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Full text of "Lebanon Valley College Catalog: Extension, Saturday, and Evening Class Bulletin"

Lebanon Valley College 

BULLETIN 

Vol. XXXIII AUGUST, 1944 No. 6 



EXTENSION, SATURDAY 
and EVENING CLASSES 

1944 - 1945 



PUBLISHED BY 

LEBANON VALLEY COLLEGE 

ANNVILLE, PA. 



Published Monthly. Entered as second-class matter at Annville, Pa., under act of 

August 24, 1912. 



Faculty of Extension, Saturday and Evening School 

Clyde A. Lynch, A.M., B.D., Ph.D., D.D., LL.D. 
President 

Hiram H. Shenk, A.M., LL.D. ~~~ 

Professor of History and Social Science 

Samuel H. Derickson, B.S., M.S., Sc.D. 
Professor of Biological Science 

Andrew Bender, Ph.D. 
Professor of Chemistry 

Paul A. Wallace, Ph.D. 
Professor of English 

G. A. Richie, A.M., B.D., D.D. 

Professor of Bible and Greek 

Milton L. Stokes, M.A., LL.B., Ph.D. 
Director of Extension and Evening Classes and Professor of Economics 

Stella J. Stevenson, Ph.D. 
Professor of French and Spanish Language and Literature 

V. Earl Light. Ph.D. 
Associate Professor of Biological Science 

Lena Louise Lietzau, Ph.D. ' 

Professor of German 

George G. Struble, Ph.D. 
Associate Professor of English 

L. G. Bailey, Ph.D. 
Professor of Psychology \ 

Mary E. Gjllespie, M.A. ' 

Director of the Conservatory 

: Alvin H. M. Stonecipher. Ph.D. 

i Dean and Acting Professor of Philosophy 

Amos H. Black, Ph.D. 
Professor of Mathematics and Acting Professor of Physics 

Clyde S. Stine, Ph.D. 
, ; , Professor of Education ; 



GENERAL STATEMENT 

Through extension work in Harrisburg, evening classes at the col- 
lege in Annville, and summer school, Lebanon Valley College has for 
many years enabled many students to obtain college courses and secure 
academic degrees while continuing their regular occupations. By a care- 
ful selection of courses and consultation with the heads of the depart- 
ments of the college or the director of extension and evening classes, a 
student can meet the requirements of the college for a baccalaureate 
degree while earning a livelihood. 

All extension and evening courses are taught by full-time members 
of the college faculty. The courses offered in extension and evening 
class work are so alternated from year to year that a student can readily 
secure those required for graduation. 

ACADEMIC STANDING 

Lebanon Valley College is fully accredited by the Department of 
Public Instruction of Pennsylvania, the American Association of Col- 
leges and Secondary Schools of the Middle Atlantic States and Mary- 
land. It is a member of the American Association of Colleges and of 
the American Council on Education. 

Lebanon Valley College is an Associate Member of the National 
Association of Schools of Music. The Conservatory of Music is fully 
accredited by the Depai'tment of Public Instruction of Pennsylvania. 

LOCATION 

The college is situated at Annville, twenty-one miles east of Harris- 
burg: on the Benjamin Franklin Highway. Students from Harrisburg 
and the vicinity may commute to the college in less than forty minutes 
time. 

REQUIREMENTS FOR DEGREE 

Lebanon Valley College offers the degree of Bachelor of Arts (A.B.) 
and the degree of Bachelor of Science (B.S.) 

Residence Degrees will be conferred only upon candidates who have 

reauirement completed a minimum of 30 semester hours work in regu- 
larly conducted classes on the college campus. This re- 
quirement may be met through attendance at evening and Saturday 
classes offered at the college. 

Candidates for degrees must obtain a minimum of 126 se- 
Hours mester hours credits in academic work, and four in Physical 

Education. Extension and evening class students are not required to 
have the work in Physical Education. 

Q ... Candidates for degrees must also obtain a mimimum of 130 

i^ua ity quality points, computed as follows : for a grade of A, 3 
Points points for each credit hour; for a grade of B, 2 points; for 

a grade of C, 1 point. No quality credit will be given for a grade of D. 
Maior ^^ part of this total requirement, every candidate must 

and Minor Present at least 24 semester hours in one department (to 
be known as his Major), and at least 16 semester hours in 
another department (to be known as his Minor). Both Major and Minor 
must be selected before registration for the sophomore year, the Minor 
to be suitably related to the Major, and chosen with the advice and ap- 
proval of the Head of the Maior Department. 

