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It is very much the fashion nowadays to write a preface to 
a text-book that is really an apology for its appearance. If not 
an apology, at least I am willing to offer an explanation for the 
writing of this little book. Several histories of Maryland have 
been published since the Civil War for the alleged purpose of 
furnishing a text for schools. It cannot be denied that these 
books have not been altogether reliable historically, and none 
of them can be said to contain the features of the best modem 
texts in history, or to be pedagogically adapted to the uses of 
the schoolroom, A word on each of these phases of the subject 
seems necessary. 

The material used in the preparation of this book includes, it 
is believed, the principal matter in print relating to the subjects 
treated, and embraces contemporary writings, letters, commis- 
sions, warrants, newspapers, etc., and the printed state archives ; 
in addition the manuscript sources have been used. The results 
of exhaustive original research are not embodied in elementary 
text-books ; and while this work is not put forth with such pre- 
tensions, it is hoped that it may justly claim to be much more 
than the lifeless compilations that so often masquerade as state 
histories (for schools). 

Great pains have been taken to verify matter that seemed doubt- 
ful, while the controverted points have been carefully studied. On 
these points, such, for example, as the reasons for the Calvert 
policy of toleration, or the conduct of Captain Richard Ingle, or 

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the attitude of Maryland at the outbreak of the Civil War, it is 
impossible for all students of the subject to agree. I have tried 
to weigh the material carefully and intelligently, and to present 
as far as possible the actual facts, leaving the pupil to his own 

The limitations of a book of this kind are so severe that it is a 
serious problem what to leave out, and of course judgments will 
differ as to the facts best to omit, I have endeavored to make 
the book as comprehensive as possible, to omit only facts of 
minor importance, and to treat as fully as possible the " Leading 
Events." At the same time there are some facts of importance 
which it is impossible to treat profitably in a work of this kind, 
owing to the great amount of explanation necessary to a young 
pupil. A good example is the contest between Cecilius Calvert 
and the Jesuits over the statute of mortmain and the bull In 
Ccena Domini, the results of which extend to the present day. 

The point to which special attention has been given, and which 
I think is particularly the justification of a new text-book in 
Maryland history, is the pedagogics of the subject. The attain- 
ments and attitude of the pupil must first be considered. Many 
things which we take as matters of course, the young pupil does 
not understand ; he has, for instance, but the vaguest conception 
of religious persecution and toleration. In most cases the pupil 
beginning to study Maryland history has but the slightest knowl- 
edge of United States history, and none whatever of the history 
of England. These facts cannot be ignored without disastrous 
consequences. I have given a brief explanation of religious per- 
secution and intolerance, and have not assumed any knowledge, 
on the part of the pupil, of English or American history. As a 
rule, separate sections have been devoted to the statement of so 
much of this history as was necessary to an understanding of the 
matter in hand. While clearness and simplicity of style have 

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been attempted, care has been taken not to run to the extreme, 
and unfamiliar terms that must be met with again and again in 
the study of history have been freely introduced. 

A few special features, hitherto neglected in Maryland his- 
tories, will need mention. The attention of the teachers using 
the book is particularly called to these features. 

(a) Topical Treatment. — The treatment is strictly topical 
rather than chronological. No arrangement of matter has been 
made with reference to such artificial and arbitrary consideration 
as number of pages or extent of time considered. On the other 
hand, both chapters and paragraphs have been arranged with 
reference to the grouping of events. The chapter headings can 
be readily and profitably used in connection with the topical 
analyses for blackboard diagrams and review schemes. 

(b) Topical Analyses. — These are arranged in the form of 
topics and questions. When desired, the topics can easily be 
converted into questions. It is a mistake for the teacher to de- 
pend very much on ready-made questions, and a greater one for 
pupils to study by them. It is, therefore, desirable that this 
material be used for definite ends under the guidance of the 
teacher. An excellent way of conducting the study would be, 
first to read the chapter in class, with discussions, explanations, 
readings from other works, etc., and follow this with recitation 
work from the topics. 

(c) Questions for Original Thought and Research. — These 
have several objects. In the first place, they should discourage 
the extraordinary amount of rote work that is done in history. 
If the study is to have any value except for training the 
mechanical memory, it is indispensable that the pupil do some 
thinking for himself. Some of the questions require enough 
original thinking for the formation of an opinion, and nothing 
further. Others require some investigation, though of course 

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of a most elementary character. In most cases some book in 
use in the schoolroom, a geography, a United States hbtory, or 
a work on civics, will contain the information asked ; in other 
cases the pupil will be obliged to gain hb information from his 
teacher, a parent, or some other person. The essential thing is 
that the pupil have some training in finding out things for him- 
self, and that he be required to make some effort before he 
receives help. It is not intended that every pupil, nor indeed 
every class, shall use all this material ; it must be used accord- 
ing to the age and advancement of the pupils. Different in- 
quiries may be assigned to different members of the class for 
investigation. I am not unaware that some of the questions 
are too difficult for the immature student to form a really well- 
grounded opinion upon; but merely to show him that the ques- 
tion exists and to set his mind to work upon it, is to accomplish 
a good deaL 

(d) References. — The references at the ends of the chapters 
are in most cases to books that can readily be procured at a 
comparatively small cost. Few of the rural schools, at least, 
will be able to use or even to have them all; but even a very 
little work with books of this kind will add wonderfully to the 
interest and profit of the study. An extended bibliography 
follows the appendix, 

(e) The Index. — Special pains have been taken to make the 
index valuable. Such topics as General Assembly, Governor, 
Religion, Popular Privileges, etc., impart an analytical character 
to the index that will render it particularly valuable for topi- 
cal reviews, special studies, or investigation of any particular 

The study of history is of extraordinary value in civic train- 
ing, and the teacher should constantly have in mind this fact 
and use his opportunities. The lessons of history should be 

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applied to present conditions as far as possible, though invari- 
ably in a broad and impartial way; and the pupil should be 
inspired with high and noble ideals. There Is some danger of 
falling into a habit of eulogizing indiscriminately our own 
affairs, that must be carefully guarded against. I have tried 
to do so in the text, and to be everywhere fair and impartial. 
That attitude of mind on the part of the citizens of a state 
which regards everything connected with it as the best, pre- 
cludes progress and improvement. Fortunately, the history of 
Maryland is such that her citizens may justly be very proud of 
her record. 

It is now generally conceded that the illustrations in a history 
should be real and authentic. Of such character are most of 
the pictures of men, places, and things in this book. Several 
famous paintings are reproduced. With the exception of a few 
lent by the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, all the cuts were pre- 
pared from photographs made especially for this book. 

In conclusion, I desire to express my thanks to all who have 
in any way been of assistance to me in the preparation of this 
book : in the search for material, in obtaining illustrations, or in 
reading manuscript. Especially, I have to thank Mr. George 
W. McCreary, librarian of the Maryland Historical Society, 
whose kind assistance in finding material, in obtaining illustra- 
tions, and in the reading of proof, has been invaluable. 

J. M. G. 
Baltimore, }aty, 1903. 

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In the Baltimore fire of February, 1904, the plates of this 
book were destroyed, and the new publication necessary was 
made the occasion for adding a large number of new illustra- 
tions and a new series of maps. From time to time revisions 
of the text have been made, but the march of events has finally 
rendered it necessary to rewrite the last chapter. This has been 
done so as to include every important phase — political, industrial, 
commercial, artistic, and educational — of the recent civic life of 
the state. 

My thanks are due to Dr. Horace E. Flack and his assistant, 
of the Bureau of Legislative Reference, Baltimore city, for aid 
in obtaining documents, and to Miss Lida Lee Tall, assistant 
superintendent of schools in Baltimore county, for much valuable 
counsel as well as help in collecting information. 

J. M. G. 

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Chapter I. The Founding of Maryland i 

Chapter II. The Settlement of Maryland 12 

Chapter III. "Leah and Rachel" — Wherein Two Sister Colonies 

Disagree 27 

Chapter IV. Maryland Becomes a Royal Province .... 49 

Chapter V. The Province Hecomes an Independent State ... 71 

Chapter VI. Maryland Life in Colonial Times 99 


Chapter I. The Strug^e for Independence: Maryland in the Revo- 
lution 113 

Chapter II. Founding the New Nation 13; 

Chapter UI. Internal Affai:> and the Second War with England . 142 

Chapter IV. Public Improvements ; The Mexican War . . ■ 1S5 

Chapter V. Slavery and the Civil War ...... 166 

Chapter VI. From the Close of the Civil War to the Present . . 182 


St. Mary's 223 

—Kent ' 225 

Anne Arundel 327 

Calvert 229 

Charles 231 

Baltimore 233 

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Talbot 236 

Somerset 338 

Dorchester 240 

Cedl 242 

Prince George's 245 

Queen Anne's 247 

Worcester 249 

Frederick 251 

Harford 253 

Caroline 256 

Washington 258 

Montgomery 261 

Allegany 264 

Carroll 266 

Howard 263 

Wicomico 270 

Garrett 272 


A. Proprietaries of Maryland 275 

B. Governors of Maryland 275 

C. Towns of Maryland 277 

Constitution of Maryland 278 

Charter of Province of Maryland 346 

Bibliography 357 

Index 3^3 

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The Planting of the Colony Frontispiece 

1. Christopher Columbus i 

3. Monument to Christopher Columbus, Baltimore .... 2 

3. King James I 3 

4. George Calvert 4 

5. Henrietta Maria 5 

6. Cecilius Calvert {JuU page) 7 

7. Chwcellor's Point, the First Landing-place for the Settlement of 

St. Mary's 14 

8. Catholics settling Maryland 15 

9. Trinity Church, Site of St. Mary's 16 

10. Site of St. Mary's 17 

11. St. Mary's Female Seminary 18 

12. First State House in Marj-land ao 

13. Rosecrofi 22 

14. Settler's Log Cabin 23 

15. Alsop's Map of Maryland 24 

16. King Charles I 33 

17. Oliver Cromwell 34 

18. Monument to Leonard Calvert 37 

19. The Great Seal of Maryland {Obverse) 38 

20. View of Annapolis, from the Dome of the Slate House ... 41 

21. A Naval Academy Building (Boat-house) 43 

22. The Palatinate of Maryland 50 

23. Proprietary Coins 52 

24. Herrman's Map of Marj'land 54 

25. William Penn 55 

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36. King William . . . . ' 56 

27. The Old Treasury Building 62 

28. Charles Calvert, Fifth Lord Baltimore 63 

29. Tobacco Field 64 

30. Tobacco Hogshead Ready for Rolling 65 

31. The Murray House, Huilt in 1743 66 

32. Pillory 67 

33. Advertisement for a.Runaway Servant 68 

34. Baltimore in 1752 (/«// page) 73 

3S- View of Hagerslown 74 

36. Baltimore as it Appears To-day {full page) 75 

37. Five Mile Stone, Mason and Dixon's Line ..... 77 

38. Fort Duquesne So 

39. Old Fort Frederick 82 

40. British Stamp 84 

41 . Burning of the Peggy Stewart (full page) 88 

42. Charles Alexander Warfield 89 

43. Reprint of Declaration of the Association of Freemen (full page) gi 

44. Maryland Signers of the Declaration of independence (full page) 93 

45. The State House, Annapolis 94 

46. Thomas Johnson 95 

47. " Hampton " 100 

48. Hall, Hampton Residence loi 

49. The Brice Residence, Annapolis 103 

JO, Negroes rolling Tobacco 104 

51. Slave " Quarters " 105 

52. Colonial Costumes 106 

53. "The Chase Home," Annapohs 107 

54. Doughoregan Manor 108 

55. White Hall Manor 109 

56. Staircase, Carvel House 109 

57. Tiie Maryland Gasette, ]fi\y 26, 1745 (fell page) .... no 

58. George Washington 114 

59. William Smaltwood 11; 

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60. Mordecai Gist 116 

61. Monument lo Maryland's Four Hundred, Brooklyn (full page) . 117 

62. Tablet on the Site of Old Congress Hall 119 

63. Nathaniel Ramsey I3I 

64. Statue of De Katb, Annapolis 123 

6;. Nathanael Greene 124 

66. Marquis de Lafayette 125 

67. Equestrian Statue of John Eager Howard 127 

68. Otho Holland Williams 12S 

69. Joshua Barney 129 

70. Washington Resigning his Cammission (full page) . . ■ '3' 

71. John Hanson 137 

72 Potomac River at Harper's Ferry 143 

73. Old McDowell Hall, St. John's College 144 

74. Nathan Towson 146 

75. A Baltimore Clipiier 147 

76. Fort McHenry 150 

77. Samuel Smith ijo 

78. The "Star-spangled Banner" (full page) 151 

79. Francis Scott Key '. . 152 

80. Mount Vernon Square, Baltimore, showing Washington Monument 156 
Si. Chesapeake and Ohio Canal 157 

82. Travel on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1829 . . . 1 ;S 

83. First Locomotive built in America 158 

84. The Davis "Grasshopper" Locomotive (1832) .... 159 

85. The "Dutch Wagon" Locomotive (1838) 159 

86. The Winan's "Mud Digger" Locomotive (1844) . . . .160 

87. Winan's Famous "Camel Back" Locomotive (1851) . . . 160 

88. Modem Passenger Locomotive (1904) 161 

89. Largest Freight Locomotive in the World (1904) . . . .161 

90. First Terminus of B. & O. R.R. . 162 

91. Mexican War Monument, Baltimore 163 

92. Confederate Monument, Baltimore 167 

93. Abraham Lincoln 169 

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94- Jefferson Davis 169 

95. U. S. Grant 1 71 

96. Robert E, Lee 171 

97. Statue of Roger B. Taney, Baltimore 1 73 

98. John R. Kenly 175 

99. Bradley T. Johnson 176 

roo. View of Frederick 178 

101. Monument to Maryland Dead of both Armies at Antietam . 179 

102. A Coal Mine, Allegany County ....... 187 

103. Tonging for Oysters 188 

104. Oyster Packing 189 

105. Steel Industry, Sparrows Point 190 

106. Shipbuilding, Sparrows Point 191 

107. A Granite Quarry, near Woodstock, Baltimore County 193 

108. View of Cumberland (/«///a^^) 195 

109. Administration Building, State Normal School, Towson . . 198 

1 10. Oilman Hall, Johns Hopkins University 200 

1 1 [. Johns Hopkins Hospital zoi 

112. George Peabody 203 

113. Peabody Institute 204 

114. Winlield Scott Schley 207 

115. Edgar Allan Foe 208 

116. The City Hall, Baltimore 213 

117. The Court House and Battle Monument, Baltimore 214 

118. Statue of Cecilius Calvert 215 

r 19. Rebuilding in the Burned District, Baltimore .... 216 

120. Baltimore Stock Exchange ....... 217 

121. A Typical Tobacco Held 223 

122. Washington College, Chestertown 225 

123. High School Building, Annapolis 227 

124. A Launching at Shipyards, Solomon's 229 

1 25. Court House, La Plata 231 

iz6. Marble Quarry, Cockeysville 233 

127. Grazing Scene, Samuel Shoemaker's Farm 23J 

128. Scene on Miles River 236 

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129. A Pan of Main Street, Cristield 238 

130. Cambridge Hospital, Cambridge 240 

I3r. Memorial Hall, Tome Institute, Port Deposit .... 242 

132. Maryland State College of Agriculture 245 

133. Threshing Scene 247 

134. Makemie Memorial Presbyterian Church, Snow Hill . . . 249 

135. Key Monument, Frederick 251 

136. High School, Havre de Grace 253 

137. Court House, Denton 256 

138. Limestone Crusher 2$S 

139. Limestone Quarry z6o 

140. Court House, Rockville 261 

141. Old National Bridge, Cumberland 264 

142. Western Maryland College, Westminster 266 

143. Cotton Mills, Alberton 268 

144. Lumber Yard, Salisbury 270 

14J. Lumber Mill, Salisbury ........ 271 

146. Coal Mining, Corinth 272 


1. The Revolution — The Middle Stales 

2. The Revolution — The Southern Stales 

3. The United States at Close of the Revolution 

4. The Northwest Territory, I 787 . 

5. Maryland and E>elaware .... 

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1. Introduction. — A little more 
than four hundred years ago a map 
of the world looked very difEerent 
from a map of the world to-day. 
The civilized peoples lived in Eu- 
rope ; besides their own continent 
they were acquainted with parts of 
Asia, a small part of northern Af- 
rica, and a few islands. The word 
" America " had never been uttered, 
and nothing whatever was known 
of the vast continent that lay be- 
yond the western sea. To this noble 
country the attention of Europe was 
called in the year 1492, when a bold 

sailor named Christopher Columbus Chrisiophcr Columbus 

sailed bravely out upon the stormy AfterthebuslmlheCapilol, Rome 

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Atlantic, and by and by landed on an island in the West Indies. 

Soon other brave mariners followed the example of Columbus. 
The mainland of America was discovered 
and its eastern coast explored. 

Columbus was in the employ of the 
king and queen of Spain ; and the Span- 
iards soon discovered rich and populous 
countries in the south of the new conti- 
nent, and easily conquering the half-civi- 
lized inhabitants, carried away to Spain 
immense quantities of gold and silver. 

2. EngUsh Colonies. — When the rulers 
of other countries heard of these things 
it is not strange that they desired to 
have a share for themselves of the 
wealth that seemed so abundant in the 
New World. Only a few years after 
the great voyage of Columbus most of 
the eastern coast of what is now the 
United States was explored by a sailor 
named Cabot, in the employ of England. 
Basing their claims on this voyage, the 
English later undertook to plant colonies 
in the New World. At first the English 
tried to imitate the Spanish ; but there 
was no gold or silver to be had in the 
northern parts, while the people were a 
race of savages whom it was useless to 

conquer, since they had nothing that was worth taking. The 

early attempts of the English met with misfortune and failure. 
A new plan was soon tried. Companies were formed composed 

chiefly of merchants, whose plan was to plant colonies in the New 

Monument to Chcistophei 

Columbus, Baltimore 
The first erected to him in 

From a photograph 

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World for the purposes of trade. With furs obtained from the 
Indians, fish from the neighboring waters, or the products of the 
soil, these colonies were to carry on trade that should be profitable 
to the members of the company and indirectly to the commerce 
of England. The first permanent settlement was planted at 
Jamestown, in 1607, on the north bank of the James river, in 
Virginia. It was under the control of a company of merchants 
and others known as the London Company. 

3. George Calvert, the First Lord Baltimore. — Among those 
interested in these plans for planting colonies in America, was 
an English gentleman named 
George Calvert, who became the 
founder of Maryland. He re- 
ceived a thorough education and 
traveled on the Continent, as 
was the custom of young men 
of rank and wealth. After his 
return he became the private 
secretary of the famous states- 
man. Sir Robert Cecil. He pres- 
ently attracted the favor of the , 
king, was appointed to an office 
in Ireland, and in 161 7 raised to 
the order of knighthood and be- Ki„g james I 

came Sir George Calvert. He From an enEravlng by Ronial after the 

was liked and trusted by the onemai by chspin de Pax 

king, James I, and was from time to time advanced until he be- 
came principal secretary of state, a high office in some respects 
like the modern one of prime minister. After a time Sir George 
announced to the king that he had become a convert to the 
Catholic religion, and requested that he therefore be allowed to 
resign the high office that he held and retire to private life. 



4. Religious Intolerance. — In order that you may understand 
this act of Calvert's, you must know that in the times that we are 
now studying, not all men could freely and safely profess and 
practise the religion they preferred. On the contrary, those in 
control of the government 
usually tried to force other 
persons to believe in their 
religion ; it was a common 
thing for people to be im- 
prisoned for their relig- 
ious belief, and many had 
even been burned to death 
merely for disagreeing 
with the prevailing faith. 
Now at this time England 
was a Protestant country, 
and there were very se- 
vere laws in force against 
the Roman Catholics, who 
were not allowed to hold 
any public office. This 
will fully explain the ac- 
tion of Secretary Calvert. 
King James seems to 
have taken the confession 
of Sir George very quietly, 
however, and did not with- 
draw his favor. On the 
contrary, he retained his former secretary as a member of his 
council, and not long afterward created him Lord Baron of Balti- 
more. Soon after this event the king died and was succeeded 
by his son, Charles I. He also was Calvert's friend. 

George Calvert 

From a porlrail in possession of the Maryland 

Historical Sociely 

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5. Lord Baltimore's Plan for Founding a Colony. — Lord Balti- 
more had long been interested in the schemes for the colonization 
of the New World. He had already received from the king a 
grant of land in Newfoundland ; and now that he had laid aside the 
cares and burdens of public service, he seems to have desired to 
spend the remainder of his life in the work of founding a colony. 

His attempt in Newfoundland was a failure, owing chiefly to 
the great severity of the climate. Leaving behind him the in- 
hospitable shores of Avalon, as 
the Newfoundland colony was 
called, Calvert sailed for Virginia. 

Here he found himself a very 
unwelcome visitor. The rights 
and privileges granted the com- 
pany that planted Virginia had 
by this time been formally taken 
from them, thus leaving the 
king free to grant the country 
to whom he pleased. So the 
governor temporarily in charge 
(awaiting the arrival of the royal 
governor) contrived to be rid of 
Lord Baltimore, doubtless know- 
ing of his ambitions. It is not 
unlikely that during his short 
stay he had at least a glimpse of the lovely country that lay to 
the north of the Potomac, a region uninhabited by white men 
and in the uncultivated state of nature. At any rate Lord 
Baltimore returned to England, and after much weary delay 
received a grant of land north of the Potomac river, in the year 
1632. In honor of the king's wife, Henrietta Maria, or Mary, 
the new colony was to be called Maryland. 

ira a painting by Misa Florence Mack- 
ubin, copied from the Van Dyke por- 
trait at Warwick Castle; it is now in 
the State House al Annapolis 

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6. Death and Cliaracter of George Calvert. — But in April of 
this year Lord Baltimore, whose health had long been failing, 
died, before his grant had passed the great seal.' 

George Calvert was, beyond any doubt, a man of high mind 
and honorable character. In ordinary aRairs he was cautious 
and painstaking; as a statesman he was shrewd and intelligent; 
as a man, courteous, loyal, and of sterling integrity. " He had 
risen from obscurity to places of high honor and trust, and to 
hereditary rank ; he had enjoyed, without abusing, the confi- 
dence and friendship of kings ; he had adhered to his political 
and altered his religious opinions, when his constancy and his 
change were alike fatal to his advancement, and he died leaving 
a name without reproach from friend or enemy, and which, if 
evil tongues of a later day have attempted in vain to sully, 
it is because detraction, no less than death, loves a shining 
mark." * 

?. Cecilius, Second Lord Baltimore. — The title and estates of 
George Calvert passed to his eldest son, Cecilius, and in his 
name the charter. for Maryland was issued a few months after 
his father's death. 

8. The Maryland Charter. — The charter was the document 
by which the land was granted to Lord Baltimore, and in 
which his powers and duties, and those of the people of the 
new colony, were established. In a word, it fixed the form of 

There were two distinct kinds of government in the colonies. 
In the first, affairs were largely controlled by the king of Eng- 
land, who appointed the governor and principal officers ; this was 
called a royal government. In the second, the people elected 
their governor and other officers, and in the main managed their 

make it aulhentic. 

aWtUiam Hand Browne's Maryland, p. 17. 

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n the libiarj of the Marjknd Hislorical Society 

b, Google 


own affairs without interference from the mother country; this 
may be called a self-governing colony. In Maryland the land was 
owned by a single person, called the proprietary, or proprietor, who 
also appointed the governor and other officers ; thus a third kind 
of colonial government, called the proprietary, was established. 

The boundaries of the colony were as follows : The Atlantic 
ocean, the Delaware bay and Delaware river on the east ; the 
fortieth parallel of latitude on the north ; a meridian line run- 
ning south from this parallel to the source of the Potomac on 
the west ; a line running along the southern bank of the Potomac 
to its mouth and thence east across the peninsula to the ocean 
on the west and south. 

The charter created, in the new colony, " an empire within an 
empire," and the latter was therefore called a province. The 
powers conferred upon the lord proprietary were the most exten- 
sive ever granted to an English subject. He could coin money, 
create courts of justice, appoint judges, and pardon criminals; 
he could make peace and war, suppress rebellion, arm and call 
out the militia, and declare martial law ; he could create titles df 
nobility and found cities and towns. All laws, when agreed 
upon between himself and the people went into effect at once, 
and did not have to be confirmed either by the king or Parlia- 
ment. The inhabitants continued to be Englishmen, with all 
the rights and privileges of Englishmen ; and the laws were to 
be in harmony, as far as convenient, with the laws of England. 
And, most important for us to remember, tke people, and their 
lands and goods, were forever exempted from taxation by the 

9. Maryland a Palatinate. — Colonial Maryland was called 
a palatinate and ber proprietaries earls palatine, which terms 
will need some explanation. In early times, when there were 
no railroads, steamboats, or telegraph, news of course traveled 

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very slowly. Hence, in fixing the powers that should be exer- 
cised by the noblemen who ruled the English counties, it was 
nfecessary that those who ruled the border counties should be 
much more powerful than others ; for in case of sudden invasion 
there would be no time to notify the king, but the local ruler 
must take instant measures for the defense of the county. 
Thus Durham on the border of Scotland, Chester on the border 
of Wales, and Kent, where an invasion from the Continent 
could most easily be made, were made palatinates, and their 
rulers exercised nearly royal authority. 

The county of Durham, which was still a palatinate at the 
time when the charter of Maryland was granted, served as a 
model for that colony ; Lord Baltimore was granted all the 
powers that belonged to the ruler of Durham, with some addi- 
tional ones, and was thus an " earl palatine." This made Mary- 
land very like a limited monarchy, with the lord proprietary as 


1. Introduction. 

Knowledge of the world 400 years ago. 
The voyage of Chrisiopher Columbus. 
Mainland of America discovered and explored. 
Conquest of the Spanish and spoils talcen by them. 

2. BnElish Colonies. 

Voyage of Cabot and the claims of England. 
First attempts of the English to plant colonies and their failure. 
What sort of plan was tried next ? With what success did it meet ? 
When and where was made the first permanent English settlement in 

America ? 
Where else were English settlements planted ? 

3. George Calvert. 

Early life of George Calvert. 
He attracts the notice of the king. 
Offices held by him. 
Honors conferred upon him. 
He becomes a Catholic. 

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A. Helig:ious Intolerance. 

Usual attitude of governments on matters pertaining to religion. 

SuiFcring for religion's sake. 

English laws at this time. 

How did the king receive Calvert's confession ? 

6. Lord Baltimore's Flan for Founding a Colony. 

His interest in colonization. 
The grant of Avalon ; failure of that colony. 
Lord Baltimore sails for Virginia. 
His reception ; rights of the Virginians. 
The grant of Maryland; in whose honor named. 
ft. Death and Character of George Calvert, 

7. Ceciliaa, Second Lord Baltimore. 

He succeeds his father, George Calvert. 

B. The Maryland Charter. 

What is meant by the charter ? 

Name and deline the three kinds of colonial government. 

The charter boundaries of Maryland. 

Character of the government. 

(a) Powers of the lord proprietary, 

(6) Rights and privileges of the people. 
9. Maryland a Palatinate. 

The counties of early England, 

The border counties necessarily more powerful. 

The three palatinates. 

Maryland government modeled after that of the county of Durham. 

Maryland really a limited monarchy. 


1. What is history ? Are you interested in the history of your native state ? 

Think of as many reasons as you can why you should be. 

2. What is a colony ? What are the chief differences between civilized and 

undvilized peoples ? Is it right for the former to take land from the lat- 
ter by force ? Should a colony be governed with reference to its own 
welfare or to that of the mother country ? 
8. What is a baron ? Why did not the younger brothers and sisters of Cecilius 
Calvert share with him the estates of his father .' Had George Calvert 
been a man of more brilliant mind but of less honorable character, should 
we have more or less reason to be proud of him ? 

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4. Is it right to try to force others to believe as we do ? Give reasons for 

your answer. Is it right to try to persuade them ? 
i. What is a charter ? Are charters ever used for other purposes than to fix 

the form of a government ? Discuss the relative meiils of the three 

forms of colonial government. What corresponds to the charter ia the 

present government of Maryland ? 

Browne's Maryland, pp. l-ao. Browne's Caherli, pp. 1-38. Fiske's Old Vir- 
ginia and Her }jtighhors, Vul. I., pp. 255-271 and 275-285. Gambrall's Early- 
Maryland, pp. 9-60. Haeaaa' Maryland as a Propriclary Previnii — see indei 
for topics desired. 

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10. Character and Plans of the Second Lord Baltimore. — 

Cecilius Calvert was a worthy successor of his father. Wise, just, 
and moderate, and possessed of great patience and iinfaiHng tact, 
he was eminently qualified for the important and difSciilt enter- 
prise which his father left him. Of his private life and plans we 
know little, but we are justified in supposing that, in founding the 
new colony, it was a part of his plan to 
create a refuge for the persecuted members 
of his own church . He also sought, for him- 
self and his family, financial gain and the 
dignity and power of governing a province. 
Now that Lord Baltimore had secured 
his charter, he was free to proceed with 
the work of founding a colony. It was 
his intention to accompany the early set- 
tlers himself, and to share with them the dangers and hardships 
of the enterprise ; but Maryland was destined to suffer a long 
period of opposition and peril, and the proprietary found it 
necessary to remain in England to protect the interests of his 
infant colony. He never visited Maryland. The members of 
the old Virginia Company, who seem to have entertained some 
hopes of regaining their lost privileges, became his bitter ene- 
mies. It was not until after much opposition and many un- 
pleasant experiences that the proprietary was able to send out 
his first colony. 

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11. Tbe First Colonists ; Lord Baltimore's Policy of Religious 
Toleration. — The proprietary said in reference to the iirst 
band of colonists that sailed to Maryland: "There are two of 
my brothers gone, with very near twenty other gentlemen of 
very good fashion, and three hundred labouring men well pro- 
vided in all things." His brother Leonard was in command of 
the expedition and became the first governor of Maryland. 
Two Catholic priests were in the company also, and one of them. 
Father Andrew White, wrote a narrative of the voyage. 

How many of this interesting company were Catholics and how . 
many were Protestants is a matter of uncertainty. Lord Balti- 
more's brothers were Catholics and probably the twenty gentle- 
men associated with them were Catholics also, while most of the 
other colonists were Protestants. This brings us to a considera- 
tion of religious freedom hi Maryland, which prevailed from the 
start. Cccilius Calvert, as has already been said, doubtless meant 
to establish a retreat for persecuted Catholics. But it will be 
evident, if you remember the times that we are studying, that 
to found_ a purely Catholic colony, in which no other denomi- 
nation was allowed, was not possible, for such a storm would 
immediately have been raised in England as would inevitably 
have cut off the colony in its infancy. This fact is so plain as 
to have led some writers to withhold from Cecilius due credit for 
his policy of toleration. He permitted freedom of worship to alt 
sects of Christians under many different circumstances, and when 
his government was temporarily overthrown, freedom of worship 
ceased also, but was again restored with the rule of the proprietary. 
All that we know of his life and character shows him to have been 
a man of tolerant principles — broad-minded, just, liberal, and 
wise. And Maryland has the honor, through Cecilius Calvert, 
of being the first colony in America, as well as one of the first 
places in the world, where freedom of worship was permitted. 

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12. The Voyage to Maryland; the First Landing. — After 
many difficulties, our colonists reached the Isle of Wight, and 
from here, on a November day of 1633, they set sail in two small 
vessels, the Ark and the Dove, and stood out to sea before a steady 
breeze from the east. After a stormy voyage, in the course of 
which they stopped in the West Indies, the expedition arrived at 

Chancellor's Point, the First Landing-place for the Settlement of St. Mary's 
From a photograph 

Virginia, where a letter from the king procured them a friendly- 
reception. From here they sailed for the Potomac river. 

Near the mouth of the river they found a lovely little island, 
thickly wooded and dotted with early spring flowers, which they 
named St, Clement's. It is now called Blakistone's Island. 
Here they landed, and with solemn religious ceremonies set up 
a large wooden cross, about which Catholic and Protestant knelt 
together — March 25, 1634.' 

13. The Land of Promise. — To what sort of country had our 
colonists come ? Anxiously indeed must they have looked for- 

' March 25 is now celebrated with appropriale exercises in the schools of the slate as 

b, Google 


ward to the time which had now arrived. They had given up 
their homes, and had left their native land for a widely different 
one — a highly civilized country for a wilderness, through which 
the wild beasts roamed at will and more savage men wandered 
unrestrained. After such anxiety, then, they must have beheld 
their new home, as they sailed along to the first landing-place, 
with feelings of intense relief and pleasure, for it was truly a 
noble country to which they had come. 

Nothing small or mean greeted the eye. There was the mag- 
nificent expanse of the Chesapeake bay ; there was the beautiful 
Potomac, beside which, Father White said, the Thames was 
but a rivulet; there 
were mighty for- 
ests stretching as 
far as the eye could 
reach, unchoked by 
briers, and contain- 
ing " strange and 
beautiful trees "; 
there were banks 
and groves dotted 
with the early 
flowers of spring ; 
there were myriads 

of water-fowl and Catholics settling Maryland 

flocks of wild tur- From a drawing by Chailes Copeland. based upon 
, , contemporary sources 

keys; there were 

new and wonderful birds, the jay with his coat of blue, the tana- 
ger in his feathers of scarlet, and strangest of all, the oriole in a 
dress of black and gold, the Baltimore colors; — and this was 
Maryland. We may easily believe that the brave little band 
was filled with hope at the sight. 

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14. Founding of the First Capital (St. llary'e) ; Relations with 
the Indians. — Governor Leonard Calvert at onc6 undertook to 
win the friendship of the native tribes of Indians. These poor 
creatures were ignorant and uncivilized ; they dressed in 
mantles of deerskins or other hides, painted their faces, and 
with bows and flint-tipped arrows hunted the wild animals of 
the forests. Wars 
with the Indians, 
in which the most 
horrible and bloody 
deeds were com- 
mitted, occurred 
in many other 
parts of America, 
but Maryland was 
spared this terri- 
ble experience. It 
is to the everlast- 
ing honor of Leon- 
ard Calvert and of 
Maryland that the 
settlement of the 
state was effected 

without shed- 
Trinity, Site of St. Mat/s" jjj^g ^^g ^IQOd Qf 
From a photograph this Unfortunate 
people, for in few indeed of the other colonies were settle- 
ments so made. To this end. Governor Calvert sailed up the 
Potomac river to visit the emperor of the Indians, and he man- 
aged the interview so well that he won the permission of the 
chief to form a settlement with his colony. 

1 Built in 1824, of llie tiricks of th? first Stale House, which stood almost oo the spot. 

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The Site of Si. Marys 
From a pholi^raph 

As the little isle of St. Clement's was far too small to accommo- 
date the settlers, a home had now to be sought. Guided by a 
Virginian named Henry Fleet, they sailed into a broad and deep 
river, which flows into the Potomac from the north, not far from 
its mouth. This river, which they named St. George's, is now 
called the St. Mary's. Some distance up they found an Indian 
village, on the east bank of the river, and here they determined 
to make their future home. A large tract of land was purchased 
from the Indians and named Augusta Carolina, and it was 
arranged that the colonists should occupy half the village until 
harvest time, after which it was to be entirely abandoned to 
them. The terms of the treaty being fully arranged, the colo- 
nists landed with much show and ceremony. The governor took 
formal possession of the soil and named the new town St. Mary's. 
Thus was founded the oldest city of Maryland and its iirst 
capital — March 27, 1634. 

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The dealings of Governor Calvert with the Indians were 
marked by kindness, tact, and justice. The natives were paid 
for the land with English cloth, axes, hatchets, knives, and hoes, 
which was very creditable, for in other colonies purchases were 
often made from the Indians with worthless strings of flashing 
beads and bits of shining glass, in which the simple natives took 
a childish delight. During the joint occupation of the village 

St, Mary's Female Seminary, Site of St. Mary's City 
From a photograph 

by the English and the Indians perfect peace and friendliness 
prevailed. Many of the Indian women and children dwelt with 
the families of the English, and learned from them some of the 
arts and refinements of civilization. The Indian women taught 
the English how to make hominy and " pone " of the corn, the 
Indian men hunted wild turkeys and deer for them in the forest. 
Thus happily did the two peoples dwell together until the harvest. 

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15. The Prosperous Beginning. — In the early history of Vir- 
ginia there was a " starving time," in the course of which the 
entire colony came very near being extinguished, Maryland 
never knew such a condition, the colony being prosperous from 
the start. The voyage had been so planned that the colonists 
arrived in Maryland in the early spring, having thus the longest 
possible time to prepare for the winter. A supply of food was 
brought from England, and corn for planting from the West 
Indies, while cattle and hogs were bought in Virginia. Farms 
were laid out, and soon the province was settled in earnest. 

No scarcity of food ever existed. The bay and rivers were 
teeming with fish and covered with water-fowl, while the forests 
held multitudes of wild turkeys, deer, bears, and small game. 
As for the corn harvests, they were so bountiful that corn was 
almost immediately sent to New England, and there exchanged 
for salt fish and other supplies. In the proper seasons straw- 
berries and nuts were plentiful. 

16. LegislatlTe Assemblies; the People Win the Right to 
Propose Laws. — Hardly was the colony firmly established be- 
fore the people began to make laws under which to live. The 
first legislative assembly met at St. Mary's in February, 1635, 
and was composed of all the freemen of the province. Unfor- 
tunately, the records of the proceedings of this interesting 
assembly have been lost, but we do know that a body of laws 
was passed. 

Now the seventh section of the Maryland charter provides 
that the proprietary may enact laws with the advice and consent 
of the people of the province or their representatives. This 
seems to mean that all laws should originate with the proprie- 
tary, and then be submitted to the people, who could accept or 
reject them as they chose. This is just a reversal of the usual 
method of legislation, by which the law-making power belongs 

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to the representatives of the people, while the ruler exercises 
the right of veto (which means, "I forbid"). But taking the 
ground that his charter gave him this right. Lord Baltimore 
refused to assent to these laws. In April, 1637, he directed 
Governor Leonard Calvert to call an Assembly of the people on 
the 2Sth of the following January, and inform them of his lord- 

The First State House in Maryland (A tesloration) 
From J, W, Thomas's " Chronicles of Colonial Maryland," by permission of (he aulhor 

ship's dissent to all laws previously passed by them. The issue 
was now openly raised. 

Accordingly, the Assembly met on January 25, 1638. It was 
composed of all the freemen of the province, and not of repre- 
sentatives. Those who could not come engaged other persons 
to vote for them, and such a person was called a "proxy." 
Thus one man might have the privilege of casting ten votes, his 
own and those of nine other men who had empowered him to 

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vote for them. The proprietary sent out to the Assembly a 
body of laws of his own making, the bearer being John Lewger, 
a friend of Lord Baltimore's, and a man of much intelligence 
and profound legal knowledge, who was to be secretary of the 

The proprietary might be determined to retain the right which 
his charter gave him, but the people of Maryland were equally 
determined to have for themselves the right to propose laws, 
which they believed belonged to them as Englishmen. They 
accordingly rejected the laws of the proprietary by a large ma- 
jority, and then passed a new set of laws, which included many 
of those prepared by the proprietary. Having thus forcibly 
asserted the right which they claimed, they sent off the laws 
they had passed to the proprietary for his approval. These laws 
did not go into operation, and it is therefore supposed that the 
proprietary refused to assent to them, and the province now 
seemed, as a result of this unhappy dispute, in danger of remain- 
ing without any laws at all. But Lord Baltimore wisely decided 
to relinquish the right which his charter gave him, for the sake 
of the welfare and happiness of his province. Thus ended 
the first struggle for popular rights in Maryland — triumphantly 
for the people. 

17. State of Society. — The life of the people in these early 
days of the colony was very rude and simple. The community 
was purely agricultural. Shortly after the settlement. Lord 
Baldmore sent out instructions about the granting of land, which 
were called "Conditions of Plantation." The land that a man 
might receive varied according to the number of persons that he 
brought over to settle in the colony. Thus, each of the first 
settlers who brought over as many as five persons received two 
thousand acres of land ; if he brought fewer than five, he received 
one hundred acres for himself and for every man, one hundred for 

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his wife and for every servant, and fifty for every child under six- 
teen. The land so granted was subject to a small annual rent to 
the proprietary, called a " quit rent." Relations with the neigh- 
boring Indians were friendly from the beginning, Father White 
and other good 
priests becoming 
missionaries to 
them and winning 
many converts. 
This fact, together 
with the abundance 
of food and the 
easy conditions on 
which land was 
granted and the 
religious toleration 
K'»«"°'*' that prevailed. 

From > photograph caused the popula- 

tion to grow rapidly. Plantations were usually laid out along 
the water's edge, and the first houses were rudely built of logs 
and boards. Travel was almost entirely by water. 

Augusta Carolina (see Sec. 14) soon became St. Mary's 
county, which is thus the oldest in the state. As the population 
increased and the settlements began to spread, the county was 
divided into "hundreds." Hundred was a name originally 
applied to a district capable of supplying a hundred men for the 
army. In England the county divisions were called hundreds, 
and the name was used in the same way in Maryland. The 
hundred thus corresponds to the election district of the present 
time. A settlement which soon grew up across the St. Mary's 

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river was called St. George's Hundred, and others were not 
long in forming. 

Wheat was grown in small quantities, and a good deal of 
Indian corn was raised, mostly for private use. The great staple 
in Maryland, as in Virginia, was tobaccQ. This plant was not 
known to the inhabitants of the Old World prior to the discovery 
of America, but was found here by the early explorers. The 
Indians smoked it, and from them Europeans learned to do the 
same and the habit soon became widespread. This, of course, 
caused a large demand for tobacco, and as a result the syste- 
matic cultivation of the plant was begun and a large and profit- 
able trade sprang up between the Old World and the New, 
How important tobacco became you may judge from the fact 
that it was used in the place of 
money, and public officers and 
others had their salaries paid in 
tobacco instead of in money,— 
gold, silver, or paper. There were 
no manufactures. Com was 
pounded in mortars by hand, and 
pretty hard work it was, too. 
Most of the necessaries of life 
and all its luxuries were imported. 
Most of the trading was done di- 
rectly with the ships, as they 

arrived from England. Besides a Settler's Log Cabin 

the foreign trade, the Maryland- From a drawing based upon 

ers also carried on a trade with contemporary sources 

the Indians, chiefly for furs. These could be purchased, usually 
at very low rates, and sold in England at handsome profits. 

Maryland in these early days was thus a simple community 
of farmers, or planters, as they were called ; there was nothing 

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like the comtnercial business of large cities or older societies. 
But the province was as yet in its early infancy, and from these 
humble beginnings greater things were to come. 

Alsop's Map of Maryland, 1666 
'ublication 15, in the library of Ihe Maryland Historical Sooioly 


10. Cbaiactet and Plana of the Second Lord Baltimore. 

For what personal qualities was Cecilius Calvert distinguished f 

What can be said about his life and plans? 

Why did not Lord Baltimore accompany his colony to Maryland? 

11. The First Colonists ; Lord Baltimore's Policy of Keligious Toleration. 

How was the first body of colonists composed ? 
Who was the first governor of Mar)'land ? 

What cornbination of circunislances favored religious freedom in Mary- 
land ? Maryland's honorable record. 

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IS. The Voyage to Maryland ; the First Landing. 

When did the first colonists sail and whai sort of voyage did they have ? 
Where and when did they make the first landing ? Describe it. 

13. The Land of Promise. 

Describe, as fully as possible, iVlaryland as the first settlers saw it. 

14. Founding of the First Capital (St. Mary's) ; Relations with the Indians. 

Describe the Indians and their manner of living. 

Describe the treatment of the Indians in Maryland. 

What visit did Governor Calvert pay immediately on his arrival? 

How did he succeed? 

The site of a permanent settlement is selected and purcha.sed from the 

Indians; the terms of the treaty. 
Founding of the oldest city and first capital of Maryland, March 27, 

How were the Indians paid for their land ? 
Describe the relations between the Indians and the English during 

their joint occupation of St. Mary's. 

15. The Prosperous Beginning. 

Conditions favorable to prosperity. 
The abundance of fish, game, and other food. 
IS. LegislatiTe Assemblies ; tbe People Win the Right to Propose Laws. 

When and where did the first legislative assembly in Maryland meet ? 
What provision did the Maryland charier make in regard to legislation ? 
On what grounds did Lord Baltimore refuse to assent to the laws passed 

by the first Assembly ? 
Meeting of the Assembly. January 2$, 1638. How was this Assembly 

composed ? Arrival of John Lewger. Rejection of Lord Baltimore's 

Sueeessfiii result of the first struggle for popular rights in Maryland. 
17. SUte of Society- 
Maryland an agricultural community. 
The ■' Conditions of Plantation." 
Rapid growth of the population and its causes. 
Political divisions— the " hundred." 
St. George's Hundred established. 
Raising of wheat and corn. 
Tobacco and its history. It becomes the staple of Maryland and is 

No manufactures ; com pounded by hand. Most necessities and all 

luxuries imported. 
Trade with the Indians. 
General character of Maryland society. 

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1. Considering the object of tlie expedition, do you think the first band of 

colonists was well composed ? Find out what you can about the 
settlement of Virginia, and comparing this with what you know about 
Maryland, see if you can find reasons for the quicker success of Ihe 

2. Locate accurately on the map the first landing-place of the colonists, and 

the situation of St. Mary's. Where is the Thames ? 

3. Imagine yourself a passenger on the ^r6; how do you feel as the vessel 

leaves England, during the voyage, and on your arrival ? If you were 
to sail up the Potomac now, should you behold the same scene that 
greeted ihe eyes of the first settlers ? What changes have taken place 

4. Would the Indians have preferred to receive money for their land instead 

of the articles that Governor Calvert gave them ? Give reasons for 
your answer. Name some things that you think the English likely to 
have learned from the Indians; the Indians fi'om the English. Find 
out what you can about the relations between the Indians and the 
English in other parts of America, and compare with Maryland. 
ft. Name three differences between the first legislative assembly of Maryland 
and one of Ihe present day. Was it a good provision of the charter 
that gave Lord Baltimore the right to originate laws .' Were the people 
justified in taking the stand which Ihey did? 

6. Were the Conditions of Plantation liberal, and likely to attract setders? 

Explain as (iilly as you can the causes that favored the growth of popu- 
lation. Was tobacco a convenient money? Why was it much less 
inconvenient than such a currency would be now ? 

7. Write an account of " Life in Early Maryland." 

Browne's Maryland, pp. 20-26, 36-37, 41-47, 48-50, and 5 1-53. Browne's Cahitrts, 
pp. 39-62 and 83-87. Thomas' Chronicles of Colonial Maryland, pp. 9-28. Hall's 
The Lords Baltimore, pp. 28-42, 49-51. Fiske's Old Virginia and Her Neighiers, 
Vol. I., pp. 268-275. ^eT^aesi' Maryland as a Proprietary Prmiinee — see index for 
topics de^red. 

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18. A Jealous Sister; the Character and Plans of William 
Claiborne. — It has already been said that the charter of Lord 
Baltimore met with fierce opposition (see Sec. !0). The 
enmity of the members of the old Virginia Company was 
noticed, but we have now to observe that a protest was forth- 
coming from the Virginia colony as well, and to go back a little 
to notice some very interesting and important events connected 
with the bad feeling that for a time prevailed between " Leah 
and her younger sister Rachel."' Virginia was jealous of 
Maryland chiefly for three reasons. First, Maryland had once 
been a part of the territory of Virginia; secondly, Maryland 
was ruled by Catholics, while Virginia was Protestant and 
strongly attached to the Established Church of England ; thirdly, 
the commercial rights and privileges of Maryland were much 
greater than those of Virginia. Thus for a time Maryland's 
sister colony and nearest neighbor unfortunately became her 
worst enemy. 

In the protest above mentioned, the Virginians were repre- 
sented by William Claiborne, their secretary of state. This 
man, not unjustly called the evil genius of Maryland, was the 
prime mover of mischief from first to last, and devoted all the 

1 In 1656 a book was published in Lcndon by HamTnond. called Ltah and Rachel: or 
The Tiiw Fruitful Siitin, yirginia and Maryland. John Fiske uses the phrase also, as a 
chapler title in Old Virginia and Her Neighbors. 

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energies of his unusually determined and persevering nature to 
the task of ruining the Maryland colony. For twenty years 
his influence seriously affected Maryland history, and more 
than once nearly brought about the colony's destruction. 

Claiborne's opportunity came in the following manner. Com- 
ing over to Virginia in 1621 as surveyor, his force of character 
brought him rapidly into notice, and at the time of the settle- 
ment on the St. Mary's he was secretary of state for Virginia 
and a member of the governor's council. He began to engage 
to some extent in the fur trade with the Indians. In this he 
was so successful as to induce a firm of London merchants to 
employ him as a special agent or partner in the business of 
trading with the Indians. Claiborne then established a post on 
Kent Island, in the Chesapeake bay, for this purpose, and 
obtained hcenses to trade; but he did not secure any grant of 
land. A few dwellings were erected, which were paid for by 
the London merchants, Cloberry and Company. To complete 
the claim of Virginia, it should be noted also that Palmer's 
Island had been occupied by traders, and trading expeditions 
had been conducted by Henry Fleet, John Pory, and possibly 
other Virginians. The Maryland charter spoke of the country 
as "hitherto uncultivated"; but this was descriptive merely, 
and not a condition of the grant, and if it had been, the traders 
had not settled or cultivated the country. 

The instructions of the proprietary regarding Claiborne were 
very generous. Acting according to these instructions. Governor 
Calvert notified Claiborne that his post was within the limits of 
Maryland. He was given to understand that he would be 
welcome to the land he had occupied, but that he must acknowl- 
edge the authority of Lord Baltimore, and hold the land from 
him and not from Virginia. Claiborne, on receiving this notice, 
asked the Virginia council what he should do. Their answer 

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was, that they wondered at his asking such a question ; could 
there be any more reason for giving up Kent Island than any 
other part of Virginia? Thus Claiborne made his own cause 
and that of Virginia one, and feeling sure of support now, he 
returned an answer to Governor Calvert in which he utterly 
refused to acknowledge the authority of Maryland and Lord 

19. The Dispute Leads to Bloodshed. ^ The proprietary's 
instructions provided that if Claiborne should refuse to acknowl- 
edge the jurisdiction of Maryland, he was to be undisturbed for 
a year. But trouble soon arose. The Indians, hitherto so 
friendly and sociable, became cold and reserved, — a change 
which alarmed the people greatly. On investigation, Claiborne 
was charged with telling lies to the Indians for the purpose of 
stirring them upAgainst the Marylanders, but in justice it must 
be said that when the Indians were questioned in his presence 
they declared that he had never done anything to prejudice 
them against the people of Maryland. 

But there was trouble of a more serious nature when a vessel 
of Claiborne's, under the command of Thomas Smith, was seized 
in the Patuxent river for trading without a license in Maryland 
waters. In return, Claiborne fitted out an armed vessel, the 
Cockatrice, under the command of Lieutenant Ratcliffe Warren, 
which he sent out with orders to capture any Maryland vessel 
that might be met. When news of these mighty doings came 
to the ears of Governor Calvert, he promptly armed and sent 
out two vessels, the St. Margaret and the St. Helen, under the 
command of Captain Thomas Cornwailis, " The two expedi- 
tions met at the mouth of the Pocomoke on April 23d,' and 
then and there was fought the first naval battle on the inland 
waters of America." Several men were killed and wounded on 


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both sides, Lieutenant Warren being among the kilted, and the 
Cockatrice surrendered. A second fight took place a few days 
later, in which Thomas Smith commanded the vessel of Clai- 
borne, resulting in more bloodshed. 

20. The Capture fA Kent Island. — For a time Claiborne 
remained in undisturbed possession of Kent Island. But his 
affairs presently took on a different color, for his London 
partners, Cloberry and Company, became dissatisfied with his 
management, and sent out an agent named George Evelin to 
take charge of their property. Claiborne tried hard to induce 
Evelin to promise not to give up the island to the Marylanders, 
but could not succeed. He then went to England and engaged 
in a lawsuit with the London merchants who had employed 
him. Evelin went to St. Mary's, after a time, and there he 
heard the other side of the story, and was fully convinced of 
the right of Maryland's claim to the island. On his return, he 
called the people together and explained the situation to them, 
and Lord Baltimore's authority was recognized. Governor 
Calvert then appointed Evelin commander of the island. 

But the matter was not yet settled. A number of persons 
were arrested for debts owed to Cloberry and Company, and 
Thomas Smith (the same who had already taken part against 
the Marylanders) and John Butler (a brother-in-law of Clai- 
borne) used every opportunity to stir up dissatisfaction. The 
matter finally amounted to a rebellion, and Governor Calvert, 
after several warnings, proceeded to the island himself, with a 
body of armed men, to offer a little more forcible persuasion. 
The attack was a complete surprise, and Smith and Butler were 
captured. The governor then offered to pardon all others who 
would come in at once and submit themselves to the government 
of Maryland, "whereupon," says Governor Calvert, in a letter 
to his brother, the proprietary, " the whole ileand came in and 

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submitted themselves." Smith was tried before the Assembly 
on charges of piracy and murder, was convicted and sen- 
tenced to death ; Butler, not being accused of crimes so serious, 
and having shown a better disposition, was pardoned by the 
governor and afterward came to hold office in the province. 

In England the final blow was now struck against the cause 
of Claiborne. The quarrel over Kent Island had been referred 
to the Board of Commissioners for the Plantations (a body 
having charge of colonial affairs), and they decided that as 
Lord Baltimore had a grant from the king of England, while 
Ciaiborne had merely a trading license, the title was undoubtedly 
with the former, Claiborne has defenders even to-day, and 
possibly he really thought he was defending his rights ; but his 
contentions were clearly illegal, and his methods, as his history 
shows, were by no means honorable. 

21. Changes in the Organization of the Assemblr; Troubles 
with the Indians. — The Kent Island affair was now closed for 
the time, but only to be reopened through a series of remarkable 
events. We have seen the struggle of the people of Mary- 
land for the right of proposing laws, and the success which 
crowned their effort. That success was complete, and it was 
arranged that laws passed by the Assembly should go into opera- 
tion at once if approved by the governor, in order to save the 
delay that must ensue if the colonists were kept waiting foi the 
laws to go to England and then return after receiving the pro- 
prietary's approval. He, of course, reserved to himself the right 
of final veto. When the Assembly met in 1639, it was no longer 
composed of all the freemen of the province, but of repre- 
sentatives called "burgesses" from the hundreds. Many laws 
were proposed at this session which, like the laws of England 
at the time, were very severe. The penalty of death was pre- 
scribed for murder, robbery, sorcery, polygamy, perjury, and 

lb, Google 


blasphemy. Weights and measures were established and courts 
of justice created. But not until the following session, for some 
reason, were these laws finally enacted. For several years the 
Assembly consisted of but one house, the governor and his 
council sitting with the burgesses, and the governor presiding. 
Afterward the Assembly was organized with an upper and a 
lower house, the former composed of the governor and his 
council, and the latter of the burgesses elected by the people. 

While the relations of the people of Maryland with the neigh- 
boring Indians remained friendly, the fierce Susquehan nocks to 
the north and Nanticokes on the Eastern Shore were constantly 
troublesome and dangerous. On several occasions houses were 
burned and settlers were murdered. A system of signals was 
established by the English, and energetic measures were taken 
by the governor to stop the outrages. 

22. The Civil War la England and the Rise of Cromwell. — It 
will be impossible to understand the allusions that follow, as well 
as the general course of Maryland history in the events now 
about to be narrated, without some understanding of the events 
that were occurring in England at the same time. 

King James I, the same who befriended George Calvert and 
made him a knight and nobleman, was the first of the royal house 
of Stuart that reigned in England. He entertained very high 
notions about the rights of kings. In fact, he believed that a 
king ruled by " divine right" and not by authority of the people, 
that the authority o/ a king was of right absolute, and that he 
could not be called to account by anybody. His son Charles, 
the same who granted the province of Maryland to Lord Balti- 
more, succeeded him and became Charles I ; and unfortunately 
he succeeded to his father's high notions about the rights of a. 
king as well as to his kingdom. 

Now the power of making laws and of taxing the people rested 

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with the Parliament — the legislative body in which the English 
people were represented, while the king had the power of veto. 
But Charles claimed the right to make laws and to tax the people 
without the consent of Parliament, and proceeded to act accord- 
ingly. He collected various taxes and imprisoned at pleasure 
those who refused to pay, and actually ruled for eleven years 
without calling a Parliament. Almost from the beginning of the 
reign of James, the people had 
been angry and discontented 
over the tyranny of the king 
and his claims to absolute 
power, and these feelings had 
steadily grown. After all these 
years a Parliament, called the 
Long Parliament because it 
continued for twenty years, 
met; and from the measures 
it passed in opposition to the 
king it soon became apparent 
that civil war was at hand. 

The year 1642 found the 
king and Parliament engaged 
in actual warfare, — England's 
great civil war had begun. After a long struggle, in which first 
one side and then the other had the advantage, and during 
which the king plotted and deceived in anything but a kingly 
manner, the war finally ended in victory for the Parliament. 
Then the king was brought to trial as a " tyrant, traitor, mur- 
derer, and public enemy," and sentenced to death. He was be- 
headed at Whitehall palace, London, in 1649. 

One of the ablest generals on the side of the Parliament was 
Oliver Cromwell, and after the death of the king he soon ob- 

King Charles I 
(he painiing by Van Dyke 

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tained the chief powers of the government and came to the head 
of the nation as " Lord Protector of the Commonwealth," His 
rule was firm and just, and was respected at home and abroad. 
At his death he was succeeded by his son Richard. But Richard 
did not possess the ability of his 
father, and his government soon fell 
to pieces. The result was the resto- 
ration of the Stuarts, in the person 
of Charles, son of the late king, who 
was crowned King Charles II (1660). 
He reigned until his death in 1685. 

23. Maryland at the Beginning of 
the CiWl War. — The unhappy quar- 
rel that now divided the mother 
country of course extended to the 
colonies, and they took one side or 
Oliver Cromwell the Other, While partisans of each 

After (he painiing in ihe Naiionai side might be found in the Same col- 

Pottrail Gallery, London i >< i > , < 

ony. In Maryland several happen- 
ings, together with the general restlessness and discontent 
noticeable among the people, indicated that trouble of a serious 
nature might occur at any moment. Lord Baltimore's father 
had been a friend of the last king, and he himself was indebted 
for many favors to the present king ; hence it was not unnatu- 
rally thought that in the present quarrel he would take the 
king's side. On the other hand, the principles of the king as 
shown in his government were entirely different from the prin- 
ciples of Lord Baltimore as shown in the Maryland government. 
The truth seems to be that Lord Baltimore did his best to pre- 
serve a neutral attitude in the struggle. 

In these difficulties Governor Calvert was naturally anxious 
and uncertain what course it was best to pursue, so he determined 

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to go to England and consult his brother, the proprietary. He 
left the province in April, 1643, leaving Giles Brent to act as 
governor during his absence. 

24. The Invasion of Claiborne and Ingle; the "Plundering 
Time." — " The governor of Maryland, as well as the governor 
of Virginia, had gone to England on business, and while the 
cats were away the mice did play." The province being still 
in the restless and uncomfortable state in which Leonard 
Calvert left it, there sailed into the harbor of St Mary's, with 
his ship. Captain Richard Ingle, a trader who was accused of 
being at the same time a pirate. Ingle was a violent partisan 
of the Parliament, and pretty soon information was laid before 
the deputy-governor. Brent, that he had been making such re- 
marks as " the king was no king," and that he was " a captain for 
the Parliament against the king," — all this in a very violent 
manner with many flourishes of his sword and threats of cutting 
off the heads of any who contradicted him. Thus, in the absence 
of the governor, Maryland was brought face to face with the 
issue she dreaded; for if Ingle were arrested and punished, the 
province was committed to the cause of the king, while if he 
were allowed to go free, it was committed to the cause of Par- 
liament. The proceedings in the case were curious. Ingle was 
arrested by order of the governor and a guard placed on board 
his ship ; whereupon Captain Thomas Cornwallis, commander of 
the mijitia, and Councilor Neale, took him on board his ship, 
ordered the guard to lay down their arms, and Ingle took com- 
mand and sailed triumphantly out of the harbor. For this very 
serious offence Cornwallis was simply fined, and Neale temporarily 
suspended, so there can be little doubt that these strange pro- 
ceedings were simply an ingenious device to avoid what would 
perhaps have raised a rebellion in the province. 

At the same time Claiborne was active and doing his best to 

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stir up the inhabitants of Kent Island. They inclining toward 
the cause of the king, Claiborne produced a paper of some 
kind which he declared was a commission from the king, which 
gave him the power to seize Maryland. In September, 1644, 
Governor Calvert returned, and found Claiborne and Ingle 
making ready to invade the province. This was a strange friend- 
ship indeed, since Ingle professed to act under authority of the 
Parliament, while Claiborne pretended to hold a commission from 
the king. But " Ingle with his letters from Parliament and 
Claiborne with his ' king's commission ' were drawn together by 
an affinity that was stronger than either." Ingle suddenly ap- 
peared before St. Mary's in a heavily armed ship and captured 
the town, while Claiborne recovered Kent Island. Governor 
Calvert found refuge in Virginia. 

For nearly two years the province was without anything like 
government. Ingle and his men roaming about and robbing at 
will. According to the accounts of Marylanders, they plundered 
the plantations, and carried off corn, tobacco, and everything of 
value, even to the locks and hinges of doors. The Great Seal 
(which was of silver) and the official records were stolen or de- 
stroyed, to the great loss of the province. The stations of the 
missionaries were broken up and the aged Father White sent to 
England in irons to be tried for treason, but he was acquitted. 
Governor Calvert watched the progress of affairs, and presently 
gathering a force of men he returned to Maryland, recaptured 
St. Mary's, and resumed the government for Lord Baltimore. 
The rebellion of Claiborne and Ingle was at an end, but it was 
long remembered by the people as the " plundering time." 

Ingle has been warmly defended, and most of the charges 
against him have been disputed. In forming an opinion we 
must keep in mind the fact that his was a time of violence and 
immoderate partisanship, while the records are very meagre. 

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25. Death of Governor Calvert. — Peace was hardly restored 
when the province met a heavy loss in the death of its first gov- 
ernor, Leonard Calvert (June 9, 1647). Little is known of his 
private life, but his record shows 

him to have been wise, just, and 
kind, and well worthy of the trust 
reposed in him. His thirteen years 
of faithful service succeeded in es- 
tablishing firmly the province he 
governed, and laying secure foun- 
dations for its future growth. He 
appointed Thomas Greene, who 
was a Catholic and a royalist, to 
succeed him until the pleasure of 
Lord Baltimore should be known. 

26. Tbe Government Reorgan- 
ized, and William Stone Appointed 
Governor. — Lord Baltimore now 
completely reorganized his gov- 
ernment. It was a favorite cry 
of his enemies that Maryland was 
a nest of " papists," as the Catho- 
lics were called, and that the poor 
Protestants were grievously op- 
pressed. Really the Protestants 
greatly outnumbered the Catho- 
lics, and perfect toleration pre- 
vailed. It was for this reason per- 
haps that Lord Baltimore now 
appointed to be governor of Maryland, William Stone, a Prot- 
estant and a friend of the Parliament, while at the same time he 
appointed a council of which the majority were Protestants. 

Monument to Leonard Calvert, 
Site of St. Mary's 
From a photograph 

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The officers of the government as thus arranged were required 
in their oath of office to promise not to interfere with freedom 
of worship. 

27. The Great Seal ot Maryland. — Lord Baltimore also sent 
out a new Great Seal, to replace the one carried off by Ingle. 

The Great Seal of Maryland (Obverse) 
From a print, copyrighled by C. C. Saffell, In the library of the Maryland Historical 

He describes it, and states that it is very nearly like the old one. 
On one side was a figure representing Lord Baltimore on horse- 
back, clad in full armor and holding a drawn sword ; around the 
edge was an inscription in Latin, meaning, " Cecilius, Absolute 
Lord of Maryland and Avalon, Baron of Baltimore." On the 

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The Flag and the Great Seal of Maryland 

b, Google 


other side were engraved the arras of the Calvert and Crossland 
families (Alicia Crossland was the mother of George Calvert), 
supported on one side by a fisherman and on the other by a 
ploughman, and resting on a scroll bearing the inscription, Fatti 
Masckii Parole Femine. This means literally, " Deeds (are) 
males, words females," but it is usually rendered, " Manly deeds, 
womanly words." Above *as a count palatine's cap, surmounted 
by a ducal crown ; behind all was a purple mantle, surrounded by 
another inscription, Scuto Bonm Voluntatis Tua Coronasti Nos 
(Ps. V. 12). This is translated, "Thou bast crowned us with_ 
the shield of thy good will," and is thought to refer to the kind- 
ness of the king to Lord Baltimore. . In the subsequent history 
of the colony and state new seals were several times adopted, 
but the old design was restored in 1876, and "this beautiful 
historic device . , . still remains .the seal and symbol of Mary- 

28. The Toleration Act. —In April, 1649, the Assembly of 
Maryland passed the famous Toleration Act. It was called 
"An Act concerning Religion," and may be divided into two 
parts, the first of which is anything but tolerant. This first part 
provided that persons who denied the divinity of Jesus Christ 
should suffer death ; that persons who should call others by any 
names in a taunting manner on account of their religion should 
be fined or whipped ; and that persons profaning the " Sabbath 
or Lord's day, called Sunday," should be fined and imprisoned. 
The last clause, on the other hand, provided that no person in 
Maryland should be in any way troubled or interfered with on 
account of his or her religion, and that freedom of worship must 
not be denied to any person professing to believe in Jesus Christ. 

Thus was the noble policy which Cecilius Calvert had pursued 
from the first formally enacted into a law. "It is not likely to 
have surpassed his [Calvert's] ideals, but it may easily have fallen 

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somewhat short of them." Indeed, it is probable that the last 
clause of the act was written by Calvert himself and passed 
without change, while the first part of the law was chiefly the 
work of the Assembly. But in any case it was exceedingly lib- 
eral for the times in which it was passed, and is greatly to the 
credit of Cecilius Calvert. The law was simply the formal state- 
ment of the policy of toleration which Calvert had adopted and 
maintained in Maryland from the start, and at a time when such 
a thing was nearly unheard of in the world. That he was not 
indifferent in matters concerning religion, but a. sincere and 
devout Catholic, is proved by the fact that nearly all the attacks 
on his rights were aimed at his religion, and "He had only to 
declare himself a Protestant to be placed in an unassailable posi- 
tion ; yet that step he never took, even when ruin seemed certain. 
But he was singularly free from bigotry, . . . and from the 
foundation of the colony no man was molested under Baltimore's 
rule on account of religion" (Browne). Two trifling cases that 
occurred in the early years of the province show the spirit that 
animated the government of Maryland. A Catholic named 
Lewis was tried before the governor for reproving two servants 
for reading a Protestant book, and fined ; and several years later 
a Catholic named Gerrard was fined for taking away some books 
and a key from a chapel at St. Mary's, and the fine appropriated 
to the use of the first Protestant minister that should arrive. 

29. The Settlement of Providence (afterward Annapolis) by the 
Puritans. — The policy of toleration adopted by Maryland made 
her naturally the home of the persecuted. Governor Stone had 
promised Lord Baltimore to do his best to bring five hundred 
new settlers into Maryland, and to fulfil his promise he now 
invited a large body of Puritans to come over from Virginia and 
settle. The Puritans were a sect of people who desired to re- 
form the Established Church of England by introducing certain 

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changes in the mode of 
worship, or to "purify " 
the church; hence they 
were called Puritans. 
They were severely 
persecuted in England. 
A body of them that 
had gathered in Vir- 
ginia were so bitterly 
I persecuted that they 
^ were compelled to leave 
S the colony, and now, 
u on the invitation of 
•5 Governor Stone, they 
g §■ established themselves 
Q 2 in Maryland. By 1649, 
■S 'a. a thousand Puritans 
I e had gone over into 
"^ fe Maryland and settled, 
"3 chiefly on the beautiful 
3 river which they called 
^ the Severn. This set- 
s tlement they named 
> Providence, but it was 

afterward called An- 
napolis. The region 
occupied by them soon 
became a county, and 
was named Anne Arun- 
del, in honor of Lord 
Baltimore's wife, who 
before her marriage 

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was Lady Anne Arundel. The new town was destined to be- 
come the state capital, and in later times to become famous as 
the seat of the United States Naval Academy. 

30. The Puritan Revolution ; tlie Puritan Idea of Toleration. 
— When the Puritans applied for admission into Maryland, they 
were informed that nothing would be required of them save 
obedience to the laws, the usual quit-rents, and a promise of 
fidelity to the proprietary. Entire freedom of worship and the 
right to manage their local affairs were granted to the Puritans, 
not to mention a large tract of fertile and conveniently located 
land. Yet so strongly were the Puritans imbued with the char- 
acteristic bigotry and intolerance of the times, that with alt their 
advantages they could not rest content. They were much dis- 
turbed to be living under a government that granted freedom of 
worship to Roman Catholics ; and they were greatly troubled 
that they must take an oath of fidelity to Lord Baltimore, yet, 
as the sequel shows, they were not at ail distressed about break- 
ing the oath after they had taken it. " Singularly enough," 
remarks Dr. Browne, " the simple remedy of abandoning lands 
which they could not hold with an easy conscience seems not 
to have occurred to them." The conduct of the Puritans can 
hardly be defended, even if we make the fullest allowances for 
the ingrained prejudices and intolerance that undoubtedly moved 
them ; for they made strife from the first and did their utmost 
to overthrow the government that had sheltered them in their 
extremity, and to deny civil and religious liberty to those who 
had granted both freely to them. 

