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Noble Liverwort (Hepatica trtloba, p. 147) : 1, a stamen seen in front ; 2, in 
rear ; 3, a pistil or carpel ; 4, 5, the ovale pendulous, and anatropous, i. e., bent over 
on its stalk ; 6, a section of the full-grown seed, showing the 2-cotyledoned embryo 
at the end of the large albumen. (From " 14 Weeks in Botany. ") 

)tm* aad <f 1 













Pleasing lessons for young learners. 


A thorough text-book, comprehensive and practical. 


A superb and exhaustive compilation and encyclopedia of the science. 


A complete field outfit, consisting of Portable Trunk, Drying Press, 
Trowel, Lens, Tweezers, Etc., prepared under the supervision of 
Prof. Wood. 


A book of blank forms, facilitating the analysis of plants, and recording 
the results of such analysis, and the progress of the student. 

*** The Publishers will send either of above, postage or freight prepaid, on receipt 
of price. 

Copyright, 1888, by A. S. BARNES & CO. 


Among the happiest days of our childhood were those devoted to the 
study of Botany. Pure sunshine rests upon the memory of those rambles 
in the fields and woods, amid the opening flowers of Spring, and then in 
the gay profusion of advancing Summer, in which we made acquaintance 
with many a floral gem before unknown. We love to think of that wild 
woodland lake where first we saw the sparkling Sundew, the quaint 
Sarracenia, and the fair Nymphaea, resting on the bosom of the waters ; 
or of that lowly dell by the brookside, where the Yellow Violet, the 
Hepatica, and the Bloodroot bloomed ; or of that craggy mountain, 
where, among the rocks, the Columbine hung out its scarlet flowers. 
Then returning home with our gathered treasures, how we entered with a 
will upon the work of Analysis, toiling for hours as no schoolmaster could 
have compelled us to do, being attracted to the task by the very love of it 
alone. Here, then, we have at least one department in learning whose 
earnest pursuit is so congenial to the affections and tastes of the mind as 
to be no irksome task, but a pastime, — a perpetual feast; and this not 
only to maturer minds, but to the season of early youth even in a higher 
degree, since then the objects of nature are especially invested with the 
charms of novelty. 

Let it not be said, however, that Botany attracts such willing votaries 
because it requires no labor, no persevering effort. No science is more 
intricate or profound. It cannot be understood except by vigorous and 
persevering effort. Consequently, in its successful pursuit there is disci- 
pline for the mind as well as for the body; and since the subject itself is 
replete with refinement and beauty, and fresh from the hand of God, its 
pursuit must also conduce to the invigoration of the moral nature. 

If, then, it be desirable to preoccupy the minds of our children with 
controlling ideas of purity, refinement, and moral beauty, — with exalted 


thoughts of God, habits of mental activity, strength of judgment, and 
decision of character; and, moreover, to do all this by means of a study 
whose path, in a double sense, is strovvn with flowers, then is the study 
of Botany desirable; and that labor is not in vain which is bestowed 
upon the preparation of a work designed, like the present, for primary 
classes, from the ages often to fourteen. 

As the title implies, we have aimed to represent to the eye nearly every 
subject or form treated of, or described in these Lessons. But, notwith- 
standing the copiousness of these illustrations, neither the teacher nor the 
pupil will be satisfied to rely upon their aid alone. Nature alone can 
afford the proper illustrations in the study of Nature's works, and it is 
only by comparison with the living specimen that eitlur the picture or 
the description becomes intelligible. Therefore let specimens in unlimited 
number accompany every botanical recitation. 

Most of the figures are original. Others have been derived from Maout, 
Payer, Richard, Balfour, Lindley, and a few, by permission, from Darl- 
ington's u Weeds and Useful Flants." 

Finally, to the children and youth of our country, gathered in schools 
of every name, this humble volume is dedicated, with confident belief that 
it will prove to many of them a source of intellectual and moral culture 
as well as of pure and rational delight. 

Buooklyn, N. Y., February 23, 1863. 

The Publishers have recently provided and have on sale a set of apparatus of the most 
approved Conn for the use of the student in botanical pursuits, and as described in the CIhss- 
Book, page 15. it consists of a knife-trowel for digging and cutting specimens, a microscope 

and twt&en for analysis, a tin-bo.r for preserving them fresh, and a press for drying them. 
The Set, securely packed, will be by Express to order, at a moderate price. 

The Plant Record. 

"TJie Botanical Index" a work for Schools and Seminaries, altogether new and pecu- 
liar. It gives blank forms, by which an analytical record can be made of the plants and 
flora, the student may examine. 

Also, in tlit domain of $ci<nc>\ the Publishers offer 
Steele's 14 Weeks" Course in Astronomy. 

" M " Chemistry (with Apparatus). 

M M " Philosophy (with Apparatus). 

44 t4 4k Geology (with Cabinets), 

44 44 4 * Physiology (with Models). 


Preface 5 

Lesson 1. The Leaf and its parts 9 

2. Veins and Venation of the Leaf 11 

3. Forms and Figures of Leaves 15 

4. Forms and Figures of Leaves 19 

5. Other Forms and Figures 22 

6. Margin and Apex 20 

7. Compound Leaves 28 

8. Sessile Leaves. — Forms of Stipules 32 

9. Arrangement of Leaves and Buds 35 

10. Appendages, &c 38 

11. Organs of the Flower 41 

12. More about the Calyx and Corolla 43 

13. About Adhesions 48 

14. Forms of the Perianth 50 

■ 15. Concerning the Stamens 54 

16. More about the Stamens 59 

17. The Plan of the Flower 62 

18. Of the Pistils 67 

19. How the Leaves are folded in the Bud 71 

20. How the Flowers are arranged on the Plant 75 

21. The Inflorescence continued 78 

22. Concerning the Fruit 83 

23. Fruits continued 88 

. 24. Concerning the Seeds 92 

25. The Seed becoming a Plant 95 

26. Life of the Plant, or its Biography 100 

27 Of the Axis of the Plant 103 

28. Of the Stem or Ascending Axis 106 

29. Plants to be arranged in Classes 113 



Lesson 30. The Natural System , 115 

31. More about the Natural System . . 119 

32. Of the Analysis of Plants. 122 

33. How to Analyze a Plant by the Tables 125 

34. Various Suggestions and Cautions 128 

i bbreviations and Signs 131 

Analysis of the Natural Orders 132 

The Flora. — Cohort 1. The Polypetalous Exogens 143 

Cohort 2. The Gamopetalous Exogens 215 

Cohort 3c The Apetalous Exogens 275 

Cohort 4. The Conoids (omitted). 

Cohort 5. The Spadiciflorse 2S2 

Cohort 6. TheFloridiae 284 

Glossary of Botanical Terms 302 

Index to the Names of Species, Genera, Orders, &c 309 





Fig. 1. Leaf of the Quince. 

1. We have before us the picture of a Quince leaf, care- 
fully drawn from nature. It is of a rich green color, very 
pleasant to the eye. Its outlines are full, even, and grace- 
fully curved, and its upper surface is smooth and naked. 
Although it is indeed but one leaf, yet it seems to be made 
up of three parts — £, p, ss. 

2. The upper part, b^i& broad and thin, and is called the 


blade. The upper end of the blade is the apex, and the 
lower end is the base. You see at once that the outline of 
this blade represents a certain form or figure, with an even 
margin, rounded, and broader at the base than at the apex, 
like the figure of an egg. So it is called an egg-shaped leaf; 
or, to use a softer word, ovate. 

3. Now see how this blade is supported. At the base it is 
suddenly narrowed to a foot-stalk, which is properly called 
the petiole. You see that this part of the leaf is narrow and 
slender, and in this leaf terete, or cylindrical, in form. But in 
some kinds of leaves it is flattened. Remember its name, — 

4. Lastly, at the base of the petiole you notice a pair of 
little leaf-like bodies, one on this side and one on that. These 
we call the stipules. Stipules, then, are always in pairs, and 
placed at the base of the petiole. Their shape is quite 

5. Thus, when a leaf is complete, it consists of a blade, a 
petiole, and a pair of stipules. But you will not find every 
kind of leaf complete. Many sorts have no stipules at all. 
Can you find stipules on the leaves of the Lilac? Some 
leaves, moreover, have not even a petiole. See the leaves of 
Phlox. Such leaves are said to be sessile, that is, sitting. 

1. What is the color of the leaf cf the Quince bush? What is the color 
of leaves generally ? Ans. Green, of lighter or darker shade. What of the 
outline of this leaf? — its upper surface? 

2. What is the blade t — the apex ? — the base ? What is the figure of th* 

3. How is the blade supported? Describe the foot-stalk. Tell its real 

4. Describe the stipules. 

5. Now state the three parts of a complete leaf. Do aU kinds of leaves 
have stipules ? Do the leaves of the Lilac ? — of St. Johnswort, &c. ?— of the 





6. The blade of the Quince leaf (Fig. 2) shows many veine 
running through it, and branching all over it. Examine 

Fig. 2. Leaf of the Quince, showing the veins. 

them. First, the petiole seems to be extended and continued 
right through, from the base to the apex, forming the largest 
vein in the leaf. This is the midvein. 

7. Next observe several large branches sent off from this 
midvein on both sides, right and left. These are the vei&ilels. 
Now, looking at these veins, their arrangement reminds us of 
a feather, and we call such leaves feather-veined. Therefore, 

Violet? Do all kinds of leaves have petioles? — of Phlox, for example! 
VVhat do you understand by sessile leaves ? 

6. Describe the midvein of the Quince leaf. 

7. Describe the veinlets. What is the feat her- veined venation ? 



we may say that the feather- veined venation consists of one 
midvein branching into veinlets. This is very common. 

8. Thirdly, the veinlets themselves send off little branches 
(branchlets) on their right and left, and we call these the 
veinulets. These again and again may divide, and finally, all 
the little divisions unite again, forming a complete net-work 
all over the leaf. Thus we learn what a net-veined leaf is. 

Fig, 8. The Willow leaf. Some of the veinulets are shown. 

9. Here is a picture of the Willow leaf (Fig. 3). You can 
point out all its parts, and the three kinds of veins in it. In 

Fig. 4. Leaf of the Red-bud (Gercis). 

8. What are the veinulets? When is a leaf said to be net veined? 



the next cut (Fig. 4), representing the Judas-tree or Red- 
bud leaf, you see a different venation. 

10. At the base of the blade the petiole seems to divide 
all at once into five large veins, each running through, one 
to the apex, and four to the margin. In this case the vein- 
ing (that is, the venation) is compared to the division of the 
hand (or palm of the hand) into fingers, and so named pair 

Fig, 4 <z. Leaf of Sweet-gum {Liquidambar). 

mate venation. Therefore, you may say that the palmate 
venation consists of about five veins starting together at the 
base of the blade, each one branching into veinlets and 
veinulets. Fig. 4 a is a lobed leaf of the Liquidambar tree 

9. Note the parts of this Willow leaf. Point out its midvein. Its veinletf 

10. Define the palmate venation What are the veins ? 



with palmate venation. Maple leaves are very familiar ex 
amples of the same. 

11. Our next figure (5) represents the leaf of 
the Tulip. How very different is its venation ! 
How smooth, even, and polished its surface ! The 
veins all run side by side, from base to apex, in 
graceful and regular curves. They are so nearly 
parallel, that this kind of venation is called the 
parallel venation. Look at the grass leaves, the 
Corn leaves, and the Palm leaves, and see the 
same kind of venation. 

Fig. 5. Leaf of Tulip. 

Fig. 6. Leaf of the Climbing Fern. 

12. Let us examine one other kind of venation, and the 
list will be complete. Here is a cut showing the leaf of 

11. Define the parallel venation. Mention examples. 

12. The forked venation. Examples. 

Now repeat the names of the five or six kinds of venation. 



Climbing Fern (Fig. 6). To say nothing of the five veins 
(which are palmate, as in the leaves of Sweet-gum, Fig. 4 a), 
you may notice the veinlets, how they fork and run to the 
maigin, without uniting again to form a net-work. This is 
the forked venation. Yon will find this sort in nearly ail 
the Ferns. 



13. You have already noticed that the form of the Quince 
leaf, and of most others, is a thin, flat expansion, presenting 
a large surface to the air. A few plants have thick, solid 
leaves, as the leaves of the Live-forevers and Ice-plants 

Fig. 7. Eepresents a branch of Juniper, with awl-shaped leaves (subulate). 
Fig. 8. Leaves of the Fleur-de-lis (Iris) ; they are sword-shaped (ensiform). 
Fig. 9. Leaves of the Scotch Pine; they are needle-shaped (acerose). 

Other plants have slender leaves, as the Pines. See Figs. 
?, 8, and 9. 

13. What is the general form of leaves ? What plants have thick and 
solid leaves? What form of leaves has the Pine? the Iris? the Juniper? 


14. We also spoke of the figure of the outline of the 
Quince leaf, which is ovate. But you must have observed 
that there is a very great variety in the figure of leaves, af- 
fording a very interesting study. First, we will examine, one 
by one, the figures of the feather-veined leaves (Figs. 10-21.) 

Fig. 10. Ovate leaf of the Pear-tree. 
Fig. 11. Lanceolate leaf of the Flowering Almond. 
Fig. 12. Narrow lanceolate leaf of the Weeping Willow. 
Fig. 13. Deltoid leaf of the White Birch. 

15. The leaf of the Flowering Almond (Fig. 11) is lanceo- 
late. It is narrower than ovate, shaped like a lance, having 
the lower half wider than the upper. This Willow leaf (Fig. 
12) is narrowly lanceolate. The leaf of the Lombardy Pop- 
lar, or of the White Birch (Fig. 13), is so broad at the base 
as to form a three-sided figure, like the Greek letter (A) delta. 
Hence it is a deltoid leaf. 

1 4. What is the figure of the Quince leaf? 

15. Describe the figure of the leaf of Flowering Almond ; of the Weepjag 
WiUow ; of the Lombardy Poplar, &c 



16. In the next four kinds of leaves you will notice that 
the broadest place is midway between the base and apex. 
Thus the orbicular (Fig. 14), or rounded, leaf is about as 
broad as it is long. The oval leaf (Fig. 15) is about one-third 
longer than broad. This Plum leaf is an example. The el- 
liptical (Fig. 16) is about twice longer than broad, and the 
oblong (Fig. 17) is three or four times longer than broad. 
Here are examples. 

Fig. 14. Orbicular leaf of Winter-green (Pyrola). 
Fig. 15. Oval leaf of the Plum-tree. 
Fig. 16. Elliptical leaf of Block Ilaw. 
Fig. 17. Oblong leaf of a Willow. 

17. We next have four varieties of forms which are broader 
towards the apex than base. First, the obovate (Fig. 18), 
like this leaf of the Smoke-tree. Its outline is like that of 

16. When is the figure of a leaf called orbicular ? Will you show me 
specimens ? Describe an oval leaf, and give specimens. Describe an ellip 
*.ical leaf, and give examples. Pescribe an oblong leaf, and give examples. 

17. When wiU the figure of a leaf become obovate ? Give examples of 



the egg inverted. A similar form, but narrower, is the oh 
lanceolate ; that is, the inverted lance-shaped, like the ,ea\ 
of Papaw, or Fig. 19. Next, still narrower, is the spatulate, 
a figure compared to the surgeon's spatula (Fig. 21); and 
lastly, the wedge-shaped, or cuneate, tapering from a broad 
apex to a slender base, as in Fig. 20. 

Fig. 18. Obovate leaf of the Smoke-tree (Rhus Cotinus). 
Fig. 19. Oblanceolate leaf of MuhJenbur^'s Willow. 
Fig. 20. Cuneate leaf of a Sundew (Drosera longifolia). 
Fig. 21. Spatulate leaf of a Sundew (variety of D. longifolia). 

18. Thus we have arranged these twelve forms of feather- 
veined leaves into three classes. 

such leaves. Oblanceolate ? Show us examples. Spatulate ? Show us ex 
amples. Wedge-shaped, or cuneate ? Give examples. 

18. Repeat the names of the four leaf-forms broadest at base; — the four 
broadest in the middle ; — the four broadest towards apex. 





19. In many kinds of leaves we find the parts at the base 
more or less enlarged backwards, as you see in this picture 

Fig. 22. The Morning-glory. 

of the Morning-glory leaf (Fig. 22). This is the heart 
shaped, or, more properly, the cordate ]eaf. It is truly an 



elegant figure in this and in the Lilac, &c. But sometimes 
this peculiar enlargement at base becomes excessive, and the 
figures more curious than elegant. Such is the arrow-shaped 
figure, called sagittate, having long-pointed base lobes, as 
seen in the Arrow-head (Fig. 47), the Scratch Knot-grass, &c. 
(Fig. 26.) 

Fig. 23. Keniform leaf of Wild Ginger. 
Fig. 24. Keniform leaf of Pennywort. 
Fig. 25. Peltate leaf of Pennywort. 
Fig. 26. Arrow-shaped leaf of Scratch 

Fig. 27. Spatulate leaf of Silene Virginica. 

Fig, 28. Fraser's Magnolia : obovate- 
flpatulate, auriculate at base. 

Fig, 29. Oblong leaf of the Toothod 

Fig. SO. Three-lobed leaf of Liverwort. 

20. In the common Sorrel leaf, and in Fraser's Magnolia 
leaf (Fig. 28), these base lobes remind one of ears, and such 
leaves are said to be auriculate (from the Latin auricula, ar 

19. Describe the cordate leaf, and give examples. The sagittate, and ex 

20. Describe the auriculate form, and give examples. The renifornx 



ear). In some leaves these lobes are very broad and round- 
ed, giving to them a kidney-shaped form, that is, re?iiform ) 
as you see in this Wild Ginger leaf (Fig. 23), and in the 
Pennywort (Fig. 24). The peltate, or shield-shaped leaf (Fig 
25 — another Pennywort) has its base lobes united, and its pet 
iole fixed to the under side. See, also, Nasturtion leaves. 

21. We will next study a class of forms with deeply lobed 
or cleft blades, not well filled up between the veinlets. 

Fig. 31. Bi-pirmatifid leaf of Pig-weed. 

Fig, 32. Sinuate-lobed leaf of White Oak. 

Fig. 33. Undulate-lobed leaf of Jack Oak. 

Fig. 34. Lyrate leaf of Moss- cup Oak. 

Fig. 35. Lobed leaf of Mulgedium (Blue Milkweed). 

First, look at this Liverwort leaf (Fig. 30). It is cleft in 
two places, rendering it three-lobed. The Sweet-gum leaf 
(Fig. 4 a) is five-lobed Oak leaves are lobed in many pat- 

The White Oak has a sinuate- 

terns, according to the kind 

21. What is the figure of the Liverwort leaf? What the figure of the 
Maple leaf ? What kind of venation have these last two ? Define the fig" 
ure of the "White Oak leaf. Of the Mossy-cup Oak. 



lobcd leaf (Fig. 32), the Mossy-cup Oak has a lyrate leaf, 
having its terminal lobe larger than any other (Fig. 34). 
22. Fig. 35 is the leaf of a kind of Milkweed, called Mid- 

gedium, with sharp lobes pro- 
jecting at right angles to the 
raidvein ; and Fig. 3(5 is of the 
Wild Lettuce, with lobes point- 
ing or hooking backwards. 
Such leaves are called run- 
cinate. The Dandelion has 
I "^/^ v also runcinate leaves. When 

jp=/ a leaf has only shallow lobes, 

as you see in Fig. 33, it ap- 
pears with a wavy outline, 
called undulate. It is a leaf of that beautiful tree called at 
the West, Jack Oak. 

Fig. 36. Leaf of Lactuca elongate, or 
Wild Lettuce. 



23. It is now time to learn the difference between a sim- 
ple and a compound leaf. The simple leaf has but one 
blade, as the Quince leaf, and all the leaves which we have 
hitherto noticed. We have now before us a compound leaf, 
one plucked from a Rose-bush (Fig. 39), consisting of several 
distinct blades on one petiole. It has also one pair of stip- 

22. Wliat of the figure called runcinate ? Describe the undulate Is*! 
What example ? What kind of venation have the last four forme f 
28 What is a simple leaf? A compound leaf? 



ff./ Fig. 37. Compound leaf of Eed Clover. 
1 Fig. 88. Simple leaf of Willow (Salix lucida). 
5. Fig. 39. Compound leaf of Rose. 

ules, like a simple leaf. This Clover leaf is also compound 
(Fig. 37), having stipules (s), as well as this simple leaf of 
the Shining Willow (Fig. 38). 

24. But here is a leaf, the Celandine (Fig. 40), which is 
almost, but not quite, compound. The blade is feather- 
veined, and deeply divided into several parts, called segments. 
Such a leaf is called pinnatifid. In Fig. 31, the leaf of a 
garden weed (Ambrosia), you observe that the segments are 
themselves pinnatifid, so that the leaf is twice or Tji-pinnatifid 

24. Please define the pinnatifid leaf. The bi pinnatifid. 



25. But what form of 
leaf is this (Fig. 41) of 
the Fennel-flower, with 
such a multitude of nar- 
row segments ? You may- 
call it pin-nat-i-sect,& long 
word which signifies dis- 
sected in a pinnatifid 
manner. The Thistle leaf 
is also pinnatisect, al- 
though quite different in 

26. Fig. 42 represents 
a pedate leaf of a Pas- 
sion-flower. Observe its 
palmate venation, each of 
its veins bearing a seg- 
ment, and each lower 

Fig. 40. Pinnatifid leaf of Celandine. 
Fig. 41. Pinnatisect leaf of Fennel-flower. 

segment double, so resembling a bird's foot. Pedate means 

tig. 42. Pedate leaf of Passion-flower. Fig. 43. Laciniate leaf of Monk' s-hocd 

25. What do you call such leaves as those of the Fennel-flower ? 



27. The singular leaf of Monk's-hood ap- 
pears as if gashed with scissors, and may 
be called laciniate, or gashed (Fig. 43). 

28. The parallel-veined leaves may have 
figures similar to the net veined, as lanceo- 
late (Fig. 44), orbicular (Fig. 45), cordate 
(Fig. 46), sagittate (Fig. 47), &c. ; but the 
most usual form is the linear , like the Grass 

leaf (Fig. 48), which is long 
and narrow, with sides nearly 
parallel. The sword-shaped 
leaf, or ensiform, differs from 
the linear in having its edges 
vertical, not horizontal as 
other leaves. See the Iris. 8. 

26,27. Pedate? Laciniate? State 
tlie venation of the above forms. 

28. What is a linear leaf? an en- 
siform ? Define the word vertical 

Fig. 44. Lanceolate,— Lilv of the Valley. Fig. 46. Cordate leaf of Pond-weed. 
Fig. 45. Orbicular,— Round-leaved Orchis. Fig. 47. Sagittate ieaf of Arrow-head 
Fig. 4S. linear leaves of Blue-eyed Grass {Sisyrinchium). 





29. In describing a leaf we are to consider the patterns 
of its border, or margin, which are quite various, and often 
elegant. Some of the leaves heretofore noticed have the 

Fig. 49. Serrate leaf of Chestnut. 
Fig. 50. Doubly serrate leaf of Elm. 
Fig. 51. Dentate leaf of Arrow- wood 

( Viburnum dentatum). 
Fig. 5&, Crenato leaf of Catmint. 

Fig, 53. Bepand leaf of Enchanter'* 

Night-shade (Oirccea Lutetiana). 
Fig. 54. Undulate leaf of Shingle Oak 

(Q. imbricaria). 
Fig. 55. Lobed leaf of Chrysanthemum. 

margins entire and even, as in the Quince leaf, or the LilyT 

But most leaves are notched in various ways. For example, 

30. This Willow leaf (Fig. 3) is notched in the margin 

29. When is the margin said to be entire ? 



like a saw, with the teeth projecting forward. Such a mar- 
gin is said to be serrate, or, if the teeth are quite small, ser- 
rulate. When the teeth point neither forward nor back- 
ward, but outward, we call the margin dentate, or toothed ; 
and if the teeth are quite small, denticulate. See Figs. 49, 
50, 51, &c. 

31. Some leaves are margined with rounded and blunt 
teeth, and we call them crenate (Fig. 52) ; or, if such teeth 
are very small, crenulate. 

32. In Figs. 13 and 50, you see that the teeth themselves 
are again toothed, an arrangement called doiibly serrate. 
So we may find leaves doubly dentate or doubly crenate. 
Thus we have described seven modes or styles of border- 
ing. Several other modes are found described in the larger 





Fig. 56. Apex of leaves: a, obcordate; 0, emarginate ; c, retuse ; d, truncate; 
tf, obtuse ; /", acute; <7, mucronate; A, cuspidate; k. acuminate. 

Fig. 57. Bases of leaves : I, hastate ; w, ft, sagittate ; 0, auriculate ; p, cordate 
7. reriform. 

30 'When is the margin serrate ? When serrulate ? How ioes the der 
Late differ from the serrate ? 

31. What sort of teeth does the crenate imply? Crenulate ? 

32. Explain doubly dentate, &c 


33. It is also necessary to be acquainted with the vari« 
ous forms of the apex of leaves. This diagram (Fig. 56) 
will assist the memory. The apex may be acuminate, end- 
ing in a long, tapering point; or cuspidate, suddenly con- 
tracted to a sharp, slender point; mucronate, tipped with 
a spiny point ; acute, simply ending with an angle ; obtuse, 

34. Or the leaf may end without a point, being truncate, 
as if cut square off; retuse, wdth a rounded and slightly de- 
pressed end where the point should be ; emarginate, having 
a small notch at the end ; obcordate, having a deep inden- 
tation at the end. See also, and explain, the diagram of 
the bases of leaves (Fig. 57). 



35. A compound leaf consists of several distinct blades 
borne on one petiole. (See Lesson V., first paragraph.) 
These separate blades are called leaflets. You notice that in 
Fig. 39 each of the five leaflets has its own foot-stalk, called 
petiolule, and its own midvein, &c. 

36. The Rose leaf (Fig. 58) is pinnately compound, or sim- 

33. What does the term acuminate imply? What sort of apex is tuspi 
date? mucronate? acute? obtuse? 

34. When may we call the apex truncate ? retuse ? emarginate V obcor 
date ? Please name these several forms of the bases of leaves. 

35. Define a compound leaf. What io a leaflet ? What do you call thf 
foot- stalk of the leaflet ? 



ply pinnate, having several leaflets 
arranged along both sides of the com- 
inon stalk. This common stalk, an- 
swering to the mid vein of a simple 
leaf, is called the rachis. 

37. Among pinnate leaves, there 
are, at least, three important distinc- 
tions. Observe the Figs. 59, 60, and 
61. One of them ends with an odd 
leaflet, and is called odd-pinnate. 
Another ends with a pair of leaflets, 
and is equally pinnate. Another still 
has its alternate leaflets smaller, and is interruptedly pinnate, 

Fig. 58. Leaf of the Eose. 

Fig. 59. Odd-phmate leaf ( Tephrosia). Fig. 61. Interruptedly pinnate (Agrimony;. 
Vi-g. 60. Equally pinnate leaf (Cassia). Fig. 62. Pinnately ternate (Lesmodium). 
Fig. 63. Palmately ternate (Clover). 

36. Define the pinnate leaf. What is the rachis ? 

37. Give the distinction between odd-pinnate and equally pinnate. Whal 
leaf is interruutedly pinnate ? 



38. Every one knows that the number of leaflets in the 
Clover is three; also in the Bean, and in this figure (62) of 
the Desmodium leaf. Such leaves are called ternate. Bat 
here the pupil will notice another important distinction. In 
this Desmodium leaf, the odd leaflet is stalked, and is said 
to be pinnately ternate ; in Clover, the 
odd leaflet is nearly sessile, like the 
other leaflets ; this is palmately ternate. 

Fig. 64. Honey Locust. 

Fig. 65. Poison Hemlock. 

39. Fig. 64 represents a li-joinnate (that is, twice pinnate) 
ieaf of Honey Locust. The simple leaflets seem to have 
each become itself a pinnate leaf. And still more compound 
is this Poison Hemlock leaf, being tri-pinnate, or thrice pin- 
nate (Fig. 65). In the same manner, we have bi-ternate and 

38. How many leaflets in a ternate leaf? Difference between the pin 
tiately and the palraately ternate ? 

39. Can you define a bi-pinnate leaf? Tri-pinnate ? What is a bi-ternate 
leaf? A tri-ternate ? 



40. All the above forms of com- 
pound leaves, except the Clover, 
are founded on the pinnate vena- 
tion ; but the palmate venation 
gives us the palmately ternate 
(Clover, already described) ; the 
quinate^ with five leaflets; the sep- 
tinate, with seven leaflets, &c. 
See the leaves of Horse-chestnut, 
of Hemp, and of this Lupine (Fig. 

Fig. 66. A leaf of Lnpine. 
72 73 

Fig. 67. Rose-bay (Rhododendron). 

Fig. OS. Alder (Alnns glauca). 

Fig. 69. Knot-grass (Folygonun sagitta- 

Fig. 70. Papaw (Asimina triloba). 
Fig. 71. Touch-me-not (Impatiensfulva). 

Fig. 72. Sugar-berry (Otitis Americana). 
Fig. 73. Enchanter's Night-shade (Gir- 

cwa lutetiana). 
Fig. 74. Catmint (Nepeta GUchoma). 
Fig. 75. Goldenrod (Solidago Canuik-n. 

sis), a triple-veined leaf. 

The pupils should be required to describe the leaves iu 
this cut, as to venation, figure, margin, apex, and base. 



Fig. 76. Potentilla anserina ; leaf with five cut lobes, almost quinate. 
Fig. 77. Potentilla tridentata; ternate, with palmate, three-toothed leaflets 
Fig. 78. Jeffersonia diphylla ; a binate leaf. 
Fig. 79. Lemon ; a simple leaf jointed to the petiole. 



41. We have already stated (Lesson I., § 5) that many 
-eaves are without petioles (foot-stalks), or, in other words, are 
sessile. The figures presented on page 33 exhibit some of the 
modes of attachment peculiar to sessile leaves. In Fig. 80 
(an Aster) you see leaves of the form called spatulate (Lesson 
III., § 5), having large base lobes nearly clasping the stem 
at the point of attachment. Such leaves are said to be am- 
plexicaul (stem-clasping). 

42. In the next figure (81, Bellwort) the leaves are ellipti- 
cal, parallel- veined, and not only clasp the stem at base, but 
the lobes there grow together on the opposite side, appearing 
?s if the stem passed through the leaf; that is, perfoliate. 

40. What kind of venation have all these forms ? On the palmate vena 
tion what forms are founded ? 

41. When are leaves said to be sessile? Define an amplexicarl lea£ 

42. Can yon define a perfoliate leaf? 



Fig. 80. Amplexicaul leaves of Aster laevis. 

Fig. 81. Perfoliate leaves of Bell wort {Uvularia perfoliata). 

Fig. 82. Connate leaves of Honeysuckle (Lonicera semper •vir 'ens). 

43. In Fig. 82 (Trumpet Honeysuckle) the leaves placed 
opposite are joined together by pairs, base to base. Such 
are connate leaves. 

44. The forms of the petiole, when the petiole exists, are 
also various. Generally, it is merely a rounded, slender 
stem, but you will often find it flattened. Have you ever 
noticed the structure of the Aspen (Poplar) leaf, which so 
easily flutters in the gentlest breeze ? Its petiole is flattened 
vertically, so that its edges turn sky-ward and earth-ward. 
Such a form of leaf-stalk is called compressed, and it must be 
very nicely balanced in order to hold the blade at rest. 

43. When are leaves said to be connate ? 

44. What is the usual form of the petiole ? Carefully describe the petiole 
«f the Aspen. 




45. A winged petiole is flattened horizontally. A sheath- 
ing petiole embraces the stem with its winged edges like a 
sheath. Yon can find plenty of examples of these forms. 

Fig. 83. Hose, — stipules adnate. Fig. 84. Violet ( V. tricolor), — gashed stipules 

46. Let us now study more particularly the varying forms 
of the stipules. We have already defined them. (See Les- 
son L, § 4.) Here is seen the leaf of a Rose and of a Pansy 
("Figs. 83, 84), both with quite showy stipules. The formei 

85 8G 87 

Fig. 85. Leaf of Conioselinum, — tri-pinnate, with sheathing petiole. 
Fig. 86. Leaf of Polygonum Pennsylvanicum, with its (s) ochrea. 
Fig. 87. Stem of Grass, with joint (J) § leaf (I), ligule (*). 
Fig. 88. Leaf of Pear-tree, with slender stipules. 

45. What difference between a winged and compressed petiole ? Can you 
describe a sheathing petiole ? Give examples of these three forms. 


iias its stipules adnate ; that is, growing to the petiole. The 
Pansy has large stipules deeply cleft into many segments. 

47. Figs. 85-88 are very instructive. Fig. 88 is a 
Pear leaf, with an ovate blade, a slender, cylindric petiole, 
and a pair of small, narrow stipules (s). Fig. 86 is a Knot- 
grass leaf, with an ochrea is) ; that is, a pair of stipules si 
joined at the edges as to form a sheath around the stem 
Fig. 87 is a Grass leaf, linear, with a ligule (s) supposed to 
be the top of a doubled stipule. Fig. 85 is a very compound 
leaf of Conioselinum, having a broadly winged, sheathing 



48. If you carefully notice how the leaves are distributed 
over any plant, — the Corn plant, for example, — you w T ill soon 
admire their order and exactness in this respect. At first 
view, we might suppose their positions all accidental ; but it 
is not so, and much of the peculiar aspect of the plant de- 
pends upon this circumstance. 

49. In the Corn plant, or in this figure of Lady's-slipper 
(89), we find the leaves alternate, — that is, one on this side, 
the next one higher and on that side, and so on. So it is in 

46. Stipules ; can you repeat the definition? Describe the stipules of the 
Rose. Describe the stipules of the Pansy. 

47. Describe the stipules of the Pear. Stipules of Knot-grass — what 
called ? Stipules of Grass — what called ? 

48. Are the positions of the leaves on the plant accidental ? 

49. Can you describe the alternate arrangement ? How is this arrange 
ment more accurately deflTibed ? 



the Elm, Cherry, Willow, and many other plants. But it 
would be more accurate to say that the arrangement, in all 
these cases, is spiral. (See Class Book, § 224.) 

89 90 91 

Fig. 89. Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium), — leaves alternate. 

Fig. 90. Synandra, — leaves opposite. 

Fig. 91. Larch (Larix Americana), — leaves fasciculate. 

Fig. 92. Indian Cucumber (Medeola), — leaves whorled. 

50. In the Maple, Lilac, Phlox, and in this figure of the 
Synandra (90), a wild western plant, the leaves are opposite ; 
that is, two opposite ones stand at each joint. The Meadow 
Lily, and this Medeola (Fig. 92) of the New England woods, 
have whorled ovverticillate leaves; that is, several in a circle 
at each joint. Again, look at this Larch (Fig. 91), the Pines, 
<fcc, whose leaves, gathered in little tufts or bundles, are 

50. Define the opposite arrangement. The whorled ; fasciculate 



51. In early spring, before the leaves are expanded, we 
find them folded up in the buds. This is called the verna- 
tion of the leaves (from the Latin vernus, spring). In this 
condition the young leaves are closely packed in many curi- 
ous modes, which are described in the Class 
look, §§209-211. 

52. If we dissect and carefully examine a 
swelling leaf-bud in early spring, we observe 
in the midst of it a tender point of a growing 
pith, bearing and covered by many circles of 
little leaves and scales, packed as close as 
possible. Fig. 91 shows a twig with two 
buds as if split through the axis, exhibiting 
the pith, growing point, young leaves, and 

53. According to this figure and the next 
(91), buds are either terminal (£), situated at 
the end of the stem or twig, or lateral (a), 
situated on the side. But we must more care- 
fully define the position of the lateral buds, 
you that they are amllary^ or located in the axil of a leaf, 
you would not understand, until knowing that the axil of a 
leaf is the upper angle between the leaf-stalk and the stem. 
(See J, Fig. 90.) Now, remember this rule, which you may 
soon confirm by your own observation, that there is a hud at 
the termination of every sUm or branch, and in the azril of 
every leaf. 

Fig. 93. A twig, 
with two lateral 
and one terminal 

Fig. 94. Same, 
split through the 
two buds. 

Should we tell 

51. What is the meaning of the term vernation f 

52. Give a careful definition of a leaf-bud. 

53. What is a terminal bud ? What an axillary ? Where are bude al 
avs found? 





54. The tendril is a very common appendage. Yon ha^c 
Been it in the Grape-vine, the Pea-vine, the Greenbrier, <tc 
It is like a stout, green thread, reaching out its curved point 
like a finger, until it touches some object; then it quickly 
entwines itself around it, and soon acquires a firm hold. We 
do not find tendrils on any plants except such as, like vines, 
are too weak to stand without support. 

Fig. 95. Leaf of Greenbrier, with tendrils in place of stipules. 
Fig. 96. Leaf of Everlasting Pea, — tendrils at end of rachis. 
Fig. 97. Leaf of Gloriosa, — apex ends in a tendril. 
Fig. 98. Air-bladder of Horn-pondweed. 

55. But tendrils are quite various in habit. Those of the 
Pea (Fig. 96) grow from the extremity of the rachis. Those 
of the Greenbrier (Fig. 95), from the base of the leaf-stalk, in 
the place of stipules ; those of the Grap£-Vines are opposite the 
leaves, in the place of clusters. 

56. Many plants are armed with sharp thorns, spines, or 

54. What is the first appendage mentioned ? Please describe the form 
and use of the tendril. 

55. State the habit of the tendril of the Pea • Greenbrier ; Grape-vine. 



prickles, as if in self defence. See the Thorn-bush (Fig. 99). 
where the long straight thorns come from the axils of the 
leaves, and are woody. The 
terrible thorns of the Honey 
Locust (Fig. 100) are branched. 
Those of the common Locust 
are in the place of stipules. 
Those last mentioned, and all 
others which originate with 
the leaves (as in Berberis, 
Thistle, &c), are more prop- 
erly called spines. 

57. As for the Rose and 
Bramble, they are armed with 
prickles, which are horny in 
substance, connected with the 
bark only, not with the wood. 
(See Fig. 101.) 

58. Glands are little wart-like bodies which secrete the 
peculiar fluids of the plant, sometimes imbedded in the leaf 
or the rind of the fruit, as in the Lemon, where it is filled 
with a fragrant volatile oil ; sometimes raised on a hair 
(Figs. 102, 103), as in Sundew, exuding a clammy liquid. 

59. Stings are piercing hairs, having a bag at the base 
filled with an acrid fluid. "When touched the tip breaks off, 
the hair penetrates the skin, and the poison is injected into 
the wound. (See Fig. 106.) 

Thorns. — Fig. 99. Crataegus parvifolia 
(thorns axillary). Fig. 100. Honey Lo • 
cust (branched thorns). 

56. What is the habit of the thorns of the Thorn-bush ? of the Hono} 
Locust ? of the common Locust ? What of the habit of spines ? 

57. What of prickles ? 

58. Describe glands, the two, kinds. 

59. What is the structure and action of stings ? 




What do these figures represent? — Fig. 105 represents a branched hair as it appears 
under a strong magnifier; Fig. 104, an unbranched or simple hair; Fig. 102 is a 
hair with a gland on it; Fig. 103, also, is a gland on the top of a hair; Fig. 101 
represents the hooked prickles of a Kose-bush, not magnified ; Fig. 106 represents 
a sting of a Nettle, much magnified. 

60. Hairs of various kinds (Figs. 104, 105) are found on 
the leaves and other parts of plants. By this clothing pecu- 
liar qualities are given to the surface, named and described 
as follows. 

61. A dense coat of hairs will make the surface pubescent 
when the hairs are short and soft ; villous, when rather long 
and weak ; serieious, or silky ; tomentous, when matted like 
felt, &c. 

62. But thinly scattered hairs make the surface hirsute 
when they are long ; pilous, when short and soft ; hispid^ 
when short and stiff, &c. 

60. How are plants clothed ? 

61. Define the term pubescent; villous, &c. 

62. Define the term hirsute ; hispid, &c 





03. To-day we commence the study of the beautiful flower 
We have before us the Meadow Lily (Fig. 107), whose or- 
gans are large and perfectly 
distinct. Observe, in the first 
place, that its brighter colors 
form a striking contrast with 
the soft green of the leaves. 
The coloring, the structure, 

Fig. 107. Meadow Lily (Lilium Canadensis). 

Fig. 108. Wake-robin {Trillium erectum). 

Fig. 109. Stamens ($, s) and pistil (j>) of the Lily. 

Fig. 110. Stamens (*, ?) and pistils (p) of the Trillium. 


and the fragrance of the flower are all worthy of its Infinite 
Creator, and remind us of his wisdom and goodness. 

64. As to the structure of the flower, it is always com- 
pound, being composed of several or many pieces nicely 
adapted to each other. In this Lily, for example, you may 
count thirteen pieces, or organs, attached in a close order to 
the summit of the flower-stalk (Fig, 113, a). You may call 
the flower-stalk the peduncle, and the point of attachment (r) 
the torus, or receptacle. The former is the better name. 

65. Two circles of leaf-like organs form the envelopes of 
this flower, and each circle consists of three pieces. The 
outer circle is the calyx, and the three pieces which compose 
it are called sepals (s, s, s). The inner circle is the corolla, 
and the three pieces which compose it are called petals 
(p,p,p). In the Lily and some other flowers the calyx is 
colored like the corolla. But it is not so generally. In the 
Rose, Strawberry, Pink, and in this Trillium (Fig. 108), the 
calyx is green, while the corolla is almost always distin- 
guished by some brighter color. 

66. Now, taking both calyx and corolla together as a 
whole, we call them the perianth (a Greek word, meaning 
around the jtower). This name is very convenient when we 
speak of such flowers as this, where the calyx and corolla are 
not much different. 

63. What is the subject of to-day's lesson ? What do you notice as to the 
color of the flower ? 

64. What is said of the compound nature of the flower? Of how many 
pieces is the flower of the Lily composed? What is the peduncle? Wliwt 
is the torus ? 

65. Will you point out and define the calyx? sepals? Will you point 
out and define the corolla ? petals ? What of the colors of these organs ? 

68. What is the use of the word perianth ? Will you point out and define 
the stamens ? What of their number ? What is the pistil ? How many ? 


67. Next within the perianth of the Lily we find six long, 
slender organs of peculiar form and color, called stamens. 
In the Rose yon find a larger number (perhaps one hundred) 
of stamens, while in the Speedwell you find but two. But 
the most common number is five. Count them in the Morn- 
ing-glory, the Bellwort, Primrose, &c. 

68. Lastly, this central, club-shaped body (j?), here as long 
as the stamens, but of totally different- structure, is thepistil. 
Other flowers have mox*e than one pistil, as the Pink, which 
lias two , the Rose, which has many. 

69. Thus, we have learned that the flower — at least this 
flower — is compounded of four kinds of organs, those of 
each kind being arranged in a circle by themselves. The 
outer circle, of sepals, constituting the calyx ; the second 
circle, of petals, constituting the corolla ; the third circle, 
the stamens ; the fourth circle, the pistils. 



70. Let us examine the flower of the Pink (Fig. 112), the 
Strawberry (Fig. Ill), the Crowfoot, the Single Rose. In 
either you observe five green sepals, and the same number 
of colored petals. Notice also the positions of those organs, 
— how the petals stand alternating with the sepals, and that 
they are all distinct and separate. This is the general rule, 
but there are many exceptions. 

67. Lastly, review the whole arrangement. 

70. What is the rule as to the number of petals and sepals ? What is the 
rule as to their relative position, &c.V 







Fig. 111. Flower of the Strawberry. Fig. 112. Flower of the Pink. 

Fig. 113. Flower of the Lily. 

71. Often in the petal, and sometimes in the sepal, you 
can distinguish two parts, — namely, the broad, expanded 
part above, called the lamina, and the narrow part at base 
by which it is attached to the torus ; this is the claw (Fig. 
116, c). The petal of the Pink has a long claw; of the Rose 
or Buttercup (Fig. 119), a short one. 

72. The forms of the petal are almost infinite in variety, 
like the leaf; as ovate, orbicular, oblong, &c, and some- 

71. WiU you define the lamina? the claw? 
72 Please mention some of the forms of petals. 



times very singular. See these figures. Fig. 114 is the 
form of the bifid petal of a Cerastium; Fig. 115, the flower 
of Mitella, with five pimiatifid petals ; Fig. 117, the flower 
of Sweet Cicely, with five petals inflected at the point ; Fig. 
116, fringed, long-clawed petal of Silene stellata ; Fig. 118, 
many-cleft petal of Mignonette; Fig. 119, rounded, short 
clawed petal of Crowfoot, showing its honey scale, or nec- 
tary, at base. 

Fig. 120. Larkspur, its petals and sepals separated: s, s, s, 5, «, sepals; a, tno 
upper sepal spurred ; c, the petals all united into one, and produced backwards into 
a spur which is sheathed in the spur of the calyx. 

Fig. 121. Touch-me-not. Fig. 122. Its petals and sepals displayed: p, p, the two 
double petals ; s, s, s, y, the four sepals, y being in the form of a sack, with a spur. 

73. A nectary is found also in the petals of Columbine 
(Fig. 361), Larkspur (Fig. 120), Touch-me-not (Fig. 121), &c, 
distorting them into grotesque shapes, called spurs. 

74. Before us now is the flower of Pink (Fig. 123). The 
calyx (c) appears as a green tube, with five notches or teeth 
at the top. It is evident that this is made up of five sepals 

73 What is a nectary ? What is a spur ? Examples. 



cohering (united) by their edges. The Convolvulus (Figs. 
128, 144), the Phlox (Fig. 126), the Pink-root (Fig. 127), 
&c, show a similar cohesion (union) of their petals into ft 
ube more or less complete. 

Fig. 123. Pink: a, the five petals; 
6, the calyx, composed of five united 
sepals, c, a bract; d, several bract- 

Fig. 124. Flower of Tecoma radicam 
(the Trumpet-creeper) : c is the calyx, 
composed of five united sepals ; t, the 
tube ; s, the segments of the corolla or 
the petals, forming the border. 

75. The calyx with united sepals is called rnonosepaloux, 
and the corolla of united petals monopetalous (from the Greek 
monos, one), from the mistaken idea that this calyx consisted 
of only one sepal, &c. Gamopetalous and gamosepalous are 
similar words, used in the same sense. Opposed to these 
terms are polysepalous and polypetalous (Greek polys, many). 

76. The gamosepalous calyx or gamopetalous corolla, al- 
though composed of several pieces, is described as a single 
organ, and its lower part, formed by the united claws, 
whether long or short, is the tube (Fig. 124, t) ; the upper 

74. Describe the calyx of Pink ; corolla of Phlox. 

75. Meaning of the terms monopetalous, &c. ? 

76. Define the limb of a monopetalous corolla ; the tube ; the throat 



part, composed of the united laminae, is the limb (Fig. 128, s)\ 
the opening of the tube above is the throat. 

Fig. 125. Flower of Saponaria (Bouncing-Bet) ; petals and claws quite distinct. 
Fig. 126. Phlox ; claws united, with laminae distinct. 
Fig. 127. Spigelia (Pink-root); petals still further united. 
Fig. 128. Quamoclit coccinea; petals united throughout. 

77. In the Figs. 125-128, you may see how the petals in 
different flowers are distinct, or in various degrees united. 
In the Bouncing-Bet, the petals, with their long claws, are 
entirely distinct In Phlox, the claws unite in a tube, while 
the laminae are distinct. In Pink-root, only the narrow tips 
of the laminae are distinct; and in Quamoclit, the laminae 
also are wholly united. 

77. What is the condition of the petals in Pink Soapwort ? What their 
condition in Phlox ? What their degree of cohesion in Pink-root ? Whal 
in Quamoclit ? 





78, The pupil will here find discussions more important 
and intricate. But if lie bring to the task eyes determined to 
soe, and a mind determined to understand, the difficulties 
will soon vanish. 

79. Cohesion^ as taught in the last lesson, implies the union 
of organs of the same kind, as sepals with sepals, petals with 
petals; but adhesion implies the union of one kind of organ 
with another kind. 


Fig. 129. Section of tho flower of the Golden Currant, showing its parts. 

Fig. 130. Section of the flower of Fuchsia. Fig. 131. Of Early Saxifrage. 

80. For example, split a flower of Phlox, and j r ou will see 
the five stamens adhering to the inner side of the corolla 
tube, appearing as if inserted into it. 

79. Can you state how adhesion differs from cohesion? 



81. Now we take it for granted that all the organs of the 
flower have their starting-point or origin at the same one 
point, namely, at the torus (2, Fig. 129), hence in this figure 
of the Golden Currant, it is understood that from t to u the 
calyx, corolla, stamens, and pistil, adhere together ; from ?. 
to v, the calyx, corolla, and stamens, adhere ; and at v, a I 
the organs are separate, that is, free. Observe the saint * 
structure in the Ear-drop (Fig. 130). 

82. In this and like cases, the calyx is said to be superior, 
because it seems to stand upon the pistil (ovary) and fruit, 
but the more correct term is, calyx adherent. 



Fig, 132. Section of the flower of Yellow Violet: t, the torus. The stamens are 

Fig. 133. Section of the flower of Pear: <?, c, sepals ; jp, /?, petals; *, *, stamens, 
— Derigynous ; 0, ovary, — inferior or adherent. 

83. There are two other terms used in similar cases, which, 
although hard to pronounce, you may as well become ac- 
quainted with now. When the stamens adhere to the calyx 

81. What do we take for granted ? Please show the adhesions in th 
Golden Currant. 

82. When is the calyx adherent? When superior? 



or corolla they are said to be perigynous v a Greek word, 
meaning " around the pistil"). Otherwise, w T hen free, they 
arc said to be hypogynous, meaning " under the pistil." 

84. Now study attentively these figures, or rather, the 
flowers themselves. The figures are sections, i. #., show the 
flowers as if split. Fig. 132 (the Violet) shows the stamens 
hypogynous and the organs all free. Fig. 133 (the Pear] 
shows the stamens perigynous, adhering to the calyx. Fig. 
131 (the Saxifrage) shows the stamens perigynous and the 
calyx half adherent. Do not fail to examine many flowers 
until these troublesome terms become familiar, for these 
distinctions are very important. 



85. While all flowers agree in certain general characteris- 
tics, so that you are never at a loss to recognize any one of 
them as a flower, yet in form and fashion they appear in 
infinite variety, each form endowed with its own peculiar 
grace. It is impossible to describe or name every form, but 
we will endeavor to reduce them to a few classes of forms. 

86. Notice first that all forms are either polypetalous or 
gamopetalous, as already described (§ 75). Again, they are 
either regular or irregular. Compare the flower of Flax 

83 When are the stamens said to be perigynous ? When hypogynous ? 
84. How are they in Saxifrage ? in Pear ? in the Rose ? the Violet ? 
86. What is the first division of the corolla forms ? What is the second 
division ? When is a flower said to be regular irregular ? 






Polypetalons corollas. — Fig. 134. Wild Apple {Pyrus coronaria), — rosaceous. 
Fig. 135. Wall-flower,— cruciform. Fig. 136. Scarlet Catchfly,— caryophyllaceous. 
Fig. 137. Atamasco Lily, — liliaceous. 

and Pea. The former is equally and similarly developed all 
around, and each petal is like all the other petals. It is a 
'regular flower. The Pea flower (Fig. 13S) is unequally 
developed, some of the petals differing in form and size from 
the others, as shown in Fig. 139 ; therefore it is irregular. 

87. The figures at the head of this page represent four 
different styles of corollas which are polypetalous and regu- 
lar. Fig. 134 (Wild Apple) is a rosaceous corolla, that is, 
rose-like, having five short-clawed petals. Fig. 135 (Wall- 
flower) is a cruciform (cross-shaped) corolla, with four long 
clawed petals. 

88. Fig. 136 (Scarlet Catchfly) is a caryophyllaceous corolla, 

37. Name the four forms of polypetalous, regular flowers. Can you de 
Bcribe the rosaceous corolla? What sort of corolla is the Wall-flower 
Describe it. 

88. Please describe the Caichfly or Pink. What sort is it? The Lily 
please describe. What sort of corolla is it? 



pink-like; a form with five long-clawed petals. Fig. 131 
(Atamasco Lily) is a liliaceous corolla, having a six-leaved 
perianth, made up of three sepals and three petals, all colored 

Fig. 138. Pea, — an irregular flower. Fig. 139. Its five petals shown separate, viz., 
t, the banner ; <x, a, the wings ; c, c, the keel-petals. 
Fig. 140. Flax (Linum grandiflorum), — a regular flower. 

89. Fig. 138 is the flower of Sweet Pea, an irregular 
corolla, called papilionaceous, or butterfly-shaped, consisting 
of five petals, as displayed in Fig. 139, viz., one odd petal 
above, very large, called the banner, two smaller petals 
below (&), called the keel, and two lateral petals {a, a), called 
the wings. 

90. We next propose to examine the principal forms of 
gamopetalous corollas. Here we have a beautiful array of 
them. Among the regular forms is, first, the Rotate, wheel- 
shaped or star-shaped, having a very short tube, and a fiat, 
spreading border; as Fig. 141 (Campanula Americana). 

91. Campanulate, bell-shaped, having a wide tube and 

89. Can you describe the papilionaceous corolla ? 

90. Of monopetalous corollas, describe the rotate. 

91. The campanula? 



144 148 142 141 

Gamopetalous corollas. — Fig. 141. Campanula Americana, — wheel-shaped. My 
142. Campanula divaricate, — campanulate, or bell-shaped. Fig. 143. Andromeda,— 
arceolate. Fig. 144. Field Bindweed (Convolvulus), — a funnel-form corolla. 

narrow border, as in the Bell-flower (Fig. 142), and in Canter- 
bury Bells. 

92. Urceolate, urn-sbaped, an oblong or globular corolla 
with a narrow opening, as the Whortleberry, Heath (Fig. 

93. FanneX-form, narrowly tubular below, gradually en- 
larging to the border, as Morning-glory (Figs. 22, 144). 

148 147 146 145 149 

Fig. 145. Petunia, — salver-form. Fig. 147. Dandelion, — ligulate. 

Fig. 146. Honeysuckle, — tubular. Fig. 148. Synandra, — labiate. 

Fig. 149. Toad-flax, — labiate-personate. 

93. The urceolate. 

93. The funnel-form. 


94. Salver-form, the tube suddenly spreading out in a 
horizontal border, as in Phlox, Petunia (Figs. 126, 145). 

95. Tubular, when the corolla is nearly all a slender tube 
with a small border or none at all, as in the Trumpet Honey 
suckle (Fig. 146). 

96. Ligulate (from the Latin ligula, tongue), as if formed 
by splitting the tubular on one side. The notches at the end 
plainly indicate the number of united petals which compose 
it, as also do the parallel seams. See the flowers of the Dan- 
delion (Fig. 147), also of Cichory. 

97. Labiate (Latin labium, lip), resembles the mouth of an 
animal. It is a very irregular corolla, having the petals of 
dissimilar shape and dissimilarly united. See (Fig. 148) a 
flower of Synandra, or Catmint, or Catalpa. In Fig. 149 
(Snap-dragon), the mouth is closed and said to be personate, 
which means mashed. 



98. Safely infolded within the perianth, we find a number 
of delicate, thread-shaped organs, quite unlike the sepals and 
petals. They are arranged in one or more circles, and called 
the essential organs, because they are absolutely necessary to 
the perfection of the seed. 

94. Describe the salver-form. 95. The tubular. 96. Ligulate. 

97. Labiate. Now repeat the regular forms. Repeat the names ot th 
irregular forms. 

98. Where do we find the essential organs ? How arranged ? Why are 
they so called ? 



Fig. 150. Tiger Lily. 
Fig. 151. Flower (enlarged) of Dodecatheon : a, pistil ; panthers; c, Inamento; 
p, petals. 

99. Let us look at this picture of the Lily (Fig. 150), or at 
some real flower. The slender organs marked a, £, <?, are 
the essential organs of which we are speaking; and you see 
at once that there are two kinds of them. Those which 
stand in the outer row next to the petals are the stamens. 

Fig 152. "Rhododendron ; only the torus (£), the five stamens («), and the pistil (/?), 
Fig. 153. Buckeye, whole flower; 4 7 stamens, 1 pistil, 3 petals. 
Fig. 154. Hydrastis, split through the centre (a section), showing the torus, 2 se- 
pals («), many hypogynous stamens («£), and several pistils in the midst. 



155 156 157 158 159 

A leaf (Fig. 155), a sepal j Fig. 156), I petal 

The central organ (or organs) is the pistil. AVe now propose 

to notice the form of the stamens. 

100. The stamen may 
be compared to the leaf. 
Its slender, thread-like 
stalk is the filament, an- 
swering to the petiole of 
the leaf (f. p). Its head 
is the anther, answer- 
ing to the Made. Moro- 

(Fig. 157), a stamen (Fig. 158), and a pod (pis- over i tlir anther contains 
til, Fig. 159) of Draba arabizana, placed side within its cells many dust- 
by side for comparison. n .• i n j ; 

J ' Like particles called , 

len. When the cells burst the pollen escapes. Tims it ap- 
pears that the stamen consists of three members. See them 
illustrated in this tigure (161) of a stamen of the Morning- 

101. The filament is usually of a thread like form (as its 
name, from the Latin filum^ a thread, implies), longer than 
the anther, and more or less elastic. But the filament is no 
more necessary than the stem of a leaf, and is often wanting. 

102. The anther is an oblong body at the top of the lila- 
ment, consisting of two hollow lobes joined to each other 
and to the filament by the oanneetiU (V), which an bo the 
midvein of the leaf. The two lobes are usually marked along 
their outer edge by a seam, which at length opens into the 
cells. This opening, however it takes place, is called the 
dehiscence. If there be no filament, the anther is ses- 

99. How many kinds? Situations of the two kinds respectively ) 

100. How does the stamen compare with the leaf? Specify the thro* mem 
bers of the stamen. 

101. Describe the filament 102. The anther ; the dehiscence. 



Fig. 160. Frankenia, showing the five stamens (around the one style, which has 
three stigmas at top). 

Fig. 161. Stamen (adnate) of Morning-glory. 

Fig. 162. Same, enlarged, with pollen-grains discharged:/, filament; a, anther 
— two-lobed ; c, top of conuectile. 

Fig. 163. Buttercup. Fig. 164. Same, cut across. 

Fig. 165. Iris, cut across (extrorse). 

Fig. 166. Amaryllis,— versatile. Figs. 167, 163. Larkspur,— innate. 

103. But dehiscence takes place very variously. When all 
regular, it is a chink running lengthwise along the outer edge, 
as you see in this stamen of a Buttercup (Fig. 163). But 
here, in this stamen of Iris (Fig. 165), it appears on the back 
of the anther (looking towards the petals), and we say that 
the anthers are extrorse, that is, turned outwards. A term 
of opposite meaning is introrse, denoting that the lines of 
dehiscence turn inwards towards the pistil, or at least do not 
turn outwards. For example, the anthers of the Violet 
(Fig. 173). 

104. Moreover, other modes of dehiscence besides chinks 
are occasionally found. The anthers of Berberis, Sassafras, 
fcc. (see Figs. 171, 172), open by lids hinged at the top. The 

103. When is the anther said to be extrorse? introrse? 

104. On you distinguish the opercular and porous dehis^nce ? 




feeuliar forms of stamens. — Fig. 169. A stamen of Pyrola rotundifolia : p, twu 
openings (pores) at top where the pollen escapes. Fig. 170. Stamen of Bilberry 
( Vaccininium uliginosum) : p, its pores at the top of two horns ; it has also two 
spurs. Fig. 171. Berberis aquifolium, anther closed. Fig. 172. Anther open by 
two lids upwards. Fig. 173. Anther of Violet with an appendage at top. Fig. 174. 
Oleander, — an arrow-shaped anther appendaged at top. Fig. 175. Catalpa, — lobes 
of anther separated. Fig. 176. Sage, — lobes of anther widely separated on stipes; 
6, barren lobe without pollen. Fig. 177. Mallows, — anther one-celled. Fig. 17S 
Ephedra, — anther four-celled. 

anthers of Huckleberry, Blueberry, Wintergreen, and others 
of the Heath family, open through two little tubes at the top. 
The former is opercular dehiscence, the latter porous. (See 
Figs. 169, 170.) 

105. It is also interesting to notice how the anther is at- 
tached to the filament in various ways. Generally, it is 
innate, that is, seeming to stand erect on the top of the fila- 
ment. Again, it is adnate, which means, attached by its 
back to the side of the filament, as in Buttercups. And 
thirdly, it is joined by a single point in its back to the slender 
tip of the filament, as if lightly balanced upon it. This is the 
versatile anther, common in the Grasses (Figs. 150, 166). 

105. What three distinctions in the attachment of the anther ? Describe 
that of the stamens of the Pink ; the stamens of Buttercups ; of the Grasses. 





106. The careful student will find a great and interesting 
variety in the number, arrangement, and form of the stamens. 
In regard to number, as we have already seen, the Lily has 
six stamens, the Pink has ten, the Speedwell two, the Indian 
Shot only one. Some flowers have numerous stamens, as the 
Rose with forty, fifty, or one hundred, and the Cactus with 

179 ISO 

Fig. 179. Stamens and pistils of Mallow; # the filaments (/) are united into a tub* 
sheathing the styles. 

Fig. ISO. Floret of Dandelion, — anthers (a) united into a tube. 

Fig. 181. Corolla of Lophosperrnum, split open to show the four statu ens (didyn &- 
nous) and the one style. 

Fig. 1S2. Cardamine, — stamens six, tetradyn'amou3. 

10G. What number of stamens in Pink? Speedwell? Indian Shot! 
What in the Rose ? Cactus ? Apple ? or in these flowers? Define "stamens 
definite ;" " stamens indefinite." 



two hundred. Let us learn how to distinguish between 
flowers with definite and with indefinite stamens. Definite, 
when they are not more than ten, indefinite, when more than 
ten, or not readily counted. 

107. The stamens are usually separate and distinct, as in 
the Lily, Rhododendron, &c. (Figs. 150, 152), while in the 
Mallow (Fig. 179), Pea, and other flowers, they grow together, 
forming a tube around the pistil ; in other words, they are 
monadelphous (Greek, monos, one, adelphos, broth orhood). 
The Pea, or Dielytra, is diadelphous, — the stamens in two 
sets ; and the St. Johns wort, polyadelphous, — in three or more 
sets. Another mode of cohesion is seen in the floret of Dan- 
delion (Fig. 180), where the anthers cohere while the fila- 
ments are distinct, i. e., syngenecious. 

108. In two cases we may definitely mark the relative 
length of the stamens. Didyn' anions stamens (as seen in the 
Mint tribe, and in the Figworts, Fig. 181) are four in nun> 



Fig. 183. Pistillate flower of Balm of Gilead. 

Fig. 184. Staminate flower of the same. 

Fig. 185. Begonia: 0, staminate flower; &, pistillate flower 

107. Define "stamens monadelphous. " Give examples. Diadelphous, 
Cive examples. Polyadelphous. Example. Define " stamens syngenecious * 
Mention examples 



ber, two long and two short. Tetradyn' amous stamens are 
six in number, four long and two short (as in the Mustard 
tribe, Fig. 182). Again, liypogynous stamens may be seen 
in the Crowfoot tribe and in Fig. 132 ; and perlgynous sta- 
mens in the Rose tribe and Fig. 133. What is the differ 
erice? You need not be told the meaning of these words 
(§§ 83, 84). 

109. Some plants have their essential organs separated, so 
that the stamens are all found in one sort of flowers, the 
sterile, and the pistils are all in another sort, the fertile. So 

1S9 1S3 . 187 

Fig. 186. Flower of Lizard-tail (Saururus) ; it is perfect, but naked, i. c, 
floral envelopes ; stamens seven, pistils three. 
Fig. 187. Flower of Ash (Fraxinus),— naked, with two stamens and one pistil. 
Fig. 188. Staminate flower of Willow, — made up of two stamens and a bract. 
Fig 189. Pistillate flower of the same, — merely one pistil and a bract. 

it is in the Begonias (Fig. 185), and in the Willows (Figs. 18S, 
189). All such flowers are called imperfect, and only the fer- 
tile bear fruit 

110. A perfect flower is one that has both stamens and 

108. In what two cases do we mark the length of stamens ? Define " sta 
jiens didynanious ;" " stamens tetradynamous ;" " stamens liypogynous ;' 
'Vtamens perigynous." 

109. What do you understand by " sterile flowers ?" by " fertile flowers ?' 

110. What is a perfect flower? complete? imperfect? 



pistils. A complete flower has all the organs, viz., sepals, 
petals, stamens, pistils. A naked flower lacks both the calyx 
and corolla. 

1 1 1 . A symmetrical flow- 
er has each of these several 
organs in an equal number 
or, at least, the same num- 
ber of pieces in each circle 
of organs. For example, 
190 191 the Flax flower is symmet- 

Fig. 190. A symmetrical, regular flower of rical, having Sepals five, 
Iceland Moss (Sedum acre); it has five sepals, 
live petals, twice five (ten) stamens, and five 
pistils, — all separate and distinct. 

Fig. 191. House-leek (Sedum sempervivum), is also symmetrical, having 

— we ve-parte . three sepals, three petals, 

six stamens (in two equal circles), and three pistils (which 
are combined in one). 

petals five, stamens five, 
and pistils five. The Lily 



112. It is very instructive and delightful to study the 
symmetry of flowers in the way mentioned in the last lesson. 
We are thus led to the discovery of a truth in the science of 
botany at once beautiful and sublime, — worthy of the wis- 
dom of the Infinite Creator. That truth or principle is, that 
all flowers, though infinitely various in form and fashion, 

111. What a symmetrical flower? How is the Lily symmetrical? 

112. Please state the principle learned from studying the symmetry of thfl 



are built upon one only plan, and that plan founded in the 
science of numbers. 

Fig. 192. Flower of Hippuris, — one-parted. 

Fig. 193. Circsea Lutetiana ; flower two- parted. 

Fig. 194. Yellow-eyed Grass (Xyris) ; flower three-parted. 

113. Let us, then, examine the Flax. Here all the organs 
are in fives. The Circe has them all in twos ; the Iris, in 
threes. And every plant is distinguished in this way by 
some number which we call the radical number, according 
to which its organs are parted. Now in the Mock Orange, 
or Philadelphus, although the stamens seem to be indefinite, 
still the radical number is four. The stamens occur in many 
circles, with four in each circle, so that these are also in fours. 
As for the pistils, they are evidently four, but so united as 
to form apparently but one. Examine also the Bloodroot. 
Its stamens will be found in fours, the radical number, and 
the stamens of the Apple will be found in fives. So the 
petals of Bloodroot are twice four (8), and of the Magnolia 
twice three (6), or three times three (9). 

114. It is therefore a general law, that when any organ is 

113. Can you define the radical number of the flower? What is it ifl 
Circe ? Iris ? Flax ? How is it in Philadelphus ? How in Bloodroot ? 

114. State the law of multiplied organs. 



multiplied, its new number is only a repetition of the radical 

115. Also, when any organ is diminished in number, we 
find generally that the deficiency is only apparent, and doee 
not interfere with the law of the radical number. Thus in 
Philadelphus, the one pistil proves to be four growing to- 
gether. In the Lady's-slipper, the radical number is three, 
and the sepals are three, although the two lower ones are 
united almost to the tip into what seems but one. Thus the 
true number is often curiously disguised by cohesions. 

195 « 196 197 

Fig. 195. Flower of Aconitum Napellus displayed ; s, s, s, s, s, the five sepals, the 
upper one hooded ; p, p, p, the five petals, of which the two upper are nectaries 
covered by the hood, and the three lower very minute. 

Fig. 196. Flower of Catalpa, — two-lipped, five-lobed. 

Fig. 197. Corolla laid open, showing the perfect stamens and rudimentary. 

116. Again, the five petals of Monk's-hood (Fig. 195) are 
apparently but two, while three of them are so very small as 
to be overlooked. In the Mint tribe, as Peppermint, Cat- 

115. How does cohesion interfere with the radical number in Philadelphus 
TTow in the sepals of the Moccasin flower ? 

110. How does suppression interfere in Monk's-hood? In the Mint tribe 
Catalpa? Mustard ? What tendency do you see in all these cases ? 



mint, while five-parted, the flowers have generally bnt four 
stamens; but on close observation we often find a small 
rudiment of the fifth stamen in its proper place, as if its 
growth had been early stopped. And in Monarda and Catal- 
pa, only two stamens grow up to maturity, while three are 
mere rudiments (Fig. 202). Nevertheless, such flowers are 
said to be unsymmetrical. So the flowers of the Mustard 
tribe. The stamens are in two rows of four in each ; but ol 
the outer row (or circle) two were checked in growth (or 
suppressed, as the botanists say) at the outset. (See Fig. 97.) 
The tendency to symmetry is manifest in all these cases. 

117. We must carefully distinguish between the terms 
unsymmetrical and irregular. The former refers to number 

only, the latter to form and size 
(Less. XIV.). The Mustard 
flower is unsymmetrical but 
not irregular. The Orchis is 
irregular, but not unsymmet- 
rical. Snap-dragon is both 
irregular and unsymmetrical. 

k h g f e d o 
Fig. 198. jSymphsea odorata. 
Fig. 199. Petals gradually passing into stamens. 

118. Here is a figure of the Water Lily (198), and a 
separate view of its sepals, petals, and stamens. Observe 

117. Wliat difference between unsymmetrical and irregular ? Examples 



how the form of the slender stamen gradually changes to 
the broad petal, the anther becoming smaller and smaLer. 
One can scarcely say where it ceases to be a stamen and 
begins to be a petal. So, also, the petals gradually pass into 
sepals, and in other plants, Peony for instance, the sepals 
just as gradually pass 
into leaves. (See Class 
Book of Botany, § 113.) 

119. This transforma- 
tion of one sort of organ 
into another (always 
from stamen back to- 
wards the leaf) is quite 
common among culti- 
vated plants. It is in 
this mannei that the 
Rose, Carnation, Peony, 
&c, become double, viz., 
by the stamens, and oft- 
en the pistils too, becom- 
ing petals : for in the 
wild state these flowers 
have but five petals. 

120. From these ex- 
amples and others like 
them, we conclude that the different organs of the flower, and 
the leaf also, although commonly very different, have all one 
common nature and origin* or, in other words, the organs of 
the flower may all be considered as transformed leaves. 

118. Show the graduation of organs in Water Lily. 

119. How do the Rose, Peony, &c., become double ? 
120 What great principle is derived from these facts ? 

201 200 

Fig. 200. Flower of Crowfoot. 
Fig. 201. Double flower of the same; the sta- 
mens and pistils have become petals. 





jtlg. 202. Section of flower of Strawberry, — ovaries many, on a raised tome. 
Fig. 203. Section of a Kose, — ovaries sunk into a hollow torus. 

121. The pistils occupy the centre of the flower, at the end 
or centre of the torus. Their number varies in different 
plants from one to one hundred, or ^aore. When they are 
several they stand arranged in a circle like the other organs. 
When they are many they are commonly heaped together in 
a spiral manner, and raised on the conical torus, as in Butter- 
cup, Strawberry, or sunk into the cavity of a hollow one, as 
in Eose. (See Figs. 202, 203.) 

122. The pistil consists, plainly, of three parts, as may be 
seen in Fig. 204. At the top is the stigma (s), at base is the 
ovary (0), and between them is the style {sty). The style 

121. In what part of the flower are the pistUs situated? What is thei? 
number ? their arrangement ? How situated in the Rose ? 

122. Please describe the pistil and each of its parts. In what case is the 
stigma sessile ? 



being a mere stalk, like the filament of a stamen or 
the petiole of a leaf, may, like them also, be wanting, 
without loss to the pistil. In this case the stigma is 
sessile (sitting) upon the ovary, as in the pistils c/ 
Anemone (Fig. 207), and of Trillium (Fig. 206). 

204 205 206 207 

Fig. 204. Pistil of Tobacco. 

Fig. 205. Pistil, stamens, and calyx of Azalea. 

Fig. 206. Trillium, — stigmas (d) and anthers (s) nearly sessile. 

Fig. 207. Pistils of Eue Anemone (A, thalidroides), — stigmas sessile. 

123. The ovary is a kind of sac or case, enclosing the 
ovules (see Fig. 215, where there is but one, or in Fig. 209, 
where there are five, and Fig. 202, where there are many 
ovaries.) When full grown, the ovary becomes the fruit, and 
the ovules the seeds. 

124. It is very important to distinguish between the simple 
and the compound pistil, for when there are several in the 
same flower they often grow together, forming a single body 
with members more or less distinct. As the petals grow 

123. Describe the ovary and the ovules. 

124. Name an important distinction in ovaries, 
pistil compound ? 

When is the ovary oi 


209 210 

Fig. 208. Simple pistil of Larkspur. 

Fig. 209. The five simple pistils of Columbine, all distinct. 

Fig. 210. Th* three pistils of a St. Johnswort, — ovaries united but styles distinct 
Fig. 211. Compound pistil of another St. Johnswort, the three pistils entirely 
Fig, 212. Flax, — the five ovaries united but the styles distinct. 
Fig. 213. Pink, — the two ovaries united, styles distinct. 
Fig. 214. Saxifrage, — the two pistils slightly united. 

together, forming a monopetalous corolla, so the pistils may 
combine into a compound pistil. The parts of such a pistil 
are conveniently called carpels. 

125. As to the extent of this union of the pistils, it is found 
in all possible degrees, always beginning at base and pro- 
ceeding upwards. For example, in Columbine (Fig. 209), 
the live carpels (pistils) are entirely distinct ; in Early Saxi- 
frage (Fig. 214), the two carpels are united at the base ; in 
Fink (Fig. 213), the two unite to the top of the ovary, leav- 
ing the styles distinct; so also in Flax (Fig. 212); in Even- 
ing Primrose, the four pistils cohere to the top of the style, 
leaving the stigmas distinct ; and finally, in the Lily, the 
three carpels are united throughout. (See Figs. 209-214.) 

126. We may know the number of carpels in a compound 

125. As to the cohesion or union of pistils, — how is it in Columbine? in 
Pink? in Early Saxifrage ? Evening Primrose ? Lily? 



pistil by the number of separate styles, or by the separate 
stigmas, or by the lobes of the stigma or ovary, or by the 
number of cells in the ovary, or (when only one cell) by the 
number of seed-rows. Thus the three-lobed stigma or ovary 
of the Lily indicates a triple pistil, also the three stigmas ot 
the Spring Beauty, and the three seed-rows in the Violet 
(See Fig. 229.) 

215 216 

Fig. 215. Section of the flower of AlcheniLla, showing the stamens perigynoua, 

the style single, simple, and lateral. 
Fig. 216. Section of flower of Jeifersonia, — stamens hypogynous, pistil single, 

simple, with one seed-row. 

127. But when the pistils remain separate and distinct we 
call each one a simple pistil. Thus in Columbine (Fig. 209) 
there are five simple pistils ; in Anemone (Fig. 207), and in 
Buttercups, many ; while in Cherry, Peach, Bean, Alchemilla, 
and Jeffersonia, there is just one simple pistil in each flower. 
Such a pistil is usually of an irregular form, with its style 
lateral (on one side), and only one seed or seed-row. (See Figs. 
215, 216.) 

126. Please tell us how you detect the number of carpels in the compound 
ovary of Spring Beauty ; of Lily ; of Violet. 

127. What peculiarity in the form of a simple pistil? 





^Estivation.— Fig. 217. Valvate calyx, as of Mallow. Fig. 218. Sepals of Holly- 
hock, — valvate-reduplieate. Fig. 219. Sepals of Clematis, — valvate-induplicate. 
Fig. 220. Petals of Flax,— contorted. Fig. 221. Petals of Wild Eose, — quincuntial. 
Fig. 222. Petals and sepals of Lily or Tulip. Fig. 223. Petals of Wall-flower,— 
convolute. Fig. 224. Petals of Pea,— vexillary. 

128. There is the leaf -hud, consisting of many scales and 
young leaves, folded up in such a manner as to occupy as 
little space as possible ; and the flcwer-hud, consisting of the 
organs of the flower in their early state, also closely packed. 
Now if you study the arrangement of the pieces composing 
the bud of either sort, you will be surprised and delighted 
with its variety and elegance. As each species of plant has 
the same invariable mode of folding in all its buds, this stud j 
well becomes a matter of science. 

Less. XIX. — What is the subject of this Lesson? 
V4S. Two kinds of buds ; please describe each. 


129. With a sharp knife let us make a cross-section (that 
is, a cut square across) of a flower-bud just ready to open : 
we may thus obrain some such view T s as are here drawn. 
For example, in Fig. 217, we have the valvate arrangement. 
Here the pieces composing the circle barely touch each other 
by the edges, as in the sepals of Mallows, petals of Lilac, 
valves of a seed-vessel. (See, also, Figs. 218, 219.) 

130. In the Phlox, Flax, Oleander, we find a twisted or 
contorted arrangement of the petals (Fig. 220), where each 
piece overlaps the next, all in one direction. 

131. The bud is said to be imbricated, when some of the 
pieces are wholly outside, covering by the two edges others 
which are wholly inside. But this may take place in various 
ways. See how it is in the petals of the Eglantine, or Apple 
(Fig. 221). Here two petals are outside, two inside, and one 
partly both. In the Tulip, one sepal is outside, one inside, 
and one partly both. And just so with its three petals 
(Fig. 222). 

132. The bud is convolute when each leaf wholly involves 
all that are within it, as do the petals of Magnolia and Wall- 
flower (Fig. 223) ; and it is vexillary in the Pea tribe, where 
only the outside petal, larger than the rest, infolds them all 
(Fig. 224). 

133. The plicate arrangement is found in monopetalous 
flowers, as in Thornapple, Potato, where the corolla is folded 
in a manner somewhat like a fan. 

129. How do we prepare a bud for examination ? What do you under- 
etand by a cross-section ? Define the valvate arrangement, with examples. 

130. What aestivation do we find in Flax, Phlox, &c. ? 

131. What is the imbricated aestivation? Describe it in the petals of 
Tulip ; Apple ; Eglantine. 

132. How are the petals arranged in the bud of Wall-flower ? 

133. How in the flower of Thornapple ? or Potato ? 


13-i. The pupil should make himself well acquainted with 
these seven modes of cestivation (so the botanists call it). 
Other modes are described in larger works. (Class Book of 
Botany, p. 79.) 

135. Also in the leaf-bud we find similar modes of leaf- 
folding (here called vernation, from the Latin vermis^ spring, 
as (Estivation is from cestivus, summer). The figures follow- 
ing represent cross-sections of various sorts of leaf-buds. In 
the bud of Sycamore the infolding scales are imbricate, but 
the young leaves within are somewhat plicate. 

136. In the leaf-bud of Cherry (Fig. 230) we find the con- 
volute vernation, similar to the cestivation of Wall-flower. 
The leaf-bud of Lilac (Fig. 231) gives us another form o\ 

225 226 227 228 2J9 

Vernation. — Fig. 225. Unfolding leaf-bad of Tulip-tree,— reelinate. Fig. 22G. 
Fern leaf-bud, — circinate. Fig. 227. Sedge, — eqiitant. Fig. 228. Sage, — obvoiute. 
Fig. 229. Iris,— equitant. 

137. Fig. 229 represents the vernation of Iris, and Fig. 227, 
of a Sedge-grass. Both are equitant (which means, in Latin, 

Please describe th» 

134. What is tlie meaning of the word cestivation? 

135. What is the meaning of the word vernation? 
vernation in Sycamore leaf-bud. 

136. In the leaf-bud of Cherry * Lilac. 

137. What of the equitant vernation ? 




riding horseback). Each leaf, lirst on this corner, then on 
that, infolds or overlays all that is within it. 

138. Obvolute vernation appears in the leaf-bud of Sago 
(Fig. 228), where each leaf infolds only half of the blade of 
its opposite leaf. 

Vernation.— Fig. 230. Cherry leaf-bud,— convolute. Fig. 231. Lilac,— imbricate. 
Fig. 232. Birch leaf,— plicate. Fig. 233. Dock,— re volute. Fig, 234. Balm-of-Gil- 
ead, — involute. 

139. In the bud of Dock (Fig. 233) we find the young 
leaves revolute, or rolled backwards from both edges ; but in 
the bud of Balm-of-Gilead (Fig. 234) they are involute, or 
rolled inwards from both edges. This is best seen under a 
microscope of one lens, i. e., a single microscope. 

140. In the bud of Tulip tree (Fig. 225) each leaf is recti- 
nate^ being bent over forward and infolding all within it ; 
and in the Fern (Fig. 226) it is circinate, or coiled from the 
top downwards, like a watch-spring. 

138. The obvolute? 

139. What the vernation of Dock? of Balm-of-Gilead ? 
\ 40. Please describe the reclinate ; the circinate. 





*41. We may now devote one or two lessons to the arrange 
ment and position of the flowers upon the plant, a subject to 
which botanists give the name of inflorescence. 

Fig. 235. Staphylea trifolia; a pendulous, paniculate cyme. 
Fig. 236. Catalpa ; a panicle. 

142. Every one has observed such facts as the follow 
mg, namely, that flowers are sometimes alone, and often li* 
clusters ; that they are sometimes raised on stalks, and some 

141. What is the meaning of the word inflorescence? 

142. What common facts in inflorescence does everybody notice? 


times sessile (or without stalks); and 'that they may arise 
from terminal buds, or from axillary. With the meaning of 
the words terminal and axillary you were made acquainted 
in Lesson IX. 

143. The stalk which supports the flower, or the cluster of 
flowers, we call peduncle. Now the peduncle may be either 
simple, bearing a single flower, or divided into branches and 
bearing a cluster of flowers. In the latter case, the branches 
or branchlets are called pedicels. 

14i. When the peduncle arises from terminal buds it 
seems like a continuation of the main stem, as in Foxglove, 
Horse-chestnut ; and when from axillary buds, it comes out 
from the side of the stem just above a leaf, as in the Cur- 
rant. Sometimes it arises from the root or some under- 
ground part of the stem, and then we generally call it a 
scape. Thus the flower-stalk of Tulip is a scape ; also of the 

145. The flower is said to be solitary, not only when alone 
on the plant, but also when alone in the axil of a leaf, as in 
Fuchsia, Morning-glory, Petunia. 

146. Among clustered flowers, you will often meet w T ith 
the following twelve varieties of inflorescence, which we 
must now try to represent and describe. We begin with the 
spike, such a cluster as we see in the Plantain, Mullen, &c. 
We may define it thus : A long peduncle (called rachis), 
having sessile flowers arranged along its sides. But before 
we go further with inflorescence, we must examine the tracts 
which accompany it. 

143. Please define peduncle ; also pedicel. 

144. When are the flowers terminal ? axillary ? Define scape. 

145. Why is the flower called solitary in Fuchsia, Petunia, &c. ?. 

146. Define a spike. Explain to us the rachis. 



Bracts (&, £, b). Fig. 237. Cornus Canadensis, with an involucre of four colored 
biacts. Fig. 238. Hepatica triloba, with an involucre of three green bracts. Fig. 
239. Calla palustris, with a colored spathe of one bract, inclosing the spadix. 

147. Bracts are evidently of the same nature as leaves, 
differing only in their diminished size, and in their position 
on the flower-stalks, or near the flowers. They are some- 
times colored as brightly as flowers, as in Painted-cup, or in 
Balm. When several bracts are arranged in a whorl at the 
base of the cluster of flowers, an involucre is formed, such as 
we find in Carrot, and most of the Umbelworts (Fig. 244). 
In the Flowering Dogwood the large involucre is colored 

148. Next in resemblance to the spike is the spadix, an 
inflorescence seen in the Calla (Fig. 237), Golden-club (Fig. 
241), and Cat-tail. It may be defined as a thickened, club- 
shaped spike, often with a large bract (called spathe) at base, 
as in Jack-in- the-pulpit, or without a spathe, as in Fig. 241. 

147. What sort of leaves grow on the peduncles, if any ? Define bracts 
What is an involucre ? How is it in Cornus ? 



Fig. 240. Lndy's-tresses {Spiranthes), — flowers in a twisted spike. 

Fig. 241. Golden-club {Orontium), — flowers in a spadix with no spathc. 

Fig. 242. Birch {Betula), — flowers in aments. 

149. An amenta called also catkin, is a more slender and 
delicate spike, filled with colored scales and flowers, and all 
falling together without separating, such as adorn the Birches 
(Fig. 242), Willows, and Poplars in early spring. The Hop 
also bears aments. 



150. The flowers of the Black Cherry, Currant, Foxglove 
Locust, and Moth-mullen are in racemes. The raceme, then, 
is a rachis bearing its flowers on distinct, simple pedicels 

148, 149. Can yon define the spike ? ament ? spadix ? and spathe ? 
150. Please name and describe tlie inflorescence of Black Cherrv. 



(not sessile, as in the spike). It is often pendulous, often 

242a 243 

Fig. 242. Secund (one-sided) raceme of Andromeda racemosa. 
Fig. 243. Pendulous raceme of Currant. 

151. Tlie corymb differs from the raceme in having the 
lower pedicels lengthened so as to elevate all the flowers to 
about the same level, as in the Yarrow or "Wild Thorn. 

152. The umbel appears in Milkweed, Onion, Ginseng, Szc. 
It consists of several pedicels of similar length, all arising 
from the same point at top of the peduncle. But in Car- 
away, Carrot, and most of the Umbelworts (Fig. 244), the 
umbels are compound, as if each of the pedicels had become 

151. How does a corymb differ from a raceme ? 

152. Please name and describe the inflorescence of the Milkweed How 



itself an umbel. These secondary 
umbels we call amhellets. At the 
hase of the umbel there is usually a 
whorl of bracts forming an involucre 
(a), and often also at the base of 
each umbellet (5), when we call it an 

153. The fine flowers of the Ca- 
talpa are in panicles (Fig. 235), also 
the flowers of Oats. We may describe 
a panicle as if a raceme should have 
its pedicels irregularly branched. 

154. A cluster resembling a pani- 
cle, but more compact, such as you 
see in Lilac, is called a thyrse. 

155. A head of flowers, such as we 
see in Clover or the Button-bush, 
hardly needs description. We might say that the head is a 
reduced umbel, having its flowers all sessile at the top of the 

156. The great family of the Asterworts has all its flowers 
in heads, so dense and so nicely arranged as to be easily mis- 
taken for a single flower. But if you carefully examine such 
a head, say of an Aster, or especially of a Sunflower, you 
will see that it is composed of many little flowers or florets. 
The florets of the outer row are enlarged and open, so as to 

Fig. 244. Compound umbe 
of Sweet Cicely (Osmorhiza). 

does that of Carrot differ? What is an umbellet? What the whorl of 
bracts at the base of the unibellets ? 

153. Please describe the panicle. 154. The thyrse. 155. The head. 

156. What the inflorescence of the Asterworts ? How is the head of Aster 
made to resemble a single flower ? What the florets of the r?y ? What tho 
florets of the disk ? 



resemble the petals of one -^fe^ 
corolla, and the involucre, c!t^P^ 
formed of many imbricated 
scales, resembles a calyx. This 
head is often called a com- 
pound flower. The outer flo- 
rets are the florets of the ray, 
the interior are the florets of 
the disk. See all this illus- 
trated in Figs. 245-250. 

157. The forms of inflo- 
rescence heretofore described 
result from axillary buds ; 
but the three following come ,/*• u \ H ** d f °5 * lue ^Vf 

° (Mulgtdium) ; all its florets are hgulate. 

from terminal buds. Cyme is Fig. 246. A view of one of them remain- 

the general name giyen to all in £ on the receptacle. Fig. 247. A fruit 

^ /, * , t . n crowned with its pappus. 

the forms of terminal mflores- Fig 248 Heads of Ironweed (Vern ^ 

Cence. You may recognize nia)\ a ll its florets are tubular. Fig. 249. 
them by the Order in which One of them remaining on the receptacle. 

the flowers open, llius, in 

the cyme, the terminal and central dowers open first, but in 

the forms before mentioned, the low3r and outer flowers first. 

158. When the cyme is spreading and level-topped, we call 
it a cymous coi^ymb, as in the common Elder; and when not 
level topped, it may become a cymous panicle, as in Chick- 
weed (Fig. 251), Spergula, and Staff-tree (Fig. 234). 

159. The scorpoid cyme is a very remarkable form of in- 

157. Are the forms hitherto described terminal or axillary ? Please define 
the cyme. 

1 58. Cymose corymb ; Cymose panicle. 

159. What is a scorpoid cyme ? Name and describe the inflorescence of 
Bunch Pink ; the inflorescence of Catmirt. 




252 &~^ m 

Fig. 251. Cyme of Chickweed (Stellaria media). First, the terminal flower {a] 
opened ; secondly, from the axils of its highest leaves arose two branches, and ter- 
minated in the flowers b, b; thirdly, from their highest axils arose the flowers c, <?, 
*, <;, from whose axils a fourth set is seen to start, and so on. 

Fig. 252. Scorpoid cyme of Forget-me-not (Myosotis palustris). 

florescence, as shown in Pink-root and Forget-me-not (Fig. 
252). Before flowering it is coiled from the tip down- 
wards, and it uncoils as it blossoms. In its nature it is a 
half-cyme. The fascicle is a densel} r packed cyme, as seen 

259 260 25S 

Diagrams of the forms of axillary inflorescence, showing how they gradually pass 
into each other. Fig. 253. Spike. Fig. 254. Raceme. Fig. 255. Corymb. Fig. 256, 
Umbel. Fig. 257. Panicle. Fig. 258. Compound corymb. Fog. 260. Head. Fig 
2, r »9. Compound umbel. 



in Bunch Pink or Pycnanthemum. The glormrule is a small, 
dense cyme appearing in the axils of the leaves, as in Cat- 
mint and the Mint tribe generally. 

160. The preceding diagrams may be carefully studied. 
They will convey a general idea of all these forms of inflo- 
rescence, and how they are related to each other. 



161. The flower is of short duration. After a few hours 
or a few days of blooming beauty, it fades and disappears. 

?ig. 2G1. Fruit of Currant,— a berry, 

Fig. 262. Fruit of Maple,— samar* 

160. Please explain the diagrams 253-2G0. 



The stamens and petals have accomplished their work, and 
are dead. The sepals also, when colored like petals, are 
dead. But the pistil, especially the ovary, yet remains in its 
place, living and growing until the seeds which it contains 
are perfect. 

162. Thus the fruit is the ovary or pistils brought to per- 

163. During the growth and ripening of the pistil, great 
and manifold changes occur, so that at last the fruit is very 
different in form, size, substance, and color. The little pistil 
in the flower of the Cherry must undergo a great alteration 
in becoming a plump Ox heart ! 

Fig. 263. An umbel of Cherry blossoms, — namely, a bud, an entire flower, and a 
section showing the one pistil and the perigynous stamens. 

Fig. 264. The drupe, cut through to show the stone and one seed. 

