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Learning Through Listening: 

Applying Listening Skills to the Curriculum 

Proceedings of a Special Study Institute Sponsored 
by the Division of Special Education 

California State Department of Education 

CALIFORNIA STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION • Wilson Riles - Superintendent of Public Instruction • Sacramento, 1973 

This publication, which was funded under provisions of Public Law 
91-230, was edited and prepared for photo-offset production by the 
Bureau of Publications, California State Department of Education, 
and published by the Department, 721 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, 
California 95814. 

Distributed under the provisions 
of the Library Distribution Act 




Listening is one of the most important of the four communication 
skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Modern research has 
proved that the skill of listening can definitely be improved through 
a systematic program of instruction. And although learning through 
listening is important for all human beings, it is of special significance 
to handicapped children. 

This publication, Learning Through Listening: Applying Listening 
Skills to the Curriculum, is an important result of the Special Study 
Institute conducted at California State University, San Francisco, in 
August, 1972. 

The purpose of the Special Study Institute was to acquaint 
teachers of special education with the latest techniques and methods 
of teaching listening skills. Specifically, this is done by: 

1 . Exploring how handicapped pupils learn through listening 

2. Teaching the concepts of "hearing efficiency" and "selective 

3. Examining and assessing present listening programs developed 
both by teachers and commercial firms 

4. Studying recording technology 

I firmly believe that this publication will be invaluable to you who 
are entrusted with the education of our most important resource— 
our children. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

National Federation of the Blind (NFB) 


The Learning Through Listening Special Study Institute was 
conducted at California State University, San Francisco, in August, 
1972, to acquaint classroom teachers with the latest methods of 
teaching listening skills. The institute was directed especially toward 
teachers of exceptional children. 

The institute was the first phase of a three-part program sponsored 
by the California State Department of Education and funded under 
provisions of Public Law 91-230. The second and third institutes will 
be designed for administrators and classroom teachers, respectively. 
It is hoped that the cumulative effect of the program will be the 
implementation of effective curricular devices for teaching listening 
skills in California classrooms. To further this goal, this publication 
can be used as a resource document for planners of remaining phases 
of the program, for those who attended the first institute, and for 
those who were unable to attend. 

The institute was planned and directed by Georgie L. Able of 
California State University, San Francisco, and by E. Eugene Black, 
Robert J. Gowan, and Frederick L. Sinclair of the California State 
Department of Education. We are grateful to them for their diligent 
efforts and also to California State University, San Francisco, for 
hosting the first special study institute. 


Associate Superintendent Chief, Bureau of 

of Public Instruction; and Chief, Physically Exceptional Children 
Division of Special Education 


Foreword iii 

Preface v 

Introduction Georgie L. Abel and Robert J. Gowan 1 


Listening-Our Ally in Teaching and Learning 

Ursula Hogan 3 

The Development of Listening and Auding 

Rose-Marie Swallow 9 

Reading by Listening: Suggested Objectives and Activities 

Dean W. Tattle 16 

Exploiting the Opportunity to Read by Listening 

Emerson Foulke 22 

Demonstrations Georgie L. Abel 25 

Types of Listening and Communication for the Nonverbal 

Child Presented by Christine Kusaba 26 

The Cliildren Teach Us Through the Media Presented by 

Marjorie Greeley 27 

Recording for the Blind Presented by Helen Lagan 28 

Have You Heard Any Good Books Lately? Presented by 

Robert S. Bray 29 

The Teacher and Technology: Learning Through Listening 

Presented by Robert A. Bowers 30 

The Master Tape Library Compressed Speech and 

Aural Media Center Presented by Robert J. Gowan 32 

Summary Georgie L. Abel and Robert J. Gowan 33 


A. Compressors-Actual and Imminent Emerson Foulke .... 35 

B. A Proposal to the State of Kentucky to Establish Computer 
Services for the Blind Emerson Foulke, Jacob Carnes, Jr., 

Edward Cox, T. V. Cranmer, L. P. Hauser, L. T. Mitchell, 
and David Murrell 39 

C. The Audio-Tutorial Method Emerson Foulke 44 

D. Commercial Materials for Reading by Listening 49 

Bibliography 54 

Institute Participants 60 






Georgie L. Abel 

Department of Education 

California State University, San Francisco 

Robert J. Gowan 

Master Tape Library 

California State Department of Education 

The Learning Through Listening Special Study Institute was 
planned and administered through the cooperative effort of the 
California State Department of Education and California State 
University, San Francisco. It covered a period of five days and was 
held on the campus of California State University, San Francisco. 
The participants represented teachers of exceptional children from 
the areas of the educationally handicapped, the orthopedically 
handicapped and other health impaired, the mentally handicapped, 
and the visually handicapped. The desire was to cut across strict 
categories by including a larger number of teachers who would have a 
broad interest in the application of listening skills to the types of 
children they are serving. 

The goals of the Institute, as set forth by the staff, were (1) to 
teach the concept of "hearing efficiency" and selective listening to 
teachers; (2) to explore with teachers how their handicapped pupils 
learn through listening and how to apply listening skills in their 
general and special curricula; (3) to identify and assess listening 
programs, both commercial and teacher produced, and to determine 
how effectively they meet their objectives; (4) to determine the 
effectiveness of specific listening programs for selected groups of 
handicapped children by levels and categories; (5) to study curricu- 
lum materials and techniques as they relate to individual pupil 
objectives and to adapt curriculum content to a listening format 
appropriate for individual children; (6) to study research in recording 
technology and to demonstrate the use of commonly available 
recording and playback devices; and (7) to demonstrate ways in 
which listening programs can enhance and supplement the curriculum. 


This institute represents the first phase in a three-part project. As 
stated, Phase I was to have a selected number of teachers 
representing various categories of exceptionality. Phase II is planned 
for a selected number of administrators, and Phase III will be 
directed toward classroom teachers serving handicapped children. 
The rationale for the project was presented as follows: 

Oral communication is vitally important to handicapped children. In oral 
communication, the listener is as vital a factor as is the speaker, with today's 
research showing that the process of communication can be improved by 
teaching the skills of listening. Listening has often been equated with hearing 
or, at best, with attention; however, reliable evidence shows that listening is a 
skill that must be taught. Good listening skills are not acquired through 
simple hearing, but through a systematic, sequential teaching process. 

Listening - Our Ally in Teaching 
and Learning 

Ursula Hogan 
Former General Consultant 
Sacramento County Schools 

With the development of radio, television, sound films, and 
recordings, the modern world shifted from a print-dominated one to 
an oral-aural one. This reversed the situation that occurred with the 
invention of printing. Eye training and visual perception became the 
chief concern of educators when books and print materials were 
readily available. In the 1930s, interest in listening as a valuable tool 
of learning was renewed. Experimentation, investigation, and 
research concerning the listening process began. A change in thinking 
about the listening act almost immediately became evident- 
quietness and passivity were replaced by identification of listening as 
an active process. Prior to 1944, "listening" was listed under 
"attention" in the Education Index, but it now receives a category of 
its own. 1 

Casual observation does not suffice to identify learners actively 
participating in listening. Nonverbal responses such as nodding, 
smiling, and signs of boredom, as well as follow-up activities, provide 
evidence of the quality of listening. 

Listening is a thoughtful process ending in thoughtful reaction. It 
is not a discrete skill nor a generalized ability, but rather it is a 
constellation of specific abilities. It is purposeful, accurate, and 

The typical day of most persons is composed of many give-and- 
take talking situations. This commonplace activity requires an 
attentive role of catching ideas expressed and responding to them. 
An individual's life abounds in social, business, and esthetic 
experiences that involve listening. Vocationally, both those in service 

1 Education Index. Edited by Julia W. Ehrenreich. New York: The H. W. Wilson Co.. 
1972. p. 532. 

positions and in professional pursuits engage in listening and appro- 
priate reaction. Responsible citizenship relies upon effective, critical 
listening in exercising judgment about candidates and issues. No 
more fundamental a citizen's duty concerning rights and freedom 
exists than objective action based on basic principles and truth. 

Hearing and Listening Are Not Synonymous 

Many times we hear but do not comprehend. Unless the intake of 
information and ideas produces a reaction in the listener, communi- 
cation is not complete. Even elementary school children distinguish 
between hearing and listening. 

Listening can be divided into four main phases: 

1 . Literal meaning— plain sense comprehension. 

2. Interpretation— speaker's purpose; main ideas and supporting 
details; interrelationships among ideas; identification of atti- 
tudes, biases, or prejudices; and word choice and figurative 

3. Analysis and evaluation— consistency with commonly known 
data; the weighing of fact, opinion, judgment; omission of 
certain facts; and techniques employed to influence the 
listener's thinking. Evaluation will include the value of the 
presentation in terms of adherence to the truth; the compe- 
tency of the speaker in the field of subject presented; and the 
honesty and integrity with which arguments and views were 

4. Cognition or absorption— frequently labeled auding. The listener 
takes new ideas and evidence to modify previous understanding; 
seeks new goals; develops new interests; and shows greater 

Auding is a term advocated by Brown, one of the early researchers 
in listening. He believed that listening and hearing were too 
frequently equated and that a more meaningful term was needed. 2 

Horrworth interprets auding as hearing + listening + cognizing. He 
characterizes the listening act as a people process, as well as a 
language process. His reasoning is worthy of note. Horrworth states 
that in order to listen the individual needs to have experienced an 
attentive listener to his own ideas and thoughts. 3 This observation is 
of utmost importance in the classroom. Teachers need to talk less 

2 Don Brown, "Teaching Aural English," English Journal. XXXIX (March, 1950), 

Gloria L. Horrworth, "Listening: A Facet of Oral Language." Elementary English, 
XLIII (December, 1966), 856-64. 

and listen more; they should provide opportunity for speaking- 
listening activities among children to a greater extent than is evident 
in most classrooms. 

Listening-An Aid to Growing Up 

The infant relies heavily on the aural process. The recognition of 
family voices; the adjustment to routine, normal sounds; the 
imitation of the speech sounds of those around him; the association 
of names of people, animals, and things with the objects; the 
approximation of words heard; and the adoption of the speech 
patterns of the family circle are steps necessary to the growth and 
independence of the child. 

Encouraging comments evoke repetition of a behavior; refinement 
and extension of these behaviors lead to new explorations and 
achievements. As educators, the practice of favorably commenting 
on children's efforts should be kept in mind. 

The child develops a defense against adult haranguing by simply 
tuning out. He brings this behavior to school, and teachers need to 
keep in mind that nagging about work and behavior produces 
negative results. 

In play with peers in the neighborhood, the child extends his 
vocabulary and store of meanings. He recognizes anger and threat in 
the voices of others, and he adjusts to the situation either by 
withdrawal or confrontation. By the time the child enters school, he 
has a sizable vocabulary to express himself, and he has a comprehen- 
sion vocabulary that is much larger. 

School entrance tends to reduce the child's reliance on listening 
due to a variety of reasons. First of all, free exercise of choice of 
whether to listen or not is curtailed. The teacher, being concerned 
with the group, gives directions and explanations orally. Individual 
children may respond quite differently. Bright children often reject 
the triviality of the content and fail to comply with instructions. 
Children with meager language power or poor auditory perception 
cannot meet the terms of the assignment. Secondly, new skills are 
presented for mastery, with heavy emphasis on reading and visual 
skills. And, finally, the amount of listening becomes too much of a 
burden, and the child falls back on his preschool defense mechanism 
of tuning out. 

Progress through the grades increases the number of skills to be 
mastered. Pen and pencil exercises grow in number. Listening 
situations are unplanned and unstructured. Fragmentation of lan- 
guage into its components (listening, speaking, reading, and writing, 
including spelling) destroys the unity of language and robs the child 

of the opportunity to recognize the relationships and reciprocal 
reenforcement of one phase with another. Emphasis on reading 
continues without much attempt to improve the quality of listening. 

Reading and Listening 

Both reading and listening phases of language are the intake 
aspects; they show a marked similarity in skills. Before the 
availability and use of the tape recorder, reading held certain 
advantages over listening: (1) availability of books and other printed 
matter; (2) the reader's ability to adjust his speed to suit his 
purposes; (3) the ease of going back to reread when confusions or 
misunderstandings were encountered; and (4) the wide selection of 
appropriate materials for any need. Reading still is rated a better 
medium for the study and interpretation of complex material. An 
advantage of listening over reading is frequently overlooked, i.e., 
material presented orally provides more meaning cues than reading 
because the tone of voice, points of emphasis, meaningful phrasing, 
and pauses can never be matched by printed symbols. 

Farrell, in "Listen, My Children, and You Shall Read ....," 
makes clear the value of the teacher reading to students. His 
conclusions are worth remembering. First of all, reading literature 
aloud to students is educationally sound; and, for many youngsters, 
it is necessary. Furthermore, if a teacher wishes to help students 
become critical listeners and if he intends teaching the literature he 
reads orally, he must plan his lessons carefully so as to build bridges 
between the experiences of the youngsters and the experiences 
presented in the literature, and to provide sequences of questions 
that set the purposes for listening. 4 

A counterpart to speed reading is listening to compressed speech. 
Normal speech production is 100 to 125 words per minute. The 
brain, however, can receive speech faster than a speaker produces it. 
Research suggests that compressed speech, with the message spoken 
faster than normally produced, makes concentration easier and 
comprehension greater. 

