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flints ©Ott(0n. 





rBorxsaom m thx rNiTRRsmr or ofiTTiNOKii, aulio coukskuob, 


Dear Sir, 

The principal subject of the following pages has received 
its most numerous and successful illustrations iirom your 
sagacity, industry, and learning. 

Having freely availed myself of your labours, although 
with that occasional dissent in matters of opinion, which 
I doubt not will be more agreeable to the liberality of so 
enlightened a philosopher, than invariable servile adoption, 
I think it a mere act of justice to dedicate this work to 
you. I do so with the greater pleasure, because it affords 
me the opportunity of gratefully acknowledging the in- 
struction and entertainment which I have derived from 
your excellent writings; of recommending to imitation 
the example you have set of combining together anato- 
mical, physiological, and zoological pursuits, and advancing 
them by reciprocal illustration ; and of expressing indivi- 
dually that high sense of your public services and merits, 
which is felt generally by all the friends of science. 

I remain, 


With the sincerest esteem and respect, 
Your very obedient Servant, 


College of Physicians, 
eth February, 1819 


Dbdication iii 

Explanation or thb Platbs iix 



Reply to the Charges of Mr. Abernbthy ; — ^Modern His- 
tory and Progress of Comparatire Anatomy . . 1 



The Cultivation of Zoology and Comparative Anatomy re- 
commended as Branches of general Knowledge, and as 
an interesting Department of Philosophy : their relation 
to various Questions in general Philosophy exemplified 
in the Gradations of Oi^anization, and the Doctrine of 
final Causes. Examples of the Aid they are capable of 
affording to Geology and the Physical History of the 
Globe. Their Importance to Physiology, and consequenUy 
to the Scientific Study of Medicine. Objects of Inquiry 
in the Ammal Kingdom, and Mode of Investigation; 
Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology . . 27 


On the Study of Physiology ; — ^the Aids and Illustrations 
to be derived from other Sriences, as Natural Philosophy, 
Mathematics, Chemistry. Study of the Physical Sciences 
recommended. Peculiar Characters of the vital Phe- 
nomena. Living Properties. Attempted Hypothetical 
Explanation of them. Comparative Anatomy ; its Ob- 
• jects; its Relations to Physiology exemplified * 46 


varieties of thonglit are as numerous, and as strongly maAed, 
and as irreducible to one standard as those of bodily form : and 
that to quarrel with one, who thinks differently from ourselves, 
would be no less unreasonable than to be angry with him for 
Laving features unlike our own. 

To fair argument and free discussion I shall never object, 
even if they should completely destroy my own opinions ; for 
my object is truth, not victory. But when argument is aban- 
doned, and its place supplied by an inquiry into motives, de- 
signs, and tendencies, the case is altered. If vanquished in fair 
discussion, I should have yielded quietly ; but it cannot have 
been expected that I would lie still, and be trampled on, lecture 
after lecture ; cut and mangled with every weapon fair and foul ; 
assailed with appeals to the passions and prejudices, to the fears 
of the timid, the alarms of ike ignorant and the bigoted : and 
this, too, when nothing is easier than to destroy the ill-con- 
structed fabric; to crumble its very fragments to dust, and 
scatter them before the wind. 

It is alleged that there is a party of modem sceptics, coope- 
rating in the diffusion of these noxious opinions with a no less 
terrible band of French physiologists, for the purpose of demo- 
ralizing mankind ! Such is the general tenour of the accusation, 
independently of the modifications, by which it is worked up 
into separate counts, and of the rhetorical ornaments, by which 
it was embellished. Had the statement been general, I should 
not have appropriated it by entering on a defence ; — ^but have 
left that service to any volunteer of the sceptical party, which 
X know no more of, than I do of the man in the moon, and in 
whose existence I believe just as much. The quotation of my 
own words, however, rendered it impossible for me to shield 
myself under the pretext of uncertainty ; indeed, it particularized 
and fixed the accusation, for which no other tangible object 
could be discovered. 

The vague and indefinite expressions of sceptical party, modem 
•ceptics, and other abusive terms, form too flimsy a veil to con- 
ceal the real object of this fierce attack ; whil^ the pretended 
concern for important truths and principles, and the loud impu- 
tation of bad designs and evil tendencies, instead of decentiy 
covering, rather expose the nakedness of the feelings in which 
it originated. 

Perhaps all the counts of this alarming indictment are not 
intended to apply to all the persons thus unexpectedly draj^ed 



to the bar of public opinion ; — but, as the prosecutor made no 
distinction in the shades of guilt, I must plead to the whol^ 
accusation ; — of propajfatin^ f]ati(?eroHS opinions, — and of doing 
80 in concert wntli the French physiologists : — the French, who 
seem to he considered our natural enemies in science, as well 
as in politics. 

I plead not gfuilty ; and enter on my defence with a confident 
reliance on the candour and impartiality of the tribunal, before 
whom the cause is brouR'ht ; — a tribunal too enlightened to con- 
found the annfry feelings and exaggerated expressions of con- 
troversy with the calm dedi:cttons of reason ; — and well able to 
appreciate this attempt at enlisting religion and morality on the 
side of self-love ; by vvhich difference of opinion, at all times 
but too irritating to the human mind, receives the double aggra- 
Tation, of real inabdity to persuade, and fancied riffht to con 

Where, Gentlemen! shall vre find proofs of this heavy 
charge,^ — of tbi? dpsijjfn so hostile to the very elements and 
foundation of civil union ? What are the overt acts to prove 
this treason against society ? this compassingr and imagining the 
destruction of moral, restraint, and the grounds of mutual con- 
fidence ? What Hupport can you discover for such imputations 
in the profession, pursuits, habits and character of those who 
are accused ? How will it promote their interests to endanger 
the very frame of society ? By what latitude and artifice of 
construction, by what ingenuity of explanation, can the mate- 
rials of such a charge be extracted from the discussion of an 
abstract physiological question ? from discourses first delivered 
m this theatre to an assembly of the whole profession, and since 
openly published to the whole world ? I need not remind you 
that such an accusation is repelled by every appearance, every 
probability, and every presumption j and that in opposition 
to these prima facie sources of distrust, it can only be esta- 
blished by the clearest and most unetjuivocal evidence : not by 
bold assertions and strained inferences — not by declamatory 
common-places on morals — nor by all the pangs and complaint* 
of mortified self-love. 

A party of modern sceptics ! — A sceptic is one who doubts ; 
— and if this party includes those who doubt, — or rather who 
do not doubt at all.^abbut the electro-chemical doctrine of life, 
I can have no olnjectioti to belong to so numerous and respect- 
able a body. The assent of the mind to any proposition cannot 


be forced ; it must depend on the weight of evidence and ago- 
ment. I cannot adopt this hypothesis until some proof or rea> 
soning of a very different nature from any hitherto produced 
shall be brought forwards. I declare most sincerely, that I 
never met with even the shadow of a proof, that the contraction 
of a muscle or the sensation of a nerve depended in any degree 
on electrical principles ; or that reflection^ judgment, memory, 
arise out of changes similar in their causes or order to those 
we call chemical. On the other hand, I see the animal func- 
tions inseparable from the animal organs ; — first showing them- 
selves when they are first developed ; — coming to perfection as 
they are perfected ; — ^modified by their various affections : — de- 
caying as they decay; and finally ceasing when they are 

Examine the mind, the grand prerogative of man. Where 
is the mind of the fetus ? where that of the child just bom ? Do we 
not see it actually built up before our eyes by the actions of the 
five external senses, and of the gradually developed internal facul- 
ties ? Do we not trace it advancing by a slow progress through 
infancy and chil4hood, to the perfect expansion of its faculties in 
the adult ; — annihilated for a time by a blow on the head, or the 
shedding of a little blood in apoplexy ; — decaying as the body 
declines in old age; and finally reduced to an amount hardly 
perceptible, when the body, worn out by the mere exercise of 
the organs, reaches by the simple operation of natural decay 
that state of decrepitude most aptly termed second childhood ? 

Where then shall we find proofs of the mind's independence 
on the bodily structure ? — of that mind, which, like the cor- 
poreal frame, is infantile in the child, manly in the adult, sick 
and debilitated in disease, frenzied or melancholy in the mad- 
man, enfeebled in the decline of life, doting in decrepitude^ and 
annihilated by death ? 

Take away from the mind of man, or from that of any other 
animal, the operations of the five external senses, and the func- 
tions of the brain, and what will be left behind ? 

That life then, or the assemblage of all the functions, is imme- 
diately dependent on organization, appears to me, physiologi- 
cally speaking, as clear as that the presence of the sun above 
the horizon causes the light of day ; and to suppose that we 
could have light without that luminary, would not be more un- 
reasonable than to conceive that life is independent of the animal 
body, m which the vital ])henomena are observed 


1 say, physiologically speaking ; and beg you to attend parti- 
cularly to this (lualificaiion i because tlie theological doctrine of 
the soul, and its separate existence, has nothing to da uitli this 
phyaioiogica! question, but rests on a species of proof altogether 
different. These sublime dofifmas could never have been brought 
to light by the labours of t!ie anatomist and ph^'siologist. An 
immaterial and spiritual being could not have been discorered 
aiuid the blood and filth of the dissecting-room ; and the very- 
idea of resorting to this low and dirty sourcs for a proof of so 
exalted and refined a truth, is an illustration of what we daily 
see, the powerful bias that professional habits and the exclusive 
contemplation of a particular subject, give even to the strongest 
minda, — an illustration of that esprit de metier, which led the 
honest currier in the threatened city to recommend a fortifica- 
tion of leather. 

When we reflect that the immortality of the soul and a future 
state of rewards and punishments were fully recognised in all 
the religions of the ancient world, except the Jewish ; — and that 
they are eqiially so in all those of more modern time ; — when 
we consider, that this belief prevailed universally in the vast and 
populous regions of the East, for ages and ages before the period 
to which our remotest annals extend, and that it is firmly rooted 
in countries and nations, on which the sun of science has never 
yet shone, the demonstration that the anatomical and physiolo- 
gical researches of the last half century hare not the most remote 
connexion with, or imaginable influence on, the proof of these 
great truths will be completed beyond the possibihty of doubt 
or denial, in the estimation of every unprejudiced person. I do 
not enlarge on this point, because it is too obvious, and because 
divinity and morals, however excellent in their own time and 
place, do not exactly suit the theatre, audience, or subject of 
these Lectures. 

The greatest of the ancient philosophers said that the surest 
way of gaining admission into the temple of wisdom, was 
through the portal of doubt — and he declared that he knew 
only one thing — his own, ignorance. Were Socrates to show 
his head above ground just now, he must conclude, either that 
he himself bad completely mistaken the road to knowledge, or 
that his successors had accomplished the journej', and had 
penetrated into the sanctuarj'of the temple. For, in the modem 
philosophy, doubting is proscribed as the source of all mischief; 
and an overbearing dogmatism, even on the most abstruse and 


or MR. ABBmramrr. 7 

^Bffieait fUMtMMM, ia Iidid fbrth m a wiser eoww than A* 
BB&dest ecMiftMBon of ignorance. 

When favourite speculations have been long indulged, and 
macfa paiaa haire be«i bestowed on them, they are viewed with 
titat faivatti partiality, which cannot bear to hear of fanlta in 
' the olject of its attachment. The mere doubt of an impartial 
observK ia aAmaiva ; and the discovery of anytiiing like a ble- 
mish m the darling is not only ascribed to an entire want of 
discriaoination and judgment, but resented as an injury. Tha 
irritation riaea higher, in pn^Hjrtion to the coolness of th« 
object which excites it ; as Sir Anthony Abeoiute in the play, 
iriule swelling with rage, and boiling over with abuse on the 
farsons aroand him, begins to damn them again with tenfold 
energy- becaose they cannot keep their tempers, because th«y 
eunot be as cool as he is. 

By a carious inconsistency in the hnman mind, «h£Scrence of 
opinion is mare offensive and intolerable in proportion as th« 
inbjeet is of a more refined nature, and less susceptible of direcfe 
pRw£ Hence the rancorous mtokranee excited by the minute 
and almost evanescent shades of opinion that distinguish manj 
rdigioas sects. The quarrels of the Homoousians and the Ho> 
BUHooaians filled the Roman empire iar a long series of years 
with discord, &ctk>n, persecution, and civil war. Yet the point 
at issue, actually cominised in the variation of a single diph- 
thongi, is so minute as to be " scarcely visible to the nicest 
theological eye,"* and certainly, in reference to either faith or 
practice, is not a jot more important than the controversy which 
divided the mighty empire of Lilliput, respecting the right end 
to break in eating an egg. Tis a pity we cannot find soma 
omvenient way of settling these important controversies ; such 
as occurred to the traveller, who met with a peo^^e divided into 
two parties on the question whether they should walk into the 
temple of their deity with the right or the left leg foremost. Each 
ride conceived the practice of the other to be impious ; the tra» 
vellar recommended the obvious expedient, which in the heat 
of their quarrel they had overlooked, of jumping in with both 
legs together. 

The peculiar virulence of controversy, in all cases in which 
religion is supposed to be concerned, is so remarkable, as to have 
become proverbial : — the odium theologicum is the most con- 
centrated essence of animosity and rancour. Let us not thea 
• Gibbon. 




open the fair garden of science to this ugly iiend ; let not her 
Eweet cup he tainted by the most distant approach of hU 
venomous breath. 

la the cause of tmth to be promoted by aflixing injurious and 
party names to those who diHer from us in these points of nice 
and curious speculation? wiio cannot pursue the same track 
vritb ourselves through the airy regions of immaterial being, of 
which the only utility seems to consist in affording occupation 
to the organs of ideality and mysticism ? Is uot this kind of 
abuse more likely, by moving the passions, to disturb the opera- 
tion of the judgment. 

The practice of calling names in argument has been chiefly 
resorted to by the fair sex, and in religious discussions; in both 
cases, apparently, from a common cause — the weakness of the _ 
other means of attack and defence. The priests of former tirae«5 I 
used to rain a torrent of abusive epithets, as heretic, infidel, 
atheist, and the Lord knows what, on all who had the audacity 
to dilfer from them in opinion. This ecclesiastical artillery has 
been so much used, as to have become in great measure unser- 
viceable : it is now found more noisy than destructive ; and the 
general discovery of its harmlessness has a.ssisted, with the pro- 
gress of liberal ideas, to discountenance its employment in con- 
troversy, as poisoned weapons and other unfair advantages have 
been banished from honourable warfare. Sometimes however 
it frightens and stuns, if it does not dangerously wound j and 
thus it silences antagonists, who could not easily have been over- 
come by weight of argument. 

It would have been praise enough to any doctrine, that it should 
explain the great mystery of Ufe ; that it should solve the enigma, 
which has puazled the ablest heads of all ages ; — but this subtile 
and mobile vital fluid is brought fonvard with more ambitious 
pretensions, and it is not only designed to show the nature and 
operation of the cause, by vv-hich the vital phenomena are pro- 
duced, but to add a new sanction to the great principles of mo- 
rals and religion, and to eradicate all the selfish and bad pas- 
sions of our nature. An obscure hypothesis, which few have 
ever heard of, and fewer can comprehend, is to make us all good 
and virtuous, to impose a restraint upon vice stronger than Bow- 
street or the Old Bailey can apply ; and in all [irobability to con- 
vert the offices of Mr. Recorder and hia assistant Mr. Ketch into 

• Let us su pposF for a. moracTit that the adopdan oT this hypothesis \Tould 
zeally hare all iho eUleacy that i* preteaded, it would then be deairkble that 



Wliat has been the effect of tliis great discovery on its author J 
What are the first frmts of this new ethical power ? A aeries of 
Quixotic attacks on conspirators and parties as purely imaginary 
as the giant« and castles encountercti by the knight of La Mancha; 
of untbunded charges and au^ry invective, undisguised and 
glaring national partiality, unreasonable national antipathy, un- 
merited and unprovoked abuse of the writerB of a whole nation, 
afibrd an overwhelming proof of its complete moral ineflicacy. 

These magnificent designs are interrupted by a conspiring 
band of sceptics and French physiologists ; — by a nest of plotters 
brought forth all at once on this green table, and threatening, in 
the noise and alarm which preceded their discovery, as well as 
in their utter inKigniticancy and harmlessness when discovered, 
to eclipse even the green bag consjjiracy of another place. The 
foundations of moralily undermined, and religion endangered 
by a little discussion, and a Utile ridicule of the electro-chemical 
hypothesis of life ! Thus the possessor of a specific endeavours 
to frighten people by the most lively pictures of their danger; 
that they may receive, with a higher opinion of its virtues and 
importance, his pretended infallible remedy. 

1 shall not insult your understandings by formally proving 
that this physiological doctrine never has afforded, and never 
can afford, any support to religion or morals ; and that the great 
truths, so important to mankind, rest on a perfectly different, 
and far more sobd foundation, If they could t>e endangered at 
all by the discussions, with which we amuse ourselves, it would 
be by unsettling them from their natural and firm establishment 
in the natural feelings and propensities, in the common sense, 
in the mutual wants and relations of mankind, and erecting 
them anew on the artificial and rotten foundation of these 
unsubstantial speculations, or on tlie equally unsafe ground 
of abstruse metaphysical researches.* 

It shoulil turn out to be true : hut would that atTonl uny proof of the hypo- 
thesU T If, ill a disputed qufition, juu tell mv tlmt 1 nli.iil have a br^-e estate, 
if 1 »m conviiicpd that yuu nn- in the right i uiidniilitedly I shall desiTi; with 
tlU my heart to find th»t you ar« riffht : but 1 cannot be convinced of it, iinJi'SS 
your ari^ments aliauld be found sRlisraetoiy. In the same way, in loxsing up 
for hi'aiis and taili, if 1 am to rccelv* a f^inca provided tailii turn up, and a 
hundred if it S'hould bi* hcod?, this difleience dnes not at all iucrea!>« the 
chances of the latter event, however tl may optTate on ray wishes. 

* The profound, ihv yirlinjU-«, and ferVenlly pious t'liscal ak'knowlodgcd, 
what all siuund lh<>olof;iBtii inairituin, thnt the immortitlit)' of the suul, the 
great truth* uf religion, md the ruiidamenlal principles of morals, ciuinol lie 
deroongtrably proved bj- mere reason ; anil that rin-elatlon alone is raiiable of 
disaipating the uncertainties, whicli perplex those who inquire too mirioualy 
into the sources of these important prinriplcii. All will afkaowledf;f that, 
ts no other n-medy con be so [lorfect and katiKfactory as Ihin, no other can be 
neeeiaary, if we resort to this with firm faith. Ilow many perbons eoidd be 
IniBil, whoie belief in a Deity retti on the chaia of reisoning in Clark'n 



Ah to the charge itself, of bringing forward doctnues with any 
iesiffo, hostile to the jirincipks or o|iinions, on which the Melfare 
of society depends ; or with any other intention, except that of 
displaying to you the impartial result of my own reflections and 
researches ; — 1 reply in one word ; — that it is false. I beg you, 
indeed, to observe, that I liave only remarked on the opinions of 
others; I have adduced none of my own. I profess an entire 
ignorance of the nature of the vital projierlies, except in so far 
as they are disclosed liy experience ; and find my knowledga 
on this subject reduced to the simple result of observation, that 
certain phenomena occur in certain orjjanic textures.* To the 
question, what opinions I would substitute in place of those to 
which I object, I answer, none. Ignorance is preferable to 
error : he is nearer to truth, who believes nothing, than he who 
believes what is wrong. 

And here I take the opportunity of protesting, in the strongest 
terms, — in liehalf of the interests of science and of that free 
discussion, which is essential to its successful cultivation, — 
against the attempt to stidc irajjartial inquiry by an outcry of 
pernicious tendency ; and against pen-erting science and litera- 
ture, which naturally tend to bring mankind acquainted with 
each other, to the anti-social [rarposes of inflaming and pro- 
longing national ])rejudice and animosity. Letters have been 
called the tongue of the world ; and science may be regarded in 
the same light. They supply common objects of interest, in 
which the selfish and unsocial feelings are not called into action, 
and thus they promote new friendships among nations, 'llirough 

Deiaomiratiim of the Bexn^ and AUribalet qf God; or ia Kant's Jiituiig 
mogUcAe Uaceit^rund 3U einer Dfmunstraliun det Dtucyn Golteif llow many 
ate there Mho have hud iifrpeviTani't Chuui^h to ru Ihnxigh llie chain at ar- 
gument in tliese works ? If th« close and prufound reunonint; anil the mota- 
physical acutt-ness of Clark mid Kant havo bi-oii tmployod tu link' iiurpoM 
OD Such a subject, vrhat dre vre to expect from this pretended Uunturian 
theory of lift- r 

• The luttiitr of the Phififulopcal Lecturei cntcrtAint some peculiar vievn 
concc riling the evideuee, on whrdi we are to rely ill our phyaical re«ea ehei^ 
which pruijiiljly furnish a tlui' to the peculiar results at whiih be has arrived. 
Be " cuiilideri mure xii Uie eye of reasun than in tliat uf sciue; and >voiilil 
rather form opiniuiis from analogy, thini from thcituperfefteviilenwof •JBht." 
P. 303, where the expre»biun ix einpiuyed in diaviuinit a ((Uentinn if ikst. 
The stinii' statement, in nearly the same wortls, urcura in f>everal uLher )jlacea. 
From a comparison of these pa9sa;:ea with each other, and with the l.'ading 
doctrines of these l(>cture», 1 con»lcier their meaniiii; to be. that when the 
evidence of the fleiLses in at variance with prec<in<.-eiv(>d liutiuns, or the con- 
■tnictiuiis, ciinibianiiuu», or other uperalions of the metitHl facuUiea, the 
muthor rejects the former and adherea to the latter. As tlie author mns-t be 
the beiit jud;^ of the relative value belonging; to the evidence of his own 
■en.'ie,i aiitl that uf hi* fancy, iinai^natioa, and other internal powers, it is 
foir to pre^fume that he hai cxercuied a suuiid dirH-retion in this very impor- 
t.ant determination. It ii however rattier uitreasiinable fur him to expect that 
others should rely oa the workings othis taucy i» jitrf erence to the erid«iie* 
of their own leiuea. 


iistant people become capable of conversing ; and losing 
by degrees the awkwardness of strangcre, and the moroseneas 
of suspicion, they learn to know and understand each other. 
Science, the partisan of no country, but the beneficent patroness 
of all, has liberally opened a temple where all may meet. She 
never inquires about the country or sect of those who seek 
admission : she never allots a higher or a lower place from exag- 
gerated national claims, or unfounded national ajitipathles. Her 
influence on the mind, like that of the sun on the chilled earth, 
has long been prejjaring it for higher cuUivation, and further 
improvement. The philosopher of one country should not see 
an enemy in the philosopher of another : he should take his seat 
in the temple of science, and ask not who sits beside him. 'Vhe 
miTage notion of a natural enemy should be banished frum this 
sanctuary, where all, from whatever quarter, should be regarded 
an of one great family ; and being engaged in pursuits calculated 
to increase the general sum of happiness, should never exercise 
intolerance towards each other, nor assume that right of arraign- 
ing the motives and designs of others, which belongs only to the 
Being who can penetrate the recesses of the human hean ; an 
assumption which is so well reprobated by our great poet : 

Let not this wriLk unknowing hand 
Tresuine lliy b<ilts lo throw ; 
Aod deal dainnatioii ruuiid the laud 
On ench 1 judgi! thy fuu. 

In the introductory lecture* of last year, I attempted to sketch 
out to you the history of Comparative Anatomy ; to select the 
names of those who had been princii)al)y concerned in eslabhsh- 
jng and advancing the science ; and to assign to each his pro- 
per shaxe of praise. At the same time that I found it a pleasing 
task to review the successive steps in the progress of so interest- 
ing a science, and to award the just tribute of our gratitude to 
80 many useful labours, I thought it would be interei^ting and 
profitable to you to know to whose talents and to whose exer- 
tions zoology had been indebted. 

The space allotted to this historical revie^v having been ne- 
cessarily short, the names of many were omitted ; and others 
were noticed more briefly than the number, extent, and impor- 
tance of their contributions to science would have deserved 
This was particularly the case with many illustrious foreigners, 
towards some of whom I shall now make up for that neglect. 

The temple of science has not been raised to its present com- 
■ See AtTodudion lo eompartUiee Anatomy and Phgn'ologf, 



manding height, or decorated with its beautiful proportions and 
embellishments, hy the exertions of any one country. If we 
obstinately shut our eyes to all that other nations have con- 
tributed, ive shall sun'ey only a few columns of the majestic 
fabric, and never rise to an adequate conception of the p^randeur 
and beauty of the whole. Our insular situation, by restricting 
intercourse, has contributed to generate a contempt forforeigners, 
and an unreasonable notion of our own importance, which is 
often ludicrous ; always to be regretted ; and in many cases 
Htrong enough to resist all the weapons of ridicule. We ehoula 
consider what we think of these national prejudices, when we 
obsen'e them in others ; when, we see the Turks summing up 
all their contempt for their more polished neighbours, in tha 
short but e.vpreasive phrase of Christian dogs ; and the Emperor 
of Ciiina accepting presents from the King of England, because 
it ia a principle of the celestial empire to show indulgence and 
condescension towards petty states. _ 

Science requires an expanded mind, a view that embraces the H 
universe. Instead of shutting himself up in an island, and * 
abusing all the rest of mankind, the philosopher should make 
the world his country ; and should trample beneath his feet those 
prejudices, which the vulgar so fondly hug to their bosoms. 
He should sweep away from his mind the dust and cobwebs of fl 
all national partiality and enmity, which darken and distort the ( 
perceptions, and fetter the operations of intellect. If the love 
of science and liberal views are not sufficient to repress the ^^ 
noisy obtrusion of national claims, considerations of policy may^f 
furnish the motive. The country, which has really done the^B 
moat for science, wiU certainly be the last to assert its ])reten- 
eions, and a readiness to allow the merits of others will be the 
most powerful means, next to modesty and diffidence, of recom- 
mending our own to attention. If we could come to the strange 
resolution of atteniiing only to what has been done by English- 
men in comparative anatomy and zoology, we should have to 
go back in the science fifty years or more ; in short, to a state 
of coipi>arative darkness. For such it must be deemed, if we 
excluded the strong light which baa been thrown on these sub- 
jects from Italy, Germany, and France. 

Tlie only parallel to such a proceeding is that afforded by the 
Caiipli O.MAn, in his sentence on the Alexandrian library. This 
ignorant fanatic devoted to the flames the intellectual trea.sure, 
accumulated by the taste, the learning, and the munificence of 
many kings, observing, that the books, if they agreed with the 





Koran, were superfluous, and need not be preserved ; if they 
differed from it, impious, and ought to be destroyed. 

If this extraordinary kind of exclusion were realized, what 
would be the result ? A great national idol must be set up, and 
we should be compelled to bow down and worship it under 
the penalty of being thrown into the burning fiery furnace of 
offended national pride. 

At the first institution of the French Ro3ral Academy of 
Sciences, towards the middle of the century before the last, 
some of its members ocmpied themselves with the very useful 
undertaking of observing and dissecting several animals, of de- 
scribing and illustrating them by figures. The value of their 
labours is sufficiently attested by their having been several times 
republished in various forms, and translated into Latin, English, 
and other languages. Being drawn entirely from observation, 
their histories will ever possess the value inseparable from 
faithful delineations of nature. They have described forty-seven 
animals, and represented their external figure and internal struc- 
ture, in ninety folio plates. As examples of their knowledge^ 
it will be sufficient to mention, that yoo will find in their woric 
an account of the cells in the camel's stomach, which hold the 
water, a point of structure and economy so strikingly suited to 
the parched and sandy regions of Asia and Africa, which these 
flnnwal" inhabit. All communication and commerce across these 
extensive wastes would be impossible, without a race of animals 
possessing that power of bearing the privation of water, which 
this structure confers. They describe the air-cells and the 
gastric glands of birds ; and the curious mechanism of the mem- 
brana nictitans or third eyelid. Of many animals we know little 
more, to the present day, than what they have told us. 

When we consider that the Royal Academy of Sciences, to 
whose members we owe these splendid and useful labours, was 
founded by Louis XIV. and his minister Colbert; when we 
review the long list of illustrious names which adorn the annals 
of that body, and bring together the almost numberless acces- 
sions to every branch of science, which have been the fruit of 
their exertions through the reign of their despotic founder, and 
his no less despotic successors down to the present time ; we are 
reluctantly compelled to acknowledge that the encouragement 
of this branch of human knowledge (the sciences) is not confined 
to free forms of government, and that there is nothing peculiarly 
hostile to their progress, even in the most despotic. Absolute 


nilerB indeed, so far from ha\'ing any interest in sLackling or 
impeding scientific or literary inquiries, have an obvnous and 
strong motive for aiding and promoting tlieni. They aSbrd a 
safe and harmless employment to many active spirits, who 
might otherwise take a fancy to look into politics and laws ; to 
investigate the source, form, duties, and proceedings of govern- 
ments, and the rights of the governed. A wise despot will be 
glad to see sach dangerous topics exchanged for inquiries into 
the history of a plant or animal, into the properties of a mineral 
or the form of a fossil ; into tiie uses of a piece of old Roman 
or Grecian crockery, or tlie appropriaticm of a mutilated statue 
to its rightful owner in some heathen goddery. Shutting out 
the human mind from some of its most interesting and impor- 
tant excurstona, he will open every other path as widely as possible. 
When the French Academicians discontinued their researches 
and publications, the opportimitieB of zoological inquiry, which 
the royal menageries had afforded them, passed into the hands 
of BuFPON and Daubenton, who employed them with equal 
industry, and equal advantage to science. When the direction 
of the Jardtn dea F'lantea was confided to BuFFOff, he formed 
the two-fold project, commensurate in boldness and magnificence 
with his own genius ; — that of assembling select and well-ar- 
ranged specimens of all natural productions, to exhibit to man- 
kind the fertility and variety of nature ,• — and the formation of a 
more durable mionuraent, on which he proposed to engrave the 
history or annals of this admirable nature. The immensity of 
the design, which he was well aware of, did not discourage him 
from the attempt: it only excited him to extend his resources by 
calling in other aid. His discernment discovered the very qua- 
lities he wanted in the modest, patient, ]>ersevering, yet zealous 
Daubenton, who was bom at the same place with himself, 
Montbar, in Burgundy, and with whom he had been acquainted 
from infancy. Destined by his fother for the church, Dauben- 
ton went to Paris to study theology, but he applied in secret to 
medicine, and particularly anatomy; and when his father's death 
allowed him to pursue the bent of his own inclination, he adopted 
the medical profession, and began to practise it in his native 
place, when Buppon invited him toPari.s, and procured for him 
the sitnation.s of keeper and demonstrator of the cabinet of na- 
tural history. Their association presented the singular spectacle 
of two men with high yet different cjualifications, uniting thdr 
efforts without impairing their energy, and combining the lights 


ihey denved from variotia sources only to increase their inteii- 
sit}-, and to throw them with greater effect on the u})jecta they 
both wished to illuminate. In the great work, bo honourable to 
the country which gave it birth, containing the result of their 
associated labours, the share contributed by Daubenton is the 
internal and external description of one hundred and eighty-two 
animals.several of which had neither been observed nor described 
before by naturalists. The useful facts accumulated by him in 
the course of many years devoted to this undertaking, are pro- 
sented in a form so unpretending, that they are overpowered 
and thrown into the back-ground by the grand and imposing 
general views, the beautiful particular descriptions, and the elo- 
quence at once roajestic and captivating, of the French Pliny. 

So great were the care and accuracy of Daubenton, in re- 
gistering the facts which he obsened, that, in spite of their num- 
ber, we can hardly detect an error. He admitted nothing, but 
what he saw himself, without indulging in those bold hypothesis, 
for which Bcfpon had so marked a predilection ; withaut even 
drawing those general conclusions, which might have l)een most 
naturally deduced from his observations. Here perhaps his rt- 
Berve was excessive; and It is in this respect Camper observed 
of him, that he did not know himself how many things he had 

The anatomical plates and descriptions of Daubenton are, 
in many instances, the most valuable part of the work which 
passes under the name of Buffon : and they will retain this 
▼alue, as the sterhng coin bearing the stamp of nature ever 
does ; while the base metal of h)'potbesia and speculation, de- 
tected by a httle wearing, is soon consigned to contempt and 
oblivion. Daubenton therefore, although the author of no 
work published in his own name (except some papers in the Me- 
moirs of the French Academy of Sciences), will ever be regarded 
as one of the first in that list of illustrioiTs moderns, who have 
prosecuted the study of zoology with enlarged views and on 
proper principles. 

Camper and Pallas were cotemporary with Davbenton. 
Animated with the true feeling for natirre, they devoted them- 
selves to her study with that enthusiasm which characterijseB 
genioB. The zoologists of Europe have assigned to them, with 
one accord, the highest rank in the temple of science ; and point 
them out with one consent as belonging to that small class, who 
hm contributed signally to extend the boundaries of natural 


knowledge. Where will any sceptical opponent of their claims 
find juBtification of hia diaaent from the public voice so slrongiy 
expressed in their favour? Let him seek it in their works, and 
bis doubts will soon be at »n end. 

Although Camper occupied at different times the chaire of 
philosophy, anatomy, surgery, and medicine at Franeker, Am- 
sterdam, and Groningen; — although he filled various ci^dl 
situations, and wrote on many subjects in anatomy, midwifery, 
Burgery, medicine, and the fine arts, he found leisure for his 
favourite pursuits. He collected a very valuable mu3f um in 
comparative anatomy, made numerous diaaectiona of rare and 
interesting animals, and delineated their structure in that simple 
but expressive style, in which he has given us the admirable 
engravings of the arm and pelvis. 'Yhe air-cells in the honea of 
birds, their communications and uses, the organ of hearing in 
fishes and whales, the anatomy of the orang-outang, the ele- 
jjhant, the rein-deer, and the Surinam toad, the organs of the 
voice in monkeys, the head of the two-horned rhinoceros, and 
fossil osteology, are some of the subjects which he has success- 
fiiliy illustrated.* 

Ko man entered the path of zoology with greater ardour, or 
pursued it with more perseverance anfl success, than Petsr 
Simon Pallas, the son of a surgeon of Berhn. His whole 
life iudeed was only a succession of labours devoted to the ex- 
tension of natural knowledge. In passing over the ivide field 
nf zoology, the student will see his name in all quarters ; and 
every where as the index of some important discovery. Should 
he wish to survey any part of the territory more minutely, 
Pallas will be hia safest guide. He publislied eighteen sepa- 
rate works, several of them bulky, and in many volumes ; and 
he contributed fifty-five papers to various learned societies.* 
"When tlie value of writings is so universally recognised, as in 
the case of a Halleh and a Pallas, their numerical amount 
is a measure of the obligations under which science lies to their 
authors. He acquired very rapidly the learned, and the modern 
languages, and studied natural history, anatomy, physiology, 
and the other branches of the medical profession, under the 
best teachers that Germany and Holland aSbrded. Hia taste 
for zoology was strongly marked at the age of fifteen, when he 

• HiH viiriuus works are eniimcrareil in the Sviice <fe la Fie el dea Ecritt de 
P. Camper, prefixed to tbe iHuTrei, torn. i. 

t A sfiurl accuiiiit of live life of Pitllaa has been pulilishfJ by hi» friend 
HinJdlittii, in his Beytrage surAniiiiii^.uluuie und ali^imtmen JVaturgeicuchtt, 
brp, iJeclm, L8L2. It ountairis a. oomi'Wli uutalvgue of hU duiuviuU!) writio^ 


■ketched oat an arnuagement of birda on hi* own notions^ and 
made observations on the larvae of the lepidoptera, particularly 
vnth the view of determining whether they possess the aense of 
hearing, which he settled in the affirmative. His Inaugural 
Thesis, de Infestis viceiitibus intra viventia {tl>at is, on aniiaala 
which hve in the bodies of others), published in 176), when he 
was nineteen years of age, is still read with information and 
pleasure ; although the important subject, on which it treats, 
has received so much addition^ light from the rcsearchea of 
subsequent naturalists. At the time of its appearance, this 
production of ihe young Pallas was much the best book for 
the information it contained, and the views it disclosed He 
proves in it from his own investigations, the vitality of the 
hydatid; and demonstrates the structure of the head of the 
tapeworm : he also shows the general objections to the Linneeaa 
class vermes. For the piu-pose of prosecuting his favourite 
pursuits of zoology and comfiarative anatomy, he visited various 
parts of the continent, and England ; employing himself par- 
ticularly on the coasts in investigating the structure and habits 
of marine animals, many of which he has described. His Elen- 
chvs Zoopht/torum, a work both copious and profound, his 3ft*- 
cellanea Zoologica and Spicilegia Zoologies, most rich repositories 
of information on various departments of our science, were pub- 
hshed within a few years after his Inaugural Thesis. These 
valuable works fuUy justify the eiilugium of the judicious and 
impartial Halle b, who pronounces their author "one of the 
chief founders of comparalive anatomy." 

Zoology had hitherto been to Pallas a kind of passion 
ither than an ordinary pursuit; — he followed the impulse of 
his ardent feeling for nature, without looking to ulterior objects. 
Hia zeal, talents, and information could not fail to attract atten- 
tion; and they pointed him out to the great Catharine, who 
seemed to feel for science a kind of manly love, and who pro- 
moted it like an empress, as a proper person for her truly grand 
design of exploring the vast regions that owned her sway, of 
describing the countries, their productions and inhabitants. 
His histories of these travels abound with information on all 
points ; I may particularly mention, in reference to our present 
subject, his very interesting^ descriptions of the various native 
tribes, scattered over the immense regions of Asiatic Russia, 
and previously very imperfectly knonrn, uid his copiouB detaiU 

Moiogy. c 



The fatigues of these travels impaired a constitution never 
very robust, and a subsequent less extensive exciiraion in the 
southerT) regiona of the Russian empire weakened it atili further. 
Yet he afterwards published his Nova Species Quadrupedum e 
Glirium Ordine, the best monography we possess in the class 
mammalia, and distin^ished by characters, which few natu- 
ralists have been able to impress on their writings. He not 
oxdy accurately describes the animals, and their anatomy, but 
details their habits, and in many cases adds valuable physiolo- 
gical information on their temperature. 

After living some years in the Crbnea, on estates given him 
by the Empress, he returned towards the close of his life to 
Berlin ; where, for some months before the event, he was admo- 
nished by pain and increasing weakness of his approaching end 
Like many professors of our art, he obstinately refused to take 
physic ; exhibiting that want of faith, which, whether or not it 
diminishes the chance of sal^'ation, certainly amuses the pro- 
fane. He died as he lived, engaged in zoological pursuits ; for 
his lai^t occupation was that of arranging papers, and giving 
directions for a grand work he had been long preparing on the 
animals of the Russian empire ; destined to illustrate their 
structure and functions, as wellaa natural history. This,* or at 
least some portion of it, is printed, but I believe not yet published. 

Perhaps it is not necessary to insist on the merits of H.\LLEa 
in companitive anatomy, before an audience undoubtedly fami- 
liar with the works, and therefore fuUy able to appreciate the 
greatest ornament of our profession. I must however observe, 
that he saw the subject in its just light : he perceived clearly 
that the physiology of an organ could not be complete untd its 
structure had been examined in every class of animals, until all 
its modifications and their effects had been noted. Hence each 
section of his immortal work contains a collection of all the 
facts then known respecting the structure of animals, as well 
as of man. 

At this favourable era, when the spirit of inquiry was 
awakened, and active minds in all parts of Europe were engaged 
in zoological and physiological investigations, Mr. Hunter com- 
menced his career. He enjoyed the great advantage of singu- 
lar importance to an uneducated and unlearned man, of being 
initiated in these pursuits by his brother, the most accomplished 

• Jnimalia Imperii tltatiH. Hutlolphi inform* us, in hin Lift- of Pallas, 
that lie had seen the text of the first vuIuidlv and part wf the stnond • and gire* 
•ome Mcuuat of tlie alg'ect and contents ot the wtfik. Beyiragt, %. U, u. fojjt 


gai learned anatomut, and then the meet acute phTsiologiet of 
llu8 or any other country. From Dr. Wm. Huntbr, who finC 
taught him, and from the numerous able men brought up in the 
same school, Mr. Huntbb learned in the shortest way whatever 
could be derived from books, and became acquainted with the 
labours and discoveries of all other countries.* Thus his genius 
was excited and invigorated, without being deadened by the toil 
of study; refreshed by these supphes, it became capable of 
higher and stronger flights, and soared to an elevation, which we 
cannot estimate justly writhout taking into consideration the 
point of departure. Yet he never forgot that the physiok^^ 
is the minister and interpreter of nature : and however little con. 
versant he may have been with human works, no man ever 
consulted with a more attentive and ssrutinizing eye the book 
of nature, which always instructs, and never deceives us. His 
museum \rill teach us how he endeavoured to learn the struc- 
ture, and the records of his observations and experiments will 
show how he inqxiired into the actions of living beings. Such 
were the means in his opinion best calculated to unfold the 
nature of life ; the characters of which he has drawn, not with 
the wavering outline, and undefined forms of speculation, nor 
in the gaudy and delusive tints of hypothesis ; but with the firm 
touch, that real observation alone could give, and in the sober 
colouring of that nature, with which he was so well acquainted. 
He seldom ventured into the regions of speculation ; and the 
friuts of his excursions, when he did thus indulge himself, are 
not calculated to make us regret they were so few. They bear 

* The unriTalled opportunities of education and information enjoyed by 
Mr. Hunter are very properly stated by the author of the Phytiulugical Lec- 
titre*, p. 8. Ue torpriBes us afterwards by comparing him to Kerj;uson the 
astronomer, who became acquainted with the phenomena of the heavenly 
bodies, and constracted charts and instruments, while a shepherd's boy. In 
original instruction. In acquaintance with the most improveu stute of science, 
and with the labours of those by whom it had l>een thus advanced, the two 
individuals exhibited a complete contrast instead of resemblance. The repre- 
sentation that Mr. Hunter was the first in this, or in any other country, who 
■tndied comparative anatomy and physiology extensively, in onler to perfect 
the knowlec^se of our own animal economy (Phytiol. Led. p. 5 and 201), 
seems to me as unfortunate, as the comparison of Hunter to Ferguson. 
Without mentioning Oalen, whose labours, although he lived so many cen- 
toiies ago, ought not to be forgotten ; without enumerating the lung list of 
illustrious men, who devoted themselves with so much zeal and sui-cess to 
comparative anatomy and physiology in the 17th century, whose names are 
connected with all the leading discoveries in those sciences, and whose 
works, oeenpyii^ the sixth book of Haller's Bibliotheca Anaiomica, under 
fhe title of " Animalium lucisiones," contain many of the facts published as 
new by the modems, the name of Harvey immediately suggests itself, as 
sufficient to refute tiiis assertion. The researches of this ^'leat man on the 
dicnlation and generation, show that he was fully aware what assistance 
uighl be derived from the (Ussection and observation of animals in illustrating 
tile structure and functions of man, and that he knew well how to avsL 
kuBseif of it. See inMhietion to comparative Anatomy atid Phftiologf/, 
p. 4i,tl»ei. c2 



indeed the marks of the common weakneas of our natura, and 
remind us of the ohservation applied to the theological writ'njja 
of Sir Isaac Nb wtos, that they afford to the rest of luankind 
a consolation and recompense for the Buperiority he displayed 
over them in other respects. I forbear any further disquisition 
of bis merits, because they have already been sufficiently 
explained to you this year j and particularly in reference to our 
present subject of comparative anatomy; because too, the fre- 
quent repetition of the theme mi^ifbt lead you to entertain those 
doubts and suspicions, which uncommon earnestness and rei- 
terated recurrence often suggest, when they do not arise 
naturally out of the subject. 

Comparative anatomy is BtUl pursued with great zeal in Ger- 
many, where literature and science are resuming that activity, 
which had experienced a short interruption from war; the 
favourite, but cosily and destructive game of princes, and 
indeed of people 

The structure, economy, and scientific classification of intes- 
tinal worms have been illustrated by several German naturalists, 
as Pallas, Bldch, Gqeza, and Wekner, whom I hare 
already mentioned to you. The same subject has been again 
surveyed in all its parta, and has received many new illustra- 
tions from Professor RuDOLPiii of Berlin; whose Ji'w^oroorum 
Historia, or History of internal Worms, besides much original 
matter, contains a complete collection of all that has been done 
on the subject, and an arrangement of the genera and species, 
which is now universally followed ; it is indeed deservedly con- 
sidered the first authority on this subject. 

TiLEsrus, a German naturahst, who accompanied a late 
Russian voyager round the world, has delineated numerous 
animals, ])articularly of the marine kinds, in the atlas of Krvs- 
enstehn's Voyage.* 

Dr. SiMX, a Bavarian, has published a folio workf on the 
comparative osteology of the head, containing numerous plates, 
which are a good B]}ecimen of the new art of hthography or 
Btone engraving. 

Professor Tiedemann of LantlRbut gained a priae offered by 
the Freni;h Institute for the best account of the organs of circu- 
Jation in the echinodermata, acid has just pubhshed his essay ^ 

• Reiifum die Wtlt; Pctcrsliurgli. 

T Cf/iAn/uowjfji'jr, tire Ccij'ifit attvi Slnieitira; MOnlptu 

t Jnvtvnut; der Uiihren-liolotliurie, dea J^emcram.Jarlitnen See-ttemt. urid 

if •''^nertien See-igeli ; folia, Latiilahut, 1816; friih ten beautiXol and ex- 


in folio, with several fine enj^ravings, representing the ivl^ole 
anatomy of the holothuria, asteria^^, and ecttinus. 'I'liis book, 
probably the only copy in the country ; — and the work of Spix, 
are in the library of tlie Medicahmil L'iiinirgical Society. Many 
other publications in the various de[iartinenta of zoology have 
appeared in Germany in the course of the past year. 
I We may form some Judgment of the taste for these pursuits, 

. which exists in other couutries, from the fact that Blum en- 

I BACu's Manual qf Natural History has gone through nine edi- 

tions. It is indeed remarkable for iti< clear arrangement, and 
! for the immense quantity of inluretstiiig and valuable informu. 

tion it contains condensed into a small compass. It is altoge- 
ther the best short elementary book on natural history in any 

This great zoologist has not only contributed many new ob- 
\ fler\'ations to the science, and enriched it with excellent ele- 
mentary works, but he has collected a very extensive and 
' valuable museum for the illustration of comparative anatomy 
^ and zoology. A similar collection has been made by ISogmmeb- 
[ BING at Munich. 

Of the magnificent cabinet of natural hiatory, belonging to 
I the Jardin des Plantes at Paris, report speaks very highly : it 
I seems to be unrivalled in the number, beauty, and arrangement 
\ of the specimens of the animal kingdom. Of the part which 
I relates to comparative anatomy I have not met vnth any detailed 
account, except that the osteological department is peculiarly 

^^^ I have great pleasure; in hearing that a zoological collection 
^^ bas been begun at the British Museum, because without such 
I aid, the study of the science must be prosecuted under great dif- 
ficulties, and must necessarily langiush. lliis department is 
under the direction of Dr. Leach, whose zeal, abilities, and 
scientific knowledge are a sufficient assurance to uathat nothing 
will be omitted, which the zcidous devotion of an individual 
can accomplish. 

In the unrivalled librar}' of Sir JoaEPH Banks, and in the 
more uncommon Liberality with which it is opened to all who 
are engaged in scientific pursuits, the naturalists of this country 
enjoy an eminent advantage. The powerful and munificent 
patronage of this public-spirited indii-idual is freely bestowed 
CO all branches of science : it is not confined to the cold sanction 
£of a bare assent, but takes the form of active and warm assist- 

SS MonEiiN' inaTonY, &c. 

ante in all scientific undertakings that pronuse to promote 
public utility. Zoology has been a favourite purfniit with him- 
aelf : the tie of a common oliject united him closely to Mr 
Hunter ; and he has ever showTi a disposition to promote the 
views of this College respecting the museum, which entitlea him 
to the particular gratitude of its menabersj as his general cha- 
racter and conduct do to the wannest esteem and respect of all 
friends to science. 

The zoologists of France still exhibit that activity and acute- 
neas, by which the science has been so much benefited, and by 
which it receives, every year, important acquisitions. Cuvikr 
has terminated his labours on the moUusca by the anatomy of 
the cuttle-fish tribe, and has published together, in one volume, 
with thirty-two beautifully engraved plates, containing a very 
large number of fij^ures from bia own drawin^^a, the whole of 
bia important researches on this department of the animal king- 
dom. Those who are acquainted with this admirable work; 
who have appreciated the immense extent and variety of the 
researches on which it is founded, and the satisfactory clearness 
acd accuracy both of all its details, and of the general conclu- 
sions and arrangements founded on them, will be astonished to 
hear that its author has e.tecuted a series of investigations equally 
extensive on the vertebral animals, the vermes, the zoophytes, 
on many insects and crastacea. He has not published them in 
the same way ; but the preparations are deposited in the cabinet 
of comparative anatomy at the Jardin des Plantes, and mU be 
employed ultimately in that great work on comparative anatomy, 
to which all the previous and apparenily finished productions 
of this jihilosophical and accomplished zoologist, are regarded 
by himself merely as a kind of prelude ; although any one out 
of their great number would have raised its author to a distin- 
guished rank in the scientific world. 

This history and anatomy of the moUusca is* not the only 
daim, which Cuvier has to our gratitude within tne past year. 
His work on the animal kingdom, in four volumes octavo, ex- 
hibits a methodical and philosophical view of the science of 
ecology : it places before us a subject capable of engaging and 
Batisfying an inquiring mind ; not a dry and uninteresting detail 
of names and forms, but the philosopjiieal principles of zoolo- 
gical arrangement, and the execution of those principles through 
fill their details. It establishes the divisions and Bubdiviaiont 
of the hvmg world through the whole of the vast scale, on the 


doable Imsis of external and internal structure . it enumerates oil 
tae well-authenticated species, which are known with certainty 
to beloni; to each subdivision, and enters into some details on 
those kind^, which from their abundance in climates, the 
advantages we derive, or the injuries we sufler from them, from 
singularities in their manners or economy, then- extraordinary 
forms, beauty, or size, become objects of particular interest. Of 
the confidence which this work deserves as a rejuesentation of 
facts, in contradistinction from compilations the fruit of labours in 
the closet, we may form a judfjmenl from this circumstance, that 
with the exception of such animals, as by their minuteness elude 
the researches of the anatomist, there are very few groupea of 
the rank of sub-genera mentioned in tlie book, of which the 
author cannot produce at least some considerable ])orliun of the 
organs. In each division and each sjiecies we are referred to 
the best sources of information ; not by indiscriminate and 
accumulated quotations, which only increase and perpetuate 
eonfutiion, but by the selection of those works and figures, in 
which the character of originality belongs ; in short, by weighmg 
and not counting authorities. A very valuable catalogue of 
zoohigical authors is subjoined. 

That it bears marks of haste, and does not in all ])arts corres- 
pond to what we expect from the most knowing and most learned 
(which arc by no means synonjTnous epithets) of modern zoolo- 
gists, might well be expected when we consider the wide fiekl it 
embraces, the multifarious pursuits, and the important political 
snd civil duties of the author. Yet, it is not less valuable than 
indispensable to every zoologist, as the most perfei'l dtlineatioa 
of the actual stale of the science, as the most authentic and 
worthy of confidence in its details, and from the enlightened 
discrimination and criticism employed in the selection of au> 

If any of my hearers have regarded zoology as an amnsement 
rather than a philosophical pursuit, as something calculated to 
employ light minds, or occui>y hours of leisure and relaxation, 
I would recommend them to survey the di.stribution of animals 
presented in this work 'i'hey will find that the science, thus 
treated, is not only capable of affording an aniple source of agree- 
ahle and interesting instniction and entertainment, but also, 
that, in e.vhibiting a methodical arrangement of a most copious 
wd multifarious Bubjecl, it is a very useful exercise and disci- 
pline of the mind, 'iliis advantage, of distributing and classing 



a vast number of ideas, which belongg in a remarkable degree 
to natural histoty, has not yet been so much insinted on as it 
desen'ea. It exercises us in that important intellectual operation, 
which may be called method, or orderly distribution ; as the 
exact scienccH train the mind to habits of close attention and 
itrict reasoning. Is'atural history requires the most precise 
method or arrangement ; as geometry demands the most rigo- 
rous reasoning. When this art Of it may be so called) is once 
thorouglily acquired, it may be applied with great advantage to 
other objects. All discussions tbat require a classtti cation of 
facts, all researches that are founded on an orderly distribution 
of the subject, are conducted on the same principles ; and young 
men, who have turned to this acienee as a matter of amusement, 
will be surprised to find how much a familiarity with its processes 
will facilitate the unraveUing all complicated subjects, 

I do not enter irito any details of the accessions, for which 
science is indebted to this illustrious naturaUst, this great com- 
parative anatomist; because the limits of a lecture would be 
inmiBicieut. Neither do I mean to compare or contrast • his 

• One object of the Pki/tt'Dlogicai, Letturet was to contrast Mr. Huntor'a 
knowledge of comparative anatomy willi' thai of Cuvicr. The field of living 
nature lia» been »iirv*?j'ed aiid cultivated by these two Rreit men with very 
different views ani] uhji^ctsi ; by the forronr, for the elucidation of physiology ; 
lay the latter, for establiahing llie laws of loolony. It would have lieen into- 
reaticif; to alinw how the peneril course of proceeding;, the mode of investiua- 
tion, the selection of objects, mid the resuli, have been moilitied by this 
diversity of design ; and to point out the diiTcrf lu-ea which are trncekule to 
the ori;;inal divpTsity of encowment ind of education. Such 4 comparlsoa 
requires a mind fre<; from theutttional nlTeclioiis and atitipatliies, in which tho 
author of the Lectures Rlories ; itrequiri's too, that an accurate parallel shoult 
be dr.nw'U by the labours i«nd diaeoverieaur vat^h, and that nil their res[>ective 
writia^'a stiouUl Up well known. In the iMU-urct, there is no coinpuratire 
•mtement of what these ffreat men haue accampliuhed; juid the author {,'ivei 
OS to understau'l, that ofCiivier'a niimeraiis inijioltaiit works he isat-tjuiiinted 
Only with his Lectures on comitanitire .^naiumy. Yet he does not abandon 
the desif^n, but addresses his amlifnce as. tieiiHeinen oj the Jurt/, coTninK lor- 
ward* tu) " n voluntary advocate in the cqubs of Hunter versus Cuvier 
ami others," p. 16. In this mji^kery ulak-i^ul priiceedinff, he has unfortu- 
nately omllted everv" one of the cautions and reflations, wTiich in thf justly 
venpritted fovma uf Eni^lish jiiittclal proccedui^'s urc deM^ned to secure Im- 
partinl justice. Where is the onllj^hteneJ jud;i;e hidltl'erent to both pardest 
Where the impartial jury, any of whom may lie ehallenued by the accused. T 
Wliere the :idvofcite of the oiiposite jmrty ? He soon gets sick of bis trial; 
Joes nut I'feii slate the grievance r-ompiatneU of clearly ; adduces not a par- 
ticle of evidence ; but uniting in his nun person the chariieti'ts of advocate, 
judge, and jury, and not hearing onytbinK in b**halF of the defeudaut, of 
course pronounces a vi-iilit't fur his oh n client. Who the ol/rert arc, com- 
bined in this charge with Cuvier, or what Ihey have been ^ilty of, we are 
not inforini'tl. This happy thought of a trial is iu;ain.introdiicet3, and nci-om- 
(anled with a compliment to British liberty (p. 334) : it was a sinf^iilar period 
1o seleL't for such uii cLJldjjium.— for traiis|dunliiii{ to the CoUepe of Surijeoti* 
tbti appenls to national vanity, whir-h the increasing j;oud seiue and taste of 
the very galleries have nearly banished frum the theatres. 

Flaviiig disarmed of Cuvier, the aulhor makes very short work, with Haller 
Daabenton, IVIlos, and Camper: thinkin<r unpirenily, that all meril allowed 
t> them is «u much cliiiir losis to the object of his idotntry. 

UwYian shown bow erroneaua the {ipiuioa a, th^t our tvicnce ohm aoy 



Avilh those 

iy other indiviilual ; because I do not 
possess any p>uj?e for the mind ; I lia^'e iw jilummet for souad- 
ing the depth of intellect ; nor any coinmun measure by which 
its relative amount can he delenmned, under the different varie- 
ties of exertion. I should not bu ahle to weigh genius ajfainat 
acquirements, or to decide vvhethf.r the c[uatitity of discovery in 
one were equal to its quality in nriother. I can only state my 
own opinion ; which is, that if it were necessary to point out any 
one man, as the chief contrilmtor to the present slate of zoology 
in genera], and of comparative anatomy in particular, to desig- 
nate any individual to whom the modern progiress of these 
sciences has been principally ov/in^, I cannot doubt that the 
naturalistsof Europe would pronounce an unanimous verdict for 


Ye; I'crhaps they would not like lo come to a decision m such 
a question, and would prefer returning a special statement, that 
should satisfy the claims of all, withuut conferring an offensive 
pre-emini'tice on any one. They might probably pronounce that 
the French academicians, that Redi, Valisnieri, Swammgr- 
DAM, LvoNNKT, Reauml'k, Dauhentos, and, had 
cleared the ground, dug out and laid the foundation of the buildl- 
ang, — that Camper, Pallas, IIuntek, Poli, Blumkndach, 
and CuvrKB, had raised the edifice ; — while innumerable other 
amsts, by finishing particular apaiciuontH, or exeuutnig decora- 
tions and embellishments, had signally contributed, not only to 
the commodiousness and comfort, but to the general edect of 
the whole. 

These great men, though bom in different countries, may be 
considered to have been united as contributors to one common 
end, the advancement of useful knowledge. In reviewing their 
labours, let us keep our attention fised on this object, and not 
look aside at the national cpiestions, which divide and disturb 
mankind. We expect from science that it should suengthen 
feehngs of benevolence, and promote acts of charity; — not 
encourage controversy, and inflame national rivalry: — that it 
should draw more closely those bonds which unite men toge- 
ther i and not add fresh power to the repulsive forces which 
already separate them too widely. 

eat oblisntions to these latlWiduMa, und reljrinif firmly on the i^or*nc« oi 
Sii audieiicv in rcspecl to dates, ht arrinj* easily ai Um cancllL1^ut^ "that 
Tip grpiit illaininatiou, wlilch rompJiratlT*^ analomj" naii physiolD^v have of 
»<<» rpcrivod i>n th(; Coutinent, luta in a i:ur>!iiilprable <le)/rif tesukfd from 
•flratvil li};''t« origiiialli' fjuaimling frum njuti-nii.'.s which Air. llunt<.'r trouglit 

gethfr, and frum bia brillioutphfBiDlugiu&I ducovenc*." P. 61, 


Lamarck is repul)l)>4hing in on enlarged fonn, hia Natural 
History of the invertebral Animala ; and has already completed 
four volumes. 

Savicny has made some very interesting discoveries in the 
same division of the animal kingdom ; and has puhli^licd them 
under the modest title of Memoirs on invertebral Anvnalss of 
which two portions have already appeared. 

Mons. Blainville, who succeeds Cuvikk in his lectures at 
the Jardin des Plantea, in the course of many years silently and 
steadily devoted under so ahle a teacher, to the study of natural 
history and comparative anatomy, has gained a most extensive 
stock of infarmation on these subjects, and displays his thorough 
acquaintance J>oth with their principles and details in numerous 
memoirs, chiefly contained in the Bulletin des Sciences, and 
other French coDections. 

It is [lerhaps yet too soon to determine how these and similar 
pursuits may be influenced by the recent political changes itt 
France. Hitherto, however, science has not partaken in the 
triumph of legitimacy. 

Le Sueuh, the fellow-traveller of Pkron, who had long pro- 
mised a natural history of the medusae, to he iUustraled by those 
inimitable delineations which he brought !)ack from their voyage 
of discovery to the austral regions, has found himself unable to 
complete this undertaking, and is gone with many others, to the 
ne%v world. If we cannot repress a sigh when we see men of 
peaceful pursuits thus torn from their native soil, and driven 
into foreign climes, let us rejoice, not only for them, but for all 
mankind, that such an asylum for the victims of power and op- 
pression exiists ; that there is, not a spot, but a vast region of 
the earth, lavishly endowed with nature's fairest gifts, and exhi- 
biting nt the same time the grand and animating spectacle of a 
country sacred to civil liberty ; where man may \valk erect in 
the conscious dignity of independence, that 

"Lord of the lion heATt and e»gle eye," 

and enjoy full freedom of word and action, without the perraiS' 
fflon of those combinations or conspiracies of the mighty, which 
threaten to ccmvert Europe into one great state pnson. The 
DTimeroua people, whose happiness and tranqmllity are so effec- 
taailly secured by the simple forms of a free government, are the 
growth of yesterday — at the same rate of progress, they may 
reach in our lives as gigantic a superiority over the worn-out 



despotisms of the old world, as the physical features of An^ 
rica, her colossal mountaiDS, her mighty riv(^^s, her forests, and 
her lakes, exhibit in comparison with those of Europe. 





3V Culliration of Zoolngy and ctniparalitt Ahatomii rteomnendtd Oi Branehtt 
nf genenti Knoieleilge, and at on interailing Departaumt nf PkiUacjAy ;— 
Their Kelalion to vahoiu Qtieitioiu in geiunU PlMotop/it/ exemplified in the 
CrodatiuJu of OrganiiaJion, and the Doctrine <tf final Vautet ; — EsampUit cf 
the j)id Ihi-y are vajmhU <if rendering to G'eologf/ and the phi/iical Uiilory 
(lie GIvlfe : — Their importance lo Phyriotogy, and cmue<iuenlty lo the Kientifie 
Study fj Medicine; — OtJecU Qf Inqttir^ in the Animal Kingdom, and Moietff 
IneeHigation ;—Jnalomf ; — Phyiiulugy .—PolAologj/. 

Gentlemen ! — Having the honour of appearing before yoa 
for the third time, as profetisor of anatomy and surgery, I deem 
it a proper opportunity to ob»en'c, that the comparative esti- 
mate 1 originally formed of the exigencies of this office, and of 
the means I could bring forward for the purpose of meeting 
them, which would, at all times, have deterred mo from pre- 
senting myself as a candidate for such a trust, remains unaltered 
by my subsequent experience : or rather, that it has been con- 
firmed by the nearer contemplation of a subject so arrluous and 
ample, as to require the industrious devotion and undirided 
energies of an active and vigorous mind ; and by the discovery 
of those deficiencies in knowledge, which the urgency of other 
avocations leaves me no hope of filling up. In pursuing tb? 
path which I have entered upon, I must, therefore, still rely on 
that indulgent consideration which I know that you are dis- 
posed to extend to all sincere efforts at promoting the grand 
objects entertained by the Court of this College; — I mean the 
diffusion throughout oiir body, and particularly among its rising 
members, of a taste for all the auxiliary pursuitR which are 
capable of lending to our profession, either essential aid or 
ceful ornament ; the cultivation of surgery as a science ; and 
le securing for its honourable practitioners that rank in society 
d that public regard, which are the just meed of liberal pur- 
suits directed to the attainment of useful pubbc ends. 

As the riches of our collection are more calculated for the 
leisure and deliberate surt^ey of a visit to the museum, than for 
the distant and hasty exhibitions of this tiiea'„/e, 1 shall prefaca 
the demonstrative part of the lectures by some general liia- 

not I 


courses, whirh will be devoted to illustrate the aim and utility 
of Kooiogy in general, and of comparative anatomy in particular ; 
their relations to physiology, and to the sciences more imme- 
diately connected with our practical pursuits ; and the general 
principles, which are to be kept in view in cultivating these 
branches of knovrledge. If, in this course, I should enter on 
topics, which have been already brought under your review this 
season, my apology iniist be, that my arratigements were made 
before my worthy colleague had begun his lectures, and that 
amputation or dislocation of the parta in question would have 
been troublesome, if not painful operations 

His interesting disquisitions un varicua parts of comparative 
anatomy were not felt by me in the light of invasion or encroach- 
ment, llie manor of living nature is so ample, that all may be 
allowed to sport on it freely ; the most jealous proprietor cannot 
entertain any apprehension that the game will be exhausted, 
even perceptibly thinned : to introduce anything like the spi 
of game-laws into acience, ivould, if possible, exceed the oppr 
sive cruelty and intolerable abuses of that iniquitous and exe 
crable code. 

Having alluded to the course of lectures just finished, I should 
liot do justice to my own feelings, nor to the merits of iny 
esteemed coadjutor,* if I did not sincerely thank hira for the 
information I have received — if I did not state, that, in listening 
to those luminous and eloquent discourses, I felt a satisfaction 
in belonging to a profession, which could boast such an asso- 
ciate, and express a wish that a aeries of lectures, so honourable 
to the author and to the profeasion, should receive that difiusion 
by the press, which must be both useful and gratifying to 

I KNOW no branch of knowledge more interesting to mankind 
m general, including all ages and descriptions, than the history 
of living beings, or, as we commonly call it, the natural history 
of animals ; of which comparative anatomy is the very life and 
essence. This pleasing subject occupies us at the very first 
dawn of reason, amusing our earliest infancy j and supphes a 
fund of solid instruction and rational entertainment to our riper 
years, and more developed faculties. In its boundless e.xtent 
and variety are included matters within the comprehension of 
the slenderest and least cultivated understanding; and others, 

* Aut. CarlUle, Esq. 


to which the strongest minda and most enlarged science are not 
more than adequate. 

ITie resemhlance, which animals hear to ourselves in franu 
and actions, naturally leads u« to ascribe to thetn our own feel, 
ings, to fancy that they are susceptible of our pleasures and 
pains, actuated hy our desires and aversions, and impelled hy 
the same motives or springs of action ; and thus excites iu the 
mind, even of the youngest and most unlearned, a sympathetic 
interest and a degree of curiosity, which are never felt in exa- 
mining inorganic nature, or in contemplating its phenomena. 
None of the exhibitions in a fair are more crowdetl hy young 
and old, the ignorant and the learned, than the collections of 
foreign and curious animals ; no books are more generally read, 
than descriptions of the form, actions, habits, instincts, and 
character of hving creatures. 

The knowledge of living nature, which is well worthy of cul- 
tivation, as a subject of mere amusement, at once mnocent and 
rational, and therefore suited to all ages, presents other and 
higher claims to our attention. The multiplied relations, which 
asuimala bear to our own species ; supplying our most urgent 
wants, aiding our greatest undertakings, and giving full effect to 
our faculties and ctertions ; and the important part they fill in 
the creation, animating and enlivening every scene, and often 
changing the very face of nature, can hardly escape the notice of 
the most unreflecting, and can only be neglected by those, who 
are contented to remain ignorant of the most striking pheno- 
mena around them. I do not speak at present of the importan* 
bearings, wliich zoology has vn the science of human organiza. 
tion and life, and consequently on the art of heahng; but coc-. 
sider it merely as a branch of general knowledge. 

^Tiat a multitude of quadrupeds, birds, and fishes afford 
occupation, either directly or indirectlj', to the many savage 
tribes, who Uve almost entirely on the produce of the chase or 
the fishery, or to the sportsman, who seeks in these pursuits 
merely a healthy recreation ! What an interest is felt in 
observing and investigating the habits of these various beings, 
in comparing and contrasting their diversified endowments; in 
watching the force and activity of some, the address, the strata- 
gems, and the cunning of others, the wonderfal instincts of all, 
and the curious relation hetween their habits and the respective 
•ituations they occupy ! 
What a Qumber of the inhahitanU at the earth, ur, uid 


vaten, are sacrificed to famish us with food ! while from the 
eame source, we deriv^e a still larger portion of our clothing. 
The number of living creatures, whether beasts, birds, ana 
fishea, or even reptiles, worms, and insects, consumed for food 
in the various regions of the earth, is prodigious. None, even the 
most disgusting, as locusts, beetles, maggots, spiders, entirely 
escape. When we add to these what are destroyed to supply 
us with clothing, particularly with wool, silk, leather, fur, fea- 
thers ; with the means of procuring light, aa oil, spermaceti, wax, 
tallow ; with various articles of medicine, as hartshorn, musk, 
castor, Spanish flies; with the materials of numerous useful and 
elegant arts, as cochineal, parchment, glue, isinglass, catgut, 
bone, ivory, mother-of-pearl, hair, bristles, whalebone, horn; — 
and what are kiUed for our sport and amusement, or through 
abuse, wantonness, and cruelty ; the catalogue will be of im- 
menge length ; and will amply justify Dr. Spuhzhkim in having 
marked out so considerable a tract, in his map of the htunan 
brain, for the abode of destructiveness, and its near neighbour 
and close ally, combativeness : — to say nothing of that circum- 
stance, which is almoBt peculiar to our species, viz. their killing 
each other ;* — a practice so essentially characteristic of human 
nature, that it prevails in every region and climate, in every 
variety of man, and in every state of society, from the i-udest 
tribe of savages to the most highly civilized empire j except, 
indeed, among the Quakers, and one or two equally inconsi- 
derable sects, whose singular and narrow-minded refusal to 
follow the way of the world in so innocent a particvdar, has been 
treated with suitable scorn and ridicule by their more enlight- 
ened fellow Christians.f 

" Brides war. " the ^ame," our poet call* it, " which, were their gubjecla 
wise, kiiif;* should iiDt jilay at," tml which, uiiluirkily, Riiliject& fiijo}- almost 
as much a" ki^g^, I may- rcl'ur to the human saeriliecs, whieh cidu'r have been 
oi are still practised in must parts of the world; and to caniiiUall-iin, which, 
having been inuch dmiblod anil questioned, is now clearly pruvcd Lo lie still 
prevalent in mniiy placex. 

t In comjtlimenling the Quaker* for not having followed the warlike aad 
destmclivB i'.viiiipli- set before thera by i he real uf mankind, I ouj^ht not to 
have coQvej-pil jay praise in the iroiiiOitl form of blame, iM-cauae irony Uolten 
misuDdeT&tiiod, even where «e may think sui-h a mistake almost iinpuaslble. 
ms in the ca.'te yf the gooil bishop, who de-clared himself hij;lily pleased with 
GulUver't Traveh, but added, that the huuk contaitjed some things which lie 
had a difHciilty id lielietlng. To obviHle the pD-ssihtlity of further mlsunder- 
standiiiji', Hay aside irony, and stat(> must aeriuualy aiid.sineetelv, that, whe- 
ther 1 resanrihem an ari-ligioussecl, uras abodj' ofcitiiens ; — wliether I look 
to their private or pnblie conduct. I hold the QuiLkeTa in the biMheat respect. 
An Christiiirii they entertain nu uninlelligiUlearliclea nffijlh; they waste no 
time in spliltinjj the haira of iheolu^icuJ controversy j their Mi^^ular and 
bonourahl)' distliiction is practieal Chnatianity, evinced in bliimeless lives, in 
renuiincins all force and violence, iu endeavouring to fullll literally the 
Goipel precepts of peace and ^otlwill, in active benevolence, in luixeznitted 


There are instances, in which whole tribes of human bein^ 
depend, for the supply of all their wants, on one or two species 
of animals. The Greenlander, and the Esquimaux of Labrador, 
placed in a region of almoHt constant snow and ice, where intense 
cold renders the soil incapable of producinjr any articles of human 
sustenance, sire fed, clothed, and lodged from the seal. They 
pursue, indeed, the rein-deer, other land animals, and birds; 
hut seal-hunting is their grand occupation. The flesh and blood 
of the seal are their food ; the blubber or subcutaneous stratum 
of fat, affords them the means of procuring light and heat; the 
bones and tc^th are converted into weai>ons, instruments, and 
various ornaments : the skin not only supplies them with cloth- 
ing, but with the coverings of their huts and canoes. The 
stomach, intestines, and bladder, when dried, are turned to many 
and various uses : in their nearly transparent dry state, they 
supply the place of glass in the windows ; they form bkdders 
for their harpoons, arrows, nets, &c. ; when sewed together they 
maice under garments, curtains, &c. ; and are employed in place 
of linen on many occasions, 'lima every part of the animal is 
converted, by a kind of domestic anatomy, to useful jmrposes, 
even to the tendons, which, when split and dried, form excellent 
threads. To the pursuit of the seal, the canoes, instruments, 
■veapons, clothing, education, and whole manner of life of the 
Greenlanders are adapted. As a plentiful supply of these animala 
enables them to disjiense with every thing else, and as without 
these they could procure neither dweUings, clothes, nor food, it 
naturally follows that the great aim of education is to niitke the 
boys expert seal-hunters ; and that dexterity in this pursuit is 
the greatest praise that can he bestowed on the man.* The 
Laplanders and the Tungooses of north-eastern Asia, are equdly 
indebted to the rein-deer; the Tschutski, the north-west Ameri- 
cans, the Aleutians, and other neighbouring islanders, to the 
whale and walrus. The latter, as well as the Greenlanders, seem 
to have anticipated modern anatomists in accurately distinguish- 
ing the several anatomical textures, and ascertaining what 
BicHAT calls their "propriete's de tissue," or properties result- 

prr»nnal lis wcfl M pot'uniary co-oporation in all meMures cnU-uUted to dimU 
tiUh the a.raount of human inist^ry and »\iffering, and tnimprovp the ciiiiditiOB 
of thdr fcllow-c-icoturrs. These truly ChTOliaa merila would redeem much 
heavier Kinit tlmri an adheroTiCf ti> the> nlitin .md iiim[ile g&rh, a.rid the uneere« 
inonioui lan-^n.icr uf Oeors^ I'tix ajitl Willinm Pivnn. 

• SfO trie iiiliTcsMrijr afpniint "f the (ireenlantlprs in Cranti, GeieMchM 
Oronland : also Ruedo, Deterirition qf Greenlanrl : I,ond. 1818; of the Bla 
naux, iu F.llis'i k'uyage lu UuJton't Jjoji, p. 137, aud I'uUoiring. 


ing from organization, in order to convert the various parts to 
the manifold purposes of ilieir economical anatomy. They 8ur- 
prise US by mamifacturinp thread from the carcass of the great 
leviathan ; splitting the fibres of its cutaneous muscle (the p&nni- 
cuius carnosus) into lengths of a hundred feet or more ; and 
preparing from it a double-threaded twine, which, in the united 
requisites of fineness and strength, will bear comparison with any 
productions of European industry. 

The flocks and herds, whicli are reared for food, and the various 
domesticated animals employed in agriculture, in carrying bur- 
dens, for draft, and in numberless other ways, are so useful and 
important, that their structure, economy, and diseases, have been 
carefully studied ; and these subjects have been found sufficient 
to occupy a particular class of persons. Indeed, without the 
dog, the horse, the sheep, the cow, the goat, the rein-deer, the 
camel, and the lama, many extensive regions of the globe would 
be uninhabitable; and others now covered with a numerous 
population, would be reduced almost to the condition of deserts. 

Comparative anatomy bears the same relation to the veterinary 
art, that human anatomy and physiology do to medicine. The 
peculiarities in the organic structure and functions of peiticular 
genera or species lead lo corresponding peculiarities in their 
diseases and derangements. Hence, a rational treatment of the 
disorders incidental lo animals, presupposes a knowledge of the 
generic and specific characters of internal organization. It seems 
Buperfluous to adduce the digestion of the ruminant order, or 
other analogous instances, in illustration of a truth so evident 
in itself. 

Many animals are known to us as objects of alarm and terror, 
or of considerable though less serious annoyance. Some ara 
directly fonnidable by their strength and ferocity, aa beasts of 
prey ; others by their noxious properties, as venomous reptiles 
and insects. Some ravage our fields and gardens, destroying 
the various vegetable productions ; others attack our food and 
clothing. Some even perforate the planks of the largest ships, 
or the timbers of other submarine constructions. 

A more extensive field is opened to the philosopher in the 
btructure and economy of animals ; in their analogies and differ- 
ences ; in the relation of their organization and functions to the 
circumstances in which they are placed, and in the modificationa 
corresponding to the infinitely varied combinations of abode, 
surrounding element, food, mode of growth, and reproduction. 
&c. &c. 


We see some eagacioas and docile, capable of inatnietion^ 
exhibiting mental phenomena analogous to our own — the gernu 
or imperfect state of what, when more developed, is human in- 
tellect: — others are stupid, ferocious, and untameable. Some 
are mild, sociable, and gregarious ; others wild, savage, and 
fiolitary. Many surprise us by their curious instincts, as in pro- 
viding for the abode, defence, or food of themselves or their 
oSspring ; by the unerring regularity with which each individual 
of the Epeciea, unaided by experience or instruction, obeys, as it 
were, the fixed law of destiny, in ])erforming at stated periods 
the longest journeys, as in the migration of birds and fishes, or 
executes the most perfect and intricate constructions, exceeding 
the utmost exertions even of human skill and wisdom. 

Some have an acuteness of the external senses, ])articuiarly 
sight, hearing, and smelling, to which we are strangers : in some 
we are astonished by the force, in others by the celerity and 
variety of motion. 

Some Uve altogether on flesh, others on vegetable matters ; — 
some eat incessantly, as our common graminivorous ijuadnipeds; 
others are satisfied with a full meal once a day, as the beasts of 
prey; and others, as certain reptiles, wiU eat only once in several 
■weeks, and can even support an alislinence of many months. 

To many animals, the interruption of respiration for a minute 
or two, is fatal ; some can go without breathing for an hour, 
for many hours, or for days ; and others pass months together 
without the exercise of this function, in a condition of inactivity 
and torpor hardly distinguishable from dL'ath. 

To many, a alight injury of some organ is fatal ; some survive 
the loss of the most important members, and even reproduce 
them ; some, when divided into two or more portions, have the 
power of forming an entire individual from each fragment. 

It is the business of the philosophical zoologist to observe 
closely all the circumstances of these interesting phenomena, and 
of many other analogous ones ; to trace their connection with 
the rest of the economy, and with the pecxdiar organisation of 
each animal ; to compare together all the diversities and modi- 
fications ; and thus to arrive, if possible, at the rational theory, 
or just explication of their causes. 

The gradations of organization, and the final purposes con- 
templated by nature in the construction of her lining machines,— 
two interesting and much-agitated subjects in the philosophy of 
natural history, — receive their only clear illustration and iacoa> 


trovertible evidence from comparative anatomy. Many naturaHsts 
have pleased themselves with arranging the animal kinf?dom in 
a successive series according to external form ; and have fancied 
it a peculiar mark of \\'i8dom and beauty in the creation, that 
there are no abrupt changes, no breaks in the arrangement, but 
the most gradual and gentle transition from link to linlc through- 
out the whole chain. TheBe views will not bear the test of im- 
partial scrutiny, which soon destroys the belief in such a chain 
of beings, so far as the basis of external figure goes. On the 
Other band, the pursuits of zootomy, in unfolding the internal 
mechanism and its movements, display the most evident tran- 
eitiona and gradationH of orgauizatiuu and economy. We see 
classes and orders, as, for example, birds, and the testudines (the 
turtle and tortoise kinds,) which, by their external configuration, 
are quite insulated in the creation, connected in the most natural 
manner with others of quite ditlerent form, and imited to them 
by the principle of internal resemblance. 

The four component parts of the np{)er extremity ; tie. the 
shoulder, arm, fore-arm, and band, can be clearly shown to exist 
in the anterior extremities of all mammalia, however dissimilar 
they may appear on a superficial inspection, and however widely 
they may seem to deviate from the human stnicture. The wings 
©f the hat, osteologically considered, are hands; the bony 
etretcbers of the cutaneous membrane being the digital ])lialange8 
extremely elongated. The dolphin, porpoise, and all other 
whales have a fin on each side, just behind the head, consisting- 
apparently of a single piece. But we find, under the inte^ifu- 
xnents of this fin-like member, all the bone.s of an anterior ex- 
tremity, flattened indeed, and hardly susceptible of motion on 
each other, but distinctly recognisable: there are a scapula, 
humerus, bones of the fore-arm, carpus, metacarpus, and five 
fingers. The fore-feet of the sea-otter, seal, walrus, and manati, 
form the connecting links between the anterior extremities of 
other mammalia, and the pectoral fins of the whale kind. The 
bones are so covered and connected by integuments, as to con- 
fitimte a part adapted to swimming ; but these are much more 
developed than in the latter animal, and have free motion on 
each other. The bones of the wing of birds have a great and. 
ime.vpected resemblance to those of the fore-feet of the mam- 
malia, and the fin-bke anterior member of the penguin, appli- 
cable only to swimming, contains within the integuments, the 
nme bones as the wings of other birds, which execute the WJ 
different oiSce of flight. 



The same point is illustrated by another kiud of cases la com- 
parative anatomy ; viz. the existence uf certaia parts, genetaUj 
in an imperfect state, or, in the anatoinical plH-ase, as mdi- 
jnents, in some anitnalu, where the function does not esdst, and 
where the parts therefore are not employed. It Beerns as if a 
certain raodel or original ty})e, adapted to the intended functioni, 
had been £xed on as a pattern fur the construction of nearly 
allied and analof^ous beings ; and that this model had been ad- 
hered to, even in those cutes, where Home particular func- 
tion did not exiHt, and where coosequently the correspondiag 
organ was in reality unnecessary. The additional pelvic bones, 
which support the false beUy or abdominal pouch of the mw- 
supial animals, are found in the males, as well as in the females, 
although the former hare not the poach. Several camivorous 
animals have clavicular bones, conuected merely to the muscles, 
and ub\aou$Iy incapable of serving, even in the smallest degree, 
those purposes for which true clancles are added to the skeleton. 
The breasts and nipples of male ammals are another wmmjde. 

I'he marsupial bones and the milk-secretang apparatus of 
female animals are appointments of organization manifestly 
designed to ful^ certain ends, and accompbahiag very easential 
purposes in the economy. In the male sex they are neitlier 
Babservient to use nor ornament ; and seem, to our imperfect 
knowledge, to exemijlify the prevalence, in animal organization, 
of a mechanical principle, of the adherence to a certain original 
type or modeL 

'I'lie olfactory nerves of the cetacea, in whom the blowing 
holes occupy the place of the nose, afford another instance, the 
more remarkable, as their existence has beeji generally denied, 
even by the greatest authorities ia comparative anatomy. 'Ilief 
coue-ist in the porpoise of two white extremely slender lUameflfta, 
which, although visible to the naked eye, cannot be distinctly 
recognised as nen'es without a magnifying glass.* 

No subject has been more warmly contested than the doc- 
trine of final causes ; which, however, has suffered more frcna 
the ill-judged efforts of its friends, than from the attacks of its 
enemies. We can hardly conceive that any person, who did not 

* Trrviranus, Builtigie, b. r. p. MS, tab. 4. 

PLiiitvillo aud Jaeubsun hud aJrcady asKrtod the Fxislpnce of oUaietOTy 
lier»e« lu the cetsceiL in the BuHelin det Sciencea, 181S, p. 195. 

In tlic Murk qiiuted above, Trcviranus dcwrihcii a very smgiilur dcTiation 
frum the ordinary arr.tnai'mfut, u ocrurring in Ihi? mole. A braiirh of the 
supcriur maxilljiry uitvl- goes to tlio eye, aud fumij the reliiiu, whUc the 
Of uc lierves, about the «izc oi' huu, ue eutirely unoonnectud witb each othtr, 
abd caxmot be traced to the cyvf. lUd. p. ^l, tab. 3. 

D 2 


feel a difficulty in believing that a watch was formed for the pur- 
pose of showing the hour, could serioasly doubt that our 
Btomachs were expressly constructed for digestion, our eyes for 
seeing, and the rest of our organs for the purposes which they 
BO admirably fulfil. But one must be very fondly attached to 
final causes to persuade himself, as some have done, that the sea 
is salt to preserve it from putrefying ; that the tides of the ocean 
are designed to bring our vessels safely into port ; that stones 
are made to build liouses with ; and sUkworms created in China 
to lumish the belles and beaux of Eurojie witli satins. It would 
be only one step farther to assert that sheep have been formed to 
be sheared and slaughtered ; legs to wear hoots, and the nose 
for spectacles- 
Nothing, indeed, can be more truly unsatisfactory than the 
well-meant but worn-out complimentary eflfusions we are too 
often doomed to encounter, which, instead of evincing the wis- 
dom of the creation, show only the folly of their authors ; or at 
least their misconceptions and short-sighted views. The physico- 
theologista seem to have considered it their duty to point out 
the end and purpose contemplated by the Creator in every 
natural arrangement : thus, they have sometimes fallen into the 
laughable absurdity of expatiating on the wisdom of cert^ 
pronsions, which subsequent examination baa proved not to 
exist at all. 

ITie foot of an bjinenopterous insect was described as being 
perforated in a certain part by minute holes j — immediately a 
sufficient use was discovered for this structure. It was described 
as a no less elegant than wise provision for sifting the pullcn of 
plants, and thus applying the fine fecundating powder to the 
female organs : and, from the supposed structure and use, the 
creature received the name of sphex cribraria. Unluckily for 
the comphment thus designed to natuie, the part was afterwards 
discovered not to be perforated,* 

Others, again, have so firmly believed, not only the wisdom 
of creation, but their own insight into it, that they have called 
in question the existence of particular arrangements, because 
they could not discern the purposes to which they are subser- 
vient. Thus, when Blumendach pointed out to Camfeb 
that the tadpoles of the Surinam toad (rana pipa) have tails.f 
this great anatomist waa disposed at first to deem the specimBtt 

• Blamnnhaeh, Bet/lrage tur IfaiurgetcAiehle, I', theU, p. iO, note. 
i JtMUiungen natwkitiorucher Gegwiutandti No, 3S. 


Z monstrosity ; • because he could not comprehend for what 
purpose these strange beings, so curiously lodged in the dorsal 
cells of their mother, should have the swimming tail of the 
common tadpole. 

A distinguished English naturalist has argued that the fossil 
elephant bones must belong to some species still existing, 
because, says he, " Providence maintains and continues every 
created species ; and we have as much assvirance, that no races 
of animals will any more cease, while the earth reraaineth, than 
seed-time and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, day 
and night." Unluckily for the credit of this gentleman's as- 
sumed acquaintance with the designs and schemes of Providence, 
we have the fullest evidence that many species and genera of 
animals have been annihilated. 

The pliilosophic naturalist, guided by comparative anatomy, 
discovers at every step striking peculiarities in the economy of 
animals, founded on corresponding arrangements of organiza- 
tion. We must take refuge either in verbal quibbles, or in an 
exaggerated and unreasonable scepticism, if we refuse to recog- 
nise in this relation between pectdiarity of structure and func- 
tion those designs and adaptations of exalted power and 
wisdom, in testimony of which all natiure cries aloud through all 
her works. 

Many things are, indeed, at present inexplicable to us ; thus, 
we cannot conceive to what purpose the long, slender, and 
almost circular canine teeth of the upper jaw of the babyroussa 
are subservient; and the offices of many parts, even in the 
human body, are still hidden from us. But the ends or final 
purposes of the Creator will be placed in the strongest light by 
selecting any animal of marked peculiarity in its economy, and 
comparing together its structure and mode of life. Let a person, 
who knows the natural history of the mole, attentively contem- 
plate its skeleton : if he should atill withhold his belief in final 
purposes, he would probalily coincide in opinion with a cele- 
brated member of the French Academy of Sciences, who declared 
that it was as absurd to suppose the eye intended for seeing, as 
to imagine that stones were created for breaking heads. 

I shall be contested with two other illustrations, which, 

although different from each other, are analogous in their piu-- 

pose. The large cavities of birds, and the interior of their bones,. 

are filled with air ; thus they are rendered light and buoyant ; 

• Sqflr. tur Ifalurg. jj. 11, aote. 


capable of raising themselveii into tlie higher regions of the 
atmosphere, of sustaininp themselves with little eftbrt in this 
rare medium, and of cleaving- the skies with wonderful celerity. 
Humboldt saw the enormous vulture of the Andes, the majestic 
Condor, dart suddenly from the bottom of the deepest valleys 
to a considerable height above the summit of Chimboraco, where 
the barometer must have been lower than ten inches.* He 
fref[nently observed it soaring' at an elevation six times higher 
than that uf the clouds in our atmosphere. This bird, which 
reaches the measure of fourteen f feet with the wings extended ; 
habitually prefers an elevation, at which the merciuy of the 
barometer sinks to about sixteen inches. 

The mammalia, which live entirely or principally in the sea, 
as the whale Idnd, the walrus, the manati, and the seals, are 
rendered buoyant in this dense fluid by a thick stratum of fat 
laid over the whole body under the skin. From this, which is 
called blubber, the whale and seal oil are extracted. The object 
of this structure in Ughlening these huge creatures, and facili- 
tating; their motions, is obvtousty the same as that of the air-cella 
in birds in relation to the element they inhabit. 

A scientific acquaintance with the animal kingdom is not only 
Taluable in its immediate reference to zoology and physiology, 
but it aids other sciences ; affording lights, which are not merely 
useful, but absolutely indispensable in examining and illustrating 
other departments of natural knowledge. An exetnpliiicatioa 
occnrs in geolog)', or the science which treats of the physical 
construction of our globe. Certain rocks and earthy strata con- 
tain \'ast numbers of shells, eiuvije of zoophytes, bones and teeth 
of large animals, beaidea other organic substances, in a foeeil 

Considerable mountains and extensive districts are sometimes 
composed entirely of such animal remains. It is the business 
of the naturalist to compare these organic remains of a former 
world with the corresponding objects in the present order of 
things; to determine their resemblances or difFerences; — whether 
they are of the same or of <] liferent .-(pecies or genera; to com- 
pare the productions of the different strata to each other, and to 
distinguish those, which have belonged to fresh, from those of 

• Reeuatl dv OhtermUitmt rU 2oi>lvgi« «l tTAnalomit commrct. Euai sue 
rHisliiIri- nnturplk' du Condnr, p 20, i-l siiiv. pi. H ct9. 

t Miilir.u, StiiTia natwaie tU Chili, tap 4 ; s. 5. TT^iio memniTe Is Bulencd, 
by STiaw to ua intiivulual de»crib«tl and figured by him ; JUiutum Leveriamm 
T. 1, pi. I. 


■alt water aninuds ; and lastly, to ascertain whether the organie 
fossils of each country are like the living animals of the same, 
or of different and remote regions ami climates. Such investiga- 
tion!) require extensive and accuratt; information, an acquaintance 
both with the great outlines and minute details of nature, aad 
belong therefore to an advanced stage of science. They have 
been commenced with zeal and industry by some of the greates* 
modem naturalists, and have led to highly interesting results. 
The bones of large quadrupeds, found in such numbers in almost 
all the countries of the old and neAV continL'iit, have been disco- 
vered to belong to species and even to genera entirely new to us. 
One of these, an elephant, specifically distinguishable from that of 

sia and Africa, has been met with in most parts of Europe, ia 
Fcountriea and climates, where no animal of the kind lias ever 
been known in n living natural state, and in which the lenown 
species, inhabitants of the torrid zone, would be speeJdy de- 
Htroyed. The fossil shells differ more or less from those of Uving 
epecies. In many places several successions of fresh and salt 
water strata are discovered, indicating successive revolutions ia 
the earth's surface, under the action of causes difiering from each 
other in their nature. The inferior layers, or the first in order 
of time, contain the remains most widely different from the^ 
animals of the bving creation ; and, as we advance to the surface, 
there is a gradual approximation to our present species. 

These examinations have furnished almost the only accurate 
^ta for any raasonable conclusions respecting the number, 
nature, and progressive series of the changes which have affected 
the earth's surface ; — of the preadamitlc revolutions of the globe .' 
and they suggest matter for curious speculation respecting the 
extinct races of animals, and the mode in which their place haa 
been supplied bythe actual species of living beings. Tlie writing! 
of CuviER, Bhongniart, and Lamarck in France, and of 
Mr. Parkinbon in this country, will give you the best informa- 
tion on this new kind of antiquarian research, on those authentic 
memoriaLs of beings, whose living existence must be carried 
beyond the reach of history and tradition, beyond even the fabu- 
lous and heroic ages, and has been supposed, with conKiderable 
probability, to be of older date than the formation of the human 

Another important branch of the physical hialory of the globe 
belongs to zoology ; I mean tlie nature, origin, and progress of 

! banks, reefs, and rocks of coral, and even the islands, whicb 


are perpetually arising and accumulating in the intertropical seas. 
These vast masses of calcareous matter are aggregated by the siovr 
but incessant operations of countless tnilliona of minute beings, ao 
emidland so simply organized, that they occupy the lowest rank of 
auimiil existence, and indeed have been recojfuised only in late 
times as falhng within the houndaries of the animal kingdom. 
Their works commence in the fathomless depths of the ocean; 
they rise towards the surface, funning sunken rocks, dangerous, 
and often fatal to na^-igators ; they reach the level of tlie water, 
and then extend in length and breadth. "When wo see that 
banks are formed of miles in extent, that coasts are obstructed, 
harbours choked, and even new islands formed, the mind is con- 
founded by the contrast between the inHigniflcance of the agents 
and the magnitude of the result. 

Other points of view, and other applications of zoology, will 
be disclosed as we proceed. More perhaps baa been already 
said than was necessary to convince an enlightened audience that 
the living part of nature's worka ia highly worthy of attention, 
and that this study, connected as it is with so many useful, in- 
teresting, and important departments of knowledge, must be 
deemed an essential branch of liberal education. 

To these considerations, which recomimend zoology, not only 
as a highly interesting, but essential branch of general know- 
ledge, many others may be added, enforcing the cultivation of 
comparative anatomy and physiology, more particularly on those 
who devote themselves to the improvement of medicine. The 
basis of our physiological principles is rendered broader and 
deeper, in proportion as our survey of living beings is more ex- 
tensive. 'I'he varieties of organization supply, in the investiga- 
tion of each function, the most important aids of analogy, com- 
parison, contrast, and various combination ; and the nature of 
the process receives at each step fresh elucidation. These en- 
larged views, which unfold to us the natural play of the animal 
mechanism, are our surest gnuide in the study of its deranged 
motions, an essential criterion for estimating the nature and de- 
gree of the deviation, and an important indication of the means 
by which it maybe corrected. Thus, general anatomy and phy- 
siology furnish the principles, by which we are guided in our 
attempts to preserve health, to alleviate and remove disorder, 
and cure disease. On such researches, and such studies, on a 
foundation no less extensive than the whole empire of Uving 
nature, the science of medicine must be established ; if, inde' 



it be destined to occupy the rank of a science ; if its practical 
pj^cccpts, its curative eflbrts, and its technical proceedings be 
grounded in, and derived from a knowledge of ihe corporeal 
mechanism, and a. coatemplation of its mode of action, from ob- 
servations of its deranged state, and of the course and order by 
which the return to health may be safely accompliahed ; if, in 
fihort, it shall be permanently raised above its early state of arx 
empirical and blind beUef in the virtues of herbs, drugs, and 
plasters, or above its modem but equally deplorable con- 
dition of servile submission to the dogmas of schools and 
sects, or subjection to doctrines, parties, or authorities, I ap- 
peal to the illustrious founder of our collection, to liis labours 
and his writinj^a ; to that change in the state of surgery, which 
his exertions and his example have accomplished. Such achieve- 
ments by a single hand, hold out to us the brightest prospecta 
and most encouraging anticipations of the ample harvest await- 
ing the united efforts of more numerous ctdtivators. From this 
quarter we must expect the future improvement of our profes- 
sion ; not from the addition of new medicines to a catalogue 
already too long ; not from fresh accessions to that mass of 
clinical observations, which lie unread on the Bhelres of our 
medical libraries. 

In investigating the nature of living beings, various objects of 
inquiry present themselveu, and various modes of proceeding 
may be adopted. We may examine their structure ; the num- 
ber, form, size, relative position, and connexions i)f the organs, 
by the assemblage of which they are constructed : their tex- 
ture ; that is, the primary animal tissues, which compose the 
various organs, and their mode of union ; their elementary com- 
position 4 or the number, nature, and combinations of the ele- 
ments into which they can be resolved ; lastly, their living phe- 
nomena ; the vital properties with which all the primary tissues 
are endowed, the offices or functions executed by the organs, and 
the mutual influences and diversified dependencies, which, regula- 
ting the order and succession of these living operations, combine 
so many partial and subordinate motions into one beautiful and 
harmonious whole. 

It is the business of the anatomist to demonstrate the struc- 
ture, and unravel the texture of animal bodies ; their composi- 
tion falls within the department of the chemist, and their vital 
phenomena occupy the labours of the physiologist. Anatomy, 
therefore, teaches us the organization of animals, while physio* 


logy unfolds the nature of life. The third division forms a kind 
of border territory, lying between the domains of chemiatry and 
physiology, alternately occupied and cultivated by both. Under 
the name of animal chemistry, it has received, of late years, a 
constantly increasing share of attention, and produced import- 
ant accessions to our knowledge of the composition and opera- 
ticms of animal bocjiea. 

This branch of inquiry ia much less advanced than that which 
concerns their structure ; and its progress is impeded by some 
peculiar difficulties. The primary textures are so intimately 
blended in all organs, that their complete separation seems im- 
possible. Tlie cerebral and nervoius medulla is every where 
interwoven and surrounded by cellular Hul)atanee and vessels ; 
the musciJar fibre with cellular substance, vessels, nerves, and 
fat ; the cellular substance itself with vessels and fat. Hence 
arise doubts how far the results of experiment are to be attri- 
buted to one or the other ingredient ; ho that we can seldout 
attain certainty, but must rest contented with probabihty. In 
many cases we do not even know the primary tissues. Are the 
stout sides of the uterus, or the beautiful and delicate moveable 
curtain of the iris, cellular or muscular, or doea each contain 
some peculiar and not yet ascertained tissue ? In a great num- 
ber of living beings our senses are not even able to settle the 
question. Who can decide whether the soft, tender, and almost 
deliquescent body of the polype is made up of muscular fibres, 
or of cellular tissue ? 

By etymology and original acceptation, physiology means 
doctrine of nature, and is not very approjiriately applied to that 
limited division of natural science, which has for its object the 
various forms and phenomena of life, the conditions and laws 
under which this state exists, and the causes which are active in 
producing and maintaining it. A foreign writer * has proposed 
the more accurate term of biology, or science of life. 

Life, using the word in its popular and general sense, which 

at the same time is the only rational and intelligible one, is 

merely the active state of the animal structure. It includes the 

notions of sensation, motions, and those ordinary attributes of 

living beings, which are obvious to common observation. It 

denotes what is apparent to our senses j and cannot be apphed 

• O. It. Trcvimnug of Bremen, whose Binlogie, Oder Philotophie der leben'- 
ien A'alur fvr A'oiur/ortcher undAeme, in 5 vul*. 8vo., but nut yet linUheil. 
U & very iutort-sliiii; work, both fur the philusophic plan on wUich it ia 
iMUkded, and the oil|{iiiai Ticwi with which it kbciaadj. 




to the ofipriog of tnetaphjacaJ subtlety, or imnisteriai abstne* 
tions, withoat a complete departure from its original accept»> 
tion ; without obscuring and coiifuj^ing what is utberHrLse clear 
and intelligible. 

The cluse connection bet^veen life and respiration baa not 
escaped the notice of ordinary ob8er^'e^9 f of those who wera 
^norant of anatomy and physiology. Hence the breath ha* 
b um popularly deemed the mnrk of lif«. The Latin anima, or 
hreatkh (from the Greek ovcfior, wind), was also used to express 
the vital principle, the essence of life bein{( supposed identical 
with the breath. But in the phrases animam eHlare, exspirare, 
&c. the word seems to be used in its original sense. In the 
flBme way the Latin spihtna, or original of oar spirit, from spiro 
to breathe, means merely breath ; the same is the case with tha 
Greek wvmna ; and this is the original sensible object, out of 
which an the abstractions and fancies, all the verbal sophistry 
and metaphysical puzzles about spirit have proceeded. 

Anatotay and physiology should be cultivated together ; — we 
sbuuld combine observation of the function with examination of 
the organization. Tlie subjects are often distinctly treated in 
books : let not, however, this unnatural separation lead you into 
the error of viewing the vital manifestations as something inde^ 
pendent of the organisation, in which they occur. Bear in mind 
that every organ has its living phenomena and its use, and that 
the chief ultimate object, even of anatomy, is to learn the nature 
of the function : — on the other hand, that every action of a living 
being must have its organic apparatus. There is no digestioa 
without an alimentary cavity ; no biliary secretion without muam 
kind of liver; no thought without a brain. 

To talk of life as independent of an animal body ; to speak of a 
function without reference to an appropnate organ, is physiolo- 
gically absurd. It is in opposition to tlie evidence of our senses 
and. rational faculties. It is looking for an effect without a 
cause. We might as reasonably expect daylight while the sun 
w below^ the horizon. What should we think of abstracting 
^■tieity, cohesion, gravity, and bestowing on them a separate 
edstence from the bodies in which those properties are seen i 

Hallbh, the father and founder of modern physiology, has 
fumishetl us the best example, both for tlie method of cultivating 
the subject, and of treating it in writing. He had devoted thirty 
years to the dissection of human bodies, and those of animals, 
and to observation and every variety of experimental research, 
before he began to compose his Elementa PhysioiogitE. In this 


matclileaa work, a full anatomical description of every orgao, 
drawn from hia own diseectiotis, precedes the history of its func- 
tions. I know no anatomical descriptions superior to these ; 
none deserving more implicit confidence. To regard this work 
as a mere register of opiDioas, has always appeared to me very 
unjust ; it contains new and accurate information on almost 
every part of the subject. It is no slight proof of its merits, that ^ 
although published in the middle of the last century, it remains 
the book of authority ; and particularly in this country, which is 
still destitute of original and standard works, in anatomy and 

In impressing upon your minds the close connection of anatomy 
and phjraiology, I do not mean to represent to you that the former 
teaches the latter. Strictly speakings structure alone is learned 
by dissection : the vital properties of organic textures, and the 
fiiuctiona of organs, are found out by observation. We have the 
most perfect anatomical knowledge of the spken, thymus and 
thyroid gland ; but their ofBces in the animal economy are wholly 
unknown. What organ has been more carefully dissected and 
Studied than the brain i yet the respective offices of its various 
portions have not been discovered. 

Anatomy however unfolds facts, of which the knowledge is 
absolutely necessary in appreciating the results of observation. 
It affords the only clue capable of guiding us through the multi- 
plied and varied movements ail going on together in the living 
microcosm, and of thus enabling us to discriminate the proper 
share of each organic apparatus. What kind of knowledge could 
the moat patient and acute observer gain of the circulation, if he 
knew nothing about the structure of the heartj lungs, arteries, 
and veins ? What insight could he acquire into the changes of 
the food, and the nutrition of our bodies, if the alimentary canal, 
with its divisions and appendage.^, and the absorbing vessels, 
were unknown to him? Just notions of the seat and nature of 
diseases, and of the operation of remedies, would be out of the 
question ; but what chance has a person, ignorant of the general 
construction of our frame, of escaping from the most absurd doc- 
trines and systems, and from the most pernicious practical errors i 

Anatomy, again, clears up doubtful points, and suggests topics 
of inquiry. It is a teat and criterion of physiological explana- 
tions : if the latter are inconsistent with the anatomical facts, 
ihey must be rejected. 

That '*■ " ' ' 'essential to physiology, maybe proved byrefer,^ 
xing t he moat acute men have written about th» 

animal economy, before anatomy had been cultivated. It ia a 
mass of error and fiction^ without the Emalleat pretence to tlie 
title of physioloory. 

Anatomy and physiology are the groundwork of pathology, or 
the science of disease. 

Disease is a relative term, implying a comparison with a state 
of health, and presupposing a knowledge of that state. To 
anatomy, or, science of healthy structure, ia opj^osed morbid 
anatomy, or science of diseased structure : to physiology, or 
doctrine of healthy functions, pathology, or doctrine of diseased 
manifestations. Morbid anatoray shows us the diseases ; patho- 
logy their external signs or symptoms. Often no change of 
structure is observable : the deviations from the healthy con- 
dition elude our means of inquiry. The organ is said to be func* 
tianally disordered. 

Thus we find that anatomy, physiology, morbid anatomy, 
and pathology, are mutually related and intimately connected 
Although called separate sciences, they are, in truth, parts of one 
system ; and we must never lose sight of their mutual bearings 
On the foundation of these four departments of knowledge or sci- 
ence', is raised the practice of medicine, or the healing artr-over- 
looking the artificial distinctions of physic, surgery, and so forth. 

But is all this knowledge necessary for a practitioner? is it 
required that a physician or a surgeon shoidd know anatomy 
natural and morbid, physiology, pathology ? To the science of 
medicine, and to its rational improvement and extension, it is 
necessary ; but by no means so to the mere routine of practice, 
and the very successful prosecution of the trade. Perhaps, in- 
deed, a firm faith in drugs and plasters, and a liberal adminis- 
tration of them, may be the surer road to popular success, if the 
remark addressed by a veteran practitioner to a young enthusiast 
in science be well grounded : " Juvenis, tua doctiina non pro- 

►tnittit opes ; plebs amat remedia." 
A common sailor uses his glass without knowing the laws of 
optics, or even suspecting their existence. But, would Galileo 
have invented the telescope, and have given to mankind the 
power of penetrating into space, if he had been equally ignorant ; 
if he had been unacquainted with the action of various media, 
and of variously shaped surfaces on the rays of light ? An ordi- 
nary workman, of education and haliits purely mechanical, con- 
«tructa the most powerful astronomical instruments; but it 
belongs only to a Her3chel or a La Place: to improve thesfi 
meana, and to employ them «o as to unfold the structure of the 


universe, and expound the laws which govern the motions of the 
heavenly bodies. 

The coUectioJi of this College was formed, and is now arranged, 
in coofonnity to the views jti^t alluded to. The anatomical pre- 
parations exhibit the organs in the manner beat calculated to 
elucidate their functions. To the rich and valuable aeries of 
healthy parts, there is added a parallel and equally ezteusire 
arrangement of morbid specimens. 

Mr. Hunter was the first in this country, who investigated 
disease in a strictly philosophic method ; bringing to bear on it 
the clear and steady lights of anatomy and physiology. He 
began by discarding all the doctrines of the schools, and resorted 
at once to nature. Instead of creeping timidly along the coast of 
truth, within sight of precedent and authority, he boldly launched 
into the great ocean of disco\ery, steering by the polar star of 
observation, and trusting to the guidance of lus own genius. 

Hie claim to the gratitude of English surgeons will be stifiSci- 
ciently established by comparing surgical science before hi.s time 
with its present state ; and by contrasting, at the two periods, 
the relative rank of surgeons in public estimation. It would be 
foreign to my present purpose to pursue this topic : 1 shall 
therefore merely entreat you to bear it in mind ; and to remem- 
ber, that the true dignity of the profession, in which every indi- 
vidual member is a sharer, will be best jiromoted, not by partial 
privileges and arbitrary exclusions, not by anything which royal 
charters or legal enactments can bestow or withhold, but by that 
scientific ciJtivation and honourable practice, which constitute 
the only just claim to public esteem and confidence. It would 
be unnece.sfiary for me to enter into further detail on a matter, 
which has been already brought before you with such forcible 
appeal to the best feelings of our nature, such display of elevated 
and hononrabk sentiments, and such felicity of expression, btr 
my ingenious, eloquent, and worthy colleague.* 


On the Studs qf PhytioUtgy :—The Jids and lHuttrationt to bt derived fitm 
ether Saencet, of Natural Philotvphy, Maihemaiici, Chemislry. — Study qftim 
phytieal Seieneei reemnmended.^Fecuiiar Character qf the vital Phenomerm. 
— Living Propertiei.—JUempled hypothetical Expkmation$ of them.—Caa^ 
paratice Anatomy; its Ohjecti; its HeUtliotulo Phytiologjf exemplified. 

Dissection and the various auxiliary processes employed by 

the anatomist, are the only means of learning the structure oif 

■ Ant. CulUIe, Sa^ 



living beings ; obserration and experiment the only «oiirce« of 
our knowledge of life. These are the teats or criteria, on whidi 
we must depend, and to which we must always refer. No posi- 
tion reapecting structure can be listened to unless it admits of 
verification hy appeal to anatomy; no physiological statement 
deserves attention, unless it be coutlrtaed by observation. 

Is this then all ? Are the labours of bo many celebrated men, 
the accumulated harvests of so many centuries, reduced to the 
mere resuUij of dJHsectioa and observation i It is so, in respect 
to real knowledge ; and it will be occupation enough to anato- 
mists and physiologists, fur many ages, to cultivate these pur- 
suits The multitude and variety of organs in the human body, 
the complexity of their structure, the modifications incidental to 
each, and their mutual intiuences, offer a moat extensive field of 

vestigation, requiring so much time and assiduity, so much 

udou and discriminatioQ, tliat the qualities necessary to a 
successful pursuit of physiology cannot be often combined in 
one individual. 

When to man we add all the liWng beings, which fdl every 
department of nature, and consider the diversities and new 
combinations, by which they are enaljled to fulfil their various 
destinies, it will be hardly figurative to say that the objects of 
inquiry are infinite and inezhausiible. 

In this, as in most other subjects, the quantity of solid 
instruction is an inconsiderable fraction of the accumulated 
mass. A few grains of wheat are buried and lost amid heaps 
of chaff. For a few well-observed facts, rational deductions, 
and cautions generalisations, we have whole clouds of systems 
and doctrines, of speculations and fancies, built merely 
the workings of the imagination, and the labours of the 

In reference, however, ta biology, or the science of life, I may 
iiibaerve, that descriptions of particular animals, and sur^'eys of 
detached districts in the great kingdom of nature, are not so 
much wanted at present, as the assemblage and assortment of 
the facts already accumulated, and the employment of them by 
•ome vigorous and comprehensive mind to furnish the funda- 
mental principles of the science of Uving nature. It is employ 
ment, and not mere possession, that gives a value to intellectual 
as well as material wealth. We have had workmen enough to 
toil in the mine and the Quarry ; they have raised and roughly 
^uhioned an abundance of materials ; and we now only wait for 


the architect who shall be able to employ them in constructing a 
temple suitable in majesty and simplicity to the Divinity, whose 
ehrine it is destined to contain. 

'I'he parts of natural history having been cultivated in a 
detached manner, its doctrines were long in an insulated stale; 
unconnected to each other, like tlie pyramids in the deserts of 
Egypt ; as the number of detached parts increased, the neces- 
sity of a system was feit, to bind them together, however 
imperfectly, into something like a connected ivbole. 

After many 'insuccessful attempts by hia predecessors, 
LiNNEUS produced an arrangement of natural objects, which 
met with very general ajijirobation and adoption. The etforts 
cf naturalists were subsequently directed to the correction and 
extension of hia system ; to the formation of arrangements for 
detached parts, in imitation of that which he had framed for the 
whole ; and in the description of new genera and species. 'ITiese 
efforts have been continued to the present day in a constantly 
increasing ratio; but, perhaps, without a due consideration 
whether any results of proportionate utility to mankind were 
likely to reward so much pains and trouble. Some, indeed, 
and among them Linnsus, were aware that all these artiUcial 
Bystems, without reference to higlier objects, were almost lost 
labour ; but they dm not attempt to pursue those objects. The 
ultimate purjyose of our researches in natural history is; to pene- 
trate and lay open the secret springs, by which the great system 
of organization called nature, is maintained in perpetual acti- 
vity. Now, towards the accomphshment of this purpose, the 
artiilcia] systems, on which so much lahour has been bestowed* 
are hardly the first step. They do not exhibit the science, but cm 
index, or register of nature ; which indeed lias its recommen- 
dations of utility in other respects. The assemblage of ihe 
numerous facts, which are scattered through the works of natu- 
ralists, and their combination into a whole, with reference to ths 
purpose just mentioned, and with a view to establishing the 
laws of life, would possess a much higher value than all the 
descriptions of new animals and plants, which teach us bttle 
more than that they have such or such appearances, and that 
they occur in this or that comer of the earth. 

If the science of life, and with it some of the most important 
departments of liumaji knowledge, be destined to make any de- 
cided progress towards perfection, it mast be by the road of 
experience, aided and enhghteaed by general philosophy. The 

Vay, indeed, is in Bome puts difficult, and its length indeGinite : 
out, whether we reach the end or not, our very efforts, and the 
active state of mind they maintain, will be a suHicient recom- 
pense ; as the pleasure of the chaaa, and the liealthy vigour it 
imparts, reward us, even when the game escapes. 

" The intellectual worth and dignity of man are measured, not 
by the trutli which he posaessesr, or fancier] that he possesses, 
hut by the mncere and honest pains he has taken to discover 
truth. This it is that invigorates his mind ; and by e-vercising 
the mental springs, preserves them in full activity. Possession 
makes us quiet, indolent, proud. If the Deity held in his right 
hand all truth, and in his left only the ever-active impulse, the 
fond desire, and longing after truth, coupled with the condition 
of constantly erring, and should offer me the choice ; I should 
humbly turn towards the left, and aay. Father, give me this : 
pure truth ia fit for thee alone."* Thus spoke a sage ; and his 
determination seema as wise as the famous choice of Herculbs. 

In commencing the study of physiology, we are first led to 
mquire, whether living beings are subject to the same laws as 
inorganic bodies ; whether the vital processes can be explained 
on the same principles as the other phenomena of matter ; whe- 
ther, in short, the elucidations of the physical sciences are equaUy 
applicable to the sciences of life. That animals obey those 
general laws which regulate matter and motion m all other cases, 
that all their parts, as well as their entire masses, are subject to 
the influences of gravity,, and the like, is too obvious to 
be a subject of question. The point of iniiuiry is, whether the 
internal movements of the animal machine are explicable by the 
laws of mechanics and hydraulics ; whether, like these, they can 
be subjected to calculation; whether the changes of composition 
incessantly going on in all parts of the frame, can be assimilated 
to the operations of our laboratories, or reduced to the laws of 
external chemistry ; whether any living phenomena can be so 
far likened to those of electricity, galvanism, magnetism, as to 
justify us in referring for their explanation to the same principles. 