Fig. 265. 1 corymb of Strawberry, — flower and fruit. The achenia are seen on i&e 
surface of the fruit, which is only the overgrown torus. 

161. Can you tell us what parts of the flower perish ? What parts remain 
in place and still grow? 

162. How do you define the fruit? 

163. Mention some of the changes occurring from ovary to fruit. 


164. In the fruit we see the end and 
aim of plant-life accomplished, accord- 
ing to the wise and good design of the 
great Creator. While it serves to re- 
produce and keep alive the plants upon 
the earth, it also serves as food for ani- 
mals and for man. 

165. It is curious to observe how dif- Fig 266> Drupe _ a ripe 
ferent are the parts of the fruit which Cherry. 

in different plants become food. In the *?\ ™' Tr ^ ma - acorw 

. r . of Red Oak. 

Appie, we eat the calyx which here 

adheres to the ovary, and in ripening was thickened and en- 
larged by the nutritious substance. In the Strawberry, we 
eat the enlarged, pulpy 
torus, which bears, all 
over its surface, the little 
dry, seed-like fruit. In 
Peach, the luscious mor- 
sel is the outer coats of 
the ovary itself; and in 
the Orange, it is the in- 
ner coat. In the Nut, 
Pea, Wheat, and most 
plants, the nourishing 
matter is laid up in the seeds, while the carpels ripen into 
a dry fruit. 

166. The fruit consists of the seeds and the seed-vessels 
The word pericarp means the same as seed-vessel. "When 

164. Mention some of the uses of the fruit. 

165. Can you tell us what part of the Apple is eaten ? What part of the 
Strawberry is the eatable part ? .What part of the Peach ? the Orange ? In 
what part is the nutritious matter deposited in the Pea ? Wheat ? Almond? 

Fig. 268. Etaerio,— a Blackberry. 
Fig. 269. Capsule of Violet, open. 



the pericarp is ripe, it may open in some special manner of 

itself and discharge the seeds ; or it may have no prevision 

or opening, and remain closed until it grows or decays 

tig. 270. Achenia of Rue Anemone, in a head. 

Fig. 271. Fruit of Caraway, consisting of two achenia. 

Fig. 272. Kernel of Wheat, — a sort of achenium called cariopsis. 

Fig. 273. Fruit of Thistle, — another sort of achenium, crowned with a pappus 
which serves as wings. 

Fig. 274. Fruit of Elm, — a samara, or winged achenium. 

lig. 275. Fruit of Beech, — two nuts, inclosed in the burr. 

Fig. 276. The Peach (a drupe), — cut open, showing the seed inclosed in its stone, 
and the stone in the thick pulp. 

Fig. 277. Fruit of Pigweed, — a one-seeded pericarp called utricle. 

Fig, 278. Fruit of India Strawberry, — a fleshy torus bearing the achenia outside. 

Fruits that open we will call dehiscent fruits, and those 
which do not open, indehiscent. We will first study some oi 
the forms of indehiscent fruits, arranged as follows : 

167. First Division : Fruits indehiscent, one-seeded, dry ; 
namely, Achenium, Samara, Glans. 

166. Of what two parts docs the fruit consist ? What is a dehiscent fruit 1 
Indehiscent ? 




Second Division: Fruits indehiscent, one-seeded, fleshy ; 
namely, Drupe, Tryma, Et^erio. 

Third Division : Fruits indehiscent, several-seeded ; name- 
ly, Berry, Pepo, Pome. 

168. The achenium is such a fruit as we find in Butter- 
cups, Anemone, Sage. Usually there are several produced 
together from one flower. We must not mistake them for 
seeds. They are pericarps, each inclosing one seed, as you 
see in the figures. The grain of Wheat or Corn (called cariop- 
sis) is much the same, but the one seed cannot be separated 
from the pericarp. 

169. The samara u mere- 
ly an achenium with a wing, 
as in Ash, Elm, Maple. The 
latter fruit is a double sa- 


170. A glans (or nut) is 
such a fruit as Acorn, Chest- 
nut, Hazelnut, much like 
achenium, but larger, and 
seated in a cup or invo- 

171. A drupe is such a 
fleshy fruit as the Cherry 
or Peach. It is well called 
a stone-fruit. The stone in- 
closes the One Seed, and is larged view, showing the seeds lying in 

itself inclosed in a juicy %ffi S2m Fruit of Henbane, 
pulp. with its lid open. 

Fig. 279. Maple, — a double samara. 

Fig. 280. Pear,— a pepo. 

Fig. 281. Gooseberry, cut across; an en- 

-a pyx'F 

167. Please define our first division of fruits. What special fruits belong 
to it 1 the second, &c. ; the third, &c. 


172. Tryma is the name for such fruits as Walnut, Cocoa- 
nnt. Like the drupe, it lias a stony seed- shell, but its outer 
coat is rather woody than pulpy. 

173. Such fruit as the Raspberry or Blackberry we call 
etuerio. It consists of many little fleshy drupes growing fast 
together or to the torus. In the Blackberry they grow to 
the torus (Fig. 268). 

174. The berry is a thin-skinned, pulpy fruit, holding its 
several seeds loose in the pulp, as Currant, Grape (Fig. 261). 
The Orange, &c, is much like a berry, but on account of its 
thick rind has been called by another name (hesperidium). 

175. Pejpo is such a fruit as Squash, many-seeded, with a 
hard, crusty rind. 

176. Pome, the Apple, Pear, Haw, a fleshy fruit with sev- 
eral distinct cells. Here the fleshy calyx grows fast to the 
ovaries ; while in the Hip, or Rose-fruit, the fleshy calyx 
merely incloses the ovaries, as seen in Fig. 203. 



177. The dehiscent pericarp, — that is, those which open to 
discharge the seeds, — are generally dry fruits, known as pods. 
The various forms have the following names : Pyxis, Folli- 
cle, Legume, Silique, Capsule. 

168-176. The student will now please define and name the fruit of Butter- 
caps, Corn, Ash, Maple, Oak, Hazel, Plum, Walnut, Raspberry, Grape, 
Orange, Squash, Pear, Haw, and Rose. 

177. Please give the names of the dehiscent pericarps. 



178. The pyxis is the most curious and singular of all pods. 

It opens crosswise by a lid, like a snuff-box. Fig. 284 is the 

likeness of the pyxis of Rheumatism-root, common in Ohio, 

It is formed of one carpel only. Fig. 282 is the pyxis of 

Henbane, formed of two carpels. So the pyxis 

of Poor-manVweather-glass (Anagallis, Fig. 

344.) is formed of several carpels. 

Fig. 283. A follicle of Milkweed {Asclepias). 

Fig. 284. A pyxis, — fruit of Jeffersonia, the Kheumatism-root. 

Fig. 285. A pair of follicles, — the fruit of the Dogbane (Apocynum). 

Fig. 2S6. A legume, open, — fruit of the Pea-plant. 

Fig. 287. A jointed legume, or loment, — fruit of Desmodium. 

Fig. 288. A silicle, — fruit of Shepherd's-purse. 

179. Follicle is the name of such pods as those of Colum- 
bine (Fig. 208), Milkweed (Fig. 2S3), and of Dogbane (Fig. 
285). They are formed of a single carpel, and open length- 
wise, on one side only. It is easy to see the resemblance 
between the follicle and a leaf, the leaf being folded so as to 
bring its two margins together. (See Fig. 207.) 

180. Legume is the proper name of the Pea pod, Bean pod, 
&c, of one carpel, one cell, one row of seeds, and commonly 

178. Grive the character of the pyxis. How does the pyxis of Henbane 
differ from that of Jeffersonia ? 

179. Can you describe and name the fruit of Columbine ? How is its leafj 
character seen ? 

180. Describe and name the Pea pod What is a loment ? 



Fig. 291. A silique,-- 
fruit of Mustard. 

opening by two valves (Fig. 286). Such a pod is sometimes 
divided crosswise by joints (as in Fig. 287, Desmodium); we 
then call it a loment. 

181. Silique is a two-carpeled pod, such 
as we find in Mustard. It has two cells, 
separated by a thin partition, and two 
rows of seeds (Fig. 291). A short silique, or 
one not much longer than wide, such as 
we find in Pepper-grass or ShepherdVpurse 
(Fig. 288), is called a silicle. (See Fig. 290). 

182. Capsule (the word means casket). 

This name is applied to all 
other forms of dry, compound 
fruits, formed of several unit- 
ed carpels. In opening, they 
commonly split into several valves, as in Iris; 
or divide into several parts (carpels) like so 
many follicles, as in St. Johnswort ; or they 
open by small pores, as in Poppy. 

Fig. 292. A capsule, — fruit of 
Scropbularia ; it is two-celled, 
two-carpeled, or two-valved. 

Fig. 293. A three-celled cap- 
sule of Colchicum; it opens be- 
tween the carpels. 

Fig. 294. Capsule of Iris, open- 
ing into the carpels. 

Fig. 295. Cross-section of the 
same, showing how it opens. 

Fig. 296. Fruit of Geranium; 
its five carpels separate, and are 
carried up on the curving stvles 
(called a regma). 

Fig. 290. Silicle 
of Draba (en- 

181. Mustard pod ; describe its structure and name. What is a silicle? 

182. What is a capsule ? What three modes of opening are mentioned T 



183. We should not omit altogether to notice the aggre 
gated fruits, such as the Pine-cone (Fig. 300), Pine-apple, 
etc. These fruits are composed not merely of the pistil, but 
of the entire flower, or even of the whole inflorescence, bracts 
and all, grown thick, and consolidated into one fleshy mass. 
This is evidently the nature of the Pine-apple and of the 

Fig. 297. Black Mulberry, — an aggregated fruit. 
Fig. 208. Fig, cut open, showing the little flowers within. 
Fig. 299. Hip of a Rose, cut open, showing the achenia within. 
Fig. 300. Pine-cone, composed of thick scales. 

184:. As for the Fig, it is a great hollow torus, having its 
innumerable flowers within the cavity, growing from the 
walls, and all together become a sweet, pulpy mass. 

Fig. 301. A branchlet of the Canada Yew, showing the fruit. 

183, 184. Mention some examples of aggregated fruits Can you describe 
a Pine-apple ? a Fig ? 


185. But there are some kinds of fruit almost or qi.ite des- 
titute of a pericarp, consisting of naked seeds. On the pre- 
ceding page is a figure (301) of the Canada Yew, a trailing 
shrub of New England and Canada. The fruit is a single 
naked black seed, seated in a fleshy, coralline-red cup. Tho 
cone (of Pine, Fir, &c.) is made up of thick woody bracts, each 
covering in their axils two or more winged seeds (Fig. 300). 



186. Last and most important is the seed, the perfected 
ovule, containing the germ of a new plant like its parent 
plant. The seed consists of a kernel and its shell. Place a 
bean in w r ater, and soon its softened shell or skin is easily 
separated from the kernel. 

187. The shell of a seed may be of any color, as white, 
black, yellow, red, &c. ; may be polished and shining, or dull 
and rough; may be of any shape, as round, or oval, or egg- 
shaped ; may be winged, as in Catalpa, or may be clothed 
with long hairs, called coma. The silk of Silk-grass (Ascle- 
pias) is the coma of the seed, and cotton is the coma of 
Cotton seed. The seed of Poplar (cotton- wood) or Willow 
is also furnished with coma. 

185. What plants have no pericarps? Please describe a cone of Pine 
fruit of Yew. 

186. What is the seed, and what does it contain ? Of what two parts 
does it consist ? 

187. ^V^lat do you remember concerning the color and shape ? Describe 
the coma of a seed 



302 303 804 

Fig 302. A seed of the Cotton-plant, with its tuft of coma, or cotton. 

Fig. 303. A seed of the Cotton-tree {Populiis)^ with its silky coma. 

Fig, 304. A winged seed of the Catalpa. 

Fig. 305. Achenium of Eclipta; it has no pappus. 

Fig. 306. Achenium of Horseweed; scarcely any pappus. 

Fig. 3<>7. Achenium of Sunflower; has two awns for pappus. 

Fig. 308. Achenium of Ageratum ; has five sepals for pappus. 

Fig. 309. Achenium of Blue Milkweed; has abundant pappus. 

Fig. 310. Achenium of Wild Lettuce; with pappus raised on a beak 

188. The learner must distinguish between the coma of a 
seed and the pappus of a fruit. The down of Thistle or Dan- 
delion is pappus, for the little fruit on which it grows is not 
merely a seed, but a pericarp (achenium), also containing one 
seed. In a word, the seed may be fledged with a coma, but 
the fruit is fledged with a pappus, both intended as wings 
to bear away the seed to distant places. (See Class Book oi 
Botany, § 485.) 

188. AHiat is the distinction between coma and pappus? 



189. As to the seed-kernel, 
it may concist of two parts, 
namely, the germ and albu- 
men, or it may be all germ. 

190. In the Bean (Fig. 311) 
l is all germ. A better name 
for the germ is embryo. JSTow 
in all seeds, the embryo is, in 
fact, a miniature plant, consist- 
ing of three parts, viz., radi- 
cle, plumule, cotyledons. In 

this Bean, V is the radicle, p radicle; p, the plumule 

is the plumule, C, C, are the ^- 812 - Seedof Wheat, cut open: a i* 

, t -, the albumen; c, the one cotyledon: ;>, 

Cotyledons. plumule; r, radicle. 

Fig. 311. Seed of Bean, without its 
hell: c, care the two cotyledons; r, the 

Fig. 313. Seed of Four- o'clock; embryo two-cotyledoned, coiled; a, albumen. 

Fig. 314. Seed of Heather. Fig. 315. A section of the same, showing the curved 
embryo, with two cotyledons, lying in albumen. 

Fig. 316. Seed of Onion. Fig. 317. Section of the same, showing the coiled em- 
bryo, one cotyledon, in albumen. 

191 The radicle is the part destined to grow downwards 

189. Of what two parts may the seed-kernel consist? 
100. Describe the parts of the seed of bean 


and become root. The plumule is the young bud destined 
to expand upwards and become stem and leaves. The cotyle- 
dons are two young leaves, thick and bulky, full of starchy 
matter to feed the embryo when it shall awake and begin to 

192. In the Wheat-seed (Fig. 312) we find, besides the 
embryo, a white, mealy mass (a), well known when ground 
into flour. This mass is evidently intended to answer the 
same purpose as the starchy cotyledons of the Bean — to 
nourish the embryo. The radicle (>), the plumule (p\ the 
cotyledon (<?), and the albumen (a), are clearly shown. Fig. 
313 (seed of Four-o'clock) also shows albumen ; here the em- 
bryo is coiled into a ring around the albumen. Thus we see 
that the food of the young plantlet is laid up somewhere in 
every seed, either in the bulky cotyledons of the embryo 
itself, or in the albumen outside the embryo. 

193. We have, then, seeds albuminous, and seeds exalbu- 
minous ; seeds two-cotyledoned, and seeds one-cotyledoned. 



191. We have seen that the ripened seed is a miniature 
plant, living, but sleeping; packed and sealed up for trans- 
portation. It may continue to sleep, perhaps, for years, if 

191. Describe the nature and destiny of the radicle; of the plumule; of 
11 e cotyledons. 

192. Of what does the Wheat-seed consist? What is the intention of the 
albumen ? the position of it in Wheat ? in Four-o'clock ? 

193. What seeds are albuminous? exalbuminous ? What seeds are two 
cotyledoned ? one-cotyledoned ? 



kept dry ; but if exposed to moisture, it soon 
awakes and commences its wonderful course of 

195. In the Spring of the year the melting snows 
or the warm rains supply the proper moisture to 
fie needs which have fallen to the ground, and 
they may be seen everywhere swelling, bursting 
and growing. The young botanist must not fail to 
watch their development. 

196. Beneath some Oak, for example, 
buried in the old leaves, we find acorns 
in all stages of growth, showing at one 
view all the steps in the process of ger- 
mination. Here is an acorn wif 
its shell softened and its kernel 
little swollen. We divide it lengt 
wise with a sharp knife, and tl 
section (Fig. 318) shows the t\ 
thick cotyledons (c c) and the 
radicle (r). 

197. In another acorn (Fig. 
319) the cotyledons have ab- 
sorbed yet more water, and en- 
larged so much as to burst 
the shell, and the radicle « 

t „ _ |b* — ' ^,_ ■• "■■- ' \?/P Fiq. 813. Acorn, seed of the 

growing, lias come forth, \j^W Oak, cut open, -showing c, c, 
a little root, directino- its ^^2-^-^ the cotyledons; r, the radicle. 

course downwards. "* , Flgs 8K >' 8 ' 20 ' 321 ' Show thc 

progress of germination: r, radicle ; p, plumule. 

194. Please tell us again what a seed is. In what condition is a seed 
When will it awake ? 

195. Condition of the seeds generally in Spring ? 



198. J n the next stage of growth 
(Fig. 320) the two stalks of the cotyle- 
dons (s, petioles, Less. I.), make their 
appearance, and from between them, at 
the top of the rootlet, the plumule 
shoots forth, a little stem with a bud 
at the top, directing its course up- 
wards. The rootlet, meanwhile, has 
grown longer, entered the soil, and 
divided itself into branches and fibres 
all covered over with fine white hairs. 
These hairs, called fibrils, may be 
seen under a microscope, as in Fig. 
322, which represents the end of a F ^ 322 - The extreme end 

... » ■»■ i -^i • /mm i of a rootlet of Maple, greatly 

fiore ol Maple with its hbrils much magnified under a lens, show- 
magnified. i Q g the fibrils. 

199. Up to this stage, the growing rootlet and bud have 
drawn all their nourishment from the store of food laid up 
beforehand in the thick cotyledons for this very purpose ; but 
now the rootlet has reached the soil, and by means of its 
numerous fibrils, which are so many little mouths, it is begin- 
ning to draw its nourishment from the earth. 

200. Another acorn, or the same one a few days later 
(Fig. 321), shows root and stem well organized, and the young 
Oak fairly started on its grand journey of growth and life. 
The root has descended deeper and spread its branches wider 

103. What is the meaning of the word germination f Describe the sectk 
?f an acorn in Fig. 318. 

197. Describe that stage of growth seen in Fig. 319. 

198. Describe the third stage, as represented in Fig. 320. 

199. The first source of food for -the embryo? the second? 

200. How does the plant appear in Fig. 321 ? 




in the soil, while the bud has mounted higher, unfolding 
itself into stem and leaves, and spreading itself in the air and 

201. The young plant has now become independent of the 
seed, which will soon wither and perish. The cotyledons, in 
this case, are never able to throw off the shell, but perish 

328 327 326 325 824 

Progress of germination in Maple. — Fig, 823. A seed (samara). Fig, 324. Thj 
Rame, just beginning to grow ; the rootlet descends, the cotyledons have burst the 
shell. Fig. 325. The leaf-like cotyledons (c) nearly open, the stem (s) and root (r) 
lengthening. Fig, 326. The terminal bud appears. Fig. 327. The first pair of true 
leaves expanded. Fig. 328. The second pair appear, &c. 

together with it. In other plants, however, as in Maple 
(Fig. 325), the two cotyledons escape from the shell, change 
color, and become leaves, — the first pair on the plant (c). 
202. The bud, which we called plumule, is still seen at the 

201. Wlien does the seed perish? 
differ In development t 

Cotyledons of Oak and Maple — how 



top, arising higher and higher, as it unfolds its axis into the 
joints (called nodes and internodes) of the stem, its outer 
scales into leaves, and is itself continually renewed from 
within. Thus the ascending stem, or axis^ is always termi- 
nated by a bud. 

Fig. 329. Bud of Currant unfolding, — the scales (s) gradually becoming leaven. 
Fig. 330. Bud uf Tulip-tree, — the scales unfolding into stipules («). 

203. Soon other buds appear. There is one in the axil of 
each leaf. So long as the terminal bud only is developed, 
the plant grows up a simple stem. But by the growth of 
these axillary buds, if they grow at all, branches are pro- 
duced ; and these branches, from their axillary buds, produce 
branchlets, and so on. 

202. What do you understand by the nodes and internodes? Ho* is iiw 
tis a 1 v\ ays terminated ? 
200. In what case will the stern be simple ? How are branches pioduo* 1 




204. The water which the plant imbibes by its roots be- 
comes sap in the stem, and circulates in every part as the 
blood circulates in the animal frame. The leaves, by their 
broad, thin forms, serve as lungs, to bring all the sap which 
passes through them into contact with the air and light. 

205. By this means the sap is changed into a nourishing 
food, fitted to sustain the growth of the plant in every part. 
Thus the leaves are designed, not only as an ornamental robe, 
but as organs of breathing and digestion. 

206. In the second stage of growth, when the plant depends 
no longer upon the seed for nourishment, it goes on increas- 
ing in stature and multiplying its leaves and branches. It 
now consists of three parts, namely, root, stem, and leaves. 
These are called the organs of vegetation. 

207. The third stage of plant-life is the period of flowering. 
Before this period, all its activity was devoted to its own 
nourishment and growth. Now it begins to live and act for 
the continuance of its own kind after it upon the earth, 
according to the Divine decree in Genesis, i., 11. Some of 
its buds undergo a striking change, and open each a flower 
instead of a leafy branch. 

208. A flower is therefore a leafy branch transformed (as 

204. What becomes of the water which the roots imbibe? What part dc 
she leaves act ? 

205. What change takes place in tne sap ? 
205. What is the second stage of plant-life ? 

201. The third stage ? Whence come the flowers ? 


shown in the Class Book, p. 23), having its axis undeveloped 
its leaves in crowded circles, moulded into more delicate 
forms and tinned with brighter colors, not onlv to adorn the 
face of nature, but to prepare the way for fruit. 

209. The fourth stage of plant-life is the period of its fruit 
bearing. The flowers have gradually faded and disappeared 
but the pistil, having received the quickening pollen (see Class 
Book of Botany, p. 148), remains in its place, holds fast alJ 
the nourishing matter which continues to flow into it through 
the flower-stem, grows, and finally ripens into the perfected 
fruit and seed. 

210. The fifth and last stage in the biography of the plant 
is its hibernation (winters sleep), or its death. If the event 
of flowering and fruit-bearing occur within the first or second 
year of the life of the plant, it is generally followed by its 
speedy death. In all other cases it is followed by a state of 
needful repose, wherein it is commonly stripped of its leaves, 
and gives few, if any, indications of life, until awaked, with 
renewed vigor, in the following Spring. 

211. According to their different terms of life, we distin- 
guish plants as annuals, biennials, and perennials. An an- 
nual herb completes its whole history in one year. In the 
Spring it germinates ; in Summer it grows, blooms, bears 
fruit; and in Autumn its work and life are ended. The 
Mustard, Maize, and Morning-glory are such. 

212. A biennial herb lives two years. During the first it 

208. Please state the nature of the flower. 

209. Please describe the fourth stage of plant-life. 

210. The fifth stage. 

211. In regard to their term of life, how are plants divided . Describe an 
annual herb. 

212. A biennial herb. 


germinates, grows, and bears leaves only ; and in its second 
year it blossoms, bears fruit, and dies. Such are the Beet 
and Radish. 

213. A perennial plant survives several or many yearp. 
There are herbaceous perennials and woody perennials. The 
herbaceous perennials, or perennial herbs, are such as survive 
the winter only by their roots or their parts which grow 
underground. These in Spring send up leaves, flowers, and 
and often stems, all of which perish in Autumn, leaving only 
the parts underground alive as before. Such are the Hop, 
Asters, Violets. 

214. Woody perennials survive the winter by their stems 
as well as roots, and usually grow several years before flow- 
ering, and thence flower annually during their existence. 
Accoiding to their size, such plants are trees, shrubs, under- 
shrubs. A tree is^he largest among plants, having a perma- 
nent, woody stem, usually unbranched below, and dividing 
into branches above. The Oaks, Elms, and Pines are famil 
iar examples. 

215. A bhrub is smaller than a tree, usually growing in 
clusters from one underground mass of roots. The Lilacs, 
Roses, Alders, are shrubs. Small shrubs, about of our own 
stature, as the Currants, Brambles, we call bushes. Yery 
low shrubs, as the Blueberries, Box, &c, are undershrubs. 

213. Describe a perennial plant. Of what two sorts ? Describe a peren 
dial herb. 

215. A tree, a shrub, bush, undershrub, — how distinguished ? To which 
of the above-mentioned sorts does the Cabbage belong? To which the Hol- 
lyhock? the Balsamine ? Four-o'clock? To which the Tulip? Golden rod! 
Lily? Pink? Quince? &c. 





216. The term axis ex- 
presses the central column 
or bod j of the plant around 
which the brandies and 
other organs are arranged. 
As we have already no- 
ticed, the axis grows and 
extends in two directions, 
— upwards and downwards. 
The ascending part is the 
stem, the descending part 
is the root. The former 
loves and seeks the air and 
light, the latter the dark, 
damp bosom of the earth. 

217. The Root serves the 
twofold purpose of fixing 
the plant firmly in its place, 
and of imbibing the neces- 
sary food from the soil. 
The food when thus im- 
bibed is never in a solid 

Fig. 831. An entire plant (Shep- 
herd's-purse), showing the axis (a 
to r). The part from c to r is the 
descending axis, or root ; from c to a 
the ascending axis, or stem; £, b, 
branches, hearing racemes of flowers 
and fruit. 




state, but dissolved in water, and con- 
sists of certain earths, alkalies, and 
gases. (See Part II., Chap. 7, Class 
Book of Botany.) 

218. It is the nature of the root to 
divide itself into branches, and the only 
organs which properly belong to it are 
branches, fibres, and fibrils. It puts 
forth no buds nor leaves unless the 
plant be in some unnatural state. 

219. The roots of woody plants, es- 
pecially, are hranching roots. Year 
after year they multiply and extend in 
branches and branchlets beneath the 

Fig. 832 Branching root 
of a vounof tree. 

333 334 335 

tig, 333. A tuberous root (Erigenia), Fig. 334. Fibrous roots (Buttercups). 
Fig. 335. Branching root (Woite Clover), with tuberc es. 



ground, in proportion to the growth of the branches and 
twigs of the stem above. The axis itself may not descend 
to any great depth, and after a few years may be found far 
exceeded in growth by its own branches which extend hori- 
zontally in a better soil. The greater the growth of the root? 
the more firm will be its hold upon the ground, and the great- 
er its capacity foi* drinking in liquid nourishment for the tree. 

220. The roots of herbaceous 
plants take a great variety of 
forms. Some are tuberous, some 
fibrous. The tuberous are such as 
consist of a large axis or body, witn . 
small branches ; as in the Beet, 
Ground-nut, Spring Beauty, and 
many other biennial plants. 

221. The fibrous are such as con- 
sist mostly of fibres, with scarcely 
any axis ; as in Buttercups, Grass- 
es. In such cases the axis ceased 
to grow immediately after ger- 
mination, and long thread-like r . QO , ,,, . , ; * 

t & Fig. 330. luberous and fusiform 

branches supplied its place. root of Beet. 

222. The fibrO-tuberOUS roots Fi $' 837 - Tuberous and napiform 
, , „ , , root of Turnip. 

are such as have some of their 

fibres thickened and fleshy, as seen in the Peony, Dahlia, 

216. Please explain the meaning of the term axis. In what two direction? 
does it grow ? 

217. What is the twofold purpose of the root ? What does it imbibe t 
In what state is this food when imbibed ? 

218. What is said of the nature of the root ? What are its only proper 
organs ? What is said of leaves or buds ? 

219. Describe the roots of woody plants, and their growth. 

220-222. Describe tuberous roots ; fibrous ; fibro-tuberous ; tubercular. 




Spiraea. If little tubers here and there are attached to the 
fibres, the root is tubercular^ as in Squirrel-corn. 

Fig. 338. Fibro-tuberous root of Peony. 

Fig. 339. Fibro-tuberous root of Spiraea filipundula. 

Fig. 340. Fibro-tuberous root ef Mourning Geranium. 

223. All these fleshy forms, whether tuberous or fibro-tu- 
berous, are filled with starch, deposited there in store, for use 
in the future growth of the plant. Many other forms of roots 
are described in larger works. 



224. The stem tending upward in its growth is often called 
the ascending axis. It does not in all cases continue to arise 

223. What purpose do fleshy roots serve ? 

Less. XXVIII. What is the subject of this lesson? 



Fig. 341. Spotted Prince's Pine, entire plant: the stem is a "leaf-stem." 
Fig. 342. Diclytra (D. cucullaria), whole plant ; it has a " scale-stem." 

m growing, but often becomes oblique or horizontal. There- 
fore we have, besides erect stems, stems prostrate, procumbent, 
trailing, when running along flat on the ground, or over 
bushes, as the Partridge-berry, White Wintergreen (Fig. 343) \ 
and, also, steins decumbent, first arising and afterwards re- 
clining on the ground, as the Poor-man's-weather-glass (Fig, 

225. There are, also, subterranean stems, never arising 

224. What of the direction of the growth of stems ? How does the stem 
of White Wintergreen grow ? How the stem of AnagalHs ? 



Fig. 343. Tne White Wintergreen (Chiogenes) ; it has a procumbent stem 

above the ground at all, but only sending up leaves and 
flowers with their stalks, as the Tulip. 

226. It is the nature of the stem to produce buds, as it is oi 
the root to produce none. At first the stem is itself a bud, 
and as it grows it bears this bud always at the summit and 
produces a new bud in the axil of every new leaf. 

Fig, 344. Poor-man's-weather-glass (Anagallis) ; it has a decumbent stem. 

227. The stem lias nodes and internodes. The joints where 
the leaves severally come out are the nodes, and the portion 
of stem between, the internodes. In the bud the internodes 
are quite undeveloped, and the nodes close together ; but as 
it develops into a regular leaf-stem, the internodes grow, and 
the nodes with their respective leaves are separated. 

228. But in some plants, the nodes only are developed, and 
the axis never extends itself above ground, and covers itseli 

225. Wliat of the stem of Tulip ? 

226. What the nature of the stem with respect to buds ? 

227. Please tell us what are nodes and internodes- 



Fig. 345. Corms of Putty-root (Aplectrum) : a, of last year ; b, of the present year. 

Fig. 346. Scale bulb of White Lily. 

Fig. 347. Scale bulb of Violet Sorrel (Oxalis vwlacea). 

with scales instead of leaves. Thus we have two classes of 
stems ; namely, leaf-stems and scale-stems. These figures, 
one of the delicate Diclytra and the other (Fig. 341) of the 

Fig. 348. Ithizome of Solomon's Seal ; a, fragment of the first year's growth ; b % 
the second year's growth; c, the third year's growth, bearing d, the stem of the 
present year, which will leave a scar (the seal), like that of the others. 

Fig. 349. Premorse rhizome of Trillium. 

228. What two classes of stems -have we to consider ? What is tl e differ- 
nce between them ? To which class does Diclytra belong ? Prince's Pine T 



Prince's Pine, make a fine contrast of the two kinds of 

229. Several varieties of scale-stems must be distinguished ; 
as, bulb, corm, rhizome, creeper, tuber, &c. 

230 The Tulip, Hyacinth, Onion, Lily, have bulbs ; you 
see (Figs. 346, 347), they consist of roundish masses of thick 
scales with a small axis — in fact, an overgrown bud. The 
corm is like it in shape, but has a thick axis with thin scales 
or none. (Fig. 345.) 

231. The rhizome, or root-stock, is a fleshy, underground 
stem, often scaly and marked with scars, as you see in tho 
Bloodroot, Solomon's Seal (Figs. 348, 349). 

Fig, 350. Creeper of "Nimble Will," or Witch-grass : a, bud; 6, b, bases of the 
stems which rise above-ground. 

232. The creeper is more slender, much branched, many- 
jointed and many-scaled, as seen in this figure of the Witch- 
grass. It sends out rootlets from its joints, and is very tena- 
cious of life, binding the soil into turf wherever it abounds. 

233. The tuber, such as grows on the underground stemy 
of the Potato-plant, is evidently a stem (not a root), for it al« 
ways produces buds. 

229. Name five sorts of scale-stems. 

230. Describe the bulb , the corm. 231. The rhizome. 
232. The creeper. 233. The tuber. 



234. Of the leaf-stem class we must describe three kinds, 
the trunk, caulis, and vine. Trunk is the name given to the 
stems of woody, erect plants, especially of trees. They are 
the representatives of loftiness and strength, in poetic phrase, 
lifting their summits to the skies and doing battle with the 
storm. There are, indeed, few objects in nature possessed of 
a truer grandeur than the White Pine's trunks of the North 
ern forests. 

235 Caulis, is the general name given by botanists to the 

Vines. Fig. 351. Passion-flower {Passiflora lutea), climbing by tendrils. Fig 
$52. Morning-glory, twining from left to right. Fig. 353. Hop, twining from righ 
to left. 

234. Name, next, three kinds of leaf-stems. Describe the trunk. 

235. The caulis. Meaning and use of caulescent? acaulescent? Give ex 
amples of each. 


stems of Kerbs. From this word come two adjectives much 
used and quite convenient, viz., caulescent and acaulescent / 
the former denoting the presence of stems above-ground, the 
latter of only underground stems. Thus the Buttercup is 
caulescent, while the Pitcher-plant is acaulescent ; the Garden 
Violet or Pansy is caulescent, while the wild Blue Violet is 

236. Vine, as every one knows, denotes a slender stem, too 
weak to stand alone, and supporting itself by the aid of other 
plants or objects. Some vines are woody, some herbaceous; 
The Hop twines itself around its supporter, turning from 
right to left, as in Fig. 353. The Morning-glory, also, but 
it turns from left to right (Fig. 352). Thirdly, the Grape 
and Passion-flower (Fig. 351) climb by special organs, the 
tendrils, of wonderful adaptation, showing their Maker's de- 
sign more truly than if by an audible voice. 

236. Describe the vine. What their three varieties ? What is the read 
mirable in the tendril ? 





PLAXT may be studied by 
itself, as an individual, separate 
from other plants or objects: 
or it mav be considered in its re- 
lations to other plants, as consti- 
tuting a part of a system. In 
this latter view we discover one 
vast design embracing the innu- 
merable millions of plants as one 
kingdom, leading us to adore the 
wisdom and goodness of him 
who planned and created the 
world. For we see that he has 
not only made each plant with 
so much loveliness and perfec- 
tion in itself, but has assigned 
to each its proper rank in the 
/ system, and endowed it with just 

that nature, habit, and style of beauty, which adapts It to 

that rank. 

238. To study plants as constituting a system, as we now 

propose to do, is useful in two ways : first, it gives us a 

larger and truer conception of the Vegetable Kingdom ; and 

237. What two modes of studying the plant are mentioned ? In the sec 
ond mode what discovery is made ? 

238. In the systematic study of plants what two other advantages? 

Fig. 354. 


secondly, it teaches us bow to recognize by name the plants 
with which we meet, so as to avail ourselves of all that has 
been recorded concerning the same by botanists before us. 

239. Suppose the pupil, in his study, has dropped a single 
Flax-seed on a lock of cotton floating in water in a bulb- 
glass. It grows, filling the clear water with its silvery radi- 
cles, while its stem shoots upwards covered with leaves and 
finally blooming with flowers. This is an individual plant. 
He studies its organs, colors, portrait, and carefully writes its 

240. Meanwhile, other Flax-seeds, by thousands, have been 
sown in the fields, and from each, also, a plant has arisen. 
The student finds them in flower, tinging all the plain in 
ocean blue. Now, shall he, as a botanist, repeat his study 
over each of all these millions ? Certainly not. lie finds 
himself already acquainted with them, for each bears an ex- 
act resemblance to that which he has already described. His 
knowledge of one individual Flax-plant, therefore, avails him 
for each and all the myriads of Flax-plants growing every- 

241. In this manner we obtain the idea of a Species. Thus, 
a species of plants consists of many individuals of the same 
kind, having descended from a common stock, and resem- 
bling each other and their common parent in every feature. 

242. The common Blue Flax, of which linen is made, is a 
species / the wild Yellow Flax is another; and the Purple 
Flax of the gardens is another. The White Clover is a spe- 

239. Can you give us an idea of an individual plant ? 

240. Having studied one individual Flax-plant, why do we not need to 
study the others ? 

241. Please state your idea of a species. 

242. Please illustrate your idea of a species. 


cies with its progeny of millions of plants ; the Red Clover is 
another ; the Yellow Clover another ; the Buffalo Clover 
another. In like manner all the plants of the globe are 
grouped into species, and this is the first step in classification. 

243, The second step carries us to the genus, which we 
may thus define : A Genus is an assemblage of species which 
are much alike ; especially in their flowers and fruit. Thus, 
Flax is a genus made up of the several species mentioned 
above, and other similar species. Clover is a genus com- 
posed of 150 species, some of which we have just mentioned. 
Every one notices the resemblance between White Clover, 
Red Clover, &c. Pine is a genus, embracing as species 
White Pine, Yellow Pine, Pitch Pine, Long leaved Pine, and 
many others. 

244. Individuals of the same species may differ somewhat 
amono; themselves, and these differences constitute varieties. 
Thus Apple-trees differ in their fruit, and there are hundreds 
of varieties although only one species. Roses differ in their 
form, color, and fragrance of their flowers, forming many va- 
rieties under each species. Probably no two plants of any 
species were ever exactly alike. Sameness, or monotony, is 
not a characteristic of Nature. 



245. In attempting to classify and arrange the genera oi 
plants, according to their natural resemblances and differ- 

243. Can you now define a genus ? Please illustrate your idea of a genus 

244. What is a variety ? Illustrate your meaning. 


ences, botanists have formed a system called the Natural Sys- 
tem. Let us now briefly notice this system of classification. 

246. We have already stated that the plants of the globe 
are all created in species, and that this is the first step in 
classification. Then, in the second place, the species are 
grouped into genera. Now the number of species of plants 
already known is about 100,000, and the genera 20,000. 

247. The third step in our system carries us forward to the 
Natural 0\v krs. These are made up of genera. As we as- 
sociate similar species to form a genus, so we associate 
similar genera to form the natural orders. The number of 
orders described in the Natural System is about three hun- 
dred. For example, the natural order Crucifirae, or the 
Crucifers, embraces such genera as Mustard, Cress, Cabbage, 
Turnip, Radish, Wall-flower, which every one sees to bear 
resemblance to each other in many respects. 

248. How then shall we define a natural order? It is a 
group of similar genera ; or, a group of genera closely re- 
lated to each other. Therefore, individuals form species; 
species form genera ; genera form orders. But how shall we 
classify these three hundred orders ? 

249. Suppose we take an excursion into the mountains. 
We walk beneath the forest trees, and among the shrubs. 
W^e tread upon the lesser herbs, the matted grasses, and the 
mosses and lichens which cover the rocks. Everywhere we 
see plants, and behold the domain of the vegetable kingdom. 

245. What is the subject of this Lesson XXX. ? 

246, 247. What is the first step in classification ? the second ? the third ? 
What number of species known in all the vegetable world ? What numbei 
of genera ? of orders ? (Ans. 303.) 

248. Define a natural order. Please review these three steps 

249. Show how we may divide the vegetable kingdom. 



Now riewing this as one grand whole, we want to divide it 
into two subkingdoms. How shall we do it ? 

250. Every attentive observer has noticed that some of 
these plants produce no flowers ; as, e. g., the Ferns and 
Mosses. Let us then take all such plants and consider them 
as forming one sub-kingdom, viz., the Flowerless Plants 
All other plants will of course constitute the other sub -king 
dom, viz., the Flowering Plants. Botanists call the latter 
the Phsenogamia, and the former, the Ciyptogamia (Greek 
words of the same import). 

251. Now these two sub-kingdoms have other 
distinctions besides flowering and not-flowering. 
See the fruit-clots growing on the back of Fern 
leaves. The microscope shows them to be clusters 
of hollow cases, and each case tilled with a fine 
'yellow dust. But this dust is not seeds, with 
embryo, radicle, &c. (Less. 24), but little sacs, 
containing a fluid, similar to the pollen grains 
(Less. 15). AYe call them Spores. See, also, the 
Mushrooms having no leaves, and the Lichens 


Some of the Cryptogams. — Fig. 355. A Fern, showing the fruit- dots. Figs. 356, 357 
85S, are Lichens, some appearing to have stems, and some with no appearance of any 

250. Please distinguish the two subkingdoms. The meaning of Crypto 
gamia ? Phaonogamia ? 251. What about the Spores of Ferns, &e. 1 



often, also, without stems. Hence we may say of the Cryp- 
togams that they are not only jlowerless, but seedless, and 
often leafless and stemless. 

252. We wall now dismiss the Cryptogams for the present 
and consider the Flowering Plants (Phsenogams), as one sub 
kingdom; — how shall this be divided? Every one notices a 
striking difference between plants with parallel-veined leaves 
and those with net- vein eel leaves. The former have their 
flowers three-parted, w T hile the latter have their fhywers two, 
four, or five-parted, &c, — the former have seeds one-lobed 
(monocotyledoned, Less. 15), the latter, two-lobed (dicotyle- 
doned, Less. 15). Let us, then, divide the Phsenogamia into 
two provinces ; as Nature lias already done. 

Fig. 359. Cross-section of an exogenous stem (Elm), of two years growth: 1, the 
pith ; 2, 3, two layers of wood ; 4, the bark. Fig. 360. Cross-section of an endoge- 
nous stem (Corn), showing no distinction of layers. 

253. We may call these two provinces severally, the Exo- 
gens and the Endogens : — two Greek words denoting outside 
growers, inside-growers, referring to their modes of growth. 

254. Now, taking such an Exogen as the Apple-tree, and 
Luch an Endogen as the Indian Corn, we may distinguish 
them thus : The Exogen has its wood, if any, arranged in con- 
centric rings, or layers, as seen in Fig. 360 ; — the outer **ing 

252. Show how the Flowering Plants are divided. 253. Please give t he 
character of an Exogen ; an Endogen. Meaning of these two words ? 


being the youngest ; the leaves net-veined; the flowers sel 
dom (or never completely) three-parted ; and the seeds two 
lobed. On the contrary : 

255. The Endogen has its wood, if any, confused, the inner 
portions being the newest; — its leaves parallel-veined ;- -its 
flowers three-parted ; and its seeds or.e-lobed. 



256. Thus Exogens and Endogens are so clearly defined 
that you may know them as far off as you can see them. 
The next step in the analysis is, to subdivide each of these 
provinces. First, as to the Exogens : We know that they 
generally have pistils in their flowers, with the young seeds 
(ovules) inclosed in their ovaries. But there are exceptions 
to this rule. The Pines, Yews, &c, have no pistils at all, or, 
at least, no stigmas, and produce naked seeds, not inclosed in 
seed-vessels. Hence, we have two classes of Exogens : the 
naked-seeded and the vessel-seeded. The botanists call the lat- 
ter the Angiosperms (Greek, angios, a vessel ; sperma, seed) ; 
and the former, the Gymnosperms (Greek, gyrnnos, naked). 

257. Secondly, the Endogens: here consider the peculiar 
forms and flowers of the Grasses. Their flowers are all en- 
veloped in green, alternate scales, called glumes, instead of 

254 Is the Lily an Exogen or Endogen ? The Buttercup ? The Maple, &c. ? 

256. What is the next step in the analysis? State the manner of subdi- 
viding th3 Exogens. What is the meaning and etymology of the word 
w Angiosperms ?" WTiat of Gymnosperms ? Give an example of each. 

257. Show the subdivision of the Endogens. What of the Petaliferre ! 
What of the Glumifera? ? 


the circles of petals common in other flowers. Hence we 
have a class of Glume-plants and of Glumeless-plants, or, as 
the botanists say, Glumiferje and Pktaliferje. Thus we 
divide all the Flowering Plants into four Classes, viz.: 

1. Angiosperms / Exogens bearing stigmas and seed-vessels. 

2. Gymnosperms / Exogens with no stigmas, and with naked 
geeds, as the Pines, Firs, Larches, Cedars, Cypresses,Yews, &c. 

3. Petaliferce / Endogens with no glumes and ordinary 

4. Glumiferce / Endogens with glumes instead of petals, as 
the Grasses, Sedges, Grains. 

258. Again, each of these Classes are to be subdivided into 
Cohorts, as follows : the Angiosperms are divided (not very 
naturally) into three cohorts, viz. : 

1. The Dialypetalce, or Polypetalous Exogens, having flow- 
ers with the petals distinct and separate, as in the Buttercup, 
Rose, Mustard. 

2. The Gamopetalce, having flowers with the petals united 
into one piece, as in the Phlox, Morning-glory, Foxglove. 

3. The Apeialm, having flowers without petals, either 
naked, or with only one circle of floral envelopes (which must 
then be considered as sepals, whatever be the color) ; as Gin- 
ger-root (Asarum), Poke (Phytolacca), and Pig-weed (CAeno- 

4. Next, the Gymnosperms are regarded as forming one 
cohort, called the Conoids, having the fruit usually in cones. 
(Less. XXIIL) 

258 After tlie classes, what is tlie next step in analysis? How are tie 
Angiosperms subdivided? Please define tlie Polypetalous Exogens; the 
Oaniopetalous; the Apetalous. What cohort do the Gymnosperms form? 
Why ? What two cohorts do the Petaliferous Endogens form ? Define the 
fifth cohort. Define the sixth cohort. What cohort do the Glumiferoup 
Endogens constitute? 


The Endogenous Petaliferse are divided into two cohorts, viz. ; 
5 The Spadiciflorce, having the flowers on a spadix, as in 
the Egyptian Calla and Jack-in-the-pulpit. 

6. The Floridice, having the flowers separate, not on* a 
spadix, as in Tulip, Gladiolus. 

7. The Class Glamiferse constitutes the seventh cohort, 
ander the name Graminoids, i. e., the Grass-like plants. 

Six other cohorts are formed from the flowerless plants, 
but we cannot notice them in this work. 

259. Lastly, the cohorts are themselves divided into, or 
composed of, the Natural Orders, w r hich we defined in Les- 
son XXX. 

260. Table I. Tabular View of the Natural System. 

Kmqaom. Sub-kinqdoms Provinces. Classes. Cohorts. 

r Dialypetalous, 
-5 Gamopetalous, 
i Angiosperms. . ( Apetalous. 
f Exogens. . I Gymnosperms.=Conoids. 
J \ Spadiciflorae, 

i Petal iferas ( Floridea?. 

i Phaenogamia. lEndogens. ( Glumiferae . . . .=«Graminoids. 
Vegetables. ( Cryptogamia- (Its divisions here omitted.) 

261 Table II. Tiew or the Natural Svstem. 

t. Flowering Plants. (Kext pass to No. 2.* PILENOGAMI A. 

1. Flowerless Plants. (Pass to No. 9.) CKYPTOGAMIA 

2. Leaves net-veined. Flowers never quite 3^parted 3. EXOGENS. 

2. Leaves parallel-veined. Flowers 3-parted 4. ENDOGENS. 

3. Stigmas present. Seeds in seed-vessels 5. Angiosperms. 

3. Stigmas none, seeds naked. Pines. Spruces, &c. . .6. Gymnosperm* 
4. Flowers without glumes, navmg petals, Ac. ...7. PetalifercE 

4. Flowers witn green, alternate glumes, no petals » . 3 Glumiferao 

259. Finally, into what are the cohorts themselves divided? Give us ei 
imples of each of all these cohorts.' 

2G0 Explain the use of Table I 261 Of Table II 


5. Petals distinct and separate. Polyvetal* 

5. Petals united more or less. GAMOPtTALje. 

5. Petals none. Apetalj:, 

6 The cone-bearing plants. Cedars, Larches. Conoids 

7. Inflorescence a spadix. SpADiciFLoitfi. 

7. Inflorescence not a spadix. Floride^e. 

8. Grass-like plants. Graminoids. 

9. Sucn as Ferns, Mosses, Lichens, Sea-weeds, Mushrooms all omitu-d in 

this book. (See Class-Book, Chapter XIV • 

262. Table III. Another View of the Natural System 

VEGETABLE KINGDOM, divided into two sub-kingdoms, viz.: 

Sub-kingdom First, PIIiENOGAMIA, the Flowering Plants, including 
Province L, the EXOGENS^ or Dicotyledons, including two classes 
Class 1, the Angiosperms, having three Cohorts, viz. ; 

Cohort A, Polypetalous Exogens (as Roseworts, &c.) : 
Cohort B, Gamopetalous Exogens (Phlox worts, <fec.j; and 
Cohort C, Apetalous Exogens (Poke worts, &c). 
Class 2, the G-ymnosperms, with one Cohort, viz. : 

Cohort D, Conoids, or cone-bearing plants (Pineworts, <fcc). 
Province 11., the ENDOGENS, or Monocotyledons, two Classes, viz. 
Class 3, the Petaliferous Endogens, having two Cohorts ; 
Cohort E, Spadiciflor^e (the Aroids, &c; ; 
Cohort F, Floride^e (Lily worts, &c.\ 
Class 4, the Glumiferous Endogens, one Cohort, viz. : 
Cohort G, Gramtnoids (Grasses, Sedges, &c). 
Sub-hmgdom Second, CKYPTOGAM1A the Flowerless Planto 
Province III. &c , &c 



263. To study any subject by the separate examination of 
the parts of which it is composed, is a process called analysis. 
For example, in Grammar, we analyze a sentence when wo 
point out and separately consider the subject, predicate, 

?62. Of Table III. 263. What is the general meaning of analysis ? Illustrate 


object, &c, In Chemistry, we analyze water when we sep- 
arate its two elements, oxygen and hydrogen, and examine 
each by itself. 

264. In Botany, however, we use the word analysis in a 
wider sense. It implies not only the separate study of each 
particular organ composing the plant, but doing all this in 
connection with certain tables, in order to determine its name 
and history. 

265 This kind of analysis is the constant and delightful pur- 
suit of the active botanist. Without it, the study of books loses 
half its pleasure and usefulness. The student can acquire a 
better knowledge of a species by the study of a living specimen, 
than by memorizing the longest description found in books. 

266. During the flowering months, he will often meet with 
species in blossom which are yet unknown to him. If he is 
duly interested in his study, he will not fail to seize and 
analyze each new specimen, and even extend his walk in 
search of more. In this manner, he may in a few seasons 
become acquainted with every species in his locality. 

267. But we do not expect that all this will be accomplished 
by our young friends while using as their only text-book this 
little work. We only aim now to furnish them with the 
means of making &fair begijining, so that they may be able, 
in future seasons, to advance rapidly with the " Class Book," 
or other works of that rank. 

268. In the following pages we present the pupil with 
numerous tables, designed to conduct our inquiries in every 
process of botanical analysis; also accompanied by a plain, 
miniature Flora, or a partial description of all the flowering 
plants in the United States. 

264. What is its signification in botany ? 


269. Specimens gathered for analysis should have flowere 
in full bloom, full-grown leaves, and also, if possible, the 
mature fruit. If it be an herb, it is well to have the whole 
of it as the root and lower leaves often afford characters by 
which the species is known. Suppose you now have good 
specimens of some one unknowm plant, gathered for analysis, 
—how will you proceed with them ? 

270. We first examine the several parts of the plant, begin- 
ning with the root and ending with the pistil or ovary, deter- 
mining the character of each according to the definitions 
given in the former lessons. After this, w 7 e refer to the table 
commencing on page 121, entitled, "Review of the Natural 
System," and read, compare, and decide according to the 
directions contained in Lesson XXXIIL, in order to determine 
the Natural Order to which the specimen belongs. Having 
determined the Order, we next turn to that Order, and deter- 
mine the Genus and Species by means of other similar tables. 

271. In examining the specimen, previous to the use of the 
tables, the first inquiries may be somew T hat as follows : 

As to the plant — whether it be an herb, shrub, or tree. 

As to the root — whether tuberous, fibrous, or fibro- tuberous. 

As to the stem — whether a scale-stem or leaf-stem ; bul- 
bous, rhizome, or erect, &c. 

As to the leaves — whether alternate or opposite; parallel- 
veined or net- veined ; whether the figure be ovate, lanceo- 
late, oblong, &c. 

269. What kinds of specimens are to be preferred for analysis ? 

270. Please state the first thing to be done with them. After you hav 
found the Order, what then ? 

271. What special care should be taken? As to character, what do we 
inquire concerning plants? What concerning the root? the stem? the 
leaves ? the stipules ? What concerning the flowers ? the calyx ? the corol 
la ? stamens ? What concerning the pistil or fruit ? 


As to stipules — whether present or absent. 

As to the flowers — whether symmetrical or unsymmetrical ; 
regular or irregular; whether the calyx be free or adherent ; 
the petals, whether distinct or united; the stamens, whether 
hypogynous or perigynous, whether opposite to the petals or 
alternate with them. 

As to the pistil and fruit, — whether the carpels be more 
than one, and whether distinct or united. (See Lesson 




272. Our readers are already informed that the Flora 
which accompanies these instructions is not intended to 
make them acquainted with the plants of the country, but 
simply to teach the pupil how to analyze. Hence they will 
not expect to find in it any thing like a full account of all 
our flora, but a few plain exercises by which they may trace 
every flowering plant in the country to its Natural Order, 
about one in every two to its Genus, and about one in every 
live to its Species. In conducting an exercise in this Flora 
with a class of pupils who have well studied the former part 
of the work, some method like the following would be inter- 
esting and profitable. 

273. Suppose the class present, and each furnished with a spe- 
cimen of some one unknown species, both in flower and fruit. 

Teacher. Are you all ready? Turn to the Flora and let us find out to- 
gether the family relations and the names of this fine plant. We will 
commence at the "Analysis of the Natural Orders" (page 132), and read 
the first pair of lines, which we will call a couplet. 


John {reads). "Plants bearing flowers (Phsenogamia). 

"Plants not bearing flowers (Cryptogamia)." 

Teacher. To which of these sub-kingdoms does your specimen belong \ 

John. To the flowering plants, for it has both flowers and fruit 

Teacher. Now tell us to which couplet we shall next pass. 

John. To the second. 

Teacher. Very well. Edward, you may read and determine the second 
couplet in the same manner. 

Edward. "Leaves net- veined. Flowers never completely three-parted. 

"Leaves parallel-veined (rarely net- veined). Flowers three-parted." 
This specimen seems to answer to the first line, having net-veined leaves 
and five-parted flowers. It is, then, an Exogen. Pass to No. 3. 

Teacher. Now let it pass along, and if a wrong decision is made, let the 
observer signify it by raising his hand. 

Sarah. " Stigmas present. Seeds inclosed in seed-vessels. 

" Stigmas none. Seeds naked." These flowers have pistils and stig- 
mas. I think it is an Angiosperm. Pass to No. 5. 

Eliza. " Corolla with distinct petals. 

" Corolla with united petals. 

" Corolla none ; sepals sometimes none." My specimen has five distinct 
petals, and five sepals. It is therefore Polypetalous. Pass over to A. 

Jane. "Herbs. 

" Shrubs, trees, or undershrubs." This plant is an herb. Pass on to 
No. 2. 

Mary. " Leaves alternate or all radical. 

"Leaves opposite, on the stem." The leaves of the stem are alternate, 
but many are radical. Pass to No. 15. 

Louisa. " Flowers regular or nearly so. Fruit never a legume. 

"Flowers irregular," &c. I do not remember the legume. (Several 
hands are raised.) 

Teacher. Edward will define a legume. 

Edward. A legume, sir, is a fruit like a pea-pod. 

Teacher. Can Mary improve this definition? 

Mary. The legume is a simple, or one-carpeled fruit, with two valves 
and one cell. 

Louisa. But this plant has regular flowers, in any case. See No. 17. 

Nancy. " Stamens numerous." &c. I count more than twenty stamens 
here. Turn to No. 21. 


Lvcy. "Stamens on the torus," &c. I think they are on the torus, and 
not on (he calyx. Next to No. 22. 

Emily. "Pistils few or many, distinct (at least as to the styles). 

"Pistils (styles, also, if any), completely united." I see many litt 1 e 
green pistils, quite distinct, in the centre of the flower. Go to No. 23. 

Caroline. "Petals rive or more, deciduous. Leaves not peltate," &c 
This flower has five petals, but I do not know whether they are deciduous 
or not. 

Teacher. Will some of you relieve Caroline's doubts? 

Emily, I think they are deciduous, for they have already fallen off from 
several of my flowers. 

Teacher. True. Then what is Caroline's decision? 

Caroline. I suppose, then, that the plant belongs to the "Order of the 
Crowfoots," which is the first natural order. 

Teacher. Well done. This brings us to the order of which our plant 
seems to be a member. Let us now turn to that order and learn the 
genus of the plant. But before we look into the " Analysis of the Gen- 
era," we should carefully compare our plant with the characters of the 
order, so that we may be sure that we have not erred in our conclusion. 
John will read aloud these characters, and the class will consider whether 
their specimens answer to each. 

John (reads). "Herbs, rarely shrubs, with a colorless, acrid juice" (&c., 
to the end). 

Teacher. Since we are now confident that we have a plant belonging 
to the order of the Crowfoots, let us commence the "Analysis of tlm 
Genera." Edward, the first couplet. 

Edward. " Sepals four, valvate in the bud. Achenia tailed. 

"Sepals imbricate in the bud." The sepals are imbricate. No. 2. 

Sarah. " Ovaries one-seeded, achenia in fruit. 

"Ovaries with two or more seeds." I find one seed in each ovary,— 
indeed, the ovary is itself like a little seed. Pass to No. 3. 

Eliza (after reading the couplet). The greenish sepals are quite diffc r 
snt from the yellow petals. Go to the triplet marked d. 

Jane (after reading the three lines). As this plant has leaves on the 
stem, and a little scale with honey at the base of each petal, I must pro 
nounce it a Crowfoot, genus No. 4. 

Teacher. We now turn to that genus (page 147), and read its character 
for the sake of confirmation and a better knowledge. 


Mary (reads the character of the genus Ranunculus aloud). 

Teacher. We are now ready for the analysis of the species. Mary is next. 

Mary, u Petals yellow. Seeds (carpels) rough with prickles. Flowern 
small. South 

44 Petals yellow, seeds smooth and even 

u Petals white (claws yellow). Seeds wrinkled crosswise." This spe 
tfimen has smooth seeds and yellow petals. Pass to a. 

Louisa. " Leaves more or less divided," &c. This second line cf th* 
triplet describes the plant. Pass on to b. 

Nancy. M Root leaves neither divided nor cleft, merely crenate. 

"Lower leaves three-cleft, but not divided to the base. 

u Leaves all ternately divided and much cleft." Pask to c. 

Lucy. " Sepals reflexed in flower. Plants erect. 

"Sepals spreading in flower, shorter than the petals." The sepals arc 
reflexed. Read Nos. 14, 15. 

Emily, after reading both descriptions, finally concludes that she holds 
in her haud a specimen of the Bulbous Crowfoot, or Ranunculus bulbosus. 
in which conclusion all concur. 



274. The work of analysis is often attended with ditiicul 
ties which severely try the skill and perseverance of the 
young botanist. So it often is in the study of Algebra, or ol 
Logic; indeed, in nearly every valuable branch of learning 
His decisions may be wrong through a want of a thorough 
acquaintance with botanical terms, or through his ignorance 
of the real characters of his specimens. Of course his success 
will always be in proportion to the accuracy of his knowl 
edge, — here, as well as in all other pursuits. 

274. Mention two sources of error in the analysis of plants 


275. But the minuteness of the organs or parts to oe 
studied is often discouraging even to the accurate student, 
much more to the careless one. To overcome this, skill in 
dissection and a dauntless courage in observation are indis 
pensable. Moreover, there is often much ambiguity in the 
nature of the subject. For example, whether the Geraniums 
are herbs or shrubs; whether the flowers of Petunia are reg- 
ular or irregular; whether the Pear leaf is ovate or oval, 
&e. Experience will at length diminish this difficulty. 

276. The exact limits between the classes, the cohorts, &c, 
are not always easily defined. For example, is Trillium an 
Exogen or an Endogen? Its netted leaves indicate the for- 
mer, but its flowers being three-parted throughout, and its 
seeds with one cotyledon, prove it to be an Endogen, Again, 
is Spring Beauty an Exogen or an Endogen? Its leaves 
seem, at flrst, parallel-veined, but as its flowers are five-parted 
it is an Exogen. 

277. Angiosperms will be readily distinguished from Gym- 
nosperms, if we remember that almost all the latter are ever- 
green trees, like the Pines, Cedars, Larches, &c. 

278. The industrious student w T ill very soon find himself 
so well acquainted with the different characters of the cohorts 
that he will in analysis refer his plant at once to its right 
cohort, without consulting the previous parts of the table. 
This is desirable; and a thorough acquaintance with the 

275. What of the minuteness of the organs of some plants ? What of the 
ambiguity of the plants themselves ? What will soon diminish this diffi- 
culty ? Mention examples of this ambiguity. 

276. Are the limits of the classes, cohorts, genera, &c, always clear 1 
How do we know that the Trillium is an Endogen? that Spring Beauty ip 
an Exogen ? 

277. How may the Gymnosperms be quickly distinguished ? 



characters of the five great orders following will prove a 
great saving of time and trouble. 

279. The Crucifers are herbs with alternate leaves, cruci- 
form flowers (§ 87), two stamens shorter than the other four, 
and two-celled pods. Example, Mustard. 

280. The Pea worts are plants with one-celled pods, mostly 
papilionaceous flowers and compound leaves. Examples, 
Pea, Bean. 

281. The Umbellifers have alternate leaves, small, regular, 
five-parted flowers, in umbels, and two-seeded fruit. Cara- 

282. The Asterworts are herbs with compound flowers, 
that is, with heads composed of many little five-parted flow- 
ers appearing together like a single flower. Asters, Sun- 

283. The Labiates are herbs with square stems, opposite 
leaves, labiate flowers, and fruit deeply cleft into four parts 

Among Endogens we select two or three orders. 
281. The Orchids. Herbs with very irregular and gro- 
tesque flowers, and stamens united to the style. Orchis. 

285. The Sedges. Herbs with solid stems ; linear, grass- 
like leaves (if any), on entire sheaths ; and with green glumes 
and flowers. 

286. The Grasses. Herbs w r ith hollow steins, linear leaves 
on split sheaths, and with green glumes and flowers. 

279. Define the Crucifers 280. The Peaworts 

281. The Umbellifers. 282. The Asterworts. 

283. The Labiates. 284. Define also the Orchids. 

285. The Sedges. 286 The Grasses. 

Often used in Descriptive Botany. 

ach., acneum. 
ast., aestivation. 
atier., alternate. 
anth., anther. 
axill., axillary. 
c, common. 
c<d., calyx. 
caps., capsule. 
cor., corolla. 
decid., deciduous. 
diam., diameter. 
emarg., emarginate. 
/. or ft., feet. 

fit., filament. 

^./flower; fs., flowers. 

fr., fruit. 

/id., head; /ids., heads. 

hyp., hypogynous. 

imbr., imbricate. 

inf., inferior. 

invol., involucre. 

irreg., irregular. 

leg., legume. 

If., leaf; Ivs., leaves. 

If is., leaflets. 

ova., ovary. 

pet., petals. 
r., rare, uncommon. 
recp., receptacle. 
reg., regular. 
rhiz., rhizome 
rt., root. 
sds.j seeds. 
seg., segments. 
sep., sepals. 
st., stem. 
sta., stamens. 
stig., stigmas. 
sty., styles. 

Apr., ApriL Aug., August. Dec, December. Feb., February. Jan., January. 
Jl., July. Jn., June, Mar., March. Nov., November. Oct., October. Sei4. K 


N., Northern, that is, the northern portions of the United States. 

iV.-F., New England, or the Northeastern States. 

A r .- W., the Northwestern States. 

K, the Eastern, or the Atlantic States. 

W., the Western, or the States bordering on the Mississippi and Ohio rivers. 

M., the Middle States or portions of the United States. 

S., the Southern States. 

S.-F., the Southeastern States, and S.- W., the Southwestern States. 

A r . Y., New York. Mass., Massachusetts. Fa., Pennsylvania, &c. 

/. (with or without the period), a foot. 

' (a single accent) denotes an inch (a twelfth of 1 foot). 

" (a double accent) a second, a line (a twelfth of an inch). 

® An annual plant. 

® A biennial plant. 

If A perennial plant. 

^> A plant with a woody stem. 

$ A pistillate flower or plant. 

$ A perfect flower, or a plant bearing perfect flowers. 

§ Monoecious, or a plant bearing staminate and pistillate flowers. 

$ S Dioecious ; f istillate and staminate flowers on separate plants. 

$ 5 $ Polygamous; the same species, with pistillate, perfect, and staminate fls. 

(a cipher, signifies wanting or none, as, " Petals 0." 

§ (placed after), a naturalized plant, 
t (placed after), cultivated for ornament 
X (placed after), cultivated for use. 
oo Indefinite or numerous. 
$ A staminate flower or plant. 



Being a Key for the ready determination of the Natural Order of any plant 
native or cultivated, growing within any State east of the Mississippi river \ 
or bordenng on its western shore. 

Note. — A star (*) prefixed to the name of the Order, denotes that that Order, with its 
genera and species, is described in its place in the Flora. The Orders not thus marked are 
not noticed in the Flora beyond this Table. The Orders are here numbered to correspond with 
the " Class Book of Botany." 


1 Flowering Plants .. . 2. Sub-kingdom, I'll J£NOGA MIA. 

1 Flowerless Plants Ferns, Mosses, Lichens, Mushrooms, 

Sea-weeds, <&c. (not further noticed here). Sub-kingdom, CKYPTOGAMIA- 
2. Leaves net-veined. Flowers never completely 3-parted ...3. EXOGENS. 

2. Leaves parallel- veined (rarely net veined). Flowers 3-parled 4. END GENS. 

3. Stigmas present. Seeds inclosed in a seed-vessel 5. Angiosperms 

3. Stigmas none. Seeds naked (Pines, Spruces, &c). . AS. Gymnosperms. 

4 Flowers without glumes, colored or green 7. Fetaliferae 

4. F'cwers with green, alternate glumes, no perianth ... .8. Glumiferae 

5. Corolla with distinct petals A. Co/iort 1. Polypetalous. 

5. Corolla with united petals B. Cohort 2. Gamopetalous. 

5. Corolla none. Sepals sometimes none .C. Cohorts. Apetalous. 

6. The cone-fruited plants (same as Gymnosperms). .D. Cohort 4. Conoids. 

7. Fls. on a spadix, apetalous or incomplete. . . .22. Cohort 5. Spadiciflor^e. 

7. Fls. complete, perianth double. No spadix.. P. Cohorts. Florideji 

8 The grass-like plants (same as Glumiferse). Gr. Cohort 7. Graminoids 

A Orders of the Polypetalous Exogens 

1. Herbs.... 2. 

1. Shrubs, trees, or undershrubs. .3. 
2. leaves alternate or all radical ... .15. 
2. Leaves opposite on the stem ....11. 

3. Flowers regular or nearly so 4. 

3. Flowers irregular (or fruit a legume, § 180) ..57 
4 Stamens 3 times as many as the petals, or more. . . 5. 
Stamens 1 or 2 times as many as the petals, or fewer.. 7. 

5. 1 .eaves opposite .... CO. 

6. Leaves alternate. . fi. 



6. Stamens on the torus or on the hypogynous (§ 83) petals... 63. 

6. iStamens and petals on the calyx tube (perigynous, § 83; . . .68. 

7. Ovaries simple, distinct or one only. Vines or erect shrubs 69. 

7. Ovary compound 8. 

8. Ovary inferior, — wholly adherent to the calyx. . . .70. 

8. Ovary superior, — free from the calyx, or nearly free 9. 

9. Stamens opposite to the petals, and of the same number.... 72. 
. Stamens alternate with the petals, or of a different number. . . .10 

10. Leaves opposite on the stem 73. 

10. Leaves alternate, compound 76. 

10. Leaves alternate, simple. ...78. 
11. Stamens 3 times as many as the petals, or more. . . .47. 
11. Stamens 1 or 2 times as many as the petals, or fewer. . . .12 

12. Pistils distinct and simple, few or one only 48. 

12. Pistils united into a compound ovary 13. 

13. Ovary free from the calyx. . .14. 
13. Ovary adherent to the calyx. ..49. 

14. Stamens opposite to the petals, and of the same number 51. 

14. Stamens alternate with the petals, or of a greater number. . . .52. 

15. Flowers regular or nearly -so. Fruit never a legume. . . .17. 

15, Flowers irregular (rarely regular), or the fruit a legume.. 16 

16. Stamens 3 or more times as many as the petals 42. 

16. Stamens few and definite, 5-12 43. 

17. Stamens numerous, 3 or more times as many as the petals.. ..21. 
17. Stamens few and definite 18. 

18. Ovary free from the calyx, — superior. . . 19. 

18. Ovary adherent to the calyx, — inferior 39. 

Pistils one or indefinite (1-15), distinct, simple. . .30. 
Pistils definite in number, as follows, viz 20. 

20. Carpels (or pistils) 2, united, the short styles combined into 1 .. ..51 

20. Carpels 3 or 4, united, the styles or stigmas 3, or 4, or 6 . . . .32. 

20. Carpels 5, distinct or united, with 5 distinct styles 37. 

20. Carpels 5, united, and the styles combined into 1. .38. 

Stamens on the torus (hypogynous) 22. 

21. Stamens situated on the corolla at base 27, 

21. Stamens situated on the calyx at the base. . . .28. 

22. Pistils few or many, distinct (at least as to the styies). . . 23. 

22. Pistils (and styles also, if any) completely united 24. 

23. Petals 5 or more, deciduous. Leaves not peltate. Order of the * Crowfoots* I 
23. Petals 3, persistent and withering. Floating leaves peltate. Water-shields. 7 
23. Petals many, deciduous. Leaves all peltate. * Water-beam. 6 

24. Sepals 2 only 26. 

24. Sepals 4, 5, or 6 , mostly 5, . . .25 












* Water Lilies. 


* Water-pitchers. 


* Rock-roses. 


* Purselanes. 


* Poppy worts. 


* Mallows. 


* Purselanes. 


* Lindenb looms. 


* Roseivorts. 




* Berberids, 


* Croiofoots. 


* Crucifers, 






Indian Soap worts. 


* Passionworts. 


25. Petals numerous, imbricate in the bud. 
25. Petals 5, imbricate in bud. Leaves tubuiar. 
25. Petals 5, convolute in bud. Flowers of 2 sorts. 
26. Petals 5, imbricate in bud. 
26. Petals 4, usually crumpled in bud. 
27. Filaments united into a tube. Anthers 1-celled. 
Sepals 2, persistent. Fruit a pyxis (§ 178). 
Sepals 3 to 5.... 29. 
29. Petals imbricate in bud. Fruit a long pod. South. 
29. Petals imbricate in bud. Fruit not a pod. 
29. Petals convolute in bud. Fruit compound. 
Stamens opposite to the imbricated petals. Pistil one. 
Stamens alternate with the petals, or more numerous. 
31. Stamens 6 (tetradynamous, § 108). Pods 2-celled. 
31. Stamens 4, or 8-12. Pod 1-celled. 
Sepals and petals in 3\s. Stamens 6. Small herbs. 
Sepals and petals in 4's. Stamens 8. Climbing. 

Is and petals in 5's 33. 

Stamens definitely 5 .... 34. 
Stamens indefinite, 3-30. . . .36 
34. Stamens monadelphous. Stems climbing. 

84. Stamens distinct 35. 

35. Stem climbing. Flowers greenish. * (Mexican vine.) Order 105 

35. Stem erect. Flowers yellow. Turnerworts. 56 

35. Stem erect. Flowers cyanic. * Sundews. 19 

36. Flowers perfect, very many and small. * Rock-roses. 17 

36. Fls. monoecious. Plants woolly, scurfy, or downy. Order 112 

Stamens 5, alternate with the 5 petals. Seeds many. * Flaxworts. 30 

Stamens 5, opposite to the 5 petals. Seed 1. (Leadworts.) * Order 80 

Stamens 10 (twice as many as the petals), united at base. * 

37. Stamens 6-24 (twice as many as the petals), distinct. 

38. Ovary 1-celled. Leaves radical, spinous. S. 

38. Ovary 3-5-celled. Leaves mostly radical, dotless. 

38. Ovary 3-5-celled. Leaves cauline, dotted, pinnate. 

Style 1, but the carpels (§124) as many as the petals (2-6). 

Styles 2, carpels 2, fewer than the (5) petals 40. 

Styles 3-5.... 41. 
40. Seeds several. 

40. Seeds two only. ■» 

41. Sepals 2, with 5 petals. 
41. Sepals as many as the petals. 
42. Ovaries many or few, rarely 1, always simple. 
42. Ovary compound, 8-carpeled, open before ripo. 




* Houseleeks. 


* Sundews. 


* Order 




* Onagrads. 


* Saxifrages. 


' Umbelworts. 


* Purselanes. 


* Araliads. 


* Crowfoots. 





43. Sepals fewei or more in number than the petals 44. 

43. Sepals and petals each of the same number 45. 

44. Sepals 2 (or vanished) ; petals 4 (2 pairs), with 1 or 2 spurs. *Fumeworts. 12 

44. Sepals 4, petals 2 ; the largest sepal spurred behind. * Jewelweeds. S4 

44. Sepals 5, petals 8. No spur. * Milkwort*. 45 

45. Flowers 4-parted, not very irregular. No spur. CapparUs. 14 

45. Flowers 5-parted.... 46. 

46. Stamens 8. Spur slender. Trophyworts. 85 

46. Stamens 5. Spur blunt, or none. * Violets. 16 

46. Stamens 10 (or more). Fruit a legume. No spur. * Peaworts. 46 

47. Pistils many, entirely distinct, simpie. * Crowfoots. 1 

47. Pistils 3 to 5, united more or less completely. * St. Johnsworts. 18 

47. Pistils 5 to 10, united, with sessile stigmas and many petals. Ice-plants. 28 

48. Pistil only 1, simple. Petals 6-9. Stamens 12-1 S. * Berberids. 6 

43. Pistils 3 or more, distinct, simple. Flowers all symmetrical. * Houseleeks. 56 

48. Pistils 2, covered up by the stamens Juice milky. * Order 97 

49. Carpels as many as the sepals . . . .49? 

49. Carpels fewer than the sepals. . .50. 

49? Anthers opening at the top. * Afelastomes. 50 

49. 1 Anthers opening along the side * Onagrads. 55 

50. Seeds numerous. Styles 2. * Saxifrages. 51 

50. Seed 1 in each cell. Styles 2 or 3. * Araliads. 64 

50. Seed 1 in each cell. Style 1 (double). * Cornels. 65 

51. Style 3-cleft at the summit. * Purselanes. 22 

51 Style and stigma 1, undivided. * Order 7^ 

52. Leaves pinnate, with stipules between the petioles. Bean-capers. 38 

52. Leaves simple, toothed or lobed 53. 

62. Leaves simple, entire . . . .54. 

53. Flowers cruciform, with 6 stamens. * Crucifers. 13 

53. Flowers 5-parted, with 10 stamens * Geraniums. 31 

54. Petals and stamens on the throat of the calyx. * Loosestrifes. 51 

54. Petals on the torus (hypogynous) 55. 

55. Flowers irregular, un symmetrical (§ 110). * Milkm^is. 45 

bo. Flowers regular, 2 (or 3)-parted throughout. Water-peppers. 20 
55. Flowers regular, 5-parted.. ..56. 

56. Leaves dotted with pellucid or black dot*. *St. Johns worts. 19 

56. Leaves not dotted. * Pinkworts. 21 

67. Pistil a simple carpel, becoming a legume. Stamens 10-100. * Peaworts. 46 

57. Pistil compound, 3-carpeled 53. 

57 Pistil compound, 5-carpeled .... 59. 

58. Flowers perfect. Leaves digitate. * Buckeyes. 41 

58 Flowers monoecious (§ 109). Leaves 1-sided. Cultivated. Begoniads. 59 

59. Stipules present. Plants half-shrubby. Cultivated. * Geraniums. 31 

59. Stipules none. Shrubs or half-shrubs. Native. * O* ier 73 



* St. Johnsworte, 18 



* Calycantlis. 
* Loose-strifes. 


* Saxifrages. 

* Mallows. 


* Magnoliads. 



60. Stamens on the torus, in several sets. Leaves dotted. 

60. Stamens on the calyx (perigynous, § 83) 61. 

61. Ovaries many, free, but inclosed. 

61. Ovary compound, free in the bell-shaped calyx. 

61. Ovary compound, adherent to the calyx 62. 

62. Leaves with a marginal vein. 
62. Leaves with no marginal vein. 
6>. Petals imbricate or vaxvate in the bud. . . 

6-3 Petais convolute in the bud 64. 

64. Anthers 1-celled, turned inwards. 
64. Anthers 2-celled, turned outwards. 
65. Ovaries distinct, many or few. 

65. Ovary compound 67. 

6Q. Petals 6, valvate (§ 129). Erect shrubs. 

66. Petals 3-9, imbricate. Trees or erect shrubs. 

66. Petals 6-9, imbricate. Climbing shrubs. 

67. Leaves dotted with pellucid dots. 

67. Leaves dotless. Sepals valvate. Fls. small *Lindenbloo?ns. 

67. Leaves dotless. Sepals imbricate. Pis. large. *Teaworts. 

68. Style 1, with many stigmas. Green, fleshy shrubs Cacti),* Indian Figs. 

68. Styles several, or 1 with 1 stigma. Woody trees or shrubs. * Aoscworts. 

69. Pi.stils many, spicate on the slender torus. Climbers. Schizanths. 

69. Pistils 2-6, capitate on the short torus. Climbers. Moonseeds. 

69. Pistil 1 only. Stamens opposite the petals. * Berberids. 

70. Flowers 4-parted, with 8 stamens. * Onagrads. 

70. Flowers 4-parted, with 4 stamens. * Cornels. 

70. Flowers 5-parted, with 5, 10, or many stamens.. ..71. 

71. Ovary 5-carpeled, 5-styled. *Araliads. 

71. Ovary 2-carpeled. Leaves palmate-veined. * Currants. 

71. Ovary 2-carpeled. Leaves pinnate-veined. * Saxifrages. 

72. Leaves opposite. Stem climbing by tendrils. * Vineworts. 

72. Leaves alternate. Erect, or vine without tendrils. ^Buckthorns. 

78. Carpels 3-5.... 74. 

7&. Carpels 1 or 2 75. 

74. Styles short. Leaves simple. * Staff-trees. 

74. Styles long and slender. Leaves pinnate, serrate. * Soapworts. 

75. Styles 2, slender. Samara double. * Mapleworts. 

75. Style 1, short. (Drupe, or single samara.) * Order 

76. Filaments 10, united into a tube. Leaves bi-pinnate. Pride-of- India. 

i&. Filaments 5, distinct. . . .77. 

77. Leaves pellucid-punctate. Rueworts. 

77. Leaves not dotted. Ovary 3-carpeled, 1-seeded. * Sumacs. 

77. Leaves not dotted. Ovary 3-carpcled, 3 seeded. * Soapworts. 




















78. Petals 4, yellow. Witch-hazels 62 

78. Petals 4-7, cyanic 79. 

79. Fruit becoming fleshy drnpes SO. 

79. Fruit becoming dry capsules 81. 

80. Stigmas 3, but the drupe is 1-seeded. * Sumacs, 88 

80. Stigmas 4-6, and the drupe 4-6-seeded. * {Holly worts. ~) Order 74 

81. Capsule 3-seeded. Seed with a scarlet aril. *Stqff -trees 42 

81. Capsule 2 or 3-seeded, seed not ariled. § 3. * Order 73 

81. Capsule many-seeded. § 2. * Ord. 73, and Pittospores. 39 

B. Gamopetal^e, or Moxopetalous Exogens 

I. Stamens (6-100) more numerous than the lobes of the corolla S. 

1. Stamens (2-12) fewer than the corolla lobes, or of the same number.... 2. 
2. Ovary adherent to the calyx tube, that is, inferior .... 3. 

2. Ovary free from the calyx tube, that is, superior 4 

3. Stamens cohering by their anthers 11. 

3. Stamens entirely distinct 12. 

4. Flowers regular 5. 

4. Flowers irregular .... 28. 

5. Stamens as many as the petals 6. 

5. Stamens 2, fewer than the petaxs. . . .26. 
6. Stamens opposite to the lobes of the corolla (and free). . .14. 
6. Stamens alternate with the lobes of the corolla (rarely connate). .. .7. 
7. Shrubs, trees, with the stigmas or carpels 3 to 6 . . . 15. 
7. lierbs 1-10-carpeled, or shrubs 2-carpeled. ...16. 
8. Stamens 6, united below into 2 equal sets. Herbs. * Order 12 

8. Stamens 10, united into a split tube around the 1 style. * Order 46 

8. Stamens many, united into an entire tube around the styles. * Order 24 
8. Stamens many, united only at the base into 1 or 5 sets. . . .9. 

8. Stamens entirely distinct 10. 

9. Calyx of 5 leafy, imbricated sepals. Shrubs, lrees.*(Teaworts.) Order 27 

9. Calyx tubular, 5-toothed. or truncate. Shrubs, trees. * Styracacece. 75 

10. Stamens 8 or 10. Flowers all perfect. * Heathworts 73 

10. Stamens 8 or 16. Fls. not all perfect (dioecious). Persimmons. 76 

11. Flowers in a compact head surrounded by an involucre. * Asterworts. 70 

11. Flowers separate, irregular, perfect. Plants erect. * Lobeliads. 71 

11. Flowers separate, regular, imperfect. Weak vines. (Cucurbits.) Order 58 

12. Leaves alternate. Flowers 5-parted, regular, separate. * Bdlworts. 72 

2. Leaves opposite, with stipules between, or verticillate. * Madderworts. 67 

12. Leaves opposite. Stipules none 13 

13. Stamens 4 or 5. Ovary 2-5-celled. * Honeysuckles. 66 

13. Stamens 2 or 3. Ovary 1-Qelled, 1-seeded. Valerians. 68 

13. Stamens 4. Ovary 1-celled, 1-seeded. Teazelworts. 6£ 



14. Herbs. Ovary with 5 styles and but 1 seed. 
14. Herbs. Ovary with 1 style and many seeds. 
14. Shrubs, trees. Ovary 1-styled, 5-celled, 1-seeded. 
15 Style none. Drupe 4-6-seeded 
U. Style one. Drupe 4-seeded. 
15. Style one. Capsule 3-5- celled, many-seeded. 
16 Ovary 1, deeph 4-parted or 4-partible, forming 4 achenia, 
16. Ovaries 2, distinct, often covered by the stamens... .13. 
i6. Ovary 1, compound.. ..17. 

17. Ovary 1 -celled 20. 

17. Ovary 2-6-celled.... 22. 

18. Stigmas united or connate. . .19. 
18. Stigmas distinct. Flowers minute, yellow 
19. Flower-bud with convolute pieces. 
10. Flower-bud with valvate pieces. 

20. Seeds several 21. 

20. Seed one. Corolla limb entire. 
21. Leaves cleft and lobed. 



* Primworts. 


1. Soapworts. 


* Holly worts. 




* Heathwort8. 


* Borrageworts. 


* Bindweeds. 
* Dogbanes. 

* Asclepiads. 



* Order 101 
Hydrophylls. 91 

21. Lvs. or lfts. entire. Fls. not spicatc *Gentianworts. 95 
£1. Leaves entire. Flowers spicatc. Ribworts. 79 

22. Leaves opposite .... 23. 

22. Leaves alternate 24. 

23. Ovary 2-celled. * Loganiads. 85 

23. Ovary 3-celled. Plants not twining » 

24, Ovary 3-celled. Plants not twining, f * PMoxworts. 92 

24. Ovary 2-celled, 2-6-seeded. Twining * Bindweeds. 93 

24. Ovary 2-ceiled, 4-seeded. Stem erect. * Borrageworts. 90 

24. Ovary 2-celled, many-seeded. .. .25. 

25. Styles 2. * Hydrophylls. 91 

25. Style one. * Nightshades. 94 

26. Herbs Corolla 4-parted, dry, scarious. Ribworts. 79 

26. Shrubs.... 27. 

27. Corolla 5-parted, imbricate in bud. Jasmineworts. 98 

27. Corolla 4-parted, valvate or none, * Oliveworts. 99 

28. Ovary deeply 4-partcd, forming 4 (or fewer) achenia. . . .29. 

28. Ovary entire, of one piece 30 

29. Leaves opposite. Stems square * Labiates. 89 

29. Leaves alternate Stems round. * Borrageworts. 90 

30. Ovary with 4 or fewer seeds. Leaves opposite. Vervains. 87 

30. Ovary with many seeds, or more than 4 31. 

31. Trees or climbing shrubs. Seeds winged. * Bignoniads. 83 
31. Trees. Seeds wingless. * Paulownia, in Order 80 

81. Erect shrubs. Seeds wingless. * Heathworls. 73 

81, Herbs.... 32. 



82. Leafless and without verdure. * Broomrapes. 82 

32. Leaves only at base. Fis. spurred. * Butterworts. 81 

82. Leafy 33. Fruit 4 or 5-celied. Pedaliads. S4 

33. Fruit 2-celled.... 34. 

34. Corolla cou volute in bud. Acariths. 87 

34. Coroila imbricate in bud. * Fig worts. 36 

34. Corolla plicate in bud. * Nightshades. 94 

C. Orders of the Apetalous Exogens. 

J Plant* Jir-i oaceous, the flowers not in aments (except in the Hop, 115) 2. 

1 Plants woody, — shrubs or trees 22. 

2. Flowers with a regular calyx or calyx-like involucre 3. 

2. Flowers naked, having neither calyx nor corolla. . . .20. 

3. Calyx tube adherent to the ovary, limb lobcd, toothed, or entire 8. 

3. Calyx free from the ovary, sometimes inclosing it 4. 

4. Ovaries several, entirely distinct, each 1-styled, 1-seeded. * Order 1 

4. Ovary one only, simple or compound 5. 

5. Style or stigma one only 6. 

5. Styles or stigmas 2-12 7. 

6. Ovary 1-ovuled, bearing but one seed 11. 

6. Ovary many-ovuled, bearing many seeds 

7. Ovary 1-3-ovuled, 1-3-seeded 13. 

7. Ovary 4- oo-ovuled, 4- oc-seeded. ... 17. 
8. Stamens 1-12, as many or twice as many as the stigmas. . . .9. 

8. Stamens 2-10, not symmetrical with the 1 or 2 stigmas 10. 

9. Stigmas and cells of the ovary 1-4. 
9. Stigmas and cells of the ovary 6. 

10. Ovary many-seeded. Styles 2. 
10. Ovary 1 or 2-seeded. Style 1. 
11. Flowers perfect. Calyx 4-lobed. Stamens 1-4. 
11. Flowers perfect. Calyx entire, funnel-shaped, colored. 
11. Flowers imperfect. Calyx lobed, green. 
12. Stamens 4, opposite the sepals. 
12. Stamens 5, alternate with the sepals. 
18. Fruit 3-6-seeded, with 3 (often cleft) stigmas. 

13. Fruit 1-seeded 14. 

14. Stipules sheathing the sterna. 
14 Stipules none.. ..15. 

15. Calyx with scarious bracts outside. 
15. Calyx double. Climbing. 
15. Calyx naked.... .16. 
16. Leaves alternate. 
16. Leaves opposite. 





* Order 

* Birthworts. 

* Order 

* Order 

* Marvekvarts. 101 
Ntttleworts. 115 

(Loosestrifes.) Order 51 

* Order 78 
Spurgeworts. 112 

* Knot-grasses. 102 

* A mar a n tits. 1 06 
* Mexican Vine. 105 

*Goosefoot$. 105 
S3. * Order 21 



17. Leaves opposite 18. 

17. Leaves alternate 19. 

18. Fruit a pyxis, opening by a lid. * Order 2i 

18. Fruit a capsule, opening by 4 or 5 valves. * Order 21 

19. Fruit a capsule, 5-celled, o-horned. * Order 56 

19. Fruit a fleshy, 4- co-seeded berry. * Poketceeds. 103 

19. Fruit dry, 1-seeded, opening by a lid. * Amaranths, 106 

20. Flowers on a spadix with a spathe. * Order 131 

Lizard-tails. 123 

20. Flowers in a long, naked spike. Stamens 6 or 7. 
20. Flowers solitary, axillary, minute. Water-plants. .. .21. 
21. Stamen 1. Leaves opposite. 
21. Stamens 2. Leaves alternate, dissected. 
21. Stamens 12-24. Leaves whorled, dissected. 
22. Flowers, none of them in amenta.... 23. 
22. Flowers (imperfect), the sterile only in aments....S4. 
22. Flowers (imperfect), both the sterile and the fertile in amenta. 

23. Leaves opposite 24. 

23. Leaves alternate 27. 

24. Stamens 2. 

Starworts. 124 

Threadfoots. 125 

Hornworts. 126 


* Order 

Mistletoe — Loranths. 





24. Stamens 3. Parasites. 

24. Stamens 4-9 25. 

25. Fruit a double, 2-winged samara. * Order 40 

25. Fruit not winged 26. 

26. Seeds 6. Low shrubs. Box. 
26. Seed 1. Shrubs. 

27. Style or stigma 1. Seed 1 28. 

27. Styles or stigmas 2 31. 

27. Styles or stigmas 3-9 32. 

28. Calyx free from the ovary.... 29. 
28. Calyx adherent to the ovary. . . .30 
29. Anthers opening by valves. 
29. Anthers opening by slits. 
30. Seeds 2-4. Shrubs. 
30. Seed 1. Trees. 
31. Stamens numerous. 
31. Stamens as many as the calyx lobes. 

32. Leaves pinnate. Pistils 5. 
82. Leaves simple, linear, evergreen. 

82. Leaves simple, not linear 33. 

33. Flowers 3-parted. Fruit dry. (StiUingia.) Spurgeworts. 112 

83. Flowers 4 or 5-parted. Fruit fleshy. * {Buckthorns.) Order 43 
34. Nut or nuts in a cup or involucre. Leaves simple. * Mastworts. 119 
84. Nut naked, a try ma (§ 172). Leaves pinnate. * Walnuts ; Hickory worts. 117 

* Laurels. 118 
* Daphnads. 107 
Sandalworts. 109 

* Order 6a 

* Order 62 
Elmworts. 118 

(Prickcy Ash.) Order 37 
C-owberrUs. 11' 



85. Fruit flesh y, compound. Juice (sap) milky. Artocarps 114 

85. Fruit dry (except in Myriea, 121). Sap watery 36. 

36. Aments globular, racemed. Nutlets. 2-celled. (Liquidambar.) Order 62 
36. Aments globular, solitary. Nutlets 1-celled. Sycamores 116 

36. Aments cylindrical or oblong. . . .37. 

37. Ovarj- 1-celled, 1-seeded. Fruit dry or fleshy. Galeworts. 120 
37. Ovar} 2-celled, 2-ovuled, 1-seeded. * Birchworts. 121 

37. Ovary many-ovuled, many-seeded. *Willowworts. 12 

D. Orders of the Conoids. 

Leaves simple. The fertile flowers in cones. Sterns branched. * Plneworts. 127 
Leaves simple. The fertile flowers solitary. Stems branched. * Yews. 128 

Leaves pinnate. Steins not branched, palm-like. Oycads. 129 

E. Orders of the Spadiciflor^e. 

1. Trees or shrubs with palmately- cleft leaves all from one terminal bud, and 

a branching spadix arising from a spathe. Palms. 130 

1. Herbs with simple (rarely ternate) leaves. Spadix simple 2. 

2. Plants minute, floating loose on the water. Duokmeats. 132 

2. Plants with stem and leaves rooting in the soil 3. 

3. Spadix evident, in a scathe or on a scape. * A?'oids. 131 

3. Spadix obscure or spike-like. Stems leafy. . . .4. 

4. Flowers with no perianth, densely packed. *Typhads. 132 

4. Flowers with a perianth or not. In water. * Naiads. 133 

F Orders of the Floride^e. 