The A.B. degree will be awarded to those fulfilling the requirements 
for a Maior in the following departments: Bible and Religion, English, 
French, German, Greek, History. Latin. Mathematics (Arts option). 
Political Science and Sociology, Philosophy, and Psychology. The B.S. 
degree will be awarded to those fulfilling the reauirements for a Major 
in the following departments: Biology. Chemistry. Mathematics (Science 
option). Physics, Business Administration and Economics, Education, 
Music Education. 

Students majoring in Education must take two Minors of not less 
than 18 semester hours each. 

3 



GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 

Certain courses embodying: the fundamentals of a liberal education, 
are required by all students. These courses, which vary slightly 
according to the degree sought, are as follows: 

Bible 14 and 82 6 hours 

English 16 and 26 12 hours 

Foreign Language^ 

History^ .__ 6 hours 

Hygiene and Orientation 2 hours 

Mathematics^ 

Philosophy 32 . - . _ 2 hours 

Physical Education . . . - - . 4 hours 

Psychology 13 --- - 3 hours 

Science"* 

Social Studies 6 hours 

Economics 16 or 

Philosophy 23-A and 23-B or 

Political Science 16 or 

Sociology 13 and 23 

1 For the A.B. degree 12 hours of Foreign Language are required. 

For the B.S. degree 6 hours are required above the beginners' course. Courses 
may be selected from French, German, Latin, or Spanish. 

2 Tliis may lie made up from the following courses: History 13, 123, 213, 23-A, 
23-B, 46, 412. 422, 43-B. 

3 Math. 13, 23, and 48 are required for the degree of B.S. in Science. Pre-Medical 
students may substitute an elective for Math. 48. Students majoring in Business Ad- 
ministration and Economics are required to take Math. 13 and 23 or 113 and 123. 

4 Biology 18, Chemistry 18, and Physics 18 are required of candidates for the 
B.S. degree with a major in Science. Others may elect one of the three. 

For explanation of the numbers see the college Bulletin. 

Students outlining a course for a degree should communicate at 
once with the Head of the Department in which they intend to Major. 

Candidates for the Baccalaureate degree who desire to be admitted 
to advanced standing by virtue of work done in other institutions, should 
lose no time in having their credits evaluated by the Registrar, in order 
that they may be informed as to what requirements they must meet for 
graduation. 

PRE-PROFESSIONAL COURSES 

The college offers pre-medical, pre-legal, pre-theological courses 
to prepare students for entrance to schools of Medicine, Law, and The- 
ology. For students who wish to major in the field of economics in 
preparation for the business world, the college offers a course in Bus- 
iness Administration. Students interested in these fields should write 
to the Registrar for the College Bulletin. 

MUSIC 

The college has a separate department, the Conservatory of Music, 
for those interested in Music. Students interested in this field should 
write either to the Director of the Conservatory of Music or the College 
Registrar for the bulletin of the Conservatory. 

CREDITS 

Credits will be issued to all students showing the courses attended, 
grades and number of semester hours credit. 

FEES 

A fee of one dollar will be charged for matriculation. In the case of 
students registered in both extension and evening courses only one ma- 
triculation fee is required. The tuition charge for Extension and Sat- 
urday and Evening Courses will be $8.50 for each semester hour of 
credit. A special tuition fee of $5.00 per semester hour will be charged 
persons who desire to take any of the courses as an auditor, without ex- 
amination and without credit. 

4 



Fees are due and payable within ten days after receipt of the bill 
from the Finance Office of the College. Remittances' should be made to 
Lebanon Valley College and may be sent by mail to J. W. Esbenshade, 
Secretary of the Finance Committee. 

REGISTRATION 

Special registration evenings for the extension classes in Harris'burg 
will be held in the Central High School Building, on Forster Street, from 
7:00-9:00 p. m. on Monday and Tuesday evenings, September 18th and 
19th. At that time students interested in Extension classes may meet 
and consult with the director, and extension class teachers relative to 
their courses. Students unable to register on either of the above eve- 
nings may do so on the evening the class in which they are interested 
meets. 

Registration for Extension Courses in Ephrata will be held on Tues- 
day evening in the High School in Ephrata from 7:00 to 9:00 p. m., 
September 19th. 

Registration for the evening classes at AnnviUe will be held on 
Friday evening, September 22nd, from 7:00 to 9:00 p.m. 

The Extension and Evening Class' representative of the College in 
Harrisburg and the vicinity is Miss Viola Fager, 1217 North Second 
Street, Harrisburg. 

EXTENSION COURSES — 1944-1945 

Central School, Forster Street, Harrisburg, Pa. 
Classes begin the week of September 18th. 
Course Time 

Psychology Mondays, 7:00 p. m. 

Spanish Mondays, 7:00 p. m. 

