultimate syllable is here 

•< Folia. — Colgan hasfnlia, an obvious error of short. 


Tlie Hi/mn of St. Columha, ^^Altus Prosator'' [Note d. 


TiT. De Iremebimda praseníiú Dei in ilie judlcii. AuGU.M. ut in sccunda Epislola ad Corinthios, 
Oportel nos omnes slare anle Tribunal Chrisli, ul referat iinusquiir/ue propria sui corporis proul pessit, 
sive bonum, sive malum. Et ut in Evangulio ilicitur, Filius hominis renlurus est in ifloria sua, tunc reddet 
unicuique secundiim opcra sua. 

1 tiintes erinms I paviJi ante tribunal Domini ; 

'lvi ddcmusque de omnibus rationem eífectibus^; 105 

Videntes quoque po-^ita ante obtutus crimina, 
Librosque conscicntiie patefactos in facie, 
lu fletus aniarissimos ac singultus erumpemus% 
Subtracta necessaria operandi materia. 

TiT. De resurrectione prolis Adm. Akgi-.m. Ut in Apocalj'psi, Ipsc Dominus ut in jussu et voce 
Archangeli in tuba descendet de ccelo. Et iterum ; in diebus vocis septimi Angeli, cum cwperit tuba 
canere, consummabitur mt/sterium Dei. 

Tuba' primi Archangeli strepente admirabilia, 1 10 

Erumpent munitissima claustra ac poliandria, 
Mundi praesentis frigora bominum liquescentia, 
Undique conglobantibus ad conipagines ossibus, 
Animabus a^therialibus eisdem obeuntibus, 
Rursumque redeuntibus debitis in mansionibus. 

TiT. De tribus si/deribns^ tlironos septertV- significantihus. Aiígum. Ut iii libro Job, Qui fecit Oriona 
et interiora Austri. Nunquid luciferum et vesperum in tempora ceita constituisti. 
"^Tagatur ex climatico" Orion coeli cardine, 
' Derelicto VirgiUo" astrorum splendiásimo. 

1 Eriinus The penultimate is here apparently 


' Effectihus. — Acts or deeds, as contradistin- 
guished from thoughts or intentions. 

« Erumpemus. — The penultimate is here made 

« Tuba. — AUuding to i Thess. iv. 16, a passage 
which is quoted in the Scholium as if it was in the 
Apocalj'pse, by aa error that repeatedly occurs. 
But Apoc. viii. 7, seems also to be referred to. 

» De tribus sijderihus. — Sidus is properly a con- 
stellation consisting of several stars, " Sidera vero 
sunt btellis plurimis facta, ut lljades, Pleiades" 
(Isidor. Hispal. Etgmol. lib. iii. 60). 

» Thronos septein. — This is probably an allusion 
to St. Gregor. Moral. lib. ix. (in Job, ix. 9), " Quid 
namque Arcturi nomine, qui in cceli axe constitutus, 
septein stellarum radiis fulget, nisi Ecclesia univer- 

salis exprimitur, quae in Johannis Apocalypsi per 
septem Ecclesias, septemque candelabras figuratur?" 
Compare also the Glossa Ordinaria, in loc, 'wliich 
is foundcd on this passage of St. Gregory. 

"' Climatico. — Clima is inclinatio (see DuCange 
in voc.) ; and tbis line may possibly be rendered 
" Orion wanders from the inclined pole of heaven," 
meaning the Nortli Pole, which appears in these la- 
tiludes above the horizou — " Cardines extremae axis 
partes sunt" — Isid. Hispal. De Natura rerum, 
C. xii. n. 3 (Opp. liomce, 1803, tom. vii. p. 21). 

^ 1'irgilio. — Usuallv written FergilicB, sometimes 
Virgilice, the constellation called the P/eíadeí ; so 
cailcd according to some (e. g. Voss. in Etgmol.), 
" a virgula, quod virgulic more porrigantur." But 
others derive the name from vcr, as Festus, who 
says "VergilisB dictse, quia earum ortu ver finitur, 
et aestas incipit." And so also Isid. Hispal. De 

notee.] The Relujious Use of the ''Altus:' 247 

Pcr methas Tithis>' ignoti Oiientalis circuli 

Girans certis anibagibus redit priscis reditibus, 

Oriens post biennium, vesperugo^ in vesperum, 120 

Sumpta in proplasmatibus-^ tropicis intellectibus. 

TlT. De die judicii et prafxlffente ligno crucis. Arg. ut in Apocalipsi, Ahscondent se in spchtncis et 
petris montium ; et tunc dicent montibus, svper nos cadite. Et in Evangolio ; Statim post turbaiionem 
dierum illorum, sol obscurabitur, et luna non dahit lumen snum, et stellcB cadent de ccelo. 
to de cceIís Domino descendente altissimo, 
-Praefulgebit clarissimum signum crucis et vexillum 
Tactisque luminaribus duobus principalibus 

Cadent in teiTam sydera, ut fructus de ficulnea, 125 

Eritque mundi spatium, ut fornacis incendium, 
Tunc in montium specubus abscondent se exercitus. 



The Religious use oftJie "AUus^' — Legend ofMaelsuthain 0' CearhhaiU. 

The Editor is indebted to his friend Professor Cuvry_ for permission to extrací the 
following curious Legend from the interesting and valuable volume of Lectures on 
Irisb Historj- and Literature, wbich that gentleman is about to publish. There are 
very few allusions to the " Altus" in Irish historj, and of these the greater part occTir 
in the biographies of its author ; the following singular Legend is the only aUusion to 

Naturá rerum, c. xxvi. n. 6 (tom. vii. p. 39, edit. -woidi metastasis, ov metathesis,intíie, plur. ; the 

Areval. Romce, 1803): — " Has [Pleiades] Latiui "metastases ofthe unknown easterncircle," — which 

vergilias appellaverunt, eo quod vere oriantur," &c. may signify the inverted or unseen portions of the 

(Conf. Ejusd. Etymol. lib. iii. cap. Ixxi. n. 13). St. eastern circle, viz., that part of it M-hich was be- 

Ambrose (Z'e interpellatione Job, lib. i. c. iv. n. 11) lovv the horizon. See Bede, de Temporum ratione, 

quotes Job. ix. 9 from an ancient Latin version, cap. 34, where the ancieut theory which our author 

thus/ " Qui facit vergilias, et hesperuni, et septem- seems to have had iu view is explained (ed. Giles, 

trionem, et austri ministerium." The text of this tom. vi. p. 214, seq.^. 
Capitulum is so evidently corrupt, that until access ^ Vesperugo. — An evening star. 

can be had to the copy preserved at Eome, which is " Proplasmatibvs. — The Greek word, TrpoTrXaa- 

the only other MS. of the Hymn kaown to exist, it fia, signifies a clay model for the use of an artist ; 

would be waste of time to attempt a translation. but this can scarcely be its meaninghere. This last 

)• Tithis. — Perhaps we should read Hgadis, or line, which seems quite unintelligible, is evidently 

Hiadis ; Hia buing pronounced as a monosyllable ; corrupt ; but, without the aid of another MS., correc- 

unless " metas Titliis" be a corruption of the Greek tiou is impossible. 

248 The Hijmn of St. Columba, "ylZ/z/.sf Prosator" [Notee. 

thc rcligious use of the Hynin wliicli has come to thc knowlcdge of thc Editor. From 
this stoiy it appears that the rccitation of thc Hymn Avas practiscd as a rcligious cxcr- 
cise, and that it was supposcd to bc cfficacious in obtaiuing from thc Almightj'^ thc rc- 
covery of thc sick. 

The Legcnd was cxtractcd by Mr. Currj' from thc "Libcr Flavus Fcrgusorum," a 
MS. in vcllum, of thc íiftccnth centiu^', in two volumcs, quarto, now in the possession 
of James Marinus Kcnnedy, Esq., of 47, Gloucester-strect, Dublin, by whom it was in- 
heritcd from his anccstor, Dr. .Tohn Fergus, an cmincnt Irish scholar and antiquarj', 
who was wcll kuown as a physician iu Dublin at thc bcginning of the eightccnth 

It wiU bc ncccssaij to give the readcr some short account of Maclsuthain Va 
Ceai'bhaill, or O'Carroll, to whom the following Legcnd relates. He was chicftain of 
the Eoghanacht Locha Léin, that is, of the descendants of Eoghan Mor, son of Oilliol 
Ohim, who inhabited a district including Loch Lcin, the present Lake of Killarney, in 
thc barony of Maguuiliy, county of Kerry. He was a man of eminent learuing, and 
is supposed to have collected the materials from which the Annals of Inisfallen (an 
island in thc lowcr Lakc of Killaruey) were compiled^ In the story which foUows he 
is callcd Qnmchapa, or Counsellor of the celebrated Brian Boroimhe, King of Ircland, 
and, as Mr. Curry thinks, was probably the tutor or teacher of that mouíu'ch. The 
Book of Ai-magh', a MS. now in thc Library of Trinity CoUcge, Dublin, contains a cu- 
rious note in the handwriting of Maelsuthain Ua CearbhaiU, WTÍtten about A.D. 1002, 
in the presence of King Brian Boroimhe, whioh the Editor of this work had the honour 
of exhibiting to hcr Majcsty Queen Victoria, at hcr visit to the Great Dublin Exhibi- 
tion of 1853. 

At the close of his life Maelsuthain, as the Legend relates, devoted himself to pe- 
nitential exercises, and appears to have bccome a monk in the rcligious cstabUshment 
of this island of Inisfallcn. His death is thus recordcd by the Four Mastcrs at the 
year 1009, the true date being loio : — 

niaolpuchnm Lla CcaiibaiU t)0 riiuinnp MaelsuthainUa CcarbbaiU, of (hefarailv [i. e. re- 

Inpi paitlent), ppiiiiraoi lapcaip boriiain ligiouscominunity]ofInisFaithloiin, chiefdoctor of 

ma aiTnpip, "| cigepna 6o$anaóca loca Léin, the westem world in his timc, and Lord of the Eogh- 

Décc. anacht of Loch Lcin, died. 

•' CompUed See O'Reilljr's Irish Writers (Trans- placed in the hands of thelíev. Dr. Recves a sum of 

act. Iberno-Celtic Society), at the year 1009. nioncv suílicicnt to dcfray the expenscs of the piib- 

'■- Book of Armagh. — Tiiis most rcmarit.ablc MS. lication ofthe MS., andwe mav shortlv expect to sec 

was purchased by IIis Grace the Lord Primate of it in print, with introductorv matter and notcs, 

Ircland, and prcsented tothe Librarj'of Trinity Col- under the able editorial skill of that accomplished 

lege in the year 1854. IIis Grace has subsequcntly scliolar. 

NOTI! E.] 

Tlie Religious use of the " AUus." 


"Wo maj now give the Legend itself, with Mr. Cunj's translation : — 

CjiiaTi po5lainnci5 cainicut)ap o cuinnijn 
bo beanum lei^inn binnrai&i anmcapat) 
bpiain mic Ceinneit^ig .1. muilpucam huac 
Ceapbaill, beo^anacc loca lém, aip ba he 
ecnai&i ba peapp ma aimpip he. Ip amlaib 
po babap m cpiap po^lainncisipi, -\ com- 
cpuc, -\ coTÍibealba, 1 aenainm poppo .i. borh- 
nall an camm. Vlo babap imoppo cpi bli- 
abna ac poslaim occo. Q cinn cpi bliaóan a 
bubpabap ppi noibi : ipp ail Imn, ap piab, 
bul copoici lepupalem ipm cip luba, 5U po 
imcibpib aj) copa cech conaip po imié an 
cSlainicib a calarh. (X bubaipc in caibi : Ní 
pachaib no gu pa^bachai luach mo paeip 
[paecip] acumpa. Q bubpabap na balcaib: 
Ni puilacumn, ap piab; ni bo bepmuipbuicc, 
aóc bemuib cpi blia&na aile a^ omuloibbu- 
icc, mab ail leacc. Ni h-ail, aj\i['e, acc beb 
cobpaib mo bpeic pem bam, no ben bap ne- 
ap5aine. Do bepum, oppiab, bia poib acumn. 
■Ro naipc poppo po poipcela in coimbeab, 
]iachai6, appe, in conaip ip ail lib, -\ bi6 mapb 
pib a naempeacc ap an cupup, -| ipi bpeach 
concim opuibpi, canbulap neaiii lap ne^aib 
buib, no co cipbaibcucumpa ap búp bia mn- 
pm bam ce pab mo pae^ail, -[ co po mnipbi 
an pagaim cennpa m coim&i. ^sallniuibne 
buicpi an ni pm o hucc an coimbi, appiab; po 
imipib [anb] pm, •] pucpab beannaccam leo o 
na noibi, 1 po pa^pac beannaccam 0151 bna. 
■Ro pippicc cech conaip po cualabap m 
cSlamici bo imcicc. Ranicabap bna po- 
beoib copuici lepupalem, i puapupbap bap 
anempeacc ann, -\ po habnaiceab co nonoip 
moip lab m lepupalem. Camic Tnicel apc- 
ainseal o Oia apa ceann. 1 bubpabap pum : 
ni pagum no ^oplanaibim in bpeach cu^pam 
ppia ap noibi po poipcela Cpipc. laichisib 
[read imchi5ib], ap mc amsil, 1 mnpibbo cpi 
bliabna co leich 0151 bo pae^al, 1 a bul m 

Thcre came three students at one time from Cuin- 
nire^ to receivc educatiou from the Anmchara [soul- 
friend] of BrianMacCeinneidigh''that is, Maelsuthain 
UaCearbhaill, of theEoganacht ofLochLein, because 
he was the best sage of his time. These three stu- 
dents resembled each other in figure, in features, and 
in thelr name, 'which was Domnal]. They remaincl 
three year3 learning with him. At the end of three 
years they said to their preceptor : " It is our de- 
sire," said they, " to go to Jerusalem, in the land of 
Judea, in order that our feet may tread every path 
which the Saviour trod on earth." The tutor an- 
swered : " You shall not go until you have left with 
me the reward of my labour." The pupils said : 
" We have not, " said they, " anytbing that we 
could give thee, but we will remain three years more, 
to serve thee humbly, if thou desire it" " I do 
not wish that," said he, " but you shall grant me my 
own demand, or I will Iay my curse upon you." " We 
will grant thee that," said thev, "if we can." He 
then bound them by an oath on the Gospel of the 
Lord. " You shall go in the path that you desire," 
said he, " and you shall die all at the same time to- 
gether, on the pilgrimage. And the demand I 
require from you is, that you go not to heaven after 
your deaths, until you have first visited me, to tell 
me the length of my life, and until you tell me 
whether I shall obtain the peace of the Lord." "We 
promise thee this," said they, "for the sake of the 
Lord ;" and theu they departed, and they took a 
blessing with them from their tutor, and they left 
him their blessing also. They walked in every path 
in which they had heard the Saviour had walked. 
They came at last to Jerusalem, and there they found 
their joint death, and wereburied with great honour 
in Jerusalem. Then Michael the Archangel came 
fromGodforthem. Buttheysaid: " We will not go, 
uutil we fulfilthe promise we madeto our preceptor, 
on the Gospel of Christ." "Go," said the angel, "and 
tell him that he has still three years and a half to 

d Cuinnire. — The ancient church from which the « JBrian Mac Ceinneidigh. — Brian, son of Cen- 

diocese of Connor, in Ulster, is now named. neidigh, orKennedy : the celebratedBrianBoroimhe. 



The Hymn of St. Coliimba, " Altus Prosator." [Notee. 

ippmn co b]iach, lapr'" bcpup an bpcach 
allo biuiclia paip. 

Inbip buinn, ap r'Q^i ci6nia cupcap in ip- 
pinn é. Qp cpi pacíiuib, ap in caingil, .1. apa 
iiieb coppccp an canoin, asup a inct> bo 
liinaiiTi ppipiD coinipiceann, a^up ap cpesat) 
an alcupa. 

Ipe imoppo pat ap ap cpeijriuTn oti calcup 
.1. mac niaic pobaeit) acom [read occo] .i. 
maelpat)paic a ainm. Tíopsob jalup baip in 
mac. TJo job an cQlcup po peaóc ina cimcill 
ap baió conabbaó mapb in mac. Nip cap- 
baiO boibpiuih pin, uaip ba mapb in mac pa 
cet>oip. Ibubaipc lllaelpucain nach gebaó 
alcup cpe bicuTÍi o naó pacait) anoip ac 
Dia paip. T T11 beapanoip cuc Dia bon Ql- 
cup gan plainci biaó mac pan, aóc peapp 
leip in macbo beich ebip mumncip neiiiie na 
et)ip mumncip calman. po baeó lllaelpu- 
cain peacc mbliaóna cen Qlcup bo jobail. 
lappin canjabap a cpiup balcab bo 050!- 
uib maeilpucain ipeccaib cpi colum nseal, 
•\ peappam pailci ppiu. Innipit) baTh ce pat) 
mo paegail, "] an pa&uim pocpuici. Qcac, ap 
piabpom, cpi blia&na t)o paesul acut), i bo 
t)ul a nippmn cobpach lappin. C16 ima mbe- 
mn a nippinn, ap eipm. ap cpi pachaib, ap 
piabpum, -| po innpibap na cpi pata a bu- 
bpumap pomuinn. Ni ba pip mo bulpa an 
ippinn, ap pe, uaip na cpi huilc pm, appe, 
Qcaic ocompa aniu, ni biab ocompa aniu, ni 
biat) ocumpa opunn amach, •] cpieispeabpa na 
huilc pm, -] l05pai6 Dia bam lab, amail po 
Seall pcin an can a bubaipc: "impiecap im- 
plt m cfuacumque hopa conueppup puepic 
non nocebic ei." Mi bén bna, ciall uaim péin 
ipm canómi [aóc] amail no seib ipna leo- 
bpuib biabuib. 5<^^<^^ ^"^ ^^^ pleócam 

livc, nnd tlint he goes to hell for ever, after the sen- 
tcnce is upon him on the (]ay of judgment." 
" Tcll U3," said thev, " why he is sent to hell." 
" For three causes," said the angel, "viz., bccause 
of how much hc interpolates the canon''; and be- 
cause of the number of woinen with whom he has 
lain ; and for haviiig abandoned the Altus." 
- — The reason why he abandoned the Altus was this : 
He had a good son, whose name was Maelpa- 
trick. This son was seized with a mortal sickness, 
and the Altus was sung seven times around him, that 
the son should not die. This was, however, of no avail 
for them, as the son died forthwith. Maelsuthain 
then said that he wouldnever again sing the Altus, 
as he did not see that God honoured it. But it waa 
not in dishonour of the Altus that God did not re- 
store his son to health, but because He chose that the 
vouth shouldbe among the family of heaven, ratlier 
than among the people of earth. Maelsnthain had 
then been seven years without singiug the Altus. 
After this his three pupils came to talk to Mael- 
suthain, in the forms of three white doves, and 
he bade them welcome. "Tell me" [said he] 
" what shall be the length of my life, and if I shall 
receive the heavenly reward." " Thou hast," said 
they, " three years to live, and thou goest to hell for 
ever then." " What should I go to hell for?" said 
he. " For three causes," said they; and they re- 
lated to him the three causes that we have already 
meutioned. " It is not true that I shall go to hell," 
said he, "for those three vices that are mine this day, 
shall not be mine even this day, nor shall they be 
mine from this time forth, and I wiU abandon these 
vices, and God wiU forgive me for them, as He Him- 
self hath promised, when He said : ' Impietas impii 
in quacumquc hora conversus fuerit non nocebit 
ei' [Ezek. xxxiii., 12]. I \k\\\ put no sense of my 
own into the canon, but such as I shall find in the 

<■ Tlie Canon. — Tliis apparently signifies the code 
of ecclesiastical laws, which Jlaelsuthain was called 
upim to administer as chieftain of his tribc, aud which 
he had probably often interi^reted so as to suit his 
own secular interests or incUnations : for he after- 

wards in this narrative is niade to promise, " I wiU 
put no sense of my own into the Canon, but such as 
I tihall find in the divine books." But the word Ca- 
non is used also to signify the Old or New Testament. 
See Recves, Adamnan, p. 359, note ". 


The Religious use ofthe ^^ AltusJ' 


cech lai. Seaóc mbliaóna accupa sen Qlcup 
t>o sobail, 1 sebab in cQlcup po reacc ceó 
noi6i6 ccn beb beo, •] bo ben cpegmur ceca 
reaócniume. DenaiÓ r' ^no cocc bocum 
neiTÍie, ap pe, -\ C151 allo ineipbeaccaOinnirin 
rcel baiii. Ciucpamuib, ap riab, 1 bo cuabap 
a cpiup pon cuoTiapcbail cebna, -\ po bean- 
naccfab bo, 1 po beannaó puiti baib piurh. 
Illo an eipbeóca cangubap a cpiup pon cua- 
pupcbail cebna, i po beannacViachu [-| bean- 
nacha] cach ba ceile bib, -\ po piappaibbib: 
in mann mo beacapa inbiu ac 'Oia 1 an la eile 
can^abuip bom agalluib. Ni hmann umoppo, 
appiab, uaip bo ceapbenab bumne cmaópa 
ap neirii, 1 ip leop linnió a peabup. Cansa- 
mapne aniu, amail po seallamapne, a^ bo 
ceannpa, -\ cap linn ap amup an maió pm, co 
pobuip 1 ppacpacup D^ -\ ar\ aencaib na Cpi- 
noibi, -\ mumncipi neime, co bpac na mbpe- 

Ip annpm po cmoilib pacaip [pacaipc] -] 
cleipió imba CU151, i po honsab he, -\ ni po 
pgappab a balcaib ppip no 5U nbecaoap bo 
cum neime. 1 ippe pcpepcua [pcpepcpa] m 
pip maich pm aca m mnip paiclenn ipm 
eclaip pop. pmic. 

divine boolcs. I will perform an hundred genuflec- 
tions every day. Seven year3 have I been without 
singing the Allus, and now I will sing the Altus 
seven times every night while I live ; and I will 
keep a three days' fast every week. Go you now 
to heaven," said he, " and come on the day of my 
death to tell me the result." " We will come," said 
they ; and the three of them departed as they came, 
first leaving a blessing with hira, and receiving a 
blessing frora him. On the day of his death the 
three came in the same forms, and they saluted him, 
and he returned their salutation, and said to them : 
" Is my life the same before God that it was on the 
former day that ye came to talk to me?" " It is 
not, indeed, the same," said they, " for we were 
shown thy place in heaven, and we are satisfied 
with its goodness. We have come, as we prómised, 
for thee, and come now with us to the place which 
is prepared for thee in the presence of God, and in 
theuuity of the Trinity, and of the hosts of heaven, 
until the judgment of judgmcnts." 