Classroom Provision for Listening Growth 

Educational practice, like society in general, has made speech the 
focal point of communication, with little consideration given to 
listening. In any listening-speaking situation, school practice should 
be concerned with both phases of communication, roles should be 

Edmund J. Farrell. "Listen. My Children, and You Shall Read ....," English Journal, 
LV (January, 1966), 68. 

defined, and responsibilities should be made clear. The listener 
should be informed what to expect and to what particular ideas he 
should pay attention; the plans for utilization of the content should 
be specific. The speaker should be instructed to make clear his 
purposes and ideas, to organize his material in a reasonable pattern, 
and to keep contact with his audience. 

Kinds of listening experiences should be varied. Many experiences, 
especially those for the younger child, should be for sheer enjoy- 
ment. Other experiences should include following directions, finding 
the main idea, selecting important details, noting vocabulary, seeing 
relationships, and recognizing summary statements. 

Learning is a forward-moving process that enables the learner to 
regroup his responses in an infinite variety of ways. The more 
sophisticated the pattern of regrouping and the more flexible the 
responses to new situations, the greater control the individual has 
over his environment. Growth in listening power should indicate that 
the listener is making steady progress in his ability to follow oral 
presentations and to react thoughtfully. 

Teachers desirous of improving listening might keep these points 
in mind: 

1 . Reduce the amount of talking and telling in the teaching act. 

2. Serve as a model of a good listener. 

3. Vary the stimuli in presenting material. 

4. Use different communication techniques to arouse and maintain 

5. Make frequent informal appraisals of listening growth. 

Those who work with children of lower socioeconomic status may 
discover that children in this group tend to have lower auditory 
perception because of the noise factor in their environment and 
because of the lack of sustained conversation in the home. Poor 
auditory perception handicaps the child in the early stages of 
learning to read when speech sounds and language patterns are 
important. Irwin decided after investigation that children under two 
and one-half years improve in vocal production and comprehension 
of what is said if the parents read selected books to them and talk to 
them more. 5 

The dyslexic child also has poor auditory perception and has 
difficulty in blending sounds of letters to produce a word. Since 
auditory perception enables the child to distinguish differences in 
sounds and sound sequences, the dyslexic child and others with low 

Orvis C. Irwin, "Infant Speech: Effect of Systematic Reading of Stories," Journal of 
Speech and Hearing Research, III (June. 1960), 187-90. 

auditory perception require activities that will strengthen auditory 
perception and that will sharpen discriminatory ability of sounds and 
groups of sounds. 

Continuous systematic instruction in listening is necessary to 
achieve maximum returns. This instruction need not be an added 
subject to the program. Rather, the recurring occasions when oral 
presentation is the natural approach can be utilized to increase 
listening power. Directions, explanations, assignments, recitations, 
and reports can be turned into productive listening experiences. The 
students need to know definitely what is expected of them, and the 
teacher needs to ensure that the presentation is clear and suitable for 
the group and to ensure that the material will be utilized in some 
way in the classroom. Listening to gain information, to follow 
sequences, to select major points, to reach conclusions, to determine 
cause-effect relations, to learn new vocabulary, to converse and to 
discuss, to enjoy plays and music, to appreciate stories read or told, 
and to identify type of discourse are some of the experiences that 
can be made available. Standardized tests, informal teacher checkups, 
observation of listening behavior, and feedback of lesson content are 
among ways to evaluate growth. 

The Development of Listening 
and Auding 

Rose-Marie Swallow 

Department of Education 

California State University, Los Angeles 

Listening, attending to sounds, and auding (comprehending 
spoken language) are basic for human communication and are 
indispensable components of successful school experiences. Ade- 
quate auditory perception and competent linguistic development 
facilitate learning. Listening plays a primary role in language 
acquisition, with auding being our chief mode of learning throughout 

In spite of its educational significance, the development of 
listening skills and auding abilities has received little systematic 
research. Equally deficient are programs specifically designed to 
provide direct instruction for the improvement of auding behaviors 
in students. 

Listening is the chief mode of learning during the elementary 
school years. Students from preschool through university learn most 
frequently by listening rather than by any other means. 

Adults also gain considerable knowledge through listening. 
Approximately 75 percent of what we learn as adults, we learn from 
listening. 1 The importance of this modality as the most viable 
channel for the development of all communication skills must receive 
more curricular emphasis if we are to adequately educate for the 
cognitive growth and intellectual development of the child. 

Myklebust defines auditory perception as the ability to structure 
the auditory world and to select those sounds that are pertinent to 
adjustment. 2 Auditory perception is basic to language and cognition. 

James I. Brown, "The Measurement of Listening Ability," School and Society, LXX1 
(February 4. 1950), 69-71. 
Helmer R. Myklebust, Auditory Disorders in Children. New York: Grune and Stratton. 

Inc., 1954, p. 158. 


A child whose hearing acuity is within the normal range may have 
difficulty analyzing auditory stimuli. 

Auditory perception is a process in which significance is attached 
to the sensations. It structures the stimulations, organizing them into 
a foreground against a background. Past experiences are also brought 
to bear on the sensations in order that the sensations can be 
understood in meaningful context. 

What are the processing levels of auditory-linguistic stimuli for the 
development of listening and auding skills? Four levels have been 
defined, including analysis of auditory stimuli, sequence of aural 
data, comprehension of symbolic operations, and correspondence of 
auditory-visual stimuli. The levels of auditory perception are further 
subdivided as follows: 

1 . Analysis of auditory stimuli 

a. Attention to auditory cues 

b. Focus-field selection 

c. Localization of sound sources 

d. Discrimination between sounds 

2. Sequence of aural data 

a. Serial ordering 

b. Auditory fusion (blending) 

c. Auditory closure 

3. Comprehension of symbolic operations 

a. Auditory reception 

b. Auding skills 

4. Correspondence of auditory-visual stimuli 

a. Auditory-visual integration 

b. Cross-modality shift 

Analysis of Auditory Stimuli 

Attention to auditory stimuli is of prime concern to the teacher. 
Inattentiveness may be due to various causes, some of which are (1) 
loss of hearing acuity: (2) distractibility due to competitive auditory 
and visual stimuli; (3) hyperactive and maladaptive behavior; (4) 
inability to obtain meaning from the auditory stimuli; and (5) 
habitual inattention. 3 

Focus-field selection is akin to figure-ground in visual perception. 
Some children experience difficulty in selecting relevant from 
unmeaningful auditory stimuli. We are constantly masking out 

3 James C. Chalfant and Margaret A. Scheffelin, Central Processing Dysfunction in 
Children: A Review of Research. NINDS Monograph No. 9. Washington, D.C.: U.S. 
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, 1969, p. 11. 


continuous environmental noises in order to attend to or focus upon 
revelant auditory cues. 

Sabatino suggests that there is a minimum focus/field difference 
level (60/54 decibels) in order to attend auditorially. 4 If this is true, 
there may exist in some children reduced focus levels. The teacher's 
task would be to increase the difference between focus and field by 
lowering the environmental field level of acoustic stimuli. For such 
children, who may have difficulty attending to focus, offering 
instructional activities or aurally taped materials that require the use 
of earphones, which mask out extraneous sounds, may increase their 
attentional behavior. There is little research data clarifying the 
effects of background noise on listening or auding ability. 

Localization of sound sources refers to the ability to associate 
sounds with their actual sources, for example, the clock ticking or 
mother speaking. Spatial awareness and directionality are component 
behaviors of this item. The ear closest to the sound source receives 
the acoustic vibrations earlier than the ear farther away. Being able 
to localize sound aids in associating sounds with objects or events. 

Discrimination between sounds is the ability to differentiate one 
sound from another. There are two major sound sources: (1) human, 
winch includes vocal sounds (phonemes), words (lexicons), phrases, 
etc.; and (2) nonhuman, which are all sounds not produced by vocal 

An auditory discrimination disability is not due to loss of hearing 
acuity, but rather to an inability to discriminate one sound from 
another. Of educational concern is the reduced ability of children to 
differentiate speech sounds or phonemes. The Wepman Test of 
Auditory Discrimination (WTAD) was designed to determine the 
child's ability to recognize the fine differences that exist between the 
phonemes used in standard English speech. 5 

It is more difficult to discriminate between similar sounds (for 
example, /d/, ft/, /p/) than between sounds that are acoustically 
more varied. For this reason, training proceeds from familiar 
environmental sounds to vocal units-from gross to fine sound 

Sequence of Aural Data 

If the analysis of auditory stimuli is fundamental to the processing 
of auditory and linguistic stimuli, the sequencing of these variables 


David A. Sabatino, 'The Construction and Assessment of an Experimental Test of 
Auditory Perception," Exceptional Children, XXXV (May, 1969), 729-37. 

Joseph M. Wepman, Wepman Test of Auditory Discrimination. Chicago: Language 
Research Associates, 1958. 


and the retention of their orderings are equally important. The 
sequence of aural data is the second level for the development of 
listening and auding skills. Sequencing involves the temporal ordering 
in which auditory events occur. 

Serial ordering is the sequencing of sounds, symbols, or signs. The 
sense of vision is instantaneous: audition is temporal. Because 
language occurs in time, the ability to order sounds, words, and ideas 
is required for understanding meaningful material. 

Auditory fusion is blending. Dyslexic and neurologically impaired 
children often display an inability to blend sounds. Auditory 
blending of sounds to form words is the synthesis of sound units into 
wholes, e.g., /p/ /a/ /t/ = "pat" and /m/ /a/ /n/ = "man." Obviously, 
the phonics approach to reading requires the ability to blend sounds. 
The Open Court Reading Program trains specifically for this ability. 6 

Auditory closure is the ability to fill in the missing parts. It is 
being able to "close" an aurally presented word when at least one 
phoneme is omitted, e.g., /el/e/— /ant/ is "elephant" and /ba/— /oon/ 
is "balloon." Grammatical closure, on the other hand, is the ability 
to predict closure, anticipating the missing or coming word through 
word ordering of sentence patterns. In the sentence, "I see a 

", no matter what word is supplied, it automatically must be a 

noun. All other parts of speech have been eliminated. Nonachieving 
readers often lack this predicting ability and are therefore unable to 
anticipate the sentence structure or word order. 

Cazden has stated that a common measure of development in 
grammar is the mean length of response. 7 Miller theorizes that the 
"span of immediate memory" (short term memory) is not deter- 
mined by the amount of words per sentence, but by the number of 
"chunks" of information the subject can organize. To the extent that 
a person can organize information into chunks, can he increase his 
immediate memory; and to the extent a child has syntactical control 
of the language, can he automatically "chunk" the information 
presented into grammatical units and thus retain sentences of greater 
length. 8 

Correlated Language Arts Program. La Salle, 111. : Open Court Publishing Co. 

Courtney B. Cazden, "Subcultural Differences in Child Language: An Inter-Disciplinary 
Review," in VoL II of Disadvantaged Child. Edited by Jerome Hellmuth. New York: 
Brunner/Mazel, Inc., 1970, pp. 217-56. 


George A. Miller, 'The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on 
Our Capacity for Processing Information," The Psychological Review, LX1II (March, 1956), 


Comprehension of Symbolic Operations 

Comprehension of symbolic operations is the third processing level 
for the development of listening skills. Comprehension is directly 
linked with symbolic thought processes. It is the means by which the 
child decodes and understands spoken language or aurally taped 

Piaget has designated three levels of symbolization: (1) index, (2) 
symbol, and (3) sign. The index and the symbol are at the preverbal 
level and serve to strengthen the symbolic process. The child who has 
had a variety of preverbal symbolic experiences will be able to create 
a mental image when he hears the teacher's words 9 

Auditory reception is understanding the structure and meaning of 
language, i.e., decoding the language of the communicator. The 
child's repertoire of words (vocabulary) and grammatical patterns 
(syntax) are regulated at this level of development by the speech 
forms used by the communicator. 

Auding skills, on the other hand, are the relationship between the 
child's language and thought processes. Auditory reception is 
communication-orientation: auding is cognitive-orientation. The 
former combines the child's language and receptive communication, 
whereas the latter combines the child's language and cognitive 
thought, although the ability to aud is not entirely dependent on 
intellectual development. 

Research indicates that school children increase their auding 
abilities through direct and indirect instruction in auding. 

The Alameda County Listening Comprehension Skills Program is 
based on the following key auding skills: ' ° 

1 . Inferring connotative word meanings 

2. Identifying mood, humor, and so forth 

3. Providing examples by details 

4. Reinstating sequences of ideas 

5 . Identifying main idea 

6. Predicting sequences of thought 

7. Inferring speaker's purpose 

8. Applying standards to judge persuasion 

9. Inferring main idea from specific 

10. Judging logical validity 

1 1 . Identifying sequence ambiguities 


Jean Piaget, Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood. New York: W. W. Norton and 

Co., Inc., 1951, p. 98 

Programs in Or< 
County School Department. San Francisco: Hi-Speed Duplicating Co., 1969. 

Programs in Oral Communication. Cassette and tape recordings prepared by Alameda 


Since children of equal intelligence vary in their reading abilities, 
they also vary in their auding skills. A direct instructional program 
matched to the child's auding level will develop abilities in school 
children. A total program will present programmed learning activities 
for the development of listening skills and auding abilities. A 
sequenced auditory-linguistic program includes learning activities at 
the preverbal and the verbal levels. 