1. Flowers (not on a spadix) in a small, dense, mvolucrate head. ..17 

1. Flowers (not on a spadix) solitary, racemed, spicate, &c 2. 

2. Perianth tube adherent to the ovary. . . .4. 
2. Perianth free from the ovary .... 3 

3. Petals and sepals differently colored (except in Medeola, 147) 9 

3. Petals and sepals similarly colored. . . .12. 

4. Flowers imperfect 5. 

4. Flowers perfect , . .6 

5. Low herbs, in water 

5. Woody climbers. 
6. Stamens 1 or 2, growing to the pistil (gynandrous). 
6. Stamen only 1, with half an anther. 
6. Stamens 3 to 6, distinct 7. 

7. Perianth woolly or mealy outside. Ovary half-free 

7. Perianth glabrous outside S. 

* Frogbits. 1£4 
Yamroots. 144 

* Orchids. 13S 
Arrow worts. 139 

Elooa worts. 142 


8. Stamens 3. Anthers turned inwards. Burmaniads. 137 

8. Stamens 3. Anthers turned outwards. * Irids. 143 

8. Stamens 6. * Amaryllids. 140 

9. Pistils many, distinct, achenia in fruit. * Water-plantains, 137 

9. Pistils 3, more or less united 10. 

10. Leaves vertieillate, in 1 or 2 whorls. Stigmas 3. * Trilliads. 147 

10. Leaves alternate 11. 

11. Stigmas 3. Plants growing on other plants. Bromeliads. 141 

11. Stigmas united into one. * Spider worts. U2 

12. Leaves net- veined, broad.... 13. 
12. Leaves parallel- veined... .14. 

13. Flowers perfect, 4-parted. Oroomia — Boxburgs. 146 

13. Flowers dkecious, 6-parted. * Greenbrier s. 136 

14. Styles, and often the stigmas also, united into 1 15. 

14. Styles and stigmas 3, distinct 16. 

15. Flowers colored, regular. Stamens 6 (4 in one species). *Lilywort$. 148 

15. Flowers colored, irregular, or else 3-stamened. * Pontederiads. 135 

15. Flowers greenish, glume-iike, or scarious. * Bushes. 151 

16. Leaves rush-like. Ovary of three 1-seeded carpels. * Arrow-grasses. 137 

16. Leaves linear, lanceolate, &c. Ovary 6-oo-seeded. * Melanths. 149 

17. Petals yellow, small, but showy. Leaves radical. Xyrids. 153 

17. Petals white, minute, fringed. Leaves radical. Pipeworts. 154 

G. Orders of the Graminoids. 

Flower with a singie oract (giu me). Stern solid. Sheaths entire. Sedges 155 

Flower with several bracts (glumes and pales). Stem hollow. Sheaths 

split on oae side. Grass* 156 




Designed as first exercises in Analytical Botany. 

Explanations.— The Tables in this work are designed to be complete, that is, each Ordinal 
Table includes all the genera belonging to that order known within the limits of the Flora (1 e., the 
States east of the Rocky Mountains); and each Generic Table includes, in like manner, all its 
known species. The numbers annexed to the genera in the Ordinal Tables, refer to the descrip- 
tions immediately following. If no number be annexed, the pupil will understand that that genus 
is not further noticed. 



Iksential Character. — Flowering Plants (Ph^enogamia), 
with their stems growing by additions to their outside in 
layers (Exogens), their seeds inclosed in a seed-vessel or peri- 
carp (Angiosperms), their flowers with a double perianth and 
their petals distinct (Polypetaljs). (But to this last condition 
there are many exceptions.) 

Order I. RANUNCULACE^E. The Crowfoots 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, with a colorless, acrid juice, with 

leaves mostly alternate and mnch divided, without stipules; 

upals 3-15, deciduous, distinct, and colored when apetalous; 

vetals 3-15, distinct, often deformed or contracted or wanting; 

itamem oo, distinct, hypogynous ; 

pistils en (rarely 1 or few), distinct, becoming in 

fruit either achenia, follicles, or berries. 



Fig. 361. Bulbous Crowfoot; 2. a petal, showing the honey -scale at base; 3, a single ovary 
4, scetion of it, Bhowing the ovule. 

Fig. 365. Wild Columbine; 6, one of the hollow petals attached to the receptacle with the 
stamens and styles; 7, a ripe follicle; 8, a seed ; 9, section of it, showing the embryo. 

Fig 370. Plan of the flower. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

% Sepals 4, valvate in the bud. Achenia tailed. . . .a 
| Sepals imbricate in the bud . .2 - 

9 Ovaries 1-seeded, achenia in fruit 3 

& Uvaries with. 2 or more seeds 4 

3 Corolla 0, or undistinguishable from the colored calyx . 

3 Corolla and calyx distinct either in color or form d 

4 Sepals as permanent as the stamens. Fruit dry. . . .6 

4 Sepals falling cff sooner than the stamens k 

4 Sepals persisteut with the fruit. Petals very large hi 

5 Sepals persistent with the stamens b 

5 Sepals caducous (falling) sooner than the stamen a o 


Order 1.— THE CROWFOOTS. 145 

G Flowers regular 7 

C Flowers irregular h 

7 Petals none....e 

7 Petals smaller than the sepals. . . .f 

7 Petals larger than the sepals g 

b Petals none or stamen-like. Leaves all opposite. Virgirts Bower. Clem atis. i 
b Stem leaves opposite, remote from the flower. Anem'one. Anemone. 2 

b Leaves all radical. 3 bracts close to the flower. Liverleaf. Hepat'ica. 

£ flowers mostly imperfect. Leaves compound. Meadow Rue. Thalic'trum. 12 

c Flws. perfect. Lvs. simple, palmately lobed. Prairie Rue. Trautvette'bia. 
d Leaves all radical, linear. Torus linear. Small plant. 

Mousetail. Myosu'rus. 
d Lvs. cauline. Petals with a honey-scale at base. Crowfoot. Ranun'culcs. 4 
d Leaves cauline. No honey-scale. Petals red or yellow. 

Pheasants- eye. Adonis. 5 

•» Sepals white, 5 in number. Leaves compound. False Rue. Isopy'rum. 

c Sepals yellow, 6-9. Marsh Marigold. Cai/tha. 6 

f Petals tubular at apex. Roots yellow. Gold-thread. Cop'tis. 7 

f Petals tubular at base, 1-hpped. Globe-flower. Troi/lius. 8 

f Petals tubular, 2-lipped. Sepals persistent. Hellebore. IIelleb'orus. 

f Petals concave, 2-lobed. Flowers racemed. Yellow-root. Zanthorhi'za. 

g Petals larger than the colored sepals, 3-lobed. Fennel-floiuer. Nigei/la. 

g Petals larger than the colored sepals, spurred alike. Columbine. Aqole'gia. 9 
h Upper sepal spurred, inclosing spurred petals. Larkspur. Delphinium. 10 
h Upper sepal hooded, covering 2 deformed petals. Morilc 1 s-hood. Aconi'tum. 11 

k Flowers numerous, in long, slender racemes. Bugbane. Cimicif'uga. 

k Flowers many, in short racemes. Berries simple. Baneberry. Act^e'a. 13 

k Flower one only. Leaves 2. Berry compound. Turmeric-root. Hypras'tis. 14 
m Disk sheathing the ovaries. Very Showy. Peony. P^eo'nia. 

1. CLEM' ATIS. Virgin's Bower. 

Calyx ol 4 colored sepals, valvate-induplicate in the bnd. Petals none, 
or small and stamen-like. Stamens many, shorter than the sepals. Ova- 
ries many, styles becoming long and feathery upon the seed-like achenia. 
— U Mostly climbing vines, with twisted petioles for tendrils, and with 
opposite, compound leaves. 

§ Leaves verticillate. Outer stamens petal-like. Vine.... No. 1 

Leaves opposite. Petals none. Calyx colored a 

a Erect herbs near 1 foot high. JFlowers solitary 10, 11, 12 

a Vines climbing. . . b 



b Flowers clustered in panicles 2, 3, 4, 5 

b Flowers solitary, large, showy 6, 7, 8, 9 

1 Clem'atis verticilla'ris. Purple Virgin? s Bower. Leaves ternate, 4 at each nodo 

Flowers purple, 2 at each node. Hills. N. W. 

2 C. Virginia'na. Virginian V. Leaves ternate. Leaflets smooth, lobed, and toothed 

3 C holoseric/ea. Silky V. Leaves ternate, leaflets downy or silky, entire. S. 

O Catesbya'na. Cate&by's V. Lvs. bi-ternate, lfts. 3-lobed. Clusters axillary. S. 
i O. Flam'mula. Sweet V. Lvs. pinnate. Lfts. entire, pointed. Fls. terminal, t 

6 G. cylin'drica. Crisped V. Lfts. acute, thin, 3-15. Sepals wavy at edge, b-p. S. 

7 C. reticulata. Veiny V» Lfts. obtuse at each end, thickish. Sep. wavy. b-p. S 

8 C. Vior'na. Leather-flower. Lfts. ovate, acute, pinnate. Sep. not wavy. P. 

9 C. Viticella. Vine-Bower. Lfts. oval, 3-15. Sepals not wavy, obovate. P. 1 

10 G. ochroleu'ca. Ground V. Lvs. undivided, ovate, entire, silky beneath, p-y. 

11 C. ova'ta. Egg-leaved V. Lvs. undivided, broad-ovate, smooth, glaucous, p. S. 

12 C. Baldwin'ii. Baldwin's V. Lvs. 3-cleft, the upper lance-ovate, entire, p. S. 

2. ANEMONE. Anem'one, or Wind-Flower. 

Calyx regular, of 5-15 colored sepals resembling petals. Petals prop- 
erly none. Stamens many, much shorter than the sepals. Pistils many, 
collected into an oblong or roundish head. Achenia generally without 
tails. Leaves mostly radical, palmately lobed, those of the stem opposite, 
forming a sort of involucre. 

§ Carpels with long, feathery tails in fruit. Flower large. . . .1 

§ Carpels without tails a 

a Stem leaves (involucre) sessile 2, 3 

a Stem leaves petiolate b 

b Flower-stalk 1 or several, all leafless 4, 5, 6 

b Flower-stalks 2-5, all but the first 2-leaved in the middle 7, 8 

1 A. Nuttal'lii. Pasque-flower. Lvs. cleft into linear lobes, very hairy. Apr. N.-W. 

2 A. Carolinia'na. Carolina A. Flower only one, with 15 sepals. S. W. 

3 A. Fennsylvan'ica. Pennsyhanian A. Flowers 1-5, with 5 obovate, pure 

white sepals. Height 12 -20'. N. W. 

4 A. nemoro'sa. Wood A. Flower 1, stalk 2 or 3' long. Sepale rose-white. Apr. 

5 A. cylin'drica. Grafs A. Flowers mostly several, whitish, stalks 6-12' long. Fruit 

heads oblong or cylindrical. May. N. W. 
A. th ilictroi'des. Rue A. Flowers several or many, rosy or white, on short (1-2') 
stalks. Leaves of the invol. 2, twice ternate. Apr. Common. 

7 A. VirgimVna. Virginia A. Leaf-lobes, lance-ovate. Flowers greenish- 

white. Height 2-3 feet. Common. 

8 A. mulMf'ida. Red A. Leaf-lobes linear. Flowers red. Height 6-12'. r. N 



8. HEPAT'IOA. Noble Liverwort. 

Calyx (generally called an involucre) of 3 
entire, ovate, green sepals (or bracts), situated 
& very little below the corolla. Corolla of 5-9 
petals, arranged in 2 or three rows. Achenia 
without tails. — U Pretty little plants blossoming 
in early spring. Leaves all radical, thick, 
3-lobed, green through the winter. Flowers 
numerous, one on each scape, blue, roseate, or 

Fig. 371. Flower and leaf of H. triloba." 

1 H. triloba. Leaf-lobes and sepals obtuse. Scapes hairy, several inches high 

2 H. acutil'oba. Leaf-lobes and sepals acute. Fls. and scapes like the other. 

4. RANUNCULUS. Crowfoot. Buttercups. 

Calyx of 5 ovate sepals. Corolla of 5 roundish, shining petals, each 
with a honeyed scale or pore at the base inside. Stamens 00. Achenia 
numerous, flattened, crowded in a roundish or oblong head. — A large 
genus of herbs mostly perennial (1Q and with yellow flowers. Leaves di- 
vided or entire. Juice very acrid. 

§ Petals yellow. Seeds (carpels) rough with prickles. Fls. small. 8....1, 2 

§ Petals yellow. Seeds smooth and even ) 

§ Petals white (claws yellow). Seeds wrinkled crosswise [ 

a Leaves all undivided. Plants growing in wet places 5-8 

a Leaves more or less divided, not growing under water. . . .b 

a Leaves in fine, thread-like divisions, growing under water 3, 4 

b Root leaves neither divided nor cleft, merely crenate 9, 10 

b Lower leaves 3-cleft but not divided to the base. Height l-2f 11-18 

b Leaves all ternately divided and much cleft. . . .c 

c Sepals renexed in flower. Plants erect 14, 15 

c Sepals spreading in flower, shorter than the petals 16-18 

1 R. murica'tus. Rough -fruited C. Plant smooth. Seeds with large, s^out, hooked 
beaks. Sepals spreading. Leaves 3-lobed and cleft. South. 
R parvifiVrus. Small-flowered C. Plant hairy. Seeds with a very short beak. 
Sepals finally reflexed. Leaves 3-lobed and cleft. South. 

3 R aquat'ilis. Water Crowfoot. In ponds and rivers. The tohite petals with a 

cavity at base. Only the flowers above water. Summer. 

4 R. Pursh'ii. Purstis Crowfoot. In stagnant water. The yellow petals witV 

a scale at base. Floating leaves, 3-5-parted. Spring. 


5 R. Flam mula. Spear-Lxved G. Stems ascending (l-2f). Leaves all lanceolate 

narrow, entire, on sheathing stalks. Sum. 

6 R. pusi^lus. Tiny C. Stems nearly erect. Leaves ovate and lanceolate. Fetalt 

mostly but 3, with about 10 stamens. May. 

7 R. rep'tans. Greepiny G. Stems creeping and rooting (4r-S f ). Leaves lance-lin- 

ear, and linear. Flower 1 at a node. July. 

I R. Cymbala'ria. Boat G. Stems creeping and rooting (1 foot). Leaves all rnuul 

cordate, crenate. Salt-marshes. June. 

9 R. aborti / vus. Abortive G. Plant glabrous, l-2f. high. Root leaves, round- 

cordate. Petals smaller than the sepals. Spring, c. 

10 R. rhomboi'deus. Rhombic G. Plant hairy, bushy, 4-10' high. Root 

leaves rhombic-ovate. Sepals spreading. N. W. 

II R. palma'tus. Palm G, Stem hairy. Seeds with a straight beak in a round head. 

Leaves palmately 3-5-cleft, with sinus closed. South. 

12 R. recnrva / tus. Hook-seed' G. Stem hairy. Seeds with a recurved beak in arcund 

head. Leaves all similarly 3-parted. Flowers small. Spring. 

13 R. scelera'tus. Villainous G. Stem glabrous. Seeds not beaked, in an oblong 

head. Flowers small. Leaves palmately 3-5-parted. June, July. 

14 R. bulbo'sus. Bulbous G, Erect (6-12') from a solid bulo. Petals large 

Head of fruit round. Root leaves ternate. Spring. 

15 R. Pennsylvan'icus. Bristly G. Erect (1-Sf.), very hairy. Head of fruit ob- 

long. Leaves ternate. Summer. 

16 R. repens. Large creeping G. Stems first ascending, then creeping. Flower- 

stalks furrowed. Petals obovate, large. Wet places. June. 

17 R. fascicula'ris. Early G. Stem erect. Root fibres thickened. Flower-stalks 

terete. Petals narrow. Leaves appear pinnate. May. 

18 R. acris. Tail Buttercup. Stem erect (2-3f.). Leaves palmately divided, and 

cleft. Petals roundish. Flower-stalk terete, calyx spreading. Summer, c. 
In the gardens, it becomes double-flowered. 

5. ADO'NIS. Pheasant's- eye. 

Sepals 5, colored. Petals 5-15, with no scale on the claws. Achenia 
in a spike, egg-shaped, and pointed with the hardened, persistent style. 
Leaves numerously cleft into linear and very narrow segments. Flowers 
terminal, solitary, red or yellow. 

1 A. autumna'lis. Late Ph. A fine, hard annual, from Europe, cultivated in gardens 
and naturalized in some places. Stem rather thick for its height, branched 
Leaves pinnately parted, with very numerous segments. Petals 5-8, of a 
bright crimson color, W across. 
A verna'lis. Early Ph. Petals 10-12, oblong, yellow, d3ntate. Upper leaves 
sessile, all much divided. Flowers large. Spring, t 

Order 1.— THE CROWFOOTS. 149 

6. CAL'THA. Marsh Marigold. 

Calyx colored, of 5 roundish sepals resembling petals. Corolla 0. Sta» 
mens 00. Follicles 5-10, oblong, compressed, erect, many-seeded. — 
if Smooth marsh plants. 

C palus'tris. Cowslips. Marsh Marigold. In wet meadows. Eoot large, thi^k. 
Stem about If. high, hollow, round, branched. Leaves large (4-6' wide), 
roundish, cordate, crenate — lower on long, half-round petioles, upper sessile — 
all of a dark, shining green, and very smooth. Flowers of a golden yellow in 
all their parts, If broad. Outer row of stamens club-shaped, long. Spring. 

7. COPT1S. Gold-thread. 

Calyx of 5 or 6 oblong, colored sepals. Corolla of 5 or 6 small club 
shaped sepals, hollow and 1-lipped at top. Stamens 20-25. Follicles 5- 
10, stalked, beaked, spreading, 4^6-seeded. — U Herbs with radical leaves, 
and long, creeping root-stocks. 

C. trifo'lia. Gold-thread. Leaves 3-foliate, all radical, the divisions broad, 4-8" 
long, crenate, smooth shining, sessile. Petiole 1-2' long. Stems underground, 
creeping extensively, bright yellow, and very bitter. Peduncles 3-4' high, 
each 1-fl.owered. Calyx white. Petals yellow, much smaller than the sepals, 
barely distinguishable among the stamens by their color. May, 

8. TKOL'LIUS. Globe-flower. 

Calyx of 5, 10, or 15 concave sepals colored like petals. Corolla of 
5-25 small, linear petals, which are tubular at base. Stamens many, 
much shorter than the sepals. Pods many, each many-seeded. — U 
smooth, with palmately-parted leaves. 

7 T. laxus. American G. Sepals 5. Petals 15-25, shorter than the stamens. 
Grows in swamps, M. r. Calyx yellow, greenish outside. Jane. 

2 T. Europae'us. European G. Sepals 10-15. Petals 5-10, as long as the stamens. 

Flowers globular, bright yellow. + 

3 r. Asiat'icus. Asiatic G. Sepals 10, orange-colored Petals 10, longer than sta- 

mens, t 

9. AQUILE'GIA. Columbine. 

Sepals 5, ovate, colored, spreading. Petals 5, tubular with a wide 
mouth, the outer margin erect, the inner attached to the receptacle, and 
behind extended into a long, spurred nectary. Stamens 30-40, the inner 



ones longer and sterile. Styles 5. Follicles 5, many-seeded. — u Leaves 
twice and thrice ternate. Flowers nodding. 

1 A. Canadensis. American 0. Spurs straight, longer than limb. Stamens exscrtod. 
Flowers scarlet. 
A. vulgaris. European G. Spurs incurred, shorter than limb. StameLs include* '. 
Flowers purple, j 

Fig. 372. Flower of Larkspur, displayed: 3, s, S, «, $, the five petals; a, the spurred sepal; 
c, the two petals, spurred, which spur was sheathed in the spurred sepal. 

Fig. 373. Flower of Garden Aconite, displayed : s, «, s, s, «, the five sepals; />, p, p, p, />, the 
five petals. 

10. DELPHINIUM. Larkspur. 

Sepals 5, colored, the upper one spurred. Petals very irregular, the two 
npper ones extended behind into a tubular, honeyed spur, sheathed in the 
spur of the calyx. Styles 1-5. Follicles 1-5. — Showy herbs with the 
leaves much divided. Flowers blue, red, or purple, never yellow. 

§ Petals united into 1 piece. Pistil and pod 1 ... .1, 2 
§ Petals 4, distinct. Pistils and pods 2-5. . . .(a) 

a Leaves many-parted into linear segments 3 

a Leaves divided into 3-7 wedge-shaped lobes. . . .(b) 

b Tall (2-5f.), with slender, many-flowered racemes.. . .4, 5 
b Low (6-18'), with few (6-12) flowered racemes.... 6-8 
D. consol'ida. Field L. Fls. loosely scattered. Ovary smooth. Lvs. finely cut. © 
D. Aja'cis. Rochet L. Flowers covering the branches. Ovary pubescent. Leave 
finely cut. f 
8 D. azu'reum. Azure L. Fls. in strict, slender racemes. Ovaries 3-5. % W. « 

4 D. cxalta'tum. Tall Wild L. Leaf-lobes 3-5, curvate. Spur straight. M. Summer. 1 

5 D. elatum. Bee L. Leaf-lobes 3-7, curvate. Spur curved downwards, f 

Order 1.— CROWFOOTS. 151 

6 D. tric'orne. Low WildL. Leaf-lobes linear. Pods recurved. Height 6-12'. M.W. 

7 D. vires'cens. Green-flowered L, Leaf-lobes lanceolate. Fls. greenish- 

white. S. W\ 
b D. grandiflorum. Great-flowered L. Leaf-lobes 5-7, linear. Fls. large, \> |i. 1 

11. ACONI'TUM. Monk's-hood. A'conite. 

Sepals 5, irregular, colored, ripper one vaulted or hooded. Petals 5 uff 
6, the two upper on long claws, concealed beneath the upper sepal, re- 
curved and honeyed at top ; the other 3 or 4 very small. Styles 3-5. 
Follicles 3 -5. — U Leaves palmately cleft or divided. Flowers odd and 
showy, in terminal spikes. 

1 A. uncina'ttim. Wild M. Stem reclining, widely branched. Helmet conical. M.S. 

2 A. Napel'lus. Garden A. Stem erect, nearly simple. Helmet semicircular, t 

12, THALIC'TBUM. Meadow Rue. 

Petals none. Sepals 4 or 5, petal-like, caducous, shorter thau the 
stamens. Ovaries 4-15. Achenia either ribbed or inflated, short-beaked. 
V, Leaves temately compound, with stalked and lobed leaflets. Flowers 
in loose clusters, often imperfect, homely. 

§ Flowers dioecious, paniculate. Achenium subsessile Nos. 1-3. 

§ Flowers perfect, corymbous. Achenia long-stiped No. 4. 

1 T. Cornu'ti. Common M. Stem tall (3-4f.), its leaves sessile (no common petiole) ; 

leaflets 3-lobed, resembling those of Columbine ; flowers white, in large panicles ; 
stamens clavate, erect. Meadows. June-August. 

2 T. purpuras 'cens. Purplish M. Leaves as in No. 1, but the leaflets are thick, firm, 

with rolled edges ; flowers purplish-green ; stamens drooping. Stems tall (3-6f.), 
purplish. Rocky woods and hills. May, June. 

3 T. dioi'cum. Early M. Leaves all petiolate, leaflets thin, glaucous, 5-7-lobed ; flowers 

purplish-green, stamens drooping, capillary, none in the fertile fls. l-2f. Hilly 
woods. April, May. 
T. clava'tum. SoutJiem M. Leaves all petiolate, biternate. Flowers white, fewer ; 
stamens clavate ; achenia 5-10, curved. Mountains, South. 

13. ACT^E'A. Baneberry. 

Sepals 4 or 6, caducous. Petals 4-8, spatulate, long-clawed. Filament* 
slender. Ovary 1, with a sessile, 2-lobed stigma. Berry with a lateral 
furrow, many-seeded. U Leaves ternately divided, leaflets ovate, cut- 
lobed and toothed. Flowers white, in a short raceme. 


1 A. spica'ta. Bed B. Common in rocky woods, Can. to Penn. and W. Plant smootfc 

l-2f., bearing 2 or 3 large bi- or triternate leaves and a short terminal raceme. 
Petioles 4-7' long. Stems hollow. Pedicels slender, 9" long. Berries cherry-red, 
oval, 6". May. 

2 A. alba. White B. Foliage the same as in No. 1. Stem solid. Raceme oblong, petal* 

very slender. Pedicels in fruit as thick as the peduncle, red. Berries smaller ;4-5") 
milk-white, May. 

14. HYDRASTIS. Turmeric-root. 

Petals none. Sepals 3, petal-like, soon falling. Ovaries 12 or more, be- 
coming a fleshy fruit resembling a raspberry. Acines 1- or 2-seeded. 
U Roots a tangled mass, yellow, sending up in spring a single radical leaf, 
and a stem which is 2-leaved and 1-flowered. 

H. Canadensis. In damp woods, Can. to Car. and Ky.,rare eastward. Leaves palmatcly 
3-5-lobed. Flower terminal, reddish-white. Fruit crimson, i/ay, June. 

Order II. MAGNOLIA'CEJE. The Magnoliads. 

Trees and shrubs with membranous stipules sheathing the buds, with 
leaves alternate, leathery, simple entire, or lobed, never serrate ; 
flowers solitary, large and showy, mostly odorous and perfect ; 
sepals 3-6, colored like the 6-12 hypogynous imbricated petals; 
stamens numerous, hypogynous, distinct, and many ovaries; 
fruit compound, composed of the united carpels. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

% Pistils arranged in a cone 2 

§ Pistils whorled in a single row. Shrub. South. Star Anise. Illio ium. 

2 Anthers opening inwards. Magno'lia. 1 

2 Anthers opening outwards. Lirioden'dron. 2 


Sepals 3/ Petals 6-9. Anthers longer than the filaments, opening in- 
wards. Carpels 2-valved, 1-2-seeded, imbricated into a hard, cone-like 
fruit. Seeds berry-like, suspended when ripe by a long seed- stalk. — A 
noble genus of trees or shrubs, with large, fragrant flowers. 

§ Native Magnolias, flowering with the leaves a 

§ Exotic Magnolias, flowering before the leaves expand 8 



n Leaves acute at the base (not cordate) b 

a Leaves cordate or auriculate at the base. Trees 3 A -40f. high 5-7 

b Leaves shining above, white or rust-colored beneath. Petals 9-12 1, 2 

b Leaves dull green both sides, thin, deciduous. Petals 6-9 3, 4 

> M. grandiflo'ra. £lg Laurel. Tree evergreen, 60-70f. high. Leaves thick, rust 
downy beneath. Flowers 8 or 9' broad, white. S. 
M. glauca. White Bay. Shrub deciduous, 6-25f. high. Leaves very smooth 
glaucous beneath. Flowers 2-3' broad, cream-color. Swamps, t 

3 M. acuminata. Cucumber-tree. Tree large. Leaves oval, acuminate, scat 

tered. Flowers small (3-4/ broad), petals obovate. M. S. 

4 M. umbrel'la. Umbrella-tree. Tree small (20-30f.). Leaves wedge-lanceo 

late, whorled, very large, as well as the flowers. M. S. 

5 M. corda'ta. Yellow Cucumber-tree. Petals 6-9, yellow, with reddish lines. Lvs. 

broad-ovate, slightly cordate. Flowers 4' broad. S. 

6 M. Fra'seri. Ear-leaved M. Petals 6, pure white. Leaves ear-shaped at base, 

obovate- spatulate, near If. long. Spring. S. 

7 M. macrophyl'la. Great-leaved J£. Petals 6, white, each 6-8' in length. Leaves 

2-3f. long, obovate-spatulate, cordate. Tree 30-50f. high. S. W. f 
8 M. conspic'ua. Yulan. Flowers in Spring, large, rose-colored o*- white, with 
6-9 petals or sepals, nearly erect. Japan. 

2.LIPvIODEN' , DPwOK Tulip-tree. 

Sepals 3. Petals 6, in two rows. 
Anthers opening outwards. Car- 
pels 1-2-seeded, imbricated into 
a cone, indehiscent, separating 
from each other in fruit. — Trees 
with large and fragrant flowers. 

L. tulipif'era. Tulip-tree. Whiteivooa\ 
Poplar. This is one of the finest 
and largest trees of our forests. 
The trunk is generally straight 
and cylindric, dividing at the top 
rather abruptly in a few coarse and 
crooked branches. Leaves dark 
green, smooth, square at the end, with 2 lobes each sid}, 3-5' in length and 
breadth. Flowers large and elegant, greenish-yellow, orange within, 4-fi' 
broad, i/iiy, June. 

Fig. 374. Young branch of Tulip-tree, unfold- 
ing from the bud : «, 8, stipules. 



Order III. OALYCANTHACE^. Calycanths. 

Shrubs with opposite leaves, destitute of stipules. Flowers axillary, 
solitary, all the organs oo and arranged as in the following genus. 

CALTCANTHUS. Sweet-scented Shrub. 

Sepals and petals similar, imbricated on the tubular torus, which beard 
ijie short stamens on its top, the distinct achenia within, and becomes 
fleshy but green in fruit. Leaves entire. Flowers brown-purple, with 
the fragrance of strawberries. The species are native South. April- 

1 O. flor'ida. Garden Shrub. Leaves oval-elliptic, some pointed, downy beneath; 

sepals and petals about 20, near V long. Shrub 4-8f. 

2 C lseviga'tus. Smooth S. Leaves thin, oval, smooth and green both sides. 

3 C. glaucus. Glaucous S. Leaves ovate, acuminate, glaucous beneath. 

Order IV. ANONACE^E. Anonads. 

Trees or slirubs with entire alternate leaves and no stipules ; 
flowers, green or brown, axillary, polyandrous, hypogynous, valvate ; 
sepals 3, petals 6, in two circles ; pistils several or many; 
fruit fleshy or pulpy, of separate or united carpels, oo - seeded. 

ASIM'INA. Papaw. Custard Apple. 

Outer row of petals larger. Stamens densely packed in a round mass. 
Pistils several, distinct, but few ripening and becoming large, oblong, 
pulpy fruits, with many flat seeds. Fls. solitary, brownish. We have only 
one species at the North. 

* Flowers appearing before the leaves. Petals purple Nos. 1, 2. 

* Flowers appearing with the leaves. Outer petals yellowish Nos. 3, 4. 

1 A. tril'oba. Common Papatv. Leaves obovate-oblong, acuminate ; petals dark-purple 
the outer roundish, 3 or 4 times as long as the sepals. — A small handsome tree 10-30f. 
high, along streams, Middle, Western and Southern States. Leaves 8 to 12' long, 
very smooth, on short stalks. Flowers 1' broad. Fruit about 3' long, and V thick, 
yellowish, fragrant, eatable, ripe in October. (Fig. 70.) 

% A. parviflo'ra. Small-Jlowered P. Leaves obovate-oval, abruptly pointed ; petals oval, 
green -purple, the outer hardly twice longer than the sepals. Dry soils. South- 
Shrub 2-3f. Leaves about 6', flowers half an inch wide. 

I A. grandinVra. Large-Jlowered P. Leaves obovate-oblong, obtuse, grayish-tomentoiiF ; 
outer petals very large (2' long), yellowish-white. Ga., Fla. 2-3f. March-April. 

4 A pigma&'a. Pigmy P. Leaves thick, evergreen, narrow, obtuse, smooth ; outer petal* 
many times longer than the sepals, pale yellow. Shrub, 6-12'. S. 



Order VI.— BEKBERIDACE^E. The Berberids. 

Serbs and shrubs, with alternate leaves and perfect flowers, with 
sepals imbricated in the bud in 2 or more rows; 
vetals opposite the sepals, also imbricated in two or more rows; 
stamens opposite to the petals, the anthers usually opening by two lids; 
wary 1-celled, solitary and simple, forming a capsule or berry. 

Fig. 375. Section of the flower of Jefferson ia. 

Fig. 376. A leaf of the same. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Herbs, anthers opening by two valves hinged at top a 

§ Herbs, anthers opening by 2 slits lengthwise b 

§ Shrubs, with yellow flowers and acid berries. Ber'beris. 1 

a Stamens 6. Fruit 2, drupe-like, soon-naked seeds. Cohosh. Leon'tice. 

a Stamens 6. Fruit a 2-4-seeded berry. Umbrella- leaf. Diphyllei'a. 

a Stamens 8. Fruit a capsule opening by a lid. Twin-leaf. Jefferso'nia. 2 

b Stamens 9-18. Flower 1, with 2 leaves. 

May Apple. Podophyllum. 3 

1. BER'BEBIS. Barberry. 

Sepals 6, obovate, colored, the 3 
outer ones smaller. Petals 6, round- 
ish, with two glands at the base of 
each, inside. Stamens 6. Stigma ses- 
sile, disk-like, on the top of the ovary. 
Berry oblong, sour, 1-celled, 2-3-seed- 
ed. — Fine, hardy shrubs, with the 
wood, inner bark, and flowers yellow. 

Fig. 377. a, Flower of Berbem vulgaris ; l>, the pistil (magnified), with the ovary cut oyen 
c, c, petals with stamens opposite ; 9, a berry ; 3S0, a seed cut open, showing the embryo. 


I B vulgaris. Common Barberry-bush. A well-known, bushy, handsome shrub, ic 
hard soils. Grows 3-8f. high. Leaves oval, near 2' long, rounded-obtuse at 
apex, tapering to a petiole, with bristly serratures on the margin Flowers 
yellow, a dozen or more in each hanging raceme, with entire petals. Stamens 
irritable, springing against the stigma when touched. Berries red, very sour. 
B. Aquifo / lium. Holly-Uaved B. Leaves pinnate, of 7-13 thick, spiny-tootl. cd 
leaflets. Shrub 3-5f. high. Cal. t 

2. JEFFERSO'NIA. Twin-leaf. 

Sepals 4, colored, caducous. Petals 8, spreading. Stamens 8, with 
linear anthers. Pod on a short stipe, opening by a lid. — U Flowers and 
eaves from the root. Scape 1-flowered. (Figs. 375, 376.) 

f. diphyl'la. Twin-leaf. A very curious plant, acaulescent. Leaves each with two 
blades, about If. high. Flowers same height, white. Koot-stock black, with 
a thick mass of fibres, supposed good in rheumatism. M. W. 

3. PODOPHYLLUM. Mandrake. 

Sepals caducous. Petals 6-9, obovate, concave. Stamens 12-18, with 
inear anthers, the lids scarcely opening. Berry large, egg-shaped, 1 -celled, 
crowned with the solitary stigma. — Low, somewhat poisonous herbs, with 
one or two leaves and one flower. 

k>. pelta'tum. May Apple. Wild Mandrake. A singular and interesting plant, in 
woods and fields. Height about If. The barren plants bear but a single leaf, 
which is 5-8' broad, 5-7-lobed, and centrally peltate. The flowering plants 
have a pair of leaves, with the flower at the fork of the two petioles— the leaves 
not peltate, but with a deeply-hollowed base, about 7-lobed. Flower droop- 
ing, white, about 2' across. Fruit yellowish, with the flavor of the Strawberry. 

Okder VIII.— NELUMBIACE^E. The Water-beans. 

Herbs aquatic, prostrate root-stock, and radical, peltate leaves, with 
■flowers large, solitary, on long, upright scapes, 4 or 5-sepaled ; 
petals numerous, arranged in many rows, as are also the many stamens; 
ovaries separate, each with a simple style and stigma, becoming in 
fruit 1-seeded nuts, half sunk in the hollows of the very large torus, the 
seeds with a very large embryo and no albumen. 

Oiideii 9.— THE WATER LILIES. 


NELUM'BIUM. Nelumbo. 

The character of the genus the same as that of the order. 

kiteum. Yellow Nelumbo. A magnificent flowering plant, frequent in the stag 
nant waters of the South and West, rare in N. Y. and Conn. The leaves are 
l-2f. broad, round, entire, peltate in the centre, which is concave, and elevated 
above the water more or less on the long petioles. Flowers several times 
larger than the White Water Lily, but without fragrance. Petals concave, of 
a brilliant white at edge, becoming yellow towards the base. Nuts (called 
Water-beans) about as large as acorns, eatable. June % July. 

Order IX.— NYMPH.EACE.E. The Water Lilies. 

Herbs aquatic, with roundish leaves from a prostrate rhizoma ; 

flowers large and showy, the sepals, petals, and stamens gradually passing 

into each other, imbricated and arranged in many rows ; 
sepals few, colored inside, persistent ; stigmas radiating and crowning the 
ovary, which in fruit becomes a capsule compound and 5-celled ; 
needs minute, numerous, with the embryo at the end of the albumen. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

Petals large as the sepals, white, red, 
or blue. Ny/mph^'a. 

Petals smaller than the sepals, stamen- 
like, yellow. Frog Lily. Nuphar. 



Fig. 381. Nymphaea odorata: a, the leaf; a 
tbe flower; b, the bud; d, e,f,g, stamens grad 
ually changing into petals; h, a seed cut open 
showing the embryo in a little sac. Fig. 3S3, 
the many-rayed stigma ; 384, cross-section of t)u 
many-celled ovary 



NYMPHiE'A. Water Lily. 

Sepals 4 or 5, green outside. Petals in many rows inserted on the re- 
ceptacle beneath the ovary. Stamens inserted above the petals. Anthers 
slender, opening inwards, the outer filaments gradually widening and pass- 
ing into petals. Capsule ripening under water. 

$ odora'ta. White Water Lily, One of the loveliest of flowers, frequent in pond 
and sluggish streams. The root-stock is long and thick, running in the mui 
where the water is from 3-10f. deep, sending up leaves and flowers to the 
surface. Leaves 5-6' long, roundish, cleft at the base to the centre, where the 
long petiole is inserted, margin entire. Petals lanceolate, H-2' long, of the 
most delicate texture and w 7 hiteness, often tinged with purple. Filaments yel- 
low. July. 

Order X. SARRACENIACE^E The Water-pitchers 


Fig. 385. Sarracenia purpurea, with bud, flower, and fruit 

Fig. 38G. Section of the 5-celled ovary. 

Fig. 337. A seed (magnified), with small .embryo and large albumen. 

Order 11.— THE POPPYWORTS. 150 

Serbs aquatic, in bogs, with fibrous roots, and with the 
'eaves all radical, urn-shaped, hollow, and large flowers on scapes; 
tepals 5, with 3 little bracts at base; petals 5, clawed, incurved; 
stamens hypogynous ; ovary 5-celled, with a single style, the 
stigma very broad, peltate, and 5 -angled, crowning, in fruit, the 
capsule, which is 5-celled and full of minute, albuminous seeds. 

SARRACE'NIA. Pitcher-plant Trumpet-leaf. 

Character essentially as expressed in the order. Nos. 2, 3, 5, 6, are 
orobably varieties, not species. 

*[[ Leaf-blade inflected over the throat of the tube 7, 8 

Tf Leaf-blade erect, cr nearly erect ; throat of the tube open . , i 
a Leaf-tube pitcher-shaped, with a broad wing.,.. 1-3 
a Leaf-tube trumpet-shaped, with a narrow wing. . . .4-6 
» S. purpurea. Purple Pitcher-plant. Flowers purple. Leaves all inflated alike, 
dark green with purple veins, 6-9' long. Scapes 1-flowered, l-2f. high, June. 
2 S. heterophyl'la. Yellow Pitcher-plant. Fls. yellow. Lvs. pale, the outer slende- Jn. r. 
S. ala'ta. Narrow-winged P. Fls. yellow. Lvs. all more slender than in No. 1. S.-W. 

4 S. (G-rono'vii) fiava. Yellow Trumpet-leaf. Flowers yellow. Leaves 18-36' 

high, all yellowish green, veins not purple. 

5 S. rubra. Red Trumpet-leaf. Fls. reddish purple. Lvs. (l-2f.) purple-veined. S. 

6 S. Dru m mondii. Drummond'sT. Fls. purple. Lvs.(18-36') mottled with colors. S. 

7 S. psittacina. Parrot- s Pitcher -plant. Fls. purple. Lvs. (3-5') spotless, hooded. S. 

8 S. variolaris. Mottled P. Flowers yellow. Lvs. (12-180 spotted with white. 8 

Order XI. PAPAYERACE^E. The Poppyworts. 

Herbs, generally with a colored juice, with alternate leaves ; 
flowers on long peduncles, solitary, never blue ; 
sepals 2 or 3, falling off when the flower expands ; 
petals generally 4, sometimes 8 ; stamens 4, 8, 12, 16, or 20, &c. ; 
stigmas 2, or if more, star-like on the flat apex of the compound ovary ; 
fruit a pod-shaped or roundish capsule ; seeds numerous and minute. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

1 Plants with a yellow juice. Petals yellow, crumpled in bud a 

a Stigmas and placentae 3, 4, or 6. Capsule ovoid c 

a Stigmas and placentae 2 only. Capsule long, pod shaped b 



H Plants with an orange-red juice. Bloodroot. Sakguina'rja. 1 

TT Plants with a milk-white juice. l J oppy> Papa'ver. 5 

■jf Plants with a colorless juice. Calyx a cap, falling off whole. 

Petals 4, orange-yellow. Lvs. dissected. California Poppy. Esohsciiolt'zia 
fe P^d 1-celled, smooth. Leaves pinnately divided. Fls. yellow. 

Stamens 24-32, shorter than the 4 petals. Celandine. Chelido'nium 

1> Pod 2-celled, rough. Leaves palmate. Stig. 2-horned. Horn Poppy. Glau'cium 

c Style present, stigmas 3 or 4. Stem lvs. 2, opposite. Yellow Poppy. Meconoi-'sis 

e Style none, stigmas 4 or 6. Stem lvs. alternate. Prickly Poppy. Argemo'ne 

1. SANGUIKA/RIA. Bloodroot. 

Sepals 2, caducous. Petals 8-12, the outer longer. 
Stamens about 24. Stigma sessile, 1 or 2-lobed. Cap- 
sule pod-like, oblong, 1-celled, 2-valved, acute at each 
end, and many-seeded. — U A low, acaulescent plant, 
with white flowers, and full of a red or orange-colored 

S. Canadensis. Bloodroot. An interesting plant, in shady, rich 
soils, flowering in early spring. Rhizoma thick, fleshy, and 
when broken or wounded exudes a blood-colored juice, as 
does every other part. From each joint of the root-stock 
springs a single large glaucous leaf, and a scape about 6' 
high, bearing a single flower. Leaf kidney-shaped, with 
lobes separated by rounded sinuses between. Flower of a 
square outline, white, scentless, and of short duration. 

Fig. 388. Sanguinaria Canadensis : b, the pod ; c, cross-section of it ; 
d, seed f.ut open, showing the embryo. 



Stamens 00. Stigmas 

Sepals 2, caducous. Petals 4. 
many, united into a star-like crown, sessile upon the 
thick ovary. Capsule 1-celled, opening by pores beneath 
the edges of the stigma. Exotic herbs, mostly G, with 
i milk-white juice abounding in opium. 

* Bristly or hairy. Leaves pinnatifid. Flowers scarlet 2, 3 

• Smooth, glaucous. Leaves eut-trothed, clasping. Flowers white .1 

urder 12.— THE FTJMEWORTS. 161 

P. somnif'eram. Opium P. Fls. large, often doable, f Summer. 

2 P. diaium. Small Fed P. Pod club-shaped, smooth. Leaves coar?tly 

divided. Flowers light red, smaller than in No. 1. M. S. Summer. 
2 P. Rheas. Corn P. Pod globular, smooth. Leaves more finely divided 

Flowers large and brilliant, deep scarlet, often double, t Sum 

Order XII. FUMARIACE^E. The Fumeworts. 

Herbs smooth and delicate, with brittle stems and watery juice ; 

leaves usually alternate, many cleft or compound ; 

flowers irregular, purple, white or yellow ; sepals 2, very small ; 

petals 4, more or less cohering, one or both of the outer saccate, the two 

inner inclosing the anthers in their coherent tips ; 
stamens 6, in 2 sets of 3 in each ; pistil 1 ; pod 1-celled. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

* Corolla equally 2-spurred or 2-saccate at base a 

* Corolla unequal, only 1 of the petals spurred b 

a Petals slightly united or distinct, deciduous. Not climbing. Dicen'tra. 1 

a Petals firmly united, persistent. Plants climbing. Mountain Fringe. Adltj'mia. 
b Ovary with several seeds, forming a slender pod. Corydal. Ooryd'alis. 2 

b Ovary with 1 seed, becoming a globular nut. Fumitory. Fuma'ria. 

1. DICEN'TRA. Ear-drop. 

Sepals 2, very small, sometimes disappearing. The 2 outer petals alike, 
saccate at base, with spreading tips; the 2 inner alike, spoon-shaped, 
meeting face to face over the stamens and pistils. Filaments flat, separate 
or not. Middle anther of each set 2-celled, the outer 1-celled. Pod 
many-seeded. — U 

§ Low herbs (6'), with white flowers in simple racemes 1, 2 

§ Taller (l-2f.), with purple flowers racemed or panicled 3, 4 

I D. cuculla'ria. White Far-drop. Root bulb-like. Spurs of the flowers divergent 

acute, straight. Flower nearly as broad as long. Spring. 
! D Canadensis. Squirrel-corn. Koot bearing yellow tubers as large as peas. Fls 
much longer than broad, spurs rounded, incurved. May, Jn. 
S D. exim'ia. Wild Purple Ear-drop. Eacemes panicled. Flowers oblong 

-with very short blunt spurs. Sepals manifest. M. S. t 
8 D. spectaVilis. Chinese F. Eaceme simple. Flow r ers nearly as broad as long 
(!')> very fine and showy; sepals obsolete, t 



2. CORYD'ALIS. Corydal. 

Sepals 2, very small. Petals 4, one of which is spurred at base. Fila- 
ments with broad bases united into 2 sets, sheathing the ovary. Pod 2- 
valved, slender, many-seeded. Leaves twice ternate, on the stem. In 
?ocky places. Spring. 

C. glau'ca. Pink G. Erect. Fls. pink-yellow, panicled. Leaf-lobes obtuse. ® 
C. au'rea. Golden 0. Diffuse. Fls. yellow, raceraed. Leaf-lobes acute, (j) 

Fig. 3S9. Dicentra cucullaria, entire plant. Fig. 390. Enlarged view of a flower. Fig. 391. A 
section of the same. Fig. 392. A flower (enlarged) of D. Canadensis. 

Order X1I1. CRUCIFER^. The Crucifers, or 

Herbs with alternate leaves and no stipnles, and regular flowers, with 
sepah 4 and petals 4, spreading in the form of a cross ; 

Order 13.— THE CRUCIFERS. 


stamens 6, 2 of them on opposite sides shorter than the rest ; an 

ovary of 2 nnited carpels, forming in fruit a 

silique or silicle, with 2 cells and few or many seeds ; 

seeds without albumen, the large embryo variously bent and folded. 

Note. — Under this large Order, as under others, we present to our young readers a complete 
analysis, by which they may trace to its genus any Mustardwort growing in the United States. 
But as the genera are so nearly alike, great care and close observation will be needful in avoid- 
ing mistakes. The plants for examination must be in fruit as well as in flower. 

Fig. 393. Flower of White Mustard. Fig. 394 Same, with its parts separated. Fig. 395. A 
silique, ripe and open. Fig. 396. Traba verna. Fig. 397. A pod open. 

Analysis of the Genera. 
* Garden plants cultivated for ornament or art 

1 Fruit a silique or long pod (§ 363) ... .5 

1 Fruit a silicle or short pod (§ 364) 2 

2 Silicle 2-celled, with 2 or more seeds 3 

2 Silicle 1-celled, with one seed only. Woad. Isa'tis. 

3 Petals all equal 4 

3 Petals unequal, the 2 outside ones larger. Candy-tuft. Ibe'kr. ] 

4 Some of the stamens toothed. Gardens. MadworU Alys'sum. 

4 Stamens all toothless. Silicles very large and thin. Satin-flower. Luna'ria. 

5 Seeds flat. Stigma rounded or head-shaped. Wall-flower. Cheiran'thus. 

5 Seeds flat. Stigmas 2-horned v spreading. Stock. Matthi'ola. 

5 Seeds egg-shaped. Stigma with 2 converging lobes. Rocket. Hes'peri& 

164: THE FLORA. 

** Plants growing wild, or cultivated for food 

( flowers yellow 8 

1 Fruit a silique, 2-celled lengtl-wise, \ flowerf( ^.^ ^^ &c _ _ „ 

, ., . L .,. . _ „ i , „ . ( flowers yellow 5 

1 Fruit a sihcle, 2-celled lengthwise, < _ ' . . . 

i flowers white, purple, &c 2 

I Fruit a jointed pod, with the partitions crosswise 11 

2 Silicle flattened or turgid, with a broad partition 4 

2 Silicle flattened contrary to the narrow partition 3 

3 Silicle triang., seeds several in each cell. Shepherd? s-pui «t. CUpsei/la- 

3 Silicle roundish, with one seed in each cell. Pepper-grass. Lepid'ium. i 

3 Silicle double, with one seed in each lobe. S. Swine Cress. Senebie'ra. 5 

4 Silicle flattened. Leaves cauline or radical. Whitlow-grass. Draba. fi 

4 Silicle turgid. Leaves cauline. Horse Radish. Armora'cia 

4 Silicle turgid. Leaves all radical. r. Awlwort. Subula'ria. 

5 Silicle obovoid, i.e., inversely egg-shaped, turgid. False Flax. Cameli'na. 
5 Sil. globose, turgid, membranous. Style long. Bladder-pod. Vesica'ria. 
5 Silicle oblong, turgid, and somewhat terete. Cress. Nasturtium. 

6 Seeds arranged in two rows in each cell, not winged. Cress. Nastur'tium. 

6 Seeds in two rows in each cell, wing margin. Tower-mustard. Tur'ritis. 

6 Seeds arranged in a single row in each cell. . . .7 

7 Sil. linear, flattish, each valve with 1 central vein. Rock Cress. Ar'abis. 7 
7 Silique lanceolate, flat, the valves veinless. Tooth-root. Denta'ria. 8 

7 Siliques linear, veinless, terete. Flws. purple. False Rocket. Iodan'thus. 
7 Siliques linear, veinless, flat. Fls. whitish. Cuckoo -flovjer. Cardami'ne. 9 

8 Seeds ovate or oblong. . . .9 

8 Seeds globose 10 

8 Seeds flat, with a broad, winged margin. S. Leavenworth'ia. 

9 Calyx i-open. Lvs. runcinate, or finely dissect. Hedge-mustard. Sisymbrium. 
9 Calyx closed. Leaves lyrate-pinnatifid. Winter Cress. Barba'rea. 10 

9 Calyx closed. Leaves lanceolate. False Wall-flower. Erys'imum. 11 

10 Calyx spreading. Valves of the pod 1-3- veined. Mustard. Sina'pi3. 12 

-#0 Calyx mostly erect. Valves of the pod 1-veined. Cabbage, &c. Bras'sica. 

II Pods short, 2-jointed, with 1 seed in each joint. Sea-rocket. Caki'le. 
11 Pods with several transverse joints and cells. Radish. Raph'anus. 

1. IBE'KIS. Candy- tuft. 
The two outside petals larger than the two inside ones. Pods flattened 
truncate, eniarginate, the cells one-seeded. — Foreign, ornamental plants. 

1 Flowers white. Plain about If. high 2-4 

1 I. umbella'ta. Purple C. Fls. purple, in umbels. Lvs. serrate, upper entire. 

2 L ama'ra. Bitter C. Corymbs lengthening into racemes. Lvs. slightly tooth nL 

3 I. pinna'ta. Wing-leaved G. Corymbs scarcely lengthening. Leaves pinnatitid. 

4 I. saxat'ilis. Rock C. Corymbs not lengthening. Shrubby. Lvs. linear, entire. 


2. LUNATwIA. Satin-flower. 

Sepals somewhat 2-lobed at base of the flower. Petals nearly entire. 
Stamens without teeth. Silicle oval or lanceolate, flat, usually very large, 
vith a stalk. Seed-stalk adhering to the partition. — Foreign, ornamentaJ 

L. redivi'va. Perennial S. Pods lanceolate, narrowed to each end. Lvs. sharp 
toothed, u. 

lx biennis. Biennial S. Pods broad-oval, rounded at each end. Lvs. blunt- 
toothed. (5) 

3. CAPSEL'LA. Shepherd's-purse. 

Calyx equal at base. Silicles triangular, wedge-shaped at base, notched 
at top, compressed laterally, that is, contrary to the narrow partition. 
Valves boat-shaped. Style short. Seeds 00, oblong, small. — A common 
weed, with white flowers. 

C. Bursa-Fasto'ris. Shepherd/ 's-purse. Found everywhere, in fields, pastures, and 
road-sides. Stem growing to a foot in height, hairy below, branching. Root 
leaves many (when the plant has room), half a foot long, deeply-lobed and 
toothed. Stem leaves much shorter, with two ear-shaped stem-clasping lobes 
at base. Flowers very small, in racemes which become very long, and are suc- 
ceeded by the little purse-shaped pods. Apr. -Sept. (See Fig. 331.) 

4. LEPED'IUM. Pepper-grass. 

Sepals ovate. Petals ovate, entire. Silicles roundish or oval, notched 
at the end, flattened contrary to the very narrow partition. Cells 1 -seed- 
ed. Valves boat-shaped, dehiscent. Flowers white, racemed, numerous. 

1 Stem leaves undivided. Flowers from June to Sept 2 

1 L sativum. Leaves all divided and lobed. Pods round. Gardens. July. 

2 L Virginicum. Tongue-grass. Pods round, wingless. Stem leaves toothed. 

8 L rudera'le. Pods roundish-oval, wingless. Petals 0. Stem leaves entire. W. 

i L campes'tre. Pods ovate, winged, rough-scaly. Leaves arrow-shaped. W 

5. SENEBIE'RA. Swine Cress. 

Silicle 2-lobed, appearing double. Valve somewhat turgid and inde 
hiscent. Cells each with 1 roundish and 3-cornered seed. Flowers 
white, in short racemes which stand opposite to the leaves. 


S. pinnatif'ida. A prostrate, weed-like plant, common at the South, in fields and jh 
river-banks. Leaves divided in a pinnate manner, into oblong, toothed lobes. 
Flowers obscure, with scarcely any petals. Silicles flattened, notched at apex, 
wrinkled on the surface. Feb.- July. 

6. DBA'BA. Whitlow-grass. 

Calyx equal at base. Petals equal. Filaments without teeth. Silicle 
val-oblong, entire, flattened parallel to the broad partition. Cells 2, 
many-seeded. Seeds not margined. — Low herbs, with small white or 
yollow flowers in racemes. (See Fig. 396.) 

§ Petals 2-cleft, white. Leaves all radical 1 

§ Petals entire or merely notched. Stems more or less leafy. . . .a 

a Style present. Plants perennial 2, 3 

a Style none. Plants annual or biennial b 

b Pedicels as long or longer than the pod. . . .4, 5 

b Pedicels shorter than their pods 

1 D.verna. Spring W. Leaves oblong, hairy. Scape 1-5' high. ® (See Fig. 396.) 
2 D. arabi'sans. Rock W. Leaves minutely toothed. Silicle twisted, longer than 

the pedicel, oblong-lanceolate, 4-6" long. Lake shores. (Figs. 155-159.) 
8 D. ramosis / sima. Bushy W. Leaves with remote and slender teeth. Silicle as 
long as its pedicel, style half as long. Flowers white. Kocks. 
4 D. nemora'lis. Wood W. Petals notched at end. Pod half as long as its 

pedicel. Seeds near 30. Flowers yellowish-white. N-W. 
4 D. brachycar'pa. Short-fruited W. Petals entire. Pod as long as pedicel, 
10-12-seeded. Leaves round-ovate. S. W. March, April. 

5 D. Carolinia'na. Leaves round-ovate, entire. Pods linear, in a tort of corymb. 

Flowers white. Plant hispid, 1-3' high. E. S. April-June. 

6 D. cuneifo'lia. Wedge-leaved W. Leaves wedge-oblong. Pods lance-oblong, 20- 

30-seeded, racemed. Plant 3-8' high. S-W. 

7. AK'ABIS. Rock Cress. Sickle-pod. 

Sepals erect. Petals clawed, entire. Silique linear, flattened, valves 
one-veined in the middle. Seeds in a single row in each cell. Flow era 
white. April- June. 

§ Leaves all (or at least the radical) pinnatifid. . . .1, 2 

§ Leaves all undivided ; toothed or entire, often clasping. . . .a 

£ Siliques short (6-12 // ) and straight. Seeds not winged 3, 4 

a Siliques longer (1-2'), straight or curved. Seeds not winged 5, 6 

a Siliques long (3'), curved, hanging. Seeds winged 7, 8 

Ordee 13.— THE CKLCIFEES. 16? 

1 A Ludovicia'na. Louisiana R. All the leaves feather-cleft-. Seeds bor- 

dered. Plant slender, 6-1 0' high. S. Mar., Apr. 

2 A. lyra'ta. Lyre-leaved R. Only the root leaves feather- cleft. Seeds not 

bordered. Plant 6-12' high. Pods l*-2' long. 
S A. Thalia'na. Mouse-ear R. Stems erect. Leaves nearly entire. Petals twice 

longer than the sepals. Pods erect. Plant downy. May. 
{ V denta'ta. Toothed R. Stems diffuse. Leaves sharply toothed. Petals scarce 

lonjrei tha,: sepals. Pods spreading. Kongh. M. W. 

5 A. patens. Patent R. Downy. Pods spreading and curved upwards, beaked 

with a distinct style. ?p. W. S. 

6 A. hirsu'ta. Hairy R. Plant hairy. Siliques straight, erect. Style none. 

Leaves arrow-shaped. Fls. g. 

7 A laevigata. Smooth Sickle-pod. Stem leaves arrow-shaped, clasping, narrow. 

Pod spreading. Plant glabrous, 2f. high. 

8 A Canadensis. True Sickle-pod. Stem leaves pointed at both ends, sessile. Pod 

curved, pendulous. Tall, downy. 

8. DENTA'RIA. Tooth-root. Pepper-root 

Sepals converging or closed. Silique lanceolate, with flat, veinless 
valves opening elastically. Seeds in a single row in each cell, ovate, not 
bordered. — Plants U. Rbizoma prostrate, jointed. Stem leaves but 2 or 
3. Flowers white or purplish. 

*~ Stem leaves almost opposite or whorled. . . 1, 2, 3 

^| Stem leaves alternate or scattered. Root-stock moniliform 4, 5 

1 D. diphyl'la. Two-leaved P. Stem leaves 2 only, leaflets 3, ovate, toothed. 

2 D. lacinia'ta. Cut-leaved P. Stem leaves 3, leaflets 3-5, linear, cleft. 

3 D. multif'ida. Stem leaves 2-3, numerously divided into linear leaflets. S. 

4 D. max'ima. Leaflets 3, ovate, cut and cleft. Lvs. 3-7. Fls. purple. M. 

5 D. heterophyl'la. Lflts. 3, nearly entire ; of the rt. lvs. round-ovate, toothed 

9. CARDAMTKE. Bitter Cress. 

Calyx a little spreading. Silique linear, with flat, veinless valves which 
are narrower than the partition. Stigma entire. Seeds not margined, 
with a slender seed-stalk. Flowers white or purple. 

* Leaves pinnate with many leaflets. April-June 1, 2 

* Leaves simple or partly ternate. Mostly perennials. . . .a 

a Style slender. \n low, wet grounds 

a Style none. In high mountains 

1 C. hnsn'ta. Pennsylvanian C. Smooth, about If. erect. Leaves 5-1 l-foliato, th 

terminal lobe largest, 3-lobed. Stigma sessile. Wet. (3) c. 

2 C praten'sis. Cuckoo-flower. Stem simple, ascending, If. Leaves 7-15-foIiate. 

with stalked, roundish leaflets Style present. Flowers large. Wet. U 


8 C. rhomboid 'ia. Rhombic G. Stems upright, bearing tubers at base. Poda 
linear-lanceolate. Leaves roundish and rhomboidal. w. or p. c. 

4 C rotundifo'lia. Round-leaved G. Stems decumbent, branched. Pods hncar 
subulate. Leaves roundish, lower 3-lobed. w. By streams. 

1 <J mllidifo'lia. Daisy-leaved G. Leaves smooth, roundish. Pods erect. Heigh 

1 %'. N. II. 
S "5. spatula 'ta. Spath-leaved G. Leaves hairy, spatulate. Pods spreading. 6'. S 

10. BARBA'REA. Winter Cress. 

Sepals er^t, nearly equal at base. Silique columnar, 2-4-cornered. 
Valves concave or keel-shaped by means of a strong central vein. Seeds 
in a single row. Leaves lyrate-pinnatifid. Flowers yellow. 

B. vulga'ris. Winter Cress. Common in old fields, also brook-sides. Whole plant 
glabrous. Stem l-2f. high, branching above. Leaves lyrate with the terminal 
lobe roundish, upper leaves obovate, pinnatifid at base, crenate, or repand- 
dentate — all dark green, shining. Flowers showy, in racemes. Pods ob- 
scurely 4-cornered, slender, %' Lv.\o\ curved upwards. May, June, u 

11. ERYSIMUM. False Wall-flower. 

Calyx closed. Silique linear, 4-sided. Stigma capitate. Seeds in a 
single row in each cell. Mostly ®. Flowers yellow, 
i E. cheiranthoi'des. Stem ascending. Fls. small. Pods spreading, l'in length. M. 

2 E. Arkansa'num. Yellow Phlox. Stem strictly erect. Flowers large ($' broad). 

Pods 2-3' long. Eiver bluffs. A fine plant. W. 

12. SINATIS. Mustard. 

Sepals spreading. Petals ovate, with straight claws. Silique nearly 
terete, valves 3-veined. Style short. Seeds in a single row, globular. — 

or with yellow flowers. (Figs. 393, 394.) 

1 S. nigra. Black M. Upper leaves lance-linear, entire. Pod 4-cornered, smooth, 

2 S. arven'sis. Field M. Leaves all repand-toothed. Pods torose, smooth. 

8 S. alba. White M. Leaves all lyrate-pinnatifid. Pods bristly, shorter than beak 

Order XVI. VIOLA'CE^. Violets. 

Serbs with simple (often cleft), alternate leaves with stipules ; 
flowers irregular, spurred, with the sepals, petals, and stamens in 5's ; 
corolla spurred at base ; anthers united : 2 of the filaments appendaged ; 

Order 13.— VIOLETS. 


style 1, will a one-sided stigma; capsule 1-celled, 3-valved; 
seeds many, with the embryo nearly as long as the albumen. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

Sepals unequal, with ear-shaped lobes at base, 
gepals nearly equal, not appendaged at base. 

Green Violet. S o 'lka . 

1. YI'OLA. Violet 
Sepals 5, prolonged at base into two auriculate 
lobes. Petals more or less unequal, the largest 
one spurred at base, the 2 cpposite ones at the 
sides equal, the 2 upper ones all equal. Stamens 
cohering by their anthers, 2 of them spurred at 
base. Seeds attached to the valves of the capsule. 
— U Low herbs, caulescent or acaulescent. Pe- 
duncles angular, solitary, 1 -flowered, nodding at 
the top. 

* Acaulescent : leaves and flowers all radical a Fig. 39S. Violet No. 1 : section. 

* Caulescent: stems leafy... .d 

a Flowers blue b 

a Flowers white Nos. 2-4. 

a Flowers yellow No. 1. 

b Petals beardless 5-7 

b Petals bearded c 

c Leaves divided 

c Leaves undivided 

d Pet. yellow. Stems leafy at the top only 13-15 

d Petals not yellow, or but partly yellow o 

e Stipules entire. Summer 16 

e Stipules fringe-toothed. May, Jane 17-19 

e Stipules lyrate-pinnatifid, very large 20-21 

1 V. rotundifo'lia. Early Yellow Violet. Lvs. round-ovate, 

cordate, smooth. Sepals blunt. April. 

2 V. lanceola'ta. Lance-leavedV. Lvs. lanceolate, tapering to the base. Some bearded 

8 V primulaefo'lia. Primrose V. Lvs. lance-ovate, abrupt at base. Fls. beardless 

4 V. blanda. Street Wild V. Leaves round-cordate. Fls. beardless, fragrant. May 

! V. palus'tris Bog V. Lvs. reniform-cordate. Spur very short. Stips. ovate. White Mts 

6 V. Selkir'kii. Selkirk's V. Lvs. round-cor. Spur near as long as petals, blunt. May. 

7 V.peda'ta. Foot-leaved F.Lvs. pedate, 5-9-part.,segm. narrow, entire. Root premorst. 

8 V. delpbinifo'lia. Larkspur V. Leaves in 7-9 linear, 3-cltft segments. W. April,, 

9 V. palma'ta. Palm-leaved V. Leaves hastate-lobed. cordate. Variety of No. 10 


[otic 22. 
...10-12, and the Ex- 

Fig. 899. Ripe, open cap- 
sule of Violet 

170 ' THE FLORA. 

10 V. cuculla'ta Hood-leaved V. Leaves reniform-cordate. base lobes involute, com, 

1 1 V. villo'sa. Woolly V. Leaves ronnd-ovate, cordate, obtuse, flat, downy. M. S 

12 V sagitta'ta. Arrow-lvd. V, L vs. lance-oblong, some sagittate or cut- toothed at base. 

13 V. hasta'ta. Halberd-leaved V. Smooth. Lvs. hastate. Stip. ovate, minute. S- 

14 V. tripartita. Three-cleft V. Hairy. Lvs. deeply 3-parted. Stip. lance^ate. 3 

1 5 V. pubes'cens. Downy V. Downy. Lvs. broad-cordate. Stip. ovate, large, & 
16 V. Canadensis. Canada V. Plant If. high. Leaves cordate, pointed, smooth. 

17 V. striata. Cream-colored V. Spur \ the length of the corolla. Stip. large, oblong 

18 V. Muhlenber'gii. Muhlenberg's V. Spur £ the length of corolla. Stip. lanceolate. 

19 V. rostra'ta. Long-spurred V. Spur longer than corolla. Stipules lanceolate. 

20 V. tric'olor. Pansy. HearUease. Stipules as large as the le&ves. Fls. three-c61ored. 

21 V. grandino'ra. Great-flowered V. Stip. much smaller than the leaves. Purple, \ 
22 V. odora'ta. Sweet English V. Stolons creeping. Lvs. cordate. Fragrant. 1 

Order XVII. CISTACE^E. Rock Roses. 

Herbs or low shrubs ; leaves simple, entire, mostly alternate ; 
flowers perfect, regular, hypogynous, lasting but a day ; 
sepals 5, unequal, the 3 inner contorted, all persistent ; 
petals 5, rarely 3, or 0, twisted contrary to the sepals ; 
ovaries 3, united, forming a 1-celled, 3-valved capsule ; 
needs many, on the parietal placentae. (See the Glossary.) 

* Petals 5, yellow, larger than the sepals. Low shrublets. Hudsonia. 1 

* Petals 3, narrow, brown -purple, as short as the sepals. Lechea. 2 

* Petals 5, yellow, large and showy, sometimes 0. Helianthemum. 3 

1. HUDSO'NIA. Hudsonia. 

Little heath-like, very leafy and branching shrublets, growing in sands. 

\ H. tomento'sa. Hoary-tomentous ; leaves oval, appressed ; flowers subsessile. 
2 H. ericoi'des. Downy ; leaves subulate, loose ; flowers pedicelled. 

2. LECH'EA. Pinweed, 
Perennial herbs, often woody at base, much branched, bearing the small 
obscure flowers in axillary clusters. Pods as large as a pin's head, their 3 
partial cells each 1-2-seeded. Summer. 

§ Pedicels longer than the oval pod Nos. 1, 2. 

§ Pedicels shorter than the globular pod . . .Nos. 3, 4. 

1 L. minor. Lesser P. Leaves linear; 2 outer sepals minute. 5'-15' high. 

2 L. Novae-Csesare'ae. New Jersey P. Leaves elliptical ; 2 outer sepals slender* oftef 

longer than the others. About If. NY and N J. 

Okdek 18.— ST. JOHNSWORTS. 


3 L. major. Larger P. Hairy ; leaves elliptical ; pods angular. l-2f. 
i L thymifo'lia. Hoary-puberulent ; leaves narrowly oblanceolate ; pods quite rounded, 
largei (near 1"), polished. 10-20' high. 

3. HELIAN'THEMUM. Rock Rose. 

Petals 5 (when present), crumpled in bud, fugacious. Stamens few or 
many. Stigma 3-lobed. Capsule triangular, 3-yalved, opening at. the top. 

* Flowers of two sorts, the later ones apetalous. Stamens 3-10 Nos. 1, 2. 

* Flowers all alike, 5-pctalled. Stamens go — Nos. 3. 4. 

1 H. Canaden'se. Flowers solitary, terminal, the apetalous flowers in axillary clusters; 

sepals acute; leaves lanceolate, acute, with rolled edges. In dry soil. Can. to Va. 
Stems 8-12' high. Plant hoary-pubescent. July-August. 

2 H. corymbo'sum. Flowers all terminal, crowded; sepals obtuse, woolly. N. J. and S. 

3 H. Carolinia'num. Flowers subterminal, large; sepals acuminate. South, 

4 H. arenic'ola. White-tomentous ; leaves and sepals obtuse. 3-6'. In sand. S. 


Order XVIIL HYPEKICACE^E. St. Johnsworts. 

Herbs or shrubs with opposite, entire 
dotted leaves, and no stipules ; 

flowers mostly yellow, in cymes ; 

sepals unequal, 4-5, dotted ; • 

petals 4-5, twisted in the bud, dotted, 
and with the veins oblique ; 

stamens hypogynous, in 3 or more par- 

ovary superior ; style 1 ; 

fruit a capsule or berry, many-seeded. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

Petals and sepals 5 .... 2 

Petals and sepals 4. Flowers yellow. 

St. Peterswort. As'cyrcm. 
2 Fls. yellow. St. Johnswort. Hypericum. 1 
2 Flowers purplish. Elode'a. 

Fig. 400. Hypericum perforatum (Common St 
J .»hnswort): stem, leaves, and flowers. Fig. 401. 
The stamens in 3 sets surrounding the ovary with 3 
r.tyles. Fig 402. Cross-section of the ovary 


HYPERICUM. St. Johnswort. 

Sepals 5, connected at base, nearly equal, leaf-like. Petals 5, oblique. 
Stamens many (sometimes few and distinct), united into 3-5 parcels with 
no glands between them. Styles 3-5, either distinct or united at base. 
Capsule 1 -celled, or 3-5-celled. — Herbs or shrubs, with branching stems, 
apposite, entire leaves, and yellow flowers. (Figs. 210, 211, 400-402.) 

£ Stamens 25 to 100, more or less united into sets a 

$ Stamens 5 to 15, not at all united g 

a Carpels (pistils) and styles 5 or more. Capsule 5-celled Nos. 1, 2 

a Carpels 3. Capsule 8-celled (the partitions meeting) b 

a Carpels 3. Capsule 1 -celled (the partitions not quite meeting) c 

b Shrubby. Petals not dotted. Leaves lanceolate or oblanceolate . . ,.8~6 

b Shrubby. Petals not dotted. Leaves linear 6, 7 

b Herbaceous. Petals sprinkled with black dots. . . .8-10 

c Shrubs. Styles united into 1 d 

c Half-shrubby. Styles united into 1 e 

c Herbaceous. Styles distinct, at least at the top f 

d Flowers solitary or in 3's, axillary. Stems 2-edged 11, 12 

d Flowers clustered in a compound, terminal cyme 13, 14 

e Flowers in a leafless, stalked cyme. Leaves obtuse 15, 16 

e Flowers in a leafy (few-leaved) cyme. Leaves acute 17, 18 

f Stem or branches 4-cornered or square 19, 20 

f Stem and branches terete, not angular 21, 22 

g Flowers in corymbous cymes 23, 24 

g Flowers racemed on the slender branches 25, 26 

1 H. pyramida'tum. Giant S. Herb 3-4f., flowers 2' broad. Leaves lance-oblong. 

2 H. Kalmia'num. KalrrCs S. Shrub l-2f., flowers V broad. Leaves lance-linear. 

3 H. Buckle'yi. Buckley's S. Leaves obovate. Flowers terminal, solitary. S 

4 H. prolif'icum. Prolific S, Lvs. lance-oblong. Cymes compound. W. 

5 H. galeoi'des. Bedstraw S. Lvs. lance-linear. Clusters axillary. S. 

6 H. rosmarinifo'lium. Rosemary S. Lvs. petioled, shorter than internodes. S. 

7 H. fascicula'tum. Clustered S. Lvs. sessile, longer than the internodes. S. 

8 H. perforatum. Punctured S. Stem 2-edged. Lvs. small, light-dotted, c. 

9 H. corymbo'sum. Corymbed S. Stem terete. Lvs. large, black-dotted, c. 

10 H. macula'tum. Spotted S. St. terete. Ali over black-dotted. Sty. long. 

11 H. au'reum. Golden S. Lvs. thick, obtuse, sessile. Fls. large (1£')* Stam. 500 ! S 

12 H. ambig'uum. Dubious S. Lvs. thin, acute, sessile. Fls. 8" broad. Pet. toothed. S 

13 H. myrtifo'lram. Myrtle S. Branches terete. Lvs. clasping. Cyme leafy. S. 

14 H. cistifo'lium. Rockrose S. Branches 2-edged. Lvs. sessile. Cyme leafless 8 

15 H, nudiflo'rum. Naked-flowered S. Lvs. lance-ovate. Pod ovoid-conic. M.S. 

16 H. sph»rocar'poiL Round-fruited S. Lvs. linear-oblong. Pod globular. W. 

Order 19.— THE SUNDEWS. 173 

17 H. adpres'sum. Closed S. Lvs. half- erect. Petals obovate, longer than sop 

18 H. doiabrifor'me. Hatchet S. Lvs. spreading. Pet. dolabriform, long as sep. 

19 H. angulo'sum. Angled S. Lvs. ovate, acute. Style thrice longer than ovary. 

20 H ellip'ticum. Elliptic S. Lvs. elliptic, obtuse. Style as long as ovary. N. M. 

21 H. grave 'olens. Strong-scented S. Smooth. Lvs. oblong-ovate, clasping. 8 

22 H. pilo'sum. Hairy S. Hairy. Lvs. lance-ovate, apprcssed. S. 

%\ H. mu'ticuxn. Dwarf S. Lvs. ovate, clasping, 5-veined. Cymes leafy, c. 
2 H. Canaden'se. Canada S. Lvs. linear, black-dotted. Cymes leafless, c. 

25 H. Saro'thra. Pine-weed S. Lvs. awl-shaped, minute. Fls. sessile. 

26 H. Drummon/dii. Drurnmond? s S. Lvs. linear. Fls. stalked. W. 

Order XIX. DROSERACE.E. The Sundews. 

Herbs growing in bogs, often covered with glands, with 
leaves alternate, circinate (rolled from top to base) in the bud; 
flowers regular, of 5 persistent sepals and 5 withering petals ; 
stamens 5, distinct, and a single, compound ovary ; 
styles 1-5, and fruit a 1-3-celled many-seeded capsule, and with 
seeds having a small embryo at the base of the albumen. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

t Stamens 5. Dros'era. 1 

( coiled (circinate) in the bud. "j Stamens 10-15. Dion^'a. 2 

Leaves ( net coiled in the bud. Sterile stamens many. Parnas'sia. 3 

1. DROS'ERA. Sundew. 

Sepals 5, united at base, persistent. Petals 5. Stamens 5. Styles 3-5, 
each deeply 2-parted, so that there seems to be 6-10. Capsule 3-5-valved, 
1 -celled, many-seeded. — % Small aquatic herbs. Leaves (all radical in 
the American species) clothed with long, reddish, gland-bearing hairs, 
exuding a clear, sticky fluid. Flowers in a raceme on a slender scape, 
which is at first coiled downward, but uncoils as the flowers open. 

* Scape 4-6 times longer than the spreading leaves. . . . 1-3 

* Scape 1-2 times longer than the ascending leaves. . . .4-6 

3 D. rotundifo'lia. Round-Uaved S. Leaves round, on long hairy stalks. Fls -white, 

small (about 3" broad). Scapes 5-8' high. c. 
2 D. minor. Lesser S. Lvs. wedge-obovate, on smooth stalks. Scape 3-6'. p. S. 
8 D. brevifo'lia. Tiny S. Lvs. spattilate, on short, hairy stalks. Scape 2-3'. p. 8 



4 D longifolia. Long-leaved S. Lvs. spatulate, on 

long, smooth stalks. 4-7'. White. (Fig. 20, 21.) 
£ r linearis. Linear-leaved S. Lvs. linear, obtuse ; 

stalks smooth. 3-6'. White. 
t D. filiformis. Thread-leaved S. Lvs. filiform, long. 

Scape If. Purple. 

2. DIOSLE'A. Venus' Fly-trap. 

Sopals 5, spreading. Petals 5, obovate, with 
pellucid veins. Stamens 10-15. Style 1. Stig- 
mas 5, many-cleft. Capsule breaking irregularly 
in opening, 1 -celled, many-seeded. — U Glabrous 
herbs. Leaves all radical, sensitive, closing con- 
vulsively when touched. Scape umbelled. 

D Muscip'ula. A very remarkable plant, in sandy bogs, 
at the South, sometimes cultivated. Leaves spread- 
ing, the petiole broadly winged, ending in a roundish 
blade which is fringed with spines, instantly closing 
upon insects which alight upon it. Scape 6-1 2' 
high, bearing an umbel of 8-10 white, handsome 
flowers. Apr., May. \ 

Fig. 403. Venus' Fly-trap. Fig. 404. Ovary and style. 
Fig. 405. Section of ovary. 

3. PAPwNAS'SIA. Grass-of-Pamassus. 

Sepals 5. Petals 5, inserted on the calyx (pe- 
rigynous). Stamens also perigynous, in 2 rows, 
the outer row of numerous sterile filaments, united 

in 5 sets, the inner row of 5 perfect stamens. Stigmas 4, sessile. Cap- 
sule 4-celled. Seeds very numerous. — U Elegant herbs, with radical 
leaves and 1 -flowered scapes. 

I P. Carolinia'na. Meadow G. Sterile filaments, 3 in each set. Leaves about 

7-veined, broadly oval or ovate, radical ones on long stalks, cauline few, near 

the ground, sessile, clasping. Scape about If. high, bearing one flower at top, 

which is about V across. Petals marked with green veins. July, Aug. 

P asarifolia. Broad-leaved G. Sterile filaments, 3 in each set. Lvs. reniform. S. 

% V palus'tris. Swamp G. Sterile filaments, 9-15 in eaoh set. Lvs. cordate. N. W 

Order 21.— PINKWOItTS. 


Order XXI. CARYOPHYLLACE.E. Pinkworts. 

Fig. 406. Pink (Pheasant's-eye) : 5, the bracts ; c, the tubular calyx. Fig. 407. The ovar; 
u-ith its 2 style?, Fig. 408. A petal of the Diurnal Lychnis, 2-cleft : c, the claw. Fig. 409 
Arenaria stricta, showing the spreading cyme. Fig. 410. A flower enlarged, calyx not tubular 

Herbs with the stems swelling at the nodes ; opposite, entire leaves ; 
sepals 4 or 5, sometimes distinct and sometimes united into a tube; 
petals 4 or 5 (sometimes 0), with or without claws, hypogynous ; 
stamens generally twice as many as the petals ; styles 2-5 ; 
fruit a 1-celled (rarely 2-5-celled) capsule with numerous seeds, and an 
embryo coiled around fleshy albumen. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

Stipules dry, scale-like, between the leaves at base 6 

Stipules none 2 

2 Sepals united into a tube. Petals with long claws 3 

2 Sepals distinct or nearly so. Petals sessile or none. . . .4 

3 Calyx with 2 or more bractlets at base a 

8 Calyx naked, i. «., with no bractlets. . . .b 
4 Pod 1-celled and with several seeds. Petals generally present. . . .6 

4 Pod 1-celled, with 1 seed. Petals none, calyx green g 

4 Pod completely 3-celled. Petals none, calyx white U 

5 Petals 2-parted or 2-lobed c 

5 Petals undivided and entire. . . .d 


6 Styles or stigmas 3 or 5. Pod 1 -celled, many-seeded e 

6 Styles or stigmas 2 or united into 1. Pod 1 -seeded f 

Styles 2. Petals variously notched or fringed. Pink. Dian'tjiub. 1 

b Styles 2. Capsule 4-toothed when open. Soapwort. Sapona'ria. 

b Styles 3. Capsule 6-toothed when open. Silent. Silene. 2 

b Styles 5. Calyx 5-toothed, teeth short or long. Rose Campion. Lychnis. 5 
Styles 5. Pod opening at top by 10 teeth. Mouse-ear. Cerastium 4 

Styles 3. Pod splitting into 6 valves. Chickweed. StarwoH. Stella'hia. 

d Styles 3. Valves of the ripe pod 3, each 2-toothed. Sandwort. Areni'ria. 

d Styles 3. Valves of the pod 3, entire. Grove Sand -wort. Alsi'ne. 

d Styles 4 or 5, always as many as the sepals. Pearhcort. Sagi'na. 

d Styles 3 and 5. Plant fleshy. Disk 10-lobed. Sea Sandwort Honken'ya. 
e Styles 5. Leaves linear, whorled. Flowers white. Spurry. Sper'gula. 

e Styles 3 and 5. Lvs. linear, opposite. Fls. red. Sand Spurry. Spergula'ria. 
e Styles 3 in all the fls. Leaves in 4's. Stipules ovate. All-seed. PoLYCAft'rox. 
e Styles 3 in all the fls. Leaves opposite. Stipules many- cleft. Stipulic'ida. 

f Sepals green, distinct or nearly so. . . . Nailwort. Paronychia. 

f Sepals white above, united into a tube below. Syphonyoh'ia. 

g Styles 2. Utricle inclosed in the hardened calyx tube. Knaivell. Scleran'tiius. 
h Styles 3. Stamens 3 or 5. Herb flat on the ground. Carpet-we*-d. Mollu'go. 5 

1. DIANTHUS. Pink. Carnation. 

Calyx tubular, cylindrical, striate, with 2 or more pairs of opposite, im- 
bricated scales at base. Petals 5, with long claws, limb unequally notched 
Stamens 10. Styles 2, with revolute stigmas. Capsule cylindrical, one 

T[ Bracts as long as tho calyx tube ... .1, 2, 3 
Tl Bracts much shorter than the calyx. . . .4, 5, 6 

1 D. Arme'ria. Wild Pink. Bracts erect. Leaves linear. Flowers small, pink-red 

in cymes of about 3. Stem 18-24' high. In sandy fields. July. E. 

2 D. barbatus. Sweet William, or Bunch Pink. Bracts erect. Leaves lanceolate, 

cymes large, many-flowered. Red or variegated with white. May-July. \ 
D. Chinen'sis. China Pink. Bracts spreading. Leaves lance-linear. Flowers 
solitary, red, large. Plant evergreen, not glaucous, f 

4 D. caryophyl'lus. Carnation Pink. Bracts rounded. Petals crenate, beard- 

less. .Whole plant glaucous. Many beautiful varieties, f 

5 D. pluma / rius. Pheasant's- eye. Bracts ovate. Petals fringe-toothed, bearded. 

Plant glaucous. Flowers solitary, white and purple, f 
6. D. super'bus. Superb P. Bracts mucronate, ovate. Petals pinnati fid fringed, 
bearded, cymes level-topped. Wh : te. + 

Order 21.— PINKWORTS. 17? 

2. SILE'NE. Catch-fly. Campion. 
Calyx tubular, swelling, without scales at base, 5-toothed. Petals 5, 
2 cleft, the claws often crowned with a stiff scale. Stamens 10. Styles 
3. Capsule partly 3-celled, opening by 6 teeth at top. (Fig. 116.) 

* Petals many-cleft and fringed. Fls. white or roseate, large. Perennial. . . .1-3 

* Petals bifid or entire, not fringed a 

a Calyx inflated and netted with veins. Perennial 4, 5 

a Calyx close upon the pod, not inflated b 

b Flowers spicate, alternate. Annual 6, 7 

b Flowers not spicate.... c 

c Petals white, closed in sunshine.... 8, 9 

c Petals red, purple, &c, — (d) bifid 10, 11 

—(d) entire 12-15 

1 S. stella'ta. Whorled C. Lvs. in 4's. Calyx inflated. Fls. white, many. July, 

2 S. ova'ta. Ovate 0. Leaves opposite. Calyx not inflated. Flowers white. S. 
8 S. Baldwin'ii. Baldwin's G, Lvs. opposite, obovate. Fls. very large, roseate. S 

4 S. infla'ta. Bladder 0. Petals not crowned. Flowers few, white. 

5 S. nivea. Snowy G. Petals with a little crown. Flowers many, white. 

6 S. quinquevul'nera. Variegated 0. Woolly. Petals entire, red, white-edged. S 

7 S. noctur'na. Spiked G. Downy. Petals narrow, 2-parted, greenish-white. 

8 S. Antirrhi'na. Snapdragon G. Sticky in spots. Calyx egg-shaped. 

9 S. noctiflo'ra. Night G. Viscid-downy. Calyx cylindric. Petals 2-parted. 

10 S. Virgin'ica. Virginian 0. Leaves spatulate. Fls. large (2'), crimson. M. S. 

11 S. rotundifo'lia. Round-leaved C. Leaves round, large. Fls. large, scarlet. W 

12 S. Pennsylvan'ica. Perennial. Petals rose-purple, toothed at end. 

13 S. re'gia. Royal G. Perennial. Petals scarlet, entire, oblanceolate. 

14 S. Arme'ria. Garden G. Annual. Stem sticky in spots. Flowers rose-p. 1 

15 S. acau'lis. Stemless 0. Annual. Scape 2' high, 1-flowered. Mountains 

3. LYCHNIS. Cockle. Rose Campion. 

Calyx tubular, 5-toothed, without scales at base. Petals 5, clawed. 
Stamens 10. Styles 5. Capsule 1 -celled, or 5-celled at the base, opening 
at the top by 5 or 10 teeth. Petals sometimes crowned. 

* Petals broad, entire. Plants very hairy 1,2 

* Petals 2-cleft, crowned with 2 scales at top of claw. . . .3, 4 

* Petals gashed or 4-cleft. Plants nearly smooth 5, 6 

L. Githa'go. Cockle. Sepals longer than the crownless, purple petals. 

L. Corona'ria. Mullein Pink. Sepals shorter than the stiff-crowne i petals, f 

3 L. Chalcedon'ica. Sweet William. Fls. scarlet, in a crowded, compound cyme. 1 

4 L. diu'rna. Diurnal L. F'owers light purple, in an open, loose cyme, f 

(See Fig. 406.) - 



5L corona 'ta. Chinese L. Petals very broad, froged with numerous teeth t 
fl L. Floscu'culi. Bagged Robin. Petals divided into 4 long teeth, crowned, f 

4. CERAS'TIUM. Mouse-ear. duckweed. 

Sepals 5, ovate, acute. Petals 5, bifid or 2-cleffc. Stamens 10, some 
times 5 or 4. Styles 5. Capsule cylindrical or roundish, opening at top 
by 10 tooth-like valves. Seeds numerous. Fls. white, in cymes. (Fig. 114. 

Petals about as long as the calyx. Plants hairy. . . .1, 2 

Petals much longer than the calyx. Plants hairy or downy. . . .3, 4, 5 

1 O. vulga'tum. Common M. Lvs. obovate. Sepals acute. Fls. at first crowded. 

2 O. visco'sum. Sticky M. Hairs sticky. Leaves lance -ovate. Sepals obtuse. 

3 C. arven'se. Field M. Lvs. linear. Pipe pods as long as the calyx. N. E. 

4 0. oblongifolium. Leaves lance-obl. Pods longer than calyx. M. 

3 0. nutans. Nodding M. Pipe pods curved, thrice longer than calyx. N W 

5. MOLLU'GO. Carpet-weed. 

Sepals 5. Petals 0. Stamens 3-5, opposite to the sepals. Styles 3. 
Capsule 3-celled, 3-valved, many-seeded. — © Low or prostrate herbs, 
with the leaves appearing whorled. 

M. verticilla'ta. Stems slender, jointed, much branched, lying flat on the ground. 
At each joint stands a whorl of wedge-shaped or spatulate leaves of unequal 
size, usually about 5 in number, and a few flowers, each solitary on its stalk, 
which is shorter than the petioles. Flowers small, sepals white inside. In dry 
places. July-Sept. 

Order XXII. PORTTTLACACE^E. The Purselanes. 

Herbs with thick, entire leaves, no stipules, and regular flowers ; 
■flowers with 2 sepals, 5 petals, open only in the sunshine ; 
stamens opposite to the petals when of the same number, often more ; 
pistils several, with their ovaries united, free, or half-free, forming in 
fruit a pyxis (§ 178) or a capsule. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

% Sepals five. Petals none. Fruit a pyxis. Stamens oo. Sea Purselane. Sesu'vidm. 

Tj Sepals 2. Petals 5 a 

a Stamens 5, opposite the petals. Spring Beauty. Clayto'nia. I 

a Stamens 8-30, on the torus. Pod 3-valved. Tali'num. 

a Stamens 8-30, on the ca.yx Pyxis opening by a lid. Portula'ca. 2 

Order 24.— THE MALLOWS. 


1. CLAYTO'STIA. Spring Beauty. 

Sepals 2, ovate. Petals 5, emarginate or obtuse. Stamens 5, inserted 
on the claws of the petals. Stigmas 3, on 1 long style. Capsnle 3-valved, 
2-5 -seeded. — They are small, fleshy, 2f, early-flowering herbs, arising 
from a small tuber. 

1 C. Carolinia'na. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Sepals and petals obtuse. 

2 0. Virgin'ica. Leaves linear or lance-linear. Sepals acute, petals obovate. 

2. PORTULA'CA. Purselanes. 

Sepals 2. Petals 5, equal. Stamens 8-20. Styles 3-6. Pyxis lid 
opening off near the middle. — Low and fleshy herbs. 