An opportunity for making trouble was soon afforded them. 
Virginia was warmly attached to the cause of the king, and 
openly defied the Parliament and Cromwell {see Sec. 22). 
Accordingly, war-ships and a body of commissioners were sent 
out to take charge of Virginia, and receive the submission of 

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the governor and his colony. The name of Maryland also was 
included in the commission, but Lord Baltimore appeared and 
showed that Maryland had taken no part against the Parlia- 
ment, and her name was accordingly stricken out. But his 
enemies managed to have inserted the words, "plantations 
within the Chesapeake," which served their purpose. You will 
feel no surprise at this when you know that one of the commis- 
sioners was Wil- 
liam Claiborne, the 
old enemy of Mary- 
land. He had in- 
deed been the 
adherent of the 
king, but the Par- 
liament was now 
supreme, and he 
had gone over 
without hesitation. 
Another of the 
commissioners was 

Richard Bennett, . „ , , . „ ... ,c . .. 

, , „ , A Naval Academy Building (Boal-house) 

one of the Puntans ^ u I 

From a photograph 

who had found ref- 
uge in Maryland and had taken an oath of fidelity to the pro- 
prietary. " As soon as Claiborne had disposed of the elder 
sister, Leah, he went to settle accounts with the youthful RacheL" 
Proceeding to St. Mary's, in company with Bennett, he over- 
turned the government and removed Stone ; but the latter being 
popular, was afterward restored, though compelled to issue all 
writs in the name of the Parliament instead of that of Lord 
Baltimore. But when Cromwell assumed the government of 
England as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth, the power of 

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Parliament came to an end (see Sec. 22), and Stone again issued 
writs in the name of the proprietary. The Puritans whom Lord 
Baltimore had rescued from persecution now raised a commo- 
tion, and back came Bennett and Claiborne to St. Mary's, in 
July, 1654. Stone was put out of office, and a council was ap- 
pointed to govern Maryland, whose president, Captain William 
Fuller, was a prominent Puritan. 

The Puritan government summoned an Assembly, — in a way 
never before heard of in Maryland, for no Roman Catholic could 
vote or hold office. " In this way a house was obtained that was 
almost unanimously Puritan, and in October this novel assembly 
so far forgot its sense of the ludicrous as to pass a new ' Tolera- 
tion Act ' securing to all persons freedom of conscience, pro- 
vided such liberty were not extended to ' popery, prelacy, or 
licentiousness of opinion,' In short, these liberal Puritans were 
ready to tolerate everybody except Catholics, Episcopalians, and 
anybody else who disagreed with them ! " (Fiske). 

31. The Battle of the Severn. —When Lord Baltimore heard 
of these events, he wrote to Governor Stone, reproving him for 
having surrendered the government without a blow. The gov- 
ernor then gathered a little army of one Hundred and thirty 
men and proceeded against Captain Fuller and his party at 

Fuller, being informed of his coming, gathered an army of 
one hundred and seventy-five men and made ready for the fight. 
The two little armies met on the south bank of Spa creek, an 
inlet of the Severn, which at present forms the southern bound- 
ary of Annapolis, and the battle of the Severn opened. Fuller 
had more men than Stone and was a better general, and was, 
moreover, assisted by the fire of two ships lying in the harbor 
at the time. The proprietary army was defeated, and the gov- 
ernor surrendered on a promise of quarter. The promise was 

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broken. Stone and nine others being condemned to death ; four 
were actually executed, and the rest were saved only at the 
request of the soldiers and by the prayers of some good 
women. Stone, though spared, was treated with great cruelty. 

Old records teil us that Stone carried a Maryland flag in 
the battle of the Severn. This flag, containing the colors and 
characteristic design of the Great Seal, was adopted as the legal 
flag of the state by the General Assembly of 1904, and ordered 
displayed from the State House during sessions of the Assembly. 

32. The ProTlnce Restored to Lord Baltimore; the Sisters 
Become Reconciled. — The Puritans, having thus gained complete 
control, seized the records of the province and the property of 
those who had opposed them. Vigorous efforts had been made 
to have Virginia restored to her old boundaries, which meant 
that Maryland would cease to have anything. At this time 
there seemed but a dark outlook for Maryland and her proprie- 

But the efforts of the proprietary's enemies to have his charter 
taken away came to nothing, for it was soon known that Crom- 
weil was on his side. The protector regarded himself as the 
lawful heir of the king, and therefore the charter was as strong" 
under him as under the king. The government was surrendered 
to Lord Baltimore, on his promise not to bring the offenders to 
justice, and not to repeal the Toleration Act of 1649. The 
Puritans willingly accepted the toleration they had refused to 
grant. By March, 1658, the authority of Lord Baltimore was 
acknowledged by the whole province. 

Thus ended the long struggle between the sister colonies of 
Maryland and Virginia, in the complete triumph of Maryland. 
In the course of that struggle every means possible had been 
brought to bear against Maryland, and her victory was due to 
the justice of her cause and the wisdom of her proprietary. The 

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history of Maryland and that of Virginia were always to be 
closely connected, but the enmity was now at an end. "Peace 
reigned on the shores of Chesapeake bay, the claims of Leah and 
Rachel were adjusted, and the fair sisters quarrelled no more." 


IS. A Jealons Sister ; the Character and Plans of William Gaibome. 

Name three reasons for Virginia's jealousy of Maryland. 

Character of Witliam Claiborne, and his influence on Maryland history. 

What were the instructions of Lord Baltimore regarding Claiborne? 

What did Claiborne do after receiving the letter from Governor Calvert? 
Result > 
10. The Diapnte Leads to Bloodshed. 

Cl^bome is accused of slining up the Indians against Maryland. 

The battle of the Pocomoke and its causes. 

Thomas Smith defeats the Marylanders. 

20. The Capture of Kent Island. 

George Evelin lakes charge of Kent Island for Qoberry and Company, 

and Claiborne goes to England. 
Lord Baltimore's authority acknowledged in Kent Island, and Evelin 

made commander. 
Smith and Butler stir up a rebellion. Capture of Kent Island. 
Smith condemned to death ; Butler pardoned. 
The dispute settled in England, Lord Baltimore being sustained. 
Why was the claim of Lord Baltimore better than that of Claiborne ? 

21. Changes in the Organization of the Aasembly ; Troubles with the Indians. 

Why did the proprietary allow the governor to approve laws? 
In what way did the Assembly of 1639 differ from the earlier assemblies ? 
How was the Assembly further reorganized afterward? 
What was the character of laws of this age ? 
What Indians were unfriendly to the province? 
23. The Civil War in England and the Rise of Cromwell. 

Notions of the Stuart kings about the " divine rights " of monarchs. 
War breaks out between the king and Parliament ; the cause. 
Defeat of the royal cause and death of the king. 
The rise of Cromwell ; he becomes Lord Protector of the Commot*. 

Restoration of the Stuarts in the person of Charles II. 

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23. Harylftnd at the Baginning of the Ciril War. 

What led Governor Calvert to go to England ? 
What attitude did Lord Baltimore desire to take in the Civil War? 
94. The Inraaion of CUibome and Ingle ; the " Plunderins Time." 
Richard Ingle arrested on a charge of treason. 
Why did Ingle's arrest place Maryland in a very dangerous position P 

How was the difficulty met? 
Claiborne plots to recover Kent Island. 
Governor Calvert returns from England. 

Ingle captures St. Mary's, and Claiborne recovers Kent Island. 
Describe the "plundering time." 
Governor Calvert returns from Virginia and recaptures St. Mary's, 

29. Death of Governor Calvert ; He Appoints Thomas Greene to Succeed 

What can you say of the character of Leonard Calvert ? 
When did he die, and whom did he appoint to succeed him ? 

30. The GOTeniment Reorganized, and William Stone Appointed Governor. 

Why was Slone appointed governor? 

What promise was required of the officers of the reorganized govern- 

37. The Great Seal of Maryland. 

Why was a new seal sent over? 

Describe the seal as fully as possible. 
28. The Toleration Act. 

Name the chief provisions of the " Act concerning Religion." 

Which were tolerant and which tnloleranl? 

How far was this Act the work of Cecllius Calvert? 

Tell about the cases of Lewis and Gerrard. 

What reasons are there for believing that Cecilius Calvert's policy of 
toleration was sincere? 
39. The Settlement of Providence (afterward Annapolis) by the Pniitans. 

Who were the Puritans ? Why did they leave Virginia? 

In what part of Maryland did the Puritans settle? 

What county was erected out of this territory P 

80. The Puritan Revolution ; the Puritan Idea of Toleration. 

Conduct of the Puritans. 

Parliament sends an expedition to reduce Virginia. 

Claiborne and Bennett among the commissioners. 

The Puritans in control ; William Fuller president of the coundL 

Describe the Puritan " toleration." 

81. The Battle of the Severn. 

Describe the battle of the Severn, and tell its cause and results. 

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. The PrDTince Restored to Lord Baltimore ; the Sisters Become Seconciled. 

The proviace apparently lost to Lord Baltimore. 

It is restored by order of Cromwell. Reasons for his action. 

Conditions of the surrender of the Puritans. 

Reasons for Maryland's triumph. 


1. Draw a sketch map of Maryland showing the principal rivers and islands, 
St Mary's, and Annapolis. Point out some similarities between the 
geography of Maryland and the geography of Virginia. What would 
you expect to result from these similarities? 

S. Who were Leah and Rachel? Do you think the names were suitable in 
speaking of Maryland and Virginia? If so, why? Were the grounds 
of Virginia's opposition to .Maryland justly taken? 

5. Was the organization of the Assembly of 1639 more convenient than that 

of the earlier ones ? Was it more likely to do good work ? [Give 
reasons for your answers.] Why are legislatures of two houses better 
than those of one ? Can you think of a special reason that applied 
in this case? How many houses do legislative bodies have in the 
United States at the present time? 
4. Discuss the motto on the Maryland seal. Is It suitable for a state? 

6. Write an account of religious toleratioh in Maryland. Write a character 

sketch of Cecilius Calvert, 


General — Browne's Maryland, pp. 27-35, 37-4'. 50-S4. 57-89- Browne'a 
Calviris, pp. 62-82 (includes a long letter from Governor Calvert to his brother, 
describing the capture of Kent Island), 94-97, 127-159. Fiske's Old Virginia and 
Her Neighbors, Vol, I., Chapter IX. (pp. 286-318). Mereness' Maryland as a 
Proprietary Province — see index for topics desired. 

Special — For an account of the Great Seal of Maryland, see pp. 68-69 °f Steiner'a 
Inslifuttens and Civil Government of Maryland; and Chapter X. of Thomas's 
Chronicles of Colonial Maryland. For an account of the Puritan Revolution and 
the battle of the Severn, see Riley's The Ancient City (Annapolis), Chapters VIII. 
and IX. For a very full account of the Toleration Act, see B. T. Johnson's The 
Foundation of Maryland, Fund Publication No. [8 of the Maryland Historical 

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33. The Maryland Constitution. — The early history of Mary- 
land, the period extending from the settlement of the province 
to the end of the Puritan Revolution in 1658, was marked by 
constant change and experiment in the constitution of the gov- 
ernment. The opposition to Lord Baltimore's charter, the 
enmity of Virginia, the civil war in England, and the rebellion 
of the Puritans, resulted, of course, in serious disturbance ; the 
colony was still very weak, and neither the authority of the gov- 
ernor nor the constitution of the Assembly was definitely fixed. 
But after the final victory of Maryland and her proprietary in 
1658, the government was firmly established in permanent form. 

The powers which the charter granted to the proprietary were 
very great, as has already been pointed out (see Sec. 8). He 
appointed the officers to carry on his government, and estab- 
lished courts. The governor was his representative, and the 
measure of that oflficer's power was iixed by the proprietary. 
The governor was advised and assisted by a council, also ap- 
pointed by the proprietary. The Assembly was composed of an 
upper and a lower house. The upper house was composed 
of the governor and his council, while the lower house con- 
sisted of the delegates of the people, representing counties 
instead of hundreds, as in the early days. There was a secre- 
tary who recorded the proceedings of the council, proclamations 
of the governor, and grants of land, and acted as clerk of the 
upper house of Assembly. There were county courts, and 

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there was a Provincial Court, composed of members of the 
council and presided over by the governor, which tried the more 
important cases, and to which appeals might be taken from the 
county courts. The officers were mostly paid in fees, — not in 
coin, but in tobacco. The powers granted to the proprietary 
seem to us dangerously large, yet they were seldom abused. 

34. The Admlnlstratioii <tf Governor Fendall, and His Re- 
bellion. — Before the final conclusion of peace with the Puritan 
rebels, Lord Baltimore appointed Josias Fendall governor of 
Maryland in place of Stone, perhaps because he had been very 
zealous in the proprietary's cause during the recent troubles. 
He also appointed his brother, Philip Calvert, secretary. The 
new governor at first seemed very active in the interest of the 
proprietary and the province. The Indians were threatening, 
and he at once organized the militia and put the province in a 
condition for defense. This brought the government into con- 
flict with the Quakers, a sect who refused to fight even in self- 
defense. They also held other religious beliefs which brought 
them into conflict with the civil government, such as their idea 
that it was wrong to take oaths of any kind. The Quakers 
were not, however, very severely treated, and seem not to have 
been interfered with any more than was necessary for the 
enforcement of the laws. 

Fendall, who had worked so hard to establish the authority of 
the proprietary, soon engaged in a treacherous plan to overthrow 
it again. We feel no surprise that he should secure the help of 
the Assembly of 1663, when we know that three-fourths of its 
members were Puritans, among them our old acquaintance, 
Captain William Fuller, His delegation consisted of seven 
members, instead of the four, to which his county was entitled. 
The lower house first declared itself the only lawful authority 
within the province, and refused to acknowledge the upper 

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house, whose members, they said, might sit with them if they 
chose. Fendall then surrendered his commission from Lord 
Baltimore and accepted another from the Assembly. The 
rebellion was completed by the passage of a law making it a 
crime for anybody to acknowledge Lord Baltimore's authority. 
When news of Fendall's rebellion came to Lord Baltimore he 
acted promptly and decisively. Charles II was on the throne 
of England, and from him letters were obtained commanding all 
persons to acknowledge the authority of the proprietary, while 
the governor of Virginia was ordered to assist in restoring order 
if necessary. Philip Calvert was appointed governor, and on 
the arrival of his commission the rebellion at once came to an 
end. Fendall was condemned to banishment, with loss of his 
estates, but he finally escaped with a fine and loss of the right 
ever to vote or hold office. He lived to plot again against the 
government, and years later to be banished from the province, 

35. Charles Calvert Appointed Governor ; Death of Cecilius, 
and Character of His Successor. — I^ate in the year 1661 the 
proprietary sent out his 
son and heir, Charles 
Calvert, as governor. 
During this period 
there were contests be- 
tween the two houses 
of Assembly, which 
will be mentioned later. 
rroprielary Coins q^ jhe ^hpig (he COl- 

From photographs of .he originals in jhe library of prospered greatly 

Ihe Maryland Historical Society j r r o j 

during his administra- 
tion. One source of much trouble was the production of too 
much tobacco, which occasioned great distress, as the tobacco 
(which, remember, was nearly the sole money of the province) 

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was naturally cheapened. The proprietary had some coins 
made and sent out to the province, but the plan seems not to 
have been very successful, as tobacco continued to be the chief 

On the thirtieth day of November, 1675, Cecilius Calvert, 
second Lord Baltimore and first proprietary of Maryland, died. 
He was preeminently the founder of Maryland, and a man of 
noble ideals, wise, just, patient, and unselfish, of whom Mary- 
land may justly be proud. The second proprietary possessed 
far less of greatness than his father. He seems to have been 
less tolerant, possessed of less tact and judgment, and perhaps 
not always so strictly just ; his intentions may have been good, 
but he did not possess his father's extraordinary force of char- 
acter, nor was he so liberal and public-spirited. 

36, Loss of Territory. — We must here interrupt the narrative 
of political events to notice serious losses of territory which 
Maryland suffered during the period now under consideration. 
In 1655, a settlement of the Swedes on the west bank of the 
Delaware river was seized by the Dutch, who had planted a 
colony on the present site of New York City. The captured 
territory was divided into two parts, called Altona and New 
Amstel. The land over which the Dutch and Swedes were 
quarrelling did not belong to either, if English claims were good, 
for it was within the bounds of the province granted by the 
king of England to the proprietary of Maryland. Colonel Ulie 
was sent out to notify the Dutch that they must either acknowl- 
edge the jurisdiction of Maryland or leave. The Dutch governor 
then sent out representatives ^ to confer with the governor of 
Maryland, but no settlement was reached, as neither side would 

1 One of these was Auguslin Hemnan, who laler received a lai^e grant of land from 
the ptoprietaiy in return (be a map of [he province. He and his fomily were naturalized 

b, Google 


give up anything and Maryland was not prepared to take forci- 
ble possession. In 1664 the Dutch colony was conquered by an 
English fleet, and the king granted it to his brother James, 
Duke of York. The duke thereupon seized the settlements to 

Herrman's Map of Maryland 
From a copy in the library of the Maryland Hislorical Society 

the west of the Delaware also, which were within the limits of 
Maryland, and to which he had no right whatever. 

Now there was in England at this time a Quaker named 
William Penn, to whom the king owed a very large sum of 

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motley, and this debt the king agreed to pay by giving to Penn 
a grant of land west of the Delaware river. The Maryland char- 
ter fixed the parallel of forty degrees as the northern boundary 
of the province, and it was agreed that the southern boundary 
of Pennsylvania, Penn's province, should be a line just north of 
a fort located on the fortieth parallel. When the charter was 
finally issued, no mention was made of this fort, but Penn's 
province was to be bounded " on the south by a circle drawn 
at twelve miles' distance from New 
Castle northward and westward unto 
the beginning of the fortieth degree 
of northern latitude, and then by a 
straight line westward," — geograph- 
ically impossible boundaries. The 
way was thus opened for long and 
bitter disputes between the proprie- 
taries, which began at once when 
Penn wrote to settlers in north- 
eastern Maryland, stating that they 
were in his province and should pay 
no more taxes to Maryland, and re- waiiam Penn 

ferring to his " sufficiency of power " After the painting owned by the 

in England to enforce his claims. Historical Society ol Penns,l™nb 

A new difficulty arose when Penn obtained from his close friend, 
James, Duke of York, and brother of the king, a grant includ- 
ing nearly the present state of Delaware, which lay within the 
charter boundaries of Maryland, and to which the duke had 
no title. In 1685 the duke became King James II, and Penn 
pressed his claims vigorously. In the same year, the matter 
having first been referred to the commissioners of plantations, 
it was ordered that the peninsula be equally divided by a meridian 
line from the latitude of Cape Henlopen to the fortieth degree 

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of latitude, the western part to belong to Lord Baltimore and 
the eastern to the king. The tatter at once granted his part 
again to Penti. 

37. Affairs in England. — In Section 22 we stopped with the 
accession of Charles II. The details of his reign do Dot concern 
us ; it lasted until his death, in 1685, when be was succeeded by 
the Duke of York as James II. James had not learned the les- 
son which his father's death 
should have taught him, and 
tried to destroy the liberties 
of his subjects. He was dis- 
liked by most of them also on 
account of his being a bigoted 
Catholic, and in 1688 he was 
driven from his throne. He 
was succeeded by his daugh- 
ter, Mary, and her husband, 
William, Prince of Orange. 

How this change caused 
the overthrow of the proprie- 
tary government of Maryland 
King William III we have now to learn. 

38. The Difficult Poeition of the Second Proprietary ; Feai and 
Hjittfid^ji Ohe Cath olic^. — Charles Calvert bec ame proprietary 
of Maryland at a time-geculiarly trying. He had numerous 
and industrious enemies bot^^ America and in England. The 
Protestant inhabitants iA^Marwand were greatly in the majority, 
yet it was charged that th'^were persecuted by the Catholics 
and in actual danger. A clergyman named Yeo complained 
that there was no ministry established in Maryland, to which 
Baltimore responded that all forms of worship were tolerated 
and each sect supported its own ministers. 

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To understand the events of this time ynii mv n T rf a lirts i i nd 
keep constantly in mind the cruel intol erance of the age and 
-the bitter hatre d t"hat existed between the Catholics and the 
Protestants^ Toleration of Catholics seems to have been 
regarded by the Protestants as very much " like keeping on 
terms of polite familiarity with the devil." Moreover, the 
Catholics hel d cert^fa political notions which were regarded as, 
highly dangerous, and this operated to create a fear and hatred 
of Catholic rllle. It was assumed that-lf Spain or France or 
some other Catholic country should engage in a war i^th Eng- 
land, that the English Catholics would take part with_ the ene- 
mies of their country, a nd it was a not unusual thin g, to bear 
that the rathnliix-^pFf- cHrririg- ii p the Indians to murder t he 
Protestants. tKa^ic ^n^^ »ftn.r ^hur^r ^s equally ab surd were 
entertained by many people, and as the country was not thickly 
settled an d communication wa s-.slQW..a&d difficult, it was not 
hard to alarm the peop l e in oo&patt wi th stories ot wftat was 
going on in another. H ence no matter how wise arid jusl Ufe 
rule of a Catholic lord, his Protestant siibjetiywei'd Uiftain to 
regard him with distrust, if not with dislike. 

39. Other Causes of Dtscontent^^lJut there were not wanting 
other causes "ot dissatistactio n, for the'pro piJtilary'ii rule wg's 
not always strictly just, and certainly it was often unwise. 
Aft5r-Tti e~5TTt?ar of"""Charles Cal vert as governor, the chief 
offices of the governm ent be^an t o be filled wi th the relatives 
or intimate friends of the Calvert fa mijv. Person s marrying 
in to the family in Maryland were nearly alw^s app ninl-ftd tn 
an office, and prese ntly the council seemed to be only a "pleas-, 
ant little family party.'' This naturally caused discontent 
amoig the people, and the further fact that most of these 
officers were Catholics tended greatly to jncrease the feeling 
of dissatisfaction^"" ~~~" "" 

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There were frequent conflicts between the two houses of 
Assembly. (The upper house, remember, was composed of 
the governor and council.) The Quakers asked to be excused 
from taking oaths when giving testimony ; the lower house 
granted the request, but the upper refused to agree. The 
sheriffs wpre appoir^ted bv the governorand_W5j:fi_pQ5aeiS®^ 
dT" dangerous powers, and there was a struggle between the 
housLS, in which tne delegates sought to place so me check on ^ 
these o ffit-prg Tt was charg5d agaiiiul itie "proprietary ~ that 

taxes were illegally levied, and there was much discontent wifh 
,-h-.pjT^g ...hich ha n^mia in f^Q constitutloH of the Assembly. 
Many other questions were subjects of dispute between the two 
houses. Sorn.e times the deleg ates were ^r""Si but nftpn th^y 
were right and firm in urging th eir claiqis . Yet in spite of all 
this riigpitfe- w^ riiiil Ihi^ A';'tpmhly votinpr the pm prieta^Y ": fl'^^ 
of on e hundred t lTousand pounds of tobacco, in token of their 
" gratitude, dutyTand art'ection," which he declined as being too 
heavy a tax for the people of the province. 

40. Murder of the King's Collectors. — The king's collectors 
of the custom house duties "were apt to behave themselves 
, . . like enemies of the human race." Much ill feeling 
existed between them and the Maryland government. They 
charged the proprietary with interfering with the performance 
of their duties and thus reducing the amount of their collec- 
tions ; as a result Lord Baltimore wa^eavily fined by the king. 

One of the collectors engaged ifi this affair was Christopher 
Rousby, who was unusually offensive in the perfownance of his 
duties, and was accused of being a great rogue as well In 1684 
a vessel belonging to the royal navy lay in the harbor of St. 
Mary's. George Talbot, a relative of the proprietary, went on 
board and became engaged in a quarrel with this Rousby, which 
ended by Talbot's drawing a dagger and plunging it ■■ into 



Rousby's heart. The captain of the ship at once had him seized 
and placed in irons, and refusing to allow him to be tried in 
Maryland, by a court of his relatives, carried him off to Virginia. 

Here he was imprisoned and in imminent danger of losing his 
life, or having to pay to the greedy governor his whole fortune as 
a bribe. But his brave and devoted wife, setting out from her 
home on the Susquehanna river one dark winter's night, sailed 
down the Chesapeake bay to his rescue in a small skiff, accom- 
panied only by two faithful followers. The courageous lady 
managed to free her husband and carry him off safe and sound, 
and after more difficulties he was finally pardoned by the king. 

The affair, however, was decidedly unfavorable to the cause of 
Lord Baltimore. Another collector was afterward killed in the 
province, and although this occurred in a private fight and the 
offenders were punished, the effect was certainly harmful. 

41. The Protestant Revolution (1689), by which Maryland 
Became a Royal Province. — When William and Mary came to 
the throne of England (see Sec. 37), Calvert sent word at once 
to have them proclaimed, or publicly named, as lawful sov- 
ereigns in Maryland. Unfortunately, Jheniessenger died 
on the way^^a nH bpfnre__a^^ec ond could arrive the palati- 
nate was overthrown. When the other English colonies 
proclaimed William and Mary, and the Maryland government 
remained silent, there was much discontent, and presently there 
was formed an " Associa tion in Arms for the Defen se of the 
Protestant Religion, and lor asserting the Righ t of King Williaig 
aftd-Uueen Mai-y'to the prnirinri- ^f TV|^ rvIand and all the E ng- 
lish Dominion s." At the head of this Association was John 
Coode, a man who had already been tried for plotting against 
the government of Lord Baltimore and who in the future was 
to rebel against the very government he was now working 
to establish. He was a thoroughly bad character, and accord- 

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ing to Professor Browne " seems to have renounced religion, 
morality, and even common decency-" Oyying^ tn thr fininrn 
already mentioned t here were doubtless many persons dissati s- 
fied with the proprietary gove rnmen t. Th ere were many wTuT^ 
desired Krescape irom Catholic control and many who f avfit^ 
the caijse ot wuliam and Mary and were o ff ended because the 
latter 'were no~ proclaiiHtf d In M5rvlan fl.~"Tn^ his way Candtt- 
ma na^ed to gather a l arge body of followers, and leading a 
f gfce against St. MarTyTre captTTred I r. — Hz theiTcietairiea all ~ 
^mps bound for' England until he had prepared a letter to the 
king, in which he claimed to have acted for the purpose of 
securing King William's right and the protection of the Protes- 
tants, and urged the king to take the government of Maryland 
into his own hands. 

The king decided to do as he was asked, and in March, 1691, 
he commissioned Sir Lionel Copley the first royal governor of 
Maryland, without waiting for a decision against the charter 
in the courts. Although the proprietary was stripped of his 
authority as a ruler, his rights as a landowner were respected, 
and he was allowed to retain his quit-rents and ownership of un- 
occupied land. Lord Baltimore thus became a mere landlord, 
instead of a nearly independent monarch; while Maryland lost 
her position of freedom, and became subject to the control of 
the English king. 

42. The Royal GDvetnmeot ; Religions Intolerance and an Es- 
tablished Church. — " The thongs of their shield^ their charter. 
chafed th^ arm<^ nf thq colonists, and they knew not from what 
blows an H wnTinHc it prntp ctfid themf unti l thev had thrown it 
away." H avinp- nnrgthrnwn it a way, howe^y ., tht^y wsrp nnt 
long in discovering from what it had protected them.. The first 
_act ^f th e Assembly called Jm.. nn vprnnr ( "nple y was to thank 
the king for saving them " from the arbitrary will and pleasure 

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of a tyrannical Popish government under which they had long 
groaned." They then proceeded to see that some other pe ople 
should h ave occasion to g fo^n" 

The Church of England, the Protestant Episcopal, was estab- 
lished by law, and~everyfiOdy Wis taxed for its support, whether 
he believed in its form of worship or not.- [Moreover, the rich 
and the poor paid the same amount, an unjust plan, which was 
so bitterly resented that even at the present day the Maryland 
Declaration of Rights declares that " the levying of taxes by 
the poll is grievous and oppressive" (Art, 15), Only a few of 
the people were Episcopalians, and the Puritans who had so 
earnestl y labored to rid "them selv es of the " tyrannical P opish 
government^^^raust have felt that they~Tiad rid themselves of 
altoge ther too muc h^_"!I'o ifnake m atters as bad as~possible, evMi 
unde r these circums tanc_esj_manv of the Episcopal clergymen 
were soon note d as very cor ru pt men, som e of whom were sham e- 
less gam blers^nd drunkards. This was becau se thev_wer e not 
responsible to the people, and is, of course, no reflectio n oh the 
Episcopal^churcTT! Savage laws were passed against. the_Cathit__ 
lies, ^o Catholi c priest wa^ permitted to^p er torm hTTtfervice. ; 
no Catbolic might take children to cduca te^under penalty of 
imprisoiiimeni^or" life ; afiT if s "^Pthnlii; y"H ^ p" com ing of 
age was not willi ng to take cert ain oaths (which no conscieh- 
tious Catholic could take), his property was to be takeli~ahJ 
given to his nearest Protestant relative. Protestant dissenters, 
or those who did not worship according to the Established 
Church, were, after a time, allowed to have separate houses of 
worship, and priests were allowed to conduct service in private 
houses ; but everybody had to pay the tax for the support: of 
the Episcopal church. 

43. Removal oi the Capital to Annapolia; King William's 
School. — Sir Lionel Copley died shortly after his arrival in 

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MaryJand, and was succeeded by Francis Nicholson. After the 
latter's arrival in 1694 he summoned the Assembly to meet 
at Anne Arundel Town, later called Annapolis, and here the 
capital was permanently fixed. The people of St. Mary's were 
grieved and indignant, and sent a humble petition to the 
Assembly to recon- 
sider the matter. 
They received only a 
coarse and scornful 
refusal. The situa- 
tion of Annapolis was 
much more conven- 
ient, but it was cer- 
tainly unnecessary to 
address insulting lan- 
guage to the unfor- 
tunate people of St. 
Mary's. The removal 
The Old Treasury Building, Annapolis ' ^f ^^e Capital proved 

Fromapho-ograph ^ death-bloW tO the 

first city of Maryland; it dwindled away until little more than 
the name was left. 

Governor Nicholson was noted for his zeal in the cause of 
education, and In the year 1696 he succeeded in founding King 
Wilham's School at Annapolis, himself contributing liberally for 
that purpose, 

44. The Province Restored to the Galverts. — During all this 
time Charles Calvert remained in England, secure in the enjoy- 
ment of his private rights, but deprived entirely of the rights as 

t This old building, probably daling from t 
meelmg place of the Genera] Assembly; it latv 
and is now (be office of the Slate Board of Educ 

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a ruler conferred by his charter. His son and heir, Benedict 
Leonard, perceiving that the misfortunes of his father had come 
upon him as a result of his fidelity to his religion, decided in his 
own case to sacrifice bis religion 
for his province, and publicly 
renounced the faith of his father 
and became a member of the 
Church of England. This must 
have been a bitter blow to his 
father, who died soon afterward. 
The plea that the government 
of Maryland was not safe in 
Catholic hands could now no 
longer be urged, and in 1715, 
with the death of Charles, the 
government of Maryland passed 
again into the hands of the 
Cal verts. Benedict Leonard 
lived barely six weeks after the 
death of his father, but his 
young son, Charles, was ac- 
knowledged, as fourth proprie- 
tary of Maryland, and the period *^''*''*' '^''"''' ^'"^^ ^"^ 
of royal government came to 
an end. 

45. State of iSociety t Manners, Customs, and Character of the 
, People. : — The life of a "people is determined to a very great 
degree by the geography of the country they inhabit, and this 
fact is remarkably well illustrated in the case of Maryland. The 
soil was very fertile and invited cultivation, the forests and 
streams abounded in game and fish, while the magnificent ex- 
panse of the Chesapeake bay, with its numberless inlets and 

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navigable rivers, made communication easy. Thus towns were 
not needed and none were built. St. Mary's and Annapolis 
were simply places of meeting for the courts and for the trans- 
action of public business, and they refused to grow, St, Mary's 
never contained more than fifty or sixty houses, and even these 
were somewhat scattered. Maryland was thus wholly agricul- 
turali Land was granted in large tracts, seldom less than fifty 

A Tobacco Fielii 
From a pholi^rapli 

acres and often embracing several thousands, and the owners, 
called planters, were engaged chiefly in the cultivation of tobacco. 
Most of the plantations bordered on the water, and each planter 
had his own "landing," or wharf, where vessels stopped to load 
his tobacco. In return for the tobacco the planters received 
wine, sugar, or salt fish; furniture or tools; or some other 
necessaries or luxuries which had to be imported, for there were 
no manufactures in the province. If the planter lived at a 
distance from the water's edge, he brought down his tobacco 

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over a " rolling road " ; that is, an axle was fitted to the tobacco 
hogshead, thus making it both cart and load, a horse or an ox 
attached, and the tobacco 
thus drawn over a rough 
road to the landing. 

Many of the houses 
were built of logs, but the 
richer planters built sub- 
stantial houses of brown or 
chocolate - colored bricks. 

These bricks were not Tobacco IIogshL-ad Ready fur R(,lling 

brought from England, From a model in the National Museum at 

as has been supposed by Washington 

many persons, but were made close at hand. On the Eastern 
Shore, near the old brick houses, we can still find, sometimes, 
shallow pits from which clay was taken, and the remains of 
an old kiln near by. Food was at hand in unhmited quanti- 
ties; the forests swarmed with deer, turkeys, and other wild 
creatures, and the rivers and creeks were frequented by millions 
of ducks and geese, while fish and oysters could be taken by 
the boat load. Large numbers of bogs were allowed to run 
wild, each bearing its owner's mark. Little wheat was grown, 
but there was plenty of corn from which was made an abun- 
dance of hominy, hoe-cake, and pone. The corn was still 
pounded, as a rule, in mortars of wood, mills being very rare. 

The larger planters had more servants and lived in greater 
style than their less fortunate neighbors, though it could hardly 
be said they had more money, for tobacco was practically the 
only currency. Gifts, fees, and quit-rents were paid to the pro- 
prietary in tobacco; the governor and other officers received 
a salary in tobacco ; fines were paid in tobacco ; and so were 
wages of all kinds and the salaries of clergymen. A man's 

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wealth was estimated in pounds of tobacco, and whether he 
bought food and clothing or paid a marriage fee, tobacco was the 
money used. Servants were of several kinds. Negro slaves 
had early been introduced into the colony, but up to this time 
not a great many were held. Many white persons were held to 
service in the following way. If a person wanted to come out 
to America but did not have the money necessary to pay his 
passage, he might agree with the captain of the vessel to give a 
term of service in- 
stead. On the ar- 
rival of the vessel 
the captain sold 
the services of 
these persons to 
one of the colonists 
for a certain time, 
— two, three, or 
four years. These 
persons were called 
" redemptioners," 
or indented ser- 

The Murray House, Anne Atundel County, Maryland vants Their treat- 

Built in 1 743 ■ 

^ ^ ,_ ment was usually 

From a photograph ' 

good, and at the 
end of their term of service they received clothing and pro- 
visions, with a farm of fifty acres. Of a less desirable character 
were the convicted criminals, many of whom were sent out to 
the colonies by the English government. Here they were sold 
to a master and compelled to work for a term of years, gen- 
erally seven or fourteen. Some of these were merely political 
offenders ; others were real criminals, against whose coming 
the colonies entered frequent but vain protests. 

lb. Google 


The people seem to have been of a shrewd and thoughtful 
character, though few were well educated and there were as yet 
no newspapers in the province. In disposition they were in- 
clined to be mild rather than hard or cruel. Few crimes of a 
serious nature are recorded. The 
laws of England at this time were 
very severe ; for instance, if a mother 
stole food for her starving children, 
and its value exceeded a shilling, 
she incurred the penalty of death. 
The pillory and stocks were in con- 
stant use. These savage English 
laws were generally in force, but the 
sentences under them were rarely 
executed. Our milder people usually 
modified the more severe ones. It 
was regarded as a serious crime for 
a servant to run away from his mas- 
ter, or to " steal himself," the pen- 
alty being death or an extra period 
of servitude. We read of a Susan '^ Pillory 

Frizell, who ran away from her ^^d%nc™"fm''o"''"'sorr^s'' 
master and mistress and so got her- 
self setitenced to an extra term of service; yet when she com- 
plained bitterly of her hard treatment, the judges pitied her and 
declared that she should be set free. In justice, however, her 
master must be paid five hundred pounds of tobacco. Several 
kind gentlemen who were present then subscribed six hundred 
pounds of tobacco to prevent poor Susan from serving another 
master for this amount, so that she found herself " a free 
woman, with one hundred pounds of tobacco, so to speak, in 
her pocket" 

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The people of Maryland were noted also for their boundless 
hospitality. Guests were always gladly received and royally enter- 
tained. Travel was difficult, for the roads were wretchedly poor 
and there were few carriages, travelers being compelled to proceed 
on horseback over mere paths. The tide-water planters traveled 
mainly by water, using small sailboats and oared barges. 

a Runaway Servant 
From The Maryland Gaaett^ of July 19, 1745 


33. The HaiTlaad CODstitution. 

The government of Maryland to 1658 characterized by cliange and 
experiment ; cause of these characteristics. 

The government permanently organized in, 165S. 

State the duties of t)ie proprietary, the powers and duties of the gov- 
ernor, and those of the secretary. 

Describe the organization of the Assembly ; the judicial system. 

34. The AdminiatratiOD of Gorernoi Feodall, oaA His Sebellion. 

Josias Fendall succeeds Stone as governor. 

Difficulty with the Quakers, and its cause. 

Fend all's rebellion. 

Philip Calvert appointed governor; end of the rebellion. 

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S5. Cluules Calvert Appointed Govenior; Death of Cecilina, and Character of 
Hia Successor. 

Overproduction of tobacco ; the proprietary &ils in his effort to relieve 
the situation by circulating coin. 

Death ofCecilius Calvert; his high character. 

Character of Charles Calvert, second proprietary. 
36. loaa of Territory. 

The Swedes and Dutch in Maryland. 

The Dutch colonies seized by the Duke of York. 

William Pena and his .schemes. 

He succeeds in depriving Maryland of much valuable territory. 
ST. Affairs in England. 

James II is deposed, and succeeded by William and Mary. 
8B. The Ditacolt Position of the Second Proprietary ; Fear and Hatred of the 

What made Lord Baltimore's position difficult? 

Absurd charges against the Catholics believed by the people. 

His religion the most serious difficulty of Lord Baltimore. 

39. Other Causes of IMscontent, 

Members of the Calvert 6imily hold the chief offices. 
Controversies between the two houses of Assembly. 

40. Murder of the King's Collectors. 

Ill feeling between the collectors and Maryland government. 

The murder of Collector Rousby. 

Effects of the murder of the king's collectors. 

41. The Protestant Revolution (1689), by which Maryland Became a Royal 

Why were not William and Mary proclaimed? 
Formation of the Protestant Association. 

Who was president of the Association, and what was his character? 
With what success did the rebellion meet? 
Mention the probable causes of the Protestant Revolution. 
What was the effect of the revolution on the position of Lord Balli- 

48. The Royal Government ; Religious Intolerance and the Established Church. 

The Protestant Episcopal Church established, and everybody taxed for 
its support. Persecution of the Catholics. 
48. Removal of the Capital to Annapolis ; King William's School. 
Francis Nicholson appointed governor. 
He removes the capital to Annapolis and founds there King William's 

The fate of St. Mary's. 

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iC The ProriQce Rertored to the CaWerts. 

How was Maryland restored to the Calverta? 

Death of Charles Calvert and succession of Benedict Leonard. 

Succession of Charles, fifth baron and fourth proprietary. 
4B. State of Society ; Haoners, Ciutoms, and Character oi the People. 

Show how the physical geography of Maryland atfected the life of the 

What was the chief occupation of the people? 
How did the planters sell their tobacco and obtain their supplies ? 
Describe the houses of this period. 
Tell what you can about the food of the people. 
Describe the money in use. 
Tell about the dilFerent kinds of servants held. 

Generally speaking, what was the character of the Maryland people at 
the end of the seventeenth century? 


1. How many of the fiinctlons of government were united in the governor's 

council? Show how the powers of the proprietary were dangerously 
large. Name the particulars in which you think the form of government 
in Maryland in 1658 was good, and those in which it was bad, and 
give reasons for your opinion. 

2. What fact is shown by the prompt collapse of Fendall's rebellion? 

8. Find the meaning of" nepotism." Is it a fault? Was Charles Calvert's ■ 
policy in this respect right? Was it wise? Are Quakers excused 
from taking oaths at the present time? What did the contests betwten 
the houses of Assembly show about the spirit of the people? 

4. Kxplain as fiilly as you can the causes of the Protestant Revolution. 
What just cases of complaint were there against the proprietary gov- 
ernment? What charges were groundless? 
Compare the condition of the people under the royal government witlr 
their condition under the proprietary; was the change to their ad- 
vantage? , 


Browne'i Afary/and, pp. i)0-3Ol. Browne's Culverts, pp. 160-175. Fiske's <W 
Virginia and Htr AVi^ii^j, Vol. II., pp. 139-169. Sparks' Causes t>f the Maryland 
RetieliUion of ibSg (Johns Hopkins University Studies in History and Politics, 
Fourteenth Series, xi-xii). Mereness' Maryland as a Proprietary Prmiinee — see 
index for topics desired. 

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46, Effects of the Royal GoTemment. — The royal govern- 
ment had now come to an end, and the control was again in the 
hands of Calvert, but you are not to suppose that the proprie- 
tary government after its restoration was like the rule of Cecil- 
ius or Charles. In name it was identical, and constitutionally 
it was the same, but conditions had changed vastly, and in 
reality the character of the proprietary government had changed 
with them. Religious toleration was not restored, and the people 
were still taxed for the support of the Episcopal church. The 
new proprietary was a Protestant, dependent upon the favor of 
a Protestant king, and there was thus no great religious barrier 
between him and the majority of his people. The colonists were 
no longer divided into classes, friendly and unfriendly to the 
proprietary, and the change was in many respects merely a 
change in name. TJie revolution of 1689 had given a new char- 
acter to Maryland history, and it was a change that had come 
-to stay for the life of the province. 

One of the last acts of the royal government was also one of 
the best. The laws of the province, many of which had been 
enacted for limited times, while alterations and amendments had 
frequently taken place, had fallen into great confusion. By 
the Assembly of 1715 a complete revision was made, and a copy 
of the body of laws thus made sent to each county. So well was 
this work done that it laid the foundations of legislation that 
has lasted almost to the present day. 

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47. Demanding the Privileges of Engtishmen ; the Founding 
of Baltimore ; Coming of the Germans- — The rule of the fourth 
proprietary was, on the whole, mild and just. The royai gov- 
ernor, Hart, was continued in office for a time. He was suc- 
ceeded in turn by Charles Calvert, probably a relative of the 
proprietary, and Benedict Leonard Calvert, brother of the pro- 
prietary. The latter was succeeded, on his resignation in 1731, 
by Samuel Ogle, Lord Baltimore was present and governed 
personally from December, 1732, to June, 1733. The period 
was one of peace and prosperity, but was marked by struggles 
between the two houses of Assembly, the lower house jeal- 
ously guarding the rights and liberties of the people. Highly 
significant was the Qelermined stand made by the people and 
their representatives in Maryland for all the rights and privileges 
of the people of England, in particular their contention that 
Maryland was entitled to the benefit of the common and statute 
law of England. This was undoubtedly one of the far-oflE begin- 
nings of the American Revolution. 

The most important event of this period was the founding of 
the city of Baltimore. The slow growth of towns in the early 
times has already been mentioned. The Assembly found it use- 
less to lay off towns and invest them with privileges; people 
would not buy the lots and build houses, and so there were no 
towns. For ninety years the only real towns of the province 
were St. Mary's and Annapolis. Joppa, on the Gunpowder river, 
flourished for fifty years, and then dwindled away to " a soli- 
tary house and a grass-grown graveyard." Baltimore's success 
was Joppa's ruin. Three towns named Baltimore are mentioned 
before the founding of Baltimore on the Patapsco. There was 
a Baltimore on the Bush river, Baltimore county, in 1683 ; an- 
other in Dorchester county, in 1693 ; and a third in St, Mary's 

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« I 

b, Google 


The. planters about the Patapsco being in need of a port, the 
Assembly passed an act in 1729 for the purchase of the neces- 
sary land, which was bought of Daniel and Charles Carroll. 
Settlers immediately took up the land bordering on the water. 
The city is possessed of an excellent harbor, and although its 
growth for several years was very slow, it has now come to be a 
leading seaport and one of the largest cities in the Union, 

View of Hagerstown 
Fratn a pholograph 

Important in the upbuilding of Baltimore were the Germans, 
who settled in Maryland in the first half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The majority of the Germans "drifted down" from 
Pennsylvania, but many came directly from Germany. In 1732 
Lord Baltimore offered very liberal terms to settlers in western 
Maryland, and many Germans, with some others, took advan- 
tage of the offer. Iii_L2i5 ^bout one hundred families came over 
from Germany, under the leadership of Thomas Schley, progen- 
itor of the prominent Maryland and Georgia families of that name. 
The Germans continued to come, both from Germany and Penn- 

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1 1 



b, Google 


sylvania, many settling in Baltimore city and county, but more 
in the western counties. In 1 745 the Germans founded Freder- 
ick, named either for Frederick Calvert or for the heir-appar- 
ent to the English throne. In 1762 Hagerstown was laid out 
by Jonathan Hager, the town being called Elizabeth at first, 
in honor of Hager's wife. These Germans were thrifty and in- 
dustrious people ; their mechanics were skillful, as a rule, and 
their merchants or traders enterprising and successful. The 
first care of the Germans when they settled a new community 
was a schoolhouse, and their next, a church. They have con- 
tribute4 a very valuable element to the population of Maryland. 

Scotch-Irish immigrants also contributed to the population of 
western Maryland. 

48. Hason and Dixon's Line ; Further Loss of Territory. — 
In settlement of the territorial dispute between William Penn and 
Lord Baltimore (see Sec. 36), the decision of 1685 established 
for a time the eastern boundary, but no agreement on a north- 
ern line had been reached. The dispute dragged' on long after 
the original disputants had died. Finally, in 1732, Charles, fifth 
Lord Baltimore, entered into a written agreement with the sons 
of William Penn, by which he yielded completely the claims of 
Maryland, and surrendered two and a half million acres of valu- 
able territory to which his charter clearly entitled him. Attached 
to the compact was an incorrect map, on which no parallels or 
meridians were marked, and on which Cape Henlopen was shown 
twenty-three miles south of its true location. This remarkable 
action of Lord Baltimore has never been explained. 

Before long, however, Lord Baltimore seems to have discov- 
ered his costly mistake, and to have made some effort to save 
himself. The unsettled state of affairs naturally led to a border 
warfare between the settlers in the disputed territory. In the 
course of these affrays men were roughly treated and impris- 

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Five Mile Stune, Masun and Dixon's Line 
From photographs of the original in possession of ihe Maryland Historical Society 

oned, houses were burned, and some lives were lost. One bold 
Mary lander who took a leading part in the contests was Thomas 
Cresap. The Pennsylvanlans hated him accordingly, and a 
party of them burned his house and carried him ofE to jail in 
Philadelphia, where he taunted them by exclaiming, "Why, 
this is the finest city in the province of Maryland ! " The dispute 
after a while became so dangerous that it was necessary for the 
king to issue an order for the parties to keep the peace until a 
decision was reached in the English courts. 

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Finally, in 1750, a decision was rendered by the Lord Chan- 
cellor of England, compelling Charles Calvert to carry out the 
agreement of 1732. On the east the line ran from a point 
midway between Cape Henlopen and Chesapeake bay until it 
touched a circle of twelve miles' radius drawn from New Castle 
as a centre, then north to a point fifteen miles south of Phila- 
delphia, and from thence due west. The incorrect location of 
Cape Henlopen on the map attached to the agreement carried 
the Delaware line twenty-three miles too far south. The bound- 
ary line between Maryland and Pennsylvania was finally estab- 
lished in 1763— 1767 by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon, two 
noted English mathematicians. Milestones were set up, as the 
surveyors proceeded, and on every fifth stone were placed the 
■ arms of Lord Baltimore and those of the Penns, on the proper 
sides. This line was then called Mason and Dixon's Line, and 
became celebrated as the boundary line between the Northern 
and Southern sections of the United States. 

It will be remembered that according to the charter of Mary- 
land the boundary line ran along the south bank of the Potomac 
river to its source, and thence northward to the fortieth parallel. 
In the early days it was not certain whether the source was at 
the head of the north or of the south branch, but the discovery 
that the south branch was the true source did not settle the 
matter. Long and tedious negotiations followed until, in 1852, 
the Maryland Assembly, willing, for some reason, to sacrifice half 
a million acres of land undoubtedly owned by the state, gave up 
Maryland's claim. The dispute was later revived with West Vir- 
ginia, and finally settled in 19 10, when the United States Supreme 
Court decided that Maryland, by her laxity, had forfeited her claim. 

49. Frederick Calvert becomes Fifth Proprietary. — In 1751 
Charles Calvert, fifth Lord Baltimore and fourth proprietary of 
Maryland, died, and was succeeded by his son Frederick, the 

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sixth and last of the Barons of Baltimore. Frederick was a 
man of exceedingly bad character. He was seltish and guilty 
of some of the worst vices, and seemed to care nothing for his 
province except to get all the money out of it that he possibly 
could for the enjoyment of his selfish and immoral pleasures. 
He never visited Maryland. 

50. Wars with the French ; the English Gain Control of North 
America. — The English were not in undisturbed possession of 
North America. The colonies of the English extended in a 
long line down the Atlantic coast, but the vast region along the 
St. Lawrence river, the Great Lakes, and the Mississippi rivet 
had been to some extent explored and settled by the French, 
This territory the French took vigorous measures to retain. 
But the English laid claim to the whole of the continent, by 
virtue of the explorations of Cabot, who sailed along the Atlantic 
coast in 1497, and again in 149S. The natural result of the 
jealousy thus aroused was a great struggle between the English 
and the French, to determine which should be the masters of 
this continent. The first of the four wars that followed was 
King William's War, which broke out when William became 
king of England, and took his name. Then followed in succes- 
sion Queen Anne's War and King George's War, named from 
the reigning sovereigns of England. In these struggles Mary- 
land was not much involved, beyond requests for money to help 
to carry on the war in other parts of the continent. But we 
now come to the final struggle for the possession of the great 
prize, which lasted from 1754 to 1763.' 

King George's War ended in 1748, but the peace was recog- 
nized as a mere truce, preceding the decisive conflict. The 
French erected forts and prepared themselves energetically. 
The English, especially in Maryland and Virginia, cast longing 

' War was not fonnaUy declared until 1756, after two years of fighting. 

b, Google 


eyes across the Alleghany mountains, and presently the Ohio 

Company was formed for the purpose of colonizing the country 

along the Ohio river. At the point where the Allegheny and 

Monongahela unite to form the Ohio, called the Gateway of the 

West, the English began the construction of a fort, but a 

stronger party of French drove them off and erected a fort for 

themselves, which they called Fort Duquesne. On the way to 

strengthen the English at this very time was a party of Virginia 

troops under George 

Washington, then only 

twenty-one years of 

age, but destined, in 

coming years, to play 

^|) the most important part 

^^ in American history. 

When matters began 
to grow serious, a force 
was sent over from 
England under General 
Braddock, an able and 
Fori Ducjaesne experienced officer. 

From a drawing by Charles Copeland, based on a Both the English and 

pholograph and conlemporary sources .u t? u j 

the French made use 
of Indian allies, particularly the French. The war, indeed, is 
known as the French and Indian War. The Indians did not 
fight in open field like Europeans, but delighted to surprise an 
enemy from ambush and shoot down men while they themselves 
were concealed by trees and rocks. But the most terrible feature 
of Indian wars was the murder of families taking no direct part in 
the contest. Men, women, and children were not only murdered, 
but tortured with the most horrible cruelty. Now Braddock, in 
spite of his skill, knew nothing of Indian methods of fighting, and 

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thought that while the savages beat the colonial troops, they could 

be no match for his own disciplined soldiers. He accordingly 

marched through western Maryland, directly on Fort Duquesne, 

rejecting with scorn the advice of Washington and others as to the 

best methods of wilderness fighting. When a short 

e fort a murderous fire was suddenly 

roops by a hidden foe — he had been 

French and Indians. Such warfare 

ting's troops, and after a brave resist- 

led together like sheep, to be shot 

Braddock was mortally wounded, and 

the remnant of the army was 

brought off through the skill of 


The frontier was now left ex- 
posed, and the savages swept down 
upon scattered homes, burning 
houses, murdering the inhabitants, 
and torturing and mangling horri- 
bly, without regard to age or sex. The panic extendeti even to 
the Chesapeake bay. Horatio Sharpe, an able and energetic 
man, had been governor of Maryland since 1753. When the 
news of Braddock's defeat reached Annapolis, Sharpe hurried 
at once to Fort Cumberland (on the present site of Cumberland 
city), where he found all in confusion and alarm. The governor 
did his best to encourage the frightened people ; he causetl a 
line of stockades, or small forts, to be built, and later a strong 
stone fort called Fort Frederick, near the site of the present 
town of Hancock. Fort Cumberland was too far west to afford 
much protection. Order was gradually restored, while the war 
was fought out in the north, but Indian outrages were long 
continued west of the Blue Ridge. The great strongholds of 

Digilized by Google 


the French were captured, and the war ended in complete vic- 
tory for the English. Peace was concluded in 1763 by the 
treaty of Paris, and France gave up to England all territory 
east of the Mississippi river. 

Old Fort Frederick 
From a photograph 

51. Governor Sharpe and the Assemblies. — During the French 
and Indian War there were many sharp disputes between the 
governor and the lower house of Assembly. The lower 
house resisted the demands of the king and insisted that the 
proprietary should pay a share of the expenses for the defense 
of the province by paying taxes on his estates. This was of 
course resisted' by the governor, who was bound to protect the 
interests of the proprietary, but after a severe struggle he was 
obliged to yield. This shows the independent spirit of the 
people, though it must be acknowledged that the delegates 
seemed to grudge the expenditure of money in any cause, and 
so stubborn a stand as they took for this principle can scarcely 
be justified when we remember that it was at the cost of the 
lives of the people. At one time, indeed, the angry settlers of 
Frederick county threatened to march on Annapolis and compel 
the Assembly to vote supplies. 

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52. Relations with England; Growth of the Spirit of Free- 
dom. — At the close of the long struggle with France, England 
began to adopt a new policy toward her American colonies. 
She no longer felt the same need for the hearty military sup- 
port of the colonies, and it happened that about the same time 
a new king, George III, came to the throne. He was a man of 
singular narrowness and obstinacy, very much bent on vigorous 
personal rule. For a long time hard laws had been in existence 
by which the commerce of the American colonies had been seri- 
ously restricted and manufactures repressed. The enforcement 
of these laws, however, had been very lax. Now it was deter- 
minetl by the English government to enforce these navigation 
laws, as they were called, and to govern the colonies with a much 
stronger hand. Another factor in the case was the enormous 
debts that had been incurred by the English government as a 
result of the French wars, and the consequent suggestion that 
the colonists, having received a large share of the advantages 'A f 
the conflict, ought to be so taxed as to require them to pay a 
larger proportion than they had already voluntarily furnished. 

The colonists, however, were a very .sturdy and liberty-loving 
people, unwilling to give up what they considered their rights. 
It was now claimed that when Parliament imposed taxes on the 
American colonies it violated a right of Englishmen that had been 
acknowledged for centuries, — that they 'could be ta.xed only by 
their own representatives. The colonists had long been accus- 
tomed to a large share in the management of their own affairs, 
and to taxation only by their own colonial Assemblies, in which 
at least one house was composed of representatives of the people, 
white the colonies sent no representatives to Parliament, The 
position of Maryland was especially strong, since her charter ex- 
empted her from taxation by the English king, which was construed 
to mean the English government. 

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53. The Stamp Act ; Maryland Asserts Her Rights. — Hut 

the English government was determined to raise a tax in America, 
and accordingly, in March, 1765, Pariiament passed the famous 
Stamp Act, This required that stamped paper, sold by the British 
government, should be bought and used for all legal and business 
documents and newspapers. Everywhere throughout the colonies 
the highest excitement and indignation prevailed, and it was deter- 
mined never to obey this law. When Hood, the stamp distrib- 
utor for Maryland, arrived, considerably more attention was 
bestowed upon him than he found agreeable. 
In several places his effigy was whipped, 
hanged, and burned ; his house in Annap- 
olis was torn down, and he himself obliged 
to flee from the province. When the British 
ship Hawke arrived, bearing the stamped 
paper, the governor did not dare to have it 

When the Assembly met, resolutions were 
A British Stamp drawn up and unanimously passed, in which 
From an original stamp '^^^ rights of the people of Maryland were 
emphatically asserted. It was declared 
that the first settlers of Maryland had brought with them from 
England and transmitted to their children all the rights and 
privileges possessed by'the people of Great Britain, and it was, 
moreover, pointed out that these rights were expressly preserved 
to them in their charter, together with exemption from taxation 
by the king. They further declared that the right to impose 
taxes upon the people of Maryland rested with the Assembly, 
and that any tax imposed by any other authority was a violation of 
their rights. 

When the time came for the Stamp Act to go into operation, 
the court of Frederick coun^ boldly declared that its business 

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should be carried on without stamped paper,' and other courts fol- 
lowed the example. Throughout the colonies the same fierce 
resentment was shown against the Stamp Act. Associations 
called the Sons of Liberty were formed, and the people generally 
refused to use the stamps. Under these circumstances ParUa- 
metit wisely repealed the Stamp Act, and for the moment the 
colonists went wild with joy. 

54. parliament again Taxes America. — The joy was short- 
Uved. The very next year a bill was passed by Parliament 
laying a tax on tea, glass, paper, and other articles when 
brought into American ports. Custom-house officers were 
empowered to enter private houses at their pleasure in search of 
smuggled goods. This act aroused a fiercer opposition, if pos- 
sible, than had the Stamp Act. Associations were formed whose 
members bound themselves not to import the taxed goods. 
The associators were careful to allow no forbidden goods to 
land, and in at least one case sent an English vessel away from 
Annapolis with all her cargo. 

The Assembly of Massachusetts sent a circular letter to the 
Assemblies of the other colonies, inviting them to take measures 
for resisting England's violation of their liberties. Governor 
Sharpe asked the Maryland Assembly to treat the letter "with 
the contempt that it deserves." The delegates replied sharply, 
declaring that they would not be frightened by a few " sounding 
expressions " from doing what was right. They further told 
the governor that it was not their present business to tell him 
what they intended to do, and added, " Whenever we apprehend 
the rights of the people to be affected, we shall not fail boldly 
to assert, and steadily to endeavor to maintain them," The 
Assembly then prepared a bold and manly, but respectful 

3veniber 23 is now celebrated (as a bank half holi- 

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address to the king, and returned a favorable answer to the 
letter of the Massachusetts Assembly. 

55. Governor Eden ; Death of Frederick Calvert. — Governor 
Sharpe was succeeded in June, 1769, by Sir Robert Eden, the 
last proprietary governor of Maryland. The new governor, 
who was a brother-in-law of the proprietary, was a man of 
worthy character and pleasing manners, and he succeeded in 
winning the respect and to some extent the affection of the 
people of Maryland. But the spirit of the people was thoroughly 
aroused, and the governor was too prudent to offer much 

Frederick Calvert, the last Lord Baltimore, died in 1771. By 
the will of his father the province fell to his sister, Louisa 
Browning ; but Frederick left a will himself, by which he' made 
an illegitimate son, Henry Harford, proprietary of Maryland. 
The latter is usually recognized as the sixth proprietary, 
but there was a suit in the English Court of Chancery, 
and before a decision was reached, Maryland had become an 
independent state. 1 

56. The Debate between Charles Carroll of Carrollton and 
Daniel Diilany. — The new governor was scarcely seated before 
he met with opposition. There was a heated dispute between 
the houses of Assembly in 1770, as a result of which the 
session ended without the renewal of the acts fixing the fees of 
officers of the government and imposing the tax for the support 
of the Episcopal church, these acts having expired in that year. 
The governor thereupon revived the old acts by proclamation, 
which the people regarded as an invasion of their rights, and 
resisted accordingly. 

A prolonged debate took place through the columns of the 
Maryland Gazette, published at Annapolis. An article was 
written by Daniel Dulany, the secretary of the province and 

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a lawyer of great ability. The article was written in the form 
of a dialogue between two citizens; the First Citizen argued 
against the action of the governor, while the Second Citizen 
defended it, and was made to win the argument. But a cham- 
pion of the people now appeared in the person of Charles 
Carroll of CarrolUon, who proved a powerful antagonist. He 
was descended from Catholic gentlemen who, in spite of their 
religion, had long held offices under the proprietary. He had 
been educated in Paris and had studied law for seven years in 
England. Mr. Carroll published a series of articles as the First 
Citizen, whose arguments had not been properly stated in the 
first article, and in the popular opinion He won a complete 

57. The Burning of the Paggy Stewart, October 19, 1774. — In 
1770 Parliament took off the tax from all the articles except 
tea, which was left in order to assert its right to impose a tax. 
But the Americans were contending for a principle, too, and 
although it was ingeniously arranged that the tea on which a duty 
had been paid should cost less than smuggled tea, yet the people 
stood firm. When tea was sent to Boston, the people, after 
other means had failed, sent on board a party disguised as 
, Indians, who threw the cargo into the sea. 

On the 14th of October, 1774, the Peggy Stewart arrived at 
Annapolis with about two thousand pounds of tea. The owner of 
' the vessel, Anthony Stewart, paid the duty on the tea in order 
to land the rest of the cargo. Stewart was a member of the 
non- importation society, and his act aroused the most violent 
indignation. On the 19th of October a large meeting 
was held at Annapohs to decide what should be done in the 
case. Stewart was thoroughly frightened, and signed an abject 
apology, further agreeing to land , and burn the tea. This 
satisfied the majority, but to many persons it did not seem suf- . 

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Hurning of Ihe Ptggy tilavari 
a painling by Frank B. Mayer, in the Stale Hoi! 

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ficient punishment, and the latter threatened that the vessel 
would be burned also. This minority assumed so threatening 
an attitude that Stewart, on the advice of Charles Carroll, ran 
the vessel aground, and with his own hands set her on fire. 
The crowd looked on while she burned to the water's edge. 
AH this was done openly and publicly in broad daylight, by 
men who were not ashamed of what they did, and who had no 
fear of the consequences. The leader of the minority party 
that forced this extreme measure 
was Dr. Charles Alexander War- 
field, of upper Anne Arundel, now 
Howard county. 

58. The Convention and the Coun- 
cil of Safety. — The proprietary 
government gradually lost power, 
and ceased to rule except in name, 
as the people assumed control of 
their own affairs. A temporary gov- 
ernment was formed. The supreme 
authority was in the hands of a 
Convention, composed of delegates 

from all the counties; the exeCU- Charles Alexander Warfield 

tive power was vested in a Council 
of Safety; and county affairs were 
controlled by Committees of Observation. In July, 1775, the 
Convention formally assumed the control of affairs. A declara- 
tion was drawn up in which the wrongs committed by the British 
government were recited, and it was declared that the choice 
now lay between "base submission or manly opposition to un- 
controllable tyranny," and that the framers were " firmly per- 
suaded that it is necessary and justifiable to repel force by 

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The authority of the Convention was supreme, yet its exercise 
was always characterized by moderation and a respect for tKe 
forms of law. Its management of affairs was just and admirable, ■'■ 
and we have a right to be proud of the dignified self-control - 
which the people showed at this trying lime, even in the very 
act of resorting to forceful extremes in the defense of their rights. , 

59. War with England Begins; Ide^s of Independence. — In 
June, 1776, Governor Eden was required to leave the province, 
and even the semblance of the proprietary government was at 
an end. 

When it became necessary for the colonies to act in concert 
for the defense of their liberties, delegates were sent to represent 
all the colonies in a Congress which met at Philadelphia, 
Addresses were sent to the king, only to be treated with scorn. 
Soldiers were sent over to keep the Americans in awe, and hos- 
tilities soon broke out. The British general sent a body of troops 
to seize some miUtary stores that had been collected at Concord, 
Massachusetts, and there occurred as a result the skirmish known 
as the battle of Lexington, —the first battle of the Revolutionary 
War. The battle of Bunker Hill soon followed. 

Up to this time few persons entertained the idea of a separa- 
tion from England. They were determined to fight, if neces- 
sary, for their rights, and to win them ; but for " old England " 
they still felt a warm affection, as the land of those very liberties 
for which they were contending. But as time went on, the col- 
onists came to see very plainly that there was no hope of winning 
the rights they claimed, and that if the colonies were not willing 
to submit to England, the only alternative for them was inde- 
pendence. When this became apparent, there was no longer 
any hesitation. It was moved in the Congress that "these United 
Colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent 
states," and on July 4, 1776, Congress adopted the immortal 

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Declaration aX the AssociatJin of Freemen 
From a prini in the Slate House at Annapolis 

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Declaration of Independence, A new nation was born into the 
sisterhood of the world, destined to become the greatest of them 

60. Maryland Becomes a Sovereign State. — After the whole 
people of Maryland had expressed their desire for indepen- 
dence, the delegates from Maryland in the Congress were in- 
structed to unite in the Declaration of Independence which the 
other colonies were now ready to make in Congress assembled. 
The signers for Maryland were Samuel Chase, William Paca, 
Thomas Stone, and Charles Carroll of Carrollton. But Maryland 
desired to speak independently for herself, and on the 6th of 
July declared her own independence through the Convention, 
In their Declaration the people pointed out the many oppressive 
acts of Great Britain ; they declared that a war had been unjustly 
commenced, and then prosecuted with cruelty and outrageous 
violence, and that the king had even hired foreign soldiers to 
fight them, while rejecting their humble and dutiful petitions 
with scorn. They further declared : " Compelled by dire neces- 
sity, either to surrender our properties, liberties, and lives into 
the hands of a British king and Parliament, or to use such means 
as will most probably secure to us and our posterity those invalu- 
able blessings, — 

" We, the Delegates of Maryland, in Convention assembled, do 
declare that the King of Great Britain has violated his compact 
with this people, and they owe no allegiance to him." 

Thus by the united action of the colonies, and by the voice of 
her own citizens in convention assembled, did Maryland cast off 
her allegiance to Great Britain. The province became a thing 
of the past — Maryland a free and sovereign state. 

61. Formation of the State Government. — The proprietary 
government having been abolished, it was of course necessary 
to form another in its place. A convention for this purpose 

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Maryland Signers of the Declaration of Independence 
From paintings in the Stale House a( Annapolis 

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met in August, 1776. A Bill of Rights and a Constitution were 
prepared : the former set forth in a general way the rights of 
the people, such as freedom of worship, the right to make their 
own laws, and to alter the form of their own government; the 
latter replaced the charter, fixing the form of government. There 

The State House, Annapolis 
From a photograph, showing reccn! improvements 

were three departments of the government : the legislative, or 
law-making; the executive, or law-enforcing ; and the judicial, 
which explains the laws and by applying them directly to men's 
actions dispenses justice. The legislative power was vested in 
a General Assembly, composed of two branches, the senate and 
the house of delegates. The chief executive power was vested 

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in a governor. The judicial power was vested in the judges of 
the various courts. The delegates were elected by the people, 
while the senators were elected by a college of electors who were 
chosen by the people, nine senators to be chosen from the 
Western Shore and six from the 
Eastern. The governor was elected 
annually by the legislature, and had 
no veto power ; he had an executive 
council to assist him, and he could 
not serve for more than three years 
at a time. The judges were ap- 
pointed by the governor with the 
advice of the senate. A man must 
be worth a certain amount in order 
to vote, in order to be a delegate he 
must be worth more, in order to be 
a senator he must be worth still Thomas Juhnson 

more, while to be governor he must From a paiming in Ihe Staie House 

be yet richer. These restrictions * nnapois 

have long since been removed. Under this Constitution Thomas 
Johnson was elected first governor of Maryland. He was pro- 
claimed as such at Annapolis on March 3i, 1777, amid the re- 
joicings of the people. 


U. Effects of the Royal Goveniinent. 

Permanence of ihe changes wrought by the royal governmept 
Revision of the laws of the province. 
47. Demanding the Privileges of EDglishmen; the FoundiDg of Baltimore 
City ; Coming of the Germans. 
The lower house claims the privileges of Englishmen for the citJMns 

of Maryland ; significance of the claim. 
Slow growth of towns in Ihe early history of the province. 
Founding of the city of Baltimore ; its growth and present importance. 

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German settlers ; towns founded by them ; their character and impor- 

48. Hason and Dixon's Line ; Further Loas of Territory. 

The sons of William Penn dupe Lord Baltimore. 

Border warfare ; the adventure of Thomas Cresap. 

The boundary line run by Mason and Dixon. 

Mason and Dixon's Line the boundary between the North and the South. 

Loss of territory on the south and west. 

49. Frederick Calvert Becomes Fifth Proprietary. 

Character of Fredericlc Calvert. 

50. Wars with the French ; the English Gain Control of North America. 

Conflicting claims of the English and French. 

Four wars waged for the control of the continent. 

Formation of the Ohio Company. 

Fort Duquesne and the appearance of George Washington. 

Braddock's march on Fort Duquesne and his defeat. 

Results of Braddock's defeat ; the erection of Fort Frederick. 

The wars end in the complete triumph of England. 

51. Governor Sharpe and the Assemblies. 

The proprietary's estates taxed. 

Attitude of the delegates ; its merits and its faults. 

52. Relations with England ; Growth of the Spirit of Freedom. 

British restrictions on American commerce and manufactures. 