In the beginning of the last century, the leading authorities 
in physiology, of whom Boekhaave may be mentioned as the 
Head, supposed that all the functions of the living body, except 
the will, are carried on by mechanical movements, susceptible 
of ria^d calculation, necessarily succeeding each other in tho 
organs from the time that life commences. Those movement* 
* Tievlnnai Sialogit,- 1. 1, 



he referred to an impulsive power in the heart, renewed by the 
inftuence of tlio ner voma fluid brought from the brain. In this 
explanation the body is an hydraulic machine, in which the heart 
perforins the office of a piston : the beautiful conBtniction and 
endless variety of the animal organization are reduced to an as- 
semblage of pipes, canals, levers, pulleys, and other mechaniam. 
The treatises on physiology of this period, were filled with maths- 
matical problems, long calculations, and algebraic fomaulse. 

This system maintained its ground for a long time, in defiance 
of ob8e^^'ation and common sense. In palliation of what strikes 
118 now as so extravagantly erroneous, it must be observed, that 
many things in the animal economy admit of explanation on 
these principles. The stnicture and motions of the joints are 
purely mechanical ; and the degree of eflfect produced by the 
muscles of a limb, like the acting force of a moving power 
applied to a common lever, depends entirely on the relative 
situation of their lendinous insertions to the centre of motion, 
and the relation which the course of their fibres bears to the axis 
of the moi'ing bone. All these things may be exactly determined 
by calculation as the operation of common levers : but the con- 
traction of the living fibre, or original moving force, cannot be 
submitted to calculation, cannot be in the slightest degree do* 
cidatcd by mechanics. 

The \'alve9 of the heart and blood-vessels act mechanically, 
and operate as well in the dead, as in the living body. The 
swelling of the veins of the lower limbs in the erect posture, 
and the turgescence of the same vessels in the head and neck, 
when they are held in a dependent attitude, will convince us 
that, although the blood flows through living canals, its motion 
is not withdrawn from the idl-pervading influence of gravity. 

The transparent parts of the eye act on the rays of light ac- 
cording to the common laws of optics ; and bring them to a focus, 
so as to form an inverted picture of the object on the retina, just 
as well in the dead, as in the Living organ, provided their trans- 
parency be unimpaired. 

The operation, however, of those natural laws, to which living, 
as well as other bodies are subject, is constantly modified in the 
former case, by the vital powers ; and this essential element in 
all mathematico-physiological considerations, is, by its very na- 
ture, fluctuating and indetenninate. Uncertainty in the condi- 
tions of a problem, whether in respect to their entire number, or 
to tne quantity of each, is an original sin, for which no subse- 


quent accurtu:y can atone ; and this character, helonging to aJL 
the circumstances of almost every case in the animal economy, 
not only effectaaily precludes all useful application of mathema- 
tics to physiology, but renders their employment a source of 
nothing bat error and confusion. We can very iiieldora satisfy 
ourselves that aU the data are before us ; and the precise amount 
of each cannot be determined in any instance : nay more, varia> 
tion and ductuation are essential characters of all vital processes. 
The totally inconsistent results, at which different mathematical 
physiologists have arrived, in treating of the same functions, 
shows us that very little useful service can be looked for from 
this quarter. One estimated the force of the heart as equal to 
180,000lb8. ; another reduced it to 8oz. ; and both these con- 
clusions are deduced from reasonings clothed iu all the imposing 
forms of the exact sciences, 

Tiie circulation, in which a central impelling machine drives 
the blood through an arrangement of tubes, seems naturally to 
faU under the laws of hydraulics : and the course of the blood 
in its living channels, no doubt, obeys the same laws that go- 
vern the transmission of fluids through inanimate canals. But, 
if we attempt to submit this intricate process to calculation, we 
are stopped at the very outset by discovering, thai, of its nume- 
roua conditions, not one is ascertained with sufticitnt accuracy 
for our purpose. It would be necessary to know the amount of 
nervous influence on the heart and blood-vessels, the measure 
of active and passive power on the former organ, the fjuantity of 
blood arriving at and departing from it, the elastic and other 
properties of the vessels, their various capacities, the resistance 
of the column in the arteries and veins, the density and cohe- 
sion of the blood, and many other points : — and to know all 
these with perfect accuracy. Even if all this were accomplished, 
the great number of elements entering into such a theory would 
conduct us to impracticable calculations. It would be the moat 
complex case of a problem, which is extremely diriicult of solu- 
tion in its simple state. The ablest geometricians, sensible of 
these difficulties, speak of the operations uf living bodies with a 
modest caution, to which the bold calculations of some physio- 
logists fonn a striking contrast. They acknowledjfe that the 
springs of the animal frame are too numerous, too intricate, and 
too imperfectly known to be submitted, with any prospect of ad- 
vantage, to calculation ; that, in such compliewted operations, 
Catperieoce is our only safe-guide, and inductions Irom numeroiu 
B 2 


facta the only sure support of our reasonings. The most just 
calculations on Buch subjects can merely appreciate our igno> 
ranee; which may indeed be concealed, bat cannot be removed, 
by the vain parade of a science foreign to medicine. 

If we detine chemiatry as the science which teaches us the 
composition of bodies, explaining the laws, according to whict 
their elementary particles act on each other, when brought into 
contact, the combinations or aeparations which result from their 
affinities, and the circumstances which promote or obstruct tha 
action of those affinities, we must allow that many of the animal 
processes exhibit to us chemical operations. Such are tha 
chimges wrought upon the food by the solvent juices of the 
stomach, and by the admixture of bile, pancreatic liquor, and 
intestinal secretions ; the new combinations, which the elements 
of the blood enter into in the glands, the membranes, and the 
■kin, and in the texture of the various organs, so as to exhibit 
to us a new set of products ; the conversion of chyle and lymph 
into blood ; and the mutual action of this lluid and the atmos- 
phere in respiration. 

Chemical researches into the composition of the fluids and 
solids of the animal frame, and comparative examinations of 
them under the differences of age, sex, climate, food, mode of 
life, and the various incidences of disease, have thrown great 
light both on the healthy and disordered actions of our frame; 
particularly those inquiries which have been conducted with the 
advantages of the modern improvements in chemical science. 
Further benefit is to be espeeted from a continuance of these 
exertions ; and ive can have no hesitation in admitting that 
many important points in physiology cannot be understood, tha 
nature and result of many animal processes cannot be appre- 
ciated, by a person unacquainted with chemistry. 

Nor is the benefit confined to physiology; the kindred sciences, 
which have for their object the knowledge of disease, ita preven- 
tion and cure, owe great and important obligations to modem 
chemistry. By unfolding the composiiian, and separating the 
yariona ingredients contained in an apparently homogeneous 
£uid, the urine, it haa enabled tis to form some conception of 
the impoTtanl purposes executEd by the kidney. By showing 
the deiiations which this animal fluid exhibits in various con- 
ditions of disease, it has elucidated the mechanism of many dis- 
ordered actions ; and, by discovering what particular ingredients 
•xisted in undue proportion, it has suggested the meana of relief 


by the internal admiaistration of auitable chemical remedies. 
Thus the modem i-iews respecting the nature and treatment ot 
calculous disorders are completely chemical ; and raoUern expe- 
rience fully substantiates the important truth, that alkalies and 
acids taken ititu the stomach aifect the chemical constitution of 
the urinary secretion. But these \news do not terminate here : 
the condition of the urine is an index of what is going forwards 
in the alimentary canal, an outward and visible sign of the 
inward and hidden movements of the stomach, bowela, and other 
parts. Thene again are variously taodified by the nature and 
quahty of our food and drink, by the operation of our remedies, 
and by thone obscure and mysterious, but incontestable irjfluencea 
of other parti, which are usually denominated sympathieB. Thus, 
as the Bucceasive undulations of ^vater spread wider and wider 
as they recede from the point first agitated, our chemical exami- 
nation of a single excretion, by virtue of the mutual influences 
which bind together all parts of our system, expands at last to 
considerations embracing the whole economy. 

For the theory of diabetes we are principally indebted to 
chemistry ; and we ought not to omit acknowledging the debt, 
because its amount has not been increased by the suggestion of 
an adequate remedy. 

With these strong facta before our eyes, and with the know- 
ledge that nature, however sportively various in uneseential 
details, i.s generally uniform in the leading princiiiles of the means 
by which she accomplishes similar purposed, may we nut reason- 
ably expect that the action of many remedies, will be traced here- 
after to chemical influence? May we not hope that that dark 
corner of our science, the modus operandi of its remedial ad- 
ministrations, will receive light from this quarter? 

It is, however, in most cases, the result, and not the operation 
itself, that we learn from chemistry. By comparing the Mood 
and the urine, we estimate the office of the kidney ; but we know 
just as little as we did before of that wonderful and mysterioua 
process, by which the capillaries of the gland transform blood 
into urine ; and when we see the capillaries of other parts con- 
vert this same blood into tiventy other fluids or solids, we feel 
still more forcibly the striking contrast between these and the 
ojierations commonly called chemical, and the insufficiency of 
explanations grounded merely on the analogies of the latter 
changes. If a gland, a membrane, a muscle, or a bone, in thdr 
operations of secretion smd nutrition, be cbemical instrument** 


their analogy to those employed in pur Uboratoriefl is so remote, 
aa to be hardly perceptible. 

Of the attempt at explaining the sentient and contractile opera- 
tions of the nerves and muscles by chemical agencies, or at re- 
solving life in general into a mere play of chemical affinities, I 
can only say that they appear to me injudicious. The ab 
chemists, those who are most deeply versed in the operati 
means, various applications, and extent of their science, are ez 
tremely cautious in applying it to the explanation of vital pro 
cesses. One of the most striking phenomena of living bodies is 
the exception which they offer to the laws of chemistry. Com- 
posed of matters extremely prone to decomposition, and sur- 
rounded by all the influences of heat, air, and moisture, which 
are very favourable to such change, they yet remain unaltered. 

Living bodies, as well as all dead ones, exhibit electrical phe- 
nomena under certain circumstances : but the contrast between 
the animal functions and electric operations is so obvious and 
forcible, that the attempts to assimilate them do not demand 
farther notice. 

By the preceding observations, or by any subsequent ones, I 
would by no means discourage surgical students from the pur- 
suit of the physical sciences. I regard them, on the contrary, 
not merely ns a desirable ornamental accompaniment, but as 
powerful and indispensable auxiliaries in physiological and me- 
dical reaearches. A close alliance between the science of living 
natiu^ and physics and cliemiatry, caimot fail to be muti 
advantageous. What we have principally to guard against, 
our professional researches and studies, is the influence of parti 
and confined views, and of those favourite notions and specula- 
tions, which, like coloured glass, distort all things seen through 
their medium. Thus we have had a chemical sect, which could 
discern, in the beautifully varied appointments, and nice adapta- 
tions of animal structure, nothing but an assemblage of chemical 
instnimpnts ; a medico-mathematical doctrine, which explained 
all the phenomena of life by the sciences of number and magni- 
tude, by algebra, geometry, mechanics, and hydraulics ; and even 
a tribe of animists, who, finding that all the powers of inorganic 
nature had been invoked in vain, resorted to the world of spirits, 
and maintjuned that the soul is tho^ only cause of hfe. It is 
amusing to obser>'e the entire conviction and self-complacencr, 
with which such systems are brought fonvard. The parable of 
Nathan the Wise is not confined in its application to mattera of 





theological faith, — to the ardour ^nth which wrangling sectartea 
dispute about their petty diviHions and BubdiviHionti of belief ,- 
each medical sect conceives itself in possession of the trirc ring ; 
yet probably they are aH more or less counterfeit. 

If the seductive influence of favourite notions, and the dispro* 
portionate importance attached to particular sciences, have ope. 
rated so nnfavourably on the doclnnes of [ihysiolog)' and medi- 
cine, the remedy for the evil must be sought in more enlarged 
\ievi-8 and general knowledge. We cannot expect to discover 
the true relations of things, until we rise high enough to survey 
the whole field of science, to obsers'e the connections of the 
Tarious parts and their mutual influence. 

Besides the direct utility of the physical sciences in explaining 
many parts of the animal economy, they serve a collateral pur- 
pose, which recommends them strongly to the medical student. 
They have their foundation in experiment, as j)hyBiology and 
medicine have in observation ; the only diflerence Iteing, that in 
the latter case we are obliged to take our subjects in all the com- 
plexity of their natural composition, while in the former it is in 
our power to regulate the conditions of the operation, and to 
reduce them, by successive analyses, to the greatest simplicity. 
The subsequent proceedings of physical science are governed by 
strict method, and guarded against error by the severe rules of 
inductive logic. The constant vigilance of these incorruptible 
sentinels protects the sanctuary from the incursions of extra- 
physical or metaphysical chimeras, and from the intrusion of 
immaterial agencies. Strengthened by this salutary discipline, 
and accustomed to close reasoning, the mind is well prepared 
for the study of living nature, clothed with a defensive armour, 
on which verbal and metaphysical puzzles, and the misplaced 
exertions of the imagination, will make no impression. 

Now, although certain parts of the animal economy obey the 
laws of mechanics, and others admit of illuGtration by the aid of 
chemistry, and thus far the living processes come within the 
domain of the physical sciences, the main springs of the animal 
functions, the original moving forces, cannot be e.itplained on 
liese grounds. iTie powers of sensation and contraction, and 
properties of the capiUary vessels, belong peculiarly and ex- 

sively to hving organic textures ; they are eminently vital, 
and form the distingviishing character of hnng beings. We 
]eam them by observation, as we learn the properties of dead 
matter, and we know nothing more than the fact, that certain 


vital manifestations are connected with certain organic struc- 

■ Since I delivered thnse Lorturen, I liarp become acqauot«d with Dt, 
Brown's Inauiry into the Relotiun nf Cau$e and Effect, third edition, Svo. 
Kdinburi;)i, Ibis; a muKt instructive work, c&lculatod to dispel mucb otlb» 
otneurity and cunfujiun, by which both |>hf licai and melaph vsical diacuniont 
have bevn perjiii-xc<l and retarded, oiia to ititereKt strurigly all thuae wha 
derive pleasure frum ptnipicuuus language and close reaioniog. As it ti ex- 
tremely irunurtiiiit lu pos^eM clear notiuns of causation, of the rclationi ex- 
Sreiaed by inc words caiwe. efftct, proptrtt/. quality, fouer, I subjoin an extract, 
1 which theae matters axe mure salisfdcturiiy explained than in any otbCT 
book 1 have met with. 

" It is thia mere relation of unifonn antecedence, *o important and ao nnU 
Tenally believed, which appcan tu me tu constitute all that can be philoiophi- 
tally meant, in the words power or cautaliim, to whatever objecU, material 
or spiritual, th<> words may be applied. If evenU had succeeded each other 
in perfect irregularity, such terms ii<;ver would have becit Invented ; but. when 
the successions are believed to be In regular order, the importance of thia re- 
gularity to all our wishes, and plan». and actions, has ol cour»e led to the 
eroployment uf terms si^iiflcant ol the most valuable distinction which we 
are physically able tu make, We give the name orcoutr to the object which 
We believe to he the invariable antecedent of a particular change; we give 
the name of e.^«< reciprocally to that invariable fonsequenl; and the rela- 
tion itielf, when oonsidervd ahstractodly, we denominate fxnrcr in the olycct 
that is the Invariahle antecedent — nuceytibiUty in the object that exhibits, in 
its change, Ihu iiivariublt< consetaieut. We say of fire, that It has the ^aarer of 
Rielling melalK, and of metals that they are nueepM/U of fusion by fire, — 
that tire it the caute of the fusion, and the fusion the effect of the a]<pIication 
tif fire ; but. In all this variety of words, we mean noUiing more than our belief, 
that when a solid metal bi sutijucled far a certiiin titiii' to the apj>lic%tion uf a 
strong heat, it will begin aflerwardit to exist in tliat ilitk-reiit ytate which i« 
termnl liquidity, — that, in all pa-sl timi-, Id the same circuinstunces, it would 
have exhibited the same change, — and Ihat it will continue to do so in the fame 
clrcumslancM in all future time, We speak uf two appearances which metali 
present; one before tile application of (Ire, and tlie uthtr after it; and a 
aimplebutanivi> relation of heat and the meliLUIc substances, with respect 
to these two appearances, ii all that i» cxfiressed. 

"A caiue, therefore. En the fullest dctinition which it philiMophically 
admits, may be suid to be, that vhieli imriuiUnU'ln jirrcitlet any chaHjje, taut 
toAi'cA, esitting at any time in timilar circwntlancet, hax been alirayi, cmj will 
be alumyi, immediate lu J'olimetd by a timitnr changf. Priority in the sequenc* 
observed, and inveriabiuiH'ss of antecedence in the past and future 9e<iuen- 
ce« suppused, are the flemeiiUi, and the only elements, combined in the notion 
of a cause. Uy a conversion uf terms, we obtain a detinition of the outre- 
lative effect; and^xruvr, as I have before said, is Only another word for ex- 
preaaliitK nhstrictiy and briefly the anteccdeuce iUelf, and (he InvaiiableneM 
of the relation. 

" The words prvperiy auiI quality admit of exactly the same deflnition ; ex- 
prestltigonly a certain rvlation of invariable antecedence and cuiusequenoe, 
in changes, that lake place, un Ihe presence of the substance to which they 
are ajitTihi'd. They are .ttricUj' aynunymous vrith power-, or, ut least, the only 
dinereiiceis, thai jmipcrty atirl ijualtiy, oscummuuty used, comprehend both 
ihv pfMeri ami nacepiibiliiiet ofjiuhstAnce, the pciWer^ uf pruduciuff changes, 
•nd the Rusccptlbliuii'S uf beintt changed. We aay equally, that It is a pro- 
perty or quality uC water, to melt salt, aitd that it Is one of ils quaUlies or pro- 
uerlles to freeie or becutne solid, on the Bublracliun of a certain quantity of 
neat; but we do not ctrramonly use the word power, in the Utter of these 
cases, and say that water has the power of being froien." — " fatter, iin>' 
perty, and quality, are, in the physical use of tlicae terain, exoctlj' synony- 
mous. Wuler has ihc pouier ot melltiig sail; — it i) A property uf Water to melt 
■alt; — it is a qualilu of wuler to- melt aalli-niU these Tarii'tjea of expression 
ai^ify iireci^i'ly tne same thing, — that, wheu water is poured ujiun salt, the 
feolid will take the I'orm uf a liquid, and itj particles be dill^ed in cantiiiued 
combination thruugh the mass. Twupart:! of a sptjuence uf jibysicnl event* 
•re tH'fyri- our miud ; ihe addition of water tu salt, and the consequent lique- 
faction of what was bel'ure a crystalline labd. When we speak of all tha 
qualities of a body, wo ciiiisider it at existing in a variety of circamiituncca, 
•od cousider at llu* same time, all the changet that are, o't may be, in thea* 




The only reason we have for aasertiog in any case that any 
property belongs to any substance, ih the certainly or universality 
with which we find tlie substance and the property in question 
accompanying each other. Thus we say that gold is yellow, 
ductile, soluble in nitro-muriatic acid, because we have always 
found gold, when pure, to be so. We assert that living muscular 
fibres are irritable, Unng nervous fibres sensible, for the same 
reason. Tlie eridencc of the two propoaitions presents itself to 
my mind as unmarked by the faintest shade of difference. 

Having found by experience that every thing we see has some 
cause of its existence, we are induced to ascribe the constant 
concomitance of a substance and its properties to some neces- 
gary connection between them : but, however strong the feeling 
may be, which leads us to believe in some more close bond, we 
can only trace, in this notion of necessary connection, the fact 
of certainty or universality of concurrence. Nothing more than 
this can be meant, when a necessary connection is asserted! be- 
tween the properties of senaibllity and irritability, and the struc- 
tures of living muscular and nervous fibres. 

This language does not explain how the thing takes place ; 
ft IS merely a mode of stating the fact. To say that irritability 

a property of living muscular fibres, is merely equivalent to the 
assertion, that such fibres have in all cases possessed the power 
of contraction. Wliat then is the cause of irritability i I do 
not know, and cannot conjecture. 

In physiology, as in the physical sciences, we quickly reach 

le boundaries of knowledge, whenever we attempt to penetrate 

the first causes of the phenomena. The most we can accom> 

circum««9, its immediate cITecla. Wlicn wc speak of &]I the qualities of 
a budy, or all its prnperti«-8, we mean nothing nuire, and we mctui notliing 
less. Certain sulMluncca aic conceived tiy us, luid certain ebangn that take 
place ill them, which, we beUeTe, will he unirormly the same, u often a« 
the sabstaiicci of which we speak exJit in circunulancea thai aie exactly 
the Dame. 

"' Tlie powers, propertiej, or qualities of a «ub&tanc«.', arc not to be recalled, 
then, 05 anything sviperadded to the subslancc, oi distinct from it. They are 
only the substance itself, consiilerrd in relation to various changea, that take 
place, when it exists in H^ciiluir circumstfinceB," 

We cannot be surprised that the author of the Phtftiologieal Ltctwrei should 
luive poured forth the full vials of his wrath on doctrines at once completely 
•ubverting all his airy strut-turw of subtle llujiis, mohile matters, &o. &c. 
considered as eausrs of vital actions, and au simple and lueical, that any 
attempt at direct ojijioaition by rt-asoning wcmtd he utterly hopeless. lie 
therefore boliUy ainrms that *' if they mean to insinuate that we have no 
knowledge of cause or effect teyond that wlilcli resulta from mere abseira* 
Hon, they publish at the lame time a libel on the human .itiderstanding, n pro- 
hibition Iv rational inquiry, and a most Severn satire on themsclvea. I'. 91. 
IJnless the author should show, on sHme future occasion, what he has not 
even attempted on the present ; vit. what it Is that the words cause and effect 
denote in additiim to relative invariable antecedence and consequeace, ttiia 
' Ti>Ucy of bard words will only lecoil on his own bead. 


plish is to make gradual conquests from the territories of ignis 
nnce &nd doubt; and to leave under their dominion those objects 
only, which our reason has not reached, or is not able to reach. 
The great end of observation and experiment is to discover 
among the various phenomena, those which are the most general. 
When these are well aBcertained, they serve as ])rinciples, from 
which other facts may be deduced. The Newtonian theory of 
gravitation is a most splendid example. Tlie only object of un- 
certainty, which then remains, is the first cause of a small num- 
ber of facts. The phenomena succeed each other, like the 
generations of men, io an order which we observe, but of which 
we can neither determine nor conceive the commencement. 
We follow the links of an endless chain ; and, by holding fast 
to it, we may ascend from one link to another ; but the point 
of 8U8]>ension is not within the reach of our feeble powers. 

To call life a property of organization would be unmeaning; 
it would be nonsense. The primary or elementary animal 
itructurea are endued with vital properties ; their combiiiations 
compose the animal organs, in which, by means of the vital 
properties of the component elementary stnictures, the animal 
functions are carried on. The state of the animal, in which the 
continuance of these processes is evidenced by obvious exteiiul 
■igns, is called life. 

The striking differences between living and inorganic bodies, 
and the strong contrast of their respective properties, naturally 
excited curiosity respecting the causes of this diversity, and en- 
deavours to show the mode in which it was effected. Here we 
quit the path of observation, and wander into the regions of 
imagination and conjecture. It is the poetic ground of physio- 
logy ; but the union is unnatural, and, like other unnatural 
unions, unproductive. The fiction spoils the science, and the 
admixture of science is fatal to inspiration. The fictitious beings 
of poetry ore generally interesting in themselves, and are brought 
forward to answer some useful purpose i but the genii and spirits 
of physiology are awkward and clumsy, and do nothing at last, 
which could not be accumphshed just as well \nthout them : 
they literally incumber ua with their help. 

For those, who think it impossible that the living organic 
structures should have vital properties without some extrinsic 
aid ; — although they require no such assistance for the equally 
wonderful affinities of chemistrj', for gravity, elasticity, or the 
other properties of matter, a great variety of explanations, suited 
to all tastes and comprehensions, has been provided. 



Some are contented with stating that the properties of life 
arise from a vital principle. Tbia explanation has the ment of 
aimplicity, whatever we may think of its {irofoundness : and it 
has the advantage of being transferable and equally applicable 
to any other subject. Some hold that an immaterial principle, 
and others, that a material, but inviaiblo and very subtle agent 
is superadded to the obvious titmcture of the Irady, and enable* 
it to exhibit vital phenomena. The former explanation will be 
of use to those who are conversant with immaterial beings, and 
who understand how they are connected with and act on matter. 
fiut I luiow no description of (Mrsoas likely to benefit by the 
latter. For subtle matter ia still matter ; and if this fine stuff 
can possess vital properties, surely they may reside in a fabric 
which differs only in being a little coarser. 

Mr. Hunter has a good substantial sort of living principle! 
be seems to have had no taste for immaterial agents, or for 

btle matters. His materia vit^e is somethmg tangible ; he 

scribes it as a substance like that of the brain, diffused all 
over the body, and entering into the composition of every part. 
He conceives even the blood to have its share." We may smile 
it these fancies, without any disrespect to a name that we all 
revere, without any insensibility to the merits of a surgeon and 
pliysiologi^^t, whose genius and labours have reflected honour on 
our profession and our country. If the father of poetry some* 
tisiea falls asleep, a physiologist may be allowed to dream a 
little ; but they who are awake, need Eot shut their eyes, and 
endeavour to follow his examjile, need not exhibit another 
instance of the perverted taste, which led the disciples of aa 
ancient philosopher to drink spinach-juice, that they might look 
pale like their master. 

Plato made the vital principle to be an emanation of the / 
anima mundi, or soul of the world ; an explanation, no doubt, ! 

• That thp author of the Phytiologieal heetum nhoald ha»c published two 
books, principally for the purp.fse of fX|)lainiiig, illinlratini;, and cunlirraiiig 
Mr. tlunter'i " Theory oj Life," withuul sliuwing ua in either what that 
theory was, without a single citation or n?fercnce to identify this duclrine, 
thoa boldly baptised with the name of Hunter, as the literary offsprin:; ofita 
alle^il parent, appears ntranee and suipicluus. tl iseoiily explaineit; forthis 
iiunleriim theory of life, wliich itii real aulhorio iloully maiutaim to b« . 
not only probable and rational, but sl»o verifiable, u no where tu be fuund in 
the publiahed writings of Mr. Hunter ; and dues nut even resemble theipeeu- 

lation* on the same subject, which occur in the posthumuus work on the 
hleod, itiflammaiion, ^c, part i. chap i. »ec. 5, on the Uvins Prineipli 0/ tkt 
MIoud. In iierusing the wriljMgs of Mr, Hunter, we jhouliTalwnys remember 

Ilia unfortunate want of eatly eduration, the ditliculty he fell in conveying hia 
notions clearly by word3, and the niutilation which his Lhun|[;hls must haT« 
•ufierect in pasning thougti the pre»s, lii>Oi ficiin the causes juNt n!eiitiuncd,Bn4 
ftom the leTJiloa and correction to which tome of liii writing! were ttit^jectsd. 


quite aatiHfactor]^ to those who know what the soul of the world 
jsj and how other aouls emanate fmm it. 

The Brahmins of the East hold a aimilor notion : but they 
make the soul after death pass on into other bodies or into 
animals, according to its behaviour ; admitting, however, that 
those of the good are immediately re-absorbed into the Divinity. 
Some of the Greeks adopted a distinct vital, Bensitive, and 
rational principle in man. 

These are merely apecimens} a few artidea, as patterns, 
selected from a vast assortment. If you do not like either of 
them, there are plenty more to clioose from. As these and a 
hundred other such hyjiothesis are all supported by equally 
good proof; which is neither more nor less, in each instance, 
than the thorough conviction of the inventor ; and, as they are 
inconsistent with each other, and, therefore, mutually destruc- 
tive, we need not trouble ourselves further until their respective 
advocates can agree togetlier in selecting Home one for their 
patronage, and discarding the rest. For of these, as of tlie 
numerous religions in the world, only one can be true. 

What is comparative anatomy ? The CTpression is rather 
vague and indefinite. You naturally inquire what is compared? 
"What is the object of comparison ? The structure of animals 
may be com[>ared to that of man. To lay down the laws of the 
ammal economy from facts furnished by the human subject 
only, would be like writing the natural history of our species 
from observiiig the inhabitants of a single town or village. 

Repeated ohsen'ationa and multiplied experimeats on the 
various tribes of animated nature have cleared up many obscure 
and doubtful phenomena in the economy of man : a continua- 
tion of this method wiU place physiology on the solid basis of 
experience, and build up science on ground hitherto occupied 
by fancy and conjecture. 

The physiologist, who is conversant with natural history in 
general, is fortified against uncertain opmions, and the showy 
but flimsy textures of verbal sophistry, An hypothesis, which 
to others appears perfectly adequate to the object in view, is not 
convincing to him. He rises above the particular object to 
which it is accommodated, in order to appreciate its value ; as 
we ascend an eminence to gain a commanding view of a dis- 
trict, to distinguish its features, to ascertain the number and 
bearings of its parts, and their relations to the Eurroundin^ 


There are three points of view, in which comparative anatomf 
bas an important bearing on human physiology. 

In the infancy of science, physiology, 8uch as it was, owed itt 
origin to zootomy, which was practised by physicians and natu- 
ralists eighteen centuries before liuman diasectiuna began. The 
Anatomia Partium Corporis humani of Mondini, 'svritten in the 
beginning of the fourteenth century, was the first compendium 
of- human anatomy composed from actual dissection. It is easy 
to show that even the osteology of Galen- was not drawn from 
the human skeleton : and many parts of the body still bear 
names derived from animals, which names are in some inHtances 
not correctly applicable to the human structure ; for example, 
the epithets right and left as applied to the cavities of the heart. 

Although human anatomy, after its first scientific development 
by Berengar of Carpi, wag so quickly brought to a high 
pitch of perfection by the great triumvirate, Vkb alius, Fal- 
lOPics, and Eustachius, yet the most important discoveries, 
those of greatest weight in physiology, considered as the basis 
of medicme, were made in animals. No period has been so 
fruitful in these discoveries, nor so distinguished in the literary- 
history of our science, as the seventeenth centur)', in which the 
anatomy of brutes was most lealously cultivated, and most of 
the great anatomical facts were found out, which, by unveiling 
tlie hidden springs and movements of the animal machine, have 
furnished the principles, on which rational pathology and prac- 
tical medicine have been established. 

These comparative researches render the most important ser- 
vice by aifording a criterion in doubtful cases for determining- 
the uses of parts ; which, as the main object of this fundamental 
medical science, has been well chosen by Galen for the title of 
his classical work on physiology. Hence Uallgr observes 
that the situation, figure, and size of parts ought to be learned 
from man ; their uses and motions must be drawn from animals. 

I shall adduce a few particulars for the purpose of exemplifying- 
the preceding remarks. 

A serpent swallows an animal larger than itself, which fills ita 
oesophagus, as well as stomach, and of which the digestion 
occupies several days or even weeks. We open the reptilo 
during this process, and find that part of the animal which 
remained in the oeaophagus, sound and natural, while the por- 
tion which had descended into the stomach, though still retain- 
ing Its figure, is semi-liquefied, reduced into so soft a state, as to 
break down imder the sUsjhtest pressure. How elTectually does 


this aimple hct refute the notions of digestion being mechanical 
trituration; or Bolution by heat (for the animal is cold-blooded); 
or the efi'ect of fermentation, or puirefaction, or coction ! 

The Blow and languid motion of the blood in cold-blooded 
animals, lias enabled iia to demonstrate in them the circulation, 
which in man can only be proved by argument. 

Physiologists have been umcb perplexed to find out a common 
centre in the nervous system, in which oU sensations may meet, 
and from wliich all acts of volition may emanate ; a central 
apartment for the superintendent of the human panopticon ; or. 
in its imposing Latin name, a sensorium conunune. That there 
must be such a point they are well convinced, having satiafied 
themselves that the human mind is aimple Bind indivisible, and 
therefore capable of dwelling only in one place. The pineal 
gland, the corpus callosum, the pons Varolii, and other parts, 
have been successively suggested. Now, there are many orders 
of animala with sensation auii vohlion, who have none of these 
parts. And this assumed unity of the sentient principle becomes 
very doubtful^ when we see other animals, possessed of nervous 
systems, which, after being cut in two, form agidn two perfect 
animala. Is the immaterial principle divided by the kuife, as 
well aa the body 1 

The heart has been regarded by many physiologists as the 
prime mover in the animal inuchint ; — the origin of vital motion 
in the embryo, the chief ageni in forming and maintaining the 
fabric, and the main-spring for keeping the whole machinery in 
action. There are whole classes of Uving beings, and some of 
compUcated structure, which have no heart. 

Some have regarded the spleen as a spunge ; soaking up the 
blood when the stomach is empty, and allowing it to be squeezed 
out again by the pressure of this bag when distended. In many 
animals the spleen is neither cellular, nor so situated as to bo 
compressible by the stomach. This is the case, generally speak- 
ing, vnth birds and reptiles. 

The office of conveying away fluids from the stomach has 
been assigned to it, making it a kind of waste-pipe to prevent 
the hquid contents of the digestive cistern from rising above a 
certain level. But it exists in reptiles and fishes, where neither 
the figure of the stomach, nor the known habits of the animals, 
in respect to food and digestion, admit of this explanation. In 
the camel, which retains the water in its stomach, and in the 
horse, where it passes very rapidly into the caecum, the spleen 
i» aa large as in other animals. In beasts of prey, which hardlf 


drink at all, it U M \Btge and cellular as in the herbivorous 
jHuninant animals. Its size and iu cells are particularly con- 
Bpicuoiu in the latter : yet the duida which they swallow, go 
into the paunch, and not into the true digestive stomach. 

Although arguments from analogy are of great service in 
physiology, and other departments of natural history, although 
they throw hght on obscure points, and give an interest to many 
discussions, their employment ref^uires caution, and they should 
xathex be resorted to for illustration than be relied on for direct 
proof. Organs corresiwnding in situation and Dame are not 
always constructed ahke ; hence a part is sometimes employed 
in one class of animals for a diiTereiit purpose from that whidt 
the instrument of the same name and of analogous position ia 
the body executeii in another. The gizzards of the galhnie have 
a prodigious triturating power ; and those, who first ascertained 
by ejtperiment the extent of their power, were disposed to infer 
that digestion is effected in man by mechanical attrition. Now, 
the gizzard, although the corresponding part to uur stomach, ia 
in structure and action the instrument of mastication ( and, aa 
birds have no teeth, it is the only instrument for dividing tha 
hard grain on which they feed. Further inquiry shows, that 
even in this stomach, which is covered by a tlurk insensible 
cuticle, capable uf bearing the friction of grain and jjiliceous 
pebbles, digestion is realty eOTected, as in the stomach of man. 
by solution; tbq solvent juice being secreted by the large col- 
lection of glands at the cardiac end of the uesophagus, and having 
an operation similar to that of the gastric lluid of quadrupeds. 

It has been argued, that the arteries of the mammalia must 
have a contractile power, because, in some worms without a 
heart, these vessels carry on the circulation alone. 'ITie whole 
economy is loo different in the two instances to admit of infe- 
rences from analogy; the circulating apparatus, in particular, is 
formed on plans altogether different in the two cases; and the 
structure and actions of the vessels of worms, are, in fact, very 
little known. 

Because the vesiculn seminales in some animals do not com- 
mimicate with the vasa deferentia, and therefore cannot receive 
the fluid secreted in the testicles, it has been inferred that they 
do not serve the purpose of reservoirs for the seminal accretion 
in man, where, however, they have so free a communication with 
the vasa deferentia, that any fluids ])a8s into and even distend 
the former, before they go on into the urethra. The organic 
arrangement is different in the two instances ; and this difference 



leads us ta expect a modification in the function, instead of 
authorising us to infer that the same ofHce ia executed in exactly 
the same manner in both cases. If we met with animals, in 
whom the cystic duct opened into the small intestines separately 
from the hepatic, shall we therefore infer that the human gall- 
bladder is not a receptacle for the hepatic bile ? 

Again, animals may be compared to each other. Each organ 
must be examined in &11 the gradations of living beings; its 
modifications compared and 8ur\'eyed in relation to the varieties 
of other parts, before a just notion of its functions can be formed. 
Iliis kind of examination of the animal kingdom, leads to what 
may be called general anatomy, the basis of general physiology; 
the objecta of which are to determine the organization, and un- 
fold the ^-ital laws of the whole syatem of living beings. 

In the physical sciences we have the power of insulating the 
various objects of our research ; of analysing them into their 
component elements, of subtracting these successively, and thus 
determining beforehand all the conditions of the problem we may 
be studying. It would be desirable to employ the same proceed- 
ing in natural history j and it is resorted to, when the objects 
are sufficiently simple. But they are for the most part too com- 
plicated, and connected too closely by mutual influences. We 
cannot analyse an animal of the higher orders, and ob8er%'e the 
simple result of each organ by itself ; for, if we destroy one part, 
the motion of the whole machine is stopped. Tlie phenomena 
come before us under conditions not regiJ.ated by our own choice; 
and in a state of complication requiring close attention and care- 
ful discrimination to search out and determine the precise share 
of each coinpcment part. 

In this difficulty, comparative observations afford some assist- 
ance. The animals of inferior classes are so many subjects of ex- 
periment rendy prepared for us; where any organ may be observed 
under every variety of simplicity and complication in its own 
structure : of existence alone, or in combination with others. 


J^alurs of Lif? ; — Vrlhodicol jlrrangnni^nt of living Beinas ; S/irrift. Variftiei, 
Gmrra. Unlcrs. lite. — I'ros.reisirf Simplijication afOryaiiimtiim, ntuiiif t'unc- 
tion/.—fntrllertual Funciiimt nf the Brain, in lie natural and ditordered SUUe^ 
exptnitini an llie laiue I^rincijjlei lu the OJtcej (ifulher Orgaiu. 

The notion of life is too complicated, embraces too many p&rti- 
oilarj". tn admit of a short definition. It varies in the different 


liinds of animals, as their structure and funclionB vary ; so that 
B description drawn ^om one would not be applicable to others 
differently situated in the animal series. If we include in tho 
description those circumstances only, which are common to the 
whole animal kingdom, we must direct our view to beings of 
the most simple structure, where the phenomenon is reduced to 
its essential features, and these are not obscured or confused by 
accessary circumstances. 

The distinguishing characters of li\'ing beings will be found 
in their texture or organization ; in their comjtonent elements i 
in their form ; in their peculiar maniJestations or phenomena ; 
and in the limits, that is^ in the origin and termination of theic 
I vital existence. 

Their bodyiscomposedof solids and fluids; the former arranged 
fibres and lamina?, so as to intercejit sjiaces, which are occupied 
' the latter. The solids give the form to the body, and are con- 
actile. The fluids are generally in motion. 
The component elements, of which nitrogen is a principal one^ 
lited in numbers of three, four, or more, easily pass into new 
jmbinations; and are, for the moat part, readily convertible 
Dto fluid or gas. 
Such a Icind of composition, and such an aaangement of the 
constituent parts, is called organisation ; and, as the vital pheno- 
mena are only such motions as are consistent with these material 
arrangements, life, so far as our experience goes (and we have 
no other guide in these matters), is necessarily connected with 
organization. Life presupposes organization, as the movements 
of a watch presuppose the wheels, levers, and other mechanism 
of the instrument. 

The organization assumes certain definite forms in each kind 
of animals ; not merely in the external arrangement of the whole, 
but in each part, and in all the details of each. On this depends 
the kind of motion which each part can exercise; the share 
which it is capable of contributing to the general vital move- 
ment ; which latter, or, in short, life, is the result of the mutual 
actions and re-actions of all [larts. 

Living bodies exhibit a constant internal motion, in which we 
observe an uninterrupted ad mission and assimilation of new, and 
a correspondent separation and expulsion of old particles. The 
form remains the same, the com]>onent particles are continually 
changing. While this motion lasts, the body i.s said to ha ahve j 
when it has irrecoverably ceased, to be dead. The organic stmc- 


tore then yields to the chemical aiiinities of the surrounding 
sgenta, and ih speedily de^rroyed. 

All living; beingn have, in the first place, formed part of a body 
like their own ; have been attached to a parent before the period 
of their independent existence. The new animal, while thus 
connected, ia called a germ : its separation constitutea generation 
or birth. After this it increaees in siae according to certain fixed 
laws for each species and each part. 

The duration of existence is limited in all animals : after a longer 
or shorter period the vital movement.'i are arrested, and their 
eesaation or death seems to occur as a necessary conseqnence 
of life. 

Thus, then, absorption, assimilation, exhaktion, generation, 
and growth, are functions common to all living beings ; birth 
■nd death the universal limits of their existence ; a reticular con- 
tractile tissue, with fluids in its interstices, the general essence 
of their structure J aubstancea easily convertible into the state 
of liquid or gai;, and combmations readily changing, the basis of 
their chemical composition. Fixed formB, perpetuated by genera- 
tion, distinguish their sjtecies, determine the combination of 
secondary functions peculiar to each, and assign to them their 
respective situations in the system of the universe. 

After forming this general notion of living beings, we proceed 
to examine the animal kingdom in detail. The first glance dis- 
covers to us an infinite xTiriety of forms ; diversities so numerona, 
that the attempt to obser\'e and register the whole seems almost 
hopeless. We find, however, that these forms, at first view so 
infinitely various, admit of being classed together, of being 
formed into groups, each of which ia distinguished by certain 
e8.<iential characters. In the latter all the animals comprehended 
in each group agree ; while they differ from each other in parti- 
culars of minor importance. 

I have already mentioned that a fixed eternal form belongs to 
each animal, and that it is continued by generation. Certain 
forms, the same as those existing in the world at the present 
moment, have existed from lime immemorial. Huch, at least, 
is the rBstilt of the separate and combined proofs furnished by 
our own obsen'ation and experience respecting the laws of the 
animal kingdom, by tlie voice of tradition and of history, by the 
remains of antiquity, and by every kind of collateral evidence. 

All the animals belonging to one of these forms conatitota 
what zoologists call a. specibs. lliis resemblance moat not be 



stood in s rigorous sense ; for every being haa its iodiri. 
racterx o£ «ize, fiffure, colour, pdroi>ottkitis. la Uua 
sense the character of varietj is stamped on all nature's worka. 
Sbe has made it a fundameotal law, that no two of her produc- 
ttaoB shall he exactly alike ; and tbts lavr is invariably observed 
through the whole creation. Each tree, each flower, each leaf, 
ejreraijliftesit; every animal has its individual character; each 
human being has something diatLnguisliing in. form, jiro- 
portionsv countenance, gesture, voice ; in feelings, thought, and 
temper; its mental as well as corporeal phyaiof(nomy. This 
variety is the source of every thing beautiful and interesting in 
tiie external world ; the foundation of the whole moral fabric of 
the universe. 

I cannot help pointing out to you how strongly the voice of 
nature, so clearly expressed in this obvious law, oiiposea all 
attempts at making mankind act or think alike. Yt-t the legis- 
lators and rulers of the world have persisted for centuries in 
endeavouring to reduce the opinions, the behef of their subjects, 
to certain fancied standards of perfection ; — to impress on 
human thought that dreary sameneaai and dull monotony, which 
all the discipline and all the rigour of a religious sect have been 
hardly able to maintain in the outward garb of its followers. 
le mind, however, cannot be drilled, cannot ba made to move 
the word of commaitd ; it scorns all shackles ; acd rises vritli 
freaii energy from every new attempt to bind it down on tliid bed 
of Procbvstkb. 

All the oppression and pcrseeation, all the bloodshed and 
misery, which the attempts to produce uniformity have occa- 
sioned, are, however, a less evil than the success of these mad 
efforts would be, were it possible for them to succeed in opposi- 
tion to the natural constitution uf the human miud, to the 
general scheme and plain design of nature. 

'llie most powerful monarch of modem history, who exiiibited 
the rare example of a voluntary retreat from the cares of empire, 
•while still fully able to wield the sceptre, ivas rendered sensible 
of the extreme folly he had been guilty of in attempting to pro- 
duce uniformity' of opinion among the numerous subjects of his 
extensive dominions, by finding himself unable to make even 
two watches go a^ke, although every part of tliis simple 
mechanism was constrticted, formed, and Euijusted by himself. 

■^Blie dear experience and the candid confession of Cuarlss V. 

^^nere thrown away on his bigoted son ; who repeated on a still 



fpraoderacale, tvith fresh horrors and crueltiea, the bloody expe- 
nmcnt of dragooning his subjecta into unifannity, only to 
iiutructthe world by a still more mcmorablie failure. 

The increasingr light of reason has destroyed many of these 
renuiiints of ignorance and barbarism ; but much remains to be 
done, before the final accorapliabment of the grand purpose, 
which, however delayed, cannot be ultimately defeated ; I mean 
the complete emancipation of the mind, the destruction of all 
creeds and articles of faith, and the establishment of full freedom 
of opinion and belief. I cannot doubt that a day will arrive, 
when the attempts at enforcing uniformity of opinion will be 
deemed as irrational, and as bttle desirable, as to endeavour at 
producing samenegs of face and stature.* 

In the mean time, no efforts capable of accelerating a consum- 
mation BO beneficial to mankind should be omitted ; and I have 
therefore attempted to show you that, on this point, the analogies 
of natural history accord with the dictates of reason and the 
invariable instructions of experience. 

Certain external circumstances, as food, climate, mode of hfe, 
liave the power of modifying the animal organization, so aij to 
make it deviate from that of the parent. But this effect termi- 
nates in the individual. Thus, a fair Englishman, if exposed to 
the sun, becomes dark and swarthy in Bengal ; but his olFspring, 
if from an Englishwoman, are born just aa fair as he himself 
was originally : and the children, after any number of genera- 
tions, that we hare yet observed, are still born equally fair, 
provided there has been no intermixture of dark blood. 

Moreover, under certain circumstances, with which we are not 
well ac([uainted, a more important change of organization occurs. 
A new character springs up, and is propagated by generation : 
this constitutes a variety. In the language of naturalists. The 
number and degree of these variations are confined within nar- 
row limits ; they occur chiefly in the domesticated animals, and 
have not interfered with the transmission and continuation of 
those forms which constitute speciea. They ivill be more parri- 
eularly considered hereafter. 

• These op-iniotij do not nce'J Ihe eupporl of names, or T might i-ite Locke, 
layi'kose Leiiert on Tolergticn all the grVat principles un whiclj the freedom of 
the humrui mind re»U are fiilly dcvcJopf^l, una imnnxwetalil v estahlislipil 
This may be Kallt?d stwculatioii, theory, or alhtr bad names ; I Fiavi.' therefore 
plcaaaro in referring to the nnUiority of s practical statesman and i-nlightened 

vrblcn hu been perfectly successful, ud hitherto adapted la no other put 
«f the world. 


Proceeding, then, on the criterion of definite form, tranimttted 
by generation, we may define a species as a collection of nil the 
individuals which have descended one from the other, or from 
common parents, and of ail those which resemble them as much 
aa they resemble each other.* 

Thus, our first operation, in classifying the animal kingdom, 
consists in referring individuals to their specieif. The next 
brings together the species most nearly resembling each other, 
and forms them intogroupes cdled genera. Tliis presupposes 
a thorough knowledge of the animals ; because the species 
included under each genus should resemble each other more 
closely, than the species of any other genus. For example, thei 
lion, tiger, lynx, leopard, panther, cat species, with some others, 
compose the genus felis or cat. All these have a savage charac- 
ter, as they prey on living animals. For this purpose they are 
armed mth powerful teeth, mth great muscular strength in the 
jaws, neck, and limbs. ITiey all have the tongue and glans 
penis covered with sharp, homy prickles ; and they arc furnished 
mth curved, sharp, and cutting nails or claws, which, by a 
pccuhar mechanism, are retracted, so as not to press against the 
ground when the animal is not employing tliem. Thus the 
species in question all agree in the leading points of organization ; 
and they agree likewise in genera] habits and character. The 
common cat is the only one actually domesticated ; but the lion, 
tiger, and others, are easily tamed and rendered familiar to man, 
although their size and strength make them too dangerous for 
playfellows ; and many admit of training, so that they can be 
employed in hunting. 

Tlie genera are again formed into groupea called order3 
thus the cow, sheep, goat, deer, antelope, camel, lama, and other 
genera, compose the order rumloantia. All these feed on 
vegetables, and submit their food to a double process of masti- 
cation, in reference to which the stomach possesses a very pecu- 
liar and complicated structure. This vegetable diet and this 
process of rumination are connected xnth certain structures of 
teeth and jaws, with particular arrangements of the organs of 
sensation and motion, and with certain general habits, which 
produce great similarity of character throughout the whole 

The different orders are again arranged into certain classbs. 
Thus all the animals vvhich are viviparous, and in which tha 
* Carier, Regne Animal; c. i. Introduction, p. IB. 


yoxsng are noiirished for a certain time by a secretion of ttia 
mother, are united into the class mammalia, or maaumferoiu 
animals ; so called from their mamnuB, or glandular organs, 
which secrete the fluid nutriment of the young. 

Lastly, the classes are assembled, on tlie same principle at* 
resemblance, into provinces or departuentb of the animal 
kingdom. The mammalia, birds, fislies, and reptiles, constitiite 
the DEPARTirENT vcrtcbralia, or vertebral amimabj — allof tliem 
powwing a vertebral column or spine, the most important 
piece of an internal articulated skeleton. 

A scheme of the animal kingdom, drs^vn out on these prin> 
ciples, is called a natukal method or distribution, because 
the natural relations orresemblancea of the objects comprised in 
it are the basis of its formation. To complete it, an accurate 
knowledge of the whole animated creation is necessary, so that 
it cannot be attempted, -with, any reasonable chance of suoceoa, 
except in an advanced state of the science. 

When such an nrrangement has been properly executed ; that 
is, when the animals have been assigned to each dirisioa 
according to their resemblances of structure, so that the species of 
each genus are ahke, and more lilic to each other, than to those 
of any other genus ; and when the same remark is true con- 
cerning the genera of each order, the orders of each class, and 
the classes of each department, it is an abridged expression of 
the whole science, the embodied result of all our knowledge con- 
cerning the structure and habits of animals. The place which 
any animal occupies, denotes all the leading circum-stances of its 
organization and economy, and expresses them in few words. 
"We «ay, for example, that the dromedaiy belongs to the genus 
CAMELUs, order ruminantia, class mammalia, and depart- 
ment vehtkbralia. To a person conversant \vith the prin- 
ciples of the arrangement, these four words convey a general 
notion of the animal, which would otherwise require a length- 
ened description 

The great utility of this scientific short-hand writing in 
abbreviating descriptions is too obvious to need illustration. It 
is absolutely indispensable when we come to delineate the 
structure and modificBtions of organs throughout the whole 
animal kingdom. The recent work of Cuvier, entitled, the 
" Animal Kingdom distributed according to ita Organization" 
contains the most complete and accurate view of the subject. 

If we contemplate living beings arranged in one line, begin- 

ning ndth the most perfect, and coDtiitiied do wo wards, we find 
A tolerably regular gradation from complicated to simple, 
through tlie whole series. At one end is man ; at the other an 
animated microscopic point, uf which thousands are found in a 
iti^gle drop of fluid. Numberleas gradations are placed between 
these ; «o that^ though the two ends of the chain are immea- 
suialily zefnotCj there is close approximation between any two 
. links. 

This simplificKtion or degradation of the organization is 
immediately perceptible on comparing tof^ether the four great 
jlgpaTitinnntg* of the animal kingdom ; and it is equally so in 
I each department. In the vertebralia, we pass from man to 
the eel or serpent : in the mollusc a, from the cuttle-fish to 
the Larnacle or oyster; in the articolata, from the crab or 
iobster to the earth-worm or leech : in the radiata, from the 
star-fish or medusa to an animalcule of infusions. 

The same progression is observable in each class ; in the 
^mBOUQalia, for example, we descend from man to the whale 

A cuTBorj' general survey of the animal kingdom will show us 
the gradual steps by which this simplificaliuu of the organisation 
^m is effected. 

^B Tlie internal articuiatedskeleton, on which the £gure, motions, 
^^ and utho: important properties of the vertebral animals, which 
posaen it, so much depend, ends in the vertebral department.t 
In some fishes it is reduced to the state of cartilage ; and in 
othecB it is so soft, as hardly to afford points sufficiently firm for 
Bupport and motion. External members for locomotion do not 

I exist in some vertebral animals, as serpents and certain fishes. 
The eyehds and lacrymal apparatus; the external ear and 
tympanum ; the organs of touch and taste ; the porta called 
cerebnim and cerebehum, do not e-ttend beyond this depart- 
tnent, nor do they exist in all the animals belonging to this 
division. The sympathetic nerve belongs only to the vertebral 
• The primary dirUion of the animal kiDgdoin into the four dcpartmcnU 
inentioiipd in tlie lext, wa* propostil by Cuvicr in Ihe Aimalei du Mtaeam 
d'Hitt. Nat. I. 19. Tho leaauns on wliicli tlie diflsinii i.i gruuntJed, and lli« 
wtincipal lULttumical characlors of the four di.>piirtment!i, may be seen in the 
Megne Animal, lntrnductian, p. 57, et »uiv. 

+ C'nlesi we consider us a gk.i.-letun U)e cuTious and complicated arran^eintnt 

orcurin<?i-ti'<l bimy pietBH lu ttie astefias ; where, however, tlie rriticipal part* 

of til- ■ i ' ; ," are not applied, aa in Ihu vert«bial animals, to the fonqa- 

Uoii ' for the iiervuus sy&trm. 

J 1; . nurvoua structure* iu some anim^ig of the lower Dtd«Tt 

'shoulu DO rf!;arded as a aympathctic nerve, it will not materially nflect oal^ 


The diaphragm ends with the mammalia ; bo that the thoru 
and ahdomen are not distinct in any other anim&la. 

The circulation is reduced in reptiles to the single state, and 
19 carried on by one auricle and ventricle. 

Warralk of the blood — that is, a temperature of that fluid con- 
siderably elevated above the surrounding mediiun-^belonga only 
to mammalia and birds ; and the red colour of the same fluid is 
confined, with one small exception, to the vertebral animals. 

Organs of voice end in reptiles ; not existing in fishes. 

Viviparous generation, with its attendant process of suckling 
the young, is confined to the mammalia; and is afterwards 
succeeded by the more simple oviparous form. 

Urinary organs end with the mammalia, many of which have 
no bladder, as birds, some fishes, and reptiles. 

The absorbent system terminates in the vertebral department; 
of which only the mammalia and birds possess lymphatic glands 

The moUusca present an organization very much reduced in 
the number of its parts, and very imperfect in all respects, when 
compared to that of the vertebral aniraala. They have no skeleton 
to lodge the nervous system, and for the centre of motions ; no 
separate receptacles for the various internal organs; but the brain, 
nervous cord, and viscera, are all placed in a common cavity. 

In articulated animals the nervous system is reduced to a 
knotted cord, and the organs of sense are gradually eitmguishcd. 
The heart ceasen is Uiis department, and respiration also, as 
•carried on by R particular organ 

la the radiated department the organs of circulation finally 
■disappear; the heart having been before abolished. The ali- 
mentary apparatus is reduced to a simple bag with one opening. 
Finally, in the microscopic animalcules all special organs are at 

view ot the subject, 90 far as the simplification of the orf^Eiiiiatiou is con- 
cerned. Treviranua regards tjii" knittterl abduminal cord of mseets aiitJ wunns 
u the vortfhtal (janjilia of Ihe sympathetic nprvp unilcdlntu a sj^minetriciU 
vfaole. To call it ». spinal marrow he thinkj incorrect. "Its ailumtiun on 
the iltdomlnal instend of the duijuil aspect of the body, points out a groat dif- 
fprentc between ft and Ihe Kpiutl morrow of the four vertebral elasMM. The 
•p^iden and iihalanjjia, vhkb in otiicr rt^spectg arc aJlied to other insects, 
have Tl(^ «uen eoril, but, bke the tnollusca, single ^ranglia, nut placvd in a 
atriught direction one behind the other. A true spinal marrow is only found 
in mammalia, birds, reptile*, and fishes." Jiialogie, h. v. p. 331, 333. 

" In this vJev(f, the rcprescutwion that the great svmpalhetic nerre belong 
only to red-blomieil animals, must he deemed incorrect. This very nerve is 
the most general, the ortglnal of all nerves ; but it is raiiously inutlitied in the 
different classes. In worms and insects Ihert are aiereJr vertebral ganglia 
without the cdliac ganglia of mimniatia. anil birds ; in the accphaluus mol- 
iu$ca there arc the latter without the former; in the euttle-Ash onA snaiU 
there are single ganglia of hath kinds. All the.<ic lover aniirals have no spinal 
•narrow; flshes and reptiles have one, and also vertebral ganglia; but Ihe 
cceliac ganglia either do nut cxi^t in Ihetn, or are not so developed u In btrdl 
■admaminaUa." Ibid. 334>3. 



' tn end, and the animated being appears to our senses a spot of 
mere jelly. 

Take any organ, or system of organs, and the same progfresa 
from complication to simplicity mil he apparent. Let us observe 
the nen'ous sj'atem. In man and the mammalia thia apparatus 
consists of a brain and spinal marrovvj securely lodged in bony 
cases ; of cerebral and spinal nerves ; of the system of ganglift 
called the great sympathetic nerv'c, and of the five external Bense*. 
In passing through the mammalia, we observe tlie brain con- 
siderably reduced in size ; still farther diminished, and altered 
in its figure and component parts, in birds ; lessened again> and 
greatly simplified, in reptiles and fishes. 

In the mollusca this large a])paratus is reduced to one or mora 
email ganglia, with a few slender nerves ; to which are added, 
the rudiment of an ear in one instance only, and in some others 
imperfect and almost doubtful organs of lision. 

In articulated animals there is merely a straight cord with a 
rfew branches ; in some of the more complicated radiated animals 
I few almost doubtful nervous branches ; and below them nothing 
-neither brain, gangba, nerves, nor organa of sense. 
But there would be little inducement to compare together the 
rious animal structures, to folloiv any apparatus through the 
rhole animal series, unless the structure were a measure and 
riterion of the function. Just in the same proportion as organiza- 
Son is reduced, hfe is reduced ; exactly as the organic parts are 
Fdiminished in numberand simplified, the vital phenomena become 
fewer and more simple j and each function ends, when the re- 
spective organ ceases. This is true throughout zoology; there 
is no exception in behalf of any vital manifestations. 

The same kind of facts, the same reasoning, the same sort of 
evidence altogether, which show digestion to be the function of 
the alimentary canal, motion of the muscles, the various secre- 
tions of their respective glands, prove that sensation, perception, 
memory, judgment, reasoning, thought, in a word, all the mani- 
festations called mental or intellectual, are the anima} functions 
of their appropriate organic apparatus, the central organ of tlie 
nervous system. No difficulty nor obscurity belongs to the 
latter case, which does not equally affect all the former instances 
no kind of evidence connects the living processes with the mate- 
rial instruments in the one, which does not apply just as clearly 
and forcibly to the other. 
Shall I he told that thought ia inconsistent with matter j that 


we ranaot conceiTe liow medullary Bubetaace can perceive, re- 
member, judge, reason ? I acknowledge that we are entirely 
%nor<iiit how the parts of the brain accomplish these purpoeee — 
as we are how the liver secretes bile, how the muscles contract, 
or how any other hving purpose is effected : — as we are how 
heavy bodies are attracted to the earth, how iron is drawn to 
the magnet, or haw two salts decompose each other. Experience 
is in all these cases our sole, if not sufficient instructress ; and 
the constant conjunction of phenomena, as exhibited m her 
lessons, is the sole ground for afErming a necessarj' connection 
between them. If we go beyond this, and come to inquire the 
manner how, the mechanism by which these things are effected, 
Tve shall find every thing arotind us equally mysieriouH, equally 
incomprehensible : — from the stone, which falls to the earth, to 
the comet traversing the heavens : — from the thread attracted 
by amber or seaUng-wax, to the revolutions of planets in their 
orbits ; — from the formation of a maggot in putrid flesh, or a 
mite in cheese, to the production of a Newton or a Franklin. 
In opposition to these views it has been contended that thought 
is not an act of the brain, but of an immaterial substance, residing 
in or connected with it. This large and curious structure, which, 
in the human subject, receives one-fifth of all the blood sent out 
from the heart, which is so peculiarly and deMcalely organized, 
nicely enveloped in successive membranes, and seciu"ely lodged 
m a solid bony case, is left almost without an office, being barely 
allowed to be capable of sensation. It has, indeed, the easiest 
lot in the animal economy ; it is better fed, clothed, and lodged 
than any other part, and has les.s to do. But its office — ordy one 
remove above a sinecure — is not a very honourable one : it is a 
kind of porter, intrusted to open the door, and introduce new 
comers to the master of the house, who takes on himself the 
entire charge of receiving, entertaining, and employing them. 

Let us survey the natural history of the human mind ; — its 
rise, progress, various fates, and decay ; — and then judge whether 
these accord best with the hypothesis of an immaterial agent, or 
■with the plain dictates of common sense, and the analogy of 
every other organ and function throughout the boundless extent 
of living beings. 

You must bring to this physiological question a sincere and 
lamest love of truth ; dismissing from 3'our minds all the pre- 
judices and alarms which have been so industriously coimected 
with it. If you enter on the inquiry in the spirit of the bigot 



- tio 


WKfmtma or ttir uraw. 75 

«nd partisan, saffenng a cloud of fearn and hopes, desires and 
ttvetWfBmB, to hani; round your understandings, you wiil never 
diBcera objects clearly ; their colours, dimensione, will be con- 
tiiBed, distorted, and obscured by the intellectual mist. Uor 
Ijusineas is to inquire what is true ; not what is the finest theory ; 
not what will supply the best topics of pretty composition and 
leloquent declamation, addressed to the prejudices, the passions, 
amd the ignorance of our hearers. We need not fear the result 

isrw^atioD : truth is like a native rustic beauty, most lovely 

en tmadomed, and seen in the open lij^lit of day : your fine 
hypothesis and apecioua theories are like the unfortunate females 
who supply the want or the loss of native charms, and repair 
the breaches of age or disease by paint, finery, and decorations, 
Trhich can only be exhibited in the glaring lights, the artificial 
e, and the unnatural scenery of the theatre or saloon. 
'"Whenever it is thorou|u(lily discussed, truth will not fail to come, 
like tried gold from the fire. Like Ajax, it requires nothing 
but day-light and fair play. 

Reason and free inquiry are the only effectual antidotes of 
»error. Give them full scope, and they will uphold the truth by 
bringing false opinions and all tlu; spurious oSiipring of i}2;norance, 
|)rejudice, and self-interest, before their severe tribunal, and 
subjecting them to the test of close investigation. Error alone 
seeds artificial support : truth can stand by itself. 

Sir EvBRASD HoMii:, with the assistance of Mr. Badeu and 
Us ■MftMOope, has shown us a man eight days old from the 
*ime of conception ; about as broad, and a little longer than a 
pin's head. He satisfied himself that the brain of this homun- 
culus wns discernible. Could the immaterial mind have been 
connected with it at this time ; or wm the tenement too small 
even for so etherial a lodger ? At the full period of utero-gesta- 
tion it is still difficult to trace any vestiges of mind, and the be- 

ivers in its separate eadstence have left us quite in the dark on 
tile precise time at which the spiritual guest arrives in his cor- 
poreal dwelling, the interesting and important moment of amal- 
gamation or combination of the earthly dust and the ethereal 
essence. The Roman Catholic church has cut the knot, which 
no one else could untie, and has decided that the little mortal, 
on its passage into this world of trouble, has a soul to be saved; 
it accordingly directs and authorizes midwives, in cases of diffi- 
cult labour, where the death of the infant is apprehended, to 
btptiBe it by means of a syringe introduced into the vagina, and 
thus to save it from perdition 

7 b FcmcTioNa op thb bratw. 

They, whose scruples are not quite set at rest by tbe abore- 
inentroned decision of the church, nor l!>y being told that the 
mind has not yet taken up its quarters in the brain, endeavour 
to account for the entire absence of mental phenomena at the 
time of birth by the senses and brain not having been yet called 
into action by the impressionB of external objects. 

'ITiese organs l)egin to be exercised aa soon as the child is 
bom ; and a faint glimmering of mind is dimly perceived in the 
course of the first months of existence ; but it is as weak and 
infantile as the body. 

As the aenaea acquire their powers, and the cerebral jelly 
becomes firmer, the mind gradually atrengthene; slowly advances, 
■with the body, through childhood to puberty, and becomes adult 
when the development of the frame is complete : it is, moreover, 
male or female, according to the sex of the body. In the perfect 
period of organization, the mind is seen in the plenitude of its 
powers ; but this state of full -vigour is short in duration both 
for the intellect and the corporeal fabric. The wear and tear of 
the latter is evidenced in its mental movements j with the decline 
of organization the mind decays : it becomes decrepit with the 
body i and both are at the same time extinguished by death. 

What do we infer from this succession of phenomena ? — The 
existence and action of a principle entirely distinct from body ? or 
a close analogy to the history of all other organs and functions ? 
The number and kind of the intellectual phenomena in dif- 
ferent animals correspond closely to the degree of development 
of the brain. The mind of the Negro and Hottentot, of the 
Calmuck and the Carib, is inferior to that of the European j and 
their organiEation is also less perfect. The large cranium and 
high forehead of the orang-outang lift hira above his brother 
raonkeye ; but the development of his cerebral hemispheres and 
his mental manifestations are both equally below those of the 
negro The gradation of organization and of mind passes 
through the monkey, dog, elephant, horse, to other quadrupeds ; 
thence to birds, reptiles, and fishes ; and so on to the lowest 
links of the animal chain. 

In ascending these steps of one ladder, following in regular 
succession at equal intervals, where shall we find the boundary 
of unassisted organization ? where place the beginning of the 
immaterial adjunct ? In that view, which assimilates the func- 
tions of the brain to those of other organic parts, this case has 
DO difficulty. As the structure of the brain ia more exquisite. 


p«necl^~uid complex, its functions ought to be proportionally 
BO. It ta no slight proof of the doctrine now enforced, that the 
fact is actually thus ; that the mental powers of brutes, as f ar a» 
we can see, are proportional to their orginization. 

We cannot deny to animala all participation in rational endow- 
ments, without shutting our eyes to the moat obvious facts ; — to 
indications of reasoning, which the unprejudiced observation of 
^mankind has not failed to recognise and appreciate. Without 
iverting to the well-knoivn instances of comparison, judgment, 
and sagacity, in the elephant, the dog, and many other animals, 
let us read the character drawn bj Humhoi.ot of the South 
American mules. 

" When the mules feel themselres in danger, Ihey stop, tum- 
ag their heads to the right and to the left : the motion of their 
rs seems to indicate that they reflect on the decision they 
Jght to take. Their resolution is slow, but always just, if it be 
ee ; that is to say, if it be not crossed nor hastened by the 
iprudence of the traveller. It is on the frightful roads of the 
'Andes, during journeys of six or seven months across the moun- 
tains furrowed by torrents, that the intelligence of horses and 
beasts of burden displays itself in an astonishing manner. Thus 
the mountaineers are heard to say, ' I will not give you the mule 
rhose step is the easiest, but him who reasons best.' "• 

If the intellectual phenomena of man require an immaterial 
principle superadded to the brain, we must equally concede it to 
those more rational animals, which exhibit manifestations difi'er- 
ing from some of the human only in degree. If we grant it to 
these, we cannot refuse it U> the next in order, and so on in 
succession to the whole series ; to the oyster, the sea anemone, 
the poljTJe, the microscopic animalcules. Is any one prepared 
to adroit the existence of immaterial principles in all these cases ? 
if not, he must equally reject it in man. 

It is admitted that an idiot with a malformed brain hais no 
mind ; that the sagacious dog and half-reasonable elephant do 
not require any thing superadded to their brains ; it is allowed 
that a dog or elephant excels inferior animals in consequence of 
possessing a more perfect cerebral structure ; it is strongly sus- 
pected that a Newton or a Shakspkahe excels other mortals 
only by a more ample development of the anterior cerebral lobes, 
by ha\'ing an extra inch of brain in the riffht place : yet the 
iramaterialista will not concede the obvious corollary wf all 
these admissions ; vis., that the mind of man ia merely that mort 

• Ftrtonai Narraiire, v. iii. 


perfect exhibition of mental phenomena, whkh the more COBI- 
plete development of the brain would lestd us to expect, and still 
perplex us with the gratuitous difficulty- of their immaterial 
faTpothesis. Thonght, it is positively and dognuitie!dly asserted, 
cannot be an act of matter. Yet no feelings, no thought, no 
intellcctiial operation has ever been seen except in conjunction 
with a brain ; and living matter is acknowledged by most per- 
sons to be capable of what makes the nearest possible approach 
to thinking. The strongest advocate for immaterialism seeks 
no further than the body for his explanation of all the vital pro- 
cesses, of muscular contraction, nutrition, secretion, &c.; — 
operations quite as different from any affection of inorgamc sub- 
stance, as reasoning and thonght. lie will even allow the brain 
to be capable of sensation. 

Who knows the capabilities of matter so perfectly, as to be 
able to say that it can see, hear, smell, taste, and feel, but cannot 
possibly reflect, imagine, judge ? Who has appreciated them so 
exactly, as to be able to decide that it can execute the mental 
functions of an elephant, a dog, or an orang-outang, but cannot 
perform those of a Negro or a Ilottentot? 

To say that a thing of merely negative properties, that is, an 
immaterial substance, which is neither evidenced by any direct 
testimony, nor by any indirect proof from its effects, does exist, 
and can think, is quite consistent in those who deny thought to 
animal structures, where we see it going on every day. 

If the mental processes be not the function of the br^n, what 
is its ofSce ? In animals, which possess ordy a small part of the 
human cerebral structure, sensation exi.sts, and in many cases is 
more acute than in man. What employment shall we find for 
all that man possesses over and above tlii.s portion ; — ^for the 
large and prodigiously developed human hemispheres i Are we 
to believe that these sene only to round the figure of the organ, 
or to fill the craniimi ? 

It is necessary for you to form clear opinions on this subject, 
as it has immediate reference to an important branch of patho- 
logy. They who consider the mental operations as acts of an 
immaterial being, and thus disconnect the sound state of the 
mind from organization, act very consistently in disjoining 
insanity also from the corporeal structure, and iu representing 
it as a disease, not of the brain, but of the mind. Thus we come 
to disease of an immaterial being, for which, suitably enough, 
moral treatment has boon recommended. 



I finnly believe, on the contrary, that the rarioui forms of 
iiuanity, that all the affections comprehentied uiMicr the general 
term o( mental derangement, are only evidences* of cerebral 
affections : — disordered manifestations of those organs, whose 
healthy action produces the phenomena called mental ! — ^in 
short, Hymptomi! of diaeaaed brain. 

These 83rmptom9 have the same relation to the br«B, as 
vomiting, indigestion, heartburn, to the stomach ; eongh, asthma^ 
to the liingH ; or any other deranged fanctions to their corres- 
ponding organs. 

If the biliary secretion be increased, diminished, raspended, 
or allcrcll, we have no hesitation in referring to changes in the 
condition of the liver, as the immediate cause of these pheno- 
mena. We explain the state of respiration, whether slow, hur- 
ried, impeded by cough, spasm, &c. by the various conditionfl of 
the longs, and other parts concerned in breathing. These ejBfi^ 
nations are deemed perfectly satisfactory. 

Wliat should we think of a person, who told us that the 
organs have nothing to do with the business; that colera, jaun- 
dice, hepatitis, are diseases of an immaterial hepatic being ; that 
asthma, cough, consumption, are affections of a subtle pul- 
monary matter, or that in both cases the disorder is not in 
bodily organs, but in a vital principle ? If such a statement 
would be deemed too absurd for any ecriouB comment in the 
derangements of thi' liver, lungs, and other organic parts, how 
can it be received in the brain ? 

The very persons who use this language of diseases of the 
mind, speak and reason correctly respecting the other affections 
of the brain. When it is compressed by a piece of bone, or by 
effused blood or serum, and when all intellertiial phenomena 
are more or less completely suspended, they do not say that the 
mind is squeezed, that the immaterial principle suffers pressure. 
For the ravings of delirium and frenzy, the excitation and sub- 
sequent stupor of intoxication, they find an adequate explanation 
in the state of the cerebral circulation, without fancying that 
the mind is delirious, mad, or drunk. 

In these cases the seat of the diseuise, the cause of the symp. 
toms, is too obvious to escape notice. In many forma of msa- 
nity the affection of the cerebral organization is less strongly 
marked, slower in its progress, but generally very recognisable, 
and abundantly sufficient to e.tplain the diseased manifestations; 
^0 afford a material organic cause for the phenomena— for the 


auprmented or diminished energy, or the altered nature i 
various feeliiiga and intellectual factdties. 

I have examined after death the heads of many insane persons, 
and have hardly seen a single brain, which did not exhibit 
obWous Tnarka of disease. In recent cases, loaded vessels, in- 
creased serous secretions : in all instances of longer duration, 
unequivocal signs of present or past increased action ; — blood- 
veasels apparently more numerous, membranes thickened and 
opa<iue, depositions of coagulable Ijinph forming adhesions or 
adventitious membranes, watery eSusions, even abscesses. Add 
to this, that the insane often become paralytic, or are suddenly 
cut off by apoplexy. 

Sometimes, indeed, the mental phenomena are disturbed, 
without any ^Hsihle deviation from the healthy structure of the 
brain ; as digestion or biliary secretion may be impaired or 
altered without any recognisable change of structure in the 
stomach or liver. The brain, like other parts of this compli- 
cated machine, may be diseased sympathetically ; and we see it 

Thus we find the brain, like other parts, subject to what is 
called functional disorder ; but, although we cannot actually 
demonsti'ate tlie fact, we no more doubt that the material cause 
of the symptoms or external signs of disease is in this organ, 
than we do that impaired biliary secretion has ita source in the 
liver, or faulty digestion in the stomach. The brain does not 
often come under the inspection of the anatomist, in auch cases 
of functional disorder ; and I am convmced, from my own 
experience, that very few heads of persona dying deranged will 
he examined after death, without showing diseased structure or 
evident signs of increased vascular activity. 

The eft'ect of medical treatment completely corroborates these 
views. Indeed they, who talk of and heheve in diseases of the 
mind, are too mse to put their trust in mental remedies. Argu- 
ments, ayllogiams, discourses, sermons, have never yet restored 
any patient ; the moral pliarmacopoeia is quite inefficient, and 
no real benefit can be conferred without vigorous medical treat- 
ment, which is as efficacious in these affections, as in the disease 
of any other organs. 

In thus drawing your attention to the physiology of the brain, 
I have been influenced, not merely by the intrinsic interest and 
importance of the subject, but by a wish to exemplify the aid, 
which human and comparative anaiomy and physiology are 


capable of affording each other, and to show how the data fur- 
nished by both tend to illustrate pathology. I have porpoaelj 
avoided noticing those considerations of the tendency of certain 
physiological doctrines, which have sometimes been indus- 
triously mixed up with these disquisitions. In defence of a 
weak cause, and in failure of direct arguments, appeals to the 
passions and prejudices have been indulged, attempts have been 
made to fix public odium on the supporters of this or that opi- 
nion, and direct charges of bad motives and injurious conse- 
quences have been reinforced by all the arts of misrepresentation, 
insinuation, and inuendo. 

To discover truth, and to represent it in the clearest and most 
intelligible maimer, seem to me the only proper objects of 
physiological, or indeed of any other inquiries. I^ee discussion 
is the surest way, not only to disclose and strengthen what is 
true, but to detect and expose what is fallacious. Let us not 
then pay so bad a compliment to truth, as to use in its defence 
foul blows and unlawful weapons. Its adversaries, if it has 
any, will be dispatched soon enough without the aid of the 
stiletto and the bowl. 

The argument against the expediency of divulging an opimon, 
although it may be true, from the possibility of its being per- 
verted, has been so much hackneyed, so often employed in the 
last resort by the defenders of all established abuses and errors, 
that every one, who is conversant with controversy, rejects it 
immediately as the sure mark of a bad cauae, as the last refuge 
of retreating error. 



Tkb following remarks on Ihose -porta of Che niitural history of our speeiea, 
which admit of illuslratiun from human and compar»tivc analom}; and phy- 
■ioloj'j-, ffimied twt'lvf Lecltires tUlivprci! after the three fnn-^oin" at the 
Koynl College of tjur^euns in the past suminvr ( 181S). Tlit y are nure aj- 
Tanged accurding tn tht- natural dlvifiions of the sulg'ect, without any refc- 
Mnc4? to the arliitrary diatlnctions of the partioulai Lectuiea, which are thcae- 
foiB entirely omitted. 


Nature and Ob/etlt (if the Itupdry; and Mode ttf Jnrertigmiion : the Suiifeet M- 
therto neglected, and very erroneoui fi'otiaru comequenHy prevalent, — Somvet 
of Ivformatian. — .^tuiumical C/taraclert oftkeMankt^ Tribe, and tnore potrti. 
cularig of the Orsng-oaUng and CUmpatue .- Specific Character ^filan. 

'"Mirantur aliqui allittidinn montium, ingenles fluctus maris, altluiinoi lap* 
inia niiniiniiiii, ut ^yrua sidcrum : — reliaquunt !H»p>o$ nee minntur." — 

S. AuoBsriNUS. 

The natural histoiy of man, in its most comprehensive sense, 
constituteR a subject (if irnmense extent and of endless variety ; 
or rather includes eovcral very important subjects, if we attempt 
to describe both the individual and the species. In a complete 
history of man, it would be necesaaryj in respect to the former, 
to relate the phenomena of his first production, to examine hie 
anatomical structiu-e, his bodily and iBtellectual functions, his 
propensities and feelings, his diaeasee ; and to pursue his pro- 
gress from the time of birth to the grave : in reference to the 
latter, tu point out the circumstances that distinguish him from 
other animals, and to determine the precise degree and kind of 
resemblance or difference, of specific affinity or diversity 
hetiveen them and ourselves ; to compare or coutrasit with each 
other the various nations or tribes of human beingSi to delineate 
the physical and moral characters of the people inhabiting the 
different portions of the globe, and to trace their progress from 
the first rudiments of civil society to the state at which they are 
now arrived. To write such a history of our species would 
demand a familiar acquaintance ivith nearly the whole circle of 
human knowledge, and a combination of the most opposite pur- 
suits and talents. This labour, much too extensive to be pro- 
perly executed by any individual, is divided into several 
eubordinate branches. The anatomist and physiologist unfold 
lihe construction and uses of the corporeal mechanism ; the 


surgeon and phyfiician describe ita diseases ,- while the metaphy- 
sician and moralist employ tliemaelves with those functions, 
which constitate the mind, and with the moral sentiments. Man 
in society, his progress in the varions countries and ages of the 
world, his multiplication and extension, are the province of the 
hifitoriaa and political economist. 

I design, on the present occasion, to consider man as an object 
of zoology ; — ^to describe him as a subject of the animal kingdom. 
I shall therefore firtit enumerate, and consider the distinctiooi 

I l>etween him and animals ; and shall then describe, and attempt 
to account for the principal differences between the various races 
of mankind. 

Although the questions, which now come before us in such a 
review of the subject, as 1 now speak of, are of very high interest 
and importance, and although the principles derived from these 
investigations tlirow a strong light on many dark points in meta- 
physics and morals, in legislation, history^ antiquities, and the 
fine arts, we shall find that they have not been investigated with 

[a corresponding degree of attention and perseverance. 

What climates, what degrees of heat and cold can man bear ? 
How is he able to endiu-e all the diversified external influence* 
of such various abodes ? Is he indebted for this privilege to the 
strength and fle.Tibility of his organization, or to his mental 

^functions, his reason, and the arts which he has thence derived ? 

I be a species broadly and clearly distinguished from all others; 

is he specifically allied to the orang-outang and other mon- 

tkeys? What axe bia corporeal, whet bis mental distinctions? 

lAre the latter diflFerent in kind, or only superior in degree to 

^those of the higher animals ? Is there one species of men only, or 
are there many distinct ones ? What particulars of external form 
and inward structure characterize the several races? What 
relation is observed bet^veen the differences of structure and 
those of moral feeling, mental powers, capability of civilization, 
and actual progress in arts, eciences, Uterature, government i 
How is man affected by the external influences of climate, food, 
way of life ? Are tliese, or any others, operating on beings ori- 
ginally aUke, sufficient to account for all the diversities hitherto 
observed.; or miut we suppose that several kinds of men were 
created originally, each for its own situation ? If we adopt the 
supposition of a single s[iecie«, what country did it first 
inhabit? and what was the appearance of the original man? 
Did he go erect, or on all fours ? was he a Patagooian, or an 
Esquimaux, a Negro, or ai Georgian i 


Such are the inquiries that ckimour atteDtion in a zoological 
survey of the human speciea. To suppose that it is in my 
power to furnish satisfactory replies^ would be a degree of pre- 
sumption which it is hardly necessaiy for me to disclaim. I 
nciention them only as examples ; and I take theEberty of adding 
my firm con^'ictionj that these and similar matters Mill never be 
cleared up except by those who are thoroughly acquainted with 
the anatomy and physiology of our frame, with comparative ana- 
tomy, ivith the principles of general physiology, and the ana- 
logies derivable from the whole extent of living nature. I shall 
be contented with hainng called your attention to a, gubject, 
which falls within the province of our own purBuits ; and with 
exhibiting specimens of the mode of proceeding, and the object-s 
to be kept in view. Tlie natural history of man is, indeed, yet in 
its infancy; bo that a complete view of the subject could not be 
attempted. The description and arrangement of the various 
productions of the globe have occupied numerous observers in 
all ages of the world; and have engaged their attention bo 
exclusively, that they ha\'e had no time to think of themselves. 
Every reptde, bird, insect, plant, even every mineral has had its 
historian, and been described with minute accuracy, while the 
human subject has been comparatively neglected. In a 'volu- 
minous work, now pubhshing in this countr)', entitled General 
Zoology, or SyslematicNatural History, mania altogether omitted 
without notice or apology. Accurate, beautiful, and c.vj>ensive 
engravings have been executed of most objects in natural his- 
tory, of msects, birds, plants : splendid and costly publications 
have been devoted to small ami apparently insignificant depart- 
ments of this science, yet the different races of man have hardly 
in any instance been attentively invesrigated, described, or com- 
pared together : no one has approximated and surveyed in 
conjunction their structure and powers: no attempt has been 
made to delineate them, I wiU not say on a large and compre- 
hensive, but not even on a small and contracted scale ; nobody 
has ever thought it worth while to bestow on a faithful delinea- 
tion of the several varieties of man one-tenth of the labour and 
expense which have been la\'ished again and again on birds of 
paradise, pigeons, parrota, humming-birds, beetles, spiders, and 
many other such objects. Even inteUigent and scientific travel- 
lers have too often thrown away on dress, arms, ornaments, 
utensils, buildings, landscapes, and obscure antiquities, the 
utmost luxury of engraving and embellishment, neglecting 
entirely the being, without reitrence to whom, none of these 


objects possesa either value or interest. In many very expen- 
sive works one is disappoiiited at meeting in long Kuccession 
with prints of costumes-' — summer dresses and winter dresses, 
court and common dresses — tlie wearer in the mean time being 
entirely lost sight of.* The immortal historian of nature seems 
to have alluded to this strange neglect, in observing '* quelqu' in- 
ter£t que nous ayons a nous connattre nous m^mes, je ne sais ai 
nous ne connaissons pas mieux tout ce qui n'est pas nou8."f 
Indeed, whether we investigate the physical or the moral nature 
of man, we recognise at every step the limited extent of our 
knowledge, and are obliged to confess that ignorance, which a 
Rousseau and a Buffon have not been ashamed to avow : — 
" The moat useful, and the least succesafidly cultivated of all 
human knowledge is that of man ; and the inscription J on tho 
temple of Delphi contained a mure important and difficult pre- 

tcept than all the books of the moralists."^ 
[ ITiat the greatest ignorance has prevailed on thia subject, even 
in modern times, and among men of distinguished learning and 
acuteness, is iihuwn hy the strange notion very strenuously 
asserted by Monboddo [| and Rousseau, and firmly believed 
by many, that man and the monkey, or at leant the orang-outang, 
belong to the same species, and are no othenvise distingiuBhed 
from each other, than by circumstances, which can be accounted 
for by the different physical and moral agencies, to which they 
have been exposed. The former of these writers even supposes 
that the human race once possessed tails ; and he says, " the 
orang-outangs are proved to be of our speciea by marks of huma- 
nity that I think are incontestable." A poor compliment to our 
species j ae any one will think, who may take the trouble of pay- 
ing a morning visit to the orang-outang at E-xeler Change. 

Misled by his strange and fanciful notions of tho unnatural 
condition of man in society, Rousseau has even applied the 

• Among the fpw works, in which we meet wilh chaTictpristiudi-Unention* 
of the human specips deserving confidence, may be nK'iitioned, yayagtt <it 
C. Le Brunfiarla Motcovie, enFerie, el aux Indcs OHentaU, a t. fol. 

Cook's Fovftije litwanit the South Pole, and round the iyurld, '2 v. 4lo. 1777. 

Cook's Koyitge to the I'anjii- Oreon : 3 v. 4t<i. 17645: with folio Atlas. 
Both tUoac contaiiv niimorousrxcellenlrt'presBntntiona oftli« humun subject. 

Poron t'oyajie aux Terrei Aiutra{et, toni. 1, has the best figuri'S of humati: 
heads yet publishL-d. There are nutueruus heiuls in Denon Vuti. dant la 
Haute et Batte Kgypff, pi. 104 — 113; and some in the unrivalled Detcriplioit 
de fEgypte; Etat inodcrne. A fevf uther rcfurenees will Lt.- fouiid lu tho 
Course of thia work. 

+ " De 1» Nature del'Honime." Hut. JValA.i. Thia |;reat nalumlisl and 
eloquent writer must be excepted from the teniiLrk» in the text. He treats 
largely uf man in the id aad 3d Tolumcs of the HUtiAn iialuTeiie Omirale el 

i r^ufli «rfatm/y. J Ducourj $ur r/nfgalilf; Preface. 

14 Of> the Origtn and Progrett {/Language, v. 1 ; and Ancient MeU^hftia^ 


observations of travellers concerning animals to man ; and if we 
think fit to believe with him, tlmt he knew better what they saw 
than they did themselves, we may arrive at his concluaion con- 
cemin<r the existence of wild men in an insidated and solitary 
state similar to that of wild beasts.* 

Tlie completely unsupported assertions of Monboddo and 
Rousseau only show that they were equally unacquainted with 
the structure and functions of men and monkeys, not conversant 
with zoology and physiology, and therefore entirely destitute of 
the principles, on wliich alone a sound judgment can be formed 
conceming^ the natural capabilities and destiny of animals, as 
well as the laws according to wliich a?rtain changes of character, 
certain departures from the original stock, may take place. 

Mankind in general, the unlearned and the unscientific, do 
not commit the gross mistake of confounding together man and 
animals: this distinction, at least, so clear and obvious to common 
observation and unprejudiced common sense, is preserved in 
their short division of the animal kingdom into man and brutes. 

Other writers, who expatiate with vast delight on what they 
call the regular gradation or chain of beings, and discover great 
wisdom of the Creator, and great beauty of the creation, in the 
circiunstance, that nature makes no leaps, but has connected the 
various objects of the three kingdoms together like the steps of 
a staircase, or the links of a chain, represent man only as a more 
perfect kind of monkey; and condemn the poor African to the 
degrading situation of a connecting link between the superior 
races of mankind and the orang-outang. Such is the new ex- 
hibited by Mr. White, in his Account of the regular Gradatio» 
in Man, and in different Animals and Vegetables, and from the 
former to the latter ;f where he distinctly asserts that "the onmg- 

• "Toutes ce» tib»ervatinn» lur Us vari^tfsque mi He causes peuTent pro- 
doire et ont jiroduit pn eSct ilaim IVapOce huniuine, nie font dnuler si divers 
unimiux aemblabl^a aux hommcs, (iris par cleD ruya^nirs puurdes hitea sans 
beaucoup d'nuunen ou a cause du' quulques dlif^rcnces qu'iis rvmarquoient 
dans la confunnation eslfrieure, ou seulcmcut pare* que ces anlmaux ne 

£aTloiciit pas, ne scrolcnt point en eOVt de virilalilet hummn muraget, dont 
k rsce dispvrs^ ttncieiiiifiniMit ttaiis le» bois n'avuil tu oecastun de iJev('lo|)- 
' pel aucuiie de sus facuWs virtuellfs, n'aToit acquis aucun ilc^rt dc pertecUon, 
et SC tiouvoit eocuivtians I'flal primitifdc nature." Jjib. cil. 

i Besides the subject ur^udiiliiin fruin man tu animals and Troubles, thja 
work includvi obui'rvatiuiiH uii the varieties of ur^aniuition in nmukind, 
which the author aceaunls forhy tlic suppoiitionof »|iecies originally distinct, 
allhoughhe has omitted to fix llie uutnWr aiid deliue the cliaracters of thuM 
•peeies. I expect lo show lie ri-after that tliia apininn is entirely un^onrided. 
Mr. White iiululgps fTef[uently in a Iuowtifmi of exiiresaioti and ri>aji(mln(t, 
■which renders liis mcanini; veiy otiscure. When lie eompares (Ac j/Jrican to 
t/ie Ji'tiroj^eah, the statement ia not very precise : but when be brings in Ike 
jliiaik, M it all the human b'.-in<» in that imnieni^e n-^ion were marked with 
one and ll>e saine cliaracter, tlie language conveys to lU eltlier no tJe&uitS 

"»e, or one complciety wiotiu. 



eutang has the person, the manner, and the actions of mun" 
(p. 35) { and that the Negro "seems to approach nearer tu the 
brute creation than aDf other of the human species" (p. 42). If, 
by regular gradation, autbing more its meant thau the variety of 
organization and its progressivcaimplilicationfrom man through- 
out the animal kingdom, the truth is incontestable, and too 
ob\-ious to require a quarto for its illustration or sujiport. Oa 
the contrarj% if it be designed to assert identity of species between 
ourselves and monkeys, the position is quite imtenable. At all 
events, both tli€ statements quoted above are mure or leas 

That the Negro is mare like a monkey than the European, 
cannot be denied as a general obser^'ation. But why is the Negro 
always selected for this comparison f The New iloUander, the 
Calmuck, the native American, are not superior to the Africans, 
and are as much like monkeys. Why then is the Negro alone 
to be depressed to a level with t}ie bnitc i to fill up the break in 
Mr. White's chain between the Europenn and the monkey? 

I do not hesitate to assert that the notion of speciiic identity 
between the African and oran|?-outang (.on which point Mr. 
White's language is not sufficiently clear to enable me to decide 
what he means) is as false philosophically, as the moral and 
political consequences, to which it would lead arc shocking and 
detestable. The human sitecies has numerous distinctive marks, 
by which, under eiTry circumstance of deficient or imperfect 
civihzation, and everj- ^-ariety of country and race, it is separated 
by a broad and clearly defined iiilcrral from all other animals, 
even of those species, which from tbeu° general resemblance to 
us have been called anthropo-moqvhous. 

It is only of late years, and principally through the labotin, 
the lectures, and the e.\cellenl writinfrs of Blumendach,* that 
the natural history of man has begun to receive its due share of 
attention ; and I have no hesitation in asserting, that, whether 
we regard the intrinsic importance of the questions that arise, 
and their relation to the affinities, migrations, and history of 
nations, or advert merely to the pleasure of the research, no 
subject will be found more worthy of minute investigation. The 

• He cll0^9 the Ttrieties of mankiml for \he suliject of hU inaugural thetia; 
GoeUing 1775, 4to, ; and afterwards publiiilieil it under the titie Ve Gaitrir 
hmiani f'arietatc naliva, 12inu. of which Kie third and last edition appcwred 
in 179.1. S«! aim) his Dnsnips Craniurum liirfrtarum Gentium illtulnUm; 
1 — 5; (Sueltiiig. 1790 — IWS; \ii* Bfglrit^t sut NaturgetcUiclUe ; 1'. u. £. tlicil. 
_^6Btt. 1790 amflSll ; his ilnmUmch Jer tiatm-grtchicMe ; ed. 9, 1814; »nd Ua 
VilJuagen NalUT-hitloriicJier O'egautande ; mure [latticulHrly 1*. heft. 


exampleof Bufpon ♦ and Bluhenbach has been followed by 
ftome others; asZiMMERMANN.f MEiNERS.t Soemmering.^ 
LuDwiG, II m Germany, "I Hunter •• and KAiMEsff in 
Scotland ; Smith H in America ; and Dr. Pkich ard §§ in this 
country, whose clear statements, convincing reasoning, and very 
extensive information, stamp the highest value on his interesting 
work, and distinguish it very advantageously from moat other 
productions on the same subject. 

LiNNEUB places man in the order primates of the class mam- 
malia, and lias given him for companions the monke)rs, lem<irs, 
and bats ; of which the latter, at least, must be not a little sur- 
prised at finding themselves in such s situation and company. 
The characters of his order are, " Front teeth incisors ; the supe- 
rior, four ; parallel, Two pectoral mararaffi." 

The principles must be incorrect, which lead to such an 

As the monkey race approach the nearest to man, in structure 
and actions, and their forms are so much like the human, as to 
have procured for them the epithet anthropo-morphous, we must 
compare them to man, in order to find out the specific characters 
of the latter ; and we must institute this comparison particularly 
with those called orang-outangs. I shall have frequent occasion, 
in this part of the subject, to mention the latter animal ; it is 
therefore necessary to expL'iin clearly what creature I mean to 
designate by that name ; and the more so, as two distinct species, 
jmd sometimes perhaps more, have been confounded under that 

■ See not*, p. 122. 

+ Geograp/mche (ieschichle der Menschen, tend der ailgemein verlireiletm Her-, 
tHMneenThipren, 3 v. %yo. Leilitic. 1.(8—1783. 

X Orundritt der Gesclndite drr MensrMfii; LcTngo, 1793. A short but In- 
tereitiiif! work ; particuJarly valuable (rom the vpry extensive erudition of the 
author: and from n copious catalogue of books, iu;coiiipa.nied with short mi- 
ticps of their chimctor. 

GoUingisches Itittorisehet Jlnaaiin, U v. His worli entitlpil Ferichiedenheil 
der Mettschim-naiutm, which I tinve not seen, contains, I believe, the dctachexi 
essays and trenitises uf the Ui'torischei Magaxin collected together anil arranged. 

\ Ulter die korperiiche f'trichiedenfieil aei Negera raw Huropaer, Svo, f rank- 
ed rt, i'lS.'i. 

n Gmndritt der JVaturgeKhichle der Menscken Speciet ; Leiusic, 173C. 

% Sotni; other hooks have heen puWished in Germany, with whieh I am not 
scnuaintod; viz., J. R. Forstcr and Klugel .ifibildttni^en nierkicurdi^er FiiUer 
md mere; Halle, 1793, 8vo. 

O. Famler und Sprenijel BeyirUsf "tr Folker und IMndtrkuniie. 

• • Ditn inaug. de llorainum f^arietatihu* ; EiUnU. 1775 ; and in Webster's 

■ft Skelcftes ttfthe Biitory t\fMan; 3 v. 8to, Sdiiihur^h. 

ti Euay tm tkt Caittei ttfthe Furiely qf Complexion and Figure in the Human 
Speci»$; Philadelphia; reprinted Landon, 1789, 

H Ditp. inaug. de Homirmm Farie(atihtu ,■ Edin. 1808: greatly enlarged, 
asd trantlited into Enirliah under the title, Jtetearchei on Ike Plij/iical Uutoru 
ttfUan; Sto. 1813. 



common appellation. This is tile case even with. LmNBVB, 
BuFFON, and Erxleben; in whom the mistake is easily 
accounted for Ly the rareness of the aniinala, both of which are 
very seldom seen in Eurojie. Rlumknbach has pointed out 
and rectified the error, both in his Manual of Natural History, 
and in his Delineations of Objects in Natural History. 

All the simile, and the lemurs likewise, are quadrumanou^ ; 
that is, tliey possess opposable members, or thumbs on the hind, 
as well as on the fore limbs; they have perfect clavicles; perfect 
pronation and supination of tlie fore-arm; long and flexible 
fingers and toes ; hence they have the jtavver of imitating many 
human actions ; hence, too, they are excellent climbers. On the 
other hand, they cannot easily stand or walk upright, because 
the foot rests on its outer edge, the heel does not touch the 
round, and the narrowness of the pelvis renders the trunk un- 

Eady. Consequently, they are neither biped, nor strictly 
quadruped. They resemble man in the general form of the 
cranium, and in the configuration of the brain ; of which, how- 
ever, the cerebral hemispheres are greatly reduced. 'ITie face is 
turned fonvards; the optic axes are parallel; the orbits com- 
plete, and separate from the temporal fosse. The nose is flat 
(hence the name mmia, from simus, tiat-nosed), and has a single 
triangular os nasi. 

In this QUADRUMANOUS order there is a constantly increasing 
deviation from the human structure, by increased elongation of 
the muzzle, and advances to the ipiadruped attitude and pro- 
gression. They have the same number and kinds of teeth aa 
man ; and an alimentary canal very much like the human. Their 
pectoral mammae and loose penis are other approximalions. 

In so large a family as the monkeys we shall expect to meet 
with considerable varieties of form, and to find that the human 
character is strongly expressed in some, while others exhibit 
successive degrees of approximation towards the neighbouriiijf 

The di\ision of orangs, which is the most strongly anthropo- 
morphous, and includes the tivo simice confounded together 
under the names of orang-outang, pongo, jocko, barris, &c. and 
two others called gibbons (S, Lar, or long-armed monkey ; 5. 
Leucisca, or wouwou), is characterized by the slight prominence 
of the jaws, so that they have a large facial angle ; by the want 
of tan ; by possessing an os hyoides, liver, and ccEcum like the 
tiuman : the latter part as an appendix vermiformis as in man. 

liey have very long arms. 


The aimia aatyrus* is the true animal so much celebrated 
under the name of the oratig-outang.f It is principally, if not 
solely, found on the great island of Borneo, whence it has been 
soinetimea brought to us through Java. It is about three feet 
in height; as the specimens convoyed hither have been young, 
we may suppoae that it would reach to Ijetween three and four 
feet when grown up ; but none have been seen in Europe ex- 
ceeding three feet. The body is covered with strong reddish 
brown hair. The front of the head has a very human character, 
the forehead being large and high, and the facial angle conse- 
quently considerable : indeed, no animal approaches to man so 
nearly as this, in the form of the head and volume of the brain. 
The face is bluish or lead-coloured : there are no cheek pouches 
nor coUosities of the buttocks. Two large membranous bags 
cover the front of the neck under the skin, and open into the 
larynx between the os hyoides and thyroid cartilage : a structure 
which spoils him from speaking. The thumb of the hind hand 
has no nail.t It is a mild and gentle animal, with some actions 
similar to ours, and some appearances of human feeling, h 
soon becomes attached, and imitates very quickly whatever wa 
do. A state of captivity, in climates and with diet unfriendly to 
its nature, is not well calculated to develop its feelings and powers, 
or to lead to a just estimate of its faculties and intelligence. 

The reports of travellers concerning its immense strength and 
ferocity, its stature represented as equal or superior to that of 
man, its carrying oft' women and so forth, do not accord either 
with the size or the dispositions of the creature as obsen-ed in 
the examples brought into Europe. They must probably be 
referred partly to exaggeration and partly to the circumstance of 

• BIiimenlKich ^hbildun^eH n. K GtgtmUmde ; No. 13; the cranium. No. 53. 
The animal haslicea di^iireti Ijy Vo8maEr,from a living specimen at theUa^e, 
from which enjinvin); lliat or Blumenlmch in copieil : by Camppr < who has aiao 
^ven a detaile-ti ana,toiiii(-'»l df!ii.Tipliuii of it), with hi* usoal tlijellty and ajtca- 
mcy, from n dfad spt-cimeii [ireaorved in s|jirita ; (Emres d'Hiltotre Ifat. &C. 
plmncbc 1, &g. 1 -. lig. 'J, 3, 4. and !>, of the samo plute, arc T?prt>«pntations d 
Ul« entire and bony head; and most cxCL'lleiitly, in a roluun-d eiigrairimf, by 
Mr. Abci, who brought one with him from Bataviu, now alive iti aietm 
Clvangc, and has given a ven- intereatiiig description oi him iu bin narrative 
qfa Jvttrney in the Interior <y China. 

T The import of this Malay lemi \a wild tntLn, or man of the wood*. Otang 
racuiii, in fact, raiiiinul creature; and in applied to man, to the monkey in 
question, and to the elephanL 

t The ahsence of the nail was a»certaiaed by Camper in sereo out of elKbt 
cpe^iraeni; : the eij-hth hul a very small nail mh the thumb of the ri^lit loot 
only. (Eufret. i. p, 63, et nuiv. The oiiinial is repreivnted by Edwuds' 
(iteaningi of A'alttral History, L pL 213, p. 6 and 7, with nails ; and it was SO 
fixured in the proof of au ensravini; submitted to the inspciition of Camper by 
^lamanil ; Mditiom au t. xv. de Buffan, p. 73, pi. 11, On examining the anlu 
mals trvta which both these figures were 1»ken. it was found that they had 
no Qftils : uod the aanie ia the caise with that of Mr, AheL Such is the way in 
which nature is often iiaproted liy artists who do not xinderstaad natural 
tiiaUiry. Camper, lit I' Orang-outang, ch. i. i. li 



Other large stmis (partictJarly the pongo • of Borneo) having 
been confounded with the true orang-outanjf. 

The simia troglodytes\ is a native of Angola and ConRO, where 
it is called by the natives chimpanse. It resembles the former 
in size ; but differs from it in being covered with black hair; in 
hax-inga lower forehead, and large ears ; and nails on the thumbs 
the liind liands. It is very susceptible of education, and 

ickly learns to imitate human actions. This is the animal, of 
which Tyson J has given an excellent anatomical description, 
accompanied with very good engravings. In both these simiae, 
the hair of the upper and fore arm takes opposite directions ; 
that is, it slants in each part of the limb towards the elbow. 

A more minute and accurate acco\mt of the propensities, feel- 
ings, and intellectual phenomena of both these creatures, is a 
great desideratum in that important branch of comparatiTs 

ysiolngy, which relates to the functions of the brain. 

The pecuhar characteristics of man appear to me so very 

ong, that I not only deem him a distinct species, but also put 
him into a separate order by himself. His physical and moral 
attributes place him at a much greater distance from, all other 
orders of mammalia, than those arc from each uther respectively. 
The zoological statement of his principal characters follows. § 

Order, bimanum (two-handed); genus, homo j the speciea 
single, with several varieties hereafter enumerated. 

Characters ; trect stature; two hands ; teeth approximated and 
of equal length : the inferior incisors perpendicular. Prominent 
chin ; rational j endowed with speech ; unarmed j defenceless 

These circumstances are so obvious and so abundantly suf- 
ficient to characterize man, that the doubts and hesitation of 
Linneua in assigning a specific distinction, aj)pear to us rather 

* In a memoir reod before the Academy of Sciences, but not yet publithiHl, 
Cuvier h«» endeuroured It) pnive thai this trenienclous creature is only the 
adult 8. Sat} rua. They arv Ixjth euuliaed to the inland of Borneo ; and th«^ 
aSTCv in tlio great length of the arms and the prominence and streuiflh uftbtt 
■piuoiii proeessas at the cervical rcrtebne. The skulls of both are io the 
Uunterian cuUectiun ; aud an? Btrontfly cuntraited to each other in the rela* 
tive i>rijporlion» of the cranium and face, an well an in some other points. If 
theae arc merely the diffli-rences between the young and the fiill-erown aui* 
mal, 1 knoH' no other example of such a melamurphosiK in the animal king- 
dom. For the skull of the onitr'-outang. see the plate of BInmenbach alrvaay 
?uotcd ; for that of the 1)c.d^'o, rischer Saturhiiivriscke /■Vo^/wrate, tab, 3 & t 
mu«t, howe»er, acknowledge that the head pf the intlividual at Exeter 
Change oumec mueb nearer to that uf the pongo than either the craniim 
figured by Blumenbaeh, or that in the Ilunterin^n eollrction; and the re^em- 
frlifP"*- aeran U> me to iDcreasc with the animal 'a growth. 

t A good engra%ing from a liring original is found In he t7»t Traite iu Fluiil 
ia Ker/t : it i.s copied by Blumenbaeh Abbild. JV. H. G. No. 11. 

} The Anatomu y a I'l^iny , compared vith that vf a Munkey ,aa jip«, irtdaMimm 

\ Bliuncnbach. Curier, 


incomprehensible. " Nullum characterem," he observes, " hac- 
teaus eruere potui, unde homo a simla inter noscatur."* And 
he again states, in the Sifslema Natar{B,f " Mirum adeo parum 
differre stultis^irnam uuniaui a sapientissimo homine, ut iste 
geodaetes naturae etiamnum quecrendns, qui hos liinitet." If 
these representations were correct, zoology would not deserve 
the rank of a science. 

The remainder of this work will be dinded into two sectiona : 
the first, on the (corporeal and mental) differences between man 
and animals, or, in other words, on tlie specific character of man, 
will contain a detailed explanation of the particulars compoiiing 
that character, a commentary on the short zoological statement, 
which immediately precedes, and an attempt to settle the ques- 
tion, whether man be a distinct species, or have a common origm 
with, and specific affinity to any other animals : the second vdU. 
he devoted to tbe different races of mankind, will contain an 
enumeration and discussion of the characters by which they are 
distinguished, and a full consideration of the question, whether 
they ought to be regarded as originally distinct species, or as 
varieties of one single apeciea. 




7%« erect atiitaie i^Man, and conieijmnt Pccuh'arilia in the Strueture (if 

the lower Limttt, Tlwrax, Spitte, attd I'elru, 

In the exterrml conformation of man we immediately remark 
hia upright stature ; that majestic attitude, which announces his 
superiority over all the other inhabitants of the globe. He is 
the only being adapted by his organization to go erect. En- 
slaved to their senses, and partaking merely of physical enjoy- 
ments, other animals have their heads directed towards the 
earth : " Quse natm-a prona, atque ventri ohedientia finxit." 
Man, whose more elevated nature is connected to surrounding 
objects by moral relations, who can pursue the concatenations 
of causes and eflTects, and embrace in his mind the system of 
the universe, boldly regards the heavens, and can direct hia 
• faufta Suecica, Pref. t Ed. U, p. 34, note. 



Bight even into the Btatry regions : — the contrast, so finely 

e^rejised by the poet, JB therefore quite correct in fact; 

rronaqiie rum dpccti'nt animaUa cetera tcrraci. 
Us tiomini auUiiue iletlit; cii>luaiqu(> tucri 
Juasit ; {"t erwta* ad aicleru tolletc vultui. 

I propose to prove that the erect stature is suited to the orga- 
nization of the human subject ; and that it is exclusively peculiar 
to man. 

It might appear a sufficient proof of the upright altitude and 
biped progression being natural to our sjiecies, lliat such has 
been the invariable practice of all nations in alt ages of the 
world ; — that no people, no tribe, nor even any individunl in a 
healthy condition, has been known to do otherwise. Yet even 
this has been contested ; and, as philosophers have not been 
wanting to argue that we were naturally furnished wiih tails, 
but, by some strange change or chance, had got rid of the 
degrading appendage } so others have Iii?ld that we were designed 
by nature to go on all fours ; • justifying the acute remark, 
*' Nihil tam absurdum esse, quod non ab aliquo piiiloaopho 
dictum fuit." 

The chief support of this notion concerning the human sub- 
ject being naturally quadruped, has been derived from the exam- 
ples of wild men ; that is, children lost in woods and growing 
mp in a solitary state. Even Linneus has kindly taken them 
under his protection, and has provided a respectable situation 
for them in bis Systema NfiiurtSj under the bead of " homo 
sapiens /ertw," to whom he assigns the epithets tetrnpus, mutw, 

What is this homo fcrus of LtNSEUs ? How are we to con- 
sider these wild men ? In different countries of Enm]ie a few 
individuals — and very few indeed arc authentically recorded — 
have been met ivith in a solitary state ; — young persona, wan- 
dering alone in the woods, or mountainous regions. To unso- 
phisticated common sense they appear poor, half-witted, stupid 
beings, incapable of speech, with faculties very imperfectly 
developed, and therefore probably esca])ing from or abandoned 
by their parents or friends. But their case has been eagerly 
taken up and wai'mly defended by some philosophers, who 
employ them to exemplify natural man, — the original uncor- 
ru])led creature — in opposition to those who have become ritiated 
and degenerate by civilization. When presented to us in bo 

• MciSCBli, wwi dfT kiirperiirhen Kctmlikhen V'nlerKhimte steufhmt der 
Struciur tier Mentvlim und tier Tliirrc . UuUini;, 1771, Svo. 

SchriLgc, a Dutchman, in u Dutch jouind, cuUtlcd tHneimaiuur'en Uvit'' 
Imwi-kundige JaaTboeken. T. 3. p. 32. 


important a character, and with sucli high pretentions, it is 
necessary to inquire a little into the proofs of their pedigree and 

Peter the wild boy, who lived many years in this county, is 
one of the most authentic cases ; and his biography will answer 
the purpose very well.* In July 1724, Jurgen Meyer, a town*- 
man of Hameln, met in his field with a t;aked, bro^vnish, black- 
haired boy, apparently about twelve years old, who uttered no 
sound, was enticed, by showing liira two apples, into the town, 
and placed, for safe (Custody, in an hospital, by order of the 
burgo-mastcr Severix. Peter — thus ho was christened by 
the children on hia first appearance in the town, and he went by 
the same to his death — behaved rather brutish at first ; seeking 
to get out at doors and windows, resting now and then on his 
knees and elbows, and rolling himself from side to side till he 
fell asleep. He did not like bread, but he eagerly peeled green 
sticks, and chewed the peel for the juice, as he also did vegeta- 
bles, grass, and bcan-shellii. Ue soon learned to conduct himBelf 
more properly, and was allowed to go about the town When 
anything was offered him to eat, he first smelt it, and then put 
it in his mouth, or laid it aside shaking his head. In the 
same "ivay he woidd smell people's bands, and then strike his 
breast if pleased, or otlierwise Bhake his head. When he 
particularly liked anything, as beans, peas, mulberries, fruit, 
and particularly onions and nuts, he indicated his satisfaction 
by striking repeatedly on his chest. 

W^hen shoes were first given to him, he could not walk in 
them, and appeared happy in getting rid of them, and runniDg 
about again barefooted. Covering the head was equally unplea- 
sant to him J and he enjoyed greatly throwing his hat or cap 
into the Weser, and seeing it swim down. But he soon became 
accustomed to clothing. 

His hearing and smell were acute. 

In October 1725, he was sent for by George I. to Hanover; 
whence he was transmitted to London i^ the beginning of the 
following year, under the care of a king's messenger ; and this 
was the foundation of his fame and fortune. 

Just at this time the controversy about the existence of innate 
ideas was at its height; and Peter seemed the very subject for 
determining the question. Count Zinzendohf ^vished that 
he should be intrusted to his charge, that he might watch the 

• The following account is derived from niummbach's lirylrage sur tta* 
turgeic/acAte, 2 thclL He hai Ukon cti-iU jmiiis to nuko out, from original 
•adcotemporary documetiU, the true liistory orthia homo tajnetufertu. 





development of his innate ideas : but )ite' King had already 
placed him at the disposal of the Pl^csas of Wales, the after- 
wards celebrated Queen Caroliptb, who con£ded the precious 
trust to Dr. Abbdthnot, tstili for \ixG purpose of investigating 
his innate ideas. 

Swift has immortalized him in his humorous production, 
It cannot rain but it pours : or, London strewed with Rarities. 
LiNNEUS gave him a niche in the Systema Naturte, imder the 
denomination of " Juvenis Hanoveranos;" Bupvon, Db 
Paauw, and J.J. RoL'sskau, hax'e extolled liim as the true 
child of nature, the genuine unsophisticated man. Mondoddo* 
is still more enthusiastic, declaring his appearance to be a much 
more important occurrence than the discovery of the planet 
Uranus, or than if astronomers, to the catalogue of stars already 
known, had added thirty thousand new ones. 

Amidst these expectations and Iionours, a few circumstances 
were either unknown or overlooked, calculated to raise great 
doubts of Peter's fitness for such high destinies, and to pro- 
duce an unpleasant suspiciun that he had not entirely escaped 
&e contaminating intluence of civilized life. 

When be was iirst met with, a small fragment of a shirt hung 
about his neckj and the whiteness of his thigha, comiiared to 
his brown legs, proved that he must have worn breeches, but 
not stockings. His tongue was very large, and little capable of 
motion, so that an army surgeon at Ilameln thought of attempt- 
ing to set it free by catting the frenum ; but did not perform the 
operation. Further, some boatmen, in descending the Weser, 
had seen at different points on the banks of the river, a poor 
naked boy, and given him something to eat ; and, lastly, it was 

icertained that a widower at Liichtringen had had a dumb 
hjld, who, having been lost in the woods in 1723, returned 
home again ; but, on his father's second marriage, was driven 
cut again by his step-mother. 

Dr. AauvTUNOT soon found out that no brilliant discoveries 

psychology or anthropology could be expected from the case of 
this poor idiot : he was therefore placed with a farmer in Hert- 
fordshire, where he cont'mued to live or rather vegetate till 1 785. 

Peter was of a middle size, somewhat robust in appearance, 

and strong, and had a re.spectable beard. He took the ordinary 

mixed diet, retaining his earl^ fondness for onions. He liked 

• " I consider his historj- as aliricf clironicle or alurtmct of tlie biitory ot 
tbe pr(»f!reis uf humoii nature, frciui the mcri: oaiuuJ tu CUc Hist st»£e of otU* 
"life." — .indent Meiujthyda, v. Hi, p. 57. 



wanntli ; and relished a glaas of brand]^. He tlwaya shoved 
the moat perfect indifference to tlie other sex. 