There then assembled about him many priests and 
ecclesiastics, and he was anointed, and his pupils 
parted not from him until thev all went to heaven to- 
gether. And it is this good man's writings [" screp- 
tras"] that are in Inisfallen, in the church, still. 

Another brief allusion to the Altus occurs in the Mesca, or " Intoxication," of St. 
Columcille, a pretended prophecj attribnted to that saint, and said to liave been Tvritten 
a week before his death. At the conclusion of this forgery (which was probably com- 
posed in the seventeenth century), St. Columcille is made to say that he leaves the Altiis, 
with some other of his compositions, as a legacy to the men of Ireland''. 

g Screptra. — This word appears to be a corrup- 
tion of Scriptura ; but whether it signifies here a 
single work, or a coUection of MSS., Mr. Curry 
professes himself unable to determine. The Four 
Masters meution the burning of Armagh, A. D. 
1020, inwhich the onIyhouse that escaped was the 
Ceach pcpepcpa, "Domus Scripturarum," the 
Bibliotheca or Library (as Colgan, and O'Dono- 
van, translate it), but which was more probably the 
Scriptorium, i. e. the house or apartment in which 
books were written. See Maitland, Dark Ages, p. 
405, sq. But at the date 1417 (p. 829), the Four 


Masters record the burning of the Church of Inis 
Mor [now Church Island] in Loch Gill, near Sligo, 
in which the " Screaptra Ui Chuirnín," or MSS. of 
O'Cuirnín, and the " Leabhar Gearr" [short book] 
of the same family, were burned. See Dr. O'Dono- 
van's notes on this passage. 

'' Ireland. — Seethis passage quoted by Dr. Reeves, 
Adamnan, p. Ixxx., where, however, in the third 
line, for a^ pigan epca, read momheap^a, and 
translate " My Amhra, my Mesca, pure, bright" 
For a furthcr account of the Mesca, see Prof. Currj's 
Lectures, p. 406, sq. 


( 252 ) 


THE following Hymn was first printed by Colgan, probably from the IVIS. 
now preserved at St. Isidore's College in Rome. Colgan's text is the 
only copy of the Hymn to which the Editor has access for collation with the 
Dublin MS. ; and is referred to in the notes by the letter C. It is the more to be 
regretted that we have not access to the Isidorian MS., bccaiise the Irish Pre- 
face is in many places illegible, and the preface, as published by Colgan, is 
either a raere abridgment of his original, or raust have been translated from a 
diíferent text. 

Colgan's version of the Preface' is as follows : — 

" In te CJiriste, Sj-c S. Coluinba coraposult hunc bjmnum cursivo rythmo. Et causa 
fuit, quod parcc disseruerit de sacro-sancta Trinitate in Hymno pra;cedenti, quem alioquin 
optimum pronxmciavit S. Gregorius Papa." 

The foUowing is a translation of all that is now legible of the Irish Pre- 
face in thc Dublin MS. of the Liher IIymnorum : — 

" In te Christe. ColumciUe made this Hj-mn. He made it in rhythm: sixteen syllables 
in each line : but some say that it was not Columcille at all that composed it, [oxcept] from 
the words " Christus Redemptor," to [the words] " Christus cruccm," and that is the rcason 
why many repeat that part only. The place' waa Hy ; the time, that of Aedh son of Ainmire ; 
the cause was, when he sent [messengers to Rome] with the Altus, Gregory found fault with 
Columcille, becausc he had put into it [too scanty praise of the Trinity]." 

In this translation the Editor has supplicd within brackcts, by conjccture, 
what appcars to have been the sense of the mattcr containcd in the passages 
now iUegiblc ; guided by the account of the occasion upon which this Hymn 

1 Preface Trias ITiauin., p. 475. Hymn was composed. See above, p. 220, 

» The jilace. — That is, thc place where the and notes. 

The Hymn of St. Cohimba, ^^ In Te Christe" 2^3 

was composed, as told In the Preface to the Altus. It will be observed, how- 
ever, that the censurc said to have bcen passcd by Popc Gregory iipon the 
Altus is diíFercntly exprcssed in thc thrce vcrsions of its Preface, whicii have 
been already given at length^ In the version given in our Dublin MS., the 
censure is put into the mouth of St. Columba's messcnger (which is most pro- 
bably a mistake of transcription in thc MS.), but the censure itselfis thus ex- 
pressed, — " that thcre was no fault in the Hymn except the 8canty praise of the 
Trinity which it contained per se ; although He [the Trinity] was praiscd in 
His creatures"'. In the Lcabhar Breacc Pope Grcgory is represcnted as stat- 
ing his objection thus% "minus quam dcbuit Deus mcmorari in eo mcmoratus 
est." But the Preface in Colgan's MS., or at least Colgan's translation of it, sug- 
gests a somcAvhat different sense ; for Grcgory, he says, " opusculum magnopere 
laudavit, solumque illud sibi in eo displiccre dixit, quod author parcius in 
eo de Trinitate disseruerit, quam optaret"^. And again, in his version of the 
Preface to the Hymn now before us, he uscs tlie same word, "quod parce 
disseruerit de sacrosancta Trinitatc ;" as if the objection was that the Hymn did 
not contain a sufficiently explicit declaration or exposition of the doctrine of 
the Trinity. But the meaning evidently is, that the author of the Altus did 
not celebrate directly the praiscs of thc Almighty as such, but only His praises 
"in His creatures;" and the word Triniti/ is evidently used as equivalent to 
Deus^ or the Deity, without any reference to the author's orthodoxy, or to his 
opinions on the Catholic doctrine of the Trinity, which were not disputed. 

It is remarkable that Colgan's version of the Preface to the following Hymn 
omits all notice of the curious statement made in the Irish Preface, now for the 
first time printed, that some doubted^ its genuineness, and that many were in 
the habit of rcciting only lines 17-22 (or pcrhaps the meaning may be lines 
17-25), as belicving that portion of the Hymn only to be the gcnuine compo- 
sition of St. Columcille. 

In conncxion with this doubt, it is remarkable that the Hymn plainly divides 
itself into two parts, the first of which ends (at line 16) with a doxology, exactly 
at the place where the genuine composition of St. Columba is said to begin, 

1 At length. — See Notc A to thc Altus, p. debuit memorari." 

220, sq. * Optaret See p. 227. 

2 Creatures — See p. 222. 5 Doubted. — The early record of such a 
^ Thus Supra^i>. 224. The construction doubt is a curious evidence of the antiquity 

is " In eo memoratus est Deus, minus quam of the Hymn. 

254 The Hymn of St. Coliimha, ''ln Te Christe" 

aml tlius may seem to havc becn a distinct composition in itsclf. There iá 
also this i)cculiarity, tending to the same conclusion, tliat in this first part the 
lincs (with threc cxceptions) begin -with thc word Deus ; whilst in the re- 
maindcr oí'thc IIynm cvcry line (onc cxccptcd) begins with the word Christus. 
Bc this, howcvcr, as it may, it does not at first sight seem very clear how 
the Ilvnm can havc bccn undcrstood to have supplicd the defcct of the Altus, 
" quod parcius dc Trinitatc disscrucrit ;" for, with thc cxception of the Doxo- 
logics (lincs 15, 16, and 26-29), there is no allusion in it to the Trinity as 
such, ncithcr is therc in it anylhing more exprcss or distinct, consldcred as a 
confession of faith in the doclrine of the Trinity, than tliat contained inthe first 
" Capitulum" of the Altus. 

But we have seen that the objection to Úíq Altus was, not that the author 
of thc Hymn was unsound in faith, or in any way heterodox on the dóctrÍTie of 
the Trinity, but that in his Hymn he had not madc the praise of the Triuity, 
i. e. of God Almighty, suflBciently prominent or direct; in other words, the 
rcal fault was, not that the doctrine of the Trinity was insufficiently acknoAV- 
ledged, but that the Hymn was mainly occupied in thc praise of created things, 
or of God as Creator, and not so much in the direct praise of God in His es- 
sence and attributes. 

In this point of view, the Hymn In Te Christe fully supplies the dcfoct. 
It commences by a prayer to Christ as God, to havc mercy on all the faithful. 
It prays to God to make haste to help all those who are in labour. or distress. 
And then it procceds to praise God, as the Father of the faithful ; the Life of the 
living ; the God of all gods ; the Virtue of all virtucs ; the Creator of all things ; 
the Judge of judges; the Prince ofprinces; the God of the elements; the God 
of good help; the God of thc heavenly Jcrusalem ; the King of glory ; the 
God of the quick ; the God of cternal light ; the incífable God ; the High 
God, worthy ol' all love, inestimablc, bountiful, long suífering, teacher of the 
teachable ; the God who maheth all things, whether new or old. 

With this supplement to the Altus, it could not posbibly have been ob- 
jcctcd tliat there was in it " a scanty praise of the ^v'núij pcr se," that is, of 
God Alniighty as such. 

Tlic Hynm thcn takes up the praise of Christ: — Ile is the Redcemer of the 
Gentilcs ; the Lovcr of virgins; the Fountain of the wise ; the Faith of be- 
lievers ; thc Breastplate of soldiers ; the Creator of all things ; the Health of 
thc living; the Life of the dying : He hath crowned our army with a crowd 

The Hymn of St. Columba, ^^ In Te Christe." 255 

of Martyr3 ; He hath ascended the cross ; Hc hath saved tlie world ; He 
liath redecmed us, and sufFercd for us ; He hath descendcd into hcU ; IIc hath 
ascended into heaven ; He hath sat down with God (itbi nunquam dcfuerat) 
on that throne which, as God, He had nevcr lcft. 

This summarj of the lljran stronglj confirms the opinlon already ex- 
pressed, that the defect whicli it was supposcd to supplj in the Altus was not 
a theological defect in thc confession of Trinitarian doctrlne, but a deficicncy 
in the direct praise of God and of Christ. 

The language of the Hymn is evidently anclent. Among its peculiarities 
may be noted the use of the pluperfect for the perfect ; " Christus cruccm as- 
cenderat ;" " mundura salvaverat;" " nos redemerat;" "caslura ascenderat." 
" Cum Deo sedcrat, ubi nunquam defuerat." This peculiarity will be ob- 
served also in the writings of Adamnan, 

IH Ce CllTílSrC. Columcille boponai innmTnoTipa. Cpe pichim bopponai, f e fiUaba 
bec ni cech line. Qcbepac u" paipen conach e ColumciUe ecip bopponai [f] oca 
Chpipcup pcbempcop ■].... chpipcup cpucem, i ip aipe ima acbepac mulci lUam 

papcem. Z. ocup hi, cempup Qeba meic ainmipech. Caupa apala ac po 

ntio con alcup, i ipet) on poinchpech 5P<250ip im ColumciUe opo 


ce ctiRisce cncocMCiuTn TniscneaT?is OTTiMiinn 
cu es Dcus m secuLa sccuLotíutti in sIot^iq 

eus lu QDiuroT^Tuin iTTcei^De laboTíaíTnuin 
ao Dolorjum TícmcDTum pesciua iti au^ciLium 

eus parcR cT?eDeucium Deus uica uiueucium ^ 
Deus DcoTíum omuTum Deus uircus umcucium 

s poTímacoT? omuium Deus ec iuDe;c luDicum 

Deus ec príiNceps pTíiucipum elimeucoRum omuium 

s opis e;cimiae celescis hicTiusolimae 

Deus nc^ Tte^m m sloriia Deus ipse uiueucium k 

eus acccTíTn Lumiuis Deus iMeuaRnabilis 
Deus alcus amabiLis Deus iNcscimabilis 


I. In te Chride. — This Hymii has no 
gloss, except over the 'word eximm (ver. 
9), whore the gloss, although ncai'ly il- 
legible, appcars to be .1. e;tcelpa. 

3. Lahorantium. — Are these words al- 
ludi'd to in the prcfacc to thc Altus ? see 
above, p. 221, notc ". 

6. Virtutium. — This anomaly is neces- 

6ary for the metre. C. rcads, " Deus vir- 
tutis virtutum." 

7. Etjudex. — C. omits et hcre and in 
the ncxt line. But in both, et is neccssary 
to the metrc, 

8. Ilicrusolimae. — Icrosolvma), C. 

1 1. Inenarrahilis. — This ■word is also 
uscd, line 9 1 of the preceding hymn. 




The Hymn of St. Columha, " In Te Christer 257 

eus Larisiis loNsaMiims Deus doccor oocibilis 
Dciis cfui pacic oiiiNia Moua cuwcca ec uecería 

ci pacnis m MOiniNe piLique sui pnospene 15 

saNcci spiRicns uricfue rccco uaoo iceNCRC 

hnisciis ReDempcoR scNCiuin cbmsciis amacon uiRSiNum 
chRiscus poHS sapieuciuin chniscLis piDcs cRCDeuciuin 

hniscus lorjica miLicuin chniscus cRcacoR omuiuni 
chRiscus saLus uiueucium ec uica moRieucium 

oROuauic e;ceRCicum Noscnum cum cuRba manciRum 

chRiscus cRUcem asceNDeRac chRiscus muuDum saLuaue- 



hRiscus ec uos ReDemcRcc chRiscus pRO uobis passus esc 
chRiscusiupcRUum peuecRac chRiscus cacLum asceuDeRac 


,hRiscus cum Deo scDcRac ubi uuucfuam DepucRac 2.5 



LoRia haec esc aLcissimo Deo pacRi luseNico 
houoR ac summo piLio uuico uMiseuico 

piRicuiCfue obcimo saucco pcRpecco seDuLo 
ameu piac pcRpecua lu sempiceRua secuLa. 

iN ce ;cpe CRe. 

13. Dodor docihiUs.^Teacher of the 29. Ferpefm.—C. reads, "fiat et haec 

teachable man. perpetua, in sempiterna secnla." At the 

1 5. FiUqiie.—Fmiqxie, C end are added the words with which the 

16. Itenere.—ItíaeTe, C. "I walk in hjTnn begins, according to the usual cus- 
tho right way of God the Father, &c." tom of Irish scribes, to show that the 

2^^ Jtedemeret. —Ueácmerat, C. hymn ends here, and that the words that 

24. Christus infernum.—C. omits this folW are no part of it. Sce above, p. 

j-jjg 23, n., and see also p. 80, where the en- 

28. Ohtimo. -^Oj)timo, C. Sedulo.— tire of the first verse of a Hymn is repeated 

Amcn, C. ^t the cnd. 



The IIymn of St. Columba, '' Jn Te Christer 

Ppocejar nop alcn'']''imui" De |^iii|^ j^ancci]'' peoibup 
Oum pibi c^mnop canimup necim puauucip uicibup 
Sicque nobip ppopiciup t)iebup acque noccibup. 


31. TmnoK. — Hymnos, C. Decim. — 
Dcccm, C. 

The last stanza, Protegat nos, is in the 
angular character alreadj frcquentlv 
mentioned. In the margin is the follow- 
ing note : — Deich cpadia t)0 chelebpat) 
colum cille uc pepunc -\ ipa pcaip 
eoin cappion puc pom pein, " Colum- 
ciUe uscd to celehrate ten canonical hours, 
as they say ; and it vras from John Cas- 
sion's histoiy he took this." lío men- 
tion is made of this custom of observ- 
ing ten canonical hours, in the lives of 
St. Columba; but the "John Cassion" 
here quoted is evidently the cclebrated 
John Cassian, who was ordained deacon 
by St. Chrysostom (c. A. D. 404), and 
whose works on the monastic life and in- 
stitutes were so widely read during the 

raiddlc ages. He was one of the first to 
propagate in thc west, the eastcm custom 
of fixcd hours of praycr, aftcrwards called 
the canonical hours : Imtit. lib. iii. c. 3. 
But it does not appear that ten such hours 
wcre cnjoincd by him. In thc ancient 
church of Ircland, hc was honoured as a 
saint on the z^th of iN'ovember, at which 
day his namc occiirs in the Felire, or me- 
trical calendar of -^ngus thc Culdee ; but 
the more modem calendars of ^arianus 
Gorman, ofTallaght, and of Doncgal, make 
no mcntion of him ; no doubt, in conse- 
quence of his having given currency to 
semipclagian opinions. On the Continent 
several churches were dedicatcd to him, 
and he was honoured as a saint in many 
places on the z^rd July. Tillcmont, Mé- 
moires, tom. xiv. p. 187. 

( 259 ) 


COLGAN has printecl two copics of this Hyran : the one in his Abridg- 
ment oí'O'Donneirs Life of Columba', the othcr from his copy of the Book 
of Hymns^ The former of these seems to be an extract only, as it ends with 
" &c.," and omits the last two quatrains, besides other variations which wiU be 
pointed out in the notes. The latter copy Colgan himself describes as " paulo 
correctiorem, tametsi non plene correctum"^, which implies he did not consider 
his copy of the Booh of Hymns as perfect]y accurate, although " antiqua manu 
descriptus." How far the present edition is an improvement on the two for- 
mer, avíU appear írom the following pages. 

The account given by O'Donnell of the occasion upon which this Hymn 
was composed Is evidently taken from the Preface to it in the Book of 
Hymns ; botli account.b are substantially the same. The Editor will not 
enter into any discussioi' of the difficulty, which this narrative has sug- 
gested, as to the date of the donation of Daire Calcaigh (now Londonderry) 
to St. Columba by Aedh, son of Ainmire. This subject has been examined by 
Dr. Beeves, and the supposed difficulty completely removed* ; it will, there- 
fore, only be necessary to give here a translation of the Preface, wnth some il- 
lustrative notes : — 

Noli Pater. Columcille composed this Hymn, as he did the In Te Christe. The placc 
was the door of Disert Daire Chalcaigh^. The time was the same^, viz,, that of Aedh, son of 
Ainmire. The cause was this : — Once upon a time Columcille came to Daire to a conference'' 

' Columba. — Trias. Thaum., p. 397. ofthemonasticestabhshments, called Deserts, 

2 Hymns. — Ibid., p, 476. seeReeves, Adamnan, p. 366. 

■* Correctum. — Ibid., p, 450, note 47. 6 The same. — i, e, the samc asthat in which 

^ Removed. — Reeves, Adamnan, pp. 160, the Hjmn /?i íe C/ímíe was composed. 

161, note, " Conference. — *' Aliquando venit ad ooUo- 

5 Disert Daire Chalcaigh. — For the nature cium [i. e. colloquium] regis." 

2 L2 


The Hijmn of St Columba, " Xoli Patei\'' 

with the king, so that he [th<j king] grantcd liim the fort, with its appurtcnances. But Co- 
lumciUc rcfuscd thc fort, becausc ^Mobí' had prohibited him to receive au}thing of the world, 
until hc had hcard of his [Mobí's] death. But when Columcille afterwards came to thc gatc 
of the town2, three'of tliepeople of Mobí methim therc, andthey had Mobí'sgirdle with them, 
and they said, " Mobí is dcad." And Coluracille said : 

Mobí's girdle ! [Mobí's girdlc] ! 

It closed not upon emptiness, 

Morcovor, it opened not upon satiety, 

Nor did it shut upon falsehood. 
Columcille wentback to theking, and he saidto the king, "The offering whichthou gavcst 
to me yesterday, give to me now." " I will give it," said the king. The town was thcn burned, 

1 Mobi.—'u e. St. Mobí Clairencch, or thc 
Hat-faced, otherwise called Berchan, abbot 
of Glas-naoidhen (now Glasnevin, near Dub- 
lin), who was for a time the tutor of St. Co- 
lumba (O'Bonnell, lib. i., c. 43, Trias Thaum., 
p. 396). Mobí having been compelled to close 
his school in consequence of the breaking out 
of apestilence, S.Columba, with the other scho- 
larsjwas sentaway, and tookhis journey towards 
Tirconnell, having firstreceived froniMobí this 
injunction, " Xe quam terram aut fundum 
pro exsedificando monasterio aut aliis usibus 
acccptaret, nisi de ipsius scitu et vcnia." — 
O'Donnell, ib., c. 46. Reevcs, Adamnan, p. 
160. The ancicnt quatrain quoted above, in 
praise of Mobí's girdle, occurs in a poem en- 
titled, Itinerarium na paippse o coluiniciUe 
in onoip cpepa Tllobí. "Itinerarium of the 
sea [i. e. verses to be recited on a journev on 
the sea],fromColumkillc, in honourofMobí's 
girdlc." An imperfect copy of this poem is 
prescrved in the 0'Clery MS. of iIartyrologie3, 
in the Library, Brussels. The 
stanza with which we are concerned is given 
thus : — 

Ospo cpiop Tllobt, 

nip bo pcnnni milo 

nip nopslaO ppt páic 

'pnip ma&a6 ppt 50. 

'' This is Mobí's girdle ; it was not a bulrush 
round emptiness; it was not opened upon 
satiety, and it was not shut upon falsehood. 
In theMart}Tology of Donegal, at Oct. 12, the 
stanza is given thus : — 

Cpiop niobt [cpiop lHobt] 

nibt)ap pibne imlo 

Tiin noplaicccb pia pdic 

nm hiaoaómiso. 

which differs from the former cliieflv inspell- 
ing. The great diíliculty is in the word lua 
or lo ; in addition to the meaning given to it 
above, which seems to correspond best with 
the nextline, it is interpreted inancient glos- 
saries .i- uipce, icater ; and .i. bpac t)ep5, a 
red cloah. In the same glossarles, 50 or 
5ua is explained bpeg, a lie,falsehocd. 

2 Town bale, "ofthebally." Theword 

does not mcan what we would now call a toiin. 
" Town"is commonly used to this dav in every 
part of L-eland, even by those who oiily speak 
English, to denote a place, a fiirm, a gentle- 
man's demesne or property. There was no 
tou-n (properly so called) at DerTy, in St. 
Columba's time, but only a dún, or fort, the 
residence of a chieftain. 

3 jT/irce.— O'Donnell (loc. cit., c. 48) says 
two. And so also the ancient Irish Life, quoted 
byDr. lleevcs, Adamnan, p. 160, note. 