1 P. olera'cea. Common P. Leaves thick, wedge-shaped. Stem fleshy, reddish, 

prostrate. Flowers sessile, small, yellow. A common weed. Summer. 

2 P. grandiflo'ra. Great P. Leaves cylindric and fleshy. Stems ascending. Fls 

large, rod or scarlet. Cultivated. June. 

Order XXIV. MALVACEJ3. The Mallows. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with alternate, stipulate, divided leaves, with the 
flowers showy, axillary, regular, often with an involucel at the base ; 
5 sepals valvate and the 5 petals convolute in the bud, hypogynous ; 
stamens indefinite and monadelphous, the anthers splitting across ; 
carpels several, united into a ring or forming a several-celled capsule •, 
seeds with a curved embryo in a little albumen. 

J\?U J— ^ WU MS,. ./(\ aft 

Fig. 411. Hibiscus Trionum (Flower-of-an-hour) ; 2, cross-section of the flower, showirg 
the arrangement of its parts; 3, cross-section of the 5-celled capsule; 4, capsule open by its five 
valves; 5, Malva sylvestris; 6, its fruit, consisting of 10 carpels arranged in a circle ; 7, section of 
?ne of the carpel*, showing the curved embryo. 


Analysis of the Genera. 

| Calyx naked, i. e., having no involucel b 

§ Calyx furnished with an involucel as if a second calyx.... 2 

2 Pistils and carpels more than 5 a 

2 Pistils and carpels 5 only, each 1-seeded c 

2 Pistils and carpels 5 or 3, each 8- oo -seeded. . . .d 
a Tnvolucel of 6-9 bractlets. Carpels 1-seeded. Marsh M. Althaea. 

a Involucel of 3 united bractlets. Carpels 1-seeded. Tree M. Lavate'ra. 

a Involucel of 3 distinct bractlets. Carpels 1-seeded. Mallow. Malva. 2 

a Involucel of 3 distinct bractlets. Carpels 2-seeded. Basket M. Modi'ola. 

b Flowers dioecious. Stigmas 10, linear. Napcea. Nap^e'a. 

b Flowers perfect. Carpels 5 or more, 1-seeded. Sida. Sida. 

b Flowers perfect. Carpels 5 or many, 3-9-seeded. Indian M. Abu'tilon. 
c Stigmas 10. Carpels 5, baccate, united. Glut M. Malvavis'ous. 

c Stigmas 10. Carpels 5, dry, distinct. Peacock M. Pavonia. 

c Stigmas 5. Carpels 5, dry, united into a pod. Marsh M. Kostelets'kya. 

d Involucel of many bractlets. Calyx regular. Hibiscus. Hibis'ous. 8 

d Involucel of many bractlets. Calyx split on one side. Okra. Abelmos'chus. 

d Involucel of 3 incisely-toothed bractlets. Cotton. Gossyp'ium. 

1. ALTH^E' A. Hollyhock, &c. 

Calyx surrounded at base by a 6-9-cleft involucel. Carpels oo, 1-seed- 
ed, not opening, arranged circularly around the axis. 

1 A officina'lis. Marsh M. Lvs. downy, entire or 3-lobed. Fls. rose-col., stalked. 

2 A. rosea. Hollyhock. Leaves rough-hairy, roundish, 5-7-lobed. Flowers sessile. 

3 A. ficifo / lia. Fig-leaved Hoi. Lvs. hairy, deeply 7-parted. Fls. orange colored. 

2. MAL'VA. Mallows. 

Calyx 5-cleft, with a 3-leaved involucel at its base. Carpels and styles 
numerous. Fruit cheese-form, separating when ripe into many 1-seeded 
pieces, arranged circularly. 

* Flowers white or rose-colored 1, 2, 3 

* Flowers deep red or purple 4, 5, 6 

1 M. rotundifo'lia. Cheese M. Stem prostrate. Lvs. round-cordate. Fls. small. 

2 M. crispa. Crisp M. Stem erect, tall. Lvs. abundantly crisped and curled, f 
M. moscha'ta. Musk M. Sts. ascend. Lvs. deeply 5-part. Fls. large, showy, t 

4 M. sylves'tris. Wood M. Lvs. roundish, lobed. Petals obcordate. 

5 M. triangula'ta. Lvs. triangular-ovate. Petals wedge-obovate. N.-W. 

6 M.papaver. Poppy M. Lvs. palmately parted. Petals erase. Stalks very 

long. S.-W. 

Order 26. -THE LINDEXBLOOM3. 181 

3. HIBIS'CFS. Hibiscus. 
Calyx 5 -cleft, surrounded by a many-leaved involucel. Styles united, 
stigmas 5, distinct. Fruit a 5-celled, 5-many-seeded capsule. Flowers 
Urge, often nearly a foot broad. 

5 Of ■yx, &c, hispid. Leaves palraately divided 1, 2 

$ Ca.yx, &c, velvet-downy. Leaves undivided, angularly lobed 3, 4 

i Calyx, <fcc, glabrous, i, e., smooth a 

a Leaves deeply lobed or parted 5, 6 

a Leaves undivided or slightly lobed 7, 8 

1 H. aculea'tus. Prickly H. Bractlets of involucel forked. Fls. sulph-yellow. S. 

2 H. Trio'num. Flower-of-an-hour. Bractlets entire. Fls. chlorine-yellow, c. t 

3 H. Moscheu'tos. Marsh H. Lvs. ovate, toothed. Sepals abruptly pointed. 

Jiose-red. c. 

4 H. grandifio'rus. Giant II. Leaves cordate, lower 8-lobed. Sepals gradually 

pointed, p-r. S. 

5 H, milita'ris. Sicord H. Lvs. hastately 3-lobed. Flowers tubular-bell-shaped, 

flesh-color. "W. 

6 H. cocci'mus. Scarlet II. Lvs. paimately 5-parted. Cor. expanding, carmine-red. S 

7 H. Carol inia'nus, lost II. Heib. Lvs. cordate. Fls. purple. Very rare. S. 

5 H. Syri'acus. Tree H. Tree 8-1 5f Mgh. Lvs. wedge -ovate, w. p. i 

Order XXVI. TILIACEJS. Lindenblooms. 

Trees or shrubs with simple, stipulate, alternate, toothed leaves ; 
flowers perfect, axillary, with 4 or 5 sepals and petals ; 
stamens many, hypogynous, commonly united in sets ; 
pistils 3-10 united into 1, forming a dry or flesny fruit 

1. TIL'IA. Linden. Basswood. 

Sepals 5, valvate in bud, deciduous. Petals 5, oblong, obtuse. Stamens 

00 in 5 sets. Ovary 5-celled, but in fruit becoming 1-celled, 1-2-seeded. 
Large handsome trees with a tough bark, and soft wood. Flowers in 
small cymes, with the peduncle attached part way to the midveiu of a 
large bract. 

1 T. Europze'a. Linden or Lime-tree. Stamens slightly united and having no scales or 

staminodia (as in the next) ; leaves roundish, smooth. A fine shade-tree. 40f. 
I T Americana. Bassuood. Stamens having a petal-like scale, with each of their I 
sets opposite to the petals ; leaves broad-cordate, pointed, green both sides, often 
downy beneath ; style as long as the blunt petals. A fine tall fore6t-tree. Then* 
i* another species West. 



Order XXVII. CAMELLIACEiE. Teaworts. 

Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, feather-veined exstipulate leaves ; 
flowers regular, showy, with sepals and petals imbricated ; 
stamens very go , hypogynous, more or less united at their bases ; 
fruit a woody pod, 3-6-celled, few-seeded. 

* Exotics. Some of the inner stamens distinct and free Genus 1, 2 

* Natives of the South. Stamens all conjoined at base Genus 3. 4 

1 CAMEL'LIA Japonica. Japan Eose. The free stamens numerous (or transformed into 

petals). Leaves oval, pointed, serrate, thick, evergreen and shining Flowers 
white varying to red, single or double. Beautiful shrubs of the greenhouse. Native 
of Japan. 

2 THE A. Tea. The free stamens only 5 or 6. Sepals scarcely bracted at base. Petals 

5 or 6, very concave, white. Shrubs 4-9f. ; native of China. Leaves oblong to 
lanceolate, serrate, smooth and shining, and when cured or dried they form the 
various kinds of tea. 

3 STTJAR'TIA. These are beautiful shrubs, with large deciduous leaves, large showy 

fragrant flowers (2-3' broad), axillary, and nearly sessile. Stamens all united at 
base into 1 set. Styles 5, united or separate. 2 species. 
i G-ORDO'NIA. Loblolly Bay. Trees with large, white, axillary, stalked flowers. Leaves 
evergreen and shining ( in G. Lasianthus) or deciduous (in G. pubescens)^ oblong. 
Stamens united below into 5 sets. Va. to Fla. May-Aug. 

Order XXX. LESTACEiE. The Flaxworts. 

Fig. 418. Common Flax. Fig. 419. Plan, showing the posl 
tions of the parts of the flower, the imbricated sepals, the con 
torted sepals, the 5 stamens, and the 5 carpels. Fig. 420. Crim 
son Flax. 

Order 31.— GERANIA 183 

Herbs with entire, simple leaves and no stipules ; with 
flowers regular, symmetrical, perfect, and 5-parted ; 
calyx imbricate, and corolla convolute in the bud; 
stamens and styles each 5 ; capsule with 5 double-cells, 10-seedecL 
Our only genus is 

LI'NUM. Flax. 

The character is sufficiently indicated in the Order. The long, tough 
fibres of the bark constitute the linen of commerce. 

§ Flowers blue or red, large (1/ broad), . . . .Nos. 1-3 

§ Flowers yellow. Leaves linear. Sepals ciliate 4, 5 

§ Flowers yellow, Leaves lanceolate. Sepals entire 6-8 

1 L. usitatis'simum. Common F. Flowers blue, in a sort of corymb. Leaves 

lance-linear, acu*-*j. The seed yields linseed oil. Fields. 

2 L. peren'ne. Perennial F. Flowers blue, axillary and terminal. Leaves lin- 

ear, acute, scattered. Gardens. 

3 L. grandiflo'rum. Crimson F. Flowers crimson, axillary. Leaves lance-elliptic, 

acute, sessile. Gardens. 

4 L. rig'idum. Rigid F. Sepals longer than the globular pod. Styles united at base. 

5 L. simplex. Simple F. Sepals shorter than ovate pod. Styles distinct. S.-W. 

6 L. Virginia 'num. Stems and branches erect. Flowers 6" broad, c. 

7 L. difiVsum. Stems, branches, leaves diffuse. Flowers 2" broad. W. 

8 L. trig'ynum. Three-styled F. Flowers large (!') with 3 styles, t 

Order XXXI. GERANIA'CE^J. Gerania. 

Herbs or shrubby plants with the lower leaves opposite ; with the 
flowers regular or irregular, terminal or opposite the leaves ; with the 
sepals 5, persistent, and petals 5, clawed, twisted in the bud ; the 
stamens 10, monadelphous, and 'pistils 5, united; the carpels in 
fruit separating and bending upwards on the elastic style, each with one 
seed. Albumen 0. 

Analysis of the Genera 

{ Stamens 10, all of them perfect Geba'nium. 

( regular. ( Stamens 5 perfect, 5 imperfect Ero'dium. 

• orolla i irregular. Stamens 7 perfect, 3 imperfect Pelargo'nium. 


Sepals and petals 5, regular.- Stamens 10, all perfect. Fruit beaked. 



at last separating into 5, long-styled, 
1 -seeded carpels. Styles smooth in- 
side, finally curling from the base 
upward, but still adhering at top to 
the axis. — Herbs with forked stems, 
much divided leaves. Flowers 
nostly purple. 

Petals entire, twice as long as the 

awned sepals 1,2 

Petals notched or 2-lobed, short. 

Leaves palmately 5-7-lobed. Pods 

hairy ® 3, 4 

1 G. macula 'turn. Spotted G. Erect. Lvs. 

palmately 3-5-parted. Flowers large 
(1' broad), showy. Sepals mucro- 
nate. Spritig. c. 

2 G. Robertia'num. Herb Eohert. Dif- 

use, weak. Lvs. primately 3-parted s £^/ 
to the base. Flowers small (7" 
broad). Sepals mucronate. June. 

3 G. pusil'lum. Dwarf G. Diffuse. 

Sepals veinless. Leaves parted 
into 5-7 linear lobes, lobes 
3-cleft. Fields and hills. July. 

4 G. Carol *-nia 'num. Stems diffuse. Se- 

pals with an awn. Lvs. parted 
into 5 wedge-oblong, many-cleft 
lobes. Fields. July. 

Fig.^n. Herb Robert, leaves, flowers, and fruit; 3, fruit enlarged, showing one carpel on 
its elastic style; 4, cross-section of a seed, showing the large embryo filling the whole 
space ; 2, the 10 stamens. 

Observation. — The pupil will perceive by the table above, that the parlor u gem 
niums" belong to the genus Pelargo'nium. 

Order XXXII. OXALIDACE^. Wood Sorrels. 

x.ow herbs with a sour juice, and alternate, compound leaves; with 
flowers regular and symmetrical, 5-sepalcd and 6-petaled ; 



itamens 10, monadelphous, hypogynous, the alternate ones longest ; 
carpels 5, united and forming in fruit a 5-eelled pod ; seeds albuminous. 

OX'ALIS. Wood Sorrel. 

Sepals 5, distinct or united 
at base, persistent. Petals 
nuch longer than the sepals. 
Stamens united at the base. 
Styles 5. Capsule roundish or 
pod-shaped, cells several-seed- 
ed. Herbs mostly it, with 
trifoliate leaves. 

1 O. Acetosel'la. Wood Sorrel. Fls. 

white, with purple veins. Plant 
acaulescent, arising from a 
creeping root-stock, c. N. Ju. 

2 O. viola'cea. Violet W. Flowers 

violet-purple. Plant acaules- 
cent, arising from a scaly bulb. 
Scape with an umbel. May. 
8 O. stricta. Yellow W. Flowers 
yellow. Plant with leafy stems, 
weak, branched. Flowers urn- 
belled. Grows everywhere. 

Fig. 425. Oxalis Acetosella. In the plan of the flower, o, the 5 carpels in the centre 
s, the 10 stamens in two rows ; p, the 5 petals ; c, the 5 sepals. Fig. 426. The ripe pod. 

Order XXXIY. BALSAMINACE.E. The Jewel-weeds. 

Herbs annual, with a fleshy stem, watery juice, and simple leaves; 
flowers very irregular and unsymmetrical ; calyx spurred ; 
itamens 5, on the torus ; pod bursting by 5 elastic valves. 

IMPA'TIENS. Touch-me-not. 

Sepals colored, apparently but 4 (the 2 upper being united), the lowest 
(y) enlarged into a sac tipped with a bent spur. Petals 4, united into 2 
double ones (p, p). Stamens 5 'short, the anthers united over the pistil. 



Fruit a pod of 5 strong 
elastic valves which break 
and coil at the slightest 
touch when ripe, scatter- 
ing the seeds. Stem ten- 
der, thickened at the 
nodes. Leaves alternate. 

1 I. paTlida. Pale Jewel-weed. 

Lvs. oblong-ovate. Fls. 
pale yellow, sparingly 
dotted, with a very short, 
recurved spur. 

2 I. fulva. Tawny Jewel-weed, 

Leaves rhombic-ovate. 
Flowers deep orange, 
thickly spotted, with a long ciose-reflexed spur. 

3 I. Balsami'na. BaUamine. Leaves lanceolate. Flowers very large and showy, 

white, crimson, scarlet, flesh-colored, &c. + 

Fig. 428. Flower of the Palo Jewel- weed. Fig. 421). Jt? 
parts displayed : *, a, s, y, the four sepals, the latter spur- 
red ; p, p, the 2 petals, each double. 


Shrubs or trees, with a resinous or milky caustic juice ; 

leaves alternate, without stipules or pellucid 
dots ; 

flowers small, regular, pentandrous, com- 
monly imperfect. 

RHUS. Sumac. Poison Oak. 

Sepals, petals, and stamens each 5. Styles 
3 Fruit a small 1-seeded, roundish, dry 
drupe. Flowers greenish. 

| Leaves simple. Flowers perfect (or all abortive by 
cultivation)....Nos. 1, 2. 

| Leaves compound. Flowers polygamous (a) 

a Flowers in clustered spikes preceding the 

3-foliate leaves No. 3. 

a Flowers in axillary panicles with the 3-13-fo- 

liate leaves. Poisonous 4-6. 

a Flowers in terminal thyrses with the 9-31 fo- 
liage leaves (b> 

Fig. 429', Rhus venenata, leal 
and panicle. 2. A staminate flower. 
3. Section of a fertile flower. 

Order 40.— THE MAPLES. 187 

b Common petiole winged between the leaflets No. 7. 

b Common petiole not winged Nos. 8-10. 

} R Cot'inus. Venetian Sumac. Smoke Tree. Leaves obovate, entire, thick. Flowers 

mostly abortive, pedicels diffusely branched, hairy. Italy. 
I R. cotinoi'des. Leaves oval, obtuse, acute at base. Flowers minute. Mts. S. 

3 R. aromat'ica. Sweet S. A small aromatic shrub, 2-€f. Leaflets sessile, ovate 

Flowers yellowish. Drupes globular, woolly, red, sour. May. Not poison. 

4 R. venena'ta. Piison S. Dog-wood. Very smooth; leaflets 7-13, oval, pointed, ver* 

entire. Drupes greenish yellow, smooth. A small tree, 10-15f. high, in swamp? 
June. The most venomous of the species. (Fig. 429'.) 

5 R. toxicodendron. Poison Oak. Poison Ivy. Erect or declining, 2-3f. Leaflets 3, 

variously toothed or cut-lobed, downy. Drupes smooth. June. 

6 R. radi'cans. Climbing Ivy. JStems climbing trees, etc., by innumerable radiatiug 

tendrils. Leaflets ovate, smooth, entire. Reputed poisonous. June. 

7 R. copalli'na. Mountain Sumac. Shrub, l-6f. Leaflets 9-21. July. 

8 R. pu'mila. Creeping S. Leaflets 9-17, coarsely toothed. Poisonous. Carolina. 

9 R. typh'ina. Stag-horn S. Branches and petioles woolly. Leaflets 11-31, lance-ob- 

long, downy beneath. Drupes red, acid ; wood yellow. June. Shrub 10-20f. 

10 R. glabra. Smooth S. Smooth ; leaflets lanceolate, whitened beneath. Shrub 6-15f. 

high. Flowers in terminal, dense panicles, greenish red. Fruit clothed with crim- 
son fur which is excessively sour to the taste. Bark used in tanning. 

Order XL. ACERACEJE. The Maples. 

Trees or shrubs with opposite, usually simple palmate-veined leaves ; the 
flowers often imperfect, with the 5 sepals imbricated in the bud, and the 
petals 5, hypogynous, sometimes ; the stamens mostly 8, and the 
fruit a double samara, with two opposite wings, 2-seeded. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

Leaves simple, palmate-veined. Very common. Maple. Acer. 1 

Leaves compound, odd-pinnate. Leaflets 3-5, toothed. Box-Elder. Negundo. 

1. ACEE. Maple. 

Calyx of 5 united sepals, 5-lobed. Petals 5 or 0. Styles 2. Stamens 
6-8. Leaves simple, palmate-lobed. Flowers mostly polygamous. 

§ Pedicels short, in side clusters, flowering before the leaves. Trees. . . .1, 2 
§ Pedicels long, slender, drooping, flowering with the lvs. Large trees. . . .8,'= 
§ Pedicels in racemes, flowering after the leaves .... 5-7 
1 A. dasycar'pum. White M. Leaves deeply lobed, square at base, silver- white 
beneath. Ovaries downy. Fruit very large, Petals 0. Tree 50f. 



Fig. 430. Red Maple {Acer rubrum), a leaf and several samara. 
(Acer saccharinum), leaf, flowers, and fruit. 

Fig. 431. Sugar Maple 

2 A, rubrum. Bed M. Swamp M. Leaves lobed, cordate at base, paler beneatn 
Petals linear-oblong. Ovaries and fruit smooth. 40 to lOOf. Flowers red. 

3 A. sacchari'num. Rock Jf, Sugar M. Leaves cordate, 5-lobed, with deep, 

rounded openings between. Bark light gray. g-y. 

4 A. nigrum. Black M. Sugar-tree. Leaves cordate, with the sinus closed, 

roundish, with 3 broad, shallow lobes. Bark dark gray. y. 

5 A. spicatum. Mountain-Bush M. Bacemes erect, thyrse-like. Shrub 10-151 

high, in clumps. Bark gray. Leaves 3-5-lobed. g. 

6 A. Fennsylvan'icum. Striped if. Whistle-wood. Bacemes drooping. Tree srtia/J, 

with striped bark (green and black). Leaves 3-lobed. g. 
A. Fseudo-Plar'anus. Sycamore Jf. Bacemes long, drooping. A large tree, iu 
parks. Leaves 5-lobed, broad, rounded. Flowers green. 



Order XLI. SAPIXDACE.E. Indian Soapworts. 

Plants of various habit, mostly with unsyminetrical flowers; 
sepals and petals both imbricated in the bud ; 
stamens 5 to 10, inserted on a thick disk under the ovary ; 
fruit usually colored and showy, lobed, 1 or few-seeded. 

The Order includes the following three Tribes. 

Analysis of the Genera, 

§ 1. The Buckeye Tribe. Leaves opposite, carpels 2-ovaled a 

a Petals unequal. Stamens 7. Leaves digitate. Buckeye. JSs'culus. 1 

§ 2, The Soapberry Tribe. Leaves alternate. Carpels 1-ovuled b 

b Trees, with pinnate-leaves and fruit with soapy pulp, covering a 

large seed. Stamens 8-10. South. Soapwort. Sapin'dcs. 

b Herbs climbing with tendrils. Leaves biternate. Fruit a large, 

inflated, 3-carpeled pod. Balloon-vine. Cardiosper'mcm. 

§ 3. The Bladder-nut Tribe. Leaves opposite, pinnate. Staphyle'a.. S 



Fig 434. Branchlet of Bladder-nut, with 2 
ternate leaves and a hanging cyme. 435. The 
stamens and pistil enlarged. 436. A. flower •>* 
Ohio Buckeye. 

1. ^ES'CULUS. Buckeye. 

Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla of 4 or 5 unequal petals. Stamens 7, distinct, 
unequal. Style filiform. Ovary 3-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell, but 
only 1 of the 6 ovules grows, becoming a large seed. Flowers in terminal 


§ Fruit covered with prickles. Petals 4 or 5, spreading 1,2 

§ Fruit smooth. Petals 4, erect, 2 of them clawed 3-5 

1 JE. Hippocasta'neum. Horse Chestnut. Leaves of 7, obovate leaflets Petals 5 

Fruit prickly. Panicles large, handsome, f 

2 JE. glabra. Ohio Buckeye. Leaflets 5, oval or oblong. Petals 4. Tree ill 

scented. Flowers yellowish. Seed mahogany-color. W. 

3 .S. fla'va. Big Buckeye. A large tree, with pale-yellow flowers. Leaflets 5-7 

Petals very unequal, longer than stamens. W. 

4 JB Pa 'via. Red-fl<>wered B. Shrub 3-1 Of. Fls. large, red, in thyrse-lise racemes. 

Very handsome. S. + 

5 JB. parviflo'ra. White B. Shrub 2-3f. Petals 4, somewhat alike, spreading, 

thrice shorter than the stamens. S. 

2. STAPHYLE'A. Bladder-nut 
Flowers perfect. Sepals 5, colored like the 5 petals. Stamens 5. 
Styles 3. Capsules 2 or 3, with thin, inflated walls.— Shrubs. 

1. S. trifo'lia. Tern ate B. A handsome shrub, 6 8f. high. Leaves ternate, leaflets ovate. 
Racemes pendulous. Petals ciliate below. Fruit very large, 8-celled, inflated like a 

Order XLII. CELASTRACEjE. Staff-trees. 

Shrubs or small trees, with simple leaves ; 
flowers small, 4 or 5-parfced, with imbricated sepals and petals; 
stamens perigynous, alternate with the petals. Style 1 ; 
fruit 2-5-celled. Seeds enclosed in a fleshy aril. 

1 Staff-tree. Shrubs climbing and twining. Leaves alternate, oblong, 

acuminate, serrate. Capsule 3-valved. Seeds with a scarlet aril. Celas'trus. 

2 Burning Bush. Erect or trailing. Leaves opposite, serrate. Flowers 

perfect, greenish or purplish. Pods lobed, red ; arils scarlet. Euon'ymus. 

Order XLIII. RHAMEACEjE. Buckthorns. 

SJirubs or small trees, with simple mostly alternate leaves ; 

calyx valvate. Stamens opposite to the small petals, both perigynous. 

fruit 2-5-celled, cells each 1-seeded. — We have 4 genera. 

Buckthorn. Leaves alternate. Petals shorter than the calyx or none. 

Flowers axillary. Fruit blackish, drupe-like, seeds 2-4. Ruamnus. 

2 Jersey Tea. Leaves alternate. Petals longer than the calyx, clawed, 

white in our species. Flowers in dense terminal clusters. Ceano'thfs. 

8 Supple Jack. Leaves alternate. Petals not clawed. Flowers in small 

terminal panicles. Drupe purple. Shrub climbing, twining, Behchi mia. 

4 A slender trailing shrub with opposite leaves and spiked fls. South. Sagerk'tia 

Order XLIV. VITACJELE. Grapevines. 

Sh? K ubs climbing by tendrils ; flowers small, regular, clustered ; 
calyx minute, with scarcely any limb ; petals valvate, caducous ; 
stamens opposite to the petals, ovary 2-celled, berry 4-seeded. 

Fig. 436'. 
VITIS. Grapevines. 

§ True Vitis. Petals cohering at top and falling off without expanding. (Fig. 436'.} 

{ Cissus. Petal? free, expanding before falling. Tendrils coiling Nos. 6, 7, 8 

| AMrELOPSi«. Petals free, expanding. Tendrils with an adhesive foot No. 9 

a Leaves beneath clothed with a whitish or rusty wool Nos. 1, 2. 3 

a Leaves glabrous except tne veins, and green both sides Nos. 4, 5, 10 

1 V. labrus'ca. Fox £., Catawba^ Isabella. Berries large. pa!e-green, or amber. 

2 V. aestivalis. Summer £., Clinton G. Berries small, deep-blue. Clusters slender. 

3 V. Caribaea. Caribean G. Berries medium size (X inch). Downy all over. Florida. 

4 V. cordifo'lia. F?vst G. Clusters large, loose ; berries small, blackish, in Nov. 

5 V. vulpi'na. Mvscadine. Clusters small ; berries large. Leaves shining. S. 
6 V. indivi'sa. Leaves simple, angular or entire ; berry small (2'0. Swamps. S. 

T V. bipinna'ta. Leaves bipinnate, cut-serrate. Tendrils none, or few. Berries black. 
8 V. inci'sa. Leaves 3-foliate, thick, iobed ; berry 1-sceded. Florida to La. 

9 V. quinquifo'lia. Virginia Creeper. 
10 V. vinife'ra. European Wine-grape. 
Leaves not shining. Berries large, 
variable in £orm, size, and color. 

Leaves digitate, with 5 leaflets. 

CE^E. The Milkworts. 

Plants without stipules, bearing very 

irregular flowers ; 
stamens 4-8, diadelphous ; 
anthers opening at the top, 1 -celled ; 
fruit a flattened, 2-celled, 2-seeded 

capsule, free from the calyx. 

Fig. 437. Polygala polygama: or, the radical 
flowers; S, P. paucifolia; / the crest on the 
lower petal; 9, the stamens in 2 sets, and the 
style seen beneath the hooded lower petal. 

Fig. 440. The ovary and the style: 1, seed of 
P. sanguinea, with its 2-lobed caruncle; 2, seed 
of P. Nuttallii. 

POLYGALA. Milkwort. 
Sepals 5, persistent, 2 of them 
i wings) wing-shaped and colored- 


Petals 3, the lower one boat-shaped, and often tipped with a crest. Sta 
mens united by the filaments into a split sheath, or into 2 sets, cohering 
more or less with the claws of the petals. Fruit a small 2-celled, 2-seeded 
capsule, flattened on the sides and notched on the top. Seeds with an 
appendage at one end. — Low, bitter herbs (sometimes shrubs), with simple 
entire leaves, sometimes bearing underground flowers. ' K Fig. 437, a.) 

* Leaves al. alternate and scattered a 

* Leaves whorled, at least the lower ones e 

a Flowers purple, or reddish, or white b 

a Flowers yellow or yellowish green . . . .d 

b Flowers solitary or in racemes, purple. . . .Nos. 1-3 
b Flowers in spikes which are oblong or slender. . . .c 

c Leaves lanceolate, large, pointed at each end.... 4 

c Leaves linear, 1 to 2" wids .... 5-7 

c Leaves awl-shaped or bristle-shaped... .8-10 

d Spikes solitary, large, thick. Biennial 11, 12 

d Spikes numerous, corymbous, small. Biennial. . ..13, 14 

e Spikes acute, slender. . ..15, 16 

e Spikes obtuse, thick 17, 18 

1 P. paucifo'lia Showy M. Fls. 2 or 3, large (root fis. small). Lvs. ovate. {Fig. 438. 

2 P. grandiflo'ra. Fls. racemed, crestlcss. Lvs. lance-ovate. S. 

3 P. polyg'ama. Flowers racemed, crested. Lvs. linear-oblong. (Fig. 437.) 

4 P. Sen'ega. Seneca Snake-root. Fls. white, in slender spikes. Stem If. hiorh 

5 P. sanguin'ea. Bloody M. Spikes oblong, obtuse, dense. Wings sessile. 

6 P. fastigia'ta. Roofed AT. Spikes roundish, loose-flowered. Wings clawed. 

7 P. Nuttal'lii. NuttalVs M. Spikes roundish, acute, dense. Wings elliptic. 

8 P. incarna'ta. Flesh-colored M. Lvs. few, subulate. Pet. much longer than calyx. 

9 P. seta'cea. Naked M. Leaves very minute. Petals longer than calyx. S. 

10 P. Chapman'ii. Clutpmau's M. Lvs. subulate. Calyx long as petals. S. 
A P. lu'tea. Yelloio M. Tall (8-12'), with orange-yellow flowers. M. S. 

12 P. na'na. Dwarf M. Low (3-5'), with greenish-yellow flowers. S. 

13 P. cymo'sa. Cyme-flowered M. Lvs. mostly cauline. Seed not bracted. S 

14 P. ramo'sa. Branching M. Lvs. mostly radical. Seed bracted. S. 

15 P. verticilla'ta Whorled, Al. Lvs. linear. Wings roundish. Fls. greenish. W 

16 P. Boykin'i,, Boykin's M. Lvs. lance-obovate. Wings round- obovate. S. 

17 P. cracia'ta. Cross M. Spikes obtuse, thick, sessile. Wings pointed. 

18 P, brevifo'lia. ShM leaved M. Spikes obtuse, loose, stalked. Wings acuta 


Order XL VI. LEGUMINOS.E. Leguminous Plants. 

Plants with alternate, mostly compound stipulate leaves, with 

4-5 sepal* ; 5 petals, more or less papilionaceous, sometimes regular 



about 10 stamens, monadelphous, diadelphous, or distinct ; 
a single, simple pistil, producing a legume in fruit, and with 
no albumen in the seeds. 

Fig. 443. Flower of the Pea. Fig. 444. Its petals displayed; % the banner; a, a, the wlnys ' 
C c, the 2 keel petals. Fig. 445. A legume (pea-pod). 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Flowers papilionaceous (§ 89). Upper petal (banner) covering the rest in bud. . .2 

§ Flowers nearly regular, or upper petal covered by the rest in bud....t 

I Flowers regular, in dense heads. Petals valvate in bud. Leaves bipeianata . ..o 

2 Stamens 10, all distinct s 

% Stamens 10, all or 9 united 3 

3 Leaves cirrhous {Fig. 96), the rachis ending with a tendril.. ..r 

8 Leaves not cirrhous 4 

4 Pod a loment (§ 180), i. e., jointed between the seeds . . .0 
4 Pod a legume, 1, 2, or co seeded, not in joints.... 5 
5 Erect (or if prostrate, with palmately 3-foliate leaves)....? 
5 Trailing or twining vines, leaves pinnately compound.. . .0 

6 Flowers yellow q 

6 Flowers cyanic (not yellow) p 

7 Leaves simple, with yellow flowers o 

7 Leaves palmately 5-15-foliate (rarely simple) . .u 

7 Leaves palmately 3-foliate. . . .m 

7 Leaves pinnately 3- foliate.... k 

7 Leaves pinnate with no odd leaflet, 15-25 pairs. ..h 

7 Leaves pinnate with an odd leaflet 8 



8 Leaflets dotted with dark glands g 

8 Leaflets not dotted. Herbs f 

8 Leaflets not dotted. Shrubs or trees. . . .e 

9 Leaves pinnately 5-15-foliate d 

9 Leaves pinnately 3-(rarely 1-) foliate. Flowers yellow. . . .© 
9 Leaves pinnately 3-foliate. Flowers cyanic. . . . 10 

10 Calyx 4-toothed or entire b 

10 Calyx 5-toothed or 5-clef: a 

a Keel with the stamens and style spirally coiled. Bean. Phase'outs. I 

a Keel obtuse, on short claws. Fls. very large, blue. S. Blue Banner. Centrose'ma. 
a Keel acute, on long claws. Fls. very large, roseate. Butterfly Pea. Clito'ria. 
b Calyx 4-cleft, supported by 2 bractlets. Fls. purple. Milk-vine. Galac'tia. 
b Calyx 4-toothed, with 2 bractlets. Fls. purple. Sds. flattened. Doi/ichos. 
b Calyx 4-toothed, without bractlets. Fls. pale p. Hog-Peanut. Amphicarp.e' a. 
b Calyx entire. Flowers and seeds scarlet. S. Bed Bean. Erythri'na. 
c Legumes 5-seeded. S. Vig'na. 

c Legumes 1-2-seeded. S. Rhynco'sia. 

d Herbs. Keel (straight in Galactia, 2) spirally twisted. Pea-vine. Apios. 2 

d Shrubs. Keel curved. Fls. blu-e, in hanging racemes. + Wista'ria. 

e Flowers white or red, in racemes. Locust. Robin 'ia. 3 

e Flowers yellow, few in a cluster. Pods inflated. Bladder Senna. Colu'tea. 
t Pod 2-celled lengthwise, turgid. Milk Vetch. Astrag'alus. 

* Pod half-2-celled lengthwise. Bastard Vetch. Phaca. 

f Pod 1-celled. Style hairy outer side. Goals Rue. Tephro'sia. 

f Pod 1-celled. Style not hairy at all. S. Indigo. Lntugo'fera. 

g Shrubs. Fls. spicate, only 1 petal (the banner). W.S. Lead Plant. Amor'pha. 
g Herbs. Flowers with 10 stamens, bluish, spicate. W. Da'lea. 

g Herbs. Flowers with 5 stamens, white or red, capitate. W. Petaloste'mon. 
h Pod 1-2-seeded, valves double. Tall, with yellow flowers. S. Glotid'ii'm. 
h Pod many-seeded, very long. Tall, with yellowish flowers. S. Sesba'nia. 
k Pod few-seeded. Flowers scarlet in Erythri^a. 

k Pod few-seeded. Flowers white or yellow. Melilot. Melilo'tus. 4 

k Pod 1 -seeded. Flowers yellow. Leaves resinous-dotted in Rhyncosia. 
k Pod 1 -seeded. Flowers cyanic. Leaves dark-dotted. Psoua'lea. 

k Podl-seeded. Flowers cyanic. Leaves not dotted. Melilot. Melilo'tus. 4 
ra Herbs with curved or spiral pods. Medic. Medica'go. 11 

m Herbs with small 1-4-seeded pods not coiled. Clover. Trifo'licm. I 

m Tree with yellow flowers in hanging racemes, f Golden Chain. Laburnum 
n Stamens all united. Calyx 2-lipped. Lupine. LupiVt/s 6 

n Stamens all but 1 united. Calyx bill-shaped. Psora 'lea. 

© Shrubby. Keel oblong, straight. Scotch Broom. Genista. 

o Herbs. Keel curved, acuminate. Battle Pod. Crotala'ria. 

P Leaves pinnate, 5-21-foliate. Umbels stalked. Coronii/la. 

d Leaves pinnate, 5-21-foliate. Racemes stalked. Vt Hedys'arum 



p Lvs. pinn'ly 3-foL, stipellate. Pod 8-7 -jointed. Tick Trefoil. Desmo'dium. 

p Lvs. pinn'ly 3-fol. Stipels none. Pod 1 -jointed. Bu*h Trefoil. Lespede'za. 
q Leaves palmately 4-foliate. Stamens all united. Zor'nia. 

<1 Leaves pinnate, 7-49-foliate. Stamens 9 united. /Eschynom'ene. 

<1 Leaves pinnately 3-fol iate. Pod slender at base. Stylosax'thes. 

Q Leaves pinnately 4-foliate. £od gibbous at base. Peanut. Ar'achis. 

r Leaflets serrate. Pods 2-seeded. Chick- Pea. Cicer. 

r Leaflets entire. Style grooved outside, hairy inside. Pea. Pisum. 

r Leaflets entire. Style flattened, hairy most inside. Sweet Pea. Latii'yeus. 

r Leaflets entire. Style filiform, hairy most outside. Vetch. Vic'ia. 13 

a Pod legume flat and thin, short-stiped. Lvs. pinnate. Tree. S.W. Cladas'tris. 
s Pod inflated, stipulate (stalked at base). Lvs. 1-3-foliate, Baptis'ia. 9 

t Pis. perfect, purple, papilionaceous. Tree. Lvs. simple. Judas-tree. Cercis. 

t Fis. perfect, yellow. Lvs. equally pinnate. Senna. Cassia. 

t Fls. imperfect, green. Sta. 5. Trees thorny. Honey Locust. Gledits'chia. 

t Fls. imp., greenish. St. 10. Trees unarmed. Ky. Coffee-tree. Gymnoc'ladus. 
a Pods flat, jointed between the seeds. Shrubby. Sensitive Plant. Mimo'sa. 
a Pods prickly, 4-sided, 4-valved. Sensitive Brier. Schran'kia. 

u Pods smooth, turgid, filled with pulp. Tree. S. Sponge-tree. Vachei/lia. 
n Pods smooth, flat, dry. Petals distinct. Stam. 5-10. Herbs. Desman'thus. 
n Pods smooth, flat, dry. Petals united. Stam. 8-200. S. Julibrassin. Aca'cia. 



1. PHASE'OLUS. Bean, &c. 

Calyx 5-toojthed or cleft, the 2 
upper teeth half united. Keel in- 
cluding the stamens and style, and 
with them spirally coiled or twisted. 
Legume straight or curved, many- 
seeded. Seeds oblong, kidney- 
shaped. — Herbs twining or trailing. 
Leaves pinnately trifoliate, stipellate. 
June- Oct. 

* Native species, growing in fields and 

woods.. . a 

• Exotic species, growing only by culti- 

vation ,..,b 
a Flowers racemed. Pods curved.. 
a Flowers 1 or few in a head. P^ds straight. 

b Stems climbing 5-7 

b 8tems erect, bushy.... 8 

Fig. 446. Section of flower of the Boan 
showing the spirally coiled stamens ami style 
the simple ovary, &c. 




1 P, peren'nis. Perennial Wild-bean. Leaflets ovate, pointed. Eacemes in pairs. 4-7f. p 

2 P. diversifo'lius. Trailing W. Leaflets angular, 2-3-lobed. Peduncle longei 

than leaf. c. 

3 F. hel'volus. Long-stalked W. Leaflets lance-ovate, not lobed. Peduncle 3 4 

times longer than the leaf. M. S. 
4. P. pauciflo'rus. Few-flowered W, Leaflets linear-oblong, hairy. Peduncle longei 
than the leaf. W. 
ft F vulgaris. Common Garden-bean. Leaflets ovate, pointed. Racemes solitary, 

shorter than leaves. 
S P. multiflo'rus. Scarlet Pole-bean. Fls. scarlet, showy. Root tuberous. Pedicels opp. f 
7 P. luna'tus. Lima B. Flowers white. Lfts. ovate-deltoid, acute. Pods broad, large. 
8 P. na'nus. Bush-bean. Erect, bushy. Leaves broad-ovate, acute, f 

2. ATIOS. Ground-nut. 

Calyx bell-shaped, somewhat 2-lipped, the 2 side teeth nearly obsolete, 
the lower tooth longest. Keel incurved and at length coiled against the 
very broad, reflexed banner. Ovary sheathed at base. — Twining, smooth 
herbs. U Root bearing eatable tubers. Leaves pinnately 5-7-foliate. 

A. tubero'sa. Stem round, twining about other plants, 2-4f. in length. Leaflets 
mostly 7, narrow-ovate, more or less acuminate, on short stalks. Racemes 
axillary, solitary, dense-flowered, shorter than the leaves. Flowers dark pur- 
ple. The tubers on the root are oval, thick, and very nutritious. In thickets 
and shady woods. July, Aug. 

3. EOBIN'IA. Locust. 

Calyx short, bell-shaped, 5-cleft, the 2 upper divisions more or less 
anited. Banner large, wings obtuse. Stamens diadelphous (9 & 1). 
Style bearded inside. Legume flattened, long, many-seeded. — Trees and 
shrubs with stipular spines. Leaves unequally pinnate. Flowers showy, 
in axillary racemes. April, May. 

R. visco'sa. Clammy Locust-tree. Racemes rather compact, rose-white, erect. 

Branchlets and stalks sticky. Leaflets ovate. In parks. Native South. 
R Fseudaca'cia. Common Locust-tree. Racemes rather loose, drooping, white, 

fragrant. Leaflets oblong-ovate, smooth, as well as the branchlets. 
R. his'pida. Rose Acacia. Shrub 4-9f. high, hispid, with clusters of large, pu pi 

flowers. Leaflets 5 or 6 pairs, broadly oval. 

4. MELILO'TUS. Melilot. Sweet Clover. 
Calyx tubular, 5-toothed. Keel petals completely united, shorter than 
the others. Of the 10 stamens 9 are united, one separate. Pod 1 or few- 



Leaves pinnate .y trifoliate 

needed, longer than the permanent calyx. 
Flowers in racemes. 

1 M. ofiicina'lis. Yellow M. Leaflets obovate-oblong, obtuse, dentate. Calyx hall 

a? long as the yellow corolla. Pod 2-seeded. Stem 3f. 

2 M. alba. White M. Leaflets ovate-oblong, square at end. Calyx not half as long 

as the white corolla. Pod 2-seeded. Height 4-6 f. Very fragrant. 

5. TRIFO'LIUM. Clover. Trefoil. 

Calyx 5-cleft, with bristly teeth, persist- 
ent. Petals more or less united at the base, 
persistent and withering. Banner longer 
than the wings, which are also longer than 
the keel. Stamens 10, diadelphous (9 & 1). 
Legume short, membranous, often included 
in the calyx, 1-6-seeded, mostly indehis- 
cent. — Herbs with palmately trifoliate 
leaves. Leaflets straight- veined. Flowers 
in heads or spikes. Ajir.-Sept. 

* Flowers yellow, in small, dense, oval heads. 

Pod 1-seeded 1, 2 

" Flowers cyanic (not yellow) a 

a Flowers on little stalks (pedicels) and 

finally deflexed b 

a Flowers nearly or quite sessile, never de- 
flexed c 

b Heads small, on stalks some ten times longer 3, 4 

b Heads large, on stalks two or three times longer 5, 6 

c Calyx teeth feathery, longer than the whitish corolla. 

c Calyx teeth shorter than the purple or roseate corolla 

. T. procum'bens. Yellow C. Stipules much Shorter than the petioles. Style 3 or 

4 times shorter than the pod. Heads ovate, $ in. thick. Stems prostrate. May. 

% T. agra'rram. Larger Yellow G. Stipules longer than the petiole. Style about 

as long as the pod. Heads oblong, £ in. thick. Stems ascending. June, July. 

3 T. Carolinia'num. Southern C. Stipules leaf-like. Calyx teeth thrice longer 

than its tube. Legume 4-seeded. Scarcely forms a turf. W. S. 

4 T. repens. White C. Shamrock. Stipules narrow, scale-like. Calyx teeth 

shorter than its tube. Pod 4-seeded. Forms a dense turf. Fls. white, c. 
T. reflexnm. Buffalo C. Lflts. obovate. Calyx nearly as long as the red corolla. 
ft T. stoloni'ferum. Prairie C. Leaflets obcordate. Calyx not half as long as the 
white corolla. W. 

Fig, 447. Red Clover,— a head of 
flowers. Fig. 44S. A single flower. 
Fig. 449. A. pod, with a part of the 
calyx. Fig. 450. A seed, cut open. 
See also Fig. 37. 



7 T.aiven'se. Rabbit-foot C Heads cylindrical, very hairy. Lfts. narrow obovate 

8 T. praten'se. Bed C. Leaflets spotted, oval. Heads roundish, sessile. Flowers 

rose-red, or white, c. f (Figs. 447-456.) 

9'dium. Zigzag C. Lfts. oblong. Heads roundish, stalked. Fls. deep purple, r 

10 T incarna'tum. Rose Trefoil. Lfts. round-ovate. Heads oblong. Fls. rose-red. * 

6. LUPI'NUS. Lupine. 

Calyx deeply 2-lipped, upper lip 2-cleft, lower entire or 3-toothed. 
Wings united towards tlie top, keel acuminate. Stamens monadelphous, 
the filaments forming an entire sheath. Anthers alternately oblong and 
globose. Pod leathery and knotted. — Herbs, with leaves palmately 5-15- 
foliate, rarely simple. 

1 L. peren'ms. Common L. Root creeping, perennial. Stem erect, l-2f. high, 

hairy. Leaflets soft-downy, 7-11, oblanceolate, l£-2' long, broadest above 
the middle. Flowers alternate, in an erect, terminal raceme, blue, varying to 
white. It is often called Sun-dial, from the fact of its leaves turning to face 
the sun from morning till night. — Several other species are cultivated in 
gardens. May, June, (Fig. 66.) 

2 L. villo'sus. Mullein L. Stem erect, l-2f., terminating in a showy raceme. Leaves 

simple, clothed in a dense coat of silky wool as well as the stem. S. 

7. LESPEDE'ZA. Bush Clover. 

Calyx 5-parted, with 2 bractlets at base, the sepals nearly equal. Keel 
*ery obtuse, on slender claws. Stamens diadelphous (9 & 1). Legume 
..ens-shaped, small, flattened, unarmed, one-seeded, not opening. — U Leaves 
^innately trifoliate. Flowering in Aug., Sept. 

IF Flowers in dense spikes, whitish, with a purple spot on the banner....!, 2 
T[ Fls. racemed, &c, violet or purple. Some of the fls. with no corolla. . . .a 

a Stem prostrate, trailing, diffuse. Leaflets oval 3 

a Stem erect and mostly branched, l-3f. high 4, 5 

1 L. capita'ta. Head B. Leaflets elliptical, silky. Spikes shorter than leaves. 

Stem nearly simple, 2-4f. 

2 L. hirta. Hairy B. Leaflets roundish-oval. Spikes longer than leaves, 

Stem branching, very hairy. 
$ L. reps-is. Creeping B. Downy more or less, except the upper side of the leaves 
whi^h i* always smooth. Stems slender, many. 

4 L. viols/cc Violet B. Smoothish. Leaflets oval, varying tc Dblong and linear 

obtuse, icronate. Corolla S-4" long. Varies greatly. 

5 L. SteuVl. 'lant velvety or downy. Lfts. round'sh-obovate. Variable. 



8. PI'SUM. Pea. 

Calyx divisions leaf-like, 2 upper shortest. 
Banner large, renexed. Stamens 10, diadelphous 
(9 & 1). Style flattened, keel-shaped, bearded on 
the upper side. Legume oblong, tumid. Seeds 
globose. — Climbing herbs. Leaves pinnate, end- 
ing with a branching tendril. 

P satiVum. Common Garden Pea. Leaflets usually 4. 
ovate, entire. Stipules rather larger than the leaf- 
lets (2-3' long), ovate, half-cordate at base. Flow- 
ers 2 or more on axillary peduncles, large, white. 
Pods 2 or 8' long, 5-9-seeded. A very valuable 
leguminous plant, all over smooth and glaucous. 
There are many varieties. June. (Also, Fig. 443.) 

9. BAPTIS'IA. Wild Indigo. 

Calyx 4-5-cleft half way. Petals of about 
equal length, somewhat united. Banner roundish, 
notched at the end. Stamens 10, distinct, decid- 
uous. Pod inflated, many-seeded, raised on a 
stalk in the persistent calyx. — u Large herbs 
with leaves paimately 3-foliate or simple. Flowers in racemes, 
mostly oblong, broadest above. Apr. -Sept. 

§ Leaves simple. Flowers yellow. (3 species far South, omitted.) 

§ Leaves 3-foliate. . . .a Flowers blue, in a few long racemes 1 

a Flowers white, in a few long racemes b 

a Flowers yellow, solitary, or in short racemes c 

b Stipules leaf-like, longer than the petioles 2, 3 

b Stipules much shorter, or not longer than the petioles 4, 5 

c Flower-stalks not longer than the calyx 6, 7 

c Flower-stalks much longer than the calyx. S. Omitted. 
1 B. austra'lis. Austral W. Smooth. Lfts. obovate or oblong. Fls. large. W. S. f 

2 B. leucophae'a. Whitish W. Stipules large, ovate. Racemes nodding. W. 

3 B. villo'sa. Woolly W. Stipules small, lance-linear. Racemes erect. S. 
B. ieucantha. Stipules lance-linear, about as long as petioles. W. S. t 

B. alba. Stipules and bracts minute, early falling off. S. 

6 B. lanceola'ta. Leaflets narrow-elliptic. Flowers axillary. S. 

7 B tincto'ria. Leaflets small, round-obovate. Racemes terminal. Common. 

Fig. 451 Common Pea: 
«, the larsre stipules; p, the 
pod: / the flower; t, the 
tendrils on the end of the leat 

Leant us 


10. CAS'SIA. Senna. 
Sepals 5, scarcely united at base, nearly equal. Petals 5, unequal, but 
not papilionaceous. Stamens 10, distinct, 3 upper anthers often sterile, *S 
lower ones beaked. Legume long, many-seeded. — Leaves simply and 
abruptly pinnate, mostly with a gland on the petiole. Flowers yellow. 
July, Aug. 

IT Eacemes axillary. 3 of the anthers imperfect, 7 of them perfect 1, 8 

IT R acemes above the axils. Anthers all perfect. Stem l-2f. high. . . .4, 5 

1 O. obtusifo'lia. Blunt S. Leaflets 4-6, obtuse. Stem l-3f. high. S. 

2 0. occidentals. Western S. Leaflets 6-12, acute. Stem 4-6f. high. S. 

8 O. Marilan'dica. American S. Leaflets 12-18, mucronate. Stems 5f. high. 

4 O. Chamaecris'ta. Sensitive Pea. Anthers 10, unlike. Fls. large. Lfts. 16-24. 

5 C. nic'titans. Sensitive S. Anthers 5, alike. Fis. small. Leaflets 12-30. 

11. MEDIC A'GO. Medick. 

Calyx 5-cleft. Corolla deciduous. Banner free and remote from the 
keel. Legume variously curved, coiled or twisted. Leaves pinnately 
3-foliate, denticulate. From Europe. May-July. 

* Pods smooth, not spiny Nos. 1, 2, 3. 

* Pods spiny, spiral ; spines in a double row. Fls. yellow Nos. 4, 5, 6. 

1 M. sati'va. Lucerne. Smooth, erect. Fls. purple, large. Pods spiral. 

2 M. lupuli'na. None-such. Downy, prostrate. Fls. yellow. Pod reniform. 

3 M. scutella'ta. Snails. Fls. yellow. Pod coikd like a snail-shell. 

4 M. denticula'ta. Leaflets obovate. Stip. bristly, gashed. Pod loose-coiled. 

5 M. macula'ta. Leaflets obcordate, with a purple spot. Pod close-coiled. 

6 M. intertexta. Hedge-hog. Leaflets rhombic. Stipules gashed. Spines close. 

12. LATH'YRUS. Vetchling, 

Calyx lobes short. Style flat, bent, widened laterally above, bearded 
along the inner side (next the free stamen). Pod oblong, several-seeded. 
Trailing or climbing. Leaves equally pinnate, produced into tendrils. 
Peduncles axillary. 

* Leaflets a single pair. Garden species, from Europe Nos. 1, 2. 

* Leaflets commonly 3-pairs Nos. 3, 4, 5. 

* Leaflets commonly 5-pairs. Peduncle many-flowered Nos. 6, 7. 

1 L. latifo'lius. Everlasting Pea. Stem winged. Flowers large, pink, many <s« eacb 

long peduncle. A variety has white flowers, il 

2 L cdora'tus. Sweet Pea. Peduncle 2-flowered, flowers red and white. 

3 L. ochroleu'cus. Flowers cream- white, 7-10. Stipules half-cordate. 

4 L. palus'tris. Flowers blue-purple, 2 or 3. Stipules half-sagittate. 

5 L. myrtifo'lius. Flowers pale-purple, 5 together. Stipules ovate, entire. 

Order 47.— ROSEWORTS. 


6 L. mari'timus. Beach Pea. Stipules large, half-hastate. Shores. 

7 L. veno'sus. Stipules small, half-sagitiate. Purple. Shady banks. 

13. VIC'IA. Vetch. 
Style filiform, bent, bearded all around at the upper end beneath Iho 
etigma. Pods 2-oo - seeded. Seeds round. Leaflets ending in a tendril. 

* Peduncle 1-2 flowered, shorter (in flower) than the leaves... .Nos. 1, 2. 

* Peduncle 4-8-flowered. Stipules deeply toothed. Leaflets 10-14. . .No. 3. 

* Peduncle 3-20-flowered. Stipules entire, small. Flowers bluish.... Nos. 4, 5, 6. 

i V. sati'va. Vetch, Tares. Leaflets 10-14, notched at end. Flowers purple, large 
i V. tetrasper'ma. Four-seeded Y. Leaflets 8-12, obtuse. Fls. whitish. Pod 4-seeded 
3 V. America'na. Leaflets very obtuse. Flowers purplish, 8 or 9" long. 

4 V. Garolinia'na. Leaflets 12-16, linear-oblong, obtuse. Flowers small, scattered. 

5 V. Oracca. Downy. Leaflets 20-24, acute, mucronate. Flowers small, close 
(i V. hirsu'ta. Hairy. Leaflets 12-16, truncate. Pods hairy, 2-seeded. 

Order XLYII. ROSACEJE. Roseworts. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs with stipules mostly, and alternate leaves ; witn 
flowers regular, commonly showy, perfect, and polyandrous ; with 
5 sepals united at base, often supported by as many bractlets outside ; 
5 petals (rarely 0), which are perigynous as well as the stamens ; 
1 -oo pistils, which are distinct, or sometimes united and adhering to the 
calyx tube ; fruit various ; seeds with no albumen. 




Fig. 452. Flowers of the Great Red Cherry : fc, section, 
showing the perigynous stamens, the single ovary, &c. 
Fig. 453. Section of the cherry, showing the seed lying 
in the stone and pulp. Fig. 454. Section of the flower of 
Lady's-mantle (Class Book, p. 325), with the simple 
ovary, lateral style, &c. Fig. 455. A flower of Strawberry. Fig. 456. 
6howing the perigynous stamens, the many simple pistils on the large torus. 
of a Eose, showing tho many simple pistils sunk in the hollow torus, &c 

A section of the same 
Fig. 457. Section 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Flowers with 1 pistil and no petals. Herbs. . . .a 

§ Flowers with 1 pistil and 5 petals. Shrubs or trees. . . .2 

§ Flowers with 2 — co pistils 3 

2 Style lateral, i. e., arising from the side of the ovary. . . . o 
2 Style terminal, i. e., arising from the top of the ovary c 

8 Pistils (carpels) 2-5, all consolidated with the calyx. Fruit a pome. . . .d 

3 Pistils (carpels) 2-50, free, in an open or closed calyx. . . .4 

4 Carpels 1-seeded, achenia inclosed in the calyx tube e 

4 Carpels 1-seeded, achenia dry or pulpy in an open calyx.... 5 
4 Carpels several-seeded, pods in an open calyx. . . .k 

5 Styles persistent on the dry achenia f 

5 Styles falling off' with the rest of the flower 6 

6 Calyx entirely bractless. Flowers never yellow. . . ,g 
6 Calyx with bractlets beneath it as if double. .. . .h 

a Stamens 1-4. Style lateral. Fls. scattered. Lady's-mantle. Alchemii/la. 

a Stamens 4. Style terminal. Fls. in dense spikes. Burnet. Sanguisor'ba. 

a Stamens oo. Style terminal. Flowers in spikes. Burnet. Pote'rium. 

b Stamens about 20. Drupe 1-seeded. S. Cocoa Plum. Chrysobala'nus. 

c Stone globular, smooth. Fruit not glaucous. Cherry. Cer'asus. 1 

c Stone flattened, smooth. Fruit glaucous or downy. Plum. Pru'nus. 

8 Stone roughened with pits and furrows. Fruit pulpy. Peach. Per'sioa. 

£ Stone roughened with pits and furrows. Fruit dry. Almond. Amyg'dalus. 
d Petals spat.-oblong. Pome with 5 dble.-cells. Shad-bush. Amelan'ciiier. 2 
d Petals roundish. Pome with bony, 1-seeded cells. Thorn. Crat^'gus. 
d Petals roundish. Pome with thin, 2-seeded cells. Apple. Pyrus. 8 

d Petals roundish. Pome with 5, many- seeded cells. Quince. Cydo'nia. 4 

Order 47.— ROSE WORTS. 203 

e Carpel* many, in the fleshy calyx. Flowers often double. Bose. Rosa. 5 

e Carpels 2 only, in the dry, fluted, prickly calyx. Agrimony. Agrmo'nia. 

f Petals and sepals 8 or 9. A small, rare plant on mountains Dr^tas. 

f Petals and sepals 5. Achenia numerous. Avens. Geum. 6 

g Sepals equal. Fruit a heap of pulpy achenia. Fls. cyanic. 'Bramble. Rubus. 7 
g Sepals unequal. Stems creeping. Flowers white. False Violet. Dalibar'da. S 

b Torus small, dry. Flowers yellow. Bractlets minute or 0. Waldstei'nia. 9 

h Torus small, dry. Fls. mostly yellow. Bractlets large. 

Cinque/oil. Potextil'la. 10 

h Torus becoming very large and juicy in fruit. Strawberry. Fraga'ria. 11 

h Torus becoming large and spongy. Fls. purple. Lvs. pinnate. Com'arum. 
k Petals obovate, not yellow. Stamens very long. Steeple-bush. Spir^e'a. 12 

k Petals lance-linear, not yellow. Stamens very short. Indian Physic. Gille'nia. 
k Petals multiplied, orange-yellow. Pods 1-seeded. Shrubs. 

Guelder Eose. Ker'ria. 

1. CER'ASUS. Cherry. 

Calyx 5 -cleft, regular, deciduous. Petals 5, much spreading. Stamens 
15-30. Ovary with 2 ovules. Drupe globular, very smooth, destitute 
o f a glaucous bloom. Stone also globular and smooth. — Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves folded in the bud. Flowers early, white. May. (Fig. 452.) 

§ Leaves evergreen, leathery, entire 1 

§ Leaves deciduous, thin a 

a Flowers in umbel-like clusters from side buds. Drupes red. . . .b 

a Flowers in racemes leafy at base. Cherries black or blackish 2, 3 

b Shrubs or trees growing wild, native. . . .4, 5 

b Trees cultivated, not native 6, 7 

I C. Carolinia'na. Cherry Laurel. Flowers in dense, short racemes. Fruit black, 
poisonous. Splendid in cultivation. 

2 C. sero'tina. Wild Black 0. Trees with lance-oblong, blunt- toothed leaves. 

3 C. Virginia r na. Choke U. Shrubs with oval-obovate, slender-toothed leaves. 

4 C. pum'ila. Sand C. Shrubs trailing, with lance-obovate, acute lvs. Fr. egg-shaped. 

5 C. Pennsylvan'ica. Wild lied C. Trees. Lvs. oblong-ovate, acuminate. Fr. roundish. 

6 0. A'vium. Oxheart C Leaves oblong-ovate, acuminate, hairy beneath. 

7 C vulga'ris. Great Red C. Leaves lance-ovate, acute, narrowed to base. 

2, AMELAN'OHIER. June-berry. 

Calyx 5-cleft. Petals 5, oblong-ovate and oblanceolate. Stamens short 
Styles 5, somewhat united at base. Pome 5-celled, cells cartilaginous, 
each nearly divided into two 1-seeded divisions. — Small trees or shrubs 
with simple, serrate leaves, and white early flowers in racemes. 


A. Canadensis. Shad-berry. June-berry. A small tree or shrub found in woods, 
with a dark-grayish bark. Flowers large white, in racemes at the ends of the 
branches, appearing in April and May, while the forests are yet naked. Fruit 
round, purplish, well-tiavored, ripe in June. The plant is very variable in size, 
and in the leaves, &c. 

3. PY'KUS. Pear. Apple. 

Calyx urn-shaped, limb 5-cleft. Petals 5, roundish. Stamens 00. Styles 
9 5. Pome fleshy or berry-like, containing 2-5 cartilaginous (thin and 
elastic) carpels, each with 2 seeds.— Trees or shrubs. Leaves simple or 
pinnate. Flowers showy, white or rose-colored, in cyme-like umbels. 
May, June. 

§ Leaves pinnate. Fruit as large as peas, scarlet when ripe 6, 7 

§ Leaves simple a 

a Wild shrubs, 5-8f. high. Flowers small, in compound clusters 5 

a Trees wild or cultivated. Flowers large, in simple clusters b 

b Flowers white. Pome bell-shaped, acute at base 1 

b Flowers rose- white. Pome with a pit at base. . . .2-4 
1 P. commu'nis. Pear. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Styles 5, distinct, f (Fig. 280.) 

2 P. malus. Apple. Leaves ovate, not lobed, the veinlets incurved. (Fig. 183.* 

3 P. corona / ria. American Crab. Leaves ovate, often lobed, cut-serrate, straight 

veined. (Fig. 454.) 

4 P. angustifo'lia. Narrow-leaved C. Leaves lanceolate, scarcely veiny. 

5 P. arbutifo'lia. Choke-berry. Leaves obovate or oval, with glands on mid-vein. 

6 P. America 'na. Mountain- Ash. Leaflets 13-15, lanceolate, pointed. 

7 P. Aucupa'ria. English M. Leaflets lance- ovate, acute. Fruit larger. 

4. CYDO'NIA. Quince. 

Calyx urn-shaped, 5-cleft. Petals 5. Styles 5. Stamens many. Pome 
with 5 parchment-like cells, each with several seeds.— Shrubs. Leaves 
simple. Flowers solitary or few in a cluster. 

1 O. vulga'ris. Common Quince. Leaves downy beneath, broadly ovate, acute, en- 
tire, with small, half-ovate stipules. Flowers roseate, solitary terminal. Fruit 
large, obovate, highly esteemed in preserves, &c. (Fig. 1 ) 
O. Japon'ica. Japan Quince. Leaves glabrous, ovate- lanceolate, acute at eacfe 
end, serrulate. Stipules reniform. Flowers red, side clusters, opening early. 

5. KO'SA. Rose. 

Calyx tube urn-shaped, fleshy, contracted at the throat, limb 5-cleft 
*ie sepals generally with a little leaf at tip Petals 5 (greatly multiplied 

Order 47 — ROSE WORTS. 205 

by culture); achenia oc, bony, hispid, included in and attached to the in 
side of the fleshy calyx-tube,— Shrubby and prickly plants. Leaves on- 
oqually pinnate. Stipules attached to the petiole, or often free. 

In the table, the first ten species are found growing wild in this country, and 
Sometimes also cultivated. The other species never grow wild here. 

Styles growing together into an inserted column. Climbers h 

f Styles not cohering into a column a 

a Stipules nearly free from the petiole and falling off g 

a Stipules adhering to the petiole b 

b Plant armed with curved or hooked prickles, erect d 

b Plant armed with straight prickles c 

c Wild, native "Roses, 1-3 f., erect.... 5-7 
c Cultivated exotics climbing (No. 20) or erect.. . .21-28 
d Leaflets glandular and fragrant beneath. . . .f 
d Leaflets not at all glandular. Shrubs erect. . . .e 

e Wild, native Rose, flowers single 8 

e Cultivated exotics, mostly double-flowered 13, 14 

f Flowers single. Wild 9, 10 

f Flowers double. Exotic, cultivated. . . .15-17 
g Leaflets 5-9. Flower-stalk enveloped in bracts. . . .4 
g Leaflets 3-5. Flower-stalk bractless, very smooth.... 2, 19 

h Leaflets 3-5, mostly 3. Native and cultivated 1 

h Leaflets 5-9 k Stipules and sepals mostly entire 11,12 

k Stipules fringed, sepals entire 3 

k Stipules entire, sepals pinnatifid 18 

1 R. setig'era. Michigan R. Flowers in corymbs, rose- colored, changeable. W. j 
2 R. laevigata. Cherokee R. Lfts. very smooth, ellip. Fls. solit., white. S. -f 

8 R. multiflo'ra. Japan R. Lfts. soft, wrinkled. Fls. corymbed, double. S. t 

4 R. bractea'ta. Macartney R. Fls. solitary, with large bracts beneath it. S.-W. "I 

5 R. lu'cida. Shining R. Lfts. 5-9, elliptic, shining. Prickles few. Calyx hispid. 

6 R. nit'ida. Wild R. Leaflets 5-9, narrow-lance, shining. Prickles numerous. 

7 R. blanda. Bland R. Lfts 5-7, oblong, dull. Prickles verj tew. Calyx smooth 

8 R. Caroli'na. Swamp R. Stems 4-7 f. high. Flowers in ccrymbs. Dull green. 

9 R. rubigino / sa. Sweet Brier. Sepals persistent. Some of the prickles awl-shaped. 

10 R. micran'tha. Eglantine. Sepals deciduous. All the prickles hooked alike. Fla. 


11 R. sempervi 'rens, Evergreen R. Prickles alike. Lfts. evergreen, leathery. 

12 R. arven'sis. Ayrshire R. Prickles unlike. Lfts. soft, deciduous, f 
18 R cinnamo'mea. Cinnamon R. Stipules broad, pointed, involute, wavy, f 

14 R cani'na. Dog R. Stipules broad, serrulate. Sepals fail off after flowering. \ 
IE R. centifc/liEi. Cabbage R. Moss R. Sepal& <sp*e?xl in flower, often verv 
glandular, t 


1€ R. damasce'na. Damask R. Monthly R. Sepals reflexed in flower. Flowers 
very double, t 

17 R. alba. White R. Sepals pinnatifid, spreading. Fls. corymbed, large. | 
18 R. moscha'ta. Musk R. Leaflets lanceolate, pointed. Fls. panicled, large, white. \ 

19 R. In'dica. Chinese Monthly. Bengal R. Tea Rose, &c. Lfts. ovate, pointed, f 
90 R Alpi'na. Boursault R. Lfts. 5-11, obovate, sliarp-serrate. Stipules narrow, t 

21 R. eglante'ria. Yellow Rose. Lfts. broad-oval. Petals obcordate, fugacious. J 

22 R. G-ariica. French R. Leaflets elliptical. Petals large, spreading, f 
2S R. Pimpinellifo'lia. Burnet R. Lfts. small, roundish. Flowers small, r 

6. GE'UM. Avens. 

Calyx 5-cleft, usually with 5 alternate bractlets outside. Petals 5. 
Stamens many, collected on a dry receptacle, and bearing the long, per- 
sistent style. — U Leaves pinnate or lyrate. 

§ Style bent and jointed near the middle a 

§ Style straight and not jointed, wholly persistent. Rare plants. . . . 6, 7 

a Head of fruits quite sessile, with the styles finally hooked b, 1 

a Head of fruits stalked in the calyx more or less 4, 5 

b Petals yellow, longer than the calyx 2, 3 

1 G-. Virginia 'num. Petals white, as long as the calyx. Receptacle hairy. 
2 G-. macrophyl'lum. Mountain A. Lvs. ending with a very large roundish leaflet* 
8 G-. stric'tum. Yellow A. The end leaflet but little larger than the rest. Height 3-5f 

4 G-. vernum. Head-stalk A. Petals yellow, small. Stalk as long as head. W. 

5 G-. riva'le. Water A. Whole flower dark purple, large, nodding. 

6 Gr. triflo'rum. Bractlets longer than the calyx or purplish petals. Fls. 3. W. 

7 Q. Feck'ii. Peck'' 8 A. Bractlets minute. Pet. yellow. Stem almost leafless. Mts. 

7. RU'BUS. Bramble. Blackberries and Raspberries. 

Calyx 5-parted, without bractlets. Petals 5, deciduous. Stamens go . 
Ovaries many, becoming many pulpy, drupe-like achenia (grains) united 
into a compound fruit. — Half-shrubby plants with U roots and @ stems, 
armed with prickles. Flowers mostly white. In the Blackberries the 
pulpy receptacle constitutes a part of the fruit, but in the Raspberries it 
does not. 

* Leaves simple, 3-5-lobed. Flowers large.... 1-3 

* Leaves compound, of 3-7 leaflets a 

« Stems stout, upright, often recurved at top. . . .b 
« Stems weak, trailing or prostrate 7 

b The side leaflets stalked. Prickles strong, recurved.. ..S 
b The side leaflets sessile. Prickles weak, nearly straight.... 4 

Order. 47.— KOSEWORTS. 20? 


1 R. odora'tns, Rose Flowering. Petals round, purple. Stalks hairy-clammy. 

2 R. Nutka'nus. White- flowering. Petals broad-oval, white. Fls. several. £'.-W. 

3 R Chamaemo'nis. Cloud-berry. Petals obovate, white. Flower only one. Mts. 

4 Petals as long or longer than the calyx 5, 6 

4 R. Idaeus. Garden Raspberry. Petals shorter than the calyx. 

5 R strigo'sus. Wild Red Raspberry. Corolla cup-shaped, single. 

$ R rosaefo'lius. Bridal Rose. Corolla spreading, double. Cultivated. 

7 Stems prickly, shrubby, biennial. Fruit of many grains 11 

7 R. triflo'rus. Stems entirely unarmed, green, Fruit of few grains. 

8 R. occidentals. Thimble-berry. PI. glaucous. Petals shorter than sepals. Fr. darK 

8 Plants not glaucous. Petals much longer than the sepals. . . .9, 10 

9 R. villo'sus. High Blackberry. Flowers in racemes. Leaflets ovate. 

10 R. cuneifo'lius. Sand Bl. Fls. 1-3 together. Lfts. wedge-obovate. M. S. 
11 Prickles many. Flower-stalks without leaves or bracts 12, 13 

11 R. Canadensis. Dewberry. Prickles few. Flower-stalks with leafy bracts. 

12 R. his'pidus. Hispid, Running Bl. Flowers small, with spreading sepals. 

13 R. trivia 'lis. Low Bush Bl. F^wers large, with reflexed sepals. S. 

8. DALIBAB'PA. False Violet. 

Calyx deeply 5 or 6-parted, 3 of the segments larger. Petals 5. Sta- 
mens many. Styles 5-8, long, deciduous. Fruit 6-8 dryish, drupe-like 
achenia. — U Low herbs with creeping stems, simple leaves and 1-2 white 
flowers on each stalk. North. 

D. re'pens. Creeping F. Found in damp woods. Creeping stems a few inches to a 
foot in length. Leaves roundish- cordate, crenate. Stipules very narrow-linear. 
Petioles 1-3' long. Scapes 1-flowered, about as long as the petioles. June. 

9. WALDSTEHSTIA. Dry Strawberry. 

Calyx 5-cleft, with 5 alternate, sometimes minute and deciduous bract- 
lets. Petals 5 or more, sessile. Stamens many. Styles 2-6. Achenia 
few, dry, on a dry receptacle. — U Acaulescent herbs with lobed or divid- 
ed radical leaves and yellow flowers on scapes. 

W. fragarioi'des. A pretty plant, in hilly woods, bearing some resemblance to th* 
strawberry. Root-stock thick, scaly, blackish. Leaves trifoliate, on pet-ole* 
3-6' long ; leaflets broad-wedge-shaped, cut-toothed, of a shining green above 
Scapes about as high as the leaves, bearing 2-6 flowers, which arc k' across. 

W. loba'ta. Lobed D. Along rivers, -&c. Leaves simple, roundish-cordate, geuei 
ally 3-5-lobed, &c. April, June. S. 


10. POTESTTIL'LA. Cinquefoil. 

Calyx deeply 4-5-cleft, with an equal number of alternate bractlets 
outside. Petals 4-5, obcordate. Stamens <x> . Achenia oo , collected in 
a bead on a small, dry receptacle. — Herbs or shrubs with compound leave? 
and (mostly) yellow flowers. (Figs. 76, 77.) 

* Leaves palmately compound ... a 

* Leaves pinnately compound 6-8 

a Leaflets 3 only in each leaf 1 

a Leaflets 5. Stems prostrate or inclining. . . .4, 5 

1 Flowers yellow. Stems herbaceous 2, 3 

1 P. tridenta'ta. Trident C. Fls. white. Lfts. wedge-obov., 3-toothedat end. N. 

2 P. Norve'gica. Norway C. Erect, many-flowered. Petals short. N. M. 

3 P. min'ima. Tiny C. Low. Stems 1-flowered. Pet. longer than sepals. Mtb 

4 P. Canadensis. Canada C. Leaflets green both sides, serrate, oblong. 

5 P. argen'tea. Silver G. Leaflets silvery-white beneath, pinnatifid. 

6 P. frutico'sa. Shrubby C. Erect, shrubs with yellow flowers, sleight l-2f. N. 

7 P. Anseri'na. Goose-grass. Stemless herbs. Leaves and peduncles radical. 

8 Herbs with leafy stems. (3 rare species omitted.) 

11. FRAGA'KIA. Strawberry. 

Calyx deeply 5-cleft, witb an equal number of alternate bractlets out- 
side. Petals 5, obcordate. Stamens oo . Achenia many, fixed to tbe 
surface of the large, conical, pulpy, scarlet or white receptacle. — Low if 
plants witb trifoliate leaves. (Figs. 265, 455, 456.) 

1 F. Virginia'na. Common S. Bractlets under the calyx entire. Flowers white, on 
scapes. Root-stock sending out runners which take root and form new plants. 

2 F. In / dica. Indian Strawberry. Bractlets under the calyx 3-lobed. Petals yellow. 
Stems trailing on the ground. Fruit roundish, bright red, tasteless. S. f (272.) 

12. SPIRiE'A. Meadow-sweet. Hard-hack. 

Calyx 5-cleft, persistent. Petals 5, roundish. Stamens 10-50, exserted. 
Carpels distinct, 3-12, forming little 1 -celled, several-seeded pods. Styles 
terminal. — U Beautiful, unarmed herbs or shrubs with alternate leaves 
and branches, and small white or rose-colored flowers. May, Aug. 

* Shrubs 4-9 f. high.... a 

* Herbs with the leaves once cr thrice pinnate ... .7 
o Stipules present.... 1, 2 
a Stipules none. Leaves simple and undivided . . .b 

Order 51.— LOOSESTRIFES. 209 

b Flowers in panicles. Leaves lance-ovate 3, 4 

b Flowers in corymbs or little umbels. Leaves oval or ovate. . . .5, 6 

1 S. opulifo'lia. Nine-bark. Leaves simple, 3-lobed. Corymbs umbellate. N. 

•? S. sorbifo'lia. Sorb-leaved M. Leaves odd-pinnate. Flowers in panicles. 

3 S. tomento'sa. Hard-hack. Lvs. with a rusty white dense wool beneath. 

4 S. salicifo'lia. Willow-leaved. Lvs. nearly smooth. Shrub 3 or 4f. high. 
5 S corymbo'sa. Corymb very large, terminal, flat-topped. Height l-2f. S. 

ft S. hTpericefo'lia. St. Peters Wreath. Little umbels many, lateral. Cultivated. 
7 Leaves once-pinnate. Inflorescence terminal, on a long stalk.... 8, 9, 10 
7 S. Arun'cus. Goaf s Beard. Lvs. thrice-pinnate. Fls. in slender spikes. M 

3 S. loba'ta. Queen of the P r air le. Flowers purple. Side leaflets 3-lobed. W. 

9 S. fllipen'dula. Dropwort. Fls. white. Lfts. pinnatifid-serrate. Gardens. 

10 S Ulraa'ria. Meadow-sweet. Flowers white. Lfts. doubly-serrate. Gardens. 

Order L. MELASTOMACEJ2. Melastoines. 

Plants with square branches, and opposite, simple, 3-7-veined leaves ; 
floicers with adherent calyx tube, twisted petals, and definite stamens. 
anthers opening by terminal pores. Fruit a capsule or berry. 

RHEXTA. Deer-grass. 

Perennial herbs, with showy flowers. Leaves 3-5-veined. Calyx tube 
prolonged and u arrowed above the ovary, 4-cleft. Petals 4. Anthers b, 
1-celled. Style declined. Capsule 4-celled, oo - seeded. 

* Anthers curved, linear, appendaged at base. Flowers purple (a) 

* Anthers straight, oblong, not appendaged. Maryland to Fla Nos. 5-7. 

a Stem square, winged. Lvs. ovate to lanceolate, bristly-serrate Nos. 1, 2. 

a Stem terete or teretish. Leaves lanceolate to linear Nos. 3, 4. 

1 R. Virgin'ica. Meadow E*auty. Plant 12-18' high, with scattered hairs, sessile leaves 

and a large cyme of bright purple flowers. Wet grounds. 

2 B. stricta. Plant 3-^tf. higb, smooth, calyx smooth, tube very short. S. 

3 R. Maria'na. Hairy. Leaves on short petioles, bristly-serrate. l-2f. 

4 R. glabella. Glabrous. Leaves sessile. Calyx hispid. Damp woods. S. 
5 R. cilio'sa. Leaves broad-ovate, bristly ciliate. Petals purple. Sonm. 

l> R. serrula'ta. Leaves small, round-oval, serrulate-ciliate. Flowers purple. S. 
1 R. lu'tea. Leaves oblong-linear. Flowers panicled, yellow. Woods. S. 

Order LI. LYTHEACE^. Loosestrifes. 

Plants with entire, exstipulate, mostly opposite leaves; 

calyx tubular, bearing the 4-7 petals and 4-go stamens on its throat 

ovary and style compound. Fruit a capsule, or fleshy ; many-seeded 



§ Shrube, with alternate leaves, oo stamens, and 6 purple, crisped 

petals on claws. Lvs.round-ovate. smooth. E.India. Crape Myrtle. Lagerstr<e'mla, 

§ Shrubs, with opposite, oblong, shining leaves, oo stamens, and an ad- 
herent calyx tube. Flowers scarlet. Fruit crimson. Pomegranate. 

| IT ?rbs gro wing wild . S tamens 4-14 (a) 

a Flowers irregular. Calyx inflated, gibbous at the base. Stam. 12. 

a Flowers regular. Calyx cylindrical, striate, with 5 minute horns. 

a Flowers regular. Calyx bell-form, with 5 teeth and 5 long horns. 

Stam. 10. Petals 5, rose-purple. Fls. showy, flustered. Com. 

1 L2THRTJM. Loosestrife. 

§ Stamens as many as the petals. Flowers axillary, solitary Nos. 1-3. 

§ Stamens twice as many as the petals. Flowers spicate, or racemed No. 4. 

1 L. hysopifo'lium. Grass Poly. Petals 5 or 8, pale purple. Lvs. obtuse. 6-12'. 

2 L. linea're. Petals 6, whitish. Leaves linear, obtuse. Swamps, N. J. and S. 

3 L. ala'tum. Petals 6, crisped, deep purple. Lvs. acute. Stem winged. U. l-2f. W. 

4 L. Salica'ria. Tall (2-5f.), with lanceolate cordate leaves and terminal locp spikes 
(or racemes ?) of purple or rose-purple fls. N. E. and N. Y., and cult. 


Lythrum. 1 


Order LIL ONAGRA'CE^E. Evening Primroses. 

Herbs with alternate or opposite leaves ; and with the parts of the 
flowers generally in 4's, sometimes in 3's, 2's, or l's ; with the 
sepals united below into a tube, valvate in the bud ; the 
petals and stamens inserted into the throat of the calyx ; 
ocary coherent with the tube of the calyx ; becoming in the 
fruit a 2-4-celled capsule or berry with many seeds. 


Fig. 458. Flower of (Enothera fruticosa. 9. Plan of the flower. Fig. 460. Section of the 
4-celled capsule of (E. biennis. 1. Hippuris vulgaris. 2. Its flower, with 1 stamen, J ovary, 
2 style, 3. Vertical section of its 1-seeded fruit. 4. Circasa Lutetiana. 5. The flower en 
larged. 6. Plan of the flower. 7. Vertical section of the 2-celled and 2-seeded fruit 

Analysis of the Genera. 

* Flowers 4 or 5-parted (that is, with 4 or 5 petalb, sepals, &c.) 2 

* Flowers 3-parted, i. e., with 3 sepals, 3 stamens, &e. (no petals).. ,.g 

Order 52.— EVENING PRIMROSES. 211 

* Ho were ? parted, with 2 sepals, 2 petals, <fce f 

* Flowers 1 -parted, with 1 stamen, 1 pistil, 1 seed (no petal) h 

2 Flowers perfect (that is, having both stamens and pistils) 3 

2 Flowers monoecious (some with stamens, some with pistils) . . . .o 
3 Stameis 8, twice as many as the sepals ... .4 

3 Stam* as 4, same number as tue sepals d 

4 C olyx tube much prolonged above the ovary 5 

4 ( alyx tube not prolonged above the ovary a 

5 Garden exotics, with showy purple flowers.... c 

5 Wild, native herbs, rarely cultivated b 

a Seedcomous with a tuft of silky hairs. Fls. purplish. Will no Herb. EpiLo'BrtM. 1 
a Seed not comous, <fec. Fls. large, yellow. Southern. Yellow Jessie. Jussle'a. 
b Petals equal, not clawed, yellow. Pods oo-seeded. 

Evening Primrose. (Exothe'ra. 2 

b Petals hardly equal, clawed, red. Pods 1-4-seeded. Gaura. Gacra. 

c Herbs from California. Calyx tube short. Petals clawed. Olarkia. Clar'eia. 

c Shrubs from Chili. Cal. tube long, enlarged. Fls. hanging. Ear-drop. Fuch'sia. 

d Petals yellow, sometimes minute or 0. Lvs. entire. Se&l Box. Ludwig'ia 

e Petals greenish or none. Leaves many-cleft. Water-plants. 

Water Mil/oil. Myriophyi/lum. 
f Delicate herbs with small, pale flowers. Enchanter's Xightshade. CircVa. 3 
g Small herbs in wet places, with pinnatifid lvs. Mermaid Weed. Proserplsa/ca. 
h In water, rare. Leaves linear, whorled. Mare's Tail. Hippu'ris. 

1. EPILO'BIUM. Willow-herb 
Calyx tube not prolonged above the ovary. Limb deeply 4-parted, de- 
ciduous. Petals 4. Stamens 8. Stigma often with 4 spreading lobes. 
Ovary and capsule linear, 4-cornered, 4-celled, 4-valved. Seeds crowned 
with a tuft of long hairs. — U Flowers purplish or white. 
E. angustifo'lium. Narrow-leaved Willow-herb. Rose-bay. A tall, showy herb (4- 
6f. high), common at the North. Leaves narrow-lanceolate, nearly entire, with 
a vein running along the margin. Flowers large, all parts pale purple or white, 
in a long, terminal spike. Style and stamens declined. Stigma with 4 long 
lobes. July, Aug. Our four other species, with small flov/ers, and a club- 
shaped, undivided pistil, we omit. 

2. (EWTHE'BA. Evening Primrose. 
Calyx tube prolonged beyond the cvary, deciduous: segments 4, re- 
flexed. Petals 4, equal, obcordate or obovate, inserted into the top of the 
calyx tube. Stamens 8. Capsule 4-celled, 4-valved. Stigma 4-lobed. 
Seeds not tufted. — Herbs with alternate leaves, and yellow flowers (in all 
the following species). Vay, Aug. 



§ Flowers opening by night. Pods rounded at the corners, sessile. ...1,2 
§ Flowers opening by day. Pods club-shaped, sharply 4-cornered....a 
a Stems erect, 1-3 feet high. Flowers large (1-2' across). . . .3 
a Stems half-erect, 6-16' long. Flowers small (5-8" across) 6, 7 

1 CE. bien'nis. Lvs. slightly toothed. Pods oblong. Fls. V or more wide 

2 CE. sinua'ta. Leaves sinuate-toothed or pinnatifid. Flowers f wide. S, 
8 Pods scarcely winged on the 4 sharp angles. Leaves narrow 4, 5 

3 CE. frutico'sa. Pods with the 4 angles distinctly winged. Leaves lanceolate. 

4 (E. ripa'ria. Leaves linear-lanceolate. Flowers finally racemed. S. M. 

5 CE. linea'ris. Leaves linear. Flowers on the ends of the branches. S. M. 

6 CE. pum'ila. Flowers straw-yellow. Pods almost sessile. Common. N M. 

7 CE. chrysan'tha. Fls. orange-yellow. Pods distinctly stalked. Rare "N • W. 

3. CIRCLE 'A. Enchanter's Nightshade. 

Calyx tube a little proloDged above the ovary, lobes 2. Petals 2, ol> 
cordate. Stamens 2, opposite the sepals. Fruit reflexed, inversely egg- 
shaped, with hooked hairs, 2-celled, 2-seeded. — U Small, tender herbs, 
with opposite leaves and terminal racemes of small, reddish-white flowers. 

C. Lutetia'na. (See the figure.) Stem l-2f. high, sparingly branched, pubescent. 
Leaves dark green, ovate, subcordate, acuminate, coarsely toothed. Pedicel 1 
without bracts, bent down after flowering. Fruit clothed with bristlj hooks 
June, July, 

O. alpi'na. Stem 5-10' high, very smooth. Leaves pale green, broad cordage, thin 
slightly dentate. Common in rocky woods at the North. July. 

Order LV.— GROSSULACLE. Currants. 

Small shrubs, often prickly, with alternate, 

lobed, plaited leaves; 
flowers in axillary racemes, regular, 4 or 5- 

parted, small; 
vetals inserted into the throat of the calyx, 

small, distinct, and the 
&uit a 1 -celled, many-seeded, 2-carpeled berry. 

Fig. 463. A flower of the Red Currant cut open; o. tin ovary and ovules; st, the siyl<» 
*?, the calyx tube; p, the petals; «, the stamens. Fig. 469. A berry cut open, showing the two 
placer'-se and seeds. Fig. 470. A seed cut open, showing the little embryo. 



KKBES. Currants and Gooseberries. 

The character of the genus is about the same as of the 

§ Currants. Stems without prickles or thorns a 

5 Gooseberries. Stems armed with prickles or spines.... c 

a Leaves rolled in the bud (convolute). Fls. bright yel 1 

a Lvs. plaited (plicate) in the bud. Fls. not yellow b 

b Fruit hairy 2, 3 

b Fruit smooth 4-6. 

c Fruit hispid 7, 8 

c Fruit smooth . . . .d 

d Stalks of the flower or fruit long 11, 12 

d Stalks very short 9, 10 

1 R. au'reum. Missouri Currant. Shrub 6-8f., with smooth, 
3-lobed leaves (Fig. 47 1 ) . W. f 

2 R. sanguin'eum. Oregon C. Flowers bright red, showy. 

Leaves 3-5-lobed. t 

3 R. prostra'tum. Skunk C. Fls. striped with red. Lvs. 5-7-lobed. Mts. N. M. 

4 R. ru'brum. Common Bed C. Leaves not dotted, downy beneath. Berries glob- 

ular, red or white, in pendulous racemes as well as the fls. (Figs. 243, 261.) 

5 R. flor'idum. Flowering C. Leaves yellow-dotted. Berries obovate, black. 

6 R. nigrum. Black C. Leaves yellow-dotted. Berries roundish, black. Petiole 

shorter than the blade. Bacemes loose, partly nodding, Gardens. 

7 R. Cynos'bati. Prickly Gooseberry. Bacemes 2 or 3-flowered. Styles united. 

(Fig. 281.) 

8 R. lacus'tre. Swamp G. Bacemes o-8-flowered. Style 2-cleft. Berry small. 

9 R. hirtiTlum. Smoothish G. Stems not prickly. Calyx tube bell-shaped. North. 

10 R. ozycanthoi'des. Hawthorn G. Stems very prickly. Calyx tube cylindric. 


11 R. rotundifo'lium. Bound-leaved G. Calyx cylindric. Stalk 1-3-flowered. 

1 2 R Uva Cais'pa. Garden G. Calyx bell-shaped. Stalk hairy, 1-flowered. 1 

Fig. 471. Missouri 
Currant,— flower di- 

Order LVI. CRASSULACE^]. The Houseleeks. 

rhick. juicy pla nts, with simple, mostly entire leaves; with 

flowers perfectly symmetrical and regular ; the 

petals, sepals* and pistils being of the same number (3-20) ; and the 

stamem eithei the same or twice as many ; the 

follicles (as many as the ovaries) distinct or somewhat united. 



Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Pistils (follicles) entirely distinct and separate 2 

§ Pistils 4 or 5, united into a 4 or 5-celled capsule. . . .4 

2 Stamens twice as many as the pistils, petals, or sepals.. . .3 
2 Stamens as many (3 or 4) as the pistils, &c. Herb 1-3' high r. Tilljs'a 
Flowers 5 (rarely 4)-parted. Stamens 10 or 8. Stone- ctvp. Sf'dum. 

Flowers 12 (or 6-20)- parted. Stamens 12-40. Ilouseleeh. Sempervi'vum* 

4 Herb 2-4' high, fleshy, with 4-parted flowers. S. Diamor'pha. 

4 U Herb 10-1 6' high, not fleshy, with 5-parted flowers, c. Pentho'rum. 




Fig. 472. A flowering branch of Sedum acre. Fig. 473. A flower of S. acre, 
natural size. Fig. 474. A flower (12-parted, symmetrical, regular) of Semper- 
vi'Oum (Houseleek). 

1. SE'DUM. Stoae-crop. Orpine. 

Sepals and petals 5, sometimes 4, distinct. Stamens 10 or 
8. Pods 5, sometimes 4, distinct, many-seeded, with an 
entire scale at the base of each. — Mostly U herbs, with 
5-parted flowers in cymes, or in one-sided clusters. 