He could not be taught to speak : the plainest of the few artu 
culate sounds he could utter were, Peter, ki sfto, and qui ca, the 
two latter being attempts at pronouncing King George and 
Queen Caroline. lie had a taste for music, and wotild hum 
over various airs that he often heard ; when an instrumental 
performance took place, he would jump aljout vnlh great delight 
till he was quite tired. He waa deBcient in one important priri- 
lege of our nature ; ha^'ing^ never been seen to laugh. 

He waa a iharmleas and obedient creature, and could be 
employed in little domestic oilices, ur in the fields, but not 
without superintendence. Ha\ing been left to himself to throw 
up a load of dung into a cart, as soon as he had executed the 
task, lie jumped up and set to Avork aa tlLUgeatly to throw it al 
out again. Having, on one occasion, wandered away from 
home as far an Norfolk, at the time when great alarms existed 
about the Pretender and his emiasariefl, he was brought before 
ajustice of peace as a suspicious character, and making no 
answer to any interrogatories, was deemed contumacious, and 
sent to prison. A fire broke out in the night, when he was 
found sitting ([uietly in a comer, enjoying the light and warmth 
very much, and not at all willing to move. 

Such was this famous representative of unsoj^histicated 
human nature ! 

Although Peter was little capable of filling that high situa- 
tion, his history affords a Htriking and iiseful caution, by 
e.\hibiling the uncertainty of human testimony and historical 
evidence. No two accounts agree in the year, season, and place 
of his discovery ; and later printed histories contain serious nar- 
ratives of Geoege I. baring found him in hunting at Herren- 
hausen, or in the Harz ; that it was necessary to cut down the 
tree, in the top of which he had taken refuge ; that his body was 
covered with hair, and that he ran on all fours ; that he jumped 
about trees like a squirrel, knew how to get the bait out of traps 
placed for wolves ; that he was carried over to England in an 
iron cage, learned to speak in nine months at the court of the 
Gueen, was baptized al the house of Dr. Arbutiinot, and soon 
after diud, &c. &c. 

Petek was as upright in bia attitude, and as invariably biped, 
as any of ourselves ; and the same remark holds good of all the 
other authentic examples j as of the girl described by Conoa- 


rrNE," a man found in the Pyrenees.f and the boyj met with 
near Aveyron, and brought to Paris soon after the revolution. 
On the other hand, Avhere they have been described as going oa 
all fours, suspiciouii circiimstEmces occur in the tiarrationj calcu- 
lated to throw discredit on the whole. i>iich is the case with 
LiNNEus's juvenis ovinus Hiberaus, taken from Tulpius» 
Obstrvat. Medicar. lib. iv. cap. J), lie is said to have been 
brought up " inter oves sylvcHtrca," and thence to have acquire* 
" natura ovilLi;" he is described further as " ferux ac indomitaa, 
vultu truci," SiC. 

An unprejudiced examination of all these cases, putting asida 
irhat is obviously exaggerated or fabulous, proves that tliey 
are merely instances of defective or(:;amzation ; mal-fonned 
aniinab, incapable of speech, and exhibiting few and imperfect 
mental phenomena; pathological specimens, therefore, rather 
than examples of bumnn perfection. Nothing; can be conceived 
more widely removed from the natural condition of man, tlian 
these half-witted beings ; and we mijjfht as rationally adopt any 
monstrous birth for a model of the human form, as set them up 
for a standard of the attitude, progression, or faculties of man. 

But, if these beings had been free from defect, if they had 
been well-formed, and capable of all human endo^vrnents, should 
■\ve def m them more naturnl for having been solitary ? should we 
not, on the contrary, be justified in rej3;arding that insulated 
condition as a deviation from the scheme of nature, comparing it 
with VoLTAiiiE to the state of a bee, which has the hive ?§ 
Is the social rook or antelope more artificial or degenerate than 
the solitary eagle or lion S 

If the erect attitude and biped progression be peculiar to man, 
the structure of the lower limbs which support his trunk, and 
of theb* muscles, which move it, must exhibit characters of form, 
size, and arrangemeat, whirh are met with in no other animals. 
The influence of this peculiarity will not be confined to the lower 
limbs ; it \vill also modify the pelris, which is the ba.sis of the 
trunk, receiving above the weight of the abdominal viscera, the 
thorax, upper limbs, and head, transmitting this v.eight to the 
lower limbs, ami offering fixed points for their motions ; the 
upper limbs, which are not employed for support, but merely as 

• JJitMrc d'untjnmc Fille Saiitage, limt). Paris, 1761. 

t I*roy ETploHation dn la Ifaiure dials let Pyreneei; ico. 1TT3, p. 8. 
f 4 Hfihirical Account of the youn^ Stteage of.lreyron, ISiiici. 
^1 •' Si I'on rencontre uive atwule erraiite, di-vra-t-oii tunrlurt? que pc'tt'> 

pUIi? est nans l'<<t&t de pure naturp, et que ct^llcs qui trarailleut en aocijttf 
I la ruche ont d<5H<5"^r< 1" 


instruments of prehension ; the thorax, by which they arc sepa- 
rated, and on which they rest ; and the junction of the head 
with the vertebral column, on which the due support of this 
'weighty mass, and the proper direction of the eyes, mouth, aad 
face depend. 

'ITie length and strength of the lower limbs, the great instru* 
ments of support and progression, are very strikinjr, and quite 
peculiar to man. They are equal in length to the trunk and 
Lead together, which is not the case in any other animal, except- 
ing the kangaroo, jerboa, &c. wliere the principles of construction 
and the offices of these parts are«juite different from the human 

In all the monkey tribe, they fall very far short of this pro- 
portion; even in the orang-outang and chimpans^ they are 
short and weak, and manifestly inadequate to sustain the body 
erect. This circumstance alone effectually disqualifies the most 
manlike monkey from participating with man in that grand 
attribute ; and would of itself be a sufficient ground for specific 
distinction between the two beings. If the lower limbs of 
monkeys are weak, in comparison with the human, those of other 
animals, and particularly of true quadrupeds, are much mora 
80 : the short thigh-bone is almost concealed by the muscles of 
the body, and the rest of the limb is slender, and not covered, 
by any great muscular masses. 

The disproportion in the respective lengths of our upper and 
lower hmbs, clearly points out the dilTerent offices they are 
destined to execute. The superior length and power of the 
latter, bo necessary for the variotis purposes connected with our 
erect attitude, make us altogether uufit for going on all fours, 
as will be immediately shown by a trial. In such an experiment, 
cither the lower limbs must be thrown obliquely backwards, or 
the articulations held in a bent and very insecure position. Even 
children, before they can walk, iu whom the lower limbs are 
comparatively shorter than in adults, crawl upon their knees, or 
else drag the lower extremities after them on the ground. 

To the long and powerful femur, to the strong tibia, to the 
'broad articular surfaces which join these at the knee, no parallel 
can be met with in any animal. 

The 1>readth of the human peh-is affords an ample basis of 
support for the trunk; aTid this receives a still further transverse 
enlargement by the length of the cervix femoris, another pecu- 
liarity of human organization. This long neck throws the body 
of the bone outwards^ dieengages its shaft from the hip-joio^ 


«nd thuB increaoeis the extent of rotsticFn. It gives tiie body 
greater firmness in standing, without impeding progresaion* 
since the head of the liOTie, and not the body, is the centre of 
motion. If the thigh-hones possessed no neck, but were kept 
equally far auart by increasing the distance between the cotyloid 
cavities, the attitude of standing would be just as secure, the 
transverse base of support being still the same ; but progression 
would be impeded, as it actually is in the female, from the greater 
transverse diameter of the pelvis. 

Another character uf the human femur, in the obliquity of its 
shaft, and superior lenf^h uf the internal condyle, arising from 
the breadth of the pelvis, and length of the cervix, combined 
with the necessity for bringing its lower end perpendicularly 
under the pelns, in reference to the secure support of the trunk 

The line of direction of the human femur is perpendicular, the 
ae as that of the trunk : its axis coincides v>ith the centre of 
gravity of the body ; it is placed perpendicularly under the pelvis, 
and thus supports the trunk steadily. In all other unimiils it 
forms an angle with the spine ; and this is often even an acuta 
^one. It is obvious that the erect attitude must be extremely 

isteady, and the difficulty of maintaining the hody in equilibrio 
ery great in such an arrangement. WJien the vertebral column 
is raised perpendicularly in the orang-outang, the thigh-bones 
form an obtuse angle with it : the long arms preserve the balance, 
as they do Ukewise in the gibbon {H. Lar.) The angle is in- 
creased in quadrupeds under similar ci re urns lances, and tlie 
efforts they make to remain upright on the hind feet are con- 
tinued with diiEcuIty, more especially if not assisted by gome 
Other advantages of construction, as in the bear, for instance, by 
the length of the heel. 

Tlie feet being the ultimate supports of the whole frame, and 
the primary agents of locomotion, are characterized by a com- 
bination of greater breadth, strength, and sohdity, in proportion 
to the size of the body, than those of any animal. The whole 
surface of the tarsus, metatarsus, and toes, rests on the ground, 
and the os calcia forms a right angle with the leg. The two lost 
circumstances are seen in no other animal : even the siinix and 
the bear have the end of the os calcis raised, so that this bone 
begins to form an acute angle with the leg; tho dog, the oat, 
and other digitated quadrupeds, even the elejihant himself, do 
not rest on the tarsus or carpus, but merely on the toes ; the 
-hoofed ruminants (bisulcaj aad the solipeda, touch the 


ground merely with the extremities of the third phalanges, and 
the OS calcis is raised nearly into a perpendicular position. Thus, 
as ive depart from man, the foot is more and more contracted 
and elongated, llie part sen'inj,' for supiiort reduced, and th<i 
angle of the beel-lione rendered more acute. 

The great size of the os calcis, and particularly the bulk and 
prominence of its posterior projection, to which the jjowerful 
muscles of the calf are ailixed, ' correspond to its important 
office of supporting' the hack of the foot, and, resisting force 
applied to the front of the body. This aingle Ijone is, therefore, 
an infallible characteristic of man ; and " Ex cake hominem." 
would probably be a safer rule than " Ex pede Herculem." 

'Hie concavity of the sole is an airangement rendered necessary 
by the whole surface restinjj flat on the ground. It provides 
room for the muscles, nerves, vessels, and tendons of the toes. 
It also assists the functions of the foot, by cnabbng it to gain a 
kind of hold of the bodies on which it rests, and to accommodate 
itself to unequal surfaces, an advantage almost destroyed by the 
use of shoes, but eminently conspicuous in those people, whose 
feet are not cramped by artificial means of defeifce. 

The gradually increased hreadtb of the foot tdn'ards the front, 
the predominance of its solid and nearly immo\able parts, the 
tarsus, and metatarsus, over the more flexible toes, the direction 
of the metatarsal bone supporting the great toe, its jsituatiou and 
want of mobllily, are circumstances of strong contrast witli tbe 
structure of the band, plainly pointing out tlic former as orga- 
nised for strength and resistance, and adapted to increase the 
extent and solidity of its supjuirt. 

A further argument to the same effect may be drawn from 
the enmparative progress of ossification in the two members. 
'ITie bones of the tarsus, and particularly the os calcis, ossify at 
an earlier period, and advance more rapidly in their development, 
than those of tbe carpus : Aery little strength of hand is required 
in the first years of life, while the feet, at tbe end of twelve 
months, begin to be employed in sustaining the body, and 
advancing it by progressive motion. 

ITie lower limb.» can be separated more widely in man, than 
In any animal, in consequence of the great breadth of the pelvis, 
and length of the cervix femoris. Thus we are enabled to derive 
the full advantage from those admirable instruments of support, 
the feet : an advantage, iihich may be estimated by observing 
the varied niotions, the rapid changes and multiplied combiua- 



tions of movement, according to the probable direction of ths 
expected impulse, in boxing, wrestling, and other aimilar feat* 
of activity, in pushing, pulling, &c. &c. 

In all the particulars just described, we see a strong contrast 
between man, and the nearest or most anthropomorphous 
animals, even the monkey and orang-outanp. In the latter, the 
cervix femoris is short, the thigh-bone straight, and its two con- 
dyles of equal length.* The foot rests on its outer edge, the 
heel not touching the ground ; the tarsua is contracted, and the 
digital phalanges lengthened, so that iu theae respecta it resembles 
a hand, f 

The peculiarities of the human pelvis coincide with those of 
the lower limbs. The form of this part is very characteristic in 
man, and distinguishes him from the simiiC, and indeed from 
all other marnmali». It might be asserted, that the human 
skeleton alone has a proper prlcis • that i.<, such an incurvation 
of the sacrum and coccyx, and such an union of them with the 
ossa innominata, as forms a fitrsin-like cavity ; from which, the 
space included between the elongated ilia, and the straight 
sacrum and coccyx of monkeys, ditter toto cselo. In the orang- 
outang, and the elephant, we find the nearest approach to the 
human formation. In the former, J however, the upper part of 
the ilium is narrow and elongated, stretching upward-s in the 
direction of the spine, and its length exceeds its breadth ; so 
that the relations of these two dimensions are very difrerent in 
man and this anim;ii.§ In the hitter, the symphysis jvuliia is 
very deep ; and in both, there is neither that incurvation of the 
sacrum, from the promontory downwards, nor that direction of 
tlie coccyx forwards, which, with the broad liorizontal exj)an- 
sion of the ilia, and the shallowness of the symphysis pubis, are 
peculiar to the human frame, and make it a broad and firm basis 
for the trunk, on which the weight of the abdominal contents, 
and particularly of the pregnant uterus, is supported. Tlie 
lower part of tlie sacrum and the as coccygis are turned fonvards 
in roan, and form the only firm bony resistance, in the inferior 
aperture of the pelvis, to the abdominal viscera, forced down- 
wards by the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. 'ITiese bones 

• Tyson, fi^. S. 

+ (Hurret de Ctiinpor, pi. II. fii;.5 St G. Tyson, Jig. cii. 
X OamiKT. (Sui'FL'i, pi. 11. (ifi. 7. Tyson, lig .'i, 

I TlH! iK'islit uf Ihe whulc pelvis, Irom ihf luljer Uchii to the crista of iha 
Wain is . ^ '"■ ^ !'■ '" man. 

ill. in l\w orang-DUtaag. 

ItM breadth, between the two mitcrlor i 10 i". 6 li. in man. 

apiues . , • . • 1 6 ia. 6 U. in Ihu onmg-ouitaajf. 


are straight in all other animals, because the weight of ths 
viscera is differently supported. Even in the orang-outang, the 
sacrum is Eat and contracted, and continued, together with the 
OS coccygia, in a straight line with the vertebral column. If the 
human gacram and coccyx had been continued in a straight 
line with the spine, as those of the orang-outang and raookeya 
are, the innominata remaining as at present, they would have 
projected beyond those bones, so as to disable us from sitting 
The curve which they describe, in man only, obviates this incon- 
venience ; and allows the pelvis to rest securely in the sitting 
attitude on the broad and strong ischiatic tuberosities. 

The influence of this structure on the direction and functions 
of the vagina will be considered afterwards. 

The distribution, size, and offices of the muscular masses 
correspond to the organic arrangements of the skeleton. The 
lateral and posterior surfaces of the pelvis give origin to the 
powerful glutei, of which the exterior (glutei magni), exceeding 
in size all other muscles in the body, and covered by a remark- 
able stratum of fat, form the buttocks, which, by their ample, 
fleshy, and convex protuberances, conceal the anus ; and are 
accounted both by the classical authors in natural history, aa 
Aristotle and Bupkon, and by the greatret physiologists, ax 
Galen' and Haller, aa the chief character by which man is 
distinguished from the buttockless simiae. " Les fesses," says 
the great historian of nature, " n'appartiennent (ju'a I'espece 
humaine." The final cause of this prerogative has been assigned 
by an anatomist. " Solus homo ex omnibus animalibus com- 
mode sedet, cui carnosae et mognae nates cootigere, et pro sub- 
stemaculo puhinarique, tomento repleto, inserviunt, ut citra 
muleatiam sedcndo, cogitationibua rerum divinarum animum 
rcctius applicare possit."* 

The use of the glutei, however, is not confined solely to what 
the pious SpiGELius has imagined ; viz., the forming a cushion 
on which the body may l>e softly supported, for the purposes of 
diWne cogitation ; but they are very important agents in ex- 
tending the pelvis on the thighs, and maintaining it in that 
state in the erect position of the trunk. In standing on both 
feet, the glutei magni fix the pelvis firmly behind, and coun- 
teract the natur^ tendency to fall forwards, which the weight of 
the head, the usual position of the upper limbs in front of the 
body, and the prommence of the abdominal viscera, impreaa 

• S^IgrUiu di fiitm. Cur/i. Fab. p. EL 


upon the trunk. Hence, the bulk and (tower of these very 

^jnuscles in the human subject afford a clear proof that man was 

'designed for the attitude on two feet. The other two glutei 

are not essentially concerned in the attitude of Htamliiij^ on iwth 

feet; but they are the principal agenta in eupportiii^ ,aud 

balancing the trunk on one foot, by inclining the pelvia over the 

head of that thigh-bone, on which the body rests, so that^jthe 

centre of gravity of the trunk may be in a line drawn through. 

that lower extremity. In this caae, their exertion countcfacts 

the tendency of the trunk to fall on that side which is not^up- 

, ported. These rausclos are employed in a similar inanny in 

''progression : the gluteus magnui balances the pelviu, wiul^ one 

leg is carried before the other, and bruuglu to the ground j and 

the two others support the trunk laterally, while the limb of the 

opposite side is in the air. 

The gluteus magnus, which is the largest inuscla of the 
human body, is so small and insignilicaiit in animals, that it 
may be almost said not to exist. F. Cuvieir observes of the 
orang-outang, " les feuses ^toient presquc nulles, ainsi que leH 
mollets."* Tyson indeed asserts, of the chimpanse, that " our 
pygmie had buttock or nates, as we shall see in the myology, 
but not ao much as in man."t However, in hisi apparently 
accurate figure I there is no trace of them. 

The extensors of the knee are much stronger in the human 
subject than in other mammaha ; as their two-fold opera- 
tion of extending the leg on the thigh, and of bringing the 
thigh forwards on the leg, fonns a very essential part in the 
human mode of progression. The flexors of the knee are, on 
the contrarj', stronger in animals ; and are inserted so much 
lower down in the tibia, even in the monkeys, than in the 
human subject, thai the cord which they form, keeps the knee 
habitually bent, and almost prevents the perfect extension of the 
; on the thigh. Where the thigh and leg thus form an angle, 
stead of being continued in a straight line, the support of the 
body on the hind legs must be very insecure. 

The extensor muscles of the ankle-joint, and chiefly those 
which form the calf of the leg, are the principal agents in pro- 
gression. Hence man is particularly characterJKed by the large- 
ness of hiB calves ; and no jmimal equals him in this respect. 

• Jlmutla du Muteum, v. IB. i>. fl. The rorrfrhiesj of Ihls rernark is fully 
■rifled by the unuig-ouUng beloDgEojj to Mr. Abvl. It hax i^eilber buUoclui 

DT 01ilv««. 

T Anatomy o/aPygmie, p, 11. 

104 EEiKCT ATrrrroE I'txtrnAK to man. 

By elevating the os calcis, they raise the whole body in the act 
of progression ; and, by extending the leg on the foot, they 
counteract that tendency, which the weight of the body has to hend 
the leg in standing^. llie muscles of the calves lilt the heels, and 
thereby derate the whole body, which is supported on the 
astragalus : the weight is thus maintained on the anterior part 
of the feet, and the indi^'idual is said to stand on ti]]toes. If the 
foot of one side be lifted from the ground, and the opj)oaite heel 
be raised by the calf of its own side, the whole body is then 
elevated hy the muscles of one calf. When a person stands OD 
tiptoe with a burden on the shoulders, or any other ])art of the 
trnnk, the weight of this, as well aa of the body, must be raised 
andtiupported by the muscles of the calf. In running, leaping, 
jumping in the air, dancing, &c., the projection of the body is 
accom[ili£hed hy the same power. 

Ahistoi.e, and others after liim, have justly observed that 
calves of the legs can be ascribed to man only. 

The whole arrangement of the thorax corresponds to the erect 
attitude of man. It is flattened anteriorly, possesses a very 
broad sternum, is wide transver.sely, but shallow from before 
backwards. Its lateral width and inconsiderable depth from 
sternum to spine, not only throw the arms far apart, and lhu.<j 
give a more extensive range to their motions, but diminish that 
jireponderance of the trunk towards the front, which, although 
it is unimportant in the horizontal, is very inconvenient in the 
erect attitude. Man is said to be the only animal, in which the 
transverse exceeds the antero-posterior diameter of the chest. 
Kven in the simia satjTUS the latter exceeds the former measure- 

The human sternum is short, as well as broad ; hence alargs 
space is left between the front of the chest and the pelvis, unpro- 
vided with bony sujjports ; the weight of the viscera, which are 
sufficiently guarded by the alidominal muscles, is securely sus- 
tained below by the ample pelvis. 

Guadnipeda have a thorax compressed laterally, narrow and 
keelshaped on its sternal aspect, consequently deep from 
sternum to spiae, but confined in the transverse dimension. 
This structure, with the absence of clavicles, allows the front 
legs to come near together, to fall perpendicularly under the 
front of the tr^ink, and support it with firmness and facility. 
Their sternum is long and narrow, the riba advance nearer to the 
• Camper, (Hutrent i. p. 115. 



crista of the os iiinotruoatuia, and tojjether wit!i the sternum 
cover a large share uf the abdomen, and support its viscera 
mure eflect\ially in the horizontal po&ition of the trunk. For 
the same purpose too, the ribs in many cases are more numerous 
than in man ; viz., thirty-two in the hyena, thirty-six in the 
horse, forty in tlie elephant, and forty-six in the unau (Brady- 
pus didactylus.) 

These, with other points, which cannot escape observation, 
when the skeleton of any rather long-legged quadruped is com- 
pared to that of man, show how unfit he is for the attitude on 
all fours, which in his case can never be otherwise than unsteady, 
irksome, and fatii^uing m the highesit degree. 

ITie spine of man presents some important peculiaritiea 
resulting from his characteristic attitude. One of these is its 
very remarkable increase of size in the lumbar region ; an 
augnientalion corresponding to that of the superintumbent 
weight, and to the magnitude of the efTorts which this part has 
10 sustain, ITie immense bidk of the sacrum,* far exceeding, 
in proportion to the rest of the body, that of any animal, is 
referable to the same cause, to the mode in which this weight is 
transmitted to the hip-bones, and thence to the lower liinbs, 
and to the pecuhar construction of the pelvis. The waving 
line f of the column, arising from a series of alternate curves in 
opposite directions, is altogether peculiar\o man ; it allows a 
proper distribution of the weight with respect to the centre of 
gravity, the line of which carried through the entire trunk must 
fall within the space covered by the feet, or by one foot when 
we support the body on one only. As this line passes through 
all the curves, motion is allowed in the upper regions without 
impairing the general equilibrium. 

'ITie cervical vertebra; of the monkeys, including the satynist 
and troglodyte8,§ are remarkable for the length and prominence 

• In thi) chim;>an.if, says Tysnn, "the M iiacrum was nclliine no dilated 
and spread, aa 'ti» ia miui ; but cotitrai-tL-d and narrow, aa "tia In ape« ; and 
I cry rcmiirkobly different from thi! humiiii skeleton." P. 69. 

+ Tliii is excellently reptPienletl in AU)imi»'» jilatc'i uf the skeleton ; par- 
ticularly in lilt? side view, tuli. ill. I refer Iq the originil Lrydeu vuitiun of 
this inconi[iBrat>1e work ; which, when Uie ]jlnti's i>( the lioiji?!> addpd, con- 
ytitulca the must aircurate, useful, otid splendid public^tlun ever produced ia 
iinotomy. Its merita cannut he estimated Trom the Kngliuh iKiitioiii. 

t" Lt's vcrtfibresctTviciU's snnt reiiiuniuablesparlalungurur cxlranrdinsjre 
<:es apojihysos epinpuscsdesxix initriuun-a ; mais MurloutparctUt du milieu." 
** Lea apophy^ns partti^aent avoir he:^(jiit tie cette luUj^tH'iir daas rurcmi;, pour 

au'U puiase tenir mioux sa tcte en equilihre. Je necunnois aucun autre animal 

fxccptd le philandro d'Amfrlqui'." Camper, (Evtra, i. 12^, pLS. fig, 3. 


fson, p 



of the spinmis processes ; a peculiarity probably connected uith. 
the support of the head, which prepondorates in front in conse- 
quence of the elongation of the jaws and the retreat of the occi> 
pitol condyles backwards.* 

I have explained haw the lower extremities afford a sufficient 
base of support and solid columns to sustain the trunk, and how 
the same point is secured by the organic arrangements of the 
latter. The breadth of the human pelvis iorma an ample basis 
for the body, and a firm point of action for the abdominal and 
other muscles, enabling them quickly to rectify the position of 
the parts above. In aE the digitated animals, the pelvis is so 
narrow, that the trunk resembles an inverted pyramid : there 
would be great difficulty in maintaining it in equilibrio, even if 
it were possible for the animal tc) assume the erect position. In 
those instances, where the pelvis is broader, as in the hoofed 
animals, the other conditions of the upright stature arc absent. 
ITie bear, however, forms an exception to these observations, 
and may be taught to stand and walk erect, although the posture 
is manifestly irksom£ to the animal. When quadrupeds endeavoiir 
to support themselves on the hind extremities, as for the purpose 
of seixing any objects with the fore-feet, they rather ait down 
than assume the erect position ; for they rest on the thighs, 
well as on the feet, and this can only be done, where the fore 
pajt of the body is small, as in th£ simiie, squirrel, &c. In other 
cases the animal is obliged to support itself by the fore-feet also^ 
w ia the dog, cat, &c. 


On the Kpffr RciTcmiiint : ^dcanlageotu Cotuiruction of the Human Hand : Man 
If two- handed, the jVonkej/ kind four-handed: uu the natural Altitude and 
Gait of Monkmft. 

A CURSORY survey of the upper limbs will be sufficient to 
convince us that they are entirely unsuited to the office of sup- 
porting the body, and as well calculated for the uses to which we 
put them, of seizing and holding objects, and thereby executing, 
besides all the processes of the art3, a thousand minute but most 
serviceable actions of constant recurrence. 

There is a general resemblance of form throughout the upper 
and lower extremities ; their principal divisions, the number and 

• This ^Tcat deTcttipmftit of tlip rsrclcaJ vpineg is most rt-niBrkable in the 
Bongo, wheie ihe enurmnus bulk uf tbe jnws L.'um>ii|>onU4 to it. iJecAudebcrL 
aitt, A'at. det SingU el Makit, fttl, Plinchc Anatuiuique 2, lig. 5. 


toim of tbe bones, and the construction of the articulations in 
each di^asion, corresixind very clearly; the esaeniial I'ariedss 
may all be referred to the principles of solidity and resistance in 
the lower, of mobility in the upper, as leading purposes of the 
formation. A comparison of the arm, fore-arm, and hand, to 
the thigh, le^g, and foot; of the os inQominatum to the scapula; 
of the hip, knee, and ankle, to the shoulder, elbow, and wrist ; 
ot the carpus, metacarpus, and finders, to the tarsus, inctaliarsus, 
and toes ; will at once prove and illustrate this difference. 

Tlie scapuljE, placed at the jiosterior and Litend aspeits of the 
trunk, are kept wide apart by the clancles : n Une falling per- 
pendicularly from the shoulder, in the erect attitude of the body, 
would pass far hehjnd the hip : thus the U])per limbs are thrown 
outwards and backn'ardE, and have a free range in their principal 
motions, which are in the anterior direction. The glenoid cani- 
ties look outwards. The arras are widely separated above, and 
they diverge ton-ards their opposite ends : the lower limbs, on 
the contrary, converge from above downwards. In true quad- 
rupeds, the clavicles are suppressed ; * the shoulder-bladefi 
brought forwards on the chest, and ai>pro.xiinated to each other; 
and the glenoid canities are directed downwards. Consequently, 
the anterior or pectoral members fall perpendicularly under the 
front of the chest, and come still nearer together below than 

The deep cop of the oa innominatum, and the powerful orbi- 
cular Ugament of the hip, are strongly contrasted with the shaUow 
glenoid cavity and weak capsule of the shuuIdL-r : the diflTcrence 
between the broad articular surfaces and %ery powerful liga- 
ments of the knee, and the strong joint of the ankle on one side, 
and the articulations of the elbow and wrist on the other, is 
equally striking. 

The leg and fore-arra resemble each other less than the thigh 

and arm ; in the fore-arm the parts are arranged favourably to 

mobility ; in the leg, the object is to procure a firm and solid 

• It is stated, in the Phjsiotogital Lerlvrtt, u. 123, that ' ' no nninml, except 
the mc>iik#y, ha« a ilavicle liki.- that uf innti. Certainly none, without ex- 
cepting evtii thi- motikey, havt either clavicles, or any other fwupa, exm;tJy 
leaemfilin^ the homnn iii all poiiitu; but many, even of the mure eommou 
Vinds, Imve rlaviclesi equal lu tnoae of man In relative she anil leuglh, aa well 
as in oUice. As tbc ui>e of this boue is to maintain the ihouJder at its proper 
distance [rum the front of the trunk, and tu prevent (he scaijulu in puriieular 
firom comini; fcirvrarda on the chest, it exists tii all cases, where the pectoral 
members arc cmplof ed, either principally, or in great part, in executing pur- 
poses foreign to support, such as holtlinj; object.'!, cliniliiii);, flying, 4itnnil([, 
' It will l>e xntAtiU'iit tu meiitlun that tlie lemurs anil Mta> 

Taking the ground 

the squirr( 

■loth, posaeiiB perfect clavldes 

rat, porcupine, mole, ant-eater, hed^ebug, slurew, ftl>4 


support, wbicli can transport the centre of gravity with ease anil 
safety from one point to another. Of the two. bones of the fore- 
arm, which arp nearly equal in every respect, one rolls easily 
over the other, and the hand is articulated with the moveable 
hone. In the lower extremity these rolling motions would have 
introduced dangerous unsteadiness and insecurity. The foot 
therefore is articulated with the tibia, which corresponds to the 
ulna ; and the fibula posgesses no perceptible power of motion. 

The principal differences in the hand and foot occur in the 
relation which the carpus and metacarpus, the tarsus and meta- 
tarsus — the solid or resisting portions — bear respectfully to the 
phalanges of the fingers and toes, the flexible portions of the 
members. The solid part of the hand is less developed, and 
ha.s far less volume than the analogous part of the foot, on which 
the whole weight of the body in standing finally rests : the 
phalanges, on the contrary, which are the principal agents in 
executing the functions of the hand, are much longer and 
stronger than those of the toes, which are not so essential to 
station or progression. The three phalanges of the middle finger 
equal in length the length of the carpu-s and metacarpus toge- 
ther i while the respective proportions of the tarsus and meta- 
tarsus and toes are about | and i, Tlic parts of the foot and 
hand are disposed inversely in respect to their importance. The 
posterior portion of the forrtier, and the anterior of the latter, 
are of the most consequence, and possess the most remarkable 
characters. The fiinctiona of the hand render it necessary that 
its plane should he nearly continuous with that of the fore-arm ; 
otherwise the radius could not guide it so precii^ely to the objects 
in view. In the foot, the articulation is so disposed, that it5 
posterior part offers a powerful lever for muscular agents, and 
a solid support for the mass above : it is formed by a single hone 
of the foot, which adds to its solidity. ITie metacarpus and 
metatarsus have a much greater similarity to each other; th« 
latter- is the more solid, and offers this principal difference. The 
metatarsal bone of the great toe, by far the strongest of the 
whole, has scarcely any motion on the tarsus, and is parallel to 
the others ; wtile the corresponding bone of the thumb has a 
very considerable extent of motion, and is anterior to the rest of 
the metacarpus, supposing the palm to be turned directly for- 
w^ards. 'ITiese remarkable differences are easily understood, 
when we consider that the great toe as one of the points on 
which the body is supported, requires solidity ; while the thumbj, 



being concerned in all the numerous and varied motions of the 
hand, must i>e organized for mobility. 

The human hands being^ terminated by long and flejcible 
members, of which only a Hrnall })ortion is covered by the flat 
nails, while the rest ia furnisiied with a highly organized and 
very sensible integument, form admirable organs of touch and 
instruments of prehension. Tlie animal kinf^'dom exhibits no 
corresponding part so advantageously constructed in these 
respects. At the Bame time, the lateral attachment of tbe arms 
to the trunk, and the erect attitude, gives ua the frerst use of 
these admirable instruments. So greatly does man excel animals 
in the conformation of the hands, that Anaxaooras asserted 
W'hat Helvetius has again brought forwards in our times, 
" that man is the wisest of animals, because lie jws.sesses hands." 
In such a view we can by no means coincide; yet Aristotle 
is well justified in observing that man alone possesses hands 
really deserving that name. Several mammalia have also hands, 
but much Icss complete, and less serviceable than that of the 
human subject, which, in comparison to them, was justly enough 
termed by the Stagyrite the organ of all organs. The great 
Buperiority of the human hand arises from the size and strength 
of the thumb, which can be brought into a state of opposition 
to the lingers, and is hence of the greatest use in enabling us to 
gjrasp spherical bodies, and take up any object in the hand, in 
giving a firm hold on whatever we seize, in executing all the 
mechanical processes of tlic arts, in writing, drawing, cutting, 
in short, in a thousand offices, whicli occur every moment of 
our lives, and which either could not be accomplisiied at all, if 
the thumb were absent, nr would require the concurrence of 
both hands, instead of being done Ijy one only. Hence it has 
been justly described by Albinus as a second hand, " manus 
pan-a majori adjutrix." • 

All tbe eimiEE possess hands ; but the most distinguishing 
part, the thumb, is slender, short, and weak, even in the moat 
anthropo-morphous : t regarded as an imitation of the human 
structure, it would almost justify the terra a]iplied to it by 
EosTACHius, ridiculous. The other fingers are elongated and 
slender. X 

• J)e Seelelv, p. 4C>. 

+ The thumb of <hB orane.oiitiinjr and chfrnpansj, besides being nuclt 
■malk-r Ihati Uie lingtni, reairhcs iiuly Iti llii' riit'liiL-arnu- ili^nkil jcliU. CaDi[MT, 
tUttrrft, iih 'i, ng. 5. F. CuvkT in the ,-liinak-i itu Alwieum, t. Iti, p. 4, Ti ion, 
y. 12. fij;. S. 

t SimiE in general hive cine bones in tlie carpus ; and Camper found ihn 


Some aniniRls, which have fingers sufficiently long and move- 
ahle for seizing and grasping objects, are obliged, by tbe want 
of a aepnrate thumb, to bold them by means of the two fore- 
paws ; as the squirrel, rat, opossum, &c. Thofse which are 
moreover obliged to rest their fore-feet on the ground, a3 the 
dog and cat, can only hold objects by fixing them between the 
paw and the ground. Lastly, such as have the fingers united by 
integumeiits, or inclosed in hoofs, loose all power of prehension. 

The comparison, which I have already drawn between the 
construction of the liand and foot, having shown that the latter 
is merely calculated for support in man, we may state that he is 
two-handed and two-footed, or bimanoua and biped. 

Monkeys, apes, and other anthropo-morphous animals can, 
in fact, be called neither bipeds nor quadrupeds ; but they are 
quadrumanous, or four-handed.* They have opposable thumbs 
on the lower, as well as upper extremities ; and thus their feel 
are instruments of prehension as well as their hands. 

By a thumb we mean a member, not placed in a direction 
parallel to the fingers, but standing oiF from them laterally, 
enjoying separate motion, and therefore capable of being brought 
into oj)positTon to them, as in grasping or prehension. A great 
toe, in its direction, articidation, and extent of motion, corres- 
ponds entirely to the other toes ; whereas the joints and mus- 
cles must be altogether different in a thumb. It is hardly 
necessary to point out how unfit the human feet are for all 
purposes of prehension : but the hind limbs of the simia; really 
deser\e the name of hands more than the front ; and are mure 
advantageously constructed for holding, 'lliis hind thumb is 
80 characteristic, that it is found in certain simiEP, which have 
either no fore-thumb or only a rudiment of it.f 

We may now answer the question, whether the orang-outang 
and other simiae go erect, or on all fours : they do neither, but 
live chiefly in trees, for which they are admirably adapted by 

Tilolh bone in the orajiat-outanir; it was a itesmmoirl bone iti tlie letidon of ttip 
abiluclur laugun pullicii. (Hurrei, 143. He found in the 5atnv unimal a luge 
spsaradid boni' in IKl' ttndor of the poplitijua: ibid. 133. 

• Aritituttc obsiTvfd that llie feet of monkpy* resemble hands : and Tyson, 
In ilesiunbing the foot of the thirapnnsf (S. IroclodyteB), mj-r, '• But this pari, 
in thp formatioTi and its function too, being likt-r a hand than a foot, for the 
<U>lingulshiug tliis sort of anirtiBls from others, I have thoiishi, whi'lher it 
Tni^rht nut be rpclconcd inul callini rathpi qnndntmaniu than quaUrupet ; i. v. a 
iitvr-hanitfd, than n. fuuT- fooled animal," ['. 13. 

+ Mr. (Ji'offroy ha« placed togothpi tlie simias thus circumstanecd in a new 
irrnus, which lie calls ati>l.s (imperfect;. Annate tin Mmeum, t. 7 et 18, In 
1ht>chamek :alfli'5 prntarkctyliis) there is a iiiugle phalanx, withont a nail, 
and very hliuhlly pruininerit. Tlif euaita (S. iiaauciu L. Allies paiuscul 
Ocuff.) has alMolatolj' no viiible ttiumb. 



having prehensile members, inKtruisenCa forgnwptBf; aod hold- 
ing, on both upper and lower extremities. Hence Cu vibr cilia 
them " les grimpeurs par excellence."* They lire in trees, and 
find their food in them ; they can hang by one fore or hind log, 
emploj'ing: the remaining niembera in gathering fruit, or in other 
offices. Those Arbich have less perfect hnnds, arc furnished 
with prehensile tails, by which they can be more securely sup- 
portt'd in trees. 

It is hardly necessary to add. that when we see monkeys walk- 
ing erect, it must be ascribed to instruction and discipline. The 
delineations of the orang-outang and chim}ianse taken fn)m the 
life, show how unnatural and inconvenient the erect posture it 
to them : they are drawn with the front hands leaning on a 
stick, whUc the posterior ones have the toes bent something 
Hke a clenched first. + 

The circumstances in the structure of the monkey kind, which 
render them unsitited for the erect attitude, have been already 
in part explained : rt£., the narrowness of the pchisi, the short 
and weak lower limbs, the angle formed by the thigh at its 
junction with the trunk, and that between tlie leg and thigh, 
small size of the muscles composing the buttocks and calves, 
and the slight ])rDminence of the os calcis, whicli bone does 
not come to the ground. It may bo aiJdcd, that tiie exterior 
margin of the foot chiefly rests on the ground in the siinias ; 
which circiunstance, while it leaves them a freer use of their 
thumb and long toes in seizing the branches of trees, ren- 
ders the organ so much less adapted to support the body 
on level ground. The plantaris muscle, which is very fleshy 
in the monkey kind, instead of terminating, as it docs in 
man, by insertion in the os calcis, passes over that bone into 
the sole, and is there connected with the plantar aponeu- 
rosis and flexor perforatus, so that it may be regarded aa 
making a part of both.t In other quadrupeds it holds the 
place of the flexor perforatus, entering the foot over the os 
calcis. These arrangements are quite incompatible with the 
erect attitude, as the tendon would be compressed, and its action 
• Lct^fu d' ^na/rmie Comjiarif,*.}, p.4M. From tlie ability, vrliich tta* 


orang-outixn^ at EM>lor Chuiirc exhibits, in muving aloug the rupi'* «iti| 
it) lito npiirttnt'iil, ami BwInginR himsolf from one part to anotapr.he 
itrlclly ti) lipst'Tve thi? donominntion of a dimbinz animiU. 

f Si-c Vosmatr'i figure lu co|Me<l bv Blurnt-Tibicfi ,iljliiUJ. n. h. OegemtSmle, 
No. \2. Tvaim. fis!. 1 .% «. Thi- vittirij; attitude of Mr. AlK>rii titfUTP, in wbMk 
tlie pxtTf'nntii>» an- nil pathcicil up to the trunk, is much mon- natural Umn 
tiip crcft position in whi''li the raotikey Irlljf nre often ri-prrscnteiL 

X Vleq D'AifT, Diicoun sut rAnato'rale, (Sutret, t, 4, ^, 149, 



impeded, if the heel rested on the ground. ITie thumbs, -both 
of ihe fore and hind haads, have no separate flexor longus in 
the monkeys, but receive tendons from the flestjrs of the other 
fingers.* Hence, the thumbs in these animals will generally be 
bent together with the other fingera ; and they are less ca])able 
of those nct'tons, in which the inalion of the tliumb is combined 
with that of the fore and middle finger, a combination bo im- 
portant in numerous delicate operations. 

It is rather singular, since persons have been found to con- 
tend that man ought to go on all fours, that there should have 
been others, who undertake to prove that the orang-outang, and 
the monkey tribe in general, have an organization suited to biped 
progression. Even Buffon states that one, wliich he saw, 
always went on two feet, and he ascribes the erect attitude to 
him without any hesitation. No doubt he can sustain this 
posture for some time, and in the unnatural condition of con- 
finement he may frequently sit : hence, perhaps, we may account 
for the numerous obser\-ations, in which he is said to go erect 
3iut the circumstances of structure already explained show 
clearly that he is not calculated, like man, for that attitude ; and 
we find, in some of the most authentic accounts, tliat he is said 
to have gone on all fuurs. Allamaxd, who saw a simia 
satyrus in flolland, gii'es the follinviug account of its motions 
nnd attitudes : " Its usual attitude was sitting, with its thighs 
and knees raised ; it walked nearly in the same posture, its rump 
being very near the ground. 1 never saw it perfectly upright, 
except when it wished to reach something ; and even then its 
knees were always a little on tiie bend, and it tuUered."f 
VosMAER, who has described the same indi\idual, say.s, " this 
animal generally walked on all four^,> like the other monkeys ; 
but it could, likewise, walk erect on its hind feet, and, pronded 
with a stick, it would often support itself for a considerable 
lime. However, it never used its feet flat on the ground, as a 
man wnuhl do, but bent backward.? in such a manner, that it 
supported itself on the external edge of its hind feet, M-ith the 
toes drawn inwards, which denotes a posture for climbing 
trees." J The testimony of CamI'ek concerning one which 
lived for some time in the menagerie of the Stadtbolder at Petit 
Loo, is to the same effect : " L'orang invant couroit ji quatre 
pattes, et lorsqu'il ee tenoit debout (ce qu'il fit le plus dans les 
premiers tems de son arrivee et lorsqu'il jouissoit encore de 
• Sec the work above quoU-d. + Buffon, br Wood ; r, ID, p, 79. J Ibid. p. 81 


tonte saVigeur), il tenoit les genoux ploy^s."* llie description 
of the individual observed by F. Cuvier corroborates these 
obserrations : he climbed excellently, but walked as imperfectly. 
In the latter operation, he rested his closed hands on the ground, 
and dragged forwards his hind parts. If one hand was held, 
he could walk on his feet : but then he supported himself by 
resting the other hand on the ground. The outer edge of the 
foot alone touched the ground ; and the toes were bent.f This 
description will apply in all points to the orang-outang brought 
firom Batavia by Mr. Abel;! and a short observation of his 
customary attitudes and motions will convince any one that he 
is not organized for biped progression, nor capable of it, even 
for a short trial, without a troublesome and painful effort. 

The bent knees and general attitude of the figure represented 
by Tyson, show that the chimpanse is not a biped : " Being 
weak," says the author, " the better to support him I have 
given him a stick in his right hand."§ Several passages show, 
that the animal often went on all fours ; and thus confirm the 
representation given by the directors of the Sierra Leone com- 
pany ; II who say, in describing a young one, that " at first he 
crawled on all fours ; always walking on the outside of his 
hands ; but, when grown larger, he endeavoured to go erect, 
supporting himself by a stick, which he carried in his hand." 

That the gibbon (S. I^ar), another of the anthropomorphous 
simite, is not constructed for the erect attitude, appears from 
the testimony of Daubenton.IF It could go almost erect on 
the feet, but the legs and thighs were rather bent ; and some- 
times the hand touched the ground to support the reeling body : 
it was unsteady whenever it stopped in an upright posture, the 
heel only resting on the ground, and the sole being raised : it 
remained but a short time in tliis attitude, which appeared 

No instance has ever been produced of a monkey, nor indeed 
of any animal, except man, which could support the body in 
equilibrio on one foot only. The causes of this prerogative of 
the human organization will be found in the breadth of his foot, 
in the resting of its entire surface on the ground, in the bony 
and muscular strength of the lower extremity, and the length 
of the cervix femoris. 

• (Btwret, 1 1, p. 60. + Anna^"! du Muieum, v. 10, p. 49. 

t Narrative qfa Journey in 0ana, p. 'Hi, and following. 

} P. 16, iiL 1. I 1'. IW. II Buflon, by Wood. v. 10, p 8& 



Tlie foregoinpf coosiderations render it very clear that the 
erect stature is not only a necessary result of the human struc- 
ture ; but also that it is peculiar to man : and that the differences 
in the form and arrangement of parts, derived from this source 
only, are abundantly sufficient to distinguish man by a wide 
interval from all other animals. The assertion of Linnbus,* 
" dari simias erecto corpore binis seque ac homo pedihua ince- 
dentes, et pedum et manuum ministerio liuraanam referentts 
speciein," is not only unsupported by any authentic testimony 
concerning animals of the monkey tribe, but du-eclly contra- 
dicted by all the well-ascertained facts relating to those which 
most nearly rcaeinble ua in stature. 

Compariton qflhe Human Ecad and 7mlA to Uiote tif JtmaiaU, 
When we consider that the head affords a receptacle for,the 
organ of the mind, that it lodges the principal external semws, 
as w^l as the instruments for procuring', receiv'mg, masticaliog, 
and swallowing' the food, and a considerable part of the uppa- 
latus employed in producing sound, we shall not be surprised 
at the striking differences in its construction, at those propoi* 
tional developments or contractions of its several parts, whidi 
determine the faculties and endowments of different anumals, 
and their relative rank in the scale of nature. The moat cob- 
venient position for this important assemblage of organs — 
including the chief means by which we are connected, actively 
or passively, witli the external world — must exhibit corres- 
ponding varieties. A situation is required, combining &na- 
neaa of support with freedom of motion, a ready communication 
of the senses with their a]i|iropriate external objects, and a 
corresponding arrangement of the entrances to the respir-a- 
tory, digestive, and \'ocal cavities. The mode in which the 
entire mass is articulated and supported must therefore he 
■\'aried according to the predominance or contraction of the 
various particular organs, as well as in conformity to the atti- 
tude of the animal, and the distribution of other parts, par- 
tifu'-irly the upper limbs. As the proportions of its parts in 
the human subject indicate a predominance of the organ of 
thought, and reflection over the instruments employed m 
external sensation and the supply of merely animal wants, 

• Fawta Succica ; PraoXat 



which places man at the top of the intellectual scale ; bo the 
position of the whole, and the arrangem^Qt for its support and 
notion, are calculated, like all the details of organization hitherto 
examined, in reference to his pecaUar distinction of the erect 

A very striking difference hetween man and all other animals 
consists in the relative proportions of the cranium and face : 
trbidi are indicated in a general hut not very accurate manner, 
by the facial line. 

The organs, which occupy moat of the face, are those of 
vision, smelling^, and lasting, together unth the instruments of 
mastication and deglutition. In proportion as these are more 
developed, the size of the face, compared to that of the cranium, 
is augmented. On the contniry, when tht brain is large, the 
volume of the cranium is increased in proportion to that of the 
face. The nature and character of each living being must 
depend on the relative energy of its animal propensities and 
^'functions, its feelingx, and mental powers: its leading traits 
•will be derived from those wiiich are most predominant. This 
is sufficiently ennced in the human species j but the differences 
observable betweeti one man and another are fewer and less 
strongly marked than those which occur between animals of 

• different species. 

The brain being the organ, by which the impressions on the 
external senses are combined and compared, in whicii all the 
processes called intellectual are carried on, we shall find that 
animals partake in a greater degree, or at least ap]>roach more 

' nearly to reason, in proportion as the of medullary sub- 
Btance forming their brain exceeds that which constitutes the 
rest of the nervous system ; or, in other word.s, in proportion as 
the organ of the mind exceeds those of the senses. Smce, llien, 
the proportions of the cranium and face indicate those of the 

( brain and of the princiiKd external senses and instruments of 
mastication, we sliall not be surprised to find that lliey point out 
to us. in great measure, the general character of animals, the 

' degree of instinct and docility which they possess :— hence the 

■Study of these proportions i.s of high importance to the naturalist. 
Man combines by far the largest cranium with the smallest 

•face and animals deviate from these relations in proportion as 

j^they increase in stupidity and ferocity. 

One of llie most .'<iini)le (though often inaufficieDt) methods of 
eipressmg tne relative proportion of these parts is liy the course 
of the facial line, and the amount of the facial anjjlc. Sup- 


posing a skull to be oliBerved in profile, in the position whicli it 
would have, when the occipital condyles are at rest in the arti- 
cular hollows of the alias, in the erect atlitiide of tiie body, and 
neither inclined forwards nor backwards, a line dmnn from the 
greatest projection of the forehead to that of the ui)per maxUIary 
bone, follows the direction of the face, and is called the facial 
line ; the angle, which this* forms with a second line, continueti 
horizontally backwards, ia the facial angle, and measures the 
relative prominence of the jaws and forehead.* In man only is 
the face placed perpendicularly under the front of the cranium; 
so that the facial hne is perpendicular : hence the angle formed 
between this hne and the horizontal one above described is 
most open, or approaches most nearly to a right angle, in the 
human subject. The face of animala is placed in front of 
the cranium instead of under it : that cavity is so diminished 
in size, that its anterior expanded portion or forehead is Boon 
lost, as we recede from man. Hence the facial line is obUque, 
and the facial angle i.s acute j and it becomes more and more 
so as we descend in the scale from man : in several birds, 
most reptiles and fishes, it is altogether, as the cranium 
and face are completely on a level, and form parts of one hori- 
zontal line- 

Tlie idea of stupidity is aasociatod, even by the vulgar, with 
the elongation of the snout ; which necessarily lowers the facial 
line, or renders it more oblique : hence the crane and snipe 
have become proverbial. On the contrary, when the facial line 
is elevated by any cause, which dots not increase the capacity 
of the cranium, as in the elephant and owl, by the cells which 
separate the two tables, (he animal acquires a particular air of 
intelligence, and gains the credit of qualities which he does not 
in reality possess. Hence the latter animal has been selected 
as the emblem of the goddess of wisdom ; and the former i« 
distinguished in the Malay langtiajjo Ijy a name xvhich indicates 
an opinion that he participates with man in his most distin- 
guishing characteristic, the possession of reason. 

The invahiiibie remains of Grecian art show that the ancients 
%vere well acquainted with these circumstances. They were 
aware that an elevated facial line, produced by a great develop- 
ment of the instrument of knowledge and reflection, and a 
corresponding contraction of the mouth, jaAvs, tongue, nose, 

t. 1. pt. i iKut. 15. Hitt. Anl. de I'Orane- 
[il. 1. ds.X DistertiUwiiphi/suiuefHr tut Oiffrrpturrt rieUet 

• See Cainpec Kleinere Schrijlen 

oalang; Ch. VII ; jil. 1. (Ig. :i. Di, , ^ , . 

^ue firfttnlent let iVailt du Fuase, Sfc. 4to- utn-clit, 171)1. Tliccuune of the 
h<jr:ri,iil;il ;iin>, anil ils j; ' 

plaint 1)1' cunlact wilti the (iLcial line, are bv do means 
luhynn in at) the Uguiv:! Tepreicnted by Cumper, 




indicated a noble and generoua nature. Hence they have 
extended the facial angh to J/O" in the representation of legis- 
lators, sages, poets, and others, on whom llit-y wished to hestow 
the most august character. In the statues of their heroes and 
gods they have still further exaggerated the human and reduced 
the animal characteri sties, extending the forehead over the face, 
80 as to push the facial line beyond the perpendicular, and to 
make the angle 100". 

The facial angle* in the human auhject varies from 65^ to 
83°, speaking of the adult; for in the child it reaches gO". The 
former is a near approach to the monkey race : the angle may 
be extended beyond the latter, as the Greeks have done in their 
representations of the Ueity : here, however, 100° seem to he the 
ne plus ultra : beyond which the proportions of the head would 
appear deformed. That angle, according to Camper, consti- 
tutes the moat beautifulf countenance i and hence he supposes 

" Outliup pngriTinKH of Bcvernl humnn he.iiJs and skulU, «» vfpll m of a 
monkey, and an orang-outan(;, in iiriilik', nidi Uie lines nipasurinu 'heir fikcLal 
anplcs.'are subji>tiii?<l to rsuinjer'a Ditieri. f/liyiiijue. Sume are also givcii in 
Amlcbi'rt. Hiti. Aiit. da Sii^ft ; \i\. atiut. 2. 

The nrailicttl apjilication of this measurement is much \esa fxlonsircly use- 
ful anil iinporlani than (.'umricr tiotl imaijincil. It merily aJTorils a alriUinK 
BPncral view ollhp tsTeatchnracterlstic Jiii'erenro betwven man and ^ome an\- 
taal*. without indicii.tin(! lu u" the diversities of the hiininii nju'cit'S ilwlf, siid 
much less ttiuse tif animnls. In many of tlie latter, indeed, it dues not mea- 
■uie the prrimincacc of the bniin, but that of Ihe frunlal sinuses dt iio»e. In 
tiia.n and the quadroinnnoiis animals, the Jttna.ten are incoimiderable ; but In 
the c.imivora, the ylg kind, sorie ruminant*, and partii-ubrly in the eU'|ihnnt, 
they ore verj' larKP, and raise the facial line to a degree fur beyond what Idi* 
convexity ot the brain would du. In the mdentia and llie walru<i the inwe U 
v<.>ry large, and thruws hack tlieeranium >u tlial it uil'era no point fi>r meo.'^ure- 
ment in front. 

The fuUoiving i» a statement of the angle in certain animals, taken by 
drawing a line parallel lu llie floor of the nostriln, and anulher fruni the 
({Teatesl prnmincnce of the alveoti lo the comrexity of the erouium, M'ithout 
ivgarding the outline of the nose and face, 

/■Camper states it ntS8" (Dhs. fJiut. pi. 1, (.i). 

Mr. Abel at 57" {Journey in China, Jj. 3?3). 

_. _ , --0 J Iri the skull, belonging lo the Iluiilerian c»l. 

loune ormng-outang - 67 j,...tiun, when the faeial line \» drawn frnra 

[ the furcliead, the anjjle 56" ; when fram the 

prumitient superciliary ridge, BO*. 

Sopujoa ----- Cfi 
Cuettoti ----- 51 
MandriU - - - . 42-30 

<:oati 28 

Pole-cat ----- 31 
Fug-dog ----- 35 

MastitI— line drawn from llie outer surface of 
the grajiiiini ----- 30" 

, inner ----- 41 

Hnre -.--..-30 
Itam -.....-;iO 
llvrse .--.-.-23 
'Cuvler, I^oTu iTAnai. eomp. Lect viil. »Tt 1. 
When the fa<;inl angles of the onthropo-morphous simiif , ai above Nialed, 
»re compared lo those of .tome NejTOCS, aa, for « lample. the skull tlelineali'd 
ill pi. Yii. yhirh has an an;;le of 65", and that in Sandiforl'j Museum ./kcs'i, 
jMtjiiitno- balartim, v. 1, which has nearly the same, we Hnd this method in. 
■nflicient, even to (liittincuish niim ondanimaU. An Atnerican monkey (toured 
bv Humboldt i3imiamelano-t*eph.^l«] ha.< as nood a facial line ui Hiegciieriitilf 
01 Negroes. Rtcufil d'Ola. de Zoot. el il'Anal. camp. i. |>1 'iS. lis ascribvi to 
It " facies niurn, anlhropo-moriiha, frro vEthiupia ; p. 317. 

+ That t]ie»e umuUurai proportions may have been selected hy the Grecian 
artiite iu order to cunrey the iirctemalu-'al Impresiions associated with theiz , 


the Greeks adopted it. " For," eays he, " it is certain no such 
head was ever met with ; and L cannot conceive any such should 
have occurred among the Greeks, since neither the Egyptians, 
from whom they probably descended, nor the Persians, nor the 
Greeks themselves, ever exhibit such a formation on their 
medalg, when they are representing the jiortrait of any real 
character. Hence the ancient model of beauty does not exist 
in nature, but is a thing of imaginary creation: it ia what Win- 
KLEMAKN calls beau ideal." 

A vertical section of the head, in the longitudinal direction, 
ehows us more completely the relative proportions of the cranium 
and face. In man the area of the section of the cranium is 
nearly four times as large as that of the face : the lower jaw not 
being included. It is, perhaps, about three times as large in the 
orang-outang; twice as large in the sapajous; and they are 
nearly equal in the baboons and the carnivorous animals, except- 
ing the dogs with short muazles, such as the pug, where the 
cranium rather exceeds the face. In the hare and marmot the 
face exceeds the cranium by one-third, in the porcupine and 
ruminants by one-half, in the pig kind by astiU greater propor- 
tion. 'l"be face is three times as large as the cranium in the 
hippopotamus, and nearly four times in the horse. 

The human anil the brute face are not more strongly con- 
trasled in sire, and in their relation to the cranium, than in 
general configuration, in the construction of individual parts, the 
motions and uses to ivhich they are sub.ser\ient. The latter is 
merely an instrument adapted to procure and prepare food, and 
often a weapon of offence and defence ; the former is an organ of 
expression, an outward index of what i)asses in the world 
within. The elongated and narrow jaws with these muscles, 
with their sharp cutting teeth, or strong pointed and formidable 
fangs, compose the face of the iinimal : the chin, hjjs, 
cheeks, eye-brows, and forehead, are either removed, or reduced 
to a size and form simply necessary for animeLl purposes. The 
nose IE confounded with the upper jaiv and lijj; or, if more 
developed, is stiU applied to ofEccs connected with procuring 
food. Thus we have a muzzle or snout rather than a face. In 
man, on the contrary, the animal organs, the jaws, and teeth, 

notion of kapi-rior nnlpro--, and may have hepr wpll ralriilntpd (n proiliiccthe 
Ititentted effect lh whnt I can posUv nndcTHtAiid. Bat that |n-0|iortiuu8, which 
havf never i-xinleJ in natiirc, shoalU ycl (■rin«(ituli>, in O'lr ratimation. thenost 
beautiful (bemi! coimtcuanfe, a]i|ieaM to iiif, in that umiimlilicd statcjmcnt, 
cither on unmeaiitng prupunUicin, ur iacoiuis4cnt\riL'i uiy rtMuuiMbltf swue oj 
(be word beautiful. 


are redueed in size, and covered from view ; bonce the mouth is 
extremely small, and neither used, nor capable of use, in directly 
taking or seizing the aliment. Tlie chin, lips, theelts. bridge of 
the nose, eyelids, and cyelirows, receive a fulness of development, 
and free play of action, which is suen in no oiher animal. The 
constant motions of this finely-formed countenance correspond 
with the inward workings and emotions ; and are a most im- 
portant medium of influence and communication with our 
fellow-creatures ;— inviting and attracting them by its expan- 
sion in love, friendship, aflection, and benevolent feelings ; 
warning and repelling by its fearful contraction in indignation, 
scorn, hatred, malice. When to the human face we add the 
ample and capacious forehead, the organization wf the intellectual 
and moral being is perfect ; the contrast with nil others, even of 
the manlike class, pointed and complete. How admirably do 
the positions of the face, in the erect attitude of man, and the 
prone posture of brutes, correspond to these striking difTerencea 
in construction ! 

The want of the intermaxillary bone h.ia been assigned by 
Camper as one of the grand characteristics, which distinguish 
the human head from that of other animals. 

The superior ma-tillar}'- bones of the human subject are united 
to each other, and contain the whole of the upper series of teeth ; 
they are, however, separated in other mammalia by a third bone 
of a wedge shape, which contains the incisor teeth, and wan 
therefore called os incisii'um. Since, however, this bone is 
found where there are no incisor teeth, as in the horned rumi- 
nants, in the elephant, and the two-homed rhinoceros of jVfrica, 
and also where there are no teeth at all, as in the ant-eater and 
some of the whale kind, BbrMRNnACH* has bestowed on it the 
more appropriate name of the os intermnxillare. It is a single 
bone in some cases : in many others, composed of two sym- 
metrical portions. It is connected to the upper jaw-bone by a 
facial suture, running from the side of the nose to the alveolar 
margin, and by a palatine suture passing transversely from the 
alveoli to the anterior palatine foramina. 

That man possesses nothing analogous to this intermaxillary 

bone of brutes is so clear, that we cannot easily account for that 

■fwellent anatomist Vica D'Azvnt ha\ing discovered any ana- 

rlogy in the human jaw to the structure of qiuidmiwds. Tlie 

• Df GeHerit /lum/tni Fiiriflaie nalita, p. 35. 


only ground for au<^h an opinion is the small transverse fissure 
in the palate behind the alvt'oli of tlie incisors, observable in the 
fetus stnd child> and sometimes tolerably distinct in the adult 
But there is this very obvious ;ind important distinction ; that 
no vestige of suture can ever be traced in the human subject 
between the alveoli, much less on the ii] operand anterior surface 
of the jaw : so that the similarity to the structure of the quad- 
ruped is very remote. 

That all mammalia, besides the human subject, possess this 
lH)ne is not so decidedly ascertained, as that man has it not. 
BLUMENUACHf found no trace of it in the crania of some simiie, 
although all the suturea werts perfect ; yet it is Been in the head 
of the orang-outang (S. satynis) figured by him, J as well as in 
that of Camper.§ On tliR contrary, in the head of a very 
anthropo-morphous simia in the museum of the College of Sur- 
geons, which seemB to me to be the i». satyruis, not a vestige of 
the sutures separiititi^ this hour: w to be seen, although the in- 
dividual must hiwi: been very yotipfr, as the pieces of the occi- 
pital bone are not yut consolidated. According to Tyson and 
l)At;DENTON ;L IS not found in the chimpanae. 

However the question may be decided, there can be no doubt 
that the crania of fill the quadrumana, as well as of all other 
mamcnidia, are distingul-ihed from the human skull by the com- 
parative size, great length, and projection of the jaws. 

The articulation of the head ivith the spine determines the 
mode of its support and e.ttent of motion, the direction of the 
mouth, jaws, eyes, and rest of the face ; it must therefore vary 
according to the construction and relative magnitude of its 
parts, as well as to the ordinary attitude of the body. ITie 
position and direction of the great occipital foramen affords a 

• Tlip flusiire in qiiostiuti U more distinrt in youtii; than in old su'jject.i, and 
it ix c.-illed h^- siutura iticisivn {Jii'tcftreiOung der A'noc/n^i). .Al- 
lliuugli uvFrluiikpil by several m>jdrm ogtco]o';i9t&, it ua» observi-il and ai'cu- 
i;d(cI>- tletcrilicd by tlir i»r«riit oniitmaisli* of the sixteenth centiiry, Vesollus, 
FaItopiu5. and ColumliU'i. It La alan inczvtioned by Itiulan {.'Inllin)/io<^rrtii/iia, 
p. 61Q). IJalen has PXjin^Jflly ciiiiintratM an intermaxillary liuni.' nnioii^ the 
rompoecnl jiart« of the huiuMi fare j and Veaalius rory justly infiTied from 
this, nnLunumiiiy cqunlly utrikinf; jiniofa, that the nnalomieal^di-scripliona uf 
thai author, which had hepii uiiiipraally rpceited with thp most implicit do- 
fprciife liJi that tiinH, hid nut kxm tlriHi frum the examiimlinn vi tlic humui 
■ubject. 'I 111* Htlrmpi to rescue miinkgnd from r-rror.iad prejudice drew upon 
him nuthinfi hulliared anil rciirtiachi-s from his eontfmtiuviries, whu were 
driven to thr most aliturti urgMiapnts in defence iif their tilul Galen. One of 
them sujjrsted an iutenndxillary bone, though not found now, might 
(i&^'c hrlon^vd to thi- human slnictvirt? in fumier timeaijac SyUil UepiMo 
CaliAimiiiirum retnni cujutdam in Gnli-num\ 

* tte Gen. hum. yar., m-ct, t, i U'>. 

jibhililuiijivr. II. A, Ueijeiuliinde, No. 58. I Etnrei, pi. 1, H^. 3, 


critenon of these differences.* The vertebral column being 
vertical in the human subject, affords a s{,ad support for the 
head, which is placed nearly in equilibriL on its upper end. 
Hence the great occipital hole and the articular condyles arc 
found almost in the centre of the basis cranii ; and if the vertical 
line of the trunk anJ neck were continued u[>ward3, it would 
pass through the top of the head. Conscf]uently the weight of 
the latter is sustained almost entirely by the vertebral column. 

Tlie head would be in a state of perfect equilibrium on the 
spine, in the erect attitude of our body, if the parts in front of 
the column exactly counterbalanced those behind it. lliis, how- 
ever, is not the casc.f 1'he articular condyles are tnanifestljr 
nearer to the occipital tuberosity than to the most prominent 
point of the jaws; and thus the greater share of the weight is 
in front of the joint. Place the occipital condyles on any point 
of support, and the head will incline forwardsi, unless it be lield 
in equilibrio by a force applied behind. The preponderance ia 
greater when the lower jaw is added, and it ia still further 
increased by the accession of the tongue, muscles, and other 
soft parts. 

The inchnation of the head fnrwariJs is counteracted in tho 
living body by the extensor muscles, and their constant exertion 
is necessary for maintaining the head in equilibrio on the verte- 
bi-nl column. Whenever their contraction is suddenly suspended, 
as in a person faUing asleep in the erect attitude with the head 

• I>iiiibenton mr la Diffrenrt rfu f rofu/ Trau ttreijiilal liant V Homme el datu 
Jw atitrei Animaiu; I'.imS. tin .Seimcm, I7H. 

+ I :>m unfurtunatv i-iiougli to differ with the author of the^ Phyaological 
Lecturet, in mattpra of fact as much as in matters of opinion. To the foUuwing 
assrrtion I can only opiJose thp tircumstance^ ttifntiouccl in the te.xt. " Tha 
conUyleii are |itucx>d to exactlif ixirtiiM lo the centre tfferarUy, that when wp sit 
upright, ."Uid go lo »U"cp in that piuturr, the weight of the hesd hus a tendency 
to yrepiutdiiral'; eiiualli/ in cwry direction, as wc sec in those who are dozin« in 
& carriage. Nay, their heads sometimes revolve in a circle, like the hcail of 
Iwrlequln on the stage." Led. 3. The sc-ond exi^rossiun inaiked in italics 
cannot tie titkeii literally; hceauie inequality \b euentiul In jtrf/mniieranea; 
■ndaa equml prepoadcranre in every direction, ifwc disregard thi? cnulradic- 
tion in terms, Js Just equivalent tu no prepunilpranrp ill all. if the author 
means In a5i<ert that the weight behind, exactly countfriialaiieM that In front 
Of the occipito-alloidal articulation, the easy trial orHu^iporiin;; a skull by tho 
condyles will (juickly show whether such a representation he cniTPct or not. 

An analo^ou;) representation oa-urs in thesiime leeture respeelin^t the dis- 
tribution of weight in tlif trunk f)f tlie body. " We know that in aVi upii^^ht 
posture the whole weight of the upper part of the body is so iierfecUy IwilancM 
on the base of the vertebral column, as to have an vquul prapensity tu prepoa- 
d^rate in every dirvclion." 

The wfight of the head, of the thoracic Miil abdominal viscera, and the or- 
dinary position of the iiiiper limbs, carry the centre ofsradty in front of tha 
■pine. The tendency of ine tninkto fall forwards Is oaunteracted by the i,n'eat 
extensor muscles of the luins anti back. The hip.joints are carried forwards, 
and the feet protunged in front of (he ankle, in order to seirure the body 
against lite conseqiieni-es tif this preponderance in the anterior direction, the 
naturid elTect of which is seen by our falling forvrariU when )iiu»(!ular action 
if lu'ldenly sus^iended in fainting. 

122 AirrtcufjATtoN . and 

unsupported, that part, abandoned to the force o£ granty; 
immediately nods forwards. 

The greatest number, and by far the most powerful rau9cles 
are placed at the back of the head, and pass between the posterbr 
surface of the vertebral rolumn and the occipit. I'he recti 
postici, oblitjui superiores, tracheloma«toidei, complexi, splenil 
capitis anci trapezii are balanced by few and inconsiderable mus- 
cles in front ; by the recti antici, recti laterales, and longi colli. 

Let a line l>e drawn according to the plane of the occipital 
foramen ; it v\'ill pass from the posterior edge along the surface 
of the condyles, and, if conlinited anteriorly, will come out just 
under the orbits. It forma, in short, almost a horizontal line, 
which intersects, nearly at right angles, the vertical line of the., 
body and neck, \vhen the head is held straight, without beit 
inclined Ijackwards or forwards. 

In this attitude, the face is in a vertical line, parallel to that 
of the body and neck; and consequently the jaws hardly extend 
in front beyond the forehead. They are very short in comparison 
with those of most animals : for the length of the lower ma.\illar5 
bone of man, measured from the chin to the posterior edge oj 
the condyle, is only lialf the lengtli of the whole head, as tolien 
from the chin to the occipui • and scarcely the ninth part of the 
height of the body from the anus to the vertex : and about the 
eighteenth part of the whole length of the body from the top of 
the head to the feet. 'ITiis latter point of comparison is, how- 
ever, scarcely applicable to the subject ; inasmacli as there is 
hardly any animal bnt man, which has the hind legs as long as 
the trunk, neck, and head taken together, and measured from 
the vertex to the jiubes. 

The hnrixontal plane of the foramen magntim, its nearly cen- 
tral position in the basis of the skull, the support of the head 
I by the spine, and the direction of the face forwardf, are admirably 
I suited to the erect attitude of man, and correspond to the absence 
kof the ligamentiim nuchaj. IF the human spine were placed 
llorizontally, how could the weight of the head be sustained ? 
there is no adequate muscular power to support and elevate the 
teavy mass; not to mention that it coidd not be carried suflS- 
ciently backwards on the spine, for the eyes to be directed for- 
wards; and that, if lowered, the jaws would not comejto the 
ground, as they do in animals, in consequence of their shortnessj^J 
but the forehead or vertex would touch it.* 

♦ The nh-jcncL" of Ihr re<e mirabilc, anil of all analugoni provision for mo- 
derating ttit.- in fl ax of UiG blood into the braiu , ■ccurds, with tli8 oth«r citcuii»- 


In most aniiualB, the (treat occipital foramen is placed at the 
bsck of the head ; the jaws are considerably elongated ; the oc- 
ciput forms no projection beyond thin opfninjf, the plane of 
which is vertical, or at least very slightly inclined. Hence, the 
head is connected to the neck by its back part, instead of being 
articulated, as in man, by the middle of its basis ; and, insttjad 
of being in erjuilibrium on a peqiendicnlar column placed under 
it, it hangs to the front of the neck, where its weight is sustained 
by the powerful cervical ligament.* This arrangement bestows 
on quadrupeds the power of using their jaws for seizing what ia 
before them; of elevating them to reach what maybe above the 
head, although the Jiody be placed horizontally ; and of touch- 
ing the ground with the mouth, by depressing the head and 
neck as low as the feet. In several animals there is some dis- 
tance between the foramen magnum and the posterior extremity 
of the occiput ; Init this interval is no where so considerable as 
in the human subject; and in proportion as it ia increased, does 
the direction of the occipital foramen approach more to the 
horizontal one. 

Animals of the monkey kind exhibit a closer resemblance of 
the human structure, in the position and direction of the occi- 
pital foramen, than any others. In the orang-outang it is twice 
as far from the jaws, as from the back of the head ;t and it is 
considerably inclined downwards, so that a line drawn in its 
level passes below the lower jaw, instead of going just under the 
orbit, as irnnan. 

The difference in the direction of the foramen may be esti- 
mated, by noting the angle formed by the union of a line drawn 
in the manner above-mentioned, according to the direction of 

Blanc** enumerated above, in ihowlng that nuti U entirely nnfit for the attt- 
tudp on nil fours. 

• Till- llKini<"ntiim nuo'ha! fir susncnaonvim colli, which U confounded in tho 
Phi/jiulogicftt I^clurei (p. 110), with the yellow lti;nnieiita eonnertiiig tlie [ilatoi 
of the spitinus proresses, U iiftlxed at one end o( the spinea of the cervical and 
dorsal vertebra', and at the other to tht middte uf iho occiput, betu-een the 
two fo^sip cerebelll. This Ifeick and jnowfrfid iJKami'nt atfords a sleady and 
constant support to the head of quadrupeds, which would hare otherwise 
needed an immense jnosa of musclri to sustain it. Such a structure U not re- 
quircdin man. where, if this lixnment can bpsild to exist at idl, it is onlyas a 
vr^ak and inKigniti-jant rudiment. 1 ilu aot know how the orang-outani and 
other monkeya arfcircunistnni'cil in this tespecL Camper, hovyci'er, states, 
that the spinous processes of the cervical vertebrjB arc Tery lonp in the orane- 
outan); {CBumt, i. p. 126). And the same cirt;iinistance is sttlfmore remark- 
able 'n the !<kelctun of the pongg of Batavia, whose enormous jaws and face 
must require tho support of asuspeiisor;' UintmeDt, probiiMy »ttai'h«d in bath 
aalmnls lo the eevvical spines. Audebert, Jliiit. Nat. Jei Singet; pi. aoat, 'i. 

i TheeflTect of ihisstrnrture in throwiiis the centre of )^vity forwards, and 
thus increasing the diirieulty of nmintainiiig the erect position, it parlioulatiy 
polDtiKt out by Mr, Abel ; Jotcmer) in C/tina, p. 3S2. 


the opening, with another line passing from the poatertor i 
of the foramen to the inferior margin of the orbit. This Qngis 
is of 30 in man, and of 37*' in the orang-ouiang ; 47" in the 
lemur. It is still greater in the dog ; and in the horse it is of 
90" or a right angle, the plane of the opening being completely 

Tiie distance of the foramen magnum from the front of the 
j»ws and the posterior surface of the occiput may be in man 
respectively, as J and §, or even more nearly equal : the former 
is twice as great as the latter in the orang-outang ; nhile, in 
almost all other mammalia, the aliening in at the very posterior 
aspect of ihe skull. 

The teeth of man are distinguished by being all of one length, 
and by the circumstance of their being arranged in an uniform 
unbroken series. The cuspidati are a little longer than the 
oihers at first ; but their sharp points are soon worn down to a 
level with the rest. In all animala the teeth of different classes 
dirter in size and length, often very considerably ; and they are 
separated by more or less wide intervals : this ia particularly the 
ca,sie with the teeth called canine, or cuspidati, which are long, 
prominent, and distinct from the neighbouring teeth ; their not 
projecting beyond the rest, nor being separated from them by 
any interval, is, therefore, a very characteristic circumstance in 
the human structure Even in the eimite, whose masticatory 
ajiparatus most nearly reseinblea that of man, the cuspidati are 
longer, often very considerably longer than the other teeth ; and 
there are intervals in the series of each jaw to receive the cuspi- 
dati of tlie other. 

The inferior incisorH are perpendicular ; the teeth, indeed, and 
the front of the jaw are ijlaced in the same vertical line. In 
animals, these teeth slant backwards, and the jaw slopes back- 
^^rarda directly from the alveoli ; so that the full prominent chin, 
Eo remarkable a feature in the face of our species, is found in no 
animal, not even in the orang-outang : it appears as if the part 
were cut off. 

The obtuse tubercles of the grinders are again very peculiar 
and characteristic : they are worthy of particular remark, be- 
cause, being the great instruments of dividing the food, they 
correspond to the kind of nourishment which the animal natu- 
rally takes. Their surface does not resemiile the flat crowns 
with rising ridges of intermixed enamel belonging to our com- 
mon herbivorous animals : nor are they like the cutting and 


tearing grinden of the carnivora. But ihey are well adapted to 
that mixed diet prepared by the arts oi cookery, which man has 
always resorted to, when he could get it, and when his natural 
inclinations have not been thwarted by the interference of reli- 
gious scruples or prohibitions, nor opposed by lus own whims 
and fancies. 

■ The lower jaw of man is distinguished by the prominence of 
the chin, a necessary consequence of the inferior incisors being 
perpendicular ; by its shortness,* and by the oblong convexity 
and obliquity of the condyles. 


J}iferenee$ IftiPten Man and ^m'maU in Stature, Proportions, and tome 
other Point*. 

Thb height of the whole body, and the proportion of its several 
parts, afford important points of comparison in examining the 
specific differences between man and the most anthropo- 
morphous simise. 

The difference of stature is remarkable : of the orang-outangs 
or chimpans^s hitherto brought into Europe, none has been 
more than three feet high ; and most have been several inches 
under that height. The individual brought to England by Mr. 
Abel, and now at Exeter Change, is thirty-one inches, f Of 
eight seen by Camper | none exceeded two feet and a half 
(Rhynland measure) : from observing the state of the teeth, and 
progress of ossification, and estimating, according to the human 
subject, the additions which the stature might be expected to 
receive, be thinks that their adult height may be set down at 
fourfeetof the same measure. F.Cuvier§ makes it considerably 
less. Yet they are spoken of, on the faith of travellers, as being 
five or six feet high, or even more : what is said of their erect 
gait, and many other particulars, is probably of equal accuracy. 

Tyson's chimpans^, measured twenty-six inches from the 
vertex to the heel. |1 

The great length of the upper limbs, the predominance of the 

* The length of the inferior maxilla is } of that of the trunk from the Tertex 
to the anus, in the simia satyrus ; it is |. in man. 

The elephant is equally remarkable with man for the shortness of the lover 
jaw, of whicl* a considerable portion projects in front of the teeth. This can- 
not properly be deemed a chin. The incisors and cuspidati do not exist in the 
lower jaw of this animal; the projection in question is the part, which in 
other cases is occupied by those teeth. 

-i- Journey in China; 322. t (Buerei; I. 51. 

} Annalet du Muteum; xri. 51. [I Anal, of a Pygmie, 13. 


forearm over the upper ana, the shortness of the lower limbs, 
and the great length of the hands and feet, are other striking 
chanictera of the monkey kind. 

The span of the extended arms in man equals the height of 
the body; it is nearly double that measure in the aitthropo- 
morphous monkeys. Our upper arm is longer than the fore- 
arm by two or three inches ; in the last-mentioned animals the 
fore-Qrra is the longest. In us the hip-joint divides the body 
equally j the lower extremity is leas than half the height of the 
body in monkeys. Ilie proportion of the hand and foot to the 
body is much greater in them than in us; the excess ariaing^ 
from increase in the length of the phalanges. ITiat all these 
circumstances are very suitable to the climbing habits of the 
monkey race, is too obvious to require particular elucidation. 

In the following table, I have arranged in parallel lines, the 
dimensions of some parts of a male skeleton, of the orang.outang 
measured by Campbs, of that described by Mr. AbbIi, md of 
Tyson's cMmpanst?. 


Simla Satrnis. 

Sim i a Tro- 





The whole body from the i 
vctU'x tu Uie hoel . S 

7j Uncertain, but ^ ^ 




tUan . S " ■ 

^tJpper fXtremUy 


. ni . 


. 17 

Ituwer , . . . 


. 16 . 


. 18 

HumcTua . . . , 


. 8J . 


. 5 

Fore-ana (ulna) 


. 9 . 

10 [ 

Uhm 5 
Radiui H 

Bafii . . . . 


. 7 . 

6 7-lOths . 6i 

.Thumb . . , , 


. U. 


• \* 

Middle finger . 


. S . 


. I 

ti'nnur . . . . 


. 7 

.Tibia . . . . 


. 7 



. 71 . 


- M 

Middle Ui« . . . . 


. 2}. 

. . H 

in a monkey of two feet two inches the humerus measured 
four and a quarter, the idna five inches. 

The upper extremities of the pongo* of Borneo reach to the 
ankles, when the animal is erect : its ulna, in the College 
Museum, is 15 J inches long; the whole height certainly not 
exceeding five feet. The man, whose gigantic skeleton 13 pre- 
served in the same place, was eight feet four inches ; the ulna, 
however, is only 13^ inches. 

llie upper limbs of the gibbon touch the ground when tha 

animal is erect. 

• .^udelKTt, Hisi. Hat det Singet ; Plnnct«> an&t. 2, flg, 8. The short de- 
scription III llii» animal, wlijcli, from the eiiurmou.H Kiio audiitri'iii;th uf lii» 
jaws, niu.4t Ih? rxlreiiielj; I'ormidalilo, civen by Wurmbiii tlii> svcuiid v«l. uf 
ihe Menwin nfihe Bniaviati Hociet^ in Ifuicfi, is trunslaled in the work of^^^- 
dcbert, pi>. 22, S3. It is the first aad only deti<:ription wc have uf the animal. 
Buffuii, who hud never seen lliia creature, nor anj I'art of it givea Ute uaate 
of puD|,'g to th« orang-outiuii;. ' 


Passing over some circomstaDces of less importance, ordinarily 
enumerated among the distinctive characters of man, as the 
lobules of the ear, the tumid li]]s, ])arlicularly the inferior, Sec. 
I have a few remarks to make on tlic smootbnesH of the liuman 
integuments. " Dantur," ^ays Linnkus,* "alicubi teirariim. 
simiEe minu^ quam homo pilosee;" but he doejj not tell us in 
what part of the world they are to be found. The unanimous 
reports of all travellers, as well as the specimens of such amraabi 
exhibited in Europe, prove incontestably, that the manlike simia?, 
whether the orang-outang of BuriieD, or chimpanse of Angola, 
as well as the long-armed monkey or gibbon, are widely different 
from the human subject in this respect. Although the indivi- 
duals brought into these countries have been under the adtilt 
age, and generally very sickly, their body boa been in all cases 
universally hairy. We have, indeed, some accounts of people, 
particularly in the islands of the South Sea, remarkable for their 
hairiness ; but they are not completely satisfactory. Spanguebg 
relates, that he found such a race in one of the southern Kiirile 
islands (lat. 43" 50") on his return from Japan to Kamtschatka:t 
and J. R. Foustkk observed individual anomalous instances in 
tlie islands of Tanna, MalUcoUo, and Now Caledonia. J It was 
reported to Mr. Mausden, when inquiring concerning the 
aborigines of Sumatra, that there are two species living in the 
woods, with fwculiar language ; uuo of these (called orang-gugu) 
was described as " diftering but bttle in the use of speech from 
the orang-outang of Borneo, their bodies being covered with 
long hair8."§ 

These accounts furnish no satisfactory proof that any race || 

• Fauna Sufcica; praif. + BtahtcJier Genhichle; T. JIl. p. 174. 

t " I obii?rred »ywniJ of theie pnoplu (the MallicullcsiL'), wliy were very 
hairy all over llie budy , not exce|ttiii|^ llie back ; and this circum..taii<ro I also 
ubgerved in Tonna and New Caieduain." Obtirrativm on a Fi^yage Tomd the 
If'orld, |>. 24^. That Ihtii hairiiiena i» ncithLT cuminoii tu all the iintivM of Uie 
isJaiid* eniimeTalecI, nor even very frequent or remarkable in actidental oastM, 
nmy he inferred from il-s not bein;; at all tiuticed by Couk, who however de- 
scribes minutely the persons of these iiiUatltirg. Foj/. tottarxli the SoulAPoie, 
V. li. pj). 34, 78. 118. 

i ttnlory uj Sumatra, cd. 3, p.<V, note. 

II The skin, like other parts, is subject to occasional TariPties of forniation. 
Thus patches of it are somftimes thickly conTftl v«ilh Imir, like that on the 
head. Such accidental varietien, exu^'gerated by credulity and fraud, have 
gi»en uccuion to repiirtii ul persiitis having hide's like umiurtl.s. liiiiTkju {Sup- 
filemrnt, v. 4, p, 571 ), VVunMli [Kosmulojiiiche Ij'fUirrliallungen, part 3), and La- 
valer {Phytiug. Fragm. part 4, p. G8,) havu given tij-urcs and deiseriijiion^ of 
A. M. Merri^, a wuinan uf Triers, said to have the »kin uf a deer, and shown 
in many partu of Europe. Soemmerriiig !mw Ihi^ person, and found the pe- 
culiarity to conHifituf numoriius and Jar^'u elevationii of the skin, covert",! by 
thick and strong hairs. They were of the nature of the mules often seen ua 
the faMt of very fair ix-rstnns, and generally givlii(( uti);in lu haire. Me could 
not discover a single aair rusembljni; Ibat uf u deer. £eicf4reibtmgttinigerMus- 
•ieburum, p. Si, 


of men exists with a nkin diiferen'tly organized or covered from 
what we are acquainted with. ITie smoothness and nakedness 
of the human integuments therefore form a sufficient diagnostic 
character of our species, as compared to the monkey, or any 
other nearly allied mammiferous animal ; and this circumstance, 
with the absence of all fur, spines, bristlea, scales, &c. and the 
want of those natural offensive weapons, fangs, talons, claws, 
&f:. justify us in denominating the human hotly as naturally 
unarmed and defenceless. The deficiency is amply made up hy 
the internal faculties, and the arts to which they give rise. 

While man ia remarkable for the smoothness of his akin on 
the whole, some parts are even more covered mth hair than in 
animals, as for example, the puhea and axilla, which the ancients 
consequently regarded as peculiar characters of man. 

In comparing man with the anthropo-morphous simia: it must 
he noticed further, that one species (satyrus) has no nail on the 
thumb of the hind-haiid ; and the other (troglodytesj, according 
to Tyson, has thirteen ribs. Doth of them have a sacrum 
comjjosefl of three pieces only, instead of five, as in the human 
Buhject. One at least (satynis) has one or two large membraneous 
pouches on the front of the neck, under the platysma lOyDides, 
communicEitin^ with the cavity of the larynx, between the os 
hyoides and thjToid cartilage, and capable of distention and 
evacuation at the wiU of the animal.* It has no ligamentum teres 
In the hip-joint. -f- It has a membraneous canal running along 
the spermatic cord from the abdomen to the tunica vaginalis, { 
as other monkeys and quadrupeds have ; but this does not exist 
in the chimpanse.§ The roof of the mouth is nearly black. 

I venture to assert that the differences only, which ha\'e been 
just enumerated, without any others, would be amply sufficient 
to establish the distinction of species : that no example can be 
adduced of animals deviating so far from the original model of 
their structure as to exhibit varieties like those just enumerated ; 
axid consequently that the differences in question can he accounted 
for only by referring the animals to species originally distinct. 

There are some points, in which man has been erroneously 
supposed to differ from animals. The approximation of the two 
eyes is not peculiar ; they are much nearer together in the simiae. 

CamjifT. JnPhilei. rroni. t, 69, p. 139. (Euvret; t 1. lie iL 
X. ii. fi)5 9nntl !0 To the paasngre of iJit- air iti expiration intti lhea« puUohM, 
lamperascribej! thf waul of jjower oC the (iraug-uutan^ to produce arttcuUt«u 
t Camper. (Eutrts, i. 153. » Ibid. 109, I Tyson, p. 8S. 


fflATDRK, PH0PORTION8, StC. 129 

Many other niammalia, particularly among the quadrumana» 
have cilia in both eyelids : this is the case in the elephant. 

Although the prominent nose is a striking character of the 
human face, particularly in comparison with the inonkeys, 
whose very name (simia, from simus) is derived from ihe flatness 
of this part, there is a 8])ecie.s considerably surpassing man in 
the length of this feature ; — the long-noaed monkey, S. roatrata, 
or nasalis.* 

The external ears are not incapable of motion in all men ; nor 
are they moveable in all other mammalia; in the ant-eaters, for 

Many quadrumana have an organ of touch, and an uvala, as 
well a^ man. 

Again, there are some partSj which man alone, or with a few 
other mammalia, does not possess. Most of these, which are 
found chiefly in the domesticated kinds, were formerly attri- 
buted to man, when human dissections, from ivant of oi)portuni- 
ties, were uncommon. 

The panniculus carnosus, or thin subcutaneous stratum of 
muscular fibres covering the ventral and lateral parts of the 
trunk immediately under the skin, described by Galen and his 
followers, and even by Vesalius, the great restorer of anatomy 
and exposer of Galen's errors, as a. part of the human tjody, 
does not exist in man, nor according to TvaoN, in the cbimpanae. 
It is found in the monkeys. 

The rete mirabile of the cerebral arteries, included l)y Galen 
among the parts of the human body, was shown by Vksaliub 
not to belong to the human structure. 

The seventh or suspensory muscle of the eyeball, which is 
found in the four-footed mammalia, is not seen in man, aa 
Fallopius observed; neither is the allantois or raembrana 

That man baa neither the ligamentum nuchas nor the inter< 

, jnaxillary bone, has been already explained. The foramen 

incisivura is comrann to the human species with quadrujieds ; it 

18 smaU and singk in the former ; double and of considerable 

size in the latter. 

There are a few other parts, not found in many animals, and 

• Buffun. Hitt. del Quadnipfilrt ; Supplm.. t. vii. lal). 11, 12. TTiB animal i* 
»lio fii,'iir<'d by Blumenhach, .'/MiVJuni«»,- No. 13: Bod by I'emiant, /iiVory 
[ j^QuaJraijeds', v. '2. p. 3;!.J, |il. I'M iitid tJ&, under the nimo of prubuscU man- 
key. Ttip iio-striLf of this jirulioscis dii not trrminale, iis iii. man, cluac lo the 
upper lip ; l>ul at the exirt'inUy of thH uniraini-nct? ; tnd the stnicLurc, in 
•Uwr respei:tii, diSun esswaUaliy from that uf th« liuDwa aoK. 


•ometimn erroneonsly ascribed to man ; such as the pancreu 
Asellii, hcpatico-cystic ductSj corpus Uighmori, &c. 


DiflerFtieef in lit Stmclure qf lome iHlcmal Orgmt, 

Tea Instniment of knowledge and reflection, the part by which 
we feel, perceive, judge, think, reason, the organ or organs 
connecting na with the external world, and executing the moral 
and intellectual department in our economy, claim our first 
attention. In s])ite of metaphj'sical subtlety, of all the chimeras 
and fancies ahout innniaterial agencies, ethereal fluids, and the 
like, and all the real or pretended alarms ao carefully connected 
with this subject, the truth, that the phenomena of mind are to 
be regarded physiologically merely as the functions of the 
organic apparatus contained in the head, is proved by such over- 
whelming evidence, that physiologists and zoologists have been 
led, almost in spite of themselves, to show their behef in it, by 
the great attention they have paid to tliis part. 

The ■vast superiority of man over all other animals in the 
faculties of the mind, which may be tndy considered as a 
generic distinction of the human subject — in my oinnion a more 
unequivocal and important one than many of those, in com- 
pliance with which, diversity of genua and species is established 
in the animal kingdom — led physiologists at a very early period 
to seek for some corresponding di&erence in the brains of man 
and animals. 

It has been as.serted from remote times that the brain of man 
is larger than that of any animal ; and I know no exception to 
this assertion of Aristotle and Pliny besides the elephant : 
unless the larger cetacea should be as well supplied with brain, 
in proportion to their size, as the smaller. Certainly all the 
larger animals, with which we are more commonly acquainted, 
have brains absolutely smaller, and con.qiderably so, than that of 
man. This, indeed, may be easily shown by a comparison of 
skulls 5 by contrasting the compressed, narrow, elongated crania 
of brutes, hidden behind their enormous jaws and face, with the 
length, breadth, and ample vault of the human " cerebri taber- 
naculam,"* whose capacious globular expanse sunnounls and 
covers the inconsiderable receptacles of the senses and all* 
mentary apparatus. 


later times the subject has been investigated in a dlferent 
way i — by comparing the proportion which the mass of the brnin 
bears to the whole l>ody. 'fhe result of this comparison in the 
more common and domestic animals wan deemed so satiiifartory, 
that, without prosecuting the inquiry further, a general propo- 
sition was laid down, that man has the largest brain in propor- 
tion to his body. More modern physiologists, however, in 
following up this comparative view in a greater number of ani- 
mals, have been considerably perplexed at discovering many 
exceptions to the general jusition. They found that several 
mammalia, as the dolphin, seals, some quadrumana, and some 
aals of the mouse kind, equal the human subject, and that 
lie small birds even exceed bim in this respect.* 
As these latter observations entirely overturned the conclusion, 
which had been before generally admitted, Soemmerrino has 
furnished ua with another point of comparison ; pie. that of the 

• 1 1 t-annot he • very talisfaf tory mode of proceeilinu to comp»rp the body, 
•f which the wcigllt varies so consiJi-rably according tt» illiieas, rmaciation, 
•r embonpuiDt, with thr brain, which is aflVclcd by none of these circum- 
' Manres, andsooms to reiiiaifi lonsUiitly ihe aatiic. Tnus la the cat, the weight 
of the brain, compared to that of ihp body, has hpeti stated aa 1 to 156. by one 
Btiatiimiit ; as I to «>9 by another ; that of (he dQji, ma I to SO), 1 to 47, ftc. The 
lollowiiig numbers, taken principally from llallor {Klmtmi. Phf$iol, lib, •%, 
•Ml. 1. ) and Covier {Le^tm* iV-Onal. corny. Lee. Ix. art. 5., will ahow that ttt 
the proportionate maia of hU brain, man ii aurpaued only by * few Hnall, 
ilenaer, and lean &niinaU. 

Child of 6 yeaia, » lb. SSJilr. ; or ^^. Hallcr. 

Adnlt.yr- Haller. From 21b. 3ioi. to3lb. 3|o(. Soemmerrtng. 

Ohlropoontf, of M inches in hefght, Moi. 7 dr. Tyion. 
A proportion equal la the huinan. 

01bboQ(8. Lar.). -^V- 
iapa^ouittt American monkeyswith prehensile taii». 
Saimiri (8, aciurea), j("f ; 8aS (B. capucina), t^; OnUUti (B. Jaochttt), rff 
Coaila(S. paniacua), ^. 
jfp».— Malbniuc <B. faunua), ;^ ; Callitiicbe <S. aabam) and PaUs (S.ra< 

tjra), ^'r ; (S. mona), -/j ; Mangnhcy (8. fuUiiigosa), Vj" 
JJaioMU.— Macaque (S. cynomol^s). -gV : Ma^t (S. aylTanui), -jifj. 

Gr>'at Baboon (8. aphynx), -rir 
Zjemurs. — Mucoco (L, calla), t^; Vari <L. macaco), ^^• 
Bttt(V. noctula), 1^: Mole, i^; Eeor, ff^; Hedgtbog. t^T' 
Fox, T^ ; Wolf. TTTi : Marlin. r^ : Ferret, -rir- 

Beaver, t^tt; Hare, ^i^; Rabbit, tIts T^; Water-rat, t4t; Bat. T^I 

Mouie, Vr : Field-mouse, iV' 
Wild Boar, ^ : Domeatic, irh — rfrl Elephant, a^g — 7 or lOlK 
6lag, tJtj ; Roebuck (young), ^ri ; Bheop, -jfj-ri t4if ! 0^. Ths< tJtI* 
C«W, j-Jtj ; Horse, j^t t4t7 ; Ass, ij^. 

Dolphin (dclphinoii delphis}, -jiy, i^f, jjiiji-j-iTr; Porpolio (D. pboc«na),'iV' 

SircU.—VM^W, t^tt: Falcon, t+j; Ooose, t^ (Ilaller); nuck, 7^; Cock. 

^; Blackbird, 1^ : Redbniant. ,^; Chaffinch, ^r : » Fringilla, carefully 

weighed and examined by Haller, iV; Sparrow, ■^x Canary-bird, iV 

Xephlet. — Turtle, -BT^ ; Tortoiae, -sAt ; Caluber-natrix, t4t; FrogiT^f* 

ilwAei.— Shark, jVw i Dog-flah, tt^ ; Pike, tVinr i Carp, -giv- 


ratia, which the mass of the brain bears to the hulk of the nervea 
arising from it. Let us divide tine brain into t\w) parts ; tkat 
which 19 immediately connected with the sensorial extremitiea of 
the nenTs, which receives their impressions, and is therefore 
devoted to those common wants and purposes, which may be 
considertid as the seat of the mental phenomena. 

In proportion, then, as any animal possesses a larger share of 
the latter and more noble part; that is, in proportion as the 
organ of reflection exceeds that of the external senses, may we 
expect to find the powers of the mind more diversified and more 
fully developed. In this point of view man is decidedly pre- 
eminent : although in his senses and common animal properties 
he holds only a middle rank, here he surpasses all other animals 
that have been hitherto investigated j he is the first of living 
beings. " All the siraise," says this accomplished anatomist, 
" for I have been fortunate enough to procure specimens of the 
four principal divisions, come after him ; for, although the pro* 
portion of their brain to the body, particularly in the small 
species with prehensile tails, is equal to that of man, their very 
large eyes, ears, tongue, and jaws, require a much larger mass 
of brain than the corresponding parts in the human suhject ; and 
if you remove this, the ratio of the brain to the body is much 

"Animals of various kinds seem to me to possess a larger or 
smaller quantity of this superabundant portion of brain accord- 
ing to the degree of their sagacity and docility. 'ITie largest 
brain of a horse, which I possess, weighs one pound seven 
ounces ; the smallest human brain that I have met with in an 
adult, two pounds five ounces and a quarter. But the nerves 
in the basis of the horse's brain are ten times larger than in the 
other instance, although it weighs less by fourteen ounces and 
a quarter. 

" But we arc not hastily to conclude that the human species 

have smaller ner^'es than any other animals. In order that my 

ideas may be better utiderstotjd, I shall state the following 

imaginaL-y case. Suppose the hall of the eye to require 600 

nervous fibrils in one instance, and in another, half the size, 

300; further, that the animal with COO fibrils possesses a 

brain of seven, and that with 300 a brain of only five drams. 

To the latter we ought to ascribe the larger brain, and 

• Elumonbach has figured tlie brain of the rlbbcd-nosp Imboon or muiilrill 
(papia inaimun; In the two first ediliims of his wurk, Ih Gen. Hum. far. not. 
lab. 1, fig. 1. The deTialioo frum lb« htmuui character la Ihe aiteof the iierra 
U ivrf itrikiag. 


a more ample capacity of registering the impressioiui made 
on the organ of vision. For, allowing one dram of en- 
cephalon to 100 fibrils, the brain, which is abaolutelf the least, 
will have an overplus of two drams, while the larger has only 
one. lliat the eye, which is supplied with a double quantity of 
fibrils, may be a more perfect organ of sense, will be readily 
admitted : but that point is not connected with the present 

Independently of weight and size, Soemmerring obsen'ed 
fifteen visible material anatomical differences between the brain 
of the common tailless ape and that of man.f 

It must be acknowledged that the inquiriea into the relative 
weight of the brain and the body, and the comparison between 
the former and the nervea connected with it, have not yet af- 
forded any precise and clear information respectinj^ the diffe- 
rences between man and animals, nor on the fjrounds of the infi- 
nitely various faculties that distinguish different animala. It 
can hardly be expected that these matters will receive any clear 
elucidation, while we continue go ignorant as at present of the 
functions executed by the different parts of the encephalon. 

The basis of the position go much insisted on by Soemmrr. 
RING is an assumption, that a certain bulk of nerve requires 
always the same proportion of brain for the execution of its 
office — a datum by no means self-evident. The comparison of 
the nerves to the brain in general ia not satisfactory j we should 
wish to know the relative proportions of the cerebrum, cerebel- 
lum, and medulla oblongata. The latter, indeed, ia an impor- 
tant point, as moat of the nerves are immediately connected with 
it, few with the cerebrum, and none with the cerebellum, pro- 
perly so called. 

The most striking character of the human brain, is the prodi- 
gious development of the cerebral hemispheres, to which no ani- 
mal, whatever ratio its whole encephalon may bear to its body, 
affords any parallel. X 

It is also the most perfect in the number and development of 

• Ueber die kSrperUche Fertchiedenheil det KegCTi: vom Suropatr ; p. 63—07. 
fice also the dissertation oi the 8ame zuthoi IJi/ Itati i^ncijMoJi ; and J. O, 
Bbel Ohi. neurol. ex .Anat. comporata, p. 17; Franco!, ttd Viadr. 1788; or in 
Xudwij; ScrifiioTci neurologiei. 

+ Oeber die k'lirp. yertr.k. p. 77, note. 

% On thii point 1 apprehend, from the following piusago, that the Wni^ls 
tgree writh what is stuti-d in the text: " Uomlni pru ratioor lungc plus masia 
cerebri inetsp, quam mamtnalibus, aive UJam nuiiJiMB cerebri partem, qunln 
lliterjon; ccrebru sius, j>cculiariter fomatas, aiv« individual parlt'Ji ambit, la 
' nomino pro ralioQc majun'm es3r, quaminmammiUtbm." O* penUiori Stntttt 
CtrtWiUuminii etBmUrum, p. 359. 


its parts ,- none being found in any animal, wUcb man has not ; 
wbile several of those found in maxi are either reduced in size, 
or deficient in various animals. Hence it has been said, that by 
taking away, diminishing, or changing proportions, you might 
fonn, from tlie human brain, that of any animal : while, on the 
contrary, there is none from which you could in like maoaer 
construct the brain of man. 

It approaches the most nearly to the spherical 6gure. That 
the nerves are the smallest in proportion to the brain, has been 
already pointed out : the brain diminishes and the nerves in- 
crease from man downwards. In the foetus and child ihe nerves 
are proportionally larger tlian in the adult. 

The aasertion that it haa the largest cerebrum in proportion 
to the cereljellum • does not seem to be quite correct. It has, 
however, the largest cerebrum in proportion to the medulla ob- 
longata and spinalis f, with the single and indeed singular 
exception of the dolphin. 

It has the deepest and most numerous convolutions, appa- 
rently in consequence of its size, as the purpose of this structure 
seems to be that of affording a more extensive surface for the 
application of the vascular membrane, the pia mater. The con- 
volutions become fewer and shallower as the brain diminishes in 
size ; tliere are none in the rodentia ; none in very small brains 

It has the greatest quantity of medullary substance in proiwr- 
tion to the cortical. In the fcetus the cortical is much more 
abundant than in the adult. 

SoEMMERBiNQ has showu that that curious structure, the 

• The followLng nombeti indicate the compuutivs -weighU of the cercbruai 
and cere bd I urn. 

WUd Boar . 1—7 
Cow . . . 1— a 
Sheep. . . 1—5 
Uorao. . . 1—7 

Cuvler, Lei;. d'Jnat. comp. U. ISI. 

The Wwniels, whose Bociinwy Kcmi to dvsirve the ^«ateAt coiiOilvuce, f»» 
present sumi! uf iht-sc propurtiuns diflcri-ntly. They hut't! fuuud the ctire- 
hrum, compured to the rtrobeUuin, to be, in man, as 6 fjg — 8t^ to 1; in the 
lione, 4i to I ; cow, ^|f *o 1 : "^"3. ^ih io 1 ; c«l, 4t^ to I i molf, 3} to 1; 
mousv, 6^ to 1. Ijib. ciS. lab. if. 

+ The breadth o( tlie ineduUa olilungata behind the poos VuoUi, eomiiared 
to the greatest bruadlh of the braiu, U, 

Man . 

. 1-9 

8. Mona . 


Bearer . 

. 1—3 


. l-U 

Uog . . 



. l-3i 

Sftl . . 

. 1— (i 

Cat. . , 

1— fi 

Mouse . 

■ l—^ 

Magot . 

. 1—7 

Mole . . 


Hare . 

. 1-4 


. 1-^7 

Id Min as 1 — ^ 

Simla sinica (Bonnet i , , 

Chiiioia) i "^ 

8. Cvcoinolgns . . 1— fl 
Dog . . . 0— llor»— 8 

I'ig . . 
Sheep . 
Hoe , . 


Cow . 

Calf . 
Uorse 1 

In CDC mti«r anlmil the breadch of the Ijrain is twice ila length : ■ propor • 

tlon of which there ii no other iDStoiioe in the uoimal kingdonu 


sandy or earthy matter of the pineal gland (acervuIuB pinealisj, 
belongs to the healthy natural state of the human brain, being 
found from the fourteenth year, and that it is almost con- 
fioed to roan *. He found it, however, once in the fallow-deer 
(cervus dama); and Malacarne f met with it in the goat 
Aq instance communicated by Caldaki, of an old man, in 
whose brain it was deficient, ia regarded by Blum en bach X 
oa a rare anomaly of 8tracture§. 

llie position of the heart in biped man differs from tlmt which 
it holds in quadrupeds. Its oblique direction to the left side, its 
flat surface rciiting un the diaphragm, aiid the firm attachment 
of its serous merahrane to the tendinous centre of that musick, 
present, in the former, a contrast to its straight situation in the 
middle of the chest, to its support ou the sternum, and to the 
want of attachment between the perkardium and muscle, which 
are even separated by a distinct interval in the latter ; a contrast 
easily explained by the difiereuces in the foim of the thorax, and 

• De Lapillu vtlpmpf rel intra GlamduUtm piniaUm n'tit; Mogunt. 1785. 

t De g. K. Far. no^ 11. 44, From tiiu very actiirntt rcscatrhcsot tlic Wenxeli, 
it appears tlint a deliclency of the acervulus in not so unfrpqucnl as. hail bo«B 
feiJiesented by Soeuiraertuig ; and tliey founij, on the other IiukJ, that the 
latter excrllcnt ojiatotiiist haa not bevn corrt'i't in tixlng the fourteenth yenir a* 
(be tlate of its earlicut Bp(i«araiice ; they have laec nith it from the age of 
•even. They inenliun six instances, in whii-h the wcrvuluii did not exist. Dft 
penitiori Siruiiura L'erebri Hoiainii et iJrutoruni, TiiblngB}, ToL ItslV, p. ^16. 

I The human encephaloii iiiider^fH'i coiiatdejalble i hnngea after Ijirih, in its 
entire mass, in thenroportlons uf ft.i parts, and in llip tpxture ondconaistrDoy 
of its svibstance. The gradual evotutiun o( the mental (uculttes currevpunds to 
these alteratiuus; which, indeed, accoril with the (low Uevelupinent of the 
luunan tnvae in other respects. The Weuiete hare afforded aevuiaie infur- 
natiun ou some pouits. In an embrjo of Arc niuntlui they found h bruin of 
780 gnlai ; cetebrota of CSS ; ceTcbplIum of 37, which Is a ratio of the former 
to tbe Utter M 18^ to 1 : at eight months the uumbers were -1960. 4t>l0, 394. 
or, u l^A to 1 ! at the time uf birth, as 615C, t;7U0, 45V. or l£f to 1 : at thte« 
years, 15,2«», 13,3S0. 1860, oi7B'Srto I: at five years, 20,250, 17,760, 2490. or 
7-^ to 1. From fifteen to eighly-eiglit the highest numbers occurred in a 
youth of the former age ; tliey were ^4,420, 31.7J0. 2700, or 8t4t to 1. Tab. 3. 

Soemmerriug observes, in tneexplaaulion uf his beautiful /aMia bium» ence- 
fkaU, p. 13, tbut the human brain ha:> reached it» full development at three 
jears of aj^e : the Wcnzel.i affirm that tliia \x not the case till seren, when, they 
otwerve, "cerebrum huiniiils t-l iiuood tuttitn et quoad singular partes absu- 
Itttan ease videtur. " I*. 247. If ttie (H-rfect state of the brain be roti»iilere(l 
to include the proportionate develoumeDt of parts, the entire size and weight, 
the consistence and cohesion of thu lusss, and tile state of vascuUr supply 
tdiaracterizing the adult, we must fix as its era a much later period tliau tlie 
seventh year. 1 apiirehend that the brain of animals will be found nearljr 
perfect In its or;;Bnualion at the time of birth ; and. consequently, that avum- 
|>ari£on of man and animals in this point of view will disclou! a remarkable 
point of dutinctlon between them. The medullary strie of the fourth ventricle 
are not seen at birth : thoir app.-aranci^ in the (irat year, and that of the acer- 
Vtdua in the seventh, arc n'vrarded by the Weuiels as great peculiarities of the 
tnimaa brain, since that of the maniin alia exhibits no suchdevelupment uf new 
parts after birth. Cap. 27. This seems to me a confined and iiiaUc<juata Tiew 
of k poiut, which, in its full extent, is uf great importaoce. 



in the respective attitudes in the two cases. The oran^ (S. 
Batyni3, troglodytes, and gibbon) liavc it placed as in man, and 
the pericardium attached to the diaphragm. In other Bimise the 
apex onl)' is a little inclined to the left, and touches the muscle. 

The curvature of the sacrum and os coccygis gives rise to the 
peculiar situation and direction of the sexual organs, and par- 
ticularly of the vagina of the human female. As these bones 
are extended in the same straight line with the spine in all other 
mammalia, the canal of the vagina follows the axis of the pelvis, 
lies nearly parallel to the spine, and has its external orifice 
directed downwards or backwards : the orifice of the urethra 
opens into the vagina itself. These arrangements fully explain 
to us why brutes discharge the urine behind, why they copu- 
late backwards, and why parturition is so easy %vitli them. 

In these points of structure, the monkey kind agree with the 
mammalia in general, and difler from man. The axis of the 
vagina is directed downwards in them ; the urine is discharged 
within it (such, at least, Blumenbach* found to be the case 
in the papio maimon and the Himia cjiiomolgus), and they are, 
consequently, retromingent and retro-copulant. 

Mr. Hu.NTER, who had had opjjortunities of observing the 
process, informs us that " monkeys always copulate backwards . 
this is performed sometimes when the female is standing on all 
fours ; and at other times the male brings her between his 
thighs when he is sitting, holding her with Ms fore-paws. "-t" 

Dr. FjtoniEP, of Weimar, late physician to the King of 
Wurteraberg, informed me that he had often seen monkeys 
copulate in the extensive menagene of that monarch ; and that 
they performed the process backwards ; the male supporting 
bimself by the feet on the calves of the female, so that he did 
not touch the ground. 

The incurvation of the sacrum and coccyx turns the human 

* Pe g. h. var. nal. sect. i. \ 7. 
tlhe raclna in the 
animoTwer*^ " comtne ri' 
them. CEuvret, i. 10?. 

Atcordina to Cuvit-r tJin female urethra always upons at the oxtornal orifice 
of the vaaioa, and therefure hulds the same situation in rcsppot to this caual, ia 
all animali, The canal exterior to Hi ia termination ol' the urethra he rails ru/ixi. 
It is a Dimple vnlrauec of little tli-pth in ihp human subject; rather larger in the 
baboons, equal in length to the vaj^na itself iu some oilier moukev!*, aj the 
Bapajon*, or even superior, as in the bear. Ler^. d'Anal. coinu. v, lid. 

Ob account of the ureat depth of the aj mphjgis pubis in tlie orang-outang 
(two iiietieii iii aii animal of little mure than two feet, which is equal to tti 
greatest depth in the tallest woman), Ike urethra uf the oranjj-outang ia evea 
laager Iban that of the human female. C&mper, ut supra, p. 107. 

t .dttimai Jiamomi/, p. 13C, 

The urethra doc* not, however, open within 

Camper mentionj that the nymplis of this 

animaTwere " comme rtSuaies ensemble," and that the urethra opened below 


TBgina forwards, bo that it« axis cuta tbat of the pelvis nearly at 
right angles, and its anterior opening is turned forwards ; tbe 
urethra oj)ens on its upper and front edge, not at all within the 
canal. Hence the human female ditfers from all other mam- 
maha * in not being retromingent and retro-copnlant j hence,, 
too, although many inconveniences to which she would liave 
been otherwise exposed, particularly during pregnancy, are 
obriated, parturition is rendered much nrore difficult, and a 
physical reason is found for lliat doom under which she labours,, 
of bringing forth children in sorrow and in pain. 