The Hymn of St. Columba, ^^ Noli Pater^ 261 

witli evorytliing tliat was in it. " This is foolish," said thc king, " íov if it wcrc not Vjurnt, thcrc. 
wonld ncver have bccn any lack of raiment or food thcrcin." " Thcre ncver shall bc," said 
he [Columcille] ; "from henceforth, whoever shall be init, shall never be a night fasting." 
The fire, however, in consequcnce of its grcatness, threatencd toburn the whole Dairei, so that 
it was to save it, at that tinic, that this Hymn was composcd. Or it was the Dav of Judgment 
he had in view ; or the fire of tlie festival of John\ And it is sung [as a protectiori] against 
every firc, and evcry thunder-storm, fromi that timc forth ; and whosoevcr singsit at bed time, 
and atrising, it protects him against lightning, and it protects the nine" persons whom he de- 
sires [to protect]." 

Colgan's version of the Preface is as íbllows : — 

Nolipater indulgere. S. Columba Kille composuit hunc IIymnum stylo rythmico ex tera- 
pore. In Daire Chalgaich, seu Monasterio Dorcnsi, compositus fuit. Quldam dicunt, quod 
pra3 tremendi et extrerai Judicii timore illura composuerit. Alli vero dlcunt quod quando lo- 
cum fundandi Monasterii, ab Aido Aiumirii filio, Hibcrnige Rege donatum, recepcrat, tanquam 
prophanum curaverat flammis absumi, ut sic Deo consecraretur ; et cum incendii ílamma per 
amoenum vicinum lucum, seu arboretura, depascendum vento et tonitruis perlata pcrtingeret, 
hinc Hymnum hunc composucrit, ad lucum iUum ab incendii flammis prseservandum. Duo 
privilegia recitantibus illum, pie crcduntur a Domino concessa. Primura, quod prsEservet re- 
citantes a fulminibus et tonitruis. Secundum, quod eos, qui consuescunt iUura recitare ves- 
peri, dum decumbunt, et raaue quando surgunt, ab omui adversu casu protegat. 

In the notes to the following Hymn, the various readings of the copv ofit 
publlshed in Colgan's version of O'Donnell's Life of St. Columba wiU be 
niarked O'D. ; and thosc of the copy printed by Colgan from his MS. of the 
Liber Hymnorum will be distingui^hed by the letter C. 

^ Daire i. e. the whole wood ; Daire'is an Pcríz, iii, 17, and compare Grimra, Deutsche 

oak wood. SeeReeves'Adamnan, p. 19, note'", MythoIogie, vol. i., p. 570, sq. (2'' edit. : 

andp. 160, note. Góttingen, 1844). 

5 John This is an aUusion to the ancient s 2'he nine This is obscure ; a word at the 

custom of lighting fires on St. John's Eve. end having been cut oíF by the binder. Thc 

Paciaudius, in his learned work, De cultu meaning seems to be that the recitation of 

S. Johannis Baptistce, Romíc, 1755, 4", la- the Hvmn wiU protect not only hira who sings 

bours to defcnd this custora frora the charge it, but any other nine persous whom he may 

of a pagan origin, and derives it from our desire so to serve. Colgan loosely renders the 

Lord's words (John, v. 35) : " Hle erat lu- clause, " ab omni advcrso casu protegat ;" 

cerna ardens et lucens : vos autcm voluistis he probably took angib to signify " persecu- 

adhoram cxultare in luce cjus." Butthe Ca- tion," but it seeras to be a verb, and occurs 

pitula of Charlemagnc (Hb. v., tit. 2) conderan supra p. 205, line 12. QnSit» occurs also as an 

theSt. John'sEve firesasremnants ofpagan- adjective, mQamng nequam.—Zeuss. p. 247, 

ism, under the old German terra oí nodfeuers. line 17. 

NOtl ])acerí. ColumciUe pecic liunc (^-ninum ; eobem niobo uc In ce^tpe. locur t)0- 
pup bippc tJQipi c1ialcai5. Cempup aucem .1. Qeba meic ainmcpech. Caupa, co- 
lumciUe aliquant)0 uenic at) coUocium pe^ip co t)aipe co poet)ppat) in popc t)o 
coTiaipliut». Opaip lapum columciUe m popr, qnia ppolnbuic mobi imme accipepe 
munt)um co clopat> a éc. 

Incan lapum canic columciUe co t)opup m bale, ip ann pm bopala cpiap bo mumcip 
mobíbó, -| cpipmobtoccu, -| t)i;cepunc, mopcuupepc mobí ; 1 t)i;cic columciUe : ' 

Cpip mobí [cpipmobíj 

ni po iat)ab imlua 

pecli ni po oplaiccet>pia pdicb 

ni pot)unat) imgua. 

luit) columciUe popcúlu copm píg, 1 bipcic pegi: Inn et)paipc cucaipiu bampa inibuapuc[h] 
cuc t)am nunc. Dobepchap, aji in pt. loipcchep cpá m baile coponeoch bai anb 
uile. eppach pin, ol in pi, ap mani loipcche, ni biab cacha bpoic na bnb ann co 
bpach. biait) imoppo ann pein immach, ap pe, incí biap ann m bia dibch lleff. otbchi] 
cpoipcche. Capmaipc cpa in cene apa mec lopcut) in baipe uile, conib apa aná- 
cul in can pm bopónat) incimmonpa ; no ip lache bpacha bopac bia aipe ; no cene 
peile eoin, i canaip ppi cech cenit) -[ ppi cech copann o pem lUe, cipe gabap po 
1156 1 poepse, no nanais ap chenit) ngeUan -| ansib m nonbup ip ail [boanacal] .... 

OLl paccn iNOiilserje coNicmia cum pulsuiíe 
ac priaNsaiium poRrmOiNe lunus acque umOiNC 

e ciTTienujs cenríibilem ruilLum crjeocNces similem 
cc cuNcca caNUNC carjmiNa aNScloríum pen as- 

Gloss. I. Indnlgere. — i. nos. 2. Hujus. — .1. tonitrui. Vridine 1. o eplopcub no a buibe- 

chuip [from burningor from theyellowpestilence]. 3. iSiwjiVeTn. — .i. Deo. 4. Canunt. — .i. laudaot^ 

I . Indidgcre. — Here used in thc sense 
of perm it or sxiffer. It is doubtful wlie- 
thcr the gloss over this word is not " in 
nos," or "super nos," which would 
make hetter sense than nos. " Suffcr 

not thc thunder and lightning to fall 
upon us." 

2. Ac Xc, O'D. and C. Uridme.— 

Uredino, C. ; O'D. reads Viredine, which 
onlv oan bc the Irish spelling of Uredine, 

The Hymn of St. Columba, " JSÍoU Pater" 263 

eque e;culceNC cuLmiNa caeLi uasi pei? puLmiiia 5 

o iliesu ainaNcissimc o ncx nc^um rjcccissime 

CMoniccus iN secuLa i?ccca tícscns ncsimiNa 
loliaNNcs coí?am oomiNO aohuc macnis in ucctío 

eplecus Oei snacia pno uino accfue sicceRa 



r>li9abec]i ec gachanias 
^ lohaNuem bapci9am 


uiRum masNum scnuic 
bapcigam pnecuRsonem oomiNi 

ONcc iN meo coROe oei amoRis pLamma 
uc iN arjscNCi uase auRi poNicurj semma. 

Gloss — 5. Exultent — .1. palciugic [welcome]. 7. Benedicti<s.—.i. es. 8. Jokannes.—.i. grsLtia 
Dei interpretatur. 9. Repletus — .i. est. Siccera. — .1. sine cera. .1. non omni liquori ebrio excep 

omnis liquor dulcis sic 

viz., uipeúiTie; the u suíFering what Ger- Trias Thaum., i». ^gj. The gloss upon this 

man philologists call umlaut, from the e word runs out into the margin of the page, 

of the following sjllable — Zems. Gram. and is partly illegible. 

CeU.,^.i^;Ehel,Beitrage,i.i6/^. There 10. Zacharias. — 'ElizsLhQÍh. Zachai-iíB, 

is no such word as Viredo. C. 

4. Cuncta.—íuxia, O'D. 1 1. Bahtizam. — Babtistam, C. The 

5. Exultent. — Exaltent, O'D. C. Ful- use of 2 for^íin our MS. has already been 
mina. — Fulmina, C. noticed. See above, p. 78, n. 31. 

8. Matris in. — In Matris, O'D. 13. Argenti. — Argenteo, C, Auri 

9. Siccera. — Sicera, O'D. C. O'Don- Aurea, C. These readings are inconsistent 
nell's extract ends here. See Colgan, with the metre. 

( 264 ) 


THE following document is called " epistola" in one pluce, and "ymnus" 
in another, by the author of the Scholium or Preface ; but it is reallj a 
prayer; and is said to have been uttered by St. John the Evangelist over the 
poisoned cup, oíFered to him by the heathen priest of Ephesus. 

The Legend in which this prayer occurs, and which is given at length in 
the Preface, has appeared in tw^o several works, both putting forth pretensions 
to great antiqulty, although now universally admitted to be spurious, viz. : 
the Acta Apostulorum, sive Ilistoria certannnis Apostoh'ci, attributed to Abdias, 
first Bishop of Babylon ; and the Passio S. Johannis JEvanffelistcB, ascribed to 
Mellitus, Bishop of Laodicea, or rather of Sardes. 

The impostor who was the author of the former of these works calls him_ 
self a disciple of the Apostlcs, and professes to have been ordained first Bi^hop 
of Babylon by the Apostles themselves. He tells us also that hc composed 
the work in the Hebrew language : that it was afterwards translated into Greek 
by his own disciple, Eutropius, and into Latin by Julius Africanus : " quaj 
Africanus Historiographus in Latinam transtulit linguam"^ Tliese are íhe 
words of the author himsclf, Avho, Avhilst he pretends to have been a contem- 
porary of the apostles, has made the singular blundcr of attributing tlic trans- 
lation of his work into Latin, to Africanus, a writer of the third centuri/- ! 

' Linguam. — Apost. Ilist., lib. 6, fol. 83 
(ed. b}- John Faber). Paris, 1571; 8°, And 
3ce the notc of Fabricius on this passage — 
Cod. Apocr. N. Test. II., p. 389, 629. 

* Third century There are internal evi- 

dences that Latin was the original language of 
the book, and that the asscrtion of its having 

been first written in Ilebrew was a dcliberate 
falsehood : for example, such pla}s upon words 
as " In nomine Domini niei Jesu impotra- 
bam non imperabam" (lib. ix, c. 21); " non 
everti, sed convertieam" (Ub. viii. c. 8), could 
scarcelv have bccn tho language of a transla- 

ThePrayer o/ St. Jolin the Evangelist. 265 

But it lá unnccessary for the object of tlie Editor to discuss the question of 
the genuincness of a work, whose pretensions have now no defenders'. Its au- 
thor cannot have lived before the fifth ccnturj ; hc has uniforinly quotcd the 
modern Vulgate, and appears to have also used thc Latin vcrsion of the writings 
of P^usebius'. There is good reasou to beheve, howcver, that the Venerable Bcde 
had seen thcse " Acts of the Apostles," for he seems to refer to them under the 
title of " Histories of the Passions of the Apostles." If so, it wiU follow that 
the Pseudo-Abdias cannot have lived later than the beginning of the eighth cen- 
tury. The passagc in tlic writings of Bede referred to is the following: — 
" Hos [Simonem scil. Zelotem, et Judam Jacobi] referunt Historiaí in quibus 
apostolorum passiones continentur, et a plurimis dcputantur apocryphas, proe- 
dicasse in Perside, ibique a templorum pontificibus in civitatc Suanir occisos, 
gloriosum subiisse martyrium"^ The Pscudo-Abdias relates the story of the 
martyrdom of SS. Simon and Jude, in the city of Suanir in Persia, in ex- 
act accordance with Bede's citation, Avhich renders it probable that thc " His- 
torise in quibus Apostolorum passiones continentur," i*efcrred to by him, was 
no other than the " Historia certaminis Apostolici" now extant, especially 
as Ave do not find elsewhere any mention of the city of Suanir*. If so, we see 
that, even at that time, the work was generally rejectcd as spurious, " a plu- 
rimis deputantur apocryphffi"^ 

The " Passio S. Johannis EvangelistBe" attributed to Mellitus, has still 

' Defenders. — The autborities are collected 3 Martyrium. — Bedae, Retract, in Actt. 

in the Testimonia et Censurce prefixed to the Apostt. i. 1 3 (Opp. tom. xii., p. 90, ed. Giles.) 

Historia of Abdias, by Joh. Alb. Fabricius, ^ .SMawiV.— Abdlse, Rist. Apostol., lib. v. 

Codex Apocr. N. Test., Hamburg, 1703, tom. c. 20, sq. Fabricius says : " De civitate Persi- 

ii. p. 388, sí^. ; see also Ceillier, ÍÍZ5Í. 6?es -4m- dis cui nomen Suanir, altum apud veteres 

teurs Eccles., tom. i. Y>. 488; Coci, Censura., silentium."— í7Z*i SM/)r., p. 744. Tlllemont 

p. 82, sq.; Baronii Annal., A. D. 51, N". 51. suggests that Suanir may be a city of the 

2 ^Mse&íMS.— See Abdlas, lib. vi. c. 4, and Suaui or Surani, mentloned by Pliny. Mém., 

Fabricius, uhi supr., p. 597, not. *. Fabri- t. i., p. 400. 

cius has given the foUowing negative oplnlon ^ Apocnjphce. — See Oudin. De Scripturi- 

as to the age of thls author : " Neque tanta; busEccles., tom. ii. 418, sq., where the argu- 

mihi videtur hoc scriptum antiquitatis, ut ments against the genuineness of the work are 

Hieronymis et Augustinis possit de aítatc con- stated. Oudin, however, fixes A. D. 910, as 

tendere. Nam ex veterlbus ncmo ejus me- the date of the Pseudo-Abdias, not being 

rainit, et scrlbendi genus Ipsum, et usus farai- aware that the book was known to Bede, and 

liarior Vulgataj ac versionum Rufini sequiorem that, therefore, It must have been extaut be- 

íetatem arguunt." fore A. D. 7 35, when Bede dled. 



266 The Prayer of St. Jolin the Evangelist 

lcss pretcnsions to antiquity. Eusebius' mentions an eniincnt saint and 
writer, Mcllitus, or Molito, Bishop oí' Sardcs in Lydia (A.D. 170), and gives 
an account of his numerous writings, none of which arc now extant. It 
is probable, thcrcforc, that thc author of the Passion of St. John, under the 
name of Mcllitus, intended to personate this Melito of Sardes, although hchas 
stjlcdhimself- " jMellitus servus Christi Episcopus Laudociaí" (i. e. Laodiceae) ; 
but in another Apocrjphal book^, " De transitu MaricB,'' which is generally 
supposed to be by the same author, he has callcd himself " Melito servus 
Christi et episcopus ecclcsiíc Sardcnsis," intending, no doubt, the ISIelito of 
Sardes, mentioned by Eusebius, and from Eusebids, by S. Jerome''. 

It is not easy to fix the precise date of this Pscudo-Mclito, or Mcllitus. 
The book, De ohitu [ov transitii] heatce Maria, is twicc referred to by the Ven. 
Bede {Retractt. inActt., c. viii., xiii.), and in both cases with strong censure. 
That book, therefore, must be older than thc eighth century : and so will fix 
the date of the " Passio S. Johannis Evang." if we assume that both works, as 
both bcaring the name of Mellitus, or Melito, are by the same author^. 

The Legend of St. John and the poisoned cup occurs in the Apostolica 
Historia of Abdias, and also in the Passio S. Johannis of Mellitus, in nearly 
the same words, and it is evident that one of these writcrs (if thcy be diíferent) 
raust have copied from the other, or both from some common source. This 
Legend is given in the Irish Preface to the following Prayer, with some vari- 
ations from the narratives of Abdias and Mcllitus, which wiU be pointcd out 
in the Additional Notes, so far as they are of any importance. 

Therc is a valuable (although not perfect) MS. of the Pseudo-Abdias in 
the Library of Triuitv Collegc, Dublin (G. 4. 16) which is probably of the 
tenth or early part of the cleventh century. The story of St. John and the 
poisoned cup from the text of this MS. will be found in Note B, p. 272, infra. 

In thc artistic representations of St. John in thc picturcs and staincd glass 
of the middle agcs, hc is frequently rcprcsentcd holding in his hand a cup, or 

1 Eusehius.—E\i?><ih. Hist. Eccl., lib. iv. c. ^ .í4?<í7íor,— CeilHer says {Hist. des Auteurs 
26, who calls him MíXítujv rOf iv 'Eápctffi na- Ecdes., tom. ii., p. 79)» speaking of the tract, 
f,oiKÍaQ ínitTKoiroc. -Dt' obitu B 3Iarice, " L'Auteur paroit étre le 

2 Stijled himseJf. — J. A. Fabricii, ubisupra, méme que celui du livre qui a pour titre : La 
part iii., p. 604. Passion de S. Jean V Evangeliste sous le nom 

' Booh. — Fabricius. Ihid.., p. 623. de ^lellitus, Evéque do Laodicée." 8ee also 

4 S. Jerome. — De Viris lllustribus, cap. 24- Fabricius, loc. cit. 


The Prayer of St. John the Evangelist. 267 

chalice, sometimes a serpent, soraetimes a dcmon, is seen issuing from the 
chalice. These representations are evidentlj founded on the Legend with 
which we are concerned; the serpent, or demon, representing the flight of 
the deadly influence from the poisoned cup. 

A transhxtion of the Scholiast's preface avíU be found in Note A, p. 271, 
infra. It is to be rcgretted that some words in this preíace, and particularly 
the passage with wliich it concludes, are uow iUegible in our MS. 

2 M 2 

DGllS TIICUS. lohannerFiliur £ebet)ei hanc epip colam pecic. In epefir t)ana Doponat), 
inuimrni imoppo t)omiciani t)OTionat); haec efc caufa .1. con[cinn] móp tjopala 
eciTi eom -| apircobim .1. pacapc cempuil beanae. Conepbaipc eom ppi apipcoDím, 
Ciagam a apipcoOim ol p e, co cempul cpipc pil ipin cachpais -] accai^ beain ann co 
caich in cempul, -\ pesa lecpu lappm co cempul Deanae, t suibpecpa cpipc copo 
cuice, T t)ia cech cempul Deane epumpa ip pepp cpipc ap Deam, -| ippet) ap chóip 
buicpiu abpal) cpipc lappein. Dencap lapum ap apipcobim. íocap popc co cem- 
pul cpipc, opauic apipcobimup cpibup hopip beanam, ec nec camen cecibic cem- 
plum chpipci. Cpciepunc popcea aX} cemplum beanae, ec opauic lohannep uc ca- 
bepec ec pcacim cecibic. Cc apipcobimup cempcauic occibepe lohannem peb non 
aupup eT^ ppo mulcicubme Chpipcianopum. IN pail ní polaab cumcabaipc uaic 

beop apipcoOim, ap eoin. Qca, ap pe, bianebapu lán cailig be Imn ueneno 

ec pi non epip mopcuup pcacim cpebam beo cuo: -[ Oi;ric lohannep, búc htjc, babi- 
cup, ap pe, acc co capcap bonacimmebaib aY\ cpialcaip l)0 mapbab icont) ptsnunc, 
quia non meliup epc mopi peppo quam ueneno, uc cimepec lohannep bipcic apipco- 
bimup hoc. ec ppimup poppe;cic cam uenenum ec pcacim mopcuup epc, -\ popc ca- 
nem poppe;Eic pemiae, ■[ lUa pimilicep mopcua epc, ■] popcea bacup epc lUip pocup, 
"1 mopcui punc pcacim. -\ pic bebiciohanni,-|bi;cic lohannep cunc, beupmeup pacep, 
."ipl. -\ bibic 1 noh nocuic ei. -\ haec epc caupa bénma huiup q-mni. -\ pupcicaci punc 
qui mopcui puepunc ueneno. -\ pic cpebibic apipcobimup, -\ abi mulci cum eo. 1 pi 
quip cancauepic hunc q-mnum in licpjopem auc m alicpjib cpjob popic nocepe in 
pamcacem [pebic]. IM pme uniupcuiupque anni elesicup Ge populo luuenip 
panccup pine macula peccaci, uc con . . . loh . . . i ungep eiup cipcum . . . 

GUS meus ec paccR ec pilius ec spiRiciis sawccus 
cui omma subiecca sunc ec cui omNis CRea- 
cuTía DeseTJUic ec omuis pocescas subiecca esc 
ec mecuic ec e;cpauescic ec DRaco pu^ic ec silic 

Gi.oss — I. Deusmevs. — Adit tn extinge. i.Cui. — .1. ipbuicpiu [itisto thee]. Omnia. — 
1. climenta. 4. Draco Multagenerabimt draconum .i. terristres. . . . sed omues igne nocent. 

I . Deus mcus. — Thegloss overthese words 
sigiiifics tbat the •svord Deus "gocs to" tu 
fídingue; i.e. i\xQ.iDem is in apposition with 
tu (linc II), allbetween being a parenthesis. 

4. Draco. — The gloss ovcr this word, 
"whieh is in Latin, runs out into the mar- 
gin, and is partly obliterated. All that 
is legible of it is ínven above. 

The Prayer of St. John the Evangelist. 


iiipena cc nubera iMa cfuae dicicur naria cfuieca conpes- 5 
cic sconpnis e;txiM5icun rcsuIus uincicur ec spcLasius inL 

Gloss — 5. Vipera. — i. e. vi parens, .1. dente nocet. Quieía. — .1. ancacli .1. blebTnil. G. liegutut. 
— .1. anela nocet. Spdugius. — .1. uestigio nocet. 