History Tuesdays, 7:00 p. m. 

Mathematics Tuesdays, 7:00 p. m. 

Economic Geography Wednesdays, 4:30 p. m. 

Economics Wednesdays, 7:00 p. m. 

English Thursdays, 7:00 p. m. ■ • 

American Government | ^o be determined at time 

Education > 

Principles of Sociology » «^ registration. 

DESCRIPTION OF COURSES OFFERED 
IN HARRISBURG 

ECONOMICS 

(One or more of the following courses', depending on demand.) 
E-16. Principles of Economics. A course dealing with the principles 
underlying the operation of the economic system. A study of production, 
value, distribution and consumption. The course is based partly on lec- 
tures and partly on a discussion of problems. Throughout the year. 
Students may take either or both semesters. Thiee semester hours 
credit per semester. Wednesday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-113. Economic Geography. The course deals with: the field and 
function of economic geography, distribution of population, the earth, 
land forms, influence of soils, temperature, winds and ocean currents, 
climates of the world. Much of the course will deal with the more im- 



portant commodities of the world's trade — their production, export and 
import in the various countries of the world. Stress will be laid on the 
chief sources of raw materials, their industrial uses and the marketing 
and transportation problems connected therewith. Particular stress will 
be placed on critical and strategic materials, their availability and sub- 
stitutes, if any. First or second semester. Three semester hours credit. 
Wednesdays, 4:30 p. m. 

E-63. Economics of Consumption. The study of economics is ap- 
proached from the consumer viewpoint. The course includes a study of: 
the role of the consumer in economic life; consumer's choices; forces 
back of consumer demand; consumer education; budgeting; co-operative 
buying; reasons for high costs; producer aids to consumer; standards 
for consumers; government aids to consumers. One semester. Three 
semester hours credit. Wednesday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-73. Contemporary Economic Problems. This course is devoted 
specifically to the study of present day economic problems. It deals 
with the problems of rationing, price ceilings, inflation, taxation, the 
business cycle, the banking system, agriculture, transportation, popula- 
tion, labor, post-war period. One semester. Three semester hours credit. 
Wednesday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

EDUCATION 

E-83. Educational Measurements. Preparation for testing by the 
classroom teacher is offered through studying principles of validity and 
reliability, appraising and constructing tests, and considering the use of 
results. Laboratory fee of one dollar. Three semester hours credit. 
One semester, 

E-2l03. Visual and Sensory Techniques. Psychological bases for 
sensory aids; use of apparatus; sources of equipment and supplies. Lab- 
oratory fee of four dollars. One semester. Three semester hours credit. 
May be taken for two hours credit. 

ENGLISH 

(One or more of the following courses, depending on demand.) 

E-16. English Composition. This course is required of all students 
proceeding to a college degree. Throughout the year. Six semester hours 
credit. Thursday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-26. Survey of English Literature. This course is required of 
students proceeding to a college degree. Throughout the year. Three 
semester hours credit per semester. Thursday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-52. Nineteenth Century Prose. Special attention will be paid to 
the work of Ruskin, Carlyle, and Arnold, each of whom foresaw, tried 
to avert, and proposed a possible way out of such a catastrophe as that 
into which the world is now plunged. One semester. Two semester 
hours credit. 

E-513. Poetry of the Romantic Revolt. A study of early Nineteenth 
Century poetry, with special attention to five poets: Wordsworth, Cole- 
ridge, Byron, Shelley, Keats. Three semester hours credit. Thursday 
evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-526. American Literature. This course will deal with American 
Literature from the beginnings to the present day. Throughout the year. 
Three semester hours credit per semester. Thursday evenings, 7:00 p. m, 

6 



HISTORY 

(One or more of the following courses, depending on demand.) 

E-36. The History of England and the British Empire. This course 
deals with the development of England and the Empire from the earliest 
times to the present. Throughout the year. Three semester hours credit 
per semester. Tuesday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-46. Political and Social History of the United States and Penn- 
sylvania.* A general survey of American History with particular at- 
tention to social and cultural trends. Attention will be given to the his- 
tory of Pennsylvania. Throughout the year. Three semester hours credit 
per semester. Tuesday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

F-63. Economic History of the United States. A »«rudy of the eco- 
nomic background of American History including the growth of Ameri- 
can agricultural and industrial interests, from their colonial beginnings 
to their present day development. Three semester hours credit. 

E-123. Medieval History. Political, social, and cultural ideas of the 
Middle Ages will be treated through a study of typical institutions such 
as the manor, guilds, courts, the church, universities, and monarchical 
institutions. Three semester hours credit. 