Correspondence of Auditory-Visual Stimuli 

Level four for the development of listening skills is correspon- 
dence of auditory-visual stimuli. Neurologically, there are certain 
centers of the brain that are associated with vision and auding. Yet 
there does exist common pathways for both sensory stimuli. It is on 
the basis of separate pathways and common pathways that we 
assume cross-modality shift and auditory-visual integration. Many 
successful remedial teaching techniques have utilized a multisensory 
integration approach. Since the multisensory approach is helpful for 
some learning disability children, but may overload the system of 
others, an assessment of correspondence does appear relevant for the 
understanding of central processing of visual-auditory stimuli. Chil- 
dren with learning problems have integrational deficits. 

The child needs language not only to understand concepts but also 
to retrieve and express them. To express himself, he needs to know 
the forms with which to communicate both feelings and ideas. To 
understand aural material in the classroom, he needs to receive direct 
instruction in how to aud, or else he needs to receive remedial 
training in order to progress to where he understands the language 
code. The teacher needs to possess the skills of programming and 
remediation and to be familiar with the techniques and materials 
available to him. 

In our programming model, the child's learning activities have 
been sequenced in order of developmental difficulty along three 
continuum variables: (1) stimulus (dimensions); (2) process (levels); 
and (3) response (judgmental responses). We have already discussed 
the stimulus and process variables. Stimulus sequencing refers to 
dimensions, preverbal stimuli, and verbal stimuli: index -* symbol-* 
sign. The child first acquires inner language by means of imitation 
and symbolic play. These precede and contribute to symbolization. 

Process sequencing refers to the processing levels of our program- 
ming model: analysis -*■ sequence ■+ comprehension ■* correspon- 
dence. The model suggests that in acquiring auditory receptive 
language, the child first integrates the system of language he uses into 
a code. This code reflects the highly organized structures of language, 


essentially linguistic patterns. The child will then acquire word order 
sequences and sentence patterns in relation to his ability to "chunk." 
Since reading is a once-removed symbol system (a system of visual 
symbols of verbal symbols), the logical conclusion is that a language 
processing deficit of the primary type— central language processing- 
precedes acquisition of the visual language system. 

When a child has a visual processing deficit with adequate language 
development, substitutions are in order, i.e., taped materials for 
dyslexics. It should be noted that at the level the child comprehends 
language, he should also be expected to comprehend taped materials. 
Auditory language processing involves the decoding ability of 
receptive language. 

The final sequencing variable is judgmental responses: descrimina- 
tion -*■ recognition -* immediate recall -*■ and reproduction. 

Discrimination is defined as the act of perceptually differentiating 
two stimuli as "same" or "different." This is totally at the perceptual 
level of response, e.g., do "baby" and "daddy" sound the same or 

Recognition requires attending to and retaining specific parts of 
the stimuli in addition to the whole. Recognition, involving matching 
and identification, is defined as perceptual retention of the initial 
stimulus in order to identify or match it on representation. The child 
is required to attend to the parts. A matching task is: which is the 
same as this tapping pattern? 


Immediate recall, on the other hand, requires remembering the 
original stimulus and reproducing it. This is the first judgmental 
response to include both decoding and encoding. The child hears 
"ball" and then says "ball." The child must retain and produce the 
original stimulus. Immediate recall includes short-term auditory 
memory and immediate reproduction. Habituation and automatiza- 
tion are developed at this response level. 

The last judgment response is reproduction, in which long-term 
memory is facilitated by verbal traces and verbal mediation. The 
automatic habit chains of language are developed. The child no 
longer relies on stimulus cues. The process of learning and using 
language is being completed. Reproduction is automatic. 

Tliis programming model for the development of auditory 
perception is based on the sequential presentations of learning 
activities in the classroom along three variables: (1) stimulus, (2) 
process, and (3) response. 

Reading by Listening: Suggested 
Objectives and Activities 

Dean W. Tut tie 
Department of Special Education 
University of Northern Colorado 

You have had an opportunity to hear about listening, with all its 
implications for learning. And, prior to this discussion, you have heard 
Dr. Foulke discuss the history of technological advances and the 
needs in this area as applied to handicapped children. You now 
realize the importance of learning by listening for both normal and 
handicapped children in your schools. The research is promising, and 
your interest should prompt further refinement of your teaching 

My primary interest in this presentation is in the importance of 
listening as a means of reading. My previous research with visually 
impaired children supported my earlier interest in listening as a valid 
form of reading. In order to cover the material I wish to present, I 
am sharing with you an outline of objectives and activities, which I 
feel teachers can use to improve instruction and to enrich the lives of 
children in all phases of their reading in the various curriculum areas. 
To save time, I would like to take the outline item by item. I would 
like you to raise appropriate questions and make suggestions as they 
occur to you. 

I hope you will be equally interested in the equipment and 
examples, which will be presented auditorially. Knowing that all 
teachers are eager to learn where to find materials, both in 
commercial supply houses and in specialized agencies, I am providing 
a list of commonly available materials for meeting the objectives we 
plan to cover in our presentation today. 1 

See Appendix D, Commercial Materials for Reading by Listening. 



If there are questions either about the organization or any of the 
items, please feel free to raise them as we progress. Your discussion 
should enhance the presentation. 

I. Pre-''Reading by Listening" activities and allied skills 

A. Auditory discrimination 

1 . Identifying sounds other than words 

The children sit quietly listening for sounds. They 
identify clock ticking, car going by, steps in the hall, dog 
barking, and thunder. The teacher also may say, "I hear a 
sound in the hall. What is it? Can you make that sound?" 

2. Reacting to sounds 

The children give appropriate reactions to sounds, 
e.g., to a fire bell, a car horn, and a schedule bell. 

3. Localizing sound sources 

Children identify sound source and distance of 
source, and sound direction, volume, and pitch. 

The children listen to bird's chirp, classmate's voice, 
fast or slow steps, and different kinds of airplanes, cars, 
and bells. 

4. Hidden sounds, figure ground 

Three children stand in front of the class. The teacher 
tells the class that all three pupils will be talking at the 
same time but will be saying different things. The class is 
to concentrate on what the child who is standing in the 
middle is saying. They are to pay no attention to the 
other two. For practice in hearing the middle child's 
voice, the teacher has him repeat a sentence alone, for 
example, "Amid city noises, can you hear the distant 
church bells?" 

5. Identifying sounds within words 

The teacher says three words to a small group of chil- 
dren. They listen carefully and tell which word of the 
three does not begin like the others, e.g., "run"-"red"- 
"Tom" and "time"-"table"-"door." 

The teacher pronounces a word and then pronounces 
the same word or one that is slightly different from it. 
The child called on must say whether they are the same 
or different, e.g., "bat-back," "bang-bank," "eat-heat," 
"necks-next," and "sleep-slip." 

B. Descriptions 

The teacher describes objects in the room and has the 
children guess what the objects are. The teacher says, "Can 


you guess what I see? I see something with four legs, a back, 
and a seat. What is it?" 

The teacher has the children describe certain tasks, e.g., 
"How do you wash your hands; how do you put on your 
shoes?" The teacher insists on verbal responses with no 

C. Follow directions 

The teacher encourages children to give directions to one 
another. They may give directions to the nearest stoplight, 
the corner mailbox, or their home. 

The teacher gives oral directions for folding a piece of 
paper, beginning with simple directions such as, "Fold in 
half." The complexity of folding is increased until pupils can 
follow directions to make an object such as a lantern or a 
paper bird. Later they use scissors and ruler. 

The teacher says to a child, "Clap your hands three times, 
turn around two times, and stamp your left foot four times." 

D. Listen for rhyme, rhythm, and colorful combinations of 

The teacher says two words at a time, e.g., "hard-lard" or 
"run-jump." The children stand up if they hear that the 
words rhyme. For mature children, the teacher says sentences 
such as, "This seed makes good bird feed. John likes meat to 
eat." The children tell the rhyming words in the sentences. 

The teacher performs rhythms that the child is to 
duplicate, e.g., clapping hands, beating drums, or combining 
two types of rhythms. 

The children make up sentences using alliteration. 

E. Associations 

1 . Alike and different. 

The teacher encourages children to broaden their 
thinking from simple responses to abstract thinking by 
asking, for example, "How are a horse and a cow alike? 
How are they different?" The teacher continues asking 
about a spoon and a fork, a hat and a coat, a house and 
an apartment, milk and orange juice, a car and a truck, 
and a candle and a flashlight. 

2. Opposites. 

The teacher tells the children that they are going to 
play a game using words that are opposite in meaning. 
For example, "I want you to do as I say. Stand up— sit 
down. Reach high-reach low. Clap your hands slowly- 
clap your hands fast." 


3. Analogies. 

Omitting the words in parentheses, the teacher says 
to the children, "Your hand is on the end of your arm; 
your foot is on the end of your (leg). People walk; fish 
(swim). We eat on a table; we sleep on a (bed)." 

F. Auditory closure 

1 . Closure of pattern 

The teacher plays an incomplete pattern, which 
children are asked to complete, e.g., parts of the 
Westminster chimes, a baseball cheer, and the melody of 
a familiar song. 

2. Closure of words 

The teacher says slowly, omitting the letters indi- 
cated, "I (h)ave (t)en (Dingers. I (h)ad a (g)ood (dr)eam 
(l)ast (n)ight." 

3. Closure of thought 

The teacher has the children complete sentences. For 

example, "The coffee is too to drink. The is 

shining today." 

The teacher reads a sentence to the group and has 
them memorize it. The teacher then reads the sentence, 
omitting one or more words, and has a child complete the 

G. Improving attending skills 

The children focus their attention on the person or group 
speaking without interrupting or distracting. To increase 
attention span through practice, the teacher gradually 
increases the length of the stories told. 

H. Listen with involvement 

Children sit with thumbs up and the teacher reads 
sentences. As soon as the children hear a "how sentence," 
they put their thumbs down. The first child with thumbs 
down chooses someone to tell the word or phrase that 
answers the question "How?" Questions could also revolve 
around words such as "when," "where," and "who." 

The teacher has children listen with the purpose of note 

II. Comprehension 

A. Identify stated main idea 

The teacher reads short, simple, unfamiliar stories, and 
the children make up a title for each story. 


The teacher presents a paragraph or a short story and 
offers three sentences as a main topic. The children select the 
one that most accurately reveals the basic or main thought of 
the paragraph. 

B. Identify details 

Children are asked to have their right hands on then- 
desks. The teacher states that she is going to tell the group 
about an experience she has had. While she stays on the 
subject, the palm of each child's right hand is to be up. The 
teacher tells about an adventure, a trip, or a biographical 
sketch, including some unrelated facts. When she does this, 
those who detect turn palms down. 

The teacher reads a sketch or short story, asking the 
children to determine which items are necessary to the story, 
and which are details that make it more interesting. 

C. Sequencing ideas 

The children listen to a sequence of sounds that have 
been recorded on tape or a record, and try to determine what 
series of events the sounds represent. Later the teacher 
jumbles the order of sounds and has the children put the 
sounds in correct order. 

The children act out a story train on five chairs, one 
behind the other, at the front of the room. The pupil in the 
first chair is the engineer. He starts a story by saying, for 
example, "On my way home, I saw a rabbit." Those in chairs 
two, three, and four each make a complete sentence about 
the thing the engineer sees. The child in the last chair repeats 
the whole story just as the others told it. 

Using a tape recorder, the teacher tells a simple story to 
one child, who retells the same story to a second child. The 
recording continues for no more than five pupils and is then 
replayed. The original story's playback should reveal to the 
pupils their omissions and substitutions. 

D. Inferring main idea from specifics 

The teacher gives each child a picture or an object and 
asks him to make up a story about it. 

The teacher reads a short story to the group and has the 
pupils retell the plot in one sentence. The teacher has the 
children connect these words in a story: "frog-hat-book" and 

E. Identify mood (fact, fancy, humorous, serious, informative) 

Pupils review books read, considering whether the mate- 
rial is realistic or fanciful. 


Pupils try to recognize the emotion of the speaker 
through his pitch, stress, or mannerism of speech. 

F. Judge persuasion 

The teacher and pupils distinguish fact from opinion in a 
child's class presentation. 

From a collection of advertisements, the teacher makes 
some judgments about the persuasion process. 

G. Predict sequence of thought and events 

The teacher tells or reads a story and has the children 
speculate on the possible outcome if a character's actions 
were reversed. For example, ask, "What if Goldilocks had not 
run away." 

The teacher tells or reads a short story but does not 
Finish. The children then supply the ending. 

H. Inferring connotative word meaning 

By using the context clues, the teacher has the children 
determine the meaning of new words that are heard. 

I. Identify sequence ambiguity 

The teacher asks the children if they hear anything wrong 
in the following paragraph: 

When Mr. and Mrs. Jones started to bed. Mr. Jones set his wind 
alarm clock for six o'clock. During the night, the electricity went 
off because of a storm. Mr. Jones was late for work the next 
morning because his clock had stopped as a result of the storm. 

The teacher devises examples of nonsense, such as, "John 
has green hair. The cat barks. Fish walk." Then the children 
are encouraged to reply in full sentences. 