England's change of policy toward the colonies. 

Character of the colonists. 

Parliament attempts to tax the colonies without Iheir consent. 

What great privilege of Englishmen did this violate? 

What gave the position of Maryland peculiar strength ? 
63. The Stamp Act ; Haiyland As^rts Her Rights. 

What was required by the Stamp Act? 

How was it received by the colonies? 

Describe the treatment of the stamp distributor in Maryland, 

What resolutions were passed by the Maryland Assembly? 

How did the courts of Maryland treat the Stamp Act? 

Who were the Sons of Liberty ? 
04. Parliament again Taxes America. 

A tax on tea, glass, paper, and other articles. 

The Non-importalion Association. 

Reply of the Assembly to Governor Sharpe. 

The Assembly's address to the king. 
G6. Governor Eden ; Death of Frederick CalverL 

Character of Robert Eden. 

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Death of Frederick, the last Lord Baltimore ; he wills the province of 

Maryland to Henry Harford. 
66. The Debate between Charles Cairoll of Canollton and Daniel Dulanjr. 

What laws expired in 1770? 

How did the governor restore them? 

Describe the article by Daniel Dulany. 

Who replied to Dulany, and under what name did he write? 

Whom did the people regard as victorious? 
AT. The Burning of the Peggy Sim/arl, October ig, 1774. 

How tea was received in Boston. 

The fe^y Sleivart arrives at Annapolis, and her owner pays the duty 
on some tea which she carries. 

Stewart's submission. 

He is compelled to bum the /Vggy Stewart. 
fiS. The Convention and the Council of Safety. 

The people assume control of their affairs. 

How the governmenl was administered. 

The admirable conduct of the convention. 

59. War with England Begins ; Ideas of Independence. 

Departure of Governor Eden. 

The colonies act through a Congress. 

First battles of the war. 

Development of the idea of independence. 

Congress adopts the Declaration of Independence. 

60. Maryland Becomes a Sovereign State. 

The Maryland Declaration of Independence. 

61. Formation of the State Government. 

What was the purpose of the Bill of Rights? Of the Constitution? 
Name and define the three departments of the government. 
In whom was the chief power vested in each of these three departments? 
What restriction was placed on the right to vote and hold office? 
Who was the first governor of the state of Maryland? When and where 
was he proclaimed? 


1. What is a code ? Point out the advantages of a code. What is the com- 
mon law ? The statute law ? Explain the value of the English laws to 
the people of Maryland. 

S. Explain, as fully as you can, the reason for the slow growth of towns in 
the early days of the colony. Point out some of the advantages of 

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towns. Point out some of the harmful effects of towns. Could any of 
these be avoided, and if so, how? 

8. What b the present population of Baltimore? How many other cities in 
the United States are larger? Name them in order of size. What is 
the present population of Maryland? Compare this with the popula- 
tion of Baltimore. Point out the advantages of Baltimore's position. 

4. Would it be possible for Maryland to regain her lost territory now? 
Would it be desirable? 

6. Write an essay on the Lords Baltimore, showing the character and influ- 
ence of each oa Maryland. 

0. Is war the best way of settling disputes about territory? How are such 
disputes usually settled nowadays ? 

T. Was it right for the American people to resist by force the invasion of their 
liberties? What measures should always precede a resort to force? 
Judging from the events of this period, what was the character of the 
American people? Are there any reipecls in which it is not so admir- 
able at the present day? Are there any in which it has improved? 


Browne's Maryland, pp. 203-286, 290, 292-294, 296. James' revision of Mc- 
Sherry's History of Maryland, pp. 84-161. Fiske'a Old Virginia and Htr Neigh- 
bors, Vol. II., pp. 169-173. Mereneas' Maryland as a Prepriitary Province — see 
index for topics desired. For a more complete account of the French wars and the 
struggle for ihe control of North America, see Elson's History of Sht United Stales, 
pp. 171-196. For a more complete account of the beginning of the Revolution, see 
Elson, pp. 220-242. Any other good history of the United Slates may be consulted foi 
the last two points. 

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62. latroductiOQ: — In the course of our narrative we have 
paused occasionally to notice the manner of living of the people 
whose history we are studying. Now that we have reached the 
great turning-point in that history — the time when the hitherto 
subject province had become a free and independent state — it 
will be well for us to pause again for a more careful and thorough 
inspection of the community now about to enter upon its new 
career. There were some characteristics common to all sections 
of the country, but in very many particulars the life and cus- 
toms of the people of the South differed widely from those of 
the North. Even different parts of the two sections often 
differed in many respects. Maryland and her sister colony, 
Virginia, were very similar, but the commercial spirit was more 
widely diffused in Maryland, and activity and enterprise were 
greater ; and, as we naturally expect from the character of 
Maryland's early institutions, there was less bigotry, religious 
and political, than in Virginia. 

63. Industries and Professions. — The population had increased 
with wonderful rapidity, and at the time of the Revolution the 
province contained about two hundred and fifty thousand people. 

Maryland was still almost wholly agricultural. Tobacco con- 
tinued to be the chief crop, and at this time the province was 
exporting nearly fifty thousand hogsheads. It was still largely 
used as money, instead of coin or paper. Previous to the war, 
however, the planters learned that wheat might be grown in the 

, 788874 



fertile soil of western and northern Maryland, and exported with 
profit. They acted upon this information, and by the time the 
war hegan Maryland was exporting six hundred thousand 
bushels of wheat, while the importance of tobacco rapidly de- 
clined. A good deal of corn was raised, most of which was used 
for private purposes on the plantations where it was grown, 

" Hampton," Baltimore County, Maryland 
From a photograph 

Cultivation of the land was generally of a very crude kind. 
Wooden forks and shovels were common, and the plow was 
usually of wood also, for plow-irons were imported from Eng- 
land and were very expensive. A much more important imple- 
ment was the hoe, hut not a light, thin blade of steel such as 
you now see in use ; the hoe of this time was a large, heavy 
lump of dull iron (probably the rude work of the plantation 
blacksmith), with a thick, clumsy handle of wood. With these 

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the tobacco was carefully hoed by the slaves or white servants, 
the weeds growing close to the plant being taken out by hand, 
while the overseer, perhaps on horseback, watched to see the 
work well done. Usually, the master of the plantation rode 
daily over the estate to inspect and leave orders with his over- 

While tobacco was the only product, and ships stopped at the 
private landing of the planter to lay in a cargo of that staple and 

Hall, Hamilton Residence 
From a photograph 

to give in return a supply of groceries and provisions, food and 
clothing, tools and implements, there were naturally few towns, 
with little commerce and no manufactures. There was no 
foreign trade carried on in the usual way by merchants, but the 
rich proprietors sometimes owned their own ships and styled 
themselves planters and merchants. There was often a store at 
the county seat, and very often the planter kept one for the 

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supply of his servants ; and wandering peddlers were not 
uncommon. There were no manufactures save the rude work 
done privately on the plantations. But at the time of our 
chapter a change had already begun. Towns, which refused 
to grow even for an act of the legislature, began to grow freely 
as soon as a need for them naturally made itself felt. Annapolis 
improved ; Baltimore, drawing trade from Pennsylvania as well 
as from Maryland, had acquired a large foreign trade In wheat 
and flour, and was now one of the largest cities of the colonies. 
■Copper mines had been opened some time before, while the 
more important industry of iron mining had become large and 
profitable, twenty-five thousand tons of pig iron being produced 

The legal system of Maryland was simple and good, and there 
grew up a very worthy body of lawyers — meil of eminence, 
learning, and intelligence. Unfortunately, some of the clergy- 
men of the Established Church were not men of so high char- 
acter (see Sec. 42). The selfish proprietary appointed worthless 
or disreputable favorites to good livings, and these men, being 
supported hy law and accountable only to the proprietary, could 
set at defiance both public opinion and the protests of the au- 
thorities in their own church. In this way they brought unde- 
served reproach on their worthier brethren and on the colony, 
which both were helpless to prevent. It was a natural result 
of substituting the narrow policy of intolerance for the freedom 
and toleration that prevailed under Cecilius Calvert, 

64. Homes : Houses and Plantations. — In this agricultural 
community a plantation resembled a little village. The " great 
house " of the planter was sometimes a substantial structure of 
wood, but on the large estates and " manors " it was pretty sure 
to be of brick. As a rule the house was two stories high, with 
a hall running through. This hall was the living-room, and 

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The Btioe Residence, Amiapolis 
From a photc^^ph 

here the ladies sat to gossip and sew. The mistress was far 
from being idle, however. Upon her devolved the duty of di- 
recting the work of the women-servants in weaving linen and 
cotton fabrics, in knitting socks and stockings, and in making 
garments for the slaves. The large body of house-servants was 
supervised by her, and she was the friend and counselor of her 
dependents in time of trouble. Pewter dishes were in general 
use, but the wealthy planters were supplied with handsome 
silverware. In the early days, poor folks often used flat wooden 
bowls called trenchers, and wooden spoons, while forks were 
unknown, being first mentioned in Virginia in 1677. Glassware 
was suflliciently rare to be mentioned in wills, and china was not 
commonly used until after the Revolution. Most of the rooms 
opened into the hall, and the parlor was kept for use rather than 

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for ornament. You would find here no stoves or coal, and no 
lamps, except a few made of pewter, which burned whale oil. 
Heat was supplied from huge open fireplaces in which great 
logs crackled and blazed merrily on winter nights, while the 
room was lighted by candles, often made of myrtle-berry or 
bay-berry wax. The table was loaded with the food which the 
forest and the adjoining creek so abundantly furnished, while 
temperance societies were unheard of, and various wines and 
liquors were kept on hand and consumed in large quantities. 
A royal hospitality was dispensed, and every traveler was wel- 
comed and entertained and at the same time vigorously ques- 
tioned for the latest news. 

The exterior of the house was likely to be bare and unadorned, 
but generally there was a beautifully kept lawn of several acres, 
dotted with cedars, 
and approached by 
a graveled drive- 
way and a road 
shaded by long 
double rows of lo- 
custs or beeches. 
A charming at- 
mosphere of peace- 
fulness and calm 
pervaded the whole. 
Numerous out- 
buildings formed 
N.g„» ,oll,.g T.b>c„ ^ ^^ ^ jj^ vilkBe-like set- 

tlement. There 
was a meat- ho use, 
a kitchen, a dairy, a granary, etc., and the " quarters " where the 
slaves lived ; for large numbers of negroes had been imported 

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during the eighteenth century, and there were now nearly a 
hundred thousand in the province. The slaves were in nearly 
all cases well treated and usually were devoted to their homes, 
the house-servants in particular being noted for their "family 
pride." There was usually a windmill to grind the com, which 
in earlier times had been pounded in mortars, as it was still on 
the smaller plantations. 

slave "Quarlera," HI. Mary's County 
From a photograph 

The houses of the townspeople were usually plain and modest, 
but some handsome residences were built in Annapolis. In the 
backwoods and newly settled regions the habitations were 
merely log huts. 

65. Society : Dresa, Manners, and Anmsements. — Dress 
varied according to social position, and was to a great extent its 
mark. When we read of the costumes of the " best society," or 
at least those of the women, we are amazed that the wearers 
could ever have enjoyed their gay gatherings. The gentleman 
wore a coat of cloth or velvet of any color that he fancied, with 

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flaps extending nearly to the knees and bound with gold or 
silver lace. It had great cuffs, from beneath which protruded 
lace ruffles. He wore knee breeches of red plush, blue cloth, or 
black satin. He wore tight silk stockings, black, white, blue, or 
other color, and low shoes with silver buckles. His head was 
covered by a wig of flowing 
hair, caught behind in a 
queue and powdered — some- 
times so geiierousiy that the 
hat had to be carried under 
the arm. About the neck 
was a large white cravat 
with plenty of flowing lace, 
while from his side depended 
a sword. 

The ladies dressed bril- 
liantly and sometimes extrav- 
agantly. Dresses were made 
of silk, satin, or the heavy 
brocade; the body was held 
as in a vise by tightly laced 
stays (an old form of corset) ; 
■^__^_~ '■^ the shoes were high-heeled. 
Colonial Costumes About the neck there might 

From a drawing by Homer Colby, baaed on be a large gauze handkcr- 

conlemporary sources chief, whilc 3 long train 

trailed behind the dress. On the head was built up a moun- 
tain of hair elaborately arranged with lace and satin. The 
women of Maryland were famous for their loveliness of person 
and charming manners and character, as we know from the 
testimony of all, from the poor servant to the courtly Mr, Eddis 
— the English custom house officer at Annapolis. 

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The dress of the poorer planters was a pale reflection of that 
of the richer, while the mechanics and laborers usually wore 
leather breeches and aprons, worsted stockings, and coarse shoes. 
Servants, if we may judge from advertisements for runaways, 
seem to have worn pretty much any sort of clothing they could 
lay hold of. 

There were plenty of amusements, though not always of a 
kind approved nowadays. Fox-hunting was one of the most 

The "Chaae Home," Aooapolis 
Froni a. photograph 

popular outdoor pleasures, but horse-racing, gambling, and 
excessive indulgence in wine and liquors were very common 
and excited no remark. Some wealthy persons owned town 
houses in Annapolis, which was the centre of gayety and fashion. 

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Here, during the winter, gathered the aristocracy to enjoy a sea- 
son of festivity and merry-making. Dancing was a necessary 
part of the education, and balls and parties were very frequenl. 
There were clubs and theaters, Annapolis claiming, indeed, the 
distinction of the first theater erected in America. Our planters 
seem sometimes to have been men of extravagant habits, who by 

Dougboregan Manor, Howard County, Maryland 
From a phot<^raph 

their reckless expenditures and neglect of their plantations ■ 
involved themselves in ruin. The manners of the people were 
marked by courtesy and elegance, and inclined to be pompolis 
and formal. 

66. Education and Literature; Character of the People. ^ In 
regard to the education of the people and the literature they 
read, there is not so much to be said. There were very few 
schools, chiefly because there were so few towns and the popu- 
lation was so scattered, and the teachers were in most cases 
the indented servants or transported convicts. The wealthier 
people were generally well educated, for many sent their sons 
to England to attend college. In this age, little or no attention 
was paid anywhere to the education of girls, though the wealthy 
planters of Maryland often had private tutors for their daughters. 

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As regards literature, conditions were about the same. A few 
standard English books could be found, and occasionally political 

White Hall Manor, Anne Arundel County 
From a photograph 

pamphlets were printed and read, while the wealthier planters 
usually had good libraries, and sometimes large ones. A news- 
paper called The Mary- 
land Gazette was 
founded at Annapolis 
in 1727; it was soon 
discontinued, but was 
revived in 1745 by 
Jonas Green, and there- 
after prospered. The 
Gazette claimed to pub- 
lish "the freshest Ad- 
vices Foreign and 
Domestic." These 

"freshest Advices" Suitcase, Carvel House 

were two months old From a photograph 

from New York and Boston, five months old from London and 

Paris, and six months old from Constantinople, Pretty stale 

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The Marylattd GaxetU, July 26, 1 745 
s photograph oi the original in possession o[ Ihe Maryland Historic^ Socie 

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news, we of to-day are apt to think, but this was before the day 
of the railroad and the telegraph. 

In spite of their meager resources in these respects, and some 
questionable amusements, the people of Maryland were indus- 
trious, shrewd, sensible, and intelligent, while, generally speaking, 
their morals were good. They must always be judged by the 
standards of their own time; our most revered statesmen of 
that time saw no harm in moderate gambling and what would 
now be considered excessive drinking. They were a generous, 
hospitable, courteous people, liberal-minded, but strongly inde- 
pendent and jealous of their rights and privileges as Englishmen. 
Most of their faults grew out of the peculiar conditions under. 
which they lived, or were the common vices of the times. On 
the whole, we may justly be proud of them. 


62. Introduction. , 

Life in the South and in the North. 
Maryknd and Virginia compared. 

63. Industries and Professions. 

Maryland chiefly agricultural ; tobacco the staple crop. 

Method of cultivating the land. 

Growth of towns in later days of the province. 

The growing importance of Baltimore. 

Mining industries. 

Character of the lawyers. 

Character of some of the clergymen, and the causes. 

64. HOmes : Houses and PUntations. 

Describe the " great house " of the planter. 
Describe the dishes, fuel, and lights. 
How were guests received? 

Describe the exterior of the house, its grounds, etc 
Tell about the outbuildings. 
What was the condition of the slaves? 
6ft. Society: Dress, Hanaera, and Amusements. 

Describe the dress of a fashionable gentleman. Of a lady. Of the pool 
planters. Of mechanics and laborers. 

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For what were the women of MarylaDcl distiDguished ? 
Describe the chief amusements. 
For what was Annapolis noted ? 
Describe the manners of the people. 
6S. Education and Literature ; Character of the People, 
Describe the educational condition of the colony. 
What literature was read? Tell about Tie Maryland Gazette. 
Describe fully the character of the people. 


1. Find out, if you can, some parLiculars in which life at the North differed 
from life at the South, and the reasons for the difference. What <Uf- 
ferences exist between the two sections at present ? 

a. Compare the industries of Marylanders of to-day with those of the colo- 
nial period. Name some improved agricultural implements now in use. 
Name some of the imporiant cities and towns of the present day in 
Maryland, and explain the cause of their growth, 

?. Name four daily newspapers published in Maryland at this time. What 
papers are published in your county? Name some reasons for the vastly 
greater efficiency of the present newspapers. 

4. Name some respects in which the teaching of children now differs fi'ora 
that of colonial times. What is meant by "consolidation" of rural 
schools } 


Goodwin's The Colenial Cavalier, entire book of 300 pp. Lodge's English Cole- 
nies in America, pp. 93-109. tiske'a Old Virgiaia and Her Neighbors,'^ -A. II., pp. 
174-269; a description of life in Virginia, but this was so nearly identical with the 
life in Maryland that it is practically as good as a special description for Maryland. 
This is a careful and lengthy account, and will prove very valuable. Elson's f/istaiy 
ef the United Stales, pp. 197-219. See also Mereness' Maryland as a Proprietary 
Province, pp. 104-128 and pp. 129-149. If available, consult Scharfs History of 
Maryland, Vol. II., pp. 1-103; and for a good account of the manners and customs 
of the early settlers in western Maryland, see Scharfs Hiilory ef Western Maryland, 
pp. 69-74. 

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67. The Revolutionary War. — The Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was the solemn statement of the colonies to all the 
world that, they were resolved to be entirely free, and to lay the 
foundations of a new nation with liberty as its watchword. But 
that Declaration it was now necessary to make good, and the 
independence which they so boldly asserted it was necessary to 
win by brave deeds. Thus the whole situation was changed; 
for whereas the Americans had hitherto been contending for 
their rights and privileges as Englishmen, they now fought to 
throw off entirely the sovereignty of a government which they 
regarded as unjust and tyrannical. 

On the nomination of Thomas Johnson of Maryland, Con- 
gress appointed George Washington commander-in-chief of the 
American army. (This was before the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence.) In the character of Washington, daring courage 
was strangely blended with extraordinary cautiousness and fore- 
thought. A noble and unselfish man, a true patriot, and a 
remarkably able general, his selection was eminently wise. 
Had any other been made, it is very doubtful whether inde- 
pendence could have been won. 

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In the conduct of the war the Americans had one great ad- 
vantage, — they fought on the defensive. They had declared 
themselves independent; if the king wished to dispute their 
claim, his armies must occupy their country and wrest its con- 
trol from them. Two distinct plans for doing this were tried, 
and both ended in failure. The first was to gain control of 
the Hudson river; 
then, with the Enghsh 
fleets in complete con- 
trol of the sea, the 
New England states 
would be cut off from 
the others, and each 
section could be over- 
come without being 
able to obtain help 
from the other. After 
the failure of this plan 
the second was tried, 
which was to send 
armies to the extreme 
south of the country; 
these, marching north- 
George Washington ward. Were to conquer 
From the painting by Gilberl Stuart one State after another 
until all were regained. 
We cannot give a connected account of these campaigns, for 
as this is a history of Maryland, we must content ourselves with 
a sketch of each period, and some account of Maryland's part 
in the great struggle. And this part, as we shall see, is one 
of which every Marylander may be proud; no state had a 
better record. 

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68. The Battle of Long Island. — In the attempt to seize the 
Hudson the first blow of the British general, Howe, was at the 
city of New York. The army of Washington met Howe on Long 
Island, and here *as fought the first great battle of the war. 
In this engagement, the most im- 
portant and heroic part was taken 
by the troops of Maryland. The 
left wing of the American army, 
under General Sullivan, was sur- 
rounded and captured, and the brunt 
of the fighting fell upon the right 
under General Stirling. The Mary- 
land troops were in this division. 
Their leader, Colonel Smallwood, 
was detained in New York, and 
Major Mordecai Gist was in com- 
mand. The regiment was com- 
posed of young-men of the best 
families, of fine spirit and discipline, 
but " who on that day for the first 
time saw the flash of an enemy's guns." Stirling gallantly main- 
tained the fight for four hours, but, greatly outnumbered and 
attacked in the rear by Lord Cornwallis as well as in front by 
General Grant, he was obliged to retreat. 

Behind the American army were a marsh and a deep creek 
to be crossed, and in order to cover the retreat it was neces- 
sary to hold the British in check for a time. For this purpose 
Stirling placed himself at the head of four hundred men of the 
Maryland regiment, and faced the immensely superior force of 
Lord Cornwallis. The gallant little band actually held in check 

William Smallwood 

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this division of the British army until the Americans had effected 
their escape.. Animated by an unselfish and patriotic devotion, 
the noble young men charged the overwhelming force of the 
British again and again, until the great host seemed about to 
give way from the repeated shocks. But the struggle could not 
continue long ; fired upon from all points and fearfully outnum- 
bered as they were, Stirling and a portion surrendered themselves, 
while three companies cut their 
way through the British and 
reached the marsh on the edge of 
the creek, whence they effected 
their escape. A mere handful of 
the gallant four hundred was 
left, but they had saved the rem- 
nant of the American army. 
"The sacrifice of their lives, so 
. freely made by the generous and 
noble sons of Maryland, had not 
been in vain. An hour, more 
precious to American liberty 
than any other in its history, had 
MordecaiGist been gained" (see Sec. 121). 

From a paiming in ihe gallery of the In a masterly retreat Wash- 

■ Maryland Hi..orical society .^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^ j^j^ ^^^p^ 

safe from Long Island, the rear being covered by the Maryland 
and Pennsylvania troops. 

69. From Long Island to Morristown. — New York was 
almost immediately occupied by the British general. Wash- 
ington retreated northward to White Plains, later falling back on 
North Castle, where he could not safely be attacked. The British 
general then moved back down the Hudson, threatening at once 
Fort Washington, at the other extremity of Manhattan Island,and 

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o Maiyland's Four Hundred, FrospecL Park, Brooklyn 
From a phologjnph 

D,i„Mb, Google 


Philadelphia, the "rebel capital." Washington now crossed 
the Hudson with a part of his force, and General Charles 
Lee was left in command at North Castle. Owing to disre- 
gard of Washington's orders. Fort Washington was captured by 
General Howe with its garrison and stores ; while General Lee 
refused to march his army to the aid of Washington when 
ordered by the latter to do so, and later, when captured by the 
British, turned traitor to the American cause. (Lee's treachery 
was not known until many years later.) These heavy mis- 
fortunes came near bringing the war to an end, and compelled 
Washington to retreat through New Jersey, a movement which 
he executed with masterly skill, finally encamping beyond the 

The British generals, Howe and Cornwallis, determined to cross 
the river as soon as it should be frozen over, and in the mean- 
time returned to New York to celebrate their success. The 
wretched soldiers of the American army suffered fearfully from 
cold and hunger, and their exposed feet often left bloody tracks 
upon the snow. In these terrible straits many people began to 
despair of the cause of liberty, but the mighty soul of Washington 
never wavered. On Christmas night of 1776, he crossed the 
Delaware river amid huge cakes of floating ice, and marched 
swiftly through a blinding snowstorm upon the British centre at 
Trenton. The post was captured with one thousand prisoners, 
while the Americans lost but four men. Cornwallis at once 
brought down his army, but Washington, by a brilliant movement, 
passed around him and crushed his rear at Princeton, Washing- 
ton then retreated to Morristown, where he was, for the time, in 

Throughout the whole of this period the Maryland troops 
fully sustained the reputation which they had won at Long 
Island. Many marks of confidence were shown them by the 

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general, and they were frequently given posts of unusual re- 
sponsibility and danger. A member of Washington's stafE 
declares, "The Virginia and Maryland troops bear the palm." 
The Maryland soldiers fought gallantly at the defense of Fort 
Washington, and in almost every other engagement of the cam- 
paign. The soldiers of 
the old Maryland Line,^ 
originally numbering fif- 
teen hundred men, had 
been reduced almost to 

During the retreat 
through New Jersey, Con- 
gress became alarmed for 
its safety, and removed 
from Philadelphia to Bal- 
timore, which thus be- 
came for a time the 
capital. It was here that 
extraordinary powers 
were conferred on Wash- 
ington, enabling him to 
conduct the war success- 

fully. Congress met in a« ™ .h. Si„ .r Old Cong,™ H.I1 
buildine; on the southwest _ ^ . .. 

^ From a photograph 

corner of Baltimore (at 

that time called Market street) and Sharp streets. In 1894 the 
site of "Old Congress Hall" was marked by a bronze tablet, 
through the efforts of the Maryland Society of the Sons of the 
American Revolution. 

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70. Second Attempt to Conquer New York and Hold the 
Hudson. — An elaborate campaign for the year 1777 was now 
planned by the British. An army under General Burgoyne 
was to march down from Canada, capture Fort Ticonderoga on 
Lake Champlain, and proceed to Albany ; a smaller force was 
to march eastward from Oswego and unite with Burgoyne ; 
while the main army under General Howe was to ascend the 
Hudson and meet Burgoyne at Albany. 

General Howe concluded that he would have time to go down 
and capture the "rebel capital," Philadelphia, before starting 
northward to meet Burgoyne. The skill of Washington pre- 
vented his marching through New Jersey, and finally he put 
his troops aboard ship and sailed down the coast and into the 
Chesapeake. Landing his forces at the head of the bay, he 
began his march upon Philadelphia. Washington, though 
outnumbered nearly two to one, gave him battle at the 
Brandywine creek. The Americans were compelled to retreat, 
but the wonderful skill of their general detained the British two 
weeks on the march of twenty-six miles. Washington planned 
a brilliant attack on the British army encamped at Germantown, 
about six miles from Philadelphia, but through a mistake the 
battle was unfortunately lost. The morning was dark and 
foggy, and one American brigade, mistaking another for the 
enemy, fiercely attacked it. Great confusion ensued, and soon 
a general retreat began. 

In the meantime Washington's skillful detention of Howe had 
borne glorious fruit in the North, for Burgoyne's army was cut 
off and obliged to surrender. This is regarded as the decisive vic- 
tory of the war; for although the war did not end until several 
years afterward, yet the first and best plan of the British for 
conquering the colonies was defeated, while France decided to 
enter into an alliance with us and send ships and men to our aid. 

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b, Google 

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Washington's army now went into winter quarters at Valley 
Forge, and not being well supplied either with food or clothing, 
the soldiers suffered fearful hardships. In June, 177S, General 
Clinton had succeeded General Howe as commander of the 
British, evacuated Philadelphia, and begun a retreat to New 
York. Washington attacked the retreating army near Mon- 
mouth. The traitor, Charles Lee, had been exchanged, and 
was again in command; he took 
advantage of his position to order 
a shameful retreat at the moment 
of victory, thus spoilijig Wash- 
ington's plan and nearly causing 
a defeat before the latter" could 
re-form the army. Fof this Lee 
was afterward tried and removed 
from the army. Little further of 
importance occurred at the North. 

In this series of battles the sol- 
diers of Maryland served with 
their usual distinction. In the 
battle of Germantown they fought 
with the greatest daring, being Nathaniel Ramsey 

the first troops engaged and the From a painting in the gallery of the 

last to give up the struggle. Fort Maryland Hialorical Sgciely 

MifHin, guarding the approach by water to Philadelphia, was 
heroically defended by Lieutenant Colonel Samuel Smith of 
Maryland, until it became absolutely untenable. He was voted 
a sword by Congress for his gallantry. (At the battle of Mon- 
mouth, when Washington met the body of disorderly fugitives 
under Lee, 4e called for an officer to hold the enemy in check 
until he colild form his troops for action. Colonel Nathaniel 
Ramsey of Baltimore offered himself with the words, " I will 

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stop them or fall." Marching at the head of his troops, Ramsey 
held the British in check until the American army was formed 
for the attack ; the British were then, after a stubborn resist- 
ance, slowly pushed from the field, and again the American 
army owed its salvation to the troops of Maryland. During 
the terrible winter at Valley Forge the Maryland troops were 
stationed at Wilmington, where they lived in much greater com- 
fort than their unfortunate comrades. 

While the troops so liberally furnished by Maryland were thus 
serving with distinction in the patriot cause, the state suffered 
severely at home. Early in the war the people were greatly 
annoyed by Lord Dunmore, who had been the royal governor of 
Virginia. Angry at being driven out of the country, he set on 
foot dangerous plots, and sailing about the bay, in a British ship 
on which he had taken refuge, he plundered and distressed the 
people to the limit of his power. Other depredations of the 
British, and the voyage of General Howe up the Chesapeake 
when on his way to capture Philadelphia, kept the people in 
nearly constant alarm and made it necessary to keep militia 
on duty for their protection. The state also suffered from a 
dangerous rising of the Tories, as those who sided with England 
were called, in Somerset and Worcester counties. The insur- 
rection, however, was promptly suppressed by a body of troops 
under General Small wood and Colonel Gist. 


71. Second Plan of Conquering the Country. —The British 
now tried their second way of conquering the Americans, which 
was to go down to the southern extremity of the country and 
reduce the states to obedience, one by one. For a while it 
seemed as if they must be successful. Georgia was overrun and 

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the royal governor again placed in control. The city of Charles- 
ton, with an army under General Lincoln, was captured by the 
British general. Sir Henry Clinton. The whole of South Carolina 
was soon reduced, and Clinton returned to New York, leaving 
Lord Cornwallis in command. 

72. The Campaign of General Gates. — A new army was 
raised, but unfortunately the command was given to General 
Gates, a thoroughly incapable 
officer. In the famous campaign 
which resulted in Burgoyne's sur- 
render, he had been placed in 
command shortly before the 
crowning victory, and so had 
managed to reap the glory that 
had been won by others. After 
committing a great many follies, 
against the advice of his officers, 
Gates met the British general at 
Camden; each general had started 
out to surprise the other, and the 
armies met in the ntght. In the 
morning the battle commenced, 
and resulted in one of the most 
terrible defeats ever inflicted upon 
an American army. 

The two armies met between 
huge swamps that protected the 
flanks of each. The right wing 

of the American army Was com- Stalue of De Kalb, Annapolis 

manded by Baron de Kalb (a Ger- from a phoi<«raph 

man soldier who had volunteered in the cause of American lib- 
erty); it was composed of the Second Maryland regiment and 

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a Delaware regiment in front, and the First Maryland regiment 
a short distance in the rear. The left wing was composed of 
Virginia and North Carolina militia under Generlls Stevens 
and Caswell. This wing, on being charged by the British right 
under Colonel Webster, instantly gave way, the men throwing 
away their guns and fleeing with hardly a shot Gates was 
carried away by the panic-stricken mob, and Colonel Webster, 
leaving the cavalry under Tarleton to cut down the fugitives, 
turned upon the devoted Marylanders. Throwing his victorious 
column upon the First regiment, he slowly pushed it from the 
field, after the most determined resistance. The Second Mary- 
land regiment, in the meantime, had repelled the attack of the 
British left wing under Lord Rawdon. In a splendid bayonet 
charge under Major John Eager How- 
ard, they had even broken through his 
lines, and were, for the moment, victo- 
rious. But they were now attacked in 
flank by the troops of Colonel Webster, 
and Cornwallis threw his whole army 
upon them. De Kalb fell dying from 
eleven wounds, and the remnant of the 
brave fellows made their escape through 
the marsh where the cavalry could not 
Naiimn^i Greene yg ^^^^ Campaigns of General Greene. 

Afterapainu^gbyTru-ubuU _ ^f ^^^ ^^e terrible rout at Camden, 
affairs in the South seemed desperate. But a new army was 
presently raised, and the command intrusted (October, 1780) 
to Nathanael Greene, a general scarcely inferior in skill and 
energy to Washington himself. 

A detachment of Greene's army under General Morgan won 
the battle of Cowpens, after a brilliant engagement. Greene 

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himself executed a masterful retreat into Virginia, and having 
led his adversary far into a hostile country, faced about and 
offered him battle at Guilford Courthouse. The British managed 
to stand their ground, but were so badly cut up that they were 
obliged to retreat into Virginia. Leav- 
ing Cornwallis behind him, Greene 
now returned to the Carolinas, and 
after a brilliant campaign captured 
every important post. In the battles 
of Hobkirk's Hill and Eutaw Springs 
he was virtually the victor, and by 
September, 1781, had completely re- 
gained South Carolina with the ex- 
ception of Charleston, Cornwallis, in 
Virginia, allowed himself to be shut 

up in Yorktown by Lafayette,> where- ""'''''* ''' ^"^"'■'"" 

,,, , . , I 1- 1 From a French print 

upon Washmgton made a wonderful 

march from the Hudson river to the York and, with the aid of 
the French fleet, compelled his surrender (October 19, 1781). 
This practically ended the war. 

74. Maryland Troops in the South. — In the southern cam- 
paigns the Maryland Line confirmed and enhanced the reputa- 
tion won in the North, but they also did much more. They 
may fairly be said to have taken the lead, and to have played the 
decisive part in this concluding struggle of the war, a fact which 
a very slight knowledge of their services would make perfectly 
plain. The heroic deeds of the Maryland troops at Camden 
have already been described. In Morgan's victory at the Cow- 
pens they took an even more prominent part, under the famous 
leader, John Eager Howard. When the force under Morgan 

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was detached, Comwallis sent out the famous cavalry com- 
mander, Colonel Tarleton, to intercept it and to capture or 
destroy it. 

Morgan retreated before his adversary to a long, rising slope 
near some inclosures known as the Cowpens. Here he faced 
about and formed his troops for battle. In front he placed the 
milJtta of Georgia and Carolina ; on the brow of a hill one hun- 
dred and iifty yards in the rear of these " he stationed the splen- 
did Maryland brigade which De Kalb had led at Camden ; " 
behind these on a second hill was placed the cavalry under 
Colonel Willian\ Washington. The militia behaved well, and 
after firing several deadly volleys, retired, forming again in the 
rear. The British now fiercely attacked the second line, under 
Colonel John Eager Howard. Being superior in numbers, they 
extended their hne so as to threaten Howard's flanks, whereupon 
the line began to retire. Thinking them in full retreat, the 
British pressed on in confusion. But the Marylanders, at a 
word of command from Howard, suddenly faced about, poured a 
murderous fire into the enemy's ranks, and, came down upon them 
in a furious bayonet charge. Taken in flank and rear at the same 
time by the militia and the cavalry under Colonel Washington, 
the remains of the British army surrendered, Tarleton himself 
narrowly escaping. This is regarded as the most brilliant battle 
of the war, for Morgan had actually surrounded and captured a 
superior force in open field. It is therefore a matter for great 
pride that the decisive part was played by the troops of Mary- 
land and their gallant commander. When Congress voted a 
gold medal to Morgan, a silver medal was voted to Colonel 

In the wonderful retreat of General Greene to Virginia, it was 
of the highest importance that a body of reliable troops, ably 
,nded, should protect the rear of the army, and hold the 

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British in check, while the main army made good its retreat 
The difficult and perilous post of honor was intrusted to 
Colonel Otho Holland Williams of Maryland, with a body of 
Marylanders under Howard, and some other troops. In the 
performance of this difficult and dangerous duty, Williams and 
his troops suffered terrible hardships, but the duty was performed 
most successfully, and 
they won the highest 
praise for the manner 
in which it was accom- 
plished. The battle 
came at last at Guilford 
Courthouse. The main 
line was formed of 
Maryland and Virginia 
regulars, who bore the 
brunt of the fight, and 
the chief advantage was 
gained by a splendid 
bayonet charge of the 
Maryland troops under 
Colonels John Gunby 
and John Eager How- 
ard, in which the most Equestrian Statue of Johti tager Howard, 
dauntless courage was Washington Hace, Baltimore 
shown. ^""^ ^ phof^raph 

At the battle of Hobkirk's Hill, the Maryland troops again 
played the most conspicuous part. While the troops were ad- 
vancing to the charge, Captain William Beatty, a favorite officer, 
was shot dead at the head of his company. To the confusion 
which resulted and the order of Colonel Gunby to fall back and 
re-form, have been attributed the defeat of the American army. 

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As a matter of fact, the Maryland troops merely fell back a few 
rods and then rallied, while the other troops (on their right and 
left) had fallen into disorder about the same time, and were re- 
formed on the line of the Maryland regiment. So farfrom losing 
the battle, therefore, the Maryland troops by their steadiness en- 
abled Greene to make an orderly retreat. At the siege of Ninety- 
Six, a desperate assault was made by a party of Maryland and 
Virginia troops, in which five out 
of six of their number were killed 
or wounded. In the final battle 
at Eutaw Springs our gallant 
troops fittingly crowned their 
noble work. At the critical mo- 
ment General Greene issued the 
order, " Let Williams advance and 
sweep the field with his bayo- 
nets." Under Williams and How- 
ard the heroic band instantly 
advanced in a furious charge, and 
the finest infantry of England was 
oiho Holland Williams swept from the field. 

From ihe painiing in ihe gallery of General Greene spoke of the 

Ihe MBryland Hisfodcal Sociely „ , ^ , . ■ , , 

officers and men of the Maryland 
Line in terms of the highest praise. In a letter to General Small- 
wood he writes, " The Maryland Line made acharge that exceeded 
anything I ever saw." In another letter he said of John Eager 
Howard, " He deserves a statue of gold, no less than the Roman 
and Grecian heroes." 

75. Naval Operations. — During the Revolutionary War the 
United States never possessed a navy worthy of the name, 
though a few battles were fought and immense damage was 
inflicted upon the commerce of the enemy by American priva- 

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b, Google 


b, Google 


teers.' In this respect Maryland fully supported her mihtary 
record. Baltimore fitted out more privateers than any other 
American city. These vessels were famous for their speed and 
the skill with which they were handled ; they captured British 
vessels almost in their own harbors in England. It has been 
claimed with some reason that Balti- 
more was the most zealous and 
patriotic city in the country, in point 
of damage inflicted on the enemy. 

In 1782, Lieutenant Joshua Barney 
of Maryland was appointed to the 
command of the Hyder Ally. He 
shortly afterward fell in with a British 
sloop-of-war, the General Monk, a 
vessel better armed and better manned 
than his own. Notwithstanding this 

fact, Barney captured the General Joshua Barney 

Monk and carried her a prize to Phil- From a prim in possession of the 
adelphia, after an engagement which Maryland Hisioncai society 

has been spoken of as "one of the most brilliant that ever 
occurred under the American flag." Commodore Nicholson 
and other Marylanders also achieved distinction. 

76. Close of the War ; Women of Maryland. — With the sur- 
render of Cornwallis the war virtually ended. By invitation of 
the state, Annapolis became temporarily the capital of the 
United States. There, in the Senate Chamber of the State 
House, December 23, 1783, George Washington surrendered 
his commission to Congress. It was a sad and impressive cere- 
mony, as the noble and unselfish chief, after having led his 
country successfully through the long war to the achievement 

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of her independence, calmly resigned his high position, and 
asked only to be allowed to return to the privacy and quietude 
of his home. 

The narrative of the war would not be complete without a 
mention of the noble work of the women of Maryland. Wash- 
ington wrote a personal letter of thanks to Mrs. Mary Lee (wife 
of Governor Lee of Maryland) for the efforts of the women of 
the state for the relief of the destitute southern army. It is said 
that during a ball, given in honor of Lafayette as he passed 
through Baltimore, the general appeared sad, and on being ques- 
tioned by one of the ladies as to the cause replied, " I cannot 
enjoy the gayety of the scene while so many of the poor soldiers 
are in want of clothes." " We will supply them," was the reply 
of the fair querist, and next morning the ball-room was trans- 
formed into a clothing manufactory. The ladies of the city, 
old and young, gathered to the task, and much was done to 
relieve the suffering of the soldiers. 

77. Maryland's Part in the Winning of Independence. — In the 
great struggle for independence Maryland had indeed borne a 
noble part, and one of prime importance. In proportion to size 
and population, she furnished far more than her just share of 
soldiers to the army. We have mentioned some of the impor- 
tant work done by the troops of Maryland, but not all such ser- 
vices have been mentioned, by any means. For instance, a 
splendidly equipped body of riflemen, under the command of 
Captain Michael Cresap, was raised and sent north to join the 
army early in the war; a large number of Marylanders joined 
the body of troops raised in Maryland by Count Pulaski, a Polish 
nobleman who had volunteered in the American cause; and in 
minor engagements many notable exploits were performed by 
the officers and men of Maryland that have not been related 

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i 1 


b, Google 


The courage and devotion of the troops of Maryland, the 
skill of their officers, their frequent and telling use of the bay- 
onet, and their inestimable services to their country, have already 
been related. It only remains to say that the record of the state 
in other particulars was just as good ; while she was so liberal in 
her supplies of troops she was equally energetic and patriotic 
in other respects. To the requests of Congress and of Wash- 
ington for food, clothing, and other necessary supplies, the state 
replied as promptly and as cheerfully as to the demands for 
men, which is a good deal more than can be said for some of 
her sister states. 

Thus on the part of her sons and her daughters alike did 
Maryland nobly play her part in the great struggle for liberty, 
and in the fruits of the glorious victory none was more deserv- 
ing to share than she. 


67. Tbe Revolutionary Wat. 

Explain the change of affairs wrought by the Declaration of Indepen- 

Who was the American commander-in-chief ? Describe liis character. 

What great advantage had the Americans ? 

Describe the two plans of the British for conquering the country. 

68. The Battle of Long Island. 

General plan of battle ; its results. 

Position of the Maryland troops ; their noble sacrilice. 
68. From Long Island to Horristown. 

Services of the old Maryland Une. 

The capital temporarily removed from Philadelphia to Baltimore. 
TO. Second Attempt to Conquer Hew York and Hold the Hudson. 

Plans for the year 1777. Capture of Philadelphia. 

The surrender of Burgoyne. 

Philadelphia evacuated ; battle of Monmouth. 

Describe the services of Marylanders at Germantown ; Fort Mifflin ; 

Describe the difficulties of the slate at home- — - 

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Tl. Second Plan of Cooqnenng th« Countnr. 

Success of the plan at first. 
72. The Campaign of General Gates. 

Describe the battle of Camdea, and the part taken by the troops of 
7S. The CampaiEna of General Greene. 

Greene's skill as a general ; what he accomplished. 
Surrender of Cornwallis ; its importance. 
74. Maryland Troops in the South. 

What was the general character of the services of the Maryland troops 

in the South ? 
Describe the battle of Cowpens, and the part taken by Maryland 

What important duty was assigned to Otho Holland Williams, and 

how was it performed ? 
Describe the services of Marylanders at Guilford Courthouse ; Hobkirk's 

Hill ; the siege of Ninety-Six ; Eutaiv Springs. 
What did General Greene say of Maryland troops and their officers ? 
7B. Naval Operations. 

Services of the navy ; privateers sent out from Baltimore. 
The engagement of the Hydtr Ally and the General Monk. 
TB. Close of the War ; Women of Haiyland. 

Annapolis becomes the capital of the United Stales ; Washington resigns 

his commission there. 
Services of the women of Maryland. 
T7. Maryland's Part in the Winning of Independence. 

Describe the extent and importance of Maryland's services in the 
Revolutionary War. 


. Read the Declaration of Independence. Is it true that all men are 
created equal ? Explain your answer. Notice the charges against the 
king of England, and see if you can find any specific instance of the 
tnith of several of them. Had the colonies any legal right to declare 
themselves independent ? Had they a right morally ? Is it right to 
disobey a bad law ? Have the people of Maryland the right, legally, 
to alter the form of their government to-day ? (See Maryland Bill of 
Rights, Art. i.) 

. Can you think of a reason why no battles were fought on Maryland soil 
during the Revolution ? 

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8. Find on the maps all points meationed in the text. 

4. Compare the two plans of the British for conquering the colonies. 

Which was the better ? Compare the work of the Maryland troops in 
the North and the South. 

6. Discuss the arrangement of troops by Gates for the tiattle of Camden. 
Gates sent off four hundred Maryland regulars on other duty shortly be- 
fore the battle, duty that the militia could have performed ; what might 
he have done with these troops instead? What advantages had the 
Americans in the character of the field of battle? 

6. Write an account of what you have learned in this chapter, under the title, 
"Maryland in the Revolutionary War." 


For an account of the War erf Independence, see Elscm's History of Ae United 
Slates, pp. 243-317, or any good history of the United States. For a. fuller account, 
with excellent descriptions of battles and their results, consult Fiske's The Ameriian 
Revohaian. For southern campaigns, see biographies of General (Ireene ; Mary- 
land and North Carolina in the Campaign of rjSo-rySr, by E. G. Daves, Fund 
Publication No. 33 of the Maryland Historical Society ; A. A. Gunby's Colaml John 
Gunby of the Maryland Line (The Robert Clarke Company, Cincinnati), Many 
works on United States history, will Wg^est themselves as valuable for this period. 

Browne's Maryland, pp. 286-314, James' revision of McSherry's History of 
Maryland, pp. 162-266. If possible consult Scharf's History of Maryland, Vcj. II, 

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" Tbe credtl of suggesting, and successliiDy urging in Congress )ha) policy which has 
made ihli country a great national commonwealth . . , belongs to Maryland and lo 
her alone." 

— HerbeHB. Adams. 

78. The Articles of Confederation. — When the thirteen Ameri- 
can colonies declared themselves independent of Great Britain, 
each regarded itself as having become free and sovereign. 
Being so intimately associated in many ways, and compelled to 
act in concert to carry on the war, some sort of general 
government was necessary, to which certain powers were dele- 
gated by the states, while others were reserved to themselves. 
This was all that was aimed at, for as yet there was no strong 
national sentiment, and each state was very jealous of its 
independence. A form of government to meet the needs 
of the occasion was prepared by a committee of Congress, and 
adopted by that body late in the year 1777. This constitution, 
of form of government, was called the Articles of Confedera- 
tion, and in the course of the next fifteen months was accepted 
by all the states except Maryland. Maryland's refusal to ratify 
the Articles, says the historian Fiske, " was first in the great 
chain of events which led directly to the formation of the 
Federal Union." 

79. The Attitude of Maryland. — At first sight these seem to 
be rather surprising statements. Why should Maryland thus 
refuse to unite with the other states .' Having done so, how 
could that refusal be productive of such tremendous results? 

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In order to understand the replies to these questions, a few 
words of explanation are necessary. North of the Ohio river, 
and extending to the Great Lakes, stretched a vast expanse of 
unsettled country known as the Northwest Territory. Owing 
to ignorance of the country and other causes, the grants of land 
to the various colonies by English sovereigns were in many 
cases conflicting, and in some cases preposterously large. 
Under an old charter, Virginia now laid claim to this vast terri- 
tory northwest of the Ohio, while at the same time claims were 
made by New York, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, 

Maryland declared^that these claims were neither just nor wise, 
and until they were withdrawn she positively refused to agree 
to the Articles of Confederation. Her statesmen clearly showed 
the harm that might result to other states if the claims of Vir- 
ginia were admitted, and "declared that what _ had been won 
through the efforts of all should become the common property 
of the states, '■' subject to be parcelled out by Congress into free, 
convenient, and independent governments, in such manner and 
at such times as the wisdom of that assembly shall hereafter 
direct." Now we have further to observe, that during the stormy 
period which followed the war with England (hereafter to be 
described^, it was the common interest in the Northwest Terri- 
tory which was " perhaps the only thing that kept' the Union 
from falling to pieces." As the principal influence in holding 
the states together, it was of course most important in the found- 
ing of the nation. With admirable wisdom and foresighj the 
statesmen of Maryland perceived the vast importance of the 
Northwest Territory, and declared, in the General .Assembly of 
the state, that the control of Congress over the western lands 
was "essentially necessary for rendering the Union lasting." 
Having thus taken her stand, on the grounds both of justice and 
good policy, Maryland stood firm, steadily refusing to accept the 

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Articles of Confederation until the states should yield their claims 
to the United States. The importance of Maryland's action now 
becomes evident. If common interest in the Northwest Terri- 
tory held the states together at the close of the war, thus making 
a national government possible, and 
if Maryland alone so acted as to pro- 
cure for all the states their common 
interest, then clearly to Maryland ■ 
must come the glof-y of that mighty 
event. "Just as it was Massachu- 
setts that took the decisive step in 
bringing on the Revolutionary War 
when she threw the tea into Boston 
harbor, so it was Maryland that, by 
leading the way toward the creation 
of a national domain, laid the cor- 
ner stone of our Federal Union" John Hanson 1 

(Fiske).^ The MarylanderS most Afiet Ihe painling in independence 

prominent in this great work were "^"- PO^^^'Phi^ 

paniel Carroll, William Paca, James Forbes, and George Plater, 
Having practically accomplished her purpose, Maryland en- 
tered the Union, March i, 17S1 ; thus was the wonderfully impor- 
tant work of her statesmen crowned with success, at the very 

■ From 1781 to 1782, John Hanson of Maryland was "piesident of Ihe United States 
in Congress assembled." 

* When new states were formed from ihe Northwest Territory, liberal grants of the pub- 
lic lands were made to them to support education. It has been contended that since 
these lands were the common property of the Uniont it is an unjust discrimination to give 
to some slates and not to others. And by some it has been maintained that Maryland, 
owing to the great service explained in the led, has a peculiar claim to a share in'siich 
gilts. As long ago as 1821, the General Assembly of Maryland resolved that each stale 
was entitled to participate in Ihe benefits of the public lands, and that states that had not 
received appropriations were entitled to receive them. These resolutions were sent to 
every slale and to Ihe representatives of Maryland in Congress, but without effect. 

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moment when her heroic soldiers in the field were taking the 
decisive part in the final brilliant movements of General Greene. 

80. "The Critical Period." — The practical workings of the 
Confederation were found to be anything but satisfactory. 
Congress was composed of representatives of the states, not of 
individual citi2ens. If its requests were not obeyed, it had no 
means of enforcing obedience, and it possessed no real power 
to tax. It has been aptly said of the Confederate govern- 
ment that it could declare everything and do nothing. Its 
weakness is shown by the fact that at one time about eighty 
soldiers of the Pennsylvania Line, drunken and mutinous, drove 
Congress out of the city of Philadelphia. 

The sentiment of union among the states was sadly weak. 
Indeed, it is rather hard for us at this day to realize the 
condition of affairs at that time. There was no telegraph or 
telephone ; there were no steamboats, no railroads ; a person 
can now travel from Massachusetts to Oregon in less time than 
it took to travel from Boston to Philadelphia in 1783, Mails 
were very slow and postage high. As a natural consequence, 
the states were almost like foreign countries to one another. 
Manners and customs differed greatly in different parts of the 
country, and many very silly prejudices existed. The mutual 
jealousies and petty spites of the various states had been shown 
during the war, which indeed had at times come near to failure 
through lack of the sentiment of union. 

Now that the war was over, and the pressing necessity for 
concerted action had ceased, this sentiment was of course 
weaker than ever. Sectional strife increased, threats of seces- 
sion, or separation, were heard from both North and South, and 
sometimes it seemed almost as if there would be civil war. It 
was now that the beneficent effects of Maryland's fight for 
national control of the western lands was felt in its full force, 

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for a common interest in the valuable territory held the states 
together. It soon hecame apparent that something must be 
done, and done at once. 

81. Formatitui of the Federal Union. — Among the chief evils 
of this period was the commercial war which the states waged 
against one another, by charging high tariff duties on goods 
brought into one state from another. Virginia and Maryland 
found it necessary to come to some agreement for the regula- 
tion of their commerce, and this was thought a good occasion 
for a general conference of the states on the same subject. A 
convention met at AnnapoHs in September, 1786, but only five 
states were represented. The convention therefore adjourned 
without discussing the matter, but before doing so, it issued 
a call for another convention to meet at Philadelphia and 
devise some means for the improvement of the general govern- 

The convention met accordingly in Philadelphia in May, 1787, 
and adjourned in September of the same year. George Wash- 
ington was elected president of this famous body, which then 
proceeded to abolish the old Confederation, and to frame the 
system of government under which we now live. The Constitu- 
tion so framed was adopted by the states, and on April 30, 1789, 
George Washington became first president of the United States. 
There was much opposition to the new Constitution, and its rati- 
fication was opposed by some of the strongest patriots. The 
states seemed to fear that a strong central government would 
after a time become an instrument of tyranny. When the people 
were once convinced that they were not going to sacrifice any 
of their liberties, but were merely going to transfer from the 
states to a national government those powers which it was 
necessary to exercise in common, they did not hesitate to adopt 
the Constitution. In Maryland, a convention met at Annapolis 

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on April 2i, 1788, and- seven days later ratified the Constitution 
by a vote of 63 to 1 1 . ^ 


TS. The Aiticles of Confederation. 

How did tlie new states regard themselves? 

What necessity for Union existed ? Wliat was done to meet the need? 

What action was taken in this matter by Maryland f Was the act 

of importance ? 
79. The Attitude of Maryland. 

The Northwest Territory ; conflicting claims of several states. 
Maryland advances the idea that this territory should be the property 

of all the states, and shows both the justice and good policy of the 

The action of Maryland was, in etTecl, the laying of the corner-stone 

of the Federal Union. 
Maryland carries her point and enters the Union, March I, 1781. 
BO. " The Critical Period " 

How did the Articles of Confederation work when put into practical 

operation ? 
Describe fully the condition of the country under this form of govem- 

What held the states together? 
Bl . Formation of the Federal Union. 

Why the convention met at Annapolis in September, 1786. 

A new convention called for the following May to meet at Phila- 

The Constitutional Convention meels ; George Washington elected 

The present Constitution framed by the convention and adopted by 
the states. 

George Washington elected first president of the United States. 

Adoption of the Constitution in Maryland. 

1 During the period covered by this chapter there occurred an event which, while not 
connected with the subject o! the chapter, is of too much inlerest fo remain unnoticed. 
On March 14, 1786, James Rumsey of Cecil county, Maryland, made a irial trip ai Har- 
per's Ferry, in a steamboat invented by him. The vessel was eighty feet long and 
operated by drawing water in a1 the bow and forcing it out at the stem. This was 
more than twenty years before Fulton launched the Clermont. See Browne's Maryland, 
pp. 319-330. 

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. How did Ihe English gain their title to the Northwest Territory? 

How did the Americans gain theirs? What great states have since 
been formed from the Northwest Territor)'? What natural resources 
does this region contain? What facilities for trade? 

, Suppose the states of the Union to be entirely independent of one 
another; try to imagine some of the consequences. Is the law- 
making power of value without the right to attach penalties? Can 
a government be maintained without the right to impose taxes? 
Justify the term, "The Critical Period." 

. Name some of the powers which our Federal Government alone can 
exercise. Name some tilings which are managed entirely by the 
states. How long has our present system of government lasted? 
What is a republic? What is a democracy? What form of gov- 
ernment have the states? Can one of these states change this to 
another form-of government? Could all the states, acting together, 
do so? 

" Maryland's Part in Founding the American 


For a general account of the establishment of our Federal Union, see Flake's 
The Criliral Period of American HiUery. Tte importance of Maryland's pact id 
the great work is explained in this book. For an account ilevate<l particularly 
lo the part borne by Maryland, see the masterly essay of Professor Herbert B. Adams 
on Maryland's Infiuenu upon Land Cessions to Ihe United States; (his work is 
published in the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political 
Science, Third Series, No. i. Elson's History of the United States, pp. 318-340, 

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82. The State Government. — The organization of a state 
government in Maryland, following the Declaration of Independ- ■ 
ence and the overthrow of the proprietary government, and the 
election of Thomas Johnson as first governor, have already been 
mentioned. This new government was successful from the first. 
After an able administration. Governor Johnson was succeeded 
by Thomas Sim Lee, who in turn was succeeded by William Paca 
in 1782. In .1785 the noted Revolutionary officer. General Wil- 
liam Smallwood, was elected governor of the state. Three years 
later he was succeeded by John Eager Howard, who will be 
remembered as the hero of Cowpens and a leading spirit in the 
many hard-fought battles in the South. 

83. Tbe Potomac Company : Plans for Opening a Trade Route 
to the Western Part of the State. — The western part of Mary- 
land was a region of rich resources, abounding in forests of valu- 
able timber and in rich mines, particularly of soft coal. It also 
possessed excellent soil and a pleasant and healthful climate, and 
after the Indians had ceased to threaten the frontiers its popula- 
tion had steadily increased. It was therefore of the highest 
importance to open up a trade route for the natural wealth of 
this region to the Chesapeake, and thence to the markets of 
the world. 

The Potomac river would naturally suggest itself as a high- 
way for this trade, and it is said that as far back as the campaign 
of General Braddock, Washington had considered this very idea, 

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and had come to the conclusion that the river might be made 
navigable as far as Fort Cumberland. In 1784 the matter was 
taken up by the legislatures of Virginia and Maryland ; commis- 
sioners were appointed on both sides, and presently the Potomac 
Copipany was formed. George Washington was elected first 
president, and so deeply was he interested that he personally 
assisted at some of the surveys. Of course, it was the idea of 
the Potomac Company to open up the western part of Virginia 
as well as of Maryland. A great deal of money was invested in 

The Potomac River at Harper's Ferry 
From a photograph 

the enterprise, and the work was carried on at intervals for many 
years, but in the end the attempt had to be given up. The old 
Potomac Company then became merged in the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal Company. The history of this organization will be 
taken up further on in the course of our narrative. 

84. Interest in Education. — Following the end of the war, 
much interest seems to have been taken in education. In 1782 
Washington College was founded at Chestertown on the Eastern 
Shore, and named in honor of our illustrious first president. In 
1784 St. John's College was founded at Annapolis, and in the 

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following year the two were united as the University of Mary- 
land. This arrangement, however, was not completed. King Wil- 
liam's School (see Sec. 
43) was merged in St. 
John's College, These 
two colleges, Washing- 
ton and St. John's, are 
still in existence. 

85. Founding the City 
of Washington. — Dur- 
ing former years Con- 
gress had moved about 
from city to city accord- 
ing to the necessities of 
the moment. After the 
establishment of a truly 
national government it 
became necessary to fix 
upon a permanent cap- 
ital. After much discussion. Congress finally decided upon the 
Potomac river for its location, and Washington was asked to 
select a site for the future seat of government. He chose that 
of the present city of Washington, named for the " Father of 
his Country." A district ten miles square, on both sides of the 
river, was ceded to the United States by Virginia and Mary- 
land. It was provided that the public buildings should be erected 
on the Maryland side, and the part ceded by Virginia was after- 
ward given back to that state. Both Maryland and Virginia 
appropriated large sums of money to be used for the erection 
of these buildings. The corner-stone of the Capitol was laid by 
Washington on September i8, 1793, and the seat of govern- 
ment was removed to the new capital in June, 1800. 

Old McDowell Hall, St. John's College 
From a pbolograph 

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THE WAR OF 1812 

86. Causes of the War. — The Revolutionary War was fought 
for political freedom; the War of 1812 was fought for commer- 
cial freedom. The British found it difficult to obtain enough 
sailors to serve in their navy, and this want they undertook to 
supply by boldly stopping American vessels on the high seas 
and taking off seamen, under the pretense that they were 
deserters from the British navy. This was called impressment, 
and the unfortunate men so impressed were cruelly robbed 
of home, friends, and country without the least cause or any 
chance of redress. Such an act, of course, would not now be 
tolerated for one moment, but it must be remembered that in 
the beginning of the century our country was pitiably weak, 
and we were obliged to suffer some bitter wrongs, simply 
because we were too weak to help ourselves. England was 
mistress of the seas, with a navy nearly a hundred times as 
strong as ours, and for a while we could only protest. Never- 
theless, England's conduct soon became so overbearing as to 
be unendurable, and in June, 1812, Congress declared war. 

87. Progress of the War ; Gallant Exploit of Marylandeis. — 
The declaration of war was not approved by all the people of 
the country; most of the party known as Federalists opposed 
it, and in New England, where trade was interfered with, the 
war was denounced as unnecessary and ruinous, and threats of 
secession were heard. The Massachusetts senate even declared 
the war to be " founded on falsehood and declared without neces- 
sity." In Maryland the senate resolved "that the war waged 
by the United States against Great Britain is just, necessary, 
and politic, and ought to be supported by the united strength 
and resources of the nation, until the grand object is obtained 
for which it was declared." The majority of the Maryland 

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house were opposed to the declaration of war, yet they did 
not hesitate to pledge their "lives and fortunes to the public 
service." Baltimore proved itself one of the most zealous and 
ardently patriotic cities in the United States. 

A newspaper of Baltimore, called the Federal Republican, 
printed an article bitterly denouncing the war and accusing the 
government of dishonorable and unworthy motives. The result 
was a riot, and before the affair was settled the office of the news- 
paper was torn down and several persons 
were killed or wounded. 

The military operations of the war were 
in general badly managed and very un- 
successful. An invasion of Canada was 
attempted, but the effort ended in failure. 
During this time the capture of two Brit- 
ish vessels on Lake Erie, the Caledonia 
and the Detroit, was planned by Lieu- 
tenant Jesse Duncan Elliott, a young 
\ naval officer of Maryland. The capture 

Nafhan Towson ' 

.... was EralJantly executed by Elliott and 

From a painline in Ihe *; ' ' 

gallery of ihe Maryland Captain Nathan Towson,* of Baltimore. 

HLsiorLcai Socieiy ^^ ^^^ ^^^ Americans were much more 

successful. The ships of our navy won a series of brilBant vic- 
tories, and American privateers inflicted immense loss upon 
British shipping. Of these none performed services of greater 
value than the famous " Baltimore clippers," noted for their 
remarkable swiftness. If they found it necessary to fly before 
a stronger enemy, they had no trouble in escaping, while if the 
enemy fled at their approach, he had little chance of escape, . 
Enormous damage was inflicted upon the British in this way. 

I Towson, Ihp cijunly seat of Ballimore couQly, was named for Captain (afterward 
General) Towson. 

b, Google 


A Baltimore Clipper 
After a contemporary photograph 

88. The War in Maryland ; Capture of Washington.— In 1813 
ten British ships of war under Admiral Cockburn (Co-burn) en- 
tered the Chesapeake. For several months the admiral and his 
men amused themselves by robbing the inhabitants and destroy- 
ing property on both sides of the bay. Havre de Grace and 
other towns were sacked and burned, and Baltimore threatened. 
Lonely farmhouses and other private property were wantonly 
destroyed. The inhabitants were shamefully abused, and even 
women and children did not escape insult and outrage at the 
. hands of the invaders. These outrageous proceedings were 
the worse as they served no military purpose whatever. They 
simply increased the hatred of the people for the British, and 
aroused the state and the nation to more determined resistance. 

In August, 1814, another British fleet arrived in the Chesa- 
peake, commanded by Admiral Cockrane. On board this fleet 

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were, three thousand veteran soldiers under General Ross. An 
expedition for the capture of Washington was planned at once. 
Sir Peter Parker was sent up the bay with several vessels to 
threaten Baltimore and annoy the people as much as possible. 
Barns and crops were burned and other property destroyed. 
But these depredations were not to go unpunished. Near mid- 
night on the 30th of August about two hundred men landed under 
Sir Peter Parker in person, with the intention of surprising and 
capturing the camp of Lieutenant Colonel Philip Reed, con- 
sisting of about one hundred and seventy men of a Maryland 
regiment. The two little armies met on what is known as 
Caulk's Field, about nine miles from Chestertown, and not only 
were the British driven back with loss, but Sir Peter Parker him- 
self was killed. A monument was erected on Caulk's Field in 
the autumn of I902,'to the memory of Philip Reed. 

In the meantime the main body of British moved up the Patux- 
ent river. On their approach Commodore Barney, whose flotilla 
was lying in the river, ordered his ves- 
sels to be burned to keep them from 
falling into the hands of the enemy. 
He and his men then joined the force 
under General Winder, who was pre- 
paring to resist the attack of Ross. 
No adequate preparations had been 
made for the defense of the capital. 
General William H. Winder had been 
placed in command of this department, 
but his force consisted of a mere hand- ' 
ful of regulars, the rest of his troops 
being militia from Maryland, Virginia, and the District of 
Columbia. They were met by the British at Bladensburg and 
quickly routed, the militia making hardly any resistance. Indeed, 

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the principal defense was made by the gallant crews of Commo- 
dore Barney, the latter finally being wounded and taken pris- 
oner. Ross now pushed on and entered Washington; where he 
seized or destroyed much private property and burned the 
Capitol and other public buildings. 

89. The Attack on Baltimore. — The British now turned their 
attention to Baltimore, When it was known that they were 
coming, all ordinary work ceased and everybody began to drill or 
to work on the defenses. Breastworks were rapidly thrown up 
across the eastern part of the city. The approaclies to the city 
by water were guarded by Fort McHenry, at the extremity of 

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Whetstone Point at the mouth of the Northwest Branch of the 
Patapsco ; by batteries on Lazaretto Point opposite ; and by 
batteries erected in the rear of the fort. The officer in com- 

Fort McHeniy 

From a photograph 

mand of the army was General Samuel Smith, noted for his 
heroic defense of Fort Mifflin (see Sec. 70); in charge of the 
two divisions were Generals Winder 
and Strieker. The fort was com- 
manded by Major Armistead. 

By seven o'clock on the morning 
of September 12, 1814, about eight 
or nine thousand British troops 
had landed on North Point, at the 
mouth of the. Patapsco. The ves- 
sels moved up the river to attack 
Fort McHenry. General Strieker, 
in command of the Baltimore militia, 
moved toward North Point on the 
evening of the nth, and on the 
morning of the I2th formed a line 
of battle, with his right flank resting on Bear creek and his left 
covered by a marsh. The British marched boldly to the attack, 
but the struggle had hardly commenced when General Ross him- 

Samuel Smith 

Toni a portrait in the gallery of the 

Maryland Historical Sociely 

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;,— y„^ ^Ci_^ 4r —.^ ;fliz ,«. vii^ 

^^f^ '^r-/^'. -f^^^ ,^ i ,,,,^ nr ^' 

The " Star-spangled Banner " 
uscript in possession of Mrs. Rebecca Ooyd Shippen 

< ,™r.^ _~«i..i^ 




self fell, mortally wounded. The inexperienced militia bravely 
held their ground against the superior force of trained soldiers 
until the attack had been thoroughly checked. They then re- 
tired to the defenses nearer the city. This engagement is known 
as the battle of North Point. Further fighting was postponed 
until the fieet should pass 
Fort McHenry and be able 
to cooperate with the army, 
but this was an event that 
never occurred. 

At sunrise on the 13th of 
September the British fleet 
opened fire ou Fort McHenry, 
which could make no reply, 
the vessels of the fleet having 
stationed themselves out of 
range. Attempts were made 
to send vessels and troops 
nearer to the fort, but they 
were repulsed with great 
slaughter. All that day shot 
and shell rained upon the de- 
francia Stou Key voted fort ; the sun sank and 

darkness fell, but the roar of 
cannon and the screech of 
shell had not ceased. There was something singularly impres- 
sive -and awful in the sullen silence of the fort. Now, however, 
the Stars and Stripes that had waved in calm defiance throughout 
the day were hidden by the darkness, and when the firing sud- 
denly ceased before morning no one could tell whether the fort 
had surrendered or not. But the first rays of the rising sun 
showed that our flag was still there, floating in calm triumph in 

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the morning breeze; Thousands of hearts bounded with pride 
and joy. The attack on Baltimore was at an end and the 
defeated enemy in fuil retreat. 

90. " The Star 'Spangled Banner. " — The feelings excited by 
these stirring events were expressed by Francis Scott Key in the 
famous national song, "The Star-spangled Banner." Before 
the bombardment began. Key had gone out to the fleet to obtain 
the release of a friend who had been captured, and he was de- 
tained until the attack was over. Pacing up and down the deck 
of the vessel during that night of terrible suspense, he composed 
the famous song, making a few notes on the back of a letter. 
Soon people all over the country were singing its patriotic 
words. (See Sec. 121.) 

91. The End of the War. — On the 24th of December, 1814, 
a treaty of peace was signed, ending the war. The right of our 
ships to sail the seas unmolested has not been again questioned. 

8^ The State GoTemtnent. 

Early governors of the state. 

83, The Potomac Company; Plans for Opening a Trade Route to the Western 

Part of the State. 
Give an account of the alttnipi, its object, and the result. 

84. Interest in Education. 

Tell about the first University of Maryland. 
SS. Founding the City ot Wasbington. 

The necessity for a permanent capital. 

Washington chooses a site on the Potomac river. 

Territory ceded by Virginia and Maryland ; Virginia's part ceded back. 

Government transferred to the city of Washington, June, 1800. 

The War of i8iz 
86. Causes of the War. 

Explain ihe causes of the War of i8l2. 
Why were hostilities so long delayed? 

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87. Piogtess of the War ; Gallant Exploit of Haiylandero. 

Contrast the attitude of Maryland with that of the New England states 

A riot in Baltimore, causing loss of life and destruction of property. 

Military operations unsuccessful ; success of the navy. 

Capture of the Caledonia and the Detroil. 

Services of the privateers; the "Ballimore clippers." 
U. The War in Maryland ; Capture of Washington. 