Although it cannot be deemed an internal organ, this seems 
the fittest place for mentioning the hymen, an interesting part 
of the female structure in many respects, and therefore more 
noticed and invefitigated than so small a fold of skin would 
have seemed to deserve. ITie general opinion of its non- 
existence in the other mammalia besides man, and the circum- 
stance of its being found m women only at a particular period 
of hfe, and even then not universaUy, have led many anatomists 
to deny its existence altogether. The question, however, can be 
so easily settled by direct evidence, that we are surprised to find 
BuPFON still contesting the point, lliough the opinion of this 
great naturaliat is incorrect in pobt of fact, we cannot but 
admire the eloquence with which be inveighs against the dis- 
graceful opinions and practices which have prevailed on this 

It has been generally asserted that this little part is found 

• Probably ll»e cetneea. rosy form an pxcpption ta thii sUtemcn*. Our attf n- 
tiQTi, how^Yvr, iJi hjiTillv cxlendrd to them in this compaiiiwii of man KtiiT 
animals. According to Ine representations of StcUer, Hie niaiuli and the ursine 
■eal (sea-cow and »ca-brar) copulate' in the humaa method. jNov. C'omm, 
-icad. .St-i'en/. l'eir<>p. v. ii. pp. 3j5 nnil 351. 

t "Les hommir<], jolouxdt'^ piiraautfa en toutoenre, ont toujoura fait graTid 
cas de tout ce qu'Ua ont cru pouvoir jjossf der cxclusiTt^menl ct Ips prcmitTs: 
e'Mt cette cspftce de folLe, qui i fait uti 5tre r^el de la virginitf di-s (llk>s. La 
Tirginit£, qui eat un 4tre moral, une ^ertu qui nu consiate quo dans la piiretfi 
du cwur, c«t devenu un obj^t phj^siquc dont toua les liuminL-ii bi' sunt oci'up^i; 
Qs ont f tabli surcelades Opinions, Av» usagi?^, dee cfr^^moojes, des superatiUona, 
ei miniL- des jugpmens, ct dos penifs; les abug les ^iIub. lllicit^i, Ics coatumes 
lea plus dcsliuniietes ont £t<^.1 auturis^ea ; on a sgumij It rcxamen de» malronrs 
ignorantfsi, ct expoaf aux yeiix de mfldecins prcrenui Ics partie* lea pltu 
aecrt^ti's de la nature, aani sunger qu'iine p[ireille indfccncc est un atK'ntat 
eontrc la i ir-^'inltS ; quo c'ftit la violerquu de ehefcherlB tcponnoUre ; ijuetonttr 
situation liontcuso, toutflut inil^ccnt, dunt une llllu eatDbligJu ucri>iii;i!r intj- 
rlcnrement, i>st unc vraie d^floTation. ie n'espirc paa.r£ussir ^ d^trulre Ics 
pr^jiig^s ridicules qu'on a'cst (orniia sur Cc Bujet; les chones. qui funt plaisir 
a cruire, serant (uujours cni^g, qiiclqucx vafnei, ct ijtielqucf d^raisonoablcK 
qu'elles puisscnt iitTe; crpi*nLlant, i:uTnjne dans une hiaCcirc an rappurtc non 
Mulfmciit la suile des pvdnemens, et lea drconstancca des Taiti, mais auast 
I'ori^ine de« opiiilonii et des crreurs rloininantea, j'ai cru quednnsl'liistoircde' 
I'homnie, jo ne puurruiM me dispprner de parlet <le I "idole favorite k kqitf'Ile il 
Mcrifie, d'exorainer qui-lles peuvcnt iire les raisoua Jc son cultc, etde rccher- 
ebet si la virsinitfi eat un ctr« ri>el, uu al cc n'vst qu'uoe divinity labulcuM.'' 


only in the buinan subject. In the female orang-outang Cam- 
per* says that the hymen was not apparent, although tha 
individual was very young. Blumenbach f informs ua that 
he could neither find any trace of thiH part, nor those 8up])oaed 
remains of it colled caruncula; myrti-formes, in monkeys or 
baboons ; and that his search was equally fruitless in a female 
elephant, in which it had been reported that a hymen existed. 
CuviEH,^ on the contrary, represents that several mammalia 
have a distinct membranous fold at the entrance of the vagina, 
and others a decided contraction in the same situation. 

It is not 60 easy to explain the use or purpose of this mem- 
brane, as to establish the fact of its existence. This httle fold 
lus indeed compl«-tely puzzled the physico-theologists, who have 
Bfl yet astsigned no rational explanation of it. ITie moral ptur- 
poses alluded to by Haller § arc quite unintelligible in our 
own species ; and arc still more inapplicable to the case of brutes. 

'Hie clitoris and the nymphae have been supposed pecubar to 
the human female, as well as the hymen i the latter, indeed, are 
generally absent in the mammalia, but Blumenbach \\ iuiorms 
UB ttiat a lemur, wliich he kept alive for many years, had them 
very closely resembling the human. I'he clitoris seems to bo 
universally found in the mammalia; it is very large in the 
monkey k'md, and in the carnivura; and Blumenbach ^ saw 
it of the size of a fist in a balsena boops stranded on the coast of 

• CEufrtt, 1. lOS. T De g. *. tar. not. Lect i. \ 8. 

i Uv alaU-a. oa the authority of St«lla, that tlii; iiunheni majiati hoaaitroiw 
■emlluiiBj' told at the ortfice of the vagina, coDtractiog the entraiice of tut 
Oana.1 ; that the marc and aaa havi- a simliur structure; and tliat in the oui»Ut£,J 
(Simla jacchus) the marikuju (ii. ri>suiiai, and Itie cuuItA {S. paniscus;, thei%] 
arc two latt'ra] simUuiiar Tuldj), ieaviiic butwten tht^m a perpendicular silt. Is 
the ottt-r, dug, cul, and rumiiiunt!!, he found a cunatricti ddiclc, In tlie brown ' 
bear tliere was a thick ll()-likc fuld uf the internal mombrane, rediiriiig th* 
entrance of tile vagina lu a 6xrapl« tTAiiaverai' slit ; and the h^ena txhibitud ta, 
luuiloKous structuia. A young hyrui; liad a very disUuct circular hymeiu 
Jj.1;. aVmi^. coiui>, T. v. {i. HI, 133, 

1 " Vix tamen itubilcs, cum solu in hominc tit rcpertua, etlam ad morales 

et piira vir^o di*cus buuui pu&sic tuuri, ^t ipno maritusde castitatcjtpuniiD (^cil« f 
«onviDcalur, eo facUius, quod pra'tftea in Liibatjx virg^iuc vajpna angusta ait« 
Xtsi culm posiit fieri ut parvus, ut laxu9 eit liyinen, atquf prima vcnus Ail— 
^uando absque BanKuInc' absulvatur, ncque hymi.-ii runipatur: ctsi urtittciA . 
[^rru in parum puuica fcmin^L sunijuis pusaitt'liui; rUii tenere virgiiiM alt* 1 
(auaudu etiam In altera coilu Eaaciiincm rcdduni, et menaea BuuntL-s vagiiuu^ 
(llUtaak ; tameu in univer»um ilebt*t prima vcnux crueuta esse, eoquo alxWft 1 
yudor viriiineus adseri, cuiu vix pa»ttil pli'iia venus ubtineri, quiu supeHo^ j 
Uargo parLia majuris hymt^nis laeetrtur. Quart- et Musuoie leges, et multOa 
rum pupuloruni cunsiietudu, hue siijuuin scrv.ita c&gtitatis et requiruat ti-l 
(Mlectajit, et de exemptu) iu virginibus etiam pene trigeuarils certussum, qav 
iiuj^em in prima Ytuien: Mmguiius jaclunua luntpaasou" "'—- "^yifffli 
lib.^, sect 2, ) £7, 
I Zib. eit. p. SI. n Ibtd. 


Ptntliarilie* in He vumal Eemomg qf the human SptciM; gtnerut Battatim 
onrlkt Olobe: Man naturaUy omnivorous ; bii Umg It^fwcy and thm iJevf. 
kigmem :—h*nf0 Mtied lo tite SoeM State. 

In the diversity of the regions, which he is capable of inhabiting^ 
the lord of the creation holds the first place among animala. 
His frame and nature are stronger and more flexible than thoas 
of any other creature ; hence he can dwell in all situations oa 
the surface of the globe. The neighbourhood of the pole, and 
the equator, high mountains and deep valleys, arc occupied by 
him : hia strong but pliant body bears coid, heat, moisture, light 
or heavy air j lie can thrive any where, ant! runs into less re- 
markable varieties than any other animals, which occupy so great 
a diversity of abodes : — a prerogative so singular, that it must 
not be overlooked. 

The situationa occupied by our species in the present times 
extend as far as the known surface of the earth. The Green- 
lander and Esquimaux have reached between 70'> and 00* of 
N. L. and Danish settlements have been formed in Greenland in 
the same high latitude. Three Russians lived between six and 
Kven years on Spitzbergen between rz^* and 78<J N. L.* The 
Neinro lives under the equator, and all America is inhabited even 
to Terra del Fuego. nms we find that man can exist and pro- 
pagate his species in the hottest and coldest countries of the earth. 

The greatest natural cold ascertained by thermomctrical mear 
Burement was that experienced by the elder Gmklin in 1735, 
at Jeniseik : the mercury froze in the ihermometer.f The 
sparrows and jays were all killed. When Pallas was at Kras- 
Doiarsk, the quicksilver also froze in the ball of the thermo- 
meter ; and a large mass of pure mercury frose in the open air. J 
Our own counirymen experienced apparently as severe a degree 
of cold on the Churchill River in Hudson's Bay. Brandy wag 
frozen in the rooms where they had fires. § Yet the Cauadiaa 
savages and the Esquimaux go to the chase in this temperature ; 
uid the inhabitants of the countries visited by Gmblin and 
pALLAa cannot remain in their bouses all the winter. Even 
Europeans accustomed to warmer climates, can undergo such 
cold aa I have just mentioned, with impunity, if they take 

* Dt, Aikln on (A« Atiempii to winter in higi Northern Latitude ti MoMMakr 
Botuty'i Mmmoirt; r. 1, i>. 96. 

t t'lora Sibirica ; Vxli. 
I Pkitot. Trtmt. No. 463. 

i TrattU in Suttia ; pi. 8, 


exercise enoagh. The Danes have lived ia Greenland in 72* 
N. L. ; and the Dutch, under Heemskerk, wintered at Nova 
Zembla in 76" N. L. Some of them perished ; but those, who 
moved enough, and were in good health at first, withstood the 
dreadful coid, which the polar bear (uraus maritimua), apparently 
born for these climes, seems to have heeu incapable of support- ' 
ing : for their journal Btates, that, ay euon as the sun sinks be< 
low the horizon, the cold ia ao intense that the bears are no 
longer seen, and the white fox (isatis, canis lagopus] alone braves 
the weather.* We have another example, in which three men 
remained between six and seven years in 78o N. L.f 

The power of the Jiuman body to withstand severe cold will 
appear in a more remarltable light when we observe what heat 
it is capable of bearing. Boebhaave asserted, that a tempe- 
rature of from 96" to 100° would be fatal to man. The meaaj 
temperature of Sierra Leone is 34" Fahr. : Messrs. Watt and 
WiNTERBOTToM saw the thermometer frequently at tOO", and 
even 102° and 103" (in the shade), at some distance from the 
coast.J Adansox saw it at 10Si">in the shade at Senegal in 
17° N. L. : § and Boffos cites an instance of its being seen at 
1174". Tlie country to the west of the great desert may be still 
hotter than Senegal, from the effect of the winds which have 
swept over the whole tract of its burning sands. When the 
sirocco blows in Sicily, the thermometer rises to 112'*, according 
to Brvdone. Dr. Chalmers observed a heat of II50 in 
South Carolina in the shade: || and Humboldt, of 110" to 115<» 
in the Llanos or deserts near the Orinoco in South America.lT 

Thus man can support all possible degrees of atmospherical 
heat and cold : be has an equal power of supporting varieties of 
pressure. The ordinary pressure of the air, at the level of tho 
sea, may be reckoned at 3-2,3-25lbs, for the whole surface of the 
body, supposing the barometer at 30 inches. If we ascend to a 
height of 12,000 feet, of which elevation extensive tracts, inha- 
bited by thousands, are found in South America, the barometer 
stands at 20| inches, and the pressure is 21,750 lbs. Conoa- 

• Voy. de la Camp, dei Indet ,- pi. 1 . A short urcourt of th<> voyage Is giren 
by Mr." Barrow in his Chnmological Uittorif ijf foifa^et into Ihc Ariiic Regioru; 
chap. ii. The polar bears <lisa]ipt>ared, anil tho whitt? foxes were seen in great 
numbers, as soon as the auu set : when it ros« ngaXa, the faxes went away, 
•nd the beau returtipd. 

♦ Dr. Alkin, as abov* quoted, 
t Wintprb<i<tom'a Recount of the natirt Afriearu ; v, 1, p. 32, 33. 

i On ikt fVeat/icr and Diteatet of South Carolina, 
II Tableau jihynque del Segioni Hquatorialet. 

MINE and BouGiTER. with their attendanta, lived three weeks 
at a height of 2434 toiaes, or U,60-l French feet, where the ba. 
rometer stood at 15 in. 9 hnes, and the preaaure must conae- 
quently have been 16,920 lbs.* In the Peruvian territory, ex- 
tensive plains occiir possessing an altitude of 9000 feet ; and 
three-fifths of the vice-royalty of Mexico, comprehending the 
interior pro^nnces, present a surface of half a raillioii of square 
miles, which runs nearly level at an elevation between SOOO and 
8000 feet. Mexico is 7475, and Quito 9350 feet above the lovei 
of the sea. The hamlet of Antisana, 1 3,500 feet above that level, 
is the highest inhabited spot on the surface of our gJobe ; but 
Humboldt aacended Chimborafo to 19,300 feet.f There are 
□o instances of men living under a pressure much greater than 
what has been mentioned : the depths to which the earth has 
been penetrated, in the operations of raining are trifling in this 
point of view. In diving, however, the body is subject to, and 
can bear, several atmospheres i as, on the contrary, in balloons, 
men have ascended beyond any point of elevaliun on the sur- 
face of the earth,! and have consequently been exposed to a 
much more considerable diminution of the ordinary pressure 
than what I have stated above. 

As the physical capabilities of his frame enable man to occupy 
every variety of climate, soil, and i<ituatioD, it follows of necessity, 
that he must be omnivorous, that is, capable of deriving suffi" 
dent nourishment and support from all kinds of food. The 
power of living in various situations would be rendered nugatory 
by restriction to one kind of diet. 

If it was the design of nature, that the dreary wastes of Lap- 
land, the naked and barren shores of the Icy Sea, the ice-bound 
coasts of Greenland and Labrador, and the fri({htful deserts of 
Terra del Fuego, should be not left entirely uninhabited, it is 
impossible to suppose that either a vegetable or even a mixed 
diet is necessary to human subsistence. How could roots, fruits, 
or other vegetable productions be procured, where the bosom of 
the earth is dosed the greater part of the year, and its surface 
either covered with many feet of snow, or rendered impenetrable 
by frost of equal depth ? Experience shows us that the constant 

, • M/m. de VAcati. de$ Sa'enri's, anree 1744; p. 2S2. 253. 

' ♦ Tnhleau Mj". d" Region* Hqiialonaleii , diin Tableawx de la JVature. 

\ The height ur23,040 fct-t above the level of the sea, rcachpcj by Mr. Gay 
LuMac in his sccuDtl aj-e-ciil, nllhoiiyh coniiidcrably higher Ihaa (he HiilBmft 
of Chirabaraco, may howevpr lie iurpassed hy aume ueaka of the Himmaleh 
oiouiitAioH ; If ibc recent auppoftltioii* concenUsg their allitudc should b* 
bcre&fter verified. 



tMe of animal food alone is aa natural and wholesome to the 
Esquimaux, tlie Samoiedcs, the inhabitants of Terra del Fuego^ 
&c &c. as the most careful admixture of vegetable and animal 
matters is to us. We even find that the Russians, who winter 
on Nova Zembla, are obliged to imitate the Samoiedes, by drink- 
ing fresh rein-deer blood, and eating raw flesh, in order to pre- 
serve their health. In the memoir already quoted. Dr. Aikik 
informs us, that these practices were found most conducive to 
health in those high northern latitudes. Hence, we shall be less 
surprised at finding men in certain situations li\'ing and enjoying 
health on what seem to us the most filthy and disgusting objects. 
The Greenlander and the inhabitant of the Archipelago between 
noTth-eastem Asia and north-western America, eat the whale, 
often without waiting for cookery. The former bury a seal, when 
they catch one, under the grass in summer, and the snow in 
winter, and eat the half-frozen, half-putrid flesh with as keen a 
relish as the European finds in his greatest dainties. They drink 
the blood of the seal while warm, and eat dried herrings moistened 
with whale oil.* 

In the torrid zone, on the contrary, circumstances arc very 
cnfavourable to raising and supporting those flocks and herds 
of domesticated animals, which would be necessary to supply 
the numerous population with animal food. The number, fierce- 
ness, and strength of beasts of prey, the periodical alternations 
of rains and inundations, with the long continued operation of a 
vertical sun, whose direct rays dry up all succulent vegetables 
and all fluids, are the principal and insurmountable obstacles. 
The deficient supply of flesh is most abundantly compensated 
by numerous and valuable vegetable presents ; by the cocoa-nut, 
the plantain, the banana, the sago-tree ; by the potatoe, yam, 
cassava, and other roots; by maize, rice, and millet; and by an 
infinite diversity of cooling and refreshing fruits. By these 
precious gifts, nature has pointed out to the natives of hot 
climates the most suitable kind of nourishment: here, accord- 
ingly, a vegetable diet is found most gratefid and salubrious, and 
animal food much less wholesome. 

In the temperate regions of the globe, all kinds of animal food 
can be easily procured, and nearly all descriptions of grain, roots, 
fruit, and other vegetable matters ; and, when taken in mudera* 
tion, all afford wholesome nourishment. Here, therefore, man 
sppters in his ommrorous character. As we pass from these 
* Cram, Geicfi, von GrinUmd. 


middle climes towards ihe poles, animal niattera are more and 
more exclusively taken j towards the equator, cooling fruits and 
other produce of the earth constitute a greater share of human 

The diversity of substances composing the catalogue of human 
aliments,* offers a strong contrast to the simple diet of most 
other animals, which, in their wild state, are confined to one 
kind of food, either animal or vegetable, and arc often restricted 
to some very small part of either kingdom. Hence, it has been 
concei%'ed, that man also ought to confine himself to one sort, 
that he prohably did go in Ms natural state, and that the present 
variety in his bill of fare is the consequence of degeneration or 
departure from nature. The question of the natural food of 
man, has, therefore, been much agitated. 

The nature of an animal is only to be learned by an observa- 
tion of structure, actions, and habits. From the powerful fanga 
and jaws, the tremendous talons, the courage, and the vast mus- 
cular strength of the lion, and his constant practice of attacking 
living prey, we pronounce his nature to be ferocious, predatory, 
and carnivorous. From evidence of the same sort, we determine 
the nature of the hare to be mild, timid, and herbivorous. In a 
similar way we conclude man to be naturally omnivorous ; find- 
ing that he has instruments capable of procuring, masticating, 
and digesting ail descriptions of food, and that he can subsist in 
health and strength on flesh or vegetables only, or on a mixture 
of both. 

* To this long lilt whicl], alfMidy eompreheBdin; most ef the BulntKnGeiin 
the two ori^nie klnr>(lams of nature, lo {My justiflps u» In dcnornlnatingmui 
an omnivorous JiniinnI, w ■; Hjivu to ailil, on the niithority of rrrrnt tri«li in 
GcTiniiny, the wood orvaricma trpps. The ligneous ilbfesof the bpfch, hlrch, 
lime, poplar, elms, tir, and prubuldy oChcrs, when dried, gronnd, and airted. 
so Bs 10 lumi an impalpable puwdrr like" coa.rie flour, are not only caanlile of 
affording wholesome Dourithmr-nt tu man or animBis, but eren, vritti loma 
admixtures, and some culinary skill, ronstitutcFcrj palatable articles of fooit. 
If cold watPT bi! poured on siim<< wnad lluur, inclosi^d in a One linen fang, it 
becomes milky, an;IcoTieiiierAbli> presiiitij^ or kitt^uding isreqiiire^d tu wabh out 
from Ihe flour alt the starch-like matiei' it canlHius, Like .ttarrh, this mattrr 
llowiy !!ubsiiles in cold wator; and it forms, wht-n boiipd with wnior, a thick 
tenacious paste. whiL-h will (irmly ag^glutinate the leaves nf paste- buard. 

The followinf; publications have ajippared on thp suhiee I, eti. Oberlechner, 
Jn fabrirandi l-nimgrttum r«rm/t; SiilihurK, IS05. trie kann man rich bev 
BTounr Thfiuerung uud liunuentwlh ulifif tiftrcitl gesundei Brxni rfrtrhoffmf 
Salibiire. IBlli. Autenhcth, Griindiiche Anirilung sur Brod-subereHitng, am 
Hol*i Stuttcard, 1817. 

The ImX work, hy Prores.<!or Autenrieth of Tubinffen, is analysed in the 
Salehurg nwiiieiniicfi-chiruTguclie Zntung, ISH. v. 3, No. 5S. 

The bark of trees has bpttn lung orca.«iiiiiiiUy us<m1 as a substitute, In tlmM 
of scarcity, for other food. Professor You Bucli has desfTihed the prepara- 
tion S'ld eflVelj) of the Norwcman Harke BrOd, which seems however a very 
imperfect and unwholoonte kiud of nutriment.— TVovf^ ihnmgh Harumy and 
Inland; p. tj7. 


It la alleged in reply, that man in society is artificial and 
degenerate ; and the object of inquiry is stated to be, what does 
he feed on before civilization, in his original, unsophisticated 
condition ? Generally on animal food, the produce of the chase 
or the fishery ; because vegetable food cannot be obtained in 
euflicient certainty and abundance, until eometViing like settled 
habits of life have begun, until the arts, at least that of agricul- 
ture, have commenced. If the nidest barbariBm be the most 
natural state of man, the New Hollanders and the inhabitants of 
Van Diemen'B Land, are the most unexceptionable specimens s 
raised, and but just raised, above the level of brutes. These 
savages are very thinly scattered, in small numbers, and at wide 
intervals, along the coasts of the great austral continent ; and 
derive their support from the sea. Tliey are not, however, pure 
Kthyophagists, as they sometimes get a kangaroo, a bird, or a 
few roots, and sometimes the large larvEe of an insect from the 
bark of the dwarf gum-tree (eucalyptus resinifera) : sometimes 
they mix their roots with ants, and their larvae into a paste.* 

The individuals, whom we send to New South Wales, are not 
tbe best specimens of our iron age, yet they are far beyond these 
chUdren of nature, in physical and moral attributes. 

The Greenlanders, the Kui-ilian and Aleutian islanders, the 
wandering hordes of Asia, and the hunting tribes of North 
America, are, perhaps, too much civilized to be admitted as 
examples of natural man : they are all carnivorous. 

If the practices of savage and barbarous people are to be tne 
criterion, we must deem it natural to eat earth. " The Otto- 
maques," says Humboldt, f " on the banks of the Meta and 
the Onnoco, feed on a fat unctuous earth, or a species of pipe- 
clay, tinged with a little oxyd of iron, lliey collect this clay 
very carefully, distinguishing it by the taste: they knead it 
into balls of four or six inches in diameter, which they bake 
slightly before a alow fire. Whole stacks of such prox'ision 
are seen piled up in their huts, Tliese clods are soaked in 
water, when about to be used ; and each individual eats about a 
pound of the material every day. The only addition, nhieh they 
occasionally make to this unnatural fare, consists in small fish, 
lizards, and fern-roots. The quantity of clay that the Otto- 

• Collirn, j4rcotml of the Engliih Ciilomj in JVfte .Srn/rt Tf^alet; Appendix, 
No. 4. Their habitatluns, if that name hi* dwracct ap|)Hi.-a'tile to a hole in a 
tree or rock, ur to a iiiece ol bark stripped rrom a aiii^'le tree, bont and laid 
on the gruund ; Bn<l Ifif wsl iiftheiT dumi-^tic and gociarenonomv, at porlrared 
ia the KaiQ«i work, aru ijuiti- in unison with their biL of l*re. ' 

f Tab. fAy. det Jtegiont t<juatoriaUt, 


inftques consume, and the greetlines^ with which they devaur 
it, seem to prove that it does more than diatentl their hungry 
stomachs, and that the organa of digestion have the power of 
extracting from it something convertible into animal substance." 

ITie same practice has been obser^'ed in other places.* 

Is it a just point of view to regard the savage state exclusively 
IS the state of nature ? Is civilization to be considered as 
opposed to and incompatible with the nature of man ? 

A power of improvement, of advancement in arts and sciences, 
that i.s, the capability of civilization, or perfectibihty, as it has 
sometimes been called, is recognised in all human beings : its 
degree is very various in individuals and races. All have lived 
in society, which strongly tends to promote and assist the de- 
velopment of this power. Social life and progressive civiii. 
zation, instead of being unnatural to man, are therefore parts, 
and very valuable parts of his nature, as much as the erect 
stature and speech ; as much as ferocity and aohtary life are the 
nature of predacious animals, or mildness and herding together 
are of many herbivoroua ones. It is as much the nature of man 
to form societies, to build up political associations, to cultivate 
arts and sciences, to spread himaelf over the globe, and avail 
himself of both organized kinednma for his support, as it is that 
of the bee and ant to establish their ooraniuniiies,to gather honey 
and lay up provisions, or that of any other animals to jierform 
the actions by which they are respectively characterized. 

These considerations lead to the conclusion, that progressive 
advance and development, and the employment of all kinds of 
food, are as natural to man, as stationary uniformity and restric- 
tion to one species of aliment are to any animals. 

In discussing this question, we sometimes meet with posi- 
tions respecting the influence of animal or vegetable diet, on 
tlie development of the bodUy and mental powers, which are 
quite unsupported by direct proof : and some have even sought 
for a support to their systems in the fictions of poetry. 

" The Pythagorean diet," says Bupfon, " though extolled 
by ancient and modern philosophers, and even recommended hy 
certain physicians, was never indicated by nature. If man were 
obliged to abstain totally from flesh, he would not, at least in 

• " I saw one tnan, whos* stomsch was already well jined, l)at who, la our 
yrtemce, ate a piwe of »|p«tite, wlifi-h wna virry*oft, of u ({rM-niahvolciuT, and 
twice ai jari^ ai a man's flst W<.- aflt^rwardi u.w a uumlicc of u11kt<) cat of 
file same cuth, which serves to allny thf sfmatii'ti of hunsir by nUing the 
■(OlBacb." lAblllartliere, f'^age in learc/t of La t't-rouBe, t. ii. Sii. 


ourclimatea, either exist or multiply. An entire abstineara 
from flesh can have no effect hut to enfeehle nature. To pre- 
aerve himself in proper plight, man requires not only the use of 
this solid nourishment, but even to vary it. To obtain com- 
plete vigour, he must choose that species of food, which is most 
agreeable to his constitution ; and, as he cannot preserve himself 
in a state of activity, but by procuring new sensatioas, he must 
give his senses their full stretch, and eat a variety of meats, to 
prevent the disgust arising from an uniformity of nourishment." 

We are told, on the other hand, that in the golden age man 
was aa innocent as tlie dove ; his food was acorns, and his 
leverage pure water from the fountain. Finding ever)' where 
abundant subsistence, he felt no anxieties, but lived inde- 
pendent, and always in peace both uith his own species, and the 
other animals. But he no sooner forgot his native dignity, and 
sacrificed his liberty to the bonds of society, than war and the 
iron age succeeded that of guid and of peace. Cruelty and an 
insatiable appetite for flesh and blood were the iirst fruits of a 
depraved nature, the corruption of which was completed by the 
invention of manners, arts, and sciences. Either immediately, 
or remotely, all the jihysical and moral evil, by which indivi- 
duals are afflicted, and society laid waste, arose from these 
carnivorous practices. 

Both these representations are contradicted by the only crite- 
rion in such questions, an appeal to experience. That animal 
food renders man strong and courageous, is fully disproved by 
the inhabitants of northern Europe and Asia, the Laplanders, 
Samoiedes, Ostiacs, Tungooses, Burats, and Kamtschadales, as 
well as by the Esquimaux in the northern, and the natives of 
Terra del Fuego in the southern extremity of America, which 
are the smallest, weakest, and least brave people of the globe, 
although they live almost entirely on flesh, and that often raw. 
Vegetable diet ia aa little connected with weakness and 
cowardice, aa that of animal matters is with physical force and 
courage. That men can be perfectly nourished, and their boddy 
and mental capabilities be fully developed in any climates by a 
diet purely vegetable, admits of abundant proof from experience. 
In the periods of their greatest simplicity, manliness, and bra- 
very, the Greeks and Romans appear to have lived almost 
entirely on plain vegetable [(reparations ; indifferent bread, fruits, 
and other produce of the earth, are the chief nourishment of the 
modern Italians, and of the mass of the population in most coon* 


trJea of Europe : of those more immediately known to oaraelve% 
the Irish and Scotch may be mentioned ; who are certainly not 
rendered weaker thfin their English fellow-subjects by their 
freer uae of vegetable aliment. The Negroes, whose great 
bodily powers are well known, feed chiefly on vegetable sub- 
stances ; and the same is the caae with the South Hea Islanders, 
whose agility and strength were so great, that the stoutest and 
most expert English sailors had no chance with them in wreat. 
ling and boxing. 

The representations of the Pythagoreans respecting th« 
noxious and debihtating eSects of animal food, are, on the other 
hand, the mere offspring of imagination. We have not the 
shadow of a proof, unless we admit Ovid's Metamorphoses and 
other poetical cum positions, thatthis state of innocence, of exalted 
temperance, of entire abstinence from flesh, of perfect tranquil- 
lity, of profound peace, ever existed, or that it is more than a 
fable, designed to convey moral instruction. If the experience 
of every individual were not sufficient to convince him that ths 
use of animal food is quite consistent with the greateal strength 
of body and most exalted energy of mind, this truth is pro- 
claimed by the voice of all history. A few hundreds of Euro- 
peans hold in bondage the vegetal)le-eating miUioas of the East. 
If the Romans in their earliest state employed a simple vege- 
table diet, their glorious career went on uninterruptedly after 
they had become more carnivorous : we see them winning their 
way, from a beginning so inconsiderable that it is lubt in the 
obscurity of fable, to the empire of the world ; we see them, by 
the power of intellect, establishing that dominion, which they 
had acquired by the sword, and producing such compositions in 
poetry, oratory, philosophy, and history, aa are at once the 
admiration and despair of succeeding ages ; we see our own 
countrymen rivalling them in arts and in arms, exhibiting no less 
signal bravery in the field and on the ocean, and displaying in 
a Milton and Shaxsi'kare, in a Nkwton, Bacon, and 
Locke, in a Chatham, Erskinb, and Fox, no less mental 
energy Yet, with these proofs before their eyes, men are 
actually found, who would have us believe, on the faith of some 
insulated, exaggerated, and misre[)resented facts, and still more 
miserable hypothesis, that the development, form, and powers 
of the bo<ly are imiiaired and lessened, and the intellectual and 
moral faculties injured and perverted, by animal food. 

On this subject of diet a question naturally presents itself 

148 MAN NATUHALLT omnivoroob. 

whether man approaches most nearly to the camivoroua of 
herbivorous tribeg in his structure ? What kind of faoJ ghould 
we aasign to him, if we judged from his organization merely, 
and the analogy it presents to that of other mammalia ? Physio- 
logists have usually represented that our species holds a middle 
rank, in the masticatory and digestive apparatus, between the 
fleah-eating and the herbivorous animals ; — a statement which 
seems rather to have been deduced from what we have learned 
by experience on thia subject, than to result fairly from an actual 
comparison of man and animals. 

The molar teeth, being the inHtrumenta employed in dividing 
and preparing the food, must exhibit, in figure and construction, 
a relation to the nature of the aliment. They rise, in the true 
carnivora, into b harp-pointed prominences ; and those of the 
lower shut within those of the upper jaw : when the series is 
viewed together, the general outline may be compared to the 
teeth of a saw. These animals iire also furnished with long, 
pointed, and strong cuspidati or canine teeth, which are 
employed as weapons of oSence and defence, and are very ser- 
viceable in seizing and lacerating their prey : they constitute in 
some animals, as the lion, tiger, &c. very formidable weapons. 
The herbivorous animals are not armed with these terrible canine 
teeth : their molares have broad flat surfaces, opposed in a 
vertical line to each other in the two jaws. Plates of enamel are 
intermixed with the bone of the tooth in the latter : and, as its 
superior hardness makes it wear less rapidly than the other 
testures of the teeth, it appears on the grinding surface in rising 
ridges, which must greatly increase the triturating effect. In 
carnivorous animals the enamel is confined altogether to the 
surface of the teeth. 

The articulation of the lower jaw differs in the two cases as 
much as the structure of the teeth. In the carnivora it can only 
move backwards and forwards ; all lateral motion being pre- 
cluded by rising edges of the glenoid cavity : in the herbivora it 
has, moreover, motion from side to side. Thus we observe, in the 
flesh-eaters, teeih calculated only for tearing, subservient, in 
part at least, to llie procuring of food, as well as to jmrposea of 
defence, and an articulation of the lower jaw, that precludes all 
lateral motion. In those which live on vegetables, the form of 
the teelh and the nature of the joint are calculated for the lateral 
or grinding motion. The former, ha\'ing rudely torn and 
divided the food, swallow it in masses, while in the latter it 

undergoes considerable comminution before it is swallowed. 
The teeth of man have not the slightest resemblance to those of 
the carnivorous aniioiils, except that their enamel is confined to 
the external surface. He possesses, indeed, teeth called canine, 
but they do not exceed the level of the others, and are obviously 
unauited to the purposes which the corresponding teeth execute 
in carnivorous animals. The obtuse tubercles of the human 
molares have not the most remote resemblance to the pointed 
projections of these teeth in carnivorous animals : they are as 
clearly distinguished from the fiat crowns with intermixed 
enamel of the herbivorous molares. In the freedom of lateral 
motion, however, the human inferior maxilla more nearly 
resembles that of the herbivora. 

The teeth and jaws of man are in all respects much more 
Bimilar to those of monkeys, than of any other animals. A 
skull, apparently of the orang-outang, in the Museum of the 
College, has the first set of teeth : the number is the same as in 
man, and the form bo closely similar, that they might easily be 
mistaken for human. In most other simioe the canine teeth are 
much longer and stronger than in ua ; and so far these animals 
have a more carnivorous character. The points and ridges 
of the molares in simix are distinguished by their sharpness from 
the peculiar obtuse tubercles of the human molares. 

The length and di^nsion of the alimentary canal are very dif- 
ferent according to the kind of food. In the proper carnivorous 
animals the canal is very short,* the large intestine cylindrical, 
and the caecum not larger than the rest. ITie form of the 
stomach and the disposition of its openings are calculated to 
allow a quick passage of the food. In the herbivora the whole 
canal is long ;t and there is either a complicated stomach, or a 
very large caecum and a sacculated colon : the atotnach, even 
where simple, is bo formed as to retain the food fur a consi- 
derable time. 

In comparing the length of the intestines to that of the body 
in man, and in other animals, a difficulty arises on account of the 
legs, which are included in the measurement of the body in the 
former, and not in the latter. The great depth of the cranium in 
man makes a further addition to the length of body, and thereby 

• The length of thebodj, in a jlrai.i;1it line from the »nout to the onu«, com- 
pared to itiiit uf iJit inlfstines, varies in the curnivora, accorilin;; tu Cuviur, 
from 1 : 3 to 1 : 5.8 ; excepting the hjitDa, where it Is as 1 : 8.3. Lei;. d'Anat. 
eomp. iii. ibO. 

+ In the riiialnuntiit thp cotnimmtive Ipnjjtlis of the budy and in1*>HinM viry 
between 1 -. U «Btl 1 : ?S : \n llic «aUf odn, between 1 : a and 1 : 10. tk. 453, ibi. 


diminialies the proportion which the intestine bears to it. As 
OUT legs are half the heif^ht of the body, that should be reduced 
one-half, when it is compared to that of animals measured from 
the head to the anus ; or the length of the intestines may be 
doubled. When allowance is made for this circumstance, man 
will he placed nearly on the same line with the monkey race, 
and will be removed to a considerable distance from the proper 
caniivora. Soemmkrbinc* states that the intestinal canal of 
man varies from three to eight times the length of the body. la 
Tyson's chirajianse of twenty-six inches, the canal measured 159 
inches, or about six times the length of the body.-f" In two 
eapajous and two monkeys the intestines were respectively 
62 and 96 inches; as the body is said in all to havn been about 
14 inches from the head to the anus, its proportion to the intes- 
tines will be in the former as 1 : 4Jf, in the latter as 1 : 6fJ.J 
From these as well as other instances it is apparent that the 
comparative length of the alimentary canal in simise is less than 
in maa.§ 

The form of the stomach and cajcum, and the structure of the 
whole canal, are very much alike in man and the monkey kind. 
The orangB (S. satyrus, troglodytes, and gibbon) have the 
appendix verniiformis, which the others want. 

Thus we find that, whether we consider the teeth and jaws, or 

the immediate instruments of digestion, the human structure 

closely resembles that of the simiffi ; all of which, in their natural 

state, are completely berbivorou3.|| 

• Dff Corp. hiivt. Fah. t. vi, p. ZOO. t AmU. ^aPfwmle, p.S. 

t Metnoiretl'Mir ternir a I'Uut. nat. daJmmaux; 4to. (lan li p. 335. 
i The budy, from the snout to tht- anus, is to the intcsttnt>«, tn the 

Gibbon (8. Lar).a» , 1—8 

Snjmi CCurcopithpcujB,) 1 — C 

Conita (S. I'aniscus) . 1 — 6.3 

Pata-s (H. I'aliU) . . . 1— S.S 

CiUiliichc (S. Babsea) . 1-6 

Maftrouk C8. Sinica) . . . 1— B 
Macaque (8. Cy numolgns] , 1 — 6,7 
Magot (Barbary Ape. S. Intjus. 1 — S.4 
Mandril Itibbcd-nuK Ilitbaun, } , <, . 
S.Mainion . , . J 1— «-» 

CuTier, /^. d'^nel. comp. Hi. 448L 
If we take the moasuTcment of Boemmcrrina:, and tluubk" the Irngth of Iha 
inteatiiu-s, in consequence of Ihe leg^ l^iug incliidKl.tliB jirojiortion will bcia 
man from I ; 6 to I . IS. If the valvule cunniventt's arc poculinr to man, thi« 
peculiarity will be equir&lcnt to a ognsiderablo increase of li-nglh inlhecauaL 
• Mr. Abel's oraii|»*oatans; appears to naturally prefrrred fruil : he 
Yielded on shlp-bOBi<i to the teniplalion of meat, and spems tu hare quickly 
DecoDieas carniTorous as liis I'umpnniuns. " His fixic] in Java was chiefly 
fruit, enpecially mangcwtana, of which ho was excessiveJy fund. He also 
sucked e«g8 with voracily ; and often employed himself in seek injf them. On 
board shi^ his dirt was uS no ilcfliiitp kiritl. He ate readily all kinds of meat, 
and csppfiiilly raw meat ; wis very fynd nf bread, but always preferred fruit! 
■when In- could obtain them." Jonrmry in C'Ai'na,- p. 325. Atnrcwnt (December, 
1818) his diet i» vCEfclable, both frani his own chuiL-c, and because it ttRtec* 
mucli best with him. Offtome cpcfies of South American simic, it is Inci- 
dentally meationt'd by Uumlieldl. thai they lire on fruit.s ; Ittrcueii d'OU. df 
Jf»U>gie,tus. f. 308, of the is. tririrgata; p. 313, of the S. chiropi^tus ; p. 3U^ 



Man possesses a tolerably large csecum, and a cellular colon, 
which, 1 believe, are not found iu any cami\''orous animal. 

I do not infer from these circumstancea that man is desijjned 
hy nature to feed on vegetables, or that it would be more 
advantageous to him to adopt that diet. The hands and the arte 
of man procure for him the food, which carnivorous animals 
earn by their teeth. The processes of rookery bring what he 
eats into a different c.tnte from that in which it is employed either 
by carnivorous or herbivorous animals. Hence the analogy in 
the modes of procuring anrl preparing food is too loose for us to 
place much confidence in the results of these comparative views. 
We must trust to experience alone for elucidating the great 
problem of diet ; its decision has been long ago pronouQced^ 
and will hardly now be reversed. 

It is again a different inquiry, which diet is on the whole most 
conducive to health and strength? Which is best calculated to 
avert or remove disease J Whether errors in quantity or quality 
are most pernicious ? 'Hie solution of these and other analogous 
questions can only be expected from experimental investigation. 
Mankind arc so averse to relimiuish their favourite indulgences, 
and to desert established habits, that we cannot entertain very 
sanguine expectations of any important discovery in this depart- 
ment : we must add to this, that there are many other caiiaw 
affecting human health besides diet. Before venturing to draw 
any inference on a subject beset with so many obstacles, it 
would be necessary to observe the effects of a purely animal 
and a purely vegetable diet on several indiA'iduals of different 
habits, pursuits, and modes of life ; to note their slate, both 
bodily and mental ; and to leam the condition of two or three 
generations fed in the same manner. 

Recurring to the subject which has been already adverted to, 
—the extension of the great human family over the whole habit- 
able globe, — let us inquire a little into the causes of a pheno- 
menon, which so remarkably diatinguishes man from all animals; 
— this power of existing and multiplying in every latitude, and 
in every variety of situation and climate. Does it arise from 
physical enrlowments, from any peculiar capabilities of the 
human organization ; — from strength and flexibility of the ani- 

ofthe 8. mclarir>ceph!il«. It appears Lhat some will oceiuionally lake animal 
foot), p. 3iQ, and thai (he TiU (S. sciurt-a] will eat insi'Cta as n-cll as fruits, 
p. 333. ThiK little aaimaJ itnmediatel v difitiiiguishcd, in tome plali's of natural 
bi«tory, the iivtwct) on which it had Iimm) ucuitlomed to ftty, txem otb«r 
■imllu objects. 


mal machinery I or from the effects of human art am! con- 
trivance in affording protection from extremes of heat and cold, 
from wands and rains, from vapours and exhalations, and the 
other destructive influences of local situation J Is it, in short, 
the result of physical constitution, or of reason ? 1 think that 
both these causes are concerned j — that the original source of an 
attribute, which so strikingly characterizes our species, is to be 
sought in the properties of the human frame; and that this 
original power of the bodily fabric is assisted and fully developed 
by the mental prerogatives of man. 

In what way do the Greenlander, the Esquimaux, and the 
Canadian* employ remarkable talents or invention to protect 
themselves against the cold ? They brave the winter with open 
breast and uncovered limbs, and devour their whales and seals 
drest, raw, or putrid. The Negrof is healthy and strong under 
a vertical sun, with the soles of bis feet bare on the burning 
sandjs. On the other hand, the fox, the beaver, the marmot, 
and the hamster, seek the bhelter of dwellings, which they dig 
for themselves. In this comparison, in respect to protection 
from external influences, man enjoys no peculiar privilege, llie 
mind, indeed, employs the excellent structure of the body, lifts 
man above the rest of the creation, accommodates him to all 
places, gives him iron, fire and arms, furs, and screens from the 
8un, &c. i but with all this could never make him what he now 
h, the inhabitant of all climates, if he did not possess the most 
enduring and flexible corporeal frame. 'ITie lower animals, in 
general, have no defence against the evils of a new climate, but 
the force of nature. The arts of human ingenuity furnish a de- 
fence against the dangers that surround our species in every 
region. Accordingly, we see the same nation paaa into all the 
climates of the earth ; reside whole winters near the pole ; plant 
colonies beneath the equator ; pursue their commerce, and es- 
tablish their factories in Africa, Asia, and America. They con 
equally live under a burning sky and on an ice-bound soil, and 
inliabit regions, where the hardiest animals cannot exist. Such 

• The Knuteneaux {situated north of the great kkes and Tanada) oflea 
CD to tlir chase in tha icvercsl frost, covered with urilinarj' slight cluthing. 
Mackenxie, TrareU in North America; l*n-)inUuaTV Hist, of thy Fur Trade, 
J>. 94. Two Indians f .Americans) sli'itt (in the snow in an unlinary light dryss. 
when the therm omt'ttT at BunrLso van 40 bcluw 0. Ihfl mati suffKTi'd tiu in- 
conv^nifncc: the boy had his feet froicn, but they were recovered by coJd 
■water. Lbwib md Clark's Travelt. 4to. p. 113. 

+ The women and children on tlie coast of Sierra Leone wear nothinsj on 
Heir hi>ad, either in rain or sunshiiif. The mean hi-at l.i only 84° : but lit* 
thermometer rises in the sun to 130 or 140. Winlerbottom, on the Native 
•Sfiiauu, V. i. p. iiS. 

changes Indeed ought not to be hazaided suddenly and without 
precaution. The grreatest evils that have arisen from change of 
climate, hare been occasioned by the pregumption of health, 
that refuses to use the necessary precautions, or by the neglect 
of ignorance, that knows not what precnutions to use. But 
when changes are gradually and prudently effected, habit soon 
accommodates the constitution to anew (iituation, and human in- 
genuity discovers the means of guarding against the dangers of 
every season and of every climate. 

The Buperiority of man appears more striking, M-hen we con- 
trast his universal extension with the narrow limits, to which 
other animals, even the most anthropo-morphous, are confined. 
Tlie whole tribe of simiae are nearly included within the tropics j* 
and no species haa any considerable range even within these 
boundaries. No species is common to the old and the new 
world; none, probably, to Asia and Africa. The orang-outang 
seems to be only found in the island of Borneo; and the chim- 
panse in a district of Africa. The gibbon jh peculiar to the East 
Indies ; and the proboscis monkey (simia rostrata) to the Sunda 

The two most man-like monkeys (S. satjTus and troglodytes), 
inhabiting small districts of warm regions, are very inconsider- 
able species in number ; and thus oft'er a strong contrast to the 
thousand millions of the human species. They ore subject to 
nimierous diseases ; lose all their vivacity, strength, and natural 
character; and perish, after lingering in a miserfitile way, when 
removed from their native abodes. An orang-outang brought 
to Paris, never recovered the exposure to cold in crossing the 
Pyrenees, and died at the age of fifteen months, with most of 
the viscera diseased and tuberculated.f The monkeys in general 
exist with difficulty in temperate countries, and can propagate 
only in warm climates. One which was impregnated in Eng- 
land, and attended with all possible care, brought forth a young 
one, which died immediately.! Pi-obably the species could not 
be continued here, with all the aid of art, and it certainly could 
not be eflfected, if the animals were wild. When they are in- 
troduced into the north (indeed into the greater part) of Europe, 
and carefully managed in their food, temperature, &c. they die 
x'ery quickly, and in almost all cases, of disease in the viscera, 
particularly the lungs. 

• Th* Bimin innuB, or Bartwry iipo, has been trarsplinled from Africa t» 
the tocIl of Gibraltar, 
i Jnnaks du Mutium, L xri. p. 53. t Hunter on the Animal Economy, p. 137. 


Other animals, as the polar bear, naturally conetructed fo 
cold, cannot subsist in ^vanuer regions. The dog accompaniet^ 
man every where ; but, 'nith all the protection and assistance 
afforded by his master, degenerates, and undergoes remarkable 
changes, both of bodily structure and other properties, in very 
warm and very cold regions. 

Other circumstances in the human economy correspond with 
this power of adaptation ; such are the slow growth, long in- 
&ncy, and late puberty of man. In no animal but man do the 
sutures of the cranium close, or the teeth come out at ao late a 
period : none is so long before it can support the body on the 
legs, before it arrives at the complete adult stature and capacity 
for exercising the sexual functions. The long infancy of our 
species is compensated by proportionate longevity : no other of 
the mammalia, of corresponding size, enjoys so long a life as man. 
As the duration of life is in proportion to the time sp>ent in arriv- 
ing at the full growth, there is every reason to suppose that the 
monkeys fall very short of man in this respect ; in this climate 
they are cut off so quickly, that we canuot form a judgment. 

If we add to the foregoing circumstances, that man is not pro- 
Tided by nature with means of defence, and, consequently, re- 
quires assistance ; and that his great distinctions, reason and 
speech, are only germs which are not developed by themselves, 
but are brought to maturity by extraneous assistance, cultivation 
and education, we shall infer that he is designed, by nature, for 
social union. Such a condition appears more consonant to the 
structure, properties, and functions of our frame, even if it were 
not suppoited by the concurring voice of actual experience in< 
all ^es and nations, than the imaginary and most absurdly named 
"slate of natiire" of some philosophers. Rousskac, the great 
apostle of this doctrine, informs us, in direct words, that the 
state of nature never has existed : and he sets aside all facts aa 
foreign to the question. With these admissions before us, we 
are required to believe that we have degenerated from our natural 
state : that speech, society, arts, inventions, sciences, agriculture, 
commerce, property, civil government, and inequahty of con- 
dition, have introduced all possible misery, and have debilitated 
our physical being ; that we should live in the woods scattered 
and soUtary to get food enough, protect life by flight and force, 
eati«fy our desirea, and sleep, Buffon has reasoned so well 
on this subject, that 1 employ his words : " In this condition of 
nature, the first education requires an equal time aa in the civW 


lized state ; for in both, the infant is equally feeble and equally 
dow in ita prowth, and, consequently, demands the care of its 
parents during an equal period. In a word, if abandoned before 
the age of three years, it would infallibly perisb. Now, this 
necessary and long-continued intercuiirse between mother and 
child is sufficient to communicate to it aU that she posseHses ; 
and though we should falsely suppose that a mother, in a stale 
of nature, possesses nothing, not even the faculty of speech, 
would not this long intercourse with her infant produce a lan- 
guage f Hence, a state of pure nature, in which man is sup- 
posed neither to think nor speak, is imaginary, and never had 
an existence. This necessity of a long intercourse between 
parents and children produces society in the midst of a denert. 
The family understand each other both by signs and sounds ; 
and this first ray of intelligence, when cherished, cultivated, 
and communicated, expands^ in process of time, into the fall 
splendour of reason and intellect. As this habitual intercourse 
could not subsist so long, without producing mutual signs and 
soimds, these, always repeated, and gradually engraven on the 
memor}' of the child, would became permanent expressions. 
The catalogue of words, though short, forma a language, which 
will soon e.xtend as the family augments, and will always follow, 
in its improvement, the progress of society. As soon as society 
begins to be formed, the education of the infant is no longer indi- 
ridual, since the parents communicate to it, not only what they 
derive from nature, but likewise what they have received from 
their progenitors, and from the society to which they belong. 
It is no longer a communication between detached individuals, 
■which, as in the animals, would be limited to the transmission 
of simple faculties, but an institution of which the whole species 
participates, and whose produce constitutes the basis and bond 
of society."* 

ITie menstmal discharge is peculiar to women, and belongs to 
the whole sex in all countries : ko that Pliny is right in regard- 
ing woman as the only "animal menatruale." " I know, indeed," 
•ays BLUMENflACH,f "that the same clischarge baa been as- 
cribed to other animak, partimlarly of the order quadnimana. 
I have carefully inquired about all the female monkeys, which I 
have seen for these twenty yearM, either in menageries or carried 
about for pubUc exhibition, and have found some of them liable 
to uterine hDEmorrhage which observed no period, and was 

• BuiTaa bjr Wood, toL i. p. 30. ^ De p. h. tar. nal. p. 51, note. 



regarded by the more intelli^eat keepers as a circumstance aris- 
ing from digeaBB ; although they acknowledged, that, in order 
to excite the admiration of their risitora, they often represent it 
aa a true menstruation." 

'ITie celebration of the rites of Venus is not confined in man, 
aa in animals, to a particular season of the year. 



FaeuUitt of the Mind ; Speech; Ditttuet; IteLVpitutalion. 

All philosophers refer with one accord to the enjoyment of 
reason, as the chief and most important prerogative of the human 
epocies. If we inquire, however, more particularly into the 
meaning of this word, we shall be surprised to find what various 
senses different individuals affi.\ to the same expression. Accord- 
ing to some, reason ia a pecuhar faculty of the mind, belonging 
exclusively to man : others consider it as a more enlarged and 
complete development of a power which exists, in a less degree, 
in other animals : some describe it as a combination of all the 
higher faculties of the mind ; while others assert that it ia only 
a peculiar direction of them. " Non nostrum inter hos taiitas 
componere litea." 

The subject may, perhaps, be more shortly and safely dis- 
patched by considering it a posteriori. In order to aequu-e a 
clear and satisfactory notion of the mental nature of man and 
animals, it woidd be necessary for us to have as complete a 
knowledge of their internal movements, as we have of our own. 
But, as it is impossible to know what passes within them, or 
how to rank and estimate their sensations, in relation to those 
of man, wc can only judge by comparing the effects which result 
from the natm^ operations of both. 

Let us, therefore, consider these effects ; and, while we ac- 
knowledge all the particular resemblances, we shall only examine 
some of the most general distinctions. The most stupid man is 
able to manage the most alert and sagacious animal; he governs 
it, and makes it Bubser\-ient to his purposes. This he efiects, 
not so much by bodily rtrength or address, as by the superiority 
of his intellectual nature. He compels the animal to obey him, 
by his power of projecting and acting in a systematic manner. 
Ilie strongest and most sagacious animals have not the capacity 
of commanding the inferior tribes, or of reducing them to a stata 


of servitude. The stronger, indeed, devour the weaker : but 
this action implies an urgent necessity only, and a vnracious 
appetite ; qualities very diSerent from that wnich pro'lucea a 
train of actions all directed to one common design, if anunals 
be endowed with this faculty, why do not some of them assume 
the reins of government over others, and force them to furniBh 
their food, to watch for them, and to relieve the sick or wounded J 
But among animals there is no mark of subordination, nor the 
least trace of any of them being ahle to recognise or feel a supe- 
riority in hia nature above that of other species. We shotild 
therefore conclude, that all animals are in this respect of the 
same nature, and that the nature of man is not only far superior, 
but likewise of a very different kind from that of the brute. 

Thrown on the surface of the globe, weak, naked and defence- 
less, man appeared created for inevitahle destruction. Eviln 
assailed him on very side ; the remediea remained hidden. But 
he had received from his Creator the gift of inventive genius, 
which enabled him to discover them. His exertions were roused 
by the various ^vants of food, clothing, and dwelling, by the infinite 
variety of climate, soil, and other circumstances. 

Pater ipw> colon di 
Ilnml hcAem case viam vuljit ; primiugaG per artcm 
Muvit ayrua ; curis acuc ni inortalid coTdJa. 

This prerogative of invention seemed so important in the earber 
periods of society, that it has been honoured with dirine worship, 
as the Tholh of the Egyptians, the Hermes of the Greeks. 

"ITie first savages coilected in the forests a few nourishing 
fruits, a few salutary roots, and thus supplied their most imme- 
diate wants. The first shepherds observed that the stars move 
in a regular course, and made use of them to guide their jouraies 
across the plains of the desert. Such was the origin of the 
mathematical and physical sciences. 

" Once convinced that it could combat nature by the means 
which she herself afforded, genius reposed no more ; it watched 
her without re]a.\ation ; it incessantly made new conquests over 
her, all of them distinguished by some improvement in the situa- 
tion of our race. 

" From that time a succession of conducting minds, faithful 
depositaries of the attainments already made, constantly occupied 
in connecting them, in vivifying them by means of each other, 
have conducted us, in less than forty ages, from the first essays 
of nide observers, to the profound calcuktiona of Nbwton and 


La Place, to the learned dassificatiooa of Linneus and 
JcesiEC. This precious inheritance, perpetually increasing, 
brought fixim Chaldea into Egypt, from Egj-pt into Greece, 
concealed during ages of dissster and of darkness, recovered 
in more fortunate times, unequally spread among the nations of 
Europe, has every where been followed by wealth and power ; 
the nations which have reaped it, are become the mistresses of 
the world ; such, as have neglected it, are fallen into weakness 
and obscurity."* 

Man has made tools for assisling his labour ; and hence 
Franklin sagaciously defined him a " tool-making animal ;" 
he has formed arms and weapons, he has devised various means 
of procuring fire. Lastly, " The most noble and profitable 
invention of all others was that of speech ; whereby men declare 
their thoughts one to another for mutual utility and conversa- 
tion, without which there had been amongst men. neither com- 
monwealth nor society, no more than amongst lions, bears, and 
wolves, "t This is a most important characteristic of man, since 
it is not bom with him, like the voices of animals, but has been 
framed and brought into use by himself, aa the arbitrary variety 
of different languages inconteatably proves. 

Man exhibits, by external signs, what passes within him ; he 
communicates his sentiments by words, and this sign is uni- 
versal. The savage and the civilized man have the same powers 
of utterance ; both speak naturally, and are equally understood. 
It is not owing, as some have imagined, to any defect in their 
organs, that animals are denied the faculty of speech. The 
tongue of a monkey is as perfect as that of a man : Camper 
asserts that tlie lar}'ngeal pouch rendera it impossible for the 
orang-outang to speak ; I do not clearly understand how this is 
ascertained ; but, allowing its truth, there are other monkeys, 
who have not this pouch, and yet cannot speak. 

Several animals may be tau'^ht to pronounce words, and even 
to repeat sentences ; which proves clearly that the want of speech 
is not owing to any defect in their organs; but to make them 
conceive the ideas, which words express, ia beyond the 
power of art. They articulate and repeat like an echo or machine. 
Language implies a ti-ain of thinking; and for tl is reason 
brute animals are incapable of speech ; fcr, though thet! extemal 

• CnWor, Reflectimt on ihf Praveu of the Science*. Ae. read at the Boyil 
iMtitutc of Praiicc. .\prj 34, 1H16; — 

t Jllobbea; Letialhcm, 



I are ont mferior to our own> and though we should allow 
Bome ot them to postsess a faint dawninR of comparison, reflection, 
and iudgment, it is certain that thej are unable to form that 
association of ideas^ in which alone the essence of thought con- 

The possession of speech, therefore, corrcsponda to the more 
numerous, diversitied, and exalted intellectual and moral endow- 
ments of man, and is a necessary aid to their exercise and full 
development, llie ruder faculties and simple feelings of ani- 
mals do not require such assistance. The natural language of 
inarticulate sounds, gestures, and actions, suffices for their pur- 
poses. The wonderful discovery uf alphabetical writing, and 
the invention of printing, complete the benefits derived fi'om 
the noble prerogatii'e of speech. 

With the operations of animals, who always perform the same 
work in the very same manner ; the e.xecutioa of any individual 
being neither better nor worse than that of any other ; in whom 
the individual, at the end of some months, is what he will remain 
through life, and the species, after a thousand years, just what 
it was in the first year ; — contrast the results of human industry 
and invention, and the fruits of that perfectibility, which cha- 
racterizes both the species and the individual. By the intel- 
ligence of man the animals have been subdued, tamed, and 
reduced to slavery : by his labours marshes have been drained, 
rivers confined, their cataracts effaced, forests cleared, and the 
earth cultivated. By his retiection, time has been comjiuted, 
space measured, the celestial motions recognised and re^ire- 
Bented, the heavens and the earth compared. Ue has not 
merely executed, but has executed with the utmost accuracy, 
the apparently impracticable tasks assigned by the poet, 

(>o wonJmui crc&Iujrc ! mount Vfhfre .science KUi(le»; 
Weigh air, m«iuui:e earth, and citlculale thu tides. 

By human art, which is an emanation of science, motmtains 
have been overcome, and the seas have been traversed ; the 
pilot pursuing his course on the ocean, with as much certainty, 
as il' it had been traced for him by engineers, and finding at 
each moment the exact point of the gloliei on which he is, by 
means of astronomical table.s. Tims nations have been united; 
and a new world has been discovered, opening such a field for 
the unfettered and uncorrupted energies of our race, that tha 
senses are confused, the mind dazzled, and judgment and cal- 
culation ahmost suspended by the grandeur and brightness of 

160 nisTiNcrioNa op man 

the glorious and interminable prospects. The whole face of the 
earth at present exhibits the works of human power, which, 
though subordinate to that of nature, often exceeds, at least, so 
wonderfully seconds her operations, that, by the aid of man, her 
whole extent is unfolded^ and she has gradually arrived at that 
point of perfection and magnificence in which we now Itehold her. 

In the point of view which I have just considered, man stands 
alone : his facultiea, and what he has effected by them, place 
him at a wide interval from all animals ; at an interval which no 
animal hitherto Itnown to us can fill up. The man-like monkey, 
the almost reasonable elephant, the docile dog, the sagacious 
beaver, the industrious bee, cannot be compared to him. In 
none of these instances is there any progress either in the indU 
viduals or the species. 

In most of the feebngs, of which other indiiadxials of the 
species are the objects, and in all which come under the deno- 
mination of moral sentiments, there is a marked difference 
between man and animals, and a decided inferiority of the latter. 
The attachment of the mother to the offspring, ao long as its 
wants and feeblenesa require her aid and defence, seems as 
strong in the animal, as in the human being ; and bears equally 
in both the characters of actions termed instinctive. Its dura- 
tion is conlined in the former case, even in social animals, to 
the period of helplessness ; and the animal instinct is not suc- 
ceeded, as in man, by that continued intercourse of affection and 
kind otlices, and those endearing relations, which constitute the 
most exalted pleasures of human life. 

Of courage the animal kingdom offers many examples ; and 
the moralists have celebrated the attachment of the dog to his 
master. It may be doubted whether we can find any instances 
of such feeling between animals themselves, excepting some 
caseji of sexual unions. In general, they seem entirely destitute 
of sj-mpathy with each other, indifferent to each other's suf- 
ferings or joys, and unmoved by the worst usage or acutest 
pangs of their fellows. Indeed, if we except some associated 
labours in the insect class, principally referring to the conti* 
nuation of the species, and securing a snpply of food, and some 
joint operations of the male and female in the higher classes, 
animals seem entirely incapable of concert or co-operation for 
common purposes, of combining various exertions for the 
attainment of a common end. This appears to arise from the 
limited nature and extent of their knowing and reflecting 


jjowers ; to whicli probably we must refer their incapability of 
conceiving moral relations. 

Laughter and weeping are natural signs in man of certain 
mental afl'ections, and probably are also peculiar to him : ani- 
mals are not susceptible of the emotions or states of raimi indi- 
cated by these external signs. 

That many animals Ibesides man secrete tears ia well known ; 
but whether they weep from grief is tloubtfnl : yet respectable 
witnesses have represented that thejr do bo. Steller states 
this of the phoca ursina ;• Pallas, of the camel ;t and Hum- 
boldt, of a small American monkey.t 

Whether any animals express mirth or satisfacticm by lauj^hter 
ia more doubtful, to say nothing of the other causes of smiling 
or laughter in our species. The fact has been asaerted, for 
instance, by Le Cat, who says that, he saw the chimpansc both 
laugh and wecp.§ The orang-outang brought from Batavia by 
Mr. Abel certainly never laughs : his keeper informs me that 
he has seen him weep a few tiraes. 

I have had occasion, in a [irevious lecture,]! to advert to theso 
striking zoological phenomena, and to ejcjdain at some length 
the views which I entertain respecting their nature and cause. 
I con.sider the differences between man and animals in propen- 
gitiei?, feelings, and intellectual faculties, to be the result of the 
same cause as that ivhich we assign for the variations in other 
functions, viz. diflerence of organization j and that the supe- 
riority of man in rational endowments is not greater than the 
more exquisite, complicated, and perfectly developed structure 
of his brain, and particularly of his ample cerebral hemispheres, 
to which the rest of the animal kingdom offers no jiarallel, nor 

• Abr. Comm. Acad. Sa'enL Prtmp. it. 35:i. " Tnntlcm, cum noacumcatulls 

abituros *itli?n;t, simili more ut Cumi'lla adoo largiter Inurymabut, ut tjtiim. 

pectus ad pcdeo ii»niie hicry min iiiuiidan't, quod ct post i.Tuvia inSktu Tulii«ra 

''eODtingit; vcl post ^'tavcm illatam injurium, quam ulcisci nequit. Obscmcl 

\ phocas captos simili TutiuiiL' lEicrymarl." 

+ When the taTiie! will mit aia-kle its joung, which is very rare, the Mcngols 
uid the Uaurian Tunj;oust'S Viavo recnurpc to an cxix-dieiii'detaiW by l^alliu, 
in ■whi<'h they empluy a plaintive melodv imitalitig Ihi" voice of Ihu youQ)|f 
animal. This elicits copious tears fnun (riti ohl one, and completely excites 
its niateriiEil feelings. .Siimmitaigen laitur. NiichricMm ib. die Mmgnliichen 
f'i'liertcht^fn ; th, i. p. 1T7. 

t The Titi of the Orinoco ; solmiri, Buffon, t. xv ; simia sciitrea, Linncos. 
" Lcur physionumie est celle d'un enfant; ra&me expression dMnnucenee, 
mime sourire nvalin, ragmo rapiditl^ dari.'< le passB^ de la jui« it la tristesse. 
Les Indlcns afiirmentgueoet animal jiJeiireL-ommeriioinme, loriqu'ilijiroaTe 
du chagrin ; et celtc OMc rvatiun est (r6s cxactc. 

Les grands yeux ilu singe 
Kecueil d'Obterraliijnt de Zoologi'i et d'Atutlomie comparee: 

semuuillent de larmes ik I'instant m^me (ju'il marciue de la frayeur uii ua« 
iniiui^ '■"' 

Tive imiui^tude, 
t. J. p 

{ Train de I'Exislmce du Fluide det^er/i; p. 35, 

i Lect IV. ; p, 60 and folluwiug. 


even any near approximation, is suificient to account for That 
the senses of raan and other animals will not explain all tlirir 
varied and wonderful mental phenomena; and that the mioe- 
riority of man can by no meana be deduced from any pre- 
eminence in this part of his conatrucUon, are truths too obvious 
to require further notice. 

Some modern inqiiirera have gone beyond this general state- 
ment, and have ventured to partiicularixe, in the brains of ani- 
mals and of man, the organ or residence of each propensity, 
leeMog, and intellectiial power. I cannot pronounce on the 
accuracy and completenesa of the mental and cerebral survey 
executed by Messra. Gall and Spurzheim; nor pretend to 
judge of the exactness and fidelity with which the numerous 
positions are marked down in their very complete and well-filled 
map of the brain. They appeal to observation for the confirma- 
tion or refutation of their statements ; but my observations are 
not numerous or \'ajied enough for these purposes. Noone caa 
refuse to them the merit of patient itujuiry, carefiil observation, 
and unprejudiced reflection. They have performed the useful 
service of rescuing us from the trammels of doctrines and 
authorities, and directing our attention to nature. Her instruc- 
tions cannot deceive us : whether the views of Gall and 
Spurzheim may be verified or not, our labours in this directioa 
must be productive, muse bring with them collateral advantages. 
Hence they may be compared to the old man in the fable, who 
assured his sons, on his death-bed, that a treasure was hidden in 
his vineyard. They began immediately to dig over the whole 
^ound in search of it ; and found, indeed, no treasure ; but the 
loosening of the soil, the destruction of the weeds, the admission 
of hght and air, were bo beneficial to the vines, that the quantity 
and excellence of the ensuing crop were unprecedented. 

The diseases peculiar to man may be deemed a more fit rab- 
ject for pathology than natural hi.story ; but, as these unnatural 
phenomena arise out of the natural organization and habit of 
the body, and the dispositions of the animal economy, they 
cannot be entirely passed over in this discui^sion. 

While the causes of disease in general are so obscure, and the 
exact series of phenomena has been ascertained in so few 
instances, it is hazardous to set flown any particular affectioaa 
as belonging exclusively to man ; oiher animals might be 
affected, if exposed to the same causes. Those in a wild state 
have very few and simple diiieases, if any : domesticated ones 


hare sevenl ; and they are more niuneroiu in proportion as tke 
subjugation is more complete, and the way of life differs more 
widely from the natur^ one. The diseases of our more valuable 
domestic animals are suiiiciently numerous to em])loy a parti- 
cular order of men ; and the horse alone has a distinct set to bis 
own share. The miserable canary-birds seem to be equally in 
want of professional assistance ; for, iu the Uf^t of disorders to 
which they are subject, we find inflammation of the bowels, 
asthma, epilepsy, chancres of the bill, and scabs,* In man, the 
most artificial of all animals, the most exposed to all the circunu 
stances that can act unfavourably on bin frame, dineases are the 
most numerous, and so abundant and diversified, as to exhaust 
the ingenuity of the nosologist, andfati^e the memor)' of the 
physician. Perhaps nosolo^jical catalogues woiUd aflbrd the 
most convincing argument that main has departed frnm the way 
of life to which nature had destined him ; uidess, indeed, it 
should be contended that the^e atSictioos are a necessary part 
of his nature ; — a distinction from animals, of which he will not 
he very hkely to boast. 

The accumulation of numbers in large cities, the noxious 
effects of impure air, sedentary habits, and unwholesome 
employments ; — the excesses in diet, the luxurious food, the 
heating drinks, the monstrous mixtures, and the ptmiciuus 
seasonings, which stimiilnlc and opiiress the organs ; — the 
unnatural activity of the great cerebral circulation, excited by 
the double impulse of our luxurious habits, and undue mental 
exertions, of the violent pasKionit which agitate and exhaust us, 
the anxiety, chagrin, antl vexation, from which few entirely 
escape, and then reacting on and disturbing the whole frame ; — 
the delicacy and sensibility to external influences caused by our 
heated rooms, warm clothinij, inacti\nty, and other indulgendes, 
are so many fatal proofs that our moat grievous ilk are our own 
work, and might be obviated by a more simple and uniform way 
of hfe. Our associates of the animal kingdom do not escape 
the influence of such causes. The mountain slicpherd and his 
dog are equally hardy, and form an instructive contrast with a 
nervous and hysterical fine lady, and her lap-dog ; the extreme 
point of degeneracy and imbecility of wliich each race is 

The observations of Humboldt confirm the position, that 
iadividaals, whose bodies are strengthened by healthy habits in 
• Buffoa Ly Wood : t. xiv. p. 87. 


respect to food, clothing, exercise, air, &c. are enabled to resist 
the causcfs whkh produce disease in other men He paints to 
US tiie Indians of New Spain as a set of peaceful cultivatoi'8, 
accustomed to uniform nourisliment, almost entirely ot a veife- 
table nature, that of their maize and cereal gramina. "They* are 
hardly subject to any deformity. I never saw a hunch- backed 
Indian; and it is extremely rare to see any who squint, or who 
arc lame in tbe arm or leg. In the countries where the m ha- 
bitants sufl'er from the goitre, this affection of the thyroid gland 
is never observed ojnong the Indians, and seldom among the 

He repeats the same testimony very strongly concemingf 
■various tribes in Snutli America, as the Chaymas, Caribs, the 
MuyscM, and Peruvian Indians.^ 

WiNTERnoTTOM § says, that he never saw, nor heard of, a 
case of hare-lip among tlie native Africans. But he adds, that 
Atkin's mentions a case seen by himself. 

The compaiison of diseases is dilhcult, since the study of 
nosology in brutes must be exposed, by its very nature, to very 
serious obstacles, 'llic diseases in tbe following list, derived 
from Bt-i;MENUACH, may be considered in all probabdity as 
peculiar to man. 

Nearly all the exanthemata ; at least variola,|| morbilli, scar- 
latina, miliaria, petechice, jiestis. 

Of the heinorrhagies, epistaxis ; hemorrhoid es, mcnorrhagia. 

Nervous affections. Hypochonthirisis; hystcna; incnlid af- 
fections ]H-operly so called, as mania, indarcboha, nostalgia; 
properly also satyriasis, and nymplio-mania. Crctinismns. 

CacbexuT. Rachitis? scrofula .'H lues venerea. Todagra, 
lepra and elephantiasis. 

Local diseases. Amenonlicea? cancer? chlorosis ; hernia 
congenita ? The various kinds of jnulapsus, particularly that 
congenital one of the urinary bladder. Herpes ; tinea capitis. 

The two kinds of lice that infest (nir species, have not been 
found on any other anbnal. Whether tbe human intestinal 
worms are all distinct sjjccies, peculiar to man, I do not know. 

I recapitulate the characters of man, discussed in the six pre- 

• J'clitifat Kisag mi Ihf Kingdom aj AVw .S>rtiH ; v. i. p. 152, 

+ Thr uUVpriiiH ol an Euru|ii-aii ami an .\iueiL'.in. 

X Persoitat Ifitrraiire, \ii. 'iSS. i ATuuni qf i/ie A'atireJlfricani ; ii.22i. 

II A inuiikey nl Amalenlam cimlrucleiJ a lucal uIi'it fruiii llie i-unlajjiuii of 
amiill-iiiix, but hnd no fevi-r. Uluiiu'nbaeh, JJt' g. ii. ror. vai. p. 5if. 

H Moiikys perish in these cliniELlus of iillfcUuns very much resembling 
icrotuU. TTie lyiuiilirtlic glands. Iiin^>s,imd oilier viscera aie diseased; usually 
tubercul&ted; antl itie buuex ure olteu aOected. 


ceding chapters, that the proofs of his constituting a distinct 
and separate species may be brought together in one view. 

1. Smoothness of the skin, and want of natural offensive weapons, or meani 

of defence. 

2. Erect stature ; to which the conformation of the body in general, and that of 

the pelvis, lower limbs, and their muscles in particular, are accommodated. 

3. Incurvation of the sacrum and os coccygis ; and consequent direction of 

the vag[ina and urethra forwards. 

4. Articulation of the head with the spinal column by the middle of Its basis, 

and want of ligamentum nunhs. 

5. Possession of two hands, and very perfect structure of the hand. 

6. Great proportion of the cranium (cerebral cavity) to the face (receptacles 

of the senses and organs of mastication.) 

7. Shortness of the lower jaw, and prominence of its mental portion. 

8. Want of the intermaxillary bone. 

9. Teethallof equal length.andapproxlmated: inferior incisors perpendicular.- 

10, Great development of the cerebral hemispheres. 

11. Great ntoss of brain in proportion to the size of the nerves connected with it. 
lii. Greater number and development of mental faculties, whether intellectual 

or moral. 

13. Speech. 

14. Capability of inhabiting all climates and situations ; and of living on all 

kinds of food. 

15. Slow growth ; long infancy ; late puberty. 

16. Menstruation ; exercise of the sexual functions not confined to paiticuUr 





Slalemenl of the Sutgect ; Mode af Invettigalian ; the Question canrMi he settled 
front the Jewiih Scripluret; nor from other historical Records. The Meaning 
tf Sj>ecia anil yariety in Zoology; JVature and Extent qf Fariaiion. Breed' 
ing as a Criterion of Species. Criterion of Analogy. 

Th e difTerences which exist between inhabitants of the different 
regions of the globe, both in boldly formation and in the facul- 
ties of the mind, are so striking, that they must have attracted 
the notice even of superficial observers. With those forms, 
proportions, and colours, which we consider so beautiful in the 
fine figures of Greece, contrast the woolly hair, the flat nose, the 
thick lips, the retreating forehead and advancing jaws, and black 
skin of the Negro ; or the broad sqiiare face, narrow oblique 
eyes, beardless chin, coarse straight hair, and ohve colour of the 
Calmuck. Compare the ruddy and sanguine Eiu:opean with, 
the jet-black African, the red man of America, the yellow Mon» 
golian, or the brown South Sea Islander : the gigantic Fata- 
gonian, to the dwarfish Laplander; the highly civilized nations 
of Europe, so conspicuous in arts, science, literature, in all that 
can strengthen and adorn society, or exalt and dignify human 
nature, to a troop of naked, shivering, and starved New Hoi' 


landers, a horde of €Uhy Hottentots, or the whole of the man 
or Ibbb barbarous tribes t'uat cover nearly the entire continent of 
Africa- Are these ali brethren? have they descended from one 
stock ? or inu«ji we trace them to more than one ? and if so, how 
many Adaias must we admit ? 

The plienomena are capable of solution in either of these 
ways : we may suppose that different kinds of men were ori- 
ginally created ; that the forma and properties, of which the 
conirasi now strikes us so forcibly, were impreased at first on 
tne respective races; and consequently that the latter, as we 
now see them, mufit be referred to different original families, 
according to which supposition they will form, in the lan^age 
of naturalists, different species. Or, we may suppose, that one 
kind of human beings only was formed in the first instance, and 
account for the diversity, which is now obser\'able, by the 
agency of the various pliyaical and moral causes to which they 
have been subsequently exposed ; in which case they will only 
form diflerent 17a) ieties of the same species, 

Tlie question belongs to the domain of natural history and 
physiology : we must be contented to proceed in our examina- 
tion in the slow and humble, but sure method of observation. 
It will be necessary to ascertain carefully all the differences that 
actually exist between the various races of men ; to compare 
these with the diversities observed among animals ; to apply to 
them all the lights, which human and comparative physiology 
can supply ; and to draw our inferences concerning their nature 
and causes, from all the direct information and all the analo^cs, 
which these coneiderationa may unfold. 

In the first place we must dismiss all arguments a priori, as 
entirely inapplicable to the subject. One philosopher tells us, 
that nature does nothing in vain ; that she would not give her- 
self the trouble to create several different stocks, when one 
family would be sufficient to colonise the world in a short space 
of time. Another, with equal speciousness, dilates on the absur- 
dity of supposing that immense re^ona should remain for ages 
an unoccupied and dreary waste, while the offspring of a single 
pair was slowly extending over the face of the earth ; or that 
auch an admirable v'aricty of islands should display their charms 
in vain, till a shipwreck or some other casual occurrence might 
supply them with inhabitants. He shows how much more con- 
sonant to the wisdom and benevolence of the Deity it would be, 
for the earth to have teemed from the first moment of its pro- 


doction, with trees and fruits, and to have been occupied by all 
kinds of animals, suited to each soil and sky. I cannot too 
strongly reprobate such idk declamation, which, by withdraw- 
mg our attention from the right method of investigation, 
inevitably tends to perpetuate our ignorance of nature. Dr. 
PsicHARD, in his exceUent inaugural discourse on this subject, 
has so well exposed the futility of such arguments, that I have 
great pleasure in quoting his words. " Ha'c tjuanquam satis 
Bpeciosa videantur, omnia ut fit plerumque in hu^uHmodi argu- 
mentationibus duxa et incerta sunt. Qui m^igna loquuntur, 
tasquam ipin ex Dei concilio descendissent, neque ut humiles 
ministros, et natura; interjyretes oportet, raro luminc quantido- 
cunque ejus abdita illustrant llli qiiwkm dixerunt quomodo 
mundum constituissent, si hoc eorum curationi fuisset com- 
missum ; sed qua ratione re ipsa constitutus sit, talibus aiu- 
piciis, et latet, et sein])er latebit." — p. 5. 

Most persons, when they first turn their attention to the reb- 
ject, and select for contemplation strongly marked specimens of 
the varieties of man, will be inclined to adopt the supposition 
of originally distinct »pecieB, This is the case with Voltaibs,* 
who has recurred to the subject repeatedly in his various 
writings, and has ejqjrcssed himself very positively, ridiciding 
the idea of referring such different beings as the Negro, Euro- 
pean, African, Albino, &c, to the same original. " II n'est 
permis qu'a un aveugle de douter que lea blancs, les Negres, lea 
Albinos, les Hottentots, lea Lappons, les Chinois, les Ameri- 
cains, soient de^ races entiersment difrerentes."-t- He says of 
the Negroes, " Leurs yeux ronds, leur nez epate. leurs le\Tes 
toujours grosses, leurs oreilka diffcremment figurees, la laine de 
leur t£te, la mesure meme de leiir intelligence, mattent enti'eux 
et les autres especes d'hommea des differences prodigieuses. 
£t ce qui demontre qu'ils ne doivent point cettc difference i 
leur climat, ces que des Ne'grea et des Negresses transport^ 
dans les pays les plus firoids, y produisent toujours des animaux 
de leur espece, et que les mulatarea ne sont qu'une race b&tarde 
d'nn noir et d'une blanche, ou d'un blanc et d'une noire."! 

To these, which are in truth well-founded remarks, although 
in favour of what I think will appear to be the wrong opinion oo 

* Biilmrt <U> Buttie hmu Fi&rre le Grand ; rhap. i. £uai lur lei Momrt, 
iatroduetJon ; luid chap, cxiii. IM'-tiotmaire I'UlonpUiiag, art. nummc 
iettret tt.ivuiied, let. iv. Traili de MHafAfftiqit, oh»p. i In thp plac<! lut 
quotrd, he cives a short bat llToly and inlermtiiigdHrteh of the dlffiTcat rncei 
of men, and of th<.' dUainvUou betiTt«u man KBd Ttilmili 

t £ia. lur let Mceuu. X Ibid, 


tbe subject, he adda others of a less correct deecriptioQ ; eoB' 
meratinid; &a proofs of distinct species, the beardlessness r.f the 
Arnericana, the black nipples of the Samoiede women, and " lo 
tablier que la nature a donnc aux Caffres, et dont la peau lacbe 
et inolle toinbe du nomljril sur lea euissea."* 

I am not surprised at the view M-iiich Voltaire haa taken, 
of the question ; for first appearances strongly favour his opi- 
nion, 'ITais witty and charming writer, who dclijifhts us with 
his ■\'arious excellencies in so many departments of literature 
and philosophy, may be well excused for not having possessed 
euflicicnt zoological and physioloyical knowledge to guide his 
judgment on such a point. Indef^d, the progress of science and 
discovery, aud the more aecurtile accounts of various people 
procured by modern travellers, have ^iven U3 advantages which 
he did not possess. We must not, however, follow his example 
in selecting two or three prominent contrasts, and considering 
ihem alone : such partial and insulated views cannot lead to any 
satisfactory results. It is necessary to examine, not only the 
more marked differences, but also the numerous gradations by 
which opposite extremes are in all cases connected and gradually 
brought together : it is also necessary to cast our view v>ver the 
animal kingdom at large, and to compare with man the virioui 
living beings which more nearly resemble him. The whole pro- 
ceeding inuBtbe governed by the principles of general physiology. 

This disquisition will, perhaps, be deemed superfluous by those, 
who regard the Hebrew Scrijitures as writings composed with 
the assistance of divine inspiration, and therefore commanding 
our implicit assent ; who receive, as a narrative of actual events, 
authenticated by the highest sanction, the account contained in 
Genesis of the formation of the world, the creation of man and 
animals, and their dispersion over the face of the globe. 

llie Mosaic account does not, howfver, make ii quite clear 
that the inhabitants of all the world descended from Adam and 
EvE.t Moreover, the entire or even partial inspiration of the 

• £»». KVT let Maurt. 

+ We art" tnlcl, indeed, that " Ailam c»)1p<1 his wife'i* name Ere, because ahe 
w»a thp mulher of all living." But in the first chapter uf Qene«U, we learn 
that Gutl iireateil man male aud TeniiUe : aud this seems to have lieen previoasly 
lo thi' fiiTmation ot lire. whi«li did nut lake place uiilil after the ^rden of 
liiten had Iwtn pir-pareil. Ajrain , we learn in the fifth i-hapter of Genesis, that 
" in llu- day that Ciod created man, in the likeness i)f tJnd made ho him ; male 
and femnle' created he them ; and blessed them, and called Iheir nume Adam, 
in tlip day when they were created." We liiid also tliat Cain, after slaving 
his brotlier, was raarried, all1iuii[jh no uaii{'ht'?ri; of Eve are menlicjiuKl before 
this time. '• Cain went oat from the iiresrnL-e of the Lord, ond dwelt in the 
Ltndiif Nnd, on tlie eastof Eden. Ami Cain luiew his wife, andsheconceiTe^l. 
kud biire Enoch, Indeed it ii aald ^ch. v, i), that " the diiys of Adam, after 



various writings comprehended in the Old Testament has been, 
and ia doubted by many persons, including learned divines, and 
distinguished oriental and biblical scholars. The qrcount of the 
creation and of subsequent events, has the allegorical iigu- 
rative character common to easlirn compositions ; and it is ilis- 
tinffuished amonff the cosmogonies by a sirapla frrandeur and 
naturd aubliinity, as the rest of these writings are by appropriate 
beauties in their respective parts not inferior to those of any 
human compositions. 

To the grounds of doubt resjiecting inspiration, which arise 
from examination of the various narratives, from knowledge of 
the original and other oriental l.-oiguages, and from the irrecon- 
cilable opposition between the passions and sentiments ascribed 
by the Deity to Moses, and tiiat religion of peace and love un- 
folded by the Evangelists, I have only to add, that the represen- 
tations of all the anitnaJs beiinf brought before Adam in tha 
first instance,* and subsequently of their being all collected ia 
the ark,t if we are to understatid them as applied to tlie li\Tag 
inhabitants of the whole world, arc zoologically impossible. 

The collection of living beings in one central fjoint, and their 
gradual diffusion over the wlmle globe, may not be greatly in- 
consistent with what we know of our ownspeclss, andof ihefew 
more common quadrupeds, wLich accompany us in our various 
migrations, and are able to sustain with us great varieties of 
climate, food, situation, and all external intluences. 

But when we extend our survey to the rest of the mammalia, 
we find at all points abundant proofs of animals being confined 
to particular situations, and bemg so completely adapted by their 
structure and functions, tiy their whole organization, economy, 
and habits, to the local pecuiiiu-ities of temperature, soil, food, 
&c. that they cannot subsist where these are no longer found, 
in proportion as our knowledge of species becomes more exact, 

he had br^ottpn Seth, wcrr t'Eght hwndwd ypars, and he h"r{at sntm and 
daojhtprs. ■' Ttiia, it should scrm, took place afri-r tht- blith of Hclh. ami con- 
B)K]uenUy lon^ aflcrCRtii liiid hi'* wife; fur Setli was nnt hum tiU afler the 
death of Abel, IF Cain had sisters prior to Ihat pprind, Trum amongiit whom 
oe might have taken a. wile. Mows du not nnlici^d Ihem. 

♦ " Ap'l out 01' the ground tlie Lcrd l5od formed ewrjr heaat of the field, 
t&d ertry fowl of the air, and hraught them to Adam to see what ht" would 
etll them ; and whatsoever Adam railed every living ereatute, that was the 
name thereof. And Attain cave naine.1 to all cattle, and to the fowl cf the air, 
mndto everjr beast of the lielJ." Gm. ii. 13, aO. 

t "And Df every livin>f thinj; of all Hesh, two of every i)ortsh:klt tlioo bring 
into Ihfl iirk, lo keep them ativc with thee; they iliull be mate and female, 
Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle after their kind, of every crtrpiiii; Ihlnjj 
of tne earth after his kind ; two of every sort shall tomo unto Ihee, to keaf 
them alive." Gen, vi. 19, 89. 


the proofs of this locahty are rendered atronger, and the examples 
of admirable conformity between the organic capabilities of 
animals and the circumstances of the regions which they ia- 
habit, are multiplied and strengthened. 

The peculiar adaptation of the camel to the sandy deserts in 
which he is placed, strikes the inost cursory observer. The herda 
of antelopes and other ruminant animals, and the great troops 
of Bolidungular quadrupeds, are not less suited to the boundless 
plains of Asia and iifrica ; the vast assemblages of eUc and buf- 
falo, to the uninhabited wilds of America; the tiger to the 
jungles and the thickets of the East Indies ; and the troops of 
sapajous, with their prehensile tails, to the lofty forests of Gruiana 
and Brazil. 

Even when the extenml circumstances are nearly alike, remote 
regions are occupied in most cases by distinct genera or species. 
The lion so common in Africa, is hardly found in Asia, while 
the tiger is (leculiar to the latter; the elephants and rhinoce- 
roses of these two quarters of the world are specifically distinct. 

'ITie instances of America, New Holland, and some other 
islandsj adbrd unanswerable arguments against the creation of 
ail an'unals in one spot. None of the mammalia of the southern 
hemisphere, the torrid xone, or even the two northern temperate 
regions, are common to the two continents. When the Spaniarda ] 
.anded in the new world, they did not find a single animal they 
were acquainted with j not one of the quadrupeds of Europe, 
Asia, or Africa. On the other hand, the puma,* the jaguar,-f 
the tapir, the cabiai,t the llama,$ the vicugna,{| the sapajous, 
were creatures altogether new to them. No quadrupeds are 
found in both £Qntinent.s except such as dwell north of the Baltic 
in the old, and of Canada in the new world ; such, in short, as 
are capable of bearing the culd of those regions, where the two 
continents approximate to each other. 

Here, indeed, we must guard against the mistakes, which the 
inconsiderate application of the same names to animals, really 
different, though more or less analogous to each other, migM 
occasion. We read of American lions ; but the creature so called 
(the puma), although a carnivorous animal, is widely difierent 

* Cougar (Felis discolor, Linn). 
-t- FcliH uiira L. Aracrlcun tigvi; nearly a matefa in sixo uid slreogih tortile 

roy«l tij^cr of Bcueal ' 

* Cavia fanj'l>artt, L. 
i CvnrkusXIacma, L. the camel af Peru, &nd the only beast of bordMi In tbe ' 

" •nntrv' at the time wf the Suoaisli conqucit. The guaimco i» ihe wild Uam^ 
I'tco ; cunclus vicuima, L producing the tiau sou. uid litwa>culQuied wooL 


vaxhtieb of the humax species. 171 

fiom the lion of Africa : American mookey^s again form avery dis< 
tinct family, without siny specific atfinity to those of the old world. 

A similar phenomenoD wsm again experieaced in our own timef 
on first exploring the coasts of New Holland and the adjacent 
isles. A dog was indeed found here, whether of the same species 
with those we are acquainted with, and introduced from the 
neighbouring islands, is not jierhaps yet clearly ascertainedi. This 
great southern continent contained no other mammiferous ani> 
mals previously known to naturalists ; but, on the contrary, it 
has furnished about forty species, altogether new ; of which the 
kangaroos, the phascoiomys, * the dasyuri, the perameles, the 
flying phalangera, f the ornithorhynchi, and the ecliidnae, have 
aatoniahed aoologists by the novelty and singularity of their 
cooforinalion, contrary to all the rulea hitherto established, and 
at variance -with all their systema. J Even the island called. 
Van Dikmen'h Land, although situated so near to New Uol- 
Imd, and in some degree connected to it by intervening islands, 
has its own peculiar 8pecies.§ 

The orang-outang i» found only on the island of Borneo ; and 
the makl^ are con&ued to that of Madagascar, while the neigh- 
bouring continent of Africa has none of them, but numeroua 
monkey!} instead. 

Even marine animals are confined to particular situations, 
although it might appear so probable ii priori, that the waves 
and currents of the ocean would carry them into all situtions. 
and the medium in which they live seems so favourable for their 
transportation. Peron and Le Sueub assert that there is uo 
weil-knovin tntimai of the northern hemi.sphcre, which in not spe- 
cifically distinct from every other eqaally well-known of the 
Houthem; and that this is true even of those potiseaaing the lowest 
and simpleat organization. || 

• Woniliat. Didfllihis urslna of ShKW. + Pctaunis, Shaw. 

t Curier JUgne animai ; on the orJer martupiaux; t, i, j>. 169. et suit. 

\ "En eflet, toua les animaux, que nou» OTuni rccueillU but la ten* de 
Diemr'n, et qu'on ppul rufrarder coTome plua particulldrcinfnt prayrea au sol, 
tela qup lc« mammlTCrefi, Ilhi rp|ttil«s, .See sent .niiiicitiqufinpnt dilKrtu let 
animaux de la NouTcUe Ilulteiidc" ; la pl&imrt mSrac- dps csp^uva, qui [leiipleut 
ce continCQt, o'exiatctit pax aur la grando Ue qui t'avolimc." Peroa f yg'^t 
de Dfcoiaertet aux Terret jtuttntla ; v. ii. p. iGd. 

I " Persunne plii« qu« uoui, i) est [lennjii de le dire, n'a recaellli d'animaux 
dv rhfiniaph^ce Auatnil; iums lic» avoiia tgus ohaerveg d^crite, pt figures &--lc» 
lieox : nuu.H en arujia Tappor(<<!< plusicors millien d'etp^cei en Biirope; cllot 
sont d^pos^eii d&na 1g Miu^um d hbtolre naturelle de PmrU. Que I'un com- 
lare rc^ numbreiix animaux aTfc ce 

lient&t ristjlu, nan «trukinvDl pour ie 

ux dv nutre lidmiiiphdn', le probtime ten, 
Fseajjfecfs d'uucaruKnixation plus payaite. 

Ei . . „ . . . 

mais tnecire pour tout^s eelltw qui aoni bL'a.ur.Dijp plus siiuples, et qui, loui ee 
rappurt, scratjleiuic^nt dpTuir £tre muiitK varitoi uuiitx In uature. Uu'ou exa- 
mine, nuns rie diroiia [far li'ii doria, lex aplyni;!!, liM! aalpas, lei n^^iJcs, IM 
•mpbingiiies, Ics amplutrites, ct cett« fguJe d« moUum]^u«« et des T«n pnN 


If all the difScuUiea connected with the facts just recited, 
and with the numerous analoffoua ones,* which every depait- 
inent of natural history could furnish, were removed, insur- 
mountable obstacles would still be foujitl to this hypothesis of-J 
the whole globe having received its supply of animals from ono^^ 
quarter How could all living beings have been assembled in 
one climate, vhen many, as the white fox Cisatis), the polar bear, 
the walrus, the raanita, can exist only in the cold of the pol 
regions, while to others the warmth of the tropic is essential ? 
How could all have been supplied with food in one spot, since 
many live entirely on vegetables produced only in certain dis- 
tricts i Huw could many have passed from the point of assem- 
blage to their actual abode, over mounlainB, tlirough deserts, 
and even across the seas ? How could the polar hear, to whom 
the ice of the frozen regions is necessary, have traversed the 
torrid zoneJ If we are to heheve that the original creation com- 
prehended only a male and female of each species, or that one 
pair only was rescued from an universal deluge, the contradic- 
tions are again increased. Tlie carnivorous animals must have 
soon perished with hunger, or have annihilated most of the other 

Such an assumption, in short, is at variance with all our 
knowledge of living nature. Why should we embrace an hypo- 
thesis so full of contradictions ? — to give to an allegory a literal 
construction, and the character of revelation ; which is so much 
the less necessary here, because we do not follow the same rule 
in other points. The astronomer does not pourtray the hea- 
venly motions, or lay down the laws which govern them, accord- 
ing to the statements in the Jewish Scriptures ; nor does the 
geologist think it necessary to modify the results of experience 
according to the contents of the Mosaic WTitings. 

cotDfiEVs^s qui so snnt succcaalvement ofTerts ft. notre obserration ; qu'on de^ 
Bccnde jiiJ'qii'aux holotlmries, aux achnifs, aiix Wro^*, aux m^use^ ; qu'on 
s'abaipise mfeniH, si I'lMi rcut ju^qu'Ji wa fjiono^s informps, que tout le raumle 
s'aruiirili;^ resarder comrai>5i? dernier teriny iTe l,i d(!:,Ta,iiation, ou plutOtdp la 
limpik-ile de rorgajiiiation apimalc; parmi cettc multitude, pour ainsi dire 
Effrayante, d'arvimaux aiitatetiqut's, on vcrra qo'il n'ea est pas un guel qui se 
xetTiiuve dans !«?» mors boriali?!! ; ft <lr cct examcnbieu reflJchi, de cette lua- 
piE iiiiite de cumpnraisons rigourpuses, on sera (orci de conclurv. ainsi que 
nouK avons dii noug-mOmcs le raite. ' qu'tl n'est pas unc soulc csp^ce d'ani- 
inaux marina bien connui', qui, v^ritdOk' cosmopolite, aoit indlstinoti-inciit 
|>roi?re k toutea les parlies du globe' "—Notice sur Ics Ualiitiitiiiiia diy Ani- 
maui inarins ; in tho f^oyase our Terret Jiuiralcs, i. ii. p. 348, 349. 

• ?urthi'r illustrations of this important subject may be seen in Dr. Pri- 
chard'ft Resi'an:fiet cm the Physical llintiTy of Kan, chap. fil. sec. 'i antl 3. Zim- 
nrnn^nn, Gtunrafhttclie Grtchiclite, S:c, Jludolphi, Btytriae sur Jnthropologte 
ttnd allgemeinen NalurgetchicMe, No.iii. and in the paper ofroron and Le 8ueuz 
already quoted. 

I conclnde. then^ that the sahject in open for discassion ; and, 
at all events, if tlie descent of mankind from one stock can be 
proved independently of the Jewish booka, the conclusion will 
tend collaterally to establish the authority of these ancieat 

It may still be Inquired whether history affords no data for 
determining tliiB great problem ; whether the earliest traditions 
and records may not enable us to trace the succesaion of the 
human race from its origin downwards, or whether we may not 
be able to follow back particidar tribes or nations to the period 
of their first descent or establishment. We soon find that these 
efforts are unavailing ; that ntilher the annals nor the traditions 
of any people reach back to the remote ages when the various 
ramifications of the original stock — if there were any such — 
separated from each other, and took possession of the different 
countries where they are now settled. We cannot trace the 
branches of any .such family, nor point out the time and manner 
in which they divided and spread over the face of the globe. 
Even among the most enlightened peo])!e the period of authentic 
history is short, and every thing beyond that period is fabulous 
and obscure. 

The Jewish annals, in which it is not always easy to separate and 
distinguish what ought to he received as literally true, although 
of very high antiquity, merely relate to the transactions of a 
small tribe and some of their neiphliours. The Indian and 
Chinese, also very ancient, are equally confined. The phrase 
" Grnecia raendax" has long ago afforded a caution against 
placing much reliance on the early traditions transmitted by the 

In the introduction to his great work on language, An ELr no* 
lias summed up what history disclosea to us on this subject; 
and, as it has an important reference to the present object of 
inquiry, I hope the length of the extract will be excused. 

"Asia has been in all rime.s regarded as the country where the 
human race had its beginning, received its first education, and 
fi'ora wliich its increase was spread over the rest of the globe. 

" Tracing the people up to tribes, and the tribes up tn families, 
we are conducted at last, if not by histor)', at least by the tradi- 
tion of all old people, to a single pair, from which families, 

• Mithridatss, otier ttllgemeinc S/n-ar/i/^hmde, &c. \\ Tli. Bprlin, 1§0C. 2'. 
8'. 4^. Th. von. 1. S. Vatt-r, Berlin, 18WJ— 1817, ik most imptfrlarit work in reU- 
tJon to the history of our apecJes, aad tbu aUiiiities and niiijratlona of f ariudj 


tribes, and aations have been successively j^roduoed. 'Ilie 
question haa been often asked, what was this first family, and to« 
first people descending from it i where was it settled ? and bow 
has it extended 8u aa to M the four large divisions of the globe! 
It is a question of fact, and must be answered from history. 
But history is silent ; her first books have been destroyed by 
time, and the few lines preserved by Mosks are rather calcu» 
lated to excite than satisfy our curiosity, 

" In the first feeble rays of its early dawn, wliich are faintly 
perceived about 2000 years before the commencement of our 
present chronology, the whole of Asia, and a part of Africa, aw 
already occupied with a variety of greater and smaller nations, of 1 
various manners, religion, and language. The warlike struggU | 
is already in full activity : here and there are polished states , 
with various useful inventions, which must have required long ' 
time for their productions, development, and extension. The 
rest of the human race consists of wild hordes occupied merely 
with pastoral pursuits, hunting, and robbery ; thus a kind of 
slave-trade is seen in the time of Abraham. Soon after a few 
weak glimmerings of light discover to ua Europe in a similar 
state of population, from the Don to the Pillars of Hercules; 
liere and there traces of culture, industry and commerce ; for 
instance, the amber trade in the Baltic, at in the tune of 
Homer, and that of the British tin. All this is perceived ia 
remote obscurity, where only a few points of light occasionally 
shoot across, to show us the germs of future history, which is 
still profoundly silent respecting the time and place of such 
events. Nothing is left for us but humbly to assume the garb 
of ignorance, to look round us in the great archives of nature, 
and see if there are any documents which may at least lead us to 
conjectures. Happily there are such. 

" The present Htructure of the earth's surface teaches as, 
what Moses confirms, that it was formerly covered to a certuit 
depth with water, which gradually lessened, from cauaesf 
unknown to us, so that various spots became dry and habitable. 
The highest dry surface on the globe must, therefore, have been 
the earliest inhabited ; and here nature, or rather her Creator, 
will have planted the first people, whose multiplication and 
extension must have followed the continual gradual decrease o£ 
the water. 

"We must fancy to ourselves this first tribe endowed with all 
human faculties, but not possessing all knowledge and expe* 


lience, Che subsequent acquisition of whicli is left to the natnra) 
operation of time and circumstances. As nature would not 
onaecessanly expose her lirat-)x)rn And unexperienced son 
to conllicts and dangers, the place of his early- abode would 
be so selected, that all hia wants could be easily satisfied, and 
every thing essential to the pleasure of his existence, readily 
procured. He would be ]jlaced, in short, in a garden, or 

" Such a country is found in central Asia, between the 30th 
and 50th degrees of north latitude, and the 90th and 1 Utth of 
east longitude (from Ferro) : a spot which, in respect to its 
height, can only be compared to the lofty plain of Quito in 
South America. From this elevation, of which the great desert 
Gobi, or Shamo, is the vertical i>oint, Asia sinlu gradually 
towards all the four quarters. The great chains of mountains, 
running in various directions, arise from it, and contain the 
sources of the great rivers which traverse tliis division of the 
globe on all sides; the Selinga, the Ob, the Lena, the Irtisch, 
and the Jenisey, in the north ; the Jaik, the Jihon, the Jemba, 
on the west ; the Amur and die Hoang-ho (or Yellow River), 
towards the east; the Indus, Ganges, and Burrampooter, on the 
south. If the globe was ever covered with water, this great 
table land must Arst have became dry, and have appeared like 
an island in the watery expanse. The cold and barren desert of 
Gobi would not, indeed, have been a suitable abode for the iirst 
people ; but, on its southern declivity we find Thibet, separated 
by high mountain.s from the rest of the world, and containing 
within its boundaries all varieties of air and climate. If the 
severest cold prevails on its snowy moujitains and glaciers, a 
perpetixal summer reigns in its valleys and well-watered plains. 
This is the native abode of rice, the vine, pulse, fruit, and all other 
vegetable productions, from which man draws his nourishment. 
Here, too, all the animals are found wild which man has tamed for 
his use, and carried with him over the whole earth ; — the cow». 

• To determine the original stock of our domeHtic animals is one of tbrmott 
dilHcult aiKlrrtakinga iu xuolugr. 1 know uu datm on which tlie ax-kinU can 
he referred tu any wild speeies in Ajiu. Cuvier bu canduded. from a minuta 
«steoloijica) inquirv, that t)u> wild ox O'nis orhisuo of the ancients; auriMlba 
of the (iermana), fonnpTly found tliroui^huut the greater part of temperate 
£uro]>p, and still mot with in the fore^ti^ i>f Lithuania, nf the Carpathiaa and 
Caucasian chaicui, in nut, as must naturalisia have su[i|>n9L-d, the wild orijnnal 
of our cattle; but that thia {'haxiketcrs of llie Latter are fuund iu ci^rlain Ibtsil 
eikhia ; »hrrjcc he tliinlui it (iruUftblf " that thi; primary race ha.i beca anni- 
hilated by civilizaiion, >iko that uf the camel aiiddramedary," JMm AiUmmu 
JosiiieM, V, It. ; Ituminau/oftikt/ p. &Z, 


hone,* ass, f slieep, X goat, § camel, || pig. dog,^ cat, and 
even tlie serviceable rein-deer,** his only attendant and 
friend in the icy deserts of the frozen polar regions. Close to 
Thibet, and just on the declivity of the great central elevation, 
we find the charming region of Cashmirej where great elevation 
converts the southern heat into perpetual spring, and where 
nature has exerted all her powers to produce plants, animals, 
iuid man, in the highest perfection. No spot on the whole 
earth unites so many advantages ; in none could the human 
plant have Kucceeded ko well without any care/'t't Tliis spot, 
therefore, seems to unite all the characters of paradise, and to 
be the most appropriate situation in Asia for the birth-place of 
the human race. 
. Such is the general result of historical inquiry : it points oat 

• Palliu Spicileg. Zooi. iase. xL p. 5, note b. + JUd. note e, 

i Tlicro are twu or three wild specifs, nenrly related lo each other, which 
■eem to have equal claima to be cun&iilpCFd as the suurcc of our sheep. Of 
these the arL^ali found iu the ^reat mountains of Asia sliongly lesetnbfos the 
slieop. I'ull^ S/iicileg. J?oa{. fasc. xi. lab. 1 aiidS. 

i The wild goat (iet;ngrus) is met with in the mauntaiim of FeiBla, where it 
has the ntimc ul |i:iseiig or pasan (whence the term {jOHahr, iiiirrupted into he- 
ZOUT, B|i|jlifd ta their intestinal concrotioua), aud prubably ehfewlicre, even in 
the Alpa o( Europe. Cuvicr, Menagerie de Mtueutn, 8vo. v. li. p. 177. The 
ibex ibouquoUn) occiipie« the hiRhest summltn of the mountains of the old 
continent : that of Asia in described by Pidlaa, Sfiic. itoul. f. 11, p. 31, et seq. 
tab. iii. Another »pccies inhabits the chain of Caucasus (capra Caueasicaj ; 
tiuldcnsta-dt, Cvmmenl. Petrop. 1779, pi. xvt, xvit 

ll In ijpposjtion to the assertion of Buflciii, who represents (hat the entire 
rac^ is redii(:ed to slavery, and wbci stran^'ly reffards tin* callosities of ila 
cbi^st aiid limbs a3 the result of its servile l^ours. Tallow rc-porui, on the taxth 
of the Bticlinriau mercbutiLs, and of the ii« Atidcriuf> numiides uf Asia, that na- 
tive wild camels are still found in the vast plnins of the temiierale part of this 
continent, und are dJiilin^ruiBbedfroin the Jumesticated aniiiMiE^ by tlieir &upe- 
rior siie, spirit, and swiftneas. Thcnortlii"Tn conSnH-a of India, and the dcsorU 
between it and China, si.vm to be the native abode of the iiactriiui camel, or 
that with two ^)rutiiherance!!, Ttie wild camels abuut the Balchaitch Lalie and 
Bogdo .MuuTitaiii are priiliably prtnluced frora tho>^e which have been act at 
liberty by the Cnlmucks from religious motives. Fiucig. xi. p. 4, note a. 

'a Pallas seems fully convinced that the JackaU " cupiusissimiun in unircno 
orlente animal," is the source of our do^'S, which he closely reBembles in 
inaaneTS and disposition, beiug also very like sumt' breeds in siie aud li^rc. 
" Hoinini facillime adsuoiicit, nunquam, uti lupus ct vulpcs cieiirati, tnfidi 
aniini signa edeus, lususve cruenlans; cones iion fugU, sed ardenter ap|vetit. 
cum iisque colludit, ut phine niillutn sit dubium cum iisdem ■;eneraturum, si 
lentetur expciimcntum. Vocem deslderii tauinai aiiiiilltmain habet; humini 
Cauda eudeni mudo atUiUndilur, et in dorsum provohi atgue inajiibu.<i demul- 
ceri amaC Ipse qunque ululatus ejus, cum latriitu canum ejulabundo mac^nani 
hnbct analrjjjiain. Ergo duliiura vtx esse piita, homiuis speciem, in eadem 
cum lupo oureo cjimaii' naturB^lllcr ii]i|uiliikum, anliquitus hujus catulis cicu- 
Talis dumestii^us sibi edurasae canes, (quorum naturalis instinctus jam homini. 
quem feri non multum timent, aiiiiciis,et in veoationem pronus erat." SiiiciU 
Zaui. fuAC. xi. p. 1, note. 

The!* opinions are conllrmcd by the statement!! of GuId(Tnsta?dt, who found 
the cfficum and thtr teeth perfectly alike in the dug and jackal ; it is not so in 
the wolf. The jackal niakea water sideways; " odorat anuin alterius; co- 
lueret copula junctus." Hot. Comintml. /'clnf. v. 20, p. 459, tab. xi. 

•• The r^-in-deer is only known at preseiil in the coldest regions. Adeluag 
could nut, I think, have any sufTicient authority for placing its origin in the 
tegiun and climate which he here describes, 

n Adeluiufi 1'. Thcil. Kinkitung, p. 3—0 


the East sa the earliest or original seat of our specieji. the 
•ource of our domesticated animals, of our principal vegetable 
food, and the cradle of arta and scienccH : but it doe a not fur- 
nish the means of deciding whetiier the globe has been peopled 
from one or more original stocks, nur enable iia to trace satis- 
factorily the mode in whiL-li their dissemination has been 

Before entennj.^ on the immediate object of this section, it is 
necessary to consider what is the precise acceptation of the 
terms species and varieties in zoology ; what constitutes a 
species, and how varieties arise out of it. 

Animals are characterized by fixed and definite estemal forms, 
which are transmitted and perpetuated by generation. The 
offspring of sexual unions is marked with all the bodily cha- 
racters of the parents. However strong tJie impulse may be» 
wliich leads to the continuation of the species, there seems to be 
an equally powerful aversion to intercourse witli those of other 
species. Hence in the wild state even the most nearly allied do 
not intermix, aa tlie hare and rabbit; the horse and ass; the 
different kinds of mice, or of rats. Constant and permanent 
difference, therefore, is the essential notion conveyed by the 
word species ; and, provided it be invariably maintained, it is 
immaterial whether that diB'erencc be great or sm^ll. Ilius the 
specific distinction between the black rat (mus rattua) and the 
brown or Norway rat (m. decumanus), or between the domestic 
mouse (m. musculus) and the field mouse (ni. arvalis), is aa 
perfect, as between either of and the elephant. 

By the reproduction of the same characters, and the aversion 
to union with other species, uniformity is maintained ; and the 
lapse of ages produces no devialiun from the original model. 
Animals are just the same now as at any, even the remotest 
period of our acquaintance with them. The zoological descrip- 
tions of Aristotle, composed twenty-two centuries ago, ap- 
ply in all points to the individuals of the present time; and 
ever)' incidental mention of anirnalsj or allusion to their cha- 
racters and prop erties in the writings of historians, poets, fabu- 
lists, confirms this idendity of form and endowments. Every 
work of art, such as statues, paintings, sculptures ; and the 
actual relics in tombs, mummies, &c. all corroborate the proof." 

• " I lin»e careCuUy i-xatiiinpd tlic U^-urf s of anitnsiTi anil birds engraven oa 
the numerous Dbeliili>i bniuglil Iniin Ei-ypI tu ancient Kume. In the general 
character, which U all that eun have b<'cn pri'servod, tiifsc ropresriitatioDa 
perfectly rescmlile tht- oilginnls, aa we nuw svi; Ihcm. iT y Icuned coliea^t, 



These remarkB are chiefly applicable to wild animals, which 
mnain in places mosl congenial to their nature; where the 
climate, sesBons, air, soil, supply of food, correspond to their 
organization, economy, and wants. Some of these, however, 
are capable of enduring greater diversity of situation than 
Others ; and heace arc exposed to considerable differences m 
various external agencies. " The wolf and the fox," says 
CuviEH,* " are found from the torrid zone to high northern 
latitudes ; but, in this wide extent, the principal difference is a 
little more or less beauty in the fur. I have compared the crania 
of the northern and Egyptian foxes to those of France, and have 
found only individual differences. Wild animals, confined wnthin 
narrow limits, particularly those of the carnivorous order, vary 
still leas. A fuller mane is the only circumstance distinguish- 
ing the hyena of Persia from that of Morocco." 

Variations in the quantity and quality of food may canm 
some ahght differences: thus the tusks of elephants, or the 
horn.s of the deer kind, may be larger or longer where the ali- 
ment is more abundant and nutritious. 

There are, however, many animals which are no longer in 
their natural wild state, having been domesticated or reduced to 
slavery by man. Here the original form is no longer strictly 
preserved. De^^ationa take place in size, colour, form, propor- 
tions, and qualities; and the degree of the effect will of course 
be measured by the intensity and duration of the cause. 

The degree of domestication is very various. In some cases 
the animals do not breed in servitude ; consequently each 
indii*idii;a.l must be reduced from the original wild state : here 
no variation occurs. The elephant affords an example." The 
rein-deer is confined ivithin narrow limits as to temperature ; 
and, since it cannot be removed from these, it varies little. 

There are degrees of domealication, dejiendent probably on 
original capabilities of education. The cat, which is only par- 
tially enslaved, merely varies in the texture and colour of ita 
fur; and inconsiderably in size: but the skeleton of any tame 
cat differs from that of the wild in no essential point. 

Tlie greatest differences are produced when man regulates the 

Mr. Geoffroy St.Hilaire, collecled luimerous rnunnnk-s of animals from the 
»epulchre» anil Mmplfs of UpptT and Lower Egj'pL He brousbl away cats, 
ihiites, birds iif prej.dogrs. inonkpys. I'rocudilcs, and an ox's hi 'ad embalmed. 
There U no more diffptcnce between thesu! relics and the animaU we are now 
acquauited with, thnn brtween tuman mummies and the akeleiunsof the pre- 
leot dHv." — Cuvier, Becherchct lur Ut Oaeinent /(utiles ; i. JJiic.vrelim. v. HL 
• i6«a. p. 7S. /- r — 



Bexnal intercourse of animals: by selecting individuals to breed 
from, be can effect the most surprising changes in forrn and 
qualities, as the examples of the pig, sheep, horse, cow, and 
dog, will abundantly evince. The deflation has become at last 
so great, that the original stock from which the animals de- 
scended is doubtful. 

The herbivorous domestic animals, following ub into all cli- 
mates, and governed by us in their food, labour, and external 
defence or protection, exhibit variations which, although appa- 
rently very considerable, are chiefly superficial. The size, the 
greater or less development, or entire want of horns, the nature 
of the hairy covering, and such other points, are the subjects of 
change. The skeleton, the form and connection of the bones, 
the teeth, are never altered. The comparatively imperfect deve- 
lopment of the tusks in the pig, and the consolidation of the toes, 
are the most striking effects produced in this class of animals. 

"The strongest marks of human influence are seen in the 
animals of which man has made the nio8t complete conquest ; 
in the dog, who is so perfectly devoted to us, that he seems to 
have sacrificed to ua his individual character, interest, and feel- 
ings. Carried by man all over the world, subjected to the action 
of the most powerful causes, and directed in sexual intercourse 
by the will of their master, the dogs vary in colour, in the quantity 
of hair, which is sometimes entirely lost ; in their nature and 
properties ; in size, which may differ as one to five in linear 
dimensions, or more tiian one to a hundred in the mass ; in the 
form of the ears, nose, tail -, in the height of the limbs ; in the 
development of the brain, and consequent form of the head, 
which may he slender, with elongated muzzle and flat forehead ; 
or short with convex forehead; so that the apparent differences 
between a mastiff and a spaniel, a greyhound and a jmodle, are 
greater than we find between any wild species of the same 
natural genus. Lastly, which is the maximum of variation 
hitherto known in the animal kingdom, there are races of dogs 
•with an additional toe and corresponding metatarsal bone on the 
liindfoot, as there are six-6ngered families in the human species. 
Still, in all these variations, the relations of the bones remain 
the same, and the form of the teeth is never altered,"* 

Thus we find that species must be taken in ven"^ different 
acceptations in wild and domestic animals ; that while all the 
beingB included under the same species exhibit, in the former 
• Caiiei, BKhen/iet tur let Ouemern fotnUi ; i. Vitc. prelim, p. 78, 



case, a close and rigorous resemblance, admitting at most of 
slight diversities in colour, fur, size, and development of some 
less important i)arts ; wider deviations are allowed in the latter, 
than are ohser\'ed Iietiveen some wild animals acknowledged to 
belong to different species. 