1 Flowers white, ot purplish, or rose-colored 2 

1 S. a / cre. Iceland Moss. Fls. yellow. Plant in low tnfts. Gardens. 

2 Leaves scattered, 1-3' long 3-5. (Figs. 472, 473.) 

2 S. terna'tum. Stone-crop. Leaves in whorls of 3's. Flowers 
white, in a 3-spiked cyme. 

3 S. telephioi'des. FaUe O. Leaves lanceolate or obovate, nearly entire. M. S. 

4 S. Tele'phium. Common O. Leaves ovttl, serrate, obtuse. Flowers purplish. 

5 S. pulchel'lum. Handsome O. Lvs. linear. Fls. in an umbel of spikes, purp. S 

Order LVII. SAXIFRAGACE^E. Saxifrages. 

Herbs or shrubs with the pistils fewer than the sepals of the flower ; 
the petals as many as the calyx sepals (4 or 5), and together with the 

Order 61.— SAXIFRAGES. 


5—10 stamens inserted on the calyx ; the 

styles 2, distinct, with their 

2 ovaries more or less united below, and 

either free or adhering to calyx; 
vods capsular, many -seeded ; 
tmbryo slender, in albumen. 

W 481 

Fig. 475. Section of flower of Early Saxifrage 
(Class Book, page 371). Fig. 41 Q. Ovary and pistils, 
cut across to show the two cells. Fig. 477. Mitella 
diphylla; S, a flower, magnified; 9, the fruit pods 
open, showing the black seeds. Fig. 4S0. Cross-sec- 
tion of the ovary; 1, seed cut open, showing the long 

Analysis of the Genera. 

| Herbs. Petals imbricated in the bud a 

§ Shrubs. Petals valvate or convolute (twisted) in bud e 

a Flowers with 10 stamens b 

a Flowers with 5 stamens. . . .d 

b Petals 4-6, usually 5, entire c 

b Petals 5, all pinnatifid. Stamens 10. Mitrewort. Mitei/la. 1 

b Petals 0. Low, prostrate, in wet places. Water Carpet. Chrysosple'nium. 

c Pods 2-celled. Leaves simple, mostly radical. Saxifrage. Saxif'raga. 5 

c Pods 2-celled. Leaves bi-ternately compound, cauline. S Astti/be. 

c Pods 1-celled. Leaves palmately lobed. FuUe Mitrewort. Tiarel'la. 2 

d Styles 2, pod 2-celled. Scape reclined, 8-12' long. W. Sulliyan'tia. 

d Styles 2, pod 1-celled. Scape erect, a foot or more. M. W. Heu'chera. 

J Styles 3, pod 1-celled. Herb in tufts Y high. S. Lepuropet'alon. 

e Leaves opposite, simple f 

e Leaves alternate. Shrub 4-Sf. erect. Racemes white. M. S. Ite'a. 

i feh rub climbing trees, &c. Flowers white, fragrant. S. Decpma'rja. 

Shrubs erect. Cymes not radiate — all the flowers perfect. Piiiladkl'phus. ? 

i Shrubs erect. Cymes radiate. Stamens 8-10. Hydran'gea. 4 

1. MITEL'LA. Mitrewort. 
Calyx 5-cleft, bell-shaped. Petals 5, pinnatifid with linear divisions. 



inserted on the throat of the calyx. Stamens 5 or 10, included. Styles 
2, very short. Capsule short, 2-beaked, 1-celled, 2-valved. — U Small, 
slender herbs, with roundish, lobed, and cordate leaves, mostly from the 
root. Flowers small, in a slender raceme. N. 

1 M. diphyl'la. Scape 12-20' high, with 2 opposite leaves nearly sessile, and many 

white flowers above with curiously cleft petals. May, June. (See Fig. 477.) 
3 M, nu'da. Scape leafless, thread-like, 5-7 'high, few-flowered. May, June. 

Both species send out runners from the base. 

2. TIABEL'LA. False Mitrewort Gem-fruit 

Calyx 5-parted, lobes obtuse- 
Petals 5, entire, the claws in- 
serted on the calyx. Stamens 
10, exserted. Styles 2. Cap- 
sule 1-celled, 2-valved, 1 valve 
much larger. — % Fls. white. 
N. M. 

T. cordifo'lia. Scape about 10' 
high, sometimes bearing a leaf, 
the flowers white in all their 
parts, forming a cylindrical ra- 
ceme. In rocky woods, with 
the Mitrewort, very common at 
the North. May, Jane. 


Calyx 4-5-parted, tube ad- 
herent to the ovary, persistent. 
Corolla 4-5-petaled. Styles 4, 
more or less united. Stamens 
20-40, shorter than the petals. 
Capsule 4-celled, 4-valved, 
many-seeded. — Handsome 
flowering shrubs, with opposite 
leaves. Petals convolute in 
the Lad. 

Fig. 4S2. "Radiant" panicle of Oak -leaved Hydran 
gea; the larger flowers neutral. 

Ordee Gl.— SAXIFRAGES. 21? 

P. grandiflo'rus. Large-flowered Syringa. A very showy sh/pH, Gf. nigh. Leaves 
ovate, acuminate, 3-veined. Stigmas 4, styles united into 1. Flowers large, in 
umbels of 2-7, white nearly inodorous. Cultivated, but wild at the South. June. 

P. eorona'rius. Mock Orange. Stems 5-8f. high. Leaves oval and ovate, short- 
pointed, feather-veined. Styles and stigmas 4, distinct. Flowers numeroa.i, 
white, handsome, very fragrant. Cultivated. June. 

*. IJYDRAN'GEA. Hydrangea. 
Flowers in cymes, the marginal ones generally barren, with the sepals 
much enlarged (that is, the cymes are radiant). The fertile flowers are 
small, calyx about 4-toothed, petals 4, stamens 8 or 10; capsule 2-beakecL 

i H. axbores'cens. Big Wild H. Leaves ovate, obtuse or cordate at base, nearly 
smooth. Cymes flat. Shrub 4 to 6 feet high. M. \V. Cultivated. 

2 H. quercifc'lia. Oak-leaved H. Leaves deeply sinnate-lobed. Cymes in the form 

of a panicle. South. Cultivated. (See Fig. 4S2.) 

3 H. radia'ta. Silver-leaved H. Leaves ovate, clothed with a silvery-white down 

beneath. Cymes flat. Shrub 6-8f. high. S. t 

4 H. horten / sis. Changeable IT. Leaves elliptical, narrowed at each end, smooth. 

Cymes mostly all barren, changing from green to white, pink, blue, &c 

5. SAXIF'RAGA. Saxifrage. 

Calyx 5-cleft, either free, or adherent to the base of the ovary. Petals 
5, entire. Stamens 10. Styles 2. Pod 2-celled, 2-beaked, opening between 
the beaks, many-seeded. 

§ Leaves opposite (small) on the prostrate stem. Flowers purplish No. 1. 

§ Leaves alternate on the ascending stem. Flowers yellow or white Nos. 2-4. 

§ Leaves rosulate at the base of the mostly leafless scape (a) 

a Calyx entirely free from the ovary (inferior) Nos. 5-7. 

a Calyx adherent to the base of the ovary (half superior) Nos. 8-10. 

1 S. oppositifo'lia. A small plant with large fls. Cliffs, Willoughby L., Yt. and N. 

2 S. aizoi'des. Petals yellow, spotted. Lvs. narrow. With No. 1, and West. 

3 S. rivula'ris. Petals white. Root leaves reniform. White Mts. and North. 

4 S. tricuspida'ta. Petals yellow, dotted. Lvs. S-cusped at apex. L. Superior. 

5 S. erosa, and two other species, on Mts. Penn. and S. (See Botanist andFlor.) 

8 S. Aizo'on. Leaves evergreen, thick, spatulate, bordered with white teeth. Petal* 

obovate, cream-white. Rocks, Willoughby ML, and W. 

9 S. Virginien'sis. Early Saxifrage. Lvs. oval-spatulate with a broad petiole. Scape 

parceled, 4-12' high. Petals white, oblong, much longer than the calyx. Flowers 
many, in Ajrril and May. Grows on rocks, common. 

10 S. Pennsylva'nica. Swamp S. Leaves lance-oblong, acutish, narrowed to a Bhort 

stalk. Scape l-2f., branching into a diffuse panicle of small, greenish hom«ly 
flowers. Petals narrow, scarce longer than the reflexed sepals. Swamps. 



Order LVIII. CACTACE^E. Indian Figs. 

Plants with green, fleshy, angular or jointed, nearly leafless stems, 
armed with numerous prickles and terrible spines. Flowers often showy. 
We Lave at the North only one native species. Many are cultivated. 
OPUNTIA. Indian Fig. 

Caiyx tube not produced above the ovary. Stock composed of fleshy, 
mostly flattened joints. Sepals, petals, and stamens indefinite, at the top 
of the ovary. Style 1, with 4-10 stigmas. Leaves minute, alternate, with 
tufts of prickles in their axils. 

O. vulga'ris. Grows on dry rocks. Joints several, 4-6', obovate. Flowers large (3-4' 
broad). Petals 7-10, yellow. Fruit egg-shaped, crimson, eatable 

Order LX. PASSIFLORACIL3E. Passionworts. 

Plants often woody, climbing by tendrils, with alternate leaves and 
leafy stipules. Flowers perfect, of wonderful structure, as seen in 
PASSIFLOTvA. Passion-flower. 

Calyx colored within, deeply 5-parted, bearing a complex crown ol 
colored filaments on the throat, and the 5 petals above them. Ovary 
raised on a stipe, with the 3 stigmas and 5 anthers. Fruit a pulpy berry 

Order LXIII. UMBELLIFER^E. The TJmbelworts. 

Herbs with hollow, furrowed stems, simple or compound leaves ; 
no stipules, but with a broad sheathing base to the petioles ; 
the small flowers in umbels, and the calyx wholly adherent to the ovary , 
the petals and stamens 5, standing on the top of the ovary; 
the styles 2, and the fruit dry, its 2 carpels seed-like and separating 
marked outside by ribs and furrows running lengthwise. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

* Plants growing wild, some of them cultivated for the eatable root.... 2 

* Plants never wild, but cultivated for their fruit, &c q 

2 Flowers white, rarely rose-colored or cream-colored 3 

2 Flowers yellow, or (in one instance) dark purple 4 

3 Umbels simple, leaves simple. Little creeping wet plants ... .a 
3 Umbels regularly compound, the flowers not sessile — c 
3 Umbels irregular, flowers in crowded heads, sessile. . . b 
4 Fruit decidedly flattened on the back — p 
4 Fruit flattened on the sides or not at all .... o 

Order 63.— UMBELWORTS. 21$ 

a Fruit flattened. Leaves roundish. Pennywort. Hydroco'tyle. 

a Fruit globular. Lvs. linear. Fls. pedicelled. Height 1-2'. r. Crant'zia. 
b Fruit clothed with hooked prickles. Heads small, 2-4. c. Saniele. Saxic'ula. i 
b Fruit clothed with scales. Heads often near V thick. W. S. c. Eryx'gicm. 

c Umbels not radiate (§ 255, a, outer flowers not larger than the rest) d 

c Unib. rad. very forge. Huge he fbs, 4-8f. high. e. Cow Parsnip. Herac'leum. 
Leaves simple linear petioles without blades. S. Tiedman'nia. 

d Leaves only once divided, pinnately or ternately e 

d Leaves twice or thrice compounded g 

e Fruit flattened or contracted, more or less, on the sides f 

e Fruit much flattened on the back. M. S. Archemore. Archemo'ra. 

f Leaflets 3, ovate, doubly serrate. Stem l-2f. high. Honeuort. Cuyptotjs'nia. 2 
f Leaflets 3, long, linear, grass-like. Rare. S. Nervdeqf. Neurophyl'lcil 

f Leaflets 5-11, lanceolate or lance-linear. 2-6f. Water Parsnip. Si'um. 

f Leaflets 5-9, oblong. Stem procumbent. S. Marsh Umbel. Helosciad'ium. 

g Bracts of the involucre (not involucel) entire h 

g Bracts of the involucre cleft and divided k 

g Bracts of the involucre none or almost none m 

h Fruits bristly, club-shaped, few. Stem l-2f. high. Cicely. Osmorui'za. 3 

h Fruits smooth, flattened on the sides, ribs wavy. Poison Hemlock. Coxi'um. 4 
h Fruits smooth, flattened on the back, ribs winged, straight, r. Coxioseli'num. 
h Fruit smooth, terete, not flattened, ribs straight. Lavage. Ligts'ticcm. 

k Fruits bristly, short, numerous. Often cultivated. Carrot. Dau'cus. 

k Fruits smooth. Stems and leaflets thread-like. Rare. Discopleu'ra. 

k Fruits smooth. Stem 3-6' erect, bulbous. W. Pepper-arid- Salt. Erigexi'a. 5 
ra Fruit flattened on the back. Stems large, c. Angelica. Archaxgei/ica. 

m Fruit flattened on the sides n 

m Fruit terete, not flattened. Poison. N. Rare. Foil's Parsley. ^Ethu^a. 

n Calyx 5-toothed. Stems diffuse, slender. W. Chervil. Ch.erophyl'lum. 

n Cal. 5-toothed. Umbels stalked. Sts. erect, very slender. S. Leptocau'lfs. 

n Calyx teeth none, fruit strongly ribbed. Poison. Water Hemlock. Cicu'ta. 6 

n Calyx teeth none, fruit scarcely ribbed. \Y. Rare. Crest Umbel. Ec'lophus. 
o Involucels leafy. Leaves perfoliate, simple, entire. Modesty. Bcpleu'rum. 

o Involucels minute. Seed with 5 winged ribs. Golden Alexanders. Thas'pium. 7 

Involucels minute. Seed with 5 ribs not winged. Alexanders. Ziz'ia. 8 

p Involucels minute. Fruit corky. Leaves bi-pinnatifid. Polytje'xia. 

p Involucels none. Fruit thin. Leaves pinnate. Parsnip. Pastixa'ca. 

q Flowers white. Involucre or of 1 entire bract r 

1 Flowers white. Involucre of a few cleft bracts. Parsley. Petroseli'xem. 
Flowers yellow. Leaf segments very narrow and many. Fennel. Fcenic'clum. 

r Umbeilets radiate. Fruit round. Lvs. finely cut. Coriander. Coriax'drum. 

r Umbeilets not radiate (the flowers all similar) s 

s Fruit flattened on the sides, roundish. Lf. segm. wedge-form. Celery. A'piu^f. 

s Fruit flattened on the sides, oval. Leaf segments linear. Caraway. Ca'rum. 

Fruit egg-shaped, not flattened. Leaf segments linear. Anise. Piitpixei/la 



Fig. 4S3. Golden Alexanders, with its compound, naked umbel, &c. 4. A flower enlarged 
o. The fruit with its thread-shaped ribs and two persistent styles. 6. Cross-section, showing th< 
two carpels with the oil-tubes and flat inner face. 7. Umbel of Sweet Cicely, in fruit. 8. A 
flower enlarged. 9. The fruit with the two carpels separating from the base and supported by a 
two-cleft stalk. Fig. 490. Summit of the fruit of Bitter Cicely. 1. Fruit of Poison Hemlock, 
with the undulate-crenulate ribs. 2. Cross-section, showing the grooved inner face and involute 
•lbumen. 3. Radiate flower of Coriandrum. 4. Vertical section of the globose fruit, showing 
the minute embryo. 

1. SANICTLA. Sanicle. 

Flowers polygamous. Calyx teeth leafy, tube bristly. Petals obovate, 
erect, with the point inflected. Fruit roundish, armed with hooked 
prickles. Carpels without ribs. — U Plants l-2f. high. Umbel with a few 
capitate umbellets. Involucre of few cleft bracts, involueel of several, 
entire. June- Aug. 

) S. Marylan'dica. Lon g- styled S. Sterile flowers many, pedicellate ; fertile flower 
sessile. Styles slender, conspicuous, recurved. Leaves 5-7-parted. Common. 

2 S. Canadensis. Short-styled S. Sterile flowers few, much shorter than the fertile. 
Styles shorter than the prickles. Leaves 5-parted, upper 3-parted. Umbels 
(or heads) small. Woods. Common 

Order 63.— UMBELWORTS. 221 

2. CRYPTOT^E'NIA. Hone-wort. 

Calyx teeth obsolete. Petals with an inflexed point. Fruit linear-ob 
long or ovate-oblong. Seeds with 5 obtuse ribs, contracted at the sides 

— U A smooth herb with 3-parted leaves. Umbels . compound, with very 
unequal rajs, white flowers, no involucre, and few-leaved involucels. 

C Canadensis. St. l-2f. high, erect. Leaflets large, the side ones often 2-partei 
or lobed. Common in moist woods. July, 

3. OSMORHI'ZA. Cicely. 

Calyx teeth obsolete. Fruit linear-oblong, club-shaped, tapering to the 
base, crowned with the conical styles ; carpels each with 5 equal, acute, 
bristly ribs, and a deep groove on the face. — u Leaves bi-ternately divid- 
ed, with the umbels opposite. Involucre few-leaved ; involucel 4-7- 
leaved. Flowers white. Fruit an inch in length. Height about 2f. 
May, June. (Figs. 244, 487-9.) 

O. longis'tylis. Sweet 0. Styles thread-like, nearly as long as ovary, riant downy 

The root has an agreeable spicy flavor. 
O. brevis'tylis. Bitter 0. Styles conical, 5 times shor. %jr than ovary. Plant hairv. 

Less interesting than No. 1. (See Fig. 490.) 

4. CONI'UM. Poison Hemlock. 

Calyx teeth obsolete. Fruit ovate, flattened on the sides, each carpe, 
with 5 wavy-crenulate ribs on the back, and a deep narrow groove on the 
inner face. — ® Herbs with large, decompound leaves, with very many 
leaflets. Involucre and involucels of 3-5 leaves, the latter one-sided. 
Flowers white. (Figs. 65, 491, 492.) 

C. macula'tum. Stem spotted with purple, glaucous, about 4f. high. Leaves bright 
green, leaflets small, lanceolate, pinnatitid. Umbels terminal, the involucels 
with the inner half wanting. June, July. 

5. ERIGENI'A. Pepper-and-salt. 

Calyx limb wanting. Petals flat, entire. Carpels (half-fruits), 3 -ribbed, 
contracted on the face, forming together a fruit much broader than long, 

— n Boot tuberous. See Fig. 333. 


£ bn'bo'sa. A small, early-flowering herb, Western N. Y. to Mo. Stem arises 
from a roundish tuber deep in the ground. The root leaf is thrice ternate. The 
involucrate leaf twice ternate. The dark-brown stamens with the little white 
petals suggest its common name. 

6. CICU'TA. Water Hemlock. 

Calyi 5-toothed. Petals with the point inflected. Fruit roundish, 
tittle contracted on the sides so as to appear somewhat double. Seeds 
with 5, flatfish, equal ribs, 2 of them on the margin. — if Poisonous herbs 
with compound leaves and perfect umbels of white flowers. Involucre 
few-leaved or 1. Involucels many-leaved. 

3 C. macula'ta. Spotted Water- Hemlock. Stem streaked with purple, 3-6f. high, 
smooth, striate, hollow. Lower leaves triternate and tripinnate, segments lan- 
ceolate, serrate. Umbels 2-4/ broad. Fruit 10-ribbed. Involucels of 5 or 6 
short, slender, acute bracts. Common in wet meadows. July, Aug. 

2 C. bulbi'fera. Narrow-leaved Water- Hemlock. Stem green, striate, slender, with 
little bulblets in the axils of the branches. Leaves bi-ternately divided. Leaf- 
lets linear or lance-linear, 2-4/ long, with distant teeth. In wet meadows and 
swamps. A vg. 

7. THAS'PIUM. Alexanders. 

Calyx minutely 5-toothed. Fruit elliptical, roundish across, not flat- 
tened either way, seeds each with 5 winged ribs. — 2£ Leaves divided. 
Involucre none, involucels few-leaved. The species resemble the Zizias 
except in their fruit. May, June. (Figs. 483-6.) 

1 Root leaves simple, cordate, stem leaves once-ternately divided 2 

1 T. barbino'de. Leaves bi- or tri-ternate, lfts. cut-serrate. St. hairy at joints. 

2 T. au'reum. Golden A. Fruit oval. Flowers yellow. Stem 2-3f. high. 

8 T. atropurpu'reum. Purple A. Fruit roundish. Flowers dark purple. Stem 2-3£ 
high. S. M. 

8. ZIZTA. Alexanders. 

Calyx minutely 5-toothed. Fruit oval or ovate, flattened at the sidey 
80 as to appear somewhat double. Seeds each with 5 ribs which are not 
winged, but thread-like. — U Smooth, with divided leaves and yellow 
flowers. Umbels compound, with no involucre or involucels. 

H integer'rima. Entire-leaved A. Root and stem leaves bi- and tri-ternate, leafle*- 
ontire. Plant l-2f. high, in rocky woods. May-July, 


Order LXIV. ARALIACE.E. Araliads. 

Plants much like the Umbelworts in their lvs., fls., and inflorescence; 

pistils 2-5, united below into 1 ovary with 2-5 cells; 

fruit a capsule or berry, with 2-5 seeds. Petals not inflected. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

•Styles 5. Umbels many. Leaves alternate, pinriately compound. Aralia. \ 

* Styles 2 of 3. Umbel 1. Leave? whorled, palmately compound. Ginseng. I 

* Style 1." Climbing vine. Leaves simple, alternate. European Ivy. Hedera. 

1. ARA'LIA. Wild Sarsaparilla. 
Calyx superior, 5-toothed. Petals 5, ovate, spreading. Stamens 5 on 
the ovary with the 5 styles. Fruit a berry. Herbs or shrubs with alter- 
nate pinnately compound leaves. Umbels white or greenish. Summer. 

* Plants low (l-2f.), with few (3-7) umbels corymbously arranged Xos. 1, 2 

* Plants taller (3-12f.), with numerous umbels in racemes.. ..Xos. 3, 4 

1 A. nudicau'lis. Stem underground, sending up 1 long-stalked leaf and a scape a foot 

high, bearing 3 umbels. Plant smooth, u Rocky woods. E. and W. 

2 A. his'pida. Wild Elder. Stem shrubby and prickly at base, herbaceous above. Leaf- 

lets ovate, cut-serrate. Umbels about 3. Berries blue-black. Fields. 

3 A. racemo'sa. Tettymorrel. Herbaceous, smooth, branched, 3-5f. Leaves larire, 

decompound ; leaflets ovate, serrate. Umbels small, very many, in a panicle 
of racemes. Root highly aromatic. Woods. 

4 A. spino'sa. Angelica Tree. Hercules' Club. Snrub or tree prickly, stem simple, 

bearing all the leaves and panicles at the top. Leaves bi- or tripinnate. 

2. GINSENG. Ginseng. 

Dioecious and polygamous. Calyx-tube adherent, limb obsolete. 
Petals 5, ovate, obtuse. Stamens 5. Styles 2 or 3, erect (none in the S 
flowers). Fruit berry-like, 2 or 3-seeded. U Root tuberous. Stem 
simple, bearing 3 leaves in a whorl, and 1 umbel. Fls. white. 

! G-. trifo'lium. Ground-nut. Root a round tuber deep in the ground, connected with 
the stem by a short screw-like ligament. The stem arises 3-6 above the surface, 
smooth, slender, simple At the top is a whorl of 3 compound leaves, and a cen- 
tral peduncle bearing a little umbel of pure white flowers. Leaflets generally 3. 
Barren and fertile flowers on separate plants, the latter with 3 styles andOslameus, 
the former with but one style. Damp woods. May. 

2 lr, quinquifo'lium. True Ginseng. Root fusiform, fleshy. Stem round, smooth. It 
high, with a terminal whorl of 3 compound leaves and a central stalk bearing a 
simple umbel of yellowish-white flowers. The fertile flowers have 2 stylti*, »nd 
are usually separated from the barren, on different plants. Berries bright scarlet 
In rocky or Lilly woods. June-August. 


Order 65.— CORNELS. 

Order LXY. C0RNACEJ3. Cornels. 

Trees and shrubs, seldom herbs, with sim- 
ple, mostly opposite leaves ; with 

flowers 4-parted, arranged in cymes ; the 4 

petals valvate in the bud ; and with the 4 

stamens standing on the top of the 2- 

ovary, which is adherent to the calyx- 
tube ; styles united ; 

fruit a 1 or 2-seeded drupe. 

Fig. 495. Low Cornel ; ?>, the 4-leaved involucre 
iurrounding the head of flowers. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Flowers perfect, 4-parted. Petals 4. Drupe 2-celled. Cornell. Counts. J 

§ Flowers imperfect, 5-parted. Petals often 0. Drupe 1 -celled. Trees 

with small, green flowers in side clusters. Fruit plum-like. Tupelo. Nyssa. 

CORNTJS. Cornel, Dogwood. 

Trees, shrubs, or perennial herbs. Flowers in cymes. Sepals, petals, 
and stamens each 4, with a double pistil. 

§ Cymes with a 4-leaved white involucre. Drupes red Nos. 1, 2 

§ Cymes naked (no involucre). Leaves mostly alternate, oval . . . .No. 3 
§ Cymes naked (no involucre). Leaves all opposite. Flowers white (a) 

a Twigs and cymes pubescent. Fruit light blue. Shrubs 5-9f. . . Nos. 4, 5 
a Twigs and cymes glabrous. Leaves white-downy beneath. . . .Nos. 6, 7 

a Twigs and cymes glabrous. Leaves smooth, taper-pointed Nos. 8, 9. 

1 O. Canadensis. Low Cornel. A low herb in damp woods, with a simple stem bearing 

2 opposite, and 4 or 6 whorled ovate leaves. May, June. 

3 O. flor'ida. Flowering Dogwood. A small tree with opposite ovate leaves. Cymea 

compact, leave? of the involucre obcordate, large, showy. May. 

3 O. alternifo'lia. Shrub or tree 8-20f., flat-topped. Drupes blue-purple. 

4 Q. seric'ea. Leaves ovate-oblong, silky-downy beneath. Sepals lanceolate. Common. 
0. asperifo'lia. Leaves lance-oval, scabrous above. Sepals minute. W. and S. 

6 O. circina'ta. Leaves round-oval, large. Drupes light blue. 6-10f. June. 

1 O. stolonif' era. Bed Osier. Shoots red and straight. Leaves broad ovate, acuta. 
Drupes lead-white. Shrub in clump, 6-10f. E. and \V. May. 
6 C. stricta. Branches erect, brown. Cyme loose. Anthers and fruit blu ish. S. 
8 O. panicula'ta. Branches gray. Cymes somewhat panicled. Fruit white. June. 

Order 66.— HONEYSUCKLES. 225 



Essential Character. — Flowering plants (Ph^enogamia) 
with their stems growing by additions to the outside in lay- 
ers (Exogens), their seeds inclosed in a seed-vessel or pericarp 
(AngIosperms), their flowers with a double perianth and 
their petals united (Monopetal^e). 

Order LXVI. CAPRIFGLIACE.E. Honeysuckles. 

Shrubs and herbs, often twining, with opposite leaves ; with 

-flowers clustered and often fragrant, 5-parted and often irregular; 

corolla monopetalous, tubular or rotate ; 

stamens on the tube of the corolla, often one less than its lobes ; 

ovary adherent to the calyx ; style 1 ; fruit a berry, drupe, or capsule ; 

embryo small, in fleshy albumen. 

Analysis of the Genera. ' 

1 Corolla tubular. Stigma capitate, on a slender style. . . .2 
1 Corolla rotate, deeply 5-lobed. Stigmas 3, rarely 5, sessile. Shrubs.... c 
2 Herbs.... a 

2 Shrubs b 

a Stamens 4, capsule 3-celled. A trailing evergreen. Twin-flower. Linn^'a 1 

a Sta. 5, drupe bony, 3-5-celled. Erect, unbranched. Fever-root. Trios'teuu 

b Cor. bell-shaped, reg'r. Berry glob., 4-celled, 2-seeded. Symphorioar'pua 2 

b Cor. tubular, lobes unequal. Berry 2-3-celled, few seeded, c. Lonice'ra. 3 

b Corolla funnel-shaped. Capsule 2-celled, many- seeded, c. Diervii/la 4 

c Leaves pinnate. Berry globose, pulpy, 3-seeded. Elder. Sambu'cus b 

c Leaves simple. Drupe flattish, 1-seeded. Handsome shrubs Vibue'num 6 

1. LIKSOE'A. Twin -flower 
Calyx tube ovate, limb 5-parted, deciduous, with 2 bractlets at base. 
3oroIa bell-shaped, limb a little irregular, 5-lobed. Stamens 4, 2 longer 
ban the other 2. Capsule 3-celled, but only 1-seeded, 2 of the cells being 
empty. — A trailing evergreen herb, dedicated to Linnasus, the first and 
greatest of botanists. 



L. borea'lis. Tne only species, a fine little plant, found in mcist woods in cool ch 
mates. It has long, thread -like, creeping stems, rooting at the joints, the up- 
right branches about 3' high. Leaves small, roundish. Flowers in pairs, rose- 
colored, nodding, at the top of the slender stalk. June. 

2. SYMPHORIOAETUS. Snow berry. 

Calyx tube globose, limb 4-5-toothed. Corolla bell-shaped, 4-5-lobed 
regular. Stamens 4-5, short. Fruit a globose berry, 4-celled but only 
2-seeded, 2 cells being empty. — Small erect shrubs with oval, entire leaves, 
rose-white flowers in short clusters. 

* Stamens and style included (i. e., not longer than the corolla) 1,2 

* Stamens and bearded style exserted (extending out of the corolla) 3 

1 S. racemo'sus. Cult. Fls. in loose, leafy racemes. Berries snow-w r hite, large. 
*<J S. occidentals. Wolf-berry. Fls. in dense, nodding spikes. Berries white. N.-W . 
3 S. vulga'ris. Coral-berry Fls. in axillary heads. Berries red. M. S. W. 

3. LONICE'RA. Honeysuckle. 

Calyx tube globular, limb 5-toothed, 
very short. Corolla tubular or funnel-form, 
limb 5-cleft, irregular or almost regular. 
Stamens 5. Ovary 2 or 3-celled. Berry 
few-seeded. — Climbing or erect shrubs, 
with opposite and often connate leaves 
(that is, their bases growing together 
around the stem), entire on the margins. 

§ Stem climbing, flowers sessile, whorled (in 

pairs in one species). . . .a 
| Stem mostly erect, leaves never connate, 

flowers in pairs 2 

a Upper pair or pairs of leaves united (con- 

liate) at base....b 
a Leuves all distinct, corolla ringent, (In 
gardens only.).... 7, 8 
t Corolla tube gibbous (swelled out on one side) 

at base, limb risgent 5, 6 Fi ^ 496> Trumpet Hbneysucklo. 

b Corolla tube equal and slender (not gibbous) Flowers and the connate leaves, 
at the base....l 

1 Corolla ringent, lower lip linear, upper 4-lobed 2-4 

1 L. serapervi'rens. Trumpet H. Cor. trumpet-shaped, nearly regular, scarlet 

Order 66.— HONEYSUCKLES. 22? 

2 L. flava. Wild-ydlow II. Flowers in a terminal, 2 (or more)-whor!ed spike, pale 

yellow. Leaves glaucous. W. S. 

3 L. grata, Wild-sweet H. Fls. in terminal and axillary whorls, reddish, white. 

i L. Caprifo'lium. Italian H. Fls. in a single, terminal whorl, red, yel., and white. 

5 L. parvinVra. Small- fl. H. Leaves oblong, smooth and glaucous beneath. 

Flowers V long, yellowish and purplish, or crimson. 

6 L. hirsu'ta. Hairy H. Leaves broad-oval, hairy and downy, green (not 

glaucous). Flowers sulphur-yellow. N. 

7 L. Fericlym'enum. Woodbine H. Fls. whorled, capitate, red and yellow, sweet 

scented. Leaves deciduous. Berries red. t 

8 L. Japon'icum. Japan II. Flowers in pairs, axillary, sweet-scented, deeply 

two-lipped, reddish. Leaves evergreen, t 
9 Corolla gibbous at base, lobes more or less irregular. Wild. . . .10-12 
9 L. Tartar'icum. Tartarian II. Corolla scarcely gibbous, lobes spreading, 

equal, rose-color, handsome. Leaves cordate, obtuse, f 

10 L. cihVta. Fly H. Corolla lobes short, erect, nearly equal. Berries red. 

11 L. oblongifo'lia. Swamp Fly H. Corolla deeply ringent. Pedicels long. Berries 

double, purple. Shrub 3-4f. high, swamps. N. 

12 L. ccBru'lea. Blueberrie.d H. Corolla lobes short, subequal, yellow. Pedicels 

very short. Berries double, blue. N. 

4. DIERVIL'LA. Bush Honeysuckle. 

Calyx tube oblong, limb 5-cleft. Corolla twice as long, limb 5-cleft and 
uearly regular. Stamens 5. Capsular fruit 2-celled, many-seeded. — 
Small erect shrubs with opposite leaves and axillary flowers. 

D. rrif'ida. Stem about 2f. high, branching. Leaves ovate, serrate, ending in a 
long, narrow point. Peduncles 1-3-flowered, the ovaries slender, about half aa 
long as the greenish-yellow corolla. Hedges and woods. June, 

5. SAMBU'CUS. Elder. 

Calyx small, 5 -parted. Corolla regular, rotate, 5-cleft into obtuse lobes. 
Stamens 5. Stigmas sessile. Berry globose, pulpy, 3-seeded. — Shrubs 
(5- 6f. high) or perennial herbs with pinnate or bi-pinnate leaves. Flowere 
(white) in cymes. 

S. Canadensis. Sweet E. Leaflets 7-11. Cymes flat. Berries dark-purple, turn 
S. pu'bcns. Red E. Leaflets 5-7. Cymes oblong, panicled. Berries red. May. 

228 THE FI ORA. 

6. VIBURNUM. Viburnum. 

Calyx superior, small, persistent. Corolla rotate, limb 5-lobed, lobes 
obtuse. Stamens 5. Stigmas 1-3, sessile. Fruit a stony nut covered 
with soft pulp, that is, a drupe. Shrubs and trees with simple leaves. 
Flowers white, in compound fiat cymes. 

§ Cymes radiant,— the outer flowers sterile and showy. Lvs. stipuled Nos. 1, 9 

§ Cymes not radiant,— the flowers all alike perfect (a). 

a Leaves 3-lobed, palmately 3-5-veined, with setaceous stipules Nos. 3, 4 

a Leaves not lobed, — coarsely toothed, straight-veined. Cyme stalked.. Nos. 5-7 

—finely and sharply serrate. Cymes sessile Nos. 8, 9 

— entire or nearly so Nos. 10, 11. Exotic,.... No. 12. 

1 V. lantanoi'des. Hobble Bush. A handsome shrub some 3f. high, in rocky woods. 

Shoots often reclined and rooting again. Leaves round-cordate, serrate, downy on 
the veins ana petioles. Cyme sessile. Drupes ovate. May. 

2 V. Op'ulus. High Cranberry. Shrub 8-12f., in borders of woods, all smooth. Leaves 

3-lobed, 3-veined, rounded at base, lobes pointed. Cymes peduncled. Fruit bright 
red, very acid, often used in sauce. June. 

Variety, ro'seum. Snow-ball. Flowers all neutral, in globular cymes. Cult. 
S V. acerifo'lium. Dockmackie. Leaves subcordate, 3-veined, lobes pointed, acutely den- 
tate, downy beneath. Stamens exserted. Drupes purple. 4-6f. Woods. 

4 V. pauciflo'rum. Lvs. 5-veined at base. Stamens included. Drupes red. Mts. Rare. 

5 V. denta'tum. Arrow-wood. Shrub 8-12f., with straight shoots and branches, all 

smooth. Leaves round-ovate, acutely toothed, on slender petioles. Fruit blue, 
with a concave-convex nut. Damp woods. June. 

6 V. pubes'cens. Leaves ovate, broad-dentate, hairy beneath. Shrub 2-3f. 

7 V. molle. Poison Haw. Downy throughout. Leaves broad-oval, acute, crenate- 

dentate. Fruit blue, nut grooved. In woods, Ky. to Fla. lOf. May. 

8 V. Lenta'go. Sweet Viburnum. Tree 10-20f., in rocky woods. Leaves ovate and 

long-pointed, serrate ; petiole long, with wavy margins. Fruit at last glaucous- 
black, oval, eatable when ripe, in Autumn. Flowers in June. 

9 V. prunifo'lium. Black Haw. Sloe. Tree 10-20T., common in hedges and woods. 

Leaves shining, oval, obtuse or barely acute, finely serrulate ; petioles bhort, 
scarcely margined. Fruit oval, green, then scarlet, then blue-black, sweet. May. 
Variety: ferrugin'eum, Possum Haw, has tasteless dn pes. Leaves rusty 
beneath. Southern. 

10 V. nudum. Leaves oval varying to oblong and lance-oval, not shining : petioles not 

winged. Cymes on short stalks. Drupes blue, eatable. 10-20f. April-June. 

11 V. obova'tum. Leaves small (1' or less), obovate, obtuse, subsessile, dotted. Cycaof 

many, small, sessile. Fruit black. 12f. River banks. S April. 
11 V. Tinus. Lauristine. Leaves lance-ovate, entire, thick and shining. China. 



Order LXVII. RUBIACE.E. The MadderwortS: 

Plants with opposite, sometimes whorled, entire leaves ; the 
stipules between the petioles ; the calyx adherent to the ovary; 
lorolla regular, inserted on the calyx tube; 
lumens inserted on the corolla and as many as its lobes ; 
*.arics 2, united ; with the 2 styles more or .ess united. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Leaves whorled. Herbs with square stems a 

§ Leaves opposite, with small stipules between the petioles 

2 Herbs, with the flowers habitually 4-parted 3 

2 Shrubs or trees . . . . d 

3 Fls. twin (always in pairs) b 

3 Flowers single (not twin) c 

a Flowers 5-parted. Fruit twin, 

fleshy, berry-like. Madder. Ru'bia. 
a Flowers 4-parted. Fruit twin, dry, 

separable nuts. Bedstraw. Galium. 
b Two fls, on one ovary. Creeping 

stems. Partridge-berry. Mitchei/la. 1 
c Carpels 2, 1 -seeded, both never open- 
ing. Fls. axillary, solitary. Dio'dia. 
c Carp. 2, 1-seeded, one never opening. 

Fls. axillary, clustered. Sperscaco'ce. 
c Carpels 2, few-seeded. Corolla 

much exserted. Bluett. Housto'nia. 2 
c Carpels 2, many-seeded. Cor. scarce 
exserted. Qreenhead. CKdenlan'dia. 
d Flow T ers 4-parted, in globular 

hds. Button-hush. Cephalan'thus. 
d Fls. 5-parted, cymes radiant 

with scarlet sepals. S. Pixckkts'ya 

1. MITCHEL'LA. Partridge-berry 

Flowers 2 on each double ovary. Ca- 
lyx 4-parted. Corolla funnel-shaped, 
hairy within. Stamens 4, short, insert- 
ed on the corolla. Stigmas 4. Berries 
composed of the 2 united ovaries. Jn. 


Fig. 497. Mitchella repens, whole 
plant, with flowers and fruit, a, cross- 
section of the double fruit, showing the 
two ovaries. 


M. re'pens. Common in woods. Leaves round-ovate. Flowers white or pinkish 
Berries red, remaining through the winter. 

2. HOUSTO'NTA. Bluets. 

Calyx tube round egg-shaped, 4-cleft, persistent. Corolla tubular, muci) 
exceeding the calyx, limb 4-lobed, spreading, filaments 4, on the corolla. 
Style 1. Capsule 2-lobed, half-free. — Herbs. Stipules connected to the 
petiole. Flowers never yellow. 

| Corolla salver-form, glabrous. Peduncles 1-flowered a 

§ Corolla funnel-form. Peduncles many-flowered, cymous. . . .b 

a Flowers terminal. Small, delicate herbs 1, 2 

a Flowers axillary. Small, delicate herbs 3, 4 

b Leaves /anee-ovate. Cymes terminal 5 

b Leaves lance-linear. Cymes terminal 6, 7. 

1 H. cceru'lea. Dwarf Pink. Stems very numerous, upright, 3-6'. Root leaves 

ovate-spatulate. Flowers pale blue. May, June. 

2 H. serpyllifo'lia. Thyme-leaved B . Stems thread-form, decumbent, 6-12'. Leaves 

round-ovate, petiolate, fringed. Flowers on long stalks, pale. S. 

3 H. min'ima. Tiny B. Leaves linear-spatulate. Stems 1-3' high. Prairies. 

4 H. rotundifo'lia. Round-leaved B. Lvs. roundish. Stems 2-5'. S. Mts. 

5 H. purpu'rea. Prairie Innocence. Stems upright, much branched, If., with numer- 
ous clusters of roseate or white, very delicate flowers. W. S. 

6 H. longifo'lia. Long-leaved I. Stems 4-10', erect. Leaves oval-elliptic, 

narrowed to end. 

7 H. angustifo'lia. Narrow-leaved I. Stems 1-2 f. erect. Lvs. linear. Flowers 

numerous. W. S. 

Order LXX.— COMPOSITE. Asterworts. 

An immense family of herbs or shrubby plants, with compound flowers, 
that is, the flowers {or florets) collected into close heads upon a common 
receptacle, and surrounded by an involucre of many bracts (called scales), 
with 5 stamens which have their anthers united into a tube around the 
Btyle, with the calyx tube closely adhering to the 1 -celled ovary (an ache- 
nium in fruit), and the calyx limb crowning the ovary in the form of a 
fappus consisting of scales, awns, bristles, or hairs, or else entirely want- 
ing; the corolla consisting of 5 united petals, either strap-shaped (ligulate 
or tubular, and the style 2-cleft at the top. 

In this Order the pupil wiH remember that the heads are called radiate, 
vhen the outer florets only have rays or are ligulate (see Fig. 498) ; radi- 

Order 70.— ASTER WORTS. 


ant, when all the florets are ligulate (Fig. 504) ; discoid, when all the florets 
are tubular, there being no rays (Fig. 509). The receptacle is the broad 
top of the stalk on which the florets sit (Fig. 499). It is chaff y when there 
are scales or bracts growing among the florets, and naked when none. 

The tubular florets constitute the disk, and the ligulate, if any, the ray ; 
the disk is generally yellow, while the ray is about as often cyanic (that is, 
blue, red, white, or any color except yellow) as yellow. 

Fig 49S. A Sunflower. — head radiate. 9. Vertical secition of the head, showing the scales oi 
the involucre, and a single disk-flower remaining upon the convex receptacle. Fig. 500. A per- 
fect di?k-fl>wer magnified, showing the achenium, the 2 awns of the pappus, the 5-toothed tu 
bular corolla, the 5 stamens united around the branched style, and the chaff-scale at base. 1. Heai 
(radiate) of Solidago cassia. 2. A pistillate, ligulate flower of the ray. 8. A perfect disk-flower 
1 A (radiant) head of Dandelion. 5. A perfect, ligulate flower. 6. Achenium, with its long 
beak and feathery pappus. 7. A (radiant) head of Nabalus altissimus. 8. A flower. 9. Lappa 
(Burd ck). head discoid. 10. A flower. 11. One of the hooked scales. 12. A (discoid) head oj 
Eupatorium ruirpureum. 13. A flower. 14. A mbrosia (Pigweed). 15. Starainate head enlarged. 
'ft. PlstWat involucre enlarged. 17. The fertile flower. 


Analysis of the Genera. 

Sub-ord*r First, TUBULIFLOR^E, 

having all the perfect flowers tubular (§ 95), the ligulate flc vers, if any, impeifect 

§ Heads of flowers radiate, with yellow rays 2 

§ Heads of flowers radiate, the rays not yellow 8 

Heads of flowers discoid (no rays). These genera, about 50 in number, such at 
the Tansy, Wormwood, Boneset, Ironweed (Figs. 248-250), Everlasting, Burdock 
(Fig. 509), Thistle, Ilogweed (Fig. 514), and even Bachelors-button, are all, fof 
want of room, omitted. (See Class Book of Botany, p. 410, &c.) 

2 Leaves alternate or scattered on the leafy stems 4 

2 Leaves opposite or whorled on the stems, or all radical 6 

3 Leaves alternate or scattered on the leafy stem 7 

3 Leaves opposite or whorled o*i the leafy stem x 

3 Leaves all radical and the flowers on a scape. . . .y 

4 Receptacle chaffy (with bracts growing among the florets).... 5 

4 Receptacle with deep, horny ceils, like a honeycomb. . ..e 

4 Receptacle not chaffy, flat or merely convex.. ..a 

4 Receptacle not chaffy, conical or globular. . . .f 

5 Rays sterile, disk fertile. Receptacle conical or columnar. . . .g 

5 Rays sterile, disk fertile. Receptacle flattish. Fruit flattened on the sides. . . .h 

5 Rays fertile, disk sterile. Receptacle flat. Fruit flattened same way as scales . . . . * 

6 Receptacle chaffy. Rays sterile, disk fertile o 

6 Receptacle chaffy. Rays fertile, disk sterile p 

6 Receptacle chaffy. Rays fertile, disk perfect. . . .q 

6 Receptacle naked or destitute of chaffy scales . . . .m 
7 Receptacle not chaffy, naked of scales. . . .8 

7 Receptacle chaffy with scales among the florets. Lvs. finely divided v 

7 Receptacle chaffy with scales, &c. Lvs. undivided, merely toothed.... w 

8 Pappus of numerous bristly hairs ... .9 

8 Pappus of 2 or 3 awns and minute hairs. Glabrous plants t 

8 Pappus wholly wanting, or only a membranous margin.... u 

9 Involucre of unequal scales, imbricated in several rows.... 10 
9 Involucre scales nearly equal, narrow, and almost in one row....t 

10 Pappus simple, the bristly hairs abundant and about equal r 

10 Pappus double, the outer row of hairs extremely short s 

a Involucre scales imbricated in several rows. . . .b 

a Involucre not imbricated, the outer scales very short or none Sene'cio. 
a Invol. not imbr., oufer scales equal to the inner. Marigold. Calen'dula. 
a Involucre not imbricated, outer scales longer than inner. S. Gaillar'dia 

b Pappus simple, the bristles all equal and of one kind o 

b Pappus double, the outer very short and chaffy. Lvs. entire. W. S. CHRYsop'sis 

b Pappus double in the disk, none in the rays. Lvs. tcothed. S. Heterothe'ca 

order 70.— ASTERWORTS. 2o3 

c Heads small, rays few (2-15) . . . .d 

c Heads quite large, rays narrow, about 30. Tall. c. Elecampane. Ix'ula. 
rt Pappus scaly, very short. Eoot lvs. cordate. Rays 4 or 5. S. Brachych^e'ta. 
d Pappus abundant bristly hairs. Root lvs. not cordate. Goldenrod. Solida'go. 1 
d Tap. of a single row of equal bristly hairs. Ped. long, slender. S. Isopap'pes. 
e Involucre about 4-rowed. Rays 20-30. Head solitary. S. Baldwin'ia. 
e Invo.^cre about 2-rowed. Ray* 8-10. Heads corymbed. S. Aotinosper'mlm. 
i [l»y florets pistillate. Leaves decurrent. Sneezewort. Hele'nium. 

/ Raj florets neutral. False Sneezewort. Leptop'oda. 

g Fruit (achenia) 4-angled. Heads large, showy. Gone-flower. Rudbeck'ta. 
g Fruit flattened, winged. Heads showy. Rays droop. W. S. Lep'achys. 
a Achenia wingless. Pappus of 2 deciduous scales. Sunflower. HeliaVthus. 2 
h Achenia winged. Pappus of 2 persistent awns. Lvs. often decurrent. AV 

Rag-Sunflower. Actinom 'eris. 
k Achenia wingless, in more than 1 row. Coarse herbs with large heads. 

M. W. Leaf -cup. Sii/phicm. 
k Ach. winged, in only 1 row. Small, with middling hds. S. Berlandie'ra. 

re Stems leafy, erect, about 2f. (or l-3f.) high n 

m Stemless plants, leaves radical, appearing after head*. Colt's-foot. Tussila'go. 
n Scales 5, united in 1 row. Leaves pinnate. French Marigold. Tage'tes. 
n Seal, in 2 rows, the out. united. Lvs. pinn. W. S. False Bog fennel. Dyso'dia. 
n Scales in 1 or 2 rows, all distinct. W. S. Arnica. Ar'nica. 

o Involucre imbricated in 3 or more rows of scales. Sunflower. Heliax'thus. 2 

o Invol. 2-rowed. Pappus of downwardly hispid awns. Burr Marigold. Bi'dexs. 3 
o Invol. 2-rowed. Pappus upwardly hispid if at all. Tick Sunflower. Coreopsis. 4 
p Achenia wingless. Rays 5-12. Herbs viscid, 2-10f. high. S. Polym'xia. 
p Achenia wingless. Rays 5. Herbs 2-10' high, at first stemless. Flowers 

early in Spring. W. S. Chrysog'oxem. 

p Achenia broadly winged. Rays 12-25. Coarse, tall herbs. M. S. W. 

Resin Weed, Polar Plant. Sil'phium. 

q Herbs 3-6f. high. Rays 1-5. Recept. flat. S.-W. Crown Beard. Yerbesi'na. 

q Herbs 2-3f. high. Rays 6-9. Receptacle convex. S.-W. Tetragoxothe'ca. 

q Herbs 2-6f. high. Rays 10-15. Recept. conical. False Sunflower. Heliop'sis. 

q Shrubs 3-10f. high, with solitary heads. S. ' Borrich'ia. 

r Ach. very silky, biggest at top. Rays about 5. False Aster. Sericooar'pcs. 

r Achenia smooth or smoothish, flattened. Rays 6-100. Starwort. Aster. 

s Wild plants l-4f. high, with middle-sized heads (about 1' broad). Diplopap'pus. 

s Garden plants l-2f. high, with very large heads. China Aster. Callis'tephus. 

t Herbs 2-3f. high, very smooth. Leaves lanceolate, entire. W. Bolto'xia. 

t Heibs £-9f. high, hairy or rough. Rays 20-200. White-weed. Erig erox. 

a Involucre bread and flattish. Pappus 0. Rays white. Ox-eye. Leucax'themem. 

u Involucre hemispherical. Pappus a membranous margin. Cult. Pyre / thrum. 

u Involucre hemispherical. Pappus 0. -Lvs. lobed. Cultivated. Chrysanthemum. 

u Inv. bell-shaped. Pappus 0. Lvs. entire. Rays violet- purp. W. f Baisy. Bei/us. 


v Disk florets yellow, perfect. Rays pistillate. Camomile. Anthem'is. 

v Disk florets yellow, perfect. Eays neutral. May-weed. Maru'ta. 

v Disk florets white, perfect. Rays pistillate. Yarrow. Achii/lea. 

w Rays short, white, 8 or 4. W. S. Crown-beard. Verbesi'na. 

w Rays very short, white, 5, ear-shaped. W. M. Parthe'nium. 

# Rajs very large, purple, pendulous. Purple Cone-flower. Echinacea. 

x. Leaves pinnately divided. Inner involucre of 8 united scales, t Dah'lia. 

x Leaves simple. Receptacle conical with large chaff, t Zin'nia. 

x Leaves simple. Receptacle flat. Rays rose-color. Tick-seed. Coreopsis. 

x Leaves simple. Receptacle flat. Rays white, short. W. Eclip'ta. 

x Heads in corymbs. Disk florets regularly 5-toothed. r. Nardos'mia. 

y Heads solitary. Disk florets regularly 5-toothed. S, Daisy. Bei/lis. 

y Hds. solitary. Disk fits. 2-lipped, outer lip 3-toothed, inner 2. S. Chapta'lia 

Sub-order Second, LIGULIFLORJS, 
having all the florets ligulate (§ 9C) and perfect, i. e., the heads radiant. 

2 Flowers bright yellow 3 

2 Flowers cream-color or purplish .... 5 
2 Flowers bine. Stems leafy, erect e 

3 Pappus none. Involucre of about 8 equal scales a 

3 Pappus double, the outer of scales, inner of bristles.. ..b 

3 Pappus wholly of feathery bristles f 

3 Pappus wholly of hair-like bristles, generally abundant. . . .4 

4 Fruit bearing the pappus on its slender beak c 

4 Fruit not lengthened into a beak, pappus sessile d 

5 Pappus consisting of equal, feather-like bristles f 

5 Pappus of simple, hair-like bristles, abundant g 

a Leaves all alternate. Heads panicled. r. Nipplewort. Lampsa'na. 

a Leaves partly opposite. Heads solitary or umbeled. Pappus 0. S. Apo'gon. 

b Leaves all radical, pinnatifid-toothed. Pappus scales 5, with 

5 bristles, c. Dwarf Dandelion. Krig'ia. 

b Lvs. all or mostly rad., seldom pinn. Pap. seal, and bn&t. many. Cyn'thia. 
c Stemless leaves runcinate. Pappus white. Dandelion. Tarax'acum. 8 

c Stems leafy or not. Pappus reddish or tawny. S. Pyrrhopap'pcs. 

c Stems leafy, leaves runcinate. Pappus silky-white, c. Lettuce. Lactu'oa. 

d Pappus brownish Stems mostly leafy, with many heads, c. 

Hawk-weed. Hiera'cium. S 

d Pap. silky white. Stemless ; scapes each with one head. W. Trox'imon. 

d Pappus silky white. Stems bear prickly leaves, c Sow Thistle. Son'ohus. 

• Pappus of many small scales. Branched stems 2f. high. Heads axillary, 

large. Common. Eastward. Succory. Cicho'rium. 

t Pappus of many hair-like bristles. 3-8f. Blue Lettuce. Mulge'dium. 

£ Leaves on the stem linear, entire. Purpl. f Vegetable Oyster. Tragopo'gon. 
f Leaves all radical, toothed. Flowers yellow. Fruit taper-beaked. 

Hawhbit. Lfon'todon 

Oedeb 70.— ASTERWORTS. 


g Ach. with a long beak, pap. silk- white. Heads erect, c. Will Lettuce. Lactu'ca 
g Acbenia not beaked, pappus dull-white. Hds. nod. c. Drop-flower. Nab'aixs 
g Achenia not beaked, pap. dull-white. lids, erect, purple. S. r. Lygodes'mia 


521 523 519 520 513 522 

Achenia of Asterworts, showing the varying pappus. Fig. 518. Achenium of Eclipta, no 
pappus. Fig. 519 Horseweed {Ambrosia trifidd). Fig. 520. Sunflower; pappus 2 teeth 
Fig. 521. Ageratum,— 5 scales. Fig. 522. Blue Lettuce,— many hair-like bristles. Fig. 523. Wild 
Lettuce, pappus raised on a beak. 

1. SOLID A'GO. Goldenrod. 

Heads few-flowered, the rays 1-15, pistillate, disk florets perfect. In- 
volucre oblong, imbricate, with close-pressed scales. Receptacle alveo- 
late, narrow. Pappus simple, of equal, hair-like, rough bristles. — Herbs, 
very abundant in the United States. Stem erect, branching near the top. 
Leaves alternate. Heads small, florets all yellow (in S. bicolor, whitish), 
opening from August to October. (See Figs. 501-503.) 

1 Shrub woody, l-3f. high. Heads with 1-3 rays. S 1 

7 Herbs. Heads without rays (discoid). S 2, 3 

1 Herbs. Heads with rays (1-15, generally small) a 

a Scales of the involucre with recurved, leafy, green tips 4, 5 

a Scales of the involucre erect, tips scarcely at all green. . . .b 

b Heads (white or yellow) in axillary, close clusters or short racemes 6-9 

b Heads in terminal racemes forming a close or a spreading panicle. . . .c 

b Heady in terminal compound corymbs n 

c Racemes erect, not one-sided. Leaves feather-veined d 

c "Racemes spreading or recurved, the flowers all on one side. . . .i 

d Alpine species (growing only on mountains). Heads quite large 10-12 

d Not alpine — growing in plains or low grounds. Heads not large o 

e Plants very smooth, at least the stem and leaves. Eays 4-7 13-15 

e Plants downy or hoary with very close soft hairs. Eays 9-12. . . 16, 17 
f Leaves 3 or 1-veined. Very smooth salt-marsh herbs.... 18, 19 
f Leaves evidently 3-veined. Herbs inland, &c. . . .g 

f Leaves not veiny, thick, subcutive 27-29 

C leaves evidently feather-veined, mostly serrate . .k 


g Leaves entire or very nearly so 20, 21 

g Leaves serrate. Stem smooth and glabrous 22-24 

g Leaves serrate. Stem roughish-pubescent 25, 26 

k Stem downy or hairy. Leaves rough or not 30-32 

x Stem smooth and glabrous. Leaves smooth or rough m 

ra Rays 6-12. Racemes close, forming a compact panicle 38-40 

m Kays 6-12. Racemes distant, loosely or scarcely panicled 36, 37 

m Rays 2-5. Racsmes, or the panicle, long and slender 33-35 

n Leaves lanceolate, large. Stem smooth 44-46 

n Leaves lanceolate, large. Stem rough-downy 41-43 

n Leaves linear, entire. Stems much branched, smoothish.. . .47, 43 

I S. pauciflosculo'sa. Shrubby Goldenrod. Bush 2f. high, very smooth, with 

lanceolate leaves and the 5-flowered heads in erect, panicled racemes. S. 
2 S. discoi'dea. Bayless G. Disk florets 10-15. Racemes erect, panicle slender. S. 
8 S. brachyphyl'la. Chapman's G. Florets 5-7. Racemes spreading, one-sided. S. 

4 S. squarro'sa. Bagged S. Rays 10-15. Scales stiff, with spreading, green 

tips. Heads large. N. 

5 S. squarrulo'sa. Bough S. Rays 6-10. Scales awl-shaped, with slender, 

loose tips. S. 

6 S. bi'color. Creamy S. Rays about 8, creamy-white. Plant hairy. Lvs. elliptic. 

7 S. Buck'lyi. Buckles S. Rays 4-6, yellow. Plant woolly. Leaves oblong. S. 

8 S. latifo'lia. Broad-leaved S. Rays yellow. Plant smoothish. Leaves broad 

lanceolate, coarse-toothed. Seed downy, c. 

9 S. cae'sia. Polished S. Rays yellow. Plant smooth and glaucous. Lvs. lin. -lance- 

olate. Stem flexuous, tall, slender. A beautiful Goldenrod. Woods, c. 
10 S. thyrsoi / dea. Thyrse G. Leaves ovate, long-stalked. Tall, l-3f. high. 
Heads large. Coarse, showy. In mountain woods. 

II S. Virgau'rea. True G. Leaves oval, short-stalked. Low, 2-3' high. Heads 

about 30-flowered, few, often only one. 
12 S. hum'ilis. Mountain G. Lvs. oblanceolate. High 6-12'. Heads about 12-flwd. 

13 S. virga'ta. Virgate G. Heads all in one raceme at top. 

14 S. striata. Upright G. Heads in a panicle, which is narrow and erect. 

15 S. specio'sa. Showy G. Heads in a thyrse-like panicle, large and very showy, 

Pedicels shorter than the involucre, pubescent. Leaves very broad. 

16 S. verna. Early S. Whitish-downy. Lower leaves ovate. May, June. S. 

17 S. puber'ula. Busty S. Dnsty-puberulent. Lower leaves oblanceolate, 

Panicle long, compound, dense. Scales acute. Aug. N. 

18 S. sempervi'rens. Eoergreen S. Lvs. lanceolate, thick, obscurely 3- veinea E 

19 S. angustifo'lia. Narrow-lv. S. Lvs. lance-lin. 1-veined, thick. Hds. small. S 

20 S. nemora'lis. Wood S. Plant dusty, roughish. Lvs. acute. Rays showy, c 

21 S. rupes'tris. Bock S. Plant smooth. Lvs. acuminate. Rays very short. W 

22 S. Missourien'sis. Missourie G. St. l-2f. All glabrous. Panicle dense. W 

23 S. sero'tina. Late G. Stem 3-6f. Leaf veins hairy beneath. Panicle loose- 
21 S. gigan'tea. Giant G. Stem 3-8f. Branchlets hairy. Leaves lanceolate 

Ordek 70.— ASTFRWOKTS. 237 

25 S. Canadensis. Canada Q. Leaves pointed, rough. Panicle broad, c. 

26 S. Short 'ii. Shorts (r. Leaves acute, very smooth. Panicle long, narrow. W % 

27 S. pilo'sa. Hairy S. Hairy, 4-7 f. high. Leaves remotely serrulate. N.-J. S. 

28 S. odo'ra. Stceet S. Stem downy in lines, slender, 2-3f. high. Leaves very en- 

tire, smooth, punctate with pellucid dots. Fragrant, c. 

29 S. lortifo'lia. Twist-lv. S. Stem rough. Lvs. often twisted, not punctate. S. 

8C S. amVsima. Tall S. Stem hairy, 4-6f. Lvs. veiny, rough. Scales acute, c 
81 S. Drammon'dii. DrummondPs S. Stem l-2f. Lvs. velvety. Scales obtuse. W 
32 S. rad'ula. Easp-lv. S. Stem rough-downy. Lvs. oblong-spatulate. W. 

83 S. ulmifo'lia. Elm S. Branchlets hairy. Scales acute. Eays 3 or 4, disk flow- 
ers 3 or 4. N. W. 

34 S. Boot'ii. Bootfs S. Branchlets hairy. Scales obtuse. Eays 2-n, disk flower*-: 
8-12. S. 

65 S. iinoi'des. Flux S. Smooth all over. Scales obtuse. Eays 1-4. 12-20', N. 

36 S. Muhlenber'gii. Muhlenberg 's S. Lvs. large, thin, notched, smooth both 

sides. Heads 15-nowered. N. 

37 S. pat'ula. Spreading S. Lvs. large, thick, very rough on the upper side. 

Stem 2-4f, branches leafy. Heads 20-flowered. N. 
B8 S. ellip'tica. Marsfi S. Very leafy. Lvs. elliptic. Panicle dense, pyramidal. 
B9 S. argu'ta. Saw-lv. 3. Leaves few, elliptic, sharply serrate. Panicle spreading, 
40 S. neglec'ta. Neglected S. Leaves few, serrate, lin. -lanceolate. Panicle narrow. 

41 S. Ohien'sis. Ohio S. Smooth all over. Lvs. obtuse, flat. Corymbed. W. 

42 S. Riddel 'lii. RiddeWsS. Branches, &c, dust-downy. Lvs. acute, concave. 

Heads corymbed. W. 

43 S. corymbo'sa. Corymbed S. Branches corymbed, hirsute. Outer secund. 

44 S. Houghto'nii. Houghton s S. Hds. few, very large. Otherwise like No. 41. N.-W. 

45 S. rig'ida. Stiff S. Lvs. rigid. Heads very large. Scales obtuse. Height 3-5f. 

46 S. Spithamae'a. Dwarf S. Leaves thin, sharp-serrate. Scales acute. Height 

6-12'. Mountains. S. 

47 S. lanceola'ta. Lance-lv. S. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 3-5- veined. Eaya 

minute, about 17. Corymbs crowded, fragrant, c. 

48 S. tenuifo'lia. Linear ~lv. S. Leaves narrow-linear, one-veined. Eays short, 

about 10. More slender, with thinner clusters, c. 

2. HELTAN'THUS. Sunflower. 

Heads many-flowered, rays neutral, disk-florets perfect. Scales of ^.he 
involucre in several rows, more or less imbricated. Torus fiat or convex, 
the chaff persistent, embracing the 4-sided, flattened achenia. Pappus of 
2 chaify awns, deciduous. — Herbs, mostly if, rough. Leaves opposite, the 
apper often alternate, mostly 3-veined. Heads mostly large, the disk 
from half an inch to If. broad. Ears yellow, disk yellow or purple. July- 
Oct. (Figs. 498, <fec.) 


$ Disk with its corohas and pales dark purple a 

§ Disk with its corollas and pales yellow c 

a Herbs annual. Leaves chiefly alternate. . ..1,2 

a Herbs perennial. Leaves opposite b 

b Scales of the involucre acuminate 3-5 

b Scales of the involucre obtuse 6, 7 

c Leaves chiefly alternate and feather- veined 8-11 

c Leaves chiefly opposite and 3- veined or triple- veined . . ,d 

d Scales of involucre erect, closely imbricated e 

d Scales loosely spreading. Heads large, 9-1 5- rayed f 

d Scales loosely spreading. Heads small, 5-8-rayed.. ..22 25 

e Plants green, rough 12, 13 

e Plants whitish, downy.. ..14, 15 

f Scales lance-linear, longer than disk. Leaves thin.... 16, 17 
f Scales lance-ovate, as long as the disk. Leaves thick 18-21 

1 H. an'nuus. G>?nmon S. Stout and tall (3-10f.). Heads large 6-10 across, 

nodding. Achenia (seeds) glabrous. A variety has all the flowers ligulate. 

2 H. deb'ilis. Slender S. Slender, decumbent. Heads small. Seeds downy. S. 

3 H. Rad'ula. Rasp-lv. S. Leaves roundish, rough, obtuse. Eays 7-10 or none. S. 

4 H. heterophyrius. Leaves oval, lanceolate, &c. Kays 12-18. Pales acute. S. 

5 H. angustifo'lius. Leaves lance- linear, pointed. Pales 3-toothed. N.-J. S. 

6 H. rigidus. Rigid S. Lvs. lanceolate, pointed. Scales ovate, acute. Ks. 12-20. W. 

7 H. atrorubens. Livid S. Leaves ovate, obtusish. Scales oblong, obtuse. S. 

8 H. gigan'teus. Tall S. Hairy, rough. Lvs. lanceolate, pointed, serrate, c. 

9 H. tornento'sus. Velvets. Very downy. Lower lvs. ovate, nearly entire. W. S. 

10 H. grosse-serra'tus. Coarse-toothed S. Stem smooth. Leaves lance-pointed t 

sharp-serrate. Kays 15-20. W. 

11 H. fubero'sus. Artichoke. Cultiv. Lvs. 3-veined, lower cordate-ovate. 

12 H. laetiflo'rus. Laughing S. Branched. Leaves lance-oval, short petioled. 

13 H. occidentals. Western S. Stem slender, simple, nearly leafless above. 

14 H. mc-riis. Soft S. Leaves ovate, cordate, sessile. Plant woolly. W. 

15 H. cine'reus. Ashy S. Lvs. ovate-oblong, tapering to base. Ashy-downy. O. 

16 H decapet'alous. Ten-rayed S. Kays 9-1 2. Leaves all opposite. Stem 3-4 f. N. M. 

17 H. tracheliifo'lius. Trach-leaved S. Kays 12-15. Branch lvs. alternate. 4-8f. W. 

18 H. doronicoi / des. False Tiger-bane. Leaves petiolate, ovate, and lance- 

ovate, upper alternate. Scales longer than disk. Kays 12-15. W. S. 

19 H. strumous. Warty S. Leaves short-petioled, lance-ovate, all alike. 

Scales equalling the disk. c. A double-flowered variety is cultivated. 

20 H. hirsu'tus. Hairy S. Leaves petiolate, hairy beneath. Scales hairy. W, 

21 H. divarica'tus. F</rked S. Leaves sessile, very rough, opposite or ternate. c. 

22 H. microceph'alus. Small S. Stem smooth, much branched. Lvs. narrow. W. 

23 H Schweinit'zii. Schweinitz's S. Stem downy, rough. Leaves white, downy. Car. 

24 H. lcDviga'tus. Polished S. Stem and leaves very smooth. Not branched. S. Mts. 

25 H. longifo'lius. Long-lvd. S. Leaves lance-linear, acute, smooth. Rays 8-10. Ga 

Order 70.— ASTERTTOKTS. 239 

3. BI'DENS. Burr-Marigold. 

Involucre scales nearly equal, double, the outer generally large and 
leafy. Rays few (3-8, or sometimes none), neutral, disk perfect. Recep- 
tacle chaffy, flat. Achenia flattened or 4-sided, crowned with 2-4 awns 
vhich are hispid backwards. — Leaves opposite. July- Oct, 

Kays inconspicuous or none a 

* Kays quite showy, yellow 4, 5 

a Achenia flattened, broadest at top 1-3 

a Achenia slender, 4-sided 6, 7 

1 B. frondo'sa. Leafy B. Leaves pinnately 3-5-fol., divisions distinct. Kays 0. 

2 B. conna'ta. Leaves simple, lower ones sometimes 3-parted. Kays 0. 

3 B. cer'nua. Sodding B. Leaves simple, scarcely connate. Kays few or 0. 

4 B. chrysanthemoi'des. Mud B. Lvs. narrow-lance., equally serrate, connate. 

5 B. Beck'ii. Bedys B. Lvs. mostly under water and very finely divided. M. 

6 B. leucan'tha. White B. Head* small, with white rays. Lvs. pinnate. S. 

7 B. bipinna'ta. Spanish Xeedles. Kays very short, yellow. Lvs. bi-pinnate 

4. COREOP'SIS. Tick-seed. 

Involucre many-flowered, double, each of 8-13 scales, the outer leafy, 
the inner membranous. Receptacle flat, the chaff falling with the fruit. 
Achenia flattened, often winged, emarginate, each commonly with 2 teeth 
or awns which are not hispid downwardly as in Bidens. — Lea^s gener- 
ally opposite. 1 1 ends showy (rarely without rays). 

* Heads discoid (without rays) 1, 2 

* Heads radiate, rays showy a 

a Disk yellow, rays also yellow, mostly entire b 

a Disk yellow, rays rose-colored, 3-5-tootbed at the end 20, 21 

a Drsk purple, rays yellow with a purple base, toothed 18, 19 

a Disk purple, rays wholly yellow, toothed at the end 14-17 

b Leaves petiolate, compound, with lanceolate, toothed divisions.. . .3-5 

b Leaves petiolate, compound, with linear, entire divisions 6, 7 

b Leaves petiolate, simple, or some of them eared at base 8-10 

Leaves sessile, 3-parted, divisions entire or not often, seeming whorled... ll-IS 

1 C. discoi'dea. Bayless T. Leaves on long petioles, ternately divided. W. 

2 C. bidentoi'des. Leaves on short petioles, toothed, lance-linear. Peon, r. 
C au'rea. Golden T. Leaflets 3-5. Outer scales about 8. Achenia 2-4-toothed. & 

4 C. trichosper'ma. Leaflets 5-7. Outer scales about 8. Ach. slender, 2-'oothed 
b O. aristo'sa. Leaflets 5-7. Outer scales 10-13. Achenia 2 or 4-awned. W. 

6 C. trip'teris. Stem 4-8f. high. Hds. on short stalks. Kays £' long, entire. W. 8 

7 C. grandiflo'ra. St. l-2f. high. Heads on lon^ stalks. Rays V long, 4r-5-cl eft. S 



8 O. iatifo'lia. Stem 4-Gf. high. Rays entire. Leaves ovate, serrate. S. 

9 C auricula'ta. Stem l-3f. high. Rays 2-5-toothed. Lvs. often eared at base. 8 

10 C lanceola'ta. Stem 2-Sf. high. Kays 4-5-toothed. Lvs. lanceolate, entire. S. 

11 senifo'lia. Leaf divisions all entire, appearing in 6-Jeaved whorls. S. 

12 C. veiticilla'ta. Leaf divisions all again divided into narrow-linear lobes. W. 

13 0. palma'ta. Lvs. deeply 3-cleft, wedge-shaped, lobes linear, not whorled. W. 

11 O delphinifo'lia. Leaves sessile, 3-parted, the divisions often lobed. S. 
J 5 O gladia'ta. &word-lv. 0. Leaves petioled, lance- 
olate, sometimes divided. Stem round. S. 

16 0. angustifo'lia. Narrow-lv. 0. Leaves petioled, 

narrow-spatulate, entire. Stem square. S. 
i7 O. CEm'leri. (EmleSs 0. Leaves petioled, lance- 
ovate, entire. Stem round below. S. 

18 C. Drummon'dii. Drummon/Ps 0. Lvs. pin- 

nately 3-5-foliate, divisions oblong oval, 
entire, t 

19 O. tincto'ria. Dyer'* 8 0. Leaves pinnately 

much divided, divisions linear, entire, f 

20 O. ro'sea. Hose G. Stem leafy, leaves narrow- 

linear, entire. Rays rose-white. E. 

21 C. nuda'ta. Leaflet* 0. Stem few-leaved, leaves 

awl-shaped, entire. Rays rose-red. S. 

5. ASTER. Starwort 

Heads many-flowered. Scales of the invo- 
lucre generally imbricated in two or more 
rows, and with green tips. Disk florets tubu- 
lar, perfect, rays fertile, in one row, oblong, 
revolute when old. Receptacle flat, marked 
with pits. Pappus simple, hair-like, rough. 
— A large genus of U herbs, very abundant in the United States, flower- 
ing in late summer and autumn. Leaves alternate ; disk florets yellow, 
changing to purple ; rays blue, purple, or white, never yellow. — The spe- 
cies are very variable, and many of them are hard to distinguish. 

* Radical and lower leaves cordate and pctiolate a 

* Radical leaves never cordate c 

a Heads in loose corymbs. Rays white or whitish 1, 2 

a Heads in racemes or panicles, clue or bluish. . . .b 
^ Leaves evidently serrate ; rays light blue, about 12, spreading V . . .3, 4 
b Leaves entire or nearly so ; rays bright blue, spreading near 1'. . . .5-7 

c Involucre scales tipped with green, or the outer ones wholly green.. . .d 

c Involucre scales with scarious margins or wholly scarious f 

Fig. 524. Aster Isevis. 
Achenium usually flattened. 

Order TO.— ASTER WORTS. ^4] 

d Stem leaves c.asping, with a cordate or auricled base e 

d Stem leaves sessile, rarely clasping, never cordate or auricled.. ..19 

e Involucre scales close, in several rows, outer ones gradually shorter... .8, 9 
e Involucre scales loose, nearly equal, outer ones often wholly green.. ..10-12 

f Leaves lanceolate and linear-lanceolate, more or less rough 13-15 

/ Leaves linear, fleshy, very smooth, entire. Salt-marsh herbs 16-18 

1 A. corymbo'sus. Corymbed S. Slender, with thin, serrate leaves. 

2 A. macrophyl'lus. Big-lvd. S. Stout, with large, thick, ser., rough lvs. 1 8-rayed, 

8 A. cordifo'lius. Heart-leaved S. Involucre scales close, obtuse. Lvs. sharp-serrate. 

4 A. sagittifo'lius. Arrow-leaved S. Scales awl-shaped, long, loose. Lvs. blunt-serrate. 

5 A. azu'reus. Azure S. Stem leaves sessile, rough, lanceolate, and linear. 

6 A. undruVtus. Stem lvs. on winged stalks, with rounded clasping bases, wavy. 

7 A. Shor'tii. Shorts S. Stem leaves on naked stalks, all cordate, pointed, entire. 

5 A. patens. Patent S. Plant rough-downy. Leaves entire. Scales pointed. 

9 A. laevis. Polished S. Plant smooth and glaucous. Scales broad, acute. 

10 A. prenanthoi'&es. Lvs. sharply cut-serrate, with a long, slender, entire base. 

11 A. punic'eus. Eed-st. S. Lvs. sparingly serrate, lance. Stem hairy, often red. 

12 A. Novse-Angliae. New -England & Leaves entire, rough, numerous. Rays 

nearly 100, f long. Stems 4-6f. high. A fine species, often cultivated. 

13 A acumina'tus. Pell S. Leaves coarsely-toothed, broad-lanceolate, long-pointed, 

often clustered. Kays white. In dark woods. N. 

14 A. nemora / us. Wood S. Leaves narrow-lanceolate, nearly entire, acute, with 

edges revolute. Heads 1-3. In damp woods. N. M. 

15 A. ptarmicoi'des. Sneezewort S. Leaves entire, stiff, acute. Heads corymbed. 

16 A. flexuc/sus. Zigzag S, Heads large, with showy rays. Stem flexuous. 

17 A. linifo'lius. Flax S. Heads numerous, with very short rays in 2 rows. 

18 A. subula'tus. Heads with showy blue rays. Scales in 2 or 3 rows. S 
19 Many species, very variable, here omitted. (See p. 420, Class Book.) 

6. ERKxERON. Fleabane. Whiteweed. 

Heads many-flowered, mostly hemispherical, rays very numerous 
(20- 200), narrow, linear, pistillate ; disk flowers perfect. Receptacle flat, 
naked (no chaff or pits). Scales of the involucre nearly equal and in one 
row. Pappus generally simple. — Herbs with alternate leaves. Rays 
white, blue, or reddish. Flowering from May to September. 

Rays showy, longer than the involucre. Heads large (\-V broad) a 

Kays obscure, shorter than the involucre, whitish. Heads very small. . ..1,2 
a Rays parple, very numerous. Heads loosely corymbed. . . .3-5 

a Rays vihite or whitish. Heads loosely panicled 6-8 

1 E. Canaden'se. Canada F. Erect, hairy. Leaves lanceolate. Heads panicle i 
% E. divarica'tum Prostrate F. Low, "diffuse. Lvs. linear. Heads corymbed. W 


3 "2. beliidifo'lium. Daisy F. Leaves nearly entire. Rays 50-80, bluish -p. 

4 E. Fhiladerphicum. Leaves nearly entire. Rays 150-200, reddish-purple. 

5 E. quercifo'lium. Oak-lv. F. Lvs. sin uate-pinnatiiid- toothed. Rays 100-200. 8. 
G E. an'nuum. Annual F. Stem leafy, 3-5f. high. Leaves coarse-toothed. 

7 E. strigo'sum. Bough F. Stein leafy, 2-3f. high. Leaves nearly entire. 

8 E. nudicau'le. Naked F. Stem leafless, l-2f. high. Rays about 30. S. 

7. AOHILLE'A. Yarrow. Millfoil. 

Heads many-flowered, rays few, fertile ; receptacle flat, chaffy ; achenia 
flattened, margined, without a pappus. — U European herbs with small, 
4~12-rayed heads in corymbs. June -Sept. 

1 A. millefo'lium. Leaves twice pinnatifid with fine segments. Rays 4 or 5. c. 

2 A. Ptar'mica. Sneezewort. Leaves undivided, lance-linear, serrate. Rays 8-12. r. 

8. TARAX'ACUM. Dan'delion. 

Involucre many-flowered, double, the outer of small scales much shortei 
than the close, erect row of the inner. Receptacle naked. Achenia pro- 
duced into a long beak crowned with copious white, hair-like bristles of 
the pappus. — A caulescent herbs with runcinate leaves. (Figs. 504-506.) 

T Dens-leo'nis. Dan'delion. Outer scales of the involucre reflexed. Leaves run 
cinate, smooth, dentate. — In all open situations, blossoming at all seasons ex- 
cept winter. Scape round, hollow, lengthening after flowering, and bearing a 
globular head of seeds and seed-down, whose light and airy form is h very famil 
iar sight to all. 

9. HIERA'CIUM. Hawkweed. 

Involucre more or less imbricated, egg-shaped, many-flowered. Ache- 
nia not prolonged into a beak, striate. Pappus of rough, brittle, numerous 
tawny bristles in a single row. — % Leaves alternate, entire, or toothed 
Florets yellow . Ju ly-Sep t. 

* Involucre and stalks smooth or nearly so a 

• Involucre, stalks, &c, rough with glandular hairs.... b 

a Heads with 50 to 60 florets .... 1 

a Heads with 10 to 20 florets 2, 8 

b Heads with 40 to 50 florets. . . .4 
b Heads with 20 to 30 florets 5, 6 

1 H. Canaden'se. Canada H. Stem leafy, corymbed at top. Leaves sharp- 
toothed. N. 

Okder 71.— LOBELIADS. 243 

2 H. panicula'tum. Panicled II. Stem leafy, widely panicled. Leaves fine-toothed 
8 H. veno'sum. Rubin's Plantain. Stem almost leafless, corymbed. Lvs. entire, 

4 H. scabnim. Rough H. Heads corymbed. Plant stiff, rough-kairy. 
5 H. longip'ilum. Long-haired H. Plant clothed with straight bristles 1' long. W 
<> H. G-rono'vii. Gronovius 1 H. Plant slender, quite hairy below. 

10. KAB'ALUS. Lion's-foot. 

Involucre cylindrical, double, the inner of many linear scales in one 
row, the outer of a few short scales at base. Receptacle naked. Achenia 
smooth, striate, not beaked, crowned with a copious, straw-colored or 
brownish hair-like pappus. — Erect herbs, with a thick, tuberous, bit- 
ter root. Heads o-18-flowered, white or straw-colored, often purplish. 
Aug. -Oct. 

* Heads glabrous, pendulous. Leaves multiform in the same plant a 

• Heads hairy, erect or nodding. Leaves reniform, undivided 7-9 

a Tall (2-4f. high). Heads (8-1 2-flowered) in a corymb-like panicle 1, 2 

a Tall (2-6f. high). Heads in a long, raceme-like panicle 3, 4 

a Low (5-10' high). Heads racemed. Found only on high mountains.... 5, (J 

1 N. aPba. White L. Pappus cinnamon-color. Leaves hastate, often lobed. 

2 N. Fra'seri. Fraser^s L. Pappus straw-color. Leaves deltoid, often cleft. 

3 N. amVsimus. Tall L. Heads 5-flowered. Leaves divided, or cleft, or entire. 

4 N. virga'tus. Rod L. Heads 8-1 2-flowered. Lowest leaves pinnatifid 

5 N. na'nus. Dwarf L. Outer involucre of short-ovate, close scales. 

6 N. Boot'tii. Bootfs L Outer involucre of linear, loose scales. 

7 N. racemo'sus. Racemed L. Heads nodding, 9-1 2-flowered. W. M. 

8 N. crepidin'eus. Crepis L. Heads nodding, 25-35-flowered. W. S. 

9 N. as'per. Rough L. Heads erect, 11-14-flowered. Panicle racemed. W. 

Order LXXI. LOBELIACE^E. Lobeliads. 

Herbs with alternate leaves, scattered flowers, and often milky juice ; 
calyx superior ; corolla irregular, 5-lobed, tube split down to the base ; 
stamens 5, united into a tube both by the filaments and anthers ; 
9vary adherent to the calyx tube ; styles united into one ; 
Yigma fringed ; fruit a 2-3-celled, many-seeded capsule. 

LOBE'LIA. Cardinal-flower. Indian Tobacco. 
The two upper lobes of the irregular corolla are smaller than the three 


lower. Stamens united into a curved tube. Stigma 2-lobed. Capsule 
opening at top. Seeds very small. — Flowers axillary, generally forming 
leafy or br acted racemes. July-Sept. 

§ Stems leafy a 

| Stems leafless, leaves nearly all crowded at the root, under water. . . .11, 12 

a Flowers bright red or scarlet, large and showy 1,2 

a Flowers blue, varying to bluish-white. . ..b 
b Stem stout, 2-3 or 4f. high. Flowers large, about V long. . . .3-5 
b Stem slender, 6'-2f. high. Flowers small (£-*' long). . . .c 

c Stem branched, racemes several, ioose, or flowers scattered.. ..6, 7 

c Stem generally simple, bearing a single raceme 8-10 

1 L. cardina / lis. Cardinal-flwr. Stem smooth. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, acute. 

2 L. fallens. Mexican. Stem downy. Leaves linear-lanceolate, long-pointed, f 

3 L. puber'ula. Leaves obtuse, denticulate. Eaceme one-sided. Plant downy. 

4 L. syphilitica. Blue C. Lvs. acute, slightly toothed. Racemes equal, hairy. 

5 L. amce'ria. Pretty 0. Leaves acuminate, toothed. Kacemes one-sided, 

smoothish. S. 

6 L. infla'ta. Indian Tobacco. Hairy. Lvs. ovate-lanceolate, toothed. Pod inflated. 

7 L. Kal'mii. KalnCs G. Smooth. Leaves linear-spatulate, entire. Fls. blue-white. 

8 L. Nuttal'lii. NuttaWs L. f Pedicels twice as long as the flowers. Leaves 

linear, extremely slender. S. M. 

9 L. spica'ta. Spiked L. Pedicels as long as the flowers. Racemes dense. 

Leaves oblong. 
10 L. leptostach'ya. Slender-spiked L. Pedi. none. Lvs. lance-oval, smooth. W 
11 L. Dortman'na. Water L. Root leaves linear, terete, hoilow, fleshy. Scape long. 
• 12 L. paludo'sa. Marsh L. Root leaves linear-oblong, flat. Stem tall. S. 


Herbs with a milky juice, alternate leaves ; 
flowers mostly blue and showy, with a superior 

calyx; a regular and mostly campanulate 5-lobed corolla ; with the 5 
stamens usually separate, and ovary adherent to the calyx tube; and with 
the 2-5-celied pod crowned with the remains of the calyx. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

Calyx tube very short (below the flower). Campan'ula. 1 

Calyx tube long and three-angled. Specula 'ria 

Order 72.— BELL WORTS. 


CAMPANULA. Bell-flower. Harebell. 

Calyx 5-cleft. Corolla bell-shaped, 
funnel-shaped, or wheel-shaped, its 
5 lobes valvate in the bud, closed at 
the base inside by the valve-like 
bases of the 5 stamens. Pod open- 
ing on the sides. — U Herbs with 
axillary or terminal flowers. June- 

Fig. 526. The Harebell, the whole plant 
7. Ovary of Canterbury Bells, with/, a broad 
filament, .9, an anther, and p, the hairy style. 
S. A cross-section of the curious 5-celled seed- 
vessel, 2 placentae in each cell. 9. Seed cut 
open, showing the large embryo. Fig. 530. 
Flower of American Bellwort Fig. 531. 
Flower of Patent Bellwort. 

§ Corolla wheel-shaped, flat, in leafy spikes 1, 2 

§ Corolla bell-shaped, &c, broadly or narrowly.. ..a 
a Flowers on slender pedicels, solitary or panicled. . . .b 
a Flowers sessile or nearly so. Stem erect. Gardens 7-9 

b Flowers large (6-1 2" broad). Boot leaves unlike the stem leaves 3, 4 

b Flowers small (2-5" broad). Leaves all similar in form. . . .5, 6 

1 0. America'na. American B. Stem tall (2-4f.). Leaves pointed at ends, smooth. 

2 0. planinVra. Stem low (7-12'), simple. Lvs. thick, shining-, obtnse, or acute, i 

3 C. rotundifo / lia. Harebell. Stem weak. Boot lvs. roundish, stem lvs. linear. 

4 C. persicifo'lia. Peach B. Stem erect. Leaves lance-linear. Flowers very 

broad, f 
C. aparinoi'des. Bedstraw B. Stem reclining, rough backwards. Flowers white. 
6 C. divarica'ta. Patent B. Erect. Panicle wide. Leaves toothed. Fls. blue. S, 

7 O. glomera'ta. Flowers crowded above, funnel-shaped. Plant smooth, f 

8 C. me'dium. Canterbury B. Flowers distant, very large, obtuse at base, f 

9 C. lanuginosa. Woolly B. Flowers scattered, rather large, acute at base. * 



Order LXXIII. ERICACEAE. Heathworts. 

Herbs, or more generally shrubs, with simple, often evergreen leaves ; 
flowers regular or nearly so, 4 or 5-parted; petals rarely almost distinct; 
stamens as many or twice as many as the lobes of the corolla, and the 
anthers oddly appendaged and generally opening by two terminal pores ; the 
style 1, and the ovary 4-10-celled, with albuminous seeds. 


1 Jfhg. 532. Azalea procumbens. 3. A flower enlarged. 4. A stamen, much enlarged, showing 
[tile lengthwise opening of each of the cells. 5 Cross-section of a 5-celled capsule of Rhododen- 
dron, showing the inflexed margins of the valves. 6. Pyrola secunda. 7. A flower enlarged 
8. A stamen enlarged, showing the terminal tubes and pores. 9. Cross-section of a 5-celle<1, 
many-seeded capsule. Fig. 540. Checkerberry {Gaultheria). 1. A flower enlarged. 2. A berry. 
8. Vertical section of the ovary, showing the free, fleshy calyx. 4. Anther of the Vacciniuui 
Vitis-Idese. 5. Stamen of Bearberry (Arctostaphylos). 6. Awned stamen of a Blueberry ( Tact 

Okder 73.— HEATHWORTS. 24? 

Analysis of the Genera 

§ Shrubs or trees, or shrubleta 2 

§ Herbs evergreen, with green herbage and leaves m 

§ Herbs leafless, without verdure. Bracts scale-like n 

2 Calyx adherent, crowning the berry in fruit a 

2 Calyx free from the ovary, or inferior 3 

8 Petals united into a gamopetalous corolla. . . .4 

8 Petals entirely or very nearly separate and distinct ...5 

4 Flowers 4-parted. Stamens 8 b 

4 Flowers 5-parted. Stamens 5 or 10 

5 Pods 2 or 3-celled, cells only 1-seeded. Southern. . . .k 

5 Pods 3-celled, cells many-seeded g 

5 Pods 5 or 7-celled, cells many-seeded h 

6 Corolla urn-shaped (oval or globular), lobes small c 

6 Corolla not urn-shaped, open or spreading e 

a Erect shrubs with 5-parted flowers and 10-seeded berries. 

Huckleberi'ies. Gaylussa'cia. 
a Erect shrubs with 5-parted flowers andoo-seeded berries. 

Blueberries. Vaccin'ium. 
a Trailing shrublets. Corolla 4-cleft, reflexed. Fr. red. Cranberry. Oxvcoc'crs. 1 
a Trailing shrublets. Corolla 4-cleft, spreading. Fruit white. 

Boxberry. Chiog'enes. 2 
d Leaves linear-acerose, whorled or crowded. Cultivated. Heath. Er'ica. 

b Leaves oval-lanceolate. Shrub, 4f. high. Penn.S. ) Mountairi jleuth. Mkkzie'ma. 
c Pod dry, opening bet. the cells. Lvs. lin. N. J 

c Pod dry, opening into the cells d 

c Drupe fleshy, 5-seeded. Shrubs trailing. Bearberry. Arctostaph'ylos. 
c Berry fleshy, many-seeded. Little shrublets. Checkerberry. Gaulthe'ria. 3 
d Shrublet moss-like, on high Mts. Leaves linear. Moss Andromede. Cassi'ope. 
d Shrubs with ample leaves. Pod-valves entire. Andromede. Androm'eda. 

d Tree with ample leaves and slender racemes. Sorrel-tree. Oxydjsn'dbdm, 

e Corolla saucer-form, holding the anthers in 10 pits. Laurel. Kal/mia. 4 

e Corolla salver-form, very fragrant. Trailing. May-flower. Epig^e'a. S 

e Corolla funnel or bell-form, with spreading lobes f 

t Stamens 5, included. Plant and leaves very small. Mts. N. II. Leioselei/ria. 
f Stamens 5 (rarely more), long-exserted. Corolla funnel-form. Aza'lea. 6 

f Stamens 10 (rarely fewer), exserted. Corolla bell-form. Bay. Rhododendron. 
g Leaves alternate, deciduous, serrate. Flowers racemed. Cle'thra, 

g Leaves mostly opposite, evergreen, entire. Flowers umbeled. 