The depredations of Admiral Cockburn and their effect. 

Arrival of second fleet and three thousand troops. 

The battle of Bladensburg; Washington captured. 

89. The Attack on Baltimore. 

The defenses of Baltimore ; generals in command of troops. 
The battle of North Point ; advance of the British checked. 
Bombardment of Fort McHenry. Failure of attack on the city. 

90. The "Star-spangled Banner." 

Francis Scott Key detained on a British warship. 

He composes the famous national song during the night of suspense. 

91. The End of the War. 

Treaty of peace signed, December 24, 1814. 


1. Trace on the map [pp. 232-223] : (a) the course of the Potomac river as 
far as Cumberland ; (A) the route of the Chesapeake and Ohio canal ; 
the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Had the Potomac been made navi- 
gable lo Cumberland, what effect would this probably have had on 
Baltimore city ? How did the railroad affect the situation ? 

3. Do Washington College and St. John's College obtain state aid at the 
present time ? What does the state get in return ? 


See Elson's Hisloty of the United Stales, pp. 3(14-450, or any standard history 
of the United States, 01 of the War of 1812. Browne's Maryland, pp. 325-338. 
James's revision of McSherry's History of Maryland, pp. 285-304. If available, 
consult Scharfs History of Maryland, Vol. III. 

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92. Introduction. — We have already considered the resources 
of the western section of Maryland and the need of a trade 

route between this part of the state and Chesapeake bay. The 
Potomac Company was organized to open such a route, but the 
scheme of opening up the Potomac to navigation proved impos- 
sible of accomplishment. Up to the time of the war the com- 
merce of the state prospered immensely, the value of exports 
increasing perhaps six or seven times. The need for commercial 
facilities of a better kind grew constantly, and the proposed trade 
route between the west and the east of the state became of the 
highest importance to both sections. During the war, schemes 
of improvement were for the time laid aside, and commerce 
necessarily suspended to a great extent. But with the close of the 
war began a new era of prosperity and development, followed by 
the needed improvements, whose history we have now to trace., 

93. "The Monumental City." — On the 4th of July, 1815, 
the comer-stone of a fine monument to the memory of George 
Washington was laid. The monument, built by the state of 
Maryland, is situated on North Charles street, in the city of 
Baltimore. It was completed in 1829, is built of white Mary- 
land marble, and is in all 164 feet high. It rests on a marble 
base 50 feet square and 24 feet high, and is surmounted by a 
statue, 16 feet in height, of Washington, represented in the act 
of resigning his commission. This was the first worthy monu- 
ment erected to the memory of the " Father of his Country," 

Digilized by Google 


Mount Vernun Square, ISakimore, showing Washington Monument 
From H photograph 

On the first anniversary of the British attack on Baltimore the 
corner-stone of a monument to the memory of the city's defenders 
at North Point and Fort McHenry was laid. This is Icuown as 
the Battle Monument. ' A great many monuments have since 

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been erected in Baltimore, and on this account, as well as because 
the city raised the first notable monument to George Washington, 
Baltimore is often called the " Monumental City." 

94. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. — Although it proved 
to be impossible to carry out the plans of the old Potomac Com- 
pany for opening up the Potomac river, yet the project of estab- 
lishing a trade route along that stream was far too important to 
be given up. It was not merely a question of providing an out- 
let for the rich region of western Maryland, but there was a 
chance to bring through the state a large and valuable western 
trade as well. The 

next thing thought 
of to supply the 
need was a canal, 
and after much dis- 
cussion the Chesa- 
peake and Ohio 
Canal Company was 
formedin 1824. This 
company undertook 

to construct a Canai Chesapeake and Ohio anal 

from Georgetown, From a pho.ograph 

on the Potomac, to the Ohio river. From Georgetown, vessels 
could reach the Chesapeake by way of the Potomac river. The 
canal was finally completed as far as Cumberland. 

There was also much talk of cutting a canal to connect Balti- 
more with the Chesapeake and Ohio canal, as it was feared that 
the western trade would pass the city by ; but it was considered 
doubtful whether such a plan was practicable, and the proposed 
canal was never begun. 

95. The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. — The citizens of 
Baltimore fully realized the danger of missing the large and 

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.1 Melhod of Travel on the ISaltimori 
Railroad, 1829 
From a print 


profitable trade of the west, as well as its value to them in case 
they could get it to flow through their city. They accordingly 
cast about for some 
means of bringing this 
trade to Baltimore. 
A committee, com- 
posed of Philip E. 
Thomas and other 
prominent gentlemen, 
was appointed to con- 
sider the matter, and 
' they recommended 
that a double railroad 
be constructed from 
Baltimore to some suitable point on the Ohio river. 

Now at first sight this may seem very simple and natural, 
but really the plan showed great wisdom, foresight, and pro- 
gressiveness on the 
part of its projectors ; 
for at that time rail- 
roads were not in use 
in America, and the 
first passenger rail- 
road in the world (the 
Liverpool and Man- 
chester railway, in 
England) had been 
commenced but two 
years before and was 
not yet in successful 
operation. A company to put this plan of the committee into 
operation was nevertheless formed, called the Baltimore and 

First Locomotive built in America 

Peter Cooper, Baltimore, 1830 

From a photograph 

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Ohio Railroad Company, and Philip E. Thomas was made its 
first president. From a discovery made in England by Mr. 
William Gibson (for- 
merly of the Ualtimore 
and Ohio railroad) it 
appears that a repre- 
sentative was actually 
sent to Eiiigland to 
make personal inves- 

The ceremony of 
breaking ground was 
performed on the 4th 
The DavU"Gri.,shopper" Type, 1S32 ^j j^jy^ ^g^g^ ^^ ^^^^ 

romapoograp aged Charles Carroll 

of Carrollton, then more than ninety years of age, and the last 
living signer of the Declaration of Independence. "I consider 
this among the most important acts of my life," exclaimed the 
venerable' patriot as he struck the spade into the earth, " second 
only to that of sign- • 
ing the Declaration 
of Independence, if 
second even to that." 
Although horses 
were at first used to 
draw the cars, steam 
was soon applied. 
Peter Cooper, who - 

owned large iron The "Dutch Wagon" Type, 1838 

works in the vicinity From a prim 

of Canton, near Baltimore, built a small locomotive, very Httle 
larger than an ordinary workman's handcar of the present day. 

by Google 


The first trip was made on August 28, 1830, from Baltimore to 
Ellicott's Mills (now Ellicott City), and was entirely successful. 
The return trip of thirteen miles was made in fifty-seven min- 
utes. In 1852 the 
road was completed 
to Wheeling, on the 
Ohio river, and on 
New Vear'sday, 1853, 
the first train passed 
over the road. 

96. Financial Dis- 
tresses. — The Bank 
of Maryland, owing 
to a change of policy 
on the part of the 
national government, 
was obliged to stop business in 1S34. Many of the depositors 
were poor persons, who naturally became much alarmed at the 
thought of losing the . - 

little they possessed ; 
but great confidence 
was felt in the offi- 
cers of the bank, and 
the people waited pa- 
tiently for some 
months. Then a vio- 
lent quarrel arose 

among the officers of Winan'a Famous "Camel Back," 1851 

the bank, and the con- *'''"" " p""' 

fidence of the depositors was quickly lost. Riots followed, in 
the course of which the houses of several of the directors of 
the bank and that of the mayor of the city (Baltimore) were 

The Winan's " MucJ Uigget,' 

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broken open and much valuable property destroyed. For a 

time the mob held absolute control, but companies of citizens 

were soon formed for the preservation of the peace, under the 

. - , leadership of General 

Samuel Smith, and 

the troubles were 

promptly quelled. 

Two years later a 
great wave of finan- 
cial distress swept 
over the whole coun- 
try — business houses 
Mod«t. Paasene« Locomoiive, 1904 ^nd banks failed from 
Ftomaphcograph ^^^ g„j ^j ^^e Unlon 
to the other. Some states refused to pay the interest that was 
legally due on their debts. The public improvements going on 
in Maryland, particularly the canal and the railroad enterprises, 
had been repeatedly aided by the state. In proportion to the pop- 
ulation, the expendi- . . .. 

tures had been enor- 
mous. In the desperate 
condition that now 
confronted the state, 
her credit and honor 
were preserved by Mr. 
George Peabody, a 
wealthy and patriotic 

merchant who had Latgest Freight Locomolive in the World, 1904. 

laid the foundation of From a photograph 

a great fortune in Baltimore. He secured a loan in London, 
supporting Maryland credit with his own fortune and influence, 
yet he nobly refused all pay for his great and important services. 

by Google 


97. The First Telegraph Line. — In 1 844 the first telegraph line 
was built, between Baltimore and Washington. This instfument 
was the invention of Professor Samuel F, B. Morse and has been 
of the highest importance in the. development of our country, 

98. Government Reforms. — The many changes that took 
place after the adoption of the Constitution of 1776 (see Sec. 

16) gave rise to much 

dissatisfaction wi(h 

that instrument. Each 

county sent the same 

number of delegates 

to the Assembly — 

four, while Baltimore 

and Annapolis sent 

half as many — ^two 

each. At that time the 

counties were nearly 

equal in population. 

View of EUicott City, First Terminus of the and Baltimore was 

B, & o. R.R. only a moderately 

From a photograph large town. But the 

western counties soon came to have large populations, while 

Baltimore, which was made a city in 1797, grew to be a large 

and important centre. It thus, happened that a minority of the 

people could control the state government This came to be a 

great grievance, and after much effort the Constitution, in 1837, 

was revised. Representation was more fairly apportioned ; the 

counties sent delegates according to population, Annapolis lost 

her delegates, and Baltimore sent the same number as the 

largest counties. The electoral college was abolished, and the 

election of the senators given to the people. The governor's 

council was abolished, and the governor elected by the people. 

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In 1802 the property qualification for voting was abolished, 
and that for holding office followed in i8ro; in 1825 Jews, who 
before this time were not allowed to hold any public office, were 
placed on the same footing with Christians; and in 1846 the 
sessions of the General Assembly were made biennial. The old 
Constitution having become " a thing of shreds and patches," 
a new one was adopted by the people in 1851. The term of 
the governor and of senators was made four years, and it was 
provided that the judges 
and many other officers 
should be elected by the 
people. Imprisonment 
for debt was abolished. It 
is apparent that the gen- 
eral tendency of all these 
reform movements was to 
place the control of af- 
fairs more directly in the 
hands of the people, and 
to render the government 
more truly free and re- 

99. The War with Mex- 
ico. — Our present state 

of Texas was formerly a Mexican War Monument, Baltimore ' 

part of Mexico. Its in- From a photograph 

habitants rebelled against the government of that country, and 
succeeded in establishing an independent republic. This repub- 
lic asked to be annexed to the United States, The request 
being granted, a dispute ensued over the boundary between 

e Mexican War, lo the memory of Maty- 

b, Google 


Mexico and Texas, which led to a war between the United States 
and Mexico. Congress declared war in May, 1846. 

In the course of this war no officers performed their duties 
with more spirit, devotion, and intelligence than those of Mary- 
land. At the battle of Palo Alto, Major Samuel Ringgold of 
Maryland, who commanded the artillery, was mortally wounded. 
His skill and bravery were of cardinal importance in winning 
victory for the Americans, Colonel William H. Watson of 
Maryland was killed while leading his regiment to the assault 
at Monterey. After the capture of Monterey, Captain Ran- 
dolph Ridgely, who had succeeded to Major Ringgold's com- 
mand, was killed by a fall from his horse. He served with 
distinguished skill and valor, and his death was regarded as 
a serious loss to the American army. Captain John Eager 
Howard, a grandson of the Revolutionary hero, won much 
honor for his courage and spirit. In this war Maryland's repu- 
tation for the personal gallantry and good conduct of her sol- 
diers was fully sustained. 


92. Introduction. 

Increase of Maryland's commerce. 

93. "The Honumental City." 

Describe the monument to Washingion erected in Baltimore. 

What does the Battie Monument commemorate? 

Why is Baltimore called the Monumental City? 
di. The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. 

Formation of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Company ; its plans. 

How far were the plans successful? 
9S. The Baltimore ajid Ohio RaUroad. 

The citizens of Baltimore dedde to connect the city with the Ohio river 
by means of a railroad ; wisdom of the plan. 

Formation of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. 

The work begun by Charles Carroll ; his opinion of its importance. 

Steam used; theengineof Peter Cooper, and the trial trip to EUicott City. 

The road completed to the Ohio, 1852. 

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96. Financial Diatresaes. 

Failure of the Bank of Maryland. 

Riots occur, and serious loss of property results; the riots quelled by 

General Samuel Smith. 
The heavy expenditures of Maryland for public improvements. 
The credit of the stale saved by George Peabody. 

97. The First Telegraph Line. 

Location of the first telegraph line. 

98. GoTeinment Reforms. 

What changes were made by the amendments to the Constitution in 

What other changes were made? 
What changes were made by the Constitution of 1851 i* 
What was (he general effect of all these changes ? 
S9. The War with Mexico. 

State the cause of the Mexican War. 

Give an account of the services of Marylanders in this war. 


1. Is it well to erect monuments to the memory of illustrious men? Give 

rea-sons for your answer. What is the largest monument in the world? 

2. Name some other railroads in Maryland at (he present lime besides the 

Baltimore and Ohio, What is the route of each you have named? 
Explain in detail how a railroad benefits the country through which it 
is built. Name four large citie.s along (he line of the Baltimore and 
and Ohio railroad in Maryland. 

3. State some of the advantages of the telegraph. Show how it strengthens 

the union of the states of our country. Express your opinion of the 
various changes made in the government of Maryland, as described in 


James' revision of McSherry's History of Maryland, pp. 305-338. If available, 
see ScharPs Maryland, Vol. III. For Constitutional changes, see Steiner's Inttitu- 
tions and Cvail Government of Maryland, pp. I2-15, For a full account of the 
Chesapeake and Ohio canal, see Dr. G. W. Ward's Early Development of the Chua- 
peake and Ohio Canal Project, in the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical 
and Political Science, Seventeenth Series, ix, x, xi. For an account of the Mexican 
War, see Elson's History of the United States, pp. 5*3-533' <"■ ""y B"'"' history of 
the nation. 

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100. Introduction. — We have now reached- the saddest part 
of our story — the time when the people of our country were to 
meet on the deadly battle-field, not to repel a foreign enemy, 
but in bloody strife with one another. War is always terrible, 
even when waged against a foreign nation, and in defense of 
home and country ; it is infinitely more terrible when a nation 
becomes divided in civil war, when relatives and friends are 
arrayed under opposing standards, and even brothers meet in 
deadly combat. It is therefore painful even to look back upon 
this unfortunate period of our history, and in studying about it 
we should try to free ourselves from all feeling of bitterness and 
prejudice. There is here simply a record of the most important 
points of Maryland's connection with the great struggle. The 
bitter feelings of anger and hatred that the war naturally excited 
are now practically all allayed, and our people are again united ; 
it should be our effort to perpetuate this friendly feeling in every 
possible way, to look back upon the wrongs and mistakes com- 
mitted by both sides in the great civil war with no other feel- 
ings than those of pity and regret, and to take care ourselves 
that no repetition of these sad occurrences ever be possible. 

101. Negro Slavery. — Very early in the history of our coun- 
try slaves were introduced, and gradually came to be held 
throughout the land. As the population increased and the con- 
dition of the various sections of the country became fixed, the 
people of the North engaged largely in commerce and manufac- 

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turing, while those of the South were occupied almost entirely 
with agriculture. To the people of the North slavery was of 
little or no use, and gradually the institution was abolished ; in 
the South, on the other hand, 
slave labor was very valuable, 
and slavery was therefore re- 

102. The Maryland Coloniza- 
tion Society. — There were, how- 
ever, many people in the South 
who favored the gradual eman- 
cipation of the slaves, and efforts 
to accomplish this end were 
made, particularly in Maryland. 
No state made greater efforts 
to improve the condition of the 
negro. In 1 790 there were 8,043 
free negroes in the state ; by 
i860 there were 83,718, only 
3,470 less than the slave popula- 
tion. The proportion of slaves 
to free negroes had been re- 
duced from 12.81 to 1.04. 

Early in the century the Amer- Confederate Monument, Ballimore 

lean Colonization Society was Erected by the Maryland Daughters of 

formed for the purpose of plant- 

^ '^ t^ From a photograph 

ing colonies of free negroes in 

Africa. A similar organization was formed in Maryland in 
January, 1831, called "The Maryland State Colonization So- 
ciety." Soon afterward a colony was sent out to Liberia, a 
piece of territory on the western coast of Africa. The follow- 
ing is a resolution adopted by the Society : " That the Mary- 

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land State Colonization Society look forward to the extirpation 
of slavery in Maryland, by proper and gradual efforts addressed 
to the understanding and experience of the people of the 
state, as the peculiar object of their labors." This they thought 
could best be accomplished by colonization, and it is worth not- 
ing that the use of intoxicating liquors was forbidden, both to 
the employees of the Society and to the emigrants. The Soci- 
ety was liberally aided by the state, and succeeded in establish- 
ing a prosperous colony, which was known as " Maryland in 
Liberia." This colony was given a republican form of gov- 
ernment, and finally granted independence. It was afterward 
united by treaty with Liberia, and became Maryland county. 

103. The Controversy over Slavery between the North and 

South The regulation of slavery was not, however, left to the 

states to manage in their own way. A party arose in the North 
called Abolitionists, who declared that slavery was a great moral 
wrong and ought to be abolished by the national government. 
The enormous growth of the cotton industry made slavery seem 
more necessary, and this, with the natural resentment at the 
bitter Abolition attacks, checked the emancipation movements 
already in progress. 

The increase of national territory was closely connected with 
the slavery question. At the close of the Revolutionary War 
our territory extended to the Mississippi ; as time went on it 
gradually extended across the continent to the Pacific. A party 
was formed in the North, called the Republican, for the purpose 
of prohibiting slavery in the territories, on the ground that it 
was morally wrong. The people of the South, supported by a 
decision of the United States Supreme Court, claimed the right 
to take their staves with them wherever they pleased, just as 
they could take any other property. So here were the elements 
of a fatal quarrel. In i860 the Republican party nominated 

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Abraham Lincoln for the presidency, and he was elected. It 
was the election of Lincoln that precipitated the Civil War. 

104. States' Rights ; Secession of Southern States. — From 
the time when the Federal Union was formed there had been 
much difference of opinion about the powers that belonged to 
the general government and those which were retained by the 
states. Many [iersons believed that a state had the right to 

Abraham Lincoln Jefferson Da.vi3 

From a photograph Fiom a phoK^raph 

"secede," or withdraw from the Union into which it had entered, 
while others thought that once in the Union a state was obliged 
to remain there. In the early history of the United States 
threats of secession were often heard both from Northern and 
Southern states. The right to secede was now claimed and 
actually exercised. 

Many of the Southern leaders declared that the interests of 
the South were no longer safe in the Union after the election of 

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Lincoln, and shortly after that event South Carolina, Georgia, 
Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas seceded 
from the Union. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, and North 
Carolina, although they remained in the Union for the time, did 
not think the Federal government had the right to use force 
against a seceding state, and when compelled to choose they 
joined the South. 

These states organized a new government, called the Con- 
federate States of America, and Jefferson Davis was elected 
president. The result was the Civil War, between the North 
and the South, the greatest war of modem times. 

105. The Position of Maryland. — How did Maryland stand 
in the terrible struggle now about to begin ? No other state 
occupied a more difficult position. As a Southern state, with 
a large population of slaves, and bound to the South by count- 
less ties, social, political, and commercial, Maryland naturally 
sympathized with the South. Yet at the same time, as in all 
the border states, there was the greatest difference of opinion 
among her people. Many people were in favor of seceding 
from the Union and ioining the Confederacy, while others were 
strongly attached to the Union and regarded the action of the 
South as treason and rebellion. Still others favored the cause 
of the South, but thought that prudence should restrain the 
state from taking that side ; for Maryland was separated from 
the Southern states by the Potomac, while on the north she lay 
exposed, and her bay and rivers invited attack by the Federal 
fleets. More important still, the Federal capital was situated 
within the geographical bounds of the state. Hence the na- 
tional government was certain to make the greatest efforts to 
prevent Maryland from taking the side of the South. Fearful 
suffering and perhaps ruin awaited a union with the South, and 
hence many Southern sympathizers were unwilling that the 

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State should thus endanger herself. There were still others 
who did not believe in the right of secession, but who thought 
the Federal government had no right to use force to prevent 
a state from seceding, while some believed in the right but did 
not think the conditions were such as to demand its exercise. 
Under these circumstances there was some effort to assume a 
neutral attitude, but it soon became plain that such a thing was 

U. S. Grant Robert E. Lee 

Fiom a photograph From a photograph 

impossible. The considerations of prudence, aided by the 
strong arm of the Federal government, prevailed, and Maryland 
remained in the Union. 

106. The War for the Union. — In April, 1861, hostilities 
commenced with the bombardment and capture of Fort Sum- 
ter, in Charleston harbor, by the Confederates. President 
Lincoln immediately issued a call for seventy-five thousand men 
to " put down the rebellion," and the call was promptly and 

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enthusiastically answered by the Northern states. The struggle 
which ensued between the armies of the two sections of our 
unhappy country was of the most desperate and terrible char- 
acter. The record of the various campaigns and battles belongs 
to the history of the United States, and forms no part of our 
own narrative. General Robert E. Lee, the commander-in-chief 
of the Southern army, was in the end obliged to surrender to 
General U. S. Grant, in command of the Federal armies, and 
the war thus came to an end with victory for the North. We 
have now to note the more important points of Maryland's con- 
nection with the great conflict. 

107. First Bloodshed of the War. — A body of Northern troops, 
the Sixth Massachusetts regiment, passed through Baltimore on 
the 19th of April, 1861, on the way to Washington. A terrible 
riot ensued. An excited mob surrounded the soldiers, began 
pelting them with stones and other missiles, and injured several. 
In return, the soldiers fired a number of times upon the crowd 
of angry people, and many persons were killed and wounded on 
both sides. A serious conflict was averted only by the bravery 
and energy of the mayor and the marshal of police, who finally, 
at great risk to themselves, managed to keep back the mob.' 

The greatest excitement now prevailed in Baltimore city. It 
was known that other bodies of troops were on their way south, 
and it seemed evident that they could not pass through Balti- 
more without a bloody conflict. To prevent this the bridges to 
the north and east of the city were destroyed, and by request 
of the governor of Maryland and the mayor of Baltimore city 
the president ordered that troops on the way to Washington 
should not approach Baltimore. 

1 As an evidence of the present good feeling, it is wort! 
choseHs regiment received a splendid ovation in Elaltimoi 
the city at the beginning of Ihe Spanish-American War. 

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108. Maryland Occupied by Federal Troops ; Acts of Oppres- 
sion. — Maryland, though she remained in the Union and was 
called a " loyal " state, was in many respects treated like a con- 
quered province. In May General B. F. Butler seized Fed- 
eral Hill by night, and batteries were erected overlooking the 
city. Soldiers were 
soon stationed at im- 
portant points all over 
the state, and the civil 
authorities were obliged 
to take second place. 

The unfortunate re- 
sults of a substitution 
of military for civil 
rule, of the reign of 
force instead of law, 
were now to be seen. 
In May Mr. John Mer- 
ryman of Baltimore 
county was arrested by 
the military authorities 
on a charge of treason, 
and imprisoned in Fort 
McHenry. Chief Jus- statue of Roger B. Taney, Washington Place, 

tice Taney,! of the Su- Baltimore 

preme Court of the From a photograph 

United States, issued, at the request of the prisoner, a writ of 

habeas corpus. This famous writ is regarded as one of the 

1 Chief Justice Taney was a nalive of Calvi 
high character and profound legal knowledge. 
Maryland as delegate and senator in Ihe Assei 
attorney-general of the Unit 

rt county, Maryland. He was a man of 
Before becoming chief justice he served in 
ibly, as attorney-general of Maryland, as 
retary of the treasury of the United Slates. 

In 1836 he was appointed chief justice ot the Supreme Court by President J acluon. 

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greatest safeguards of personal liberty. When a person is 
arrested and imprisoned, he may apply to a court of justice 
and obtain a writ of habeas corpus. This is an order from the 
court, commanding the prisoner to be brought before the court, 
and cause for his detention shown. If there is not sufficient 
evidence to justify his being held for trial, the judge is bound 
to set him free. The general in command refused to obey the 
writ of Justice Taney, and when a United States marshal at- 
tempted to arrest him for contempt of court, the latter was 
kept out of the fort and not allowed to perform his duty. 
The general declared that he had been authorized by the presi- 
dent to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. The chief justice 
then filed in the Supreme Court an opinion in the case, declar- 
ing that under the Federal Constitution Congress alone has the 
power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. No attention was 
paid by the government to this decision, however, and the pris- 
oner was held in confinement. The General Assembly of Mary- 
land then in session declared, " We deem the writ of habeas 
corpus the great safeguard of personal liberty; and we view with 
alarm and indignation the exercise of despotic power that has 
dared to suspend it." 

The military authorities assumed full control. In Baltimore 
a provost-marshal was appointed, and the commissioners of 
police were seized and imprisoned. They were first imprisoned 
in Fort Lafayette, New York, and afterward in Fort Warren, 
Boston harbor. In their case, as in that of Mr. Merryman, the 
writ of habeas corpus was disobeyed by the military authorities. 
The legislature protested against these things, and adjourned to 
meet in September. Before that time the members from Balti- 
more county and Baltimore city, together with the mayor of 
Baltimore city, were arrested by order of the secretary of war 
and sent to Fort Warren. There they were kept in confine- 

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ment for more than a year, without any public charge being 
preferred against them. Ail suspected persons were arrested. 
Some took advantage of the occasion to denounce their personal 
enemies, and both men and women were seized and imprisoned 
without any chance to defend themselves. Judge Carmichael, 
of Queen Anne's county, was arrested while presiding over 
court, dragged from the bench by soldiers, and severely 

Many of these acts were doubtless necessary for the protec- 
tion of Federal interests, while otheft were simply abuses of 
power. But all ahke will serve to show 
the misfortunes that are sure to follow 
war and the rule of force, and their 
lesson to us is that every possible ef- 
fort should be made to adjust difficul- 
ties in a peaceable, orderly, and lawful 
manner before resorting to any kind 
of violence. It is for us to regret such 
things in the past, and to prevent them 
in the future, 

109. Maryland Troops in the War ; 
Invasions of the State. —Thousands of 
Maryland men fought on both sides 

. , , , . , , ,, John R. Kenly 

durmg the war, and their record fully , , . ^ 

° , , . , ., , % From a photograph in the rooms 

sustamed the reputation of Maryland of ihe Grand Army ciub of 
soldiers. When the president issued Maryland 
his call for volunteers, there was a prompt response in Mary- 
land, and the troops so raised were formed into a regiment 
under Colonel John R. Kenly. By the close of the war nearly 
fifty thousand men of Maryland had served in the Federal 
armies. These, however, were not all serving voluntarily. Vol- 
unteers came forward too slowly for the Federal government 

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and after a time a conscription, or draft, was resorted to : that 
is, men were forcibly put into the army. Throughout the war 
the Maryland soldiers acquitted themselves creditably. 

Those who fought under the banner of the South were of 
course volunteers, and in most cases it was an undertaking of 
great difficulty and danger for them to 
reach the Southern lines. Notwith- 
standing this fact many thousands of 
Marylanders did join the armies of the 
South and fought with courage and de- 
votion throughout the war. Most of 
these soldiers fought with the forces 
of other states, and so left no record 
as an organization, but a small com- 
mand was organized, including infantry, 
cavalry, and artillery ; this was called the 
Maryland Line, and was under the com- 
„ J, .,. , . mand of Colonel Bradley T. Johnson. 

Bradley I.Johnson ■' ' 

FromBphoioEmphiniheMary- "^^6 Maryland troops Under Colonel 
land Line Confederate Sol- Johnson were wlth General " Stonewall" 
'"* ^"^ Jackson in his remarkably brilliant cam- 

paign in the Shenandoah valley, and served with distinction. 

At Front Royal, on the Shenandoah, the Maryland regiments 
of Colonels Johnson and Keniy met on the field of battle. The 
most determined bravery was shown by both sides, but the 
victory was with the Confederates, and Kenly and his men 
were finally defeated and captured. When the prisoners were 
standing in line next morning friends and relatives recognized 
each other, and greetings and hand-shakings were exchanged 
between those who a few hours before had been seeking each 
other's lives. Such occurrences are not extraordinary in civil 

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In September, 1862, the Confederate general, Lee, invaded 
Maryland and occupied Frederick. There he issued an address, 
inviting the people of Maryland to enroll themselves under the 
standard of the Confederacy, But few responded, for the sen- 
timent of the people in the west of the state was largely in 
favor of the North, 
while many who 
would willingly have 
given sympathy or 
aid were restrained by 
considerations of pru- 
dence. Lee was at- 
tacked by the Union 
army under General 
McClellan at South 
Mountain, and de- 
feated. On the 17th 
of September the ar- 
mies of Lee and Mc- 
Clellan met on the 
field of Antietam, and 
in the terrible battle 
that followed more 
than twenty-five thou- 
sand men were killed 

and wounded. Although the Confederates were outnumbered 
two to one, Lee managed to hold his ground, and on the next 
night withdrew his army into Virginia. 

■ In June, 1863, General Lee again entered Maryland. Private 
property was respected, but the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, 
being in the service of the Federal government, was destroyed 
from Harper's Ferry to Cumberland. Lee was defeated at 



Gettysburg, in Pennsylva- 
nia, and again retreated 
into Virginia. During the 
great battle of Gettysburg, 
which lasted three days, the 
Confederate regiment of 
Marylanders under Colonel 
James R. Herbert made a 
splendid charge, in which 
three men out of five were 
killed or wounded. 

Maryland was again in- 
vaded in 1864, by General 
J ^ Eariy, The Federal gen- 
's t, eral. Lew Wallace, was de- 
E I feated on the Monocacy 
's B river, near Frederick, and 
t i thecitizensof Frederickand 
"^ "^ Hagerstown were obliged to 
raise large sums of money 
to prevent the destruction 
of the towns. General Early 
threatened Baltimore and 
Washington, and had hopes 
of taking the latter; but 
finding it too strong for him 
to attack, he crossed the Po- 
tomac again into Virginia. 

On April 9, 1865, General 
Lee surrendered to Gen- 
eral Grant, and in another 
' month the war was over. 

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110. Maryland Aids the Stricken South. — At the close of the 
war the Southern people were left in a fearful condition. 
Nearly every industry had been 
paralyzed, the destruction of prop- 
erty had been immense, and thou- 
sands of widows and orphans were 
nearly destitute. This condition 
aroused the greatest compassion 
in the hearts of the people of 
Maryland. A " Southern Relief 
Association " was formed by the 
women of Baltimore, who opened 
a fair in 1866. From this fair the 
proceeds were more than $160,- 
000, and this sum was distributed 
to the Southern states. Mr. George 
Peahody, whose services to the 
state have already been mentioned 
(see Sec. 96), gave $2,000,000 for 
the purpose of founding and 
m^ntaining schools in the South. ■■"""" ^ photograph 

In January, 1867, fioo,ooo was appropriated by the General 
Assembly of Maryland for the relief of the destitute people of 
the South. 


100. IntToductiOE. 

Explain the peculiar horrors of civil war. 

What is the proper attitude toward the American Civil War? 

101. Negro Slavery. 

Explain why ihe institution of slavery was abolished in the North but 

retained in the South. 
IDS. The Maryland Colonization Society. 

Southern sentiment against slavery ; the efforts of Maryland in behalf 

of the negroes. 

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The Maryland State Colonization Sodety. 
(a) When was it formed? 
(6} What was its object? 

(c) How did its members think this could best be accomplished? 

(d) What aid did the Society obtain? 
(«) With what success did it meet? 

105. The CoDtrorersy orei SUtctx between the North and South. 

Rise of the Abolitionists; their opinion about slavery. 

Effect on the South. 

Connection of territorial expansion with the slavery question. 

Formation of the Republican party ; its principles. 

The election of Abraham Lincoln and its effects. 
IH. States' Rights ; Secession of Southern States. 

What differences of opinion existed about the rights of states? 

What states exercised the right of secession that was claimed? 

What new government was formed ? 

With what results? 
lU. The Position of Haiyland. 

Explain the peculiar difficulty of Maryland's position. 

State the wide differences of opinion that prevailed. 

Which side did Maryland take in the contest, and why? 

106. The Wu for the Union. 

Describe the bt^inning and general character of the Civil War. 
Who were the commanding generals on each side? 
How did the war result ? 

107. First Bloodshed of the War. 

Attack on the Sixth Massachusetts regiment in Baltimore city. 
Destruction of bridges. 

The order of the president of the United States. 
lOS. Haiyland Occupied tiy Federal Troops ; Acta of Oppression. 
The military authorities assume control. 
Arrest of Mr. John Mertyman and suspension of the writ of habeas 

The opinion of Chief Jus^ce Taney of the United States Supreme 

Protest of the Maryland Le^slature. 

Imprisonment of the commissioners of police for Baltimore city. 

Arrest of the members of the Assembly from Baltimore city and 

county, and of the mayor of Baltimore city. 
Arrest of Judge Carmichael. 
The lesson that these acts teach. 

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100. IbrylaDd XiDopa in tlia Wax ; InTasions of the State. 

Give an account of the services of Maryland troops on both sides in 

the Civil War. 
Describe the successive invasions of the state by the armies of the 

When and how did the war come to an end? 
110. BbiyUiid Aids tlie Stricken South. 

The terrible condition of the South at the dose of the war. 
Sympathy of Maryland. 

(d) The Southern Relief Society ; $160,000 raised. 

(6) Contribution of George Peabody. 

(c) The General Assembly appropriates $100,000. 


. What invention tended strongly to promote the growth of slavery ? Explain 
how. Was the idea of the Colonization Society about the abolition of 
slavery a good one? Give reasons for your answer. 

, In what way would it have been a piositive disadvantage to the Confederacy 
if Maryland had seceded? In what way would it have been a great 
advantage? Comparing the two, was it better for the Confederacy that 
Maryland did not secede? 

. What was the capital of the Confederacy ? Why was this city difficult for 
a Northern army to capture? 

, What provision does the Constitution of the United Slates make about the 
writ of habeas corpus ? What provision does the Constitution of Mary- 
land make in regard to it ? (See Const., Art. IH, Sec. 55.) Explain 
how an innocent person could be imprisoned indefinitely if it were not 
for this writ. 

For a more complete account of skvery am) the Gvil War, see Elson's Jfislory 
of the United States, pp. 539-776, or any standard history of the United States. See 
also Latrobe's Maryland in Liberia, Fund Publication No. 21 of the Maryland 
Historical Society ; Harris" Reminiscences of April, 1861, No. 31 of ditto ; Golds- 
borough's Maryland Line, C.S.A.; Bracketl's The Negro in Maryland, Johns 
Hopkins Universitj Studies, Extra Volume. Browne's Maryland, pp. 345-362. 
James' revision of McSherry's History of Maryland, pp. 338-396. 

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This period of the history of our state has been characterized 
by steady growth and prosperity. It began with the formation of 
our present system of state government, and throughout has been 
marked by the completion of many fine and important works of 
public improvement, by the increase of industry and commerce, 
and by the development and establishment of our present institu- 
tions and mode of life, 

111. Formation of the Present State Goverament. ^ — In 1864, 
the war not yet being over, a new state Constitution was adopted, 
which abolished slavery. This Constitution prescribed an oath to 
be taken by all voters, thus deciding who should vote on its. 
adoption and who should not ; and it further provided that the 
vote of the soldiers absent in the Union armies should be taken 
in their camps. Even then it was believed that the Constitution 
was defeated, until the soldiers' vote was brought in, when it was 
found to have been adopted by a very small majority. 

When the war was over it was natural that a strong desire for 
a new Constitution should exist. A convention was accordingly 
called in 1867 which framed the government under which we 
now live, and this was adopted at an election held September 18, 
1867, by a majority of twenty-four thousand. 

The Constitution is composed of two parts. The first, called 
the Declaration of Rights, consists of forty-five articles. It is, a 
statement of the general rights which the people of the state 
consider of special importance to their freedom. It is declared 

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that the people have the right "to alter, reform or abolish their 
form of government in such manner as they may deem expe- 
dient." It asserts the right of every person to worship God as 
he pleases, and the rights to freedom of speech, to trial by jury, 
and to protection of life, liberty, and property. 

The Second part of the Constitution is the Form of Govern- 
ment. The legislative power is vested in a General Assembly, 
composed of two Houses, the Senate and the House of Delegates. 
In the former each county is represented by one member, and 
the city of Baltimore by four ; in the latter each county is repre- 
sented according to its population, Baltimore sending four times 
as many delegates as the most populous county. The Assembly 
meets biennially on the first Wednesday of January. If he 
deems it necessary, the governor may call the legislature together 
in special session. The chief executive power is vested in a gov- 
'trnor ; he is elected by the people for four years and receives a 
salary of $4,500 a year.' To the governor is given the appoint- 
ment of many important officials, and he has the power to appoint 
all officials whose appointment is not otherwise" provided for in 
the Constitution or by law. In most cases the appointments are 
made by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. There 
is a. secretary of state, appointed by the governor, to keep a record 
of official acts and proceedings, and to have the custody of the 
Great Seal, An attorney-general and a comptroller of the treasury 
are elected by the people — the former to represent and advise 
the state in all -legal matters, and the latter to manage the money 
affairs of the state. A treasurer is elected by the General Assem- 
bly. For the administration of justice the state is divided into 
eight districts called circuits. Baltimore, which composes the 
eighth circuit, has a separate system of courts. In each of the 

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other circuits three judges^ are elected, — a chief and two asso- 
ciates. The chief judges of these circuits, together with a special 
judge from Baltimore city, form the Court of Appeals, the highest 
court of the state. 

The Constitution provided that every wkite male citizen of 
twenty-one years, should have the right to vote, but the word 
" white " was rendered of no effect by the fifteenth amendment 
to the Constitution of the United States, which prohibited such 
preference for one race. 

As times change, laws need to be altered, even the higher law 
of constitutions. In Maryland the Constitution may be amended 
if the changed or new section is proposed by three-fifths of the 
members of each house of the legislature and approved by a 
majority of the voters who' express their opinion in the election. 
In this way the state Constitution has been amended from time 
to time, in order to improve old methods or to deal with new 
problems. In 1915 two amendments of special importance were 
added : one is a " home rule " law giving the people of Baltimore 
city or of a county a large amount of freedom in deciding upon 
the form of their local government and in the making of local 
laws; the other establishes the "referendum," which means that 
if the voters of the state are dissatisfied with a law passed by the 
legislature, a certain number of them, by signing a petition, can 
have the law passed upon at a popular election, for final approval 
or rejection. In 1916 another very important amendment was 
approved, adopting what is called the "budget system." This is 
a plan for spending the money of the state more wisely and 
economically, which is accomplished by having the governor lind 
his official advisers, who are known to the public and are likely 

1 Recently an eicDa judge, making four, was added in the third circuit, composed of Bal- 
limoie and Harford coundei. This amendment was adopted in 1913 because there wai too 
much wgrk in this circuit for three judges to do. 

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to feel their responsibility, carefully prepare a list of all necessary 
expenditures, to be submitted to the legislature for final action.^ 

112. PoUtics and Elections. — At the present time there are 
two great political parties in the United States, — the Democratic 
and the Republican. To make clear the principles and doctrines 
of these great parties would require much explanation, and they 
do not belong particularly to our slate history. 

Chapter V contains an account of politics in Maryland during 
the Civil War. After the close of the war the Democrats were 
found to be greatly in the majority, and they won in the state 
elections until 1895, when a Republican governor was elected. In 
191 1 another Republican governor was chosen, but with a Demo^ 
cratic majority in the legislature, while the elections for president 
of the United States and members of Congress have sometimes , 
favored one party, sometimes another. These facts show that we 
have a large number of independent voters, — men who will not 
vote regularly with a party, but each time decide what can- 
didates and measures should be supported for the best interests 
of the state and nation. 

In early times men voted vh<a voce, or "by the living voice." 
This caused so much trouble that in 1802 a law was passed in 
Maryland to compel voting to be done by ballot ; that is, on a 
written or printed slip of paper,- In 1890 the state adopted a plan 
known as the Australian ballot, by which voting might be entirely 
secret, and in 1896 a law was passed to throw additional safe- 
guards about voting. The state prints all the ballots. In March, 
1901, the General Assembly, being in special session, passed a 
new 'election law, which has since been amended from time to 

1 This amendment was prepared with the advice of President Frank Goodnow of the 
Johns Hopkins University, an eminent authority on government, who served for several 
years aa constitutional adviser to the president of China. The Maryland budget system has 
aroused interest in all parts of the country. 

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time, especially in 1913 and 1914. The voter is not permitted 

to use any ballot except the one prepared by the state officers, 
on which the names of all candidates must be printed in alpha- 
betical order under the head of the respective offices. The bal- 
lot shows the party of each candidate by printing the party name 
in plain type, but no symbol or emblem of any kind is allowed. ' 

, It is difficult for persons who cannot read to vote such a bal- 
lot. A stringent Corrupt Practices Act was passed in 1908 

■ and extended in 191 2, imposing severe penalties for bribery and ' 
other dishonest acts committed in connection with elections. 
In 1914 a law was passed authorizing the use of voting ma- 
chines whenever the election supervisors of Baltimore city or of 
the respective counties so desire, but "any improper, illegal, or 
fraudulent act " in connection with this method of voting is sub- 
ject to the same penalties as if committed in connection with 
the use of ballots. 

Beginning in 1910 a series of laws have been passed establish- 
ing what are called "direct primaries," Under this plan the can- 
didates of the several political parties are nominated and the party 
officials chosen directly by the voters who belong to the party, the 
election being conducted by officials of the state with safeguards 
similar to those of a general election} ./This replaced an older 
method by which the primary elections were controlled by the 
party organization according to party custom. It is the purpose 
of the new law (such as most American states now have) to pre- 
vent frauds and to allow the whole body of voters belonging to a 
party to help manage its affairs. 

113. Industries. — Though Maryland is no longer a purely 
agricultural community, the cultivation of the soil continues to be 
a leading industry. In the western part of the state excellent 
crops of wheat, corn, buckwheat, and grass are raised and many 
cattle are fattened for market. On the mountain slopes are 

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raised peaches of the finest quality, apples, and pears. Wheat, 
corn, and grass are raised in northern and central Maryland, 
while there is much market gardening and important dairy prod- 
ucts. Southern Maryland is largely devoted to truck farming and 
fruit raising ; tobacco has lost its old-time importance but is still 
cultivated, and the state 
ranks tenth in tobacco 
production. On the 
Eastern Shore wheat, 
corn, fruits, tobacco, 
and vegetables are ex- 
tensively raised. In the 
forests of western Mary- 
land the sugar maple 
abounds and a large 
amount of maple sugar 
is profitably produced 
every spring. 

The most valuable 
of the mineral products 
of Maryland is soft coal, 
of which great quanti- 
ties are found west of 

Cumberland. No coal a Coal Mine, Allegany County 

of the kind in the From a photograph 

United States is supe- 
rior in quality. The mining of iron was once an important indus- 
try, but the discovery of a better quality of iron in other parts of 
the country has nearly destroyed it. The same is true of copper. 
Excellent red sandstone is found in Montgomery and Frederick 
counties ; roofing slate in Harford county ; marble in Baltimore, 
Carroll, and Frederick counties; and a fine quality of granite in 

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Baltimore, Howard, and Cecil counties. The making of bricks is 
still an important industry, as it has been since colonial times. 
Tile and terra cotta are also made from Maryland clay. Maryland 
granite has been used in the construction of such important 
buildings as the Capitol and Congressional Library in Washing- 
ton and the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis ; the 
red sandstone, in the Smithsonian Institution of Washington. 

Tonging for Oysters 
From a phoiograph 

Maryland gives employment to greater numbers in the work of 
catching and preparing the products of the water than any other 
state in the Union. Of these products the oyster is the most im- 
portant, those of the Chesapeake region being the finest in the 
world. Vast quantities are consumed at home and great numbers 
are canned and sent all over the world. For several years there 
was an alarming decline in this industry, and a strong and deter- 
mined sentiment was aroused that led to the passage of laws pro- 
viding for scientific oyster culture, beginning in 1906. Virginia 
and Rhode Island adopted this plan earlier and practiced it 

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successfully, B. Howard Hainan of Baltimore was for years one of 
the most active and persistent workers for such laws in Maryland. 
Crabs abound in practically unlimited numbers in the bay and its 
tributaries. The diamond-back terrapin is considered a great del- 
icacy and brings high prices. The shad is the most important 
fish ; the supply has 
been enormously in- 
creased since a means 
of artificial cultivation 
was adopted in 1880. 
Mackerel, herring, and 
other fish are taken 
in large numbers. An 
important industry has 
grown up in catching 
menhaden for use in 
making oil and fer- 
tilizer. The Potomac 
river yields more of this 
fish than any other 
river on the Atlantic Oyster packing 

coast. From a photograph 

Manufacturing is a 
very important industry of the state. Baltimore and its environs 
form one of the great manufacturing centers of the Union. It 
is the greatest center of the world for the manufacture of fer- 
tilizers,^ cotton duck, straw hats, and canned goods.' Baltimore 
is sometimes called the " Mother of the Canned Goods Industry," 
because it led the way in the use of machinery and the suc- 
cessful canning of food products for commerce. The packing 

Ttiliiers and by 

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of oysters was begun in 1820 and that of tomatoes and other 
■vegetables and fruits followed. It is a natural result that more 
tin cans and more machinery for packing are made here than 
in any other American city. This is also the leading center of 
the country for the refining of copper, the great plant at Canton, 
covering 25 acres, being among the largest in the world. Balti- 
miM-e is one of the foremost cities in the manufacture of men's 

From a photograph 

clothing, drugs, umbrellas, and candy. Tobacco and brick and tile 
manufactures and many others are important ; slaughtering and 
meat packing are rapidly becoming a leading industry. The Mary- 
land Steel Company, with large works at Sparrows Point, was for 
many years an important manufacturer of steel rails and builder 
of large vessels and was the first to begin the foreign steel trade of 
the United States. In 1916, after a period of rapid growth, this big 
industry came under the control of the Bethlehem Steel Corpo- 
ration, which announced plans for an enormous extension of the 

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business, involving the investment of $50,000,000 within three 
years and making as large a steel plant as any in the country, 
with a production of about 1,250,000 tons of steel annually. 

In igio Baltimore was connected by great cables with McCall's 
Ferry, on the Susquehanna river, where the third largest dam in 
the world supplies electric power for industries and light. 

Shipbuilding. Sparrows Point 
From a photograph 

Cumberland, also, is an important manufacturing city, the chief 
products being glass, cement, iron and steel, bricks, lumber, and 
flour, Hagerstown, a handsome and progressive city of Wash- 
ington county, manufactures automobiles, organs, knitted goods, 
shirts, furniture, metal work, and carriage stock. Frederick pro- 
duces knitted goods, leather, fiber brushes, bricks, metal castings, 
and canned foods. Most of the towns of the Eastern Shore and 
southern counties engage in the canning of fruits, vegetables, and 
the food products — oysters, crabs, and fish — of the Chesapeake 
bay and its tributaries. 

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114. Commerce and Tronspoitatioii — The cominercial center 
of Maryland is Baltimore, which not only possesses an enormous 
home trade but is one of the leading cities of America in foreign 
commerce. It ranks fourth among all the ports of the United 
States in the amount of its exports, stands second in the export 
of grain and of coal, and ranks high in the export of flour. There 
is of course a large trade, partly domestic and partly foreign, to 
distribute the products of the manufactures (described in the pre- 
ceding section) and to obtain for them the necessary raw materials, 
such as iron ore, tin plate, chemicals, and fruit. Baltimore has a 
fine harbor, in which no port charges upon ships are made by 
the city, which now owns a system of fine public docks. About 
twenty steamship lines carry on the foreign commerce, thousands 
of vessels are engaged in trade in the Chesapeake bay, and a 
number of fine ships connect Baltimore with the leading ports 
of the Atlantic, coast. The city enjoys an advantage over Phila- 
delphia, New York, and Boston in being nearer to the great 
shipping centers of the West and South. Its location is very 
favorable for trade through the Panama Canal, 

Three great railway systems serve the state. The Baltimore and 
Ohio, the original American railroad whose small beginning we 
have studied (see Sec. 95), has developed wonderfully. The rude 
engine of Peter Cooper has been replaced by the huge modem loco- 
motive ; through trains pass under Baltimore, by way of the Belt 
Line tunnel, drawn by powerful electric locomotives, the first ever 
used in this way ; and the system now embraces more than 4,500 
miles of tracks. Its central offices are still in Baltimore, which it 
connects with the great western part of the country. The Pennsyl- 
vania railroad, with neariy 12,000 miles of tracks, is one of the 
largest railroad systems in the world. It connects Baltimore with 
the rich country to the North, as well as with the West ; over its 
tracks come most of the trains from the South, and the railroads 

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it controls serve the people of the Eastern Shore and of southern 
Maryland. The Western Maryland railway not only links Balti- 
more with the cities of western Maryland and the rich coal mines 
of that section and of West Virginia, but through its connection 
with a great northern system at Pittsburgh it provides additional 

A Granite Quarry, near Woodstock, Baltimore County 
From a photograph 

trade routes from the western states. There are several smaller 
railway lines of importance. Well-equipped electric lines connect 
Baltimore with Annapolis and Washington, while others link the 
cities of western Maryland and aid the industry and commerce of 
that section. During recent years the state government has ex- 
pended millions of dollars in the construction of a system of 

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splendid roadways, reaching into every county, to the great 
advantage of farmers and merchants.* 

Cumberland, an important railroad center and the western 
terminus of the Chesapeake and Ohio canal, is the commercial 
center of the western part of Maryland. Frederick and Hagers- 
town also are railroad centers of importance. Several lines of 
railroad traverse the Eastern Shore, which, with the numerous 
water routes of trade and travel, afford excellent commercial 
facilities. The Elk and Delaware rivers are connected by the 
Chesapeake and Delaware canal, thus opening a short and direct 
water route between Baltimore and Philadelphia. 

115. Hew Social and Industrial Laws. — ^In the earlier years 
of our state's history the daily life of the people was very different 
from that of to-day. There were no railroads, steamboats, electric 
cars, telegraph or telephone lines, and thousands of machines and 
devices now common had never been heard of. With the age of 
machinery, steam, and electricity a very much larger proportion 
of the people came to live in the cities and towns, where they 
work in great noisy factories instead of on farms or in < 
as formerly. Often the machines could be attended to by v 
and children, whose services were cheaper than those of men, and 
there was a demand for them, too, in the huge stores that began 
to be established in large cities. Gradually our American states 
and, indeed, countries all over the world have found it necessary 
to pass new laws to regulate these new industrial and social 

During recent years Maryland has passed a number of such 
laws. The "child welfare laws" forbid any child under sixteen 
years of age being employed at a regular occupation, unless for 

1 In the "Good Roads Movemenl:" which has done so much for the prospeii^ of the 
state, Mr. Samuel M. Shoemaker of Baltimore county and Governor Austin L. Cmthers 
were notable leaders. 

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1 1 


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special reasons the state grants a permit, and boys under twelve 
and girls under sixteen are not permitted to sell newspapers on 
the streets. Factories and stores are not allowed to keep women 
at work more than ten hours a day, except in the canning industry. 
In 1914 a Workmen's Compensation Law went into effect' -Its ' 
purpose is to diminish as far as possible the hardships resulting" 
from injuries or death suffered by workmen as a consequence of 
accidents occurring in connection with their duties. In the case 
of such accidents the employer is to pay to the workman or his 
family a certain sum of money, varying according to circum- 
stances. In the more dangerous occupations these payments 
are made compulsory, while in others a plan of insurance may 
be agreed upon by the employer and the workmen. In 1968 
a Public- Service Commission, consisting of three members ap-. 
pointed by the governor, was created. Its duty is to, exercise 
supervision over the corporations that perform some important", 
service for the general public, such as furnishing transportation^ 
(as do the railroads, electric lines, and steamboats),- telephone 
service, gas, electricity, etc. The commission must see that such 
companies give good service and do not charge too much, and it 
will hear complaints of any person who feels that he is unfairly 
treated by such public-service corporations. A State Board of 
Agriculture; consisting of nine members appointed by the governor, 
was created in igi6. Besides serving as trustees of the State 
College of Agriculture, the board performs a number of duties 
to promote the prosperity of farmers and protect the food supply 
of the people. 

116. Education: Public-School System ; Normal Schools. The 
lack of educational facilities in Maryland in the colonial days has 
already been mentioned (see Sec. 66), together with the reasons 
for the condition that existed. Until 1694 such schools as existed 
were private, and the government did nothing for the cause of 

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popular education. In that year Francis Nicholson, who has been 
called the " father of the public-school system of Maryland," became 
royal governor of the province. He founded King William's School 
at Annapolis (see Sec. 43), and he also managed to secure the 
passage of a law to establish schools in the other counties, although 
the establishment was not effected. In 1723 a system of county 
schools was established ; pupils of all grades of learning were 
received and prepared for college. For about a century these 
were the only public schools of Maryland. An attempt was 
made in 1S25 to reform the system, but very little was actually 
accomplished. The Constitution of 1867 required the legislature 
, to establish " a thorough and efficient system of free public 
schools," and accordingly laws were passed providing a regular 
organization of boards and officials to manage the schools and 
direct the work of the teachers. 

In -1914 an act of the legislature provided for a commission 
to conduct a " school survey," that is, a careful study by experts 
of the entire educational work of the state. The result was a 
series of recommendations for improvements that were adopted 
bythe legislature of 1916 in a completely revised code of school 
laws that is one of the best in the United States, 

Under the present organization there is a State Board of 
Education composed of seven members appointed by the gov- 
ernor. This board elects the state superintendent of schools, who 
serves as secretary, treasurer, and chief executive of the board 
and has large powers in the general direction and supervision of 
public education. For each county the governor appoints a 
County Board of Education, which elects a county superihfendent 
of schools, who serves the county board as secretary, treasurer, 
and chief executive officer, advises them regarding the appoint- 
ment of teachers and adoption of textbooks, and has general 
supervision of education in the county. One of the most notable 

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features of the new law is the strict requirement that all profes- 
sional officers, such as superintendents, supervisors, normal-school 
principals, and teachers, must be specially trained for their work, 
just as one must be properly educated before he can practice law 
or medicine. Another important feature is the granting of exten- 
sive powers to the state department of education, so that it may en- 
force the provisions of the school law in all counties and may give 

Administralion Uuilding, Stale Normal School, Towson 
Prom a photograph 

valuable assistance throughout the state. Several new officers are 
provided, such as state supervisors of high schools and rural schools. 
The school system of Baltimore city is independent of that of 
the state. It is controlled by a board of nine commissioners, 
appointed by the mayor of the city. There is a superintendent 
of public instruction, who has several assistants. The Baltimore 
City College is a high school for boys ; it does not confer degrees, 
but its graduates are admitted to the Johns Hopkins University 
without examination. The Polytechnic Institute was the second 
institution of the kind established as a part of a public-school 

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system. Originally a manual-training school, it is now a technical 
high school with more than a year of work of college grade. Its 
graduates are prepared for "technical" positions, such as those 
with electric plants, telephone and railroad companies, etc., and 
a large proportion of them continue their work in universities, 
where they receive advanced standing and take degrees as en- 
gineers. In 1913 the Polytechnic occupied a new building with 
a splendid special equipment. Two large high schools, the East- 
ern and the Western, are maintained for girls. There is also a 
colored high school. 

In 1902 the General Assembly passed a compulsory education 
act, applying only to Baltimore city and Allegany county, but its 
provisions were gradually improved and extended throughout the 
state. Properly qualified attendance officers must see that all 
children of certain ages attend school or receive similar instruc- 
tion. The state provides a sum of money for the purchase of free 
textbooks, which is distributed to Baltimore city and the counties. 

For the training of teachers for the elementary schools the 
state maintains two normal schools. The older and larger one, 
founded in 1866, was located in Baltimore until 1915, when it 
occupied a group of fine new buildings near Towson, in the 
suburbs of Baltimore, Another state normal school was established 
in 1902 at Frostburg, for the benefit of the western counties, 
and Baltimore city maintains a l^achers' Training School. 
At Bowie the state has a normal school for training colored 
teachers, and Baltimore city has one also. , During recent years 
several of the colleges receiving state aid have established 
departments of education to aid in the training of teachers, 
especially for high schools. 

117. Higher Education and Professional Schools. — The Johns 
Hopkins University, opened in 1876, has a recognized place as 
one of the leading universities of America. Johns Hopkins was 

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a wealthy citizen of Baltimore, who, dying in 1873, left an estate 
of about S7,ooo,ooo for the purpose of founding a university and 
a hospital. Dr. Daniel C. Oilman, president of the University of 
California, was appointed president. The universities of Germany 
were then regarded as the leaders in training students for research 
work ; Dr. Oilman introduced their methods in America, and 
brought together a group of very gifted professors, many of -whom 

. Gilman Hall, Johns Hopkins University 
From a photograph . 

became famous the world over. Since its organization under the 
gifts of Johns Hopkins, other public-spirited citizens of Baltimore 
have contributed several million dollars to the institution, which 
in igi6 was able to occupy a group of new buildings beautifully 
located in the northern suburbs of Baltimore. The Medical 
School of Johns Hopkins, opened in 1893, has maintained un- 
usually high standards in the training of physicians and surgeons 
and has had a great influence on medical education elsewhere, 
while the researches of its professors and students have done 

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much to advance medical science. Women are admitted on the 
same terms as men. In 1910 the Maryland legislature appro- 
priated a large sum of money to establish a school of engineer- 
ing as a part of the university. The state has also made annual 
appropriations for the general work of the university since i8g8. 
Free scholarships are offered to Maryland boys, both in the 
college department and in the engineering school. 

Johns Hopkins Hospital 
From a photograph 

The Johns Hopkins Hospital was opened in ,1889, and oc- 
cupies an elevated site in the eastern part of Baltimore city. 
Its magnificent buildings occupy four squares and cover about 
fourteen acres. This hospital is considered one of the finest 
institutions of the kind in the world. Connected with it is a 
school for nurses. 

The Maryland State College of Agriculture (situated in Prince 
George's county, near Washington) in 1916 received its present 
name and passed under the control of the State Board of Agri- 
culture, whose enlightened policy under the chairmanship of 

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Samuel M. Shoemaker has resulted in many improvements. In 
1917 the board, after a country-wide search for the best man to" 
carry out their plans for a greater institution, chose as president 
of- the' college Dr. Albert F, Woods, dean of the agricultural 
school of the University of Minnesota. Goucher College,^ in 
Baltimore, is one of the leading colleges of the country for 
women. St, John's College at Annapolis, Western Maryland 
College^ at Westminster, Washington College at Chestertown, 
■ and Blue Ridge College ^ at New Windsor receive state aid and 
offer free scholarships in return. Morgan College, of Baltimore, 
is an institution for the higher education of colored students. 
Resides these may be mentioned Mt, St. Mary's College* at 
Emmittsburg {Frederick county), Loyola College^ at Baltimore, 
and Rock Hill College* at Ellicott City. The University of 
Maryland, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, the Baltimore 
Medical College, and several schools of dentistry and law are 
located in Baltimore, The Maryland Institute of Baltimore is an 
excellent school of art and design, which receives appropriations 
from the city and the state and grants free scholarships. Pro^ 
visions for the professional training of teachers were mentioned 
in the preceding section. 

At the session of 1914 the General Assembly created the 
Maryland State University. This was not a new institution of 
learning, but a new body of officials with power to bring about 
closer association between existing colleges and professional 
schools. Those named in the law were Washington, St. John's, 
and Blue Ridge colleges ; the University of Maryland (schools 
of law, medicine, pharmacy, and dentistry). College of Physicians 
and Surgeons, and the Maryland Medical College. The Board 
of Regents may admit other colleges, schools, libraries, etc. by 
mutual agreement. 

1 Methodisi: Episcopal. ^ Methodist Piolestant, > Presbyterian. * Koman Catholic. 

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In 1916 the General Assembly continued the existence of the 
Educational Survey Commission, which during the preceding two 
years had directed an expert study of the public-school system. 
The Commission was instructed to make a similar study of higher 
education and to report in 19 18. 

118. Public Libraries, Learned Societies, Art. — The Peabody 
Institute' of Baltimore was dedicated in 1866. Provision was 
made for a free library, a gallery of 
art, courses of lectures, and a school 
of music. The Peabody Conserva- 
tory of Music is one of the fore- 
most of the country. The Peabody 
Library contains about 200,000 
volumes, besides pamphlets and 
maps, and is one of the large and 
important libraries of the country. 

In 18S2 Enoch Pratt, a wealthy 
merchant of Baltimore, gave more 
than a million dollars to found a 
public library. A central building 
was erected on Mulberry street, 

near Cathedral, and was followed George Peabody 

by branch libraries in various 
parts of the city. The library was 
opened in 1886. This valuable gift of Mr, Pratt is called the ' 
Enoch Pratt Free Library. The institution has circulated a 
vast number of books and has been a source of pleasure and 
profit to thousands, but owing to lack of sufficient money has 
been seriously hindered in trying to meet the needs of a city 

' Endowed by Geoige Peabody (see S 
an who gave away much of his wealth t( 

s. 96 and I 

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which h^ more than doubled in population since the library was 
opened. A gift of g5cx),ooo from Andrew Carnegie^ has made 
it possible to increase greatly the number of branch libraries to 
serve different sections of the city and suburbs. There were 
eighteen of these branches in 1917, and a dozen others had been 
planned. The city, with many other heavy expenses, has not 
felt able (up to 1917) to give the hbrary nearly as much money 
as other cities of the same size spend on their public libraries. 

Peabody Institute 
From a photograph 

The State Library, at the capital city, Annapolis, contains 
about 100,000 volumes and is especially strong in law books. 
The Washington County Free Library, in Hagerstown, has about 
30,000 volumes, is very well managed, and gives its community 
invaluable service. 

In 1902 the Maryland legislature passed an act enabling 
any county or municipality to establish a free public library and 

1 Famous as the founder of many libraries. He said that the example of Mr. Pratt gave 

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reading-room, and provided also for tiie appointment of a state 
commission to give advice and assistance in making tiie plan a 
success. Tlie law was later extended for the further encourage- 
ment of libraries, and the commission was directed to conduct 
traveling libraries throughout the state. 

The Maryland Historical Society was founded in 1844. Its 
objects are the collection and preservation of material relating to 
the history of the state and the arousing of an interest in his- 
torical study.' It has a very valuable library of about 60,000 vol- 
umes, and a collection of manuscripts and historic relics of great 
interest and value. From the income of a publication fund left by 
George Peabody thirty-seven historical and biographical works have 
been published. In 1884 the General Assembly made the Society 
the custodian of the archives of the province of Maryland, and has 
since that time made an annual appropriation of $3000 for their 
publication. About forty volumes have thus been published under 
the supervision of the Society, Since 1906 the Society has also 
issued the Maryland Historical Magazine, published quarterly. 

The Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of the State of Maryland 
was incorporated in 1799. It now includes in its membership the 
leading physicians of the state and has its headquarters in a hand- 
some building in Baltimore, where its library of 30,000 medical 
books is housed. Besides its original aim of promoting medical 
knowledge, the Society now aids the city and state health depart- 
ments in spreading among the people a knowledge of hygiene 
and the prevention of disease. 

The Maryland Academy of Sciences was organized in 1863 
and gathered a large collection of geological and natural history 
specimens, Indian relics, etc. Its building is in Baltimore. 

I The Society's home Is in Baltimore, where it has occupied the Athensum Building at 
St. Paul and Saratoga streets since 1S48, A new home at Monument street and Paik 
avenue was presented to the Society in October, 1916, by Mis. Mary Washington Keysei. 
During the succeeding year these buildings were prepared to meet llie Society's needs. 

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Connected with the Peabody Institute is an art gallery contain- 
ing a collection of paintings, sculptures, and bronzes. Among 
them is the beautiful statue of Clytie, the masterpiece of the 
famous sculptor Rinehart. The Maryland Historical Society 
also possesses a gallery of paintings, which is located on the 
second floor of the AthenEeum building and is open to the 
public. Connected with the home of Mr. Henry Walters on 
Mt. Vernon place, Baltimore, is the finest private art collection 
in the world. It now includes paintings of almost every famous 
artist, vases, jewelry, furniture, and sculpture, among the latter 
"The Thinker," by the French artist Rodin, one of the most 
famous works of one of the most famous of modem sculptors. 
A splendid new structure for the gallery was opened in 1909 ; 
on certain days the public is admitted, a small fee being charged 
and the proceeds given to' the poor. There is no large public 
art collection in the state.' 

119. The Spanish-American War. — In April, 1898, Congress 
declared war against Spain. The war grew out of the cruel 
oppression of Cuba by Spain and the destruction of the United 
States battleship Maine in Havana harbor. Maryland, as usual, 
can claim a fair share of the honors in the war, which soon 
ended in complete victory for the United States. 

The Pacific squadron of the United States, under Commo- 
dore Dewey, attacked and destroyed the Spanish fleet in Manila 
bay on May i, without the loss of a man. In the second assault 
the cruiser Baltimore led the line of battle and performed gallant 
service. Her commander. Captain Dyer, was voted a sword of 
honor by the city whose namesake he so ably commanded. 
Lieutenant Commander John D, Ford (later Rear Admiral) of 
Baltimore was chief engineer of the Baltimore, and shortly after 
the battle became fleet engineer. 

' See also the account of mural paintings in public buildings of Baltimore (Sec. iii). 

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The battle of July 3d was fought off the southern coast of 
Cuba. The Spanish fleet, blockaded in the harbor of Santiago 
by the American fleet, attempted to escape and was totally 
destroyed. Acting Rear Admiral Sampson was commander-in-chief 
of the American fleet, and the officer second in command was 
Commodore Winfield Scott Schley of Maryland. When the battle 
opened Sampson was ten miles 
away to the eastward attending 
a conference ; he followed the 
running fight to the westward 
with all speed and arrived at 
the end of the battle. These 
peculiar circumstances led to an 
unfortunate controversy as to 
who had been in command at 
Santiago and who deserved the 
credit for the victory. 

Schley's friends charged that 
he was persecuted by the navy 
department, while his opponents 
began to criticize his conduct 
throughout the war. Finally, at 
the request of Schley (who had 
become a rear admiral), a Court 
of Inquiry met at Washingtoi 

WinfieW Scott Schley 
From a photograph 

1 the fall of 1901, Admiral 

Dewey being its president. The majority decision disapproved of 
Schley's conduct in a number of respects but acquitted him of 
cowardice, while Admiral Dewey rendered a minority opinion 
more favorable to Schley. The navy department approved the 
majority findings, and President Roosevelt declared that the 
battle of July 3d "was a captains' fight." Popular sympathy, 
throughout the country, in many ways showed itself favorable to 

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Admiral Schley, and the Maryland legislature, in 1902, placed 
his life-size bust in the State House. 

The Maryland Naval Militia had an exciting cruise in the fine 
auxiliary cruiser Dixie, and rendered important service in the 
waters of the West Indies. 

One of the notable exploits of the war was the wonderful voy- 
age of the United States battleship Oregon from San Francisco, 
Cahfomia, to Key West, Flor- 
ida. She made the trip of 
13,587 miles in sixty-six days. 
The Oregon was built by Jrving 
M. Scott, a native of Baltimore 
county, Maryland, 

120. HonmncDts to Distin- 
guished Marylanders — To her 
many distinguished citizens 
Maryland has from time to 
time erected suitable monu- 
ments. Bahimore's popular 
name, the "Monumental City," 
has already been mentioned in 
connection with the erection of 
Edgar Allan Toe the noble monument to WasTi- 

From a portrait ington, and the Battle Monu- 

ment (p. 157). Since that time 
a large number of similar testimonials have been raised ; among 
others, one to the memory of Colonel Armistead, who commanded 
Fort McHenry in 1814, during the attack of the British army and 
fleet on the city. One of the most interesting of the older monu- 
ments of Baltimore is that to Columbus, in the grounds of the 
Samuel Ready School at North and Harford avenues. Erected 
in 1792, it is the first monument to Columbus erected in America. 

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Literary genius is remembered, too. On the 17th of Novem- 
ber! 187s, a monument was erected to the memory of the Maiy- 
land poet Edgar Allan Poe. The monument was erected over 
the poet's grave in Westminster churchyard, comer of Fayette 
and Greene streets, Baltimore. Poe was born in 1809 in Boston, 
where his parents happened to be at that time. His father was 
a Baltimorean of good family, who married an actress, and his 
parents were fulfilling a theatrical engagement in Boston at the 
time of the poet's birth. Poe died in Baltimore in 1849. This 
monument was erected to his memory by the teachers and pupils 
of the public schools of Baltimore, Tributes from a number of 
American authors and a letter from Lord Tennyson, the poet- 
laureate of England, were read in the Western High School, then 
adjoining the churchyard.^ Poe's writings embrace poems, tales, 
essays, and criticisms. He takes very high rank among American 
authors, and by many foreign readers and critics is regarded as 
the most original literary genius that America has produced. 

On the site of the ancient city of St. Mary's a monument was 
raised in 1891 to the memory of Leonard Calvert, first governor 
of Maryland. The ceremony of unveiling was performed on the 
3d of June, and many persons of prominence were in attendance. 
This simple granite shaft, thirty-six feet high, suitably inscribed 
and bearing the coat of arms of Maryland, marks the spot where 
the Ark and the Doi'e landed the first settlers of Maryland, nearly 
three hundred years ago. The following lines, inscribed on the 
monument, are but a just tribute : — 

By hLs Wisdom, Justice and Fidelity, he 

Fostered the Tnfancy of the Colony, 

Guided it Through Great Perils, 

And, Dying, Left it at Peace. 