It may be stated, in the abstract, that all animals which diflfer 
in such points only as might arise in the natural course of de- 
generation, that is, from recognised causes of variation, belong 
to the same species ; while those different which cannot be ac- 
counted for on this supposition must lead us to class the ani- 
mals which exhibit them in different species. But the chief 
difficulty is to point out the characters by which, in actual prac- 
tice, mere varieties may be distinguished from genuine specific 

Ilie transmission of specific forma by generation, and the 
aversion to unions with those of other kinds, soon led naturalists 
to seek for a criterion of species in breeding.* 'ITiey esta- 
blished the rule, that those animals which copulate together, and 
produce an offspring equally prolific with themselves, belong to 
one and the same species, ascribing the differences which may 
exist between them to adventitious causes. The hij{h authority 
of BuFFONand Hunter, who adopted this opinion, occasioned 
the criterion of breeding to be very generally relied on. 

If we admit this, the question respecting the human species 
would be immediately solved. For all the races breed together, 
and their offspring is prohfic, either with each other, or with any 
of the original races. Indeed, we know no difference in pro- 
ductiveness between such unions and those of the same race. 

This rule, however, involves a ])etitio principii, in assuming 
that animals of distinct species never produce together a prohfic 
offsjiring. Generally, indeed, hybrid animals, or the offspring 
of any two species, are incapable of generation ; and this is a 
powerful additional provision for preserving uniformitj' of spe- 
cies. There are, however, instances, both among the mammalia 
and birds, of individuals lielunging to species universally held to 
be distinct, uniting and producing young, which were again 
prolific. That the mule can engender with the mare, and that 
the she-mule can conceive, was known U> Akistotle. The 
circumstance is said to occur most frequently m warm countnes; 

• The jirinciplc liM not pscappd cotninan iibacrvation : U ia expressed in 
the Enjilifti wtjid hmJ, aiwl in tlw Gcrmoiii gaituag (Miiecics), which »igiaifle» 


but it has taken place in Scotland.* Buffon states that the 
offspring of the he-goat and ewe possesses perfect powers of 
reproduction. We might expect these animals, with the addi- 
tion also of the chamois (anUlope rupicapra), to copulate together 
easily, because they are nearly of the same size, very similar in 
internal structure, accustomed to artificial domestic life, and to 
the society of each other from birth upwards. There is a similar 
fiunlity in some birds belonging to the genera fringilla, anas, and 
phasianns, where such unions are often fruitful, and produce 
prolific offspring. The cock and hen canary birds produce with 
the hen and cock siskin and goldfinch ;f the hen canary pro- 
duces with the cock chaffinch, bullfinch, yellow-hammer, and 
sparrow. The progeny in all these cases is prolific, and breeds 
Bot only with both the species from which they spring, but 
likewise with each other. J The common cock and the hen 
partridge, as well as the cock and the guinea hen,§ the pheasant 
and the hen,|| can produce together. 

The anser cygnoides (Chinese goose) copulates readily in 
Russia with the common goose, and produces a hybrid but per- 
fectly prolific offspring ; the race soon returns to the characters 
of the common goose, imless crossed again with the Chinese 

It is true that these unnatural unions take place in animals 
under the power of man, are accomplished with the assistance 
of contrivance and stratagem, and generally require an attention 
to several preliminary circumstances; it is also found, that, 
under artificial constraint and privation, unions of distinct spe- 
cies may take place without fecundation, as of the hare and 
bitch,** the bull and mare ;tt they prove, however, sufficiently 
that this affair of generation will not afford the criterion we are 
in search of. 

It was soon found that this rule of reproduction could not be 
applied to domesticated animals, on account of their unnatiu-al 
way of life ; and hence Frisch, towards the beginning of the 
last century, confined it entirely to the wild ones. And here it 
is of little service : for how can we expect ever to bring toge- 
ther those wild species to ascertain the point, particularly when 
they inhabit different countries, as, for instance, the chimpanse 

• Buffon, hy Wood, v. Iv. p. 20O— «05. 

+ Buflbn, by Wood, v. xiv. p. 63, and followine. j jRnd. p. 70. 

I Ibid. V. xii. 61. J Pallas, Spicil. Zool. t xi. p. 36, note. 

IT Ihtd. Act. Acad. Scient. Petrop. 1780 ; p. 83, note ; p. 96. 
•• Vallas saw this in the instance of a tame hare kept with dogs, Spic. ZouU 
ftsc. xi. p. 36, note. tt Buffon, v. ir. p. 821. 


of Angola and the orang-outang of Borneo ? Nor are there so 
many doubts about these, as about the domesticated animals, 
which are thus excluded. 

The different breeds of dogs, for example, are referred by 
some to different species ; and they are, indeed, sufficiently 
marked by distinctive peitnanent characters to warrant the 
opinion, if the constancy of such characters were a sufficient 
proof of difference in species. Others, again, refer them all to 
the shepherd's dog j and others include all the dogs, the wolf, 
fox, and jackal, in one species. The dog and bitch produce 
with the male and female wolf, and with the dog and bitch fox ; 
and the offspring ia prolific. Yet we cannot surely ascribe 
animals, which are marked in their wild state by such strong 
characters, of bodily fonnation, disposition, and habits, as the 
wolf, fox, and jackal, to one and the same species, without over- 
turning all the fundamental principles of zoology, however fireely 
they may intermix, and however perfect the reproductive power 
may be in their offapring,* 

We may conclude, then, from a general review of the pre- 
ceding facts, that nature has provided, by the insurmountable 
barriers of instinctive avcrsiorijof sterility in the hybrid offspring, 
and in the allotment of species to different parts of the earth, 
against any corruption or change of species in wild animals. 
We must therefore admit, for all the 8i)ecies which we know at 
present, as sufficiently distinct and constant, a distinct origin 
and common date. On the other hand, the fruitful intermix- 
ture which art has accomplished, of some of these species, wiU 
not justify na in ascribing to them identity of race or origin, 
when we see them in the natural wild state distinguished by 
constant characters from the type of the neighbouring species, 
and always producing an offspring marked by these characters. 

Since neither the principle of breeding, nor the constancy 

• PaJlas entertain! the npiniun that out sliepp, cJoga, and perhaps poultry, 
aie CictitlDU!! beings, nut descended from imy single wild original, Uut from a 
mixture of nearly allied ptinulivi- species, whose hybrid iilBpriags hare uos- 
setsed prolific pt)weni. He (ibservcs that those domenticatea animals, wliieh 
either Jo not intermix with other species, or which prrtduce with others iin- 
proUfic progeny, ure rery little cbanjied, however compU'ttly and anciently 
they may havcoee-n brought under the ilumtniun of man ; or at least are not 
Eo eban(;rd as to cause any ciifRculty respectine their orirfn. This is the cmp 
with the linrae and das in all cliranios; with the o\ kinu; with tho pig; the 
camel anrl dromedary ; and Iht' rein-deer. He refers our sheep to intermix* 
lur^soflhe tjiberian argali (uviBammoiO, the mou Hon of Corsieaand Sardinia, 
that of Africa (ovis tra^laphus Cuv.), the wild c^uat of I'ersia (paieaR, the 
bezaar aniraal, e^pra s^graj;ruB), the bouqiietin {caura ihev), and the wild goat 
of Caucasus (capra CaucaainaV The doa he ctinsluers to hare proceeded ^om 
thejackiil u'oli, andfux. MemoiretturJa yariaiioatia jimmaiuc; JelaJlcai, 
ftlrop. nso. 



of partioilar characters, are siilHcient in all cases to enable 
na to judgf! of species, and since these fail, particularly in 
the domestic kinds, where their aid is principally required, 
we must resort at last to the criterion recommended by Bltj- 
MENBACH, and draw our notions of species in zoology from 
analogy and probability. If we see two races of animals reaem- 
bling each other in. general, and differing only in certain respects, 
■eeirding with what we have observed in other instances, wa 
nfec them without hesitation to the same species, although 
the difference should be so considerable, as to affect the whola 
external appearance. On the contrar}% if the difference should 
be of a kind which has never arisen, mthin our experience of 
tlie animal kingdom, as a variety, we must pronounce them to 
bekmg to distinct species, even altlipugh there should he, on 
the whole, a great general resemblance between tlie two. " I 
see," says this acute and judicious naturalist, " a remarkabla 
difference between the Asiatic and African elephants in the 
structure of the molar teeth. Whether these inhabitants of 
such distant regions win ever be brought to co|)ulate together, 
and whether this formation he universal, is uncertain : but it 
eiiflts in all the specimens I have seen or heard of, and I know 
no example of molar teeth changed in such a manner by dege- 
neration, or the action of adventitious causes: therefore I con- 
jecture, from analogy, that these elephants are not mere varieties, 
but truly different species. On the other hand, I hold the ferret 
Unustela furo) to be only a variety of the pole-cat (m. putorius), 
not so much because they produce together, but because it has 
red pupils ^ and the analogy of numerous other instances in- 
duces me to regard all the other mammalia, which are destitute 
of the colouring pigment of the eyCt aa varieties degenerated 
from their original stocks."* 

This raethod is the only satisfactory one of investigating the 
varieties of the human species. The diversities of physical and 
moral endowment which characterize the various races of man, 
must be analogous in their nature, causes, and origin, to those 
which are observed in the rest of the animal creation ; and must 
therefore be explained on the same principles. 

There is no point of difference between the several races of 
mankind, which has not been found to arise, in at least an equal 
degree, among other animals, as a mere variety, from the usual 
caOKB of degeneration. Our instances are drawn chiefly from 
* De Geo. hum. Vtsr. not. pp. 70, 7i. 


the domesticated kinds, which, by their association with man^ 
lead an unnatural kind of life, are taken into new cUmntes and 
situations, and exposed to various other circumstances, alto- 
gether difterent from their original destination. Hence they 
run into varieties of form, size, proportions, colour, disposition, 
faculties, which, when they are established aa jiermanent breeds, 
would be considered by a person uninformed on these subjects 
to be originally different species. ItVild animals, on the con- 
trary, remaining constantly in the state for which they were 
originally framed, retain permanently their first character. 

Man cannot be called, in the ordinary sense of the term, a 
domesticaled atiimal ; yet he ia eminently domestic. Inhabiting 
every climate and soil, Eicted on by the greatest variety of external 
agencies, using every kind of fond, and following everj' mode 
of life, he must be exposed still more than any animal to the 
causes of degeneration, 

I proceed to consider the circumstances in which the several 
races of men differ from each other, to compare them to thei 
Corresponding differences of animals, and to show that the par- 
ticular and general results of these inquiries lead us plainly to 
the conclusion, that the I'arious races of human beings are only 
to be regarded as varieties of a single species. TATiether this 
one species owes its origin to one pair, a male and a female, is 
a question which zoology does not possess the means of solving; 
a question which is of no more importance respecting our own 
species, than it would be in the case of the elephant, lion, or anY 
other animal. 


On lluf Colour of the Mtman Sjjea'es. — Struclure of the Farts in xchich the Colour 
residet. — Enumeration qf the rariuwi Tintt. —Colour and Dettomination of the 
mixed Urwh. — Variout Colours cf Animals. — Production of yarietiet. — 
S]X>ilnl iuditiduaU— Other Properties of the Skin. 

Although a general survey of organized bodies in both the 
animal and vegetable kingdom by no means leads us to regard 
colour as one of their most important distinctions, but, on the 
contrary, will soon convince us that it may undergo very signal 
changes M'ithout essential alterations of their nature ; and 
although this remark holds equally good of the human subject; 
yet the different tints and shades of the skin, offering them- 
adves so immediately to observation, and forcing themselves, 
tn a manner on the attention of the most incurious, have always 


been regarded by the generality of mankind as the most chai-ac 
teriatic attribute of the various racea. Theae several hues form, 
indeed, very constant hereditary characters, clearly inHuenced 
by tiie colour of both parents in the mixed ofl'spring of difi'erent 
varieties, and bearing a very close and nearly uniform relation 
to that uf the hair and iris, as well as to the whole temperaiaent 
of the indiviilual. 

The skin, in which the colour of animals resides, is a more or 
less dense membrane covering the Burface, and generaUy pro- 
portioned in thickness to the volume of the body ; serving the 
purpose of binding together and protecting the subjacent organs, 
of separating, under the form of sensible and insensible perspi- 
ration, a large quantity of excretory matter, the residue of 
digestion and nutrition, and of estabbshing the relations betwcea 
the bving frame and surrounding objects. It is the sensitive 
limit of the body, placed at the extremity of the orj^ans, inces- 
santly exposed to external influences, and thus forming one 
great connexion between animal existence and that of surround- 
ing substances. 

Anatomical analysis resolves this apparently single envelop 
of our organs, commonly called skin, into two or more strata, 
tEclinically termed the common integuments. 

The most considerable and important of these, making up, 
indeed, the chief bulk of the skin, is the cutis vera, or true akin, 
dermis, corium, le corion Fr. ; — the part which, when prepared 
by the chemical process of tanning, constitutes leather. It is a 
compact and strong areolar tissue, composed of a dense fibrous 
substance, with numerous \'acuities or intervals. The inter- 
texture of the fibrous or cellular tissue is close and compact on 
its e.vternal surface, so as to resemble the smooth continuity of 
a membrane ; more loose, with large areolae on the opposite or 
adhering aspect; where the fibrous threads are in those of 
the subjacent cellular or adipous tissue. Immersion in water 
softens the skin by separating the fibres of its corion, and ren- 
dering their mtervals more distinct : we then find that the 
areolae are not confined to the external surface, but are pro- 
longed into its substance, which is penetrated by them in its 
whole thicltness. They serve for the passage of hairs, exbalants, 
and absorbents, as they come to the surface. 

The areolar tissue of the cutis is permeated in every direction 
by countless mytnads of arterial and venous ramifications, of 
which the ultimate capillary divisions occupy the external pr 


compact surCace of the organ, and form a Tascular network orer 
the whole body, eludin^^ our inquiries and defying calculatioa 
fay the number and fineness of its tubes. In the glow of ex- 
ercise or the flush of shame, in the excitement of fever, or the 
eruption of measles, scarlatina, &c. these cutaneous vessels are 
filled with blood; they may be injected with coloored fluids 
after death. Their ramifications are particularly mmierous and 
subtle in those parts of the cutaneous organ which possess the 
most exquisite sensibihty ; and where the surface is found, on 
minute examination, to be covered by numerous fine processes 
called papillae or villi * 

The absorbents of the skin seem nearly equal in nomber to 
ite bbod-vessels. 

Numerous oenrcs enter it in all parts, and distribute their 
ktrfi^est ramifications in the situations occupied by the papillse. 

The colour of the cutis is uniform, or rery nearly so, in all 
the varieties of the human race, and depends entirely on the 
state of its capillary blood-vessels. According as they are full 
or empty., it may vary (as we see in the white races) from a more 
or less florid red, constituting what artists call flesh-colour, to 
the waxy paleness of fainting or exhaustion from haemorrhage. 
Maceration in water makes its areolar tissue quite white ; and 
injection with sise coloured by vermiUion sfives it a deeper or 
lighter shade of red, according to the force employed. 

The cuticle or epidermis, the exterior layer of our common 
integuments, is the thin transparent or light grayish pellicle 
raised by a bUster : in the natural state it adheres closely, almost 
inseparably, to the subjacent ])arts, and is accurately fitted to 
the cutis, having folds and lines corresponding to all the in- 
equalities of that organ. It presents no traces of fibres, laminae, 
or cells ; it has no blood-vessels, absorbents, or nerves. There- 
fore, though perforated by the hairs, by the excretory tabes of 
cutaneous follicles, by the exhalant mouths of the capillaries, 
and possibly by absorbent orifices, it is incapable of sensation 
and all ^ntal actions, extravascular, inorganic. It is a protecting' 
aheath for the finely-organized and sensible skin, and serves the 
further purpose of preventing evaporation, by which that organ 

• The cittenial vascular surfaeo oftho •■otis, with its pa|iiUa! or villi, aeema 
to Th! what Bichat ha-i ilcscribfil as a separate stratum, iinilorthe name of corps 
reticulairp iJlnal. gineraie). I have never seen the distinction. My object, 
here, is not however to desrrilie the akin fully, hut merely to consider it as the 
•eat of colour. They who n-iah for further infurmatiun on the structure of the 
integumiiits may consult Dr. Reeg' Cyclopcrdia, art. Integumenti; and Dr, 
OoTOoii'i Sutiem qfHumim AntUomf, book ii chap, 4. 


would otherwise be ineritably dried. Thug the external surface 
of our hvini; machine is in a manner dead ; and objects applied 
to it act on the cuticular nerves thnrnjuh thiu insensible medium 
When pretematurally thickenetl, it destroys sensation ; if re- 
moved, aa by blistering, the cooLict of bodies gives pain, but 
does not produce the appropriate impressions ol touch. 

The cuticle, as weU as the cutis, is nearly the same in the 
white and the dark-coloured races ; it is, on the whole, darker 
in the latter than in the former, and possesses a grayish or 
brownish tint. If there are any other slight modifications, they 
have not yet been aacertaiued. 

A third and more delicate stratum, interposed between the 
epidermis and the true skin, and called the rete or reticulum 
Malpigliii or mucosum, has been generally regarded as the seat 
of human colour ; — Kjf all the diversified tints which characterizes 
the various races of men. The softness of its textiue, and its 
perforation by hairs, papillae, &c. accaunt for the name rete 

It is a black layer, about as thick as the cuticle itself, or even 
thicker in the Negro ; and darker coloured on its dermoid thaa 
on its cuticular surface. Putre&ction detaches it with the 
cuticle from the subjacent cutis ; its further progress resolves 
the soft tissue into a. kind of unctuous slimy matter, readily 
washed away from the cuticle and akin. It is not easily sepa^ 
rated from the former : indeed it is, under all circumstances^ 
very difficult,* and where the skin is delicate quite impossible, 
to exhibit it detached, in any considerable portion, as a distinct 
membrane. It agrees with the cuticle in showing nothing like 
fibrous texture ; in being inorganic and exttavascular. It dif- 
fuses itself in water, and communicates a turbid cloud to tha 
fluid like that produced by the pigmentum nigrum of the eye ; 
then subsides as an impalpable powder to the bottom. Thus 
the source of colour in the dark varieties of our species is satis- 
factorily oscertjuned. 

I have stated elsewhere that " the demonstration of this reticu- 
lar body is much less easy in the white races than in the Negro j 
and indeed very little seems to be known concerning its anatomy 
in the former ;" and further, " that it seems really to be a matter 

• SopmnieTTini; pxperienccU Lbis difficulty; hn says, "it cannot, wttlioot 
mnoh truiiblf, bp shown ajt a peculiar di-tacbed rnerabrane ; ami I cquM only 
■Dccot'd in t}ic scrotum in eiihibitiiig cmuiiilf rable parlions of it as a senoiate, 
eoheroiii, and indi-ppnUi-iit memlirane," C/eber <tt« kerperlicht renchieUtnUt 


of doubt, whether in the white races there be any colonring 

matter in the exterior capillary system analogoua to the black 
substance of the Negro, or whether the colour of iheir surface 
arise merely from that of the cutis and cuticle."* When the 
cuticle separates by putrefaction from the cutis, the surfaces are 
moistened by a putrid offensive fluid ; but 1 could never detach 
any thing like a distinct membrane, even in the smallest portion.f 
'Hie late Dr. GoRUoN came to a similar conclusion from his 
investigation of the subject. " After the strictest examination, 
I have not been able Co find any light-coloured rete mucosum, 
corresponding to this black one, in the inhabitants of Great Bri- 
tain, nor in those of other nations resembling them in colour. 
1 have tried all the means usually said to be necessary for dis- 
covering it, and many others besides, but always without suc- 
cess : 1 am, therefore, disposed to deny the existence of any such 
membrane in white persons."! 

The differences between black and white men in tlie texture 
of the rete mucosum are distinctly noted by Blumenbach. 
He states that the native reddish white of the cutis shines through 
the transparent outer coverings in the white races, while in the 
dark the cutaneous pigment is seated in the rete mucosum, the 
epidermis, although pale, manifestly partaking of the tint. He 
adds, " Quo fuscius redculem sit eo crassius quoque et propius 
ad membranulse sui generis speciem accedens ; quo pelluddius 
contra, eo tenerius, et non nisi difflui mucl habitum pra; se 
f«rens."§ Hali-er || uses a similar contrast ; representing this 
part in the Negro as " involucrum, crassius quam in Europaeis, 
et verje menibranffl simile, cum istis potius mucus sit coactus." 

There is, in the Hunterian collection, a portion of white skin, 
with the cuticle turned down; a small portion of a thin trans- 
parent pellicle has been subsequently separated from the cutis. 
A further examination, particularly in the skins of intermediate 

• Ilfci* Csfcloptrdia, art Inlcputncnts. 
» + SoiTnmcrringTpniarkithiit He oncie found, in an Europpan female, theoater 
covering of the cutis diittactly divisible into two lameliiB ; anil thnt he pre- 
«erve« n isi^ecimfii of It in his coUecliun. Ueb. die kSrfcrlicke fersckt'edBMeii, 
tie. p. 4D. 

t Si/ttem of Human jtnatomtf! v. i. p, 213. I cannot omit this opportunity of 
paying to my deceasfd frivnd the small but sincere tribute of my high roapeet, 
and deep r»>giC't fur the loss wliich cur science has sustained in his jiremature 
d^ath. Ilis aljiiitips. Bcnuireroent*. atid xealouH di-t-otion to science, ■were wcU 
known. Ala-iiearly age he haddislin^iishetl himself a-s a teacher and n writer, 
•nd he set thfusrfulfxamplerjf appealinfjin all cases to naiure, and admitting 
no $tatcnicuta which he nuti not peraotially verified. A brilliniit anil usefiu 
career was jnst opening before him; in the present nt."iteor onnturay in this 
lungdnm, his tahoura tvautd have been slnpifarlv usefu'. 

1 ik g. h. war. nat, ted. iiL 1 ii. Jj iHmt. fjtj/nol. Ub. xii, sect i. I 11. 


tints, wi]l be required in order to settle the point. Altlioiigh I 
cannot demonstrate rete miicoHTim in the European, I think that 
there must be under the cuticle Bornecohniring matter: how can 
we othenvise accoiint for the difference between the fair and 
the sivarthy, or for the remarkable peculiarity of the Albino ?• 

Tlie colours irapreased on the «kin in the operation of tattooing, 
which we see so frequently in our sailors, nnd of which the South 
Sea Islanders exhibit such remarkable and often very elegant spe- 
cimens, reside in the cutis, and are indelible, except by the removal 
or destniction of the part. The cuticle does not partake in tha 
effect, which therefore, for obvious reasons, is brighter and mora 
conspicuous when that integument has been removed. 

When wo direct our attention to the very numerous colouis 
and shades which the several varieties of the great human family 
exhibit, merely with the view of ascertaining with how many 
external modifications nature has been pleased to diversify the 
chef-d'oeuvre of the terreatrial creation, the suhject, like all bo- 
longing to man, has its attraction and interest. But the inves- 
tigation becomes much more important when it embraces the 
causes of these appearances, and the degree of force belonging 
to each ; when we inquire whether the colour of a people depends 
on the climate of their present or former aFjodc, or on their de- 
scent ; whether that of children is influenced by the eUmate in 
which they are born, or by the blood of their parents ; whetliar 
it is a sure token of race and pedigree; how many principal ft. 
leading colours we ought to assign to man as at present known , 
and whether any and what number of these are to be deemed 
original or primary. These points are yet undecided, and cer- 
tainly worthy of our attention. 

The very nature of language, the want of adequate expressions 
to denote the endless shades of colour, and the iudeterminate- 
ness of those which are applied to various tints, create some 
difficulties in this part of the subject, by producing considerable 
discrepancies in the reports of travellers, which again are of 

• Cunper Brems to be Influenced liy BimllikT argutnenU, rather Ihan by 
direct anatomical pvidence, in asoribing a rete mucoaum to the white race*. 
"' Cn-dihlle cssH milii vidi'tur, omiies hominf^ reticuto BimlH ffauderc, quod, 
pro divcrsis resioniliusi, et in divprsin haminibun non moJo, seu in eodeni, pro 
partlutn ("nripUle, siiperflciein narluin, Dlbum, riUKmin, vi;l nifn'um 
apparet. I'Tirpariivi cutis piirtiorterti, e iatfn? fisininii! emonusi depramptam, 
cujus fucies, rt pectus nive crant candidiorn, in qua reticuluin intense fujicuiB 
est." DetiumttTat. Jlnalum. ]mH>i'i. U\i, i. cap. 1. 

He repeats in llie«ame fia.!;p the camtnun representation of the retp niucoium 
Hot bein'; regenerated, and of cicatrices in blocks being therefure while. I 
H&ve bad rep«jLtvd oppaciuQilici of ucertaLainir that (liis notloa is oitogcthei 

«if white, yellow, 

m degfce, every possible 

whiteness of the 

•r «f Ab Aftino. and the de^ 

None of these gra-- 

a* W faomd in all the indi- 

■ar ii •• pecolisr to any one 

I dkw viday difiistjut 


to Ank five fcHuwlmk,' princi- 



to fte cwHifaB of ti» 
r CM IteM W owto^ «k»kMv aot kof* to Uwb?* 

> te iHHtonto hataed to tfas Mqpo and dw 

»tto>BU<<i>iwtl»t<» i ii ito ,^ ^ i i la iif 1^ i| l i»««^tiMfc»i> 

lWtow*^»to— tSr Ultoww^Wawj w y — l iai^wMOM— .it^ < 

M>. r> III * ««g»»* tw in II . l>^"*» n i l i T ii baAiifa^ 

_Ji ,1. I J ' ' ' •" i i jt 

varieties, blushing has been noticed ; as by Forster* in the 
purest Otaheitean women ; and by DAMPiERf in the Tun- 
quinese : " they are," he observes, " of a tawny Indian colour ; 
but, I think, the fairest and clearest I ever saw of that com- 
plexion : for you may percei%'e a blush or change of colour ia 
some of their faces on any sudden suqirise of passion, which I 
could never discern in any other Indians." 

Considerable variety, however, will be found to exist in the 
colour known by the general epithet white. 

That singular description of human beings called vVlbinos, 
pOBsesacs a skin of a peculiar reddish, or an unnatural white tint, 
with corresponding yellowish white or milk-white hair, and red, 
or at least very light blue or gray eyes. Tlie cutaneous organ 
has sometimes a roug^hness, which bas been construed as an 
approach to a degree of lepra. t The hair of aU parts of the 
body is unnaturally white and soft ; it has not the snowy white- 
ness of old age, nor the elegant light yellow or flaxen ajjpear- 
ance of the fair-haired (blondins, Fr.) German variety ; but it is 
compared to that of inilk or cream, or of a white horse, llie 
eyebrows, eyelashes, beard, the hair of other parts, and often a 
soft down covering the whole body, are of the same colour. 
The iris is of a palo rose colour, and the pupil intensely red : § 
these parts, in short, are exactly similar to the corresponding 
ones in white rabbits and ferrets. || 

• ObuTtaliont nuidi' m a ycyaee round iHe If arid: p, 929, He stya that the 
connplcxioa of thechwfs, or beallbrmedracoin Otahpiti<, i« of » white tinctured 
wiUi a brownish ypllow, however not so »trt>nKl j^ mixed, but that on the cheek 
of thp {adreit of the womeD you may cosily distiaguMti a ipteadiog hlusb. " 

+ Foyaget, v. li. p. 41). 

\ Blumenbach has gipen an intcrt'Sting descriptioti of two Tjrotheni who live 
in thevaleof Chamoupjy, " rutiseonini. prirtor rubort-ra !>iiii>ularetin, mixlme 
in facie conspicuuai, pricprimia epidpnnlav in niveos ot tpnclui* furfures qiuai 
fatiseent*.', mnnorahilisPTat. Copilliautt'm laniB capriniE similes, torn rei-to et 
omnis iailesag esjierto dpruTsu, turn insuetn Oolureexalbosingtiliintcrllaves- 
cente. crant iusigne!). Quibus ttiam rilia, et S4ipc-rrilia, et (iu^h-k tcnella, cum 
mentum turn n'liuuuui rorpus ohsidens, respoiidt'lmri.t." l>t Ocuiit Leucm- 
tkiopum, el Iriilit Uotu, in Oimmenlatiim. Heg. Sec. Sciml. Goetting. ; v. vli. 

Dr. Winterbutlom saw a white African woman with a remarkably coinc 
and wrinkled skin ; it waj dry and harsh to the touch, and marked with deep 
furrows. It bad a reddish lingo in parts exposed to the sun, boin^ of a dirty 
-white in other gitaations. Black ipots, like freckles, of the slie of a poa, were 
thickly scattered over the akin. Another tall and well-formed white Negro 
'had a aimilar rough, hanh, and freckled skin. Another young while Ncf^rmi 
had the iikiu of an unpleasaJit dead-lunkini^ white, and prettj' smooth, hut 
be^nntng to assume a cracked apiiearance from the action of the sun. jicaivnt 
tiflhe Native AJHcotu. v. li. pp. 107—170. 

In five orsix seen by Cook at Olaheiie, the Rkin-wnii of a dead white, like the 
Yt09e of a white hnrae, swurfy, and rovert'd with a whiti- down ; they had white 
luiir, beard, eyebrows, and eyelashes. Jiawkeaworth. f'oyaget ; v. ii. p. 188. 

\ "Oculi in universuni ciitiifulurnm alliumm nculis perfeete similiii ; iride 
nempe lenelln. et fere jiellueiUtila, valde moliili, cpiuiii uxcillante, et quoi jam 
aub modiea hiee late exmiiilebatur ; colore diluto, inter palUde violaeeom at 
rubellum medio. I'lgpilFlsautem «»tiiralc rubieundiset fere rutilis, quolis nooi 
Tubi idei intensior csiP lolet." Blumenbach in lib. cit, 

I Two Mt'vxa. Albinos weretirought to France, aad seen by Voltaiw, wko 


The cnaractera of the Albino arise from a deficiency of the 
colouring principle, common to the skin, hair, and eyes. Tbos 
the former has the hue, which its cellular and vascular cont 
ture produces ; the hair ia reduced to iu; simple organic ground* 
work ; and in the eyes, which are entirely destitute of pigmcn- 
tum, the colour of the iris depends on the fine vessels which are 
80 numerous in its composition, and that of the pupil on the 
Btill greater number of capillaries, which almost entirely form 
the choroid membrane. 

The close connection of these parts, in respect to theii co- 
lour, is evidenced by the fact that neither is ever separately 

The state of the eyes is the principal source of inconvenience. 
The absence of the black pigment, which has the important 
office of absorbing superfluous portions of light, renders the eye 
pretematuraliy .sensible of this stimulus. Strong lights affect 
the organ painfully ; even the glare of open day is too much. 
Hence the eyelids are more or less closed ; the eyes are described 
as weak and tender ; and sometimes as affected with clironic 
lippitudo. These evils are balanced in some measure by supe- 
rior power of vision in twilight, desk, or imperfect darknessL 
*' Ad noctumam quidem caliginem, non magis quidquam dis- 
cemere poterant ac alii homines. In crepusculo autem, et ad 
lunfe debiliorem lucem, longe acutius ac vulgo possumus nde* 
oant. Fulgida vero lux, sive meridiana sereno caelo, sive can- 
delanim aliusve ignis, non quidem per se valde molestus ipsis 
videbaturj verum plane inutiiis; cum quidem eandem sine gra- 
■nore incommodo aut dolore perferre possent, non aliter autem 

has Sflfctcd nnd shortly characteriied Iheir leadine traits; " Leur blsnchenr 
n'eat pru la iidtre; rien d'incaTnat. nul milanze de bUnc et Ac bnin, c'eM une^ 
eoiileiir de lin|^, tiu pIulAt de dre blanchie; leun chevoux, lean suurcilsaoD 
de la bill* belle ct de la plas douce sole ; leiirs yeax ne resscmbleiit en ricn i 
teux «Je» autre* hommpa, maia lis approchent Ueaucoap de* veux de perdrii.' 
Sum fur leM Mattn, Introductiuo. They are also described by BaiTon, iuipjtle» \ 
Punt, t Iv. p. 5S9. 

Pallas has miautt-lf d?5crib«d a " Leucctbiopissa elegantiuima," wlion 
be saw in Londoa in IT61. "Sedecim tunc circiter annos nata, e( a patrt 

atuue tnatro nii^itis in Jamaini iruula genita diccbatiir. de quo taato minna 
dubitari potf mt, quutn nihil hybrids ex olbo oigroque parents ^rnilune siioUe 
pre se ferret, slaturo: orat minoris, axtubui et cullo turKidulis, cute s&iia 

^inc^o-phleginaticic tinctunc Candida, labiis rubris et nibicundis gvnis vigeua, < 
▼uUii oTunino .£thiupii, n.isn quaetsatd, labiis tumidis, fruntc breri, circiuii> 
■criptiDtie faciei subrotundo, noti» Tariolarum <:parsia cuteni mintjs teneram 
distin[;u(.*ni jbu'. Ocalorum ixides neque mt>ri neccasii, sed griaeo-lute&centia 
•Timt colorig ; neque risu* bucturnus, sed tomen apertaj lucis intolemntia, 
quam prenertim post variolas ortam riarrabant custodes. Cilia ct superciUa 
pallide flava, et capilUliutn tgtura ejusdem quidem colorli fblond) nallide flav£, 
•t p<>nitus in den<>issitnas irircinnna crispatLim, et duriuKulam Ethiopia iauam 
ad amustim teferens. Ilebeli vidcbatur iiiL,'i-nio, ft pudtbandu sppctatorea 
■dniitlel>at ; ■anissimaccteroquin et f^j'Ti-j^ia curpuris proportione. CogtutM 
- ^i'l-rTinios^thiuFeshabuiswdicebatur," Abrir &>wi'm QtMdniptdwk 


ezinde occsecarentur, ac nos ubi soils fulgore aut nivis candore 
snbito perstringimur."* 

Mr. Jefferson had seen seven examples of this pecuuarity 
in the Negro race. Three of them were sisters ; having two 
oiher fall sisters, who were black. Two of them bore black 
children to black men. They were uncommonly shrewd, quick 
in their apprehension and reply. Their eyes were in a perpe- 
tual tremulous vibration, very weak, and much affected by the 
sun ; but they could see better than other persons in the night 
The fourth is a woman, whose parents came from Guinea, and 
had three other children of their own colour. She is frecued, 
and has such weak eyes, that she is obliged to w-^ar a shade in 
the summer ; but she sees better in the night. She bore an 
Albino child to a black man. Another white Negress had a 
black daughter by a black man. The last instance was a male, 
tall, with tremulous weak eyes.f 

Wafer has given a good description of those which are met 
with in the isthmus of Darien. Their skin is milk-white, much 
like the colour of a white horse, and covered with a short down. 
"They see not very well in the sun, poring in the clearest day; 
their eyes being but weak ; and running with water if the sun 
shine towards them : so that in the daytime they care not to go 
abroad, unless it be a cloudy dark day. But notwithstanding 
their being thus sluggish and dull in the daytime, yet when 
moonshiny nights come, they arc all life and activity, running 
abroad and into the woods, skipping about like wild bucks ; and 
nmning a' fast by moonUght, even in the gloom and shade of 
the woods, as the other Indians by day, being as nimble as they, 
though not so strong and lusty." Hence they are called moon- 

The peculiarity always exists from birth : it never changes 
afterwards ; and it is propagated by generation. 

In the natural history of our species the Albinos have not met 
with much better treatment than the Negroes • for some have 
doubted whether they, as well as the latter, belong to the same 
^ecies with us.§ The Negroes were too black, the Albmos too 
white. They have been supposed incapable of propagation. 
They are, in truth, not numerous enough for them to breed 
together, and thus form a permanent variety ; but, that they 

* Blnmenbach in lib. eit. i Notei on Virgima, pp. 112—130, 

% Nea yoyaee and DacripUon of the Ttthmut qf America, p. 134 and s«q, 
I Voltaire Maai tm la Mauri; introduction ; also chap. 143, 


can both beget and conceive, is most abundantly proved. I 
know no instance of two being matched together; but when 
they are paired with common Negroes the offspring is generally- 
black, sometimes white. 

Of a white African woman the parents, brothers, and eisterB 
were all black. She was married to a black man, and had a 
black child. A white Negro with dirty white woolly hair, red- 
dish brown eyes, and very weak sight, was the son of a white 
Negro. His mother, three brothers, and three sisters were 
black : one sister was white like liimself.^ 

A classical writer f on the natural history of man has con- 
ceived that they labour under a disease, which he refers to the 
cachexia, and considers as akin to leprosy ; and this opinion 
has had so much weight \vith Dr. Winterbottom, that he 
never mentions the Albinos in his first volume, which contains 
a desfcription of the native Africans ; but thrusts them into the 
second, among the diseases. 

1 consider these views completely incorrect. The individuals 
in question do not exhibit a single character of disease. All 
their functions are executed as in other persons. They are bom 
of healtby parents, occur among the robust and hardy members 
of savage tribes, and a similar deviation takes place in many- 
wild animals. Mr. Jepfebson expressly mentions, of the 
seven cases which he saw in American Creole Negroes, that all 
the individuals were well formed, strong, and healthy. 

The first example mentioned by Dr. Winterbottom X '» 

the daughter of two Mulattoes, born in Nova Scotia, who had 

all the Negro features, with woolly hair of a dirty while colour, 

and a skin equalling in whiteness that of an European, without 

any thing disagreeable in its appearance or te.xture. Her eyes 

were between a red and light hazel colour, and not much 

affected by light ITiere are no signs here of cachexia or 

leprosy; nor are there any in the t^vo Swiss youths described 

by Blumenbach, and before him by Saussurk.§ They seem 

indeed to be short for their age ; the elder was twenty-two years 

old, with the stature of fifteen ; the younger seventeen, with 

that of twelve. Two writers of very different characters, who 

had both seen African Albinos, seem to have equally felt that 

the notion of disease was quite unfounded ; and have used the 

• 'Wiiiierlxittorii in lili. cil. 

r BliiiiienlNic)! <U g. A. tar. not. sect iii. J 77. IJi' terrns it ■• vnrietu gentl'* 
ktia I'x T.'.rluisaafft'itione. " t Lib. cit U. 187, 

i yoj/agei daru let Alpet, iv. 303. 


very same words in conveying tlieir strong opinion to tbis effect. 
" Pretendre que ce sent des Neffrea nains, doot une espece de 
lipre a blanchi la. peau, c'est comme si Ton disoit que lea nmrs 
eux-ni^mes sent ties blancs que la leprc a noircis."* " C»te- 
rum," says Pallas, " hasce varietates .^thiopxirn albas non 
magis morbosam naturam (quod Blumenbachio placuit) 
appellari posse puto, quain ipsa ySthiopum nigredo morbas 

This Tariety was Srst observed in the African, as the great 
difference of colour renders the variation more striking : henca 
the individuals were termed Leucapthiopes.J or white Ne^oes : 
their peculiar constitution, for the deviation is by no means con- 
fined to the surface of the body, may be conveniently termed, 
after some modem authors, leucaethiopia. From their a\'oiding 
the hght, the Dutch gave them (in the island of Java) the con- 
temptuous appellation of Kakkerlakkeo, cock-roaches, insects 
that run about in the dark : and hence the French name Cba- 
crelas. The iipaaiards called them Albinos, and the French 

So far is this variety from being peculiar to the Negro, or 
even to the torrid zone, that there is no race of men, nor any 
part of the globe, in \vhicli it may not occur. Blumenhacu § 
has seen sixteen examples of it in various parts of Germany ; 
and it has been also noticed in Denmark, England, || Ireland, 
France, Svv'itzerland, Italy, U the Grecian Archipelago, and 

It is probably more common in Africa, than elsewhere : Dr. 
WiNTERnoTTOM mentions eleven instances among the native 
tribes about Sierra Leone; and Mr. Jefpkbson seven among 
the Negro slaves of America. The African -\lbinoa do not pre- 
sent that entire absence of colouring matter fiom the eye, which 
we observe in the European instances. Mr. Jefpkrson does 
not mentina the colours of the eyes ; but Dr. Wintkrbottom 
describes tliem as light blue or brown. They x\rere as weak as 
the red eyes of our Albinos. 

• Voltaire Earn tur let Mamrs, introdnction. 
i Nwx Sjiecht Qvadnipetlurn, p. II, note. 

t Pliny mention* Lfui-iBthicipfs in his Nalwmt Hiiloty, lib. v. sue. 8; tuid 
ftolemif, lib. iv. r. 6. But whftliiT ihey mvau Alhinu-i is duubirii], 

I De e. A. tar. nat. p. 278. Mvdicimtche Bibliolhek. i. iii. p. 1(51 et »eq. 

II An Enijlisli .\lIilnoia shorlly metitionwi by Mr. Hunter; 06». oncerlata 
Parti If) the Animal Etmnomg, p. \iff7. 

^ Buzzi had the opportunity of diasoctlng one lit Milan. I hare not mo- 
ccedodiii priHuiriii-; his liiticrlasione tu/ira una yarietd jiorticolare tfUptnilM 
biancBi£Unfubt, ilo. MUiuio, 1781. 

O 2 


Mr BowDlCH informed me that the king of Ashantee has 
collected nearly a hundred white Negroes. 

Humboldt* says tha> examples of this degeneration are 
rare in the copper-coloured race. Yet they seem rather nu- 
merous hy Wafer's description in the isthmus of Darien. In 
the gardens of a palace belonging to Montezuma, were found, at 
the time of the Spanish conquest, among rare birds, and other 
curiosities, " Albinesi d'ogni eta et d'ogni sesso.f 

DuBoiB states that they are not uncommon among the 
Hindoos. J 

Cook met with them in several islands of the Pacific. § 

In all cases, however, this leuctethiopic constitution has only 
occurred sporadically, or in detached instances, as a congenital 
rariety, from individuals of the ordinary characters in their 
respective races. It has indeed been asserted that whole tribes of 
Albinos exist in Africa,|| Java, Ceylon, and the isthmus of 
Darien.ll but no eye-witness reports such a fact ; and 
Wafer,** whose authority is often cited, expressly mentions 
" that they are not a distinct race by themselves, but now and 
then one is bred of a copper-coloured father and mother." 
Hence the ntjtion of entire leuccclhiopic nations may be regarded 
as completely unfounded. 

There is another description of men with a very fair or white 
skin, yellow (flaxen) or red hair, and generally blue or light gray 
eyes (irides). Such individual.'', when the health is good, and 
the circulation active, have a rosy tint, wliichis deeper and more 
florid in the face. The cutaneous capillares are easily filled ; 
and their " eloquent blood" sympathises with every mental 
emotion. Tlie ancient and modem Germans, and the nations 
descended from them, the Belgians, Dutch, the Danes, Swedes, 
English, &c. have this character. 

Lastly, there is a most extensive race, including nearly all the 
people enumerated in the first division, witJi the skin, although 
white, possessing more or less of a brown tint, accompanied 
with dark brown or black hair, and dark eyes. 

• Pert/nial Narraliff. iii. ?89, t Carli Letltrt Jtmericane ; t. I. lot. 5. 

t On the I'hiracliT, Matmeri, ic of the People of India ; p. 199. 

\ At Otiihi-lti-; Hawkeaworth"* CbHcrdVnj.ii. 99, 18«: at tlw Societr IsIm, 
»ud Npw Oalcilonla; yoy. toteard* the S. Pole, ii, lU: iil H.^jmcti .-mJAnna- 
tnooka ( Prifinily Isles) ; Vot/. la IhePatn/e, i, 38!. 

II " Ia'I Albinii* Boiit i la vfrit* nnr nation Irds petite et trfs rarv ; ib liabi- 
icnt au milieu del'.Afrltiue, Itiir taiblestc nr Icurpprmet guirrde s'fcarter 
descJircmcs oil ilndfinpurent; cei>endant les NSinr* i-n nttrapeiit qtirlqiicfuis, 
ex tiiiiiii los acliL-tunii d'cux par curioaittS." Vultoire Bitaitu' let Mafurt, iu. 

51 UuUyn by Wood; vol. iii. pp. 3S&— 344-419. •• Im. tit. 


II. YeUowoT olive (gilvus or buxeus, amiddle tint, between that 
of ripe wheat and boiled quince or dried lemon-peel) characterizes 
the Mongolian tribes, usually called, together with the inha- 
bitants of a great part of Asia, Tartars (Tatars). 

III. Bed or copper colour (bronz^ Fr. an obscure orange or 
rusty iron colour, not unlike the bark of the cinnamon-tree) 
prevails in various shades over nearly the whole continent of 
America, and is almost confined to that division of the globe. 

. IV. Broion or tatony (basan^ Fr. a middle tint between tbe 
colour of fresh mahogany and of cloves or chesnuts). It cha- 
racterizes the Malays, and most of the inhabitants of the nume- 
rous islands scattered through the Pacific ocean. 

V. Black, in various shades, from the sooty colour or tawny 
■black, to that of pitch or ebony, or jet-black. This prevails very 
extensively on the continent of Africa, characterizing ail the 
Negro tribes. It is found also in the Negro-like natives of 
New Holland, Van Diemen's Land, Papua or New Guinea, the 
New Hebrides, and other islands of the South Sea ; and is seen, 
mingled with the national colour, in Brazil, California, and 
India. The New Caledonians constitute an insensible transition, 
wittithe chesnut-coloured islanders ofTongataboo, and the dark 
New Hollanders, from the tawny or brown Otaheiteans to tbe 
Papuas or Negroes of New Guinea. 

In describing these varieties, it is necessary to fix on the most 
strongly marked tints, between which there is every conceivable 
intermediate shade of colour. The opposite extremes run into 
each other by the nicest and most dehcate gradations ; and it is 
the same in every other particular, in which the various tribes 
of the human species differ. This forms no shght objection to 
the hypothesis of distinct species : for, on that supposition, wv 
cannot define their number, nor draw out the boundaries that 
divide them ; whereas, in animals most resembling each other, 
the dififerent species are preserved pure and unmixed. Neither 
does the colour, which I have described in general terms as 
belonging to any particular race, prevail so universally in all the 
individuals of that race, as to constitute an invariable character, 
as we should expect if it arose from a cause so uniform as an 
original specific difference : its varieties, on the contrary, point 
out the action of other circumstances. Thus, although the red 
colour is very prevalent on the American continent, travellers 
have observed fair tribes in several parts, as Ulloa* and 
* Foyage to South America; i. 257. 



BooGUBB* in Peru; CooKf and VANCsotrvBaJ at Nootka 
Sound; Humboldt § near the sources of the Orinoco ; and 
Weld near the United States. The natives of New Zealand 
vary from a deepish black to nn olive or yellowish tinge.|| In 
the Friendly Islands many of the women are as fair as those of 
Spain or Portugal ; several of both sexes are of an olive colour; 
and many of a deep brown.^ 

ITie domestic animals exhibit varieties entirely analogous to 
those which have been just enumerated ; a fact so familiarly 
known with respect to the sheep, pig, horse, cow, dog, cat, 
rabbit, &c. that it cannot be necessary to support the assertion 
by any details. The leucEethiopic constitution occurs too in 
wild and domestic animals, as well as m the human subject. It 
has been observed (not to mention the well-known examples of 
the rabbit, ferret, mouse, horse) in the monkey, sqiiirrel, rat, 
hamster, guinea-pig, mole, opossum, martin, weasel, roe,** foi.f't' 
rhinoceros,*! elephant,§§ badger, beaver,|!|| bear, camel.^^buf- 
felo,*** and ass.ttt The crow, blackbird, canary-bird, partridge, 
common fowl, and peacock, are sometimes the subjects of it; 
but it has ne\'er been seen in any cold-blooded animal. 

In the leuc£Ethiopic mammalia and birds just enumerated, the 
nature and characters of the deviation seem to he perfectly ana- 
logous to those of the human Albino. Tlie pure whiteness of 
their skin and other integuments, and the redness of the iris and 
pupil, mark the same deficiency of colouring matter. A white 
mouse possessed by Blumendacm also exhibited the into- 
lerance of light, which has been noticed almost universally in 

■ Beiatton abrigie tUi Fosagi, &e. ; in Jcad. det Scieneet, 1740, p. 274. He 
t*pre!!«*hts tho Peruvians at Hw foutof the Cordilleras to be nearly as white an 

+ lie repreaenta the colour uf their skin as not rcry different from ttwtof 
Euroti«ui9,but with 0. tiale dull oust, yoyaeeio tin Pacifit; ii. iW3. 

t Fova^e ; i. 39."). 

i J'olitical Stiau on the Kingdom q/ JVew Suain ; i. 144. 

|i Anderson, in Cook's yoyateto lie Paci/lc; i 154. 

fl^ Couk's FoffOge to tht PacQic; i. 381. 

•• Bliimc^bacb de g. A. var. nat. sect. iii. { 78. +(• Shaw's Zoology. 

tt Barrow's J'tareU in South Africa; i. 395. 

H The white elephants aro Ti-ry rarf . and highly valued ; they reeciTe tho 
Rrcatest ewTf and attention, and are regarded in gome eases with a kind orre* 
Usioua respect. One of his Hirman iniijesty's titJea it, " Lord uf the whito 
e&phant. Byrnes' Jitnbaay to jlra; 8ro. v, ii, p. 390 ; and v. iii. p. ;)3S, 

nil The beaver may deviate cither into white or blacL The while are very 
scarce ; the l)Iack are beautifully ylosiy, and more common, llcarne's /u«r- 
ney to the Jt'orthem Octan, p. 241, 

*ir " One of the camels was pure white irith blue eyes."— Elpliinstonc's 
Account of C'aubul, Introduction, p. 30. 

Pallas mentions the same fact. I'foreU in lite Southern Prominca qflheBut- 
tian Hmjiirv. ••• Shaw's Zootomy, 

ttt Buchanan's Journey frcm .Vadrai, &c t. i. p. 7. 



the human examples : the animal kept its eyelids closed even in 
the twilight.* 

When two varieties copulate togetlier, the oflbpring resemhles 
neither parent wholly, but partakes of the form and other pro- 
perties of both. This cannot with propriety be termed hybrid 
generation, as authors apjtly tliat word to the amm:dM produced 
by tlie copulation of different species, as of the horse andass, the 
canary-bird and goldfinch. In this sense liybrids arc never 
produced in the Iniman species. *' Non deaunt," says Blc- 
UEXBACU, " historiac nefandae hominum cum brutis copuls, 
quando ant viri cum bestiarum fcmellis rem habuerunt, sive 
effrenata libidine rapti.i' aive ex vesana continentiai Ofiinione,J 
sive quod raedicum usum ex ejusmodi facinore sperarent ; § 
ant femina sa brutorum masculis |j subactas esse relatum est, 
flive violenti stupro id accident, aive sollicitantibus ex liijidine 
insanientibus feminis.H sive prostituentibua sese ex religioea 
supcrstione ;•• nullum tamenunquam a teste fide digno relatum 
comperimus exemplum, xibi fecunda evaacrit, ejusmodi copula, 
hybridumque ex hominis cum bestia immani coitu [irogn^tuin 
fiierit." Yet the laws of various countries hare directed that 
the fruit of svich unnatural intercourse should be burned, or 
otherwise destroyed. 

We can only speak, in the human subject, of such hybrids aa 
proceed from copulation of the diflerent varieties of one and the 
same species, as of a cart-horse and a racer, the green and white 

• C(munenlaiion. Beg. Sue. Sdenl. Gutting, v. viL p. 34. 

+ Tli. Wartoii wl Tlieocriti Idyll, i. 88, p. 19. •' Aiidlvi ex docto qnudMn 
amico, qni per BieUiinn iiifukam iter faeiou, ibidpm cum veten inonumi.'nla, 
tum populi mores accuratius tnrpstigarcrat, inter conressionis artivulu-t a Si- 
cnlia cftprartis apud mantes Titun loUtariara degentibug, ctiumnum per mhvi- 
dotes proprius rite suiere exifti, an remcnni hlrois suii linbueriutl "^ 

} Mart, a Baumgikrtcn, ^^rfrnnoMo in JCMyfium. Arabiam, (Sc. p. 73. " Hx 
Alcli&nica En-pti e^rcvsi, vpnimua ad ciisalv quodil&m Bclbc* dielum, ubl cm- 
nixniD eunti Uamnscum sumu* conjuncti. Ibi vidimus sanctum unuiu S.-uB- 
cenicam. inter arcnanun cumulirs. ita ut ox ut^ru matris [irodiit, nudum 
sedenti'm. — .^udivimtm aanrtuni iliuni, qucin eo loco vldhiiuD, jmblicitufi 
apprimi! coniraKiiilan : eiini I'saehoinliiciii sanctum, liinnuni nc 'inti-urltal^ 
priccipimm, eo quod nuc faiiiiiiiaruin iiiumura essut uec puerorum. led tan- 
tuTninijd.0 as^Uarum conrubitur atqiic niulELram. *' 

) Hoc Sne Perriut ischiadc labiirantn anagros inire Pallu aaetur est, in 
Ifefien Noriiitc/tm Beylragcn, p. ii. page 3*. 

II Phillips, sppakin;; o! the baboons of Guln(?a, in Chnrcliill's Collection qf 
^^"8^ ^- tI- p. St I, says, • ' Here ar* a mst number of overgrown lar^ ba- 
boons. Home as big aji a larKft lna.<itllT do^', which go in droves of fifty and one 
hundred together, and are vcr^' dangeroiis to lie met with, wprcially by women ; 
wlKiin I have been credibly mfortncd Ihey ha»c often seized upon, ravished, 
and in that kind abused one after another, till they have killed them." 

H Ita feminas Knmtschndnlieas qniiiiibun cum canibus colvisjL'StelleTTefert, 
in Bvtc/iTeibung rvn Kamtxchalka, p. 'iHU. 

** Ut Mcndejtia! feonnB cum hireo saero : Aa quo ain^lnri ritu videsis ubeT- 
rimc disserentuniD'iianc«TTillet&i!«cAcrc/i<ri/ur I'OriginedetJlrttdtlmOriet, 
t i. p. 320. 


canaiy-birds, &c. These unions have a f^eat effect in changing 
the coloor, confonnatiou and other prDpertie:^ of the ofiV-pring, 
and are consequently employed with tronderful adrantage in 
improving the breeds of our domestic animals, particularly the 
hor»-, sheep, and cattle. 

Children produced from the copulation of different races ex- 
hibit the middle (or nearly so) between the two tints of their 
parents. This law holds good universally ; climate not making 
the smallest difference : Mulattos precisely similar are produced 
from the union of Negroes and Europeans, whether in Africa, 
in the East Indies, in the sugar islands, in North America, or 
in Europe. From a refinement of \'anity, the inhabitants of the 
Spanish colonies ui America hare enriched their language with 
terms for the finest shadeis, whicli result from the degeneration 
of the primitive colour; and have also distinguished the off- 
spring of the various dark-coloured races with the whites. 

In the first generation, the offspring of Europeans and Negroes 
are called Mulattos (mul^tre, Fr.). The word Creole (criollo) 
has been frequently confounded with this, even by good writers; 
but that name, originally applied by the first Negroes conveyed 
to America in the sixteenth century, to their children bom in 
that country, and borrowed by the Spaniards fi-om them to 
denote their own offspring in the new world,* belongs properly 
to the children of European or Negro parents born in the East 
or West Indies. 

In colour, figure, and moral qualities, the Mulatto is a me- 
dium between the European and African, The colour is more 
or less yellow, brown, or tawny, according as the European 
father may have been fair or dark ; and the countenance has 
the middle form between that of both parents.f There is no 
redness of the cheek. The hair is curled and black, but much 
longer than that of the Negro ; and the iris is dark, in clean- 
liness, capacity, activity, and courage, they are decidedly supe- 
rior to the Negroes. 

Europeans and Mulattos produce Tercerons (sometimes also 

• Ganilasso dei Origen de los Incas, jj. 2b-i. Wc raji pasilv understand how 
the use of llif wurd mjy haro Ijeen ixtttitled in llio V\>sl Indies lu llie aniiuals 
which have been prudiicfd from stus-ks miporled from thculd world. 

+ Whether either culuur or sex aJTects Ihe odijiirin-; nu>re stroti|;ly than the 
other, is an iutervstlnj; que^tian, which wc have rii.l the meaus cil "answering 
latlsfuutorilf. 1 lind an opinion ex|.iressed. that in the uimm u( the Biirop«ui 
and Ntg-resi the nobler blood |ir<;duiniimte», £stvtick, iji'i/ury o/Jamaiea, 
ii. .13^, There la lUe anrne authority fur an (i|jiiilan Ihat male and lemale 
MuJattut du nol produce go many children together, as if they were united 
mpectirely lo>ie^TesiitMand Bufnpeaiu. Mr.Xoti^-, in hit Uitlvry if/' Jantaica, 
t^^ei a liinllaT testimuny on tbi» pokil, and that in strung (enns. 


called Quarterons, Moriscos, and Mestizos). The hair and 
countenance of these resemble the European ; the former has 
nothing of the grandmother's woolly curl : the skin has a slight 
brown tint, and the cheeks are red. In the Dutch colonies they 
often have blue eyes and fair hair. The stain of the black blood 
is principally visible in the organs of generation : the scrotum 
is blackish in the male, and the labia pudendi dark or purplish 
in the female. 

In political rights these class with the Mulattos in the Euro, 
pean colonies. 

Europeans and Tercerons produce Quarterons or Quadroons 
(ochavones, octavones, or alvinos), which are not to be distin- 
guished from whites : but they are not entitled, in Jamaica at 
least, to the same legal privileges as the Europeans or white 
: Creoles, because there is still a contamination of dark blood, 
although no longer visible. It is said to betray itself sometimes 
in a relic of the peculiar strong smell of the great-grandmother. 

The genealogy of these hybrid races is carried into the fifth 
generation, the children of Europeans and Quarterons being 
celled Quinterons* (puchuelas Spar.). It is not credible that 
any trace of mixed origin can remain in this case, according to 
the observations of the most judicious eye-witnesses concerning 
the third generation, viz. that in colour and habit of body they 
cannot be distinguished from their European progenitors. Ac- 
cordingly, even the law is now satisfied, and considers them 
sufiiciently whitened to enjoy its full protection : they are legally 
white, and free. 

By an opposite course of proceeding the Mulatto offspring of 
the European and Negro may be reduced again to the charac- 
ters of the latter. If the Mulatto be paired with a Negro, and 
the children again and again with Negroes, the fourth genera- 
tion is perfectly black. 

Thus, in obedience to that principle by which the properties 
of the offspring depend on those of the parents, we have the 
power of changing one species into another by repeated inter- 
mixture. If the offspring of a white woman and a black be 
matched with a black man, and this process be repeated two or 
three times, the form of the original mother is entirely lost, and 
that of the father substituted ; or vice versa. In this manner 
the colour of the race may be completely changed in three or 

• The offspring of a Quadroon woman and white man i« called Mestize, or 
Mustee, according to Edwards, Hut. nf tlie ffeit tadie* i ii. 18: and Wintes- 
itottom, Recount ^ the JVative Africant; i. 188. 

203 VARicnEB or oouavs 

foor generations ; while if never has been JkMiged bf i 
even ia the loagegt series of agei. 

The oSkpriag of an European ind IiM£iii(Ainexicin) ia wmmti. 
Mestizo* Cmestee, Eng ). The hiur is Mack snd rtn i ght ; &• 
irifl dark : the skin raries according to the tint of the . 
parent. As the latter is by no means so daik-oolo«i«d ««^ 
Negro, the Mestizo is mach lighter than the Mulatto, 
native Americans are nearly as fair as Europeans ; heoce Moi- 
tusos are often not dijtinguishable br colour from Europeans. 

"A Mestiu}," says HuiiBOLDT.f " is in colour almost t 
pore white, and his skin is of a particnlu- tranqiarency. The 
■mall beard, and small hands and feet, and a ceztain obliquity 
of the eyes, are more frequent indication of the aixture of 
Indian blood, than the nature of the hair." 

They hare often some parts of the body darker than others; 
and th'u is always the case with the urgans of f^eneratioa in both 
Bexes. Enropean fathers and Mestee mothers produce Quar- 
terons, Quatral%ij or Castizos, corresponding to Teroeroos in. 
the Negro breed, and not distinguishable from Earopeaas;^ 
Qoarteron women with Europeans, Ochavons, or Octavons ; and 
Europeans with female Octarons, Puchiielos, which are not only 
not distinguishable in any respect from native Europeans, bat 
also enjoy fall legal rights and pri\'ilege8 in the Spanish colomes. 

The offspring of Negroes and Americans are called Zambos 
or Sambos ;§ and sometimes Mulattos. Negroes with Mulattos 
produce Zambos || de Mulata (griflFos, or cabros) ; an European 
and Zambo, a Mulatto ; an .American and Zambo, a Zambaigo. 
The offspring of the Zambos are styled, in derision, by the 
Spaniards Choios ; that of a Negro and Zamba is called Zambo 
prieto (black Zambo).ir 

* They also are sometiines called Mestindi, Metifi, Mtunelucki. 

+ PoUtkalEuay, v. i. p. 244, The testimony of DUoa is to the saine effect. 
" The inhabiumts (of Conception) wnsiat uf Spaniards, md of Mtistizug. who 
is coloui aw hardly distingui^bcd from the former : both h<>in|r Tery fnir, and 
Mme have even fresh complexions." Voyage U> South America ; ii. 3^. 

} " If a Mestiia marry a white man, the tecond generation diien h^irdly ia 
•ny thing from the European race." Humboldt, foe. «/. 

1 " The deicendsnu of Ncgruei and Indian women bear «t Mexico,», 
and even at the Uarannah, the strange name of Chino. Chinese. On the coast 
of Coraocas, and, as appears from the laws, eren in New Spain, thoy are called 
Zambos. This last denomination is now principally limited to the ifriic'pndaiits 
of a Negro and female Mnlatto, pi a Negro and a Cliinese fem&le." liumbltlilt, 
ioc, cii. 

J" The ofEspriDg of a TTeero or Negress with a Mulatto man or woman U 
tod in the Bngluh eotonlM Sambo. £dwatds' Hiit. tj the fCett India; 
T. ii. p. IS. 

?1 If a Mulatto and Tcrccron, or Teroon and Quarteroru intermix, the off 
spring are called Tenti en ay re by the Spaniards; becaoK! they temain in tha 
■aae legal conditiuu, neitlier adrauoing not receding. Clio*, Fvffogt, [. SL 


" III a cotrntry governed by whites, the funics reputed to 
have the least mixture of Negro or Mulatto blood are naturally 
the most honoiired. Thus, in (Spanish) America, the greater 
or less degree of M'hiteness of skin decides the rank of an indi- 
vidual in society. A white, who rides barefooted on horseback, 
thinks he belongs to the nobilily of the countr)'. When a 
common man disputes with one of the titled lorJs of the 
cotrntry, he is frequently heard to say, ' Do you think me not 
80 white as yourself,'' It becoineH, consequently, a very inte- 
resfting business for the public vanity to estimate accurately the 
firactions* of European bloocJ which belong to the different ca&tes. 

" It often happens that the families suspected of being of 
mixed blood demand from the high court of justice (audiencia) 
to have it declared that they belong to the whites. These decla- 
raUons are not always corroborated by the judgment of the 
senses. We see very swarthy Mulattos, who have had the 
address to get themselves Khitened (this is the vulgar expres- 
rioD). When the colour of the skin is too repugnant to the 
iudgment demanded, the petitioner is contented vvith an expres- 
8Jon somewhat problematical. The sentence then simply bears, 
'that such indi\aduals may consider themselves as whites (que 
se tengan por blancos).' "f 

Where several races are brought together, as in Borae parts of 

Spanish America, and in some Ecropean-Asiatic settlements, 

their mixtures with each other, and the several crossings between 

the original races and ihcir various descendants, give rise to a 

vast number of mixed breeds, and every possible variety of 

colour. The dark races, and all who are contaminated by any 

risible mixture of dark bloo(i, are comprised under the general 

denomination of people of colour. It is not, however, merely 

by this superficial character that they are distinguished ; ail 

If a Terorron mixei with a Mulatto womiui, or a QiiartPTon with n Terceron 
woman, thp offspring are cajled SiitJitras, or rctroHradts ; because tbt-y take a 
step bttck«-artls tuwards the Nep-o blooiJ, ULlo», I'uj/age, i. 30. 

• The proporllonn «re represented below accortling to the principles sanc- 
tioned hv Q^age. 

Paim4t. Offspring. Degree i^ Mi xhtre. 

Ne^o and European Mulatto .... 1 while J black. 

European and Mulatto .... Terceron . . . . i i 

Negro and Muliitto OrilTo, or 2anibo . i black k while 

Suropean and Terceron .... Quarteron .... J white i black. 

Negro and Teneron i black t white, 

European ana Quatteron . . . Quinterou . . . . -H white tV black, 
Negro and yuortonm -j^ black tV white. 

The two latter axe respectively whitp and black; and of these the first are 
•white by law, and consequently free in our Wesi India islands. A\\ romoiim 
of colour arc so comnletcly banished, that they are not distinguishable from 
whites in any respect". 

+ Humbolilt, PolU. EfOf: t 846, 3«. 


Other physical and moral qualities are equaQy inflooiced by 
those of the parents. The intellectual and moral character of 
the Europeansj is deteriorated by the misttire of black or red 
blood, wlulc on the other hand an infusion of white blood tends, 
in an equal degree, to improve and ennoble the qualities uf the 
dark varieties. 

The general law, that animals produce their like, by which 
uniformity of species is maintained, suflers some exceptions. 
Children do not always resemble their parents ; and hence we 
have occasionally persons produced in each race with characters 
approaching to those of the other races. Among the white races 
of Europe scattered instances of individuals with skins nearly as 
dark as those of the Mongols or South Sea Islanders are not 
unfrequent. I lately saw a girl whose dark olive skin and jet 
black hair, very much like those of a Chinese, joined to English 
features, made roe suppose that there was some mixture of 
blood : it turned out, however, that her parents were both Eng- 
lish ; the mother dark, but not of so deep a tint as the daughter, 
and the father fair. Among the Otaheiteans, descended from 
the Malay race, indiriduals with light brown or sandy hair, and 
fair complexion, are not very uncommon :• and Forstkr saw, 
in the island of Otaha, a man with fair freckled skin and red 
hair.t Red-haired individuals have been ob8er>'ed in most of 
the dark nations, as the Wotiaks, Esquimaux, islanders of New 
Guinea and New Zealand, and the Negroes. J llie origin of 
Albinos, particularly in the dark races, is a remarkable example 
of native variety of coloiu:. 

In the mixed breeds, too, although the children generally par- 
take of the character of both parents, they sometimes resemble 
one only ; and, in such a case, the influence of the other is often 
obsen-ed in the second or third generation. Children may be 
seen like their grandsires, and unUke the father and mother. 

Pit quoijui!, ut jnlerdum simiira existerp aToriim 
I'o&slnl, «t ri'fvraiit pruavorum swuo tiKUras, 
• ••••• 

Inde Vtjiius vatinis producit sort<" fipuras, 

Mujurumiiui! tvietl vultu:;, roctntqite, ouuiBiique. — LuertK Ub. ii. 

Thus it is possible that an African Albiness and an European 
may produce together a true Mulatto ;§ the otfspring receiving 
its dark tint through the mother, although she has it not herself. 

• ViiTstci Obs. ona f'oynse roand l/ie ICo'lit: p 229. i Ibtd. 230. 

t Bliiim,'iil>aeh deg. h. rar. not. p. 169. lit- ltimDcll'61'n' a Mulatlu with red 
liair, of which he jiriicuri'il a spi-cinieii. A man of niiilatlu eomplexioa, 
freckled, uith strong red hair, disposed in small wiry curls, and horn uf black 
parents, was seen by WiulerboUom, ii. 170 ; wha nu?t with ulhers'tiBviiig red 
complexion and luiir; i. 193. { SteUmaa's Sttrinam, ii 360, 


The offspring of a black and white may be either black or 
white, instead of being mixed ; and in some rare cases it has 
been spotted. 

A black man married a white woman in York : in due courso 
of time she had a child that was entirely black, and very much 
like the father in colour and features, without the least partici- 
pation in the features or colour of the mother. A Negro was 
married in London to a white woman, who afterwards had a 
daughter as fair as any one bom of white parents, and like the 
mother in features, but her right buttock and thigh were as 
black as the skin of the father. Two Negro slares having mar- 
ried in Virginia, the woman brought forth a white girl. The 
husband's father was white, his grandfather and grandmother 
black ; and in every family related to them there had always 
been a white child.* 

A Negress had twins by an Englishman : one was perfectly 
black, \rith short, woolly, curled hair ; the other was light with 
long hair f 

Dr. WiNTEKBOTTOM says that in a family of si.ic persons, 
which he knew, one half was almost as light coloured as Mu- 
lattos, while the other was jet black. The father was a deep 
black, the mother a Mulatto.^ 

Variations of colour, analogous to those just enumerated, are 

of daily occurrence among animals, as in the production of black 

sheep, cats, horses, foxes, &c. White sheep may produce black 

lambs ; and gray rabbits may bring forth either white (leucse- 

thiopic) or black ones. The production of leucaethiopic animals 

from those of the ordinary colour is very common. In the 

beaver, which is a wild animal, we have either black or leucse- 

thiopic white ones produced from the common animal. Dr. 

Buchanan says of the asses in the Camatic, that " some are 

of the usual ash colour, whilst others are almost black, in which 

case the cross on the shoulders disappears. Milk-white asses 

are also to be found, but they are rare. These are not varieties 

as to species ; for black individuals have sometimes ash-coloured 

colts ; and, on the contrary, black colts are sometimes produced 

by ash-coloured dams."§ 

Two common peacocks produced fourteen young : two were 

whit&J|||[rest resembled their parents. || 

^^^MBvltigtaiices are related by Dr. Tarsons in the Philot. Transact, t. S5 ; 
'WMWBi to be of unquestionable authenticitj". 

+ white on the Regular Gradation, p. 123. X On the Notice Africans, i, 188. 

I Journey from Madras through Mysore, &c. ; r. i. p. 7. 

I Buffon ; v. xii. p. 886, note. 


The native or congenital varieties thus produced are propa- 
gated by generation, and become etitablislied as permaDeat 
breeds, if individuals w-ith these new characters constantly in- 
termii, and none others are admitted into tbo breed. Tiius the 
leucECthiopic constitution has become fixed in the white rabbit 
and ferret ; and thus, before our eyes, as conspicuoas a devia- 
tion from the common stock has been formed, as any in the 
human race. Black rams are always rejected in breerling, be- 
cause they would transfer their colour to their progeny. In 
many parts of England all the cattle are of one colour : this 
arises from the long-estabhahed custom of slaughtering all the 
calves which have not the desired tint. There is no reason to 
doubt that, if the same plan were adopted with the human sub- 
ject, that is, if persons marked by certain native j)eculiarities 
were \mited, their offspring again matched with similar indivi- 
duals, and this constantly repeated, any native ^'ariety might be 
fixed as a permanent breed. Human Albinos are too few for 
this purpose : hence wc have no race in our species Uke the 
ferret or white rabbit. 

llie disposition to change is exhausted in one generation, and 
the characters of the original stock return, unless the variety is 
kept up by the precaution above-mentioned of excluding from 
the breed all which have not the new characters. Thus, when 
African Mbinoa intenni-x with the common race, the offspring 
generally ia black. The same circumstance is seen in vege- 
tables : the seeds of our fine cultivated apples almost always 
produce the common crab ; and the variegated holly can only 
be preser^'ed as a variety by grafting when we attempt to pro- 
pagate it by seed, it returns to the common green holly. In 
considering this as an explanation of the mode in which varieties 
of colour may have arisen in the human race, an objection will 
probably occur, that we do not, in point of fact, see Negroes, 
Americans, or Mongols, produced among the white races ; nor 
Europeans among the former. The theory of unity of the spe- 
cies would certainly be untenable, if it depended on proving 
that such varieties occur. But the Negro and the European are 
the two extremes of a very long gradation : between them are 
almost innumerable intermediate stages, which differ from each 
other no more than the individuals occasionally produced in 
every race differ from the generality of the race. 

That the common opmion, which refers the characteristic dif- 
ferences or colour in the varieties of the human species to 



climate, and particularly to the degree of solar teat, u entirely 
unfounded, will, I trust, b« fully proved hereafter. Enough 
hae now been said to show that these diiferences depend on the 
breed; and that the hue of the oifspriug follows that of the 
parents, excepting in the rare casen of native or congenital 
variety. The latter examples prove that colour is not an es- 
sential character of race ; that identity of tint is not necemcy 
to establish <lescent from a common stock. These occurrences, 
together with the numerous exanijiks of the widest deviation in 
colour in animals confessedly of the same species, fully autbo- 
rize us to conclude, that however str'dting the contrast may be 
between the fair European and the ebon African, and however 
unwilling the former may be to trace up his pedigree to the 
game Adam with the latter, this superficial distinction is alto- 
;ether insufficient to establish diversity of species. 
Example.s occur of individuals {spotted with diif'erent colours^ 
Tjiot they are by no meana »o coromon as those of spotted ani- 
mals. Persons of the black rttcea are sometimes marked by 
patches of white, of various size and number, w^ithout any thing 
like disease of the skin. This circumstance has been obser\ed 
most frequently in Negroes, and generally begins in early 
infancy; the individuals are called spotted or piebald Negroes, 
in French, Negres-pies. Blumbnbacm hat) described a man 
of this kind, whom he saw in London ; a servant to the person 
who kept the animals at Exeter Change. He was a young man 
perfectly black, excepting the umbilical and hypogastric regions 
of the abdomen, and the middle of the lower limbs, including 
the knees and neighbouring parts of the thighs and legs, which 
were of a clear and almost snowy whiteness, but spotted ivith 
black, like the skin of a ])anther. His hair was of two colours. 
On the middle of the front of the head, from the vertex to the 
forehead^ where it ended in a aiiarp point, there was a whitd 
spot, with a yellower tinge than those on the trunk and legs. 
The hair covering this was white, but resembled the rest in other 
respects.* On comparing the picture of thi,'! man mth three 
others {a boy and two girls), he observes that the white spots 
occupied the abdomen and thighs, never appearing on the hands 
and feet, which parts, with the groins, are the first to turn black 
in the newly -born Negroes ; and that the arrangement of the 
white parts was symmetrica]. Both the parents of this man, 

• De g. A. rar. nat. sect. iii. } 48. AUIiildungen fuUur-ktttuntcfier Gegtn^ 
ttmde; No. 31. Another nputted >Je^o u ileliaeatcd iu SaSiDu, Sujtplemtnt, 
t. It. p. 6«5, tab. a. 


and of the others,* of whom Blumknbach had collected 
accounts, were entirely black ; so that Buffon's conjecture of 
this variety being produced by the cohabitation of a Negro with 
an Albiness, is pToundleaa. 

'ITiese spots, in which the epidermis is perfectly healthy, and 
which are diatinguishable from the rest of the skin only by their 
whiteness, are not to be confounded with diseases of the organ, 
where the cuticle becomes scaly or branny, which are frequent 
in some of the black races. Nor are they peculiar to dark- 
coloured people. Blumenbach has seen two instances in 
Germans ; one of a youth, the other of a man sixty years old 
They both had a rather lawny skin, marked here and there 
with various sized spots of the clearest white. They appeared 
first in the former in infancy, and in the latter at the age of 

The skin differs in some other properties besides its colour. 
Travellers have described it as lemarkably soft and smooth, and, 
as it were, silky in certain races : as in the Carib, NegrOi-f- 
Otaheitean.I "ii^^ Turk. It secretes a matter of peculiar odour 
in some races. "The Peruvian Indians," says Humboldt, 
"who in the middle of the night distinjruish the diflFerent races 
by their quick sense of smell, have formed three words to ex- 
press the odour of the European, the Indian .American, and the 
Negro : they cidi the first pezuna, the second posco, and the 
third graio."§ He adds, that the casts of Indian or African 
blood preser\'e the odour peculiar to the cutaneous transpiratioa 
of those primitive races. 


On IheSatT, Beard, ami Colour qflhe Irii. 
EvKBV part of our frame deserj'es to be attentively considered 
and investigated. The hair, which is found, in larious form 
and quantity, over nearly the whole external surface, miglit 

• BjTd, in the P/ii7a«. TVrtfMOcf. v. xix, p, 781, in<>iitij>]is a boy, in whom 
the »piits were first aeon in the fyurth year, and progrpssively ineri'ased. Mi, 
Jefferson mentions a Negro, bom bliitfc of blaclt p»rent9, nn whosechia, whet 
s boy, a white spot .ippeared. It enntinupil lo increoiie till lie became a mim. 

the larae climate : and they are al«j ivirwrkable for thttir slet'kness aiidTatvot- 
tlkonaCtness." Winterbottoin, Jcemml c/(Ae Nalire Africans ; i. ISO. 

t Hawkeawortli'« CoUrclimi (if I'uoagei; L it p. 187. 

> Humboldt, J'oiiUcalE'tay; i. 2&. 


an excrescence hardly worthy of notice. We 
ito^'ever, with the contrast between man and 
t to this growth; with its general abundance 
il>'in the latter, and the comparative naked- 
: . while in the head these proportions ai'e re- 
it^ copious and long growth, to which there is 
rcillcl in animals, forms a distinguished and peculiar 
aparting a character of dignity and majesty to the 
It presents, again, well-marked varieties in the 
men : compare the short woolly knots on the 
nuine Negro, or the coarse, straight, and thin hair 
ictin or Mongolian, together with their beardless 
I ample growth of fine and undulated locks and the 
'which BO gracefully adorn the head and face of the 
fracea. The physiologist will be interested in examin- 
btioa between the hair and the integuments ; and ia 
I aexual distinctions, which are more or less strongly 
' itds production. 

in the ikin, and deriving from the cutaneous ves- 

teriak of its growth, the structure and properties of 

e closely allied to those of this organ. The homy 

lice composing it k very analogous to that of the cuticle ; 

^foig equally destitute of vessels, nerves, sensibiUty, and 

irer of exhtbitiag vital processes, may be regarded, like it, 

I matter. 

Each hair may be traced, through the cuticle and surface of 
•e catia, to a bulb situated partly in the corion of the latter 
•■gan, ind partly in the cellular texture which unites it to the 
sal ports. I1ds bulb consists of a dense external cover- 
cb the tubular root of the hair, and a conical vascular 
Mch that root is. secreted, are contained.* The vas- 
«idtJ8 the new matter to the root of the hair, which is 
ifBge additions, in the same way as the nail grows 
le coaical vascular pulp, and the hollow of the 
iij lodged, are easily seen in the larger examples, 
tkers nf many mammalia afford. The precise re- 
cuLicle and rete mucosum to the hair have not 
Bd ; it is not settled whether these coverings are 
ted» or whether productions of them are continued 
It is, however, dear, that the colouring principle 

F HiIt in QmuiaratiM Jnatomu; in the Cyclopaedia of Dr. 
. b; Dr. Macanney, I'rofeuor oi ^natoniT In Tnoity College 




IB of a conuQon nature in the skin and bair ; and, moreover, 
that there is a connection between them in texture. 

The colourless Albino has a soft white hair. In the first at 
white variety of the human species, ever)' gradntion from the 
Jur to the dark, is accompanied by correspondent alterations in 
the tint of the hair. This is true, not only of nations, bat of 
individatils, in the wJiite races. A liglit complexion and thin 
skin are accompanied w-ith delicate fair or red hair ; a dark one 
snd thick akin with black hair, almost invariably, even in indi- 
TJduala of the same family ; a difference which, according to the 
philosophy of some writers, would be sufficient ground for claaa- 
jng ihera in distinct species. 

The four coloured varieties of men have black hair, which is 
always stronger and coarser in texture than in the whites. This 
difference is particularly noticed by the Chinese, who con- 
temptuously compare the hair of Europeans to the soft fur of 
the smaller animals. In Negroes, native Americans, and New 
Zealanders, I have found the texture much stronger tlian in 
the darkest Europeans. A striking proof that the colour of the 
hair depends on that of the skin is aflforded by the spotted 
Africans, in whom the hairs growing out of a white patch on 
the head are white.* 

Tlie principal differences of the hair may be brought under 
the four following heads : 

1. Brownish, deviating into yellow (flaxen) or red on one side, 
and black on the other ; copious, soft, long, and fonning more 
Or less distinct ringlets or undulations It is seen in the tem- 
perate climates of Europe, and ita light shades fonnerly attracted 
particular notice in the ancient Germans. I'he thin-skinned 
Albino has the softest and most colourless hair ; in the Ger- 
manic race it is also very soft and light-coloured ; and red hair 
is usually found in conjunction with a thin and soft skin. The 
Celtic and Slavonic races, which make up the chief population 
of Europe, the eastern Asiatics, and northern Africans, liave 
generally, with a i-ather thicker and darker skin, stronger, black, 
or dark brown, and more or less curling hair. 

The lighter and darker kinds of hair will grow to very consi- 
derable lengths in Europeans, when not cut.f 

• Flumenljach jJb'nlJungen n. A. gegentlSnie, No. SI. ViTiitcow fheBtsmar 
CradatluK, &c. ; p. 145. 

+ WTiito infntioru an Kalion Indy, in whom the Lair trailed on tho gronnd 
*tien the stmjd iiprighl; tho Mtne olmerrstion may be raude of llie Qrvek 
women. A I'nunian soldier luid it lon^t fiiuueh to reavh the KKiiitd ; imd in 
aJi English ladv it was six feet Iodj;. Oil the SegtUor GraiiaiioH, pp, 93, H. 


2. Black, itrong, straiglit, and thin ; in the Mongolian and 
American varietiea. The greater part Of the liead is shaved by 
the Chinese ; tiie portion of hair which they leave, often reaches 
the ground. The same remark holds good of the Americans.* 

3. Blackj softer, dense, copious, and curled ; in most of the 
South Sea Islanders. 

4. Black and crisp, so as generally to be called woolly ; com- 
mon to all the Negro tribes. This is either formed into small 
and short masses, or it may admit of being combed to the 
length of three or four inches, still forming a kind of general 
woolly fleece. 

The analogy, on which the hairy covering of the Africans haa 
been called wool, is quite aloose one, and goes no further than a 
iUght resemblance inapjwaraiice. Tlie filament of wool is rough 
on the surface ; in hair it is smooth. The latter is of an uniform 
thickness throughout, or rather slenderer towards the point, 
while the former is uneijual in size, and larger to^vards its end. 
The thicker part is said to be produced in the summer j the 
thinner in the winter months. In a variety of experiments 
made by Dr. Anderson + he always found that the growing 
part of the fibre of wool varied in thickness with the tempera- 
ture of the season ; being thickest in summer, smaller in spring 
and autumn, and smallest of all in the winter. Another distinc- 
tion of wool is, that it falls off altogether in a mass; while human 
hairs always drop olF singly and from time to time. 

The above diraion is sufficient aa a general one -. hut there 
are some exceptions to it. WooUy hair is not confined entirely 
to the Africans, nor is the .black colour invariably found in all 
the three last varieties. Bruce describes the Gallas as having 
long hair ; and some brown people (as those of the Duke of 
York's Island near New Ireland in the South Pacific) have it 
strongly curled. 

In the Papuas of New Guinea it is completely frizzled and 
woolly ; but so much loiifier than in the Negroes, that when 
folly dressed out, according to their favourite fashion, it forma 
a round bush of three feet J in diameter, quite eclipsing our 
most dignified, legal and theological wigs. 

The New Hollanders and the natives of Van Diemen's Land, 

• Mr. Ilearni? iays, that the North American savoees leave a ifniile loeJc <m 
the head: and lliiit he savf si'cni; nt^arly nix feet nigh, in w)uim, when Jet 
down, it wniilil trail on the i^round. wt they walked. Jmimfjf lu tin I'raum 
Ocam, p. SW'', nii(e. + WTtite <M the Sc^uliir Gradaliun, {>, Stt. 

t Funest'ii yoya^e to A'ew Omnta. 



form 80 complete a medium between the woolly-haired African, 
and the copions curling'liair of the other South Sea Islanders, 
that we are completely puzzled how to class them, llie difii- 
culty is greater when we find in this one race many individuals 
with the sliort crisp knots of the genuine Negro,* and others 
with hiiir of considerable length. f 

Individual instances of red hair occur in the three J dark, 
coloured varieties of men; and the soft white hair of the Albino 
is occasionally seen in all of them. 

The animal kingdom furnishes jxa with numerous parallel 
varieties in the colour and tctture of the hair, as, for example, 
in the black sheep, in the black and wliite horses, in the various 
hues of cattle ; in the wliite, black, brown, or spotted rabbits ; 
all undoubtedly produced from the original gray stock. 

Sheep exhibit every kind of covering, from the soft and deli- 
cate fleeces of Thibet and Spain, to the coarse and rough hair, 
which takes the place of wool in very warm countries. There is 
a mixture of hair with the wool in the argali, the supjioiied wild 
original of our flocks. The sheep of some of the Tarur tribes 
have a similar mixture ; and the same thing will occur in this 
country where the breed is neglected. In these cases, if the 
animals with the best fleeces are selected to breed from, and this 
rule be observed constantly, the wool would 1>e gradually im- 
proved, and the hairs disappear ; or, rice versa, the sheep wciuld 
become entirely hairy. 

Goats, rabbits, and cats m Angora, a small district of Asia 

• Ppron, J'oyaqede Dfcourerlet aux Term Auiiraha ; p. !. ; pi. g, 10, 11, I?. 
Tlie iuiliviiiMal leijrf.wiited in pi. II U_« corapjctc Uvgru iu cijli.ur and hiiir 
ilive» of Van Diem - • • ~ 

Land. C«|tl. Couk says, that their hair 
r to the I'adjic ,- i. 96 : iuiii Mr. Aiid4!noB 

all IheHC are imlive* or Van Uieraan'j 
i»«s woolly OS llirttofanj' Negro; I'oy 
coneiiri. in llii» ri'l<rp»<>ntiitiijn ; Ibid. 11 

■♦ IVrun, viAd. pi. l"0, rci>rescats a New Holliuidcr with large and loose 
carte; in pi. IK and 21 the curl is not considerabli-; and in tin- fuimvr the hair 
ii vory Ion;;. In an whu cJime tu Eni^laiiU, and hud IfaniL-d to pay 
sitenlioti lo clranlini'sui und drvss, tt)i> liair wiu lung and copious. CollJu*' 
jiccvunl qf' Ntu South IfaltM, p. Mi; and portrait, p. 439. 

" Ia-» liabitaiiB do la li-rre do Uipmen ont les eltpvriuc courts. laincux ct 
erepiiK ; eeux de la Nouvelle HulUnde Im uni droit.'*, longs, ct ruidei." Pvruo, 
Tol. ii. n, 164. 

4 llou-haircd .Africans and Mulattos aie mentioned lij- Wintorbotton, ott (fie 
A'atire Jjricaru. i. 193 : lilumenliatb, tie sj-ii. hum, rar. nat. y. 1C9 ; and others. 
Cliarlii-V(ii.v rniitliuiiit similar facU nf tiie E4«iuiiiiniix, Jlul.tlela Aoi.c. i'rancc, 
iii. 179; C'niHlin of the Wotiiiks, Ufue dufch SiUricn, i 89) and S-jauerai of 
the fapuaM, yoi/. alaJ^'our. Guinie, IM. FurslcrsaH indiviaoiils with rcllouish 
bruwii or sandy hair at Otalipili-; Olu. on a I'uya^t raimd lie ICorld : p. tit; 
and a »iii.d<" tnaii at OLilia (one of the Fviftidjy l.slaiids) Mjih jii-rfri-lly red 
hair, ,iWrf. 230j. Atnoij|{ the tawny aiiil blaik- haired natives of ChLiiesfTiirtary, 
and of the nei^bbonring great island uf Telioka or Sag lien, ijid.viduaiH were 
wen with ehe«nut-eoloiired-h;iir. Rullin in Poro'.ie's fuga^e; v. Lii. pp. <3ft, 


MimgoUKlien yolkerichajten ; !■ Th. p. 100. 

liisliine<'» of brown and fair (bk-nd) hair occur ainunu the MiinjpjUan 
•. aei'urdrng to TaJlas, bul they arc very rare. Sammlunnfn liber dKc 


Minor, are remarkable for the length and softness, as well as 
snowy whiteness of their coverings. 

If these goats, and those furnishing the material from which 
the precious shawLi of Cashmere are fabricated, are of the same 
species with our domestic animal, and with the wild goats consi- 
dered as its original stock, the variation far exceeds what we 
obsene in the hair of the various human racea ; and this, toge- 
ther with the examples of the dog and sheep, will prove to ua 
that H dift'ercnce in the hair is not a sufficient ground for 
establishing a distinction of species. 

The various races of mankind exhibit considerable differences 
in the beard and the hair on other parts of the bo'iy, as well as 
in that of the head. One of the most general characters of the 
dark-coloured nations, at least of those which belong to the Mon- 
golian, American, and African varietiee, is either an entire want 
of heard, or a very thin one developed at a more advanced age, 
than is usual with us : on the contrarj', a copious beard has 
always been the pride of the white races : and, from ita being a 
distingniahing attribute of the male, lias been commonly 
regarded as a mark of masculine strength. Dark-coloured 
nations with strong beards are as uncommon as individuals of 
the white races with an inconsiderable growth of this covering. 
A general smoothness of the whole body i.s combined with this 
diminution of the beard ; and these characters are rendered 
more striking by the very common practice among the dark- 
coloured nations of carefully eradicating or destroying the hair ; 
which affords another example of their great disposition to 
exaggerate by artificial means whatever may be deemed imperfect 
or defective in their bodily formation. In some mstances nei- 
ther the eyebrows nor the ejelashes* are spared ; nor even the 
hiur of the head.t 

The beardlessneaa of the Mongolian variety, which attracted 
the attention of the older writers,^ has heen fully confirmed hy 
the testimonies of modem travellers. " In all the Mongolian 
tribes," says P.^llas, " the adult males have much less beard 
than in the Tartar and European nations ; it also grows later. 
The Cahmucka have the most, yet they are very poorly fur- 

• DobrirhoffPT de JlJn'lxmibiit ; il. 2G. 

+ Heamc of tht- E^^lllimllUA, on tlw Copppr Minf RItpt: "then* i» one 
cuktom jjri-vttlent<iiig tlirin, ris. that urihempn linrinjr all the liaimf their 
IteadA nulli-d out by thu runts." Sec. Jvume;/ tu l/ie I'men Ocean, p. 170. 

t Ammlaiiua MarcelllnuH says of the Ituns, "aenescuul inibfibei, aluque 
ulla veiiustitte," xxx. 2. '3'hiniii'U of the beard Is oac at the truts ascribed Dy 
Jornandci to AtlUa: " tbims barba." 


nished ; they commonly have small mnstachios, and some pre- 
Berve besides a tuft on the lower lip." "'fliey have very little 
hair on the body, and the mothers seek to exterminate it in their 
children. But in certain parts, which the Tartar women like to 
keep quite smooth, those of the Calmucks leave the hair undis- 
turbed."* " The Mongols have less beard and thinner hair of 
the head than the Calmucka. Tlie Burats are nearly as beard- 
less as the Tungooses and other hordes of Eastern Siberia. 
Without any raeana of destruction having been resorted to, 
their chin often remains q>iite smooth even to advanced age. It 
is not common to see a Burat with a beard at the usual com- 
mencement of adult age ; and they are constantly smooth and 
bald in the rest of the Iwdy.f G m elix observes, " that it is not 
easy to find a heard among the Tung^ooses or the neighbouring 
tribes. For they eradicate the hair as soon as it appears, and 
repeat this constantly, till at last no more is produced." t 

The Chinese resemble the Mongolian tribes, to which they 
owe their origin, in this deficiency of beard; although they pre- 
serve it, and encourage the growth as much as theycan.§ 

The practice of crtermination is mentioned by K;«mppbs as 
prevalent in JajKin and among the Malays ; by Fobrest, among 
the Mindanao islanders; Wilson, in the Pelew Islands; 
Langsdorff, in the Marquesas ; || Cartkret, among the 
Papuas; Bougainville, in the Navigators' Mands; Mr. 
Marsden, in Sumatra ;f^ &c. &c. 

There has been a great dispute about the Americans ; some 
asserting their entire and natural want of beard, and assigning 
this as a proof of their physical inferiority, of that degeneracy^ 

• Sammt'ivgm Sh. die Mongol, rzikmch. I'Th. p. 100. + JUd. 171. 

I Peine durc/i AVWnVn; ii. p. 12.^. 

i Thp Bootceas, or InhabitanU of Boolan, have nil the- characters of the 
MoiiBoliaii variety, and the defieii'iicy of Ijcaril with the Tpst. "Theirskim 
lire rt'inarksibly smooth, and inostofttiom arrive at a very adr ancecl age, before 
they c-an buasl even the earliest rudiniL'iilsof a beard." •• Their eyelashes are 
>0 Uiin, B8 to he scarcely perceptHiU'*' Turner, Embatty lu the Court ijf Teihoo 
Lama.jt\i. 84—85. 

N "Tne iKitlves of Nukaliiwah consider an entirely smootli skin a preat 
beauty, and therefore eradicate the hair uadcr the arms and from the breast" 
p'ut/agct and Ti'ateh, &c. p. 1 14. 

'i "The men are beardlew, and hare chins so remarkably •mouth, thM 
were it not fnr the priests di^plnvinf; ft little tuft, we nliould bo apt to conclude 
that nature had refused them this taken of manhood. It is the same with, 
respect to other (larls of the body in liotb sexes ; and this particular attention 
to their person* tney<^sleem a ptimt of ilrtScacy, and theeontmryan unpardon- 
able ncttlect. The boys, as they approiich the a^re of puherty, ruli their ehios. 
upper lijis, and those parts of the body tliat aiv subject U) »u])erftuoij» hair, 
with chuimm (quick lime, eepoeially of sl>elU'. which destroj-s the roots of 
tlie ineipieiil beard. The few pilw. that arterwards appear, are plucked out 
with tweeier*, which they alwayti carry about with them for tliu purpoie." 
a**. q/-aiBui/ni,- Ed.3, p. 44, ' *^ 


which is supposed to have afTected all animal nature in the new 
world : while others are inclined to ascribe the appareot di£> 
ference entirely to the practice of eradication. 

"We have abundant evidence that the American race is cha- 
racterized generally by a small and im j)erfect beard ; yet there 
are tribes, particularly in North America, with a more copious 
growth. The tall and robust stature of some of the American 
naboQS which have little beard, proves that the absence of this 
excrescence is not a sure sign of weakness ;* while its existence 
in the New Hollander,t the people of 'J'anua, Mallicollo, J &c. 
shows that its presence does not necessarily indicate vigour or 

The very competent and respectable testimony of Ulloa, 
establishes a general deficiency of beard among the South Aiue' 
ricans. " The Indians have no beard ; and the greatest altera- 
tion occasioned by tlieu- arriving at the years of maturity is only 
a few straggUng hairs on the chin ; but so short and thin, as 
never to require the assistance of a razor."§ He states in another 
place, II that gray hair and beards bcUcate in the American race 

• " Thi- Moxican*. particularly Uioae of Ihe Aztec und Otumile races, hare 
more iMun! l1ian 1 ever mw in niiy uthiT Iiiiijnn» of Suutli Aniorica. Abnoat 
M th<! IiiiiiariK in the nrlghbourlioucj of the cajiltal wore araalluiuslachio.<i, and 
ftis iH even a mark of the tribulary casta, Tliew muataoluos, which moilcrn 

vellen bare also ruunJ among Ihv inhabitants of the north-west coast uf 
^jwrica. are bo mach the murif curioui, «i cek-braled natanUistn have left the 
qoejUciii undeferrainetl, vrhcther the A nipricaii<i are naturally deiilitutj- of tieanl 
and of hair on the rest of their bucljca, or whether they pluck tliem carefully 
oat. Without entering bereiiito physiuloi^ical iletaili, I cau aQlrm that fta 
Indians v,hn inhaliit tlio torrid zone 'of South America have generally mbu! 
Iteanl : miil that (hi* beard increases when they shave themselves, of whieh 
we tuivc seen c^aiiiples in the missloiis of the Capuchins of t'aript*, where tlie 
Indinii si'xton.t wish to TifemlJc the niunk^ their masters. But tuany indlvi- 
dualx are naturally desUlute of beard and hair ou their bodies. 

" Mr. De Galeaiio, in the account of the lost Spaiii«'li cxpetlition to the Straits 
of Mikgcllaii, lafunns ua, that Uiere are many old men amonir the PulaeoQians 
•with beard*, thou^jh they are abort, and b v no meaiu bushy, i ri'ije at Euinelu 
deJUagatliaatj, p. Jt3t). On comparing tnis asaertion with the (anU eoUeOlBd 
"by Marchand, Meors, and especially Mr. Vulney, in tiie northern terowrate 
lone, we an^ tempted to believe Uiat the Indiana have mure and mure Doard 
inprnportiou to itieir distance fioin Iheenualor. However, this apporeut want 
of beard is by no mear)« j>ecuUar to the American race; for many hordes of 
Eastern Aiiia, aud esi>ecaal)y man}' triltes of African Negroes, hare so little 
lieard, that we shauld be almnat tempted to deny its existence. The Ne<.rroea 
ct Cougci, and the Carilia, two eminently robust races, fretjuently of a Coloasal 
stature, prove that t(j look oaabeardletsiildnasasure sign of thedegenentioii 
imd physical weakness o/ the hnman species, is a mere physiological dream. 
We lorfiet that all which has bees observed in the Caucasuw racBs does not 
applveniinllv til the Mongol or American race, or to tfaa African Kefroen" 
fiuinbnhlt, PoiUicalEtmy, y.L p. 147, 148. 

t Collins, .Iccount qflhe Engluh Cvtang in ,A'ew South JFata ; p. WO. 

t The Mallicollese have strong, crisp, and bushy beards, althouijli they are 
cdled an "aji ape-like niUion,"'and the ugliest seen in the South Sen. Cook. 
fivage totfard) the HuiUh J'ule ; v. ii. p, 34, plati> 47. Of the Tannese ajid New 
OrinloniaM, fee ibid. p. 118; plates W and 39: and Porster's Vlucrvatiimi, 
f, S9& I Tnaelt in South .America ; v. 1. p. SST. 

I KdHeiOM Jme i inmatt v. H. It is irasBlated into German and Frvneb. 

, all the 

216 ^HH&B I?r THE H.VTR, HEART), 

a very advanced age : the fonner is not seen till before or about 
the seventieth year; the latter abo'it the age of sixty, and then 
slender and thin. Bocgckr,* CHA]»LKVoix,t the Chevalier 


give similar testimony on this potnL 

There is some contradiction in the reports of traveDers con- 
cerning the native North Americans : it is, hotvever, easily 
explained on the probable supposition that the proportion of the 
beard raries in different tribes. 

Mr. Hkarne observed, of those whom he saw on his journey 
to the Copper Mine River, " that few of the men have any 
beard : this seldom makes its appearance, till they are arrived at 
middle a^e ; and then in by no means equal quantity to what 
is observed in the generality of the Europeans : the little they 
have, however, is exceedingly strong and bristly." He meD. 
tions tba practice of eradication ; and adds, that " neither sex 

• Of Ihp Ppratians. " iU n'onl point do b»rbo, ni de poil kit Ii poitrine, ic 
en aucun endroit Ja corps." Mem de I'Jcad. det Snmce$. 1740, p. J74. 

+ Journal Hhloriiue, p. 311. i In Robertson's Ilittory of America : v. 1.460. 

? Df Ahift.nihut, T. ii. C. S-*). and »eq. 

II "Th«> Chiliiins, like iheTartara, liaTebut little heard; aud the custom of 
plueking out the hair, 83 fast as it grows, makes them appear as if boardJeu 
for this porpo"e ther alw.ijs carry with them * small |i«ir of piiiccrs, whiea 
form* a part of their' toilette. There are some of them, liuwover, who haveas 
thick a iK-anJ m the Spaniards. Thehairwhich marks thea^ofpulK-rty, they 
hare in still (rrcoter quantities than the beard. The opinion thai a thin bearti 
In the murk of a feeble body is not verified in the eise of these people. The 
Indians an- generally Tigoruuj, and are better able to endure fati^e than the 
Creoles: fur which reason they are always preferred in thos<- employments 
that require strcnerth." yatural Hi'tory o/ Chili, p. 275. 

The Araucans "' have ararceiy any boanl, and the smallest hair is never to 
be discerned on their fares, from the care they take to plu'-k out the little that 
apjieam." "The same attention is paid to remorini; it from their bodies, where 
itagruwth is more abanJant" Cin't Ilttt. o/C/iiti, \i. 55. 

U " The Chaymas are almost without beard on the Thin, like the Tun^ooses, 
and other uatiL>ns of the Mongol race. Tliey pluck out the few hairs that 
appear; but It is not correct to say they hare no beartl, merely because they 
pluck out the hairs. Independently of this ctistom. the greater part of the 
natives would be nearly In-ardless. " No controversy would have arisen oa 
this point, if the correct account giron by the first historians of the fonouest 
of Ami^rictt had been suflicieotly attended lo. (See the Journal of Pi^'a[etta,. 
published by Amorctti, 1800, p. 18. Benionl, ii/ona del Mundo Xumu, 157S, 
p. 85. Benibo, Hiitt. renat, l&'iT, p. 86.) "The Palagurian!! audGuarnniesia 
South .America have iM'ards. When the Chaymas, instead of extracting tho 
little hair they have on the ehin, shave themselves fri-quently, their board 
Rrows. I have seen this experiment tried with success by ynunc; Indians, who 
served at ina«s, and wlio anxiously wished to resemble ihe Capuchin fathers, 
their missiimariei and instructors, Mostof the pe<j]>Ie, however, have as ijreat 
nn andpathy lo Iho Ward as the Eastern nations have veneration for it. This 
antipathy is derived from the snme source as the predilection for flat fureheadlj 
which is aevw in ati singular a m.tnner in the statues of the Aitleck heroes and 
divinities. Nations attafh the idea of beiiuty to eviry thinj which particularly 
characti-riies their own physical conformation, their natural phvsiiignomy. 
Hence it resulU. that if nature have bestowed very little beard, a narrow forO' 
head, or a brownish red skin, every iiidividual thinks himself beautiful, in 
proportion as his hody in destitute of hairs, his htjad flattened, and his *kl» 
covered with annatto or chica, or some other coppery red cohmr, " Ptmna 


hare any hair under their armpits, and very little on any other 
part of their body, particularly the women."* 

Mr. Mackenzie states that the Knisteneaux " very gene- 
rally extract their beards ; and both sexes manifest a disposition 
to pluck the hair from every part of their body and limbs. "f 
Among the Chepewyans " the men in general extract their 
beards ; but some are seen to prefer a bushy black beard to a 
smooth chin." I 

Respecting the Canadian Indians and the adjoining tribes, 
we have a curious statement in the Philosophical Transactions,^ 
communicated by a celebrated Mohawk chief named Thayan- 
DANEBGA, but better known to the English by the name of 
Capt. Brant, whose portrait is represented in Plate IV. 

" The men of the Six Nations have aU beards by nature, as 
have likewise all other Indian nations of North America, which 
I have seen. Some allow a part of the beard on the chin and 
upper lip to grow ; and a few of the Mohawks shave with razors 
like Europeans ; but the generality pluck out the hairs of the 
beard by the roots, as soon as they begin to appear ; and, as 
they continue this practice all their lives, they appear to have 
no beard, or at most only a few straggling hairs, which they have 
neglected to pluck out. I am, however, of opinion, that if the 
indians were to shave, they would never have beards, altogether 
so thick as the Europeans ; and there are some to be met with, 
who have actually very little beard." 

The beardlessness of the natives at Nootka Sound is ascribed 
by Cook II entirely to their practice of eradication ; and the same 
opinion is expressed respecting the Chopunnish, a tribe on 
Lewis's River, which joins the Columbia, by Captains Lewi& 
and Clarke, who are of opinion that several of them would 
have good beards, if they adopted the practice of shaving.^ 

Perouse *• reports, that about one-half of the adult Indians 
in New California had beards, which in some were ample : that 

• Journey, ch. ix. p. 305. + Voyage', &c. p. 92. t Ibid. p. 180. 

? For the year 1786; art. 11, communicated by Mr. M'Causland, an army 
surgeon, who had resided for ten years at Nia^ra, in the midst of tie Six 
Nations, and who confirms the statement of the American chief. 

II *' Some nave no beards at all ; and others only a thin one on the point of 
the chin. This does not arise from an original deficiency of hair in those parts. 
But from their plucking it out by the roots ; for those, who do not destroy it, 
nave not only considerable beards on every part of the chin, but also whiskers, 
ormustachios running from the upper lip to the lower jaw obliquely down- 
-virards." yoyase to the Pac%fic, v. ii. -p. 302. FL 38, Man of Nootka Sound t 
pi. 46, Man of Prince William's Sound. 

II Travel! to the Source qf the Miuouri, p. 556, 557. 

•• Fotiage, V, U. p. 197, 198. 


he could not ascertain whether the deficiency observed in tbe 
others arose from natural defect, or from the beard being 
plucked out. 

The genuine Negroes have very httle growth of Rair on the 
chin,* or on other parts of the body. In a full-grown lad of 
seventeen, there was not the smaDest appearance of beard, nor 
of hair on any other part except the bead. I never saw any 
hair on the anns, legs, or breasts of Negroes, like what is 
observed ou those parts in Europeans. 

Although the South Sea Islanders come under the dark- 
coloured division of the human race, they are not at all deficient 
in beard. The descriptions and figures of Cook concur in 
assigning to them in many cases a copious growth.-f" 

Th-At a similar conne.vion in point of colour to that which I 
have just explained between the skin and the hair, exists abto 
between the former organ and the eyes, was noticed by Aris- 
totle, who observed that white persons have blue, and dark 
ones black eyes. Thus, in European countries, newly-born 
children have generally light eyes and hair, and both grow 
gradually darker together in individuals of dark complexion. 
Again, in proportion as the hair turns gray in the old subject, 
the pigmenttim of the eye loses much of its brown colour.^ 
With the colourless skin and iiair of the Albinos, is ct)inbined 
an entire deficiency § of colouring in matter in the eye ; so that 
the iris and choroid have a more or less red hue with a tenilency 
to violet, from the colour of the blood in their numerous ca{)il- 
laries. Different children of the same family not unfreejuently 
have opposite complexions, where one of the parents is fair and 
the other dark : hence we may see brothers and sisters with 
different coloured irides. 

* Dc Bry etatcs of Uie Cona^ N<>gToe3, " Barbie p*rum habcnk ; rideos entm 
trigesimiiDi ctiitis agentcs annum, quorum gcuan vix. iauugo vextiro cispit 
tenorrima. ' ' 

t The purtrait of Potatow, an Otaheiteon chief, bos beard enough fnr a Xawuli 
Tttbbi. romge towardt the S. Pole, r. i. p. I.'i9, pi. 56. New Zealander, v. ii, 
p. l.')2, pi. 55. See alio Ihe portrait of Tlarrah, a Ni'w Zi'aland chief,_nr«?ft)ced 
to Savage'* Account of JVtrw Zealand The rt'prosi'jitations of the Tannpw, 
Mallicollpisp, and New Caledonians hare been already cjiioted; note +, p. S15, 
Man of Miiii/feea; folio atlai to the A'^oy. la the Pacific; pL U. 

i Pi^mentiim nigrum is an incorrect ex[in'B«ion us apjilied to the hunm 
ove, iu uhii-h the Dialler in question, whelhor in thevhoroid membrane, OToa 
t&e uvea, is always brown. It is neither blork, nor of a tint that could be 
miscakca for it, even in the darkest races ; allbuugh it is of a deep bhu:k in 
our eommon quadrupyds. 

) In hi» " Obtenaiioiu on the Pigmentum tjf the Eye." Mr. Hunter Bpcaksof 
t]ie white piementum of the Albino, white rabbit, white mouse, (e>rret. tee. 
Ottt. on Ifie Animal Economy. It seems to me cjisilv demonstrable that there 
in uo cokiuring nmtler in lhe»e cases; and that tholfghl rufe-colourof Ibeirul, 
and the deeper rialeC.t«d of the pupil, depead suK-iy on the tilood. 

Those animals only, in which the skin and hair are gubject to 
variety of colour, vary in that of the eyes. This is not confined, 
as the ancients thouj^ht, to man and the horse, but extends also 
to others, particularly of the domnsticated kinds. Moreover, 
the iris sometimes exhibits more than one colour in those ani- 
mal.s which have a xpotted skin; as was noticed by MoLi- 
NELLt * in dog8. Soraetliingof the same kind may be obserred 
in sheep and horses; but Blumenbach says that it is most 
conspicuous in the rabbit ; the gray, or those which retain the 
native colour of their wdd state, have brown IriJes ; those 
spotted with black and white have the irides evidently varie- 
gated; and the white, like other leucjethiopic animals, have 
them, as is well known, of a pale rose colour. 

The three principal colours of the human eye were well laid 
down by ARi.sTaTL.B ; vis. blue, passing in its lighter tints to 
what we call gray ; an obscure orange, which he calls the colour 
of the eye in the goat (Fr. yeux de chevre), a kind of middle 
tint between blue and orange, and sometimes remarkably green 
in men with very red hair and freckled skin ; and lastly brown 
in various shades, forming in proportion to its depth wliat we 
call ha/^l, dark, or black eyes. The re<l eyes of the leucjc- 
thiopic constitution may constitute a fourth division. 

Tliese may all occur in different individuals of the same race ; 
or even of the same family : and again, they are aomelimes con- 
fined to the distinct tribes of the .same country within the 
limits of a few degrees. Thus Linnkus f describes in Sweden 
the Gothlander, with hght hair and grayish blue eyes; the Fin 
with yellow hair and brown iris ; and the Laplander with black 
hair and eyes. 

Blue eyes, as well as yellow hair (caerulci ocuh, rutila; comte), X 
have characterized the German race from the earhcsf times; 
and the same combination is met with, in scattered instances, in 
the most remote nations. The iris of the Negro is the blackest 
we are acquainted with ; so that close inspection is necessary, 
in lining indi\nduals, to distinguish it from the pupil. It is 
invariably dark in all the coloured tribes of men ; as well as in 
dark-complexioned individuals of the white variety. 

• Commitit. Tnttil. Bmmn., t. iii. p. 381. + Fauna Siuvira, p. 1. 

t Tacitufl, Oerm, 1. Hutiliis is aniilird to splpndid nr shiiiitiij nhjpcli. !u (Ir* 
uidtiamci; anddi-notesfri-juenUy tne colour of^old.aa in this cane. Thusit hia 
here the saiae meaning as the " aurinjmi^' of Silui* upplied to the U.ntarl, uul 
UiDeplt2i«f " golden-uuied," so cummoa amons the enrUrrOemua wrritui. 




D^fermeet i^f t'eaturei i Farm (J the Skull ; Teeth; attempted ExpUmaiioiu, 
Altuouoh it is a common and very just observation, that two 
individuals are hardly to be met with possessing exactly the 
same features, and although this variety, according with what 
we observe throughout ail nature,* is a simple and effectual 
provision for very important ends, yet there ia fjenerally a 
certain cast of countenance common to the particular races of 
men, and often to the inhabitants of particular countries. The 
five following varieties are established by Bldmknbach f 
after a careful comparison of numerous drawings and of the 
various races themselves, in sitiiationB, where commerce attracts 
them from all parts of the globe, as at London and Amsterdam. 
This distribution is only meant to indicate the most leading 
traits; details and minute particulars are not therefore taken 
into consideration 

1. An oval and straight face, with the different parts mode- 
rately distinct from each other ; high and expanded forehead ; 
nose narrow, and slightly aquilinp, or at least with the bridge 
somewhat convex ; no prominence of the cheek-bones ; small 
mouth, with hpa slightly turned out, particularly the lower one, 
a full and rounded cliin. See Plate I. 

This is the kind of countenance which accords most mth our 
ideas of beauty : it may be considered as a middle, departing 
into two extremes, exactly opposed to each other, in most 
respects, yet agreeing in having a low and receding forehead. 
In one, the face is expanded laterally ; in the other, it is length- 
ened forwards or downivards. Each of these includes two 
varieties, wiiich are most readOy distinguished by a profile view ; 
one, in which the nose and other parts run together ; and the 
other, in which they are more prominent and separate. 

2. Broad and flattencil face, with the parts slightly distin- 
guished, and as it were running together : the space between the 
«yes Hat and very broad, flat nose, rounded projecting cheeks ; 

• •' Prmtorea genua liutnonura, mutajque iiatintrs 

SqiiamniigiTum pecodea, el lajtaanni'iita, ii-rtequo, 
Et sarins rolucrps ; Iffitantin t^nie Uictt H<iuanim 
Cotioelt'lirant, circum ripiis, loiileiMjm', Utiisque ; 
Et quffi pcrvalsanl nomora aviapervolitantps; 
Horuin unuiii anodvis fjcncratim suimpre perge: 
Invpnica lamcn hittr «e (lisitare tisruris. 
Ncc ratione alia ((rules cugnoscere mpiln?ra, 
Nee mater possit pntlcrn ; quod posse viilemus, 
Ncc milliu olque homiupa inter se nota clucrc." — Lucrci. L. 
t Ihgen. human, tar, nat. Sect, iU. I &6. 


narrow and linear apertnre of the eyelids extending towards the 
temples (yeux brides, Fr.), the internal angle of the eye de- 
pressed towards the nose, and the superior eyelid continued at 
that part into the inferior by a rounded sweep ; chin slightly 
prominent. See Plate II. 