E-163. Economic History of Europe. The economic development of 
Europe from the time of the Industrial Revolution to the present. Three 
hours' credit. 

MATHEMATICS 

(One or more of the following courses, depending on demand.) 

E-13. Advanced Algebra. Covering ratio and proportion; variation; 
progressions; binominal theorem; theorem of undetermined coefficients; 
logarithms; permutations and combinations; theory of equations; partial 
fractions, etc. First semester. Three semester hours credit. Tuesday 
evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-23. Plane Trigonometry. Definitions of trigonometric functions; 
right and oblique triangles; computation of distances and heights; de- 
velopment of trigonometric formulae. Second semester. Three semester 
hours credit. Tuesday evenings', 7:00 p. m. 

E-36. Analytic Geometry. The equations of the straight line, circle, 
ellipse, parabola and hyperbola are studied. Numerous examples are 
solved, and as much of the higher plane curves and of the geometry of 
space is covered as' time will permit. Throughout the year. Three semes- 
ter houi's credit per semester. Tuesday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-103. Elementary Statistics. General introduction to the use of 
statistics; method of collection of statistical data, tabulation and giaphic 
presentation; statistical tables, simple curves, semi-logarithmic or ratio 



* Attention is called to the action of State Council of Education, December 
4, 1942. 

"That subsequent to September 1, 1943, all permanent certificates issued by 
the Department of Pubilc Instruction to teach in the public schools of the Com- 
monwealth, shall, in addition to the present regulations, require a basic course 
in the history of the United States and Pennsylvania. 

And further, that subsequent to September 1, 1944, all certificates issued by 
the Department of Public Instruction to teach in the public schools of the Com- 
monwealth shall, in addition to the present regulations, require a basic course 
in the history of the United States and Pennsylvania." 

The above course is designed to meet the requirements of the State. 



charts, various types of charts; ratios and percentages; frequency dis- 
tribution; averages; dispersion and skewness; fitting curves; time serie'-r; 
fundamentals in index number construction; correlation. This course 
will be offered strictly from the mathematical viewpoint. If there is 
a sufficient demand the course will be followed by a course in applied 
statistics' — Business Statistics — offered by the Economics Department 
of the college, the second semester. One semester. Three semester hours 
credit. Tuesday evenings, 7:00 p. m. -^. 

POLITICAL SCIENCE 
E-16. American Government and Politics. A course designed to give 
the students a working knowledge of the fundamentals of Federal and 
State Government. Three or six s'emester hours credit. 

PSYCHOLOGY 

(One or more of the following courses, depending on demand.) 

E-13. General Psychology. This course aims to acquaint the stu- 
dent with the psychological standpoint and with the fundamental psy- 
chological principles. It includes a study of such topics as native tenden- 
cies, acquired tendencies, emotions, imagination, memory, and reasoning. 
Lectures', discussions and laboratory work. Three semester hours credit. 
Monday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-23. Educational Psychology. Designed to meet the needs of 
students of education who are seeking from psychology the facts and 
principles that have a bearing on their problems. Special emphasis is 
placed on the learning process. Prerequisite: Psychology 13. Three 
semester hours credit. Monday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-43. Psychology of Adolescence. A study of the physical and 
mental changes which characterize adolescence. The questions of rate 
and variation in learning, motive, personality, disturbances and control 
of behavior will be handled. This course has been approved by the State 
Department of Education for professional credit. Three semester hours' 
credit. Monday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-53. Applied Psychology. A survey of the applications of Psychol- 
ogy to the various fields of human relations. It includes such topics as: 
increase in efficiency, effect of suggestions', improvement of personality, 
advertising, and the psychology of the public platform. Three semester 
hours credit. Monday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-63. Mental Hygiene. A study of wholesome effective personality 
adjustments, including causes and treatment of the more common social 
and emotional maladjustments among college students. Prerequisite: 
Psychology 13. Three semester hours credit. Monday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

E-93. Abnormal Psychology. An introduction to the study of abnor- 
mal behavior, including such topics as hysteria, multiple personality, 
hypnotism, analysis of nervous and mental maladjustments, and a study 
of psychological processes as they occur in the more marked, forms of 
derangement. Prei'equisite: General Psychology. Three semester hours 
credit. Monday evenings, 7:00 p. m. 

SOCIOLOGY 

E-13. Principles of Sociology. The course is intended to acquaint 
the student with the various theories of society together with the place 
of sociology in the general field of learning. Three semester hours credit. 

E-23. Modern Social Problems, This is a study in pathology. The 

8 



Organization and functions of public and private welfare and social se- 
curity agencies, preventive and remedial. Three semester hours credit. 