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Three days later a granite monument, eleven feet high and 
bearing upon its face crossed Confederate flags, was unveiled at 
Loudon Park cemetery, Baltimore, This monument was raised 
to the memory of General James R, Herbert, a Maryland officer 
who fought with distinction in the Confederate army during the 
Civil War (see Sec. 109). 

In 1892 a modest cube of Maryland granite was unveiled on 
the battle-field at Guilford Courthouse, North Carolina, in mem- 
ory of the soldiers of the Maryland Line. The great services of 
Maryland troops, and the splendid charge they made at Guilford 
Courthouse, have already been described (see Sec. 74). 

In the history of the Revolution the heroic sacrifice of four 
hundred Maryland soldiers at the battle of Long Island has also 
been described (see Sec. 68). Here, near the spot where the 
brave men under Major Gist laid down their lives for their com- 
rades, a monument has been dedicated to their memory by the 
Maryland Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. The 
ceremoiiy took place in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, on August 27, 
189s, the one hundred and nineteenth anniversary of the battle. 
The monument, twenty-seven feet high, consists of a beautiful 
column of highly polished Tennessee marble, resting upon a 
block of polished granite. It contains the following inscription, 
in raised letters of bronze : — 

The same Society (Maryland Society of the Sons of the 
American Revolution) erected in 1898 a modest monument to 
the memory of General William Smallwood, the Revolutionary 
soldier and governor of Maryland. It is a plain granite block, 

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five feet in height and suitably inscribed, upon his grave in 
Charles county. 

In 1898 (August g) a bronze statue, nine feet high, was un- 
veiled at Mt. Olivet cemetery, Frederick, to the memory of 
Francis Scott Key (see Sec. 90). In its granite base rest the 
remains of the author of the " Star-Spangled Banner," with those 
of his wife. In 191 1 a larger monument to Key was erected 
in Baltimore, on Eutaw Place ; it shows him with a companion 
in a boat, looking upward at the flag. A few years later the 
Congress of the United States appropriated $75,000 for the 
erection of a Key memorial at the entrance to Fort McHenry, 

One of the most notable achievements in this direction was 
the erection in Mt. Royal Plaza, Baltimore, of a beautiful monument 
to all Marylanders who aided the cause of freedom in the Revolu- 
tionary War, The monument is sixty feet six inches in height, the 
shaft is of Baltimore county granite and surmounted by a statue of 
the Goddess of Liberty, and the pedestal is suitably inscribed. The 
monument was erected through the efforts of the Maryland Society 
of the Sons of the American Revolution. The state and Baltimore 
city each contributed. The unveiling took place on October 19, 
1901 (Peggy Stewart day). 

On January 16, 1904, a splendid equestrian statue of John 
Eager Howard, brilliant soldier and governor of Maryland, was 
unveiled on Washington Place, Baltimore. The statue, which 
was the work of Emmanuel Fremiet, the leading sculptor of 
France, was presented to the city by the Municipal Art Society. 

In Baltimore city a number of other monuments to those who 
have served their state have recently been erected. Among these 
may be mentioned the memorial in Druid Hill Park to Union 
soldiers and sailors who fought in the Civil War, and the monu- 
ment to Confederate soldiers and sailors on Mt, Royal avenue. 
A "hero of peace" is honored in the statue of John M. Hood 

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(unveiled in 191 1), who was for many years president of the 
Western Maryland railroad and did much to promote the 
prosperity of Baltimore and Maryland, 

121. Progress of BaltimoTe, Hetropolls of Maryland. Baltimore 
has nearly half the population and more than half the wealth of 
the entire state ; this relation does not exist in any other American 
state except New York, It thus happens that in welfare the 
city and counties are very closely associated. Baltimore is also 
one of the largest cities of the United States, ranking seventh 
in the census of 1910. Other sections of this chapter show its 
importance in commerce and manufacture and as a center of 
higher and professional education, and tell of its schools, libraries, 
monuments, etc. We have followed the story of its beginnings 
and its part in the earlier history of the state {see Index, 
under "Baltimore"); since the Civil War the record has been, 
on the whole, one of steady progress and improvement. 

Baltimore has been associated in a very interesting way with 
the new age of machinery, steam, and electricity that came in our 
country during the nineteenth century. Her citizens took the lead 
in introducing the steam locomotive (see Sec. 95), and here the 
first electric telegraph line was operated (see Sec. 97). "It was 
in Baltimore that the first electric railroad operated in America 
for actual commercial service was constructed and run successfully." 
This was accomplished in August, 1885, the cars making a speed 
of about twelve miles an hour. Later the Baltimore and Ohio rail- 
road introduced here the first electric locomotives. It is said also 
that Baltimore manufactured the first metal pens to replace the old 
quill pens {1810), was the first American city to be lighted by 
gas (1817), built the first iron steamboats (1838), and was first 
in many other interesting ways. The linotype, which sets type 
by machinery and has made wonderful changes in printing, was 
invented in Baltimore. How the city led with its monuments to 

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Columbus and Washington has been told. The Baltimore College 
of Dental Surgery was the first institution of the kind in the 
world, Alt this explains why its people sometimes call Baltimore 
a " City of First Things." 

The people of every community like to celebrate the notable 
events in their history. In September, 1889, six days were de- 
voted to a celebration of the seventy-fifth anniversary of the 
defense of Baltimore 
against the attack of 
the British in 1814, 
the memorable occasion 
that inspired the " Star- 
Spangled Banner," The 
exercises began on Sep- 
tember 9 with a great 
industrial display, show- 
ing the progress of the 
city in manufacturing. 
On the 1 2th a sham 
battle took place at 
Pimlico to illustrate the ,,.. ,,.^ ,, ,, ,, ,,. 

J he City Hall, Hallimore 

battle of North Point. „ u . ,. 

From a photograph 

During the celebration 

many distinguished persons visited the city, including the presi- 
dent and vice-president of the United States, with members of 
the cabinet, the governors of Maryland and Delaware, many army 
officers, and other persons of note. In 1914 a similar week was 
devoted to the Star-Spangled Banner Centennial, which included 
industrial, military, and municipal parades, historical pageants, 
and the dedication of Fort McHenry as a public park. 

In 1875 a new City Hall was completed in Baltimore which 
was among the finest buildings of the kind in the United States. 

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The structure covers an area of over thirty thousand square feet, 
yet the growth of the city has been so great that many public 
offices now have to be housed outside the City Hall. The white 
marble used in its construction was quarried in Baltimore county, 
Maryland. Near the City Hall is another large and handsome 

The Court House and Battle Monument, Kallimore 
From a photograph 

building, the Postoffice, completed in 1890 by the government 
of the United States, It is built of granite. 

Baltimore's beautiful Court House, occupied in 1900, is said to 
be the finest in America. The interior of the building is beauti- 
fully finished in hardwood and marble, and at the main entrance 
are two bronze doors. Its walls have since been adorned by 
several of the most famous mural painters of the time. Some 
of the most notable of these works are Charles Y. Turner's 

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"Burning of the Peg-^j- Stewart," Jean Paul Laurens' "Surrender 
of Cornwallis at Yorktown," and Edwin H. Blashfield's " Religious 
Toleration " and " Washington Surrendering his Commission." 

Another fine building is the Custom House, a large granite 
building completed by the United States in 1907, It contains a 
series of mural paintings by Francis 
Millet, showing the development of 
commerce by water. 

The Armory of the Fifth Regi- 
ment is a very important building, 
because it can seat more than 20,000 
persons and so is one of the largest 
convention halls of the country. It 
was in this building that the National 
Convention of the Democratic Party 
in 191 2 nominated Woodrow Wilson 
for president of the United States. 
A number of earlier presidents also 
received the party nomination in 

An era of splendid development 
for Baltimore dates from a great dis- 
aster. On the morning of Sunday, ^^^^^^ „f <.^^j,-„^ Calvert 
February 7, 1904, a fire broke out j 
in a large wholesale dry-goods store 
on the comer of German and Sharp 

streets. An explosion, the cause of which is not certainly known, 
took place, setting fire to a number of surrounding buildings, 
and the high wind which was blowing at the time swept the 
flames rapidly to the east and north. The fire was soon utterly 
beyond control, and although engines and firemen were sum- 
moned from New York, Philadelphia, Washington, and other 

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cities, the progress of the flames could not be arrested. Not 

until five o'clock on Monday afternoon, February 8, was the fire 
pronounced under control, after having burned its way to the 
Basin and Jones Falls. The fire had extended over one hundred 
and forty acres, and had destroyed wholly or in part more than 
thirteen hundred buildings, including eighteen banks, all the great 

Rebuilding in the Bumed District, Baltimore 
From a photograph 

office buildings of so-called fireproof construction, the great news- 
paper offices, and hundreds of important business houses. The 
very heart of the business section was laid in ashes, and only a 
timely change of wind and the heroic efforts of municipal officials 
and employees saved the splendid public buildings of the city 
from destruction. It was at once apparent that Baltimore had 
been visited by one of the great conflagrations of history. 

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The state militia was placed on guard while the fire was still 
raging, and rendered splendid service. The troops were, how- 
ever, under the authority of the police department ; there was 
no disorder and no necessity for martial law. Officials of the 
city and state at once instituted measures of relief ; the city 
pluckily declined the count- 
less offers of assistance 
that poured in on Mayor 
M'Lane, and set to work 
with a will to build what 
is spoken of as "Greater 
Baltimore." The General 
Assembly authorized the 
appointment by the mayor 
of a Burnt District Com- 
mission, to give its whole 
time to the problems grow- 
ing out of the fire. Plans 
were carried out for the 
widening and grading of 
streets and for immensely 
increasing the dock facili-' 
ties of the harbor. Private 

persons and corporations, g^,^.^^,,^ ^,^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

with similar enterprise, set p„„ , photograph 

to work to build enlarged 

and improved business structures. Some large business firms were 
allowed the use of public buildings, and practically all secured 
temporary, and in some cases permanent, quarters promptly. 
Great as was the calamity that fell upon the city, there is no 
doubt that it has proved to be, on the whole, an ultimate blessing, 
because of the new spirit of enterprise that it created. 

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A new Baltimore, indeed, has arisen from the ruins of 1904. 
Upon the ashes larger and finer buildings have been erected. 
A great sewerage system, one of the best in the world, has been 
completed at a cost of more than $20,000,000. A system of 
public docks has been erected to promote the city's commerce. 
Millions of dollars have been spent for improved paving. A fine 
new avenue for traffic north and south to the harbor has been 
provided in the " Fallsway." This is a street built over Jones 
Falls, the banks of which were already guarded against floods by 
high walls. The unclean water is thus hidden and carried off in 
huge pipes, bridges are unnecessary, and the city profits in beauly 
as well as in the possession of a new highway for traffic. The 
city's water supply has been increased and improved, and better 
means provided for fighting fires. This is only part of the story, 
for other improvements have been made or planned, while indus- 
tries and commerce are showing a more rapid growth, " Greater 
Baltimore " has become a reality, 

122. CoBClusion. Before laying aside our story let us look 
backward and view it in its entirety. We will watch again the 
few feeble colonies on the Atlantic coast grow slowly in numbers 
and wealth until they are able to cast off the government of a 
distant king, win commercial freedom on the sea, people the 
vast interior country from ocean to ocean, and become one of the 
leading nations of the modern world. In this wonderful progress 
Maryland has played a part honorable and important. The first 
sturdy little band of colonists brought the blessing of religious 
freedom to the New World, and their successors have worthily 
borne their share in the burdens and achievements of the nation 
— learning in the school of self-government, fighting for inde- 
pendence, building a new nation, defending its interests, and pro- 
moting its prosperity and advancement. It is a record of which 
we may justly be proud. 

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Let us also look toward the future. Our pride in the past 
should not make us contented or thoughtless defenders of things 
as they are. Let it rather inspire us to new achievements, new 
ideals of service, and the ambition to aid the march of improve- 
ment and progress as our fathers have done before us. We shall 
perceive that state and nation can be made better, and it is for 
7(s to do it ; that new times bring new needs, and we must meet 
them. For history is a story that never ends, and each and all 
of us must help to make it, for good or for evil. How shall we 


III. Formation of tbe Present State GOTernment. 

Tell about Ihe character and the adoption of the Constitution of 1S64. 

When was our present Constitution framed ? 

What two parts has the Constitution, and what is the function of each .'' 

Describe fully the organization of {a) the legislative department; 
(6) the executive department; (f) the judicial department. 

What persons may vote in Maryland? 

How may the Constitution be amended.'' 

What is the "home rule" amendment of [915? Ihe referendum 
amendment of T915.' the budget system adopted in 1916? 
113. Politics and Elections. 

Name the two great political parties of this country. 

Cive an account of Maryland politics since the Civil War. 

Describe the Australian ballot system, adopted by (he Assembly in 1890. 

Describe the present system of nominating candidates and electing 
officials. What are "direct primaries"? What facts show inde- 
pendent voting.' 

113. Industries. 

Give a full account of each of the following industries : 

(a) Agriculture ; {6} mining ; (ir) fishing ; ((/) manufacturing. 

114. Commerce and Transportation. 

Give an account of the commerce and transportation facilities of Balti- 
more ; of other parts of the state. 
lis. New Social and Industrial Laws. 

How machinery, steam, and electricity have changed the world. 

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Laws for child welfare, and limiting the work hours of women. 

Workmen's Compensation Law, 1914; Public Service Commission, 
1908; State Board of Agriculture, 1916. 
116. Education: Public-ScliCMl Syitem ; HoimBl Schools. 

Education 'in colonial times. 

Rise of the public-school system : Constitution of 1867. 

The educational " survey " of 1914-1915; new school law. 

Present organization of the public. school system. 

Public schools of Baltimore ; Its high schools. 

Compulsory school attendance. 

Training of teachers. 
IIT. Higher Education and Profeasional Schools. 

Johns Hopkins University, its history and importance; medical school 

and hospital ; school of engineering. 
•Maryland State College of Agriculture; other institutions of higher 
and professional education. 

State aid and free scholarships. 

Maryland State University. 
lis. Public Libraries, Learned Societies, Art. 

Feabody Institute : library, art gallery, conservatory of music. 

Enoch Pratt Free Library ; State Library : Washington County Free 

State Library Commission. 

The Maryland Historical Society ; its aims, work, library, etc. 

The Medical and Chirurgical Faculty of Maryland. 

The Maryland Academy of Sciences. 

The Walters Art Callery. 

119. The Spanish-American War. 

War begins in April, 1898. 
Services of the cruiser Bailimore. 
Commodore Schley in the battle of July 3d. 
The court of inquiry ; the popular verdict. 
Cruise of the Dixie. 
Exploit of the Oregon. 

120, Monuments to Distinguished Marylanders. 

The Monumental Cily. Armistead monument. Columbus ir 
Monument to Edgar Allan Poe: when and where was 

erected, and by whom? Ezekiel statue. Rank of Poe as an author. 

Describe the following monuments ; ((/) to Leonard Calvert ; (b) to 

General Herbert ; (e) at Guilford Courthouse; ((/)al Prospect Park, 

Brooklyn; (?) to (General Smallwood; (/) to Francis Scott Key; 

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{gj the Revolutionary Monument in Mt. Royal Plaza, Baltimore ; 

(A) statue of John Eager Howard; (j) Union; (/) Confederate; 

(-t) statue of John M. Hood. 
121. PioEieas of Baltimore, Hetropolia of Maryland. 

Baltimore's important relation to Maryland ; position as a leading city 

of the United States. 
A "City of First Things." Can you justify the title? 
Anniversaries of the defense of 1814 and the Star-Spangled Itanner, 
Principal public buildings. 

Great fire of 1904 : how the emergency was met ; losses and gains. 
An era of development : rebuilding, better streets and paving, splendid 

sewerage system, " Fallsway," etc. 
" Greater Baltimore." 


1. Find the meaning of the word " bicameral." is the Maryland Assembly 

bicameral? How many delegates has your county (or legislative dis- 
trict of Baltimore) in the Assembly? What are their names? What 
is the name of your senator ? What is meant by impeachment ? What 
provision docs the Constitudon of Mar^'land make in regard to im- 
peachment? (See Art. Ill, Sec. 26.) In what three ways may a bill 
become a law? State the principles of the chief political parties. 

2. What qualifications must q man possess to be governor of Maryland? 

How is a vacancy in the office, occurring before the end of the term, 
filled? (Const. II, 6, 7.) What is meant by the governor's message? 
What is a •' pocket veto " ? 

3. In which judicial circuit do you live? What are the names of the judges? 

Which is chief judge? What is an indictment? Whal is a subpcena? 
What is a writ? What is meant by the terms "plaintiff" and "defend- 
ant " ? What are the duties of the grand jury ? Find out as much as 
you can about the method of procedure in the trial of a criminal case. 
What are the powers and duties of a justice of the peace? What offi- 
cial of the government has the power of granting pardons? What are 
the duties of the sheriff? 

4. Consult encyclopedias or books on government for information about 

workmen's compensation laws, child-labor laws, public-service com- 
missions, the budget system, the referendum, 
fl. Point out the advantages of a celebration of important events ; the 
advantages of erecting r 

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. Point out the various ways in which a public library will promote public 

. Expljun the advantages of hisiorical study, with special reference to local 

history. Explain the value of public art galleries. 
. Write an essay, as full as possible, on " The Nation's Debt to Maryland." 
, Can you think of some probable ways in which your city or county and 

slate will develop in the future? What can its people do to make 

things better.' What can you do? What is a patriot? 

There is no book or article to which one can turn for the general story of thi» 
chapter. Will's Onr Cily. State, and Nation (1913) treats more of the topics than 
any other one work, and is especially helpful for Baltimore. See also James's 
revision of McSherry's History of Maryland, ch. ixi. The state geologist. Pro- 
fessor William Bullock Clark, has prepared a brief Geography of Maryland (1916) 
as a Supplement to lirigham and McFarlane's Essentials ef Geography, it is valu- 
able for industry, commerce, and transportation. (Similar supplements to other 
geographies appear from time to time.) Maryland, Its Lands, Froducti, and 
Industries (1908) was prepared hy T. J. C, Williams for the Board of Public 
Works. The Baliimore Book is published by the city librarian (1914}. The 
Municipal Factory Site Commission of Baltimore has issued a pamphlet on the 
business advantages of the city, with numerous good illustrations. An Industrial 
Survey 0/ Baltimore was made in 19 [4 under the auspices of J. E. Aldred, head of 
the Consolidated Gas, Electric Light, and Power Co. The annual Almanac of the 
Baltimore Sun is useful for the period it covers ; it was discontinued in igt 5. but 
in 1917 a successor appeared as The Maryland Almanac. The Maryland Manual 
is issued annually by the secretary of state ; besides giving extended lists of 
state and local officials, institutions, etc.. it includes the colonial charter, the 
Constitution with all amendments, and sometimes the text of important new 
laws (for example, Workmen's Compensation Law in issue for 1915-1916). 
A pamphlet of election laws is also issued by the secretary of state. Teacher 
and pupils may collect almost any amount desired of valuable and up-to-date 
material by securing reports of state and local officials, hoards, and commissions, 
of colleges, libraries, societies, etc. For comparative information about the coun 
try as a whole, see Paxson's TheNeu) Nati<>n{\<j\ 5), Beard's Contemporary American 
History (1914), Statistical Alias of the United Stales (1914), and other publication; 
of the United States Census, including various special reports on Maryland, Tht 
annual Almanac and Encyclopedia of the New York World (25 cents) provides 
nearly 1000 pages of valuable information on current history. The departmen 
of legislative reference, Baltimore City Hall, is always ready to aid students o 
public affairs. 

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Stall SapeTitUendtnt of PablU JUducatina 


A Typical Tobacco Field 
Prom a photograph 

This "mother county" dates back to 1634, and has an area 
of 360 square miles. It was named in honor of the saint whom 
the devout colonists took as their patron. It forms the extremity 
of the Southern Maryland peninsula, lying between the Poto- 
mac and Patuxent rivers, its lower eastern side bordering on 

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the Chesapeake. Historic Point Lookout is at the wide mouth 
of the Potomac. St. Mary's touches no other county except 
Charles, the Patuxent making in between it and Calvert There 
are highlands along the water-front and lowlands in the interior. 
Some of the soil is sandy, with a clay subsoil, and productive 
loam is found in parts of the county. Half the cultivated land 
is occupied by tenants. Forest areas abound in white and red 
oak, poplar, sycamore, pine, and chestnut. Farms fronting on 
the bay and rivers are generally large, and vestiges of the old 
manorial life are numerous. Tobacco growing chiefly engages 
the attention of the farmers, and corn, wheat, and potatoes are 
also grown; much live stock of an excellent grade is raised. 
The construction of a railroad to Point Lookout, traversing the 
county, is often urged. St. Mary's only railroad, the Washing- 
ton City and Potomac, runs from Brandywine, en the Pope's 
Creek Line in Lower Prince George's, through eastern Charles 
and into St. Mary's as far as Mechanicsville, twelve miles from 
Leonardtown, the county seat, located about midway of the 
county. Steamboats from Washington and Baltimore touch 
at points on the Potomac, and the Weems Line vessels from 
Baltimore ply the Patuxent. Leonardtown, named after the 
first Governor Calvert, is one of the most interesting ancient 
colonial towns of Maryland. Its population is 526. The site 
of St. Mary's city is fourteen miles southeast of the county seat, 
on St. Mary's river. A seminary for girls is established there, 
and at the tomb of Leonard Calvert a monument has been 
erected. Charlotte Hall Academy, above Mechanicsville, was 
established by legislative enactment in 1774, and its alumni 
include many famous Marylanders. 

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Washineton College. Chestertown 

Kent, with an area of 315 square miles, was named arter the 
English shire from whence came many of its early settlers, 
who saw in its smiling landscape a replica of the fairest county 
of England. Kent claims the distinction of being the oldest 
county on the Eastern Shore. The first settlement within the 
present limits of Maryland was made on Kent Island in 1628 
by Protestants from Virginia under the leadership of William 
Claiborne. Calvert claimed the island as a part of his grant, 
and the contention was not ended until 1647, when Claiborne 
W3S dispossessed. The Maryland proprietary, having estab- 
lished his authority over the island, in 1650 organized Kent 

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county, it then embracing the upper Eastern Shore. Kent is 
a peninsula, lying between the Sassafras and Chester rivers, 
its eastern border being the Delaware line, and its western 
boundary the Chesapeake bay. With its standing timber, fer- 
tile soil, game, fish, and many natural advantages, under the 
liberal policy of the proprietary, Kent soon became a flourishing 
colony, with a population consisting of Protestants, Catholics, 
and Quakers. And presently negro slaves were brought into 
the county. In 1864 about one-fourth of the population were 
colored people. The soil of Kent yields a great variety of 
crops, and agriculture is the leading occupation of the people; 
although the fishery interests are extensive. A paper mill, 
basket factory, phosphate factory, and other manufacturing 
plants are located at Chestertown, the county seat (population, 
2,735). Canneries, mills, and other plants are numerous in the 
county. The people, though conservative, are progressive. 
They have promoted railroad and steamboat communication 
with Baltimore and Philadelphia. During the ante-Revolu- 
tionary period, Kent was active in opposition to the oppressive 
measures of Parliament. It is not commonly known that 
Chestertown, then a port of entry, had a "tea-party" of her 
own, a small cargo on the Geddes, brought into the Chester for 
the neighboring counties, being seized and thrown overboard by 
the indignant citizens. In the War of 1812 the British under 
Sir Peter Parker landed a force in Kent for an important military 
operation. The enemy was met by a body of local militia under 
Colonel Philip Reed (a Revolutionary officer, and United States 
senator 1806-1813), a-nd driven back to its ships with heavy 
loss, Parker being among the killed. Washington College 
(founded 1782), which has a normal department, is at Chester- 
town. Rock Hall, Betterton, Millington, Edesville, Galena, Still 
Pond, Kennedyville, and other thriving towns are in Kent. 

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High School Building, Annapolis 
From a pbologiaph 

Anne Arundel county was erected in 1650, and has an area 
of 400 square miles. It was named after the Lady Anne 
Arundel, whom CeciHus Calvert married. It fronts eastward 
on the Chesapeake, and within its territory five rivers are con- 
tained — the Severn, the most beautiful sheet of water of its size 
in the United States ; Magothy, South, Rhode, and West. On 
the north and northeast is the Patapsco, and Howard county lies 
northwest of Anne Arundel. The Patuxent separates it from 
Prince George's on the west, and Calvert is on the south. An- 
napolis, the state capital, is also the county seat. In 1694 it sup- 

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planted St. Mary's city as the seat of government in the colony, ' 
and grew to be the " Paris of America," the abode of wealth, 
elegance, and fashion. In the Senate Chamber of the historic 
old State House Washington resigned his commission as com- 
mander-in-ciiief, to the Continental Congress, at the close of the 
Revolution ; on State House Hill, where Revolutionary troops 
encamped, is a heroic statue of Baron de Kalb, commander of 
the Maryland Line on the gory field of Camden. Near the State 
House is the Executive Mansion, and in the vicinity are numer- 
ous specimens of eighteenth century architecture. The city and 
county are rich in historical associations. Eden, the last of the 
colonial governors, died in Annapolis, and his grave is on the 
Severn. Tombs of the early settlers, bearing still familiar names, 
and other traces of the past preserve county history. The Mary- 
land Gazette, first printed in 1745, is one of the Annapolis news- 
papers.^ The United States Naval Academy is a government 
reservation adjoining the city. The population of Annapolis is 
8,609, It ^^s named-after Queen Anne. Agriculture and hor- 
ticulture are leading industries of the county, and its manufac- 
turing interests are numerous, and some of them of great impor- 
tance. South Baltimore, in the northern part of the county, is a 
manufacturing centre, with car- works and other large plants; 
Brooklyn has various industries ; AnnapoHs, a port of entry, is 
a leading centre of the oyster industry. Tobacco, wheat, corn, 
vegetables, and fruits are grown, and woodland areas have heavy 
growths of oak, pine, and other trees. The railroads are the Bal- 
timore and Potomac ; Baltimore and Ohio ; Annapolis, Baltimore 
and Washington ; and Baltimore and Annapolis Short Line. St. 
John's College, the alma mater of many distinguished Mary- 
landers, is at Annapolis. Anne Arundel institutions have been 
notable in the educational annals of Maryland. 
> See Page 109. 

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A Launching al ShipyarJs, Solomon's 
From a pholt^raph 

Calvert county has 222 square miles of territory, and is the 
smallest in the state. It dates back to 1654, and preserves the 
family name of the proprietary. The Patuxent curves around 
the southern and western sides of the county, and its eastern 
line is washed by the Chesapeake. The bayside is marked by 
highlands, and the "Cliffs of Calvert " attract much attention 
among students of geology and physiography. The soil is pro- 
ductive, and divided between sandy and clay loams. Tobacco 
and cereals are the chief crops, and a considerable number of the 
people are interested in fisheries. The oyster grounds of Calvert 
are among the best in the state. Timber is plentiful, and iron 
ores and silica are found in extensive deposits. Drum Point, at 

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the mouth of the Patuxent, has one of the finest harbors in the 
United States, and in time may become the location of a vast 
Federal or commercial maritime enterprise. Fruits and vege- 
tables mature early on the sheltered lands, with southern 
exposure, along the waterways. The county seat is Prince 
Frederick, which is centrally located, and, like other Calvert 
towns, is small in population. Solomon's, in the southern part 
of the county, 26 miles from Prince Frederick, has a marine 
railway and shipyards, and Sollers*, on St. Leonard's creek, 
St Leonard's, Chaneyville, Lower Marlboro, Drum Point, 
Huntingtown, Plum Point, are among the villages of the county. 
In the colonial and early state history of Maryland Calvert was 
conspicuous. The first railroad to enter the county is the Chesa- 
peake Beach, which was built from Hyattsville, near Washing- 
ton, to the bay a few years ago, and runs for a short distance 
through the upper part of Calvert, A large portion of the popu- 
lation is colored. Among noteworthy sons of the county were 
General James Wilkinson and Rev. Mason Weems ("Parson 
Weems"), the once popular biographer, who pointed a moral 
with his celebrated myth of little George Washington, his hatchet, 
and his father's cherry tree. 

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Court Huuse, La FlaU 
From a photograph 

Charles county lies on the Potomac river, its southern and 
western boundary, with Prince George's on the north and St. 
Mary's on the east. Between the two counties, a tongue of 
Charles extends to the Patuxent, and it was on this, at Benedict, 
that Ross's army disembarked for the march to Washington in 
1814. The county was organized in 1658, and given the Chris- 
tian name of the second lord proprietary. Its area is 460 square 
miles, and its great reach of water front on the Potomac, in a 
huge bend of which it is situated, gives it important resources 

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in riparian products," — oysters, fish, water-fowl. The Wicomico 
river, Nanjemoy, Port Tobacco, and Mattawoman creelts are 
tributaries of the Potomac in this county. Tobacco is the prin- 
cipal crop, the average yield being 500 pounds to the acre, and 
corn and wheat are grown in considerable quantities. The Pope's 
Creek line of the Baltimore and Potomac railroad terminates at 
Pope's creek, on the Potomac. In the middle section of the 
county the land is level and in other parts its rolling surface is 
locally designated as "valleys." Port Tobacco, from colonial 
times the county seat, was succeeded a decade ago by La Plata, 
on the railroad. The entire village population of the county is 
. very small. The United States Naval Proving Grounds, a gov- 
ernment reservation at Indian Head in northwestern Charles, is 
where guns and projectiles for the navy are tested. Marshall 
Hall, nearly opposite Mt. Vernon, is closely connected with the 
memory of Washington, and is now an excursion resort. Gen- 
eral William Smallwood was from Charles, and for a century his 
grave on the ancestral estate, near the old brick dwelling in 
which he and General Washington held Masonic meetings, was 
marked only by a walnut tree. On July 4, 1898, the Maryland 
Society of the Sons of the American Revolution unveiled a 
massive monument on the spot. This county was also the home 
of Thomas Stone, a signer of the Declaration of Independence; 
of Michael Jenifer Stone, a representative in the first Congress, 
who voted to place the seat of Federal government on the 
Potomac ; of Governor John Hoskins Stone, distinguished at 
Long Island, White Plains, Princeton, Germantown; of Robert 
Hanson Harrison, Washington's military secretary, and a long 
list of able and brilliant men. 

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Marble Quarry, Cockeysville 
From a photograph 

Baltimore stands at the head of Maryland counties in popula- 
tion, wealth, and resources, and its area of 622 square miles is 
exceeded only by Garrett and Frederick. When the " Belt " was 
annexed to Baltimore city in 1888, the county lost considerable 
territory, 36,000 inhabitants, and the towns of Waverly, Oxford, 
Woodberry, Hampden, Calverton. The eastern neighbor of 
Baltimore county is Harford, its western, Carroll ; and it is 
bounded on the south by the bay, the city, and the Patapsco 
river separating it from Anne Arundel and Howard. The Penn- 
sylvania state line is the northern boundary. The topography 
of the county is diversified and attractive, elevated and rolling, 
watered by numerous picturesque streams, and well timbered. 
The soil is strong and fertile, and a great variety of crops is 
grown. In mineral resources Baltimore is particularly fortunate. 

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From the early days of the colony its iron ores attracted capital, 
and from time to time numerous iron-manufacturing establish- 
ments have been in operation. Copper mines were formerly 
worked in the county, and from this industry grew the present 
large copper works at Canton, which now use copper from Mon- 
tana, the mining of the county deposits being very expensive. 
The first discovery of chrome ore in America was made a few 
miles north of Baltimore city, and a flourishing industry in the 
manufacture of products from this ore, of wide applicability in 
the arts, was established. The building stones of the county 
have given it high rank in the industrial world. The famous 
Woodstock granite is found in the southwestern comer, and has 
been quarried since the thirties. It has been used in many of 
the chief buildings in Baltimore city, and in the Congressional 
Library and Washington Post Office. The most valuable of 
Maryland's limestone deposits, it is said, are the highly crystal- 
line marbles of Baltimore county. The Beaver Dam marbles 
have been used in the construction of the Washington monu- 
ments in Baltimore and Washington, and Federal, state, and 
municipal buildings throughout the East. Gneiss and gabbro 
rocks are also used in building. The county is noted for its min- 
eral waters — Chattolanee, Roland, Strontia, Lystra, etc. There 
are valuable deposits of serpentine and porcelain clays. Along 
the Patapsco and the bay are numerous pleasure resorts, and 
fishing and gunning shores. The Baltimore and Ohio; Phila- 
delphia, Wilmington and Baltimore; and the Baltimore and 
Potomac run through its southern portion : the Northern Central 
extends northward through the county into Pennsylvania; the 
Western Maryland runs northwesterly from Baltimore city ; and 
there are several short lines and electric roads. The county seat 
is Towson, named after General Nathan Towson, seven miles 
from Baltimore, on the Maryland and Pennsylvania railroad. 

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It is the terminus of a city electric car line, and is situated in 
the midst of a superbly developed agricultural country. It has a 
population of 3,500. Canton and Highland town, small cities 
in themselves, largely given over to manufacturing, adjoin the 
eastern limits of Baltimore city. Cockeysville has a large stone 
quarry ; at Lutherville is a female seminary ; Emory Grove and 
Glyndon are noted camp grounds ; Catonsville and Mt. Wash- 
ington, with Roland Park and other towns, are known for their 
fine residences and picturesque locations. Hundreds of industrial 
establishments, large and small, are located in the county, and 
Steelton (Sparrow's Point) is the seat of the mammoth plant of 
the Maryland Sleel Company. The county has many fine estates 
and country seats, and from its formation, in 1659, has been the 
home of a great number of the foremost men of colony and state. 
The battle of North Point was fought on its soil. For years it 
had a congressman of its own. Baltimore was the name of the 
Irish estates of the Calverts. The private and sectarian educa- 
tional institutions of the county are numerous, and some of them 
of widespread fame. 

Graiing Scene, Samuel ShoemaVer'a Farm 
From a pholopaph 

b, Google 

From a pholograph 

"Talbot county was formed in 1660-61. The order by which 
it was created has not been found, but the Assembly proceedings 
first show its existence in this year. The existing records of the 
province have not discovered to us what were its exact limits 
anterior to the year 1 706, In that year they were definitely set- 
tled by the existing Act of 1706, Chapter 3, which enacts that 
'the bounds of Talbot county shall contain Sharp's Island, Chop- 
tank Island, and all the land on the north side of the Great Chop- 
tank river ; and extend itself up the said river to Tuckahoe 
Bridge; and from thence with a straight line to the mill com- 
monly called and known by the name of Swetnam's mill, and 
thence down the south side of Wye river to its mouth., and 
thence down the bay to the place of beginning, including Poplar 
Island and Bruff's Island'" {McMahon, History of Maryland). 
The second public school in Maryland was established In Talbot 
under the Act of 1723. That this school was something more 
than a mere elementary school is clear from the curriculum laid 
down in the act, namely, "Grammar, Good Writing and Mathe- 

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matics." There is sufficient evidence for believing that the 
Talbot Free School was better supplied with good teachers 
than the private subscription schools, which were often filled by 
indentured servants. Bampfylde Moore Carew, the "King of 
the Beggars," came to Talbot as an unwilling emigrant, and 
the captain of the ship that brought him over recommended him 
to a planter of Bayside as a "great scholar and an excellent 
schoolmaster." The school seems to have prospered for a long 
series of years and was " looked upon as Jhe most frequented in 
the province." But after the year 1764 uo record of it has been 
found. How long it flourished and when it ceased to exist is 
unknown. It is believed, upon tradition merely, that it con- 
tinued in successful operation up to the outbreak of the Revolu- 
tionary War. Talbot people have long cherished their public 
schools as their most valued privilege and right. The county 
has an area of 285 square miles, and derives its name from Lord 
Talbot. It is cut up into peninsulas by the Chesapeake and its 
tributaries, and is famous for its landscapes and waterscapes. 
Agriculture, canning, and oyster-catching are its industries. It 
has furnished governors, United States senators, a secretary of 
the treasury, and numerous state and national officials and men 
of mark. Maryland's first historian came from Talbot, and it 
was the home of Robert Morris's father and the birthplace of 
John Dickinson. The Delaware and Chesapeake, and Balti- 
more, Chesapeake, and Atlantic are its transportation lines. 
Easton, the county seat, was the former "capital " and seat of 
government on the Eastern Shore, and the first newspaper on 
this side of the bay was established there more than a century 
ago, Oxford and St. Michael's are also historic. 

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A Pan of M»in Street, Criafield 
From a phol<^^ph 

Somerset county was erected August 22, 1666, by an order of 
the provincial Council, and embraced "all that Tract of land 
within this our province of Maryland bounded on the South with 
a line drawn from Wattkin's point(being the North point of th't 
bay into wch the river Wighco formerly called Wighcocomoco 
afterwards Pocomoke & now Wighcocomoco againe doth fall 
exclusively) to the Ocean on the East, Nantecoke river on the 
North & the Sound of Chesipiake bay on the West " ; which was 
erected in the name and as the act of the Lord Proprietary " into a 
county by the name of Sommersett county in honor to our Deare 
Sister the lady Mary Somersett." The commissioners, Stephen 
Horsey, William Stevens, William Thorne, James Jones, John 
Winder, Henry Boston, George Johnson, and John White, were 
empowered "to enquire by the Oath of good & lawfull men of 
all manner of fellonies Witchcrafts inchantmts Sorceryes Mag- 
ick Arts Trespasses forestallings ingrossing & extorcons " and 

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"all & singler other Misdeeds and offences." The order ap- 
pointed " Edmond Beachchampe Clark and Keeper of the 
Records," and the council issued the same day a commission to 
Stephen Horsey to be "Sherriffe of Somersett." The first 
effort to settle the long-standing boundary dispute with Virginia 
resulted in Scarborough's Hne depriving Somerset of 23 square 
miles of territory. Like Dorset, Somerset has jurisdiction over 
several islands, one of which. Deal's Island, was celebrated early 
in the last century for its Methodist " Parson " Thomas, who, 
tradition says, foretold the death of Ross in the attack on Balti- 
more, and preached to the British on his island. The south- 
eastern corner of Somerset is separated from Accomac, in 
Virginia, by the Pocomoke river, and the division line continues 
through Pocomoke sound. The Western Shore is washed by 
Tangier sound and the bay. The area of Somerset is 362 square 
miles, and it heads the list of oyster counties, half its population 
being engaged in that industry. The value of the annual 
oyster yield from Somerset waters is ^2,000,000, and the pack- 
ing-houses along the southern and western shores utilize from 
one to one and a half million bushels yearly. In summer oyster- 
men find employment ia the crabbing industry, and these- shell- 
fish are shipped in enormous quantities to city markets — 
250,000 dozen going from Crisfield alone in a single season. 
Terrapin are more plentiful in Somerset than in other coun- 
ties, and " diamond-back farming " is successful. Agriculture 
is profitable in the interior, and truck-farming is carried on 
along the lines of the New York, Philadelphia and Norfolk 
railroad. Crisfield, near the mouth of the little Annamessex 
river, with a population of 3,468, is a port of entry for hundreds 
of vessels, and has extensive industrial and commercial interests. 
The county seat, Princess Anne, was founded in 1733. Other 
towns are Fairmount, Oriole, Mt. Vernon, and Kingston. 

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Cambridge Ilospilal, Cambridge 
From a pholograph 

Dorchester county is the largest on the Eastern Shore, having 
an areaof 6 lo square miles, and ranks fourth in point of size in the 
state. The Great Choptank river and Caroline form its north- 
ern boundary, and it has a few miles of eastern border on the 
Delaware line. The Nanticoke flows along the southeastern 
border, and on the south and west arms of the Chesapeake and 
the bay itself inclose the county. Dorchester was formed in 
1669-1670, and its name is traced to the earl of Dorset or to 
Dorsetshire. Various islands are included in its territory, and 
the Little Choptank, the northwest fork of the Nanticoke, Honga, 
Fishing, Blackwater, Transquaking, Chicacomico, are rivers and 
creeks of Dorchester, Fishing bay, Tar hay, Trippe bay, Hooper's 
straits, and other bodies of water add to the geographical nomen 
clature of the county. There is a great extent of marsh land, fre- 
quented by myriads of wild ducks, and oysters, crabs, and terrapin 

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abound in the county waters. Sand, clay, and marl make a diver- 
sified soil, and corn, wheat, potatoes, tomatoes, and fruits are 
grown. Great quantities of oysters, tomatoes, and com are used 
by the packing-houses. The annual income from the oyster 
catch is |!i,ooo,ooo or more, and Dorchester ranks next to Som- 
erset in this industry. Cambridge is the home port of a vast 
fleet of dredging and tonging vessels, the seat of large packing- 
establishments, of shipyards and other manufactures. The Cam- 
bridge and Seaford and the Baltimore, Chesapeake, and Atlantic 
railroads traverse northeastern Dorchester, and steam and sailing 
vessels reach all parts of the county lying on water. Cambridge, 
the county seat, with a population of 6,407, has a fine salt-water 
situation on the Great Choptank, 18 miles from its mouth. 
The river here, between the Dorchester and Talhot shores, is 
several miles in width, and the town is built on level ground, 
extending to the water's edge. The streets are well shaded, and 
brick and stone structures predominate in the business section. 
East New Market is in the midst of a thriving agricultural sec- 
tion, has a population of 280, and Secretary (on Secretary 
Sewell's creek), Hurlock, Williamsburg, Salem, Taylor's Island, 
Bucktown, Linkwood, Dailsvilte, are some Dorchester villages. 
Vienna, on the Nanticoke, was long noted for its shipyards, and 
many swift and shapely ocean-going vessels were built there 
before steam and iron supplanted wood, and when the white oak 
forests of Dorset still afforded the best material known in former 
naval construction. Dorchester was harried by the British 
during the War of 1812. Governor John Henry, first United 
States senator from the Eastern Shore, and William Vans 
Murray were from this county. 

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Memorial Hall, Tome InstKute, Port Deposit 
From a photograph 

Cecil county, named in honor of the second Lord Baron of 
Baltimore, was erected in 1674, the tenth county in order of 
formation, and it is situated in the northeast corner of Maryland, 
on the borders of Pennsylvania and Delaware, and cut off from 
the remainder of the state by the Sassafras river on the south, 
and the Chesapeake bay and Susquehanna river on the west. 
It is one of the smaller counties in area — 350 square miles — 
much of which is, however, under water, as it is intersected by 
several rivers, notably the North East, the Elk, and the Bohemia. 

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The surface throughout is rolling, the northern portion being 

hilly ; this gives considerable water power, which is utilized by 
a number of large paper, iron, cotton, flour, phosphate, kaolin, 
and fluor-spar mills. The third largest pulp and paper mill in 
the United States is located at Elkton, the county seat. In the 
eighteenth century the output of pig and bar iron at the Principio 
Company's furnaces was the largest in America. The soil 
generally is fertile, varying from a yellow clay in the south to a 
disintegrated rock in the north, producing fruits, grain, and hay 
in abundance. So noted has its hay crop become that the high- 
est grade on the Baltimore market is known as " Cecil county 
hay." Along the Susquehanna river are several large granite 
quarries, affording the best building material, a stone which, 
when polished, as is done at Port Deposit, is excelled in beauty 
by no other. Kaolin is largely worked for use in the manufac- 
ture of paper and in porcelain factories, and chrome has been 
extensively mined. Although possessing such excellent water 
facilities, marsh land is almost unknown. The banks of the 
Susquehanna river rise abruptly to a height of from 80 to nearly 
600 feet. At Port Deposit the granite banks rise almost per- 
pendicularly 200 to 300 feet. The fisheries, as might be ex- 
pected, are of much importance. Elkton, the largest town, has 
about 2,487 inhabitants, followed by Port Deposit, Perryville, 
Rising Sun, North East, Chesapeake City, and Cecilton. The 
scenery in places is picturesque in the extreme. That along the 
Susquehanna, near Conowingo, and on the Octoraro, near 
Porter's Bridge, attracts artists from a distance, and compares 
most favorably with the Wissahickon and other rugged streams 
so often delineated by the painter's brush. The county is about 
equidistant from Philadelphia and Baltimore, is intersected by 
the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore; the Philadelphia 
division of the Baltimore and Ohio, and the Baltimore Central 

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railroads, also by the Chesapeake and Delaware canal. Cecil 
county was one of the first to engage in school work. In 1723 
the colonial legislature appointed a committee consisting of John 
Ward, John Dowell, Benjamin Pearce, and others, to open free 
schools, and they opened one, St. Stephen's Church, organized 
in 1692, opened a public school about 1734. The Friends' 
Meeting House at Calvert was organized by William Penn in 
1702, and soon after opened a school. The church of St 
Francis Xavier was organized in 1704, and afterward opened a 
school. The county in 1859 organized a system of free public 
schools, thus antedating that of the state six years. Among 
the more prominent private schools are the West Nottingham 
Academy, opened about 1741 by Rev. Samuel Finley, who after- 
ward became the president of Princeton University. It is situ- 
ated near Colora. The Tome Institute, most beautifully situated 
on the bluff at Port Deposit, presided over by Dr. T. S. Baker, 
with a corps of over 60 teachers, and more than 500 pupils, was 
endowed by the late Jacob Tome with several millions of dollars. 

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Maryland State College of Agriculture 
From a photograph 

Prince George's county, named in honor of Prince George of 
Denmark, husband of Queen Anne, was formed in 1695, having 
been originally a part of Charles. The seat of local government 
was first established at Mt. Calvert on the Patuxent river, but 
it was soon removed to Upper Marlborough (named for the 
Duke of Marlborough, in 1706). The number of white children 
of school age is over 6,000, while that of colored children is imder 
S,ooo, Prince George's is one of the most progressive and pros- 
perous counties of the state. Its growth is promoted largely 
by its proximity to the national capital. The resources of the 
county are mainly agricultural. In the upper section, bordering 
upon the District of Columbia, trucking is followed to a large 
extent. In the middle and southern sections, corn, wheat, and 
tobacco are cultivated — the last named on an extensive scale, 
forming the staple product. The annual output of the county 
is larger than that of any other of the tobacco-growing counties. 
The principal towns are Upper Marlborough, Laurel, Hyatts- 

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ville, Bladensburg, Forestville, and Woodville. At Laurel there 
are cotton duck mills, and a cereal mill has been established 
at Hyattsville. Bladensburg has the distinction of having 
been the scene of one of the most significant battles of the 
War of 1812, and of many noted duels. The academy at 
Upper Marlborough, established in 1835, is managed by a board 
of seven trustees, and has always had for its principal a capable 
teacher of the classics. Many persons who attained eminence 
in public and professional life were educated at this school. 
Even in colonial time, Prince George's county was conspicuous 
for being the home of cultured and educated people; and as 
early as 1745 Rev. Dr. Eversfield, Rector of St. Paul's parish, 
established a private school near his residence which he con- 
tinued until his death in 1 780. He taught Greek and Latin and 
furnished pupils with board at $53 per annum. The Maryland 
State College of Agriculture is in this county. The area of Prince 
George's is 480 square miles and its railroads are the Baltimore 
and Ohio; Baltimore and Potomac; Pope's Creek, and Chesa- 
peake Beach lines. Back in the thirties the " Patuxent Manu- 
facturing Company " was incorporated, and established the 
present cotton mill at Laurel, the old name of the town being 
" Laurel Factory." The iron industry in Prince George's dates 
back over a century. The Snowdens, among the original set- 
tlers of the county, established furnaces at various points in 
southern Maryland. The Patuxent Furnace and Forge was 
long a notable industry. The only iron works now in operation 
in the county, or in rural Maryland, is the Muirkirk Furnace, 
on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, at Muirkirk. It was 
erected in 1847 by Andrew and Elias Ellicott and modelled after 
a furnace at Muirkirk, Scotland. The population of Laurel is 
2,415, and of Hyattsville, 1,917. 

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Threshing Scene 
From a pholograph 

Queen Anne's county was erected in 1706, and the bounds 
of the four counties above the Great Choptank were described 
and fixed by the Assembly of that year with definiteness. 

Queen Anne's takes in the territory between the Delaware line 
and the bay (including Kent Island), south of the Chester and 
north of the Wye and Tuckahoe rivers. Kent is its northern, 
and Talbot and Caroline its southern neighbors. Agriculturally, 
the county is highly favored, the soil being very fertile, and the 
surface rolling. The area of the county is 376 square miles. 
Kent Island is opposite Anne Arundel, and its wooded shores 
are visible from the State House at Annapolis. Although under 
cultivation for two and a half centuries, the island is the delight 
of agriculturalists, its rich soil producing in profusion all the 

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Staple Maryland crops. Oysters, crabs, fish, and water-fowl are 
plentiful in Queen Anne's waters. Practically all the arable land 
of the county is under cultivation. The industrial establish- 
ments are chiefly flour mills and canneries. The Queen Anne's 
railroad runs from Love Point, on Kent Island, through the 
southern part of the county to Lewes, Delaware; and the Queen 
Anne's and Kent railroad, of the Pennsylvania system, terminates 
at Centreville, the county seat (population 1,435), to which 
point a spur of the Queen Anne's has been extended. Steam- 
boats bring the water-sides of the county within a few hours' 
trip of Baltimore city. Queenstown, on the eastern water front, 
was the colonial county seat, and has an interesting history. 
A school here attained some reputation before the Revolution. 
In provincial times Queen Anne's and Talbot were favorite places 
of summer residence for leading men of Maryland, who culti- 
vated broad estates in these counties in the intervals between 
their official duties at Annapolis or participation in its social 
gayeties. Queen Anne's rivals St. Mary's as the favorite field 
of writers of historical romances. 

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Makemie Memorial I'resbytetian Church (organized 16S3), Snow Hill 
From a pholograph 

Worcester county was formed in 1742, and originally included, 
with the shadowy county of Durham, all the Maryland territory 
lying on the Delaware from the fortieth parallel to the ocean. 
The center of settlement in that Worcester was " the Horekeele " 
— the present Lewes. Mason and Dixon's Line gave Worces- 
ter its now northern houndary. Chincoteague, Sinepuxent, Isle 
of Wight, and Assateague bays take up a considerable part of 
the county's area of 487 square miles. Its name recalls the 
loyalty of the proprietaries to the royal house of Stuart. Snow 
Hill, the county seat, was one of the " townes and ports of trade " 

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erected in 1686. It is at the head of navigation on the Poco- 
moke river, and on the Delaware, Maryland and Virginia rail- 
road, and its manufactures are locally important. At Pocomoke 
City millions of baskets and crates for the fruit and vegetable 
trade are made annually, and the building of oyster boats and 
other craft is an important industry. The population of the 
town is 2,369, that of Snow Hill, 1,844, and of Berlin, 1,317. 
Smaller towns are Ironshire, Girdletree, Whaleyville, Bishopville, 
Newark, Box Iron, Stockton, Klej Grange. Worcester is the 
only county in the state which borders on the Atlantic ocean, 
and it has in Ocean City a thriving and prosperous seaside 
resort, which has been of great advantage to truckers on the 
mainland near there, and which has added materially to the taxa- 
ble basis. The principal industries are agriculture, manufactur- 
ing of lumber, and the oyster and other fisheries. The people are 
chiefly of English descent. The soil varies from a light sand to 
a heavy clay, the majority of it being a good loam, with some 
clay. The principal products are cereals, fruits, truck, and tim- 
ber. The lower part of the Sinepuxent bay in Worcester is one 
of the most fertile oyster fields to be found. During the season 
there are shipped from the railroad station at Girdletree about 
30,000 barrels, and from Hursley about the same number, besides 
those that are consumed locally or are shipped by vessels. At 
Ocean City a fish company has been formed and annually ships 
thousands of barrels of the finest fish to Northern markets. 

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Key Monument, Frederick 
From a photograph 

Frederick county was organized in 1748, named after the 
Prince of Wales, and has an area of 633 square miles, being the 
second largest Maryland county. Its topography is agreeably 
diversified by valley, plain, rolling land, and mountain. Many of 
the early settlers were Germans. The county has always fur- 
nished its full quota of soldiers and sailors in wartime, from colo- 
nial days to the war with Spain. The author of " The Star-span- 
gled Banner " was born here, and his remains rest in Mt. Olivet 
cemetery, in the city of Frederick, beneath the monument 
erected by the Key Monument Association, and unveiled August 

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9, i8gg. On November 23, 1765, the judges of the Frederick 
county court repudiated the Stamp Act passed by the British 
Parliament, and Repudiation Day was made a county holiday in 
1894. Agriculture is the leading industry, the soil being fer- 
tile and producing large crops of wheat, corn, rye, oats, and 
potatoes. The mountain districts still supply a good quality of 
oak, chestnut, walnut, hickory, and other timber. The railroads 
are the Baltimore and Ohio, the Western Maryland, Pennsyl- 
vania ; and an electric road runs from Frederick to Myersville. 
Iron ore and copper are found in different parts of the county, 
the most extensive deposits of the former being in the northern 
section, near Thurmont, where a large smelting plant is located 
— the Catoctin Furnace, first put in operation in 1774. Near 
Libertytown copper mines are worked on an extensive scale. 
Frederick city, 61 miles from Baltimore, has a population of 
10,41 r, and is the county seat. A female seminary. Hood 
College, and other important private educational institutions are 
located there, as is also the Maryland School for the Deaf. 
Manufactured products of the county include lumber, flour, fiber 
brushes, fertilizer, furniture, harness, hosiery, crockery-ware, 
lime, proprietary articles, etc. Frederick towns include Bruns- 
wick, Emmittsburg (near which is Mt. St. Mary's College), 
Thurmont, Walkersville, Middletown, Buckeystown, Adamstown, 
Point of Rocks, Creagestown, Wolfsville, Urbana, Libertytown, 
New Market, Ijamsville, Sabillsville, Woodsboro, Knoxville, Mt. 
Pleasant, Jefferson, Graceham, Myersville, Harmony, Johnsville, 
Ladiesburg, Unionville, Lewistown, Attica Mills, Burkittsville. 

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High School, Havre de Grace 
From a photograph 

Harford county was formerly part of Baltimore county. After 
the removal of the county seat of the latter from Joppa (which 
is within the present limits of Harford) to Baltimore Town on 
the Patapsco, a petition for the formation of a new county was 
granted by the legislature of 1773. The proprietary of the 
province of Maryland at this time was Henry Harford, and from 
him the county took its name. The first county seat was Har- 

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ford Town, or Bush, but as the settlements gradually extended 
farther and farther from the river and bay section, the people 
desired a more convenient location. As the result of an election 
in 1782, the county seat was removed to Bel Air, where it has 
remained. The physical features of the county being so varied, 
the industries are of many kinds. From the tide-water region in 
the southeastern part there is a gradual elevation, the highsst 
point being 750 feet above the sea. In the spring much fishing 
is done along the Susquehanna and upper part of the Chesapeake. 
Sportsmen come from afar to take advantage of the duck-shooting 
here afforded. In the upper part of the county are found quarries 
of slate and limestone. Rolling fields of unsurpassed fertility 
give the tiller of the Soil first place in the industries of the 
county. The pasture-land in the valley of the streams makes 
dairying profitable, and the canned goods industry has been 
encouraged to such an extent by the packers and brokers that 
Harford ranks among the first of all the southern counties in this 
respect. The facilities for shipping are good, the Baltimore 
and Ohio and the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore rail- 
roads traversing the entire southern part of the county, the 
Maryland and Pennsylvania running through a great portion of 
the central part in a north and south direction, while just across 
the river along the eastern border is the Columbia and Port 
Deposit road. The citizens of Harford have always taken an 
active part in both state and national history. As the first 
county seat lay on the main highway between Virginia and the 
Northern colonies, the ideas of Washington and Jefferson and 
Patrick Henry were easily disseminated. More than a year before 
Jefferson's famous instrument was adopted, thirty-four of Har- 
ford's representative sons, duly elected by the people of the 
county, signed a resolution in which they heartily approved of 
the " Resolves and Associations of the Continental Congress and 

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the Resolves of the Provincial Convention," and solemnly pledged 
themselves to each other and to the country to perform the same 
at the risk of their lives and their fortunes. This is known as 
the famous Bush Declaration of March 22, 1775. In the court- 
house at Bel Air are portraits of many of the distinguished citi- 
zens of the county who have left their impress upon the state 
and nation. Among them are found William Paca, signer of 
the Declaration of Independence and twice governor of the 
state ; Dr. John Archer, a member of the first Constitutional 
Convention of the state; and Edwin Booth, one of the greatest 
of the world's actors. Abingdon, aptly termed the " Mecca of 
the Methodists," is noted as being the seat of the first Metho- 
dist College (Cokesbury) founded for higher education. Havre 
de Grace, named by Lafayette because of the resemblance of its 
location to that of the French Havre, is the largest town in the 
county, its population being 4,212. It figured in the War of 
1812. Bet Air has a population of 1,005, 31"^ Aberdeen and 
other towns have from 100 to 800 inhabitants. 

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Court House, Denton 
From a pholograph 

Caroline is one of the smaller Maryland counties, and is the 
most inland of those on the Eastern Shore. Wicomico alone 
excepted, it is the only one in that section not having an exten- 
sive bayside border. The Delaware line bounds it on the east, 
Dorset on the south, Great Choptank and Tuckahoe rivers on 
the west, and Queen Anne's on the north. The area of the 
county is 320 square miles, and it was named in honor of Lady 
Eden, and its county seat was first called Eden-Town, after 

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Governor Eden. It was erected in 1773. The soil is of sand 
and clay, adapted to a variety of crops, from wheat to berries. 
Fruit-growing is a prominent industry, and canneries are oper- 
ated in every section of the county. A local industry is char- 
coal-burning. The Queen Anne's railroad has done much to 
develop the central section of the county and to quicken village 
growth. The Delaware and Chesapeake railway runs through 
the northwestern part, and the Cambridge and Seaford line 
through the extreme southeast. On the Choptank steamboats 
ply daily to Denton. The population of Denton is 1,481. 
Ridgely (population 943) and Greensborough are important 
fruit-shipping stations, and the next largest towns. Federals- 
burg (population 1,050), on the Northwest Fork of the Nanticoke, 
has several local industries, and Preston, on the Baltimore, 
Chesapeake and Atlantic railway, which curves through south- 
western Caroline; Hillsborough, Burrsville, Choptank, are pro- 
gressive towns. Hillsborough Academy was noted among the 
classical public schools of the post- Revolutionary period. One' 
of the first acts of the people of this county was the promulga- 
tion of the "CaroHne Resolutions of 1774," pledging resistance 
to the arbitrary measures of Parliament. The county was dis- 
tinguished in the Revolution. At Ridgely is an extensive basket 
and berry-cup manufactory. 

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Limestone Cruahei 
Fntm a photograph 

Washington county was established on the same day as Mont- 
gomery and was taken from Frederick, originally including 
Allegany and Garrett. It is bounded on the north by Pennsyl- 
vania, on the east by South Mountain, which separates it from 
Frederick ; on the south and southwest by the Potomac river, 
dividing it from Virginia, and on the west by Sideling Hill 
creek, which separates it from Allegany. It is nearly triangular 
in shape. The county is abundantly watered by the Antietam, 
Beaver, Conococheague, Israel, and other creeks tributary to the 
Potomac. The principal products are wheat, corn, oats, hay, 
rye, potatoes, wool, live-stock, butter, and honey. The county 
seat is Hagerstown, with a population of 16,507, and an admi- 
rable location as a railroad center. It lies on Antietam creek, 

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86 miles from Baltimore, and a seminary of high order and other 
private institutions are among its educational facilities. The 
Baltimore and Ohio, Western Maryland, Norfolk and Western, 
and Cumberland Valley railroads traverse the county, and all 
pass through Hagerstown. The manufacturing establishments 
of the city are numerous, and some of their products are bicycles, 
gloves, organs, building materials, agricultural implements, 
cigars, flour, carriages, etc. Williamsport has a population of 
1,571, and is a commercial and industrial center. Sharpsburg, 
Hancock, Clears pring, Boonsboro, Smithsburg, Leitersburg, 
Funkstown, Keedysville, and others, are thriving villages. The 
county ranks high among wheat-producing counties of the 
United States, and is noted for its mountain-side peach orchards. 
Its area is 525 square miles. The population is remarkable for 
intelligence, industry, and thrift. Germans, English, Scotch, 
Swiss, and French from the border provinces of Alsace and 
Lorraine were among the original settlers. A number of fami- 
lies were established in the county as early as 1735, and from 
1740 onward the numbers rapidly increased. Washington has 
been the mother of a long line of distinguished men in every 
walk of life, who have left their impress not only upon Mary- 
land but upon other states and the nation. The county may lay 
claim to no inconsiderable share in the construction of the first 
steamboat built in the United States (1785-1786). General 
Washington and Governor Thomas Johnson were patrons of the 
experiment of James Rumsey, and parts of his steamboat were 
made at the Antietam Iron Works on March 14, 1786. Sharps- 
burg and vicinity was the scene of the most terrible and bloody 
battle of the Civil War, and in the Antietam National cemetery 
here lie buried 4,667 Union dead. The Delaware and Catawba 
battle-ground at the mouth of Antietam creek, the limestone or 
subterranean curiosity from which Cavetown derives its name. 

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and old Fort Frederick, near Clearspring — the last remaining 
visible vestige of the French and Indian War — and Maryland 
Heights, rendered conspicuous in 1861-1865, together with 
Antietam battle-field, dotted with monuments and tablets, make 
the county forever memorable in song and story. 

Limestune Quarry 
From a photograph 

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Court House, Bockville 
From a photograph 

On September 6, 1776, the county of Montgomery was formed 
out of the " Lower District of Frederick," and named in honor 
of that illustrious hero, General Richard Montgomery, killed at 

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Quebec the previous year. The county furnished a conspicuous 
part of the Maryland Line during the Revolution ; also, troops 
in every subsequent war in which the country has been engaged. 
Montgomery has given the state at least nine members of the 
national House of Representatives, one United States senator, 
one Chief Judge of the Maryland Court of Appeals, four presi- 
dents of the state Senate, and has had one cabinet officer. The 
late United States senators Edwards, of Illinois; Davis, of Ken- 
tucky, and the brilliant commoner. Proctor Knott, of the same 
state, were natives of this county ; and the ancestors of the south- 
ern Lamars and of Thomas H. Benton, of Missouri, were from 
Montgomery. The first school of any reputation in the county 
was a seminary for young men, established toward the close of 
the Revolution, and memorable as the alma mater of William 
Wirt. The Rockville Academy (1809) and Brookeville Academy 
.(1S14) were next chartered and liberally endowed, and have 
been in operation ever since their foundation. Many private 
institutions of learning have since been established, and those 
now existing are at Rockville, Sandy Spring, Darnestown, 
Poolesville, and Forest Glen. The Metropolitan Branch of the 
Baltimore and Ohio railroad runs diagonally through the county, 
available to nearly every section, and several electric roads 
enter the southeastern part, reaching various towns. The Chesa- 
peake and Ohio canal borders on southern Montgomery, from 
the District Line to Monocacy. There are numerous circulat- 
ing libraries, and the proximity of the county to the national 
capital offers the best facilities to students and information- 
seekers. Braddock's army encamped for a night within the 
present limits of Rockville. In the early history of the county 
corn and tobacco were the staple products of the soil, until it 
became so exhausted that Montgomery lost by emigration to the 
new country beyond the Ohio large numbers of her population. 

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In 1790 this was over 18,000, and fifty years later, 15,456. By 
the introduction of guano in 1845 by the Society of Friends, a 
wonderful advance was made in the growing of cereals and 
grass, and the value of land and farm products materially en- 
hanced. In the last twenty-five years the fertility of the soil has 
been greatly increased by the use of lime and phosphates. The 
Great Falls of the Potomac is said to be the largest available 
water power, perhaps in the world, and the county has many 
natural advantages. Gold has been found in Montgomery in 
small quantities, and there are extensive deposits of granite. 
Rockville, the county seat, has a population of 1,181, Kensing- 
ton of 689, Takoma Park of 1,243, Gaithersburg of 625. The 
area of the county is 508 square miles. 

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dd National Bridge, CmnbeTland 
From a phologiaph 

Allegany county derives its name from an Indian word — 
Alligewi, a tribe name, or Oolik-hanna, meaning fairest stream. 
Its area is 442 square miles, and it lies between Garrett and 
Washington, with the Potomac river separating it from West 
Virginia on the south. Its northern line is the Pennsylvania 
boundary. In this county is found the narrowest part of the 
state, and it is conspicuous by reason of the fact that coal- 
mining and manufactures give occupation and support to the 
great majority of its people, whose number places Allegany next 
to Baltimore county in population. The coal fields cover 
64,000 acres in what is known as the George's Creek (named 
after Washington) Coal Basin, west of Cumberland, between 
Dan's mountain and Savage mountain. The county is rich in 
other mineral deposits, also — fire-clay, cement, iron ore, Medina 
sandstone, etc. The George's Creek Coal Basin is a part of 
that greatest of all coal deposits, the Allegheny field, which 
extends from Pennsylvania to Alabama. In Maryland the 

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deposit is of a semi-bituminous variety, highly prized for its 
peculiar qualities and unrivalled steam-making power. The 
limestone and clay lands and the Potomac " bottoms," in parts 
of Allegany, are exceedingly fertile, and produce potatoes, 
wheat, corn, buckwheat, oats, and grass in large crops. Fruits, 
especially apples, flourish on the mountain sides. The county 
is very progressive, and the standard of education, particularly 
among the miners, is high. Vast sums of capital are invested 
in Allegany industries, and some of these are among the most 
extensive of their kind in the United States. Tin-plate, leather, 
cement, lumber, machinery, flour, glass, and many other products 
of the county are shipped far and near. Next to Baltimore, 
Cumberland, with a population of 21,839, is the largest city in 
the state, and is constantly growing in material resources and 
size. It is the business center of a territory which extends into 
Pennsylvania and West Virginia. It is 178 miles from Balti- 
more and 149 from Pittsburg, and is reached by the Baltimore 
and Ohio, West Virginia Central (of which it is the eastern 
terminus), and Cumberland and Pennsylvania railroads, the 
latter a part of the Pennsylvania system. The Chesapeake and' 
Ohio canal extends from Cumberland to Georgetown, D.C. 
Fort Cumberland, where Braddock camped, was the starting- 
point of the present city. Incident and legend, dealing with 
Indian, British, French, and Civil wars, cluster about Cumber- 
land, and the topography and nomenclature of this region are 
suggestive. Frostburg, 1 7 miles westward of Cumberland, is a 
city of 6,028 population, on a plateau at an elevation of 1,700 
feet above sea-level. The second State Normal School is at 
Frostburg. Lonaconing, a mining town of i,S53 population, 
is in southwestern Allegany; Westernport, Midland, Barton, 
Mt. Savage, Ocean, Flintstone, Orleans, Pekin, are other 

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Western Maryland College, Westminster 
From a photograph 

Carroll county was formed in 1836 from the counties of Balti- 
more and Frederick, between which it lies, with Howard on the 
south and Pennsylvania on the north. The county has an area 
of 437 square miles and was named in memory of Charles Carroll 

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of Carrollton, who died in 1832, the last survivor of the signers 
of the Declaration of Independence. The surface is diversified, 
being level, undulating, or broken, watered by fine streams 
issuing from innumerable springs which make up the tributaries 
of the Potomac, the Monocacy, and the Patapsco. These 
streams furnish motive power for cotton and woolen factories, 
and many flouring mills. The soils being limestone, slate, and 
iron, are fertile and easily improved. These lands respond 
bountifully to the efforts of the agriculturist, and the products 
are com, wheat, rye, oats, buckwheat, hay, and potatoes. In 
many sections grazing is fine, and dairy farming is profitable. 
Limestone is quarried in large quantities for lime-making; and 
granite, marble, and brownstone furnish excellent building 
material. Iron, copper, soapstone, and flint are found in quan- 
tities sufficient to be worked with profit. Ample facilities for 
speedy and satisfactory transaction of business are furnished 
by fourteen banks, in which the deposits amount to between 
two and three million dollars. Westminster, with a population 
of 3,295, is the county seat. Other towns, ranging in population 
from i,2CO to 500, are Union Bridge, Taneytown, Manchester, 
Hampstead, Sykesville, New Windsor, and Mt. Airy. Carroll 
was the first county in the United States to establish rural free 
delivery of mail. In 1899 the system went into operation, and 
at present four wagons and forty-six carriers distribute mail in 
all parts of the county. The Western Maryland, Baltimore and 
Ohio, and Frederick Division of the Pennsylvania, are the Carroll 
railroads. The Western Maryland College and the Westminster 
Theological Seminary of the Methodist Protestant Church are at 
Westminster, and Blue Ridge College at New Windsor. 