5. Vipera. — The etymology in the gloss, 
" vi parens," is an allusion to the ancient 
popular opinion as to the parturition of the 
viper, which is thus described by Isidorus 
Hispalensis : — " Vipera dicta, quod vi pa- 
riat. Nam, quum venter ejus ad partum 
ingemuerit, catuli non espectantes natura) 
maturam solutionem corrosis eius lateri- 
bus vi erumpunt cum matris interitu." — 
Etxjmol. lib. xii. cap. iv. n. lo. {^Opp. 
tom. iv., p. 65. Roma. 1801.) Rana. 
— "Ex iis [ranis, sc.'] qusedam aquaticse 
dicuntur, quaídam palustres, quíedam ru- 
betse, ob id quia in vepribus vivunt gran- 
diores cimctarum." — Isid. Hispal., ibid., 
cap. vi. n. 58 {Opp. ib. p. 85). Quieta. 
— Over this Avord occurs the gloss in Irish, 
which is given above, and which, pro- 
bably, may have been intended to ex- 
plain Braco, although, for Avant of room, 
■written under instead of over that word. 
But it may have been intended to explain 
rana, ananimalthen, perhaps, unkno'wnin 
Ireland. The word ancach occurs, p. 
206, supra (line 10), as a gloss on the 
■word " otiosa." Mr. Curiy tliinks that it 
signifies here the remora, or echineis. 
blebmíl is a ivhale; blet), a whale; "gl. 
pistrix; gl. bcUua marina" (Zeuss, p. 100); 
Tíiíl, abeast; "Welsh, mil. So thatthe au- 
thor of the gloss, having no idea of a frog 
or toad, imagined it to be a sca monster, 
a whale, or remora: an animal able to 
stop the progress of a ship at sea, by ad- 

hering to the keel. In O'Davoren's glos- 
sary we have " bleth .i. mil mór [a whale] ; 
hlaid, i. e. muir [thc sea], ut est blaidh- 
miV' [a sea-beast]. Stokes, Three Old- 
Irish Glossaries, pp. 59, 61. Torpescit. — 
In the margin are these words: "Colu- 

ber cinere, scorpius cauda silius 

[? basiliscus, or sibilus'\ ossibus post mor- 
tem nocet, serpens linga [i. e. lingua] no- 
cet." These descriptions are not from 
Isidore, who says, however, " Sibilus idem 
est qui regulus. Sibilo enim occidit, ante- 
quam mordeat vel exurat." — Etyrn. xii., 
c. iv., n. 9. 

6. Regulus. — Is the Latin equivalfnt 
for the Greek Basiliscus, and denotes the 
same serpent : — "Basiliscus grsece, latine 
interpretatur regulus, eo quod rex serpen- 
tum est, adeo ut eum videntes fugiant, 
quia olfactu suo eos necat ; nam et homi- 
nem vel si aspiciat interimit. Siquidem ad 
ejus aspectum nulla avis volans illíBsa tran- 
sit, sed quam'\"is proeul sit, ejus ore com- 
busta devoratur." — Isid. Etxjm., xii., cap. 
iv. n. 6 ( Opp. ut supr., p. 64). This explains 
the gloss, " .i. anela [for anhela'\ nocet;" 
{anhela taken as a subst.), "by breathing 
hurts." In the margiii there is the fol- 
lowing note : — "Eegulus, .i. rex onmium 
serpentium, nulla auis uolans uiso eo po- 

test euadere i peste. et tamen 

mustella eum occidit." This seems from 
Isidore, who adds, after the words above 
quoted, " A mustelis tamen vineitur : 


The Prayer of St John the Evangelist. 

No;ciiiiii opcnaciiR ec oiiiNia iicNCMara cc aDliuc pcnocioRa 
lícpcNCia cc aNiinaLia No,ria ccNcbnaNcun cc oiiiNcs aoucií- 
sac saliicis lnjiiiaNac naDiccs ancsciiNC. cu c;ccin5c hoc uc- 
NCNacuiii umus. cc e;cciN5e opeuacioNcs eius moRCipeiías ec 
uiTícs guas in se liabcc cuacua cc Da in consi^cccu cuo otti- 
Nibus his cfuos cu cTícasci ocuLos uc uiDeauc, auRcs uc au- 
DcaNC, coTí uc iiiasNicuDiNcin cuam iNceLLisaNC, anieN. ma- 
cheus marícus Lucas lohauNes. 

Gloss 10. Operationes. — .1. ueneni. 

qiias illi homines inferunt cavemis, in 
quibus dclitescit" — Ilid., n. 7, p. 65. 

6. Spelagius. — Pseudo-Melito and 
Pseudo-Abdias, as printed by Fabricius, 
both read phalangius ; but the Dublin MS. 
of the latter has sphalangius : this is the 
phalangium ((^a\á<'{<^/iov) or venomous spi- 
der of Pliny, Hist. Nat. viii. 27, et alili ; 
Vegetius, DeReVet., iii. 80 (al. 8 1 ), where 
some edd. have sphulangiis. The gloss, 
" vestigio nocet," seems to intimate that 

this spider insinuates his poison by merely 
crawling ovcr the flesh. 

12. Audeant. — This is only thc Irish 
orthograi)hy of e for i ; for audiant. See 
Eeeves'' Adamnan, Pref., p. xvi., xvii. 

13. Matheus. — This is a ciuious ex- 
ample of the ancient custom of invocat- 
ing the namcs of thc Evangelists, as a 
protection against evil: "Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John, Bless the bed that we 
lye on." 

( 271 ) 



The ScholiasPs Preface. 

THIS Preface is writtcn in tlie same mixture of Latin and Irish which we have al- 
ready had occasion to notice in the other Prefaces. The foUowing is a literal 
translation : — 

Beus meus. John, son ofZebedee, composed thisEpistle. In Ephesus it was composed. In thetime 
of Domitian it was composed. This was the cause : — There was a great contest between John and Aris- 
todemus, the priest of the Teraple of Diana, so that John said to Aristodemus, "Let us go, Aristode- 
mus," said he, " to the Teraple of Christ, which is in the city, aud pray thou there to Diana that the Temple 
may fall, and I will go with thee afterwards to the Temple of Diana, and I will pray to Christ that it may 
fall ; and if the Temple of Diana shall fall for me, then Clirist is better than Diana, and it wiU be right 
for thee to worship Christ henceforth." "Let this be done," said Aristodemus. They went theu to the 
Temple of Christ. Aristodemus'' prayed for three hours to Diana; and, nevertheless, the Temple of Christ 
fell not. They went afterwards to the Temple of Diana, and John prayed that it might fall, and it fell 
immediatelv. And Aristodemus sought to kill Johu ; but durst not, owing to the number of the Chris- 

" Is thereb anything that would banish doubt from thee, Aristodemus ?" said John. " There is," said 
he; "if thou drink a fuU cup of ale [mised] with poison, and if thou shalt not be dead, I will at once 
believe in thy God ;" and John said, " Bring it Hther, it shall be given," said he. " But let it be given 
to the prisoners, who are about to be put to death by the king now, for it is not better to die by the 
sword than by poison." Aristodemus said this that John might fear; and first he gave the poison to a 
dog'^, and it dicd immediately ; and after the dog he gave to au ape, and it died likewise ; and afterwards 
the draught was given to them [i. e. to the prisoners], and they died immediately. And so he gave it to 

* Aristodemus. — From this word to the end of the king now ;" the remainder is Latin. 
paragraph is in Latin. " To a dog. — There is nothing about these experi- 

^ Is there. — The next words are Irish, to the ments upon tlie dog and the ape in the original Le- 

word " ale ;" then Latin, to " it shall be given ;" gend, as given by the Pseudo-Abdias and llellitus. 

then Irish, to the words " to be put to death by the See Add. Note B. 

272 The Prayer of St Jolin tlie Evangelist. [noteb. 

John ; and John said then, Beua mevs, Pater, Sfc, and he drank, and it did him no hurt. And this is the 
cause of the composition'J of this hvmn ; and they who had died of the poison were raised, and so Aristode- 
mus believed, and many others with him. And if any one shall sing this Hymn over drink, or anything 
that migbt prove injurious, it will restore hira to health [^or render it harmless.] 

" At the end of everj' year there is elected out of the people a holy youth, without stain of sin, that 

The rcmaining words are illegible ; a few letters here and there are visible, but the 
deficiencj can only be supplied by conjecture. Dr. O'Donovan suggests, " at tondeatur 
in f [i. e. in feria] Johannis, et ungetur eius circum . . . ." or " ut tondcat eum epis- 

copus Johanni et unges[?] eius ciixum . . . ." The name Macl-eoin, which 

signifies " tonsured to John," or in honour of John (now anglicized Malone), is common 
in Ireland, and bears testimonj to the ancient custom of tonsuring in honour of St. 


The Legend of St. John and the poisoned cup. 

The following is the Legend of St. John and the poisoned cup, as it is given in 
the "Historia certaminis Apostolici" of the Pseudo-Abdias. The text is taken from 
the ancient MS. of this ■work, preserved in the Librarj of Trinitj College, Dublin'", 
collated \vith the printed text of Abdias, as given by Fabricius, and also with that of 
the " Passio S. Johannis Evangelistíe" by the Pseudo-Mellitus'', as published by the 
same author : the readings of Abdias, in the edition of Pabricius, -will be denoted by the 
letter A, those of Mellitus, by M. 

The history of St. John is the fifth book of the "vror^ of Abdias, and the following 
story is the eighth section or chapter in tlie MS., the nineteenth in the edition of Fa- 
bricius {Cod. Apoc. N. Test. iL, p. 573). The " Passio S. Joannis Evangelistoe," by 
Mellitus, was printcd by Franciscus Maria Florentinius, J!/aríyro^. S.jE[ieronymi, p. 1 30, 
and reprinted by Fabricius {Op. cit. iii., p. 604). 

.viii. Cum autem? omnis ciuitas epbesiorum, immo omnis prouincia asioe iohannem excoIeret'> et predi- 
caret, accidit ut cultores idolorum, exitarent seditionem. Unde factum est ut iobannem traberent ad tem- 

•' Composition. — Ilere the one word, béHTna, ? Cum autem — A. reads " Dum hiec fierent apud 

"ofmaking, orcomposition"[nom.t)énuTli], islrish, Ephesum et omnes indies niagis magisque Asííe 

all tlie rest being Latin. provincise Joannem et excolerent et pra:dicarent, 

•^ Ihiblin. — See above, p. 266. accidit," &c. 

f Mellitus See p. 265-6, supra. '' Excoleret. — Excolerent et prajdicarent, A. M. 


Tlte Legend of St. John., S^x. 


plum dianaj, et urgerenteum utei foeditatem sacrificiorum oflFeret. Tunc' beatus iohannes ait ; ducamJ uos 
omnes ad*^ ecclesiam domini ihú xpi : et inuocantea' nomen eius, faciam cadere tcmplum hoc, ct comminui 
idolum uestrum. Quod cum"" factum fuerit, iustum uobis" uideri debet : ut relicta superstitione eius rei, quse a 
deo meo uicta est, et coufracta : ad ipsum" conuertamini ; Ad hanc uocem conticuit populusr' : et licet essent 
pauci qui contradicerent hiiic diffinilioni : pars tamen maxima adsensumT adtribuit. Tunc beatus iohannes 
blandis alloquiis exhortabatur popuhim: ut a templo longe sc facerent. Cumque uniuersi exteriore'' parte 
foris cxissent, uoce clara omnibus'* dixit. Ut sciat omnis hiec turba quia idolum hoc dianaj uestra;' demo- 
nium est et uon deus, corruat cum oninibus manu factis idolis, qu£e coluntur in eo : ita ut" nnllam in homi- 
nibus Uesionem faciat. Continuo ad hanc uocem apostoli omnia simul cum templo suo idola ita corruerunt 
ut efficerentur sicut puluis quem proiicit^ uentus a facie terrae. Conuersi sunt"^ eadem die duodecim milia 
gentilium exceptis paruulis et mulieribus et baptismatis^ sunt consecrati uirtute. Tunc aristodimus qui trdt 
pontifex omniumx idolorum repletus spiritu nequissimo excitavit seditionem in populo ita ut popuhis 
contra populum pararetur in bellum. Sed beatus^ iohannes ait ; Dic mihi aristodinie quid faciam ut tol- 
lam indignationem de animo tuo. Cui» aristodimus dixit''. Si uis ut credam deo tuo dabo tibi uenenum 
bibere; quod cum biberis si non fueris mortuus apparebit uerum esse deum tuum. Cui sanctus apostohis 
aif:. Venenum si dederis mihi bibere inuocato nomine domini mei non poterit nocere me'' ; Cui aristodi- 
inus« ait ; Prius est ut uideasf bibentes et statim morientes ut uel sic possit cor tuum ab hoc poculo? for- 
midareh. Cui' beatus iohannes respondit. lam dixi tibi tu paratus esto credere in dominumi ihm xpm 
cum'' me uideris post ueneni poculum sanum. Perrexit itaque aristodimus ad proconsulem : et petiit ab eo 
duos uiros, qui pro suis erant sceleribus decollandii ; et statuens'" eos in medio foro, coram omni» pepulo in 

' Tunc — Inter haec, A. 

j Ducam. — Ducamusomnes eos, A. 

'' Ad. — In ecclesia Doraini mei, M. 

' Et invocantes — Et invocantes nomen Dianje 
vestraj facite cadere ecclesiam ejus, et consentiam 
vobis. Si autem hoc facere non potestis, ego invoco 
nomen Domuii mei Jesu Christi, et faciam, &c., M. 
Et cum invocaveritis, A. 

"1 Cum — Ubi, A. Cum fuerit (omitting factum), 

"> Vobis. — Nobis, A. 

" Ad ipsum. — Ad id ipsum, A. 

p Populiis. — Omnis populus, M. 

1 Adsensum. — Consensum, A. M. 

■■ Erteriore. — Et interiore, M. 

* Omnibus. — Voceclaraclamavit, A. Voce clara 
coram omnibus dixit, M. 

' Festra;.—Omit, M. 

" Ita ut. — Ita tamen ut, A. 

' Projicit. — Projecit, A. 

" Conversi sunt. — Conversi sunt autem eo die, M. 
Itaque conversa sunt eadem die, A. 

^ Baptismatis. — Et baptizati simt consecrati vir- 


tute, M. Et baptizati sunt a beato Joanne et vir- 
tute consecrati, A. 

> Omn»<m.— Omit, M. Quae cum animadverte- 
ret Aristodemus, qui erat Pontifex omnium illoruui 
idolorum, A. 

' Sed beatus .... ait. — Ad quem conversus Jo- 
annes, Dic mihi Aristodeme (inquit), A. 

" Cui Omit, M. 

^ Z)útY. —Omit, A. 

" Aif — Cui apostohis ait, M. Respondit Apos- 
tolus, A. 

•' Nocere we. — Nocere non poterit, A. Non po- 
terit nocere mihi, M. 

* Aristodimus. — Cui rursus Arislodemus, A. 

f Ut videas. — Volo ut prius videas, A. 

? Poculo. — Periculo, M. 

'' Formidare. — Abhorrere, A. 

' Cui. — Ad quem beatusJoannes, jam antea dixi 
tibi, quia paratus sum bibere ut credas, A. 

j In dominum. — In Dominum meum, M. 
•' Oum. — Dum, M. 

' Decollandi. — De quibus debebat ultimum sup- 
7)Iicium sumi, A. 



The Hymn of St. John the Evangelist. 

[NoTE B. 

conspcctu apostoli" fccit eos bibcre aencnum : qni mox ut bibercuti' spiritum exalauerunti. Tunc dicit' 
aristodimus Audi me* iohanues : et' aot recede ab ista doctriua qua deorum" cultura reuocasti' populum, 
aut accipe et bibe : ut ostcndcs* omniiwtcntem esse dcum tuum si postea quam biberis, potueris incolumia 
permanere. Tunc biatus iohannes iacentibus mortuis his qui uenenum bibcrant intreiiidus* ct constans ac- 
cepit calicem et signaculum crucis faciens in e«' dixit. Dcus mcus' et pater domini niei* ihii xpe cuius 
uerbo caeli firmati sunt, cui omnia subiecta sunt, cui omnis creatura dcseruit etomnis potestas subiecta est 
et metuit'' ct expauescit. Cura<= nos te ad auxilium inuocamus, cnius audito nomine serpens conquiescit. 
Draco fugit, silet uipera, et rubeta iUa quie dicitur rana iuquietiE'' [sic] torpescit, scorpias'^ extinguitur, re- 
gulus uLicilur, et sphalangiusf nihil noxium operatur, et' omnia uenenata'' et adhuc ferociora repentia et 
animalia noxia te reuerentur' et omnesJ aduersae salutis humanje radices arescunt. Tu*^ extingue hoc uene- 
nosum' uirus, extingue operationes eius"" mortiferas et uires quas in se habet euacua, et da° in conspectu 
tuo" omnibus his quos tu creasti oculos ut uideant, aures ut audiantP et cor ut magnitudinem tuam intelle- 
gant, et cum hoc dixisset, os sunm et totum semetipsum armauit'i signo crucis ct bibit totum quod erat in 
calice et postea quam bibit dixit. Peto ut propter quos bibi conucrtantur ad te domine et salutem quam'' [sic] 
te est te inluminante mereantur. Attendeute autem' populo iohannem per tres horas uultum habere hilarcm 
et nuUa penitus signa palloris aut trepidationis habentem clamare coeperunt'. Vnus deus uerus est quem 
colit iohannes. Aristodimus autem" nec sic credebat sed populos objurgabat eum; lUe autem conuersus 

"> Et statuens. — Quos cum statuisset, A. 

n Omni Omit, M. 

° In conspectu Apostoli. — Omit, M. Aspiciente 
Apostolo, A. 

P Biberent. — Qid moxbiberunt, M. Qui mox ut 
biberunt, A. 

1 Exalaverunt. — Exhalanint, M. 

' Tunc dicit. — Tunc dixit, M. Tunc conversus ad 
Joannem Aiistodemus : Audi me (inquit) et recede, 

* Me.—Omit, M. 
t Et.— Omit, M. 

" Qua deorum. — The MS. at first had qua eorum, 
but a later hand has inserted d. Qua a deorum, 
A. M. 

" Itevocasti. — Revocas, A. 

" Ostendes. — Ostendas, A. M. 

* Jntrepidiis. — Ut intrepidus, A. 
1 In eo. — Omit, A. 

" Deus meus. — Deos meus Pater et Filius et Spi- 
ritus sanctus cui omnia subjecta sunt, M. 

* Mei. — Nostri, A. 

•> Et metuit. — Qucm et mfctiút, A. 
•" Cum. — Itaquc, A. 
«^ Incptieta:. — Inquieta, A. Quieta, M. 
' Scorpius. — Et scorpius, M. 

' Sphalangius Phalangius, A. M. 

g Et. — Denique, M. 

'' J'enenala. — Tenena, A. 

' Heverentur. — This word is inserted over an 
erasure, by a hand of the thirteenth or fourteenth 
century. The original reading of thisMS. was pro- 
bably tenebrantur, as in the Liber Ht/mnorum and 
M., or terabranlur, as in A. 

j Et omnes. — This claiise to " arescunt" is omitted 
iu A. 

k Tu Tu inquam ille, A. 

' Fenenosum. — Venenura, M. 

" Ejus Omit, M. 

n Et da.— Omit, M. 

Tuo. — Omit, M. 

i» Audiant. — M. omits " aures ut audiant." 

1 Armavit. — Et cum ha?c dixisset, os suum et to- 
tum semetipsum armavit, &c., A. Et cura dixisset 
totum semetipsum ornavit signo crucis, ct bibit 
omne quod cat in calice, M. 

■■ Qaam. — Quae, A. M. 

« Autem. — Omit, A. Attendentes autem popnli, 

' Coeperunt. — Voce magna cocpit, A. 

» .4«<em.— Tamcn ne sic quideni credebat popido 
objurgante hunc,»A. 


The Legend qf St. John^ ^'c. 


ad ioliaunem dixit, inesf mihi adhuc dubietas^', sed si istos qui hoc ueneno" mortui sunt in noinine dei tui 
excitaucris emundabitur aboranidubietate>' mcusmea; Populi'autem insurgebant in aristodimum dicentes ; 
iucedimus et te et donmm tuam si ausus fueris ultra apostolum'» tuo sermone fatigare; Videns autera 
iohannes acerrime seditionem fieri petiit silentium et'' omnibus audientibus ait ; I'rima est quam de virtuti- 
bus diuinis imitari'^ debemus patientia, per quam ferre possumus incredulorura insipientiam ; unde si adhuc 
aristodimus ab infidelitate tenetur, soluamus nodos infidelitatis eius et licet tarde faciamus'' eum agnoscere 
creatorem suum; Non enim cessabo ab hoc opere quo medella'-' citius possit eius uulneribus proueniref; et 
sicut medici habentes inter manus aegrum medellas indigentem, ita etiam nos si adhuc curatus non est'' de 
eo quod factum est ; Et conuocans adsearistodimum dedit ei tunicam suam, ipse uero pallio amictus coepit 
stare; Cui ait aristodimus ut quid dedisti mihi tunicam tuam ; Dicit ei iohannes; ut uel sic confusus a 
tua infidelitate credas' ; Cui aristodimus ait, et quomodo me tunica tua facietJ ab infidelitate recedere. Cui 
respondit apostolus. Uade et mitte eam super corpora defunctorum et dices ita ; Apostolus domini mei'' 
ihú xpi misit mc ut in eius nomine exsurgatis ut cognoscant omnes' quia uita et mors famulantur domino 
meo ihú xpo. Quod cum fecisset aristodimus et uidisset eos exsurgere adorans iohannem festinus perrexit 
ad proconsulem, &c. 

It is unnecessarj to transcribe more of tliis story, as we havo here all of it that 
is requirecl for the illiistration of our Irish Scholiast, proving that the Abdian or 
MeUitan Legends must have been the authoritj from which he derived his mate- 
rials. It will be seen that the text of Mellitus agrees more nearly with that of the 
ancient Dublin MS. of Abdias than with the tcxt printed by Fabrícius ; but it is certain 
that they are in realitj', so far as this Legend is concerned, the same, and not two 
different works. 

" Inest. — Deest mihi adhuc hoc unum, quod si is- 
tos, A. 

" Duhietas. — Dubitatio, M. 

^ Hoc veneno. — Per hoc venenum, M. 

y Duhietate. — Incredulitate, M. Dubio, A. 

* Fopuli. — Quae cum dixisset, plebs insurgebat 
in Aristodemum dicens, A. 

* Apostohrum Incendimus te et domum tuam 

si ausus fueris ultra Apostolum Dei in tuo sermone 
facere laborare, M. Incendemus te et domum tuam 
si pergas ulterius apostolum sermonibus tuis fatigare, 

•* Et. — M. omits " petiit silentium et." 

<= Imitari. — Prima est de virtutibus Divinis quam 

Tidemur imitari patientiam, M. 

"" Faciamus. — Faciamus tamen eum, M. Solva- 

mus nodos infidelitatis ejus. Cogetur, quantumvis 

sero, agnoscere, A. 