SPANISH 

(One of the following, depending on demand.) 
E-06. Elememtary Spanish. This course is intended for those who 
begin Spanish in college. Its aim is to enable students to write simple 
Spanish sentences, to carry on a conversation in easy Spanish, and to 
read Spanish of ordinary difficulty. College credit of six semester hours 
will be granted for this course if followed by Spanish 16. Throughout 
the year. Mondays, 7:00 p. m. 

E-16. First Year College Spanish. This is a continuation and exten- 
sion of course 06 and includes further drill in the principles of gram- 
mar, practice in conversation, composition, and dictation, and more ex- 
tensive reading. For entrance to Spanish 16, the preparatory course 06 
or its equivalent (two years of high-school Spanish) will be required. 
Throughout the year. Six semester hours credit. Mondays, 7:00 p. m. 

EXTENSION COURSES, EPHRATA 

High School Building, Ephrata, Pa. 

At the beginning of the second semester during the 1943-44 college 
year, Lebanon Valley College opened an Extension Centre in the High 
School at Ephrata. Four courses were given: one in History, one in 
Sociology, and two in Education. 

The College intends to continue to offer woik in Ephrata in order 
to meet the needs of teachers and others for courses leading to a college 
degree and to meet the certification requirements of Pennsylvania. 

Courses for 1944-45 

The College will offer courses in "The Political and Social History 
of the United States and Pennsylvania," "Visual Education," and any 
other courses listed in this Bulletin for which there is a sufficient de- 
mand, with the exception of coui'ses in science. The description of the 
course in American and Pennsylvania history will be found on page 
7 of this" Bulletin. The course in Visual Education is described on page 6. 

Registration for extension courses in Ephrata will be held in the 
High School on Tuesday evening, September 19th, from 7:00 to 9:00 
p. m. The time for the weekly meeting of each class will be determined 
at the time of registration. 

Classes will probably be held from 6:30 to 8:15 and from 8:15 to 
10:00 p. m. so that students may take two courses the same evening 
if they wish to do so. 

DESCRIPTION OF COURSES OFFERED 
IN ANNVILLE 

The following cours'es will be offered by the college at Annville 
during the college year 1944-1945. The Science courses offer four se- 
mester hours credit — two hours credit for the lecture work and two 
hours credit for the laboratory work per semester. The lecture work 
and the laboratory work will be offered at a time mutually satisfactory 
to students and instructors. Residence credit is given for all courses 
taken at the college, 

9 



The time for the weekly meetings' of each class will be arranged 
at the time classes are organized. Registration and organization of 
classes will take place in the Registrar's Office in the Administration 
Building of the college on Friday, September 22, from 7:00 to 9:00 p. m. 

Most of the courses are offered Friday evenings, and are offered 
at such times as to enable students to take two courses'. Should a class 
so desire a course may be offered on Saturday mornings. 

BIBLE 

14. Introduction to English Bible. An appreciative and historical 
survey of the literature of the Old and New Testaments. This is a re- 
quired course for all students' proceeding to a degree. Throughout the 
year. Two semester hours credit per semester. 

82. The Teaching of Jesus. This course attempts an intensive study 
of the religious concepts of Jesus as s'et forth in the Gospels. Required 
of all proceeding to a college degree at Lebanon Valley College. Two 
semester hours credit. 

BIOLOGY 

18. General Biology. This course fulfills the science requirements 
of students proceeding toward a degree excepting those majoring in 
science in which case additional science courses are required. In addi- 
tion to two hours of lectures per week, four hours work per week in the 
laboratory is required. The lectures and the laboratory work will be 
held on Saturdays. Credit will be granted to those students who wish 
only the lecture work and not the laboratory work. Throughout the 
year. Four semester hours credit per semester. 

28. Botany. The object of the course is' to give the student a general 
knowledge of the plant kingdom. One or more types of each of the 
classes of algae, fungae, liverworts', mosses, ferns, and seed plants are 
studied. 

Special attention is given to the phylogeny and ontogeny of the 
several groups, and constant comparisons are made of those structures 
indicating relationships. The principles of classification are learned by 
the identification of about one hundred and fifty species' of plants repre- 
sented in the local spring flora. These studies are conducted in the field 
so that the plants are seen as dynamic forces adapted to their environ- 
ment. The lectures will be held on Friday evenings and the laboratory 
work will be on Saturday mornings, 8-12. Throughout the year. Four 
semester hours credit. 

Note: If there should be sufficient demand, other courses in Biology 
may be offered. 

BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 

93. Public Finance and Administration. Economic functions of the 
state; federal and state expenditures; economic and social aspects of 
public spending; budgetary control; nature of taxation and distribution 
of the tax burden; the shifting and incidence of taxes; the general 
property tax; estate and inheritance taxation; sales taxes; personal and 
corporate income taxes; the excess profits tax; social security taxes; 
other taxes and administrative revenues; problems of the tax system; 
public debts and their redemption. Three semester hours credit. 

123. Industrial Organization and Management. A study of the fun- 
damentals of business' organization and administration; the field of 
business administration; plant location; the administration of personnel; 

10 



market problems; finance; production; risk-bearing; wage systems; 
welfare activities. Three semester hours credit. 

CHEMISTRY 

18. General Inorganic Chemistry. A systematic study of the funda- 
mental principles of and the sources', properties and use of the important 
elements and compounds. The lectures are illustrated by displays, dem- 
onstrations, experiments and moving pictures. In the laboratory the 
student acquires first-hand acquaintance with numerous' representative 
substances and methods. The laboratory fee is $16.00. Throughout the 
year. Four semester hours credit per semester. 

48. Organic Chemistry. Two hours lectures and recitations and 
three hours of laboratory work daily. The course includes a study of 
the sources, classification and type reactions of organic materials. It 
includes foodstuffs and their relation to nutrition, dyes, pharmaceuticals, 
explosives, coal tar intermediates and manufacturing processes. 

The laboratory work consists of about sixty experiments covering 
the preparation and study of a wide range of representative compounds. 
Prerequisite: Chemistry 18. Laboratory fee is $24.00. Throughout the 
year. Four semester hours credit per semester. 

ECONOMICS 

13. Economic Geography. The course deals with: the field and 
function of economic geography, distribution of population, the earth, 
land forms, influence of soils, temperature, winds and ocean currents, 
climates of the world. Much of the course will deal with the more im- 
portant commodities of the world's trade — their production, export and 
import in the various countries of the world. Stress will be laid on the 
chief sources of raw materials, their industrial uses and the marketing 
and transportation problems connected therewith. Particular stress will 
be placed on critical and strategic materials, their availability and s'ub- 
stitutes, if any. One semester. Three semester hours credit. 

16. Principles of Economics. A course dealing with the principles 
underlying the operation of the economic system. A study of production, 
value, distribution and consumption. Three or six semester hours credit. 

63. Economics of Consumption. The study of economics is ap- 
proached from the consumer viewpoint. The course includes a study of: 
the role of the consumer in economic life; consumer's choices; forces 
back of consumer demand; consumer education; budgeting; co-operative 
buying; reasons for high costs; producer aids to consumer; standards 
for consumers; government aids to consumers. One semester. Three 
semester hours credit. 

73. Contemporary Economic Problems. This course is devoted spe- 
cifically to the study of present day economic problems. It deals with 
the problems' of rationing, price ceilings, inflation, taxation, the business 
cycle, the banking system, agriculture, transportation, population, labor, 
post-war period. One semester. Three semester hours credit. 

EDUCATION 

43. History of Education in the United States. The development of 
education in the United States in relation to social and economic changes 
from colonial times to the present, including detailed study of develop- 
ments in Pennsylvania. One semester. Three semester hours credit. 

83. Educational Measurements. A critical analysis of the problems 
in measuring the results of teaching. A study of the uses and admin- 

11 



istration of representative tests and scales for the junior and senior 
high school subjects. One semester. Three semester hours credit. 

113. Principles and Techniques of Secondar'y School Teaching. A 
study of principles, practices, and methods with their significance to 
secondary school teaching. One semester. Three semester hours cr£dit. 

203. Visual and Sensory Techniques. Phychological bases for sen- 
sory aids; use of apparatus; sources of equipment and supplies. Labora- 
tory fee of four dollars. Three semester hours credit. May be taken 
I'or two hours credit. 

Note: If there is a sufficient demand, any other standard course 
in the secondary fitld may be offered in addition to, or in place of, any 
of the above courses. 

ENGLISH 

16. English Composition. Required of all students proceeding to 
a college degree. Six semester hours credit. 

26. A Survey of English Literature. This course is required of all 
students proceedmg to a degree, except those preparing for a B.S. in 
Chemistry. It is offered in two parts. Students may take either or both, 
depending on their requirements. Three or six semester hours credit. 

63-^. The development of the Drama to Shakespeare. A survey 
of the drama from ancient Greece to Elizabethan England; a rapid read- 
ing of plays by Lyly, Marlowe, Greene, Kyd, Dekker, Jonson; a study 
of Shakespeare's historical plays, with special attention to Richard II 
and Henry IV. Three semester hours credit. 

63-B. Shakespeare. A study of the comedies and tragedies. Three 
semester hours credit. 