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Cotton Mills (J. S. Gary & Son), Albetton 
From a photograph 

Howard county, organized in 1851, bears the name of John 
Eager Howard, one of the most illustrious soldiers of the Revo- 
lution, and afterward governor of Maryland and United States 
senator. It is triangular in shape, lying between Baltimore, 
Carroll, Frederick, Montgomery, Prince George's, and Anne 
Arundel counties, in the heart of the Western Shore. The 
Patapsco forms its northern border, and two small branches of 
the Patuxent extend into Howard from the Anne Arundel line. 
Another branch of the same river separates it from Montgomery. 
The main stem of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, the section 

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of which from Baltimore to ElHcott's Mills was the first passen- 
ger railroad built in this country, runs along Howard's northern 
border, and the Washington Branch of the same road along its 
southern. The corner-stone of the Baltimore and Ohio was laid 
July 4, 1828, by Charles Carroll, then upward of ninety years 
old, and he said of this act that he considered it second only to 
his signing the Declaration, if "even it be second to that," 
The area of the county is 250 square miles, and its topography 
is hilly and broken, with heavy forests and fertile hill-sides and 
valleys, the arable land being especially adapted to wheat, com, 
and hay. As early as 1800 the iron ore deposits of Howard led 
to the building of the Avalon Iron Works, and Howard ore is 
now the only Maryland product of the kind being smelted. In 
granite, marble, and building stones Howard is especially rich. 
Guilford and Woodstock granites are known throughout the 
United States. Ellicott City, the county seat, on the Patapsco 
river 15 miles from Baltimore, is joined to the latter by an 
electric road. Ellicott's Mills, as it was known from 1774 until 
the latter years of the past century, is noted in Maryland history. 
The manufacture of flour was begun here by the Ellicotts in that 
year, and this industry is an important one in this section of the 
state. The town has a population of 1,151. Rock Hill College, 
a widely known educational institution, is located here, Wood- 
stock and St. Charles colleges and the Ilchester Rederaptorist 
institution in Howard have made the county known wherever 
the Roman Catholic faith is preached. At Alberton and Savage 
are large cotton mills, operated by water power. Howard has 
been the birthplace or the home of many Marylanders noted in 
political life, on the bench, and in the arts and sciences, and on 
her territory was first heard in Maryland the demand for separa- 
tion from the mother country. 

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LumbcT Yard, Salisbuiy 
From a pholograph 

Wicomico county lies southeast of Dorset, the division line 
between the two b^ing the Nanticoke river. Delaware on the 
north, Worcester on the east, and Worcester and Somerset on 
the south form the land boundaries of Wicomico, and the 
Nanticoke river extends along its western side, emptying into 
Tangier sound. The area of the county is 365 square miles, 
and its name is taken from the river which flows through its 
central section into Monie bay. Salisbury, the county seat 
(1732), is one of the most thriving commercial towns on the 
Eastern Shore, and has a population of 6,690, It is incorpo- 
rated as a city, and has numerous manufactures, mostly asso- 
ciated with the extensive lumber interests of the county. 
Salisbury is noted for the beauty of its situation and its sub- 
stantia] business buildings and modern homes. Delmar, partly 
in Wicomico and partly in Delaware, is a goodly sized town, and 
Tyaskin, Nanticoke, Powellsville. Quantico, Pittsville, Parsons- 

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burg, and Fruitland are the centers of thriving communities. 
Agricuhure is the occupation of many of the people, and fruit- 
growing is largely and successfully engaged in, as is also truck- 
ing. With its fine transportation facihties, Wicomico, like 
Somerset, although, perhaps, in a greater degree, is in compe- 
tition with the truck-farmers of Virginia in the Northern mar- 
kets. Light, sandy soils, overlying stiff clays, are found in 
Wicomico, and there are areas of gum swamp-land and of loams, 
the " black loam " along the edge of Delaware being very fertile. 
Mardela Springs, a village of several hundred inhabitants, is 
well known in local history as the location of " Barren Creek 
Springs," the fame of whose medicinal waters covers over a 
century. Francis Makemie established a Presbyterian church 
in Wicomico (then Somerset) county before the formation, in 
1706, of the American Presbytery in Philadelphia, and is called 
the founder of the Presbyterian Church in America. The 
Baltimore, Chesapeake and Atlantic railway and the New 
York, Philadelphia and Norfolk railroad run through Wicomico. 

Lumber Mill, Salisbury 

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Coal Mining, Corinth 
From a photograph 

Garrett, the youngest of the counties of Maryland, was carved 
out of territory belonging to Allegany county, in 1872. Its first 
election for county officers was held January 7, 1873, John 
W. Garrett, then president of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, 
for whom the county was named, was instrumental in its estab- 
lishment. In area Garrett is the largest county in the state — 
660 square miles. It is largely mountainous, lying in the great 
plateau of the Alleghanies, and contains much uncleared land. 
It has rich deposits of iron ore, fire-clay, and other minerals, 
especially coal; but the chief industries are farming, stock- 

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raising, and lumbering. Oakland, its county seat, is 2800 feet 
above sea-level, and is noted as a summer resort. Mountain 
Lake Park, widely known for its Chautauqua and camp-meeting, 
and Deer Park are also in Garrett. The people of the county 
are purely American, there being few residents of foreign birth, 
and only a half-hundred negroes. The rivers and streams of 
the county abound in game fish — bass and trout; and deer, 
pheasants, wild turkeys, etc., make it the same sportsmen's 
paradise it was in the days of Meshach Browning, hunter and 
author. Occasionally, in the mountain fastnesses, a bear is 
seen. Its deer-shooting has l^ng attracted hunters from all 
over the country, and the glades and uplands are yearly alive 
with pheasants and wild turkeys. Wheat, potatoes, corn, buck- 
wheat, and hay are leading Garrett crops. The maple forests 
of the county yield annually about a quarter of a million pounds 
of maple sugar. Wild honey is abundant. The Baltimore and 
Ohio, West Virginia Central, and Oakland and State Line are 
Garrett railroads. The lumber industry in Garrett has long 
been its chief manufacturing interest. The first saw-mill — 
forerunner of the many that have leveled the primeval forests 
of the county — was owned by Philip Hare, and placed in oper- 
ation near Grantsville about 1790. Valuable and productive 
farms have been made of the fertile limestone lands. Oakland 
is 246 miles from Baltimore and 600 from Chicago. Selbysport, 
Swanton, Accident, Grantsville, Friendsville, Keyser, Mineral 
Springs, Krug, Thayersville, Finzel, are among the Garrett 
towns, and it is notable in physical geography as the only 
Maryland county having rivers flowing westward as well as 
eastward. The Youghiogheny rises in Garrett and is a tribu- 
tary of the Ohio. 

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Cedlius Calvert 1632 Charles Calvert 1715 

Charles Calvert 167s Frederick Calvert 1751 

Benedict Leonard Calvert . . 1715 Henry Harford . . . 1771-1776 

N. B. — It is well to remember that there were six Lords Baltimore and six 
proprietaries, but the first Lord Baltimore (George Calvert) was not a pro- 
prietary of Maryland, and the last proprietary of Maryland (Henry Harford) 
was not a Lord Baltimore. 


Colonial Governors of Maryland 

Under the Proprietary 

Leonard Calvert 1633 William Fuller and Commis- 

Thomas Greene 1647 sioners 1654 

William Stone 1649 Josias Fendall 1658 

1 1 do not know of any complete list of Maryland governors ever published Ihal is 
coirecL The list of colonial govemors here given will be found veiy different from ihe 
usual lists, but in agreemenl with the list prepared from Ihe archives by Dr. B, C. Steiner 
and others for the Maryland Manual, issued by Ihe secretary of state. The list of state 
governors is taken from Ihe list prepared by Mr. Edward T. Tubbs for (he Temhcr's 
Mottttal issued by State Superintendent M. B. Stephens. A comparison with Ihe conven- 
tional list will show thai tlie lerms of most of the governors have been dated from their 
election instead of from Ihel' qualiRcadon. T M G. 


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Philip Calvert 1660 

Charles Calvert 1661 

Cecilius Calvert, a minor ; 

Jesse Wliarton, deputy, and 

later Thomas Notley . . . 1676 

Thomas Notley 1676 Convention of Protestant Asso- 

Charles Caivert, Lord Baltimore, ciation 

in persoD 1679 

Benedict Leonard Calvert, a. 
minor; government adminb- 
lered by Council .... 1684 

William Joseph, President of 
the Council 1 688 

Lionel Copley 1692 

Edmund Andros (ad interim) 1693 
Thomas Lawrence, President of 

the Council 1694 

Francis Nicholson 1694 

Nathaniel Blackiston .... 1699 

Thomas Tench, President of 
the Council 1702 

John Seymour . . ... 1704 

Edward Lloyd, President of the 
Council '709 

John Hart 1714 

Proprietary Governors 

John Hart 

Thomas Brooke, President 1 

the Council 

Charles Calvert .... 
Benedict Leonard Calvert . 

Samuel Ogle 

Charles, Lord Baltimore, i 

Samuel Ogle 1733 

Thomas Bladen t743 

Samuel Ogle 1747 

Benjamin Tasker, President of 

the Council 1752 

Horatio Sliarpe 1753 

Robert Eden .... 1769-1776 

Convention and Coundl of Safety, 1774-1777 

State Governors of Maryland 

Thomas Johnson . . . 

■ ■ 1777 

Thomas Sim Lee . . . 

William Paca . . . . 

. . 1782 

WiUiam Smallwood . . 

■ . 1785 

John Eager Howard . . 

. . 1788 

George Plater .... 

. . 1791 

James Brice 1793 

Thomas Sim Lee 1793 

John H. Stone 1794 

John Henry 1797 

Benjamin Ogle 1798 

John Francis Mercer .... 1801 

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Robert Bowie . . . 
Robert Wright . . 
James Butcher . . . 
Edward Lloyd . . . 
Robert Bowie . . . 
Levin Winder . . . 
Charles Ridgel) 
Charles Goldsborough 
Samuel Spngg 
Samuel Stevens Jr . 
Joseph Kent 
Daniel Martin 
Thomas kmg Carroll 
Daniel Martin . . . 
George Howard . . 
James 'I'homas . . . 
Thomas W. Veazey . 
William Crason . . 
Francis Thomas . . 

Thomas G. Pratt . 
Philip F. Thomas . 
E. Louis Lowe 
T. Watkins Ligon 
Thomas HoUiday Hicks. 
Augustus W. Bradford . 
Thomas Swann 
Oden Bowie . . 
William Pinkney White 
James Black Groome 
John Lee Carroll . . 
William T. Hamilton 
Robert M. McLane . 
Henry Lloyd . . . 
Klihu E. Jackson . . 
Frank Brown . . . 
Lloyd Lowndes 
John Walter Smith 
Edwin Warfield 

Austin L. Crothers .... 1908 
Philhps Lee Goldsborough . . 1912 
Emerson C. Harrington . . . I9r6 





Having a population of more than 3,000 (U.S. Census, i9ro) 

Baltimore city 558,485 

Cumberland 21,839 

Hagerstown 16,507 

Frederick 10,411 

Annapolis 8,609 

Salisbury 6,690 

Easton . . . . 

Cambridge 6,407 

Frostburg 6,028 

Havre de Grace .... 4,212 

Brunswick 3,721 

Crisfield 3,468 

Westminster 3i295 

. . . 3,-83 

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Which Assembled at the Citv of Annapolis on the Eighth Day of 
May, EroH TEEN Hundred and Sixty-seven, and Adjourned on the 
Seventeenth I>ay of Auoust, Eighteen Hundred and Sixty-seven, 
AND Ratified ev the People on the Eighteenth Dav of September, 
EiGHTEEM Hundred and Sixtv-seven, with Amendments and De- 
cisions OF THE Court of Appeals, to and including 94 md. 



We, the people of the State of Maryland, grateful to Almighty Cod for our 

civil and religions liberty, and taking into our serious consideration the best 

means of establishing a good Constitution in this Stale for the sure foundation 

and more permanent security thereof declare : — 

Origin and foundation of govtrntnent. Ri^l of reform 

Article 1. Tliat all Government of right originates from- the People, is 

founded in compact only, and instituted solely for the good of the whole ; 

and they have, at att times, the inalienable right to alter, reform or abolish 

their form of Government in sucli manner as they may deem expedieot. 

ConUituHon of the U. S. the supreme law 

Art. 2. The Constitution of the United States, and the Laws made or 
which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all Treaties made, or which 
shall be made, under tlie authority of the United States, are and shall be the 
Supreme Law of the State ; and the Judges of this Slate, and all the People of 
this Slate, are, and shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or 
Law of Ihis Slate to the contrary notwithstanding. 

Praitrs rcsrrved 

Art. 3. The powers not delegated to the United States by the ConstitutiOTi 
thereof, nor prohibited by it to the States, are resen-ed to the Slates respectively, 
or to the People thereof 

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Statics rights 

Art. 4. That the People of this State have the sole and exclusive right of 
regulating the internal government and police thereof, as a free, sovereign, 
and independent State. 

Cammon law : trial liy jury — English statutes — Charter of the Stale 
Art. 5. That the Inhabitants of Maryland are entitled to. the Common I^w 
of England, and the trial by Jury, according to the course of that law, and to 
the benefit of such of the English statutes as existed on the Fourth day of 
July, seventeen hundred and seventy-six ; and which, by experience, have been 
found applicable to their local and other drcumstances, and have been intro- 
duced, used and practiced by the Courts of Law or Equity; and also of all 
Acts of Assembly in force on the first day of June, eighteen hundred and 
sixty-seven ; except such as may have since expired, or may be inconsistent 
with the provisions of this Constitution ; subject, nevertheless, to the revision 
of, and amendment or repeal by, the Legislature of this State. And the In- 
habitants of Maryland are also entitled to all property derived to them from 
or under the Charter granted by His Majesty, Charles the First, to Ciccilius 
Calvert, Baron of Baltimore. 

Right of reform — Non-resistanee 
Art. 6. That all persons invested with the Legislative or Executive powers 
of Government are Trustees of tlie Public, and as such, accountable for their 
conduct : Wherefore, whenever the ends of Government are perverted, and 
public liberty manifestly endangered and all other means of redress are inelFect- 
ual, the People may, and of riglit ought to reform the old, or establish a new 
Government; the doctrine of non-resistance against arbitrary power and op- 
pression is absurd, slavish and destructive of the good and happiness of man- 

Right of suffrage 

Art. 7. That the right of the People to participate in the Legislature is the 
best security of liberty and the foundation of all free Government ; for this 
purpose elections ought to be free and frequent, and every white 1 male citizen 
having the qualifications prescribed by the Constitution, ought to have the 
right of suffrage. 

I The word "while" omilled under the I5lh Amendment 10 the Consttlution of llie 
United Stales. 

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Separation ef the dtpartments of govirHtiuiu 

Art. 8. That the Legislative, Executive aod Judicial powers of Government 

ought to be forever separate and distinct from each other; and no person 

exercising the functions of one of said Departments shall assume or discharge 

the duties of any other. 

Susptmiott of laws 
Art. 9. That no power of suspending Laws or the execution of Laws, unless 
by, or derived from the Legislature, ought to be exercised, or allowed. 

Freedom of speech 
Art. 10. That freedom of speech and debate, or proceedings in the Legis- 
lature, ought not to be impeached in any Court of Judicature. 

Seat of government 
Art. II. That Annapolis be the place of meeting of the Legislature and the 
Legislature ought not to be convened, or held at any other place but from 
evident necessity. 

Meeting of Legidature 

Art. 12, That for redress of grievances, and for amending, strengthening, 

and for preserving the laws, the Legislature ought to be frequently convened. 

Right of petition 

Art. 13. That every man hath a right to petition the Legislature for the 
redress of grievances in a peaceful and orderly manner. 

Levying of taxes 

Art. 14. That no aid, charge, tax, burthen or fees ought to be rated, or levied, 
under any pretence, without the consent of the Legislature. 

Poll tax — Taxation aecording to actual worth — Fines 
Art. 15. That the levying of taxes by the poll is grievous and oppressive, 
and ought to be prohibited ; that paupers ought not to be assessed for the 
support of the Government ; but every person in the State, or person holding 
property therein, ought 10 contribute his proportion of public taxes for the 
support of the Government, according to his actual worth in real or persona] 
property ; yet fines, duties or taxes may properly and justly be imposed, or laid 
with a political view for the good government and benefit of the community 

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Art. i6. That sanguinary Laws ought to be avoided as far a& it is consistent 
with the safety of the State; and no Law to inflict cruel and unusual pains 
and penalties ought to be made in any case, or at any time, hereafter. 

Kctrospictivi laws 
Art. 17. That retrospeclive Laws, punishing acts committed before the ex- 
istence of such Laws, and by them only declared criminal are oppressive, unjust 
and incompatible with liberty ; wherefore, no ex post facto Law ought to be 
made ; nor any retrospective oath or restriction be imposed or required. 

Art. 18. That no Law to attaint particular persons of treason or felony, 
ought to be made in any case, or at any time, hereafter. 

Ri^i to have justice 

Art. ig. That every man, for any injury done to him in his person or prop- 
erty ought to have remedy by the course of the Law of the Land, and ought 
to have justice and right, freely without sale, fully without any denial, and 
speedily without delay, according to Law of the Land. 

Trial of fads 
Art. 30. That the trial of facts, where they arise, is 01 
of the lives, liberties and estate of the People. 

Criminal prosicutians ; tndiclmenl — Counsel and witnesses — Trial hy jury 
Art. i\. That in all criminal prosecutions, every man hath a right to be 
informed of the accusation against him ; to have a copy of the Indictment, 
or Charge in due time (if required) to prepare for his defence ; to be allowed 
counsel ; to be confronted with the witnesses ag^nst him ; to have process 
for his witnesses ; to eKa.mine the witnesses for and against lijm on oath ; and 
to a speedy trial by an impartial jury, without whose unanimous consent he 
ought not to be found guilty. 

Evidence against oneself 

Art. 22. That no man ought to be compelled to give evidence against 
himself in a criminal case. 

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Frttmen not lo be imprisoned 

Art, 23. That no man ought to be taken or imprisoned or disseized of hb 

freehold, liberties or privileges, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any manner 

destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty or property, but by the judgment 

of his peers, or by the Law of the Laad. 

Slavery abolished 
Art. 24. That Slavery shall not be re-established in this State ; but having 
been abolished, under the policy and authority of the United States, compen- 
sation, in consideration thereof, is due from the United States. 

Bail a»d fines 

Art. 25. That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor excessive lines 
imposed, nor cruel or unusual punishment inflicted by the Courts of Law. 

Search warrants 
Art. 26. That all warrants, without oath or affirmation, to search suspected 
places, or to seize any person or property, are grievous and oppressive ; and 
all general warrants to search suspected places, ot to apprehend suspected 
persons, without naming or describing the place, or the person in special, 
are illegal, and ought not to be granted. 

Corruption of blood 

Art. 27. That no conviction shall work corruption of blood or forfeiture of 

Art. 29. That Standing Armies are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to 
be raised, or kept up, without the consent of the Legislature. 

Military subject to civil power 
Art. 30. That in all cases, and at all times, the military ought to be under 
strict subordination to, and control of, the civil power. 

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Qmrftring of soldiers 
Art. 31 . That do soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered ii 
without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, except in 
prescribed by Law. 

Martial Icaa 

Art. 32. That no person except regular soldiers, marines and 
the service of this State, or militia, when in actual service, ought, in any case, 
to be subject to, or punishable by, Martial Law. 

Art. 33. That the independency and uprightness of Judges are essential to 
the impartial administration of Justice, and a great security to the rights and 
liberties of the People ; wherefore, the Judges shall not be removed, except 
in the manner, and for the causes, provided in this Constitution. No Judge 
shall hold any other office, civil or military or political trust, or employment 
of any kind whatsoever, under the Constitution or Laws of this State, or of 
the United States, or any of them ; or receive fees, or perquisites of any kind, 
for the discharge of his official duties. 

Rotation in office 
Art. 34. That a long continuance in the Executive Departments of power 
or trust is dangerous to liberty ; a rotation, therefore, in those Departments 
is one of the best securities of permanent freedom. 

Holding officii— Presents 

Art. 35. That no person shall hold, at the same time, more than one office 
of profit, created by the Constitution or Laws of this State ; nor shall any per- 
son in public trust receive any present from any foreign Prince or State, or 
from the United Slates, or any of them, without the approbation of this Stale. 

Religious liberty — Witnesses 
Art. 36. That as it is the duty of every man to worship God in such 
manner as he thinks most acceptable to Him, all persons are equally entitled 
to protection in their religious liberty ; wherefore, no person ought, by any 
law to be molested in his person or estate, on account of his religious persua- 
sion or profession, or for his religious practice, unless, under the color of 
religion, he shall disturb the good order, peace or safety of the State, or shall 
infringe the laws of morality, or Injure others in their natural, civil or religious 

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rights ; nor ought any person to be compelled to frequent, c 
contribute, unless on contract, to maintain any place of worship or any 
ministry ; nor shall any person, otherwise competent be deemed incompetent 
as a witness, or juror, on account of his religious belief ; provided, he believes 
in the existence of God, and that under His dispensation such person will be 
held morally accountable for his acts, and be rewarded or punished therefor in 
this world or the world to come. 

Oalh 0/ office 

Art. 37. That no religious test ought ever to be required as a qualification 

for any office of profit or trust in this State, other than a declaration of belief 

in the existence of God; nor shall the Legislature prescribe any other oath of 

office than the oalh prescribed by this Constitution. 

Disqualification! of Afinislers and religious bodia 
Art. 38. That every gift, sale or devise of land to any Minister, Public 
Teacher or Preacher of the Gospel, as such, or to any Religious Sect, Order 
or Denomination, or to, or for the support, use or benefit of, or in trust for, any 
Minister, Public Teacher or Preacher of the Gospel, as such, or any Religious 
Sect, Order or Denomination ; and every gift or sale of goods, or chattels, to 
go in succession, or to take place after the death of the Seller or Donor, to or 
for such support, use or benefit; and also every devise of goods or chattels 
to or for the support, use or benefit of any Minister, Public Teacher or 
Preacher of the Gospel, as such, or any Religious Sect, Order or Denomina- 
tion, without the prior or subsequent sanction of the Legislature, shall be void ; 
except always, any sale, gift, lease or devise of any quantity of land, not exceed- 
ing five acres, for a church, meeting-house, or other house of worship, or par- 
sonage, or for a burying-ground, which shall be improved, enjoyed or used 
only for such purpose ; or such sale, gift, lease or devise shall be void. 

Adminisliring oaths 

Art. 39. That the manner of administering the oalh or affirmation to any 

person ought to be such as those of the religious persuasion, profession or 

denomination, of which he is a member, generally esteem the most effectual 

contirmation by the attestation of the Divine Being. 

Libirly cf tkt press 

Art. 40. That the liberty of the press ought to be inviolably preser^-ed ; 

that every citizen of the State ought to be allowed to speak, write and publish 

his sentiments on all subjects, being responsible for the abuse of that privilege. 

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Art. 41. That monopolies are odious, contrary tt 
ment and the principles of commerce, and ought ni 

Titles of nobility 
Art. 42. That no title of nobility or hereditary honors ought to be granted 
In this State. 

Duties oftht Legislature 

Art. 43. That the Legislature ought to encourage the diffusion of knowledge 
and virtue, the extension of a judicious system of general education, the pro- 
motion of literature, the arts, sciences, agriculture, commerce and manufactures, 
and the general amelioration of the condition of the people. 

Constitutions apply in mar and p/a4e 
Art. 44. That the provisions of the Constitution of the United States, and 
of this State, apply as well in tinie of war as in lime of peace ; and any depar- 
ture therefrom, or violation thereof, under the plea of necessity, or any other 
plea, is subversive of good government and tends to anarchy and despotbm. 

Rights retained by the people 

Art. 45. This enumeration of Rights shall not be construed to impair or 
deny others retained by the People. 


Alt Amendments are Included in Brackets and Follow the Sections as Originally 



EUetioHS by ballot — Qualifications of voters — Residence — Removal 

Section i. All elections shall be by ballot; and every white' male citi- 

Mn of the United States, of the age of twenty-one years, or upwards, who has 

been a resident of the State for one year, and of the Legislative District of 

Baltimore city, or of the county, in which he may offer to vote, for six months 

( la the Constitulion of (he 

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next preceding the election, shall be entitled to vote, in the ward or election 
district in which he resides, at all elections hereafter to be held in this state; 
and in case any county or city shall be so divided as to form portions of dif- 
ferent electoral districts, for the election of Representatives in Congress, Sena- 
tors, Delegates, or other Officers, then to entitie a person to vote for such 
officer, he must have been a resident of that part of the county, or city, which 
shall form a part of the electoral district, in which he offers to vote for six 
months next preceding the election ; but a person, who shall have acquired a 
residence in such county or city, entiding him to vote at any such election, 
shall be entitled to vote in the election district from which he removed, until 
he shall have acquired a residence in the part of the county or city to which 
he has removed. 

Sec. 2. No person above the age of twenty-one years, convicted of larceny 
or other infamous crime, unless pardoned by the Governor, shall ever there- 
after be entitled to vote at any election in this State ; and no person under 
guardianship, as a lunadc, or a person nan compos nieatis, shall be entitled to 

Bribery — Ptnalties 

Sec. 3. If any person shall give, or offer to give, directly or indirectly, any 
bribe, present, or reward, or any promise, or any security, for the payment or 
the delivery of money, or any other thing, to induce any voter to refrain from 
casting his vote, or to prevent him in any way from voting, or to procure a 
vole for any candidate or person proposed, or voted for, as Elector of President 
and Vice-President of the United States, or Representative in Congress, or for 
any office of profit or trust, created by the Constitution or Laws of this State, 
or by the ordinances, or Authority of the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore, 
the person giving, or offering to give, and the person receiving the same, and 
any person who gives, or causes to be given, an illegal vole, knowing it to be 
such, at any election to be hereafter held in this State, shall, on conviction in 
a Court of Law, in addition to the penalties now or hereafter to be imposed 
by law, be forever disqualified to hold any office of profit or trust, or to vote 
at any election thereafter, 

Punishmin/ for illegal voting 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to pass Laws to pun- 
ish, with fine and imprisonment, any person who shall remove into any election 
district or precinct of any ward of the City of Baltimore, not for the purpose 
of acquiring a bona fide residence therein, but for the puqxwe of voting at an 
approaching election, or who shall vote in any election district or ward in 

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wbjch he does not reside (except in the case provided for in this Article), or 
shall, at the same election, vote in more than one election district, or precinct, 
or shall vote, or offer to vote, in any name not his own, or in place of any 
other person of the same name, or shall vote in any county in which he does 
not reside. 


Sec. 5. The General Assembly shall provide by law for a uniform Regis- 
tration of the names of all the voters in thb State who possess the qualifi- 
cations prescribed in this Article, which Registration shall be conclusive 
evidence to the Judges of election of the right of every person thus registered to 
vote at any election thereafter held in this State; but no person shall vote at 
any election, Federal or State, hereafter to be held in this State, or at any 
municipal election in the City of Baltimore, unless his name appears in the 
list of registered voters ; and until the General Assembly shall hereafter pass 
an Act for the Registration of the names of voters, the taw in force on the 
first day of June, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, in reference 
thereto, shall be continued in force, except so far as it may be inconsistent 
with the provisions of this Constitution ; and the registry of voters, made in 
pursuance thereof, may be corrected, as provided in said law; but the names 
of all persons shall be added to the list of qualified voters by the officers of 
Registration, who have the qualifications prescribed in the first section of this 
Article, and who are not disqualified under the provisions of the second and 
third sections thereof. 

Oalk of office 

Sec. 6. Every person elected or appointed to any office of profit or trust, 
under this Constitution, or under the laws, made pursuant thereto, shall, be- 
fore he enters upon the duties of such office, take and subscribe the following 

oath or affirmation : I, , do swear, (or affirm, a.i the case may be.) that I 

will support the Constitution of the United States ; and that I will be faithful 
and bear true allegiance to the State of Maryland, and support the Constitu- 
tion and Laws thereof; and that I will, to the best of my skill and judgment, 
diligently and faithfully, without partiality or prejudice, execute the office of 
, according to the Constitution and Laws of this State, (and, if a Gov- 
ernor, Senator, Member of the House of Delegates, or Judge), that I will not, 
directly or indirectly, receive the profits or any part of the profits of any other 
office during the terra of my acting as . 

Niw tUctien on refusal to take oath 

Sec. 7. Every person hereafter elected or appointed to office in this Stale, 

who shall refiise or neglect to take the oath or affirmation of office provided 

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for in the sixth section of this Article, shall be considered as having reftised 
to accept the said office ; and a new election or appointment shall be made, as 
in case of refiisal to accept, or resignation of an office ; and any person violat- 
ing said oath shall, on conviction thereof in a Court of Law, in addition to 
the penalties now or hereafter to be imposed by law, be thereafter incapable of 
holding any office of profit or trust in this State. 


Section I. The executive power of the State shall be vested in a Governor, 
whose term of office shall cornmence on the second Wednesday of January 
next ensuing his election, and continue for four yeai's, and until his successor 
shall have qualified; but the Governor chosen at the first election under this 
Constitution shall not enter upon the discharge of the duties of the office until 
the expimtion of the term for which the present incumbent was elected ; unless 
the said office shall become vacant ' by death, resignation, removal from the 
State, or other disqualification of the said incumbent. 

Tiaif, place, and manner of ilecling governor 
Sec. 2. An election for Governor, under this Conslifution, shall be held on 
the Tuesday next after the first Monday of November, in the year eighteen 
hundred and sixty-seven, and on the same day and month in every fourth 
year thereafter, at the places of voting for delegates to the General Assembly ; 
and every person qualilied to vote for Delegates shall be qualified and entitled 
to vole for Governor ; the election to be held in the same manner as the election 
of Delegates, and the returns thereof under seal to be addressed to the Speaker 
of the House of Delegates, and enclosed and transmitted to the Secretary of 
State, and delivered to said Speaker, at the commencement of the session of 
the General Assembly next ensuing said election. 

Plurality lo tied 
Sec. 3. The Speaker of the House of Delegates shall then open the said 
returns in the presence of both Houses ; and the person having the highest 
number of votes, and being constitutionally eligible, shall be the Governor, 
and shall qualify, in the manner herein prescribed, on the second Wednesday 
of January next ensuing his election, or as soon thereafter as may be 

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Tie vole — House to decide all questions 
Sec. 4- If Iwo or more persons shall have the highest and an equal number 
of votes for Governor, one of them shall be chosen Governor by the Senate 
and House of Delegates, and all questions in relation to the eligibility of Gov- 
ernor, and to the returns of said election, and to the number and legality 
of votes therein given, shall be determined by the House of Delegates ; and if 
the person or persons, having the highest number of votes, be ineligible. 
the Governor shall be chosen by the Senate and House of Delegates. Every 
election of Governor by the General Assembly shall be determined by a joint 
'majority of the Senate and House of Delegates, and the vote shall be taken 
viva voce. But if two or more persons shall have the highest and an equal 
number of votes, then a second vote shall be taken, which shall be confined 
to the persons having an equal number ; and if the vot« should again be equal, 
then the election of Governor shall be determined by lot between those who 
shall have the highest and an equal numlier on the lirst vote. 

Qualijicalioiis of governor 

Sec. J. Aperson to be eligible to the office of Governor must have attained 

the age of thirty years, and must have been for ten years a citizen of the State 

of MarylantI, and for live years next preceding his election a resident of the 

State, and, at the time of his election, a qualified voter therein. 

Eledion by assembly 
Sec. 6. In the case of death or resignation of the Governor, or of his 
removal from the Stale, or other disqualification, the General Assembly, 
if in session, or if not, at their next session, shall elect some other qualified 
person to be Governor for the residue of (he term for which the said Governor 
had been elected. 

Sec. 7- In case of any vacancy in the office of Governor, during the recess 
of the Legislature, the President of the Senate shall dischai^e the duties of 
said oflice, until a Governor is elected, as herein provided for; and in case 
of the death or resignation of the said President, or of his removal from the 
State, or of his refusal to serve, then the duties of said oifice shall, in like 
manner, and for the same inter\^, devolve upon the Speaker of the House 
of Delegates. And the Legislature may provide by Law, for the impeachment 
of the Governor ; and in case of his conviction, or his inability, may declare 
what person shall perform the Executive duties; and for any vacancy in said 
office not herein provided for, provision may be made by Law; and if such 

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vacancy should occur without such provision being made, the Legislature 
shall be convened by the Secretary of State for the purpose of tilling said 

Govirnor to be commander-in-chief sf Militia 

Sec. 8. The Governor shall be the commander-in-chief of the land and 
naval forces of the State ; and may call out the Militia to repel invasions, sup- 
press insurrections, and enforce the execution of the Laws ; but shall not take 
the command in person, without the consent of the Legislature. 

Sec. 9- He shall take care that the Laws are &ithfully executed. 

Sec. lo. He shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of 
the Senate, appoint all civil and military officers of the Slate, whose appoint- 
ment or election is not otherwise herein provided for; unless a different mode 
of appointment be prescribed by the Law creating the office. 

Appointments daring recess 

Sec. II. In case of any vacancy during the recess of the Senate, in any 
office which the Governor has power to till, he shall appoint some suitable 
person to said office, whose commission shall continue in force until the end 
of the next session of the Legislature, or until some other person b appointed 
lo the same office, whichever shall first occur; and the nomination of the 
person thus appointed during the recess, or of some other person in his place, 
shall be made to the Senate within thirty days after the. next meeting of the 

Rejection by Senate 

Sec. 12. No person, after being rejected by the Senate, shall be again 
nominated for the same office at the same session, unless at the request of 
the Senate; or be appointed to the same office during the recess of the 

rime of nomination ~ Term of office 
Sec. 13. All civil officers appointed by the Governor and Senate, shall be 
nominated lo the Senate within fifty days from the commencement of each 
regular session of the Legislature ; and their term of office, except in cases 
otherwise provided for in this Constitution, shall commence on the first Mon- 
day of May next ensuing their appointment, and continue for two years, 

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(unless removed from office), and until their successors, respectively, qualify 
according to law ; but the term of office of the Inspectors of Tobacco shall 
commence on the first Monday of March next ensuing their appointment. 

yucancy during session 

Sec. 14. If a vacancy shall occur during (he session of the Senate, in any 
office which the Governor and Senate have the power to fill, tlie Governor 
shall nominate to the Senate, before its final adjournment a proper person to 
fill said vacancy, unless such vacancy occurs within ten days before said final 

Courls martial 

Sec. 15. The Governor may suspend or arrest any military officer of the 
State for disobedience of orders or otiier military offense ; and may remove 
him in pursuance of the sentence of a Court Martial ; and may remove for 
incompetency or misconduct, all civil officers who received appointment from 
the Executive for a term of years. 

Extra sessions of Legislature 

Sec. 16. The Governor shall convene the Legislature, or the Senate alone, 
on extraordinary occasions ; and whenever from the presence of an enemy, 
or from any other cause, the Seat of Government shall become an unsafe place 
for the meeting of the Legislature, he may direct their sessions to be held at 
some other convenient place. 

Veto pffmer — Vetoed Mils : hoiu passed — Yeas and nays — 
Veto within six days 

Sec. 17. To guard against hasty or partial legislation and encroachments 
of the Legislative Department upon the co-ordinate, Executive and Judicial 
Departments, every Bill which shall have passed the House of Delegates, and 
the Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to the Governor of the 
State; if he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it with his 
objections to the House in which it originated, which House shall enter the 
objections at large on its Journal and proceed to reconsider the Bill ; if, after 
such reconsideration, three-fiflhs of the members elected to that House shall 
pass the Bill, it shall be sent with the objections to the other House, by which 
it shall likewise be reconsidereti, and if it pass by three-fifths of the members 
elected to that House it shall become a law ; but in all such cases the votes of 
both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the per- 
sons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each 

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House, respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the Governor within 
six days (Sundays excepted), after it shall have been presented to him, the 
same shall be a law in like manner as if he signed it, unless the General As- 
sembly shall, by adjournment, prevent its return, in which case it shall not be 

[The Governor shall have power to disapprove of any item or items of any 
Bilk making appropriations of money embracing distinct items, and Ihe part 
or parts of the Bill approved shall be the law, and the item or items of ap- 
propriations disapproved shall be void unless repassed according to the rules 
or limitations prescribed for the passage of other Bills over the Executive 

Governor to examine Treasury accouais 

Sec. 18, It shall be the duty of the Governor, semi-annually, (and oftener, 
if he deems it expedient), to examine under oath the Treasurer and Comp- 
troller of the Slate on all matters pertaining to their respective offices, and 
inspect and review their bank and other account books. 

Sec. ig. He shall, from time to ti 
diiion of the Stale, and recommend t 
he may jut^e necessary and expedient. 

Par Jons — Nolice in nca>spapers — Reports tc Legislature 
Sec. 10. He shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons, except in 
cases of impeachment, and in cases in which he is prohibited by other Articles 
of this Constitution ; and to remit fines and forfeitures for offenses ag^nst the 
State ; but shall not remit the principal or interest of any debt due the State, 
except in cases of fines and forfeitures ; and before granting a nolle prosequi, 
or pardon, he shall give notice, in one or more newspapers, of the application 
made for it, and of the day on or after which his decision will be given ; and 
in every case in which he exercises this power, he shall report to either Branch 
of the Legislature, whenever required, the petitions, recommendations and 
reasons which influenced his decision. 

Residence and salary 

Sec. 21. The Governor shall reside at the seat of govemment, and receive 

for his services an annual salary of four thousand five hundred dollars. 

'Thus amended by Chapter 194, Acts of 1890, ratified by ihe people, November 3d, 

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Secretary of Slate 
Sec. 22. A Secretary of State shall be appointed by the Governor, by and 
with the advice and consent of the Senate, who shall continue in office, 
unless sooner removed by the Governor, till the end of the official term of the 
Governor from whom he received his appointment, and receive an annual 
salary of two thousand dollars, and shall reside at the seat of government ; 
and the office of Private Secretary shall thenceforth cease. 

DuHeS of Secretary 

Sec. 23. The Secretary of Slate shall carefully keep and preserve a record 
of all official acts and proceedings, which may at all times be inspected by a 
committee of either branch of the Legislature ; and he shall perform such 
other duties as may be prescribed by law, or as may properly belong to hb 
office, together with all clerical duty belonging to the Executive Department. 



Section I. The L^islature shall consist of two distinct branches — a 
Senate and a House of Delegates — and shall be styled the General Assembly 
of Maryland. 

Elictioa of Senators— Term 
Sec. z. Each County in the State, and each of the three Legislative Districts 
of Baltimore City, as they are now, or may hereafter be defined, shall be 
entitled to one Senator, who shall be elected by the qualified voters of the 
Counties, and of the Legislative Districts of Baltimore City, respectively, and 
shall serve for four years from the date of his election, subject to the classifica- 
tion of Senators hereafter provided for. 

legislative districts — Election of Senators — Term 
[Sec. 2. The City of Baltimore shall be divided into four legislative dis- 
tricts, as near as may be, of equal population and contiguous territory, and 
each of s^d legislative districtsof Baltimore City, as they may from time to time 
be laid out, in accordance with the provisions hereof, and each county in the 
State shall be entitled to one Senator, who shall be elected by the qualified 
voters of the said legislative districts of Baltimore City, and of the c 

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of the State, respectively, and shall serve for four years from the date of his 
election, subject to the classification of Senators hereafter provided for.] ' 

Riprisentalion in Housi 
Sec. 3. Until the taking and publishing of (he next National Census, or 
until the enumeration of the population of this Slate, under the authority 
thereof, the several counties and the City of Baltimore, shall have a repre- 
sentation in the House of Delegates, as follows : Allegany, five Delegates ; 
Anne Arundel County, three Delegates ; Baltimore County,six Delegates ; each 
of the three Legislative Districts of the City of Baltimore, six Delegates ; 
Calvert County, two Delegates ; Caroline County, two Delegates ; Carroll 
County, four Delegates ; Cecil County, four Delegates \ Charles County, two 
Delegates ; Dorchester County, three Delegates ; Frederick County, six Dele- 
gates ; Harford County, four Delegates ; Howard County, two Delegates ; 
Kent County, two Delegates ; Montgomery County, three Delegates ; Prince 
George's County, three Delegates ; Queen Anne's County, two Delegates ; 
St. Mary's County, two Delegates ; Somerset County, three Delegates- ; Talbot 
County, two Delegates ; Washington County, five Delegates ; and Worcester 
County, three Delegates.* 

Basis of rtpresintatiBn in House — Legislative districts in Baltimore City may be 

Sec. 4. As soon as may be after the taking and publishing of the next Na- 
tional Census, or after the enumeration of the population of this State, under 
the authority lliereof, there sliall be an apportionment of representation in the 
House of Delegates, to be made on the following basis, to wit ; Each of the 
several Counties of the State having a population of eighteen thousand souls, or 
less, shall be entitled to two Delegates, and every County having a population 
of over eighteen thousand, and less than twenty-eight thousand souls, shall be 

1 Thus amended by Act of 1900, Chapter 469, ratified by the peopie al November 

* Under Ihe Stale Census authorized by the Act of 1901 (Special Session) , and by the 
amendment to Sec. a, the allolmenl □( represenlalion of Ihe several coimiies in (he House 
of Delegalesisas follows : Allegany County, five ; Anne Atundel County, four ; Baltimore 
Counly, six ; Calvert County, two ; Caroline County, two ; Carroll County, four ; Cecil 
County, ihr^e ; Charles Counly, (wo ; Dorchester County, four ; Frederick Counly, five ; 
Garrett County, two ; Harford County, four ; Howard Counly, two ; Kent County, 
two ; Montgomery County, four ; Prince George's County, four ; Queen Anne's County, 
three; Somerset Counly, three ; Si. Mai/s Counly, two ; Talbot Counly, three ; Washing. 
Ion Counly, five ; Wicomico County, three ; Worcester County, three ; and Baltimore City, 
twenty-four delegates. Tola], loi. 

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entitled to three Delegates ; and every County having a population of twenty- 
eight thousand, and less- than forty thousand souls, shall be entitled to four 
Delegates ; and every County having a population of forty thousand, and less 
than fifty-live thousand souls, shall be entitled to five Delegates ; and every 
County having a population of fifty-five thousand souls, and upwards, shall be 
entitled to six Delegates, and no more ; and each of the three Legislative 
Districts of the City of Baltimore shall be entitled to the number of Delegates 
to which the largest County shall or may be entitled, under the aforegoing 
apportionment. And the General Assembly shall have power to provide by 
law, from time to lime, for altering and changing the boundaiies of the three 
exisling Legislative Districts of the City of Baltimore, so as to make them, as 
near as may he, of equal population ; but said Districts shall always consist of 
contiguous territory. 

Bails sf repreittUalion — Legislalivi dhtrieli in Baltimort Cily may be changed 

[Sec. 4. As soon as may be, after the taking and publishing of the Na- 
tional Census of 1900, or after the enumeration of the population of this State, 
under th^ authority thereof, there shall be an apportionment of representation 
in the House of Delegates, to be made on the following basis, to wit : Each of 
the- several counties of the State, having a population of eighteen thousand 
soub or less, shall be entitled to two delegates ; and every county having a 
population of over eighteen thousand and less than twenty-eight thousand 
souls, shall be entitled to three delegates ; and every county having a popula- 
tion of twenty-eight thousand and less than forty thousand souls, shall be 
entitled to four delegates : and every county having a population of forty thou- 
sand anS less than fifty-five thousand soiJs, shall be entitled to five delegates ; 
and every county having a population of fifty-five thousand souls and upwards, 
shall be entitled to six delegates and no more; and each of the Legislative 
Districts of the City of Baltimore shall be entitled to the number of delegates 
to which the largest county shall or may be entitled under the aforegoing 
apportionment, and the General Assembly shall have the power to provide by 
law, from time to time, for altering and changing the boundaries of the exist- 
ing legislative districts of the City of Baltimore, so as to make them as near 
as may be of equal population; but said district shall always consist of con- 
tiguous territory.]' 

Govtrnor to arrange representation — Proclamation 

Sec. 5. Immediately after the taking and publishing of the next National 

Census, or after any State enumeration of population, as aforesaid, it shall be 

' Thus amended by Acl of 1900, Chapler 433, ratified by the people at November elec- 

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the duty of the Governor, Ihen being, to arrange the representation in said 
House of Delegates in accordance with the apportionment herein provide 
for; and to declare, by Proclamation, the number of Delegates to which each 
County and the City of Baltimore may be entitled under such apportionment ; 
and after every National Census taken thereafter, or after any State enumera- 
tion of population, thereafter made, it shall be the duty of the Governor, for 
the time being, to make similar adjustment of representation, and to declare 
the same by Proclamation, as aforesaid. 

Election of delegate — Ttrm 
Sec. 6. The members of the House of Delegates shall be elected by the 
qualified voters of the Counties, and the Legislative Districts of Baltimore 
City, respectively, to serve for two years from the day of their election. 

Time 0/ election 

Sec. T- The lirst election for Senators and Delegates shall take place on 
the Tuesday next after the tirst Monday in the month of November, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-seven \ and the election for Delegates, and as nearly as 
practicable, for one-half of the Senators shall be held on the same day in 
every second year thereafter. 

ClassijUalictt of Senators 
Sec. 8. Immediately after the Senate shall have convened, after the first 
election, under this Constitution, the Senators shall be divided by lot into 
two classes, as nearly equal in number as may be. Senators of the first class 
shall go out of office at the expiration of two years, and Senators shall be 
elected on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of Noveni- 
ber, eighteen hundred and sixty-nine, for the term of four years, to supply 
their places ; so that, after the first election, one-half of the Senators may be 
chosen every second year. In case the number of Senators be hereafter in- 
creased, such classification of the additional Senators shall be made as to pre- 
serve, as nearly as may be, an equal number in each class. 

Qualifications of Senators and delegates 

Sec. 9. No person shall be eligible as a Senator or Delegate who, at the 
time of his election, is not a citizen of the State of Maryland, and who has 
not resided therein for at least three years next preceding the day of his elec- 
tion, and the last year thereof, in the County, or in the Legislative District of 
Baltimore City, which he may be chosen to represent, if such County or Legis- 

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lative District of said City shall have been so long established ; and if not, 
then in the County or City, from which, in whole or in part, the same may 
have been formed ; nor shall any person be eligible as a Senator unless he 
shall have attained the age of twenty-live years, nor as a Delegate unless he 
shall have attained the age of twenty-one years, at the time of his election. 

Sec. 10. No member of Congress, or person holding any dvil or military 
office under the United States shall be eligible as a Senator or Delegate ; and 
if any person shall, after his election as Senator or Delegate, be elected to Con- 
gress, or be appointed to any office, dvil or military, under the Government of 
the United States, his acceptance thereof shall vacate his seat. 


Sec. II. No Minister or Preacher of the Gospel, or of any religious creed 
or denomination, and no person holding any civil office of profit or trust under 
thb State, except Justices of the Peace, shall be eligible as Senator or Delegate. 

Defaulters ineligible 

Sec. 13. No Collector, Receiver or holder of public money shall be eligi- 
ble as Senator or Delegate, or to any oflice of profit or trust under this State, 
until he shall have accounted for and paid into the Treasury all sums on the 
books thereof charged to and due by him. 

Sec- 13. In case of death, disqualification, resignation, refiisal to act, expul- 
sion, or removal from the county or city for which he shall have been elected, 
of any person who shall have been chosen as a Delegate or Senator, or in case 
of a tie between two or more such qualified persons, a warrant of election shall 
be issued by the Speaker of the House of Delegates, or President of the Senate, 
as the case may be, for the election of another person in his place, of which 
election not less than ten days' notice shall be given, exclusive of the day of 
the publication of the notice and of the day of election; and if during the 
recess of the Legislature, and more than ten days before its termination, such 
death shall occur, or such resignation, refusal to act or disqualification be com- 
municated in writing to the Governor by the person so resigning, refusing or 
disqualified, it shall be the duty of the Governor to issue a warrant of election 
to supply the vacancy thus created, in the same manner the said Speaker or 
President might have done during the session of the General Assembly ; pro- 

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vided, however, thai unless a meeting of the General Assembly may I1 

the election thus ordered to till such vacancy shall be held on the day of the 

ensuing election for Delegates and Senalors- 

Timt of malting of Legislature 
Sec. 14. The General Assembly shall meet on the first Wednesday of 
January, eighteen hundred and sixty-eight, and on the same day in every sec- 
ond year thereafter, and at no other time, unless convened by Proclamalioa 
of the Governor. 

Limil of sesiions — Compensalions — Mileage — Ejclra sessions 

Sec. 15. The General Assembly may continue ils session so long as in its 
judgment the public interest may require, for a period not longer than ninety 
days ; and each member thereof shall receive a compensation of live dollars 
per diem for every day he lihall attend the session, but not for such days as 
he may be absent, unless absent on account of sickness or by leave of the 
House of which he is a member; and he shall also receive such mileage as 
may be allowed by law, not exceeding twenty cents per mile ; and the presid- 
ing officer of each House shall receive an additional compensation of three 
dollars per day. When the General Assembly shall be convened by Procla- 
mation of the Governor, ihe session shall not continue longer than thirty days, 
and in such case the compensation shall be the same as herein prescribed. 

Books nil to he purtkastd 

Sec. 16. No boolc or other printed matter, not appertaining to the business 
of the session, shall be purchased or subscribed for, for the use of the mem- 
bers of the General Assembly, or be dbtributed among them, at the public 


Sec. 17. No Senator or Delegate, after qualifying as such, notwithstanding 
he may thareafter resign, shall during the whole period of time for which he 
was elected be eligible to any office which shall have been created, or the 
salary or profits of which shall have been increased, during such term. 

Preidom of debate 
Sec. 18. No Senator or Delegate shall be liable In any civil action or crimi- 
nal prosecution whatever for words spoken in debate. 

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Pimiers of rack House 

Sec- 19. Each House shall be judge of the qualifications and elections of 
its members, as prescribed by the Constitution and Laws of the State ; shall 
appoint its own officers, determine the rules of its own proceedings, punish a 
member for dLsorderly or disrespectfiil behavior, and with the consent of two- 
thirds of its whole number of members elected, expel a member ; but no mem- 
ber shall be expelled a second time for the same offense- 

Sec. 20, A majority of the whole number of members elected to each House 
shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business ; but a smaller num- 
ber may adjourn from day to day, and compel the attendance of absent mem- 
bers in such manner and under such penalties as each House may prescribe. 

5tJJ(PJ7I to b! open 

Sec. 21. The doors of each House and of the Committee of the Whole 
shall be open, except when the business Is such as ought to be kept secret- 

Jeurnah to he puMkhed— Yeas and nays 

Sec. 22- Each House shall keep a Journal of its proceedings, and cause the 
same to be published. The yeas and nays of members on any question shall 
at the call of any five of them in the House of Delegates, or one in the Senate, 
be entered on the Journal. 

Disorderly persons 

Sec. 23. Each House may punish by imprisonment during the session of 
the General Assembly, any person not a member, for disrespectful or disorderly 
behavior in its presence, or for obstructing any of the proceedings or any of its 
officers in the execution of the!/ duties ; provided, such imprisonment shall 
not at any one time exceed ten days. 

Powers 0/ House — Grandinquesl — May call for persons and papers — Contracts 
Sec- 24. The House of Delegates may inquire, on the oath of witnesses, 
into all complaints, grievances and offenses, as the Grand Inquest of the 
Slate, and may commit any person for any crime to the public jail, there to 
remain until discharged by due course of law. They may examine and pass 
all accounts of the Stale, relating either to the collection or expenditure of the 
revenue, and appoint auditors to state and adjust the same. They may call for 

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all public or official papers and records, and send for persons whom they may 
judge necessary, in the course of their inquiries, concerning affairs relating to 
the public iateresl, and may direct all office bonds which shall be made pay- 
able to the State to be sued for any breach thereof; and with the view to the 
more certain prevention or correction of the abuses in the expenditures of the 
money of the State, the General Assembly shall create, at every session 
thereof a Joint Standing Committee of the Senate and House of Delegates ; 
who shall have power to send for persons and examine them on oath and call 
for public and official papers and records ; and whose duty it shall be to 
examine and report upon all contracts made for printing, stationery, and pur- 
chases for the public ofilices and tlie library, and all expenditures therein, and 
upon all matters of alleged abuse in expenditures, to which their attention 
may be called by resolution of either House of the General Assembly. 


Sec. 25, Neither House shall, without the consent of the oiher, adjourn for 
more than three days at any one lime, nor adjourn to any other place than 
that in which the House shall be sitting, without the concurrent vote of two- 
thirds of the members present. 


Sec. z6. The House of Delegaies shall have the sole power of impeach- 
ment in all cases ; but a majority of all the members elected must concur in 
the impeachment. All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate, and when 
sitting for that purpose the Senators shall be on oath or affirmation to do 
justice according to the law and the evidence; but no person shall be con- 
victed without the concurrence of two-thirds of all the Senators elected. 

Sec, 27. Any bill may originate in either House of the General Assembly, 
and be altered, amended or rejected by the other; but no bill shall originate 
in either House during the last ten days of the session, unless two-thirds of 
the members elected thereto shall so determine by yeas and nays ; nor shall 
any bill become a law until il be read on three different days of the session 
in each House, unless two-thirds of the members elected to the House where 
such bill is pending shall so determine by yeas and nays ; and no bill shall 
be read a third time until it shall have been actually engrossed for a third 

Paaagf ofbiUt 

Sec. 28. No bill shall become a law unless it be passed in each House by 
a majority of the whole number of members elected, and on its final passage 

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the yeas and nays be recorded; nor shall any resolution requiring the 
of both Houses be passed except in the same manner. 

Slylt of laws — Afode Bfenailmtni — LimHations 

Sec. 29. The style of all laws of this Sute shall be, ■' Be it enacted by the 
General Assembly of Maryland," and all laws shall be passed by original bill ; 
and every taw enacted by the General Assembly shall embrace but one sub- 
ject, and that shall be described in its title ; and no law, nor section of law, 
shall be revived or amended by reference to its title or section only, nor shall 
any law be construed by reason of its title to grant powers or confer rights 
which are not expressly contained in the body of the Act ; and it shall be the 
duty of the General Assembly, in amending any article or section of the Code 
of Laws of this State, to enact the same as the said article or section would 
read when amended. And whenever the General Assembly shall enact any 
Public General Law, not amendatory of any section or article in the said Code, 
it shall be the duty of the General Assembly to enact the same, in articles and 
sections, in the same manner as the Code is arranged, and to provide for the 
publication of all additions and alterations which may be made to the said 

Bills to it signed by Govemci Laws ic be recorded in the Court of Appeals 

Sec. 30. Every bill, when passed by the General Assembly, and sealed with 
the Great Seal, shall be presented to the Governor, who, if he approves it, 
shall sign the same in the presence of the presiding officers and chief clerks 
of the Senate and House of Delegates. Every law shall be recorded in the 
office of the Court of Appeals, and in due time be printed, published and certi- 
fied under the Great Seal, to the several courts, in the same manner as has 
been heretofore usual in this State. 

WkiH lotos lake effect 
Sec. 31. No law passed by the General Assembly shall take effect until the 
6rst day of June next after the session at which it may be passed, unless it be 
otherwise expressly declared therein. 

Appropriations — Contii^ent fund — Mnaticial statement to be published viiA 

Sec. 32. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury of the State by any 
order or resolution, nor except in accordance with an appropriation by law; 
and every such law shall distinctiy specify the sum appropriated and the object 

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to which it shall be applied ; provided that nothing hereju contained shall pre- 
vent the General Assembly from placing a contingent fund at the disposal of 
the Executive, who shall report to the General Assembly at each session the 
amount expended, and the purposes to which it was applied. An accurate 
statement of the receipts and expenditures of the public money shall be 
attached to and published with the laws after each regular session of the 
General Assembly. 

Special laws prohibited 
Sec. 33- The General Assembly shall not pass local or special laws in any 
of the following enumerated cases, viz. : For extending the time for the collec- 
tion of taxes, granting divorces, changing the name of any person, providing 
foi the sale of real estate belonging to minors or other persons laboring under 
legal disabilities, by executors, administrators, guardians or trustees, giving 
effect lo informal or invalid deeds or wills, refiinding money paid into the 
State Treasury, or releasing persons from their debts or obligations to the 
State, unless recommended by the Governor or officers of the Treasury Depart- 
ment. And theGeneral Assembly shall pass no special law for any case for which 
provision has been made by an existing general law. The General Assembly 
at its first session after the adoption of this Constitution, shall pass general 
laws providing for the cases enumerated in this section which are not already 
adei^uately provided for, and for all other cases where a General Law can be 
made applicable. 

Debts regulated — Credit of the State not la be given — PiMic debt — Temporary 

Sec. 34. No debt shall be hereafter contracted by the General Assembly 
unless such debt shall be authorized by a law providing for the collection 
of an annual tax or taxes sufficient to pay the interest on such debt as it £ills 
due, and also to dischaige the principal thereof within fifteen years from the 
time of contracting the same ; and the taxes laid for this purpose shall not be 
repealed or applied to any other object until the said debt and interest thereon 
shall be fully discharged. The credit of the State shall not in any manner be 
given, or loaned to, or in aid of any individual association or corporation ; nor 
shall the General Assembly have the power in any mode to involve the State 
in the construction of Works of Internal Improvement, nor in granting any 
aid thereto, which shall involve the faith or credit of the State ; nor make any 
appropriation therefor, except in aid of the construction of Works of Internal 
Improvement in the counties of St. Mary's, Charles and Calvert, which have 
had no direct advantage from such works as have been heretofore aided by 
the State; and provided that such aid, advances or appropriations shall not 

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exceed in the aggregate the sum of five hundred thousand dollars. And they 
shall not use or appropriate the proceeds of the Internal Improvement Com- 
panies, or of the State tax, now levied, or which may hereafter be levied, to 
pay off the public debt [or] to any other purpose until the interest and debt 
are fully paid or the sinking fund shall be equal lo the amount of the outstand- 
ing debt; but the General Assembly may, without laying a tax, borrow an 
amount never to exceed fifty thousand dollars to meet temporary deficiencies 
in the Treasury, and may contract debts to any amount that may be necessary 
for the defense of the State. 

Extra comptnsttHon prokibiled 
Sec. 35. No extra compensation shall be granted or allowed by Ihe General 
Assembly to any Public Officer, Agent, Servant or Contractor, after the servigc 
shall have been rendered, or ihe contract entered into ; nor shall the salary or 
compensation of any public officer be increased or diminished during his term 
of office. 

Lolifrits prohibited 

Sec. 36. No Lottery grant shall ever hereafter be authorized by the General 


Sec. 37. The General Assembly shall pass no Law providing for payment 
by the State for Slaves emancipated from servitude in this State ; but they 
shall adopt such measures as they may deem expedient to obtain from the 
United States compensation for such Slaves, and lo receive and distribute the 
same equitably lo the persons entitled. 

Sec. 33. No person shall be imprisoned for debt. 

Sec. 39. The General Assembly shall grant no charter for Banking pur- 
poses, nor renew any Banking Corporation now in existence, except upon the 
condition that the Stockholders shall be liable to the amount of their respective 
share or shares of stock in such Banking Institution, for all its debts and liabili- 
ties upon note, bill or otherwise ; the books, papers and accounts of all Banks 
shall be open to inspection under such regulations as may be prescribed by 

Compemation for property taken for pablic use 

Sec. 40. The General Assembly shall enact no Law authorizing private 

property to be taken for public use, without just compensation as agreed upon 

between the paWies, or awarded by a jury, being first paid or tendered to the 

party entitled to such compensation. 

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Sec- 41. Any Citizen of this State who shall, after the adoption of this 
Constitution, either in or out of this State, tight a duel with deadly weapons, 
or send or accept a challenge so to do, or who shall act as a second, or know- 
ingly aid or assist in any manner those offending, shall ever thereafter be 
incapable of holding any office of profit or trust under this Stale, unless 
relieved from the disability by an Act of the Legislature. 


Sec. 42. The General Assembly shall pass Laws necessary for the pres- 
ervation of the purity of elections. 

Wife's Propirty protftUd 

Sec. 44. Laws shall be passed by the General Assembly to protect from 
execution a reasonable amount of the property of the debtor, not exceeding in 
value the sum of five hundred dollars. 

Compensation of clerks and registers 
Sec. 4;. The General Assembly shall provide a simple and umform 
system of charges in the offices of Clerks of Courts and Registers of Wills, in 
the Counties of this Stale and the City of Baltimore, and for the collection 
thereof ; provided, the amount of compensation to any of the said officers in 
the various Counties shall not exceed the sum of three thousand dollars a year, 
and in the City of Baltimore thirty-five hundred dollars a year, over and above 
office expenses, andcompensation to assistants ; and provided further that 
such compensation of Clerks, Registers, assistants and ofllice expenses shall 
always be paid out of the fees or receipts of the offices, respectively. 

Grants from United States 
Sec. 46. The General Assembly shall have power to receive from the 
United States any grant or donation of land, money, or securities for any pur- 
pose designated by the United States, and shall administer or distribute the 
same according to the conditions of the said grant. 

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Conttsled (lections 
Sec. 47. The General Assembly shall make provisions for all cases of con- 
tested elections of any of the officers, not herein provided for. 


Sec. 48. Corporations may be formed under general Laws ; but shall not 
be created by special act, except for municipal purposes, and except in cases 
where no general Laws exist, providing for the creation of Corporations of the 
same general character, as the corporation proposed to be created ; and any 
act of incorporation passed in violation of this section shall be void. And as 
soon as practicable, after the adoption of this Constitution, it shall be the duty 
of the Governor to appoint three persons learned in the Law, whose duty it 
shall be to prepare drafts of general Laws, providing for the creation of corpo- 
rations, in such cases as may be proper, and for all other cases, where a general 
Law can be made ; and for revising and amending, so far as may be necessary 
or expedient, the General Laws which may be in existence on the first day of 
June, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, providing for the creation of corpora- 
tions, and for other purposes ; and such drafts of Laws shall by said commis- 
sioners, be submitted to the General Assembly, at its first meeting, for its 
action thereon ; and each of said commissioners shall receive a compensation 
of five hundred dollars for his services, as such commissioner. 

All Charters granted or adopted in pursuance of this section, and all Charters 
heretofore granted and created, subject to repeal or modification, may be 
altered, from time to time, or be repealed ; provided, nothing herein contained 
shall be construed to extend to Banks, or the incorporation thereof. 

[Sec, 48. Corporations may be formed under general laws, but shall not be 
created by special act, except for municipal purposes and except in cases where 
no general Laws exist, providing for the creation of corporations of the same 
general character as the corporation proposed to be created, and any act of 
incorporation passed in violation of this section shall be void ; all charters 
granted or adopted in pursuance of this section, and all charters heretofore 
granted and created subject to repeal or modification, may be altered from 
time to time, or be repealed ; provided, nothing herein contained shall be con- 
strued to extend to Iranks or the incorporation thereof; the General Assembly 
shall not alter or amend ihe cliarter of any corporation existing at the time of 
the adoption of this Article, or pass any other general or special Law for the 
benefit of such corporation except upon the condition that such corporation 

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shall surrender all claim to exemption from taxation or from the repeal or 
modification of its charier, and that such corporation shall thereafter hold its 
charter subject to the provisions of this Constitution ; and any corporation 
chartered by this State which shall accept, use, enjoy or in any wise avail 
itself of any rights, privileges, or advantages that may hereafter be granted or 
conferred by any general or special Act, shall be conclusively presumed to have 
thereby surrendered any exemption from taxation to which it may be entitled 
under its charter, and shall be thereafter subject to taxation as if no such 
exemption has been granted by its charter.] ' 


Sec. 4g. The General Assembly shall have power to regulate by law, not 
inconsistent with this Constitution, all matters which relate to the judges of 
ElecticHi, time, place and manner of holding elections in this State, and of 
making returns thereof. 

Bribery — Punishment — Evidence — Disqualification 

Sec. 50. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly at its first session, 
held after the adoption of this Constitution, to provide by X^w for the punish- 
ment, by fine, or imprisonment in the Penitentiary or both, in the discretion 
of the Court, of any person who shall bribe or attempt to bribe any Executive. 
or Judicial officer of the State of Maryland, or any member, or ofl^cer of the 
General Assembly of the State of Maryland, or of any Munidpal Corporation 
in the State of Maryland, or any Executive ofiicer of suth corporation, in 
order to influence him in the performance of any of his official duties ; and 
also, to provide by Law for the punishment, by fine, or imprisonment in the 
Penitentiary, or both, in the discretion of the Court, of any of said officers, 
or members, who shall demand or receive any bribe, fee, reward or testimonial 
for the performance of his official duties, or for neglecting or failing to perform 
the same, and also, to provide by Law for compelling any person so bribing, 
or attempting to bribe, or so demanding or receiving a bribe, fee, reward or 
testimonial, to testify against any person or persons who may have committed 
any of said offenses ; provided, that any person so compelled to testify shall be 
exempted from trial and punishment for the offense of which he may have 
been guilty; and any person convicted of such offense shall, as part of the 
punishment thereof, be forever disfranchised and disqualified from holding any 
ofiice of trust or profit in this State. 

1 As amended by Charter 195, Acts of 1890, tatlfied by the people November 3, 1S91. 

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TaxaHoH of perumat properly 

Sec 51. The personal property of residents of this State shall be subject 
to taxation in the county or city where the resident boiuxfide resides for the 
greater part of the year, for which the tax may or shall be levied, and not else- 
where, except goods and chattels permanently located, which shall be taxed 
in the city or county where they are so looted. 

Taxalion of personal property 

[Sec. 51. The personal property of residents of this Stale shall be subject 
to taxation in the county or cily where the resident bona fide resides for the 
greater part of the year for which the tax may or shall be levied, and not else- 
where, except goods and chattels permanently located, which shall be taxed in 
the city or county where they are so located, but Ihe General Assembly may 
by law provide for the taxation or mortgages upon property in this Stale and 
the debts secured thereby in the county or city where such property is 
situated.] ■■ 

Private claimt 

Sec. 52. The General Assembly shall appropriate no money out of the 
Treasury for payment of any private claim against the State exceeding three 
hundred dollars, unless said claim shall have been tirsi presented to the Comp- 
troller of the Treasury, together with the proofs upon which the same is 
founded, and reported upon by him. 


Sec. 53. No person shall be incompetent, as a witness, on account of race 
or color, unless hereafter so declared by Act of the General Assembly. 

Counlies forbidden to contract debts laithoui authority 
Sec, S4- No County of this State shall contract any debt, or obligation, in 
the cooatruetion of any Railroad, Canal, or other Work of Internal Improve- 
ment, nor give, or loan its credit lo or in aid of any association, or corporation, 
unless authorized by an Act of the General Assembly, which shall be published 
for two months before the next election for members of the House of Dele- 
gates in the newspapers published in such County, and shall also be approved 
by a majority of all the members elected to each House of the General 
Assembly, at its next session after said election. 

1 Thus amended by Ctiapter 416, Acts of 1890. ralified by Ibe people November 3, 1891. 

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Sec. 55- The General Assembly shall pass no law suspending the privilege 
of the Writ of Habeas Corpus. 

Pmvers of Asitmily 

Sec- ;6. The General Assembly shall have power to pass all such Laws as 
may be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the powers vested by 
this Consliluiion, in any Department or office of the Government, and the 
duties imposed upon them thereby. 

Sec. 57. The Legal rate of Interest shall be six per cent, per annum, 
unless otherwise provided by the General Assembly. 

Foreign corporations 

Sec. 58. The Legislature, at its first session after the ratification of this 
Constitution, shall provide by Law for State and municipal taxation upon the 
revenues accruing from business done in the State by all foreign corporations. 

Pension sysltm abolished 

Sec. 59. The office of " Slate Pension Commissioner " is hereby abol- 
ished ; and the Legislature shall pass no law creating such office, or establish- 
ing any general pension system within this State. 



Part L — General PiOTisions 

Courts — fusliees of the Peace 

Section i . The Judicial power of this State shall be vested in a Court of 
Appeals, Circuit Courts, Orphans' Courts, such Courts for the City of Baltimore 
as are hereinafter provided for, and Justices of the Peace ; all said Courts shall 
be Courts of Record, and each shall have a seal to be used in the authentica- 
tion of all process issuing therefrom. The process and official character of 
Justices of the Peace shall be authenticated as hath heretofore been practiced 
in this State, or may hereafter be prescribed by Law. 

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Qualifications cf Ju^ts 

Sec. 2. The Judges of all of the said Courts shall be citizens of the State 
of Maryland, and ijualilied voters under this Constitution, and shall have resided 
thereia not less than five years, and not less than six months next preceding 
their election or appointment in the judicial circuit, as the case, may be, for 
which they may be respectively elected or appointed. They shall be not less 
than thirty years of age at the time of their election or appointment, and shall 
be selected from those who have been admitted to practice Law in this State, 
and who are moat distinguished for integrity, wisdom and sound legal knowledge. 

Eleclisn of/udgf!— T/rm of offiit — Rflirtment 

Sec. 3. The Judges of the said several Courts shall be elected in the Coun- 
ties by tlie qualified voters in their respective Judicial Circuits as hereinafter 
provided, at the general election to be held on the Tuesday after the first 
Monday in November next, and in the City of Baltimore, on the fourth 
Wednesday of October next. Each of the said Judges shall hold his office 
for the term of fifteen years from the time of his election, and until his suc- 
cessor is elected and qualified, or until he shall have attained the age of 
seventy years, whichever may first happen, and be re-eligible thereto until he 
shall have attained the age of seventy years, and not after; but in case of 
any Judge who shall attain the age of seventy years whilst in ofiice, such 
Judge may be continued in office by the General Assembly for such further 
time as they may think fit, not to exceed the term for which he was elected, 
by a resolution to be passed at the session next preceding his attaining said 
age. In case of the inability of any of said Judges to discharge his duties 
with efliciency, by reason of continued sickness, or of physical or mental 
infirmity, it shall be in the po«%r of the General Assembly, two-thirds of the 
members of each House concurring, with the approval of the Governor, to retire 
said Judge from office. 

Removal ofja^is 

Sec. 4. Any Judge shall be removed from office by the Governor, on con- 
viction in a Court of Law, of incompetency, of willful neglect of duty, misbe- 
havior in office or any other crime, or on impeachment, according to this 
Constitution, or the Laws of the State ; or on the address of the General 
Assembly, two-thirds of each House concurring in such address, and the 
accused having been notified of the charges against him, and having had 
opportunity of making his defense. 