^ Medella. — Sic a prima manu : but the first / has 
been erased by a later hand. The same is the case 
wherever this word occurs. 

'Frovenire. — Nou enim cessabo hoc opere, quo- 
modo ejus possit vulneribus provenire, M. Non 
enim cessabo ab hoc opere donec medela ejus possit 
vulneribus opitutari, A. 

s Medella. — Varia medela, M. 

'■ Non e*í.— Non est Aristodemus his quíe facta 
modosunt, curabiturillis quasjam faciam, A. Nou 
est, ideoque quod factum non est aliud faciamus, M. 

' Credas. — This word has been altered by a more 
recent hand to recedas (as in A): the c being erased 
and ce inserted. Discedas, M. 

j i^acieí.— Facit, M. 

'' 3/eí.— Nostri, A. M. 
Omnes. — Ut in nomine Dei ejus surgatis et 
cognoscaut homines, &c., M. 
N 2 

276 The Hijmn of St. John the Evangelist. [Note b- 

Thcrc Í8 nothing, howcver, cither in Mcllitus or in Abdias to corrcspond with the 
concluding paragrapli of thc Irish prcfacc, whcre we rcad of a holy youth clectcd an- 
nually from thc people of Ephesus, who (if our conjcctural rcading of the concluding 
very obscurc words bc corrcct) was to be tonsured in honour of St John. The Editor 
has been unable to find anvthing like this in any other authority. 

( '^ll ) 


THIS celebrated Epistle, together with the Letter of Abgarus to Christ, 
to which it professes to be a reply, was first made known to the Church 
by Eusebius, the great ecclesiastical historian of the fourth centurj. He tells 
us expresslj that lie had them frora the records of Edessa, the city of which 
Abgarus^ was the "toparch" or governor; and that down to his own time the 
documents were preserved amongst the antiquarian muniments,of Edessa. He 
states also that the original letters were written in Syriac, and that he had in- 
troduced them into his History, translated frora the originals into Greelí^. 

1 Ahgarus Writtcn Ahagarus by Ruffi- 

nus, and in the supposed Uecree of Gelasius. 
Eusebius and others spell the name Agharus; 
and it is remarkable that (at least in Vale- 
sius's edition ofEusebius) thename is spelled 
Agbarus, everywhere except in the Epistles 
themselves, where we have Abgarus. Vale- 
sius prefers the former spelHng, because the 
word Ahbar 'va. Arabic signifies powerful, 
great (Heb. naj), and the narae is said to 
have been coramon to all the reguli of Edessa, 
as Pharaoh to the Ivings of Egypt. But 
in the S)TÍac Chronicle of Bar Hebrseus, 
the uame is always Ahgar, which Bernstein, 
in his S}TÍac Lexicon, derives from the Ar- 
menian Avag-air (primarius, insignis), an 
etymology much more probable, considering 
the geographical position of Edessa, than the 
derivation from Arabic. The idea of a 
correspondence between our Lord and Ab- 

garus, may have been suggested by Matt. 
iv. 24, — "And his fame went through all 

But on the whole of this history, and on the 
name, see Theoph. Siegfr. Bayer, Illstoria Os- 
rhoena et Edessena, ex numis iUustrata, lib. ii. 
p. 73, sq., Ub. iii. p. 95. 

2 Greeh. — The foUowing are the words of 

Eusebius, Jíísí. EccL, lib. i. c. 13: 'Exeig Kai 

rovTixiv áváypaTrrov ttjv fiaprvpíav, ik tíúv 
KaTá "Eok(7(Tav ro TT]viKavTa fSaiTiXtvofiivov 
TTÓXiv fpafinaTOtjivXa^tíwv \r}<p9ti(Tav. iv yovv 
To'ÍQ avTÓOi SrjfioaioiQ ;^áp7-ate, roíf rá iraXaiá 
Kai Ta áfiípi rbv 'Ayl3apov vpaxOtvTa irtpti- 
Xovm, KaL Tavra tiatri Kal vvv t^ ÍKtívov ttí- 
<pv\uyp.iva t'vpt]Tai. ovdtv Si o'iov Kai aiirwv 
Í7raK0ii<jat TiZv im(TTo\uiv, ánb T<jjv ápxtii^v 
r'mXv áva\t]<p9tiffiiiv, Kai rbvct av-o'ig'^ pijfiaaiv 
ÍK TÍÍQ 'EvpOJV <p<úvTiq ntraji\i]9ti.a<Zv tov rpó- 
■jrov. Then follows the Epistle itself. 

278 TlLe Epistle of Christ to Algarus^ King of Edessa. 

It Í3 unneccssary for thc purposes of the present work to cntcr at lcngth 
into tlic qucstion of thcauthenticity or genuincness ofthc Epistles. That Eu- 
sehius bclievcd' in theni, and that tlícy wcrc receivcd as genuinc in thc Eastfor 
somc timc, arc íiicts not to be doubted. But it is cvident thiit neither St. 
Jerome nor St. Augustine had any faith in their authcnticity . On the coDtrary, 
botli those Eathcrs dcclare expresslv that our blessed Lord lcft nothing of IIis 
own writiníf-. They arc not mcntioned by St. Chrvsostom, St. Basil, St. 
(jrrcrrory Nazianzen, or any of the Fathers of the two centuries after Eusebius. 

In inodern times, howevcr, en)inent namcs areto be found on both sides of 
tlie controversy. Amongst thc divines of the Chiirch of P^iui^land — Bi?hop 
Montarruc, Grabc, and Cavc; amongst thosc of tlie Church of Ivome — Baro- 
nius, Schelstraet, Tillemont, Asseman, aud others, havc advocated the ge- 
nuiueness, or probable genuinencss, of the Epistles. On the other side are 
Bcllarmin, KatalÍ3 xMexandcr, Erasmus, Melchior Canus, Simon, J. A. Fa- 
bricius, Ceillier, and many others^ 

The Epistles are condcmned in the celcbrated Dccrce usually attributed to 
Pope Gelasius, and published in the collections of Councils as part of the Acts 

í Believed. — See his Eccl. Hist., ii. c. i. 

2 Of His oitm writing.—So St. Jororae in 
Ezek. xliv. 29, 30. " Salvator nullam volu- 
inen doctrinae suse proprium dereliquit, quod 
inplerisípe apocrj'phorumdeliramenta confin- 
gunt, sed Patris et suo Spiritu quotidie loqui- 
tur in corde credentium." This testimony is 
the stronger, because it shows that he was 
aware of the existence of apocrjphal writings 
attributed to our Lord. And so also St. Au- 
gustine, in a passage where he seems ahnost to 
allude to this very Epistle to Abgarus:— "Si 
enim prolatae fuerint aUquai htera;, quse nullo 
alio narrante ipsius Christi esse dicantur; 
uude fiuri poterat ut si vcre ipsius essent, non 
legerentur, non acciperentur, non praecipuo 
culmine auctoriUxtis emincrent in ejus ecclesia, 
(luae ab ipso per apostolos, succedcntibus sibi- 
met episcopis, usque ad ha;c tempora propa- 
gata dilatatur; etc."—Cuiitru Faustum, Ub. 

xxviii. c. 4 (Ed. Bened., tora. viii., 439) ; and 
this is indeed an argument agaiust the genu- 
ineness of the Epistle which seems very diíh- 
cult to answer. 

3 3Iany others. — An exceUent summary of 
the Uterature of the Epistles, with references 
to the authorities on both sides, wiU be found 
in the learned work of the Kev. líicliard Gib- 
bings, entitled " líoman Forgeries and Falsifi- 
cations," although, how these Epistles carae 
to be Roman forgeries, he does not explain. 
The reader wiU fiud almost ever)thing in Fa- 
bricius, Cod. Apucr. Koci Test., tom. i., 
p. 3 16*, and in Ceilher, Ilist. des Auteurs 
EccL, tom. i., p. 474, sq. ; add also Carpzov. 
Comment. Critica in libros X. lest., § xix. 
Lips. 1730; Cave, Ilist. Liter. tom. i., p. 2, 
sq. (Oxon. 1740) ; and Larducr, Ileuthen Tes- 
timonies^ ch. i. (AVorks by Dr. Kippis, vol. vi. 
p. 596.) 

Tlie EpÍ8tle of Chríst to Ahgarus^ King of EJessa. 

of a Sjnoil' of seventy Blsliops held at Komc, A. D. 494 or 496. Here we 
read, " Ei^istola Jesu ad Abagarum regem apocryplia. Epistola Abagari- ad 
Jcsum apocrypha." 

From this it appears that if the Decree of Gelasius be a gcnuinc Dccree of 
that Popc, it was probably unknown, or at least not reccivcd'', in the Church of 
Ireland, whcn thc MS. of the Liber Ilt/mnorum was written. For thc Epis- 
tola Jesu is manifestly assumed to be genuine, and was apparently read, as a 
Lesson, in the Irish Church in some office of public or private dcvotion. This, 
it nced scarcely be observcd, did not imply the reception of the Epistlc as 
Canonical Scripture, but such use of it was clearly inconsistcnt with the Ge- 
lasian decree, where thc coudcmnation of thc documcnt as Apocryphal must 
have sio-nificd a prohibition. When such cminent modern scholars, however, 

1 Sijnod.—VíLgi gives 496 asthe datc of this 
Synod, C'rit. in Ann. Baronii. There is, how- 
ever, much doubt as to the autiquity of the 
Acts of this Council, and even as to the name 
of the Pope by whose Decree the Apocrjphal 
books were condemned : some copies attribut- 
inf it to Pope Damasus, others to Hormisdas, 
but the majority to Gelasius. Even the text 
of the Decree is unsettled, and has been largely 

2 Ahagari. — Some copies omit the words 
" Epistola Abgari ad Jesum apocrypha." 
This omission occurs in the Decretum Gra- 
tiani^ Dist. xv c, ; Sancta Romana Ecclesia; 
and in Ivo, Liber Decret- : but in the Collec- 
tions of the Councils both clauses will be 

» Received On the date and genuineness 

of the supposcd Decree of Gelasius, see Bp. 
Pearson's Vindicice Epistt. S. Ignatii, Part i., 
c. iv. p. 44 (4°, Cantabr. 1672), where the 
whole question is discussed. A good sum- 
mary of the arguments against the Decree is 
given by Cave, Ilist. Liter.., tom. i. p. 463 
(^Oxon. 1740), who says that it is not alluded 
to by any author before the year 840. Mr. 
Gibbings, however, has found a reference to 

it in the Ojms Caroli Jlagtii contra Sijnodum 
pro adorandis tmaginibus, ^NTÍtteu about 790. 
{Roman Forg., p. 4.) CeiUer (Hist. des Au- 
teurs EccL, tom. xv., p. 630, sq.) admits that 
the Gelasian Decree must have been interpo- 
lated, although he inclines to bolieve it on the 
whole genuine, and says that it is cited under 
the title of Gelasii Papce de Libris recij)ien- 
dis et non recijnendis, " dans une acte del'Ab- 
baye de saint Riquier en 432." This date, 
howevei', is a mistake, and ought to be 831. 
For the document referred to (which occurs 
in the CJiron Centulense, síve S. Richarii, 
lib. iii. cap. 3), is an inventory of the goods 
and chattels of the monastery, iucluding its 
books, drawn up, as the author tells us, " Anno 
Incarnationis Domini dcccxxxi. Indictione 
ix.," by order of the Emperor " Hludovicus" 
(i. e. Louis le Débonnaire), and in the eigh- 
teenth year of his reign : Dacherii Sjiicil. ii., 
p. 310 (fol. edit.). In this catalogue of the 
books of the monastery there occurs, under the 
heading De Canonibus, a copy of " Gelasii 
Papaj de libris recipicndis et non recipiendis." 
So that there is really no evidence that this 
celebrated Decree had anv existence before 
the latter part of the cighth century. And it is 

28o The Epistle of Christ to Abgarus, Rinrj of Edessa. 

as Tillcmont and Asseman, Cave and Grabc, have judgcd favourably, or lic- 
sitated, at lcast, to pronounce the Epistle a forgery, we niay well excuse the 
Irlsh Churchnicn, ofan agc emlncntly uncritical, forhavingadopted thc Epis- 
tola Jesu without qucstioning thc authority of Eusicbius. 

The foUowing is a translation of the Preface or Scholium prefixed to the 
Hymn, Avhich, as usual in this collcction, is writteu partly in Irish, partly in 
Latin : — 

JBeatus es et relirjua. Clirist himself wrote ■with His own hand this Epistlc, as Eusebius 
relates in his Histor}\ And it was at Jerusalem it was written ; in the time of Tiberius Cae- 
sar it was written. And this was the cause [of writing it] ; Abgarus, theToparch, King of the 
land of Armenia. and of the hind tothe north of the River Euphrates, was in severe sickness in 
the citv of Edessa, so that an epistle was brought from him to Christ, requesting that He would 

remarkable that Pope Adrian I., in his letter 
to Charlemagne, in defence of the second 
Council of Nice against the objections of the 
Gallican bishops, assumes the truth of the 
storv (which was assumed also in the Coun- 
cil), that our Lord had writtcn to Abgarus, 
and quotes the authority of liis predecessor, 
Pope Stephen,who (in answertotheobjection, 
" Quod nuUa evangelii lectio tradat Jesum ad 
Abagaruni imaginem misisse") had said " Sed, 
nec iUud est pra^tereundum, quod relatione 
fidelium de partibus oríentis advenientium, 
sa;pe cognovimu-?. In qulbus licet evangelium 
.sileat. tamen nequaquam in omnibus incredi- 
bile fidei meritum : et hoc aíRrmante de ipso 
evanírelista : MnUa quidetn et alict sif/iia fecit 
Jesus, qu(B tiotx sunt scripta iti lihro Jioc. De- 
nique fertur ab asserentibus quod Redemptor 
humani generis, appropinquante die passionis, 
cuidam regi Edessena; civitatis, desideranti 
corporuliter illam cernere, et ut persecutiones 
Judneorum fugerct ad illum convocare, ut 
auditas miraculorum opiniones, et sanitatum 
curationes iUi et populo suo impertiret, re- 
spondisset : Quod si faciem meam corpora- 
liter cernere cupis, en tibi vultus mei speciera 
transformatara in linteo dirigo : per quam et 

desiderii tui fervorem refrigeres, et quod de me 
audisti impossibile nequaquam fieri existimes. 
Postquam tamen complevero ea qua; de me 
scripta sunt, dirigara tibi unum de discipulis 
meis, qui tibi et populo tuo sanitates impertiat 
et ad sublimitatem fidei vos perducat, &c." 
— Hardouin, C'oncil. tom. iv., p. 782. Here we 
have the authority of two Popes, sanctioning 
the Epistle with an interpolation which is not 
in the copy given by Eusebius, and which, we 
may observe, does not occur in the Irisli Rook 
of Hvmns. But it is remarkable that this letter 
of Adrian to Charlemagne, Avhich assumes the 
genuineness of our Lord's Epistle to Abgarus, 
was written (A. D. 792) in reply to that very 
Opus Caroli tttagtti, of 790, in which the De- 
cree of Gelasius, condenining the Epistles, was 
refen-ed to. See Richard, Atiahjsc dcs C'oti- 
ciles, tom. i., p. 739 (Paris, 1772. 4°). Ceil- 
lÍQT, Hist.dcs Auteurs JEccIcs. xviii. p. 230, 231. 
It is clear, therefore, that Pope Adrian I. can- 
not have regarded tbe Gelasian " Libellus" 
as genuine, for he passes it over in entire si- 
lence ; and the same remark wiU apply to the 
second Council of Xice. There is, therefore, 
some conl'usion about this matter, which needs 
further rescarch. 

• The Epistle of Christ to Ahgarus^ King of Edessa. 28 1 

coine to cure him: for he had heard that He was the Son of God, and that He had cured many. 
So that it was in praise of the faith of Abgarus, that Christ composed this Epistle. And this 
Epistle is in the city of Edisa. 

In which city no herctic can live, no Jew, no worshipper of idols. Nor have barbarians 
ever becn able to assail it, from the time whcn Evagarus, King of the said city, received the 
Epistle written by the Saviour's hand. In fine, a baptized infant, standing upon the gate and 
wall of the city, reads this Epistle. Ifever a people should come against that city, on the day iii 
which that Eplstle, written by the hand ofthe Saviour, is read, those barbarians are brought 
to raake peace, or are put to flight, routed, 

The latter half of this Preface, from tlic words " In which city no heretic 
can live," &c., to the end, is in Latin ; and is probably an extract from some 
ancient legend ; in it the name of the king is Avritten Evagarus, instead of Ab- 
garus, Avhich may inuicute a different source. It is remarkable that no allu- 
sion is madfe to the miraculous image or picture of our Lord, so celebrated in 
the history of Edessa, although it is mentioned by EvagriusS whose Eccle- 
siastical History was conípiled in the latter part of the sixth century. 

This may be regarded as evidence that the Irish Preface was compiled from 
traditions of some antiquity. But, on the other hand, the privileges of Edessa, 
stated by our Scholiast as resulting from the possession of the autograph letter of 
our Lord, exhibit marks of more modern interpolation. Evagrius, indeed, men- 
tions the general belief (ra iraoa toTq TnaTolg dpvXovfieva) that Edessa could 
never be taken by an enemy, — although he acknowledges that this Avas not said 
in the Epistle of Christ to Abgarus ; but he seems to have known nothing of the 
belief that no Jew, or heretic, or infidel, could live in the city, or that a baptized 
child^, standingon the walls of the city, was wont to read the Epistle, although 

1 Evagrius — Hist. Eccles., lib. iv., c. 27, vit, quod si quis advcrsarius ad illam laídeu- 
^ipovai TfivQtÓTVKTov tUóva rjv ávQpúiTratv fiív dam venisset, clves infantem super portam ci- 
xCipec ovk: fipyáaavTo- 'Ay(3áptt> dk XpiaToc 6 vitatls afferebant, et Salvatoris epistolam sibi 
eíóe, índ avTov IStlv £7ró0a, 7ré7rofi<pi. porrlgebaut, qui llcet allas fari nesclus, epis- 

2 CMld.-John of Ypra, In hls Chronicle of tolam prompte legit, et mox inimlci recesse- 
the Monastery of St. Bertin, gives the corre- ^unt : quod quidem mlraculum toto Abagari 
spondence of our Lord with Abgarus (cap. 43, et longo post hoc tempore duravit."- Jo//. 
part. iil.), and adds : " Post ascensionem vero /^,,,,.,-,; chron. S. Bertini (apud Martene et 
Doraini Thaddaeus apostolus ad Abagarum Durand. Thesaur. Xoviis Ancccl., tom. iii., 
missus, Ipsum cum toto populo suo baptlzavit, p. 642, A). John of Ypra died A. D. 1 383! 
et eum a languore solo verbo curavlt, juxta See also Gilo Parisiensis, De expeditione Hie- 
Chrlsti promlssum, clvltatemque sic assecura- rosol, lib. lil. (Ibld. p. 231, A), who, speak- 

2 O 

282 The Epistle o/ Christ to Abgarus, King of Edessa. 

otherwisc unable to rcad, or cvcn to speak, (íbr that secms to be the meaning,) 
or that a special blessing ^vas attached to thc reading or recitation of the 

Tlic tcstimony of Evagrius, tliat nopromise of perpetual security from hos- 
tilc aggrcssion was contained in the Epistlc of Christ, did not prevent thc in- 
terpolation of sucli a promisc in subsequcnt cditions of the Epistle : for cxample, 
in that givcn by Constantinc Porphyrogcnneta, in tlie Nnrratio^ de Edessena 
Christi Imagine^ a promise is added at the end of the Epistle, that Edessa 
shall ncver be talcen by its enemies ; /caí tíjttóXíi aov -^ív^aíTai ro ÍKavov irpog 
To juijot'i'o Twv íxQqCov KaTiGxvaai avTtic. And yet thc Epistle seems to have 
contained this clause, or some equivalcnt chiuse, in the age of St. Augustine : for 
the Count Darius, in a letter^ in which (if its text be not interpolated) he asks 
Auf^ustinc for a copy of the Confessions, enforces his request by the example 
of Chríst, who condescended to give a favourable reply to the petítion of Ab- 
farus, " prcccs supplicis non dedignaretur," — and even granted more than He 

ing of Edessa, and of the Epistle of Christ, 

says : 
" Hsec ibi temporibus permansit epistola multis, 
Atque ea ab adversis tutavit mcEnia cunctis, 
Nam si barbaricus furor iUuc perveniebat, 
liaptizatus eam puer alta ex arce legebat," etc. 
' Xarratio Published by Combefis, 3Ia- 

uipul. originum rerumq. C.politatiarum,Tp. 8i, 

quoted by Fabricius, ul)i supr., p. 319 

sion to the use which Darius made of our 
Lord's supposed Letter to Abgarus ; but 
simply says, " !Misi et alios Ubros quos non 
petisti, ne hoc tantummodo facerem quod pe- 
tisti." This suggests the suspicion that the 
argument from our Lord's condescension 
to Abgarus may have been introduced into 
the letter of Darius, by some later copyist. 
It occupies a section by itself, and its omission 

2 Letter Epist. 230 (Ed. liened.), 263 would make no perceptible /uffíi/s in the Epií»^ 

(Ed. Lovan.). "Fcrtur satrapíe, seu regis 
potius cujusdam epistola," &c. This Epistle 
was unknown to Possidius, and appeared first 
in the Louvain edit. of St. Augustine's works. 
How far the allusion to the promise, which it 
distinctly states was made by our Lord to 
Edessa, " per epistolam," should railitate 
against the genuineness of the letter attri- 
buted to Darius, cannot bc discussed here. 
It is certain, from tho tostimony of Evagi-ius, 
that at the end of thc sixth century the 
" Epistola Jesu" contained no such promise ; 
andthe answer (Ep. 231), whieh seems not 
uuworthy of St. Augustine, contains no allu- 

tle. — Ceillier (///a^ des Auteurs ^ccles.,toia. 
xi., p. 332) savs that Darius spoke of the 
Letterof Abgarus, and of our Lord's reply, in 
such a manner as to show that he doubted the 
authenticity of both : "d'une maniere qui fait 
voir qu'il doutoit de l'autenticité de l'une et 
de l'autre " Tiiis opinion seems to be foundcd 
upon tlie words^é /•/(//•, and " Laudasse insu- 
per suam dicitur civitatem." Baronius di-aws 
the opposite inference, that the Epistles were 
received as genuine : " Eas vero absquc aliquá 
duhitatione ab antiquioribus fuisse receptas, 
testatur epistola Darii comitis ad S. Augusti- 
nuni sci'ipta." — Annal., A.T>. 31, n 60. 