152. History of the English Language. Historical study of the 
English sounds, inflections, and vocabulary. Standards of correctness; 
current usage. Recommended especially for prospective teachers of Eng- 
lish composition. Two or three semester hours credit. 

512. Poetry of the Romantic Revolt. A study of early Nineteenth 
Century poetry, with special attention to five poets: Wordsworth, Coler- 
idge, Byron, Shelley, Keats. Two or three semester hours credit. 

523. American Literature. From the beginnings to the present day. 
Three or six semester hours credit. 

FRENCH 

06. Elementary French. This course is intended for those who begin 
French in College. Its aim is to enable the student to write simple 
French sentences, to carry on a conversation in easy French, and to read 
French of ordinary difficulty. College credit of six semester hours will 
be granted for this course, if followed by French 16, but it cannot be 
counted toward a major. 

16. First Year College French. This course presupposes two years 
of high school French... It includes further drill in the principles of 
grammar, practice in conversation, composition, and dictation, and more 
extensive reading. Six semester hours credit. 

GERMAN 

06. Elementary Germam. This course is intended to give students 
a reading knowledge of German of average difficulty, and to enable 
them to understand the spoken language and to express simple ideas 

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idiomatically. College credit will be given for the course but it cannot 
be counted toward a major. Six semester hours credit. 

16. Modern German Literature. Reading of nineteenth and twen- 
tieth century literature combined with a study of geography, history, 
and art. Grammar and composition. Six semester hours credit. 

HISTORY 

23-A. Europe from 1815 to 1914. A survey of Nineteenth Century 
Europe. This course will be followed by History 23-B. First semester. 
Three semester hours credit. 

23-B. Europe from 1914 to the Present. A study of the World War 
and post-war problems. Emphasis will be placed upon current history. 
Second semester. Three semester hours credit. 

36. The History of England and the British Empire. This course 
deals with the development of England and the Empire from the earliest 
times to the present. Throughout the year. Three semester hours credit 
per semester. 

46. Political and Social History of the United States atnd Pennsyl- 
vania. See description of cours'e and note on the new state requirements 
on p. 7, Throughout the year. Three semester hours credit per semester. 

63. Economic History of the United States. A study of the economic 
background of Ameiican History, including the growth of American 
agricultural and industrial interests from their colonial beginnings to 
their present day development. Three semester hours credit. 

123. Medieval History. Political, social, and cultural ideas of the 
Middle Ages will be treated thiough a study of typical institutions such 
as the manor, guilds, courts, the church, universities, and monarchical 
institutions. Three semester hours credit. 

163. Economic History of Europe. The economic development of 
Europe from the time of the Industrial Revolution to the present. Three 
hours' credit. 

MATHEMATICS 

13. ^Advanced Algebra. Covering ratio and proportion, variation, 
progressions, binominal theorem, theorem of undetermined coefficients, 
logarithms, permutations and combinations, theory of equations, partial 
fractions, etc. First semester. Three semester hours credit. 

23. plane Trigonometry. Definitions of trigonometric functions, 
right and oblique triangles', computation of distances and heights, de- 
velopment of trigonometric formulae. Second semester. Three semester 
hours credit. 

36. Analytic Geometry. The equations of the straight line, circle, 
ellipse, parabola and hyperbola are studied. Numerous examples are 
solved, and as much of the higher plane curves and of the geometry of 
space is covered as- time will permit. Throughout the year. Three 
semester hours credit per semester. 

74. Differential Equations. A course in the elements of differen- 
tial equations. Throughout the year. Two semester hours credit per 
semester. 

113. Introduction to the Mathematics of Finance. This course takes' 
up the solution of the quadratic equation, logarithms, progressions, per- 
mutations' and combinations, and the application of these to financial 
problems. First semester. Three semester hours credit. 

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123. Mathematics of Finance. The cours-e seeks to present tlie 
mathematical principles and operations used in financial work. A de- 
tailed study of compound interest, compound discount, and annuities 
is' undertaken. Application of these principles is then made to practical 
problems of amortization, sinking funds, depreciation, valuation of bonds, 
and building- and loan associations. Second semester. Three semester 
hours credit. 

MUSIC 

553. M|usic History and Appreciation. In this course the develop- 
ments of music are treated briefly, with emphasis' placed on the growth 
of musical movements on the lives, works and influence of the great 
composers. An integral part of the course will be listening to repre- 
sentative music of the different periods of musical history, and of the 
important composers. First semester. Three semester hours credit. 