Sec. 5. After the election for Judges, to be held as above mentioned, upon 
the expiration of the term, or in case of the death, resignation, removal, ot 

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other disqualification of any Judge, the Governor shall apfioint a person duly 
qualified to fill said office, who shall hold the same until the next general 
election for members of the General Assembly, when a successor shall be 
elected, whose tenure of office shall be the same, as hereinbefore provided; 
but if the vacancy shall occur in the City of Baltimore, the time of election 
shall be the fourth Wednesday in October following. 

Election of Jm^s — Appointmtnt by Governor 

[Sec. 5. After the election for Judges, as hereinbefore provided, there shall 
be held In this State, in every fifteenth year thereafter, on the Tuesday after 
the first Monday in November of such year, an election for Judges as herein 
provided ; and in case of death, resignation, removal or disqualification by 
reason of age or otherwise of any Judge, the Governor shall appoint a person 
duly qualified to fill said office, who shall hold the same until the next General 
Election for members of the General Assembly, when a successor shall be 
elected, whose term of office shall be the same as hereinbefore provided, and 
upon the eitpiration of the term of fifteen years for which any Judge may be 
elected to fill a vacancy, an election for his successor shall take place at the 
next General Election for members of the General Assembly to occur upon or 
after the expiration of his said term ; and the Governor shall appoint a person 
duly qualified lo hold said office from the expiration of such term of fifteen 
years until the election and qualification of his successor.] ^ 


Sec. 6. All Judges shall, by virtue of their offices, be Conservators of the ' 
Peace throughout the State ; and no fees, or perquisites, commission or reward 
of any kind, shall be allowed lo any Judge in this State, besides his annual 
salary, for the discharge of any Judicial duty. 


Sec. 7. No Judge shall sit in any case wherein he may be interested, or 
where either of the parties may be connected with him by affinity or consan- 
guinity within such degrees as now are or may hereafter be prescribed by Law, 
or where he shall have been of counsel in the case. 

Sec. 8. The parlies to any cause may submit the same to the court for 
determination, without the aid of a jury ; and the Judge, or Judges of any 
Court of this Slate, except the Court of Appeals, shall order and direct the 

'Thus amended by Act of 18B0, ch. 417, ratified by the people at November election, 

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record of proceedings in any suit or action, issue or petition, presentment or 
indictment, pending in such court, to be transmitted to some other court, (and 
of a different circuit, if the party applying shall so elect,) having jurisdiction 
in such cases, whenever any party to such cause or the counsel of any party, 
shall make a suggestion, in writing, supported by the affidavit of such party or 
his counsel, or other proper evidence, that the party cannot have a fair or 
impartial trial in the court in which suit, or action, issue or petition, present- 
ment or. indictment is pending, or when the Judges of said court shall be dis- 
qualified under the provisions of this Constitution to sit in any such suit, 
action, issue or petition, presentment or indictment ; and the General Assem- 
bly shall make such modiiications of existing Law as may be necessary to 
regulate and give force to this provision. 

Trial -wilhout jury — Removal of cases 

[Sec. 8. The parlies to any cause may submit the same to the Court for 
determination without the aid of a Jury and in all suits or actions at law, 
issues from the Orphans' Court or from any Court silting in Equity, and in 
all cases of presentments or indictments for offences which are or may be 
punishable by death pending in any of the Courts of Law of this State having 
jurisdiction thereof, upon suggestion in writing under oath of either of the 
parties lo said proceedings, that such party cannot have a fair and impartial 
trial in the Court in which the same may be pending, the said Court shall 
order and direct the Record of Proceedings in such Suit or Action, Issue, 
Presentment or Indictment, to be transmitted to some other Court having 
jurisdiction in such case, for trial \ but in all other cases of Presentment or- 
Indictment pending in any of the Courts of Law in this State having jurisdic- 
tion thereof, in addition to the suggestion in writing of either of the parties to 
such Presentment or Indictment that such party cannot have a fair and 
impartial trial in the Court in which the same may be pending, it shall be 
necessary for the party making such suggestion to make it satisfactorily 
appear to the Court that such suggestion is true, or that there is reasonable 
ground for the same ; and thereupon the said Court shall order and direct the 
Record of Proceedings in such Presentment or Indictment to be transmitted 
to some other Court having juri.idiction in such cases for trial ; and such right 
of removal shall exist upon suggestion in cases when all the Judges of said 
Court may be disqualified, under the provisions of this Constitution to sit in 
any case ; and said court lo which the Record of Proceedings in such Suit or 
Action, Issue, Presentment or Indictment may be so transmitted, shall hear 
and determine the same In like manner as If such Suit or Action, Issue, Pre- 
sentment or Indictment has beeooriginally instituted therein \ and the General 

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Assembly shall make such moditication of existing law as may be necessary to 
regulate and give force to this provision.] ' 

Offiitrs of Court; htrai appoinled 

Sec. 9. The Judge or Judges of any Court may appoint such officers for 
their respective Courts as may be found necessary ; and such officers of the 
Courts in the City of Baltimore shall be appointed by the Judges of the Su- 
preme BeDch of Baltimore City. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly 
to prescribe by law a fixed compensation for all such officers, and said Judge 
or Judges shall fi-om time to time investigate the expenses, costs and charges 
of their respective Courts, with a view to a change or reduction thereof, and 
report the result of such investigation to the General Assembly for its action. 

Records — Fits — Visitor ial power — Rulet 

Sec. 10. The Clerks of the several Courts created or continued by this 
Constitution shall have charge and custody of the records and other papers; 
shall perform all the duties, and be allowed ihe fees which appertain to their ' 
several offices, as ihe same now are or may hereafter be regulated by law. 
And the office and business of said Clerks, in all their departments, shall be 
subject to the visitorial power of the Judges of their respective Courts, who 
shall exercise the same, from time to time, so as to insure the feithful perform- 
ance of the duties of said offices ; and it shall be the duty of the Judges of 
said Courts, resfjectively, to make from time to time such rules and regula- 
tions as may be necessary and proper for the government of said Clerks, and 
for the performance of the duties of their offices, which shall have the force of 
law until repealed or modified by the General Assembly. 

Election returns — Commissions 

Sec. II. The election for Judges hereinbefore provided, and all elections 
for Clerks, Registers of Wills and other officers provided in this Constitution, 
except State's Attorneys, shall be certified, and the returns made by the 
Clerks of the Circuit Courts of the Counties, and the Clerk of the Superior 
Court of Baltimore City, respectively, to the Governor, who shall issue com- 
. mbsions lo the different persons for the offices to which they shall have been, 
respectively, elected ; and in aU such elections the person having the greatest 
number of votes shall be declared elected. 

1 Thus amended by Act of 1874. ch. 364, ratified by the people at Noveml>er election, 

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Sec. iz. If in any case of election for Judges, Clerks of the Courts of Law, 
and Register of Wills, the opposing candidates shall have an equal number of 
votes, it shall be the duty of the Governor to order a new election ; and in 
case of any contested election the Governor shall send the returns to the 
House of Delegates, which shall judge of the election and qualification of the 
candidates at such election, and if the judgment shall be ag^nst the one who 
has been returned elected, or the one who has been commissioned by the Gov- 
ernor, the House of Delegates shall order a new election within thirty days. 

Style of Commhsiam 

Sec. 13. All Public Commissions and Grants shall run thus: "The State 
of Maryland, &c,," and shall be signed by the Governor, with the Seal of the 
State annexed ; all writs and process shall run in the same style, and be 
tested, sealed and signed as heretofore, or as may hereafter be provided by 
law ; and all indictments shall conclude, " against the peace, government and 
dignity of the State." 

Part n. — Court of Appeals 

Chiif fudge —JuriidutioH — Sessions 

Sec. 14- The Court of Appeals shall be composed of the Chief Judges of 
the first seven of the several Judicial Circuits of the State and a Judge from 
the Cily of Baltimore specially elected thereto, one of whom shall be desig- 
nated by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, as 
the Chief Judge; and in all eases until action by the Senate can be had, the 
Judge so designated by the Governor shall act as Chief Judge. The Judge of 
the Court of Appeals from the City of Baltimore shall be elected by the quali- 
fied voters of said city at the election of Judges to be held therein, as here- 
inbefore provided ; and in addition to his duties as Judge of the Court of 
Appeals, shall perform such other duties as the General Assembly shall pre- 
scribe. The jurisdiction of said Court of Appeals shall be co-extensive with 
the limits of the State, and such as now is or may hereafter be prescribed by 
Law. It shall hold its sessions in the City of Annapolis, on Che first Monday 
in April, and the first Monday in October; [on the second Monday in Janu- 
ary, the first Monday in April and the first Monday in October] ' of each and 
every year, or at such other times as the General Assembly may by Law direct. 
Its sessions shall continue not less than ten months in the year, if the business 

anged by Aci al iBBfi, ch. 185, 

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before it shall so require; and it shall be compeCeot for the Judges tempora- 
rily to transfer their sittings elsewhere upon suflicient cause. 

Quorum — Judge below not to tit — Opinion 
Sec. IS- Four of said Judges shall constitute a quorum ; no cause shall 
be decided without the concurrence of at least three ; but the Judge who 
heard the cause below shall not participate in the decision ; in every case an 
opinion, in writing, shall be tiled within three months after the argument or 
submission of the cause ; and the judgment of the court shall be final and 
conclusive; and all cases shall stand for hearing at the first term after the 
transmission of the record. 

Puhlfeatioa ofriporls 

Sec. i6. Provision shall be made by law for publishing reports of cases 
argued and determined in the Court of Appeals, which the Judges shajl desig- 
nate as proper for publication. 

CUrks ~ Removal — Vacancy - 
Sec. 17. There shall be a Clerk of the Court of Appeals, who shall be 
elected by the legal and qualified voters of the State, who shall hold his office 
for six years, and until his successor is duly qualified ; he shall be subject to 
removal by the said Court for incompetency, neglect of duty, misdemeanor 
in office, or such other cause or causes as may be prescribed by law ; and in 
case of a vacancy in the office of said Clerk, the Court of Appeals shall appoint 
a Clerk of said Court, who shall hold his office until election and qualification 
of his successor, who shall be elected at the next genera] election for mem- 
bers of the General Assembly ; and the person so elected shall hold his office 
for the term of six 3-ears from the time of election. 

Rules /or Appeals — Record^ Practice — Costs — Rules in Equity 

Sec. i3. It shall be the duty of the Judges of the Court of Appeals, as soon 
after their election under this Constitution as practicable, to make and publish 
rules and regulations for the prosecution of appeals to said appellate court 
whereby they shall prescribe the periods within which appeals may be taken, 
what part or parts of the proceedings in the court below shall constitute the 
record on appeal and the manner in which such appeals shall be brought to 
hearing or determination, and shall regulate, generally, the practice of said 
Court of Appeals so as to prevent delays and promote brevity in all records 
and proceedings brought into said court, and to abolish and avoid all un- 

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necessary costs and expenses in the prosecution of appeals therein ; and the 
said Judges shall make such reductions in the fees and expenses of the said 
courts as they may deem advisable. It shall be the duty of said Judges of 
the Court of Appeals, as soon after their election as practicable, to devise and 
promulgate by rules or orders, forms and modes of framing and filing bills, 
answers and other proceedings and pleadings in Equity ; and also forms and 
modes of taking and obtaining evidence, to be used in Equity cases; and to 
revise and regulate, generally, the practice in the Courts of Equity of this 
State, so as to prevent delays, and to promote brevity and conciseness in all 
pleadings and proceedings therein, and to abolish ali unnecessary costs and 
expenses attending the same. And all rules and regulations hereby directed 
to be made shall, when made, have the force of Law until rescinded, changed 
or modified by the said Judges, or the General Assembly. 

Part in.— Circuit Courts 

Judicial Ciri-uii! 

Sec. 19. The state shall be divided into eight Judicial Circuits, in manner 
following, viz. : The Counties of Worcester, Somerset, Dorchester and Wico- 
mico' shall constitute the First Circuit; the Counties of Caroline. Talbot, 
Queen Anne's, Kent and Cecil, the Second; the Counties of Baltimore and 
Harford, the Third ; the Counties of Allegany, Washington and Garrett.^ 
the Fourth ; the Counties of Carroll, Howard and Anne Arundel, the Fifth ; 
the Counties of Montgomery and Frederick, the Sixth ; the Counties of Prince 
George's, Charles, Calvert and St. Mary's, the Seventh, and Baltimore City, 
the Eighth. 

County Courts — Jurhdiction 

Sec. 20. A Court shall be held in each County of the State, to be styled 
the Circuit Court for the County in which it may be held. The said Circuit 
Courts shall have and exercise, in the respective Counties, all the power, 
authority and jurisdiction, original and appellate, which the present Circuit 
Courts of this State now have and exercise, or which may hereafter be 
prescribed by Law. 

Chief Judge and two Assodales — Residence — Tirms — Quorum 

Sec. 31. For each of the said Circuits (excepting the Eighth) there shall 
be a Chief Judge and two Associate Judges, to be styled Judges of the Circuit 

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Court, lo be elected or appointed as herein provided. And no two of said 
Associate Judges shall at the time of their election, or appointment, or during 
the term for which they may have been elected or appointed, reside in the 
same County. If two or more persons shall be candidates for Associate Judge 
in the same County, that one only in said County shall be declared elected 
who has the highest number of votes in the Circuit. Id case any two candi- 
dates for Associate Judge, residing in the same County, shall have an equal 
number of votes, greater than any other candidate for Associate Judge in the 
Circuit, it shall be the duty of the Governor to order a new election for one 
Associate Judge ; but the person residing in any other County of the Circuit, 
and who has the next highest number of votes, shall be declared elected. 
The said Judges shall hold not less than two terms of the Circuit Court in 
each of the Counties, composing their respective Circuits, at such times as 
are now, or may hereafter be prescribed, to which Jurors shall be summoned ; 
and in those Counties where only two such terms a h d « h r and 
intermediate terms, to which Jurors shall not be summ d h ' alter 

or fix the times for holding any or all terms, until oth rw p nb d, and 
shall adopt rules to the end that all business not req ng h position 

of a Jury shall be, as far as practicable, disposed of at aid rm d terms. 
One Judge in each of the above Circuits shall cons q m or the 

transaction of any business ; and the said Judges, or any of them, may hold 
Special Terms of their Courts, whenever in their discretion, the business 
of the several Counties renders such Terms necessary. 

Court in banc 

Sec. 22. Where any term is held, or trial conducted by less than the whole 
number of said Circuit Judges, upon the decision or determination of any 
point or question by the Court, it shall be competent lo the party against 
whom the ruling or decision is made, upon motion, to have the point or 
question reserved for the consideration of the three Judges of the Circuit, 
who shall constitute a Court in banc for such purpose; and the motion for 
such reservation shall be entered of record during the sitting at which such 
decision may be made ; and the several Circuit Courts shall regulate, by 
rules, the mode and manner of presenting such points or questions to the 
Court in banc, and the decision of the said Court in barn: shall be the effective 
decision in the premises, and conclusive, as against the party at whose motion 
said points or questions were reserved ; but such decision in banc shall not 
preclude the right of appeal or writ of error to the adverse party in those 
cases, civil or criminal, in which appeal or writ of error to the Court of Appeals 
may be allowed by law. The right of having questions reserved shall not, 

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however, apply to trials of Appeals from judgments of Justices of the Peace, 
nor to Criminal cases below the grade of felony, except when the punishment 
is confinement in the penitentiary ; and this section shall be subject to such 
provisions as may hereafter be made by law. 


Sec. 23. The Judges of the respective Circuit Courts of this State, and 

of the Courts of Baltimore City, shall render their decisions in all cases 

argued before them or submitted for their judgment, within two months after 

the same shall have been so argued or submitted. 


Sec. 24. The salary of each Chief Judge, and of the Judge of the Court of 
Appeals from the City of Baltimore, shall be three thousand five hundred 
dollars, and of each Associate Judge of the Circuit Court, sliall be two 
thousand eight hundred dollars per annum payable quarterly, and shall not 
be diminished during his continuance in office.' 

Sec. 25. There shall be a Clerk of the Circuit Court for each County, who 
shall be elected by a plurality of the qualified voters of said County, and 
shall hold his office for six years from the time of his election, and until his 
successor is elected and qualified, and be re-eligible, subject to be removed 
for willful neglect of duty or other misdemeanor in office, on conviction in a 
Court ofLaw. In case of a vacancy in the office of Clerk of a Circuit Court, 
the Judges of said Court shall have power to fill such vacancy until the 
general election for Delegates to the General Assembly, to be held next 
thereafter, when a successor shall be elected for the term of six years. 

Deputy CUrks 
Sec. 26. The swd Clerks shall appoint, subject to the confirmation of the 
Judges of their respective Courts, as many deputies under them as the said 
Judges shall deem necessary to perform, together with themselves, the duties 
of the said office, who shall be removable by the said judges for incompetency, 
or neglect of duly, and whose compensation shall be according to existing or 
fijture provisions of the General Assembly. 

1 By the Aol of iBga, ch, 3B8, 1I 
thousand five hundred dollars, an 
hundred dollars per annum. 

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Part IV. —Courts of Baltimore City 

Sec, 27- There shall be in the Eighth Judicial Circuit six Courts, to be 
styled tlie Supreme Bench of Ballimore City, the Superior Court of Baltimore 
City, the Court of Common Pleas, the Baltimore City Court, the Circuit Court 
of Baltimore Cily ' and the Criminal Court ^ of Baltimore. 


Sec. 28. The Superior Court of Baltimore City, the Court of Common 
Picas, and the Baltimore City Court ' shall each have concurrent jurisdiction 
in all civil common law cases, and concurrendy all the jurisdiction which the 
Superior Court of Baltimore Cily and the Court of Common Pleas now have, 
except jurisdiction in Equity, and except in applications for the benefit of the 
Insolvent Laws of Maryland, and in cases of Appeal from judgments of Jus- 
tices of the Peace in said city, whether civil or criminal, or arising under the 
ordinances of the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore, of all of wliich appeal 
cases the Baltimore City Court shall have exclusive jurisdiction; and the said 
Court of Common Pleas shall have exclusive jurisdicCion in all applications for 
the benefit of the Insolvent Laws of Maryland, and the supervision and control 
of the Trustees thereof. 

Jurisdiction of Circuit Court 

Sec. 29. The Circuit Court of Baltimore City shall have exclusive Jurisdic- 
tion in Equity within the limits of said city, and all such jurisdiction as the 
present Circuit Court of Baltimore City has ; provided, the said Court shall 
not have jurisdiction in applications for the writ of habeas corpus in cases of 
persons charged with criminal offenses. 

Jurisdiction of Criminal Court 

Sec. 30. The Criminal Court of Baltimore shall have and exercise all the 
jurisdiction now held and exercised by the Criminal Court of Baltimore, 
except in such Appeal Cases as are herein assigned to the Baltimore City 

^ Circuit Court No. z established by Act of 1SB8, ch. 194.. 

5 Criminal Court No. 2 established by rule of the Supreme Bench, December 31, 1897. 
See 87 Md. 191. 

^ The jurisdiclion of the Ballimore City Court, the Superior Court and the Court ol 
Conimon Pleas was enlarged by the Ad of 1S70, ch. 177. 

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Supreme Bench of Baltimore City— Term — Salary 
Sec. 31. There shall be elected by the legal and qualified voters of said 
city, at the election, hereinbefore provided for, one Cliief Judge and four As- 
sociate Judges, who, together, shall constitute the Supreme Bench of Balti- 
more City, and shall hold their offices for the term of fifteen years, subject to 
the provisions of tliis Constitution with regard to the election and qualifica- 
tions of Judges and their removal from oiilice, and shall exercise the jurisdic- 
tion, hereinafter specified, and shall each receive an annual salary of three 
thousand five hundred dollars,' payable quarterly, which shall not be dimin- 
ished during their term of office; but authority is hereby given to the Mayor 
and City Council of Baltimore to pay to each of the said Judges an annual 
addition of five hundred dollars (o their respective salaries ; provided, that 
the same being once granted shall not be diminished nor increased during 
the continuance of said Judges in ofiice. 

Assignment 0/ Judges 
Sec. 32. It shall be the duty of the said Supreme Bench of Baltimore City, 
as soon as the Judges thereof shall be elected and duly qualified, and from 
time to time, to provide for the holding of each of the aforesaid Courts, by the 
assignment of one or more of their number to each of the said Courts, who 
may sit either separately or together in the trial of cases ; and the said Su- 
preme Bench of Baltimore City may, from time to time, change the said assign- 
ment, as circumstances may require, and the public interest may demand ; 
and the Judge or Judges, so assigned to the said several Courts, shall, when 
holding the same, have all the powers and exercise alt the jurisdiction which 
may belong to the Court so being held ; and \\ shall also be the duty of the 
said Supreme Bench of Baltimore City, in case of the sickness, absence, or 
disability of any Judge or Judges assigned as aforesaid, to provide for the 
hearing of the cases, or transaction of the business assigned lo said Judge or 
Judges, as aforesaid, before some one or more of the Judges of said Court. 

Supreme Bench — Rules — Jurisdiction on motions 
Sec. 33. The said Supreme Bench of Baltimore City shall have power, and 
it shall lie its duty, to provide for the holding of -as many general Terms as 
the performance of its duties may require, such general Terms to be held by 
not less than three Judges ; to malie all needful rules and regulations for the 
conduct of business in each of the said Courts, during the session thereof, and 
in vacation, or in Chambers, before any of said Judges ; and sliall also have 
1 Increased by Act of 1892. ch. 388, (ofour thousand five hundred dollars. 

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jurisdiction to hear and determine all motions for a new trial in cases tried in 
any of said Courts, wliere such motions arise, either on questions of feet, or 
for misdirection upon any matters of Law, and all motions in arrest of judg- 
ment, or upon any matters of Law determined by the said Judge, or Judges, 
while holding said several Courts ; and the said Supreme Bench of Baltimore 
City shall make all needfiil rules and regulations for the hearing before it of 
all said matters ; and the same right of appeal to the Court of Appeals shall 
be allowed from Che determination of the said Court on such matters, as 
would have been the right of the parties if said matters had been decided by 
the Court in which said cases were tried. 

[The judge, before whom any case may hereafter be tried, in either the 
Baltimore City Court, the Superior Court of Baltimore City, or the Court of 
Common Pleas, shall have exclusive jurisdiction to hear and determine, and 
the said Judge shall hear and determine all motions for a new (rial where 
such motions arise, either on questions of fact or for misdirection upon any 
matters of law, and all motions in arrest of judgment, or upon any matters of 
law, determined by the said Judge, and all such motions shall be heard and 
determined within thirty days after they are made.] ' 


Sec. 34- No appeal shall lie' to the Supreme Bench of Baltimore City frotn 
the decision of the Judge or the Judges holding the Baltimore City Court in 
case of appeal from a Justice of the Peace; but the dedsion by said Judge 
or Judges shall be final ; and all writs and other process issued out of 
either of said Courts, requiring attestation, shall be attested in the name of the 
Chief Judge of the said Supreme Bench of Baltimore City. 

Sec. 35- Three of the Judges of said Supreme Bench of Baltimore City 
shall constitute a quorum of said Court. 

Casts pending 
Sec. 36. All causes depending, at the adoption of this Constitution, in the 
Superior Court of Baltimore City, the Court of Common Pleas, the Criminal 
Court of Baltimore, and Ihe'Circuit Court of Baltimore City, shall be proceeded 
in, and prosecuted to final judgment or decree, in the Courts, respectively, of 
the same name established by this Constitution, except cases belonging to 
that class, jurisdiction over which is by this Constitution transferred to the 
1S70, ch. 177, as provided by Section 39, of Article 4. of 

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Baltimore City Court, all of which shall, together with all cases now pending 
in the City Court of Baltimore, be proceeded in and prosecuted to lii^ judg- 
ment in said Baltimore City Court. 

Cbrks — Ttrm — Salary — VacamUs 

Sec. 37. There shall be a Clerk of each of the said Courts of Baltimore 
City, except the Supreme Bench, who shall be elected by the legal and quali- 
fied voters of said city, at the election to be held in said city on the Tuesday 
next after the first Monday of November, in the year eighteen hundred and 
sixty-seven, and shall hold his office for six years from the time of his election, 
and until his successor is elected and qualified, and be re-eligible thereto, sub- 
ject Co be removed for willfiil neglect of duty or other misdemeanor in office, on 
conviction in a Court of Law. The salary of each of the said Clerks shall 
be thirty-five hundred dollars a year, payable only out of the fees and receipts 
collected by the Clerks of said city, and they shall be entitled to no other 
perquisites or compensation. In case of a vacancy in the office of Clerk of 
any of said Courts, the Judges of said Supreme Bench of Baltimore City shall 
have power to fill such vacancy until the general election of Delegates to the 
General Assembly to be held next thereafter, when a Clerk of said Court shall 
be elected to serve for six years thereafter; and the provisions of this Article 
in relation to the appointment of Deputies by the Clerks of the Circuit Courts 
« shall apply to the Clerks of the Courts in Baltimore City. 

Sec. 38. The Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas shall have authority to 
issue within said city all marriage and other licenses required by law, subject 
to such provisions as are now or may be prescribed by Law. Tlie Qerk of the 
Superior Court of said city shall receive and record all deeds, conveyances 
and other papers, which are or may be required by Law to be recorded in 
said dty. He shall also have custody of all papers connected with the pro- 
ceedings on the Law or Equity side of Baltimore County Court and the dod«ets 
thereof, so far as the same have relation to the City of Baltimore, and shall 
also discharge the duties of Clerk to the Supreme Bench of Baltimore City 
unless otherwise provided by Law. 

Additional Court 

Sec. 39. The General Assembly shall, whenever it may think the same 
proper and expedient, provide, by Law, another Court for the City of Balti- 
more, and prescribe its jurisdiction and powers ; in which case there shall be 
elected by the voters of said City, qualified under this Constitution, another 

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Judge of the Supreme Bench of BaJtimore City, who shall be subject to the 
same constitutio.ial provisions, hold his olfice for the same term of years, 
receive the same compensation, and have the same powers, as are hereia pro* 
vided for the Judges of said Supreme Bench of Baltimore City ; and all of the 
provisions of this Constitution relating to the assignment of Judges to the 
Courts, now existing in said City, and for the dispatch of business therein, 
shall apply to the Court, for whose creation provision is made by this Sec- 
tion.' And the General Assembly may reapportion, change or enlarge the 
jurisdiction of the several Courts in Baltimore City. Until otherwise provided 
by Law, the Clerk of the Superior Court of Baltimore City, of the Court of 
Common Pleas of the Circuit Court of Baltimore Cily, of the Baltimore City 
Court, and of the Criminal Court of Baltimore, shall each give Bond in such 
penalty as is now prescribed by Law to be given by the Clerks of the Courts, 
hearing the same names, under the present Constitution. 

Additional Judges 

[Sec. 39. The General Assembly shall, as often as it may think the same 
proper and expedient, provide by Law for the election of an additional Judge 
of the Supreme Bench of Baltimore Cily, and whenever provision is so made 
by the General Assembly, there shall be elected by the voters of said Cily 
another Judge of the Supreme Bench of Baltimore City, who shall be subject 
to the same constitutional provisions, hold his office for the same term of 
years, receive the same compensation, and have the same powers as are, or 
shall be, provided by the Constitution or Laws of this Slate, for the Judges 
of said Supreme Bench of Baltimore Cily, and the General Assembly may 
provide by Laws, or Ihe Supreme Bench Ijy its rules, for requiring causes in 
any of the Courts of Baltimore Cily to be tried before the court without a jury, 
unless the litigants or some one of them shall within such reasonable time or 
limes as may be prescribed, elect to have their causes fried before a jury. 
And the General Assembly may reapportion, change or enlarge the jurisdiction 
of the several Courts in said city.] ^ 

I Under this section, the General Assembly, by Ihe Act of 188S. Chapter 194, established 
(he Circuii Court No, 1 of BaUimorB Cily, conferring upon it the same jurisdiction as that 
by Ibe Cittuit Court of Baltimore City. 
Thus amended by Chapter 313. Acts of 189a, ratified by the people November 7, 

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Put v.— Otpluns' Courts 

T%reejudgis — Term— Jurisdiction — Perdiem — Vacandts 

Sec. 40. The qualified voters of the City of Baltimore, and of tlie several 
counties, shall on the Tuesday oext after the first Monday in November next, 
and oil the same day in every fourth year thereafter, elect three men to be 
Judges of the Orphans' Courts of said city and counties, respectively, who 
shall be citizens of the State, and residents for the twelve months preceding, 
in ihe city, or county, for which they may be elected. They shall have all 
the powers now vested in the Orphans' Courts of the State, subject to such 
changes as the Legislature may prescribe. Each of said Judges shall be paid 
a per diem for the time Ihey are actually in session, to be regulated by Law, 
and to be paid by the said city, or counlies, respectively. In case of a 
vacancy in the office of Judge of the Orphans' Court the Governor shall 
appoint, subject to confirmation or rejection by the Senate, some suitable per- 
son to fill the same for the residue of the term. 

RegisUr of Wills— Ttrm— Vacamy 

Sec. 41, There shall be a Register of Wills in each county of the State 
and the City of Baltimore to be elected by the legal and qualified voters of 
said counties and dty, respsctively, who shall hold his office for six years from 
the time of his election, and until his successor is elected and qualified ; he 
shall be re-eligible, and subject at all times to removal for willful neglect of 
duty, or misdemeanor in office in the same manner that the Clerks of the 
Courts are removable. In the event of any vacancy in the office of the Reg- 
ister of Wills, said vacancy shall be filled by the Judges of the Orphans' 
Court, in which such vacancy occurs, until the next general election for Dele- 
gates to the General Assembly, when a Register shall be elected to serve for 
six years thereafter. 

Part VI.— Justices of the Peace 

Appointment— Conitablts 

Sec. 42. The Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
shall appoint such number of Justices of the Peace, and the County Commis- 
sioners of the several counties, and the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore, 
respectively, shall appoint such number of Constables, for the several Election 
Districts of the counties and wards of the City of Baltimore, as are now or may 
hereafter be prescribed by Law ; and Justices of the Peace and Constables so 

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appointed shall be subject to removal by the Judge or Judges having criminal 
jurisdiction in the county or city, for incompetency, willful neglect of duty or 
misdemeanor in office, on conviction in a Court of Law. The Justices of the 
Peace and Constables so appointed and commissioned shall be Conservators 
of the Peace; shall hold their office for two years, and shall have such 
jurisdiction, duties and compensation, subject to such right of appeal in all 
cases from the judgment of Justices of the Peace, as hath been heretofore 
exercised, or shall be hereafter prescribed by Law. 

Sec. 43. In the event of a vacancy in the office of a Justice of the Peace, 
the Governor shall appoint a person to serve as Justice of the Peace for the 
residue of the term ; and in case of a vacancy in the office of Constable, 
the County Commissioners of the county in which the vacancy occurs, or 
the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore, as the case may be, shall appoint 3. 
person to serve as Constable for the residue of the term. 

Part VII. — Sheriffs 

F.Uction — Qualification — Tfrm — Vficaiuy 

Sec. 44. There shall be elected in each County, and in the City of Balti- 
more, in every second year, one person, resident in said County or City, 
above the age of twenty-five years, and at least five years preceding his elec- 
tion, a citizen of this State, to the office of Sheriff. He shall hold his office 
for two years, and until his successor is duly elected and qualified ; shall be 
ineligible for two years thereafter ; shall give such bond, exercise such powers, 
and perform such duties as now are or may hereafter be fixed by law. In case 
of a vacancy by death, resignation, refusal to serve,orneglect to qualify, or give 
bond, or by disqualification, or removal from the County or City, the Governor 
shall appoint a person to he Sheriff for the remainder of the oflicial term. 

Sec. 45. Coroners, Elisors and Notaries Public may be appointed for each 
County and the City of Baltimore in the manner, for the purpose and with the 
powers now fixed, or which may hereafter be prescribed by law. 

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EUction — Term 

Section I. There shall be an Attorney-General elected by the qualified 
voters of the Slate, on general ticket, on the Tuesday next after the first Mon- 
day in the month of November, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, and on the 
same day in every fourth year thereafter, who shall hold his office for four 
yeai's from the time of his election and qualification, and until his successor 
is elected and qualified, and shall be re-eligible thereto, and shall be subject 
to removal for incompetency, willful neglect of duty or misdemeanor in office, 

Relurns pfilecHon 

Sec. 2. All elections for Attomey-Heneral shall be certified to, and returns 
made thereof by Che Clerks of the Circuit Courts for the several Counties, and 
the Clerk of the Superior Court of Baltimore City, to the Governor of the 
State, whose duty it shall be to decide on the election and qualification of 
the person returned; and In case of a tie between two or more persons to 
designate which of said persons shall qualify as Attorney-General, and to 
administer the oath of office to the person elected. 

Duties— Opinions— Salary 

Sec, 3. It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to prosecute and de- 
fend on the part of the State all cases which at the time of his appointment 
and qualification, and which thereafter may be depending in the Court of 
Appeals, or in the Supreme Court of the United States by or against the State, 
or wherein the State may be interested ; and he shall give his opinion in writ- 
ing whenever required by the General Assembly, or either branch thereof, t!ie 
Governor, the Comptroller, the Treasurer, or any State's Attorney, on any legal 
matter, or subject depending before them, or either of them ; and when re- 
quired by the Governor or the General Assembly, he shall aid any State's 
Attorney in prosecuting any suit or action brought by the State in any Court 
of this Stale, and he shall commence and prosecute or defend any suit or action 
in any of said Courts, on the part of the State, which the General AssemWy, 
or the Governor, acting according to law, shall direct to be commenced. 

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prosecuted or defended ; and he shall receive for his services an annual salary 
of three thousand dollars ; but he shall not be entilied to receive any fees, 
perquisites or rewards whatever, in addition to the salary aforesaid, for the 
performance of any official duty ; nor have power to appoint any agent, rep- 
resentative or deputy, under any circumstances whatever ; nor shall the 
Governor employ any additional counsel in any case whatever, unless author- 
ized by the General Assembly. 

Sec. 4. No person shall be eliEJble to the office of Attorney-General, who 
is not a citizen of this State, and a qualified voter therein, and has not resided 
and practiced Law in this State for at least ten years. 


Sec, s- In case of vacancy in the office of Attorney-General, occasioned by 
death, resignation, removal from the Slate or from office, or other disqualifica- 
tion, the said vacancy shall be filled by the Governor for the residue of the 
term thus made vacant. 

Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of the Clerk of the Court of Appeals and of the 
Commissioner of the Land Office, respectively, whenever a case shall be 
brought into said court or office, in which the State is a party or has interest, 
immediately to notify the Attorney-General thereof. 

The State's Attoineys 

Eltetion — Term 

Sec. 7. There shall be an Attorney for the Slate in each County and the 
City of Baltimore, to be styled " The State's Attorney," who shall be elected 
by the voters thereof, respectively, on the Tuesday next after the first Monday 
in November, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, and on the same 
day every fourth year thereafter ; and shall hold his office for four years from 
the first Monday in January next ensuing his election, and until his successor 
shall be elected and qualified, and shall be re-eligible thereto, and be subject 
to removal therefrom for incompetency, v/illful neglect of duty, or misdemeanor 
in office, on conviction in a Court of Law, or by a vote of two thirds of the 
Senate, on the recommendation of the Attorney-General. 

Returns a/elediort 

Sec. 8. All elections for the State's Attorney shall be certified to and re- 
turns made thereof by the Clerks of the said counties and city to the Judges 

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thereof having criminal jurisdiction, respectively, whose duty it shall be to 
decide upon the elections and qualifications of the jjersons returned ; and in 
case of a lie between two or more persons, to desigimte which of said persons 
shall qualify as State's Attorney, and to administer the oaths of office to the 
person elected. 

Sec. 9. The State's Attorney shall perform such duties and receive such 
fees and commissions as are now or may hereafter be prescribed by law, and 
if any State's Attorney shall receive any other fee or reward than such as is 
or may be allowed by Law, he shall, on conviction thereof, be removed from 
office ; provided., that the State's Attorney for Baltimore City shall have power 
to appoint one Deputy, at a salary of not more than fifteen hundred dollars 
per annum, to be paid by the State's Attorney out of the fees of his office, as 
has heretofore been practiced. 

[Sec. 9. The State's Attorney shall perform such duties and receive such 
fees and commissions or salary, not exceeding three thousand dollars, as are 
now or may hereafter be prescribed by law ; and if any Stale's Attorney shall 
receive any other fee or reward than such as is or may be allowed by law, he 
shall, on conviction thereof, be removed from office ; provided, that the State's 
Attorney for Baltimore City shall receive an annual salary of forty-five hundred 
dollars, and shall have power to appoint one deputy, at an annual salary, not 
exceeding three thousand dollars, and such other assistants at such annual 
salaries not exceeding fifteen hundred dollars each, as the Supreme Bench 
of Baltimore City may authorize and approve; all of said salaries lo be paid 
out of the fees of the said State's Attorney's office, as has heretofore been 
practiced.] ' 


Sec. 10. No person shall be eligible to the office of State's Attorney who 
has not been admitted to practice Law in this Slate, and who lias not resided 
for at least two years in the county or city in which he may be elected. 


Sec. II. In case of vacancy in the office of State's Attorney, or of his 
removal from the county or city in which he shall have been elected, or on 
his conviction as herein specifled, the said vacancy shall be filled by the Judge 
of the county or city, respectively, having criminal jurisdiction, in which said 
vacancy shall occur, for the residue of the term thus made vacant. 

1 Thus amended by Act of 1900. ch. 1S5, ratified by the people at the November election. 

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Sec. 12. The State's Attorney in each county, and the City of Baldmore, 
shall have authority to colled, and give receipt, in the name of the State, for 
such sums of money as may be collected by him, and forthwith make return 
of and pay over the same to the proper accounting officer. And the Slate's 
Attorney of each county, and the City of Baltimore, before he shall enter on 
the discharge of his duties, shall execute a bond to the Slate of Maryland, for 
the faithful performance of his duties. In the penalty of ten thousand dollars, 
with two or more sureties, to be approved by the Judge of the Court having 
criminal jurisdiction in said counties or city. 


Cemplrollii — Salary — Treasurer — Term — Vaiancies — Bends 

Section i. There shall be a Tre.isury De|>artment, consisting of a Comp- 
troller, chosen by ihf qualified electors of the Slate, at each regular election of 
members of the House of Delegates, who shall receive an annual salary of two 
thousand iive hundred dollars ; and a Treasurer, to be appointed by the two 
Houses of the Legislature, at each regular session thereof, on joint ballot, who 
shall receive an annual salary of two thousand five hundred dollars ; and the 
ternis of office of the said Comptroller and Treasurer shall be for two years, 
and until their successors shall qualify ; and neither of the said officers shall 
be allowed,' or receive any fees, commissions or perquisites of any kind in 
addition to his salary for the performance of any duty or services whatsoever. 
In case of a vacancy in either of the offices by death, or otherwise, the Gov- 
ernor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall fill such vacancy 
by appointment, to continue until another election, or a choice by the Legis- 
lature, as (he case may be, and until the qualification of the successor. The 
Comptroller and the Treasurer shall keep their offices at the seat of Govern- 
ment, and shall take such oath, and enter into such bonds for the faithful 
discharge of their duties as are now, or may hereafter be prescribed by law. 

ComptroUer' s dulies 
Sec. 3. The Comptroller shall have the general superintendence of the 
fiscal affairs of the Slate ; he shall digest and prepare plans for the improve- 
ment and management of the revenue, and for ihe support of the public credit ; 
prepare and report estimates of the revenue and expenditures of the Stiite; 

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superiotend and enforce the prompt colleclioti of all taxes and revenue ; adjust 
and settle, on terms prescribed by Law, with delinquent collectors and receivers 
of taxes and Stale revenue ; preserve all public accounts ; decide on the forms 
of keeping and stating accounts ; grant, under regulations prescribed by Law, 
all warrants for money to be paid out of the Treasury, in pursuance of appro- 
priations by Law, and countersign all checks drawn by the Treasury upon any 
bank or banks, in which the moneys of the Slate may, from tiine to time, be 
deposited ; prescribe the formalities of the transfer of stock, or other evidence 
of the State debt, and countersign the same, without which such evidence shall 
not bs valid ; he shall make to the General Assembly full reports of all his 
proceedings, and of the state of the treasury department within ten days after 
the conimencement of each Session; and perform such other duties as shall 
be prescribed by Law. 

Trtastirer's dtilies 

Sec. 3. The Treasurer shall receive the moneys of the State, and, until 
otherwise prescribed by law, deposit them, as soon as received, to the credit 
of the State, in such bank or banks as he may, from time to lime, with the 
approval of the Governor, select (the said bank or banks giving security, satis- 
factory to the Governor, for the safekeeping and forthcoming, when required, 
of said deposits), and shall disburse the same for the purposes of the State, 
according to law, upon warrants drawn by the Comptroller, and on checks 
rsigned by him, and not otherwise ; he shall take receipts for all moneys 
j by him and receipts for moneys received by him shall be endorsed upon 
s signed by the Comptroller, without which warrants, so signed, no 
acknowledgment of money received into the Treasury sliall be valid ; and upon 
warrants, issued by the Comptroller, he shall make arrangements for the pay- 
ment of the interest of the public debt, and for the purchase thereof, on account 
of the sinking fund. Every bond, certificate, or other evidence of the debt 
of the State shall be signed by the Treasurer, and countersigned by the 
Comptroller; and no new certificate or other evidence intended to replace 
another shall be issued until the old one shall be delivered to the Treasurer, 
and authority executed in due form for the transfer of the same filed in Ids 
office, and the transfer accordingly made on the books thereof, and the cer- 
tificate or other evidence cancelled ; but the Legislature may make provi- 
sions for the loss of certificates, or other evidences of the debt ; and may 
prescribe, by Law, the manner in which the Treasurer shall receive and keep 
the moneys of the State. 


Sec. 4. The Treasurer shall render his accounts quarterly to the Comp- 
troller, and shall publish monthly, iit such newspapers as the Governor may 

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direct, an abstract thereof, showing the amount of cash on hand, and the 
place or places of deposit thereof; and on the third day of each regular session 
of the Legislature he shall submit to the Senate and House of Delegates fair 
and accurate copies of all accounts by him, from time to time, rendered and 
settled with the Coniplroller. He shall at all times submit to the Comptroller 
the inspection of the money in his hands, and perform all other duties that 
shall be prescribed by Law. 

Time of qualifiealions 

Sec, s- The Comptroller shall qualify and enter on the duties of his office 
OQ the third Monday of January next succeeding the time of his election, or 
as soon thereafter as practicable. And the Treasurer shall qualify within one 
month after his appointment by the Legislature- 

Sec. 6. Whenever during the recess of the Legislature charges shall be 
preferred to the Ciovensor against the Comptroller or Treasurer for incom- 
petency, malfeasance in office, willful neglect ot duty, or misappropriation of the 
funds of the Stale, it shall he the duty of the (Governor forthwith lo notify 
the party so charged, and fix a day for a hearing of said charges ; and if from 
the evidence taken, under oalh. on said hearing before the Governor, the said 
allegations shall be sustained, it shall be the duly of the Governor to remove 
said offending officer and appoint another in his place, who Rhall hold the 
office for the unexpired term of the officer so removed. 



County Commissioners 

Section I. County Commissioners shall be elected on general ticket of 
each county by the qualified voters of the several counties of this State, on 
the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November, eighteen 
hundred and sixty-seven, and on the same day in every second year thereafter. 
Their niiml)er in each county, their compensation, powers and duties, shall be 
such as are now or may be hereafter prescribed by Law. 

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CeuHly CernmissiBHtrs 
[Sec- I. County Commissioners shall be elected on geoeral tickel of each 
county by the qualified voters of the several counties of the State, on the 
Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November, commencing 
in the year eighteen hundred and ninety-one ; their number in each county, 
their compensation, powers and duties shall be such as now or may be here- 
after prescribed by law, they shall be elected at such limes, in such numbers 
and for such periods not exceeding six years, as may be prescribed by law.]' 

Survfyoi Vaaincy 

Sec. 2. The qualified voters of each County, and of the City of Baltimore 
shall on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in the month of November, 
in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, and on the same day in every 
second year thereafter, elect a Surveyor for each County and the City of 
Baltimore, respectively, whose term of office shall commence on the first 
Monday of January next ensuing their election, and whose duties and com- 
pensation shall be the same as are now or may hereafter be prescribed by 
law. And any vacancy in the office of Surveyor shall be filled by the Com- 
missioners of the Counties, or by ihe Mayor and City Council of Baltimore, 
respectively, for the residue of the term. 

State Librarian — Salary 
Sec. 3- The State Librarian shall be appointed by the Governor, by and 
with the advice and consent of the Senate, and shall hold his office during the 
term of the Governor, by whom he shall have been appointed, and until his 
successor shall be appointed and qualified. His salary shall be fifteen hun- 
dred dollars a year; and he shall perform such duties as are now, or may 
hereafter be prescribed by Law ; and no appropriation shall be made by Law 
to pay for any clerk, or assistant to the Librarian. And it shall be the duty 
of the Legislature, at its first session after the adoption of this Constitution, 
to pass a Law regulating the mode and manner in which Ihe books in the 
Library shall be kept and accounted for by the Librarian, and requiring the 
Librarian to give a bond, in such penalty as the Legislature may prescribe, for 
the proper discharge of his duties. 

Commissioner of /.and qgia — Dutits^ Salary 

Sec. 4. There shall be a Commissioner of the Land Office, who shall be 

appointed by the Governor by and with ihe advice and consent of the Senate, 

1 Thus amended by Act of 1E90, Chapler 153, and adopted by vote of Ihe people 
Novemljers, 1890. 

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who shall hold his office during the term of the Governor, by whom he sliall 
have been appointed, and until his successor shall be appointed and qualified. 
He shall perform such duties as are now required of the Commissioner of the 
Land Office, or such as may hereafter be prescribed by Law, and shall also be 
the Keeper of the Chancery Records. He shall receive a salary of one thou- 
sand, five hundred dollars per annum, to be paid out of the Treasury, and shall 
charge such fees as are now, or may be hereafter fixed by Law. He shall 
make a semi-annual report of all the fees of his office, both as Commissioner 
of the Land Office, and as keeper of the Chancery Records, to the Comptroller 
of the Treasury, and shall pay the same semi-annually into the treasury. 

Stall Papirs 

Sec. 5. The Commissioner of the Land Office shall also, without addi- 
tional compensation, collect, arrange, classify, have charge of, and safely keep 
all papers, records, relics, and other memorials connected with the early his- 
tory of Maryland, not belonging lo any other otBce. 

Wreck Afasl/r 

Sec. 6. The qualified voters of Worcesler County shall on the Tuesday 
next after the first Monday in the month of November, in the year eighteen 
hundred and sinty-seveii, and every two years thereafter, elect a Wreck-Master 
for said County, whose duties and compensation shall be the same as are now 
or may be hereafter prescribed by Law ; the term of office of said Wreck- 
Master shall commence on the first Monday of January next succeeding hb 
election, and a vacancy in said office shall be filled by the County Commis- 
sioners of s^d County for the residue of the lerm. 


Puilic .Wu'o/s 

Section I. The General Assembly, at its first session after the adoption of 
this Constitution, shall, by Law, establish throughout the State a thorough 
and efficient system of free Public Schools ; and shall provide by taxation, or 
otherwise, for their maintenance. 

Sec. 2. The system of Public Schools, as now constituted, shall remain in 
force until the end of the said first session of the General Assembly, and shall 
then expire, except so far as adopted or continued by the General Assembly. 

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Sec. 3. The School Fund of the State shall be kept inviolate, and appro- 
>riated only to the purposes of education. 



Section I. The General Assembly shall make, from time to 
visions for organizing, equipping and disciplining the Militia, s 
may require, and pass such Laws to promote Volunteer Militia 
as may atford them effectual encouragement 

ime, such pro- 
i the exigency 


I Gene 

- Duties 

Sec. 2. There shall be an Adjutant General appointed by the Governor, 
by d w h he advice and consent of the Senate He shall hold hi.s office 
n il h ppointment and qualification ot his successor or until removed in 
p rs f the sentence of 1 court martial He shall perform such duties 

1 such compensation or emolumenls as are now or may be pre- 

b d by Law He shall distharge the duUea of his office at the seat of 
^ m unless absent under orders on duti and no other officer of the 

G I S IF of the Militia shall recei\e salarj or paj except when on ser- 

vice and mustered in with troops. 

Sec. 3. The existing Militia Law of the Slate shall expire at the end of the 
next session of the General Assembly, except so far as it may be re-enacted, 
subject to the provisions of this Article. 


Section I. There shall be a Superintendent of Labor and Agriculture elected 
by the qualified voters of this Stale at the first General election for Delegates 
to the General A mblj f the adoption of this Constitution, who shall 
hold his office f 1 m f f ur years, and until the election and qualifica- 

Sec. 2. Hi q Ifi n hall be the same as those prescribed for the 
Comptroller; h I all q al fy nd enter upon the duties of his office on the 

This Article expired by liiiiita.lion. 

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second Monday of January next succeeding the time of his election ; and a 
vacancy in the office shall be fiUed by the Governor for the residue of the term. 

See. 3. He shall perform such of the duties now devolved by Law upon 
the Commissioner of Immigration, and the Immigration Agenl, as will pro- 
mote the object for which those officers were appointed, and such other duties 
a^ may be assigned to him by the General Assembly, and shall receive a 
salary of twenty -five hundred dollars a year ; and after his election and quali- 
fication, the offices before mentioned shall cease. 

Sec. 4. He shall supervise all the State Inspectors of agricultural products 
and fertilizers, and from time lo time shall carefully examine and audit their 
accounts, and prescribe regulations not inconsistent with Law, tending to 
secure economy and efficiency in the business of their offices. He shall have 
the supervision of the Tobacco Warehouses, and all other buildings used fur 
inspection and storage purposes by the Stale; and may, at the discretion of 
the Legislature, have the supervision of all public buildings now belonging to, 
or which may hereafter be, erected by the State. He shall frequently inspect 
such buildings as are committed to his charge, and examine all accounts for 
labor and materials required for their construction or repairs. 

Sec. 5- He shall inquire into the undeveloped resources of wealth of the 
Slate of Maryland, more especially concerning those within the limits of the 
Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries, which belong 10 the State, and suggest 
such plans as may be calculated to render them available as sources of revenue. 

Sec. 6. He shall make detailed reports to every General Assembly within the 
first week of its session, in reference to each of the subjects committed to his 
charge, and he shall also report lo the Governor, in the recess of the Legis- 
lature, all abuses or irregularities which he may find to exbt in any depaitmetit 
of public affairs with which his office is connected. 

Sec. 7. The office hereby established shall continue for four years from the 
date of the qualification of the first incumbent thereof, and shall then expire, 
unless continued by the General Assembly. 



Section 1. The inhabitants of the City of Baltimore qualified by Law to 
vote in said city for members of the House of Delegates, shall on the fourth 

I Under Section 9 of this article n charter was adopted for Baltimore in 1898, which 
changed llie organintion of ihe ciiy govemn 
Mayor and City Council is now liold on the ' 
The term of Ihc Mayor is four years. 

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Wednesday of October, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, and on the same 
da) in every fourth year thereafter, elect a person to be Mayor of the City 
of Baltimore, who shall have such qualifications, receive such compensation, 
discharge such duties, and have such powers as are now, or may hereafter be 
prescribed by Law ; and tlie term of whose office shall commence on the first 
Mondaj of November succeeding his election, and shall continue for four 
years, and until his successor shall have qualified ; and he shall be ineligible 
for the term next succeeding that for which he was elected. 

[Sec. I. The inhabitants of the City of Baltimore, qualified by Law to vote 
in said dty for members of the House of Delegates, shall on the Tuesday after 
the first Monday of November, eighteen hundred and eighty-nine, and on the 
same day in every second year thereafter, elect a person to be Mayor of the 
City of Baltimore, wlio shall have such qualifications, receive such compensa- 
tion, discharge such duties, and have such powers as are now, or may hereafter 
be prescribed by Law ; and the term of whose office shall commence on the 
first Monday of November succeeding his election, and shall continue for two 
years, and until his successor shall have qualified.] ' 

City Council 

Sec. 2. The City Council of Baltiniore shall consist of two branches, one 
of which shall be called the First Branch, and the other the Second Branch, 
and each shall consist of such number of members, having such qualification, 
receiving such compensation, performing such duties, possessing such powers, 
holding such terms of office, and elected in such manner, as are now, or may 
hereafter be prescribed by Law. 

Sec. 3. An election for members of the First and Second Branch of the 
City Council of Baltimore shall be held in the City of Baltimore on the fourth 
Wednesday of October, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven ; and for membere 
of the First Branch on the same day in every year thereafter; and for mem- 
bers of the Second Branch on the same day in every second year thereafter; 
and the qualification for electors of the members of the City Council shall be 
the same as those prescribed for the electors of Mayor. 

' Thus amended by ch. 123, A 
was made Iwo years; and by c 
Tuesday after Ihe first Monday i 

CIS of 1898. 

By ch. 116, Acts of 1870, the tei 

rm of Mayor 

1. 397. Acts 

of laaa. the day of election wa 

s se( for the 

1 November 

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Ti"it of lUclions 
[Sec. 3. An election for members of ihe First Branch of Ihe City Council 
of Baltimore shall be held in Ihe City of Baltimore on the Tuesday after the 
first Monday of November in every year; and for members of the Second 
Branch on the Tuesday after the first Monday of November eighteen hundred 
and eighty-nine, and on the same day in every second year thereafter ; and the 
qualification for electors of the members of the City Council shall be the same 
as those prescribed for the electors of Mayor.] ' 

Sessions — Limilaliiins — Extra stssioa 

Sec. 4. The regular sessions of the City Council of Baltimore (which shall 
be annual), shall commence on the third Monday of January of each year, and 
shall not continue more than ninety days, exclusive of Sundays \ but the Mayor 
may convene the City Council in extra session whenever, and as often as il may 
appear to him that the public good mayrequire, but no called or extra session 
shall last longer than twenty days, exclusive of Sundays. 

Sec, 5. No ptrson elected and qualified as Mayor, or as a meml>er of the 
City Council, shall, during the term for which he was elected, hold any other 
office of jjrofit or trust, created, or to be created by the Mayor and City Council 
of Baltimore, or by any Law relating to the Corporation of Baltimore, or hold 
any employment or position, the compensation of which shall be paid, directly 
or indirectly, out of t lie City Treasury ; nor shall any such person be interested, 
directly or indirectly, in any contract to which the City is a party ; nor shall it 
be lawful for any person holding any office under the City, to be interested, 
while holding such office, in any contract to which the City is a party. 

l^fmoval af Afayor 
Sec. 6. The Mayor shall, on conviction in a Court of Law, of willful neglect 
of duty, or misbehavior in office, be removed from office by the Governor of 
the State, and a successor shall thereafter be elected, as in a case of vacancy 


Sec. 7. From and after the adoption of this Constitution, no debt (except 

as hereinafter excepted), shall be created by the Mayor and City Council of 

Baltimore ; nor shall the credit of the Mayor and City Council of Bal- 

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timore be given or loaned to, or in aid of any individual, association, or 
corporation ; nor shall the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore have the 
power to involve the City of Baltimore in the construction of works of internal 
improvement, nor in granllng any aid thereto, which shall involve the faith 
and credit of the City, nor make any appropriation therefor, unless such debt 
or credit be authorized by dn Act of the General Assembly of Maryland, and 
by an ordinance of the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore, submitted to the 
legal voters of the City of Baltimore, at such time and place as may be lixed 
by said ordinance, and approved by a majority of the votes cast at such time 
and place ; but the Mayor and City Council may, temporarily, borrow any 
amount of money to meet any deficiency in the Cily Treasury, or to provide 
for any emergency arising from the necessity of maintaining the police, or pre- 
serving the safety and sanitary condition of the City, and may make due and 
proper arrangements and agreements for the removal and extension, in whole 
or in part, of any and all debts and obligations created according to Law before 
the adoption of this Constitution. 

Sec. S. All Laws and Ordinances now in force applicable to the City of 
Baltimore, not inconsistent witli this Article, shall be, and they are hereby 
continued until changed in due course of Law. 

Changes autinriied 

Sec. 9. The General Assembly may make such changes in this Article. 
except in Section 7th thereof, as it may deem best ; and this Article shall not 
be so construed or taken as to make the political corporation of Baltimore 
independent of, or free from the control which the General Assembly of Mary- 
land has over all such Corporations in this State. 



Boards- Sesuons — Poxufrs 

Section I. The Governor, the Comptroller of the Treasury, and the Treas- 
urer shall constitute the Board of Public Works in this Slate. They shall 
keep a journal of their proceedings, and shall hold regular sessions in the City 
of Annapolis on the first Wednesday in January, April, July and October in 
each year, and oftener if necessary ; at which sessions they shall hear and 

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determine such matters as affect the Public Works of the State, and as the 
General Assembly may confer upon them the power to decide. 


Sec. 2. They shall exercise a diligent and faithful supervision of all Public 
Works in which the State may be interested as Stockholder or Creditor, and 
shall represent and vote the stock of the State of Maryland in all meetings of 
the stockholders of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal ; and shall appoint the 
Directors in every Railroad and Canal Company in which the State has the 
legal power to appoint Directors, which said Directors shall represent the State 
in all meetings of the Stockholders of the respective Companies for which they 
are appointed or elected. And the President and Directors of the said Chesa- 
peake and Ohio Canal Company shall so regulate the tolls of said Company 
from lime to time as to produce the largest amount of revenue, and to avoid 
the injurious effect to said Company of rival competition by other Internal 
Improvement Companies. They shall require the Directors of all said Public 
Works to guard the public interest and prevent the establishment of tolls 
which sliall discriminate against the interest of the citizens or products of this 
Slate, and from time to time, and as often as there shall be any change in the 
rates of toll on any of the said Works, to furnish the said Board of Public 
Works a schedule of such modified rates of toll, and so adjust them as to pro- 
mote the agricultural interests of the State; they shall report to the General 
Assembly at each regular session, and recommend such legislation as ihey may 
deem necessary and reiiuisite to promote or protect the interests of the State 
in the s:iid Public Works ; they shall perform such other duties as may be 
hereafter prescribed by Law, and a majority of Ihem shall be competent to 
act. The (Governor, Comptroller and Treasurer shall receive no additional 
salary for services rendered by them as members of the Board of Public 
Works. The jjrovisions of the Act of the General Assembly of Maryland of 
the year 1867, Chapter 359, are hereby declared null and void. 

Sec. 3. The Board of I'ublic Works is hereby authorized to exchange the 
State's interest as Stockholder and Creditor in the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road Company for an equal amount of the bonds or registered debt now owing 
by the State, to the extent only of all the preferred slock of the State on which 
the State is entitled to only six per cent interest, provided such exchange shall 
not be made at than par, nor less than the market value of said slock ; 
and the said Board is authorized, subject to such regulations and conditions 
as the General Assembly may from time to time prescribe, to sell the State's 
interest in theolher Works of Internal Improvement, whether as a Stockholder 
or a Creditor, and also the Stale's interest in any banking corporation, recelv- 

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ing in payment the bonds and registered debt now owing by the Stale, equai 
in amount to tl>e price obtained for the Stale's said interest ; provided, that 
the interest of the State in the Washington Branch of the Baitimore and Ohio 
Railroad be reserved and excepted from sale ; and provided fnrtlier, tliat no 
sale or contract of sale of the State's interest in tlie Chesapeake and Ohio 
Canal, the Chesapteake and Delaware Canal, and the Susquehanna and Tide- 
water Canal Companies shall go into effect until the same shall be ratified by 
the ensuing General Assembly. 

[Sec. 3. The board of Public Works is hereby authorized, subject to such 
regulations and conditions as the General Assembly may from time to time 
prescribe, to sell the State's interest in all works of internal improvement, 
whether as a Stockholder or a Creditor, and also the Slate's interest in any 
banking corporation, receiving in payment the bonds and registered debt now 
owing by the State, equal in amount to the price obtained for the State's said 
interest.] ' 


Cauiily srali — Consint of velers ~^ Area and peptilalion 

Section i. The General Assembly may provide, by Law, for organizing 
new Counties, locating and removing county seats, and changing county lines ; 
but no new county shall be organized without the consent of the majority of the 
legalvoters residing within the limits proposed to be formed intosaidnewcounty; 
and whenever a new county shall be proposed to be formed out of portions of 
two or more counties, the consent of a majority of the legal voters of such 
part of each of said counties, respectively, shall be required ; nor shall the lines 
of any county be changed without the consent of a majority of the legal voters 
residing within the district, which, under said proposed change, would form 
a part of acountydilTerent from that to which it belonged prior to said change; 
and no new county shall contain less than four hundred square miles nor less 
than ten thousand white inhabitants ; nor shall any change be made in the 
limits of any county, whereby the population of said county would be reduced 
to less than ten thousand white inhabitants, or its territory reduced to less than 
four hundred square miles. 

1 Thus amended by Act 1890, ch. 36a, and ralified by the people Novemljer 3, 1891, 

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iVuomico (ounly 
. At the election lo be held for the adoption or rejection of this Con- 
, in each election district, in those parts of Worcestei' and Somerset 
Counties, comprised within the following limiL^ viz. : Beginning at the point 
where Mason and Dixon's line crosses the channel of Pocomoke River, thence 
following said line to the channel of the Nanticoke River, thence with the 
channel of said river lo Tangier Sound, or the inlerseciion of Nanticoke and 
Wicomico Rivers, thence up the channel of the Wicomico River to the mouth 
of Wicomico Creek, thence with the channel of said creek and Passerdyke 
Creek lo Dashield's or Disharoon's Mills, thence with Ihe mill-pond of said 
mills and branch following the middle prong of said branch, to Meadow Bridge, 
on the road dividing the Counties of Somerset and Worcester, near the south- 
west corner of farm of William P. Morris, thence due east lo the Pocomoke 
River, thence with the channel of said river to the beginning ; the Judges of 
Election, in each of said districts, shall receive the ballots of each elector, 
voting at said election, who has resided for six months preceding said election 
within said limits, for or against a new County ; and the Return Judges of 
said election districts shall certify the result of such voting, in the manner 
now prescribed by Law, to the Governor, who shall by proclamation make 
known the same, and if a majority of the legal votes cast within tliat part 
of Worcester County, contained within said lines, and also a majority of the 
legal votes cast within that part of Somerset County, contained within said 
lines, shall be in favor of a new County, then said parts of Worcester and 
Somerset Counties shall become and constitute a new County, to be called 
Wicomico County ; and Salisbury shall be the County seal. And the inhab- 
itants thereof shall thenceforth have and enjoy all such rights and privileges 
as are held and enjoyed by the inhabitants of other Counties of this State. 

Sec. 3, When said new County shall have been so created, the inhabit- 
ants thereof shall cease to have any claim lo, or interest in, the county build- 
ings and other public property of every description belonging lo said Counties 
of Somerset and Worcester respectively, and shall be liable for their propor- 
lionate shares of the then existing debts and obligations of the said Counties, 
according lo the last assessment in said Counties, to be ascertained and 
apportioned by the Circuit Court of Somerset County, as to the debts and 
obligations of said County, and by the Circuit Court of Worcester County as to 
the debts and obligations of Worcester County, on the petition of the County 
Commissioners of the said Counties, respectively; and the property in each 
pari of the said Counties included in said new County shall be bound only for 

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the share of the debts and obligations of the County from which it shall be 
sspaiated ; and the inhabitants of said new County sliall also pay the County 
taxes levied upon them at the lime of the creation of such new County, as if 
such new County had not been created ; and on the application of twelve 
citiiens of the proposed County of Wicomico, the Surveyor of Worcester 
County shall run and locate the line from Meadow Bridge to the Pocomoke 
River, previous to the adoption or rejection of this Constitution, and at the 
expense of said petitioners. 

Sec. 4. At the lirst general election held under this Constitution the qirali- 
fied voters of said new County shall be entitled lo elect a Senator and two 
Delegates to the General As.sernbly, and all such County or other officers as 
this Constitution may authorise, or require to be elected by other Counties 
of the State ; a notice of such election shall be given by the sheriffs of 
Worcester and Somerset Counties in the manner now prescribed by ; 
and in case said new County shall be established, as aforesaid, then the 
Counties of Somerset and Worcester shall be entitled to elect but two 
Delegates each lo the General Assembly. 

Sec. ;. The County of Wicomico, if formed according to the provisions 
of this Constitution, shall be embraced in the First Judicial Circuit, and the 
times for holding the Courts therein shall be fixed and determined by the 
General Assembly. 

Sec. 6. The General Assembly shall pass all such Laws as may be necessary 
more fully to carry into efTect the provisions of this Article. 



Proposal — Fubticalion — Volt-Reiarns — Proclamalion 

Section i. The General Assembly may propose Amendments to this Con- 
stitution ; provided that each Amendment shall be embraced in a separate 
Bill, embodying the Article or Section, as the same will stand when amended 
and passed by three-fifths of all the members elected to each of the two 
Houses, by yeas and nays, to be entered on the Journals with the proposed 
Amendment. The Bill or Bills proposing amendment or amendments shall 
be published by order of the Governor, in at least two newspapers in each 
County, where so many may be published, and where not more than one 
may be published, then in that newspaper, and in three newspapers published 
in the City of Baltimore, one of which shall be in the German language, once 
a week for at least three months preceding the next ensuing general election, 

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at which the proposed amendment or ameodments shall be submitted, in a 
form to be prescribed by the General Assembly, to the qualified voters of the 
State for adoption or rejection. The votes cast for and against said proposed 
amendment or amendments, severally, shall be returned to the Governor, in 
the manner prescribed in other cases, and if it shall appear to the Governor 
that a majority of the votes cast at said election on said amendment or 
amendmenU, severally, were cast In favor thereof, the Governor shall, by his 
proclamation, declare the said amendment or amendments having received 
said majority of votes, to Iiave been adopted by the people of Maryland as 
part of the Constitution thereof, and thenceforth said amendment or amend- 
ments shall be part of the said Constitution, When two or more amendments 
shall be submitted in manner aforesaid, to the voters of this Slate al the same 
election, (hey shall be so submitted as that each amendment shall be voted on 

Convenlion miry taiinty years 

Sec. 2. It shall be the duty of the General Assembly to provide by Law 
for taking, at the general election lo be held in the year eighteen liundred and 
eighty-seven, and every twenty years thereafter, the sense of tlie people in 
regard to calhng a convention for altering this Constitution ; and if a majority 
of voters at such election or elections shall vote for a convention, the General 
Assembly, at its next session, shall provide by Law for the assembling of such 
convention, and for the election of Delegates thereto. Each County and 
Legislative District of the City of Baltimore shall have in such convention 
a number of Delegates equal to its representation in both Houses at the time 
at which the convention is called. But any Constitution, or change, or 
amendment of the eMisling Constitution, which may be adopted by such con- 
vention, shall be submitted to the voters of this State, and shall have no effect 
unless the same shall have been adopted by a majority of the voters voting 


Riiurns of fiis — Salary limit 

Section i. Every person holding any office created by, or existing under 
(he Constitution, or Laws of the State (except Justices of the Peace. Consta- 
bles and Coroners), or holding any appointment under any Court of this 
State, whose pay or compensation is derived from fees or moneys coming into 
his hands for the discharge of his official duties, or in any way growing out 
of or connected with his office, shall keep a book in which shall be entered 

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evtry sum or sums of money received by him, or on his account, as a pay- 
ment or compensation for his performance of ulficial duties, a copy of which 
entries in said book, verified by tlie oath of the officer by whom it is directed 
to be kept, shall be returned yearly to the Comptroller of the State for his 
inspection, and ihat of the General Assembly of the State, to which the 
Comptroller shall, at each regular session thereof, make a report showing 
what officers have complied with this section ; and each of the said officers, 
when the amount received by him for the year shall exceed the sum which 
he is by Law entitled to retain as his salary or compensation for the discharge 
of his duties, and for the expenses of his office, shall yearly pay over to the 
Treasurer of the Stale, the amount of such excess, subject to such disposition 
thereof as the General Assembly may direct ; if any of such officers shall fail 
to comply with the requisitions of this section for the period of thirty days 
after the expiration of each and every year of his office, such officer shall be 
deemed to have vacated his office, and the Governor shall declare the same 
vacant, and the vacancy therein shall be filled as in case of vacancy for 
any other cause, and such officer shall be subject to suit by the State for the 
amount that ought to be paid into the Treasury ; and no person holding any 
office created by or existing under this Constitution or Laws of the State, or 
holding any appointment under any Court in this State, shall receive more 
than three thousand dollars a year as a compensation for the discharge of his 
■official duties, except in cases specially provided in this Constitution. 

Sec. z. The several Courts existing in this State at the time of the adop- 
tion of this Constitution shall, until superseded under its provisions, continue 
with like powers and jurisdiction, and in the exercise thereof, both at Law 
and in Equity, in all respects, as if this Constitution had not been adopted ; 
and when said Courts shall be so superseded, all causes then depending in 
said Courts shall pass into the jurisdiction of the several Courts, by which 
they may be respectively superseded- 

Sec. 3. The Governor and all officers, civil and military, now holding 
office under this State, whether by election or appointment, shall continue to 
hold, exercise and discharge the duties of their offices (unless inconsistent 
with or otherwise provided in this Constitution), until they shall be super- 
seded under its provisions, and until their successors shall be duly qualified. 

Sec. 4. If at any election directed by this Constitution, any two or more 
candidates shall have the highest and an equal number of votes, a new elec- 
tion shall be ordered by the Governor, except in cases specially provided for 
by this Constitution. 