This is the face of the Mongolian tribes ; commonly called in 
Enghsh the Tartar face, from the confusion of the Tartars 
(Tatars) with the Mongols. 

3. Face broad, but not flat and depressed, with prominent 
cheek-bones, and the parts when viewed in profile, as it were, 
more deeply and distinctly carved out. Short forehead, eyes 
deeply seated, nose flattish, but prominent. Such is the coun- 
tenance of most Americans. See Plate IV. 

4. Narrow face projecting towards its lower part; narrow, 
slanting, and arched forehead ; eyes prominent (k fleur de t^te) ; 
a thick nose, confused on either side with the projecting cheeks 
(nez ^pat^ ; the lips, particularly the upper one, very thick ; 
the jaws prominent, and the chin retracted. — This is the coun- 
tenance of the Negro— the Guinea face. See Plate III. 

5. The face not so narro^^ as in the preceding, rather pro- 
jecting downwards, with the different parts in a side-view rising 
more freely and distinctly. The nose rather full and broad, and 
thicker towards its apex (bottled-nosed). The mouth large. 
This is the face of the Malays, particularly of the South Sea 
Islanders. See Plate V. 

In his Abbildungen natur-historicher GegenstSnde, p. i, Blu- 
menbach has given characteristic representations of these five 
varieties, engraved from accurate portraits of celebrated indivi- 
duals. These engravings have been copied for the present work,* 
as they render the subject much more intelligible than mere 

In features, as in colour, the different races are connected to 
each other by the most gentle gradations ; so that, although any 
two extremes, when contrasted, appear strikingly different, they 
are joined by numerous intermediate and very slightly differing 
degrees ; and no formation is exhibited so constantly in all the 
individuals of one race, as not to admit of numerous exceptions 

We see, indeed, an astonishing difference, when we place an 
ugly Negro (for there are such as well as ugly Europeans) 
against a specimen of the Grecian ideal model ; but, when we 

• See plate I.— V. Vignettes illustrating the same subject are introduced 
in the Beytrage zur Xaturseichichte ; 1' Tlieil. 


trace the intermediate gradations, tbis striking divereityvaniahei^^ 
" Of the Negroes of both sexes," says Blcmbncacu, " wham 
I have attentively examined, in very conaitlcrable number, as 
well as in the portraits and profiles of others, and in the 
numerous Negro crania, which I possess, or have seen, there 
axe not two completely resembling each other in their formation; 
they pass by insensible gradations, into the forms of the other 
races, and approach to the other varieties even in their most 
pleasing modifications. A Creole whom I saw at Yverdun, bom 
of parents from CongOj and brought from St. Domingo by the 
Chevalier Treytobrens, had a countenance, of which no part, 
not even tlie nose, and rather strongly marked lips, were very 
striking, much less displeasing; the same features with an 
European complexion would certainly have been generally 
agreeable."* 'Jlie testimony of Le Maire, in hia journey to 
Senegal and Gambia, is to the same effect ; tliat there arc 
Negresses, except in colour, as handsome as European women. 
Vaillant say.H of the Cafire women, that setting aside the 
prejudice which operates against their colour, many might be 
accounted handsome, even in an European country. The accu< 
rate Adanson confirms tliia statement in his description of the 
Senegambians. " The women are equally well made with the 
men. Their skin ia of the finest texture, and extremely soft. 
The eyes are black and large ; the mouth and lips small ; and 
all the features well proportioned. Several are perfectly beau- 
tiful. They have much vivacity, and an easy air, which is very 

Tlie Jaloffs, according to Mungo Park, have not the protu- 
berant lip nor flat nose of the African countenance. J We have 
also the testimony of another traveller, concerning this tribe, to 
the same effect: according to MooiiE,§ they have handsome 
features, and neither broaJ noses nor thick lips. Pigafktta (( 
states, that the Congo Negroes have not the thick lips of the 
Nubians, and that, except in colour, they are very Uke the 
Portuguese. Dampier, in his account of Natal, descril)e8 the 
natives as ha\'ing curkd hair, but a long face, well-proportioned 
nose, and agreeable countenance. The six Negro crania en- 
graved in the two first decades of Blumsnbach, exhibit very 

• Brytrage sur NalurzctrMvUe ; 1' Th. p. 89, 
+ Hiitoire A'atiirelte du Seniiial, p. 23. 

t Traveit into the. Interior Disln'ctt of J/rica; 8to. edlli<m, P. 33. Th« 
FoulabB bIso have (ilo isiug ^uluri*, p. 85. 
t Zimioermann, Ut-ogravl). getrhicltie , y. i. p. 99. 
i Reiaxiane del Seame lii Lvngpi Soma, 

y. i. p. 


clearly this diversity of character in the Afirican race ; and prove, 
most anequivocally, that the variety among individuals is cer- 
tainly not kss, but greater, than the difference between some of 
thpm and many Europeans.* 

The same ob8er\'ation8 hold good of the American race. The 
most accurate observers treat with contempt the hyperbolical 
assertion of some, that all the inhabitants of the new world have 
one and the same countenance, so that he who has seen one 
may say that he has seen all. 

" I cannot help smiling," says Molina, " when I read in 
certain modem authors, anrl those too accounted diUgent 
obser^'ers, that all the Americans hare one cast of countenance, 
and then when you have seen one, you know the whole. These 
writers have been too much influenced by the deceptive appear- 
ances of resemblance, consisting chiefly in colour, wliich imme- 
diately disappear when we confront individuals of two nations. 
The difference between an inhabitant of Chili and a Peru^-ian is 
not less than between an Italian and a German. I have found 
the Indians of Paraguay, of the Straits of Magellan, and of other 
parts, most obviously and strikingly distinguished from each 
other by peculiar lineaments. *'t 

We have further unexceptionable testimony to prove that the 
same variety of countenance is found in the Americans as in the 
other races j although it generally follows the model above 
described. In South America only we have the Caaiguas with 
Hat noses, observed by Nic. del Techo ; the neiglilwuring 
Abijwns, of whom many individuals have aquiline noses, by 
Martin Dobrizhoffer; the Peinvians with narrow and aqui- 
line noses, by Ulloa ; the Chilese with rather a broad nose, by 
Molina ; and the islanders of 'Ilerra del Fuego with a very de- 
pressed one, by G. FoHSTKR. 

The tnith of this representation is most fully attested by 
Humboldt, whose accuracy and extensive opportunities 
entitle his obsen-ations to the most implicit deference. " In the 
faithful portrait, which an excellent obser^'er, Mr. Volney, has 
drawn of the Canada Indians, we undoubtedly recognise the 
tribes scattered in the meadows of the Rio Apure and the 
Carony. The same style of feature exi-sta, no doubt, in both 
Americas ; but those Europeans who have sailed on the great 
nvers Orinoco and Amazons, and have had occasion to sec a 

• Derat Craniorum, p. 2"J ; Drcat altera, p. 13. 

T Sleria nalurale del CMli, p. Xi6. £Df;Li9h Translation, 774, ?75. 


fl^eat number of tribes assembled under the monastical hierarcliy 
in the missiona, must have observed that the American race 
contains nations, whose features differ as essentially from ono 
another, as the numerous varieties of the race of Caucasus, the 
Circassians, Moors, and Persians, differ from one another. The 
tall form of the Patagonians is again found by us, as it were, 
among the Caribs, who dwell in the plains from the delta of the 
Orinoco, to the sources of the Rio Blanco. What a difference 
between the figure, physiognomy, and physical constitution of 
these Caribs, who ought to be accounted one of the most robust 
nations on the face of the earth, and are not to he confounded 
with the degenerate Zambos, formerly called Caribs of the 
island Sit. Vincent, and the squat bodies of the Chayma Indians 
of the province of Cumana ! What a difference of form between 
the Indians of Tlascala and the Lipans and the Cbichimecs of 
the northern part of Mejdco !" • 

An analogous variety of countenance has been noticed iin the 
Friendly Islanders ; " their features are very various, insomuch 
that it is scarcely possible to fix on any general likeness by 
which to characterise them, unless it be a fulness at the point 
of the nose, which is very common. But, on the other hand, 
we met with hundreds of truly European faces, and man^ 
genuine Roman noses amongst tbem.f 

Individuals in Europe often have the countenance exactly 
resembling the Negro or Mongol face. 

From our suney of the counteiiaDce, we proceed, by a natural 
and easy transition, to a consideration of the bony head. It is 
sufficiently obrious that there must he a close connection 
between the e.Kternal soft parts of the face, or the features, and 
the bony fabric, or mould, on which they are formed and sup- 
ported ;— that the sixe and configuration of the latter must 
determine those of the former. J We might venture to affinn, 
that a bhnd man, if he knew the vast difference which exists 
between the face of a Calmuck and that of a Negro, would be 
able to distinguish their skulls by the mere touch ; nor could 
you persuade any person, however ignorant of the subject, that 
either of these belonged to a head similar to those from which 

• Palitkai Easmi, V. \v. p. H2, + Cook's Foy. to the Pacijic: L 380. 

t I ilii mtt sppftk of tlitf ori^'iiial fonnatiori, nor inpaii lo aM!M?rl thai the pti*- 
tlcular iatmf of the sufc part<i dcpriid on those of the bunes. as their caose; 
for Iiumc?rau9 phi-nnmcna rather tpnd to provi* the ri'fcTse of that pusitiun, or 
that the soft |jBrls inlliicnc'c Ihr eonfi^iirnliun of tbe hones. 1 only wish to 
point out the ivlaiionbclwemi l>iein, und to state, that either t}eiiig kiiovvo, it 
-wtil be eauy to delerniine tiin other. 


ihe divdne eiamplea of the ancient Grecian sculpture were 
copied. Differences equally striking' are found in the cavity of 
the cranium; of which the general capacity and particular 
forma depend entirely on the size and partial development of 
the brain. Hence our zoological study of man will be greatly 
assisted by carefully examining genuine specimens of the skidla 
of different nations ; which are easily prepared and proscrved, 
may be conveniently handled and surveyed, considered in 
various points of view, and compared to each other. 

Such a comparison will show us that the form of the cranium 
differs no less than the colour of the skin, or other characters; 
and that one kind of structure runs by gentle and almost inob- 
aervable gradations into another: yet that there is, on the 
whole, an undeniable, nay, a very remarkable constancy of 
character in the crania of different nations, contributing very 
essentially to national peculiarities of form, and corresponding 
exactly to the features which characterize such nations. Hence 
anatomists have attemjjted to lay down some scale of dimen- 
sions, to which the various forms of the skull might be referred ; 
and by means of which they might he reduced into certain classes. 

With the exception of a few desultory observations, which are 
icattered through the works of different writers, Daubenton's 
paper, " Snr In Diff&ence du grand Trou accipilal dans PHomme 
tt dans Jes autres Animaxix" in the Memoirs of the Royal Aca- 
iemjf of Sciences for 1764, contains the first attempt at any 
general remarks on the subject : and this, indeed, is more im- 
[portant in pointing out the differences between the human 
structure and that of animals, than in defining the characters of 
the skull in the different races of mankind. Camper has at- 
tempted a more general ^'iew, by means of his facial line and 
angle already described (see Chap. IV.) Bnt what he has said 
cannot be considered even as approximating to a systematic ac- 
count of the national varieties of the skull. It is sufficiently 
obvious that his method is apjilicable to such varieties only aa 
differ from each other in the size and prominence of the jaws, 
that it will not at all exhibit the characters of those which vary 
in the opposite way, viz. in the greater or less breadth of the 
face, while the upper, posterior, and lateral aspects of the cranium 
are entirely disregarded. It often happens that crania of the 
most different nations, which differ toto ckIo from each other on 
*he whole, have the same facial line ; and, on the contrary, that 
skuUa of the same nation, which agree in general character. 


djfler very much in the direction of this line.* Camper could 
not, indeed, have fully explained this subject, because he had 
no sufficient collection of crania for the piiqiose. His DisserUt- 
tion contains an engraving of a skuU, which he calls that of a 
Calmuek, and adduces as a representative of all the natives of 
Aaia. The characters of this skuU are completely Negro ; and 
the very reverse of those which distinguish tlie Cahnuck. Be- 
sides this he brings forward one Negro skull; and these two an 
all that it contains except European heads. 

We are indebted to Blumexbach for the completest body 
of information on this subject, which he has l)een enabled to 
iUiistrate most successfully by an unrivalled collection of tho 
crania of different nations from all parts of the globe. 

His admirable work on the varieties of the human species 
contains a short sketch of the various formations of the skull in 
different nations ; but he has treated the subject at greater 
length and with more minute detail in his Deeades Craniorum, 
where the crania themselves are represented of their natural 

He states, that in the examination and classification of his 
immense collection, he finds it every day more and more drffi> 
cult, amidst such numerous diflerences in the proportioa and 
direction of various parts, all of which contribute more or less 
to the national character, to reduce these to the measurements 
(St angles of any single scale. Since, however, in distinguish - 
ing the characters of the different crania, such a view will gain 
the preference to all others, as offers at one glance the most 
numerous and important points, and such as contribute especi- 
ally to the comparison of national characteristics, he has found 
by experience that to he the best adapted to this purpose/which 
is obtained by jilacing the different crania, with the zygomas 
perpendicular, on a table in a row, and contemplating them from 
behind.' WTien skulls are thus arranged, those circumstances 
which contribute most to the formation of the national character, 
vis. the direction of the jaws and cheek-bones, the breadth or 

• The crinioi of a Nopro and of a Polo, represented in the Demiles of Blu 
njenlMch {Dec. alli-ra; Inlj. x.: Iht. lertta, t. xxii. ), possess exactly the Mime 
bciak line ; yet the general chnnuU-r of the two skulls is most opposite, when 
we compare the narrow and keeUshaped Ethiopian to the broad *t|uare form 
of tho Lithuanian. TTierc are, in the stLtne irork, twrj Negro rrania of Tery 
different Cacinl lines, which, when viewed in frunt, betray their Ethionic orixia 
inoft incoiiteiitably by the same characters of a rjtrritw and compresse<i rraiviuin 
and arched foreherid. In short, this criterion of the farial line, which I havp 


ready eihown to be quite iniiutlteient a« a key to the intellcetual rank of 
imau, ii equaUy , if not more utuiervicea})le, in its application to the rartetiw 

/Vrf// n 





narrowness of the head, the advancing or receding outline of the 
forehead, are all distinctly perceived at one view. This method 
of considering the bony head he calls norma vertictUis. It is 
exhibited in the three figures of Plate IX., where three heads 
are represented in this point of view, in order to illustrate the 
.subject. The middle of the three, distinguished by the sym- 
metry and beauty of all its parts, is that of a Georgian female . 
the two outer ones are examples of heads differing from this in 
the opposites extremes. That on the left, elongated in front, is 
the head of a Negress ; the other, on the right, expanded late- 
rally, and flattened in front, is the cranium of a Tungoose from 
the north-east of Asia. The great expanse of the upper and 
anterior part of the cranium, hiding the face, characterizes the 
Georgian. In the Ethiopian, the narrow slanting forehead 
allows the face to come into view ; the cheeks and jaws are com- 
pressed laterally, and elongated in front. In the Tungoose, on 
the contrary, the maxillary, malar, and nasal bones are widely 
expanded on either side ; and the two latter are on the same 
horizontal level with the glabella ;* the forehead being still low 
and slanting. 

In the first, or white variety of man, to which Bluhbnbach 
has given the epithet CoMcasian, includmg the ancient and mo- 
dem inhabitants of Europe, the western Asiatics, or those on 
this side of the Caspian Sea, the rivers Ob and Ganges, and the 
northern Africans ; — in a word, nearly all the inhabitants of the 
world as known to the ancients, the skull presents the finest 
intellectual organization; proportions indicating the greatest 
predominance of the rational faculties over the instruments ok 
sense and of the common animal wants. The upper and front 
parts of the skull are more developed than in any other variety, 
and their ample swell completely hides the face, when we surve) 
the head according to the norma verticalis. The facial line must, 
therefore, be nearly vertical ; and the facial angle nearly a right 
angle. The face is comparatively small, and its outlines rounded, 
without anything harsh or unpleasantly prominent The cheek- 
bones are small, and do not stand out, but descend in a nearly 
straight line from the external angular process of the frontal 
bone. The alveolar margin of the jaws is rounded ; and the 
front teeth are perpendicular in both. The chin is frill and 

Since this conformation is exhibited in the various nations of 
* The space between the frontal sinoiei. 



Europe, its leading traits must be familiar. Ab a specimen, I 
have selected from the third decade of Blumbnbach's work 
the skull of a fjeorgian* w<iinan, because it comes from a quar- 
ter near the sujiposed orii^inal seat of our race, and from a tribe 
celebrated for personal beauty. Froir. 'Jie elegance and symmctrj^ 
of its formation, it may be regarded as the model of a female 
head ; and is certainly far preferable in tliis point of view, to 

that of 

" TUe bending statue whici vnchauta tbe worltL" 

Gall and Spukzhkim judiciously obsen^ed that the head of 
the Venus was too small for an intellectual being; and that 
the goddess of Love was thus represented as an idiot. In this 
Georgian head tbe physical and moral attributes are well com- 
bined ; the jiersonal charms, which enchant the senses, are 
joined to those rationsd endowments wliicli command esteem 
and respect, and satisfy the judgment. 

The form of this bead is of such (listinguished elegance, that 
it attracts the attention of all who visit the collection in which 
it is contained. The vertical and frontal regions form a large 
and smooth convexity, which is a little flattened at th?. temples j 
the forehead is high and broad, and carried forwards perjien- 
dicularly over the face. The cheek-bones are small, descend,, 
ing from the outer side of the orbit, and gently turned bacli 
nie superciliary ridges run together at the root of the nose, and* 
are smoothly continued into the bridge of that organ, which 
forms an elegant and finely-turned arch, The alveolar processes 
are softly rounded, and the chin is full and prominent. In the 
whole structure there is nothing rough or harsh; nothing dis- 
agreeably projecting. Hence it occupies a middle place between 
the t\vo opposite extremes, of the Mongolian variety, in which 
the face is flattened, and expanded laterally : and tbe Ethiopian, 
in which the forehead is contracted, and the jaws also are 
narrow and elongated anteriorly. 

Blu.menhach observes that the form of this head corres- 
ponds exactly to that of the marble statue of a nymph in the 
collection of the late Mr. Townley, of which he pos.sesses a 
plaster cast. It tends also to confirm tbe testimony of the nu- 
merous travellers, who have unanimously concurred in extolling 
the beauty of the inhabitants of Georgia and the neighbouring 

• Dena* terha ; No. xxi. Tlie sixth platp uf this w.irk is oopiffil from the 
fisurp i)f Blumcribach. The repieipntat ions in Ihe l^nhula SceleliH Musculorum 
Humini'. -irid 'n\ (ho Tab, Ouium humanorum oi Albinu4j, aim i-jtciDi>liry tlie 
charattLTi' of this Tahsty. 


coimtnes. Tbe expreswns of Chakdct are ao winn and 
animated, diat I subjoin the original pass^e. ** Le sang de 
Geoigie est k phis beau de rorient, et je pais dire du nMode. 
Je n'ai pas remarqoe un risage laid en ce pais-la, psnni, Vva 
rt Fantre sexe ; mais j'y oi ai tu d'angebqaes. La nature j a 
repandn snr la phipait des femmes des graces qu'on ne Toit 
p(Hnt ailleun. Je tiens pour impoasiUe de les i^arder sans 
les aimer. L'on ne peat pdndre de phis diannans risages, ni 
de plus beQes tailles, qae ceDes des Geoigiennes."* The head 
<^ the Jewish girl engiared in Pi^tb XIL exonplifies eqoaDj 
veil the Caucasian f onnation. 

The chaiacten abore described belong to the folknring peoide, 
whether andent or modem; cir. the Syrians and Assyrians, 
Chaldeans, Medes, Permns,^ Jews,t Egyptians, Georgians, 
Circassians, Mingrelians, Armenians,§ TariLs,|| Arabs, Afghans, 
Hindoos of high cast, Gipsies,1[ Tartars,** Moors and Berbors 
in Africa, Gnanches in the Canary Islands, Greeks, Romans,tt 
and all the Europeans except the Inlanders. The enumeration 
includes all the human races in ^riiich the intellectaal endow- 
ments of man hare shone forth in the greatest native rigour, 
have received the highest cultivation, and have produced the 
richest and most abundant fruits in philosophy, science and art, . 
in religion and morals, in poetry, eloquence, and the fine arts, 
in civilization and government ; in all that can dignify and en- 
noble the species. We cannot, therefore, wonder that they 
should in aU cases have not merely vanquished, but held in per- 
manent subjection, all the other races. 

Much uncertainty has prevailed respecting the physical cha- 
racters of the ancient Egyptians : and some have maintained 
the opinion that they were N^n>es.t^ The question is certainly 

• Pofaga en Perse ; t. i. p. 171. Edition of ITSSi, 

T Blumenbach, Dec No. xzzir. x liid. n. xxriii. mnd XXXT. 

) Ibid. xli. 11 lUd. u. 

If A g«iiune TrinsUT»nian Gipsey ; ibid. xi. 

•• Ibicl. xii. Sandifort, Muteum Acad. JjugdwK^-Bat. r. i. td>. 8. 

■H Bonuui prstofun soldier ; ibid. xxxiL 

t; Volney seems to assume it as a settled point, that the ancient Bgyptiaiis 
'veie Negroes. " How are we astonished when we hehold the present bar- 
barism and ignorance of the Copts, descended from the profound genius of the 
E^ptians, and the brilliant im ag in a ti on of the Greeks ; when we reflect, that 
to the race of Negroes, at present our slares, and the ohJ<Kts of our extreme 
contempt, we owe our arts, sciences, and the rery use of speech ; and when 
we recollect that iu the midst of those nations who call themselres the friends 
of liberty and humanity, the most barbarous of slareries is justified; and that 
it is even a problem, whether the understanding of Negroes be of the same 
apecies with that of white men ! " Tiavelt in SSria wtd Mgfpt; chap. Ti. 

"the researches of Meiners into the ancient authorities lean to the concluaioa 
fliat there was a great conformity, both in bodily formation and in eostomt 
and in political utttttntions, between the Bgrptiaiu and Indius (HindoM): 



interestingr, particularly if it should appear that this opinion u 
well grounded. That a race ever devoted, within the period 
embraced by authentic history, to slavery, or to an independent 
existence not much better, and possessing, under the most 
favourable circumstances, only the rudiments of the common 
arts, and the most imperfect social institutions, should have 
accompHshed in the remotest antiquity undertakings which 
aBtonish us even now by their grandeur, and prove so ^eat a 
progress in eirilization and social life, in arts and sciences j that 
they should have subsequently lost all traces of this surprising 
progress, and never have exliibited the smallest approximation 
to such a pre-eminence in any other instance, would he a fact 
extremely difficult to explain. 

Egypt was venerated, even by antiquity, as the birthplace of 
the arts, and still retains innumerable monuments of their former 
splendour, after so many ages of desolation. Her principal 
temples, and the palaces of her kings, still subsist, although the 
least ancient of them were constructed before the war of Troy 
With our present experience of the capacity of Negroes, and our 
knowledge of the state in which the whole race has remained 
for twenty centuries, can we deem it possible that they should 
have achieved such prodigies? that Homer, Lycurgds, Solon, 
Pythagoras, and Plato, should have resorted to Egypt to 
study the sciences, religion, and laws, discovered and framed 
by men with black skin, woolly hair, and slanting forehead ? 

Tlie situation of Egypt favours the notion of a mixed jiopula- 
tioQ, which may have flowed in at various times from different 
quarters of Africa, Asia, and Europe. 

The Caucasian races of Arabia, Syria, and the surrounding 
parts, must have found their way into this fertile and 6ourish- 

and a. less lunrki'il allinity between Ihe furmer and the Etliiupians. Kut it U 
not ciesiT what race of men wili meant by thai temi. For the ancient historians 
spvtik of N(.';{ro Kthlopians, of miothiT African Elhiupiaji rate vritli long hair, 
ani] uf A.iintiu Kthiu{niuis. De asterum Egjiptim-um Origine; in Uantviattaiion. 
Jiee. Siic. Scient. Ooettmg. v. 10. 

Dr. Prichaid has brought toirether, with great leamkig and industry, all the 
ancient tpiitimoiiies that can illugtrate this question; and has oxaniined atul j 
2uliat4<<i them su corv'fully, tliat iiothiug further can be vxiiwlt-d from tbjtoj 
quarter. The rtfsuUs lire thus summed up: "We may consider the i^uer^l 
result of the facts which we can collect coucerniim the physical characters oil 

cnnHguration pT<>vailiii'r in the] 

the Egyptian* to bo this ; that the national en 

must aticient times wan nearly the Ne^ro form, with woollv hair, 

:_ _ 1. . .1.1., -.1 ...^ 1 ] i.^^ .. - ,%i V-1-. -..i:^ 1 1 

Out thit^ 

in a later age this charicler had beci>mo considerably meiditic^ and change^ 
and that a part of the population uf l^gypt resembled the modem Hindoos. 
The ci'uerul cutnplexion wa.s lilafk, or a lea^t a very dusky hue," Rfsearchet 
itUo Ote I'limirai UittoTy oj .Man, ji, 3KH. In the su'veiith and eighth chapt<;rs 
uf tlii.i vtork the mi'»t extensive and learned researchea areempluyed to prov* 
the ttOlnity' between the Ancient Egyptians and Indians; and to shuw that both, 
vere inarKed by the characters of the Negro race. 


mg cotmtry : the Red Sea offers an easy medium of communi- 
cation both with Arabia and India ; while the freest access exists 
on the south and west to the Negroes and Berbers of Africa. 
Hence specimens of various races may be naturally expected 
to occur among the mummies ; and may have afforded modek 
to the painter and sculptor. If, however, among the myriads of 
embalmed bodies, of the sculptured figures, which cover the 
walls of temples and palaces, and of other works of art, we should 
meet with one or two of Nep-o formation, are we thence to 
conclude that the original Egj'ptians were Negroes i or that 
men of the latter race possessed those distinguished powers oi 
knowledge and reflection, which the early history of this won- 
derful country compels us to assign to its ruling race .? Ought 
we not rather to draw our conclusions from the most prevalent 
forma, those which are most numerous and abundant in the 
oldest specimens ? If, among a profusion of mummies and 
figures, bearing the stamp of the Caucasian model, a few should 
occur with a little dash of the Negro character, may we not 
suppose the individuals who furnished the pattern of the latter 
to have been in Egypt, as they liave been every where, slaves • 
to the race of nobler formation ? To give the new Negroes the 
glory of all the discoveries and achievements of this first civiUzed 
race, and overlook the more numerous indlriduals of different 
character, would be in opposition to the invariable tenour of our 
ei])erience respecting human nature. 

In the course of his inquiries into the natural history of man, 
this subject attracted the attention of Blumknoacu, who has 
been fortunate enough to procure the opportunity of examining 
several mummies. He gave an account of some of these in the 
Pkilosophical Transactions for 1794. Having afterwards met 
wth another very perfect specimen, he published a more en- 
larged and detailed essay on the whole subject, in his Contribu- 
tions to Natural History, part ii. Goett. 12mo. 1811. 

He e-Tpresses his surprise that professed and judicious anti- 
quaries, such as WI^fKELMA^•N and D'Hancarvil.le, should 
have ascribed one common character of national physiognomy 
to the ancient Egyptian works of art, and should have dispatched 
it shortly and decisively in two lines. 

"I think," he continues, " that we cannot fail to recognise at 
least three principal differences, which, indeed. Eke all varieties 
of formation, in our species, run together by numerous grada- 
• Slavery is ooera] with our earliest recordn. See Gen. ix. 35, 26 ; jui. 3. 


lions, yet are marked, in their strongest forms, by very distinct 
cliaractera. They are, tiie Ethiopian, the Indian, and one re- 
semliling the BeVbera or original inhabitants of the Barbary 

The first is marked by prominent jaws, thick lijjs, a broad 
flattened nose, and projecting eyes. Such, according to Led- 
YARD, VoLNEY, Larrey, and other competent authorities, are 
the characters of the modern Copts :• such, too, according to 
the best descriptions and dehneations in Norden, Volnev, 
Denon, ami otliers, is ihe coiintenance of the great ephinx at 
Gizeh, and of many other ancient works <jf Egyptian art. The 
Egyptians themselves, according to the wcll-krowu passage of 
Herodotus, t had these chai-acters; and LucianJ gives a 
similar description of a young Egyptian at Rome.§ 

Ethiopi.-in form must he here understood in tnut wide accep- 
tation which we give to the expresrfion lithiopian race in the 
arrangement of the human species ; and not in the more marked 
but narrower sense of what the English call the true Guinea 
face. Indeed, the physiological characters of the Negro, taken 
in a general sense, are as loosely defined as hia geographical 
description ; for, among Negroes, there are several who, in 
smoothneaa of tlie hair and general beauty of form, excel many 

A complete contrast to this Ethiopian form is presented in 
the Hindoo-like character of other old remains, which consists 
of a long slender nose, long and narrow aperture of the eyehds, 
running upwards to the temple, ears placed high on the head, 
short and slender trunk, and long legsjl The female figure on 
the back of Capt. Lkthieullieh's mummy in ihe British 
Museum, in a characteristic representation of this form, and ac- 
cords entirely with the well-known national make of the Hindoos. 

• Tlio Cimts, who are reffitrded as the tlpsceridoiit* of the ancient Ejrj'ptians, 
havfi " a ytlluwish dusky i;om]ilexiuii, wliicli is neither (iK-olnn nur Arabian ; 
they have alt a puftoii visai^, awuln I'vi's, flat no-ics, ^ntl thick 11 ps ; in shurt, the 
CXCiCt pountonanee of a MuIaUo. " Volnoy, TrarcU in Syria and Egyjil, 

I do ntjt, hovi'pvur, (itiil the Negro fliarn.L-tfr expressed in the delineations 

of Copte, by Drttmti, foyagg dans la Baule et Bmte i'yy/j/ff,- pi. 105. No. ii. ; 
pj. 108, No. ii. and ilL ; nor in tiiOJie of the great JJeic'njjlion de I'Egt/ple; see 
£lnt Modpme, vol, Ii. Costumes and Pnrlraih. Neither have I siicceeiltd in 

discovering refirosentatlons of NejjToes mining the almost numberless seulptorea 
of the ant;ient biiililiiii;* represented in both these works. The human tijiuics 
are m;irketl hy traits of a form altogether riitTeteiit. 

1 IJe ar^'ues that Ihe Cukhiiins must have hi*n a colony of Egyptians, 

because they were" Jut'^'^^TXP^*^"*' uwA(jTpix«"— black skinned and woolly 
liaired. Lin. ii. J j\5iri'gi«m. .V. f'oln, c. ii, " 

k IMiimerihach refers in a mile to tivo fijfureawith marked Negro form; one 
i» entjraved as a vi^etle to the I'rcfnce of his Cuiitrihutiuna, part ii. ; and the 
other is described by f. a S. BarthoIomsHj, in his MumiogTaphia Obiciana, p. it, 

I Such a head i» rrprewnttid U the title-page vignette. 


A very competent judge, the learned P. a S. BAKTHOLOMiso, 
after carefully comparing together the various Egyptian works 
of art in the rich Italian collections, not only fidly admits the 
justice of my threefold division, but particularly confirms the 
strong contrast between the Ethiopian formation and that Hin- 
doo character so well known to him from his long residence in 

In accordance with this distinction, long smooth hidr has been 
found in some mummies, and short curled hairf in others. 

The third and commonest kind of form resembles neither of 
the foregoing, and is characterized by a peculiar bloated habit^ 
Awoln and rather loose cheeks, short chin, large projecting eyes, 
and fleshy body. (See the vignette at' the end of the Preface^ 
I call this the Berber character, because the great analogies 
which constitute the surest basis for conclusions respecting the 
descent and affinities of people, viz. those of form, language, and 
agreament in customs of marked peculiarity, are here all united.^ 

I proceed to an osteological examination of the mummy heads ; 
which, if performed with accuracy and discrimination, will sup- 
ply us with sure data, as far as they go. We shall find that the 
bodies thus preserved have the characters of the Caucasian 
variety, and we shall hardly discover, among a great multitude 
of examples, a single unequivocal instance of Negro formation. 

In his Decades Craniorum, No. I. and XXXI., Blumenbach 
has represented two Egyptian skulls. The first bears no marks 
of Ethiopian origin, nor does the author assign to it any such 
characters. " In universum hujus cranii habitus eundem cha- 
racterem prse se ferre videtur, quem et ingentia ^gyptiacse 
artis veteris opera spirant, non quidem elegantem et pulchellun^ 
ast magnum." P. 13. 

The European or Caucasian character of the second is quite 
obvious ; yet, in the description, there appears a desire of fixing 
on it some mark of Negro descent. "Quod vero universum 
vultum attinet, dififert quidem ille satis luculenter a genuino istc 
Nigritarum, qui Anglis vulgo fades Guineensis audit ; jEthio- 
pici tamen aliquid spirat, ita ut proprius absit ab Habessinico, 
qualem curata icon exhibet, proxime autem ab eo, quem tot an- 
tiquissima iEgyptiacse artis monumenta prse se ferunt." The 

• " Stat ergo ea Veritas, prater iEfhiopicam vultum in Egypto, ejusque 
tnutniis et monumentis, admittendum esse characterem queudam Indicum, 
qui ^yptiis non minus gentilitius et natirus est quam iGthiopicus." 
■ + Tot tbis fact Gryphius is quoted. 

t P. 130 137. 


Abysamiana, to whom a comparison is here made, are of Arab 
descent, and have all the characters of the Caucasian variety. 

SoEEMMERRiNG describes the head of four mummies which he 
has seen : two of them diifered ia no respects from the Euro- 
pean formation ; the third had the African character of a large 
space marked out for the temporal muscle ; no other proof of 
Negro descent is mentioned, and what is stated concerning the 
face rather contradicts the supposition : the characters of the 
fourth are not particularir.ed. 

" Caput miiniiEe, quod Cassellia in museo servatur, nil fere ab 
EuropaM} differt.* 

*' Caput etiam mnmise in theatro anatomico Marpurgeosi ser- 
vatum. ctijus exacta delineaUo ad manus est, nil a capite Euro- 
pseo deflectit. 

"Pulcherrimaet optirae servata, forsanvirilis mumise calvaria 
optima; setatis, qua me MiECe, Professor Basileensis benevole 
donavit, qu^que olim in coEectione F. Plateri fuit, distincte 
fonoam Africanam, atte progrediente vestigia insitionis musciili 
temporalU, reprafsentat ; vertex non est compressus, neque ossa 
faciei robustiora sunt ossibus Europteorum. Densum ordinem 
intcgri pidchri denies sistunt, non nisi inferiores incisores et 
canini oblique priora et inferiora versus attenuati sunt, pluri- 
mum vero mediimi inciaorum par, brevioribus ea de causa coro« 
nis instructum. 

"Calvaria mumiaj hominis senis confecti, ab eodem Mi eg 
mihi data, ^Egyptiacam ossium faciei formam minus accurate 
repraesentat, vemm dentes incisores exteriores inferiores, et 
denteg canini modo quem supra indicavi, ee habent ; distant 
nimirum inter se, et in planum sunt attenuati."t 

Denon states of the female mummies, " que leurs cbevetix 
^toient longs et lisses ; que le caract^re de la tfite de la plupart 
tenoit du beau st^le. Je rapportois une tfite de vieille femme, 
qui ^toit auBsi belleque celles des Sibylles de MicHELANCK."t 

The embalmed heads from the catacombs of Tliebes (Qoour- 
nah), engraved in the great French work, are of the finest 
European form, to which their abundant, long, and shghtly 
flowing hair fully corresponds. There is a male head, with the 
broad and fully developed forehead, small perpendicular face, 
and all the contours of our best models.^ " L'angle facial se 

• Bnickmann'E Norhriehi rnn einer Mumie; nrunxwick, 1783, 4»o. 

+ De Corporii humani }-'al>riiii , t, i. jip. 70, 71. {. fogage^ p. 2SB, 

I Detcription de i'Egypte ; JlntiqmlitM, i. ii. jt), 49, 


rapproche beancop d'un angle droit ; et les dents inclsives iont 
plantees verticalement, et non incEneea ni avancees, commc elles 
le seroienl dans uiie tete de Negre." The nose is finely arched { 
the jaws perpendirularj the mouth and chin well formed. The 
front and profile views of a female head • are of the same cha- 
racier ; the face completely European, the hair copious, and 
disposed in small masses or locks, a little turned. The same 
reraarka are applicable to another head.f of which a section ii 
also exhibited. 

The skulls of four mummieg in the possession of Dr. Leach, 
of the British Museum, and casta of three others, agree with 
thoKe just mentioned in exhibiting a formation not difitrinff 
fi"om the European, without any trait of Negro character. 

Lastly, BO far aa osteological proofs go, the question may be 
considered as completely decided by the strong evidence of 


" It is now clearly proved — yet it is necessary to repeat the 
troth, because the contrary error is still found in the newest 
works — that neither the Gallas (who border on Abyssinia) nor 
the Bosjesmen, nor any race of Negroes, produced that cele- 
brated people who gave birth to the civilization of ancient 
Egypt, and from whom we may say that the whole world has 
inherited the principles of its lawa, sciences, and perhaps also 
the religion. 

" Bruce even imagines that the ancient Egyptians were 
Cnshites, or woolly-haired Negroes ; he supposes them to have 
been allied to the Shangallas of Abyssinia. 

" Now that we distinguish the several human races by the 
bones of the head, and that we possess so many of the ancient 
Egyptian emhalmed bodies, it is easy to prove that, whatever 
may have been the hue of their skin, they belonged to the same 
race with ourselves ; that their cranium and brain were equally 
voluminous ; in a word, that they formed no exception to that 
cruel law, which seems to liave doomed to eternal inferiority all 
the tribes of oiur species which are unfortunate enough to have 
a depressed and compressed cranium. 

" I present the head of a mummy, that the Academy may 
compare it to those of Europeans, Negroes, and Hottentots. It 
is detached from an entire skeleton, which I did not bring oa 
account of its brittlenesa : but itH comparison has furnished the 
same results. I have examined, in Paris, and in the various 

• VtieHption de I'Sgt/pte ; Jnti^tiet, t. ii. pi. 50. + Jbtd. pi. 51. 


collections of Europe, more than fifty heads of mummies, and 
not one amongst them presented the characters of the Negro 
or Hottentot."* 

By examination of the bony head we learn that the Guanches 
also, or the race which occupied the Canary Islands at the time 
of their first discovery by the Europeans in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, belonged to the Caucasian ^Tiriety, I'he name Guanches 
flignifieg men or sons in their language. The Spaniards, who 
conquered them, represent them as a people of strength and 
courage, of powerful bodies and intelligent minds, advanced in 
social institutions, and of pure morals. They made the bravest 
resistance to their European invaders, who did not completely 
subject them until after a hundred and fifty years of repeated 
contests. They had a tradition of tlieir descent from an ancient, 
great, and powerful people. 

We now know them, as we do the Egyptians, only by their 
niummies,t the race being completely e.xtinct. The entire head, 
engraved in Blumenbach's fifth Decade, + offers no essential 
difference from the European form. 

The testimony of Cuvieh is to the same effect. *' 1 present 
to the Academy the head of a Guanche ; a specimen of that race 
which inhabited the Canaries before they were conquered by the 
Spaniards. Some authors, believing the tales of Timaeus con- 
cerning the Atlantis, have regarded the Guanches as the wreck 
of the supposed Atlantic people. Their practice of preserving 
dead bodies in the mummy form might rather lead us to suspect 
•ome aflinity to the ancient Egyptians.^ However that may 

• Erlrait d'Obtenaiient faitet nir le Cadmre ifime Femme connue i Paris H 
d Loiidrft loui l-f nom Je f'mus liultentulle, Mimoires Ju Muteum d'Uitl. nat, 
X. Hi. pv- n:i, 171. 

+ Tho bully of whirti Blumi-nbach's pJigraving exhibits a head, appears to 
him tj lie Ihnl uf !i female. " Wlion brought from its subterranean abode on 
Jlie Island of Texit-rinc to Londi<ii, it waj entirely arjil curiously sored up ia 
, ^;at alfin!!, nccordiiig to the usunl iiriicLire of this nncicnt ami al)ori<>liial rnci*. 
L (Sen; Vit'Ta Ao/ic'iVi* de las Itlm ae Canaria; Glass's HUtury i]f uie Cannrn 
Vtfilaitdt; G\iXUery yoyageeti.'ljrique; i. p. 68 — 95. It waastirpfisin(;ly dry, and 
'perfectly inodorous, aItIiou)jh the musck's nnd nkin, the contents ut the head, 
thnrox, and ahdumen, in Knort, all the hu(l parts, had ht>L>n prosaived. So 
powerfulliad the process of exaiccaliunbci-Ti, tbutthf entire body weighed only 
•even pounds and a half; although a female skeleton of Ihe same stature, in it* ' 
crJinary hralc of drynes-, would weigh at least nine pounds." iJae. v. p.?. 
i- No. .xlU. 

? Although Ilie Guani'hes were separated from the Ejcyptians by the entin? 
breadth of northern Africa, they not only lesembletl them in trie ninsular 
practice of preKerving the dead, wMeh was intniBte<l in boih cases to the 
priests, and in some of the ornaments liestowed on the mummies, Imt aUo in 
lanpuaKf. From a vucEtbulary of the Tuarlks, near Egypt, collected by Mr. 
IlumeinDnn, Mr. .MarsdnMi traced an athiiity between thrm and the Rerbera 
or Numidiaru, with who<e langnaLfe it t« well ktiown that ttn^ sin.ill rem.'iins 
of the Guanche tongue a<;ree. Ulutnenbaoh. loc. eiU p. B. AdeluDg, MitJiri' 
liaUti Tol. iii. part i. pp. W, 60. 



K- > 

^P^-PensfCr^^-* present 
'' 'doctrine; «,„ ,r.?^ °^ "lis 

"'• .^>' friend m' ^^' b«a 

^'''' '■" thef • ^'^'^ that tJ,« 
'"^ decision ^^^"^'^W I have 


^^^"d general et'^-'^d re. 
"d Europe ''^^^^nhabi,^^; 



be, their bead, like that of the Egyptian mummies, demon- 
strates their Caucasian origin.* 

The latter point is fully confirmed by two Guanche skulls in 
the possession of Dr. Leach. 

The form of the cranium has not yet been sufficiently studied 
and observed to enable us to say that the several very different 
nations included under the Caucasian variety are or are not 
characterized by particular modifications of this cavity. 'ITiere 
are, however, some peculiarities so striking, that they imme- 
diately attract notice. The completely globular form of the 
skull in the Turk is one of these: it is exemplified in an 
engraving of Blumenbach's first Decade,t corresponding 
exactly to a skull which I have seen. The cranium (properly 
so called) is perfectly globular ; the occiput can be hardly said 
to exist, as the foramen magnum is placed very near the posterior 
part of the basis cranii ; the forehead is broad, and the glabella 
prominent. The posterior part of the head is very high and 
broad. The proportions of the face are symmetrical and ele- 
gant. The alveolar part or the upper jaw-bone is singularly 
short ; not measuring more than the breadth of the little finger 
under the nose. The basis of the lower jaw is remarkable for 
its shortness : the facial line nearly vertical, so that the prepon- 
derance of the parts placed in front of the occipito-atloidal arti- 
culation is reduced as much as possible. 

Two other Turkish skulls in Blumenbach's possession have 
exactly the same shape ; which is very genera] in living Turks, 
and is always visible in good portraits of them. This peculiarity 
of form has been observed by several authors ; it is indeed so 
striking, that it could hardly have escaped observation. " It 
appears," says Vesalius, " that most nations have something 
peculiar in the form of the head. The crania of the Genoese, 
and still more remarkably those of the Greeks and Turks, are 
completely globular in their form. This shape, which they 
esteem elegant, and well adapted to their practice of enveloping 
the head in the folds of their turbans, is often produced by the 
mid\vives at the solicitation of the mothers."! 

A corresponding statement to this account is given by Baron 
AscH in a letter to Blumenbach. He says, that the mid- 
wives at Constantinople commonly inquire of the mother, after 

• Cuvier, loe. eil, Soemmerring mentions that the head of a Ouanche 
mummy at Cassel has the Negro characters ; but enters into no further detail. 
2^ Corp. humani Fabric, t. i. p. 71. f No. ii. 

t lie Corporii humani Pabriea; p. 83, ed. of 1595. 

Sao roRMs OP the rkull . 

psrturitbii, what form she would like to have given to the head 
of the child ; and that they generally prefer that which results 
from a tight circular banrtagc, as tbey think that their turbans 
sit better when the head has that round shape.* 

That the old women should have told such a story, and that 
the Baron should have beheved thera, is not surprising ; hut it 
seems to me very extraordinary that a physiologist, and one well 
acquainted with nature, should have given credit to this old 
wife's tale. A single glance at his own engraving of this beau- 
tiful head, at the symmetrical and elegant formation of the whole 
fabric, the nice correspondence and adjustment of all parts, the 
perfect harmony between ihe cranium and face, and in all the 
details of each, demonstrate most imequivocally that it is a 
natural formation, and a very fine work of nature too. There 
is not the minutest vestige of artificial impression : and I caaj 
have no hesitation in asserting tiie impossibility of inducing by 
bandage, pressure, or artifice of any kind, such a form on a 
head of a di£Ferent original configuration. 

In the passage already quoted, Vesalius goes on to observe 
" that the Germans had generaUy a flattened occiput and broad 
head, because the children are always laid on their backs in the 
cradles ; and that the Belgians have a more oblong form, because 
the children are allowed to sleep on their sides." These prac- 
tices account just as well for the German and Belgian forms, as 
the manoeuvres of the Conatantinople midwives do for the sphe- 
rical skulls of the Turks. I have, however, seen German heads 
of a globular form ; remarkably high and broad behind ; re- 
Bembhng the Turkish cranium in this respect, and in the 
appro.\imation of the great occipital foramen to the posterior 
part of the basis cranii. 

SoEMMERKiNO says that he finds no well-marked differences 
between the German, Swiss, French,t Swedish,J and Russian§ 
skulls in his collection; except that the orbits are contracted in 
the Russian, their raargins quadrangular, and the teeth small. 
In the skull of a Pole figured by Bldmenbach, 1| the smallness 
of the orbits jsj a remarkable feature. 

Tliat no striking difference has been discovered on companng 
together one or two casual specimens of each of the nations 
above mentioned, does not authorize us to conclude that no 
differences exist. On the contrary, if the brain be the seat of 

• Blumr-nborh. Dec. i. p. Ifi. 
t Sandifurt, Mmtum Acad. Lu, 
4 ItM. tah. 4. 

Lued. I 
{ Ibiii. 

T, L tal>. 6. 

II DtcaA. iii. No, K, 


our intellectual and moral functions, which nobody at present 
seems to doubt ; and if the several propensities, sentiments and 
intellectual powers are the functions of certain parts of this 
organ, which is at least a probable doctrine ; we shall be much 
stirprised to find that no distinctions are observable in the shape 
of the cranium between Enghsh, French, Germans, Italians, &c. 
The only mode of ascertaining the point satisfactorily would be 
to collect a considerable number of heads of each nation, or of 
accurate casts or portraits ; and to select, for this purpose, indi- 
viduals of genuine descent, whose organization has not been 
modified by foreign intermixture. My friend, Mr. Gkoros 
Lewis, whose quickness in distinguishing forms, and readiness 
and accuracy in portraying lliem to the very life, are well 
known, observed, in a tour through France and Germany, that 
the lower and anterior part of the cranium is larger in the 
French, the upper and anterior in the Germans ; and that the 
upper and posterior region is larger in the former than in the 
latter. He was always struck with the very fine forms of the 
skull in Italians, which coincides completely with what I have 
seen of them in this country. Our decision, then, on this very 
interesting subject must be postponed at present, and await the 
result of more numerous and accurate comparisons. 

Into minuter differences, such as the high cheek-bones of the 
Scotch, the aquiline noses of the Jews and Armenians, &c. I 
do not propose to enter. 

In the four following varieties of the human race we observe, 
on comparing them to the Caucasian, a much less perfect de- 
velopment of the upper and anterior parts of the cranium, and 
very often a greater size of the face. This and similar observa- 
tions arc to be taken in a general sense ; individual modifications 
are numerous in all the varieties, so that both the Caucasian 
and the dark-coloured divisions furnish examples of individuals, 
which exhibit in each case respectively, the characters of the 
Other i yet, in many of the dark races, a low, narrow, and re- 
treating forehead, is a very striking and general character, 

The second, or Mongolian variety, includes those Asiatics 
which do not come under the first division, and the inhabitants 
of the northern parts of America and Europe. The forehead is 
low and slanting, and the head altogether of a square form. The 
cheek-bones stand out widely on either side. The glabella and 
OBsa nasi, which are flat and very small, are placed nearly on the 
same plane with the malar bones. There are scarcely any super. 


ciliary ridges. The entrance of the nose is narrow ; the makr 
fossa forms but a slight excavation. The alveolar edge of the 
jaws is obtusely arched in front ; the chin rattier prominent. 
This formation in most strikingly exhibited in the Mongolian 
tribes, which are widely scattered over the continent of Asia, 
and which have generally, hut erroneously, been included, with 
otliers of diflerent origin and formation, under the name of 
Tartars (Tatars) ; wliereas the Inst-mentioned tribes, properly so 
called, belong to the first division of the human race. The Cal- 
mucks and other Mongolian nations which overran the Saracen 
♦mpire under Zenghis Khan, in Ibe thirteenth century, and had 
entered Europe, are described in the Hintoria Major* of Mat- 
THEw Paris, under the name oiTarlar.t; whereas that Bppel- 
lation. or rather Tatars, projierly belongs to the western Asiatics, 
who had been vanquished by the Mongols. The error, however, 
arising from this source has been propagated down to the present 
day, 80 that in the works of the most approved naturalists, as 
BuFFON and Erxlebkn, we find the characters «jf the Mon- 
goUan race ascribed to what they call the Tartars. The mistake 
has not been detected, even by the most celebrated and classical 
modem mstorians ; for Dr. RoBEKTSONf speaks of Zenghis as 
the Emperor of the Tartars. 

For the illustration of this variety I have selected from Blu- 
menbach's work (Dec. alter. No. 14) the engraving of a Cal- 
muck's skull, see Plate VII. ; and that of a Burat child, 

• Londau. 1685. fol. p. 530. Tlw desEripli&n [b conUinod in a letter sent »iy an 
ecclMiiisdrfromVipnnii, in 1343, taSiis Hretibinliop in Franct.-, and speaks "de 
horribili ¥astatii>ne InhumatiiD Kt'nti-'*, numn TarUros vocant. " Those tuirlia* 
Tnog hordi"* find at that time fntfTcd Hiingarj-, and jR>netratv-d oven l« Vienna. 
His dniLTiplioH of th»?ir eorporpaicliaractcracorresptraiJsto iJio portrait which, 
from BuBon downwards, so many naturalixtii Iwvf drawn of the Monffulian 
tribes, unrler tlic name of Tarlars. " ilRbent autem Tartar! peotorn dura, ct 
Tolnuta, facies micrwiet pallidas, .srapuiiLS rigidaa et DPLM'tai. naios distoitoa 
Ct breves, mrnta proemitit-ntia et nculs, superlorcm mumjihiilam humilfm et 
profundam, denies iun^s ft niros, palpebras a crinibim ustjur ad nasura pro- 
tonus, oculns iticonstantes et nigros, nspec-tus obliquoa et turvoM.extremitatcs 
ossosaa et nervoaos, crura cjuoque grossa, srd tihins brcviores, stalara lamett 
nobis miiinles ; quod eniin in tiiiiis deficit, in tuperiori corporecompensatiir." 
BliimenWli, fTora whuse Sectmd Dfcade, p. 7, I have borrowed thisquirtation, 
obsen-es " that the writer obvioiuily speak*, not of the (fonuine Tatips, hut of 
a people most widely different from them, namojy, Hie Mongol* or Calmucki, 
vaosc oroly affinity to them consi»tod in the name by which then, and evea 
now, the two racea arc improperly eonroundcd. All the characters, therefore, 
which naturalists have assigned to the Tatars, belong to the totally different 
Mcm^oUun rare. We Itnow, on the contrary, that the Tatan are a hundiomv 
pecple, cunspicinius for tlie beauty and symmetry of their countenance, as it 
evinced in the skull here repreBented, {No. 12), which presents a complete 
eontrajt to the Mimgolinn clinracters of sereral speiriineiia in this collection." 
Further Infunnaliun on the oripin iif this cnnrnaiftn of namesniay be procured 
from J. E. Fischer, VvnjniunF de Genteel Ntunine Taiarorum, in nil Qumitianet 
.ritropoUlantr i also from his Sibiritche GetcAic/ile, t. i. 

+ Muivrg cj ^mmea; v. i. p. 45, 



Plats XII. The craniam is nearly globular ; the face broad 
tnd flattened; the forehead flat and wide; the malar bones 
standing out laterally; the orbits very large and open; the su- 
perciliary arches elevated ; the general habit of the skull in a 
manner swoln (quasi inflatus et tumidus). 

" The whole character of tliia skull corresponds to the well- 
Kno^vn Calmuck countenance, and agrees perfectly with the 
engraving of a Calmuck skuU published by J. B. uk Fischer;^ 
but nothing can be more different from it than the figure f in 
Camper's posthumous work on the facial line, which he brings 
forward as a representation of a head of the same race, and con- 
siders as a type of the formation prevailing over all Asia, North 
America, and the numerous islands of the Pacific Ocean. Without 
noticing the latter opinion, which is contradicted by the slightest 
acquaintance with the native inhabitants of these various regions, 
I shall merely observe that 1 am well convinced that the skull 
in question belongs to that variety of the human race which is 
the most widely different from the Calmuck, «■»*. to the Negro. 
Although no national form is so constant as not to be exposed 
to many deviations, and hence we meet among Europeans with 
individualB approaching to the Negro or Mongol characters, yet 
the lorm of the Calmuck head is so completely contrary to that 
of the Negro, and the figure in queation bears bo genuine and 
unequivocal an Ethiopian character, that I am convinced the 
excellent author must have been deceived, and consequently 
that his work, besidea European, contains only two African 
Bkubs." t 

The head of a Yakut,§ from the remotest parts of Siberia, ex- 
hibits the same characters, A square face ; large orbits sepa- 
rated by a very considerable ethmoid bone ; the nasal bones 
amaU and running together above into a point. 

This is followed by the skidl of aTungoo&e,|! of that descrip- 
tion which is called Reiin-deer Tungooses. The face is flattened, 
and of great breadth across the cheeks ; the forehead depressed; 
the olfactory apparatus very considerable. 

The Decades of Blumenbach contain also figures of another of a Burat chUd** a year and a half old, of a Don 
Coasackjf-f- a Daurian or Chinese TungooBe^I and an ancienV 

* Diuertatio osteolasica de Modo ipio Oua $e ticitat accommodaM Partihut, 

udg. Bat. ni.'?, 4tn. tab. 1. 

■fTraile'vliun'iif det Differenirt reellet, ftc. ; UU i. fig. 4 ; tab. Ul. fig. 3. 

t Dec. ail. V. t, 10. \ HM. tuU, 15, || Ilnd. ub. 16. 

% Tftb. 5. •• T. it. •»+ T. 'i. tx T. iX 



inhabitant of eouthem Siberia,* all erempUfyinp, in a more or 
less marked manner, the characters of the MonKlian variety .+ 

The same characters are strongly expressed in the sknil of a 
Lapland female ; X and prove unequivocally that this race belongs 
to the Mongolian variety. 

The third or Ethiopian variety comprehends nil the Africans 
which are not included within the first or Caucasian division; 
all of whom partake more or less of the well-known Negro form. 

The front of the head, including the foreliead and face, is 
compressed laterally, and considerably elongated towards the 
front ; hence the length of the whole skull, from the teeth to 
to the occiput, is considerable. It forms, in this respect, the 
strongest contrast to that globular shape which some of the Cau- 
casian races present, and which is very remarkable in the Turk. 

The capacity of the cranium is reduced, particularly in its 
front part, where it appears as if the forehead had been sliced 
off. The face, on the contrary, is enlarged. 

"I measured," eays Soemmerbing, " several Negro, and 
nearly all my European crania, in order to compare the capacity 
of the respective cerebral cavities. I found in the former; 1st, 
That the measure taken by carrying a string from the root of 
the nose, along the middle of the forehead, and the sagittal 
suture, to the posterior edge of the foramen ovale, the length of 
the face being equal, was much shorter. 2ndly, That the hori- 
zontal circumference, measured by a string carried round the 
head above the eyebrows, and the superior edge of the temporal 
bone, was much less. 3dly, That neither the long diameter 
from the forehead to the occiput, nor any transverse diameter 
between the parietal or the tera]}Oral bones, is equal to the 
corresponding one in the European. "§ 

The frontal bone is shorter, and, as well as the parietal, less 
excavated and less capacious than in the European ; the tem- 
poral ridge mounts higher, and the space which it includes is 

• T. 33. This skull was taken from one of the very anciont buriaJ^placos 
vhich are fuuiid near tlie wurkiugH uS old mines in the mountainuus porU of 
Siberia, and are ascribt-d bv the native* to Tschudm or barbmans, Tncy arc 
particularly described by f^allas, Beiie durdk venchitdene PronnrCH dei Rut- 
titclieti Jieic/u; U iii. p. hOS at acq. Neither history nor tradition liaa pre- 
served any raerauriale of the pocijilc whose remains and works are found in 
these situations. The lightneu of the «kull, I'rum the entire luss of the animal 
substance, corresponds with this fact in pruvinc the high antiquity of this 
Ttce; and its phy.<iiral characters accord with thone of the tribes who noirj 
occupy the sume region, 

T A Calmuok skull af very (•haracteriatie funn is represented in £>, i 
SItufum .Irattetnicuin Lwig. JSat, v. i. tab. 1 . 

t Dec. Uiiinta ; tab. 43. 

i Ctber die kurj>6rh'che yendiiedmhnt det A'cgert det vom Eumpaer; I SO^ 

mtich more considerable. The front of the alnill aeeraa com- 
pressed into a narrow keel-like form between the two puwerful 
teni\iciral muades, which rise nearly tothehighestpart of the head; 
and has a compreaaed figure, which is not equally marked in the 
entire head ; on account of the thickness of the muscles. Instead 
of the ample swell of the forehead and vertex, which rises 
between and completely surmounts the comparatively weak 
temporal muscles of the European, we often see only a small 
space left between the two temporal ridges in the Ethiopian. 

The foramen magnum ia larger, and lies farther back in the 
head: the other openings for the passage of the nerves are larger. 

The bony substance is denser and harder ; the sides of the 
skull thicker, and the whole weight consequently more con- 

The bony apparatus emjJoyed in mastication, and in forming 
receptacles for the organs of sense, ia larger, strongfer, and more 
advantageously constructed for powerful effect, than in the races 
where more extensive use of experience and reason, and greater 
civilisation, supply the place of animal strength. 

If the bones of the face in the Negro were taken as a basis, 
and a cranium were added to them of the same relative magni- 
tude which it possesses in the European, a receptacle for the 
brain would be required much larger than in the latter case. 
However, we find it considerably smaller. Tims the intellectual 
part is lessened, the animal organs are enlarged ; proportions 
are produced just opposite to those which are found in the 
Grecian ideal model. ITie facial angle of the skull engraved in 
Pl.\te VI 1 1, is 05". The narrow, low, and slanting forehead, 
and the elongation of the jaws into a kind of muzizle, give to 
this head an animal character, which cannot escape the most 
cursory examination. 

A similar head, with a similar facial angle, has been figured 
by Ed. Sandifort.* It is sutEciently obvious, that on a 
vertical anteroposterior section of the head, the area of the face 
will be more considerable in proportion to that of the cranium, 
in Buch a skuU, than in the fine European forms. 

The larger and stronger jaws require more powerful muscles. 
The temporal fossil is much larger; the ridge which bounds it 
rises higher on the skull, and is more strongly marked, than in 
the European. The thickness of the muscular mass may be 
estimated from the bony arch, within which it descends to th« 

* Sliufum Jkad. Lugd. Sat. t. i. tab. 3. 
R 'i 


lower jaw. The zygoma is larger, stronger, and more capacious 
in the Negro , the cheek-bones project remarkably, and are very 
strong, broad, and thick : hence they afford space for the 
attachment of powerful masseters. 

The orbits, and parlitularly iheir external apertures, are capa- 

Both entrances to the nose are more ample, the cavity itself 
considerably more capacious, the plalea and windings of the 
ethmoid bone more complicnted, the cribriform lamella more 
extensive, than in die European. The ossa nftsi are flat and 
short, instead of forming the bridge-like convexity which we 
see in the European. They run together above into an acute 
angle, which makes them considerably resemble the single tri- 
angle nasal bone of the monkey. In the Negro skull engraved 
in Plate VIII., they are nearly consolidated together in their 
whole length. 

'llie superior ma.villary hone is remarkably prolonged in front ; 
Its alveolar jiortion and the included incisor teeth are oblique, 
in.stead of being perpendiculaTf na in the Earopean. The nasal 
spine at the entnince of the nose is either inconsiderable 
or entirely deficient- The palatine arch is longer and more 
elliptical. The alveolar edge of the lower jaw stands forward, 
like that of the upper; and this part in both is narrow, elon- 
gated, and elliptical. The chin, instead of ]>rojecting equally 
witli the teeth, as it does in the European, recedes considerably 
like that of the monkey. 

The preceding description of the Negro cranium must be 
taken in a general sense, with an allowance for e.vceptions and 
mdividual niodirications. It ia drawn from strongly-marked 
examples, and cannot therefore be received as Tiniversally and 
strictly aj»plicable. We seldom meet with instances in which 
the animal character is so strongly portrayed as in the subject 
of the eigiith plate. The depression, narrowness, and flatness 
of the forehead, the great size and projection of the jaws, are 
carried here to an extraordinary and very striking degree. 
Travellers inform us that several Africans differ from the Euro- 
pean formation in little more than colour ; so that the peculiar 
construction of the head, on the faith of which some would class 
these people as a distinct species, is by no means a constant 

This diversity of form i."? abundantly proved by delineations 
of AMcans executed by the best artists -, and is well illustrated 

hy the engravings which Bluhenbach has published of six 
African heads,* all differing from each other, and exhibitin^j aa 
much variety aa we see in Europeans, 'fliey vary consklcrably 
in the development and prominence of tlie forehead, in the size 
and arching of the nasal bones, in the projection of the jaws and 
teeth, the formation of the chin, and in other points ; and fully 
justify his conclusion, '* genuinos jKlhiopea, si craniorum for- 
inani spectes, non minus certe, imo vero magis pagaim inter 
seipsos ab invicem differrc, quara nonnulli eorum a multorum 
Europjeorum capitis forma difterunt."t 

The tribes in the south of Africa, that is, near the European 
colony at the Cape — the Hottentots, Kaffers, Bosjesmen, &c. 
are not yet enough known to enable us to decide whether they 
ought to be arranged under the Ethiopian variety, or whether 
they belonff to a different type. Blum£nbacii ha.s figured 
and described a skull in hia last Decade ; J and, more recently, 
CuviEB has published an account of a female head. In some 
points these two specimens differ from each other remarkably. 

In the male Bosjesraan's head represented by Blumenbach, 
the cranium ia less compressed than in the Negro. Tlie orbits 
and cheek-bones are wide, the jaws not at all prominent, the 
inciaor teeth with their alveoli and chin in the same perpendi- 
cular line. The latter ia remarkably narrow and sharp. 'V\m 
nasal bones are very small, and nearly in the same plane with 
the nasal processes of the superior majtillBe. 

" The bony head of our female Bosjesman," says Cuvier, 
" presented a striking combination of the traits of the Negro 
with those of the Calmuck. In the Negro the mouth is pro- 
minent, the face and cranium comjiressed laterally : in the Cal- 
muck the jaws are flattened, and the face wide. In both, the 
bones of the nose are smaller and flatter than in the European. 
Our Bosjesman had the jaws more projecting than the Negro, 
the face wider than the Calmuck, and the nose flatter than 
either. In the latter respect particularly, her head came nearer 
to that of the monkey than any I ever saw. From these general 
arrangements many particular traits of structure result : the 
orbits are very wide in proportion to their height ; the entrance 
of the nostrils has a peculiar form ; the jmlate has a larger sur- 
face ; the incisor teeth are more oblique; the temporal fossa 
more extensive, &c. 

" I also find that the occipital foramen is proportionally larger 

• Dec. prima ; tab. 6, 7, 8. 
+ Dec. atteru, p. 13. 

Dec. altera : lab. 17. 18, 19, 

t Dec quintu, tab. 49. 


than in other heads ; which, acccording to the views of Soem 
M ERRING, would indicate an inferior nature."* 

The characters of the Ethiopian variety, as ohserved in the 
genuine Negro tribes, may be thus siunmed up : 1. Narrow and 
depressed forehead ; the entire cranium contracted anteriorly : 
the cavity less, both in its circumference and transverse measure- 
ments. 2. Occipital foramen and condyles placed farther back. 
3. Large apace for the temporal muscles. 4. Great development 
of the face. 5. Prominence of the jaws altogether, and par- 
ticularly of their alveolar margins and teeth ; consequent obli- 
quity of the facial line. 6. Superior inciKors slanting. 7. Chin 
receding. 8. Very large and strong zygomatic arch projecting 
towards the front, 9. Large nasal cavity. 10. Small and flat- 
tened ossa nasi, sometimes consolidated, and running into a 
point above. 

In all the particulars just enumerated, the Negro structure 
approximates unequivocally to that of the monkey. It not only 
diS'ers from the Caucasian model, but is distinguished from it 
in two respects ; the intellectual characters are reduced, the 
animal features enlarged and exaggerated. In such a skull as 
that represented in the eighth plate, which indeed has been par- 
ticularly selected, because it is strongly diaracterized, no per- 
son, however little conversant with natural history or physio - 
logy, could fail to recognise a decided approach to the animal 
form. This inferiority of organization is attended with corres- 
ponding inferiority of faculties ; which may be proved, not so 
much by the unfortunate beings who are degraded by slavery, afl 
by every fact in the past history and present condition 

I state these pl^n results of obser\'ation and experience with- 
out any fear that you will find in them either apology or excuse 
for Negro slavery. In the warm and long disputes on this sub- 
ject, both parties have contrived to be in the wrong In the ques- 
tion regarding the Negro faculties. The abolitionists have errred 
in denying a natural inferiority so clearly evinced by the con- 
curring evidences of anatomical structure and experience. But 
it was only an error of fact, and may be the more readily ex- 
cused as it was on the side of humanity. 

ITieir opponents have committed the more serious moral 
mistake of perverting what shoidd constitute a claim to kind* 
ness and indulgence into juEtifiration or palliation of the revolt- 
ing and antichristian practice of traffic in human flesh ; a prac- 
* Sxtntit d' Obienattoru rur la Ffnui HottenMle : Mfm, du JHuiium, pp, SfTO^TI^ 






tice bra&ded with the double curse of equal degradation to the 
oppressor and the oppressed, lliis very argument, which has 
been used for defence, seems to me a tenfold aggravation of the 
encMinity. Superior endowments, higher intellect, greater capa- 
city for knowledge, arts, and science, should be employed to 
extend the blessings of civilization, and multiply the enjoyments 
of social life ; not as a means of oppressing the weak and 
ignorant, of plunging those who are naturally low in the intel- 
lectual scale stiU more deeply into the abyss of barbarism. 

When we see a strong and well-armed person attack one 
equally powerful and well-prepared, we are indifferent as to the 
issue ; or we may look on with that interest which the qualities 
called forth by the contest are calculated to inspire. But, if the 
strong attack the weak, if the well-armed assail the defenceless, 
if the ingenuity, knowledge and skill, the superior arts and arms 
of civilized life are combined to rob the poor savage of his only 
valuable property, personal hberty, we turn from the scene with 
indignation and abhorrence. 

They who possess higher gifts should remember the condi- 
tion under which they are enjoyed : " From him to whom much 
is given, much will be expected." What a commentary on this 
text is furnished by Negro slavery, as carried on and permitted 
by religious nations, by Christian kings. Catholic majesties, 
defenders of the fdth, &c. ! 

In the two following varieties the figure of the skull is not so 
strongly characterized as in the three which have been already 
considered. They form, indeed, two intermediate gradations 
between the European and the Mongolian on one side, and the 
African on the other. 

The fourth, or American variety, includes all the Americans, 
excepting the inhabitants of the northern parts of the continent, 
which I have placed in the MongoHan division. 

In this variety the cheeks are broad, but the malar bones are 
more rounded and arched than in the Mongohan ; and not ex- 
panded to such an extent on either side, nor possessing such an 
angular form. The forehead is small and low; the orbits deep ; 
and the nasal cavity, in many cases at least, very large. The 
entire bony apparatus of the face is in general much developed. 
Blumenbach has published several specimens, in which the 
characters just enumerated are exemplified. Tab. 9 is the head 
of a North American savage executed for murder at Philadelphia. 
It is remarkable for the flatness and depression of thft ^««sv 


tex, the development of the region above the ear, and the great 
gize of the olfactory apparatus. Blumenbach considers that 
the latter circumstance explains the anecdotes related by travel- 
lers of their extraordinary actUencss in the sense of smelling 

The funn of this skull entirely agrees with the engraved por- 
traits of eight Cherokee Indians,* all of whom have prominent 
cheeks, and the upper part of the skull depressed. 

The head of an American from an Indian burial-place on ths 
eastern hank of the Mississippi, about 4^ north latitude, tab 
33, presents a conformation approaching more to the Caucasian 
than to the Mongolian. In a race, of which the characters are 
intermediate between two others, we may reasonably e.xpect that 
some individuals wll appro.ximate to one and some to the other 

The Esquimaux + and the Greenlanders J form a transition 
from the Americ;m to the Mongolian variety; they have broad 
cheek-bones), large jaws and face, and .small flattened nose. The 
size of the head altogether, and particularly the cranium, is 
larger in the latter than in the former. Tlie figures of Blumen- 
HACii correspond to the best descriptions of these people, in 
which the largeness of their heads is noticed. 

'ITie head of an ancient Aturian, brought by Humboldt § 
from tbe subterranean excavations in the granite rocks at the 
cataracts of the Orinoco in New Andalusia, exemplifies the low 
slanting forehead, as wel as other pouits of the American for- 
mation. The entrance of the nose and the whole apparatus of 

• There is on en^ravini?, liy Basire, of seven ; Loud. 1739. Thayon(lnnL>cgs« 
t. rhipf of Ihe Six Nation*, in rppicscnted in an engrai-ijig V>y Smith, from a 
{Wlnlin;; by R<iii;iney, 1179. 

t Tab. 'H and 25 are or^graTfngs of two E5quimau\ crania from tJie Danisi- 
colony oC Nain nn Iha coast of Labrador. The slroiii^ charaplfra of these 
erania, anil Iho mjirkt'd afilnity which thpy pxhihit tu the AmerinnandMuQ- 
golian ract's, concur with bU aecuratu (liracHplUins of the phYsical chararier 
of tho piMipIc in Ti3fiitiDg thi' strange op in to ti uf Hobertson [Hitl, (tf^Jmerica,- 
T. ii. p. 40,1 that the Esquluianx art' (Ifsorailants from the Normauii. Hlumcn< 
bach, Dee. ili. jr. 8 10. A similar skull from Hond Eyb.i-d (Dor's Islanil!, 
ncarDiitko, in Uaffln'a Bsy, is [IcscribeiJ \iy Winslow," Mim. deV.-lcad. de» 
Sciaices; 1TO2. 

t The hewls of a Greenland man and woman are reprenontcd in tab. 36 and 
37 : they came from thnDaniah coluny Goclhavn, on the west coast of Green- 
land. " Thev are large, and the crnniuui in (lurtii'ulor is ajnple, and elongated 
ivnatcTiorly. The bone i.H rtMiiarkaijly thin and lijjht, in projiortion to Ihv nize. 
Thf orbits art? lante ; the nnsal lioties lung hut ver_v narrow, lb. Dec. iv. p. 12. 

1 Bliimcuhiii-h, Dec. t. tab. 4t). In one of the Cfiv.enis visited by thig indefa. 
tl^ahlc and enlightened travi'ller, there were the reinainfl of six hundred bodies, 
each of which waJ contained la a hajiket or haff, These remain* consisted 
either nf tho l>(;nes alone, of their tialural wliitp colour, orreddcned by aiinatto, 
or of the smme jirescrved in the wsiy of mummiE^s, with a mixture of bitumen 
and leaves. There were, njoreover. mrcophaj^nises of unbaked clay, five feet 
long H-nd three wide, painted with Hgiiren of crnemlilcs, nnd full of bunes. The 
•JtuaUun of these cataracts U &" iS' N. Lst CO" W. Long, from Kerro. p. M. 


smelling are very large. I'he heads of a Brazilian man and 
woman • have the low forehead, broad face, and lar^e uose of 
the American variety. In a general roundness of figure they 
agree with the descriptions of the natives of Brazil, 

The head of the man is very ingeniously anil perfectly pre- 
served entire, in the state of mummy. It is not separated from 
an entire emI>almedhody, but must have been cut off' immediately 
after death, as the skin of the neck is equally drawn in all 
directions towards the foramen magnum, and faed there by the 
bituminous matter employed in the process. Tlic skin pre- 

FErves that copper colour verging to black which distinguishes 
the Brazilians, line head is shaved round the verte.\ ; what is 
left on the top of the head, and al)out the ears, is short, strong, 
and of the deepest black. A thin beard appears on the ujiper 
lip and part of the chin. The orhits and mouth are tilled with 
a bituminous mass. It hangs by a cotton string ft;ied to the 
mouth. The slit in the external ear is filled with portions of 
pptton. A splendid ornament composed of the lineat feathers 
of the red tantalus, the toucan, and the most brilliant parrots, 
^^Koyered the forehead.i' 

^^K There is no American, nor indeed any other rare, in which 

^Hnhe forehead is so low as in the Caribs. And in order to cxag- 

^^gerate a character, which they deemed beautiful, they had re- 

' course to artificial means of flattening this region at the time 

when the bones are soft, and capable of yielding to artificial 

pressiire. As the same cliaracterof a low forehead characterizes 

all the Americans in a greater or less degree, similar attempts 

to increase this natural defect have been made by other tribes, 

I as well as the Caribs, in both North and South America. 

The tenth plate exhibits a skuE belonging to the College 
Museum ; in which there are no e\'idcnces of any artificial change 
of figure. The development of the anterior cerebral lobes must 
have been more imperfect in this individual, than in any other 
examjile which 1 have seen. Setting aside what we should terra 
this natural defect, the organization is perfect. The bony sub- 
Ktance is dense, compact, and hard, and the entire skull con- 
sequently very heavy. Tlxe size of the head, (which is greater 
than the engraving) and the strong muscular impressions, cor- 
respond, as well as the hardness of the hone, with the accounts, 
which eye-witnesses have furnished, of the colossal stature and 

■ Dlunii'nbach, tab. 17, 48. 

t Dw. qicinta, p. 15, 16, 


great strength of thU race* The frontal bone is rather pr 
minentat the glabella; it continues nearly horizontally backwards 
ftom tlie orbita, rising a little towards the vertex. A slight convex 
protuberance on each side marks the situation of tiie anterior 
cerebral lobes. The temporal fossa is large, and the skull con- 
sequently not wide in its lateral measurement. Although thus 
contnicted at its upper and fore part, the bony receptacle of the 
brain swells out below and behind into its usual size ; the fbsie 
cerebelli are large. 

I^is singular formation is attended with a change in the dia> 
tribudon and support of the weight. I hare already mentioned 
that in the human head the parts in front of the occipital con- 
dyles are heavier than those behind; so that the head falls for- 
ward when left to itself, and is only retained in equilibrio, in 
the erect posture, by muscukr contraction. (See page 121.) 
In this Carib skull, however, the parts behind preponderates, 
and that very decidedly ; so that, I apprehend, the eyes must 
be habitually directed upwards ; which is the more probable, 
as the orbits, in some degree, look upwards, even when the 
zygomas are horizontal. The face is characterized by its great 
size and strength, and the marked development of all its parts. 
What the front of the skuU has lost, seems compensated here. 
Tlie nasal bones are not very small nor flat ; the cavity is ample ; 
the jaws and teelh powerful. Tlic superior maxillary bone is 
very long from the orbit to the alveoli, and slopes regularly for- 
ward in thiij part. 

Another Carib skull in the College Museum coincides with 
this in the form of the forehead, in the direction of the eyes 
upwards, and in the preponderance of the parts placed behind 
the foramen magnum. 

The same character is seen in a skull engraved in the Journal 
de Physique ;f but the representation is too badly executed to 
admit of a satisfactory determination whether it is a natural 
formation, or the effect of art. Its verj' general existence in the 
native tribes of America is e-xpressly and strongly pointed one 
by HoMBOLDT. " There is no race on the globe, in wliich the 

• " The Caribl*««, properly speaking, t}io«e who inhabit the Mission* of 
the Cori, in the Llanog at Camana, the Ita^nks o( the Caura, and lht> plains to 
the TjoTth-east of tlie sources of the Orinoco, arc distingubhed by their almwt 
gigantic stalure frum all the other nations [ have seen In the new continent." 
HumbaldL, PertoTtal Narrtitirt ; v. iil. jj. 286. Thesp people are ealk-dCaribbfes 
(Carivfifl) by thf first navigalora, and are still kniiwii by that name thruugbout 
6pant$i)i Aint'iica ; although the French and Germans have tran&fDrmed itioio 
C&ralbes. onii thb Euglbh have sburteuedit iulu Cojite. Md. SH. 

t Aiiril. 1789, V. 34; Ub. 1. 


Arontal bone is more depressed backwards, or whicb has a leaa 
projecting forehead, than the American." " This extraordinary 
fatness is to be found among nations, to whom the means of 
producing artificial deformity are totally unknown, as is proved 
by the crania of Mexican Indians, Peru\iana, and Aturee, 
brouffht over Ly Mr. Bonpland and myself, and of which 
several were deposited in the Museum of Natural History at 

He thinks that " the custom of flattening the head had its 
origin in the idea that beauty consists in sucli a fonn of the 
frontal bone, as to characterize the race in a decided manner."—^ 
" The Aztecs, who never dlHfif^ure the heads of their children, 
represent their principal divinities, as their hieroglyiihical manu- 
scripts prove, with a head much more flattened than any I have 
seen among the Caribs."* 

That, in compliance with a strange notion of beauty, attempts 
are made by these people to flatten their foreheads st'dl further, 
and that for thia pupose they subject children's heads to pressure 
immediately after birth, and continue it for some time, is proved 
by the most respectable and abundant testimony. In certain 
crania very unequivocal marks of this process are found ; actual 
identations of the forehead, producing a degree of deformity 
quite difl'erent from natural depression of the skull, or from the 
instances of maKormalion, which are occasionally seen. Some, 
indeed, have argued that even these are natural forms, and have 
boldly denied the possibihty of producing the effect by such 
means a.<i those described. f 

'llie bones are the most solid parts of our frame ; and form 
a kind of firm support and foundation, on which the softer 
striTCtures rest. Yet physiological e.^cperiments, and the pheno- 
mena of disease, prove that they change more easily, than the 
softer parts of the body. Their elements are continually de- 
tached and removed in an insensible manner by the absorbents ; 
while the loss thus occasioned is repaired by the deposition oi 
other particles newly secreted from the blood. This continuid 
change in the bony materials of the body ia well illustrated by 
the experiment of mixing madder with the food of animals. 
Soon after this has been begun, the bony substance is found of 

I note. 
p. 25. 

• J'oUlical Euau, v. i. p. 154, and i 

+ Sabntier, Traiti d'Analomie, t. i. p, 25. Campor in Kleinere SciH/len, 
T. i. p. 17. Arthand ia Journal de Pkyiiqug, Auril. 1789. Uiuertatittn na la 
Oo^ormation cU la Tfte de* Coroiiec, et lur gueljuei V'ogt* bUarret oiCribum 
i 4ttt i/atiom mwagei. 

252 FORMS OP rilE SKt'LL : 

a pink colour throughout ; and this dye is as quickly removed, 
when tlie madder is no longer administered. The short period, 
in whirli such changes are brought about, forms a striking 
contrast to the indelible nature of the marks produced in the 
cutis by gunpowder and other colouring matters. The uninter- 
rupted exchange of particleg, carried on in the hones from the 
period of their first formation, allows them to accommodate 
themselves to the neighbouring parts, and to become, as it 
were, formed and fashioned by their action. The conformation 
of the head afibrds the most unequivocal proof of this 
circumstance. The internal surface of the cranium exhi- 
bits a mould of the h)l)eH and convolutions of the brain, 
to which it was adapted ; and the exleraal surface displays 
the most manifest impressions from the actions of muscles, 
as well as traces of the form of the features, the general confi- 
guration of which may be easily conjectured from a view of the 
bony skull. In hke manner, the shape of the bones may be 
afiected by the pressure of tumours, by collections of pus in their 
cavities, by constant weights, as that of the trunk bearing on 
the lower limbs, before their substance is hard enough. Hence 
we cannot doubt that the cranium may experience a partial 
ehange of figure if a given external pressure can be kept up for 
Bome time ; and the comparative softness of its texture at birth 
renders that a very favourable period for such attempts. 

The objection will occur, that the functions of the brain would 
be suspended by an effectual pressure ; that tlje infant's bfe 
would be endangered. They who have seen a child's head, 
after it had passed through a small pelvis in a difficult labour, 
tmder which circumstances it is often found squeezed into an 
oblong shape, will not entertain much apprehension for the 
effects of such manoeuvres as are said to be practised on the 
C'arib and other American newly -bom infants. It is not neces- 
sary, however, to suppose the force so considerable, as to aflect 
the figure of the bone at the time; I should rather apprehend 
that the ultimate effect is produced by the continued action of a 
gentle pressure ; as the thigh and leg of a rickety child slowly 
yield to the weight of the body. Tlie change of form is pro- 
duced organically, not mechanically. 

Should it be objected, that audi unnatural violence would 
prevent or impede the development of the brain, and could not 
l)e bome without fatal results 5 I reply, that if the fact can be 
established, the supposition, on which this objection restis, must 


be ungrounded. And that it is so, I am further induced to 
believe by cases of large bony tumours growing within the skull, 
and encroaching on the brain, without causing any of those incon- 
veniences or dangers, which a small sudden pressure often pro- 
duces. In the newly-hom child too, when the sutureB are all 
open, the brain, if prevented from growing in one direction, may 
e-Tcpand easily in other quarters. 

I conclude, therefore, that the thing is possible ; and I shall 
add the evidence, which seems to me quite sufficient to prove 
that it is true. 

Besides the Carib skull, which I have already deHcribed, in 
which the forehead indeed is extremely low, but the continuity 
of outline, regularity of form, syinmetry and harmony of parts, 
prove that it is a natural organization ; there are many others, 
in which the regular outline is interrupted, the smooth convexity 
of the skull harshly and abrujitly disturbed, an uneven rising 
and einking surface substituted for the natural uniform swell of 
the forehead, and a configuration is thus produced, such as 
would naturally arise from the alleged artificial process, but 
totally different from any thing in the works of nature. 

Various modes of proceeding are described ; the difference in 
this resjjcct, in the method of application, the length and con- 
stancy of the process, the residence of the skull and brain during 
the pressure, and the degree of recovery after its cessation, 
account for the individual diversities in these compressed skulls. 

The tenth plate of Blumknbach's first Decade is the head 
of a male Carib from the island of St. Vincent,* in whicli U^e 
frontal bone, originally very low, presents a broad indentation 
about its middle. 'I'he enumerated characters are, " a depressed 
forehead (frons retropressa) ; orbits surprisingly large, patulous, 
and looking upwards, as is seen in hydrocephalic patients ; the 
orbital plate of the frontal bone slanting downwards, and the 
superciliary margin very obtuse." P. 26. 

In his second Decade,f Bi.umenbach has figured the skull 

• This is the race, which orcupipil the West Imimn islnnds at th*? time of 
their flret disuoTt^rj' hy Culutntitis, atul iiitrM?(i iii jifijsical ctiarneterfl witii the 
Carihs of Iho con (ineut already ti11urj<>(l to p. itt*), note •, fruni vi horn thry were 
origiualJ)' derived. Eunipcun hostility «nii encroartnwnt cuiifinni tho la«t 
small rc'miiu.nt uf this unfortucalp nice on n part of the island uf .>5t, Vim-ent's. 
Tht-y wen" here distinguished, under the name rjf Hcd Coribs, from the de- 
u'endaiita of some Nf(,Toes who esraprd hum a shipwreck, and whosf num- 
bers were perhaps aufrmi-iitod in other wavs, who wore called Black Carilm. 
The latter are merely Negroes. The hosUlSties of the two nu'e.i have been very 
IVjal 10 the former; who arc now nearly extinct. Edwards, HiHorv of th& 
tretl Indies; i. y. 411. ^ ■» • ^ 

t Tab. 20; p. lA, 


of a female Carib from the same island as the preceding, wbera 
the forehead is much lower, and the orbits are in like manner 
directed upwards. How strikingly it deviates from the ordinary 
construction may be collected from the author's e^preasions: 
" prodigiosum plane cranium " — " horrida ct fere monstrosa 
hujus capitis distortio." The contraction of the front seems to 
have been compensated by expansion of the lateral and posterior 
parts ; BO that this head, when placed on the vertebral column, 
must evidently have preponderated backwards. 

A head, in all points very similar to this, is in the possession 
of Dr. Leacu : a broad IJat surface above^ or rather behind the 
eyes, seems to mark out the situation and action of the pressure. 
The preponderance of the parts behind (ne occipital condyles la 
the same. 

The kindness and liberality of Mr. Cline enable me to add 
the engraved representation of a very interesting specimen from 
his collection, and thus to illustrate, by direct contrast, the 
difference between the natural and artificial form of the Carib 
head. The artificial excavation of the frontal bone and the 
superficial risings denoting the anterior cerebral lobes, are 
obvious on the first inspection. It is clear too, that this indivi- 
dual would have had naturally a very low forehead. A violent 
and unnatural bulge behind and at the sides seems to show that 
the contraction in front has been compensated by an equivalent 
extension in tiiose quarters. The figure of the occipital bone is 
80 changed, that the external transverse ridge, which naturally 
fortna the posterior boundary of the basis cranii, is now far 
within that boundary. The face is broad across the eyes and 
cheeks ; the interval between the orbits wide ; those cavities are 
large, shallow, and directed upwards. The facial angle is 66«. 
The distance from the posterior edge of the vomer to the corres- 
ponding vertical point of the head is only '2^ inches : the 
transverse measurement at the same point 6 inches, across the 
coronal suture 6J inches. The distance from the alveolar edge 
of the superior maxilla to the back of the occiput is 8 inches ; 
from the occiput to the posterior edge of the foramen magnom 
3^, to the anterior 4^. "Wben the skull is supported on the 
condyles, the back part greatly jjreponderatea. 

The skull, like that which Dr. Leach possesses, came from 
the island of St. Vincent's. It was presented to Mr. Cline by 
a surgeon of Tobago j who stated that the indi^adual had been 
chief of the Red Caribs in St. Vincent's j that he used to come 


to Tobago on the commercial and other business of his tnbe; 
thai he waa well known there, and regarded as an intelligent, 
well-informed, and prudent character.* 

A more detailed knowledge of tlie two Carib men, whose skulls 
are en^aved in this hook, woidd be highly interesting in phy- 

A head precisely similar to this of Mr. Cline has been figured 
byHuNAULD in the Memoirsof the Royal Academy of Sciences.f' 

Tlie inferences, to which these and simdar 6sj>eciineiis lead, 
are completely supported and confirmed by the unanimoua tes- 
timonies of the moHt judicious and respectable travellers ; which 
cannot be set aside without a degree of HcepticJsru that would 
equally prevent us from bebeving all that is elated on such 

La BAT relates that "the Caribs are aU weU made and pro- 
portioned ; their features are sufficiently agreeable, excepting 
the forehead, which ap]jears rather extraordinary, being very 
flat, and as it were depresaed. These people are not bom so, but 
they force the head to assume that form, by placing on the 
forehead of the newly-born child a small plate, which they tie 
firmly behind, 'iliis remains until the bones have acquired their 
consistence ; so that the forehead is flattened to that degree that 
they can see almost perpendicularly above them, without elevat- 
ing the head. "J 

CoNBAMiNE informs lis that "the appellation Omaguas in 
the language of Peru, as well as Cambevaa in that of Brazil 
given to the same people by the Portuguese of Para, signifies 
dat-liead . For they have the strange custom of pressing between 
two plates the forehead of their newly-born children, in order 
to give them this singular shape, and make themj aa they say, 
resemble the full moon.§ 

A collateral proof of these practices is afForded by their having 
been noticed, and expressly prohibited by the Spanish ecdesias- 

• Besides the skuH, -which ix figured by Mr, ATlh.iud in the Journal de Phu- 
nque, t. xxxiv. h« mrations anotber, in whicb there wu a large depresuoa in 
the ci'ntre of Ihf oa froalls. F. 853. 

t niO, p. 371, tab. XTi. fie. 1. 

t yuya^e awt lilet de I'Amerique, t. ii. p. 73. Blumcnhach aUo cites the au- 
thority o[ Oviedo, Uittoria General de la* Jndiaa ; l.ViS, p. 25 : and Raymond 
13retDn, Diciiannmn CaraXbe-Frantjoia ; 1665, ft»o. pp. .18, 93, 145, 389. Tlic 
same custom which bcloii-fixi ori^innJly to the rcu-culaurcd natives of the 
■West Indies, has been adoiilt'il by the free Negroes <w blncii Caribs of St. Vin- 
ceot's. SecThibault d<; Chnnvaion, ^'ovog^afa i/aWi'nijxie, p. 39; and Amic 
in Journal lie Phvtimte, v, xxxix. p. 13j. 

! Mfmoina de 1'Acad. det Sciencet, 1746, pp. 427, 428. Clloa gives the lame 
testimony respeotinp the Otiiasup-s ; Traxe.U in South' Ameriva^y.x. \i,?aV-. 
tiaa Tontuemadu, Mmarthia Indiana; t. ill, p. 023, 


tical councils (as related hj Blumgnbach), two huadrcrl years 
ago. Ill the history of the Third Synod of the diocese of Lima^ . 
held in July 15S5, a decree was passed against the Indian prac- 
tice of (iisfioruring the head. " Cupientes penitus extirpare 
ohusum et auperslitionem, quibus InJi passim infantum capita 
formis imprimunt, qnas ipsi vocant caito, oma, ojialto ; — statui- 
mu8 et prfficipimus," &c. &c. reciting various punishments, as, 
for instance, that any woman found guilty, " frequentet doc- 
trinam per continues decern dies mane et vesperi, pro prima 
culpa; pro secunda vero per viginti," &c.* 

This custom has prevailed as much in North, as in South 
America, and in the islands. Adair says that the northern 
savages " flatten their heads in divers forms ; hut it is chierty 
the crown of the head they depress, in order to beautify theni- 
Belves, as their ^vild fancy terms it, for they call us Long-heads 
by way of contempt." " I'hey fix the tender infant on a kind 
of cradle, where his feet are tilted above a foot higher tlian a 
horizontal position ; his head bends hack into a hole made on 
puvpoae to receive it; when he bears the chief part of his weight 
on the crown of the head, upon a small bag of sand, without 
being in the lenst able to move liim:sdf."t 

Lastly, the very interesting narrative of tlie journey to the 
Bource of the Missouri, performed by Messrs. Lewis and 
Clakke, informs us that the attempts at beautifpng the head, 
by llattening its fore-part, have been and are very extensi\'ely 
practised among nearly all the trilies situated on the west of 
tliat great range of mountains, running nearly parallel to the 
West coast of America, from which the waters flow on one side 
to the PaciBc, and on the other into the Mississippi and its various 
tributary streams. 

" The most distinguishing part of their physiognomy is the 
peculiar flatness and width of their forehead^ a peculiarity which 
they owe to one of those customs by which nature is sacrificed 
to fantastic ideas of beauty. The custom, indeed, of flattening 
the head by artificial pressure during infancy, prevails among 
all llie nations we have seen M'est of the Rocky Mountains. To 
the east of that barrier the fashion is so perfectly unknown, 
that there the western Indians, with the exception of the Allia- 
tan or Snake nation, are designated by the common name of 

• J. a. de Atruirre Colleclio maxivxn Cunciliurma omnium liitpanio! el N9 
Orliii c'J, ii, Rumin, 1"I)5, fol. t. vi. p. "JOi. 

+ Hiitory of the Kortlt American Indians, ji. S. Scf also Lawaon's HIttor 
Catolina,]>.'Ji3; andCbarlcvuLx, i/i>/. tk la Noweile J-'rnnce, t. iiLpp. 187— S 


Flat-heads." — "Wherever it may have begun, the practice ia 
now universal ixmong these nations. Soon after the hirth of the 
child, the mother, aaxious to procure for her infaxrt the recom- 
mendation of a hroad forehead, places it in the compreBsing 
machine, where it is kept for ten or twelve months ; though the 
females remain longer than the boys. The operation is so 
gradual, that it is not attended ivith pain ; but the impression ia 
deep and permanent. The heads of the children, iifhen they are 
released from the bandage, are not more than two inches thick 
about the upper edge of the forehead ; and still thinner above, 
nor, with all its efforte, can nature ever restore its shape ; the 
heads of grown persons being often in a straight line from the 
nose to the top of the forehead."* 

Besides this general statement, applj'ing to the western tribes 
altogether, these enterprising travellers note the existence of the 
practice on many particular occasions ; as among the SkiUoots 
(p. 380) ; the Wahkiacums (jj. 392) ; the Sokulks, where the 
head was so flattened, that the forehead runs straight from the 
Doae to the crown (p. 331) ; and the Chinnooks, whose heads 
they speak of as having been flattened in a most disgusting 
manner. In one tribe which they saw on the Pacific, they ex- 
pressly mention that the custom did not exist (p. 428.) 

That nothing might be iranting to this part of the proof, the 
very bandages employed hy the Cariba have been brought into 
Europe. A description and figures of them may be seen in the 
Journal de Physigue.f 

The fifth, or Malay variety, including the inhabitants of the 
numerous Asiatic islands, and those of the Great Pacilic Ocean, 
constitutes an intermediate link between the European and 
Negro. Tlve cranium is moderately narrowed and slanting at 
its anterior and upper part ; the face large, and all its parts fully 
developed ; the jaws more or less prominent. 

• TrmtU to the Source t^ the ilissovri, chap, xxiii. See also Menrrs of 
the natives ^ihuut Noutka Sauiiil ; Voyaget /rum C/iina tathnJV. If. C'oait o/ 
America, p. 249. 

t Aug. 1791, J). 132, tab. 1 & 2. Tlie oMount ia written by Dr. Amie, a 
physician of Oimdaloupo, who had seen nni] conversed with both red and 
black Caribs in the West Indies. In mentioning the answers which they gave 
to his intxuiries, he says, "CDntrc nmn attcntc flies se reiluiain-nt toulei! H 
in'assurrr im'ils iie devotent l'Apiiig,tis!''i-niout de Icur Iriiiit q\i'k la prcssion 
d'une plancne gamie Uecotun, qu on Qxuitsurrctte partic i>i>ur IVinpccher 
d'acqu^rk Jb. cunrcxit^, qui lui est naturellf. C'etoU-Ii mi- ilirenf ilslo cirnc- 
tiredeleur naUoii. Vourrimprtmeron fuit auxeiifans porter i-ette [dancho 

jusqu'i ce qu'ilj suient asuti graaiis, pom qu'il ntf s'efi'ace pan. ie remaiquai 
parmi «ux un Jeune homily de &che i. dixsi'pt ans, dimt !<■ I^rant ^tiiit bomliS 
cotnnic celui d'un NSffre. 11 rnpondit i men obsetraliun, que pour nc pas Je 

- - - 1 P . . 

parmi «ux un Jeune homily ue £ciKei.dixsi'pt ans, dimt !<■ front ^tiiit bomliS 
cotnnic celui d'un NSffre. 11 rnpondit i men obsetvaliun, que pour nc pas Je 
dcflgurcr comiin; les autrcs, sou mire u'avuil i>aa ruulu k* »uuiiietLre k uuvicil 
cuutume. " 1'. 133. 



It must be confessed that the numeroas tribes included within 
the boundaries of this variety differ considerably from each 
other; and consequently, that the whole cannot fall ■within any 
one clearly-marked character. The Fapua race are described as 
having oil the appearance of Negroes. I have seen no skull, 
nor any represeniation of one, belonging to a native of New 
Guinea. The New Holknders certainly partake of the Negro 
form, yet are still easily distinguishable from African Negroes. 
In the two heads engraved by Blumenbach,* the forehead 
rather slants above the eyes, but the head rises to a considerable 
height at the coronal tsuture. The nose is not so flat, nor the 
zygoma so prominent, as in the African. The alveolar edge of 
the ujiper jaw projects in front; the chin is not cut off, aa in 
the Negro. The crania of New Hollanders which 1 have seen 
correspond with these. In some, as in a female skull in the 
College Museum, the superior incisors are placed as obliqudy 
as in the Negro ; but none have so low a forehead and vertex 
as some of that race. 

The Otaheitean skullf does not differ in any essential points 
from the European formation, so far as the cranium goes. The 
front and lower part of the forehead may be a little contracted 
and slanting. The face is altogether large, and the upper jaw 
(uUy developed; its alveolar portion, loo, projects dightly in front. 

The head of a native of Nukahiwah,| one of the group called 
the Marquesas Islands, presents a very beautiful and symme- 
trical organization corresponding to the descriptions of the great 
stature, fine proportions, and strength of these islanders. £xcept 
that the face is larger, its lower part especially more consider- 
able and prominent than in the best models of the Caucasian 
variety, and that the jaws and teeth altogether have a marked 
projection, this head is not very essentially distinguished from 
that form. The forehead is indeed more slanting than in the 
inteltectuai European heads ; but the whole structure has un- 
equivocal marks of an organisation calculated for strength. 

The skull of a Buggess, § from the island of Celebes, has the 
low slanting forehead, large face, and prominent jaws of the true 
Negro ; but it combines the lateral expansion, particularly across 
the cheeks, of the Mongolian variety. 

The arrangement of skulls under the five general forms just 
described is, in a great measure, arbitrary. It must not, there- 
fore, be taken in a strict sense ; we must not expect to find all the 

• Tab. S7 udM. f Ibid. tab. 36. ; Ibid. tub. SO. | Ibid. tab. 49. 



individuals, comprised under each of these varieties, decisively 
distin^ished Ijy the assijfned characters from all others. la 
the cmlless diversity of individual forms, many inatancea are 
met with, in each variety, of orgLinizations approacliing to thosu 
of the others : bo that among many Europeans and Negroes we 
might select skulls in which it would be difficult to determino 
the predominant character. The two intermediate forms between 
the Caucasian middle, and the Ethiopian and Mongolian ex- 
tremes, complete the series of gradations. Of the numerous 
tribes or nations in each division, some come nearer to one and 
some to the other of the two immediately joining varieties. 
Tims the natives of some islands in the South Sea are hardly to be 
distinguished in countenance and head from Europeans ; while 
others approach as near to the Negroes. Tlie Marquesans, the 
Society, Friendly, and Sandwich Islanders, might be almost 
ananged under the Caucasian variety ; while the natives of New 
Guinea, New Holland, Van Diemen's Land, New Britain, &c. 
Louisiade, &c. have strong claims to be admitted into the 
Ethiopian division ; and those of Solomon Islands, the New 
Hebrides, and New Zealand, form so many jioints of transition 
between the two. The same obsen'ation holds good of the 
other varieties. Hence, if we had numerous sspccimens of 
each, we might arrange them in such a manner that the interval 
between the most perfect Caucasian model and the most exag- 
gerated Negro or Mongolian specimens should be filled with 
forms conducting us from one to the other by almost imper- 
ceptible gradations. Wt must therefore conclude that the diver- 
sities of features and of skulls arc not sutficient to authorize ub 
in assigning the difFerent races of mankind in which tliey occur 
to species originally different. This conclusion will he strength- 
ened by the analogies of natural history. The difterence* 
between human crania are not more considerable, nor even so 
remarkable, as some variations wliich occur in animals con- 
fessedly of the same species. The head of the wild boar is 
widely different from that of the domestic pig. The different 
breeds of horses and dogs are distinguished by the most striking 
dissimilarities in the skull ; in which view the Neapolitan and 
Hungarian horses may be contrasted. The very singular form 
of the skull in the Paduan fowl is a more remarkable deriation 
from the natural structure than any variation which occurs in 
the human head, 
llie oblique position of the anterior incisors in the N^^roes 


snd Bome other tribes, which have prominent jaws, is the only 
national difference I know of in the teeth. Their size and form 
oxhil)it merely individual differences. Tlie complete and minute 
correspondence of the teeth in number and form through all 
r&cea of men is a strong argument for the unity of the species. 

Blumknbach* has pointed out what he conceived to be a 
])eculiarity in the teeth of some Egyptian mummies, which first 
attracted his notice on examining two specimens in the year 
1779. The incisors, instead of possessing their ordinary thin 
cutting edges, were thick in their bodies, and resembled trun- 
cated cones ; the cuspidati were not pointed as is usual, but 
broad and flat on the masticating surface, and very similar to 
the neighbouring bicuspides. The same circumstances have 
been observed in other specimens, as in a; mummy at Cambridge, 
described by Middlkton ;f in another at Caasel 5 J and in a 
third at Stuttgard. § Bli;menbach obser^'ed a similar struc- 
ture in the head of a young mummy, which he opened in Lon- 
don ; II and in another which he received as a present from Mr. 
Turner of Cambridge. If " There must," he obser\'es, " be 
great differences in the crania of various mummies, when it is 
considered that the practice of embalming the body after death 
prevailed it Egypt for many ages, during which great vicis- 
situdes occurred in the government and inhabitants of the 
countrj' j consequently we cannot reasonably expect to find this 
fonmation of the teeth in every specimen. Yet it constitutes a 
singular variety, and deserves mention, as it may assist in dis- 
tinguishing the mummies of some particular age and nation. 
It would be difficult to assign a satisfactory cause for this pecu 
liarity j yet we may not itnprohably ascribe it in great part to 
the kind of food taken by the Egyptians, which Diodoms 
Siculus c.^ressly describes to have consisted of vegetables, 
roots, &.C. Hence the teeth must have been worn down ; and 
it has been observed that these organs, when reduced by attri . 
tion, or purposely diminished in length, grow thicker, both in 
man and animals."** 

• Fbrt <lm Zihnm der alien .SgypHer, vnd von den Mu m ie n, la the Cotting, 

Magaiin li-rr IViuensch, iimi Lilteralur, P. 1, 

fie gi'it. bum. rar. nal. sect. iii. { 64. 

Hevlrane xur NaturgvKhichle, pari II. Viriter den ^gi/ptitn Jtumim, ill. 

■f itunutntttt. ^Intiij. in ff-'crki, v. iv. " Quod vcro ninmliirp ct proilif^ii fert 
loeo hibyiiiliiin ((leiitr»),anterkirpa a. incisures, non uuti illi quiilrm lUque ad 
incidendutn apti, spd perindc nc^ moxillarc* lari plane alquc oblusi sudL 

J Brurkinann'a A'ockrichl von einer Mumir; Braunichweig. 

I Blumffiihat-li, Beiflrage; part ii. p. 98. 

I Philoniphical TruniiKliimt, 1794, part ii. p. 181. 

^ A«. quarla Craniarun, p. 4, ** Dcg.h. tar, fut. sect. ill. I S4. 


A similar formation of the teeth waa noticed byWmauow* 
ia the cranium of a Greenlander from the Isle of Doga (Hond- 
Eyland), on the west coast of Greenland. " The incisws," says 
tbia anatomist, " are flat fnun before backwarda, and short, 
instead of having a cutting; edge ; hence they resemble grinders 
more than cutting teeth." " Mr. Riecke, who presented me 
with this cranium, said that the inhabitants of IIond-Eyland 
eat their meat raw." " They mov^e their jaws in a very singular 
manner, and make several grimaces while chew'jng and swal- 
lowing. It waa the observation of this spectacle that induced 
tim to seek for an opportunity of discoverino^ whether these 
islanders possessed any peculiarity of construction in their jaws 
or teeth." 

ITiis account ia confirmed by two Esquimaux crania f in the 
poBsession of Blumendach, which exhibit the same worn 
appearance of the tepth. It is well known, he observes, that the 
Esquimaux are derived from the same race with the Green- 
Jandcrs, and that their name bus its origin from their practice 
of eating raw flesh. 

A similar configuration from the inferior incisors was found 
in the head of the Guanche mummy figured in linJMENBACH'8 
Fifth Decade, tab. .xlii. p. 8. 

I have seen the same configuration in the heads of Egyptian 
mummies, and in other instances, and am fully convinced that 
there is no real original diHerence in the form of the teeth in 
these cases ; and that the obsen'ed peculiarity is entirely owing 
to the mechanical attrition which the teeth had experienced in 
all the examples. As the incisors are wedge-shaped, and 
increase gradually in thickness from their cutting-edge to the 
gums, when half worn away they lose their natural appearance 
of cutting-teeth, and resemble in form those found in the crania 
above-mentioned. If the teeth are naturally large and strong, 
the appearance will be more marked. We cannot admit an 
original difference of form; until it is proved by the exhibition of 
entire teeth in which the enamel has not hetn worn away from 
the masticating surface. 

At all events, the notion that the teeth grow thicker in con- 
sequence of the attrition of their surfaces, is not admissible. No 
point ia more clearly ascertained than that these organs have no 
powers of growth, or organic change, and that they experience 
no alteration, after appearing through the gum, but that of 

• Mem dt VAcad. df» Sdmce* de Farii; 1733, p. 323. 
■i tkx. leriia, Ub. 24 aiid 83. 


mechanical wearing or chetolcal decay. That their subiitance 
posaeases neither vessels nor nerves, is, I think, fully proved 
by what 1 have stated in another place.* 

The assertion of Bufron. Erxleben, and others, that the 
teeth of the Calmucks are longer and separated by wider in- 
tervals from each other, is contradicted by the spedmena of 
their crania in the possession of Blumknbach. 

Certain colours and forms are given to the teeth artificially 
in some instances by way of ornament. 

Mr. Marsi>en f informs us, that the Sumatrans comrou- 
nicate to the teeth a jetty blackness by the empyreumatic oil of 
the cocoa-nut shell; and that they even abrade the enamel, that 
they may receive and retain the dye more perfectly. 

The very general practice among^ the Malays and Asiatic 
islanders, of chewing the Areka-nut, betel-leaf, and chunam or 
lime, I turns the teeth black, unless great pains are taken to pre- 
vent it, and covers them with a brownish black incrustation. 
From one or the other of these causes the teeth are blackened in 
the Ja\Tinese§ the Birmans, || Tunquinese, ^ and Buggessea.** 

Some Negro tribes file their teeth so as to make them conical 
and sharp-pointed ; f f some file away their inner or notch 
•them ;§§ some even grind them away down to the gums. ||{| 

A more or less complete abrasion of the enamel is very com- 
mon among the Asiatic islandera.lf^ 

The obser^'ations in the following chapter respecting the 
varieties of form in general, include the subjects of national 
features and form of the skull. I shall only make a few remarks 
here on some attempts at explaining the latter subjects. 

Climate has generally been brought forwards as the cause of 
the varieties that distinguish man. It has been almost univer- 
sally represented as the source of differences in colour, and not 

• In Dr. Recs' Ci/cluptiidia, art, Crntiiuin. + Hiit. qf Sumatra; ed. iii. p. 53. 

i The praolieo is dtsoribtHl i>artieiilu.rly Uv Dumpier, fi/yaeei, v. i. p. 31b j 
•' It tastts ruugh in the muiilh, nml dyea the lipn roU, and the ttelh Dlaukr 
■but it prcspnres thi'in, and cie&usclh the ijums. " Sec also v. ii. p. .'li. 

I ijluincnlmcli, tab. 39. Uawkesworth's Collecliim, qf Foyaget, v. Iii. 
pp. 886.-347. Il Svines, Emboity to Jta; y. lU p. 235. 

II I)uuipier, v. ii. p, 41. ♦• BluiiH-ntKicli. tab. 49. 

t+ Chiircliill's f-^ogaget, t. t. pp. 133, 143, 38i. J'hiloi. Trani.y. Ixxili, p. 93. 
Wintorbottom on the A'aiice j3fncani ; v. i. 104. The Sumatnuis alao do it: 
Musdi-n, p. S3. 

tt Tuckey "k Narratioe uf a fogage to (he Congo, pp. 80—184. 

H Ibid. i>. 'JIO. 

Ji Vancouver fouDd in the naUvM of Trinidad Bay, on the north -west coast 
of Amcricii, Itiat "all Ih*- tcclh ut both «f*.\»ii were, tiysome proc«iis, graand 
uniformly down horixoiitallj lo ttiegimw." v. ii. p. 247. It was also observed 
by Perousp, yoyage Iluunii the Wur/a, v. ii. p. 13& 

^'l In MaKindaiiuo; Forrest, /'uyage to fiew Guinea, p. 337: in Celebes; 
Blumenbach, Doc. v. tab. 49 : in Java, Hawrkvswortik, t, lii. p. 34S. Blumeu- 
liach, 4tg.h, var, ?uit. p, 231, 


much less depended an for Bohing the ^eat problem of varie- 
ties of form. " Tlie inquiry into the causes of difi'erence of 
features is expoaed," aaj's Blumendach, " to such serioua dif- 
ficultieSj that we can only expect to arrive at a problem solution. 

That climate is the principal agent iu producing difference of 
features is proved to my satisfaction by three arguments. 

" 1. In the natives of certain regions a national countenancb 
is so common and universal in persons of all conditions, that it 
can be referred to no other cause. The Chinese may serve as 
an example ; the characteristic flattened countenance being as 
general among them, as great symmetry and beauty are among 
the English and Major cans. 

" 2. Unless I am greatly deceived, there are instances of 
people who, after leaving their old abodes, have in progress of 
time assumed new features, corresponding to their new situa- 
tions. Thus the Yakuts are referred, by those who have inves- 
tigated northern antiquities, to the Tatar race : but their coun- 
tenance is now completely Mongolian, according to the reports of 
the most accurate observers, and to a Yakut skull in my collec- 
tion. Thus also it has been observed that the Creole offspring 
of European parents in the West India islands have, in some 
degree, exchanged their native British features for those cha- 
racteristic of the American aborigines, and have acquireJ their 
deeper eyes and higher cheeks." He adds, that the northern 
invaders, who have at different times entered India, have gra- 
dually assumed the character which the climate has impressed 
on the native Hindoos. 

" 3. Nations, which can be deemed only colonies of one and 
the same race, have acquired different characteristic countenances 
m different cUmates. It is now proved that the Hungarians 
and Laplanders come from one stock. The latter have acquired, 
in their northern abodes, the cast of countenance peculiar to the 
inhabitants of those cold regions ; while the former have 
assumed a more elegant formation in their milder seats near 
Greece and Turkey."* 

That so able a writer could find no better proofs in support of 
his opinion, only shows how completely unfounded that 
opinion is. 

The flat face of the Chinese not only ertends throughout that 

vast empire, which covers nearly forty degrees of latitude, and 

seventy of longitude, but also over the neighbouring regions of 

• De g. h. tar. not. sect. iii. i 57. 


central and Tiorthem Asia, the north of Europe, and of America t 
over a very large portion of the globe, including every possible 
variety of heat and cold, elevation and lowness, moisture and 
dryness, wood, marsh, and plain. 

ITiat European Creoles in the West Indies, in America, and 
in the East, have preserved their native features in all instances 
where no intermixture of blood has occurred, is proved by the 
uninterrupted experience of the Spaniards, Portuguese, and 
KngUsh, who have had foreign colonies, in climates most dif- 
ferent to their own, longer than any other nation. 

If the Yakuts, which are now decidedly Mongolian in their 
CoatureM, had originally the Caucasian formation, and if the 
northcn. 'uvaders of India have assumed the Hindoo counte' 
aance, the chanf;» must have been effected by intermarriages. 
All who have visited Inoia and attentively examined its various 
people, unanimously represent that tl-.e Afghauos ^ad Mongols 
of pure blood are a^ tliis moment just as distinct in features from 
the Hindoos, as the jUirent races are in their original seats. 

Respecting the case of the Hungarians and Laplanders, if we 
admit their descent from one stock, which is probable, let us 
next ascertain what the amount of the differences betn'een them 
may he, and then inquire whether mixture with other races may 
not have produced these. 

Blu.menbach proceeds to obser^'e, that the intermixture if 
races has a great effect in morhfying the natural countenance ; 
and that the ancient Germans, the modern Gipsies, and the 
Jews, afford examples of pecuUar and distinctive casts of coun- 
tenance being preserved in every climate. These well-known 
facts are quite sufficient to overturn the hypothesis which refers 
the differences of features to climate ; and a short examination 
of the races in any part of the world will soon supply numerous 
additional ones. Indeed, I do not know a single well-established 
fact or sound argument in its favour.* 

Some have even attempted to show how climate might operate 
in profiucing national features. " En cffet," says Volney, 
" j'observe que la figure des Negres represente pr^cisement cet 
ctat (le contraction que prend notre visage lorsqu'il est frappe 
par la luraiere et une forte reverberation de chaleur. Alors le 
sourcil se fronce ; la pomme des joues s'^eve ; la paupiere se 
serre; la bouche fait la moue Cette contraction, qui a lieu 

* This subject will he TMumcd ia the chapter on (he c«usei uX tbe rorietiM 
ul tiia bumaja ipecin, 


prmettielli^ment dans le pays nud ct chaud des N^gres, n'a-t-elle 
paa dJi devenir la caractere propre de leur figure i"* Unfortu- 
nately for these speculations, the Negro features occur in 
numerous tribes spread over a great extent of country, with 
various climates, and in many instances where the heat is by no 
means excessive ; the character, too ia permanent, after any 
number of generations, when the Negroes are taken into other 
climes. Again, the most opposite features occur under similar 
climates in different parts of the world. There are races with 
flattened countenances as well as with narrow and elongated 
\dsages in hot countries. The whole notion is, however, so fan- 
ciful and so unphilosophic, that it ha.rdly deserves serious atten- 
tion J and I therefore regret to find that the idea is ao far coun- 
tenanced by an instructive writer on this subject, that he speaks 
of the numerous gnats which annoy the New Hollanders aa 
contributing to the formation of their peculiar physiognomy. 