Sand Myrtle. Leiophyi/lum. 
h Flowers 5-parted. Corolla regular. Labrador Tea. Le'dum. 

h Flowers 5-parted. Corolla irregular. Khodo^a. 

h Floweis 7-parted, regular. Stamens 14. S. Befa'rla. 


R Flowers 4-parted, with 8 stamens and a 3-seeded pod. S. Elliot'tia. 

k Flowers 5 parted, with 5 stamens. Leaves lanceolate, entire. S. Cyryi/la. 

k Flowers 5-parted, with 10 stamens. Lvs. lanceol., entire. S. Myloca'ryum. 
m Flowers racemed, many. Perennial, low, smooth, erect. Pyr'ola. 

m Flower solitary, one only. Perennial, small. N. r. Mone'ses. 

ir Flowers corymbed, few. Leaves evergreen, thick. Pipsissiwa. Chimaph'jia. 9 

n Corolla polypetalous. Plant white, reddish, &c. Indian Pipe. Monot'ropa.16 

n Corolla gamopetalous, bell-shaped, in a short spike. S. Schweinit'zia. 

n Corolla gamop., egg-shaped, in a loose rac. Albany Beechdr ops. Pteros'pora. 

1. OXYCOO'CUS. Cranberry. 

Calyx superior, 3-cleft. Corolla 4-parted, with lance-linear, reflexed 
segments. Stamens 8, anthers tubular, 2-parted, opening by oblique 
pores. Berry globular, 4-celled, many-seeded. — Trailing and very slen- 
der, with woody stems, alternate, thick, narrow, entire leaves, and acid, 
eatable fruit. Flowers purplish. June. 

1 O. palus'tris. Bog C. Stems thread-form, trailing. Leaves ovate, 2-4 // long. 

Pedicels terminal, 1 -flowered. 

2 O. macrocar'pus. Market G. Stems thread-form, trailing. Leaves oblong, 4-6'' 

long. Pedicels axillary, 1 -flowered. 

3 O. erytho car'pus. Bush O. Stems l-3f. high, erect. Leaves oval, pointed, ser- 

rulate. Petals not reflexed at first. S. Mountains. 

2. CHIOG'ENES. Boxberry. 

\ C. hispid'ula. Running B. A little woody creeper, 4 to 6' long, in old woods, 
northward. Leaves many, small, oval. Flowers white, 4-parted. Berry white. 
Plant tastes like Checkerberry. (Fig. 547.) 

Fig. 547. Boxberry, the entire plant. 

3. GAULTHE'RIA. Checkerberry. 

Calyx 5-cleft, with 2 bractlets at base. Corolla urn-shaped, the limb 
of 5 short, re volute lobes. Stamens 10. Capsule 5-celled, invested by 
the calyx, which becomes a pulpy berry. — Little shrubby or half-shrubby 
plants, with alternate, evergreen leaves. (Figs. 540-543,) 

Order 73.— HEATHWORTS. 249 

0. procum'bens. Common Checkeroerry, or Wititergreen. Branches ascending 3' 
from the prostrate, slender root-stock, which is usually concealed. Leaves 
obovate, and few nodding flowers, all clustered at top of the stem, and spicy in 
flavor. Berries scarlet. Flowers in Summer, white. 

4. KAL'MIA. Calico-bush. Mountain Laurel. 

Calyx 5-parted. Corolla with 10 prominences beneath, and 10 corre- 
sponding pits within, holding the 10 anthers. Filaments recurved. Bor- 
der with 5 shallow lobes. Capsule 5 -celled, many-seeded. — Beautifm 
shrubs, with entire, evergreen, leathery leaves. Flowers white and red, 
in racemed corymbs. May-June. 

1 Flowers in terminal corymbs. Leaves smooth, thick.... 2, 3 

1 Flowers in lateral corymbs. Leaves rusty or downy beneath 4, 5 

1 K. hirsu'ta. Hairy L. Flowers axillary, solitary, stalked, red. Plant hairy. 
Leaves mostly scattered, acute, sessile. l-2f. S. 

2 K. latifo'lia. Great L. Leaves scattered, green both sides. Corymbs large, rose- 

white, numerous and very showy. 3-20f. 

3 K. glau'ca. Polis/ied L. Leaves opposite, glaucous-white beneath, revolute on 

the margin. Corymbs small, lilac. 2-3f. 

4 K. cunea'ta. Wedge-leaved L. Leaves scattered, wedge-oblong. Corymbs 

small, roseate, each of 4-tf flowers. Plant 3-5f. S. 

5 K. angustifo'lia. Sheep-poison. Leaves opposite and in 3's, blunt at each end. 

Corymbs small, deep purple. 3-4f. 

5. EPIG^E'A. May-flower. 

Calyx large, 5-parted, with 3 bracts at base. Corolla salver-form, tu^e 
hairy within, limb of 5 spreading lobes. Stamens 10. Anthers open by 
slits. Capsule 5 -celled, 5-valved. — Little trailing shrubs. 

E. repens, Trailing Arbutus. Leaves cordate-ovate, entire. Corolla tube cylin- 
drical. Stems slender, flat on the ground, 10-15' long. Leaves evergreen, 
rounded at the end, 2' or more long. Flowers tinged with red, very fragrant. 
April, May. 

6. AZA'LEA. Azalea. 

Calyx small, 5-parted. Corolla funnel-form, somewhat irregular, with 
5 spreading lobes. Stamens 5, and, with the 1 style, long exserted, 
cut ved toward the lower side, Anthers open by pores. Capsule 5-celled, 
5-valved. — Erect shrubs. Leaves alternate, deciduous, entire. Flower? 
large, showy, fragrant, clustered. April-July. 

l ;* 


§ Lobes of the calyx all (rarely 1 excepted) very short or miaute 1, 2 

§ Lobes of the calyx all oblong, and of conspicuous length 3-5 

1 A. visco'sa. Clammy Swamp Pink. Flowers very viscid, appearing With the 

full-grown leaves, the tube much longer than the segments. Shrub 4-7f 
White or roseate. 

2 A. nudiflo'ra. Pinxter Bloom. Clusters naked, appearing with or before the 

young leaves. Corolla tube downy, scarcely longer than the segments. 

Branches often whorled. Colors pink, purple, white, buff, &c. f 
6 A calendula / cea. Flaming Pinxter, Young branch lets downy, corymbs nearly 
or quite leafless. Tube of the corolla hairy, shorter than the ample lobes. 
Common. Penn. S. & W. Flowers very many, flame-color, bright red, saffron- 
yellow, &c. t 

4 A. arbores'cens. Tree Azalea. Branches smooth. Leaves glaucous beneath. 

Corymbs leafy with full-grown leaves. Corolla tube longer than the lobes, not 
viscid. Height 10-20f. Mountains. S. 

5 A. Pon'tica. Asiatic A. Flowers viscid, with full-grown leaves. Tube wicu- 

mouthed, as long as segments. All colors, f 


Calyx 5-parted. Corolla broad, campanulate, regular or slightly irreg 
ular, 5-lobed. Stamens 10, mostly declined, anthers opening by pores. 
Capsule 5 -celled, 5-valved. — Shrubs with alternate, entire, evergreen 
leaves. Flowers umbeled, splendid. 

§ Calyx lobes large, leaf-like. Exotic 7 

§ Calyx lobes small, scale-like a 

a Leaves small, obtuse at each end. Mountains 1, 2 

a Leaves large, acute, rusty or silvery beneath.... 5, 6 

a Leaves large, acute, glabrous beneath 3, 4 

1 R. Lappon'icum. Lapland R. Shrub 5-10' high. Lvs. scaly, elliptic. N. 

2 R. Catawbien'se. Catawba R. Shrub 3-5f. high. Leaves smooth, oval. S. 

3 R. maximum, Great R. Leaves oblanceolate, acute, paler beneath. Flowers 

in large umbels, white, with yellow dots. Kocky woods. 

4 R. Pon'ticum. Asiatic R. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, not paler beneath. 

Flowers large, purple, variegated. 

6 R. puncta / tum. Dotted-lf. R. Lvs. with rusty, resinous dots beneath. Mts. S* 
$ R. arbo'reum. Tree R. Leaves with silvery spots beneath. Asia, f 

7 R. In'dicum. Indian R. Leaves rough, wedge-lance. Fls. few together, f 

8. PYR'OLA. False Wintergreen. 

Calyx 5-parted. Petals 5, equal. Stamens 10, anthers large, turned 
outwards, opening by 2 pores at the obtuse top. Style thick, long ; stig- 

Order 73.— HEATHWORTS. 


mas 5, often projecting like rays. Pod 5-celled, 5-valved, opening into 
the cells, many-seeded. — if Low, evergreen herbs, almost woody, with the 
leaves generally radical, and the scape bearing a raceme of nodding flow- 
ers. Mostly northern. June, July. 

§ Stamens ascending, style declined and curved a 

S Stamens and style straight and erect 5, 6 

a Leaves thick and shining. Flowers white or :ose-colored 1, 2 

a Leaves green, not shining. Flowers greenish-white. . . .3, 4 

1 P. rotundifo'lia. Round-leaved P. Lvs. orbicular. Mostly white petals. (Fig. 14., 

2 P. asarifo'lia. Heart-leaved P. Leaves round- cordate. Rose-colored petals. 

8 P. ellip'tica. Pear-leaved P. Leaves large, thin, elliptical, on short petioles. 
4 P. chloran'tha. Green-fl. P. Lvs. small, thick, roundish, shorter than petioles. 

5 P. secun'da. One-sided P. Raceme with the green- white flowers all on one side. 

6 P. minor. Lester P. Raceme spike-form, with small, globular, white fls. Mts. 

9. CHIMAPH'ILA. Pipsissiwa. 

Calyx 5 -parted. Petals 5, spreading, round. 
Stamens 10. Anther cells lengthened above 
into tubes. Style very short, thick. Capsule 
5-celled. — Small evergreens, with oblong, ser- 
rate, clustered leaves, and terminal flowers. 
June, July. 

1 C. umbella'ta. Princess Pine. Leaves wedge-lance- 

olate, in 4's-6's. Umbel 4-7-fl.owered, on an 
erect stalk. July. 

2 C. macula'ta. Spotted P. Leaves lanceolate, acumi- 

nate, marked with whitish streaks along the 
mid vein. Flowers 2 ur 3. (See Fig. 548.) 

10. MOXOTTvOPA. Pine Sap. 
Calyx of 1-5 bract-like sepals. Petals 4 or 5, 

connivent in a bell -shaped corolla. Stamens 
8-10. Capsule 4-5-celled, 4-5-valved.— Low 
herbs growing on the juices of other plants, all 
vrhite or tawny, with scales instead of leaves. 

\ M. nninVra India?: Pipe. Sepals 1-3. Flower 
solitary, scentless. Stem 6' high, common in 
woods. Whole plant white. Summer. ^ 

2 M. Hypop'itis. Pine Sap, Downy, tawny. Sepals 4, 5. Flowers racemed, fra 
grunt. Stem u-S' high. Root a tangled ball of fibres. Aug. 


Order LXXIV. AQUIFOLIACE^E. Hollyworts. 

Shrubs or trees with alternate, simple leaves without stipules ; 

flowers small, axillary, sometimes polygamous, with a minute free calyx ; 

corolla 4-6-parted, hypogynous, imbricate in the bud ; 

stamens on the very short tube of the corolla alternate with its petals; 

ovary free, becoming a drupe-like fruit with 2-6 stones or nutlets. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

' $ Flowers habitually 4-parted. Drupe with 4 bony, sulcate nutlets. Ilex. 3 

§ Flowers habitually 4-parted. Drupe with 4 horny smooth nutlets. Shrub 4- 

6f., with oblong entire leaves. Pedicels slender. Drupes red. Nemopanthes. 

$ Flowers habitually 6-parted. Berry with 6 (7, 8) smooth cartilaginous seeds. Prinos. 2 

1. ILEX. Holly. 
Flowers 4- (rarely 5-) parted, mostly perfect but many abortive. Calyx 
4-toothed, persistent. Petals 4, slightly united at base. Stamens 4. 
Stigmas 4 or united into 1. Drupe red, the 4 bony nutlets ribbed and fur- 
rowed on the back. Flowers white, single or clustered in the axils. 
I. opa'ca. American Holly. A handsome evergreen tree, 15-30f. high, in woods, Mas*. 
to Florida. It has thick, smooth, oval, toothed leaves, spinescent at apex and 
margin. Flowers clustered, June. Drupes ripe in late autumn. 
The other species, 6 in number, are very rarely found growing N. of Maryland. 

2. PRINOS. Winter-berry. 

Flow T ers perfect but often fruitless. Stamens 6 (rarely fewer in the bai- 
ren, rarely more in the fertile flowers). Berry 6-seeded, seeds with a 
smooth cartilaginous testa. Shiubs with small white flowers. 

1 P. verticilla'tus. Black Alder. A shrub 7-12f., very ornamental in fruit, found in wet 

places. The bark is nearly black. Leaves small, elliptical, pointed, pubescent be- 
neath. Berries scarlet, in close bunches as if verticillate, all winter. 

2 P. glaber. Ink-berry. Shrub 3-4f., with thick, shining, wedge-lanceolate, evergreen 

leaves toothed at the end. Berries black. The other (4) species are less common. 

Order LXXV. STYRACACE^E. Storaxworts. 

Trees and shrubs with alternate simple leaves, perfect flowers, 4-8-parted ; 
stamens 2-5 times as many as the petals and inserted on their united base* 
style 1. Ovary adherent. Fruit 1-5-seeded. Mostly Southern plants. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

1 STYRAX. Storax. Shrubs in wet grounds (Va. to Fla.), with drooping racemes of wh.te 

showy flowers. Stamens twice as many as the petals. April-May. 

2 HALE'SIA. Snow-drop Tree. Trees 10-50f., in woods, Va. to Fla., often cult. Fls pen- 

dulous, white, showy, earlier than the abruptly pointed leaves. Two kinds. 

3 SYM'FLOCOS. Small tree, 10-20f. Fls. yellow. Stamens oo . Fruit 1-seedcd. S. 

Order 78.— PRIMWORTS. 


Obder LXXTIII. PRIMULACE.E. Primworts. 

Fig. 549. Primuia Mistassinica, the whole plant. Fig. 550. The corolla cut open, showing 
the stamens on the tube. 1. The plan of the flower, showing the stamens opposite the petals. 
2. The calyx and ovary. 3. The fruit cut open, showing the seeds on the central placenta. 
Fig. 554 Dodecatheon Meadia, whole plant. 5. A. single flower, natural size. Fig. 556. Fruit 
(i^xis) of Anagallis, with its lid open, showing the seeds 

Herbs low, with the leaves either radical or mostly opposite ; with the 
flowers 5 (rarely 4 or 6)-parted ; the corolla inonopetalous, regular ; the 
stamens inserted on the corolla-tube and opposite to its lobes ; the 
ovary 1-celled, with a free, central placenta ; style 1 ; stigma 1 ; the 
capsule 1-celled, many-seeded; seeds with fleshy albumen. 


Analysis of the Genera. 

* Stemle&a. Leaves all radical, scape bearing an umbel a 

* Stems leafy. Flowers yellow, corolla wheel-form (tube none) . . . .b 

* Stems leafy. Flowers white, red, &c, never yellow. . ...2 
£ Leaves whorled, at least those near the flowers. Corolla white. . . .c 
9 Leaves opposite, entire. Flowers axillary, solitary .... d 

2 Leaves alternate, entire. Flowers white. . . .e 

a Cor. tube egg-shaped, lobes short, spread. Dwarf Primrose. Androsa'cb. 

a Corolla tube cylindrical, lobes spreading. Primrose. Prim'ula. 1 

a Corolla tube cylindrical, lobes reflexed. American Cowslip. Dodecath'eon. 2 
b Corolla 5- parted, without intermediate teeth. Loose-strife. Lysimach'ia. 8 

b Corolla 6-parted, with 6 intermediate teeth. Racemes axillary. Naumber'gia. 

c Fls. 7 -part. Lvs. entire, in a single whorl. Chick Wintergreen. Trienta'lis. i 

e Fls. 5-parted. Leaves finely pinnatiMd, in water. Feather-foil. Hotto'nia. 
d Plant prostrate, with scarlet corollas. Pimpernel. Anagai/lis. 5 

d Plant erect, with no corolla, but white calyxes. Black Saltwort. Glaux. 

e Fls. 5-parted, panicled. Plant 8-15' high. Water Pimpernel, Sam'olus. 

e Fls. 4-parted, axillary. Plant 1-2' high. Dwarf Pimpernel. Centun'culus. 

1. PEIM'ULA. Primrose. Auricula. 

Calyx angular, 5-cleft. Corolla salver-shaped, or often rather funnel- 
shaped, with 5 entire, or notched, or bifid lobes. Stamens 5, included. 
Pod opening at the top, many-seeded. — u Herbs with the leaves all rad- 
ical, and the flowers showy, in an umbel on a scape. 

* Corolla salver-form, limb abruptly spreading. Plants wild, rare.. . .1, 2 

* Corolla salver-form, limb abruptly spreading. Plants cultivated.. . .3, 4 

* Corolla funnel-form, limb gradually spreading. Cultivated.. . .a 
a Leaves hairy, rugose, toothed, or crenate, or wavy at edge.... 5, 6 

a Leaves smooth, plane, entire, or sometimes crenate.... 7, 8 

1 P. Mistassin'ica. Midassins P. Smooth, green, 3-8' high. Flowers 1-8, 

flesh-colored. On lake shores. N. First seen on L. Mistassins. 

2 P. farino'sa. Bird's-eye P. Mealy, 3-10' high. Flowers 3-20, lilac-yellovr 

Shores of the great lakes. N. 
P grandiflo / ra. Common P. Petals obcordate, notched, yellow, purple, &c. i 
T purpurea. Purple P. Petals obtuse, entire, dark-violet, never yellow, t 

5 P. oflicina / lis. Cowslip P. Lvs. hairy. Outer fls. nodding, border concave, f 

6 P. ela'tior. OxUp P. Leaves smooth above. All fls. nodding, border flat, 1 
T P Anric'ula. Auricula. Lvs. and calyx mealy-glaucous. Bracts very short, t 
9 P. calvci'na. Cup P, Lvs. white-edged, calyx inflated. Bracts long. Purpl. t 

Order 78.— PKIM WORTS. 255 

2. DODECATH'EOK American Cowslip. 

Oalyx 5-parted, reflexed. Corolla tube very short, limb rotate, 5-partecl, 
with the limb reflexed. Stamens 5, inserted into the throat of the corolla, 
filaments short, anthers long, acute connivent at apex, but shorter than 
the style. — U Leaves all radical, oblong, scape erect, bearing an umbel oi 
nodding rose or white flowers. May, June. (Fig. 554.) 

D Mea'dia. Prid^e of Ohio. A striking and elegant plant, in prairies throughout the 
Western States. Scape l-2f. high. Petals white of pink. Stamens yellow, f 

3. LYSIMACil'IA. Loose-strife. 

Calyx 5-parted. Corolla tube very short, limb 5-parted, spreading. 

Stamens 5, on the base of the corolla, filaments often united. Pods 5-10- 

valved. Seeds several or many. — U Leaves opposite or whorled, entire. 

Flowers mostly yellow. June, July. 

% Erect Peduncles several-flowered, or flowers panicled. . . .a 
§ Erect. Pedicels 1-flowered, flowers racemed. . . .8, 9 

§ Erect. Pedicels 1-flowered, flowers axillary 1 

§ Prostrate, creeping. Pedicels (or umbels) axillary 10, 11 

a Leaves thick, rather obtuse, with the edges rolled back.... 4, 5 

a Leaves thin, acuminate, with the edges not rolled 6, 7 

1 Leaves mostly opposite, on petioles fringed with hairs 2, 3 

1 L. quadrifo'lia. Whorled L. Leaves whorled in 3's, 4's, and 5's, sessile. 

2 L. cilia'ta. Fringe-lf. L. Leaves ovate, often cordate. Stems mostly branched. 

8 L. hib'rida. Hybrid L. Lvs. lance-oblong, opposite or whorled. Stems branched 

4 L. asperifo'lia. Rough-lf. L. Leaves oblong-lanceolate. Panicle bracted. S. 

5 L. longifo'lia. Lang-lf. L. Lvs. lance-linear. Fls. large, scarcely pan. W. 

6 L. lanceola'ta. Lance-lf. L. Lvs. whorled in 4's, lance. Upper fls. racemed. S. 

7 L. Fra / seri. Fraser^ L. Leaves opposite, ovate, often cordate. Panicle large. S. 

8 L. stric'ta. Strict L. Leaves nearly opposite, narrow-lance., with bulblets. 

9 L.Herbemon'ti. JHerbemontfs L. Lvs. whorled, in 4's or 5's, lance., acuminate. S, 

10 L. rad'icans. Rooting L. Branches rooting at, the end. Leaves lanceolate. 

11 L. Nummula'ria. Moneywort. Stem simple. Leaves roundish, very obtuse 

4. TRIENTA'LIS. Chick-wintergreen. 
Calyx and corolla 7-parted. Stamens 7. Pod many-seeded. — U Stern 
low, simple. Pedicels 1-flowered. 

T. America'na. American C. A pretty little plant, common in woods northward. 
Stem 3-5' high, bearing several lanceolate learcs in a sort of whorl at top, and 
from their midst, 1 or more white, sterlike flowers. May, Jv\e. 



5. ANAGAL'LIS. Pimpernel. 

Calyx and corolla 5-parted, wheel-shaped. Stamens 5. Pod globular 
opening by a lid all around (i. e., a pyxis). — Herbs with square stems and 
opposite leaves. (Fig. 556.) 

A arven/sis. Scarlet P. Poor-man'' s-weather-glass. A small, trailing plant, in fieMs, 
roadsides, &c. Leaves sessile, broad-ovate. Pedicels 1 -flowered, axillary. 
Flower red, rarely blue. Opening at 8 a. m., closing at 2 p. m., and in damp 
weather not opening at all. (See the figure, 557.) 

Order LXXX. PLUMBAGINACE^E. Leadworts. 

Herbs or undershrubs. Leaves alternate or all clustered at the root ; 
floicers regular, 5-parted, with a plaited, persistent calyx ; 
stamens hypogynous, opposite to the petals or inserted on their claws , 
styles 5, ovary free from the calyx. Fruit 1-celled, 1-seeded. 

Analysis of the Genera. 
$ Style 1, with 5 stigmas. Pod opening by valves. Leaves cauline. Plumbago. 3 

§ Styles distinct, at least above. Utricle not valvate. Leaves radical. ... (a) 

a Styles glabrous, with slender stigmas. Scape branching. Statice. 1 

a Styles plumous, with slender stigmas. Scape simple, capitate. Armenia. 2 

1. STAT'ICE. Marsh Rosemary. 

Calyx funnel-form, limb scarious, 5-nerved and 5-parted. Petals almost 
distinct. Ovary crowned with the 5 smooth slender styles. Utricle open- 
ing crosswise. It Herb with the scape branching, the flowers each 

1 S. Limo'nium. Plant 8--15' high, in salt marshes. Leaves all radical, oblong to oblan 
ceolate, acute, tipped with a bristle, long-stalked. Scape paniculate, flowers blue- 
purple, separate or in pairs, on the upper side of the branchlets. July-Oct. 

Order 81.— BUTTER WORTS. 257 

ARME'RIA vulga'ris, Thrift, is another sea-coast plant, sometimes cultivated, hav« 
ing a tuft of linear leaves at base, and a bunch of rose-colored flowers at top of the 

FLUMBA'GO Capen'is, Leadwort,has pale blue fls. resembling Phlox. Cultivated. 

Order LXXXI. LENTIBULACE.E. Butterworts. 

Herbs growing in water or wet places with bilabiate flowers on scapes ; 
tclyx of 2 or 3 sepals. Corolla with a spur behind, throat bearded ; 
itamens 2, included. Styles, 2, ovary free, capsule many-seeded. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Leaves broad, entire. Corolla throat open. Calyx 5-parted. Growing 

in wet rocky places, chiefly South. Butterwort, Pinouicttla. 

§ Leaves finely dissected, sometimes 0. Corolla throat closed. Utricularia. 1 

1. UTRICULA'RIA. Bladderwort. 

Calyx 2-parted. Corolla irregularly bilabiate, spurred. Stamens 2. 
Stigma 2 lipped. Pod round, 1-celled. Plants loosely floating or fixed in 
the mud. Leaves mostly present, furnished with little sacks (utricles) filled 
with air which floats them. Scape erect. Summer. (Fig. 98.) 

• Flowers purple Nos. 1,2 

* Flowers yellow (a) 

a Plants rooting in the mud Nos. 3-5 

a Plants floating in the water — (b) 

b Plants buoyed by a whorl of inflated petioles No. 6 

b Plants buoyed by air-bladders on special branchlets Nos. 7, 8 

b Plants buoyed by air-bladders on the leaves (c) 

c Flowers of 2 kinds, the lipless down on the stems No. 9 

c Flowers all alike and borne on the scapes (d) 

d Flower-stalks 2-12, nodding in fruit, on each scape Nos. 10, 11 

d Flower-stalks 1-5. erect in fruit on each scape Nos. 12-15 

1 TJ. purpu'rea. Leaves whorled, on the long floating stems. Fls. 6" broad. Ponds. 

2 U. resupina'ta. Leaves scattered on the creeping stems. Flowers 4". Muddy shores, 

3 U. cornu'ta. Scape tall (8-12'), scaly, 2-5-flowered. Fls. large, spur decurved. 

4 U. subula'ta. Scape 2-5' high, very slender, flowers few, small. Spur inflexed. 

5 U. biparti'ta. Scape 2-3', flowers 1-3, on slender pedicels. Lower lip of the co? 

olla entire. South, 
b' CJ. infla'ta. Floating stem long. Scape 6-10' high, flowers 4 or 5, 8" broad. 

7 U. interme'dia. Leaves crowded, in 2 rows, rigid. Fls. 2 or 3, spur conical- 

8 TJ. Robbin'sii. Leaves alternate, thread-like. Fls. 4-7, spur fusiform. 

% TJ. clandesti'na. Stem flowers solitary, bud-like. Scape with 2 or 3 fls. seldom seen. 

10 TJ. vulga'ris. Scape with 5-12 fls. Corolla throat closed. Spur conical. 

11 TJ. minor. Scape with 3-6 fls. Corolla throat open. Spur blunt, very short 


la U. striata. Scape If., with 2-8 fls. Cor. upper lip striate with red ; lvs. forked. 
t3 U. biflo'ra. Scape 5', with 2 fls. Lvs. root-like, capillary, with many bladders. 
14 U. gibba. Scape 2-3', with 1-2 fls. Lvs. hair-like, with few bladders. Spur gibbous. 

Order LXXXII OROBANCHACE^E. Broom-rapes. 

Barbs without green foliage, growing on the roots of other plants ; 
flowers irregular, monopetalous, with 4 (didynaraous) stamens ; 
ovary free from the calyx, 1-celled, with 2 or 4 parietal placentae ; 
capsule enclosed within the withered corolla, with very many seeds. 


1 EPIPHE'GTJS Virginia'na. Beech-drops. A smooth, dull red, leafless plant, If., wita 

sessile flowers all along the branches. Upper fls. sterile. Grows in Beech woods. 

2 CONOPH'OLIS Americana. Squaw-root. A simple, thick, short stem covered with 

scales, the flowers in the axils of the upper. Calyx split down in front. Yellowish. 
8 PHELIPjE'A Ludovicia'na. A branched, thick, scaly, downy stem 6-12', with the fls. 

all perfect, in crowded spikes. Calyx 5-toothed. Corolla lips subequal. Illinois. 
4 APHYL'LON. Broom-rape. Stems underground, sending up peduncles or scapes 5\ 

each bearing a nodding purplish flower, with a curved tube and spread limb. 


Plants with opposite leaves, destitute of stipules, often climbing ; 
flowers gamopetalous, irregular, 5-parted, showy ; 
stamens 5, but only 2 or 4 of them perfect, and didynamous ; 
ovary 2-celled, with 1 style, forming a dry pod with winged seeds. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

Stamens 4. Pod valves and partition contrary. Leaves pinnat9. Teoo'mia. 1 

Stamens 4. Pod valves and partition parallel. Leaves binate Bigno'nia. 

Stamens 2. Pod straight, cylindric. Trees Leaves simple. Catai/pa. 2 

1. TECO'MA. Trumpet flower. 

Calyx bell-shaped, 5-toothed. Corolla trumpet-shaped, with a 5-lobed, 
nearly regular limb. Stamens didynamous, 4, with the 5th a small rudi- 
ment. Pod with the partition contrary to the valves. — Trees or shrubs, 
often climbing. Leaves digitate or pinnate. Flowers red. 

Okder 83.— TRUMPETS. 


- *5 


Fig. 553. Flower of Catalpa. 

Fig. 559. The Corolla cut open, showing the 2 perfect stamens and the 3 rudiments of stamene 

Fig. 560. A 2-winged seed of Catalpa. Fig. 561. Flower of the Trumpet Creeper. 

1 T. radi'cans. Trumpet Creeper. Climbing by radicating tendrils. Leaflets 9-11, 

ovate, acuminate, toothed. Corolla tube thrice longer than the calyx. Stamens 
included. A well-known, splendid climbing vine. Summer, 

2 T. Capen'sis. Cape T. Climbing. Leaflets 7-9, round-ovate, serrate. Stamens 

and style exerted. Corolla tube curved, f S. Africa. 
8 T. grandiflo'ra. Chinese T. Climbing. Leaflets 9-11, pointed, ovate, toothed. 
Two glands on the nodding pedicels. Corolla tube scarce longer than calyx, i 

2, GAT ALT A. Catalpa. 

Corolla unequally bell-shaped, 4 or 
5-lobed. Stamens 2 perfect, with 3 
rudiments. Capsule long, cylindric, 
with a thick partition. 

C. bigrmnioi'des. Trees with large, broad- 
ovate, cordate, velvety leaves, and ter- 
minal panicles of showy, white, varie- 
gated flowers. Common. 

Fig. 562. A. panicle (size much diminished) 
of Catalpa. 




Herbs or shrubs with opposite leaves, with the 

stipules small or mere ridges connecting the base of the petioles ; 

■flowers 4 or 5-parted, gamopetalous, regular ; 

ovary free ; fruit 2-celled, many-sseded, or few-seeded 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Corolla tubular, lobes 5, valvate in the bud a 

§ Corolla bell-shaped, lobes 4 or 5, imbricate in the bud b 

a Styles wholly united into 1. Corolla tube long. W. S. Siige'lia. j 

a Styles distinct, with the stigmas united. Fls. small, white. S. Mitre'ola. 

b Flowers 4-parted. Diffuse, low herbs. M. S. Polyprenum. Polypre'mum. 

b Flowers 5-parted. Slender climbing shrubs. S. Gelsem'inum. 2 

1. SPIGE'LIA. Pink-root. 

Calyx segments linear-subulate. Corolla narrowly funnel-form. Stameny 
5. Capsule 2-celled, few seeded. — Herbs with the flowers sessile in a 
terminal one-sided coiled spike. 

S. Maryland 'ica. Maryland P. Stem square, erect. Leaves sessile, ovate-lanceo- 
late. Corolla 4 or 5 times longer than the calyx, scarlet June. 

Pig. 563. Spigelia ; the spike uncoils as the flowers open. Fig. 564. A flower, natural fiiza 

Order 86— FIG WORTS. 


2. GELSEMI'NUM. Yellow Jessamine. 
Calyx lobes oblong. Corolla funnel-bell-form, with 5 short, roundish 
lobes. Filaments 5, on the corolla. Stvle thread-form with 2 double 

G. sempervi'rens. A shrub very common, South ; with long, wiry, twining stems, 
ascending bushes and hedges. Leaves evergreen, shining, lanceolate. Corolla 
tube 1 inch long, golden -yellow. 


Fig. 565. The Yellow Foxglove (Dasy stoma pubescens). 6. Mature fruit 7. Cross-section 
yi the 2-celled capsule. 8. A stamen enlarged. 9. Monkey-flower (Mimulm ringens). Fig. 570. 
Calyx with the corolla partly removed, showing the didynamous stamens in pairs, with the stigme 
above the highest pair. 1. Sections of the 2-celled. many-seeded capsule. 2. Plan of the flower, 
showing the position of the fifth rudimentary filament. 3. Linaria vulgaris, leaf, and personal 3. 
bi-labiate, spurred flower. 4. A winged seed. 


Plants mostly herbaceous, with unsymmetricalyfowtfrs, without fragrance 
calyx mostly 5-parted, free from the ovary, persistent ; 
corolla bi-labiate or otherwise irregular, lobes imbricated in the bud ; 
stamens on the corolla tube, 1 or 3 of the 5 usually imperfect or minute ; 
wary 2-celled; style 1; stigma 2-lobed; capsule 2-celled, many -seeded. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

* Herbs with the leaves alternate or all radical 2 

* Herbs with the leaves opposite or sometimes whorled 4 

* Trees with large cordate leaves and large blue panicles. . . .a 

2 Flowers diandrons, having but 2 perfect stamens c 

2 Flowers didynamous, having 4 stamens, 2 of them longei ... .3 

2 Flowers pentandrous, having the 5 stamens all perfect b 

3 Corolla bi-labiate, with the throat closed (personate).. . ,d 

3 Corolla bi-labiate, throat open, upper lip arched e 

3 Corolla rather bell-shaped, with 5 nearlj equal lobes f 

4 Flowers with only 2 perfect stamens g 

4 Flowers with 4 perfect stamens, the 5th scarcely appearing. . . . 5 

4 Flowers with 4 perfect stamens and a 5th sterile distinct filament.. ..n 

5 Corolla 2-lipped, the limb quite irregular 6 

5 Corolla limb nearly regular, with 4 or 5 plain, spreading lobes. . . .o 
6 Stamens included in the tube of corolla, generally in pairs.. . k 

6 Stamens ascending beneath the arched upper lip m 

6 Stamens descending into the sack-shaped lower lip h 

a Corolla trumpet-shaped, stamens arched downwards. Fragrant. + Paulow'nia. 

b Corolla wheel-shaped, stamens declinate. Scentless. i/w^iw.VERBAs'cuM. \ 
c Corolla 4-lobed, minute, white. Plant small. Lvs. radical. S. Amphian'thus. 
c Corolla 4-lobed. Fls. spiked. Lvs. mostly radical. Scape If. N.-W. Synthi'ris. 
c Corolla deeply many-cleft, variously colored. Lvs. cleft, t Schizan'thus. 
d Corolla protracted into a spur behind. Racemes leafy. Toad-flax. Lina'ria. 2 
d Cor. swollen into a sack behind. Kac. leafy, t Snap-dragon. Antirrhinum. 
e Bracts lobed, generally colored. Anth. -cells unequal. Painted-cup. Castille'ja. 
e Bracts and leaves entire, green. Flowers purplish. Chaff-seed. Sohwai/bea. 
e Bracts and leaves serrate, green. Flowers yellow. Lousewort. Pedicula'ris. 
f Tall, erect, with large, nodding flowers. Gardens. Foxglove. Digita'lis. 
f Low and minute. Corolla equally 5-cleft. In mud. Mudwort. Limosei/la. 
f Climbing, slender. Corolla large, gibbous at base, f Mexico. Mauran'dia. 
f Climbing, slender. Corolla large, equal at base, t Mexico. Lopiiospf.r'mum. 
g Corolla labiate. Calyx 5-parted. Sterile filaments minute or 0. Grati'oj.a. 3 
g Corolla labiate. Calyx 5-parted. Sterile filam. forked. Mud-flower. Ilysan'thus. 
g Corolla labiate. Calyx 4-parted. Flowers very small. Semi-flower. Hemian'trcs. 
g Corolla rotate, with 4 nearly equal lebes, lower smallest. Speedwell. VeronVa. 4 

Order 86.— FIGWORT8. 203 

h Handsome herbs, l-2f. high, with flowers blue and white. 

Innocence. Collin'sia. £ 
k Leaves serr. Sts. square. Palate of lower lip prominent. Monkey-fl. Mim'ulus. P 
k Leaves man y-cleft into fine divisions. W. Conobea. Cono'bea. 

k Leaves entire. Corolla protracted into a spur behind. Toad-flax. Lina'ria. 2 

Leaves entire. Cor. not spurred. Small, obscure weeds. W. ML S. Herpes 'tis. 

m Fls. yellow, in a terminal, one-sided spike. Yelloio-rattle. Rhinan'thus. 

m Fls. white, small, in a term, one-sided spike. Mts. Eye-bright. Euphrasia. 

ra Fls. yellowish, axil., or in a leafy, equal spike. Cow- wheat. Melam'pyrum. 
n Sterile filament shorter than the rest, smooth. Snake-head. Chklo'nk. 7 

ii Sterile filament long, projecting, bearded. Beard-tongue. Pentste'mon. 

n Sterile filament a scale on the brown corolla. Figicort. Scrophula'rii^. 

o Corolla purple, in a long, slender spike. Leaves lance-ovate. 

Blue-hearts. Buchne'ra. 

o Cor. purp. or rose-white, axillary. Lvs. narrow-lin., entire. Gerar'dia. 8 

o Corolla yellow, and 5-lobed as well as the calyx p 

p Stamens scarcely longer than the tube of the corolla q 

p Stamens long-projecting, with very large anthers. S. Macranthe'ra 

q Stamens quite unequal in length. Sepals very short. Dasys'toma. 9 

q Stamens about equal in length, anths. all perfect. Sep. long.W. Seyme'ria. 

1. VERBAS'CUM. Mullein. 
Calyx 5-parted. Corolla rotate, 5-lobed, slightly irregular. Stamens 
5, all perfect, filaments woolly, at least the three upper ones. Pod round- 
ish egg-shaped, 2-valved, many -seeded. — Mostly herbs. Flowers in 
spikes, or panicles, or racemes. Leaves alternate. June-August. 

1 V. Thap'sus. Common M. Tall, woolly. Leaves decurrent. Flowers spiked, 2 

filaments smooth. 

2 V. Blatta'ria. Moth AT. Branched, smooth. Leaves serrate. Flowers racemed. 

Filaments violet-woolly. 
5 V. Lych'nitis. White M. White-downy, branched. Leaves crenate. Flowers 
panicled. Filaments white-woolly. 

2. LISTA'RIA. Toad-flax. 

Calyx 5-parted. Corolla personate with the throat closed by the prom- 
inent palate, upper lip reflexed, lower 3-cleft, tube inflated and spurred 
behind. Pod 2-celled, bursting below the top. — Herbs with the lower 
leaves generally opposite, the upper alternate. Flowers solitary, axillary, 
often forming leafy racemes. June- September. 

1 L. vulga'ris. Butter and Eggs. Leaves lance-linear. Flowers large, yellow ar.f 1 
orange, in a close raceme. Erect. 


8 L. Canaden'se. Canada T. Leaves linear, obtuse. Flowers small, blue, loosely 

racemed. Stem erect. 
8 L. Elat / ine. Pointed T. Leaves ovate-hastate. Flowers small, yellow, and pur- 
ple. Stem prostrate. 

3. GRATI'OLA. Hedge-hyssop. 
Calyx nearly equally 5-parted. Corolla upper lip entire or slightly 
2-cleft, lower 3-cleft. Fertile stamens 2, mostly with 3 sterile filaments. 
Pod 2-celled, 4-valved, many-seeded. — Low herbs with opposite leaves. 
Peduncles axillary, 1-flowered, usually with 2 bracts near the calyx 
June- August. 

§ Flowers on peduncles. Plants weak, smooth, or viscid.... a 

§ Flowers sessile or nearly so. Plants rigid, bristly-hairy. S 8,9 

a Sterile filaments thread-like, tipped with a small head b 

a Sterile filaments none, or very minute and pointed 5-7 

b Leaves entire or nearly so. Plants smooth 1, 2 

b Leaves toothed. Plants generally viscid-downy. Flowers white.... 3, 4 

1 G-. officina'lis. Officinal II. Stem erect. Leaves clasping. Fls. whitish. S. 

2 G-. au'rea. Golden II. Stem ascending, branched. Leaves sessile. Flowers 

yellow, showy. 
5 G-. visco'sa. Viscid II. Leaves ovate-lanceolate. Sepals and bracts lanceolate. S 
i G-. ramo / sa. Branching H. Lvs. linear-lance. Bracts minute. Sepals linear. S. 

5 G-. sphaerocar'pa. Round-fruited II. Peduncles not longer than calyx. Pod 

globular. W. [calyx. S. 

6 Gr. Florida'na. Florida H. Peduncles long. Corolla four times longer than the 

7 Gr. Virginia'na. Virginian II. Peduncles long. Cor. twice longer than calyx. 
3 Gr. pilo'sa. Hairy II. Leaves ovate, toothed. Corolla scarce longer than calyx. S. 
9 Gr. subula'ta. Awl-lv. II. Leaves narrow, entire. Cor. thrice longer than calyx. S. 

4. VERONICA. Speedwell. 
Calyx 4-parted. Corolla with a wheel-shaped, spreading, 4-cleft bor- 
der, the lower segment smallest. Stamens 2, inserted into the tube, pro- 
jecting. Sterile filaments 0. Pod flattened, mostly obtuse or notched at 
the apex, 2-celled, few or many-seeded. — Mostly herbs, with opposite 
leaves. Flowers small, solitary, axillary, or racemed, blue, flesh-color, or 
white. Mar civ- September '. 

§ Erect, tall (H-4f.). Flowers in dense terminal spikes 1, 2 

J Low, weak (3-12'). Leaves opposite. Corolla tube very short. . . .a 

a Racemes mostly opposite, from the axils of the leaves, sky-blue. . . .3, 4 
a Racemes mostly alternate, from the axils of the leaves, light-colored. . . .5, 6 
a Racemes terminal, or the flowers axillary and not racemed. . . .b 

Order 86.— FIGWORTS. 


b Floral leaves like the rest, not longer 

than the recurved peduncles 7-9 

b Floral leaves bract-like, longer than the 
erect flower-stalks . . . . c 
c Perennial. Flower-stalks equalling or 

exceeding the calyx. . . .10, 11. 
o Annual. Flower-stalks shorter than 

the calyx, or none 12, 13 

t V. Virginia r na. Culver's Physic. Leaves 
whorled. Corolla tube longer than limb. 
2 V. spica'ta. Spike-flowered S. Leaves op- 
posite. Corolla limb longer than tube, t 

3 V. Anagal'lis. Water S. Leaves ses- 
sile, cordate-clasping, ovate-lance. 

4 V. America'na. Brooklime. Leaves 
petiolate, oblong-ovate, base round- 
ish or cordate. 

5 V, scuteila'ta. Marsh S. Leaves linear. 
Kacemes very slender, few-flowered. 

6 V. ofncina'ljs. Common S. Lvs. obovate- 
clliptical, finely serrate. Racemes dense. 

7 V. Buxbaum'ii. Baxbaumls S. Lvs. 
roundish-ovate. Pod triangular-ob- 
cordate. Fields. E. 

8 V. agres'tis. Neckweed. Lvs. cordate- 
ovate. Pod roundish, acutely notch- 
ed. Fields. E. 

9 V. hederaefo'lia. Ivy-leaved S. Leaves cordate, roundish, 3-5-lobed. Capsule 

4-seeded. M. Rare. [than long. c. 

10 V. serpyllifo'lia. Thyme-leaved S. Flower-stalks longer than calyx. Pod broader 

11 V. alpi'na. Alpine S. Fl.-stalks as long as the calyx. Pod obov. Hairy. White Mts. 

12 V. peregri'na. Purslane S. Smoothish. Leaves petiolate, oblong, few- 
toothed, fleshy, c. 

1 3 V. arven'sis. Corn S. Hairy. Lower leaves ovate, crenate, petiolate ; iippe* 
lanceolate, sessile, entire. Stern 2-6' high. In fields. Common. 

Fig. 575. Speedwell ( Veronica serpylliy 
folia), whole plant. Fig. 576. Plan of the 
flower: o, is the 2-celled ovary; .9, the 2 
stamens ; p, the 4 petals ; sp, the 4 sepals. 
Fig. 577. Cross-section of the pod, show 
ing its 2 cells, &c. 

5. COLLIN'SIA. Innocence. 

Calyx 5-cleft. Corolla 2-lipped, throat closed, upper lip bifid, lower up 
tr ifid, with the middle segment keel-like, holding the style and 4 stamens 
in a kind of sack. Capsule roundish. — Annual herbs. 

I O. verna. Early Collinsia, or Innocence. Corolla 2 or 3 times longer than the calyx 
Plant 8 to 18' high, tender and delicate. Leaves lance-ovate, dentate, opposite 
Flowers variesrated with blue and white, singular and pretty. M. W. 



2 O. parviflo'ra. Small-flowered 1. Corolla scarcely longer 
than the calyx, blue. Plant small. N.-W. 

6. MIM'ULUS. Monkey-flower. 

Calyx prismatic, 5-angled and 5-toothed. Co- 
rolla tubular, upper lip reflexed or erect, 2-lobed, 
lower lip spreading, with a prominent palate, {<§ 
8-lobed. Pod 2-celled, many-seeded. — Herbs 
prostrate or erect, with square stems, opposite 
leaves, and axillary solitary flowers. July. 



* Species from California, cultivated in gardens.. 

* Species growing wild, in fields, road-sides, Ac. 

blue.... 1,2 

1 M. rin'gens. Bingent M. Stem not at all winged. 

Leaves sessile. Peduncles longer than the 
flower, c. 

2 M. ala'tus. Wing- stem M. Stem slightly winged. 

cles shorter than the calyx. 
8 M. lu'tea. Yellow M. Flowers yellow, often spotted. 

5T8 ! 

Fig. 578. Collinsia vera a 
Fig. 579. Section of a flowef, 
full size. 

Leaves petiolate. Pedun- 
Leaves round-ovate. 1 

4 M. cardina / lis. Cardinal M. Fls. scarlet, large and brilliant. Leaves ovate, f 

7. CHELO'KE. Turtle-head. 

Calyx deeply 5 -parted, or the sepals distinct. Corolla inflated, upper lip 
broad, concave, lower 3-lobed, bearded in the throat. Stamens 4, woolly, 
with a 5th sterile filament shorter than the others. Seeds many, broadly 
wing-margined. — if Plants about 2f. erect, with opposite serrate leaves. 
Aug. -Sept. 

1 C purpurea. Purple T. Leaves lanceolate, petiolate. Flowers purple. Probably 

a variety of the next. W. M. 

2 0. gla'bra. White T. Leaves lanceolate, sessile or nearly so. Flowers white yi 

purplish. By brooks and wet places. 
ft O. L/o'ni. Lywti* T. Lvs. ovate, petiolate, rarely cordate. Fls. purple or *vhite. 8. 

8. GERAR'DIA. Purple Gerardia. 

Calyx bell-shaped, 5-toothed, valvate in the hud. Corolla tubular, 
swelling above, with 5 unequal, spreading lobes, which are shorter than 
the tube. Stamens 4, quite unequal by pairs, included, hairy. Pod ovate, 
pointed, many-seeded. — ® Erect and branching herbs, with opposite, 
slender leaves, and large, showy, purple or rose colored flowers. July-Sefl 

Ordek 86.— FIG WORTS. 267 

§ Calyx segments longer than its tube. Two anthers ver\ small. W. (Omitted.; 

| Calyx segments short, equal. Anthers all equal a 

a Corolla bi-labiate, upper lip very short, erect. S. (Omitted.) 

a Corolla lobes subequal, all spreading ; throat usually hairy b 

b Leaves almost none; opposite scales instead. S. (Omitted.) 
b Leaves all alternate, filiform. S. (Omitted.) 

b Leaves opposite c 

c Peduncles not longer than the calyx. Leaves linear 1, 2 

c Peduncles much longer than the calyx. Leaves linear, long. . . .d 
d Flowers large, about 9" long. . . .3, 4 
d Flowers small, about 6" long. . . .5, 6 

1 G. mariti'ma. Sea-side G. Leaves linear, fleshy. Fls. small, their stalks scarce 

as long as the truncate calyx. Cor. upper lobes fringed. Salt marshes. E. 

2 G-. purpurea. Purple G. Leaves linear. Peduncles shorter than the calyx, which 

is a truncate tube with setaceously acute teeth. Flowers V long. Common. 

3 G-. as'pera. Rough-lv. G. Pedunc. twice longer than calyx, which has teeth. W. 

4 G-. iinifo'lia. Max G. Peduncles many times longer than the toothless ralyx. S. 

5 G-. tenuifo'lia. Slender G. Leaves linear, 1/ long. Peduncle 1', longer than the 

corolla, which is purple, with spots inside. Slender, branched, 6-1 2' high. c. 

6 G-. seta'cea. Bristlc-lv. G. Leaves linear-setaceous, the floral ones much shorter 

than the very long peduncles. Plant 12-18' high. Flowers rose-color. W. 

9. DASYS'TOMA. Woolmoutli. 

The characters are the same as in Gerarbia, except that the calyx ia 
5-eleft, and imbricated in the early bud; the corolla yellow", with tube 
longer than the lobes, and woolly inside; the leaves rather large, and 
mostly pinnatifid, and the root 1C. Flowers very showy. Plants 2-4f. 
high. July-Sept. (Figs. 565-568.) 

§ Sepals finely toothed. Leaves all pinnatifid, with toothed lobes 4, 5 

§ Sepals entire. Leaves entire or mostly once pinnatifid-toothed. . . .1 

1 Glabrous. Leaves acute at apex, lanceolate in outline 2, 3 

1 D. flava. Downy W. Downy. Leaves obtuse, entire, except the lowei. 
Sepals obtuse. Common in woods. 
£ P. quercifc/lia. Oak-leaved W. Glaucous. Leaves mostly pinnatifid. Corolla 2' 

in length. Calyx segments lance-acuminate, longer than its tube. 
i D. integrifc/lia. Entire-leaved W. Green. Leaves lanceolate, entire. Stalks 
shorter than calyx. Flowers l'long. In woods. Ohio, W. 

4 D. pedicula'ria. Lousewort W. Smoothish or downy, branched. Flower- 

stalks longer than calyx. Leaves lance-ovate, tw T ice pinnatifid. 

5 D. pectina'ta. Combed W. Very hairy. Leaves lanceolate, pectinate-pinnat- 

ifid. Stalks shorter than calyx. 



Order LXXXIX. LABIATE. Labiate Plants. 

Herbs with square stems, and opposite, aromatic leaves ; 

flowers axillary, in verticils, sometimes as if in spikes or heads; 

Vyrolla labiate (rarely regular), the upper lip 2-cleft or entire, G^erlappiup 

in the bud the lower 3-cleft lip ; stamens 4, didynamous, or 2 ; 
wary deeply 4-lobed, forming in fruit 4 hard nuts or achenia. 

Fig. 580. Monarda didyma. 1. An anther enlarged. 2 Flower of Hemp Nettle (Galeop 
•is). S. One of its stamens mneh enlarged. 4. The calyx opened, showing the 4 achenia 
5. Flower of Sage {Salvia). 6. Flower of Ocimum basilicum. 7. Flower of Nepeta Glechoma, 
8. A pair of the anthers forming a cross. 9. Flower of Physostegia Virginica seen from beneatn. 
Fig. 590. One of its stamens. 1. Its ovaries with the rudimentary filament 2. Flower of Ten 
mum Canadense. 3. Flower of Catnep {Nepeta Cataria). 4. One of its anthers. 5. Dittanj 
(Ounila Mariana). 6. A calyx and style. 

Order 89.— LABIATE PLANTS. 2C9 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Flowers w\th only 2 perfect stamens 7 

§ Flowers with the 4 perfect stamens all declining to the lower lip a 

| Flowers with the 4 perfect stamens erect or ascending to the upper lip 2 

2 Stamens of equal length. Corolla almost regular, 4 or 5-lobed c 

2 Sta., the upper pair longer than the lower (outer). Calyx 13-15-veined k 

2 Stamens, the lower pair longer than the upper (interior) pair 3 

S Stamens diverging apart, mostly t-traight and exserted. . . .6 

3 Stamens parallel, ascending and long-exserted from the upper side. . . .b 

8 Stamens parallel, ascending in pairs beneath the upper lip 4 

4 Calyx 13-veined, 5-toothed, and somewhat 2-lipped g 

4 Calyx 5-10-veined or irregularly netted 5 

5 Calyx strongly 2-lipped, upper lip truncate, closed in fruit m 

h Calyx not labiate, 3 or 4-lobed, open in fruit n 

5 Calyx subequally 5-toothed, teeth not spinescent o 

5 Calyx subequally 5-toothed, teeth ending in sharp spines.. . .q 

5 Calyx unequally S-10-toothed s 

6 Calyx hairy in the throat, mostly labiate f 

6 Calyx naked in the throat, mostly equal, 5-toothed e 

7 Stamens ascending beneath the galea (upper lip). Anthers 1-celled. . ..h 
7 Stamens exserted, distant. Anthers 2-celled. ..d 
a Corolla upper lip 4-lobed, lower entire, fiattish. + Sweet Basil. O'cymum. 

a Corolla upper lip 4-lobed, lower saccate, deflexed. S. Hyptis. Hyptis. 

a Corolla upper lip 2-lobed, lower 3-lobed, long, lilac, t Lavender. Layan'dula. 
b Stamens exserted through a fissure in the tube. Blue Curls. Trichos'tema. 
b Stamens very long, involute, arching the corolla. Germander. Tee'cricm. 
n Corolla limb equally 5-lobed. Stamens short. Blue-false- Gentian. Isax'thus. 
c Corolla limb 4-lobed, the broadest lobe notched. Peppermint, &c. Mentha. 1 

d Cor. nearly reg., 4-cleft. Calyx naked in throat. Water lloarhound. Lyc'opus. 2 
d Corolla labiate, cyanic, throat naked. Stam. straight. Dittany. Cuxi'la. 3 
d Cor. labiate, cyanic, throat naked. Stam. ascend. Pennyroyal. HEDE'ojtA. 
d Corolla labiate, yellow, throat hairy. Stamens^ 

long-exserted. V Horse-balm. Collinso'nia. 

g Fls. yel. Coarse herbs not fragrant, with large lvs. ) 

e F.^. bright blue. Handsome herbs. Calyx 15-veined. f Hyssop. Hys'sopus. 

e F*s. pale blue, in dense hds. Calyx 10 or 13-striate. Wild Basil. Pycnan'themum. 

F is. pink-colored, axillary. Lvs. linear, small, f Summer Savory. Sature'ja. 

f Corolla exserted, pink-color, racemed. Leaves linear, smooth. Stem If. S. 

£ Corolla short as calyx, pale-purple. Bracts roundish, colored. 

Marjoram, Orig'axum. 
f Corolla short as calyx, blue-purp. Bracts minute, green. Thyme. Thymus. 


g Cor. tube straight. Lvs. small, snbcrenate or entire. Calaminth. Oalamin'tha. 4 
g Corolla tube carved upwards. Leaves large, coarse-crenate. Balm. Melis'sa. 

h Anthers halved, the halves widely separated, each 1-celled. Sage. Sal'via. 5 

h Anthers halved, one half present, 1 celled. Filaments toothed. Shrab. f 

Kosemary. Rosmarinus. 

h Anthers whole, 2-celled. Calyx subsequally 5-toothed. 

Mountain Mint. Monar'da. 

h Anthers whole, 2-celled. Calyx labiate, teeth bristle-shaped. Blephil'ia. 
if Leaves serrate. Stamens diverging. Fls. spiked. Tall Hyssop. Lophan'thus. 
k Lvs. serrate. Stam. all ascend. Fls. capitate. Dragonhead. Dracoceph'alum. 
k Lvs. crenate, cordate or reniform. Corolla smooth inside. Catmint. Nep'eta. 7 
k Leaves crenate, cordate. Corolla tube very broad, hairy inside. Cedronei/la. 

m Calyx lips toothed. Filam. forked. Fls. spiked. Self-heal. Brunei/la. 8 

m Calyx lips entire, the upper appendaged on back. Skullcap. Scutellaria. 9 
n Calyx 3-lobed. Anthers all distinct. Corolla large, purplish. S. Macbri'dea. 
n Calyx 4-lobed. Anthers, upper pair, connate. White. W. Synan'dra.10 

o Cor. tube inflated in the midst, whitish. Tall. Lion's- heart. Physoste'gia.11 

o Cor. tube inflated at the throat, purple. Lvs. roundish. Henbit. Lam'ium. 

o Corolla inflated in the broad concave upper lip. Jerusalem Sage. Phlomis. 

o Corolla not inflated, short. . . .p 

p Calyx salver-form, 10-veined. Black Hoarhound. Ballo'ta. 

p Calyx broad-campanulate, netted. Molucca Balm. Molluccei/la. 

q Lvs. serrate. Anth. open crosswise. Nuts truncate. Hemp Nettle, Galeop'sis. 

q Leaves serrate. Anth. open lengthwise. Nuts obtuse. Hedge Kettle. Stachys. 

Leaves lobed. Nuts truncate at top, 3-angled. Motherwort. Leonu'rus. 

s Cor. white, upper lip flattish. Style equally bifid. Hoarhound. Marru / bium. 

b Corolla white, upper lip concave. Style unequally bifid. S. Leucas. 

* Corolla scarlet, exserted. Calyx upper tooth longest. Lion's-ears. Leono'tis. 

1. MENTHA. Mint 

Calyx equally 5-toothed. Corolla nearly regular, tube included in the 
calyx, border 6-cleft, the upper lobe mostly notched. Stamens 4, equal, 
straight, erect, distant. — Aromatic herbs, with the pale purple or white 
flowers in close axillary clusters, or forming spikes. 

* Whorls of flowers remote, axillary, not in spikes. Leaves petiolatc. ...1, 2 

* Whorls of flowers approximate, forming terminal spikes.. . .3, 4 

1 M. Canadensis. Wild Mint. Plant grayish, fragrant. Lvs. acute at each end. 

2 M. arven'sis. Fidd M. Plant green, ill-scented. Lvs. frequently obtuse at base. 

3 M. piperita. Peppermint. Leaves petiolate, ovate, serrate, smooth. Spikes 

few, thick, short. Stems 2-3f. high. 

4 M. vir'idis. Spearmint. Leaves sessile, lance-oblong, acute, serrate. Spike* 

many, slender, long. Stems l-2f. high. 

Order 89.— LABIATE PLANTS. 271 

2. LYC'OPUS. Water Hoarhound. 

Calyx tubular, 4-5-cleft. Corolla nearly regular, 4-cleft, tube as long 
&d the calyx, stamens 2, distant, diverging the length of the straight stykr. 
— U Low herbs, with deeply toothed or pinnatifid leaves, aud remot 
axillary whorls of small, whitish flowers. July, Aug. 

L. Virgin'icus. Stem obtuse-angled. Leaves sharp-toothed. Calyx 4-cloft, blunt. 
L. Europae'us. Stem sharp-angled. Leaves sinuate-toothed. Calyx 5-cleft, spiny. 

3. CUNI'LA. Dittany. (Figs. 595, 596.) 

O. Maria'na. Maryland, D. Stem branched, l-2f. high. Leaves ovate, serrate, 
nearly sessile. Cymes axillary and terminal, corymbous, stalked. Corolla 
nearly twice as long as the calyx, pale-red. In rocky woods. N. Y. to Ga. 

4. CALAMINTIIA. Calaminth. 

CaJyx 13-veined, tubular, throat mostly hairy, upper lip 3-cleft, lower 
2-clert. Corolla tube straight, exserted, throat enlarged, upper lip erect, 
sub'jutive, lower lip spreading, its middle lobe largest. Stamens 4, lowe* 
pair longer. — % 

1 C r /linopo / dium. Wild Basil. Herb hairy, l-2f. high. Leaves ovate, subserrate. 

Flowers many, in dense, axillary whorls, with subulate bracts. Calyx bent. 

2 0. Nep'eta. False Catmint. Herb hairy, 2f., much branched below. Lvs. broad - 

ovate, petiolate. Whorls few-flowered above. Calyx straight. Hills. Va. 
S C. glabella. False Pennyroyal. Herb smooth, half erect, 6-12', branched. Lvs. 
oblong, those of the runners ovate. Cor. pale-violet. Fragrant. June. M. 

4 0. canes'cens. Hoary G. Shrub 10' high. Lvs. linear. Fls. opposite, roseate. S. 

5 O. coccin'ea. Scarlet C. Shrub with narrow obovate leaves, large scarlet lis. S. 

6 C. Carolima'na. Carolina C. Shrub If. Leaves ovate, serrate-crenate. Flowers 

rose-purple. S. 

5. SAL'VIA. Sage. 

Calyx striate, labiate, throat not hairy. Corolla ringent, upper lip 
straight or falcate, lower spreading, 3-lobed. Stamens 2. The conuectile 
is placed transversely on the filament like the letter T, bearing at each 
end 1 lobe of the halved anther. (See Figs. 585, 176.) 

§ Herbs native, in woods, &c a 

§ Herbs or shrubs in gardens, with blue flowers 7, 8 

§ Shrubs from Mexico, cultivated, with large scarlet flowers. . ..9, 10 


a Calyx slightly 2-lipped, obscurely 3-toothed, equal. South 1-8 

a Calyx deeply 2-lipped, 5-toothed, lower lip longer 4-6 

1 S. azu'rea. Azure S. Leaves linear-oblong. Fls. downy, azure-blue. Sunnner 

2 S. urticifo'lia. Nettle-bo. S. Lvs. rhombic-ovate. Coroiia smooth, blue. May. 

8 S. coccin / ea. Scarlet S. Lvs. ovate, cordate, hoary. Corolla red, smooth. July 

4 S. Clayto'ni. Clayton's S. Lvs. lanceolate, pinnatifid, cauline. Fls. small. S. 

5 S. obova'ta. ■ Obovate S. Lvs. broadly obovate, entire. Flowers blue. S. 

6 S. lyra'ta. Lyrate S. Leaves all radical, oblong, lyrate, erose-dentate, 1 or 2 

on the scape, bract-like. Fls. V long, violet-purple. M. S. Spring. 

7 S Scla'rea. Glarry S. Lvs. ample, broad-ovate. Corolla upper lip large, high- 

arched, f (Fig. 585.) 

8 S. officina'lis. Common S. Lvs. not large, lance-oblong, rugous. Corolla upper 

lip scarce longer than the lower, some vaulted. Shrubby. 
9 S.ful / gens. Stem weak. Lvs. lance-ovate, long-stalked. Calyx scarcely colored. 
10 S. splen'dens. Stem erect. Leaves broad-ovate, staiked. Calyx scarlet also. 

6. MONAE'DA. Mountain-mint. 

Calyx tubular, lengthened, 15-ribbed, nearly equally 5-toothed. Corolla 
tubular, long, the lips linear or oblong, lower reflexed, 3-lobed, upper 
erect, entire, involving the filaments. Stamens 2, with rudiments of more. 
— Erect, fragrant herbs, with rather large flowers in bracted whorls or 
heads, the bracts generally tinged with the color of the flowers July- 
Sept. (Figs. 580, 581.) 

§ Calyx densely hairy in the throat. Corolla purple or whitish. . ..1,2 
§ Calyx naked in the throat. Corolla scarlet or yellow 3, 4 

1 M. fistulo'sa. Wild Bergamot. Stem acutely angular, 2-4f. Leaves lanco- 

ovate, petiolate. Heads of flowers large, dense, terminal, b. p. w. M. W. 

2 M. Bradburia / na. Bradbury's M. Stem simple, 3f. Leaves lance-oblong, 

subsessile, hairy both sides. Heads few, large, purple. W. 

8 M. punctata. Horsemint. Stem branched, 2-3f. high. Leaves lance-oblong, 
tapering to a petiole. Bracts longer than the pale yellow flowers. M. W. S. 

4 M. did'yma. Mountain Balm. Stem branched, 2-3f. Leaves broad-ovate, acu- 
minate. Heads large, with long crimson flowers and bracts, t 

7. NEP'ETA. Catmint. 

Calyx striate, obliquely 5-toothed. Upper lip of the corolla notched or 
2-cleft, lower 3-lobed, middle lobe largest, throat naked and widened. 
Stamens ascending beneath the upper lip. — li Lvs. crenate.(Figs. 587, 588.) 

1 N. Cata'ria. Catnep. Tall. Cymes dense, terminal spikes. Leaves cordate. 

2 N. G-lecho'ma. Qitt. Trailing. Cymes loose, axillary. Leaves round-reniform 

Order 89.— LARIATE PLANTS. 273 

8. BRUNEL'LA. Blue-curls. 

B. vnlga'ris. Common B. Stem simple, ascending 8-18'. Leaves oblong-ovate, 
stalked, toothed. Whorls close together, forming an oblong, dense spike. 
Corolla blue, upper lip truncate, with 3 awns. 

9. SCUTELLARIA. Skullcap. 

Calyx campanulate, lips entire, with an appendage on the back and 
closed after flowering. Corolla with a long, ascending tube, the upper lip 
vaulted, nearly entire, middle lobe of the lower lip wide, spreading. Sta- 
mens approximate in pairs, ascending beneath upper lip. — Bitter herbs, not 
aromatic. Flowers generally blue. May- August. 
% Flowers large (7-13" long), racemed above, with bracts.... a 

§ Flowers large or small, opposite, solitary in the axils of the leaves 8-10 

$ Flowers small (3" long), in blender, axillary, 1-sided racemes 11 

a Bracts ovate, abrupt at base. Lips of the corolla short 1, 2 

a Bracts lance-oblong, acute at base. Leaves notched, petiolate b 

a Bracts leaf-like, longer than the calyx. Leaves entire, subsessiie. . ..7 

b Helmet (upper lip) of the corolla longer than the lower 3, 4 

b Helmet of the corolla not longer than the lip 5, 6 

J S t ^ersic'olor. Variegated S. Floral leaves sessile, broad-ovate, not cordate 

Corolla lower lip scarcely longer than the upper, blue above. M. W. 
1 S. saxati'lis. Rock S. Weak, branched, ascending. Upper leaves oval, obtuse. 
Corolla lower lip twice longer than the upper, blue above, tube pale. Rocks. 
W. S. 

3 S. canes'cens. Hoary S. Tall, downy. Leaves petiolate, oblong or ovate 

Flowers canescent, tube gradually enlarged. M. "W. c. 

4 S. villo'sa Woolly S. Stem woolly. Corolla tube slender, enlarged only at 

the throat. Helmet much larger than the lip. S. 

5 S. serra'ta. Saw-lf. S. Nearly smooth. Leaves acuminate, both ends. W. S. 

8 S. pilo'sa. Hairy S. Plant hairy. Leaves rhomb. -ovate, obtuse. M. S. 

7 S. integrifo'lia. Entire-leaved S. Erect. Leaves ovate-lance., entire, sub- 
sessile. M. 

8 S. nervo'sa. Nerve-lf S. Lvs. broad-ovate, 3-5-veined. Stem 8-15'. M. W 

9 S.parVula. Pigmy S. Lvs. oblong, ovate, obtuse, entire, sessile. Stem 3-6'. M. W. 
C Sh galericula'ta. Common S. Leaves lance-cordate, crenate-serrate. Flowers V 

long. c. 
\1 S. laterifio'ra. Mad-dog S. Branching, smoothish. Lvs. ovate-lancec late, 
acuminate, serrate, petiolate. Racemes lateral, leafy, o. 




10. SY^AlST'DRA. Synandra. 
Calyx 4-cleft. Upper lips of corolla entire, vaulted, 
the lower in 3 unequal, obtuse lobes. Throat widened. 
Stamens ascending beneath the upper lip, the two up- 
per anthers cohering. (Figs. 597, 90.) 

1 S grandiflo'ra Great-flowered S. Grows in woods, West. 
6-8' high. Leaves opposite, ovate, cordate, toothed. Fls. 
few, 1' long, upper lip very large. June. 

11. PHYSOSTE'GIA. Lion's-heart 

P Virginia'nii. Virginian L. Stem square, erect 2-3f., with 
very smooth, sessile leaves in four rows, and a terminal, 
4-rowed spike of large, showy, purplish-white flowers. 
Aug., Sept. (Figs. 589-591.) 


Order XC. BOKRAGINACE^E. Borrageworts. 

x'4 up *& — // Xf 

Fig. 598. Borrage (Borrago officinalis). 9. The four nuts with the style a*nd calyx. Fig. 600 
One of the nuts cut open, showing the seed, embryo, &c. 1. Puccoon (Lithospermum canes 
cens). 2. Corolla laid open, showing the stamens. 3. Pistil of Comfrey, consisting of the deeply 
4-lobed ovary with the slender style arising from between the lobes and near their base. 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with round stems and branches ; 

leaves alternate, generally rongh with stiff hairs ; stipules none ; 

Order 9(W BORRAGEWORTS. 275 

flowers seldom yellow, generally in a coiled (circinate) inflorescence • 
sepals 5 ; petals 5, united below, almost always regular ; 
stamens 5 ; ovary deeply 4-lobed, forming in fruit 4 separate, 1 -seeded 
nuts or nutlets, generally without albumen. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Ovary not 4-lcbed, but separating when ripe irto several achenia. . . .a 
J Ovary 4-lobed or parted, becoming 4 achenia around the style. . . .2 
2 Corolla irregular, with unequal lobes or a bent tube. . . .b 

2 Corolla perfectly regular 3 

3 Achenia or ovary prickly. Corolla throat closed with 5 scales. . . ,f 

8 Achenia and ovary not prickly 4 

4 Corolla throat closed by 5 scales c 

4 Corolla throat open, no scales, sometimes 5 ridges.. . .d 

a Corolla tube with open throat. Achenia 4. Heliotrope. Turnsol. Heliotro'pium. 1 

a Corolla tube with constricted throat. Achenia 2. False Helio. Heliotroph'ttum. 

b Corolla irregularly 5-lobed. Throat open. Blue. Vipers Bugloss. Ech'ium. 

b Corolla with the slender tube bent, closed. Blue. Bugtoss. Lycop'sis. 

c Corolla wheel-form, anthers exserted. Blue. Borrage. Borra'go. 

c Corolla tubular bell-form. Style exserted. White. Comfrey. Symphytum. 

a Uor. tubular, with erect, acute lobes. White. False Gromwell. Onosmo'dium. 

d Corolla lobes rounded, spreading, e 

e and imbricated in the bud. White or yellow. Gromwell. Lithosper'mum. 2 

e and imbricated in the bud. Purple or blue, large. Merten'sia. 3 

e and convolute in the bud. Blue or white, small. Myoso'tis. 4 

f Corolla salver-form. Ach. prickly on the edge. Burr-seed. Echinospep/mum. 

f Corolla funnel-form. Achenia prickly all over. Hound's- tongue. Cynoglos'sum. 5 

1. HELIOTRO'PIUM. Turnsol. Heliotrope. 

Corolla salver-form, lobes shorter than the tube. Anthers sessile. Style 
short, terminal. Ovary entire, splitting at length into 4 achenia. — Herbs 
or shrubs. Flowers in one-sided, coiled spikes. 

1 H. Europium. Wild H. Herb downy. Leaves oval, obtuse. Spikes single or 

forked. White. S. [obtuse. Blue. W. 

2 H. curassav'icum. Glaucom II. Herb smooth, glaucous. Lvs. linear-lanceolate, 
8 H. Feruvia'num. Common II. Shrubby, whitish-downy. Spikes many, clus- 
tered, w. -p. f 

2. LITHOSPER'MUM. Gromwell or Grammell. 

Calyx 5-parted. Corolla funnel-form or salver-form, the limb 5-lobed, 
;hroat open, naked or with 5 projections. Stamens included. Achenin 



bony, ovate, smooth or wrinkled, fixed by a flat base — Herbs generally 
with thick, reddish roots. Flowers spiked or racemed, with leafy bracts. 
May -July. 

§ Flowers white, small a 

Flowers yellow, showy. Achenia smooth, polished 5-7 

a Achenia roughened with wrinkles 1 

a Achenia smooth and polished. . . .2-4 
L. arven'se. Wheat-thief. Eoot <D, red. Leaves lanes-linear. Plant 12-18' high, 
hairy, c. [tube. N. M. 

2 L. officinale. Gromwell. Koot V. Lvs. lanceolate. Calyx equal to corolla 
8 L. latifo'lium. Broad-leaved G. Root U. Leaves lance-ovate, sharply acumi- 
nate. Sepals longer than the corolla, spreading in fruit. Stem l-2f. 
4 L. angustifo'lium. Narrow-lv. G. U Lvs. linear, stiff, edges some revolute. M.W. 

5 L. canes'cens. Puccoon. Soft-velvety, canescent. Lvs. oblong-linear. Tube of 

the corolla thrice as long as the very short calyx. Plant 8-12' erect. W. &c. 

6 L. hirtum. Hairy P. Rough-hairy. Lvs. lance-linear. Cor. long as calyx. W. S. 

7 L. longiflo'rum. Long-flowered P. Rough-ashy. Lvs. lance-linear. Corolla tube 

four times as long as the calyx, lobes crenulate, wavy. W. S. 

3. MERTEN'SIA. Lungwort. 
A short, 5-cleft calyx ; a tubular corolla, slender below, suddenly en- 
larged above, limb 5-cleft ; the 5 stamens inserted at top of the tube, and 
with smooth achenia. — U Plants usually smooth, with terminal racemes. 

1 M. Virgin'ica. Virginian L. Very smooth, 12-18' high. Root lvs. large, stalked; 

stem lvs. sessile. Fls. somewhat trumpet-shaped, blue-lilac, very fine. May. W. 

2 M. marit'ima. Sea L. Smooth, diffuse. Leaves ovate, 

fleshy. Corolla limb longer than the tube, which 
shows 5 folds in throat, blue- purple. E. 
8 M. panicula'ta. Panicled L. Rough. Leaves cordate, 
acuminate, veiny. Calyx hispid, thrice shorter than 
the tube, beh form, blue-white corolla. N.-W. 

4. MYOSOTIS. Forget-me-not. Scorpion-grass. 

Calyx 5-cleft. Corolla salver-form, the 5 lobes 
slightly notched at the end, throat closed with 5 
short, concave scales. Nuts smooth, ovate, with 
a small cavity at base. — Little herbs slightly wool- 
ly. Racemes finally becoming long. May-Aug. 

M. paius'tris. True F. Flowers in one-sided racemes. 

Plant smoothish, 6-12' high. Leaves linear-oolong, Fig. 604 Forget-me-not, - 
obtuse. Flowers blue with a yellow centre. & pair of scorpoid cyme* 

Order 91.— THE HYDROPHYLLfc. 27? 

2 M. arven'sis. Field F. Fls. in 2-sided, leafless racemes. Plant hairy. Pedicels 

twice as long as the open, equal calyx. Lvs. oblong-lance., acute. Rare. w. 

3 M. stric'ta. Bough F. Flowers in 2-sided racemes, which are leafy at their base. 

Pedicels as long as the closed, 2-lipped calyx. Leaves oblong, w. 

5. CYNOGLOS'SUM. Hound's- tongue. 
Calyx 5-parted. Corolla short, funnel-form, the throat cloeed with 5 
obtuse scales, lobes rounded. Nuts depressed, covered with short, hooked 
prickles, fixed laterally to the base of the style. — Coarse herbs, strong- 
scented, with the flowers in leafless, panicled racemes. June, July. 
O. officinale. Common II. Velvety. Stem leafy (l-2f.). Flowers reddish purple, 
0. virgin'icum. Stalked H. Hairy. Stem leafless above (2f.). Flowers pale blue. 
C. Morriso'ni. Morrison's H. Hairy, leafy (2-3f.), wide-spread. Flowers whitish. 

Order XCI. HYDROPHYLLACEJE. The Hydrophylls. 

Mostly herbs with alternate lobed leaves, and regular bluish flowers ; 
calyx 5-cleft, usually with appendages at the clefts, persistent ; 
corolla 5-lobed, often with 10 honey scales or furrows near the base ; 
stamens 5, inserted into the corolla, with a single bifid style ; 
ovary simple, free, 1-celled, with 2 usually projecting several-seeded 

Analysis of tlie Genera, 

1 Corolla with 10 honey scales inside, extending lengthwise 2 

1 Corolla destitute of honey scales. Stamens equalling corolla. Cosman'thus. 2 
2 Fls. in coiled cymes, without bracts. Placentae large, fleshy. Hydrophyi/lum. 1 
2 Flowers in one-sided racemes, bractless. Placentae linear. Phace'lia. 

2 Flowers (mostly) solitary. Calyx very large. Leaves pinnatifid. Ellis'ia. 

1. HYDROPHYL'LUM. Water-leaf. 
Sepals slightly united at base. Corolla campanulate, with 10 linear 
honey scales running lengthwise, folded inward so as to form 5 grooves. 
Stamens exserted. Pod globular, 2-celled, 1-4-seeded, with large, fleshy 
placentae. — Handsome herbs, with the root leaves on long petioles, and 
the flowers in clustered cymes, bluish or white. 
% Calyx not appendaged. Stamens much exserted. . . .1-3 

§ H. appendicula'tum. Appendaged W. Calyx appendaged at the clefts. Stamen* 
not exserted. W. S. 



1 H. macrophyl'lum. Great-leaved W. Lvs. pinnately-veined and lobed, rough 

hairy. Peduncles long. W. S. 

2 H. Virgin'icum. Virginia W. Leaves pinnately-veined and lobed, smooth 

Peduncles long. c. 

3 H. Canaden'se. Canada W. Leaves palmately-veined and lobed, smooth 

Peduncles shortei than petals, r. 

608 606 

Fig. 605. A flower of Virginian Water-leaf. Fig. 606. The Ovary and Style. Fig. 607. 

Corolla cut open, showing the honey grooves. Fig. 608. A seed, cut, showing the embryo. 

2. COSMAISTTHUS. Miami Mist. 

Corolla broad-campanulate, soon falling off, throat not appendaged, 
limb of 5-fringed lobes. Ovary 1-celled, the two projecting placentze 
each 2-seeded. — <D Delicate herbs with alternate leaves, long, bractless 
racemes, and small, white or pale-blue flowers. 

1 O. Fur'shii. Purses M. Nearly smooth. Leaves pectinately pinnatifid, lobes 

oblong-acute. Sepals lance-linear. Height 8-12'. Penn., S. and W. Pale blue. 

2 O. fimbria'tus. Fringed G. Downy. Leaves pinnate, segments rounded cr ob- 

long, obtuse. Sepals obtuse, oblong-spatulate. Mts. Tenn. S. 

Order XCII. POLEMONIACE.E. Phloxworts. 

Herbs with alternate or opposite leaves, and regular, showy, 5-parted 

flowers ; calyx free from the ovary ; 

corolla of 5 united petals, twisted and imbricate in the bud ; 

tt-amens 5, inserted into the midst of the corolla tube and alternate with 

its lobes ; 
ovary 3 celled ; styles united into 1 ; stigma 3-cleft ; 
capsule 3-celled, 3-valved, with few or many albuminous seeds. 

Order 92.— PHLOXWORTS. 


Analysis of the Genera. 

Corolla salver- form. Filaments unequal. Leaves simple. Phlox. Phlox. 3 

Corolla funnel-form. Filaments equal. Leaves dissected. Gilia. Gi'lia. 

Corolla bell-form. Filaments equal. Leaves pinnate. Polemony. Polemo'nium. 2 

1. PHLOX. Lychnidea 

Calyx angular, deeply 5-cleft, corolla salver-lorn:. 

the tube more or less curved. Stamens quiie tmequa~ 

inserted in the tube of the corolla above the middle. 

Capsule 3-celled, cells 1 -seeded. — Ven beautiful 

Forth American herbs. Leaves generally opposite, 

sessile, simple, entire. Flowers varying from pur 

pie to white. April-July. 

Pig. 609. Flower o< 

* Lobes of the corolla rounded and entire at the end 10-12 of a Phlox * 

* Lobes of the corolla notched or bifid at the end a 

a Panicle of cymes oblong or pyramidal, many-flowered. . . .1, 2 

a Panicle of cymes corymbed, level-topped, flowers fewer b 

o Plants glabrous. Calyx teeth shorter than its tube 3, 4 

Plants hairy. Calyx teeth very slender, larger than its tube....o 

c Leaves narrow, linear or nearly so 5, 6 

c Leaves broad, ovate, lanceolate, &c 7-9 

1 P. panicula'ta. Panicled L. Garden P. Tall. Leaves lance-ovate, acuminate at 

each end. Calyx-teeth bristle-pointed, nearly as long as the tube. W. S. t 

2 P. macula 'ta. Spotted L. Stem purple-spotted. Leaves lance-ovate, upper cor- 

date. Calyx-teeth lanceolate, acute, half as long as its tube. Fields. W. S. j 
5 P. Caroli'na. Carolina L. Stem ascending. Leaves lance-ovate. "W. S. 
4 P. glaber'rima. Polished L. Stem erect, simple. Leaves lance-linear. W. S. 

5 F.pilo'sa Hairy L. Leaves lance-linear, acute. Calyx segments bristle-subulate, 

much longer than its tube. Stem slender, l-2f. W. S. p.-w. 

6 P. involucra'ta. Cup-Jl. L. Hoary-downy. Lvs. linear oblong, obtusish at each 

end, the floral crowded beneath the dense cymes, p.-r. S. 

7 P. rep'tans. Creeping L. Stolons creeping. Stem oblique. Lvs. obovate, 

excuse. W. S. 

8 P Laphamii. LapharrCs P. Slender, erect. Lvs. ovate, acute, thin. W. 

9 P. Drummondii. Drummond''s P. Annual, branched, hairy. Leaves mostly 

alternate. Calyx segments re volute. Corolla purple, with a star. S. f 

10 P. divarica / ta. Wild L. Low, diffuse, downy. Lvs. lance-ovate, acute. Pan 

icle corymbed 7 loose. Corolla grayish-blue. c. (No. 8, may be the same.) 

11 P. bifida. Becker L. Low, diffusely branched. Lvs. lanceolate, stem-clasping. 

12 P. subula'ta. Moss Pink. Prostrate, much branched. Lvs. linear-subulate. It 

grows in dense tufts, covered over with rose-colored flowers in May. 4 



2. POLEMO'ISTIUM. Polemony. 

1 P. cceru'leum. Blue P. Greek Valerian. Stem erect, l-2f. high. L vs. pinnate 
with 11-17 leaflets. Capsule 12-20-seeded. Sometimes wild, t 
F, rep'tans. Creeping P. Stem weak, diffuse. Leaves pinnate, with 7-11 leaflets 
Capsule 4-6-seeded. Woods, common. Light blu 5. 


Serbs twining or trailing, with alternate leaves : flowers snowy : 

calyx with 5 much imbricated sepals, persistent: 

corolla regular, 5-Iobed or entire, pjaited and twisted in the .bud; 

stamens 5, and style single ; ovary free, Decommg in 

fruit a pod which is 2-4-celled and 2-6-seeded ; 

embryo large and leafy, with thin mucilaginous albumen. 

The suborder, Cusoutine^e, consists of small orange-colored, leafless 
plants, living on other plants (parasites), 
with small flowers, and no cotyledons 
(Cusouta, the Dodder). 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Ovaries 2, distinct, with 2 distinct styles. . . .f 
§ Ovary 1, open, when ripe by 2-4 valves 2 

2 Ovary 2-celled, 2-valved, 4-seeded 3 

2 Ovary 3-celled, 3-valved, 6-seeded....b 

2 Ovary 4-celled, 4-valved, 4-seeded a 

3 Styles 2, distinct.. ,.e 
8 Styles united into 1 4 

4 Calyx enveloped in 2 large bracts d 

4 Calyx naked c 

<t Stamens exserted. Cor. small (scarce V broad), 
a Stamens included. Corolla large (2 r broad), f 

b Beautiful twining vines. Cor. bell-funnel, 
c Stamens included. St4gma capitate. 
c Stamens included. Stigmas 2, linear. 
€ Stamens exserted. Corolla tube slender, f 

d Stigmas 2, obtuse. Corolla bell-form, f 
e Peduncles longer than the leaves. Soft-downy. 

f Capsules 2, each 1-seeded. Plant very small 

Fig. 610. Entire-leaved Cypress-vine 
(Quamoclit coccinea.) 

f Cypress Vine. Quam / oclit. 1 

Sweet Potato. Bata'tas. 2 

f Morning-glory. Phar'biti3. 3 

False Bindweed. Ipomle'a. 4 

Bindweed. Convoi/vclcs. £ 

Good-night. Calynyc'tion. 

Rutland Beauty. Caiyste'gia. 6 

Stylisma. Stylis'ma 
, prostrate. S. Piohon'pra. 

Order 93.— BINDWEEDS. 281 

1. QUAM'OCLIT. Cypress Vine. 

1 Q vuiga'ris True G. Leaves pectinate-pinnatifid. Fls. scarlet, crimson, &c. S. 
\ Q coccinea Fntire-lv. G. Lvs. undivided, cordate, acuminate. Crimson W S. 

2. BATATAS. Sweet Potato. 

L B. litiora'iis. Sea-side B. Peduncle 1-flowered, as long as the sinuate, cordate 
leaf. S. 
B. macrorhi'za. Wild Potato. Peduncle 1-5-f owered, shorter than the lobed or 

entire leaf, which is downy beneath. Flowers purplish-white. S. 
B ed'ulis. Sweet Potato. Peduncle 3-5-flowered, shorter than the palmate or 
pedate-lobed leaf. Flowers showy, rose-purple, t 

3. PHAR'BITIS. Morning-glory. (Fig. 22.) 

1 P. purpurea. Common M. Leaves entire, cordate. Peduncle 2-5-fiowered. f 

2 P. Nil. Indigo M. Lvs. 3-lobed, cordate. Ped. ]-3-fl wd. Sepals long. M. S. f 

4. IPOM^E'A. False Bindweed. 

A large genus. Some of its tropical species are shrubs and trees ; and 
are all trailing or climbing herbs, chiefly at the South. We mention but 
one species. 

». pan'durata. Wild Potato. Leaves broadly cordate, often fiddle -shaped (panduri- 
form). Corolla large (near 3' long), 4 times longer than the calyx, white, with 
a purple centre. Eoot very large. Sandy fields, West and South. 

5. COKYOL'VULUS. Bindweed. 

1 C. arveu'sis. Field B. Leaves sagittate. Fls. white, with a tinge of red, small. 

2 C. tri'color. Tri-colored B. Leaves lance-obovate. Fls. yellow, white, blue, f 

6. CALYSTE'GIA. Bracted Bindweed. 

I C. spithamae'us, Erect B. Stem ascending, 8-10\a span). Leaves lance-oblong 
Peduncle as long as the leaves, bearing 1 large, white flower. Fields. 

I C Sepium. Rutland Beauty. Stem twining, long. Leaves cordate-sagittate 
Flowers numerous, large, white, sometimes double in cultivation. 

B C Catesbeia'nus. Gatesby'sB. Plant downy, twining. Flowers purple. S. 



Order XCIV. SOLANACE^E. Nightshades. 



Fig, 611. A flower of Bitter-sweet (Solarium, Dulcamara). 2. Cross-section of the 
berry. 8. A. seed cut open, showing the long, curved embryo. Fig. 614. Flower of Petunia 

Plants herbaceous or shrubby, with alternate leaves; and with 

flower-stalks often opposite to the leaves ; and the 

pedicels without bracts ; calyx generally persistent, 5-lobed ; 

corolla 5-lobed, mostly regular, valvate and plaited in the bud ; 

ovary free, 2-celled (rarely 3 or 4-celled), many-seeded ; 

style and stigma single ; fruit a capsule or berry, with many seeds ; 

embryo curved, lying in fleshy albumen. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Corolla wheel-shaped, the tube very short. Anthers convergent a 

§ Corolla bell-shaped, the broad tube including the erect anthers b 

§ Corolla funnel-form, tube long, and — (2) 

2 The limb somewhat irregular c 

2 The limb perfectly regular 3 

3 Stamens exserted d 

3 Stamens included . . . .e 
a Anthers connate, opening by slits Berry lobed Tomato. Lycosper'sioum. 
a Anthers connivent, opening by pores. Berry round. Potato. Sola'num. 

a Anthers connivent, opening by pores. Pod angular. Pepper. Cap'sicum. 

b Corolla bluish. Berry dry, enveloped in the calyx. Apple Peru. Nioan'dka. 

b Corolla yellowish. Berry fleshy, inclosed in the calyx. 

Ground Cherry. Phys'alis. 

b Corolla purplish. Berry black, in the open calyx. Belladonna. At'ropa. 
t Stamens exserted, declining. Capsule opening by a lid. Henbane. Hyoscy'amds. 
c Stamens included, unequal. Capsule opening by valves. Petunia. Petu'nia. 

Order 94.— NIGHTSHADES. 283 

d Stamens growing to the summit of the tube. Neiremberg. Neerember'gia. 

d Stamens growing to the bottom of the tube. Matrimony. Lyc'iull 

e Calyx 5-angled. Capsule spiny or smooth* Thorn Apple. Datu'ra 

e Calyx terete. Stigma capitate. Herbs coarse. Tobacco. Nicotia'na.. 

e Calyx terete. Stigma 2-iobed. Delicate shrubs, t False Tamarisk* Fabia sl. 

SOLA' NUM. Nightshade. 

Calyx 5-parted. Corolla rotate, limb spreading, tube very short, limt 
plaited in the bud, 5-lobed. Anthers erect, slightly united or converging, 
each opening at top by 2 pores. Berrv globular or depressed, 2-celled. 
— Herbs or shrubs unarmed or prickly. Leaves often 2 together, a large 
and a small one. Flowers generally lateral. May- July. 

§ Plants not prickly. Anthers short, blunt a 

§ Plants prickly. Anthers long, linear, and pointed. . . .b 

a Herbs with pinnatifid leaves, shorter than the racemes. . . .1 

a Herbs with undivided leaves, longer than the racemes 2-4 

a Shrubby plants, erect or climbing. Berries red 5-7 

b Peduncles exceeding the leaves, many-flowered. . . .8, 9 
b Peduncles shorter than the leaves, few-flowered 10, 11 

I S. tubero'sum. Potato. Segments of the leaves unequal, some very small. Co- 

rolla limb 5-angled. Tubers on the underground branches. 
2 S. nig / rum. Black NightsJiade. Smoothish. Leaves ovate, toothed, and wavy. 

Flowers small, white, in lateral umbels. Berries black. 
8 S. nodiflo'rum. Knot-flowered iV. Quite smooth. Leaves ovate, entire. 

Flowers minute, white, the stalk arising from a knot in the stem. S. 
4 S. pycnan'thum. Stem hispid. Leaves ovate-acuminate, wavy. Peduncle 2 

or 3-flowered. S. 

5 S. Dulcama'ra. Bitter-sweet. Stem flexuous, climbing. Leaves ovate, cordate, 

upper ones lobed or gashed. Flowers purple, in lateral cymes, drooping. 
(Fig. 611.) 