J. Inferring purpose of presentation 

After reading a poem, the teacher asks the following 

questions. "What is the poem about? Can you describe ? 

What is the author's purpose?" 

K. Judge logical validity 

The children listen to a paragraph and to multiple-choice 
questions about causes. The children are given a paragraph to 
read by listening, and specific questions are asked to show 
cause and effect. For example, 

When Nicky woke up. he found himself alone. He was in the 
dark corner of Mr. Ben's barn. Nicky tried the door, but it would 
not open. He was trapped. How did Nicky feel? Why? 

L. Detect misinformation and faulty concepts 

Exploiting the Opportunity 
to Read by Listening 

Emerson Foulke 

Perceptual Alternatives Laboratory 

University of Louisville 

I would like to make some comments about seeking opportunities 
to take better advantage of listening ability in educational settings. 
There are many promising opportunities that we will want to look 
into very closely. One of these opportunities is with the use of 
compressed speech, and since I have been identified with compressed 
speech, I do want to make some comments. However, I also want to 
talk about listening ability in a more general sense. 

In my previous discussion, there was consideration of recent 
developments in compressed speech technology. Equipment will 
soon be available that will enable a person to manage word rates for 
himself. This equipment will provide an important opportunity with 
respect to acquiring information through listening. Individuals 
reading from the printed page vary their rates continuously. They 
respond effortlessly and without awareness, precisely and rapidly 
varying their rates to the conditions that are applied to reading. 
When they read material in which there is little uncertainty about 
what they are going to encounter, they read at a rapid rate. When 
they encounter material that is more conceptually difficult in terms 
of unfamiliarity with vocabulary, they read at a slower rate. They do 
other things as well, but the changing reading rate is one of the 
behaviors that accounts for the success of visual reading. 

When a person reads by listening to the aural recording of another 
person, he reads at a rate that is determined by factors having not 
very much to do with his own needs as a reader. The listener's rate is 
determined by the speaker's articulatory requirements, reading skills, 
and style. Thus, the listener must listen at a rate over which he has 
no control. The listener must conform to whatever the reader's 
organized display provides for him. 



Compressed speech gives the listener the opportunity to listen at 
rates faster than the reading rate of the person who recorded the 
material. In addition, the ability to vary the word rate gives him 
freedom in processing the acoustical display that contains the 
information he wants to gather. We may find that we have to show 
people how to take advantage of this opportunity. We now need 
research that will show the best way to teach listeners how to utilize 
this capability. We now have technology that will be convenient and 
cheap enough to permit people to choose the word rate and to vary 
that word rate in accordance with their continuously changing 
listening requirements. 

You may want to examine copies of my article coauthored with 
Dr. Sticht that appeared in the Psychological Bulletin. ' Research 
thus far has been conducted on university students. Research should 
be based on a body of experience drawn from other listeners who do 
so on a continuous basis and for serious purposes. There are other 
opportunities that I would like to bring to your attention. Some of 
them might not be easily included under the title of "reading by 
listening," but they do have in common the element of gaining 
information by listening. One of these is the ARTS system. 

ARTS is an acronym— Audio Response Time Sharing. This is a 
computer-based system that will distribute information on a time- 
shared basis over telephone lines. It was developed by Kenneth 
Ingham, professor at MIT in the electronics laboratory. This system 
is appropriate for blind people working in a variety of occupations 
and professions. This system provides the kinds of services that are 
difficult for them to obtain, the kind that they must ask other 
people to do for them. The system is now available for deployment 
and evaluation. 2 

Another opportunity that should be exploited in the field of 
education of the visually handicapped has to do with Audio Tutorial 
Instruction. This approach represents the application of principles 
that have been developed by educators and psychologists for a good 
many years. Audio Tutorial Instruction was developed at Purdue 
University. This system was developed out of a concern for students, 
who learn and process information at different rates, but for whom 
recorded courses have been presented at a fixed rate. 

Emerson Foulke and Thomas G. Sticht. "Review of Research on the Intelligibility and 

Comprehension of Accelerated Speech ," Psychological Bulletin, LXX1I (1969), 50-62 
See App 

for the Blind 

See Appendix B, A Proposal to the State of Kentucky to Establish Computer Services 


Audio Tutorial Instruction lectures were first prepared on tapes 
that students could use independently. Then students engaged in 
directed activities for specific learning objectives. The directions 
related to other phases of the instructional program, to films, to 
analyses of data, and eventually to laboratory activities. Through this 
system, students may progress through the various phases of course 
content at their own rates. 

Audio Tutorial Instruction frees the instructor so that he can give 
individual help to those students who need it most. It is a 
teacher-generated program modified continuously by the teacher in 
accordance with curriculum emphasis and changing student needs. 
This system, though developed for sighted readers, has very 
significant applications for handicapped students. The system places 
the responsibility for the program on the teacher; the progress of the 
students reflects the effectiveness of the program. This type of 
program has proved so effective that I prepared a proposal for a 
similar program for a psychology course at my university. 3 

All of these opportunities, these various systems, have tremendous 
application for handicapped students simply because they rely on 
listening— the mode of reading for many handicapped students and 
especially for blind and visually impaired students. 

See Appendix C, The Audio-Tutorial Method. 


Georgie L. Abel 

Department of Education 

California State University, San Francisco 

The following lecturers were invited to make presentations that 
would in some way draw on the previous informational sessions. In 
addition, they were asked to use techniques that would assist 
teachers in applying the information of the previous sessions to their 
teaching. Hence, the lecturers used various types of audio and visual 
aids that helped the Institute participants to study the importance of 
teaching listening skills to children in all phases of the curriculum. Of 
equal importance, the demonstrations helped the teachers to study 
their relationship with children and their understanding of the 
important issues that need further research. Those who presented 
demonstrations were Christine Kusaba, Marjorie Greeley, Helen 
Lagan, Robert Bray, Robert Bowers, and Robert Gowan. 

The demonstrations were presented during the last half of the 
Institute at a time when participants were acquainted with each 
other and when they had had the time to read some of the handout 
materials previously distributed. Since those at the Institute came 
from various areas of exceptionality and had varying amounts of 
exposure to fields other than those in which they served, there was 
great opportunity for combining the information and experience to 
the advantage of all. For example, during the session when nonverbal 
communication was discussed by Mrs. Kusaba and the handicapped 
child who cooperated, teachers of the educationally handicapped and 
the orthopedically handicapped shared their experiences with other 
teachers. In the discussion of technology conducted by Dr. Bowers, 
who used slides to show various types of equipment, the teachers of 
the visually handicapped also shared their specialized experience. 
Furthermore, during the presentation of Mr. Bray from the Library 
of Congress, the explanation of the services now available under new 
regulations to a large number of handicapped children added much 
to the interest and questions of teachers new to this program. 

It is natural to expect that certain of these sessions were much 
more appealing to teachers, since they are accustomed to relating to 



children. For example, in the session conducted by Mrs. Greeley, a 
real appreciation for the ideas expressed by mentally handicapped 
children in their TV-taped discussions came through, as well as an 
appreciation for the empathy of the person communicating with the 
young ladies. Also, the scope of volunteer service was interestingly 
delineated and its use was urged by Mrs. Lagan. As a result of her 
presentation, people who had not used this service were eagerly 
examining the procedures for getting the service. 

While the following brief reviews do not do justice to the 
presentations, they will serve to help the participants recall the 
content of the sessions. It is hoped they will also help those who 
were not at the Institute to search for similar services and techniques 
in their own communities from local, state, and national sources. 

Types of Listening and Communication for the Nonverbal Child 
Presented by Mrs. Christine Kusaba 

In Mrs. Christine Kusaba's presentation, the teamwork between the 
teacher and the nonverbal child was extremely effective and most 
persuasive. The group participation was excellent. Again there was 
evidence that children are the best teachers of all of us, provided 
their teachers, the adults, are really searching for communication. 
The use of slides, charts, and helpful teacher-made materials added to 
the presentation and stimulated teachers to find answers to some of 
the problems in their own classrooms. 

The demonstrations included the following: (1) observation of 
nonverbal communication with a nonverbal cerebral palsied boy, 
Chris, establishing a means of communication with him; (2) a 
demonstration of her means of establishing acquaintance with Chris 
and of finding out some of his interests, establishing the means of 
communication that would secure a response from the boy; and (3) 
examples of types of listening skills important in academic and other 
educational settings, such as conversation, information, personal 
needs, and so on. 

The following points were clearly stated, demonstrated, and 
outlined by Mrs. Kusaba: 

1. With the nonverbal child, the educator must provide the child 
with a means of reply, or no communication will take place. 

2. The eye of the beholder (listener) interprets facial movements, 
voice tone, and so on, in listening to a speaker. This cannot be 
done with the nonverbal child. 

3. The educator should give the child more possibilities for an 
answer than just a simple "yes" or "no." Things are not always 
that clear. 


4. Communication boards with pictures, letters, words, and 
devices for comments should be used, including the following: 

a. Notebook 

b. Letter board 

c. Head and hand pictures 

d. Magnetic boards 

5. Students and teachers need listening with understanding. 

6. We need listening with genuine emotional and mental 

7. As a classroom director, the teacher should set up a good 
listening environment in the classroom with these considera- 
tions in mind : 

a. Is the material interesting? 

b. Do you give clear directions? 

c. Do you find your point and stick to it? 

d. Do you deal tactfully and promptly with interruptions? 

e. Do you explain the type of listening expected? 

f. Do you insist on results (tests and so forth)? 

g. Are his physical needs met before you begin? 

8. The educator should use methods of gaining attention other 
than yelling at the students. 

9. To teach attentive listening, the educator should do the 

a. Read aloud poetry, fiction, and so on, at all ages. 

b. Give a reason for listening. 

c. Vary classroom activities. 

The Children Teach Us Through the Media 

Presented by Mrs. Marjorie Greeley 

The presentation by Mrs. Marjorie Greeley further emphasized the 
importance of studying both the teacher and the handicapped person 
in all situations. She did much to encourage teachers to become more 
interested in all types of equipment that can be found in instruction 
materials centers, audiovisual departments, and other (often local 
and state) sources. She felt that teachers who are equipment-shy miss 
many opportunities for creativity in curriculum planning and in 
evaluation of both the children and themselves. She challenged 
teachers to defend equipment costs, which seem much less when 
good interpretation of their value is documented for the administrator. 

Her own TV tapes of young "retarded" ladies in discussion groups 
brought out the charm and broad interests, as well as the 
psychological attitudes, shared by the ladies with respect to their 


own attitudes toward their problems. She helped the group to listen 
for much more than the words spoken by the ladies. 

There was an excellent discussion period in which teachers who 
had little or no experience with retarded children raised many 
questions concerning programs, special schools, and agencies. The 
implication of both public and private schools was discussed. There 
was also consideration of the difficulties in observing and working 
with severely impaired children who have various handicaps, in which 
the equipment that was demonstrated can become even more 
important in striving to communicate. 

Such comments as the following indicate the type of statements 
that must have found their way into the notebooks of the 

1. Teachers should learn to use existing technology. 

2. Teachers talk too much, and this is an ineffective way to create 
a learning situation. 

3. One of the most effective tools is the tape recorder, combined 
with the use of earphones. 

4. Young children are not frightened by machinery. It is a part of 
their lives. 

5. What makes a special education teacher special is that he/she 
must go beyond the four walls of the school— to the home, to 
vocational agencies, and to the community. 

6. The videotape is a fantastic tool to present to the student 
examples of what he is doing— and can be used for continued 
study of one child. 

7. Teachers must learn to listen to what their students are telling 

8. The teacher must have the courage to study herself and grow in 
objectivity about the merits of her teaching method. She will 
continue to ask herself the question, "How can I improve 
approach?" or "Did I show sufficient support?" The desire to 
build a relationship is always present. If it is on the TV tape, it 
is there. Can we recognize it and continue to build? 

Recording for the Blind 

Presented by Mrs. Helen Lagan 

Mrs. Helen Lagan discussed the program of the Recording for the 
Blind in Palo Alto, California, and explained the procedures that are 
necessary to determine that visually handicapped persons profit from 
the organization's services. The many rewards of being a volunteer 
and of cooperating with one as a teacher were lucidly demonstrated 
in Mrs. Lagan's presentation. 


An exhibit of her organization's materials was displayed, ar i 
many Institute participants spoke with her about it and examined 
brochures and forms for requesting the organization's services. 

Mrs. Lagan discussed the cooperation between private and public 
agencies and documented this cooperation with examples of work 
and plans with the Library of Congress, the pubbc schools, and 
certain foundations. 

In summation, it can be said that Mrs. Lagan's presentation about 
the Recording for the Blind provided an excellent example of 
services available from a private agency. 

Have You Heard Any Good Books Lately? 

Presented by Robert S. Bray 

The presentation of Robert Bray from the Library of Congress was 
unusually helpful to the Institute participants, as they came from 
many areas of exceptionality. Those who had experienced a long 
association with Mr. Bray because of their work in the area of the 
visually handicapped enjoyed the opportunity of asking "What's 
new?" and those who were newcomers in teaching educationally 
handicapped and orthopedically handicapped had a chance to get 
some valuable procedural information. 