The custom of carrying the children on the back has been 
referred to, in order to explain the flat nose and swoln lips of 
the Negro. In the violent motions required in their hard 
labour, as in beating or pounding millet, &c- the face of the 
young one is said to he constantly thumping against the back of 
the mother. This account is aerioasly quoted by Blumkxbach. 
The testimonies concerning the employment of pressure, 
in order to flatten the nose, are so numerous and circumstantial, 
that we cannot doubt of the attempt being made. It is practised 
ajnong the Negroes, Hottentots, Brasiliana,t Sumatrans.l and 
South Sea Islanders : § we have, however, no proof that the 
figure of the part ia ever changed by such attempts; while, on 
the contrary, it can be shown most clearly, that the well-known 
flatness of the nose is the natural forms.tiua of the organ in the 
Negro, and the notion of its being produced by pressure is 
justly ridiculed by that intelligent observer. Dr. Winter- 
bottom. |] The children of African parents in Europe, America, 


+ Dp'Ljry. f-'iit/agem rdTerredu Brisil; pp. 9S— 265. 
t MaT.sdfii, Hittarij f\f Humatra ; p. H. 

? " The figure of the noso seems tu have been an oliject worthy the ftttentjon 
of tliB mldwivta uf Otahyite ; and since Ihey are of ojiiiiiun that a bruiidsume- 

what flat nose is OmatnCTital, they di'iircss the nose immetlintely afl<"r tha 
biitli of the child, and repeat thw action niioti the i-hild while it ia still tuiider." 
" The womf ti of the Uottontota smiprze the noses of tht'ir children flat with 
tliothumi) iKolbe, DetcriiAiimof the Cajiso/Gvuil Hopf; i. 52) ; aridin Macassar 

pt^at the 

' The womf ti of the Uottontota smierze the noses of tht'ir children flat with 

they flnlten ttie nu4i-4 of 'the children," ajid re^t^at tlie Ofjeration si'vcral lime* 
every day, softening the nose at the same timp with uil or warm water." 
f orster, uh>. on a yoi/a^e Hound the World ; jip. !)93, 094. Sea aUa p. 55S, 

1^ Jlccouai o/lhe JVa/itc ^ricatu; i. p. 201 


and other situations, where there are opportunities of knowing 
that no means are used to flatten the nose, resemble in all 
respects those bom in Africa. Why, indeed, should artificial 
causes be adduced to account for the flatness of the part in so 
many dark-coloured races, rather than for its convexity and 
prominence in others ? Do not the various ports of the coun- 
tenance harmonize equally in both cases ? Would it improve 
a Negro or a Chinese face to introduce into it an aquiline nose i 
In short, these flat noses have all the "characters of natural con- 
etmction about them, equally with those of a different figure, 
and exhibit none of the marks of ^nolencc and artificial change, 
which are seen in the foreheads of some Caribs. Moreover, the 
diversities extend so generally through the whole bony fabric 
of the head, and are obser^'able in so many parts where external 
pressure could have no influence, not to mention that they 
consist, in many instances, of formations just the reverse of 
what pressure could eifect, that we cannot have the smallest 
hesitatinn in rejecting entirely the notion of external influence 
and ascribing them to native variety. This conclusion is con- 
firmed by the fact, that all the peculiarities of the Negro cranium 
exist in the foetus ; that the prominent jaws, flat nose, and all 
other characters, are found as strongly marked in the yoimgest 
cmbrj'o, as in the adult. 

•* I examined," says SoEMMEKRiNG, "a Negro embryo and a 
child only a few months old, and found the jaws as prominent, 
the lower part of the nose as broad and flat as in the parents. 
ITiere was no vestige of any violence ; but the fonn of the nose 
was naturally diflTerent from that of white children. Camphr* 
examined several years "ago, with the same view, Negroes of 
various ages, including foetuses. He observed nothing parti- 
cular in the nose ; but he concluded that this organ will be less 
prominent, other circumstances remaining the same, when the 
parts below it come forwards, and that the lips must be larger 
and thicker in order to cover the teeth completely. 

" My friend Blumbnbach asserts, from the examination o. 
two Negro children in the Royal Museum at Gottingen, what 
BcFFON also maintained, that the flat noses are congenital, not 
artificial, and refers to the engravings of Ruysch and Skba in 

• In his Lecturr on the Origin and Colour c\f the Blacki, describing the fccloM 
of an Angola Negress, he says, •' Yon see that the nose, the lips, the whole 
face, corre.<p()ml corajiU'lely to those of adult Afrii'aiis ; you may bi convLnped 
that the I1CISO is nut tlepresspd after birth, but thut an iramatur? beine like tbit 
bus already every lineament of its race." Kleinere Schr^Ucni b. i. *t7l. f, tSt 


con&mation of the same point. Lodek possesses a Negro 
embryo of four or five montha and a half, in wliich the peculiar 
form of the nose and jaws is very plain." • 

'riiese arguments receive a further confinnation from three of 
the crania engraved by Blumknbach 1* of a Jemsh girl, five 
years old; aBuratchild, a year and a half ; and a newly- bom 
Ne^o ; in which the characters of the Caucasian, Mongolian, 
and Ethiopian varieties are as strongly represented as in the 
heads of adults. As these skulls are very characteristic, I have 
added an engrailing of them to this work. (See Plate XII.> 



farieUu in figura, Proporlions, and Strength.— The Ean; SffecU ^f Jbt 
upon them, and in oUier Parlt of the Bijdij.^The Mamma. — Orgam qfGene- 
ration. ^Fabulout Farietiet. 

In consequence of the foramen magnum being placed further 
hack in the head of the Negro than in that of the European 
(see p. 230), and of the head being consequently situated more 
forwards on the vertebral column in the former than in the 
latter, the occiput of the Negro projects less behind the apme. 
Hence a line drawn from the posterior extremity of the skull 
along the nape of the neck, which dips in considerably under 
the head in the European, is nearly straight in the African, as 
if a part of the cranium had been sliced off. The hind head IB 
still further reduced in the monkey kind. 

Artists have taken great pains to determine the proportions 
which the parts of the human body, the head, neck, trunk, and. 
limbs, bear to each other ; and to discover the relative magni- 
tudes of these, which ought to be foimd in the best constructed 
frame ; in short, to fix a standard of perfection, or the model 
of beauty. If only one kind of form and one set of proportions 
were consistent with strength and activity, it would be worth 
while to pay some attention to these laborious efforts of painters 
and sculptors at establishing how many times the length of the 
head is contained in the whole body, in the trunk, the upper or 
lower hmbs ; how many noses are in the head, &c. Even then, 
the strange method they have adopted, of measuring certain 
celebrated statues, seems as likely to accomplish the professed 
object of instructing us in natural proportions, as the academic 

+ Ueher die korp. vertck. ? 4. Ludwig gtres a similar teitimonj' reapecting 
twoNcgro erabryca ia tusi'Olloction. GrunSriti dfrA'alurnftthlchte deriietuehem 
Sjpec$et, i US, p. Ul. i Dec. altera, tab. ;.'«, ;;9. 30. 


exercises of drawing old painted casts are to confer a power of 
representing living forms and attitudes. A little attention to 
nature, which is indeed too often neglected in learned investi- 
gations of proportions, and in academy studies, will convince us, 
that even in the same race individual varieties are endless in 
Dumber and great in dej^ree, without any diminution of strengtii 
and activity ; and that forms and relations very different from 
each other may yet be thought equady beautiful by those who 
venture to judge without knowing the proportions of the 
ancient statues. Still greater differences e.^st between the 
several races of mankind ; insomuch, that if we adopt for the 
model of beauty the standard of proportions discovered in the 
Greek statues, a great part of the human race will be cut off, by 
its very organization, from all chance of participating in this 
endowment. When, however, we find that Hottentots and 
American savages wiU outrun wild animals in the chase, %vill 
pursue and hunt down even deer; that they will accomplisli 
long journeys on foot over the most difficult countries, where 
there is no path to direct, and every obstacle to obstruct their 
progress j that the effeminate Hindoos, as we frequently call 
them, will keep up with horses, and perform astonishing joumej's 
in a short time ; that the South Sea Islanders amuse themselves 
for hours together ]jy swimming about in the strongest surf, 
which would instantly destroy a boat or vessel; we shall be 
obliged to allow that the form and projiortions to which we are 
most accustomed are not essential to bodily vigour and flexibi- 
lity of movement. Our own inferiority in these respects arises, 
I am aware, from want of exercise, not from organic deficiency. 
Civilized man is ignorant of hi.=5 own powers : he is not sensible 
how much he is weakened by effeminacy, nor to what extent he 
might recover his native force by habitual and rigorous exercise 
of his frame. 

The body is described as broad, square, and robust ; the 
extremities short and nervous ; and the shoulders high in the 
MongoUan tribes, which entered Europe in the thirteenth cen- 
tury. See p. 239. 

"The Calmucks," says Pallas, "arc often very strong 
about the neck, but slender and thin in the limbs. You hardly 
ever see corpulent person-: among the common people ; even 
ttio.^e who are rich and of higher rank, living in indolence and 
abumlance, do not become immoderately large ; while, on the 
contrary, numerous fat and unmeldly individuals ore seea 


unoDg the Kirgise^, and other Tataric pastoral tribes, who follow 
exactly the same mode of life." • 

Blumenbach possesses the entire skeletoD of a Don Cos- 
sack, whose head, as exhibited in the fourth plate of his First 
Decade, is marked with the character of the Mongolian variety. 
l"he broad and flat faee, the harsh muscular impressions and 
irrcpfular outlines of this skull, and the construction of the 
skeleton In general, correspond to the character which this race 
bears for strenj^th and hardiness, and to the alarms which they 
generally create as enemies. 

" Habitus in totum horridus. Orbltae maxjme profundse et 
lat<E, eed valde depressse. Narium apertura late pattda." 
" Limbus plani semicircularis ubi a processu orbitali extemoi 
oasis frontis sursum vergit, in acutum quasi jugum abiens ; 
an^li alarum maxUlx infcrioris fere monstroae exlrorsum 
tracta.', et masseterum InscrtionQ ralde intequales et quasi his- 
pidi. Crassities ossi occipitaUs prope protuberantias enormia. 
Sed et te.\tura ossium calvaries tarn dcnea, ut hinc illinc casu 
detritie marmoris durissimi ant iaspldis politi in modum niteant. 
Hinc et pondua universi cranii ingens. Verura et reliijui sceleti 
partes capitis horridse confonnationi respondent. Cylindrica 
V. c. ossa prseter modum crassa et ponderosa. Pectoris oa qua- 
tuor fere digitoa transversos latitudine teijuans, et qua* sunt 
hujus generis alia, rude robur testantia." 

Mr. RoLLiN, the surgeon who sailed with La Perotjse, baa 
given us the measurements of the Chinese whom he saw at the 
Baie de Castries, on the east coast of China, in about 52^^ N. 
lat, and 141° E. long. ; and also those of the natives of the oppo- 
Bite ^reat islaid of Tchoka, or Saghalien. 




Pt. In. 


Ft. In. Lines. 

Ordinary stature 


4 10 

Circumference of the head . 

1 10 



Long diameter of the head . 




Short diameter of the head , 



5 4 

Lengt'.i of upper extremity . 

2 1 


2 1 

Length of lower extremity . 

2 8 

2 6 

L<:ngth of foot . 



fjircu.nifpr<*Tirp nf ihfl rlnaist 

3 2 
1 1 


Breadth of the chest 


• Sammlungen hut, naeA. ilber die 1 

VoogSl. mterKfi. 

ITh. p. OS. 


TAKlGTlEa OP fiqdrk: 


FL In. lines. 
2 6 
1 11 


Ft. In. Lino. 
2 3 
1 10 

. — 2 21 0» 

of whidi the foot is to that of 

Circmnference of the pelvis . 
Height of the vertebral column 


Circumference of the pelvis 

The measures are French ; 
England as 1 .066 to 1 .000. 

'I'he trunk is more slender in the Negro ; particularly about 
the loins and pelvis : the dimensions of the latter cavity are con- 
siderably smaller than in the European, and the extremities in 
some instances longer. I found the following proportions in a 

full-grown African lad of seventeen. 

ft. In. 

Length of the body (lying dead on a table) . . 5 7 

Length of the upper extremity . . . . 2 7 

Length of the lower extremity .... 3 6 

Breadth from shoulder to shoulder .... 1 

Circumference of the pelvis, between the crista ilii and 

the great trochanter ...... 

Breadth between the anterior superior spines of the 

ossa innominata 

The two latter measurements, in an Englishman of 5 feet 9 
inches, were respectively 2 feet II inches, and lOJ inches. 

In a Negro skeleton of 5 feet 71 inches, the measurement 
between the anterior superior spines was 8^ inches. 

SoEMM£BRiNG gives the following statement of comparative 
" In ray skeleton of a Negro, about twenty years old, 

the great diameter of the pelvis is . . . 3 11^ 

the small 3 7^ 

In another of fourteen years the great diameter is . 3 2 

the small 2 9 

In an European of sixteen years the great diameter is 4 3 

the small 3 9 

In an old weU-made European, inferior in stature to the 

negro of twenty years, the great .... 4 6 
the small 3 11" 

Casitsr f states that the great diameter of the pelvis, from 

2 H 



• Peroiue, Foyage Round the H'orld ; v. iii. i 

. 24T. 

im, u Dutdi ; V. i. 

uoiMOLixvB — vtmmo peslvis. 271 

one 08 innonunatum to the other, was to the small diametcir, 
irom the sacrum to the symphysis pubis, in the 

Negro as . . . 39 to 27^ 
£uTC^>ean ... 41 27 

Yet the Negro was much taller than the European. 

The proportion in another European was as . 44 to 28 

In Albinub'b male skeleton . . . 66 43 

In a female Eoropean skeleton . . . 49 28 

In two others 44 28 

In the Famese Hercules 48 34 

In the Antinous 40 34 

In the Apollo 36 28 

according to Albert Durer . . . 35 20 

Venus de Medici 46 34* 

The same slendemess of the trunk may be observed in some 
of the Indians ; it is at least apparent in the Lascars, who come 
to this country in the East India ships. Their legs also are 
long. There are no actual measurements of these. 

Mr. RoLLiN, to whom I have already referred, ascertained 
the proportions of the body in males and females at three dif- 
ferent points on the western coast of the American continent 
The following are the results in French measures.f 

* Fm der BSrp, Ferielded. pp. S^ 90. t Feroiue'i Fogage, r. lU. p. SB3. 




c s . 




te^ m 

o ^ 







i - 



■si •=! S 

1 s 

a, Tj 


f, " 5 



£ S 


i£ £ 2 

Common stature 

5 1 

5 2 


5 3 

Long diameter of the head, 
from tire superior angle 

of the ocdjmt to the chin 





Short ditto ; from the cen- 

tre of one parietal bone 

to the other , 




5 6 

Upper extremity; from the 

head of the hnmenw to 

the end of the middle 


2 1 


2 1 


2 2 3 

Lower ditto; from the head 


of the femur to the heel 

2 8 

2 9 

2 10 5 

Length of the foot . 




10 6 

Breadth of the chest be- 


tween the shoulders . 


1 1 

1 1 4 

Breadth of the Bhouldera 

1 4 


I 7 

1 7 5 


Height of the vertebral co- 


lumn from the first ver- 

tebra to the sacrum 

1 10 

1 11 

2 4 

Circumference of the pelvis 

2 4 


2 6 


2 7 5 


hoiiff diameter of the head 




8 10 

Short diameter of the head 





5 3 


Length of the upper extre- 



mity .... 



2 1 

2 1 6 



Length of the lower extre- 


mity .... 

3 6 


2 6 

2 6 8 

Length of the foot . 




8 9 

Breadth of the chest 





11 3 

Breadth of the shoulders 

1 2 

I 2 


1 3 3 

Height of the vertebral co- 

lumn .... 

1 8 

1 8 


1 8 9 

Circumference of the pelvis 

2 5 

2 6 

'2 9 

Breadth between the ante- 

rior superior apiaouspro- 

cebses .... 




8 10 



The fine forms, the uncommon synimetry, the great strength 
and activity of many tribes in the South Sea Islands, have been 
noticed by all who have had intercourse with them.* 'Ilie 
attention of Langsdorfp was particularly attracted by a youth 
named Mupau, twentj- years of age, whom be saw at Nukahi* 
wah, one of the Marquesas Islands. Hia height was 6 feet 2 
inches (Paris measure — betiveen 6 feet 7 and 8 English) ; his 
figure and strength perfect : the following are the measures in 
French feet and inches, of various parts of hia body ; from 
which those who are conversant with academic proportions will 
be able to decide whether his frame was rightly constructed 
or not. 
From the point of the shoulder to the tip of the 

longest finger . 

From the top of the skull to the chin . 

From the top of the skull to the navel . 

From the navel to the division of the thighs . 

From the division of the thighs to the sole of the foot 38 

Length of the foot ..... 

Greatest breadth of ditto 

Breadth across the shoulders .... 
Circumference at the same part .... 
Breadth across the breast ..... 
Circumference of the breast .... 

Circumference of the head round the forehead and 

above the ears ..... 

Circumference of the abdomen about the spleen . 
Circumference of the pelvis at the hip . 
Circumference of the upjier part of the thigh 

Circumference of the calf 

Circumference of the ankle at its smallest part 
Circumference of the upper part of the arm . 
Circumference of the lower ditto .... 

Circumference of the hand 

Circumference of the neck .... 

• "Tlif peo^ileof the Marquesas aid Washington Islands excel is bpaulvimil 

grandeur of forrn, in regularltv oC features, aiid in a>]our, all the othvr South 
ea Uknders. Tha men are almyst all tall, robust, and WfU luiult^. Few were 
SO Tat and unwieldy an ihe Otaheitrans, noDe au lean and nieiu.Te jts the ]>«ot)la 
of Easter Island. We ilid not see a single crijjpled at deforuied pcrEun, but 
such gewral beauty and regularity of forms, thatilt^i'ullyfxcitfd ourastonish- 
menL Many o( tlipm ini|;)it very well huve been ijlated by the side of the 
tniist celebrated chef d'oeuvrfs of antiquity, and they 'would have loet nothing 
by the comparison." LangsdorlTs fugaget and Tracelt in cariout ParUf^lM 
ff'arld ; v. i. p. lOS. 
T Foj/oga and Trareli in ron'owr Parti qf Ihe Jforitl, p. 109. "We »«• 

In. Lincf. 


























The natives of New Holland* and Van Diemen'a Landf are 
■mall in stature, with long and slender limbs ; wliich seems to 
be owing in part to the bad quality and deficient quantity of 
their food (see p. 135). It la always of the least nutritious 
kind, and scarce ; and this scarcity is often aggravated to actual 
famine, under which the miserable natives are reduced to the 
appearanccof spectres,! ^^^ probably often perish from inanition. 

With these differences in stature and proportions we may 
reasonably e.fpect to find various degrees of bodily strength 
combined. The Spaniards, in their first intercourse with the 
new world, found the natives in general much feebler than 
themselve-s ; and the inability of the former to sustain the severe 
labour of the mines led to the introduction of African slaves, 
one of whom was equal to three or four Indians. § In engage- 
ments between troop and troop, or man and man, tho Virgi- 
niana and Kenluckians have always shown themselves stronger 
than the American savages. || Hbarne, Mackenzie, Pb- 
RousE, Lowjs, Clarke, and others, have found the same 
inferiority of physical force in various ])arta of the North Ame- 
rican continenL 

The testimony of Pallas respecting the Mongolian tribe of 
the Burats is very remarkable : " Their appearance is generaDy 
effeminate, and they arc mostly so small in stature and weak, 
that five or six Burats are often unable to effect what a single 
Russian can accomplish. Tliis want of power is not the only 
circumstance which proves, in the Burats and other Siberian 
nomadic peo]ile, that a mere animal diet is unnatural, and inca- 
pable of maintaining in jjerfection the physical prerogatives of 
our species. The bodies in all these people are remarkably light 

told," says Langsdorir, " thai Ihe chief of a neighbouring island, by name 
UpoQ, wflh pnually exact pro portions as MuDiu, was a head taller, so at leaat 
Kolvorts anil Cal>ri Iwth assured us : if thpy were correct, this min must be 
nearly seven I'aiis feet high." Tho vii^oiir and activity uf Mufau sccin to 
have nocti eqaallo his stature; '* thouffh he had never, till no w, been on board 
an £uruf>ean ship, he ran up the mainmast many times tofjethcr of his own 
accord, and threw liiniscU from iK into the de<i, to tlie i^^reat astonishment of 
the spectators, lie had ar.-tually (,'""<" ^P """ '^y w'lh the intention of throw- 
ing himself from the topiniist ijiiUery ; liut Caplain Kniscnstern called him 
back, and would not permit it. It was impossible tn see, without equal shudder- 
ing and astnnishitient, how he would sjirini; from *m-h an height, and balance 
faimself ill the air for some seconds, with nii feet duwn up a{{»l his l>ody, 
so as to keep his head up ; from the force of the fall, and the jirreat weight of 
his body, became with so violent a pliin'„'e Into the water, that several seconds 
elapsed before he appeared a^ain on the surface." P. 170. 

• Collins, Jlccount qf the £ngluA Culeny, &c. p. 503. Pecon, Fovagt ie 
lUtotmerieti t. i. tab. -jO. f Couk, I'oyage tu thePaeific; y. i. p, BC^ 

t Collins, /i'4. cit. Peron, T. i. p. 463, et suiv. 

i Herrera, Dec. i. Lib. ix. cap. 5. 

II Volney, Tableau da Eiati-vnii; t. L p. W. 

fhl/r // 


in comparison to their size. You can raise and hold up the ch^ 
dren with one hand, when those of the Russian boors of the 
same age could only be lifted with both hands. Even adult 
Biurats, compared to the Russians, are astonishingly light ; so 
that the horses, which are not indeed powerful, when tired by a 
Russian rider, recover themselves if a Burat takes his place."* 
In order to procure some exact comparative results on tihis 
point, Peron took with him on his voyage ui instrument called 
a dynamom^tre, so constructed, as to indicate, on a dial-plate, 
the relative force individuals submitted to experiment. He 
directed his attention to the strength of the arms and of the 
loins, making trial with several individuals of each kind ; viz. 
twelve natives of Van Diemen's Land, seventeen of New Hol- 
land, fifty-six of the island of Timor, seventeen Frenchmen 
belonging to the expedition, and fourteen Englishmen in the 
colony of New South Wales. The following numbers exprew 
the mean result in each case ; but the details are all given in a 
tabular form in the original. 

1 . Van Diemen's Land . 

2. New Holland 

3. Timor 

4. French 

5. English 

The highest numbers in the first and second class were 
respectively, 60 and 62 ; the lowest in the English trials, 63, 
and the highest 83, for the strength of the arms. In the power 
of the loins, the highest among the New Hollanders was 13, the 
lowest of the English 12. 7> and the highest 21.3. 

These results offer the best answer to the declamations on the 
degeneracy of civilized man. The attribute of superior physical 
strength, so boldly assumed by the eulogists of the savage 
state, has never been questioned or doubted. Although we 
have been consoled for this supposed inferiority by an enume- 
ration of the many precious benefits derived from civilization, it 
has always been felt as a somewhat degrading disadvantage. 
Bodily strength is a concomitant of good health, which is pro- 
duced and supported by a regular supply of wholesome and 

• Sammlunaen hiilor. J^achrieht, pp. 171, 178. 

+ Peron, l^oyage, t. i. chap. xx. p. 446, et suir. ; t ii. AMitioni and Oarrte' 
Hom.f. 460, ets'iiv. 


'^ of the Arms. 

of the Loina. 










. 71.4 



nutritious fooil, and by active occupation. The indostrious and 
well-fed middle classes of a civilized community may therefore 
b« reasonably expected to surpass, in this endowment, the mise- 
rable savages, who are never weU fed, and too frequently 
depressed by absolute want and all other privations. 

In the first Section, Chap. V., I have pointed out a difTe- 
rence between the structure of the human subject, and that of 
the monkey, in the relative length of the arm and fore-arm. 
The latter ia always the shortest in man ; while the two are 
equal in our near neighbours, or the fore-arm is even the 
longest. ITie Negro holds, in this respect, a middle place, 
about equidistant from Europeans and monkeys. " I mea- 
sured," says Mr. White, " the arras of about fifty Negroes, 
men, women, and children, horn in very different climates, and 
found the lower arm longer than in Europeans, in proportion to 
the upper arm, and to the height of the body. The first Negro 
OQ the list is one in the Lunatic Hospital at Liverpool, his fore- 
arm measures 12^* inches, and his stature is only 5 feet lOJ 
inches. I have measured a great number of white people, from 
that size up to 6 feet 4i inches, and among them one who was 
said to have the longest arms of any man in England, but none 
of them had a fore-arm equal to that of the black lunatic. 

" I have measured the arms of a great number of European 
skeletons, and have found that the os humeri or upper arm 
exceeds in length the ulna, which is the longer bone of the fore- 
arm, by 2 or 3 inches ; in none by less than 2, in one by not 
less than 3J inches. In my Negio skeleton the os humeri is 
only H inch longer than the ulna. In Dr. Tyson's pigmy 
the OS humeri and ulna were of the same length ; and in my 
skeleton of a common monkey the idna ia J of an inch longer 
than the os huraeri."t 

Of a Negro skeleton in the very valnable collection of Mr. 
Langstafp, the entire height is 5 feet 7i inches : the humerua 
mea-sures 12^ inches, the ulna Il|. In the individual men- 
tioned at p. 255, the upper arm was 13 inches, the ulna 11 A. 

The comparative results of several measurements are placed 
in sue cession in the following list. 

• The ulna of the Klmt in the College Museum ir only one inch Ion j^thka 
this 8«' itasc li'6. 

t Whit« on the Jiegular Gradation ; p, 52 and toUo^'mg, St^alsQ Uw tkblca, 
pp. 4S tail 46. 





Length of 

Lciiirlh of 

Os Humeri. 


An EnffUsbraan 









Ditto .... 





Ditto .... 




Ditto .... 



14 . 


Ditto .... 





Ditto .... 





Ditto .... 




Eniiflishwoman . 





Ditto .... 




European male skeleton . 





Ditto .... 





A Negro at tbe Lunatic 

Hospital, Liverpool 





Another from Virginia 





Another from the Gold 

Coast .... 





Another .... 




Negro skeleton . 





,'Vn other , , . , 





A Lascar .... 





Venus de Medici 




Tyson's chimpanse (Simla 

troglodytes) . 





Mr. Ahbl's orang-outang 





Camper's ditto 

less than 30 



Mr. White's monkey 





The legs of the Hindoos are aaid to he lon^, and those of tfie 
Mongolian nations short, as compared with those of our own race. 

The ancienta noticed that certain defects of form were verj* fre- 
quent in the legs of the Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Negro slaves 

SoKMMERRiNG obgervcs, that in the Negro the bonea of the 
leg seemed pushed outwards under the femoral condyles, bo 
that the knees appear rather further apart, and the feet are 
directed outivards. This is the case in hoth his Negro skeletons, 
and in more than twelve living Negroes whom he examined.* 
It is seen in the cast of the Negro belonging to the CoUege 
Museum. The tibia and fibula are more convex in front than 
in Europeans, t The calves of the legs are very high, so aa to 

* /on dcr korperl. wrreA. } iS. 

t Mr. White has rejiresented the bones of the lee and foot of the Nc^o and 
EurupeLn in a ccimparaUre view : On ihe Regular Oradalion, (iL L 

27S TAaHBIiHVieinic!: 

encroach upon the hams. The feet and hands, but particularly 
tfle former, are flat : the ob calcis, inBteacI of being arched, ia 
continued in nearly a straight line with the other bones of the 
foot, which is remarkably brontl. " Both hands and feet termi- 
nate in beautiful but very long, and therefore almost ape-like, 
fingers and toes ; and they had all sesamoid bones, which are 
certainly rare in Europeans."* " The only peculiarities," ob- 
serves WiNTERBOTTOHf,-!- " whsch Btruck me in the black hand 
and foot, were the largeness of the latter, tlic thinness of the 
liand, and the flexibility of the fingers and toes." Unseemly 
thickness of the legs ia not uncommon among the Negroes ; 
and the feet exhibit numerous chinks and fissures, which, as 
they occur princi[»ally in tiie soles, muKt probably be referred to 
the effect of the burning sands. In the sole of a healthy Negro, 
who dietl at Caasel, Blumenbach found the epidermis "mirura, 
in modum crassa, rimosa, et in multifidas lamellas dehiscens."^ 

Peculiarities of form are traceable, in some instances, to par- 
ticular practices. " The only and very common defect ob- 
servable among the Calmucks (says Pallas) is curvature of 
the thighs and legs, arising from their sitting, even in the 
cradle, on a kind of saddle in a riding attitude, and being accus- 
tomed to riding as soon aa they are able to go alonc."§ 

The curvature of the legs, which ia found not only in the 
Negroes, but in the Hindoos,f| Americans,1f ajid in many other 
cases, arises from the practice of squatting ; that is, of resting 
the body on the lower limbs, the ankles and knees being bent to 
the utmost. Tlie weight of the tnmk in this attitude, which is 
painful and indeed insupportable to those who are not accus- 
tomed to it, rests on the back of the leg : hence the form of the 
calf is spoiled by it. 

• Soemmerring has represented the bnuea of the leg and foot of the Negro i 
and European in a coraparatire view. ■" 

+ Jccount tff the Satire Afnrani, v. it, p. 257. 

t De g. h. rar. not. p. 246. ncle b. \ fhrnmlungm, fto, Th. J. p. 98, 

II This curvalure t)f the leg and deficiency of the calf are represented to me 
by ttmt rtccompliBhed artist Mr. Daniel aa tnc only faults in the Indian form ; 
Which he describes as very far exceeding^ that of Buiopean* in elegance imd 
Ann propt»d.iana. 

t Chiinviilon, Fot/ageai la Martinique, p. 58. In the Pewhenis of Tierra del 
Fuego, Furalet observra (hat the lower limbs atp by no meiuu proportioned 
to the upper parts ; that the thiffhi are thin and k-ctn, the legs bent, the knecS 
larse, and the toes tumec) inwards. Oht. madeon a Fovitge Sound the Iforld, 
p. I&i. Cook describfH the nalivL-sof Nootka Sound as havinfr small, ill-made, 
and crooked limbs, with large feet badly shaped, and projecting anklefl. He 
lucribca theie cireumstonoes to their jittingso much un their ham» arid kne«f. 
Fxjyaue to the Pacific, v. ii. p. 303. Lewis and Clirke found broad, thick, flat 
feet, tliick ankles, an<l crooked legs, in the V^'estern American tribes generally. 
They »»uribc the latter deformity to the universal practice of squatting, or 
utting On the oalrea of their legs ood heels. TnaeU, ah. 23. 

Smallneas of the hands and feet has be^n remarked by careful 
obse^^-e^^ in many races. Thus it has been found, when the 
Hindoo sabrea have been brought to England, that the gripe is 
too graall for most Euro]iean hands.* 

The Chinese were amused by the largeness and length of 
Mr. AnKL'a hands. He adds, " Those of all the Chinese, 
when compared to the hands of Europeans, are very small. 
When placed in mine, which are not excessively large, wrist 
against wrist, the ends of their fore-finger scarcely extended 
beyond the first joints of mine." f 

Mr. Chappbll obaen'es of the Esquimaux, that " the most 
surprising peculiarity of these people ia tlie smallness of their 
hands and feet." J. 

Humboldt says, that " the Chaymas, hke alinost all the 
native nations (of America) I have seen, have small slendei 
hands." § 

SiniUar obser^'ations have been made respecting the New 
Hollanders and Hottentots, ||i 

I am not acquainted with any natural differences in the fonn 
or size of the ears, as characterixtng the several races of men. 
It ia wdl known that they stand oil' further from the head, and 
are in some degree moveable in savages ; also that the lobulus 
is enlarged and monstrously elongated by various artificial 
means in many instances. These practices may have given 
rise to the fables of some older writers concerning the enormous 
ears of certain people. 

In some instances a aht is made in the external ear, parallel to 
and near its circumference, and e.ttending through almost its 
whole length. This is not only subservient to decoration by 
holding ornaments, but is also converted to the convenient 
purpose of receiving knives or other useful articles.H 

The Brasilians inserted gourds in the shts of their ears, 
increasing the size imtil the fist coiild be put through, and the 
ears reached the fiboulders. When they prepare for battle, these 
ornamental appendages were fastened beliind,** 

CoN'DAMiNE and Ulloa saw the lobuli extended to four or 

• Hodjjcfi, Traveh in Imiia, j>. 3. 

T Narrative t\fa Journey in the Interior af China, p. 01. 

t A'amtite of a Foffoge to Hjidtim't Bat/, p. 50. 

I Pertonal tfnrrative, t. lii. P- 32S. S«e olio Ullok, J\roiioiat jlmenemuu^ 
T, ii. ; and Mone's American Geejin^y, t. i, 

II Sarrow's SctUhem Africa, v. i. p, lot. 
fl Sec Portrait of a. New Zinlajidcr, in Hawkeaworth's CoiUKtion qf yof/agm, 

T. iii. pi. 13u Al»o pi. 11 ill the AUaji tit Cook's yomgt ta t/te Pacific^ 
•• Soutliey'i! Hiiitiri/ qf Braiil, v. i. pp. 135, 138, 631, nule 35. 



five inches in length, aft as to touch the Bhoulders in many cases. 
ITie perforations were seventeen or eighteen lines in diameter. • 

Similar practices prevail extensively iji the Asiatic and Scuta 
Sea Islandsj where persons are seen with the lobuli reaching the 
shoulders, and having slits large enough for the hand to pass.f 

I shall shortly mention here some other modes of ornamental 
bodily embellishment, which have been j)ractiaed chiefly among 
tribes in a more or leas rude state. The flattening of the fore- 
head, the dying and filing of the teeth, have been already 
noticed ; See Chapter IV. Sect. II. 

The operation of tattooing, or puncturing and staining the 
skin, has prevailed in various degrees in most parts of the 
world ; but it has been adopted most extensively and generally 
in the South Sea Islands, where it is considered as highly orna- 
mental. The art is carried to its greatest perfection in the 
Washington or New Marquesas Islands ; where wealthy and 
powerful individuals are often covered with various designs from 
head to foot. J The elegance and symmetry of the tattooed 
figures are as much admired by them, as those of dress are by 
us. We may pardon their simplicity in attaching so much value 
to the multiplicity and arrangement of these pimctures, when 
we consider that those satisfactory tests of personal merit, the 
stars, ribbons, and orders, of which more civilized men are bo 
pstly proud, are not yet known to them. " For performing 
the operation, the artist uses the wing-bone of a tropic-bird, 
phaeton ethereus, which is rendered jagged and pointed at the 
endhke a comb, sometimes in the formi of a crescent, sometimes 
in a straight line, and larger or smaller according to the figures 
he designs to make. This instrument is fixed into a bamboo 
handle about as thick as the finger, with which the puncturer, by 
means of another cane, strikes so gently and dexterously, that it 
scarcely pierces through the skin. The principal strokes of the 
figures to be tattooed are first sketched upon the body with the 
same dye that is afterwards rubbed into the punctures, to serve 
as guides in the use of the instrument. The punctures being 

Memolra de I'.icad. cka Sciences: 1745, p. 433. TratvU in South .4mnrica, 

Hist, of Ihe " ' ' 

Tfti. A m»i 
tor and tlirei 
v. I. n. 290. 
mnd woman of Easter Islantl, vvilli i'loriijatfd lobul 

I la, p. 433. I ravels in South ^4mt<rica, 
T. i. p. 305. A similar account is given hy AJair, Hitl. of ilie Sorth Jlmerican 
Indiaru, p. 171, 

+ Foreter, Ob$. on a Voyage Hound the ff'arld, p. TfJri. A manatTanna womJ 
thirteen ear-rinfrs of turtfe-ahi'll, an inch in diamL'tor and tlir»>qu 
inch broad, Cook'e Voy. tuvardt the Sotilh Pole. v. I. p. 290, pi. 

J LanifsdoTfTs forget (uui Transit, kc. v. i. cfiap. 5. The denigng, which 
are symmptricaUy arrangocl, and show no inconsidorablo tusle, are exItibitMl 
In two plates, nt |)p. 1 19—122. See nlso llawkeswortli'ii Collection, r. iii. pL Mi 
for Qui tBttQoed head ol a Mew 2£«aland«r, 


made so that the blood and lymph ooae through the orifice, s 
thick dye, compoaed of aehea from the kernel of the burning 
nut (aleurites triloba) mixed with water, is rubbed in. This 
occasions at first a slight degree of smarting and inflammation ; 
it then heals, and, ivlien the crust comes off after some days, the 
bluiah or blackish blue figure appears." " When once the 
decoraiions are begun, some addition is constantly made to 
them at inter^'als of from three to s\x months, and this is not 
unfrequently continued for thirty or forty yeara before the 
whole tattooing is completed. We saw some old men of the 
higher ranks, who were punctured over and over to such a 
degree, that the outlines of each separate figure were scarcely to 
be distinguished, and the body had an almoat Negro-hke apj>ear- 
ance, 'I'hia ie, acconiing to the general idea, the height of 
perfection in ornament, probably because the coat of it has been 
very great, and it therefore shows a person of superlative 
wealth." • 

The colour of the tattooed figures resides in the cutis or true 
■kin ; the cuticle is not affected. Contrary to vvhai we should 
bave inferred, from the generally assumed principle of constant 
change in the component particles of animal bodiea, these marks 
are indelible ; they are neither extinguished, nor rendered 
fainter by lapse of time, and can he got rid of only by excision. 

Another mode of ornamenting the akin, by means of raised 
cicatrices, ia principally practised in Africa. Winterbottom 
informs us, that in the neighbourhood of Sierra Leone, it is pecu- 
Har to the female sex j " that it is used upon the hack, breast, 
abdomen, and armM, forming a variety of figures upon the skin, 
which appears as if embossed. 'ITie figures intended to he 
repreaentt'd are first drawn upon the akin with a piece of stick 
dipped in wood ashes, after which the line is divided by a iharp- 
pointed knife. The wound is then liealed as quickly as possible, 
by vvasliing it with an infusion of bullanta." " Tlia<ie incisions 
or marks are generally made during childhood, and are very 
Common on the Gold Coast, where each nation has ita pecuUar 
mode of ornamenting themselves, so that by the disposition of 
the marks it is easy to know which country the person belongs 
to : for the moat part the females possess the greatest number 
of these painful ornaments.''^ 

In the recent voyage up the Congo, the embossed cicstricea 


were found a very common ornament. Capt. Tuckby observed 
on entering the river, that " all the visitors, whether Christian 
or idolaters, had figures raised on their skins in cicatrices." • As 
he proceeded further, he found that " the cicatrices or orna- 
mental marks on the iMdies of both men and women were much 
more raised than in the lower part of the river. The women in 
particular had their chest and belly below the navel embossed 
in a manner that must have cost them infinite p{dn."t 

The septum narium ia sometimes perforated, and a piece of 
bone or wood worn in the aperture, often of considerable mag- 
nitude. But the moat singular practice is that of the women on 
the north-west coast of America, who make a large horizontal 
slit in the lower lip, parallel to the opening of the lips, and 
penetrating into the raoxitb ; they wear in it ornaments of dif- 
ferent kinds, but generally oval pieces of wood a httle concave 
on tlie two surfaces, and grooved at the edge. The smallest of 
these additional mouths, as described by Vancouver.^ was 
2i inches long; the largest 3-^ inches by 1^. Capt. Dixon 
brought home one of the lip ornaments, which measured 
3^ inches by 2|. It was inlaid with a small pearly shell, and 
surrounded with a rim of copper."§ 

The natives of the neighbouring Fox Islands seem determined 
to unite all kinds of personal embeUishment. " They maka 
three incisions in the under lip; ihey jjIecb in the middle one a 
flat bone, or a email coloured .'stone, and in each of the side ones 
a long pointed piece of bone, which bends and reaches almost to 
the ears. They likewise make a hole through the gristle of the 
nose, into which they put a small piece of bone, in such a man- 
ner as to keej> the nostrils extended. They also pierce holes in 
the cars, and wear in thorn what little ornaments they can 
procure." II 

Tlie barbarous Chinese custom of contracting the feet of 
women, and the great extent to which their irrational purpose 
ia accomplished, are well known. While the Europeans were 
eicpreijsing their surprise at such an absurdity, and pitying the 

• Narrtttim nfan BzvaiHim, Sc. pp. 80—124. 

T Ibid. pp. Its, 1B3. The custom is retjuucd by tbe black Oribi in the West 
Indii-s ; Amic, in Journal de /"Ayrijue, Aug. 1791, 
t f^otfoge, r. ii. p. 880. 

I yut/age, p. 808. Also pp. 172—186. Perousc. Voyage, ». iL p. 139 and 
foUowini;. Va.nsiAnT^» f'oj/aga and Trurela, -r. ii. }>. Hf>. The luinie piucUce 
QOcistB in the archipelago between America and Kamtsehatka. Coxe' s ^cetmnt 
fff the Rtuiian Diacoreriei: third cd. pp. 34. 35, 104, ViS, 176, 1S7, 

II Ciixe, Ti]). 178, 177. A BimilAT custom picvailed among Che Bnuilitni; 
Soatbey, MutQrg rf Brweil, T, i. p. 11. 


sufferers, they were constantly permitting under their own eyes 
the equally, if not more pernicious practice of tight stays ; by 
which I have seen the figure of the thorax completely and per- 
manently altered at its lower part. * 

When the male New Hollanders approach the age of puherty, 
they have one of the front incisors of the upper jaw knocked out, 
with a curious set of ceremonies described and delineated by 
Mr. CoLLiNS.f The women of these people, and of some 
others, particularly in the South Sea, are often seen to have 
lost one or two joints of the httle finger. The exact nature and 
object of both these mutilations are not understood. 

Many travellers have spoken of the large and pendulous 
mammae of the females of certain barbarous tribes, particularly 
in Africa. There is no original difference in these cases ; the 
Hottentots and Negresses, previously to diild-bearing, have 
bosoms as finely formed as any women ; hut after this time the 
hrea-sts become very loose and flaccid, so that they can turn 
them under or over the shoulder, and suckle their infants on 
their backs. This practice and that of long-continued suckling 
probably tend to increase the elongation. 

In speaking of the Shaiigallaa, Bruce says that " after a few 
days, when the child has gathered strength, the mother carries 
it in the same cloth upon her back, and gives it suck with her 
breast, which she throws over her shoulder, this part being of 
such a length, as in some to reach Eilmost to the knees. I 

Capt. TucKEy§ noticed the " pendent flaccidity of bosom" 
which belongs to the African women, and which is thought 
ornamental by the giria of the Zaire, or rather promoted by them 
as a token of womaidiood,|| 

Dr. SomkrvjllhIT says that the breasts of the Hottentot 
women, at the time of puberty, " become long, round and firm, 
the nipple scarcely projecting from the areola, which is more 
extensive than in other females. Soon after this period, and 
particularly during utero-gestation, the nipples increase, and do 
not again entirely shrink. After one or two births the breasts 

• These small wni.stcd dumscla are placed by Linneaa ninong the Tnoiutrous 
Tarieties of our species ; '■ iuucea; puellic, nbdumiDe attenuHtu, Europi'in," 

+ Account (/ ui£ En^luh Culoni/, &l\ Aiipfinxlix ; with cigUl iUiulratirc 

t Tratettto the Sowretofihe Nile; second ed, v, It. p, 35. 

i Ejmedilioit fo explore, &c. pp. 18 — 134. 

II "Au Sfn^sal 'es jeunc* Miles font leura eflbrtt pour ftire tomber leur 
gorge alin mi'on let croye temmea, et qu'oa lei respecle il'Kvantage." 
liniral, L'Al'n'que, p. 45. 

H MedicO'cMrurgical Trantatiioii*, t. tIL p. 157. 



are flaccid, Mfxinkled, and penduloiis, han^ng down nometimet 
to the groins, like bags suspended from the neck." 

When the Hottentot Venus was stripped naked, " the breasts, 
which glie used to raise and confine by her dress, shotved their 
large pendent inaeseB, terminated by black areolae of more than 
fi)ur inches in breadth, and marked by radiated wrinkles." * 

Mr. Barrow, in speaking of the Namaaqua Hottentots, says 
that " the breasts are disgustingly large and pendent : the usual 
way of giving suck, when the child is carried on the back, is by 
throwing the breast over the shoulder, i- 

UlloaJ observed the Negresses in South America carried 
their children on their backs, and passing the breasts to them 
for suckling under the arm or over the shoulder. 

This fact is reported by numerous and respectable travellers, 
and has been confirmed to me so positively, both in the Negro and 
Hottentot races, by eye-witnesses, that I am surprised to find it 
contradicted by Dr. Wintekbottom, who says, " I never saw 
an instance where women could suckle their children upon their 
backs, by throwing their breasts over their shoulders ; and it 
may be affirmed that such a circumstance would occasion as 
much astonishment on the western coast of Africa as it would 
in Europe. "§ 

This assertion is rather more general than could be warranted 
by the author's experience, which seems to have been prin- 
cipally confined to the Nova Scotia Negroes, settled in Free- 
town, Sierra Leone. We can only infer from it, therefore, that 
the fulness and elongation of the breasts are not universal in 
the African race. 

Some of the accounts, indeed, bear an evident air of exagge- 
ration ; Bruce's expressions are rather strong ; but what are 
we to think of the assertion that tobacco-pouches manufactured 
from the breasts of the Hottentot females are sold in great 
numbers at the Cape of Good Hope i || 

On the other hand, similar conformations have been occa- 
sionally noticed iii some European coimtries. " I saw," says 
LiTHGOW, " in Ireland's north parts, ^vomen travayling the 
way or toyling at home, carry their infants about their neckes, 
and laying the dugges over their shoulders, would give suck« 

* Cuvier, in Mimoire' da Afiurum d'Uitl. not, t, iii. p. 865. 

+ Trareh in the Interior of Southern Africa, v. i. p. 390, 

t Trarelt in South America, v. i. ]). 32. 

) ^ectiunt of the Kniire ^Jricant, v. ii. p. 264. 

H tiiau.e\ Muchreibung det Forgebirget der guttn JJofntmg; I, ii. t>. 56C 



to the babes behind their backes, without taking them in their 
armea : such kind of breasts, me thinketh, were very fit to be 
made money-bags for East or West India merchants, being 
more than halfe a yard long, and aa well wTought aa any tanner^ 
in the hke charge, could ei'er moUifie such leather."* 

A krge aize of the breasts has been observed in the Morla- 
chian women by Fohtis; and is alluded to by Juvknal as a 
well-known circumstance, in speaking of the Egyptians 
" In Meroecrasso mojorem iDfatite' papiilam." 

The Portuguese women of modem days are said to be remark- 
able in the same way ; while the Spaniards, in the last century 
at least, took paina Co compress theuG [larts, in order to prevent 
too great a luxuriance. 

To the disgrace of London, even in this pious age of societiea 
for suppressing vice and distributing Bibles, a philosophic 
foreigner has found in her streets a proof of the effects of toft 
early venereal excitement in enlarging the breast ; and has com. 
memorated the fact in a classical work, which must convey the 
Bcandal over the whole learned world. " Contraria cura ambi- 
tum mammarum augeri posse nullum dubium est ; quantum 
Yero prseterea Venus qucKjue praematura eo conferre possit me- 
niorabili sane exemplo impuberes et nondum adultae puellae 
mercenaria; docent, quae Londinum, priesertim ex ricinia maxime 
Buburbiia confluunt, et quxstum corpore facientea ingenti 
Euraero plateaa noctu pervagantur."f 

There are no essential differences in tlie organs of genera- 
tion J their construction and functions are the same in the 
various races of mankind. The Negroes, indeed, have gene- 
rally been celebrated for the size of a principal member of this 
apparatus. " Nigritas mentulaliores esse vulgo ferter. Res- 
pondet sane huic asserto inaignis apparatus genitaltum .^Ethtopis, 
quem in supellectili et mea anatomica servo. Num vero con- 
stana sit hrec praerogativa et nationi propria, nescio."! Two 
specimens in the College Museum strongly confirm the common 
opinion, which ia also corroborated by Mr.WHiTE,§ both from 
dissection and observation of living Negroes. He mentions aa 
instance where the part in question was found on dissection to 
be twelve inches long. In the living and dead Negroes whom 
I have seen, there has been no deviation in size from the Euro- 
pean formation ; but I have never injected the part. 


* Sort; Mrmluret andjHtin^uU Peregrinationt, p. 433. 
+ Blumi-nhoch, Ite g. h. rar. no/. iC'ct. ill. 4 67. 
I On the Regular Gradation, p. 61, 

Ilnd. p. 910. 


Mr. Whitk observes that many Negroes have no £rsenum 
pncputii ; and that in others it is small and imperfect.* 

It has been supposed that the Hottentot women have som&. 
thing peculiar in this part of. their organization ; that they are 
digtiuf^ished from all other daughters of Eve by being furnished 
with a natural fig-leaf of skin, produced from the lower and 
front part of the abdomen, and covering the sinus pudoris. It 
has been called a natural apron (tablier, Fr. ; ventrale cutancum; 
schiirze, Germ.)- Although the native country of these females 
has been so much viaited by Europeans from all quarters for 
a long series of years, and the structure, according to ordinary 
descriptions, must be very recognisable, there is a singular dis- 
cordance among travellers concerning this interesting point in 
natural history. Some affirm, others altogether deny its exist- 
ence ; and of the former, hardly any two agree in the precise 
nature of the peculiarity, some referring it to the labia, some to 
the nymphae, others, to a peculiar organization ; some deeming 
It natural, others artificial. 

This discordance is accounted for in great measure by two 
circumstances. First, that the peculiar organization is not 
visible in the ordinary attitude of tbe body, being concealed 
between the thighs ;t and, secondly, that it is confined to a 
particular tribe. It does not exist in the Negroes, where the 
female organs of generation differ from the Europeans only in 
colour, the Kaffers, the Booahuanas, at least not in a conspi. 
cuous degree, or in the Hottentots generally ; but it belongs to 
that particular tribe of Hottentots who are called BoBJesmen^ or 

This name is equivalent to Bushmen, was given by the Dntclt 
to a diminutive race strongly resembling the Hottentots in 
general formation. They are wild and fugitive beings, fre- 
quently engaged in rapine and plunder, and retiring for security 
into deiserts and thickets ; whence their name aeems to have been 
derived. X Perpetual warfare existed between these Bushmen 


• On the Regular Gradation, p. 62. Tyson states that the chimpaiis<! h»d na 
fratnutn; ,4»at. tif a Pigvae, p. 45. The exact structure of this luirt is nat 
mentiriniwl by Camper. 

+ Tho Hot toiitut Vcnns dijiplaypd her charms to the French savans At the 
Jardin du Koi, where "she had the complaisance tu uadres^ herself, that she 
might K' ilMwn naked," "On thijs occasion the most rrmarkahle tieculmritr of 
Ver fnnnation was not rjhsfrved; she kept hitr • Inhlicr" carefully cmicealcd, 
eithrr belwcon her thighs, qr still mure deeply, ai>d it was not knowti, lilliXtef 
death, that she possessed it." Ciirier, htimuiresdu Mtiseum : pp. 'Hi, £65. 

t Curicr »ays Ihcy w«re caJled Bushmen " parce nu'lU onC coutumc de 
M birc del mp&ecs de nids dans des toufles de brousaaillea." Where he heard 
of these human nests I cannot conjecture. Mr. Barrow simply states " that 
thej uii kltowil ia thecoVuuy by tho niime of Bosjesnuuu, or men uf tbe biwhw^ 


and the Dutch, vrho hunted zad destroyed them with as littlo 
ceremony as the other wild game of the country. That they 
remained in the most savage state, and were very rarely seen in 
the Dutch colony, is easily understood from these circumstances. 

On the authority of Lk Vaillant, * and of drawings com- 
municated to him hy Sir Joseph Banks, BLUHENBACHf 
deiicribes the peculiarity to consist in an elongation of the labia, 
and represents it as produced by artificial means. More careful 
and accurate examinations, both in Africa and Europe, have 
proved most clearly that it resides in the iiympha;, which acquira 
a length of some inches, and that the formation is natural. 

So>'NEBAT had already represented the matter nearly cor- 
rectly. " Le tahher fahuleux qn'on prete h. leurs femraea, et 
qu'on dit leur avoir 4tt donnc par la nature, n'a point de realite; 
il est vrai qu'on apercoit dans certaines une escroissance des 
nymphes qui quelquefois pend de six pouces, mais c'est une 
phenomene particulier, dont on ne pent paa faire lue r^gle 

" The well-known story," eays Mr. Babhow, " of the Hot- 
tentot women posaesaing an unusal appendage to those parts 
that are seldom exposed to view, which belonged not to the eer 
in general, is perfectly true with regard to the Bosjeamans. 
The horde we had met with possessed it to a woman ; and, 
without the least offence to modesty, there was no difficulty in 
satisfying curiosity. It appeared on examination to be an elon- 
gation of the nymphsB or interior labia, more or less extended 
according to the age or habit of the person. In infancy it is 
just apparent, and in general may he said to increase in length 
with age. 'ITie longest that was measured somewhat exceeded 
five inches, which was in a subject of a middle age. Many were 
said to have them much longer. These protruded nymphae, 
collapsed and pendent, appear at first view to belong to the 
other sex. ITieir colour is that of hvid blue, inclining to a red- 
dish tint, not unlike the excrescence on the beak of a turkey, 
which indeed may serve to convey a tolerable good idea of the 
whole appearance both as to colour, shape, and size. The 
interior lips or nymphte in European subjects which are corru- 
gated or plaited, lose entirely that part of their character, when 
brought out in the Hottentot, and became perfectly smooth. 

ttom the Concealed manner iti which thpy make Ibeir approaches to idll and 
I to plunder." Tritrels in Soutfi AJriea, v. i. i*. 834. 

, * yogageilant I' Inlerieurd. ■IJrique, l).3^l. ■* 1/e g. k. mr. not, leeL iii. ISik 

L t Popagtduns Usindet Orieniatu, t. ii. p. 93. 

Tboogh in th« tatter sttttAefaqrpMMMiiaaetfibaMilfaiM* 
Itfio^ qtwritifw. forwl^eb aome anatomists hare i 
' to Inve fomwd tltaa, Xktj bare at least the idwOagtid wernag ' 
■sapnlMtien agantt Tioknee from the other acs, it aeenaig 
next to impowible fJPT* nan to cohabit witk one of ihoewuiiMB 
vithoat her foMtiit, or efoi Hmtiaee.'** 

Mr. Babbow adda, that "the e l ong ate d ii;B3pfae are faond 
XI aD Hotteotot women, only Uxy are shorteT in those of the 
cokmf, eeldom exceeding three incbea, and in manj safajecta 
i^pearing merely as a projecting orifice, or an elliptical tube of 
an tadi or le» in length. In the battamrd (ofipnng of £uro> 
jiean Ctther and Hottentot mother) it ceaaea to mppui."f He 
obaerres again, of the Namaaquas, that " they bad the same 
conformation of certain parts of the body as the Bosjesman 
women, and other Hottentots; in a less degree, bo^erer, than 
is vsnal in the former, and more so than in those of the latter."| 
This account is folly confirmed by the accurate descriptions 
of Dr. SoMSiivtLLE,§ wbo speaks from ample opportnniues of 
observation and dissection. He states that the aaiH veneria 
is less prominent than in Europeans ; and either destitute of 
hair or thinly covered by a small quantity of a soft wooUy 
nature : that the labia are very small, insomuch that they seem 
aomebmes to be almost delicient: that the loose, pendulous, 
and rugous growth, which hangs from the pedendum, is a 
double fold, and proved by the situation of the ditoris at the 
commissure of these folds, as well as by all other circumstances, 
to be the nympha; ; and that they descend in some cases five 
inches || below the margin of the labia. 

The description by CuvibrU of the individual publicly exhi- 
bited in London and Parifi, under the name of the Hottentot 
Venus, agrees entirely with Dr. Somerville's account. He 
found the labia fimall j a single prominence descended between 
them towards tlie upper part ; it divided into two lateral por- 
tions, which passed along the aides of the A'agina to the inferior 
anglff of the labia. The whole length was about four inches. 
Thia formation often has been ascribed to artificial elongation, 

• TravcU into the Interior qfSouUiem Africa, v. i. 278 2T9 
» HM. 280, 261. , V&Vt 389. 

I Mudicu-c/iirursical Tramnctiom, v. vii. p. 1,^7. 

II In uiif of Blumenhacirs drawing's the leugih U 6j. inches (RhynUnd 
gessui^^ ~eak« of (heir rpiirhing 9 inches. 

^ " tli" P- 268- When i'.-ron visitpd the Cape of Good 

anon to Ihfii subject ; but hi« auiements, 4« contained 
M Footage del Dtcnmertei, JEc. chip, xtxif publiahad 


" The testimony of the people themselves," Bays Mr. Barrow, 
" who have no other idea, hut that the whole human race is so 
formed, is sufficient to contradict suck a supposition ; hut many 
other proofs might he adduced to show that the assertion is 
fldthout any foundation in truth. Numbers of Bosjesman 
•women are now in the colony who were taken from their 
mothers when infantii, and hrouf^ht u}) hy the farmers, who, 
from the day of their captivity, have never had any intercourse 
whatsoever with their countrymen, nor know, except from 
report, to what tribe or nation they belong ; yet all these have 
the same conformation of the parts naturally, and without any 
forced means." • 

Dr. SoMEsviLLE observes, that if any practice of elongating' 
the nympha; bad existed am<;mg the Hottentots, it could not 
have escaped his knowledge ; that they do not wish to Lave 
them lon^, nor take any pains for that [}urpose. They, who 
have them longest, are not thought the more beautiful ; nor 
are those slighted, in whom they are short, t 

This extension of the nymphae in the Bosjesman and Hot- 
tentot females will appear the less remarkable, when we con- 
sider that their size varies in Europeans ; that they often project 
beyond the labia, and are of an inconvenient length. A con- 
fliderable development of these organs is more common in warm 
climates, and has been noticed in the Negroes, Moors, and 
Copts, among whom it has been the practice for females to be 
circumcised.! Th'S point ia even noticed by Pli.nv. When 
the Abyssiuians were converted to Christianity in the sixteenth 
century, the Catholic missionaries thought fit to forbid circimi- 
ciaion, deeming it a relic of Judaism. As the taste of the men 
had been formed on the old practice, they did not approve this 
innovation, and the Catholic girls found that they should get 

• Travelt, &c. pp. 279, 290. + £ib. cil. p. 158. 

t III the AppeiiJix, No. 1, entsUed "An Account af CircuracUion ns it U 
ptkotiftpil on the windward coast of Afrioa," to the SL-cond voluine of his very 
ttterettini; occoaiit of the oalive African."!, Dr. WiiUerbotlorn iufurma us, 
this oppraliun. ia pt'rformcd on the fi'mttli-s as well as the mules ; mitl Hiwt it ia 
e^UBlfv Cummini to bath sexes in many parts of Arabia, at Bagdad, Aloppo, 
and Sunt, in Hgvni, Abyssinia, and the neighnurinj; countries. " Amongthe 
Mahumrnedan nations no this iiart of the euaxt fSierra Leone), th« ojHTitJon 
cunsisis in rcniovin>^ Die n^vinpiisn, together with the [incpuliuni rlilundis, not 
lhi> clituris itwlf, as has bifen lma^'in<?d," 1'. if39. Bruco, who ifivea a similar 
Berountof the circumcision, or, as he calls it, excision, practised in Abj-ssinia, 
Teftrrs the origin of tlie custoni to a natural redundancy ur fxcess of the parts, 
onvrhldi it Is performed. Dr. WinterUutUim, liowcver, asserts that on the 
windward coast uf Africa there is no physical reason fur it; the redundancy 
mentioned by BruLC being mure rarely met with In these countries than ia 
£iirop<.", "and wlicre the custom uf circumcisiun is unknuwn, whiili is j)'"* 
tiably orer the greateT part ol tbe coatuieot, ao comf laiut is mode on Ibil 
head" P. 341. 



no husbandfl. In this dilemma the coUe^ of the Propagand 
Bcnt a surgeon from Rotne to examine and report; and, 
consequence of his statement, the Pope authorized a renewal 
the ancient custom. 

Although it is not immediately connected with the general 
organs, I may mention here another striking peculiarity in 
same women. I mean the vast masses of fat accumulated oi 
their buttocks, and gi^^ng to them the appearance of extraor- 
dinary and unnatural appendages. 

*' The great curvature of the spine inwards, and exten 
posteriors, are characteristic of the whole Hottentot race ; 
in some of the small Bosjesmans they are carried to a m 
extravagant degree." — " The projection of the posterior part 
the body in one subject, measured five inches and a lialf from 
line touching the spine. This protuberance consisted of fat, 
and, when the woman walked, had the most ridiculous appear- 
ance imaginable, every step being accompanied with a quiver- 
ing and tremulous motion, as if two masses of jeiiy w 
attached behind."* 

The vibration of these substances at every movemem 
very striking in the Hottentot Venus. They were quite soft 
the feel. She measured more than eighteen inciies {.Frencu 
across the haunches ; and the projection of the hips exceeded 
BIX inches. d 

Dr. SoMERvrLLE found on dissection, that the size of tl4 
buttocks arose from a vast mass of fat interposed between ine 
skin and muscles ; and that it equalled four fingers' breadth in 
thickness, t CdvikhJ describes the protuberance to be pro- 
duced by amass of fat, traversed in various directions by strong 
cellular threads, and easily removed from the glutei. The Hot- 
tentot Venus stated that this deposition of fat does not ti 
place until the first jjregnancy; and this statement is confirmi 
by the testimony of Mr. Barbow. § 

It seems almost su{>erfluous to add, that the sacrum and 
coccygis have the same size, figure, and direction in these, as in 
other females ; that the latter bone is not turned backward; 
much less prolonged into any resemblance or even approach 
a tail. 

If the Negroes and Hottentots approximate in some points to 
the structure of the monkey kind, as they very certainly do, t 
particular of the elongated nymphse is rather an instance of 

• Barrow, lib. eit. p. 881, + Lib. ert. p. JCO. J /6iA p. 809, | md. p. 



opposite description. For tbe correspondiag cutaneous fold* 
are barely visible iu tlie sitniaj. Tlje tremulous manses of fat 
with which the glutei are loaded, constitute, on the contrary, 
according to Cuvikr,* " a Btriking resemblance to those which 
appear in the female mandrills, baboons, &c. and which assume, 
at certain epochs of their life, a truly monstrous development." 

The most analogous animal structure, however, is that of the 
sheep, of which such vast and numerous flocks are reared by 
the pastoral tribes of Asia. In this variety, a large mass of fat 
covers the buttocks, occupjang the place of the tail ; the protu- 
berance is smooth or naked below, and appears, when viewed 
behind, as a double hemi8|)here, the coccj-x being just percep- 
tible to the touch in the notch between the two. It consists 
merely of fat, and fluctuates in walking when very large, like 
the buttocks of the Hottentots. The mass sometimes reaches 
the weight of thirty or forty pounds. PALLAB.f who ha« 
described this breed of sheep very well, calls it ovia steatopyga, 
or fat-buttocked sheep. 

The peculiarity is lost by crossing the breed with other sheep ; 
and it becomes considerably diminished, when the animals, being 
purchased by the Russians and conveyed to their towns, quit 
their native pastures, and change their mode of life. 

As this fat-buttocked sheep is universally held to be a mere 
variety, we cannot deem the analogous structure of the Bosjes- 
men and Hottentots to afford any adequate ground for referring 
those tnbes of human beings to a distinct species. The deve- 
hipment of the nymphjE, and the other varieties enumerated in 
this chapter, are merely analogous to the varieties observed in 
corresponding points among our domestic animais. 

The works of the oliler cosmographers, and even the narratives 
of comparatively recent travellers, make mention of human 
varieties much more remarkable than any which I have 
recounted. Such are the African Blemmyes or people without 
heads, the Arimaspi and Cyclops with one eye, the Monos^ 
celi with one leg, the giants and pigmies, the Monorchides, the 
Anorchides, Triorchides, Hermaphrodites,! the CynocephaU, 
Cynomolgi, &c &c. which are spoken of by Hkrodotu*, 

• JJb. nl. p. 8G8. 

•t Sfiicilci^ia Ztmlopca; fascic xi. p. 63. et sen. There arc breeds of stioep 
in Pel Mia, t^vria. I'aitatiiie, and Hum e jiarU of Alriira, in wliicb tile t&U i« nw 
dpflciout U.1 m tbv o vis sUstopytja. but retains its ueuai leuglh, asxt beeMna 
Juadi'tl with (at. 

t 1 have consiikrc'd this subject in (lie irtide Geucrotlon of Dr. S«e4,' 



PuxT, PoMPOxiCB Mela, Ptolkiit, and nMnyothrrs. The 
fwotcrbial beenae asnnzud bv tiaTdlers, Adr ignorance or dis- 
poBtioii to deceiTC, their careleesness in recdring or commoni- 
eating facta, and the credulity and lore of the marrellous in 
tbdr readers, are all faroorable to the jmidnction and diffusion 
of such stories. In proportion as distant regions become well 
known, such monstrosities disappear j and the progress of 
natural knowledge will giadnally consign all these marrellous 
tales to oblivion. The great mass of information, which we now 
povesa concerning the animal creation in general, respecting 
die human structure and functions in particular, and the 
various modifications in the principal races of the species, afibrd 
OS critical rules, by which the truth or falsehood of any extraor- 
dinary narratives can be easily and certainly determined. We 
need not waste any more time on the fabulous vaneties above 
alluded to, yet there is one, which has found believer? even in 
our own times : I allude to the men with tails, who having been 
again and again spoken of by ^'arious authors, were defended and 
patronised not long ago by Lord Mo n bod do. Not to mention that 
the existence of a tail in man would be quite inconsistent with 
all the rest of his structure, and more particularly with all the 
arrangements both of the hard and soft parts composing or con- 
tained in the pelvis, we may observe that nearly aD, who have 
spoken of the homines caudati, do so, not from their own 
observation, but from the reports or information of others. 
While, on the other hand, they who pretend to have had ocular 
testimony of the fact, mention it in such a manner, and with 
such circumstances, as obviously to destroy their own credit ; 
and they differ most widely from each other even when speaking 
of the same people.* Again, the most intelligent and accurate 
travellers, in describing the same people, either make no men- 
tion of the prodigy, or else characterize it as a pure fiction. 
Thus, instead of finding the existence of any race of men with 
tails authenticated by credible witnesses, there is no example 
even of a single family displaying such an anomaly, although 

* Tlipso Tpmarks are pxempUfied hf Blumcabach in the ttalpinonts which 
hare bifnj>ubli»hcil conetrning the UiU of the Formosans : De g. h. far. no/, 
sect. iii. 1 i6. He also sue4-ee<JeU in treeing tu it« souire the eneTaveii repre- 
neiitatiuii of a ttian with a tail, and in provinj; that it was arigindlj tho lirare 
of a monkey, (raimnitted from one author tu another, and humanized a htUe 
ateachsiep. Martini, in his version of Buffnn, took a |>lrttp from the .imitnitatet 
of Linncui; whu look it from Aldrovanduv, who tool^ it from Gesner, who 
took it from aGerman description of the Uolr 1-ind [Aeyxi in 1^ (!r«to&fe//iiMf; 
3fentl, liS6}, in wbirh it repr(>$t-uts a qu^idrumanous monkey, which, with 
Otlier exotic .-uiimali, was K-en In the journey. Thii^ quadrumanuut simia had 
ttcfii gradually irautformi^ by tho>e who suecetiilvely copied tlie enjraviB^ 
Into a btunan two-handed being. JbitL note, v, 2T1. 




there are well-known instances of families vnth. six fingers on 
each band. 

The consideration of monstrous productiona belongs to 
pathology and pbyaiology, rather than to the natuial history of 
our species. I have given a description of them, with .some 
remarks on their production, in the fifth volume of the Medico- 
ehirurgical Transactions, 



Differtncet <^ Stature, — Origin (aid Trantmunon nffarieliei in Rmn. 

No part of the natural history of man has been more confused 
and disgraced by fablea and hyperbolical exaggeraticm than the 
present dirision. Not to mention the pigmies and giants of 
antiquity, the bones of diiferent large animals ascribed to human 
subjects of immoderate stature, even by such men as Buffon, 
•ufBciently prove our assertion. The accuracy of modern 
invescigation has, however, so completely exposed the extrava- 
gauce of such auppoaitions, that they do not require very detailed 

There is no fixed law detennining invariably the human, 
ftature, although there ie a standard, as in otiier species of ani- 
mals, from which the deviations, independently of disease or 
Bccident, are not very considerable in either direction. In the 
temperate climates of Europe the height of the human race 
varies from four feet and a half to six feet. Individuals of six 
feet and some inches are not uncommon in this and other Euro- 
pean countries. Occasional instances have been known, in 
various parts of the world, of men reaching the height of seven, 
eight, or even nine feet ; and ancient and even modem authors 
speak of the human stature reaching ten, and even eighteen feet. 
The latter representations are grounded on large bones dug out 
of the earth. These, together mth the common propensity to 
believe and report what is marvellous, and the notion that man- 
kind have undergone a physical as well as moral degeneracy 
since their first formation, have led to a very common belief 
that the human stature in general is at this period less than it 
was in remote ages.* We are warranted in suspecting the 

t~ • TTie notion of diminisTipd stature aiiil strength ippids to have been juet a* 

prevalent in ancient timi-s itt at [iti-ient. I'liny uh«f rves of tlie hunian lici^lit, 
••cuDto mortalium gcneri minorcni iiidii's tii-ri:" vll. Ifl. \ moit olarmiDg 
ttroappct, if it bad been well founded. Homt^r more than once makes aT«r 
8i»p ■ ... . ..... 


Sl»|ODK coiniiarisuQ of hlsoim degenente cotemporariei to tie po' 
beruen uf tue Xrgjao war, 


a^cotnita of such great elevation abore the ordinary stature in 
the human species, by obserring that natnre, w-ithin the tune of 
which we bare any anthentic records, exhibits no ssnch dlspro- 
portions in other species. We find, too, that the height of theie 
giants ia reduced, aa we approach modem times, to what we 
have opportunities of observing now : so that we may probably 
affirm, that no sufficiently authenticated example can be 
adduced of a man higher than eight or nine feet. 

The large bones^ ou which the notions about giants have been 
in many instances founded, have been discovered, by the accu- 
rate examinationji of modem science, to belong to extinct 
species of animals of the elephant and other allied kinds. Of 
the loose and iin philosophical manner in which these matters 
have generally been inquired into, we have a specimen in the 
supposed bones of a barbarian king. Habicot, an anatomist 
at some celebrity, in a work entitled Gigantosteologia, describes 
some huge bones, found near the mins of the castle of Chau- 
mont in Dauphiny, in a sepulchre, over which was a gray stone 
inscribed Teptobocchcb Rex. This skeleton, he says, was 
twenty-fire feet and a half high, and ten feet broad at the shoulders. 
RiOLAX, in his Gigantomachia, disputes this measurement, and 
affirms that the bones belong to the elephant. In the long con- 
troversy which ensued, it never occurred to either of the learned 
disputants to describe or represent the bones exactly. It is 
Burprising that Bixffon should have figured and described the 
fossil bones of large animals as remains of human giants, in the 
supplement • of his classical work. Together, with others, he 
mentions those dug up at Lucerne in the sixteenth century, 
and still preserved there. Blcmenbach found these, on 
the first view, to be elephants' bones. Felix Plater, an 
excrflent physician and anatomist of his time, after carefully 
examining and measuring these bones, declared that they 
belonged to a human giant of seventeen feet, and had a draw- 
ing made of the skeleton, according to his opinion of its di- 
mensions ; which drawing is still preserved in the Jesuits' 
College Jit Lucerne. t 

That men in general were taller in the early ages of the 
world than at present, or that examples of very tall men were 
then more frequent than now, has been asserted without any 
proof. 'Ilie remains of human bones, and particidarly the 
teeth, which are unchanged in the most ancient urns and burial- 
ad the sarcophagus of the great pyramid 


of Egypt, demonstrate this point clearly j and every fact ivhica 
we can collect, from ancient works of art, from armour, aj 
helmets and breast-platea, or from buildings designed for the 
abode and accommodation of men, concura in strengthening 
the proof. Blumenbach haa the skull and bones of an old 
person, taken out of a burial-place of the most remote antiquity 
in Denmark (ex antiquissirao tumulo Cimbrico), and correspond- 
ing in size to the modem standard. Tliat we cannot have dege- 
ntrated in consequence of the habits of civilized society, is clear, 
beeanae the indixadnala of nations living in a way so diiTerent 
from U9 as the native Americana, Africans, and South Sea 
Islanders, &c. do not exceed us in stature. Indeed, it haa been 
generally observed of theae racea that they are shorter than the 

In mentioning individuals who have exceeded the ordinary 
height, it is necessary to confine ourselves, in order to avoid 
what may be fabulous or exaggerated, to instances in our own 
times. One of the King of Prassia's gigantic guards, a Swede, 
measured 8 ^^ feet ; and a yeoman of the Duke John Frisdgsic, 
at Bruns\vick HanoYcr, was of the same height. Gilly, who 
was exhibited as a show, measured 8 feet (Swedish).* J. H. 
Rkichardt, of Friedberg near Frankfort, was 8 feet 3 inches : 
his father and siater were both gigantic-t Several Irishmen, 
measuring from 7 to 8 feet and upwards, have been exhibited 
in this country. l"he individual whose skeleton is in the Col- 
lege Museum was 8 feet 4 inches. 

A female of Stargard. named La Piebrs, waa 7 feet CDanish).^ 

Martin Salmbrqn, a Mexican giant, the son of a Mestizo 
by an Indian woman, measures 7 feet 3^ inches, and is well 

Bebe, tbe dwarf of Stanislaus, King of Poland, waa 33 
inches (French), and well-proportioned. His spine became 
curved as he approached manhood; he grew weak, and died at 

The Polish nobleman, Bokwlaski, who was well-made, 
clever, and Bkilled in languages, measured 28 Paris inches. 
He had a brother of 34 inches, and a sister of 21 .IT 

A Friesland peasant at twenty-six years of age had readied 

• .fbhmdi. deriSm'gl. Schwed. Jlkademie: 1766, p. 319- 
+ Liidwig, Nitturgenchichie dfr Memc/un-Sjiecifa, p. 151. 
t Jlitti. Si'c also HuUcr, Jilem. I'hyiiol. lib. xxx. sect, i, \ 17. 
1 llumbiildt'!! I'ulUical Estay , buuk ii. ctla|^ 6. 

Bull'oQ, Hut. nal. t. xt, 



Memoirs u/ Ihe celebrated Dtcarf, Jot. Bonelatii, &c. Lond. 17 


29 Amsterdam inclies. C. H. Stoberin, of Nuremberg, was 
nearly 3 feet high at twenty, well-proportioned, and possessed 
of talents. Her parents, brothers, and sisters, were dwarfs.* 

Of numerous other instances on record, most seem to have 
been diseased, and particulaj'ly rickety individuals ; so that they 
may be classed among pathological phenomena. The men who 
have considerably exceeded the ordinary standard, have neither 
possessed those proportions in their form which we account 
elegant, nor has their strength by any means corresponded to 
their size. The head, in these cases, is below the ratio which it 
should bear to the body, according to what we deduce from men 
of ordinary stature; hence the brain must be comparatively 
smaller. It is a general obser^'ation, that very large men are 
seldom distinguished by extent or force of mental power. The 
dwarfs, again, are mostly ill-made; the head in particular, is too 
large. 'Iliere arc very few instances of what we can deem healthy 
well-made men, with all the proper attributes of the race, much 
below the general standard. 

Some varieties of the human race exceed, aufl others fall 
short of the ordinary stature in a small degree. The source of 
these deviations is in the breed ; they are quite independent ot 
external influences. In all the five humjia varieties some tribes 
and nations are conspicuous for height and strength; other* 
for lower stature, and inferior muscular power. But in no case 
is the peculiarity, whether of tallness; or shortness, confined to 
any particular temperature, climate, situation, or mode of life. 

In the Caucasian variety, there are no strongly-marked devia- 
tions from the ordinary standard, in either direction. Some 
parts of Sweden and S^^itzerland, the mount^ns of the Tyrol 
and Salzburg, are rather distinguished for the tallness of their 
inhabitants ; while the Finnish race in the north of Europe may 
be abort in the same proportion. 

The ancient Germans were remarked for their greiit stature; 
" magna corpora" is the e.\pression of Tacitus, which ia also 
corroborated by the testimony of C«sar. Large bodies and 
limba, as well as undaunted courage, are the attributes assigned 
to them by Pomponius Mela; " immanes animis et corporis 
bus." We have no data for determining their precise stature; 
there is, however, no proof that it exceeded the tallest of the 
present German races, ao that some of their finest and most 

• Lavaler'i Phytiogntm. Fragment, iv. ji. 72. Ludwig, A'aturgtseUelUe, Ste, 

robust men may have somewhat exceeded six feet. Modern 
Saxony and the Tyrol could probably furnish an equal jiropor- 
tion of such individuala. 

The inhabitantg of America exhibit more conspicuous exam- 
ples both of tall and short races. Ulloa obaer^es of the 
Peruvians, that men and women are generally low, but well- 
proportioned.* Cook calls the Pecheraia of Tierra del Fuego 
" a little, ugly, half-starved race;" and adds, " I (lid not see a 
tall person among them."t The Western American tribes of 
Nootxa Sound, near the Columbia, and further north, are de- 
scribed by Cook, J Lewis, and Clarke, § aa low in stature. 

" The Chayraas of South America," says Humboldt, " are 
in general short, and they appear so particularly when com- 
pared, I shall not say with their neighbours the Caribbees, or 
with the Payaguas or Guayquilits of Paraguay, equally remark- 
able for their stature, but with the ordinary natives of America. 
Tlie common stature of a Chayma is 1.57 met. or 4 feet 10 
inches French (about 3 feet 2 inches English). Tlieir body i» 
thick-set, shoulders extremely broad, and breast fiat. All their 
Lrahs are round and fleshy." [1 

He adds, in a note, " that the ordinary stature of the Guay- 
quilits or Mbayas, who live between 20o and 22" south latitude, 
is, according to Azzara, 1.84 met. or 5 ftet 8 inches French 
(Cfeet l-jinchKngUsh). The Payaguas, equally tall, have given 
their name to Payaguay or Paraguay." The same accurate 
observer informs us, respecting the Caribbeea of Cumana, that 
they are distinguished by their almost gigantic size from all 
the other nations he ha.s seen in the new world.lF 

Among the native tribes in the cold regions north of Canada, 
Mr. Hearne *• saw individuals of 6 feet 3 and 4 inches. Mr 
Eabtbam found the Muscogulges and Cherokees of North Ame- 
rica, between 31° and 35° north latitude, taller than Europeans ,- 
many being above 6 feet, and few under 5 feet 8 or 10 inches, ff 

The PatagonianSjU or, according to their indigenous name, 

• yayage la South America, v. i. p. 267. 

+ Cook's foijage tvutarda ike Sim\ Pale; v. ii. p. 183. Also Forsler, 06*. on 
a Fmjage Bound tie World ; p. ?50. 

t Koyrsge to the Pacific; v. ii. pp. 301 — 366. 

} Trareli to the Source qf the Misiouri, cli. 23. 

;] Penmai Narralire, v. ill. pp. ISa, S23. 1 Ibid. p. SSS. 

*• Joumet/ to the Froien Oeean, p. 351, notp. ++ TrapeU, p. -183. 

tt The namt! of PatsLgoriiaiia ia said by I)lum<?aba<:h to have Ih-ch givea to 
tbcm by the Bpaiiiiinls. Iieraiist- thcj- dpetriLNl lliem allipil to the neighmiuring 
tribe uf ChonOB, and front their lowi-r liinluj biMri^eovereil with Kuaiia.coik.uu, 
CO aa to resemble the hairy legs ot anlmalji, wbicn ue c&Ued ia Spanloh f&tu. 
Jkg.A. ear, not. p. 2bt. 




the Tefaeuls, who occupy the 80uth-ea.^tera part of Soath Amie» 
rica, have beea tlie most celebrated fur their colossal stature ; 
and really seem to be the tallest race of human beings. Their 
height, howcTcr, has been exaggerated by some, while others 
have denied that it exceeded the ordinary standard. Piga- 
FXTTA,* who accom|>anied Magalhazns on the first circum- 
navigation of the globe, gives them the height of eight Spanish 
fleet (7 feet 4 inches Eoglisb). Subsequently to this period, 
for two centuries and a lialf, the narratires of European travellers 
are so strangely contraxlictory and inconsistent Mith each other 
on the subject of these Patagonians, that they afford a lesson 
ioculcating most strongly the necessity of caution and diffidence 
in employing such reporta.f It is suiScient for the present 
purpose to represent what appears the probable state of the case, 
after weighing and critically considering the most unexception- 
able testimonies. 

The Patagonians seem to be a tall but not gigantic race, and 
to possess a remarkably muscukjr frame, 'ihe only individuals 
ever seen in Europe were brought to Spain towards the end of 
the sLxteenth century, and seen at Seville by the classical tra- 
veller Van LtNscHOTBN, who says they were well-formed and 
large in the body. 'I'he ^uriety in the statements of ditferent 
traveUera makes it difficult to assign any particular height ; but 
we are authorized in representing it as commonly reaching 
six feet, being often five or six uiches higher, and sometimea 
even seven feet. 

Bougainville says that none were under 5 feet 6 inches, 
and none over 5 feet 1 1 inches : wliich, in English measure, 
are about 5 feet 11 and G feet 4^ inches.^ CoMArERsoN, § 
however, who was with him, makes some of the highest S feet 4 
inches (6 feet 9-10 £ng.) Bougainville says that their broad 
shoulders, large head, and stout Umba made them appear like 

• Viaggia atomo it Mondo, in the collection of Ramiifljo, r. i. p. 353. 

■¥ The oppoeioe testiinaalei of roriaos Spiniah, Frpni^b, En^liJi, and Dutch 
narigatoTs, who have spoken of the Piita;;oiiiaii."i fruin the time of their being 
Hret noticed by Pigafetta to the voyaaea in l^e last contuiy, arc brought 
together in (he French Hiiluirei dei Natii«aiioru aia Terrtt ^lairalet ; and 
tin? statempnt may he seen In EnglUh in Dr. Iluwkesworth's general intro- 
diictiiin to the account of the voynges undertaken by order of HU preacnt 
iltijfsly, &c. 3 vols. 4to. 

t f^oy. aulour du Mvnilf, ito. ■^. MS, The ciew of the JS/<nVe had .tpen soreral 
in a precHjiiig royaOT 6 feet hijh (nearly 6 feet 5 English). /t»d. Dq la 
Gimndais represented the least of those he saw, in 17SB, oi 5 feet 7 inches Fr, 
01" more than 5 feet U ior-hes Eni;lt?h. PcmeKy's Hitt. of a J^oyage to the 
Falkland Itlandt, p. S88. The le.iist of those si'en r>v DuclosGu^ot were of tot 
same sin*; the rest con«i<lerdl>ly tnlter, Jliid. n. 2(3. 

i Letter to Lolande in the Journal £turjclopeJique, 1 1 12. 


giants. ITjey were robust and well-made, with, strong mus- 
cles, firm and compact flesh. 

Commodore Byron says of one who appeared to be the chief 
of the party, " I did not measure him ; but if I may judge of 
his height by the proportion of hia stature to roy own, it could 
not be much lesfg than 7 feet." • An Euglishman of 6 feet 2 
inches appeared amon^ them as a pi^y among giants. They 
were large and muacular in proportion.f 

Captain Wallis measureii several of them carefully: one of 
them was 6 feet 7 inches ; several were 6 feet 5 inches and 

6 feet 6 inches : but the stature of the greater part was from 
5 feet 10 inches to 6 feet, t Cahterkt's § statement coin- 
cides with this. 

Falknkr, who lived some time m the country, describes the 
great Cacique Cangapol as 8e\'en feet some inches liigh. 
When standing on tip-toe, he could not reach to the top of his 
head. He did not recoUect ever to have seen an Indian above 
an inch or two taller than Cangapol. || 

The stature of the Patagonians was measured with great 
accuracy by the Spanish officers in 1785, and 17^6 : they found 
the common height to be &J to 7 feet ; and the highest was 

7 feet H inch.lT 

Falknbr says that this tribe, which he calls Puelches, live 
inlaiit]. When we cttnaider this fact, and that their habits are 
wandering, we shall not be surprised that some of those who 
have visited the coast have not met with ti»em ; but have found, 
iiutead of the tall I^tagonians, A^mericans of ordinary stature 
belonging to the other neighbouring tribes. 

After Burreying^ the tall and mnscidar frames of the Patago- 
nians, Caribbees, Cherokees, and many other American tribes, 
what shall we think of the notion brought fonvard and de- 
fended by many learned men, including even a Bdppon and a 
Rob EKTSON, that the new world ia unfavourable to the formation 
and full development of animal existence ? The former writer 
asserts that the animals common to the old and new world 
are smaller in the latter ; that those peculiar to the new are all 
on a smaller scale; that those which have been domesticated 

• IlaM-keswarth'g Collection of Foyaget, \. i. p. 28. 

+ Ibid. p. 32. t /'*<*. p. .174. 

\ Philotoplacal Traniaetiont, v. Ix. " We Tne.isurfil th<? height of miiny of 
tiiese people : tiipy were la |>pnpral all from 6 fi>i-t to 6 ft>et f> inches, although 
tlierc wPTe some who came to 6 feet 7 inches, but nune aliove that." " Alto- 
gether they are the finest set of men I ever saw any where. '* pp. 83, 33. 

11 IMtcnph'on ttf Patagtmia. 

'n Finje al Bitrwho St Magalhaens ; Madrid, 1788, 4to. p, 335 et seq. 


ia both, have degenerated in America ; and that, on the whole, 
it exhibits fewer species. He extends the same kind of asser- 
tion and reasoning to the human species, which he describes 
as dwarfish, puny, and weak in body, and destitute of all mental 
>"igour, capacity nnd talent.* All these representationB are ftilly 
and clearly refuted by Mr. Jefferson',-)- who has displayed as- 
much eloquence and sound reasoning in vindicating the savage 
nations of America from the aspersions of the great French 
naturalist, as he sliowed energy and perseverance in asserting 
the liberties of his own countrymen, wisdom and firmness ia 
fulfilling the duties of their chief magistrate. In the following 
remarks he has brought forward the mammoth in opposition to 
those learned theories : the reasoning is equally applicable to 
the Patagoniaus, Caribs, and other tribea of powerful men, 
which, being in actual e.tiatence, afford a safer ground of con- 
clusion respecting the present capabilities of the climate, soil, and 
air of America, than those colossal remains of an extinct species, 
which may have belonged to a very different order of things. 

'• It (the mammoth) should have suHieed to rescue the earth. 
it inhabited, and the atmosphere it breathed, from the imputa- 
tion of impotence in the conception and nourishment of animal 
life on a large scale ; to stifle in its birth the opinion of a writer, 
the most learned of all in the science of animal history, that in 
the new world living nature is much less active, much less 
energetic, than in the old. As if both sides of the globe wera 
not warmed by the same genial sun ; as if a soil of the same 
chemical composition was less capable of elaboration into animal 
nutriment in America than in tlie ancient continent ; as if the 
fruits and grains from that soil and sun yielded a less rich chyle, 
gave less extension to the solids and fluids of the body, or pro- 
duced sooner in the cartilages, membranes, and fibres, that 
xigidity which restrains all further extension, and terminates 
animal growth. The truth is, that a pigmy and a Pantagoniau, 
B mouse and a mammoth, derive their dimensions from the 
game nutritive juices ; the differences of increment depends on 
circumstances nnscarchablc to beings with our capacities. All 
Taces of animals seem to have received from their Maker cer- 
tain laws of extension at the time of their formation. Their 
elaborative organs were formed to produce this, while proper 
obstacles were opposed to all further progress. Below these 
limits they cannot faD, nor rise above them. Wliat interme- 
Sisloire mUureUe, t. xviii. pp. 100— liXJ. + A'otei on Virginia, pp. 7:2— M. 


d'late station they bIidII take, may depeud on soil) climate, food» 
or selection in breeding: but all the manna of heaven would 
never raise the mouae to the bulk of the mammoth," 

Similar differences of stature to those which I have described 
m the American occur also in the Ethiopian variety. That of 
the Negroes in general doeis not differ essentially from our own. 
The Hottentots at the southern extremity of the country are 
the smallest of the species in Africa. The whole race is shorter 
than Europeans, yet not so Invariably but that tall individufila 
Bometimea occur. ThuiS Latkobe Aentions one of 6 feet in 
height.* The Bosjesman tribe, however, are remarkably short, 
even among the Hottentots. Two individuals seen by LicH- 
TENSTEtN were Hcarcely four feet high, f Mr. Barrow says 
that " in their persons they are extremely diminutive. The 
tallest of the men fin horde or kraal containing one hundred 
and fifty individuals) measured only four feet nine inches, and 
the tallest woman four feet four inches. About four feet six 
inches is said to be the middle size of the men, and four feet 
that of the women. One of these that had several children 
measured only three feet nine inches." J 

'I'o show how little the varieties of our species depend on 
climate, situation, or other external influences, we find the 
neighbouring tribe to the Hottentots, the Kaffers, distinguished 
for height and strength, lliese qualities, however, are more 
conspicuous in the men than in the women, and the same 
remark holds good in other instances. Langsdokpf was sur- 
prised at finding the Marquesan women deficient in those per- 
sonal qualities which were so remarkable in tlie men ; and could 
hardly suppose them to be the mothers of the very fine males 
■whom he saw. " The Kafler women were mostly of low sta- 
ture, very strong limbed, and particularly muscular in the leg ; 
but the good htunour that constantly beamed upon their coun- 
tenances made ample amends for any defect in their persons. 
The men, on the contrary, were the finest figures I ever beheld : 
they were tall, robust, and muscular; their habits of life had 
induced a firmness of carriage, and an openly manly manner, 
which, added to the good nature that overspread their features, 
flbowed them at once to be equally unconscious of fear, suspi- 
cion, and treachery. A young man aliout twenty, of 6 feet 10 
inches high, was one of the finest figures that perhaps was ever 

* Journal of a Viiil to South Africa, 4to. p. 283 
+ Ti-ateU in Southern d/rica, chap. viii. 

I IraveU, p. 227. 



created. He was n perfect HerctUes ; and a cast from his 1 
irould not have disgraced the pedestal of that deity 
Famese palace." • 

He states in another place, that "there is perhaps no nation 
on earth, taken collectively, that can produce so fine a race of 
XQen as the Kaffers : they are tall, stout, muscular, well made, 
elegant figures. They are exempt, indeed, from many of those 
causes that, in more civilized societies, contribute to impede the 
growth of the body. Their diet is simple ; their exercise of a 
aalutary nature ; their l)ody is neither cramped nor encumbered 
by clothing ; the air they breathe is pure ; their rest is not dis- 
turbed by \iolent love, nor their minds ruffled by jealousy ; they 
are free from those licentious appetites which proceed frequently 
more from a depraved imagination than a real natural want ; 
their frame is neither shaken nor enervated by the use of 
intoxicating liquors, wliich they are not acquainted with ; they 
eat when hun^y, and sleep when nature demands it. With 
■uch a kind of life languor and melancholy have little to do. 
The countenance of a Kafi'er is always cheerful; and the whole 
of his demeanour bespeaks content and peace of mind." + 

LichtensteinJ gives a similar description of this people j 
and mentions one indi\idual as " feet high. [Rhynland measure). 

The several people classed under the Mongolian variety are 
shorter in stature than the Europeans ; but, like the nations 
belonging to the other varieties, they e.xJiibit difierences in this 
respect. The Chinese and Japanese are nearly of the same 
height with ourselves. 

The Mongols, Calmucks, Burats, and other tribes of central 
Asia, are shorter, 'i'he Lewchews are a very diminutive race, 
tlie average height of the men not exceedung 5 feet 2 inches at 
the utmost.§ The Laplanders and Samoiedes, in Europe, the 
Ostiacs, Yakuts, Tungooses, and Tschutski, in Asia, the Green- 
landers and Esquimaux of America, all, indeed, who inhabit high 
northern latitudes, are equally short, measuring from four to a 
little more than five feet ; |[ and they agree remarkably in other 
characters, although occupying countries so distant from each 

It has been long ago reported that a nation of white dwarf^ 

• Barrow's }!ou4hcm Africa, v. I. p. 169. t /WJ. v. i. p. S0.«. 

i TrareU in SoatA j^friea, t-h. xvC and xviii. 

\ Mncleod's Vuyage vf Ihr .licvite, Jtc. p. 110. 

il " Such a ivenuii u-s AieitSara, at Kuiitukcjnn (in Lapland), whn inpomirni 
ft feet 8 inches English, may nut be agala fuunil «iuoag num/ hiuiilrcctl uf 
them." Von Buch, Trareli, p. 354, 

caUed Quimos or Kimon, exists in the interior of Madagascar ; 
but no direct testimony on the subject has been oifered to the 
public; and Flacourt, who visited tlie island in the seven- 
teenth centur)', has treated the report as fabulous. • Lately, 
this nation of dwarfs iiaa been again brought forwards; CoU- 
MERHON, who accompanied Bolgainvillk as naturabst, and 
the Count de Modave, governor of the French settleraeut at 
Fort Dauphin, having declared llieir belief in its exjslence.f 
The only fact adduced in proof of this point is, that the governor 
purchased a female slave, of light colour, about three feet and a 
half high, with long arrns reaching to her knees, Blumen- 
BACU I thinks it probable that this indiwdual must have been 
malformed, and in a state somewhat similar to that of the 
Cretins of Salzburg and the Valais. Without, therefore, deny- 
ing tbe existence of some tribe which may have given origin to 
the reports respecting the Q,uimos, we may safely conclude 
that no proof has yet been brought fonvards that any race of 
white long-armed dwarfs exist in the island of Madagascar. 

On reviewing the facts detailed in the foregoing pages, we 
see that, although the various races of men differ from each other 
in stature, aa well as in other points, these differences are con- 
fined within narrower limits in man than in the species of 
domestic animals ; and consequently that they do not prove 
diversity of species. The pigs taken from Europe to the Island 
of Cuba have grown to twice their original size, and the cattle of 
Paraguay have experienced a very remarkable increase. It is 
hardly necessary lo mention the contrast between the small 
"Welsh and the huge cart-horses, or the Flanders breed of those 
animals ; or between the Scotch or Welsh, and the Holstein 

Perhaps the horse affords the most remarkable instance of 
difference in stature. Mr. Pennant § says, that " in the inte- 
rior parts of Ceylon there is a small variety of this animal, not 
exceeding thirty inches in height, which is sometimes brought 
to Europe as a rarity." 

* Ui'iloirv de ta grafnte Il« de Madaganor. Pari*, KISS. 

i The »t»U<im-r<i!) cif Commcnon, who dl^ at Mailagaacar. and of Mr. dfi 
Modave, nre inlrnJiiced into the Fovagv a Mada^atcnr el aux Indes Oriimtaia, 
pwr Mr. I'Abbf Roclion, P^ris, 1791. A li-iter uf Coinimtsun to LaUmdc i* 
aieo appendi'd to tlie r<»/ajii! auinvr du Mtmile kA Bouj;ainvil]f. 

t tif- u, A. ror, tiat. sitt. iii. \ 73. Li-Ut-ntil, who was in MadagagcAT at Ibe 
■amp timp with Comn>fr3i>ti, oltugi-lhcr dJAbi-Jirves tho existinicc uf aay such 
dwarfish peLiple. Vni/. il/ini Irs Mem cJe I'Jniit, t ii. j). !Mi. And Sotinprat, 
vhn sivr llic individua.1 miMilidnvd ic Uvi text, cunsidered it merely as ao iadi- 
Tidual formaliun ; yin/agv aujr Indei Orienlalct, t. ii. J>. 67, 

i liiiian/ i>/ (ittadruptdi, vol. i. p. 3. 


Tlie Paduan fowl is twice ibe aize of the common poultry. 

In further proof that the diversities of stature in mankind 
afibrd no sufficient arsrument of original Bpecific difference, we 
may observe that individuals often occur in each race, differing 
from each other quite as widely as the generality of any two 
races differ. Nay, we may even see two brothers as much 
unlike each other in this respect as the Laplander and the 

In endeavouring to account for the diversitiea of features, 
proportions, general form, stature, and the other particulars 
mentioned in ilie three preceding chapters, 1 must repeat an ob- 
flervation already made and exemplified in speaking of colour; 
iiamelj', that the law of resemblance between parents and oflf- 
epring, which preserves species, and maint^ns uniformity in 
the living part of creation, suffers occasional and rare exceptions ; 
that, under certain circumstances, an offspring is produced with 
new pro|)erties, different from those of the progenitors ; and that 
the most powerful of these causes is that artiAcial mode of life 
•which we call the state of domestication, 

A question here naturally suggests itself, how this comes 
about.' How does it happen that any circumstances in the 
mode of life influence the result of the generative process ? Tha 
reply to this inquiry must be deferred until the internal mecha- 
nism of the animal motions shall be more completely laid open ; 
until we are able to show how the capillaries of the mother form 
;the germ of a new being out of materials presented by thecom- 
llmon mass of nutritive fluid ; and how the vessels of this embrj'O, 
when more advanced, fashion the nutritive supply derived from 
the mother into a new set of organs, and give to the whole a 
more or less accurate resemblance to the bodies of both parents. 
At present we can only note the fact, that the domestic condition 
produces in great abundance not only those deviations from the 
natural state of the organization, which constitute disease, but 
also those departures from the ordinary course of the generative 
functions, which lead to the production of new characters in the 
offspring, and thus lay the foundation of new breeds. The 
domestic bow produces young twice a year j the wild animal 
only once. The former frequently brings forth monstrous 
foEtuses, which are unknown in the latter. Our pigs, too, are 
invaded by a new kind of hydatids,* dispersed through the 

* Thi',v arc rpnreacntcd by DlumeRibach ia bis Abbitilungai KaiW'JUtlorueHtr 
tSfgawdiidii Ku. xxxix. 



Bubstaace of all the organs, conrtituting what is called the 
measles in pork. The creation of these must be referred to an 
cpocha posterior to that of the speciea in which they are found, 
as they do not exist in its natural state. 

Native or congenital peculiarities of form, like those of colour, 
arc trangmittcd by generation. Hence we see a general simili- 
tude in persons of the same blood, and can disting-uish one 
brother by his resemblance to another, or know a son by his 
likeness to the father or mother, or even to the grandfather or 
grandmother. Ail the individuals of some families are charac- 
terized by particular lines of countenance : and we frequently 
observe a peculiar feature continued in a family for many- 
generations. The thick lip introduced into the imperial bouse 
of Austria, by the marriage of the Emperor Maximilian with 
Mary of Burgundy, is visible in their descendants to this day, 
after a lapse of three centuries. Ha lleb observes that his own 
family had been distinguished by tallness of stature for three 
generations, without excepting one out of mimeroua grandsons 
descended from one grandfather.* 

Indi«<Iiials are occasionally produced with Bupernumerar)"- 
members on the hands or feet, or on both ; and from thesie, 
whether males or females, the organic peculiarity frequently 
passes to their children. This does not constantly happen, 
because they intermarry with persons of the ordinary form ; but 
if the six-fmgered and six-toed could be matched together, and 
the breed could be preserved pure by excluding all who had not 
these additional members, there is no doubt that a permanent 
race might be formed constantly possessing this number of 
figures and toes. 

Pli nv has mentioned examples of six-fingered persona among 
tlie Eomans : such individuals received the additional name of 
eedigitus or sedigita. C, Horatius had two daughters with 
this pcculiarity-t Reaumur speaks of a family in which a 
similar structure existed for three generations, being transmitted 
both in the male and fem • lines. t Mr, Carlisle has re- 
corded the particulars of a family, in which he traced supernu- 
merary toes and fingers for four generations. They were intro- 
duced by a female, who had six fingers on each hand, and six 
toes on each foot. From her marriage with a man naturally 
formed were produced ten children with a supemumerary mem- 

• £le>n. phijtiol. lit. xxix. sect. ii. } 8. + Uitt. not. lib. xi, 99. 

) Art deJeUTt ictorre la Oiieaus dumetiiipiet, t. ii. p. 3T7 ct suir. 



ber on each limb ; and an eleventh, in which the pecnliaritj 
existed in both feet and one hand ; the other hand being natu- 
rally formed. The latter married a man of the ordinary forma- 
tion ; they had four children, of which three had one or two 
limbs natural, and the rest with the supernumerary parts, while 
the fourth had six Bngers on each hand, and u-t many toes on 
each foot. The latter married a woman naturally formed, and 
had issue by her eight children, four with the usual structure, 
and the same number with sopemumerary fingers or toes. Two 
of them were twins, of which one was naturally formed, the 
other six-fingered and sis-toed.* 

Another remarkable example of the occurrence of a singular 
organic peculiarity, and of its hereditary transmission, is afforded 
by the English family of porcupine men, who have derived that 
name from the greater part of the body being covered by hard 
dark-coloured excrescences of a horny nature. The whole sur- 
face, excepting the head and face, the palms and soles, is occu- 
pied by this unnatural kind of integument. Tlie first account 
of this family is found in the Philosophical Transactions, 
No. 424 ;t and consists of the description of a boy, named 
Edward Lambert, fourteen years old, bom in Suffolk, and 
exhibited to the Royal Society in 1731, by Mr. Macuin, one 
of the secretaries. " It was not easy to think of any sort of 
skin or natural integument, that exactly resembled it. Some 
compared it to the bark of a tree ; others thought it looked like 
seal skin ; others, like the skin of an elephant, or the skin about 
the legs of the rhinoceros ; and some took it to be like a great 
wart, or number of warts uniting and overspreading the whole 
body. The bristly parts, which were chiefly about the belly 
and flanks, looked and rustled like the bristles or quills of a 
hedgehog, shorn off within an inch of the skin." These pro- 
ductions were hard, callous, and insensible. Other children of 
the same parents were naturally formed. 

In a subsequent account presented to the Society twenty-four 
years afterwards by Mr. H.Baker, and illustrated with a figure 
of the handii, this man is said to continue in the same state. He 
was a goodlooking person, and enjoyed good health : every 
thing connected with his excretions was natural; and he de- 
rived no inconvenience from the state of his skin, except that it 
would crack and bleed after very hard work He had now 

• P/liht. Transact. 1914, pt i. p. 94. 

i Thp aceoiint is accompanied with a (i^re of the back of the htuid, and k 
nagnified view of the excresceaces ; pi. i p. 399. 

been shown in London under the name of the Porcupine Man. 
"Hie covering/' says Mr. Bakkk, "seemed most nearly to 
reaernble an innumerable company of warts, of s. dark brown 
colour, and a cylindrical figure, rising to a like height (.an inch, 
at their full size), and growing ua close as possible to one 
another, but bo sti£F and elastic, that when the hand is drawn 
over them they make a rustling noise." 

They are shed annually, in the autumn or innter, and suc- 
ceeded by a fresh growth, which at first are of a paler brown. 
" He has had the small-pox, and been twice salivated, in hopes 
of Retting rid of this disagreeable covering j during which dis- 
orders the warta cauie oH', and his skin appeared white and 
smooth, hke that of other people i but on his recovery it soon 
became as it was before. Uis health at other times has been 
very good during his whole life." " He has liad six ciiiidren, 
all with the same rugged covering as himself; tile first appear- 

»ance whereof in them, as well as in him, came on in about nine 
weeks after the birth. Only one of them is living, a very pretty 
boy, eight years of iige, whom I saw and examined with his 
father, and who is exactly in the same condition." * 

Two brothers, JouN Lambbkt, aged twenty-two, and Rich- 
ard, aged fourteen, who must have been grandsons of the 
original porcupine man, Edward Lakibert, were shovvn in 
Germany, and had the cutaneous incrustation already described. 
A minute account of them was published by Dr. W. G.Tile- 
Bius.l- who mentions that the mfe of the elder, at the time he 
aaw him, was in England pregnant. 

Let us suppose that the porcupine family had been ejdled 
from human society, and been obliged to take up their alwde in 
some solitary spot or deuert island. By matching with each 
^_ other, a race would have been produced, more widely ililFerent 
^^M from us in external appearance than the Negro. If they had 
^^^ been discovered at some remote period, our philosophers would 
I have explained to us how the soil, air, or climate had produced 

I so strange an organization ; or would have demonstrated that 

I they must have sprung from an originally different race; for 

I who would acknowledge such bristly beings for brothers ? 

L The giants collected by Frederick Willi a. m I. for hia 

^^B regiment of guards produced a very tall race in the town where 


Philnt. Tram. v. xlix. p 31. A rcprfsmUlion uf the ha»ii U also jfirca 
by liilwanl*. in hi* Gtmningt uf Natural Ithtury, v, i. n. Sl3. 

* Bfchrrihiaig imtijihtaidung der U-idai to^enaimten i>lacAeLichicrin mtrueheni 
AUcnburi;, ful. ISOi, with tivu plaUii, ciiiiiiiiuiii;,'»c»iTal lliruri's. Theyarcaljo 

deacribed hy Blumeabacli, ia 

list's AVum Utagiuin, v. 





they were quartered: in the language of Dr. Johnson, they 
" propagated proceritjr."" 

This resemblance of offspring to parent!!, in native pecoliari* 
ties of structure, i>revaii8 so extensirely, that those minute, and 
in manv cases imperceptible differences of organization or vital 
properties, which render men disposed to particular diseases, 
are conveyed from father to son for age after age. This is 
matter of common notoriety with respect to scrofula, consump- 
tion, gout, rheumatism, insanity, and other affections of the 
head. There is more doubt in some other cases, as harelip, 
squinting, cluh-foot, hernia, aneurism, cataract, fatuity, &c. ; 
of which, however, there are many well-authenticated exam- 
ples.t Tliere is an hereditary blindness in a family in North 
America which has always affected some individuals for the last 
hundred years. J I have attended, at different times, for com- 
plaints of the urinary organs, a gentleman, wliose father and 
grandfather died of stone. 

In small and secluded communities, where marriages take 
place within what we may regard only as a more extensive 
family, hereditary varieties are blended and produce one form, 
which prevails through the whole circle. The operation of this 
principle may he clearly perceived in several small districts : it 
will act with more efficacy, and, consequently, be more discernible 
in larger collections of men, where differences of manners, reli- 
gion, and language, and mutual animosities, forbid all inter- 
marriages with surrounding people. In the course of time the 
individual peculiaiities arc lost, and a natural characteristic 
countenance or form is established, which, if the restrictions of 
intercourse are rigidly adhered to, is constantly more and more 
strengthened. Tlie ancient Germans, according to the descrip- 
tion of Tacitus, were such a people ; and his short, but expres- 
sive sketch of their character, most aptly confirms the preceding^ 
view : " Ipse eorum opinionibus accedo, qui Germsnia; po{)ulos 
nullis aliis aharum nationum connubiis infectos, propriam et 
sinceram et tantum sui sirailem gentem extitisse arbitrantur. 
Unde habitus quoque corporum, quanquam in tanto hominxmr 
munero, idem omnibus ; truces et caerulei oculi, rutike comae. 

+ " Ttvp j'Tia''''* ^'f t^e late Kint! Frederic Willum of Prussia, and like* 
those oS (he jirewTitnicniarch, who mi> all o( an LincomTimn siic, hare b 
•jii.'irtrTiid at Potsiium fur fifty jpara pimt. A grriit tiumlior qf the pr«»n, 
inbnbitunts of that place are of vrry hijjh stature, which is m^ire Piperiolh 
striking in the niimcTous sioirilic Gi^Mn.'*! of wumen." t'otnet's Ult ' " 

tnaile on a ffyajfe roumt lUe n'orki; pp. 84S, 3i9. 

t Ualler, £'Um. fh^tioL lac. cit, \ New Jorlt itediatl Sepotilory, r. iiL No. U 


magna corpora." De Morib. Germ. 4. The Gipsies aftbrd 
another example of a people spread over all Europe for the last 
^H four centuries, and nearly confined in marriages, by their pecu- 
^P liar way of life, to their ovvn tribe. In Transylvania, where 
there is a great number of them, and the rare remains pure, 
their features can consequently be more accurately observed : 
in every country and climate, however, which they ha%'o inha- 
bited, they jjreserve their distinctive character so perfectly, that 
they are recognized at a glance, and cannot be confounded 
with the natives. But, above all, the Jews exhibit tlie moat 
Btriking instance of a peculiar national countenance, so strongly 
■marked in almost every individual, tkat persons the least used 
to ijliysiognomical observations detect it instantly, yet not easily 
understood or described. Religion has in this case mo»t suc- 
cessfully esertcd its power in preventing communion with other 
races ; and this exclusion of intercourse vrith all others has pre- 
served the Jewish countenance so completely in every soil and 
climate of the globe, that a miracle has been thought necessary 
to account for the apj)eamnee. 

In what other way can we explain the diSerence between the 
English and Scotch ? Would it be more reasonable to suppose 
that they descended from different stocks; or to ascribe the 
high cheek-bones of the latter to the soil or climate ? 

As, on the one hand, a particular form may be perpetuated by 
confining the intercourse of the sexes to individuals in whom it 
exists; BO, again, it maybe changed by introducing into the 
breed those remarkable for any other quality. Connections ia 
maiiiagc will generally be formed on the idea of human beauty 
in any country ; an influence this, which ^vill gradually approxi- 
mate the countenance towards one common standard. If men, 
in the affhir of marriage, were as much under management as 
some animals are in the exercise of their generative functions, 
HQ absolute ruler might accomplieh, in his dominions, almost 
any idea of the human form. 

The great and noble have generally had it more in their power 
than others to select the beauty of nations in marriage ; and 
thus, while, ivithout system or design, they gratified merely 
their own taste, they have distinguished their order, as much by 
elegant ]>roportions of person, and beautiful features, as by its 
prerogatives in aociety, " The same superiority," says Cook, 
*' which is observable in the erees or nobles in all the other 
lalands, is found here (Sandwich Islands). Those, whom we 



saw, were, without exception, perfectly well formed ; whereas, 
the lower sort, besides their general inferiority, are subject to 
all the variety of make and figure that is seen in the populace 
of other countries."* 

In no instance, perhaps, has the personal beauty of a people 
been more improved, by introducing handsome individuals to 
breed from, than in the Persians, of whom the nobiUty have, by 
this means, completely succeeded in washing out the stain of 
their Mongolian origin. " Tliat the blood of the Persiane," 
Bays Chardin, " is naturally gross, appears from the Guebre*, 
who are a remnant of the ancient Persians, and are an ugly, 
ill>made, rough-akinned peoplp. This is also apparent from the 
inhabitants of the proi'iiices in the neighbourhood of India, who 
are nearly as clumsy and deformed as the Guebres, because they 
never formed alliances with any other tribes. But, in the otlier 
parts of the kingdom, the Persian blood is now highly reAned 
by frequent intermixturea wiih the Georgians and Circassians, 
two nations which surpass all the world in personal beauty. 
There is hardly a man of rank in Persia who is not bom of a 
Georgian or Circassian mother; and even the king himself is 
commonly sprung, on the female side, from one or other of 
these countries. As it is long since this mixture commenced, 
the Persian women have become very handsome and beautiful, 
though they do not rival the ladies of Georgia. The men are 
generally tall and erect, their complexion is ruddy and vigorous, 
and they have a graceful air and an engaging deportment. The 
mildness of the climate, joined to their temperance in living, 
has a great influence in improving their personal beauty. This 
quality they inherit not from their ancestors ; for, without ine 
mixture mentioned above, the men of rank in Persia, who are 
descendants of the Tatars, would be extremely ugly and 
deformed. "t 

There is no one of the varieties above enumerated, which does 
not exist in a still greater degree in animals confessedly of the 
same species. What differences in the figure and proportion 
of parts in the various breeds of horses ; in the Arabian, the 
Barb, and the German ! How striking tlie contrast btiween 
the long-legged cattle of the Cape of G(K>d Hope and the short- 
legged of England ! The same difference is observed in swine. 
The cattle have no horns in some breeds of England and Ire- 

• Voyage to the Pacific; book iii. cliau. 6. J'oratrr gives n similar tcpre- 
ientation of the OUiheitcana ; OU. oil a yoya^e round Me World, p. 339, 
■t Fofage m Perte, t, ii. p. 34, 


land ; in Sicily, on the contrary, lliey have very large ones. A 
breed of sheep, with an extraordinary number of horns, as three, 
four, or five, (ovis polycerata), occurs in some northern coun- 
tries, aa, for instance, in Iceland, and is accounted a mere 
variety. ITie Cretan breed of the same animal fovis Btrepai- 
ceros) has long, large, and twisted horns. We mny also point 
out the Bolidungular swine, with undiv'ided hoof, as well as 
others witli three divisions of that part; the five-toed fowl 
(gallus pentadactylus); the fat-nimj>ed sheep of Tatary and 
Tliibet, and the hroad-tailed breed of the Cape, in which the 
tail grows so large, that it is placed on a board, supported by 
wheels, for the convenience of the animal ; and the rumpless 
fowl (gallus ecaudatus) of America, and particularly Virginia, 
wliich has undoubtedly descended from the English breed. 