The Epistle of Christ to Abr/arus, King of Edessa. 283 

Avas askctl, — by promising tliat the city oí' Abgarus should have perpetuul 
6ecurity from its enemics — " et amplificato pctitionis munere, per epistolam 
non modo sahitcra ut supplici, scd etiam sccuritatem utrcgi, transmisit;jMós/í 
insuper ejus urbem ab hostibus in perpetuum esse ac semper immunem." 

All this tends to show that a belief in the authenticity of our Lord's cor- 
respondence wlth Abgarus was of grcat antiquity, and that lcgends founded 
upon that behef had begun to be invented at an early period. And the omis- 
sion of all aUusion to thcEdessan image, or picture, in the Scholiast's preface, 
may be taken as evidence that the Irish Church liad probably received the 
Epistola Jesu from a very ancicnt soui'cc ; for this connexion of it with the 
picture of our Lord was one of the circumstances that gave celebrity to the 
Epistle, and caused it to be quoted against the iconoclasts in the second Coun- 
cil of Nicaea. 

The Latin Version of the Epistle contained in the Irish Liber Hymnorum, 
and novv published, appears to have been derivedfrom the translation of Euse- 
bius^ by Ruífinus ; it has been coUated with a printed copy of liuffinus Avitli- 
out date, but published early in the sixteenth century under the title of " Hys- 
toria Ecclesiastica," with the following colophon, " Venundantur Parisiis u 
Francisco Kegnault, in vico Sancti Jacobi sub signo divi Claudi." The read- 
ings of this copy arc distinguished in the Notes by the letter R. 

1 Eusehius Since the foregoing remai'ks 

were written, the posthumous work of the late 
Rev. Dr. W. Cureton has appeared, entitled 
" Ancient Syriac Documents reUitive to the 
earhestestablishment of Christianitj in Edessa 
and the neighbouring countrles." Amongst 
these " Documents" the Epistle to Abgarus is 
given from a very antieut SjTÍac vorsion of 

the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius, The 
editor, Dr. Wilham Wright, of the British 
Museum, states in his Preface, that Dr. Cure- 
ton was a believer in the authenticity of the 
Abgaran Epistles ; and his name must there- 
fore be added to the Hst of those divines 
of the Church of England who have held 
that opinion. 

2 Oz 

OeaCUS CS -iP^- Cpir'" Ft"'" liorcplb cona laiTii innepircil[r]e, anial aOpéc Cupebiur 
mnarcaip. In liiepiiraleni u" poi'cpibat). in cempope Cibepii cerrcp'r pcpipca erc. 
Caupa u" hec epc, Qbsapup copapca pt cípe apmeniac -| na cípe ppi rpuch neoppic 
accuaich, pobai iiisalup cpum in Cbipa ciuicace cocuccat) epipcil uaD co Cpipc co 
cfpab biatc, ap accliuala cop bo niacc Dé hé. -| contcab pochailje. Conib ap molab 
ippe Qbsape bopona Cpipc innepipcilpe. Qca cpa innepipcil pe inCbipa ciuicace. 
IN cpja ciuicace nuUup hepecicup pocepc uiuepe, nullup lubeup, nullup ibulopum 
culcop. Seb negue bapbapi aliquanbo eam inuabepe pocuepunc, e;t eo cempope 
rpjo Cuasapup pe r eiupbem ciuicacip accepic epipcolam manu paluucopi]' i>cpipcam. 
Piancbenicpie epipcolom le^ic mpanp bapcigacup pcanp pupep popcam ec mupum 
ciuicacip. pi quanbo senp uenepic concpa ciuicacem lUam, m eobem t)ie cpjo lecca 
puepic epipcola manu paluacopip pcpipca placancup lUi bapbapi auc pujancup 

eQUUS es cfin me nom uioisri ec cneoiDisci m 

ine. scuipcum csc cNiin Dc ine, cfLiia lii cfiii iiioeNC 

me NON cReDeNC. ec cfui me uou uiDeuc ipsi m 

^ me CRCDCMC ec uiueiic oe eo hauceni cfuoD sciíip- 

sisci niihi uc ucumem ao ce. opoiicec me omiiia s 

Gi,oss. — I. Qui. — .i. abgare. 2. Scriptum est. — .i. in essaia profeta. De me. — i. de 
christo. Hi. — .i. iudei. L'ident. — .i. corpore. 3. Credent. — .i. spiritu. Et qui. — .i. gentes. 

Son uident. — .i. corporaliter. 4. Credent. — .i. spiritualiter. L'iuent. — .i. in perpetuum. De eo i. sub- 

intellige respondeo, vel dico. 5. Scripsisti i. in tua epistola. Ad te i. ad edissani. Opnrtet. — .i. 

lice est responsio .i. oportet me facere onmia [quse] proraisa sunt de me a profetis. 

1 . In me. — Qui credidisti in mc cum me 
ipse non videris, R. 

2. Scriptiim est. — Is. vi. 9,Matt.xiii. 1 3. 

3. Credent. — Quiahi qui me \-ident non 
ercdcnt in mc, R. This is gencrally sup- 
poscd to be an allusion to S. John, xx. 29 ; 
but Fabricius thinks Is. vi. 9, and lii. 1 5, 
much morc probably the passages referred 
to. Cod. Apocr. iV. 2'., p. 318. This is 
confirmed by the gloss. i. tn essaia profeta. 
Ipsi in mc. — Et qui non vident rae ipsi 
credent et vivent, R. 

4. Scripsisti. — The Epistle of Abgarus, 
as givcn by Euscbius, contained an invi- 
tation to our Lord to take refuge in Edessa 
írom the persecution of the Jews; addiug 
that the city, although small, was bcauti- 
ful, and would be sufficicnt for both : — 

Kai ^{ííp ■ij^ovffa o7i Kai 'lovBa'ioi ^aTW/o^/- 
'^fv^ovaí fíov Kai Pov\ov~at KaKwaai ae. 
TToXi^ ce /ÁtKpoT(trt} p.01 t<TT< kiii aefivrj, ipii 
é^apKe7 itfipoiépoiv, — Euseb. Hist, Eccl., 
lib. i. c. 13. 

5. Vcnirem. — Vcniam, 11. 

Tlie Epistle of Christ to Abgarus, King of Edessa. 285 

puopcerí cfuae iiiisus siiiii bic e;cpLeKc. posccaquain compLeu- 
CRO Tíccipi 111C QD cuiii a Cfuo inisus suin. cuin CH50 pucRO 
asumpcus miccain cibi alicfucm e;c Discipulis mcis qui curcc 
csRiruDiuem cuam ec uicam cibi accfue his cfui cecum suuc 
pRcscec. 'o 

Oomine Oomine Depenoe nop a mali]^ ec cufrotji nop in bonip uc 
piniuf' pilii cui hic eu in pucufio, Ctmen. Saluacoji omnium 
Chpipce peppice in nop iliepu ec mipejiepe nobip. 

Gloss. — 6. Hic. — .i. in iudea vel in hierusalem, vel in hoc niundo. 7. Compleuero. — .i. leges et profe- 
tias. 7. Recipi me. — .1. iu ascensionem. Ad eum. — .i. ad patrem. Misus. — i. in humanitate, .i. ad sal- 

uandum mundum. 8. Asumptm i. a patre in celum. Mittam. — 1. ad te. Tihi. — .i. abgare. Ali- 

quem i. tatheum. Discipuiis.—A. ex apostolis. 9. Tuam. — .i. abgare. Uitavi — .i. perennem et doc- 

trinam et sanitatem. Tecum sunt. — .i. in fide chrisliana. 

6. Posteaquam. — Et posteaquam imple- 
vero, R. 

7. Ad eiim. — Ab eo, R. Mism — The 
S. Isidore MS. reads Missiis. 

8. Aliquem. — The gloss says .i. tatheum. 
So tlie name Thaddseus is given in Euffin's 
translation of Eusebius : in the original 
(Joc. cit.} he is called QaBSa7ou tov airo- 
OToXov 'éva 7WV éfico^irj^ovTa. This cannot 
mean that Thaddaeus, one of the 70, was 
also one of the Twelve Apostles, and Eu- 
sebius, thercfore, must have called him an 
apostle in a secondarj sensc, as having been 
the Apostle of Edessa. He expressly dis- 
tinguishes him from the Twelve Apostles, 
but says that others were called Apostles, 
lib. i. c. 12. See Tillemont, Mémoires, 
tom. i., p. 360, and note 5, p. 613. St. 
Jerome (m S. Matth. c. x. 4) fell into 
the mistake of confounding this Thaddaeus 
with the Apostle of the same name ; and 
others have been led into the same eiTor. 
Bede corrects it, Retractt. in Acta Apost., 
c. X. It is probablc that the author of the 
gloss followed Jcromc, when he iaterprets 
" ex discipulis" by "cx apostolis." Thc 

Hymn of St. Cummain Fota, line 23 (see 
above, p. 77), also foUows Jerome. The 
Menology of the Greek Church identi- 
fies Tbaddaíus ofEdessa with the Apostle 
Jude, or Thaddaeus, the brother of our 
Lord : Knl irpos" Av^fapov -07ráp-)(rjv TTOpev- 
6ei<3 éOepaTrcvaev aviov (ítto tíjs vóaov. — 

2Ie7i. Grcec. ad 19 Jun. Q,ui curet Ut 

curet, R. TJt qui curat, S. Isidore MS. 

9. Egritudinem. — Abgarus in his Epistle 
had asked our Lord to come and heal him : 
" et aegritudinem meam, qua jamdiu la- 
boro, curare." 

10. Prestet. — Thc S. Isidore MS. adds 
here, " Salvus erit sicut scriptum est qui 
crcdit in me salvus erit." 

Domine, Bomine. — The praycrs which 
follow are in the angular character alrcady 
frequently spoken of. They seem to show 
that this Letter to Abgarus was read in thc 
ancicnt Irish Church as a Lesson in some 
office. In the upper margin df the ]iIS. 
there ai'c some sentences, which do not ap- 
pcar to have had any connexion with tlic 
tcxt. Thcy havG becn greatly mutilated 

2 86 The Epistle o/ Christ to Abgarus, King of Edessa. 

Guan^eliuii» Domini noprpi ihe]ni chjiii xi libepeu nop, ppocejau 
nop, cu]^rot)iac nop, Depenoac nop, ab omni malo, ab omni pe- 
piculo, ab omni langope, ab omni oolope, ab omni pla^a, ab omni 
inuiDia, ab omnibup inpiDiip Diabuli ec malopum hominum hic 
ec in pucupo. Qmen. 

by thc plough of the binder. The following 
words are all that are now lcgible : — 
" custodis .... nostram sicut de anima 
christiana dicitur. Omnis caro fcnum est, 
et reliqua" [Is. xl. 6]. " Sed gloria cius 
filiae regis ab intus, nam extrinsecus ma- 

ledicta et per ntiones et detrac- 

tiones pcrmittuntur de quibus tamen in 
celis mcrces aetema est quae scntitur in 
cordc paticntium corum qui iam possunt 
ut dicitur . . glori . . . . in tribulationibus. 
Hif. illa malcdictio beatitudinem creat." 
The word Hir. is a contraction for Hiero- 
nymu8 ; the passage alluded to occurs in 
S. Jerome's Comment, on S. ^ilatt. v. ii, 
" lUud maledictum contemnendum est 
quod beatitudinem creat, quod falso male- 
dicentis ore profci'tur." 

Aftcr thc forcgoing shects had been 
workcd off, the writer had the privilege 
of visiting Romc, and was kindly permit- 

' ' Evangelium Domini nostri Jesu Christi 
liberet nos, protegat nos, custodiat nos, vi- 
sitet nos, defendat nos, ab omni malo, ab 
omni plaga, ab omni langore, ab omni do- 
lore, ab omni perturbatione, ab omni pe- 
riculo, ab omni invidia, ab omnibus insi- 
diis diaboli et malorum hominum hic et 
in futuro." 

The IrishPreface to the Epistle of Christ 
in the S. Isidore MS, is as follows : it is 
in some places illegible. The Editor has 
markod by dots the passages which he 
has been unable to decipher : — 

beacup ef. Ihr ;£pr pecic hanc epip- 
colam. Dia paba pe;c ebipae ciuicacip qui 
t)olopern pebip habuic. Cocucab epipcil 
uat) co cpipc conbisrac bia acaUam ocup 
t)iaic. Ocup ue.., cacheup ipin epipcil 

borom lapcerrat) cpipc, Ocup ippe 

nic. Ocup acaac in ebipa 

in epipcil -[ copop 

cap mbia co baib opbaib. Ocup 

ted to coUatc the Doncgal copy of thc 5 nachnepe cecba bich pupe {vel 

Liber Uijmnorum 'm the Convcnt of S, 
Isidorc, which is undoubtcdly the MS, 
quotcd by Colgan, and of which a fuU ac- 
count wiU be found in the Appcndix to 
■ this Fasciculus. 

This MS.givcs thc concluding praycrs 
or coUects, after the Epistle, thus : — 

" Domine, Dominc, dcfcndc nos a malis 
et custodi nos in bonis, ut simus filii tui 
hic et in futuro, qui rcgnas in secula se- 

piupe] nuapc ipin cpin. 

Which may be tbus translated : 
Beatxis es. Jesus Chhist niade this epis- 
tle : for tbere was a king of the city of 
Edossa, who had a malady in the foot : and a 
letter was brought from hlm to Christ, re- 
qucstimj that He would come to converse with 
and heal hiin. And Thadda-us . . . the 
cpistlc unto him after the crucifixion of Christ. 
And it was he . . . . and they arc in 

Edessa the epistle was, and 

and .... 

( 287 ) 


THIS Hymn was first printed by Colgan. He gives it in his Trias Thaii- 
maturga under the title of " Hjmnus, scu Vita Prima S. Patricii Hiber- 
niae Apostoli, S. Fieco Episcopo Sleptensi Authore," — it havingbeen regarded 
by him as the earliest of the seven Lives of St.Patrick which he had collected; 
although it was evidently never intended by its author as a " Life" properly 
so called, but only a Poetical Panegyric upon the Saint. 

Colgan has published it in the original Irish, with a Latin translation in 
parallel columns ; and, although subsequent editors have not scrupled to criti- 
cise and alter his translation, none of them has pretended to correct his text 
from any MS. authority, or suggested anything better than conjectural, and 
sometimes ignorant, emendations. 

There is, therefore, in reality no existing printed text of this Hymn 
of any authority, except that published by Colgan, which was taken from 
his copy of the Book of Hymns^ now preserved at the Franciscan College of 
S. Isidore, in Roine. Dr. O'Conor's edition- does not pi'ofess to have been 
coUated with any other MS. of the original, aud is, in fact, only a reprint of 
Colgan's text. The same remark wiU apply to the only other printed 
copy which has appeared with any pretensions to editorial scholarship, viz.. 
that published by Hcnry Leo {Halis Saxonum, 1845), ^"^ ^^^® occasiou of a 
declaration of successful competitors íbr Prizes " in certamine literario," 
proposed in honour of the birth day of Frederick Williara IV., King 
of Prussia. This Avorlc (which does not appear to have obtained a prize) is 

i Hymns "Extat in pervetusto codice part i., p. 88, sq. O'Conorentitles tbisHviuu 

opusculorum aliquot sanctorum Hiberniae "Carmen vetusllibernicum, quodFieco, &c., 

(qui Zi&er /Zí/OTTiorMm inscribitur) ex quo ip- tribuitur, . . . ex Codice vetustissinto JJun- 

sum desumpsimus." — Tr. Thautn.,ii. 6. gallense." The MS. at S. Isidoro's is entitlcd 

^ JSdition Rer. Hib. Scriptt. Prolegom., in a liand of the seventeenth ceuturv, "Exli- 


The IJxjmn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. PatricJc. 

entitled " Commcntatio de Carmine vetusto Hibernico in S. Patricii laudem." 
It consists of a minute analysis oí'the original text, with a translation, in which 
tlie author docs not displaj any exact acquaintancc cithcr with Irish grammar 
or with Iri:^h history. 

Thc other cditions and attemptcd translations of the IIymn, Avhich have 
appcarcd in this country, add nothing to the illustration of it, ])hilologically 
or historically, and do not rcquirc any detailcd notice'. They are all taken 

bris <le conventus \sic'] de Dunnagall." Tliis 
is on the lower margin of p. 3. 

' Notice. — The foUowing is a list of all 
tliese cditions with which the editor is ac- 
quainted : — 

1. Vallancey, in the first edition of his 
Irish Grammar (Dublin, 4", i773),hasprinted 
this Hvmn (p. 166 sq.) with Colgan's Latin 
Translation. 0'Reilly, in his aceount of Irish 
writers {Trans. Iberno-Celiic Soc, p. xxxiii), 
says that this IIymn was printed " in the first 
edition of Vallancey's Irish Graramar, loith a 
faulty English trunslation." But this Eng- 
lish translation is not to be found in the copies 
of the first edition of Vallancey's Grammar 
which are now preserved in the public libra- 
ries of Dublin, nor has the Editor ever scen it ; 
and there is reason to suspect that the sheets 
which contained it were cancelled by the au- 
thor (after its errors were discovered), to make 
room for Colgan's Latin version. In the second 
edition of the Grammar, printed in 8vo,Val- 
lancev has omittt'd Fiacc's IIymn altogether. 

2. Mr. Patrick Lynch, in the Appcndix to 
his Life of St. Patrick {Dublin, 1810, 8"), 
p. 328, has printed this Il^mn in the original 
Irish, with an English translation of his own, 
and Colgan's Latin Version. Mr. 0'Reil!y 
(loc. cit.) calls this " a correct English trans- 
lation;" but it is very far from being so. 

3. The Rt. Rev. Dr. Coylc, aRoman Catliolic 
bishop in Ireland, in a work callcd "TliePious 
Miscellany" (Dublin, 1831, 12"), of wliich thc 
first vol. ouly was published, has printed St. 

Fiacc's Hymn, in the original Irish, with a 
loose metrical English version (p. 46, sq.). 

4. Mr. Martin A. O'Brennan, "LL. D., 
Member of tlie Honorable Society of Queen's 
Inns," has published this Hymn in the ori- 
ginal Irish, with an English translation and 
copious notes, in vol. i., p. 484, of a work, 
the first volume of which is entitled, " O'Bren- 
nan's Antiquities," and thesecond, "ASchool 
History of Ireland, from the Days of Partho- 
lan to the Present Day." Dublin, 8° {sine 
anno). The dedication of the second edition 
of vol. I., " To his Grace the Most Rev. John 
IMac Ilale," is dated " April, 1848." 

5. 0'Reilly (m&í íM/)ra) states that in 1792 
[1791] this Hymn was published by Richard 
Piunket, " a neglected genius of the countv 
^leath, who, in pages ojiposite to the original 
text, gave a version into modern Irish." 
This is an exceedingly rare tract, 8vo. pp. 32. 
The first page is blank ; then foUow two ti- 
tles, one in English and the other Irish, on 
opposite pages. The English title is this : 
" Au Hymn on the Life of St. Patrick : ex- 
tracted, from the antient Scytho-Celtic dia- 
lect, iiito !Modern Irish, by Richard Plunket, 
late Translator of the Kew Testament into 
Irish, who has now the ^lanuscript in his 
possession. Dublin. Printed in the vear 
M,DCC,XCI." The Irish title is : " Ilimhin Pha- 
druig Absdal. Do cumadh re Feiche Easbug 
Shleibhte, a gcondae na Banrioghna, disciobal 
agas fear comhainisire do Padraig fein. Air 
na mhineadh go deighncach san nuaiíhghaoi- 

The Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. Patrich. 


from Colgan's Tcxt and Version; some with arbitrary alterations ofthe orig- 

inal, and translations which, so far as they differ from Colgan's, may be de- 

scribed as the oíFspring, for the most part, of prcsumptuous ignorance. 

In the anclent Scholium, or Preface, prefixed to this Hymn, Fiacc ' of 

Slebte, or Slebhte, is unhesitatingly pronounced to be its author. This ecclesias- 

tic, who was honoured as a saint in the Irish Church on the i2th of October^ 

was descended from Cathair Mór {Cathirius Magnus, as O'Flahertj^ Latinizes 

the name), who became monarch of Ireland, A. D. 174, and was killed in the 

battle of Tailltc^ (now Teltown, in Meath), A. D. 177. Fiacc's descent 

from this king of Ireland may be gathered from the Scholium or Preface to 

the Hymn as printed by Colgan, thus : 

Catliair Mór, 

Daire Barrach, 



Fiacc, of Slebhte. 
dhilig, Re RIOSTARD Pluncead. A mbeul 

athcliath an na chur a gclo san mbliadhan 
M.DCC.xci." Then follows the Hymn in 
the ancient Irish, as given by Colgan, with a 
translation on the opposite page into the mo- 
dern Irish of the peasantry, ending on p. 11. 
On pp. 12 and 13 are an English and Irish 
title to S. Brogan's Life of S. Bridget, with 
the Hymn in Colgan's text, and a translation 
into vulgar Irish as before, to p. 25. Page 26 
is blank ; and p. 27 is a title-page : " Short 
Directions for reading Irish, intended for 
those who can speak and understand the 
language. By Richard PIunket, late trans- 
lator oftbe New Testament into Irish, who 
has now that manuscript in his possession. 
Dublin : Printed in the year m.dcc.xci." 
This ends on p. 31, and p. 32 contains a list 
of Richard Plunket's works, in nine articles. 

• Fiacc His name is written by Colgan 

Fiecus, and by Lanigan, Petrie, and others, 
Fiech. It has been so written in the early 

pages of this work. In the Book of Armagh 
the name is written Feec, Fiacc, and Feccus. 
The final c is never aspirated. Colgan has 
made this remark (ír. Thaum., p. 7, col. 2, 
not. 2). lu the Life of St. Patrick by Probus 
{lih. i. c. 41 ; Colgan, p. 51), St. Fiacc is 
called Phiehg, or Pheg, as Ussher more cor- 
rectly gives the narae in quoting this passage, 
Worhs, vol. vi. p. 410, Elrington' s edit. 
Although the name is written i^/ac in the Book 
of Lecan and some other ancient authorities, 
the true spelling is Fiacc, which is the same 
asFiag. The Welsh equivalent is Gwi/ch. 