There were many materials distributed before Mr. Bray's presenta- 
tion, and these were carefully discussed in relation to the importance 
of making requests and revealing professional needs. Much time was 
spent in discussion about the equipment now available and that 
which is under way, as well as in discussion about new publications 
that are in preparation. Demonstration of equipment was especially 

Perhaps the most exciting part of the presentation was when some 
excellent tapes were presented in line with the topic, "Have You 
Heard Any Good Books Lately?" The difference between reading the 
printed page visually and reading a book by listening when it has 
been well recorded was convincingly drawn. As a sighted person, Mr. 
Bray almost dared the sighted people in the audience to really 
improve their listening skills if they wish to share these with children. 

Mr. Bray, representing a public agency, made clear not only the 
function of a public agency, but also the necessity of cooperation 
with all appropriate private agencies. 

Some of the more important ideas presented by Mr. Bray and in 
the recorded materials included the following: 

1 . Listening is a method of reading. 

2. Large, progressive libraries are moving to books on cassettes, 
treated just as regular books. 


3. Make technology work for you. 

4. Decide what parts of the history of education and technology 
you need, and use them. 

5. Consumer participation— with both teacher and student as the 

6. Listening and hearing are not the same. 

7. Become involved in the development of technology. 

8. Be aware of listener's comfort if he is to enjoy reading. 

9. The listening form of reading allows use of creative writing just 
for listening. 

The Teacher and Technology: Learning Through Listening 

Presented by Robert A. Bowers 

Robert A. Bowers has been associated with listening technology 
for the past eight or ten years, as he developed institutes at Teachers 
College, Columbia University, in cooperation with the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. His interests have included not only 
equipment and procedures needed to work in the area of learning by 
listening skills, but also those related to braille reading and the 
equipment needs in the area of orientation and mobility skills. 

During the first institutes, participants were largely selected from 
graduate students in the various programs at different universities, 
with the addition of educators, engineers, and administrators. 
Equipment from general supply houses and equipment specifically 
designed for the visually handicapped were observed and evaluated. 
The scope of the program justified the work on the campuses of 
Teachers College and MIT. The final institute utilized the knowledge 
gained in the first two. 

At the third institute, representatives from teacher preparation 
institutions concerned with preparing teachers of the visually 
handicapped were invited, along with representatives from spe- 
cialized agencies and schools. The field trips found to be most 
helpful during the previous institutes were included, as well as the 
slides and explanations of various devices. The state of technology 
and engineering, with possible contributions and difficulties, was 
thoroughly explored. There was an urgent desire to have educators 
become involved and work closely with those who develop equip- 
ment. Repeatedly expressed was the idea that equipment is badly 
needed, but also considered was the human element in using the 
equipment as being vital to all future research and demonstration. 

Dr. Bowers presented slides from the institutes in the East and 
related the experiences of the institutes to the importance of the 
teacher's role in technology. Representing faithfully the point of 


view of the teacher and the needs of handicapped children, he was 
able to share the best of the achievements both of the developers of 
equipment and of the teachers of handicapped children. 
The presentation of Dr. Bowers' can be outlined as follows: 

1 . Technology is here now— the age of the mass media, with 
more education going on outside the classroom than inside; 
hence, action is necessary. 

2. The exceptional child is unique, and technology can be made 
to meet his needs. 

3. Much of the current technology is available right now- 
electronic canes, reading devices, tape recorders, searching 
devices that give back auditory symbols, sensory aids devised 
by MIT, and laser canes. By supporting these efforts, we 
bring down the costs and help handicapped persons. We also 
enhance our teaching as we seriously evaluate equipment 
both positively and negatively when necessary. 

4. Find out about existing technology. 

a. Hold institutes for teachers and administrators. 

b. Videotape materials. 

c. Examine periodicals. 

5. Learn to write specifications for creating materials. State the 
purpose of equipment specified and its possible relation to 
education if it is relevant. 

6. Early intervention with very young children with new devices 
is important. 

7. See that technological devices become integral instructional 
methods, not just optional audiovisual equipment. 

8. Learn from the past, and share the information with all 

9. Proper field testing of devices is absolutely necessary. It is 
your responsibility to cooperate with researchers when there 
is an opportunity to field test equipment with handicapped 

10. Speak up for long-range funding. There are far too many 
short-term projects in which far too little information is 
gained. The effects of certain equipment on the children over 
a long period of time and the durability and service 
requirements of the equipment can become very important 
both educationally and economically. 

1 1 . Be open to change and educate children for change. (Perhaps 
that means keep the channels open for the child and do not 
stop his adaptability to change.) 


1 2. Technology is getting cheaper and cheaper. 

13. Do not be caught unprepared to try out new devices. 

The Master Tape Library 
Compressed Speech and Aural Media Center 

Presented by Robert J. Gowan 

The Master Tape Library was discussed by Robert Gowan at the 
request of the participants. Since many of those in attendance had 
not had previous experience with the Library, it was most helpful to 
have a brief discussion. Originally, only visually impaired persons 
requested and received the Library's services. As will be seen in the 
following comments, many more handicapped children may profit 
from the program than presently do so. 

Those at the Institute felt that California has been resourceful in 
offering this service as a part of a larger service program of 
educational materials in the different media. Perhaps in no other part 
of the country have teachers been able to request and secure such 
comprehensive service. 

Mr. Gowan's description of the program follows; 

Students in public and private schools who are unable to read regular 
printed materials can be provided with recorded materials geared to their 
individual learning needs and levels. 

The materials now located in the Master Tape Library (MTL) have been 
developed and selected by a committee of specialists serving in county and 
school district programs for exceptional children. The MTL can duplicate 
available tapes of textbooks, reference books, and other study materials for 
the visually handicapped, the orthopedically handicapped and other health 
impaired, the educationally handicapped, the educable mentally retarded, and 
the homebound and hospitalized students. 

At present, the tape library consists of approximately 2,000 titles, with 
additional titles being added daily. District personnel may send ink-print 
copies of materials they wish recorded when they find that these titles are not 
in the existing library. All MTL titles are capable of being compressed at rates 
between 20 and 50 percent. 

The library master tapes are standardized. The materials are recorded on 
1200-foot, four-track tapes at 3% inches per second. Schools obtaining 
materials from the MTL are asked to accept duplications recorded to MTL 
specifications. To keep the speed-length ratios compatible, duplicate tapes 
on which the speed is reduced from 3% ips to 1% ips must be recorded on 
600-foot tape. The playback speed for cassettes is consistent at 1 % ips on 
C-120 cassettes. However, with the advent of new equipment, this speed and 
length may be reduced by half. 

Persons interested in the Master Tape Library and the Compressed Speech 
and Aural Media Center may obtain catalogs and information regarding the 
program by writing to Master Tape Library, 721 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, 
California 95814. 


Georgie L. A bel 
Department of Education 

California State University, San Francisco 

Robert J. Gowan 

Master Tape Library 

California State Department of Education 

Sixty participants, a group of consultants, and the staff of the 
Institute experienced a productive five-day session dealing with a 
most exciting topic, "Learning Through Listening." During the 
Institute, the application of research affecting both normal and 
handicapped children was explored. The contributions of persons 
from various areas of exceptionality made it possible for each 
participant to share both experiences and questions. 

The informational presentations at the beginning of the Institute 
provided the necessary background for the "sharing" sessions during 
the second half of the Institute. There were ample opportunities for 
applying the previous research findings to the activities of the teacher 
of handicapped children. Demonstrations of equipment and explana- 
tions of available services offered great encouragement to teachers of 
all types of handicapped children. The participants expressed keen 
interest in the needs of the visually handicapped, the retarded, the 
orthopedically handicapped, and children with severe problems in 

Because of the expert discussions about available technology, 
there was a genuine desire to examine equipment during the 
exploration sessions, and also during the demonstrations that were 
offered in the general sessions. Teachers were urged to be more 
creative in their use of all types of equipment and to gain more 
knowledge of technology needed and under way. Repeatedly they 
were asked not to be afraid of technology. In all experimentation 
with equipment, the teachers were asked to recognize that whichever 
approach or use of equipment was selected, it is only important to 
children in terms of the difference it makes in the educational 



The formal presentations in the first part of the Institute of 
necessity had to be brief and selective. As a result, all of the papers 
could not be presented in their entirety; and, indeed, some of them 
had to be cut much more than might be desired. The staff had finally 
to accept the fact that the participants received greater benefit than 
would be possible for those who were not in attendance. The 
purpose of this publication is to encourage other teachers and 
administrators to develop further institutes, to share knowledge, and 
to engender greater understanding of the importance of developing 
listening skills in all children. It is also hoped that there will be a 
fuller appreciation for using technology to enhance learning by 
listening skills. 

A new respect for listening was developed at the Institute. All the 
speakers who had experimented with various forms of curriculum 
and research testified that the potential is vast. Greater development 
of equipment and more careful attention to teaching strategies can 
make a great difference in the skills of both teachers and handi- 
capped children. Each participant was urged to share with his 
administrators the impact of the Institute and to encourage further 
similar experiences to help more teachers gain greater confidence, to 
secure a greater variety of services, and to engage in more research 
affecting the listening of all concerned. 

It is hoped that through the efforts of those responsible for the 
financing and planning of the Special Study Institute, there will be 
sufficient expression of the Institute's value to warrant future 
projects. The original goal was to conduct two additional institutes 
to include teachers and administrators. Thus, a vital, strong team 
would result that could affect the educational program of many 
more children. In the first Special Study Institute, a beginning has 
been realized; can we expect even greater achievement in the future? 

In summation, let us remember that learning through listening is 
important to all human beings, but to some handicapped children, 
the skill can assume even greater significance. 

Compressors-Actual and Imminent 1 

Emerson Foulke 

Perceptual Alternatives Laboratory 

University of Louisville 

For many years, the commercial availability of speech compressors 
was limited. Around 1960, the Kay Electric Company offered the 
Vari-box, a compressor based upon the Fairbanks principle, but its 
performance was unsatisfactory, and the few that were sold are 
collecting dust on laboratory shelves. Starting in the early sixties, the 
Gotham Audio Corporation in New York began to import the 
Tempo-Regulator, and later its successor, the Information Rate 
Changer. These machines also employed the Fairbanks principle; that 
is, a rotating cylinder which carried four playback heads was used to 
obtain samples of speech from a recorded tape. The Information 
Rate Changer was available in this country until 1970. 

In 1969, Discerned Sound introduced the Whirling Dervish. This is 
a compressor of the Fairbanks type that uses a rotating cylinder with 
four playback heads to obtain samples from a continuous tape loop 
upon which the signal to be compressed or expanded is temporarily 
stored. In the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in 
the development of new speech compressors, particularly electronic 
speech compressors, and many of these developmental efforts are 
now coming to fruition. From correspondence and from direct 
conversations, I gather that there is considerable confusion regarding 
the speech compressors that are currently available or in advanced 
stages of development. The information to follow is presented in the 
hope that it will alleviate this confusion somewhat. The first four 
paragraphs present information about speech compressors that are 
commercially available now. The remaining paragraphs present 
information about speech compressors which exist as successful 
prototypes, but which have not yet been brought into production for 
commercial distribution. The list may not be complete, but it 

*CRCR Newsletter (Louisville, Ky., May 15, 1972), pp. 1-4. Reprinted by permission of 
the author. 



includes all of the speech compressors known to the Center for Rate 
Controlled Recordings. 

The Whirling Dervish, manufactured by Discerned Sound, 4459 
Kraft Avenue, North Hollywood, California 91602 [current address 
is P.O. Box 217, Palm Desert, California 92260], is an electro- 
mechanical compressor of the Fairbanks type. It is available as a 
separate unit, or as a component in a system which also includes a 
Teac tape recorder that has been modified to provide continuously 
variable tape speed. The control of this recorder has been integrated 
with the control of the compressor, and it is used to play the tape 
that is to be compressed. At present, the selling price of the Whirling 
Dervish alone is $3,000, and the selling price of the system including 
the Whirling Dervish and the tape recorder is $3,595. A more 
detailed description of this compressor is presented in the Volume 2, 
Number 10, and the Volume 5, Number 4 issues of the CRCR 
Newsletter. Now under development at Discerned Sound is a 
compressor of the same general type as the Whirling Dervish. It will 
be less flexible than the Whirling Dervish but it will sell at a 
significantly lower price. Discerned Sound expects to report its 
availability and price before long. 

The VOCOM I is manufactured by PKM, 1976 Ryan Avenue West, 
St. Paul, Minnesota 55113. This compressor obtains the samples that 
are represented in the compressed reproduction by starting and 
stopping a tape as the signal is being recorded on it. The decisions to 
stop the tape are based upon information obtained from the signal 
that is being copied. In one mode of operation, compression is 
achieved by stopping the tape recorder during the unfilled intervals 
that are distributed throughout fluent speech production. To obtain 
additional compression, the copying tape recorder may be set to 
sample vowel sounds by stopping and starting repeatedly while they 
are occurring. The compressed signal is recorded on a cassette, and 
the cassette transport is an integral part of the equipment. The 
VOCOM I accomplishes speech expansion by lengthening the unfilled 
intervals in fluent speech production. The selling price of the 
VOCOM I is $995. An article giving a more detailed description of 
the VOCOM I will appear in the next issue of the newsletter. 