The common fowl, in different situations, runs into almost 
every conceivable va^ietJ^ Some ore large, some small ; some 
tall, some dwarfish. They may have a small and single, a large 
and complicated comb ; or great tufts of feathers on the head. 
Some hare no tail. The legs of some are yellow and naked, of 
others, covered ivitli feathers, lliere is a breed with the fea- 
thers reversed in their direction all over the body ; and another 
in India with white downy feathers and black skin. All these 
exhibit endless diversities of colour. 

A breed of sheep was lately produced in America, the origin 
and establishment of which confirm the positions already brought 
forwards. An ewe produced a male lamb of singvdar proiiortion 
and a})])earance. His offspring, by other ewes, had, in many 
instances, the same characters with himself. 'ITiese were short- 
ness of the limbs • and length of the body, so that the breed 
was called the otter breed, from being compared to that animal. 
The fore-limba were also crooked, ao as to give them in one 
part the appearance of an elbow, and hence the name ancon 
(from ityKuv) was given to this kind of sheep. They were pro- 
pagated in consequence of being less able to jump over fences. 
" They can neither run nor jump like other sheep. They are 
more infirm in their organic construction, as well as more 
awkward in their gait, having their fore-legs always crooked, 
and their feet turned inwards when they walk. 

" When both parents are of the otter or ancon breed, their 

descendants inherit their peculiar appearance and proportions 

• Sir Evernrd Homp found that the bone of the fore- leg in one of tbeao 
•herp WIS luTgeT but rot go ton^ aa that uf • mach •mailer Weish illeep. 
Thunuon'* Annalt <^f Philotoph^, t. i. 



of fonn. I have heard but of one questionable case of a coo- 
trar)' nature. 

" When an ancon ewe is impregnated by a common ram, the 
increase resembles wholly either the ewe or the ram. The 
increase of a common ewe, impregnated by an ancon lam, 
follows entirely the one or the other, without blending any of 
the distinguishing and essential peculi.irities of both. 

" Freijuent instances have happened where common uwes 
have had twins by ancon rams, when one exhibited the rem- 
plcte marks and features of the ewe ; liie other of the ram, Tlie 
contrast has been rendered singularly striking when one f.hort- 
legged and one long-lfggpd lamb, produced at a birth. haA'e 
been seen sucking the dam at the san.e time."* 

The formation of new varieties by breeding from individuals 
in whom the desirable properties evist in the greatest degree, 
is seen much more distinctly in our domestic animals than in 
our own species, since the former are entirely in our power. 
The great object is to preaer^'e the race pure, by sel'jcting for 
propagation the animals most conspicuous for the si-se, colour, 
form, prnpnrtinn, or :«ny other pmjujrty wo muy fix oQj aaa 
excluding sU oitiexa. Jn this way we may gain sheep valuable 
for their fleece, or for their carcass, large or smrill, with thick 
or thin legs; just such, in short, as we choose, within certain 

llie importance of this principle is fully understood in rear 
ing horses. Tlie Arabian preserves the pedigree of his horse 
more carefully than his own; and never allows any ignoblo 
blood to be mixed with that of his \'alued breeds : he attests 
their unsullied nob'dity by formal depositions and numerous 
^•itnesses.t The English breeder knows equally well that he 
TOUHt vary his stallions and mares according as he wishes for a 
cart-horse, a riding-horse, or a racer; and that a mistake in. 
this point would immediately frustrate his views. The distin- 

• Col. Hiimphreyi Onaneu Breed of Sheep. PMilot. Tram. 1813, pt. i. 

t " Several Chiikij'a concur to inEiintaJn Ihis pcrfcctiuii iu Ihe horses or Arabia, 
such as tliB greal care the Arab* take in prvseiring the breed g-eniiiiie, anj Ijy 
pcrmilttng nime hut stallions t>r the first funn tu have aecess tu the mares ; this 
It nefer dtJiie bnt in the presence of a wiiuess, the secretary of tln> ernir, wt 
some public officer; he attesta the fact, recitirtts the name uf the horse, mare, 
and wnule petii;jree of each ; and these attestations are carefully iireservi-U, for 
on them depends the future price uflhe fual." A copy of a imblieleijalcerti- 
fiCKte Bivdi tu Ihe piirehaiier of an Anilii.".n horse is atided in a note. I'ennant'a 
itrJi irfl Hooh^, y. ii. App. 1. Equal aUtnlton is [laid to the breed of horses 
W the Circassiars, who disting'iii.ifi the vm ious races by marks on the buttock. 
1*0 Imprint the character of noble descent nn a horse of common nieeisa kind 
of forgery puni-ihed with death. foUas TravcU in l/ic Sout/iem I'nmncm tj 
Iht dunian Emj)irt, ch. xir. 


guiahed and various excellencies, which the several English 
races af these useful animals have acquired, shaw what close 
attention and perseverance can accomplish in the improvement 
of hreed. 

Blood is equally importjmt in the cock ; and the introduction 
of aa inferior individual would ineritably deteriorate the proper- 
ties of the offapring^. 

The hereditary transmis^on of physical and moral qualitieH, 
so well understood and fciiniliarly acted on in the domestic 
animals, is equally true of man. A superior breed of human 
beings could only be produced by selections and exclusions 
similar to those so successfully employed in rearing our more 
valuable animals. Yet, in the liuman apecies, where the object 
is of such consequence, the principle is almost entirely over- 
looked. Hence all the native deformities of mind and body, 
"wftich spring up ao plentifully in our artificial mode of life, are 
handed down to jyosterity, and tend by their multiplication and 
extension to degrade the race. Consequently, llie mass of the 
population in our large cities will not bear a comparison with 
that of savage nations, in which if imperfect or deformed indi- 
■nauals sliould survive the hardships of their first rearing, they 
are prevented, by the kmd ot aversion they inspire, from pro- 
pagating their deformities. The Hottentots have become almost 
proverbial for ugliness ; and one of their tribes, the Boajcsmen, 
are plainly ranked by an acute and intelligent traveller " among 
the ugliest of human beings."* The numerous sketches of 
Bosjesracn and Hottentots taken by Mr. S. Daniel, have been 
very kindly and politely shown to me by his brother Mr. W. 
Daniel. In form, variety, and expression of countenance 
they are not at all inferior to our cocknies ; while, in animation, 
in beauty, symmetry and strength of body, in ease and elegance 
of altitude, they are infinitely superior. 

This inattention to breed is not, however, of so much conse- 
quence in the people a.s in the rulers; in those to whom the 
destinies of nations are inlru.sted : on whose qualities and actions 
depend the present and future happiness of millions. Here, 
unfortunately, the evil is at its height: laws, customs, preju- 
dices, pride, bigotry, confine them to inlermarriages with each 
other, and thus degradation of race is added to all the perni- 
cious influences inseparable from such exalted stations. What 
reault should we expect if a breeder of horses or dogs were 
* Btxrow, Traceit in Souihem 4frka: v. i. p. ZTI, 


mtiicted id his choice to some tea or twenty families taken at 
random ? if he could not step out of this little circle to select j 
finely formed or high-spirited individuals ? How long a time 
would elapse before the fatal effects of this in-breeding would 
be conspicuous in the degeneracy of the descendants ? The 
■trongest illustration of these principles will be found in the 
present state of many royal houses in Europe : the evil must be 
progressive, if the same course of j^oceeding be continued. 

I shall cite a single example to prove, what will to mogt 
persons seem unnecessary, namely, that mental defects are pro- 
pagated as well as corporeal. " We know," says Hallbk, " a 
very remarkable instance of two noble females, who got hus- 
bands on account of their wealth, although they were nearly 
idiots, and from whom this mental defect has extended for a 
century into several families, so that some of all their descend- 
ants still continue idiots in the fourth and even in the fifth 
generation," • 


Diferthcti in lAe .Aaimal Eamomf.—Ditetua.—Extenwl Smtet.—Ltcnguagm. 

Tbbrg are no essential differences between the \'arious races of 
the human species in the execution of the animal functions. 
Tlie circumstances which have been hitherto noticed in this part 
of the subject, are plainly referable, for the most part, to the 
effect of climate, mode of life, exercise of the organs, or other 
external causes, and not to any original diversity. 

I have already alluded to the peculiar odour of the cutaneous 
secretion in llie Negro (p. 208). It is said by those who are 
well acquainted with thia race, to be very characteristic, and to 
be transmitted to the offspring, as well as tbeir otlier peculiari- 
ties, in the mixed breeds. It baa been also observed that tbey 
sweat ranch less than Europeans. 

The lice, which infest the bodies of Negroes, are darker 
coloured and larger than those of Europeans ;t but I believe 
'that naturalists have not yet ascertained whether they are of the 
same, or of different species in the two cases. 

It is hardly necessary to allude to the erroneous notion of 
the seminal fluid being black in Negroes; this, however, is 

• Elej^ Physiol, lib. xxxn. sect. 3. I S. 

+ Long's Huiory nf Jamaica, White en the Eeptlar Gradation, p. 79, note 
BoemmerriU);, ieuft die kvrperlicAe Fenchitdenheit, p. 8, note. 


expressly stated by Hkbodotus, but propcrJy contradicted by 

The blood and the bile have the same colour and obvious 
external characters in the dark as in the white races. I am not 
aware that any comparative chemical examinations of these 
or the other animal fluids have been made. 

Dr. WiNTERBOTTOM • observed no difference between 
African and European women in respect to the menstnial dis- 
charge. I'he earlier maturity of the former seems to be simply 
the effect of climate ; it is equally observable in the white 
races which occupy warm countries, 

ITie very easy labours of Negresses, native Americans, and 
other women in the savage state, have hcen often noticed by 
travellers. This point is not explicable by any prerogative of 
physical formation ; for the pelvis is rather smaller in these 
dark-coloured races than in the European and other white 
people, Simple diet, constant and laborious exertion, give to 
these children of nature a bard'mess of constitution, and exempt 
them from most of the ills which afflict the indolent and luxuri- 
ous females of civilized societies. In the latter however, the 
hard-working women of the lower classes in the country, often 
suffer as little from childbirth as those of any other race. Ana- 
logous differences, from the like causes, may be seen in the 
animal kingdom. Cows kept m towns, and other animals 
deprived of their healthful exercise, and accustomed to unna- 
tural food and habits, often have difficult labours, and suffer 
much in parturition. 

Accurate observers in many parts of the world have remarked 
that the dark races are characterized by rareness and almost 
entire absence of peraonal deformity; all the individuals being 
well made, and many exhibiting the finest models of symmetry 
and beauty. The mode of life will account in great measure for 
this physical prerogative, which hunting, pastoral, and even 
agricultural tribes, enjoy over their more polished brethren of 
highly-civilized communities and large citics.-f" Hdmboldt 
considers that something is also due to natural strength of con- 
Btitution. After stating the great freedom from deformity in 
the Peruvian Indians, in a passage which I have already quoted 

• Account of the Natrre Africans, t.H. p. 259. 

♦ Thus Dr. Somerville snya of the HottentLits: " Huic gcnti, fuciorum in 
Infanlibu.s, pik'orum in itate prc'vectioribuB, nullui unu. Deformitas luris- 
•Ima est, nisi ex e«au nlitjiio. Thoiax an)}>lus, corpus erectuin, artui (oruiiiet 
agiliorcs multo qnum ^ilc ercdiderint ^uibuj veititiii arctior est £uiuliilti*>" 
jStdiea'C/ar, Trmu. v. tU. p. 158. 


(see p. 164), he proceeds to obaerve tbat " when we examina 
savage hunters or warriors, we are tempted to believe thai they 
are all well made, hecaase those who have any natural deformity 
either perish from fatigue, or are exposed by their parents ; but 
the Mexican and Peruvian Indians, those of Quico and New 
Grenada, are agriculturists, who can only be compared with the 
class of Europeiin peasantrj'. We can have no doubt, then, that 
the absence of natural deformities among them is the effect of 
their mode of life, and of the constitution peculiar to their race. 
AH men of very swarthy complexion, those of Mongol and 
American origin, and especially the Negroes, participate in the 
same advantage. We are inclined to beheve that the Arab- 
European [Caucasian] race possesses a greater flexibility of 
organization, and that it is more easily modified by a great 
number of exterior causes, such as variety of aliments, climates, 
and habits, and consequently has a greater tendency to deviate 
from its original model." • 

I am not aware tbat any difference has been ascertained 
between the various races of man in the average length of life. 
Very old persons are sometimes seen among the dark aa well 
as among the white people. 

" It is by no rneana uncommon," says FIumboldt, " to see 
in Mexico, in the temperate zone, half-way up the Corddlera, 
natives, and especially women, reach a hundred years of age. 
This old age is generally comfortable} for the Mexican and 
Peruvian Indians preserve their strength to the last. While I 
was at Lima the Indian HiLAnio Pahi died at the village of 
Chiguata, four leagues distant fi-om the town of Arequipa, at the 
age of 143. He remained united in marriage for 90 years to 
an Indian of the name of Andrka Alba Zar, who attained 
the age of 1 17. This old Peruvian went, at the age of 130, from 
three to four leagues daily on foot," 

Mr. Edwards informs us that the Negroes in the West 
Indies often attain a great age j f and Mr. Barkqw saw Hot- 
tentots more than 100 years old. J 

Although the general uniformity in stractTire and functions 
throughout the species must be expected to produce a general 
similarity in diseases, the obvious organic variations in the 
several races lead us to look for some modifications in the 

• Political Etsau, r. i. p. 152, IM. 

+ Hitlory i^tfin li'fii Imlies, v. ii. p. 100, an example of a Negrem, ISO fiVM 
old ; ». Hi. p. 'J47, nnulhpi stronfr and hearty at the age of 9.5 at \entt, 
X TraveU in the Inltrior qf SiAitlwm 4Jrim, v. i. p,p. 3M, 3W. 


morbid phenomena. But the concurring influence of other 
causes, 8uch as climate, diet, mode of life, and moral agencies, 
renders it difficult to distinguisli what may he owini^ simfily to 
peculiarity of organization. This discrimination can only he 
accomplished hy a long series of patient observations on nume- 
rous individuals of each race, and under similar circumstances 
in different parts of the world. 

In hie Treatise on Tropical Diseases, Dr. Mokely obfterves 
that " the locked-jaw appears to he a disease entirely of irrita- 
bility. Nejrroea, who are most subject to it, whatever the cause 
may be, are void, of sensibility to a surprising degree. They 
are not subject to nervous, diseases. They sleep sound in 
everj' disease, nor does any mental disturbance ever keep them 
awake. They bear chirurgical operations much better than 
white people ; and what would be the cause of insupportable 
pain to a white man, a Negro would almost disregard. I have 
amputated the legs of many Negroes, who have held the upper 
part of the limb themselves." 

Negroes are so seldom affected by the yellow fever, that they 
have often been said not to he susceptible of it ; and there have 
been instances in which, under a very general prevalence of the 
complaint, not one has fallen sick. On other occasions some 
have been seized with this fever ; b;it the number has been email, 
and they have recovered more easily than the whites. 

If tlie yellow fever be a highly inflammatory affection, pro- 
duced by those external causes which are peculiar to hot climates, 
we shall not be surprised that Negroes, who are organized for, 
and habituated tt> such climatEB, enjoy, when contrasted with 
the whites, a comparative exemption from its destructive attacks. 

A singular instance is recorded, in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions,* of a very fatal inflaimmatory fever, which appeared in 
two islands on the coast of North America (Nantucket and 
Martha's Vineyard), and was confined entirely to the Indian 
(American) population; not a single white person having been 
affected on either island. The whole number of Indians on 
Nantucket was 340 ; of these 23S had the distemper in the 
course of six months, and only 36 recovered. Of those who 
did not take the disease, 40 lived in English families, and 8 
dwei^.t eeiiiirate. In Martha's Vineyard it went through every 
Indian family into which it came, not one escaping it. Of 52 
p«r8oa8 affected, 39 died. A few individuals of mixed breed 
• 'Vol. Uv. for the year 1781 : p. 385. 


(EtiTopean aod Indian), and one of Indian and Negro, had the 
distemper, but recovered. None, indeed, died but such as were 
entirely of Indian blood : hence it was called the Indian sicknesa. 

In three Negroes, who died of disease^ Sobhmerring found 
the same morbid appearances ; and they were peculiar. They 
ail i-Krished with symptoms of consumption. Besides indura- 
tion and abscess of the lungs, they had thickening of the coats 
of the intestines, and deposition of a eteatomatous matter in 
them. In the first there were caseous concretions in several 
parts of the abdomen ; and the small intestines seemed as if 
covered by a layer of fat. The bronchial glands were greatly 
diseased. In the second, the intestinal canal and peritoneum 
were every where united by adhesions, and beset \vith rather 
hard, yellowish black tubercles, of various size and form. The 
mesenteric glands were diseased. In the third, the appearances 
were nearly similar ; the abdominal viscera all adhering together, 
and covered by a kind of adipous stratum.* 

I have seen similar appearances to these in the bodies of some 
Negroes. The morbid change of the bowels, of which the coats 
are thickened by a black and yeUow newly-deposited substance, 
IS different from any thing I have seen in Europeans. 

Monkeys are carried off in these climates by consumption 
and tubercular affections of the abdominal \'i8cera. They exhibit 
morbid appearances analogous to those just mentioned; to 
which, affections of the bones are often added. The general 
unhealthy condition of the frame in both cases would, I appre- 
hend, be termed scrofula by nosologists ; and its cause is pro- 
bably the coldness of the climate, together, in the case of the 
animals, with confinement, impure air, and unnatural food. 

The disease called the yaws is a peculiar morbid production 
»f Africa, and has been conveyed by the Negro slaves to the 
West Indies, where it seems to be communicable to Europeans.-t" 

The dark-coloured races exhibit in general a great acutenesa 
df the external senses, which is in some instances heightened by 
exercise to a degree almost incredible. In the unsettled life of 
wandering tribes the chief occupations are hunting, war, and 
plunder, 'llie members of the community are trained from 
their earliest infancy to these pursuits ; and their progress in 
the necessary accomplishments determines not only the degree 
of their own personal enjoyment and security, but also their 

Uebtr die tS 
Dr. B&temoa 

'rperlichf i 

' yertchifditiJiril, 1 67, 68, 
\ Practical 

I Synoiu 

No. «. 


influence over others, and their rank in the associatioii. The 
astonishing perfection of their sight, hearing, and smelling, 
Tiiust be referred, I apprehend, to the constant exercise of the 
organs ; as their capahility of enduring violent or continued 
exertion in performing long iourneys ia the simple result of 
habit. Both are very interesting in a physiological view, and 
acquaint lis with the extent of our powers, which are very 
imperfectly developed in the members of civilized societies. 

Mr. Collins* has mentioned the quick-sit;htednes8 of the 
New Hollanders ; and another traveller has borne testimony to 
the same effect. " The quickness of their eye and ear is equally 
singidar: they can hear and distinguish objects which would 
totally escape an European. Tiiis circumstance renders them 
very acceptable guides to our sportsmen in the woods, as they 
never fail to point out the game before any Eiuropean can dis- 
cover it."t 

In describing a New Zealander, who accompanied him to 
England, Mr. Savaok says, " It was worthy of remark how 
much his sig^bt and hearing were superior to other persons on 
board the ship ; the sound of a distant gun was distinctly heard, 
or a strange sail readily discernible, by Moyhanoer, when no 
other man on board could bear or perceive them." % 

We learn from Mr. Bakbow that the Hottentots, "by the 
quickness of their eye, will discover deer and other sorts of 
game when very far distant ; and they are equally expert in 
^vatcbing a bee to its nest. They no sooner hear the humming 
of the insect, than they squat themselves on the ground, and, 
having caught it with the eye, follow it to an incredible distance."§ 

tie relates the following anecdote of one whom he had left 
behind ill on a journey : " He had fallen asleep about the 
middle of the preceding day, and had not awakened till night. 
Though very dark, and unacquainted with a single step of our 
route, he had found us by following the track of the waggon. 
At this sort of business a Hottentot is uncommonly clever. 
There is not an animal among the numbers that range the wilds 
of Africa, if he be at all acquainted with it, the print of whosts 
foot he cannot distinguish." " The print of any of his compa- 
nions' feet he would single out among a thou8and,"|| 

Dr. SoMBRViLLE conRrms this statement, and refers the- 

• jIcaTUnI cfllie Engliih Cokm^ n/N. S. ff'alejt: pp. f»53, iSSi 

♦■ Tumbull, f-'ayaay round (lie H'urld; !ie<:ond editiun, p. 92. 

% Some Account uf Nev Zealioid : \i. 101. 

i TraxeU in Soul/ieru jf/rica, r. i. p. 160, ^ lliid. ■^.'SW, 


raperiority of the Hottentots in these pomta to constant exer- . 
eiae of the organs.* 

In his fmjaent intercoone with the Nomadic tribes of , 
Pallab had the best opportoaities of observing theu* capabt 
lities. " The Cahnucks," he sap, " have a fine nose, a good! 
ear, and an extremely acute ere. On their joameys and military 

C expeditions they often smell out a fire or a camp, and thus pro- 
cure qnarters for the night, or obtain booty. Many of them can 
distinguish, by smelling at the hole of a fox or other anmial, 
^ whether the creature be there or not. By lying flat, and putting 

their ear to the ground, they can catch at a great distance the 
Boiae of horses, of a flock, or of a single strayed animal. But 
nothing is so surprising as the perfection of their eyes, and the 
extraordinary distance at which they often perceive, from incon- 
•iderable heights, small objects, such as the rising dust caus 
by cattle or horsemen ; more particularly as the undulation oCl 
the boundless steppes or plains, and the vapours which rise 
from and float upon them in warm weather, render things very 
obscure. In the expedition which the Torgot Vice-chan Uba- 
scHi led against the Kubanians, the Calmuck force would 
certainly have missed the enemy, if a common Calmuck had not 
perceived, at the estimated distance of thirty versts, the smoke 
and dust of the hostile array, and pointed it out to other equally 
experienced eyes, when the commander. Colonel Kischinskoi» 
could discern nothing with a gooil glass, 'fhey pursue lost 
or stolen cattle or game by the track for miles over deserts. 
Kirgises, or even Russians, in the wild jiarts of the empire, are 
equally able to follow and discriminate tracks by the eye. This, 
indeed, is not difficult on soft ground, or over snow ; but it 
requires great practice and skill to choose the right out of 
several intermingled traces, to follow it over loose sand or snow, 
not to lose it in marshes or deep grass, but rather to judge 
from the direction of the grass, or from the depth of the print 
in snow or sand, how long it has been made."t 

Representations equally surprising of the perfection of the 
senses are confirmed to us by the most unexceptionable authori- 
ties in the case of the North American savages ; and of other 
wild races. 

• " Nonnulli fpras renanai nut hO!te» pffugieudi perpetua fereconsuctadine, 
ixae fuTullntf ,'yisu3) aileo pullebant, ut in eampii arenosU vrstit;i3 ii>>serrar« 
pogsi-nl, ubi aliig nihil (imaiDO apparorct : hanp faotiltaU'tii cnim, ui;>ute liUD 
ad virtum, tuin ad saiuti-m ipsam j)ri>rsua nccissiirium, masiiiue exi-rcent, etsie 
nuriini in niodum ai'imnU" Medii-o-chir. Tram. v. vii. pp. IjO, UA. 
"VHualunnen fiitlur. nachricM. Th. i. pp. JOO, 101. 



The differences of language are as numerous as the other 
distinctions which characterize the several races of men. The 
various decrees of natural capacity, and of intellectual progress ; 
the prevalence of particular faculties ; the nature of surrounding 
circumstances ; the esLse or difficulty ivith which the did'erent 
wants and desires are gmtiiied, will pnxluce not only peculiar 
characters in the nature aud construction of langua^fe, tmt in its 
copiousness and development. 

In the fortaation of the sound, or \'uice, and in its utterance 
in an articidated form, or speech, no further varieties are ohserved, 
than the different combinations of the several organs concerned 
in the process will easily explain. The jjronunciation of the 
Hottentots has generally been deemed very singular by European 
cbservers ;• who compare it to the clucking of a turkey, or the 
harab. and broken noises produced by some other birds. They 
have numerous guttural sounds, produced deep in the throat, 
and pronounced mth a peculiar clack of the tongue, which is 
quickly struck against and withdrawn from the teeth or palate. 
I'hey combine their aspirated gutturals with hard consonants, 
without any intervening vowels, in a manner that Europeans 
cannot imitate : it is never acquired except occa.siionally by the 
child of a colonist when accustomed to it from yoxith. A d elunq 
repreaentfi that their bony palate is smaller, shorter, and less 
arched than in the other races : and that the tongue, particularly 
in the Bosjesmen, is rounder, thicker, and shorter.f 

On© of the most curious points in the subject of language is 
the continued existence in a large portion of Asia, very anciently 
civilized, and considerably advanced at least in the useful artSj 
of simply monosyllabic language.s, Tlieir words are merely 
radical sounds of one Hyllable, not admitting of inflexion or com- 
position, BO that all modilications and accessory ideas must be 
either overlooked or imperfectly expressed by tedioiw ana 
awkward circumJocution. Such are the languages of Thibet, 
the contiguous immense empire of China, and the neighbouring 
countries of Ava, Pegu, Siam, Tungquin, and Cochin-china. 
"These extensive regions, and these only in the whole world, 
betray in their present language all the imperfection of the first 
attempts at speech. As the earliest efforts of the infant are 

^^ att' 

^^f ■ 'Bamm and LichtctiEtein'B Traseliin Southern Africa. Similar dMcrlp. 
^^ Cons ari> given 1)V Stiamiann, Thunborp, antl he Voilltitie. Dr. SomervIUa 

L lim 


CbsiTves tiie pcijuliarity uf llu:lltjUi'ntij.t ulLerance, ty nhich, he say«, nothing 
ImLlar is lifird In any itllier Jiart of the world. Medico-rfiir. Traiu. v. vii. p. 1h[ 
*• MMridalet; 3'.Theil ; 1'. Abthejluug, pp. m, 293. 


merely sounds of one syllable, so the first adult cluldren of 
nature stammered out their meaning in the same way : the people 
of Thibet, China, and the neighbouring southern countries, go 
on speaking as they learned some thousands of years ago, in the 
cradle of the species. There is no separation of ideas into certain 
classes, such as produce the distinction of the parts of speech 
in more perfectly formed languages. One and the same sound 
signifies jojiful, joy, and to rr;oice ; and that through all persons, 
numbers, and tenses No attempt is made, by al^xing sounds 
expressive of relations or accessory notions to the simple mooo- 
ayllabic root, to give richness, clearness, and harmony to the 
poor language. On the contrary, the mere radical idea.^ are set 
down together, and the hearer must guess at the connecting 
links. As there are no inflexions, the cases and numbers are 
either not noted, or they are marked, under urgent circumstances, 
by circumlocution. They form plurals as children do, either by 
repetition, as tret; tree, or by adding the words much or other; 
as free much, tree other. 1 much, or / other, means we. Be heaven 
I other Father who, is the mode of expressing ' Oar Father, 
which art in heaven ! '"* " That languages of such poverty, 
which merely place together the most essential ideas without 
connecting tliem, must open a wde field for ambiguity and 
obscurity in cirii life, and be totally inapplicable to the purposes 
of science, is immediately apparent Hence the people who 
speak them must ever remain children in understanding. How- 
ev^er the Chinese may exert themselves, so long as they are 
impeded by this imperfect language, they must be imable to 
appropriate to themselves the sciences and arts of Europe. "+ 

We are again surprised at discovering that this peculiar lan- 
guage is not connected with the pecuhar organization of that 
variety (the Mongolian) to which the people enumerated above 
beJong. The tribes immediately adjoining the latter on the north, 
for example, the proper Mongols, the Calmucks, and the Burats, 
although they have at all times occupied the regions close to 
Thibet, and have obviously derived their language from this 
quarter, are no longer confined to such an imperfect inatrument 
of thought and communication as a monosyllabic langmga 
affords. They have infiexions and derivations, both for nooni 
and to express times-t The same observations are applicable to 
the Mandshurs,§ or Mantchoos. 

The Japanese, too, another numerous people of Mongolian 
• AdeluDic; MMndota, r. i. p. 18. -4- 76. p. 38. t lb. p. S(M. } /». p^ M<. 


formation, have a well-formed polyayllabic language, without any 
resemblance to that of tlie Chinese.* 

The monosyllabic language of so large a portion of Asia appears 
the more remarkable, when it is contrasted with the langiiagea 
of the native Americans, who in the form of the head, approach 
closely to the characters of the Mongolian rariety. In the capa- 
bility of inflexion and composition, and in the consequent length 
of words, f many of the American tongues offer a complete con- 
trast to those of Cliina, Tliibet, &c. 

America is also distinguished from the old continent by the 
great numl>er of its different langnages. Mr. Jefferson f 
states that there are twenty radical langnages in America for one 
in Asia. " More than twenty languages are still spoken in the 
kingdom of Mexico, most of which are at least as different from 
one another as the Greek and the German, or the French and 
Polish. The variety of idioms spoken by the people of the new 
continent, and which, without the least exaggeration, may be 
stated at some hundreds, offers a very striking phenomenon, 
particularly when we compare it to the few languages spoken in 
Asia and Europe." § 

The causes of these diversities, and the relations between the 
form and structure of the brain, the appetites, sentiments, moral 
and intellectual character, of the several human races, and the 
geniiig of their languages, are important subjects for future in- 
quiry. It will be sufficient to assert, in reference to the present 
suljject, that no difference of language hitherto obserred affords 
any argument against unity of the species. We can have no 
difficulty in arriving at this conclusion when we find, as in 
America, numerous completely distinct tongues in the several 
families of one great and, in all essential points, uniform race; 
and when we discover, moreover, so strong a contrast as that 
which the monosyllabic languages of Asia and the complicated 
long words of so many American languages present, in nations 
whose organic traits are so similar. 

• Adi'lun^ ; Milhridatei, v. i. p. 572. 

f UurahoTdt infomis us that nolkaomahuisleirpixealattift Uthe term of respect 
uaeUbythv Mexiciitta inacldressiiigtheprieats. I'oliticalEnai/,v,L p.l39,aote. 

.f A'llnii «n ViTcinia, p. 184. 

\ Puliiical Mstay, w. 1 . p. 138. Thii Katement ia eorroboraled by Vater, 
who observ-es that " in Mexico, where the causes produc in(j tnaulation of the 
KT?rnl tribes havtbccn for a lonf time in ft eoune of diininiiilan, Clavigero 
)rvcoi;iUjrdt liirty-five different laiiKiU|pei iSaggin di SiuHa Americana, t. iii. 
J8j). And those witn which 1 
: Quite raiilMJl] 
Milhruiatei, th. iiL p. 373. 

append, ii. c, 3, p. aSj). And those ' 

accounts ore quite raiiicaJly distinct, and almoctimcoanecte'd with eikchother< 

. we ar? ocijiuLintpd by wriUem 







Difenncti in moral and intellectual QualiHa. 
Aptkr Biirveyinff and describing the diversities of bodily fonns- 
tion exhibited in the various races of men, and alluding to a few 
physiological distinctions, we naturally proceed to a review of ■ 
their moral and intellectual characters, to examine whether the ' 
latter exhibit such peculiarities as the numerous modifications 
of physical structure lead us to expect ; whether the ajipetttes 
and propensities, the moral feelings aud dispositions, and the 
capabilities of knowledge and reflection, are the same in aD^ or ■ 
as different as the cerebral organs, of which they are the func- ■ 
tions ? ♦ If the physical frame and the moral and intellectual 
phenomena of man be entirely independent of each other, their 
deviations will exhibit no coincidence; the noblest characters M 
and most distinguished endowment;! may be conjoined with tha V 
meanest organization : if, on the contrary, the inCeEectual and 
moral be dosely linked to the physical part, if the former be the 
offspring and residt of the latter, the varieties of both mast 
always correspond. 

The different progress of various nations in general civilization, 
and in the culture of the arts and sciencea, the different characters 
and degrees of excellence in, their literary productions, their 
varied forms of government, and many other considerations, 
convince us beyond the possibility of doubt, that the races of 
mankind are no less characterized by diversity of mental endow- 
ments, than by those differences of organization which I have 
already considered. So powerful, however, has been the effect 
of government, laws, education, and peculiar habits, in modifying 
the mind and character of men, that we experience great diffi- 
culty in distinguishing between the effects of original difference, 
and of the operation of these external causes. 

From entering at large and minutely into this interesting 
subject, I am as much prevented by want of the necessary 
information, as by the immediate object and limited length of 
these Lectures. To pass it over in silence would be omitting 
the most important part of the natural history of our species ; 
one of the most interesting \iews in the comparative zoology of 
man. I shall therefore submit a few remarks to illustrate the 
point of view in which the phenomena have appeared to myself, 

' Scv Lecture IV. p. 73 and following, on the Funcliam of the Brain; 8<?c- 
tioD I. Chip. IV. on the C/iaracteri nj the Human Head; Chap. VI. on the 
Structure v/tl«e Bruin; aiulCUa^'. VII, on thi: Hmtat I'acultfetiif Man. 



and eliall be happy if the)' Incite any of my readers to a further 
■prosecution of the inquiry. 

The distinction of colour between the white and black nicei 
is not more striking than the pre-eminence of the former in 
moral feehngs and in mental endowments. The latter, it ia 
true, exhibit generally a great acuteness of the external 8enBe«» 
which in some instances is heightened by exercise to a degree 
nearly incredible. Yet they indulge, almost universally, in dis- 

Egusting debauchery and sensuality, and display gross selfish- 
ness, indifference to the pains and pleasures of others, insen- 
sibllity to beauty of form, order, and harmony, and an almost 
entire want of what we comprehend altogether under the expres- 
tion of elevated sentiments, manly virtues, and moral feeling. 
The hideous savages of Van Dieinen's Land, of New Holland, 
New Guinea, and some neighbouring islands, the Negroes of 
Congo and some other parts, exhibit the most disgusting moral 
as well as physical portrait of man. 
Peron describes the wretched beings, whom he found on 
the shores of Van Diemen's Island, and of the neighbouring 
island Maria, as examples of the rudest barbarism : " without 
chiefs, properly so called, without laws or any thing like regular 
government, Tvithout arts of any kind, with no idea of agricul- 
ture, of the use of metals, or of the services to be derived from 
animals J without clothes or fi.\ed abode, and with no other 
shelter than a mere shed of bark to keep oft' the cold south 
winds ; with no arras but a club and spear."* 

Although these and the neighbouring New Hollanders are 
placed in a fine climate and productive soil, they derive no other 
Busteaance from the earth than a few fern-roots and bulbs of 
orchises ; and are often driven I>y the failure of their principal 
resource, fish, to the most revolting food, as frogs, lizards, aer- 
I pents, spiders, the larvss of insects, and particularly a kind of 

^^B large caterpillar found in groups on the branches of the euca- 
^^B lyptuB resinifera. They are sometimes obliged to appease the 
^^ cravings of hunger by the bark of trees, and by a paste made by 
pounding together ants, their larvse, and fern-roots.f 

Their remorseless cruelty, their unfeeUng barbarity to women 
and children, their immoderate revenge for the most trinal 
affronts, their want of natural affection, are hardly redeemed by 
the slightest traits of goodness. When we add, that they are 
" Voyage de DecmixeTtet tuix Tetrei Jliatrakt; C i. chnp. 20. 
t CMiai, JfccovnioftheEnslitkColony inJV.S. Walei. Appendix. SeealM 
TumbuU'i Foyage roMui the frorld, second edilion, ch. via. 


quite ioBeziRible to distinctions of no;bt and wrong, destitute of 
religion, without any idea of a Supreme Being, and with the 
feeblest notion, if there be any at all, of a future state, the 
revolting picture is complete in all its features.* IMiat aa 
afBicting contrast does the melancholy truth of this description 
form to the eloquent hut delusive declamations of RonssEAtr 
on the prerogatives of natural man and bia adi'antages over lus 
civilized brethren ! 

The same general character, with some softening, and some 
modiiications, is applicable to most of the native Americans, of 
the Africans, and of tha Mongolian nations of Asia ; to tfae 
Malays, and the greater part of the inhabitants of the numerous 
islands scattered in the ocean between Asia and America. In 
the most authentic descriptions we every where find proofs of 
astonishing insensibility to the pains and joys of others, even 
their nearest relations ; inflexible cruelty, selfishness and dis- 
position to cheat, a want of all sympathetic impulses and feel- 
ings, the most brutal apathy and indolence, unless roused by 
the pressure of actual physical want, or stimulated by the desire 
of revenge and the thirst of blood. Their barbarous treatment 
of women, the indiscriminate and unrelenting destnaction of 
their warfare, the infernal torments inflicted on their captives, 
and the horrible practice of cannibalism, fill the friend of huma> 
nity by turns with pity, indignation, and horror. 

With the deep shades of this dismal picture some brighter 
spots arc mingled, which it is a pleasing task to select and par- 

The inferiority of the dark to the white races is much more 
general and strongly marked in the powers of knowledge and 
reflection, the intellectual faculties, using that expression in its 
most comprehensive sense, than in moral feelings and disposi- 

• Mr. CoUins, -who hail Eimple ojiportunitira of obKrving this race, and yrha 
■emu ty ha«» i-iintt'raplatfd them with an uniJTicjuiliced mind, says, •• I am 
•ertitin that tlii> v do not wonhip sun, moon, or stars ; that, however rwreaaaij 
llrp may be tri lliem. it is not an object of adoration ; neither have t)iey any 
reipect fur any Iwast, bird, or fish. 1 nercr could discorer any object, either 
sut^ismtial tjr imaginary, that iin[ii?]1ed them to thecommiuionof ffoudactiuna, 
or doU-rred them from the perpetration of what wo deem crifni'S. Thov 
indcpd fxishMt among them auniK idea of a future state ; but not conneRled in 
an^ wise with religion; for it had no influence wliatever on their lives and 
actioiM." Lib. cit. p. MT. Wliether thf-y had any kno«rlcd;;e of ri^ht and 
wrong, was dutibtfu). They had words fur good and bod, us applied to luniul 
or hunfitl oVjjefts. The sting-ray which they never ate, was bad, the Itanearoo 
good. Their eiiemifs were nad; their friendji grood: cannilialism m'u liod; 
when our jiroiile Hprs' pnniijhcd for ill treating thcra, it waa f;ond. " Midoight 
murders, thdiigh frt>tjuently practiwd arouii^ them, whenever rcrengc or 
pauiou were uppermost, they reprobated ; but applanded aets of fciininj— aad 
eeaerosity ; for of both those they were capable.'* Ibid. M», 




tioiM. Many of the former, although little civilized, display on 
apttaum of heart, a friendly and gencroua dispositioa, ths 
gmtut hospitality, and an oliBervance of the point of honour 
according to their own notions, from which nations more ad- 
vanced in knowledge might often take a IcKSon with advantage. 

Many of the Negroes possess a natural goodness of heart and 
warmth of afiection : even the slave-dealers are acquainted with 
their differences in character, and fix their prices, not merely 
according to the bodily powers, but in proportion to the docility 
and good dispositions of their commodity, judging of these by 
die quarter from which they are procured. 

Although the Americans appeared so stupid to the Spaniards, 
that they were with some difticulty cnn^nnced of their being men 
and capable of becoming Christiana (for which pm-pose a papal 
bull was necessary) ; and although this deficiency of intellect is 
atill attested by the more candid and impartial reports of raodera 
travellers, the empires of Mexico and Peru show that sometribea 
at least were capable of higher destinies, and of considerable 
advancement in civilization. They were united under a regular 
government; they practised agriculture, and the other neces- 
sary arts of life, and were not entirely destitute of those which 
have some title to the name of elegant* History and romance 

• The vlilonurj' notioiu of De Piimnvr (JJiwAercAef f/iilm. tur lei AmfricaiHi) 
■adBuDbn {HisL A'aturelle; Homme) concerning tin- impurlVctioii oiid feelile- 
n«si of nnimal life in America, too )i;;htly adojited in mnnv instnncps by 
BobcTtson {Hi$t. ef America), h«ve been itiniily expo»rU and Veruted, ao lar 
M the peoyie tliemselves are onnrt-rneil. lay Cuunt Larli, who has proved, by 
ttte cleur tettimonies of tlio on!;in<U Spani<ih oonqucron, thnl thi' Mexici(ni 
and FeruTiona defended thenoelvcs wilh the grcattst braverv ami ri>aulutioD ; 
knd that they had made considerable ad vanf^e^ in knowle(r!»e. In Uie arts, in 
Beneral civilizjition, and in goveniinBut, at Ihe IJtDe uf the BpuniAh conquest. 
X'^Qti Vin iMtere .imericane, composing the I Ith, I'ith, 13tli,aiid l-Itti vuluinea, 
at his Opcre, 15 t Mtiano, nSfl : but particulaTly the two first) The two 
fundami.Tital truths of relji^on. the existence uf God. and the immortality of 
the Botil, wero TecagniH^d m I'eru (l^lterr, t, i. 1.7): and the knowh^igc of 
■rithmetie and astmaomy had bt^en carried to a grefltexteiit(i'6. t, ii. 1, 1, et 8). 
They had constructed considcraljlc aquedncls, ol which the remains are still 
to be seen, and numerous cauali for irritfation, of which one is said to hava 
■been IM leaijued in length (t. i. ji. 311). They were able to pxtraot, M-parate, 
■nd fuse nicials ; to give to copper tiic hanineas of steel, fur the fnhrifation of 
their weapooa and instruments; to make mirrors of thi« hardened copper or of 
hard atone ; to furm image.^ of gold ind silver hollow witliin ; to r«t the hardest 
precioaa stonea with the gmtest nicety : to manufacture and dye cotton and 
wool, anil work and ligute the stuffs in various waj's; to spin aiul weave the 
flue hairofhart'S and ralibilsinto fabrics rcsemhlinRand answerinsf the inirpasca 
of silli.t lihid. I. I}. The preceding' statements are fully corroborated by the 
existloK remainsnr these' ancient arts, as seen onddeacribodby tlllua., Ilou^uera 
Condamine, and Humbotdt. (TVwre'ii in South Jmeriott, v.\ book 8, ch. IL. 
Acad, det Scieneet : 1740, 1745. f'uedet ConUllrrts, Monument desj'euplet, ^c.1 
"The Toultee*," says the latter author, ■• introducad the cultivution of maiia 
and cotton ; they btiilt cities, mode roads, and conitnicled those ftreat pyra> 
mids, which are yet admired, and of which the faces are very aciruiately'loid 
out. They knew' the usp of hicroiflyphieal paintings ; they could found metal 
and out llie hardest stones ; aiid tliey had a stoiar year more perfect \][uxil >!Drt[> 
of the Otijclu and Romaos," Political Uttan, UootL Ii, t\\. (i. 


have shed their glories round Manco Capac, the first sage 
and lawgiver, and the succeeding Incas or emperors of Pern, 
whose lives and f xploits have been recorded by one of their own 
descendants on the female side, Gabcilasso db la Veoa, 

SHmamed the Incti. 

Tn stating the moral and intellectual inferiority of the native 
Americans to the white races, I speak of an inferiority common 
to them with the other dark-coloured people of the globe ; and 
do not mean to adopt, in the smallest degree, the fanciful 
notions promulgated by some %*Titers of the degeneracy of all 
anlma! nature in this vast continent. That the quadrupeds and 
other animals are deficient neither in size nor vigour is now 
well known ; and though the fables respecting the gigantic 
stature of the Patagoaians have passed away, they still remain 
superior in size to any Asiatic or European race of men. There 
are some unconquered tribes equally conspicuous for the nobler 
attributes of our nature. The Araucans of Chili have success- 
fully maintained their independence against all the attacks 
of the Spaniards, and are well known in Europe by the epic 
poem of Ercilla, in which these contests are celebrated. In 
the interesting portrait, which Molina has lately drawn of their 
character, manners, customs, government, and history, we 
recognise in many points a strong resemblance to the ancient 
Germans, and a pleasing proof that all the natives of this new 
world are not doomed to mental inferiority. 

" The moral quality of the Araucans," says Molina, " are 
proportioned to their physical endowments ; they are intrepid, 
animated, ardent, patient in enduring fatigue, ever ready to 
sacrifice their lives in the sendee of their country, enthusiastic 
lovers of liberty, which they consider as an essential constituent 
of their existence, jealous of their honour, courteous, hospitable, 
&ilhfal to their engagements, grateful for services rendered 
them, and generous and humane towards the vanquished."* 

The ninety t years' straggle wliich they maintained against 
the Spaniards, and by which they at last successfully established 
their independence, is more remarkable for its duration, for acts 
of desperate resolution and devotion to the great cause of 
liberty, and traits of individual heroism, than the contest between 
the Dutch and the Spaniards, the Swiss and the Austrians, or 
any ancient or modern analogous European case. 

• Civil Bittory of Chili, p. 59. Thwr strict intPKH'r "Wd hiuh sc-iue of lionour 
in comravrcisJ d«alinf>i, are vonHimed by the toftimau}- af Ullon; TraoeU in 
South Jmerica, v, ii. p. 276. + Iliid. p. aoi. 



la the savage tribea of North America we often meet with 
loftj' sentiments of independence, ardent courage, and devoted 
friendskip, which would sustain a comparison with the most 
splendid similar examples in the more highly gifted races. 
Honourable and punctual fulfilment of treaties and compacts, 
patient endurance of toil, hunger, cold, and all kinds of hard- 
ships and privations, infiesible fortitude, and unshaken perse- 
verance in avenging^ insults or injuries according to their own 
peculiar custoniB and feelings, show that they are not destitute 
of the more valuable moral qualities. 

The Mongolian people differ very much in their docility and 
moral character. TVTiile the empires of China and Japan prove 
that this race is susceptible of civUisation, and of great advance- 
ment in the useful and even elegant arts of life, and eshibit tha 
singular phenomenon of political and social institutions between 
two and three thousand years older than the Christian era, the 
fact of their having continued nearly stationary for so many 
centuries, marks an inferiority of nature and a limited capacity 
in comparison to that of the white races. 

When the Mongolian tribes of central Asia have been united 
under one leader, war and desolation have been the objects of 
the association. Unrelenting slaughter, without distinction of 
condition, age, or, and universal destruction have marked 
the progress of their conquests, unattended with any changes 
or institutions capable of benefiting the human race, unmingled 
with any acts of generosity, any kindness to the rauquished, or 
the slightest symploms of regard to the rigbtg and liberties of 
mankind. The progress of Attila, Zingis, andTAMERLANE, 
like the deluge, the tornado, and the hurricane, involved every 
thing in one eweepiog ruin. 

In all the points which have been just considered, the whito 
races present a complete contrast to the dark-coloured inha- 
bitants of the globe. While the latter cover more than half the 
earth's surface, plunged in a state of barbarism in which the 
higher attributes of human nature seldom make their appear, 
ance, strangers to all the conveniences and pleasures of advanced 
social life, and deeming themselves happy in escaping the 
immediate perils of famine ; the former, at least in this quarter 
of the world, either never have been in so low a condition, or, 
by means of their higher endowments, have so quickly raised 

" S«e Mr. JiiUeraon's eloquent vindication of the North Amorican savage* 
from the degrading picture i&awn of them by Buffon, Airfw on Firgim^ 


themaelres {rom it, that vre have no record of their existence ai 
mere hunting or fishing tri(>cs. In the oldest documents and 
traditions, which deserve any confidence, these nobler people 
are seen at least in the pastoral state, and in the exercise c^ 
agriculture, the practice of which is so ancient, that the remotest 
and daifcest accounts have not preserved the name of the disco* 
rerer, or the date of its introduction. No European people, 
therefore, have been in a condition comparable to that of the 
present dark-coloured races, within the reach of any history or 

The invention of arts and sciences in the East, and their sur- 
prising progress in Europe, are due to the white men. Tlie 
comparatively national system of Heathenism contained in the 
Grecian mj^hology, with its elegant fables and allegories ; and 
the three religions, which exhibit the only worthy views of the 
Divinity, that is, Judaism, Christianity, and Mahometanism, all 
derive their birth from the same quarter. 

The Caucasian variety claims also the Persian Zoroaster; 
and, if I mistake not, the founders of the rehgion of Bramah, 
who in the peninsula of India had signalized themselves hy 
^eat advances in art and science in the very remotest antiquity. 

In the white races we meet, in full perfection, with trua 
bravery, love of liberty, and other passions and \artues of great 
fiouts ; here only do these noble feehngs exist in full intensity, 
while they are, at the same time, directed by superior know> 
ledge and reflection to the accomplishment of the grandest pur- 
poses. They alone have been as generous and mild towards 
the wealt and the vanquished, as terrible to their enemies ; and 
have treated females ivith kindness, attention, and deference. 
Here alotie are compassion and benevolence fully developed ; 
the feeling for the pains and distresses of others, and the active 
attempt to reheve them ; which, first exerted on our nearest 
connections, is extended to our countrymen in general, and 
embraces, ultimately, in its wishes and exertions, the interests 
of all mankind. 

The wliite nations alone have enjoyed free governments ; that 
is, not the lawless dominion of mere force, as in many barbaroua 
tribes, but institutions recognising the equality of all in political 
rights, giving protection to the weak against the powerful, 
securing to all equal freedom of opinion and conscience, and 
administered according to laws framed with the consent of all. 
The spirit of liberty, the unconijuerable energy of independence^ 


the generous f(\jaw of xmtriotism have been known chiefly to 
those Qoblcr organizadoiis, ia whkh the cerebral heraiBpherea 
have received their full development. The republics of Greece 
and Rome, of Italy in the middle ageE, of Switsserland and Hol- 
lEuidj the limited monarchy of England, and the United States 
of America, have shown ua what the human race can efiect, 
when animated by these sacred feelings ; without which nothing 
has been achieved truly great or permanently interesting. This 
is the charm that attaches us to the hietory, the laws, the insti- 
tutions, the literature of the free states of antiquity, ami that 
enables us to study again and again, with frei>h pleasure, the 
lives and actions of their illustrious citizens. 

Even the more absolute forma of government have been 
conducted among the white races, with a respect to human 
nature, with a regard to law and to private rights, quite unkown 
to the pure despotisms, which seem to be the natural dentiny of 
our dark brethren. The monstrous faith of millions made for 
one has never been doubted or questioned in all the extensive 
regions occupied by human races with the anterior and superior 
parts of the cranium flattened and compressed 

ITiat these diversities are the oftapring of natural diflFerences, 
and not produced by external causes, ia pro^'ed by their univer- 
Bality, whether in respect to time, place, or external influence. 

Some have found a convenient and ready solution in climate, 
but have not condescended to show, either by example or rea- 
soning, how cUmate can operate on the moral feelings anil intel- 
lect, or that it has actually so operated in any instance. The 
native Americans are spread over that vast continent from the 
icy shores of the iVrctic Ocean to the neighbourhood of the 
Antarctic Circle ; the Africans have a tolerably wide range in 
their quarter of the globe ; the Mongolian tribes cover a tract 
including every variety of climate from the coldest to the moat 
warm. Yet, in such diversities of situation, the respective races 
exhibit only modifications of character. White people hare 
distinguished themselves in all climates ; every where preserving 
their superiority. Two centuries have not assimilated the 
Anglo-Americans to tlie Indian aborigines, nor prevented them 
from establishing in America the freest government in the 
world. A "Washington and a Franklin prove that the noble 
qualities of the race have suffered no degeneracy by crossing 
the Atlantic. 

Accurate observers have found the hy^the&ia oIL ^tcEoa^A 


sbort yean of independence, to the rank of a fir^rate power. 
No friend of humanity can be a stranper to the glorious prospect, 
to the energies of freedom, which \'ivify this nevr country. No 
human being, who is interested in the progress of Ms species, 
can refuse his tribute of admiration to this new world, which haa 
established itself without the prejudices of the old ; — where reli- 
gion is in all its fervour, without needing an alliance with the 
state to maintain it ; where the law commands by the respect 
which it inspires, without being enforced by any military power. 

llie superiority of the whites is universally felt and readily 
acknowledged by the other races. The most intelligent Negro, 
whom Mr. Park* met with, after witnessing only such evidences 
of European skiO and knowledge, as the English settlement of 
Pisania afforded, and being acquainted with two or tlu-ee Eng- 
lishmen, would sometimes appear pensive, and exclaim with an 
involuntary sigh, " Black men are nothing 1" The narratives 
of travellers abound with similar traits. This consciousness best 
explains the fact of the Negroes generally submitting quietly 
to their state of slavery in the European colonies. If the rela- 
tions and the proportions of the population were reversed, and 
the European slaves were five, six, eight, or ten times as nume- 
rous as their Negro masters, how long would such a state of 
things last ? When the blacks form any plots, although their 
natural apathy and unvarjing countenance are favourable to 
concealment, they always fail, through treachery or precipitation 
in commencing operations, or are disconcerted by any resohita 
opposition, even from very inferior numbers. 

Some will probably explain in a different manner the«e 
remarkabia phenomena of the moral and intellectual world, 
which 1 have just been considering ; they will attempt to prove 
that these strongly-marked varieties may have been produced, 
in races formed originally with equal capabilities, by the external 
influences of civilisation, education, government, religion, and 
perhaps other caxtscs. To assert uniformity of bodily structure 
over the whole world would be too repugnant to the testimony 
of the senses: equality of mental endowments seems to me 
hardly a less extravagant tenet. There have, however, been 
philosophers who even held that all men are bom with equal 
powers ; and that education and other accidental circumstance* 
make the only difference between the wisest and the weakest 
of mankind. 


That riTiliiation, government, and education act very power. 
fully on the human race, is too obvious to be doubted ; but the 
question relates to the capalnlity of civilization. Why have the 
white races ini.'ariably, and without one exception, raised them- 
selves lo, at least some considerable height in tlie scale of cul- 
tivation ; while the dark, on the contrary, have almost u 
universally continued in the savaj^e or barbarous state ? If v* 
suppose that at any remote era, ail mankind, in all quarters of 
the globe, were in the latter condition, what are the accidental 
circumstances which have prevented all llie coloured varieties 
of roan from raising themselves, an<l at the Bamc time have 
assisted the progress of all the others ? If the nations in the 
north and west of Europe, when first conquered by the Romans, 
should he allowed (contrary, however, to liistorical proof) to 
have been in a state of barbarism not superior to that of the 
present rude tribes of Asia, Africa, or America, why have they 
advanced uninterruptedly to their ])re9ent exalted jiitch of cul- 
ture, wli'tle the latter remain plunged in their original rudeness 
and ignorance ? 

I do not mean to assert that all indi^'iduals and all tribes of 
dark-coloured men ore inferior in moral and intellectual endow- 
ments to all those of the white division. The same gradations 
and modifications of structure and properties exist here as in 
Other parts. Certainly we can produce examples enough in 
Europe of beings not superior to Hottentots and New Hol- 
landers : and individuals of considerable talents and knowledge 
are met with in savage tribes. There may not be much dif- 
ference between the lowest European community and the highest 
in some dark variety of man. Examples of individuals and of 
small numbers will therefore prove little in this matter. 

I am aware also that all the white races have not made those 
signal advances in knowledge and civilization, of wliich I have 
spoken as indicating their superior endowments. Their organi- 
xation makes them capable of such distinctions, if circumstancea 
are favourable, or rather if no obstacles exist. In the dark 
races, on the contrary, inferior organization renders it vain to 
present opportunities, or to remove difficulties. 

Loss of hberty, bad government, oppressive laws, neglected 
education, bigotry, fanaticism, and intolerance in religion, will 
counteract the noblest gifts of nature, will plunge into ignorance, 
degradation, and vreakness, nations capable of the highest cul- 
ture, of the most splendid, moral, and intellectual aclucve^siKi&A 


Greece, Italy, and Spain bear melancholy testimony to thia 
afflicting truth. Where are the brave republican Dutch, who 
first sustained a forty year§' contest with Hpain in the zenith of 
her power, when she could alarm all Europe by her ambitious 
schemes ; and who then contended with England for the domi- 
nion of the sea ? What causes the present feebleness of Turkey, 
whose very name is deemed almost synonymous with despotism 
and ig-norance ? Careful observers can discern even in these 
«ctima of op]iression and fanaticism, the germs of all iheliigher 
qualifications of our race, the evidences of those moral excel- 
lencies and intellectual powers, which require only a favourable 
opportunity to display themselves. It is generally allowed that 
the Turks are superior in natural qualiHcations to their con- 
querors the Russians, who enjoy over them the advantages of a 
government and religion ♦ more favourable to the progress of 
knowledge and to individual security and happiness. 

Such are the results deducible from experience respecting the 
differences of moral feelings and intellectual power : having 
stated them strongly, I am anxious to express my decided opi- 
nion that these differences are not sufficient in any instance to 
warrant us in referring a particular race to an originally dif- 
ferent species. They are not greater in kind or degree than 
those which we see iu many animals, as in horsea, asses, mules, 
dogs, and cocks. I protest especially against the opinion, which 
either denies to the .Africans the enjoyment of reason, or ascribes 
to the whole race pro])ensiC!es so \iciouiii, malignant, and trea- 
cherous, as would degrade them even below the leiel of the 
brute. It can be proved most clearly, and the preceding obser- 
▼ations are sufficient for thia piu'pose, that there is no circiun- 
Btance of bodily structure so peculiar to the Negro, as not to be 
found also in other far distant nations ; no character, which 
does not run into those of other races by the «ame insensible 
gradations as those which connect together all the varieties of 
mankind. 1 deem the moral and mtellectual chpracter of the 

• The unfavouraljle influcnM of tho Mahomplnn ri'ligion on intcHretual 
cultuix' has been I'.veinplilictd by Mr. Fourier in ihe caawof thv Ambs. ■■ If 
the Arnbittns, like the people of the Wi-st, had jiossfssetl the incslimahio 
advantiisf of a rtligion fnvourable tu the arts and tu uwful knowledge, thoy 
V-ouId have i-ulUv Bled and brou<;1it lo porffclion evcrv branch of |/hilosophy. 
At tho comtni'nKement of their e.\traotdinar^- cart'pr tin.'}' were ini^eiuoiH and 
puliahcd : they maili.' ri'markalile iiri.jtress in puctry, architecture, medivine, 
gecrmetry, natural history, and astronomy ; they |in'servc-daud tra.ajmitted to 
u» many of those inmiortnl works which were destined to aid the revival of 
leamiog in Europe. Bat the Mussulman relijjiori wjvs iiicumpatible with this 
deTElopmcnt af the mind ; the Aralm were expusied to the alternative o( 
lennuntiiiH their Ciithj or returtiirig tu the icnurancc of their onceitora," 
JhtcrifHtin ite I'S^t/plt^ f rf/ace KutQn<iue, p. To. 


Negro inferior, and decidedly bo, to that of tbe European ; and, 
as this inferiority arises from a corresponding difference of orga- 
nization, I must regard it as his natural destiny r but I do not 
consider him more inferior than the other dark races. I can 
neither admit the reasoning nor perceive the humanity of those 
who, after tearing the African from his native soil, carrying him 
to the West Indies, and dooming him there to perpetual slavery 
and labour, complain that his understanding shows no signs 
of improvement, and that hia temper and disposition are incor- 
rigibly perverse, faithless, and treacherous. Let us, however, 
obsen'e him in a eoraewhat more favourable state than in those 
dreadful receptacles of human misery, the crowded decks of the 
slave-ship, or in the less openly shocking, but constrained and 
extorted, and therefore painful labours of the sugar plantation. 

That the Negroes behave to others according to the treatment 
they receive, may be easily gathered from the best sources of 
information. They have not, indeed, reached that sublime 
height, the beau ideal of morality, the returning good for evil, 
probably because their masters have not yet found leisure 
enough from the pursuit of riches to instil into them the tme 
spirit of Christianity. " The feelings of the Negroes (says an 
accurate observer) are extremely acute. According to the 
manner in which they are treated, they are gay or melancholy, 
laborious or slothful, friends or enemies. When well fed, and 
not maltreated, they are contented, joyous, ready for every 
enjoyment ; and the satisfaction of their mind is painted in their 
countenance. But, when oppressed and abused, they grow 
peevish, and often die of melancholy. Of benefits and abuse 
they are extremely sensible, and against those who injure them 
they bear a mortal hatred. On the other hand, when they 
contract an affection to a master, there is no office, however 
hazardous, which they will not boldly execute, to demonstrate 
their zeal and attachment. They are naturally affectionate, and 
have an ardent love for their children, friends and countrymen. 
The little they possess they freely distribute nraong the neces- 
sitous, without any other motive than that of pure compassion 
foi the indigent."* 

The travels of Bakrow, Lb Vaillant, and Mungo Park, 
ahound with anecdotes honourable to the moral character of the 
Africans, and prove that they betray no deficiency in the amiable 
qualities of the heart. One of these gives us an Interesting 

• Uidmre det Antillea, p. 483, 


portrait of tbe cHief of a tribe : " His coontenance was strongly 
marked with the habit of reflection ; \n^orou8 in his mental, and 
amiable in his personal qualities, Gaika was at once the friend 
and ruler of a happy people, who universally pronounced his 
name with transport, and blessed his abode as tbe seat of fehcity." 
Some European kings might take a lesson from this savage. 

Mr. Barrow gives a picture, by no means unpleasing, of the 
Hottentoti. Their indolence probably arises from the state of 
subjection in which they live; as the wildBosjesmen are parti- 
cnlarly active and cheerful. 

"They are a mild, qiuet, and timid people ; perfectly harmless, 
honest, faitbfid ; and though extremely phlegmatic, they are kind 
and affectionate to each other, and not incapable of strong attach- 
ments. A Hottentot would share his last morsel with his com- 
panions. They have Uttle of that kind of art or cunning that 
savages generally possess. If accused of crimes, of which they 
have been guilty, lliey generally divulge the truth. They seldom 
quarrel among themselves, or make use of provoking languag^e. 
Though naturally fearful, they will run into the face of danger 
if led on by their superiors. They suffer pain with patience. 
They are by no meaua deficient in talent."* 

" The Bosjesman, though in every respect a Hottentot, yet in 
his turn of mind differs very widely from those that live in the 
colony. In his disposition he is lively and cheerfnl ; in his person 
active. His talents are far above mediocrity ; and, averse to idle- 
nes.s, they are seldom ivithout employment."f They are very 
fond of dancing, exhibit great industry and acateness m their 
contrivances for catching game, and considerable mechanical 
skUl in forming their batikets, mats, nets, arrows, &c. &c, t 

I see no reason to doubt that the Negro race, taken altogether, 
la equal to any in natural goodness of heart. It is consonant to 
oar general experience of mankind, that the latter quality should 
be deadened or completely ejrtinguisbpd in the slave-ship or 
plantation ; indeed, it is as little creditable ttj the heads as to tbe 
hearts of their white masters, to expect affection and fidelity from 
slaves after the treatment they too often experience. 

The acute and accurate Barbot, in his large work on Guinea, 
says, " The blacks have sufficient sense and understanding, their 
conceptions are quick and accurate, and their memory possesses 
extraordinary strength. For, although they can neither read nor 
write, they never fall into confusion or error in tbe greatest buiry 

• TmKlt in SouOiern Africa, v. I. p. IM. + lb. p, 883. t lb. vp. 284—890. 





of ibusix]es3 and trafTic. Tlieir experieDce of tbe knavery of 
Europeans has put them comrletely on their guard in transac- 
tions of exchange : they carefully examine all our goods, piece 
by piece, to ascertain if their quality and measxire are correctly 
atated ; and show as much sagacity and clearness in aU these 
transactions, as any European tradesman could do." 

Of those imitative arts, in which perfection can be attained 
only in an improved state of society, it is natural to suppose that 
the Negroes can have little knowledge ; but the fabric and colours 
of the Guinea cloths are proofs of their native ingenuity j and, 
that they are capable of leartiiiig all kinds of the more delicate 
manual labours, is proved by the fact, that nine-tenths of the 
artificers in the West Indies are Negroes. Many are expert 
carpenters, and some watchmakers. 

The drawings and busts executed by the wild Bosjesraen in 
the neighbourhood of the Cape are praised by Barkow* for 
their accuracy of outline and correctness of proportion. 

Negroes have been known to earn bo much in America by 
their musical exertions, as to purchase their freedom with large 
sums. The younger Fkeidig in Vienna was an expert pp.rformer 
both on the vioUn and violinceUo ; he was also a capital drafts- 
man, and had made an excellent painting of himself. Mr. 
Edwakds,'!' however, speaks very contemptuously of their 
musical talents in general: he says, "they prefer a loud and 
long-continued noise to the finest harmony ; and frequently con- 
sume the whole night in beating on a board with a stick." 

The capacity of the Negroes for the mathematical and physical 
sciences is proved by Hannibal, a colonel in the Russian 
a.rtillerj', and L18LKT of the Isle of France, who was named a 
corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences, on 
account of his e.xcellent meteorological observations. Fu ller of 
Maryland, was an extraordinary example of quickness in reckon- 
ing. Being asked in a company, for the purpose of trying his 
powers, how many seconds a person had lived who was seventy 
years and some months old, he gave the answer in a minute and 
a half On reckoning it up after him, a different residt was 
obtained : " Have not you forgotten the leap years?" says the 
Negro. This omission was supplied, and the number then agreed 
with his answer.l 

BoERUAAV£ and Da Habn have given the strongest testi- 

• TTavfU, Sec V. i. p. 239—307. f BUI. nfihe If'eit Indtei, v. ii. p. MB. 

J 8tr<linan'-i Surinnm: v. il. p. 270. This nircumslanre Li related gn the 
aataority of Dr, Ku^ti, u haring happened la bis preteace. 


raony that otir black brethren possess no mean insight into prac- 
tical medicine ; and several have been known as very dexterous 
surgeons. A Negress ofYverdun is mentioned by Blum enbach 
asacelebratedmidwifeof real knowledge and an experienced hand. 

Omitting Madocks, a Methodist preacher, and not attempt- 
ing to enumerate all the Negroes who have written poems, I may 
mention that Blumenbach possesses English, Dutch, and 
Latin poetrj', by different Negroes. 

In 1734, A. W. Amo, an African, from the coast of Guinea, 
took the degi-ee of Doctor at the university of Wittenlierg ; and 
displayed according to Blumenbach, in two disputations, 
extensive and well-digested reading in the physiological hooks 
of the time.* 

J AC. Eliz. Joh. Capitein, who was bought by a slave- 
dealer Avhen eight years old, studied theology at Leyden, and 
published several sermons and poem.s. His Dissertatio de Servi- 
tute Libertati Christianee non contraHa went through four editions 
very qHickly, He was ordained in Amsterdam, and went to 
Elmitia on the Gold Coast, where he was either murdered, or 
exchanged for the life and faith of his countrymen those he had 
learned in Europe. 

Ignatils Sancuo, and Gustavus Vasa, the former bora 
in a slave-ship on its passage from Guinea to the West Indies, 
and the latter in the kingdom of Benin, have distinguished them- 
selves as literary characters in this country in modern times. 
Tlieir works and lives are bo well known, and so easily accessible, 
that it is only necessary to mention them. 

On reviewing these in.stances, which indeed be receiwd 
as e.tceptions to the general results of observation and experience 
respecting the Negro faculties, Imayob3er\'exvithBLUMENBACH, 
from whom some of them are borrowed, that entire and larg^e 
provinces of Europe might he named, in which it would be diffi- 
cult to meet with such good ^ters, poets, philosophers, and 
con'espon dents of the French Academy, These insulated facts 
are not, however, adduced to prove that the .\frican enjoyfl an 
equality of moral and intellectual attributes with the European 
race ; but merely to show, that of the dark-coloured people none 
have distinijiiished themselves by stronger proofs of capacity for 
literary and scientific cultivation, and consequently that none 
approach more nearly than the Negro to the polished nations of 
the globe. That the Ethiopian, taken altogether, ia decidedly 
• Beytrage xur Kalur'ictvhnlite ; Th. i. p. 

Am) nrrErj-EtrrtTAL QtrALiriEfl. 341 

inferior to the Ciiucasian variety in the qnalkies of the heart 
and of (he head, will he aoon recognised by any one who atten- 
tively weighs the representations of all unprejudiced and distn- 
tereated obaervcra respecting the conduct, capabilities, and 
dliaracter of the Africans, whether in their own country, in the 
West Indies, or in America; and the continuance of the whole 
race, for more than twenty centuries, in a condition which, in 
its best forms, is little elevated Jihove absolute barbarism, must 
give to this conviction the clear light and full force of demonistra- 
tion. I cannot therefore admit, without some restriction and 
explanation, the quaint but humane expression of the preacher 
who called the Negro " God's image, like ourselves, though 
carved in ebony." 

As the external influences of climate, soil, situation; of way 
of life, degree of civihzation, habits, cuetoras, form of govern- 
ment, religion, education, are manifestly inadequate to account 
for the very marked differences which at all tiraea, in all coun- 
tries, and under all circumstances, have characterized the white 
and the dark races, and the various sub-divisions of each, we 
must look deeper for their causes, and seek them in some circum- 
stances inseparably interwoven in the original constitution of 
; man. In conformity with the \iews already explained respecting 
I the mental part of our being, I refer the varieties of moral feel- 
ing, and of capacity for knowledge and reflection, to those diver- 
I nties of cerebral organization, which are indicated by, and 
correspond to the differences in the shape of the skull. If the 
nobler attributes of man reside in the cerebral hemispheres ; if 
the prerogatives which bft him so much above the brute are 
satisfactorily accounted for by the superior development of those 
[important parts; the various degrees and kinds of moral feeling 
I and of inteEectual power may be consistently explained by the 
i Dumerous and obvious differences of size in the various cerebral 
[parts, besides which there may be peculiarities of internal orga- 
nization, not appreciable by our means of inquiry. Proceeding 
I Ob these data, we shall fmd, in the comparison of tlie crania of 
' the white and dark races, a sufficient explanation of the supe- 
I riority constantly evinced by the former, and of the inferior 
I subordinate lot to which the latter have been irrevocably doomed. 
If examples can be adduced, either of nations having such a 
form of the brain and head, as that wliich characterizes the 
Caucasian variety of man, placed under favourable circumstances 
for the development of their moral and intellectual powerSj and 



yet not advancing beyond tbe point which has been reached byi 
the African or American tribes of the present time ; or of pcof 
organhed like the dark varieties, and reaching, under any circits^| 
stances, that degree of moral and intellectual cuJtJ\'ation wb 
exUt in the sereral polished countriea of Em-ope, the preceding 
reasoning will be overturned : if no such instances can be brought 
fonvards, the conclusion that the marked difTerences between 
the white nnd dark-coloured divisions of our species arise from 
original distinctions of organization, and not from adventitious 
circuraRtances remains unshaken, 

I cannot but respect the feelings of philanthropy, and the mo- 
tives of benevolence, which have prompted many of our country- 
men to exert themselves in behalf of the unenlightened and 
oppressed ; I cannot contemplate without admiration the heroic 
self-denial, and the generous devotion of those, who, foregoing 
the comforts, luxuries, and rational enjoyments of polished 
society, expose themselves to noxious climates and to all the 
perils of unknoTvn countries, in order to win over the saA-age to 
the settled habits, the useful arts, and the various advantages of 
ci\'ilized life, to rescue him from the terrors of superstition, and 
bestow on him the inestimable blessings of mental culture and 
pure rehgion. But our expectations and exertions in this, as in 
other cases, must be hmitcd by the natural capabilities of the 
subject. The retreating forehead and the depressed vertex of 
the dark varieties of man make me strongly doubt whether ihey 
are susceptible of these high destinies ; — ^whether they are capa> 
We of fathoming the depths of science ; of understanding and 
appreciating the doctrines and the mysteries of our religion. 
Tliese obstacles will, I fear, be too powerful for missionaries and 
Bible societies; for Beli> and Lancaster schools. Variety 
'jf powers in the various races corresponds to the diiTerences 
uoth in kind and degree, which characterize the individuals of 
each race ; indeed, to the general character of all nature, in 
which uniformity is most carefully avoided. To expect that the 
Americans or Africans can be raised by any culture to an equal 
height in moral sentiments and intellectual energy with Euro- 
peans, appears to me quite as unreasonable as it would be to hope 
that the bull-dog may equal the greyhound in speed ; that the 
latter may be taught to hunt by scent like the hound ; or that 
the mastiff may rival in talents and acquirements the sagacioos 
and docile poodle. 





On /Ae QiiMeir of the FarieiUs of tli« Human 8p«ei«t, 
Having examined the principal points in which the several 
tribes of the human species {Mffer from each other ; namely, the 
colour and texture of the skin, hair, and iris, the features, the 
aku]l and brain, the fonna and proportions of the body, the 
stature, the animal economy, the moral and inteUectaal powers, 
I proceed to inquire whether the diversities enumerated under 
these heads are to be considered as characteristic distinctions co- 
eval with the origin of the species, or as the result of subsequent 
variation ; and, in the event of the latter supposition being 
adopted, whether they are the effect of external physical and 
moral causes, or of native or congenital variety. The very nu- 
merous i^radations, which we meet with, in each of the points 
above mentioned, are an almost insuperable objectioii to the 
notion of specific difference : for all of them may be equally 
referred to original distinction of species ; yet if we admit this, 
the number of species would be overwhelming. On the other 
hand, the analogies drawn from the anirn^d kingdom, and 
adduced under eacli head, nearly demonstrate that the character- 
istics of the various human tribes must be referred, like the cor- 
responding diversities in other animals, to variation,. Again, 1-. 
have incidentally brought forward several argximcnta to prove 
that external agencies, whether physical or moral, will not 
account for the bod ily and mental differences, which characterize 
the several tribes of mankind ; and that they must be accounted 
for by the breed or race.* This subject, however, requires fur- 
ther illustration. 

The causes vrhich operate on the bodies of living animals 
dther modify the individual, or alter the offspring. The former 
are of great importance in the history of animals, and jjroduce 
considerable alterations in individuals ; but the latter are the 
most powerful, as they affect the species, and cause the diversi- 
ties of race. Great influence has at all times been ascribed to 
dimate, which indeed has been commonly, but very loosely and 
indefinitely represented as the cause of most important modifi- 
cations in the human subject and in other animals. Differences 
of colour, stature, hair, features, and those of moral and intel- 
lectual character, have been alike referred to the action of thia 

* SeosGcl. ii. chap.ii. p. 203, and following; chap. iv. p. 2SS,andXoUowiiig; 
«6«p. vi, p. 301. 


mysterious cause ; without any attempt to show which of the 
arcumitances in the numerous assemblage comprehended under 
the word climate produces the effect in question, or any indica- 
tion of the mode in which the point is accomplished. That the 
constitution of the atmosphere varies in respect to light and 
heat, moisture, and electricity; and that these variations, with 
those of elevation, soil, winds, vegetable productions, will operate 
decidedly on individuals, 1 do not mean to deny. While, however, 
we have no precise information on the kind or degree of influence 
attributable to such caxiaes, M'e have abundance of proof that they 
are entirely inadequate to account for the differences between 
the various races of men. I shall state one or two changes 
which seem fairly referable to climate. 

The whitening (blanching or etiolation) of vegetables, when 
the sun's rays are excluded, demonatratea the influence of those 
rays on vegetable colours. Nor is the effect merely superficial : 
it extends to the texture of the plant, to the taste and other 
propertiesof its juices. Men much exposed to the sun and air, 
as peasants and sailors, acquire a deeper tint of colour than 
those who are more covered ; and the tanning of the skin by 
the summer sun in parts of the body exposed to it, as the face 
and hands, ia a phenomenon completely analogous. The ruddy 
and tawny hues of those who live in the country, pailicularly of 
lahourers in the open air, and the pale sallow countenances of 
the inhabitants of towns, of close and dark workshops and 
manufactories, owe their origin to the enjoyment or privation of 
sun and air. Hence, men of the same race are lighter or darker 
coloured according to the climate which they inhabit, at least 
in those parts which are uncovered. The native hue of the 
Moors is not darker than that of the Spaniards, of many French, 
and some English; but their acquired tint is so much deeper,, 
that we distinguish them instantly. How swarthy do the Euro-, 
peane become who seek their fortunes under the tropic and 
equator, and have their skins parched by the buroing suns of 
" Afric and of either Ind 1" 

Mr. Edwards represents that the Creoles in the English 
West-Indian islands are taller than Europeans ; several being 
sis feet four inches high ; and that their orbits are deeper.* 

It has been generally observed by travellers, that the Euro- 
pean papulation of the United States of Nortlj America is tall, 
and characterized by a pale and sallow countenance. The latter 

* fiijfory qf (Ac Jfeit India, r. U. p. II. 


effect is commonly produced in natives of Europe when they 
become resident in wanm climates. That both aexe» arrive 
earlier at puberty, and that the mental powers of children are 
sooner developed in warm than in cold countries, are facts 
familiarly known. 

The prevalence of light colours in the animals of polar and 
cold regions may, perhaps, be ascribed to the influence of cli- 
mate J the isati^ or arctic fox, the polar bear, and the snow- 
bunting, are striking instances. The same cliaracter is also 
lemarkable in some species, which arc more dark-colonrcd in 
warmer situations. This opinion is strengthened by the ana- 
logy of those animals wbicli change their colour in the same 
country, at the winter season, to white or gray, aa tiie ermine 
(mustela erminea), and iveaaej (m. nivalis), the varying hare, 
aquirrel, reindeer, white game (tetrao lagopus), and snow-bunt- 
ing (emfaeriza nivalis).* Pallas observes, " that even in 
domestic animals, aa horses and cows, the winter coat is of a 
lighter colour than the smoother covering which succeeds it in 
the spring. This difference is much more considerable in wild 
animals. I have shown instances of it in two kinds of ante- 
lope (saiga and gutturosa), in the musk animal (moschus mos- 
ehifer), and in the equus hemionus. The Siberian roe, which 
13 red in summer, becomes of a grayish white in winter ; wolves 
and the deer kind, particularly the elk and the reindeer, become 
light in the winter ^ the sable (m. zibellina), and the martin 
{m. martea), are browner in summer than in winter."t 

Although these phenomenon seem obviously connected with 
the state of atmospherical temperature, and hence the change of 
colour, which the squirrel and the mustela nivalis undergo in 
Siberia and Russia, does not take place in Germany ;| we do 
not understand the exact nature of the process by which it ia 
effected ; and cold certainly appears not to be the direct cause. 
For the varying hare, though kept in warm rooms during the 
winter, gets its white winter covering only a little later than 
tisual;§ and in all the animals in which this kind of change 
takes place, the winter coat, which is more copious, close and 
downy, aa well aa lighter coloured, is found already far advanced 
in the autumn, before the cold sets in. || 

■ Linneiu. Flora Lapptmica ; «tl. of Smith, pp. 3S, 35S, 

+ NvnB Si>eciet Quadrtaiedum, p. 7. 

t Ihid, p. 6, nule h. "] liif urminR chanj^ps Lis colour in the winter in Oer. 
tBuiy ; bill Pallas states, on Iht fiitli of suffiiii-nt testimony, that it does not 
nndor^ this change in the marc soutbcni district} of Aai» and Vun\«. 

I Nasa Specie! ' " " 

'mptdum, p. 7. 



The coverings of animals, as well as their colour, seem to lie 
modified in many cases by climate ; but as the body is naked 
in the human subject, and as the hair of the head cannot be 
regarded in the same light as the fur, wool, or hair which covers 
the bodies of animals generally, the analogies offered by the 
latter are not very directly applicable to the present subjecL 

In cold regions the fur and feathers are thicker, and more 
copious, 80 as to form a much more effectual defence against 
the cUmate than the coarser and rarer textures which are seen 
m warm countries. The thick fleece of the dogs lately brought 
from Baffin's Bay, exemplifies this observation very completely. 
The wool of the sheep degenerates into a coarse hair in Mrica ; 
where we meet also with dogs quite naked, with a smooth aud 
soft skin. 

Whether the goat furni.shing the wool from which the shawls 
of Cashmere are manufacturod, is of the same species with that 
domesticated in Europe, and whether the prodigious difference 
between the hairy gro-wth of the two animals is due to diversity 
of climate, are points at present uncertain. Neither do we know 
whether the long and silky coat of the goat, cat, sheep, and 
rabbits of Angora can be accounted for by the operation of this • 
cause : it is at least worthy of notice, that this quality of the 
hair should e.riat in so many imimals of the same country. It 
continues when they are removed into other situations, and is 
transmitted to the offspring ; so that we may, probably, regard 
these as permanent breeds. 

It IS well known that the qualities of the horse are inferior in 
France to those of neighbouring countries. According to BuF- 
FON, Spanish or Barbary horses, when the breed is not crossed, 
become French horses sometimes in the second generation, and 
always in the third.* Since the climate of England, which 
certainly does not approach more nearly to that of the original 
abode of this animal, than that of France, does not impede the 
development of its finest forms and most excellent qualities, we 
may, perhaps, with greater jjrobability, refer the degeneracy of 
the French horses to neglect of the breed. We know that the 
greatest attention to this point is necessary, in order to prevent 
deterioration in form and spirit. 

Differences in food might be naturally expected to produce 
considerable corresponding modifications in the animal body. 
Singing birds, chiefly of the lark and finch kinds, are known to 
• Vol. iv. i>. 106. 



become gradually black, if they are fed on bemp-flcod only* 
Ilorses fed on the fat marshy groujids of Frieslaud grow to a 
large size; while, on stony eoils or dry heaths, they remain 
dwarfish. Oxen liecorae very large and fat in rich goLls, but 
are distiuguished by shortnesa of the legs ; while, in drier situa- 
tions, their whole bulk ia lesa, and the limbs arc stronger and 
more fleshy. The quantity of food has great influence on the 
bulk and state of health of the human subject : but the quality 
seems to have less power ; and neither produces any of those 
differences which characterizes races. 

In all the changes which are produced in the bodies of animals 
by the action of external causes, the effect terminates in the 
individual ; the offspring is not in the slightest degree modified 
by them,t but is burn with the original properties and consti- 
tution of the parents, and a susceptibility only of the same 
changes when exposed to the same causes. 

The change in the oolour of the human skin, from exposure 
to auu and air, ia obviously temporary ; for it ia dimiuishod and 
even removed, when the causes no longer act. The discoloura- 
tion, which we term tanning, or being aun-bumt, as well as the 
spots called freckles, are most incidental to fair skins, and dis- 
appear when the parts are covered, or no longer eiqtosed to the 
sun. The children of the husbandman, or of the sailor, whose 
countenance bears the marks of other climes, are just as fair as 
those of the most deUcate and pale inhabitants of a city : nay, 
the Moors, who have lived for ages under a burning sun, still 
have white children ; and the offspring of Europeans in the 
Indies have the original tint of their progenitors. 

BiUMEiTBAOH has been led into a mistake on this point by 
an English author,! who asserts that Creoles are bom with 
a, different complexion and cast of countenance from the chil- 
dren of the same parents brought forth in Europe. In oppo- 
aition to this statement from one who had not seen the facts, I 
place the authority of Loho, a most respectable eye-witness, 
who, in his Bistorif of Jwnudat, affirms, that ** the children bom 
in England have not, in general, lovelier or more transparent 

• DcT Naturfancher, pt. 1. p. 1 : pt. ix. p. 22. 

t Wlien iTiB faius in ntcro has smiiU-pox or (yphlllK, there 5a actual cam- 
municDUun of iIUpbsf by ttie fluids uf the cnutber. Ttiii la a case altogether 
different rroiii those uiid<!r <^allalderat{H)n. Neither doea heredicary prvdispo- 
•iUoQ to particular dijseiues piove that acquired condiiLont are trouiniittect to 
the offiipriug. 'I'liere are Dalural Tiuictleii ol" orpuiiiation, dlapasing different 
IndlriduolB to different discoia on appUcadoa ai tbe same external cbiuc*. 
Thew naiunil varieties, like those of form, colourj and other obvioua ^Ta'^tafCiwit, 
we coatijiued ta the children, 

I Uawlceiworttij in CttUectiim of Vogagt*, ^,V&. p.. 37 A. 



RkiiiB than the offspring of vrhitc paruuts in Jamaica.^' The 
**au8trum spirans vultua et color," which the above-mentioned 
acute and learned uaturahat ascribes to the Creole, is merely 
the acquired effect of the climate, and not a character existing 
at birth. 

"Nothing," Bays Dr. Pkitchabd,* "eeems to hold true 
more generally, than that all acquired conditions of body, whe- 
ther produced by art or accident, end Yvdth the life of the indi- 
vidual in whom they are produced. Many nations mould their 
bodies into unnatural forms ; the Indians flatten their foreheads ; 
the Chinese women reduce their feet to one-third of their natural 
dimensions; savages elongate their ears; many races cut away 
the prepuce. We frequently mutilate our domestic animals by 
removing the tail or ears, and our own species arc often obliged 
by disease to submit to the loss of limbs. That no deformity, 
or mutilation of this kind is hereditary, is so plainly proved by 
everything around us, that we must feel some surprise at the 
contrary opinion having gained any advocates. After the ope- 
ration of circumcisiou baa prevailed for three or four thousand 
years, the Jews are still bom with prepuces, and still obliged to 
submit to a painful rite. Docked horses and cropped dogs 
brittg forth young with entire ears and tails. But for this salu- 
tary law, what a frightful spectacle would every race of animals 
exhibit ! The mischances of ail preceding times would over- 
whelm us with their united weight, and the catalogue would be 
continually increasing, until the universe, instead of displaying 
a spectacle of beauty and pleasure, would be filled with maimed, 
imperfect, and monBtrous shapes. 

It is obvious that the external influences just considered, even 
though we should allow to them a much greater uitluence ou 
individuals than experience warrants us in admitting, would be 
still entirely inadequate to account for those signal diversities, 
which constitute dilferences of race in animals. Thesii can bo 
explained only by two principles already mentioned ;t namely, 
the occasional production of an offspring with different charac- 
ters from those of the parents, as a native or congenial variety; 
and the propagation of such varieties by generation. It is impos- 
sible in the present slate of phyBioiogical knowledge, to show 
how this is effected ; to explain why a gray rabbit or cat some- 
times brings forth at one birth, and from oue father, yellow, 
black, white, and spotted young ; why a white sheep sometimes 

* OiV- imtag. 

\ %e« VP>^^wAteVUi<M\itt\ 299 ftnd folloirllif^ 


haa a black lamb ; or why the same parents at diflTeremt times 
have leucaethiopic children, and others ■writh the ordinary forma- 
tian and characters. 

The state of domestication, or the artificial mode of life, which 
they lead under the influence of man, is the most powerful 
cause of varieties in the animal kingdom. Wild animals, using 
always the same kind of food, being exposed to the action of 
the climate without artificial protection, choose, each of them, 
according to its nature, their zone and country. Instead of 
migrating and extending, like man, they continue in those places 
which are the most friendly to their constitutions. Hence, 
their nature undergoes no change; their figure, colour, size, 
proportions, and properties, are unaltered; and consequently 
there is no difficulty in detennining their species. Nothing can 
form a stronger contrast to this uniformity of specific character 
than the numerous and marked varieties in those kinds which 
have been reduced by man. Tii trace back our domestic animals 
to their wild originals is in all cases difficult, in some impossible ; 
long slavery has so degraded their nature, that the primitive 
animai may be said to be lost, and a degenerated being, running 
into endless varieties, is substituted in its place. The wild ori- 
ginal of the sheep is even yet uncertain. Buffon conceived 
. that he discovered it in the mouflon or argali (ovis ammon) : 
and Pallas, who had an opportunity of studying the latter 
animal, adds the weight of his highly respectable authority to 
the opinion of the French naturalist. Yet Blumenbacu 
regards the argah as a distinct species. Should we allow the 
latter to be the parent of our sheep, and consequently admit 
that the differences are explicable by degeneration, no difficulty 
can any longer exist about the unity of the human species. An 
incomplete horn of the argali, in the Academical Museum at 
Gottingen, weighs nine pounds.* 

" Let us compare," says BuirFON, "our pitifiil sheep with 
the mouflon, from which they derived their origin. Tlie mouflon 
is a large animal. He is fleet as a stag, armed mth horns and 
thick hoofs, covered with coarse hair, and dreads neither the 
inclemency of the sky nor the voracity of the wolf. He not only 
escapes from his enemies by the swiftness of his course, and 
Bcahng, with truly wonderful leaps, the most frightful preci- 
pices J but he resists them by the strength of his body and the 
Bolidity of the arms with which his head and feet are fortified. 

• Blumenbneh, Haniibuch dcr J\'alurg€sclnc/:le, p, lll,ttolc. 


to them unnatural c&uses ; if the pig is remarkable among these 
for the number and degree of its varieties, because it has been 
the most exposed to causes of degeneration ; we shall be at no 
loss to account for the diversities in man, who is, in the true, 
though not ordinary sense of the word, more of a domesticated 
animal than any other. We know the wild state of most of 
them, but we are ignorant of the natural wild condition to which 
man was destined. Probably there is no such state, because 
nature, having limited him in no respect, having fitted him for 
ercry kind of life, every climate, and every variety of food, has 
given him the whole earth for his abode, and both the organised 
kingdoms for his nourishment. Yet, in the wide range through 
which the scale of human cultivation e.xtends, we may observe a 
contrast between the two extremities, analogous to that which is 
seen in the wild and tamed races of animals. The savage may 
be compared to the former, which range the earth uncontrolled 
by man ; civilised people to the domesticated breeds of the same 
species, whose diversities, form, and colour are endless. Whether 
we consider the several nations, or the individuals of each, bodily 
differences are much more numerous in the highly civilised 
Caucasian variety, than either of the other di\isions of mankind. 

Such, then, are causes by which the varieties of man may be 
accounted for. Although I have acknowledged my entire igno- 
rance of the manner in which these operate, I have proved that 
they exist, and have shown by copious analogies, that they are 
sufEcient to explain the phenomena, llie tendency, under certain 
circumstances, to alterations of the original colour, form, and 
other proiierties of the body, and the law of transmission to the 
offspring, are the sources of varieties in man and animals, and 
thereby modify the species ; climate, food, way of life, in a word, 
all the physical and moral causes that surround ns, act indeed 
powerfully on the individual, but do not change the offspring, 
except in the indirect manner just alluded to. We should, there- 
fore, openly violate the rules of phdosophiaing, which direct us 
to assign the same causes for natural effects of the same kind, 
and not to admit more causes than are sufficient for ex^ilaining 
the plienomena, if we recurred, for the purpose of explaining 
the varieties of man, to the perfectly gratuitous assumption of 
originally different species, or called to our aid the operation of 
climate, and other external influences. 

Yet, if it be allowed that all men are of the same species, it 
doea qot foUow that they all descend from the same family. W« 


have no data for determining this point : it could indeed only be 
settled by a knowledge of facts, which liave been long ago in- 
volved in the imjKnetrablc darkness of antiquity. 

By the moat intelligent and learned writers on the varieties of 
mankind, their production ha& been explained in a different 
manner from that which has been just attempted; theybave 
Bolved the problem entirely by the operation of adventitious 
causea, such as climate, particularly the light and heat of the 
sun, food, and mode of life. These, it is said, acting on men 
originally alike, produce various bod'dy diversities, and affect the 
colour of the skin especially ; such alteratians, transmitled to 
the offspring, and gradually increased through a long course of 
ages, are supposed to account Kufficiently for all the dift'erences 
observed at present in the inha;bitantH of the different regions of 
the globe. If we were disposed to submit, in this question, to 
authority, the number and celebrity of the phdosopherSj' who 
have contended for the influence of climate, and other pbyaical 
and moral causes, would certainly compel our assent to theii 
opinions. Our resj)ect for their talents and labours will be suf- 
ficiently marked if we enter into a closer examination of the 
arguments which they have adduced on this subject. 

That solar heat causes blackness of the skin is an ancient 
■opinion, and must have appeared very probable, when the Negro 
natives of the torrid zone were the only black people known. 
" Ethiopas," says Pliny, " vicini siderisvapore torreri, adustis- 
que simdea gigni, barba et capiilo vibrato, non est dubium."-f- 

"The heat of the cUmate," says Bukpon, "is the chief cause 
of blackness among the human species. When this heat is 
excessive, as in Senegal and Guinea, the men are perfectly black ; 
■when it is a little less violent, the blackness is not so deep; 
when it becomes somewhat terapeiate, as in Barbary, Mongolia, 
Arabia, &c. mankind are only brown; and lastly, when it is alto- 
gether temperate, as in Europe and Asia, men are white. Some 
varieties, indeed, are produced by the mode of living. All the Ta- 
tars (Mongols) for example, are tawny; while the Europeans, who 
live under the same latitude, are white. This difference may 
safely be ascribed to the Tatars being always exposed to the air, 
to their having no cities or fised habitations, to their aleeinng 

• AmoTis theni are BiifTon, Bliimenhadi, Smith (Easa^ onihe Cautet of Uit 
Variety nfCnoijilerton and Figure in lltv Human fljimes, riiilaik'tphia,) Zimmer- 
man n ( (Vcogra/jAiif Ap liesrliichte del J/nuc/ien. v^-) ; tind Furatpr (OWrra/iofW 
viadc durinij a royage round the ft'orld; cha\>. vi. sec, 3). The DTj^uments of 
thesf wrilors iire very alilv luinliated by Dr. Prichard iti his Bttforchei into 
the fkytical Mittury c/ Man. i tiitl. Sal. lib. u. 80. 


conatRntly on the ground, end to their roog'h and mvsge xaen- 
ner of living. Tlietse cirnim8tano« are sufficient to render the 
Tatars more Bivarthy than the Euro))eBn8, who want nothing to 
make life easy and comfortable. Why are the Chineae fairer 
^an the Tatars, though they resemble them in every feature ? 
Because they are more polished ; becanse they live in towns, 
and practise e\*ery art to guard themselves against the injuries 
of the weather ; while the Tatars are perpetually e.Ypo8ed to the 
action of tke sun and air. 

" Climate may be regarded as the rouse of tlie different cokmrs 
of men : but food, though it has less influence than colour, 
greatly affects the form of our bochee. Coarse, unwholesome, 
and ill-prepnred food tnaltes the human species degenerate. All 
those people who live miserably, are ugly and Cl-niade. Even 
in France, lie country people are not so beairtiful as those who 
live in towns : and I have often remarked, that in those ^'illages 
where the jieople are richer and better fed than in others, the 
men are likewise more handsome, and have better countenances. 
The air and the soil have great influence on the figures of men, 
beasts, and plants. 

" Upon the whole, every circumstance concuTS in proving 
that mankind are not composed of species essentially different 
from each other ; that, on the contrary, there was originally but 
one species, which, after multiplymg and spreading over the 
whole surface of the earth, has undergone various changes by the 
influence of climate, food, mode of living, epidemic diseases, 
and mixture of dis.«milar individuals ; tbat, at first, these changes 
were not so conspicuous, and produced only individual varieties ; 
that these varieties became afterwards more specific, because 
they were rendered more general, more strongly marked, and 
more permanent, by the continual action of the same cause.s; 
that they are transmitted from generation to generation, as de- 
formities or diseases pans from parents to children; and that, 
lastly, as they were originally jiroduced by a train of external and 
accidental causes, and have only been perpetuated by time, and 
the constant operation of these causes, it is probable that they 
will gradually disappear, or, at least, that they will differ from 
what they are at present, if the causes which produced them 
shonld cease, or if their operation should be varied by other eft- 
ctunstances and combinations."* 

" In tracing the globe," says Smith, " from the pole to the 
• /fatura! Uittofy. by Wood, v. ii]. pp, 443—448, 





equator, we oLseTve a gradation in the complexion, nearly in 
proportion to the latitude of the country. Immediately below 
the arctic circle, a high and sanguine colour prevails : from this 
you descend to the mixture of red and white : afterwardB suc- 
ceed the bromij the olive, the tawny, and at lenjE^tli, the black, aa 
you proceed to the line. , The same distance from the sun, liow- 
evCT, does not, in every regfion, indicate the same temperature of 
rlimate. Some secondary causes must be taken into conHidera- 
tion, as correcting and limiting its influence. The elevation of 
the land, its vicinity to the sea, the nature of the soil, the state 
of cultivation, the course of winds, and many other circaro- 
atEncps, enter into this view. Elevated and raountainauR coron- 
tries are cool, in proportion to their altitude above the level of 
"the sea," &c. fee* 

Blumep^xach informs us how climate oi)erates in modifying 
the colour of the akin, but does not attemjit to explain its efiecte 
on the stature, proportions, and other points. He states that 
i<he proximate cause of the dark colour of the integuments is on 
abundance of carbone, secreted by the akin with hydrogen, pre- 
cipitated and fixed in the rete mucosum by the contact of the 
•atmospheric oxygpn.f He ohserves further, that this abundance 
of carbone is most distinctly noticeable in persons of an antrabi- 
larious temperament ; which fact, together with many othera, 
provee the intimate connection between the biliary and the cuta- 
neous organs ; that hot climate.s exert a very signal influence on 
the liver ; and thus that an nnnatural state of the biliary secre- 
tion, produced by heat, and increased through many gcneratione, 
causes the yessels of the skin to secrete that abundance of car- 
bone, which produces the black colour of the Negro, t 

If any one can believe that the Negroes and other dark people, 
■whom we see in full health and vigour, and with every organic 
perfection, labour under a kind of habitual jaundice, he may 
think it worth whUe to inquire further into this assumed secre- 
'tion and precipitation of carbone. It vnU then be necessary to 
-explain how this jaundice is produced in the numerous dark 
Taces, which dwell in temperate climates ; and why it does not 
occur in the white people who occupy hot countries. 

It cannot be supposed that men of undoubted talents and 
learning would take up these opinions without any foundation at 
all ; and accordingly we find timt there is a slender mixture of 
truth in these statements.; but it is so enveloped in a thick cloud 

' £tmg, pp. 8—10, 

t Dt g<m. hum, var.nat. p, 124. 


t Ibid. pp. 136— 1?7. 


of error, and so concealed by misrepresentation and exag^a- 
tion, that we do not recognise it without crifficulty. The colour 
of Europeans nearly follows the geographical positions of coun- 
tries : this port of the world ia occupied almost entirely by a 
white race, of which the individuals are fairer in cold latitudes^ 
and more swarthy or sun-burnt in warm ones i thus, the French 
may be darker than the English, the Spaniards than the French, 
and the Moors than the Spaniards. In the same way, where 
different parts of a country differ much in latitude and tempera- 
ture, the inhabitants may be browner in the south than in the 
north : thus the women of Granada are said to be more swarthy 
than those of Biscay, and the southern than the northern Chi- 
neae, &c. For a similar reason the same race may vai-y slightly 
in colour in different eountriea. The iTews, for example, are 
fairer in Britain and Germany, browner in France and Turkey, 
Bwarlhy in Portugal and Spain, olive in Syria and Chaldea. An 
English sailor, who had been for some years in Nukahiwah, one 
of the Marquesas islands, had been so chaitged in colour, that he 
was scarcely to be distinguished from the natives.* 

These diversities are produced by the climate, as I have already 
explained. The effect goes off if the cause be removed : it ter- 
minates in the individual, and is never transmitted to the 
offjjpring, as 1 shall prove most incontrovertibly presently. 

Moreover the effect is confined to the parts of the body actu- 
ally exposed to the sun and air. Those, which remain covered, 
retain all their natural whiteness. Mr. Abel found thia 
strikingly exemplified in his Chinese journey. " Tlie dark 
copper colour of those who were naked, contrasted so strongly 
with thp ]ialene99 of thoae who were clothed, that it was difficult 
to conceive such dlBerent hues could be tlie consequence of 
greater or less e.vposure to the same degree of solar and atmos- 
pheric influence : hut all conjecture on this subject was set at 
rest by repeated illustrations of their effects. Several indivl- 
duals, who were naked only from their waist upwards, stripped 
themselves entirely for the purpose of going into the water, to 
obtain a nearer view of the embassy. When thus exposed, they 
appeai'ed at a distance to have on a pair of light-coloured pan- 

On a superficial view, again, we observe that temperate Europe 
is occupied by a white race, and that the blacks, of whom we 
'^ and hear most, dwell chietiy under the burnmg suns and on 
itngsdorff's roiiagu, ((c. >. \. 't.M. ^ Aarralive Ufa Journey, itc. p. 78. 


the parched sands of Africa and Asia ; the numerous whites who 
live in hot, and the greater number of dark-coloured people who 
are found in cold countries, are not taken into the account of 
these imperfect and partial comparisons. 

I proceed to show that climate does not cause the diversities 
of mankind ; and in this consideration, ray remarks are chieflj' 
directed to tlie colour of the akin, as that ia the part in which 
its operation has been regarded, by all the defenders of its influ- 
ence as the most unequivocal ; the rejisoning, however, will 
apply in general to the other points of difference, as weU as ta 

The uniform colour of all parts of the body ia a strong argu- 
ment against those who ascribe the blackness of the Negro to 
the same cause as tbat which produces tanning in white people, 
namely, the aun's rays, ^^le glana penis, the cavity of the 
axilla, the inside of the thigh, are just as black as any other 
parts ; indeedj the organs of generation, which ai'e always 
covered, are among the blackest parts of the body. Neither is 
the peculiar colour of the Negro confined to the skin ; a small 
circle of the conjunctiva, round the cornea, is blackish, and the 
rest of the membrane baa a yellowish brown linge. The fat has 
a deep yellow colour, like bees-wax, at least in many of them» 
which may be distinguished by a very superficial inspection, 
from that of an European. Tiie re{>resentation that the brain 
of the Negro is darker coloured than that of the white races, ia 
not correct. 

The development of the black colour in the indindual does 
not accord with the notion of its being produced by e.ttemal 
causes. "Negro children," says Dr. Winterbottom, "are 
nearly as fair as Europeans at birth, and do not ac<juire their 
colour until several days have elapsed. The eyes of new-born 
Negro children are also of a light colour, and preserve somewhat 
of a bluish tinge for several days after birth." • 

Camper had an opportunity of observing the change in a, 
Negro child born at Amsterdam. It was at first reddish, nearly 
like European chddren ; " on the third day the organs of genera- 
tion, the folds of skin round the nails, and the areolje of the 
breasts were quite black : the blackness e-xtended over the whole 
body on the fifth and sixth days, and the boy, who was bom ia 
a close chamber in the winter, and well wra]>ped up, according 
to the custom of the country, in swaddling-clothes, acquired the 
• Jiteotmt (ffthe Native 4frieaiu, y, L &U v. d. \*a . 




of elegance, anil the infinite arts for attaining it, even in per- 
sonal figure and appearance, give cultivated an immense ad* 
vantage over savage society in its attempts to counteract the 
influence of climate, and to beautify the human form.* What 
false notions muat mankind have hitherto entertained on this 
subject ! We can no longer believe travellers, who tell us that 
the finest forms and the greatest acti\nty are to be seen in savage 
tribes, and that no ill-formed individuals can be met with 
amongst them : and aa little can we trust the testimony of our 
own senses, concerning the frequency of deformity and disease 
in civilized society; since there are so many reasons why thaj 
former should be deformed, black, and ugly, and the lattef* 
well-proportioned, fair, and handsome. Unluckily, however, 
tliis theory does not correspond with a few plain facts. Most of 
the modem European nations existed in a more or less complete 
State of barbarism within times of which we have the most 
authentic records : some of these were seen and described by 
philosophers j yet the permanence of their characters is so 
remarkable after a greater progressive civilization than has 
happened in any other instance, that those descriptions are 
applicable with the greatest exactness to the same races of the 
present day. Instead, therefore, of nccotinting for the dark 
colour, peculiar features, and stature of the Greenlander, Lap- 
lander, and Samoiede, from their smoke, their dirt, their food, 
or the coldness of the climate, we can have no hesitation in 
ascribing them to the same cause that makes the Briton and the 
German of this day resemble the portraits of their ancestors, 
drawn by Caesar and Tacitus, ris. their descent from a race 
marked by the same characters as distinguish themselves- 
These tribes owe their origin to the Mongols, and retain in the 
north those marks of their de.scent, which we find so strongly 
e.vpresBed in the Chinese> under the widely different latitudes 
of the south. At the same time, the parent tribes live in the 
middle of Asia, equally removed from the former and the latter, 
" With sLght exceptions," says Dr. Pritchard, " the dif- 
ferent countries of Europe are now occupied by the same 
nations that have occupied them since the date of our earliest 
authentic accoxinta. Conquests have been made by small 
numbers, bo that the races have been little changed by this 
cause. Thus, when Clovis and his 30,000 Franks reduced 
the large and populous province of Gaul under their dominioi^ 


the bodily characters and the language of the coaquerora were 
lost in those of the conquered. The nations which have inha- 
bited Europe for the last 2500 years, consist of three gjeat 
races, distinguished from each other by their bodily formation, 
character, and language. 

" 1. Hie Celtic race, with hlack hair and eyes, and a white 
sk'm verging to broun, occupies the west of Europe : to this 
belong the ancient and modem inhabitants of France, Spain, 
Portugal, and the greatest part of Italy ; the ancient Britons, 
Welsh, Bretons, Irish, Scotch, and Manks. Tlie resemblance 
of the Silures to the Iberi was noticed by Tacitus j it is 
obvious to every observer in the present time j nor is the obser- 
vation peculiar to the Welsh ; it holds good of all other Celtic 
nations. ' Silurum colorati vultus, et torti pleruimjue crines, 
et poaita contra Hispania, Iberos veteres trajeciase, eaaque 
sedes occiipasse, lidem faciunt.' That black hair and a browner 
complexion belonged to all the Ckilts, is not only proved by 
many direct observations, but also because the marks of the 
sanguine constitution were universally considered as the dis- 
tinction of the German race. 

" 2. Tlie great German race, characterized by its blue eyes, 
yellow or reddish hair, fair and red skin, occupies the middle of 
Europe, and includes the Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders, 
Danes, ancient and modern Germans, Saxons and English, 
Caledonians or Pictse, and the Lowland Scotch, who have 
sprang from them, the inhabitants of the Low Countries, the 
Vandals and Goths, &c. Historical records, and the simdarity 
of language and character both of body and mind, prove that 
all these people belong to the same race. 

*' 3. The east of Europe contains the Sarmatian and Slavonic 
tribes, characterized by dark liair and eyes, and a darker skin 
than the German, with perhaps larger limbs than the Celts. 
To this division belong the RnssianH, Poles, Croats, Slavons, 
Bohemians, Bulgarians, Cossacks, and others who apeak the 
Slavonic language."* He proceeds to show from Diodokus 
SicuLUS, that the Sarmatians descended from the Medes, and 
were found on the banks of tbe Tanais, 700 years before the 
Christian era; by the authority of Herodotus, that they occu- 
pied the country between the Tanais and the Borysthenea, 
when D.iBius Hystaspes invaded Syria; and from Clu- 
VSRIU6, that the coasts of the Baltic, tbe banks of the Vvs^M^sk, 
• Ditt. inaug, dt Fariet, y^, IQft— VVl. 


Prussia, and tbe country as far aa tbe situation of tJie Finni and 
Yenedi, were the ancieot seats of the Sarmations. Since then, 
a people of very diflferent rare have existed in the neighbour- 
hood of the Germans from the most remote times, how can we 
explain the diiferences of the European nations, by the opera- 
tion of climate, by heat and cold ? How does the same sky 
cause the whiteness of the German and Swede, and the compa^- 
ratively dark complexion of the Pole and Russian ? 

But these European races are found also in Asia and Africa 
All that part of the former region, which lies to the west of the 
river Ob, the Caspian Sea, and the Ganges ; all the north of 
Africa, Abyssinia, and perhaps other parta still farther south, on 
the east, are occupied by a race agreeing nearly in character with, 
the Sarmatians and Celts. 

Thus it appears that, excepting the Germans, and the Lap- 
landers and Samoiedestwhomwe deem of Mongolian origin, the 
same natix'e or congenital constitution prevails over the whole of 
Europe, the western parts of Asia, and the north of Africa. 
Black hair, dark eyes, and a white akin, tending rather to a 
brownish tint, than to the peculiar whiteness of the German 
tribes, belong to the French, SpaniEu-ds, Portuguese, ItaUans, and 
all the Celts ; to tbe Russians, Poles, and others of Slavonic 
origin ; to the Tatars, commonly confounded with the Mongols, 
the jVrmenians, Persians, Circaaaiane, and Georgians, the Turks, 
Greeks, Arabians, Abysainians, Syrians, Jews, and the Lnhahi- 
tants of Tripoli, Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco. That flitnirt< 
cannot cause similarity of character in nations spread over fifty 
degrees of lirtitude, and that food, dress, state of civilization, 
peculiar customs, or other moral causes, are equally inefBcacioua 
in accounting for the phenomenon, when we consider how vari- 
ous in all these points the nations are in whom it occurs^ willba 
allowed by every unprejudiced observer. 

The middle and northern parts of Asia, and most of its eastern 
portion, are occupied by tribes and nations, all of which possess 
the general characters of the Mongolian variety, although dis- 
tinguished from each other by such modifications as usually cha- 
racterize separate people. They are distinct in their conforma- 
tion from all other races, and dift'er from Europeans quite as 
decidedly as the Negroes. History points o\it as their original 
seat, the elevated central table-land of Asia, from which they 
have spread in various directions, according to circmnstaiwiBk 
T where preserving their peculiar traita of organization 

The Mongols, Calmacks, and Burats, are three great divisions, 
of which each includes many tribes, scattered over the mitldle of 
Asia^ leading generally a pastoral life, aometimea pracliiiing 
agriculture, and devoted universally to the idolatrous lama-wor- 
ship. Their first distinct appearance in history is under the 
name of Huns (Hiong-nu of the Chinese) in the first century 
of tJie Christian era, when they were impelled towards the west 
by the progress of thfl Chinese power. Mterwards lluee great 
conquerors appeared among them, at distant periods ; the most 
conspicuous that the world has ever seen, who made all Asia 
and £urope tremble, bat happily, appeared and vanished like 
meteors ; because, though powerful in ponquest and desolation, 
they knew not how to possess and govern. Attila, with his, 
Huns, penetrated into the centre of Europe. Eight centuries 
later, Zingis or Dsciiingib Khan united not only the Mongo- 
lian but the Tataric tribes, and with this formidable mass reduced 
ceaiiy all Asia. In two hundred years more, Timublbng or 
Tamerlane appeared, and rendered himself the terror of west- 
ern ji-sia and India^ which latter coiuitry has been ruled by his 
descendants until very modern times. 'Fhe Mantchooa or Mand- 
shurs, the Maourians, Tungooses:, Corean:^, Kamtschatkans, and 
perhaps other tribes, on the east, the Yakuts, Samoiedea, Kir- 
gises, on thei West, the people of Tliibet and Bootan on the 
south, have a similar organization to that of Uie central tribes^ 
The empires of China and Japan, the islands of Sagahen, Lew- 
chew, and Formosa, are peopled by races of analogous physical 
and moral characters. Short stature, olive-coloured skin, devia- 
ting into hghter yellow, coarse, straight, and perfectly black 
hair, broad flat face, high and broad cheek-bones, flat nose, 
oblique eyes, entire deficiency or smallness of beard, are the 
common traits of the numerous people spread over this immense 
portion of the globe. Besides this general agreement of the 
tribes occupying countries so distant and different from each, 
other, it is important to observe that the Samoiedes, Kumtschat- 
kans, and others in the colder northern parts, are darker 
coloured than the Chinese, Tunquinese, and Cochin Chinese in 
the warm southern regions. 

" India," says Dr. Pritchard, " is inhabited by a mixed 
Tace, made up of the Aborigines, and of others, whom the pur- 
Buits of war and conquest have at various times brought there. 
The religion of Baamaq seems to have been introduced from 
the north ; and at later periods vast numben of the Mongols 


have entered and conquered the country. iTieM nnxtnrea 
have effaced the- peculiar characters of tlie original inhabitants, 
which we must, therefore, seek for in the islands, protected by 
their situation from suchmits. The islands of the Indian Sea, 
&R well as those of the Pacific, contmn two races of men, diflFer- 
iag in many respects. One of these approaches, and in some 
instances equals, the blackness of the Negro : the hair is curled 
and woolly, the body Hlendcr, the stature short, the disposition 
barbarous and cruel. The other is more like the Indians of the 
continent, has a fairer skin, larger limbs and Htature, better pro- 
portions, and exhibits some marks of humanity and civiUzation. 
According to Forsteb, the former, who are Aborigines, have 
occupied the middle and mountainous parts of many islands, 
leaving the coasts and plains to the more recent colonists. They 
occupy the highest parts of the Moluccas, the Philippines, For- 
mosa, and Borneo ; all New Guinea, New Britain, New Ireland, 
and New Caledonia, Tanna, Mallicollo, New Holland, and Van 
Diemen's Land. The more recent nation occupies Sumatra, 
and the other islands of the Indian Sea, Otaheite, and the So- 
ciety Islands, the Friendly Islands, Marquesas, Ladrones, 
Marian and Caroline Islands, New Zealand, Sandwich, and 
Easter Islands. The language of all the latter resembles the 
Malay, and there can be no doubt that they arise from that race, 
and have spread by their ships over these distant spots. The 
black people are every where barbarous, and, according to 
FoRSTKR, hare languages not agreeing with each other. In 
neither can we perceive any traces of the influence of dimate. 
The latter race, scattered in various parts of the vast island of 
New Holland, which has such variety of temperature, every 
where retains its black colour, although the climate at the 
English settlement is not ranch unlike that of England ; and 
in Van Diemen's Land, extending to 43" south lat, (it is well 
understood that the cold is much more severe in the southern 
hemisphere, at an equal distance from the equator, than in 
the northern), they are of a deep black, and have curled hair 
ike the Negroes."* 

The same obscrrations are applicable to the Malay race. The