Sec. 5. In the trial of all criminal cases, the jury shall be the Judges of 
Law, as well as of facL 

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Sec. 6. The right of trial by Jury of all issues of feet in civil proceedings 
in the several Courts of Law in this State, where the amount in controversy 
exceeds the sum of live dollars, shall be inviolably preserved. 

Sec. 7- All general elections in Ihis State shall be held on the Tuesday 
next after the first Monday in the month of Novemljer, in the year in which 
they shall occur ; and the first election of all officers, who, under this Consti- 
tution, are required to be elected by the people, shall, except in cases herein 
specially provided for. be held on the Tuesday next after the first Monday of 
November, in the year eighteen hundred and sixty-seven. 

Sec. 8. The Sherifis of the several Counties of this State, and of the City 
of Baltimore, shall give notice of the several elections aulhoriied by this 
Constitution, in the manner prescribed by existing Laws for elections to be 
held in this Slate, until said Laws shall be changed. 

Tirms of office 
Sec. 9- The term of office of all Judges and other ofiicers, for whose elec- 
tion provision is made by this Constitution, shall, except in cases otherwise 
expressly provided herein, commence from the time of their election ; and all 
such ofiicers shall qualify as soon after their election as practicable, and shall 
enter upon the duties of their respective oflices immediately upon their quali- 
fication ; and the term of office of the Slate Librarian and of Commissioner of 
the Land Oflice shall commence from the time of (heir appointment. 

Qualificalion of officers — Oath to be retordcd 

Sec. 10. Any officer elected or appointed in pursuance of the provbions of 
this Constitution, may qualifj', either according to the existing provisions of 
Law, in relation to officers under the present Constitution, or before the Gov- 
ernor of the State, or before any Clerk of any Court of Record in any part of 
the State ; but in case an officer shall qualify out of the County in which he 
resides, an official copy of his oath shall be filed and recorded in the Clerk's 
oflice of the Circuit Court of the County in which he may reside, or in the 
Clerk's office of the Superior Court of the City of Baltimore, if he shall 
reside therein. 


For the purpose of ascertaining the sense of the people of this State in 
regard to the adoption or rejection of this Constitution, the Governor shall 

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issue his Proclamation within five days after the adjournment of this conven- 
tion, directed to tlie SheritTs of the City of Baltimore and of the several 
Counties ot this Slate, commanding them to give notice'in the manner now 
prescribed by L^w in reference to the eleclion of members of the House of 
Delegates, that an election for the adoption or rejection of this Constitution 
will be held in the City of Baltimore, and in the several Counties of this State, 
on Wednesday, the eighteenth day of September, in the year eighteen hun- 
dred and sixty-seven, at the usual places of holding elections for members of 
the House of Delegates in said city and counties. At the said election the 
vote shall be by ballot, and upon each ballot there shall l>e written or printed 
the words, "For the Constitution," or "Against the Constitution," as the voter 
may elect ; and the provisions of the Laws of this State relating to the hold- 
ing of general elections for members of the House of Delegates, shall in all 
respects apply to and regulate the holding of the said election. It shall be the 
duty of the Judges of Election in said city and in the several counties of the 
Slate to receive, accurately count and duly return the number of ballots so 
cast for or against the adoption of this Constitution, as well as any blank 
ballots which may be cast, to the several Clerks of the Circuit Courts of this 
State, and to the Clerk of the Superior Court of Baltimore City, in the manner 
now prescribed by Law, in reference to the election of members of the House 
of Delegates, and duplicates thereof, directly to the Governor ; and the several 
clerks aforesaid shall return to the Governor, within ten days after said election, 
the number of ballots cast for or against the Coastitution, and the number of 
blank ballots ; and the Governor, ujxin receiving the returns from the Judges 
of Election, or the clerks as aforesaid, and ascertaining the a^regate vote 
throughout the State, shall, by his proclamation, make known the same ; and 
if a majority of the votes cast shall be for the adoption of this Constitution it 
shall go into effect on Saturday, the fifth day of October, eighteen hundred 
and sixty-seven. 

DoHi in Convention, thf seventfenlh day ef Augiut, in Ihi year of our Lord onl 
thousand tight hundred nnJ sixfy-isivn, and of Ike Independeme of Ikt United Slates 
Iht ninely-seeond. 


Preiidenl of the Convention. 



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CHARLES, by the (irace of COD, of A>/i,'/««(/. .SiOl/aml, France, and 
Inland, kino, Defender of the Faith, &c. To all to whom these Presents 
shall come, Greeting. 

H. Wher?:as oiir well beloved and right trusty Subject C<tClLIUS CAL- 
VERT, Baron of BALTIMORE, in our Kingdom of Ireland, Son and Heir 
of (;E0R(.:E CALVERT, Knight, late Karon of BALTIMORE , in our said 
Kingdom of Ireland, treading in the Steps of his Father, being animated with 
a laudable, and pious Zeal for extending the Christian Religion, and also the 
Territories of our Empire, hath humbly besought Leave of Us, that he may 
transport, by his own Industry, and Expence, a numerous Colony of the 
English Nation, to a certain Region, herein after described, in a Country hith- 
erto uneultivatcd, in the Parts of America, and partly occupied by Savages, 
having no Knowledge of the Divine IScing, and that all that Region, with 
some certain Privileges, and Jurisdictions, appertaining unto the wholesome 
Government, and State of his Colony and Region aforesaid, may by oiu" Royal 
Highness be given, granted, and confirmed unto him, and his Heirs. 

111. Know yb therefore, that WE, encouraging with our Royal Favour, the 
pious and noble Purpose of the aforesaid Barons of BALTIMORE, of our 
special Grace, certain Knowledge, and mere Motion, have Given, Granted, 
and Confirmed, and by this our present CHARTER, for US, our Heirs, and 
Successors, do GivK, Grant, and Confirm, unto the aforesaid C^CILIUS, 
now Baron of BALTIMORE, his Heirs, and Assigns, ail that Part of the 
Peninsula, or Chersonese, lying in the Parts of America, between the Ocean 
on the East, and the bay of Chesapeake on the West, divided from the Residue 
thereof by a Right Line drawn from the Promontory, or Head-Land, called 
Walkin's Point, situate upon the Bay aforesaid, near the river of Wighco, on 
the West, unto the Main Ocean on the East ; and between that Boundary on 
the South, unto that Part of the Bay of Delaware on the North, which lieth 
under the Fortieth Degree of North Latitude from the Equinoctial, where 
New-England is terminated : And all the Tract of that Land within the Metes 
underwritten [that is to say) passing from the said Bay, called Delaware Bay, 

nade by Thomas 

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in a right Line, by the degree aforesaid, unto the true Meridian of the first 
Fountain of the River of PaUonvmack, thence verging toward the South, unto 
the further Bank of the said River, and following the same on the West and 
South, unto a certain place called Cinquack, situate near ihe Mouth of the said 
River, where it disembogues into the aforesaid Bay of Chesapeake, and thence 
by the shortest line unto the aforesaid Promonlory, or Place called Watkin's 
Faint; so that the whole Tract of Land, divided by the Line aforesaid, be- 
tween the Main Ocean, and If 'aikMs Point., unto the Promontory called Cape- 
Charles, and every the Appendages thereof, may entirely remain excepted for 
ever to US, our Heirs, and Successors. 

IV. Also We do Grant, and likewise Confirm unto the said Baron of 
llALTIMORE, his Heirs, and Assigns, all Islands and Islets within the Limits 
aforesaid, all and singular_the Islands, and Islets, from the Eastern Shore of 
the aforesaid Region, toward the East, which have been, or shall be formed in 
the Sea, situate within Ten marine Leagues from the said Shore ; with all and 
singular the Ports, Harbors, Bays, Rivers, and Straits belonging to the Region 
or Islands aforesaid, and all the Soil, Plains, Woods, Mountains, Marshes, 
Lakes, Rivers, Bays, and Straits, situate, or being within the Metes, Bounds, 
and Limits aforesaid, with the Fishings of every kind of Fish, as well as of 
Whales, Sturgeons, and other royal Fish, as of other Fish, in the Sea, Bays, 
Straits, or Rivers, within the Premisses, and the Fish there taken ; And more- 
over all Veins, Mines, and Quarries, as well opened as hidden, already found, 
or that shall be found within the Region, Islands, or Limits aforesaid, of Gold, 
Silver, Gems, and precious Stones, and any other whatsoever, whether they be 
of Stones, or Metals, or of any other Thing, or Matter whatsoever; And fur- 
thermore the Patronages, and Advowsons of all churches which (with the 
increasing Worship and Religion of CHRIST) within the said Region, Islands, 
Islets, and Limits aforesaid, hereafter shall happen to be built, together with 
License and Faculty of erecting and founding Churches, Chapels, and Places 
of Worship, in convenient and suitable Places, within the Premisses, and of 
causing the same to be dedicated and consecrated according to the Ecclesiastical 
Laws of our Kingdom of P^ni;land, with all, and singular such, and as ample 
Rights, Jurisdictions, Privileges, Prerogatives, Royalties, Liberties, Immunities, 
and royal Rights, and temporal Franchises whatsoever, as well by Sea as by 
Land, within the Region, Islands, Islets, and Limits aforesaid, to be had, exer- 
cised, used, and enjoyed, as any Bishop of Durham, within the Bishoprick or 
County Palatine of Durham, in our Kingdom of Englanii, ever heretofore 
hath had, held, used, or enjoyed, or of Right could, or ought to have, hold, 
use, or enjoy. 

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V. And we do by these Presents, for US, our Heirs and Successors, 
MAKE, CREATE, and CONSTITUTE HiM, the now Baron of BALTIMORE, and 
his Heirs, the true and absolute Lords and Proprietaries of the Region 
aforesaid, and of all other the Premisses (except the before excepted) saving 
always the Faith and Allegiance and Sovereign Dominion due to US, our 
Heirs, and Successors ; to have, hold, possess, and enjov the aforesaid 
Region, Islands, Islets, and other the Premisses, unto the aforesaid now Baron 
of BALTIMORE, and to his Heirs and Assigns, to the sole and proper Be- 
hoof and Use of him, the now Baron of BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns, 
forever. To HOLD of US, our Heirs and Successors, Kings of England, as 
of our Castle of Windsor^ in our County of Berks, in free and common Soc- 
CAOE, by Fealty only for all Services, and not in Captte, nor by Knight's Serv- 
ice, YIELDING therefore unto US, our Heirs and Successors two Indian 
Arrows of those Parts, to be delivered at the said Castle of Windsor, every 
Year, on Tuesday in Easter-Week : And also the fifth Part of all Gold and 
Silver Ore, which shall happen from Time to Time, to be found within the 
aforesaid Limits. 

yi. Now, That the aforesaid Region, thus by us granted and described, may 
be eminently distinguished above all other Regions of that Territory, and dec- 
orated with more ample Titles, KNOW YE, that WE, of our more especial 
Grace, certain Knowledge, and mere Motion, have thought fit that the said 
Region and Islands be erected into a PROVINCE, as out of the Plenitude of 
our royal Power and Prerogative, WE do, for US, our Heirs and Successors, 
ERECT and INCORPORATE the same into a PROVINCE, and nominate the same 
MARYLAND, by which Name WE will that it shall from henceforth be called. 

VII. And forasmuch as WE have above made and ordained the aforesaid 
now Baron of BALTIMORE, the true LORD and Proprietary of the whole 
Province aforesaid, KNOW YE therefore further, that WE, for US, our 
Heirs and Successors, do grant unto the said now Baron, (in whose Fidelity, 
Prudence, Justice, and provident Circumspection of Mind, WE repose the 
greatest Confidence) and to his Heirs, for the good and happy Government of 
the said Province, free, full, and absolute Power, by the Tenor of these {"res- 
ents, to Ordain, Make, and Enact LAWS, of what kind soever, according to 
their sound Discretions, whether relating to the Public State of the said Prov- 
ince, or the private Utility of Individuals, of and with the Advice, Assent, and 
Approbation of the Free-Men of the same Province, or of the greater Part 
of them, or of their Delegates or Deputies, whom WE will shall be called to- 
gether for the framing of LAWS, when, and as often as Need shall require, by 
the aforesaid now Baron of BALTIMORE, and his Heirs, and in the Form 

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which shall seem best to him or them, and the same to publish under the Sea] 
of the aforesaid now Baron of BALTIMORE, and his Heirs, and duly to exe- 
cute the same upon all Persons, for the Time being, within the aforesaid 
Province, and the Limits thereof, or under his or their Government and 
Power, in Sailing towards MARYLANU,or thence Returning, Outward-bound, 
either to England, or elsewhere, whether to any other Part of Our, or of any 
foreign Dominions, wheresoever established, by the Imposition of Fines, Im- 
prisonment, and other Punishment whatsoever ; even if it be necessary, and 
the Quality of the Offence require it, by Privation of Member, or Life, by him 
the aforesaid now Baron of BALTIMORE, and his Heirs, or by his or their 
Deputy, Lieutenant, Judges, Justices, Magistrates, Officers, and Ministers, to 
be constituted and appointed according to the Tenor and true Intent of these 
Presents, and to constitute and ordain Judges, Justices, Magistrates, and Officers, 
of what Kind, for what Cause, and with what Power soever, within that Land, 
and the Sea of those Parts, and in such Form as to the said now Baron of 
BALTIMORE, or his Heirs, shall seem most fitting: And also to Remit, Re- 
lease, Pardon, and Abolish, all Crimes and OITences whatsoever against such 
Laws, whether before, or after Judgment passed; and to do all and singular 
other Things belonging to the Completion of Justice, and to Courts, Praetorian 
Judicatories, and Tribunals, judicial Forms and Modes of Proceeding, although 
express Mention thereof in these Presents be not made ; and. by Judges by 
them delegated, to award Process, hold Pleas, and determine in those Courts, 
Praetorian Judicatories, and Tribunals, in all Actions, Suits, Causes, and Mat- 
ters whatsoever, as well Criminal as Personal, Real and Mixed, and Prwtorian ; 
Which said Laws, so to be published as abovesaid, WE will, enjoin, charge, 
and command, to be most absolute and flrm in Law, and to be kept in those 
Parts by all the Subjects and Liege-Men of US, our Heirs and Successors, so 
far as they concern them, and to be inviolably observed under the Penalties 
therein expressed, or to be expressed. So nevertheless, that the Laws afore- 
said be Consonant to Reason, and be not repugnant or contrary, but (so far as 
conveniently may be) agreeable to the Laws, Statutes, Customs and Rights of 
this Our Kingdom of England. 

Vlll. And Forasmucfi as, in the Government of so great a Province, 
sudden Accidents may frequently happen, to which it will be necessary to apply 
a Remedy, before the Freeholders of the said Province, their Delegates, or 
Deputies, can be called together for the framing of Laws ; neither will it be fit 
that so great a number of People should immediately, on such emergent Occa- 
sion, be called together, WE THEREFORE, for the better Government of so great 
a Province, do Will and Ordain, and by these Presents, for US, our Heirs 

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and Successors, do grant unto the said now Baron of BALTIMORE, and to 
his Heirs, that the aforesaid now Baron of BALTIMORE, and his Heirs, by 
themselves, or by their Magistrates and Officers, thereunto duly to be consti- 
tuted as aforesaid, may, and can make and constitute fit and wholesome Ordi- 
nances from Time to Time, to be kept and observed within the Province 
aforesaid, as well for the Conservation of the Peace, as for the Better Govern- 
ment of the People inhabiting therein, and publickly to notify the same to all 
Persons whom the same in any wise do or may effect. Which Ordinances WE 
will to be inviolably observed within the said Province, under the Pains to be 
expressed in the same. So that the said Ordinances be Consonant to Keason, 
and be not repugnant nor contrary, but (so far as conveniently may be done) 
agreeable to the Laws, Statutes, or Rights of our Kingdom of England : And 
so that the same Ordinances do not, in any Sort, extend to oblige, bind, charge, 
or take away the Right or Interest of any Person or Persons, of, or in Mem- 
ber, Life, Freehold, Goods or Chattels. 

IX. Furthermore, that the New Colony may more happily increase by a 
Multitude of People resorting thither, and at the same Time may be more 
firmly secured from the Incursions of Savages, or of other Enemies, Pirates, 
and Ravagers : WE therefore, for US, our Heirs and Successors, do by these 
Presents give and grant Power, License and Liberty, to all the Liege-Men and 
Subjects, present and future, of US, our Heirs and Successors, except such to 
whom it shall be expressly forbidden, to transport themselves and their Fam- 
ilies to the said Province, with fitting Vessels, and suitable Provisions, and 
therein to settle, dwell, and inhabit; and to build and fortify Castles, Foris, 
and other Places of Strength, at the Appointment of the aforesaid, now Baron 
of BALTIMORE, and his Heirs, for the PubUc and their own Defence; the 
Statute of Fugitives, or any other whatsoever to the contrary of the Premisses 
in any wise notwithstanding, 

X. WEwillalso, and of our more abundant Grace, forUS, ourHeirsand Suc- 
cessors, do firmly charge, constitute, ordain, and command, that the said Prov- 
ince be of our Allegiance ; and that all and singular the Subjects and Liege- Men 
of US, our Heirs and Successors, transplanted, or hereafter to be transplanted 
into the Provincr aforesaid, and the children of them, and of others their 
Descendants, whether already born there, or hereafter to be born, be and shall 
be natives and Liege-Men of US, our Heirs and Successors, of our Kingdom 
of England and Ireland; and in all Things shall be held, treated, reputed, and 
esteemed as the faithful Liege-Men of US, and our Heirs and Successors, 
born within our Kingdom of England; also Lands, Tenements, Revenues, 
Services, and other Hereditaments whatsoever, within our Kingdom of England, 

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and other our Dominions, to inherit, or otherwise purchase, receive, lake, have, 
hold, buy, and possess, and the same to use and enjoy, and the same to give, 
sell, alien and bequeath ; and likewise all Privileges, Franchises and Liber- 
ties of this our Kingdom of England, freely, quietly, and peaceably to have 
and possess, and the same may use and enjoy in the same Manner as our Liege- 
Men horn, or to be bom within our said Kingdom of En^hitd, withoul Impedi- 
ment, Molestation, Vexation, Impeachment, or Grievance of US, or any of our 
Heirs or Successors ; any Statute, Act, Ordinance, or Provision to the contrary 
thereof, notwithstanding. 

XI. FURTHERMORK, That our Subjects may be incited to undertake this 
Expedition with a ready and chearful Mind: KNOW YE, that WE, of our 
especial Grace, certain Knowledge, and mere Motion, do, by the Tenor of these 
Presents, give and grant, as well as to the aforesaid Baron of IIALTIMOKE, 
and to his Heirs, as to all other Persons wh h II f m 1 me to Time repair 
to the said Province, either for the sake of 1 h b L g f Trading with the 
Inhabitants of the Province aforesaid, full Lice se "ih p and Lade in any 
the Ports of US, our Heirs and Suceesso all and lar their (ioods, as 
well moveable, as immoveable. Wares and 1 h d likewise Grain of - 
what Sort soever, and other Things whatsoe essary f Food and Cloath- 
ing. by the Laws and Statutes of our Kingdoms and Dommions, not prohibited 
to be transported out of the said Kingdoms ; and (he same to transport, by 
themselves, or their Servants or Assigns, into the said Province, without the 
Impediment or Molestation of US, our Heirs or Successors, or of any Officers 
of US, our Heirs or .Succ ( g unto US, our Heirs and Successors, 
the Impositions, Subsid C m d other Dues payable for the same 
Goods and Merehandiz ) y S \ct, Ordinance, or other Thing what- 
soever to the contrary n h ta d g 

XII. But becal'sk, h so m e a Region, placed among so many 
barbarous Nations, the I as II of the Barbarians themselves, as of 
other Enemies, Pirates a d K g p bably will be feared, Therefore WE 
have Given, and for US H d Successors, do Give by these Presents, 
as full and unrestrained I as j C ptain-General of an Army ever hath 
had, unto the aforesaid B f BALTIMORE, and to his Heirs and 
Assigns, by themselves, or by their Captains, or other Officers, to summon to 
their Standards, or to array all Men, of whatsoever Condition, or wheresoever 
bom, for the Time being, in the said Province of MARYLAND, towage War, 
and to pursue, even beyond the Limits of their Province, the Enemies and 
Ravagers aforesaid, infesting those Parts by Land and by Sea, and (if tiOU 
shall grant it) to vanquish and captivate them, and the Captives to put to 

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Death, or, according to their Discretion, to save, and to do all other and 
singular the Things which appertain, or have been accustomed to appertain 
unto the Authority and Office of a Captain-General of an Army. 

XIII. We also will, and by this our CHARTER, do Give unto the afore- 
said now Baron of BALTIMORE, and to his Heirs and As^gns, Power, 
Liberty, and Authority, that, in Case of Rebellion, sudden Tumult, or Sedition, 
if any (which GOD forbid) should happen to arise, whether upon Land within 
the Province aforesaid, or upon the High Sea in making a Voyage to the 
said Province of MARYLAND, or in returning thence, they may, by them- 
selves, or by their Captains, or other Officers, thereunto deputed under their 
Seals (to whom WE, for US, our Heirs and Successors, by these Presents, 
do Give and Grant the fullest Power and Authority) exercise Martial Law as 
freely, and in as ample Manner and Form, as any Captain-General of an Army, 
by virtue of his Office may, or hath accustomed to use the same, against the 
seditious Authors of Innovations in those Parts, withdrawing themselves from 
the Government of him or them, refusing to serve in War, flying over to the 
Enemy, exceeding their Leave of Absence, Deserters, or otherwise howsoever 
offending against the Rule, Law, or Discipline of War. 

XIV. Moreover, lest in so remote and far distant a Region, every Access 
to Honours and Dignities may seem to be precluded, and utterly barred, to 
Men well born, who are preparing to engage in the present Expedition, and 
desirous of deserving well, both In Peace and War, of US, and our Kingdoms ; 
for diis Cause, WE, for US, our Heirs and Successors, do give free and plenary 
Power to the aforesaid now Baron of BALTIMORE, and to his Heirs and 
Assigns, to confer Favours, Rewards, Honours, upon such Subjects, inhabiting 
within the Fr(ivin'ue aforesaid, as shall be well deserving, and to adorn them 
with whatsoever Titles and Dignities they shall appoint ; (so that they be not 
such as are now used in England) also to erect and incorporate Towns into 
Burou(;hs, and buroughs into Cities, with suitable Privileges and Immunities, 
according to the Merits of the Inhabitants, and Convenience of the places; 
and to do all and singular other Things in the Premisses, which to him or them 
shall seem fitting and convenient ; even although they shall be such as, in their 
own Nature, require a more special Commandment and Warrant than in these 
Presents may be expressed. 

XV. We will also, and by these Presents do, for US, our Heirs and Suc- 
cessors, give and grant License by this our CHARTER, unto the aforesaid 
now Baron of BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns, and to all Persons what- 
soever, who are, or shall he Residents and Inhabitants of the Province afore- 
said, freely to import and uidade, by themselves, their Servants, Factors or 

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Asagns, all Wares and Merchandizes whatsoever, which shall be collected out 
of the Fruits and Commodities of ihe said Province, whether the Product of 
the Land or the Sea, into any of the Ports whatsoever of US, our Heirs and 
Successors, of England or Ireland, or otherwise to dispose of the same there ; 
and, if Need be, within One Year, to be computed immediately from the Time 
of unlading thereof, to lade the same Merchandizes again, in the same, or other 
Ships, and to export the same to any other Countries they shall think proper, 
whether belonging to US, or any foreign I'ower which shall be in Amity with 
US, our Heirs or Successors; Pkovidrd always, that they be bound to pay 
for the same to US, our Heirs and Successors, such Customs and Impositions, 
Subffldies and Taxes, as our other Subjects of our Kingdom of Englaiiii, for 
the Time being, shall be bound to pay, beyond which WE wii,l that the 
Inhabitantsof the aforesaid PBoviNCBof thesaid Land, called MARYLAND, 
shall not be burdened. 

XVI. Akd FtiRTHEKMoHK, of our more ample special Grace, and of our 
certain Knowledge, and mere Motion, WE do, for US, our Heirs and Succes- 
sors, grant unto the aforesaid now Baron of BALTIMORE, his Heirs and 
Assigns, full and absolute Power and Authority to make, erect, and constitute, 
within the Provi.vck of MARYI-AND, and the Islands and Islets aforesaid, 
such, and so many Sea-Ports, Harbours, Creeks, and other Places of Unlading 
and Discharge of Goods and Merchandizes out of Ships, Boats, and other 
Vessels, and of Lading in (he same, and in so many, and such places, and with 
such Rights, Jurisdictions, Liberties, and Privileges, unto such Ports respecting, 
as to him or them shall seem most expedient : And, that all and every the 
Ships, Boats, and other Vessels whatsoever, coming to, or going from the 
Province aforesaid, for the Sake of Merchandizing, shall be laden and unladen 
at such Ports only as shall be so erected and constituted by the said now Baron 
of BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns, any Usage, Custom, or any other 
Thing whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. Savin*; always to US, our 
Heirs and Successors, and to all the Subjects of our Kingdoms of England and 
Ireland, of US, our Heirs and Successors, the Liberty of Fishing for Sea-Fish, 
as well in the Sea, Bays, Straits, and navigable Rivers, as in the Harbours, 
Bays, and Creeks of the Provinck aforesaid ; and the Privilege of Salting 
and Drying Fish on the Shores of the same Province ; and, for that Cause, 
to cut down and take Hedging-Wood and Twigs there growing, and to build 
Huts and Cabbins, necessary in this Behalf, in the same Manner as heretofore 
they reasonably might, or have used to do. Which Liberties and Privileges, 
the said Subject of US, our Heirs and Successors, shall enjoy, without notable 
Damage or Injury in any wise to be done to the aforesaid now Baron of 

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BALTIMORE, his Heirs or Assigns, or to the Residents and Inhabitants of 
the same Province in the Ports, Creeks, and Shores aforesaid, and especially 
in Che Woods and Trees there growing. And if any Person shall do damage or 
Injury of this kind, he shall incur the Peril and Pain of the heavy Displeasure 
of US, our Heirs and Successors, and of the due Chastisernent of the Laws, 
besides making Satisfaction. 

XVI I. Moreover, WE will, appoint, and ordain, and by these Presents, 
for US, our Heirs and Successors, do grant unto the aforesaid now Baron of 
UALTI MORE, his Heirs and Assigns, that die same Baron of BALTIMORE, 
his Heirs and Assigns, from Time to Time, for ever, shall have and enjoy the 
Taxes and Subsidies payable, or arising within the Ports, flarbours, and other 
Creeks and Places aforesaid, within the Province aforesaid, for Wares bought 
and sold, and Things there to be laden, or unladen, to be reasonably assessed 
by them, and (he People there as aforesaid, on emergent Occaaon ; to whom 
WE grant Power, and by these Presents, for US, our Heirs and Successors, 
to assess and impose the said Taxes and Sub^dies there, upon just Cause, and 
in due Proportion. 

XVIII. Asn FURTHER.MORE, of our special Grace, and certain Knowledge, 
and mere Motion, WE have given, granted, and confirmed, and by these 
Presents, for US, our Heirs and Successors, do give, grant, and confirm, unto 
the aforesaid now Baron of BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns, full and 
absolute License, Power, and Authority, that he, the aforesaid now Baron of 
BALTIMORE, his Heirs, and Assigns, from Time to Time hereafter, forever, 
may and can, at his or their Will and Pleasure, assign, alien, grant, demise, or 
enfeoff so many, such, and proportionate I'arts and Parcels of the Premisses, 
lo any Person or Persons willing to purchase the same, as they shall think con- 
venient, to have and lo hold to the same Person or Persons willing to take or 
purchase the same, and his and their Heirs and Assigns, in Fee-simple, or Fee- 
tail, or for Term of Life, Lives, or Years ; to hold of the aforesaid now Baron 
of BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns, by so many, such, and so great 
Services, Customs and Rents OF THIS KIND, a^ to the same now Baron of 
BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns, shall seem fit and agreeable, and not 
immediately of US, our Heirs or Successors. And WE do give, and by these 
Presents, for US, our Heirs and Successors, do grant to the same Person and 
Persons, and to each and every of them. License, Authority and Power, that 
such Person and Persons, may take the premisses, or any Parcel thereof, of the 
aforesaid no'. Baron of BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns, and hold the 
same to them and their Assigns, or their Heirs, of the aforesaid Baron of 
BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns, of what Estate of Inheritance soever. 

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in Fee-Simple or Fee-tail, or otherwise, as to them and the now Baron of 
BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns, shall seem expedient; the Statute 
made in the Parliament of Lord EDWARD, son of King HENRY, late King 
of England, our Progenitor, commonly called the " STATUTE QUIA EMP- 
TORES TERRARUM," heretofore published in our Kingdom of England, 
or any other Statute, Act, Ordinance, Usage, Law, or Custom, or any other 
Thing, Cause or Matter, to the contrary thereof, heretofore had, done, pub- 
lished, ordained or provided to the contrary thereof notwithstanding. 

XIX. We, also, by these Presents, do give and grant License to the same 
Baron of BALTIMORE, and to his Heirs, to erect any Parcels of Land within 
the Province aforesaid, into Manors, and in every of those Manors, to have 
and to hold a Court-Baron, and all Things which to a Court-Iiaron do belong; 
and to have and to keep View of Frank-Pledge, for the Conservation of the 
Peace and better Government of those Parts, by themselves and their Stewards, 
or by the Lords, for the Time being to be deputed, of other of those Manors- 
when they shall be constituted, and in the same to exercise all Things to the 
View of Frank-Pledge belonging, 

XX. And further WE will, and do, by these Presents, for US, our Heirs 
and Successors, covenant and grant to, and with the aforesaid now Baron of 
BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns, that WE, our Heirs, and Successors, 
at no Time hereafter, will impose, or make or cause to be imposed, any. Impo- 
sitions, Customs, or other Taxations, Quotas or Contributions whatsover, in or 
upon the Residents or Inhabitants of the Province aforesaid for their Goods, 
Lands, or Tenements within the same Province, or upon any Tenements, 
Lands, Goods or Chattels within the Province aforesaid, or in or upon any 
Goods or Merchandizes within the Pkovivce aforesaid, or within the Ports or 
Harbours of the said Province, to be laden or unladen : And WE Will and 
do, for US, our Heirs and Successors, enjoin and command that this our 
Declaration shall, from Time to Time, be received and allowed in al! our Courts 
and PrEtorian Judicatories, and before all the Judges whatsoever of US, our 
Heirs and Successors, for a sufficient and lawful Discharge, Payment, and 
Acquittance thereof, charging all and singular the Officers and Ministers of 
US, our Heirs and Successors, and enjoining them, under our heavy Dis- 
pleasure, that they do not at any Time presume to attempt any Thing to the 
contrary of the Premisses, or that may in any wise contravene the same, hut 
that they, at all Times, as is fitting, do aid and assist the aforesaid now Baron 
of BALTIMORE, and his Heirs, and the aforesaid Inhabitants and Merchants 
of the Province of MARYLAND aforesaid, and their Servants and Ministers, 
Factors and Assigns, in the fullest Use and Enjoyment of this our CHARTER. 

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XXI. And furthermore WE WILL, and by these Presents, tor US, 
our Heirs and Successors, do grant unto the aforesaid now Baron of BALTI- 
MORE, his Heirs and Assigns, and to the Freeholders and Inhabitants of the 
said Provincf,, both present and lo come, and to every of them, that the said 
Province, and the Freeholders or Inhabitants of the said Colony or Country, 
shall not henceforth he held or reputed a member or Part of the Land of Vir- 
ginia, or of any other Colony already transported, or hereafter to be transported, 
or be dependent on the same, or subordinate in any kind of Government, from 
which WE do separate both the said Province, and Inhabitants thereof, and 
by these Presents do WILL to be distinct, and that they may be immediately 
subject to our Crown of England, and dependent on the same for ever. 

XXIL Asj) if, pcradventure, may happen, that any Doubts or 
Questions should arise concerning the true Sense and Meaning of any Word, 
Clause, or Sentence, contained in this our present CHARTER, WE will, 
■charge and command, THAT Interpretation to he applied, always, and in all 
Things, and in all our Courts and Judicatories whatsoever, to obtain which 
shall be judged to be the more beneficial, profitable, and favourable to the 
aforesaid now ISaron of BALTIMORE, his Heirs and Assigns: Pkovided 
always, that no Interpretation thereof be made, whereby tlod's holy and true 
Christian Religion, or the Allegiance due to US, our Heirs and Successors, 
may in any wise suffer by Change, Prejudice, or Diminution ; althoi^h express 
Mention be not made in these Presents of the true yearly Value or Certainty 
of the Premisses, or any Part thereof, or of other Gifts and Grants made by 
US, our Heirs and Predecessors, unto the said now Lord BALTIMORE, or 
any Statute, Act, Ordinance, Provision, Proclamation or Restraint, heretofore 
had, made, published, ordained or provided, or any other Thing, Cause, or 
Matter whatsoever, to the contrary thereof in any wise notwithstanding. 

XXni. Ix WITNE.SS whereof WE have caused these our Letters to be made 
Patent WITNJCSH OURSELF at WesminisUr, the Twentieth Day nijune, 
in the Eighth Year of our Reign. 

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The following are ug d as rm excellent supplementary list of 

books obtainable at c P ■ There are definite references 

lo most of these work gh h bo k nd their use-in the schoolroom 

would add greatly to d Ihe study. The prices in all 

cases are publishers' s , do ese, d .counts can usually be obtained, 

either from the publishers or dealers. 

Maryland: The History of a Palatinate. Revised Ediiion. By 
William Hand Browne. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston. J1.25. pp.381. 
This is the most val uable single book for the <:rhf»nlrf.nm . 

Maryland as a Pkopkietary Province. R y J^ e^'tri " f M^ranao; The 
Macmillan Company. New York, 1901. $3.00 net. pp. 530. A very valuab le 
book ; contains the charier of the province and bibliography. 

The Lords Baltimore and the Maryland Palatinate. By Clayton 
Colman Hall, John Murphy Co. Baltimore, 1902. $1.25. pp. 216. Six 
lectures delivered at the Johns Hopkins University; interesting and valuable 
for the schoolroom. 

Geokge and Cecilius Calvert. By William Hand Browne, in series, 
"Makers of America."' Dodd, Mead & Co. New York. 81.00. pp. iSi. 
An interesting and critical account of the first two Barons Baltimore. 

McSherry's History of Mjryland. Edited and continued by B, B. 
James. The Baltimore Book Co. Baltimore. $3.50. pp.420. A very use- 
ful book for schools. 

History of the United States. By Henry William Elson. The Mac- 
millan Co. New York, I1.7S. 

A Short History op the United States. By J. B. Bassett. The 
Macmillan Company. New York, 1913. ^2.50, 

Riverside History of the United States. Edited by W. E. Dodd. 
Houghton Mifflin Company^ Boston, 1915. 4 Vols. S1.25 a vol. 

Old Virginia and HeJI Neighbors. By John Fiske. Houghton Mifflin 
Company. Boston, $4.00. 2 Vols. pp. 318 and 421, Valuable for its lucid 
and entertaining style, and for containing the history of the sister colonies, 
Virginia and Carolina. It is also very useful for the excellent account of the 
life of the people in colonial times. 

Men, Womkn and Manners in Colonial Times. By Sydney George 
Fisher, The J. B. Lippincott Co. Philadelphia. $t,8o net, 2 Vols, 

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pp. 391 and 393. 104 pages in Vol. II are given to an interesting account of 
Maryland. IJke Fiske's Old Virginia and Her Neighbors it contains mucli 
other material useful both in the history of Maryland and the history of the 
United Stales. 

The Beginners of a Nation. By Edward Eggleston. D, Appleton & 
Co. New York. $1.50. Pages 220-265 3™ devoted to Maryland; the author 
takes the less favorable view of the Calvert policy of toleration, but the account 
is a careful summary. 

The Colonial Cavalier, or Southern Life before the Revolution. 
By Maud Wilder Goodwin. Little. Brown & Co. Boston. $2.00. An ex- 
cellent account of the life of the jieople of Maryland and Virginia in colonial 
times. Probably no more suitable book for the schoolroom, on this subject, 
is obtainable ; it is valuable in classes studying Uoited States history as well 
as in those studying Maryland. 

0(iR City, Staie, a\u Nation. By Allan Will. Meyer and Thalheimer. 
Baltimore, 1913. 

Additional Works 

For teachers and others who desire to make a more thorough study of 
Maryland history the following works are suggested. It is hardly necessary 
to say that the list is not exhaustive. Books that are out of print can some- 
limes be purchased from second-hand dealers, and in most cases may be con- 
sulted at the large libraries. Perhaps few will care to study the entire list, 
but it is extended in order that information may be readily obtained on any 
particular phase of the subject desired. A few useful works of fiction are 

Chronicles of Colonial Marylano. By James Walter Thomas. The 
Baltimore Book Co. Baltimore. $;.oo. Contains an elaborate map of St. 
Mary's and vicinity In the early days. 

Historical View OF the Government of Maryland. By John V. L. 
McMahon. The Gushing Co. Baltimore. $2.50. 

The Furniture of Ouk Forefathers (Vol. I, Virginia and the 
South). By Esther Singleton. Doubleday, Page & Co. New York. $2.00. 
'Complete in eight parts, S16.00.) The work contains numerous handsome 
plates and an inventory of the possessions of Governor Leonard Calvert. 

History of Maryland (to 1658). By John Leeds Bozman. 2 Vols. 
Out of print An exhaustive work. 

Founders of Maryland, and Terra Mari*:. By E. D. Neill. Both 
out of print. 

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History OF Maryland (to 1880). By J . Thomas Scharf. Three large vol- 
umes. Out of print. This is the most extensive work on Maryland history. 
Unfortunately, it is not always critical. One extremely valuable feature of the 
work is frequent and lengthy quotations from letters, pamphlets, and other 
original documents. 

Chronicles of Baltimore. By J. Thomas Scharf. Out of print. 

Studies in the History of Early Maryland. By Theodore C. Gam- 
brail. Out of print. 

The Ancient City. (A history of Annapolis.) By Elihu S. Riley. 
Annapolis. $1.50. 

Maryland; Its Resources, Industries, and Institutions. Prepared 
by members of the Johns Hopkins University and others in 1893, for the 
Maryland Board of Managers of the World's Fair. 

The admirable series of Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and 
Political Science contains a number of valuable works on ^^aryland history. 
A complete list may be obtained by addressing the Johns Hopkins Press, Bal- 
timore. The following numbers will be found especially useful ; — 

Old Maryland Manors. By J. H. Johnson. First Series, vii. 30c. 

Maryland's Influence upon Land Ce,ssions to the United States. 
By Herbert B. Adams. Third Series, i. 75c. 

Early Relations of Maryland and Virginia. By J. H. Latand. 
Thirteenth Series, ill and iv. 50c. 

Causes of the Maryland Revolution of 1689. By Francis E. Sparks. 
Fourteenth Series, xi and xVi. 50c. 

Life and Administration of Sir Robert Eden. By Bernard C. 
Steiner. Sixteenth Series, vii-ix. Si 00. 

Early Development of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Project. 
By George W. Ward. Seventeenth Series, ix, x, and xi. 75c. 

Governor Hicks of Marvlanu and the Civil War. By G. L. Rad- 
cliffe. Nineteenth Series, xi-xii. joe. 

Beginnincb of Maryland. By Bernard C. Steiner. Twenty-firsl Series, 
viii-x. 75c. 

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PnblicatioDa of the Maryland Historical Society 

A list of these valuable works may be obtained by addressing the Librarian, 
Athenaeum Building, Baltimore, Maryland. The following are especially 
suggested : — 

Fund Publications — 37 Numbers 

2, The First Commander of Kent Island. Uy S. F. Slreeter. 44 
pp. 75c. 

7. Narrative of a Voyage to Maryland. By Father Andrew White. 
128 pp. $2.00. 

15. A Character OF THE Province OF Marvlanh. By George Alsop. 
(OrigJDally published in 1666.) (5.00. 


Religion. By Bradley T.Johnson. 210 pp. $2.00. 

21. Maryland in Liberia. By J. H. B. Lalrobe. 128 pp. ti.50. 

33. The Great Seal OF Maryland. By Clayton C. Hall. Four plates. 

36. Early Maryland Poetry. Ed. by B. C. Steiner. Two plates. 


Very interesting and valuable also are the selections from (he Calvert 
Papers found in numbers 28, 34, and 35. 

About forty volumes of the Archives of Maryland have been published. 
They embrace proceedings of the General Assembly (from 1637), of the ex- 
ecutive council (from 1636), and of the provincial court (from 1637); the 
correspondence of (lovernor Horatio Shar|>e ; and papers relating to the Rev- 
olutionary War. The price per volume is $2.50 in paper, (3.00 in doth, except 
Vol. XVIII (Muster Rolls of the Revolution), which is Js-oo. 

Maryland Historical Maoa/ink. Quarterly since 1906. Manydocu- 


Richard Cakvel. By Winston Churchill, The Macmillan Company. New 
York. 81.50. 

A Maryland Manor. By Frederick Emory. F. A. Stokes & Co. 
New York, fi.50. 

The Tower of Wye. By W. H. Babcock. Henry T. Coates & Co. 
Philadelphia, fi.50. 

Kent Fort Manor. By W. H. Babcock. Henry T, Coates & Co. 
Philadelphia. $1.00. 

by Google 


Sir Christopher. By Maud Wilder GoodwiD. Litlle, Brown & Co. 
Boston, fi.50. 
Mistress Brent. By Lucy M. Thruaton. Liltle, Brown & Co. Boston. 

Jack and His Island. By Lucy M. Thruston. Litde, Brown & Co- 
Boston. (1.20 net. 

Rob of the Bowl. By John P. Kennedy. Out of print. 

Kennedy Square: A Romance of Old Baltimore. By F. Hopkinson 
Smith. Charles Scribner's Sons. New York. $1.50, 

Periodical Literature 

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b, Google 


The numbers refer to pages. The topics 

printed in black type are especially intended 

for review references, making il possible to 1 

Agriculture, the sole occupation in early 

of i6]9, made representative, 31 

Maryland, a., 63-64 

made bicameral, ji, 49 

methods in colonial times, loo-ioi 

houses engage in controversy, 58, 72, 82 

at the present time, iS6-r87 

AgricuUure, State Board of, 196, joi 

second proprietary, 58 

Altona, 5J 

American Colonization Society, 167 

lion, 85 

General Assembly of slate established, 94 

Annapolis, settlement of, 4' 

sessions made biennial, i6j 

character in early days. 64. 102 

Attorney-general of Maiyland, 183 

center of gayety and fashion, 107-ioS 

Augusta Carolina, 17 

capital of the United Stales, iiq 

becomes St. Mary's coun^, si 

Washington surrenders his commission 

Australian ballot, 185 

in State House at, isg-ijo 

Avalon, ; 

gates, i(,z 

Uallimore city, founded, 72 

Anne Amndel county formed and named, 

Germans immigrate to, 74 

rapid growth of. 102 

capital of the United States, 119 

Aquarian products of Maryland, in the prov- 

leads in fitting out privateers in the Revo- 

:s of the proi 
d Dm-i, 14 


I command of Port 

Art galleries, zo6 

Articles of Confederation, first Con! 
of tlie United States. 135 

Maryland refuses to adopt, at first, 

adopted by Maryland. 137 

prove unsatisfactory. 138 

supplanted by the Constitution, i; 
Aasembly, legislative, the first, ig 

of 1638, not representative, proxic 

zeal and patriotism in the War of 1S13, 14IJ 
threatened by the British. 147 
attacked by the British. i49-'53 
called the " Monumental City," 157. io8 
Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company 

tomtd II, ,5! 
terminal of first electric telegraph line, 162 
representation in House of Delegates 

162, i8j 
Sixth Massachusetts regiment mobbed in, 

representation in the GenerJ Assembly 

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Baldmore city, cmtBmtd 

Cabot, 2 

commercial center of Maryland, 192 

Calvert, Benedict Leonard, governor, 71 

public-scliool system, 198-199 

" City of First Things," 21 j 

Calvert, Cecilius, becomes Lord Baltimore, 6 

defense celebrated, Z13 

receives charter for Maryland, 6 

public buildings of, 213-115 

character and plans, 12, 53 

great fire of 1904,215-217 

policy of religious toleration, ij, 39-40 

Greater Baltimore, 218 

Baltimore City College, 198 

Baltimore clipper ships, 146 

BtdCude during Civil War in England, 34 

Baltimari. the cruiser, jo6 

province restored to, after Puritan Revo- 

Ballinlore, Lord. S^t Calvert and Pr 

lution, 4S 


suppresses Fendall's rebellion, 52 

Baltimore & <Jhio Railroad Company formed, 

death, 53 


Calvert, Charles, governor of Maryland, 72 

ground broken, etc., 159 

Calvert, Charles, third Lord Baltbnare, ap- 

completed to the Ohio river, i6p 

pointed governor, 51 

■ part^ destroyed during Civil War. 1 

becomes second proprietary, 53 

development of, 191 

surrounded by difficulties, 56-59 

Bank of Maryland fails, j6o 

voted gift of 100,000 pounds of tobacco by 

Bajney. Joshua, appointed to comma 

nd of 

the Assembly, 5S 

Xbe Hyd,:r Ally, 111) 

becomes a mere landlord, 60 

defeats the General Mont, 129 

death, 63 

inWarof 1812,148 

Calvert, Charles, fifth Lord Baltimore, 6j 

Beal^, William, killed at the battle of Hob- 

death, 78 

kirk's Hill, 127 

Calven, Frederick, becomes sixth Lord Bal- 

Bennett, Richard, 4] 

character, 79 

Bill of Rights, 94 

death, 86 

Bladensburg, battle of, 148 

Calvert, George, 3 

Blakistone's Island, 14 

made Baron of Baltimore, 4 

Boundaries, charter, S 

altered by William Penn, 55 

visits Virginia, 5 

altered by surrender of territory to 


death, 6 


dispute over, leads to border warfa 

Calveri, Leonard, first governor of Mary- 

Mason and Dixon's Line, ;S 

land, .3 

eastern, 78 

captures Kent Island, 30 

southern and western, 7S 

goes to England, 35 

Braddock, (ieneral, 80 

returns to Maryland, 36 

Brandywine, battle of the, i!0 

flees to Virginia, 36 

Brent, Giles, temporaiy governor, 35 

recaptures St. Mary's, 36 

Browning, Louisa, 86 

death. 37 

Budget system, 184-185 

character, 37 

Bunker Hill, 90 

monument to, 37, 209 

Burgoyne, General, 120 

Calvert, Philip, secretary of province, 51 

Camden, battle of, 123 

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Canal, Chesapeake and Ohio, 157 
Chesapeake and Delaware, 194 ' 

Capital. Stc Annapolis aniJ St. Maiy'e 

Caimichsel, Judge, 175 

Carnegie, Andrew, 204 

Carroll, Charles, of CarroHlon, S? 
at burning of the P/gxy Slewart, 89 
signs Declaration of Independence, 93 
breaks ground for Baliimoie and Ohio 
railroad, 159 

Carroll, Daniel, ij7 

Caswell, General, 124 

Catholics. Sti Religion 

Caulk's Field, battle of, 148 

Charles I, becomes king of England, 4 
tyranny of, 33 

J, 33 

t. 33 

Charleston, captured by the Bril 
Charter of Maryland, 6, 8 
Chase, Samuel, 53 
Child welfare laws, 194-195 
City Hall, Baltimore, 213-214 
Civil War in England, 32-33 
Civil War in the United States, 
fude toward, 1&6 

of Maryland in 


. '?3-'75 

it bloodshed of, 172 
conditions in Maryland during 
Maryland troops in, i7;-i7ti 
invaiiooi of Maiyland during, 177-17S 
Claiborne, William, character and plans, 27 
influence on Maryland, 17-28 
defies the authority of Maryland, 29 

in alliance with Richard Ingle, 35-36 
on commission to take charge of V 

ginia, 43 
ovemims Marybnd government, 43-44 
Clinton, General, 123 

Cloberiy and Company, 30 

Cockbum. Admiral, commits depredalio 

in the Chesapeake, 147 

Cockrane, Admiral, 147 

Collectors of duties, king's, ;S-39 

College of electors, 9; 

Colleges and universities of Maryland, 199- 


;, 192-193 

n of Observation, 89 
er of the treasury, 1S3 
sof Plantation, 21 

Confederate S( 

Congress of the colonies, 90 

ConstitutioD of BLuyland, the chailsr, < 

in 165S, 49 

first suie (1776), 92-95 

amendments to, 161-163, 184-185 

of If 

, i6j 

fifteenth amendment to, 1S4 
Convention, the, in the Revolution, 89 

declares independence of Maryland, 91 
Convention, commercial, at Annapc 
('786>, 1 39 

constitutional {1787), 139 

in Maryland adopts Federal Constituti 
Convicts transported to colonies, 66 
Coode, John, 59 
Cooper, Peler, 159 
Copley, Sir Lionel, 60 

Copper mines in Maryland, 102 
Com, grown in early Marylani 

in Revoluti 


Comwallis, Lord, at Long Isia 

impaign against Gi 
nwallis, Thomas, ii 
^leases Ingle, 35 

battle of the Poco- 

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Corrupt Practices A 
under the state, 91 

Council of Safety, S9 
Court House, Baltimon 
Cowpens, battle at, 125- 
Maryland troops at, 1 
Crabs, 189 

Ctesap. Michael, 130 
Creiap, Thomas, 77 
" Critical Period " of A. 

Cumbeiland, Fort, Si 

Cumberland city, on site of Fon Cumber- 
land, Si 
terminal of Chesapeake and Ohio canal, 157 

Davis, Jefferson, 170 
Declaration of Independence, o(th 
colonies. 90, 92 
signers for Maryland, 92 
Declaration of Independence, the Matyland, 

Declaration of Rights, 181-183 

Delegates in legislature, in the province, j2 

in (he state. 9;, 183 
Dewey, Admiral, wins battle of Manila bay, 106 

president of Schley Court of Inquiry, 207 
Direct primaries, 186 
Dishes, table, in colonial tinies. 103 

Ditv/. See ^ri and n-'vc 

Dulany, Daniel, 86 
Dunmore. Lord, iij 

Dutch occupying Maryland teTritoiy, j 
Dyer, Captain, ao6 

Early, General, invades Maryland, 178 
Eden, Robert, governor of Maryland, 8 

legislates by proclamation, 86 

leaves Maryland, 90 

EdUCttlim, in colonial Maryland, loS 
public lands granted for, 137 (footnote) 
interest in, following the Revolution. 143 
in South aided by George Peabody, 179 
in the state, 196-203 
Educational Survey Commission, 197, 103 
Election law in Maryland, 185-186 
Electric railroad, the first, 212 
Electric railroads of Maryland, 193 
Ellicott City, first teiminus of Ihe Baltimore 


English colonies 

Enoch Pratt Free Library, 303-S04 

Episcopal church, established in Maryland. 

Maryland troops at, 128 
Evelin, George, agent of Cloberry and Ci 
pany, 30 
made commander of Kent Island un 
Maryland, jo 

Fedtral SepuiScaa, the, 146 
Fendall, Josias, appointed governor, 51 
rebels against the proprietary, 5 1 

First colonists to Maiyland, 13 

Fish, 1S9 

Fleet. Heoiy. guides first colonists, 17 

conducts trading expeditions, 2S 
Food, abundance in colonial times, 19, 

Forbes, James. 137 
Ford, John D., 206 
Fort Frederick, Si 
Fort McHenry, location, 149-150 
repulses the British fleet, i5t-i;3 
rt Mifllin, 

Fort Washington, 118, 119 

France, lights with England for control < 
North America, 79-81 

aids American colonies in Revolution. 13 
Frederick city, founded. 76 

captured during Civil War, 178 

manufacturing industries. 191 




.y Google 

inAssemblyof i66o, 51 

GambHtig, 107 
Game in the province, 19, 65 
Gates, General, 123 
Gineral Monk, the, 119 
General Assembly. Stt Assembly 
George III, king of England, S3, 90 
Germans immigrate to Maryland in eight- 
eenth century, 74. 76 

Maryland troops at, 121 

Gettysburg, battle of, irS 

Gibson, William, 159 

Gilman, Daniel C, president of Johns Hop- 
kins University, 100 

Gist, Monlecai, at bailie of Long Island, 113 
suppresses Tory insurrection, lai 

Goodnow, Frank, iS; 

Government of Maryland, liisi, (j-9 
early changes in, 11 
reorganized, 37 
changed lo royal province, 60 
restored to Calve ns, 63 
changes wrought by royal govemmenl, 71 
under Convention and Council of Safety, 

reforms to i8;i, 161-163 
under Constitution of 1S64, 182 
under Constitution of 1867, iSs-iK^ 
Gorenioc of UarrlODd, appointed by pro- 
may approve laws temporarily, 3 r 

JEX 367 

Great Seal of Maiyland, stolen, 36 

description of, 38-39 
Greene, Nathanael, receives command in the 
South, 114 

campaigns in Che South, 124-125 

order to Williams al Euuw Springs, 128 

praises Maiyland troops, 118 
Growth of popular control, 184, 185. 1S6 

Maryland troops al, 127 

monument on batlle-field to Maryland 
Line, 210 
Gunby, )ohn,aI the battle of Guilford Court- 
house, 117 

at the battle of Hobkirk's Hill, 127 

Habeas Corfu!, writ of, explained, 173-174 
suspended during Civil War, 174 
opinion on, by Chief Justice Taney, 174 

Hager, Jonathan, 76 
Ilageistown, founded, 76 

captured during Civil War, 178 

manufactures of, igi 

as a commercial center, [94 
Haman, B. Howard, 189 
Hanson, John, 137 (footnote) 
Harford, Henry, 86 
Hart, John, governor, 72 
Havre de Grace, burned by British, 147 
Heating of houses in colonial limes, 104 
Henrietta Maria, Marybnd named in honor 

:r Assembly, y. 

a the people, 1 

^rs, 49 
made head of st 
election of, gi> 

powers and duties under Constiluti 
1867, 183 
Governors of Maryland, complete li 

Grant, General, 172, 178 

lerbert, Jan 

n battle of Gettysbi 

Homes, in early Maryland, n 
in later colonial times, 103- 
Hood, stamp distributor, 84 
Hopkins, Johns, 199-200 

b, Google 

368 INDEX 

Howard, John Eager, coatotu/d 

Johnson, Thomas, first state governor of 

assigned to troops lo covet Greene's 

Maryland, 95 

retreat, 127 

at (he batile of Guilford Counhouse, 127 

chief, 113 

equestrian statue of, 127, 211 

Joppa. 72 

at the battle of Euuw Springs, \ii 

J udiciary of Maryland, in the province, 49, 5 1 

tribute to, by Greene, 128 

in the slate (1776), 95 

governor of Maryland, 142 

under Constitution of 1867, 1S2-184 

Howard, John Eager (grandson of fore- 

July 3d, the battle of, 207 

going), in Mexican War, 164 

Howe, General, 115, 120 

Kalb, Baron de. 123-124 

Hundred, division of county, ii 

Kenly, John R., in command of Maryland 

St George's, 2j 

troops in Noithem army, 17; 

A^Ary^///, the, 129 

in battle at Front Royal. 176 

Kent Island, Claiborne establishes a trading 

Indented servants, 66 

post on, 2B 

Indians, of Maryland, 16 

captured by Leonard Calvert. 30 

Leoiurd Calvert's dealings with, 16-17 

awarded to Maryland by Board of Corn- 

land purchased from, 17 

Key, Francis Scott, composes " Star-Span- 

outrages. J3 

gled Banner," 153 

methods of warfare, 80 

King William's School, 62 

merged in St. John's College. 144 

21-24, 63-66, 9^,02 

in the state, 186-191 

Lafayette, Marquis de. 125, 130 

Set also Agriculture, Aquarian products, 

Landing of first colonists in Maryland, 14, 17 

Mining, etc. 

Laws, how made in colony, 31 

Ingle, Richard, invades Maryland, 35-36 

revised code passed by Assembly of 1 7 1 5, 71 

Iron mines of Maryland, jo2 

of England against American commeice 

and manufactures, S3 

James. Duke of York, 5ei2e5 Maryland terri- 

Lawyers of colonial Maryland, i02 

tory, 55 

makes a grant to William Penn, 55 

Lee. Charles, 118 

becomes king of England, ;j 

at the battle of Monmouth, 121 

helps Penn to seiie Maryland territory, 

Lee, Robert E., 172 


invades Maryland. 177 

throne, 56 

in battle of Antietam. 17; 

James I, king of England, 3 

defeated at Gettysburg, 1 78 

opinion about the rights of kings, 32 

Lee, Thomas Sim, 142 

Jews, enfranchised, 163 

Lewger. John, 21 

Johns Hopkins Hospital, 201 

Lewis, tried and fined, 40 

Johns Hopkins University, 199-201 

Lexington, battle of, 90 

Liberia. 167-168 

Johnson, Bradley T„ in command of the 

Libraries, public, 203-205 

Maryland Line in the Southern army. 

Lighting of houses in colonial times, 104 


Lincoln, Abraham, elected president, 169 

in battle at Front Royal. 176 

Uncoln, General, 123 

b, Google 

Literature in colonial Mai^'land, 109 

London Company, j 

Long Island, battle of, 115-11& 

McCail's Ferry, power pbntat, 191 

McClellan, General, 177 

Maine, destruction of the, 106 

Manila bay, battle of, ao6 

HaluieTi and cuBtoms, in the early days of 
the colony, 21-24 
in the eighteenth century, 63-6S 
Maryland life in colonial times, 99-1 1 1 
in United States after Bevolutian, 13S 

Manufacturing industries, 189-191 

Maryland, named far Queen Henrietta 

character of the country at the time of the 

prosperous beginning, 19 

becomes a royal province, 60 

restored to the Calverts, 6j 

becomes an independent slate, 92 

compared with Virginia, 99 

in the Revolution, 130, 132 

part in establishing the Federal Union, 

cedes land for Federal capital, 144 
in War of 1812, 145-15J 
attitude at opening of Civil War, 170-171 
conditions in, during Civil War, 173-175 
aids South after Civil War, 179 

)EX 369 

Maryland soldiers, ionlimied 
at Camden, 134 
in the Southern campaigns of the Revolu- 

services in the Revolution, 130, 132 
in the Mexican War, 164 
in the Civil War, 175-17S 

Maryland State U niversity, aoi 

Maryland Steel Company, 190 

Mason and Dixon's Line, 7S 

Medical and Chiturgical Faculty of the 

State of Maryland, ao; 
Merryman, John, 173 
Mexican War, 163-164 

Maryland soldiers in, 163 


d transportation in, 192^194 
■ istrial bws, 194-196 

Maryland Academy of Sciences, id; 
Maryland Colonixallon Socie^, 167 
Maryland flag, 4 5 
Maryland Gasetlt.ttie, 109 
prints controversy between Carro 

Marylajtd HUtoriial Magaam, 
Maryland Historical Socie^, zo; 

art gallery of, 206 
Maryland Inslilute, 203 
Maryland soldiers, at Long Islar 

in Northern ' ' 

Maryland soldiers in, 164 

nel A 

to Edgar Albn Poe, 209 
to General Herbert, aio 
al Guilford Courthouse, 210 
to General Smallwood, 210-211 
to Francis Scott Key, 111,251 
to Marytanders who aided the cause . 
of freedom during the Revolution, 

to Union soldiers and sailors, in 
to Confederate soldiers and sailors, 211 
to John M. Hood, 111-212 
See alsQ Battle Monument 
Morgan, General, at the battle of Cowpens, 


, Samuel F. B., 

Neale, Councilo 

b, Google 

370 INI 

Nicholson, Commodore, 119 

Nicholson, Francis, becomes governor, 62 

founds King William's School, 6i 

efforts for education, 63, no 
Ninety-Six, siege of, assault by troops of 

Maryland and Virginia al, 128 
Non-importation society, 85, 87 
Normal schools, 199 

North, the, life and customs of, differ from 
those of the South, 99 

slavery abolished in, 167 

controversy with the South over slavery, 

defeats the armies of the South, 172 
North America, struggle for, between Eng- 
lish and French, 79-82 
North Point, battle of, 150-15S 
Northwest Territory, 136 

conflicting claims of states, 136 

map of land claims in 178J, 136 

interest in, preserves the Union, i]6 

map of, in 1787, "40 

stand taken by Maryland makes a national 

lands from, set aside for education, 137 


gains territory from Maryland, ;; 
Pennsylvania railroad, 192-193 
People of Maryland, character of, 67-68, r 1 
Peter Cooper's locomotive, 159 
Philadelphia, " fines! cily in MaryJand," 7; 

captured by the Bridsh, 120 

'S o( cc 

balde 1 


Poe. Edgar Allan, 2 
Politifcal parties, 1S5 
Politics and elections in Maryland, TS5-136 
Poll taj in Maryland, 6t 
Polytechnic Institute, Baltimore, 198-199 
Popular rights Bud prlvilegea, charter 
grants lo Maiylanders the rights of 
Englishmen, 8 
exemption of the colony from royal tajia- 

Occupations in colonial times, 99-101 

Ogle, Samuel, 72 

Ohio Company. 80 

" Old Congress Hall," 119 

Old Treasury Building. 6: (footnote) 

Oysters, 65, 188-189 

Paca, William, 92 

War. 81 

e rights and privileges 

lution, Sj, 87, 8 

B, 91, 94 

Palmer's Island occupied by traders, 28 
Pe^ody, George, supports Maryland credit, 

the South, 179 
endows the Peabody Institute, 203 
contributes 10 the Maryland Historical 

Socie^, 205 

staled in Maryland Declaration 

Population of Maryland at the tin 

Revolution. 99 
Pory, John, conducts trading exped 
Postoffice, Baltimore, 214 
Potomac Company, formed. 143 
merged in the Chesapeake & 01 

b, Google 

alMliahei), i6j 
Proprietary, rights and powers of, S. 4< 
becomes a mere landlord, 60 
restored to Maryland government, 6_ 

)EX 3; I 

Rellgfoni tolentioii in Haryland, centinaid 

Protestants protected, 40 

Puritans granted freedom of worship, 42 
Repudiadon Day, 85 (footnote) 
Resources of western Maryland, 142 
Revolutionary War, causes of, )ij-85 

Maryland in the, 113-131 

Protestants. Sti Religion 

close of, 129-130 

Providence, settiemeni o(, 41 

Ridgely, Randolph, 164 

Provincial Court, 51 

Ringgold, Samuel, .64 
Roads, state, 194 
Rolling roads. 64-65 

Company, 141-143 

Chesapeake and Ohio canal, 157 

Roosevelt, President, 207 

aided hy the stale, 161 


first telegraph line, .62 

in Baltimore, 212, !i8 

killed, 150. 152 

Public Schools. Set Education 

Rousby, Christopher, killed. 58 

Rumeey, James, 140 (footnote) 

Pulaski, Count, ijo 

PuriUna; settle in Maryland, 40 

St. Clement's Island, 14 

granted freedom of worship, 42 

St. John's College, founded, 14J 

rebel against Lord Baltimore, 42-4; 

receives slate aid. 201 

surrender province to proprietary, 4; 

St. Mary's, first capital of Maryland. 17 

control Assembly of l56o, 51 

location and settlement. 17 

ceases to be capital, 62 

Quakere, ;i, 58 

character of town, 64 

Sampson, Rear Admiral. 207 

Ramsey, Nathaniel, [II-122 

Schley, Thomas. 74 

RavHion, Lord, at Camden, 124 

Schley, Winfield Scotl, second in command 

in Cuban waters, 207 

Reed, Philip, in command at Caulk's Field. 

in battle of July 3d, 207 


Court of Inquiry, 207 

received popular sympathy, 207-208 

Schools. 5« Education 

Religion, meaning of religious intolerance, 

Scotch-Irish immigrants, 76 

Scon, Irving M., 208 

Secession, threats of. from New England 

of first Maryland colonists, 13 

Protestants and Catholics in Maryland, 


meaning of, 169 

Toleration Act, 39-40 

threats of, after the Revolution. 169 

Puritan intolerance, 42-4; 

differences of opinion about, 169 

difficulty with Quakers, 5 [ 

Southern states secede, 170 

feeling against Catholics, 57 

Secretary of the province, 49 

Episcopal church established by law. 61 

Secretary of state, 1S3 

severe laws against Caiholics, 61 

Senate, 5«s Senators 

ReUgioua toleiation in Maryland, 13 

Senators, chosen by electoral college, 95 

Toleradon Act, 39-40 

elected by the people, 162 

b, Google 

Senators, innlimud 
under Constitution of iS6;, i8j 

Seiviuits. See Slaves and Indented setvanu 

Severn, battle of the, 44-45 

Shad, 1S9 

Shaipe, Horatio, governor of Maryland, Si 
efforts in the French and Indian War, 81 
contends with Assembly, 81, S5 
succeeded by Robert Eden, S6 

Shoemakei, Samuel M;, 194 (footnote). 202 

Sixth Massachusetts regiment mobbed in 
Baltunore, 171 

Slaves, negroes as, 66, 104-105 

retained in South, freed in North, 166- 

Smith, Samuel, defi 

of F 

Sons of Liberty, 8; 
South, the life and c 
those of the Nort 

slaveiy in the, 167 

aided by Maiyland after Civil War, 

le of, 1 


proportion of, to free negroes ii 

efforts in South for gradual emancipation, 

plan of colonizing, 167 
controversy over, between North and Stirling, 

South, i&S hi;- 

Smallwood, William, absent from baillt 

Long Island, 115 
suppresses Tory insurrection, 12a 
governor of Maryland, 142 

South Mounti 

Southern Reliel 

Spaniards in the New World, 2 

Spanish-American War, the, io6-ao8 

Stamp Act, the, 84 

"Star-Spangled Banner," 15J 

State Library, 204 

Slate of society. Sit Manners and Custom! 

anrf Society 
Steamboat, the, of James Rumsey, 14c 


Stevens, General. 124 
Stewart, Anthony, 87-89 

a fight 

It italtim 

suppresses riots in Baltimore, 161 

Smith, Thomas, an^sted in the i 

river for trading without a ticen 

commands vessel of Claiborne ir 

with Mary landers, 30 
(tirs up trouble in Kent Island, 30 
condemned <o death, ji 
Society in colonial Maryland, 11-14, 63-68, 

Sons of the American Revolution, Maryland 
Society of, mark site of " Old Congress 
Hall." 119 
erect monument to Maryland's Four Hun- 
dred in Prospect Park, Brooklyn. Jio 

Stone, Thomas, 92 

Stone, William, appointed governor. 37 
invites Puritans to Maryland, 40 
in the Puritan Revolution, 43-45 

Strieker. General, in command of Baltimo 

Suffrage in Maryland, property qualificatii 

Talbot,George, kills Christopher Rousby, 58 

rescued from prison, 59 

pardoned by king, 59 
Taney, Chief Justice, 175 
Tarleton, Colonel, at Camden, 124 

at the battle of Cowpens. 126 
Taiation, English principle of. 83 

Maryland exempted from, by Engli^ gov- 
ernment, 8, S3, 84 
Tea taxed, 85, 87 

by Google 

War of iF 

iTade in, 23, 64 
tolling roads, 64-65 

Toleration Act, the, 39-40 
Puritan, 44 

d VVorci 

Chesapeake and Ohio 

,red, Mi 

;9 of, 145 

>[ Maryland in, i4;-t46 

military operations of, 146 

naval operations of, 146 

in Maryland, 147-153 

ended by treaty of peace (1814), iJJ 
Warlield, Charles Alexander, 89 
Warren, Ratcllffe, 29 
Washington, George,sent to Fort Duquesi 

commander-in-chief of 

Towns, slow growth in the early days, 64, 

growth in later colonial times, 102 
Towson, Nathan, 146 

town of Towson named for, 146 (footnote) 
Trade, with England in early limes, 23 

with Indians for furs, 23 

export, in Revolutionary times, 100 

at plantation landings, 101 

;o Western Maryland, 

ts through New Jersey, 11 

render of Corowallb at York- 

3 Mrs. Lee of 

t for 

of Maryland at present, 192-193 


selects site for Washington city, 144 

Travel in early Maryland, 68 

Washington, William, at the battle of Cc 

Treasurer of Marybnd, 183 

pens, 126 

Washington city, founded, 144 

Valley Forge, 121 

made capital of the United Stales, 144 

Virginia, founded, 3 

captured by the British, 149 

made a toyal colony, i 

terminal of first telegraph line, 161 

colony jealous of Maryland, 27 

Washington College, founded, 143 

declares againstthe Calvert claim to Mary- 

land, 28-29 

Watson, William H., 164 

takes side of king in civil war, 4a 

Webster, Colonel, 124 

loses in disputes with MatyUnd, 45 

Western Maryland railvray, 193 

cedes land for Washington city, 144 

Wheat, grown in early Maryland, 23, 65 

Voting machines, 186 

Voyage of first colonisu to Maryland, 14 

grown in the state at present time, 187 

White, Father Andrew, writes narrative 

WalUce, Lew, dcfeaied on the Monocacy, 

Walters, Henry, 2q6 

the voyage to Maryland, 13 

William and Maiy, king' and queen of Ei 

Walters' Art Gallery, 106 

land, j6 

b, Google 

374 INDEX 

William and Maiy, cmUinuid Women of Mainland, Ci 

make Maryland a royal province, 60 characteristics of, in 1 

Williams, Ocho Holland, covets Greene's during the Revolutio 

tetteat through the Carolinas, 12 
at Eulaw Springs. 12S 

Winder, William H„ t48 

Women of Maryland, duties on plan 

dress in colonial timei, io5-to6 

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