6 S. Pseudo-cap 'sicum. Jerusalem Cherry. A small, handsome, erect shrub, 2-4f. \ 

7 S. sempervi'rens. Evergreen N. Climbing. Leaves thick, cordate, elliptic, ob- 

tuse, with a blunt cusp, very smooth and shining. Panicles terminal, t 

8 S. Carolinen'se. Horse Nettle. Leaves angular-lobed. Racemes leafless, w. 

9 S Virginia 'num. Virginia N. Leaves pinnatifid. Eacemes leafy. Pale. S. 
10 S. mammo'sum. Apple of Sodom. Woolly and prickly. Leaves roundish-ovate. 

lobed. Fruit inversely pear-shaped. Flowers violet-colored. 

II 8 esculen'tum. Egg-plant. Leaves ovate, somewhat sinuate, downy. Flowers 

6-9-parte<L Fruit egg-shaped, from the size of an egg to a water-melon, t 



Order XCY.— GENTIAN ACE.E. The Gentianworts. 

Herbs with opposite, entire, 
smoDth leaves, and showy 
regular flowers ; 

corolla usually twisted in the 
bud, with as many lobes as 

btamens, and alternate with 
them, mostly persistent 
and withering; 

stigmas 1 or 2 ; 

ovary 1 -celled, superior, be- 
coming a 2-valved 

pool with many seeds. 

Analysis of the Genera, 

§ Leaves opposite or whorled, 

sometimes minute. Corolla 

mostly twisted in bud 2 

5 Leaves alternate or radical. 

Corolla valvate in the bud 

2 Corolla with a glandular spot 

on each lobe, sometimes 

with spurs.. ..c 
2 Corolla without glandular 

spots or spurs 3 

3 Corolla tubular, the tube longer than the limb a 

3 Corolla deeply cleft, mostly wheel-shaped, tube very short. . . .b 

a Sepals 4 or 5. Corolla fringed, or with folds between lobes. Anthers straight. 

a Sepals 4 or 5. Anthers spirally twisted. European Centaury. Krythr,e'a. 

a Sepals 2, leaf-like. Cor. 4-cleft, white or purplish. Pennywort. Obola'ria. 

b Leaves very small or mere bracts. Fls. 4-parted. Screw-stem. Barto'nia. 

b Leafy. Fls. 5-1 2-parted. Anthers curved. American Centaury. Sarba'tia. 
c Corolla 4-parted, with 4 spurs beneath at base. Spurred Gentian. Hale'nia. 
c Cor. 4-parted, without spurs. Tall, with whorled leaves. Columbo. Fra'sera. 

d Corolla bearded inside. Leaves 3-foliate, on long stalks. 

Buck-bean. Menyan'thes. 

4 Corolla smooth inside. Leaves simple, floating. 

Floating Heart. Limnan'themum 

Fig. 615. Gentiana Andrewsii. 6. The calyx and 
capsule. 7. The corolla laid open, showing the fold? 
(2-lobed) between the proper petals, and the stamens 
attached at base. 8. Capsule cut across. 9. Seed 
magnified, with its large, loose testa. 


1. GEXTIA'JSTA. Gentian. 

Calyx 4-5-cleft. Corolla 4-5-lobed, regular, usually with plaited folds 
between the lobes. Stigmas 2, style short or none. Pod oblong, 2-valved, 
many-seeded. — Leaves opposite. Flowers solitary or in cymes. Aug.- Oct. 

Corolla with folded appendages between the 5 lobes. Anthers cohering b 

Coroiia with no appendages between the lobes. Anthers separate a 

a Segments ot tne corolla entire, pale-blue, 5 in number. . . .1 

a Segments oi tne corolla fringed, mostly but 4, bright blue. . . . 2, 3 

o blowers solitary, terminal, blue or white 4 

!) Flowers clustered, yellowish or cream- white .... 5, 6 

n powers clustered, blue 7-9 

• Gk qtdnqueflo ra. Five-leaved G. Clusters about 5-flowered. Corolla lobes bristle- 
2 3-. crini'ta. Fringed G. Leaves lanceolate. Corolla conspicuously fringed. 

Height If. 
8 Gr. det'onsa, Shorn G. Lvs. linear. Corolla lobes crenato-ciliate. Height If. 
4 G-. angustifo'lia. Sand G. Slender, If. erect. Lvs. linear. Flower large, b.orp. 

5 CJ-. ochroleu'ca. Pule G. Lvs. lance-oval, narrowed to the sessile base. Corolla 

greenish- white, a third longer than the sepals. S. M. 

6 G-. alba. Whitish G. Lvs. lance-ovate, clasping with the broad base. Corolla 

cream- white, 4 times longer than sepals. W. M. 

7 Gr. Andrew'sii. Closed Blue »G. Leaves ovate -lanceolate, 3-veined. Corolla never 

opening, the lobes equalling the 5 fringed folds. (Figs. 615-619.) 

8 G-. Sapona'ria. Soapwort G. Plant smooth. Leaves rough-edged, linear-lanceo- 

late. Corolla open, the lobes twice longer than the cleft folds. 

9 G. puber'ula. Rough G. Plant scabrous. Lvs. lance-ovate, very rough at edge. 

Corolla somewhat bell-shaped, folds very short. W. S. 

2. SABBATIA. American Centaury. 

Calyx 5-12-parted. Corolla rotate, limb 5-12-parted. Stamens 5-12. 
Style 2-parted. Capsule 1 -celled. — Beautiful biennials, with mostly ro 
seate flowers. 

§ Corolla mostly 9 (rarely 7-12)-parted. . . .1, 2 

§ Corolla 5 (ra-ely 6)-parted a 

a Branches alternate or forked b 

a Branches opposite. Flowers with a central star. . ,c 

b Flowers white or nearly white 3, 4 

b Flowers rose-red, with a central star. . . .5, b 

c Flowers white, corymbed 7, 8 

c Flowers rose red, paniculate 9. 10 


1 S. gentianoi'des. Gentian G. Leaves linear, rigid, longer than the internodos 

Flowers 8-10-parted, bright flesh-color, clustered. S. 

2 S. chloroi'dcs. Chlora G. Leaves lanceolate. Brandies few, alternate, each 

bearing at top a solitary, 7-12-parted, bright purple flower. E. 

3 S. calyco / sa. Gup G. Calyx leafy, as large as the 5-6-parted corolla. S. 

4 S. panicula'ta. P articled G. Sepals linear, half as long as 5-j.arted cor. S. 

S gracilis, Slender G. Leaves ovate to linear. Sepals bristle- form, as long as 

the corolla. M. S. 
< 3. stclla'risJ. Starry G. Leaves lance-obovate. Sepals linear, much shorter tha^ 
corolla. J. 

7 S. corymbo'sa. Gcryrribed G. Leaves lanceolate, 3-veined. Calyx segments 

linear, thrice longer than its tube, half as long as the corolla. N.-J. S. 

8 S. macrophyl'la. Leaves 5- veined, cusp-pointed. Sepals shorter than calyx 

tube. S. 
9 S. angularis. Angled G. Stem square, with winged angles. Leaves ovate, 
clasping, 5-veined. Flowers many, rose-red, the star greenish. Wet. c. 
10 S. brachial. Prairie G. Stem square, slender, joints 2-4 times longer than the 
sessile, lance-linear leaves. Panicle oblong. Corolla 6-parted, the star 
yellow. W. S. 

Order XCVI. APOCYNACE.E. Dogbanes. 

Plants with a milky juice, entire arid mostly opposite leaves; 
flowers 5-parted and regular, with the corolla twisted in the bud ; 
stamens 5, with distinct filaments, anthers sometimes slightly united ; 
ovaries 2, distinct, but with their stigmas united at top of the styles ; 
fruit 2 follicles containing several or many albuminous seeds. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

* Herbs erect, 2-4f. high, the flowers in cymes a 

* Shrubs twining or trailing, with opposite leaves b 

* Shrubs erect, 3-6f. high, with the leaves in whorls of 3 c 

a Cor. bell-shaped, whitish. Style none. Sds. silky. Dog^s-bane. Apoc'ynum. 1 
a Corolla funnel-form, bluish. Style 1. Lvs. scattered. Amson. Amso'kia. 

Fls. solitary, blue. Throat 5-angled. Lvs. evergreen, f Periwinkle. Vin'ca. 

Flowers in cymes, yellow, small. Lvs. petiolate. Wet. South. Fo-Rstero'nia. 
c Leaves thick, evergreen. Flowers large, rose-colored. Olear dtr. Ne'rium. 

APOC'YNUM. Dog's-bane. 

Stamens shorter than the corolla, arising from its base, and alternate 
with 5 glandular teeth. Anthers arrow-shaped, cohering to the stigmas 

Order 97.— ASCLEPIADS. 


by the middle. Follicles long, slen- 
der, separate. Seeds with a tuft of 
long, silky down. June- August, 

1 A. androsaemifo'lium. Tutsan-leaved D. 
Corolla rose-white, much longer than 
the calyx. Leaves ovate. Plant 
smooth, elegant, about 3f. high. 
A. cannabi'num. Hemp D. Cor. green- 
ish-white, scarce longer than the 
calyx. Leaves oblong. Bark tough 
as hemp. 

Fig. 620. Common Dog's-bane. 1. A flower 
of the natural size. 2. The flower cut open, 
showing the peculiar stamens. 3. The 2 styles 
and stigmas. 4. The plan of the flower. 5. Tho 
2 follicles. 6. A seed with its tuft of silk. 


Plants (chiefly herbs in the United States) with a milky juice; 
leaves opposite (rarely whorled or scattered), entire, without stipules; 
flowers generally umbeled, 5-parted, regular ; sepals and also the 
petals united at base, both commonly valvate in the bud ; 
stamens united into a fleshy mass with the two stigmas ; 
pollen cohering in masses; ovaries 2, forming follicles in fruit 

Analysis of the Genera. 

% Plants erect. Stamen-mass crowned with 5 little hoods.... 2 
§ Plants twining or prostrate 3 

2 Hoods each with a little projecting horn. . . .a 

2 Hoods destitute of horns b 

3 Flowers dark purple . . . . c 
3 Flowers whitish or flesh-colored. . . . 
t Petals renexed. Hoods erect, horns incurved. Silkgrass. Milkweed. Ascle pi *s. 1 

b Petals renexed. Hoods erect, adnate to the anthers. Acera'tes. 

b Petals spreading, green. Hoods free from the anthers. S. Anan'therix. 

b Petals erect, yellowwh. Mass of anthers stalked. S. Podostig'ma 


c The 5 filaments distinct. Pollen masses 5. N.-Y. Pkriplo'ca. 

e Filaments united as well as the stigmas. Pollinia 10. Gonol'okus 

d Petals spreading. Hoods erect. Leaves linear. Coast, S. Sente'ra. 

d Petals spreading. Hoods flat, spreading, t Wax-plant. Hoy'a. 

d Petals erect, white. Hoods erect, 2-awned. S.-W. Common. Ensle'nia. 

ASOLETIAS. Silk-grass. Milkweed. 

^We have many species of this genus, blooming in the Summer months. Begin 
irers will find them difficult to distinguish. We omit them here, referring the reade 
to the Class Book.) 

Order XCIX. OLEACE^E. Oliveworts. 

Trees and shrubs with opposite leaves, with 

flowers 4-parted, regular, sometimes without petals; 

corolla (when present) valvate in the bud; stamens 2, rarely 4; 

wary 2-celled, with 2 ovules in each cell ; fruit fleshy or dry. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Leaves pinnate. Fruit a dry, winged samara a 

§ Leaves simple. Fruit a dry, 2-celled pod (capsule) b 

§ Leaves simple. Fruit a fleshy drupe or berry 2 

2 Corolla present. Stamens included. White c 

2 Corolla present. Stamens exserted d 

2 Corolla none. Fruit an oblong drupe e 

i Trees with imperfect flowers and odd-pinnate leaves. Ash. Frax'ini's. 

b Corolla salver-form, with short, white or purple lobes. + Lilac. Syrin'ga. ] 

b Corolla bell-form, with long, yellow lobes, f Forsythia. Forsy'thia. 

c Corolla with long, linear, pendulous lobes. Virginia Fringe-tree. Chionan'thus. 
c Cor. with short lobes. Panicle dense. Berries black. Privet. Prim. Ligus'trum. 

d Style 2-parted. Leaves serrate. Shrubs. + Osmanth. Osman'thus. 

d Style simple. Panicles axillary. S. American Olive. Olea. 

d Style simple. Panicles terminal. Trees, f Yisian. Visia'na. 

« Flowers very imperfect, dioecious. Shrubs. Wet. W. S. Adelia. Foresti'era. 

SYPJN'GA. Lilac. 

1 S vulgaris. Common L. Leaves cordate-ovate, entire. Flowers lilac- purple. 

2 S. al'ba White Lilac. Flowers pure white. Shrub taller. (Variety of No. 1.) 

8 S. Per'sica. Persian L. Leaves lanceolate, entire or cleft. Flowers in looaei 
panicles, lilac-blue. Apr. May. 

Order 101.— MARYELWORTS. 280 



Essential Character. — Flowering plants (Ph^enogamia), 
with their stems growing by additions to the outside and the 
wood in circular layers (Exogexs), with the seeds inclosed in 
seed-vessels (Angiospekms), and the flowers destitute of petals 

Order C— ARISTOLOCHIACE^E. Birthworts 

Low herbs or climbing shrubs with alternate leaves, large flowers ; 
calyx adhering to the ovary, valvate in bud, brown or dull colored; 
stamens 6-12, at top of the 6-celled, many-seeded ovary. 

Analysis of the Genera. 
Calyx bell-form, regular, 3-cleft. Stamens 12. Herbs with creeping, 

underground stems. Wild Ginger. Asa'bum, 1 

Calyx tubular, bent, irregular. Anthers 6. Shrubby, erect or climbing, 

with very odd flowers. Birthwort. Aristolo'chia. 

AS ARUM. Wild Ginger. 

1 A Canadense. Canada W. Leaves in pairs, broad-reniform, with the single flower 

between the petioles scarcely above-ground. May-July. c. 

2 A Virginicum. Virginia W. Leaf solitary, round-ovate, cordate, the single flower 

much shorter than the petiole. Sepals obtuse. Mts. Va. S. April. 
8 A. arifol'ium. Arum-lv. W. Leaf solitary, broadly hastate, with long, angular 
lobes at base. Calyx throat contracted, lobes very short. Va. S. April. 

Order CI.— NYCTAGINACE.E. Marvelworts. 

Herbs (ehrubs or trees) with swelling joints; entire, opposite leaves ; 
flowers surrounded by an involucre (which is, of course, calyx-like wheu 

die flower is solitary) : 
calyx often colored like a corolla, tubular or funnel-form, breaking off 

above the 1 -celled, 1- seeded ovary. 



Analysis of the Genera. 

Involucre just like a calyx, involving a single, large flower. Calyx funnel-form 

corolla- like, the limb entire. Four-o-chck. Mikab'ilis. * 

Involucre involving 2-5 small, rose-red flowers. W. S. Oxyb'aphus. 

nvolucre none, or minute bractlets. Flowers minute. S. Boerhaa'via. 

MIRAB'ILIS. Marvel-of-Feru. Four-o-clook. 

1 M. Jala'pa. Peruvian F. Leaves ovate, subcordate. Fls. stalked, with a iarg( 

border, infinite in variety of color, opening about 4 o'clock, p. i. f 

2 M. dichotoma. Mexican F. Erect, smooth. Calyx with a small norder. t 

8 M. longiflo'ra. Long-fl. F. Diffuse, viscid. Calyx tube downy, ve.y long, i Alex. 

Order CIL— POLYGONACEJE. Knotweeds. 

Herbs with alternate leaves, swollen joints, and with 
stipules sheathing the stem above the joints ; flowers racerned, perfect; 
calyx persistent ; sepals 4-6, imbricated, distinct or united at base ; 
stamens 4-12 ; ovary 2 or 3-styled, 1 -celled, 1-seeded in fruit. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

* Calyx 4-parted, regular. Stamens 6. Styles 2. Mountain Sorrel. Oxyr'ia. 

* Calyx 6-parted. Stamens 9. Sepals all similar. Rhubarb. Kheum. 

* Calyx 6-parted. Stamens 6. Inner sepals larp^. Dock. Sorrel. Kfmex. 

* Calyx 5-parted (irregularly 4-parted in one species) a 

a Sep., the 3 inner fringed. Fls. solitary. S. Fringe Knotiveed. Thysanei/la. 

a Sepals not fringed, entire or nearly so b 

o Pedicels solitary. Sep. all open or 3 closed on the fruit. M. S. Polygonei/la. 
b Pedicels usually clustered. Sepals all closed on the fruit. Polygonum. I 

b Pedicels clustered in the bract. Sepals all optm. Buckwheat. Fagopy'rum. 

POLYGONUM. Kiiotweed. 

Calyx 5- (rarely 4-) parted, colored or corolla-like, the sepals all erect 
and inclosing the fruit. Stamens 4-9. Styles 2 or 3. Nut lens-shaped 
or 3 -cornered. — Herbs with swollen, sheathed joints. Flowers small, 
white, red, or greenish. May- Aug. 

§ Stems climbing, with reversed prickles. Leaves cordate-sagittate 19, 20 

§ Stems unarmed, twining. Leaves cord ate -hastate 17, 18 

$ Stems erect or decumbent, unarmed. Leaves hardly ever cordate. . . .a 

Okder 102.— KNOTWEEDS. 291 

a Calyx unequally 4-cleft. Styles 2, long, deflexed 16 

a Calyx equally 5-parted. Styles erect b 

b Sheaths with a spreading border. Stamens 7. Plant tall 15 

D Sheaths not bordered. Stamens 5, 6, or 8 c 

c Flowers in leafless, terminal, spike-like racemes. . . .d 

c Flowers axillary, or rarely forming a leafy raceme f 

d Raceme one, dense. Stems decumbent at base 13, 14 

d Racemes several. Sheaths naked, not fringed 11, 12 

d Racemes several. Sheaths bristly fringe-ciliate. . . .e 

e Style 2 (or 3)-cleft. Achenia Hat or lens-shaped 8-10 

e Style 3-cleft. Achenia sharply 3-cornered. Wet 5-7 

f Achenium protruding beyond the calyx, 3-angled.. . .3, 4 
f Achenium included in the calyx, 3-angled 1, 2 

1 7*. avicula're. Bird K. Prostrate or erect. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acutish at 

each end. Achenia striate, dull. Very common. 

2 P. ten'ue. Slender K. Slender, rigidly erect. Leaves lance-linear, erect, acute. 

3 P. marit'irnum. Sea K. Prostrate, diffuse, glaucous, close-jointed. Leaves 

linear-oblong, fleshy. Achenia smooth, shining. E. 

4 P. ramosis'simum. Lake K. Erect, much branched, 2-3 f. high. Leaves 

lance-oblong or linear. Achenia smooth, dull. W. 
5 P. hirsu'ram. Hairy K. Hairy-tawny. Leaves lanceolate from a blunt base. S. 
G P. hydropiperoi'des. Mild Water-pepper. Stem smooth. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 

not acrid, tapering at both ends. Spikes slender. Calyx dotless. 
7 P. acre. Sharp W. Stem smooth. Leaves biting, dotted as well as the calyx, 

lanceolate, pointed. Spikes very slender, thread-form. 

8 P. hydropi 'per. Water-pepper. Smooth. Leaves very biting, dotted. Spikes 

short, nodding. Calyx dotted. Achenia roughened. 

9 P. Car'eyi. Carey's K. Plant hairy. Spikes nodding, on very long stalks. 
10 P. Fersica'ria. Lady's- thumb. Leaves marked with a brown spot. Spikes 

short, dense, erect. Achenia shining, flattened. 

11 P. Pennsylvan'icum. Pennsylvania K. Spikes oblong, dense, with glandular- 

hispid stalks and pedicels. Achenia ^ith flat sides, c. 

12 P. incarna'tum. Flesh-red K. Spikes linear, nodding, the stalks and branches 

glandular-dotted. W. S. 

18 P. amphib'ium. Water K. Stem ascending from a prostrate, rooting baso. 
Leaves lance-oblong. Stamens 5. Spikes large, dense, rose-red. 

34 P. vivip'arura. Alpine Bistort. Creeping at base. Lvs. lance-linear. Mts. N. 
15 P. orientate. Prime's Feather. Stem stout, tall, with large, drooping spikes, -f 

16 P. Virginia 'num. Lip-fl. K. Leaves large. Racemes slender, flowers remote. 
17 P. convolvulus. Knot- Bindweed. Roughish. Racemes axillary. Fruit dull. 
IS P. cilino'de. Bearded B. Sheaths with a hairy ring. Panicles axil, and termii ai. 
19 P. dumito'rum. Hedge B. Calyx with the 3 outer sepals acutely wing-keeled. 

20 P. sagitta'tum. Swatch-grass. Lvs. lance-sagittate. Stamens 8. Styles 5, 

81 P. arifo'lium. Arum-lv. S. Lvs. pointed, with pointed lobes. Stam. 6. Sty. fc, 



Order CIII. PHYTOLACCACE.E. Pokeweeds. 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate leaves, no stipules, and flowers racemed; 

sepals colored, 4 or 5; petals none; stamens few or many; 

wary of one or several carpels, which are united into a ring, forming 

berry in fruit; cells as many as the carpels, each 1 -seeded; 
ymbryo curved around the fleshy albumen. 

Sepals 5, roundish. 
Sepals 4, persistent. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

Sta. 5-20. Ovary 5-12-carpeled and seeded. Phytolao'oa. 1 
Stamens 4-12. Ovary 1-earpeled and 1-seeded. S. Rivi'na. 


Character expressed in the 
Analysis. — Tall and stout per- 
ennials, with greenish flowers 
and purple berries. 

P. decan / dra. Plant 5-8f. high, 

very smooth, bushy. Leaves 

large, ovate, acute at each end, 

petioled. Racemes at first 

terminal, finally opposite to 

the leaves. Berries oblate, of 

a rich dark purple. July-Sept. 
Fig. 627. Phytolacca decandria, leaves, flowers, and fruit, 
stamens and ovary. Fig. 630. Cross-section of the ovary. 1. A seed cut open, showi 
bryo coiled around the albumen. 

Order CV. CHENOPODIACEiE. Goose-foots. 

Herbs, mostly homely weeds, more or less fleshy, with alternate leaves ; 
stipules none, scarious bracts none. Flowers apetalous, small, greenish ; 
stamens opposite the sep.ils or fewer in number than they ; 
ovary 2-styled, forming a 1-seeded utricle or caryopsis. 
Embryo coiled or spiral in the seed. 

Analysis of the Genera. 
% Stem wining and climbing. Flowers in many racemes, white.... (d) 
§ Steins erect. Leaves none, or fleshy and terete, often spinescent....(a) 
§ >tems erect. Leaves flat, neither fleshy nor spinescent. Flowers greenish .. . (2) 

Order 106.— AMARANTHS. 293 

2 Flowers all perfect and alike (b) 

2 Flowers of two sorts, monoecious or dicecions (c) 

u Leaves ovate, cordate, petiolate, thick. 2C S. Am. Mexican Vine, Boussingaui/tia 

b Pericarp rough and cor^y. Root fusiform, fleshy. Lvs. large. (§) Beet. Beta, 

b Pericarp smooth, thin. Calyx bractless, not appendaged, 5-cleft, enclos- 
ing the utricle which is lens-shaped and horizontal. Fls. minute, in 
panicled spikes. ® ^ Pigweed, Oak-of-Jerusalem, etc. Chenopo'dium. 

b Pericarp smooth, thin. Calyx of 5 distinct sepals, often becoming berry- 
like in fruit. Fls. glomerate. ® Strawberry Elite. Blitum. 
c Fruit enclosed In a hardened calyx without bracts. Styles 4. Leaves has- 
tate-lanceolate, to sagittate, petiolate. Fls. axillary. Spin-age. Spina'cia. 
c Fruit naked (no calyx) between 2 bracts. Styles 2. Herbs (sometimes 
shrubby) often mealy or scurfy. Lvs. sometimes opposite, triangular, 
etc. At'riplex. 

d Stems jointed, leafless, having the flowers at the joints. Stamens 1 or 2. 

Fleshy, herbs with opposite branches. Seaside. Samphire. Salicor'nia. 

d Stems with leaves linear fleshy, and profusely branched. Flowers mi- 
nute, sessile, clustered. Stamens 5. (D In salt marshes. Glass-wort. Chenopodi'na. 

d Stems with terete awl-shaped leaves tipped with a spine. Calyx-wing- 
ed on the back, wings persistent and purplish in fruit. Saltwort. Sal'sola Kali. 

Order CVL AMAEANTAOE^E. Amaranths. 

Herbs very similar to the Goose foots, but with an imbricated involucre 
of 3 dry scarious bracts added to the flowers. Style 1. Fruit a 1-seeded 
utricle, caryopsis or berry. Flowers very small and numerous. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Anthers 2-celled. Ovary with oo ovules, utricle 00 - seeded. Cockscomb. Calo'sia. 

§ Anthers 2-celled. Ovary 1-ovuled, utricle 1-seeded. Leaves alternate (b) 

§ Anthers 1-celled. Ovary 1-ovuled, utricle 1-seeded. Leaves opposite (a) 

* Flowers monoecious or polygamous, all with a calyx and stamens. Amaran'tus. 1 

* Fls. dioecious, the pistillate with neither calyx nor stain. Water Hemp. Acnt'da. 
a Sterile stamens 5, the 5 lertile joined into a tube. Heads axillary. South. Telanthe ra. 
a Sterile stam. 5, the 5 fertile in a tube. Spikes terminal and axillary. W. Froelich'ia. 
a Sterile stamens none. — b Flowers paniculate, white. River banks. W. Jresi'ne, 

— b Fls. capitate, crimson, &c. Glebe Amaranth. Gomphre'na. 

1. AMARANTUS. Amaranth. 

Calyx of 5 or 3 sepals, with 3 bracts at base. Stamens 3-5. Stigmas 
2 or 3. Fruit a 1-seeded utricle which is regularly circumscissile, or tears 
open, or does not open at all. — We find 11 species (see Botanist and Florist, 
p. 283), among which are the WJiite Pigweed and other weeds of the gar 
den, and a few showy herbs like the following : 


A hypochondri'acus. Prince's Feather. Smoothish. Leaves lance-oblong, some red 
dened. Spikes very obtuse, the terminal one much the longest. Flowers deep pur- 
ple, 5-parted. Fields and gardens. 3-6f. From Mexico. 

A. panicula'tus. Pubescent, pale green or purplish. Leaves lance-ovate. Spikes slen- 
der, acutish, numerous, all subequal, reddish green, or in the variety sanguineus^ 
crimson. Bracts awn-pointed. Calyx 5-parted. Fields and gardens. 2-3f. 

Order CVIL THYMELACE^E. Daphnads. 

Shrubs with a very tough bark, entire leaves and perfect flowers ; 
calyx colored, tubular, regular, 4-parted, bearing the 4-8 stamens ; 
ovary free, forming a 1-celled, 1-seeded drupe in fruit. 

1. DIRCA. Leatherwood. 

Calyx colored like a corolla, its limb obscurely 4-toothed. Stamens 8, 
exserted. Style 1. Flowers opening before the leaves, 3 from each bud. 

D. palus'tris. Shrub 3-5f. high, along streams, with pendent, yellowish flowers in April 
and May. Drupes small, oval, red. Lvs. oblong-obovate. 

2. DAPHNE. Daphne. 

Calyx colored, funnel-form, limb spreading, 4-parted. Stamens 8, not 
exserted. Berry fleshy, 1-seeded. Exotics. 

1 D. Meze'reum is a shrub, 2-3f., with very smooth lanceolate leaves appearing later than 
the side clusters of rose-purple, sweet-scented flowers.— Two or three other species 
are found in the greenhouse. Europe. 


Trees with alternate, pinnate exstipulate lvs. and monoecious flowers; 
sterile flowers in aments with an irregular perianth ; fertile, solitary, &c. ; 
$ calyx regular, 3-5-lobed. Fruit a tryma (§ 172) with a fibrous epicarp 

{shuck) and a bony endocarp {shell) ; 
fteed large, with lobed, often sinuous, oily cotyledons. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

Bterilf aments solitary, simple. Epicarp persistent on the tryma. Jctglan9 1 

Sterile aments ed. lateiil. Epicarp 4-valved, separating. Carta. 9 

Order 118.— LAURELS. 295 

1. JUGLANS. Walnut. 

$ Calyx scale-like, 5 or 6-parted, with about 20 stamens. 2 Calyx ter- 
minal, 4-parted, with 4 greenish petals and 2 fringed stigmas. 

1 J. cine'rea. Butternut. White W. Tree 40-50f., with wide-spread branches. Leaflets 
15-17, lanceolate. Fruit oblong-ovoid. Kernel with two great lobes, rich fjid sweet. 
The wood is used in ornamental work. 

I .. nigra. Black W. Tree 60-S0f., with a tall straight trunk. Leaflets 15-21, lance- 
ovate, subcordate. Fruit globular. Wood dark purple, used in cabinet-work, very 
valuable. Seed rich in oil. 

2. CAR'YA. Hickory. 

$ Calyx scale-like, 3-parted, with 4 or 5 stamens. $ Calyx 4-cleft ; no 
petals. Shell smooth and even. Timber very strong. 

* Leaflets 13-15, scythe-shaped. Nut oblong, thin-shelled, very sweet.... No. 1 

* Leaflets 7-11. Nut with a tender shell and very bitter kernel Nos. 2, 3 

* Leaflets 5-9. Nut roundish, hard-shelled, sweet and eatable (a) 

a Valves of the epicarp distinct to the base. Bark with loose plates. .. Nos. 4, f 
a Valves of the epicarp united below. Bark solid, firm. . Nos. 6-8 
1 C. olivaefor'mis. Pecan Nut. Tree 60-90f., in river bottoms, W. and S.W. 

2 O. ama'ra. Bitter Nut. Tree 20-40T. Leaflets sharply serrate. Nut white. 

3 O. aquat'ica. Tree 30-40f. Leaflets snbentire. Nut reddish. Swamps, S. 

4 C. alba. Shagbai'k. Tree 40-50f. Leaflets 5, the 2 lower smaller. Common. 

5 C. sulca'ta. Thick Shellbark. Tree 40-80f. Leaflets 9-11, the odd one subsessile. 

Fruit large, oval, 4-furrowed ; nut pointed at both ends, shell thick. 

6 C. tomento'sa. Mocker Nut. Tree 40-60f. Lfts. 7-9, rough-downy. Little meat 

7 C. porci'na. Pignut. Tree 60-100f. Leaflets 5-7, smoothish. Fruit somewha 


8 0. microcar'pa. Tree 60-80f. Leaflets 5-7, glabrous. Nut small as a nutmeg. 

Order CXVIII. LAURACE.E. Laurels. 

Trees and shrubs aromatic, with alternate, simple, dotted leaves; 
sepals colored, 4-6, slightly united, strongly imbricated ; 
anthers 2 or 4-celled, opening upwards by as many valves; 
ovary 1-ovuled, becoming a drupe in fruit ; no albumen. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Flowers perfect, the calyx persistent. Leaves evergreen a 

§ Flowers imperfect. Calyx deciduous. Leaves deciduous b 

Trees. Lvs. thick, lance-oblong. Fls. umbeled. S. Bay Galls. Persia. 



b Involucre none. Anthers 4-valved. Leaves lobed. Sassafras. Sassafras. 7 
b Involucre 4-leaved. Anthers 2-valved. Shrubs. Spice-bush. Ben'zotn. 

b Involucre 4-leaved. Anthers 4-valved. Shrubs. S. Pond-spice. Tetranthe ra. 

SASSAFRAS. Sassafras. 
Flowers dioecious, 6-parted, regular. Stamens 9. Trees with decidu 
ous leaves, expanding after the clusters of yellow flowers. 
S. officinale. Common S. Leaves of two forms, ovate and entire, or 8-lobed and 
acute at base. Tree aromatic, 10-30f. high. 

Order CXIX. CUPULIFEIUE. The Mastworts. 

Tree* or shrubs, with alternate, simple leaves, and deciduous stipules , 
flowers monoecious, the sterile in aments, which are racemed or head -like ; 
stamens in the sterile flowers, 6 to 20, on the base of the calyx ; 
ovary in the fertile flowers with several cells and ovules, but becoming in 
fruit a 1-seeded nut surrounded by an involucre (cup, burr, or sac). 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Sterile flowers in aments, fertile flowers solitary or 2 or 3 together 2 

§ Sterile flowers and fertile also in aments, the latter loose and large c 

2 Involucre 1-flowered, cup-like, composed of many little scales a 

2 Involucre 2 or 3-flowered, composed of few large valves b 

* Sterile aments slender, calyx 5-cleft, stamens 5 or 10. Fertile flowers, con- 
sisting of an ovary sitting in a scaly cup, becoming, in fruit, an acorn, 1- 
celled, 1-seeded. A noble genus of trees (rarely shrubs), always known by 
their peculiar fruit, called acorns. The timber is of great value, especially 
in ship-building. In the Class Book of Botany, 23 species are described. 
(See Figs. 32-34, 267.) Oak. Quercus. 1 

b Involucre of the fruit and fertile flowers a burr with 4 valves. Sterile aments 
slender, each flower with 5-15 stamens ; 3 fertile flowers in each involucre, 
which is beset with slender prickles. We have two species, one a tree, the 
other a shrub. Timber excellent. The fruit is sweet and nutritious. (See 
Fig. 277.) CJiestnvt. Casta'nea 

fc Involucre of the fruit a burr with 4 valves. Sterile aments head-like, sus- 
pended by a slender stalk. Calyx 6-cleft. Two flowers in each burr, which 
is covered by weak spines. Nuts sharply 3-angled. They are tall, valua- 
ble forest- trees. Beech. Fa ous 

b Involucre a sac, longer than the nuts, torn at the top. Sterile flowers in a 
slender ament. Shrubs. Usually but one flower or nut in each involucre. 

Hazel. Oor'ylus. 

Ordei? 121.— GALEWORTS. 297 

c Involucre a closed, inflated sac, one-flowered, many together in the pendu- 
lous, hop-like cluster. Small trees, with very compact, strong timber, called 

Hop Hornbeam. Iron-woo<l. Lever-wood. Os'trya. 

c Involucre an open, 3-lobed leaf, 1-fl.owered, Small trees, with a strong, 

heavy timber. Hornbeam. Carpi'ncs. 

1. QUERCUS. Oak. 

| Leaves mostly entire, the ends subequal. petioles very short Nos. 1-4 

> Leaves 3-lobed and dilated above, awnless when full-srrown. Fruit (§)... Nos. 5, 6 

§ Leaves 3-9-lobed or pinnatifid, broad : the lobes bristle-pointed. Fruit (D (a) 

| Leaves 5-9-lobed, lobes obtuse, never bristle-pointed. Fruit (T), sessile 13-15 

§ Leaves 9-25-toothed, obovate, downy beneath, awnless. Acorn (D, sweet 16-17 

a Leaves at base cuneate, short-petioleri. 3-5-lobed. Shrubs or small trees 7, £ 

a Leaves at base abrupt or truncate, mostly long-petioled, 7-9-lobed (b) 

b Nut one-third immersed in the saucer-shaped, fine-scaled cup 9, 10 

b Nut near half immersed in the hemispherical, coarse-scaled cup 11-12 

1 Q. virens. Live Oak. Tree 40-50 f., often smaller. Lvs. elliptic-oblong, obtuse, rarely 

with a few teeth. Peduncle longer than acorn. Timber excellent. Va. and S. 

2 Q. cine'rea. Upland Willow 0. Shrub 4-20 f. Lvs. as in No. 1. Peduncle short. Va. andS. 

3 Q. imbrica'ria. Shingle O. Laurel 0. (Fig. 33.) A handsome tree 40-50f., with dark. 

shinimr, lance-oblong, wavy leaves. Nut roundish, on a short peduncle. W. and S. 

4 Q. Phellos. Wilow 0. Tree 38-60L Lvs. linear-lanceolate, often some teeth. N. J. and S. 

5 Q. aquat' ica. Water 0. Tree 20-40. handsome. Leaves scabrous, acute at base. S. 

6 Q nigra. Blackjack. Barren 0. Tree small (8-25 f.), gnarled. Leaves rust- 
downy beneath. Lobes obtuse, or in var. triloba with a few awned teeth. M. W. S. 

7 Q. Catesbse'i. Turkey O. Tree 20-25f Leaves large, narrowly and irregularly lohed. S. 

8 Q. illicifo'lia. flcrvb O. Shrub 4-7f. Lvs. regularly 5-lobed, white-downy beneath. 

9 Q. rubra. Red 0. (Fig. 267.) Tree 50-701'. Lvs. (not deeply) 7-9-lobed, dark-red 

in autumn. Cnp 9-12" broad, nut r, oblong-ovoid. 
10 Q. palus'tris. Pin O. Tree 60-80f. Lvs. deeply 5-7-lobed, russet-brown in 
autumn. Cup 5-7" broad, nut ronnd-oval, 9" long. (Fig. 318, etc.) 

11 Q. falca'ta. Spanish O. Tree 60-70f. Lvs. ashy-pubescent beneath, lobes falcate. S. 

12 Q. cocci'nia. Scarlet 0. Tree very large (S0f.). Lvs. much like No. 9, but turn bright- 

red in autumn, glabrous, often widening above. Nut half covered by the cup. 

13 Q. alba. White O. (Fig. 32.) Tree 30-60f. or more, with light-colored bark. Lvs. 

sinuate-pinnatifid, lobes subequal. Nut | immersed. Timber excellent. 

14 Q. obtusi'loba. Post O. Three upper lobes broader, 2-lobed. Nut $ immersed. 

15 Q. macrocar'pa. Moss-cup 0. (Fig. 34.) Lvs. deepest lobed in middle. Cup 

fringed, nearly enclosing the globous nut. 

16 Q. bi'color. Swamp Wliite O. Lvs. whitened beneath. Acorns in pairs, long-stalked. 

17 Q. Prinus. Chestnut O. Tree or shrub. Lvs. crenate or serrate. Nut subsessile. 

Order OXX. MYKICACE^E. Gale worts. 

Analysis of tfte Genera and Species. 

| Leaves lauce-linear, pinnatifid, fern-like. Fertile aments globular. Ovary 
surrounded by 6-8 long linear scales. Nut ovoid, smooth. A low 
(8-3f.) bush with peculiarly fragrant leaves. Sweet Fern.. OnMPTo'mAi 




Leaves undivided. Fertile aments ovoid. Drupes gobular, coated with 

wax or resinous grains. Shrubs growing along shores. Myrica (+) 

* M. cerife'ra. Bayberry. Lvs. oblanceolate. Drupes coated with 

white wax. 

* M. Gale. Sweet Gale. Lvs. wedge-oblong. Drupes winged, reddish. 

Order CXXL BETULACEJE. The Birchworts. 

Trees or shrubs, with deciduous stipules, with the alternate 
leaves simple, having the veinlets running straight to the margin; 
flowers monoecious, both kinds contained in scaly 
catkins, 2 or 3 under each bract ; calyx and corolla hardly any ; 
ovary 2-celled and 2-ovuled, but becoming in 
fruit a 1-celled and 1-seeded nut, by the suppression of the other seed 
and cell. 

Analysis of the Genera. 
& bracts with 12 stam. each ; $ bracts with mostly 3 ovaries. Birch. Bet'uia. 1 
$ bracts with 4-8 stam. each ; $ bracts with 2 ova. or fls. each. Alder. Alnus . 

BET'ULA. Birch. 

$ in a cylindrical cat- 
kin, bracts each with 3 
tetrandrous flowers be- 
neath it. $ in an oblong 
or egg - shaped catkin, 
bracts 3 lobed, each with 3 2-styled ova- 
ries or flowers, with no calyx. Samara 
flattened, broadly winged. — Trees and 
shrubs, mostly with the outer bark in thin 
layers with horizontal fibres. Catkins ap- 
pearing in early spring before the leaves. 

§ Trees with a yellowish bark, and heart -ovate, 
serrate leaves .... 1 

§ Trees with reddish-brown bark, and ovate, 
doubly serrate leaves. . . .2, 3 

§ Trees with white bark and long-stalked, long- 
pointed leaves. . . .4, 5 

i Shrubs with brownish bark, and roundish, 
crenate leaves. .6,7 

Fig. 632. 8\veet Black Birch (Betula 
lenta), with staminate and pistillate 
catkins : a, a scale with staminate 
flowers ; &, with pistillate flowers. Fig. 
633. a, A winged samara cut length- 
wise, showing its fertile and abortive 
cell ; 6, the same cut across. 

Order 122.— THE WILLOWORTS. 


1 B. excel' sior. Yellow Birch. Tree 50-80f. Fertile aments erect, oblong, 1 inch 
in length, erect, sterile '2-A', pendulous, clustered, c. N. 
2 B. lenta. Black B. Simei B. Tree 40-60f. Fertile aments erect, oval, obtuse, 

stalked; sterile 2-3', pendulous. Inner bark sweet-spicy. M. N. 
8 B. ni'gra. Bed Birch. Tree 30-50f. Leaves rhombic-ovate, acute at both ends, 
obscurely lobed. Fertile aments sessile, ovoid. M. S. W. 

4 B. populifo'lia. White B. Tree 30-40f. Leaves triangular, long-pointed, 

smooth, unequally serrate. Sterile aments long, pendulous. N. 

5 B. papyra'cea. Canoe Birch. Tree 50-70f. Leaves ovate, pointed, doubly- 

serrate. All the aments nodding. Hills and mountains. N. 

6 B. pum'ila. Dwarf B. Shrub erect, 2-6f. Branches warty. Leaves obovate, ob- 

tusely serrate above. Fertile aments cylindric. Mountains. N. 

7 B. na'na. Tiny B. Shrub low, trailing, smooth. Leaves round, crenate. Scales 

of fertile ament deeply 3-parted. 3-12'. Mountains. N.-H. 

Order CXXII. SALICACBJB. The Willoworts. 

Trees or shrubs, with simple leaves, and stipules usually present; 
flowers dioecious, naked, both kinds in aments, each with a bract ; 
ovary 1 or 2-celled, with 2 short styles; capsule many-seeded; 
seeds with a coma and no albumen. 

Fig. 634. A fertile flower of a Willow, consisting of a pistil and a bract Fig. 635. Sterile 
flower, 2 stamens and a bract Fig. 636. A sterile flower of Balm-of-G-ilead (Populus candi- 
eans); many stamens. Fig. 637. A fertile flower, consisting of a fringed scale, a calyx holding 
a double ovary. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Aments cylindric, bracts entire. Stamens 2 or more. Capsule 1-celled, 2- 
valved, the seeds very small, clothed with silky hairs. Trees or shrubs. 
Leaves often long and narrow. (Figs. 12, 17, 83.) We have about 27 spe- 
cies. Willow. Osier. Sa_ x. 

Stamens 8 or more. Capsule 2-celled, 2- 
Buds varnished with a fragrant resin. 

Poplar. Asp€n. Populus 

§ Aments cylindric, bracts fringed, 
valved. Calyx an entire cup. 
Leaves broad, large. Trees. 



Order CXXVIL OONIFEILE. Pmeworts. 

Trees or shrubs, mostly evergreen, abounding in resinous juice ; 
leaves scattered or fascicled, mostly linear, parallel or fork-veined. 
flowers monoecious or dioecious, naked, in aments and cones. 
6 Stamens 1, or several united. $ Ovules l-oo naked in the axil of the scale 
No pistil, calyx, or corolla. 

Fruit a strobile or cone with the scales woody and distinct, or berry-like 
with the scales fleshy and coherent. Illustrated in Figs. 7, 9, 91, 300, &c. 

Analysis of Hie Genera. 

$ Scales of the cone each with a bract beneath and 2 seeds above (a) 

§ Scales bractless. Ovules and seeds 1-9. Lvs. scale like or awl-shaped. ..(b) 

a Leaves evergreen, linear, 2-5-together in each fascicle. Mne. Pinxjb. 1 

a Leaves evergreen, linear, solitary, scattered. Spruce, &c. Abies. 2 

a Leaves deciduous, linear, in fascicles of many together. Larch. Larix. 3 

b Cones berry like, consisting of the fleshy coherent scales. Juniper. Juniperus. 4 

b Cones dry, scales imbricated. Leaves scale-form, opposite, 4-rowed. Thuya. 

b Cones dry, globular ; scales angular, valvately closed until ripe (c) 

c Leaves scale-form, opposite, 4-rowed. Cones small (3"). White Cedar. Cupresstjs. 
c Leaves linear, alternate, deciduous. Cones V diameter. Cypress. Taxodium 

1. PINUS. Pine. 

§ Leaves in 5s. Scales spineless, scarcely thickened at the end. ...No. 1 

% Leaves in 3s. — a Cones oblong, with small recurved spines 2, 3 

—a Cones egg-shaped, with weak or strong spines 4, 5 

$ Leaves in 2s. — b Scales tipped with spines or prickles.... 6, 7 
b Scales without spines 8, 9 

1 P. Strobus. White Pine. A majestic tree lOO-nOf. in the forests. Leaves needle- 
shaped, 4-5', not rigid. Cones pendulous, oblong 5-7'. Timber of great value. 

? P. austra'lis. Long -leaved P. Tree 60-1 00f., very resinous. Leaves 10-15' long, crowded. 
Cones If. long. S. Excellent for timber, turpentine, or fuel. 

a P. Taeda. Loblolly P. Tree 50-90f. Leaves 6-10', with long sheaths. Cones half at 
long as the leaves, with small but strong spines. Excellent fuel. Va. and S. 

4 P. sero'tina. Pond P. Tree 30-50f. Lvs. 5-8', rigid. Cone as large as a goose egg, 

smooth and shining, nearly spineless. Grows in wet woods, South. 

5 P. rig'ida. Pilch P. Tree 30-70f., with very rough bark. Leaves rigid, 4-#, 

Spines stout, recurved, cones clustered, ovoic-conic, 2-3'. In sandy barrens. 
3 t mitis. Yellow P. Spruce P. Tree of slow growth, 30-60f. Leaves of ten in 3s, >uf 
mostly in pairs, slender, 3-5'. Cone scarcely 2', ovoid-conic. Timber good. 

Order 128,— THE YEWS. 301 

7 P. pungens. Tree 20-30f., with crooked branches. Lvs. about 2', stont, crowded. 

Cones ovoid, 3', with stout spines 3" long. Mts. Pa. and S. 

8 P. inops. Jersey P. Scrub P. Tree 15-25f., rough and crooked. Leaves rigid, 

obtuse, 2-3'. Cones ovoid-oblong, 2-3', with straightish prickles. Barrens. 
9 P. resino'sa, Norway P. Bed P. Tree 60f., with smoothish bark. Lvs. 5-6', 
slender, with long sheaths. Cones ovoid-conic, 2-3'. Dry woods, northward. 
1G P. Hudso'nica. Bank's P. A straggling shrub 5-25f. Lvs. 1' long, curved and stift, 
the cones some longer, recurved, smooth. Rocks, Me. and W. 

2. ABIES. Spruoe. Fir. Hemlock. 

$ Mr. Cones erect, the scales deciduous. Lvs. flat, spreading two ways Nos. 4, 5 

§ Spruce. Cones nodding. Leaves 4-sided or ensiform, pointing all around 2, 3 

| Hemlock. Cones hanging. Leaves flat, mostly spreading two ways No. 1 

1 A. Oanaden'sis. Common H. Tree 50-S0f., elegant while young. Leaves short- 
linear (6-8")i glaucous beneath. Cones ovoid, terminal, as long as the leaves. 
Scales concealing the bracts. Rocky woods. Timber inferior, but useful. 

I A. nigra. Double S. Tree pyramidal. 50-80f. Leaves 6-7", dark-green. Cones ovoid 

1-2', scales erose-denticulate. Damp mountain woods, northward. 
I A. alba. Single S. Tree 30-80f., pyramidal. Leaves 6-9", glaucous. Cones decidu- 
ous, cylindrical, 2', with the scales entire. Common in rocky woods. 
A A. Fra'seri. Double Balsam Fir. Tree small, 15-30f. Bark blistered with reser- 
voirs of balsam. Lvs. 8-10". Cones oblong 1-2' ; bracts long-pointed, reflexed. 
Mountains. This and the next are handsome and often cultivated. 
5 A. balsa 'mea. Balsam F. Tree 30-50f. Bark as in No. 4. Lvs. 8-10", obtuse, 
Bilvery beneath. Cones 3-4' by 1', cylindrical ; bracts scarcely exserted. 

3. LARIX. Larch. Tamerac. 

1 L. Axnerica'na. American L. (Fig. 91.) A beautiful tree, 70-100f. Leaves filiform. 

soft, 1-2'. Cones 6-10", dark-purple, the few rounded scales each with 2 winged 

seeds. Var. pendula has slender, drooping branches. 
I L. Europae'a. A large tree with flattened leaves, and cones 12-18" long. From Eur. 

4. JUNIP'ERUS. Juniper. 

§ Leaves all subulate and in 3s, spreading, jointed to the stem, 1-nerved... No. 1 

§ Leaves scale-form, opposite, 4-rowed, appressed, some of them awl-shaped 2, 3 

> J. commu'nis. Common J. (Fig. 7.) Shrub or low tree, often prostrate. Leaves 

crowded, pungent-pointed, 6-8". Fruit small (2"), dark-purple, sweetish. Woods 

and mountains. 

2 J. Virginia'na. Bed Cedar. Tree 3Q-40f., dark-green. Early leaves, awl- 
shaped, 3-4", some spreading ; later ones scaleform. Fruit blue-white. Rocky 
soils. Timber red, durable, used for posts or lead-pencils. 

3 J. sabi'na. A trailing shrub. Fruit larger (3"), nodding, dark-purple. Rock?, N 

Order CXXVIII., TAXACE^E, The Yews, is represented 
in our flora by the genus Taxus, and species T. Canadensis, Yew, a low, 
>r prostrate shrub. (Fig. 301.) 



C H E T V. 


Order CXXXI. ARACE^B Aroids. 

Chiefly herbs with a fleshy rootstock of corm ; leaves sometimes net- veined 
flowers mostly without calyx or corolla, arranged on a spadix ; 
stoymens few or many, hypogynous, very short ; anthers turned outwards 
ovary free ; stigmas sessile ; fruit a dry or juicy berry, and the 
seeds with or without albumen. Growing in wet places. 

Fig. 688. Wild Calla (Calla palustris), a leaf, and a spadix of flowers, with its spathe (5). 
Fig. 639. The same enlarged. Fig. 640. A flower enlarged. Fig. 641. One of the berries cut, 
showing the 6 cells. Fig. 642. Golden Club (Orontium aquaticum); its spadix («) is without 

• spathe. 

Analysis of the Geneva. 

• Spadix enveloped in a spathe 2 

Spadix destitute of a spathe. Sepals 4-6 d 

2 Flowers covering only the base of the spadix. Perianth ... .a 
2 Flowers covering the whole spadix, monoecious. Perianth 0....b 
2 Flowers covering the whole spadix and perfect. . . .c 

Order 131.— AROIDS. 303 

Spathe rolled in at base. Top of spadix club-shaped. Dragon-root. Aris^'ma. 1 
b Spathe rolled inwards the whole length. Anoic-lvd. Dragon. Peltax'dra. 2 
b Spathe rolled backwards above, white. Egyptian Galla. Richar'dia. 

c Perianth 0. Spathe open, flattish, white. Lvs. cordate. Wild Galla. Calla. 

c Perianth regular. Spa. shell-form. Lvs. large. Skunk-cabbage. Symplocap/pus. 
d Flowers terminal, yellow. Scape terete. Golden Club. Oro^stiuh. 

d Fie were lateral, green. Scape leaf-like. Swett Flag. A'corus. 3 

1. ARISiE'MA. Arum. Indian Turnip. 

Spathe rolled inward at base. Spadix covered with flowers below, 
naked and club-shaped above. Sterile flowers above the fertile, each a 
clump of 4 stamens. Fertile flowers each a 1 -celled ovary, with a flat 
stigma. Berry red, with 1 or several seeds. — Odd-looking plants, with 
scape arising from a corm or rootstock, and sheathed with the radical 
leaves. Taste very acrid. 

1 A. triphyllnm. Jach-in-the- Pulpit. Leaves usually 2, trifoliate. Spathe bent and 

inflected above, covering the obtuse spadix, striped. 

2 A. quina'tum. Five-leaved Jack. Leaves in pairs, one or both quinate. S. 

3 A. Dracon'tram. Green Dragon. Leaf mostly solitary, pedate, 7-1 1-foliate. 

2. PELTAjST 'DBA. Arrow Dragon. 

The sterile flowers consist of &-12 anthers attached to the border of a 
shield-shaped (peltate) connectile. — Root fibrous. Leaves sagittate. 

1 P. Virgin 'ica, Virginia A. Spathe green, incuived, long, wavy on the margin. 

Leaves many, large, hastate-sagittate, very smooth, dark. 

2 P. glau'ca. Glaucous A. Spathn wl ite, entire, gradually unrolled and widened 

above. Leaves ovate-sagitlate, the base lobes large. S. 

3. AC'ORUS. Sweet Flag. 

Spadix cylindric, sessile, issuing from the side of a leaf-like scape with- 
out a spathe. Perianth of 6 sepals. Stamens 6. Fruit capsular, 3-celled, 
oo- seeded. % Rhizome thick, aromatic. Leaves all radical, linear-sword- 
shaped like the scape. 
A. cal'amus. The Sweet Flag grows in swampy places throughout the country. The 

long sword-shaped leaves are marked by a ridge running their whole length (2-3f.). 

Spadix about 3' long, yellowish-green, borne midway of the length of the leaf-like 

scape. Root a thick, creeping rhizome, much valued for its warmly pungent 



Order CXXXII. TTPHAOE^l. Typhads- 

Herbs growing in marshes and ditches, with rigid, sword-shaped leaves ; 
flowers monoecious, arranged on a spadix or in heads with no spathe; 
perianth of a few scales, or a tuft of hairs, or ; stamens 1-4, slender; 
ovary 1-ovuled, nut-like and 1-seeded in fruit.— Comprises 2 genera. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

% Cat-tail. Reed-mace. Spadix long-cylindric, brownish green, the sterile flowers above^ 
the fertile innumerable, packed solid in the lower part. Stem with its terminal spa- 
dix 3-4 f., the leaves 4-5f. long. Ttpha. 

§ Burr-reed. Spadices or globular heads many, the lower fertile ; pistils sessile, each 
with 3-6 scales for a calyx. Upper heads staminate. Sparga'nium 


Water plants, with sheathing petioles or stipules, and jointed stems ; 
flowers often perfect, with a perianth, or imperfect and naked ; with 
stamens definite, ovaries free, sessile, and 1-sceded indehiscent/ri^. 

The Naiads grow in rivers, lakes, or seas. They have linear, grass-like leaves, and 
some of the Pondweeds have broad or oval leaves beside. 

Potamoge'ton (Pondweed) is the principal genus. Its flowers are perfect, greenish, 
clustered on spike-like spadices which arise just above the water while in bioom. The 
stamens, sepals, and ovaries are each 4, and the fruit 4 acheuia. We have about 20 species, 
all in fresh water. Eight of these have two kinds of leaves ; the submersed linear, the 
floating elliptical. The other species have all their lvs. submersed and linear. (See 
Botanist and Florist.) 




Aquatic herbs with regular, imperfect flowers growing from a apathe ; 
perianth 3 or 6-parted, the inner segments petaloid; stamens 3-12; 
wary adherent, 6-9-celled ; fruit in dehiscent, many-seeded. 

Order 136.— GREENBRIERS. 305 

Analysis of the Genera. 

\ Frog's-bit. Leaves all radical, round-cordate, spongy "beneath, floating in stagnant 
waters. Flowers dioecious, white, the fertile on short, the sterile on long (3') 
peduncles. Berry many-seeded. Limxo'bium. 

I Ditch-?noss. Leaves crowded on the long submersed stems opposite or whorled, linear- 
oblong. Perianth white, 6-parted, its base extended into a capillary tube 4-1CK 
long! Stigmas 3. In brooks and rivers. Axach'aris. 

: Eel-grass. Leaves all radical. gra*s-like in water. Flowers dioecious, the fertile white 
one on each long spiral thread-form scape ; the sterile in clusters at the root, but 
breaking away and arising to the surface to open and shed their pollen. 

Vallisne'ria spira'lis. 

Order CXXXV. POXTEDERIACEJE. Pontederiads. 

Aquatic herbs with more or less irregular perfect flowers, with the 
perianth colored, tubular, 6-parted, stamens 3 or 6, and style 1 ; 
ovary free ; capsule 3 or 1-celled. x or 1-seeded. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

* Stamens 6, unequal. Perianth blue, 2- lipped. L'tricle 1-seeded. Poxtederia. ] 

* Stamens 3, unequal, the lower one sagittate. Capsule 3-celled, CO-seeded. Perianth 

white or blue, 6-parted, with a slender tube. Heteraxthe'ra 

* Stamens 3, equal. Capsule 1-cdled, CC -seeded. Perianth regularly 6-parted, yellow, iti 

tube very long (2-3') and slender. Leaves grass-like, growing wholly under water 
Water Star-grass. Schol'lera. 

1. POXTEDE'RIA. Pickerel-weed. 
Large showy herbs growing in patches extending from the shore tc 
deep water. Leaves radical, long-stalked. Stem or scape bearing 1 leaf 
and a terminal spike of showy flowers lasting but a da} r . 

1 P. cordifo'lia. Leaves between heart- and arrow-shaped, blunt, very smooth, and shin 

ing. Scape stout, arising l-2f. above the water. Flowers violet b'ue. very irregular, 
in a spike 2 or 3' long. After flowering the corolla rolls downward from the top, 
persisting and withering on the 1-seeded fruit, Common. July. 

2 P. lancifo'lia. Leaves lance-oblong to lance-linear, rather acute at each end. South. 

Obdek OXXXVL SMILACACE.E. Greenbriers. 

Herbs or shrubs often climbing. Leaves reticulate- veined. Fh. dioecious ; 
Perianth 6-parted, regular, free from the 3-celled ovary. Fruit a berry. 

1. SMI LAX. Greenbrier. 
Leaves palmate-veined, entire, petiolate, with a pair of tendrils in the 
,)lace of stipules. ^See Fig. 95.) Flowers greenish, in axillary umbels 



1 S. herba'cea. Carrion-Jkrwer. Stem herbaceous, erect or reclined, without prickles. 

Lvs. ovate-obloug, 7-veined. Flowers 8-50 on each long peduncle, ill-scented, 
rotundifo'lia. Common Greenbrier. Vine green, strong and thorny, somewhat 4-an- 

gled. Leaves round-ovate, 5-7-veined, cusp-pointed. Peduncles a little longer (6-7") 

than the petioles. Berries bluish-black Thickets. ll>-30f. 
hispida. Vine terete, bispid with weak prickles if any. Lvs. thin, ovate, cuspidate 

Peduncle twice as long (I') as the petioles. Berries black. Thickets. 

2 S. 

$ S. 

Order CXXXVII. ALISMACE^. Alismads. 

Herbs growing in water, with the leaves parallel-veined, and with the 
flowers regular and not on a spadix ; the perianth consisting of 
sepals and petals, 3 of each, the former always green ; 
ovaries free, 3 or more, separating into as many 1 -seeded achenia. 

Analysis of the Genera. 


§ Both the calyx and corolla greenish. 

rush-like {Arrow-grasses) b 

§ Corolla colored, white. Leaves mostly 

with a lamina a 

a Fls. $ . Sta. 6. Carpels whorled. 

Water Plantain. Alisma. 1 
a Fls. £ . Stamens 9-24. Carpels in a 
head. Echinodore. Echinodords. 
Sta. many. Carpels in a 
Arrow-head. Saoittaria. 2 
Anthers ovate. Carpels 
Trigloch. Triglochin. 
Leaves cauline. Anthers linear. Car- 
pels 1-2-seeded. Scheuchzeria. 

a Fls. $ . 


Lvs. radical. 

1 seeded. 

1. ALISMA. Water Plantain. 

Flowers perfect. Stamens 6. Ova- 
ries and styles numerous, collected into 
a whorl, becoming in fruit many dis- 
tinct, flattened achenia. — U Stemless 
herbs, the leaves all radical. Flowers 
in a panicle. 

A. planta'go. A common, smooth, handsome 
inhabitant of ponds and ditches. Leaves 
oval or ovate, abruptly acuminate, 7-9- 

Fig. 643. Sagittaria sagittifolia (com- 
mon form), leaf and flowers. 4. One 
of the pistils enlarged. 5. The pistil of 
Alisma cut open, showing the seed and 
curved embryo. 

Order 138.— THE ORCHIDS. 307 

veined, entire, on long petioles. Scape l-2f. high, branching in whorls, bearing nt» 
merous purplish-white flowers, in July. 

2. SAGITTA'RIA. Arrow-head. 

Flowers monoecious, rarely dioecious, the 6 with about 24 stamen**, 
the S with numerous ovaries crowded in a head, and becoming in fruit as 
many compressed, margined achenia. — U Stemless plants, leaves radical, 
generally arrow-shaped. Flowers in whorls of &s, the sterile ones above 
the fertile. 

S. variaVilis. A curious plant, conspicuous with its large white flowers among the 
rushes and sedges of sluggish waters. The petals are wholly white, and the 
scape simple, with the stalks 1-flowered. The leaves are generally arrow- 
Bhaped (as seen in the figure), but exceedingly variable, sometimes lanceolate, 
and sometimes even consisting of a petiole only. About If. high. July. 


Herbs perennial, with thick, fleshy roots; entire, par all el- veined leaves ; 
flowers very irregular, but the perianth consisting always of 6 parts, viz., of 3 
sepals and 3 petals, all usually colored, the lower petal called the 
lip differing in form from the others, and frequently spurred at base ; 
stamens 3, but only 1 or rarely 2 of them perfect, united with the 
style and forming what is called the column ; anthers 2, 4 or 8-celled; 
'pollen powdery, or waxy, or granulated ; ovary 1 -celled, many-seeded. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

* Stems gree^, furnished with one or more leaves.... 2 

* Stems green, furnished with sheaths instead of leaves d 

* Stems brownish, furnished with sheaths and no leaves, or a late one. . . .c 

2 Corolla lip very large, inflated and sack-like a 

2 Corolla lip of various forms, but neither very large nor sack-like 8 

3 Corolla produced into a spur behind. . . .b 

3 Corolla destitute of a spur 4 

4 Flowers small, many, in a loose raceme, beardless... .e 

4 Flowers small, many, in a close, twisted spike, beardless.... f 

4 Flowers showy, purple or yellow, few or 1 only g 

a Root fibrous. Lip obtuse, spurless. Anthers 2. Lady^s-slipper. CYPRiPE'crcit 1 

a Root a corm. Lip 3-lobed, 2-spurred. Anther 1. Calypso. Cajyp'so. 



Fig. 646. Lady's-slipper (Oypripedium acaule), whole plant, with its 2 leaves, scape, and 
curious flower. 7. Plan of the flower; 8, sepals (outer circle), the 2 lower united; p y the petals; 
I, lip (lower petal) ; e, the anthers, upper one sterile ; o, the 3-celled ovary. 8. The column f>een 
rom beneath, with the pistil, two stamens, and the leaf-like sterile one. 9. Flower and bract of 
Jrchis spectabilis. Fig. 650. Its 2 pollen masses exhibited (enlarged). 1. Arethusa hulbosa; / 
lie flower. 2. Its column enlarged, with its lid-like anther opening, showing its pollen-masses 

b Fls. in the axils of bracts. Pollen masses 2. Lvs. l-oo. Orchis. Orchis. 2 
b Flowers bractless. Pollen masses 4. Leaf 1 only. Tipvla. Tipula'ria. 

s Rootcoraline. Spur growing to the ovary. Lvs. none. Coral-root. Corallorhi'za. £ 

c Root 2 corms. Spur none. Leaf 1, late, radical. Putty-root. Aplectrum. 

d Flowers 1 only, rose-purple. Lip bearded. Arethvsa Arethu'sa. 4 

d Fls. racemed, dark-purple, beardless. (Lvs. or few.) Bletia. Bletia. 

e Leaf 1. Lip sagittate. Column minute. Micros'tylis. Micros'tyub. 

e Leaves 2, radical. Lip fiat, ascending. Column winged. Liparis. Lip'aris. 

e Leaves 2, cauline. Lip pendulous, 2-lobed or 2-cleft. Tway-blade. Listera 

Order 138.— THE ORCHIDS. 309 

f Leaves all green. Lip obtuse, erect. Ladies Tresses. Spiran'thes. 5 

f Leaves netted witn white. Lip pointed, reflexed. 

Rattlesnake Plantain. Goodye'ra. 

£ Lvs. all green. Lip 3-lobed, recurved. South. Cranichis. Pouthieva. 
g Lip on the upper side of the fl., bearded. Leaf linear. Grass Pink. Calopo'gon. 6 
g Lip on the lower side (ovary twisted as in the other genera) h 

h Column free from the lip, Flowers purplish. Beard Pink. Pogo'nia. 7 

h Column growing to the lip. Yellow. On trees. S. Tree Orchis. Epiden 'drum. 

1. CYPRIPE'DIUM. Lady's-slipper. 

The 2 lower sepals united into one piece or rarely distinct. Lip very 
large, inflated, sack or slipper form, obtuse. Column terminated by a 
petal-like lobe (which is the sterile stamen). Fertile stamens 2. — Root 
fibrous. Leaves large, plaited. Flowers large and showy, one or few 

* Flowers yellow, one or more. Stems leafy 5, 6 

* Flowers white or rose-purple. . . .1 

I Stem leafy. Flower one or more. . . .2-4 

1 O. acau'le. Stemless L. (Figs. 642-644.) Scape naked, with 2 leaves at the base, 
and 1 large flower at top. c. 
2 O. can'didum. White L. Two lower sepals united. Flowers 1 only, smaller, 

white. W. S. r. 
8 C. spectab'ile. Showy L. Two lower sepals united. Flowers few, very large, 

purplish, c. 
4 O. Arieti'num. Rain's- Head L. Two lower sepals separate. Flower 3 only, 
small, purplish, r. 

5 O. pubes'cens. Large yellow L. Moccasin Fl. Sepals narrow-lanceolate. Lip 

flattened at sides, pale yellow, c. (Fig. 89.) 

6 C. parviflo'rum. Smaller yellow L. Sepals ovate-lanceolate. Lip flat above and 

below, bright yellow, c. 

2. ORCHIS. Orchis. 

Flower ringent, sepals and petals similar ; all, or all but two, ascending 
and arching over the column. Lip turned downward, entire or iobed, 
produced at base into a spur beneath, which is distinct from the ovary 
Stamen 1, anther 2-celled, pollen-masses 2, consisting of numerous waxy 
grains. — Flowers generally showy, in spikes or racemes. Jvne-Aug. mostly. 

Note. — Under this genus we include two others, viz.: Gymnadenia and Platar.thera. Th« 
beginner would find it difficult to separate them. See Class Book of Botany, p. 6S2. &c. No. 1 
Is the true Orchis. Nos. 8, 9, 10, are Gymnadenia, and all the others belong to Platanthera 


§ Leaves radical and only 2 (rarely 3). Flowers on a scape .... 1-& 

§ Leaf radical and only 1. Flowers small, on a scape 4, 5 

§ Leaves on the stem, several, upper ones reduced to bracts. . . .a 

a Corolla lip entire, neither lobed, fringed, nor toothed 6-9 

a Corolla lip 2 or 3-toothed, not fringed nor divided. Flowers greenish. . . .10-12 

a Corolla lip cleft into a fringe at the edge, but not divided 13-15 

Corolla lip divided into 3 parts, which are fringed or not. . . ,b 

b Flowers white or yellowish, with 5 long bristles, the 2 side petals 2-partec 1 
S... .16,17. 

b Flowers white, the 2 side petals entire or toothed ; lip clawed 18, 19 

b Flowers purple, numerous, showy : lip raised on a claw 20-22 

1 O. spectab'ilis. Showy Orchis. True Orchis. Fls. few, pink-purple, handsome. 

Leaves oblong-ovate. Height 4-7'. (Figs. 649, 650.) 

2 O. orbicula'ta. Round-In. 0. Fls. whitish, racemed. Spur very long. Leaves 

round. Scape bracted. 

3 O. Hook'eri. Hooker's O. Flowers green, spiked. Spur long as ovary. Leaves 

round. Scape naked. 

4 O. obtusa'ta. Blunt-lv. 0. Leafobovate, obtuse. Lip linear, entire. 5-8'. r. 

5 O. rotundifo'lia. Small Round-lf. 0. Lf. round. Lip, mid. lobe obcord. 6-9'. r. 

6 O. hyperbo'rea. Northern 0. Flowers greenish. Lip, petals, leaves, and bracts, 


7 O. dilata'ta. Broad-lip 0. Flowers whitish. Lip lance-linear, rhombic at base. 

8 O. niv'ea. Snowy 0. Flowers white. Lip oblong-linear. Leaves linear. S. 

9 O. nigra. Black 0. Flowers yellow, close. Lip ovate. Leaves lance-oblong. 

10 O. tridenta'ta. Trident O. Lip 3-toothed at end. Spur longer than ovary 

11 O. bractea'ta. Bracted O. Lip 2-3-toothed at end, spur half as long. 

12 O. fla'va. Small yellow O. Lip obtuse, with a tooth each side, spur long. 

13 O. crista'ta. Crested yellow O. Flowers yellow, small, lip as long as the spur. 

14 O. cilia'ris. Large yellow O. Flowers yellow, large, lip half as long as the spui. 

15 O. Blephariglot'tis. Ox-ton gue O. Fls. white, large ; 2 Hide petals cut-toothed. 

16 O. Miohauxii. Michaux's O. Leaves oval. Spur twice as long as ovary. 

17 O. re 'pens. Five-bristled O. Leaves lance-linear. Spur shorter than ovary. 

18 0. leucophae'a. White Prairie O. Bracts shorter than the ovaries. Lip fan- 

shaped, 3-parted, fringed. Spur club-shaped, twice longer than ovary. 

19 O. lae'era. Bagged O. Bracts longer than the flowers. Petals notched at end. 

Lip segments wedge-shaped, fringed. Spur filiform, long as ovary. 

20 O. amcena. Prairie O, Flowers dark-purple. Lip broad, lobes toothed, not 

fringed. M. W. S. c. 

21 O. Fsyc'odes. Fringed O. Flowers light-purple. Lip wedge-shaped, the 2 

petals merely toothed, c. 

22 O. grandiflo'ra. Great-fl. O. Flowers light-purple. Lip semicircular, huge. 

2 petals fringed, r. 

Order 138.— THE ORCHIDS. 311 

8. CORALLORHI'ZA. Coral-root Dragons-claw. 

Flower ringent. Sepals and petals similar, ascending, the upper arch- 
ing. Lip produced behind into a short spur, which grows closely to the 
ovary. Pollen-masses 4, oblique. — Herbs without green herbage, leafless, 
with coraline roots, and spikes of dull-colored flowers. May-Sept. 

1 Spur imperceptible. Lip not lobed, often with 2 teeth at base 2, 3 

1 C. muMfLo'ra. Many-flowered C. Spur manifest. Lip 3-lobed (the bide lobe* 
small), spotted. Flowers 10-20, purple. Height 10-15'. 

2 C. odontorhi 'za. Dragon' s-claw. Flowers 9-18, purple. Lip orenulate, spotted. 

Ovary and pod nearly globular. Scape 9-14'. 

3 C. inna'ta. Lteear C. Flowers 5-10, purplish. Lip obscurely 2-toothed near the 

base, spotless. Ovary and pod club-shaped. 5-6'. 


Sepals and petals cohering at base, similar, ascending, arching. Lip 
spurless, deflexed at the end, bearded inside, cohering to the petal-like 
column at base. Anther terminal, closing the 2 pollen cells like a lid. 
Pollen-masses 2 in each cell. — Small plants, 1 -flowered, in wet places. 
Leaves none, or hidden in the sheaths. 

L. bulbo'sa. A beautiful plant 6-12' high, invested with about 3 long loose sheaths 
i ianceolate points (hardly leaves). At the top is a large, fragrant purple 
flower, in June. i^See Figs. 651, 652.) 

5. SPIRAXTHES. Ladies' tresses. 

Flowers in a spiral spike, somewhat ringent. Petals and sepals nearly 
erect, all tending to the upper side opposite the lip. Lip raised on a short 
claw, concave, entire, widened at top and furnished with 2 callous pro- 
cesses at base. Column arching, pollen-masses 2.— Stem leafy below or 
nearly naked, bearing a spike of small, white flowers, which are bent 
sideways and horizontal. July- Oct. (Fig. 2 40.) 

* Fls. in a single row on one side, and but little twisted. Lvb. radical 1. 2 

* Fla. in several rows all around the short spike. Lvs. on stem below. . . .3, 4 

1 S. gracilis. Slender L. Leaves ovate, varying to lance-oblong. Lip cbovate, 


2 S tcr'tilis. Twisted L. Leaves linear, early withering (like first). Lip 3-lobed, 

finely crenate. 



8 S latifo'lia. Broad-lv. L. Leaves oblong-lance. 2-4/ long. Spike dense 

Lip oblong, blunt, crisp. 
4 S. cer'nua. Nodding L. Leaves linear-lanceolate, 3-10' long. Spike ienee 

Lip oblong, round, crisp. 

6. CALOPOGOK Grass Pink. 

Flower with the sepals and petals similar, spreading, distinct. Lip on 
the upper side of the flower, stalked at base and bearded above. Column 
winged at the summit. Pollen-masses 2. — Leaf sheathing the base of the 
scape, which is bulbous at base. Flowers several. (Fig. 655.) 

O pulchel'lus. A handsome plant, common in moist meadows and in bogs. Scape 
slender, l-2f. high. Leaf s word-shaped or broad linear, long. Flowers pink- 
purple, remarkable for having the lip on the upper side and the column below. 

Pig. 653. Pcgonia verticillata. Fig. 654. Pogonia ophiglossoides. Fig. 655. Calopogon pulchellua 

Order 140.— THE AMARYLLLDS. 313 

7. POGO'NIA. Beard-flower. 

Flower with its sepals and petals distinct and somewhat spreading. 
Lip bearded inside, sometimes 3-lobed. Column club-shaped, wingless ; 
anther terminal, pollen-masses 2, mealy. — Leaves 1-5, on the stem. 
Flowers purple. June- A ug. 

* Sepals linear, spreading, much longer than the petals. ... 1, 2 

* Sepals and petals nearly equal, similar, and nearly erect. ... 3, 4 

1 P. verticilla'ta. Whorl-leaved B. Leaves 5, in a whorl near the 1 brownish 

flower. Sepals 2' long. r. (Fig. 693.) 

2 P. divarica'ta. Spreading B. Leaves 2, alternate, distant, lance-oblate. 

Lip 3-lobed, crenulate. S. 

3. P. ophiglossoi'dos. Adder-tongue B. Leaves 2, distant, upper bract-like. 

Flowers terminal, pink-colored. (Fig. 694.) 

4. P. pen'dula. Nodding B. Leaves 3-4, alternate, with as many pink-white, 

drooping flowers. 

Order CXL. AMAEYLLIDACE^E. The Amaryllids. 

Herbs perennial, mostly bulbous, with linear leaves, with the 
floivers showy, mostly regular and on scapes, hexandrous ; 
perianth of 6 similar pieces united below and adherent to the 
ovary, which is 3-celled, with the styles united into 1 ; 
fruit a capsule or berry, with albuminous seeds. (Fig. 137.) 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Perianth bearing a crown on the summit of its tube. . . .a 
§ Perianth destitute of a crown. ... 2 

2 Segments united into a tube above the ovary. . . . b 

2 Segments distinct down to the ovary. Flowers nodding. ... 3 
3 Perianth irregular. . . . c 
3 Perianth regular. . . . d 
a Crown a thin membrane connecting the stamens. S. Pancratium. 

a Crown a firm cup containing the stamens. Xarcissus. Narcis'sus. 1 

b Fir. solitary. Perianth-tube straight, erect. AtamascoL. Zephyran'thus. 

b Flowers many. Perianth-tube straight. American Aloe. Agave. 2 

b Flowers many. Perianth-tube curved. Tuberose. Polyanthus. 

c Stamens declined and curved. Scape with 1, Jacobea Lily. Sprekelia. 

d Sepals all white, larger than the petals. Snow-drop. Galanthus. 

d Sepals green-tipped, as large as the petals. Snoiv-Jlake. Leucojun. 

d Sepals and petals equal, yellow. Star-grass. Hypoxis. 



1. NARCISSUS. Jonquil. Daffodil. 

Perianth regular, crown of one piece, funnel-form or bell-form, consist- 
ing of a whorl of sterile petal-like filaments united by their edges, within 
which the fertile stamens are inserted. — A beautiful genus of bulbous 
plants with sword-shaped leaves and yellow or white flowers. None here 
native, f April- June. 

* Scape bearing 1-3 large flowers 2-4 

* N. Tazet'ta. Polyanthus. Scape many -flowered, sep. white, crown yellow, short. 

2 N. Daffodil. Daffodil. Scape 2-edged. Sepals whitish. Crown yellow, 

long and large. 

3 N. JonquiWa. Jonquil. Scape terete. Crown yellow, much shorter than 

the yellow sepals. 

4 N. poet'icus. PoeVs Narcissus. Scape terete. Crown variegated, rotate, 

short ; sepals mostly white. 

2. AGA'VE. American Aloe. 

1 A. Virginica False Aloe. Scape simple, 5-61 high. Flowers in a spike, green- 

ish-yellow. Leaves linear-lanceolate, serrate. Penn. S. 

2 A. Americana. Century Plant. Scape branched, 15-251 high, bearing 1 vast 

panicle of yellow flowers, after many years. Leaves very thick, lance- 
olate, spinous-dentate, often striped, t 

Order CXLIII. IBIDA'CE^E. The Irids. 

Perennial herbs, arising from bulbs or thickened roots ; 
leaves 2-rowed ; flowers perfect, regular or irregular, spathaceous ; 
perianth of 6 petal-like segments ; stamens 3 ; anthers turned outwards ; 
ovary inferior, 3-celled, with 1 style and 3 stigmas, becoming in 
fruit a 3-celled capsule with many albuminous seeds. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

1 Flowers regular, 3 petals unequal to the 3 sepals 2 

1 Flowers regular, petals and sepals alike 3 

1 Fls. irregular, stamens ascending. Sds. winged, t Corn Flag. Gladi'olus. 
2 Stamens separate. Stigmas petal-like. Petals erect. Sepals reflexed. Iris. 
2 Stamens united. Sepals very large. Pets, spreading t Tiger-flower. Tigrid'ia. 

3 Flowers blue, small, rotate. Leaves, &c, grass-like. (Fig. 48.) 

Blue-eyed grass. Sysiryn'chium. 

3 Fls. purp., white or yellow, tube very long, sessile on the bulb, t Cro'cus. 

3 Fls. yellow, red spotted, tube short. Height 3-51 f Ixia. Pardan'thus. 

Order 147.— THE TitlLLIADS. 315 

IRIS. Flower-de-luce. 
Perianth 6-parted, the 3 outer divisions (sepals) reflexed, or spreading, 

the 3 inner (petals) erect. Stamens 3, distinct. Style short. Stigmas 3. 

petal-like, covering the stamens. — Perennial herbs with thick roots or 

rootstocks, sword-shaped or grass-like leaves, and large showy flowers, 


§ Stems leafy, tall (l-2f. high), mostly bearing several flowers a 

§ Scapes leafless, low (1-6' high), mostly bearing but 1 flower c 

a Sepals or perianth bearded. Cultivated exotics in gardens, &c. ... .11-18 
a Sepals and petals beardless. Wild plants, hardly ever cultivated b 

fa Leaves linear, grass-like, less than half an inch wide 1 

b Leaves sword-shaped, nearly 1 or 2' wide 2-4 

c Sepals or perianth bearded, beard crested or not crested. .. .8-10 
c Sepals and petals beardless, but sometimes with a crest. . . .5-7 

I I. Virginia. Boston I. Stem slender. Ovary and pod acute, sides 2-grooved 

Flowers yellow-blue. E. [als obtuse, large, c. 

2 I. versicolor. Blue Flag. Stem 1-angled. Flowers blue-yellow-white. Pet> 
8 I. tripet'ala. Stem terete. Flowers blue. Petals very small, 3-toothed. S. 
4 I. cu'prea. Copper-coV d I. Stem terete. Fls. orange-yellow. Sepals notched. S. 

5 I. lacus'tris. Lake I. Scape 1- flowered, flower blue and yellow. Lvs. lance. W. 

6 I. ver'na. Early I. Scape 1-flowered, flower blue. Leaves linear, very long. S. 

7 I. ochroleu'ca. Cream-colored I. Scape 3-flowered, flowers yellow. Lvs. sword- 

shaped. Pod 6-angled. f 

8 I. crista'ta. Crested 1. Scape 1-flowered, 2-4/ high, flower blue and yellow 

Leaves lanceolate, 3' long. S. [obtuse. Leaves ensiform. \ 

9 I. pum'ila. Dwarf 1. Scape 1-flowered, 6-10' high, flower deep blue. Petals 
10 I. Chinen'sis. China I. Scape many-flowered, flattened, flowers pale blue. 

Stigmas jagged, f 

II I. sambuci'na. Common Flower-de-luce. Stem many-flowered, flowers blue oi 

whitish. Petals and sepals notched, c. f 
12 I. G-erman'ica. German F. Stem many-flowered, flowers deep blue, spathes alsc 

colored, r. f 
18 I. Susia'na. Ckalcedonian Ins. Stem 1-flowered, fl. striped. Petals deflexed. \ 

Order CXLYII. TRILLIACE^E. The TriUiads. 

Herbs with tuberous roots, simple stems, and whorled, net-veined leaves, 
with the flowers one or few, terminal, and mostly 3-parted; with the 
sepals green, and the petals more or less colored; with the 
stamens 6-10, awl-shaped^ filaments and linear anthers; with the 
ovary free, 3-5-celled, becoming in fruit a juicy, many-seeded pod. 



Analysis of the Genera. 

Plants with 1 whorl of leaves and 1 flower. 

Pod many-seeded. Wake- Robin. Tbii/lium. 1 
PUnts with 2 whorls of leaves and several 

greenish flowers. (Fig. 92.) 

Indian Cucumber. Mede'ola. 

Fig. 656 Trillium erythrocarpum, with the parts of its 
flower as if separated : s, the 3 sepals; p, the 3 petals; st, 
the 6 stamens; o, the 3 carpels. 

TRIL'LIUM. Wake-Robin. 

Character as expressed in the Order above. 
— U Low herbs with a simple stem, bearing 
at top a whorl of 3 leaves and a single large 
flower. Apr-June. (Figs. 108, 110, 656.) 

§ Flower sessile, petals dark purple 1, 2 

§ Fl. on a peduncle, raised above the leaves a 

§ Fl. on a peduncle, recurved beneath the lvs.. .7-9 

a Lvs. ses., rhomboidal or rhomb. -ovate. . .5, 6 

a Leaves petiolate, rounded at the base 3, 4 

1 T. ses'sile. Ricket W. Lvs. sessile. Sepals erect, 

§ as long as the linear-lanceolate petals. 

2 T. recurva'tum. Bed $ W. Lvs. petiolate. Sepals 

recurved, long as lance ovate petals. 656 

3 T. niva'le. Snowy W. Stem 2-4/ high. Leaves obtuse. Petals obtuse, wavy, 

snow-white. The smallest species. W. 

4 T. erythrocar'pum. Smiling W. Stem 8-12' high. Leaves and petals pointed, 

wavy, white, tinged and pencilled with purple. 
5 T. grandiflo'rum. Great-flowered W. Petals lance-obovate, recurved, twice largei 

than the sepals, rose-white. Large and showy. M. W. S. 
d T. erec'tum. Bath Flower. Petals ovate, acute, much broader (not longer) than 

the sepals, dusky purple (or white, W.), ill-scented. 

7 T, pen'dulum. Pendant W. Style scarcely any. Leaves rhombic. Petals 

lance-obovate, short-pointed, flat, scarce larger than sepals, w. M. S. W. 

8 T. cer'nuum. Nodding W. Style scarcely any Leaves ovate, petiolate 

Petals lanceolate, wavy, recurved, much larger than calyx. Eose-white. 

9 T. stylo'sum. Style-bearing T. Style manifest, as long as the stigmas. S. 

Obder 148.— LILYWORTS. 31? 

Order CXLYIII. LILIACE.E. Lilyworts. 

Herbs with parallel- veined leaves, bulbous or tuberous stems ; 
lowers perfect, regular, generally large and richly colored ; 
'perianth 6 (rarely 4)-parted, uniformly colored, free from the ovary ; 
stamens 6 (rarely 4) ; anthers fixed by a point and turned inwards ; 
style single ; ovary superior, 2 or 3 -celled ; seed with fleshy albumen. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Plants bulbous at the base, or with a thick, woody stem (caudex). . . .2 

§ Plants with a rhizome, creeper, or fibrous roots 4 

2 Perianth segments united, forming a tubular flower d 

2 Perianth segments separate, not forming a tube 3 

3 Stem (or caudex) leafy at least below, few or many-flowered b 

3 Stem (scape) sheathed at base, bearing a solitary flower.. . .a 

3 Stem (scape) sheathed at base, leafless, many-flowered c 

4 Stamens bent to one side, curved-ascending. Flowers showy e 

4 Stamens straight, and equal in position 5 

5 Perianth segments united to near the summit f 

5 Perianth segments separate, not forming a tube 6 

6 Flowers in terminal, leafless clusters, small, whitish.... g 

6 Flowers axillary, or terminal and solitary 7 

7 Leaves thread-form, &c h 

7 Leaves ovate, <fec. . . .k 
a Flowers nodding. Wild plants. Erythronium. Erythroxtum. 1 

a Flowers erect. Garden plants, t Tulip. Tu'lipa. 

b Nectary a linear groove at the base of each segment. Lily. Lilidm. 2 

b Nectary a round cavity at base of each seg. f Croivn Imperial. Fritilla'bia. 
b Nectary none. Flowers panicled, large. Seeds many, f Yucca. Yucca. 
b Nectary none. Flowers panicled, small. Seeds 1-3. S. Nolina. Noli'na. 
c Flowers in racemes, blue or purple, f Squill. Scilla. 

c Fls. in racemes or corymbs, yellow or white. Star- Bethlehem. Ornithog'alum. 
c Flowers in umbels, white or roseate. Stamens straight. Garlic. Al'lium. S 

c Fls. in umbels, blue. Stam. declined and curved, f Love-flower. Agapan'thus. 
d Perianth-limb revolute, as long as the tube. \ Hyacinth. Hyacin'thus. 
d Per.-limb spreading, much shorter than tube, f Grape Hyacinth. Musca ri. 
Segments distinct. Stamens at base valve-like, f Asphodel. Asphod'elus. 
e Segments half-united. Stamens perigynous (§ 83). t Day Lily. Hemerocal'lis. 
e Segments half-united. Stamens hypogynous. t White Day-Lily. Fun'kia. 4 
f Fl. tubular-oblong, greenish, axillary. Jointed Solomons Seal. Polygona'tum. 
f Fl. broad bell-shaped, white, racemed. Lily-of -the- Valley. Convalla'ria. 



g Stem leafy, bearing a cluster. Flowers 6-parted Solomon's Seal.'na. b 

g Scape leafless, bearing an umbel. Berry 2-seeded. Clintonia. Clinto'nia. 6 

g Stem leafy, bearing a cluster. Flowers 4-parted. Tway-leaf. Majan'themum. 

h Stems branching. Flowers small, axillary. Berry red. Aspar'agcs. 

k Filaments flat, as long as the sagittate anthers. Twist-foot. Strepto'pus. 

k Filaments filiform, much longer than the anthers. Prosartes. Prosar'tes. 

k Filaments shorter than the long, linear anthers. Bellwort. Uvula'ria. 

1. ERYTHRO'NIUM. Dog-tooth Violet 

Perianth bell-form, se- a 
pals recurved, the 3 inner & 
ones usually with a callous 
tooth each side near the 
base, and a groove in the 
middle. Pod a little 
stalked. Seeds egg-shap- 
ed. — Stem a bulb deep in 
the ground. Scape bear- 
ing a single flower, its 
base sheathed by the base 
of the two smooth leaves. 
Apr., May. 

Fig. 657. The Dog-tooth Vio- 
let {E. Americanum). 8. The 
bulb. 9. The flower spread open, 
showing the 2 teeth in each petal, 
also the position of all the parts. 
660. The ovary, style, and stigma. 

1. A cross-section of the ovary. 

2. The plan of the flower : a, the 
3 sepals in the outer circle; &, 
the 3 petals next; c, the 6 sta- 
mens ; and d, the 3-celled ovary. 

E. Ainerica'num. Yellow E. Flower yellow. Scape without a bract. Petal* 

toothed. Leaves spotted, nearly equal. Common. 
E. bractea'tum. Bracted E. Flower greenish-yellow. Scape bearing a bract. 

Leaves very unequal. Mountains. Vt. 
E albi'dum. White E. Flower white. Scape without a bract. Petals not toothed 

Rare in N. Y. and W. 

Order 148.— LILYWORTS. 310 

2. LIL'IUM. Lily. 
Perianth bell-shaped, segments mostly recurved, each with a groove 
running lengthwise within from the middle to the base. Stamens shorter 
than the style. Valves of the pod connected by latticed hairs. — Herbs 
with bulbous and leafy stems. Leaves whorled or scattered, sessile 
Flowers terminal. June, July. (See Figs. 107, 150.) 

§ Plants bearing buiblets in the axils. Flowers orange. Gardens 6, 7 

§ Tlants not bulbiferous in the axils of the leaves. . ..a 

a Flowers erect, orange-red. Sepals raised on claws ... .4, 5 

a Flowers nodding, white. Sepals sessile. Gardens 8, 9 

a Flowers nodding, yellow or orange. Sepals sessile. Wild plants 1 

1 Sepals orange-red, strongly revolute, almost into rings ... .2, 3 
1 L. Canaden'se. Common Meadow Lily. Sepals yellow, merely recurved, spread- 
ing above middle, c. 

2 L. super'bum. Superb L. Turfs-cap. Flowers 3-80, very showy. Leaves 

lanceolate, lower whorled. c. M. W. S. 

3 L. Carolinia'num. Carolina L. Flower generally but 1. Leaves wedge-lance- 

olate, partly whorled. S. 

4 L. Philadel'phicum. Philadelphia L. Upper leaves in whorlc Flowers 1-3, pur- 

ple-spotted, c. 