Varispeech-I is an electronic speech compressor developed by 
Professor Francis Lee, a member of the faculty of the Department of 
Electrical Engineering at M. I. T., and manufactured by Lexicon, 
Inc., 60 Turner Street, Waltham, Massachusetts 02154. This com- 
pressor includes a cassette transport on which the signal to be 
compressed is reproduced, and a small, special-purpose computer 
which obtains from the input signal the samples that are reproduced 


consecutively in the compressed output. The device is also capable of 
speech expansion. The selling price of the Varispeech-I compressor is 
SI, 500. A more detailed description of the Varispeech-I appeared in 
Volume 6, Number 4 of the newsletter. 

The Cambridge Research and Development Group, 21 Bridge 
Square, Westport, Connecticut 06880, has announced the success of 
their effort to incorporate the functions required for the electronic 
compression of speech in two integrated circuit chips. These chips 
are small enough to be included in even the smallest cassette 
recorders. Cambridge estimates that volume production of this pair 
of chips should bring their costs down to approximately S10, and 
that inclusion of the chips in a cassette recorder might raise its cost 
by as little as S40. Cambridge Research and Development Group 
is not a manufacturing concern, but it is currently engaged in the 
negotiation of agreements with manufacturers of tape recorders who 
will be licensed to incorporate the Cambridge circuitry in the 
equipment they manufacture. One licensing agreement has already 
been announced. Crown International. 1718 West Mishawaka Road, 
Elkhart, Indiana 46514, is now accepting orders for a discrete 
component version of the Cambridge compressor that will be built 
into their Crown 800 tape recorder, a professional recorder of the 
type used in the broadcast industry. The Cambridge compressor was 
described earlier in the Volume 6, Number 2 issue of this newsletter. 

The speech compressor under development at Compressed Time, 
Inc., 261 West 11th Street, New York, New York 10014, is an 
electromechanical compressor of the Fairbanks type. The prototype 
I observed incorporates a cassette transport, modified for continu- 
ously variable speed, on which the signal to be compressed is 
reproduced. The samples of the input signal that appear in the 
compressed reproduction are obtained by a sampling wheel with four 
playback heads, from a storage loop on which the input signal is 
temporarily recorded. Like other compressors of this type, the one 
being developed by Compressed Time, Inc. is also capable of speech 
expansion. This compressor is not yet in production, but its 
developers are negotiating with manufacturers at present. Their 
objective is a compressor that is cheaper, smaller, and easier to 
operate than other compressors of the electromechanical type. 

The AmBiChron, developed by Mr. Richard Koch, 67 Smith 
Street, Lynbrook, New York 11563, is a prototype electronic 
compressor. It is in essence a special-purpose computer that obtains 
from the input signal the samples which are reproduced consecu- 
tively in the compressed output. It is also capable of speech 
expansion. In its present form, it does not incorporate a tape 


transport for playing the tape to be compressed. However, if a tape 
recorder with an AC motor is used for this purpose, this motor may 
be operated from a variable frequency power supply in the 
compressor, and the necessary adjustment in tape speed is then 
accomplished with the same control knob that is used to adjust the 
electronic circuitry for a desired compression. The AmBiChron is not 
commercially available as yet, but Mr. Koch is now looking for a 
manufacturer. The Volume 5, Number 11 issue of the CRCR 
Newsletter contains a more detailed description of the AmBiChron. 
A general purpose computer can be used for the time compression 
or expansion of speech, and there are several locations in the country 
at which the necessary software and peripheral hardware have been 
assembled. However, this is an expensive way to compress or expand 
speech, and it is most clearly justified when the additional flexibility 
provided by a computer for the treatment of speech signals is needed 
to obtain information for research and development purposes. 


A Proposal to the State of Kentucky to Establish 
Computer Services for the Blind 

Prepared by Emerson Foulke, Jacob Carries, Jr., Edward Cox, 
T. V. Cranmer, L. P. Hauser, L. T. Mitchell, and David Murrell 

The ARTS System 

The ARTS System (Audio Response Time-Sharing), developed by 
Dr. Kenneth Ingham at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
consists of a time-sharing computer, programmed to perform a wide 
variety of services for blind users, and an audio-response unit that 
transduces the computer output to spoken language. The audio- 
response unit is connected through sixteen telephone lines to the 
telephone system. The users' terminal, which connects to ordinary 
telephone lines, includes two inputs, a standard typewriter keyboard 
and a keyboard resembling the keyboard on a ten-key calculator, and 
an output consisting of a loudspeaker over which the listeners hear the 
computer's response as spoken language. The user gains access to the 
computer by dialing the computer's telephone number. When he has 
established a connection to the computer, he types a code on his 
keyboard that identifies him to the computer, and he is ready to 
request and receive the services the computer is programmed to 
provide. Since the ARTS System's time-sharing computer is con- 
nected to sixteen telephone lines, it can serve sixteen operators 
simultaneously, and it is estimated that it can provide services for 
300 operators on a daily basis. 

At its present stage of development, the ARTS System can provide 
the assistance needed by blind students and blind practitioners in a 
wide variety of professions and occupations in order to compete on 
equal terms with their sighted peers. Here are some examples of 
services now available. 

It can serve as a dictionary. The operator types the word he wants 
defined on his standard typewriter keyboard. If he has spelled it 
correctly, he hears, over his loudspeaker, the full dictionary text 
relating to the word. If he has spelled the word incorrectly, he first 
hears it correctly spelled, followed by the full dictionary text. 



It can provide the blind businessman with a full bookkeeping and 
accounting service. He types his bookkeeping entries on the correct 
keyboard and they are recorded and filed in appropriate categories 
by the computer. He can request the computer to perform 
accounting operations to develop the data he needs to make business 
decisions. All the information he has filed in the computer is, of 
course, available to him instantly on demand. The computer will 
perform for the operator the full range of functions available on the 
modern calculator. He can program, from his keyboard, the sequence 
of operations required in complex analyses. 

The ARTS System can serve as a personal secretary. As the blind 
operator types a letter or other composition, each typed character 
may be pronounced, if he wishes. If he is interrupted momentarily, 
he may ask to hear the last word or sentence he has typed. When he 
has typed the entire composition, he may hear it in its entirety in 
order to proofread and correct it. Once corrected, an execute 
command will cause it to be typed, in proper format. The typed 
copy is available to the operator, and the composition may also be 
filed in the computer for later recall. 

The ARTS System can receive information from other computers, 
operate on this information, store it, retrieve it and transduce it to 
spoken language, thus enabling the blind operator to work as a 
computer programmer. Many blind persons are now employed as 
computer programmers, but arranging for sensible computer output 
is a continuing problem for them. The ARTS System solves this 

The ARTS System can provide programmed instruction in braille 
for the newly blinded adult. In this application, the student receives 
his instruction orally. His efforts to produce braille characters on a 
braille printer, which can easily be connected at his terminal, are 
evaluated by the computer. This printer can also be actuated by the 
computer in order to produce instructional materials for his 

In a further extension of its instructional potential, the ARTS 
System can provide to its users a wide range of computer assisted 
instruction. Possibilities include academic subjects, such as mathe- 
matics and foreign languages, pre-vocational subjects, such as basic 
arithmetic operations and English grammar, and vocational subjects, 
such as electronics and computer programming. 

The ARTS System will make possible a greatly increased supply of 
braille reading matter for use by blind students. Any person who is 
an accurate typist can type on the standard typewriter keyboard at 
an ARTS terminal. The input thus generated is processed by the 


computer, which then actuates a braille printer, producing properly 
contracted Grade 2 braille. Thus, it is no longer necessary for the 
person who wishes to transcribe printed matter into braille to 
prepare himself for this task by mastering an esoteric skill. 
Transcription can be accomplished by anyone who knows how to 

The computer can store large quantities of general information, 
likely to be of interest to its clients, and produce it on demand. It 
could, for instance, provide a reading service which might include 
daily news summaries, a calendar of current events, best selling 
books, weather information, etc. 

The examples just given constitute only a few of the services the 
ARTS System can now provide. The inclusion of additional services 
is limited only by the imagination of the programmers who create 
the system's software. The reader wishing a fuller description of the 
ARTS System is directed to Dr. Kenneth Ingham, Protestant Guild 
for the Blind, 456 Belmont Street, Watertown, Massachusetts 

Computer Services for the Blind 

Dr. Ingham's objective is the deployment of the ARTS System 
throughout the United States. He has recently received financial 
backing from the Protestant Guild for the Blind and is actively 
pursuing this objective. He is currently arranging for the delivery of 
ARTS services to blind clients in the greater Boston community. On 
a recent visit to Dr. Ingham's laboratory, Dr. Emerson Foulke, 
Director of the Perceptual Alternatives Laboratory at the University 
of Louisville, became acquainted with the capabilities of the ARTS 
System. On his return to Kentucky, he proposed to Mr. T. V. 
Cranmer, Director of the Division of Services for the Blind, State 
Department of Rehabilitation Services, that ARTS services also be 
made available to the blind citizens of Kentucky. Because he was 
impressed with the potential of the ARTS System for providing 
rehabilitative and educational services for blind clients, Mr. Cranmer 
organized a group including blind practitioners in professions and 
professional workers in the education and rehabilitation of blind 
persons, and arranged for this group to visit Dr. Ingham's laboratory 
in order to gather more detailed information about the services that 
can be delivered by the ARTS System and the cost associated with 
the delivery of such services. This group was convinced of the 
economic feasibility of the system, and impressed with its enormous 
potential as a tool for rehabilitation and education. Consequently, 


this group became a steering committee, with Dr. Foulke as its 
chairman, and this committee has developed the following plan. 

A public corporation, to be known as Computer Services for the 
Blind (CSB), is to be formed. This corporation will be governed by a 
board of directors qualified by their interest, ability, and experience 
to render such a service. A bill, a copy of which is included in this 
document, will be presented to the State Legislature for considera- 
tion when it next meets. Passage of this bill will provide the money 
needed to purchase the computing machinery and other equipment 
required for the establishment of the ARTS facility, and to provide 
CSB staff salaries for the first two operating years. It is estimated 
that by the end of the second year, CSB will be serving 300 blind 
clients in the State of Kentucky. A user charge of $2.00 per hour will 
be made, and the corporation expects to be self-sufficient by the end 
of the second year. 

The ARTS facility will be located in Louisville, because the 
Louisville community affords the highest concentration of potential 
clients who could gain access to the system through local telephone 
service. If the ARTS facility were located elsewhere, these clients 
would have to gain access over long distance telephone lines, and 
operating expense would be greatly increased. Clients living else- 
where in the state will have to gain access over long distance lines, 
but long distance costs will be charged to CSB, and not to clients. 

A university provides an ideal context in which to locate an 
operation such as CSB. A university stores in its libraries much of the 
information, and includes on its faculty much of the expertise that 
would be useful to CSB staff in its operation of the facility. The 
University of Louisville has agreed to make available, without charge, 
secure and properly maintained space in which to locate the ARTS 
facility to be operated by CSB. The University's contribution will 
include the space needed to accommodate two staff members, the 
computing machinery, and storage of computer software and other 
records. The University's maintenance of this space will include 
heating in the winter, cooling in the summer, the custodial service 
required to keep it clean, and surveillance by the University security 
division. CSB will furnish and equip the space and meet all other 
operating expenses. 

There is little doubt that the ARTS System will prove econom- 
ically feasible. There is good reason to believe that it will have 
become self-maintaining by the end of the second year. The services 
it provides to blind clients throughout the state would be much more 
expensive if made available in conventional ways. Beyond this, its 
role as an educational and rehabilitative tool challenges the imagina- 


tion. It will convert many blind recipients of public assistance to 
employed taxpayers. Over the years, the reduced demand on public 
assistance funds and the increased contribution of tax income to the 
state treasury will amount to a very considerable practical benefit to 
the State of Kentucky. An even more significant return will be the 
sense of personal worth and achievement experienced by those who, 
in large measure, owe their success as students and practitioners in 
useful occupations and professions to the services made available 
through CSB. The State of Kentucky is being requested to fund the 
initial operation of CSB in the belief that it will make a significant 
contribution to the well-being of generations of Kentucky citizens. 

The Audio-Tutorial Method 

Emerson Foulke 

Perceptual Alternatives Laboratory 

University of Louisville 

Description of the Method 

This is a proposal to present the introductory course in psychol- 
ogy by the Audio-Tutorial method, as developed by Dr. S. N. 
Postlethwait, a professor of biology at Purdue University. Under this 
approach, the content of a course is divided into a large number of 
internally coherent segments, and these segments are arranged in a 
logical sequence. Each segment is carefully considered in order to 
determine: (a) the best way to present and explicate its content; and 
(b) what would constitute evidence of mastery of that segment's 
content. Each student works in a carrel, where he finds a desk, 
writing materials, a tape player operated by foot pedals, earphones, 
and a collection of materials especially chosen for their usefulness in 
promoting the comprehension appropriate to a particular segment. 
These materials might include a collection of leaves, a few micro- 
scope slides and a microscope for viewing them, a kit of electronic 
components and a voltmeter, a group of chemicals, or a set of 
Rorschach cards. Before going to the carrel where a particular course 
segment is to be studied, the student receives a sheet of paper, 
containing a written statement of the behavioral objectives appro- 
priate to that segment. That is, the paper tells him what he must be 
able to do in order to demonstrate mastery of the segment. At the 
carrel, he puts on his earphones, presses a foot pedal, and begins to 
listen. He hears the voice of his instructor, who begins to guide him 
toward the discovery of the content of the segment he is to master. 
The instructor will give him some facts, but he will also ask him 
questions, and show him how to use the materials assembled for Jus 
use to develop the information needed in order to answer those 
questions. The instructor will also assist the student in developing 
procedures for finding out what he, the student, knows and what he 
doesn't know about the subject matter of the segment at hand. At 
any point in this process, the student may retrace by listening to all, 



or parts, of this tape again, or by working with all, or some, of his 
materials again. Furthermore, if the instruction provided by the tape 
is not clear to the student, he may seek assistance from an instructor, 
one of whom is always on duty while the carrels are in use. 