* October — His name occurs at this date 
(together with thoseof his son Fiachra, and 
Mobi Clairenech of Glasnevin) in the ancient 
Felire, or Festilogium, of Aengus the Culdee, 
a composition of the ninth century. See also 
Mart. of Donegal, p. 273. 

3 O^ Flahertrj. — Ogyg., Part iii. c. 59, p. 
310. Conf. Reeves, Adamnan, p. 22, note. 

* Taillte. — See Leabhar nagCeart, or Book 

2 P 

290 The Hi/mji of St. Fíacc in praise of St. PatricJc. 

Daire Barrach was the ancestor oí' the tribe of Ui Bairrche' (or " Descen- 
tlants of Barrach"), the chieftain of which clan assumed tlie name of MacGorman 
\n hiter timcs, after thc introduction of surnames: and the church of Slébte 
now Slatey, or Slettj, is situated in the Queen's Countj, about two miles 
N. N. W. of the town of Carlow, in the raidst of the country then inhabited 
by tlie tribe^ just mentioned. 

The Dublin Book of Hymns adds anothcr generation, if we have rightly 
interpreted thc words " Li Fiac sin mc éside mc Ercha, mc Bregain,'" to sig- 
nify that this Fiacc was the son of the son of Erc, son of Bregan, or Brecan. 
But even with this addition, the forcgoing genealogy is manifestly inconsistent 
with the age usually assigned to St. Fiacc. The narrative which makes him to 
have been consecrated a bishop by St. Patrick, assumes that he must have 
been of mature age, about A.D.448^, or upwards 0^270 years after the death 
of Cathair Mór, if we adopt the chronology of 0'Flaherty, and 326 years, 
if we are guided by the Four Masters. This is altogether too long a period 
for the number of generations which the above genealogy has placed between 
Fiacc and his royul ancestor; and necessarily leads tothe conclusion, eithcrthat 
some intermediate generations have been omitted, or that the reign of Cathair 
j\Iór is antedated in our annals : for the only remaining alternative, that St. 
Fiacc lived before the age of St. Patrick, is manifestly untenable. 

The supposition of an error in the number of the generations is rendered 
probable by the discrepancy in at least oneof the names in the gcnealogy as it 
is given in the Prefiice to this Poem in the Dublin Book of Hymns, and as it is 
íbund in the Genealogia Sanctorum, or Sanctilog'ium Genealogicum (as Colgan 
calls it), in the Book of Lecan. In the Dublin Book of Hymns, the son of 
Daire Barrach is namedBregan; in tlie Genealogia Sanctorum, he is named 
Fiac, or Fiacc ; and that these were in reality two, andnot the same individual', 

of Rights, p. 205. TheFour Masters give as ^ Tiihe. — This district was called Omargij, 

the site of this battle Magh hAgha, which is the Anglicized pronunciation of Ui viBairr- 

probablj' a place near Taillte. They have c/je, signifj'ing the country of the Ui Bairrche, 

the reign of CathairMór A.D. 120-122. The or Descendants of Barrach. Sléhte signifie.s 

datesA.D. 174^-177 are OThihertv's. " mountainous." 

' Ui Bairfohe, — See Leahhar na gCeart, ^AhoutA.D.44^. — This is the date assigned 

ur Booh o/Rights, and Dr. O'Donovan's notes, by Ussher to the ordination of St. Fiaco, 

p. 192, aq. Eithnea, the mother of St. Co- IndexChron. (Works, tom. vi.,p. 571, Elring- 

lumba, was also of the Ui Bairrche. — Reeves, ton's ed.). 

Aflamnan, pp. 8, 163, notes. « Individual Colgan, Tr. Th., p. 8, n. 1. 

The Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. Pairick. 


is evident from thc genealogy oí' St. Diarmaid (or Modimog, as he was some- 
times called), ofGlenn-uisen', who was of the same family, and whose descent 
from Cathair Mór is given^ in eight generations inclusive, in which we have 
Fiacc, son of Daire Barrach, and Brecan, or Bregan, the son of Fiacc, so that 
we luive thus an approximation to a more correct genealogy, showing the re- 
lationship of both saints, as follows: — 

Cathair Mór. 

Dah'e Barrach. 




Fiacc, of Slebhte. 


. I 

Diarmaid, of Glenn-uisen. 

It may be observed also that the same authority gives two distinct genea- 
logies of St. Fiacc, in one of which his father is called JErc^ — gen. Erca (as in 
the Book of Ili/mns), and in the other his father is Erchad* — gen. Erchada, 
son of Erc. Assuming that a generation was here again omitted (an error 
that Avould be ficilitated by the similarity of the names), Fiacc will appear in 
the seventh generation from Cathair Mór, inclusive: thus, — 

' Glenn-uisen. — Now Killeshin, in the 
Queen's County, near Carlow : not Glen or 
Glin in the Eang's County, as Archdall con- 
jectures. — See Four Mast. at A.D. 842, and 
Dr. O'Donovan's note. 

3 Given Sanctilog. Geneal. Book of Le- 

can, fol. 49 b., col. i. It is remarlcable that 
in another copy of the genealogy of St. Diar- 
raaid, given in the same tract (fol. 53 b., col. 
4) the names of Erc and Brecan or Bregan 
are omitted : thus, "Diarraaid, i. e. Modimog 
of Glenn-uisen, s. ofSiabarr; s. of Dallan ; 
s. of Fiacc ; s. of Daire Barrach ; s. of Ca- 
thair Mór." Hcre two generations of the for- 

2 P 

mer line are wanting. This proves that errors 
existed in the pedigrees of this race ; and we 
know that omissions of this kind are frequent 
in all genealogies. 

^ Erc — B. of Lecan, fol. 54, b. col. 2, thus : 
" Flacc of Slebte, s. of Erc ; s. of Fiacc ; 
s. of Daire Barrach ; s. of Cathair Mór." 

•» Erchad. — Ibid., fol. 48, a. col. 4, thus : 
"Fiacc of Sleibhte, s. of Erchad ; s. of Fiacc ; 
s. of Daire ; s. of Cathair." It will be ob- 
served, however, that in both these genealo- 
logies Brecan is omitted, as if hé was consi- 
dered to be the same as Fiacc, s. of Daire 


The Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. Patrich. 

Catbair Mór. 
Daire Barrach. 


1" lacc. 



Fiacc, of Slebhte. 


This confirQis our interpretation of the genealogy as given in the Dublin 
Book of Hymns, which makes Fiacc the grandson of Erc, or son of Mac Erca. 
There is reason, however, to suspect a further error. For in the genealogies 
of the íamilies descended from Daire Barrach, as given in the Book of Lecan', 
there is the followinjí statement : — 

Ip o mac ejica .1. piac mac Oapa erpoc 

It is from Mac Erca that Fiac, son cf Dara, 
bishop of Slebhte, [descends] . 

This seems to say that Fiacc was the son of Dara, and descended from Mac 
Erca, or Erc's son. Here we have one additional generation, supposing Dara to 
have been the son of Elrchad Mac Erca ; but it is quite as probable that two 
or more generations may have intervened ; for in the Book of Leinster^ where 
there is an entry corresponding to the above, Fiacc is said to have been the 
son ofthe son of Dara : — 

Ip ó mac meic epca .1. piac eppoc Slebce 
.1. mac meic Dapa. 

It is from the son of the son of Erc, i. e. Fiac, 
bishopof Slebte, i.e. son of the son ofDara. 

Discrepancies of this kind, which manifestly cxist in these records, prove 
that the chronological difficulty of the genealogy may be altogether the result 
of errors in the transcription^ We may therefore assume that St. Fiacc, of 

' Book of Lecan Fol. 97 a., col. 1. 

' Bouk of Leinster Fol. 219 a. Sce also 

Book of Ballymote, fol. 73 b. 

' Transcription. — The same considerations 
wiU enable us to correct the genealogy of St. 
P^thnea, mother of St. Columba (see Heeves' 

Adamnnn^ p. 8), which is also too short for 
thc chronology, she being sixth in descent 
from the same Mac Erca, who was the grand- 
father or great-grandfather of St. Fiacc. But 
her genealogy, as given in the Sanct. Geneal. 
and also in the Felirc of Aengus (at June 9), 

Tlie Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. PatricL icji^ 

Slcbhte, according to thc legend recorded in the prcface to the follovving 
Hvmn, may have been descended from Catliuir Mór perhaps in the ninth or 
tenth' gcneration, and therefore a contcmporary of St. Patrick. The datc 
assigncd by Ussher to St. Fiacc's ordination is, as avc have already said, 44^- 
At that time he must have been about thirty years of age; for although we 
cannot, perhaps, argue that he could not in Ircland havc bcen canonically 
consecrated a bishop if under tliat age, it is most probablc that his son Fiachru 
had been born before Fiacc was admitted to holy orders : and he himself must 
therefore have been of maturc age at that time. Assuming these prcraises, 
the year 4 1 8 will be about the year of his birth ; and if he survived St. Pa- 
trick, whose death is generally dated 493, he may have livcd to be about the 
age of 80 or 90. In this there is nothing improbable or actually incredible ; 
and there remain no grounds for disturbing the Chronological place assigned 
to Fiacc of Slebhte, in the traditions of the Irish Church, as a contcmporary 
and disciple of St. Patrick. 

We must now examine the question ofthe authenticity of the Hymn. 
Can it be regarded as a composition of this remote antiquity ? Is it possible to 
receive it as the work of the St. Fiacc who was consecrated a bishop by 
St. Patrick ? 

The celebrated Jesuit, Father Daniel Papcbroch', one of the Bollandist 
collectors of the great Acta Sancíorum, has refused it a place in his collection 
of the Lives of St. Patrick, because he considered it impossible^ from internal 

omits all mention of Mac Erca, owing, no ' Papebroch.—The Comment. Prc^. on the 

doubt, to the same similarity of names which Life of St. Patrick in the Acta SS. of the 

has occasioned the confusion in the case of St. BoUandists is anonymous ; but Father Bjeus, 

Fiacc. If St. Columba was born A.D. 521 in his Life of St. Fiacc, says expressly that 

(Reeves, ibid., p. Lxix),the birth of his mother Daniel Papebroch was the author_a nanie 

cannothave been much before A.D. 500, or of high authorltv.— ^cí. SS. Oct., tom. vi. 

323 years after the death of Cathair Mór. It is De S. Fieco. Comm. prcev. num. 3 (p. 97, C). 

curious that Dr. Reeves 07;/^., p. 164, n.), ^- Impossible.-ms words are: - Hymnum 

when he adopted the coramon genealogy, autem jam dictum libenter nos quoque hic 

which makes St. Fia^cc fourth in descent from daremus : sed fatemur Ingenue vereri nos ne 

Daire Barrach, did not perceive the chrono- non ipsius Fleci sit, ejus saltem qui pnmus 

logical difliculty ; and yet he assumes the early Sleptiis a S. Patricio est constitutus ep.sco- 

da°te A.D. 120 of the reign of Cathair Mór pus."— .-ící. SS. Marlii, tom. ii. p. 52° A 

(p. 8, note), by whlch that dHGculty is in- But the IIymn is ancient, and ought to have 

creased. been given. 

2 94 ^'^'^ Hynm of St. Fiacc in praise of St. Patrich. 

evidcncc, that tlie Ilvnin coulcl ically havc becn written bv a contcmporary of 
St.Patriclc; and this decision has been endorsed by alater Bollandist, Cornelius 
Byeus, the learned conipiler of the Lifc of St. Fiacc, at the i2th of October'. 

The arguments adduced by these authors, against the great antiquity at- 
tributed to this Hymn, arc as follows: — 

Fii-st, It can scarccly be suj)poscd thata contcmporary of St. Pntrick could 

have writteu the first line ofthe Hymn, " Patrick Avas born at Isemthur, as 
has been related in histories." This reference to histories implies such an in- 
terval in time between the author of the Hymn and the age of St. Patrick, as 
would make the name of his birth-place, and the actions of his life, matter of 
history: " vix inducimur" (says Papebroch) " ut Patricianas vitas statim a 
morte scriptas intelligamus, eo nomine"^ 

Colgan appears to have fclt this difficulty, although he does not state it in 
express terms ; but he anticipates it by his note on the passage, where he 
admits that the words, " as is recorded in histories," imply the existence of 
" Acts" of St. Patrick before the composition of the Hymn ; he argues, how- 
ever, that thiscreates no difficulty, because Jocelin (writing about 1185) raen- 
tionsfour lives of the saint written during his lifetime by his contemporaries 
and disciples^ St. Loman, St. Mel, St. Benean, or Benignus, and St. Patrick, 


Another passage in which " histories" are alluded to, is ver. 12, where the 
author says that St. Patrick read the Canons with St. German, " as histories 
relate," ' sicut testantur historice' (for so Colgan correctIy^ translates the 


In reply to these objections, ISIr. Patrick Lynch% in his Life of St. Patrick, 
suc'o-ests that our author never quotes histories, except when he has occasion 
to record those events of St. Patrick's life which had taken place ín foreign 

I Octoher.—Actt. SS. Oct., toni. vl. p. 103. 4 Correcthj.—The old Avord Une, or Itm 

í Noniine. —Actt. SS. Martii,tom. il. p. 520. is rlghtly translated "historiae" by Colgan. 

■3 Disáples.—Cólgin, Trias Thaum., p. 6, Lvnch, without any authority, reads Imne, 

not. 3. " Ut in historiis refertur, c. i. In- the plural of lan [which ought to be lann], 

dicat acta Patrlcli cssc ante se scripta, et icith us ; and Dr. O'Conor tells us that Itne is 

recte: qula quatuor allldlsclpulilpslus S. Pa- ecclesice. He translates, "Est ita testantur 

tricii, nempe S. Lomanus, S. Mel, S. Benlg- ecclesIíE." Ber. Hib. Scriptt., tom. i. ; Pro- 

nus, et S. Patricius junior scripserunt acta leg., part. i. p. xcl. But the plural of lann, 

Patricii ante, ut testatur Jocelin, c. 186, vl- a church, would be lanna, not ttne. 
vente etiam adhuc ipso Patricio." ' Lynch.-Uíc of St. Patrick, p. 327- 

The Hymn of St. Fíacc in praise of St. Palrich. 295 

countries, before Fiacc became known to his master. In the first linc he ref"t'r8 
to histories (pcéla), to establish St. Patriclc's birth-phice ; in the twelíth line, as 
translated by Colgan, he cites histories (líni) to prove St. Patrich's rcsidence in 
the islands of the Tjrrhene, or Mediterranean Sea, and his ecclesiastical 
education under St. Gcrman. 

It should be observed that the word pcél (ver. i), translated by Colgan 
history, denotes any story, tale, or narrative, handcd down by traditioii, 
written or unAvritten, true or false. But the otlier word line [Hnea) 
(ver. 12) seems to iniply writing ; and thc fact remains tliat thc author 
of this Hymn has referred to extant tales, or stories, traditions, and writings, 
as authority for certain facts in the Life and Acts of 8t. Patriclí ; the im- 
probability therefore continues in all its force that such narratives (whether 
they recordedthe acts of the saint abroad or at home) could have been circu- 
lated, so as to have been well known and quoted by a contemporary of the 
saint, in the manner in which our author cites them. It might be thought that 
Fiacc's own testimony, if he had been personally acquainted Avith St. Patrick, 
would have been better than the testimony of any tales and stories, acts or 
lives, for sach facts as the place of the Saint's birth, or his early travels and 
education. It is iinpossible to believe that a conteniporary, who had been him- 
self acquainted with his hero, could have referred to any tales, stories, tradi- 
tions, or histories, Avritten or unwritten, in confirmation of his statements. 

Secondly, — Father Papebroch objects that it is difficult to believe how an 
author, Avho had been personally acquainted with St. Patrick, could have in- 
troduced into his poem so many legends manifestly fabulous'. 

It is curious that Dr. Lanigan gives an opposite judgment. He says, " In 
the former," meaning Fiacc's Hymn, " which, as already observed, has a claim 
to very high antiquity, the narrative runs smooth and regular ; nor do we find 
in it any of those ridiculous miracles that disgrace some of the later Lives"-. 

' Fabulous. — " Vix iuducimur ut . . . . in- who was a conteinporary of St. Patrick ; lur 

telligamus .... tam familiarem ipsi sancto in another place (to which he refers in the 

poétam tam multa fabulam redolentia huic words above quoted) hesajs: "TheBoIlan- 

suo carmini inseruisse." — Actt. SS. Murt., dists and somc otherjudicious criticsdoubt ut' 

tom. ii., 520 B. his (Fiacc's) being the author of it. But it 

'^ Lives Eccl. Hist., vol. i., p. 80 (^nd does not follow that it is not very antient, and 

edit.). Lanigan, however, does not main- most probablj not later than the seventh, or 

tain that this hvmn was written by the Fiacc perhaps the si.\th centurv."— TZiíV/.. p. 57, S. 

296 The Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. Patriclc. 

Nevertheless, tlieTollowing miracles are mentioncd in theHymn : — The pcr- 
niancnt imprcsslon of the angel's feet onarock (vcr. 8); apparitions of angels 
.■íummoning St. Patriclc to retnrn to Ircland (vcr. 14); tlic voices of thc chil- 
drcn in Connaught, hcard by him in a distant countrj, calling upon him to comc 
to their aid (ver. 16); the prophecies of his coming by the druids of Ireland 
(ver. 19-22); his extraordinary austcrities, singing 100 psahiis evcry night, 
standinfT in a wcU, and slccping upon the hard stone, covercd only with his 
wet fTarmcnts (ver. 26-32); hcaling thc blind and lepers, and bringing the 
dead to life (ver. 34) ; thc burning bush in which the angel appeared to him, 
and forctohl the suprcmacy of Armagh, and thc privileges granted to thc rc- 
citation of St. Scchnall's hymn (vcr. 48-52); thc sun standing still, in imita- 
tion of the miracle of Joshua (ver. 55-60); &c. These miracles, however, it 
may be said, are many of them imitations of miraclcs recorded in Scripturc ; 
thcy are such miracles as were, in that age, naturally attributed to thc saint, 
and easily belicved tohave becn performed by him, even amonghis immediate 
disclples ; and, as Dr. Lanigan justly observes, they are not of the same "ridicu- 
lous" charactcrS as somc of the miraclcs which "disgrace the later lives." 

We may, therefore, rcasonably doubt whether this argument of the learned 
BoUandist is conclusive ; for it is certain that miracles, quite as incredible as 
these, have at all times, down to our own " enlightened" agc, been attributcd 
to individuals eminent for sanctity, even by those who wcre their compa- 
nions and pcrsonal acquaintances: so that the insertion of such marvels in the 
l)io<Traphy of a saint is not of itself an absolute proof that the author lived at 
a period long subsequcnt to the age of his hero. Dr. Lanigan's argument is 
more sound — that the comparatively moderate character of thcsc miracles, as 
contrasted with the extravagant marvels of the later lives, must be regarded as 
an evidencc of the highcr antiquity of this Hymn, evcn though we may hesi- 
tate to admit that it was written by a contcmporary of St. Patrick. 

• Ridicuhms character. — For example, his aftcrwards restoi-ed to it.>< owiier uninjured, 

lighling a fire with icicles instead of sticks ; &c. &c. Papebroch has rejected a great 

.Tocel., c. 5 ; thc wator congealing in a kcttk', many of thcse miracles, and thrown thcm into 

notwithstanding the fire heaped aroundit, zi., his Appendix to tlic Acta S. Patricii (tom. 

f. 20; hisstonesuper-altar floating on thesea, ii. Martii, § iii., p. 584). "In qua" (as 

and carrjing a leper aftcr the ship, c. 27; the Bi/eus sajs) " una cum ajquá. juxta ac acri, 

same altar following lilm through the air, qua ibidem, § ili., perstringuntur, ccnsurS, 

V. 55 ; the kid blcating from tlie stomach of innoxie legi possent." Act. SS. Oct., tom. 

the man who had stolcn and eatcn it, and vi. (ad 12 Oct., p. 98, E.). 

The Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. Fatric/c. 297 

Tliirdly. Theapparent allusionstothe desolation oí'Tara(ver. 20 and 44 j, 
an event^ which did not take place until after the year 560, is evidence tliat 
the llymn could not have been written before the latter half of the sixth 

If, therefore, St. Fiacc, of Slebhte, was the author, he niust have lived to 
an age considerably beyond the ordinary term of human life. We are reduced 
to the necessity of attributing this Hymn to a writer, who raust have flou- 
rished at the latter end of the sixth or the beginning of the seventh century, 
unless we are prepared to admit that St. Fiacc died at the advanccd age of 
nearly a century and a half ; or else to adopt the alternative, which Colgan 
prefers, of believing the allusion to the desolation of Tara to be a really in- 
spired prediction- of that event. 

Fourthly,- — To these arguments it mav be added that the author llved aíter 
the Hymn of St. Sechnall had become popular, and its use, as a Lorica, or 
protection againstspiritual dangers to those who recited it, had been recognised ; 
and also after the story of Patrick having obtained the privilege of being him- 
self the Judge of the Irish at the Day of Judgment was invented^ This is evi- 
dent from lines 51, 52, Avhere the angel, who appeared to him in the bush, is 
introduced as announcing that his petitions Avere granted : 

He [the angel] said, Priiuacy shall be at Armagh ; give thauks to Christ. 

To heaveu shalt thou couie, thy prajers are grauted to thee : 

The Hymn thou hast chosen in thy lifetime shall be a corslet of protection to every one : 

Around thec, in theday of judgment, the men of Erinn shall come to judgment. 

1 Eoent. — See the authorities for the curs- foUows : — " Observandum quod hic dicit S. 

iug of Tara by St. Ruadan, or Rodan, of Fiecus de desertá vel deserendáTemoriá, cer- 

Lorrha, collected by Dr. Petrie, Hist. and tura propheticumque fuisse oraculum ; vel si 

Antiq. ofTara Hill,i). 125 {Transact. Rotjal suo tempore vidit Temoriam desertam ipsum 

Irish Ácad., vol. xviii., part 2). produxisse vitam usque ad annum 540" \leg. 