PHILOSOPHY 

23-A. Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. In this course the aim 
will be (1) to trace the development of philosophy, pointing out what 
of permanent value each system as it arose contributed toward a final 
solution of the nature of being, and (2) to show the interaction between 
philosophic thought and the practical life of the period during which 
it flourished. Three semester hours credit. 

23-B. Modern Philosophy. Continuation of 23-A. Three semester 
hours credit. 

32. Ethics. The aim of this course is to acquaint the student 
with the academic ethical problems, and to effect an awakening and a 
strengthening of the moral sense. This is a required course for all 
students proceeding to a degree. Two s'emester hours credit. 

PHYSICS 

16. General College Physics. Two hours lectures and recitations 
daily. This course will be a thorough investigation of the fundamental 
principles of physical science, and is especially intended as a prepara- 
tion for Physics 2, 3, and 4, and for those interested in the practical 
application of physical laws and principles. When accompanied by 
Physics 12, it meets the minimuin requirements of those who are can- 
didates for the bachelor's degree in science and for admission to the 
Medical Schools. Six semester hours' credit. 

12. General Physics Laboratory. Laboratory work associated with 
the subject matter of Physics 16. This course should accompany Physics 
16. Two semester hours credit. ,.. , 

POLITICAL SCIENCE ''.'" 

16. American Governmeqit and Politics. A cours-e designed to give 
the students a working knowledge of the fundamental laws of Federal 
and State Government. Three or six semester hours credit. 

43. Political Theory. A survey of the different philosophies and 
theories of Government, Ancient and Modern, with special reference to 
political philosophy since the 16th Century. Three semester hours credit. 

PSYCHOLOGY 

13. General Psychology. This' course aims to acquaint the student 
with the psychological standpoint and with the fundamental psychologi- 
cal principles. It includes a study of such topics as native tendencies, 
acquired tendencies, emotions, imagination, memory, and reasoning. Lec- 

14 



tures, discussions and laboratory work. Three semester hours credit. 

23. Educational Psychology. Designed to meet the needs of students 
of education who are seeking from psychology the facts and principles 
that have a bearing on their problems. Special emphasis is placed on 
the learning process'. Prerequisite: Psychology 13. Three semester hours 
credit. 

43. Psychology of Adolescence. A study of the physical and men- 
tal changes which characterize adolescence. The questions of rate and 
variation in learning, motive, personality, disturbances and control of 
behavior will be handled. This course has been approved by the State 
Department of Education for professional credit. Three semester hours' 
credit. 

53. Applied Psychology. A survey of the applications of Psychol- 
ogy to the various fields of human relations. It includes such topics as: 
increase in efficiency, effect of suggestions, improvement of pers'onal- 
ity, advertising, and the psychology of the public platform. One semes- 
ter. Three semester hours credit. 

63. Mental Hygiene. A study of wholesome effective personality 
adjustments, including the causes and treatment of the more common 
and emotional maladjustments' among college students. Pre-requisite: 
General Psychology. One semester. Three semester hours credit. 

93. Abnormal Psychology. An introduction to the study of abnor- 
mal behavior, including such topics as hysteria, multiple personality, 
hypnotism, analysis of nervous and mental maladjustments', and a study 
of psychological processes as they occur in the more marked forms of 
derangement. Pi-erequisite: General Psychology. One semester. Three 
semester hours credit. 

SOCIOLOGY 

16. Principles of Sociology. Throughout the year. Students' may 
enter either semester. Three semester hours credit per semester. 

SPANISH 

06. Elementary Spanish. This course is intended for those who 
begin Spanish in college. Its aim is to enable students to write simple 
Spanis'h sentences, to carry on a conversation in easy Spanish, and to 
read Spanish of ordinary difficulty. College credit of six semester hours 
will be granted for this course if followed by Spanish 16. 

16. First Year College Spanish. This is a continuation and exten- 
sion of course 06 and includes further drill in the principles of gram- 
mar, practice in conversation, composition, and dictation, and more ex- 
tensive reading. For entrance to Spanish 16, the preparatory course 
06 or its equivalent (two years of high school Spanish) will be required. 
Six semester hours credit. 

STATISTICS 
IO3. Elementary Statistics. General introduction to the use of sta- 
tistics; method of collection, tabulation and graphic presentation; analy- 
sis and interpretation; charts; averages, dispersion and skewness; cor- 
relation; application to the study of business cycles, population, and 
other problems'. Required course for all majors in Business Administra- 
tion and Economics. The course is a particularly valuable course for 
those preparing for Civil Service Examinations. This is' strictly a first 
course in statistics. Either semester. Three semester hours credit. 

The courses in Spanish may be used equally with French, German, Greek, 
and Latin to meet the general college requirement in foreign language. 

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