When the student has received the information and carried out the 
instructions contained on the tape, he has finished that segment of 
the course. However, he cannot advance to the next segment, until 
he has given satisfactory evidence that he has mastered the segment 
just finished. He provides this evidence in a small group testing 
session, held once each week. First, there is an oral examination, in 
which the instructor directs questions concerning the content of the 
segment to the various group members. Elaboration of one student's 
answer by other group members is encouraged, and answers are 
discussed, challenged, and defended. Questions not correctly 
answered by any group member may be answered by the instructor, 
or may define the objective for a further work assignment. Following 
the oral examination, each student takes a short written examination 
designed primarily to permit him to demonstrate his mastery of the 
facts appropriate to the segment covered by the test. 

If the student passes both the oral and the written examination, he 
has demonstrated a "C" level of mastery, and may advance to the 
next segment of the course. If he fails the test, he must spend 
additional time on that segment, and attend the small group testing 
session again. In preparing for his second examination, he has, at his 
disposal, all of the resources that were available to him the first time. 
Since he has encountered difficulty with the segment, he may wish 
to request increased assistance from the instructor on duty. 

In addition to individual study sessions, and small group testing 
sessions, there are occasional general assembly sessions, attended by 
all of the students in the course, in which material best presented 
by means of lectures is given. These lectures will probably be given by 
the course instructor, although guest lecturers may sometimes be 
called upon. 

For those students who wish to demonstrate higher levels of 
mastery— "A" level or "B" level— two or three additional tests, more 
comprehensive in nature, are given during the course of the semester. 
In addition to providing evidence of fact mastery, these tests are 
designed to explore the student's ability to organize information, 
distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information, draw conclu- 
sions and implications, detect and demonstrate knowledge of 
relationships, etc. If a student elects to take these tests and fails, he 
has not jeopardized his "C" standing. He has only failed to 
demonstrate mastery at an "A" or "B" level. 


Following are some of the advantages of the system just described. 
Although each student proceeds at his own pace, all students who 
finish the course achieve at least a "C" level of mastery. Students 
vary, then, not with respect to whether or not they achieve mastery, 
but with respect to the amount of time required to achieve mastery. 
Because an instructor is always on call at those times when students 
have access to the carrels, the instructional program provides 
sophisticated branching operations, not available in rigid, predeter- 
mined courses of programmed instruction. Student performance on 
each segment of the course provides fairly precise and immediate 
feedback for use by the instructor in further refining the organiza- 
tion and presentation of each segment in order to improve its 
effectiveness as a learning experience. Moreover, since each segment 
can be modified at any time, the course can easily be updated. 

Levels of Mastery 

Since the most important objective of the Audio-Tutorial method 
is to ensure mastery, it becomes particularly important to decide 
about the kind of evidence that will be considered in determining 
levels of mastery. The following suggestions for evidence of mastery 
are preliminary, and in need of further development. Nevertheless, 
they should serve to indicate the general approach. 

1 . The student must demonstrate that he knows the facts about 
the objects and events under consideration in the course, and 
some of the relationships among these objects and events. 

2. The student must be able to achieve a useful arrangement of 
these facts, and to communicate this arrangement to others. A 
typical demonstration of this ability is provided when a student 
answers an "essay question." A good answer to a question of 
this type includes the relevant facts, excludes irrelevant facts, 
and organizes the relevant facts according to a useful logic. 

3. The student must be able to draw conclusions from a given set 
of facts. Typical examples might be the solution to an algebra 
problem, the result of mixing two or more chemicals together, 
the consequence of crossing two plants, the estimation of a 
particular author's philosophy of history on the basis of the 
positions he has taken with respect to specific events, the 
determination of the school of art to which a particular painting 
should be assigned, etc. 

4. The student must be able to relate facts not related for him by 
the instructor, the book, etc. He must combine facts presented 
in a given segment of the course or, at a more advanced level, 


draw together facts from different segments of the course and 

from other sources, such as books. 

5. The student must be able to employ the facts, concepts and 

skills acquired during the course of instruction creatively. He 

must be able to plan and execute an informative and useful 

experiment, or write a composition with literary merit, or 

produce a painting or musical composition that has artistic 

worth, etc. 

The student who meets the first two criteria provides evidence for 

mastery at the "C" level. The purpose of the small group testing 

sessions is to obtain such evidence. The student who, in addition, 

meets the next two criteria satisfactorily, provides evidence for 

mastery at the "B" and possibly the "A" level. The student who 

satisfactorily meets the fifth criterion, as well, clearly shows mastery 

at the "A" level. The longer examinations mentioned earlier, two or 

three of which are given during the course of instruction, provide the 

student with the opportunity to demonstrate mastery at the "A" or 

"B" level. 

Anticipation of a Criticism 

It is generally agreed that the teacher performs two functions- 
instruction and evaluation. In the background section of this 
proposal, it was suggested that the use of the traditional lecture 
method emphasizes evaluation and de-emphasizes instruction. As a 
matter of fact, if measurement and evaluation were the primary 
objectives, a good strategy would be to present a standard experi- 
ence, such as a series of lectures, to a group of students differing 
widely in learning aptitude, because under those conditions, the 
distribution of scores on a test covering the content of the lecture 
series should be an accurate reflection of the distribution of 
differences in learning aptitude and motivation in that group. The 
test would indicate that a few students had gained little or nothing 
from the lecture series, but nothing would be done about it except to 
record the fact on the student's transcript and on his grade report. 
The extent to which this cheerless news constitutes a salutary 
experience is open to question. 

As a contrast, the Audio-Tutorial method emphasizes instructional 
objectives. Evaluation is an integral part of the method, but 
evaluation is not regarded as an end in itself. The student must also 
achieve course mastery. Because every student who completes the 
course achieves this objective, there are no "F's" to dispense at 
the end of the course. If a student does not complete the course by the 
end of the semester, he merely receives a grade of "Incomplete," and 


this grade is removed as soon as he completes his work. Since no 
student can finish without showing mastery, each student completing 
the course experiences success. Students who do not complete the 
course within the allotted time are not confronted with final, 
negative judgments regarding their abilities. Each student is simply 
reminded that he has not yet completed his work, and he knows that 
he will receive a satisfactory grade as soon as he does so. 

It may be objected that this approach emphasizes instruction at 
the expense of evaluation. The university has the sometimes 
unpleasant, but unavoidable responsibility of determining differences 
among its students with respect to academic ability, and of 
communicating this information to those who have a legitimate need 
to know. By making course completion contingent upon mastery, 
and by excluding failing grades as possibilities, differences among 
students are obscured so that reliable information about academic 
ability cannot be obtained. However, this is not a fair criticism. It is 
true that the usual distribution of test scores is not available, but 
there is information about how difficult it has been for each student 
to meet course criteria. For instance, there is for each student a 
record of the number of times it was necessary to test him in order 
to obtain the evidence of mastery for each segment, and, if he has 
received a grade of "Incomplete," there is a record of the time taken 
by him to remove that grade. Information of this sort, if properly 
considered, may permit judgments about academic ability that are at 
least as reliable as judgments based on more conventional informa- 
tion. The teacher will .know how well the student has done, 
something about how difficult it was for him to do that well, and 
that he has done well enough to meet at least minimum standards of 
acceptable performance. 

The foregoing remarks have pertained primarily to the student of 
modest ability and uncertain motivation. It is this student who is 
most likely to be neglected by the conventional lecture method. 
Unfortunately, the majority is constituted by students of this type. 
The superior student will prosper under either method. In fact, he 
will succeed in spite of the method. 

Commercial Materials for Reading by Listening 

I. Pre- ''Reading by Listening" activities and allied skills 

A. Auditory discrimination 

1 . Identifying sounds other than words 

Early Childhood Record Series (Kimbo). Series 10. No. 

LP7010. $5.95. Numbers, instruments, nursery 

rhymes, sounds of the city, jungle animals, and farm 

I Heard It with My Own Ears (Miller-Brody). 12 cassettes. 

No. T4003. $137.50. Familiar and not so familiar 

sounds. City, music, animals. 
Buzzer Board (DLM). No. W135. $8.50. Nonverbal 

auditory discrimination. Uses short and long signals in 

simple, then complex patterns. 
See-Through Sound Cylinders (Maplewood). No. 7004. 

$7.00. Twelve clear plastic cylinders to be filled to 

produce a variety of sounds when shaken. 

3. Localizing sound sources 

Audi-Ball (Constructive Playthings). No. AB30. $8.50. 
Eight-inch ball containing large bell. Soccer ball 

Early Childhood Record Series (Kimbo). Series 13. No. 
LP7013. $5.95. Stories and songs presenting concepts 
of distance, measuring, and so forth. 

Basic Training in Auditory Perception (Concept Rec- 
ords). Vol. 1. S5.95. Varying pitches, intensities, and 

4. Hidden sounds 

Basic Training in Auditory Perception (Concept Rec- 
ords). Vol. 2. $5.95. Distinguish environmental 
sounds; respond to relevant sound. 

5. Identifying sounds within words 

Listening with Mr. Bunny Big Ears (Educational Activ- 
ities, Educational Record Sales, Kimbo). Six 12-inch 
records. $29.95. Dramatic play emphasizes a partic- 
ular sound. 



Listen and Learn Speech Improvement (Educational 
Record Sales). Four 7-inch records. $10.00. Sammy 
Snake and so forth. Songs and stories. 

B. Descriptions 

Building Verbal Power (Educational Record Sales). Album 4. 
$4.98. Encourages use of descriptive language through 
experiences with nouns and verb modifiers. 

C. Follow directions 

Listening Skills Program (SRA). Grades 1-6. Twenty-four 

lessons for each grade. Cassettes, $496. Open-reel tapes, 

$332. Records, $264. 

Primary grades: Awareness of pitch and volume, develop- 
ing sentence patterns, concept that sound implies 
action, use of context to develop vocabulary, aware- 
ness of fantasy. 

Intermediate grades: Auditory discrimination, instant 
recall, following directions, remembering sequence, 
listening for main idea and remembering details, cause 
and effect, visualizing and listening for mood, infer- 
ring information, distinguishing fact from opinion. 

D. Listen for rhyme, rhythm, and colorful combinations of 

American Encyclopedia of Learning Through Music (Miller- 
Brody). Six 12-inch records, $4.95 each. No. 100/6. 
Cassettes, $5.95 each. No. 1001/6C. Conceptual, motiva- 
tional program set to music. Time, seasons, habits. 

Early Childhood Record Series (Kimbo). Series 5-9. No. 
LP7005/9. $5.95 each. Christmas, fairy tales, marches, 
song of the sea, ail-American. 

The Child and His World (Society for Visual Education). 
Albums 10-15. Two records or cassettes. Each set $1 1.50 
or $15.50 (cassettes). Roles as family members, students, 
and friends in singing story-lessons. 

E. Associations 

Building Verbal Power (Educational Activities, Kimbo, Educa- 
tional Record Sales). Album 1. Exercises and games 
dealing with opposites, sentence completion. 

F. Auditory closure 

Meet Mr. Mix-up (Educational Activities, Educational Record 
Sales), 12-inch record, $7.95. Cassette, $8.95. In music 
and rhyme, students spot mistakes and omissions. 


Building Verbal Power (Educational Activities, Kimbo, Edu- 
cational Record Sales). Album 1. Exercises and games 
dealing with opposites, sentence completion. 

H. Listen with involvement 

Who Said It? (Educational Activities). One record and picture 
cards. $10.00. Four situations teaching listening, discrimi- 
nation, deciding, and answering. 

I. General 

What is Listening? (Educational Record Sales). One 12-inch 
record. S5.95. Teaches not only the "how" but the 
"why" of listening. 

II. Comprehension 

Listening Skills Program (SRA). Grades 1-6. Twenty-four lessons 

for each grade. Cassettes, $496. Open-reel tapes, $332. 

Records, $264. 

Primary grades: Awareness of pitch and volume, developing 
sentence patterns, concept that sound implies action, use 
of context to develop vocabulary, awareness of fantasy. 

Intermediate grades: Auditory discrimination, instant recall, 
following directions, remembering sequence, listening for 
main idea and remembering details, cause and effect, 
visualizing and listening for mood, inferring information, 
distinguishing fact from opinion. 
EDL Listen and Think Program (EDL). Grades 1-9. Fifteen 

open-reel tapes, $97.50. Cassettes, $107.50. Also available 

adapted by APH. 

Level 1-2: Develop listening and thinking skills such as 
recognition of concepts of space and time, cause and 
effect, alike-different, and serial order. 