"i Prediction. — Papebroch says: "Qui [sc. 560]; " quod mihi non probatur, cum fuerit 

Colganus] ne amittat auctorem, aut ipsum florentis astatis sub adventu Patriciianno 432, 

plus íequo annosum faciat, ista hymni verba &c." Triad. Thaum., p. 6, not. 16. But the 

in quibus de Temoriaj desolatione, post an- allusions to the desolation of Tara are evi- 

num DLX factá, agitur, prophetico spiritu dently references to an eventpast, and do not 

dicta tanquam de re futurá mavult credere ; pretend to be predictions of the future. 

nobis autem explicatione tam violentá auget ^ Invented See above, p. 22, note. It 

formidinera prajdictara" [formidinem, sc. ne willbe observedthat nothingof this sort is to 

non ipsius Fieci sit]. Colgan's words are as be found in the nvmu of St. Sechnall. 

298 The Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. PatricL-. 

\Ve have here manife3tly the germ of the legcnd givcn morc fully by Pro- 
bus', or the author of the fifth life in Colgan's Collcction ; and therc exists what 
is, perliaps, a still raore ancicut summary of the privilcges of St. PatricU, in 
Tirechan's Annotations on thc saint's life, compiled in the seventh century, 
and preserved in the Book of Armagh.^ 

It is scarccly crcdible that legends of this character could have becn cur- 
rent so soon after the death of St. Patrick as to be adopted by a contcmpo- 
rary and disciple; and it is probable that the enumeration of these privileges 
by Tirechan is an earlier form of the legend than that given in the Hymn by 
our author. For Tirechan makes no mention of the apparition of the angel 
in ihe bush, nor of St. Patnck's being appointed thc Judge of the Irish. It 
is evident also, from the above-cited stanzas, that the Hymn before us must 
have been written after the question of the Primacy of Armagh had become 
a subject of dcbate ; and it is not likely that this could have been the case in 
the lifetime of a contemporary of St. Patrick. 

It Í3 remarkable that some of the collections in the Book of Armagh, re- 
luting to the Life of Patrick (which are probably the originals from which the 
biography, attributed to Probus, and other similar works, were compilcd) are 
attributed in that MS. to " Muirchu Maccumachtheni ;" who, it is expressly 
said, wrote them at the dictation of a bishop of Slebhte, " dictante Aiduo 
Slebtiensis civitatis episcopo"^ From this it may perhaps be inferred that 

' Prohm Lib. ii., c. 33 Triad. Thaiim., Ulster rocord tbe deatli of Aedh, at 699, in 

p. 60. thesewords: Quies Aedo anacJiorite o Sleihtiu. 

- Armagh See above, p. 50 (where Ti- Tighernach has the same words at A. D. 700. 

rechan's words are quoted) ; and Petrie, An- Dr. Reeves has given a curious extract froni 

tiq. of Tara Hill, p. 68. the Book of Armagh, showing the zeal of 

Episcopo. — Lib. Ardmach., fol. 20, b., a. this Aedh bishop of Sk'tty for the church of 

See Petric, Antiq. of Tara Hill, p. iio Armagh ; Adamnan, Additional Notes, p. 

(Trans. Rojal Irish Acad., vol. xviii.,partii.) 323, n. •'. This, taken in connexion with the 

Colgan, Triad. Thaum., p. 218, col. i. The passages of the hymn above cited, advocating 

Aidus, Bishop of Slebhtc,here mentionedwas, the primacy of Armagh, is an additional evi- 

in all probability, the same whose death, under dence that the Hymn belongs to tbe times of 

the name of " Aodh, anchorite of Sleibhte," Bp. Aedh (A. D. 700), ratber than to tbose 

is recorded by the Four Mast. A. D. 698 : of Fiacc, the disciple of St. Patrick. The 

where see O'Donovan's notes. Ifso,Muirchu genealogy of Aedh has been preserved. He 

Maccumachtheni must be regarded as an au- was of the same family as St. Fiacc ; and it 

thor of the seventh ccntury. The Annals of it is remarkable that his pedigree is defectivc 

The Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. Patrick. 299 

St. Fiacc had left to thc safe keeping of his successors in that sce some va- 
luable historical collections, or traditions relating to St. Patrick ; these are, 
very probably, the '^ histories" refcrrcd to by the author of the llymn now 
before us, and it is not unlikely that the Il^mn itself (having been compiled 
from the traditions of the church of Sleblite, derived from Fiacc, the disci- 
ple of St. Patrick), came to be attributcd to Fiacc himself as its author. 

Fifthly, — One of the most plausible argumeuts for the antiquity of the Hymu 
is dcrived from the antiquit^ of the Scholiast, or aiithor of the Preface and notes, 
who, Colgan maintains, must have flourished before the close of the sixth cen- 
tury. The testimony, therefore, of so early an author, who asserts, Avithout 
hesitation, that the hymn was composed by St. Fiacc, of Slebhte, must neces- 
sarily be received Avith respect. 

Colgan's reason for assigning so early a date to the Scholiast is this : The 
Preface states expressly that St. Fiacc, having been consecratcd a bishop bv 
St. Patrick, was soon afterwards made " Archbishop of Leinster" — aptoej'po^ 
laigen — and that his successors continued to enjoy that dignity ever since. 

These words imply , says Colgan\ that the successors of St. Fiacc continued to 
hold the archiepiscopal dignity in the time of our Scholiast ; but we learn from 

ia the same way, and probably owing to the of Aedli, by the Annals of Ulster and Tiger- 

same cause — the accidentalomission ofnames nach. MurchuMaccumachtheuiwasoneofthe 

of similar sound. The genealogy is as fol- ecclesi^ptics present at the synod of Adam- 

lows (Bookof Leinster, fol. 238 «) : — "Bishop nan, which exempted women from service 

Aedh, s. of Brocan, s. of Corraac, s. of Díár- in war ; circ. A. D. 690, Reeves Adam- 

raait, s. of Eochaidh Guineach, s. of Aongus, nan, App. to Pref.., p. 1. and li., note «. See 

s. of Erc, s. of Brecan, s. ofFiacc, s. of Daii-e also Colgan, Tr. Thaum., p. 218, col. i. 

Barrach, s. of Cathair mór." On corapainng Actt. SS. p. 465 a., n. 31. 

this pedigi-ee with that of St. Fiacc, it will be ' Colgan — " Hic autem obiter observa hu- 

seen that the defect occurs in the same place jus Scholiastae vetustatem, qui videturfloruisse 

as before, viz., between Erc and Aongus. ante sasculi sexti finem : nara ver])is citatis in- 

For Eochaidh Guineach slew his maternal dicat Successores S. Fieci fuisse Archiepisco- 

grandfather, Crimthan Iving of Leinster, pos LageniíB usque ad sua tempora. Cofi- 

A. D. 484, according to the Chi-on. Scotorum, tosus autem Nepos S. Brigidíe, et qui floruit 

dated by OTlaherty ; it is impossible, there- ante finem sseculi sexti, in Príefatione ad vitam 

fore, that he can have been only seventh in ejusdem sanctaí Virginis, indicat Sedem Ar- 

descent from Cathuir mór. But the genea- chiepiscopalem Lageniensium fuisse Ivilldariie 

logy between bishop Aedh and Eochaidh suo tempore : et author vit£e S. Maidoci 

Guineach, seems to be correct, and is quite (quam damus ad 31 Januaiúi) capitc 28 ejus- 

consistent with the date assigned to the death dem vitse, scribit eandem Sedem fuisse per 



The Hymn of Sf. Fiacc in praise of St. Patrirl-. 

Cogitosus, author of tlie Life of St. Bridgct, tliatin his time (the latter halfof 
the síxth century, as Colgan thought) Iviltlare was the archiepiscopal see of 
Leinster; and the author ofthe Life of St. Acdan, or Moedóg, states that 
Brandubh, King of Leinster, together with a svnod of the province, had niade 
Ferns the archiepiscopal sec: achange which must have taken place before the 
end of the sixth century, because King Brandubh was slain in 6oi, according 
to the Annals of the Four Masters. The successors of St. Fiacc of Slcbhte, 
therefore, cannot have continued archbishops much longer than about the mid- 
dle of the sixth centurv, which, accordingly, fixes the date of the Scholiast. 

To this Father Byeus\ in his life of St. Fiacc, replies that the title of arch- 
bishop was not given to any bishops in Ireland, until the twelfth century ; and, 
therefore, he concludes that the Scholiast, by giving that title to St. Fiacc, 
betray8 the fact that hé himself cannot have flourished before that period. 
Byeu3 appears to draw a similar inference frora the title oí Archpoet, given by 
the Scholiastto Dubhthach, the tutor ofSt. Fiacc, which, hesavs, "savoursof 
the eleventh or twelfth century." But this very title ought to have led him to 
recognize his mistalce; for by calling Dubhthach ^^ Archpoet of Ireland," the 
Scholiast did not intend to say that Dubhthach held any office, or exercised 
any jurisdiction over the other poets of L'eland, but simply that he was the 
most eminent poet, or the chief poet of Ireland ; and so, in like manner, when 
the Scholiast calls Fiacc Archbishop, the meaning is that he was the most emi- 
nent, or reraarkable bishop of iTeinster. 

Brandubium Regem (qui occubuit anno 601), 
f!t svnodum Lagenionsium (;onstitutam Fernai. 
Idemque scribit Author vita; .S. Molingi, quam 
damus ad 17 Junii." Triud. Thaum.., p. 8, 
not. 8. The date of King Brandubh's death 
is given hy the Four Mast. 601 ; by the Ann. 
Ult.. 604 ; and by Tigornach (or rather by 
0'Flaherty, who has dated the Annals of 
Tigernach), 605. This last is no doubt the 
correct year. 

• Byeus, — Actt.SS. ad 12 Oct.ip.gS, num.7. 
" At vero, etsi quidem inter Iliberniaí epis- 
copos, semper aliqui, qui prae aliis quid am- 
plioris dignitatis aut jurisdictionis ecclcsias- 

tica; haberent, hincque recte dici possent 
primates, extiterint, ii tamen non prius quam 
sec. circiter xii, uti ad xvii Junii diem in 
Commentario actis S. Molingi Fcrnensis epis- 
copi príevio, num. 8, jam docuimus, appellari 
cceperunt archiepiscopi ; quare cum nihilomi- 
nus S. Fieco archiepiscopi titulum. ac praete- 
rea Dubtacho, cnjus ille discipulus extitisse 
perhibetur, honorificam archipoetce, appella- 
tionem, qua; scculum xi. aut xii. sapit, attri- 
buat S. Fiechi scholiastes, scriptorcm hunc, 
ut jam statui, ante sec. vi. finem vel paulo 
duntaxat post floruisse, quis credat"? Sí'c 
St.Patrich, Apostlc of Ireland, p. 14, sq. 

The Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. Patrirh. 301 

Tlic mistalce is one into which Colgan himselí"hasfallen,and which impairs 
the validity of'his argument on the other side; íbr the Scholiast does not use the 
ecclesiastical Greclc titlc Arch-\nú\oi), (which in its strict sense, as impljing 
canonical jurisdiction over other bishops, was unknown in Ireland until tlie 
twelfth century), but Ard-epscop, high bishop; Ard-Jile, high poct — that is to 
say, chicf or principal bishop, or poet, not in refcrence to jurisdiction, but in 
reference to respect or precedency. In this sense, there is nothing inconsisteiit 
in the supposition that there might be more than one ard-, or chief-h'isho]) iu 
a district ; and, consequently, wlien our Scholiast calls the successors of St. 
Fiacc in Slebhte,arí/,or c/i?V?^bishops, and saj's that they were so regardcd down 
to his own day, it does not at all follow that tlie bishops of Kildare and Ferns 
may not have also been considered ard, or c//2i?/'bishops, at the same time. 

The passage in the Prefice to the Life of St. Bridget, by Cogitosus, to 
which Colgan refers, is a remarlcable evidence of this loose or rather ancient 
use of the term, even as it stands in Colgan's Latin Version. For the author 
tells us, not as Colgan represents his testimony, that Kildare was recentlv made 
the archlepiscopal see of Leinster, but that it had always been an archbishopric 
of Ireland, that is to say, a chief or principal bishopric oí' Ireland : his words' 
are, — " Quam [_sc. cathedram] semper Archiepiscopus Hiberniensium Episco- 
porum, et Abbatissa, quam omnes AbbaVissas Scotorum venerantur, foelici suc- 
cessione, et ritu perpetuo dominantur." It is evident that Cogitosus must 
have here used the Irish word ard-epscop, chief bishop, not the modern ecclesi- 
astical title archbishop, of whlch he could have known nothing : and themean- 
ing of the foregoing passage was simply this, that the see, or cathedra, of Kil- 
dare was always governed by a bishop who was recognized as an ard, or high 
bishop [that is, as holding an eminent place among the Irish bishops], and by 
an abbess, who was regardcd with veneration by all other abbesses of the Scots 
or Irish . 

The Bishop of Kildare was c/ízV/amongst the bishops, in the same sense in 
which the Abbess of Ivildare was c/fíc/'amongst the abbesses of tlie Scotic ua- 
tion; aud it should be particularly noticed that this, he says expressly, had been 
ahoatjs the case, — semper-, i. e. from the very foundation of the monasterv. It 

' His icords — Colgan, Triad. Thaum., p. copus Hiberniensium Episcoporum," &c. He 

518. says, "Non iutelligit quod fubrit omnium 

* Semper — It is curious to read Colgan's Hibernorum" [altbough Cogitosus expresslv 

note on the words, " Quam semper Arcbiepis- sajs so], " sed solum Lageniensium Arcbie- 

302 The Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. Fatrick. 

'is eviJcnt, thercforc, that Coj^itoáus spoke only of a pre-eminence of dlgnitj 
or respcct, not of nictropolitical or archicpiscopaljurisdiction; and such pre-emi- 
nence did not interfcrc with the same title of ard-epscup, or archbishop (if we 
choose to translate it so) being given to other bishops at the same time, and even 
within tlie same district, such as Leinstcr. 

This fallacy runs through all that Colgan has written on the subject; and 
has, in all probability, also unconsciously interfcred with the exact fidelity of 
his translations from the Irish. For example, in translating the words of the 
Scholiast, in the Preface to the Hymn before us, he makes his author 6ay, — 
*' Et postea ab eodem [sc. Patricio] consecratus est [Fiecus] Episcopus, et tan- 
dem Lageniaj Archiepiscopus institutus : quo etiam munere ejus Comorbani, 
sive Successores abindefunguntur"^ Here there is nothing in the original to 
represent the Avords tandem institutus, or munere funguntur, although honest 
Colgan, thinking only of the modern archiepiscopal function, doubtless be- 
lieved that by this paraphrase he was only more íully expresslng the meaning 
of his author. But the original say8 merely that Fiacc was ordained a bíshop by 
St. Patrlck, and from that time was regarded as a chief or eminent bishop, 
as were his successors after him. 

The passage quoted by Colgan, from the Life of St. Moedóc of Fems, has 
doubtless suíFered in the same way from the prepossession of its translator, who 
probably lived at a period when the modern idea of an archbishop was better 
known. He tells us that a great synod held in Leinster by King Brandubh, 
in which the laity, as well as clergy, had seats, decreed, in honour of St. jNIoc- 
dóc, and, in reward for his services to the King, that the see of Ferns, then 
recently founded, should be thenceforth the Archbishopric of Leinster : " ut 
archiepiseopatus omniura Lagenensium semper esset in sede et cathedra S. 
Moedóc;" and, accordingly, the saint was then consecrated archblshop "by 
many Catholics"-. But all this, most probably, mcans no more than that St. 

piscopus. Nec haec dignitas metropolitana where it still remains. But nothing can be 

semper KildariaB fuit" [although Cogitosus more clear than that Cogitosus was not 

says expressly that it was ; using this very thinking of archiepiscopal or metropohtical 

word semper]. Colgan then gocs on to say jurisdiction, in the modern sense, in which thií 

that St. Fiacc, as bishop of Slebhte, was the see of Dublin now possesses it. St. Patrich, 

fiirst archbishop of Leinster ; that then the rae- Apostle of Ireland, p. 17. 

tropolitical jurisdiction was transferrcd to Kil- ' Funguntur — Triad. Thaum., p. 4, n. i a. 

dare; then to Ferns, and íinally to Dublin, » Catholics — Colgan, Actt. SS. ad 31 Jan., 

Tlie Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. PatricJc. 303 

Moedóc and his successors sliould always bc rcgarded as cliieí" or eminent 

It follows that Colgan's argument to prove that his Scholiast flourislied in 
the sixth centurjj and the argument of Byeus, bringing him down to the 
twclfth, are both fallacious ; both being founded on the same assumption 
that the title ard-epscop^ as used in Irish authorities, was equivalentto the latcr 
ecclesiastical terni yl/-c/<i/.s7<op, and implicd canonical or metropolitical juris- 

The opinion expressed by Papebroclr, although rejected by Byeus, is, 
thercfore, in the Editor's judgment, more near the truth, viz., that the Scholiast 
is to be regarded as an author of the eighth (or, perhaps he ought rather to 
have said,as he spoke only of Colgan's Scholiast, the tenth or eleventh) centurv. 

By Colgan's Scholiast is here meant thc author of the Preface, or biographi- 
cal account of St. Fiacc, prefixed to the Hy mn : for the gloss or notes raay perhaps 
be from a still later hand. These, now for the first time printed, from the Dub- 
lin MS. of the Liher Hijinnorum, are mauifestly older than the notes published 
by Colgan. And, nevertheless, from the explanations given in them of obscure 
and obsolete words, it is evident that some time must have elapsed between 
their composition and the composition of the original hymn. The prevailing 
character of these notes is etymological and philological. The notes printed 
by Colgan are, for the most part, historical and legendary ; and they contain 

p. 211, cap. 28. "Et magna civitas in ho- authorities which he thcre quotcs to prove 

nore S. Moecloc ibi crevit, quíE eodem nomine that there were alwajs Archbishops in Iro- 

vocatur .i. Fearna. Deinde facta synodo mag- land, is full of the same fallacj'. 

ná in terra Lagenensium decrevit Eex Bran- ^ Papehroch — See his Comm. pr<evius in 

dub et tam laici, quam clerici ut archiepisco- Actt. S. Patricii (ad xvii. Mart., num. 15 

patus omnium Lageniensium semper esset in (p. 5^° B), where he says, " Sed et scholia in 

sede et cathedra S. Moedoc. Et tunc sanctus hjmnum iUum scripta non videntur nobis tam 

Moedoc a multis Catholicis consecratus est esse antiqua quani cxistimant aliqui : cum in 

archiepiscopus." The words " a multis Ca- iis non pauca occurrunt, qure seculo soptimo 

tholicis consecratus" are obscure. Was this posteriorem auctorem saplunt." And agaiu, 

passage written at a time when a bishop might num. 33 (p. 523 D.), he says: " Li quem 

have been consecrated in Ireland by any who [liymnuni S. Fieci] antiqui Scholiasta; notas 

were not Catholics? What non-Catholic pertinent ad seculum non vi., sed viii , ut 

bishops were then in Ireland? iUIs antiqulor slt Vlta tum illa quam Evi- 

• Bishops Colgan's claborate note on this nus scrlpslt, tum alla quam Tii-echanus fecit, 

passage {Actt. SS., p. 217, n. 29), with the qui ambo scculo vii. florucre." 

304 TJ^^ Hymn of St. Fiacc in praise of St. PatricJc. 

also such legends as prove them to be, beyond all doubt, much hiter than tlie 


For examplc, the Hymn contains no allusion to the celebrated JBaculus 
Jesu, or "staíFof Jesus," which St. Patrick was said to have receivcd froni 
a hermit of the Tyrrhene sea', and which, according to the Tripartite Life, 
was also delivered to him by Christ HimselP. But the story is alluded to in 
Colgan's edition of the Scholia, where it is said that Patrick "found" the 
Baculus in an island of the Tyrrhene sea, called Alanensis, near Mount Armon^ 

This 8tory can scarcely be older than the eighth or ninth century. It is 
not found in the Book of Armagh, nor in the Second Life, published by Col- 
<ran, the author of which must have lived some time after the death of St. 
Fiacc, for he tells us expressly that the relics of Fiacc were in his time preserved 
in the church of Slebhte^ It is not mentioned in the Life by Probus, who, 
nevertheless, notices the " baculus"* of Patrick, and attributes to it miraculous 
virtues, but without any intimation that it was " the StafF of Jesus ;" and no 
allusion to itoccurs in theGloss or Scholia of the Dublin MS., which are now 
for the first time published. 

Again, the notes of Colgan's MS. are the only authority for the statement 
that the voices of the children of Caille Fochlad, calling upon St. Patrick to 
come and save them, were heard in líome, not by Patrick oulv, but also by 
Pope Celestine^ This is an improvement upon the story told in the Hymn 

' Ttjrrhene Sea Vlt. 3*'», cap. 23 ; Vit. liquiae adorantur hi Sleibti." The Vita se- 

4«», cap. 29; Vit. 6« (Jocelin.) cap. 24. cunda calls Fiec "adolescens, "not "adoles- 

i Himself. " Venit ad vicinum Montem censpoeta ;" and " episcopus,"not " mirabilis 

Hermon, inquo placueritChristoei apparere ; episcopus." Is this evidence that the Vita 

ibique tanquam alteri Moysi tradidit jam secunda is older than the Book of Armagh ? 

laudatum baculum, qui passim Baculus Jesu ^ Baculus — Vit. 5, (Probus) lib. ii., c. 21, 

nuncupatur." Vit. Trip. i., c. 37. For the morerecenthistoryof thiscelebrated 

' ^rmon.— " Et tunc invenit baculum Jesu, Bacuhts, see Obits and Murtyrol. of Christ's 

in insula Alanensi, prope Montera Arnion." Church, Introd., p. xi , «(7., whcre the Editor 

« Sleibhte " Quidam adolescens nomine niust confess to an oversight, when he said 

Fiec, qui postca fuit episcopus, et reliquias that the Lives of St. Patrick a/Z speak of this 

eius hi Sleibhte [venerantur]." Vit. 2''% c. baculus. Comp. St. Patrich, Apostle of 

38 (Triad. Thaum., p. 15). But these words Ireland, pp. 323, 328, 331 

arc closely connected with a passage in thc c Celestine — " Ipse Coelestinus quando or- 

Book of Armagh, where we read (fol. 4, h 2) dinabatur Patricius, audiebat vocem infan- 

— " Quidam adolescens poeta nomine Fecc, tiura eum advocantium." 

qui postea mirabilis episcopus fuit, cujus re- 


\\ .