5 L. Catesbae'i. Catesby's L. Lvs. all scattered. Fl. 1, red and yellow-spotted. S. 

6 L. bulbif' erum. Orange L. Flowers erect, rough within, bell-shaped. Leaves 

3-veined, scattered, f 

7 L. tigri'num. Tiger L. Flowers nodding. Sepals strongly revolute. Leaves 

3-veined, scattered, f 

6 L. can'didum. White Lily. Flowers in a raceme, smooth, large. Lvs. scattered. 1 
9 L. Japon'icum. Japan Lily. Flower 1 only, very large. Sepals reiiexed at end. t 

3. AL'LIUK Garlic, Onion, &c. 
Flowers in a dense umbel with a 2-leaved spathe. Perianth deeply 6- 
parted, colored, usually spreading, persistent. Stamens 6. Ovary angu- 
lar. Style thread-like. Pod 3-lobed, containing 1 or 2 black seeds in each 
cell. — Strong-scented, bulbous, stemless herbs, the leaves radical and the 
umbel on a scape, sometimes bearing buiblets instead of flowers. May 

§ Leaves flat, lanceolate, but perishing before flowering 1 

§ Leaves flat, lanceolate or linear, present with the flowers a 

§ Leaves terete and hollow, or tubular c 

a Filaments simple. Ovary with a 6-leaved crown. Leaves linear ...b 

a Filaments 3-forked. Leaves lance-linear. Gardens .... 


D Stamens longer than the sepals. Umbel nodding 2 

b Stamens equalling the sepals. Umbel with bulblets or flowers. .3, 1 
b Stamens shorter than the sepals. Umbels with flowers only .. . 5, (5 

c Stem leafy half way up. Filaments 3-forked 7, 8 

c Stem naked. Filaments simple * 

I A. tricoc / cum. Lance-leaved Garlic. Umbel If. high, with a thin spathe, 12-20 

flowered. Flowers white. Plants strong-scented. Woods. N. W. 
2 A. cer'nuum. Nodding G. Leaves longer than the 4-angled scape. Rose- 
colored flowers, 12-20, in the handsome, nodding umbel. M. W. S. 

3 A. stella'tum. Star G. Umbel erect when in flower (nodding in bud), with 

many rose-colored flowers. Western. 

4 A. Canaden / se. Canada G. Umbel a dense head of bulblets and some flowers. 

Bulblets sessile, bracted, 12-18' high. 
5 A. mutab'ile. Changeable G. Leaves bristle-form. Scape terete. Flowers 

many (20-40). S. 
4 A. striatum. Striate G. Leaves striate, linear. Scape 3-angled. Flowers 

few (3-7). 

7 A. sativum. Common G. Bulb compound. Umbel bearing bulbs, f 

8 A. porrum. Leek. Bulb simple. Umbel bearing numerous flowers, f 

9 A. veneale, Crow G. Sta. exserted. Umbel with bulbs. Slender. M.W. 
10 A. Schaenopra'sum. Cives. Leaves rush-like, as long as the scape. Stamens 

II A. fistulo'sum. Welsh Onion. Leaves thick, as long as the swollen scape. 

12 A. cepa. Common Onion. Leaves thick, much shorter than the swollen scape. 

4. FUKKIA. Day Lily. 

i F. ovata. White D. Flowers white, funnel-form, many in the raceme. Leaves 

broad-ovate, more or less heart-shaped, f Japan. 
2 F. cceru'lea. Blue D. Flower blue, rather bell-form. Leaves ovate-pointed, not 

at all heart-shaped, f Japan. 

5. SMILAOrNA. Solomon's seal. 

1 S. racemo'sa. Clustered S. Raceme compound. Stamens longer than the peri- 

anth. Stem recurved, l£-2f. Flowers numerous, small, white. 

2 S. stella'ta. Stellate S. Flowers few, in a simple raceme. Leaves many. N. 

S. trifouVta. Three-leaved <£. Leaves 3 or 4, lance-elliptic. Flowers few, ra 
oemed. N. 

Oudek 149.— THE MELANTHB. 


6. CLINTO'NIA. Clintonia. 

1 0. borea"lis. Northern G. Leaves broad, oval- 

lanceolate. Flowers white, 2-5, nodding in 
the erect, bractless umbel. Common in woods, 
£ C. multiflo'ra. Miny-floicered C. Leaves oblong- 
lanceolate. Flowers spotted, 12-30 in the co- 
rymb, erect or spread. Plant downy. Woods. 
M. S. 

7. UVULARIA. Bellwort 

Perianth 6-parted. Sepals linear-spatulate 
or lanceolate, with a honey-cavity at the 
oase of each. Filaments very short, anthers 
half as long as the sepals. Style 3-cleft. 
Pod (or berry) 3-celled, cells few-seeded. — 
Root-stock creeping. Stem leafy and usually 
branched. Flowers mostly solitary, straw- 
jedow, pendulous. May. 

1 Leaves perfoliate {% 220). Pod obovate, 3- 

lobed at end 3 

1 Leaves sessile. Sepals cream-colored, ob- 

tusish, ovate, 3-angled 2 

2 U. sessilifo'lia. Wild Oats. Leaves glabrous, glaucous beneath. Pod raised or: 

a little stalk. Stem 6-10' high, divided, c. 
2 U. puber'ula. Downy B. Leaves fine-downy, shining green both sides. Pod 
sessile. Stem 8-12' high. Mountains. S. 
3 U grandiflo'ra. Great-flowered B. Sepals smooth within and without, \\' 

long. Anthers obtuse. Stem If. high. 
8 U. perfohVta. Mealy B. Sepals granuiar-roughish within, scarce V long. 
Anthers pointed. Stem If. high. 

Fig. 663. Clintonia borcali3 
Fig. 664. A berry cut across to 
show the 2 cells. 

Order CXLIX. MELANTHACEJE. The Melanths. 

Jlerbs perennial, often poisonous, with parallel- veined leaves ; 
perianth double, of six similar pieces, green or colored alike, persistent; 
stamens 6, with their anthers turned outwards (extrorse) ; 
ovary 3-celled, the styles usually distinct, a capsule in fruit. 



Analysis of the Genera. 

% Perianth segments united below into a long tube a 

§ Perianth segments distinct, not forming a tube. . . .2 

2 Anthers 1-celled, cordate (shield-form when open). . < .8 

2 Anthers 2-celled. Flowers in simple racemes d 

3 Flowers in a panicle, that is, a compound raceme. . . .b 
3 Flowers in a simple raceme or spike. . . .c 
i Leaves and flower arising from an underground corm. Golchicum. Coi/cHicuif. 

b Sepals clawed, each claw bearing a stamen. Melan'thium. 

b Sepals clawed, claw free from stamens. Zigadene. Zi'gadenus. 

b Sepals not clawed, base bearing a stamen. Puke. Vera'trum. 1 

c Flowers white, in racemes. Stamens on the sepals. Fly-poison. Amian'thium. 
c Flowers greenish, in a spike. Stamens free from sepals. Schjsnocau'lon. 

d Fls. perfect. Filaments widened at base. Ovary 6-ovuled. Xerophyllum. 

d Flowers perfect. Filaments filiform. Ovary oo-ovuled. Helonias. 

d Flowers dioecious, white. Stem leafy. Blazing Star. Chamjelir'ium. 

VERATKUM. Poke. False Hellebore. 

Flowers polygamous by abortion in the same plant. Sepals united at 
base, colored, spreading, sessile, and without glands. Stamens 6, shortei 
than the sepals, wanting in some of the flowers. Ovaries 3, united at base, 
often abortive. Pod 3-partible, many-seeded. — Stems leafy more or less. 
Flowers panicled. June, July. 

§ Stem stout and very leafy throughout. . . .1 
§ Stem slender, nearly naked 2 

2 Sepals rather blunt. Leaves oval and lanceolate 2, 3 

2 Sepals acuminate. Leaves linear 4 

V. viride. Green-fi. P. Lvs. large, oval, pointed. Coarse plant with green fls. 

2 V. Woodii. Wood's V. Scape 3-6f. Leaves lanceolate. Fls. nearly black. W 

3 V. parviflo'rum. Small-fl. V. Stem 2-5 f. Lvs. oval. Fls. dingy green. Mts. S 
4 V. angustifolium. Grass-lv. V. Very slender, 3f. Lvs. long. Fls. greenish- white. W 

Order CLI. JUNCACE.E. Rushes. 

llerbs generally grass-like, often leafless, with small, dry, green flowers ; 
perianth of 6 glume-like pieces, whorled in two circles (sepals and petals) 
stamens 6, rarely 2, on the torus ; style 1 ; 
ovary 3-colled ; seeds few or many. 

Order 152.— SPIDERWORTS. 323 

Analysis of the Genera. 

J, Perianth greenish outside, yellow inside. Stamens 6. 

Stigma 1. Seeds many. Leaves sword-shaped. 

Scape nearly naked. NartJiecium. Narthecitjm. 

§ Perianth green or brownish. Stamens 6. Stigmas 3. 

Capsule 3-eelled, 8-seeded. Stems leafy, jointed. 

Lea 7es linear. Wood Rush. Lu'zula. 

5 Perianth green or brownish. Stamens 6, rarely 3. 

Stigmas 3. Capsule many-seeded. Leaves terete, 

or linear, or none. Rush. Bullrush. Jun'cus. 

Fig. 665 Flower of Luzula, much magnified : p, the green peri- 
anth ; a, the 6 stamens ; cc, the 3 stigmas. 

Order CLII. COMMELYNACE.E. Spiderworts. 

Herbs with flat, narrow leaves which are usually sheathing at base ; 
perianth of 2 circles, outer of 3 green sepals, inner of 3 colored petals : 
stamens 6, on the torus ; ovary 2 or 3-celled ; style and stigma 1 ; 
capsule 2 or 3-celled, with few seeds. 

Analysis of the Genera. 

§ Flowers irregular, clustered in a heart-shaped floral leaf. Commely'na. 

§ Flowers regular, clustered, floral leaf like the rest. Spiderwort. Tradescan'tia. 1 
§ Flowers regular, solitary, axillary. Stamens 3. Moss-like herbs. S. Maya'ca. 

TRADESCAN'TIA. Spiderwort. 

Flowers regular, in terminal, close umbels, subtended by 2 or 3 leaf-like 
bracts. Petals broad, larger than the sepals. Filaments clothed with 
? ointed hairs. Juice viscid, spinning into cobwebs. 

§ Leaves linear, sessile, not narrowed at the base, smooth. . . .1, 2 
§ Leaves ovate or lanceolate, narrowed at base, hairy 3, 4 

1 T. Virginia. Common S. Leaves broad-linear. Umbel many-flowered, ses- 

sile, terminal, with 2 leaf-like bracts. Petals large, blue or white. 

2 T. ro'sea. Roseate S. Leaves linear, long. Umbel few-flowered, with 2 sub- 

ulate bracts. Petals twice longer than sepals, rose-colored. Penn. S. 
T. pilo'sa. Hairy S. Leaves lanceolate, *ong-pointed. Umbels both terminal and 
axillary, mauy-fl.pwers. Petals small, bluish-purple. W. 
i T. crassifo'lia. Thick-lv. S. Leaves ovate, some petiolate, acute, woolly beneath. 
Flowers small, rose-purple, terminal. Stem weak. Leaves striped, t 


Containing Definitions of Botanical Terms, together with references to those 
paragraphs in which they are defined in the foregoing Lessons. 

A (in composition) signifies without', as 

apetalous, destitute of petals. 
Abbreviations, p. 131 
Abortive, imperfect, useless. 
Acaulescent, 235. 
Acerose, needle-shaped. — Fig. 9. 
Achenium, 168. 
Aculeate, armed with prickles. 
Acuminate, pointed, 33. 
Acute, sharp-angled, 33. 
Adherent, 82. 
Adhesion, 79. 

Adnate, growing to or upon, 105. 
Adnate stipules, 46. 
^Estivation, 134, 135. 
Aggregate, assembled close together. 
Aggregated fruits, 183. 
Albumen, Albuminous, 189, 192. 
Alburnum, white- wood or sap-wood ; 

outer layers of the trunk. 
Alternate, 49. 
Anient, 149. 

Amplexicaul, stem- clasping, 41. 
Analysis, 263. 
Ancipital, two-edged. 
Angiosperms, 256, 257. 
Annual, yearly, 211. 
Anther, 100. 
Apetalas, 258. 
Apetalous, without petals. 
Apex. — Fig. 56. 
Apex of the leaf, 2. 
Appendage, some unusual part added. 
Appressed, pressed closely to something 

Aquatic, growing in water. 
Arborescent, tree-like. 
Arid, dry. [ley. 

Aristate, bearded ; as the glumes of oar- 
Armed, furnished with spines or thorns, 

as if in self-defence, 56. 
Aromatic, strong-scented, spicy. 

Arrangement of leaves. — Lesson 9. 

Ascending, arising obliquely. 

Ascending axis. — Lesson 28. 

Attenuate, made slender or thin. 

Auriculate, ear-shaped, 20.— Fig. 28. 

Awned, tipped with a bristle-shaped ap- 
pendage, as the beard of Barley, &c. 

Axil, 53! 

Axillary, growing out of the axils, 53. 

Axillary buds, 53. 

Axis, the stem or central column, about 
which the organs are arranged, 216. 

Baccate, berry-like ; covered with pulp. 

Banner, 89. 

Bark, the external covering of woody 

Beak, a hard, short point, like that of t 

Bearded, with long, stiff bristles or hairs, 
Berry, 174. 

Bi (in composition), twice; as in 
Bi-cuspidate, with 2 points. 
Bi-dentate, with 2 teeth. 
Biennial, of 2 years' duration, 212. 
Bifid, 2-cleft. 
Bifoliate, 2-leaved. 
Bifurcate, 2-forked. 
Bi-labiate, 2- lipped. 
Binate, 2 grown together. 
Bi-pinnate, twice pinnate, 39. 
Bi-pinnati'fid, twice pinnate-cleft, 24 

Fig. 31. 
Bi- saccate, with 2 tumors or sacs. 
Bi-ternate, twice ternate, 39. 
Bi-valved, 2-valved. 
Biography of the plant. — Lesson 26. 
Blade of the leaf, 2. 
i>otanica* analysis, 264. 
Bracteate or Br acted, having bracts. 
BractUts, little bracts. 
Bracts, 147. 



Branches, 203. 

Branching' root, 219. 

Branchleis, small branches. 

Bristles, stiff hairs. 

Bud, 52. 

Pulb, 230, 

BulbUts, little bulbs borne above ground. 

Zvlhous, having bulbs. 

J^ushos^ 215. 

I'aducous, falling off early. 

Calyculate, having bracts resembling an 
outer, additional calyx. 

Calyx, 65. 

Campanulate, bell-shaped, 91. 

Canescent, whitish with tine hairs. 

Capillary, very slender, hair-like. 

Capitate, head-shaped, globular. 

Capsule, a pod, 182. 

Carinate, keel-shaped. 

Carpels, 124. 

Cartilaginous, gristly. 

Caryophyllaceous, 88. 

Caryopsis, grain or kernel. 

Catkin, 149. 

Caudate, with a tail. 

Caulescent, 235. 

Cauline, 146.. 

Can lis, 235. 

Cellular, composed of cells. 

Cernuous, nodding. 

Chaffy, with chaff. 

Character, marks which distinguish a spe- 
cies, genus, &c. 

Chartaceou8, of the texture of writing- 

Cilia, hairs, like those of the eye lashes. 

Ciliate, furnished with cilise. 

Circinate, 140. 

Circumscissile, opening like a lid. 

Cirrhous, furnished with a tendril. 

Classification. — Lesson 29. 

Clavate, chfb-shaped. 

Claw, 71. 

Climbers, 54, 236. 

Climbing fern, 12. 

Cochleate, resembling the shell of a snail. 

Cohering, connected. 

Cohesion, 79. 

Cohorts, 258. 

Colored, not green. 

Column, the consolidated stamens and 
pistils of the Orchis. 

Coma, a tuft of hairs, 187, 188. 

Complete flower, 110. 

Compound flowers, 156. 

Compound leaves, 23-35. 

Compound petiole, 44. 

Compound pistil, 124. 

Compressed-, flattened lengthwise. 

Cone, the same as strobile, 183, 185. 

Confluent, joining together. 

Conjugate, joined in pairs. 

Connate, joined together at base, 43. 

Connectile, 102. 

Connivent, converging together. 

Conoids, 258. 

Contorted, twisted, 130. 

Convex, rising spherically. 

Convolute, 132. 

Cordate, heart-shaped, 19. 

Coriaceous, leathery, thick and tough. 

Corm, 230. 

Cornute, Corniculate, horned. 

Corolla. — Lesson 12. 

Corona or Crown, the expanded, cup-lik« 

disk of Narcissus, &c. 
Corymb, 151. 

Corymbous, arranged like a coryn b. 
Costate, ribbed. 
Cotyledon, 190, 191. 
Creeper, 232. 

Crenate and Crenulate, 31. 
Crisped, Crispate, with excess of margin. 
Cristate or Crested, with raised ridge. 
Cruciform, 87. 
Cryptogam i a, 250. 
Cucullate, hood shaped. 
Culm, the stem of grasses. 
Cuneate, wedge-shaped, 17. 
Cupule, cup of the acorn, &c. 
Cuspidate, with a small abrupt point, 33, 
Cuticle, the epidermis, scarf-skin. 
Cyme, 157. 
Cymous, like a cyme. 

Decandrous, with 10 stamens. 

Deciduous, falling off in autumn. 

Decompound, more than once compound- 
ed, as bi or tri-pinnate. 

Decumbent, 224. 

Decurrent, extending down the stem at 
do the leaves of Mullen. 

Decussate, crossing at right anglos. 

Deflexed, bent downwards. 

Definite, 106. 

Dehiscence, 102. 

Dehiscent fruits, 166. 

Deltoid, 15. 

Dentate, Denticulate, 30. 

Depressed, flattened from above. 

Descending axis. — Lesson 27. 



Dialypetalas, 258. 

Di (in composition), two ; as in 

Diadelphons, 107. 

Diandrous, with 2 stamens. 

Dhchotomous, forked, branched by two 

equal divisions. 
Didynamous, 107. 

Diffuse, spreading loosely. [lobes. 

Digitate, finger-shaped, with narrow 
Dioecious, staminate and pistillate flowers 

on different plants, as in the Willow. 
DUcoid head, the florets all tubular, as in 

Burdock, Ironweed, 156. 
Disk flowers, 156. 
Dissected, cut into 2 parts. 
Dissepiment, a partition in a pod. 
Distinct, not united, 77. 
Divaricate, spreading in a straggling 

Dodecandrous, with 12 stamens. 
Dorsal, on the back. 
Double flowers, 119. 
Doubly dentate, 82. 
Downy, clothed with soft hairs. 
Drupe, 171. 
Duramen, inner wood of the trunk. 

E, or Ez (in composition), destitute of. 

Echinate, beset with prickles. 

Elliptical, 16. 

Elongated, exceeding the common length. 

Emarginate, 34. 

Embryo, 190. 

Endogens, 253, 255. 

Enneandrous, with 9 stamens. 

Ensiform, sword-shaped, 23. — Fig. 8. 

Entire, even-edged, 29. 

Ephemeral, lasting but a day. 

Epidermis, the outer skin. 

Epigynous, standing on the ovary. 

Epiphytes, plants growing on other plants. 

Equally pinnate, 37. 

Equitant, 137. 

Erect stems, 224. 

Erose, jagged, as if gnawed. 

Etserio, 173. 

Exogens, 253. 

Exotic, not native, foreign. 

Exserted, projecting out of. 

Exsiccate, dried up. 

Exsiipulate, without stipules. 

Extrorse (anthers), facing outwards, 103. 

Falcate, sickle-shaped, linear and curved. 
Fascicle, 159. 
Fasciculated, 50. 

Fastigiate, having a flat or level top. 

Feather-veined, 257. 

Ferruginous, rust-colored. 

Fertile, fruit-bearing, 109. 

Fibrils, 198. 

Fibro-tuberous, 222. 

Fibrous, 221. 

Fig, 184. 

Filament, 101. 

Filiform, thread-shaped. 

Fimbriate, bordered with a fringe. 

Fistulous, Fistula, tubular, hollow. 

Flexuous, bent in a wavy manner. 

Florets, the flowers in a compound flow 

er, 156. 
Floridiae, 258. 
Flower- bud, 128. 
Flowering Plants, 250. 
Flowerless Plants, 250. 
Foliaceous, having the texture of leaves. 
Follicle. 179. 

Footstalk, the stalk of either flower or Icif 
Forked venation, 12. 
Forms of leaves. — Lessons 3, 4. 
Free, not adhering, 81. 
Fringed, the same as fimbriate. 
Fruit.— Lessons 22, 23. 
Fruiescent, shrubby. 
Fugacious, soon perishing. 
Funiculus, the seed- stalk. 
Funnel-shaped, 93. 
Furcate, forked. 
Fuiiform, spindle-shaped. 

Galea, the arched upper lip of a labxate 

Gamopetalae, 258. 
Gamopetalous, 75. 
Gamosepalous, 75. 
Geminate, in pairs. 
Genus, Genera, 243. 
Germ, the ovary, 189. 
Germination, 196. 
Gibbous, swelled out, protuberant. 
Glabrous, smooth, without hairs. 
Glands, the organs of secretion, 58. 
Glandular, gland-bearing. 
Glans, 170. 
Glaucous, sea-green : pale, bluish-green, 

with a powder or bloom. 
Globous, Globular, round or spherical. 
Glomerate, crowded together. 
Glomerule, 159. 
Glume, the outer chaff, enveloping the 

flowers of the Grasses. 
Glume Plants, 257 



Olumeless Plants, 257. 
Glumiferae, 257. 

Graminoids, 258. [grains. 

Granular, formed of, or covered with 
Grooved, furrowed or channelled. 
Gymnosperms, 256, 257. 
Gynandrous, having stamens and pistils 
combined into one body. 

Habit, the general appearance of a plant. 

Habitat, the place where a plant grows. 

Hairs, 60. 

Hastate or Halbert-shaped. — Fig. 57, I. 

Head, 155. 

Heart-ivood, same as duramen. 

Helmet, same as galea. 

Heptandrous, with 7 stamens. 

Herb, a plant not becoming woody, 211. 

Herbarium, a collection of dried plants. 

Hexandrous, with 6 stamens. 

Hibernation, 210. 

Hip, 176. 

Hirsute, 62. 

Hispid, rough with stiff hairs, 62. 

Hooded, curved or rolled into the form of 

a hood. 
Hybrid, partaking of the nature of two 

Hypoyynous, inserted under the ovary, 83. 

Imbricated, 131. 
Imperfect flowers, 109. 
Incised, deeply gashed or cut. 
Indefinite, variable in number and too 

many to be counted, 106. 
Indehiscent, not opening. 
Indehiscent fruits, 166. 
Indigenous, native of. 
Inferior calyx, calyx free. 
Inferior ovary, ovary adherent. 
Inflated, tumid, as if filled by wind. 
Infiextd, bending inward. 
Inflorescence, 141. 
Innate, 105. 

Inserted, growing out of. 
Internode, 202, 227. 
Interruptedly pinnate, 37. 
Iutrorse, 103. 

Involucel, involucre of an umbellet, 152. 
Involucrate, surrounded by an 
Involucre, 147. 
Involute, 139. 
Irregular flowers, 86. 

Keel, carina, 89. [boat. 

Keel&ly ridged and curved beneath, like a 

Labiate, 2-lipped, 97. 

Laciniate, 27.— Fig. 43. 

Lactescent, milky or juicy. 

Lamina, blade, 71. 

Lanceolate, 15. 

Lateral, on the sid*., 53. 

Leaf. — Lessons 1, 2, 3. 

Leaf-bud, 128. 

Leaflets, 35. 

Leaf-stems, 228. 

Legume, 180. 

Leguminous, bearing legumes. 

Lenticular, shaped like a double conve 

Liber, the inner bark. 
Ligneous, woody. 
Ligulate, sm»p shaped, 96. 
Ligule, 47. 
Liliaceous, 88. 
Limb, 76. 

Line (") the 12tL part of an inch. 
Linear, 28. 

Lobate, or Lobed. — Figs. 30, 35. 
Loment, a jointed legume, 180. 
Lunate, crescent-shaped. 
Lyrate, 21.— Fig. 34. 

Marginal, on the margin. 

Medulla, the pith. 

Membranous, or Membranaceous, thin and 
soft, like a membrane. 

Midvein, 6. [set. 

Monadelphous, stamens united into one 

Monandrous, with one stamen. 

Monmcious, stamens and pistils in sepa- 
rate flowers on the same plant. 

Monopeialw, corolla with united petals. 

Monopetalous, 75. 

Monosepalous, 75. 

Mucronate, 33. 

Mulberry, 183. 

Multifld, many cleft. 

Muricate, with hard, sharp points. 

Naked, a relative term, signifying destt 

tute of. 
Naked 'flower, 110. 
Naked seeds, 256. 

Napiform, tuberous root wider than long 
Natant, swimming. [sons 30, 31. 

Natural System ; Natural Orders.— Les 
Nature of the flower, 208. 
Nectariferous, producing honey. 
Net-veined, 8. [tils 

Neutral flowers, without stamens or pis 
Nodding, in a drooping posture. 



Node, 227, 202. 

Normal, regular, according to rule. 

Number of Genera, 246. 

Number of Species, 246. 

Nut, a simple, 1-seeded, hard fruit. 

Ob (in composition) implies inversion ; as 

Obcordate, "nversely heart-shaped, 34. 

Oblanceolate, 17. 

Oblique, unequal, one-sided 

Oblong, 16. 

Obovate, 17. 

Obsolete, indistinct, as if worn out. 

Obtuse, blunt, 33. 

Ob volute, 138. 

Ochrese, 47. 

Odd-pinnate, 37. 

Offset, a short, thick runner. 

Opercular dehiscence, 104. 

Opposite, 50. 

Orbicular, rounded, 16. 

Orders, 247. 

Ordinal, relating to the orders. 

Oval, 16. 

Ovary, 121, 123. 

Ovate, 2. 

Ovoid, egg-shaped. 

Ovules, 123. 

Pales, the inner chaff of grass flowers. 
Palmate, hand-shaped. 
Palmate venation, 10. 
Paimately ternate, 38. 
Pandwiform, fiddle-shaped. 
Panicle, 153. 

Papilionaceous, 89. [cesses. 

Papillous, with small, gland-like pro- 
Pappus, 188. 
Parallel venation, 11. 
Parasite, a plant living on other plants. 
Parietal, of, or adjoining the wall ; as 
Parietal placentas — Fig.^269. 
Pectinate, comb-like, with long, narrow 

Pedate, foot-shaped, 26. 
Pedicel, 143. 

Pedicellate, furnished with a pedicel. 
Peduncle, 143. 
Pellucid, transparent. 
Peltate, 20.— Fig. 25. 
Pendulous^ drooping, hanging down. 
Pentandrous, with 5 stamens. 
Pepo, 175. 

Perennial, enduring 3 years or more, 213. 
Perfect flower, 110. 
Perfoliate, 42 

Perianth, 66. 

Pericarp, 166. 

Perigynoax, inserted into the calyx, 83. 

Persistent, permanent, not falling off. 

Personate, 97. 

Petal, 65. 

Petal iferae, 257. 

Petaloid, resembling petals. 

Petiole and Petiolate, 3. 

Petiolule, 35. 

Phaanogamia, 250. 

Pilous, 62. 

Pine-apple, 183. 

Pinnai (wings), segments of a pinnate 

Pinnate, 36. 
Pinnately ternate, 38. 
Pinnatifid, 24. 
Pinnatiseet, 25. 
Pistil, 68.— Lesson 18. 
Pistillate, bearing pistils. 
Pith, the central cellular substance of the 

Placenta, a lobe or fleshy ridge bearing 

the seeds. 
Plaited, same as Plicate. 
Plan of the flower. — Lesson 17. 
Plicate, folded like a fan. 
Plumous, feathery or feather-like. 
Plumule, 190, 191. 

Pod, dry fruit ; as capsule, legume, tfce. 
Pollen, 100. 

Poly (in composition) signifies many ; as 
Polyandrous, with many stamens. 
Polyadelphous, 107. 
Polygamous, having perfect flowers, with 

staminate or pistillate flowers on the 

same plant. 
Polypetalse. See Dialypetalaa, 258. 
Polypetalous, 75, 258. 
Polysepalous, 75. 
Pome, 176. 

Porous dehiscence, 104. 
P remorse, abrupt at end, as if bitten off 
Prickles, 57. 

Process, any projection from the surface, 
Procumbent, 224. 
Prostrate, 224. 
Pubescent, 61. 

Pulp, the soft, juicy parts of fruits. 
Punctate, dotted as if with point*. 
Pyriform, pear-shaped. 
Pyxis, 178. 

Quaternate, growing in fo irs. 
Quinate, growing in fives, 40. 



Kaceme, 150. 

Racemous, resembling a raceme. 

Kachis, 36, 146. 

Radiate and Radiant, pp. 219, 220. 

Radiate-veined. See ralmate-veined, 10. 

Radical, from the root. 

Radical number, 113. 

Radicle, 190, 191. 

Ramial, of the branches. 

tiamous, bunched. 

I lay, Ray-flowers, 156. 

Receptacle, 64. 

Reclinate, 140. 

Recurved, bent or curved backward. 

Reflexed, curved back and downward. 

Regular flower. 86. 

Reniform, kidney-shaped, — Figs. 23, 24. 

Repand. — Fig. -^3. 

Reticulate, netted. 

Retuse, 34. 

Revolute, 139. 

Rhizome, 231. 

Rhomboid or rhombic, oval, with angular 

Rib (costa), ridge caused by raised veins. 
Ringent, gaping, as when a labiate corolla 

has an open throat. 
Root. — Lesson 27. 
Root-stock, 231. 
Rosaceous, 87. 
Rostrate, with a beak. 
Rotate, 90. 
Rudiments, 116. 
Rugous, wrinkled. 
Runcinate, 22.— Fig. 36. 
Runner, a blender branch striking root, 

as in Strawberry. 

Saccate, bag-like, or sack-like. 

Sagittate, arrow-shaped, ly. 

Salver- form, 94. 

Samara (a key), 169 

Sap, 204. 

Scabrous, rough. 

Scale stems, 228. 

Scape, 144. 

^carious, dry, thin, scale- like. 

Scorpoid cyme, 159. 

Second, all turned to one side. 

Seed. — Lesson 24. 

Segments, parts or divisions. 

Sepal, 65. 

Septinate, 40. 

Sericious, 61. 

Serotinous, late in the season. 

Serrate and Serrulate, 30. * 

Sessile, 5. 

Setaceous or Setous, bristly. 

Sheath, lower part of the leaf oi lcaf-Btalli 

which surrounds the stem. 
Shrub, 215. 

Silicle and silique, 181. 
Simple, not compound, of one piece. 
Simple pistil, 124. 
Sinuate, 21.— Fig. 32. 
Sinus, aroundedrecess between the lobes 

of the leaves, &c. 
Solitary, 145. 
Spadiciflorae, 258. 
Spadix and spathe, 14S. 
Spatulate, 17. 
Species, 241. 
Spike, 146. 
Spine, 56. 

Spinescent or Spinous, 187. 
Spiral arrangement, 49. 
Spores, 251. 
Spur, 78. 
Squarrous, of a ragged appearance; as, 

with crowded, spreading bracts oi 

leaves, &c. 
Stamens, 67. 

Staminate, with stamens only, barren. 
Stellate, whorled. 
Stem. — Lesson 28. 
Sterile, 109. 
Stigma, 122. 

Stings, sharp, poisonous hairs, 59. 
Stipe, the stalk of a pod, (fee. 
Stipitate, borne on a stipe. 
Stipule, 4. 

Stipulate, with stipules. 
Stolon, a branch which strikes root at the 

end, producing a new plant. 
Stoloniferous, bearing stolons. 
Straight- veined, when the principal veins 

pass direct to the margin. 
Striate, slightly furrowed with streaks. 
Siriijous, clothed with short, stitf, and 

close-pressed hairs. 
Strobile, same as cone, 183. 
Style, 122. 
Sub (in composition) denotes the quality 

in a lower decree, as, 
Sub-entire, nearly entire. 
Submersed, under water. 
Subterranean stems, 225. 
Subulate, aw I- shaped, Fig. 7. 
Succulent, thick, juicy, fleshy. 
Superior, 82. 
Supra- axillary, arising from above the 

axil, as do the flower* of Potato. 



Suture, a seam ; the line of cohesion. 
Symmetrical, 111. 

Synqenecious, having the anthers united 
into a tube, 107. 

Tendril, 54, 55, 236. 

Terete, rounded or cylindric, 3. 

Terminal, borne at the summit, 53. 

Terminal bud, 53. 

Termite, 38. 

Testa, the outer seed-coat. 

Tetradynamous, 108. 

Tetrandrous, with 4 stamens. 

Thorn, 56. 

Throat, 76. 

Thyrse, 154. 

Tomentous, 61. 

Toothed, dentate, 30. 

Torus, the receptacle, 64. [224. 

Trailing, creeping or lying on the ground, 

Tree, 214. 

Triandrous, with 3 stamens. 

Tri- cuspidate, having 3 points. 

Tri-dentate, 3-toothed. 

Trifid, 3-cleft. 

Trifoliate, 3 leaves or leaflets composing 

one leaf. 
Tri-pinnate, thrice pinnate. 
Triternate, thrice ternate, 39. 
Truncate, blunt, as if cut square off. 
Trunk, 234. 
Tryma, 172. 
Tube, 76. 
Tuber, 233. 
Tubercular, 222. 
Tuberiferous, bearing tubers. 
Tuberous, thickened like a tuber. 
Tuberous roots, 220. 
Tubular, hollow like a tube, 95. 
Tulip, 11. 

Tunicated, coated, as an onion. 
Turbi r iatey shaped like a tof , 

Turgid, swollen. 

Umbel, 152. 
Umbellet, 152. 

Unarmed, without thorns, prickles, &0» 
Uncinate, hooked at the end. 
Undershrub, 215. 
Undulate, wavy, 22. — Fig. 33. 
Unguiculate, with a claw, 71. — Fig. 116. 
Urceolate, urn-shaped, 92. — Fig. 143. 
Utricle, a one-seeaed fruit, like that c 

Valvate, 129. 

Valves, the parts which open. 
Variety, 244. 
Veinlets, 7. 
Veins, 6. 

Veins of the leaf, 6. 
Veinulets, 8. 

Velvety, clothed with thick, soft down. 
Venation, 10. 

Ventral suture, the front seam. 
Ventricous, swelling out on one side. 
Vernation, 51, 135. 
Verrucous, warty. 
Versatile, 105. 
Verticil, a whorl of flowers. 
Verticillate, 50. 
Vexillary, 132. 
Vexillum, the banner, 89. 
Villous, 61. 
Vine, 236. 
Virgate, wand-shaped, terete and slender. 

Wedge-shaped, see Cnneate, 17. 
Wheel-shaped, see Rotate, 90. 
Whorled, see Verticillate, 50. 
Winged, as if furnished with wings. 
Winged petiole, 45. 
Wings, S9. 
Woody plants, 214. 



Also, full references to the Illustrations. 

Abelmoschus Pagi 180 

Abies 301 

Abutiion 180 

Acacia 195 

Acer. Jig. 322-323 187 

Aceraceae 187 

Acerates .. 287 

Achillea 242 

Acuida 293 

Aconite..^. 195, 373. ... 151 

Aconitum 151 

Acorns 303 

Actaea 151 

Actinomeria 233 

Actinospennuin 233 

Adlumia 161 

Adonis 148 

^Ssch\Tiomene ...... ... 184 

^Escuhis 189 

^Ethusa 219 

Agapanthus 317 

Agave 814 

Asrimonia,^. 61 203 

Acrimony, jig. §1 203 

Albany Beechdrops .... 248 

Alchemilla, tig. 215 202 

Alder, jig. 68 298 

Alexanders, jig. 483-6 . . 222 

Alisma, Alismaceae 306 

Allinm 319 

AH seed 176 

Almond 2n2 

Alnus,^. 68 298 

Aloe ... 314 

Alpine Bistort 299 

Alsine 176 

Althaea 180 

Alyssum 163 

Amarantaceae 293 

Amaranths 293 

Amarautus 293 

Amaryllidaceae 31 3 

Amaryllids 313 

Ambrosia, Jig. 514-17. 

Amelanchier 203 

American Aloe 314 

American Centaury... . 285 

American Cowslip 255 

American Olive ... 288 

Amianthium 322 

Amorpha 194 

Amphianthus 262 

Amphicarpaea 194 

Amsonia 286 

Amygdalns 202 

Anacardiaceae 1S6 

Anacharis 305 

Anagallis, Jig. 5C6-7 255 

Anantherix 287 

Andromeda, Jig. 242 «, 

143 247 

Androsace 254 

Anemone 146 

Angelica 219 

Angelica Tree 224 

Anise 219 

Anonaceae 154 

Anonads 154 

Anthemis 234 

Antirrhinum 262 

Aphyllon 258 

Apios 195 

Apium 219 

Aplectrum 308 

Apocynaceae 2 6 

Apocynuin,^. 285 286 

Apogon 234 

Apple 204 

Apple of Sodom 283 

AppiePeru 282 

Aquifohaceae 252 

Aquilegia 149 

Arabis,^. 29 167 

Araceae 302 

Arachis 195 

Aralia 224 

Araliaceae 224 

Araliads 224 

Archangelica 219 

Arcbemora 219 

Arctostaphylos 247 

Arenaria, jig. 410 176 

Arethusa,^. 651-2 311 

Argemone 160 

Arissema 303 

Aristolochia 289 

Aristolochiaceae 289 

Armeria 257 

Armoracia 164 

Arnica 233 

Aroids 302 

Arrow Dragon 303 

Arrow-head,^. 47 307 

Arrow-wood,^. 51 228 

Artichoke .. .. 238 

Arum 303 

Asarn m 289 

Asclepiadaceae 281 

Asclepiads 287 

Asclepias,^. 2S3 288 

Ascyrum 171 

Ash.^r. 187 288 

Asimina . . 154 

Asparagus 318 

Aspen 299 

Asphodel, Asphodclus.. 3.7 

Aster, Jig. 524 240 

Asterworts 230 

Astilbe 215 

Astragalus 194 

Atamacco Lily,^. 137. . 313 

Atriplex 293 

Atropa 282 

Auricula 254 

Avens 2U6 

Awl wort. 164 

Azalea,^. 205, 532-4.. . 249 

Baldwinia 233 

Balloon Vine 189 

Ballota, Balm 270 

Balm-of-Gilead,^. 636- 

637 299 

Balsaminaceae 185 

Balsamine 186 

Bane-berry 151 

Baptisia 199 

Barbarea 168 

Barberry 155 

Bartonia 284 

Bass-wood 181 

Batatas 281 

Bayberry 298 

Bav-galls 295 

Beach Pea 201 

Bean, fig. 446, 311 195 

Bear-berry, fig. 545 247 



Beard-flower 313 

Beard-tongue 263 

Bedstraw 2-29 

Beech, Jig. 275 296 

Beechdrops 258 

Beet, fig. 336, Beta 293 

Befaria 247 

Begonia.^ Jig. 185. 

Belladonna 282 

Bell-flower 245 

Bellis 233 

Bcllwort, Jig. 530-1, 81. 

244, 321 

Benzoin 296 

Berberidaceae 155 

Berberids 155 

Berberis./. 171-2, 377-80. 155 

Berchemia 190 

Berlandiera 233 

Betula 298 

Betulacese 298 

Bidens 239 

Big Laurel 153 

Bignonia 258 

Bignoniacese 258 

Bilberry, ^7. 170. 
Bindweeds,,^. 144. . 280, 281 

Birch, Jig. 13, 632-3 293 

Birthworts 289 

Bitter Cress 167 

Bitter-sweet,^. 611-13. 283 

Black Alder 252 

Blackberry. Jig. 268 206 

Black Haw. jig. 16 228 

Black Saltwort 254 

Bladder-nut, Jig. 434 190 

Bladder-pod 164 

Bladder Senna 194 

Bladclerwort 257 

Blazing Star 322 

Blephilia 270 

Bletia 308 

Blood-root 160 

Blue-banner 194 

Blue-berries,^. 546.... 247 

Blue curls 269, 273 

Blue-eyed Grass. Jig. 48.. 314 

Blue-flag 315 

Blue-hearts £63 

Blue Lettuce,/. 35, 245-7, 

309 234 

Bluets 230 

Boerliaavia 290 

Boltonia 233 

Borrage, Borrageworts. . 2i5 

Borraginaceae 274 

Borrago, Jig. 598-600 .... 275 

Borrichia 233 

Boussingaultia 293 

Boxberry, Jig. 541 248 

Box Elder 187 

Brachychseta 233 

Bramble 206 

Brassica 164 

Bridal Rose 207 

Brooklime 265 

Broomrape 258 

Brunella 273 

Buchnera 263 

Buck- bean 284 

Buckeye, Jig. 153 189 

Buckthorns 190 

Buckwheat 290 

Bugbane 145 

Bugloss 275 

Bulrush 3-23 

Bupleurum 219 

Burdock,^. 509-11. 

Burnet 202 

Burning Bush 190 

Burr Marigold 233, 239 

Burr-reed 304 

Burr-seed 275 

Bush Clover 198 

Bush Honeysuckle 227 

Butter and Eggs 263 

Buttercups,^. 163, 331. 147 

Butterfly Pea 194 

Butternuts 295 

Butterwort 257 

Button-bush 229 

Cabbage 164 

Cactaceae 218 

Cakile 164 

Calamiuth, Calamintha.. 271 

Calendula 232 

Calicanthaceae 154 

Calicanths 154 

Calicanthus 154 

Calico-bush 249 

Calla,^. 237, 638^1. . . . 303 

Callistephus 233 

Calopogon,^. 655 312 

Caltha 149 

Calynyction 280 

Calypso 307 

Calystegia 281 

Camelina 164 

Camellia 182 

Camelliacese 182 

Camomile 234 

Campanula,.^. 142 245 

Campanulaceae 244 

Campion 177 

Candytuft 164 

Canterbury Bells. Jig. 527 

-9 234 

Capri foljaeese 225 

Capsella,^. 331 165 

Capsicum 282 

Caraway,^. 271 219 

Cardamiue, ffg. 182 167 

Cardinal-flower 243 

Cardiospermum 189 

Carnation 176 

Carpet- weed 178 

Carpinus .. 297 

Carrion-flower 306 

Carrot 219 

Carum 219 

Carya 295 

CaryophyllaceoB 115 

Cast-ia,^. 60 200 

Cassiope 247 

Castanea . . 2P6 

Castilleja 262 

Catalpa,^. 196-7,236.. 259 

Catchfly,,%. 136 177 

CaTmi n t, Jig. 52, 593-4 . . . 27* 

Cattail 304 

Ceanothus ... 190 

Cedronella 270 

Celandine.^. 40 160 

Celastraceae 190 

Celastrus 190 

Celery 219 

Celosia 293 

Celtis,^<7. 72. 

Centaury 284, 285 

Centrosema 194 

Centunculus 254 

Century Plant 314 

Cephalanthus 229 

Cerastium,^. 114 178 

Cerasus 203 

Cercis v /?<7. 4 195 

Chserophyllum 219 

Chaff-seed 262 

Chamaelirium. 3^2 

Chaptalia 234 

Checkerberry,^. 540-3. 248 

Cheiranthus Ift3 

Chelidonium 160 

Chelone 266 

Chenopodiaceae... 292 

Chenopodinm 293 

Chenopodina 293 

Cherry,^. 452-3 203 

Chervil 219 

Chestnut, J^. 49 296 

Chick-pea 195 

Chickweed.^. 21.. 176, 178 

Chick- wintergreen 255 

Chimaphila 251 

China Aster 233 

Chiogenes,^. 3 3 248 

Chionanthus . 288 

Chokeberry 204 

Chrysauthemum,^. lb. 233 

Chrysobalanus 202 

Chry sogonum 233 

Chrysopsis 232 

Chrysosplenium 215 

Cicely, Jig. 487-90 221 

Cicer 195 

Cichorium 234 

Cicuta,^. 65 222 

Cimicifuga 145 

Cinquefoil 208 

Circaaa, Jig. 53, 73, 193, 

464... 211 

Cistaceae 170 

Cives 320 

Cladastris 195 





Clematis, fig. 219 

Clethra ... 

Climbing Fern, fig. 6. 

Clintonia. fig. 663 



Clover,/. iT, 63, 335, 447- 







Collmsia../?^. 578 



Columbine,^. 3G5-70. . . 




Comfrey,^. 603 

Commelyna, Commely- 




Con i ferae 

Coniosclinnm../?^. 85. . . 

Conium, fig. 65 



Conv .llaria 


Convolvulus,/^. 144 

( optis 


Corallorhiza, Coral-root. 

Coreopsis 234. 


Coriandram, Jig. 493-4. . 


Cor e\.fig. 239 ...l^X-V 

Corn Flair 

Cornus..^. 495 

Coronilla .'. 





Cotton J?£. 302 



Cow-wheat , 




Crape Myrtle 


Crataegus, fig. 99 





Crowfoot, /£. 301-4 




2 2 

2 19 










Crowfoots, fig. 200-1 .... 143 

Crownbeard 23 3, 234 

Crown Imperial 317 

Crueifene 162 

Crucifers 162 

Cryptotaenia 2'20 

Cuckoo-flower 1H7 

Cucumber-tree 153 

Culver's Phvsic 2K5 

Cunila, fig. o95-6 271 

Cuphea 210 

Cupressus... 300 

Cupuliferne 206 

Currant,^. 243, 201, 329. 213 

Custard-appie 154 

Cydonia 204 

Cvnoo; ossurn 277 

Cvnthia 234 

Cypress 300 

Cypress-vine 281 

Cypripedium,/?^. 89. 646- 

648 309 

Cyrilla 248 

Daffodil 314 

Dahlia.. 234 

Daisy 233 

Dalea 194 

Dalibarda 207 

Dandelion, fig. 147. 183, 

504-6 242 

Daphnads 294 

Daphne 294 

D;isvstoina./g\ 565-8.. . 267 

Datura 283 

Daucus 219 

Day lily 317. 320 

Decumaria 215 

Deer-grass 209 

Delphinium. ^.168, 208. 150 

Dentaria 167 

Desmanthus 195 

Desmodium.^. 62, 287. 195 

Dewberry 207 

Diamorpha 214 

Dianthus 1 76 

Diceuwa.fig. 389, 392. .. 161 

Dicerandra "-69 

Dichondra 280 

Diervilla 227 

Digitalis 262 

Diodia 2-29 

Dionaea 174 

Diphylleia , 2 55 

Diplopappus 233 

Dirca 294 

Discopleura 219 

Ditch Moss 305 

Dittanv.^. 595-6 271 

Dock, jig. 233 290 

Dockmackie 223 

Dodecatheon,/. 151, 554, 

555 255 

Dogbanes, fig. 285, 620-6. 286 
Dogtooth Violet 318 

! Dogwood 187, 228 

! DoHchos 194 

Draba./f/. 396-7 166 

Draba arabizans./ 155-59 

Dracoceplialum 27C 

Dragon-root. 303 

Dragon's head 270 

Dragon's claw 311 

Drop-fiower 232 

Dropwort 209 

Drosera 173 

Droseractae. 173 

Dryas 203 

Drv Strawberry 2 :, 7 

Dwarf Dandelion 234 

Dwarf Pimpernel 254 

Dwarf Pink 230 

Dysodia 233 

Eardrop 161. 211 

Echinacea 234 

Echinocorus c06 

Echinospermum 275 

Echium 275 

Eclipta. fig. 305 234 

Eel-grass 305 

Egg-plant 283 

Eglantine 2 5 

Egyptian Calla S03 

Elder 2-27 

Elecampane 233 

Elliot tia 248 

Eilisia 2TJ 

Elm. fig. 50,274, 359. 

Elodea 171 

Enchanter's Nightshade. 

Jig. 53. 73 212 

Enslenia 288 

Ephedra,^. 178. 

Epidendrum 309 

Epitraea 249 

Epilobium 211 

Epiphegus 258 

Erica 247 

Ericaceae 246 

Erigenia./^. 333 221 

Erigeron 241 

Erodinm 18-3 

Ervngium 210 

Erysimum 168 

Erythnea 284 

E ythrina .. 191 

Ervthromum,./?^. 657 ... 318 

Escholtzia 160 

Eulophus 219 

Euonymus 19^ 

Eupatorium,^. 512-13. 

Euphrasia 263 

Evening Primrose.. 210, 211 

Everlasting Pea. fig. 96. 200 

Eyebright 263 

Fabiana 283 

Fairopyrum 290 

Fagus 29* 



False Aster 233 

False Bindweed 281 

False Catmint 271 

False Dog fennel 233 

False Flax 164 

False Gromwell 275 

False Mitrewort 216 

False Pennyroyal 271 

False Rocket 164 

False Sneezewoit 233 

False Sunflower 233 

False Syringa 216 

False Tamarisk 283 

False Violet 207 

False Wall-flower 168 

False Win tergreeii 250 

Featherfoil 244 

Fennel 219 

Fennel-flower,^. 41 ... 115 
Fam, Jig. 226,355. 

Fever-root 225 

Fig, 7^. 298. 

Figworts ... 261, 263 

Fir ... 301 

Fiax,^. 418-20 183 

Flaxworts 182 

Fleabane 241 

Floating Heart 284 

Flower-de-luce 315 

Flowering Almond,^. 11. 

Flower-of-an-hour 181 

Fly-poison 322 

Fceniculum 219 

Fool's Paisley 219 

Forestiera 288 

Forget-me-not,^. 604.. 276 

Forsythia 288 

Four-o'clock, .&/. 313 .. . 290 

Foxglove 262 

Fragaria.^. 202, 265 .. . 208 
Frankenia,^. 160. 

Frasera 284 

Fraxinus.^. 187 288 

French Marigold 233 

Fringe-tree . 288 

Fritiilana 317 

Froelichia 293 

Frogbits 304, 305 

Fuchsia, j^. 130 211 

Fumaria 161 

Fumariacese 161 

Funieworts 161 

Fumitory 161 

Funkia 320 

Gaillardia 232 

Galactia 194 

Galanthus 313 

Galeopsis,^. 582-4 270 

Galium 229 

Garden Shrub 154 

Garlic 319 

Gaultheria 248 

Gaura .. 211 

Qaylussacia. 247 

Gelseminum . 261 

Gem-fruit 216 

Genista 194 

Gentian 285 

Gentiana, Jig. 615-19 285 

Gentranaceae 284 

Gentian worts 284 

Gerania 183 

Geraniaceae 183 

Geranium, Jig. 296, 340, 

421 183 

Gerardia 266 

Germander 269 

Geum 206 

Gilia 279 

Gill, 7?^. 74,587-8 272 

Gillenia 203 

Ginseng 224 

Gladiolus 314 

Glasswort . . . . 293 

Glaucium 160 

Glanx , ... 254 

Gleditschia 195 

Globe Amaranth 293 

Globe-flower 149 

Glotidium 194 

Goat's-beard 209 

Goat's Rue 194 

Golden Chain 194 

Golden-club,/^. 642 .... 303 

Golden-rod, Jig. 75 235 

Gold-thread 149 

Gomphrena 293 

Good-night 280 

Goodyera 309 

Gooseberry, Jig. 281 ... . 213 

Goose-foots 292 

Goose-grass 208 

Gordonia 182 

Gossj-pium 180 

Grape Hyacinth 317 

Grape Vine 191 

Grass Parnassus 174 

Grass Pink 312 

Grass-poly 210 

Gratiola 264 

Greek Valerian 280 

Greenbrier,^. 95 305 

Green Dragon 303 

Green Head 229 

Gromwell 275 

Grossulaceae 212 

Ground Cherry 282 

Ground-nut 196, 224 

Grove Sandwort 176 

Guelder Rose 203 

Gymnocladus 195 

Halenia 284 

Halesia 252 

Hardhack 208 

Hare-bell,^. 526 245 

Hawkbit 234 

Hawkweed 242 

Hazel.. 296 

Heath. Jig. 314-15 247 

Heathworts 246 

Hedeoma 269 

Hedera ....224 

Hedge-hog 2oO 

Hedge Hyssop 264 

Hedge Mustard 164 

Hedge NetUe 270 

Hedysarnm 194 

Helenum 233 

Helianthemum 171 

Helianthus,^. 307 237 

Heliopsis 233 

H eliotrope 275 

Heliotrophytum 275 

Heliotropium 275 

Hellebore, Helleboras... 145 

Helonias. 322 

Helosciadium 219 

Hemerocallis.. ......... 317 

Hemianthus 262 

Hemlock 301 

Hemp Nettle,/^. 582^.. 270 

Henbane,^. 282 282 

Henbit 270 

Hepatica,^. 238, 371... 147 

Heracleum 219 

Herb Robert, Jig. 421 ... . 184 

Herspestis 263 

Hesperis 163 

Heteranthera 305 

Heterotheca 232 

Heucheia 215 

Hibiscus,^. 411-14 181 

Hickory 295 

Hieracium 242 

High Cranberry 228 

Hippuris,^. 461-3 211 

Hoarhound 270 

Hobble Bush 228 

Hog Peanut 194 

Holly 252 

Hollyhock, Jig. 218 180 

Hollyworts* 252 

Honewort 221 

Honey Locust, Jig. 64, 

100 ' 195 

Honeysuckle, /^. 82, 146, 

496 225, 226 

Honkenya 176 

Hop, c /fc. 353 HI 

Hornbeam . 297 

Horn Pondweed,^. 98. 257 

Horse Balm.. '^69 

Horse Chestnut 190 

Horse Mint 271 

Horse Nettle 283 

Horse Radish 164 

Hottonia 254 

Hound's- tongue 271 

Houseleek,^. 474 214 

Houseleeks,j^. 191..213, 214 

Houstonia, 230 

Hoya 288 

Huckleberry 247 



Hudsonia 170 

Hyacinth. Hvacinlhus .. 317 

Hydrangea, fig. 482 217 

Hydrastis, fig. 154 152 

Evdrocharidaceae 304 

Hydrocotyle 219 

Hydrophyllaceae 277 

Hydrophyllum, fig. 605- 

8 277 

Hyoscyamus 282 

Hypericaceas 171 

Hypericum ... 172 

Hvpoxis 313 

Hvpris 269 

Hyssop, Hyssopus... 269, 270 

Iberis ... 164 

Hex 252 

Illicium 152 

llvsanthns... 8B3 

Impatiens. fig. 71, 428. . . 185 

Indian Corn. fig. 360 ... . 118 

Indian Cucumber J?£?. 92. 316 

Indian Figs 218 

Indian Physic 203 

Indian Pipes 251 

Indian Soap worts 189 

Indian Tobacco 243 

Indian Turnip 303 

Indian 194 

Indiirofera 191 

Ink-berry 252 

Innocence 265 

Inula 233 

Iodanthus 164 

Ipomaea 281 

Iresine 293 

Iridaceaa, Irida 314 

Iris, fig. 165. 229, 294-5.. 315 

Iceland Moss, fig. 190.... 214 

Iron- weed. fig. 248-50.. . . 81 

Iron-wood 297 

Isanthus 269 

Isatis 163 

Isopappus 233 

Isopyrum 145 

Itea* 215 

Iw 224 

Ixia 314 

Jack-in-the-pulpit 303 

.Jacobea Lily 313 

Japan Quince 204 

Japan Rose.. 182 

Jefferson i a, fig. 2S4, 375- 

376 156 

Jersey Ten.. 190 

Jerusalem Cherry 283 

Jerusalem Sage 270 

Jewel-weed 186 

Jonquil 314 

Judas-tree. fig. 4 195 

J ugla ndaceae 294 

Julians 295 

Julibrassin 195 

Juncacese 322 

Juncus 3 3 

Juneberry 203 

Juniper,^. 7 301 

Juniperus 301 

Jussiaea 211 

Kalmia 249 

Kerria 203 

Kuawell 176 

Knot Bindweed 291 

Knot-weeds,./?^. 69 290 

Kosteletskya* 180 

hrigia 234 

Latvatae . . 268 

Labiate Plants 268 

Labrador Tea 247 

Laburnum 194 

Lactuca. fig. 36 234 

Ladies'-tresses,./??. 240 . 311 
Lady's-mantle, fig. 454.. 202 
Lady's-slipper, fig. 89. . . 309 

Lady 's-thumb 291 

Lagerstroemia 2 

Lamium 270 

Lampsana... 234 

Lappa, fig. 509-11. 

Larch, fig. 91 ; Larix. . . . 301 

Larkspur,/^. 120, 372... 150 

Lathy rue 200 

Lauraceie, Laurel 295 

Lauristine 228 

Lavandula. Lavender... 2H9 

Lavatera 180 

Lead-plant 194 

Lead worts 256, 257 

Leaf-cup 233 

Leather-flower 146 

Leather wood 294 

Leayenworthia 164 

Lechea 170 

Ledum 247 

Leguminosae 192 

Leguminous Plants 192 

Leiophyllum 247 

Leioseleuria , 247 

Lemon,. fig. 79 32 

Lentibulaceae 257 

Leonotis 270 

Leontice 155 

Leontodon. 234 

Leonurus 270 

Lepachys 233 

Lepidium 165 

Leptocaulis 219 

Leptopoda 233 

Lepuropetalon 215 

Lespedeza 198 

Lettuce 234 

Leucanthenr am 233 

Leucas 270 

Leucojum 313 

Leverwood 297 

Lichens, ,/fc. 356-8 117 

Liirusticum 21fi 

Ligastrnm 288 

Lilac, fig. Ml 288 

Liliaceae 817 

Lilium. fig. 107,113 819 

LWy. fig. 346.... 319 

Lilvworts 317 

Lily-of-the-valley,./^. 44. 3l7 

Lime Tree 181 

Limnanthemum 281 

Limnobium 305 

Limosella 262 

Linaceae . 182 

Linaria, fig. 563-4 263 

Linnasa. 225 

Linden 181 

Lindenblooms 181 

Linum 183 

Lion's-ears 270 

Lion's-foot. 243 

Lion's-heart 274 

Liparis 308 

Liquidambar,^. 4 a ... 13 

Liriodendron 153 

Listera 308 

Lithospermum, fig. 601- 

602 275 

Liverwort, fig. 30 147 

Lizard- tail. Jig. 1S6 61 

Lobelia 243 

Lobeliaceae 243 

Lobeliads 213 

loblolly Bay 182 

Locust, 196 

Loganiaceae 260 

Lonicera, fig. 82 226 

Loosestrife 209, 255 

Lophanthus 270 

Lophospermum,^. 181. 262 

Lou sewort 262 

Lovage 219 

Love-flower 31' 7 

Lucerne 20C 

Ludwigia 211 

Lnnaria 165 

Lungwort 276 

Lupine,./?.?- 66 198 

Lupinus.jfer. 66 198 

Luzula. ^.665 3>3 

Lvchnidea 279 

Lychnis, fig. 408 177 

Lycium i83 

Lycopsis 275 

Lycopus 271 

Lycospersicum 282 

Lygodesmia 235 

Lysimachia 255 

Lythraceae 209 

Lythrum 210 

Macbridea 270 

Macranthera 263 

Madder 229 

Madderworts 229 

Mad wort 164 



Magnolia../??. 28 152 

Magnolinceaa 152 

Majanthemum 318 

Mallows,^?. 177.217.179, 180 

M&lva, Jig. 415-17 180 

Malvaceae 179 

Malvaviscus 180 

Mandrake 156 

Maples,./??. 262, 430-31. 187 

Mare's-tail 211 

Marigold 232 

Marjoram 269 

Marrubium 270 

Marsh Mallow 180 

Marsh Marigold 149 

Marsh Rosemary 256 

Marsh Umbel 219 

Maruta 234 

Marvel-of-Peru 290 

Marvelworts 289 

Mast worts 2' 6 

Matrimony 283 

Matthiola 163 

Maurandia 262 

Mayaca 323 

May Apple 156 

May-flower 249 

May-weed 234 

Meadow Beauty 209 

Meadow Lily,./??. 107-9. 319 

Meadow Rue 151 

M 3adow-sweet 208 

Meconopsis 160 

Medeola, /?. 92 316 

Medicago 200 

Medic "... 200 

Melampyrum 263 

Melanttiaceae, Melanths. 321 

Melanthium 322 

Melastomaceae 209 

Mdastomes 209 

Meliloius 196 

Melissa 270 

Mentha 270 

Menyanthes 284 

Menziesia 247 

Mermaid-weed 211 

Mertensia 276 

Mexican Vine 293 

Miami-mist 278 

Microstylis 308 

Mignonette,./??. 118 44 

Mil k Vetch 194 

Milk-vine 194 

Milkweed, fig. 283 288 

Milkworts 191 

Millfoil 242 

Mimosa 195 

Mimulus,./??. 569-72 .... 266 

Mint 270 

Mirabilis 290 

Missouri Currant, fig. 

471 313 

Mitchell* . fig. 497 229 

Mitella,/?. 477-bl 215 

Mitreola 2(50 

Mitre wort,./??. 115 215 

Modesty 2.9 

Modiola 180 

Mollugo 178 

Molucca Balm, Molncella 270 

Monarda,./??. 580-81 .... 272 

Moneses 248 

Moneywort 255 

Monkey-flower, fig. 569- 

72 266 

Monk's hood,/?. 43 151 

Monotropa 251 

Morning-glory, fig. 22, 

161, 162, 352 281 

Moss Andromeda 247 

Moss Pink 279 

Motherwort 270 

Mountain Ash 2o4 

Mountain Fringe 1H1 

Mountain Heath 247 

Mountain Laurel 249 

Mountain Mint 272 

Mountain Sorrel 290 

Mouse-ear 178 

Mouse-tail 145 

Mud-flower 262 

Mudwort 2r.2 

Mulberry, fig. 297 91 

Mulgedium,./??. 35,245-7. 234 

Mullein 263 

Mullein Pink 177 

Muscadine 191 

Muscari 317 

Mustard,./??. 291,393-5.. 168 

Mustardworts 1 62 

Mylocaryum 248 

Myosotis 276 

Myosurus 145 

Myrica 298 

Myricaceae 297 

Mjriophyllum 211 

Nabalus, fig. 507-8 243 

Naidacese 304 

Nail wort 176 

Napaea 180 

Narcissus 314 

Nardosmia 234 

Narthecium 323 

Nasturtium 164 

Naumbergia 254 

Neck weed 265 

Negundo 18? 

Neirembergia 283 

Nelumbiaceae 156 

Nelumbium 1 57 

Nelumbo 157 

Nemopanthus 252 

Nepeta,^?. 74, 5 37-8. . . . 272 

Nerium 286 

Neeaea 210 

Nettle, fig. 106. 

Neurophyllum 219 

Nicandra .. 282 

Nicotiana 283 

Nigella 145 

Nightsha les 282, 283 

Ninebark 209 

Nipplewort .... 234 

Nolina 317 

Nonesuch 50C 

Nuphar l£7 

Nyctaginaceae 'i80 

Nymphara,./??. 198-9,881 158 

Nyinphaeaceae 157 

Nypsa 223 

Oak. fig. 32-4,54, 318-21. 297 

Obolaria 284 

Ocymum, fig. 586 269 

(Enot hera, fig. 458-9 .... 21 1 

Okra 180 

Oldenlandia 229 

Olea 288 

Oieaceae 288 

Oleander, fig. 174 286 

Oliveworts 288 

Onagraceae 210 

Onion, .#7. 316-17 319 

Onosmodium 275 

Opuntia 21S 

Orchidaceae 30? 

Orchids, fig. 45 308 

Orchis. Jig. 649-50 309 

Origanum 269 

Ornithogalum 317 

Orobanchaceae 258 

Orontium, fig 642 303 

Orpine 214 

Osier 299 

Osmanthus 288 

Osmorhiza 221 

Ostrya 297 

Oxalidaceae 184 

Oxalis,./??. 425 185 

Ox-eye 233 

Oxybaphus 290 

Oxycoccus 248 

Oxydendrum 247 

Oxyria 2i>0 

Paeonia. ./??. 338 145 

Painted-cup 262 

Pancratium 313 

Pansy,./??. 84 170 

Papavtr 160 

Papaveraceae 159 

Papaw../??. 70 154 

Pardanthus £14 

Parnassia 174 

Paronychia 1?6 

Parsley 219 

Parsnip 219 

Part heni urn 234 

Partridge-berry 229 

Pasque-flower 140 

Passifloraceae 218 

Passion-flower, fig. 42, 

351 21* 



Pastinaca 219 

Paulo wnia 262 

Pavonia 180 

Pea, fig. 280, 443-5, 451.. 199 

Peach, fig.27(> 202 

Peanut 195 

Pear. fig. 10, 88, 133, 280. 204 

Pearl wort 176 

Pcdicularis 262 

Pelargonium 183 

Pcltandra 303 

Pennyroyal 269 

Pennywort, fig. 24, 25. 

219, 284 

Penthorum 214 

Pentstemoz. 263 

Peony, ^. 338 145 

Pepper 282 

Pepper-and-salt 221 

Pepper-grass 164 

Peppermint 270 

Pepper-root 167 

Periwinkle 286 

Pcrsea 295 

Persica 202 

Petalostemon 194 

Petroselinum 219 

Pet tymorrel 224 

Petunia,^. 145, 614.... 282 

Phaca 194 

Phacelia 277 

Pharbitis 281 

Paaseolus 195 

Pheasant's-eye, fig. 406- 

407 148, 176 

Pheliprea 258 

Philadelphus 216 

Phlomis 270 

Phlox, fig. 126, 609 279 

Phlox worts 278 

Physalis 282 

Physostegia, 7^. 589-91. 274 
Phytolacca,^. 627-31.. 292 

Phytolaccacere. 292 

Pickerel-weed 305 

Pigweed, fig. 31, 277 ... . 293 

Pimpernel 255 

Pimpinella 219 

Pinckneya 229 

Pine, 7^. 9, 300 300 

Pine-sap 251 

Pinguecula 257 

Pink, fig. 112 176 

Pink-root, fig. 127 260 

Pinkworts 175 

Pinus, Pine 300 

Pinweed 170 

Pinxter 250 

Pipsissewa, ft/. 548 251 

Pisum,^. 138-39, 224. . . 199 

Pitcher-plant 159 

Plam,^. 15 202 

Plumbaginaceae 256 

Plumbago. 257 

Podophyllum. 156 

Podostigma 287 

Pogonia, fig. 653-4 313 

Poison Haw 228 

Poison Hemlock, fig. 491 

-92 221 

Poison Ivy 187 

Poison Oak 186, 187 

Poke 292 

'Pokeweeds 292 

Polar-plant 233 

Polemoniacese 278 

Polemonium 280 

Polyanthus 313, 314 

Polycarpon 176 

Polygala, fig. 437-38. .... 191 

Polygalaceae 191 

Polygonaceae 297 

Polygonatnm 310 

Polygonella 290 

Polygonum,^. 69, 86... 290 

Polymnia 233 

Polypremum 260 

Poly taenia 219 

Pomegranate 210 

Pond weed, fig. 46 304 

Pontederia 305 

Pontederiaceae 305 

Poplar 153, 299 

Poppy 160 

Poppyworts. 159 

Populus 299 

Portulaca 179 

Portulacaceae 178 

Potamogeton 304 

Potato 283 

Potentilla,^. 76-7 208 

Poterium 202 

Pride of Ohio , 255 

Prim 188 

Primrose 254 

Primula, fig. 549, 553 254 

Primulaceae 253 

Primworts 253 

Prince's Feather. . . .291, 294 
Prince's Pine, J?^. 341... 251 

Prinos 252 

Privet 288 

Prosartes 318 

Proserpinaca 211 

Prunus 202 

Psoralea 194 

Pterospora 248 

Puccoon 276 

Punica 210 

Purselane 178, 179 

Putty root, ^.345 308 

Pycnanthemum 269 

Pyrethrum 233 

Pyrola, fig. 14, 169, 536- 

S9 250 

Pyrrhopappus 234 

Fyrns, fig. 134 204 

Quamoclit,^. 610 281 

Queen-of-thePrairie 209 


Qnercus 297 

Quince,^. 1,2 204 

Radish 164 

Ragged Robin 178 

Ranunculaceae 143 

Ranunculus.. 147 

Raphanus 164 

Raspberry 206 

Rattle-pod 194 

Rattlesnake Plantain... 309 

Red Bean 194 

Red Cedar 301 

Reed-mace 304 

Resin-weed 233 

Rhamnaceae 190 

Rhamnus 190 

Rheum 290 

Rhexia 209 

Rhinanthus 263 

Rhododendron, fig. 152, 

535 250 

Rhodora 247 

Rhubarb 290 

Rhus 186 

Rhyncosia 194 

Ribes 213 

Richardia 303 

Rivina 292 

Robinia 196 

Robin's Plantain 243 

Rock Cress 166 

Rocket 163 

Rock Roses 170, 171 

Rosa,^. 221, 299 204 

Rosacea 201 

Rose, fig. 39, 58,83, 101, 

203 204 

Rose Acacia 196 

Rose Bay, fig. Q7 250 

Rose Campion 177 

Rosemary 270 

Roseworts 201 

Rosmarinus 270 

Rubia 229 

Rubiacese - 229 

Rubus 206 

Rudbeckia 233 

Rue Anemone,^. 207.. 146 

Rumex 290 

Rushes 322, 323 

Rutland Beauty 281 

Sabbatia 285 

Sage, fig. 176, 228, 585... 27? 

Sageretia 190 

Sagina 176 

Sagittaria,^. 643-45... £07 
Salicaceae, iSalix, ,tg. 19. 299 

Salicornia 293 

Salsola 293 

Saltwort 293 

Salvia,^. 585 27] 

Sambucus 227 

Samolus 254 



Samphire 293 

Sand Myrtle 247 

Sandwort 176 

Sanguinaria,^. 388 160 

Sanguisorba 202 

Sanicle 220 

Sanicula 220 

Sapindaceae 180 

Sapindus 189 

?aponaria,^. 125 176 

Snrracenia,^. 385-87... 159. 

Sarraceniacese 158 

Sassafras 296 

Satin-flower 165 

Satureja... 269 

Saururus,./^. 186. 

Saxifraga. 217 

Saxifragacese 214 

Saxifrage,^. 131, 214 ..217 

Schenocaulon 322 

Schenchzeria 306 

Schizanthus 262 

Schrankia 195 

Schwalbea 262 

Schweinitzia 248 

Scilla 317 

Scleranthus 176 

Scollera 305 

Scorpion-grass 276 

Scotch Broom 194 

Scratch-grass,^. 26 291 

Screw-stem 284 

Scrophularia 263 

Scrophulariaceae 261 

Scutellaria 273 

Sea-rocket 164 

Sea Sand wort 176 

Sedge, Jig. 227. 

Sedurn, 'fig. 190, 472-73.. 214 

Seed-box 211 

Self-heal 270 

Semiflovver 262 

Sempervivum 214 

Scnebiera 165 

Senecio 233 

Senna ., 200 

Sensitive Brier 195 

Sensitive Plant 195 

Sericocarpus 233 

Sesbania 194 

Sesuviuni 178 

Seymeria 263 

Shad-berry 204 

Shagbark 295 

Shamrock 197 

Sheep-poison 249 

Shepherd's - purse, Jig. 

331 165 

Sickle-pod 166 

Sida 180 

Silene,.^. 116 177 

Silkweed, Silk-grass 288 

Silphinm 233 

Sinapis 168 

Sisymbrium 164 

Sisyrinchium 314 

Sium 219 

Skullcap 273 

Skunk Cabbage 203 

Sniilacacese 305 

Smilacina 320 

Smilax 305 

Smoke-tree,^. 18 187 

Snails 200 

Snap-dragon , ... 262 

Sneeze wort 233, 242 

Snow-ball 228 

Snowberry 226 

Snow-drop tree 252 

Snowflake 313 

Soapwort 176, 189 

Solanacese 282 

Solanum,^. 611-13 283 

Solea 169 

Solidago,^. 75, 501-3... 235 
Solomon's Sea], Jig. 348. 

317, 320 

Sonchus 234 

Sorrel 290 

Sorrel-tree 247 

Sow-thistle 2:^4 

Spanish Needles 239 

Sparganum 304 

Specularia 244 

Speedwell, Jig. 575-77. . . 264 

Spergula 176 

Spergulaiia 176 

Spermacoce 229 

Spice-bush 296 

Spiderwort 323 

Spigelian. 563-64 260 

Spinacia 293 

Spinage 293 

Spiranthes,^. 240 311 

Spirea 208 

Sponge-tree 195 

Sprekelia 313 

Spring Beauty 179 

Spruce 301 

Spurry 176 

Squaw-root 258 

Squill 217 

Squirrel-corn 161 

Stachys 270 

Staff-tree 190 

Staphylea, Jig. Z35 190 

Star Anise 152 

Star-grass 313 

Star-of-Bethlehem 317 

Starwort 176, 233, 240 

Statice 256 

Stellaria, Jig. 251 176 

Stipulicida 176 

St. Johnsworts,^. 210- 

11 171, 172 

Stock 163 

Stonecrop 214 

Storax 252 

St. Peterswort 171 

St. Peter's Wreath 209 

Strawberry,^. Ill, 278, 

455-56 208 

Strawberry Blite 293 

Streptopus 318 

Stuartia 182 

Stylisma 280 

Stylosanthes 195 

Styracaceae 253 

Styrax 252 

Subularia 164 

Succory 234 

Sullivantia. . 215 

Sumacs 186, 187 

Summer Savory 2f>9 

Sundews,^. 20, 21... . 173 
Sunflower, ^.498-500.. 237 

Supple Ja<k 190 

Sweet Basil 269 

Sweet Brier 205 

Sweet Clover 196 

Sweet Flag 303 

Sweet Gale 298 

Sweet Pea 200 

Sweet Potato 281 

Sweet-scented Shrub.... 154 

Sweet William 176, 177 

Swine Cress 105 

Symphitum 275 

Symphoricarpus 22o 

Symplocarpus 303 

Symplocos 252 

Synandra, Jig. 90, 148, 

597 274 

Synthiris 262 

Syphonychia 176 

Syringa 288 

Tagetes 233 

Talinum 178 

Tamerac 301 

Taraxicum 242 

Tares 201 

Taxaceae 301 

Taxodium 300 

Tea 182 

Teaworts 182 

Tecomia,^. 124 258 

Telananthera 293 

Tephrosia,^. 59 194 

Tetragonotheca 233 

Tetranthera 296 

Teucrium, Jig. 592 269 

Thalictrum 151 

Thaspium 222 

Thea 182 

Thimble berry 207 

Thorn 202 

Thorn Apple 283 

Thrift 257 

Thuja 300 

Thymelaceae 294 

Thyme, Thymus 269 

Thysanella 290 

Tiarclla 215 

Tick-seed 234, 939 



riedmannia 219 

Tiger-flower 314 

Tiger Lily, Jig. 150 319 

T&ridia 314 

Tili* 181 

Tiliacese 181 

Tillsea 214 

Tipularia, Tipula 308 

Toad-flax. Jig. 149 263 

Tobacco./?. 204 283 282 

Tooth-root 107 

Touch-me-not, /. 71, 121, 

122... 185 

Tower M ustard 164 

Tradescantia 323 

Tragopogon 234 

Trailing Arbutus 249 

Trautvetteria 145 

Tree Orchis 309 

Trefoil 191, 197 

Trichostema 269 

Trientalis 255 

Trifolium 197 

Triglochin 306 

Trilliaceae 315 

Trilliads, Jig. 110, 206, 

349 315 

Trillium,/?. 108, 656... 316 

Triosteuni 225 

Trollius 149 

Troximon 234 

Trumpet-flower,/?. 561. 258 

Trumpet-leaf 159 

Trumpets 258 

Tuberose 313 

Tulip, Tulipa 317 

Tulip-tree,/.225,330,374. 153 

Tupelo 223 

Turk's-cap . 319 

Turmeric-root 152 

Turnip,/?. 337 

Turnsol 275 

Turriris 164 

Turtle-head 266 

Tussilago 233 

T wav-blade 308 

Tway-leaf 318 

T win-flower 225 

Twin-leaf 156 

Twist-foot 318 

Typha 304 

Typhaceae, Typhads... 304 

Umbelif erae 218 

Umbelworta 218 

Umbrella-leaf 155 

Umbrella-tree 153 

Utricularia 257 

Uvularia,/?. 81. 321 

Vaccinium, Jig. 170, 544. 247 

Vachellia. 195 

Vallisneria 305 

Vegetable Oyster 234 

Venus' Flytrap, Jig. 

403-5 174 

Veratrum 322 

Verbascum 263 

Verbesina 233, 234 

Veronica,/?. 575-77 264 

Vesicaria 164 

Vetch 201 

Vetchling 200 

Viburnum 228 

Vicia 201 

Vigna 194 

Vinca 286 

Viola, Jig. 398-99 169 

Violaceae 168 

Violet,/?. 269 169 

Violets,/?. 132, 173. .. 168 

Viper's Bugloss 275 

Virginia Creeper 191 

Virgin's Bower 145 

Vieiana 288 

Vitaceae 191 

Vitis 191 

Wake Robin. 316 

Waldsteinia 207 

Wall-flower,/?. 135,223. 163 

Walnut 3 294, 295 

Water-beans 156 

Wa ter-carpet 215 

Water Hemlock 222 

Water Hemp 293 

Water 11 oarhound ..... 271 
Waterleaf, Jig. 605-8 .... 277 

Water Lily 157, 158 

Water Pepper 291 

Water Pimpernel 254 

Water-pitchers 158 

Water Plantain 306 

Wax-plant 288 

Wheat,./!?. 272, 312. 
Whea^-thief 276 

Whistle- wood 188 

White Bay 15a 

White Cedar 300 

White-weed 233, 241 

White-wood 153 

Whitlow-srrass 166 

Wild Apple,/?. 134. .. 204 

Wild Basil 269, 271 

Wild Elder 224 

Wild Ginger, fig. 23 289 

Wild Indigo 199 

Wild Lettuce./?. 36, 310. 235 

Wild Oats 321 

Wild Potato 281 

Wild Sarsaparilla 224 

Willow, fig. 3, 17, 38, 

634-35 299 

Willow-herb 211 

Willoworts 299 

Wind-flower 146 

Winter-berry 252 

Winter Cress 168 

Wintergreen,/?. 14 ... 249 

Wistaria 194 

Witch-grass, Jig. 350. 

Woad 163 

Wolf-berry 226 

Wood-rush 3*23 

Wood-sorrel 184, 185 

Woolmouth 267 

Xerophvilum 322 

Xyris,/?. 194. 

Yarrow 242 

Yellow-eyed-grass, Jig. 

Yellow Jessamine 261 

Yellow Jessie 211 

Yellow Phlox 168 

Yellow Rattle 263 

Yellow-root 145 

Yew, Jig. 301 301 

Yucca 317 

Yulau 153 

Zanthorhiza 145 

Zephyranthus,/?. 160 .. 313 

Zigadenus 322 

Zinnia 234 

Zizia 223 

Zornia 195 



" Then gather a wTeath from the garden bowers, 
And tell of the wish of thy heart in flowers." 


Acacia, Hose (Robinia hispida, 319*). Friendship. 

Adonis, Floss (Adonis autumnalis, 205). Sad remembrances. 

Almond, Flowering (Amygdalus pumila, 329). Hope. 

Aloe (Agave, 694, or Yucca, 709). Superstition. 

Alyssum, Sweet (Alyssum maritinum, 236). Merit before beauty. 

Amaranth, Globe (Gomphrena globosa, 619). I change not. 

Amaryllis (Zephyranthus, 695). Affectation, Coquetry. 

Andromeda (Andromeda, 487). A cruel fate has fixed me here. 

Anemone (Anemone nemorosa, 203). Anticipation. 

Angelica (Archangelica, 381). These are idle dreams. 

Arbor-vitae (Thuja, 662). Thy friend till death. 

Arethusa (A. bulbosa, 691). I could weep for thee. 

Aspen (Populus tremuloides, 655). Excessive sensibility. 

Asphodel (Asphodelus, 713). My thoughts will follow thee beyond the grave 

Aster (420). Cheerfulness in age. 

* Refers to the page in the Class-Book of Botany, where may be found a more full 
and complete account of the species or genus than could be consistent with the 
limits of an elementary treatise. Reference to page and place in this work may be 
made through the Index. , 


Auricula (Primula auricula, 502). You are proud. 

Bachelor's Button (Centaurea Cyanus, 465). Single blessedness. 

Balm (Melissa, 548 ; Monarda didyma, 550). Sympathy. 

Balm-of-Gilead (Populus candicans, 656). You have cured my pain 

Balsamine (Impatiens balsamina, 280). Approach not. 

Barberry (Berberis, 217). A sour temper is no slight evil. 

Basil, Sweet (Ocymum basilicum, 541). Good wishes. 

Beech (Fagus, 646). There let us meet. 

Bluets (Houstonia coerulea, 402). Unaspiring beauty. 

Box (Buxus, 632). Constancy. I change not. 

Broom (Genista, 310). Humility. 

Broom Corn (Sorghum saccharatum, 709). Industry. 

Bulrush (Scirpus, 738). Indecision. 

Burdock (Lappa major, 468). Don't come near me. 

Buttercups (Ranunculus, 205). I cannot trust thee. 

Cactus (the Cactacese, 359). You terrify me. 

Canterbury Bells (Campanula Medium, 479). Gratitude. 

Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus, 254). A haughty spirit before a fan 

Catchfly (Silene, 256). I am a willing prisoner. 

Cedar (Juniper Virginiana, 664). I live for thee. 

Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis, 457). Fortitude. 

China Aster (Callistephus Chinensis, 429). I'll think of it. 

Chrysanthemum (458). I love. 

Clover, Red (Trifolium repens, 312). Industry. 

Clover, White ( " ). Truth needs no flowers of speech 

Clover, Yellow ( " " ). Slighted love. 

Columbim (Aquilegia Canadensis, 210). I cannot give thee up. 

Columbine (A. vulgaris, 110). Hopes and fears. 

Corn Cockle ( Agrostemma Githago, 257). Thou hast more beauty than wc rt h 

Coxcomb (Celosia, 616). You are a fop. 

Crocus (700). What an enigma thou art. 

Cypress (Gupressus thyoides, 663). Bereavement Despair. 

Daffodil (Narcissus Pseudo-narcissus, 693). Self-esteem. 


Dahlia (429). Forever thine. 

Dandelion (Taraxacum Dens-leonis, 473). You intrude. 

Dogbane (Apocynuni, 588). Falsehood. 

Dogwood, Flowering (Cornus florida, 390). False pretensions. 

Eglantine Rose (Rosa rubiginosa, 335). I wound to heal. 

Egyptian Calla (Richardia iEthiopica, 669). Modesty. 

Enchanter's Nightshade (Circaea, 356 ) . I shall beware of your enchantment* 

Fennel-flower (Nigella damascena, 209). Love. in a mist. Perplexity. 

Fig (Ficus Carica, 635). It is a secret. 

Fir Balsam (Abies Balsamea, 661). Time will cure. 

Flax (Linum usitatissimuni, 275). Domestic industry. 

Fleur-de-lis (Iris, 697). I bring you a message. 

Four-o-clock (Mirabilis Jalapa, 603). Timidity. 

Foxglove (Digitalis, 526). My heart acknowledges your influence. 

Geranium, Ivy (P. peltatum, 278). A bridal decoration. 

Geranium maculatam (277). You burn with envy. 

Geranium, Oak-leaf (Pelargonium quercifolium, 279 ). There is nothing in -a 

Geranium Robertianum (277). Aversion. [name, 

Geranium, Rose (P. graveolens, 278). Thou art my choice 

Goldenrod (Solidago, 430). Encouragement. 

Hazel-nut (Corylus, 647). Reconciliation. 

Heart's-ease or Pansy (Viola tricolor, 244). Forget me not. 

Hibiscus Syriacus (270 >. Thy beauty soon will fade. 

Hibiscus Trionum (269). I would not be unreasonable. 

Heliotrope (Heliotropium Peruvianum, 559). Devotion. 

Hellebore (Helleborus, 209). It is a scandal. 

Holly (Hex opaca, &c, 496). Am I forgotten 1 

Hollyhock (Althaea rosea, 266). Ambitious only of show. 

Honeysuckle (Lonicera, 394). Seek not a hasty answer 

Hop (Humilus lupulus, 638). You do me injustice. 

Hyacinth (Hyacinthus, 712). Jealousy. 

Hydrangea hortensis (373). Vain boasting. 

Ice- plant (Mesembryanth, 265). Your very looks ire freezing. 


Indian Tobacco (Lobelia inflata, 477). Away with your quackery. 

Ivy (Hedera Helix, 390). Nothing can part us. 

Japonica, Red (Camellia Jap. 273). Pity may change to love. 

Japonica, White (C. Japonica, 273). Perfected loveliness. 

Jessamine (Jasminum, 596). Thy gentle grace hath won me. 

Jonquil (Narcissus Jonquilla, 693). Requited love. 

Judas-tree (Cercis Canadensis, 301). Unbelief. Treachery. 

Juniper (Juniperus communis, 663). I will protect thee. 

Lady's-slipper (Cypripedium, 581). Caprice. 

Larkspur (Delphinium, 210). Fickleness. 

Laurel, Sheep (Kalmia angustifolia, &c, 485). Falsehood. 

Lavender (Lavandula, 541) . Owning her love she sent him Lavendei Shak& 

Lemon (Citrus Limonum, 274). Discretion. 

Lilac (Syringa, 598). My first love. 

Lily, White (Lilium candidum, 709). Purity and sweetness. 

Locust, green leaves (Robinia Pseudacacia, 319). My heart is buried 

Lupine (Lupinus, 311). Indignation. 

Magnolia glauca (214). He lives in fame who dies in virtue's cause. 

Magnolia grandiflora (214). Thou hast magnanimity. 

Marigold (Tagetes, or Calendula, 465). Cruelty. 

Mignonette (Reseda odorata, 241). Moral worth superior to beauty. 

Milkweed (Asclepias, 597). Conquer your love. 

M i# oLietoe (Phorodendron, 621). Meanness. Indolence. 

Mock Orange i;Philadelphus coronarius, 374). Deceit. I cannot trust then 

Monk's-hood (Aconitum, 211). Deceit. Your words are poison. 

Morning-glory (Pharbitis purpurea, 571). You love darkness. 

Myrtle (Myrica ceriera, 650). Thine is the beauty of holiness. 

Myrtle (Myrtus communis, 346). Love's offering. 

Narcissus, Poet's (Narcissus poeticus, 693). Egotists are agreeable only w 

Nasturtion (Tropseolum majus, 281). Honor to the brave. [themselves 

Nettle (Urtica dioica, 636). Thou art a slanderer. 

Nightshade (Atropa Belladonna, 588). Death. 

Nightshade (Solanum nigrum, 577). Skepticism. 


Oak (Quercus, 642) Thou art honored above all. 

Oat (Avena sativa, 790). Thy music charms me. 

Oleander (Nerium Oleander, 590). The better part of valor is discretion 

Olive (Olea, 599). Emblem of peace. 

Orange Flowers (Citrus Aurantium, 274). Bridal festivity. 

Ox-eye Daisy, or Whiteweed (Leucanthemum, 458). Be patient. 

Parsley (Apium petroselinum, 388). Thy presence is desired. 

Passion-flower (Passiflora, 363). Let love to God precede all other lovo 

Pea (Pisum sativum, 303). Grant me an interview. 

Peach blossom (Persica vulgaris, 328). Preference. 

Pennyroyal (Hedeoma pulegioides, 544). Flee temptation. 

Peony (Paeonia, 212). A frown. 

Pepper (Capsicum, 578). Your wit is too keen for friendship 

Periwinkle (Vinca, 589). Remember the past. 

Phlox (567). Our souls are one. 

Pine, Pitch (Pinus rigida, 660). Time and philosophy. 

Pine, White (Pinus strobus, 660). High-souled patriotism. 

Pink, Single Red (254). A token of pure and ardent love. 

Pink, Single White (Dianthus caryophyllus, 254). Artlessness . 

Pink, Variegated (254). Frank refusal. 

Poppy, Red (Papaver Rheas, 224). Oblivion is the cure. 

Poppy, White (Papaver somniferum, 224). 'Twixt life and death. 

Primrose (Primula grandiflora, 502). Confidence. 

Primrose, Evening ((Enothera, 352). Inconstancy. 

Quince (Cydonia, 333). Beware of temptation. 

Rocket (Hesperus, 234). Thou vain coquette ! 

Rose Bud. Thou hast stolen my affections. 

Rose, Burnet (Rosa pimpinellifolia, 337). Gentle and innocent. 

Rose, Cinnamon (R. cinnamomia, 335). Without pretension. Such ha [ 

am receive me. Would I were more for your sake. 
Rose, Damask (R. damascena, 336). Blushes augment thy beauty. 
Rosemary (Rosmarinus, 550). Remember me. 
Rose, Moss (R. centifolia, B., 336). Thou art one of a thousand. 



Rose, White (R. alba, 336). My heart is free. 

Rose, White, withered (336). Transient impressions (you 

Rose, Wild (R. nitida, 335). Simplicity. Let not this false world deceive 

Rue (Ruta, 282). Disdain. [virtue?. 

Sage (Salvia, 548). There is nothing lovelier in woman than the domest'o 

Snap-dragon (Antirrhinum, 519). Thou hast deceived me. 

Snow-ball (Viburnum Opulus, 397). Thou livest a useless life. 

Snow-drop (Galanthus, 694). I am no summer friend. [friend. 

Sorrel (Polygonum acetosella, 606). Ill-timed wit. A jester is a dangerous 

Speedwell (Veronica, 526). My best wishes. 

Spiderwort (Tradescantia, 727). You have my esteem ; are you content ? 

Star-ofcBethlehem (Ornithogalum, 710). Look heavenward. 

Stock (Matthiola, 229). Too lavish of smiles. 

Sumac (Rhus, 283). Splendid misery. 

Sweet Pea (Lathyrus odoratus, 304). Must you go ? 

Sweet-scented Shrub (Calycanthus, 345). Benevolence. [villain too. 

Sweet William (Lychnis chalcedonica, 257). A man may smile and be a 

Thistle (Cirsium, 467). Misanthropy. 

Thorn Apple (Datura, 581). Thou scarcely hidest thy guilt. 

Thyme (Thymus, 547). The prize of virtue. 

Tulip, Variegated (Tulipa, 707). Thy spell is broken. 

Tulip, Yellow (707). I dare not aspire so high. 

Venus' Looking-glass (Specularia, 479). Flattery hath spoiled thee. 

Vervain (Verbena hastata, 537). I see thy arts, and despise them. 

Violet, Blue (Viola cucullata, 243). Faithfulness. I shall never forget. 

Violet, White (V. blanda, 242). Retirement. I must be sought to be found 

Virgin's Bower (Clematis, 200). Filial affection. 

Wall -flower (Cheiranthus, 232). A friend in need is a friend indeed. 

Water Lily (Nymphsea odorata, 220). Be silent. 

Weeping Willow (Salix Babylonica, 655). Mourning for friends departed 

Zinnia (444). To the prude.