Level 3-6: Identifying main ideas, recognizing sequence, 
summarizing, comparing, recognizing cause and effect, 
predicting outcomes, using senses, understanding char- 
acter, understanding setting, recognizing foreshadowing, 
sharing feelings, enjoying humor, recognizing speaker's 
purpose, fact and opinion, visualizing, drawing 

Level 7-9: Understanding character, setting, conflict, theme, 
qualities of literature, recognizing foreshadowing and 
Alameda County PACE Center Listening Project (Alameda). 

Training materials for listening skills for grades 2, 5, 8, and 

1 1 . Based on language comprehension skills A through J. 


Building Verbal Power (Educational Record Sales). Records. 
$4.98 each. 

Album 3: Develops ability to think categorically and to 
reason verbally through training in construction and use 
of simple similes and analogies. 
Album 5 : Practice arriving at word meaning through context 
Comprehension Through Listening (Educational Record Sales). 
Records. $4.98 each. 

Vol. 1 : Listen for main idea and subordinate idea in selections. 
Vol. 2: Expand skills in listening selectively. 
Auditory Training Records (Maico). 

My Weekly Reader— Listening Comprehension Paragraphs (Ameri- 
can Education Publications). 1966. 4th, 5th, 6th grades. 

Company Addresses 

Alameda County Schools Curriculum Library, 224 West Winton Avenue, 

Hayward, California 94544 
American Education Publications, 1250 Fairwood Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 

American Printing House for the Blind, 1839 Frankfort Avenue, Louisville, 

Kentucky 40206 
Childcraft Education Corporation, 964 Third Avenue, New York City, New 

York 10022 
Children's Music Center, Inc., 5373 West Pico Boulevard, Los Angeles, 

California 90019 
Concept Records, Box 524, North Bellmore, New York 11710 
Constructive Playthings, 1040 East 85th Street, Kansas City, Missouri 6413 1 
Creative Playthings, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 
Developmental Learning Materials, 3505 North Ashland Avenue, Chicago, 

Illinois 60657 
Educational Activities, Inc., P.O. Box 392, Freeport, New York 1 1520 
Educational Development Laboratories, Coast Visual Education Co., 5610 

Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90028 
Educational Progress Corporation, P.O. Box 45663, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74145 
Educational Record Sales, 157 Chambers Street, New York City, New York 

Educational Teaching Aids, A. Deagger and Company, 159 West Kinzie Street, 

Chicago, Illinois 60610 
Ginn and Company, 125 Second Avenue, Waltham, Massachusetts 02154 
Imperial International Learning, Box 548, Kankokee, Illinois 60901 
Jeri Productions, 1213 North Highland Avenue, Suite 209, Los Angeles, 

California 90038 
Kimbo Educational Records, P.O. Box 55, Deal, New Jersey 07723 
Listening Library, Inc., 1 Park Avenue, Old Greenwich, Connecticut 06870 


McGraw Hill, Webster Division, Manchester Road, Manchester. Missouri 0301 1 
Mafex Associates, Box 519, Johnstown, Pennsylvania 1 5907. 
Maico Company. 21 North Third Street, Minneapolis, Minnesota 54401 
Maplewood Products Co., Inc., 119 Foster Street, Peabody, Massachusetts 

Media, R/A, Inc., Box 2067, Van Nuys, California 9 1404 
Miller-Brody Productions, 342 Madison Avenue, New York City, New York 

National Center for Audio Tapes, Bureau of Audio-Visual Instructions. 

University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80302 
Peripole Record Corporation, 51-17 Rockaway Beach Boulevard, Far Rockaway, 

New York 11691 
Play and Learn, 9015 Fullbright Avenue, Chatsworth, California 91311 
Playtime Equipment Company, 808 Howard Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68102 
Science Research Associates, Inc., 259 East Erie Street, Chicago, Illinois 6061 1 
Scott, Foresman and Company, 2000 East Lake Avenue, Glenview, Illinois 

Sensory Aids Corporation, 175 Terminal Drive, Plainview. New York 1 1803 
Society for Visual Education, Inc., 1345 Diversey Parkway, Chicago, Illinois 

Spoken Arts, Inc., 59 Locust Avenue, New Rochelle, New York 10801 
Stanley Bowman Company, Inc.. 4 Broadway, Valhalla, New York 10595 
H. Wilson Corporation, 555 West Taft Drive, South Holland, Illinois 60473 


Adler, Sol. The Non-Verbal Child. Springfield, 111.: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, 

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Birch, Herbert G., and Lillian Belmont. "Auditory-Visual Integration, Intelli- 
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Bishop, Marguerite. "Lecturing in High School: Resolutions for Another Year," 

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Institute Participants 


Robert A. Bowers, Columbia University, Broadway and West 1 16th Street, New 

York City, New York 10027 
Robert S. Bray. Library of Congress, 10 First Street SE, Washington, D.C. 

Donald Cross, San Francisco Unified School District, 135 Van Ness Avenue, San 

Francisco, California 94102 
Emerson Foulke, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40208 
Robert J. Gowan, California State Department of Education, 721 Capitol Mall. 

Sacramento, California 95814 
Marjorie Greeley, California State University, San Francisco, 1600 Holloway 

Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132 
Philip H. Hatlen, California State University, San Francisco, 1600 Holloway 

Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132 
Ursula Hogan, 1 18 Ortega Street, San Francisco, California 94122 
F. Tom Kellis, Berkeley Unified School District, 1414 Walnut Street. Berkeley, 

California 94709 
Christine Kusaba, California State University, San Francisco, 1600 Holloway 

Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132 
Helen Lagan, Recording for the Blind, 488 West Charleston Road, Palo Alto, 

California 94306 
Rose-Marie Swallow, California State University, Los Angeles, 5151 State 

University Drive, Los Angeles, California 90032 
Joan Sweeney, California State Department of Education, 217 West First Street, 

Los Angeles, California 90012 
Dean W. Tuttle, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado 8063 1 
Belle R. Witkin, Auditory Perceptual Training Project, 224 West Winton Avenue, 

Hayward, California 94544 


Marcia J. Allsopp, California State University, San Francisco, 1600 Holloway 

Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132 
Margaret Anderson, Indian Wells Valley Joint Union School District, 414 West 

Ridgecrest Boulevard, Ridgecrest, California 93555 
Lucy Berardi, Los Altos Elementary School, 161 South San Antonio Road, Los 

Altos, California 94022 
Elizabeth Beresford, San Mateo High School, 506 North Delaware Street, San 

Mateo, California 94401 



Betty Bingham, Richmond High School, 125023rd Street, Richmond, Cali- 
fornia 94804 
Jean F. Boothby, La Jolla Elementary School, 1111 Marine Street, La Jolla, 

California 92037 
Barbara Bunuan, American Printing House for the Blind, 1839 Frankfort 

Avenue, Louisville, Kentucky 40206 
Marcheta Cannon, Oxnard High School, 937 West Fifth Street, Oxnard, 

California 93030 
Beverly Casebeer, Orinda Union Elementary School District, 8 Altarinda Road, 

Orinda, California 94563 
Sharon Christian, Center for Exceptional Children, 2501 Cypress Avenue, 

Eureka, California 95501 
Nancy Curtis, Crestmoor High School, 300 Piedmont Avenue, San Bruno, 

California 94066 
Thomas Dayton, Alyce Norman School, 1200 Anna Street, Broderick, Cali- 
fornia 95605 
Aura Lee Deaver, Charles Mack Elementary School, 4701 Brookfield Drive, 

Sacramento, California 95823 
Leroy Dinges, San Francisco Unified School District, 135 Van Ness Avenue. San 

Francisco, California 94102 
Mary Durham, Senior Elementary School, 945 South Ham Lane, Lodi, 

California 95240 
Carol Fagerlund, Solano County Schools, 655 Washington Street, Fairfield, 

California 94533 
John J. Flores, Riverside County Schools, 4015 Lemon Street, Riverside, 

California 92502 
Connie Fortmeyer, Lincoln Elementary School, 1 107 East Santa Clara Street, 

Ventura, California 93001 
LaVerna Fredregill, Rowland Unified School District. 1830 Nogales Street, 

Rowland Heights, California 91748 
Robert W. Gartin, Sacramento City Unified School District, 1619 N Street, 

Sacramento, California 95810 
Hiawatha D. Godine, San Francisco Unified School District, 135 Van Ness 

Avenue, San Francisco, California 94102 
LaVerne R. Graf, Sacramento City Unified School District, 1619 N Street, 

Sacramento, California 95810 
Margarete M. Greene, Sacramento City Unified School District, 1619 N Street, 

Sacramento, California 95810 
Colleen Hallen, Theuerkauf Elementary School, 1625 San Luis Avenue, 

Mountain View, California 94040 
Naomi Hurd, Southwest School for Orthopaedically Handicapped, 10409 Tenth 

Avenue, Inglewood, California 90303 
June Judge, Ardis G. Egan Intermediate School, 100 West Portola Avenue, Los 

Altos, California 94023 
Jacqueline C. Kabel, West Covina Unified School District, 1717 West Merced 

Avenue, West Covina, California 91790 


Patricia W. Keith, Glendora Unified School District, 352 North Wabash Avenue, 

Gendora, California 91740 
Richard L. Knowles, Santa Clara Unified School District, 1889 Lawrence Road, 

Santa Clara, California 95052 
Lillian G. Layton, William P. Toler Elementary School. 3350 Baker Street. San 

Diego, California 92117 
Helen E. Leithold, Los Angeles County Schools, 15516 South Doty Street, 

Lawndale, California 90260 
Carol Lewis, Garden Grove Unified School District, 10331 Stanford Avenue, 

Garden Grove, California 92640 
Mary Livingston, Crestmoor High School, 300 Piedmont Avenue. San Bruno, 

California 94066 
Minnie M. Long, Pete W. Ross Elementary School, 7470 Bagdad Street, San 

Diego, California 92 1 1 1 
Alvin A. Lopez, Center for Exceptional Children, 2501 Cypress Avenue, Eureka, 

California 95501 
Christine Mackey, 202 West Grangeville Boulevard, Hanford, California 93230 
Robert McMullen, California School for the Blind, 3001 Derby Street. Berkeley. 

California 94705 
Ruth B. Mather, Fontana Unified School District, 9680 Citrus Avenue, Fontana, 

California 92335 
Valeta Michel, Las Lomas High School, 1460 South Main Street, Walnut Creek, 

California 94596 
Florence R. Mohr, Diagnostic School for Neurologically Handicapped Children, 

Lake Merced Boulevard and Winston Drive, San Francisco, California 94132 
Darrell Mountjoy, Newport-Mesa Unified School District. 1601 Sixteenth Street. 

Newport Beach, California 92663 
Marilyn Newton, Temple City Unified School District, 9516 East Longden 

Avenue, Temple City, California 91780 
Marta Noss, Southwest School for Orthopaedically Handicapped. 10409 Tenth 

Avenue, Inglewood, California 90303 
Betty Jean Olsen, Lawton Elementary School. 1570-3 1st Avenue, San Francisco, 

California 94122 
Miriam Osborne, Temple City Unified School District, 9516 East Longden 

Avenue, Temple City, California 91780 
Christine Patterson, Napa County Multihandicapped School, Yountville. Cali- 
fornia 94599 
Erta Penn, Elk Grove Elementary School, Elk Grove Boulevard. Elk Grove, 

California 95624 
Carol Phillips, Mt. Pleasant School District, 1900 Flint Avenue, San Jose, 

California 95122 
Verna Phillips, John D. Sloat Elementary School, 7525 Candlewood Way. 

Sacramento, California 95822 
Cecil E. Rhodes, 2743 Marty Way, Sacramento, California 95818 
Dan Robertson, California State University, Los Angeles. 5151 State University 

Drive, Los Angeles, California 90032 


Perry Rosenburg, El Camino School for the Trainable Mentally Retarded. 400 

East Arrow Highway, Pomona, California 91766 
Michelle Stevenfeldt. Lakeshore Elementary School, 220 Middlefield Drive, San 

Francisco, California 94132 
Mary Taylor, Sunny Hills School, 300 Sunny Hill Drive, San Anselmo, 

California 94960 
Eleanore R. Tylock, Stanislaus County Schools, 2205 Laguna Drive, Modesto, 

California 95350 
Ray Van Alstyne, Washington Unified School District, 930 West Acres Road, 

West Sacramento, California 95691 
Leo Visbal, San Bernardino High School, 1850 E Street, San Bernardino, 

California 92405 
Jeanne Vlachos, Los Angeles County Schools. 15516 South Doty Street. 

Lawndale, California 90260 
Lasha Wilcken, Del Ray Woods Elementary School, 1281 Plumas Avenue, 

Seaside, California 93955 
Robert Wilson, Canyon High School. 19600 Cull Canyon Road. Castro Vailey. 

California 94546 
Rosalie Wyllie, Wasco School for Orthopedically Exceptional Children, Fifth and 

Griffith Streets. Wasco. California 93280 
Sylvia H. Younger, Elk Grove Senior High School. 9800 Elk Grove— Florin 

Road, Elk Grove, California 95624 
Jack Zisko, Anaheim Union High School District. 500 North West Street. 

Anaheim. California 92803 

72-83 DE 3786 7-73 700 

Jacobus tenBroek Library